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Full text of "Amherst Graduates' Quarterly"

£INMM LIST.iov I 5 1924 



1 






CONTENTS 



Frontispiece : Edward Hitchcock Facing 3 

President Edward Hitchcock. Frederick Tuckerman . . 3 

At the Siege of Urfa. Charles F. Weeden, Jr 14 

John Woodruff Simpson: A Triad of Appreciations . . 22 
(The Undergraduate, William C. Brownell — The Trustee, 
Alexander Meiklejohn — The Lawyer, Divight W. Mor- 
roiv) 

Portrait: John Woodruff Simpson .... Facing 23 

College Notes 

At the End of a Century 28 

The Geological Expedition 29 

The Labor College 32 

Award of the Treadway Cup 32 

Football 33 

Debating 33 

Editorial Notes 35 

Official and Personal 

The Centennial Gift 38 

Since the Last Issue 41 

The Classes 42 

Portrait : Harold L. Gillies Facing 67 



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Life on the Ocean 

with Electricity at the Helm 

IN the old days, life before the mast was 
rated in terms of man power but the new 
sea is measured in horse -power, with elec» 
tricity as the controlling force. 

A modern electric ship, like the "New Mexico" 
or the "California," is a great city afloat. With 
oil or fuel, a central power plant generates 
sufficient energy to propel the massive vessel 
and to furnish light and power for every need. 

And on the shore the application of electricity 
to the loading, unloading and repair work saves 
time and labor. 

To make possible marine electrification the 
future needs aboard ship had to be visualized 
and then the machinery engineered to meet 
those needs. In this capacity the organization, 
experience and facilities of the General Electric 
Company have been serving the American 
Navy and Merchant Marine. 




LECinjIC €©MmM¥ 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.arcliive.org/details/amlierstgraduates1 1 amheuoft 



AMHERST 

GRADUATES' QUARTERLY 

Vol. X— NOVEMBER, 1920— No. 1 



PRESIDENT EDWARD HITCHCOCK 

FREDERICK TUCKERMAN 

AMHERST has been the home of many distinguished men 
but of none more eminent than Edward Hitchcock, 
one of the founders of American geology, and from 1845 
to 1854 president of Amherst College. Always deeply interested 
in the welfare of the town, his name and fame, more than that of 
any other man, is inseparably bound up with the history and 
prosperity of the College during its first half century. 

In a sketch like the present, it is only possible to touch upon 
some of the more important activities and events of a life so full 
and rich as that of Edward Hitchcock. He was born at Deerfield, 
Massachusetts, of excellent parents, on May 24, 1793. Mainly 
self-taught, he early directed his attention towards astronomy 
and mathematics, in which he was encouraged by a maternal 
uncle, General Epaphras Hoyt. His first study was the determi- 
nation of the longitude of his native town by observations on the 
total eclipse of the sun in 1811. For three months and a half he 
noted the distance of the comet from various stars, determined 
the latitude and longitude by lunar distances and eclipses of the 
sun and moon, and the variation of the magnetic needle. Several 
months were required to reduce these observations; and, as tables 
were wanting, he was obliged to calculate many elements by 
spherical trigonometry, which the modern astronomer finds ready 
to his hand. The results of this work, as applied to the longitude 
of Deerfield Church, w^ere published in 1815 in the Memoirs of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. But a still more severe 
and improving discipline grew out of these astronomical researches. 



4 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

In making his calculations he had occasion to use Blunt's Nautical 
Almanac, which was a reprint from the standard English authority, 
wherein he discovered and pointed out more than eighty errors, 
for which he received at length the reluctant thanks and acknowl- 
edgment of the editor. 

Astronomy was his favorite science, and he "became such an 
enthusiast," he declares, that he "could cheerfully forego every 
ordinary source of pleasure . , . . in order to gratify this 
scientific passion." During these years he made a systematic 
study of the classics in order to prepare himself for an advanced 
standing at Harvard University; but a fit of illness so weakened 
his eyes, already injured by study and overexertion, that he was 
obliged to relinquish a college education, and also astronomy and 
mathematics, thus changing the w^hole course of his life. Indeed, 
he well-nigh abandoned all hope of pursuing science or literature 
as a profession. In 1815 he pubHshed a dramatic poem of 3,500 
lines, entitled "The Emancipation of Europe; or the Downfall 
of Napoleon," which was acted with great success before his neigh- 
bors and friends. 

In 1816, at the age of twenty-three, he became the principal of 
the academy in his native place. The academy owned a very good 
philosophical apparatus, and he prepared a number of lectures on 
natural philosophy, which were delivered with experiments before 
his classes, and in the evening before the people of the village. 
This was his first attempt at lecturing. He also derived great 
benefit from the mental discipline obtained by taking an active 
part in the weekly meetings of a debating society, which he and 
a few companions had united in forming. During his connection 
with the academy he became interested in botany and mineralogy, 
through the influence of Amos Eaton, who had been lecturing at 
Amherst, and with two associates made an exhaustive list of the 
plants and minerals in the region. 

The decade from 1810 to 1820 was an active one in theological 
thought in New England, it being the time of the Unitarian con- 
troversy. Young Hitchcock had at first sided with the Unitarians, 
but on further reflection became satisfied that the truth lay on the 
orthodox side, and was induced to devote himself to the ministry. 
He fitted himself for this office, and in IS^l was ordained as 
pastor of the Congregational Church in Conway. Here he re- 



President Edward Hitchcock 5 

mained until 1825, when he was elected as the first professor of 
chemistry and natural history in Amherst College. Before enter- 
ing upon the duties of his office he went to New Haven, where for 
about two months he was a special student in the laboratory of 
the elder Silliman, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. 

For many years he was the sole professor and teacher in all the 
departments of natural history. He gave instruction in chemistry, 
botany, mineralogy, geology, zoology, anatomy, physiology, natural 
theology, and sometimes, even, in natural philosophy and astron- 
omy. Amherst College, says Dr. Tyler, its honored historian, 
never had a more inspiring lecturer. "For two or three years — 
in and near 1830," Dr. Tyler continues, "his mind, his heart, his 
tongue, and his pen were given to the subject of temperance, so 
far as they could be without interfering with the more immediate 
duties of his professorship; and the result was the estabhshment 
of the Antivenenean Society in College, and the publication of 
several books, tracts, articles, and essays — among the rest a prize 
essay — which have identified his name with the history of the 
temperance reformation." 

During the latter part of President Humphrey's administration 
the College was heavily in debt, the annual expenses far exceeded 
the annual income, and the number of students had fallen to less 
than half and was still diminishing. Several of the tutors were 
dismissed, and the salaries of the professors reduced. But all to 
no purpose. The College still continued to flounder and sink 
deeper in the mire. The clamor had now become loud and distinct 
among the alumni and in the community for changes in the faculty 
and a change of administration. The first officer who was sacri- 
ficed was Professor Fowler, and two years later President Hum- 
phrey tendered his resignation. 

"But what could we do," says President Hitchcock in his 
Reminiscences, "to arrest this downward tendency and recover 
our lost position? This was the question that met me with empha- 
sis when called to assume the presidency in 1845. Two thmgs 
seemed indispensable. The first was to stop the College from 
running in debt. The second was to cease soliciting the public 
for aid through agents." 

At a special meeting at Amherst in December, 1844, the pro- 
fessors laid before the trustees the proposition that they would 



AMHER8T Graduates' Quarterly 



accept the income of the College, be the same more or less, in 
place of their salaries, and pay out of it also all the necessary- 
running expenses, on condition that they be allowed to regulate 
these expenses and run the College, and with the understanding 
that the agency for the solicitation of funds should cease, and 
with the expectation that Professor Hitchcock would be appointed 
president. The proposal received the sanction of the trustees, 
and, on this basis, they elected Edward Hitchcock president and 
professor of natural theology and geology. 

In 1845^6, the new plan having been in operation a little 
more than a year, the president was receiving for his salary at 
the rate of five hundred and fifty dollars, and each professor at 
the rate of four hundred and forty dollars a year. One at least 
of the trustees, one of the wisest and most honored, was still 
doubtful whether it would not be wiser to turn the College into 
an academy (for a good academy was better than a poor college) ; 
and what was still more discouraging and even alarming, some of 
the most influential students were so doubtful of the perpetuity 
of the institution that nothing but the personal solicitation of the 
president induced them to stay and graduate. 

But Amherst College was to be saved from extinction by the 
broad vision and practical wisdom of President Hitchcock. In 
the words of Dr. Tyler, "he was our Joshua who led us into the 
promised land." During the less than ten years of his presidency 
he conferred the most substantial and lasting benefits upon the 
institution. He extinguished the debt, added an astronomical 
observatory, a library, two natural history buildings — the Woods 
and Appleton cabinets, secured the permanent endowment of four 
professorships, together with valuable books and immense scientific 
collections, and doubled the number of undergraduates. He had 
indeed secured for the College, in a little more than two years, 
$108,000 in endowments and buildings — a large sum for those 
days — besides "a rich profusion of specimens." In addition, he 
presented to the College his private mineralogical and geological 
cabinets and his splendid collection of fossil footprints, worth 
many thousands of dollars. The archaeological museums also owe 
their origin to this administration. 

"See now," he says, as he reviews this period in his Remhiis- 
cencp^, "see how altered was the condition of the College! . . . . 



President Edward Hitchcock 7 

Our debts were cancelled, and available funds enough left to ena- 
ble us to go on with economy from year to year, and with increased 
means of instruction. The incubus that had so long rested upon 
us was removed; the cord that had well-nigh throttled us was cut 
asunder, and the depletion of our life-blood was arrested." Re- 
viewing the history of his presidency. Dr. Tyler says: "Its value 
to the institution can not be overestimated. His weight of char- 
acter and his wise policy saved the College." 

After the first three years of his administration, having already 
succeeded beyond his most sanguine hopes in relieving the College 
from debt, and establishing it on a solid pecuniary foundation, 
while at the same time he saw it increasing in numbers and repu- 
tation. President Hitchcock began to press upon the trustees a 
wish to retire from the presidency. But instead of listening to his 
suggestion, they urged him to recuperate his health by a six 
months' tour abroad and, in the spring of 1850, in company with 
Mrs. Hitchcock, he reluctantly set out on his journey. He spent 
much time geologizing, studying scientific collections, and vis- 
iting the agricultural schools of Europe in the discharge of a com- 
mission unexpectedly received from the government of Massachu- 
setts. He also met Hugh Miller, who showed him his rich collection 
of fossil fishes ; read a paper on Erosions, and another on Terraces, 
at the Edinburgh meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and later attended the Peace Congress at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he met Richard Cobden, the Cheva- 
lier Bunsen, and other noted men. He returned home in the 
autumn, "having been absent," he tells us, "one hundred and 
fifty -eight days, and travelled ten thousand six hundred and forty- 
seven miles." In 1854, having accomplished the object for which 
he accepted the presidency, he fell back again into the ranks, at 
the request of the trustees retaining the professorship of natural 
theology and geology, and according to his own proposal receiving 
only half the usual salary of a professor. 

During his pastorate in Conway, he employed his leisure in 
making a scientific survey of the four western counties of Massa- 
chusetts. This was the beginning of that life among the rocks 
and mountains which was ever after a delight and almost a pas- 
sion. It was also the origin of the geological survey of the entire 
state, afterwards made by the government of Massachusetts at his 



8 Amherst Ctraduates' Quarterly 

suggestion, and the first example on the Western Continent of a 
geological and natural history survey carried to successful com- 
pletion under state authority. Moreover, it inaugurated and set 
going the long and noble series of state and national geological 
surveys that have since produced such important results for sci- 
ence, and done so much to develop the mineral and agricultural re- 
sources of the country. As state geologist he twice explored the 
whole breadth of Massachusetts, and was also engaged in a similar 
capacity in the survey of Vermont and of New York, one district 
of which was assigned to him. 

In 1818 Benjamin Silliman founded the American Journal of 
Science and Aria, and in the very first volume appeared three geo- 
logical papers by Hitchcock, including two geological maps (the 
next to be published after those of Maclure), the results of his 
early field work, which attracted the attention of the scientific 
world. Thereafter an uninterrupted series of contributions to 
geological science flowed from his pen during the remainder of his 
life. He was one of the leading pioneers of American geology — 
"one of the fathers," Lesley calls him — and Sir Charles Lyell de- 
clared "that Hitchcock knew more of geology and could tell it 
better than any other man he had met on this side of the Atlantic." 

It was in 1841, the year of Lyell's first visit to the United 
States, that Hitchcock published his Final Report on the Geology 
of Massachusetts. " It is with great pleasure we announce at last 
the appearance of this work," says Professor Silliman, "the most 
elaborate and laborious treatise on the subject of geology which 
has yet appeared in America." 

The subject of surface geology occupied his attention from the 
very beginning of his researches. In 1823 he explained the origin 
of deltas, terraces, dispersion of drift, and polished rock surfaces 
by the action of moving waters or floods. It was the careful study 
of terraces that led to the preparation of the Illustrations of Surf ace 
Geology, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1857, at that 
time the most complete monograph on the subject which had ap- 
l)eared in the United States. To him belongs also the honor of 
having j)roved from their footmarks the existence of a large fauna 
of giant bipeds and quadrupeds in the trias of New England. It 
was the description of these gigantic footmarks that strengthened 
Owen in his belief in the existence of the Dinornis of New Zealand. 



President Edward Hitchcock 



and also gave the first proofs of the existence of Dinosaurs, al- 
though they received the name of "ornithoid lizards or batra- 
chians," 

Professor Loomis has kindly furnished me with the following 
summary respecting Hitchcock's more important discoveries and 
contributions to geological science: "It was as a geologist," he 
says, "that he made his widest reputation. The survey of 
Massachusetts was the first state survey. All the material had to 
be obtained by first-hand observation, and the complexities of its 
structure at once forced Hitchcock to face all the mooted questions 
of the day. The origin of the drift or glacial deposits over New 
England was the centre of the most heated discussions and the 
wildest theories. Here his keen observations and sanity kept him 
from adopting the theory of a great flood, and caused him to be 
the man to introduce into America those interpretations of glacial 
deposition which were just coming into existence in Europe from 
the study of Alpine glaciers. He was one of the first to recognize 
that mountains were formed from uplifts rather than from carving 
of original masses by water; and the first to show that layers 
could be so completely folded as to be overturned and original 
sequence even reversed as a result of the great movement of the 
folding agents. He taught that lavas were of all ages, that they 
were intruded as well as extruded onto the surface. And perhaps 
as remarkable as any of his observations was that gneisses and 
granites in certain cases were sedimentary deposits, so altered by 
heat that the constituent pebbles and matrix were softened, 
squeezed out of shape, and even changed in their mineral consti- 
tution. This was in his sixty-seventh year and serves to show not 
only his mental keenness, but also the plasticity which his mind 
retained all through his life. In the above we see the philosophical 
side of his mind, always seeking explanations for what he observed; 
nor was he satisfied until he had brought out his conclusions where 
they could be criticised by the whole world, and then accepted or 
altered after the best light obtainable had been focused on them. 

" He was naturally a teacher, and when he had discovered facts 
or theories he spread that knowledge as far as possible; so we see 
him writing continuously treatises on various subjects. One of 
the most successful was his Elements of Geology, which for three 
decades served as the standard textbook in this subject and ran 



10 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

through thirty-one editions. In his desire to fill out and make 
systematic the knowledge of any subject he touched, he also added 
to this work an outline of the Geology of the Globe, the first attempt 
in America to survey the world, then so meagerly known. 

"Another field which he opened up, and which belongs to him 
preeminently, was the knowledge of the tracks on the sandstones 
of the Connecticut Valley, footprints on the sands of time buried 
beneath thousands of feet of rock, footprints some of them larger 
than those of any living animal, and some so tiny as to need a 
magnifying glass to study. He collected them by the thousand 
(over 20,000), and described them and attempted to reconstruct 
the animals which made them. These caught not only the atten- 
tion of scholars but of the general public also. He called the new 
study Ichnology, as he at first interpreted many of them as tracks 
of birds, though he later recognized that the majority of them were 
made by bipedal reptiles (Dinosaurs). He described and named 
over one hundred and fifty sorts of animals from these tracks, and 
assembled a collection of them which even today is unique, a 
collection which stirs the imagination to realization of the past as 
none other I have ever seen. His reports on the geology of Massa- 
chusetts and on the footprints have been the only geology which 
has appealed to a Massachusetts legislature enough for them to 
publish, and Hitchcock has been the only geologist the state has 
had." 

Besides being an original promoter of the system of state sur- 
veys, and the expounder of a new branch of paleontology — Ichnology 
— to him, more than to any other man, is due the title of founder 
of the Association of American Geologists— the forerunner and 
parent of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence. The first written suggestion in regard to the formation of 
this association came from him. At a meeting held at the rooms 
of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, on April 2, 1840, the 
association was organized, and he was chosen president, being the 
first of a long line of American savants to receive this distinction. 
He was also one of the incorporators of the National Academy of 
Sciences, and a member or honorary member of many of the lead- 
ing literary and scientific societies and academies both at home 
and abroad. In 1818, at the age of twenty-five, he received un- 
solicited from Yale College the degree of Master of Arts, and in 



President Edward Hitchcock 11 

1840 Harvard University conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws. 

He was deeply interested in the subject of agricultural education, 
gave addresses on scientific agriculture, advocated and urged the 
formation of agricultural societies, and was a member at large and 
chosen the first secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Agriculture. As early as 1848, a project was formed for establish- 
ing an agricultural school at Amherst, and the next year an act was 
passed by the General Court incorporating Edward Hitchcock, 
William B. Calhoun, and Samuel L. Hinckley by the name of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural Institute. Thus the way was prepared 
for the Agricultural College, of which institution Edward Hitch- 
cock was one day to be a father. It was owing largely to his in- 
fluence that Amherst was finally selected as the seat of that col- 
lege; and the general course of study adopted and followed for 
many years, embodied the features recommended by him in his 
classic report of 1851 on the agricultural schools of Europe, 

"Nor can the history of Mount Holyoke Seminary, any more 
than that of Amherst College, be written," says Dr. Tyler, "with- 
out large reference to President Hitchcock, of whose family Miss 
Lyon was a member, when she was laying broad and deep her plans 
for founding it, and whose tongue and pen were among the chief 
organs for communicating those plans to the public. These two 
Institutions will perpetuate his name and his influence so long as 
they faithfully represent that idea — science and religion — which 
was the motto of his life." As a citizen of Amherst he was keenly 
alive to whatever would best promote its interests and welfare. 
In 1851 his name heads the list of incorporators of the Amherst 
and Belchertown Railroad Company, and in 1864 he was an in- 
corporator of the First National Bank of Amherst. 

He was a prolific writer, and the wide range of subjects covered 
shows his extraordinary versatility. His published writings include 
twenty-six distinct volumes, thirty-five separate pamphlets and 
reports, ninety-four papers in journals, and eighty newspaper arti- 
cles — making a total of nearly 9,000 printed pages, with 256 plates 
and 1,134 woodcuts. "For the two hundred and thirty-two plates 
and eleven hundred and thirty -four woodcuts in my works," he 
says, "I have been mainly indebted to the pencil and patience of 
my beloved wife." To her he dedicated his Religion of Geology. 



12 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

More than half of these pubhcations were scientific contributions, 
the others being rehgious books, addresses, essays, sermons, edu- 
cational writings, biographical memoirs and sketches, reviews, 
poems, and temperance tracts. 

"Quick and accurate observation of Nature was, of course, the 
foundation of his scientific discoveries," says Dr. Tyler, his emi- 
nent colleague. "His judgment of character, like his interpreta- 
tion of natural phenomena, was quick and seldom erroneous. He 
had the originality and creative power which belong to genius. 
He was made for a discoverer, for an originator of new ideas, new 
theories, new methods, new measures. He was tall enough to see 
over the heads of other men, and catch the first dawning beams of 
a new day. . . . His labors have shed lustre on the country 
that gave him birth, and have made the Connecticut Valley a 
classic land, whither men of science from all nations must go on 
pilgrimage, if they would see the best ichnological cabinet in the 
world, and indeed the only one that deserves or claims that dis- 
tinctive name. And as they visit that cabinet, and the other 
scientific collections and buildings on this consecrated eminence, 
under the name of Edward Hitchcock they will read the inscrip- 
tion : si monumentum quaeris, circumspice. 

"He had naturally great physical strength and powers of en- 
durance; and though by overtasking his prodigious powers by 
more prodigious exertions, he early impaired his health and 
strength, still down to the last years of his life," we are told, 
"few could climb mountains or break rocks with him — few could 
endure so much fatigue as he on a geological excursion." 

His last years — "years of suffering, years of dying, they almost 
seemed to him" — found him still writing and publishing, still lec- 
turing to his classes, still making large and choice collections for 
his cabinets, still caring and planning for his beloved College, and 
still toiling to enlarge the boundaries of science. His fruitful and 
laborious life, spent in the service of education and science, came 
to its close on February 27, 1864. 

On the records of the Board of Trustees is this tribute to his 
memory: "The memorial of the great and good is always found 
in the results of their labors for the benefit of those among whom 
they lived and labored. Guided by this rule, the late President 
Hitchcock is seen everywhere around us" — in the mountains, hills 



President Edward Hitchcock 13 

and streams of the Connecticut Valley, which bear today the 
names he gave them. "Though dead, truly he yet speaketh. No- 
where can we look, without his mark standing prominently out. 
And so will it be, while Amherst College shall continue to be 
known among men. Often as she may exchange her external 
dress, there will always remain from generation to generation the 
foot-prints and the head-prints of Edward Hitchcock." 

In closing, let me quote from the highly appreciative memoir of 
Edward Hitchcock, read by Professor Lesley, state geologist of 
Pennsylvania, before the National Academy of Sciences in 1866: 
"Shall I allude to his scientific monuments at Amherst? I need 
only say to such of you as have not yet beheld them, Go and see 
what one man can accomplish! All honor to his fellow-workmen 
there! But what Amherst is, Hitchcock has made it — so says all 
the world, and what all the world says must be true. He was the 
master-mind at that centre. Let Amherst erect a statue to him 
in front of his Museum — a statue of pure, white Vermont marble, 
for he was an American Christian — a statue lifted high upon a 
cubical plinth of Quincy granite, for he was a simple-hearted son 
of Massachusetts — a statue facing Holyoke, for the oblique denu- 
dation of its summit he discovered, and the marvellous beauties 
of its panorama were his heart's delight. America has reached 
the time when it needs the idolatry of hero-worship to counteract 
its excessive tendency to individualization, and its intolerant 
democracy. And this man is one of America's heroes." 

In 1846-47 President Hitchcock "saved the College." His ad- 
ministration marked the turning point in its history. It was the 
end of the old era and the beginning of a new. What will Amherst 
do on her Hundredth Anniversary to show her gratitude and honor 
his memory? 



1-4 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



AT THE SIEGE OF URFA 

CHARLES F. WEEDEN, JR. 

THE U. S. S. Pctisacola left New York on January 25, 1919, 
with over three milhon dollars' worth of relief supplies for 
the people of the Near East, especially for the Armenians. 
Sailing on her were Lucius Thayer, '18, and myself along with a 
party of forty other men, most of them just discharged from the 
Army or Navy. For nearly a year the Near East Relief Com- 
mittee was able to carry on its wonderful work throughout Asia 
Minor, as it still does in some parts of the country. But toward 
the end of 1919 the Turks began to show symptoms of their present 
restlessness under Allied control. Gradually the Turkish nation- 
alist movement spread, until by January, 19*20, the unrest was so 
universal that the French were compelled to withdraw from a large 
part of the territory they were holding. The evacuation involved 
a considerable loss to the French both in men and in prestige and 
left the population of the abandoned districts exposed to the 
rapacity of Turkish soldiers and officials. Its immediate conse- 
quence was the massacre of thousands of Armenians. Among 
other cities abandoned to the Turks was Urfa, where the French 
garrison capitulated after withstanding a sixty-two-day siege. 
Through treachery and trickery characteristic of all their dealings 
the Turks annihilated the French and plunged the whole region 
into indescribable turmoil. The following story of the siege of 
Urfa is extracted from my letters home. 

February 6. What a life! Here we are in Urfa and we cannot 
get away, for we are virtually prisoners. The Turks and Arabs 
have cut the railroad and all the telegraph lines, so that we are 
shut off from all outside communication. 

February 9. C'est la guerre! Two days ago a group of six 
hundred cavalry were seen gathering out on the hills near Urfa. 
Later two of them came riding into the city with big white flags 
and went to French headquarters with an ultimatum saying that 
unless the French left the city within twenty-four hours the Turks 
would attack them. Of course the French refused to leave, as 



At The Siege of Urfa 15 



they had been sent there by the French government and had no 
power to withdraw without orders. A little later the French 
commandant sent word over to us that we had better move our 
orphans from the tents where we had them gathered, back into 
the old stone orphanage in the city. So within an hour we got 
those twelve hundred orphans out of the tents and over into the 
Armenian quarter where the old orphanage is located. Believe 
me, it was some scramble! However, there was no fighting that 
day. But this morning shortly after breakfast we heard firing 
and tore outside to see what was going on. We saw a French 
ambulance-wagon carrying supplies come racing down the road 
near the city wall, saw the mules fall, heard some shots, and sur- 
mised that the battle was on. The Turks had fired on the French 
and killed two soldiers. Soon bullets began to kick up the dust 
near our house, so we withdrew inside. We spent the day in 
making Red Cross flags and raised an American flag over our 
house. We have fixed up our cellar in case we need to retire to a 
place affording good protection, for we have a great many windows 
here. 

February 10. During the night a good deal of firing, but not 
very near us. The French are occupying various places outside the 
city and are entrenched. By making this attack the Turks have 
broken the Armistice, as peace terms have not yet been signed for 
Turkey, Our water supply has been cut off, but as we have had 
four inches of heavy snow, we have used that for drinking, wash- 
ing, and cleaning. 

February 11. The French are occupying a position behind 
our orphanage in the city, and hence a good deal of fire passes 
over the building. This post has been cut off by the Turks, but 
our Greek chauffeur got through the lines tonight and brought 
us all the information from the city and Armenian quarter. The 
Armenians are preparing for a defense of their quarter and have 
made bombs out of our empty condensed milk cans. . . . The 
French came over from their headquarters last night to ask for 

some medical supplies for their wounded We tried to 

see if we couldn't get in touch with the Turks by starting out 
with an American flag, but we were shot at and returned. We 
wanted to find out just where the Americans stood. Now we 
must tie up our fate with the French. . . . The Turks burned 



16 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

the French mihtary governor's house last night and he just escaped 
with his hfe, being forced to leave all his papers and belongings 
behind. Have barricaded most of our windows with boxes of soap 
and milk and canned vegetables. The French reenforcements are 
expected any time. 

February 13. Still snowing hard and very cold. Many of the 
French troops, especially the African troops, have frozen their 
feet. A good many bullets strike our house now and some have 
zipped inside, even when we were eating dinner. . . . The 
French have sent us rifles. 

February 15. Continual firing, but not much open action. As 
I was standing near the window today, a spent bullet came 
through the glass and hit me in the leg. 

February 17. This has been the worst night and day that 
we have had. It is now only nine-thirty, but it seems as if I 
had been up for years. Last night we heard some sharp firing 
behind our house on One Tree Hill where the French are en- 
trenched. We can only wait and watch. The suspense is awful. 
Ever since dark last night we have been on edge. As soon as we 
could see out this morning, we noticed small detachments of the 
French making their way toward our house. They have lost One 
Tree Hill, which is the most important elevation for the control 
of fire on the city. Across the field in front of our house we saw 
four soldiers shot down — three of them are still lying in the snow, 
but the fourth has crawled away to safety. . . . Twenty-five 
French soldiers have been sent to our house to protect the Ameri- 
cans. It has been snowing so hard that we cannot see more than 
fifty yards. We have given the soldiers sheets to camouflage them 
against the snow when they go out on patrol, 

February 22. Secret stuff! Have just had the first bath pos- 
sible in sixteen days and the first change of clothes in ten. The 
"war" still goes on with the French taking the defensive till re- 
enforcements arrive. Bad weather for fighting and impossible for 
traveling or for moving an army. ... At present we have 
enough food here and the French have supplies to last a while 
longer. With fifty people in the house, thirty of them soldiers, it 
is an awful mess. We cannot go out without drawing fire from 
the Turks. 



At The Siege of Urfa 17 



February 25. The night of the twenty-third I shall remember 
for a long time. Shortly after supper the little French sergeant 
came in and told us that the Turks had taken our cook-house, 
where we had a supply of wheat and other food for the orphans, 
and also ten E. P. tents which we used as a dining-room for the 
orphans. For the last three nights the Kurds had been coming 
nearer and nearer, and now they were within a hundred yards of 
our house. The sergeant wanted to open fire on them. We 
didn't want to lose our property without some sort of a fight, so 
we told him to go ahead. . . . Clements and I tore upstairs 
and stationed ourselves at a back window, each of us with a rifle. 
In about five minutes the French let loose with five machine guns 
and a load of grenades. Immediately there were some awful yells 
and lots of confused shouting from the Kurds. Then they opened 
fire on our house. It was very dark and still snowing. All we 
could fire at was the flash of their rifles. For about half an hour 
we fired away with bullets crashing through the glass over our 
heads and flying around the room. Then the Kurds retreated and 
everything was quiet. We went to bed down in the cellar. . , , 
About midnight the Kurds started another attack on our house. 
We helped the French where we could, getting various things for 
them and traveling around the house — which was in utter dark- 
ness, of course — with all sorts of materials for them to use as bar- 
ricades at the windows. About two o'clock the little sergeant and 
a comrade brought downstairs one of the Algerian soldiers who 
was badly wounded. We tried to fix him up, but he died within 
a few minutes. He was the first to be killed in our house. . . . 
Towards four in the morning the firing from outside stopped. 
We went to bed again, but couldn't sleep. As soon as it was 
light we made a trip around the house to see what damage had 
been done. There wasn't a pane of glass left whole and in all the 
back rooms big bullet holes in the walls. Outside in the snow 
were three or four dead Kurds, who had gotten as near as fifty 
feet to the house, and all around were the tracks of feet and every 
now and then big holes in the snow where men had fallen. 

February 26. We spent most of the day barricading the doors 
and windows with boxes, bales of cloth, tables, trunks, and any- 
thing we could find. We were attacked again about midnight, 
but before that the Kurds came out to take away the dead and 



18 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

the French didn't fire until the Kurds began. The other French 
posts fired when the attack was made on our house, helping to 
protect three sides, so that all we had to do was to guard the rear. 
It is some racket when thirty machine guns get to tearing off 
strings of a thousand shots. . . . Our tobacco is all gone and 
we have taken to smoking tea-leaves. 

February 27. The Turks have been attacking the other French 
posts recently, and though we are always in the line of fire, we 
haven't been so much in the middle of things. Now we have made 
sandbags out of unbleached muslin, filling the bags with dirt dug 
up in the cellar. One of the ladies was hit by a bullet today, but 
not seriously hurt. Our last water-line has been cut off — the ser- 
geant thought the water had been poisoned, but we tried it out 
on my dog and he drank it and still lives, 

February 28. One of the happiest days in my life! We were 
awakened about five a. m. by firing and it didn't take us long to 
distinguish the boom of cannon. We saw that the Turks were 
shelling French headquarters, and shell after shell fell among the 
houses. Then they changed their objective and picked out a post 
about two hundred yards from our house where the well is from 
which we must get our water. After about an hour's shelling, when 
it seemed as if all the French must be killed, they started an attack. 
The French, however, had been well protected in the cellar of this 
post, so that when the Turks and Kurds attacked they were ready 
for them. We opened up with cross-fire from our machine guns. 
The '* enemy" advanced in httle groups of about ten each, but 
they didn't get very far, except one group which reached the walls 
of the house where they were protected from all French fire from 
within. But machine-gun fire from our house killed them all before 
they could get farther. After an hour and a half of repeated at- 
tacks the Turks withdrew to a sheltered gulley and we sat down 
to rest. We were all sitting around grabbing a bit of bread and 
coffee when suddenly a Frenchman yelled out, ''Avion francais!" 
We all made for the roof and the windows. There sure enough 
was a French 'plane circling over the city at about three thousand 
feet. We all fell over each other so great was our joy. It flew 
around for about ten minutes and then went off. The Turks had 
scon it, too, and if there is anything they are afraid of it is a 
'plane. They fired at it even with their revolvers and then broke 



At The Siege of Urfa 19 

in all directions running across the fields. We picked off a lot of 
them. In the early part of the afternoon the Turks shelled our 
house, and we all retreated to the cellar. One shell came in, ex- 
ploded, and landed in the bathtub, but the rest of them just 

blew off parts of our good roof The 'plane dropped a 

message to the French: ''Bon courage. Les mauvais jours touchent 
a leur fin. Vous serez hientot renforces et ravitailles." With that 
encouragement we all feel better. 

March 6. Wonderful weather now. Still firing and attacks. 
Today the Turks shelled headquarters — we counted over five 
hundred shells in less than an hour. The Turks almost got inside 
the French headquarters when they made their attack after the 
shelUng. About two hundred Turks killed; six French, and thirty 
wounded. Yesterday was a bad day too. We were awakened a 
bit before sunrise by the booming of the Turkish cannon. They 
had commenced to shell French headquarters, and they certainly 
did it. From sunrise till three o'clock in the afternoon they fired 
continuously, always from short range and often very effectively. 
During the morning we saw the headquarters building gradually 
shot to pieces. Occasionally a shell passed over our house or 
landed just outside. About noon, after shelling headquarters off 
and on all the morning, the Turks attacked again, and for twenty 
minutes the French machine guns echoed and reechoed through 
the city and the hills, pouring out a steady volley of bullets. 
The French had to come out into the open for a while to get at 
the Turks, and we could watch the battle — shrapnel and shells 
bursting all around and plenty of action from the machine guns. 

About half an hour after the attack the French 'plane returned 
and flew over Urfa for about five minutes, evidently trying to 
read the panels on the ground. It stayed only a very short time 
and then flew away again to the west without bringing us any 
word. However, it is some consolation to think it even came. 
If the reenforcements do not come shortly, I guess we will all be 
"pushing up daisies" before the week is out. 

March 19. Still carrying on. An attack last night in the 
dark, but we surrounded our house with home-made flares of 
cloth soaked in gasoline and nobody got very near without being 
discovered. We can always tell when an attack is coming by the 
loud barking of the million and one dogs in Urfa and by the 



20 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

jackal-like cries which the Kurds use to locate each other 

The French commandant received a -parlementaire from the Turks 
saying that they congratulated the French on their defense; that 
the war was a bloody one for themselves; offered the French safe 
escort to Arab-Punar, but if the French stayed they had sworn 
to get them out and would proceed to employ their artillery again 
with greater effect than ever. Needless to say, the French told 
them where they could get off. 

March 23. No more candles or tobacco. We use motor oil 
with string for wicks as our meagre lights at night. The French 
send us fresh horse-meat every day now — really not so bad. 
They are forced to eat their cavalry horses, so it's "fini" Frenca 
cavalry. 

March 28. No big attacks recently, though we are still cooped 
up. The French shot up a camel train bringing ammunition to 
the Turks today. . . . Last night a Kurd came into the 
French lines, pretending he brought a letter offering reenforce- 
ments to the French. He is undoubtedly a spy, and is being fed 
at present on bread and water until he opens up a bit more. 

April 2 — Fifty-fourth day. The French are very low on food 
and we have been giving them all we could spare. Went over to 
French headquarters last night to see the officers. They are all 
living in cellars and are all entrenched, for their buildings are 
pretty well shot up. Our house is perforated with bullet holes. 
We have tea on our barricaded balcony almost every afternoon 
with the bullets flicking off the handles of the teacups. 

April 11. The French have been forced to ask for an armistice. 
The siege ended, and we all went out for the first time in sixty-two 
days without a shot being fired. ... At the request of the 
French and the Turks, I went to the signing of the "peace terms" 
on the bridge between the city and French headquarters. The 
French are to leave within twenty-four hours and are promised 
safe escort. ... It seems that the Armenians in the city were 
also shut up and their food became so short that they ate horses, 
dogs, and what cats they could find. Three of our orphans were 
killed, and seven wounded. The Turks still profess friendship for 
the Americans, and we are the only ones who have free access to 
any part of the city, the rest of the people being still confined in 
their se\eral quarters. 



At The Siege OF Urfa 21 

The French troops left Urfa at midnight on April 11. They 
had hardly reached a point five or six miles from the city, when 
they were attacked and surrounded by some five or six thousand 
Turks and Kurds. Among the assailants were even some inhab- 
itants of the city. The French fought bravely until their machine 
guns became white hot and ceased to fire. Then the commander, 
in an attempt to save his men, tried to surrender. But the Kurds 
came in swarms over the crest of the hills and, surrounding the 
hollow in which the French stood, literally cut them to pieces. 

I was in the city at the time of the return of the Turks and 
passed through their columns as they brought back their spoils, 
their horses loaded with guns, uniforms stripped from the French 
dead, and every sort of plunder they could gather. In the city 
they were parading the heads of French officers on spears. As I 
passed along they would yell at the Turkish gendarme who was 
accompanying me, " Why don't you kill him too? " and the Turkish 
women who had come out to greet the "victors" jeered and cried 
at me. 

We all feared that the Armenians would be massacred, but be- 
cause the Armenians had kept their neutraUty more or less, or 
possibly because of the presence of seven Americans in the city, 
the Turks promised that nothing of the sort should occur. How- 
ever, the days were full of uncertainty and the situation tense, 
especially when the Turks began to arrest Armenians as French 
spies. 

Up to the time when I left on May 30, during a supposed 
twenty-day armistice between the French and Turkish armies in 
Cilicia, no further serious outbreak happened in Urfa. 



22 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



JOHN WOODRUFF SIMPSON 

A TRIAD OF APPRECIATIONS 

[John W. Simpson was born on October 13, 1850, at East Craftsbury, Vt., 
the son of James W. and Jane (Walker) Simpson. He prepared for college at the 
Vermont State Normal School, entered Amherst College in 1867, and was grad- 
uated in 1871. In college he distinguished himself by excellence in scholarship and 
in public speaking. After two years' study at Columbia Law School, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of New York State and entered the law office of Alexander & 
Green where he remained until 1884. On January 1, 1884, he formed the law 
firm of Simpson, Thacher & Barnum. When Speaker Thomas B. Reed left Con- 
gress in 1899, he joined the firm, and for a short time its name was Reed. Simpson, 
Thacher & Bartlett. Later it became Simpson, Thacher, Barnum & Bartlett and 
then Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett. Mr. Simpson was elected one of the Alumni 
Trustees of Amherst College in June 1904, and a permanent Trustee in December, 
1908. He died in New York City on May 16, 1920.— Editor.1 

THE UNDERGRADUATE 

SIMPSON at College was not one of those who take charge of 
things at the beginning of freshman year and are retired by 
submersion before the first twelvemonth is over. His friends 
were mostly his intimates. But his countenance and demeanor, 
at once retiring and assured, were early noted of all who saw him, 
and his recitations were marked from the first by a characteristic 
combination of grace and precision — apparent even on that rarest 
of occasions when it happened to him, as it does to all but the 
rarest of "industrious apprentices," to be not quite thoroughly 
prepared. Nevertheless he minded his own business too thor- 
oughly not to be somewhat masked at first by the many who did 
not. This was all changed in five minutes the first term of sopho- 
more year, when it came his turn to speak before the College at 
what were, for some reason, called " Rhetoricals " and were a 
great feature of the course at Amherst, the two upper classes 
speaking original, and the others "selected" orations. There- 
upon this reticent youth, without any means but the quiet dignity 
of his presence and especially his voice (which it was remarkable 
that he only modulated, never forced) electrified his audience. 

His "piece" was an extract from one of John Bright's speeches 
and therefore marked by gravity and not in the least by the 
grandiloquence frequently the choice of the sophomore. Had it 
needed eloquence of a higher kind, however, Simpson's delivery 
would have supplied it. Everybody in college began — and con- 




JOHN WOODRUFF SIMPSON 



John Woodruff Simpson 23 

tinued — to talk about his truly remarkable voice — flute-like in 
recitative passages and in stirring ones deepening into a kind of 
vibrant clarinet-like quality that made his hearers' emotional 
organization vibrate with it in almost mechanical unison. Little 
change of attitude, few gestures, and those seeming to follow in- 
stead of emphasizing, the cogency of vocal expression. 

The Amherst of that day was devoted to oratory. The course 
in elocution was long and thorough and popular. Boys with no 
natural gift in that direction nevertheless made strenuous and 
often, of course, deluded efforts to excel in it. We went to hear 
Sumner, Chapin, Gough, Beecher, above all Phillips, who was our 
exemplar. I can hear Phillips' voice today as well as when I 
heard it in College Hall the first of many times. It was celebrated 
the country over. It was not, however, as fine as Simpson's. It 
had less resonance and consequently less beauty. Simpson's was 
truly, like Sarah Bernhardt's, a voice of gold. And he used it, as 
I have said, with great skill. His oratory alone would have placed 
him early among the few leaders of the class. But he added 
scholarship to it, taking for instance, together with high rank at 
the close of the course, the Latin prize hands down, as well as 
naturally all the honors in both oratory and debate. 

When senior year was reached he was naturally chosen Class 
Orator, the most prized distinction in the four years. Those who 
heard the oration on Class Day, 1871, the semi-centennial of the 
College, will not have forgotten the impression made by his 
treatment of his theme, "The Scholar's Place in the Work of the 
Century." It was deemed sensational at the time, and theological 
fogies shook their heads at what was really but a counsel of wise 
scepticism in the spirit of Saint Paul's "Prove all things," In 
this spirit he began his life's work, during which, from first to last, 
however close his prudent scrutiny and however careful his pre- 
liminary removal of doubts of all kinds, in every sense of the word 
he was known of all his friends to have illustrated the rest of the 
text which bids us "hold fast that which is good." No one, how- 
ever, who knew him at college can have failed to breathe a sigh 
of regret that potentially the finest orator of his time (at least in 
the opinion of one who has heard them all) was led by force of 
circumstance to hide instead of develop for all the world this par- 
ticular one of his many talents. 

William C. Brownell. 



24 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

the trustee 

I wish that I might pay fitting tribute to John Woodruff 
Simpson, but I know that these written words will sadly fail of 
their purpose. 

He was chairman of the Trustee Committee on Finance 
throughout our acquaintance. He had general responsibility for 
keeping the funds of the College; I had like responsibility for 
spending them. As we went our related ways, beginning from 
sheer lack of acquaintance, friendship grew and became stronger 
between us. Perhaps it was the Scottish blood which drew us 
together. I should like to think it was something deeper, some- 
thing which often throbs and thrills beneath the inarticulate 
moods of Scotsmen. 

My first impression of him was that of his skill as a workman. 
He had made his own way in the law. It was easy to see why he 
had made his way so fast. He had the first essential of a genuine 
mind-clarity. His thoughts and his words pierced and slashed 
confusion and disorder like streaks of blazing light. No matter 
how baffling the problem, one had confidence that his mind would 
do with it what could be done and would never have the illusion 
of having done more. He was a beautifully skilled workman to 
watch. 

The second impression was very different. It revealed a 
man who had put work into its proper place. His work was to 
direct and arrange the businesses of men. But he knew that skill 
and success in direction and arrangement do not take one into the 
presence of life. He had a sense for the values which are life. He 
had craving and sensitiveness for beauty and meaning. He knew 
that life succeeds only as it takes these values. After one had come 
to know him, one always guessed or felt beneath the skilful 
mechanician the human spirit that lived, that knew what living 
is. In knowing him one touched not simply the instruments of 
life, but also life itself. 

My third impression was that of a man of genuine understand- 
ing. It was very pleasant to be laughed at by him. And I often 
had the experience. But then he often laughed at himself too. 
And we both laughed much at other men. He knew that a college 
teacher is and ought to be in some respects a rather foolish person. 



John Woodruff Simpson 25 

But he knew, too, that on the whole and in more fundamental 
respects, the business man is still more foolish. He was amused 
at my dreams and my enthusiasms, but he knew that I ought to 
have something of the sort in order to play my part. He had the 
tolerance which comes from genuine understanding. There are 
so many, many men who are devoted to a single cause that we 
give thanks for a man who knows what causes are and knows that 
they must be many. In a group of men he seemed to place each 
man and each cause in relation to every other. He seemed dis- 
posed and equipped to understand them. That is intelligence — 
and he had it. 

It is hard to put into words a proper tribute to Mr. Simpson. 
It is quite inadequate to measure him in terms of oneself. But 
in the last resort that is all one can do. I have delighted during 
these eight years in his skill, in his taste, in his understanding. 
And now that he is gone, I am, with many others, bereft. 

Alexander Meiklejohn. 

THE LAWYER 

I first met Mr. Simpson in the fall of 1899. He was at that 
time in the fullness of his powers. His apprenticeship had been 
served in the law firm of Alexander & Green, the leading corpora- 
tion law firm of New York City in the 70's. He had formed his 
own firm in 1884. Important work came to him quickly, and by 
1899 his firm was generally recognized as one of the strongest 
firms in the city. 

Early in his professional career he had done some work in the 
courts, but at the time I knew him his work was entirely that of 
a counsellor. His active work was done in a period when economic 
conditions were rapidly changing. Large scale production was 
becoming more and more prevalent. The corporation was replac- 
ing the partnership, and the large corporation was replacing a 
group of corporations or a group of partnerships. Mr. Simpson 
was one of the legal leaders in the new movement. He helped to 
make precedents. It has been the fashion to picture a corpora- 
tion lawyer as one who contrives elaborate schemes to befuddle 
people. No one who knew or worked with Mr. Simpson could 
ever get such an impression of his work. His clients were not 
substantially different from the business men that come into the 



26 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

life of a busy lawyer in a small town. Their problems, however, 
were more complex and more intricate. His work was to help 
them solve those problems. His gift lay in making complex things 
simple and clear. He sought the truth and followed it. 

Mr. Brownell has given a picture of Mr. Simpson as he was 
at Amherst — a gifted scholar and a magnetic public speaker. The 
testimony of almost all of his college contemporaries is to the same 
effect. Those of us who knew him in his mature years never heard 
him make what could be called a public speech. But we had 
ample opportunity to see him influence other men. He combined 
to a rare degree the power of analysis and the power of persuasion. 
His clear mind enabled him to penetrate to the bottom of a subject, 
and his unrivaled power of presentation made it easy for him to 
illuminate any subject which he, himself, had grasped. His 
clients followed him unwaveringly. 

He was deeply interested in politics, although he took no 
active part in political life. Those who worked with him in his 
later years and saw him do so easily the things that were hard for 
other men, were always haunted with the thought of how much 
he might have achieved in public life. In his later years he was 
wont to say that perhaps he should have gone back to Vermont 
and entered public life. Perhaps so. In that field he would surely 
have attained a more popular success. A wider number of people 
would have acclaimed him at the end of his life. As to whether 
his success would have been more real, however, his admirers 
may well hold different opinions. Surely no one can doubt that 
his life was a very real success. He did the day's work simply 
and without weighing the credits. He lived a daily life that 
brought joy into the lives of those about him. 

Freedom from the need of working for a livelihood came 
to him comparatively early, and with that freedom he took 
the opportunity to travel. He liked good books and read them 
diligently. He was a wide student and a discriminating critic of 
works of art. He loved all things that were beautiful. He got 
much from and gave much to his family. If he was at the height 
of his creative powers in the late 90's, it is still true that his life 
was in its full flower when it ended. 

I saw him last a few days before his death. His eyes and his 
voice were so much the eyes and voice of the man that I had first 



John Woodruff Simpson 27 

met twenty years before, that there was no impression of age. He 
waved his "au revoir" as he would wave a good-by when starting 
for a Vermont holiday. It left one with an indelible impression 
that his spirit was not to be imprisoned by a failing body. 

A few days later they carried his body to the little Scotch 
burying ground at East Craftsbury. His family, his kinsmen, and 
a few old friends followed the body on foot. One could only think 
of that requiem which another Scotsman — also with an indefina- 
ble charm — had written for his Samoan grave: 

Under the wide and starry sky. 
Dig the grave and let me lie. 
Glad did I live and gladly die, 
And I laid me down with a will. 

This be the verse you grave for me: 
Here he lies where he longed to be; 
Home is the sailor, home from the sea, 
And the hunter home from the hill. 

Dwight W. Morrow. 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



COLLEGE NOTES 

AT THE END OF A CENTURY 

Amherst began its one hundredth year with a larger faculty 
and a larger entering class than ever before in its history. Stand- 
ing room only was available in the freshman gallery during the 
opening exercises on September 23. Official figures are not yet 
available, but the preliminary list of the class of 1924 numbered 
185 men. Of these more than 130 have been pledged by the 
twelve fraternities. Among other remarkable features of Am- 
herst's centennial year are the absence of President Meiklejohn 
on sabbatical leave, the abolition of the two-semester in favor of 
the three-term system, the starting of a new plan for major studies, 
the experimental opening of courses for workmen in Springfield 
and Holyoke, the campaign for a three million dollar Centennial 
Gift to the College, and the plans for an impressive celebration 
of Amherst's one hundredth Commencement next June. 

In his address at the opening exercises Acting-President Olds 
paid an inspiring tribute to President Meiklejohn, testifying to 
his loyalty to the welfare of the College and his sincere devotion 
to the cause for which he is working. He spoke of the personal 
esteem in which he held the president and eulogized his value to 
the institution of which he is the leader. After reading the names 
of the new professors and greeting those already in the faculty who 
are returning after a period spent in foreign or domestic sabbatical 
research, he outlined with conviction the worth and function of 
broad, liberal, cultural education. Following the conclusion of 
his address the student body thundered forth an ovation of ap- 
plause the length, volume, and spontaneity of which bore witness 
to the impression which the acting-president has made upon the 
hearts of those with whom he has come in contact in the thirty 
years which he has devoted to the welfare of Amherst College. 

New appointments to the faculty not announced in the August 
Quarterly include: Stewart L. Garrison, Harvard '12, formerly 
head of the department of English at Worcester Academy, as 
associate professor of English and public speaking; William T. 



CollegeNotes 29 

Rowland, last year teaching in Queen's College, Kingston, Ont., 
as associate professor of Latin; Malcolm O. Young, '16, as bibli- 
ographer in the library; Robert C. French, '20, research assistant 
in chemistry; John W. Harlow, assistant in geology; and W. C. 
Townsend, '20, assistant in biology. Professor Charles E. Bennett 
will act as director of religious activities during the year. 

THE GEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION 

Early in the morning of June 16th a party of six left Amherst 
to hunt for extinct animals in Colorado and Wyoming. The party 
was led by F. B. Loomis, professor of geology, and with him were 
J. W. Harlow, his assistant, E. O. Clark, K. R. Mackenzie, and 
C. F. Heard of the present Senior Class, and Newell C. Loomis. 
The expedition was financed by the class of 1896 and equipped 
with two Ford cars, tents, and such tools as are needed for this 
kind of work. Twelve days were required to make the run of 
2100 miles to Grover, Colo., the party camping along the road as 
they went. 

Among the forms especially sought were the three-toed ancestor 
of the horse (Mesohippus), rhinoceros remains of all kinds, and 
miocene oreodonts (grazing animals about the size and general 
build of a pig, but with feet more like those of a dog). 

Work was begun some ten miles north-east of Grover on some 
bluffs located by last year's party. This is geologically one of the 
later deposits (pliocene), perhaps one million years old, in which 
bones are rare and fragmentary, but parts of a large rhinoceros, 
a long-legged camel, and the pliocene horse (Protohippus) were 
found. This camel is a strange one with a small body but long 
legs and neck, so that it suggests the giraffe in build and habit. 
The specimen found would have been able to reach leaves sixteen 
or eighteen feet from the ground, and probably developed its pecu- 
liar build because of its habit of feeding from trees. 

The horse was a moderate-sized one with three toes, but only 
the middle toe of each foot was used to walk on, the two side toes 
being reduced to vestiges. Beside this horse were a few teeth and 
bones of a very strange horse which had the low-crowned teeth and 
the three functional toes characteristic of the oligocene ancestor 
of the horses. This was probably some horse which, while other 
forms were adapting themselves to the prairies, had lived in the 



30 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

woods and except for increase in size had scarcely progressed in 
its evolution. 

After two weeks' work here the party moved north, sampling 
various exposures as they went, but not finding a real collecting 
ground until they reached the Raw Hide Creek in Wyoming. Here 
for a couple of weeks the bluffs yielded a fair return of forms be- 
longing to the Lower Miocene epoch, some two million years old. 
The most abundant remains belonged to a small edition of the 
giraffe-like camel, a form which could have reached perhaps seven 
feet into the trees and was the ancestor of the larger form men- 
tioned above. With it was a small deer-like animal (Merychyus) 
now entirely extinct, and of this latter a complete skeleton was 
found, besides a number of scattered bones. 

After looking over all the exposed bluffs in this vicinity, the 
party moved on to Van Tassel, just at the edge of W^yoming. Camp 
was made near the small town, and within half an hour bones began 
to turn up close to the camp. For the next two weeks the members 
of the party were kept busy taking up specimens, for they seemed 
to come without hunting and all on an area scarcely half a mile 
square. It must have represented some unusual condition in the 
past, either the vicinity of a water hole or the scene of some catas- 
trophe, for many of the skeletons were complete, others would 
have been complete had the erosion not carried away considerable 
parts before they were found, and the bones and skulls were remark- 
ably free from breakage. 

In two weeks here the party collected six complete skeletons 
and parts of one hundred individual animals. There were several 
kinds represented, but especially four grazing types, all oreodonts. 
One was large, perhaps six hundred pounds in weight, but with 
short, stocky legs and a heavy head. The others graded down in 
size to the smallest of the series, which would not have weighed 
over fifty pounds. These were not young but full grown animals, 
the smaller types more slender and long legged than the larger ones. 
There were also numerous rodents, especially an ancestor of the 
beaver. A few parts of carnivors turned up occasionally, in one 
place the skull of a small dog and some other dog-like forms. 

There were also some remains of horses, camels, and rhinoc- 
eroses, but never in any abundance. These were all in beds 
slightly older than those of the preceding locality. When this rich 



CollegeNotes 31 

pocket had been worked out, none of the other bluffs yielded any- 
more bones, and the party moved eastward into Nebraska, 

Near Chadron, Nebraska, work was started in the oligocene 
beds, which were probably laid down 2,500,000 years ago on the 
prairies of that time. Skulls of a tiny deer and of the first camel 
and rhinoceros came to light, as well as a fine pair of jaws of a 
tremendous pig, which must have had a head fully three feet long. 
These beds were followed up across the Pine Ridge Indian Reser- 
vation, on the north edge of which another rich locality was dis- 
covered. 

Here were found considerable parts and finally a complete 
skeleton of the three-toed horse (Mesohippus) . This find was 
especially welcome, since for years the College has been trying to 
get a series of skeletons to illustrate the development of the horse 
from its tiny (twelve inches high at the shoulder) ancestor, which 
lived nearly four million years ago, down to the living type. The 
museum already had four out of the five typical stages, having 
found the "dawn-horse" with four toes on each foot in 1904; 
Protohippus with three toes, the side ones reduced to vestiges, 
in 1919; Equus Scotti, the immediate predecessor of the present 
form, in 1913; and the modern type with the side toes reduced to 
splint bones. The skeleton found last summer, having all three 
toes equally developed and all used to walk on, will make the 
series complete. The five skeletons will be mounted so as to show 
the whole sequence as no other museum, except the American 
Museum of New York City, can do. Of course, there are a host of 
other horse forms illustrating variations and migrations to the old 
world, and of this material Amherst has a goodly quantity also. 

In the Bad Lands was found also a complete skeleton of the 
little running rhinoceros, a small form which adapted itself to up- 
land grazing life, but in doing so it came into competition with the 
more advanced grazing types already developed, such as early 
horses and camels, and so it failed to survive, dying out at the end 
of the Oligocene period. Another striking fossil was a very per- 
fect skull of the sabre-toothed cat discovered just as the party were 
leaving the region. The field was by no means exhausted when 
camp had to be broken for the return to college. 

The total collection for the summer consisted of 10 complete 
skeletons, 51 skulls, and 160 other lots of bones, mostly parts of 



32 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



skeletons. These will be worked out and incorporated in the 
museum series, which is assuming the proportions of one of the 
large collections of fossil vertebrates in the country. The expedi- 
tion of 1920 was the eighth which the College has sent out for add- 
ing to the resources of its museum. 

the labor college 

Amherst's unique plan for conducting classes for labor groups 
in Springfield and Holyoke is already under way. At a meeting 
early in October, Professors Hamilton, Stewart, and Cobb, and Mr. 
May met with representatives of the three labor organizations, the 
Central Labor Union of Holyoke, the Central Labor Union of 
Springfield, and the Spring-field Locals of the Railroad Brother- 
hood, and drew plans for the organization of this Labor College. 

The Labor College is an expression of the belief that a liberal 
education should be available to all who feel the need of it. Be- 
sides giving the working man or woman an opportunity to meet 
more intelligently the issues of the day, it will also make it possible 
for the professors to study labor conditions more directly. 

The complete list of courses and the members of the Amherst 
faculty who will give them is as follows: 

1. Current Economic Problems — Professors Hamilton, Stewart, 
and Mr. May. 

2. Industrial History — Mr. Saunders. 

3. Social Psychology — Professor Ay res. 

4. Practical English — Dr. Powell. 

5. Social Problems in Modern Literature — Professor Whicher. 

6. Mathematics — Professor Cobb. 

7. Industrial Physiology and Sanitation — Professors Glaser 
and Plough. 

8. State Government — Mr. Gaus. 

award of the treadway cup 

The winner of the Treadway Trophy has been announced by 
Acting-President Olds. The trophy, which consists of a large 
silver loving cup, is awarded each year to that fraternity or non- 
fraternity group attaining the highest scholastic average. The 
reports for the year 1919-1920 show that Chi Phi has jumped 
from eleventh place in 1918-1919 to first with an average of 77.96. 



CollegeNotes 33 

Delta Upsilon which won the cup for the year 1918-1919 stands 
a good second, while the others follow at very close intervals. One 
of the greatest advancements for the year was made by Phi Delta 
Theta, which moved from twelfth to fifth place with an average 
of 75.55. 



Following are the averages: 



Chi Phi 


77.96 


Delta Upsilon 


77.89 


Non-Fraternity 


76.68 


Alpha Delta Phi 


75.90 


Phi Delta Theta 


75.55 


Phi Kappa Psi 


75.43 



Chi Psi 74.53 

Beta Theta Pi 73.93 

Delta Kappa Epsilon 73.82 

Phi Gamma Delta 73.17 

Theta Delta Chi 72.87 

Psi Upsilon 71.97 
Delta Tau Delta 75.24 

College average 75.78 

FOOTBALL 

At the present writing the football team stands even with its oppo- 
nents, having lost the opening game to Brown 13-0 and a week later 
won from Bowdoin by the same score. With Captain Card, Brisk, 
Clark, and Zink, all veterans of last year's varsity, as a nucleus, 
Coach Gettell is biiilding up a football machine which promises 
to uphold Amherst's record of the past three seasons of no defeats 
on Pratt Field. Amherst has been fortunate in securing the ser- 
vices as line coach of Youngstrom, All-American guard on the 1919 
Dartmouth team, whose success in training the line was apparent 
in the Bowdoin game when Amherst held the visitors for eight 
successive downs within ten yards of the goal hne. In the same 
game. Brisk and Murnane showed consistent abihty to gain 
ground. 

The coaches have been giving much attention recently to the de- 
velopment of a successful attack, realizing that if Amherst is to beat 
Williams on November 20th it will be necessary to produce a team 
powerful in offensive as well as defensive tactics. One encourag- 
ing feature of the football situation this fall is the large number of 
freshmen who have reported for duty with the scrubs. For the 
first time in years it has been possible to see two freshman elevens 
going through signal practice daily. Several experienced players 
have entered with the class of 1924 and will be available for next 



34 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

year's team. They will be given a chance to show what they can 
do when the freshmen play Deerfield Academy on November 17th. 
Meanwhile the slogan for the main campaign is "Beat Williams." 
Besides the final game with its old rival, Amherst has still to play 
Columbia at New York, Union and Hamilton at Amherst, Wes- 
leyan at Middletown, and Trinity at Hartford. 

DEBATING 

Plans have just been completed for one of the most extensive 
Amherst debating seasons ever known. The first feature of the 
year's program will be the Williams-Wesleyan-Amherst annual 
triangular debate, which will be held either the week preceding or 
the week following Thanksgiving. The Amherst affirmative team 
will meet the Wesleyan negative aggregation in College Hall, while 
the Amherst negative will journey to Williamstown. 

At a conference of representatives of the three colleges the fol- 
lowing decisions were made. First, that the debate should be 
carried on under the Amherst plan, which consists of having a 
general subject for all teams to prepare upon and then twenty-four 
hours before the men go on the platform to assign a specific phase 
of the general subject as the topic for the debate. Second, the 
general subject selected for debate was "Direct Primaries." 
Third, it was definitely agreed that there should be only two or 
three men on each side, the exact number to be determined later, 
instead of four as in previous years. This completes the plans 
for the first debate of the year. 

The most important development, however, is that the Amherst 
debating teams this year will make their first extended tour the 
second week in December. Four men will be taken on this trip, 
two of them speaking each night. Thursday evening the team will 
debate with Cornell, Friday with Hamilton, and Saturday with 
Syracuse. At all these debates the Amherst form of debating will 
be used. This trip, the first of its kind in the history of the College, 
will complete the pre-Christmas program. 

More debates are being arranged for after the holidays with 
other colleges and universities of note. Already the schedule is 
twice as large as it has ever been. 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Published by THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF AMHERST COLLEGE 
George F. Whicher, Editor John B. O'Brien, Associate Editor 

Publication Committee 
Robert W. Maynard, '02, Chairman Frederick S. Allis, '93, Secretary 
Gilbert H. Grosvenor, '97 Frederick K. Kretschmar, '01 

Clifford P. Warren, '03 George F. Whicher, '10 

Published in November, February, Mat and August 

Address all communications to Box 607, Amherst, Mass. 

Subscription, $2.00 a year Single copies, 50 cents 

Advertising rates furnished on request 

Copyright, 1920, by the Alumni Council of Amherst College 



Entry as second-class matter at the post-oflBce at Springfield, Mass., pending. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

DURING the past two years a precedent has been estab- 
Hshed which should not be lost sight of when Amherst 
begins to climb up its second century. Last fall the 
November meeting of the Alumni Council brought nearly one hun- 
dred prominent alumni back to Amherst for a two-days' visit 
while many others returned to witness one of the most splendid 
athletic contests ever fought on Pratt Field. This year the forty- 
two district leaders in the campaign for the Centennial Gift, men 
from all sections of the country, are to assemble on November 19th 
and 20th for a similar inspection of the College and to support the 
football team in its hardest battle of the season. Those who saw 
the spectacular triumph over Wesley an last fall will realize that 
nothing can better nerve a team to its utmost efforts than the sense 
that they are playing before a large body of graduates eager to see 
the fighting spirit of Amherst teams perpetuated. In the colleges of 
the Middle West the alumni have a custom of coming back for the 
main home game of the season just as Amherst alumni return for 
reunions in June. We may well strengthen the tradition of the last 



36 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

two years and make a habit of regarding the annual football con- 
test with Williams or Wesleyan as the "homecoming" game. I>et 
it be a time for general reunion among Amherst men of all classes, 
when alumni, faculty, and undergraduates renew their common 
enthusiasm for the welfare of the College and their understanding 
of what part Amherst is playing in the making of men. 

BY VOTE of the Board of Trustees the Centennial Celebra- 
tion will be held in June in connection with Amherst's one 
hundredth Commencement. A joint committee of trustees, 
faculty, and alumni, of which Professor Newlin is executive secre- 
tary, is now engaged in formulating a program for the occasion, 
which when completed will be sent to every alumnus. In view of 
the large number of alumni expected for the celebration the pro- 
gram will be adapted to appeal especially to them and will be less 
an academic formality than it would have been if the Centennial 
exercises had been held, as originally planned, in October, 1921. 
Class Day will probably be transferred to the Saturday preceding 
Commencement week, June 19th will be Baccalaureate Sunday, 
and the graduating exercises will be held on Monday, thus leaving 
Tuesday and Wednesday morning free for the celebration of 
Amherst's one hundredth birthday. Features nov/ being con- 
sidered by the committee include a conference of delegates from 
other colleges and universities and a historical pageant, taking 
the place of the Lawn Fete, on Tuesday, and special commemora- 
tive exercises on Wednesday before the Alumni Dinner. Men who 
plan to return— and are there any who do not?— should make 
reservations for rooms early, since the resources of the town will be 
severely taxed to accommodate the crowd. 

NOVEMBER 27th, by fiat of certain all-powerful alumni, 
is to be made the "birthday" of Lord Jeffrey Amherst. 
Perhaps not of the historical Baron Amherst, born Jan- 
uary 29, 1717, but at least of that legendary Lord Jeff who has 
become the guardian spirit of Amherst College. On that night 
Alumni Association dinners will be held all over the country, and 
Amherst men everywhere will renew their loyalty to the "soldier 
of the king." Faculty delegates will attend the dinners in the East 
to describe the present condition of the College. Enthusiasm for 



Editorial Notes 37 

Amherst will be the keynote of each assemblage, and there will be 
no let-down of enthusiasm until the "one hundred hour, one 
hundred per cent" campaign for the Centennial Gift of three 
million dollars or over is carried to a successful finish. 



XIBRI SCRIPTI PERSON.E 

Dr. Frederick Tuckerman is a graduate of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College and a well-known man of 
science and citizen of Amherst. 

Charles F. Weeden, Jr., '16, of Newton Center, was a 
lieutenant in the air service during the war. A selection from 
his journal describing the siege of Urfa appeared in the 
Atlantic Monthly for September. 

William C. Brownell, '71, the distinguished critic of 
literature and painting, was a classmate and lifelong friend of 
Mr. Simpson's. President Meiklejohn and Dwight W. 
Morrow, '95, of the Board of Trustees, write of Mr. Simp- 
son also from close personal association. 



38 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



OFFICIAL AND PERSONAL 



THE CENTENNIAL GIFT 



The first meeting in the interest of 
the Centennial Gift will be held in 
Amherst on November 19th and 20th. 
While the meeting is called primarily 
for the purpose of acquainting the 
members of the different committees 
with the immediate needs of Amherst, 
every interested alumnus will be wel- 
come at the various conferences. 

On Friday morning the alumni will 
assemble and be welcomed to the col- 
lege by Acting-President Olds, Arthur 
Curtiss James, '89, presiding. Dwight 
W. Morrow, '95, will speak on The 
Centennial Gift, Alfred E. Stearns, '94, 
on Teachers' Salaries, Professor Harry 
De Forest Smith on A Commons for 
Amherst, Professor Albert Parker Fitch 
on An Enlarged Church, Stanley King, 
'03, on Repairs, Depreciation, and Up- 
keep, and E. S. Wilson, '02, on An 
Enlarged Gymnasium, Hitchcock Field, 
and an EndowTnent for Athletics. 

After luncheon the alumni will be 
divided into groups to inspect the col- 
lege plant under the direction of men 
especially familiar with Amherst's 
property and with the buildings and 
grounds of other colleges. 

On Saturday morning William C. 
Breed, '93, will present the details of 
the Centennial Gift appeal and will give 
the alumni an opportunity for questions 
on the technique of the campaign. 
After luncheon the alumni will march 
to Pratt Field to attend the Amherst- 
Williams football game, and on Satur- 
day evening there will be a rally in 
College Hall with competitive under- 



graduate and alunmi singing and an 
award of prizes by Deacon Stebbins of 
Pelham. Calvin Coolidge, '95, Acting- 
President Olds, and Dwight W. Mor- 
row, '95, will speak. 

One week later, Saturday evening, 
November 27th, will be Lord Jeffrey 
Amherst Night. Alumni dinners will 
be held by every alumni association 
with members of the faculty in at- 
tendance wherever it is possible to send 
them. In order to acquaint the 
western alumni with the plans of the 
Centennial year, Acting-President Olds 
in October and November visited the 
alumni in Chicago, Des Moines, Omaha, 
Minneapolis, Seattle, Portland, San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, 
Denver, and St. Louis. Professor 
John M. Tyler at the same time visited 
Erie, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, 
Indianapolis, and Pittsburg. 

The Centennial Gift is the first 
appeal which has been made to the 
general alumni body in one hundred 
years and should be the last to be 
made for one hundred years to come. 
The committee believes that every 
Amherst man will want to share in it. 
The actual solicitation for the neces- 
sary $3,000,000 will be begun by a 
short, intensive campaign during De- 
cember. Already a good start has been 
made by the promise of $300,000 from 
the General Education Board contin- 
gent upon the raising of $1,200,000 
additional for teachers' salaries. 

The general program will be under 
the direction of a Committee of One 



The Centennial Gift 



39 



Hundred. The active work will be 
carried on by an Executive Committee 
in cooperation with District Chairmen 
and Class Representatives. Headquar- 
ters have been established at Room 
2332, 120 Broadway, New York City. 
The organization of the Centennial 
Gift committees follows: 

COMMITTEE OF ONE HUNDRED 

Chairman, Arthur Curtiss James, '89; 
treasurer, Harold I. Pratt, '00; sec- 
retary, Frederick S. Allis, '93; vice- 
chairmen, Frank W. Stearns, '78, Her- 
bert L. Pratt, '95. Francis D. Lewis, '69 
Stuart W. French, '89, Edwin Duffy, 
'90, Charles B. Raymond, '88, John 
Timothy Stone. '91. Henry H. Tits- 
worth. '97. Luther Ely Smith, '94, 
Osgood T. Eastman, '86, William M. 
Ladd, '78, Sir Herbert B. Ames, '85. 

Members of Committee of One Hun- 
dred. Charles H. Allen, '69, Charles A. 
Andrews. '95, Albert W. Atwood, '03, 
Frank L. Babbott, '78, Grosvenor H. 
Backus. '94, Fred T. Bedford, '99, 
Arthur J. Benedict, '72, Richard 
Billings, '97. Paul Blatchford, '82, 
Frank D. Blodgett, '93, Nehemiah 
Boynton. '79, Percy H. Boynton, '97, 
John S. Brayton, '88. Herbert L. 
Bridgman, '66, Howard A. Bridgman, 
'83, William C. Brownell, '71, Randal 
K. Brown, '93, William Reynolds 
Brown, '69, Benjamin F. Brown, '74. 
Charles E. Butler. '00, William E. 
Byrnes. '92. George W. Cable. Jr., '91. 
Edward A. Gaboon, '83. Arthur B. 
Chapin. '91, George B. Churchill, '89, 
John Bates Clark, '72, B. Preston 
Clarke, '81, John M. Clarke, '77, L. 
Mason Clarke, '80, James S. Cobb, 
'92, Calvin Coolidge, '95, George R. 
Critchlow. '95, Walter H. Crittenden, 
'81, Edward C. Crossett. '05, Harry A. 
Gushing '91, Arthur H. Dakin, '84, 
Samuel W. Dana, '47, Arthur V. Davis, 
'88, William H. Day, '89, John P. 
Deering, '95, Henry C. Durand, '90, 
Joseph B. Eastman, '04, Benjamin K. 
Emerson, '65, Charles P. Emerson, '94. 
Robert P. Estv. '97, William D. Evans, 
'85, Henry P. Field, '80, Henry C. 
Folger, '79. Nellis B. Foster, '98, 
Edwin S. Gardner, '98, Milo H. Gates, 
'86, Frederick H. Gillett, '74, Frank J. 



Goodnow, '79, Edwin A. Grosvenor, 
'67, Gilbert H. Grosvenor. '97, George 
A. Hall, '82, Henrv C. Hall, '81, Louis 
H. Hall. '97. Howard A. Halligan, '96, 
George Harris, '66, Curtis R. Hathe- 
way, '84, William J. Holland, '69, 
Clav H. HoUister, '86, Karl V. S. 
Howland, '97. Louis V. Hubbard, '87, 
George E. Hurd, '96, William Travers 
Jerome, '82, Arthur M. Johnson, '92, 
Burges Johnson, '99, Naibu Kanda, 
'79, Benjamin F. Kauffman, '96, Henry 
P. Kendall, '99, John L. Kemmerer, 
'93, W. Eugene Kimball, '96, Joseph 
R. Kingman, '83, Samuel H. Kinsley, 
'84, Robert Lansing, '86, Frank M. 
Lay, '93, Caleb R. Layton, Jr., '73, 
George W. Lewis, '93, Walter C. Low, 
'85, George B. Mallon, '87, W. Carey 
Marble, '03, John R. Maxwell, '97 
James Maynard, '74, Robert W. May- 
nard. '02, Samuel C. McCluney. '02, 
William R. Mead, '67, Oliver B. Mer- 
rill, '91. William A. Merrill, '80. John 
H. Miller, '88, Arthur N. MiUiken, '80, 
Charles E. Mitchell, '99. Mark D. 
Mitchell, '94, Harriott V. D. Moore, 
'01, Charles L. Morse.'Ol, Alonzo M. 
Murphey, '87, Starr J. Murphy, '81, 
Alexander D. Noyes, '83, John E. 
Oldham, '88, William Orr, '83, Charles 
H. Parkhurst, '66, Walter W. Palmer, 
'05, Edward S. Parsons, '83, William 
F. Peirce, '88, Ernest W. Pelton, '01, 
George A. Plimpton, '76, Harry H. 
Polk, '97, Charles M. Pratt. '79, 
George D. Pratt, '93, William V. Prest, 
'88, Henry T. Rainey, '83, Jesse S. 
Reeves, '91, Rush Rhees, '83. Alfred 
Roelker. '95, Alfred G. Rolfe, '82. 
Noah C. Rogers, '80, John S. Runnells, 
'65, Alvan F. Sanborn. '87, Mortimer 
L. Schiff, '96. Alonzo T. Serale, '77. 
George N. Seymour, '88, William F. 
Slocum. '73, Fred M. Smith, '84, 
Munroe Smith, '74, R. Stuart Smith, 
'92, Winthrop Smith, '69, Bertrand 
H. Snell, '94, George T. Spahr, '78, 
Joseph H. Spafford, '84, Frank E. 
Spaulding, '89, Lewis Sperry, '73, 
Charles J. Staples, '96, Alfred E. 
Stearns, '94, George P. Steele, '88, 
Giles H. Stilwell, '81, Henry Stock- 
bridge, '77, Harlan F. Stone, '94, 
Walter R. Stone, '95, Cornelius J. 
Sullivan, '92, Lucius H. Thayer. '82, 
William G. Thayer, '85, Allen T. Tread- 
way, '86, James H. Tufts,' 84, James 



40 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Turner, '80, John M. Tyler, '73, 
William S. Tyler, '95, Thomas F. 
Victor, '92, John B. Walker, 83, 
Roberts Walker, '96, Williston Walker, 
'83, Arthur F. Warren, '97, Samuel D. 
Warriner, '88, William Ives Washburn, 
'76, Niel A. Weathers, '98, Ernest M. 
Whitcomb, 'Oi, Alden P. White, '78, 
Trumbull White, '90, William F. 
Whiting, '86, Charles S. Whitman, '90, 
Edward S. Whitney, '90, Walter F. 
Willcox, '84, Samuel H. Williams, '85, 
Talcott Williams, '73, Charles G. Wood. 
'93, Willis D. Wood, '94, Robert A. 
Woods, '85, Frederick J. E. Wood- 
bridge, '89, Rufus S. Woodward, '81, 
Peter B. Wyckoff, '68. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chairman, Dwight W. Morrow, '95; 
vice-chairmen, Eugene S. Wilson, '02, 
Stanley King, '03; secretary, Frederick 
P. Smith, '08; William C. Breed, '93, 
Grosvenor H. Backus, '94, Lucius R. 
Eastman, '95, Herbert L. Pratt, '95, 
Claude M. Fuess, '05, Bruce Barton, 
'07. 

DISTRICT CHAIRMEN 

Maine — John P. Deering, '95; New 
Hampshire — Arthur M. Heard, '88; 
Vermont — Edward D. Raymond, '90; 
Eastern Massachusetts — John E. Old- 
ham, '88; Central Massachusetts — 
Edward T. Esty, '97; Western Massa- 
chusetts — Nathan P. Avery, '91; Berk- 
shire— Clinton Q. Richmond, '81; Rhode 
Island — William B. Greenough, '88; 
Connecticut — Samuel H. Williams, '85; 
New York and Brooklyn — Herbert L. 
Pratt, '95, Herbert L. Bridgman, '66, 
William C. Breed, '93, Grosvenor H. 
Backus, '94; Adirondack — George N. 
Patrick, '03; Central New York- 
Walter R. Stone,' 95; Ontario — George 
Burns, '08; Niagara — -Allen W. Jackson, 
'02; Keystone— Clinton A. Strong, '98; 
Erie — Miner D. Crary, '97; Western 
Pennsylvania — Arthur V. Davis, '88; 
Dixie— Chester F. Chapin, '11; South- 
ern — Sumner G. Rand, '06; Northern 
Ohio— Charles K. Arter, '98; Buckeye — 
George T. Spahr, '78; Hoosier — Robert 
D. Eaglcsfield, '09; Northern Illinois- 
George H. Lounsbury, '02; Trans- 
Mississippi — Ralph T. Whitelaw, '02; 
Michigan— Robert B. Ailing, '10; Wis- 
consin—Henry J. Nunneraacher, '10; 
Northwestern — Stuart Wells, '00; Iowa 
—Richard R. Rollins, '96; Southwestern 



—Mark D. Mitchell, '94; Nebraskota— 
O. T. Eastman, '86; Rocky Mountain — 
Calvin H. Morse, '83; Lone Star- 
Charles B. Rayner, '09; Montana — 
Samuel B. Fairbank, '09; Utidaho — 
Edward Merrill, '81; Southern Califor- 
nia — Stuart W. French, '89; Northern 
California— Willard P. Smith, '88; 
Oregon— William L. Brewster, '88; 
Pacific Northwestern — David Whit- 
comb, '00; Canadian — Joseph Warner, 
'01. 

CLASS REPRESENTATIVES 

1847, Samuel W. Dana; 1854, Alexander 
B. Crane; 1856, Josiah T. Reade; 1857, 
Denis Wortman; 1858, Joseph B. 
Clark; 1859, Edward H. Spooner; 
1860, Lewis W. West; 1861, William 
Appleton Lawrence; 1862, Cahin Steb- 
bins; 1863, Edward W. Chapin; 1864, 
Henry M. Tenney; 1865, John C. 
Hammond; 1866, Herbert L. Bridgman; 
1867, Edwin A. Grosvenor; 1868, 
William A. Brown; 1869, Francis D. 
Lewis; 1870, William K. Wickes; 1871, 
Herbert G. Lord; 1872, Lyman M. 
Paine; 1873, John M. Tyler; 1874, 
Benjamin F. Brown; 1875, A. D. F. 
Hamlin; 1876, William M. Ducker; 
1877, Collin Armstrong; 1878, Arthur 
H. Wellman; 1879, Charles A. Terry; 
1880, J. Edward Banta; 1881, Frank 
H. Parsons; 1882, Charles S. Mills; 
1883, Walter T. Field; 1884, Edward 
M. Bassett; 1885, William G. Thaver; 
1886, Charles F. Marble; 1887, AndVew 
P. .\lvord; 1888, William B. Greenough; 
1889, Stephen R. Jones; 1890, Edwin 
Duffy; 1891, Herbert J. Lyall; 1892. 
Dimon H. Roberts: 1894, Grosvenor H. 
Backus; 1895, William S. Tyler; 
1896, Frederick S. Fales; 1897, John 
R. Carnell; 1898, Ferdinand Q. Blan- 
chard; 1899, William F. Merrill; 1900, 
Frederick P. Young; 1901, Maurice L. 
Farrell; 1902, Henry W. Giese; 1903, 
Clifford P. Warren; 1905, Edward A. 
Baily; 1906, Frederick S. Bale; 1907 
Charles P. Slocum; 1908, Charles E. 
Merrill; 1909, Donald D. McKay; 
1910, Raymond P. Wheeler; 1911, 
Richard B. Scandrett, Jr.; 1912, 
Merritt C. Stuart; 1913, Theodore A. 
Greene; 1914, Roswell P. Young; 1915, 
Louis F. Eaton; 1916, Charles B. Ames; 
1917, Mortimer Eisner; 1918, Dwight 
B. Billings; 1919, Halvor R. Seward; 
1920, Roland A. Wood. 



Since The Last Issu 



41 



s. o. s. 

The secretaries of the following 
classes failed to send any notes for this 
issue: 

1865, 1867, 1868, 1870, 1871, 1875, 
1876, 1877, 1878, 1881, 1882, 1884, 
1887. 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 
1897. 1898, 1899, 1901, 1907. 1908. 
1909, 1914. 1917. 

The editors of the Quarterly cannot 
write all the class news. They have 
neither the time nor the opportunity 
to look over newspapers throughout 



the country in search of items about 
Amherst men. They are ready to do 
what they can; but they need the faith- 
ful cooperation of the class secretaries, 
association secretaries, and others in- 
terested in Amherst. News items, 
clippings, etc., should be mailed to 
John B. O'Brien, 309 Washington 
Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, at any 
time prior to December 25th for in- 
sertion in the next issue — the earlier 
the better. Let us have a splendid 
response not only from secretaries, but 
from others as well. 



SINCE THE LAST ISSUE 



1855.— Eli Gilbert Bennett, on July 
10, 1920, in Brooklyn, N. Y., in his 
90th year. 

1868.— Edwin Fisher Bayley, on 
August 14, 1920. in Chicago, 111., aged 
75 years. 

1870. — Joseph Henry Adams in the 
spring of 1920, at Bernardston, Mass., 
aged 74 years. 

1873.— Prof. Harmon Northrup 
Morse, on September 8, 1920, at 
Chebeague Island, Portland, Me., aged 
72 years. 

1874. — Charles Ross Darling, on 
August 22, 1920, at Newton Center, 
Mass., aged 66 years. 

1879. — Prof. Forrest Eugene Merrill, 
on June 25, 1920, at Haverhill, Mass., 
aged 66 years. 

1879. — Smyser Williams, on July 10, 
1920, at York, Pa., aged 62 years. 

1883. — Charles Sullivan Adams, on 
September 5, 1920, in Jacksonville, Fla., 
aged 60 years. 

1886.— Hallam Freer Coates, in 1920, 
at Los Angeles, Cal., aged 56 years. 

1886. — Timothy Howard, on August 
6, 1920, at Worcester, Mass., aged 55 
years. 

1897. — William Carpenter Rowland, 
on September 5, 1919 (not previously 
recorded), in Johnstown, Pa., aged 45 
years. 

1904. — Evans Browne, on September 
9, 1920, at Bethesda, Md., aged 38 
yeaxs. 



1906. — George C. Gantz, on Novem- 
ber 1, 1918 (not previously recorded), 
in Baltimore, Md. 

1916. — Harold Lusk Gillies, on Sep- 
tember 17, 1920, in New York City, 
aged 27 years. 

MARRIKD 

1896.— At Boulder, Col., on April 19, 
1920 (not previously recorded), Elliot 
Snell Hall and Miss Felicia Grace Hall. 

1899. — In Wellesley, Mass., on Au- 
gust 4, 1920, Edwin M. Brooks and Miss 
Beatrice AUard. 

1900. — In Providence, R. I., on Sep- 
tember 8, 1920, Rev. Philip A. Job and 
Miss Sarah C. Campbell. 

1910. — At Irwin, Pa., on June 15, 
1920, John Scott Fink and Miss Lera 
Mae Johnson. 

1910.— In New York City, on Feb- 
ruary 25, 1920 (not previously re- 
corded), John Howard Keim and Miss 
Almira McDonough. 

1911.— In New York City, on July 28, 
1920, William Craig Bryan and Miss 
Elsie Steurer. 

1912.— In New York City, on Octo- 
ber 16, 1920, Wilbur F. Burt and Miss 
Evelyn Mildred Peck. 

1912.— At Springville, N. Y., on 
August 11, 1920, Reinhart Laug Gideon 
and Miss Mary Malvina Edmonds. 

1913.— At Stamford, Conn., on Sep- 
tember 9, 1920, John Henry Klingen- 
feldt and Miss Elisabeth Lear. 



42 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



1913.— In Rochester. N. Y., on June 
26, 1920, Gerald Humphrey Williamson 
and Miss Doris Fuller. 

1914. — In New York City, on August 
7. 1920, Louis B. De Veau, Jr., and 
Miss Vivian Willing. 

1916. — At Winchester, Mass., on 
August 21, 1920, Dean Blanchard and 
Miss Esther Parshley. 

1917.— At Croton-on-the-Hudson, N. 
Y., on September 18, 1920, John 
Dodge Clark and Miss Eaima Marie 
Zangler. 

1917.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., on June 
20, 1920, Gardner H. Rome and Miss 
May Moseley. 

1919.— At Yalesville, Conn., on Sep- 
tember 22, 1920, Wilfred B. Utter and 
Miss Ruth Hubbard May. 

BORN 

1897.— Jean Merrill Patch, on June 



3, 1920, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Isaac 
Patch of Gloucester, Mass. 

1905.— Anthony Blanchard Towns- 
end, on June 6, 1920, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. WinBeld A. Townsend of Essex, 
N. Y. 

1906.— Sally Cory Boyden, on July 
20, 1920, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph H. Boyden of Brighton, Mass. 

1909.— Elias Talmadge Main, on 
August 14, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter R. Main of West Haven, Conn. 

1910. — Philip Alden Beaman, on 
June 7, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 
H. Beaman of Ridley Park, Md. 

1913. — Laura Eaton Cobb, on May 
26, 1920, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Samuel H. Cobb of Columbus, Ohio. 

1913.— John Wallace Coxhead, Jr., 
on August 11, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
John Wallace Coxhead of Denver, Col. 



THE CLASSES 



1855 

Eli Gilbert Bennett died at his home 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., on July 10th, in 
his 90th year, of the ailments of old age. 

He was born in Georgetown, Conn., 
on February 2, 1831, the son of Sturges 
and Charlotte (Gilbert) Bennett and 
prepared for college with an Amherst 
man, Henry Lobdell, one of the Class 
of 1849. After graduation he joined his 
father's firm, the Gilbert and Bennett 
Manufacturing Company, makers of 
wire cloth, at Georgetown. After he 
had remained with this firm for five 
years, he became a merchant on his own 
account. 

Mr. Bennett came to New York in 
1881 and since then had been connected 
with the Gilbert and Bennett Company 
until his retirement in 1903. He is sur- 
vived by three sons, two daughters, 
four grandchildren, and two great- 
grandcliiidren. 



1856 

Mrs. Betsy Colton Spring, wife of the 
late Dr. Charles H. Spring of Boston, 
a noted physician, died at her home in 
West Springfield, Mass., on July 30th. 

Josiah T. Reade celebrated his 91st 
birthday on August 4th. He is still in 
active business, traveling back and forth 
to Chicago every day from his home in 
Lombard, 111., and between times acts 
as business and financial manager, 
custodian, and librarian of the Lombard 
Free Public Library of more than 
4,000 volumes. For forty-three years 
he has held the ofBce of clerk of the 
First Congregational Church in Lom- 
bard. 

1859 

Rev. Alpheus R. Nichols, Secretary, 

Brookfield, Mass. 

A gift of $2,500 has been made by 
Miss Katherine B. Knapp to Phillips 
Andover Academy in memory of her 



The Classes 



43 



brother, the late George B. Knapp, for 
a memorial gateway to Brothers Field. 
It was Mr. Knapp who gave these 
athletic grovmds to the academy in the 
joint name of himself and brother. 

1865 

Prof. B. K. Emerson, Secretary, 

Amherst, Mass. 
In honor of Prof. Edmund k. Jones, 
who was elected Superintendent of 
Schools in Massillon, Ohio, thirty-three 
times and who has been a teacher for 
63 years and is now an important mem- 
ber of the faculty of Otterbcin College 
at Westerville, the Board of Education 
in Massillon have named their newest 
school building the Edmund A. Jones 
Building. During the summer Pro- 
fessor Jones delivered a course of lec- 
tures at the Bible Conference in Cassa- 
dega, N. Y. 

John C. Hammond was a member of 
the Coolidge Home Committee which 
had in charge the notification exercises 
to the Republican nominee for the vice- 
presidency last June. 



Mr. Bayley was the son of Calvin 
Chapin and Ann (Fisher) Bayley (Am- 
herst College, class of 1837), and was 
born in Manlius, N. Y., on June 11, 
1845. He prepared for college at Ripon, 
Wis., attended Ripon College for two 
years, and entered Amherst in 1866 as 
a member of the junior class. After 
graduation he attended the St. Louis 
Law School and was admitted to the 
bar on July 26, 1869. He received the 
degree of LL.B. from Washington on 
May 5, 1870, and was admitted to the 
Illinois bar on November 22, 1872. 
After practicing for two years in St. 
Louis he removed to Chicago where he 
soon became widely known. He was 
always interested in Amherst, made an 
excellent record as a trustee, and was 
one of the most popular members of 
the class of 1868. Mr. Bayley served 
in the Union Army during the Civil 
War. 

He was married on November 15, 
1876, to Anne Katherine, daughter of 
R. P. Ober, Esq.. of St. Paul, Minn. 

L. G. Yoe was one of the honorary 
pallbearers at the funeral services. 



Herbert L. Bridgman, Secretary, 

604 Carlton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.' 

Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst and 

Herbert L. Bridgman are members of 

the general committee of the Victory 

Hall Association of New York. 

G. F. Ziegler of Greencastle, Pa., 
writes that he is coming to the Centen- 
nial and the 55th reunion of the class. 

1868 
William A. Brown, Secretary, 
9 Prospect Park West, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edwin Fisher Bayley, well known as 
a lawyer and for many years a trustee 
of Amherst College, died on Saturday, 
August 14th, at his home in Chicago. 



The Rev. Dr. John H. Williams of 
Redlands, Cal., has become acting- 
pastor of the Congregational Church at 
Claremont, Cal. He assumed his duties 
there on September 1st. 

The September issue of the Atlantic 
contained a story entitled "Peter," by 
Arthur Sherburne Hardy. 

The Rev. Elvira Cole Cobleigh, 
widow of the late Rev. Nelson Farr 
Cobleigh, died at her home in Walla 
Walla. Wash., on July 21, 1920. After 
her husband's death in 1887 she con- 
tinued his work, until finally she be- 
came a regularly ordained minister of the 
gospel. 



44 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



1869 

William R. Brown, Esq., Secretary, 
18 East 41st St., New York City. 
Prof. W. T. Hewett, late head of 
the German department in Cornell 
University, has taken up his residence 
in Oxford, England, where he is en- 
gaged upon a final revision of his work 
on Goldwin Smith, his former colleague. 
He has the material for a new work on 
Sherman's March to the Sea, in which 
he will discuss the burning of Columbia. 
His address is 141 Woodstock Road. 

1870 

Dr. John G. Stanton, Secretary, 
99 Huntington St., New London, Conn, 

Prof. Harvey Porter has had the 
degree of D.D. conferred upon him by 
the Syrian Protestant College at 
Beirut, Syria, in recognition of his 
association of 50 years with that in- 
stitution. Dr. Porter is now professor- 
emeritus. Since the death of President 
Bliss last May, he has conducted the 
chapel exercises and often preached at 
the church in both English and Arabic. 
He also preached the baccalaureate 
sermon at Commencement. 

During his active connection with 
the college Dr. Porter was professor 
of history and psychology and also had 
been in charge of the library and was 
head of the college museum. He has 
gathered for the college a notable 
collection of coins, which he is now get- 
ting into shape to be catalogued. 

Joseph Henry Adams died this last 
spring at his home in Bernardston, 
Mass. The following tribute was 
written by a member of the class of 
1870: 

While we fervently respond to a feel- 
ing of sadness on account of the death 
of Joe Adams, we as fervently rejoice 
in the knowledge that his life was one 



of unusually good influence upon his 
classmates. He came to us in '66 and 
immediately began to show the thor- 
oughness which characterized his life. 
He was early invited to a membership 
in the Amherst Chapter of the Psi 
Upsilon Fraternity. In general he was 
reticent, but often surprised us when in 
conversation he traversed politics, lit- 
erature, and religion in brilliant lan- 
guage, thus indicating a keen observa- 
tion of men and things. By nature 
he was warm and kindly, minded his 
own business and put his soul into his 
work. He was a stimulating corre- 
spondent, sometimes wielding a caustic 
pen in regard to trivialities of life or to 
whims and fancies of undisciplined 
minds. 

He was bom in Hadley, Mass., on 
August 11, 1845, was a student of the 
Amherst High School in the first year 
of its foundation (1861), graduated from 
Williston in '66 and received his A.B. and 
A.M. from Amherst College in '70 and 
'73 respectively. He possessed a scholar- 
ship much above the average and this 
was noticeably true in scientific work. 
In fact, his quick perception and good 
judgment in selecting enabled him to 
form a collection of minerals which was 
superior to that of any classmate and he 
justly received from the College a prize 
for the collection. Moreover, all of us 
remember him as a man of excellent 
habits. 

His public services were rendered as 
vice-principal of the Orange (N. J.) 
High School ('70 to '74), principal of 
the Free Academy at Saratoga Springs 
('74 to '76), tutor at W'illiston Seminary 
('76 to '78) and teacher in the Brooklyn 
Institute of Technology ('78 to '88). 
Later he retired to private life in Sun- 
derland, Mass., Bernardston, Mass., 
and Charlestown, N. H. 

In his latter days, owing to illness. 



Th 



Class 



45 



his business affairs weighed too heavily 
upon his mind and his bright, buoyant, 
genial, and witty spirit gave place to 
despondency. This despondency led 
to his death. 

A classmate of Adams's writes: 
"In a way Joe seemed quite retiring in 
disposition — and yet withal cheerful 
in the company of his friends and some- 
what masterful in conversation. His 
sallies of homely wit were engaging. 
His tastes in college inclined toward 
science. He had many a fact and 
principle stored away in his mind and 
he made good use of them. Such was 
the impression made upon my mind as 
we worked and played together — 
though I played while he worked — in 
the 'good old College days'." 

1872 

Lyman M. Paine, Esq., Secretary, 
4224 Langley Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Henry H. Wyman, well known for 
many years, as one of the Paulist 
Fathers of San Francisco, and for the 
past six years of Chicago, is returning 
to New York City, where he will be 
pleased to renew old college friendships 
at No. 415 West Fifty-Ninth Street. 
He has just issued through The Catholic 
Truth Society of San Francisco "The 
Story of My Religious Experiences." 
It is modest, comprehensive, able, and 
sincere. A previous volume by Father 
Wyman is entitled "Certainty in 
Religion." 

The New York Times of September 
5, 1920, shows, in its Rotogravure 
Section, the Rev. Walter Thompson 
oflBciating at the outdoor wedding of 
Miss Helena Livingston Fish, daughter 
of Hamilton Fish, and Henry Forster on 
the Fish Estate at Garrison-on-the- 
Hudson. 

Dr. Albert George Paine, familiarly 



known in college as "Long Dad", 
"Big Dad," "Old Dad," or "Paine 
First" is spending the afternoon of life 
among the Lotus Eaters in Pasadena, 
where it is "always afternoon." He 
brags of his deltoid and biceps, as of 
old, and keeps them fit by lifting up 
his axe against the thick trees, and by 
so doing has acquired the local reputa- 
tion of a "good feller." He likes to 
recall that day in June, 1869, when as a 
freshman he was first to bat at Williams- 
town, in the first inning, and, striking 
the first ball delivered, drove it into 
right field for a home run that won the 
game. No triumph in later years can 
"dull the edge of that day's celebration." 
His son. Dr. John Colwell Paine, 
'04, has made his old dad the proud 
grand-dad of two native Californian 
prospects for Amherst College. 

1873 

Prof. John M. Tyler, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Prof. Harmon Northrop Morse of 
Baltimore, Md., brother of the late 
Prof. Anson D. Morse of Amherst, died 
on Wednesday, September 15th, at his 
summer home at Great Chebeague 
Island, off the Maine coast. He was 
born in East Cambridge, Vt., October 
15, 1848, son of Harmon and Eliza- 
beth Murray (Buck) Morse, was grad- 
uated from Amherst College in the class 
of '73, studied at Gottingen University, 
Germany, from which he received the 
degree of Ph.D. in 1875, Amherst grant- 
ing him the LL. D. degree in 1918. He 
was assistant in chemistry at Amherst 
College, 1875-6; since then professor 
of inorganic and analytical chemistry 
and director of the laboratory of Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 
becoming professor-emeritus in 1910. 
He was a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences, American Philo- 



46 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



sophical Society, fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, foreign 
member of the Utrecht Society of Arts 
and Sciences. He has made many 
original researches in inorganic and 
physical chemistry. His principal in- 
vestigations were in the facts of os- 
motic pressure. He wrote "Exercises 
in Quantitative Chemistry," and mono- 
graphs on osmotic pressure. He re- 
ceived many honors from the univer- 
sities and scientific bodies of France and 
Germany. In February. 1916, he 
was awarded the Avagadro medal by 
the Academy of Turin, Italy, in recog- 
nition of his original investigations and 
his brilliant discoveries. He had charge 
of planning the new chemical laboratory 
at Johns Hopkins University. During 
the war the staff of the laboratory 
under Dr. Morse's guidance performed 
many patriotic services to our country 
and the world in manufacturing gases 
to counteract the poisonous gases in- 
vented by the Germans. Dr. Morse 
built the house on Orchard Street now 
occupied by Dean Olds, and he and his 
family lived there for several years. 
Since his retirement he has continued 
to make investigations, and was granted 
special appropriations from the Car- 
negie Foundation, to enable him to do 
research work, as a testimonial to him 
as one of the foremost chemists of our 
time. He married on December 13, 
1876, Caroline A. Brooks of Mont- 
pelier, Vt., who died in November, 
1887. He married, as his second wife, 
December 24, 1890, Elizabeth D. 
Clark of Portland, Me., who survives 
him, with one daughter. Dr. M. E. 
Morse of Baltimore, two sons, Robert 
B. of Hyattsville, Md., and Capt. 
Edmond H. Morse of the U. S. Marines 
in Washington, D. C, and two grand- 
daughters, Katharine, daughter of 
Robert B. Morse, and Edith Brooks, 



daughter of his late son, Harmon V. 
Morse, formerly of Pelham Valley. 
Funeral services were held on Sunday, 
September 19th, at the Morse home on 
Northampton Road, Amherst. 

Professor Morse has won his place 
on the honor roll of Amherst College 
with such men as President Hitchcock 
and Professor Adams. His name will 
stand high in the list of those young 
men who made Johns Hopkins famous. 
With Dr. Ira Remsen, now president - 
emeritus of that university, his remark- 
able powers of original investigation 
attracted to the new institution the 
most promising students of chemistry 
from all parts of the country, and sent 
them out to continue his work in all 
our colleges and universities. He was 
a great chemist and his work will abide 
as his adequate memorial. 

But the man was more and larger 
than his best achievements. Some of 
us well remember his appearance on our 
college campus fifty years ago: "a 
goodly, portly man, i' faith, of a cheer- 
ful look, a pleasing eye," and red 
cheeks. He formed a close friendship 
with a kindred spirit, also a son of 
Anak, a rare and goodly man, later 
a professor of classical art and literature 
in one of our great universities. They 
two went down and ruled mightily a 
band of loyal and like-minded souls in 
old East College, cave of Adullam, 
Donnybrook Fair, Valhalla, — call it 
what you will. Its hospitable doors, 
when it had any, swung free and wide; 
the guest entered with caution and 
courageous anticipation, and was never 
disappointed. He found there Homeric 
jokes, jests and laughter, and titanic 
wrestle and combat never to be for- 
gotten. They found also ample time 
for thought, study, and serious dis- 
cussion; and sometimes must have 
slept. "Enae petit placidam sub lib- 



The Classe 



47 



ertate quietem." But old East College, 
bare and battered, looked out on the 
sunrise and the Pelham Hills whence 
Cometh strength and was like fertile 
Phthia, a mother of heroes. During 
our Freshman year he was reciting to 
our professor of Greek, and said with 
preternatural solenmity "Socrates' last 
words were 'Crito, we owe a rooster 
to Aesculapius.' " We trembled for 
him. But the professor, a lover of 
humor and humanity, answered with 
a smile: "Morse, that is doubtless 
just what Socrates would have said 
if he had had the good fortime to be 
born in Vermont." 

We remember him in the old, stuffy, 
crowded chemical laboratory, one of us, 
but far above our hopes of attainment: 
our advisor whose explanations and 
encouragement were sought and prized; 
and his reproofs, for then also he was 
leader and ruler, were always accepted 
with meekness and respect. Chemistry 
was serious business, and he was our 
model of patient, exact experiment. 
His analysis always came out right 
to the last decimal place, while ours 
usually did not. He never could endure 
slipshod methods or approximate re- 
sults. We hindered him, and he helped 
us. We called him Gauss, though our 
knowledge of the life and achievements 
of that excellent man was very small 
and vague. 

The same spirit possessed him 
through life. He was the ideal patient, 
cheerful, self-forgetful, painstaking in- 
vestigator. He kept repeating to his 
students: "Time is the cheapest thing 
we have." It made no difference to 
him how long he kept up a series of 
experiments or how many times he 
repeated them. When he was inves- 
tigating atomic weights, he did all 
his weighing after midnight when 
the rumble and jar of the city streets 



had ceased to disturb the sensitive 
balance: and he always sat by the in- 
strument for two hours before beginning 
to use it lest the heat of his body, sud- 
denly applied, might mar the accuracy 
of its work. 

He sacrificed wealth and fame by 
refusing to patent or publish approxi- 
mately complete results. Others might 
and did exploit them. He did not com- 
plain of them or express regret of his 
delay. It was a matter of honor or 
religion with him. He could not do 
otherwise. 

The last time I met him he explained 
to me with quiet enthusiasm a new in- 
vestigation which promised much for 
agriculture and manufacturers. His 
talk was interspersed with gleams of 
shrewd native wit, and quizzical humor 
still lurked in or behind his earnest eyes. 
His college mates, pupils and friends 
will not forget him. 

John M. Tyler. 

1874 

Elihu G. Loomis, Esq., Secretary, 
15 State St., Boston, Mass. 

Charles Ross Darling died at his 
home, 51 Everett Street, Newton 
Centre, Mass., on August 22, 1920. 

Mr. Darling was one of the younger 
members of his class. After graduation 
he attended Harvard Law School and 
graduated in 1877. Then he went to 
the Pacific Coast and lived at Portland, 
Ore., for two or three years. His next 
residence was at Walpole, Mass., but 
his permanent home was at Newton 
Centre, Mass., where he lived more 
than twenty-five years, with a law 
ofiBce in Boston. 

Mr. Darling was a keen student of 
the law and a brilliant writer of arti- 
cles for law journals and reviews to 
which he was a frequent contributor. 
He was assistant editor of the United 



48 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



States Digest and was frequently ap- 
pointed by the courts as master to 
take and report testimony in pending 
litigation. Mr. Darling was esteemed 
by all who knew him professionally 
and socially. He was a loyal and 
faithful member of his college and 
class. 

He was married in 1900 to Ada L. 
Underbill of Brookline, Mass., who 
survives him. He also leaves two 
children, Ruth W. and Philip Eustis 
Darling. 

Speaker Frederick H. Gillett of the 
House of Representatives was renom- 
inated by the Republicans at the Sep- 
tember primaries. 

1877 
Rev. Dr. A. De Witt Mason, Secretary, 

222 Garfield Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Rev. Dr. Joseph B. Hingeley, 
corresponding secretary of the board 
of conference claimants of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, has just com- 
pleted a survey of the Protestant 
clergy of the United States in an effort 
to further his ambition to provide more 
substantially for the old age of preach- 
ers. He has been an ardent worker for 
more pay for pastors for many years and 
has attracted nation-wide attention 
by his advocacy. 

Collins H. Gere was a member of 
the Coolidge Home Committee at the 
time the Republican nominee for the 
vice-presidency was officially notified 
of his nomination. 

1878 
Prof. H. Norman Gardiner, Secretary. 

187 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

Henry P. Barbour of Long Beach, 
Cal., has been elected vice-chairman of 
the Rei)ublican County Central Com- 
mittee of Los Angeles County, the 



third or fourth largest county In popu- 
lation and Republican strength in the 
United States. Alfred L. Bartlett, '08. 
is chairman of the committee. "This 
means," writes Mr. Barbour, "that 
two Amherst men have been placed in a 
position to do Governor Coolidge a great 
deal of good." 

1879 

Prof. J. Franklin Jameson, Secretary, 

1140 Woodward Bldg., 

Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Forrest Eugene Merrill died 
at Haverhill, Mass., on June 25, 1920, 
after a short illness, of pneumonia. 
He was born in Georgetown, Mass., 
August 2, 1853, was fitted for college 
in the Georgetown High School, and 
entered the class of 1879 at the begin- 
ning of its junior year. 

He was principal of the high school 
in Hampstead, N. H., from 1879 to 
1884. For the next four years he con- 
ducted a school and mission academy 
in Park City, a mining camp among the 
mountains of the Wasatch range in 
Utah. Then for four years he was 
principal of Procter Academy in 
Provo, Utah. From 1892 to 1897 he 
was again principal of the Hampstead 
High School. 

The remainder of his life was spent 
in Haverhill, where at first he was en- 
gaged in the life-insurance business, 
but in his later years was much ham- 
pered by ill health. He was married in 
1883 and had five daughters. He was 
a genial and kindly man, strongly in- 
terested in music, and an excellent 
teacher, following that profession for 
twenty-three years. 

Smyser Williams, a member of the 
class of 1879 throughout its freshman 
year, died on July 10, 1920, at the 
age of 62. His health had been imper- 



The Classe 



49 



feet sinee last winter. Mr. Williams 
was born in York, Pa., October 23, 1857, 
the son of David F, and Anna Mar- 
garet (Smyser) Williams. 

Mr. Williams began his education at 
the York County Academy and gradu- 
ated from the York High School in the 
class of 1873. He was at Amherst from 
1875 to 1876, then studied law and was 
admitted to the bar of York County in 
1879. In 1883 he formed a partnership 
with Richard E. Cochran, a fellow law 
student, and continued legal practice 
in the firm of Cochran and Williams 
(later Cochran, Williams, and Kain) 
from that time until his death. He was 
at the time of his death vice-president 
of the York Trust Company, a director 
of the York National Bank, and secre- 
tary of the York Water Company. 

He married Henrietta C. Hersh, of 
his native city. He leaves, besides his 
widow, a daughter and four grand- 
children, two of them the children of 
his son Cuthbert Williams, who died in 
1911. 

Mr. Williams was held in the highest 
regard in York. The local bar associa- 
tion, in a meeting held soon after his 
death, paid unusual tributes to his 
memory. No one had a higher reputa- 
tion for uprightness and professional 
character, and his kindness and gentle- 
ness of spirit were equal to his integrity. 
It was often said in the community that 
if one man were to be chosen from the 
entire city to whom the affairs of a poor 
woman could be entrusted with entire 
confidence that they would be admin- 
istered with the most scrupulous in- 
tegrity and care, that man would be 
Smyser Williams. He was an attend- 
ant and trustee of the First Presby- 
terian Church of York, of which another 
classmate. Dr. John Ellery Tuttle, now 
of Swarthmore, was for several years 
pastor. 



Dr. Isaac M. Agard has been ap- 
pointed dean of Straight College at 
New Orleans, the appointment taking 
effect with the opening of the fall semes- 
ter in September. He will also hold his 
former position as professor and head 
of the department of education in that 
institution. 

The Rev. Dr. Nehemiah Boynton 
returned to the country in October, 
after attending in Switzerland the con- 
ference of the International Committee 
of the World Alliance for promoting 
International Friendship through 
churches. He was elected president 
of the conference. 

"An International Council of Schol- 
ars" is the title of an article by J. 
Franklin Jameson, director of the de- 
partment of historical research, Car- 
negie Institution, in the Review of Re- 
views for May. 

1880 
Henry P. Field, Esq., Secretary, 
86 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

Edmund K. Alden's new address is 
1323 Dorchester Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

C. L. Field has resigned his position 
as Clerk of Courts for Franklin County, 
Mass. He held the position for many 
years 

Keith and Packard attended the 
ceremonies at Northampton when Gov- 
ernor Coolidge was notified of his nomi- 
nation for vice-president. Henry P. 
Field was a member of the Coolidge 
Home Committee in charge of the noti- 
fication ceremonies. 

Prof. E. C. Richardson is taking a 
six months' vacation in Europe. 

Frank B. Richardson, formerly of 
Woburn, Mass., is now living at Med- 
f ord, Mass. Address, 35 College Avenue 



50 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Seymour is health officer to the Board 
of Health of Jenkintown, Pa. Ad- 
dress, 411 West Ave. 

The present address of J. B. Bisbee is 
8 Lafayette Place, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Henry P. Field was chosen by the 
Republicans of Massachusetts as presi- 
dential elector for the second district. 

1881 
Frank H. Parsons, Esq., Secretary, 

60 Wall Street, New York City. 
Philip L. Sayles, a son of Frederick T. 
Sayles, is a member of the Freshman 
Class at Amherst. 

1882 

Prof. John P. Cushing, Secretary, 
Whitneyville, Conn. 

The Rev. Dr. Charles S. Mills has 
resigned his pastorate of the First Con- 
gregational Church in Montclair, N. J., 
to become joint secretary of the Pilgrim 
Memorial Fund and the Annuity Fund 
for Congregational Ministers, with 
headquarters at 875 Broadway, New 
York City. Dr. Mills went to Mont- 
clair eight years ago. In 1914 the church 
was burned and Dr. Mills erected a new 
church which cost $300,000, and four 
years ago the last debt was paid. 

The Rev. Dr. James W. Bixler has 
been called to the pastorate of the Con- 
gregational Church in Exeter, N. H., 
formed of the reunited First and Phillips 
Churches of that place. 

1883 

Walter T. Field, Secretary, 
2.'501-2;ill Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. 
John A. Callahan was nominated by 
the Republicans at the September 
primaries in the lllh Hampden district 
for representative in the Massachusetts 
House. 

Charles Sullivan Adams, who had 



been in failing health for more than a 
year, died on Sunday, September 5, 
1920, at his home in Jacksonville, Fla. 
He was a leading citizen of Jacksonville, 
having served as a member of the city 
council, and of the chamber of com- 
merce, also as president of the Jackson- 
ville Bar Association and the University 
Club. He was master in chancery in the 
United States District Court and referee 
in bankruptcy. His most noteworthy 
public service was rendered during the 
yellow fever epidemic in Jacksonville a 
number of years ago. While others were 
fleeing from the city, he helped to organ- 
ize a relief commission, and remained 
on the ground looking after the needs of 
the sufiFerers and maintaining law and 
order. He was a Shriner, Knight Tem- 
plar, and a member of the Episcopal 
Church. 

Mr. Adams was born in Burlington, 
Vt., on June 27, 1860, a member of the 
old New England Adams family that 
occupied so prominent a place in the 
early history of our country. Jackson- 
ville became his home when he was 
•even years old. He prepared for college 
at Williston Seminary. In college he 
was managing editor of the Student and 
winner of the Hyde oratorical prize. 
His fraternity was Delta Kappa Epsilon. 
After graduating from Amherst, he 
studied law at Boston University, and 
a few years later returned to Jackson- 
ville, where he practised almost until 
the time of his death. His wife, a son, 
and a daughter survive him. 

An article on "The High Cost of Liv- 
ing," by Alexander D. Noyes, appeared 
in the Unpartizan Review for July-Sep- 
tember. 

1883 continues to show its loyalty by 
sending its sons to Amherst College. 
In this year's Freshman Class are Edwin 
B. Bridgman, son of the Rev. Howard 



The Classe 



51 



A. Bridgman; Joseph R. Kingman, Jr., 
son of Joseph R. Kingman; Howard H. 
Mitchell, a son of Frederick B. Mitchell; 
and Talcott Parsons, the third son of 
Pres. Edward S. Parsons to go to Am- 
herst. 

The Rev. David P. Hatch of Lan- 
caster, Mass., will serve the Congrega- 
tional Church at Pomona, Fla., during 
the winter season only, beginning Octo- 
ber 4th and continuing to June 15th. 
The people at Lancaster have allowed 
him this leave of absence, "on the con- 
sideration that he returns next sum- 
mer." 

1884 

WiLLABD H. Wheeler, Secretary, 
% Maiden Lane, New York City. 
The August Atlantic contained an 

article by William S. Rossiter entitled 

"What are Americans?" 

Sampson W. Buffum, a son of Wilder 
S. Buffum, is a member of the Fresh- 
man Class at Amherst. 

1885 

Frank E. Whitman, Secretary, 
66 Leonard St., New York City. 
The official report of the House of 
Commons Debate for Canada, issued 
at Ottawa, June 22, 1920, contains a 
very interesting statement by Sir 
Herbert Ames in reference to the League 
of Nations (p. 3076). 

The Catholic World for July, 1920, 
contains an article by Tod B. Galloway, 
'85, entitled "When Mary and I went 
to Morlaix." 

Addison T. Cutler, son of Sanford L. 
Cutler, is a member of the Freshman 
Class at Amherst. 

The Review of Reviews for May, in an 
article on the new "Town Hall" in New 
York City, pays its respects to Robert 
Erskine Ely, director of the women's 



League for Political Education, execu- 
tive secretary of the Economic Club of 
New York, and director of the Civic 
Forum, as follows: 

For many years the work of the 
League has been directed by Mr. Rob- 
ert Erskine Ely, who has made himself 
one of the foremost educational and 
social leaders of the great metropolis. 
Mr. Ely's fitness for work of this kind 
had been demonstrated through a period 
of years in Boston and Cambridge be- 
fore he was induced to go to New York. 
Meanwhile Mr. Ely has had the credit 
of founding and leading another organ- 
ization in New York that has had a 
career of unflagging success, namely, 
the Economic Club. This is a body of 
business and professional men who meet 
about half a dozen times every season 
in a large hotel ballroom, where an early 
dinner is followed by a serious discussion 
of some problem of moment to the na- 
tion. As the name of the club implies, 
the topics presented are more generally 
related to the politico-economic struc- 
ture of society in some phase or aspect. 
The average attendance at these dinners 
well exceeds a thousand men. 

Mr. Ely's directorship of the women's 
League for Political Education and the 
men's Economic Club has been so effi- 
cient and valuable that he has found 
hearty support in the plans that have 
taken form, under his eye, for a building 
that shall furnish a home for these two 
societies while also serving other useful 
ends and objects. A working civic 
library is to be one of the adjuncts of the 
new establishment; and the auditoriimi, 
which is not to be too large, but which is 
to seat comfortably something less than 
two thousand people, is to be made 
available for all legitimate uses of plat- 
form discussion that are consistent with 
the main objects of men and women 
who seek the best welfare of the people 
of New York. 

Not only is the function of the plat- 
form a valuable element in our national 
and local ordering of public affairs, but 
it is destined to meet in a helpful way 
some of the new demands of a better 
international understanding. National 
isolation is futile henceforth, no matter 



52 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



how much it might be proclaimed. Art, 
music, literature, social justice, com- 
merce, medicine, and sanitation — these 
are all considerations that do not bother 
much about political boundaries. The 
Civic Forum, also under Mr. Ely's di- 
rection, frequently brings to New York 
for a single address some European 
leader of distinction; and many of the 
lecturers before the League for Political 
Education have been notable personages 
in the British or European world of 
literature and science. It is possible to 
show full devotion to one's own country 
without fomenting disagreeable and 
false prejudice against the institutions 
or the people of other countries with 
whom we ought to be in friendly rela- 
tionships. 



Chahles F. Marble, Secretary, 

4 Marble Street, Worcester, Mass. 

Timothy Howard, who lived in North 
Brookfield but maintained a law oflBce 
at 390 Main Street, Worcester, Mass., 
died in that city on Friday, August 6th, 
as the result of an accident. 

Mr. Howard fell down a flight of steps 
at 31 Chatham Street. He had dropped 
a small package and in stooping over to 
pick it up he lost his balance and fell to 
the sidewalk. He was taken to the City 
Hospital in an ambulance in a semi- 
conscious condition. He was found to 
be suffering from a fracture of the skull 
and his death followed quickly. 

Mr. Howard was 55 years old. He 
was born in North Brookfield on Octo- 
ber 10, 1864, the son of Murty and 
Johanna Howard and prepared for col- 
lege at Phillips Exeter Academy. His 
law studies were conducted in Boston. 
He had been a prominent citizen of 
North Brookfield and was town counsel 
at the time of his death. He served two 
years in the Massachusetts General 
Court, representing the district of which 
North Brookfield is a part. 



Hallam Freer Coates died recently at 
his home in Los Angeles, Cal., after an 
extended illness. Most of his life was 
spent in the state of Ohio. He removed 
to Los Angeles some years ago to engage 
in business there, but for the past two 
or three years had been unable to attend 
to any matters of business. 

He was born in Paris, Ohio, March 22, 
1864, the son of Amos W. and Ada 
(Freer) Coates, and prepared for college 
at Western Reserve Academy. 

Coates was at Adelbert College for 
two years and came to Amherst for his 
junior and senior years. After gradua- 
tion he was in the employ of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, for a short time, and 
was afterwards engaged in the manufac- 
ture of agricultural implements and as 
manager of an iron foundry. For the 
past few years he has been engaged in 
the transportation of coal, ore, and grain 
on the Great Lakes, and was a director 
of the National Steamship Company. 
He was also interested financially in 
silver mines in Washington and became 
a director in the Double Eagle Lead & 
Reduction Co., Webb City, Mo. 

He was appointed a member of the 
board of managers of the Ohio State 
Reformatory in 1904 and has been presi- 
dent of the board. Much of his time 
was devoted to the duties of this posi- 
tion. He had been chosen delegate from 
Ohio to several successive National 
Prison Congresses, and at the session in 
Albany, September, 1906, read a paper 
on the "Parole and Probation of First 
Offender Felons." 



The Rev. Dr. Milo H. Gates has been 
elected president of the alumni associa- 
tion of the General Theological Semi- 
nary. He delivered an effective sermon 
in the Amherst College Church on 
October 10th. 



The Classes 



53 



1887 

Frederic B. Pratt, Secretary, 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Howard O. Wood was a lucky man 

on Thursday, September 18th, the date 

of the explosion in Wall Street. When 

he was about to leave the Bankers' 

Trust Building just before noon, he was 

detained for five minutes by a woman. 

The delay was just sufficient to prevent 

Mr. Wood from being in front of the 

Morgan Building at the time of the 

explosion. 

1889 

Henry H. Bosworth, Esq., Secretary, 

387 Main St., Springfield, Mass. 

After a service of twenty-seven years 
of constant work in the ministry. Dr. 
R. C. Denison has relinquished the 
pastorate of the United Congregational 
Church in New Haven, Conn., where he 
has been for the past eleven years, to 
become head of the department of 
philosophy in Pomona College, Cal. 
Dr. Denison's ministry has been pre- 
eminently successful, his counsel has 
been widely sought and his assistance 
freely given. He served in Serbia during 
the war as an official of the Red Cross. 
His resignation has been received with 
the keenest regret. 

Frank E. Spaulding, head of the de- 
partment of education of the Graduate 
School of Yale University, had an article 
in the Congregationalist and Advance for 
July 29th, entitled "Educating the 
Nation's Children, Equality of Oppor- 
tunity for All." 

The. Rev. Dr. Edwin B. Dean has 
resigned his pastorate in Northfield, 
Minn., in order to accept the post of 
assistant to the president and chairman 
of the Board of Deans of Carleton Col- 
lege. He has been in charge of the 
Northfield Church for fifteen years and 
is known as one of the most active and 



aggressive leaders among Minnesota 
churchmen. He has already begun his 
work at Carleton. 

The Nation has organized a Com- 
mittee of One Hundred to investigate 
conditions in Ireland. The Rev. Dr. 
William Horace Day is announced as a 
member of the committee. He was also 
a member of the Committee of Fifteen 
which reorganized the work of the Inter- 
church World Movement during the 



1889 is represented in the Freshman 
Class at Amherst by Walter H. Dodd, 
Jr., son of Walter H. Dodd; Jesse M. 
Watkins, Jr., son of Jesse M. Watkins; 
and John A. Woodbridge, son of Prof. 
F. J. E. Woodbridge. Young Dodd 
captained, last year, the football team 
at Poly Prep., Brooklyn. 

Arthur Curtiss James is a member of 
the general committee of the Victory 
Hall Association in New York. 

1890 

George C. Coit, Secretary, 
6 Beacon St., Boston, Mass, 
Former Governor Charles S. Whit- 
man has been doing a great deal of pub- 
lic speaking this fall in behalf of the 
Republican national ticket. He is a 
member of the Victory Hall Association 
general committee in New York. 

Rev. C. E. Ewing, who has returned 
from service under the government with 
the Chinese in France, is temporarily 
making his home at Jamesville, Wis. 

1891 

Nathan P. Avery, Esq., Secretary, 
3G2 Dwight St., Holyoke, Mass. 
Nathaniel A. Cutler who has been 
principal of the High School in Nor- 
wood, Mass., has been elected principal 
of the High School at Athol. 



54 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Lyall Merrill, a son of Oliver B. Mer- 
rill, is enrolled in the Freshman Class at 
Amherst. A nephew of Charles H. Sib- 
ley is also a freshman at Amherst. 

1892 

DiMON Roberts, Secretary, 
43 South Summit St., Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Professor George B. Shattuck has 
recently returned to this country with 
Dr. Leonard J. Vandenbergh from a 
trip in the Belgian Congo, where was 
discovered around Lake Albert Nyanza 
pigmy tribes that are believed to be the 
shortest in stature of all the African 
natives. 

William H. Lewis has been chosen by 
the Republicans as one of the presi- 
dential electors in Massachusetts, repre- 
senting the 8th district. 

Senator Lyman W. Griswold of Green- 
field, Mass., was renominated at the 
September primaries by the Republi- 



Frederick S. Allts, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 
Everett A Manwell, a son of the Rev. 
John P. Manwell, is a member of the 
Freshman Class at Amherst. 

Senator Silas D, Reed of Taunton, 
Mass., was renominated for the Massa- 
chusetts Senate by the Republicans at 
the September primaries. 

Allen McCurdy is a member of the 
Nation's Committee of One Hundred, 
appointed by that publication to inves- 
tigate conditions in Ireland. 

William C. Breed acted as chairman 
of the Miller Citizen's Committee, or- 
ganized in New York City in behalf of 
the election of Judge Nathan L. Miller 
as governor. Lucius R. Eastman, '95, 
was also a member of the committee. 



Henry E. Whitcomb, Secretary, 
6 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 
The Rev. Halah H. Loud, for several 
years pastor of the Congregational 
Church at Wilmington, Mass., has re- 
signed to accept a call at Hopkinton. 
He entered upon his new duties on 
September 1st. 

F. C. Pitman's new address is 14 
Peabody Street, Newton, Mass. 

Harry E. Whitcomb, has moved his 
ofiBce from 810 State Mutual Building, 
Worcester, Mass., to No. 6 Harvard 
Street, Worcester. He has just been 
appointed chairman of the Worcester 
Chapter, American Red Cross. 

William S. Spooner's oldest daughter, 
Ethel Elizabeth, is a student at Sim- 
mons College, Boston; his oldest son, 
William Danforth, is a student at the 
"Aggie" and his second son, Edward 
Howland, enters "Aggie" in September, 
'21. 

Congressman Bertrand H. Snell. 
renominated by the Republicans, was 
unopposed at the November elections. 

The Rev. Gilbert H. Bachelerof Vicks- 
burg, Mich., has accepted a call to the 
pastorate of the Bethlehem Congrega- 
tional Church in Cleveland, Ohio. 

The secretary's third son, G. Francis 
Whitcomb, is a member of the Fresh- 
man Class at Amherst. Grosvenor H. 
Backus's stepson, Oscar C. Sewall, is 
also a member of the class of 1924. 

1895 

William S. Tyler, Secretary, 
30 Church St., New York City. 
Dr. Albert L. Schuyler has moved 
from New Haven, Conn., to Hebron, 
Conn. 



The Classes 



55 



The oldest son of Dr. Edward F. 
Perry of Putnam, Conn., is preparing 
for Ardierst. 

R. Wesley Burnam has been ap- 
pointed principal of the newly-organ- 
ized Cooperative High School in New 
York City, the first and only high school 
of its kind in the United States. Mr. 
Burnam was selected for the position 
because of his excellent work as chief- 
coordinator for the Board of Education 
of New York City. 

George W. Stone, who was prevented 
from attending the class reunion in June 
because of the very severe illness of his 
daughter, Dorothy, spent the summer 
months at Lake Winnepesaukee, N. H. 

During the summer months Rev. 
Howard C. French, pastor of the 
Church of the Messiah, Los Angeles, 
Cal.. taught a class of college girls at the 
student conference on the Pacific Coast. 

Frederick H. Law has prepared a 
book on "Platform Speaking," to be 
published by The Independent Corpora- 
tion as a companion to the "Mastery of 
Speech." 

John P. Deering, Esq., was a candidate 
for the nomination for the governorship 
of Maine in the Republican primaries. 
He made an excellent run, coming in 
second among the four candidates. 

Justice Charles B. Law of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., in his race for the Supreme Court 
Justice nomination just missed the 
honor. 

Of the fifteen candidates Mr. Law 
was so unfortunate as to draw the 
last number in the allotments for posi- 
tion on the ballot. This and the com- 
bination in outside counties for local 
candidates brought about his defeat. 
Justice Law's run under the circum- 
stances was regarded as a remarkable 
achievement and he is certain to be 



named again for this honor. In the 
meantime his term on the municipal 
bench has several years to run. 

Dr. Robert B. Osgood has been ap- 
pointed instructor in orthopedic surgery 
at Harvard University. 

Augustus Post and Alfred Roelker 
are members of the General Committee 
of the Victory Hall Association in New 
York City. 

A class-book commemorating '9.5's 
twenty-fifth reunion has been prepared 
by Frederick Houk Law. Its title is 
"Famous Men of a Famous Class." 
Besides class-statistics the book con- 
tains biographies and photographs of 
members of the class. 

1896 

Halsey M. Collins, Secretary, 

Cortland, N. Y. 

Elliot Snell Hall of Jamestown, N. Y., 

was married on April 19, 1920, to Miss 

Felicia Grace Hall, daughter of Mrs. 

John Adams Hall of Boulder, Col. 

On September 2nd at two A. m. 
thieves broke into the garage of John 
W. Lumbard, superintendent of public 
schools, White Plains, N. Y., and drove 
off his Chandler touring car. 

From the Santa Fe New Mexican for 
August 17, 1920. 

Fined for Leaving a Fire in the 
Forest 
U. S. District Judge Colin Neblet 
fined James Leese $10 for violation of 
Section 53, criminal code, in leaving a fire 
burning in a government forest in San- 
deval County. An information had been 
sworn out against a party of six, includ- 
ing James Leese, who served as guide, 
but the information was dismissed as to 
the others, who were William Bartlett, 
a law partner of Elihu Root of New 
York, Robert Walker, Manson Valen- 
tine, Orville Bishop and Herman Hands- 
worth. 



56 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Robert Walker is said to be a prom- 
inent jurist from the East. There is a 
Robert Franklin Walker mentioned in 
"Who's Who in America" and he was 
formerly attorney general of Missouri. 

In our own "Who's Whom in Am- 
herst" there is a Roberts Walker who 
has never been attorney general of any 
state, but who is the inveterate smoker 
that started this fire, passing the buck 
up to the guide with true legal sagacity. 
All of which is admitted and acknowl- 
edged before witnesses by said Walker. 

Dean A. L. Bouton of New York 
University is the author of a recent 
monograph entitled "The Colleges and 
Americanism," dealing with the diffi- 
cult problem of racial discrimination 
in a metropolitan university. This 
booklet, now in its third edition, has 
evoked much favorable comment from 
those interested in the problem of post- 
war standards for college entrance. 

From the Wooster (Ohio) Record for 
June 12, 1920, reprinted in the Chicago 
Tribune for August 6, 1920. 

Prof. S. Loom of Amherst college was 
the guest on Sunday of Mr. and Mrs. 
W. R. Westhafer. Prof. Loom with a 
party of Amherst students is on his way 
to northwestern Colorado where he will 
spend two months in collecting fossils 
of extinct animals for the theology 
department of Amherst college. 
(Reprinted without change. — Editor.) 

Prof. Everett Kimball of Smith Col- 
lege is publishing a .series of articles on 
"Government" in the American Legion 
Weekly. 

On September 24th, a group of '96 
men from New York and vicinity 
lunched together at the Reform Club. 
Those present were W. E. Kimball, 
Brooks, Walker, Stiger, Lumbard, 
Cates, and Collins. The preceding 
week a similar luncheon was attended 
by a few of the '96 men in Boston. The 



purpose of both meetings was to discuss 
preliminaries for the twenty-fifth re- 
union of the class next June. 

The class of '96 has read with interest 
and complacent tolerance the following 
paragraph from the account of the last 
mid-winter dinner of '97 printed in the 
Quarterly for May : 

"The chief incident of interest was 
the reading of a graphic account of the 
rescue of Sabrina from her prolonged 
captivity by one of the heroes of the 
exploit, H. R. Seward, '19. Under the 
leadership of President Carnell, the 
class essayed for the first time the sing- 
ing of the 'Sabrina Song'." 

After twenty-seven years of consist- 
ent malpractice on this song, it is not 
strange that this class should feel some 
doubt as to whether they really sang. 
In addition to its admitted vocal inhibi- 
tions, the class of '97 never has had and 
never will have any ethical right to take 
liberties with this sacred anthem. We 
await a suitable retraction before insti- 
tuting further proceedings in the matter. 

After some fifteen years of most efli- 
cient and tactful service Mr. Thomas 
B. Hitchcock has been compelled by 
pressure of personal business to tender 
his resignation as secretary of the class. 

A meeting of the class was held in 
June at which three seem to have been 
present and of which no minutes were 
kept, at which meeting Tommy's resig- 
nation was accepted against the unani- 
mous judgment of all voting, and at 
which Halsey M. Collins, Cortland, 
N. Y., seems to have been elected to 
the position by a vote of approximately 
two to one. Having been given no 
chance to decline this honor in person, 
the secretary-elect takes this occasion 
to thank with tight teeth and clinched 
fists the members of the faction that 



The Classes 



57 



handed him this handsome plurality, 
and to ask the indulgence and the loyal 
help of every man in the class in mak- 
ing a success of the job. 

John T. Pratt has rendered a distinc- 
tive public service during the past year 
as chairman of the National Budget 
Committee and editor of this com- 
mittee's fortnightly magazine. The 
Budget. His investigation of the prob- 
lem of an executive budget system ex- 
pressed in numerous articles published 
in this magazine and elsewhere has 
been perhaps the most valuable contri- 
bution made by any one authority to 
this vital subject. 

The National Budget Committee 
proves by authoritative statistics that 
a properly constructed budget would 
save the national government two 
billion dollars a year as compared with 
the present careless system of public 
expenditure. 

Largely as a result of the work of Mr. 
Pratt and his committee, the so-called 
Budget and Accounting Act of 1920 
was passed by both houses of the last 
congress and sent to the president for 
his approval on May 29, 1920. On 
June 4, President Wilson returned 
the bill without his signature "with the 
greatest regret" because it contained 
certain provisions which were deemed 
unconstitutional, for the possible re- 
moval of the national comptroller by 
the supreme court rather than by the 
president or by congress. 

It is confidently expected that the 
next congress will pass a similar bill 
with these objectionable clauses re- 
moved. 

Mortimer Schiff attended the first 
International Conference of Boy Scout 
Executives in London during the sum- 
mer as chairman of the American dele- 
gation of Scout officials. Leaders of the 



movement from all over the world 
attended the conference. After the 
conference, Mr. Schiff accompanied 
the boy delegates and their leaders on 
their trip to France and Belgium as 
guests of the governments of those two 
countries. Mr. Schiff has been ap- 
pointed to the general committee of the 
Victory Hall Association in New York. 

The Rev. Dr. James D. Taylor and 
Mrs. Taylor have returned to their mis- 
sion station in Natal, South Africa. He 
has completed his translation of the 
Bible into the Zulu language. 

Herbert E. Riley served on the Cool- 
idge Home Committee, comprised of 
residents of Northampton, that had 
charge of the formal notification to the 
governor of his nomination for the vice- 
presidency. 

The Rev. Herbert A. Jump has been 
appointed secretary of the American 
committee formed to organize the Inter- 
national Congregational Fraternity. 

The Rev. John Reid has resigned his 
pastorate at Franklin, Mass., to become 
pastor of the South Congregational 
Church in Peabody, Mass. 

1897 
Dr. B. Kendal Emerson, Secretary, 
56 William St., Worcester, Mass. 

Prof. Raymond McFarland of Mid- 
dlebury College has been appointed 
principal of Vermont Academy at 
Saxton's River, Vt. 

A daughter, Jean Merrill Patch, was 
born on June 3rd to Mr. and Mrs. 
Isaac Patch of Gloucester, Mass. Mr. 
Patch is vice-president of the Glou- 
cester Safe Deposit and Trust Company. 

Richard Billings has been elected a 
director of the Fitchburg Railroad Com- 
pany. 

Raymond V. Ingersol, secretary of the 



58 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



City Club, is a member of the general 
committee of the Victory Hall Asso- 
ciation in New York. 

F. Stuart Crawford, son of Frederick 
S. Crawford, entered Amherst this fall 
in the class of 1924. He prepared for 
college at Phillips Exeter Academy. 

The Rev. W. F. Bissel has withdrawn 
his resignation from West Townshend, 
Vt., for the present and will remain 
with this church for the winter at least. 
William Carpenter Howland, promi- 
nent as a religious and civic worker, 
died at his home in Johnstown, Pa., on 
September 5, 1919, aged 45 years. Mr. 
Howland was stricken with paralysis 
about five years ago, but subsequently 
recovered. His death was due to a com- 
plication of diseases. 

Mr. Howland was born in November, 
1874, in India, the son of John South- 
wick and Mary Carpenter Howland, who 
were American missionaries to that 
country. He was brought to America 
in 1888 and lived at New London, Conn. 
He prepared for college at St. Johnsbury 
Academy, Vt. After leaving Amherst, he 
wrote for some of the New York papers 
and during the Spanish-American war 
served as private secretary to Major 
General O. O. Howard. 

He worked for the National Repub- 
lican Committee during McKinley's 
campaign and later became a.ssistant 
advertising manager of the Butterick 
Publishing Company. In connection 
with that work, land developments in 
Canada occupied his attention, and he 
went to that country, where he was 
made president of the Saskatchewan 
Mutual Development Company. In 
1909 he removed to Johnstown, Pa., 
where he continued his work in realty 
developments, becoming associated with 
the Cambria Land and Improvement 
Company an<l later president and gen- 



eral manager of the Real Estate Ex- 
change. 

Mr. Howland took a very active part 
in church work as well as in civic mat- 
ters. He married on November 20, 
1901, Miss Louise K. Fronheiser of 
Johnston, a graduate of Oberlin. 



Charles H. Cobb, Secretary, 
224 Albany St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Charles E. Mitchell, president of the 
National City Company, gave a flying 
party during the summer to ten bankers 
and business men to test the feasibility 
of inaugurating a regular air commuting 
service between New York and South- 
ampton, at the eastern end of Long 
Island, where all the members of the 
party have summer homes. Only one 
of the guests had ever been up in an 
airplane before. The " Banker Air Spe- 
cial" left Manhattan at 4.46 p.m., 
soared gracefully to a height of about 
1,000 feet, and reached its destination 
in just one hour and nine minutes, the 
pilot keeping the seaplane out fifteen 
miles from shore during most of the 
voyage. 

Mr. Mitchell declares that there was 
not a single sign of nervousness in the 
party, that they chatted in subway 
tones, took off their coats and enjoyed 
the trip immensely. It is even rumored 
— in some of the papers — that one or 
two members of the party took brief 
naps. Besides the ten guests there was 
the pilot, two mechanics, and two pho- 
tographers, making fifteen passengers 
on board. 

Asked what they thought of air com- 
muting as a steady program, the sub- 
stance of each man's reply was, "Great! 
— if it doesn't cost too much." 

Charles W. Walker served on the 
Coolidge Home Committee which had 



The Classe 



59 



charge of the arrangements in North- 
ampton regarding the official notifica- 
tion to the governor of his nomination 
for the vice-presidency. 

The Congregationalist and Advance for 
September 23rd contained an article by 
the Rev. Rodney W. Roundy, entitled 
"The New Negro in the New South." 
He sees much encouragement in present 
conditions. 

Paul P. Gaylord, Frank M. Howe, 
and Albert M. Walker all have sons in 
the Freshman Class at Amherst this 
year. Splendid showing, 1899! How 
many for next year? 

Rev. Edward D. Gaylord, pastor of 
the Pilgrim Congregational Church, 
Dorchester, Mass., has moved his resi- 
dence from 6 Rocky Hill Road to 21 
Trull Street, Boston 25, Mass. 

Everett E. Thompson has resigned 
his position in the editorial department 
of the American Book Company, New 
York, and has accepted a position in 
the editorial department of the G. & C. 
Merriam Company, Springfield, Mass., 
publishers of Webster's Dictionary. 
Syracuse University last June awarded 
him the degree of Litt. D. 

Miss Beatrice Allard, daughter of 
Mrs. Frank E. Allard of Wellesley, 
Mass., and Edwin M. Brooks were 
married on Wednesday, August 4th. 

1900 

Walter A. Dyer, Secretary, 

Amherst, Mass. 

Dr. Edwin St. J. Ward has resumed 
his work as professor of surgery at the 
Syrian Protestant College, Beirut, Sy- 
ria. He recently wrote as follows: "I 
came back to the East in the service of 
the American Red Cross for work in 
Palestine with General AUenby's forces. 
We reached Jerusalem early in June, 



1918, and were well organized and fully 
engaged when the great advance came. 
I followed right after the forces and en- 
tered Beirut only two days after the 
British occupied the town. The faculty 
of the college urged me to return to my 
teaching at the earliest possible mo- 
ment; so arrangements were made in 
Washington to release me early in 1919. 
My wife and children came out \aa the 
Pacific, arriving at the end of March, 
so that our home was fully reestablished 
over a year ago. We have been very 
busy here at our regular work ever since. 
It has been work under great difficul- 
ties, but one by one these have been 
conquered. Our city has been quite 
peaceful, but there has been much polit- 
ical agitation all about us and our 
friends to the north and east have suf- 
fered a good deal. The economic prob- 
lems have been among our greatest, for 
the cost of living has increased many 
fold. The college has just finished a 
most successful year, the medical de- 
partment being especially prosperous. 
Next year I am to be acting dean of the 
medical department in the absence of 
Dr. Dorman." 

Henry Holt and Company have just 
published a novel by Walter A. Dyer, 
entitled "Sons of Liberty; a Story of 
the Life and Times of Paul Revere." 
It has been running in the Top-Noich 
Magazine as a serial under the title, 
"Paul Revere, Rebel." This is Dyer's 
thirteenth published book. 

Prof. Ernest H. Wilkins, of Chicago 
University, has been made by the 
Italian government a chevalier of the 
Order of the Crown of Italy. 

Loriman P. Brigham has left Boston 
and is now engaged in agency supervis- 
ion and the editing of agency publica- 
tions at the home office of the National 
Life Insurance Company at Montpelier, 



60 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Vt. This company, with which he has 
been associated as agent for eleven 
years, appointed him in July assistant 
superintendent of agencies. 

James D. Regan has returned to this 
country after an interesting and profit- 
able year spent in reconstruction work 
in France in the Department of the 
Meuse, particularly in the villages of 
Hatton-Chatel, Vigneulles, and Apre- 
mont. He is now back in his old posi- 
tion as head of the French department 
of Groton School, Groton, Mass. 

James F. Connor has left the Clothing 
Manufacturers' Association and is now 
with Stone & Andrew, paper merchants, 
95 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

The secretary of the class and the sec- 
retary of the Alumni Council are de- 
sirous of obtaining correct addresses of 
the following members of 1900 : Brooks, 
Crapo, Davis, E. L. Harris, Larkin, 
Bonney, DuVivier, M. B. Parker, Peck, 
Curtis, Linnehan, and Hill. Anyone 
acquainted with these addresses will 
confer a favor by reporting promptly 
to Dyer. 

Henry B. Gidman, a son of Henry C. 
Gidman, is a member of the class of 
1924 at Amherst. John T. Royse, a 
cousin of Samuel D. Royse, is also a 
freshman at Amherst. 

Rev. Philip A. Job, pastor of People's 
Congregational Church, Providence, 
R. I., was married in his own church, 
September 8th, by Rev. G. A. Burgess. 
The bride. Miss Sarah C. Campbell, 
has long been a faithful worker among 
the young people of the Sunday school. 
Mr. and Mrs. Job left for a month of 
travel and visiting in Nova Scotia. On 
the Friday before the wedding, friends 
gave a surprise to the couple in the ves- 
try, and presented them with a purse of 
$150. 



Rev. Irving H. Childs has accepted a 
call to the pastorate of the Federated 
Church (Baptist and Congregational) at 
Huntington, Mass. 

The Congregationalist and Advance for 
September 9th contained an article by 
George S. Bryan, entitled "Humors of 
Old-Time Cormecticut Church Life." 

1901 

Harrt H. Clutia, Secretary, 
100 William St., New York City. 

William Brooks Baker may perhaps 
be responsible for the prominence, polit- 
ically, in recent years of the old Bay 
State. For three years he has been a 
member of the Republican City Com- 
mittee, Boston, and he was also a dele- 
gate to the Republican State Commit- 
tee in 1919. That isn't all he does; since 
1917 he has been chairman of the Build- 
ing Managers' Association of Boston. 

The Rev. Noble S. Elderkin has re- 
cently become pastor of the Pilgrim 
Congregational Church in Duluth, 
Minn. 

Frederick F. Moon has been elected 
dean of the New York State College of 
Forestry at Syracuse, the election to be 
immediately effective. By this action of 
the trustees one of the earliest members 
of the College of Forestry faculty be- 
comes dean of the college, for Dean 
Moon became professor of forest en- 
gineering in 1912, a few months after 
the college was founded. 

Dean Moon was graduated from Am- 
herst College in 1901 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. From 1902 to 1904 
he was engaged in graduate study at 
Harvard and was for several years in 
business life in New York City before 
he decided to take up forestry, and in 
1909 secured the degree of Master of 
Forestry at Yale. During 1908 and 



The Classss 



61 



1909 he was engaged in forest recon- 
naisance in Connecticut and for the 
Federal Forest Service in Kentucky. 
For the next two years he was forester 
for the New York State Forest, Fish, 
and Game Commission under Commis- 
sioner Whipple, having charge of the 
Highlands of the Hudson Forest Reser- 
vation, the nucleus of what is now the 
Palisades Interstate Park. Prior to 
coming to Syracuse, Dean Moon inves- 
tigated forest conditions and forestry 
practice in France, Germany, and Swit- 
zerland. He has written two noteworthy 
forestry books, one a textbook for for- 
estry students and the other a forestry 
book for boys. He is one of the execu- 
tive committee of the New York State 
Forestry Association, which has its 
headquarters in Syracuse, and has been 
honored by election to the honorary 
societies Sigma Xi and Phi Kappa Phi. 

1902 

S. Bowles King, Secretary, 
672 Maple Ave., Winnetka, III. 
Mail addressed to the following ad- 
dresses has been returned unclaimed :S. 
Walter Hoyt, 37 Store Rd., Belmont, 
Mass.; S. M. Stocking, Chestnut Hill 
Academy, Chestnut Hills, Pa.; William 
E. Gee, 100 Greenwich Ave., New York 
City; Dr. Paul Kimball, Easton, Md.; 
Dr. James A. Livingston, 513 Laura St., 
Jacksonville, Fla. If readers can sup- 
ply better addresses, they are requested 
to advise the class secretary. 

James A. Nelson is a member of the 
general committee of the Victory Hall 
Association in New York. 



Clifford P. Warren, Esq., Secretary, 

354 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Foster W. Stearns has been cited in 

divisional orders by the commanding 

general of the First Division, "for gal- 



lantry in action and exceptionally meri- 
torious services." 

Lost: C. T. G. Smith and Raymond 
F. Riddell. Any information with re- 
gard to the whereabouts of these two 
members of the class will be gratefully 
received by the secretary. 

1904 

Karl O. Thompson, Secretary, 
11306 Knowlton Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Evans Browne, a junior member of the 
law firm of Britton and Gray of Wash- 
ington, D. C, died suddenly on Thurs- 
day, September 9th, at his home, Edge- 
moor, Bethesda, Maryland. He had 
been at his office as usual that day, but 
had not been feeling well for some weeks. 
His death resulted from heart trouble. 
Mr. Browne was the son of the late 
Aldis B. Browne of Washington and was 
born in that city. At Amherst he joined 
the Chi Phi fraternity. He was also a 
member of the Chevy Chase, Metro- 
politan, Cosmos, and University Clubs. 
He is survived by his wife, two children, 
three brothers, and two sisters. 

Alfred F. Westphal has left the Army 
Y. M. C. A. work which he entered in 
1917, and has taken a position as wel- 
fare director with the Buick Motor 
Company at Flint, Mich. 

George K. Pond was renominated for 
the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Republicans of the 
Greenfield district at the September 
primaries. 

1905 
John B. O'Brien, Secretary, 
309 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edward A. Baily has been promoted 
to become treasurer of the Brooklyn 
Edison Company. Mr. Baily has been 
with the company since 1905, acting as 
secretary to the vice-president and gen- 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



eral manager, and in 1918 becoming 
secretary of the company. 

Brainerd Dyer is now sales manager 
of the lubricant department of the 
Acheson Graphite Company, Niagara 
Falls, N. Y. 

Emerson G. Gaylord has been elected 
a director of the recently organized 
Hampden County Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation in Springfield. 

The address of W. Virgil Spaulding, 
who is convalescing from a serious ill- 
ness in the West, is Box 193, Altadena, 
Cal. 

Ralph W. Hemenway was a member 
of the Coolidge Home Committee, con- 
sisting of residents of Northampton, 
who had charge of the arrangements of 
the official notification by the Republi- 
can National Committee to the gov- 
ernor of his nomination for the vice- 
presidency. He has been elected a di- 
rector of the Hampshire County Trust 
Company. 

Francis H. Judge's address is 504 
Swetland Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 

The regular 1905 Spring Dinner was 
held at Keen's English Chop House in 
New York on Saturady evening, April 
24th. Those present included Baily, 
Baldwin, Crossett, Fort, Freeman, Hop- 
kins, Lynch, Moon, Nash, Nickerson, 
OHrien, Patch, Pease, Rathbun and 
I'tter. Delabarre, '06, and F. P. Smith, 
'08, came in during the evening. 

Franklin E. Pierce is editor-in-chief 
of the Elizabeth (N. J.) Teachers' Quar- 
terly. 

C. Irving Peabody has forsaken the 
teaching profession and is now engaged 
in the insurance brokerage business in 
Kansas City. His home address is 
4^28 McGee St., Kansas City, Mo. 



A son, Anthony Blanchard Townsend, 
was born on Jime 6th, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Winfield A. Townsend at Essex, N. Y. 

William T. Rathbun has changed his 
address to 119 Rynda Place, South 
Orange, N. J. 

E. Frank Hussey is now a member of 
the firm of W. S. Harris, constructors of 
state highways in Minnesota, and is 
living at 2521 Pillsbury Ave.. Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Robert J. Bottondy has removed his 
law offices to 209 Washington St.. Bos- 
ton. 

John G. Anderson was a member of 
the United States golf team which rep- 
resented this country in the interna- 
tional matches with Canada and was 
successful in winning all his matches. 
In addition to his articles regularly ap- 
pearing in most magazines devoted to 
golf, he had an article in the August 
issue of Vanity Fair, entitled "The 
Luck o' the Game." 

Leslie R. Fort has been made man- 
ager of the firm of O'Keeffe and Lynch, 
Marine Insurance, New York. He be- 
came associated with this firm about a 
year ago as office manager. 

1906 

Robert C. Powell, Secretary, 
412 Lafayette Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
The Dope Sheet, "published every 
other seldom by the class of 1906," 
made its first appearance since the last 
reunion of the class in September. It 
contains a complete and revised direc- 
tory of the class. 

Ralph W. Wheeler is general chair- 
man of the reunion committee. 

A daughter, Sally Cory Boyden, was 
born on July 20th to Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph H. Boyden of Brighton, Mass. 



The Classes 



63 



Philip A. Bridgman is sales and ad- 
vertising manager of the Manning Abra- 
sive Company, Troy, N. Y. 

L. Dudley Field is sales and adver- 
tising company manager of the Ansco 
Company, Binghamton, N. Y. 

Record should be made here of the 
death of George C. Gantz, recently re- 
ported, on November 1, 1918, in Balti- 
more, Md., of epilepsy. He came to 
Amherst, after spending one year at 
Princeton, and was a member of the 
Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. 

1907 

Charles P. Slocum, Secretary, 

262 Lake Ave., Newton Highlands, 

Mass. 

Roy W. Bell is assistant secretary 
and assistant trust oflBcer of the First 
Trust and Deposit Company, Syracuse, 
N. Y. 

1908 

Harry W. Zinsmaster, Secretary, 

Duluth, Minn. 

Robert M. Smith has become head 
of the department of English at Drury 
College, Springfield, Mo. 

Harold C. Keith has been nominated 
by the Republicans of Massachusetts as 
presidential elector, representing the 
14th District. 

Merle D. Graves of Springfield, 
Mass., was nominated on the Republi- 
can ticket in September for representa- 
tive in the State Legislature. 

Paul Welles writes of his son, whose 
arrival was announced in the August 
Quarterly, "I am told the youngster's 
name is Paul Welles, Jr. Born May 5, 
1920." 

1909 
Donald D. McKay, Secretary, 
6 Aberdeen St., Newton Highlands. 
Mass. 



A son, Elias Talmadge Main, was 
born on August 14th to Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Raymond Main of West Haven, 
Conn. 

1910 

George B. Burnett, Secretary, 

8 Sunset Ave., Amherst, Mass. 

The engagement is announced of 

Pierre Drewsen and Miss Dora Dehli, 

daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Arne Dehli 

of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Rev. Morrison R. Boynton has 
become pastor of the Bryn Mawr Con- 
gregational Church in Chicago. 

Robert A. Hardy is with the Winches- 
ter Arms Co., and has moved to New 
Haven, Conn. 

Rockwood W. Bullard is a partner 
in the Sturr-Bullard Motor Co., Ford 
agents for Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Gladson L. Johnson announces 
the marriage of his daughter Lera Mae, 
to John Scott Fink on June 15th at 
Irwin, Pa. 

Elbert B. Wortman is with the Moser 
and Cotins Advertising Co., 206 Paul 
Building, Utica, N. Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. McDonough 
announce the marriage of their daugh- 
ter Almira to John Howard Keim on 
February 25th, in New York City. 

Theta Delta Chi won the cup for the 
delegation having the largest percentage 
of men back to reunion. They had 
100 per cent attendance. 

A son, Philip Alden Beaman, was 
born on June 7th to Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph H. Beaman of Ridley Park, Md. 

1911 

Dexter Wheelock, Secretary, 
79 Pine Street, New York City. 
Miss Elsie Steurer, daughter of Mr. 



64 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



and Mrs. Charles D. Steurer of New 
York City, and William Craig Bryan 
were married on July 28th. During the 
war Miss Steurer was an active worker 
with the Y. M. C. A., and is a member 
of the Women's Auxiliary of John Frazer 
Bryan Post, American Legion, the post 
named in honor of Mr. Bryan's brother, 
who was killed in the Argonne. 

George L. Treadwell, who has been 
assistant manager of the Chinese Amer- 
ican Publishing Company in Shanghai, 
China, has decided to remain in the 
States and has become executive 
secretary of the Rotary Club of Chicago, 
with headquarters in the Hotel Sherman. 
"Tread" was the first secretary of the 
Shanghai Rotary Club and was its dele- 
gate to the International Convention of 
Rotary Clubs at Alantic City in June 

1912 

C. Francis Beatty, Secretary, 
963 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Will anyone having information 
regarding the addresses of the following 
members of the class please communi- 
cate with the secretary: Clapp, Kelley, 
Darmstaetter, Mead, Nichols, Sherman, 
Colby, Root, Mohair, Ostrander, Am- 
brose, Hurst, Lee, Reed. 

The marriage of Mary Malvina, 
daughter of John Jay Edmonds of 
Springville, N. Y., to Reinhart Lang 
Gideon, on August 11, is announced. 
After October 1st "Gid" and his bride 
will be at home at 16 Girard Avenue, 
Hartford, Conn. 

At the recent wedding of C. C. Bene- 
dict, "13, Bill Burt was best man and 
Stuart and Beatty were ushers. Kipp, 
ex-' 12, was also present. 

On October 16th Miss Evelyn Mil- 
dred Peck of 465 West End Avenue, 
New York City, was married to Wil- 



bur F. Burt. Stuart, Vollmer, and 
Beatty were ushers, and Benedict, '13, 
best man. 

1913 

Lewis D. Stilwell, Secretary, 
13 W. Wheelock St., Hanover, N. H. 

Edward C. Knudson is now connected 
with the Automatic Sprinkler Company 
of America in the capacity of protection 
engineer, with headquarters at Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 

Ferris C. Booth is now with Swift and 
Company in the Union Stock Yards at 
Cleveland. 

Arthur H. Bond has left the Navy and 
is now engaged in construction work 
at New Haven. 

Dr. Charles E. Parsons has been 
appointed assistant resident physician 
at the Presbyterian Hospital, New 
York City. 

Oliver N. Heblich is practising law 
in Pottsville, Pa. 

Charles F. Sheridan is now national 
war risk officer of the American Legion 
with headquarters in Indianapolis. He 
expects soon to resume law practice in 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Clyde F. Vance is teaching French 
at the Haverford School for Boys, 
Haverford, Pa. 

Carl O. Lathrop is at present the 
pathologist in the City Hospital, Prov- 
idence, R. I. 

Herschel S. Konold is now with the 
Rio Bravo Oil Company in Saratoga, 
Tex. 

John E. Farwell succeeds his father 
as secretary of the Geneva Permanent 
Loan and Building Association of 
Geneva, N. Y. 



The Classes 



65 



John Henry Klingenfeldt and Miss 
Elizabeth Lear of Weehawken, N. J., 
were married on September 9 th at Stam- 
ford, Conn. They are at home at 106 
Momingside Drive, New York City. 

A daughter, Laura Eaton Cobb, 
came to the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Samuel H. Cobb on May 26th. 

Chauncey Benedict was married on 
May 22nd. 

John Wallace Coxhead, Jr., arrived 
in Denver, Colo., on the 11th of August. 
Gerald Humphrey Williamson mar- 
ried Miss Doris Fuller in Rochester, 
N. Y., on June 26th. Cross, Stilwell, 
and Wadhams were among the ushers. 
1914 
RoswELL P. Young, Secretary, 
140 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

Louis B. DeVeau, Jr., was married 
on Saturday, August 7th, to Miss 
Vivian Willing, daughter of Mrs. 
Robert Patton Willing of New York 
City. 

The Rev. Frank H. Ferris has re- 
signed his pastorage at Pulaski, N. Y. 

1915 

Louis F. Eaton, Secretary, 
210 Ash Street, Brockton, Mass. 
James Kellum Smith of Towanda, 
Pa., has been awarded the famous 
Roman prize, a three-year fellowship 
at the American Academy in Rome, 
carrying with it a $3,000 prize. This is 
the chief intercollegiate prize in archi- 
tecture in competition with students of 
America's leading architectural schools. 
There were ten men in the final contest. 
Mr. Smith graduated from the School 
of Architecture of the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1919 and took his 
Master's degree this year. 

Walter R. Agard sailed on August 
28th for two years' study abroad, one 



to be spent at Oxford and one at the 
Sorbonne in Paris. Two articles of his 
have recently appeared, one a poem, 
"Spring in Burgundy — 1919" which 
was published in the spring edition of 
the Revue de Bourgogne of Dijon, 
France, and the other an article this 
fall in the Classical Journal. 

Leslie O. Johnson has left the Maiden 
High School, and is now head of the 
chemistry department in the New 
Haven High School. 

J. G. Cole has transferred from the 
Embassy at Paris to the Graves Regis- 
tration Service, in which he is serving 
as inspector. He still holds the rank 
of lieutenant in the Army. His new 
address is 8 Avenue d'lena, Paris. 

Gail will study at M. I. T. this fall 
and winter. 

J. T. Cross moves to Utica soon, 
where he will enter the law oflaces of his 
father. 

Mail for the following members of 
the class has been returned: Coxhead, 
O'Connor, Rivard, Jarmin, Rawleigh, 
Williams, Rockwell. Information will 
be appreciated. 

Louis F. Eaton has been appointed 
the class representative on the Amherst 
Centennial Gift Committee, 

Richard Bancroft of Wellesley re- 
cently passed the Massachusetts Bar 
examinations. 

Frederick C. Allen graduated in June 
from the Yale Divinity School. 

1916 

Douglas D. Milne, Secretary, 
2454 Webb Ave., New York City, 

N. Y. 
Announcement has been made of the 
engagement of Geoffrey Cooke Neiley 
and Miss Marion G. Riley, of East 



66 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Orange, N. J. She is a graduate of 
Smith College. 

Dean Blanchard and Miss Esther 
Parshley, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
F. A. Parshley of Winchester, Mass., 
were married on Saturday, August 21st. 
Sidney C. Blanchard, '07, acted as best 
man. The ushers included Kenneth 
F. Caldwell, '15, M. Walker Jones, '15, 
and Edwin H. Goodridge, '16. 

Lieutenant Donald E. Hardy has 
been transferred from Russia to Poland 
under the American Relief administra- 
tion, with headquarters at Warsaw. 

Thomas Munro received the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy at Columbia 
University last June. 

The September Atlantic contained an 
article by Charles F. Weeden, Jr., en- 
titled "The Sixty- two Day Siege of 
Urfa." Lieutenant Weeden recounted 
his personal experiences during the 
siege. A further selection from his 
journal-letters home appears in this 
number of the Quarterlt. 

From injuries received in the Wall 
Street bomb explosion which shocked 
New York and the country at large on 
September 16th, Harold Lusk Gillies 
of the class of 1916, died in the Broad 
Street Hospital at 3 o'clock the follow- 
ing morning. This atrocious crime 
against society brought upon New York 
alumni and "Pike's" many friends in 
and about the city a personal loss the 
intensity of which is alone explained 
by the remarkable personality of this 
young Amherst man whose friendship 
has been such an important factor in 
the lives of many men. 

The explosives, which were carried in 
a ramshackle delivery wagon, were 
detonated at a point in Wall Street 
immediately in front of the Assay Office 



and across the street from the office 
of J. P. Morgan & Co. Gillies had 
stopped a very short distance away, 
approximately in front of 40 Wall 
Street, to have a chat with a friend 
from his home town, Nyack, N. Y., 
when the explosion occurred at 12.01 p.m. 
Many persons near him were killed in- 
stantly by flying pieces of metal and the 
flames of the burning charge. Gillies 
suffered a triple fracture of the right 
leg, a dislocation of the left hip, lacera- 
tions of the face and a severe cut in the 
back of the head. It has been learned 
that as he lay helpless he tried in vain 
to remove his coat to quench the flames 
which were burning the clothing of a 
girl who had fallen near him. 

Owing to the crowds and the many 
police that had been brought into the 
district, it was some time before George 
H. Fitts, '12, was able to reach him at 
the hospital. Fitts, who is connected 
with the banking house of George H. 
Burr & Company, with which Gillies 
was also identified, had been notified 
by telephone. First aid had already 
been administered and "Pike" although 
suffering great pain was in his custom- 
ary cheery mood. The shock of the 
operation performed during the after- 
noon, added to that of the explosion, 
left him in a very serious condition, 
and it was realized that he had only an 
even chance of recovery, though he 
rallied splendidly in the evening. 

Not once during the entire period at 
the hospital did he Inquire as to his own 
condition, but showed the greatest 
solicitude for the others who were suffer- 
ing with him. One of the nurses, a Miss 
Stevenson, telephoned to the office of 
George H. Burr & Company the next 
morning to offer the information that 
all of those on duty considered "Pike" 
to have been the outstanding figure 
among the one hundred and fifty 




HAROLD L. GILLIES 



The Class 



67 



patients in the hospital. His buoyancy 
and courage had so captivated those 
who were serving there as well as the 
other victims of the explosion that even 
after those few hours they grieved for 
him as for a friend. One of "Pike's" 
most endearing characteristics is aptly 
illustrated by his action under these 
circumstances. When the nurse 
brought some cracked ice, he showed 
his appreciation by saying, "I'll vote 
for you," and when the doctor who was 
moving him from his bed to the operat- 
ting room, asked him if the pressure 
hurt him, his answer was, "I'll say it 
does." He showed his appreciation of 
every kindness and was fearful lest 
his weakness and his needs should 
focus attention on himself. His con- 
cern for a patient in the next cot who 
had to have a leg amputated was so 
pitiful in the light of his own maimed 
condition that it brought tears to the 
eyes of those who had grown accus- 
tomed to such scenes of human suffer- 
ing. One of the nurses who had seen a 
long term of service on the battlefields 
of France said she had never known of 
a case of such entire unconcern for one's 
own condition. 

The details of "Pike's" last hours 
are so typical of his life at Amherst and 
in business that they serve to bring 
into relief the characteristics which 
contributed to his brilliant personality. 
He made his friendships secure because 
of his helpfulness. In a dark hour his 
coimsel was reassuring and opened the 
way to a happy solution. Yet this 
counsel was never a balm which dulled 
the point at issue. In an instant he 
absorbed the situation and clarified it 
by the largeness of his point of view, 
very often giving expression to it in a 
delightfully epigrammatic manner. As 
one of his business associates said, 
"'Pike' could sense the vital elements 



of a situation more quickly and more 
accurately than any man I have known 
in business." He was conversant on 
almost any subject and could be de- 
pended upon to make a definite contri- 
bution to any discussion. 

He attracted to himself not only 
those in his own sphere, but men of 
large business interests as well and in- 
deed those in the more humble walks 
with whom he came in contact. Such 
was the magnetism of his personality. 
Of the three hundred who attended his 
funeral at the Funeral Church, Broad- 
way at 66th Street, on Sunday, Septem- 
ber 19th, there was not one who did 
not feel the loss of a friend. There were 
boys and girls, not to mention his own 
family, all of whom came there to mourn 
for one who had helped them build 
their lives through his own wholesome 
outlook and congenial spirit. 

Harold Lusk Gillies was born in 
Nyack, N. Y., on March 16, 1893. He 
attended the public schools there and 
entered Blair Academy in New Jersey 
in the fall of 1911. Finishing in 1912 
he entered Amherst the same year and 
was graduated with the class of 1916. 
He was married to Miss Marion Rawson 
on April 4, 1917. A son, John Douglas, 
was born to them on July 3, 1918. 

After a short experience first in New 
York and later in Chicago in the bond 
business, he returned to New York and 
became associated with George H. 
Burr & Co., through Frederick S. Bale, 
'06, who is a member of that firm. In 
a short time he was made manager of 
their Hartford office, and a year ago 
he was promoted to the position of the 
firm's representative in their relations 
with many of the principal New York 
banks. 

The place he had made for himself 
is indicated by the remark of a well- 
known New York bank official, "I have 



68 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



rarely known a man, with such com- 
paratively slight experience in New 
York, who was so highly regarded." 

1917 

Robert M. Fisher, Secretary, 
14 Fairfax Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

David R. Craig has been appointed 
assistant professor of personal admin- 
istration at the Carnegie Institute of 
Technology. He has recently been 
engaged in New York in research work 
pertaining to the personnel question. 

Gardner H Rome and Miss May 
Moseley of Birmingham, England, were 
married in St. Luke's Church, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., on Saturday, June 26th. He 
met his bride while in service overseas 
with the U. S. Medical Corps. She 
received a certificate from the English 
Government for her three years' war 



Norman R. Lemcke is with the 
American Woolen Company at Roch- 
dale, Mass., and is living at 51 Sever 
Street, Worcester. 

Wadsworth Wilbar, who was for- 
merly with the Weir Stove Company of 
Taunton, is now connected with the 
Boston oflBce of the Shoe and Leather 
Reporter. 

Henry H. Banta has returned to 
Syracuse to be at the local plant of the 
Merrell-Soule Company. 

John Dodge Clark was married on 
Saturday, September 18th, to Miss 
Emma Marie Zangler at Croton-on- 
the-Hudson. N. Y. 

1918 

Robert P. Kelsey, Secretary, 
122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, III. 

K. W. Barber has been made cashier 
of the Arthur State Bank, Arthur, Neb. 



R. G. Bemis is at present learning 
the leather business in Marrs Brothers 
Tannery, Salem, Mass. 

F. E. Bogart is the buyer for the 
firm of Farrand, Williams and Clark, 
wholesale druggists, in Detroit, Mich. 

F. C. Butler is located with Ostey 
and Barton, manufacturing jewellers, 
of Providence, R. I., as assistant to the 
superintendent. 

G. L. Cross, after completing his 
course in accounting, has been made 
assistant to the cost and production 
manager of the Rome Wire Works in 
Rome, N. Y. 

C. L. Goodrich is a graduate student 
and fellow at the University of Chicago. 

T. M. Greene, who during the war 
started for Mesopotamia as Y. M. C. A. 
secretary, has remained in India. He 
plans to continue his teaching at Chris- 
tian College, Lahore, India, until the 
end of the academic year 1921; then 
to study in Edinburgh for a year, and 
spend the following two years in Union 
Theological Seminary. 

A. L. Houghton has taken a position 
as chemist with the Calco Chemical 
Company of Jersey City, N. J. 

R. L. Hunter is reported to be in 
Douglas, Ariz., raising cotton. 

D. M. Keezer is working on the 
Denver Times as political and state 
house reporter. 

J. S. Meiklcjohn and H. A. Ladd are 
doing graduate work at Oxford Uni- 
versity. 

A. R. Morehouse has taken a position 
as instructor of Romance languages at 
the University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 



The Classes 



69 



L. T. Orlady is in partnership with 
his father in the dry goods business in 
Jamestown, N. D. 

At least three members of the class 
have profited by the war. After 
learning French with the U. S. Army 
Ambulance Corps and retumng to 
college to take the honoris causa 
out of their diplomas, C. G. Seamans, 
W. G. Rogers, and A. R. Morehouse 
will make instructing in French their 
life work. 

P. H, See has been elected vice- 
president of the Cambridge Knitting 
Company, which came into being 
largely through his initiative. 

L. E. Thayer will enter Harvard 
Law School this fall with the object 
of preparing for the diplomatic service. 

P. N. Youtz and his wife have arrived 
in Canton, China, where he is associated 
with the American-Chinese Educational 
Commission. 

George Beimeyan received the degree 
of Master of Arts at the Columbia Uni- 
versity Commencement last June. 

1919 

Walter K. Belknap, Secretary, 

Room 411, 425 Fifth Ave., New York 

City. 

The engagement has been announced 
of Franklin F. Bailey to Miss Helen 
Smith of Rockford, 111. Miss Smith 
graduated from Smith in 1919. Some 
truth in its being our sister class. 

Charlie Blatchford, Ensign, is at- 
tached to the destroyer Graham (192), 
which spent last summer at Newport. 

Aaron Bodenhorn is in New York 
studying music. 

Jim Bracken is assistant to the 
district manager of the Mack Motor 
Truck Co. in the Albany District. 



Bill Brunt spent some time last sum- 
mer continuing his studies at Teacher's 
College, Columbia University. He has 
gone half way toward an M.A. in 
education and this coming winter will 
serve again as principal of the high 
school in Middleville, N. Y. 

Earl Perry Charlton is president of 
the Charlton Cotton Co. of Fall 
River, Mass. 

Jim Elwell spent last summer run- 
ning a two-hundred acre farm in 
Northampton. This fall he will re- 
turn to get his full degree at Amherst. 

Al Forbes, Jack Gibson, and Hal 
Seward are living together in Cambridge 
where the two former keep up their 
graduate work in law and business 
at Harvard. 

Roger Holden is in the oil business 
in Fort Worth, Tex. 

Lloyd Miller has been looking over 
the battlefields of France with his 
family. 

Carl Patton took a trip to Europe 
last summer on a coal boat, but now 
may be found in the advertising de- 
partment of the National City Com- 
pany. 

Tom Pitr6 will do graduate work and 
teach chemistry at M. I. T. this 
winter. 

Jack Savoy is assistant manager of 
the Dominion Blank Book Co., Ltd., 
in Berthierville, Quebec. 

Horace Siegel is treasurer of the 
Siegel Clothing Co., with offices in 
Utah and Montana. 

Hal Spencer is with the U S. Rubber 
Co. in Maiden, Mass. 

John Stanton is still in the Army, 
but after October 1st he expects a dis- 
charge and will go into the home office 



70 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



of the Farmer's National Life Insurance 
Company of America in Chicago. 

Howard Vermilya is with the Stanley 
Tool Works in New Britain, Conn. 

Barrett Whitman is in the cotton 
mill of the Otis Co. in Ware, twenty 
miles from Amherst. He reports that 
it beats living in the South by a great 
deal. 

Wilfred B. Utter was married to 
Miss Ruth Hubbard May at the home 
of her parents in Yalesville, Conn., 
on Wednesday, September 22nd. Mrs. 
Utter is a graduate of Syracuse Univer- 
sity. They will reside in Westerly, R. I ., 
where he is manager of the Daily Sun. 

Allyn B. Forbes is teaching in Deer- 
field Academy. 

Robert W. Fairbank is going out to 
India for three years, at least, as a 
missionary. Various members of his 
family, who preceded him at Amherst, 
have been in missionary work for many 
years. 

Richard W. Clark is in the bond busi- 
ness in New York. 

Pierre N. LeBrun is in the banking 
business in New York. 

Roy V. A. Sheldon had a poem in a 
recent issue of the Atlantic Monthly 
and a book review in the New Republic. 
He spent the summer in Europe. 

Theodore Southworth opened the 
agency for the Scripps-Booth in the 
Albany district on July 1. Yarrington 
is associated with him. 

Oliver H. Schaaf is living in Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 

Herman M. Wessel has accepted the 
position of instructor in history at the 
high school in CoUingswood, N. J., 
near Philadelphia. 



Eastburn R. Smith attended the 
summer camp of the Yale Forestry 
School near Milford, Pa. This fall 
he began a two-year course in New 
Haven. 

Henry B. Staples is in the bond 
business in Boston. 

Emerson H. Virden is adjutant of 
the Culver Summer School. 

Arthur F. Brown has been elected 
to the editorial staff of the Yale Law 
School Journal. This is counted the 
highest honor for a student in the school. 

Willis H. McAllister is with the Solar 
Metal Products Company in Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Robert C, Wilcox is to spend this 
year traveling in Europe. 

Announcement has been made of 
the engagement of Walter Van Dyk 
Bayer and Miss Dorothy Irwin, daugh- 
ter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Irwin of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1920 

Delos S. Otis, Secretary, 
Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass. 

Norton Reusswig is with the Stitt- 
ville Canning Co., Sun Prairie, Wis. 

Willard Thorp is an instructor and 
is doing graduate work in the economics 
department of the University of Michi- 
gan. 

John J. Hanselman is also doing 
graduate work at the University of 
Michigan. 

Roland Wood is in the advertising 
department of the Irving National 
Bank, in New York City. 

Richard Fenno is with the Western 
Electric Company in Boston. 



CONTENTS 



Frontispiece : Coolidge and the Two Captains . Facing 71 

The Faith of Colonel Graves. A Letter ... 71 

Sunset Hills of Hampshire. A Poem. W. N. Morse 78 

The Centennial Celebration 79 

A New Home for Theta Delta Chi. G. F. Whicher 84 

The Amherst Illustrious 

Elijah Paddock Harris 87 

Portrait : Professor Harris Facing 87 

Deacon Stebbins at the Rally. Burges Johnson . 90 

College Notes 

The Alumni Gather . 92 

Review of the Football Season 94 

Around the Campus 95 

Editorial Notes 97 



The Book Table 

Meiklejohn: The Liberal College. W. A. Neilson 
Bliss: Reminiscences of Daniel Bliss. G. F. W. . 
Dickinson: True Tales of the Weird. G. F. W. . 
Tead and Metcalfe: Personnel Administration. J. M 
Gaus 



100 
101 
102 

103 



Official and Personal 

The Centennial Gift. Trumbull White ... 104 

Lord Jeffery Amherst Dinners 106 

Since the Last Issue 114 

The Classes 115 




Where Two Hands Do 
the Work of a Hundred 

THE scene is at one of our 
country's large freight termi- 
nals. Barrels, boxes, crates, bales, 
rolls— by the ton— moving in every 
direction, with no accidents and 
no damage. And what keeps every- 
thing moving so systematically ? 

When a ship docks, a traveling 
electric hoist lifts huge loads from 
the hold of the vessel to the dock. 
From this point the cargo is dis- 
tributed by means of electric cranes, 
hoists, storage battery trucks, pack- 
age conveyors, and electric indus- 
trial locomotives. 

A like scene may be viewed in 
large industrial plants, at coal tip- 
ples, ore docks, or any other place 
where conservation of time and 
man power is essential. 

In developing the application of 
electricity to material handling 
machines the General Electric 
Company serves not only industries 
but all mankind by making it 
easier to have the world's goods 
brought to the consumer's door. 



S»4'w"%a 




AMHERST 

GRADUATES' QUARTERLY 

VOL. X— FEBRUARY, 1921— NO. 2 



THE FAITH OF COL. GRAVES 

An Eye Witness's Account of the Founding of 
Amherst College 

[No one man founded Amherst College, but among many who were instrumental 
Col. Rufus Graves deserves to be remembered with especial gratitude. His en- 
thusiasm for the Collegiate and Charitable Institution at Amherst refused to be 
balked by any obstacle, and when others declared the project impossible, he accom- 
plished the raising of the Charity Fund of $50,000 which called the College into 
being. In 1871, at the request of Professor W. S. Tyler, Dr. G. W. Graves, the son 
of Col. Graves, wrote down his recollections of his father's share in securing the 
Fund and in providing the College with its first building. His narrative is that of 
an old man recalling the scenes of more than fifty years before, not to be trusted 
as an accurate statement of historical fact, but singularly vivid in its presentation 
of the very forms and pressures of the past. Of the faith that made Amherst Col- 
lege it speaks true. 

The essential portions of Dr. Graves' letter are here printed from a careful copy 
made by Malcolm P. Young, '16, of the Library staff. The editor has added be- 
tween brackets words and parts of words omitted by the WTiter and has sparingly 
supplemented the punctuation. — Editor.] 

Knowlesville, N. Y. 
June 14, 1871 
Prof. W. S. Tyler, 
Dear Sir: 

You wrote sometime since wishing me to give my recollections 
concerning my fathers connection or agency in raising the Charity 
fund. I thought I would not try to write what I could recollect 
but would come to Amherst to give them, as there might, and 
doubtless would be, many things of interest suggested by scenes 
there, that would not come to mind without them, and I still hope 
to do so but lest I should fail, what the Blessed Jesus will help me 
to recollect, I will write. And I will go back as far as December 
1812 in south west room in the medical colledge in Hanover, New 
Hampshire, where as far as I know the first thought of a Charity 
fund came to my fathers mind. Father at that time was Prof, of 
Cemistry in said coll. — and altho. I was but 12 years of age took me 
with him — why I so exactly remember the time and place. Two 



72 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Gentlemen called at our room, introduced themselves as Trustees 
of the Academy in Amherst, New Hamp. And their mission was 
to get my Father to act [as] agent for obtaining a charity fund to 
estabhs[h] a professorship in said Acad, so that young men of 
Piety and promise could have their tuision free in fitting for col- 
ledge with eye to the ministry. My father expressed himself as 
highly pleased with the object. But had but little faith of success 
in raising funds in Mass. for New Hamp., but said he would take 
the matter into consideration and do what he could — so they made 
him their agent by furnishing papers, etc.^ 

I recollect that night, in his prayer before I retired, that he laid 
the matter of his new agency before his most Confidential friend 
and asked his council and advice — this talk with the Lord Jesus 
gave me a better understanding of what this agency ment than 
what I obtained from his talk with said trustees. And here I 
would say that my Father sometimes thought loud when he sup- 
posed no one would hear. That night, as he doubtles thought I 
was asleep, I heard him think this, I will mention this thing to the 
Trustees of Amherst [Mass.] Acad, when I go hom.e. You can 
judge as will I whether this was the first thought that the Holy 
Spirit put into the mind of man concerning my Fathers agency in 
raising the Charity fund now in operation in Amherst Colledge. 
You ask what was my Fathers connection with Nathaniel Smith* 
— his wife was my fathers only sister. The next thing I recollect 
about this fund ocured soon after in the month of Jan. 1813, I 
think. He then owned a farm in south part of Leverett some 5 or 
6 miles north of Amherst. Uncle and aunt Smith was at our house 
on a visit when my father introduced the subject of his Agency 
from New Hamp. — the matter was talked over by the company, 
chiefly by my Father and his sister, as they seemed most interested 
in the subject. My Father says, Now, Brother Smith, start this 
subscription with $100 or more if you please. I recollect that he 
looked very serious but said nothing. Aunt says, we had better 
take council of Jesus before taking such a step. We then had a 
season of prayer — the result of the council was that it was to[o] far 
away, that responsibility was nearer home. This was the last of 
New Hamp. The next thing that I recollect was the presentation 
of the subject of establishing of a professorship in your Amherst — 
[i.e., to the Trustees of the Academy in Amherst, Mass.] — having 
the same object in view of [as] the trustees of Amherst, New Hamp. 
— viz. the fitting of pious young men for colledge, etc. I think my 
Father and Uncle Smith were not trustees at that time; both were 
soon after. WTien my Father presented subject to them, the 

' The singular coincidence of an academy at Amherst, N. H., anticipating the project of the 
•cademy at Amherst, Mass., is not corroborated. I suspect a confusion of Amherst m Hampshire 
County with Amherst, New Hampshire. 

'Nathaniel Smith, Esq., was one of the founders of Amherst Academy and a trustee of that 
uutitutioD and conjequently of the Charity Fund, to which he was a generous contributor. 



The Faith op Col. Graves 73 



proposition met the approbation of the Trustees and they gave 
him the appointment of agent to soUcit donation for the estabhsh- 
ment of a professorship in A. Acad., the design of which was to aid 
young men who were look[ing] forward to the ministry in fitting 
for coUedge. 

Soon after this he left home to spend a few weeks in his agency 
in Boston and vicinity. His faith was so strong in the Greatness 
of the object and the success of plan and so sure that God was in it 
that no object stood in his way of putting forth corisponding effort 
— for he was not a man that believed in Faith with out works. 
Now came the first trial of his faith. He left home feeling that two 
weeks at most would be sufficient to raise the fund and that in a 
few months the whole thing would be in working order. Here his 
faith had its first trial. He spent three months and bore his own 
expenses in the cities and country without having obtained one 
dollar for the desired object. All this did not shake his faith, only 
in the smallness of the object. By the foregone experience he was 
led to the Idea of the $50,000 fund — the income of which was to be 
expended in a collegiate course of studies. Then came the second 
trial of his faith, Viz. to get the Trustees [to] step up on to his new 
platform, saying to them that the object in the old or exploded 
plan was not deffinate enough and to[o] small to attract the atten- 
tion of moneyed men. But if they would enter into a plan to estab- 
lish a Collediate Institution he believed that he could raise the $50,- 
000, also the land and funds for the reqired building. The trustees 
thought that in so small a place that the accomplish[ment] of such 
vast enterprise could not be. He met them several times, they 
still opposing. At length for the same reason I suppose that the 
unjust judge avenged the persevering widow he got them to appoint 
a committee to draw up a constitution for the raising and gov- 
erning of the $50,000 fund. They appointed Esq. F. Dickinson,"^ 
Uncle Smith, and himself that committee. The committee agreed 
that each should draft one. I think it 5 or 6 [days.^] to the time 
when they were to meet and compare notes, and when they did my 
Father presented the constitution word for word I suppose as it 
now stands, ^ to go for the permanent increase of the fund, and 
I to go for the education of pious young men, fitting for the min- 
istry.'^ If that constitution is lost to you, you can firid it in the 
corner stone in the north west corner of the first building erected 
on college hill. 

When this committee met to compare notes Uncle Smith [had] 

1 Samuel Fowler Dickinson, Esq., was one of the founders and most energetic supporters of Am- 
herst Academy. He repeatedly made himself responsible for the debts of Amherst College and died 
a poor man in consequence. "If Col. Graves was the hand, Esq. Dickinson was the head in the found- 
ing and rearing of Amherst College." (Tyler). 

2 The third article of the constitution for the managing of the Charity Fund provides "that five- 
sixths of the interest of the fund shall be forever appropriated to the classical education in the Insti- 
tution of indigent pious young men for the ministry, and the other sixth shall be added to the principal 
for its perpetual increase." (Tyler). 



74 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



writen over about }/i a sh. of foolscap, Esq. Dickinson about the 
same. They, after having Ustened to the reading of what my 
Father had prepared, objected to its length. My Father met the 
objection by saying he had rather read than talk; then said that 
he had $15,000 already subscribed to that constitution which set- 
tled the matter and united the commitee. The doings of the com- 
mittee was presented to the trustees, and approved and all went 
well for sometime. I think he had raised $30,000 of this $50,000 
more or less. — I do not know the exact sum — which was to be full 
in three year from commencement, I think. He had also in the 
meantime obtained a bond for a deed of 10 acres [on] the colledge 
hill of Mr. Dickinson,^ the condission of which was that a building 
100 ft. long, 40 ft. wide 4 stories high within three years should 
stand complete on it; if not it was void. 

My Father also visited Dr. Moore the then Pres. of W[illiam]s 
colledge and agreed with him that in case sucess should attend all 
his plans to become Pres. of said Institution. The result of this 
conference was a proposition to move to A[mherst] Williams col- 
ledge. This created great excitement all around. The result was, 
that if they did move to Conneticut river, to locate where the 
people would raise the most money. North Hampton took the prize. 
Here my Father having done all, his faith had to stand for a year 
or more, and altho. he had spent years in accomplishing what he 
had, together with twelve hundred dollars of his own money, his 
faith did not falter. When his friends and even the trustees of the 
acad. would say. Col. [Graves], we must give it up, two institu- 
tions so nigh cant be, he would say to them. Faith cant fail. If 
God was not going to give me the desire of my heart, He would not 
help me to pray for it. Just here a new light burst forth and in a 
moment all was changed. At this point a letter from Dr. Moore 
came to hand saying that the trustees of Williams Colledge had 
given their final vote not to move at all, and Father cried out, 
Bless the Lord, all is well. But his faith had trials yet to meet. 
The time for filhng up the $50,000 fund acording to the constitu- 
tion was nearly expired. At this point he had only $35,000 of the 
$50,000 subscribed, leaving $15,000 to be secured. To secure this 
sum and to relieve himself from any farther anxiety on that sub- 
ject that he might attend to more important business, he pre- 
vailed on his Brother Benj. Graves and Uncle Smith and some 
others perhaps to subscribe the $15,000 and give him time to re- 
place it. For it was necessary to give his attention to other matters 

>Col. Elijah Dickinson died on February 1, 1820, after subscribing six hundred dollars to the 
Charity Fund. The following May the trustees appointed a committee "to secure a good and suflS- 
cient title to the ten acres of land conditionally conveyed to the trustees of this academy as the site 
of the sai(l institution by the late Col. Elijah Dickinson." In November Col. Dickinson's widow and 
elder son deeded to the trustees "nine acres more or less" for which the sum of $1187.50 was paid, a 
part of the purchase price going to the Charity Fund in settlement of Col. Dickinson's subscription. 
No mention u made in Professor Tyler's "History" of any gift of land conditional upon the erection 
of a building within a certain time. 



The Faith of Col. Graves 75 

of more importance at that time. This was to secure the colledge 
lot, the foresaid 10 acres, for as I now think in less than 4 months 
the bond that secured that lot to the trustees would be void, that 
is the time for the building to stand on the lot that secured it would 
be out. And Mr. Dickinson the giver was dead and the Heirs 
were opposed to the lot going out of their hands. The Trustees 
had a meeting to see what could be done and they decided it was 
impossible to put that building on the spot in the time that re- 
mained, with exception of two, my Father and Esq. F. Dickin- 
son ; The Esqr said if he had the money and the materials or could 
get them, the build[ing] could be put on the spot in time, but that 
is the rub[?] One said, I think Esqr N. Webster, that the lime was 
so far off and the brick unmade that it would be impossible to fur- 
nish them as they would be needed in so short a time. At this 
point my Father set the whole thing in motion and brought out a 
hearty laugh by saying, I can furnish the money and material, go 
ahead, bretheren. At this point also my father showed the plan 
of the buildings which he drawn on a large sheet of paper, some of 
them as they now stand on the lot and perhaps all. The buildings 
he drew were 5 in No., in the center the chappel facing end to the 
west, first north of the chappel was the first building erected, 
facing the west lengthwise, the second was to stand in the same 
way south of the Ch., the other two ending to the west, north and 
south of the others. This meeting of the Trustees I think was on 
Thursday, and my Father proposed to lay the corner stone in one 
week from the next Wednesday. This was agreed to and Noah 
Webster Esqr was to give the addres and D. A. Clark^ the sermon. 
The building committee was appointed, Esqr Dickinson was one; 
whether my father was one I cant say or who the others were I can[t] 
remember. At this time the spot for the building was unsurveyed, 
the stone were in the quarry at Pelham, and the brick in the clay 
and sand, and the lime some 40 miles away. I recollect I went 
with him that very evening after the trustees left the academy to 
Mill hollow, as was then called the Hollow a mile or so south of the 
colledge, to engage the brick, which were to be of different size from 
common brick. The man he bargained with agreed to have them 
ready in 4 weeks, and the first that we drew we had to use mittens 
in loading so [as] not to burn our fingers. The next morning we 
went out to Pelham and engaged the stone for the corner and 
foundation. On Saturday we surveyed the land [and] stuck stakes 
for the building. At dinner he directed me to invite the academy 
boys to go with me an[d] comence diging the trench at the North 
west corner of the lot he had staked for the foundation for the 
corner stone, while he should (to) engage teams to haul the founda- 

1 Rev. Daniel A. Clark, from 1820 to 1826 pastor of the village church at Amherst. His sermon 
on this occasion was entitled "A Plea for a Miserable World," and by request of the trustees was 
printed along with Noah Webster's address. 



76 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



tion stones from Pelham. The Monday following he started for 
hme; in three days he returned with several teams from Conway, 
loaded with lime, and the masons were set to work to prepare the 
foundation for the corner stones for there were two of them, the 
length [?] I dont remember but you can easyly measure them, for 
I gues they are where we put them, here I would say that on 
Tuesday about 9 o'clock the day before they were laid the last 
stroke of the hammer in Pelham was given those stone. Teams 
were in waiting for them; about noon we arrived with them on 
colledge hill where we found the masons and others anxiously wait- 
ing, for they were looking hours before for us and fearing that we 
should not arrive soon enough to give time to get those stones in 
readiness by the time appointed for laying them. But at the ap- 
pointed time for the laying of these stones, or more properly unit- 
ing them, all was in order. 

After the ceremony of uniting these stones were over, an opor- 
tunity was given for any to help in the prosecution of the work. 
All I recol[lect] about the result was the giving of one dollar — a 
gentleman stepped forward and laid a silver dollar on the stone 
saying here is my beam, God Bless it. Others followed and a good 
beginning was made as to money. How much was given I never 
knew. 

From this time all went on without much trouble until the 
building was more than half up — I think in the third story — when 
a great stump got in the way. At this point Esqr Dickinson called 
at our house to find if we knew anything of Fathers whereabouts. 
He had then been absent three weeks collecting money and mate- 
rials. We told we did not, and he said that there was not lime and 
brick to last longer than Saturday night. But Saturday just at 
teatime father returned; we told him at once as he arrived what 
the Esqr had said; he sent me at once for him. When he came he 
said, we are floored, we are completely down, we have laid the last 
brick we have or can get at present. The man of whom we have 
had our brick has been delayed in his work and cant have brick 
ready sooner than three weeks and there is none to be had in the 
country of the size, and we have concluded to discharge the masons 
and give it all up, for we have talked the matter all over with the 
masons and carpenters, and the conclution is that it will be impos- 
sible to finish it so as to secure the lot by the time, and if we fail 
all is lost. My Father answer[ed,] Gentlemen, this thing must not, 
will not fail, do not discharge a single man. I have bought and paid 
for lime sufficient to finish the building. I expected to find it on 
hand at this time, why the delay, I know not, but of one thing I 
am very sure [the lime will come?] as soon as you will want it for 
I have 2 hogsheads at Sunderland. Esqr Dickinson says. Col., 
your faith has proved good heretofore, but it must fail now, for 
Iho. the lime may come, the brick cant be had without a miracle. 



The Faith of Col. Graves 77 



The committee left our house about 93^2 o'clock Saturday night 
with conclution, that unless a miracleous interposition should fur- 
nish the needed materials, to discharge the masons and all attend- 
ants Monday morning. My Father rose from his seat and for a 
few moments walked the room in silence; then said, ring the bell, 
my son, for prayers. He then took the Bible and turned to the 
14 chapter of John, a chapter which he often read when things did 
not go right to his mind. The hour that followed I shall never forget 
— the agony, the tears, the groans, the restling in prayer that Jesus 
would provide or open the way by which it could be done — equal- 
led any thing that I can think of accept the agony of Jesus in the 
garden. As Jesus gained the victory so did my father at that time; 
when he rose from that struggle he says, I see it. See what, says 
Mother. The brick forthcomming, the colledge complete. My 
fathers faith was not dead faith or faith without works. In a few 
minuits he says, what time is it, I looked, twas near 11, one hour 
to Sunday when my fathers work always closed untill that to him 
very sacred day was passed. I must go and see Mr. Boltwood 
now, for the thought has just come to me that the brick with which 
he is going to build his house are of the same size of the coll. brick, 
and if so I must have them. I went with him. We found him sit- 
ing by the barroom fire alone. The ques[tion] was as to the size of 
his brick, finding they were right— Will you lend them for three 
weeks; he hessitated. My Father says to him, if you refuse, sir, 
that building must be delayed and perhaps fail altogether, and so 
it will sink your property here more than the brick are worth. As 
soon as Mr. B. saw the thing in its proper light — you must have 
them. The result of this short visit was, that at early dawn on 
Monday morning Elijah Boltwoods and Col. Rufus Graves teams 
were hauling brick on to Colledge hill. On Monday morning soon 
after one o'clock my Father started for Sunderland for the two 
hogsheads of lime that were there so as to have them on hand by 
working time. He went directly to Uncle Smith's and I suppose 
gave him some account of affairs and of the necessity of sending 
his team at once with the two hogsheads at the river, and as they 
were loading the lime they learned that the lime he was going on 
in persuit of, had come to the river and were detained there untill 
to[o] late an hour Saturday night to go on to Amherst and had to 
put up at a Maj Lenards[?] for the Sabbath. And now to give you 
the result of the falier [i.e. failure?] of my fathers faith this tmie, 
that when the committee came on to the ground to dissmiss the 
masons for lack of materials with wich to go on, they found to their 
great astonishment ten hogsheads of lime and six thousand brick, 
and my father encouraging the men to push the work on as fast as 
possible. From this time sucess attended the effort, no more 
stumps, nor stops untill the building was complete and the con- 
dissions of the bond were fulfilled and the land secured. If I recol- 



78 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



lect right from the day of laying the cornerstone to the day the 
Bond required the building to be finished was just three months 
to a day, and that building was not complete so as to secure the 
bond untill near the close of the last day of that 3 months. 



SUNSET HILLS OF HAMPSHIRE 

WILLIAM NORTHROP MORSE 



A 



WHIRLWIND of rose and gold. 
Chariots — wings of fire; — 
Heart of the soul's desire, 
A thousand centuries old ! 



The Centennial Celebration 79 



THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 

NO ONE of Amherst's sons is going to let anything keep 
him from attending the one hundredth birthday of his 
Alma Mater. So thinks the committee in charge of the 
Centennial exercises, and arrangements are being made accord- 
ingly to house, feed, and transport a crowd of three thousand 
alumni with wives and children to an unknown number. As on 
the occasion of Amherst's fiftieth anniversary the celebration 
will be held in conjunction with Commencement, the regular 
exercises of graduation to be observed on Saturday, Sunday, and 
Monday morning and the Centennial Celebration to continue 
from Monday afternoon to Wednesday afternoon. A general 
program for the jubilee has been prepared by the Centennial Com- 
mittee, of which Professor William J. Newlin is the executive 
secretary, and the details are in process of adjustment. 

Briefly the plan provides for the ceremonies of Class Day on 
Saturday, June 18, for the usual exercises of Baccalaureate Sunday 
on the following day, and for the awarding of degrees in course on 
Monday morning. Then with Commencement out of the way, 
the Celebration will begin on Monday afternoon with a historical 
address of a general nature, which will be followed by four ad- 
dresses given simultaneously at different points on Amherst in the 
Arts, in the Professions, in Science and Industry, and in Public 
Affairs. Class dinners with an open-air smoker will occupy the 
evening. 

On Tuesday two addresses will be delivered by men of dis- 
tinction in the educational world from Great Britain and France. 
The theme will be The Problem of Education Today as viewed 
in these two countries. The main event of the afternoon will be 
the Amherst-Wesleyan ball game with an alumni parade of stu- 
pendous proportions. In the evening there will be a lawn-f6te and 
a pageant under the direction of Joseph Lindon Smith, one of the 
masters of the art of pageantry. 

On Wednesday morning President Meiklejohn will speak on 
Amherst's Ideals for its Second Century. His address will be fol- 
lowed by the conferring of honorary degrees, and then will come 
the Centennial dinner with after-dinner speaking. This like most 
of the main exercises will probably be held in a circus tent large 
enough to accommodate three thousand people, but the problem 
of providing for a crowd of that size is one of the most serious 
of the Committee's difficulties. 

To lodge the multitude a survey of Amherst, North Amherst, 
East Amherst, and South Amherst is being made, and all available 



80 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



rooms and houses are being contracted for. The dormitories of 
Amherst, the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and Smith 
College may also be available. Prices will be standardized and will 
be uniform for the same sort of accomodations. In addition to 
these resources, which are probably sufficient to take care of the 
older alumni, wives, children, and guests that may return next 
June, there will be a military encampment and tent city on the 
levels below the swimming pool on Hitchcock Field, where the 
younger alumni may hold class encampments with mess-tents, 
camp-fires, and any other features that they may wish. The 
grounds will be equipped with running water and all the necessary 
conveniences. Alumni who return with automobiles may find 
lodgings in Northampton, Hadley, Deerfield, Sunderland, and 
Holyoke, but of course the chief strain will fall upon the town of 
Amherst and returning alumni may have to put up with some in- 
conveniences which would not occur in normal times. 

A sub-committee on the Commissariat is on the search for a 
caterer able to feed three thousand people at the time of the Cen- 
tennial Dinner. This caterer will also be available for supplying 
meals during the other days of the Celebration, so that everybody 
who comes to Amherst may have no difiiculty in finding food. But 
it will be a great assistance to the Commissary Committee if the 
classes holding formal reunions will endeavor to handle their own 
problems of feeding by supplying their own caterer and eq uipment. 
The Committee will do all in its power to supply meals for members 
of classes not otherwise accommodated. A directory of tea-rooms, 
restaurants, hotels, and boarding-houses within a radius of ten 
miles will be compiled for the benefit of automobile parties. 

As to transportation the Committee suggests that as many men 
as possible come by automobile in order to relieve the strain upon 
the railroad and trolley service. Those who have seats to spare 
in their cars should arrange to bring other Amherst men from the 
same neighborhood. The most extensive plans for the parking 
and care of motors are in hand. 

There is no doubt that every alumnus who expects to attend 
the Centennial will be adequately cared for, but the Committee 
must know in advance how many are coming. Blanks for the 
expression of intentions are now being mailed to the individual 
alumni and should be filled out and returned at the earliest possible 
moment. Class secretaries, especially those of reunion classes, 
are requested to make the demand for this necessary information 
insistent. 

While addresses, reunions, ball games, and pageants will be the 
main objects of interest, there are other features of the Centennial 
which will make a visit to Amherst next June exceptionally worth 
while. The whole college is being prepared for exhibition to its 
alumni. The scientific collections, especially the recent acces- 



The Centennial Celebration 81 



sions to the Geological Museum collected by Professor Loomis, 
will be on display, and various other exhibits illustrating the work 
or the history of the College are being put into shape by the de- 
partments most concerned. The main points of exhibition will 
be the new Converse Memorial Library, which will contain the 
College memorabilia, the Clyde Fitch Room, a collection of books 
by Amherst alumni, the publications of the College, and exhibits 
in the department seminars; the Latin Room in Williston Hall 
with an interesting collection of Roman antiquities ; and the Geo- 
logical Laboratory, where the remarkable series illustrating the 
development of the horse has been mounted. 

In connection with the exhibit of College memorabilia the Com- 
mittee is especially desirous of securing letters which reflect the 
college life of the past, pictures of Amherst that have any histori- 
cal value, or any material bearing upon Amherst's participation 
in the World War. If enough letters describing student life at 
Amherst in its first decades can be secured, the Committee plans 
to publish them in a memorial book. 

Something of what a birthday of the College means may be 
gathered from the record of the Semi-Centennial Celebration in 
1871. As Professor William S. Tyler's "History" describes it: 
"The alumni came from every part of our own country and from 
every quarter of the globe. . . . Wednesday evening was given 
up to a reunion in College Hall, and much of the night was spent 
in class meetings of such deep and thrilling interest as only they 
who have been present at such meetings know, and even they can- 
not fully tell. They seem to have gone away pleased with them- 
selves and each other, proud of their mother, loving their brothers, 
feeling that they had a good time, and fully persuaded that whoever 
should keep the Centennial Jubilee of the College in 1921 would 
have a still better time and find a great deal more to admire and 
rejoice in." 

More detailed information about the Centennial Celebration 
will be sent to every alumnus later. The tentative program, 
printed below, promises to be attractive. The main question is, 
Will you be there? 

The One Hundredth Commencement 

Saturday, June 18, to Monday noon, June 20 

Saturday, June 18, Class Day 

8.30 A.M. Meeting of Trustees in Walker Hall. 
9.30 A.M. Ivy Oration and Poem at College Church. 
10.30 A.M. Class Oration and Poem in College Hall. 
2.00 P.M. Grove Oration and Poem in College Grove. 
3.30 P.M. Baseball Game. 



82 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



5.00 P.M. President's Reception to Seniors. 

7.30 P.M. Hyde Prize Orations. 

8.00 P.M. Open Air "Get Together" Smoker for Alumni. 

9.00 P.M. Musical Clubs Concert, College Hall. 

Announcement of prizes during intermission in 
concert. 

Sunday, June 19, Baccalaureate Sunday 

10.15 A.M. Playing of Chimes. 

10.45 A.M. Baccalaureate and Commemoration Sermon. 

12.00 Class Singing. 

2.30 P.M. Concert in College Hall. 

7.00 P.M. Undergraduate Singing at Fraternities. 

8.00 P.M. Informal Alumni Gatherings. 

Monday, June 20, Commencement Day 
8.30 A.M. Phi Beta Kappa Meeting. 
9.00 A.M. Assembly for Procession. 
9.30 A.M. Commencement Procession. 
10.00 A.M. The One Hundredth Commencement in College Hall. 
Presentation of Portraits, Conferring of Degrees. 



Centennial Celebration 

Monday noon, June 20, to Wednesday noon, June 22 

Monday, June 20, Historical Day 

1.45 P.M. Band Concert (one half hour) 
2.15 P.M. Exercises 

Invocation 

Short Address of Welcome 

Address, "One Hundred Years of Amherst" 

Commemoration Ode 
3.45 P.M. Sets of Addresses, two each, simultaneous 

1. Amherst in the Arts — Latin Room 

(Literature, Criticism, Education, etc.) 

2. Amherst in the Professions — Chapel 

(Law, Medicine, Ministry) 

3. Amherst in Science and Industry — Chemistry 

Laboratory 

(Sciences, Business, Economics, etc.) 

4. Amherst in PubUc Affairs — College Hall 
5.00 P.M. Organ Recital— College Church 

6.00 P.M. Alumni Class Dinners 
7.00 P.M. Kellogg Prize Speaking 

8.30 P.M. Alumni Open Air Smoker (With informal enter- 
tainment features) 



The 


Centennial Celebration 83 


Tuesday, June 21, Educational Day 


9.00 A.M. 


Annual Meeting of Alumni Association 


9.30 A.M. 


Band Concert 


10.00 A.M. 


Exercises 




Music 




Address, "The Problem of Education in England 




Today" 




Some Distinguished Representative of Educa- 




tional Interests in England 




Music 




Address, "The Problem of Education in France 
Today" 
Similar Representative of Educational Interests 






in France 




Music 


2.00 P.M. 


Band Concert 


2.30 P.M. 


Alumni Parade 


3.00 P.M. 


Baseball Game (Amherst- Wesleyan.) 


5.00 P.M. 


President's Reception 


8.00 P.M. 


Lawn Fete 


9.00 P.M. 


Pageant— "Amherst Milestones" 


Wednesday, June 23, Centennial Day 


9.00 A.M. 


Assembly 


9.30 A.M. 


Procession 


10.00 A.M. 


Exercises 



Invocation 

Address, "Amherst's Ideals for its Second Cen- 
tury" — President Meiklejohn 
Conferring of Honorary Degrees 
12.00 Centennial Dinner 



84 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



A NEW HOUSE FOR THETA DELTA CHI 

GEORGE F. WHICHER 

WHAT should a fraternity house look like — a country-club, a 
mansion, a home? On this question tastes inevitably differ, 
and a decorous difference of opinion may be perceived in 
the brick and white fronts of the six new fraternity houses that 
have come in the last decade to adorn the town; a columned 
portico suggests the entrance of a country-club, a row of stately 
pilasters the ofBcial mansion, a refined ornateness of trimming 
the well-appointed home. It is to be supposed that these varia- 
tions in style in a sense reflect the character of the fraternity; at 
any rate that they give a tone to the life of the undergraduate 
chapter. On this theory alumni of the various fraternities have 
not hesitated to invest several hundred thousand dollars with the 
object of providing beautiful surroundings for the undergraduate 
brothers. The experience of a number of years with the new houses 
seems to prove that the investment is worth while, 

Theta Delta Chi is the seventh of Amherst's twelve fraternities 
to build within recent years. Its new house, now in process of 
construction, is to be of brick, following the prevailing type of 
Colonial Georgian architecture. The plan of the building, however, 
embodies a slightly different conception of a fraternity house from 
any yet expressed. Taking advantage of its comparatively se- 
cluded location on the corner of Northampton Road and Lincoln 
Avenue (on the double lot formerly occupied by the old house and 
the home of Professor Elwell), the architects, Putnam and Cox of 
Boston, have designed it to represent a simple fraternity home. It 
is modeled on the casual, rambling lines of a New England farm- 
house with nothing of the formality which to a certain degree was 
required of houses facing the Common. The keynote of its compo- 
sition is homelikeness. How this idea has been carried out is evi- 
dent in the front elevation here reproduced and in the architect's 
description from which I quote: 

"In the case of Theta Delta Chi, with its beautiful setting of 
trees, we have spread the building out in somewhat the manner of 
a farmhouse with its adjoining sheds and barns, with the hope that 
we could obtain a picturesque, rather low building, which would be 
a composition but not so formal as the other fraternity houses. To 
enhance this homelike, unpretentious character we are building 
with used brick with a rough mortar joint. In this way a much 
more varied surface is obtained, which will show agreeably through 
the vines with which we hope to cover parts of the building. 




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A House for Theta Delta Chi 85 



"On the south wall there will be a wooden lattice, which will 
form in a manner a decoration when covered with vines. Extend- 
ing from the living-room to the south is to be an open terrace, 
sheltered by the west wing of the house and covered by an awning 
in the spring and fall. At the end of the west wing nearest North- 
ampton Road is a glazed porch or sun-room, the sash of which can 
be removed during warm weather. 

"At the rear of the building will be the service entrance, reached 
from Lincoln Avenue by a circular driveway, where motors may be 
parked. It is possible that there may be a small garage building 
off this drive. The land will be graded nearly level from North- 
ampton Road, and a path will lead from the corner nearest the 
College to the front door and the terrace. We hope to enhance 
the beauty of the building by a certain amount of planting. It will 
be several years before it all will appear as we visualize it. It 
should then present a building which will seem to have grown by 
stages, much as a farmhouse and its adjoining buildings grow. 

"We are distinctly attempting the picturesque, but the size of 
the house will prevent its being trivial or cottage like. A fraternity 
building to house more than twenty men, with a large living-room, 
is necessarily more sizable than a cottage or most New England 
farmhouses. 

"The beams in the living-room and library and in fact through- 
out the building will be the actual supporting members. The walls 
will be of plaster. We hope with these timber ceilings, especially 
in the library and living-room, to preserve a comfortable and home- 
like appearance in spite of the large spaces which fraternity dances 
and smokers require. 

"The roof will be of Vermont slate with a variation of gray, 
green, and purple. The windows of a pattern of the eighteenth 
century which shows a great deal of white about them. The cor- 
nice, of course, of wood. All the exterior woodwork will be painted 
white. The present house will be removed in time." 

As one enters the main door in the west wing of the new house 
the library and glassed porch are to the left, stairs and guest-room 
straight ahead, and large living-room, occupying the whole of the 
central part of the building, to the right. Two suites of study and 
bedroom each complete the rooms on the first floor. The second 
floor, extending throughout the building, and the third floor (west 
wing only) contain seven more study and bedroom suites, each 
accommodating two men. The library and all the studies with one 
exception are equipped with fireplaces. 

The building of a new fraternity house is an event of interest 
hardly less to the whole College than to the fraternity itself. The 
housing of students of the three upper classes, left in the early years 
of Amherst's history to the people of the town, has been gradually 
taken over by the Greek-letter societies, and the home life pro- 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



vided by the fraternal organizations has long been recognized as a 
valuable part of the college machinery. As such it is distinctly 
desirable that the rooming conditions in the various fraternities 
should be as nearly as possible alike, in order that no particular 
block of students may enjoy advantages not possessed by their 
college mates. The completion of the new Theta Delta Chi 
house will place eight of the twelve fraternities on approximately 
the same level in this respect. 

No one of the new houses, furthermore, could have been under- 
taken without the active support of the alumni, and one of the most 
important effects of the fraternity building program is that of en- 
listing successive bodies of the alumni in the service of the College. 
A new house for their chapter has meant to them a new concern in 
the welfare of Amherst. In the case of Theta Delta Chi this is 
especially true ; its new home is the gift of no one alumnus or group 
of wealthy alumni, but a project which has demanded and received 
the united support of a large proportion of its graduate members. 
Yet the existence of the new house is due mainly to the foresight 
and energy of one man, the late Harry A. Bullock, '99, whose life 
of unfailing devotion to his fraternity and his college was made 
perfect by his death in our country's service. By years of patient 
effort he completed the heavy pioneer work of organizing a building 
campaign along lines since successfully carried out. The new 
fraternity house, the first to meet the eyes of coming generations 
of freshmen as they enter Amherst, is in fact a monument to his 
loyalty; it will be made formally a memorial to his name. 



Elijah Paddock Harris 87 



THE AMHERST ILLUSTRIOUS 

ELIJAH PADDOCK HARRIS 

[This notice is substantially a reprint of the obituary printed in the Springfield 
Republican for December 11, 1920. A portion of that obituary was written by 
Professor John K. Richardson, a life-long friend of Professor Harris's, and is here 
quoted with his permission. I have also to thank Professor Harris's son-in-law, 
Mr. William B. Pratt, '95, for information used in this article. — Editor.] 

WHEN more than fifty years ago Professor Harris came to 
Amherst, the department of chemistry had not long 
emerged from its first quarters in the basement of John- 
son Chapel. It was then lodged with improved equipment on the 
lower floor of Williston Hall. The subject of chemistry had long 
been regarded as a branch of "Natural Philosophy" and was ad- 
mitted to tw^o terms in the college curriculum in order that Am- 
herst's crop of young clergymen might be somewhat conversant 
with the principles adopted by the Creator in regulating this physi- 
cal world. The year after his coming Professor Harris secured from 
the Walker Legacy Fund the means to refit his laboratory. "And 
thereafter," says the historian of Amherst, "not only whole classes 
were faithfully instructed in the general principles of the science 
by his able lectures, but under his inspiring guidance the laboratory 
proper has been filled to its utmost capacity with enthusiastic 
elective students engaged in analytic experiments." During the 
thirty-nine years of his active connection with the College, Pro- 
fessor Harris was instrumental in raising the department of chem- 
istry from a minor place in the classical education of young minis- 
ters to a training school for scientists, housed in a building of its 
own. Chemists in laboratories and colleges all over the country 
attest the success of his teaching. He was one of the sturdy 
pioneers of science in Amherst College. 

His death removes from the old guard of Amherst teachers a 
virile personality. Innumerable stories in circulation among the 
alumni bear witness to their affectionate remembrance of "Dur- 
wall," whose vigorous classroom methods were a continual chal- 
lenge to his students. "He did more than lay down the laws of 
chemistry for his day," one writes; "he made his men know them 
and feel them. They had to fight for what they knew, and he fought 
against them and their opinions until he gave them also the desire 
and the power to contend for the truth." Another student, thirty 
years after finishing his course at Amherst, wrote to him on his 
birthday: "The hardest work I ever did was to get through a quiz 
of yours, Professor. You made me fighting mad, and it's that 
fighting spirit for knowledge and for right that has given me success 



88 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



and brought me where I am. May you have more anniversaries 
to inspire your old boys to continue their fight for truth." 

Ehjah Paddock Harris, professor emeritus of chemistry at Am- 
herst College, was born in Leroy, N. Y., April 3, 1831, the son of 
Daniel and Mary J. (Paddock) Harris. The first twenty years of 
his life were spent in manual labor on the farm, with four months 
at school during winter. He prepared for college in Leroy Academy 
and in the seminary at Lima, N. Y. His first two years of the 
course were spent in Genesee College, New York. He entered 
Amherst College in 1853 in the junior year and was graduated with 
the class of 1855. He was principal of Sodus Academy, New York, 
1855-56, and of Warsaw Academy in 1856-57. The next two years 
he spent at the University of Gottingen, Germany, studying chem- 
istry with Professor Wohler, physics with Dr. Webber, and min- 
eralogy with Walterhausen, winning in 1859 degrees of A. M. and 
Ph. D. After spending some time in Paris and in travel he was 
appointed professor of chemistry and natural history in Victoria 
College, Cobourg, C. W., where he served until 1867, when he was 
called to Beloit College. 

In 1868 he succeeded W. S. Clark as professor of chemistry in 
Amherst College. He built up the department of chemistry and 
for forty years exerted a powerful influence in faculty meetings 
and upon the students. 

In 1890 Victoria College conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. 
He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society and of the Psi 
Upsilon fraternity. He married, July 26, 1860, Ellen, daughter of 
Nehemiah Park of Warsaw, N. Y., who during her life in Amherst 
maintained a prominent position as a member of the Historical 
Society, regent of the Mary Mattoon Chapter D. A. R., and presi- 
dent of the Amherst Woman's Club. She died in 1911, after shar- 
ing with him the celebration of their golden wedding in July of the 
previous year. He retired from active service in 1907, and for the 
past thirteen years made his home with his son, Harry N. Harris, 
of Warsaw, N. Y. There he died on December 9, 1920. His body 
was brought to Amherst, and buried in Wildwood Cemetery. 
Professor Harris leaves three sons, Edward Park Harris, '85, of New 
York, Harry P. Harris of Warsaw, N. Y., Frank P. Harris of Cran- 
ford, N. J., and a daughter, Mrs. W. B. Pratt of Wellesley Hills. 

Professor Harris published several editions of a small book in- 
tended as a manual of chemistry. It included a statement of funda- 
mentals, the very briefest compatible with beginning the laboratory 
work, for which the book was chiefly designed. As head of the 
laboratory he was at hand to explain the book and the book was 
guide in his temporary absence, and this "team work" made the 
department efficient; how efficient is shown by the fact that in his 
later years numbers of his pupils were heads of the department in 
their respective schools and colleges. 



Elijah Paddock Harris 89 



Not alone among the professors of chemistry of the colleges and 
universities, but in the commercial laboratories throughout the 
country are many men, who if asked as to their professional education 
will say: "I got my real training under Professor Harris at Am- 
herst." They have in mind more than a memory of a college course 
which included chemistry, a chemistry changed much in theory and 
application since their day at Amherst. It was their training, a vital 
something on which they have built, and that " something ' ' is always 
associated with the man who taught them. 

When Professor Harris entered his profession, he was fighting 
to put a new science in the American college — to give it the place 
it has now attained. This was his purpose, and strong his love for 
the science he was teaching, yet above all there stood out the desire 
to give his students a right training, to teach them the value of work, 
to fight a good fight for the faith that was his. 

Professor John K. Richardson, '69, writes of the man and his 
work: "Those vv^ho were privileged to know Professor Harris in- 
timately found in him a vigorous manhood, an undaunted courage, 
shrewd observation, and a warm heart that never faltered when 
once his confidence and esteem had been given. All this behind a 
sometimes rather brusque exterior. 

"Firm as a rock for upright conduct, he was intolerant of moral 
obliquity ; a man to be trusted everywhere and anywhere. He had 
too, the courage of his convictions, for which he would stand 
against any and all odds. 

"It was a fascination to listen to his observations on men and 
things, and his talk was spiced with sharp and witty remarks, 
which once in the writer's presence drew from one of the company 
the epithet of a 'live Yankee.' If he were your friend there was no 
service he would hesitate to volunteer. The writer remembers one 
cold, very stormy day in winter, when the professor drove a dozen 
miles to hold out a helping hand. 

"His culture is evinced by the fact that he crossed the Atlantic 
six times to study and to visit the most attractive scenes and the 
galleries of Europe, and his home was adorned with works of art 
brought from overseas. All these traits made him, in Xenophon's 
words. 'A friend worthy of much, to whomsoever he was a friend'." 



90 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



DEACON STEBBINS AT THE RALLY 

(November 20, 1920) 

SURGES JOHNSON 

Feller 'lumni, I've come over from the farm whar I hang out 
Just to find out what in thunder all this ruction is about. 
All these shouts an' bells a'ringing' — all these yells to 
wake the grave, 
Ain't my notion of the way in which our college should behave. 
In my day this was a college that was dignified, though new, — 
It was called a seminary with the ministry in view. 
I was plannin' to rebuke ye — but I've waited just a day 
Thinkin' I could word my scoldin' in the most impressive way; 
But Jehoshephat! — my notions hev all scattered far and wide, — 
There's a lot here that the founders never dreamt or prophesied. 
An' I have a troubled notion that there's several of you 
Who never fer a moment hed the ministry in view. 
An' yet I guess those founders must be pretty near content 
When they see how far along the road a lot of ye hev went. 
It ain't no use a' namin' names; yer ministry is wide, — 
Ye've got a hand in everythin' the world kin view with pride. 
From church, and school, to business — and it's likely, you'll allow. 
That Amherst's in the White House just about eight years from now. 

Please excuse these ramblin' comments from a grad so old in 

crime, — 
I reckon I'm a relic of the once upon a time; 

But thar's one thing thet I notice as I scan old History's page, — 
They raised a lot more whiskers in the so-called golden age. 
Why you've no idee, young fellers, what a shock it is to one 
Who's transplanted from the decades when the College was begun. 
Just to face a crowd like you be — gathered in this holy place — 
Each indecently exposin' nearly all the human face. 
Is the good old Amherst product retrogradin' ? Sakes alive! 
In my day we fired a student whose pilosity wan't five. 
We had a sort of notion that our craniums was thin, 
An' if brains got really growin' they'd come pushin' through yerchin. 
Let me make just one suggestion to this smooth-faced college 

crew, — 
You'd better git upholstered, — if they ain't already grew. 
When the Amherst money-raisers start to raising funds, you'll find 
That you'll need a lot of whiskers you kin go and hide behind. 



Deacon Stebbins at the Rally 91 



Yes, I come here primed fer trouble, an' I meant to speak up bold, 
An' say our simple college shouldn't be a-huntin' gold. 
Poverty consarves the virtues, an' you all know mighty well 
Worldly riches teaches most folks just new ways of raisin' hell. 
An' I can't help a'wondrin' what them wise old founder chaps 
Would have done if someone dumped three million dollars in their 

laps. 
But I've changed all my opinions; why, they took me to a game 
And I busted one suspender, an' my vocal chords is lame. 
And as fer huntin'money, why the college of them days 
Couldn't spend a thousand dollars in so very many ways — 
An' a modest fifty thousand was the sort of fund to fit it; 
But now she needs three million, and I hope, by heck, you git it! 



92 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



COLLEGE NOTES 



THE ALUMNI GATHER 

Forty-two district chairmen in the campaign for Amherst's 
Centennial Gift formed the nucleus for a large meeting of the alumni 
in Amherst on November 19 and 20. The purpose of the gathering 
was to explain to representative alumni from all sections of the 
United States the work of the College and its needs for a second 
century of progress. The success of the meeting may be gauged 
by the rapid progress of the drive for the Centennial Gift. 

The program as arranged by Secretary AUis began with a meet- 
ing in Johnson Chapel on Friday morning, November 19, at which 
Arthur Curtiss James, chairman of the Committee of One Hundred, 
presided. After Acting-President Olds had welcomed the alumni 
on behalf of the College, the needs of the College were presented 
in detail in a series of speeches. D wight W. Morrow, '95, chair- 
man of the Executive Committee, first outlined the general plan 
of the Gift; Principal Alfred E. Stearns, '94, then spoke on Teach- 
ers' Salaries, Professor Harry deForest Smith on A Commons, 
Professor Albert P. Fitch on The College Church, Stanley King, 
'03, on Repairs, Depreciation, and Upkeep, Waldo E. Palmer, 
president of the Student Council, on The Undergraduate Part in 
the Centennial Gift, and E. S. Wilson, '02, on The Gymnasium, 
Hitchcock Field, and an Endowment for Student Activities. 
During the afternoon the alumni ware taken in groups to inspect 
the campus and the college buildings. The evening was devoted 
to fraternity initiations and to a faculty reception in the new 
Converse Library. At the meeting on Saturday morning, Mr. 
James presiding. Professor Tyler delivered a historical address 
on Amherst's First Hundred Years, Professor Newlin announced 
the plans for the Centennial Celebration next June, and William 
C. Breed, '93, explained the technique of the Centennial Gift 
appeal. After luncheon at Pratt Gymnasium the alumni marched 
to the field to witness Amherst's football victory, carrying a series 
of placards that set forth the various aspects of the Gift in prose 
and rhyme. 

The Rally held in College Hall at 8 o'clock Saturday evening 
concluded the program of an eventful week-end and was a fitting 
culmination of a perfect day. Alumni, visitors, and undergrad- 
uates filled the hall to its capacity. The students were seated by 
classes and the alumni were grouped together according to their 
respective districts. Around the balcony were hung the signs car- 



L'tl'^^^'^NiA. Corner 



f ■-'^"'h took his de«'''- 
V Sure III ff, St 




MK .JA.MKS, MR. Pr.I.MFTOX, PUKS. OLDS, EX-G()\. WHITMAN, MR. MORROW 




'^x.^^-*--^' 



111'. l'AI{.\I)K OF PI,.\CARI)S 



CollegeNotes 93 



ried in the alumni parade before the game. The main floor was a 
seething mass of purple and white, for every Amherst man wore a 
paper hat displaying the colors of his Alma Mater. 

The meeting was presided over by E. S. Wilson, '02. The an- 
nouncement that 100 per cent of the student body had subscribed 
to the Centennial Fund was greeted by a burst of applause. The 
chairman announced that a prize of one hundred dollars had been 
ofiFered by Dwight Morrow to the class which sang best and that 
a prize, not described, would be given to the alumni district which 
displayed superior singing. 

The Seniors sang first, and then the New York Alumni, While 
the latter were singing the hall was darkened, and when the lights 
were again switched on, Lord Jeffery Amherst stood, in person, 
before the audience. 

Calvin Coolidge, '95, receiving a tremendous ovation, spoke on 
the relative importance of the ideals of Amherst and the erudition 
of the class-room. He said that the greatness of an institution or 
a people did not always correspond to its scientific knowledge, 
but to the degree in which that institution maintained its basic 
principles and its high ideals. The wonderful achievement of 
Amherst in the last one hundred years is a cardinal example of this 
loyalty to ideals. An institution is not a static entity, but either 
progresses or recedes, and receding must perish. He appealed to 
the alumni to support the Centennial Drive that Amherst might 
continue to hold the exalted place in the future that it has occupied 
in the past. He pointed out that there is no better way to keep a 
live interest in an enterprise than to invest in it. 

The Juniors, Sophomores, Boston Alumni, and Freshmen then 
sang, after which Acting-President Olds spoke. His speech was 
a stirring appeal for the support of the fund. 

The Freshmen were awarded the one-hundred-dollar prize, and 
the Boston Alumni were presented with an imitation safe with the 
words "Centennial Fund" inscribed on the front. 

Dwight Morrow, '95, chairman of the Centennial Gift Comniit- 
tee, concluded the program with a very forceful speech in which 
he compared the "going over the top" in this drive to the great 
achievement accomplished by the men who founded Amherst. If 
the spirit of present Amherst men will reflect the foresight and the 
robust initiative of the local farmers of the first years of the nme- 
teenth century, the drive cannot but be a success. It will be ac- 
complished by a sacrifice on the part of the present generation, as 
it was by the forefathers of Amherst, but as it could be accom- 
plished then, so it can be accomplished now. 

After this speech the entire body marched over to the entrance 
of the campus near the library, where a large bonfire had been 
built to celebrate the football victory. 



94 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



REVIEW OF THE FOOTBALL SEASON 

The season of 1920 was one of the most successful years for the 
Amherst College football team. Five out of eight games were won, 
and the team scored 113 points to its opponents' 54. 

The record follows: 



Amherst 





Brown 


13 


Amherst 


13 


Bowdoin 





Amherst 


7 


Columbia 


20 


Amherst 


35 


Union 





Amherst 


30 


Hamilton 


7 


Amherst 





Wesleyan 


7 


Amherst 


14 


Trinity 





Amherst 


14 


Williams 


7 



Youngstrom, an AU-American guard from the Dartmouth 1919 
team, was engaged to assist Coach Gettell in training the line. 
Six letter men returned to form the nucleus of the team : Captain 
Card, Brisk, F. R. Clark, Palmer, Zink, and R. S. Clapp. Leete 
and Williams were taken from the 1919 freshman team to strength- 
en the line. In addition were Roberts and Worcester, who were 
inelegible last year. Brisk and Wing were shifted from end to 
give speed to the backfield. With Captain Card, Murnane, 
and Zink, were Daniels, Johnson, and Jillson from last year's 
freshman team, making a backfield that was one of the fastest for 
many years. 

Every home game was won. This completed the fourth suc- 
cesive year without a defeat on Pratt Field. Of the three games 
lost the first was to the strong Brown team at Providence, the first 
game of the season. In this game Brown was outplayed for two 
quarters. The heavy Columbia team was victorious mainly 
through the erratic work of Amherst. Wesleyan was the only 
other team to win from Amherst. This was one of the most bit- 
terly contested games of the season, and an intercepted forward 
pass and sixty yard run won for Wesleyan after Amherst had been 
the aggressor for three quarters. 

The scoring power of the team was evident in the home games, 
won over Bowdoin, Union, Hamilton, and the 14-7 score over the 
unusually strong Williams team, captained by Boynton. In the 
latter game before 4,000 spectators the Amherst team overcame 
the Williams lead of seven points, by scoring two touchdowns in 
the last quarter. It was a fine exhibition of team play, fortified 
by the spirit which only Williams can demand of Amherst men. 

The line was consistently strong throughout the year, due to 
the spirit injected by Youngstrom and the aggressiveness shown 
by Palmer, Leete, and Roberts. The backfield contained two of 
Amherst's best ground gainers in Brisk and Wing. The strength 



CollegeNotes 95 



of the defense centered about Captain Card, who showed himself 
a valuable leader during the entire season. 

The following men were awarded the football A's: Andrews, 
Brisk, Card, Clapp, Clark, Davidson, Leete, Murnane, Palmer, 
Roberts, Williams, Wing, Worcester, and Zink. Seven of these 
will be available for the season of 1921, under Davidson as captain, 
who has played end for the past two years. More men than ever 
before practised football regularly, and the 'varsity squad of two 
teams was augmented by two spirited freshmen teams under the 
careful leadership of Mr. Widmayer of the department of physical 
education. 

This season is the last of a series of successful years under the 
direction of Professor Gettell. He has established an enviable 
record of victories for Amherst and has given a vast amount of time 
and energy to the development of Amherst football. It remains 
for his successor to carry forward the strong football tradition 
which his efforts have built up. 

AROUND THE CAMPUS 

The first of the Amherst Books, President Meiklejohn's "The 
Liberal College," was published early in November and is now on 
sale at the leading bookstores throughout the country. Books by 
Professor Genung and Professor Morse are in press and will be 
issued shortly. Other manuscripts are in the hands of the editors. 

An "A" Club, composed of the men in College who have won 
their letter in a major sport, has been organized with Philip W. 
Brisk, star half-back on the 1920 football team, as president. The 
function of the club is to keep general oversight of the athletic 
traditions of Amherst and the development of college spirit. 

The Amherst Monthly has now become an endowed institution 
and appears whenever the editors have sufficient material on hand 
for a number. Its former title has, therefore, become a misnomer 
and has been changed to Amherst Writing. The chief purpose of 
the magazine is to lay before the student body the very best literary 
work produced by men in college. The first number, issued shortly 
before the Christmas vacation, was distinguished by excellent verse. 

The Senior and Sophomore classes held a Sabrina banquet at the 
Hotel Mohican, New London, on November 29th. Even-class 
pursuers arrived in town about half an hour after the goddess had 
taken flight. 

Amherst debaters have undertaken an ambitious program for 
the year, and so far have been uniformly unsuccessful in winning 
debates. In the triangular contest on December 3d the Amherst 
speakers were defeated by both Wesley an and Williams, the latter 
winning also from Wesleyan. On a subsequent three-day trip 
another squad of Amherst debaters lost to Cornell, Hamilton, and 
Syracuse. Interest in debating, however, remains strong. 



Amhekst Graduates' Quarterly 



In consequence of the victory in football and the loss of the 
debate with Williams the score for the Trophy of Trophies stands 
at present Amherst 4, Williams 1. Amherst must win the cup this 
year in order to prevent it from becoming the permanent property 
of Williams. 

Last year's musical comedy, "Oh What a Chance!" was pre- 
sented this fall at the Northampton Academy of Music. The Mas- 
quers are now rehearsing the main dramatic production of the 
season, William Vaughn Moody's "The Great Divide." 

Two large classes in economics, one in Holyoke and one in 
Springfield, are being conducted under the auspices of the Labor 
College. Professor Hamilton is in charge of the Hotyoke class. 
Professor Stewart and Mr. May of the class in Springfield. Both 
classes are studying current economic problems. No registration 
was obtained for the other courses offered. 

A non-fraternity organization, called the Cosmopolitan Club, 
has been formed by members of the Freshman Class. The purpose 
of the club is to gather together all the men in college who are not 
members of fraternities and to offer them an organization which 
shall stand for them in the various intramural activities. About 
twenty -five men, mostly from the class of 1924, have signified their 
intention of joining the club. 



LIBRI SCRIPTI PERSONAE 

William N. Morse, '04, is a son of the late Professor 
Morse and a confirmed writer of plays and verse. 

BuRGES Johnson, '99, in his character of Deacon Stebbins 
of Pelham, is an essential part of all important alumni gather- 
ings. In real life he is a professor at Vassar and a frequent 
contributor of prose and verse to the magazines. 

William Allan Neilson is the president of Smith College. 

John M. Gaus, '15, is an instructor in political science in 
Amherst College. 

Trumbull White, '90, formerly editor of Everybody's 
Magazine, and now member of a firm engaged in civic or- 
ganization, publicity, and campaign management, is one of 
the Committee of One Hundred on the Centennial Gift and 
was m close touch with the work of the New York headquarters 
during the intensive campaign. 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Published by THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF AMHERST COLLEGE 
George F. Whicher, Editor John B. O'Brien, Associate Editor 

Publication Committee 

Robert W. Matnard, '02, Chairman Frederick S. Allis, '93, Secretary 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor, '97 Frederick K. Kretschmar, '01 

Clifford P. Warren, '03 George F. Whicher, '10 

Published in November, February, Mat and August 

Address all communications to Box 607, Amherst, Mass. 

Subscription, $2.00 a year Single copies, 50 cents 

Advertising rates furnished on request 

Copyright, 1921, by the Alumni Council of Amherst College 

Entered as second-class matter November, 1920 at the post-office at 

Springfield, Mass., under the act of March 3, 1879. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

WHAT is the Faculty coming to? Its invariable law 
seems to be that of deterioration. The great teachers 
of a generation pass away and are replaced by insig- 
nificant successors. A recent alumnus presses the point home 
to us: "The things that made Amherst College great, up to 
within a few years, were the grey-headed, big-hearted, broadly 
educated men like Garman, Morse, Crowell, Nungie, Old Doc, 
and the rest. These were men who taught the lessons of manhood 
and piety and uprightness outside of classrooms, as much as they 
taught the lessons of the curriculum. To let the whole senate of 
big men die out without replacing them with men of equal calibre 
seems to me to be a real calamity." Yet these venerable teachers 
were but the descendants of a Seelye, a Tyler, a Hitchcock, and 
they in turn of yet more venerable predecessors. The degenera- 
tion of the teaching force has been going on for well-nigh a century. 
To realize what pigmy professors now rattle in the seats of 
the mighty it is only necessary to turn to the early history of the 
College and see what manner of teachers created Amherst. The 
entire work of the College was at first performed by three profes- 
sors, the president being one. And since a staff of sixty is now 
required to do what they did, it may easily be seen that a professor 
of those days was worth any twenty of the present breed. The 
first professor of mathematics was the Rev. Gamaliel Olds (name 



98 Amhekst Graduates' Quarterly 



of happy omen!). "He was," says Amherst's historian, "a man 
of strong mind, . . . rapid in his reasonings, concise in his 
expressions, and expecting his pupil to see clearly what he com- 
prehended at a glance, he had the habit of saying, perhaps when 
the pupil had scarcely caught a glimpse of the idea, 'See it? see 
it?' " No doubt many of his students confessed in later years 
that their first conception of the intellectual life had come from 
hearing this phrase often upon his lips, and deplored the rumor 
that the sound old methods of instruction were no longer in vogue 
in the "new Amherst." Indeed, they understood that President 
Stearns was inclined to listen to some dangerously radical ideas 
on physical education brought forward by a young Dr. Hitchcock, 
etc. 

The first professor of Latin and Greek was the Rev. Joseph 
Estabrook, long remembered "for his elegant rufHe shirt, his fine 
suwarrow boots, and the great quantities of snuff which . 
he carried in his coat pocket." With what indignation must the 
older alumni have heard that this impressive gentleman had been 
replaced by a mere cub of the class of 1830 named W. S. Tyler! 
For Professor Estabrook had been a benefactor of the Institution. 
"There was a lottery to aid in the building of the Northampton 
bridge. The young men of Amherst were eagerly rushing in for 
a chance at the prizes. But Mr. Estabrook had little money to 
spare and none to waste on uncertainties. As his mind dwelt on 
the subject by day, however, he dreamed one night that he had 
bought a ticket of a certain number and drawn a prize of five 
thousand dollars. He went over to Northampton, found the 
ticket unsold, bought it, and actually drew a prize of five thou- 
sand dollars, one thousand of which he gave to Amherst College." 
What a loss to the Centennial Gift that there are no more Pro- 
fessor Estabrooks. 

Yes, the Faculty is on the downward slope. Our heads are not 
as grey as were those of the grand teachers of the past, and our 
hearts in comparison with theirs are but 22-calibre. Yet we are 
permitted one ray of consolation: more than half of us were 
trained by the last generation of great Amherst professors, and we, 
reminded every day of their presence, are least of any body of 
alumni likely to forget the lessons that they taught us. 

APROPOS of "the giants of those days" a pleasant story of 
the elder Dr. Hitchcock is given in "The Reminiscences 
of Daniel Bliss," which we review on another page of this 
number. 

"I look back with satisfaction to the great pleasure Dr. Hitch- 
cock gave me by inviting me, Junior year, to accompany him on a 
private geological trip to the White Mountains. We went in his 



Editorial Notes 99 



own one-horse carriage, stopping at country hotels, driving slowly 
or more quickly as inclination or circumstance demanded. Some- 
times we left the horse and carriage for a day or two, and made 
side excursions by train or stage coach. The object Dr. Hitchcock 
had in view was to ascertain, if possible, any trace of the glacier 
period, or terraces made by the receding water. At one time we 
ascended Mt. Lafayette. Mr. Carter, the Amherst postmaster, 
joined us. About to descend, I suggested that we go down not 
the way we ascended, but by another road. The Doctor protested, 
saying, 'You know not where your road will lead us; never leave 
the known path unless you have a competent guide,' etc. Carter 
started down before us. While standing for a few moments, the 
Doctor saw, far to the right of us, a wide bare rock extending out 
of sight down the mountain side. He exclaimed, *We must go 
there — that is something — run after Carter, and meet me there.' 
We met on the bare rock. There were the marks of a glacier. 
The old geologist was delighted. He himself proposed that we 
follow down a certain valley, which 'must pass near our hotel.' 
We walked on and on two or three hours. The Doctor took out 
his compass and exclaimed, 'We are lost, we are going almost in an 
opposite direction to our hotel.' Soon the Doctor saw a cast-off 
fish-pole and said, 'Thank God, this is a sign of civihzation.' We 
walked on; it was nearly sunset. The Doctor said that he would 
perish if he were obliged to spend the cold night in the woods. 
Soon he saw above the steep banks a light indicating an open 
space void of trees. He hurried me up the bank. I shouted back, 
'I see a house in the farther end of the field, and smoke coming out 
of the chimney.' The hotel was four miles away. He sent me on 
to the hotel to find means of getting him and Mr. Carter home. 
They were both almost exhausted. The landlord soon sent for 
them, and they arrived about ten o'clock at night. In the mean- 
time a good supper was prepared. When the Doctor was refreshed 
by rest and food, he expatiated on the great discovery, — the un- 
doubted signs of the glacier. Finally the landlord said, 'I can 
remember my father telling me when it took place, a hundred 
years ago.' You can imagine the Doctor's feelings. The marks 
of a landslide a hundred years old had been attributed to a glacier 
a hundred thousand years old." 



100 Amhebst Graduates' Quarterly 



THE BOOK TABLE 

The Liberal College. By Alexander Meiklejohn. Boston: Marshall Jones 
Company. 1920. The Amherst Books. 

The propriety of celebrating the hundredth anniversary of Amherst by the 
publication of a series of volumes by distinguished members of the College is ob- 
vious. There is more than propriety in beginning the series with a book on "The 
Liberal College," and in having this book written by President Meiklejohn. It 
is an indication that Amherst keeps itself aware of the college as a problem, of 
the college as something always in process of formation, as something alive and 
therefore growing, not as something finished and therefore dead. Of this view 
of the college no man in America is a more stimulating exponent than the President 
of Amherst. 

Nearly all the standing controversies with regard to the purpose and methods 
of a liberal education are dealt with in this first of "The Amherst Books," and 
in every case they are handled with originality, acumen, and candor. Those who 
have followed the author's administration will be prepared for the opening decla- 
ration in favor of regarding college first as a place for "making minds," of nar- 
rowing its scope if need be that it may more intensely achieve its intellectual aim. 
This is the keynote of the volume. 

Later papers deal with "What the Liberal College is not," a much needed 
exploding of the idea that the first New England colleges were professional schools 
for the ministry; with "What the Liberal College is," a plea for long views; with 
"What does the College Prepare for," a definition of the sense in which liberal 
education is "practical." The Harvard Phi Beta Kappa address reviews critically 
the conduct of alumni, undergraduates, faculty, trustees, and president. "The 
Freedom of the College," originally published when the question of academic 
liberty was much under discussion, reveals itself on re-reading as perhaps the 
ablest as it is certainly the subtlest defense which the controversy brought forth. 
The treatment of "Student Activities" will disappoint those who seek specific 
remedies for troublesome abuses, but is valuable for its tolerant if somewhat 
detached point of view. 

The papers on "Logic in the College Curriculum," and "Is Mental Training a 
Myth?" are the special contributions to educational theory of the professor of 
logic turned administrator. Valuable as is the former, a stronger argument for 
the study of logic is to be found in the method of the volume as a whole. For 
what distinguishes Mr. Meiklejohn's addresses from those of the majority of his 
presidential colleagues is his preeminence in logic. This is the force with which 
he dissipates the fogs that cloud so many educational discussions. He defines, 
divides, differentiates, and infers with a rare clarity and precision; and the finality 
of most of his conclusions is a sufficient recommendation of his favorite study. 
As for his "Mental Training," I confess that after long search I have found no 
treatment of the most debated of current pedagogical topics comparable to this in 
sanity. 

However wise he may be in all these general discussions, there are many who 
will find the test of the author's quality as the head of a college in the fourth sec- 
tion, that dealing with the curriculum, and specifically with the Amherst curricu- 
lum. Some of the views here set forth have already been put in practice, others are 
still under debate, all are of the stuff that when introduced into faculty meeting 
tend to bring into relief the weaknesses of the academic mind. On these all teachers 
have opinions, or what they cherish as such, and few are likely to follow the author 
on all points. But it ought to be said that he does not expect or invite acquiescence. 
Rather he presents his ideas tentatively, for the purpose of drawing out opposition; 
with full conviction as to the ends, with modesty as to the suggested means. 



TheBookTable 101 



He begins with his exposition of the purpose and method of the Amherst Fresh- 
man course in social and economic institutions, but it is a program rather than a 
description, and ought to be discussed by someone who knows the course as it is 
actually taught. "A Curriculum for a Liberal College" is put out of date by the 
closing paper with its more radical proposals for complete reorganization. The 
plan here set forth has already drawn a considerable amount of attention, and all 
who are interested in college problems await with interest its further development. 
Its salient external features are the division of the college into two parts at the 
end of the Sophomore year, the Junior College to be devoted to "the general 
apprehension of the culture of one's race;" the Senior mainly to special studies; 
the culminating of each in a comprehensive test; and the conducting of these 
examinations by outside examiners. These changes are meant to reduce the evil 
of separate courses got up to be passed and forgotten, to throw the responsibility 
for a student's education on himself, to give unity and purpose to the curriculum, 
to cultivate common intellectual interests in each group, to give greater uniformity 
among the students following a given course, to brace the teachers by having their 
results tested by outsiders, and to do many other things much to be desired. 
Any scheme that even in one man's mind promises such results deserves sym- 
pathetic consideration, but its author invites objections. I confess to foreseeing 
diflBculties. Where are the outside examiners to come from? Men capable of 
such examining as President Meiklejohn desires are already overburdened with 
such work in their own institutions, and 1 hardly hope that he can seduce them to 
undertake more. In President Eliot's Inaugural Address in 1869 he made this 
same proposal, and he has stated that it is the only one then made on which he 
later changed his mind. One would like to know why. But graver than this, for 
after all the outside examiners are no essential part of the scheme, is the difficulty 
that faces all such reforms, the difficulty of geUing teachers who will regard their 
business from the point of view here put forth. Good scientists, good historians, 
and the like are to be had, but they are set in their ways and immersed in their 
subjects; who will find us a staff open-minded enough to give such a scheme a 
chance, liberally educated enough to be able to give what President Meiklejohn 
means by a liberal education.'' This difficulty he has doubtless faced, and knows 
it is only to be overcome after years of search and elimination. 

The uniformity among the members of a course which is hoped for I can hardly 
believe will be forthcoming. A group is not uniform merely because all its mem- 
bers are in their first year. Any large class of Freshmen has in it minds of a ma- 
turity quite equal to the average Senior, and there is a risk of mechanization here 
which I am sure President Meiklejohn would recognize and abhor as soon as he 
began to work out details. Moreover, with all the standardization of entrance 
examinations, there are great initial inequalities in information as well as in ability 
to be overcome. 

But this is not the place for minute discussion. The scheme is a brave attempt 
to cure some of our worst educational sins, and is a fitting close to a volume of valiant 
theory. For next to the cleanness of its logic the book is marked by its courage. 
I think I have found at least one flaw in reasoning, but I have found no instance 
of evasion or trimming. WTiatever else is desirable in a college where one seeks 
to make the minds of American youth, intellectual courage is essential, and Amherst 
could wish for no nobler stamp upon the volume which ushers in the celebration of 
her hundred years of service. , ,, ., 

W. A. Neilson. 

1852-1880 

The Reminiscences of Daniel Bliss. Edited and supplemented by his Eldest Son 
[Frederick Jones Bliss]. Fleming H. Rcvell Company. 
The true autobiography of Daniel Bliss is the Syrian Protestant C_ollege at 
Beirtit. There the record of his life is written large for all men to see, and nothing 
less than the institution he founded can adequately express the grandeur of his 
career. The inner fires of his character, the force of his personality cannot be 



102 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



held within the covers of a book. "Words are weak the glory they transfuse with 
fitting truth to speak." 

Late in life at the request of his family Mr. Bliss committed to paper recollec- 
tions of his earlier years; of his boyhood on a farm in Vermont and on the Ohio 
frontier, of the long struggle to secure an education that brought him finally to 
Amherst College, of his missionary labors in the Levant, and of the founding and 
growth of the Syrian Protestant College. This record, supplemented by letters 
written by Mrs. Bliss and by data supplied by the editor, is now given to the pub- 
lic. It is the story of a pioneer spirit whose life was shaped to a noble unity on 
that text of St. Paul's which he left as the motto of his College: "This one thing 
I do, forgetting the things which are behind and reaching forth to those things 
which are before." The energy, fortitude, and shrewdness of the man are abun- 
dantly illustrated, but greater than the man is the work that he accomplished. 
By that alone he woiold wish to be remembered. 

The reviewer well recalls the piercing glance and erect figure of Daniel Bliss, 
then in his eighty-eighth year, at the Commencement Dinner of 1910. It was 
his last visit to Amherst. Eight years later his place at the speakers' table was 
filled by his son, who succeeded him in the presidency of the Syrian Protestant 
College and who made possible the continued life of the institution through the 
diflBcult period of the War. Now the one sleeps by Lebanon, the other by Mo- 
nadnock, but their spirits, having touched immortal things, live on. For the 
College that sent them forth no less than for the College that they founded and 
made secure their actions blossom from the dust. G. F. W. 

1874 

True Tales of the Weird. By Sydney Dickinson. New York: Duffield and Com- 
pany. 1920. 

These stories, set down by the late Sydney Dickinson as records of actual experi- 
ence, are endorsed by the American Society for Psychical Research as well au- 
thenticated instances of psychic phenomena, though they were written down 
long after the event, and published after the death of the author. Mr. Dickinson 
was a trained observer, a journalist by profession, and not a believer in spiritu- 
alism. His attention was attracted to psychic occiu-rences through the discovery 
that his second wife possessed marked, though never consciously cultivated, me- 
diumistic faculties. Four anecdotes of her strange visions and uncanny powers 
of "psychic levitation" make up the first part of the collection. They are of 
interest mainly to investigators into the working of occult forces. 

It is otherwise with the longer narrative called "The Haunted Bungalow," 
which occupies the last two-thirds of the volume. No fantastic tale of the super- 
natural by Poe or Bulwer-Lytton can vie with the horrible fascination of this 
quiet record of events. Beginning with a lurid account of a wife-murderer whom 
Mr. Dickinson was obliged to interview in Melbourne jail for the American press, 
the story turns to the adventures of Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson and a Scotch friend 
with the ghostly co-tenants of their Australian bungalow. Manifestations of 
spirit activity in startling and mischievous forms give place to terrible visitations 
from the apparition of the hanged criminal and finally to demoniac presences capa- 
ble of malignant violence, whose assaults force the members of the household to 
walk the streets by night and eventually to abandon their home. 

Mr. Dickinson confines himself rigidly to the facts of his story and refuses to 
speculate upon them or to attempt an explanation. So much must be allowed to 
his credit as an observer. Psychologists who have any patience with records of 
this sort will no doubt welcome his frank and matter-of-fact statement of experi- 
ences seemingly beyond belief. It will afford them curious evidence of the power 
of psychic forces to exercise physical control upon bric-a-brac, milk pans, jewelry, 
stuffed tomatoes, and human beings, and to involve the medium herself, two men, 
and two dogs in a common hallucination. Readers whose credulity is overtaxed 
when asked to accept the narrative as a record of fact will find it an unusually 
thrilling ghost-story. G. F. W. 



TheBookTable 103 



1912 

Personnel Administration. By Ordway Tead and H. C. Metcalfe, New York: 
The McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1920. 

It is but a short five years since the late Robert G. Valentine was received 
with something like scoflBng when he read a paper on the Personnel Department 
before the New York Taylor Society. How far the development of personnel 
administration has since progressed may be found in this volume, one of the 
authors of which, Mr. Tead, was an associate of Mr. Valentine's. That develop- 
ment has been in large part due to two interrelated causes — the need for greater 
production to meet the emergencies of the war, and a growing consciousness by the 
workers, as the aims of democracy in fighting the war were expressed, of their 
legitimate place in industry. 

For "the enlistment of human cooperation has become the crux of the 

production problem," and "the human approach to effective production is through 
a specialized administrative agency ... a separate staff department in 
management." These sentences give the theme of the book. Personnel adminis- 
tration includes problems of employment, health, safety, education, research, 
service, adjustment, and joint relations. On the personnel department rests 
more and more the ultimate responsibility for hiring and firing. Since this respon- 
sibility must be wisely used, objective standards are necessary. These standards 
may be arrived at by the labor audit and job analysis — "a scientific study and 
statement of all the facts about a job which reveal its content and the modifying 
factors which surround it." The book is devoted to a discussion of standards and 
experience, since it is the conclusion of the authors that "in the administration of 
its human affairs industry lacks standards." 

It would be a mistake to conclude that the discussion of these problems should 
interest only the professional. There is a wider significance especially to the 
chapters on Principles of Shop Committee Organization and The Business Value 
of Collective Bargaining. The layman may well consult these for enlightenment 
on some of those perplexing problems that harass, not merely an industry, but 
every citizen. The social theorist, as Mr. Henry Dennison of the Dennison Manu- 
facturing Company has stated of this book, will find this useful. In view of the vast 
growth of the administrative activities of the State, the problems of government 
are in large part those of personnel administration. Amherst men are contributing 
to the necessary background of experience and study from which proper standards 
may be determined in an unusually large proportion; and this volume is a notable 
contribution which we must not permit the expert alone to make use of. 

John Merriman Gaus. 



104 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



OFFICIAL AND PERSONAL 



THE CENTENNIAL GIFT 



On the eve of closing the New York 
headquarters ofBce of the Amherst Cen- 
tennial Gift, and transferring the con- 
tinuation work to the office of the 
Alumni Council at Amherst, it is timely 
to report what has been done to reach 
the present position and indicate the 
plans for the completion of the effort. 

Everyone who knows anything about 
the colleges of America knows that they 
all need additional resources to support 
the additional costs that confront them 
since the conspicuous movement of ris- 
ing prices and rising living costs began 
a few years ago. This much is necessary 
if the college is to remain even at a 
standstill, and much more, if it is to 
meet enlarging opportunities and re- 
sponsibilities. 

There was nothing surprising in the 
fact that the universal included Am- 
herst. Amherst men recognized the sit- 
uation as soon as it was looked at. By 
common impulse among members of the 
Alumni Council, the Board of Trustees, 
and others, it was resolved to couple 
the effort to meet the college needs with 
the approaching one hundredth anni- 
versary of the founding of the College, 
making a Centennial Gift to Alma Ma- 
ter from her sons. Surveys were made 
and studied, the needs of the college 
analyzed and compared, the sum of 
$3,000,000 determined as the minimum 
which would meet the situation. With 
this target fixed, the Amherst Centen- 
nial Gift was under way. 

The plan in essence was simple. In 
fact, it was the obvious plan that such a 
movement would inevitably require. 
The Alumni Council sponsored the ef- 
fort and the Trustees assented to it. A 
Committee of One Hundred was cre- 
ated, representative of the alumni body 
in general. An executive committee was 
formed from this larger group to plan 
and supervise the activities. Under 
this authority forty districts were desig- 
nated, one Canadian, and thirty-nine in 



the United States. For each district a 
chairman was appointed, charged with 
the creation of an actual working or- 
ganization under plans furnished from 
general headquarters in New York. At 
the same time class representatives were 
appointed as contact officers for such 
service as they could render, and under- 
graduate committees were formed at 
Amherst. 

It was the task of the headquarters 
office in New York to prepare and dis- 
tribute all sorts of supplies, printed 
matter, working materials, news bulle- 
tins, and constructive suggestions, to 
conduct correspondence with the forty 
district chairmen and to handle the 
reports and the accountings after the 
period of intensive campaigning began. 
As an early step this involved the crea- 
tion of address lists revised again and 
again, to be finally distributed to the 
district chairmen as their own key lists. 

Three million dollars is a very large 
sum of money. To reach that ts.rget 
would require the gifts of those who 
were willing and able to think in terms 
of hundreds of thousands and tens of 
thousands, as well as those whose limit 
was in thousands or hundreds. Fortu- 
nately we had them all among Amherst 
men. But they were all necessary. The 
total could not be reached if any such 
group stayed out. This and the desire 
to have every man on the alumni list a 
participant in the Centennial Gift, as 
an evidence of his fellowship, became 
the key messages throughout the cam- 



Two focal dates stand out in the 
campaign, leading up to the intensive 
week of November 29-December 4, in- 
clusive. One was the two-day rally at 
Amherst on November 19-20. On this 
occasion the executives of the national 
organization, the committee of one hun- 
dred, the district chairmen from all over 
the United States, and the class repre- 
sentatives, with several hundred other 



The Centennial Gift 



105 



alumni, gathered to make a survey of 
the college and its needs, study inten- 
sively the precise methods which they 
were to apply a little later in local ef- 
forts everywhere, saturate themselves 
with the enthusiasm which such things 
require, and which they would after- 
wards distribute nationally, and, inci- 
dentally, to see the Amherst-Williams 
football game, which ended with the 
score 14 to 7. There are those who re- 
garded the game as worth several hun- 
dred thousand dollars in the added en- 
thusiasm which it put into the visitors 
who would radiate it for the next two 
weeks. These two days, ending with 
the night rally at College Hall, are re- 
garded as memorable in the spirit that 
was manifested. 

One week later, on Saturday, Novem- 
ber i27th, nearly forty dinners were held 
in the various district capitals of the 
campaign, celebrating Lord Jeffery 
Amherst Night simultaneously. Tele- 
grams of greeting were exchanged and 
the College and its needs were presented 
again. Never before had as many Am- 
herst men sat down to dinner together, 
for they were together, even though 
scattered geographically from coast to 
coast. 

Beginning on Monday, November 
29th, came the intensive week. It would 
be easy to tell stories of the spirit mani- 
fested, with characteristic responses 
from those who shared the work in va- 
rious ways. Because New York was 
the seat of national headquarters, with 
the largest quota and the largest num- 
ber of men accessible for work together, 
it was a week of excitement. Seventy- 
two team workers, under six team cap- 
tains, met at luncheon daily to report 
and exchange enthusiasm. Such things 
were done on varying scales all over the 
country, down to the district which re- 
ported the use of an ox-team to visit 
the only alumnus in reach. When the 
end of the week came round, the pledges 
reported reached a total of $2,500,000 
out of the $3,000,000 target. This in- 
cluded $300,000 generously pledged by 
the General Education Board on condi- 
tion that $1,200,000 should be raised 
additionally. This, of course, had been 
more than earned by the pledges signed 
during the week. 

Since the close of the intensive week, 



delayed pledges and belated reports 
have been straggling in to encourage 
headquarters while the results are being 
tabulated for formal report. The head- 
quarters office in New York is to be 
closed as of January 10th, at which time 
all records, files, and further work will 
be transferred to the office of the Alumni 
Council at Amherst. From there, under 
plans already formulated, the effort will 
continue to fill the gap and reach the 
$3,000,000 total by Commencement 
next June. 

This work will be done in two ways: 
the forty district chairmen will continue 
their efforts to obtain pledges from 
every man in their district not already 
signed up. The class representatives 
will now begin the most important part 
of their work, which is to close up the 
gaps in their own classes. Lists have 
been sent to them indicating what mem- 
bers of the class have pledged and what 
ones have not. Whenever a pledge is 
received in the Amherst office it will 
help to complete the district list, and 
the class list, which cross-section each 
other. If a pledge comes through from 
a class chairman, the district chairman 
where the new signer resides will be so 
advised, and if the pledge comes through 
from the district chairman, the class 
representative will be so advised. In 
this way it is hoped to reach 100 per 
cent participation, which is by no means 
a secondary goal. No one permits him- 
self to doubt that the total of $3,000,000 
will be reached by Commencement. But 
this is because no one doubts the 100 
per cent participation. If districts 
which are still short bring up their 
quotas to their own designated figures, 
and if, as this would imply, every Am- 
herst man now missing will do his part 
in the ratio established by the great 
majority already pledged, the half mil- 
lion dollar gap will be closed. Unless 
this sort of cooperation continues, there 
will be a gap at the finish. 

Even to have brought the effort to 
its present degree of success is unprece- 
dented in the list of college cainpaigns 
which have been undertaken during the 
last few years. The perfect score which 
is now the objective will break all rec- 
ords, as Amherst deserves. But let no 
one think that the men who have been 
in this cause regard the money achieve- 



106 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



ment as of sole importance. The by- 
products are of immeasurable value. 
The men who have given work and 
money have thereby committed them- 
selves with renewed devotion to Am- 
herst College and to each other. That 
will be a continuing influence in further 
support of the college, in its resources, 
its standards, and its student body to 
the end of time. Pledges of fellowship 
were renewed; old songs were sung more 
heartily and new ones written. Perhaps 
one of the flippant parodies carries more 
of an interpretation of the atmosphere 
of the great event than could be ex- 
pressed in serious phrase : 



East side, west side, all around the town, 
Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn, we've 

patrolled them up and down. 
Our shoes were full of blisters, our 

mouths were full of talk. 
But we saw them sign on the dotted line, 

in little old New York. 

Inside, outside, up the stairs and down; 
We even went to Jersey, and we never 

got a frown. 
By trolley, train, and flivver, but mostly 

it was walk. 
We had some fun, and we got the 

"mon," in little old New York. 

Trumbull White. 



THE CELEBRATION OF LORD JEFF NIGHT 



St. Louis 

You never heard such singing any- 
where! When Al Wyman, Bill Burg, 
Hugh Weed, and Jewett Jones, and the 
rest of those song-and-jail birds gather 
together, everyone admits that the re- 
sult cannot be duplicated. 

The clan of thirty-five met Saturday, 
November 27th, at the University Club. 
Prof. Tom Esty, the same Tom as ever, 
(but he looked even better than that to 
us,) was there to greet each of us. We 
talked, we gossiped, we sang until 
Luther Ely Smith arrived — then headed 
by Tom (meaning Prof. Esty) we snake- 
danced (that's the word) around the 
club and into the dining-room singing 
Lord Jeffery so well and loud that Chi- 
cago telegraphed us that we must be 
using megaphones. 

Between songs, we had a little food. 
(You can eat any time.) Wilbur Jones 
(he's good) gave his impersonation of 
good old "Grovie." Sam McCluny 
read the telegrams from other meetings 
in his inimitable way. And then there 
was more singing. 

The most representative Amherst 
man of all time, Luther Ely Smith, '94, 
then introduced Professor Connor, a re- 
cent addition to the psychology depart- 
ment. Professor Connor gave us a very 
interesting and instructive talk on 
criminology, illustrating his talk with 
lantern slides of young men. Those 
same crooks and criminals were later 
thrown upon the screen in their matur- 



ity and proved to be Messrs. Bixby, 
Jim Ford, Jewett Jones, Sam McCluny, 
and Luther Smith. The rest of us 
thought the talk very good. (Professor 
Connor was Mr. Finnerman of St. 
Louis.) 

Four of us had been to the big doings 
the week previous at Amherst — the best 
time we ever had. Harold Bixby, our 
president, "than whom there is no 
finer," described his good time as far as 
he dared and then called upon Clare 
Francis to tell about the big football 
game. The game itself couldn't be du- 
plicated, there never was another like 
it, so how could it be described. The 
details of the game and the crowds, 
and the yelling, and the antics, and the 
spirit, etc., took everyone back to Pratt 
Field. 

Prof. Tom Esty just took us back to 
the old college. He reminded us of our 
old experiences. He convinced us of the 
advantages derived from such men as 
Hitchcock, Garman, Emerson, Tyler, 
Harris, etc. He made us see that Am- 
herst professors were interested in only 
one thing — the development of the boys; 
that they gave the best they had. He 
stated that Amherst was "the fountain 
of perpetual youth." 

Professor Esty's talk was brimful of 
joy and confidence and satisfaction. His 
impersonations of his faculty associates 
were wonderful. We wouldn't let him 
rest, and quicker than that he would 
tell an anecdote or impersonate any 



Lord Jeffery Amherst Dinners 107 



professor called for. Many of the pro- 
fessors would have been pleased to see 
the esteem in which they are held. 

Al Wyman was supposed to tell about 
the Big Rally in College Hall after the 
game. He did tell it and each of us sat 
in again on the old-time big party. But 
Al couldn't resist the temptation of 
exercising his selling skill on us and so 
began soliciting subscriptions right then. 
Why wait? Why take so much time 
about it? Every Amherst man is going 
to give, so do it now. I start with so 
much, who's next? Then the stampede 
started. It is unnecessary to state that 
every Amherst man pledged himself 
right then. 

It was a great night ! Let's have some 
more. Lord Jeffery ought to have at 
least two birthdays a year. 

Chicago 

The Amherst Club of Chicago held 
its Lord Jeffery Amherst Night banquet 
at the University Club. 

The hall was interestingly decorated 
with Amherst banners and a number of 
the posters carried in the alumni parade 
at the Amherst-Williams game. The 
table, set in the form of a large "A," 
was crowded with Amherst men filled 
with the spirit that makes a three- 
million-dollar drive possible. Mr. 
Lounsberry, president of the Amherst 
Club, read a number of telegrams bring- 
ing to the Club the greetings of Vice- 
President-Elect Calvin Coolidge, and of 
other alumni associations. 

Josiah T. Reade, '56, spoke on the 
Amherst of his day with a great deal 
of interest, sincerity, and enthusiasm. 
So ardent a message was particularly 
inspiring from a man of Mr. Reade's age. 

Morton Snyder, '06, principal of one 
of Chicago's biggest high schools, gave 
an interesting talk on the teachers of 
today, bringing out an interesting com- 
parison between the teacher and the 
educator. 

Burges Johnson, '99, brought to the 
Amherst Club some new messages 
from Deacon Stebbins, written in the 
fresh, scintillating verse of his creator. 

Professor-Emeritus Edwin A. Grosve- 
nor told us in his ever interesting, elo- 
quent manner of what the three-million- 
dollar fund would do for Amherst. He 
laid particular stress upon the needs of 



the college Commons, emphasizing the 
fact that the first duty the college owed 
to the students was a good place to live 
and good food. 

Everyone left the banquet hall in- 
stilled with fresh enthusiasm to bring 
to a successful close the endowment 
fund that would give to Amherst stu- 
dents in her second hundred years the 
same advantages that all of us had en- 
joyed in Amherst's first century. 

PiTTSFIELD 

Another Amherst association was 
born on November 27th, when the Berk- 
shire County Association was formed at 
the Hotel Wendell in Pittsfield, Mass. 
This was Lord Jeff Night, and speeches 
were delivered by C. E. Bibbard, '67, 
W. D. Goodwin, '88, and W. L. Tower, 
'93. Clinton Q. Richmond, '81. of 
North Adams was elected secretary of 
the association. 

Rochester 

Half a hundred alumni of Amherst 
gathered at the University Club in 
Rochester to observe Lord Jeffery Am- 
herst Night. 

Those who know Amherst know that 
Amherst undergraduates can sing. Most 
of those present at the dinner appar- 
ently had not forgotten the old songs 
nor how to sing them, and the Univer- 
sity Club resounded with college med- 
leys. The singing was in charge of 
Chandler Knapp, '05, who led the Glee 
Club when he was in college. Roland A. 
Wood, '20, who appeared as reader with 
the Amherst Musical Clubs at the Hotel 
Seneca last spring, came on from Brook- 
lyn to entertain. 

For Lord Jeffery Amherst Night the 
College sent a member of the faculty 
and a prominent alumnus to each of the 
dinners. In Rochester the alumni rep- 
resentative was Walter H. Knapp, '79, 
of Canandaigua, while Prof. Harry de 
Forest Smith was the faculty represen- 
tative. The committee in charge of the 
dinner was composed of George Burns, 
president of the Rochester Club; Charles 
B. Peck, Jr., Charles H. Brown, Jr., and 
William J. Babcock. 

Denver 
Truly "ye circling hills" resounded 
with "glad songs of praise" when the 
members of the Rocky Mountain Alum- 



108 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



ni Association assembled in the pipe and 
bowl room of the Denver University 
Club to do honor to Lord Jeffery Am- 
herst, and the college which bears his 
name. Although less than three weeks 
had elapsed since the visit of Dean Olds, 
an event which called for a gathering of 
Amherst men from all parts of Colorado, 
about 90 per cent of the available Am- 
herst men in this territory turned out. 

Calvin H. Morse, '83, acted as master 
of ceremonies, but he followed no set 
ritual. Speeches were made by those 
who had something they wanted to say 
and, as a result, speeches were made by 
almost all of the twenty Amherst men in 
attendance. 

Harmony of doubtful quality 
abounded. With a very small group of 
Amherst men in this region, who range 
in age from nineteen to ninety, it is 
difficult to find songs of the college 
which are familiar to more than a small 
and vocally inconsequential number. On 
Lord Jeffery Night, however, it was dis- 
covered that "On The Banks of the 
Old Freshman" had a very general ap- 
peal, the tempo only having changed 
greatly with the changing generations 
of Amherst men. 

The Denver dinner was a particularly 
fortunate event in that a considerable 
number of Amherst men in this district, 
who did not have an opportunity to 
meet and hear Dean Olds, were able to 
be present. Great impetus was given to 
the movement for the Centennial Gift, 
and there is every indication that it will 
meet with a hearty response in the 
Rocky Mountain region. 

Kansas City 
Eight graduates of Amherst College 
met at dinner at the University Club, 
Kansas City, Mo., in celebration of 
Lord Jeffery Amherst Night. Mark D. 
Mitchell, '94, presided. Mr. Mitchell 
proposed the following resolution, which 
was adopted unanimously, and tele- 
graphed to the other dinners: Resolved, 
that the breed of Jeffery Amherst shall 
be made a permanent asset of the nation. 
No formal speeches were made, but 
the thoughts of all returned to the Col- 
lege Hill rising out of the yellow and 
brown lowlands about the Connecticut, 
and with the feeling of Amherst strong 
upon us we renewed our devotion to the 
College and to the ideals of her sons. 



Boston 
The Boston alumni — tOO strong — 
celebrated Lord Jeff Night with an en- 
thusiastic dinner and reunion at the 
Hotel Somerset. Dwight W. Morrow, 
'95, chairman of the executive commit- 
tee for the Centennial Gift, received by 
telephone the greetings, transmitted by 
Gov. Coolidge, '95, from the New York 
alumni. 

After grace had been said by the Rev. 
George G. Phipps, '62, the Alumni Glee 
Club, under the leadership of R. P. 
Young, '14, dressed in the costume of 
Lord Jeffery's time, marched into the 
hall singing the college song bearing his 
name and distributed purple and white 
hats to all assembled. 

Donald D. McKay, '09, president of 
the alumni association of Boston, pre- 
sided and introduced Charles A. An- 
drews, '95, who acted as toastmaster. 
He read a cablegram from President 
Meiklejohn, who is spending his sabbati- 
cal year at Oxford, England, expressing 
best wishes for the coming endowment 
campaign. He then introduced Presi- 
dent Ernest M. Hopkins of Dartmouth 
College. 

The next speaker was acting presi- 
dent George D. Olds of Amherst, who 
said in part: "I think in many respects 
this is the greatest night in Amherst's 
history; and what makes it great is that 
we are one of many Amherst gatherings 
to celebrate Lord Jeffery Night. Every- 
where at the same instant hundreds of 
Amherst men are thinking of the old 
college on the hill. The 6800 graduates 
of Amherst have carried their training 
to the millions of the American people. 
It is a superb monument of what that 
training stands for. The justification of 
our colleges is the broad liberal training 
which permeates the world." 

Dwight W. Morrow in his short ad- 
dress reviev/ed briefly the growth and 
work of the college since its beginnings 
under President Moore. "There is a 
responsibility upon us all," he declared, 
"to get back to the place of our begin- 
nings for renewed inspiration. We all 
belong to Amherst, we all must justify 
Amherst. The plain farmers of the 
Connecticut Valley founded the college 
at a sacrifice of their small means; it 
was a gift from the poor farmers to se- 
lected men, picked because of their fit- 



Lord Jeffery Amherst Dinners 109 



ness to become more strong. We must 
make this possible for thousands more 
who are to come in this second century 
of our life that we are approaching." 

Throughout the meeting the Alumni 
Glee Club led the singing of old college 
songs, assisted by the Jefferson-Johnson 
orchestra. 

The following officers were elected : to 
serve on the Executive Committee for 
three years, F. W. Denio, '06, G. H. B. 
Green, '05, and Charles A. Andrews,"95; 
the representative on the Alumni Coun- 
cil, R. A. Woods, '86; the nominating 
committee, James E. Downey, '97, 
chairman, H. W. Giese, '02, and N. 
Boynton, Jr., '19; treasurer, E. C. Fer- 
guson, '16; secretary, Halvor R. Sew- 
ard, '19. 

San Francisco 
Twenty-two Amherst men of the as- 
sociation of Northern California, repre- 
senting classes from 1865 to 1915, put 
their feet under the round table at the 
University Club of San Francisco on 
the occasion of Lord Jeffery's "birth- 
day." The intervening years, the di- 
versity of interests, the variance of 
classes represented were all dispelled 
when "Campus Dreams" Blake, '97, 
commandeered the piano and led us in 
the old familiar songs. Inside of five 
minutes a lot of the oldsters who had 
never heard "Lord Jeffery" or "Cheer 
for Old Amherst" threw away their 
crutches, canes, and ear-trumpets and 
were howling like timber wolves with 
the rest of us. Every man present gave 
a little talk full of Amherst reminiscences 
and enthusiasm, and our chairman who 
had returned that afternoon from the 
meeting at Amherst made a report of 
the doings at the old College. Nothing 
of moment ever occurred at Amherst 
that was not echoed around the table 
that night. College days were surely 
re-lived. Story after story brought us 
back to the class-room under the spell 
of "Tip" Tyler, "Nungie," and 
"Grovie." The laughable incidents, 
the moments of inspiration, football 
victories, deeds of accomplishment — 
they all came back, surge upon surge. 

Our dinner of November 27th awak- 
ened us to the realization of how much 
we owe to Amherst College and brought 
us to our feet saying to the world: 
"The Amherst Alumni Association of 



Northern California will come through 
100 per cent strong for the Amherst 
Centennial Gift." 

Syracuse 
The twenty-second annual meeting 
of the Central New York Alumni As- 
sociation was held at the University 
Club, Syracuse, on Lord Jeffery Am- 
herst Night. Walter R. Stone, '95, ex- 
mayor of Syracuse, chairman for the 
district of the Centennial Gift Commit- 
tee, presided. Prof. Walter W. Stewart, 
as representative of the faculty, ex- 
plained the need and importance of the 
gift. Trumbull White, '90, as repre- 
sentative of the Central Committee, 
gave interesting details of the scheme 
of operations. William K. Wickes, '70, 
spoke in his usual eloquent manner. 
Edwin Duffy, '90, made a very forceful 
plea for the subscription of every man. 
L. Sumner Pruyne, '21, represented the 
undergraduates. There were twenty- 
five in attendance and the following 
officers for the ensuing year were elected : 
President, Halsey M. Collins, '96; vice- 
president, O. E. Merrell, '01; secretary, 
J. Edward Banta, '80; treasurer, Roy 
W. Bell, '07. An adjournment was 
taken at a late hour after a most en- 
joyable evening. 

PRO\aDBNCE 

Rhode Island is a small state, as its 
residents occasionally hear from Texans 
and other outlanders; consequently 
there's nothing incongruous in the 
statement that tlie forty men who cele- 
brated Lord Jeffery Night made the 
largest gathering in the liistory of the 
Rhode Island Association. The State 
is also peculiar to itself, which some- 
times works to its advantage, as when 
the postponement of the event from 
Saturday to Monday, November 29, 
permitted the presence of Professor 
Tyler, who, on Saturday, had attended 
the New York dinner. The spirit of the 
gathering was registered by one clergy- 
man who on the following day sent to 
the Endowment Committee a five-year 
subscription with the message that he 
had deliberately decided in advance 
that he could in conscience give noth- 
ing, but that the meeting had changed 
his views. He pledged himself to earn 
the amount of his subscription outside 
his ministerial salary. 



110 Amhebst Graduates' Quarterly 



Rev. Frank E. Butler, '84, president 
of the Rhode Island Association, was 
toastmaster. Professor Tyler's address, 
including a description of the Pelham 
farmers mortgaging their future to 
found the college a century ago, was the 
oratorical feature of the occasion. His 
speech had all the qualities of appeal 
that the modern advertising man cher- 
ishes, and in conversation he admitted 
that he had recently discovered that 
there was such a thing as formal adver- 
tising doctrine, the study of which he 
believed would add efficiency to peda- 
gogics. Nothing emeritus-like in " Tip's" 
zest in seeking new mechanism for the 
spread of old truths, although he always 
was a good advertiser for biology. 

William B. Greenough, '88, chairman 
of the Rhode Island campaign commit- 
tee, and Supreme Court Justice Charles 
F. Stearns, '89, Rhode Island member 
of the Committee of One Hundred, de- 
scribed the conferences at Amherst the 
week before and the uses to which the 
endowment is to be put, reflecting all 
the enthusiasm of those gatherings. 
Professor Bigelow's remark when the 
committee visited the Octagon to in- 
quire into the needs of his department, 
"We need a new floor, and a new piano, 
but if you'll keep us going we can get 
along with what we have," was cited as 
typical of the spirit that has made Am- 
herst. Former Governor Lucius F. C. 
Garvin, 'Qi, the oldest Rhode Island 
alumnus, spoke briefly on Amherst 
ideals in his day and now. 

Incidentally, Professor Tyler re- 
marked afterwards that for once he had 
enjoyed a formal dinner which was also 
edible, a fact which seemed to him 
worthy of biologic record and is pre- 
sumably not a reflection on any other 
Amherst banquets. Robert C. Chapin, 
'09, secretary of the Rhode Islanders 
and stage manager of the event, regis- 
tered contentment at this point. 

Philadelphia 

More than one hundred Philadelphia 
alumni were present at the Lord Jeffery 
Amherst dinner at the Bellevue-Strat- 
ford given for the dual purpose of cele- 
brating the 100th anniversary of the 
founding of the College and beginning 
the campaign to raise a $3,000,000 
alumni gift to the institution. 

Among the speakers who appealed to 



the loyalty of the alumni of the old 
college to contribute generously in order 
to keep alive "the Amherst tradition" 
were Charles S. Whitman, '90, former 
governor of New York; Samuel D. War- 
riner, '88, president of the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Co.; Wm. D. Tracy, '08, 
president of the Tracy-Parry Advertis- 
ing Co.; Rev. F. A. Griffin, '98, pastor 
of the First Unitarian Church, of this 
city; Rev. Charles S. Mills, '82, of New 
York City; Prof. Horatio E. Smith, '08, 
of the College faculty, and Robert P. 
Esty, '97, secretary of the local com- 
mittee. Dr. Clinton A. Strong, '98, 
English master at Penn Charter School, 
was toastmaster. 

Every speaker pointed to the suc- 
cesses achieved by Amherst graduates 
as a practical contribution of the "Am- 
herst tradition." 

Worcester 
Amherst spirit ran high in Worcester, 
Mass., when sixty-two members of the 
Alumni Association of Central Massa- 
chusetts assembled at the State Mutual 
Restaurant to celebrate Lord Jeff 
Night. President Dr. Gordon Berry, 
'Oi, of Worcester, was toastmaster, and 
greetings from the College were brought 
by Prof. S. L. Garrison and Prof. Ray- 
mond G. Gettell. Judge Edward T. 
Esty, '97, chairman of the Worcester 
District Centennial Gift Committee, 
made an impressive appeal to the 
alumni to back their loyalty to Amherst 
with a substantial token of their faith 
in the college during the centennial week 
drive. The centennial spirit was given 
impetus when Dr. Lamson Allen, '79, 
was called upon and announced he had 
figured out he owed Amherst a balance 
of $1500 on account of his education 
and that, while he did not have the 
money to give, his years would not deter 
him from finding a way to earn $500 a 
year for the next five years to give to his 
Alma Mater. Chester T. Porter, '96, 
was commandeered as chorister and the 
banquet hall fairly rang with the good 
old Amherst songs. Secretary Henry 
E. Whitcomb, '94, telegraphed greetings 
from Worcester to the other associations. 

Des Moines 
Inclement weather, long distances to 
travel, and illness prevented attendance 
of about one-half of the thirty Iowa 



Lord Jeffeby Amherst Dinners 111 



Amherst alumni at the Lord Jeffery Am- 
herst banquet, tendered by the Des 
Moines Alumni Association at Hotel 
Fort, Des Moines; but what was lacking 
in numbers was supplied in a splendid 
spirit of enthusiasm vented in song and 
story and good fellowship. 

Though we are hfteen hundred miles 
from the old College that honored his 
loyal Lordship; and though we hear only 
more or less infrequently of the activi- 
ties and accomplishments of our Alma 
Mater, the potentiality of college spirit 
to revive the youthful impulses of col- 
lege days was everywhere in evidence. 

Congressman H. T. Rainey, '83, the 
speaker provided by the Executive 
Committee, was detained in Washing- 
ton, so we substituted everybody pres- 
ent, and sang and ate and drank and 
sang again, until long after midnight, 
when some of the members of the class 
of '63 were called home by their grand- 
children. We sang and played every- 
thing from "The Banks of the Old 
Freshman" to " Waw-Kee-Naw-Kee- 
Naw," talked informally about "how 
to get the money," and sent as many 
and as long telegrams of felicitation to 
other alumni associations as did New 
York, Boston, or any other city twice 
our size. 

We had a bully, rousing, enthusiastic 
time to the glory of old Amherst; and 
when the small band adjourned, the 
orchestra and colored waiters all joined 
in the final "Cheer for old Amherst," 
delivered from the mezzanine balcony, 
at two, on the morning of November 
28th. 

Cleveland 
The Cleveland Lord Jeffery Amherst 
dinner was held according to schedule. 
It was the largest gathering of Amherst 
alumni in Cleveland for many a year. 
Nearly every man in the city and several 
from nearby towns and cities put in an 
appearance. About forty men attended. 
Charles K. Arter, '98, a former presi- 
dent of the Association of Cleveland, 
and chairman of the district for the 
Centennial Gift, was toastmaster. The 
two speakers were Charles H. Sibley, 
'91, of Worcester, Mass., and Prof. Fred- 
erick L. Thompson, '92, of Amherst. 
Mr. Sibley's argument seemed to be that 
Amherst was great despite her lamenta- 
ble weaknesses, but his hearers took his 



remarks good naturedly and ascribed 
his point of view somewhat to a bad 
night on the train. Professor Thompson 
spoke most felicitously in rebuttal, and 
everyone would have been glad to have 
had him keep on for an hour more. The 
spirit of the dinner was most enthusias- 
tic and promised well for the campaign. 
Owen Locke, '07, was elected president, 
succeeding Brainerd Dyer, '05, who has 
removed from Cleveland. 

Minneapolis 

The Northwestern Alumni Associa- 
tion gathered for dinner at the Minne- 
apolis Club with thirty-two members 
of the association present. Amherst 
College was the only thought of these 
men from the first notes of "Lord Jeff- 
ery" as a starter until the final strains 
of the "Fairest College" brought down 
the curtain. All came away with a re- 
newed faith and interest in Amherst 
ideals and the work that Amherst is 
doing for her students. 

Herbert L. Bridgman, '66, was the 
speaker of the evening, coming on from 
Brooklyn, N. Y., with a message from 
Vice-President-Elect Coolidge as well as 
his own personal message which sketch- 
ed with vivid personal touches the early 
aims and growth of the College. Rich- 
ard E. Burton, '82, professor of English 
Literature at the University of Minne- 
sota, inspired us all with his plea for the 
small liberal college. S. W. Wells, '00, 
sketched the essential needs of Amherst, 
laying particular emphasis on teachers' 
salaries. 

Joseph R. Kingman, '83, presided, 
while a quartet composed of Brown, '14, 
BuUard, '10, Kernan, '11, and O'Brien, 
'19, led the singing of Amherst songs 
and their own inspired by the occasion. 

The gathering was the largest of the 
association on record with a full 50 per 
cent attendance. It was unanimously 
voted that Lord Jeffery Amherst Night 
be made a permanent Amherst institu- 
tion. 

Springfield 
Unusual features of the Lord Jeffery 
Amherst Night celebration of the Co- 
necticut Valley Alunmi Association \yere 
the presence of Mrs. Calvin Coolidge 
and other ladies of the alumni at the 
dinner, and the address of Mrs. Dwight 
W. Morrow of New York. The dinner 



112 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



was held at the Hotel Kimball, Spring- 
field. A large table in the center of the 
ball-room was reserved for the ladies 
and the small tables for the alumni. 
The speakers were Professor-Emeritus 
Benjamin K. Emerson, '65, Bruce Bar- 
ton, '07, Nathan P. Avery, Esq., '91, 
and Mrs. Morrow. Frederick S. Allis, 
'93, president of the Association, pre- 
sided. 

Professor Emerson referred to the 
fact that if he had continued in active 
service two more years he would have 
completed half a century as a teacher in 
Amherst College and that the chair in 
Geology at Amherst from the founding 
of the College would have been filled by 
only two men, President Hitchcock and 
himself. 

Bruce Barton's speech was an ap- 
pealing combination of humor and sen- 
timent. As chairman of the Centennial 
Gift for the Connecticut Valley, Mr. 
Avery spoke most effectively on behalf 
of the gift. The speaking was brought 
to a close by Mrs. Morrow, who had 
been one of the leaders in the Smith 
College Four Million Dollar Campaign. 
She referred to the tremendous help 
which Amherst men had been to Smith 
alumnae in their appeal, and stirred her 
hearers by her convincing assurance that 
nothing but an unflinching determina- 
tion to succeed would bring success. 
The singing under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Bigelow was especially good. The 
singers sat together and after the formal 
part of the dinner the singing was con- 
tinued while the members and guests 
visited informally. The presence of the 
ladies added much to the success of the 
evening. 

The following officers were elected for 
the year 1921-22; President, Ernest M. 
Whitcomb, '04; secretary, John H. 
Madden, '12; executive committee, 
William \Miiting, 2d, '15, Robert J. 
Cleeland, '02, Emerson G. Gaylord, '05; 
representative on the Alumni Council, 
Kingman Brewster, '06. 

New York 
The Lord Jcffery Night dinner of 
the Amherst Association of New York, 
held in the Grand Ballroom of the Ho- 
tel Pennsylvania, bore the unmistakable 
earmarks of rapidly mounting enthusi- 
asm resulting from many previous class 
gatherings in anticipation of the Cen- 



tennial Gift activities, the first act of 
which was the Lord Jeffery Night Din- 
ner itself. A large committee under the 
tried leadership of Collin Armstrong, 
'77, had made arrangements for a record 
crowd, but when the gathering was fi- 
nally called to order every extra seat 
was filled and additional tables had to 
be provided. It was estimated that 
over seven hundred alumni were pres- 
ent and in addition one hundred and 
fifty ladies, who occupied tables in the 
boxes arranged around the room. 

Immediately after the invocation, 
the lights were extinguished and a spot 
light disclosed a true replica of Lord 
JetFery himself in the person of Maurice 
L. Farrell, '01, accompanied by ten sons 
of prominent alumni who were labeled 
as the Class of 1927. After a message 
from Lord Jeffery the youngst cs with 
the aid of cards in their hands and hung 
around their necks disclosed to the gath- 
ering that the Centennial Gift was 
needed to make the second hundred 
years of Amherst the equal of the illus- 
trious first hundred. 

President William C. Breed, '93, of 
the New York Association, who was in 
the chair, succeeded in establishing a 
spirit of fraternity that was immediately 
reflected by alumni of every decade. 
The driving force that he had supplied 
for New York activities and especially 
the Centennial Gift collection that has 
commanded so much of his personal 
time for many months put him in a 
position to talk with intimacy and au- 
thority on the various subjects that were 
to be considered. 

Upon the introduction of the guest of 
honor, Hon. Calvin Coolidge, '95, Vice- 
President-Elect of the United States, 
the entire assemblage rose in a body and 
greeted him with prolonged cheering. 
Since his speech has been reprinted and 
circulated among the alumni in pam- 
phlet form, it is unnecessary to give ex- 
tracts from it here. 

The next speaker was Chief Justice 
Arthur P. Rugg, '83, of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. His talk assumed the 
nature of very interesting reminiscences 
and a constructive outline of what Am- 
herst can do to carry on the good work 
that has been so well started. 

The greatest enthusiasm greeted the 



Lord Jeffery Amherst Dinners 113 



next speaker, Tip Tyler, that is, Pro- 
fessor-Emeritus John M. Tyler, '73, 
who spoke with a force and a feeling 
for Amherst that aroused the meeting 
to repeated cheers and applause. He 
called upon the memory of his father 
as well as his own to go back almost to 
the very beginning of the College. His 
outline of the struggles of the early 
College had a visible effect on the audi- 
ence. 

The last speaker was Professor Wil- 
liam J. Newlin, '99, Executive Secretary 
of the Amherst Centennial Celebration 
Committee, who urged the New York 
alumni to be present for the grand 
celebration at Amherst in June. 

Hartford 

At the Lord Jeffery Night dinner in 
Hartford there were not so many of us 
as there should have been, but the fifty 
or so members of the Connecticut As- 
sociation, from Keith, '77, to Ted Gil- 
lett, '23, who sat down together at the 
University Club were true Amherst 
men and they had a royal good time. 

George S. Conant, '78, president of 
the association, acted as toastmaster. 
His words, always true and sound and 
now and then lighted up with a genuine 
sentiment, grew more earnest and force- 
ful as the meeting advanced, as though 
the Amherst idea was getting hold of 
him more and more. President Remsen 
M. Ogilby of Trinity College spoke of 
his high esteem for Amherst and of his 
own indebtedness to the president of 
the College for the guidance and counsel 
given to him so cordially and in such 
masterly fashion when he came to 
Trinity; and then went on to pay a 
glowing tribute to President Meikle- 
john for his personal qualities and for 
his leadership in making the College 
what it is today in intellectual activity. 

S. H. Williams, '85, member of the 
Committee of One Hundred and chair- 
man for Connecticut, explained the 
plans of the Committee for the Centen- 
nial Gift. Percy Boynton, '97, made 
a capital speech full of wit and wisdom 
as well as the finest kind of sentiment. 
He said that it seemed to be his fate to 
be always explaining what he was not, 
that he was not the Dean of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago but one of the deans, 
that he was not his brother "Weary" 
Boynton, '91, nor Benny Boynton of 



Williams, nor any relative of Rev. Ne- 
hemiah Boynton, '79; but a mere repre- 
sentative of the impoverished classes, 
a plain professor who would be glad in- 
deed to receive a larger salary, but more 
pay or not, he counted himself happy 
because he was a teacher being paid for 
doing the very thing which he wanted 
most to do and which if he could afford 
it he would be glad to pay for the privi- 
lege of doing. E. W. Pelton, '01, the 
newly elected president of the associa- 
tion, followed him with a few character- 
istically strong and sensible words. Dr. 
A. P. Fitch, representing the College, 
made a thoughtful and stirring address 
in his best vein, on what the College 
has done and what right it has now to 
ask for $3,000,000. He claimed that 
the distinctive service of the college, 
and of Amherst College in particular, is 
the training for intellectual leadership; 
and because Amherst has been doing 
this all along and is doing it today bet- 
ter than ever, it asks the support of its 
sons. 

The following officers were elected: 
President, Ernest W. Pelton, '01; sec- 
retary and treasurer, Hillard A. Proc- 
tor, '13; executive committee, Arthur 
F. Ells, '02; Josiah B. Woods, '05; Rich- 
ard S. Williams, "02. 

No formal vote was passed regarding 
the Centennial Gift . There was no need 
of it. The rising tide of sentiment and 
of loyalty and underneath that the 
growing appreciation of what Amherst 
means anil of how well worth while it is 
to support the College as it ought to be 
supported will make this Centennial 
Gift to Amherst College the "Birthday 
Gift of her Sons," not barely as the 
catchword of a campaign but as the real 
offering of a genuine love. Every man 
at the Hartford dinner feels himself 
pledged to it and is bound to make every 
other Amherst man feel it if he can. 

Detroit 
Thirty-five members of the Michigan 
Association gathered in the Peacock 
Room of the Hotel Cadillac to celebrate 
Lord Jeffery Amherst Night. Most of 
the diners were graduates of the last 
fifteen years and competent to sing any 
Amherst song in the collection. They 
sang them all, some many times over. 
Robert B. Ailing, '10, the district chair- 
man, acted as toastmaster. George 



114 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



F. WTiicher, '10, of the College faculty, 
and Rev. John Timothy Stone, '91, of 
Chicago, were the speakers. After the 
formal speeches questions and remi- 
niscences flowed until a late hour. 

Indianapolis 
Prof. Charles W. Cobb, as faculty rep- 
resentative, met nine members of the 
Association of Indiana at a jolly dinner 
on November 27th. Robert D. Eagles- 
field, chairman of the Indiana district, 
organized the dinner. No formal speech 
was made, but the talk was continuous 
during the evening. 



TO ALL CLASSES 

News items for the May issue of the 
Quarterly are now due. They should 
be sent to John B. O'Brien, 309 Wash- 
ington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. They 
may be sent by any member of any 
class. Do not depend on some one else 
to send in such items — they may not 
do it. More cooperation on the part of 
the alumni is still needed, particularly 
fortheclassesof 1887, 1889, 1892. 1897, 
1898, 1906, 1911, 1914, and 1917. 



SINCE THE 

Died 

1847.— Samuel W. Dana, on Jan. 1, 
1921, at Newcastle, Pa., aged 92 years. 

1855.— Prof. Elijah Paddock Harris, 
on December 9, 1920, at Warsaw, N.Y. 
aged 88 years. 

1856.— Edward Kemble, on Decem- 
ber 9, 1920, at Beverly, Mass., aged 85 
years. 

1859. — Rev. Alpheus Richardson 
Nichols, on October 20, 1920, at Brook- 
field, Mass., aged 85 years. 

1863.— Rev. Dr. James Griswold 
Merrill, on December 22, 1920, at 
Mountain Lakes, N. J., aged 80 years. 

1866. — Noah Saxton Cooley, on Sep- 
tember 23, 1920, at Windsor Locks, 
Conn., aged 78 years. 

1868.— Dr. Worthington W. Miner, 
on December 19, 1920, at Ware, Mass., 
aged 73 years. 

1873.— Dr. William Jonathan Swift, 
on December 20, 1920, in New York 
City, aged 68 years. 

1876. — Henshaw Bates Chilson, in 
September, 1920, in New York City, 
aged 66 years. 

1876. — Rev. Robert Logan Patton, on 
January 8, 1920 (not previously re- 
corded), at Morganton, N. C, aged 71 
years. 

1876. — Franklin Ripley, on Novem- 
ber 29, 1920, at Troy, N. H., aged 67 
years. 

1878. — Rev. Frederick Augustus 
Holden, on November 22, 1920, at Mel- 
rose Highlands, Mass., aged 66 years. 

1883.— William C. Kitchin, on Janu- 
ary 8, 1920 (not previously recorded), 
at Scotia, N. Y. 



LAST ISSUE 

1886.— Daniel Fisk Kellogg, on Octo- 
ber 28, 1920, in New York City, aged 
55 vears. 

1887.— Rev. Dr. Charles Henry Dut- 
ton, on June 11, 1920, at Louisville, 
Ky., aged 55 years. 

1890. — Archibald Alexander Mc- 
Glashan, on December 4, 1920, at Kent, 
Conn., 53 years. 

1893. — Wallace H. Davis, on Decem- 
ber 7, 1920, in Minneapolis, Minn., 
aged 50 years. 

1896.— Edward Thompson Kimball, 
on December 1, 1920, at Brookline, 
Mass., aged 47 years. 

1915. — (Roll of Honor) Louis T. 
Rivard, in 1918, in a Canadian Canton- 
ment. 



1881. — At Jewel's Island, Me., on 
June 28, 1920, Lincoln MacVeagh and 
Miss Elizabeth Farley McKeen. 

1885. — In Boston, Mass., on Decem- 
ber 18, 1920, Albert Wadsworth Brooks 
and Miss Gertrude Greenlaw. 

1896.— In Syracuse, N. Y., on No- 
vember 5, 1920, Aurin M. Chase and 
Miss Lavina Bunton. 

1910.— In New York City, on October 
23, 1920, Barton H. Hall and Miss Anita 
H. Emmet. 

1910.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., on No- 
vember 27, 1920, Weston Whitney 
Goodnow and Miss Mary Godfrey Barr. 

1911. — In Boston, Mass., on Novem- 
ber, 20, 1920, Prof. Waldo Shumway 
and Miss Helen Davis. 

1913.— In Newark, N. J., on October 
27, 1920, T. J. Burns and Miss Loveland. 



Since The Last Issu 



115 



1915. — At Uniontown, Pa., on Janu- 
ary 27, 1920 (not previously recorded), 
M. S. Bulger and Miss Nellie McClel- 
land. 

1915. — At Maiden, Mass., on Decem- 
ber 28, 1920, Robert S. Moulton and 
Miss Florence Bracq. 

1915. — At Bristol, Conn., on Decem- 
ber 28, 1920, Rev. Frederick C. Allen 
and Miss Ruth Dorchester. 

1915.— At Freeport, 111., on October 
26, 1920, Horatio Wells and Miss Merle 
Owens. 

1916.— In New York City, on No- 
vember 6, 1920, Geoffrey Cooke Neiley 
and Miss Marion G. Riley. 

1917. — In New York City, on Decem- 
ber 24, 1920, Robert Wiltsie Wadhams 
and Miss Helen Stearns Cummings. 

1919.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., on No- 
vember 10, 1920, Marcus R. Burr and 
Miss Marjorie Flanagan. 

1919.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., in Octo- 
ber, 1920, Walter V. Bayer and Miss 
Dorothy Irwin. 

1919.— At Rockford, 111., in Septem- 
ber, 1920, Franklin F. Bailey and Miss 
Helen Smith. 



1905. — Nancy Matthews Hay den, on 
October 8, 1920, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Frank S. Hayden of Wyoming, N. Y. 

1909. — John Harding Coyle, on June 
14, 1920 (not previously recorded), son 
of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel J. Coyle, Jr., of 
Chicago, 111. 

1909. — Henry Folger Cleaveland, on 
January 22, 1920 (not previously re- 
corded), son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards 
L. Cleaveland of Brooklyn, N. Y. 



1911.— G. Rucker Stone, on June U. 
1920 (not previously recorded), son of 
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Stone of 
Guilford, Conn. 

1913.— Gladys Carter, on October 20, 
1920, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Chaun- 
cey C. Carter of Washington, D. C. 

1913.— Irvin Chaffee Plough, on July 
24, 1920, son of Prof, and Mrs. Harold 
H. Plough of Amherst, Mass. 

1914. — On December 10, 1920, a son, 
to Mr. and Mrs. S. D. Chamberlain of 
Chicago, 111. 

1915. — Carol Whitten, on December 
11, 1920, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Phillip F. Whitten of Walthara, Mass. 

1915.— Arthur Henry Elliot, Jr., re- 
cently, son of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. 
Elliot of Penang, Straits Settlements, 
F. M. S. 

1915. — Gerrit Hubbard Roelofs, on 
August 6, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Howard D. Roelofs of East Aurora, 
N. Y. 

1915.— On November 20, 1920, a 
daughter to Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Hunne- 
man of Philadelphia, Pa. 

1915. — Lawrence E. Goeller, Jr., on 
Septeml^er 21, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Lawrence E. Goeller of Circleville, Ohio. 

1915.— Everett Gladding Fuller, on 
December 6, 1920, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Everett W. Fuller of Springfield, Mass. 

1915. — Mary Marselis Pratt, on Sep- 
tember 26, 1920, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

1915.— On October 22, 1920, a daugh- 
ter to Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Konold 
of Mishawaka, Ind. 



THE CLASSES 



1847 



Amherst's oldest alumnus, Samuel W. 
Dana, Esq., died on January 1 at the 
home of his son Richard Dana, '95, in 
Newcastle, Pa. Mr. Dana was ninety- 
two years old and for a number of years 
past had been the only surviving mem- 
ber of any class graduated before 1850. 
An extended notice of his life will appear 
in the next number of the Qxjarteblt. 

1856 

Edward Kemble, one of the first pres- 



idents of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, a former Salem alderman, and a 
prominent New England yachtsman, 
died at the Beverly Hospital, on De- 
cember 2, 1920, following a long illness. 
He was 83 years old. 

Mr. Kemble was born at Wenham, 
Mass., on October 12, 1835, the son of 
Edmund and Mary W^ (Beckford) Kem- 
ble. Following his graduation from Am- 
herst, he studied law and later he be- 
came engaged in the commission busi- 
ness. For many years he was a leading 



116 Amhebst Graduates' Quarterly 



business man of Boston, and for a num- 
ber of years he resided in Salem, where 
he held office as alderman in that city 
in 1878 and 1879. He was a member 
of the Commercial Club and of the 
Eastern Yacht Club. 

He married in 1860 Miss Elizabeth I. 
Abbott of Beverly and is survived by a 
daughter. Miss Margaret Kemble of 
Weiiham. 

1859 

Rev. Alpheus Richardson Nichols, 
retired Methodist minister and secre- 
tary of the class of 1859, died at his 
home in Brookfield, Mass., on October 
20, 1920, at the age of 85. 

Mr. Nichols was the son of Proctor 
and Betsey (Richardson) Nichols and 
was born in Sturbridge, Mass., Decem- 
ber 24, 1834. He prepared for college 
at Wilbraham Academy and after grad- 
uating from Amherst was for many 
years a teacher. He taught at Leices- 
ter, Worcester, Chicopee Falls, and for 
five years was principal of the West 
Springfield High School, but failing 
health caused him to seek a change in 
climate. He then went to Missouri 
and engaged in cattle raising. While in 
the West he also did some teaching and 
church work. On his return to the East 
he entered the New England Methodist 
Conference, becoming pastor of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Green- 
field in 1881. He also held pastorates 
in Shrewsbury, Warren, West Somer- 
ville, Florence, and Monson, retiring 
ten years ago. 

Mr. Nichols was twice married. His 
first wife was Miss Sarah Adelaide Ran- 
som of Bennington, Vt. He married 
the second time Mrs. Adella C. Foster 
Shepard of Florence in 1890. He is sur- 
vived by his widow, two daughters, and 
three sons, two of whom are the Rev. 
Ransom P. Nichols, '95, and Norval P. 
Nichols, '96. His brother, the late 
Samuel Edward Nichols, was a member 
of the class of 1865. 

1860 

Lewis W. West, Secretary, 

Hadley, Mass. 

The Rev. Dr. Cornelius E. Dickinson 

has just published a "History of Bol- 

Pt€." This liistory begins in Colonial 

days when Belpr6 was a French posses- 



sion. As an American community Bel- 
pr6 dates from 1790 and its record is 
full of interest. Says a recent review, 
"The volume should find a place in 
every collection of Americana. It is 
brought up to date and includes the 
Roll of Honor for the Great War." 

1863 

Hon. Edw. W. Chapin, Secretary, 
181 Elm St., Holyoke, Mass. 

The Rev. Dr. James Griswold Mer- 
rill, educator, author, and for many 
years president of Fisk University, died 
at his home in Mountain Lakes, N. J., 
on December 22, 1920. He was 80 
years old. 

Dr. Merrill was born in Montague, 
Mass., on August 20, 1810, the son of 
Rev. James H. and Lucia (Griswold) 
Merrill. After graduating from Am- 
herst in 1863 he studied at Princeton 
Theological Seminary, and Andover 
Theological Seminary, from which he 
graduated in 1866. He was ordained 
in the Congregational ministry in the 
same year and for the next few years 
held pastorates at Mound City and 
Topeka, Kan. From 1872 to 1882 he 
was pastor of the Congregational Church 
in Davenport, Iowa, and for the next 
seven years of the First Church of St. 
Louis. In 1889 he was called to the 
Payson Memorial Church in Poitland, 
Me., which pastorate he held until 189-4 
when he became editor of the Christian 
Mirror. From there he went to Fisk 
University in Nashville, Tenn., where 
from 1899 to 1901 he was acting-presi- 
dent of that university. He was elected 
president in 1901 and held the post until 
1908. He then became pastor at Som- 
erset, Mass., and in 1912 went to Lake 
Helen, Fla. He retired from the minis- 
try in 1915. 

Dr. Merrill is survived by his two 
sons, Oliver B. Merrill, '91, mayor of 
Summit, N. J., William F. Merrill, '99, 
president of the Lamson Company, 
Boston, and his brother, W. F. Merrill, 
Amherst, '63. His wife, who was Louise 
W. Boutwell, died in 1919. In 1903 
Amherst conferred upon him the degree 
of D.D. 

1866 

Herbert L. Bridgman, Secretary, 
604 Carlton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The Rev. Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst 



The Classes 



117 



is once more active in the pastorate. 
He has accepted the invitation of the 
committee of the Manhattan Congre- 
gational Church, Broadway and 76th 
St., New York City, to serve as its 
acting-pastor from October last till June. 

Dr. and Mrs. Parkhurst observed the 
fiftieth anniversary of their marriage on 
November 23, 1920. They were married 
in Northampton, Mass., where Dr. 
Parkhurst was then teaching school. 
Mrs. Parkhurst was active in church 
work until she became an invalid. She 
has been president for many years of 
the American McCall Association, 
which assists Protestant missions in 
France. 

Noah Saxton Cooley died at his home 
in Windsor Locks, Conn., of pneumonia 
on September £3, 1920. 

Mr. Cooley was the son of Alford and 
Caroline (Saxton) Cooley and was born 
in Longmeadow, Mass., February 9, 
1842. He prepared for college at Mon- 
son Academy, entering Amherst with 
the class of 1865. He left college in 
1862 to enlist in the ■46th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, Company I, and was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant. On being 
mustered out, he reentered Amherst, 
with the class of 1866, and, on gradua- 
tion accepted a position with Saxton 
and Thompson, flour millers, of Troy, 
N. Y. 

In 1871 he joined the Medlicott Com- 
pany of Windsor Locks, manufacturers 
of full fashioned knit underwear, and 
did much to make that company what 
it is today. In 1877 he was elected su- 
perintendent and secretary and in 1888 
was made a director. He was elected 
president and treasurer of the company 
in 1907. 

Mr. Cooley was unmarried. Until 
the severe weather of last winter he 
never missed going to his old home in 
Longmeadow, to spend Sunday with his 
two sisters. Outside of business he was 
devoted to his home and books. He 
was a member of the Loyal Legion and 
the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. 

1868 

William A. Brown, Secretary, 

9 Prospect Park West, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The police have been asked to seek a 

priceless lapis lazuli scarab necklace, 

whose age has been traced back to 200 



B. C, at the request of Arthur Shel- 
burne Hardy, former United States 
Minister at Teheran, Persia, who pro- 
cured the rare jewel twenty years ago 
after it had been discovered in an an- 
cient Egyptian tomb, and from whose 
summer home in Woodstock, Conn., it 
was stolen. Right Persian rugs, one of 
them presented to Mr. Hardy by the 
Shah of Persia, have been recovered. 

The appreciation printed below was 
furnished by a lifelong friend of the late 
Edwin Fisher Bayley, whose death was 
announced in the November Quar- 
terly: 

" A Contemporary of Mine." 

"He may have been seventy-five and 
I thirty-four, but there was no friend in 
the world I loved better or would rather 
have been with than him. What a 
wonderful thing it must be for you to 
look back over such a life, and how fear- 
lessly and confidently you must face the 
future." 

In a remarkable manner these lines, 
written of Edwin F. Bayley, give the 
measure of his character. His life, to 
quote ex-President Harris, "filled a 
large space." Large, necessarily, must 
be a spirit in which the clear flame of 
youth burns undimmed in the fuller ra- 
diance of wisest mature experience, the 
two lights making luminously certain 
the Life Beyond. Past, present, and 
farthest eternities are accommodated 
in such a mind and soul. 

These two aspects of the beloved 
memory of Mr. Bayley — his youthful- 
ness that made him friend and comrade 
of the young; the quiet, unswerving tes- 
timony of his life to the certainty of the 
other life — give a very peculiar value to 
his relation to Amherst College. For it 
was Amlierst College that took the fine 
beginnings in him and made him what 
he was. He himself joyously acknowl- 
edged his debt to his Alma Mater in 
his enthusiastic loyalty and service to 
her. Moreover, today it is the business 
of Amherst and all the other colleges to 
make just such men as he. They are the 
men of whom the world stands in dire 
need. 

Another young man, of another col- 
lege, writing of Mr. Bayley, emphasizes 
these aspects of his character, makes of 
them unmistakably a memory that will 
be precious to his Alma Mater: "He 



118 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



was one of my oldest friends — and I 
don't mean that he was old, but that 
the span of our friendship covered so 
many years. I always felt that he was 
a contemporary of mine. The barrier 
of the difference in our ages simply 
didn't exist between us. I used to be 
tempted to call him 'Edwin.' It would 
have been no disrespect. And I'm glad 
he beat me at golf when we last met. 
The difference in physical vigor was 
indiscernible. 

" I know his fine faith in the after-life 
is to have no disappointment. His 
Heaven will be the sort he has earned, 
and I think he'll raise the standard even 
there. That's what he did all his life, 
raise standards, and I know he isn't 
going to stop now." 

Worthington W. Miner, M.D., died 
at his home in Ware, Mass., on Decem- 
ber 19, 1920, after an illness of six 
months. For the past forty years he 
had practised medicine in Ware. 

Dr. Miner was born in Ware, Novem- 
ber 5, 18-17, the son of the late Dr. David 
Worthington Miner and Mary (Warner) 
Miner. After graduating from Am- 
herst, Dr. Miner attended the Univer- 
sity of Buffalo, N. Y., from which he 
received the degree of M. D. in 1871. 
For the next eight years he remained 
in Buffalo as assistant to his uncle. Dr. 
Julius F. Miner, his work being in spe- 
cial and clinical surgery. 

In 1880, on account of his health, he 
returned to Ware, where he acquired a 
large and successful practice, was the 
physician of record for various railroads 
and large manufacturing concerns, and 
also held various town offices as school 
physician, chairman of the Board of 
Health, and a member of the School 
Committee. He was a member of the 
Brookfield Medical Club since its or- 
ganization, of the Hampshire Medical 
Society, the New York and New Eng- 
land Association of Railway Surgeons, 
the Clinical and Surgical Association of 
Massachusetts, the American Medical 
and of the Clinical Congress of Surgeons 
of North America. He was a member 
of Eden Lodge of Masons and of King 
Solomon chapter of Royal Arch Ma- 
sons, now of Warren. He was one of 
the oldest members of the Young Men's 
Library Association, and was a charter 
member of the Study Club, an organiza- 



tion in which he maintained great in- 
terest and whose meetings he attended 
regularly until within the past few years. 
He leaves two sisters, Miss Jean E. 
Miner of Ware, and Mrs. Charles A. 
Tuttle of Middletown, Conn. Another 
sister, Eliza, wife of the late Prof. 
Charles E. Carman of Amherst, died 
several years ago. There is one nephew. 
Miner Worthington Tuttle, '13, of New 
York City, and a niece. Miss Elizabeth 
M. Tuttle, now of Versailles, France. 

1870 

Dr. John G. Stanton, Secretary, 
99 Huntington St., New London, Conn. 

The Rev. Dr. William H. Swift, pas- 
tor of the Honesdale (Penn.) Presbyte- 
rian Church for the last 36 years, has 
resigned his pastorate and has been 
made pastor-emeritus. He will con- 
tinue to reside in Honesdale. 

November 15, 1920, was the fiftieth 
anniversary of the landing of Harvey 
Porter in Beirut, Syria. His life has 
been passed in tiard work in the Syrian 
Protestant College. During his connec- 
tion with the College he has published 
a textbook (in Arabic) on ancient his- 
tory, a Latin-Arabic Reader and Gram- 
mar with a Latin-Arabic vocabulary, an 
Arabic-English dictionary, and a school 
edition of an Arabic-English and Eng- 
lish-Arabic dictionary in one volume. 
He collaborated with a fellow-professor 
in writing the school dictionary. All 
these books have been recently revised 
and edited by Professor Porter. Several 
editions have been published. Professor 
Porter has made a large collection of an- 
tiquities of the country in connection 
with his history professorship, and is at 
present curator of the museum which 
contains the collection. 

Abraham B. Davis has been success- 
ful to such an extent that he is president 
of a number of commercial companies in 
San Francisco, and vice-president of 
other similar companies. 

1873 

Prof. John M. Tyler, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Dr. William Jonathan Swift died at 
his home in New York City on Monday 
night, December 20, 1920. He was 68 
years old. 

He was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., on 



The Classes 



119 



March 10, 1852, the son of William and 
Martha E. (Phelps) Swift, and prepared 
for college under Zenas M. Phelps at 
Riverdale, N. Y. On graduating from 
Amherst, he attended the Harvard Med- 
ical School, completing his medical 
course at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York in 1878. He 
then became an interne at Bellevue 
Hospital, and since 1880 had practised 
medicine in New York City. 

Dr. Swift for a number of years was 
surgeon of the Metropolitan Throat 
Hospital, and medical examiner of the 
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. He had been visiting physi- 
cian at the Manhattan Eye and Ear 
Hospital, the New York Eye and Ear 
Infirmary, and Bellevue. Amherst gave 
him the honorary degree of M. A. in 1876. 
Among the books which he had pub- 
lished were several on medical subjects 
which were considered as authorities. 

He married on June 13, 1882, Marie 
Aborn Jacobs, daughter of the late 
Samuel J. Jacobs. She and one son, 
Lawrence Swift, survive him. He also 
leaves a brother. Dr. George M. Swift, 
'76. Another brother, likewise an Am- 
herst man and a physician, was the late 
Dr. John Baker Swift, '73. 

Dr. Talcott Williams is now an asso- 
ciate editor of the Independent. Among 
the articles which he has written since 
the last issue of the Quarterly are the 
following: "Have Done with Waste and 
Indecision" (October 16); "Dynamite 
or Discussion" (October 9); "Why Vote 
for Harding?" (October 30); "Hard- 
ing's Election, Wilson's Defeat" (No- 
vember 13); "Unemployment Now and 
Past" (December 18). 

Dr. Caleb R. Layton of Georgetown, 
Del., was reelected to the House of 
Representatives at the November elec- 
tion as Congressman-at-large for Dela- 
ware. Congressman Layton ran on the 
Republican ticket. 

1874 

Elihu G. Loomis, Esq., Secretary, 
15 State St., Boston, Mass. 

With Speaker Frederick H. Gillett as 
presiding oflacer of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and Vice-President Calvin 
Coolidge presiding over the Senate, 
Amherst will play no small part in the 
deliberations of the next Congress. 



Speaker Gillett was reelected to the 
House in November by a handsome 
majority. 

At the last general election in New 
York, Hon. Isaac N. Mills of Mt. Ver- 
non was reelected Justice of the New 
York Supreme Court, having been nom- 
inated by the Republican, Democratic, 
and Prohibition parties, so that he had 
no opposition, except upon the Socialist 
ticket. It is customary in New York 
for a Justice of the Supreme Court who 
has served fairly well to be renominated 
by both of the major parties and, of 
course, to be reelected. The special dis- 
tinction in the case of Judge Mills lies 
in the fact that owing to State Consti- 
tutional age restrictions, which fix the 
retiring age at seventy. Judge Mills can 
serve only a single year upon the new 
term, which otherwise is for fourteen 
years. It is said that no man in the 
State of New York was ever reelected 
under these circumstances, and such re- 
election is a signal proof of the high 
esteem in which Judge Mills is held by 
the New York Bar and by the public. 

1876 

William M. Ducker, Secretary, 
299 Broadway, New York City 

Henshaw Bates Chilson, a veteran 
New York newspaper man, died in Sep- 
tember at St. Luke's Hospital, New 
York City. Mr. Chilson had been an 
editor of the old Recorder and on the 
staff of the New York Tribune and the 
City News Association. He also once 
directed a church news service. 

Mr. Chilson was born in Northamp- 
ton, Mass., on May 6, 1854, the son of 
Haynes Hanford and Catherine Staples 
(Bates) Chilson and prepared for college 
at the local high school. In college he 
was a member of the Psi Upsilon frater- 
nity. After graduation he studied law 
with his father and was admitted to 
the Massachusetts Bar in 1880. He 
practised law in Northampton and Bos- 
ton until 1883 when he came to New 
York and entered journalism. In poli- 
tics he was a Democrat. 

He is survived by his wife, who was 
Miss Alice Marion Barrett. 

News has only recently been received 
of the death of the Rev. Robert Logan 
Patton at Morganton, N. C, on Janu- 
ary 8, 1920. 



120 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Mr. Patton was born on February 
22, 1849, in McDowell County, N. C, 
the son of Robert and Emaline Eliza- 
beth (Worlick) Patton. He married on 
June 6, 1877, Margaret Ann Spainhour. 
They have had six children. He pre- 
pared for college at Phillips Academy, 
Exeter, N. H. He was a member of 
Delta Kappa Epsilon and was one of 
the eight to contend for the Hardy 
prize. He taught from August, 1876, 
until eight years ago, when he was par- 
alyzed. He has been independent in 
politics, always voting for men and not 
for party. His hobby was foreign mis- 
sions. He served as county treasurer 
and county superintendent of schools 
for fifteen years. One of his former pu- 
pils wrote this: 

"I entered Amherst Academy v/here 
Mr. Patton was then teaching, and was 
not long in learning that the other stu- 
dents there, as well as myself, stood in 
a sort of holy awe of this teacher and 
preacher. And I also felt that if I did 
not toe his mark, I might find myself 
trudging my way back across the Blue 
Ridge to my home in Mitchell County. 

"One of the things that impressed 
me first and deepest in Mr. Patton' s 
school was his daily teaching of the 
Bible. Another feature of the school 
that stood out with good results to his 
students was the attention he gave to 
debate, declamation, and recitation, 
which were made a part of the school 
course and taught like any other sub- 
ject. But no one knew better than Mr. 
Patton that it was good for a student 
to bear his teacher's yoke in his youth, 
and it was the Patton yoke that has 
greatly helped all students. He taught 
them to be the best and do the best that 
they were capable of, and it was the 
Patton yoke which has made their love 
and gratitude deep, and their memory 
unforgetful of him. But he could and 
did show gentleness as well as severity 
when a helpless student did not reach 
his mark." 

One of the most unique and most en- 
joyable of the meetings ever held in 
Morganton was the Patton reunion, on 
Monday, August 6, 1917. Those former 
students of Rev. R. L. Patton who had 
the privilege and pleasure of attending 
the reunion will never forget the occa- 
sion. The influence of the life of such a 



man is far-reaching, circling beyond the 
confines of any section or community. 

The day marked the forty-first anni- 
versary of the date upon which Rev. R. 
L. Patton opened his first school in 
Burke County — the first Monday in 
August, 1876, at Table Rock. For 
thirty-six years he taught with remark- 
able success in this and adjoining coun- 
ties, and his former students number 
many thousands. 

Franklin Ripley died at his home in 
Troy, N. H., on November 29, 1920. 

Mr. Ripley was the son of Barrett 
and Mary C. (Richmond) Ripley, and 
was born in Springfield, Mass., on Oc- 
tober 12, 1853. He prepared for college 
at Phillips Andover Academy, and after 
graduating from Amherst was engaged 
in the woolen manufacturing business. 
He had been superintendent of the Troy 
Blanket Mills for a number of years. 
He leaves two daughters and one son, 
having been a widower since 1914. He 
married on September 8, 1880, Clara I. 
Keyes, daughter of Charles Keyes of 
Keene, N. H. 

1877 

A. DeWitt Mason, D.D., Secretary, 

222 Garfield Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A complimentary luncheon was ten- 
dered on October 14th to Collin Arm- 
strong, chairman of the Newspaper 
Committee of the American Association 
of Advertising Agencies, by the News- 
paper Representatives Association of 
Chicago. Between 400 and 500 news- 
paper publishers, advertising agents, 
and advertisers attended. 

In his address Mr. Armstrong showed 
the vast difference between newspaper 
advertising today and five years ago. 
He showed how the mediums as a whole 
had improved and how advertising, a 
dominant factor in all lines of business, 
was recognized generally as such by the 
great manufacturers in all sections of 
America. 

He said that it was the aim of news- 
papers to make newspaper advertising 
more forceful and valuable to the ad- 
vertiser; that while in a measure the 
newspaper was supreme in the advertis- 
ing field it would become more so in 
future years, and that every effort should 
be made to put the newspaper on the 
highest possible plane. 

Printer s Ink for October 21st con- 



The Classes 



121 



tained an article by Mr. Armstrong, en- 
titled "Standardizing Newspaper Ad- 
vertising Methods and Practices." 

At the "Lord JefiFery" dinner in New 
York on November 27th, eight '77 men 
sat down at their class table: Arm- 
strong, Fowler, Hartwell, Mason, Max- 
son, Ryder, Searle, and Wright. Let- 
ters of regret were received from Stock- 
bridge, Pratt, Loomis, Redfield, and 
Salter. A number of '76 men sat with 
'77 to conserve the much needed room. 

A small sized 1877 reunion took place 
in Boston on December 8th when Ma- 
son, who was in town attending the 
Federal Council Convention, met and 
lunched with those native "Pilgrims," 
Leete, Copeland, and Kyle. No par- 
ticular business was transacted, but it 
appeared that the Boston delegation 
rather agreed with the New York con- 
tingent of the class that we had better 
allow the next class reunion at Amherst 
which is due in 1922, to take its normal 
course rather than to attempt to hold 
it amidst the excitement and crowds of 
the Centennial Commencement next 
June. At the same time it was agreed 
that any member of the class that could 
go to Amherst individually during the 
Centennial week should do so. The 
class officers would like to learn the 
views of other members of the class on 
this matter. 

Sumner Salter sends greetings to tlie 
class from WiUiamstown, where he still 
evokes helpful harmonies for the pleas- 
ure and profit of the Williams men. 

Hon. Henry Stockbridge attended the 
Washington, D. C, Amherst dinner on 
November 27th. At a meeting of the 
commissioners on uniform state laws, 
held in St. Louis during the last week 
in August, he was elected president of 
that important body. 

Prof. Henry S. Redfield's address has 
been changed to 35 Claremont Ave., 
New York City. He sends his greetings 
to all the surviving members of the 
class. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel L. Loomis is still 
actively at work in his position as as- 
sociate secretary of the American Mis- 
sionary Association. He wrote the Sec- 
retary deploring the fact that "as he 
did not possess an airplane he would 
have to give up the pleasure of attend- 



ing the New York alumni dinner on 
November 27th, since he had an im- 
portant engagement in North Carolina 
the following day, and the trains were 
too slow to admit of both engagements." 

William O. Pratt writes that his sum- 
mer was a trying one — " a month in the 
hospital following a serious operation on 
my ear, though later I was able to give 
whole or part time to business till I left 
the city on October 1st for a vacation." 
So far as is known he has now practi- 
cally recovered his health. 

Alonzo T. Searle injured his left knee 
by slipping and falling upon it while 
hunting a few weeks ago, but is now all 
right again and was at the New York 
Amherst dinner. 

Dr. Mason also sprained his knee 
quite badly last July and still suffers 
somewhat from the effects of the injury. 
He was greatly afflicted for nearly eight 
months with continually recurrent evils, 
and for several weeks was in a very poor 
state of health, but is now much better 
and is able to engage in his usual duties. 

1878 

Prof. H. N. Gardiner, Secretary, 

187 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

Rev. Martin H. Mead, after spending 
38 years in organizing churches in Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Utah, Colorado, and 
Idaho, under the Home Missionary So- 
ciety, has now retired and is living with 
his wife in Berkeley, Cal. He reports 
himself as hale and vigorous at the age 
of 74. 

Prof. H. N. Gardiner is a member of 
the Board of Managers and secretary of 
the People's Institute in Northampton. 

Rev. Frederick Augustus Holden died 
suddenly at Melrose Highlands, Mass., 
on November 22, 1920, aged 66 years. 

He was born in Fitchburg, Mass., 
August 12, 1854, the son of Lafayette 
and Emily A. (Wright) Holden, and 
prepared for college at the local high 
school. After graduating from Amherst, 
he studied for the ministry and was 
pastor of churches in New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Ver- 
mont. He was enthusiastic in organiz- 
ing and maintaining Christian Endeavor 
societies and work in the Sunday schools 
of his churches, and in encouraging 
young people to pursue and value edu- 
cation. During the winter season he 



122 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



welcomed to his parishes revivalists of 
sterling character. He was one of the 
first to celebrate Old Home Week. He 
stimulated by work and publication in- 
terest in the history of the community 
in which be lived. He married in 1886 
Mary Haselton Jefferds, who, with their 
seven children, survive him. His four 
sons were all engaged in war work, one 
of them, Robert, being at the battle of 
Chateau Thierry, where he suffered a 
nervous shock from which he is slowly 
recovering. Another was on the U. S. S. 
Bridgeport. Mr. Holden had been in 
failing health for some time and had 
retired from the ministry. 

1879 

Prof. J. Franklin Jameson, Secretary, 

1140 Woodward Bldg., 

Washington, D. C. 

The Rev. Dr. Nehemiah Boynton, 
one of the best known clergymen in the 
United States, has resigned his pas- 
torate of the Clinton Avenue Congre- 
gational Church in Brooklyn. The res- 
ignation takes effect on March 27th. 
Dr. Boynton, however, will continue to 
make Brooklyn his home and in no 
sense of the word will he relinquish the 
ministry. As he states, he expects to 
be "minister at large in New York City " 
and will be of any service he can be. 

Dr. Boynton came to Brooklyn in 
1905 from a large church in Detroit. 
He became a national and international 
figure, and he will now have more time 
to devote to a wider ministry here and 
abroad. He celebrated his 64th birth- 
day on November 21st. 

President Frank J. Goodnow of Johns 
Hopkins University and the Rev. Dr. 
Nehemiah Boynton have been ap- 
pointed by President Wilson as members 
of the nation-wide relief committee in 
behalf of the millions of people starving 
in the northern provinces of China. 

The Rev. Andrew S. Garver has 
moved from Pearsall to Marfa, Texas, 
where he expects to reside hereafter. 

1880 

Henry P. Field, Esq., Secretary, 

86 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

J. Edward Banta is class representa- 
tive on the Centennial Gift Fund. 

Prof. Frederick J. Bliss has been lec- 
turing at the University of Pennsylvania 



and Johns Hopkins. He has recently 
published a life of his father, who was 
for many years president of the Syrian 
Protestant College at Beirut. 

C. L. Field is now actively connected 
with the Lamson & Goodnow Manufac- 
turing Co. at Shelburne Falls, Mass., 
but still keeps his residence in Green- 
field. 

Charles F. Hopkins is a member of 
the Oregon legislature. 

The address of Rev. C. Marshall 
Lowe is 325 Brown Avenue, Osawato- 
mie, Kansas. He is preaching and pub- 
lishing a newspaper. 

Prof. J. F. McGregory, who was se- 
riously injured in a railroad accident 
last June and was in the hospital for 
several months, has returned to his work 
at Colgate University. He has nearly 
recovered from the accident. 

Rev. Charles H. Morse is manager for 
Vermont and New Hampshire of F. E. 
Compton & Co., publishers, of Chicago. 
He also preaches every Sunday. His 
new address is 5 Orient St., St. Johns- 
bury, Vt. 

Rev. William B. Simonds, formerly 
of Oakland, Cal., is now located in Spo- 
kane, Wash. Address, 1309 West 19th 
Avenue. 

1881 

Frank H. Parsons, Esq., Secretary, 
60 Wall St., New York City 

Helen Murphy, daughter of Starr J. 
Murphy, was married on November 13, 
1920, to Mr. Richard Frederick Dam- 
koehler at Montclair, N. J. 

Lincoln MacVeagh was married on 
June 28, 1920, to Elizabeth Farley Mc- 
Keen at Jewel's Island, Me., and is 
making his home at Brunswick in the 
same state. Mrs. MacVeagh is the 
daughter of the late James W. Keen, a 
well-known lawyer of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William S. Nelson sailed on the Aqiii- 
tania on December 14th on his return to 
Syria. He has been in this country for 
the past year for a vacation after his 
experiences during the war. He is a 
member of the Syria Mission of the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church, but has combined 
other duties with those of the missionary 
field. From January, 1916, to April, 



The Classes 



123 



1917, when Turkey discontinued diplo- 
matic relations with America, he was 
American consular agent at Tripoli, 
Syria, in charge of the affairs of belliger- 
ent nations, twelve in number. During 
the war period and after the armistice 
he was largely engaged in relief work 
and from February to July, 1919, was 
captain in the American Red Cross 
service. In November, 1917, he was 
exiled by Turkish order to the interior 
of Asia Minor, and for four months in 
1918 was confined in a Turkish prison 
in Constantinople, having been arrested 
as an alleged spy. His release was ef- 
fected by the Swedish minister, who at 
that time was acting for the United 
States. His future plans are somewhat 
indefinite, but it is probable that he will 
be located in or near Beirut, Syria. 

Preparations for the fortieth reunion 
of the class are under way. The head- 
quarters of the class will be at the Perry 
House, and it is hoped that there will 
be the usual large and enthusiastic 
gathering of the class. 

1882 

John Albee, Esq., Class Historian, 

10 State St., Boston, Mass. 

Rev. Arthur W. Stanford attended 

the 25th reunion of the class of 1882 in 

1907, and returned to his home and work 

in Japan a few weeks later, where he 

continued until recently, when after full 

thirteen years of service as missionary 

of the American Board, he returned to 

this country for a year's furlough. 

In Japan, editorial and publication 
work, work for young men in Bible 
classes, and various forms of work oc- 
cupied him. He had a Sunday after- 
noon international Bible class at his 
home with an enrollment at times of 
seventy young men, Chinese and Japan- 
ese, including students, clerks in native 
and foreign banks, in export and import 
native and foreign firms, teachers in 
both Japanese and Chinese schools, re- 
porters on newspapers both native and 
foreign, clerks in dockyard and engine 
works, and employees in many com- 
mercial companies. The class had a 
continuous life of twelve years, and one 
or two men in it in 1920 had been mem- 
bers for over ten consecutive years. For 
several years past the average weekly 
attendance from September to July has 
been upwards of twenty. 



Besides editing and publishing a little 
monthly in English, Mr. Stanford also 
published a monthly in Japanese de- 
signed as a tract for use by missionaries 
and natives directly engaged in evan- 
gelistic work. In 1920 over 1,500 copies 
monthly were printed, and the paper is 
now in its 26th year. He was one of the 
editors of "The Christian Movement 
in the Japanese Empire" for 1920, an 
annual published by the Federation of 
Missions in Japan and Korea. 

Mr. Stanford was a member of the 
executive committee of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society of London and of 
the Bible Society of Scotland, whose 
Bible house is at Kobe, and he was also 
one of the Board of Managers of Kobe 
College for Women, and much of the 
time a member of its executive commit- 
tee and auditor of the college accounts. 
In addition, as treasurer of the Kobe 
station, including fifteen of our mission- 
aries for whose salaries and allowances 
funds were kept by him together with 
money for various appropriations for 
the general work of the missionaries, 
he had just enough to do to keep him 
from lapsing into a career of criminality. 

The address of Mr. and Mrs. Stanford 

while in this country is 138 Hancock 

Street, Auburndale, Mass. 

1883 

Walter T. Field, Secretary, 

2301-2311 Prairie Ave., Chicago, III. 

Alexander Dana Noyes, for many 
years financial editor of the New York 
Evening Post, has joined the staff of the 
New York Times as financial editor. 
Mr. Noyes is known throughout the 
country as a writer upon financial events 
of the day, and his standing as a recog- 
nized authority in matters of finance 
and banking is of the highest. Mr. 
Noyes' connection with the Evening Post 
comprised a service of nearly thirty 
years' duration. 

In the Journal of Education for No- 
vember 4th, Edwin H. Byington has a 
very interesting article on "Student- 
Authorship in History." The basis of 
the article is the following paragraph 
which will appeal to all Amherst men: 

"I never can forget an experience I 
had in chemistry with Professor Harris 
at Amherst College. I had made what 
I felt was a brilliant recitation in repeat- 
ing some chemical formula. Imagine my 



124 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



dismay when he growled out, 'You 
think that you know that. Well, you 
do not. Sit down.' My feelings were 
changed to dire wrath when an exami- 
nation of the textbook after the recita- 
tion showed me that I had answered 
his question correctly. A few days 
later I happened to be at my desk 
in the laboratory preforming the very 
experiment I had described in that un- 
fortunate recitation. As I poured from 
one test tube into the other and saw the 
precipitate forming as it should, a hand 
touched my shoulder and the voice of 
Professor Harris quietly said, ' Now you 
know it.' Before, I had recited from 
memory what others had told me. Now 
I had discovered it for myself. I had 
wrought it out. I really knew it." 

Justice Arthur Prentice Rugg has 
been elected vice-president of the Co- 
lonial Society of Boston. 

William H. Leonard has retired from 
his legal practice, has removed from 
Boston, and has taken a ranch at Al- 
berta, Canada. Address: The Leonard 
Ranch, Irricana, Alberta, Canada. 

Dr. John B. Walker, as a result of his 
war work is still connected with the 
Surgeon General's office, and was sent 
abroad several months ago as a delegate 
to the Inter-Allied surgical conference in 
Paris. 

William Orr, the educational secre- 
tary of the International Committee of 
Young Men's Christian Association, 
sailed for Europe on December 1st to 
spend several months — perhaps a year — 
in a study of educational conditions, 
particularly in the newer countries of 
Europe, with reference to the service 
that the Y. M. C. A. can render to those 
peoples through its educational program. 
His European address is 13 Avenue 
Champel, Geneva. 

H. K. Krikorian, who has for many 
years been engaged in educational and 
missionary work in Turkey and who has 
edited an Armenian newspaper in Con- 
stantinople, was obliged to leave his 
work, owing to the political troubles in 
Turkey, and has come to this country. 
He is now located in New Haven, Conn., 
with all the members of his family. He 
is preaching to an Armenian congrega- 
tion in New Haven and assisting in the 
Near East Relief work. His eldest son 
is doing Y. M. C. A. work in New Haven. 



Prof. Charles T. Whittlesey, head of 
the department of Latin and Greek in 
Philomath College, Ore., is writing a 
textbook entitled " What Words Mean," 
showing the derivation of English words 
from Latin and Greek roots. 

Avery F. Cushman, who was an as- 
sistant to the Judge Advocate General 
during the war, has been promoted and 
now has the rank of lieutenant colonel 
as chief of the Admiralty and Maritime 
Section of the Judge Advocate's office. 
He has charge of all matters and claims 
against the Government in the Army 
and War Department growing out of the 
use and ownership of vessels and vessel 
property. 

William C. Kitchin died at his home 
in Scotia, N. Y., on January 8, 1920, 
after an illness of nearly five years. He 
was at Amherst only during his fresh- 
man year, graduating from Syracuse 
University in 1882, and spending a 
number of years in editorial work in 
Japan under the auspices of the Metho- 
dist-Episcopal Board. He was the au- 
thor of several Japanese books and wrote 
upon Japanese subjects in several of the 
American magazines. He also prepared 
five textbooks on English for the use of 
Japanese schools and was the author of 
two novels and a number of short sto- 
ries. After returning from Japan he was 
professor of Romance languages at the 
University of Vermont until the year 
1900, when his health broke down and 
he went into the life insurance business 
in order to keep himself out of doors. 
During this time he also continued his 
literary work at intervals and wrote 
several biblical novels. 

1884 

WiLLARD H. Wheeler, Secretary, 
2 Maiden Lane, New York City 

Dr. Elbert W. Rockwood has retired 
as head of the department of chemistry 
at Iowa University at his own request, 
though still retaining a full professor- 
■ship. He has been identified with the 
university for thirty-two years, going to 
Iowa in 1888 as demonstrator in chem- 
istry in the colleges of medicine and 
dentistry. In 1890 he became associate 
professor. The growth of the chemical 
department at Iowa is largely due to 
Dr. Rockwood's eflSciency as a teacher 
and his foresight in keeping the univer- 



The Classes 



125 



sity abreast of the renewed interest and 
the new methods in chemical research. 

Dr. James F. Tufts is on leave of ab- 
sence for a year from his duties as pro- 
fessor of philosophy at the University 
of Chicago and is spending part of the 
time at Columbia University, where he 
is holding a visiting professorship. 

Professor Tufts has served during the 
past two years as chairman of the Board 
of Arbitration under the Hart, Schaffner 
& Marx Labor Agreement, and for the 
past year in a similar capacity for the 
other important firms in the Chicago 
men's clothing industry. The agree- 
ments are between the firms and the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers who 
number about forty thousand members 
in Chicago. A feature of these agree- 
ments is that the Board of Arbitration 
is a permanent body, keeping records 
of its decisions which serve as prece- 
dents. The board has large powers and 
is guided less by the immediate situation 
than by the effort to discover and work 
out principles of justice and harmonious 
relations. 

The Rev. Dr. Charles F. Weeden of 
Newton Center, Mass., has become act- 
ing pastor of Piedmont Congregational 
Church in Worcester. 

1885 
Frank E. Whitman, Secretary, 
66 Leonard St., New York City 

Lieutenant Commander Edward 
Brack has written the words for an 
Amherst Centennial Hymn which is to 
be set to music by Tod B. Galloway, 
both of the class of '85. On November 
11th Lieutenant Commander Breck had 
pinned on him the cross of the Navy 
given by the Board of Awards. The 
citation reads that the President of the 
United States presents him with the 
Navy Cross "for distinguished and 
dangerous service in the line of his pro- 
fession as special agent in Brazil and 
Argentina, and later as naval attache 
at Lisbon, where he established a valu- 
able service of information through 
Portugal." 

Major George C. Woodruff of Litch- 
field, Conn., has been appointed an 
aide-de-camp on the staff of Governor 
Lake of Connecticut. 

Albert Wadsworth Brooks and Miss 
Gertrude Greenlaw, daughter of Mrs. 



Amelia Crosby Greenlaw of Boston, 
were married in that city on Saturday, 
December 18, 1920. 



Charles F. Marble, Secretary, 

4 Marble St., Worcester, Mass. 
Daniel Fisk Kellogg, former city ed- 
itor of the New York Sun and well 
known as a writer on financial and 
economic topics, died at his home, 555 
Park Ave., New York City, on October 
28, 1920. 

Mr. Kellogg was born in Chittenango, 
N. Y., on March 19, 1865, the son of 
Charles and Ann E. (Moody) Kellogg, 
and prepared for college at Gates Union 
School, Chittenango. On graduation 
from Amherst he came to New York and 
immediately joined the staff of the aun. 
His work attracted attention from the 
first, and five years later he became city 
editor, retaining that post until 1902, 
when he was made financial editor. 

He was one of the first newspaper 
writers in close touch with the late J. P. 
Morgan, and his stories were generally 
accepted as expressing Mr. Morgan's 
personal views on financial topics. In 
addition to writing, Mr. Kellogg fre- 
quently lectured on economic and fi- 
nancial matters. 

In 1913 Mr. Kellogg left the Sun and 
became a member of the firm of J. P. 
Morgan & Co., taking charge of all 
publicity matters. He was the first 
man employed by one of the big bank- 
ing houses for such a purpose, and so 
successful did the experiment prove that 
most of the other large banking firms 
established publicity departments soon 
afterwards. Mr. Kellogg was a frequent 
contributor to the North American Re- 
view and Ilarpeis Weekly, often wrUing 
under the pen name of Philip King. 
He had been with J. P. Morgan & Co., 
but two years when, in 1915, he suffered 
a stroke of paralysis, from which he 
never recovered. 

Mr. Kellogg was married in 1891 to 
Miss Maud Isabel Forbes of Canas- 
tota, N. Y. They had two children. 
He was a member of the Metropolitan, 
Riding, and Union League clubs, and of 
the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. 

Robert A. Woods has returned from 
his trip around the world. 

Congressman Allen T. Treadway, 



126 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



representing the first Massachusetts 
district, was reelected to the House of 
Representatives on the Republican 
ticket by a big majority. 

At the request of the World's Sunday 
School Association which met in Tokyo, 
Japan, from October 5th to 14th, Dr. 
Allen E. Cross wrote a special hymn for 
the occasion. This new hymn, "Salute 
the Banner of the Sun," was written to 
enable the Japanese to see in their own 
national flag the ideals of the Son of 
Man. It has already been translated 
into Japanese and put upon stereopticon 
slides for general use. 

McClures Magazine is publishing the 
story of the life of the late Clyde Fitch, 
America's most famous playwright. 
Written by one of his intimate friends, 
Montrose J. Moses, it is of the greatest 
interest. The first of the seven articles 
appeared in the November issue and 
contained many references to his stu- 
dent days at Amherst. The Literary 
Review of the New York Evening Post 
for October 9th contained a very inter- 
esting article on "The Clyde Fitch I 
Knew" by Prof. William Lyon Phelps 
of Yale University, who was a class- 
mate of Fitch at the Hartford High 
School. 

The Rev. Dr. Milo H. Gates, for 
many years vicar of the Chapel of the 
Intercession in New York, has been 
called to St. John's Cathedral, Denver, 
Colo., to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Dean H. Martyn Hart last 
March. 

The Congregationalist and Advance for 
October 14th contained an article by the 
Rev. Dr. George F. Kenngott, entitled 
"The Japanese Question in Southern 
California." 

The Rev. Dr. Edward T. Ford has 
resigned his pastorate at East Wey- 
mouth, Mass., to accept a call to the 
Congregational Church at Hartford, 
Vermont. 

1887 
Frederic B. Pratt, Secretary, 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The Rev. WiUard B. Thorp, for 
twelve years pastor of the First Congre- 
gational Church at San Diego, Cal., has 
resigned to accept the pastorate of the 
First Congregational Church at Palo 



Alto, the seat of Leland Stanford Jr. 
University. With the pastorate of the 
church Mr. Thorp will combine service 
as imiversity pastor. His twelve years' 
experience in San Diego have made his 
name well known in the state. The 
leading newspaper in San Diego honored 
him with an editorial in which he was 
highly commended for his wise and fear- 
less leadership in civic life during his 
stay in that city. 

Frederic B. Pratt has been elected 
vice-president of the Brooklyn Bureau 
of Charities for the ensuing year. 

The death is reported of the Rev. 
Dr. Charles Henry Dutton on June 11, 
1920, of basilar meningitis at Norton 
Memorial Infirmary, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. 

Dr. Dutton was born in Shirley, 
Mass., January 26, 1865, the son of the 
Rev. Albert I. and Helen A. (Reed) 
Dutton. He prepared for college at 
Monson Academy, attended Dart- 
mouth one year, and then entered 
Amherst as a sophomore in the class 
of 1887. After graduation he studied 
theology at Hartford Seminary and 
Boston University. 

He held pastorates at Bethel, Vt., 
Ashland, Mass., Wilton, N. H. (1892- 
1899), New Haven, Conn., Watertown, 
N. Y., East Cleveland, Ohio, Kane, 
Pa., and South Natick, Mass. (1915- 
1918). In 1900 he became agent at 
Keene, N. H., for the Mutual Life 
Insurance Company. At the time of 
his death he was treasurer of Lincoln 
Institute, Lincoln Ridge, Ky. 

Had he lived a few months longer. 
Dr. Dutton would have won his Ph.D. 
degree from Boston University, having 
passed part of the examinations. His 
dissertation had not been quite com- 
pleted. He received the degree of 
B.D. from Oberlin in 1910, A.M. from 
Boston in 1913, and D.D. from Oska- 
loosa College, besides his B.A. from 
Amherst. He was a member of the 
Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. He 
married on July 23, 1889, Miss Marion 
J. Drew of South Royalton, Vt., who 
died in January, 1907. His second 
wife was Miss Myrtle Mae Pratt of 
East Cleveland, Ohio, whom he married 
on November 15, 1911. She survives 
him, as do also two children by his 
first wife. 



The Classes 



127 



William B. Greenotjgh, Esq., 

Secretary, 

15 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 

It is of interest to note that of the 
forty district chairmen on the Amherst 
Centennial Gift there are six from the 
class of 1888 or twice as many as 
from any other class, to-wit, Arthur 
M. Heard, New Hampshire; John E. 
Oldham, Eastern Massachusetts; Wil- 
liam B. Greenough, Rhode Island; 
Arthur V. Davis, Western Pennsylva- 
nia; Willard P. Smith, Northern Cal- 
ifornia; William L. Brewster, Oregon. 

The 19th and 20th days of November 
attracted enough 1888 men to Amherst 
to justify a class reunion. The secre- 
tary saw the following members of the 
class: Bray ton, Danforth, Edwards, 
Heard, Oldham, Phillips, Prest, Ray- 
mond, Stearns, W. P. Smith, Whiting. 
There may have been other men present 
at the Arnherst- Williams football game, 
but the secretary did not see them. 

The members of the class at Amherst 
decided to hold a class reunion at the 
time of the Centennial Celebration. 
Every man should plan to come and 
should immediately notify Phillips as 
to what accommodations he will want. 
We have been fortimate enough to 
secure a house for class headquarters. 

W. P. Clarke is at present in this 
coimtry on a furlough, his temporary 
residence being 144 Hancock Street, 
Auburndale, Mass. Since graduation 
he has been a missionary under the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, having been located 
at Samokove, Bulgaria, from 1891 to 
1904; at Monastir, Macedonia, from 
1904 to 1916 (during that time Mon- 
astir was under the control of Tur- 
key from 1904 to 1912; of Servia 
from 1912 to 1915; of Bulgaria from 
1915 to 1916; of Servia the latter part 
of 1916); since December, 1916, he 
has been located in Salonica, Greece. 
He hopes to be able to remain in this 
coimtry long enough to attend the 
class reunion in June, 1921, which will 
be the first one he has attended since 
leaving college. 

The following '88 men have sons m 
College: Rev. James A. Fairley— 
Lincoln Fairley, '23; Rev. Frank L. 



Garfield— Frank R. Garfield, '23; Mr. 
Arthur M. Heard— Carlton F. Heard, 
'21; Mr. George M. Seymour — Leonard 
N. Seymour. '22; Prin. Arthur F. 
Stearns — John A. Stearns, '24; Rev. 
Elbridge C. Whiting— Elbridge C. 
Whiting, '21. 

1889 

Henry H. Bosworth, Secretary, 
387 Main St., Springfield, Mass. 

At the recent inauguration of Presi- 
dent Marion L. Burton of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Dean Frederick J. E. 
Woodbridge of Columbia University 
delivered an address on "The Supply 
of Adequately Tramed University 
Teachers"; and at the twenty-second 
annual conference of the Association 
of American Universities he discussed 
the "Social Environment of the Grad- 
uate Student." 



George C. Coit, Secretary, 
6 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Archibald Alexander McGlashan died 
suddenly at his home, Skyland Farm, 
Kent, Conn., on December 4, 1920. 
Mr. McGlashan was born at East 
Bloomfield, N. Y., February 3, 1867, 
and there prepared for college. He 
attended one year at Oberlin University 
m Ohio and entered Amherst at the 
beginning of his sophomore year . After 
graduation he entered Columbia Law 
School, where he graduated in 1893. 
He practised law m New York until 
1913, when owing to ill health he was 
obliged to give up his active business 
and took up his residence at his country 
place in Connecticut, where he con- 
tinued to reside until his death. He 
was married in 1902 to Cecil Hamilton. 
His widow and three children, a son and 
two (laughters, survive him. 

1891 

Nathan P. Avert, Esq., Secretary, 
362 Dwight St., Holyoke, Mass. 
Harry A. Gushing has been elected 
treasurer of the New England Society 
of New York. 

1892 

DiMON Roberts, Secretary, 

43 South Summit St., 

Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Senator Lyman W. Griswold of 



128 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Greenfield, re-nominated last fall on the 
Republican ticket, was unopposed at the 
November election. 



Fbederick S. Allis, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Charles G. Woods of Trenton, Utah, 
was elected in November a member of 
the Utah House of Representatives. 
He ran on the Republican ticket. 

Senator Silas D. Reed of Taunton was 
reelected to the Massachusetts State 
Senate. He is a Republican. 

Professor George B. Zug of Dart- 
mouth College has been promoted to 
be Professor of Modern Arts. 

Charles D. Norton is a member of 
the Central Council of the Charity 
Organization Society, New York City. 

Wallace H. Davis died at St. Mary's 
hospital, Minneapolis, Minn., on De- 
cember 7, 1920. He had been ill for 
a number of weeks, after what at first 
appeared to be a nervous breakdown, 
but which later developed into a 
paralyzed condition due, it is thought, 
to some infection of the heart. 

Davis had for twenty-five years been 
associated with the David P. Jones 
Company, one of the leading real estate 
and investment companies of Minne- 
apolis, and was its vice-president and 
counsel at the time of his death. He 
devoted himself most assiduously to 
his business, throwing into it a great 
deal of force and energy. Although he 
had few outside interests, he was always 
a loyal and enthusiastic supporter of 
Amherst activities in the Northwest. 
He seldom returned to Amherst, but 
never lost his affection for the college 
or for his classmates of whom he always 
spoke with great enthusiasm. 

An outstanding feature of his career 
was his untiring devotion to his widowed 
mother, with whom he lived up to the 
time of her death two years ago, and 
for whom he sacrificed almost every- 
thing in the way of social life. His 
brother, Frank C. Davis, '95, lives in 
Lcwistown, Mont., where he is a suc- 
cessful physician, and a second brother, 
Edward A. Davis, was associated with 
him in business in the insurance de- 
partment of the firm. 

Wallace H. Davis was born in Kan- 



kakee, 111., on October 27, 1870, the son 
of Alanson E. and Frank P. (Dean) 
Davis. He prepared for college at 
Minneapolis High School, and after 
two years at the University of Minneso- 
ta entered Amherst at the beginning of 
his junior year. He obtained the degree 
of LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 
1896 and was admitted to the bar the 
following year. He had never married. 
His death leaves a big vacancy in the 
business circle in which he moved and 
where he was highly honored and appre- 
ciated. 



Henry E. Whitcomb, Secretary, 
6 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 

Dr. Charles P. Emerson, dean and 
professor of medicine at the Indiana 
University School of Medicine with 
George Herbert Betts of Northwestern 
University have just published Book 
2 of "Physiology and Hygiene," 
through the Bobbs-Merrill Company. 
The book is highly regarded. 

Grosvenor H. Backus, a member of 
the Executive Committee of the Am- 
herst Centennial Gift, entertained at 
dinner at the University Club, New 
York City, November 22nd. Most of 
the New York delegation were present. 
Among those from more distant points 
were Hon. Bertrand H. Snell, represen- 
tative in Congress from the 31st New 
York district, and Mark D. Mitchell, 
president of the Amherst Oil Company, 
Independence, Kan. 

At the Centennial Gift conference in 
Amherst, November 18th to 20th, 
were Backus, Mitchell, Stearns, Dean 
Stone, Wood, and Whitcomb. 

Hon. Bertrand HoUis Snell was re- 
elected to Congress for the third time 
by the largest majority ever given in 
his district. He stands second member 
on the Rules Committee, one of the 
most influential and important in the 
House. 

George F. Fiske, principal of the 
Noble-Greenough School of Boston, 
has been elected member of the Am- 
herst Secondary Schools committee. 

Albert S. Baker has removed from 
Kealakehua, Hawaii, where he has 
been located for the past fifteen years 
and his present address is 2315 Maile 



The Classes 



129 



Way, College Hills, Honolulu. He is a 
"visitor" to the Leper settlement, 
where he is giving a course of addresses. 
He intends to be present at the Cen- 
tennial exercises next June. It will 
be his first trip east since 1910. 

Frederick A. Flitchner of St. Mark's 
School, Southboro, Mass., has just 
returned from a prolonged stay in 
Europe. He resumes his duties at 
St. Mark's after the holidays. 

George A. Goodell has moved from 
Chicago. His present address is 34th 
St. and Tyler Ave., c/o Kentucky 
Color & Chemical Co., Louisville, Ky. 

1895 

William S. Tyler, Esq., Secretary, 
30 Church St., New York City 

A great many '95 men are planning 
to attend the inauguration ceremonies 
on March 4th and help induct their 
classmate, Calvin Coolidge, into the 
Vice-Presidency. Those intending to 
be present in Washington at that time 
are requested to send their names to 
the class secretary. 

Maurice B. Smith, who has been 
principal of the high school at Gardner, 
Mass., has become principal of the 
Salem High School. 

The following clipping is taken from 
the Bookman for December, 1920: 

"Not because he is prominent in the 
legal and financial world, but because 
he has written a thoughtful book, 
'The Society of Free States', Dwight 
W. Morrow is admitted to the sacred 
precincts of the Gossip Shop. 

"When Mr. Morrow was a student at 
Amherst he was in the same class 
with Calvin Coolidge. A vote to 
prophesy who would be the most fa- 
mous man in the class resulted in a 
majority decision in favor of young 
Morrow. 

"But Calvin Coolidge received one 
vote. It was cast for him by Morrow!" 

Dwight W. Morrow has been elected 
vice-president of the New York Asso- 
ciation for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor. He is also a member of the 
Roosevelt Research Committee, the 
chairman of which is Gifford Pinchot. 

The Rev. Dr. Jay T. Stocking was 
the college preacher at Amherst on 
Sunday, October 24th. 



Calvin Coolidge has been made an 
honorary member of the Scots' Chari- 
table Society of Boston at its 263rd 
annual dinner. The December 11th 
issue of Music Trades contained an 
article by him, entitled "How Can 
Industry Get Back to a Normal Basis." 

The Pilgrim Celebration was the 
occasion of two articles by Dr. Frederick 
H. Law in the Independent. In the 
issue of November 27th he wrote of 
"Our Pilgrim Legacy" and in the issue 
of October 23rd of "The Unpuritanic 
Puritans." 

Halsey M. Collins, Secretary, 
4 Charles St., Cortland, N. Y. 
Prof. William L. Corbin is teaching 
this year at Rollins College, Winter 
Park, Fla. 

Aurin M. Chase was married on 
November 5, 1920, to Miss Lavina 
Bunton of Arlington Heights, Mass., at 
Trinity Church, Syracuse, N. Y. They 
are making their home at 736 Ackerman 
Ave., Syracuse. 

A dinner and conference of the '96 
men in the New York district was held 
at the Hotel Brevoort on the evening 
of October 13. Those present were 
President W. E. Kimball, Pratt, 
Moulson, Walker, Cauthers, Haven, 
Fales, Brooks, Stiger, Bouton, Lum- 
bard, Metcalf, Blakemore, and Collins. 

The purpose of the meeting was to 
complete preliminary arrangements for 
the twenty-fifth reunion of the class 
next June. 

Metcalf brought greetings from the 
Boston bunch, and made a report as 
chairman of the committee on housing 
for the reunion. The committee has 
leased the old Genung house, now 
owned by Chi Phi, as class headquarters 
and the Brown house on Spring Street 
as a commons for all the class and a 
dormitory for some of those whose 
wives accompany them to Amherst. 

It was decided to allow the College 
to celebrate its Centennial in June, 
instead of in October as first planned, 
provided the events of the Centennial 
do not encroach too much upon the 
more important events of 96's twenty- 
fifth. 

Merrill E. Gates, Jr., appears as 
counsel for the respondents in a case 
now before the Appellate Division, 



130 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



First Department, attacking the con- 
stitutionality of the recent law giving 
preference in the city civil service 
appointments to World War veterans. 
Some twenty men in the police depart- 
ment are affected, as well as a number 
of appointees in other city bureaus. 

After a most successful pastorate of 
four years in the Calvinistic Congrega- 
tional Church of Fitchburg, Mass., 
Rev. George Ernest Merriam resigned 
on November 1st to accept a unani- 
mous call to the First Congregational 
Church of Buffalo, N. Y. He was 
formally installed in his new parish 
January 4th, the sermon of installation 
being preached by Rev. Dr. Nehemiah 
Boynton, '79. 

Dr. Herbert E. Gregory, who by a 
cooperative agreement with Yale Uni- 
versity is serving as director of the 
Bishop Museum in Honolulu, returned 
to New Haven last fall to resume his 
university work for the first half of 
the present college year. 

Professor Everett Kimball of the 
department of history and government 
of Smith College left December 1st 
for a lecture tour through the Middle 
West. He is to speak before the 
International Relations Clubs of various 
colleges on "Some Problems Connected 
with Mexico." 

Limond C. Stone, who has been an 
instructor in mathematics at Boys' 
High School, Brooklyn, N. Y., for 
over a decade, has just been elected 
principal of the Brooklyn Evening 
High School. 

Rev. Edward F. Sanderson has been 
elected a member of the board of 
directors of the New York Community 
Service. 

Mortimer L. Schiff has been elected 
a director and a member of the executive 
committee of the Pacific Oil Company. 
He has been appointed by President 
Wilson a member of the China Relief 
Committee. 

J. Herbert Loud is connected with 
the industrial group insurance branch 
of the John Hancock Life Insurance 
Company. Incidentally, N. Frederick 
Foote reports that Loud has written 
him for an amount of personal life 
insurance that makes death seem the 
only road to solvency. Loud's address 
is 68 G St., South Boston, Mass. 



A recent number of the national 
magazine. Architecture, gives complete 
floor plans and elevations of the West 
Intermediate School, Jackson, Mich., 
designed and built last year by Archi- 
tect Leonard Field, Jr. This is one 
of the most efficient and artistic build- 
ings in the state designed for the new 
type of school called the intermediate 
or junior high school. The building 
cost a half-million, and has a capacity 
of some twelve hundred pupils. 

Field has also drawn plans for a pro- 
posed community center in Jackson 
covering four city blocks and including 
a Victory Memorial Building, a post 
office and federal building, a city hall, 
and a new senior high school. 

The secretary wants the addresses 
of Ralph S. Mighill, Lloyd L. Thomas, 
and Clinton I. Cash. 

Thomas B. Hitchcock now gives his 
address as 32 Fuller Street, Coolidge 
Corner, Mass. It is needless to say 
that Tommy moved to this address, 
and for all we know, named the town, 
between the dates of the presidential 
primaries and election last fall. Pend- 
ing his probable appointment as col- 
lector of internal revenue for Northern 
Vermont shortly after the inauguration 
of the new administration, he has ac- 
cepted a position in the engineering de- 
partment of the American Mutual Lia- 
bility Insurance Company with special 
duties in connection with their textile 
mill risks. 

Rev. Charles L. Storrs is spending 
a year's furlough for the second time in 
his fifteen years service under the 
American Board of Foreign Missions as 
principal of a boys' academy at Shaowu, 
China. His permanent address while 
in America is 3927 Locust St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Storrs is studying this winter at 
Union Theological Seminary, and at 
Teacher's College, Columbia Univer- 
sity. He will return to China about 
August 1st. 

"Born — at Ocean City, N. J. May 
21, 1920, to Herbert J. Brownlee and 
Miriam Elvins Brownlee, a son, Her- 
bert J., Jr." 

The foregoing vital statistic puts 
Thomas Elvins, merchant, ex-mayor, 
of Hammonton, N. J., member of the 
New Jersey legislature for six years. 



The Classes 



131 



under the wire as the first authentic 
grandfather in '96. 

Herbert L. Kimball, Northboro, 
Mass., reports four sons and "one 
grandson" in his family, but he fails 
to give names and dates. 

There is still time before our twenty- 
fifth for other contestants in this 
grandfather class to report and be 
duly accredited. 

Edward Thompson Kimball, a resi- 
dent of Brookline, Mass., for many 
years, died at his home in that town on 
December 1st. For three months 
during and after the police strike in 
Boston in the fall of 1919, he was on 
traffic duty with the Motor Corps and 
severely overtaxed himself; since then 
he had gradually failed in health until 
about six weeks before his death, when 
his condition took an acute turn for 
the worse. 

Services were held at his late resi- 
dence in Brookline and the interment 
was in Portsmouth, N. H. Rev. 
Lucius H. Thayer, '82, of Portsmouth, 
who was one of the men instrumental 
in sending Kimball to Amherst, officia- 
ted; T. B. Hitchcock, representing the 
class, was one of the bearers; the Motor 
Corps was represented by a guard of 
honor. 

Mr. Kimball was bom in Ports- 
mouth on September 29, 1873, the son 
of Edward P. and Martha J. (Thomp- 
son) Kimball, and fitted for college at 
the Portsmouth High School. At Am- 
herst he joined Chi Phi fraternity and 
played on the football team three 
seasons. 

Following graduation, he was in the 
automobile business in New York for 
about ten years, and was one of the 
first importers of foreign-built cars. 
For a considerable period after his 
father's death, he continued his father's 
interest in a number of western real 
estate and public service companies, 
but he gradually withdrew from all 
of these except the Independence 
Water Company of Independence, 
Mo., of which he was the largest owner 
at the time of his death. 

In recent years his chief interest 
centered in the reclamation of aban- 
doned farms. In Wilmot, N. H., his 
mother's native town, he acquired 
several tracts of land amounting to 



about a thousand acres, and conducted 
many experiments to determine what 
might be accomplished by scientific 
farming; his work was appreciated and 
encouraged by state officials, who felt 
that he was doing much to prove that 
New Hampshire farms could be made 
self-supporting. 

He was a member of the Country 
Club, Brookline, the Algonquin Club, 
a thirty-second degree Mason, a direc- 
tor of the First National Bank of 
Portsmouth, of which his father had 
been president, and director, also, of 
the New England Company Power 
System. At the beginning of the war 
he joined the Motor Corps as a private 
and held the rank of corporal when he 
died. He is survived by his wife, 
who was Miss Maude Berry of Ports- 
mouth, and by his mother and a sister. 

1897 

Dr. B. Kendall Emerson, Secretary, 
56 William St., Worcester, Mass. 

Professor Percy H. Boynton, dean 
of the English department at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, is taking an absence 
from teaching work and is at Mystic, 
Conn., devoting his time to writing. 

Dr. Kendall Emerson of Worcester, 
deputy commissioner of the Red Cross 
commission In Europe, has recently been 
decorated by General Wrangel, com- 
mander-in-chief of the southern Russian 
forces. The decoration is for services 
rendered to the civilian population of 
Crimea and South Russia and is the 
order of St. Anne, of the second class. 

Dr. Emerson went to France with the 
Harvard unit in 1916, being one of the 
first Worcester physicians to go over- 
seas. Returning in January, 1918, he 
served In the surgeon-general's office 
in Washington until June, when he be- 
came attached to the staflF of the Walter 
Reed hospital. 

He was sent to Siberia on a special 
commission, from which he returned 
six months later, retiring from military 
service but remaining in Washington 
at the American Red Cross headquar- 
ters until September, 1919. Then he 
went abroad again, this time as medical 
director of the Red Cross commission in 
Europe, since which time he has been 
made deputy commissioner. 



132 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Rev. Charles W. Merriam. Secretary, 

201 College Ave. N. E., 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Doubleday, Page and Co., have just 
published a collection of short stories 
by H. G. D wight, who wrote "Stamboul 
Nights." The stories in the new 
volume, which is entitled "The Em- 
perior of Elam," range in locale from 
Persia and Venice to Norway, Alaska, 
and New York. The author was born 
in New England, but has lived in Persia, 
Turkey, Italy, and France. Mr. Dwight 
is at present connected with the State 
Department in the Division of the Near 
East. 

Rev. Leon H. Austin of Seeley, Cal.» 
has the distinction of furnishing the 
only practical demonstration of a com- 
munity church in Imperial Valley. Its 
membership includes representatives of 
half a dozen or more different denomina- 
tions who are working together in per- 
fect harmony. As neighbors and friends 
they appreciate the opportunity- of 
cooperating in the church just as they 
do in the farm center, the chamber of 
commerce, and the public school. 

The meeting house is strictly a com- 
munity affair. About $6,000 of its cost, 
besides the parsonage and grounds, 
was provided by the people of the com- 
munity, many of whom are not mem- 
bers of the church. This building fur- 
nishes the home, not only for the church 
and its auxiliaries, but for the chamber 
of commerce, the farm center, and for 
all other gatherings of a community 
interest. Its well-equipped kitchen 
and dining-room are ever open to the 
use of any community group or organ- 
ization desiring to serve a dinner. 

The manse houses the public library, 
and the mistress of the manse cares for 
it. Recently the church proposed a 
community welfare committee, con- 
sisting of three members from each of 
the separate community organizations: 
the chamber of commerce, the farm 
center, the board of school trustees, 
and the church. Such a committee has 
been chosen and organized for com- 
munity service. This committee will 
foster the live, healthy community 
spirit of Seeley and provide means for 
its expression along practical lines. 



Charles H. Cobb, Secretary, 
244 Albany St., Cambridge, Mass. 
Allen Hinckley, formerly of the 
Metropolitan Opera Company and now 
head of the vocal department of the 
Kansas City Conservatory of Music, is 
grouping talented young singers into 
church choirs, in some cases arranging 
to give lessons through a church schol- 
arship fund and thus making it possible 
to have a singing organization that 
will give both secular and sacred music 
in concert during the season. Two 
oratorios, Handel's "Messiah" and 
Verdi's "Requiem", were presented 
before Christmas and are to be followed 
by several song cycles. His opera 
pupils' recent presentation of "Lakme" 
was attended with much success and 
reflected great credit upon Mr. Hinck- 
ley. 

Charles W. Walker has been elected 
a director of the Kiwanis Club of 
Northampton. 

C. E. Mitchell has been elected a 
trustee of the Teachers' Insurance and 
Annuity Association and has been des- 
ignated a member of the Finance Com- 
mittee. This Association, organized by 
the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching, is cooperating 
with American colleges and universi- 
ties to supply suitable insurance and 
annuities for their faculties. 

1900 

Walter A. Dyer, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Frederick P. Young, formerly in the 
bond department of the National City 
Company, is now with Merrill, Lynch 
& Co., Room 3133, 120 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Frank S. Bonney is with the Arm- 
strong Knitting Mills, 78 Chauncey St., 
Boston. 

Clarence H. Chubbuck, whose busi- 
ness headquarters are in Philadelphia 
and whose home is in Cynwyd, Pa., 
sailed several months ago for an exten- 
ded trip to Japan, China, and the near 
East. He was last heard from in 
Australia and New Zealand and was 
expected to return to the United States 
early in 1921. 

Walter A. Dyer's novel of the early 



The Classes 



133 



days of the American Revolution, 
"Sons of Liberty; a Story of the Life 
and Times of Paul Revere," was pub- 
lished in November by Henry Holt & 
Co. His "Ben, the Battle Horse," 
published a year ago, is now in its 
third edition. 

Owing to the fact that 1900 held its 
regular reunion in Amherst last June, 
it has been decided not to engage head- 
quarters or organize a formal reunion 
of the class during the Centennial Cele- 
bration, but Chairman Hammond of 
the reunion committee is planning an 
informal get-together for such members 
of the class as are in town on that 
occasion. Further information later. 

Members of 1900 are summoned to 
rally round and assist the class sec- 
retary and the secretary of the Alumni 
Council in correcting the class address 
list and locating missing men. Infor- 
mation is desired regarding the fol- 
lowing: Brooks, Crapo, Davis, E. L. 
Harris, Larkin, Curtis, DuVivier, Hill, 
Linnehan, Peck. 

Robert P. Sibley, who has been reg- 
istrar and head of the department of 
English at Lake Forest College, 111., 
for several years, is now on the faculty 
of Cornell University. 

M. B. Parker's address is c/o Trav- 
elers Insurance Co., 175 W. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago, 111. Residence ad- 
dress: Oak St., Winnetka, 111. 

1901 

Harry H. Clutia, Secretary, 
100 William St., New York City 

Major Bradford Butler of Jackson 
Heights, Queens, N. Y., formerly Judge 
Advocate of the Rainbow Division, 
has been elected by acclamation com- 
mander of Fraternity Post, American 
Legion, for 1921. This post is said to 
be among the largest and most active 
in the New York State Department and 
includes such illustrious names as Maj. 
Gen. Leonard Wood, Maj. Gen. R. L. 
Bullard, and Lt. Col. Theodore Roose- 
velt. 

Frank E. Wade, Esq., is now living 
on Maple Avenue, Hollis, N. Y. 

Maurice L. Farrell has been ap- 
pointed a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the American Acceptance 
Council. 



Preserved Smith is the author of 
"The Age of the Reformation," the 
latest addition to the American His- 
torical Series, published by Henry 
Holt and Company. 

1902 

S. Bowles King, Secretary, 
672 Maple Ave., Winnetka, 111. 

James Dugan who has been acting as 
director of continuation schools in 
Cambridge, Mass., has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of schools. 
He will still direct his former depart- 
ment in addition to his new duties. 

James A. Nelson and Wilmot V. 
Trevoy have been elected members of 
the board of directors of the New York 
Community Service. 

Margaret Cable Brewster, wife of 
the Rev. Harold Sidney Brewster, and 
daughter of George W. Cable, the 
author, died at Modesto, Cal., early in 
December, after a long illness. 

Rev. William Reid, formerly of 
Hyde Park, Mass., and for the last 
year field representative for the Gen- 
eral Board of Promotion, has been 
chosen director of the State Baptist 
Board of Promotion of the State of 



George E. Keith, prominent shoe 
manufacturer, died in Boston in Decem- 
ber. He was the father of the late 
Eldon B. Keith and shortly before his 
death gave an athletic field to the city 
of Brockton for its high school ath- 
letics as a memorial to his son. The 
cost of this memorial field, when com- 
pleted, will be more than $200,000. 

Dr. Ralph P. Cunningham, Spring- 
field, Mass., has been appointed to the 
State Board of Dental Examiners. He 
has served several terms as a member 
of the executive committee of the Con- 
necticut Valley District. 

Wanted— a later address than the 
following: H. A. Sheppard, RFD 1, 
Box 48, Sawtelle, Cal. 

A number of men have thus far 
failed to return their biographical data 
sheets so that the Centennial records 
of the class may be completed. These 
men are earnestly and urgently re- 
quested to send in this information to 
the secretary without further delay. 



134 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



1903 

Clifford P. Warren, Esq., Secretary, 
26 Park St., West Roxbury, Mass. 

Gilbert H. Roehrig is with the Boston 
Y. M. C. A., in charge of Bible study. 

Some months ago Irving Sobotky 
retired from the practice of medicine, 
and is now connected, in a purchasing 
and managerial capacity, with J. 
Andrews Co., operating several retail 
shoe stores in Boston. 

Frederic Bixby is now living at 13 
Wallcroft Avenue, Tampa, Fla., where 
he is engaged in the advertising business. 

The secretary lost track for some time 
of Samuel T. Maddox, Jr., who was for 
about a year a member of the class. 
Word has now reached him that Mad- 
dox died in February, 1916. 

Gouverneur H. Boyer has remained 
in the army, and his address is now: 
Major Gouverneur H. Boyer, Fort 
Bliss. Tex. 

1904 

Karl O. Thompson, Secretary, 
11306 Knowlton Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

With the opening of the school year 
in September E. J. Eaton became 
principal of the South High School, 
Youngstown, Ohio. For the past four 
years Eaton has been in Des Moines, 
Iowa, for two as principal of the North 
High School and for two as principal of 
the West High School in that city. 
His home address in Youngstown is 
3821 Market Street. 

Karl O. Thompson has been chosen 
secretary of the New England Society 
of the Western Reserve, an organiza- 
tion that brings together people of New 
England birth living in the Western 
Reserve of Ohio. An annual meeting 
with prominent speakers is held on 
Forefathers' Day, November 21st. 

The American Petroleum Institute 
has recently made the following an- 
nouncement: 

It has not been thought advisable by 
the Board of Directors of the Institute 
to establish any Institute headquarters 
at Washington. However, many mat- 
ters have arisen at Washington re- 
quiring the services of somebody on the 
ground, and by an arrangement agree- 
able to the National Petroleum Associa- 
tion and the Western Petroleum Re- 



finers' Association, the Institute has 
been able to secure a portion of the 
time of Fayette B. Dow, Munsey 
Building, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Dow will continue his general 
representation of the two organizations 
named, but will also be glad to assist 
members of the Institute in their 
Washington problems. 

Mr. Dow is a lawyer of conspicuous 
ability, well acquainted in Washington, 
and has already rendered valuable 
service to the petroleum industry. 
Members of the Institute are urged 
to get acquainted with him, and to use 
his helpful services in connection with 
problems arising at Washington which 
are of general interest to the industry 
as a whole. It, of course, is neither 
desirable nor practical for Mr. Dow 
to attempt to handle individual cases 
or problems. 

Alvord Pratt, who is with the Amer- 
ican La France Fire Engine Company, 
now has his headquarters in Elmira, 
N. Y. 

1905 

John B. O'Brien, Secretary, 
309 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The rooms of Keene's English Chop 
House on 36th Street, New York 
City, reverberated as never before to 
the strains of Lord Jefifery Amherst and 
other songs of the Purple and White on 
the evening of Saturday, October 16th, 
when seven Amherst classes held a 
joint dinner and reunion, following the 
Amherst-Columbia game. The classes 
were: 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 
1905, and 1906. 

This dinner emphasized the great 
advantage there would be in having an 
Amherst Club in New York and it is 
understood the project is under serious 
consideration as a result. The affair 
was strictly informal, but was a decided 
success from start to finish. 

E. A. Baily, '05, acted as master of 
ceremonies, Professor Nelligan of Am- 
herst was the guest of honor and made 
a most inspiring speech. Speeches 
were also given by F. P. Young, '00, 
M. L. Farrell, '01, E. S. Wilson, '02. 
J. W. Park, '03, H. E. Taylor, '04, 
L. R. Fort, '05, E. M. Delabarre, '06, 
and R. M. Whitelaw, '07, from St. 
Louis. 



The Class 



135 



Those present included: A. V. Lyal, 
F. P. Young, J. A. C. Jansen. 1900; 
L. W. Bates, M. L. Farrell, 1901; 
C. H. Dayton, E. S. Wilson, A. W. 
Dennen, C. W. Anderson, 1902; D. H. 
Patrick, J. M. Breed, J. W. Park, D. 
H. Lake, J. P. Maloney, J. A. Jones, 
1903; J. F. Kane, H. E. Taylor, F. J. 
McCoy, S. B. Joost, C. A. Porter, 1904; 
A. S. Nash, F. C. Nickerson, H. L. 
Odell, J. B. O'Brien, E. A. Baily, L. R. 
Fort, W. T. Rathbun, M. A. Lynch, 
R. D. Wing, W. C. Moon, J. G. Ander- 
son, J. L. Gilbert, C. T. Hopkins, F. W. 
Baldwin, 1905; E. K. Delabarre, R. W. 
Wheeler, 1906; also present were 
Stuart Johnston, '98; R. M. Whitelaw, 
'07; W. H. Little, '07; T. A. Greene, 
'13; A. Newbery, '13; C. M. Mills, 
'14; F. A. Bernero, '14. The classes of 
1908 and 1911 who were holding re- 
unions at the up-town Keene's also 
came down later in the evening. 

J. J. Raftery has become sales mana- 
ger of the Alpha Electric Co. Inc., 
131-155 West 30th Street, New York 
City. 

Rev. Edwin Hill Van Etten was the 
college preacher at Amherst on Nov- 
ember 14th. 

Alfred F. Noble acted as an official at 
several of the big football games of last 
fall, including the Brown-Harvard and 
Harvard-Virginia games, at both of 
which he was the referee, the Yale- 
Brown, Brown-Colgate, and Spring- 
field-Brown games. 

A daughter, Nancy Matthews Hay- 
den, was born on October 8, 1920, to 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank S. Hayden of 
Wyoming, N. Y. 

George Hayes has left Chicago to go 
to St. Louis as manager of the foreign 
department for the Central Bond & 
Mortgage Company. 

1907 

Charles P. Slocxjm, Secretary, 
109 Harvard St., Newtonville, Mass. 

Bruce Barton is the author of a 
volume of short essays entitled "It's 
a Good Old World," recently published 
by the Century Company, in addition 
to a number of magazine articles. 

John H. Hubbard recently moved 
from Amherst to Montague, Mass., 
where he will manage the local factory 
of the Montague City Rod Company. 



Chilton Powell and Harry Barlow, 
who are both in Amherst, are the com- 
mittee in charge of our next reunion in 
1921. 

Wm. H. Little, Jr., is now at 165 
Broadway, New York City, care of 
American Car and Foundry Co. 

H. H. Palmer's address is now in 
Springfield, Mass. The secretary would 
like to have his street address. 

J. H. Amsbury is practising law in 
Boston in addition to his duties at the 
Provident Institution for Savings. 

C. A. Lamb is with the Flint- 
Adaskin Furniture Co., Providence, 
R. I. 

Dr. J. J. Morton, Jr., is practising 
in Boston at 234 Marlboro Street. 

Frank Deroin, Sydney Blanchard, 
Eddie Mullen, Walter Price, Chilt. 
Powell, Harry Barlow, Bill Andrews, 
Bruce Barton, and the secretary were 
among those who helped Amherst 
beat Williams on November 20th. 

Jesse D. Smith is now located in 
Chicago, at 1401 McCormick Bldg., 
c/o Globe Engineering Co. 

1908 

Harry W. Zinsmaster, Secretary, 

Zinsmaster Bread Co., 

Duluth, Minn. 

Arthur L. Kimball, now with the 
General Electric Company of Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., writes: "I was sent over 
to England in October, 1919, by the 
General Electric Company of Schenec- 
tady, New York, for the specific pur- 
pose of studying a special method for 
the determination of stresses in en- 
gineering materials by the use of 
polarized light, developed by Prof. 
E. G. Coker, F. R. S., of University 
College, London. It was further un- 
derstood that a set of the special ap- 
paratus required should be designed 
and manufactured and set up in the 
G. E. Research Laboratory here at 
Schenectady. 

"I was in London most of the time 
from October, 1919, until June, 1920, 
in which time the method was studied, 
the apparatus designed with Dr. 
Coker's cooperation, manufactured, and 
shipped to the United States, where I 
arrived the middle of July, 1920. The 
apparatus is now set up at Schenectady, 



136 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



and is being put into service, showing 
good possibilities. 

"This work came up in connection 
with stress problems in the high speed 
rotors of steam turbines. I also spent 
some time with the British Thompson 
Houston Company at Rugby, England, 
which is controlled by the General 
Electric, the work done there being a 
study of steam turbine problems." 

Merle D. Graves of Springfield was 
elected to the Massachusetts House 
of Representatives last November on 
the Republican ticket. Mrs. Graves is 
the Republican Women's Chairman in 
Springfield. 

Heath E. White was in much demand 
last fall in Western New York as an 
umpire at college football games. His 
work was particularly pleasing to 
Hamilton College and he was chosen as 
an official for a great many of the games 
on the Hamilton schedule. 

1909 

Donald D. McKay, Secretary, 

6 Aberdeen St., Newton Highlands, 

Mass. 

Major Edward L. Dyer can now be 
reached c/o American Military At- 
tache, 5 Rue Chaillot, Paris, France. 
After his services with the American 
forces in France he was sent to the 
Near East and to Armenia, on Colonel 
Haskell's mission. He has now been 
stationed in Paris and will be glad to do 
anything he can for any of the Amherst 
men who may have lost members of 
their families over in France. At pres- 
ent, he is connected with the American 
Graves Registration Service. 

A son, John Harding Coyle, was born 
on June 14, 1920, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Daniel J. Coyle, Jr., of Chicago, 111. 

Cyrus A. Case is with the Bashinsky 
Cotton Company, Birmingham, Ala. 

A son, Henry Folger Cleaveland, 
was born on January 22, 1920, to Mr. 
and Mrs. Edwards L. Cleaveland, 197 
Monroe Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Roscoe W. Brink is with the Hearst 
Magazine, New York City. 

The following men attended the 
Centennial Gift reunion at Amherst, 
November 19th and 20th: Blackmer, 
Robert Chapin, Merrill Clarke, Cun- 
ningham, Eaglesfield, Fairbank, Frank , 



Gilpatric, Goodnow, McKay, Main, 
Mayo-Smith, Michaels, Raynor, Tylee, 
and Vollmer. 

David Thomas is with the Hood 
Rubber Company, Watertown, Mass. 

Walter H. Whelan, D.D.S., is now 
located at 80 Boylston Street, Boston. 

Harrison W. Mellen is with the 
Hallett and Davis Piano Company, 
Boston. 

Asahel Bush, Jr., is spending this 
year in Paris, France. 

Ernest L. Earle is in government 
service at the Watertown Arsenal, 
Watertown, Mass. 

James B. Melcher is assistant- 
treasurer of the Newton Trust Company 
and manager of the Newton Center 
oflfice for this bank. 

1910 

George B. Burnett, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

The wedding of Bartow H. Hall and 
Miss Anita H. Emmet, daughter of 
Colonel Robert T. Emmet, took place 
on October 23, 1920, in Grace Church, 
New York City, the Rev. Dr. William 
G. Thayer, '85, of St. Mark's School, 
which Mr. Hall attended, officiating, 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall are making their 
home at 322 East Fifty-seventh Street, 
New York City. Mr. HalFs father is 
Hon. Henry C. Hall, '81, a member of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Miss Mary Godfrey Barr, daughter 
of Col. and Mrs. Edward Barr of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and Weston Whitney 
Goodnow were married in Brooklyn 
on Saturday, November 27th. David 
Goodnow, '09, brother of the groom, 
acted as best man. 

Rev. Mylon D. Merchant has re- 
signed his pastorate in Ludlow, Mass., 
and has accepted an appointment as 
army chaplain. He is stationed at 
Fort Preble, R. I. 

George B. Taylor spent last summer 
at Trenchera Ranch, Fort Garland, 
Colo., tutoring the son of Mr. Allan 
Pinkerton, president of the Pinkerton 
National Detective Agency. 

The 1921 number of the Buccaneer 
has been mailed to all the class. Any- 
one not receiving a copy please notify 
the secretary. 

Courtney Campbell is vice-president 



The Classes 



137 



and general manager of the Carolina 
Stock Farms, a cattle ranch and plan- 
tation of 4000 acres, at Foreston, S. C. 

1911 

Dexter Wheelock, Secretary, 
79 Pine St., New York City 

T. Leo Kane, who has been in charge 
of the merchandising and research 
department of the Class Journal 
Company, New York, has been ap- 
pointed to the Michigan advertising 
territory of that company. He will 
have his headquarters at Detroit. 

Charles B. Rugg of Worcester has 
been appointed United States Com- 
missioner for the Worcester district. 
The appointment was made late in 
December. Mr. Rugg, who is a son 
of Chief Justice Arthur P. Rugg, '83, 
of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, 
is the junior member of the law firm 
of Merrick, Blackmer and Rugg. His 
judicial appointment is a high honor, 
especially for so young a man. 

A son, G. Rucker Stone, was born 
on June 24, 1920, to Mr. and Mrs. 
William M. Stone of Guilford, Conn. 

George L. Treadwell is the author 
of an article, "When You Advertise 
Your Goods in China," in the October 
issue of Printers'' Ink Monthly. 

Prof. Waldo Shumway and Miss 
Helen Davis of Boston were married 
at the Hotel Vendome, Boston, on 
November 20th. The bride is a 
graduate of Chevy Chase, Washington, 
D. C, and the Campbell School of 
Windsor, Conn. They expect to spend 
next summer in Europe. 

Roger Keith was elected mayor of 
the city of Brockton, Mass., at the 
recent city election. He ran on the 
Republican ticket and won by a ma- 
jority of 1040 votes. He has served 
the city as a member of the Common 
Council for four years, acting as presi- 
dent of the council in 1920. 

1912 

C. Francis Beatty, Secretary, 
953 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

George W. Whitney is secretary and 
advertising manager of C. J. Heppe 
and Son of Philadelphia. He has also 
been elected secretary and assistant 
treasurer of the Heppe Piano Company. 

The Survey for October 30th con- 



tained an article by Spencer Miller, 
Jr., on "The Prison as an Asset." 

Announcement is made of the en- 
gagement of William Siegrist, Jr., and 
Miss Marion Elizabeth MacFarland, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. 
MacFarland of Brooklyn, N. Y. For 
the past eight years Mr. Siegrist has 
been associated with the Brace Memo- 
rial Newsboys Home of New York as 
social work director. He also for 
several years coached the Brooklyn 
Poly Prep football team and nearly 
always turned out a champion eleven. 

John H. Madden has been appointed 
by Mayor E. F. Leonard prosecuting 
attorney in the new city administra- 
tion of Springfield, Mass. The ap- 
pointment was made on January 4th. 

The secretary wishes correct ad- 
dresses for the following: Kelly, Colby, 
Lee, Keough, Hubbard, Mason, and 
Goldstein. 

A. B. Peacock, who has been touring 
the Orient with his wife, returned to 
Brooklyn, N. Y. last January. 

Allen Berry, who completed his 
course at Princeton, writes that his 
son will get to Amherst about 1935. 

Albert V. Baumann, Jr., was a dele- 
gate from Ohio to the Democratic 
National Convention. After four years 
in ofiSce as prosecuting attorney of 
Sandusky County he is now preparing 
to retire to private practice. 

H. Gordon Chasseaud is now secre- 
tary of the Animated Picture Products 
Corporation, New York City. 

The 1921 announcement of the New 
School of Social Research, New York 
City, lists Ordway Tead as one of the 
teaching staff. He gives a course 
called Problems of Industrial Relations. 
A notice of his latest book, "Personnel 
Administration," is printed on another 
page of this magazine. 

A second issue of the 1912 Pepper- 
Box is promised for February. Those 
who got a whiff of the first number 
know what to expect of this leader of 
reunion journals. 

1913 

Lewis D. Stilwell, Secretary, 
8 School St., Hanover, N. H. 
T. J. Burns and Miss Loveland of 



138 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Newark, N. J., were married on 
Wednesday, October 27th. They are 
making their home on Harrison Street, 
East Orange, N. J. 

Ralph W. Westcott of Walpole, 
Mass., has been elected vice-president 
of the Norfolk County Teacher's 
Association. 

John H. Klingenfeld is with Murray 
Howe and Company, Inc., 30 East 
42nd St., New York City, in charge of 
their direct advertising. 

A daughter, Gladys, was born on 
October 20, 1920, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Chauncey C. Carter of Washington, 
D. C. 

Dr. Charles E. Parsons is now con- 
nected with the Long Island College 
Hospital in Brooklyn. 

1914 

RoswELL P. Young, Secretary, 
140 Tremont St., Boston, Mass, 
S. D. Chamberlain is the father of a 
son born about December 10th. 

1915 

Louis F. Eaton, Secretary, 
210 Ash St., Brockton, Mass. 

M. S. Bulger is with Bell Telephone 
Co., of Pittsburg, Pa. He was married 
on January 27, 1920, to Miss Nellie 
McClelland of Uniontown, Pa. 

J. N. Hird, Jr. is now in Ensenada, 
Porto Rico, in the interests of the 
South Porto Rican Sugar Co. 

A daughter, Carol Whitten, was born 
December 11, 1920, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Phillip F. Whitten of Waltham, Mass. 

Lieut. Richard H. Bacon, F. A., 
U. S. A., is stationed at Camp Knox, Ky. 
with the 81st Field Artillery, 

The class has learned with sorrow of 
the death of Louis T. Rivard, who was 
a member of 1915 freshman year. 
Rivard enlisted with the Canadian 
army from his home in Montreal, but 
died of the influenza at a Canadian 
cantonment in 1918. He is survived 
by a widow and small son. The in- 
formation of this, the second death in 
the class, was given by his cousin, E. S, 
Rivard, of the class of 1914. 

A son, Arthur Henry, Jr., was re- 
cently born to Mr. and Mrs. Arthur 
H. Elliot of Penang, Straits Settlements, 
F. M. S. 



Howard D. Roelofs and Miriam 
Hubbard Roelofs, his wife, are jointly 
running the Concord Farms at East 
Aurora, N. Y. They are the parents 
of two children, Mary Moore Roelofs, 
born November 26, 1918, and Gerrit 
Hubbard Roelofs. born August 6, 1920. 

Joseph N. Lincoln spent the summer 
in England, France, and Spain, in the 
latter country attending the summer 
session of the University of Madrid. 
He is now back again at the University 
of Michigan. Address 441 South Fourth 
Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

T. R. Jarmin is in the employ of 
Swift & Co., of Omaha, Neb. Ad- 
dress c/o Y. M. C. A. 

Howard F. Reed is located in Mans- 
field, Ohio. Address 185 West Fourth St. 

Louis C. Henin is an attorney in 
Springfield, Mass. Address Court 
Square Bldg. 

Mr. and Mrs. Everett W. Fuller are 
the parents of a son, Everett Gladding, 
born December 6, 1920. They live 
at 26 Norfolk St.. Springfield, Mass, 

Arthur P. Goodwin is now with C. F. 
Hatch Paper Box Co. of Lowell, Mass. 
Address c/o Y. M. C. A. 

Douglas Clapperton is studying at 
the University of Michigan Law School. 
Recently he was elected to the board of 
The Michigan Law Review. 

The new address of Mr. and Mrs, 
John E. Lind is 2524 Eleventh St, N. 
W., Washington, D. C. 

Homer M. Smith has moved to 12 
West 66th St., New York City. Busi- 
ness address, 19 West 44th St. 

Lawrence E. Goeller, Jr., was born 
on September 21, 1920, to Mr. and 
Mrs. Lawrence E. Goeller of Circle- 
ville, Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Hunneman of 
Philadelphia announce the birth of a 
daughter on November 20, 1920, 

Mr. and Mrs. Oliver P. Bennett of 
Mapleton, Iowa, are the parents of 
two children, Dorothy, aged two and a 
half years, and James, aged ten months. 

The new address of Charles H. Hous- 
ton is 1556 Cambridge St., Cambridge, 
Mass. 

William Mellema is now in Los 
Angeles, Cal. Address 625 Loomis St, 



The Classes 



139 



George C. Bratt, Jr., is teaching at 
the Central High School, Detroit. He 
was married last summer and lives at 
the Rex Arms Apts., 56 Davenport St., 
Detroit, Mich. 

The new address for Henry T. 
Langspecht is Box 1162, Tulsa, Okla. 

Walker W. Kamm's new address is 
7 Russian Hill Place, San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Phillips Tead is playing a leading 
part in "The Tavern" at the Geo. M. 
Cohan Theatre, New York. 

Robert S. Moulton was married on 
December 28th to Miss Florence 
Bracq, Vassar, 1915, of Maiden, Mass. 
They are living at 114 Oxford St., 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Arthur P. Washburn is teaching at 
the Riverdale Country School, River- 
dale, N. Y., while continuing his 
studies in philosophy at Columbia 
University. 

Dr. Leslie T. Webster is now with 
the Rockerfeller Institute, 66th St. and 
Ave. A, New York. 

R. A. Robinson, 3rd, is sales pro- 
motion manager of Robinson Bros. 
Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richardson Pratt of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., announce the birth 
of a daughter, Mary Marselis Pratt, 
born on September 26, 1920. 

A daughter was born on October 22, 
1920, to Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. 
Konold, Mishawaka, Indiana. 

Henry S. Kingman of Minneapolis, 
Minn., is engaged to Miss Josephine 
Woodward of the same city. 

Horatio Wales was married to Miss 
Merle Owens of Freeport, III., on Oc- 
tober 26, 1920. They are living at 
325 Fifth St. S. E., Washington, D. C. 
Wales acquired the degree of M. A. in 
1917, and Ph.D. in 1919, at Columbia, 
having specialized in chemistry; and 
is at present connected with the color 
investigation laboratory of the Bureau 
of Chemistry. 

James N. Rawleigh is connected 
with Clement Curtis & Co. Address, 
The Rookery, Chicago. 

Kenneth F. Caldwell is now with the 
F. S. Moseley Co.. 50 Congress St., 
Boston. 



Dr. Phillip F. Greene, now at St. 
Mary's Hospital for Children, New 
York, will leave in June for foreign 
work as a medical missionary. 

Edward Van Valkenburg has moved 
to Buffalo, N. Y. Address c/o Uni- 
versity Club. 

The marriage is also announced of 
the Rev. Frederick C. Allen and Miss 
Ruth Dorchester of Bristol, Conn., 
daughter of the Rev. and Mrs. L. H. 
Dorchester and a graduate of Wellesley 
College, class of 1919, on December 
28, 1920. Mr. Allen has become pastor 
of the Congregational Church in Middle- 
bury, Conn. 

Sidney R. Packard, who has been 
travelling in Europe on a Harvard 
Fellowship for the past year, has re- 
turned to complete his studies at Cam- 
bridge. He has announced his engage- 
ment to Miss Mildred Rackliffe of 
Brockton, Mass. Miss Rackliffe is a 
graduate of Mount Holyoke College 
in the class of 1915 and is teaching at 
Brockton High School. 

1916 

Douglas D. Milne, Secretary, 
2454 Webb Ave., New York City 

The engagement is announced of 
Frederick C. Bonsack and Miss Mar- 
garet Nichols, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
William Nichols of St. Louis, Mo. 

Geoffrey Cooke Neiley and Miss 
Marion G. Riley of East Orange, N. J., 
were married in New York City on 
November 6, 1920, at the Church of 
the Transfiguration. A wedding dinner 
at the Waldorf-Astoria followed the 
ceremony. The bride is a graduate of 
Smith College, class of 1917. 

Lieutenant Donald E. Hardy reached 
his home in Amherst on December 21, 
1920, after having been overseas for 
nearly three years. He came from 
Warsaw, where for the past year he 
has been working in the interests of 
the American Relief Association. 

Edwin H. Lutkins, who resumed 
his connection in the chemical industry 
after leaving the army, has taken a po- 
sition with the New York Telephone 
Co. in the traffic department. His 
headquarters are at the Telephone 
Building in Walker Street, Traffic 
Dept., New York City. 



140 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



1917 

Robert M. Fisher, Secretary, 
Indiana, Pa. 

C. L. Bell, who left Montgomery 
Ward and Company some months ago, 
has been appointed assistant traffic 
manager of the Elgin district of the 
Chicago Telephone Company. 

Paul A. Jenkins, formerly assistant 
editor of the Popular Mechanics Maga- 
zine, is now publicity manager of the 
investment department of the Public 
Utilities Corporation of Northern Illi- 
nois. 

Ed. Marples, residing in Evanston, 
111., is engaged in the manufacture of 
wooden boxes in Chicago. 

G. Irving Baily is assistant to the 
superintendent of merchandise at the 
Chicago plant of Montgomery Ward 
and Co. 

Harold A. Smith has recently moved 
to Passaic, N. J., where he is engaged 
in laboratory work in connection with 
the paper industry. 

The announcement has recently been 
received that the naval cross has been 
awarded to David C. Hale '17. The 
award was made on Armistice Day and 
the citation reads as follows: 

"For distinguished and heroic service 
as an Observer of Airplanes of the 
Northern Bombing Troops in France, 
cooperating with the Allied armies on 
the Belgian front from June to No- 
vember, 1918, in bombing raids over 
enemy territory and in action against 
enemy aircraft. 

"For the President, 
"Josephtjs Daniels, 

"Secretary of the Navy." 

Robert Wiltsie Wadhams and Miss 
Helen Steams Cummings, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. John S. Cummings of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., were married in New 
York City on December 24, 1920. 

1918 

Robert P. Kelsey, Secretary, 
122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
The engagement was recently an- 
nounced of Gordon Moore Curtis and 
Miss Evelyn Marie Stratton of Sea 
Gate, N. Y. 

Clifford J. Young has charge of the 
Binghampton branch of the Union 
Central Life Insurance Co. 



C. H. Durham is with the Stanley 
Works, New Britain, Conn. 

M. P. Hall is attending Harvard 
Business School. 

Malcolm P. Sharp is collabora- 
tor with Professor John R. Commons of 
the University of Wisconsin in an arti- 
cle in the Independent entitled, "The 
Shop Committee in Control." 

1919 

Walter K. Belknap, Secretary, 

Room 411, 425 Fifth Ave., New York 

City 

There have been three marriages in 
the class since those reported in the 
last issue of the Quarterly. In 
September Franklin F. Bailey and 
Miss Helen Smith were married in 
Rockford, 111. They are now living in 
Montpelier, Vt., where Bailey is with 
the National Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Early in October Walter V. 
Bayer and Miss Dorothy Irwin were 
married in Brooklyn, where they now 
reside while Walt works for the Weber 
Piano Company and studies at the 
Wall Street School of New York 
University. The third marriage was 
that of Marcus R. Burr and Miss 
Marjorie Flanagan, which took place 
in Brooklyn on November 10th. Burr 
is in the group department of the 
Travelers Insurance Co., and is living 
in Brooklyn with his bride. 

Paul H. Ballou is completing his 
course at Yale this winter. 

Morris L. Bowman is at the Harvard 
Medical School. 

Pierre R. Bretey lives at 35 Central 
Ave., Ridgefield Park, N. J. 

Charles B. Bull is in the bond busi- 
ness in New York. 

Raymond M. Colton is sales manager 
and publicity director for Hulse and 
Allen, law publishers, in New York 
City. 

W. Barton Cummings is in the Me- 
chanics and Metals Bank in New York 
City. 

William H. Emery is in business as 
an aviator with headquarters at his 
home in Bradford, Pa. He gives ex- 
hibition flights, instructs, and carries 
passengers or express as the demand 
may be. 



The Classes 



141 



Warren T. Mayers is service manager 
for the Southern New England Tele- 
phone Company at South Norwalk, 
Conn. 

Lloyd W. Miller has recently returned 
from a trip to France during the course 
of which he visited the regions where 
the Amherst Unit saw duty. 

Donald G. Mitchell is in business 
in New York and lives at the corner of 
82 St. and West End Avenue. 

Thomas P. Pitre is teaching at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

C. Scott Porter is again teaching at 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute and 
taking graduate courses at Clark 
University. 

Benjamin F. Taber is taking a course 
in New York preparatory to entering 
the Medical School at Columbia 
University. 

Robert C. Wilcox is in the School of 
Business at Harvard after a summer 
spent in Europe. 

These notes are few and brief, be- 
cause there has not been all the re- 
sponse to appeals for news that there 
might be. If you ever get any gossip, 
write it out on a postal and send it to 
the secretary. It will be appreciated 
all around. 

The following seem to be among the 
missing: Barton, Cardinal, Chang, 
Dumm, Golomb, Hand, Hollings, Kam- 
bour, Kinney, Maloney, Mulholland, 
Page, Rauh, Reed, Spicer, Starkey, 
Sweeney, Tsaou. Let us know if 
you have any information about their 
doings or addresses. 

1920 

D. S. Otis, Secretary, 
Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass. 
The 1920 Cud, "something for '20 
men to chew on," has made its ap- 
pearance to join its fellow alumni pub- 
lications and to strengthen the link 
between the members of the class. 
The first number was originated and 
engineered by Roily Wood, who will 
continue the good work with whatever 
help is offered him until the class meets 
at reunion and can institute a perma- 
nent organization. It is a most worth- 
while undertaking and the editor 
deserves all the support possible. 
1920 men are urged to send news (and 



other support) to R. A. Wood, 235 
84th Street. Brooklyn, New York. 

A very enjoyable dinner and gather- 
ing of '20 men in and around New York 
was held at La Maisonnette, 12 West 
45th Street, on the evening of Decem- 
ber 28th. Thirty-one men assembled 
to sing and talk and in every way 
enjoy the atmosphere of Amherst. 
The Centennial and Commencement 
were the main themes of discussion. 
Enthusiastic support both literary 
and financial, was voted to the Cud. 
The party dispersed with the determina- 
tion of making the pleasant occasion, 
an annual event. Those present were: 
Prof. A. H. Baxter, P. K. Phillips, A. E. 
Davison, E. G. Tuttle, S. W. Ayres, 

E. L. McKinstry, K. B. Low, A. J. 
Beckhard, R. A. Wood, G. D. Haskell, 
L. E. Crooks, F. S. Greene, H. E. 
Wolff, R. G. Stewart, K. M. Bouv6, 

F. C. Weber, E. A. Carley, J. J. Han- 
selman, E. L. Fisher, W. C. Allen, E. 
Smith, A. N. Clarke, F. H. Keusel. 
J. M. March, W. C. Townsend, D. S. 
Otis, V. G. Tooker, W. K. Allison, W. 
B. Brown, W. L. Voigt, G. H. Diech- 
man. 

Ralph E. Bailey is with the National 
Shawmut Bank, Boston. 

Thomas H. McCandless is in the oil 
business in Inglewood, Cal. His ad- 
dress is 231 East Kelso Street. 

Stanley W. Ayres and Kenneth M. 
Bouve are with William A. Read & 
Co., 28 Nassau St., New York City. 

Stephen P. Mizwa is a graduate 
student at Harvard, living at 1746 
Cambridge St., Cambridge, Mass. 

E. Albert Carley is a student at 
Bellevue Medical College. His ad- 
dress is 34 Linden St., Brooklyn, New 
York. 

John M. Bell is in the accountmg 
department of the General Electric 
Co., Schenectady, New York, and is 
living at 30 Bedford Road. 

Kenneth B. Low, Howard M. Bas- 
sett, and F. A. Lyman are studying 
law at Columbia. 

Julian F. Rowe is a builder and con- 
tractor with his oflBce at 355 Kingston 
Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

E. Gerry Tuttle and Alvah E. Davi- 
son are in the advertismg department 



142 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



of the Erickson Co., 381 Fourth Ave., 
New York City. 

Robert M. Keeney is teaching at 
the Choate School, Wallingford, Conn. 

Daniel Bliss and Alexander Moss- 
man have arrived safely in Beiriit, 
Syria. The former is teaching English 
and the latter biology at the Syrian 
Protestant College. 

Edward L. McKinstry is in the bond 
business in New York. His address is 
1223 Pacific Street, Brooklyn. 

Rufus P. Cushman is in the wool 
business in Boston and is living at 170 
Pine Ridge Road, Waban, Mass. 

Thomas H. Johnson is an instructor 
of mathematics at the University of 
Maine. 

Perry B. Jenkins is with the Trav- 
elers Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Paul K. Phillips is coaching athletics 
and teaching at Deerfield Academy. 

Edward B. Wright is with the A. H. 
Bull Steamship Co., 17 Battery Place, 
New York City. 

Alanson C. Davis is a student at the 
General Theological Seminary, 175 
Ninth Ave., New York City. 

Alexander L. Dade is in the oil busi- 
ness at 302 Insurance Building, Okla- 
homa City, Okla. 

Horace U. Siegel is treasurer of the 



Siegel Co., 228 Main St., Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

Raeburn H. Parker is now with the 
Proctor and Gamble Co., 906 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

Francis T. Cooke is a divinity student 
and pastor at Yale. His address is 
1128 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. 

Andrew W. Jackson is a salesman, 
living at 139 South Mam Street, 
Jamestown, N. Y. 

Frederick S. Greene is a student at 
the Harvard Medical School, and is 
living at Wadsworth House, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Joshua M. Holmes is in business in 
Philadelphia. His address is Valley 
Road, Oake Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

All '20 men who have not done so, 
are asked to send their addresses to 
D. S. Otis, Deerfield, Mass. 

F. F. Davidson has entered his 
father's jewelry business in Boston. 

Ralph Beebe is doing graduate work 
in chemistry at Princeton. 

J. M. March had a poem called 
"Autumn Prophecy" in the September 
number of Poetry and another called 
"The Wanderer" in the New York 
Evening Post. 

William Cowles is with the Stanley 
Works in New Britain, Conn. His 
address is 18 Cedar Street. 



CONTENTS 



Frontispiece: Robert Lansing .... Facing 143 

"The Peace Negotiations." A Review. Edwin A. Grosvenor 143 

Views: Amherst College in 1821 and 1830. Amherst College 

in 1921 Facing 151 

Reunion Hymn. A Poem. Walter A. Dyer . .151 

Education and Art in Central Europe. Otto Manthey- 

Zorn 152 

An Amherst Teacher : Heman Humphrey Neill. A .R.N. . 163 
Portrait : Heman Humphrey Neill . . Facing 163 

College Notes 

Winter Athletics 178 

Football, 1921 179 

In Brief 179 

Editorial Notes 182 

Official and Personal 

The Impersonation of Lord Jeffery Amherst . . 185 

The Associations . 186 

Since the Last Issue 186 

The Classes . ... . . . . • .187 




What Is Research? 



SUPPOSE that a stove burns too much coal for 
the amount of heat that it radiates. The 
manufacturer hires a man familiar with the 
principles of combustion and heat radiation to make 
experiments which will indicate desirable changes in 
design. The stove selected as the most efficient is 
the result of research. 

Suppose that you want to make a ruby in a factory 
— not a mere imitation, but a real ruby, indistinguish- 
able by any chemical or physical test from the natural 
stone. You begin by analyzing rubies chemically and 
physically. Then you try to make rubies just as 
nature did, with the same chemicals and under similar 
conditions. Your rubies are the result of research — 
research of a different type from that required to 
improve the stove. 

Suppose, as you melted up your chemicals to pro- 
duce rubies and experimented with high temperatures, 
you began to wonder how hot the earth must have 
been millions of years ago when rubies were first 
crystallized, and what were the forces at play that made 
this planet what it is. You begin an investigation that 
leads you far from rubies and causes you to formulate 
theories to explain how the earth, and, for that matter, 
how the whole solar system was created. That would 
be research of a still different type — pioneering into 
the unknown to satisfy an insatiable curiosity. 

Research of all three types is conducted in the Laboratories of the 
General Electric Conipany. But it is the third type of research — 
piorteering into the unknown — that means most, in the long run, 
even though it is undertaken with no practical benefit in view. 

At the present time, for example, the Research Laboratories of 
the General Electric Company are exploring matter with X-rays 
in order to discover not only how the atoms in different sub- 
stances are arranged but how the atoms themselves are built up. 
The more you know about a substance, the more you can do with 
it. Some day this X-ray work will enable scientists to answer 
more definitely than they can now the question: Why is iron 
magnetic? And then the electrical industry will take a great step 
forward, and more real progress will be made in five years than 
can be made in a century of experimenting with existing electrical 
apparatus. 

You can add wings and stories to an old house. But to build a 
new house, you must begin with the foundation. 



General Office 




Generally 

COnipSlliy Schenectady, N.Y. 




HOHKHT I.AXS1\(! 



AMHERST 

GRADUATES' QUARTERLY 

VOL. X— MAY, 1921— NO. 3 



"THE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS: A PERSONAL SKETCH" 
BY ROBERT LANSING 

EDWIN A. GROSVENOR 

THE long-heralded appearance of this book was awaited by 
the public and press with impatience. Speculation was 
universal and keen as to its probable contents, its manner 
of treatment, its temper and tone, even its every detail. Presum- 
ably it was to be the revelation, by the highest appointive official 
of the American Government, of the inner functioning of that in- 
ternational assembly, the most momentous in history, which was to 
affect the destinies of mankind, and in which the author, as one 
of the accredited Peace Commissioners of the United States, had 
his part. But after all how much might the book really reveal and 
how much leave undisclosed? What questions would it answer 
fully.' What in part.' What not at all.' And the supreme question, 
in comparison with the poignant urgency of which all other ques- 
tions were trivial as straws. Why did the Peace Conference fail? 
Or, less baldly, why did its results fall so far below hope and ex- 
pectation? 

Before entering upon the direct discussion of the book, it is well 
to consider its author. 

Robert Lansing was Secretary of State from June 23, 1915, until 
February 12, 1920, that is, for more than four years and seven 
months. Of the forty -four secretaries of state since the adoption 
of the Constitution, only seven have filled that office for an equal 
length of time. Excepting Mr. Seward, Secretary throughout the 
Civil War, no one of Mr. Lansing's predecessors daily faced condi- 
tions and events so perplexing and of such moment to the Republic. 
His term included the racking period of suspense while the nation 



144 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

seemed hanging over the brink of war, then the American par- 
ticipation in the World War, and finally the attempt of the vic- 
torious Allies at Paris to establish a durable peace. 

The career of Mr. Lansing afforded special training for the duties 
of his responsible office. Profoundly versed in constitutional and 
international law, thoroughly acquainted with diplomatic prece- 
dent and usage, he had acted as counselor or agent of the United 
States in most delicate and complicated matters, such for example 
as The Behring Sea Arbitration, The Behring Sea Claims Commis- 
sion, The Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, The North Atlantic Coast 
Fisheries Arbitration, The American and British Claims Commis- 
sion at The Hague, and was Counselor for the Department of State 
when appointed by Mr. Wilson its head. 

His felicitous marriage to Miss Foster, the accomplished 
daughter of General John W. Foster, Secretary of State in the 
Cabinet of President Harrison, brought him early into intimate 
and congenial relations with that eminent statesman and master 
of diplomacy. 

Mr. Lansing possessed in himself qualifications, independent of 
training and experience, but which neither training nor experience 
alone could have supplied. Of deliberate judgment but able in 
emergency to act with instinctive, correct decision, broad-minded 
while tenacious of principle, conscientious to a degree rarely seen 
in the exigencies of public life, incapable of subterfuge or deceit, 
American to the core, the promotion of the national welfare his 
highest aim, he brought to his office sterling character and abso- 
lute devotion to the duties involved. 

Although Mr. Lansing is a Democrat, his affiliation with domestic 
politics had been slight. It reflects credit on Mr. Wilson that he 
did not select for the vacant chair some person less able but more 
prominent through partisan service. The President was himself 
fortunate that in the political confusion, consequent on the sudden 
resignation of Mr. Bryan, there was available in the ranks of his 
own party a man so fit. 

Certain editorial remarks, which appeared in the Review of 
Reviews immediately after the appointment, were so appropriate 
then and now loom so large in the light of later events, that they 
deserve mention here. The editor speaks of "Mr. Lansing's ex- 
ceptional value and abihty in the Department," adding "it would 



The Peace Negotiations 145 

be hard to find so suitable a Secretary as Mr. Lansing." Those 
expressions might be dismissed as merely the personal opinion of 
a high authority. But the article emphasizes three general truths, 
the importance of which has been verified by time. "The Secre- 
tary should be better qualified than the President." "He (the 
President) will make a mistake if he believes it is wise for him to 
be President and Secretary at the same time." "But if named, 
he (Mr. Lansing) should be Secretary in fact." Those significant 
words were printed in July, 1915, almost six years ago. 

The sub-title of this book, "A Personal Narrative," is appro- 
priate and exact. It is as frankly personal as the "Autobiography" 
of Benjamin Franklin or the "Confessions" of Jean Jacques 
Rousseau. It differs from those works in that its time limit is not 
years but months — the months just before and during the Peace 
Negotiations — and that on the personal side it concerns itself 
primarily with the relations or differences of two men, the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary, both members of the Peace Commission. 
It is raised far above the possible pettiness of personalities by the 
largeness of the issues with which even its slightest reference has 
to deal. From personalities in the invidious sense of the word it 
is entirely free. 

The author keeps himself under strict self-control. He is sensi- 
tive to the opinion of his fellow-citizens, desirous of their approval 
and shows it, but he puts forth no special pleading and is anxious 
only that his action be understood. 

Of Mr. Wilson, both as President and individual, he speaks 
always with courtesy and respect. References to his (the Presi- 
dent's) "high-mindedness and loftiness of thought" are not in- 
frequent. More than once, after summing up the pros and cons, 
while disagreeing, he remarks, "There was much to be said in 
favor of the President's point of view," or uses other words to the 
same effect. The acute Secretary of analytic mind sometimes 
seems half dazed at the President's indifference to legal objections 
or to a statement of constitutional limitations, or at the Presi- 
dent's petulant exclamation "that he did not intend to have 
lawyers drafting the Treaty of Peace," but the comment he makes 
in such case is, "He had a right to his own opinion .... a 
right to act in accordance with that opinion," or some equivalent 
expression. 



146 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

To critics who asserted that the President had exceeded his 
treaty -making power, he emphatically replies that "the Constitu- 
tion of the United States confides to the President the absolute 
right of conducting the foreign relations of the Republic .... 
As to the wisdom of the way in which Mr. Wilson exercised it in 
directing the negotiations at Paris, individual opinions may differ, 
but as to the legality of his conduct there ought to be one mind. 
From first to last he acted entirely within his constitutional powers 
as President of the United States." 

In calm, deliberate fashion, with no flight of rhetoric, Mr. 
Lansing tells a plain, straightforward story. He is too much in 
earnest and his subject is too grim to relieve the tension by a gleam 
of humor. Perhaps there is one such gleam in a paragraph of the 
chapter on "The System of Mandates," but so faint and shadowy 
that it may be only a reflection from the reader's mind. 

After speaking of "how the principal European Powers appeared 
to be willing and even eager to become mandatories over territories 
possessing natural resources, which could be profitably developed, 
and showed an unwillingness to accept mandatories for territories 
.... which would be liabilities rather than assets," Mr. Lansing 
proceeds to remark, "on the other hand there was a sustained 
propaganda — for it amounted to that — of the Allies that the United 
States should assume a mandate over Armenia, which would be a 
constant financial burden to the Power accepting the mandate 
and .... would require the Power to furnish a military force of 
not less than 50,000 men to prevent the aggression of warlike 
neighbors and to preserve domestic order and peace." "But," he 
says, "never was it proposed, except by the inhabitants of the 
region in question, that the United States should accept a mandate 
for Syria or the Asiatic coast of the ^Egean Sea .... regions 
rich in natural resources and their economic future .... bright." 

Mr. Lansing sums up briefly the duties of a Commissioner fully 
empowered to negotiate a Treaty. These are primarily to carry 
out instructions received, and in addition, "two-fold, namely to 
advise the President during the negotiations of his (the Commis- 
sioner's) views as to the wise course to be adopted, and to prevent 
the President, in so far as possible, from taking any step in the 
proceedings which may impair the rights of his country or may be 
injurious to its interests." These duties are equally imperative 



The Peace Negotiations 147 

whether the President directs negotiations from the White House 
or conducts them in person. Still more compelling are they when, 
as in the case of Mr. Lansing, the Commissioner is at the same 
time Secretary of State. 

To this exacting standard he conformed with almost painful 
fidelity. He could not keep silent when he felt he ought to speak. 
To one so self-centered as the President, criticism of a measure 
favored by him seemed impertinence, and opposition to such meas- 
ure savored of disloyalty. Beginning with the determination of 
the President to attend the Conference, of which purpose Mr. 
Lansing disapproved, other matters successively came up, regard- 
ing some of which the Secretary did not consider the President's 
position well taken. His verbal suggestions were received with 
increasing disfavor. His WT-itten communications were seldom an- 
swered or acknowledged. Then he endeavored to influence the 
President through the intermedium of Colonel House, who seemed 
less distant from the President than any one else and who was at 
that time the President's friend. 

It was an intolerable situation. A weaker man, a man less con- 
trolled by a sense of responsibility or duty, would have resigned. 
But the resignation, however explained, of a Secretary of State^ 
on the eve of his departure for the Conference or later during the 
Peace Negotiations, would have had a decidedly injurious effect 
at home and abroad on the public mind. Probably — though Mr. 
Lansing neither says nor hints it — had he withdrawn, other Ameri- 
can members of the Peace Commission would have done the same. 
There was no moment during many months when as a man of 
honor he could have resigned. Moreover, he seems never to have 
abandoned the futile hope of somehow, sometime, influencing the 
President. Also, by remaining he might serve American interests, 
to which the President, engrossed in the League of Nations, was 
able to give little attention. With a soldier's loyalty he continued 
at his post. 

Into an examination of the subjects concerning which the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary were in disagreement, we do not propose 
to enter. The proper discussion of any one of them would exceed 
our limits. All the points at issue are set forth with precision in 
the narrative. Probable consequences of alternative decision are 
summarized by the author, at times with a prescience that seems 



148 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

prophetic. All, or nearly all, these differences — as, for example, 
regarding delay in conclusion of peace, adoption of secret diplo- 
macy, guarantee of force, abandonment of self-determination, nega- 
tion of equality of States, introduction of mandate system, disposi- 
tion of Shantung — are offshoots of the proposed Covenant of the 
League of Nations or, rather, are connected with it. 

Mr. Lansing desired a Treaty, incontestable on moral and legal 
grounds and acceptable to the Senate. Mr. Wilson doubtless de- 
sired the same, but with him the League of Nations, with its 
Covenant in the exact form acceptable to him, was the paramount 
consideration. Of the American Peace Commissioners, Colonel 
House is supposed, certainly at first, to have sided with the Presi- 
dent, but later on seems to have somewhat modified his opinions. 
Apparently the other two Commissioners, Mr. White and General 
Bliss, shared in general the views of Mr. Lansing. Voicing the 
sentiment of the three, General Bliss wrote the President a scath- 
ing protest against yielding Shantung to Japan. 

Mr. Lansing has been charged with inconsistency for his final 
action on the Treaty. He says frankly, "My own position was 
paradoxical. I was opposed to the Treaty but signed it and favored 
its ratification." Since the Armistice almost eight months had 
passed. The war-worn, exhausted world was hungry and clamor- 
ous for peace. The President had accomplished his threat, uttered 
in the Metropolitan Opera House in New York on March 4th. He 
there declared that, "when this Treaty comes back, gentlemen 
on this side will find the Covenant not only in it, but so many 
threads of the Treaty tied to the Covenant that you cannot dis- 
sect the Covenant from the Treaty without destroying the whole 
vital structure. The structure of peace will not be vital without 
the League of Nations." Mr. Lansing was "convinced that he 
(the President) would not consent to any effective reservations." 
"So long as the President remained inflexible and insistent, its 
ratification without change seemed a duty to humanity." 

That Treaty involved the United States. However, the United 
States was powerful enough to take care of itself. But many nations 
and even civilization itself seemed threatened with political and 
economic chaos if the Treaty was not signed. A crude treaty, a 
bad treaty, almost any treaty conceivable, was better than no 
treaty at all. The overwhelming duty of the hour was to sign. 



The Peace Negotiations 149 

This book is the most important work that has appeared on the 
history of the Treaty of Versailles, of the League of Nations, and 
of the connection of President Wilson therewith. To an American 
no other can rival it in importance, unless the former President 
with his own pen should give the world his own personal narrative 
of the same events. The inestimable value of Mr. Lansing's volume 
will become increasingly evident with the years. Every future 
biographer of Mr. Wilson, every future historian of the Negotia- 
tions at Paris, must of necessity familiarize himself with its con- 
tents, and be profoundly affected thereby. 

To his own fellow-countrymen Mr. Lansing has rendered a 
signal service. He has told them much they did not know but 
nothing which it is not their right to know. He has violated no 
confidence, transgressed no rule of official etiquette, and revealed 
nothing to the detriment of the public interest. Whatever asso- 
ciation or alignment of the nations may arise in future, the Cove- 
nant of the League, in the form in which Mr. Wilson brought it 
back from Paris, is no longer a living issue. It is as lifeless as the 
famous Article X, which was its heart. The former President and 
the former Secretary of State are now private citizens. The lips 
of both are unsealed. 

Unquestionably in Europe, the reputation of the United States 
suffered from the rejection of the Treaty. No one would willingly 
accuse the President of intentional duplicity, but no one can deny 
that his attitude as American Peace Commissioner was not in- 
genuous and conveyed an erroneous impression. Few foreign 
statesmen understand the intricacies of the American Federal 
system. At Paris they could not realize that the chief executive of 
the United States, having authority to treat, had not the power to 
carry into effect. 

In the elections of 1918 the American people had refused him 
that vote of confidence he had asked. On March 3rd, two days 
before he sailed from New York on his second trip to Paris, thirty- 
seven Republican members of the incoming Senate, four more than 
the number requisite to defeat any treaty, had signed a resolution 
recommending rejection of the proposed Covenant or Constitu- 
tion of the League of Nations. Other Senators sided with them 
though they did not sign. Notwithstanding this solemn and suffi- 
cient warning, the President bore himself in the Conference as if a 



150 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

united nation was behind him. He pledged the United States to 
the support of the League of Nations. His action in so doing was 
Hke that of a man who signs a check far beyond the amount he 
has to his credit in the bank. 

Doubtless the President believed himself capable of arousing 
such popular demand that he could compel a dissenting Senate 
to yield and coerce it into accepting an obnoxious treaty. Later, 
when the report spread in Europe that the Senate would reject 
and when it did finally reject that Treaty, to accomplish which he 
had bartered and surrendered so much, the surprise and consterna- 
tion were indescribable. Resentment and contempt were aroused 
against the American people, who, as the European saw it, had 
violated their plighted word. The whole nation was apparently 
disgraced in the eyes of an indignant world. Yet the nation was in 
the exact position of a bank refusing to honor a check which the 
signer has overdrawn. 

The course of action of the United States will be far better under- 
stood abroad in consequence of the revelations of this book. More- 
over the foreigner will realize while he reads it, that there stood close 
beside the President, second only to him in official rank, a colleague 
whom the President ignored or treated with scant respect, but 
whose saner, wiser counsels, if accepted, would have enabled the 
President to avoid fatal mistakes and have saved him from ultimate 
defeat. 

Those counsels were not accepted. "The result was that which 
was feared and predicted by his colleagues. The President, and the 
President alone, must bear the responsibility for the result." 




AMHERST COLLEGE IN 1821 
Drawing by O. W. Hitchcock 




AMHERST COLLEGE 1\ 
From a woodcut 




2 a. 

< -s. 



Reunion Hymn 151 



REUNION HYMN 

WALTER A. DYER 

YE CAME from the land of the sunset, 
Ye came from the South and the East, 
And I gathered you all in my bosom — 
The greatest of you and the least. 
Ye drank of the waters I gave you; 

I guided your steps with a star; 
Ye were rough, ye were rude, but I molded and hewed 
And I made you the men that ye are. 

Forget them not, oh, Amherst men. 

The paths that once ye trod — 
Paths that wandered ivide, hut led 

At length toward Truth and God. 
Forget them not, those youthfid dreams 

Of Athens and of Rome. 
From far and near, oh, sons of mine. 

Come hack to me! Come home! 

Ye sang me the songs of Old Amherst; 

I taught you the yearning for truth. 
I led you to wisdom and manhood; 

Ye brought me your friendship and youth. 
Ye swore you would ever be faithful; 

Ye were ardent; ye meant what ye swore. 
In the world's maddened lust are ye true to that trust 

As I to the sons that I bore? 

Here in my mountain-girt valley 

I nurtured you, heart, limb, and brain. 
Will ye turn from your toil and your striving 

To gaze on my hilltops again? 
Here in the calm of my campus 

I wait as the years come and go. 
As a mother yearns for her sons to return 

To the blessing that mothers bestow. 



152 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



EDUCATION AND ART IN CENTRAL EUROPE 

otto manthey-zorn 

[During the summer vacation and fall term of 1920 Professor Manthey-Zopn 
visited Berlin, Munich, Weimar, Vienna, and other cities, studying the effects of 
the war and the revolution on the cultural life of Germany and Austria. A series 
of articles on his trip appeared in the Cleveland Plain Dealer from January 7 to 12 
inclusive. In the present paper he gathers up his conclusions on the part now being 
played by workmen's education associations and drama leagues in the spiritual 
reconstruction of the German-speaking nations. — Editor.] 

1HAD not been in Germany very long last fall before I knew 
why so many Germans still talk very much as of old and still 
cannot be made to see how badly they are defeated. They 
have not enough strength or courage left to look things squarely 
in the face. The majority are still too weak and too confused to 
think of reconstruction as a problem toward the solution of which 
they themselves must apply thought and energy and a will to act 
and sacrifice. Germany was a monstrous and intricate mechanical 
contraption, but it has today completely gone out of joint. There 
are a few powerful capitalists who are trying to gather up large 
parts of it so as to glue them together for their own very selfish ad- 
vantage, as well as a few picturesque dreamers who are construct- 
ing from the parts an overnight dream-palace. But in the main the 
parts lie in confusion, and no one has the courage to direct his eyes 
squarely upon them so as to recognize the disorder, or the insight 
properly to begin the work of reconstruction. 

Still Germany is the country of great universities and eminent 
thinkers. If readjustments demand relentless analyses of old foun- 
dations and the courage to make new valuations on the basis of 
these analyses, such work can be done only by those who have 
gained the freedom a liberal education is said to give. The German 
universities, however, have proved themselves utterly useless in 
the crisis. Both faculties and students are strongly reactionary and 
incapable and unwilling to see things as they are. They seem to 
look upon the republic merely as a force which threatens the privi- 
leges they enjoyed under the old paternalistic rule. They refuse to 



Education and Art in Central Europe 153 

5=== 

accept the principle that education must be a privilege extended 
to all irrespective of class, because this means a new and dangerous 
competition. They oppose all attempts at liberalizing and broad- 
ening the curriculum as though they feared that such a process 
might imperil the benefits they were accustomed to enjoy and 
thereby create new uncertainties. By their acts and their attitudes 
they plainly prove that their great institutions have merely given 
in the past a very careful and highly specialized preparation for 
vocations carefully organized to serve a form of government now 
in principle discarded. But they refuse to shoulder their part of 
the work of applying the new principle, apparently because of the 
discomfort it entails. 

The result is that reactionary ignorance is being deliberately 
fostered by the group upon which the intellectual strength of the 
country is supposed to depend. Out of this ignorance misunder- 
standings arise which breed distrust and general chaos. For the 
most fundamental problem within Germany, as it strives to com- 
plete the change from a paternalistic government to a fraternalistic 
political unit, is the problem of creating a basis of understanding 
between the workers and the university men. While that problem 
is wilfully ignored, the country will see-saw between Utopian the- 
ories of reform and a dangerous degree of retrogression, as it seemed 
to be doing while I was there last fall. 

The universities are generally considered the centers of monar- 
chical reaction. During the days of the revolution they remained 
strangely inactive. In the Constituent Assembly university teach- 
ers were among the leading spokesmen of the monarchical parties. 
University students in large numbers joined the army with which 
Ludendorf and Kapp tried to upset the republic in the early spring 
of last year. Even after the uprising had been put down, irregular 
bands of students terrorized thie country by raids against the 
workers. During the elections of last summer the university body 
throughout Germany organized to defeat the workers at the polls. 
Their opposition is in no sense intelligent and liberal; it merely 
aims to protect their vested interests and therefore often expresses 
itself in stupid emotionalism. The Jew-baiting that sporadically 
upsets the peace of German cities today is generally staged by 
bodies of students zealous to demonstrate their love for the Father- 
land by some tangible deed. 



154 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Meanwhile the German university teacher and student are suf- 
fering severely on account of the changed fortunes of the country. 
I found university teachers of international repute struggling along 
on a salary below that of the union-protected janitor who sweeps 
the lecture room. The majority of the students come from the 
homes of the professional middle class, which is hardest hit by the 
economic ruin of the country. Their allowances are miserably in- 
adequate to their needs. There is no tradition of "working one's 
way through" in the fashion of the American college student, and 
so they go about it in an awkward way. They clean streets at night 
or drive cabs or sell second-hand books from carts at street corners. 
When they have a chance, however, they are hard at work at their 
books, for competition has never been so relentless as it is today. 
Every German university is crowded beyond capacity, not only by 
men who have had to postpone their schooling on account of the 
war, but also by the mass of men who would have trained for army 
commissions under the old regime and now must find another pro- 
fession, and by those who through a sudden change of fortune or 
on account of the social shift conceive a desire for a higher edu- 
cation. There are surgical clinics in Berlin today so crowded that 
the students at the back of the room use field-glasses to watch the 
demonstrator at his work. 

Such difficulties may partly make intelligible the resentful atti- 
tude of the German university body, but in spite of them such an 
attitude can dominate only where vocationalism has strangled lib- 
eralism. But even so, education cannot wholly be abused. While 
the attitude described applies to the rank and file of the German 
university men, individual teachers and smaller bodies of students 
are taking leading ])arls in the most important work leading to the 
si)iritual reconstruction of the country. At most universities I found 
small groups of students organized in a campaign to induce their 
fellows to assume a more courageous attitude toward the demands 
of the times and persisting in this work in spite of ridicule and per- 
secution. Within the faculties separate teachers were attempting 
the bold task of convincing the s{)ecialist that, if he insisted on 
presuming to direct national atl'airs, he must assume a broad and 
liberal view and not prefer his small interests before those of the 
nation at large. In Berlin I found university teachers taking a 



Education and Art in Central Europe 155 

leading part in the supreme task of bringing the brain and hand 
worker together. 

When the revolution freed the worker from the spiritual bonds 
that the old regime had carefully guarded in spite of the liberal 
material benefits it had bestowed, and when the privileges of free- 
dom heaped upon him many responsibilities, the more thoughtful 
worker felt a keen desire for a broader education to enable him to 
approach his tasks intelligently. Within a short time scores of 
workmen's educational associations were formed in Berlin. Senti- 
mental theorists, incompetent educators, in some cases dishonest 
special pleaders got control of such groups and created confusion 
or abused an honest attitude. A few university teachers proposed 
that it was the duty of the university to gather together these 
groups and to direct the work in the spirit in which the workers 
had conceived it. They were met by the violent opposition of their 
colleagues, as though they were proposing to give valuable assist- 
ance to a dangerous enemy. But these men insisted on their point 
and gradually won a small number of enthusiastic supporters. They 
then worked out the framework of the organization which was to 
conduct the workmen's education and outlined the principles which 
were to govern its aims and methods. Through this they won the 
support of the city communities and of the large labor unions. Fi- 
nally the Prussian Minister of Education demanded of the univer- 
sity that it establish an advisory council on workmen's education, 
and thus forced a more serious consideration upon its faculty and 
gave its liberal members the needed backing. To guard against the 
eventuality that the council assume obstructive tactics, it was fur- 
ther decreed that experts on education not connected with the uni- 
versity, as well as representatives of the Workmen's Educational 
Association itself, should have a voice in the council. 

After this the work quickly progressed. The organization had 
been under way barely a year when I saw it last fall. It was then 
conducting 135 classes meeting for two-hour evening periods each 
week. These classes were being taught by 123 men, mostly uni- 
versity and upper-school teachers, but some few writers and artists 
and even workmen outside the university. The legislative body 
consists of fifty representatives chosen by the city which assumes 
the financial support of the undertaking, fifty representatives 
chosen by organized labor and those political parties which for- 



156 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

merly conducted educational work within the party, thus securing 
a popular moral support, and about twenty representatives of 
the higher educational institutions of the city to watch over the 
standards of work. The students themselves also have a pro- 
portional representation in this committee. The principal ex- 
ecutive, however, is the Business Manager, who must be a univer- 
sity teacher; he is chosen by the university advisory council on 
recommendation by the executive committee, but can be recalled 
if at any time he loses the confidence of the larger representative 
body. His powers are so liberally described that the success of the 
undertaking largely depends upon his personality and the clarity 
of his ideals. Professor Merz, the present incumbent of that posi- 
tion, is the originator of the organization and a man of sympa- 
thetic insight and practical idealism. The quite unusually rapid 
success of the undertaking is directly attributable to his personality. 

Thousands of workers are attending these classes every week in 
Berlin. Each of them has signified his intention to continue the 
work for two years at least, and all have subscribed to the princi- 
ple that every department of the work must be liberal and cultural 
and strictly non-partisan and non-vocational. In principle, at any 
rate, the situation is simply and squarely faced. New prerogatives, 
new opportunities, and new responsibilities devolve upon the worker 
equally with every other member of the community. He is offered 
every opportunity consistent with his powers to meet them by 
making of himself a clearly seeing, clearly thinking personality en- 
riched by intimate contact with the great monuments of art and 
science and by searching the fundamental principles of human 
inter-relationships. I attended several faculty meetings, and had 
frequent talks with Professor Merz, and examined some of the work 
of the students, expecting to find that, after all, the grade of work 
would be that of the ordinary university extension or was being 
done in the hope of increasing the ability to demand higher income ; 
but so far, at any rate, the work is simply an attempt to acquire a 
fundamental liberal culture. To be sure, the country is still in the 
midst of the revolution and there is a consequent strong conscious- 
ness of social shift and much interest, therefore, is centered about 
the study of the principles of democracy and socialism. The accent 
on the study of Marxism is a little out of proportion in an other- 
wise carefully balanced liberal program. But this is a subject con- 



Education and Art in Central Europe 157 

stantly forced upon these men outside the classes ; within the class 
it seems to be treated dispassionately and in a thoroughly scholarly 
way, so that it may help to give these students the balance of lib- 
erality so much needed in Germany's present confusion of passions. 
The workers in these classes are serious and patient and calm and 
willing to open their eyes. You cannot help but feel that they are 
of extraordinary importance among the few who are steadily re- 
cuperating, and that they will be a decisive factor in the final re- 
covery of the country. 

There is another organization of workers in Berlin which may 
seem even more strange to us, but the effect of which in a more 
limited way is also making for liberalism. This is the People's 
Drama League. The aim of this body is that of making accessible 
to the people at large the great national expressions in the drama 
and of guarding them against the corruptions threatened by the 
degenerate political, commercial, and social passions attendant 
upon the present upset. The German considers his drama with an 
attitude quite different from that generally held here. To him it is 
the great instrument of national or human self-expression. He 
considers the characters in the dramas which he calls great the 
supreme synthetic picture of the powers that lie within himself. 
When he attends the theatre, he attends in a spirit almost rehgious 
to learn to know the best within himself, to seek faith in himself 
and, on the basis of this faith, the courage to live. Under the old 
regime he felt that the court through its monopoly of the theatre 
was abusing the drama to make it serve as a royal decoration, or 
was distorting it into a medium for selfish propaganda. Today he 
sees the profiteer threatening to smear it with sensationalism. So 
in Berlin a body of 125,000 people have organized to save the drama. 
Only a little over half of this number are actually workers. The 
rest would ordinarily be classified with the middle classes, teachers, 
professional men, and the like, who today are economically even 
below the worker, but who feel a strong relationship to him and 
are imparting their ideahsm to him. By their presence the sense 
of class action is also happily removed from the league. Thus con- 
stituted the drama league is organized on a democratic basis very 
much like that of the educational association. The sense of popu- 
lar participation is strong, but the observance of artistic standards 



158 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

is left to experts and a director, who are not interfered with as 
long as the league has confidence in their honesty. 

Every member has an opportunity of visiting the theatre twelve 
times a year at a very low standard price of admission. At the 
evening of the performance he draws his ticket by lot. About a 
third of the seats are sold to non-members at the ordinary prices 
at other theatres, a precaution which is felt to guard against the 
danger of lowering of the standard of acting before a continu- 
ously assured audience. The Drama League of Greater Berlin owns 
two large theatres built almost wholly out of the savings of the 
members themselves. It also leases large blocks of seats through- 
out the year in the former royal theatres and several other houses. 
Of greatest importance, however, is the evident improvement in 
the repertory which has already been effected through the league, 
and the strong moral and cultural influence which the simplest folk 
of Germany are seeking and obtaining by means of this effort, while 
much of the country is staggering under blindness and confusion 
and greed and national chauvinism. 

Similar drama leagues are in existence or are being organized in 
many cities of Germany. The old theatre of Weimar, through which 
Goethe hoped to keep before the eyes of the Germans their more 
lasting possessions when he began to sense that the great era of 
eighteenth-century idealism was being endangered by the machine 
Prussia was just beginning to construct, is again trying to resume 
that role under the able leadership of the dramatist, Ernst Hardt. 
In the more reactionary Munich the astute politicians are trying to 
counteract the influence of this movement by organizing counter 
drama leagues and are threatening to make the confused Bavarian 
situation more confounded. In Austria there is no league of the 
Berlin type, but a large popular movement by the country as a 
whole in the same direction is of even more astounding import. 

As you probe into the conditions of the small republic of German 
Austria, you are tempted to draw the conclusion that, while there 
are plenty of men who talk and act like the Austrians of old, Austria 
as a country no longer exists at all. Politically, economically, the 
confusion is so great that all attempts to clear it up appear like 
useless, helpless child's play. There are parties and subdivisions 
of political parties galore. The monarchists divide themselves into 
three contending groups, each with a determined mind of its own 



Education and Art in Central Europe 159 

as to who is to occupy the throne. The more or less democratic 
capitaHstic class and the liberals are so poorly organized that they 
exhaust themselves in useless theorizing. The squabbles among 
the various types of socialists and communists are downright ludi- 
crous. The Catholic Church alone seems to exert some influence, 
in that by means of its discipline it maintains some degree of con- 
trol over its members throughout all the parties. 

The people seem to grow more and more dumbfounded as they 
realize more clearly how small a nation they now are. A feeling of 
helplessness weighs them down as though they had lost all power 
of self-control. A dollar buys nearly three hundred Austrian crowns 
as against five before the war. Prices for food and clothing have 
risen almost in the proportion that the value of the crown has 
dropped. A dinner at a restaurant will cost two hundred crowns, 
and yet the restaurants are filled with people eating well. A good 
many Austrians, even, seem to have grown rich on their country's 
misery. Meanwhile the great majority starve within their homes 
or live in a daze; and not a pleasant daze, but rather that of a child 
severely punished for some wrong which it cannot itself measure. 
The Austrian is like a child. He has little of the Eastern fatahsm; 
but he is proud, and in his greatest misery he is naively optimistic. 

If you question him regarding the political affairs of the country, 
he will answer you with half a smile: "I don't know what to make 
of it. They are mad, all of them!" The Austrians simply cannot 
comprehend their economic condition. They don't understand 
the exchange; they see in it only the result of a fatal war, and war 
must pass some time or other. They are a helpless lot; and yet 
they feel that they must do something to mamtain their self-respect 
and win back the respect of others. 

You hear them say: "But everybody loves Vienna. People from 
everywhere will always come to be happy and to smile in Vienna, 
to hear the Viennese opera and enjoy the Viennese operetta." But 
Vienna has suffered more than any other part of Austria. It is a 
city of traditions merely, and traditions to be enjoyed today in 
reminiscence, not in fact. Vienna is cut off from the country that 
fed it and supplied it with comforts for visitors. More and more, 
too, it is being depleted of its artists as they get a chance to work 
at better money and to live on better fare and to play to less 
starved audiences in other places. 



160 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

But if the opera is gone and the concerts are gone and the high- 
grade theatre is gone, Austria will have nothing but what Germany 
can give it. Austria, no doubt, does not object to a union with 
Germany; but it objects violently to coming to Germany as a beg- 
gar. Then all its self-respect would go and its optimism with it, 
and even reminiscence would be bitter. 

Therefore the Austrians are determined to save their art at least. 
Meanwhile it may be necessary to live on very small rations, but 
no outsider need be aware of that. They will tighten their belts 
and hide their poverty behind the walls of Vienna while they find 
some small pleasant town in the hills and make of it a place to 
exhibit their music, their opera, and their drama. 

Already the plans are well developed. The place selected is the 
old city of Salzburg on the edge of the Tyrolean Alps, whose his- 
tory dates back to Roman times, whose archbishops from the time 
of the Middle Ages were unusually ardent patrons of the arts, and 
where the German Renaissance got a peculiarly charming polish 
from near Italy. Churches and chapels and monasteries and pal- 
aces and fortresses and ornamented gardens are still there to tell 
the story. Salzburg is also the birthplace of Mozart, whose jolly 
music they consider expresses the very soul of Austria. 

Just outside the city and adjoining the pleasure palace and gar- 
dens of Salzburg's favorite and romantic archbishop. Wolf Die- 
trich, on a meadow surrounded by century old pines and oaks, they 
plan to build a large festival playhouse. During the summer months 
of every year they expect to collect here all their greatest singers 
and actors and directors and authors for a grand solemn festival of 
Austrian art. Two things they seriously expect from these per- 
formances; that they will keep the Austrian spirit healthy, so that 
it will not lose faith in itself and turn to mad economic and political 
experiments, and that it will show the world that there is still some- 
thing about Austria worthy of respect. 

A large organization has already been built about this idea under 
the joint direction of Vienna and Salzburg and with branches all 
over the country. Of late, branches have also been formed in Scan- 
dinavia, Holland, and in some of the larger cities of Germany. 
Many of Austria's foremost writers and composers are devoting a 
very large part of their time to the realization of the scheme. 
Hofmannsthal, the supplest and greatest of them all; his composer, 



Education and Art in Central Europe 161 

Richard Strauss; the Austrian Shavian, Hermann Bahr; Stephan 
Zweig, and others have settled in Salzburg and are working hard 
as advisory council of the organization. Max Reinhardt, Berlin's 
greatest stage genius and an Austrian by birth, has bought an old 
castle in Salzburg and expects to make his home there and devote 
himself largely to these national festivals. This summer he re- 
signed from his great institutions in Berlin in order to help make 
of Salzburg a place where Austrian art, together with the best in 
art of any nation, will be presented for a few months every year 
"to clear itself of the commercialism of the great cities," as he put 
it to me. 

Nor has Reinhardt the patience to wait until the festival house 
is actually standing. This summer he collected what he thought 
was the best stage talent of the kind to which idealism still appeals 
and gave a performance of "Everyman" in the modern Hofmans- 
thal version. It was given out in the square before the principal 
cathedral of the city, enclosed on the one side by the residence of 
the Lord Archbishop and by a wing of the older monastery of St. 
Peter on the other. The cathedral, the surrounding hills, and even 
the historical atmosphere of the city supplied a fitting background 
for the play. It was a daring undertaking, but, through Rein- 
hardt's genius, it achieved a solemnity and impressiveness which 
no other arrangement of the play could have created. By thus 
taking the lead in characteristic fashion Reinhardt has set a stand- 
ard by which all other performances will be measured. 

Most impressive is the serious, almost religious attitude these 
men assume toward the undertaking. To them it seems a crusade 
or, if you will, another war of conquest; but this time there are to 
be no deadly weapons, nor is it a fight for a place in the sun, but 
simply for self-respect. It may be one of the great lessons a con- 
quered nation has to teach. At any rate, it is a most interesting 
attempt at reconstruction. 

One element of the scheme is amusing and wholly Austrian. 
While detail after detail of the idea is being perfected and its di- 
mensions grow, the question of money is passed over with a hope 
and a goodly supply of smiling Austrian optimism. At the recent 
annual meeting of the organization Professor Poelzig, Germany's 
foremost architect, ofi'ered a carefully prepared plan for the festival 
theatre. It called for an outlay of one hundred and fifty million 



162 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



crowns. The treasury showed a balance of about one hundred 
thousand crowns. But the enthusiasm did not lag a bit on that 
account. When you asked how they could expect to raise so large 
a sum of money, they would say to you that they needed far less 
than a million dollars; that there were many men with many mil- 
Uons in the world and among them, surely, some idealists who 
would gladly come forward to help an idea of greater vision than 
a Bayreuth or an Oberammergau. 




iiiMw III .MriiKi:v M;ii,i. 



An Amherst Teacher 163 



AN AMHERST TEACHER 
HEMAN HUMPHREY NEILL 

A. R. N. 

[Professor Neill was a member of the Amherst Faculty from 1874 to 1904, the 
last year as professor emeritus. With the loyal cooperation of his colleagues in the 
department he gave a new direction to the teaching of English, supplementing the 
older courses in "Rhetoric and Oratory" by pioneer courses in English literature. 
These later became his peculiar care. On the growth of this important phase of 
liberal study the published histories of Amherst College are silent. It became the 
duty, therefore, of one who possessed intimate and authoritative knowledge of the 
period to make a careful record of Professor Neill's services in his special field. 
This record, designed for private publication, was urgently demanded by the 
Editor for inclusion in the Quarterly, both because it recalls the personality of 
a sincere and devoted teacher and because it makes a valuable contribution to the 
history of the College. — Editor.] 

IF THE history of the development of education in Amherst 
College during the past hundred years is ever to be written, 
it is high time to gather together all available material. There is 
but scant record of the growth of the English department during 
the last quarter of the nineteenth century. In other colleges and 
universities the study of the English language and literature was 
advancing and expanding rapidly. What was Amherst doing.'' 

No man who helped to guide her in such work remains to tell the 
story of those years. It is left to one who looked on to fill in part 
the framework of old catalogues and class lists, and faintly to recall 
the work of one Amherst teacher who gave to the college of that 
time his devotion and his strength. 

In November, 1874, Heman Humphrey Neill was elected Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric, Oratory and English Literature in Amherst 
College. He was thirty-two years old, having been graduated in 
1866 from Amherst, and from Princeton Theological Seminary in 
1869. He had been ordained to the ministry and was pastor of a 
church when called to this new work. 

In accepting the appointment he looked forward to life in a place 
beloved both for personal and family associations. His grandfather, 
Rev. Heman Humphrey, had been the second president of the col- 
lege, and his mother, Lucy Humphrey, was married in the beautiful 



164 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

house on the hill which is still the home of the presidents of Am- 
herst. His father, Rev. Henry Neill, was a graduate of the class of 
1836, and other names of his family dotted the pages of the early 
college catalogues. 

The appointment placed Mr. Neill in charge of the entire Eng- 
lish department of the college. In January, 1875, he came to Am- 
herst and, with the help of one instructor, Mr. Joseph K. Chicker- 
ing, of the class of 1869, undertook the varied and arduous duties 
of the chair. The two teachers were expected to train all the three 
hundred and twenty-five undergraduates of that time to wTite 
English clearly and correctly, to teach them the use of the voice 
in elocution, and to develop in them the power of extemporaneous 
debate. The duties of the department had also included the study 
of English literature, which, however, had been compressed into 
four hours per week during half of senior year, with a corresponding 
scantiness of opportunity for actual acquaintance with English 
authors. Such had been the scope of the department in years past. 

The Amherst standard of excellence in public speaking and de- 
bate had been high. Almost all studies were required. Classes were 
large. Correction of compositions, preparation for written exami- 
nations, and rehearsals for declamation were time-consuming, and 
the rehearsals piled up before the prize speaking at the end of each 
year. To meet these duties and especially that of crowning the 
English course by any teaching of literature that was not mechan- 
ical was a problem of work, of insight, and of organization. 

There were in the situation two points of peculiar difficulty. 
There had been a vacancy of some time in the department since 
Mr. Neill's predecessor. Rev. L. Clarke Seelye, had accepted the 
presidency of Smith College. In those days of an inelastic curricu- 
lum other teachers of the college had ardently seized any vacant 
hours that had once been used for English classes. Mr. Neill wrote 
in his first days at Amherst: "The great trouble will be to get time 
enough to work much in. I mean by that that the other profs have 
taken the time of recitation which was used for ray department 
and have put their own lectures in it, and I shall have hard work 
to get enough classes and exercises in to do much work with the 
department at first." And again about the same time: 'T have 
but about thirty recitations to teach them all they will learn in 
their course about rhetoric." 



An Amherst Teacher 165 

This difficulty passed away in time and Mr. Neill was not con- 
demned to idleness even in that first half year, since his personal 
schedule shows twenty hours per week in contact with the stu- 
dents, besides the time given to that drudgery of preparation and 
that work in the study which has no limit in hours, and which for 
a new teacher is especially needful. 

The second difficulty was more radical. Mr. Neill was one of 
the last men to be called to an important chair in Amherst College 
who lacked the advantage of a specialized university training for 
their work. His predecessors had been of the same type. But the 
day of the young Ph.D. had already dawned; his thesis was in his 
pocket, his lines already marked out. To organize and carry on an 
English department without such thorough preparation, a pro- 
fessor of the older type was usually equipped only with general lit- 
erary culture and was fortunate if he had a natural gift for teach- 
ing. His ways of working had to be his own, thought out and felt 
out from the beginning. In training others he was training himself. 

Under the influence of the new specialized training there came 
gradually in all our colleges a reorganization of English depart- 
ments. Professor Genung in a tribute to Mr, Neill, published in 
the Amherst Olio (class of 1906), says: "The state of things in his 
department when he came may without exaggeration be described 
as chaotic; in the very mix-up of rhetoric, oratory and literature, 
it could hardly be otherwise. ... Of the patience, the courage, 
the planning and organizing ability, the day and night industry 
required to mould such a department into a new order and system, 
none but those familiar with the inside of English work can form 
an adequate conception." 

It seems casually to have occurred to the authorities when elect- 
ing the new professor that it was desirable to clear the confused 
way by concentrating his attention upon fewer varieties of work. 
He writes in a letter (1874) before his appointment: "I am informed 
that it is the intention of the Faculty and Trustees hereafter to 
restrict it [the professorship] as much as possible to rhetoric and 
elocution. The 'science of expression,' the President calls it," 
Happily for Mr. Neill's contentment the attempt was never made 
to throw English literature out of his duties. To teach that with 
breadth and inspiration was his chief hope and aim. 



166 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

His earliest care, however, was to maintain the rhetorical and 
elocutionary side of the department. This had held a prominent 
position in the college, partly because of the public prize exhibitions 
connected with it. The Kellogg, Hyde, and Hardy prizes, offered 
for excellence respectively in declamation, in oratory, and in de- 
bate, and the Bond prize, added in 1876, for the best commence- 
ment oration, have always proved a strong stimulus to Amherst 
students. Individual training in declamation was taken up at once 
by the two teachers in as full measure as possible. Each class was 
gathered also in the class room as in previous years for declama- 
tion or for debate, and the three upper classes met for "rhetoricals" 
in the chapel on Wednesday afternoon for an hour and a quarter, 
an occasion which was probably as irksome to the students as to 
the professor, shortening as it did the precious half -holiday. 

The need of practice in writing English was recognized. Com- 
positions were required during two terms of freshman, sophomore, 
and junior year, and were elective for a further term or two. So 
far as possible they were criticised with attention and often read 
in class. Mr. Neill soon secured classes in rhetoric for three terms 
during the course, supplementing the meagre textbooks of the day 
by lectures; and junior and senior classes each gave an hour a week 
for two terms to the practice of debate. Much of the work was rudi- 
mentary. The teaching of English in school and in college was "still 
in its youth," he writes, "and a somewhat callow youth at that." 

It is not easy to measure the amount of vitality and of thought 
necessarily given to a work dealing so largely with individuals. 
Each student appeared sooner or later for a rehearsal or for criti- 
cism of written work and each student was a different man to deal 
with. In Mr. Neill each found a cordial greeting and a strong hu- 
man interest which pierced through the routine. Mechanical treat- 
ment of a teacher's work was impossible to him. To make the 
study of rhetoric constructive so that a student might say best 
what was in him to say, to make elocution a means of equally 
complete self-expression in declamation and, later, in stating the 
student's own thought, was the end he sought. For this he pa- 
tiently worked through the inevitable drills. The prizes he re- 
garded only as a secondary stimulus, though he sympathized cor- 
dially with the joy of winning or the hardship of losing them as 
the experience came to individual men. 



An Amherst Teacher 167 

The Hardy debate then took place near the end of the winter 
term and therefore stood by itself as an event. Mr. Neill thought 
it the most interesting exhibition of the year, particularly in its 
early form of purely extemporaneous argument. Before he took 
charge of it the question had usually been given to the men only 
ten minutes before the debate as they sat on the platform in sight 
of the audience. Then and there they decided on which side they 
should speak, and how they should defend it. "The students 
strain every mental and oratorical nerve," he wrote. "The chapel 
is always crowded." He soon decided to lengthen the interval be- 
tween the giving of the question and the opening of the debate to 
two hours, securing for the men a little more time for thought 
without destroying the extemporaneous quality of the arguments. 
It was so conducted as long as Mr. Neill was in charge of it. 

In all these varied activities he took enjoyment. "They take 
hold well," he writes of his rhetoric class, and in a family letter: 
"They seem to take whatever I say outside of the textbook with 
good attention and interest. When the class was over they broke 
out in the college student applause." His marked frankness and 
his sunny humor gave him an appeal to students, and a rich voice 
helped to endow him for his work. 

From the beginnuag of his life m Amherst he was studying indus- 
triously to prepare and develop a course in literature. His aim was 
growing clear. He wrote (March, 1875) : "I am becommg more and 
more determined besides giving information in regard to English 
literature to attempt to recall the students from the weak and 
watery writing of the present to the powerful and pure authors of 
the golden age. ... In a vain attempt to keep somewhere abreast 
of the publishers we give no thought or study to those kings of 
poetry and prose." He felt that the prevailing methods of teaching 
literature too often confined the student largely to facts about lit- 
erature, historical and biographical, or to the ready-made accept- 
ance of criticism upon it. Even the necessary study of its form and 
structure was often made purely external, and its own vivifying 
spring had been choked by an accumulated litter of dried and half- 
dead knowledge. His later papers are full of sentences conveymg 
such ideas, some of which make his standpoint clearer. "The de- 
su-e," he wrote, "to reduce all study of Hterature to the exigencies 
of an examination is the most efficient way of so teaching [it] as 



168 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

to stab it to the heart It will be of no use simply to in- 
struct students in the qualities of figurative language, in rules of 
metre, and in the difference between the diction of prose and that 
of poetry. Poetry itself . . , must be read and re-read until it 
comes to make its definite and peculiar appeal." "To approach 
any work of art we must behold it with our own eyes." Yet this 
did not imply in his plans for the student a limp easy-chair sur- 
render to the charm of prose or to the added music of poetry. 
Quoting again: "Contact [with literature] must be accompanied by 
minute and faithful study of the principles upon which the best 
models of art are constructed, — study sometimes so similar to the 
lines of scientific procedure that the method has been called the 
scientific study of literature." Of course, he planned to teach the 
influences of race and nation, of climate and society, of religion 
and of modes of thought, as well as the far-reaching inspiration 
received from the genius of other races, as forces slowly shaped the 
channel of the ever-widening and deepening stream of literature. 
But the study of these and the study of form were to be used in 
his judgment to secure for his students the supreme "sight of the 
thing as it really is and in its own light." 

The working out of his faith was the problem. Literature might 
indeed be to him a "quickening power, revealing the heart of hu- 
manity to itself," but how was it to unfold its life to a college class 
in four or five hours a week during one-third of the college year.-^ 
There is scant record of the work through the two years from 1875 
to 1877. The course was necessarily arranged to cover much ground 
in its limited time and was most unsatisfactory to Mr. Neill. It 
was largely given in lectures and secured only such reading as the 
students could or would crowd in. 

Still there was stimulus in the outside air. Taine's "English 
Literature" had been translated and published in 1874, and, in 
spite of much criticism, had been ardently welcomed as an event- 
ful study of the literary genius and development of the race. The 
Clarendon Press and other publishers were pouring out volumi- 
nous series of small books, histories of literary periods, or selections 
of English classics, often edited by such men as Edward Dowden, 
or William Walter Skeat, scholars alive in thought and in style. 
In other volumes, less skillfully treated, the original matter was 
almost buried, Mr. Neill wrote, "in a sarcophagus of notes." 



An Amherst Teacher 169 

'*But," he adds, "the vitality of the Uterature has never been so 
severely tested and it endures the embalming of annotation as an 
evidence of its immortality." Taken as a whole they were most 
valuable handbooks. A little later appeared Stopford Brooke's 
"Primer of English Literature," published in 1877. It was a study 
of literary history finely worked out, in tiny compass which did 
not exclude charm of style. Mr. Neill used it for some years as a 
starting point for work. 

Best of all, in the college year of 1877-78, Amherst revised her 
curriculum and opened many courses to election, among them 
English literature. The fresh air of opportunity began to blow in 
through the open doors, stimulating the ambition of every teacher 
whom it touched. The former senior course was dropped into 
junior year, but it was at once made possible for students to elect 
the work for two terms, thus doubling the time previously allotted 
to it. It needed only patience and foresight to secure further time 
in the curriculum now that the iron band of the old system was 
removed. 

Many students elected the lengthened course. It began with 
the study of Celtic influences, traced the history and opened the 
pages of literature as far as the end of the seventeenth century. 
Special attention was given to the study of Chaucer, Spenser, 
Milton, Dryden, and Shakespeare. The aim was to secure famil- 
iarity with a few writers rather than information about many. 
"The students are assisted to discover the peculiarities of the au- 
thors," says the catalogue, "by textbooks, by lectures, and by the 
discussion of the principles of literary criticism." Their work was 
tested by recitation and by examinations. 

To certain men, as their after years showed, even this incomplete 
course brought strong literary impulse. It was vitalized by the en- 
thusiasm and sympathetic appreciation of the teacher. But the 
large class needed sifting for further and deeper work, and the course 
needed extension and enriching. By the spring of 1879, Mr. Neill 
had made a plan and secured a place in the schedule for a senior 
course which should follow and continue that of junior year. To- 
day it would be called a "seminar" course, but it had no such lordly 
name at the time. It was a departure from Amherst ways and it 
was so far tentative that the college catalogue of 1879-80 has no 
mention of it, although it was working, and working well, through- 



170 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



out the fall and winter terms of that year. It was limited to men 
who had taken the junior work in literature and only twelve men 
were allowed in a division. This usually meant two divisions. The 
class met in the little third story room in the front of Walker Hall, 
now Walker Hall 13, sitting informally around a table. Through 
the summer vacation Mr. Neill had watched with almost boyish 
pleasure the making of that long, plain oak table which signified 
to him the hope of a kind of fellowship in work with the men who 
were to gather about it. The only way by which he could get four 
hours a week for both divisions was to take two consecutive hours 
for two days for each division, from two to four o'clock in the 
sleepy time after the early dinner. This made a long session each 
day. Would students endure it.? 

The course covered the period from Dryden's time to the early 
nineteenth century. For some years one author was studied each 
week, the chief poets from Dry den to Wordsworth, or Arnold; the 
prose writers from Bunyan to De Quincey or Carlyle. Generous 
readings from the author of the week were assigned; topics for 
study, historical, biographical and critical were minutely worked 
out and distributed in advance. On these topics a thorough exami- 
nation was conducted during the first two-hour meeting of the 
class. At the second meeting one man read an extended essay, his 
special work for the term, on the same author. Each man in the 
class was expected to follow the reading by individual criticism of 
the essay and the professor summed up the study of the author 
from his own point of view. The work was repeated in a second 
division (when there was a second) with different students and an- 
other essayist. The men were marked upon readings reported, upon 
the examination on the topics, upon their essays, and also upon 
their criticism on the essays of others. 

The class was an immediate success. The intimacy of relation, 
the freedom of talk, were then novel. The men responded with an 
enthusiasm most stimulating to the teacher. They sometimes came 
from the class room wishing that a stenographer might have taken 
down for them Mr. Neill's own words of charm and power. The 
thorough work gave aim and dignity to the whole college course in 
literature and Mr. Neill felt, perhaps for the first time, that he was 
in some degree attaining his end. One student characterized the 
class work as "a soft (?) course in which the men worked like dogs." 



An Amherst Teacher 171 



Mrs. Neill remembers the pleasure with which her husband came 
into the house one day after meeting Professor Garman, perhaps 
the most honored and beloved teacher of the college. "Neill," he 
said, "you've got ahead of us all in your method." For years the 
movement of faculty meetings was occasionally interrupted by 
complaint from other teachers that the seniors were giving undue 
time to their work in literature, and the readings were later some- 
what reduced solely on that account. It was characteristic of Mr. 
Neill that when this became necessary, he reduced the number of 
authors studied, rather than treat any one of them more super- 
ficially. 

The next step was to provide work upon the early beginnings of 
English writings. Mr. Chickering (associate professor since 1877) 
spent the year of 1880-81 in absence preparing to offer a course in 
Anglo-Saxon and Early English. On his return such an elective was 
secured, beginning with the winter term of sophomore year, con- 
tinuing for a year, and leading directly into Mr. Neill 's course in 
literature. This gave unity and historical sequence as never before. 

During Mr. Chickering's absence from college his place had been 
taken by Mr. Stanton Coit, of the class of 1879, and he was retained 
for another year after Mr. Chickering returned with the new en- 
largement of work. For the first time the English department had 
three men on its faculty, and it succeeded from that time in main- 
taining this number. In the autumn of 1882 Mr. Neill was fortu- 
nate enough to secure the appointment of Rev. John F. Genung 
(Union, 1870) as professor of English. He was to take charge of 
rhetoric and of much of the written work. 

Professor Genung brought to the department strong reinforce- 
ment. No words are needed here to do him honor. That has already 
been given to him in noble measure. But it is impossible to forget 
the support which was given to Mr. Neill by his finely trained 
mind, by his working power, and by the loyal friendship which 
united the two men from the beginning to the end of their life to- 
gether. Each appreciated the earnest and lovable nature of the 
other. 

The new professor at once arranged his work with a master's 
hand. He made it constructive by giving his classes persistent 
practice in writing. No textbooks which he could find were satis- 
factory to him, and it was but a few years before his own admirable 



172 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

and successful "Rhetoric" was in use in the college and in many 
schools all over the country. As his power developed, book after 
book of value dropped from his hand, and in after years he added 
golden literary opportunities for the students. 

There was now (1882-83) a well established course in English 
work at Amherst. It was divided among the three teachers, but 
was carefully developed and progressive. It offered training in elo- 
cution, in rhetoric, in the English language, and in its literature. 
The entering class was required to take it up, and might continue 
it until the spring of senior year. A sophomore might, if he chose, 
begin the study of Anglo-Saxon and pass on from its scanty re- 
mains of poetry to know the minds and hearts of the great English 
writers through an unbroken course of more than two years. So 
much of organization had been achieved, part of it an inheritance 
from the past, but a large part due to the initiative and direction 
of Mr. Neill in the eight years which had passed since his appoint- 
ment. 

In the summer of 1885 Professor Chickering left Amherst and 
Rev. Henry A. Frink (Hamilton, 1870) was appointed Professor 
of Logic and Oratory. Under his care the scope of that side of the 
department was ably extended and developed, and as time went 
on his personality won in an unusual degree the affection of the 
student body. 

Mr. Neill had been largely relieved from the care of elocution 
for some time, and on Professor Frink's coming the word "Oratory" 
was dropped from his official title, as later, in 1889, the word 
"Rhetoric" was transferred from his own to that of Professor 
Genung. As "Professor of English Literature" he was able to de- 
vote himself exclusively to the literary teaching which he loved. 
It occupied his full attention and ability. The College was growing 
slowly but steadily in numbers. His junior classes continued large 
and exacted much study and strength. There were always changes 
to be made, weak places to stiffen, lagging men to spur to honest 
endeavor. The reward came in the interest which was awakened 
in many men of literary aptitudes, drawing them steadily, year 
after year, into the inner circle of the senior elective. 

From his early years in Amherst Mr. Neill devoted the summer 
term of about ten weeks to the study of Shakespeare. His method 
here was also of the intensive sort. In the class room itself but one 



An Amherst Teacher 173 

or two plays were studied, and a large part of the work consisted 
in their patient interpretation, line by line, to explain archaisms 
and obscurities. The origin of their plots was touched on, they 
were placed in their historical setting, and their dramatic con- 
struction was made clear. As the course grew in completeness, each 
scene was analyzed under four categories, as to (1) the central mo- 
tive, (2) the dramatic purpose, (3) the development of plot, (4) 
the development of character. 

But this partially mechanical work was not allowed to leave 
Shakespeare's men and women half dead upon the field. The class 
was kept face to face with the laughing, suffering, sinning and con- 
quering characters of the drama. The breath of life was in them. 
They jested and they sorrowed along their way, revealing in un- 
consciousness the poet's deepest theme. Under such treatment 
"Macbeth" became a vision of subtle, overpowering temptation 
and of sin's bitter fruit; and the pages of "As You Like It" breathed 
the charm of human fellowship, far away from the haunts of "get- 
ting and spending," in the Forest of Arden. 

To give the class a wider outlook, four other plays were studied 
by them independently of the teacher, and frequent examinations, 
demanding thought as well as memory, tested their work. 

Mr. Neill was fortunate during his teaching in the steady pub- 
lication in successive volumes, of the great Variorum Edition of 
Shakespeare by Dr. Furness, as well as in Dr. Rolfe's scholarly 
edition of the plays in form admirably adapted to student study. 
To the immense textual study of Shakespeare he gave full respect. 
The work of the Shakespeare Society in ascertaining the chronology 
of the plays through the counting of run-on lines and weak endings 
interested him greatly as a means of tracing the growth of the 
poet's power. But he felt it hardly worth while to clutter the 
undergraduate mind with much allusion to the philological study 
which might await the riper scholar. 

In Mr. Neill's entire plan for his classes there was great restraint. 
It must be clear that a student who had taken the entire course 
in literature at Amherst might have been unable to talk glibly of 
many an English author. Good writers had been calmly left on 
one side for the sake of concentration upon a small number who 
were greater. But the Amherst student left college with a sound 
body of knowledge; he knew for himself the charm of good writing 



174 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



and the power of great thought. He was in his measure competent 
to approach the new, to range the wide field, to judge or to create. 
An alumnus who has given eminent service in university educa- 
tion and in public affairs wrote to Mr. Neill of his own work in 
college, a score of years after graduation: "My interest in poetry 
and in statecraft abide. The kernel of the former I trace unhesitat- 
ingly to my study of Byron and my summer with you [in Eng- 
land]; that of the latter to Burke. Though I had grown up among 
books it was not until I took your course that I began to accumulate 
a library the size of which has strained the capacity of every house 
I could afford." 

Pleasant encouragement came to Mr. Neill in 1888, through the 
establishment by Daniel Kent, Esq. (Amherst, 1875), of an annual 
prize of $100 for the best essay on a subject drawn from English 
literature. It was eagerly contested by his best men. 

In the years since Professor Chickering had left Amherst the 
courses in Anglo-Saxon and Early English had been given up. In 
1898, after the death of Professor Frink, George B. Churchill 
(Amherst, 1889) was elected Professor of English and Public Speak- 
ing. 

Professor Churchill was already recognized in Germany as hav- 
ing done scholarly work in Shakespeare as well as in Early and 
Middle English. He had previously been trained in Amherst ideals 
and methods, and he now brought his experience as a teacher and 
his acquired knowledge into ready coordination with the plans of 
the department. He took charge at once of the study of language 
and literature from Anglo-Saxon times until after Chaucer's day, 
as well as of public speaking. Again the unbroken English course 
in college ran from the beginning of freshman year until graduation, 
progressive and strong. 

Greatly relieved by this valuable and affectionate assistance, Mr. 
Neill, in 1900, carried out long-desired plans, offering to the juniors 
a course in American literature, and another on the English drama 
before Shakespeare. He took them up with the enthusiasm of a 
young man and pressed on v.ith his other work as usual. But near 
the end of the college year his health failed suddenly and seriously. 
In the hope of regaining it he spent nearly a year quietly resting 
among the beautiful English scenes which he loved. He again un- 
dertook a part of his work in the autumn of 1902 but was obliged 



An Amherst Teacher 175 

after a few weeks to let it finally drop from his hands into those of 
other men. From that time his life was one of extreme physical 
weakness until his death in June, 1904. 

With a thoughtful kindness deeply appreciated by him, the 
Trustees of the College had made him Emeritus Professor of Eng- 
lish Literature a year before his death. 

Nothing has been said here of Mr. Neill as a preacher, though 
for years it was part of his duty to fill the pulpit of the College 
Church at regular intervals, and he was welcomed often in many a 
New England church. Nor has there been any expression of his 
great interest in raising the standard, and in giving life and sanity 
to the methods of teaching English in preparatory schools. These 
pages confine themselves to a brief record of his ideal and his work 
as a teacher. 

The tangible result showed in "that development of the English 
department," noted by Professor Genung in the Olio, as so largely 
Mr. Neill's work, "by which it was specialized into the various 
branches, each having its distinctive courses and teachers." 

But the supreme test of a teacher's work is not to be found in 
statistics of outward development. Did he approach his own ideal 
in his teaching.'* Was his work of energizing power? 

Those who loved Mr. Neill most would not claim for him a 
universal appeal as a teacher. This was partly inherent in the na- 
ture of the subject which he taught. There are always students in 
college doing successful and even brilliant work in other lines to 
whom delicate literary discriminations are, in their own phrase, 
but "hot air." In a recent review Professor Brander Matthews 
writes: "All high school students and all college undergraduates 
ought to be exposed to the contagion of literature ; but many of them 
will be immune, more or less unable to develop any keen interest in 
books as books." The late Professor Winchester said once: "I 
think, indeed, that the study of literature should always be elec- 
tive, for the degree of enjoyment that must precede literary appre- 
ciation can not be required or commanded." 

On the other hand, a graduate wrote of Mr. Neill, years after 
leaving college: "Not only his personality, but, I think, the more 
intimate and natural character of study in English literature, 
placed him in more personal relations with his students and gave 
him a peculiar place in the recollection and feeling of those whose 



176 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

aptitudes enabled them to appreciate his teaching. [He held] a 
special place among my teachers." 

Men who wrote of his work after it was ended spoke with singu- 
lar accord of the "inspiration" which it had given them. He was, 
they said, "a singularly inspiring teacher." "He knew how to kin- 
dle aspiration," they wrote. "He left a touch of inspiration on 
many, many lives." 

Whatever the source of that influence, it was not the shallow 
utterance of emotional rhetoric. He was an idealist by nature and 
his faith glowed through his thought. The felicitous or telling 
phrase, the shining word, came to him as the breeze comes. But 
those close to his daily life knew that the firm basis of his teaching 
was faithful, conscientious, thorough work. He was hampered by 
a memory that balked at dates and at quotations of other men's 
words, though it was keenly retentive of their organized thought. 
He was seriously limited at times by ill health, unwillingly con- 
fessed. But he accepted each limitation with unconquered purpose 
and with an almost unconquered blitheness. "When a man knows 
his limitations he knows his strength," was his philosophy. His 
preparation for classes was freshly made, so far as possible, no mat- 
ter how familiar the theme of the day. He delved into the minutiae 
of his subject so far as they bore upon its full comprehension. Every 
detail about an author and his environment was material if it 
helped to make the background against which stood forth the man 
and his work. Then his critical insight and analytical power came 
into play. His intuitions were keen but he fortified them by stren- 
uous study and by concentrated thought. 

He despised slipshod work whether in himself or in others and 
his constant injunction in practical matters was "Think it through." 
His standards were therefore high for his classes, and it became 
sometimes a painful duty which he never dodged to give to some 
student, disappointed in his marks, a new imderstanding of his dis- 
tance from the goal. "It is easy," he said once, "to deal with a good 
student or^with a poor one; but to know how to treat one who is 
poor, but thinks he is good, is the problem." He was not unsym- 
pathetic, but he felt that he was set in his place to help a groping 
student to find himself. 

To the/menjwho sought his study to consult him about work 
which they were doing he was lavish of time and friendliness. They 



An Amherst Teacher 177 

have not forgotten it nor the faith and courage which he gave them. 
Years after graduation, one man wrote from a great university in 
which he still holds high position: "[A late visit to Amherst] has 
made me think of the many other times I have left your study 
with head higher, not in pride, but in buoyant hope. What would 
we young fellows do without such men as you to let us see now and 
then that there might be something in us after all? I am most 
thankful for it all." And later: "My intellectual debt to him I 
share with all his students but the debt of friendship admits no 
fellow in its recognition, and that debt is very great. Such a friend 
is the best of gifts to any man." 

Only the men of his classes could estimate Mr. Neill's completed 
work in the college, and their words were those of deep apprecia- 
tion. 

A class paused in the glad days of its twentieth reunion to say 
of him, "He was inspired by love of literature and of young men;" 
and one of its honored members voiced his own feeling in the brief 
but pregnant message: 

"He was a great teacher." 



178 Amherst Graduates' Q|u a r t e r l y 



COLLEGE NOTES 

winter athletics 

THE splendid record of the swimming team furnishes conso- 
lation for an otherwise unsuccessful season of minor ath- 
letics. The basketball team won but two games out of a 
schedule of twelve. The hockey team was never victorious, though 
seldom beaten by a decisive margin. But Mr. Nelligan's swimmers 
have just concluded a third season without a defeat and have now 
fifteen consecutive victories to their credit. In addition S. B. Da- 
mon, '22, secured the New England and the national intercollegiate 
championships in the 50-yard dash. 

The two victories in basketball were scored over M. A. C, by 
the close score of 22-21, and over the University of Rochester. 
The remaining games were easily won by Amherst's opponents. 
The prevailing score in the hockey matches was 2-1 with Amherst 
invariably on the losing end. 

Amherst put out the strongest swimming team in New England 
with the exception of Yale. Only twice during the season, in the 
meets with M. I. T. and Springfield, was the result of any meet in 
doubt. Harvard, Lehigh, Williams, Wesleyan, Rensselaer Tech., 
and Syracuse were beaten by large scores. Amherst placed fourth 
in the New England intercollegiate meet and tied with Rutgers 
for second in the national intercoUegiates. Damon in the dashes, 
Captain Whitcomb in the 220-yard swim, and Ewer in the dive 
were conspicuously successful throughout the season. 

In intramural athletics the event of greatest interest was the 
boxing and wrestling tournament held in Pratt Gymnasium late 
in February. A large number of men contested in the various 
classes and as a result the finals were often hard-fought bouts. 
The usual interfraternity basketball series brought Delta Kappa 
Epsilon and Psi Upsilon to the fore, the latter winning the cham- 
pionship game, but only after playing an extra period. The non- 
fraternity relay team distanced all competitors. 



College Notes 179 

football, 1921 
Wesley Englehorn, former Dartmouth tackle and a member of 
Walter Camp's All-American team for 1913, has been chosen foot- 
ball coach for the coming season. He was the unanimous choice of 
the committee on athletics and the appointment has been approved 
by the Alumni Council. Englehorn graduated from Dartmouth in 
1914, where he was for two years a varsity player and during his 
senior year served as an assistant coach to the team. For three 
years he was head coach at the Case School of Applied Science in 
Cleveland, and last season he worked under Frank Cavanaugh to 
turn out the championship eleven of Boston University. 

On the schedule for 1921 appear three teams not met by Amherst 
during the past few years. The first game is with Springfield Col- 
lege at Springfield, and the first home game is with Tufts. Both 
of these teams from previous records should prove to be worthy 
opponents. M. A. C. also appears on the schedule for the first 
time in many years. 

The complete schedule for the football season of 1921 is as 
follows : 

Sept. 24. Springfield, at Springfield. 

Columbia, at New York City. 

Tufts, at Amherst. 

Union, at Schenectady. 

M. A. C, at Amherst. 

Hamilton, at Amherst. 

Wesley an, at Amherst. 

Williams, at Williamstown. 

IN BRIEF 

At the close of the winter term the score in the Trophy of 
Trophies contest stood 6-all. Amherst had won in football (4) 
and swimming (2); Williams in basketball (3), hockey (2), and 
debating (1). The remaining sports with the points allotted to 
each are: baseball (4), track (4), tennis (2), and golf (1). To pre- 
vent Wilhams from acquiring permanent ownership of the cup 
Amherst must win six points more. 

* * * 

President Meiklejohn, much refreshed by a seven months' vaca- 
tion in England and Italy, returned to Amherst for a brief visit 



Oct. 


1. 


Oct. 


8. 


Oct. 


15. 


Oct. 


22. 


Oct. 


29. 


Nov. 


5. 


Nov. 


12. 



180 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

early in March in order to confer with members of the Faculty on 
questions of program and personnel affecting the next academic 
year. He spoke to the college body in Chapel the day after his 
return, taking as his text a sentence from Kant: "For it is extremely 
absurd to expect to be enlightened by reason, and yet prescribe to 
her beforehand on which side she must incline." He sailed for 
Italy on March 22, but will return for Commencement and the 
Centennial Celebration. He is scheduled to deliver the main ad- 
dress of Centennial Day on "Amherst's Ideals for Her Second 
Century." 



"The Great Divide" by William Vaughn Moody was presented 
in College Hall on Thursday evening, March 19, before a large 
and appreciative audience. The performance was a joint produc- 
tion, the first in several years, by the Masquers of Amherst College 
and the Smith College Dramatics Association. In acting, the honors 
were evenly shared by C. S. Wilcox, '23, and Miss Marion Watts, 
each of whom interpreted a difficult emotional role with restrained 
power. Mr. Glass coached the play. Forthcoming attractions by 
the Masquers include a musical comedy called "Steady! Eddie!" 
by Harmon, Mackenzie, and Woodard, which will be performed 
during Prom, week, and a possible program of original one-act 
plays. 



"The Life Indeed" by Prof. John Franklin Genung was pub- 
lished early in February. This is the second of the Amherst Books. 
It is based on a series of talks given before a large Bible class in 
the Old South Church, Boston, and its sub-title defines it as "a 
review, in terms of common thinking, of the Scripture history is- 
suing in immortality." Another volume announced for speedy 
publication in the series is entitled "Essays in Biblical Interpreta- 
tion" by Henry Preserved Smith, '69, formerly pastor of the Col- 
lege Church. 



At the fiftli Intercollegiate Singing Contest, held in the new 
Town Hall in New York City on February 26, the Amherst Glee 
Club was awarded third place. Harvard was the winner, and 



College Notes 181 

Dartmouth received honorable mention. Other clubs competing 
were those of Columbia, New York University, Pennsylvania, 
Penn State, and Princeton. 

* * * 

A new trophy for athletic prowess has been given by Mrs. Edith 
Mossman in memory of her husband, Howard Hill Mossman, '98. 
The Mossman Cup will be presented each year to that member of 
the Senior Class who, in the opinion of the committee, has brought 
during his four years at Amherst the greatest honor in athletics to 
his Alma Mater. The committee on award will be composed of the 
president of Student Council, the head of the Physical Education 
department, and the chairman of the Student Activities committee. 

* * * 

Faculty participation in athletics was unusually keen during the 
winter term. A professorial basketball team challenged all comers 
early in the season and played a schedule of six games, winning 
from the Henry Ward Beecher Club, Delta Upsilon, and M. A. C. 
Faculty, and losing to Theta Delta Chi, M. A. C. Faculty (return 
game), and in a closely contested game to Scarab. Seventeen 
members of the Faculty also played through a round-robin squash 
tournament, which was won handily by Professor Baxter. 

* * * 

The Clyde Fitch lectures this year were delivered by President 
William Allan Neilson of Smith College on the subject, "Was 
Shakespeare a Philosopher?" Mr. George B. Parks, whose term as 
Kellogg Fellow expires at the end of this year, also delivered a se- 
ries of four lectures on "Modern British Novelists." 

* * * 

"Paige's horse" is now a thing of the past. After thirty-eight 
years of continuous operation by members of the Paige family, the 
historic stable was sold at auction on March 29th. 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Published by THE ALUMNI COUNCIL OF AMHERST COLLEGE 
George F. Whicheh, Editor John B. O'Brien, Associate Editor 

Publication Committee 

Robert W. Maynard, '02, Chairman Frederick S. Allis, '93, Secretary 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor, '97 Frederick K. Kretschmar, '01 

Clifford P. Warren, '03 George F. Whicher, '10 

Ptiblished in November, February, May and August 

Address all communications to Box 607, Amherst, Mass. 

Subscription, $2.00 a year Single copies, 50 cents 

Advertising rates furnished on request 
Copyright, 1921, by the Alumni Council of Amherst College 
Entered as second-class matter November, 1920, at the post-office at 
Springfield, Mass., under the act of March S, 1879, 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

TWO friends and benefactors of the College have recently died. 
Edmund Cogswell Converse, donor of the Converse Memo- 
rial Library, died in Pasadena, Cal., on April 4th, aged 71 
years. He was born in Boston and educated at the Boston Latin 
School, but did not attend college. Instead he entered immediately 
upon the career that was to make him for many years an important 
figure in Eastern banking and business circles. At the time of his 
death he was a director of a number of banks, railroads, and indus- 
trial corporations. In memory of his brother, James Blanchard 
Converse, of the class of 1867, he gave to Amherst College in 1916 
the beautiful library building that bears his name. By the terms 
of his will $200,000 is bequeathed to the College for the upkeep and 
development of the library, and Amherst is also named one of ten 
colleges to receive a scholarship fund of $50,000. 

E. A. Thompson died in Amherst on April 1st, aged 77 years. 
Mr. Thompson came to Amherst in his thirtieth year, and while 
busied with his mechanical work, still found time, with charac- 
teristic zeal, to take private instruction in general chemistry from 



Editorial Notes 183 

Professor Goessman of the Agricultural College, in qualitative 
analysis from Harris, and in mineralogy from Emerson of Amherst 
College. Gradually he attained to the unofficial position of mecha- 
nician for the science departments in both colleges, and was fre- 
quently employed in the repair and construction of apparatus by 
officers of Mount Holyoke and Smith. As his wonderful abilities 
became better known, he was employed by far distant institutions. 
Professor Todd engaged him as mechanician on two of his eclipse 
expeditions. 

Mr. Thompson was, from its inception, a member of the Amherst 
Science Club. For a period he was officially engaged in the depart- 
ment of physics. Amherst College in 1912 bestowed upon him the 
honorary degree of Master of Science. 

A description of his interesting every-day life, by Ray Stannard 
Baker, appeared in the American Magazine for April, 1914, and in 
the April, 1912, number of the Quarterly was included an appre- 
ciation of Mr. Thompson as a student and friend of the College. 

His work was far removed from that of the usual mechanic, in 
that he was always a student of fundamental theories, not content 
simply to do the job well, but striving always to know the princi- 
ples upon which scientific instruments were constructed. Once in 
possession of this knowledge, he was ready to suggest unexpected 
improvements and to invent novel and brilliant modifications. 
During the late war he was called upon to apply range-finders to 
officers' field-glasses. This involved constructing a pantograph of 
heavy form which would accurately reduce the large design to a 
total length of one-quarter inch; he then succeeded, after many 
experiments, in etching these lines upon the cover-glass with the 
vapor of hydrofluoric acid, so that the lines when magnified stood 
out clear in the field. 

Like the workman of the Middle Ages, Mr. Thompson was a 
thorough artist. He painted scenes of the sea, near which he was 
brought up. He modeled statuettes of two members of the Faculty. 
He dehghted to work in ivory and rare woods. 

"Uncle Eddie," as he was affectionately called, was a good 
citizen of the town, in touch with men of all classes. His deeds were 
those of a Christian gentleman and will live after him; but his loss 
to the town and to the college can never be replaced. 



184 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

THE photograph of Amherst College reproduced in this num- 
ber of the Quarterly is one of three aerial views taken by 
Mr. Lloyd W. Bell of Springfield. These are, we believe, the 
only photographs yet taken that show the whole college in its set- 
ting. By way of contrast we reproduce two early portraits of Am- 
herst College. The drawing by O. W. Hitchcock, dated 1821, shows 
South College on the right and the old village meeting-house on the 
left. Unless the grove of trees between the buildings was merely 
a product of the artist's fancy intended to conceal the unsightly 
horse-sheds behind the church, this drawing must be the earliest 
portrait of Amherst College in existence. In the more familiar 
drawing by Mary Hitchcock, also dated 1821, the grove has been 
thinned to one or two trees. The second view, from a woodcut of 
about 1830-40, shows the four buildings that then crowned College 
Hill: from left to right. Old North College, Middle (now North) 
College, the Chapel, and South College. The line of the Campus 
then followed the fence immediately in front of the row of build- 
ings. 



LIBRI SCRIPTI PERSONS 

Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor, LL. D.,L. H.D., who 
reviews the important narrative of the Peace Negotiations 
by Former Secretary Lansing, '86, needs no introduction to 
Amherst men. 

Professor Otto Manthey-Zorn has been a member of 
the German department since 1906. 

Walter A, Dyer, '00, author and farmer, has been a 
frequent contributor to the Quarterly since its foundation, 
and for a number of years served as its associate editor. 



The Impersonation of Lord Jeffery 185 



OFFICIAL AND PERSONAL 



THE IMPERSONATION OF LORD JEFFERY AMHERST 



So much interest has been shown in 
the portrayal of Lord Jeffery Amherst 
at the Centennial Gift Rally in Amherst 
last November, and also at the Lord 
Jeffery Amherst Dinner of the New 
York Alumni Association a week later, 
that it seems appropriate to record the 
origin of this feature of recent Amherst 
gatherings. 

The idea was originated by Collin 
Armstrong, '77, when he was president 
of the Amherst Alumni Association of 
New York, and the first presentation 
was at the annual New York dinner in 
1913. The impersonator of Lord Jeffery 
on this and later occasions was Maurice 
L. Farrell, '01. 

The monologue of Lord Jeffery, writ- 
ten by Mr. Armstrong, is herewith 
printed for the first time, as some future 
Amherst gatherings may wish to repro- 
duce this impressive dramatic feature. 

(The lights go out. When they are 
turned on, Lord Jeffery Amherst appears 
in the uniform of a British major general 
of the eighteenth century. He speaks.) 
Men of Amherst! Foster-sons of a 
beautiful, cherishing Alma Mater, my 
heart's greeting to you. For these many 
years, invisible to you, my eyes with 
growing pride have watched your en- 
deavors and progress. Even as I, buffet- 
ing hardships, tried to blaze the way for 
civilization through the primeval wilder- 



ness, so you have borne high aloft the 
banner of education and Christianity. 

In a spirit of admiration and affection 
I have strayed through your beautiful 
groves and among your classic halls with 
those who have been your leaders in by- 
gone days: Hitchcock, Stearns, Seelye, 
Harris, and best beloved of them all, he 
whom you with affectionate reverence 
call "Old Doc." Prepared for life's 
struggles and achievement under their 
guidance, you have gone forth — I have 
seen you go — to impress Amherst ideals 
and principles upon the whole world; and 
my soul is full of joy over your success. 

Many a time I have heard the empy- 
rean ring with that inspiring song of 
contest, " Cheer for old Amherst," and 
those other words and strains in my 
honor; and I cannot tell you of the 
thrills they send through my ethereal 
being. My sons, you owe a debt of un- 
dying gratitude to your brothers who 
were inspired to such heights of poesy 
and such forceful melody. 

I must detain you no longer from a 
feast I cannot share. Partake of it as 
valiant soldiers that you are, and re- 
member always that Lord Jeffery is 
with you in spirit, fondly proud of you 
and deeply sensible of the great distinc- 
tion you have brought to his name by 
your influence and your achievements. 
—Good Night!— Farewell! 



186 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



THE ASSOCIATIONS 



BROOKLYN 

The Brooklyn alumni held their an- 
nual spring dinner at the University 
Club of Brooklyn on Thursday evening, 
April 7th. There was a large attendance 
and much enthusiasm over the ap- 
proaching Centennial. The speakers of 
the evening included Acting-President 
George D. Olds, William C. Breed, '93, 
who is president of the Amherst Asso- 
ciation of New York, Eugene S. Wilson, 
'02, and Bruce Barton, '07. 

BOSTON 

On February 5th the Musical Clubs 
gave their first concert outside the 
vicinity of Amherst at Whitney Hall, 
Brookline. A good number — about 350 
— of the alumni and friends of Amherst 
were on hand to enjoy a very pleasant 
evening's entertainment. 

For the past two months a few of the 
Amherst men in Boston have been for 
lunch every Friday at 12.30 at Frank 
Locke's in an informal way. One Friday 
in March Mr. Englehorn, who is to 
coach the football team next fall, was 



present and outlined the situation as he 
saw it for next year. He called atten- 
tion to the rather diflScult schedule that 
has been arranged and the lightness of 
the material that would be available, 
but hoped that, with the support, of the 
alumni and students Amherst would 
again have a winning team. 

CONNECTICUT ASSOCIATION 

E. W. Pelton, '01, and F. R. Gilpatric, 
'09, of New Britain, Conn., have been 
active in a campaign for $38,000 con- 
ducted by the New Britain United Com- 
munity Corporation. This organization 
secures and distributes funds for carry- 
ing on the work of eight charitable or- 
ganizations. 

Mr. Pelton is president of the organ- 
ization and chairman of the committee 
on lists and estimates. Mr. Gilpatric is 
chairman of the teams committee. 

On Lord Jeffery Night last November, 
Albert W. Hitchcock of 133 Hawthorne 
Street, Hartford, Conn., was made an 
honorary member of the Connecticut 
Association of Amherst Alumni. Mr. 
Hitchcock is a son of "Old Doc." 



SINCE THE LAST ISSUE 



1862. — Washington Irving Allen, on 
March 17, 1918 (not previously re- 
corded), at Newton, N. J., aged 78 
years. 

1871. — Rev. Edward George Stone, 
on January 10, 1921, at Madison, Conn., 
aged 75 years. 

1872. — Hon. Charles Andrews Doo- 
little, on January 26, 1921, at Utica. 
N. Y., aged 71 years. 

1873. — Jacob George Thompson, on 
January 31, 1918 (not previously re- 
corded), at Philadelphia, Pa., aged 69 
years. 

1874. — George Washington Atwell, 
on December 14, 1920, in Lima, N. Y., 
aged 68 years. 



1875. — James Poole Bacon, on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1921, in Boston, Mass., aged 
66 years. 

1876. — Edward Robinson Smith, on 
March 21, 1921, at Stamford, Conn., 
aged 67 years. 

1880.— Rev. William Day Simonds, 
in March, 1921, in Spokane, Wash., 
aged 65 years. 

1881. — Herbert Montague Linnell, 
on January 4, 1921, in New Haven, 
Conn., aged 60 years. 

1881. — Gordon Parker, on December 
13, 1920, at Dorchester, Mass., aged 61 
years. 

1881.— William Elias Hinchliff, on 
February 19, 1921, in Rockford, 111., 
aged 63 years. 



The Classes 



187 



1886.— Rev. William Austin Trow, on 
February 21, 1921, in Pasadena, Cal., 
aged 57 years. 

1887. — Julius Cecil Knowlton, on 
January 27, 1921, in New Haven, Conn., 
aged 55 years. 

1897. — Edmund Mortimer Blake, on 
January 12, 1921, in Oakland, Cal., aged 
46 years. 

1898. — Henry Irving Everett, on 
February 15, 1921, at Foxboro, Mass., 
aged 43 years. 

1916.— Robert M. Rising, in late fall 
of 1920, at Great Barrington, Mass. 

1VL\RRIED 

1871.— In New York City, on Janu- 
ary 19, 1921, William Crary Brov.nell 
and Miss Gertrude Hall. 

1872. — In Knoxville, Tenn., recently, 
Nathan D. Barrows and Mrs. Nannie 
Dobson Grubbs. 

1907.— At Auburn, N. Y., on April 2, 
1921, Allan Wyman and Miss Nancy M. 
Hunt. 

1912.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., on March 
29, 1921, William Siegrist and Miss 
Marion Elizabeth MacFarland. 

1913.— At Ishawa, Wyo., on March 3, 
1921, Philbin R. Orr and Miss Florence 
Jewett. 

1918. — In New York City, on Janu- 
ary 15. 1921, Gordon M. Curtis and 
Miss Evelyn Marie Stratton. 

1919. — In Pittsburgh, Pa., on March 
1, 1921, Willis H. McAllister and Miss 
Helen Claudia Brosius. 

1919.— In New York City, on Feb- 
ruary 19, 1921, Merrill Anderson and 
Miss Louise Gilman. 



1920.— In Brooklyn, N. Y., on De- 
cember 29, 1920, Dudley Bowers Cornell 
and Miss Doris Armstrong Pennington. 

1920.- At Amsterdam, N. Y., on 
February 5, 1921, Marvin Lee Gray and 
Miss Kathryn E. Moyer. 



1897.— Martha Gushing Esty, on 
February 1, 1921, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward T. Esty of Worcester 
Mass. 

1900. — Richard Storer Ward, on 
October 9, 1920, son of Dr. and Mrs. 
Edwin St. John Ward of Beirut, Syria. 

1902.— Helen Taplin, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry B. Taplin of Wel- 
lesley, Mass. 

1904.— Shelia Chase, on March 25, 
1921, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Heman 
B. Chase of Westfield, Mass. 

1908. — A daughter, on February 21, 
1921, to Mr. and Mrs. Ned R. Powley 
of Los Angeles, Cal. 

1913.— Bartholomew J. Connolly,3rd, 
on March 6, 1921, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bartholomew J. Connolly, Jr., of Brook- 
line, Mass. 

1914. — A daughter, on November 29, 
1920, to Mr. and Mrs. John T. Carpen- 
ter of New York City. 

1914. — Dixon Livingstone, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Colin Livingstone of Portland, 
Ore. 

1915. — Richard Fairbanks Lyon, on 
January 4, 1921, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Harold A. Lyon of Newton, Mass. 

1916. — Edwin Mathews Boynton, on 
March 18, 1921, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Merrill H. Boynton of Bristol, R. I. 



THE CLASSES 



1847 



As stated briefly in the February issue 
of the Quarterly, Samuel Worcestei- 
Dana, the oldest living graduate of 
Amherst College, died of pneumonia at 
his home in New Castle, Pa., on New 
Year's Day. 

If Mr. Dana had lived until March 
14th, he would have been 93 years old, 
as he was born on March 14, 1828, in 



Amherst, the son of Joseph and Clara 
(Benton) Dana. His grandfather, 
Amariah Dana, was a Revolutionary 
soldier who served at the capture of 
Ticonderoga and at Lexington. His 
father was a successful farmer in South 
Amherst, a soldier in the War of 1812 
and a prominent abolitionist. 

He prepared for college at Amherst 
Academy, and after graduation studied 



188 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



law with P. G. Clarke of Auburn, N. Y., 
at the same time serving as principal of 
the Genoa Academy. Later he studied 
with Johnson and Brown of Warren, 
Pa., and was admitted to the bar in 
Warren in June, 1853. At this time he 
began to practise law in New Castle, 
where he continued in his profession for 
nearly seventy years. In October, 1855, 
he was admitted to practise before the 
Supreme Court of the State. In 1869 he 
became the partner of S. D. Long, the 
arrangement continuing until 1907, 
when Mr. Long withdrew, and Mr. 
Dana and his son formed a partnership 
which lasted until his death. 

Mr. Dana was the author of a book, 
"Law and Letters," which is an inter- 
esting and authoritative publication, 
and he has also written many short 
pamphlets. He was the oldest attorney 
in point of admission to the bar in the 
State of Pennsylvania, was a member 
of the American Bar x\ssociation since 
1889, and was known as the "Dean of 
the Association." 

He married in 1853, Sarah, the daugh- 
ter of Henry Falls of Northampton, 
who died December 11, 1916. There 
was one son, Richard F., who graduated 
from Amherst in the class of 1895. 

Up to his last illness Mr. Dana, de- 
spite his great age, visited his oflBce 
daily, attending to legal workjentrusted 
to him and manifesting a great interest 
in the affairs of the court. 

1853 

The oldest living graduate of Amherst 
College — by class — is now the Rev. Dr. 
John A. Hamilton of Cambridge, who 
was born on December 8, 1829. 

1856 

While the Rev. John A. Hamilton, 

D.D., of Cambridge, Mass., is the oldest 

graduate of Amherst, being sole survivor 



of the class of 1853, Josiah T. Reade of 
Chicago is now the oldest alumnus in 
years. He was born in Worcester, Mass., 
on August 4, 1829, and since 1870 has 
been engaged in business in Chicago. 

1862 

Rev. Calvin Stebbins, Secretary, 
Framingham Center, Mass. 

Washington Irving Allen, born in 
Richmond, Vt., September 22, 1839, 
died in Newton, N. J., March 17, 1918. 
He was educated in Woodstock, Vt., 
and Amherst, Mass. In the opening of 
his senior year, in 1861, he joined with 
some fellow students in raising a com- 
pany of men, mostly in the vicinity of 
Pittsfield and Ware, in response to the 
calls of President Lincoln for men to 
enlist for the term of three years. The 
company joined the 31st Mass. Volun- 
teers, and formed part of the expedition 
which captured New Orleans, April 27, 
1862. Under General Banks, Allen took 
part in battles at Fort Bisland, Port 
Hudson, where he was wounded, and in 
three battles in the Red River expedi- 
tion; in April, 1865, he took part in the 
siege of Mobile under Canby. He was 
mustered into service at Pittsfield, 
Mass., February 20, 1862, as first lieu- 
tenant; promoted to be captain, De- 
cember 24, 1862; mustered out Septem- 
ber 9, 1865, as captain and brevet 
lieutenant-colonel. These facts are on 
record in the War Department in Wash- 
ington, D. C, and also in the Massachu- 
setts State Record of Massachusetts Fo/- 
unteers, p. 634. His different commis- 
sions were signed by Gov. John A. 
Andrew of Massachusetts, and by Presi- 
dent Johnson and Edwin M. Stanton. 
After leaving the army Allen spent a 
few years as planter in Alabama, was 
connected with a banking company in 
Chetopa, Kan., was manager of the 
Stormont Mining Company in Silver 



The Classes 



189 



Reef, Utah, held an estate in Jensen, 
Fla., and retired from business in 1907, 
afterward living in Newton, N. J., to 
the time of his death. 

The Rev. F. J. Fairbanks, who re- 
cently resigned his pastorate of the 
South Royalston (Mass.) Congrega- 
tional Church has had a long period of 
service in the ministry. For nearly sixty 
years he has labored in this field of work, 
almost half of the time in the town of 
Royalston, first as pastor of First 
Church and later of the South. During 
his years in the latter pastorate he 
labored faithfully to make the one place 
of worship in South Royalston a true 
community church. Although Mr. Fair- 
banks has passed the eighty-fifth mile- 
stone, he is remarkably well preserved 
physically and is still mentally alert. 
With Mrs. Fairbanks he is making his 
home near Philadelphia, Pa., where they 
have two sons. 

1863 
Hon. Edward W. Chapin, Secretary, 
181 Elm St., Holyoke, Mass. 
Governor Gardner of Missouri has 
appointed Edward C. Robbins of St. 
Louis to the Board of Supervisors of the 
State Confederate Soldiers' Home at 
Higginsville, Mo. 



Herbert L. Bridgman, Secretary, 

604 Carlton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mrs. Caroline Richardson Brown, 

wife of Samuel Walley Brown, died at 

her home in Greenwich, Conn., on 

March 20th. 

1867 

I*ROF. Edwin A. Grosvenor, Secretary, 

Amherst, Mass. 

Mrs. Emily Terry, widow of the Rev. 

Cassius M. Terry, for twenty-five years 

matron of Hubbard House at Smith Col- 



lege, died on February 6th at North- 
ampton, aged 83. Her father was former 
President Edward Hitchcock of Am- 
herst. 

A beautiful memorial tablet has been 
unveiled in Central Congregational 
Church, Fall River, to the memory of 
the late Dr. Michael Burnham, who was 
pastor of the church from 1870 to 1882. 
The tablet is of Botticino marble with 
mosaic borders and brown lettering. 

The Rev. Dr. William P. White of 
Philadelphia has been financial secre- 
tary of Lincoln University in Pennsyl- 
vania, the oldest institution for the 
higher education of the negro, for 28 
years. He is also the Philadelphia news 
editor of the Continent of Chicago and 
New York, and vice-president of the 
permanent committee of home missions 
of the Synod of Pennsylvania. The plan 
imder which the committee works was 
drawn up by him and he has never 
missed a meeting of the committee in 
35 years. He is its only surviving origi- 
nal member and official. 

1868 

Wm. a. Brown, Secretary, 
9 Prospect Park West, Brooklyn, N. Y . 
Much to the regret of the organiza- 
tion, William C. Ball has resigned as 
president of the Terre Haute Chapter of 
the American Red Cross. Mr. Ball has 
served the organization faithfully and 
constantly for many years, and his re- 
tirement is a source of much regret. 



Wm. Reynolds Brown, Esq., Secretary, 
18 East 41st St., New York City. 

The Amherst College Library has 
recently been presented with a collec- 
tion of books from the estate of the late 
Rev. Albert S. Tenney 



190 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



The collection consists of about two 
hundred books. They are miscellaneous 
in character and include several sets of 
very useful reference books. This collec- 
tion was secured from his estate by a 
number of pupils and presented by them 
to the library. Mr. Tenney was an 
instructor at the General Theological 
Seminary and for 25 years was rector 
of Christ Church at Pelham Manor, 
New York. 

Professor W. T. Hewett, Ph.D., 
formerly head of the German depart- 
ment of Cornell University, is now at 
Oxford, England, engaged in the final 
revision of his work on Goldwin Smith, 
his former colleague. He has prepared 
the material for a new work on Sher- 
man's March to the Sea, in which he 
will discuss the burning of Columbia. 

1871 

Prof. Herbert G. Lord, Secretary, 
623 W. 113th St., New York City. 
Rev. Edward George Stone died at 
his home in Madison, Conn., January 
10, 1921, aged 75 years. He was born in 
Warren, Conn., August 4, 1845, the son 
of George W. and Emily (Lyman) Stone, 
and prepared for college at Monson 
Academy. After graduating from An- 
dover Seminary in 1874, he held pastor- 
ates in various Congregational churches 
throughout New England. The last few 
years of his life were spent in Madison. 
There is a perverse obsession among 
men to estimate values in terms of size. 
But when one stops to think that until 
recently much more than half of the 
population of the United States has 
been, and still almost half is, rural, and 
that the upholding and strengthening 
of the moral and spiritual life of this 
vast mass of humanity has been the 
mission of the country pastor, then the 
value of his work has greatness. It is 



his to keep the sources of life clean and 
sweet. The thousands of petty streams 
that unite to form the mighty current 
of national life in no small measure get 
and keep their virtue from his unpro- 
claimed labors. It was the soldier of the 
ranks, of unknown name, whose body 
was laid to rest beneath the Arc de 
Triomph in Paris. The victory was his. 
The salvation of France was his. So 
national welfare belongs to the many 
unknown. Without them the endeavors 
of the named great would not avail. 

William Crary Brownell, author and 
critic, and Miss Gertrude Hall, also an 
author, were married on January 19th 
in the Church of the Ascension, New 
York City, by the Rev. Dr. Percy 
Stickney Grant. It is Mr. Brownell's 
second marriage, his first wife having 
died several years ago. Mr. Brownell 
has long been regarded as one of Amer- 
ica's leading critics. The class of 1905 
dedicated its Olio to him. Among his 
books are "French Traits," "French 
Art," "Classic and Contemporary 
Painting and Sculpture," "Victorian 
Prose Masters" and "American Prose 
Masters." He has been a literary ad- 
viser of Scribners' for thirty years. 

Mrs. Brownell has written several 
volumes of verse and fiction including 
"Far from Today," "Allegretto," 
"Foam of the Sea," "April's Sowing," 
and " Hundred, and Other Stories." 

1872 

Lyman M. Paine, Esq., Secretary, 
4224 Langley Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Charles A. Doolittle, former 
mayor of Utica, N. Y., died at his home 
in that city on January 26, 1921, after 
a prolonged illness. His death followed 
that of his wife by just one month. 

Mr. Doolittle was born in Utica on 
September 22, 1849, the son of Charles 



The Classes 



191 



H. Doolittle and Julia Tyler Shearman. 
His father was an Amherst man of the 
class of 1836, and at the time of his 
death was a Supreme Court judge. 
After one year at Yale the son entered 
Amherst as a sophomore in the class of 
1872, graduating with the degree of B.A. 
He then studied law in Utica, N. Y., 
with the firm of Adams & Swan, later 
Doolittle & Swan, and in 1875 com- 
menced his professional life as a mem- 
ber of the firm, then taking the name of 
Adams, Swan & Doolittle. Mr. Doo- 
little was appointed U. S. commissioner 
of jurors by Judge Blatchword. Subse- 
quently he was elected mayor of Utica. 
He was director in the Oneida County 
Bank, of which his father for years was 
president, and an original director of the 
American District Telegraph Company. 
He was one of the best known men in 
the City of Utica. 

Charles A. Doolittle married on 
September 2, 1875, at Newburyport, 
Mass., Mary Johnson, who was a grand- 
daughter of John Quincy Adams, sixth 
president of the United States. Surviv- 
ing him are three sons, two sisters, and 
one brother. 

Clarence A. Burley, a lawyer of 
Chicago, with crockery, glassware, and 
banking for recreation, has demon- 
strated his abiding interest in Amherst 
College by presenting a candidate for 
future matriculation in the person of 
Clarence Burley, born May 3, 1920. 

Nathan D. Barrows, a prominent 
elder of the Second Presbyterian Church 
of Knoxville, Tenn., was married a few 
months since to Mrs. Nannie Dobson 
Grubbs of the same city. 

The class of 1872 has voted to hold 
its formal fiftieth reunion in 1922 and 
so avoid overcrowding the Centennial. 



1873 

Prof. John M. Tyler, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Dr. Talcott Williams, publicist and 
former head of the Columbia University 
School of Journalism, has been elected 
a member of the board of managers of 
the American Bible Society. His arti- 
cles in the Independent continue to be a 
feature of that magazine. 

The death has recently been reported 
of Jacob George Thompson on January 
31, 1918, at Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. 
Thompson was born on July 20, 1848, 
in Washington County, Pa., prepared 
for college at Western Reserve, and re- 
mained in Amherst for three terms. He 
was a manufacturer of clothing in 
Philadelphia. 

1874 

Elihu G. Loomis, Esq., Secretary, 
15 State St., Boston, Mass. 

George Washington Atwell, Esq., 
died on Tuesday morning, December 14, 
1920, at his home in Lima, N. Y. He 
was one of the foremost citizens in his 
community and did much to further the 
fraternal and civic life of Lima and 
vicinity. 

Mr. Atwell was born on February 22, 
1852, on the ancestral farm south of 
town at Atwell's Crossing, the son of 
George W. and Mary Ann (Gillean) 
Atwell, and was the third in direct de- 
scent to bear the name of George W. 
Atwell, his grandfather having come to 
Lima from the town of Old Hadley, 
Mass. 

He prepared for college at the Lima 
Seminary, and on graduating from 
Amherst, where he was a member of the 
Psi Upsilon fraternity, he studied law 
with the late Judge E. A. Nash in Lima. 
Upon being admitted to the bar in 1878 
he established himself in the Nash 



192 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



oflBce, which he was destined to occupy 
during the entire 42 years in which he 
practised. Mr. Atwell was one of the 
best known members of the Masonic 
fraternity in Western New York, joining 
Union Lodge, No. 45, F. and A. M., in 
1884, and was chosen Worshipful Mas- 
ter for sixteen successive years. He was 
a member of the Cyrene Commandery 
and the Rochester Consistory, and had 
served as District Deputy Grand Master. 
At the outbreak of the war. President 
Wilson appointed Mr. Atwell a member 
of the New York State Draft Appeal 
Board, and he served throughout the 
war as its secretary. Mr. Atwell was 
connected with the management of Oak 
Ridge cemetery, serving as both trustee 
and secretary of the corporation. He 
acted in like capacity for the Lima Pub- 
lic Library, which will sorely miss his 
oversight. He was alumni trustee of the 
Seminary, a director in the Bank of 
Lima, a member of the County Histori- 
cal Society, and aflBliated with the fol- 
lowing Rochester organizations: Gene- 
see Valley Club, University Club, and 
Rochester Chapter, S. A. R. 

Mr. Atwell is survived by his wife, 
Jane E. Martin Atwell, to whom he was 
married on September 28, 1887. 

1875 

Pkof. Alfred D. F. Hamlin, Secretary, 
105 Morningside Ave., New York City. 

James Poole Bacon, dean of the short- 
hand reporting profession in New Eng- 
land, died on Sunday, February 6th, in 
a hospital in Boston after a surgical 
operation. His death came as a great 
surprise to his friends and associates, 
since he had been at his office in Bar- 
risters' Hall until the middle of the pre- 
ceding week. 

Mr. Bacon was born in Gloucester on 
June 1, 1854, the son of Jacob and 



Emily (Choate) Bacon. He prepared 
for college at Monson Academy. He 
remained at Amherst for only one term 
of freshman year. He then became a 
reporter on the Boston Advertiser, filling 
also the position of editor of the weekly 
edition. To assist him in his reportorial 
work, he took up the study of shorthand 
and acquired a rare degree of facility in 
the art. Through his newspaper expe- 
rience, he was frequently called upon as 
general reporter and in 1884 gave up his 
newspaper duties to become associated 
with J. M. W. Yerrington, then leading 
shorthand reporter in Massachusetts. 
Four years later he went into business 
for himself. 

Mr. Bacon's experience covered the 
whole development of shorthand re- 
porting. He reported the first important 
case in Massachusetts to be wholly tran- 
scribed on the typewriter. This was an 
investigation in 1880 on the discipline 
at the State Prison. The work for which 
he was most widely known was the re- 
porting of the notable "Monday Lec- 
tures" of the Rev. Joseph Cook. Mr. 
Bacon was one of the few stenographers 
who was able to report the utterances of 
Phillips Brooks. He was engaged for 
many important criminal cases and in 
1887 was appointed official stenographer 
of the Superior Court, holding that posi- 
tion for several years, when he resigned 
to devote himself entirely to general 
reporting. 

He made his home in Cambridge for 
many years and is survived by his wife 
and two sons. 

1876 

William M. Ducker, Secretary, 
299 Broadway, New York City. 
Professor Frank S. Hoffman of Union 
College is a member of the review com- 
mittee of the National Board of Review 
of Motion Pictures. 



The Class 



193 



Edward Robinson Smith, painter 
and sculptor and former librarian of the 
Avery Library. Columbia University, 
died suddenly on Monday, March 21, 
at his home in Stamford, Conn. He was 
67 years old. 

He was born in Beirut, Syria, Janu- 
ary 3, 1854, the son of Eli and Hetty 
(Butler) Smith, and prepared for college 
at Phillips Andover Academy. After 
graduation, he studied architecture, 
sculptiu-e, and painting in Boston, Paris, 
Munich, and Florence. 

In 1880 he became instructor in 
modeling and art anatomy at the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts in Boston. In the 
next year he came to New York, where 
he established himself as an artist. His 
connection with Columbia University 
began in 1894, when he became librarian 
of the Avery Architectural Library. In 
1900 he became instructor in modeling 
in the architectural department of 
Columbia University and in the Teach- 
ers' College. He was also associated 
with Russell Sturgis in the preparation 
of the Dictionary of Architecture. (Mac- 
millan.) 

1878 

Prof. H. Norman Gardiner, Secretary, 

187 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

Frank W. Stearns was accorded the 
honor by the Massachusetts presiden- 
tial electors of conveying the Bay State 
vote for Harding and Coolidge to Wash- 
ington. 

Frank L. Babbott was chairman of 
the committee in charge of the Keats 
Centenary Celebration in New York 
City on February 23. 

Professor D. Herbert Colcord of 
Pomona College, Claremont, Cal., is 
planning to spend next year on his sab- 
batical leave of absence in the East. 



About twenty men have already sig- 
nified their intention of attending the 
class reunion in connection with the 
Centennial Celebration of the College. 
Others, who have not yet responded, 
will please take note and imitate their 
example. 

1879 

Prof. J. Franklin Jameson, Secretary, 
1140 Woodward Bldg., 
Washington, D. C. 
Baron Naibu Kanda, whose visits to 
America since his graduation have been 
very few, crossed the country in April 
from Seattle to New York to embark on 
the Olympic, April 20, for Europe, going 
to represent his country at an interna- 
tional conference to be held in May. He 
will return to the United States in 
season to attend the Amherst Centennial. 
His son Yasaka Takagi, professor- 
designate of American history and in- 
stitutions in the University of Tokyo, 
has completed a year and a half of grad- 
uate study of American history in Har- 
vard University, and is now in Washing- 
ton, acquainting himself with the work- 
ings of our political system. 

Benjamin F. Sanderson of North 
Tonawanda, New York, has been made 
editor of Our Diocesan Fellowship, a 
new periodical published by the bishop 
and executive council of the Episcopal 
diocese of Western New York. 
1880 
Henrt p. Field, Esq., Secretary, 

86 Main St., Northampton, Mass. 

Hon. William V. Stuart of Lafayette, 
Ind., has resigned his position as trustee 
of Purdue University. The Lafayette 
Journal Courier published the following 
editorial on his resignation: 

No history of Purdue University's 
progress during the past quarter of a 
century would be complete without 



194 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



some reference to the service rendered 
by William V. Stuart in the upbuilding 
of the institution. As a trustee of the 
university for more than twenty years 
Mr. Stuart had much to do with plan- 
ning the extensive building program 
now well advanced and he was also in- 
strumental in widening the scope of the 
university's educational activities and 
keeping it in the front ranks of progres- 
sive technological schools. 

Serving as resident trustee all of that 
time, he was in closer touch with the 
work and needs of the institution, per- 
haps, than any other member of the 
board, and President Stone has many 
times expressed his appreciation of Mr. 
Stuart's efforts in behalf of a greater 
Purdue. 

His retirement from the board occa- 
sions regret among all friends of the 
university, and he will take with him 
their best wishes and the hope that he 
may find in the rest thus afforded a 
means of speedily restoring him to 
health. 

Prof. J. F. McGregory has not yet 
entirely recovered from injuries received 
in a railroad accident last June. He has 
not yet taken up his work as head of the 
department of chemistry at Colgate. 
He is traveling in the West, but ex-pects 
to be at Amherst at Commencement. 

Prof. E. C. Richardson attended all 
the sessions of the Assembly and open 
committee of the League of Nations at 
Geneva. 

Stephenson is about to change his 
oflBces in New York City. Letters at 
present should be sent to his home ad- 
dress, 409 Hillside Place, South Orange, 
N.J. 

Rev. William Day Simonds, pastor 
of the Unitarian Church at Spokane, 
W^ash., died of heart trouble in March, 
1921. Simonds was at Amherst only the 
first term of freshman year. After leav- 
ing Amherst he was graduated from the 
Congregational Theological Seminary 
in Chicago. He was born in Winnebago 
County, 111., March 31, 1855. His first 



church after leaving the Seminary was 
at Jefferson, 111. He then had churches 
at Iowa Falls, Iowa; Battle Creek, 
Mich.; Madison, Wis.; Seattle, Wash.; 
Oakland, Cal.; and Spokane. Dr Si- 
monds was one of the leaders in the 
Unitarian Church. He was widely 
known as a lecturer and author. Two 
months before his death he had sent to 
his publishers a manuscript on Mark 
Twain which is to appear in book form. 
"Star King of California," a biogra- 
phy, " The Christ of the Human Heart," 
"Sermons from Shakespeare," and 
numerous other books are from the pen 
of Mr. Simonds. Surviving Mr. Simonds 
are his widow, Mrs. Ida Simonds, two 
daughters and two sons. 

A very unusual and unprecedented 
action was taken by Princeton I^niver- 
sity recently in promoting Professor 
E. O. Richardson to the position of 
"director" of the library, which corre- 
sponds to a position of librarian-emeri- 
tus. This includes an arrangement 
whereby Professor Richardson is free to 
spend half of each year in travel, re- 
search, or study, to be considered as a 
form of reward for his long and valuable 
services. He is at present in Europe. 

1881 

Frank H. Parsons, Esq., Secretary, 
60 Wall Street, New York City. 

The plans for the class reunion are 
progressing favorably. Eighteen men 
have already promised to be there and 
returns are just beginning to come in. 

Three members of the class have re- 
cently died, making eleven since our 
last reunion. 

Herbert Montague Linnell died of 
arterio-sclerosis on January 4, 1921, in 
his sixty-first year. He was with the 
class but one year, going into the class 
of '82 for a time and finally leaving 



The Class 



195 



Amherst and beginning his business 
career with the Thompson-Houston 
Electric Company of Boston. He has 
been connected with electrical matters 
since that time, though for several 
years before his death he was in ill 
health and not actively engaged in busi- 
ness. He is survived by his daughters. 
Miss Gertrude B. Linnell of New York 
and Mrs. Justin P. Miner of New Haven, 
Conn. 

Gordon Parker was with '81, for two 
years, leaving college to go into the drug 
business, in which he continued up to 
the time of his death, having had stores 
in Brockton, Woburn, Boston, and 
Dorchester, Mass. He was living in 
Dorchester at the time of his death on 
December 13, 1920. His wife survives 
him. 

William E. Hinchliff died suddenly 
on February 19, 1921, at his home in 
Rockford, 111., of paralysis. He had had 
an earlier attack several years ago and 
had not been active in business for some 
time. He was born in Chicago, and after 
his graduation was private secretary of 
Franklin MacVeagh of Chicago. He 
married Miss Harriet E. Emerson of 
Rockford., 111. and thereafter went into 
business with Mrs. Hinchcliff's father. 
He was president of the Burson Knit- 
ting and Burson Manufacturing Com- 
panies and made a great impression on 
the community in which he lived. To 
quote the local paper announcing his 
death: " Mr Hinchliff was a man with a 
determination to surmount obstacles 
no matter how difficult they might ap- 
pear, and this characteristic combined 
with an alert mind and keen perception 
was reflected in his business success. 
He was a great reader and spent much 
time with books. He found recreation 
in motoring, golfing, and hunting big 
game. He had visited nearly every wild 



game district in the United States in 
his hunting expeditions." 

Mrs. Hinchliff and seven children 
and eight grandchildren survive him. 

1882 

John Albree, Esq., Class Historian, 

10 State St., Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Emily Arms Burt, wife of the 
Rev. Enoch H. Burt of Torrington, 
Conn., died on January 3rd of perni- 
cious anemia. Mrs. Burt was born in 
Turkey, where her parents were mission- 
aries, and was a graduate of the Amherst 
High School. They were married in 1886. 

Rev. Dr. Charles S. Mills was the 
college preacher at Harvard on Jan- 
uary 23rd. 

Dr. Richard E. Burton, head of the 
department of English at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, delivered during the 
winter a series of lectures before the 
Columbia Institute of Arts and Sciences , 
New York, on "The Bible, the Book of 
Beauty." "It seems a special act of 
Providence that the King James version 
was given us when the English tongue 
was at the zenith of its glory," Dr. Bur- 
ton said at his opening lecture. "Every- 
body then had the franchise of the marvel- 
ous Elizabethan English in its strength, 
simplicity, and music. We think of the 
great Book as a book of conduct pri- 
marily; but it holds masterpieces of all 
subdivisions of literature. I feel positive 
that the best literature of the Old Testa- 
ment is the work, not of inspired ama- 
teurs, but of conscious and consummate 
craftsmen." (Boston Transcript, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1921.) 



Walter T. Field, Secretary, 

2301-2311 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Henry T. Rainey, after a service 

of eighteen years in Congress, retired on 

March 4th as a result of the Republican 



196 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



landslide. If he had been reelected he 
would have been the Democratic leader 
of the House. On the last few days of 
his service in Congress he was appointed 
a member of the United States TarifiF 
Commission, the term of office of which 
will probably be twelve years. During 
the summer Mr. Rainey will give Chau- 
tauqua lectures in the principal cities 
of the Pacific Coast on "Federal Taxa- 
tion, its Phases and Possibilities." 

Theodore Graham Lewis, who has 
been practising law in Springfield, Mass., 
for some time, has entered into partner- 
ship with Mr. Irving Shaw under the 
firm name of Lewis and Shaw. 

William Orrj who is making a tour of 
the war-stricken countries of Europe 
in the interests of the educational de- 
partment of the Y. M. C. A., writes 
from Berlin as follows: 

"I am in Berlin for a month helping 
to put on educational courses in the 
company of Russian prisoners of war 
and refugees. These men, some of whom 
have been away from home for six years, 
find time hangs heavUy on their hands 
and any activities are a blessing. From 
here I go to Esthonia, then to Poland 
for similar work, and later to Roumania, 
and finally to Constantinople. I shall 
probably be away for a year at least." 

Rev. David P. Hatch has during the 
past winter been filling the pulpit of a 
church at Pamona, Fla. He will return 
to Lancaster, Mass., about June 1st. 

1884 
WiLLARD H. Wheeler, Secretary, 
2 Maiden Lane, New York City. 
Secretary of Commerce Herbert C. 
Hoover has appointed William S. Ros- 
siter as head of a committee of five 
which is to revise the system of com- 
merce reports. It is Secretary Hoover's 



intention to make these reports consid- 
erably more comprehensive than at 
present. 

1885 
Frank E. Whitman, Secretary, 
66 Leonard St., New York City. 

The Rev. Sherrod Soule of Hartford, 
superintendent of the Missionary So- 
ciety of Connecticut, has been elected 
chaplain of the Connecticut Senate. 
Mr. Soule is the second member of the 
class of 1885 to be given high honor in 
the new state administration. Governor 
Lake having appointed George C. Wood- 
ruff of Litchfield to the rank of major 
and aide-de-camp, as stated in the 
February issue of the Qdarterlt. 

To Robert Erskine Ely is due largely 
the conception and creation of New 
York's latest public meeting place, the 
Town Hall. Mr. Ely has devoted his 
life to the creation of better mental con- 
tacts between men, and the Town Hall 
is a fitting tribute to his efforts as di- 
rector of the League for Political Edu- 
cation, and other organizations for civic 
betterment. 

Rev. George Loring Todd, D. D.,has 
gone to Porto Rico under the auspices 
of the American Missionary Associa- 
tion, to have charge of all the work of 
the Congregational Churches in the 
island. Because of his familiarity with 
T;he Spanish language and his long expe- 
ience in Cuba, Dr. Todd is well pre- 
pared for this work. Although greatly 
interested in the college in Tampa, 
where he has been since his return from 
France, he enters upon this work with 
great enthusiasm. Mrs. Todd follows 
him shortly. His new address will be, 
Humacao, Porto Rico. 

Judge Ashley M. Gould, of the Su- 
preme Court of the District of Colum- 
bia, was awarded the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws by Georgetown Univer- 



The Classes 



197 



sity at the 50th anniversary of the 
Georgetown University Law School in 
December. Judge Gould, who has been 
head of one of the departments of the 
Law School for many years, received a 
remarkable ovation from the student 
and alumni body when the presentation 
was made. 

Here is the story of how George C. 
Woodruff saw the inauguration: 

Now that George C. Woodruff of 
Litchfield is back home, and out of 
reach of the sergeant-at-arms of the 
House of Representatives, the story can 
be told. 

George, who is in the baldhead club 
of America, came to Washington for the 
inauguration, leaving Jim in charge of 
the Litchfield paper. Tickets for the 
senate gallery and the east portico were 
scarce. One each was allotted to the 
members of the House and Senate. 
George could not secure one. 

So assuming an attitude of impor- 
tance (and George looks like a congress- 
man when he is not wearing his palm 
beach suit) the Litchfield journalist 
politely informed the doorkeepers he 
was Congressman E. Hart Fenn. The 
doorkeepers were stuck. They didn't 
know Fenn, so they let George by. 

He saw the whole show, and was 
right in back of Harding on the stand 
when the latter took the oath of office. 
No wonder George went home chuckling. 
(New York Times, March 10, 1921.) 

1886 
Charles F. Marble, Secretary, 
4 Marble St., Worcester, Mass. 

The Rev. William* Austin Trow died 
on February, 21st in Pasadena, Cal. 

He had just resigned|his pastorate in 
Sherburne, N. Y., on Januaryi2, after a 
service of 26 years and had intended to 
make his home in Northampton. He 
went to California immediately after 
resigning in January in an effort to re- 
cover his health, which, had been im- 
paired for some time. 

Mr. Trow was the son of Dr. William 
and Thankful G. (Smith) Trow, and 



was born in Haydenville, Mass., on 
April 25, 1863. He prepared for college 
at Williston Seminary, and after gradua- 
tion taught for one year at Betts Acad- 
emy in Stamford. He then studied at 
Yale Divinity School and was ordained 
in 1892. For two years he was pastor at 
Albany, Ore. In 1894 he became pastor 
of the church in Sherburne from which 
he resigned in January of this year. 

Mr. Trow was active in civic improve- 
ments and his leadership gladly was fol- 
lowed in the community. He was presi- 
dent of the board of trustees of the Sher- 
burne public library for ten years, was 
a member of the board of directors of 
the state conference and was moderator 
of the conference in 1919. 

He is survived by his wife, who was 
Ellen P. Clark of Northampton and 
whom he married on May 26, 1896, and 
by one son. Prof. William A. Trow of 
the department of psychology in Roch- 
ester University. Another son was lost 
in the World War. 

Robert Lansing's much-awaited vol- 
ume on the Peace Negotiations was pub- 
lished on March 25th by Houghton, 
Mifflin and Co., and has attracted wide 
attention, as have also his recent arti- 
cles in the Saturdmj Evening Post. The 
former Secretary of State has accepted 
an appointment on the executive com- 
mission of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

Hamlin Avery Whitney has removed 
his office to 212 Bank of Italy Building, 
Oakland, Cal. 

1887 

Frederic B. Pratt, Secretary, 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

With the induction into office of 

Charles E. Hughes as Secretary of State, 

the law firm of Hughes, Rounds, Schur- 

man and Dwight of New York has been 



198 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



dissolved, the new firm being known as 
Rounds, Schurman and Dwight, with 
Arthur C. Rounds, as head of the firm. 

At the recent Centennial Convoca- 
tion of George Washington University, 
Mr. Rounds was awarded the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Julius Cecil Knowlton, assistant 
superintendent of schools at New 
Haven, Conn., died suddenly at his 
home on January 27, 1921. His death 
came as a great surprise to his friends, 
for he was attending to his duties, visit- 
ing schools in the morning, and on re- 
turning to his home at noon, complained 
of feeling ill, dying soon after. It is be- 
lieved that a shock was the cause of the 
death. 

Mr. Knowlton had a nervous break- 
down a year or two ago from which he 
never completely recovered, but he was 
enough better so that he resumed his 
duties some months ago. 

He was the son of John H. and Alma 
(Gleason) Knowlton, was born in Med- 
way, Mass., October 7, 1865, and was 
fitted for college at the Medway High 
School. After graduation he was princi- 
pal of the Lincoln, Mass., high school, 
1887-1891; district superintendent of 
schools, Tewksbury, Mass., 1891-1902; 
principal of Ivy School, New Haven, 
Conn., since 1914. 

He took an active part in the affairs 
of the city and was a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce and the Civic 
Federation and vice-president of the 
Park Commission. He was married on 
August 31, 1892, to Lillian H., daughter 
of John C. Chase, who survives him. 
There are three children. Chase, Ruth 
(Mrs. J. H. Johnson), and Philip. 

1888 
Wm. B. Greenough, Esq., Secretary, 
32 Westminister St., Providence, R. I. 

Dean Herman V. Ames of the Gradu- 



ate School of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania is one of the three representatives 
of the Association of American Universi- 
ties on the American Council on Educa- 
tion. He is also chairman of the council's 
committee on international educational 
relations, which committee has general 
supervision over the exchanges of 
French women's scholarships, as also 
certain other fellowship exchanges. 

Dean Ames is also a member of the 
administrative board of the Institute of 
International Education, which is con- 
cerned with international educational 
relations, particularly the exchange of 
professors. 

Dean Ames has recently delivered 
both before the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and the Philadelphia Geographi- 
cal Society, an illustrated lecture on 
Dalmatia and the adjacent lands of the 
Jugo-Slavs. This lecture was based on 
his travels in this region. 



Henrt H. Bosworth, Secretary, 
387 Main St., Springfield, Mass. 

Dr. Frank E. Spaulding, director of 
the School of Education at Yale Univer- 
sity, is one of a reviewing committee of 
three appointed to review the survey 
being made of the schools of Baltimore, 
Md. 



George C. Coit, Esq., Secretary, 
6 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Ex-Governor Charles S. Whitman has 
been adding new laurels to his name in 
his investigation of charges of corrup- 
tion in the New York City government. 
As the Quarterly goes to press. Gov- 



The Classe 



199 



ernor Whitman has already secured 
several Grand Jury indictments and 
unearthed some sensational disclosures. 
He is said to be in charge of the investi- 
gation of the Elwell murder. 

1891 

Nathan P. Avert, Esq., Secretary, 
362 Dwight St., Holyoke, Mass. 

The American papers for January 22nd 
contained on account of a reception and 
dinner given in Rome by Mr. and Mrs. 
H. Nelson Gay, in honor of Rolandi 
Ricci, the newly appointed Italian am- 
bassador to the United States, on the 
eve of his departure for Washington. 
The guests included Robert Underwood 
Johnson, the American ambassador, and 
Mrs. Johnson, the Duke and Duchess of 
Torlonia, the Marchioness of Doria, the 
Marchioness of Centurione, Senator and 
Mrs. Rosse, and others. 

1892 

DiMON Roberts, Secretary, 
43 South Summit St., Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Six members of the executive commit- 
tee of the class of '92 held a meeting in 
New York City on March 5th to com- 
plete their plans for a class reunion and 
their part in the Centennial Celebration. 
Professor Thompson's house is to be the 
headquarters for the class, and it is quite 
probable that a dining tent and caterer 
will be arranged for to take care of the 
wants of the class. 

1893 

Frederick S. Allis, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

George D. Pratt, conservation com- 
missioner of the State of New York, has 
been elected a trustee and treasurer of 
the National Council of the Boy Scouts 
of America. 

The Union League Club of New York 
City has chosen William C. Breed as 
vice-president. 



A Brooklyn Federation of Churches 
was recently organized with President 
Frank D. Blodgett of Adelphi College 
as second vice-president. 

Herman Babson, who is head of the 
department of Modern Languages at 
Purdue University, is spending his sab- 
batical year abroad. For some months 
he was in Geneva, but is now in Paris 
where he is attending lectures in the 
Sorbonne. He expects to be in Paris 
until the summer. 

The first marriage among '93's chil- 
dren was that of Paul Abbott to Elise 
Everett of New York on November 25, 
1920 (Thanksgiving Day). Paul is a 
son of Henry Abbott of the law firm of 
Breed, Abbott and Morgan of New 
York. He was in the war, serving first 
in France with the American Field 
Service and then with the Red Cross 
Ambulance Service on the Italian front, 
and after graduating from Fontainbleau 
Military Academy was a sub-lieutenant 
in the French Army, serving in Alsace. 
George D. Pratt, Jr., son of George D. 
Pratt, of 1893, was one of the ushers. 



Henry E. Whitcomb, Secretary, 
6 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 

Willis D. Wood has been elected a 
trustee of the Title Guarantee and Trust 
Company of New York City. 

The secretary's son, Douglas Whit- 
comb, acted as captain this year of 
Amherst's undefeated swimming team. 
He has been one of the team's most con- 
sistent performers during the past four 
years. He also has the honor of having 
received the highest marks of his dele- 
gation in Psi Upsilon. 

On February 22nd, at the Centennial 
Convocation of George Washington 
University, Bertrand H. Snell, Repre- 
sentative to Congress from the 31st New 



200 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



York District, was presented the honor- 
ary degree of Doctor of Laws. The 
Amherst delegate at the Centennial 
was Gilbert H. Grosvenor, '97, editor- 
in-chief of the National Geographic 
Magazine. 

1895 

William S. Tyler, Esq., Secretary, 
30 Church St., New York City. 

Ex-Mayor Walter R. Stone of Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., has entered the investment- 
bonds business as a member of the firm 
of Stone, Seymour and Co., Inc. 

Rev. Jay T. Stocking has received a 
leave of absence from his church in 
Upper Montclair, N. J., in order that 
he may devote several months to the 
recovery of his health. In late February 
he sailed with his family for Bermuda, 
where he will take a complete rest. 
Later he plans to go to England for 
quiet study and leisurely travel, return- 
ing to his duties in October or November. 

R. Wesley Burnham is principal of 
the John H. Haaren Vocational High 
School, which was opened in New York 
City in September, 1920. 

1895 

"A tribute to Calvin Coolidge is per- 
haps easy to find nowadays," writes 
Chester A. Andrews. "07, "but from a 
source quite far removed from home, I 
thought the enclosed very good." There 
follows an estimate of Mr. Coolidge 
from the Minneapolis Tribune: 

Those who read Mr. Coolidge's speech 
on Roosevelt must have been struck by 
the thought that a new note has been 
struck in American political literature. 

"Great men," said Mr. Coolidge, 
"are the ambassadors of Providence, 
sent to reveal to their fellow-men their 
unknown selves. There is something 
about them better than anything they 



do or say. If measured at all, they are 
to be measured in the responsive action 
of what others do or say. They come 
and go, in part a mystery, in part the 
simplest of all experience, the compel- 
ling influence of truth. They leave no 
successor. The heritage of greatness 
descends to the people." 

Were that paragraph divorced from 
its authorship and read aloud before a 
group of intelligent readers, with a query 
appended as to its writer, the prob- 
abilities are that the answer would be 
"Emerson." Like many of the Coohdge 
paragraphs, it has a decidedly Emer- 
sonian ring. The epigrammatic turn, 
the pregnancy, the terseness, as well as 
the abstractness, all remind one very 
strongly of Emerson 

It is difficult to escape the feeling that 
somehow there is a mighty destiny 
ahead of our Vice-President-elect. On 
reflection, he grows constantly. The 
rigorous simplicity of his life, the robust 
Americanism of his philosophy, the 
coiu-ageous quality of his action, the 
distinction of his writing, the intensity 
of his powers of thought — all appeal 
strongly to the imagination. He seems 
the contemporary incarnation of all the 
best qualities which, for generations, 
have kept New England a dominant 
force in American life. In him one feels 
something of the rarity that one feels in 
such American immortals as Emerson 
and Lincoln. 

Calvin Coolidge is unmistakably a 
man to be watched for evidences of 
greatness. 

1896 

Halset M. Collins, Secretary, 
4 Charles St.. Cortland, N. Y. 

The Joint Securities Corporation has 
been formed in New York with John T. 
Pratt as its president. The new com- 



The Classes 



201 



pany deals in general securities and is 
located at 52 Broadway. 

Rev. Herbert A. Jump is one of the 
founders of a Kiwanis Club recently 
organized in Manchester, N. H. It is 
the first Kiwanis Club in New Hamp- 
shire. He has been elected a district 
trustee of the national Kiwanis organ- 
ization. 

Prof. William L. Corbin of Rollins 
College, Winter Park, Fla., has been 
receiving many favorable reviews in the 
press of a series of university extension 
lectiu-es on the modern drama which he 
has given before a number of different 
groups during the past winter. 

Roberts W^alker, Esq., is convalescing 
from a recent serious operation on the 
throat. 

Rev. Frank A. Lombard of the 
Doshisha, Kyoto, Japan, has just pub- 
lished an edition of "The Merchant of 
Venice." This is the fourth volume in 
his Memorial Edition of Shakespeare's 
plays for Japanese students. 

1897 

Dr. B. Kendall Emerson, Secretary, 
56 William St., Worcester, Mass. 
Edmund Mortimer Blake died of 
pneumonia in Oakland, Cal., January 
12, 1921, after an illness of five days. 
He was born in Taunton, Mass., 
August 13, 1874, the son of Percy M. 
and Phebe (Sheffield) Blake, and was 
educated in the public schools of Hyde 
Park, Amherst College, and Lawrence 
Scientific School, Cambridge, in 
each case graduating with honors. 
His work in Amherst was characterized 
by versatility which gave him distinc- 
tion among a large number of unusual 
men in college at that time. The four 
years of honor rating in scholarship 
earned him a Phi Beta Kappa key; in 
athletics he was class gymnasium cap- 



tain and varsity pitcher; in music he 
was apt in compositions for special oc- 
casions, and two of his later composi- 
tions, "Campus Dreams Waltz" and 
the college song "The Purple and the 
White," became popular; in public 
speaking he was assistant to Professor 
Frink during freshman year, and in all 
other matters of college welfare his in- 
dustry, vigor, loyalty, and achievements 
made him prominent. 

In his vocation of engineering, he was 
employed in the construction of the 
New York subways, and in the enlarge- 
ment of the Portland, Me., water sup- 
ply; and in his own private practice he 
built the water works at Westford, 
Hampton Beach, Wareham, and Wren- 
tham. In 1903, he married Clara Allen 
Drake of Cleveland, Ohio, who died in 
1907. He then went to Idaho, where he 
engaged in irrigation and water supply 
work until 1911, when he returned to 
Massachusetts and was placed by the 
State Board of Health in charge of the 
improvement of the Neponsit River 
meadows. Upon the completion of this 
important work, he entered the employ 
of Holbrook, Cabot and Rollins as 
superintendent of the construction of 
the dry dock at South Boston. From 
October, 1917, to July, 1918, he was 
manager of sub-contracts for the Aber- 
thaw Construction Company, Boston, 
Mass., on the $13,500,000 Naval De- 
stroyer Plant at Squantum, Mass. He 
had complete charge of about eighteen 
sub-contracts on this work, including 
all heavy foundations, bridges, dredg- 
ing, and all of the electrical, plumbing, 
compressed air, and fire extinguisher 
systems, the total cost of all this work 
approximating $6,000,000. From July, 
1918, to December, 1918, he was assist- 
ant manager for the Aberthaw Con- 
struction Company on the $29,000,000 
Liberty Shipyard started at Alameda, 



202 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Cal., for the Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion. This work was abandoned by the 
United States Shipping Board because 
the large expenditure involved was not 
considered necessary after the close of 
the European War. In December, 1918, 
Mr. Blake became production engineer 
for Charles R. McCormick & Company, 
San Francisco, wholesale manufacturers 
and shippers of Douglas fir lumber, 
railroad cross ties, and piling. This com- 
pany controls and operates three lumber 
mills, a shipbuilding plant, and creosot- 
ing plant on the Columbia River, ter- 
minal docks and yards at San Pedro 
and San Diego, Cal., and fifteen coast- 
wise steamers. The work of the produc- 
tion engineer, as its name signifies, was 
along the lines of increasing production 
and output in all branches of the com- 
pany. He was entrusted with all details 
in which the value of engineering train- 
ing is important, including the negotia- 
tions with the United States Railroad 
Administration, United States Ship- 
ping Board, and most of the railroad 
corporations on the Pacific Coast. As 
a member of the American Wood Pre- 
servers' Association, he had taken spe- 
cial interest in the creosoting business 
in connection with the St. Helens Creo- 
soting Co., St. Helens, Ore., and he was 
largely responsible for the wood-perfora- 
ting machine installed by his company 
in St. Helens. This system is likely to be 
used by all other creosoting companies 
in this country. 

In February, 1920, Mr. Blake de- 
livered an illustrated address before the 
National Association of Railroad Tie 
Producers on "The Production of Cross 
Ties on the Pacific Coast," and also an 
address before the A. W. P. A. on "The 
Perforating Process and its Mechanical 
Application." He was honored in being 
asked to present this paper because of 
the successful negotiations he had car- 



ried on during 1919 to eliminate royalty 
charges on a patent covering the per- 
forating of timber before preservative 
treatment, a difficulty which was seri- 
ously holding up the development of 
the art of preserving wood. In recogni- 
tion of such valuable services, he was 
elected president of the National Rail- 
road Tie Producers' Association. He 
was preparing for the 1921 convention 
in San Francisco when he was taken ill. 
During the year he started and edited 
the official organ of the association, the 
Cross Tie Bulletin; and he also contrib- 
uted articles to scientific magazines, 
delivered several addresses, and con- 
ducted conferences relating to his work. 

The American Lumberman of Jan- 
uary 22, 1921, says: "Mr Blake was a 
man of brilliant attainments. He was 
a successful organizer and inspired his 
associates to carry out ambitious plans 
for advancing the various industries in 
which he was interested." 

Thomas J. McEvoy. 

Memorial resolutions on the death of 
Edmund Mortimer Blake were adopted 
by the National Railroad Tie Produc- 
ers' Association at its third annual 
meeting in San Francisco on January 28, 
1921, and by the class of 1897. 

Another success has been scored by 
William Cary Duncan, whose latest 
musical comedy, "The Rose Girl," came 
to Broadway in early February and be- 
came an instant hit. Before coming to 
New York the show opened at Balti- 
more in January. For its metropolitan 
appearance it was chosen to open the 
new Ambassador Theatre. The Shu- 
berts are the producers. The book and 
lyrics are by Mr. Duncan. 

Last summer's expedition of the 
National Geographic Society to Alaska 
discovered a series of large lakes in the 
Katmai National Monument, the larg- 



The Classes 



203 



est of which, 30 miles long, has been 
named Grosvenor Lake after Gilbert 
Grosvenor, '97, president and editor-in- 
chief of the National Geographic Society. 
Grosvenor served as a member of the 
inaugural committee for the inaugura- 
tion of President Harding, and was 
unanimously elected vice-president of 
the Cosmos Club at the January meet- 
ing. 

Prof. Percy H. Boynton had an ar- 
ticle in the January Bookman on "The 
Alleged Depravity of Popular Taste." 

E. D. Holt is associated with the 
Seven Seas Oil Corporation, Room 2536, 
17 Battery Place, New York. 

A daughter, Martha Gushing, was 
born on February 1st to Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward T. Esty, of Worcester. Judge 
Esty is a trustee of Amherst. 

Austin Baxter Keep, at the request 
of the Quarterly, sends the following 
account of the 1897 dinner: 

In enthusiastic response to the unique 
"Committee of One Hundred" an- 
nouncement issued by James E. Dow- 
ney, local secretary, 28 members of the 
class attended the 24th annual dinner, 
held at the City Club, Boston, Saturday 
night, January 29th. Harry W. Conant, 
Esq., presided as toastmaster, flanked 
by class oflScers. The chief item of busi- 
ness was authorizing the lease of the 
Walker house for the class during the 
period of Commencement and the Cen- 
tennial Celebration at Amherst in June. 
The class also formally decided to hold 
its regular 25th reunion in June, 1922, 
such having been the preponderating 
consensus of opinion, with the expecta- 
tion of mustering a large percentage as 
well for the Centennial. 

A distinct tinge of solemnity, not to 
say sadness, was noticeable owing to 
the passing of several classmates since 



the last dinner, viz., W. C. Howland, 
O. T. Hyde, and, latest of all, E. M. 
Blake. Ned Blake was often on the 
reunion committee, acting class secre- 
tary at the time of his death, and always 
one of the most loyal members of the 
class and alumni. His death is an ir- 
reparable and seemingly untimely loss. 
G. M. Butler, his college roommate for 
several years, spoke personally of him 
as an undergraduate, while the silent 
piano was a mute and appealing wit- 
ness to his gifts of musical composition 
and good fellowship. He was the author 
of the celebrated "Campus Dreams 
Waltz," dedicated orginally to the class 
of '97, of the " Smith College Two Step," 
and of other music in honor of Amherst. 

Scarcely a letter of the many read 
from absent members but alluded sadly 
to this great general bereavement. 
Among them was one from the class 
secretary. Dr. Kendall Emerson, who 
has for the past two years been in active 
relief work with the Red Cross overseas. 
His letter was intensely interesting, 
dwelling on "the needy war orphans" 
in the devastated regions of Eiu-ope, and 
pleading for a "bridge of friendship" 
between America and Europe, "which 
politics and business have allowed to 
crumble." 

Outstanding also among the com- 
munications was an original poem from 
Crete, Neb., surprisingly modern in 
phraseology, in the handwriting of D. 
G. Burrage. 

Almost all the men present made 
brief remarks, including G. M. Converse 
and W. S. Ball, who hadn't attended a 
dinner for years, the former also bring- 
ing his eighteen-year old son. And last 
but not the least item to record was the 
presence of T. J. McEvoy, the only man 
who has attended every reunion of the 



204 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Those present were BaU, Bird, Bragg, 
Burnham, Butler, Campbell, Carnell, 
Conant, Converse, Downey, Elliot, 
Fay, H. G. Fletcher, R. S. Fletcher, 
Frisbie, C. M. Gates, A. T. Hawes, 
W. G. Hawes, Keep, Lane, McEvoy, 
McFarland, Maxwell, E. C. Morse, 
Obear, Patch, Rushmore, and Wilde. 

Austin Baxter Keep, Class Historian. 



Rev. Charles W. Merbiam, Secretary, 
201 College Ave., N. E., 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Henry Irving Everett died in Fox- 
boro, Mass., on February 15, 1921, of 
general paralysis. Mr. Everett was the 
son of Charles F. and Frances E. (Annis) 
Everett, and was born in Walpole, 
Mass., on June 17, 1877. He prepared 
for college at the Norwood High School, 
and after graduation was with the 
Boston Journal for a year or two and 
then became connected with the Plimp- 
ton Press at Norwood, being the manag- 
er of the printing department during 
the later part of his career. In 1920 he 
resigned because of ill health. 

Mr. Everett was prominent in Y. M. 
C. A. and Liberty Loan drives in Nor- 
wood, was secretary of the Norwood 
Board of Trade, member of the Board 
of Governors and the Norwood School 
Board, assistant superintendent of the 
Congregational Sunday School, member 
of the prudential committee of the Con- 
gregational Church, and a member of 
the Orient Lodge A. F. and A. N. 

He was married on June 8, 1911, to 
Miss Mabelle G., daughter of Charles 
W. Dadmun of Northampton, Mass., 
who survives him with one son, Dana 
W. Everett. 



Charles H. Cobb, Secretary, 

224 Albany St., Cambridge, Mass. 

No formal plans have been made for 
a class reunion at Amherst next June, 
but the indications are that quite a num- 
ber of the class will be back. 

Woodworth is supposed to start from 
California in a few days and pick up Joe 
Barr on the way. 

The secretary would appreciate ad- 
vice from any who are planning to at- 
tend, so that we can make any special 
arrangements to harmonize with the 
general celebration. 

F. H. Atwood has left the Millers 
Falls Company and his home in Green- 
field, Mass., and has moved to Bethle- 
hem, Pa., where he is general manager 
of a pharmaceutical house. His address 
is 10 Market Street. 

A new play, "The Hero," which was 
put on at the Longacre Theatre, New 
York City, in March, received many 
favorable press notices. Alexander 
Woolcott in the Times said: "The able 
writer aforesaid is archly identified on 
the program as Gilbert Emery, but as 
it was someone strongly resembling 
Emery Pottle who yielded to the pas- 
sionate demands for 'Author!' at the 
end of the first performance, it seems 
probable that there is no grim determi- 
nation to keep the identity secret." 
The play was put on for a series of mat- 
inee performances, but it proved such 
a valuable theatrical property that 
Sam H. Harris, the producer, decided 
at the end of the first week to withdraw 
it in order to save it for a regular run 
next season. 



Mrs. Bertha Isabel Merrill, wife of 
Clement Fessenden Merrill, '99, Super- 



The Classes 



205 



intendent of the Lehigh & Hudson River 
Railway Company, died suddenly of 
embohis at their home in Warwick N. Y. 
on February 24th. 

Mrs. Merrill was a daughter of Ed- 
ward A. and Esther G. Smith, of Win- 
chester, Mass., and was born at that 
place March 6, 1878. She is survived by 
her husband, Clement F. Merrill, and 
four children, William F., Esther, 
Clement F., Jr., and Edward Grosvenor. 
Also by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Ed- 
ward A. Smith, of Winchester, Ma^s., 
and one brother, Lowell R. Smith, '1.5, 
of Detroit, Mich. 

She was a graduate of Smith College, 
class of 1900, and had lived in Warwick 
since 1910. She was active in promoting 
civic welfare, served as secretary of 
Christ Church Guild, and during the 
war was untiring in her service for the 
Red Cross. Her interest in those in need 
or in trouble, her desire to help children 
in the community, and her personal 
work in the homes and in the schools, 
will be a beautiful memory to all those 
whose lives she touched. 

1900 

Walter A. Dyer, Secretary 
Amherst, Mass. 
Luke McLuke has discovered Walter 
L. Righter of Plainfield, N. J., and has 
nominated him for corresponding secre- 
tary of the Names Is Names Club. 

Vice-President Coolidge has ap- 
pointed as his private secretary, Edward 
T. Clark of Northampton. Mr. Clark 
is a former secretary of United States 
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, and more 
recently has been with a firm of con- 
tractors in Boston. 

A son, Richard Storer, was born to 
Dr. and Mrs. Edwin St. John Ward on 
October 9, 1920, in Beirut, Syria. This 
is their third son and fifth child. 



Ernest R. Hill, one of our missing 
men, has been located. His address is 
Grand Avenue, R. F. D. No. 3, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 

Clifford M. Crapo is with the Buick 
Motor Company's Baltimore branch. 
His address is 1024 North Charles Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Our roster of missing men still in- 
cludes the following: Brooks, David, 
E. L. Harris, Larkin, Curtis, DuVivier, 
Linnehan, and Peck. Anyone possessing 
information as to address, occupation, 
etc., will please communicate with the 
secretary. 

The Top-Notch Magazine is publish- 
ing a series of detective stories by Wal- 
ter A. Dyer, centering about the adven- 
tures of one Adaskin and his dog Ginger. 
These stories will probably appear later 
in book form. 

Frederick P. Young, 1900's efficient 
representative on the Amherst Centen- 
nial Gift Committee, and treasurer of 
the Alpha Chi Corporation of Chi Psi, 
has changed his job again. He is now with 
Harris, Forbes & Co., 58 William Street, 
New Y^ork City. 

Another classmate who has fallen for 
the lure of the gilt-edged bond is none 
other than our hitherto trustworthy 
treasurer, A. B. Franklin, Jr. Abe is now 
president of E. S. Chase & Co., Inc., 
bonds and investment securities. Third 
National Bank Building, Springfield, 
Mass. His residence address is 40 Eaton 
Street. 

According to the treasurer, the class 
is solvent! By what powerful manipu- 
lation of high finance this extraordin- 
ary state of things was brought about is 
not disclosed, but those who know 1900 
will doubtless suspect something mirac- 
ulous in the plain statement that all 
bills have been paid and that $29.31 



206 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



remains in the treasury. The class has 
no funded debt, no mortgage, no notes. 
It is not free from annual tax, however. 
The last reunion was financed ex post 
facto in an optimistic and melodramatic, 
but unbusinesslike manner. The pres- 
ent treasurer proposes to finance the 
next reunion in advance and is deter- 
minedly going after armual taxes of $5 
per capita. Penalties are being ar- 
ranged for failure to pay promptly. He 
who comes across first laughs best. 

Late bulletin! A prominent and usu- 
ually veracious member of the class has 
sent in a wireless dispatch to the efifect 
that he has seen and held converse with 
Byron H. Brooks. Of this fact he is 
apparently certain. He maintains that 
he has a distinct recollection of the 
facial features of said Brooks and is 
positive it could have been no other. 
Of the latest chapter in Brooks's history 
he is inclined to be less positive, passing 
it on as "the latest report" without 
vouchers. This is to the effect that 
Brooks spent some three years in Russia 
during the revolutionary period in the 
service of the American International 
Corporation. After this country entered 
the war he returned to America and 
spent some time in charge of certain Red 
Cross construction work at Plattsburg. 
Here, it is said, he armexed a wife. Later 
he went to London as special assistant 
to Vice-President Holbrook of the 
American International Corporation, 
whose untimely death brought that 
connection to a close. Brooks returned 
to this country in search of new oppor- 
tunities, leaving the aforesaid wife and 
two children temporarily in London, 
at 5 Broad Street Place. When inter- 
viewed. Brooks gave his New York 
address as the Hotel Biltmore. The 
editors hope that the next installment 
of this thrilling serial will be received in 



time for publication in the August num- 
ber. 

1901 
Harry H. Clutia, Secretary, 
100 William Street, New York City. 
Maurice L. Farrell, of F. S. Smithers 
and Company, New York City, has 
recently been appointed a member of 
the publicity committee of the Invest- 
ment Bankers' Association of America 
and also chairman of the publicity com- 
mittee of the American Acceptance 
Council. 

Dr. Preserved Smith's new book, 
"The Age of the Reformation," re- 
ceived a full page review of the more 
careful and scholarly sort in the New 
York Times for March 6th. 

E. W. Pelton of New Britain, Conn., 
has been elected president of the Con- 
necticut Association of Amherst Alumni. 

1902 

S. Bowles King, Secretary, 
672 Maple Ave., Winnetka, 111. 

Dr. Paul W. Kimball's present ad- 
dress is 137 Central St., Milton, N. H. 

Harry B. Taplin's family circle is 
larger by the addition of a daughter, 
Helen. 

Dayton and Frank Cook have been 
appointed co-editors of the 1902 Ac- 
celerator, in place of Stiles, absent on 
leave. Contributions and class news 
should be sent them at once, care of 
C. H. Dayton, 90 West St., New York, 

William H. Swift is associated with 
Gaston, Wigmore and Wagstaff, and 
has gone to China for them. 

C. I. Fairbanks has recovered from 
an accident in his saw mill which kept 
him in the hospital for several weeks. 

All members of the class who are 
planning to attend the Centennial in 
June, are urged so to report themselves. 



The Classss 



207 



not only to the committee at Amherst, 
but to the reunion committee, Frank 
A. Cook, chairman, 38 Park Row, New 
York City. 

R. R. Lane is with the Newark Eve- 
ning News at Newark, N. J. 

Matthew Van Siclen was associated 
with the War Minerals Relief Commis- 
sion during the war, at San Francisco. 
He is at present on the engineering 
staff of the United States Bureau of 
Mines, at Washington, D. C. 

W. V. Trevoy's present address is 
47 Pierreport St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

F. L. Boyden, principal of Deerfield 
Academy, has had his new dormitory 
in use this year, and the new school 
commons is also an accomplished fact. 
Phe Deerfield football team defeated 
all comers last fall. About 50 boys are 
at Deerfield this year, most of whom are 
preparing for college. A gymnasium is 
the next building on the program. 

1903 

Clifford P. Warren, Esq., Secretary, 
354 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Foster W. Stearns was nominated by 
President Wilson to be Secretary of 
Embassy, 3rd class, but in the hurry of 
idjournment the Senate failed to con- 
Brm the nomination. He has since been 
nominated to the same office by Presi- 
dent Harding, and the nomination has 
been confirmed by the Senate. At the 
time of this writing he has not been as- 
signed to an embassy, but is in the State 
Department at Washington. 

Joseph W. Hayes has left the teach- 
ng profession and is one of the firm of 
:he Scott Company, Dayton, Ohio, with 
jflBces in Chicago. 

The reunion committee of the class, 
jf which M. A. Rhodes is chairman, has 
mgaged for the Centennial in June a 
louse at 6 Kellogg Avenue, in Amherst. 



There will be accommodations for sev- 
eral couples and plenty of room in the 
house and barn for cots to accommodate 
single men. Any members of the class 
who have not received a communication 
on the subject from the reunion com- 
mittee, and who wish to be accommo- 
dated, should communicate with M. A. 
Rhodes, P. O. Box 614, Taunton, Mass. 
The class will hold a dinner Monday 
night of Centennial Week, either in 
Northampton or Holyoke. 

Albert W. Atwood, '03, of Princeton, 
N. J., spoke recently before the Men's 
Brotherhood of the South Congrega- 
tional Church, New Britain, Conn. 
The title of his talk was "Retail Costs 
— Why They are so High and What 
Can Be Done About It." D. L. Bart- 
lett, '04, is president of the club. 

1904 

Karl O. Thompson, Secretary, 
1306 Knowlton Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Harry E. Taylor has been appointed 
a member of the Board of Education of 
Montclair, N. J. 

F. E. Whitmore has removed from 
Toledo, Ohio, to New York City, where 
he is living at 3^20 West 108th St. 

R. C. Amidon's address is now 255 
Fourth Ave., New York City. 

A daughter, Shelia, was born to Dr. 
and Mrs. Heman B. Chase on March 25, 
1921. 

1905 

John B. O'Brien, Secretary, 
309 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The class held its regular dinner at 
Keene's English Chop House in New 
York City on Saturday evening, Feb- 
ruary 26th. Robert W. Pease came 
down from Northampton for the <linner 
and explained the Centennial plans. 
Although 1905 held a large and most 



208 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



successful reunion last June, it is thought 
that almost as many of the class will be 
back this year. The class dinner is to be 
held on Monday evening, June 20th, at 
the Highland Hotel in Springfield. 
Leslie R. Fort is chairman of the reunion 
committee. 

During the winter, George H. B. 
Green, Jr., delivered a series of sixteen 
lectures before the Boston Chapter of 
the American Institute of Banking on 
the general subject of taxation, touch- 
ing both Massachusetts and Federal, 
estate, income, capital stock, and excise 
taxes. He has been elected to the execu- 
tive committee of the Boston Amherst 
Alumni Association. 

The sympathy of the men of 1905 is 
extended to Octavus Knight in the loss 
of his youngest daughter, Margaret, 
last February. 

Some of the "lost, strayed or stolen" 
have been located. Verne W. Smith has 
been found at 21 Park Street, Union 
Springs, N. Y. P. A. Smith, who had not 
been heard from for years, is located at 
410 Fifth Street, Mandan, South 
Dakota. W. Wallace Wales is now at 
349 Pacific Electric Building, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

Can anyone furnish an address for 
Prescott Carticr, James McPhee, or 
Dr. Ralph H. Hewitt.'' Cartier came 
originally from Ashfield, Mass., left 
college at the end of sophomore year 
and has never been heard from since 
then. McPhee was last seen in Yellow- 
stone Park during the summer of 1907. 
Hewitt was in war service in France, 
attained the rank of captain, but since 
his return to the United States has 
dropped out of sight. Can anyone help? 
The secretary will greatly appreciate 
information. 



The Rev. William Cra^vford has been 
elected chaplain of the Thistle Lod^/e of 
Masons of Yonkers, N. Y., and pastoral 
counsellor of the Westchester County 
Christian Endeavor Union. 

George H. Boynton has been made 
manager of the safe deposit vaults of the 
New England Trust Company in Bos- 
ton and is one of the officials of the bank. 
During the winter he suffered a severe 
fracture of his right elbow. Record 
should be made here of the birth of a 
son, David Parker Boynton, to Mr. and 
Mrs. Boynton on Novenber 10, 1920. 

The firm of O'Keeffe and Lynch, Inc., 
marine insurance. New York City, an- 
nounce the election of Leslie R. Fort as 
treasurer of the company. 

Clinton Avenue Congregational 
Church in Brooklyn, one of the leading 
churches in the country, has elected the 
Rev. Fritz W. Baldwin as acting pastor, 
to succeed the Rev. Dr. Nehemiah 
Boynton, '79. Mr. Baldwin took charge 
of the church the first Sunday after 
Easter. He has been assistant pastor of 
the church since 1918. Within the first 
two weeks of his pastorate he has been 
confronted with the most important 
issue the church has faced since its 
founding, in regard to the rebuilding of 
the church. 

1906 

Robert C. Powell, Secretary, 
Moylan, Rose Valley, Penn. 
Mrs. Frederick S. Bale, wife of the 
president of 1906, died at her home in 
Englewood, N. J., on February 16th, 
after a long illness. During the five 
years she had lived in Englewood she 
had made a host of friends. Always 
interested in Amherst, and especially 
in the class of 1906, she will be greatly 
missed. 



The Classes 



209 



1907 

'^HAHLES P. Slocum, Secretary, 
109 Harvard St., Newi;onville, Mass. 
Allan Wyman was married on Satur- 
day, April 2, at Auburn, N. Y., to Miss 
Nancy M. Hunt, Smith College, 1917. 
Ralph T. Whitelaw. '02, Sidney T. 
Bixby, '05, and R. Jewett Jones, '07, 
were members of the wedding party. 

1908 

Harbt W. Zinsmaster, Secretary, 
Zinsmaster Bread Co., Duluth, Minn. 

Harold C. Keith has been elected 
president of the George B. Keith Com- 
pany, manufacturers of Walk-Over 
shoes, to succeed his father, the late 
George E. Keith, who founded the busi- 
ness. He thus becomes one of the young- 
est captains of industry in the state of 
Massachusetts. He has been treasurer 
of the company for the past two years, 
succeeding his brother, the late Eldon 
B. Keith, '02. At the last election Mr. 
Keith was chosen presidential elector 
on the Republican ticket. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ned R. Powley are the 
proud parents of a daughter, born Feb- 
ruary 21, 1921, at Los Angeles, Cal. 

J. H. Callahan has disposed of his 
interests in Pittsfield and is now located 
in New York City for the time being. 

Paul Welles has interested himself in 
the Monroe Calculating Machine Com- 
pany, Orange, N. J., in the capacity of 
secretary of this live company. 

Frank Warner reports from Shansi, 
China, that the Americans are doing 
great relief work. 

The secretary would like the ad- 
dresses of the following men: A. J. 
Lovelee, R. P. Stearns, Mike Danahey, 
and Lester Lewis. 

The class reunion is in charge of 
Charles Merrill, chairman, and Fred 



Smith, vice-chairman. Headquarters 
have been secured and arrangements 
made to feed and house the members 
and their families. 

Rev. Hugh W. Hubbard has returned 
with his family from Pao Ting Fu, 
China, to remain in this country till 
summer. He is living with his mother 
at 29 Lafayette Street, White Plains. 
N. Y. 



Donald D. McK.a.y, Secretary, 
6 AberdeenSt., Newton Highlands, Mass. 

Theodore Pratt has been elected a 
director of the Mechanics and Metals 
Bank of New York, to succeed his 
father, Charles M. Pratt, '79. 

It was the printers' fault or was it our 
poor handwriting? At any rate, it was 
John Harding Coyne, not John Harding 
Coyle, who began his preparation for 
Amherst on June 14, 1920. 

F. R. Gilpatric of the Stanley Works, 
New Britain, Conn., is treasurer of the 
National Association of OflBce Managers. 

1910 

George B. Burnett, Secretary, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Talbot F. Hamlin now plays a title 
role in the architectural firm of Murphy, 
McGill and Hamlin, formerly Murphy 
and Dana, 331 Madison Ave., New 
York City. He is also an instructor in 
history of ornament in the Columbia 
University School of Architecture. 

Horace S. Cragin is practising medi- 
cine at 99 Willow Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Walter D. Draper is a bond salesman 
for the Northern Trust Company of 
Chicago. His address is 50 S. LaSalle 
Street, Chicago, 111. 



210 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



L. Arnold Eadie has been made head 
of the service department of the Camp- 
bell Soup Company. His new address 
is 532A Cooper Street, Camden, N. J. 

Clarence Francis is manager of the 
cereal department of the Ralston Pu- 
rina Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Richard S. Ould has accepted the 
position of associate physicist in the 
Bureau of Standards, Radio Section, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Catherine Flint Bisbee, wife of 
Joseph B. Bisbee, Jr., died of pneu- 
monia at her home in Michigan City, 
Ind., on February 9, 1921. She was the 
daughter of the late John Wyman 
Flint and Katherine McGeoch Flint, 
and was born at Bellows Falls, Vt., on 
March 16, 1892. She was married on 
Thanksgiving Day, November 29, 1917. 
Although Mrs. Bisbee had lived in 
Michigan City but ten months, the 
place that she had made for herself in 
the community was evidenced by the 
kindness and devotion of hosts of friends 
during her brief illness and by their 
deep sorrow at her death. She leaves a 
daughter, Barbara, born in 1919, while 
her husband was stationed at Camp 
Merritt. 

A chapter on "Minor Humorists," 
by George F. Whicher, is included in 
Vol. 3 of the "Cambridge History of 
American Literature," published last 
February by G. P. Putnam's Sons and 
the Cambridge University Press. 

1911 

Dexter Wiieelock, Secretary, 
79 Pine St., New York City. 
Announcement is made of the engage- 
ment of Arthur S. Gormley and Miss 
Marguerite Fietsch of Oak Park, 111. 

Number one of the Leavener, "A 
College Bred Booster," in other words. 



the mouth organ of the class of 1911, 
has recently made its appearance. The 
editor is Prentice Abbott, 92 Fourth 
Street, Garden City, L. I. Propaganda 
for the class decermial and letters from 
the boys fill the four sheets. The secre- 
tary will mail a copy upon demand to 
any member of the class who has not 
yet received one. 

1912 

C. Francis Beatty, Secretary, 

963 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Beeman P. Sibley has been elected 
vice-president of the Autopiano Com- 
pany of New York City. 

Arthur B. Lyon has been appointed 
an instructor in medicine at Harvard 
Medical School. 

William Siegrist, Jr., and Miss 
Marion Elizabeth MacFarland were 
married in Brooklyn on Tuesday even- 
ning, March 29th. Frank D. Mulvihill, 
'12, acted as best man. 

George Carlin, 10 King Street, Cov- 
ent Garden, London, is working for the 
Edward Marshall Syndicate, Foreign 
News Service. He writes from France, 
"Am in the Alpes-Maritimes, where 
there are no industries except the indus- 
try of making oranges blossoms into 
perfume and the industry of catching 
fish to make the Bouillabaisse for M. 
Carlin's dinner." 

Harold W. Crandall is foreign textile 
buyer for Erlanger, Blumgart and Co., 
254 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Bartlett E. Gushing of Marion, Mass., 
graduated from Boston University Law 
School last June and has recently been 
admitted to the Massachusetts Bar. 

Harlan P. Freeman is teaching phy- 
sics at the Niagara Falls High School. 

Claude H. Hubbard is instructor in 
physical education at Western Reserve 
University, Cleveland, Ohio. 



The Classes 



211 



Daniel N. Miles of Livingston, Mont., 
reports that he has not seen an Amherst 
man for ten years, but expects to see a 
lot of them next June. He is general 
manager of A. W. Miles Co., merchants, 
county commissioner, president of the 
Park Ice and Storage Co., and director 
of a bank. 

Alfred B. Peacock has just signed up 
for another year in the Orient. He is 
the representative of the Paige Motor 
Car Co. of Detroit. 

President-Emeritus George Harris 
and Professor Walter P. Hall, now of 
the Princeton faculty, were elected 
honorary members of the class of 1912 
last fall. 

1913 

Lewis D. Stilwell, Secretary, 
13 W. Wheelock St., Hanover, N. H. 

H. C. Wilder is president and H. P. 
Swanton vice-president of a new corpor- 
ation. Pioneer Products, Inc., for the 
manufacture of patented soles and heels, 
with home oflBces in Malone, N. Y. 

Dr. Frank Babbott is now working 
in the Children's Dispensary at Johns 
Hopkins University. His home is in 
Roland Park, Baltimore. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey Benedict are 
now living at 361 State St., Flushing, 
N. Y. 

J. S. Moore has moved to 132 White 
St., Waverly, Mass. 

Patton and Robinson have gone into 
mercantile partnership in Medford, Ore., 
selling "everything for the farm." 

Wayland Brown is now secretary and 
treasurer of the Woodrich Construction 
Company in Minneapolis. 

M. B. Radding is practising medicine 
at 184 Joralemon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Philbin R. Orr of New York City, and 
Miss Florence Jew«tt, daughter of Mr. 



C. P. Jewett of Ishawa, Wyo., were 
married on Thursday, March 3rd. 

Henry S. Loomis has become adver- 
tising manager for Co^vperthv/aite and 
Son, the oldest furniture house in New 
York City. He has been with the Rufus 
French Advertising Co. 

John B. Stanchfield, Jr., has resigned 
as assistant district attorney in New 
York City to form the law firm of 
Stanchfield and McGuire, Edwin B. 
McGuire having also been an assistant 
district attorney. Mr. Stanchfield has 
been in charge of the Complaint Bureau. 

A son, Bartholomew J., 3rd, was born 
on March 6th to Mr. and Mrs. Bartho- 
lomew J. Connolly, Jr., of Brookline, 
Mass. 

John H. Klingenfeld has been ap- 
pointed advertising and sales promotion 
manager of the Baker Printing Com- 
pany of Newark, N. J. 

Bruce Stimetz is manager of the New 
Jersey Fire Equipment Company in 
Newark. 

Arthur Bond is president and general 
manager of the Bond Construction Co., 
962 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 

Jack Farwell has been elected a di- 
rector of the Land Bank of the State of 
New York. 

Just as the Quarterly goes to press 
news is received of the death late last 
fall of Robert M. Rising of Great Bar- 
rington, Mass., but no details were 
forthcoming. A daughter was born to 
Mrs. Rising on February 16th. 

1914 

RoswELL P. Young, Secretary, 
140 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 
Charles P. Rugg is teaching at the 
Shattuck School, Fairbault, Minn. 



212 Amherst Graduate 



Qu 



A R T E R L Y 



John O. Outwater is representing the 
United States Steel Products Company 
at Christiania, Norway. 

Kent Curtis is teaching and "stalk- 
ing alligators" at Captiva, Fla. 

Ralph M. Darrin is with the General 
Electric Company at Pittsfield, Mass. 

Marlor B. Seymour is special agent 
of the ^tna Fire Insurance Company 
with offices at 712 Union Trust Bldg., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

George E. Washburn is with the 
Library Bureau in Cleveland, Ohio. 
Address: 1907 East 66th Street. 

Charles W. Williams is with Thomp- 
son and Binger, Inc., 280 Madison Ave., 
New York City. 

Norman W. Averill is studying at the 
University of Pennsylvania, School of 
Architecture. 

"Mose" Firman is now "on his own" 
as president and general manager of the 
Continental Importing Company, Chi- 
cago. 

Guy Gundaker, now firmly estab-r 
lished as a certified public accountant, 
is keeping things straight in the big 
Hately Warehouse in Chicago. 

"Rosy" Rosenberg is president of the 
Standard-Cooper Varnish Company of 
Chicago. 

Alfred Mallon is back in Minneapolis 
with the Pillsbury Flour Mills Com- 
pany. 

Mr. and Mrs. John T. Carpenter 
announce the birth of a daughter on 
November 29, 1920. 

Mr. and Mrs. Colin Livingstone of 
Portland, Ore., announce the birth of a 
son, Dixon. 

It will assist the reunion committee 
in making plans for a class dinner if all 
those who expect to be present during 
the Centennial Celebration will let the 
secretary know which days they intend 



to be in Amherst. Because of the sexen- 
nial last June, the committee will make 
no elaborate arrangements unless the 
assured attendance of a sufficient num- 
ber warrants them. 

Charles H. Moulton has left the 
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Boston, 
to go with the Class Journal Co., 239 
West 39th St., New York City. He has 
charge of the company's Spanish edi- 
tions. 

L. B. De Veau, Jr., is associated with 
the Lansden Company, Inc., New York 
City. 

The New York Times Picture Sup- 
plement for Sunday, March 20, 1921, 
contained a photograph of Lieutenant 
Kenneth O. Shrewsbury receiving from 
Prince Casimar Lubomirski, ambas- 
sador from the Republic of Poland, the 
"Virtute Militairi" medal for valor in 
the Polish Aviation Service in the war 
with Russia. 

1915 

Louis F. Eaton, Secretary, 
210 Ash Street, Brockton, Mass. 
J. Brinkerhoff Tomlinson is engaged 
to Miss Elizabeth Fort Barrington, 
Wellesley, 1918. 

Wilson McDonald was advanced to 
the priesthood on December 23, by the 
Rt. Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, Bishop 
of Bethlehem (Pa.), in St. Thomas' 
Chapel. "Mac" is continuing as head 
master of the Choir School, and in addi- 
tion has been made a vicar of the Cathe- 
dral of St. John the Divine, assistant to 
the Dean. 

Henry S. Kingman will be married 
on June 3rd in Minneapolis to Miss 
Josephine ^^'oodward of the same city. 

Hampton Bonner is connected with 
the American Embassy in Stockholm, 
Sweden. 



Th 



LASSES 



213 



Robert N. Rockwell, for a long time 
among the missing members of the class, 
is located at Bridgeville, Pa., with the 
Scott Coal Company. He says he has 
two fine sons for Amherst. 

The class reunion committee is al- 
ready laying plans for Commencement. 
The members of the Committee are: 
Louis F. Eaton, chairman, Gordon R. 
Hall, John J. Atwater, Gerald Keith, 
Paul D. Weathers, John M. Gaus. 

A son, Richard Fairbanks Lyon, was 
born January 4, 1921, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Harold A. Lyon. 

A good letter from Kelly Smith in 
Rome says he's in there for three years. 
He has picked up a couple more degrees, 
B.S. in Architecture, and M.S. in Archi- 
tecture, as well as three more trick keys, 
among them Sigma Xi. Last year he 
was a junior designer in the office of 
McKim, Mead and White. Kelly says 
it's his observation that the more post- 
graduate schools one attends the finer 
the memory of Amherst becomes. 

John H. MacDonald has been ap- 
pointed general manager of the firm 
MacDonald, Rees & Co., of Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

1916 

Douglas D. Milne, Secretary, 
195 Broadway, New York City. 

The engagement of Mrs. Phyllis 
Powers of Los Angeles and Charles Bur- 
ton Ames has recently been announced. 

Mrs. Powers is the daughter of Mrs. 
K. G. Bleeker of Los Angeles, Cal.,and 
her husband was an old friend of Ames 
at the time he attended the Thatcher 
School in California. Mr. Powers died 
several years ago. The engagement of 
the couple is the culmination of an ac- 
quaintance which was founded at the 
time Burt was an instructor in Naval 



Air Service at San Diego during 1918. 
No definite date has been set for the 
wedding. Ames is at present in Ojai, 
Cal., but hopes to be located in San 
Francisco in the near future. 

A son, Edwin Mathews, was born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Merrill H. Boynton on 
March 18, 1921. 

Scott W. Buchanan and Miss Mildred 
D. Thomas, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Evan W. Thomas of Brockton, Mass., 
were married in February at the home 
of the bride's parents. Mrs. Buchanan 
is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan are at 
present teaching in the Amherst High 
School. 

The engagement of W. G. Avirett 
to Miss Helen B. Weiser, Smith, '21, has 
been announced. 



1917 

Robert M. Fisheh, Secretary, 
Indiana, Pa. 

G. Irving Baily has left Montgomery 
Ward Company and is with the Nono- 
tuck Silk Company in the Chicago 
office, of which B. H. Sampson, '10, is 
manager. 

Paul A. Jenkins has left the Public 
Utilities Corporation of Northern Illi- 
nois to become managing editor of the 
Detroit Motor Times, which is a new 
trade paper. One of the board of direc- 
tors of the paper is Henry Ford. 

J. J. M. Scandrett is teaching Latin at 
the Kiskiminetas Springs School. Ru- 
mor has it that contrary to custom the 
scholars rise when reciting before 
"Prof." Scandrett. 

Lloyd M. Clark has left the H. K. 
McCann Co. to enter the research de- 
partment of the Class Journal Co., 
239 West 39th St., New York City. 



214 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



1918 

Robert P. Kelset, Secretary, 

122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

The engagement of Miss Edith Tj'ler 
of Dorchester, Mass., Smith, '21, to Mr. 
J. P. Estey was recently announced. 

Miss Evelyn Marie Stratton and 
Gordon M. Curtis were married in New 
York City on January 15, 1921. 

C. H. Traver has been appointed 
assistant sales manager of the Parker 
Pen Company of Janes ville. Wis. 

R. F. Patton has been appointed 
assistant treasurer of the C. H. Simonds 
Company of Boston, Mass. 

W. C. Robinson, Jr., is cashier of the 
First National Bank of Winfield, Kan. 

C. G. Seamans is teaching French at 
the Kingswood Boys' School of Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

B. E. Thomas is president of the 
Thomas Furniture Company of Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

P. A. Chase has been serving as secre- 
tary of the Federal Court of Vermont. 

P. M. Breed is now with the New 
England Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

C. H. Durham is now an instructor 
at Deerfield Academy. 

J. K. Eilert is with the credit de- 
partment of the Manufacturers' Trust 
Company of New York. 

Gardner Jackson has gone into the 
newspaper business and is now on the 
staif of the Boston Globe. 

1919 

Walter K. Belknap, Secretary, 
Room 411, 425 Fifth Ave., 
New York City. 
Merrill Anderson was married quietly 
in New York City on Saturday, Feb- 
ruary 19th, to Miss Louise Gilman of 



Minneapolis. "Andy" is now with Ed- 
mund Bird Wilson, Inc., financial ad- 
vertisers. 

Robert W. Fairbank is doing mission- 
ary work with his father at the Ameri- 
can Marathi Mission, Vadala, via 
Vambori, Bombay, India. This is a 
work in which his family, Amherst men 
of many years' standing, have been 
interested for a long time. He writes 
that the work is full of interest, and that 
it keeps him on the jump all the time. 

Wilber E. Forbes was elected a coun- 
cilman of the city of Taunton, Mass., 
last fall. 

Perry B. Glann has an overall factory 
in Cortland, N. Y. 

Leavitt D. Hallock is the father of a 
daughter born last autumn. 

Willis H. McAllister was married on 
March 1st to Miss Helen Claudia Bro- 
sius of Pittsburgh. They are making 
their home at 79 Latta Avenue, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, where McAllister is with the 
Solar Metal Products Company. 

Ernest Mutschler holds the Boudinot 
Fellowship in history at Princeton, 
where he is engaged in his second year 
of graduate work. 

Bradbury B. Morse is with the Guar- 
anty Trust Company in New York City. 

Elhanan E. Golomb is not among the 
missing as recorded in our last issue. He 
is still at the Dropsie College of Hebrew 
and Cognate Languages in Philadelphia 
and holds a fellowship. He received his 
M.A. at the University of Pennsylvania 
last June. 

Stuart P. Snelling is a sales represen- 
tative for a manufacturing agent for 
electrical supplies in New York City. 

David S. Soliday is a bond salesman 
for Graham, Parsons and Company in 
Philadelphia. 



Th 



Classes 



215 



D. S. Otis, Secretary, 
Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass. 

Rufus D. C. Stevens is completing 
his college course at Dartmouth. 

John L. Briggs and Thomas H. Mc- 
Candless are both engaged in the oil 
business in the West — the former in 
Haskell, Okla., and the latter in Ingle- 
wood, Cal. John's address is Upper 
Nyack, N. Y., and Tom's, 331 Kelso St., 
Inglewood, Cal. 

W. Barrett Brown is a statistician 
with the Linde Air Products Co., 30 
East 42d St., New York City. 

Robert G. Stewart is in the manufac- 
turing and importing business in New 
York City. His address is 240 West 
104th Street. 

Theodore L. Buell is a bond salesman 
with Paine, Webber & Co., Boston, and 
lives at 47 Croton St., Wellesley Hills, 
Mass. 

Fred Kuesel is with the New York 
Telephone Co., and lives at 107 Decatiu- 
St., Brooklyn. 

William C. McFeely's address is 4208 
Massachusetts Ave., Irvington, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Charles B. Wilbar and Ralph E. 
Bailey are both with the National Shaw- 
mut Bank, Boston. 

J. Ronald Meikeljohn is an instructor 
of economics at Dartmouth. 

C. Carlton Reed is in the advertising 
department of the Curtis Publishing Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owen T. Reeves is a draughtsman 
with Reeves & Baillie, architects, Peo- 
ria, Dl. 

Andrew N. Clarke is with Fuller 
Brothers & Co., 139 Greenwich St., 
New York City. 

G. Prew Savoy and Joseph Karp are 
studying law at Harvard. The address 



of the former is 1599 Massachusetts 
Ave., and of the latter, 1721 Cambridge 
St., Cambridge, Mass. 

George V. D. Clarke is a salesman 
with the American Felt Co., Boston. 

W'inston T. Copeland is in the bank- 
ing business and lives in Suite 3, 143 
Massachusetts Ave., Boston 17. 

Millard S Darling is teaching at the 
Mitchell Military Boys' School, Bil- 
lerica, Mass. 

Arthur C. Sisson is with the firm of 
Cooper & Sisson, 73-81 Dyer St.. 
Providence, R. I. 

J. Hutton Hinch is studying law at 
Columbia. His address is 679 Tenth 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Leonard B. Hough is completing his 
college course at the University of 
Pennsylvania and is living at 132 Craig, 
U. of P. Dorms., Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. Norton Reusswig is with the Stitt- 
ville Canning Co., 41 Martin Bldg., 
Utica, N. Y. 

Eastburn R. Smith is attending the 
Yale Forestry School. His address is 
864 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. 

Clermont CartwTight, Jr., is with the 
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and is 
living at 46 Fir St., Akron, Ohio. 

Burton E. Hildebrandt is with the 
General Motors Acceptance Corpora- 
tion, Dallas, Texas. 

Charles R. Lowther is in the banking 
business in New York City and his ad- 
dress is 757 West End Avenue. 

Walton C. Allen is with Ginn & Co., 
and Porter Thompson with the Ameri- 
can Book Co., Boston. 

William K. Allison is in the adver- 
tising department of the H. K. McCann 
Co., 61 Broadway, New York City. 

Alden M. Bartlett is an ensign, 
U. S. N., stationed on the U. S. S. Mc- 
Lanahan, San Diego, Cal. 



216 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Frederick A. Parker is an instructor 
of mathematics at the West Virginia 
Collegiate Institute, Institute, W. Va. 

Daniel W. Jones is a bond salesman 
with Graham, Parsons & Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. His address is 1335 North 
12th St., Philadelphia. 

Donald I. Perry is with the firm of 
Bliss & Perry, shoe manufacturers, 
Newburyport, Mass. 

Dudley Bowers Cornell and Miss 
Doris Armstrong Pennington, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. John Pennington of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., were married in that 
city on December 29, 1920. M. R. Burr, 
'19, acted as one of the ushers. 

Charles H. Durham is in the special 
productions department of the Stanley 
Works, New Britain, Conn. 

William Cowles is in the steel depart- 



ment of the Stanley Works, New 
Britain, Conn. 

Marvin Lee Gray of Waverly, Va., 
was married to Miss Kathryn E. Moyer 
of Amsterdam, N. Y., on Saturday, 
February 5th. 

William H. Farwell of Montpelier, 
Vt., was recently elected secretary of 
the Boutwell, Milne & Varnum Co., 
owners and operators of extensive 
granite quarries. He has been actively 
connected with this company since his 
graduation last June. 

Alexander H. Mossman and Daniel 
Bliss are teaching at Beirut College, 
Beirut, Syria. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Gray Estey of 
Brattleboro, Vt., announce the birth of 
a daughter, Patricia Inez, on December 
28,1920. 



CONTENTS 



Historical Addresses Page 

One Hundred Years of Amherst. John M. Tyler . . 217 

Amherst in PubHc Affairs. Calvin Coolidge . . . 232 

Amherst in the Law. Arthur P. Rugg .... 238 

Amherst in Education. Frederick J. E. Woodbridge . 253 

Amherst in Science. James F. Kemp .... 264 

Amherst in Commercial Pursuits. Alexander D. Noyes 279 

Amherst in the Ministr3\ Nehemiah Boynton . . 288 

Amherst in Missions, Old and New. Robert A. Woods 299 

Educational Addresses 

The Problem of Education in England Today. Joh7i 

Holland Rose 309 

The Problem of Education in France Today. Jidien 

Jacques Chamjpenois .319 

Centennial Address 

What Does Amherst Hope to Be During the Next Hun- 
dred Years? Alexander Meiklejohn . . . 327 

The Story op the Centennial 

Preliminaries 348 

Program 349 

Exhibits 351 

Class Day 353 

Baccalaureate Sunday 354 

The Baccalaureate Sermon. Albert Parker Fitch . . 355 

The One Hundredth Commencement .... 361 
Presentation of Portraits. Dwight W. Morrow, William 

Ives Washburn, Charles A. Andrews .... 362 

Historical Exercises 366 

Presentation of Memorials of Henry Ward Beecher. 

Talcott Williams 368 

Presentation of the Moore-Humphrey Letters, William 

J. Holland 370 

The Alumni Smoker 376 

Educational Exercises 376 

The Alumni Parade and Ball Game .... 377 

The Lawn Fete and Pageant 378 

Centennial Exercises 380 

Presentation of a Portrait. Frederick H. Gillett . . 380 

Conferring of Honorary Degrees 381 

The Centennial Dinner 383 

After-Dinner Speeches. Speaker Gillett, Ambassador Jus- 

serand, Baro7i Kanda, Viscount Holmesdale . . 384 
Announcement of the Centennial Gift. Dwight W. 

Morrow 394 

Delegates 396 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Facing Page 

Frontispiece: Alma Mater 217 

Historical Day: Professor Tyler, Vice President Coolidge 233 

"Lord Jeff" Guest of Honor: President Meiklejohn, 

Viscount Holmesdale, Dean Olds 239 

Centennial Processions 253 

Centennial Gift and Centennial Celebration: Mr. 

Morrow, Professor Newlin 265 

The Alumni Parade: 1901, Assembly 279 

"Amherst Milestones": Citizens of Amherst Resolve to 

Found the College 289 

The Near and the Far East: Turkey, Japan . . 299 

The Centennial Pageant: Europe, America . . . 309 

Alma Mater, the Jester and the Athlete . . . 327 

"Amherst Milestones": The Indians, The First Settlers 361 

"Amherst Milestones": The French and Indian War, The 

Civil War 369 

The Alumni Parade: 1911, 1918 377 

At the Baseball Game : Vice President Coolidge, " Lord Jeff " 381 

The Centennial Dinner: Speaker Gillett, Ambassador 

Jusserand 385 

The Centennial Dinner: Baron Kanda, Viscount Holmes- 
dale 393 




ALMA MATER 



AMHERST 

GRADUATES' QUARTERLY 

VOL. X— AUGUST, 1921— NO. 4 



THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS OF AMHERST COLLEGE 

JOHN MASON TYLER, '73 

Professor Emeritus of Biology 

AMHERST COLLEGE came "of the people, by the people, 
for the people." It was autochthonous, springing from the 
soil of the Connecticut Valley. In the little county of Hamp- 
shire today you will find more colleges of liberal education and more 
students than in any other area of the same size and population in 
America or the world : and before the coming of the colleges it was 
dotted with academies. But these colleges are the children not so 
much of the little Hampshire County of today as of Old Hampshire 
County, occupying the Connecticut Valley and adjoining hills from 
the northern to the southern boundary of the state. Berkshire 
County had been set off from it not long before the Revolution. 

Its people were Puritans, the spirit of the Reformation incar- 
nated in an English brain and body. They loved to think of them- 
selves as a "chosen people," and in a sense they were "Israelites 
indeed." They were the most refractory, stiff-necked, rebellious 
stock which was ever fused and hammered and welded into the 
skeleton and sinews of a nation. They live in every one of you 
today whether you rejoice in it or deny it with an oath. They were 
men subject to Uke passions as we are. 

Aivund Massachusetts Bay the Puritans founded settlements 
where they could worship God, think and do as they would, and 
send everybody else to Rhode Island for his health and happiness. 
But some, notably the congregation of Rev. Mr. Hooker, chafed 
under this rule, emigrated to the Connecticut Valley, and founded 
Hartford and Springfield. During the years between 1640 and King 
Philip's War in 1675, Northampton, Hadley, and Deerfield were 



218 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

founded. The Valley was separated from the Bay by the wilder- 
ness incorporated as Worcester County in 1731. 

Only the most daring and resourceful were willing to risk their 
lives in so dangerous an enterprise in the forests of the frontier of 
the far west. The isolated valley developed independently. Boston 
and the Bay, the center of trade and commerce, of wealth and re- 
finement, of learning and government, remained more aristocratic 
and theological. The scattered people of the frontier valley, less 
polished and wealthy, but more individual, resourceful, and self- 
reliant, became thoroughly democratic and fairly religious. 

From 1700 to 1760 they held the thin line of forts along their 
northern border against the French and Indians swarming in from 
Ticonderoga and Lake Champlain. It was a life or death struggle, 
lasting more than sixty years. 

For the great campaign ending in 1760 Pitt recalled from the 
war in Germany Col. Jeffery Amherst, and made him major- 
general and commander-in-chief of the forces in America. Says 
Parkman: "He was energetic and resolute, somewhat cautious and 
slow, but with a bull-dog tenacity and grip." Immediately after the 
disastrous expedition of Abercrombie he formed the plan, bold to 
the verge of rashness, of bringing three separate armies hundreds 
of miles through the wilderness and uniting them in the face of the 
French army at Montreal. He was entirely successful. The French 
army surrendered. Canada became British, and New England was 
saved. Do you wonder that a little newly incorporated town in the 
heart of Old Hampshire County was proud to take the name of 
Amherst, and afterward to give it to her child, Amherst College? 
His representative. Viscount Holmesdale, is our honored guest 
today. We believe that with the family sword he has inherited the 
family spirit. The valley enjoyed fifteen years of peace and pros- 
perity, and rapid growth. Then came the years of the Revolution, 
and of the turmoil and confusion which followed it. 

Many had fallen in battle, in the long series of defeats in which 
they wore out their enemy. Far more had died of disease, exposure, 
and hardships. But even cripples and invalids returned with high 
hopes. Freedom had been won. They found their farms run down 
and buildings decayed; their families in debt; for the frontiersmen, 
as always, were as a class deep in debt to the more prosperous Bay. 
The veterans had received only part of their pay and that in worth- 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 219 

less paper. Creditors were harsh and clamorous. Writs and execu- 
tions fell thickand fast. The lawyers were the only people who had 
any money and they did a flourishing business. The courts had no 
mercy and justice was blind. The farmers' horses and cattle were 
taken to pay interest and costs of collection, for money they had 
none. There were no means of staying proceedings. In 1784 seven 
men were confined in Worcester County jail for debt; in 1785, 
eighty-six; in 1786, eighty. One of the most prominent leaders in 
the Revolution died within the precincts of the debtors' prison. 
The frontiersmen in the newer towns of the Connecticut Valley and 
elsewhere, accustomed to defend themselves and right their own 
wrongs, rose in their indignation to postpone the merciless action 
of the courts. They struck out blindly. They were in the wrong. 
But they have had no advocate or defender to tell their story of 
sufi^ering and provocation. We may yet see a society of the Descend- 
ants of the Shaysites, fully as respectable as the Daughters of the 
Revolution or the Sons of Colonial Dames. It will be a select body. 

The nineteenth century opened with a revival of religion and 
of education throughout the country, and with a swift and strong 
tide of prosperity. Such a change was sadly needed. During a 
century and a half of frontier life, they had grown coarser and 
ruder. Intemperance was alarmingly prevalent. Profanity and ob- 
scenity were all too common. A crude form of French infidelity was 
widespread and fashionable. Frontier vices had become deeply 
rooted. But the frontier virtues were many, exceedingly strong 
and virile. 

The experience and lesson of Shays' Rebellion and the condi- 
tions which had produced it had not been forgotten. They taught 
Massachusetts and the other colonies the necessity of a strong cen- 
tral government and hastened the framing and adoption of the 
Constitution. Every thoughtful man was alarmed and aroused by 
the threat of barbarism and mob-rule. The people were in danger 
of perishing through lack of vision. They must be instructed and 
inspired to think and to follow wise leaders. And these wise leaders 
and makers of better laws must be raised up, trained, and educated. 
Academies began to spring up soon after the Revolution, just as 
later Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were dotted with colleges as the 
frontier swung westward. 

The academy in New Salem was incorporated in 1795. Amherst 



220 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Academy, the mother of Amherst College, was founded in 1814, 
flourished from the start, and soon attracted pupils from all over 
the state, among them Mary Lyon, founder of Mount Holyoke 
College. In 1817 they appointed a committee to solicit subscrip- 
tions to found and endow a professorship of languages. The plan 
failed entirely to excite any public interest or support. Then Es- 
quire Fowler Dickinson said to Col. Graves: "Our plan is too small, 
we cannot found a single professorship : we will found a new college 
as good as any in New England." These two men were totally 
different in temperament and genius. They worked together ad- 
mirably. To the two in partnership nothing was impossible. It was 
the time of financial depression, almost panic in New England, 
which followed the war of 1812. They set to work to raise $50,000, 
a harder and more discouraging job than to raise $5,000,000 today. 
They raised it and immediately set out to raise $30,000 more. This 
was absolutely impossible; but they did it, though much of it was 
subscribed in single dollars or smaller sums. The subscription paper 
of the $50,000 charity fund deserves study. Twenty-eight minis- 
ters enjoying an average salary of perhaps $500 a year gave us 
almost $4,000. x\mherst, then a little village, gave $8,000, Sunder- 
land $3,500, Conway almost $2,000, Greenwich, Deerfield, and 
Granby about $1,000 apiece. Out of its poverty the county gave 
magnificently. Let us not forget our debt of honor to Old Hamp- 
shire County. 

They were resolved to found a college which could face and 
overcome the ignorance, barbarism, immorality, and irreligion 
which swept over the country after the Revolution. It should take 
the very best and strongest young men : educate, discipline, and train 
them; and send them out to be leaders and inspirers of the com- 
munity. It must and should be the best college in New England. 
It was a gigantic task, but their courage and faith never wavered. 
It was Esquire Dickinson and Col. Graves, two old Ironsides, 
against all the powers of darkness. And Old Hampshire County 
rose up and followed them into the fight. Both leaders, having 
made many rich, died in poverty, having given their time, their 
money, their all, and themselves to the college which is their 
monument. 

May 10, 1820, the trustees of Amherst Academy voted to raise 
the necessary funds and erect a suitable building, our present 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 221 

South College. "The committee marked out the ground for the 
site of the building, and invited the people of Amherst to contrib- 
ute labor and materials with provisions for the workmen." The 
town responded. The people turned out and worked mightily. 
Whatever could be contributed gratuitously was given freely with- 
out price. Donations of lime, sand, lumber, and of materials of all 
kinds poured in from all quarters. Pelham, always to the front, 
and Leverett, and a few from Belchertown helped faithfully. The 
title of the sermon at the laying of the cornerstone was "A Plea 
for a Miserable World." In May, 1821, Rev. Zephaniah Swift 
Moore was elected president. September 18, 1821, the new build- 
ing was dedicated, the president was inaugurated; the next day 
the College was opened and organized with forty-seven students. 

President Moore died in 1823 and was succeeded by President 
Humphrey. He inherited from President Moore the long, uphill, 
desperate fight for a charter. He fought it to a glorious finish which 
gained respect and friends for the College. The young college grew 
and waxed strong. It had 126 students in 1823; 259 in 1836, more 
than any other college in New England, except Yale. 

The decade between 1830 and 1840 was one of the most inter- 
esting in American history. It was a time of extraordinary material 
development leading up to the financial craze followed by the 
panic of 1837. Population had increased greatly and was surging 
westward. An American school of literature had arisen. Contribu- 
tions for missions were ten times as great as during the preceding 
decade. It saw the rise of total abstinence, of abolitionism, of 
Utopian communities; of every kind of 'ism and 'ology. President 
Hitchcock nearly died of his practice of "Grahamism" or some 
other wisely forgotten system of dietetics. They formed a Society 
for the Promotion of Peace, held a meeting, and chose an orator. 
But there was no peace for the wicked, still less for the righteous. 
It was the period of experiment and adventure, of faith in the per- 
fectibility of man, and even in his desire to be reformed and per- 
fected. It was followed by a revival of common sense and religion. 
May we have another! 

These conditions were reflected in the College. Some of you have 
heard of the radicalism in our colleges now. The average college 
of today is a stagnant pool of conservatism and reaction compared 
with Amherst College in 1835. Daylight saving was practised. 



222 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

In 1833 by petition of students and vote of faculty the time of 
morning prayers was fixed at 4.45 in summer and 5.45 in winter, and 
recitations followed immediately. 

President Humphrey was driving a large team of very wild 
horses. He was the last of the Puritans, a great, rugged soul who 
did not easily acknowledge defeat. Possibly he used the curb a 
little too hard, while President Hitchcock was afterward criticised 
for guiding with too loose a rein. The team kicked and balked 
obstinately. He recognized the need of a change of policy, resigned 
in the middle of the year, retired silently, like the gentleman which 
he always was, bearing on his shoulders the reproach for ills and 
misfortunes which he had not caused and which no man could have 
averted, content if he could carry them away from the college to 
which he was devoted. His magnanimity was even greater than 
his strength. Throughout his long life he returned frequently to be 
welcomed, honored, and loved by all his colleagues. President 
Hitchcock succeeded him in 1845. 

The College might have survived this turmoil. Its threatened 
destruction was its poverty or bankruptcy caused largely by over- 
rapid growth. People had become tired of the importunities of its 
agent. It could hardly pay the interest on its increasing debt. 
Many of its friends and some of its trustees were completely dis- 
couraged, and talked of changing it into a respectable academy. 

President Hitchcock and his colleagues accepted "a plan by 
which the income of the college, administered and appropriated by 
the permanent officers themselves, after deducting all necessary ex- 
penses, was divided among them as their salary and means of sup- 
port," with the understanding that the agency for soliciting con- 
tributions should be discontinued. In one word, they proposed to 
live on the income of a bankrupt concern. They cut expenses and 
stopped all leaks. During the collegiate year, 1846-7, the president 
received $550, and each professor at the rate of $440 a year. They 
all had families to support, some had houses not yet paid for. No 
one of these men ever left any record of the doubts, fears, trials, and 
hardships of these years. They always refused to talk of them. 
"They took their tongues between their teeth and starved," as 
Bishop F. D. Huntington, of the class of 1839, has said. Money be- 
gan to come in, given very largely in recognition of the personal 
character and scientific reputation of President Hitchcock, to- 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 223 

gether with his heroic labors and those of his colleagues. Before 
the end of two years more than $100,000 had been contributed, and 
the number of students had increased noticeably. Forty thousand 
dollars was given by Hon. Samuel Williston, of Easthampton, out 
of his small working capital, who thereby saved the College from 
ruin, "established it for the first time on a solid and enduring foun- 
dation," and attained to the "first three" on its roll of founders 
and saviors. Williston Hall perpetuates his name. When it is re- 
moved, shall he too be forgotten? God forbid. We must have a fit- 
ting tablet commemorating the deeds and character of the found- 
ers and saviors of the College. 

It is interesting to notice that at this time there were three men 
in Amherst College devoted to teaching science — President Hitch- 
cock, Professors Snell and Adams, besides lectures of Professor 
Shepard — nearly one-half of the full professorships. The scien- 
tific collections made by these men were the finest in the country, 
and made with almost no help from the Corporation. The teaching 
of science was unsurpassed in its day or later. 

In 1849, President Hitchcock urged his resignation upon the 
board of trustees. They refused to accept it, and sent him abroad 
for rest and change. He brought back a report on Schools of Agri- 
culture in Europe which was an important factor in founding and 
shaping the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which has just 
celebrated its semi-centennial, and which has made and is making 
a record for public leadership and service which we must work hard 
to equal; and beat if we can. 

These men were the opposite of narrow. They insisted upon 
having a college of the broadest culture and of hard training, 
fitting men to lead in every walk of life. They were always a little 
in advance of their age, never out of ear-shot of it. Their minds 
and vision were broad and deep. Their point of immediate attack 
was vital, "narrow as the front of a forlorn hope or as the sword of 
righteousness." One thing they did, but that v/as always a part of 
something great and fine. This spirit of high aim, unconquerable 
and irresistible courage and faith, bold adventure, and dour per- 
sistency, inherited from the founders, blazed up in 1845, and again 
in the Civil War. It inspired every one of our men in the trenches 
in France, turning his nerves to steel and steadying his gun. In 
the Civil War, 344 of the sons of Amherst entered the service. 



224 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

35 of these died. During the last war 35 are known to have died 
in the service, and the hst is probably still incomplete. "These all 
died in faith not having received the promises." 

The ideal education is still and must ever be what Heine has 
called an "apostolic succession of great souls, the only people in 
the world who ever see anything as it really is." Such spirit and 
traditions cannot die or be quenched. They outlast the everlasting 
hills and are more infectious than the germs of health. If any timid 
brother fears they may disappear, let him run quickly and see if 
the Pelham Hills have fallen down. If one man who has not cared 
to come back has been immune to them or lost them, "may the 
Lord have mercy on his soul," if he has any. Brothers, it is an 
overwhelming, perilous honor and responsibility to be a son of 
Amherst College. 

President Stearns, inaugurated in 1854, was a man of strength 
and wisdom whose personality radiated refinement, courtesy, and 
pure religion; whose shadow carried healing and saving power. 
This fine gentleman and genuine saint was the pioneer apostle of 
physical training, the need of which had long been dimly recognized. 
In my childhood there still lingered in the grove a few antiquated 
pieces of gymnastic apparatus, bars and rings, relics of a wave of 
enthusiasm which had spent its force and died. The physique and 
carriage of the average college student was anything but satisfac- 
tory. Dyspepsia was not uncommon. The finest scholars were often 
shallow-chested, and not a few died soon after graduation. The 
good old days when every student had his pile of wood behind the 
dormitory and plied axe and buck-saw vigorously were past and 
gone. President Stearns was the first to introduce in any American 
college a policy requiring regular stated gymnastic exercise of all 
students. He enlisted in its service The Doctor, our Doctor Hitch- 
cock. Words fail to describe him. No one of us will ever forget him. 

You can hardly imagine the battle which the Doctor had to 
fight and the ridicule poured upon him when he gave up the use of 
five and ten pound iron dumb bells in the daily exercise and re- 
placed them by wooden ones. It was considered most effeminate. 
Athletic training in those days usually consisted in reducing a boy 
to skin and bone and numerous boils. 

For a few years, around 1870, the College took up rowing, and in 
1872 won the intercollegiate race at Springfield. But it never be- 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 225 

came thoroughly estabhshed here. Round-ball gave place to base- 
ball about the time of the Civil War. Football followed soon, 
tennis much later. Of the possibilities of a Pratt Gymnasium and 
a Hitchcock Field, of swimming pool and skating rink, we never 
dreamed. 

Under the administration of President Stearns barbarism de- 
clined and finally became unfashionable in the college. But it had 
times of flourishing recrudescence. We, of the class of 1873, cer- 
tainly lacked culture, and may, perhaps, claim to have been the 
last of the barbarians. 

The last refuge of barbarism was East College, now departed, 
which stood just west of the present College Church. It had seen 
better days, but its hospitable doors stood open day and night. 
We entered with fearsome joy, not knowing what might befall us, 
or w^hat solid apparitions might suddenly flit down the stairs. Its 
walls reechoed with 

"The song of them that triumph 
The shout of them that feast." 

The feasts were very plain; "cakes and ale" were forbidden by law 
and far more by the slenderness of our purses. We almost equaled 
St. Fraiicis of Assisi in our "gift of high poverty." But cider and 
doughnuts were within our means and delectable viands. In com- 
munity of goods its inhabitants rivalled the early Christians. It 
harbored all sorts, kinds, and conditions of saints and sinners on 
terms of liberty, equality, and fraternity. There was some disorder, 
but never anarchy. Two mighty sons of Anak ruled with a firm 
hand. They became later distinguished university professors. It 
sent out great teachers and preachers, learned judges of command- 
ing dignity, missionaries orthodox and otherwise, and at least one 
Congressman. For its windows looked out on the rising sun and 
the everlasting hills. But it was a relief as well as a surprise to me 
when I first met the class of 1881 to find them gentlemen who 
treated me as if I w^ere one. They were not great biologists, mea 
maxima culpa, but they sang divinely on all occasions. 

The first fraternity house was purchased by Alpha Delta Phi 
in 1874. The other fraternities rapidly followed their good example. 
The refining influences and the increased responsibilities involved 
in possessing a home, the importance of the good name of the 



226 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

house, and the higher standards of living have had a most whole- 
some and elevating effect on the College. The old houses have been 
largely replaced by new buildings of excellent architecture, an 
ornament to the town. I have no space to even catalogue the new 
buildings erected on the Campus during the last fifty years. 

We may well be proud of the growth of student responsibility 
and self-government in our American colleges during the last fifty 
years. The student is on his honor, recognizes it, and acts accord- 
ingly. This results not only in self-control and self-direction, but 
in an "inward strength," the eyKpareta of the wise old Greeks, 
whose value is inestimable. He is a gentleman by instinct and set 
purpose, though often a boyish one. The average student today is 
far cleaner, sounder, better than he used to be. The coarseness and 
rudeness of action, speech, and fiber which disgraced many a well- 
meaning student of my day has been sloughed off. If morality con- 
sists essentially in the discovery and practice of right relations 
between persons, of gentlemanliness and honor between man and 
man, then the tone of morality has improved vastly since I was 
in college. 

There is more genuine religion in the student body than there 
was fifty years ago and of a better kind. It is less formal, more 
natural and vital, their own, not learned or borrowed. A Christian 
is at least expected to be a gentleman toward God and toward man. 

Ask not why the former days were better than these. They 
were better in some respects, and much worse in others. 

"The old order changeth, yielding place to new, 
And God fulfills himself in many ways. 
Lest one good custom should corrupt the v^'orld." 

For the passing of some things we may well be grateful; I will not 
mention them. 

The course of study in my day was admirably suited to its 
time. In freshman year we had Greek, Latin, and mathematics 
five hours every week throughout the year, with declamations and 
essays for "busy work." Sophomores were regarded as barbarians 
into whom culture was to be hammered. They certainly hammered 
us unmercifully for the good of our souls and minds. We had more 
Latin and Greek in alternate terms five or six times a week. Mathe- 
matics still persisted as calculus, a land of darkness, yea, of thick 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 227 

darkness as the shadow of death. In the afternoon we were 
inducted into chemistry by Professor Harris. Some of you remem- 
ber him. His recitations were a joy to every one except the unlucky 
wight who was trying to recite. In spring term the day began to 
dawn and hope revived. Junior year was a pleasant period of 
peace. Ancient languages persisted, we had some modern ones, and 
a very few electives, physics replaced mathematics. In senior year 
we studied Dr. Hickok's "Empirical Psychology," some may have 
attained to his "Rational Psychology." The system was inter- 
preted to us by a great master. Professor (afterward President) 
Julius H. Seelye. Many aspired to be philosophers; a few arrived. 
Professor Garman, who gained as strong a hold and left as deep an 
impression on the minds and hearts of his classes as any teacher 
in America, was graduated in 1872. We said of him that no one 
knew when he lit his lamp in the early morning or turned it out at 
night. In President Seelye's classes even poor groveling embryo 
scientists had their eyes partially opened to the light and saw men 
as trees walking. 

We had great teachers, men who were all aflame with loyalty, 
first to the College, then to the subject which they taught. Every 
one of them believed with his whole heart in the absolute necessity 
of a clear understanding and high appreciation of his study to the 
salvation of our souls. It was a part of his humanity and religion, 
and they were very human men. They labored with us and belab- 
ored us to make our calling and election sure. If we could not feel in 
our minds and hearts the beauty of the classics, the dignity of 
mathematics, the glory of divine philosophy, what could Heaven 
signify to us.'' We would feel more at home and less unhappy some- 
where else. Three of the foundation stones of all their teaching were 
the infinite value of a human soul and life, the fact that man's 
chief end was not purely economic, and that there was an absolute 
standard of values by which we must reckon. On occasion and 
frequently they all bubbled over with keen wit and sly humor. You 
remember Professor Crowell, how he stood at his post in the dark- 
ness like the Roman sentinel at the gate of Pompeii. Which did he 
enjoy the more, a fine passage in Tacitus or a good joke? He en- 
couraged us to joke back, and we invariably got the worst of it, and 
enjoyed our discomfiture. We loved these men, we could not 
help it. 



228 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

It was a system whose disciplinary value has never been sur- 
passed, if equalled. It was extreme and incomplete. We knew 
nothing of economics or sociology or of our system of government. 
We studied Shaw's "English Literature," read verj'' little, and 
remained illiterate. The department of history was not opened 
until 1874. The classics dominated, elevated, and narrowed the 
whole curriculum. Today we are paying for our neglect of the 
classics by sinking and wallowing in the slough of flabby philistinism. 
Mathematics still retains its hold in Amherst partly because of its 
practical usefulness; more, in my humble opinion, because Professor 
Olds — Chairman, Dean, Acting-President Olds, "Our Georgie," call 
him whatever you like best — has always taught even more genuine 
biology of the best kind than of mathematics, though he obsti- 
nately denies this fact. " Too much of nothing," even of the best, is 
the only rule for a well-proportioned symmetrical education. But 
where and how are w^e to draw the line of compromise, for compro- 
mise we must. The system must be solidly realistic, infused and 
vitalized with the highest idealism. This is obvious and axiomatic, 
mere truism; but it does not make the solution of the problem any 
less difBcult. 

We are in danger of being buried and smothered under an 
avalanche of facts and learning, the rawest material of knowledge 
and education, tons of pitchblende containing a few grains of 
radium. Shall we encourage every immature boy to specialize along 
a narrow groove, and end as one of Zarathustra's "reversed crip- 
ples"; all eye or ear, or more probably all mouth or tongue, to the 
destruction of mind and heart? Amherst College will never agree 
to that. 

The course outlined in the catalogues of 1910-1912 presents 
clearly what seems a very wise course somewhat as follows : Every 
freshman is expected to take Greek or Latin or both, mathematics, 
and English. Thus the solid disciplinary foundation is retained. 
He chooses also one science and a modern language. There is a 
variety. In the remaining three years he completed originally three 
"majors" or subjects studied for six consecutive, sometimes over- 
lapping, semester courses. The number of majors required has been 
reduced now to two and the minor dropped. No course pursued less 
than a year counts toward a degree. This scheme seems to avoid 
both narrow specialization and dissipation of effort. It requires 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 229 

that every student shall gain as thorough a knowledge of at least two 
subjects of his own choice as can be gained in three years. It has the 
advantages of intensive effort. Our Instruction Committee seems 
to me to have marked out an excellent median line of discipline and 
investigation along which we are still experimenting in matters of 
detail. We have not yet fully attained, but we press toward a 
wisely selected mark and, as I believe, toward a prize. 

What is the best test of a system of education? Is it not the num- 
ber of strong men, the man -power, which it produces? Let us 
apply the test. When in the struggle for truth, justice, and right an 
old graduate goes down in the front rank where the hardest blows 
are given and received, two or more young Amherst men "of a 
very stout countenance" leap forward to more than fill his place. 
We are holding our own. But it is not enough that the enemy 
"shall not pass." The offensive is on, outflanking every one of his 
salients from Verdun to the sea. The order is "Advance the whole 
line." The people out of their poverty founded Amherst College to 
furnish them leaders lest they "perish for lack of vision." We must 
find and train these leaders and pay our debt of honor. But ideal- 
ism, courage, elan, and endurance are not enough for our young 
champions today. In our struggle with blindness of heart and mind, 
with materialism, philistinism, anarchy, unmorality, immorality, 
and irreligion, the sling stones of the most athletic David would 
bound like tennis balls from the heads of our political leaders and 
Congressmen — pardon the tautology. Our champion must be a 
sharpshooter armed with the best repeating rifle aimed straight at 
their only vital spot, their "wind." 

We must train a great many more ministers and teachers, for 
they — not you lawyers, business men, and economists — are the 
real and immediate teachers and leaders of the people. They are the 
rock against which barbarism breaks and falls back, and against 
which the gates of Hell shall not prevail. They remind me of 
Kipling's "Sergeant Whatisname," who trained Egyptian Fellahin 
into a British Army. 

"But he did it on the cheap and on the quiet. 
And he's not allowed to forward any claim — 
Though he drilled a black man white, though he made 
a mummy fight, 



230 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



He will still continue Sergeant Whatisname — 
Private, Corporal, Colour-Sergeant, and Instructor — 
But the everlasting miracle's the same!" 

You business men control most of the material wealth of this 
country and as a rule use it wisely and generously. Every year you 
absorb in your offices two-thirds of all our graduates, many of 
whom are exactly the men whom we have selected to mould and 
train our youth as heads and leaders of our schools, colleges, uni- 
versities, and other institutions of power. We cannot compete with 
you in attracting and securing their services. Yet today leaders 
and educators are of far greater vital importance and value to this 
country than the most rapid and successful exploitation of its 
resources or accumulation of its wealth. Is it not your duty to 
inspire your children and the young people of your acquaintance 
to become men and women of leisure in Aristotle's sense of the 
word, the hardest working men in the world. They are the political, 
social, moral, and religious leaders and commanders of the people, 
whose joy and enthusiasm in their grand adventure cannot be 
quenched by disappointment, ingratitude, or apparent failure; and 
who can lead this people into the full possession and wise enjoy- 
ment of the "promises sworn unto our fathers." 

The presiding officers of both houses of Congress today are 
Amherst men. But what are two among so many.? We teachers and 
ministers must remain mostly "Corporals and Color-Sergeants." 
We must have colonels, generals, and staff-officers. Where is the 
West Point to train them.? Why not Amherst College, like "fertile 
Phthia, mother of heroes.?" Do you say it is an impossible dream.^ 
Remember the philosophy of Esquire Dickinson, Col. Graves, and 
the founders: "It is impossible. No one else will do it. It must be 
done. We will do it. " 

During the past year, classes in sociology, economics, and other 
branches have been started among the working men and women of 
Sprin? eld and Holyoke. The work is still an experiment, but the 
success of the first year has been sufficient to make the venture 
very promising. It will be improved and enlarged next year. 
We are making a beginning here in the Valley, to whose people our 
debt is so great. It is a Avork for which the College was founded. 



The First Hundred Years of Amherst College 231 

May the next historian record its full success in something larger 
and better than we have dreamed. 

We are five thousand Amherst alumni "keeping up a stout 
heart and trusting one another up and down our firm ranks," well 
organized, led by our modest, quiet, clear-headed, magnetic com- 
mander. Secretary Allis. May he live forever. In our drive and 
Centennial Gift of $3,000,000, and in our percentage of givers, we 
have beaten the record. To us, as to our fathers, an impossibility 
is a challenge. In this hard, ceaseless struggle may the peace and 
beauty of our mother valley abide in all our souls. "Beautiful for 
situation, the joy of the whole earth is Amherst on the sides of the 
north — and the south and the east and the west — the College of 
the great King." 

President Meiklejohn will tell you about the College of the 
future. I must not trespass on his field. But I cannot resist the 
temptation to read a few lines from his preface to our last catalogue. 
You must read it all. He says: "I pledge anew our loyalty to the 
men whose footsteps we follow. So far as we can bring it about the 
young people of our generation shall know themselves, shall know 
their fellows, shall think their way into the common life of their 
people, and by their thought shall illumine and direct it. If we are 
not pledged to that, then we have deserted the old standards; we 
are apostates from the faith. We pledge ourselves forever to the 
study of human living in order that living may be better done." 



232 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



AMHERST IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS 

CALVIN COOLIDGE, '95 

Vice President of the United States 

NO ONE can make even a casual study of Amherst College 
without observmg at once both the convergence of in- 
fluences which have come here and the divergence of in- 
fluences which have gone from here. The history of the world has 
been the history of thought. There is necessarily represented in an 
institution of liberal culture the threads of human thought running 
back to the dawn of history. This season Amherst College cele- 
brates an existence of one hundred years, a solid and substantial 
accomplishment, but by no means the main foundation for her 
fame, which is marked not by the days which pass away, but by 
adherence to the truth which remains forever. 

It is not the fact that Colonel Rufus Graves and Squire Samuel 
Fowler Dickinson and their associates, a little more than a century 
ago, determined to establish an institution of learning in the 
Connecticut Valley that makes this occasion so significant, but 
rather the purpose for which they wrought, a purpose which con- 
nects their self-sacrificing effort and the institution which they 
founded with the earliest march of progress and the great ideals 
which have made civilization. The domain of Amherst College 
cannot be set out by metes and bounds, nor can its location be 
limited to buildings and equipment, nor can that which it repre- 
sents be circumscribed within a century. The domain of the Col- 
lege is boundless, the influences which brought it into being are 
eternal, the purpose of its founding was to oppose evil and support 
righteousness. 

The provision for this purpose was very broad. The founders 
realized that the means of accomplishing it might change. They 
therefore provided for amendment to their original constitution 
of association, keeping always in view that the dominant purpose 
for which they had provided was, as they stated, "not to deviate 
from the original objc ct of civilizing and evangelizing the \.'orld by 
the classical education of indigent young men of piety and talent." 




Professor John M. Tyler 





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Vice President Caiaen (Oc 
HISTORICAL DAY 



Amherst in Public Affairs 233 

They dedicated themselves in the broadest way to a pubhc purpose 
and pledged their institution to a universal public service. In their 
thought and action they were at once the successors and the pro- 
genitors of public men. 

Not all public men have had the advantage of personal contact 
with higher institutions of learning. But the actions and accom- 
plishments of those who are entitled to be called public men have 
everywhere and at all times been almost entirely under the in- 
fluence, directly or indirectly, of the ideals which come from insti- 
tutions of higher learning. To comprehend what kind of public 
men it was expected Amherst College might produce, it is necessary 
to observe the type of men who founded it. The practical and 
financial side of its origin resulted from the business ability of such 
men as Colonel Graves and Squire Dickinson, acting under the 
legal advice of such counsel as Jeremiah Mason and Daniel Web- 
ster. But the inspiration for the College came from the religious 
life of the Connecticut Valley, represented both by the clergy and 
the laity. They held to a literal meaning of the Scriptures, so that 
that portion of the community which opposed them was referred 
to as Sodom, while that which supported them was Mount Zion. 
They no doubt expected to produce the kind of public men which 
fill Bible history. To them Abraham and Moses and Paul were 
very present realities. They sought for public mer who might 
stand where these men stood. Thei e is a significance in this deeper 
than what they may have thought. 

The clear and explicit object of their efforts was "civilizing and 
evangelizing the world." Their hope of success lay in organizing 
an institution which should be in harmony with those influences 
which have been advancing civilization throughout all the ages. 
It is beyond question that this is represented by what we call the 
civilization of the western world. It is no reflection upon others to 
say that in virility, in humanity, and in accomplishment this has 
surpassed that which has anywhere else appeared. 

It is impossible to locate the beginning of civilization, or assign 
to it a date, but there has been a certain tendency running through 
western civilization which we can trace back with certainty to the 
Babylonian period. From this source there has come down to us 
a code of laws representing decisions of courts and accepted cus- 
toms estimated to be more than four thousand years old. It was 



234 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

from the Babylonian city of Ur that Abraham came, and scholars 
have pointed out the remarkable parallel between the religious 
ritual of Babylonia and Israel, which marks Jewish civilization as 
a continuation of that of ancient Babylon. So strong was this that 
the generations in Egypt, and the Egyptian scholarship of Moses 
did not change its course. To this world-old influence, monotheis- 
tic through and through, marked by a virility which has preserved 
it even unto this day, there was added the enlightened philosophy 
of the Greeks, very largely through the influence of the Apostle 
Paul. Characteristic of this civilization is its spiritual insight. 
Under its inspiration there has been produced the enlightenment of 
the western world. 

How this differs from the standards of ancient Carthage and 
Egypt, where progress passed away, leaving scarcely anything 
which casts an influence over the life and actions of the world of 
the present time! These lands, once rich, with a material pros- 
perity, carrying on a foreign commerce, maintaining fleets and 
armies, now make no appeal to the mind or heart of man, while the 
culture of Babylon, of Israel, of Greece and Rome, their literature, 
their teachings, enter into the daily life of a civilization which is 
extending itself over the earth. It was not with the material, 
but with the spiritual that the founders of Amherst College sought 
to civilize and evangelize the world. For this purpose, they have 
established an institution to work in harmony with those great 
spiritual forces which alone have created and supported an endur- 
ing form of human progress. 

There is scarcely time to take up in detail the services which have 
been performed by public men trained in this institution, in the 
promotion of this great purpose. Their efforts reach into every 
field of public endeavor and cover every range of public activities.^ 

The fundamental purpose of this institution is to teach men 
spiritual values. The progress of this effort measures the progress 
of civilization. There is no other principle that men of the present 
day all over the world need to keep so constantly in mind. The 
earth has no other reliance. 

Individuals and nations are at the present time aflBicted with 



' At this point Mr. Coolidge read a list of Amherst graduates who have held important posi- 
tions in public life. So many additions have since been made to the list as read that it seems 
wise to withhold its publication until the Record of the Alumni, now in preparation, 
can be completed and a definitive list of Amherst men in public affairs compiled. — Editob. 



Amherst in Public Affairs 235 

great burdens. As a result of the readjustment which has taken 
place during the last year, men find their resources very much 
impaired, with no corresponding reduction of their expenses. 
Oftentimes both capital and credit have been entirely exhausted. 
The nations of the earth are struggling under a great load of debt 
incurred and resulting from the war. The raising of sufficient 
revenues to meet the costs of government is not only a grievous 
burden, but in some cases, has not yet been found possible. 

The question that confronts us on every hand, whether in the 
consideration of private or public interests, is how these burdens 
can be borne. What motive can there be for nations to meet this 
great cost of taxation or for individuals to discharge their great 
obligations. f* What promise, what hope can secure this end.'* The 
usual expectation of the rewards of prosperity are scarcely strong 
enough to meet the present requirements. The sacrifices to be 
made in payment of taxation and the readjustment of economic 
conditions are very great. It can scarcely be said that they should 
be borne solely in order to secure a resulting prosperity. 

The world must look for something more than prosperity in the 
present situation. The individual must look for something more 
than wages and profits for his compensation. Unless this satisfac- 
tion can be found by proceeding in the way of right and truth and 
justice, the search for it will fail. The material things of life cannot 
stand alone. Unless they are sustained by the spiritual things of 
life, they are not sustained at all. The work of the world will not 
be done unless it is done from a motive of righteousness. 

This brings us back squarely to the foundation of western civili- 
zation which asks not whether it will pay, but whether it is right. 
Throughout its existence this College has supported this principle 
as the "civilizing and evangelizing" influence of the world. This 
has been the final result of all classroom activity. The courses in 
history have taught it as the story of progress of the human race. 
The studies in the literature of ancient peoples have pointed to the 
same conclusion. The teachings in philosophy have demonstrated 
the soundness of this position viewed in the light of reason. Her 
public men have carried and must continue to carry it into public 
life. There is no other foundation for the maintenance and support 
of a peaceful relationship between individuals or among nations. 
There has been a tendency of late years for institutions of learn- 



236 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

ing to drop away from this position and set up other standards of 
life. There has been a tendency to teach methods of acquisition 
rather than methods of righteousness. There is danger that the 
emphasis may be put in the wrong place; that the essential may be 
disregarded in the pursuit of the accidental. From this has come 
the practice of relying too much on government action, of believing 
that in some way it could take over and bear the burdens of exist- 
ence which rest upon the individual. It would be possible to make 
a privileged class of a few, but that is un-American and foreign to 
every instinct of our people. It is impossible to make a priviliged 
class of everybody. 

One of the results of attempting to adopt this principle has been 
to bring governments into contempt. It has been assumed that 
they could perform the impossible. In both cases when they have 
refused to attempt it or when they have attempted it and failed, 
they have been alike open to censure and condemnation. There 
are a few fundamental things which governments have been estab- 
lished to secure. They have never been better uefined than in the 
Declaration of Independence, which alike proclaims rights and 
imposes obligations. The main defect of those from whose teach- 
ings our institutions are in danger, lies in the fact that they holdJLo 
the belief that rights can be preserved when obligations are dis- 
regarded. It was to combat this half -thought-out theory of human 
relationship that men established Amherst College and determined 
upon a method of securing their purpose. These men had Shays' 
Rebellion fresh in mind. They likewise had felt the pinch which 
New England had suffered during the War of 1812. They were 
seeking for a remedy that would relieve the disorder of the times. 
They sought it by providing an institution which was to send forth 
men bearing testimony to the truth. 

We can see in retrospect how truly American this purpose was, 
how it runs back to the spirit of the Mayflower, how it harmonizes 
with the great civilizing influences of the ages. There are the in- 
fluences which open lines of transportation by land and water, 
which establish commerce, build libraries, provide banking facili- 
ties, declare righteous laws, and set up tribunals for the adminis- 
tration of justice. All this, we know, has been accomplished many 
times and in many places through all the history that runs from 
Babylonia to America. But these results have been accomplished. 



Amherst in Public Affairs 237 

never by the naked assertion of rights, but ever by the courageous 
observation of obligations. 

It is in this teaching of Amherst College that now lies the main 
hope of the world. Individual obligations are heavy, but they can 
be met; national obligations are heavy, but they too can be met. 
The power exists for the reestablishment of the world, but it will 
not be called into action by mere appeal to the desire for gain. 
The public men of today must make their appeal as Colonel Graves 
and Squire Dickinson and their associates made theirs, and as they 
look to this hill they will be fortified by the vision of what a hun- 
dred years have vvTought, and by the knowledge that the solemn 
purpose which they here recognized and declared still goes on 
"civilizing and evangelizing the world." 



238 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



AMHERST IN THE LAW 

ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, '83 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts 

THE law has been variously described as the uttered con- 
science of the state, as the embodiment of the moral senti- 
ment of the people, as the transcript of the common ethical 
conceptions of conduct. The state of the law at any given moment 
establishes the standards which government as a practical matter 
undertakes in the statement and enforcement of duties, in the 
suppression of disorder, and in the settlement of controversies con- 
cerning rights and obligations. It measures the stature of the nation 
in the long struggle for the advancement of civilization. The law 
is a Uving thing. It throbs with the life-blood of everyday transac- 
tions. It must adapt itself to the changing necessities of the passing 
years, but it must conserve the gains of one period for the protec- 
tion and progress of succeeding periods. It deals with the business 
affairs, the commercial transactions, and the family life of mankind. 
According to present conceptions and under our government, it 
protects the safety, preserves the liberty, and enjoins the social 
welfare of all the people. Life and property and happiness rest 
upon its stability and wisdom and strength. While it works con- 
stantly in harmony with morality and ethics, it cannot in the 
nature of things be coextensive with their domain. The human 
instrumentalities by which law must be enforced and justice ad- 
ministered are too clumsy to regulate the emotions and to control 
the secret springs of thought which dictate the actions of mankind. 
Law in the main has to do with the externals of conduct. The 
moral purposes and ethical aspirations of the race have a deeper 
root than can be reached by a science concerned in its last analysis 
with the application of the organized force of society to the en- 
forcement of its judgments. The chief support of any system of 
jurisprudence is the general sentiment of the people in favor of 
legality. The compelling power of the state is one underlying 
element in the decision of every court. The individual, the associa- 
tion, the corporation, the combination must be made to yield 
obedience to the final mandate of the law. The end and aim of the 









1 



"LORD JEFF" (.1 i:s|- OF HONOR 
Dean Olds Viscount IIolmesdale President Meiklejohn 



Amherst in the Law 239 

law is the administration of justice. And justice is one of the very- 
great interests of man on earth. It often is said to be his greatest 
temporal concern. All the other necessities and graces of the race 
rest upon its support. When it is unsteady, human affairs rock in 
uncertainty and tend toward dissolution. An ideal system of jus- 
tice perfectly administered is the support and protection of every 
essential to the well-being of society. It guards the weak and re- 
strains the strong. It nurtures the fundamental virtues. When other 
circumstances are favorable, it affords opportunity for the culti- 
vation of art and science and literature. All religious sects and 
denominations demeaning themselves peaceably and in conformity 
to general laws are under its shield. 

"Speaking through Law's dispassionate voice the State 
Endues her conscience with external life 
And being, to preclude or quell the strife 
Of individual will, to elevate 
The grovelling mind, the erring to recall, 
And fortify the moral strength of all." 

In the history of jurisprudence a hundred years is a brief period. 
Changes in the controlling principles of systems of law commonly 
are of slow growth. The last century has been one of such mutation 
in the material aspects of life that there has been a vast develop- 
ment in the application of fundamental principles to hitherto un- 
known facts and circumstances. The system of law under which 
we have the good fortune to live is in fact as well as in name the 
common law. It recognizes no special privilege of rank or station 
or office. Everybody alike is subject to its constraints and enjoys 
its benefactions. It acknowledges no peculiar immunities based on 
birth, possessions, achievements, territory, or residence. None are so 
strong as to be above its power, none so weak as to be beneath its 
protection. It is in truth common to all people and to all places with- 
in the jurisdiction. One of its distinguishing merits is that it 
is founded upon a comparatively few comprehensive principles of 
justice, capable of application to complicated details of affairs and 
of extension and adaptation to new institutions, different methods 
of commerce, changing conditions of business, the constantly 
widening domains opened to human activity by inventive genius, 
and undiscovered continents of knowledge constantly being re- 



240 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

vealed by the manifold achievements of science in all its depart- 
ments, as the advancement of civilization may require. 

It would be vain to attempt to trace the progress of the law in 
its various branches and separate aspects during the century which 
we celebrate today. It can be observed graphically by comparing 
the volumes of reports of decisions of the United States Supreme 
Court or of the court of last resort in any state for 1821 with a like 
volume for 1921. It will be found that the subjects of litigation are 
vastly different. The attention of courts and lawyers now is cen- 
tered chiefly upon matters unthought of or unknown then. The 
governing principles of the law of contracts are the same, whether 
applied to an agreement made face to face by word of mouth or by 
writing on a chip of wood or to an agreement made by wireless or 
cable between persons at opposite ends of the earth. The law of car- 
riers in its fundamentals governs transportation by the steamship, 
the railroad, and the aeroplane, as well as by the sailing vessel, the 
pack mule, and the ox team. Correlative rights and duties of those 
living in organized society depend upon the same underlying rules, 
whether considered with reference to the primitive conditions 
under which the first president of Amherst began his work or the 
complexities under which his present successor labors. 

There are a few outstanding matters to which reference may be 
made. The century now closing has witnessed a significant terri- 
torial expansion of our common law. The vast sections added to 
our country by the Louisiana purchase, by the cession of Florida, 
by the annexation of Texas, and by the treaty with Mexico, origi- 
nally were subject to the civil law. Almost within the last hundred 
years all of that ample domain, with the single exception of Lou- 
isiana, far exceeding in area the rest of the country, has adopted 
the common law. Decisions of the courts of the great states within 
those boundaries might be cited for their persuasive common law 
reasoning indifferently in any of the courts of the original thirteen 
states, where the common law was a birthright brought to these 
shores by the first settlers from England. This fact speaks in no 
uncertain tone of the admirable adaptability of the common law 
to the institutions of a liberty-loving people trained in self-govern- 
ing. It gives point to the suggestion sometimes made that the civil 
law is best designed for autocracy, the common law for democracy. 

The Great War obscured by its terrible clouds the field of inter- 



Amherst in the Law 241 

national law. Even during its momentous years thoughts concern- 
ing it were kept alive both by discussion and by practice within our 
own and among other nations. It is not to be forgotten that the 
two Hague conferences gave a standing and an impetus to inter- 
national law which it never had before. In the perspective of his- 
tory these conferences cannot fail to be regarded as epochal. The 
circumstance that in times of profound peace two congresses of the 
nations of the world should gather to deliberate upon their respec- 
tive rights and duties, the rules by which their relations with each 
other ought to be governed, and the methods by which their differ- 
ences should be composed, was itself momentous. The failures of 
these conferences, discouraging though they are when regarded 
by themselves, are quite overshadowed by their accomplishments. 
When these are compared with that which had gone before, a 
mighty advance is at once perceived. 

Constitutional law as a department of jurisprudence is a glory 
peculiar to this country. Appreciation of its importance and its 
va,stness is the product almost wholly of the last one hundred years. 
In the first two decades of the nineteenth century the great court 
over which Marshall presided had established some of the land- 
marks of the power of the federal government. It was becoming 
apparent that the Constitution had created a nation and not a mere 
confederacy. An indestructible union of indestructible states was 
its basic principle. It has grown to be one of the most precious 
among our great charter rights. The adoption of the Fourteenth 
Amendment to the Constitution of the United States added a tre- 
mendous extension to the national power. It prohibited the states 
from making or enforcing laws in abridgment of the privileges and 
immunities of citizens of the United States, in deprivation of any 
person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, and 
in denial to any person of the equal protection of equal laws. The 
guarantee of these monumental and essential rights of free men 
thus were placed under the aegis of the nation. The exposition of 
these fundamental principles of freedom and political equality has 
been the work of the last fifty years. It is a majestic spectacle to 
observe the poor and despised, whether of our own fellow-citizens 
or subjects of a feeble and foreign nation, asserting against the 
power of a sovereign state these principles of liberty and civil 
equality. 



242 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

The legal reforms of the last century are impressive. They have 
mitigated the formalism and ameliorated the harshness of theory 
and practice accepted without question at its beginning. The whole 
fabric of special pleading once deemed essential to the ascertain- 
ment of the real issue between parties has been swept away. A 
simple statement of essential facts in plain words is the single 
present requirement for stating a case in court. Criminal pleading 
has been simplified. The drafting of an indictment does not now 
require the highest technical skill, and the chief hope of one 
charged with crime is no longer in some flaw in the form with which 
his offense is set forth. The administration of the criminal law has 
been humanized. Married women have been freed from the control 
of their husbands, both as to their person and property. Imprison- 
ment for debt has been abolished. Patent and copyright lav/ al- 
most owe their birth as well as growth to this period. Employers' 
liability acts, softening the severity of rules applicable to a more 
primitive state of manufacture and commerce, have been widely 
adopted. Workmen's compensation acts, fastening upon the pro- 
duct of industry as a part of its cost the toll of human life and suffer- 
ing involved, have become prevalent. The intricacies of real 
estate law have been largely abated, and the adoption of land court 
registration in many states renders conveyancing almost as simple 
as the transfers of some kinds of personal property. 

No one branch of the law has invited so much legislative atten- 
tion as the police power. Under this department falls the great 
mass of statutes designed to promote the public health, the com- 
mon safety, and the general welfare. The practical operation of 
such laws often is to curtail individual activity or to restrict the use 
and enjoyment of private property, all for the benefit of the com- 
munity or the wider public and without special compensation. It 
oftentimes appears to bear with a heavy hand upon the individual 
adversely affected. It is an essential attribute of the state. It some- 
times has been applied unjustly in the different states, but in the 
main it results in wholesome and reasonable laws directed to the 
advancement of the prosperity of the great body of people. John 
Hay, while secretary of state, once said that the foreign policy of 
the United States might be summed up in the Golden Rule and the 
Monroe Doctrine. It is equally true that the ultimate aim of the 
humanitarian legislation enacted in the exercise of the police power 



Amherst in the Law 243 

of the last hundred years has been to apply the principles incul- 
cated by the Golden Rule in concrete form to an increasing number 
of the relations of life. 

A dominating feature of the commercial and business life of the 
last century has been the great combinations of capital and of 
labor regarded as necessary to the conduct of the industrial and 
transportation systems of the country. The legal problems entailed 
in this connection have been numerous and perplexing; and they 
are not yet solved. They were never more difficult in complexity 
and in the clash of conflicting interests than at the present. 

The concentration of population in cities has given rise to the 
law of municipal corporations. A hundred years ago it was in its 
infancy. It now bulks large in its extent and in the intimacy of its 
approach to the health and comfort of large numbers of people. In 
this connection the law of taxation has assumed a place of vast im- 
portance. The public cannot expend money except as means are 
first devised to collect it from the taxpayer. In order that exactions 
from the individual for the benefit of the public may bear with 
equality and without discrimination, a high degree of intelligence 
and wisdom as well as a clear sense of justice is demanded. 

Law schools have come into being as a generally recognized 
feature of legal education within the last hundred years. Harvard 
Law School celebrated her centennial last year. With the growth 
of law schools has come the establishment of legal magazines and 
the discussion by professors of law of the troublesome problems 
created by the developments of modern civilization. The pressure 
of work upon judges and lawyers in active practice is so severe that 
they rarely have either time or energy for the study of anything 
more than the immediate task. The illumination of particular 
subjects by comprehensive study, with leisure for adequate investi- 
gation, with learning sufficient to proper apprehension, and with 
insight so keen and wise as to think constructively, is falling upon 
the trained professors of law. This field of usefulness, already 
richly cultivated, seems destined for a constantly increasing fruit- 
age. 

Upon the bench and bar of the country rests the heavy responsi- 
bility of making the law as it is administered so clearly reasonable 
that it will command the respect of the right-minded. The most 
rational system of law which can be conceived, and the most per- 



244 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

feet administration of its prineiples of whieh the wise and learned 
are capable, will fail unless there is virility and strength of belief 
in law on the part of the people. Society cannot long endure if the 
law is not respected and obeyed. Attempts at deliberate circum- 
vention of the law and lawless outbreaks in defiance of the law are 
the most disquieting symptoms of any time. There can be no ap- 
peal from the orderly processes of the law to violent outbursts 
or insolent resistance against its restraints without the terrible 
penalty of weakened confidence in government and of increase in 
the sentiment of force in preference to justice. No words of any 
contemporary can put so clearly as did Lincoln's the unyielding 
necessity of obedience to the law to the end that free institutions 
may endure. The words of no man carry such weight. This is what 
he said: 

"Let every American, every lover of liberty, every wellwisher of 
his posterity swear .... never to violate in the least particular 
the laws of the country, and never to tolerate their violation in 
others. Let every man remember that to violate the law is to tram- 
ple on the blood of his fathers, and to tear the charter of his own 
and his children's liberty. Let reverence for the laws be breathed 
by every American mother to the lisping babe that prattles on her 
lap. Let it be taught in the schools. In short, let it become the 
political religion of the nation. Among free men there can be no 
successful appeal from the ballot to the bullet." 

Lincoln was eminen'ly practical. It was characteristic of his 
speech to invoke immortal principles for the solution of present 
problems. This utterance of his demonstrates that the spirit of 
violent defiance of law is not new. 

This brief and imperfect survey in bare outline of legal develop- 
ment during Amherst's first century shows that the law has kept 
pace with the advance of civilization. Law implies something of 
stability and of restraint. With it the '-adical is apt to be dissatis- 
fied because it will lag behind his aspirations. With it the conser- 
vative also is likely to be disturbed, lest it too readily adapt itself 
to the necessities of a changing present. In a representative repub- 
lic the form and body of the law nmst inevitably be responsive to 
the matured and deliberate conviction of the majority of the 
people. The law for the time being in its broad aspects is the law 
desired by the body of the citizenship. 



Amherst in the Law 245 

Amherst College was founded primarily "for the classical educa- 
tion of indigent young men of piety and talents for the Christian 
ministry." The accomplishment of this object fired the zeal of 
Rufus Graves and his associates in securing the initial contribu- 
tions for the establishment of the College. It was their profound 
conviction of its necessity that imbued them with courage to em- 
bark upon such an undertaking and to carry it to a successful con- 
clusion. The atmosphere of an educational institution thus founded 
and dedicated would not directly encourage students to devote 
themselves to the law. But nothing could be more nourishing to 
those elements requisite for highest achievement at the bar. The 
founders of our beloved institution were too wise to attempt to 
restrict students in the College to any particular vocation. It was 
open to all who were worthy upon an equal footing. The doors of 
Amherst have been "always open to truth and never closed to 
freedom." Poverty, piety, and talent are highly desirable faculties 
for abiding success in any occupation, especially for those intending 
to study law. In more modern phrase it might be said that character, 
strong and above reproach, the imperious incentive to unremit- 
ting industry which springs from the pinch of necessity, and intel- 
lectual ability of no mean order constitute the essential equipment 
for every lawyer who is to perform real service to his clients or to 
society. Association with students of like endowment but dedi- 
cated to the laying aside of every other ambition save alone that 
of following closely in the footsteps of the Sa,vior, would be of gen- 
uine and mutual advantage. For many years the chief emphasis by 
the president and faculty upon student life seems to have been in 
the direction of the ministry. It was inevitable that this should be 
modified somewhat with the influx to all colleges, Amherst among 
the rest, of students in large numbers for cultural training, who in- 
tend not to follow any of the so-called learned professions but to 
engage in business, manufacture, and commerce. Amherst College 
will have drifted far from the chart of its founders, however, if the 
day ever comes when the emphasis by president and faculty is 
placed on triumphs of the intellect alone. At the celebration of the 
quarter-millenium of Harvard, it was said in an oration, still fa- 
mous after three decades and a half, by one of the most brilliant 
and learned minds of the nation, that "nearly all the education 
which men get from others is moral, not intellectual." One of the 



246 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

sacred trusts from the Amherst of the past is that the college of the 
future must radiate the influence that the true greatness of a man 
consists in moral elevation and ethical virility. Upon that essen- 
tial, as handmaidens upon their mistress, wait science, literature, 
learning, and all other intellectual achievements and artistic ac- 
complishments. These subsidiary and ancillary matters must not 
be permitted to obscure the main thing. It is this choicest gift of 
the Alma Mater to her graduates laboring in the law which has 
enabled Amherst men to bear their full share in the growth of the 
law during the last century. 

It is not easy to point out the part which particular individuals 
have taken in the great and general development of the law for 
any period. The name and fame of the lawyer is proverbially ephem- 
eral. It is written upon the sand. When his contemporaries are 
gone there is no permanent memorial to preserve the characteristics 
or to recall the special distinctions of the leaders of the bar. It is 
only when a Webster becomes the symbol of support to the Consti- 
tution, or a Choate seizes the popular imagination as the type of 
advocacy, that there is enduring remembrance. Legislators who 
have the good fortune to li^k their names with some measures of 
lasting merit alone survive in memory among the great body of law- 
givers. The names of judges, although in their day wise and learned 
and of insight and force, are speedily forgotten. To unfold the sym- 
metrical strength of the Constitution, to shape the history of a na- 
tion, was the matchless achievement of Marshall. To illumine almost 
every branch of juridical science by gathering scattered grains of 
learning from ungarnered fields into treasuries of brilliant exposi- 
tion and orderly expression, was the incomparable accomplishment 
of Story and makes him still unrivalled as an author of legal litera- 
ture. To expand and apply the principles of the common law, de- 
veloped under the primitive conditions of agriculture, to the com- 
plex life of the manufacture, industry, and commerce born of the 
steam-engine, water-power, the railroad, and the telegraph, was 
the peerless distinction of Shaw. Such exceptional instances of 
resplendent fame serve to make manifest the darkness which 
speedily enshrouds the names of most of those brilliant in contem- 
porary annals of the bar. 

It would be vain on this occasion to attempt to catalogue the 
names of all graduates of Amherst who have followed the profes- 



Amherst in the Law 247 

sion of the law, and who, as practitioners, as legislators, or as judges 
have contributed to the visible fabric of the law. It would be un- 
gracious to endeavor to appraise their several achievements and to 
state their rank or order. To enumerate the living of high station 
would be superfluous. One has but to look about him to see some 
at least of "the powerful of earth." In point of numbers the men of 
Amherst who have devoted themselves to the law has not been 
unusual. Statistics are not at hand to permit a full discussion of 
this theme. Including those of the present Commencement, there 
have been 5992 graduates of Amherst in this her first century. 
Among these the total number of lawyers is 425, a trifle more than 
7 percent. Hope rather than finished achievement is of course the 
portion of the graduates of recent years. During this hundred years 
Amherst from her lawyer sons has furnished great states with gov- 
ernors and attorneys general, and presidents with cabinet minis- 
ters and diplomats. Twice have our graduates been speakers of 
the national House of Representatives. Great prizes in the beaten 
path of the profession have been bestowed upon some. Graduates 
of Amherst have sat upon the court of last resort in Alabama, Con- 
necticut, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, 
Utah, Virginia, Vermont, and Washington, and have occupied 
judicial positions of high responsibility in Greece and Egypt. Your 
attention is invited to a few instances among lawyers, legislators, 
teachers of law, and judges, as illustrations of the Amherst spirit 
in the profession of the lav/. 

The first of our graduates to pursue the study of law exemplified 
at the cost of no small personal sacrifice the conscientious devotion 
to a high principle which Amherst always has inculcated. Lincoln 
Clark, '25, born in Conway, whose spire may be seen across the 
river from the Chapel tower, before he was twenty years at the bar , 
had been the attorney general and a circuit court judge in Ala- 
bama. A warm political disciple of Jefferson, he felt so profoundly 
the wrong of slavery that in 1846 he freed his own slaves and a year 
later removed to Dubuque, Iowa, where in 1852 he was elected 
to Congress. Afterwards he practised in Chicago and there held 
important federal legal office. He was active in church affairs and 
in educational interests and held in those relations influential posi- 
tions of trust. Finally he returned to his native town to spend the 
few last years of a life prolonged almost to four score and ten years. 



248 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

We salute his memory today as the worthy pioneer of the frater- 
nity of Amherst lawyers. 

Otis P. Lord, '32, is a name long famous in the annals of t Is 
Commonwealth. After a distinguished career at the bar and on the 
superior court, he added to the lustre of the highest court by a serv- 
ice of ten years as an associate justice^ Endowed with a powerful 
intellect, by nature an orator, with a genius for public affairs, he 
commonly has been regarded as one of the commanding figures of 
his day and generation in this state. 

The class of '36 was distinguished by Alexander H. Bullock. 
Governor, proffered the post of minister to the Court of St. James, 
eloquent in speech, he was enabled by fine scholarship and power 
of leadership to create intelligent public opinion and direct it to the 
accomplishment of wise ends. His published addresses attest the 
enduring quality of his renown as an orator. 

Horace Maynard, '38, was prominent in the public life of the 
country for a quarter of a century. Born in Massachusetts and 
making his home in Tennessee, he was a potent influence in pre- 
serving his adopted state to the Union during the Civil War. For 
fifteen years he was a member of Congress. He was also attorney 
general of his state, minister to Turkey, and postmaster general 
in the cabinet of President Hayes. His strong personality, his vigor- 
ous patriotism, and his service to his country in positions of high 
responsibility and in times of public peril have shed distinction 
upon the College. 

This Connecticut Valley, in the person of William Allen, '42, 
furnished another member of the Massachusetts supreme judicial 
court, whose personal appearance, strength of character, and in- 
tellectual accomplishments made him a close approach to the ideal 
magistrate. Mr. Justice Holmes has said of him that he was one 
of the rare men "whose imagination was educated to aspire beyond 
money and the immediate forms of power" to a remote, meditated, 
and impersonal command through the wide prevalence of truth 
and right. 

Among numerous members of Congress and of legislatures, the 
name of Galusha A. Grow, '44, is conspicuous. Elected first at the 
age of twenty-seven to the national House of Representatives, and 
serving then for six consecutive terms, more than forty years later 
he was again four times elected to the same body by a majority 



Amherst in the Law 249 

evincing extraordinary popularity. He was Speaker of the national 
House in the critical first two years of Lincoln's administration. 
He was the father of the homestead law, of which he was a zealous 
advocate for ten years until its enactment in 1862. The opening of 
the vast national domain to settlement and its purchase and 
occupation by actual tillers of the soil upon a rational basis was 
the fruit of his efforts. His name thus is identified with one of the 
most important statutes in national history. 

William Gardiner Hammond, '49, was teacher of law, chancellor 
of the law department of Iowa State University, and dean of 
St. Louis Law School, lecturer at the Law Schools of the University 
of Michigan and of Boston University. He was an author of dis- 
tinction concerning both the civil and the common law, founder 
and chief editor of the Western Jurist, and a liberal contributor to 
periodical publications. "He fashioned a school and founded a 
cult which attracted students from the widest range and com- 
pelled attention from abroad." He is said to have ranked among 
the foremost teachers of law in the country. 

Reuben M. Benjamin, '53, was a pioneer in the field of rate 
regulation. In the constitutional convention of Illinois he ex- 
pounded with great thoroughness and ability the doctrine of 
governmental power in this particular, along lines subsequently 
followed by the United States supreme court. Legal author, 
teacher, practitioner, and judge of the trial court, in all positions he 
was worthy of his fellowship in Amherst. 

Elbert Eli Farnam, '55, occupied unique positions of distinction 
and influence in Egypt. After having been a prosecuting attorney 
in New York, he was diplomatic representative of the United States 
in Egypt during the most interesting and critical period of its mod- 
ern history. He was one of the judges of the international tribunal 
of Egypt, estabhshed for the trial and adjudication of controver- 
sies between those not citizens of that country, one of a commission 
to revise its judicial codes, and member of an international body 
to determine damages arising from bombardment and pillage in 
Alexandria. The gift of the obelisk, commonly known as Cleo- 
patra's Needle, to the city of New York, attests the esteem in 
which he was held in the country of the Pharaohs, for it was made 
in appreciation of his efforts. 

Another native of this valley, Charles B. iA.ndrews, 'o8, after 



250 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

winning at the bar the rewards of industry and talent and serving 
in the Legislature, enjoyed the preeminence of being governor of 
Connecticut for two terms, chief justice of her highest court for 
twelve years, and president of her second constitutional conven- 
tion. It was his unique distinction, by reason of his vigorous mind 
and practical efficiency, to leave his strong impress upon the execu- 
tive, legislative, and judicial departments of our neighboring state. 

The promise of one of the brilliant students of the College was 
fulfilled in unexpected ways. John W. Simpson, '71, having dis- 
played unusual gifts of public speech in undergraduate days, in 
mature years was unsurpassed in the endowment of an intuitive 
legal mind, enriched by ripe scholarship which grasped the funda- 
mental legal aspects of the vast enterprises of modern business. 
He combined learning and practical sagacity to a rare degree. He 
saw clearly himself and was able to persuade others. His sparkling 
wit and genius for social intercourse made him beloved as well as 
respected. He gave generously of his power for usefulness in long 
service as one of the trustees of Amherst. 

Others of distinction press to our attention. Lyman Gibbons, '32, 
a trial judge and an associate justice of the highest court of Ala- 
bama; Jonathan C. Perkins of the same class, editor of many books 
on various branches of the law, and also trial judge; Loyal C. Kel- 
logg, '36, eminent citizen of Vermont and long a member of her 
supreme court; Henry W. Williams, '37, a much esteemed jurist 
of Pennsylvania and for nine years on her supreme court bench; 
William W. Goodrich, '52, author of a leading work on admiralty 
and long an appellate court judge in New York; William Z.Stewart, 
'33, judge of the supreme court of Indiana and distinguished as a 
railroad lawyer; Edward B. Gillett, '39, an eminent lawyer of this 
immediate neighborhood, useful citizen, for many years a trustee 
of the College, and father of distinguished sons; Henry M. Spofford, 
'40, active in public affairs in Louisiana and justice of her supreme 
court. Francis A. March, '45, preeminent in philology and literature, 
ought not to be forgotten as a member of the bar, an author of 
valuable legal essays, and an illuminating lecturer in various branches 
of law. Mason W. Tyler, '62, valiant son of a father dear to all 
Amherst men, was soldier and colonel in the war in defense of the 
Union and leading lawyer in New York. Henry Morris, '32, was 
member of Congress and judge of the court of common pleas in 



Amherst in the Law 251 

Massachusetts for many years. John E, Sanford, '51, was eminent 
as a legislator, chairman of the Massachusetts board of railroad 
commissioners, and president of the board of trustees of the Col- 
lege. The winsome personality and highly creditable and prolonged 
career in Congress of George P. Lawrence, '80, made him beloved 
by a large circle and conferred renown upon the College. Among 
the judges should be mentioned Elliot Sanford, '61, leading lawyer 
in New York and chief justice of Utah; Isaac H. Maynard, '62, 
judge of the New York court of appeals; Orloff M. Dorman,'31, 
judge of the supreme court of Virginia; and Charles H. Doolittle, 
'33, of the supreme court of New York. Henry D. Hyde, '61, and 
M. F. Dickinson, '62, each achieved distinction at the bar as trial 
lawyers and were active and loyal friends of the College through 
their long lives. The former has connected his name indissolubly 
with Amherst by the estabhshment of the prize which bears his 
name. 

Conventional proprieties forbid extended mention of the eminent 
living. In high station they are bearing the heat and burden of the 
day, acquitting themselves worthily of their lofty heritage as Am- 
herst men, and adding a new lustre to the glory of their Alma 
Mater. They will be accorded adequate meed of honor on the 
celebration one hundred years hence. In less striking places many 
of us are striving to use all our talents, be they one or more, for 
making the law a more fit instrument to meet the needs of the 
nation and better adapted for doing justice among mankind. As 
judges on state and federal bench, as district attorneys, city solici- 
tors and holders of muncipal and state office of varying degree, and 
as members of Congress during this century, Amherst lawyers have 
aided to establish and maintain a government worthy of the exalted 
principles on which the Republic was founded. 

To select any by name seems invidious to those who are omitted. 
Many Amherst men have achieved distinction and won responsible 
places, for whom the limits of this hour deny especial recognition. 
Many more in the beaten path of the profession and in the public 
affairs of their neighborhood and state have been fine examples of 
the spirit of Amherst, have supported the right in their day and 
generation, and have contributed their part in making life sweeter 
and more wholesome and the world a better place for those who 
come after. 



252 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Those who have labored in obscure places or forgotten fields 
have done their full share. The life well spent is the chief end of 
man. The nameless poilu of France and the unknown soldier of 
England each has received honor surpassing that of any field mar- 
shall. The most exalted burial places of earth have been theirs. 
There is a common feeling that the more conspicuous are merely 
more fortunate. The humble practitioner in the law, upholding the 
ideals of our profession without achieving the laureled wreath, has 
smoothed the pathway of the unfortunate, helped those in distress 
or misfortune, made the law respected, and aided justice to pre- 
vail. For all these equally with those here mentioned Amherst on 
her aniversary festival expresses her appreciation for faithful serv- 
ice and filial loyalty. All together have striven to fulfill the mis- 
sion of the College in maintaining through the century law and 
order worthy of a free and intelligent people, and in ministering to 
one of the deepest needs of the Republic. 




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Amherst in Education 253 



AMHERST IN EDUCATION 

FREDERICK J. E. WOODBRIDGE, '89 

Dean of the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science in Columbia University 

A NUMBER of years ago, a college president asked the ques- 
tion: What does college do for a man? The question 
was prompted by considerable popular discussion at 
the time about the value of a college course. Doubts of its value 
had been raised. The discussion seemed to put the colleges on the 
defensive. This president of one of them thought to end the con- 
troversy once for all by finding out precisely what the colleges had 
really done for their graduates. He was not content with arguments ; 
he wanted facts. So he sent broadcast over the land to thousands 
of college men the question: What did your college do for you? 
The answers were interesting and instructive, but of them all 
one remains in my memory with notable emphasis. It was that of 
President Eliot of Harvard. He said: "What Harvard did for me 
was to educate me." It was a beautiful answer, obvious and subtle, 
perhaps a little malicious. It was also profound, plumbing the 
meaning of education to the depths. For students go to college 
for an education and with an education they leave. The one they 
take away may not be the one for which they came, but there has 
been an education none the less. He who could adequately an- 
alyze it would be counted master among the pedagogues. So 
President Eliot answered for all the thousands whose own answers 
differed in words but not in meaning. Even he who affirmed that 
his college had ruined him, confessed his education. For college is 
a matter of give and take, a chance offered and a chance accepted or 
rejected. In other words, it is an education which a college gives 
and it is an education which its graduates take. 

A college as a force in education is, consequently, really a com- 
position of forces, of that which the college supplies and of that 
which the students bring. Both these forces are variable, but that 
represented by the students is naturally much more variable than 
that represented by the college. It is much more variable in respect 
to such things as numbers, natural endowment, industry, learning, 



254 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

wisdom, and morals. In respect to these things, the force repre- 
sented by the college is relatively constant. Furthermore, on the 
side of the students, that which they take away, although a signi- 
ficant part of their total education, is far from that total. With 
what they eventually become, the college, as a matter of fact, may 
have had very little to do. Consequently, to measure the force of a 
college in education in terms of the careers of its graduates is very 
faulty. A college may point with pride to her distinguished sons, 
but she can rarely claim with justice that she produced their dis- 
tinction. She was their alma mater, and although she may glory 
in those of them who have become great, sigh for those who have 
become little, and weep for those who have become disgraced, her 
own proper glory rests solely in the kind of mother she was, in the 
way she cherished her sons. To measure that, if possible, is to 
measure much more adequately her force. 

Yet it is natural, perhaps, that the theme of Amherst in educa- 
tion should suggest first of all a consideration of those graduates 
who have made teaching a profession and particularly those who 
have been distinguished in it. The number is large and the record 
splendid. There prevails, too, in academic circles, the opinion 
that in proportion to the size of the College, Amherst graduates 
have been notably conspicuous as teachers. They are found as 
college and university presidents, deans of various schools, pro- 
fessors and heads of departments, head masters of secondary 
schools, and teachers in many lines, in a number much larger than 
a calculus of probabilities would lead one to expect. Yet, I confess, 
that as I have examined the record of class after class, and studied 
the history of the College, I have become less and less impressed 
with the achievements of her graduates, and more and more im- 
pressed with her own character as the mother of them all ; so that 
what Amherst has been in education has come to mean her spirit 
as alma mater rather than her graduates as teachers. Statistics 
have become a little hateful in the presence of something so much 
finer. A divinity has made here a shrine and asked for worship. 
Without these, the record would be little more than a succession 
of individual biographies. With them, the record may be read with 
pride while still keeping its subordinate place. Let us look at it, 
and then pass on to Amherst herself. 

The number of first century graduates of Amherst who have been 



Amherst in Education 255 

teachers is large, but the precise number is difficult to fix. Five 
hundred would be too small and five thousand too large. So much 
depends on what we mean by a teacher. If we adopt the standard 
of the average census taker, at least two out of every ten graduates 
would be counted as belonging to the teaching profession. But such 
a count presupposes the century ended, the count then taken, and 
the classification made in terms of careers as then defined. Many 
who have taught for months or years would not be included in the 
enumeration, because when the census taker knocked at their doors 
they would have professed some other calling. The number of those 
who have begun to teach and later left the profession is larger than 
the number of those who have left other professions for it. This is 
natural, for teaching has been the immediate opportunity open to 
the graduate which he has been led often temporarily to embrace. 
The number of graduates who have taught is, therefore, much 
higher than two in ten. It is nearer five in ten. So that, if the cen- 
sus taker should time his call appropriately, nearly one-half of 
Amherst graduates could reply "teacher" to his question. 

Yet this of itself can hardly be regarded as very significant for 
education, although as one follows the record class by class a vision 
grows of Amherst enlarged. The walls of her class-rooms move out- 
ward, their doors open into strange lands and admit strange faces. 
One can see the countries of the world from the windows and the 
races of the world in the students' seats. To follow the spatial 
distribution of these teachers from Amherst is to acquire a thorough 
knowledge of geography. In foreign lands we should have to stop 
long in certain places, in the Hawaiian Islands, in Japan, in Con- 
stantinople, in Beiriit, for in these places colleges are to be found 
which are almost of Amherst's own making, so much has their de- 
velopment been shaped by Amherst men. Robert College in Con- 
stantinople, the Doshisha in Kyoto, the Syrian Protestant College 
in Beirut, and Oahu College in Honolulu, largely belong to Am- 
herst's history. Her sons have shaped their policies and been their 
presidents. They stand out as shining examples of the wise and 
liberal extension of western education to the peoples of the East. 

When we turn to our own land, it is impossible to deal justly with 
the distribution of Amherst teachers without getting deeply in- 
volved in comparisons with other institutions. It is true that there 
is not a university, or college, or school of first importance where 



256 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Amherst men have not taught. But this is probably true also of 
most colleges in the country whose histories are long and distin- 
guished. Yet this can be said: With the record of the alumni in our 
hands we can readily be led to believe that among those colleges 
whose teachers have most significantly influenced American educa- 
tion, Amherst must be given a high place. Among her graduates can 
be found at least thirty-five presidents of colleges or universities, 
three hundred professors, and about an equal number of tutors and 
instructors. Of the great preparatory schools of our own day, at 
least six are under the direction of Amherst men. Indeed, with the 
record in our hands, the conviction is forced upon us that Amherst 
has been preeminently a teaching college, and teaching through 
the length and breadth of the land. 

If the subjects taught are considered, it is easy to count in the 
professorial grades alone at least thirty -five teachers of the classics, 
twenty-five of English, twenty-five of history and the social 
sciences, twenty-five of physics and chemistry, twenty of philos- 
ophy and psychology, fifteen of modern languages, fifteen of mathe- 
matics, fifteen in theological seminaries, ten of the biological sciences, 
ten of geology, six of engineering, four of education, four of music, 
two of business, and one of architecture, to which should be added 
a number in medicine and surgery — two exceptionally distinguish- 
ed — which the statistics do not yet enumerate. Such a count is more 
illustrative than exhaustive. The largest number of teachers is in 
the classics, but as the list of subjects is reviewed, one can not fail to 
be impressed with the fact that a college committed to the classical 
education of its students should have among its graduates so many 
teachers of science. Indeed if we do not divide the sciences into 
several branches, the number of teachers of science will lead all the 
others. 

Shall we now praise famous men.^ The temptation to do so is 
strong because there are famous men to praise. Permit me, liow- 
ever, to continue to be impersonal. That is both safer and wiser; 
safer, because to choose is also to leave unchosen; and wiser, be- 
cause it is the College we would exalt. On several branches of 
learning thel;^College, often very directly, has had a profound in- 
fluence. Geology may be put first because it was first historically 
and has no superior in distinction. It is a modest science to which 
the public pays little attention. J3ut in this country, Amherst very 



Amherst in Education 257 

nearly created it. She was a pioneer and her influence has spread 
through several generations and into every important center of 
geological study the country over. Four exceptionally great teach- 
ers are to be counted among her sons and these teachers have in 
their turn stimulated others, so that geologically speaking, the 
Amherst strata can be found outcropping almost anywhere where 
there is any geology at all. Like the "bird tracks" which President 
Hitchcock discovered, the College has left an imperishable record 
in the history of geological science. 

Side by side with geology, are history and political science with 
a hand outstretched toward the law. Amherst herself has taught 
history superbly. That has been much. But it was a graduate of 
the College who gathered about him a group of Amherst men and 
founded at Columbia the Faculty of Political Science and the 
Political Science Quarterly. In this school, a pioneer in its field, 
history, ecomomics, public law, Roman law and comparative 
jurisprudence were all taught by Amherst men. It afforded for the 
country the first important seat of graduate study in these subjects. 
Its students have outnumbered those of all similar schools in the 
land combined. Its distinction has been recognized the world over, 
and six Amherst men made there a reputation which put them in 
the number of the leading scholars of their day. The school has 
been noted not only for its scholarship but also for its organization. 
It has been a powerful influence in creating in the general scheme 
of education a fitting place for the social sciences and it has also 
excited a broadening influence on the study of the law. By a happy 
coincidence the Faculty of Political Science and the Faculty of Law 
are housed together in Columbia University, and the dean of each 
of these faculties is an Amherst man. 

A third branch of learning which Amherst has greatly influenced 
is philosophy. She did not have the greatest philosopher America 
has produced, but she did have the greatest teacher of philosophy. 
Her influence in this branch of learning has been more intensive 
than extensive. It is the intensity that is worthy of remark. In the 
space of a decade she graduated in proportion to her numbers, more 
students destined to hold important college and university posi- 
tions in philosophy and psychology than any other institution in 
the land. But her influence is not adequately measured in terms of 
teachers of philosophy and psychology. For the teaching of philos- 



258 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

ophy at Amherst was not a technical matter. It was Hberal and 
humane, an education in itself which tended to make the mind 
alert, confident, and free. It made the teaching profession attrac- 
tive to students who otherwise would probably not have thought 
of it. 

Finally, there is physical education, which Amherst first of all the 
colleges of the country, I believe, introduced into the curriculum of 
undergraduate studies. It was first proposed by President Stearns 
in his inaugural address in 1854 and urged repeatedly in his annual 
reports. A gymnasium was built in 1860 and a department estab- 
lished in the same year. The claims of the sound body for the sound 
mind were recognized. From Amherst the movement spread to 
other colleges until today no college is judged to be equipped if it 
has not a gymnasium and does not give sound instruction in the 
care of the body. Here was another of Amherst's gifts to education, 
a gift which still today receives hearty recognition wherever teach- 
ers of hygiene and physical culture are met together. But Amherst 
could not give to others the best that was in this movement, for that 
best was a man who loved Amherst College and her boys with a 
homely, shrewd, and beautiful wisdom. His home was in Amherst, 
he was a professor on the faculty, but he lived in the hearts of youth. 
He was baptized Edward Hitchcock, Jr., but his name was Old 
Doc. 

The selection of these four departments of learning for special 
emphasis is based on what other than Amherst men say about the 
College. It represents the general academic opinion of those re- 
spects in which Amherst men have been peculiarly strong. But if 
we turn once more to the record of her alumni, we should be im- 
pressed not so much by the prominence of these three subjects as 
by the general level of attainment in the principal fields of knowl- 
edge. We discover a sustained reputation. Whether on the whole 
graduates of Amherst have done more or less, better or worse in 
education than the graduates of other colleges, is a question with- 
out dignity. It is enough to know what they have done and that, 
so generally, they have done it well. 

Perhaps we ought not to leave the record with only the incidental 
mention hitherto made of administrative officers, such as presi- 
dents, deans, directors, and heads of departments. Belonging my- 
self to their number, I would not belittle their importance, but I 



Amherst in Education 259 

must confess that in the matter of education I must yield the 
greater honor to the men they administer. Their position is high 
and responsible, but usually it is not learning that has placed them 
there, nor any exceptional gift as educators. It is rather their use- 
fulness. A goodly number of Amherst men have been found to be 
useful in this way, thirty-five presidents at least, as I have said, 
and I know not how many deans, directors, and heads of depart- 
ments. There are conspicuous examples both in the past and the 
present. Yale has a provost and a director of education; Johns 
Hopkins and Rochester, presidents; Pennsylvania a dean of the 
graduate school; Chicago and Columbia several deans; and there 
are heads of departments in almost every subject of instruction. 
From the past and the too recent past let me mention outside of 
Amherst herself but one, the president of the Syrian Protestant 
College, so lately taken from us, so dearly loved, so greatly rising 
in the great emergency into which the war plunged him. And 
lastly Amherst has given to herself two presidents and made her 
own by every tie of affection the Dean. 

Thus we may glean from the record something of what Amherst 
has been in education when we have her graduates in mind. But 
what of Amherst herself.'* That is a question of quite different im- 
port. Let us be proud of the record of alumni, but let us also frankly 
admit that much besides Amherst went into their composition. 
That there is a connection between her instruction and their 
achievements, few will deny, but the connection is far from always 
determinable. As a force in education, she is to be measured in 
other terms than those defined by the careers of the men she has 
sent into the world. She is to be measured in terms of what she 
conceived herself to be and the place and character she fashioned 
for herself. 

The College was founded for "the classical education of indigent 
young men of piety and talents for the Christian Ministry." So 
her purpose was expressed in the original "Constitution and Sys- 
tem of By-Laws," that document which President Hitchcock liked 
to call "the first corner-stone" of the College. After one hundred 
years, young men of talents still come here, but they would scarcely 
be described as either indigent or pious. Very few of them will ever 
know what a classical education is. Still fewer of them enter the 
Christian ministry. As the years have passed the College has be- 



260 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



come less and less the kind of thing she set out to be. Changes be- 
gan early; changes in indigence and piety, changes in the course of 
study, changes in equipment, changes in the ouHook upon life. 
President Hitchcock himself noted their beginnings and was much 
disturbed about them. He feared they were the deteriorating 
effects of prosperity. "I have watched these changes," he says, 
"with painful solicitude, and with some sense of responsibility; for 
it is in part the fruit of my own efforts to obtain funds for placing 
the institution on the high level it now occupies." The changes 
which disturbed him are significant. Yet they are not significant 
for what Amherst has been in education. They formulate no stand- 
ard by which she should be judged. They afford no glimpse of that 
divinity which has shaped her ends. There is nothing local and 
nothing hinting the genius of the place in the changes which have 
come about in her constitution as a college or in the character and 
careers of her students. These changes belong to the history of the 
times much more than to the history of Amherst. The good presi- 
dent watched them with painful solicitude. That is more impor- 
tant than the fact that they occurred, for it is quite clear that his 
solicitude was for the character of the place and the kind of life it 
fostered. The College was founded to educate men for the Christian 
ministry, but the significant thing in her education was what she 
demanded from them and what she wanted the place to be. 

This is admirably illustrated in her attitude toward the young 
men who came in response to the opening of her doors. They came 
ostensibly to prepare for the ministry. But the College apparently 
did not receive them with much confidence that the manifolding 
of their talents through a classical education would make of them 
Christian ministers touched with the divine fire. She gave them an 
education as good as was to be had anywhere in the land. She gave 
it, too, with a liberalism which is little short of amazing in the face 
of the stern Puritanism of her early days. Yet it would seem as if 
she had very little confidence in the course of study however indus- 
triously pursued. Her confidence was placed in something which 
had first to happen in the heart. She expected these intending 
ministers to become converted to the religion they professed. She 
asked that they experience repeatedly the revival of the love of God 
in their souls. She said in effect to them: Unless these deep things 
happen to you again and again, the education you receive here will 



Amherst in Education 261 

profit you little; you must be converted to your profession before 
you can be educated for it. And old Professor Tyler — old only to 
distinguish him affectionately from a son who with equal affection 
will be young forever — old Professor Tyler did say: "Classes come 
and leave every year. \Vliy should they not be converted every 
year.-^ Why should not this be distinctly contemplated, expressly 
aimed at, and specially provided for, like all other exercises and 
arrangements of the institution .f* This would not be inconsistent 
with the design of such institutions, or conflict with the studies 
or literary attainments of the students. On the contrary, it would 
harmonize with that design . . . for colleges in their original 
plan and intention were meant to be religious institutions. And it 
would greatly further the advancement of students in learning; for 
the principles and spirit of true religion are the surest guide, the 
strongest stimulus to the right use of time, to the best improve- 
ment of talents and opportunities, and to the successful prosecu- 
tion of all useful knowledge; insomuch that not only theologians 
and reformers, but philosophers and scholars have endorsed the 
maxim : ' Bene orasse est bene studuisse ' ; to have prayed well is to 
have studied well." 

Let us not be deceived by the language. It is evangelical and 
Puritan. It reflects the religious spirit of the days in which it was 
written. It is not the language used by educators in the twentieth 
century. Yet it expresses what Amherst has been in education, it 
expresses a principle that was wrought into character and teaching. 
Lifted out of its original setting and translated into current speech, 
the principle loses all exclusive application to ministers to be. In 
the business jargon of the day, it would read : You must be sold to 
your job before you can learn it. Bene orasse est bene studuisse. 
President Hitchcock would doubtless have been shocked if told 
that a speaker at Amherst's Centennial would venture to say that 
the President's love of God was hardly distinguishable from his 
love of rocks, quoting these concluding words of the President's 
"Reminiscences" to prove it: "I testify at the age of three score 
and ten, that though I find the powers of life giving way, and a 
growing indifference to the works of Man, my attachment to the 
works of Nature has all the ardor and enthusiasm of youth. 
And why should it not be so with the Christian forever! 
for though the first and the sweetest song of Heaven is, Worthy is 



262 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

the Lamb thai was slain, yet the second sounds from the same 
golden harps, with a rapture scarcely less. Great and marvel- 
ous are thy works. Lord God, Almighty!" It is worthy of 
remark that the first song is printed in italics and the second in 
capitals. 

Why should not classes be converted every year .5^ It would be a 
pity if the words provoked no more than a twentieth-century 
smile. To be converted to geology at three score and ten, to expe- 
rience at that advanced age with all the ardor and enthusiasm of 
youth a revival of the love of nature, exposes Amherst's greatness 
in geology far better than does the record of her graduates. Con- 
version and revival — the language of Amherst was Puritan and 
evangelical, but the spirit back of it leapt beyond the limits of any 
narrow faith to something universal. It gave character and atmos- 
phere to the place, made the ground holy, so that the unconverted 
and the unrevived felt that they must look to their shoes. Get 
converted to chemistry, growled Professor Harris over his table, 
for soon the harvest will be past and the summer ended, and you 
will not be saved. It is commonly reported that Professor Genung 
never failed a student. It is not commonly known that he religiously 
kept in his study a card catalogue of the damned, reviewing it week 
by week for evidence of possible conversion. Failure, you see, mer- 
ited contempt rather than a grade in the registrar's books. So quite 
generally there prevailed a subordination of the curdculum to life, 
to the spirit of the place. So all the great teachers of Amherst, the 
Hitchcocks, the Tylers, Seelye, Esty, Morse, Garman, Emerson, 
Neill, Crowell, all the great teachers of Amherst loved their sub- 
jects too much to allow them to degenerate into disciplinary exer- 
cises of the class-room. They loved the place too much ever to 
allow themselves to deny or let their students deny the spirit that 
dwelt there, the spirit which said: You must be converted to knowl- 
edge if you would have it ; you must experience repeatedly a revival 
of the love of the truth, if you would keep it; you must pray well, 
if you would study well. So Amherst offered to her students an 
education which was not a preparation for life, but a life indeed. 
That once begun, she was content to let the future take care of 
itself. It really made little difference then whether the earth should 
become populated with ministers or with geologists. 

The spirit which pervaded the teaching was the spirit of the place. 



Amherst in Education 



the divinity which had made in these hills her shrine. Men raised 
a fund and started a college, but something else happened. Alma 
Mater came. Massachusetts apparently did not want her, but she 
insisted on staying. Students dwindled away, the treasury was 
empty, there was no money to pay debts, the trustees were dis- 
couraged and ready to give up a college which had been a failure, 
and make an academy which might be a success. Then she per- 
formed her miracle. She told the president and faculty to starve 
in order that she might live. They obeyed. They had no salaries. 
The pitifully small sum which came in from students' fees was pro- 
portioned among them. The little incomes they were used to were 
cut in half. They starved. Then the gift-bearers began to come to 
the shrine, the treasury was filled, professorships were endowed, 
new students came, prosperity lifted the head, and after two years 
— on June 28, 1848 — there was a festival at Amherst to celebrate 
the miracle. Alma Mater lived. 

Let not the beauty of the miracle be spoiled by any attempt to 
rationalize or explain it. It is enough to know that it symbolizes 
whatever secret Amherst may have had in education. It illumin- 
ates the emphasis on conversion and revival. It discovers why 
science, literature, history, and philosophy have flourished here, 
not as lessons to be learned, but as loves to be embraced. It defines 
the force which the College contributed to that composition of 
forces which makes up the education of her sons. It changed the 
place into a person, translating into life and character the maxim: 
Bene orasse est bene studuisse. 



264 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



AMHERST IN SCIENCE 

JAMES FURMAN KEMP, '81 

Professor of Geology in Columbia University 

IF WITH sympathetic understanding we follow the history of 
science in Amherst College, we need at the start to forget the 
conditions of today and to picture to ourselves those of a cen- 
tury ago. In 1821 there were a few more than half a million people 
in Massachusetts, from whose youth Amherst and the two older 
colleges necessarily drew the chief portion of their students. For 
the would-be student, whether from Masaschusetts or from neigh- 
boring or remoter states, the stage coach was the sole means of 
travel. The journey to college from a distance of one to two hun- 
dred miles became in consequence a serious and lengthy under- 
taking. Not until eight years later was the first steam locomotive 
used on an American railway, and then as had been the case a few 
years earlier in England, it replaced horses in the haulage of coal 
from the mines to water. The vast field of employment for mathe- 
matically trained men, which was opened by the construction of 
railways, only appeared ten years after Amherst College was 
founded. 

If we turn to different fields of employment, which call for prepa- 
ration in other lines of science than mathematics, the same general 
conditions prevailed. The fundamental industries of mining and 
metallurgy with their insistent need of geology and mineralogy 
were in a very youthful stage. The little enterprises for the ex- 
traction of ores and the production of metals were conducted on 
the rule of thumb basis, and made no such demands as we now 
know for men trained in the two sciences mentioned or in chemis- 
try and physics. The mining of coal, our great source of power and 
light, was hardly begun. The first serious shipment of Pennsylva- 
nia anthracite reached Philadelphia in 1820. The bituminous coal- 
fields, farther west, which give us now half a billion tons annually, 
were practically untouched, so that coal as a source of power under 
the boilers of steam engines was almost unknown. The small and 
now abandoned soft-coal basin near Richmond, Virginia, and the 



Amherst in Science 265 

almost incombustible anthracite of Rhode Island alone had at- 
tracted much attention. Thus a great field of employment for sci- 
entifically trained men awaited later years, and much time passed 
before its insistent call led to the impressive development which 
we see today. A century ago, manufacturing was largely confined 
to the textile arts and to wood-working. Its motive power was the 
old-fashioned water-wheel. We may smile, therefore, at the begin- 
nings of science in Amherst College, but should remember that we 
are treating of the days when contributions of money from Belcher- 
town and Pelham kept the institution alive. 

The oldest of the sciences is mathematics. Far back in the early 
history of our race the conceptions of number, of length, breadth, 
surface, and volume were gained by our forefathers. While doubt- 
less based on experience with the material world, they could and 
did become largely subjective conceptions, not associated with any 
particular material body. Once embarked on this uncharted sea, 
we can easily imagine the joy of the ancient masters as they dis- 
covered in geometrical figures and volumes one striking relation- 
ship after another. The properties and areas of triangles, parallelo- 
grams, and more complicated polygons became known to them. 
They solved the ratio of the circle to the enclosing square or other 
polygon. They learned that the circle, the ellipse, the parabola, 
and the hyberbola were all yielded by intersecting a cone with 
planes passing through it in various directions. They were aware 
of the five possible volumes which can be enclosed by regular poly- 
gons. All this ancient mathematical lore, so fascinating a theme 
for a reader today, was ready at the command of student and pro- 
fessor when Amherst College was founded. The conceptions of 
concrete numbers had been brought together as arithmetic; the 
generalized conceptions of mathematical quantities had given 
algebra; the measurers of the earth, the geometricians, had de- 
veloped their conception of points, lines, surfaces, and volumes. 
Mathematics, as a branch of intellectual activity, is own brother 
to philosophy, and therefore was inevitably the first subject in 
science to be remembered and taught as intellectual discipline in 
the infant college of 1821. It came into its right and proper place in 
the trinity of subjects, Greek, Latin, and mathematics, consti- 
tuting the essentials of collegiate training a century and even less 
than half a century ago. As long as the subsequent careers of gradu- 



266 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

ates lay in the learned professions of the ministry, the law, and 
medicine, of all the sciences mathematics came first. Thus we ob- 
serve that after President Moore was called and accepted, the next 
professorship was that of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, 
with the Rev. Gamaliel S. Olds as the first incumbent. 

From the beginning to the present, mathematics has held its 
place. Taught by Professor Gamaliel Olds in 1821, it is taught, we 
rejoice to say, by Professor George D. Olds today. 

In the first chair, mathematics was combined with natural phi- 
losophy. You will observe that in 1821 and for half a century later, 
natural philosophy or the study of the world of Nature was con- 
trasted sharply and somewhat unfavorably with moral and intel- 
lectual philosophy, which concerned itself with the mind of man. 
Not entirely from the speech of the time had the old latent preju- 
dice against the study of the material universe disappeared. The 
word physics connotes no such implication, and in many institu- 
tions for about a half a century, and especially with the growth of 
chemistry, has replaced the name natural philosophy. In our 
review we cannot well separate mathematics and natural philoso- 
phy or physics. Even the trustees of the College kept them linked 
in the name of the professorship or lectureship for seventy years. 
In 1891 the word physics first appears attached to a teaching posi- 
tion in Amherst College. 

As we run over the names of the men who have expounded 
mathematics and natural philosophy, we find Professor Gamaliel 
Olds succeeded in 1824 by the Rev. Jacob Abbott. Jacob Abbott 
taught for five years and then turned to other fields, so that we have 
from him, instead of contributions on heat, light, and electricity, 
the Rollo Books, in whose perusal we gray -beards of today passed 
our childhood. In their reading, I think I am safe in saying that 
what our beloved Dr. Hitchcock used to call "our pure minds" 
were never in any way contaminated. 

In 1829 Professor Ebenezer Strong Snell succeeded Dr. Abbott 
and was for forty-seven years in active teaching. Professor Snell 
was the first student to be matriculated in the College and grad- 
uated in its first class, 1822. He was an expositor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy of unusual clearness, and as a skilful and 
ingenious experimenter before a class he was exceptional. Even in 
my own student days in 1879, when browsing around the labora- 



Amherst in Science 267 

tory as one of a little squad which had elected advanced physics 
under Professor Elihu Root, I recall finding a strip of glass, sprung 
into a bent position by thumb-screws, and with an explanatory 
label, which recorded that E. S. Snell had so placed it thirty or 
forty years before, so as to determine experimentally whether it 
would take a permanent set. 

Professor Snell was succeeded by Professor Elihu Root in 1876. 
Elihu Root had just returned from five years of university study 
in Germany, and with his doctor's degree from Berlin. He was 
filled with the investigator's spirit and with the independent at- 
titude in research which university life inculcates. While it must 
be admitted, as was usually the case with Doctors of Philosophy 
returning from Germany in the old days, physics looked a good 
deal easier to him than it did to the restless juniors who sat in his 
lecture room, yet when reviewed in its entirety the year's course 
was one of remarkable thoroughness and comprehensiveness. The 
eight or ten of my own class who pursued elective or advanced 
physics, floundered a bit because unaccustomed to courses and 
methods of such maturity, yet we gradually caught the individual 
point of view, the way of working out one's own conclusions and 
results, the habits of independent thinking and reading, as con- 
trasted with set lessons and reciting back to an instructor what he 
had handed out before. I can still see my old partner of those days, 
the late Starr J. Murphy and myself, designing, building, and 
operating an apparatus on our own original lines to determine the 
value of "g, " the acceleration of a falling body from the attraction 
of gravity. Every one of those who took "optional physics" in the 
three or four years in which it was offered propably were helped in 
their future careers in a truly remarkable way. In December of my 
senior year Elihu Root passed away and his pall-bearers were his 
little group of advanced students from my class. 

After the interim occupation of the chair by Dr. Henshaw with 
the title of Lecturer, physics became differentiated from mathe- 
matics under Professor Kimball in 1891, and is today a strong and 
well-equipped department with two professors and an instructor. 
Mathematics meantime has grown to a department of four pro- 
fessors and an instructor. 

No review, however brief, of the teachers of mathematics and 
natural philosophy would be complete without a tribute to Pro- 



268 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

fessor William Cole Esty, under whose clear and analytical mind 
so many classes came, to their intense benefit. Of extraordinary 
poise, he was also of equal kindness of heart, and many others 
beside myself, will recall instructive hours in small classes held in 
the library of his home. The beauty of clear, concise, and logical 
demonstration was brought out by him with singular success. The 
great conceptions of mathematics mean far more than restless 
young people often realize, and many a student of their pages, lost 
in the contemplation of the infinities, has forgotten the pain, the 
grief, and the disappointments of life. 

From the ranks of the students of old we may select at least one 
other name of more than ordinary distinction. James C. Coffin, of 
the class of 1828, became one of the strong men among the mathe- 
maticians of the country. At first tutor at Williams, he was later 
and for many years professor in Lafayette. In 1869 he was elected 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the body created 
by Congress in 1863 to be the scientific advisers of the United 
States Government, membership in which is the crowning honor 
of an American scientific man's career. 

In the first eighty or ninety years of the College's history, of 
which we have the available records, its graduates furnished to 
institutions of collegiate rank, somewhat over twenty teachers of 
mathematics, and twelve or fifteen teachers of physics. Among 
them Lucien Ira Blake, '77, professor in the University of Kansas, 
was a man of marked ability in research. His investigations in sub- 
marine telephonic transmission were of great aid in developing the 
listening devices, whereby the submarine menace was overcome in 
the recent war. 

Twin sister of mathematics as a branch of ancient learning is 
astronomy. It had its rise in the mysterious desert lands of Egypt 
and Mesopotamia, where in each case the supply of water, brought 
by great rivers from far distant mountains, made existence possible. 
The extraordinary clearness of the atmosphere also made the study 
of the heavens the natural occupation of contemplative minds. Any 
American who has ever camped in the deserts of Arizona and New 
Mexico, as have I, and who has lain on his blankets and looked at 
the sky blazing with constellations of a brilliancy unknown in our 
moisture-laden atmosphere, will understand why those other desert 
lands of the Near East were the cradle of astronomy. 



Amherst in Science 269 

A quarter of a century passed before this subject appeared in Am- 
herst's professorial titles, and then it was combined with zoology 
in a strange pair of yoke-fellows. In 1865 William C. Esty was ap- 
pointed Walker Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, and in 
1882 David Todd became associate-professor of Astronomy alone. 
Ten years later a professorship of Astronomy and Navigation was 
created and Professor Todd was its first incumbent. I presume that 
the navigation taught in a fresh-water college would find its natural 
applications on the Great Lakes. With the Lawrence Observatory 
in the Octagon and the later and more elaborate equipment, Am- 
herst has been well supplied with apparatus wherewith to foster 
interest in this subject. 

Even in the very early years, and with the larger part of the 
graduates finding their careers in the pulpit, Amherst College could 
not well exist without giving attention to the fundamental sub- 
ject of chemistry. And so we find a chair of Chemistry and Natural 
History established in 1825, and in the chair Edward Hitchcock, 
the most distinguished of Amherst's scientific men in the first fifty 
years of its history. The chemistry which we know now was then 
in its infancy, as one illustration will show. Only two years be- 
fore the chair was established was the element silicon separated 
and recognized as such. And yet we are now well aware that silicon 
constitutes about one-quarter of the outer ten miles of the earth, 
and that after oxygen it is the most abundant of all the elements. 
The number of elements to be learned by the student in 1825 was 
less than half of those expounded today; and the facilities for ana- 
lytical work were scarcely developed. In the years before 1800 
and for a long time thereafter, Philadelphia was the center of 
scientific activity and instruction in the United States. Active 
minds ran less to theological disputations in the more southern 
cities than they did in New England. To Philadelphia most of the 
students of science resorted, and, as I mean to emphasize later, 
they chiefly collected around the medical schools. But the advent 
of the elder Benjamin Silliman at Yale in the first decade of the last 
century gave enormous impetus to chemistry. He was a most in- 
teresting lecturer, a brilliant experimenter, and a man of both 
American and European training. To his class-room naturally 
gravitated almost all the teachers of chemistry in the colleges 
seventy-five to a hundred years ago. Although professor of chemis- 



£70 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

try, the special field of Edward Hitchcock was geology, and under 
it he must receive more extended mention ; but for twenty years he 
taught chemistry and was then succeeded by Charles Upham 
Shepard, of the class of 1824, one of Benjamin Silliman's graduate 
students. Professor Shepard is better known as an early mineral- 
ogist than as a chemist, and must be reserved for a word of tribute 
under this subject. From '52 to' 68, except for an interval of two 
years, chemistry was taught by Wilham S. Clark, '48, best known 
as the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College in later 
years. In 1868 Professor E. P. Harris, nine years out of the labora- 
tories of the famous old University of Gottingen, took up the in- 
struction, and began that incisive search, which he continued for 
nearly forty years, to see if anywhere in the serried ranks of ani- 
mated skulls which filled his class-room there was concealed a 
"mind." At least forty classes will remember the mingled terror 
and awe with which they marched four or five times a week to 
lectures, and the searching inquisition which they met regarding 
reactions in the laboratory. In the end we almost worked our heads 
off before becoming grounded in the fundamentals. The discipline 
was severe but extraordinarily beneficial, and the truth of this 
statement is attested by the fact that under Professor Harris some- 
thing like thirty-five subsequent professors of chemistry were 
started on their careers, and of them thirteen followed in his foot- 
steps to take their doctorates at Gottingen. 

Gottingen was the favorite European university with young 
Americans in the past century. So far as I can discover, the first 
foreign degree taken by an Amherst man was in 1852 at 
this ancient seat of learning, and was in chemistry by Hubert P. 
Herrick, '48. A procession was thus started which in the end num- 
bered over twenty, all but two or three in chemistry. While the 
available data for the last twenty years are scanty, yet I am safe 
in saying that from the chemical lecture rooms and laboratories of 
Amherst College over fifty students have gone forth to be teachers 
of chemistry. One of these, Harmon N. Morse, '73, long associated 
with Professor Remsen at Johns Hopkins, was elected to the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences in 1907. Only the lack of time prevents 
me citing others who have been notable figures in American educa- 
tion in this branch. We alumni felicitate ourselves that under 
Professor Hopkins and his associates the traditions are being main- 



Amherst in Science 271 

tained, and that as of old we find the due proportion of Amherst 
graduates following up chemistry as a career. 

Aside from becoming instructors in it, the call for chemists and 
chemical engineers in our manufacturing and metallurgical estab- 
lishments is insistent and widespread. A group of Amherst gradu- 
ates have followed these lines of work in the past and are scattered 
throughout the industries of the country. No thoroughly trained 
and qualified man need fail in the long run of opportunities for 
great and needed usefulness. In fact, as my colleague the past year 
at Columbia, Professor Slosson, has been sounding in the ears of 
his countrymen, the future success of our industries in world com- 
petition very largely turns on technical chemistry. While the in- 
terest and the broadening infiuence of foreign residence and study 
are not to be decried, yet the excursion to Europe is no longer 
necessary, since our own universities and technical schools supply 
quite as good facilities and instruction. 

From the sciences which deal more particularly with inorganic 
Nature, we pass through the connecting medium of geology to 
those which deal with problems of life. Mineralogy links geology 
with chemistry. Paleontology is its bond with zoology and botany. 
In taking up geology we deal with that branch which Edward 
Hitchcock the elder made peculiarly Amherst's own. Geology is in 
many respects the youngest of the major sciences, and it happened 
that, when Amherst College was founded, this subject in the United 
States was an infant just getting on its feet to walk alone. William 
Maclure, the father of American geology, had been working for ten 
or fifteen years, and of his efforts we find a fascinating story under 
the name of Seth Way, in the historical novel prepared with singu- 
lar insight and literary grasp by Caroline Dale Snedeker, the wife 
of the Rev. Charles H. Snedeker, of the class of '80. Somewhat 
later, 1816 to be exact, Amos Eaton, forty years of age and a prac- 
tising lawyer, gave up the law in order to study with Benjamin 
Silliman, and then to become a sort of missionary of geology by go- 
ing about New England and New York as a peripatetic lecturer. 
Between stations he tramped as often as rode, and he expounded 
the young science at the lyceums of the day, which were then the 
chief means of general popular education. When in his travels he 
reached Deerfield, the lovely little village a few miles northwest of 
us, he found the Rev. Edward Hitchcock in charge of the local 



272 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

church. The mind of Edward Hitchcock proved to be fertile soil in 
which to sow the geological seed. Dr. George P. Merrill of the Unit- 
ed States National Museum, the historian of American Geology, 
thus records the incident. The year 1818, he tells us "witnessed 
the first appearance in geological science of Edward Hitchcock, 
then a young theological student of twenty -five, but who was des- 
tined to become one of the most prominent figures of his time." 

In 1825, as earlier stated, Edward Hitchcock was called to be 
Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in Amherst College. 
He held this chair until 1845, when he became Professor of Natural 
Theology and Geology, a double title, very characteristic of the 
times. He occupied this chair until his retirement in 1864. For 
nine years from 1845 he was President of the College. Edward 
Hitchcock was the first State Geologist of Massachusetts and 
brought out in 1832 the first of the really serious reports from any 
state. Nearly twenty years later he was also State Geologist of 
Vermont, and with his assistants, among them his two sons, he 
issued two large volumes on the Green Mountain State. He was 
also an organizer of the early scientific societies; one of the founders 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and 
a charter member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863. 

In the early years of the College there are other notable names. 
Charles Upham Shepard, of the class of 1824, studied for a time 
with Benjamin Siliiman at Yale, and prepared an ofiicial State 
Report on the Mineralogy and Geology of Connecticut. Dr. 
Shepard succeeded Edward Hitchcock in 1845 as Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History. Seven years later Chemistry was 
dropped from his title and he remained as professor of Natural 
History until he retired in 1877. Even in my own student days, 
which began in the fall of that year, he came for an occasional 
lecture. Professor Shepard was one of the early collectors and keen 
students of minerals in this countrJ^ The foundation of the Col- 
lege's mineral cabinet was gathered by him, and although much 
injured by the burning of Walker Hall in 1882, its rare specimens 
assembled from the virgin localities of early days are still largely 
in the'cases. Professor Shepard was a prolific writer on mineralogy 
and played an important part in the development of this branch of 
science. 

Another name is Charles Baker, of the class of 1834, who while 



Amherst in Science 273 

professor in Middlebury College was the first State Geologist of 
Vermont. We owe to him the widely used name "Azoic" for the 
ancient crystalline rocks, but he is better known as a conchologist 
than as a geologist. It may be a matter of surprise to many gradu- 
ates to learn that Edward Hitchcock, Jr., our beloved "Doc Hitch- 
cock," of the class of '49, worked as a geologist in his early years 
and only later settled down in the gymnasium. His younger brother 
Charles, of the class of '56, after trying his hand at theology at Yale 
and Andover, ultimately became Professor of Geology at Dart- 
mouth, State Geologist of New Hampshire, and a man of distinc- 
tion in his chosen branch of science. 

In 1870 the return trail from the University of Gottingen brought 
back to Amherst Benjamin Kendall Emerson, to whom we young 
fellows, who have been graduated anywhere from ten to fifty years, 
are delighted to take off our hats today in affectionate respect. 
Few teachers of science have been more inspiring. From his class- 
room have gone ten or fifteen professors of the subject, two state 
geologists, several on the United States Geological Survey, four 
members of the National Academy of Sciences; and three of his 
old students have followed him in the presidency of the Geological 
Society of America. There might easily have been more to mention 
in connection with these rewards, had not death untimely cut off 
in full career George Huntington Williams, '78, professor in Johns 
Hopkins, to whom more than to any other one teacher we owe the 
great spread of the microscopic study of rocks in America; and 
William Bullock Clark, '84, the successor of Professor Williams 
at Johns Hopkins, State Geologist of Maryland, and one of the 
ablest administrators of a scientific organization in recent times. 

At Washington, in the United States Geological Survey, Whit- 
man Cross, '75, dean of the petrologists of America and veteran 
expositor of Rocky Mountain Geology, pushes the boundaries of 
our knowledge farther and farther into the unknown; while at 
Albany, in the State Geologist's chair, the mantle of the great 
paleontologist of the past century, James Hall, has fallen on the 
shoulders of John Mason Clarke, '77, even as in the days of old the 
mantle of the prophet Elijah fell from the chariot of fire to the 
younger Elisha. 

From the pen of Professor Emerson has come a long line of mono- 
graphs and important scientific papers dealing with the difficult 



274 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

problems of New England geology. In the lecture room and labora- 
tory of the College today the lines of research have shifted from the 
inorganic to the organic world, but they are being maintained, and 
we wish Professor Loomis all success both in his own investigations 
and in maintaining the continuing line of earnest young workers in 
the subject which Edward Hitchcock, Sr., founded at Amherst so 
many years ago. 

Closely akin to geology and specifically much older in 
the lists of the sciences, is geography. In recent years the two 
have drawn closer together, and under the name physiography 
we have their especial connecting link. But after all, geography 
treats of man's relations to the face of the earth, to its seas, rivers, 
plains and mountains, and by these physical features, political di- 
visions, migrations of races, great battlefields, and, in large part, 
the development of humanity have been determined. While Am- 
herst seems not to have made definite provision for the particular 
branch of geography in its curriculum, yet this record would be in- 
complete without reference to the work of one alumnus, Gilbert 
Grosvenor, '97, who has been Editor of the National Geographic 
Magazine and Director of the National Geographic Society since 
1899. Taking charge of the magazine when the Society had but 
nine hundred members, he has seen its numbers increase to seven 
hundred thousand. The magazine has become a most important 
aid to teachers of geography; and the Society has been enabled to 
support expeditions in the Arctic, in Peru, and recently in the Kat- 
mai region of Alaska, the "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." By 
its good offices under the presidency of Dr. Grosvenor, three square 
miles of the big trees of California have been added to the Sequoia 
National Park, so that now, practically all these priceless relics of 
the geological and botanical past are brought within the reservation. 

Zoology and botany were embraced in the early years of the 
College under the general name of natural history. We first find 
the former in the title of Charles Baker Adams, as Professor of 
Zoology and Astronomy in 1847, certainly a peculiar combination 
of unrelated subjects, unless the stars exercised upon living things 
tiie mysterious influences which astrologers attributed to them. 
Professor Adams, as earlier remarked, was a notable student and 
describer of the mollusca, and his early death at the age of thirly- 
liine cut him off when just in his prime. In the class of '53 was 
Sanborn Tenney, loi)g professor at Williams, and one of the best 



Amherst in Science 275 

known zoologists of his day. Altogether ten or more professors of 
zoology have come from Amherst, but the greatest debt of the Col- 
lege in connection with this branch is due to theological teachings. 
In my student days we were credibly informed that the sad post- 
mortem fate of Socrates, as outlined by the professors of theology 
in the Union Seminary, New York, had turned John Mason Tyler 
from theology to the biological sciences. After writing with rare 
diplomatic tact to his father, who was a profound student of the 
Greek philosopher, that, if what he was taught at Union was true, 
then Socrates was in hell, the Professor Emeritus of Biology today 
took his way to Europe without any parental objections. In the 
fall of 1879 he returned to Amherst and immediately proceeded to 
acquire much valuable experience and training in the art of teach- 
ing from my class. We are proud to present to the world today as 
our own particular product one of the most useful and inspiring 
professors that Amherst has ever had. 

Botany first escaped from the inclusive name of natural history 
in 1858, in which year Edward Tuckerman, for three years pre- 
viously Professor of History, became Professor of Botany, a chair 
which he held for the following twenty-eight years. Professor 
Tuckerman was a botanist of distinction, and in his day the chief 
American authority on the lichens. His work was recognized by 
his election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1868. Profes- 
sor Tuckerman had his own ideas on non-interference with the 
orderly course of Nature. In my student days, his colleague in 
botany at Dartmouth, when on a visit to Amherst, brought him a 
carefully potted specimen of some rare plant recently discovered 
near Hanover, and with the thought that he might like to set it out 
near Amherst. Failing to find Professor Tuckerman at home, the 
visitor left the potted plant with a note of explanation. Imagine 
this would-be benefactor's surprise the following day on receiving 
the plant back with a letter expressing in vigorous language Pro- 
fessor Tuckerman's opinion of a man who would interfere with any 
plant's natural habitat, and insisting on the return of the specimen 
to the place where it originally grew. 

Amherst has graduated between five and ten botanists, so far 
as I can learn, and in the number may well be proud to include the 
the name of George Lincoln Goodale, of the class of '60, Professor 
of Botany in Harvard University, Director of the Harvard Botani- 



276 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

cal Garden, and elected to membership in the National Academy 
of Sciences in 1890. 

During the colonial period and in the early decades of our inde- 
pendent national existence almost all the scientific life of the 
country centered about the profession of medicine. Nearly every 
one of our earlier scientists, whatever branch he cultivated, was 
trained in the medical schools, and from those schools derived his 
intellectual stimulus. Into the practice of medicine Amherst has 
sent a large proportion of its graduates, and of this number over 
fifty have become teachers in the medical schools of the country. 
Some leaders of national and international fame are numbered 
among them. Hasket Derby, of the class of '55, was one of the 
earliest American specialists in the treatment of the eye. Walter 
Wyman, '70, became surgeon-general in the Marine Hospital Serv- 
ice, under the federal government, and served as president of one 
or more international sanitary conventions. In more recent years 
Dr. Walter W. Palmer, of the class of 1905, after a fine record at 
the Rockefeller Institute and at Johns Hopkins, is to hold the chair 
of Medicine in the far-reaching new developments planned for in- 
struction and research by Columbia University and the Presbyte- 
rian Hospital in New York. 

But the great peculiar service rendered by Amherst in connec- 
tion with medical science is the establishment of the pioneer gym- 
nasium and the pioneer work in physical culture, among all the 
institutions of the land. In 1860 the start was made under John 
Worthington Hooker, M. D., but his incumbency lasted only a year 
and then Edward Hitchcock, Jr., came into his own. For fifty 
years Dr. Hitchcock made a healtliful recreation out of what was 
elsewhere too often a tedious grind. Into the hearts of students for 
these fifty years the keen and kindly eye of "Old Doc" bored a 
way and the smack of his roll-book beating time for the gymnasium 
drill, will reecho in cherished memories for many a long year yet. 
Dr. Hitchcock established the series of physical measurements and 
vital statistics which are prized the world over. The good work 
goes on under Dr. Phillips and his efiicient assistants, with in- 
creased and improved facilities, with broadened out-door methods, 
and in hands which maintain the old traditions. 

In the professions represented by the various branches of en- 
gineering Amherst graduates have not failed to enter through the 



Amherst in Science 277 

doorway of additional preparation in the technical schools of the 
country. Having had a liberal education with which to begin their 
special professional studies, they have left excellent records behind 
them in the schools, as I well know after over thirty years' experi- 
ence in teaching students in engineering. In mining, civil, mechan- 
ical, and electrical engineering they are scattered over the country. 
Twenty years ago at the annual dinner of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, held that year in Richmond, Virginia, I 
chanced to sit next to George S. Morison, known throughout the 
United States as our foremost bridge builder, and especially for his 
skill with the difficult silt rivers of the Great Plains. We fell into 
conversation on technical education, and he said, "I know that the 
technical schools are thorough and that they turn out well-pre- 
pared young men ; but, curiously enough, the best assistant I ever 
had in my office came from a little college up in New England 
named Amherst." I do not know who the young man was, but 
with fine perception he understood and foresaw, without being 
told, the needs of one of our greatest engineers. 

In architecture, which connects engineering with the fine arts 
and hes on the border where science stops, I cannot forbear to 
remind you that the alumni list contains some notable names. For 
years the president of the New York Alumni Association was Wil- 
liam R. Mead, '67, of McKim, Mead and White, whose beautiful 
creations adorn the entire country. One can hardly resist the con- 
clusion that the lore of antiquity and the teachings of today have 
thereby found their expression in imperishable stone. 

In conclusion, v/e must feel that the first hundred years of Am- 
herst College have been fruitful ones in science. The record is one 
to inspire and to stimulate the young men who will make up the 
student body in the next and succeeding centuries. We expect 
their work in science to show the insight and breadth which is to be 
gained by study and reading during the college years in the in- 
heritance which we have received from the great minds of all 
periods of the world's history. Furnished in this way with vision, 
Amherst in the past was often in advance of its time in its encour- 
agement of new views, and especially in the part which it gave to 
the sciences in its curriculum. To use the favorite and expressive 
figure often employed by President Seelye in his classes, like some 
projecting peak it caught first the rays of the rising sun and stood 



£78 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

out like a beacon, while all around was^still the darkness. Illumined 
by this radiance its students have gone out into the world in unu- 
sual proportions as teachers and investigators. At the end of the 
first century, we, who are passing, hand the heritage and experience 
of these years to the men of the next century, just as one runner at 
the end of a relay gives the baton to him who will speed along the 
track in the next stage of the race. 




1901 




As.si;\iiii.v UN Till; (Ommos 
THE ALUMNI PA HAD E 



Amherst in Commercial Pursuits 279 



AMHERST IN COMMERCIAL PURSUITS 

ALEXANDER DANA NOYES, '83 

Financial Editor of the New York Times 

IN HIS book of Oxford's distinguished alumni, bearing the 
formidable title "Athente Oxonienses," Anthony a Wood 
explains that he is sketching the lives of those who during 
four hundred years had been the "honour and glory" of the Uni- 
versity. He then makes the casual remark that his list of Oxford's 
great alumni consists wholly of "the writers and the bishops 
thereof." A list of the Athense Amherstienses could hardly have 
had such a limitation, even fifty years ago. Possibly Wood him- 
self was influenced by the ideas of his day as to what sort of public 
distinction was appropriate for university alumni and deserved 
to be commemorated by the university. 

If he had selected his Oxford immortals in the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, he could not have passed over the great law- 
yers, orators, and statesmen who held the Oxonian diploma. 
Nevertheless, the tradition that certain kinds of celebrity were the 
natural product of college education and that the other kinds, 
when achieved by college alumni, were an accident, had long 
persistence both in England and America. One may fairly doubt 
whether even Amherst would have thought, until a very little 
while ago, of discussing the achievements of her graduates in prac- 
tical business affairs. 

When I was asked to speak on this occasion of the achievement 
of Amherst alumni in the field of practical business affairs, I must 
confess to having been a bit nonplussed. The achievement of Am- 
herst men in some of the highest places of present-day finance and 
industry is known to everybody; the list would number the leading 
figures in four or five of the greatest institutions or business houses 
of the United States. But a survey of contemporary achievement 
is not exactly, or at any rate not exclusively, what we mean when 
we speak of the influence of Amherst on the career of her alumni 
during her century of history. 

We measure the impression made by Amherst on education, on 



280 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

jurisprudence, on public affairs, on religious thought and activities, 
by calling to mind the series of eminent men who have taken their 
degree on College Hill during all the past hundred years and have 
then made their mark in their profession. Nothing of the sort will 
usually occur to mind, in regard to the longer list of our alumni 
and the field of practical business affairs. On the contrary, it is the 
rather common belief that, until a very few decades ago, Amherst 
graduates did not, as the expression is, go into business at all. It 
would probably be said offhand by most people that they became 
teachers, lawyers, ministers, missionaries. Many of us are accus- 
tomed to thinking of Amherst before the seventies as a preparatory 
institution for the ministry, or at most a training-school for the 
learned professions. 

Perhaps it will be well first to test the facts as to this popular 
belief; I think we shall find them interesting. The tradition is 
probably stronger here than with most other colleges; it certainly 
gets some color from the avowed purpose of those, who, as Pro- 
fessor T^ "^v tells us in his history, founded Amherst College "ex- 
pressly for the education of ministers," But it is not confined to 
Amherst. The "Memorials of Eminent Yale Men," for instance, 
published in 1914 by the Secretary of the University and survey- 
ing the whole of the institution's history, divides the distinguished 
Yale alumni into the nine exclusive classes of divines, authors, 
statesmen, educational leaders, scholars, men of science, inventors 
and artists, lawyers and jurists, patriots and soldiers. Not one of 
the names on the list will qualify strictly as a "business man." 
The nearest approach to such qualification is in the case of Eli 
Whitney and Samuel F. B. Morse, and everyone knows that the 
inventor of the cotton gin studied law and that the inventor of the 
telegraph planned to be a painter. 

The conclusion might seem to follow, not only that college alumni 
of the longer past did not achieve distinction in practical business 
affairs, but that men with the instinct of business did not go to 
college. The statistics have been compiled, however, and they do 
not bear out the second inference. From Harvard's compilations 
we shall find, to be sure, that in the university's very earliest years, 
70 per cent of the graduates were ministers; but even as long ago 
as the first half of the nineteenth century the list allots to "com- 
mercial pursuits" 9 per cent on the average of the graduates, with 



Amherst in Commercial Pursuits 281 

the remark that "since 1880 this has been the dominant pro- 
fession." 

Perhaps this might be supposed to be a consequence of the com- 
mercial traditions and commercial aristocracy peculiar to the Bos- 
ton of other days. One may turn, then, to another compilation in 
which the textbook of educational statistics combines the graduate 
record of thirty-seven representative American colleges. Alumni 
engaged in commercial pursuits numbered 6 per cent on this list 
during the first half of the nineteenth century, but rose to 20 per 
cent before its close, being exceeded then among the professions 
only by teaching. 

This of itself does not prove parallel results with Amherst; but 
the record which the college authorities have been good enough to 
draw up for me is such as to shake most preconceived ideas. It is 
true that four business men among the graduates of a class was the 
maximum in Amherst's first twenty years of history, but that was 
no mean proportion of the classes of that day, and except for the 
first two or three years of all, there was no class, even in that period, 
without at least one business man among its graduates. In Am- 
herst's first half -century, 11 per cent of its graduates engaged in 
commercial pursuits; apparently more than the average of the 
thirty-seven colleges. In its second half-century, the astonishing 
fact is shown that 48 per cent of Amherst graduates went into 
what are classified as business occupations. 

For the whole alumni roll the footing shows the men of affairs 
so far to overtop numerically any other profession, that their sum 
total falls only about 100 short of equaling that of the ministers and 
the lawyers combined. Knowing this, and recognizing the tenden- 
cies of the present day, no one need be surprised at the much- 
heralded fact that the graduating class of 1921 is sending 54 men 
into business, as against 27 into all the professions and only one 
into the ministry. 

The topic entrusted to me raises two somewhat separate ques- 
tions — the achievement of Amherst men in the field of business and 
the influence of the College on their business lives. We have lately 
had the testimony of Mr. Edison that college graduates do not 
measure up to his tests of efficiency and intelligence; that they are 
" surprisingly ignorant; " that " they don't seem to know anything." 
The test questions submitted by him to applicants for employment, 



^2 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

and on the answers or failures to answer which his judgment of the 
applicants is supposed to have been largely based, are undoubtedly 
interesting. Along wnth other more familiar inquiries, chiefly in 
history and geography, the incomplete published list includes such 
questions as "How far is it from New York to Buffalo?" "Who 
invented the modern paper-making machine?" "What is the 
weight of air in a room 20 by 30 by 10?" "Who is called the 
'father of railways' in the United States?" "Where is Kenosha?" 
"What city in the United States leads in making laundry ma- 
chines?" "From where do we get our domestic sardines?" 

Now we have not been informed who and what kind of college 
men failed in their answers. But I suppose we should have to ad- 
mit the high improbability that any college graduate could answer 
the questions offhand. What species of non-graduate could be 
depended on to answer them all is perhaps another matter. But 
even in Mr. Edison's less recondite questions, such as " What is the 
Sargasso Sea?" and "What large river in the United States flows 
from south to north?" the principal collegiate association will be 
with the agonies of the old-time entrance examination, and we all 
know to what extent, after having laboriously crammed our mem- 
ory with out-of-the-way information which was likely to be called 
for on that occasion, even the best of us would dismiss it instan- 
taneously from mind when the papers had been handed in. Those 
of us who in the seventies and the eighties used to set down with 
such accuracy, in our entrance tests, the number and character of 
all the South American rivers, the divisions of the Arctic continent, 
or the boundaries of Thibet, are aware exactly how much and how 
little of the achievement we could have repeated at Commence- 
ment. 

The answer to Mr. Edison's challenge is perfectly familiar; it is 
that the value of the college course consists far less in accumulating 
facts than in acquiring the ability to obtain such knowledge quickly 
whenever needed, and in training the mind to use efficiently the 
knowledge thus acquired. I suppose there is no dispute as to the 
value of this training in the case of what we call professional men. 
In the question, what its value is and has been to men engaged in 
business pursuits, is involved the larger question of the influence 
of Amherst on what we have seen to be numerically the largest 
group of Amherst alumni. There is undoubtedly a strong body of 



AMHiiiRST IN Commercial Pursuits 283 

opinion, of which Mr. Edison and Mr. Carnegie have not been the 
only exponents, which holds that a college course is a hindrance 
rather than a help to success in business life. The question would 
be partly settled if one could appraise the actual achievement of all 
the 1,734 Amherst graduates who have engaged in such pursuits. 
I have examined the names of such graduates in the first half- 
century of the college's history, and can frankly say that I recog- 
nized few whose achievement in business life would nowadays be 
recalled and none which has impressed itself deeply on the coun- 
try's financial or industrial history. 

Yet I wonder if a very different result would be obtained from 
examination of the record of any other college except perhaps a 
purely technical institution of instruction. It is quite true that the 
conspicuous figures, the legendary names, of American finance, 
commerce, and industry in the past fifty years, have not in a very 
great number of cases been those of college graduates. There are 
such instances, even in the older list of eminent bankers, finan- 
ciers, merchants, and manufacturers, and they are notable ones; 
Mr. Pierpont Morgan with his course at Gottingen, Mr. John 
Crosby Brown, valedictorian at Columbia in 1859, and Mr. Hugh 
McCuUoch, Bowdoin graduate, western banker and Secretary of 
the Treasury under President Lincoln, will perhaps especially occur 
to mind. Yet they are undoubtedly the exceptions. 

How are we to explain this fact? Some men who do not believe 
in college training will reply that high success in business life re- 
quires that the years which a college course requires from a young 
man's life should be applied to mastering the details of his business ; 
in other words, that the four most useful years of direct commercial 
training will otherwise have been wasted, with a resultant fatal 
handicap to business achievement. Others will tell you that the 
college course actually unfits young men for intensive achievement 
in such pursuits. In the first explanation there is a modicum of 
truth, but it is going pretty far to assume that the successful 
careers in financial and commercial life, even in those earlier days, 
were made possible through the devoting to actual business instead 
of to higher education the years from seventeen to twenty-one. We 
should first have to ask something about these distinguished careers 
themselves — what they really were, how they were achieved, what 
made them conspicuous in American history. 



284 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

What we shall find, I think, is that nation-wide reputation of the 
sort was extremely rare in the country's business record before the 
seventies. Very few business men of the period could qualify as 
celebrities. We should have to know also what is to be the test of 
such distinction. Even today, the inclusion of a name in "Who's 
Who" will hardly serve to classify even a lawyer or public man as 
eminent in his profession. Three or four famous bankers and mer- 
chants of rugged personality and picturesque achievement, Girard 
and Astor among them, half a dozen railway builders, and a group 
of speculative rather than constructive financiers in the later six- 
ties, would make up most of the list of men in such callings who 
were known to every one in their own older generation and are re- 
membered in ours. One may almost count on his ten fingers the 
names which the country would recognize today as those of famous 
American business men during Amherst's first half-century of 
history. 

Celebrity, in other words, was far rarer in the commercial and 
financial careers of that earlier American perioa than in any other 
calling, and it was certainly not guaranteed by the giving up to 
business of the four years which a college course would have re- 
quired. If it be true that the absence of college graduates in some 
fields of high industrial achievement in the older period is explained 
by the fact that men of inborn genius for finance and industry were 
impatient of delay in getting down to practical work, it must be 
equally admitted that the business men who dispensed with a col- 
lege course and still remained mediocrities in their vocation were 
in numbers vastly out of proportion to the men who began as they 
did and achieved spectacular success. 

Furthermore, it wull not do to overlook the long list of useful 
business lives of men who at least won what we call personal suc- 
cess in their vocation and local if not national eminence. In such 
a list we shall find the college graduate and the Amherst alumnus, 
back even to the early days of iVmherst history. The question 
then arises. Did Amherst's training, the culture, the spirit, the 
acquaintance with those things of human life and thought which 
are above and beyond the consideration of commercial profits, 
mean anything to these men who did not achieve the highest place 
in the walks of industry.'' 

One answer to this question will be found in a remarkable fact 



Amherst in Commercial Pursuits 285 

of Amherst's history. I mean the very numerous and striking in- 
stances in which men of distinction and success in the field of 
finance and industry, themselves not graduates of any college, have 
seen fit in the past thirty or forty years to send to Amherst the sons 
whom they expected to take into business with themselves, and 
have shown their approval of the results by the personal loyalty 
with which subsequently they have themselves, without diploma 
or degree, become identified with the fortunes of the college. 

There can, I think, be little doubt that these men who made sure 
that the sons should get the kind of education of which the fathers 
had been deprived, were far-seeing readers of the future. In partic- 
ular, they correctly understood the usefulness of the training in 
general culture and modern thought, without the diffusion of 
energy into a hundred by-paths of special instruction, which is and 
always has been the basis of the Amherst curriculum. Sir Walter 
Scott's old Edinburgh advocate who declared that "the lawyer 
who is without history and literature is a mechanic, a mere work- 
ing mason," but that "if he be acquainted with them he may ven- 
ture to call himself an architect," was laying down a general prin- 
ciple which is as true of practical business affairs today as it was 
of the law in Sir Walter Scott's day. The conspicuously successful 
business career of today calls for a good deal more than was required 
half a century, even a quarter of a century, ago. 

It is not an accident that the rise of the United States, especially 
since the beginning of the present century, to financial and indus- 
trial prestige never previously achieved, has been exactly coinci- 
dent with the notable increase in the number of young men who 
have taken the college course before engaging in business pur- 
suits. It is nothing illogical that the number of our own grad- 
uates who have achieved distinction in commercial life has been 
far greater in the last fift-en or twenty years than in the entire pre- 
vious history of the College. In the new social and economic era 
in which we are living, new views are coming to prevail in regard 
to the necessary qualifications of the distinguished man of affairs. 
The question nowadays is not so much what college training can 
do to ensure a notable business career as what such a career exacts 
in the way of culture, power of thought and expression, famil- 
iarity with the past as well as knowledge of the present and judg- 
ment of the future. 



286 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

The man of affairs who wins real distinction in these later days 
has to be something more than a successful organizer or a success- 
ful money-maker. Society holds him to account as a thinker on 
social and economic problems, a student of public events, often as 
a public speaker who is expected to defend or criticize existing 
institutions. The power to do these things has no doubt been 
gained in many instances without college training, just as high 
capacity in the law has sometimes been acquired without a law- 
school education. But the handicap is recognized in both profes- 
sions. 

With the merchant or banker or manufacturer, the tables are 
turned when he is confronted with the lew responsibilities of 
achieved success, as compared with the l nation which seems to 
exist when the college graduate, beginning his practical work, 
measures his experience and aptitude against that of other men who 
have applied to business routine the years which might have been 
given up in exchange for a broad academic training. If the past 
three or four decades are an indication, we are only at the begin- 
ning of this new view of the responsibilities of business life and of 
the part which college training is destined to play in those respon- 
sibilities. 

That training does not consist of technical education. It does 
not even restrict itself to education in the science which governs 
and the principles which underlie practical business affairs. It is 
not merely political economy and the theory of finance. It consists, 
rather, unless I very much mistake the tendency of the day, of in- 
stilling into the young man's mind that broad culture, that ac- 
quaintance with history, literature, ancient and modern thought, 
that power of going to original sources for necessary information, 
which ought to mark the Amherst graduate who made the right 
use of his opportunities. It is a notable indication of the s})irit of 
the day that a period, characterized as no previous period in history 
has been, by great achievement in the field of commercial pursuits, 
should be characterized also by recourse to college training, on a 
hitherto unexampled scale, on the part of young men preparing to 
enter such pursuits and by a constantly increasing proportion of 
college graduates who are attaining eminence in them. 

To my mind, the most significant phenomenon of all is the fact 
that this period is even more strikingly characterized among the 



Amherst in Commercial Pursuits 287 

colleges themselves by insistence on or reversion to that broad aca- 
demic education which has always and distinctly marked the Am- 
herst college course. Amherst has never failed to make her deep 
impression in the fields of divinity, of education, of law, of litera- 
ture when those were the vocations of primary importance in 
guidmg the social and political forces of the day. But we also know 
from the achievement of our alumni in present-day finance and in- 
dustry, and we are likely to realize it still more fully as the coun- 
try's new problems unfold in the new economic era, which will 
follow the Great War as it has followed all other great wars, that 
in this direction also Amherst is not failing of her high respon- 
sibilities. 



288 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

AMHERST IN THE MINISTRY 

nehemiah boynton, '79 

THE record of any cheerful yesterday and the always meagre 
biographies of men who were giants in the earth in those 
days — for "great men have always short biogra.phies" — 
unfailingly bring to grateful recognition the gracious and significant 
influence of the negligible, and invest with the crown of essential 
importance the trivial, inconsequential, and even the outr6. No- 
body ever accused George Whitefield of elevated scholarship, yet 
the flaming passion of his crude, but religion-conquered spirit 
made him a "pioneer of a great improvement in the literature of 
England and America," quickened minds greatly superior to his 
own, and was the efficient cause of institutions he could never 
have founded, and of insistencies to which he could never have 
been cordial. 

"If Whitefield," so an acute observer declares, "had never been 
at Northampton, Exeter, and Newburyport, the Andover The- 
ological Seminary might never have existed." His influence has 
been recently traced, percolating through various agents until it 
reached the men who started that institution. Whether the 
background of the founders of Amherst reaches through North- 
ampton to George Whitefield, — or was it Jonathan Edwards? — 
may be an investigation to be awaited by future historians of the 
beginnings of the College, but one certain fact is that beneath the 
impulse of some religious influence the people of Hampshire County 
had become possessed of ideals and aspirations which could not 
be fed from the nether springs of zeal, of fervor, and of perspira- 
tion, but which required, in proper proportion, intelligence, rea- 
son, and the persuasion of orderly thoughts with at least some 
reference to the accumulations of the centuries in the storehouse 
of the human mind. 

"No county in the state has uniformly discovered so firm an 
adherence to good order and good government, or a higher regard 
to learning, morals, and religion," It was this elevated sense of the 
higher values of life, and the determination that these should not 




2 <; 



Amherst in the Ministry 289 

be lost out of the lives of coming generations, which brought Am- 
herst College to birth. Eagerness for a culture domesticated in 
character, for a range of life-interest embedded in religion, sug- 
gested the thought and cherished the ideal of a college in which 
should be secured "the classical education of indigent young men 
of piety and talents for the Christian ministry." They were not 
indifferent to the benefit of a liberal education as an adequate 
foundation for any life calling, but their dominant sense of the 
absolute need of it was in relation to the ministry. Dr. Hum- 
phrey, the second president of the College, was spokesman for the 
deep conviction of the founders when he said: "Without the fear 
of God, nothing can be secure for one moment. Without the con- 
trol of moral and religious principles, education is a drawn and 
polished sword in the hands of a gigantic maniac." Unwilling to 
sink to the level of "the finished and finite clod, untroubled by a 
spark," these brave adventures looked to an educated ministry 
to conserve the sacred fire and to fan the quivering, lambent flame 
of their expectant loyalties. 

Pause we then, at the very outset, to pay our reverent respect 
to the indomitable faith and courageous adventure which, while 
expecting great things from God, did not shrink — or shirk — in 
attempting great things for God. 

The redoubtable Colonel Graves, whose passion in his quest for 
$15,000 as the foundation of the Charity Fund, unquenched and 
undefeated by failure of realization, was rejuvenated by the es- 
pousal of a bolder and more adventurous, as well as comprehensive 
purpose to raise $50,000, which was accomplished : Colonel Graves, 
whose sanity was questioned because of the tenacity of his great- 
hearted loyalty — "It seems to me," said Squire Strong, "he is de- 
ranged; he talks and thinks about nothing but Amherst College:" 
Colonel Graves, who returning from an unsuccessful effort, an- 
swered the question of the chairman of his board, "Well, Deacon 
Graves, what success.''" with the laconic reply, "Not one cent. 
Brethren, let us pray:" Colonel Graves, whose "this one thing I 
do" spirit made Amherst College possible, and gave nearly 1500 
ministers and missionaries the opportunity to become possessed 
of the Amherst spirit; surely to his memory is due the profound 
acknowledgment of appreciative gratitude. 



290 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Nor should we entirely forget in these days of the recognition 
of our little brothers, the animals, the services of his faithful and 
oft-times overworked horse, which became so accustomed to its 
patient and repetitive task that, when sold, the animal insisted, 
much to his master's discomfiture, upon drawing up in every door- 
yard which had witnessed the eager solicitations of his former 
owner! 

In our appreciation of gifts of splendid dimensions, let us not 
forget our obligation to the faith, the sacrifice, and the vision of 
the noble company of women and children whose beneficence 
ranged from one dollar for the women to five cents from the eager, 
confident children. Of this spirit we have all received: it is Am- 
herst's first oblation to every son of hers who has become a priest 
of the living God. 

Another quiet but pervasive spirit, a mighty inspirer of 
Amherst ministers, has been the picturesque beauty of her natural 
situation. Ole Bull was once asked how he became possessed of 
that rich, delicate, and haunting quality which characterized his 
music. "From a boy," said he, "I have always been a devotee of 
my native land: her legends, her myths, and her fables have been 
my delight: her sighing winds, her roaring, rushing streams, her 
mountains and valleys, her waking sunrise and lingering golden 
sunset, these are in the warp and woof of my very soul. And 
these," said he, "have made my music!" Many an Amherst min- 
ister shares in the dear confession, for the influence of his surround- 
ings upon his character and life are seldom in more explicit evidence 
than in this favored region, where 
"Fair Amherst sits 
Crowned with her many windowed colleges." 

It is more than eighty years ago since three world characters 
stood upon the tower of the old Chapel. They were Professor Ed- 
wards A. Park, Mr. George Bancroft, and Miss Harriet Martineau. 
Professor Park describes the incident: "That lady, admiring the 
graceful curvature of the distant hills, the romantic form of the 
nearer mountains, the beautiful valley through which is the river, 
winding at its own sweet will, exclaimed, 'This is a school of the 
Fine Arts.' " 

Miss Martineau, as she survey jd the grounds nearest the Chapel, 
remarked that time would be necessary to give them the grace 



x\mherst in the Ministry 291 

and finish which belong to Oxford, Cambridge, and other English 
schools. But that time is coming. The men who will stand here 
at the next Semi-Centennial will see velvet lawns and serpentine 
walks around these buildings; and it will be said of Amherst as 
it has been said of Addison's walk in Oxford: "No one treading 
these grounds can avoid being a poet." 

Oxford with her Addison walk, not unfamiliar to many of us, 
has no monopoly of those 

"Truths that wake, 

To perish never; 

Which neither listlessness, nor mad endeavour 

Nor Man no; Boy, 

Nor all that is at enmity with joy. 

Can utterly abolish or destroy!" 

For even if "our velvet lawns and serpentine walks" must still 
yield the palm to Oxford, still the silent majesty of Mts. Holyoke 
and Tom, the grace of the Connecticut, woven like a silver thread 
into the engaging landscape, and the golden glory of the Pelham 
Hills when the evening sun is kissing them, are still, and always 
have been, reinvigorating and regenerative influences which have 
nursed growing ideals and have disciplined faltering or hesitant 
courage. The Amherst influence, of mountain and stream, of wild 
flowers and of Pisgah sights, has wrought mightily with her 
preachers, enriching their spirits as the spirit of his homeland 
gave Ole Bull his music or the Addison walk wakened the soul 
of the poet ! 

The contagion of character is a subtle, yet sinewy influence, 
the pervasion of which not only shapes, but dominates the great 
processionals of life. The presidents and professors of Amherst 
College have quite generally been ministers who have expressed 
themselves through teaching. They have been replicas of Brown- 
ing's "Old Grammarian." Like him they have determined that 
"before living they'd learn how to live;" their philosophy has 
been like his, distinctly not opportunist but determinative, not 
for the day but for the ages. 

"Others mistrust and say, 'But time escapes. 

Live now or never!' 
He said, 'What's time? Leave Now for dogs and apes! 



292 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Man has Forever.' 
Oh, if we draw a circle premature. 

Heedless of far gain. 
Greedy for quick returns of profit, sure 

Bad is our bargain! 
That low man seeks a little thing to do, 

Sees it and does it: 
This high man, with a great thing to pursue. 

Dies ere he knows it. 
That, has the world here — should he need the next. 

Let the world mind him! 
This, throws himself on God, and unperplexed 

Seeking shall find Him." 

These men, with Pestalozzi's motto, "for himself nothing, for 
others all," have throughout the century builded better than they 
knew in making the souls of Amherst ministers. Some of them are 
remembered by those who are present at this Centennial Cele- 
bration. Stearns, a true "pastor pastorum," the tender eagerness 
of whose addresses always barbed the arrow of his truth. Seelye, 
whose majestic utterances had the authority of a prophet, and 
whose favorite theme, "Where shall Wisdom be found?" was always 
presented from a new angle and with a striking significance. Tyler, 
with didactic, pungent style, dry wit, uncompromising straight- 
forwardness! And his unique and oft-requested sermon from the 
text, "And he pitched his tent toward Sodom." Mather, whose 
diction was polished like a Doric shaft, and whose graceful sen- 
tences were the poetry of motion, but whose soul was a flame, 
and whose greatest sermon by far was entitled, "A Plea for my 
Master." Neill, eloquent, modern, forceful, and Crowell, honest, 
biblical, appealing! These are but types of men, revealing the 
same essential quality which many a student, perhaps dimly and 
gradually, but nevertheless actually, aspired to become possessed 
of himself, because it was a living truth regarding each of them that 

"First he wrought 
And afterward he taught 

The word of life he from the Gospel brought." 
It is because of these stalwart characters as the depositories of 
living truth that multitudes of men, battling in maturity coura- 



Amherst in the Ministry 



geously and conqueringly with the principaUties and powers of 
the world, look fondly back to Amherst and proudly confess, 
"This man was born there." The Amherst spirit, frankly religious, 
and explicitly Christian, manifested itself in an insistent demand 
for genuineness. 

When Charles Kingsley was in the midst of the heat of his great 
battles for righteousness and saw around him clergy whose min- 
istrations were purely formal and mechanical, he exclaimed in 
a moment of disgust, "I begin to hate those young-lady preach- 
ers like the devil!" The "young-lady preacher" has no standing 
in Amherst's ministry, because the very foundation of it is built 
upon a quality of wholesomeness which denies the jurisdiction of 
lesser breeds of character and aspiration. None of your "God 
made him, let him pass for a man" shibboleths, but the real stuff 
of single motived genuineness — "a man though in the germ." 

Nor must we forget a second basic quality of this spirit we are 
defining, namely, comprehensiveness. Goethe once said that the 
greatest compliment ever bestowed upon him was that of being 
a "circumambient" man. Low horizons, meagre boundaries, and 
smug confidences which make petty spirits and rest in entire and 
eclipsed satisfaction that 

"The cackle of their burgh 

Is the murmur of the world," 
are no ingredients of the Amherst spirit. 

"Oh, my brave soul. 
Oh, farther, farther sail," 
is rather her constant and inspiring summons. It is a cherished 
memory that the library of Amherst College was founded by her 
ministers, who out of their scant literary possessions, chose, with 
quiet, but heroic sacrifice, their choicest volumes and assembled 
them here, that the life-blood of at least a few master spirits, 
coursing through the student mind, might have their part in 
quickening the educational aspiration of being at home in the 
world. Amherst College was indeed domiciled in a country town, 
but in her eagerness to build broad upon the roots of things, she 
never lost her sense of proportion, or slackened her endeavor to 
imbue her students with a spirit of comprehensiveness which en- 
abled them to realize the distinct and imperative benefit of being 
according to ability, like Goethe, "circumambient" men. In later 



294 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



years it was President Seelye who told us, not once or twice, that 
a lily could strike its roots into the carrion and still be pure, 
lovely, beautiful! It was the same wide-eyed philosopher who, 
with unforgetable impressiveness, oft-times exclaimed, "Young 
gentlemen, no man can lift himself by his bootstraps!" 

Assuredly the third dominant expression of this spirit was de- 
votion. No student ever dreamed that Amherst presented simply 
an opportunity to "go to college:" from the first freshman chapel 
to the Baccalaureate Sermon at graduation, as constant and as 
clarion as the college bell, was the unquivering expectancy, as well 
as the ringing appeal, that the students would discern the secret 
of a conquering life, not in "being ministered unto but in minis- 
tering." Service has ever been the heart of the College, and the 
motive of her greater purposes— making Christian men, whose 
genuineness, comprehensiveness, and devotion, commanding their 
own lives, should equip them for leadership in whatever relation- 
ship to the waiting world. 

Such an atmosphere would of a certainty be peculiarly stimu- 
lating to students anticipating the ministry as a life profession. 
Nor can Amherst look with greater satisfaction upon her service 
to America and to the world than to the record and achievement 
of her ministers. One of them, perhaps her most distinguished 
ministerial alumnus, gives his testimony to the value of the spirit 
of Amherst exemplified through her teachers. He spoke for many 
as he paid his tribute at the Semi-Centennial to President Hum- 
phrey: "I learned much of Dr. Humphrey," said Beecher, "for I 
saw a man, and, after all, the sight of manhood wrought out is 
better than any theory in a book. His shadow fell upon me and 
I have been a braver and a more patient man ever since." 

Equipped with this spirit for life, the Amherst ministers, more 
than a thousand of them, have ventured forth to work and save 
the world. They have founded colleges and have built churches 
all over the world, so that names like Barnum, Riggs, Washburn, 
and Bliss will live in the Christian history of developing nations; 
they have occupied positions of great influence and importance in 
professorial and teaching relations, quite reversing Carlyle's caustic 
remark that history has no place, even upon the margin of the 
page, for ministers and school teachers; they have filled editorial 
chairs with distinction and wide-spreading influence; in these and 



Amherst in the Ministry 295 

other ways the Amherst spirit has found worthy expression in 
spheres of service closely allied to the ministerial office. 

But by far the larger number of our Amherst ministers have 
served the church, as priest or bishop, or pastor, and have found 
alike their joy and opportunity in what was classically termed 
"the sacred calling." They have influenced the life of our great 
cities; they have moulded the young manhood and womanhood of 
countless towns and villages ; they have been a source of power and 
of strength, the value of which in our nation-building cannot be 
overestimated. Men internationally honored like Beecher and 
Storrs, Patton, Hitchcock, Gushing, and Huntington are but cos- 
mopolitan exhibits of power and influence which in unheralded 
fidelity and explicit consecration labored in town and village for 
the growing Kingdom. Accepting cordially the limitations of 
financial recompense, as well as of personal comfort, which are the 
inevitable attendants of their profession, they have been requited 
with the respect and oft-times the appreciation of the churches 
and have created and maintained the choicest, most peaceful, and 
joyous homes of which Christianity can boast. 

If the ministry were to be judged solely by the families it has 
trained and sent into the world, its service would by no means be 
insignificant. If it should be declared that this is mostly due to 
the ministers' wives, the soft impeachment would be most gra- 
ciously allowed. But the minister's first line of defence would be 
that it was the spirit he received from his college which gave him 
the power to discover the graces which attracted him to his elect 
lady; and the recognition of such a spirit which inclined her to 
accept him. So that in either event the college spirit is honored! 

At the present hour there appears to be an uneasy apprehension 
regarding the ministry, and a suspicion that its appeal is no longer 
as compelling as formerly. We are told that 35,000 ministers are 
needed in our country today and that they are not in sight. More 
ministers retire and die each year than are recruited from our 
seminaries. The outlook for the profession is, in the judgment of 
some, rather dubious. That "things are in the saddle and ride 
mankind" is a confessed characteristic of our generation. A spirit 
other than that we have described is impudently in evidence. 
Whether it is a reaction from the crowned and shining ideals which 
were in explicit evidence during the war, or whether it is a swift 



296 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

reversal and rejection of the ancient spirit and a frank acceptance 
of the philosophy of dirt, and therefore a permanent recessional, 
is a question of fact and of judgment. Men are indeed busy 
"dusting the flaunting carpets of the world for kings to walk on," 
but it has been historically true, in similar situations, that when 
the prophet has cried aloud, 

"This word is being said in heaven! 
Here's God upon you. What are you about.'*" 
that the workers look up and around and feel a moment's space 
that 

"Carpet dusting, though a pretty trade. 
Is not the imperative labor after all." 
The world is never satisfied for long with the husks that the swine 
did eat. Henry James wrote to an intimate friend, "Live by your 
soul, for life on any other theory turns out to be a sell." And 
Henry James knew what he was saying! 

Wliatever influence of restriction the present age may have 
upon the larger exercise of the ministerial opportunity, and conse- 
quent attractiveness, something beside raw materialism is re- 
sponsible for the present situation. In a hundred years there have 
arisen in our American life more than a hundred sects, which 
when not spending valuable strength in opposing each other, have 
failed in accentuating their united strength in the interest of the 
Kingdom of God. The growing divisions in the household of faith 
have beyond question greatly weakened the incentives to the min- 
istry on the part of "indigent young men of piety and talents." 
Eager for the chance to serve with sacrifice, they grow more and 
more cautious about a life investment which is likely to yield 
large returns in sacrifice and very little ones in range of service. 

If the church of the living God will quit pummeling a materi- 
alistic age and set her own house in order; if she will have courage 
to relieve herself of those pitiable weaknesses which are the at- 
tendants of schism; if she will make actual her professed belief in 
the brotherhood of all believers ; if she will declare war against the 
spirit of waste, which overstocks with religious opportunity some 
sections of great cities and leaves others as bleak and barren as a 
Sahara; if she will have an eye single to fundamental and essential 
faith and be a bit blind to unessentials and inconsequentials; if 



Amherst in the Ministry 297 



she will offer to ministers a chance to invest a whole life in a 
great, strong, free way for the weal of the world, holding them in 
worthy respect, giving them modest but adequate stipends for 
their efforts, with provision for their life's evening, such as is made 
for veterans in other public service; she will find the spirit, which 
can never be quenched, again expressing itself with refreshing 
eagerness and with compelling enthusiasm. What men want to- 
day is the chance to address their whole selves to a whole task, 
and becoming priest to a fraction of the faith is no longer an ap- 
pealing summons. Bushnell's great confession, "No other calling 
would permit me sufficiently to be," was conclusive testimony to 
the adequacy of the ministry; and it was our own Beecher who 
defined a real call to the ministry, "Young men, when you hear a 
voice saying to you, 'Quarter of a man, come forth,' that is no 
call to the ministry— or 'Half a man, come forth,' or 'Three-quarters 
of a man, come forth!' But when the voice says, 'Whole man, 
come forth,' that is a call to the ministry!" You cannot 
attract whole men with fractured or spavined opportunities! "Will 
a Courser of the Sun," exclaims the pithy, point-scoring Carlyle, 
"work softly in the harness of a dray horse? His hoofs are of fire 
and his path is through the heavens, bringing light to all lands. 
Will he lumber on mud highways, dragging ale for earthly appe- 
tites from door to door.'" Once let the church of the living God, 
which in our generation is too complacently overcrowding the de- 
tours, find the Highway of the Lord, once let the Christ passion 
of a united church grip the souls of believers, once let the great 
movements which are already initiated for the reunion of Christen- 
dom advance with stately, confident, and unfaltering step, and it 
is at least sunrise of the day of the Lord ! 

The Amherst spirit will as of old predominantly function in the 
breasts of young men of piety and talents, summoning their con- 
sciences and kindhng their idealism, as the radiant opportunity 
presents itself of devoting their lives to the service of the church 
of God, which is in valorous process of adjusting itself to the new 
heavens and the new earth. They will become the exponents and 
defenders of the spiritual characteristics of the new age; for our 
young men will surely see visions and, not the least, the glory of 
a minister's opportunity — a minister being recognized again as one 



£98 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

"Whose least distinguished day 
Shines with some portion of that heavenly radiance 
Which makes the blessed angels envious, 
Pitying human cares." 



Amherst in Missions, Old and New 299 



AMHERST IN MISSIONS, OLD AND NEW 

ROBERT ARCHEY WOODS, '86 

Head of th« South End House, Boston 

EVERY advance both of religion and humanitarianism in 
the English-speaking world of the last century had its 
source in the evangelical revival of the eighteenth, led 
by Wesley in England, Edwards in America, and Whitefield in both 
countries. After the Napoleonic wars, there came a period, not un- 
like the present, when in an elemental recoil from vast military 
aggression, but taking the measure of its vastness, men began to 
aspire with almost inexpressible longing toward some better way 
of life for the world. 

Noah Webster was the statesmanlike leader among the group 
of men in this river valley who turned in hope to the fuller oppor- 
tunity and development of education charged with that evangeli- 
cal ardor which was indeed a local tradition referring back to the 
great revival under Edwards at Northampton. 

The intensity of Christian devotion, along with the world- view 
of the publicist who was also the scholar and the traveler, as illus- 
trated in Webster, was feeling out after other and higher 
avenues of communication through which the people of a country 
favored with rich promise might still enter deeply into helpful rela- 
tions with other peoples less favored. The spirit of the founders was 
decisively expressed in the insignia on the seal of the newly opened 
college, — the sun and the Bible, in a field which is the world, with 
the exhortation "Terras Irradient." To Amherst College, from the 
beginning, the whole world was not only its subject but its object. 

The dominant concern in the life of the College was in the reli- 
gious impulse; and it was in the intensity of the sense of the divine 
presence and summons that men felt themselves called to carry the 
gospel to the ends of the earth. In the midst of a natural environ- 
ment and an atmosphere of fellowship, both conducive to the high 
resolves of youth, for the first forty-five years of the history of the 
College, no class passed through its course without being affected 
by a profound religious awakening, directed and followed up by 
such large-minded personalities as have always made up the cen- 



300 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

tral nucleus of the Amherst faculty. A list of the strongest men — 
running into the hundreds — on the roll of the alumni of the College 
came into the fulness of the Christian life in this way, including 
great preachers and theological professors, — men who were to 
create the necessary home background for foreign missions. And 
most conspicuous in the fruitage of these seasons of special inspira- 
tion are several of the greatest names on our missionary roll. 

Out of the early enthusiasm of the new center of the higher light 
and life — and to realize the vigor that was in it we muft remember 
that there were two years when Amherst had more students than 
Harvard— what so natural but that men should go out under the 
combined motives of culture and religion to the help of Greece as 
she had won her independence from the Turks.' Jonas King, pro- 
fessor of Oriental Literature, took up, first temporarily, and a few 
years later permanently, a career of remarkable vicissitudes during 
more than forty years "as the heroic, astute, and unconquerable 
pioneer of the American Board's missions in the Levant," Next 
came Elias Riggs, '29, who went originally to Greece, and then 
passed over into Turkey. He was the first Amherst graduate to go 
to the foreign field. When he came to the end of sixty -seven years' 
work in the Near East, he could have much of the Apostles' joy 
and confidence as he saw the recovery of their ancient footholds. 
He was, without doubt, preeminent among the Christian mission- 
aries of history, not only in the length of his service but in the 
scholarly work of breaking down the barrier of languages between 
the peoples and the full Christian message. But his greatest power 
lay in the humility and magnanimity of his character. 

In 1828 Robert Morrison, the first English missionary in China, 
called for help from America. Elijah C. Bridgman, '26, in response 
to this appeal, became the pioneer of American missionaries in the 
North of Asia. He was joined a few years later by Peter Parker, '31, 
three years at Amherst, who was the first English-speaking medical 
missionary. At the end of thirty years, Bridgman was able to say, 
"The first fruits of a great and glorious harvest begin to appear." 
The marvelous present-day spread of the influence of Christianity 
in China is not merely a fulfillment of the hopes of these two men, 
but it is in no slight degree the direct outcome of their lifetime of 
prodigious pioneer achievement. 



Amherst in Missions, Old and New 301 

The administrations of Presidents Hitchcock and Stearns greatly 
broadened and soHdified the intellectual position and power of the 
College. It may be doubted whether the Puritan conception of the 
divine commonwealth, expanded and actualized in modern terms, 
has attracted and formed any nobler minds and spirits than some 
of these sent out over the world by Amherst College during this 
period. 

With no chilling of the religious motive, in its application to the 
world-wide need and appeal, there came a more advanced con- 
ception that the challenge could be met only by the complete minis- 
try of all that the College embodied and all the gifts of the good 
and beautiful life that it had to bestow. 

Two Amherst graduates in particular, Daniel Bliss, '52, and 
George Washburn, '55, going to the Near East into the new back- 
ground set by the Crimean War, entered upon careers which, in the 
light of the present situation and impending events, may not 
improbably shine even brighter at the two hundredth anniversary 
of Amherst College than they do today. This statement would 
certainly not be questioned by any high-minded British statesman 
who has been concerned with the problems of the Near East. It 
would be sustained by Henry Morgenthau, a Jew, recent American 
minister to Turkey. 

Robert College in Constantinople and the Syrian Protestant 
College, now th'C American University, at Beirtit were both estab- 
lished in 1864. These were the first centres of instruction in the 
higher learning in all Asia. Disregarding the then official opposi- 
tion of the mission boards, they opened the way to the whole pro- 
gram of college education in connection with mission work, which 
holds today immeasurable promise of the spread of Christianity 
and the better influences of western civilization throughout the 
Orient; and has meanwhile played a great role in stimulating gov- 
ernment educational policy in all Asiatic countries. 

Dr. Bliss had in his mind and heart the conception of Amherst 
College as representing the range and potency of the Christian life; 
except that he wisely undertook to make the Syrian College carry 
its students through a complete course of training for useful voca- 
tions. For nearly forty years he developed his great argument as 
president of the college, which graduated its teachers, doctors, 
pharmacists, dentists, nurses, providing also the general prepara- 



302 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

tion through which men could become ministers, on the one hand, 
or leaders in public administration, on the other. Lord Cromer, the 
great English proconsul, said that his work in Egypt would have 
been impossible without the help of the young men from Beirtit. 

Dr. Washburn was not one of the founders of Robert College, 
but he became its professor of philosophy in 1869, and he was its 
president during its period of greatest development and influence 
from 1877 to 1903, The chief service of the college has consisted 
in training the men who have built up the Bulgarian nation, a 
result whose value has been temporarily somewhat clouded by the 
events of the war, but will regain its meaning. The significance of 
its permeating influence through the Balkans and in all the north- 
ern half of what was Asiatic Turkey is universally recognized. 

Within ten years, the American Board began to establish col- 
leges in the Turkish Empire, in which other Amherst men were 
concerned. Others still filled some of the most important posts 
under the board in the administration of the general missionary 
services from Constantinople. At one time one-fourth of the whole 
American missionary staff in Turkey were graduates of Amherst. 
A number of them were included in the group of which Lord Shaf- 
tesbury said: "I do not believe in the history of diplomacy, or in the 
history of any negotiations carried on between man and man, we 
can find anything equal to the wisdom, the soun 'ness, and the pure 
evangelical truth of the body of men who constitute this mission." 

Meanwhile, Amherst men going to India at a somewhat later 
stage than to other mission fields, had at dift'erent points begun to 
lay the foundation for strongholds of evangelism, medical care, and 
education which have been capably and even powerfully reen- 
forced from among our alumni. The decoration by the British 
government of the Rev. Marcus M. Carleton, '52, gives a sugges- 
tion of the public value of the work of a number of them. 

At the time of the fiftieth anniversary of the College, ninety-two 
men had been sent out to the mission field. Some of these were no 
doubt of that restricted range which persons intelligent in other 
directions hke to consider characteristic of all missionaries; but the 
great majority of them were men whom Amherst College could 
salute with intense gratitude and pride. There were scholars, 
statesmen, martyrs on the roll; but not less important to the ulti- 



Amherst in Missions, Old and New 303 

mate victory was the detailed, humble, local life-work, under the 
fine standards of their training, of those less known. 

Now there came a quite new appeal from another quarter of the 
globe — not less suggestive of the transforming possibilities of a 
cultural Christianity, — and the appeal came in an entirely new way. 
Amherst found a gentle but insistent postulant, all the way from 
Japan and out of the depths of its ancestral traditions, knocking 
at the college gate. 

The story of Joseph Neesima, '70, will long remain one of the 
romances of internationalism, one of the parables that will be 
repeated to refresh the higher sense of the oneness of the human 
family as the children of God. President Seelye arranged his studies 
for him and supervised his course with fatherly care. When he was 
ready to return, he went to the annual meeting of the American 
Board, and, abashed though audacious, set forth his dream of 
another Amherst for Japan. The Doshisha is now the foremost 
Christian university in Japan, sending its men out with attitudes 
toward life and motives for service whose surpassing value is today 
openly recognized by the enlightened leaders of the Liberal cabinet. 
Otis Cary, '72, was its professor of practical sociology for many 
years. It was not accidental that seven members of Neesima's class 
beside himself went to the foreign field. 

The next distinctive service that Amherst was to render to 
Japan came about also through Japanese solicitation. President 
William S. Clark, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Am- 
herst, '48, and former professor in our College, went to Japan for a 
year to establish a centre of training in scientific agriculture. 
Today at Sapporo, the seat of the Imperial Agricultural College, 
Christianity has one of its strongest footholds in Japan, and 
throughout Japan few American names are held in more lively 
respect than his. 

Here the narrative must turn aside for the moment from its main 
current to note three other aspects of the general missionary mo- 
tive, two of them quite incidental, so far as Amherst is concerned, 
but the third, representing a moral incentive that has increasingly 
seemed not less urgent than that of foreign missions themselves. 

In the work of home missions, Amherst has not been largely 
influential. It provided three of the ten members of the famous 
Iowa Band, who became builders and patriarchs of that distinc- 



304 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

lively American commonwealth. Dr. Joseph B. Clark, '58, was for 
many years the able executive leader of the national Congrega- 
tional Home Missionary Society, and a fair quota of Amherst men 
have been represented in the task of shaping the higher life of west- 
ern local communities. 

In the field of city missions, we have an honored name in Augus- 
tine Francis Hewit, '39, who went the way of Cardinal Newman 
from evangelical to Roman Catholic, and gave a long lifetime to 
the work of the Paulist order. Father Hewit was made a Doctor 
of Divinity by Amherst in 1877. 

The third development rests back upon the powerful and 
highly distinctive influence of Julius H. Seelye, '49, upon the indi- 
viduality, indeed, which he gave to Amherst College. President 
Seelye was deeply convinced and convicted of the necessity of the 
work of the foreign missionary, not less to those who sent him than 
to those to whom he came. No one in the history of the College has 
set forth more decisively the logic of the gospel as the indispen- 
sable life force of every civilization. In the course of a memorable 
journey, he strongly urged this conviction upon influential groups 
of the intellectual leaders of the Orient. But following the vastest 
civil war in history, the dangers of the antagonisms of class and 
race began to be widely threatening. In one of his most solemn 
utterances, President Seelye declared that no career could be of 
higher service to the nation than that of the educated man who 
should go among the people and in largeness of mind and heart 
join with them in working out the labor problem. This was but one 
suggestion of the far-seeing, statesmanlike outlook of a man who, 
as a member of Congress, had the choice of distinguished prospects 
of public service, as against becoming president of the College. It 
was largely under such influence that the sense for moral adventure 
turned in a direction which has given the College one of its chief 
marks of distinction for the second half century. I refer to the 
services of Amherst graduates as teachers and field workers in the 
present-day domain of social reconstruction. 

In various academical departments of economics, sociology, 
philosophy, history, and literature, in editorial chairs, on the public 
platform, and most of all in the pulpit, a long listof graduates of Am- 
herst have continued to express the essence of its Christian teaching, 
in its bearing upon the new issues of social well-being and progress. 



Amherst in Missions, Old and New 305 

The secret of the special initiative of the College in this field lay 
in its philosphy of life, as expressed first by President Seelye, and 
then by the greatest of his disciples, Charles E. Garman, '72. The 
old-time revivals had passed away; but the latter part of Carman's 
course was like a series of protracted meetings in the full light of 
modern day, in which every student, by means of modern instances 
and in terms of the present crisis, was brought face to face with the 
issues of God and humanity, of freedom and immortality. Who can 
forget the heavenly light on his face, as not sparing his students 
the rigors and dangers of the path, he patiently disclosed the way 
first up on to the heights of faith, and then onward into the valley 
of decision.'^ 

It was in a special sense the emancipating influence of Professor 
Garman, in line with the Amherst tradition of going all the way to 
the point of need and making common cause with those involved 
in it, that in due time projected a considerable and continuing suc- 
cession of men into what later began to be called social work. 
Social work found its original characteristic expression in the in- 
stitutional church and the settlement house. The first book pub- 
lished in this country on the English institutional churches was 
written by one Amherst man; and the first book on the English 
settlement houses by another. Meanwhile, the creative pioneer 
of settlement work in the United States, Stanton Coit, '79, had in 
1886 established the Neighborhood Guild, now the University 
Settlement, in New York, the first of more than five hundred such 
agencies since established in American cities. Dr. Coit's little book 
on "Neighborhood Guilds," published in 1890, laid down the lines 
which have continued to represent the progressive outlook for such 
work from that day to this. Many Amherst men have followed 
him in the settlement houses of the country. Social work, in gen- 
eral, as a career, or as a field of volunteer service, has attracted a 
list of our men so considerable that it may be doubted whether any 
other college of similar size has even approximated its contribu- 
tion. 

Such interests called Amherst men across the Atlantic to the 
help of peoples overwhelmed by the calamities of the Great War, — 
such as Dr. George H. Washburn, '82, one of the leaders in the Near 
East Relief, and Dr Kendall Emerson, '97, who, after several years 
of duty in various countries, rose to be the second officer of the 



306 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

American Red Cross in Europe. And are we not confident that 
every Amherst man who went into the fighting ranks had in his 
heart the central spirit and purpose of his college toward the na- 
tions of the world? 

Within the administration of industry, commerce, and finance, 
we have our builders of the better order who are working 
fundamentally for the service of the community and the exalt- 
ation of human life. Amherst has provided some of the fore- 
most exponents of the human cause in this field which gathers 
up the overwhelming energy and purpose of the nation. And where 
it is noted, with a certain inevitable regret, that Amhcst is not, at 
the present moment, sending out ministers and missionaries, but 
business men, take this consoling reflection to heart: Amherst Col- 
lege continues to infect the minds of all its students with essentially 
the same incurable spirit of Christian idealism. If we look ahead 
fifty years, is it open to doubt that this spirit carried into the actual 
operations of business will be one of the nation's chiefest hopes amid 
the life-and-death issues of advancing democracy? 

Meanwhile, the new humanitarianism, which may to some ex- 
tent have drawn off from the current of the foreign missionary 
motive, seemed a little later on, even to reenforce it. The student 
volunteer movement, with its new and broader vision of the King- 
dom of God, had its profound effects at Amherst, beginning partic- 
ularly with the new century. But anticipating that movement, 
there began one of the rarest careers in the whole history of mis- 
sions, gathering up the finest of the earlier traditions of missionary 
educational aims, embodying much of the best of the Seelye and 
Garman influence, and carrying into the mission field the highest 
inspiration of enlightened social service. Howard Bliss, '82, was 
the son of Daniel Bliss, born and reared amid Oriental scenes. 
After leaving Amherst, he studied at Union Theological Seminary, 
and was awarded there a foreign fellowship. While in Europe in 
pursuit of graduate theological studies, he spent some time as a 
resident at Toynbee Hall, being the first American to join this rare 
group of English university men in their historic venture. He be- 
came a lifelong friend of Canon Barnett. It was Howard Bliss who 
told Stanton Coit about Toynbee Hall. 

It is enough to say that, succeeding his father as president 
of the American College at Beirtit, he not only maintained but 



Amherst in Missions, Old and New 307 

actually advanced the best traditions of Amherst initiative in the 
education of leaders for the New Asia. In combined power of versa- 
tility and transparent sincerity, touched always with poetic insight, 
he stands out alone. No more knightly spirit ever went into the 
very scenes of the "good wars" of the Crusaders, 

For the latest phase, much has depended on far-sighted, young- 
spirited leadership in the organization of missionary endeavor. For 
a considerable period, Dr. E. K. Alden, '44, as home secretary of 
the American Board, by his intractable attitude toward theological 
freedom had repressed the kind of spiritual venture that Amherst 
was above all encouraging. Cornelius H. Patton, '84, succeeding to 
the home secretaryship, has created a new outlook worthy of the 
broadest and fullest present-day possibilities of the new missionary 
cause, as well as of the vastly impressi^'^e role which the board has 
filled. 

During the past twenty-five years, it has been sufiiciently clear 
that the incentive of the modern apostle has not passed from among 
us. Within that period a total of twenty-two Amherst men have 
been sent out by the American Board, a number exceeded only by 
Oberlin among the colleges upon which the board relies. Several 
have gone out under other auspices. The total number of Amherst 
men who have gone into foreign missionary service is about 1600. 
To any who doubt that the College has still been sending some of 
her best, one may mention : Frank A. Lombard, '96, professor in the 
Doshisha, through whom Amherst is honoring herself in establish- 
ing a fellowship in that university; Edward S. Cobb, '00, of the 
same faculty; Alden Clark, '00, son of Professor J. B. Clark, lately 
returned from India to be an assistant secretary of the American 
Board; Sam Higginbotham, '03, shared with Princeton, a man who 
as a missionary, is leading a marvelously potential movement for 
agricultural progress in India; and, more recently, three worthy 
inheritors of illustrious names — Laurens Seelye, '11, and Seelye 
Bixler, '16, both members of the faculty at Beirtit; and just now, 
William S. Clark, 2d, '21, who is going to Japan to work in the very 
scene of his grandfather's services at Sapporo. 

At the end of a hundred years of leadership, in the forefront of 
the missionary cause, the College sends these men out to find that 
a marvelous change has been wrought in the attitude of the Orient 
to what they bring. They are sustained by an equally remarkable 



308 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

development in public sentiment at home with regard to the his- 
toric value of their work. These tides of welcoming and reenforc- 
ing sympathy are to be traced above all to the rise and dominance 
of the educational motive in missionary work. Amherst College has 
established its case for the Christian enthusiasm in a world-enter- 
prise of enlightenment. 

Someone has lately been considering "The* Lost Radiance of 
Christianity." That radiance in and for which Amherst College 
was founded has not been lost by it, and will not be. As the wider 
prospect opens, at home and abroad, with the infinite appeal of 
its oportunities, there will be new and even richer meanings to the 
pledge to which the College continually commits itself and its 
alumni when its seal is impressed on each degree that it awards. We 
are assured that, through it, God will raise up his witnesses from 
among those coming after us, who will, in the new terms of coming 
days, go forth as moral and spiritual adventurers, among them that 
are far off as well as among them that are nigh, to the end that each 
nation, and all nations together, may grow into a holy temple in the 
Lord. 



t 




Europe 




America 
THE CENTENNIAL PAGEANT 



Problem of Education in England 309 



THE PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN ENGLAND TODAY 



JOHN HOLLAND ROSE 

Vere-Harmsworth Professor of Naval History, Cambridge University 

I FEEL somewhat nervous about entering on the theme of 
education in the British Isles because it has evoked floods of 
talk and no corresponding amount of practice. Now, it is 
rather demoralizing to add to the sum total of a force which is 
not fully operative. There is a vast amount of theorizing on the 
subject; enthusiasts fight over their rival systems of improving 
the people's mind. Huge sums of money are being spent by the 
nation in order to raise the standard of training in elementary 
and secondary schools; a large and generally devoted body of 
teachers is trying to carry out one or more of these systems or the- 
ories, to instill the required pabuhwi into millions of children's 
brains. But what is the outcome of all the theorizing, the enthu- 
siasm, the governmental drilling? 

It must be confessed that, having regard to the immensity of 
the effort, the results are somewhat disappointing. By this I mean 
that there are few signs of improvement in the general intelligence 
and public spirit of the community. Sometimes we are apt to 
think that there has been no advance but rather a falling off in 
those respects. 

Now, it is very difficult to form a correct judgment on this 
question. Only those who are advanced in years have had the 
necessary experience; and they are apt to be laudator es temporis 
acti. It is not easy to keep up a fresh and lively sympathy with 
the new age, especially when that age is rather pert and cock- 
sure, and erects its juvenile nose high in air against nineteenth 
century thought and customs. This inner contrariety between the 
fondness of the middle-aged for the days of their youth and the 
pride of the present youth in their up-to-date ways, renders it 
difficult for the most careful judge to weigh with accuracy the 
results that have been achieved by half a century of popular 
education. It is just about fifty years since Mr. Forstei's Educa- 
tion Act began to operate in the United Kingdom; and half a 



810 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

century is a brief space in the age-long process of nation building. 
We must beware of expecting too much even in fifty years; for 
the development of man is a very slow process. Darwinism has 
taught us that. It has taught us that progress is very slow but 
that it is steady. Ohne Hast und ohne Rast is the motto for man's 
journey. 

All this we may admit. Yet, even so, there is some room for 
disappointment that progress in popular intelligence, in the civic 
sense, has not been more marked. Why is it? Has the World 
War set us back? In some respects it has. The long strain of 
anxiety, of hope deferred during four years, of overwork that had 
to be done on war-bread and margarine, produced a nervousness 
and irritability which told against steady work in all directions. 
The human body was underfed; the human mind was over-excited. 
The psychological result was not unlike that which was wittily 
described by a photographer at an evening reception. Chancing 
to observe a lady who displayed a considerable expanse of osseous 
formation, he thus passed judgment — "Under-developed and over- 
exposed." That was the state, both in body and mind, of Western 
and Central Europe during the war. Necessarily, it left behind a 
profound malaise, a restlessness that tends in certain quarters to 
make of life a perpetual jazz and jigg, gyrating towards the music 
hall, the dancing room, and the movies. All these tendencies tell 
disastrously against true education: for they infect all classes and 
all ages; they upset that balance of man's nature which is the 
first condition of healthy progress. 

It is true that, early in the war, much curiosity was aroused in 
the direction of modern history, geography, and economics. 
People wanted to know how it was that this horror of war had 
come upon us, where the fighting was going on, and what might 
be the upshot of it all. Europe was thrown into the melting-pot, 
and people wanted to know why, and what sort of a world would 
emerge. That curiosity was very laudable. It prevailed among 
our fighting men in France, on the seas, and in the East. And for 
a time they felt an eager interest in the hoped-for new world. 

To try to satisfy that curiosity became one of my duties during 
the war; and until near the end, the interest and curiosity were 
well maintained. But during the year 1918 war-weariness Ijegan 
to prevail; and only the most up-to-date topics like the League 



Problem of Education in England 311 

of Nations, or the terms of peace, could stir up an audience. The 
one topic that filled all minds was — "When is this bloody war 
going to end?" And no small part of the audience seemed to be 
mainly concerned with picking up tips that might bring off suc- 
cessfully bets on that topic. 

Now, if we remember that about 5,000,000 British troops and 
seamen were a prey to war- weariness, we shall understand post- 
war mentality. It is not unlike that which prevailed after Water- 
loo. Earlier in the gTeat war with France there had appeared 
signs of unusual interest in education. The great efforts of Dr. 
Bell and Lancaster, and of Robert Owen, belong to the decades 
1790-1810; so also those of Pestalozzi and, a little later, of Froe- 
bel, in Switzerland and Germany. In Prussia the reforms of the 
Gymnasien and the establishment of the profoundly national Uni- 
versities, Berlin and Breslau, formed a part of the great patriotic 
movement for the ultimate expulsion of the French. 

It would appear, then, that the outbreak of a world war, 
threatening the very existence of a nation, arouses a keen interest 
in education, and tends to popularize it in a way otherwise im- 
possible. But the educational impulse soon flags under the 
exhaustion \ihich war brings in its train; and if exhaustion be 
accompanied by disillusionment or despair, a sharp reaction is 
likely to set in, tending to enervate all constructional efforts. 
Such was the case both a century ago and now. 

In other respects war has complicated the problem of education 
in the United Kingdom. It brought wealth to large classes which 
had not enjoyed it before, and which will not enjoy it to the same 
extent much longer. During this brief heyday they sent their sons 
and daughters to expensive schools, or to the universities, and 
those youths and maidens, superficially educated and trained in 
extravagant habits, are a problem.^ They will have to work; 
and to work, in many cases, they are ashamed. They will rein- 
force the crowd of restless, discontented persons who will rail at 
everything that prevents them "having a good time." They will 
scoff at their upbringing, and with some justice. The result will 
probably be a reaction against university training; and it would 
not be surprising if, in the near future, there were a sharp drop 



1 The numbers at the universities of the United Kingdom, exclusive of Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, and Trinity Coll., Dublin, are 36,426 in 1919-20, as againet 22,234 in 1913-14. 



312 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

in the entries at the universities and the more expensive schools. 
Or, if the numbers hold good, it will be owing to an increase on 
the vocational side. Such an increase in the practical subjects, 
and such a decline in the non-vocational subjects, is, I think, 
highly desirable. For at present the universities and colleges are 
crowded with young men and women who have no very definite 
aims in life; and the country simply cannot afford to see them 
become genteel idlers. A hard time is ahead of the Old World; 
and its resources in brain and muscle must be utilized to the ut- 
most if we are to win through. The universities ought to inscribe 
over their portals — "No flowers by request." 

Much the same will probably happen at the schools. At present 
they are over-crowded, largely by the children of les nouveaux 
riches. In many cases doubtless these will have to go, or will 
have to turn to means of earning a Uving. In short, the present 
boom in schools and colleges will pass, and we shall settle down 
again to something like pre-war conditions, but only after much 
grumbling' and some real hardship. 

Not very different is the problem of elementary education. 
There a splendid program has been outlined by Mr. Fisher. 
Probably of all the men brought to the front by the war, Mr. 
Fisher has won the most solid reputation as a thinker and or- 
ganizer. Everyone who knew his power, both as writer and 
speaker, augured for him a successful career in politics; but his 
success has transcended the hopes of his friends and baffled the 
efforts of his opponents. These last are ranged at the two ex- 
treme wings. The one set desire a far more ambitious scheme of 
national education; the others wish to cut it down below pre-war 
standards. The former are impracticable idealists; the latter, 
podgy reactionaries. The former seem to credit the United King- 
dom with unlimited resources and limitless love of learning; the 
reactionaries dwell on the poverty of John Bull and his inner 
contempt for book learning. 

Now, much as I sympathize \/ith the idealists, much as I long 
to see Mr. Fisher's generous scheme of Continuation Schools car- 
ried into effect, I confess that I do not see how it'lcan materialize 
while the finances of Great Britain are in the present desperate 
straits. As regards elementary and secondary education, the whole 
problem turns essentially on finance. You cannot carry through 



Problem of Education in England 313 

a greatly enlarged system of national education without a great 
increase of expenditure on teachers, buildings, plant, libraries, 
workshops. And how this increased expenditure is to be raised, 
is a mystery. Teachers want higher salaries, and everything costs 
far more than in 1914. Bricklayers, however, decline to lay more 
than 350 bricks a day (though they could well do 1000) from an 
odd notion that this will prevent slack times in the future. So 
long as everybody wants more pay, and so long as builders do less 
work, Mr. Fisher's fine scheme will remain an exasperating void. 
The whole thing depends on whether the British people under- 
goes a conversion to the old-fashioned Victorian custom of doing 
an honest day's work for a fair wage. If not, then the less we 
talk about educational progress the better; for there will be no 
real educational progress apart from moral reform, and moral 
reform implies a return to old-fashioned habits of honesty and 
thoroughness in work. 

There is, of course, another side to this financial problem, viz., 
that, if all the Great Powers insist on keeping up large armaments, 
they may as well scrap all their fine educational reforms. Large 
armies and fleets of super-dreadnoughts will eat up more than all 
the money that is needed to educate the children of the United 
States and the United Kingdom. If these powers and Japan begin 
a policy of competition in armaments, then let us face the issue 
honestly. In such a case, to talk about educational reform will 
be mere hypocrisy. The two lines of advance are absolutely in- 
compatible. To spend ever-increasing sums on engines of de- 
struction (and such sums tend inevitably to increase) must atrophy 
all the efforts at educational construction. Probably not even the 
vast wealth of the United States would suffice to keep you abso- 
lutely supreme on both the Atlantic and Pacific, and also to build, 
endow, and develop all the colleges and schools that are needed. 
I repeat — let us face the issue fairly and squarely — this exhausted 
world cannot go in for large armies and navies and also carry 
through a generous system of national education. Bloated arma- 
ments mean starved schools and colleges. 

Thus, Mr. Fisher's scheme of Continuation Schools depends on 
factors which are beyond his control. It depends on the conver- 
sion to common sense of the leading governments of the world. 
Unless there be a belated access of sanity in those quarters, all 



314 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

our talk about educational progress is absolutely futile. We may 
as well resign ourselves at once to the prospect of seeing even the 
present educational program cut down and revert to what it 
was ten or twenty years ago. The problem is interesting; for it 
reminds us that the progress of mankind in this matter of training 
the young depends on the good sense of mankind, even (we may 
say) on the foreign policy of the leading states. Napoleon the 
Great outlined a fine educational scheme, but at the base (i. e. 
in regard to elementary education) it remained little more than 
a paper scheme because of his warlike policy. Absit omen! May 
the nations learn to tread a different path. May it lead us to 
Parnassus, not to Leipzig and Waterloo! 

The mention of Parnassus reminds us that the claims of the 
old ! earning are now being sharply questioned. There are those 
who bid us quit classical learning as an arid and useless field and 
turn towards more practical and immediately fruitful domains. 
The attack on the old learning comes from two quarters: from 
(1) practical men, (2) men of science. Practical men, so called, 
often complain that a classical or literary training makes a youth 
bookish, and unfits him for business life. They demand that, from 
early years, he shall turn his thoughts towards his future calling 
so as to become expert in it so soon as he enters the bank, factory, 
or store. This demand is very insistent just now and naturally so; 
for when times are hard, fathers want to see their money back 
quickly. The typical father of this kind always has at his fingers' 
ends numbers of cases of successful business men who left school 
at fourteen and went straight to the store, and by hard work and 
native shrewdness soon made their pile. So that, to hear them 
talk, one would infer that the size of the pile depended on the 
ignorance or unpreparedness of the youth who set about amassing 
it. Now there is something in this claim. A canny boy who knows 
himself to be ill prepared will probably throw himself into work 
with all the more zest so as to beat those who are better equipped 
at the start, just as, in a race, a runner who is handicapped will 
do more than his best so as to beat competitors who have what he 
considers an unfair start. Very much depends on energy and de- 
termination; and even the best education will not make up for the 
lack of these qualities. But this does not prove that a youth who 
has a well-balanced, well-trained mind will not ordinarily beat an 



Problem of Education in England 315 



ill-trained youth. Given equality of will power, tact, and oppor- 
tunity, he will beat him; for he has a wider outlook, a better 
stored mind; and these mental advantages ought to enable him to 
deal successfully with unexpected difficulties as they arise. In 
addition to this, the well-trained youth ought to make the better 
citizen because his thoughts do not run wholly in the business 
groove. Further, at the end of his life he will not be that pathetic 
figure, the retired business man who does not know what to do with 
himself, because he has no interests outside his business. That 
done, he is a mere marionette, not a man. No! At every point in 
life, the well-educated youth ought to beat the ill-educated youth, 
last but not least, in that serene, well-balanced, and cultured ma- 
turity which ought to be the goal of all individual effort; for, as 
Edgar says in "King Lear:" 

"We must endure 
Our going hence ev'n as our coming hither, 
Ripeness is all." 

But what shall we say to our men of science who claim that 
natural science affords the best basis for education.-^ Their claim 
is urged with reason and force. Further, no one would deny that, 
up to a recent time, the natural sciences did not enjoy their proper 
sphere in education. I can remember the period, away back in 
the '70's, at Cambridge, when they had to fight hard for recogni- 
tion; when the Natural Science Tripos was one of the smallest; 
and when Charles Darwin, on receiving his honorary degree of 
D.Sc, had a rather mixed reception. Well! All that is changed 
now. The Natural Science Tripos list is by far the largest of all. 
History until very recently came second; but engineering and 
agriculture promise to dethrone history. As for pure mathe- 
matics and classics (formerly supreme) they are almost in the 
second rank as regards numbers, though their prestige is still very 
high. The turnover towards practical and scientific subjects has 
been very marked, and the process still continues. On the other 
hand, modern languages and English literature attract large 
numbers of students. So that, on the banks of the Cam, even the 
Humanities appear in modern garb — no longer in majestic toga or 
stole, but short-coated, ready for tennis or golf. 

This trend towards modern subjects is, I think, as sensible as 



316 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



it is inevitable. Culture can be assured quite as much by the study 
of Shakespeare and Corneille as of Aeschylus and Sophocles. Phi- 
losophy will probably be mastered better by absorbing the thoughts 
of Spinoza, Descartes, Kant, and Hegel than from a study of the 
sages of ancient Greece. At least, if the student has not time for 
both the ancients and the moderns, I would vote for the moderns, 
as being in far closer relation to the thought of our age. And I 
partly sympathize with Mr. H. G, Wells when he claims that it 
s not necessary for the average student to hunt out the message 
of the "still modern immortals" of ancient Greece in their original 
language. Advanced students should of course do so, if possible, 
in the Greek language. But I think that defenders of the Human- 
ities should not claim the impossible. To do so is to court defeat 
in the sharp conflict that is ahead of us. Let us concentrate on 
maintaining the essentials of a literary education. Let us welcome 
the addition of English, French, and German literatures or lan- 
guages, as alternatives to the strictly classical education of former 
days. For, after all, it is the study of some great literature, as 
literature, of som.e great philosophy, as philosophy, of great his- 
tory, as history, which cultivates and enriches the human intelli- 
gence and adds to the grace and beauty of life. But, while I agree 
with Mr. Wells that it is not necessary, or even desirable, to com- 
pel students to approach Greek philosophy and literature through 
the medium of that difficult language, I differ from him entirely 
when he demands the substitution of natural science for literature 
as the general basis of education. He claims that biology should be 
the backbone of the college course, which should concern itself 
largely with "thrashing out the burning questions of the day." 
It is difficult to take Mr. Wells quite seriously on this topic. In- 
deed, I venture to think that he need not be taken too literally 
when he protests against the antiquated curriculum and donnish 
teaching of Cambridge, Oxford, Harvard, and Yale. During many 
years he has been girding at us dons for our dullness, but just 
recently he sent his son to Trinity College, Cambridge ! 

Now, the University of Cambridge still demands from all who 
enter it a knowledge of Latin; and I, for one, hope that it will 
continue to demand a knowledge of Latin as the basis of a liberal 
education. I cannot conceive of any system of advanced training 
which would dispense with Latin; for the learning of Latin is not 



Problem of Education in England 317 



only a fine mental training in itself, but it furnishes the key to 
the due understanding of French, Italian, Spanish, and nearly half 
the words now in use in the English language. A man who does 
not know Latin has a very imperfect knowledge of his own tongue, 
in which the sonorous Latin terms tend to oust the simpler Saxon 
terms. (I notice that you always say "elevator," never "lift," 
and "president" of a college, never "master.") The importance 
of knowing Vergil, Horace, and the best works of Cicero in the 
original is also immense, for they are the fountain of so much 
that is best in modern literature. I therefore trust that we shall 
fight hard and triumphantly, on both sides of the Atlantic, to 
maintain a study of Latin as necessary to the equipment of every 
educated man and woman. 

Let us also hold fast to the study of English literature both in 
elementary and secondary education. To store up in the mind of 
the young a knowledge of, say, the noblest of the Psalms and 
other Biblical masterpieces, together with choice passages from 
Shakespeare, Milton, Addison, Johnson, Wordsworth, Tennyson, 
and Browning is to purify the soul and fortify the mind against 
the many vulgarizing tendencies of this sensational age. Such a 
training is morally uplifting, and that surely is the chief aim in 
education. It will also keep pure and undefiled that choicest her- 
itage from the past, the English language (now in danger of con- 
tamination by slang), and will enable our public men to avoid 
slipshod chatter and to speak with dignity. 

I would also plead for a study of history, provided that it be 
set about in a reasonable way. By this I mean that students 
should not be compelled to memorize lists of facts and dates, but 
should be guided to a due understanding both of the life and of 
the vital factors in the development of the chief peoples of the 
world. For the young, the personal and pictorial side of history 
should be set forth vividly; while the older students should be 
encouraged to trace out for themselves the great movements — 
national, constitutional, religious, and economic — which have made 
the world what it now is. Such a program implies the shearing 
away of the medieval and old world lumber which still crowds our 
histories. It must go, that is if history is to keep its place as a 
first-class instrument of civic training. Such it can be; such it 
ought to be. In this connection I wish to commend the program 



318 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

of Mr. H. G. Wells' recent history; but I must add, that I wish 
the performance were worthy of the program; for I find on inquiry 
that specialists in every period praise only those parts of that 
history with which they are least acquainted. The program, how- 
ever, is good, and it points out many ways in which our teaching 
of history should be reformed. History shows man in action; it 
traces the lines of human progress; it reveals the motives that 
sway the masses and build up the structure of civilization; it 
therefore is the handmaid to economics, sociology, and the science 
of politics. Let us reform historical teaching on those lines; but 
let us insist that it is more important even than biology; for it 
reveals man, not as a scientific unit, not as a sex-problem, but as 
a member of human society, both of the past and of the present. 

Thus, while giving due emphasis to the natural sciences, espe- 
cially for those students who incline towards them, let us hold fast 
to the Humanities, pruned of their less important elements, but 
vitalized by reform and by tactful and sympathetic presentation. 
That is the chief cultural problem ahead both in the United States 
and in the United Kingdom. May we join hands in the effort to 
enhance the value of the Humanities to an age which more than 
ever needs their uplifting influence. 



Problem of Education in France 319 



THE PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN FRANCE TODAY 



JULIEN JACQUES CHAMPENOIS 

Director in the United States of the National Bureau of French Universities 

IT IS a great and high privilege to have been called upon to 
discuss with you the problem of education in France today. 
Indeed, the ideal which has guided your choice of the ques- 
tion you have set before me, is not only one of friendship and 
of loyalty to our common memories and to those days when we 
put our shoulders to the door and slammed it in the face of an 
insolent nation; your ideal is truly the university ideal inasmuch 
as it is one of foresight, prudence, and faith ; it points to your pro- 
found realization of that truth, so often forgotten, that tomorrow 
will be what we choose to make it today. It bears witness to your 
conviction that the young generation, as well as the years to come, 
will and shall be better or worse, obscure or enlightened, in the 
measure in which university men in America, England, and France 
have resolved to guard man's mind from the evils which have 
been scattered on the path leading from the infinitely small to the 
infinitely great. Foresight, prudence, faith, a wise sense of con- 
tinuity in human affairs, such have been your motives in inviting 
the British and the French universities to confer with you on this 
memorable day and to join you in making this celebration what it 
should be, that is, a harmonious expression comprehending a hum- 
ble and respectful homage to the past, a cheerful assurance of our 
understanding of the needs of the present, and a stern and firm 
promise that our efforts are and will be so conceived and directed 
that those that come after us will not charge us with selfishness 
and lack of spiritual vision. Let us accept this threefold symbol 
in all confidence. 

Has France taken good care of her heritage? Have the French 
universities, in one of the most painful periods of their long his- 
tory, kept true to their traditions.'' Has the vital problem of edu- 
cation been faced with courage, and, above all, if solutions have 
been suggested and given, are those solutions likely to prove in- 
teresting to the educational world in this country? Out of the 



320 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

complex issues which the French universities have had to consider, 
some are essentially French, that is, local and provincial; it is 
obvious for instance that French secondary education, determined 
as it is by racial demands and linguistic features, does not come 
within the scope of our quest. It is with the French universities 
properly so-called, and other institutions of higher learning, in 
other words, with the highest expression of the intellectual life of 
the country, that we are primarily concerned today. Even then, 
many accidental details will be neglected, as it appears desirable 
to apply to this discussion the formula of French classical art, 
according to which particular details, incidents, and accidents due 
to race and place are of little value. As an illustration, if a botanist 
wishes to establish comparisons and classify flowers, he will study 
flowers as general types, and his attitude in doing so will not be 
that of a dilettante counting the streaks of the tulip. We shall 
not count the streaks of the tulip, but I shall endeavor, as much 
as I can do so, to underline the salient features of that French 
university ideal which, strengthened by the war and formulated 
during the war, has been officially recognized and transferred with 
success from the realm of speculation to the field of action. 

Like all fertile reforms, the present movement has been pre- 
pared long and carefully. As a matter of fact, it is safe to assert 
that the war has not revealed any new truths or emphasized for- 
gotten ones; there has been no sudden change about the French 
university mind; the process which has brought matters to a head 
has been materially helped and hastened by the war which has 
acted as a useful incentive. The war has also made solutions more 
easily accessible in practice; it has curtailed that long period of 
thoughtful hesitation and doubt which must always come as a 
preface to whatever new chapters will be added to the history of 
higher education. The war has also caused French university men 
to realize, in an unprecedented way, the presence of a brother- 
hood of intellectual workers, whether those workers are specialists 
in primary, secondary, or university education. Far be it from 
me to say that there was no unity of purpose among university 
men in France before the war; that unity was felt and found its 
expression in many ways, particularly in the enunciation of work- 
ing methods, but it remains that the University of France, insofar 
as it consists of students, teachers, instructors, professors of all 



Problem of Education in France 321 

grades and all kinds, had seldom resorted to collective action in 
order to arrive at a collective consciousness of its responsibility 
in educational affairs. A striking example of how university men 
organized themselves during the war will be found in the way in 
which a small group of university men succeeded in launching the 
society of the Compagnons. Sometime in the summer of 1917 sev- 
eral French officers, all university men and professional teachers, 
met at the headquarters of the French army; questions were asked 
and discussed, problems were examined, if not under a new light 
yet with more courage and, above all, a keener sense of social 
necessities and a desire for immediate action. Articles outlining 
a whole program of reforms were published in the French press; 
two volumes entitled "The New University" came out in the early 
part of 1919. A new spiritual order had arisen in the face of ma- 
terial destruction. The very term comyagnons carries a lesson. 
Compagnons, indeed, not companions, comrades, or friends in the 
English sense of the term, but skilled workmen and craftsmen, 
members of a guild, of the guild of university men, — call them 
also builders, as builders the French Compagnons are in the same 
way as these were also builders who heard the people's prayer and 
raised Gothic cathedrals. 

Forty-five at the start, in 1917, the Compagnons are thousands 
today; they have met in congress; their official journal is called 
Solidarite. The most illustrious names in the University of France 
will be found along with those of country schoolmasters, and that 
is a cheerful sign. From all sides, the Compagnons have been the 
object of intelligent curiosity. Are they theoreticians, and is their 
creed doomed to remain fair and attractive, but futile and ineffi- 
cient? 

Generally speaking, the Compagnons have done little else than 
apply to the problem of education the only essential lesson em- 
phasized by the war; it will be their lasting merit to have picked 
it out of a confusing mass of conflicting elements. The one prin- 
ciple that ensured cohesion and unity of action among the branches 
of the French army, as well as of any other army, is a social prin- 
ciple which, easily understood and accepted, is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to put into practice. I am referring to the principle of "liaison" 
which claims that, in a community, whatever be the nature of 
that community, nothing can be done with any measure of success, 



322 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

unless the component members of that collective body are suffi- 
ciently well trained to cooperate towards one common end, within 
the limits of their means and abilities. In other terms, men are 
interdependent in an infinity of ways; of course, Aristotle said no 
more when he defined Man as a iroXcTtKov ^wov, that is, as a being 
essentially made for society and by society. "As educators," the 
Compagnons declare, "we wish to develop and increase the social 
value of every Frenchman; up to the present, our education has 
tended mainly to encourage his intellectual development." It fol- 
lows that the educational system of a country should ignore those 
artificial and obsolete distinctions which have led to the establish- 
ment of water-tight compartments; it should also ignore class dis- 
tinctions: when a child begins to learn he is a child; let him be 
taken as such, and if he proves his fitness, let us lead him grad- 
ually and without any brutal jerks or transitions to the very sum- 
mit. Democratic education is a pyramid whose basis covers the 
entirety of the social body, and whose apex is accessible only to 
the members of that intellectual elite which is the modern form 
of aristocracy. A severe process of elimination shall keep poorly 
qualified candidates away from superior grades, the rule being that 
a modern democracy should place its pride in quality and not in 
quantity. In the same way as there is liaison running from the 
bottom to the top layers of this educational pyramid, there is also 
intimate, living, and flexible union between that all-comprehending 
school, on one hand, and the public mind, on the other. French 
universities must be made to match the geographical and economic 
features of their own location. To intellectual leaders it belongs to 
interpret the most recent results of human work and expound the 
necessary evolution of modern societies. To each imiversity it also 
belongs to mould itself on its mother province; and it is well known 
that French provinces vary, from north to south and east to west, 
as widely and happily as the golden sands of the Loire and the 
Celtic of Brittany differ from the iron mines of Lorraine and the 
coal districts of the North. 

Such is the ideal of the Compagnons. Incomplete as I have made 
it, this account will show that the French university leaders were 
ready and glad to shoulder the burden of reconstruction on the 
day of the armistice. Whilst the Compagnons were busy in cre- 
ating a favorable atmosphere — they could hardly do more, seeing 



Problem of Education in France 323 

that they had no other authority than that which their competence 
and good faith had conferred upon them — the French Ministry 
of Education was losing no time. The issues that the war had 
forced up to the surface were met as early as July and September, 
1920. Decrees were submitted to the Superior Council on Educa- 
tion, and it was felt that the French Ministry was holding on 
many points the same views as the Compagnons, and that, better 
still, those views were justified not so much by temporary needs 
as by the necessities of logical progress and natural growth. Several 
reforms have just been enacted; principles have been asserted in 
forcible language and with them a handful of ideas has been thrown 
into the university world. The first decree of July, 1920, has broken 
down the barriers of centralized administration. In granting to 
the seventeen French universities the right to expand and to gather 
into themselves all other institutions of higher learning, whether 
scientific or literary, whether public, municipal, or private, the 
French educational authorities have held that a university should 
be the translation into terms of culture and knowledge of the char- 
acteristics and tendencies of the geographical unit where the uni- 
versity has planted its home. That is not all; if, as the French 
reformers have put it, it is necessary that a modern university 
"should breathe the breath of life," it is advisable to bring academic 
minds into close touch with minds of different but not inferior 
types. Indeed, it is possible that in prescribing the election, as 
members of the University Council, of approved representatives 
of local, municipal, and industrial interests, the French reformers 
have wished to make it plain that culture rests upon life; it is 
conceivable that they have sensed a possible danger in pure spec- 
ulation and aloofness. The decree of July, 1920, contains another 
and very serious warning which is that a university should not try 
to be either a "universality" or an encyclopedia, and that a few 
strong and well equipped departments or highly specialized insti- 
tutes will render greater service than general mediocrity. 

The Compagnons have placed their faith in democracy; the 
French Ministry has gone as far as the Compagnons themselves. 
A unique opportunity was offered to do so when the regime of the 
Faculty of Letters came up before the reformers in September last 
year. From the knowledge that the leaders of French thought 
often rose in the past from the people and from those silent and 



324 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

obscure toilers whose faith in life and work saved the nation during 
the war, the French reformers have inferred a new definition of 
democratic education. It may be contended that a university is 
democratic as long as its tuition fees are within the resources of the 
average student. Such has always been the case with the French 
universities which, maintained by the state, are obliged to cut 
their charges down to a negligible minimum; yet, however liberal, 
a university may close its doors to many willing and able students 
who for some reason or other — bad luck or lack of advantages in 
early life — do not possess preliminary qualifications. Then, 
democratic education becomes a lure; it belies its own definition 
if it insists upon entrance requirements and conditions of admis- 
sion; it degenerates into bigoted administration. It is only fair to 
say that public courses have always been regularly given in every 
French Faculty of Letters; a sop had been thrown to the hungry 
public, a poor gift, indeed, as it came from the only non-profes- 
sional faculty, from the guardian of that knowledge which is 
man's mind itself instead of its application. The decree of Sep- 
tember, 1920, will remain as an instance of intellectual boldness. 
The only modern and democratic course consists in admitting all 
students to higher literary studies and in brushing aside the anti- 
quated notion of preliminary entrance requirements. This is an ac- 
complished fact today. "A better understood social solidarity will 
call up to the surface the deepest layers of the French people; the 
gaps in the line will be filled in; more and finer opportunities will 
unite in the carrying out of the common task all those who wish to 
obtain a place in the band of literary workers." It is in this spirit 
that the newly established certificates of higher literary studies 
have been thrown open to all comers. In such a system, for which 
there is no precedent, there exists also absolute freedom of election 
of courses and subjects; in the total absence of anything savoring 
of compulsory attendance and of work done against time, by tape 
and rule, care must be taken that liberty — liberty of accession as 
well as discrimination — does not run into caprice. The question 
of ultimate success or failure will be referred to the student in 
person, but standards of excellence must be maintained at all 
costs. If many are called, if anybody may be called, it does not 
follow that everybody will succeed. Equality of opportunities in 
a democratic nation does not mean or imply equality of success. 



Problem of Education in France 325 

Searching examinations and tests, both written and oral, will cause 
a percentage of failures which, according to the French practice, 
will seldom be less than 40 per cent and has been known to reach 
80 per cent. Perfection of form, artistic presentation, and, above 
all, the ability to reason correctly have been emphasized once more 
as the only qualities likely to evince the texture of the student's 
mind. Memorized knowledge will be of no avail. Absence of 
judgmeri- id surfeit of knowledge are father and son; they are 
equally unuesirable. 

The problem of French education has been considered so far 
from both the social and the national standpoints. Once accepted, 
the quickening principle of liaison will make other claims that 
cannot be denied. There are imperative reasons as well as senti- 
mental motives that demand that the French university of today 
should be as well informed of the efforts of foreign educators as 
it is generous in its treatment of such students as may wish to 
benefit by French training and methods. "We have made room," 
the French reformers declare, "for the students of the nations that 
were with us in victory." International cooperation in intellectual 
matters has come in the wake of national union. It was a foregone 
conclusion. Even today, agreements and conventions are being 
drafted between the University of France and the universities and 
colleges of this country. The highest French doctorate degrees 
have been made accessible to American graduates; the grading of 
French students in American institutions of higher learning and 
other delicate questions of academic equivalence have been ex- 
amined in a spirit of good-will and cooperation. Whether we will 
it or not, it is obvious that something has been changed in the 
university world. Would it be that the coming generation will 
consider the present period as one of honest and farseeing con- 
structive efforts.? Would it be that our recent and common pro- 
test against a malignant, tortuous, and savage conception of 
knowledge has caused us to pause and look into our own selves? 
Would it be that, after all, we have succeeded in picking the thread 
of disinterested and unselfish international culture? 

My conclusion will be brief. France lost over ten thousand 
teachers, instructors, and professors during the war. It is a great 
privilege — it is the saddest privilege a country has ever had to 
bow to and accept. The dead did their work and carried their 



326 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

task to the bitter end; those who have been spared have done and 
are doing their work with renewed activity. As university men, 
as colleagues, and as friends, I beg to leave it to you to draw 
your own conclusions and to decide whether the present study of 
the problem of education in France today justifies our most cher- 
ished hope of reestablishing, among friendly nations, that brother- 
hood of university men and intellectual workers who thought and 
worked in common in the far-off days when Abelard was dis- 
coursing on the Nature of Things. 



The College in Next Hundred Years 327 



WHAT DOES THE COLLEGE HOPE TO BE DURING THE 
NEXT HUNDRED YEARS? 

ALEXANDER MEIKLEJOHN 

President of Amherst College 

MY FIRST words will seem, I fear, somewhat ungracious to 
you who come to listen to them. For I am planning to 
speak, not to you who are here but to others who are not 
here — persons who are far away, in time if not in space. And fur- 
ther (it must be said) this preference of hearers is dictated, in part 
at least, by the craving of a speaker for an audience which is in- 
terested, which will listen eagerly to what he has to say. "But 
surely," you will protest, "our presence here is proof enough of in- 
terest; why do you pass us by in favor of some other men who 
have not come.^*" And I must answer for my chosen hearers, 
"They would have liked to come but could not get away in time." 
And if you then demand to know who they may be and why, if 
so much interested, they could not come when others could, I will 
explain. There are two groups of them. Each would have had to 
travel a hundred years to be in time today. But even that, I am 
sure, they would gladly have done had time allowed. The men 
I have in mind are, first, those who discussed our theme one hun- 
dred years ago when Amherst was established and, second, those 
who, one hundred years from nov^, will talk upon the theme again 
when next we have Centennial celebrations. Can you not see 
them there on either hand, the spokesmen of the founders, the 
spokesmen of the century after this? Would they not like to come 
to match their speech with ours? Would we not like to have them 
here? I wish they might appear in very person that we might 
really be acquainted with them. But failing that, I try to send 
my words across the years to them. And you may listen as I 
speak for you to them. And while we celebrate, on either side 
these friendly judges of our thought shall stand, two groups two 
hundred years apart, the spokesmen of the past, the spokesmen 
of the future. 

I have a special personal reason for craving the presence here 



328 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

of Noah Webster and Aaron Leland and Zephaniah Swift Moore 
and Messrs. X and Y and Z of 2021. Facing today the task which 
those have faced one hundred years ago and these must face one 
hundred years from now, I feel their kinship and I give them mine. 
The founders had ideals. For the sake of these they even tried to 
tear old Williams from the rocky hills which held her fast. And 
when they could not break her bonds they tore a rib from out her 
side and brought it here — I will not press the figure further. What 
were the fundamental yearnings of the soul that drove them on to 
violence such as this.f* That was the question which Webster, Le- 
land, and Moore were called upon to answer. And Messrs. X, Y, Z 
must try to state ideals, too. A place without such things is not a 
college. And they, like us, will tumble out in 2021 the dusty pages 
of the past, will look to see what words were said two hundred 
years, one hundred years before. I doubt not we shall have for 
them the same quaint, far-off quality that Aaron, Noah, and Zeph- 
aniah have for us. I doubt not they will smile when names and 
phrases common to us strike oddly on their modern ears. And yet 
I know that they will come to us and to our predecessors before 
they state their modern purposes. They dare not frame a guiding 
purpose for the College which is not in some fundamental sense our 
own. Nor may we in these earlier days so form our thought that it 
shall not be true for them in differing circumstance. We speakers 
have a common cause to serve, a single truth to follow throughout 
these centuries. And so we stand together in a fellowship. Alike 
we shake and tremble before the awful task; with equal pain we 
know how little of the truth our words can tell; and hence, with 
friendly smile at one another, we put ourselves aside, and fix our 
eyes upon the common goal. Here, then, we talk together. Cen- 
tennial Speakers. And you, who are in present human form the 
cause for which we speak, shall listen and judge. You shall judge 
us who try to say in words the truth by which you too are judged 
as well as we. 

Such is the audience. What of the theme? It asks, "What does 
the College hope to be in this next century?" It is not strange that 
one should hesitate before a theme like this. I feel inclined to say 
to those who ask the question, "I'll answer you this if you'll answer 
another." Will some one kindly tell me just what some other things 
will be in this next century? What will the world be like, and what 



The College in Next Hundred Years 329 

America, and what New England, and what our students, and 
what we? Do men say Peace or War, do they say Hope or Fear, 
do they say Beauty or Ughness as they survey the coming years? 
What will that world be like for which we give our education? It 
makes a difference to our purpose. I cannot tell you what Amherst 
hopes to be unless I know what are the greater hopes of which ours 
are a little part, to which our purposes must be conformed. One 
cannot talk of education unless one knows the human spirit and 
its world. To teach young people is to make them ready for the 
world in which they are to live. Here is a constant task which runs, 
in changing form, through all the centuries — the task of Webster, 
Moore, and Leland, the task of X, Y, Z, our task as well. We are 
and were and are to be a liberal college. But in what world and for 
what spirits? Are they the same as they have been before or do 
they differ? According as they change so liberal training changes; 
as they are constant, so liberal teaching is the same. But will this 
coming century differ from the past or will it be the same? Our 
theme requires that we should know what things will be, will come 
to pass in this next century. It does not tell us where such infor- 
mation may be found. 

So much for hearers and for theme! What of the speaker's part? 
I am to tell you what I can about the world and men, and hence 
of education, in this next century — their constant meanings and 
their changing forms. Over against the thrilling story of the past 
I must attempt to sketch the uncertain future. And as I give this 
prophecy I do not hope for your agreement, nor even for my own. 
Prophets, men say, are seldom honored near their homes. But may 
I ask you to take note that he who makes a prophesy is even nearer 
to his home than are his critics. To prophesy is not to know. Our 
prophecies are hopes and wills, desires and yearnings for the com- 
mon weal in coming days. The prophet says, "Is not this good?" 
stating in words the values which we all accept. And when we 
answer "Yes," he says, "Then this must follow; this shall the future 
be." But round the corner someone else has drawn another vision 
from the same accepted truth. "No, no," he says, "the future shall 
be that." And while they clash, the sober unprophetic men, who 
do find honor near their homes — the nearer the home, the greater 
the honor — these shake their dubious heads and go to work again. 
That is their prophecy. And so, I say, I do not ask for your agree- 



330 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

ment. Prophets do not agree. I simply try to see and state my 
hopes of what a world may be, my pride in what a college might 
achieve. And you and you and you, out of our common cause, 
make different hopes and different expectations. By difference 
such as this we rightly plan together for a common end. But while 
we plan and differ as we may I still can count in special ways upon 
my special hearers, on Webster, Moore, and Leland, on X and Y 
and Z. They cheer me on to play the game. Those say, "We 
guessed and missed and hit — and so will you." And these, when 
their turn comes, will read the words and say, "Such was his guess, 
and theirs;" and then will take their turn and guess again. 

But here today, they stand on either hand, my kinsmen. And 
we who speak for Amherst as she is will face with level eye the men 
whom Amherst was, the men whom Amherst is to be. 

I. 

The prophecy which I am about to make falls into two parts, 
the first telling what the world is to be in the next century, the 
second deducing from this the future history of education. In each 
of these fi.elds I have one and only one general observation to make. 
I shall try to make one prophecy about the world and then to de- 
rive from this one prophecy about the college. But under each of 
these two general principles you will find three minor principles, 
in each case the remarks on education being derived from the cor- 
responding remarks upon the nature of the world. 

You will note at once that in spite of the brave words of my 
introduction I am not planning to tell you all that will happen in 
the world in the next century. I am concerned simply with one 
feature of the world which is of special interest to a college, to this 
College. We must begin, therefore, by stripping our theme. 

And first, since our location is now quite definitely fixed, we find 
in space a very obvious principle of limitation. We are American. 
We are not essentially of this Town, or of this State, nor even of 
New England. And only in rather scattered ways does our imme- 
diate influence go to other countries. We are primarily of this 
country and not of any part of it. This is an American college. 

And, second, we are also a liberal college. As such our interest 
has to do only with central and essential things. We are concerned 
primarily with what men call, for lack of better terms, a country's 



The College in Next Hundred Years 331 

culture. By this we mean that minghng of feeUng, behef, purpose, 
expression, action, in which a nation's spirit finds itself revealed. 
A liberal college tries to lear^ and teach that culture. 

What, then, in this next century, will be the culture of America? 
And in its making what part will liberal colleges, this liberal Col'ege, 
play.^ This is the theme on which today we speakers speak together. 

My general prophecy as to America has to do with National 
Independence. It is this. We, thus far, have been in cultural ways 
a dependent people. The time has come when we must win our 
independence. Thus far, I think it may be said, we have been busy 
giving to an old culture a new home. The home we have been 
making and we have made it big. The culture we have received 
from others; we have not made it for ourselves. But now the time 
has come when we must win our freedom, must be ourselves, must 
master our spirit — when feelings, beliefs, and actions must be our 
own as they have never been before. We are, I think, in this next 
century destined to make a culture and to cease from merely taking 
one which others made. 

May I explain by illustration? We have believed in freedom of 
individual life. Our fathers took this as a guiding principle. They 
found it in their blood; they took its formula from France and 
England. And we have kept it on our books and in our minds. But 
do we now believe it when time of heavy pressure comes? We are 
not sure. Our action is uncertain. And why is this? It does not 
mean that we are fickle stock. When once our will is fixed by clear, 
deliberate choice, that choice will stand the strain of bitter obsta- 
cles. But as to freedom our will is not yet fixed by clear, deliberate 
choice. The times have changed since first our fathers put the word 
upon the books. And we have never really questioned whether 
with changing times freedom itself should change. We have the 
word which others gave and yet we have not made it ours; we do 
not know its present meaning. Our home we have made; we have 
not made our spirit. 

If I may change the figure, I should say that in cultural ways 
we have been playing schoolboy in face of older men, our teachers. 
And while like schoolboys, we have learned our lessons, we have, 
like them, been growing up in strength and power of body. What 
I am saying does not mean that we as individual men are children 
and schoolboys; it does not mean that leaders among us are not 



332 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

wise and keen. It does mean that we, a people, have not yet willed 
what we shall be, have not yet made our spirit by a choice which 
understands itself. No better illustration could be found than what 
we did and failed to do in the Great War. We went in mighty 
strength and grew in strength by using it. We went with courage 
and resolve, for we had found something to do that seemed worth 
doing. We put our purpose into words, clear-cut and ringing words 
that stirred men's hearts. And now we are not sure just what they 
were about. The victory is won, and we are puzzled. And Europe 
smiles; it cannot help but smile. We had such splendid power, such 
eager spirit to play our part, and yet we do not seem to have 
brought about just what our spoken words had seemed to mean 
we were determined should be brought about. And older peoples 
look at us in envy of our youth and strength, in admiration of our 
generous courage, and yet in somewhat friendly, somewhat bitter 
amusement at our futility. We did not understand the part we 
rushed to play. 

But now the time has come for leaving school. The baffled, 
awkward schoolboy learns by sharp experience such as we have 
had; he learns by feeling of his strength at work. "They care what 
I can do," he says, "but do they care for my opinion.-^ They like to 
have me on their side, but do they really care what I may think 
about the point at issue.^*" And then the questioning, once begun, 
goes on. "What do I think; v, hat have I thought; who really has 
decided all these things that I have done, or tried to do, or thought 
that I was doing.'* It seems to me I'd better look around and see 
just where I am." That time of questioning has come, I think, for 
us. In all the arts of peace as well as those of war we must put on 
the garments of a man. We can no longer merely learn what others 
have to teach. We must be independent, must be masters of our 
spirit, must make a culture of our own. 

What will this independence mean for us.-* Many a boy mistakes 
the meaning of his manhood when it comes. And so may we. What 
does it mean.'' 

It does not mean that we shall change our point of view, our 
values, or our standards, that we shall make a culture different 
from the one we had. Nor does it mean that we shall keep them as 
they were. It simply means that we shall choose whether or not 
to keep them as they were. When freedom comes a son may choose 



The College in Next Hundred Years 333 

the way his father trod or just as freely he may choose some other 
way. The son who must discard his father in order to feel himself a 
man is still a boy; he has another choice to make when he becomes 
a man. The son who dare not tread a way his father has not 
smoothed and marked for him had better stay at home and keep 
his father on the watch for fear some bogey catch him. And both 
these types of fear are now aroused among us as we approach our 
manhood. Men fear that we shall leave the old, established ways, 
shall lose the spirit of Old New England, of Old Virginia, shall 
cease to think the thoughts our fathers made. And others, just as 
timid in their braggadocio, fear we may keep the old, established 
ways, fear we may fail in being different from the past, fear lest 
the past may have the strength of youth still in its veins. These 
fears of either type do not express our independence. They are our 
tremblings at the brink, our first quick timorous shrinkings from 
the facts which we must face. They must be put aside as we go 
forward on our way. 

And as men fear to be or not to be the past, so do they fear to 
be or not to be their neighbors. Our independence does not mean 
that we must take some foreign culture as our own. Nor does it 
mean that we must hate all foreign cultures, that we must fashion 
for ourselves some mode of life of which no other race has ever 
dreamed. But here again already men are raising frightened voices 
in angry warfare of conflicting views. "Shall foreign tastes and 
standards come across the seas to scoff at ours.^^" Or, on the other 
hand, "Shall we be mere provincials, rude, untutored folk who fail 
to eat and dress and talk and think as foreign peoples do?" These 
are the words of children aping at manhood. Freedom does not 
consist in likeness to other men nor yet in difference from them. 
Freedom is choice. And choice is Independence. 

And so I dare to guess that in this coming century America will 
choose her way of life, will make a culture of her own. And when 
she does she will not act from fear or hate or prejudice or spite. 
Rather, in mere objective ways, her fate will come upon her and 
she will see and take it gladly. One hundred million people here, 
linked by a common fate, must find, will find a way of life. And 
these first years of strong and youthful manhood will flush with 
glory of the new-found aims and new-found independence. These 
will be days in which to live. I know that often we shall trip and 



334 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

stumble. I know that very slowly will the nation as a whole be 
brought to tread a common way. And yet there is a way that we 
shall tread, a call that we shall answer. It calls us on from youth to 
manhood, from tutelage to self-direction, from strength to wisdom 
in the use of strength. And we will answer to the call. Those who 
have known our youth have little doubt of that. 

But what will be the call.^ What culture shall we make? There 
are three phases of our life, our growth, concerning which I dare to 
guess our choice. The first concerns a racial aristocracy. The 
second has to do with what we call Idealism. The third deals with 
our Faith, 

1. 

And first I wish to speak of Anglo-Saxons and of aristocracy. 
We are in our beginnings the sons of Britain. Hers are our language, 
our literature, our law. Hers is the culture from which our culture 
springs. In all essential things we spring from Britain. 

In still another more immediate sense we are of British stock. 
Her task is ours. Britain has gathered up the peoples of the earth 
and made them one — one commonwealth or empire. And so have 
we. To us they come from North and South, from East and West, 
and we must make them one — one single nation with a single life. 
And as we face her task again we well may try to learn what 
Britain has to teach, may look to see what she has tried to do, where 
she has failed, what ends she has achieved. 

If we may separate England abroad from England at home, I 
think that one may fairly say that England's way of dealing with 
this task perforce is one of Aristocracy. She governs other races 
and yet she keeps herself apart; they are not of her kind, her class. 
Peoples of many creeds, of many colors, many grades of culture, 
she holds together for some common ends. And yet so far as foreign 
races are concerned, it is not fellowship that welds the empire, but 
common ends, external interests. And through it all, Britain is 
leader; she stands above, apart. 

What I have tried to say just now may be attempted in another 
way. Britain has shown the modern world how one people may 
take control of other peoples, may lead them in cooperation. In 
doing this Britain has faced the facts — and so must we. For certain 
ends it was and is desirable that races join together in external 



The College in Next Hundred Years 335 

ways, that they cooperate. Who should take charge of this co- 
operation? They who in wisdom and in strength could do it best. 
And Britain has rightly claimed her place. No other power in 
modern times has shown such wisdom and such strength for just 
this task. And yet for Britain it has ever been a task external to 
herself, an outside thing that needed to be done. 

I press this externality because it marks so clearly the difference 
of the forms in which the common task appears. We, too, have 
many races, peoples, creeds, who must have government. But 
Britain's foreign peoples are, for the most part, outside her bor- 
ders. Her subject races stretch around the globe, far from the 
little isle that sits so tight just off the coast of Western Europe. 
Our foreign peoples, on the other hand, are here within our bor- 
ders; they are our neighbors, soon our fellow-citizens; our friends 
or not our friends; they are Americans. And so to Britain's son 
there comes again the task of Britain, but in a very different way. 

And we must understand how different is the way. We cannot 
simply follow Britain's lead as if the situations were the same. 
Britain has many lands to govern. To each with her experienced 
eye she measures the closeness of the touch, the tightness of the 
bond. And so she has learned the lesson of taking charge of those 
who are not one's associates. That is Aristocracy. Is that the way 
for us-f^ It cannot be. We have no power to choose how close shall 
be the touch, how tight the bonds that bind us all together. Here 
we are, say what we will, a single people in a single land. If Brit- 
ain's strains should prove too great she might again send off a 
separate people into independence. And neither of the two would 
suffer vital hurt. But we are one in many; we cannot, will not let 
a separate race, a separate part, a separate faction go. We may 
not separate. How shall we live together.'* 

Here is, it seems to me, the urgent question for our Anglo-Saxon 
stock. Shall we again attempt an Anglo-Saxon aristocracy in this 
new world? Already in a sense it is established here without our 
will. We were the first to come; ours are the greater numbers still; 
ours are the language, literature, and law; we hold in greater part 
the places of influence and control; we have the education largely 
in our hands. We are predominant. And this has come not by our 
choice but by the mere blind play of fact. But now the time of 
choosing is at hand. Do we intend to make our dominance secure? 



336 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

Are we determined to exalt our culture, to make it sovereign over 
others, to keep them down, to have them in control? Or will we let 
our culture take its chance on equal terms, without advantage, 
taking its own in the free play of a great people's fusing life? 
Which shall it be — an Anglo-Saxon aristocracy of culture or a 
Democracy? 

It is not easy for a stock like ours to make the latter choice, and 
yet I think we will. We have two sets of impulses at war within us. 
We have a love of independence for ourselves; perhaps a habit of 
ruling others. But there is still another stronger side. I mean the 
willingness to take a fair and honest chance, to play the game ac- 
cording to the rules and let the end be what it will. And now the 
question is, which side will have its way with us. 

There are some obvious facts which might direct our choice. 
We have already here one people whom we rule, with whom we do 
not genuinely associate. How many more such subject races would 
we like to have? And England at home gives further evidence. 
Norman and Saxon, Dane and Celt, have made a single people. 
England did not fight Scotland down, nor did she make much of it 
when she tried. But they have fused together, and now are one. 
And who controls their common life, a Scotsman's modesty forbids 
my saying. But just across the channel is another people who have 
not fused, who fear their culture may be lost, who dread and hate 
the threat of domination. England and Ireland are not so happy 
as are the other pair. 

Which shall it be with us? I hope that we shall ask no special 
favors for our thoughts, nor take such special favors as our power 
and influence might win were we to use them. Ours is the creed 
which says that every creed must take its chance with every other 
on equal footing. I hope that we shall value its being true more 
than we value its being ours. But many I know will bitterly object. 
"What will you have," they say, "shall we give up our culture; 
shall we desert beliefs and attitudes and purposes by which we live; 
shall we set these aside in favor of some sentimental common thing 
which men may all accept because no one of them accepts it?" 
"No, no," they say, "this truth is mine; it shall prevail if I have 
power to make it." And other men, whose truths are beaten down, 
are saying in their turn, "This is not fair; wait till I get my chance; 
and then we'll see whose truth shall win." And victories are won 



The College in Next Hundred Years 337 

on fields like these, poor, silly, hollow, lying victories in which both 
sides are beaten. We do not want, we dare not have such victories 
in America. 

And so I cast my Anglo-Saxon vote for Pure Democracy. We 
Anglo-Saxons have the upper hand. How shall we use it.f* Accord- 
ing to the principles on which the country's life by us was founded. 
We dare to say that even those principles must take their chance. 
He has deserted them who will not let them face the test. Here in 
America the peoples of the earth are working out a common des- 
tiny in which each group must share, share as it may according to 
the strength and virtue that its spirit has. And we like all the rest 
shall lose our separate life in this great venture, shall lose it in trying 
to find, to make a common life more fair, more free, more true than 
men have ever seen before. It is a dangerous game to play; but yet 
one dare not miss the chance of playing it. 



My second guess as to our forming culture concerns Idealism. 
The term is not exact but it will do. 

To many who watch us from outside, America presents a curious 
contrast in which again perhaps our sonship to the older Anglo- 
Saxon coimtry is revealed. To quote a vulgar phrase, one hears 
men say of us, "You seek the good, and get the goods." They 
mean that we express ideals and achieve success. And underneath 
the formula there lurks a query, "Which are you really.? If one 
were seeking for your soul, should he dig down where words crop 
out or where the actions are? Which are you — devotees of Mam- 
mon or of Righteousness .f' " 

It wull not do to meet this question with too clear an answer. 
We are like other men; and other men, like us, are made of strangely 
mingled and conflicting elements. Men are of general stuff in spe- 
cial mixtures. What is with us the special kind of mixture.'' 

Our fathers came across the sea with mingled motives. They 
sought a place of freedom and a means of livelihood. They wanted 
both, but in unusual degree they wanted freedom. And for the 
sake of this they risked the livelihood, took chances with it. And 
then the venture turned out well; from risky living fortune came; 
and then, great wealth. Such is our early history. And for the later 
immigrants the record is the same. They too have come in search 



338 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

of freedom and in hope of wealth. And here they have found a 
fertile continent ready to be their home, to give a lavish livelihood. 
But they have also found a people ready to risk its home, its 
wealth, if need be for a cause. And sometimes need has come; and 
we have taken the risk; and it has turned out well; we have been 
fortunate. The Lucky Idealists, I think we may be called. 

Such is the record of our youth. What will it be when schoolboy 
days are past? The cynic tells of boys who dream great dreams 
when they are young, who love their fellows more than they love 
themselves. And cynics say of such a boy, '"His father spoils him, 
lets him dream nonsense. Wait till his father stands aside, wait till 
he faces the cares that men must bear; those things will knock the 
nonsense out of his head." And cynics say the same of us. We have 
had lavish, easy, wealthy youth. And our Idealism, except in 
times of special crisis, has not had heavy strain to bear. What will 
become of it when easy youth is past, when we must face the cares 
of men.!^ Will it go up like smoke, like idle dream.'* No, it will not. 
Youth is not always silly nor cynics always right. In easy youth, 
free from the pull of special interest, boys learn objective truth, 
and if they have in them the stuff of which a man is made, they do 
not turn their backs and run when danger comes. And we, in times 
of coming strain, will not desert our colors, but seeing the threat 
against them, will gather round them once again and risk our all 
for them again, and win again for them — and for ourselves if we 
are fortunate. 

But someone, future, past, or present, will ask, "What is this 
something which you call Idealism? What does it mean?" It has 
been put in many forms in many times and countries. With us it 
means something like this: Each man, each woman, each child 
shall have a chance at life; they shall not be denied the full and 
free and rich expression of themselves if we can help them to attain 
it. Men's lives are thwarted, stunted, twisted, throttled, killed by 
circumstance of every sort. That is our failure, even more than 
theirs. We will not have it so. Each life shall be what it might 
be, what may be made of it, what under favoring circumstances, it 
may become. Such is our aim. What can we do? We cannot be the 
life, we cannot live for others in that sense. But we can shape the 
circumstance. That we will do. Wherever in the world we find 
men, women, children, weak in life, sickening in spirit because of 



The College in Next Hundred Years 339 

circumstance that starves or beats them down, there we will fight 
the circumstance and break it. Wherever in the world the sun 
shines on the human spirit, there we will take our friends that they 
may bask and grow and be themselves. Lives shall be made suc- 
cessful; each one shall have as good a chance at being itself as we 
can make this hard old world provide. We are responsible. That 
is, it seems to me. Idealism as we have seen it. 

How shall we see it in the coming century as we go out from 
youth to manhood? Simply with better understanding, as befits 
a man. Thus far our thoughts are chiefly negative. We have said, 
"All men are equal in our eyes; all men have equal rights before 
the laws which limit them; no man shall interfere with others; this 
is the land of opportunity." That is the creed as boys perceive it. 
But now we need a version for a man. There is not one among us 
whose thought and action do not take him far beyond this point. 
"People must have an equal chance," we say. But, more than that, 
each one must have some chance of taking the chances which he 
has. We know that rich men's sons often have little chance of tak- 
ing what life presents them; they are too dulled by lavish circum- 
stance. And we resent the horror of it. So too with others. If chil- 
dren cannot walk, little is gained by them from public running 
tracks; if children do not feel what reading is, they are not helped 
by libraries; if children live in degradation until their souls are 
stupefied, one does not say much when one talks of opportunity. 
What does it mean to give to men a chance.'' Is it to stand aside; 
is it to say that they are free to roam when all men know that 
chains have bound them fast.f* No, it is more than that. It means 
that men shall not be bound by chains, whether their own or forged 
by other men. It means that every man shall have a genuine chance 
at taking the ways of life that lie before him. It means that life 
shall be; that men shall really live; life shall not be denied. We 
take responsibility. 

And so I think that in the coming century. Idealism will mean, 
not simply letting others be themselves, but acting that each shall 
be himself. I am not speaking here for any special scheme of social 
betterment. I do not know what can be done by way of helping 
older people. The Puritan believes two doctrines at this point, first 
that his duty is to help his fellow-men, and second, that to help 
another man destroys his character — and that is sin. Between two 



340 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

sins like these, one's action lags. And I am much a Puritan. But 
Puritan or not, I know one field in which Idealism may have its 
way without the fear of sin. Young people may be, must be helped 
to grow into their strength. Young lives shall not be stunted and 
deformed. In youth we have the human being in our hands to make 
it ready for its life, ready in every phase and aspect of its being. 
This is the time for making sure that lives succeed, by care and 
nurture as they grow; all children, every child must be so trained 
and disciplined, so nourished and protected, so strengthened and 
refined, so guided and informed that richness of life shall open up 
before it and it shall see and take what life affords. This is the task 
of Education in the broader sense. In face of it our present schemes 
of schools and training are petty, trivial things. No other task 
which men attempt compares with it in grandeur or in scope. Here 
in the care of youth, in this next century, American Idealism will 
find its richest play. 

3. 

My last prophecy as to America's culture in this next century 
has to do with Faith. A century ago, when Amherst was established, 
men spoke much of their faith. Today, men on the whole speak 
little of it. What they will do one hundred years from now, who 
knows.? And yet the change, whatever it may be, is not essential. 
Men do not really change in things so deep as this. What is that 
constant Faith which men have had or failed to have, which they 
will have or fail to have in this next century.'* 

My friends who study our national life tell me that a century 
ago America was much as she is now. The world had been at war 
in long and bitter conflict. And we had our share of it. And there 
had come upon the people the degradation which follows after 
struggle. Fibre had slackened; standards were broken down; cus- 
toms were insecure; men seemed to have lost their grip upon the 
world and on themselves. A ainst this degradation leaders of men 
were lashing out with eager words. Among the cries there rose the 
words of those who founded Amherst College. They saw and felt 
the need of strength and virtue in the common life. They called for 
men to bring them back again. And chiefly in their time they called 
for ministers to preach. "A Plea for a Miserable World" — that was 
the sermon delivered by Daniel Clark when the building of the 



I 



The College in Next Hundred Years 341 

Charity Institution was begun in August, 1820. It was the call of 
Noah Webster who, on the same occasion, summoned men out 
from the "barbarous works of war" into the estabhshment of the 
"empire of truth." To these men and to their feUows it seemed that 
the wisdom of this world had turned to folly and to shame. Over 
against it they preached another wisdom by which the loss might 
be regained. 

No man among us, I suppose, would use today the words and 
phrases which were used one hundred years ago. Nor do we think 
the thoughts in just the forms which then seemed true. And yet 
the essential cleavage which they knew is with us still. There are 
two ways of facing life, two kinds of wisdom for mankind. One is 
the way of dread, the other the way of confidence. One rests on 
fear and cunning; the other on hope and faith. One is for man, the 
beast; the other, for man the spirit. 

And as between these two, the issue is a very simple one, no 
matter what the terms in which it may be put. The question is. Do 
we rely upon the w^orld to be with men as they pursue the good? Is 
good supported and sustained outside ourselves, or do we fight 
alone in desperate singlehandedness? That is the ancient modern 
query that cuts in two our ways of life, that cuts each man in two, 
that cuts the groups of men apart. 

And by men's actions are they judged in this respect. The men 
who fight for justice, as they say, and yet who fight unjustly, do 
not believe in justice. They dare not let it have its way, care for 
itself. They think themselves and their injustice greater in power 
to serve its ends than justice is. The men who fight for truth with 
lies strike at the very heart of truth. One sees men fighting, as 
they think, upon the side of God, who fight as if the world were 
ruled by devils. They fear, resort to subterfuge, seek favor, give 
way to hate, and so despair that every breath they draw denies 
the faith for which they fight. They have not genuine faith ; they 
live in cautious fear. 

This lack of faith appears today most clearly in our cleverness. 
We have become too shrewd in recent years. We trust too much in 
management, in propaganda, in administration. We moderns 
threaten to become past-masters in the art of telling truthful lies, 
of doing deeds of justice by which our pockets shall be filled. We 
know too well the tricks of using for our ends both men and truth. 



34^2 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



We know just what to say and when, to whom and in what form. 
And every one to whom we speak must ask, "Who pays to have 
that said; why does he say just that; what is he holding back?" We 
do not trust our world; and hence we dare not trust each other. 
But what we need to learn again is what the faithful men have 
known through all the centuries. The truth suppressed will out; 
truth cannot be denied. And he whose pockets overflow with 
money gained by craft is poorer for the having. An end achieved by 
guile is lost. This world is such that craft and guile are bad; it has 
no love for folly, and yet it loves an honest fool more than a clever 
knave. Such faith as this we need again to save us from our trust 
in cleverness. 

Shall we regain our faith in this next century.'* I hope we shall; 
I think we will. Just now we are bewildered by the many novel 
things with which we have to deal. Change after change has come 
so fast that we have lost our bearings. We have not made a code to 
fit the changing scheme; w^e still are lost within a whirl that leaves 
us dizzy as it rushes past. But we shall find our bearings, shall get 
our grip anew upon the world. And we will fashion principles which 
need not be denied when put in practice. The world is such that we 
have right to faith. And as a hundred years ago, men claimed that 
right and sought again their faith, so now we will again make good 
our claim. Without it life is for most of us a hollow mockery. We 
are too fond of life to let it go like that. America, I think, will live 
again by faith. 

n. 

Such is my prophecy about the world, about America, in this 
next century. If it were true, what would it mean for education, 
for liberal education, for education here in Amherst.'' 

I have said that in this next century America will pass from 
youth to manhood, will try to make a culture of its own. And 
further, out of the mingling of the peoples of the earth, a greater 
people will be fashioned here. And we will care for individual hu- 
man beings, will make the individual lives of men the ends we 
serve. And we will serve these ends without denying them, will 
keep the faith that they have Tightness in themselves. If such 
should be the process of our country's life, what will it mean for 
liberal colleges; what will it mean for us.' The college is a place 



The College in Next Hundred Years 343 

where men and boys are sensitive to human hfe, are set apart to 
share by vision and by understanding in the world of men. What 
will the vision be in this next century? How shall we understand? 
Let us attempt to answer point by point according to the prophecy. 

And first, the major prophecy. If we, the country, go from 
youth to manhood, so will the college. It too has been thus far a 
formless place of vagueness and of irresponsibility. America has dal- 
lied at the door of manhood, and so have we. Our colleges have 
failed for lack of conscious purpose in their teaching. And young 
Americans are hard to teach because neither to them nor to their 
friends has come the sense of tasks that must be done. Our talk of 
personal opportunity is far too pale, too negative a thing to claim 
the generous and adventurous mind. And so those minds are taken, 
not by us, but by a hundred petty, trivial things, each for its passing 
moment. But now the time has come when we must claim those 
minds as ours, to serve our purposes and theirs. I do not mean that 
we must find sham causes to allure our youth, invent high purposes 
to tempt them on to lessons, like donkeys straining for a tuft of 
fragrant grass. But this I mean. If we have purposes to serve, if 
we have manhood's obligations to fulfill, the college, first of all, 
must catch the sense of what they are. Here boys and men must 
feel and know and share their people's life. Here, if our people 
strive, the sense of striving must be strong and deep. Here, if our 
people fail, whether in virtue or in skill, the sense of shame must 
sting and throb until the failure is redeemed. Here, if we win, the 
joy of winning must explode in riotous delight. Here, as our people 
seek to find their way, we must be seeking too and help to find the 
way. 

Our people go to find their destiny. What will the college do? It 
too will go to find its fate with free and honest purpose. There 
will be many days of doubt and danger, of strain and sad confusion. 
But through it all we shall go out as boys from their Commence- 
ment, from eager youth to eager, sober manhood. This is the time 
when purpose forms because great things are seen. Life will have 
zest and power. There are no days in life like those in which the 
man breaks out into himself. And boys, whose strongest craving 
is to be like men, will rush to share that zest. Amherst and Williams, 
Harvard and Yale will live again, as in the earlier days when they 
were first established, to be the nervous centers of a growing life. 



344 A .\f fl E R S T G R A D r; A T E r ' Q r A R T E B L T 

It w\\\ he good to try to see and tell the way our people ought to 
choose to go. 

What will the college see in this next centuiy? Out of the na- 
tion's life its purposes will come. Wliat will they be? I have three 
minor prophecies to make. 



First — If we are not to have a racial aristocracy, democracy 
must have a dwelling place within our colleges. If here where 
thought is free and men are young, we dare not let our Anglo-Saxon 
culture take its chance, no other men or institutions will take the 
risk. We are an Anglo-Saxon college; and so in greater part we 
must remain. And yet we are American. We may not keep our- 
selves apart either from persons or from cultures not our own. We 
dare not shut our gates to fellow-citizens nor to their influence. So 
we must welcome boys of other stocks. And if they do not come, we 
must go out and bring them in. Our undergraduate life must repre- 
sent the country which it serves; students must keep it free from 
any taint of caste or aristocracy. And teachers, too, must keep our 
teaching free, open to aU the riches which our people have to bring. 
W^e shall not lose our Shakespeare by learning Dante's world; nor 
is one false to Poe because one follows Dostoievsky'. Our mother 
England gave us much; and yet she has not all that men may have. 
Peoples who rule tend to know more of ruling life than Hving it. 
And we, our mother's very eager sons, are much excited by the 
rattle of machinery. We need the wealth of spirit which the other 
peoples have to give. And they need us. Here in the American 
college that fusion must be made, our people must be formed and 
shaped into the rounded wholeness of a single life. This is a splen- 
did college task. We are and must be genuinelv American. 



And second, if in this coming century our people are to care for 
individual lives, the college has a heavy part to play. The college 
is the topmost round of general education. Here taste for what 
is best must find its best expression. Hence wisdom must be found 
as nowhere else, wisdom about the ways and means of making lives 
successful. But more specifically there is an urgent task which col- 
leges have much neglected in the past. We nuist have conscious 



Tee College i x Next H i x d r e d Years 8-45 

part in general national education. I do not know whether or not 
within one hundr>ed years the State will take us as her own. I dare 
not prophecy on matters such as that. But I do know that in all 
genuine meanings of the term, we are a people's college, and shall 
continue so to be. And we must share more deeply in the broader 
work of making younger people ready for their hving. The Greeks 
have said how hard it is for a democracy to keep in touch with ex- 
cellence. And popular education, popular training of our youth 
tends ever downwards in a democratic people's life. Shall we have 
shoddy training for our youth? We have it now in large degree. 
And out of shoddy training shoddy people come. But as, of old, 
men called for ministers to preach and lead, so we today must call 
for ministers and teachers of every sort who shall take charge of 
education, shall give it excellence from which to draw its strength. 
To bring the best we have of taste and insight into the making of 
our youth — that is a splendid task which hberal colleges must face. 
I do not mean that colleges should be made normal schools for 
teachers, I do not mean that we should cease from sending gradu- 
ates to law, to business, to medicine, to all the various arts of hu- 
man life. But I do mean that in some deeper sense, our colleges 
which have in charge the best that human life aflFords must make 
the best effective in the care of all our youth. 

We must send forth more ministers and teachers. And we must 
make them ready for their work. We cannot cultivate our youth 
imJess their teachers have themselves been cultivated in taste and 
insight. Here is the essential weakness of our national scheme of 
teaching. It is not based on genuine education of those who do 
the teaching. Only an educated people can, in the last resort, give 
education to its children. And we are vainly tr^dng to pay for edu- 
cation rather than to give it. But we, the colleges, must work for 
general education for young and old, must set the standard high, 
must make it gleam before the people's eyes, must lead them into 
the love of truth, into the search for wisdom in the ways of life. 
For this was Amherst College founded; by this it is and must be 
justified. 

3. 

And lastly, what of faith. ^ Our countrj^ seeks to find its bear- 
ings, to get a grijj again uix>n some fundamental things in which it 



346 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 

may have confidence. What will the college do to help? It must 
keep faith itself. Life is secure. Beneath the strife of men there are 
the common things for which both parties, with their partial wis- 
dom, partial blindness, strive. The college must keep in closer 
touch with these than with the parties which by different ways are 
striving toward them. Amidst their doubts and differences men 
need today the sense of their agreements lying deep within them- 
selves and in their world. Serenity and humor, good will and confi- 
dence, these are the qualities which colleges must keep in charge 
to serve their people. Men lose their poise in days like these, grow 
frightened by events which they themselves cannot control, take 
desperate means to save the situation by a single stroke; are willing 
just this once to put their faith aside, to save it for all future time. 
And colleges must tell them, what the ages have to tell, that single 
strokes do not save worlds, except for single moments. And if the 
faith is sacrificed today, it will cost more to win it back tomorrow. 
Here is, it seems to me, the deepest task of liberal colleges — to put 
the parties in their proper place and keep them there. We must 
have parties, and yet we need to smile at parties — I do not mean to 
laugh at them. We need to see each partial good as good in part, 
and yet as just a part. We need to smile and keep our faith in men 
and in their world. With all its doubts and fears, with all its con- 
flict and confusion, the world of men moves onward toward its 
goal. And they who doubt the goal are doubting toward it; and 
they who find it here will some day learn that there as well it has 
been found by other men. It leads us on whether we will or not. 
It does not fear our doubts; nor does it value quite as highly as we 
sometimes do our approbations. It is the faith of men in Man and 
in the world. The colleges must keep, will keep that faith in this 
next century. 

III. 

And now, one closing word ! I know that some of you who listen 
to our conversation have said, "All this is very general, very re- 
mote, not very helpful for the special tasks which wait the College 
in these coming years." You ask, "What is to be the course of 
study, what will you teach and how.? Is wisdom gained from Greek 
or science, art or statistics .'^ Are we to have a junior-senior college 
plan? Shall senior majors live or be forgotten?" 



The College in Next Hundred Years 347 

And here again, I cannot tell you what will come to pass. Nor 
do I care to try. These things, important as they are, are not es- 
sential. They must be passed upon as current questions according 
as the spirit leads. Two things I know concerning them. First, we 
will keep in mind the stipulations made by Zephaniah Moore when 
he accepted office as president of Amherst College. He required 
assurance, first, that "the classical education should be thorough," 
and second, that "the course of study should not be inferior to that 
in the colleges of New England." In both these ways the College 
pledged itself to him ; and it has tried to keep, will try to keep, that 
pledge. But further I am sure of one thing else. The course of study 
and the ways of teaching must be determined by the teachers, must 
be for them expressions of themselves. Nothing is gained by impo- 
sition from without. Trustees and president and graduates may 
make their plans, but they will fail unless they are as well the plans 
of those who do the teaching. Here is a truth which we must never 
lose from mind. Nine years ago I said, in an Inaugural Address, 
and now I say again, "It is, I believe, the function of the teacher 
to stand before his pupils and before the community at large as the 
intellectual leader of his time. If he is not able to take that leader- 
ship, he is not worthy of his calling. If the leadership is taken from 
him and given to others, then the very foundations of the scheme of 
instruction are shaken." We shall not lose these principles in these 
next years. A great college with great teachers, that is our dream 
for Amherst. A great college is great teachers — that is the principle 
by which our dream comes true. 

And so I say to Amherst men of every century, "We have a 
right today to faith in this old College, faith in the country which 
the College serves, faith in the work the College has to do, faith in 
its willingness and power to do that work. And we must keep the 
faith and do the work with joy and exultation." Listen, you men 
of Amherst's present day, listen and you will hear the cheers tli^t 
come to urge us on. They come from out the past, one hundred 
years ago; they ring from out the future, from centuries still to 
come. They are the cries of those who, after searching, try to speak 
the spirit of Amherst College. Listen to Webster, Moore and 
Leland; listen to X and Y and Z. They shout from out the years 
to us, their fellows, "The College lives, long live the College!" 



348 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



THE STORY OF THE CENTENNIAL 



The year in which Amherst graduates 
were brought closer to the College than 
ever before by the giving of three mil- 
lion dollars to their Alma Mater re- 
ceived its fitting close and crown in the 
observance of the one hundredth Com- 
mencement and Centennial Celebration 
on June 18-22. Nearly one half of the 
living alumni came to honor the birth- 
day of the College and to take part in 
the elaborate program prepared for the 
occasion. They were housed, fed, and 
cared for as well as the strained resources 
of the town would permit, and not 
a single hitch interrupted the carefully 
planned exercises. Five days of perfect 
weather helped to make the celebration 
the most momentous and enjoyable 
in the history of the College. We may 
say of the Centennial, as Professor 
W. S. Tyler said of the Semi-Centennial 
in 1871, "The alumni came from every 
part of our own country and from every 

quarter of the globe They 

seem to have gone away pleased with 
themselves and each other, proud of 
their mother, loving their brothers, 
feeling that they had a good time." 

PRELIMINARIES 

Early in the summer of 1920 the 
trustees decided to hold the Centennial 
at the time of Amherst's one hundredth 
Cuii.™cn cement, instead of during the 
fall of 1921 , on a date as ucarly as possi- 
ble the exact anniversary of the open- 
ing of the College. A committee was 
formed of trustees, faculty, and alumni, 
with Arthur Curtiss James, '89, chair- 
man, and William Jesse Newlin, '99, 
executive secretary, to organize the 
celebration. This committee with its 



sub-committees was active for many 
months before the actual event, prepar- 
ing to receive the alumni and guests 
of the College. The results of their long 
labors were evident in the flawless 
running of the exercises. "The chief 
reaction which I had as an observer," 
writes one who was there, "was the 
wonderment that such a piece of work, 
involving so much executive ability 
and so much detail, could be carried 
out practically through the efforts of 
men identified with the faculty, who 
are so frequently charged with a lack 
of the very thing which this successful 
Centennial has proven that they have 
— executive ability and a grasp of 
practical affairs." Among so many, 
both faculty and alumni, who contrib- 
uted ably and loyally to the success 
of the undertaking, it would be invid- 
ious to particularize, but all who were 
in any capacity behind the scenes at 
the Centennial felt the magnetic pres- 
ence of the Executive Secretary plan- 
ning and coordinating its many details. 
To his untiring efforts is due a major 
share of the credit for the successful 
achievement of the celebration. 

Some idea of the preliminary work 
may be given by describing what the 
alumni found when thoy reached the 
scene. If they came in automobiles, 
they were directed by successive 
traffic cops from College Hall corner 
through the triumphal arch formed of 
the pillars of old Hitchcock Hall to the 
Converse Library, beyond which was 
a parking space, under guard, for mo- 
tors. The delivery room of the Library 
they found transformed into a regis- 



The Story of the Centennia 



349 



tration office, where they were directed 
to the rooms in dormitories and private 
houses provided by the Housing Com- 
mittee, supplied with tickets, bulletins 
of information, programs, and the 
Guide Book prepared by the Exhibits 
Committee, and equipped with iden- 
tification badges bearing a Centennial 
medal. Guests, wives, children, and 
sometimes dogs, were given ribbon 
badges in purple and white. The 
registration office also furnished in- 
formation on trains and trolleys, ran 
a lost and found bureau, and secured 
Pullman reservations. On the second 
floor of the Library were arranged a 
number of special exhibits of interest 
to returning alumni. The Campus was 
dotted with headquarters tents assigned 
to various classes, a huge auditorium 
tent was pitched between the Gymna- 
sium and the Geological Laboratory, 
and on the east side of the Gymnasium 
was the out-door stage for the pageant. 
The Gymnasium itself was transformed 
into a cafeteria, capable of seating over 
500 people at one time, where three 
meals a day were available at moderate 
prices. Temporary drinking fountains 
were installed at the College Well and 
at several other convenient points about 
the Campus. The lower floor of Willis- 
ton Hall was transformed into a ladies' 
rest room, first aid station, and nursery 
where small children might be "parked" 
in charge of a nurse. And the capacity 
of the dormitories was enlarged several 
times by the introduction of extra cots 
and toilet facilities. These were a few 
of the external signs of the work of the 
various committees in charge of the 
celebration, whose tasks were facili- 
tated by the cordial assistance of indi- 
viduals and institutions in no way 
connected with Amherst. The Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College and 



Smith College permitted their dormi- 
tories to be used by the Housing Com- 
mittee, and several of the fraternity 
houses of the former college were also 
available. The town of Amherst, 
through the Merchants' Association, 
was brilliantly decorated in honor of 
the occasion. 

PBOGEAM 

The following program for the one 
hundredth Commencement and Cen- 
tennial Celebration, after its approval 
by the Executive Committee, was 
carried into effect by committees of 
the faculty: 

COMMENCEMENT 

CLASS DAY, SATURDAY, JUNE 18 

9-30 A. M. Ivy Oration and Poem at 

College Church 

10-00 A. M. Meeting of the Tru.stees in 

Walker Hall 
10-30 A. M. Class Oration and Poem in 
College Hall 

2-00 P. M. Meeting of the Overseers of 
the Charitable Fund in Walk- 
er Hall 

2-30 P. M. Grove Oration and Poem in 
College Grove 

4-00 P. M. Reception at the President's 
House to the graduating class 
and their friends 

7-30 P. M. Hyde Prize Orations in Col- 
lege Hall 

8-00 P. M. Alumni Parade 

9-00 P. M. Concert by the Musical Clubs 
in College Hall 

BACCALAUREATE SUNDAY, JUNE 19 

10-45 A. M. Baccalaureate Sermon in Col- 
lege Church by Professor 
Albert Parker Fitch, A.M., 
D.D. 
2-30 P. M. Concert in the Auditorium 
Tent 

Haydn: The Seasons, first 
part; Hadley: Excerpts 
from The New Earth; 
Busch: Brown Heather. 
Chorus, Soloists and Or- 
chestra. Professor William 
Pingry Bigelow, '89, Direc- 
tor 
8-00 P. M. Senior Service on the Campus 

COMMENCEMENT DAY, MONDAY, JUNE 20 

8-30 A. M. Annual Meeting of Massa- 
chusetts Beta of Phi Beta 



350 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Kappa in the Society's 
Rooms, Morris Pratt Memo- 
rial Dormitory 
9-30 A. M. Commencement Procession, 
Marshal: Halsey M. Collins, 
'96 
10-00 A. M. The One Hundredth Com- 
mencement in College Hall 
Bond Prize Orations 
Conferring of Degrees 
Presentation of Portraits 
7-45 P. M. Kellogg Prize Speaking in 
College Hall 

Announcement of prizes for 
the College year 

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 

HISTORICAL DAY, MONDAY, JUNE 20 

2-00 P. M. Historical Exercises in the 
Auditorium Tent 
Presiding OfTicer: Arthur 
Curtiss James, Class of '89, 
Chairman of the Centennial 
Celebration Committee 
Invocation: The Reverend 
John Brittan Clark, Class of 
'86 

Address of Welcome: George 
Arthur Plimpton, Class of '76, 
President of the Corporation 
One Hundred Years of Am- 
herst: John Mason Tyler, 
Class of '73, Professor Emeri- 
tus of Biology 

Amherst in Public Affairs : 
The Honorable Calvin Coo- 
lidge. Class of '95, Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States 
Presentation of Mementoes of 
Henry Ward Beecher: Law- 
rence Fraser Abbott, Class of 
'81, Editor of The Outlook 
Presentation of the Moore- 
Humphrey Letters and Docu- 
ments: William Jacob Hol- 
land, Class of '69, Director of 
the Carnegie Museum 

4-15 P. M. (College Hall) Amherst in 
the Law and Education 
Presiding Officer: The Hon- 
orable Robert Lansing, Class 
of '86 

Amherst in the Law: The 
Honorable Arthur Prentice 
Rugg, Class of '83, Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of Massachusetts 
Amherst in Education: Fred- 
erick J. E. Woodbridge, Class 
of '89, Johnsonian Professor 
of Philosophy and Dean of 
the Faculties of Political 
Science, Philosophy and Pure 
Science, Columbia University 

4-15 P. M. (Johnson Chapel) Amherst in 
Science and Industry 
Presiding Officer: John Bates 
Clark, Class of '72, Professor 
of Political Economy, Colum- 
bia University 

Amherst in Science: James 
Furman Kemp, Class of '81, 



Professor of Geology, Colum- 
bia University 

Amherst in Industry: Alex- 
ander Dana Noyes, Class of 
'83, Financial Editor of The 
New York Times 

4-15 P. M. (College Chun h) Amherst in 
the Ministry and Missions 
Presiding Officer: The Rever- 
end Rush Rhees, Class of '83, 
President of the University 
of Rochester 

Amherst in the Ministry: The 
Reverend Nehemiah Boyn- 
toii. Class of '79 
Amherst in Missions, Old and 
New: Robert Archey Woods, 
Class of '86, Head of The 
South End House, Boston 

6-00 P. M. Alumni Class Dinners 

6-45 P. M. Dinner for guests and dele- 
gates in the Trophy Room of 
the Gymnasium 

9-00 P. M. Alumni Open-Air Smoker in 
the Auditorium Tent 

EDUCATIONAL DAY, TUESDAY, JUNE 21 

10-00 A.M. The Problem of Education 

Presiding Officer: Alexander 
Meiklejohn, President of the 
College and Professor of 
Logic and Metaphysics 
The Problem of Education 
in England Today: John 
Holland Rose, Litt. D., Vere- 
Harmsworth Professor of 
Naval History, Cambridge 
University; formerly Fellow 
of Christ's College 
The Problem of Education in 
France Today : Julien Jacques 
Champenois, M. A., Litt B., 
Chevalier de la Legion d'Hon- 
neur, Croix de guerre. Director 
in the United States of the 
National Bureau of French 
Universities 

__2-30 P^M.^Alumni Parade to Pratt Field 

"S.OO P?*M.'Amherst-Wesleyan Baseball 

Game 

5-00 P. M. Reception at the President's 

rt;, House to guests, delegates, 

and alumni 

8-00 P. M. Lawn Fdte and Band Concert 

on the Campus 
9-00 P. M. Pageant, "Amherst Mile- 
stones" 

10-15 P. M. Dancing on Hitchcock Field 

CENTENNIAL DAY, WEDNESDAY, JUNE 22 

9-00 A. M. Assembly 

9-30 A.M. Centennial Procession 

Marshal: Clarence Willis 
Eastman, Professor of the 
German Language and Liter- 
ture 
10-00 A. M. Centennial Anniversary Exer- 
cises 

Presiding Officer: George Ar- 
thur Plimpton. Class of '76, 
President of the Corporation 



The Story of the Centennial 



351 



Invocation: The Reverend 
William Horace Day, Class of 
•89 

Amherst's Ideals for its Sec- 
ond Century: Alexander Mei- 
klejohn. President of the Col- 
lege and Professor of Logic 
and Metaphysics 
Conferring of Honorary De- 
grees 

Benediction: The Reverend 
Calvin Stebbins, Class of '62 
12-30 P. M. Centennial Dinner 

Toastmaster: The Honorable 
Frederick Huntington Gillett, 
Class of '74, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives 
Speakers: 

His Excellency Jules Jus- 
serand, French Embassador 
to the United States 
Baron Naibu Kanda, Class 
of '79 

Jeffery John Archer Am- 
herst, Viscount Holmesdale 

EXHIBITS 

To fill in chinks in the program the 
collections of the College were thrown 
open and a special series of exhibits 
arranged on the second floor of Converse 
Library. The permanent collections, 
in which Amherst is unusually rich, 
included the fossil reptile tracks se- 
cured by President Hitchcock, the 
Shepard meteorites, the historical geol- 
ogy collection, the evolution of verte- 
brates collection representing the find- 
ings of Professor Loomis's expeditions 
for the past twenty years and including 
a perfect series illustrating the develop- 
ment of the horse through five stages, 
the Audubon birds and other unique 
and interesting biological specimens, 
the Gilbert Museum of Indian Relics 
cherished for many years by "Old Doc," 
the Mather Art Museum, the collection 
of Roman antiquities in the Latin 
Room, and the replica of Clyde Fitch's 
study in the Library. Most of these 
collections were of double interest to 
returning alumni because of their asso- 
ciation with great teachers in Amherst's 
history who made the collecting of 
valuable specimens for the College a 
lift-work and a master-passion. 



In the seminar rooms on the second 
floor of the Converse Library were 
arranged a series of exhibits relating 
to the history of the College and of the 
region. First in order was the Rare 
Book Room in which the librarian dis- 
played some of the treasures of the 
College Library, including a number of 
incunabula and examples of early and 
fine printing, books autographed by 
Cotton Mather, Jonathan Edwards, 
and Samuel Hopkins, and photographs 
illustrating the growth of the library. 
The Art Seminar was given over to a 
display of the College Memorabilia 
and a partial collection of the publica- 
tions of Amherst alumni. One wall 
was covered with pictures of the College 
and its various buildings, from the 
painting by Mrs. Hitchcock in 1821 
to the airplane photographs of the 
Campus taken one hundred years later. 
The opposite wall was covered with 
portraits of Amherst presidents and 
professors. Among the interesting 
relics contained in this room were the 
sheriff's staff used to keep back the 
crowds at early commencements and 
the conch shell used to summon the 
inhabitants of Amherst to church 
service. The manuscript of Professor 
Genung's last book, "The Life Indeed," 
which was recently published as the 
second of the Amherst Books, was dis- 
played along with many manuscript 
lectures written by professors in the 
early days of the College. A large 
drawing made by Professor E. S. Snell, 
one of a series used to illustrate his 
lectures on architecture in the days be- 
fore stereopticons were available, hung 
opposite geological charts and surveys 
made by President Hitchcock. There 
was also the bulky roll of the Anti- 
venenean Society and the petition 
handed in by the students during the 



352 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



famous "Gorham Rebellion" of 1837. 
The cases contained the constitutions 
and badges of Amherst's literary and 
secret societies, portraits and memorials 
of presidents and founders, and many 
other documents and relics of historic 
interest. The albums and other class 
books published by the various classes 
for more than seventy years were ex- 
hibited on shelves at one end of the 
room. 

The next room was given over to 
photographs of Amherst in the Great 
War. One wall displayed various views 
of the College during the R. O. T. C. 
and S. A. T. C. periods, when Amherst 
was practically transformed into an 
army post. The portraits of the Am- 
herst men who lost their lives in the war 
covered the opposite wall, and the pub- 
lications of Amherst men in relation to 
the war were displayed on the table. The 
most interesting of these was the com- 
plete record of the Amherst Ambu- 
lance Corps, whose flags are perma- 
nently installed in Johnson Chapel. 

The Sprague-Smith Room, next in 
order, was devoted to memorials of 
Amherst's famous alumnus, Henry 
Ward Beecher. The interesting collec- 
tion of original manuscripts and por- 
traits was loaned by Miss Annie 
Beecher Scoville of Stamford, Conn., 
who kindly visited Amherst to arrange 
it for exhibition. The arrangement 
emphasized the important periods of 
Beecher's career: his birth and boyhood 
at Litchfield, Conn., his undergraduate 
days at Amherst, his ten years as a 
pioneer preacher at Indianapolis, his 
part in the anti-slavery agitation, his 
great success in 1863 as a spokesman 
of the Union in England, his later days 
as the venerated pastor of Plymouth 
Church. A special section was devoted 
to his novel, "Norwood," of which 



the scene was in part laid at Amherst 
and of which he characteristically 
remarked, "People used to say that 
I had had a hand in the writing of 
'Uncle Tom's Cabin,' but when 'Nor- 
wood' was published I heard no more 
talk of this kind." The .series of por- 
traits of Beecher began with a miniature, 
painted while he was an undergraduate 
and included a photogravure of the 
Conant painting recently destroyed in 
the fire at Plymouth Church, besides 
many photographs and daguerreotypes 
taken at various periods in his career. 
Among the manuscripts exhibited were 
original letters, addresses, and sermons 
illustrating every period of Beecher's 
public life. There were the originals 
of his first three anti-slavery sermons 
preached in Indianapolis which resulted 
in his call to Plymouth Church, a letter 
to the Fremont Club of Springfield, 
111., accepting membership during the 
political excitement of 1856, and the 
manuscript of the address spoken at 
Fort Sumter when the Union flag was 
raised there after the capture of Charles- 
ton. The diary which Mr. Beecher 
kept during his mission to England 
was one of the most interesting features 
of the exhibit. It contains a record of 
his speech to a large and unruly au- 
dience in London, with the additional 
comment, "Another triumph over the 
Devil." Another relic of the Civil War 
was the telegram from Secretary of 
War Stanton announcing the surround- 
ing of Lee's army, which Mr. Beecher 
read from the pulpit of Plymouth 
Church the moment it was handed to 
him. Altogether this collection was the 
most complete and interesting assem- 
blage of Beecher memorials that has 
ever been exhiliited. With the pulpit, 
communion table, and chair used by 
Mr. Beecher in Plymouth Church 



The Story of the Centennial 



353 



during the Civil War, which have been 
presented to the College by the Misses 
Ella and Violet Beach of Peekskill, 
N. Y., and which were placed on ex- 
hibition in the corridor of the Library, 
these relics vividly recalled the memory 
of Amherst's great alumnus. 

In the French seminar were shown 
a number of original documents and 
pictures illustrating the French and 
Indian War, and especially the part 
taken in it by Lord Jeffery Amherst. 
Three autograph letters by Lord Jeff 
and a number of contemporary engrav- 
ings of the popular general were 
included in the collection, which further 
contained the original declarations of 
war on both the French and the English 
sides, a broadside from Gov. Shirley 
of Massachusetts calling for volunteers, 
bills for food and camp supplies requi- 
sitioned by the troops, lottery tickets 
issued to pay for the expedition to 
Canada, and pictures of Crown Point, 
Montreal, Quebec, and other famous 
scenes of the war. The collection was 
loaned by Mr. George A. Plimpton of 
New York. 

The English seminar held a collection 
of textbooks used in the first decade of 
the College, also loaned by Mr. Plimp- 
ton, and a complete file of the publica- 
tions of the College from the first 
literary magazine. The Shrine c-f 183£, 
to the present news, literary, and hu- 
morous papers issued by the under- 
graduates. Around the walls were 
arranged photographs of the musical 
and dramatic clubs, the pictures of 
athletic teams being exhibited in the 
Trophy Room of the Gymnasium. 

CLASS DAY 

The usual functions of Class Day 
were transferred to Saturday, June 18th, 
in order to leave the following week 



free for the Centennial Celebration. 
The senior class in cap and gown, led 
by Class Marshal Waldo E. Palmer 
and Class President Remington A. 
Clark, planted their ivy under the walls 
of the College Church where for nearly 
half a century each Amherst class has 
left a living memorial of its graduation. 
The Ivy Oration was delivered by Wil- 
liam S. Clark, 2nd, and the Ivy Poem 
by Edward A. Richards. At the Class 
Exercises immediately following in 
College Hall Clarence E. Nelson was 
orator and John E. Mitchell poet. 
The afternoon program began with the 
Grove Exercises, at which Dennison 
B. Cowles, Grove Orator, and E. Wil- 
lard Harmon, Grove Poet, acquitted 
themselves with unusual poise. Later 
in the afternoon the seniors attended 
the President's Reception to meet 
President Meiklejohn, Acting President 
and Mrs. Olds, and Viscount Holmes- 
dale. The Hyde orations were spoken 
in the evening. 

More electrifying to the returned 
alumni, of whom nearly one thousand 
were on hand, was the evening parade 
scheduled to start at eight o'clock. 
A brief and harmless shower, the only 
occurrence of the kind during five days 
of glorious weather, deferred the pro- 
cession for a few moments, but by 
8.30 over forty classes were in line and, 
headed by 1911, encircled the Common. 
Purple and white predominated in the 
costumes of the marchers, 1912 being 
especially remarked for their baseball 
suits of purple velvet coats and white 
knee-breeches. Other classes lent 
various tints to the riot of color, the 
red and gold Turkish regalia of 1911 
and the bine and scarlet arti.st costumes 
of 1913 showing to particular advan- 
tage in the illumination of red lights and 
sparklers. At the end of the line the 



354 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Amlierst Ambulance Corps assembled 
in a black-cat uniform emblematic of 
their symbol. 

The line of march led around the 
Common and onto the Campus, At 
Walker Hall the huge crowd stopped 
to cheer for Professors Olds, Grosvenor, 
and Cowles, whom they placed in line 
and escorted to the Biology Laboratory, 
where a similar pause was made in 
order to gather in Professors Tyler and 
Emerson. With the five professors 
the parade proceeded to the steps of 
Johnson Chapel. There the veterans 
of Amherst's faculty were given an 
ovation that drowned out their words 
of thanks. In front of the President's 
House the alumni called for "Lord 
Jeff" and when the great-great-grand- 
nephew of Lord Amherst appeared, 
the crowd sang the song that has made 
his ancestor famous and cheered to the 
echo. The marchers then dispersed to 
attend the Musical Clubs concert or to 
gather in groups in the brightly lighted 
reunion tents. So ended the first day 
of the celebration. 

BACCALAUREATE SUNDAY 

The outstanding features of Sunday, 
June 19th, were the traditional observ- 
ances of a Sunday in Commencement 
week, the Baccalaureate Sermon, Ora- 
torio, and Senior Service. Professor 
Albert Parker Fitch delivered the 
Baccalaureate Sermon to the class of 
1921. College Church was filled to over- 
flowing by alumni and visitors, not- 
withstanding the fact that many were 
drawn to hear Rev. Nehemiah Boynton, 
'79, who preached at the same time in 
the First Congregational Church. Pro- 
fessor Fitch was accompanied in the 
pulpit by Acting President Olds, and 
music was furnished by the College 
Choir. 



At 2.30 in the afternoon a large 
crowd packed the auditorium tent on 
the south brow of the Campus to hear 
the Oratorio conducted by Professor 
William Pingry Bigelow. The program, 
which consisted of the first part of 
Haydn's "The Seasons," excerpts from 
Hadley's "The New Earth," and 
Busch's "Brown Heather," was chosen 
with especial reference to Amherst's 
history and the celebration of its Cen- 
tennial. "If the successive texts are 
read symbolically rather than literally," 
said Professor Bigelow, "such senti- 
ments as gratitude to God, love of 
country, loyalty and devotion to Alma 
Mater, must be dominant in the mind 
of the listener." The College Chorus 
and Orchestra were supplemented by 
100 voices from Amherst, twelve 
singers from the Orpheus Club of 
Springfield, and thirty players from 
Boston Festival Orchestra. The soloists 
were Miss Anna WoUmann and Walter 
B. Marsh of Springfield, and George 
H. Boynton, '05, of Boston. Miss 
Laura Kidder was at the piano. 

The Senior Service, a recent and im- 
pressive tradition of Commencement, 
was held in the College Grove at twi- 
light. The audience was seated in the 
form of a hollow square, into which 
the seniors in cap and gown marched 
in double column, singing the "Senior 
Song." They were headed by President 
Meiklejohn with Class President R. A. 
Clark, who carried the class loving-cup, 
and Acting President Olds with Class 
Marshal W. E. Palmer. Viscount 
Holme-sdale also walked at the front of 
the column. As the procession reached 
the square, it divided, the class officers 
and their guests remaining in the center, 
while the rest of the seniors formed a 
circle facing them. The cup was then 
pas.sed around the circle, after which 



The Story of the Centennial 



355 



the president and acting president 
shook hands with each of the gradu- 
ating class. The singing of "To the 
Fairest College" and "Lord Jeffery 
Amherst" concluded the service. 

"Tradition and the Liberal College" 
was the subject of the Baccalaureate 
Sermon by Professor Fitch, preached in 
the centennial year at Amherst College. 

THE BACCALAUKEATE SERMON 

Exodus 15:2. "He is my fathers' 
God and I will exhalt Him." 

Here is a sincere and spontaneous 
expression of the traditionary instinct. 
The writer of the impassioned song has 
no argument to present for the exist- 
ence of an Infinite Being. What is more 
significant, he evidently feels the need 
of none. Belief in God is the common 
possession of his race; it is unnecessary 
to argue about it. His faith has been 
handed down out of an immemorial 
antiquity. He rests upon that rich ex- 
perience of the ages, consciously re- 
linquishing himself to the convictions 
into which that experience has gradu- 
ally crystalized. Belief in God is a high 
tradition and as such it has authority 
and value in his eyes. 

Nor is our ancient writer either 
perverse or credulous in so thinking. 
The perception of the indispensable 
value of tradition, in all the important 
affairs of life, is a self-verifying one. 
The important things for human beings 
have to do with the inner life. Our 
character is our fate; what we know and 
are, not what we do, makes destiny for 
us. But there can be no rich inner life 
without a background, some screen 
against which to dispose and measure 
the content of swift passing days. This 
screen is composed of a small but pre- 
cious number of general axioms — cer- 
tain perceptions and ideas long since 



taken for granted. They are not much 
spoken of; they are not displayed upon 
the five-cent counter of the mind to be 
pawed about by the naively ignorant. 
Being the fruit of long and considered 
experience, they are not exposed but 
cherished; they are tested by nur- 
ture rather than by dissection. But it 
is they which impart color, interest, 
and significance to our external life. 
This is true of all the arts of human 
living. They are produced by and set 
up against a world of accumulated 
associations, rich memories, cultivated 
imaginations. It is this background 
which gives to works of art their most 
precious — that is to say, their sugges- 
tive — quality. 

Now of no art is this more true than 
of religion. The personal religious life 
cannot be had to order; it is not pro- 
duced by dialectics, nor classroom 
discussions, nor clever exposition. It 
cannot be depicted in thumb-nail 
sketches nor praised nor blamed by 
snap Judgments. It is far too real a 
thing for that. Personal religion is the 
slow-maturing flower which grows from 
roots buried deep in the soil of ages. 
The sources of a good and holy life, 
the springs of inward freedom and faith 
and serenity are found in that vast com- 
plex of sentiments, beliefs, and prac- 
tices, regarding the origin, meaning, 
and destiny of human life, which has 
been slowly accumulating ever since 
men first became self-conscious beings. 
No reputable religion has ever claimed 
to have a single and a simple source, 
comprehended in one generation or 
centered in one personality. Religious 
leaders have never, unless they were 
impostors or demented, conceived of 
themselves as founding a new faith. 
"I came not to destroy but to fulfill," 
said the greatest of them. 



356 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



Obviously then this complex, which 
is profoundly affecting the history of 
the race and is a prime factor in our 
sense of the worth and the dignity of 
mankind, could only have been pro- 
duced through countless years and by 
innumerable peoples. Religious belief 
represents an attitude towards life, a 
way of living it, which has been gradu- 
ally discovered through many genera- 
tions. The only man who could divorce 
religion from tradition would be that 
impossible being who could experience 
within the limits of his own spirit and 
utter within the boundaries of his own 
time the entire experience of the race. 
Even the most brash and the most 
expansive among us would hardly 
undertake that task! 

Indeed it is abundantly evident that 
there is nothing of prime importance 
to mankind in which tradition does not 
play an essential part. Our age is indeed 
distinguished by a large a 'cession of 
new facts and by the new lorms which 
they give to human problems. But the 
problems are not new and the facts are 
not important until they have been 
brought to the bar of principles where 
we may interpret them and to standards 
where we may order them in their 
relative values. But principles and 
standards are, in their essence, old; 
they are produced by time; they are not 
discovered full-fledged; their knowledge 
grows. Thus the old perpetually dis- 
ciplines the new; the past whips the 
present into shape to make it service- 
able. 

It is of course a daring man who will 
talk to the youth of this moment about 
the days that are gone by. Neverthe- 
less it remains true that this discipline 
by inherited notions and values is neces- 
sary to all important undertakings. 
Beauty, for instance, is the result of 



endless high experiments. We prize all 
ancient memorials of form and color 
and sound because they register past 
achievements and thus indicate the way 
to new ones. In the world of beauty 
it is only the Philistine who is scorn- 
ful of the treasures which we have in- 
herited. And so in the larger world of 
religion and morals and politics, it is 
only those twin brothers, the senti- 
mentalist and the vulgarian, who think 
that the world can be begun de novo. 
It is, then, tradition whic h in every one 
of the arts of human life informs igno- 
rance, tempers extravagant enthusiasm, 
subdues crude originality. Hence 
beauty is secured by restraint, art is 
produced in bondage. It is traditions 
which refine the untutored spirit; by 
restraint feeling is concentrated, labor 
is made agonizing, and creative work 
is made possible. There are some 
new things like steam transit and indus- 
trial machinery and electric communi- 
cations and mechanical piano-playera. 
But the things which are beautiful, the 
things which are honorable, the things 
which are just, pure, lovely — the pre- 
cious goods of mankind — these are 
every one of them traditions. They 
have been handed down, the choice 
residuum of the painful experience, the 
high perceptions, the slow-bought wis- 
dom of the past. If the human race 
should lose today its traditions of 
beauty, of justice, of God, nearly all 
that makes life civilized and tolerable 
wauld be swept away and not one age, 
nor many ages, could hope to restore it. 
Now this is not a grateful doctrine 
for this time nor in this place. Few, I 
fancy, of the graduating class would 
agree with it. This is partly due to the 
blessed accident of youth. Nearly all 
alert but inexperienced minds under- 
estimate and misunderstand the an- 



The Story of the Centennial 



357 



tique. A just discovered intelligence can 
most easily assert itself by putting the 
past on the defensive, and often thereby 
it performs a valuable office. But hence, 
to the half-sophisticated, the "different" 
and the "preferable" are presumably 
one, and the traditional and the dis- 
credited easily synonymous. 

But it is significant, if surprising, 
that many of us who are not under- 
graduates take the same attitude. One 
of the most obvious features of our com- 
mon life, within and without the college, 
is a diffused iconoclastic zest. Standards 
in manners, in conduct, in dress, in 
belief and speech, have for the moment 
disappeared. Conventions are despised 
as such without reference to their in- 
trinsic worth or lack of it; accepted 
view-points, irrespective of inherent 
excellence, are regarded as contemptible 
or tyrannous. Hence the new cult of 
protest regards itself as self -authenti- 
cated, needing no outward sanctions 
whatsoever. It is amusing to see it thus 
permeated with the worst of the aristo- 
cratic vices — arrogance, intolerance, 
obscurantism. 

It is a curious world, therefore, in 
which the college finds itself for the 
moment, and although the situation is 
explicable, it is hardly defensible. 
Doubtless we owe it partly to the 
breakdown of civilization in the war. 
We cannot teach men the arts of de- 
struction today and expect them to be 
sensitive and reflective tomorrow. 
Partly it is due to the revival of a base 
traditionalism sedulously fostered in 
this and other lands. There is a move- 
ment of mean and hateful conservatism 
which proposes to guard the past, not 
for its truth but for its perquisites, 
not for its common values but for 
its ' special privileges. It is not con- 
cerned in preserving a rich intellectual 



and spiritual tradition, but rather in 
fixing the often degraded forms by 
which that tradition is obscured. The 
hampering of free speech, the arbitrary 
curtailment of the rights of political 
protestants, in the name of the great 
tradition of law and order, offers a case 
in point. The increasing substitution 
of propaganda for news in the daily 
prints and in many textbooks, in the 
name of the great tradition of patriot- 
ism, is another. The appeal of this 
base traditionalism is not to a rich 
treasury of intellectual and spiritual 
values as the material and guide for 
progress, but to prudence, to prejudice, 
to self-interest. It proposes not to 
foster the slow growth of faith and wis- 
dom and love, but to entrench special 
privilege in their names, to disguise with 
their mantles the class emoluments of 
an established society. 

There are so many "safe and sound" 
theologians, professors, business men, 
politicians who are such, not because 
they revere the truth which the ages 
have carved out of stubborn rock and 
trodden out of briar and wilderness, 
but because they cling to that particular 
interpretation of the truth which will 
secure their place, aggrandize their 
institution, maintain their case, or line 
their pocket. Nothing more indeed is 
needed to shov/ the value of tradition 
than the long history of its abuse. It 
is natural that such abuse sickens hon- 
orable and intelligent men; but it is 
disquieting, especially among the 
trained minds of a college, if it keeps 
them from discriminating between a 
virtue and its defects, excellence and its 
perversion. 

But it must be admitted that there 
are others who have become iconoclasts 
for more superficial and somewhat 
depressing reasons. It is true, as we 



358 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



have said, that we live in a new age in 
the important sense that new interpre- 
tations of old truths, new applications 
of old laws, new experiments with the 
same old human nature are going on 
about us; and, that we may not make 
a partial statement, it is true to a lim- 
ited degree that we are making new 
formulations of principles. Now one of 
the classic accompaniments of such a 
period of readjustment is Bohemian 
living, extravagant self-assertion, the 
cultivation of that ineffable smartness 
which will sacrifice a conviction to a 
bonmot, an ideal to an epigram. Such 
things have ever made the sensible 
and judicious grieve, yet they are in- 
evitable evils of the moment, by-prod- 
ucts of something that is more sincere 
and deeper. But there are always those 
who regard these things as ends in them- 
selves; people who give a naive envy 
to Greenwich Village, who think it a 
cause, not a symptom. And it is really 
disconcerting at times, at once per- 
plexing and amusing, to see middle-aged 
men and women, fathers and mothers 
of families, bobbing about like frayed 
corks on a dance floor, flaunting an 
aggressive and too easy skepticism, 
cultivating an informality which verges 
on the disorderly, afraid not to scoff at 
almost everything which sober men 
hold dear. Viol; ting precedent is only 
significant when it is occasional. If it 
becomes a habit it becomes absurd. 
The sentimentalism and superficiality 
of such an attitude toward human effort 
and achievement is an unhappy sign of 
our times. It makes unconventionality 
into a new and most barren convention, 
it cultivates the form of formlessness. 
So it issues in a yet more sterile and 
unsympathetic obscurantism. There is, 
I think, nothing more dangerous in a 
place of learning than to teach young 



men that facile impressionism is a sign 
of genius, that freedom is obstreperous- 
ness, and that self-expression is to be 
found by abjuring self-control. Thus 
we victimize our youth, do them the 
great injustice without a qualm. 

The perpetual setting up of standards 
is, then, the precise office of the liberal 
college. The university may largely 
concern itself with scientific investiga- 
tion, factual truth. The vocational 
school must deal with practical affairs, 
the learning that has immediate utility 
and monetary value. But w^e must keep 
on affirming, as our chief office, 
the intangible and imaginative aspects 
of truth. The ability to make money 
for oneself by being useful to others 
is by no means a despicable faculty, 
but the ability to make a right use of 
one's life is better. It is to fit 
them for this less specific and more 
difficult task that the liberal col- 
lege turns its students to the past, 
bidding them ponder on how men have 
toiled and what men have suffered, and 
find their own inner life where stridency 
and clamor are forgotten in the ancient 
stillness. It is not our task to instruct 
boys as to how to build houses, ours is 
to show them how to make a home. It 
is rather appalling to test ourselves and 
our teaching by that standard. Hence, 
here we turn aside from statistics and 
methods and meditate on the visions 
and convictions of men. The liberal 
college opens the gateway into the 
world where the strong iron is long 
since rusted and the rock of granite 
broken into dust, but where the great 
and tender and beloved and tragic 
things of the human spirit still shine 
like stars pointing man's way through 
the wilderness of this world. Sonietimos 
our youth cry out for a .school of busi- 
ness administration or an employment 



The Story of the Centennial 



359 



bureau or a personnel secretary. But 
no; our task here is not to make bankers 
and brokers and manufacturers as such, 
but to produce the men who have been 
fitted to add to the happiness of man- 
kind. 

With so precious and so hard a task 
it is impossible for the college chiefly to 
occupy itself with immediate matters. 
The kind of teaching most needed and 
least easily procurable for this genera- 
tion is not found in a vocational school, 
nor in economic research, nor discovered 
in the test-tubes and cultures of the 
laboratory. It is the kind of teaching 
the philosopher, the historian, the poet, 
the mystic, and the saint alone can give. 
Such teaching can guard youth from 
that complacency into which the ex- 
ternally trained mind so often passes 
when it leaves credulity. Such teach- 
ing makes impossible the self-sufficient 
spirit lording it over the ignorant, and 
makes men self-critical, humbling them- 
selves before the truth of the mysteries 
of himian life. Such teaching must deal 
with what has been, for the life of the 
spirit cannot be studied in space, but 
only in time, and time has but one 
dimension. So the liberal college still 
turns men to those high, clear voices 
which indeed do sound as though they 
came from very far away. It bids them 
look across the chasm of the centuries 
to the old things that our dead leaders 
and forefathers loved, "Living still and 
more beautiful because of our desire." 

How clearly then do both the occa- 
sion and the time bid us turn back today 
to contemplate our fathers' God. What 
do the minds of that older time, the 
voices of Moore and Humphrey and 
Hitchcock tell us as to the nature of 
Infinite Being? They found Him a ma- 
jestic and infinitely potent spirit. They 
believed in a sovereign God. He was the 



only and true king by divine right, and 
His sovereignty extended over all per- 
sons and events from eternity to eter- 
nity. His will was the sole ground of all 
that exists; His glory, the sole source of 
every good thing; in obedience to Him 
alone is individual action or human 
society rightly ordered. He is beyond 
and above our world, the one absolute 
and universal Object. To know Him 
is the supreme end of human attain- 
ment. 

Does any one doubt that there is 
essential food for the hmnan spirit in 
this tradition? We, in discarding it, 
have lost the vision of transcendence, 
that upper half of cosmic truth. To us, 
God has become the Eternal Ourselves, 
not the Eternal Not Ourselves. Our 
subjective philosophy is a sublime 
egotism. We build our deity not on high 
speculations as to the nature of the ab- 
solute within himself, but out of projec- 
tions of the individual and communal 
life of our little race and time. Hence, es- 
pecially in letters and in art, we some- 
times make our devil into our deity. 
Hence, we have domesticated God, 
sentimentalized his love, blurred his 
moral absoluteness. We talk looselj* 
of a democratic deity as though the 
Infinite could be elected by a majority 
vote! We make God understandable 
by making Him imperfect, a growing 
God, a sort of ^Sliltonic lion, his nether 
parts still struggling in inchaotic matter, 
the foreparts pawing to get free. 

It is difficult to believe that this 
Gargantuan egotism, softened and 
disguised by pleasant feeling, given 
apparent dignity by abstruse theory, 
will ever replace the steady stream of 
the traditional belief in a God who is 
not as we are, whose ways are not our 
ways, nor whose thoughts our thoughts. 
Again, to human consciousness He will 



360 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



be the one who seeth the end from the 
beginning, who regardeth not iniquity, 
before whom man is as the wild ass's colt. 
Life is so obviously not worth its brev- 
ity, its suffering, its withheld conclu- 
sions, its reliiLive insignificance, if it must 
thus stand alone, its God fashioned out 
of the mired clay, the twisted, crooked 
stuff of the human mind and spirit. All 
that can save man's world, preserve 
to it worth and dignity, is the valuing 
of humanity as the object to the love 
and interest of a Being infinitely beyond 
and above itself. 

Indeed, there is something grimly 
humorous, seeing what the concept 
"God" has meant in human history 
and what human beings mean to them- 
selves, in postulating, not indeed that 
we are like God, but that He forsooth 
is like ourselves. I suppose an unimag- 
inative or unreflective man could 
accept such a notion indifferently, but 
the valuable, the highly personalized 
people, the saints and sinners, will al- 
ways deny it and they would experience 
the final bitterness of despair if they 
thought that it was true. When either 
saint or sinner is told to believe in the 
Eternal Our.selves as the end and aim 
of existence, they experience the final 
insult and they know within themselves 
that such awful irreverence cannot be 
true. 

And the effects of it are already 
apparent. The imagination is no longer 
nourished by reflection upon what 
speculation has vainly tried to solve. 
Nothing is more characteristic of the 
religious life than the sentiment of awe; 
but awe has practically disappeared 
from a traditionless generation. Outside 
the ranges of immediate perceptions 
the young modern disports himself in 
all the relaxation of an ignorant irre- 
sponsibility. He loves the pride of life 



and he is intoxicated, as he has not 
been for many a year before, with the 
various sensations of the flesh. And 
why.'' Because he does not know what 
it means to say: "I will stand in awe 
and sin not. For Thou, God, seest me. 
I will commune with my own heart 
upon my bed and be still." 

Now, because our forebears believed 
in the sovereignty of God they there- 
fore believed in the dignity of man. 
To be sure, they thought man inherently 
sinful, the inheritor of sin, inclined un- 
to evil and that continually, "totally 
corrupt," as Jonathan Edwards says, 
"in all his faculties and in all the prin- 
ciples of his nature." But these men 
also believed that man was the object 
of the sovereign God's supreme concern. 
To quote from Macaulay's essay on 
Milton: "The very meanest of men was 
a being to whose fate a mysterious and 
terrible importance belonged, on whose 
slightest action the spirits of light and 
darkness looked with anxious interest, 
who had been destined before heaven 
and earth were created to enjoy a feli- 
city which should continue when heaven 
and earth should have passed away 
.... He had been wrested by no 
common deliverer from the grasp of no 
common foe. He had been ransomed 
by the sweat of no vulgar agony, by the 
blood of no earthly sacrifice. It was for 
him that the sun had been darkened, 
the dead had arisen, and that all nature 
had shuddered at the sufferings of her 
expiring God." Is it any wonder that 
our founders, whose spirits were fed on 
such food as this, abased themselves 
before their maker and did not fear the 
fate of man. 

But wc, to quote Professor Tyler, 
have lost the fear of God and appear 
to have acquired the fear of most every- 
thing else. For man's dignity perishes 




The First Settlers 
'AMHERST MILESTONES' 



The Story of the Centennial 



361 



with man's awe. A self-regardful gen- 
eration, like a self-regardful person, 
presents a mediocre spectacle. Nothing 
is more interesting in this generation 
than the high value it sets on second- 
rate achievements. One sees among 
our youth today so many egotists and 
so few personalities. Vv'e pursue many 
frivolous things seriously and take sub- 
lime arts frivolously. We think highly 
of ourselves and we do ourselves un- 
commonly well, but we do not take 
ourselves seriously. Our almost unin- 
terrupted levity bears witness to that. 
For most of that laughter is not Homer- 
ic, it is more like the crackling of dry 
thorns under the pot. If youth is to 
regain its dignity, it must be nourished 
on the old traditions of a world of man 
valued, not for what it does and is, but 
for the wonder of its origin and the 
fateful issue of its destiny. Today, 
having lost our standard, we are aimless 
folk and we graduate from college not 
knowing who we are, perplexed as to 
what we want to do. We cannot walk at 
liberty for we do not run in the way of 
His commandments. 

Meanwhile, even as we speak, the 
lofty palace crumbles. The busy city 
is mute. The ships of Tarshish speed 
away nor do their sails ever whiten on 
the long-watched horizon of return. 
Old loves die, old friendships chill, wife 
and child alike pass on into death's 
dateless night. We shall go to them, 
they shall not return to us. But still 
stand the ancient words of life. God is 
from everlasting to everlasting and of 
His years there shall be no end. He 
hath been our dwelling place in all 
generations. Before the mountains 
were brought forth or ever He had 
formed the earth and the world, even 
from everlasting to everlasting He is 
God. He is our father's God and we 



will exalt Him. For He hath made us 
for Himself, and our hearts are restless 
till they rest in Him. 

THE ONE HUNDREDTH COMMENCEMENT 

On Monday morning Amherst gradu- 
ated its one hundredth class. The aca- 
demic procession, marshaled by Halsey 
M. Collins, '96, and including trustees, 
faculty, graduating class, guests, and 
older alumni, formed in front of the 
Converse Library and marched to 
College Hall for the exercises. Vice 
President Coolidge and Former Secre- 
tary Lansing, upon whom honorary 
membership in Phi Beta Kappa had 
been conferred at the annual meeting 
of the Amherst chapter earlier in the 
morning, were in the procession, as was 
also Viscount Holmesdale. 

The Commencement exercises were 
opened with prayer by Rev. Charles 
S. Mills, '82. The Bond orations were 
then delivered by members of the 
graduating class: C. E. Nelson, W. W. 
Riefler, C. S. Heard, and W. S. Clark, 
2nd. Acting President Olds spoke 
briefly to the senior class and presented 
the diplomas in course and honoris 
causa, each senior crossing the platform 
to receive his degree. Edward Scribner 
Cobb, '00, of the Doshisha University, 
was given the honorary degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity, in absentia. 

Three portraits were next presented 
to the College. The first was a portrait 
of the late John W. Simpson, '71, a 
member of the board of trustees who 
accomplished much for the College. 
The presentation was arranged by 
Dwight W. Morrow, '95, who also made 
the presentation speech. A portrait of 
the Rev. David Parsons, first chairman 
of the trustees of Amherst Academy 
and one of the founders of Amherst 
College, was presented by his great- 



362 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



grandson, William Ives Washburn, '76. 
The final presentation was of a copy of 
the portrait of Lord Jeffery Amherst 
by Joseph Blackburn. The original, 
which is owned by Herbert L. Pratt,'95, 
was painted in 1758 and shows the 
famous British warrior at the height 
of his career. The painting was given 
to the College by the class of '95, 
Charles A. Andrews making the pre- 
sentation speech in the name of the 
class. The full text of the presentations 
is given herewith. 

PRESENTATION OF PORTRAITS 

Dwight W. Morrow, '95 
Mr. President; Friends of Amherst 

College: 

It had been expected that Mr. W. C. 
Brownell of the class of '71 would be 
here this morning and say the few words 
that are customary upon the presenta- 
tion of portraits to the College, but 
Mr. Brownell has unavoidably been 
kept away, and it falls to my lot to say 
just a word or two about the man with 
whom it was my good fortune to be 
associated for many years. 

Fifty years ago John W. Simpson 
was graduated from this College. Mr. 
Brownell, who is not a careless critic, 
has set out in words in the Amherst 
Quarterly how vivid an impression 
Mr. Simpson made upon his contempo- 
raries, and the traditions that clustered 
about his work, and his ability as an 
orator and scholar when he was leaving 
this College. 

He went from Amherst to the Law 
School of Columbia University. He 
was graduated from that Law School 
with high honors. He entered the great 
law office of Alexander & Green, and at 
the end of a decade he had made an 
enviable reputation in that city where 
competition is always keen, but despite 



all that has been said about it, a city 
that holds its hands out to those who 
have talent and welcomes those who 
are able to serve. 

For almost fifty years Mr. Simpson 
worked at the bar of New York and he 
left a record of constructive work that 
members of the bar will tell you was 
surpassed by few. It is not as a lawyer 
but as a man he is known. Men followed 
him not because of what he said, not 
because of what he did, but because of 
what he was. He was one of those rare 
men who thrill other men. He was one 
of those men who might be character- 
ized by that fine sentence of Steven- 
son's: "When he entered a room, it 
was as though another candle had been 
lighted." 

And he loved this College. He gave 
it during the last years, when he was 
not well, the best that he had in advice 
and in service, and when we think of 
his long life, of his cheerfulness during 
his illness, of the many different phases 
of life that he touched, of his broad 
tolerance, of his clean mirth and humor, 
of his interest in books and in pictures 
and sculpture, if they were good, of his 
interest in men, whether they were 
good or bad, and his ability to find 
some good in any man and put it to use, 
we appreciate that although his name 
got very little into the capital letters 
in the newspapers, he led a singularly 
full and useful life. 

He carried with him always the 
teachings of this College, and looking 
at that half century since he left here 
with the class of '71, and at all of the 
parts of life that he loved and so v.ell 
used, I think it might be said of him as 
it was said of a fine Englishman: 

"He warmed both hands before the 
fire of life." 



The Story of the Centennial 



363 



Sir, because of our affection and love 
for this College, and because of our love 
and affection for this son of the College 
who left here fifty years ago with five 
talents, and in those fifty years made 
those five talents ten talents, and was 
therefore a good servant, we give you 
this portrait of John W. Simpson of the 
class of '71. 

WILLIAM I. WASHBURN, '76. 

Ladies and Gentlemen; Fellow Alumni; 
You who have recently become such: 

The preceding speaker had a some- 
what easier task to perform than I have, 
for he spoke to you about one of the 
sons of Amherst whom many of us 
knew and loved. My task is to speak 
to you of one of the fathers of Amherst, 
a man who passed away nearly one 
hundred years ago, and therefore it is 
with extraordinary difficulty that I can 
find something to speak about. 

But Dr. Parsons was no ordinary 
man. He was a graduate of Harvard 
and succeeded to his father's pastorate. 
His father was forty years in the pas- 
torate and he himself was pastor of the 
church in Amherst for thirty-seven 
years. Dr. Parsons was not only a man 
of great erudition, but he was a man 
with a great deal of humor, and he 
may have created somewhat of an at- 
mosphere. Possibly I might give you 
some illustration of the man's humor. 
He was aware of it himself. Even on the 
most solemn occasions an element of 
humor would creep in. On one occasion 
one of his friends remonstrated with 
him. He said, " You must restrain this 
humor which you exhibit even on 
solemn occasions, because it is unfor- 
tunate; it does you harm." Dr. Parsons' 
reply was, "I know it all, brother, and 
it has been my burden through life, but 
I suppose after all that grace does 
not cure squint eyes." 



He was sound on the temperance 
question, as we understand it, and yet 
he could not withhold a sort of humor- 
ous way of expressing it. It was the 
custom of the ministerial associations, 
as they met together at that time, to 
have supplies of stimulants of which 
they freely partook. On the occasion 
of the association meeting at his house, 
he said, " Brethren, I do not like to seem 
inhospitable. You know I am not my- 
self a total abstainer. The community, 
however, has a great deal of drunken- 
ness, and I think that in our oflBcial 
gatherings as ministers we should no 
1 onger continue this custom. Therefore 
I move that we take one good drink 
all round, and stop." And it is a fact 
that never afterwards in any such 
gathering were the ministers intoxicated. 

His theology was of the strict Cal- 
vinistic variety, and yet in that even 
he showed his humor. In his old age 
he went down to visit a daughter in 
Salem. He had a classmate in college, 
a very dear friend, who was un- 
fortunately a Unitarian. One morning 
while he was visiting his daughter, he 
said to her, "Now, I am going to take 
a nap, and if the Apostle Paul should 
come, I won't see him." Shortly after, 
this old friend came to the door and 
asked for him, and his daughter Mary 
said to him, "You can't see him. He 
is taking a nap, and he said that even 
if the Apostle Paul came he wouldn't 
see him." His friend said, "That is all 
very well. I will go up and see him. I 
will go right up. Don't trouble your- 
self." He went up and found the old 
gentleman on the sofa with a bandanna 
handkerchief over his face. He awoke 
and greeted his friend cordially and 
said, "Why, I am so glad to see you. 
I am glad you came." "Why," his 
friend said, "Brother Parsons, Mary 



364 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



told me you wouldn't see the Apostle 
Paul." "Yes, brother, but you and I 
will never meet after we leave this 
earth, but I expect to spend the blessed 
eternity with the Apostle Paul." 

Now, Dr. Parsons was a man who 
was deeply interested in educational 
matters, so much so that when the 
Amherst Academy was started, long 
prior to the College, he gave the land 
on which the Academy was erected- 
In my boyhood the building still stood 
on the site back of the Amherst House, 
the site of the present grammar school. 
That academy had a bright career. 
Mary Lyon, the founder of Mount 
Holyoke College, received her educa- 
tion in that school. The academy had 
a course of education practically similar 
to high school education, and the 
Franklin County Association of Minis- 
ters, at a meeting which they held, said 
there should be a higher institution of 
learning in Amherst. It was the vote 
of the association, and they finally de- 
cided to inaugurate such an institution. 
It was called, in the habit of that day, 
the Charitable Institution at Amherst 
for the Education of Poor, Pious Young 
Men for the Gospel of the Ministry. 
It does not seem now to be functioning 
along those lines. The institute strug- 
gled along for a while. It had no charter, 
and it became evident that the students 
were not satisfied because it was an insti- 
tution which could not confer degrees. 
An effort was made for the charter. 
Dr. Parsons at that time was the chair- 
man, or the president, as we call it, of 
the board of trustees of the academy. 
This institution was under the board 
of trustees of the academy, which ad- 
ministered the functions of the trustees 
of the College for the first four years of 
its existence. The records of the acad- 
emy are the records of the College for 



the first four years of its existence. 

Before the College could procure a 
charter, the legislature required that 
it have a $50,000 fund. You must 
recollect that at that time they had 
no alumni to call upon; the 
population surrounding the town was 
poor, mostly a farming community, 
and to raise $50,000 in those days 
possibly required more strain and more 
effort than our fund which we have 
completed today. Dr. Parsons was so 
interested that with two or three others 
he guaranteed $15,000, and himself 
contributed $5,000 for the fund of the 
College. 

He continued to act as chairman of 
the board of trustees until the corner- 
stone of one of the buildings was laid, 
and then he resigned. He died in 1823 • 

Such a man, it seems to me, is worthy 
to be remembered, and it is eminently 
fitting, as it appeared to the trustees, 
that his portrait should be among those 
of the founders of the College; and 
certainly, the portrait of the first presi- 
dent of the board of trustees should be 
one of the cherished memorials of the 
College. I therefore take great pleasure 
in presenting to the College the portrait 
of my great-grandfather. Rev. David 
Parsons, D.D. 

CHARLES A. ANDREWS, '95. 

Mr. President; Fellow Alumni; Ladies 

and Gentlemen: 

In 1758 the ministry of the Empire 
appointed with the somewhat reluctant 
consent of the king, as the commander- 
in-chief of the king's forces in America, 
a colonel of the British army, who up 
to that time was apparently unknown 
outside of military circles. Colonel 
Jeffery Amherst came to America, 
under instructions which, extended 
from time to time, laid upon him the 



The Story of the Centennial 



365 



duty of securing for the British Empire 
the whole of the settled part of this 
continent. First by the capture of 
Louisburg, which had theretofore been 
impossible, and afterwards by the con- 
quest of Ticonderoga and the Lake 
Champlain territory, Oswego, Detroit, 
and Fort Duo^uesne, he pushed back the 
advancing line of the French and as- 
sured for British institutions and British 
social development the whole of the 
St. Lawrence valley and the whole of 
the continent. He was a world-builder, 
the one English soldier between Marl- 
borough and Wellington who accom- 
plished great things for the extension 
of the Empire the world around. 

I presume it is true to say that the 
colonists did not know all of that. It 
has taken a wider perspective in order 
that we may see his accomplishment in 
its true light. To the colonists he was 
a deliverer from the rapine and mas- 
sacres of the Indians. It was he who 
pushed back their enemies and assisted 
in finally ending the practices of a cen- 
tury which we dread to read about 
even now. To this valley, to all the 
country from IMaine to Detroit, he 
brought comparative safety; slowly, 
to be sure; not the ease and the delight 
which we have now, but comparative 
safety from those things which had 
distressed and destroyed; and the 
colonists could not overstate their 
appreciation. 

Their appreciation took all sorts of 
forms. The preceding speaker has by 
implication undertaken to show, I 
think, that the precursor of the 18th 
Amendment was the subject of whom 
he spoke. I think we can go a little 
farther back than he did, because Jeffery 
Amherst, after a month's experience 
in the city of Boston when the city and 
the colony had undertaken to celebrate 



his capture of Louisburg, issued an 
order that no Medford rum or other 
spirits or molasses should be served his 
troops. Evidently he had the honor of 
being the precursor of the 18th Amend- 
ment. 

One event, designed alike to express 
thanks and honor to Jeffery Amherst, 
was a petition from the inhabitants of 
this valley for the establishment of a 
town and for the naming of it Amherst. 
It was the first Amherst named on this 
continent. Thus our beloved Amherst 
town was named by the Great and 
General Court of Massachusetts for 
him who had brought safety and as- 
surance to the sparsely-settled com- 
munities of the northern colonies. And 
thus his name, the name of the founder 
of an empire, has come to the College, 
honoring the College, and I think re- 
ceiving honor from the College and its 
history. 

But he did more. He established in 
all the St. Lawrence valley a civil ad- 
ministration which was wonderfully 
successful in that it preserved to the 
inhabitants the dearest of their tradi- 
tions and their customs, and yet by 
establishing there British civil institu- 
tions, assured Anglo-Saxon civilization 
to the whole continent. It was indeed 
a world-builder for whom this part of our 
valley was named and whose name has 
thus come to the College. 

We are very fortunate that this 
portrait is presented to the College 
today in the presence of a relative and 
descendant of Lord Jeffery Amiierst. 

On behalf of my classmates, sir, I 
take great pleasure in presenting to the 
College the portrait of Lord Jefiery 
Amherst, and I cannot quite resist the 
opportunity to say, sir, that our reason 
for giving it is not primarily that there 
may be another portrait in Amherst 



366 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



College; rather, it is our great hope that 
succeeding generations of boys who 
come here may by this portrait be led 
to study a career which in five years 
made out of a colonel in the British 
army the saviour of a people and the 
builder of an empire. 

HISTORICAL EXERCISES 

The opening event of the Centennial 
Celebration proper was the historical 
exercises held in the auditorium tent at 
2.30 Monday. Mr Arthur Curtiss 
James, the presiding officer, first called 
upon the Rev. John Brittan Clark, '86, 
to pronounce the invocation. 

Mr Clark: Almighty God, who 
doth in infinite grace permit us to call 
Thee our Father, we render unto Thee 
our grateful acknowledgment of all 
Thy blessings in the past, and humbly 
pray that Thy presence may be mani- 
fest to every one of us now gathered 
here. O, grant unto us that the fruitage 
of the past may be but a prophecy of 
the future, and that our College, Thy 
College, may in all its coming history 
center in its thought and administration 
and teaching, whatever branch this may 
take, around Thee, to honor Thee, to 
glorify Thee and to make Thee supreme 
in the hearts of men and in our country. 
To the Glory of Christ. Amen. 

Mr. James: The day has come. The 
day toward which every Amherst man 
has been looking forward for months^ 
Amherst's first century of service is 
complete. The book is closed. Before 
turning the page and taking up the 
never ending work of making Amherst's 
second century the fulfillment of the 
prophecies of the first, it is well for us 
to pause for a moment on this threshold 
and study the lessons from the first cen- 
tury, fully believing that on the firm 
foundations laid by our fathers a 



stronger, nobler, more useful Amherst 
College will celebrate one hundred years 
from today the ending of its second 
century of service. The first speaker on 
this historical occasion is the honored 
President of our Board of Trustees, 
George A. Plimpton, '76. 

Mr. Plimpton: Sons of Amherst, 
coming as you do from every clime, and 
representing as you do nearly every 
race upon the earth, your Alma Mater 
welcomes you. For one hundred years 
Amherst College has been sending forth 
her sons to serve the world as public 
oflScers, — today the Vice President of 
the United States and the Speaker of 
the House, and the Chief Justice of 
Massachusetts are Amherst men, — as 
ministers, as lawyers, as teachers, as 
business men, as soldiers of liberty, past 
and present, loyal citizens all, and she 
is proud of your service, of what you 
have accomplished for the good of 
mankind. 

A century ago, — let our thoughts and 
our imaginations go back, and picture 
the world as it was then. Founded in 
the midst of religious controversy, this 
College was dedicated to the making of 
Christian men. "Terras irradient, " the 
Bible enlightening the world. Her creed 
was simple: first, character, character 
based upon religion; second, education. 
Firm believers, these builders of Am- 
herst were, that an education without 
religion, and a religion without educa- 
tion were equally dangerous to the wel- 
fare of mankind. Notwithstanding the 
emphasis of religious values, the charter 
of Amherst was most liberal in its pro- 
visions, eliminating sectarian teaching, 
and having as its ideal the search after 
truth. 

Others will tell you how well this 
little New England college succeeded in 
her high endeavors and her noble mis- 



The Story of the Centennial 



367 



I 



sion. As I have read her history and 
pondered over her early struggles, I have 
wondered at the courage of her founders. 
How limited were her means! How 
self-sacrificing were those early trustees! 
How unselfish and devoted those early 
teachers! When one thinks of those 
humble beginnings, one cannot fail to 
marvel at the widespread influence of 
Amherst College. Is there any country, 
is there any nation that has not been 
made better by Amherst men? Who can 
measure their accomplishment .f' This 
is the high-water mark of a hundred 
years for our Alma Mater, — standing 
at the end of her first century, pre- 
pared by your loyal labors and your 
generous gifts for even greater service 
in the centuries to come. 

With such a history, surely we should 
have the courage and the strength to 
hold fast to those foundation principles 
which have been tested by Amherst 
College in her hundred years of struggle 
and achievement and to apply them in 
the solution of all these perplexing prob- 
lems which confront us. The greatest 
need in the world today, a need greater 
than it has been in all the past, is strong, 
resolute Christian men, educated as 
Amherst educates for character based 
on religion. 

Let us, Sons of Amherst, one and all, 
pledge ourselves, here and now, to hold 
fast and to press on. 

Mr. James: Fifty years ago today 
there stood in this place a man of ripe 
experience, sound judgment, a leader of 
men, a master mind of his generation. 
Many of us who are here today remem- 
ber him with reverent affection. To 
those of us who knew him in our college 
days his presence was an inspiration, 
and his influence on our young lives 
will go with us to the end. Today his 



son is to stand on the same platform 
and interpret for us as did his father 
fifty years ago, what the history of Am- 
herst College for the last one hundred 
years has meant and is to mean to the 
manhood of America. A whole century 
of progress represented in the lives of 
father and son, — a worthy son of a 
worthy father, honored and respected 
by his fellow-citizens and deeply beloved 
by every Amherst man, John Mason 
Tyler, '73. 

Professor Tyler then delivered the 
address on "One Hundred Years of 
Amherst" which is printed earlier in 
this magazine. 

Mr. James: The next speaker is the 
type of man every Amherst graduate 
and every red-blooded American citizen 
delights to honor. We delight to honor 
him as a man. We delight to honor him 
as a loyal son of Amherst. We delight 
to honor him in his high oSice — the 
Honorable Calvin Coolidge, '95, Vice 
President of the United States. 

Mr Coolidge then read his address 
on "Amherst in Public Affairs." 

Mr. James: Amherst College has had 
its outstanding leaders in every depart- 
ment of human progress, but few men 
even in the history of the world have 
taken as prominent a place in as many 
different lines of leadership as did Henry 
Ward Beecher. Religion, politics, the 
dark days of the Civil War, and inter- 
nationals relations all found in him a 
leader. We are most fortunate to have 
with us today an Amherst man who 
knew him well and worked with him. 
The speaker whom I am about to intro- 
duce to you is himself an outstanding 
leader, — perhaps the outstanding leader 
today in the journalistic world — Dr. 
Talcott Williams, '73. 



Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



PRESENTATION OF MEMENTOES OP^ HENRY 

WARD BEECHER 

TALCOTT WILLIAMS, '73 

Mr. President, my Fellow Graduates of 

Amherst College: 

I regret greatly that the illness of 
Lawrence Abbott, who could more fitly 
discharge the duty which has fallen to 
me, brings me before you after a notice 
of two or three days. 

I would like to test the extent to 
which the great figure and national 
leader of whom I am about to speak is 
still held in memory by the sons of men 
now living, though thirty-four j'^ears 
have elapsed since his death. At the 
Semi-Centennial fifty years ago today, 
upon this .spot, Henry Ward Beecher 
spoke. To link this Centennial with the 
Semi-Centennial of the College, I will 
ask those who are before me who were 
present at the Semi-Centennial of the 
College to raise their hands. (Hands 
raised.) Those who were present at 
the Semi-Centennial will please rise. 
(Twenty men rise.) A score, added to 
by two men on this platform, constitute 
the narrow link between the utterance 
of Henry Ward Beecher in the plenti- 
tude of his powers at the Semi-Cen- 
tennial of Amherst and those who gather 
today at the Centennial of the institu- 
tion to hear for a moment fond memory, 
recollection, affection and profound ad- 
miration for all that he did, as there 
pass into the hands of the College from 
those v,ho owned them, the Misses 
Beach, who received them from their 
father, Moses Beach, the memorials, of 
whose gift and for whose givers I have 
the honor to speak, the pulpit from 
which he spoke from 1858 to 1868, the 
little table by which he delivered his 
great war discourses, and the chair in 
which he sat — they come to us as tlie 



memorial of the man who, more than 
any other man in the hundred years of 
Amherst has represented alike its prin- 
ciple and its inspiration. 

Those of you who heard him at the 
Semi-Centennial at Amherst will re- 
member that he began his speech by 
saying that he had heard much said of 
the beauties of the sunset to be seen 
from the College Tower but that he 
found that no men had spoken of the 
sunrises that were to be seen from the 
College Tower. He told his audience 
that there was not a single term of his 
study in Amherst in which he did not 
see the sunrise from the Tower of Am- 
herst. He knew these.hills; their track- 
less paths he knew, and his education 
was the education of the^elds and the 
hills and the mountains which enshrine 
Amherst. He was himself a man of the 
sunrise. He represented the breaking 
light of day upon the nation. In the 
great communion to which he belonged, 
which had been held to its conservative 
landmarks by his father, Lyman 
Beecher, in the great struggle between 
Unitarian and Trinitarian, he was the 
first in the more orthodox frac- 
tion of that communion to break from 
the past and to launch the entire church 
of Christ in the United States on the 
open field of a belief in the love rather 
than the punishment of God, in the 
perfectability of humanity rather than 
in its fall, in its redemption rather than 
in its sin. He was the first of the great 
clergymen of his period who, having 
Darwin before him, was courageous 
enough to prefer the evolution of man 
to his damnation, to look forward in- 
stead of backward, and to believe that 
the highest hope of.man lies in the cir- 
cumstance that his whole ascent had 
been from step to step toward the 
rising stars, like all the animalc crea- 




Tmh. Ciml Wah 
'AMHERST MILESTONES" 



The Story of the Centennia 



369 



tion. When other men hesitated, when 
heresy was charged against those who 
departed from the ancient faith, he led 
the demand for the liberal interpreta- 
tion of the Holy Scriptures. It is not too 
much to say that, for the general reader, 
he recast the entire interpretation of the 
inspired word of God. He did all these 
things under constant calumny. He was 
charged with destroying the best of the 
past, when in reality he was laying the 
foundation of the best of the future. 

In earlier years and in those in which 
he preached from the pulpit, which is 
to become alike our treasured possession 
and the treasured memory of his service 
between 1858 and 1868, when other 
clergymen were hesitating, when great 
divines were taking the "safe" view of 
slavery, when the American Board itself 
was willing to take money gained by the 
sale of slaves and use it, when its secre- 
taries maintained they could not ask 
whence tainted money came — there 
came to him a great opportunity. He 
lived in that great struggle, and while 
he occupied this pulpit he preached the 
great sermon, the first of American 
sermons to declare for the right and in 
favor of the election of Abraham Lin- 
coln. From that pulpit he preached his 
great war sermon on the text, " And the 
Lord spake unto the children of Israel 
that they go forward." He ends the last 
sentence with that clause. He called us 
also through his memory to go forward 
through the red tide of war. This vision 
of duty, if he had been living, would 
have been spoken also to this generation, 
when the Lord spake unto the nation 
once more to go through the red tide of 
war to victory for Freedom. 

Out great Sister Nation in the strug- 
gle he shared had, for an instant, in its 
ruling classes, forgotten its devotion to 
liberty, and its government had arrayed 



itself on the side of the slave-holder. 
It made a pact with that champion of 
evil. Napoleon III, that the Confederacy 
should be recognized, when Henry Ward 
Beecher, a graduate of this College, 
landed unknown at Liverpool and be- 
came in a month the best known orator 
in the English-speaking race, known in 
England as well as in the United States. 
For the first time, the great laboring 
classes in England, which had starved 
in silence sooner than sympathize with 
slavery, came to have voice and being. 
He faced mob, he faced threat, 
he faced violence itself, and he 
changed the policy of the English nation. 
He led those who directed the English 
nation, and he prevented, and, God 
willing, he prevented for all time, the 
possibility of a rupture between the two 
great branches of the English-speaking 
race. 

He had voiced at the very opening 
of the war what Abraham Lincoln 
called the trumpet call of the day in a 
sermon at Plymouth Church preached 
on presenting its colors to the regiment 
which he had raised, from the text, 
" Thou hast given a banner to them that 
fear Thee." 

That sermon was circulated by the 
hundred thousand over the United 
States, read from countless pulpits. 
Wnen there fell to Abraham Lincoln 
the choice of the orator who should 
speak when the Stars and Stripes were 
hoisted again on Fort Sumter, he se- 
lected Henry Ward Beecher, a graduate 
of this College. He was the first repre- 
sentative of the Abolition Movement 
who was permitted to speak in the 
South, and his capture of Richmond, 
when on a lecture tour after the war, 
was not the least triumph of his great 
career. 



370 Amherst Graduates' Quarterly 



I am glad that in this College to this 
day his speeches are used in our courses 
in public speaking, though I regret to 
say of the volumes of his sermons which 
the library carries— I found that nobody 
had apparently read them in the last 
forty-odd years. But for the man who 
stands on the platform — for the speaker 
— the day is everywhere always short, 
and for no man shorter than for the 
preacher, for the more completely, like 
Henry Ward Beecher, he enters into 
the consideration and the duties of 
moving the current of his day, the more 
completely the men who follow him will 
seek other tides and other currents in 
their day. As for the young men who 
are here today, I beseech them, if they 
are present at the one hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of this College, to 
remember that on this day we cherished 
the memory of Henry Ward Beecher. 

And now to you, Mr. President, to 
you, Mr. Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees, to the Corporation, and the 
College alike, I have the honor on lie- 
half of these two women who have so 
long cherished these memorials of the 
past, to give the pulpit, the table and 
the chair of Henry Ward Beecher, and 
if during the hundred years to come 
this College sends out a single man who 
stands by great causes, who frees the 
church of Christ from the bondage of 
the past, who aids in keeping the two 
great English-speaking nations side by 
side in their advance to liberty, it will 
fulfill its mission. For I do not agree 
that these are days of doubt and alarm. 
Never has the sunrise of which Beecher 
apoke been brighter in the east; never 
has tlie prospect of liberty and self- 
government been so far advanced; never 
has there been a time when the material 
progress of the world was so marked 
with justice and righteousness. It is 



because two-thirds of our graduates 
go into business that the tides of busi- 
ness have risen to a newer sense of 
responsibility in the last twenty-five 
years. And last, I hope — rather 1 feel 
certain — that, when the hour strikes, this 
College will have another leader of men 
ready to call the Republic to new 
heights, ready to take the leadership 
in every good cause of life, such as 
Henry Ward Beecher showed, dis- 
played and triumphed in. 

Mr. James: The last feature on the 
program has to do with the very be- 
ginning of the existence of Amherst 
College. Through the gift of Mrs. 
Mellon, who is the great-granddaughter 
of President Humphrey, the College is 
to receive letters and documents of 
surpassing historical interest, and it is 
a great pleasure to introduce to you the 
Director of the Carnegie Museum who 
will present these documents to the 
College — Dr. William Jacob Holland, 
'69. 

PRESENTATION OF THE 
MOORE-HUMPHRET LETTERS 
WILLIAM JACOB HOLLAND, '69 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Alumni: 
I find myself in a somewhat embar- 
rassed position being called upon to act 
as spokesman for two dear friends of 
mine, who are here present, and either 
or both of whom, I feel, could say what 
ought to be said as well as I can. I 
have, however, yielded to their insist- 
ence, and so on behalf of Mr. Edward 
P. Mellon, and of his charming wife, 
the latter a great-granddaughter of 
President Heman Humphrey, the sec- 
ond president of Amherst College, I 
have the honor of presenting to the 
College this case which I hold in my 
hands, which contains a number of 
early documents and a large number of 
letters relating to the early days of Am- 



The Story of the Centennial 



371 



herst College. I have gone over these 
papers with intense interest myself and 
they throw a flood of light upon many 
things in the early history of the insti- 
tution. 

I may say that there seems to be 
propriety that the presentation of these 
papers should immediately follow the 
presentation of the memorials of Henry 
Ward Beecher, the king of American 
pulpit orators. I find among these 
papers among other things a pledge 
not to use alcoholic liquors or tobacco 
during their stay in college signed by a 
number of students, one of whom was 
Henry Ward Beecher, whose signature 
is attached to the pledge. I daresay he 
kept the pledge, but if I have read 
aright a volume of reminiscences which 
has recently appeared from the pen of 
Edward W. Bok, there came a time in 
the experience of the great pulpit orator 
when he regarded it as no longer binding 
and indulged at his own table in re- 
freshing drinks, which in these arid 
times are prohibited to the nation. 

I cannot take time to attempt to 
describe the contents of this box of 
treasures, but I may point out that 
among other things it contains a num- 
ber of original documents bearing upon 
the formation in Amherst of an anti- 
slavery society long before the outbreak 
of the Civil War, shortly after the 
College was established, and to call 
attention to the fact that the conserva- 
tive authorities of the institution did 
not entirely regard with favor the for- 
mation of this body, and