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Harvard College 


Lucy Osgood 














A/i rights reserved 


^1 ^^ X 1 • ^- H o' 

-;;,i!,RD coLu^ 

JUL 28 1915 

/iVs/ Edition 190J 


Reprinted J^oS, ipop, 1912 
New and Revised Edition, igis 






This Reader is intended to serve as an introduction to the 
language and literature of the period concisely called Middle 
English, that is the centuries between iioo and 1500. It consists 
of a Grammatical Introduction based on lectures to students begin- 
ning the study of Middle English ; selections arranged on the basis 
of the great dialectal divisions of the language during the period, 
and accompanied by explanatory Notes ; a Glossary which, in addi- 
tion to the necessary general information of a lexicon, accounts for 
the forms of words on the basis of dialectal differences in Old and 
Middle English. 

The arrangement of the book on the basis of a single dialect 
has seemed to be justified by the writer's experience with students 
during the last ten years. Whatever book has been used, the 
student has been first introduced to those selections best illustrating 
the chronological development of a single dialect, as the Midland, 
and only then to each of the others, with direct relation always to 
the one already mastered. This has not failed to insure a fairly 
accurate knowledge of the main features of each division of the 
language, rather than a confused conception of linguistic forms 
such as often results from reading selections without regard to 
dialectal differences. This method, it will be seen, is but follow- 
ing the best practice in reading Old English, or Anglo-Saxon. 
Indeed, the great advance in the latter study may be dated from 
the time when a grammar was prepared on the basis of texts repre- 
senting a single dialect, West Saxon, in its purity, rather than 
a mixture of dialectal forms such as much Old English literature 
presents. The plan of Old English study, therefore, as. well as 
experience in teaching, seems to justify some such arrangement as 
the present. The emphasis of the Midland dialect is owing to its 
fundamental importance in linguistic and literary history. Since 
Midland became the language of the most important literature as 
early as the middle of the fourteenth century, and the foundation 
of the standard language of modern times, it is that dialect which is 
most important to the student of both language and literature for 
at least six centuries. Besides, the apparent continuity of Southern 


English in its relation to West Saxon is apparent rather than real 
in any important sense. So thoroughly is the continuity broken by 
important phonetic and orthographic changes, wide-spread leveling 
of inflexions, and considerable differences in syntax, that it affords 
no decided advantage over Midland, even to the student fresh from 
y Old English study. In any case the change to Midland must be 
made not later than the middle of the fourteenth century, and the 
student must then be led back to th^ beginnings of Midland Eng- 
lish, in order fully to understand the language of Chaucer and those 
who follow him. There seems, therefore, no special advantage in 
emphasizing the Southern dialect as the descendant of West 
Saxon, though this may be done even with the present book if 

It is believed that a sufficient number of texts have been given, 
to represent adequately for the beginner each great dialectal divi- 
sion of the language. Kentish has been given least space, and is 
not separated from the rest of Southern English. This is owing 
partly to the limitations of an introductory book, partly to the 
relatively unimportant place of that dialect in both Old and Middle 
English. The Kentish selections chosen could be easily grouped 
together, however, and special emphasis of Kentish peculiarities 
will be found in the Notes upon them. On the other hand, the 
dialect of London is especially represented in order to illustrate the 
change from Southern to Midland, so important in relation not 
only to the language of Chaucer but also to Modern English. 
Owing, also, to necessary limitations of a single handbook texts from 
writers of the fifteenth century have not been used. To that 
century little introduction is necessary apart from such study of 
the earlier period as this book will permit. 

As to the selections themselves, the purpose has been to present 
texts representing the dialects in their purity, together with as much 
of interest as is compatible with the first and most important con- 
sideration. Comparison with such lists as those by Morsbach, 
* Mittelenglische Grammatik,' pp. 7-ri, will show how fully this 
has been done. In fact, except for two or three selections from 
poetical romances, chosen on the score of interest along with a fair 
degree of purity, all texts may be relied upon as typical of the time 
and region to which they belong. When possible, texts or selec- 
tions not found in other books have been used, so as to furnish 
a greater variety within the reach of student and teacher. In all 
cases the selections are of suflBicient length to afford a fairly com- 



prehensive view of the author or period. Partly because they 
would not be typical, partly owing to mixture of dialectal forms, 
some short pieces which might have b^en included on the score of 
interest have been omitted. 

For each selection, the best manuscript from the standpoint of 
linguistic purity has always been followed. This is now more 
easily possible owing to the great number of well -edited texts acces- 
sible in printed form, but thf manuscripts themselves have been 
examined when necessary to secure linguistic purity. * It has not 
been thought necessary, however, to burden the pages of an intro- 
ductory book with readings from less important texts, though 
references to these sometimes occur in the Notes. Finally, the 
selections chosen have been reproduced in their integrity in all 
essential particulars. Yet this does not mean that a mediaeval 
punctuation has been preserved, or an irregular and meaningless 
use of capitals. To retain these, as has sometimes been done in 
beginners' books, is but to confuse the student without any 
measurable advantage. The footnotes give references to abbre- 
viations expanded with regard to the forms of the particular 
dialect, and to manuscript readings not given in the text. These 
are usually errors of a careless scribe, or readings in which emenda- 
tion seemed necessary. Regularization of orthography Jias not 
been attempted in general, but in the Midland selections, as those 
which will usually be first read, some slight assistance of this sort 
has been offered the beginner. All such forms, however, have 
been indicated in footnotes, so that they cannot mislead if they do 
not assist. 

The Notes on each selection give such information as is known 
regarding the manuscript, its date, author, place of composition, 
and some account of the work from which the extract is made. 
This is followed by explanations of points in grammar, history, life 
of the times, and similar subjects when necessary. In all cases, 
use is made of critical articles in the various scholarly journals, and 
references are given to assist the student in independent examination 
when desirable. 

The Glossary has been prepared on the basis of the Midland 
dialect, from which the greater number of selections have been 
made, but with inclusion in alphabetical order of all words not 
found in the Midland selections, and cross-references when neces- 
sary to the forms of other dialects. In the matter of cross-refer- 
ences, as in arrangement within the alphabet, the needs of the 


beginner have always been regarded as the most important in an 
introductory book. Thus the strictest alphabetic arrangement has 
been chosen in all cases. The ligature cb, though a simple sound 
rather than a diphthong at any time, has been placed after ad 
because the beginner will more easily find it there. He may then 
easily learn its real value, as he must in most other cases in which 
alphabetic arrangement gives no certain clue. 

A word |is to the Grammatical Introduction may not be out 
of place. In the incomplete state of the exhaustive treatment 
of Middle English grammar proposed by Morsbach, it would be 
impossible to expect so accurate a summary as may in future be 
written. The task was simpler, however, than it might seem. It 
was to present in systematic order the main grammatical facts of 
the Midland dialect, with such notes as would make possible an 
intelligent reading of the literature in the remaining divisions of the 
language. It need not be said that the writer is grateful, as all 
must be, for the part of Morsbach's grammar which has appeared. 
He has also made use of most special studies of the period, or of 
particular works, so far as they were important for the book in 
hand. But the arrangement of material is based upon the writer's 
presentation of the subject to students for some years. 

The book is intended for those who have had some introduction 
to the study of Old English. This will be seen from the numerous 
references to Old English grammar, and to grammatical forms of 
the older period. It is needless to say that no minutely careful 
study of Middle English is possible without a fundamental know- 
ledge of the earlier period. On the other hand, a reading know- 
ledge of Middle English literature is easily possible with even a 
moderate attention to grammatical relationships, and it is hoped 
that the book may be of use to those who have not begun with the 
more fundamental study of earlier English. 

It is impossible here to give credit to all books and monographs 
used in the preparation of the Reader. Mention in Introduction 
or Notes of articles and commentators is intended to imply grateful 
acknowledgement of indebtedness. Failure to mention others does 
not imply that the writer has not used them so far as seemed wise. 
Certainly it has been his purpose to weigh and consider practically 
all of the literature of the subject up to the time of going to press. 

O. Fo E. 

Cleveland, April 15, 1904. 


The Language and the Dialects 
Orthography and Pronunciation 




• • • 

• • • 






A. Early East Midland 

,ic* j^ The Peterborough Chronicle 

/2.»» II. The Dedication to the * Ormulum* . . . • 

B. Midland of the Thirteenth and P'ourteenth Cen- 


/*•»- I. * The Bestiary' . . » «, 

yxoo- II. * The Story of Joseph ' . 

,^ro III. * Floris and Blauncheflur ' 

, 2 J"* ' IV. * The Debate of the Body and the Soul 

; 3*» V. * Adam and Eve ' . , . 

.oft* VI. * Havelok the Dane * 

/3o»'VII. Robert Manning's * Handlynge Synne 

Pers the Usurer 

/ J6--VIII. The West Midland Prose Psalter . 

/jj-o IX. * The Earl of Toulouse ' 

/j**^ X. Gild of the Holy Trinity and of Saint William of 

Norwich ..... » 

I i *v XL John Myrc's * Instructions for Parish Priests' 

—The Tale of 








\ k 

I h 




A. The Northern Dialect page 

/jot> I. Prologue to the ' Cursor Mundi * 126 

7:?7i— II. * The Death of Saint Andrew' 135 

;jyo III. Treatises of Richard Rolle of Hampole . . .143 

' ?T« IV. A Metrical Homily— The Signs of the Doom . . 148 

/3r^ V. The Songs of Lawrence Minot 157 

y37? VI. Barbour's * Bruce ' — The Pursuit of King Robert . . 166 

B. The Southern Dialect, Including Kentish 

1*70 I. * The Poema Morale, or Moral Ode ' .... 176 

/a»& II. Layamon's *Brut' — Arthur's Last Battle . . . 181 

, a ao III. * The Life of Saint Juliana' 191 

^A»o IV. *The Ancren Riwle, or Rule of Nuns' . '197 

/3«>o V. Robert of Gloucester's * Chronicle * — How the Normans 

came to England 203 

/vt-oyi. Old Kentish Sermons 210 

/o«-VII. *The Ayenbite of Inwit, or Remorse of Conscience* 215 

/3(^^ VIII. Trevisa's Translation of Higden's * Polychronicon ' . 220 

C. The Dialect of London 

I. The English Proclamation of Henry III . . 226 

II. Adam Davy's * Dreams about Edward II * . . . 227 

III. The First Petition to Parliament in English . . . 232 

IV. Chaucer's * Canterbury Tales * — The Tale of the Par- 

doner 237 

NOTES 247 

GLOSSARY . . . 319 


AF, Anglo-French. 

AN, Anglo-Norman. 

Ang, Anglian. 

cogn. Cognate. 

EETS. Early English Text 

eME, Early Middle English. 
EML East Midland. 
eML Early Midland. 
eSth. Early Southern. 
Goth, Gothic. * 
IcL Icelandic. 
infl. Influenced by. 
KL Kentish. 
Lot, Latin. 
LG. Low German. 
LL, Low Latin. 
IME. Late Middle English. 
INth, Late Northern. 
lOE, Late Old English. 
IWS. Late West Saxon. 
MDu. Middle Dutch. 
ME. Middle English. 
Merc. Mercian. 
MHG, Middle High German. 
ML Midland. 

MLai. Middle Lat. 
MLG. Middle Low German. 
MnE, Modem English. 
N,E,D, New English Dictionary. 
NEMl. Northeast Midland. 
NF, Norman French. 
Nth, Northern. 
NWML Northwest Midlstnd. 
OAng.^ Old Anglian. 
ODan, Old Danish. 
OE, Old English (Anglo-Saxon). 
OF, Old French. 
OFris, Old Frisian. 
Olr. Old Irish. 
OKt, Old Kentish. 
OM, Old Mercian. 
ON, Old Norse. 

ONth, Old Northern, Northum- 
OSw, Old Swedish. 
SEMI, Southeast Midland. 
Sth, Southern. 

Teut, Teutonic, General Teutonic. 
WMl, West Midland. 
WS, West Saxon. 
< From, or derived from. 

* The ordinary grammatical abbreviations are not included, since well- 
known or easily understood. Special abbreviations used in the glossary, 
together with a few diacritics, will be found in the note preceding that division 
of the book. 

^ Does not differ from Anglian, the dialect of the Anglian territory in Old 
English times. So Mercian and Old Mercian are the same. 


■> . 

, -'• 

< h 



1. By Middle English is meant that form of the language used 
in England between the years iioo and 1500, that is English of 
the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. At the 
first date, the language shows such considerable differences from 
Old English (Anglo-Saxon) as to warrant a new name. By the 
last date, all essential elements of Modern English had come into 

2. Middle English is not so homogeneouj^s in form during the 
whole period as the Old English of literature (mainly West Saxon) 
on the one side, or as Modern English on the other. It is most 
homogeneous for the Midland dialect, with which this introduction 
especially deals, between 1200 and 1400, or normal Middle English 
as it will be considered. From iioo to 1200, known as early 
Middle English, the language shows less of regularity, owing to 
more rapid changes from Old English, and to the gradual absorp- 
tion of new elements in the vocabulary, as of Danish and French J 
words. Besides, the scribes of this period were largely influenced 
by the traditional orthography and grammar of the language, so 
that literature of this time was largely a copy, with slight variations, 
of that properly belonging before iioo. From 1400 to 1500, late 
Middle English, the language was more rapidly approaching its 
modem form. This introduction, therefore, deals with Middle 
English proper, with notes on early and late forms, and on the 
different dialects. 

Note i. — Scholars differ somewhat as to the divisions of the ME. period. 
Sweet, * History of English Sounds,' p. 154, makes the periods 1050 to 1150, 
1 150 to 1450, 1450 to 1500; Morsbach, ' Mittelenglische Grammatik,' p. 11, 


gives the dates iioo to 1350, 1250 to 1400, 1400 to 1500. As changes in 
language are always gradual, exclusive divisions are naturally impossible. 
Besides, chronological divisions must differ somewhat when different dialects are 
taken as the basis, the language of the South being much more conservative 
than that of the Midland or the North. For the South, the date 1250 is none 
too late to close the first period, and early Southern, in notes on the dialects, 
will include the years iioo to 1250. For the other districts the date 1200 is 
late enough for all practical purposes, so that early Midland and early Northern 
will comprise the twelfth century, iioo to 1200. 

3. Some characteristics of Middle English, as compared with 
Old English, may be briefly summarized. Middle English phono- 
logy shows a reduction to simple sounds of all OE. diphthongs, 
and the formation of new diphthongs ; widely-spread changes in 
quantity of both long and short vowels; and the loss of the 

Iconsonant h in OE. initial combinations hi, hn, and hr. The 
vocabulary shows large additions of foreign words, especially 
Danish and French. *rhe inflexions show a far-reaching leveling, 
and later a loss of older inflexional endings. Finally, the syntax 
is characterized by a marked tendency to a fixed order of words, 

' and by larger use of connective words to perform the functions 
of the lost inflexions, as prepositions to join nouns and pronouns 
to other elements, and of verbal auxiliaries to effect unions of 
verbal elements. 

4. Middle English embraces the great dialect divisions, Southern, 
Midland, and Northern, corresponding in general to Southern, 
Mercian, and Northumbrian of the OE. period. Northern, how- 
ever, extended beyond the region of the older Northumbrian to 
the Lowlands of Scotland on the north, to the north half of 
Lancashire on the west, and probably to parts of Nottinghamshire 
and Lincolnshire on the south. Southern included, as in Old 
English, Kent and the region south and west of the Thames, with 
Gloucestershire and parts of Hereford and Worcestershire. Mid- 
land embraces the region between Northern and Southern from 
Wales to the North Sea. Southern and Midland are again divided 
into east and west divisions. The eastern division of Southern 


includes Kent and a small part of the old West Saxon district; 
the western division all the remainder of Southern as already 
described. West Midland is bounded by Wales on the west, and 
the Danelaw on the east. East Midland includes the larger part 
of the older Mercia, together with East Anglia, Essex, and Middle- 
sex. As the East Midland district contained the city of London, 
the center of national life from the middle of the twelfth century, 
the language of this division gradually became most important 
in the history of English, and formed the basis of the modern 
language of standard speech and of literature. For this reason, 
selections from East Midland are placed first in this book, and 
upon it this introduction is based. Unless otherwise stated, there- 
fore. Middle English, as used in this book, will mean the Midland 
(mainly East Midland) dialect. 

Note i. — West Midland, in its purer examples, differs so slightly from East 
Midland, and is so scantily represented by texts uninfluenced by Southern on 
one side or Northern on the other, that it has been but sparingly represented. 

Note 2. — The language of London, the seat of government after the beginning 
of Henry the Second's reign (1154), was largely Southern during the earlier 
part/of the ME. period, as shown by the proclamation of Henry HI in 1258 
(see p. 226). It gradually lost its Southern character however, until, toward 
the end of the fourteenth century, it was essentially Midland. The importance 
of London English, in relation to the development of the literary language, 
has suggested devoting to it several special selections. 

5. The differences between the different dialects will be best 
understood by a study of phonology and of inflexions in the 
following pages. Some of the more characteristic differences may 
be given here, especially of Midland with which we have most to 
do. Midland English, like Northern, is based on Old Anglian, and 
shows forms due to OAng. phonology and inflexion as compared 
with West Saxon. See Sievers, * AngelsSchsische Grammatik'* 
(Sievers-Cook, 'Grammar of Old English'), §§ 150-168, and notes 
under inflexions, as well as notes under § i6f. of this Introduction. 
The most marked phonological differences between Old Anglian 

^ All references are to the third edition, and translation of same. 





and West Saxon are the lengthening of OE. a before Id^iht re- 
tention of Teutonic <? as a close sound (WS. ^) ; the monophthong- 
ing of Teutonic au, eu (WS. ea^ eo) to e before r, hy g ; and the 
appearance of e for WS. te and e for WS. ;V, the mutation of ea, ea. 
Owing to these OAng. peculiarities, Midland English has g for 
OAng. a before Id, as for OE. a in other situations, together with 
a far greater number of close e sounds than Southern. Otherwise 
the clearest idea of Midland English may be gained by a clear 
separation from it of Northern and Southern dialects. Phono- 
logically, Northern is distinguished by retention of OE. a (OAng. a 
before Id also) as d; by the guttural quality of ^, g sounds; by the 
use of qii{w) for OE. hw, when beginning a word or syllable ; and 
by s for OE. sc in unstressed words and syllables, as sal ' shall,' 
Ingiis * English.' Southern is clearly marked by the retention of 
the quality of OE.^ sounds (< », less commonly IWS. te^y\ re- 
presenting them by 2r(«/) under the influence of OF. orthography; 
and by the tendency of OE.y^ s, kw^ /, to become v, z, w, voiced 
Jf, initially and when following an unstressed prefix. The last 
consonantal changes, especially of/, s to v, z, are more fully re- 
presented in Kentish than in southwest Southern. Otherwise 
Kentish is distinguished by the use of f for OE. p, as in Old 

6. As to inflexion, by the last of the thirteenth century Northern 
had reduced almost all nouns to a single inflexional form, based 
^ on OE. strong masculines, and had completely leveled most in- 
flexions of adjectives and adjective pronouns. The two preterit 
stems of OE. strong verbs had commonly been reduced to one, 
usually the singular. The OE. prefix ^^, whether of past participles 
or other parts of verbs, had been wholly lost. Final unstressed e 
was no longer pronounced after the middle of the fourteenth 
century. On the other hand. Southern is distinguished by retaining 
the weak en plurals of nouns, and even by extending that ending in 
some cases ; also by the retention of a larger number of inflexional 
forms of adjectives and adjective pronouns, and of te{n), ie, te(^ in 


infinitive and present tense of OE. weak verbs of the second 
class ; by the preservation of final unstressed e, in general, through 
the fourteenth century. In these particulars the Midland dialect 
agrees more commonly with Northern than with Southern, though 
southeast Midland agrees with Southern in many cases. The most 
distinctive mark of inflexion in the three dialects is that of the 
present indicative of verbs, the inflexional endings of which are as 
follows : — 

Nth. Sg. I. (e) or es : 2, es: 3. es. PI. i, 2, 3, es, ortf\ 

Ml. i.e: 2, e^ti 3'fA{^^)'' j> ^«, later ^. 

Sth. I. e, (ley: 2. {e)s/: 3. {e)/f{f/i) „ e/>, {iep)\ e/h{iefh)\ 

In addition, Northern is also peculiar in the use of the ending 
and(e) in the present participle, the usual loss of personal endings 
in the weak preterit, and the reduction of the two preterit stems in 
strong verbs to one, generally the singular. Midland and Southern 
agree in general in retaining the personal endings of weak preterits, 
and both preterit stems of strong verbs, while in the present 
participle Midland uses the ending end{e\ later ing€f seldom andie), 
and Southern inde^ later inge, seldom ende. 

Note. — For a fuller statement of dialectal differences, see Morsbach, 
* Mittelenglische Grammatik,' pp. 11-14 ; Kaluza, ' Historische Grammatik der 
englischen Sprache,' § 17, 204. Naturally not all works written in Middle 
English are equally valuable for the study . of the language. Especially 
popular works, which were frequently copied, show a mixture in orthography 
as well as in dialect, owing to changes by different scribes. The purest texts 
are of course necessary to an understanding of the language as it actually 
existed, and from these most of the selections for this book have been made. 
For fuller lists of pure texts representing the different dialects, see Morsbach, 
as above, pp. 4-1 1, and Sweet, ' History of English Sounds,' pp. 154-6. 

See also * Die mittelenglischen Mtmdarten,' by Richard Jordan, ' Germanisch- 
Romanisehe Monatschrift,' ii. 1 24. 

^ When immediately before a personal pronoun, 
2 In verbs of OE. second weak conjugation. 



7. Middle English orthography is based on older English spell- 
ing, but shows marked influence of French orthography. The 
union of the two systems produced many apparent irregularities, 
some of the most important of which are as follows : 

Vowels : The OE. digraph a, when representing a long sound, was dis- 
placed by e, as in hwfle * wheat.* The short OE. cs had already become a, 
pronounced as in artistic, 

au interchanged with a before a nasal in closed syllables of French words, 
sometimes in those of English origin, as aunswere beside answere. 

ie {ye) was used for long close e in late Middle English, as in lief * dear,' 
belief more naturally in French words as mischief. 

o took the place of short u in proximity to «, w, u {v), w, to prevent con- 
fusion of manuscript forms, sometimes also in other places. Examples are 
wonede 'dwelt,* icomen 'come/ wode 'wood*; also late ME. bote *but,* 
corage * cdurage,' where the use of u might have suggested the long sound, 

ou {ow) for «, sometimes «, as in hoiis ' house,' coufe * kiiown,* cow for long 
«, and sorou{w) * sorrow ' for short u, 

V for u, especially in initial position, as vnder * under.* 

y and i are used interchangeably for OE. i or j^, long or short. Especially 
before «, m, u (v)j w^y commonly takes the place oii in late Middle English, 
to prevent confusion, as in the case of o for u above. It also takes the place 
oil in the diphthongs ai, eiy ot, ui, especially when final in syllable or word. 
" Consonants : There were even more variations from OE. usage in the case of 
consonants. In the first place, the OE. forms off r, s, w, now seldom pre- 
served in printing OE. texts, gave way to French forms of those letters which 
are nearer to those used to^ay. Besides, 

c is used in early Middle English for ts, as in blecen for bletsen * bless ' ; see 
also tZy z, for the same. Later c {sc) and ce were used for voiceless s, ss, as 
alee 'also,* lesciin ' lesson,* face. 

ch is used for OE. palatal c, as well as for ch in French words ; examples, 
chirche 'church,' chase. When doubled, cch {chch) are written, as in wicche 
{wychche) 'witch.' 

ct, cht, are sometimes written for jt {ht), as in mycht * might.' 
^ ^for capital/* occurs in late Middle English. 

g (the French form, our modem ^) took the place of the guttural stop, as in 
gold, and gg (g) the place of OE. eg, as in brigge * bridge.* g also occurred 
sometimes for French softg {=/), as in Jugen 'judge.' 
J ) (the English form of ^) was used for the palatal spirant g{gh), as in mi^t 



* might ' ; for OE. ^ ( -s^) initially, as in )^ * ye ' ; and sometimes in late 
Middle English for voiced s, as stde^ * sides/ by confusion with z. 

gh ()A) for spirant g {k) in later Middle English, as in mighty mijht * might ' ; 
the combination with ^ was also sometimes written gth, ^M, as in knigth 

* knight; 

gu occurs in late Middle English for the guttural stop of French words, as 
guards and sometimes in English words before a palatal vowel, as guest ^ guilt , 
to avoid confusion with^ (=/), as in gest *jest/ 

i (consonantal) was occasionally used for initial ^ (=>'), as in iaf * gave' ; 
also for/, as ioy *joy.' 

/ initially in French words, 2iS,jugen * judge/ in later Middle English. 
- k came to be used for c before e, i, and n, sometimes before a, o, u, the 
former because c before e, /, in French words was s in sound ; examples are 
^epen * keep,' ^ng, kare ' care,* Jhtt^t * knight.' 

(^u for OE. cwy as in guen 'queen,' as well as for French gu {^kw), as in 
quite ; it was also occasionally used for kw, as in quilk * which.' 

schf sh, ss for OE. sc, as in sckal, skaly ssal * shall.' 

st for ht sometimes, as nist * night.' 

th displaces /, which had itself displaced 9 almost entirely in early Middle 
English. But/ occasionally remained to modem times, especially in the forms 
yg { = the)yyt\=thaf)y where ^ represents/ with an open top. 

tz occasionally for ts, as in bletzen * bless.' 

u (consonantal), later v, for voiced /, as in heuen, heven, OE. heofon 

* heaven.' 

w was used in later Middle Ejiglish for u^ in ou^ especially when final in 
word or syllable, as cowy earlier cu^ cou ' cow.* w also rarely occurs for v, 

y (consonantal) in later Middle English for earlier ^ (^—y) ; also for / {tk), 
through confusion with / with open top, as already noted. 

z occasionally for /j, as in vestimenz * vestments ' ; rarely also for voiced j, 
as in w^zele ' weasel,* though common in Kentish. 

Note i. — In early Midland the older orthography prevails, as a beside 
a and e, and the rune for ze^, as by Orm. A large number of the peculiarities 
already noted are also found. The most important orthography of the period 
is that of Orm, who indicated pronunciation with minute care, especially by the 
doubling of consonants, the relations of which will be discussed under ' Changes 
in Quantity.' Minuteness in other respects may be indicated from his use of 
separate signs for the stop g, as in God, the spirant as in ME. ^if * if,' and the 
^nE. g as in singe. 

Note a. — Nth. shows few distinctive peculiarities. Especially to be noted 
are the indication of length in the vowels a, e, o, by adding i{y) in late Nth. 
Thus at {ay), ei {ey)y oi {oy) correspond to ME. a, <f, ff. Besides, cht and ght 
are used for the palatal spirant, as in niychi ' might ' ; gh for the palatal spirant 





in othet situations, as hi^Ay hight ' promised ' ; qu regularly for 0£. hw, as qua 
*who/ quite * white.' Sth. shows the following peculiarities: e, in early Sth., 
for OE. a ; ie (ye) for long close ^,- especially in Kentish ; oa {ao) for long open 
Pj in early Sth. ; u for OE y long and short, sometimes ui {uy) for OE. y ; 
ue, u, oe (p) for OE. eo, less commonly for OE. ^, and occasionally for OE. eo 
(e) ; the same usage is also often found in West Midland ; scA, sA, and ss were 
all used for sA, OE. sc. 

8. Accents were sometimes used in early Middle English to 
indicate long quantity, or occasionally for emphasis. In a later 
time they were also sometimes employed to indicate that a final 
e oxy was not silent, as in plenii. The breve (w) was also sparingly 
used to indicate short quantity. The common means of indicating 
long quantity, however, whether of vowels or consonants, was by 
doubling the letter, as good^ OE. god ' good,' wicche * witch.* The 
doubling of vowels when long was increasingly common in later 
Middle English, and accounts for double vowels in many modern 
words. Cf. also the indication of long vowels by digraphs, as in 
the table under § 7. 

9. Abbreviations are not uncommon in Middle English texts. 
Some of the most frequent are a macron over a vowel for following 
n or w, as CO for com^ hi for him^Jng iox ping ; a curl above a letter, 
sometimes through the stem of it, for er^ re^ ur ; a small undotted 
/ above the line for ri\ a roughly written a for ra. Certain common 
words were often abbreviated, as ;], later ^' for and\ f>t, later _>//, 
j^, 9 for that {thet) ; qd for qmd * quoth ' ; wt for wip, with ; k for 
king; d for bishop; s* for sane/, sant, saint; ihc, ihu for Jesm^Jesu. 
As such abbreviations admit of no misinterpretationj they are regu- 
larly expanded in all the texts of this book with no further notice 
than a single reference to the earliest. Even this has not been 
thought necessary except in case of abbreviations for words, as 
and^ thaty king, &c. 

10. The following table shows the approximate pronunciation of 
the vowels and diphthongs of Middle English. The order chosen 
is that which represents essential relations of the sounds, as of pitch 
and physiological formation, rather than the merely conventional 



as in 




as in 







as in 



nf> in 

n^t (not '. 




order of the alphabet. It will thus be possible to see at a glance 
the sounds which are closely related in fundamental characteristics 
and may therefore most easily interchange. 


Long ^ 

i, as in mach/ne. 
'6 (close), as in they, but without 

f (open), as in th^re, care. ^ , 
ft, as in aitf father. q 

/g (open), as in lord, <- 7' 

^o (close), as in n^, but without vanish. 
u, as in f«ll ^ u (ou), as in fool, 


iu (iw), as i + u, or ew in few. 
ei (ey), as <? + / sounded together. 
eu (ew), as e + u, later as ew in few. 
^ ai (ay), as in a/sle, more nearly as a of man + /. 
au (aw), as ou in h^^^se, ow in am), 
oi (oy), as in ]oy. 
/^9U (ow), as in brd + u, 
< .. ou (ow), as ^ in n^ + u, 
ni (uy), rare, as « + i, 

* The question of how far the quality of OF. ii in plus was actually adopted 
in the speech of the Midland and Northern districts, and how long it retained 
its purity, cannot be positively settled. It i^ agreed, however, that toward the j 
end of the period this sound had fallen in with OE. short j< or had become iu, ' 
From the small number of words with this OF. sound, and from their 
necessarily gradual adoption, it seems more than doubtful whether the pure 
French pronunciation ever existed on Midland (Nth.) soil, except as spoken 
by those who knew French. The exact quality of the vowel is naturally most 
important in rime, and the lack of significance of it for our purposes may be 
indicated by the fact that there is in this book but one rime, twice repeated, with 
this vowel. This is the niaQyJesu : vertu (97, 17-18 ; 99, 3-4). For practical 
purposes, therefore, we shall disregard the French quality of this vowel and 
consider that from the first it had fallen in with OE. tt and the ME. diphthong 
eu (iu), Cf. Behrens, * Franz. Sprache in England,' p. 1 18 ; Luick, * Anglia,' xiv. 



11. Theoretically there are two sets of the diphthongs et, eu, gu 
and ou, those with the first elements long or short, according as they 
developed from long or short vowels or diphthongs in Old English. 
Indeed, Orm distinguished them in his orthography (see § 71, n.), 
but otherwise they are not distinguished in written forms and can 
be separated only by a knowledge of their development from older 
English. As their later development also shows no separation, the 
distinction of long and short diphthongs in Middle English may be 
disregarded for all practical purposes. Besides, the distinction 
between gu and ou, iu and eu^ was not long preserved, and that 
between ei and ai^ which was frequently confused in Chaucer's 
English, as shown by his rimes, was lost in late Middle English. 
A new ou before )t (ht^ ght\ as in ou^t (pught)^ developed during 
the period, but, as it often interchanges with and has had a separate 
development from either of the ou diphthongs (compare English 
ought^ brought with kn(m), grow^ how in rainbow), it need not be 
pronounced diphthongic. The combination ui was never sufficiently 
common to merit consideration beside the other diphthongs. By 
a slight conventionalization for practical purposes, these nine 
diphthongs may thus be reduced to five at most. Those who wish 
to make more minute distinctions have but to refer to the historical 
basis of the sounds. 

Note i. — Early Midland English shows some considerable retention of 
OE. pronunciation, as of OE. orthography. Owing to many peculiarities of 
orthography, however, most words must be analysed in relation to their earlier 
and later forms in order to be sure of their pronunciation. See, for example, 
the passages from the Chronicle and notes thereon. 

Note 2. — Nth. has no differences in pronunciation not sufficiently indicated 
by the spelling, as the retention of OE. a as a. Sth. has, in addition to the 
above, the sounds e, from OE. a^ as a in man ; 1/, from OE. y, with the older 
mutated sound, as in French plus ; and u {uij uy), from OE. j/, as in French 

12. The consonants are in general pronounced like those of 
Modern English, except as already explained under orthography. 
In addition, doubled consonants are to be pronounced long, as in 


sunne * sun/ which differs from sune ' son ' ; cA was pronounced /sA, 
as in church to-day, whether in English or French words ; h has the 
sound of German ch in ich^ auch^ except initially. For other notes 
see the Phonology under each consonant. 

13. As to word-stress or accent, we must distinguish between 
Teutonic words, that is those from Old English and Norse, with 
a few from Low German, and the ever increasing number from 
French. The former, which make the basis of the speech, were 
in general accented as in Old English— simple words on the first 
syllable, compound words on the first syllable if nouns, adjectives, 
or words derived from them, on the root syllable if verbs, or adverbs 
formed Trom prepositional phrases. Even in Old English, however, 
the prefixes ge, /or, usually bey and sometimes un^ al^ and the 
borrowed earce 'arch,' were unstressed in nouns and adjectives. 
In addition, during Middle English times, the prefixes un, al, 
and usually miSy lost accent in nouns and adjectives, except in 
almost, also, and alwqy{s), which have retained prefix stress to the 
present time. There was also a shifting of accent to the second 
element of some nouns, as at present in man'kind^, Northumbriatiy 
a stress which was occasional in Old English, as shown by 
Norp'hymbron, ' Battle of Maldon '266. A similar shifting of stress 
affected adjectives when in predicate rather than attributive position, 
as today in thirteen ; compare * he's thirteen * with * a 'thirteen year 
old boy.' In all such cases the stress can be certainly known only 
from verse, where the metre will sufficiently indicate the position of 
the accent. 

14. New compounds in Middle English also followed the general 
law of stress, as in 'domesdat, 'sometime^ 'whosg, to'/gre, wip'iiten. 
Sometimes the root, sometimes the prefix syllable was stressed in 
new compound adverbs, 2,%pirfgrey}>erofy into, intil, upon. Secondary 
stress, which was strong in Old English upon the second elements 
of compounds, was still so in Middle English. It is especially 

' A turned period indicates stress on the syllable before which it is placed. 


important for ME. metre, since this strong secondary stress was 
often elevated to a principal position in the line of verse. This is 
particularly true of certain syllables, wholly unstressed at present 
when next the principal accent, as ande {ende) inge, p^e^nesseysckipe, 
like {ly, liche)^ hood, dom, ishy y» 

15. Borrowed words of French origin vary in stress during the 

i period, as they at first retam their original stress on the final 
syllable (except weak e) or tend to assume the Teutonic stress. 
Thus rpoun 'reason' is variously accented, rfsoun or 'rpoun, in 
Chaucer's verse. The following general principles may be set 

i^ down. Old French nouns and adjectives tend to assume the 
Teutonic stress on the first syllable. Disyllables, or trisyllables 
with final weak e, when acquiring stress on the first syllable retain 
a strong secondary stress, corresponding to the original principal 
accent. Examples are pf/ee, prisoun, mdnere. Trisyllables, or 
polysyllables with weak e^ which originally had secondary stress 
on some antecedent syllable, shift principal and secondary stress 
respectively. This brings principal stress on the first syllable, as 
in chdri'ie, emperour, pdradis, or sometimes on the second as pov&Ie, 
vic/^ne, rel/gwn, condiciun. In the latter cases a second shift of 
the principal stress may take place, as in viciorie^ pSverfe, On the 
other hand, many nouns and adjectives, especially prefix compounds, 
never acquired stress on the initial syllable, as account, aff-air, 
afi'empiy cotydicioun. This may have been due to the fact that 
there was no secondary stress on the prefix in Old French, more 

< often to the influence of the corresponding verb. Disyllabic 
OF. verbs, accented on the first syllable, fell in with uncompounded 
English verbs and suffered no change of stress, as 'preie{n\ 'suffre{n). 
Polysyllabic verbs fell in with native compounds in retaining stress 

/ on the last syllable (except weak e(n)\ as esc'dpe{n), asyai7e{n)j or 
shifted it to a preceding secondary stress as puntshe{n)y dim:inisfu(i%)^ 
condicionein). A further shift to prefix, perhaps under the influence 
of the corresponding noun, may take place, as in c6n/orie(n\ The 
best guide to stress in Middle English is metre, but this, while 



usually sufficient for itself, is no certain guide to the pronunciation 
of every word in prosHS. 

Note i. — Following the principles above, and sometimes no donbt under 
the influence of analogy, OF. verbs fall in with Sth. verbs ending in u(n)y as 
carye{n)i chastie{n). In Midland and Nth. such OF. verbs in ier usually 
assume the common infinitive ending e{n\ 

The Vowels of Stressed Syllables 

SHORT vowels 

i6. Middle English ^, pronounced like Italian short a or un- 
stressed a in ariisticy is one of the commonest sounds, and occurs 
in English, Norse or Danish, and French words. It springs from : 

1. OE. a^ g before a nj^sal except when lengthened, and a when 

shortened : OE. ^as^in asschen * ashes * ; OE. g as in man, 
began {digan) ; OE. a as in asken (axen) * ask,' alderman, 

2. OE. CB (Merc. e=:cB\ and a from Teut. at by /-mutation, 

sometimes ^ (Merc, e, Gothic e) by shortening : OE. cs as 
in ca/ {kai) ; OE. <2 from Teut. at as in agasien * terrify/ 
^ ladder, /at; OE. ^ (Merc, e) as in bladdre * bladder,' naddre 

{addre) ' adder,' dradde * dreaded ' (cf. § 33). 

3. OE. ea (Merc, sometimes a) before r + consonant, and ea by 

shortening: OE. ea as in harpe 'harp,' sharpe 'sharp'; 
OE. ea as in chdpman * merchant,' chaff are * merchandise.' 

4. ON. a, g by ^-mutation of a (OD^n. a), and a when shortened : 

^ In the following descriptive chapters on Middle English sounds the 
borrowed elements are treated with the native, as their considerable importance 
warrants. Attention is first given to the Teutonic element, Old English and 
Old Norse or Danish, and then to that derived from Old French. Differences 
between Mercian, on which the Midland dialect is based, and West Saxon are 
also noted. The notes are intended to cover, in order, first, early Midland 
English, next the principal variations of the dialects. 


ON. a as in carl, wan/, stac ' stack ' ; ON. g as in adlen 
' gain ', ^tf r^ (of a tree) ; ON. a as in laten ' let.' 
5. OF. a as in barge ^ Anne, cas (later case) ' case/ 

17. The principal sources of ME. a will be seen to be OE. a, ce^ 
ea, and g from a before a nasal, which all regularly become a in 
Midland English, as well as long OE. a, ct, ea when shortened. 
A large number of OF. words also belong here. Besides a from 
regular OE. (e, ME. a sometimes springs from OE. <b instead of / 
by /-mutation of a (cf. Sievers, Gr. § 89). This usually appears in 
ME. in closed syllables before nasals, ch (ccK), and r, as in wanden 
beside wenden * wend,' pants {pans) beside penis {pens) ' pence,' 
iaccke ' seize,' macche (less commonly mecche) ' match,' darly (par lie ^ 
seldom herlic) * barley.' As indicated, in most cases of this sort 
forms with e also appear ; cf. § 19. OE. g frofti a before a nasal, 
which was regularly lengthened before certain consonant groups 
(see § 72), sometimes appears as a by earlier shortening, especially 
in certain words as land^ hand, standen * stand,' gangen * go,' hangen 
*hang,' ansTJoeren 'answer.' West Midland, however, sometimes 
has for a before nasals not causing lengthening, as in mon * man,' 
but this was not common enough to be a distinguishing feature of 
the dialect For OF. a before a nasal + cons., see § 56. 

18. Certain forms with a corresponding to OM. ^(Goth. e, WS. le) 
require special mention. They occur before r in unstressed words, 
as par beside J^er (Sth. />/r), whar beside wher (Sth. wh^r), waren 
beside weren (Sth. w^en) * were.' Corresponding forms with long 
open {p)y on the other hand, must have developed from eME. forms 
with a existing beside the shortening here supposed. For these 
see § 43. Words with ME. a sometimes rime with e words, as 
if pronounced with e, at least dialectally. There would thus seem 
to be double forms of such words, as was-wes, fast-fesi, gadren- 
gedren * gather.' Rarely also a becomes 0, as before v in govel 
* tribute,' hove 'have,' and in qtiop {quod) * quoth,' where it is 
probably due to lack of stress. Individual words which also show 
interchange of a-^ are masse-niesse (Nth. always messe by influence 


of OF. messe) 'mass,' gadeltng^gedeling less commonly, tbgadrc'^ 
togedre (ibgidre)^ The word Chester {•'Chester) < OE. ceaster 
regularly has e in ML, though a in Nth. Doncaster, &c. Forms 
with e are also common from shortening of OE. a and Merc, e, &, 
as under § 1 9, 2 below. 

l*ToTE I. — In early Midland this sound was jtill represented by the older 
Mercian a or e, as in hcefdtn (Jufden) *had,* was (wes) ' was/ isfter {efter) 
* after.' The digraph ea is not found in the * Chronicle* after 1132, but the 
Mercian variant eo once appears in wewp for wearp. Even before 1132, its 
interchange with OE. a probably indicates that it was not diphthongic much 
after 1 100. Orm never uses ea, and only exceptionally a for short a. 

Note 2. — Nth. agrees with Midland in almost every particular. Before 
a nasal, however, it has a for OE. g {a before consonant groups causing 
lengthening), except in tnony beside many * many,' which is characteristically 
Northern. Sth., in the earliest period, generally shows a for OE. a, e {a, ea) 
for OE. ay ea, as for a^ ea when shortened. Later all become a, as in Midland, 
except that Kentish, which had e for WS. a in Old English, retains it regularly 
until late ME. times. For OE. ea Kentish uses, in the early period, ia {ya, yea). 
Minor variations are not noted here. For OE. g from a before a nasal (except 
before consonant groups causing lengthening) Sth. has a in western Sth. and 
in Kentish, but often in middle and southeast Sth. Before consonant groups 
causing lengthening, a ox p are found in Kentish and southeast Sth. The 
London dialect has a with great regularity except before consonant groups 
causing lengthening, and even here in later ME. by shortening, as commonly 
in land, England, hand, 6r>c, 

19. Middle English e, an open sound hke that in men, has the 
following origin. 

1. OE. e, § by 2-mutation of «, eo, and e, eo by shortening: OE. 

e as in west, helpen ' hejp ' ; OE. e as in men, bet, tellen ' tell ' ; 
OE. eo as in self, ^^z;^«.' heaven'; OE. e as in inette (OE. 
mette) * met ' ; OE. eo as in fell (OE. feol) ' fell,' derre 
(OE. deorrd) * dearer,' 

2. OM. e (VVS. ie by 2-mutatibn of ^^), e after a palatal consonant 

(WS. le, later y), and when shortened e, ck (Gothic e, WS. 
ce, ea after a palatal cons.), e (WS. le by /-mutation of ed), 
and sometimes ^ by /-mutation of Teut ai\ OM. e as in 
wercen (WS. wiercan^ * work ' ; OM. e as in jelp (WS.jielp) 


' y^lp,' je/en (WS. jie/an) 'get' ; OM. e, a as in slepte(y^S, 
slapie) * slept/ shepherde (WS. sciephierde) * shepherd ' ; OM. 
e as in hersum ( WS. hlersuni) * obedient ' ; OE. a as in evere 
'ever/ every {everlch, evertlk\ eny beside any^ chnsen 
* cleanse/ 

3. ON. ^, or / by /-mutation of a : ON. e as in pwert * thwart ' ; 

ON. / as in egg, eggen * ^g% or urge on/ 3^^ ' bench/ 

4. OF. ^ as in deiie ' debt/ serven * serve/ defenden * defend.' 

20. The principal sources of ME. e, in native words, are OE. e, 
/, eo when remaining short, and OE. (Merc.) /, ^(? when shortened. 
Sporadically, e is found for OE. / and^, the former in open syllables 
and in connexion with labials, nasals, and liquids ; the latter be- 
fore liquids and nasals. Examples of the first are smeten * smitten/ 
resen * risen/ clemben * climb,' y^^^r 'finger/ wekked 'wicked.' 
Such occasional rimes as heUesttlle, wilk-ielle, denne-wtj?tnne, also 
point to the same fact. Sometimes this may be accounted for by 
confusion of forms, as in the verbs sprtngen and sprengen ' cause to 
spring,' swingen and swengen 'cause to swing/ where the weak 
verbs with e have influenced the corresponding strong verbs with t. 
So perhaps welcome for wilcome by influence of wel\ predde for 
pridde * third ' by influence of J^ree ' three/ Unstressed position 
in the sentence may also account for some such ^*s, as in Mer for 
^tder ' hither/ here for litre ' her.' Examples of e for t from OE,y 
2LTQ/ers/, cherche, dent, stent, beside ^rj/, chirche, dint, stint. In a 
few OF. words, e springs from AN. e (<0F. ue^ by shortening in 
originally unstressed syllables, as keveren beside coveren 'cover,' 
keverchef {kerchef) ' kerchief 

21. ME. e sometimes becomes i before dentals and palatals. 
Some cases which have been preserved to Modern English" are 
ridden ' rid,' rideles * riddle ' with loss of final s, hinge, lingren 
* linger/ singen ' singe,' grinnen ' grin/ minglen ' mingle/ In 
pinken ' think ' (OE. p^ncean), found in Midland and Nth. from 
the thirteenth century, there is no doubt confusion with pinken . 
*seem' i^OE. pyncean). Sth. keeps penchen {penken), and Chaucer j 



separates the two except in preterit and past participle. . Beside e 
sometimes appear forms with o or u from OE. eo after w, as in 
sword, worp, war pi * worthy/ worpen {yourpen) * become. So 
swolwen {swolhen) is from a form with OE. e after w. This change 
had no doubt begun in Old English as similar forms appear in that 
period ; cf. § 26. For e to t in unstressed prefixes cf. § 83. 

Note i. — Early Midland shows ce ioie, less commonly ao for eo, as in ceteny 
bigceten for eten, bigeten^ and aorl for eorl^ in the * Chronicle/ The * Chronicle ' 
and Orm also have eo for OE. eo sometimes, as in tveorces * works,* heom 
' them/ weorfenn * worth, be,* heoffne * heaven.* 

Note 2. — The dialects in general agree with Midland. Early Sth. usually 
preserves eo, though sometimes it becomes o or e, and occasionally u as in 
dupe * deep,* mu/k * milk.* Sth. also sometimes has e or WS. t'e (later y) from 
e by influence of a preceding palatal consonant. In all cases Sth. e must be 
separated from Sth..e = iE, derived from OE. a, ea, as already noted in § 18, n. 2, 
Kentish has ie {ye) for OE. eo, as in ierj>e * earth,* lyeme ' learn.* Kentish 
also retains OE e for y, so characteristic of this dialect in OE. times, thus 
increasing greatly the number of tf*s in literature of this district. 

22. Middle English i^ with a sound like that of i in hit, is 
common in words from all sources. Its frequency is increased for 
Midland English because it corresponds not only to i in English 
and Danish words, but to older ^ by /-mutation of «, the latter 
having become i in sound. On this account also the vowel is 
represented by /or>^ at the pleasure of the writer. ME. / springs 

1. OE. i,y by /-mutation oi u, and when shortened t and J?: 

OE. /as in smip * smith,' his, wriien * written' j OE.j^ as in 
king {fyng), synne * sin,' kissen 'kiss'; OE. i as m fifiene 
' fifteen,' wisdom ; OE. y as in wisshen * wish,' hydde 
* hid.' 

2. OM. / (WS. io), and e (WS. eo) before hi : OM. / as in rihien 

'make straight,' irih/e 'bright,' wihi 'wight,' milk; OE., 
OM. e as in rihf 'right,' knihi 'knight,' lihi 'light, easy,' 
^ihf ' flight.' 

3. ON. i,y by i-mutation of «, and J or j? when shortened : ON, 


i as in skill, skifty twinne * twin ' ; ON. y as in fliiten ' flit,' 
biggen *build,' kindUn 'kindle' ; ON. J' as in imis * variously/ 
4. OF. ;' as in simple^ prince, delivren * delivcF/ cile * city.' 
23. For e instead of i, from OE. t,y, see § 20. For forms with 
«, beside those withj' by /-mutation of «, see § 28. One word, 
OE. wlfman^ shows various forms, as wimman, wimmen by shorten- 
ing, and by later change of i to u (written 6) under the influence of 
preceding w, womman, wommen. Similar influence of w is seen in 
wolli/) * will.' By Caxton's time, however, the forms of Modern 
English, with the sound of u in singular, i in plural, seem to have 
become established. OF. «', m\ sometimes appear as i in unstressed 
syllables, as in malisun, werrior for original «', and angwys 
* anguish ' for ui (§ 70). 

Note i* — The use oit for OE. y is found as early as 1121 in the 'Chronicle' 
and regularly later and in Orm. There is also earl)r use oiy for OE. ;, showing 
conclusively the like character of the two sounds. Later, y is more generally 
used for OE. t,y. 

Note 2. — Nth. agrees with Midland. Sth. shows «, as in French plus, for 
OE. y by ^-mutation of u, as Already noted, § 5. Examples are siinne * sin/ 
fiilde 'filled,' kiin *kin,' ciisse *kiss.' Sth. u also appears for a late WS. y 
from i, ie, as in wulle^ wiiten. Ml. wilief TVtUn, jiit for Ml. )et (jet), Kentish, 
on the other hand, which had levelled OE. y by ^-mutation of u under e, still 
preserves the latter, except before palatal hi, ng, and in king. This accounts 
for such forms as melle * mill,' cherche 'church,' lest 'lust,' dent 'dint,* in 
that dialect. The dialect of London probably agreed with Sth. in the earliest 
time, but by the last quarter of the fourteenth century usually has i for OE. y^ 
though sometimes an e which is probably Kentish in origin. Chaucer fre- 
quently uses this Kentish e beside Midland i in rimes, though mostly in closed 

2^. Middle English 0, with the sound of (not Italian a) in 
^ Modem English, occurs in words from all sources. It corre- 
sponds to : 

I. OE. 0, or ^ when shortened: OE. <? as in /oik, hodi} {body) 
*body,' cok *cock,' an; OE. as in so/te *soft/ oper 
' other.' 


2. ON. 0, when shortened : ON. o as in /<?/ * bow of the head/ 

lofif * upper room,' odde * odd ' ; ON. 3 as in /fok * though.' 

3. OF. as in apostle^ potdge, offis * office yJios/dge. 

25. Short ^ occasionally interchanges with e by /-mutation of 0, 
as in Wodnesday beside Wednesday, wolken \yt%\6& welkin^ sorwen 
beside serwen ' to sorrow.' It also becomes u sometimes, by in- 
fluence of preceding 5, m, or zv, as in durd for dord * board/ zuurd 
for wordj murp * death ' (cf. MnE. murder, OE. mordor\ Probably 
an OE. interchange of and u accounts for plocken * pluck/ OE. 
pluccian : knocken ' knock/ OE. cnoaan, cnucian ; prostel beside 
prustel ' throstle/ OE. prostle. For beside e from OE. eo {e) see 
§ 21. 

Note. — In general early Midland and the dialects all agree. Early Sth., as 
in Layamon, occasionally us6s eo for OE. as in heors * horse,' beord {fieord) 

* board/ and individual writings, as those of Shoreham, show ou for 0, as in 
saurwe * sorrow.' 

26. Middle English «, with the sound of u in fully is common in 
English, Danish, and Ffench words. Its sources are : 

1. OE. u, and u when shortened : OE. u as in under y sunne 

* sun,' drunken ' drunk ' ; OE. ii as in usy buxoniy buten, 
{J)utey but) * but,' OE. beutany buian. 

2. OM. u (WS: eo by preceding palatal^ (2") and sometimes sc), as 

in }ung * young,' schunen ' shun.' 

3. ON. u, and u when shprtened : ON. u as in 3«/<? * bull,' ugli 

' ugly ' ; ON. u as in scum, busken * prepare.' 

4. OF. Uy or «• in closed syllables : OF. u as in purse, suffren 

' suffer' ; OF. il as mjuggen 'judge/ humble, 

27. Middle English u is often written (?^eldom ou), especially 
in proximity to n, m, u {v)y w, as already noted under orthography, 
§ 7. This use of for u accounts for such forms as wolf, woll 

* wool,' wode * wood,' son, Ion, come, love, and many others which 
have remained to Modem English. Beside dure ' door,' as above, 
there is also a ME. dgre {dggre) with lengthened vowel, probably 
from OE. dor, or some such form with instead of «. OE. eo 



becomes u after w sometimes, as in wurpen ' become/ wurj>^ wurpl 
•worthy'; cf. § 21. So OF. «/ becomes u occasionally as '\n frut 
' fruit/ fruiesf§re * fruiterer/ and in unstressed syllables u (beside 
2* § 23) as in biscut (cf. §§ 61, 70). 

28. Forms with u beside those with 1, from OE. j/, probably 
depend upon OE. forms with u beside others with mutation. Ex- 
amples are cluster, OE. cluster, clyster ; hrustel beside bristil^ hluscen 
' blush/ clucchen * clutch/ dull {doll) beside dt'll ' dull/ rusche beside 
rische {rase he) * rush/ mukel{Sxh, muchet) beside mikel, shuttel beside 
schitel 'shuttle.' In other cases analogy accounts for a form with 
u instead of ^, as hungren influenced by the noun hunger, sundry 
by the adjective sunder. 

Note. — Early Midland and the dialects agree in general. From this u (OE., 
ON., OF. u) is to be separated of course Sth. ii from OE. y, as already ex-. 
plained under ME. /, § 33, n. 2. The writing of for u, as above, is not fonnd 
in early Midland, as the * Chronicle ' and Orm, and not until the last half of the 
twelfth century even in Sth. From the middle of the thirteenth century it 
becomes common. 


29. Middle English a, with the sound of ^ m art, is limited 
in its occurrence, so far as Teutonic words are concerned, by the 
change of OE., ON. ^ to ^, § 41. Long a results from the length- 
ening of OE. and ON. short a under various conditions, and fre- 
quently appears in French words under similar circumstances. 
Its sources are as follows : 

1. OE. a when lengthened, as in dale, gate, blade, name, gdmen 

* game, sport.' 

2. ON. a when lengthened, as in taken ' take,' ddsen ' daze.' 

3. OF. a when lengthened, as in /dee, grdce, pldce, age, pdle 


30. The lengthening of the older shorts occurs in open syllables 
(cf. § 73), or in OE. monosyllables with final consonant, most of 
which assumed in ME. an inorganic, final e. By reason of the 
latter change the unstressed syllable became open, and the a vowel 


subject to the lengthening which affected syllables originally open. 
OE. a before certain consonant combinations which caused length- 
ening in late OE., when remaining long, had of course become 
ME. g, as in the case of original a. 

Note. — The dialects agree. In Nth. this newly lengthened a fell in with 
a from 0£. (§ 43, n. 2). In INth. a is often written at {ay), as noted nnder 
§ 7, n. 2, and still later (the early fifteenth century) at from whatever source 
sometimes shows monophthonging to a^ as travdle from travaile, 

31. Middle English /, written e^ or later especially ee^ represents 
two different sounds, which are of different origin and are, in 
general, kept distinct throughout the period. The first of these, 
called open e and often designated at the present time by a tag 
below (/), had the sound of the vowel in there^ care, bear. The 
second, called close /, had the sound of e in they, or of the first 
element when they is pronounced with a diphthong. The dialectal 
differences, which are especially important in the case of these 
two /s, will be noted, as usual, under each of them. There are, 
in addition, occasional interchanges of sounds naturally so much 
alike, as shown by rimes, but these are probably due to dialectal- 
confusion or the same poetic licence that is sometimes found in 
Modern English. 

32. Middle English open e (/) develops from : 

1. OE. a (Merc, e sometimes) by /-mutation of Teut. ai, ea 

(except WS. ea before r, h, g\ and when lengthened e and 
/ by /-mutation of a, or ea : OE. & as in d§l * deal,' hfen 
' heal,' kpe ' heat ' ; OE. ea as in djd ' dead,' df/ ' deaf/ 
I^d Mead,' d^m *beam,' hfved *head'; OE. e as in broken 

* break,' dp^en *bear'; OE. / as in s/^de 'stead,' ^/ren 
' swear ' ; OE.,ea as in ^rd * dwelling-place,' /r« * eagle/ 

2. ON. a by /-mutation of Teut. at\ and when lengthened e, or 

/ by /-mutation of a : ON. a as in g^ien * guard,' k^en 

* mock ' ; ON. / as in nfve * fist,' sk^ren (beside skerren) 

* scare.' 


3. OF. / before /, AN. / by monophthonging of at, et\ and OF. e 
when lengthened : OF. // as in naiurf ' natural,' condicionp 
* conditional ' ; AN. / from ai as in trjsbn ' treason/ rpdn 
' reason/ pp ' peace/ pe * t2iSt* /^ils ' shapely ' ; AN. / from 
et as in dp *dais/ encrp ' increase ' ; OF. e as in dpfe ' beast/ 
y^s/e * feast/ 

33.' The principal sources of ML / are OE. e of whatever origin 
when lengthened in open syllables (§ 73), OM. a, ea though far 
less common than WS. ^, ea, and OF. or AN. /. In a few cases 
OM, close e seems to have become open /, though the exact cir- 
cumstances under which this occurs are not easily made out, 
owing to the uncertainty as to certain rimes in long e. Thus, 
while keeping apart ME. open and close / as a rule, a poet may 
have allowed himself occasional impure rimes, as in every period 
of English. Less careful poets no doubt did this more frequently, 
so that it is impossible to formulate a principle except from a 
considerable number of cases in more than a single poet. Besides 
the rimes there is also Orm's significant use of <f (=/) for certain 
words with OM. e. From this and from rimes it seems likely that 
OM. / gave / after w, /, and r, as in wp ' wet,' Wfpen (later wepen) 
'weapon/ Iphen 'cure,' rjden 'read, advise/ But not all such 
words, especially not all in which Orm uses cb, can have had 
open / in all cases in ME. The practice of this book is to rest 
the probable quality on the usual development of the OM. sounds, 
especially when confirmed by later English, though recognizing 
the possible variation in well established cases. Thus OE. ^ from 
Teut. at seems to give ME. e (beside /) when final, as in se * sea.' 
Similarly the AN. / from at, ei before r becomes ME. e (beside /), 
as in poer * power,' dubonere ' debonair/ gramer * grammar.' 

34. The AN. monophthonging of ai, et took place especially 
before s, t, d, v, s + cons., a palatal 4- liquid cons., and sometimes 
before r. Even under such conditions diphthongic forms some- 
times appear, as aise * ease ' beside pe. 

Note i. — In early Midland the digraph a was still used for open f, as in the 

_„ l^ 


* Chronicle' s^ * sea,' ar ' ere,' avre ' ever/ Onn also regularly uses the digraph 
for open f, as in sa ' sea,* hct^e * heat/ from OE. a, and in li^/* dcAfjJlat * floated,' 
&c., from 0£. /a, as well as for OM. ^sometimes; see § 33. 

Note 2. — All the dialects agree, in general, with the usage above indicated. 
Early Sth. sometimes has ta, probably a digraph rather than a diphthong, and a 
beside f. Sth., however, except Kentish and early Sth., has a much larger 
proportion of open ^ sounds from WS. a, ea. Thus Sth. open ^ springs from 
the following sources, in addition to the above : 

WS. ^, Gothic /, as in blren * bore.' 

WS. ea by influence of preceding palatal cons., as in g^r * year,' glfen 
' gave,' ph 

WS. ea before palatal e, g, h^ as in hlh ' high,' ^ * eye.' 

WS. ea (/fl) before /+ cons., as in A^lde(n), Ml. ApIde{n)<,OM. hdldan. 
Kentish and eastern Sth., together with a small district in the extreme north of 
middle Sth., agree with Midland and Nth. in the main. On the other hand, 
Kentish has ea^ya^yea for OE. ea, the first element being a close e, sometimes 
even f. Kentish also has sometimes te beside e for WS. to^ eo, 

35. Middle English close / is the development of: 

1. OE. Cy e by /-mutation of d, eo, and e or eo when lengthened in 

late Old English : OE. i as in her * here ' ; OE. i from as 
in grine * green,' seken ' seek,* beche * beech,'y?/ * feet ' ; OE. 
eo as in he *bee,' sen 'see/ ire 'tree,' dire 'dear'; OE. 
e, eo as in /eld ' field,' scheld ' shield,' ende ' end/ erj^e 
' earth.' 

2. OM. e cognate with various WS. sounds : OM. e (WS. ^, 

Goth. /) as in dire ' bier,' even ' evening,' deren pt. pi. of 
dfren * bear,' jir {gir) ' year,' ^iven * gave ' ; 0^1. i (WS. 
io, ia before OE. Cyg, h) as m flejen-flih ' fly-flew/ sec * sick,' 
hih * high,' nih * nigh ' ; OM. e (WS. te by /-mutation of ia), 
iOy as in heren * hear, obey,' nid * need/ s/eren ' steer ' ; 
OM. i from earlier <? (WS. te, late /^ by /-mutation of ia) as 
in ilde ' eld,' ^rz;^ ' heritage,' dime ' secret.' 

3. ON. /, f by /-mutation of 0, and tu {to) : ON. e as in sir 

* several ' ; ON. f as in sieh ' sly,' /ere * power,' ipen * cry, 
call' (cogn. OE. wipan 'weep'); ON. tu {to) as in mik 

* meek,* ski/ * soon.' 

4. OF. i, and AN, ^ by monophthonging of OF. te, ue, some- 



times of ai, ei (ieti) : OF. e as in degre * degree/ comper 

* compeer/ proceden * proceed ' ; AN. e from te as in gref 

* grief/ pice * piece,' manire * manner/ acheven ' achieve ' ; 
AN. ^ from ue as in de/'heefy peple 'people/ miven *move'; 
AN. e from at\ ei (Jeu) sometimes, as in gramer * grammar/ 
pber ^ i^wtr,^ parde < OF. par dieu. 

36. While the sources of close e seem so various, they resolve 
themselves into a much smaller number if we consider the charac- 
teristic phonology of the Mercian dialect, in which this sound was 
especially frequent as compared with West Saxon. In fact the 
sources of far the larger number of words may be summed up as 
OM. e, eo, e in late lengthenings, corresponding, however, to various 
WS. vowels, as /, eOy ct, ea^ early and late le (y). To these must 
be added the important OF. sources, from which come many . 
words, and the less important ON. contingent. 

37. The variation between ME. open and close ^has been noted 
in § 33. A few words with OE. to show instead of e in Middle 
English by reason of a shifting of stress and absorption of the first 
element of the diphthong. Examples are OE. hio *she' which 
gives ^^<? (^J, ho) beside he (Sth. he^ ha), and OE. seo * she ' which 
gives scho {sho) beside sche {she). Similarly jode (INth. jude) from 
OE. geiode, and iorfower, trowen see § 60. For words with ei from 
AN. e <C ie see § 53. To the AN. monophthongs of ai, ei may be 
added verre (OF. verat), and mone (OF. moneie), beside the more 
common forms. Monophthonging in originally stressed syllables 
which have lost the stress are exemplified by suden {suden) * sudden.' 
Besides forms with e from AN. e (OF. ue) occur others with (cf. 
§ 45). In unstressed syllables this e becomes short, as in ceveren, 
beside coverettj keverchef^ * kerchief.' Certain Romance words with 
e {ee) beside («>) forms (cf. § 53) depend upon Central French 
forms with e {ei) beside AN. eie. Examples which belong here 
are cunire {conire) * country,' jortie 'journey.' In the case of ME. 
dejen {deien) * die ' the word may be from an OE. source, rather 
than from the ON. word with fy reduced to e (cf. § 52). For ME. e 


for AN. ^ ( < OF. ue), by shortening in originally unstressed syl- 
lables, cf. § 20. 

^OTK I. — In early Midland eo is occasionally used for OE. (Merc.) ^ or eo, as 
in * Chronicle ' Z^^/^^^'^^^*^ {OE. /irele) 'went forth, died,' deffvles {OE.deofles) 
* devils,' preostes (OE. preostes) * priests.' Orm also sometimes uses eo for OE, 
«?, as in prSost 'priest.' It is probable, however, that this was rather 
traditional spelling in his time than the representation of a real diphthong. 

Note 3. — Nth. agrees with Midland except for ei (ey) written for e (§ 7, 
n. 2). Sth. differs in a number of important respects owing to a different 
development from older West Saxon and Kentish. Middle and western Sth., 
the old West Saxon district, shows the following peculiarities : 

^ [fl> seldom w, rarely j, for WS. ie by i-mutation of ^ or a before / or 

r + cons., or ofea, eo not before a palatal cons. 
e or ?, seldom w, for WS. U after a palatal cons. 
Kentish and eastern Sth. differ from Midland and Sth. in having : 

e from WS. y, for WS. a of whatever origin, and for WS. te after a 

palatal cons. 
ia, ya^ yea (close e with obscure second element), for WS. ea before / or 

r + cons. 
u beside e for WS. to, eo by u or ^mutation. 
The Katherine group, representing the northern part of middle Sth., agrees 
with Midland in having e for WS. a = Gothic e, but e, ea for Ml. a before r in 
unstressed words ; also e for WS. ie by ^'-mutation of ea and eo. In addition it 
has : 

a for WS. ea before /+ cons. 

eay X, 2 (open or close e) for WS. ie by /-mutation of ea before / or 

i for WS. ie by /-mutation of the eo breaking. 

38. Middle English J, with the sound of i in machine^ corre- 
sponds in Teutonic words to older l and \.oy by /-mutation of 5. 
In addition to these two principal sources it occurs in many words 
of French origin. Like short /, as already noted (§ 22), it is 
written I or y, with a growing tendency toward y in late Middle 
English. In detail the origin of ME. i is as follows : 

I. OE. ly y by /-mutation of w, and / ox y when lengthened; 
OE. I as in wis * wise,' /i/' * life,' /ive * five,' wriien * write ' ; 
OE.^ as in drid * bride,' /ijfde ' hide,'//r 'fire' ; OE. /as in 
wild, child, /tnden ' find ' ; OE. j' as in iind ' kind.' 


2. ON. I, J» by /-mutation of u; ON. / as in tipende 'tidings/ 

priven 'thrive'; ON.^ as in siU (jf/) 'pain/ -hi in Grimesbt 
* town/ 

3. OF. i when lengthened, as in crien ' cr}'/ /rfw^ ' prime/ deUt 

' delight/ ^f3/tf ' Bible/ 

39. There seems to be no evidence of lengthening of ON. i^y 
in Middle English, such words as skinden 'hasten/ kindkn 'kindle' 
preserving their short vowels. This would perhaps indicate that 
such words entered the language after the OE, lengthening before 
nd had taken place, though the examples are too few to make this 
certain. In a few cases OF. et becomes / in a syllable which loses 
principal stress, as zverrien * make war/ falling in with OF. verbs in 
ter (ME. ten sometimes) as carryen * carry.' 

Note i. — Early Midland shows no special peculiarities. 

Note 3. — Nth. agrees with Midland. Sth., which preserves the older 
mutated sound of j/ as already mentioned (§ 11 , n. 2)1 used for it ti {ut) under the 
influence of French orthography. Examples are hiiren {huireri) * hire,* fur 
{fuyr) * firtj^kfifen ' make known.' With this u from OE. y in Sth. also fell in, 
in some cases, a French u, with the sound of u in French lune to-day. This 
was easily possible owing to the similarity of the two sounds in Sth., but in 
Midland, which had not preserved the older mutated sound of OE. J, this 
French u finally associated itself with the diphthong eu {tu) ; see § 60. ,As 
already noted under close ^ (§ 37, n. 2), Kentish has i for OE. y in accordance 
with older Kentish. 

40. Middle English ^, like ME. ^, represents two different sounds 
of different origin and development. The first, open designated 
by g, had the sound of in lord. The second, close 0, was pro- 
nounced like in no, or like the first element when no is pro- 
nounced with a diphthong. These two sounds are usually kept 
apart in Middle English rimes, and in general have maintained 
a separate development to Modern English. 

41. Middle English open {p) springs from : 

I. OE. a, and when lengthened p from a before a nasal or ^ in. 
open syllables : OE. a as in /p *toe,' p/^e *oath,' sfpn 'stone'; 
OE. p as in Ipng *long,' strpng, spng) OE. in hpse * hose, 
trousers,' ppke ' bag,'/r^/f 'throat,' be/pre (bi/pre) ' before.' 


2. OM. a (WS. ea, ea) from a before Id, as in pld, dpld, 


3. ON. dj and when lengthened ^ from <7 + nasal, or in open 

syllables : ON. J as in Igte * countenance/ 3r^^ * violent/ 
r^/<?« ' counsel, explain ' ; ON. a as in wrgng, wgnd * rod ' ; 
ON. as in bgle * stem of a tfee/ j^^r^ * score.' 

4. OF. when lengthened in open syllables, and AN. 4- r/<? (OF. 

oi're) : OF. (? as in rgse, ngble, resigren ' restore ' ; AN. (^r/i? 
as in glgrie {glgry)^ sigrU {s/gry), memgrie * memory.' 

42. The principal sources of ME. open g are OE. a, and when 
lengthened in open syllables OE., OF. 0. Special note should be 
taken of the small group of words with OM. a from a before Idy 
since WS. forms could not possibly account for the MnE. words 
oldy boldy &c. In the few possible cases OE. dy preceded by a 
cons. + Wy early developed {< g) under the influence of zv, as in 
/wo * two,' swopen ' swoop.' Preceding w alone did not affect the 
change (cf. Hempl, 'Jour, of Germ. Phil.' I, 14). In the case of 
sg which seems to have open g more commonly in Midland, we 
may perhaps assume a late OE. sd with loss of w, 

43. In § 18 attention was called to -certain words with ME. ^, 
eME. ^(see the strong preterits like bgren *bore'), where we expect 
Ml. e (OM. e, WS. ^). These may possibly represent an OM. d 
beside e or from e, may be due to analogy or to Norse influence, 
such forms having d in Old Norse. Norse influence certainly 
seems probable, though see the discussion in Bjorkman, *Scand. 
Loan-words in Mid. Eng.,' p. 84. 

Note i. — In early Midland OE. a often remains as in ' Chronicle ' S^es * oaths,' 
stdnes 'stones.' Orm, too, writing in northeast Midland not far from the 
northern border, has a regularly as in Nth. From the beginning of the 
thirteenth century g was the rule. 

Note 2.— In Nth., as already noticed (§ 5), OE. d remained d through the 
period and is thus a distinguishing feature of that dialect. In early Sth,, a is still 
written, though beside ^, oa {ad). From the thirteenth century g {pd) are 
regular, as in ' Ancren Riwle.' The change of ^ to J after cons. + w, noted above 
for Midland, was very late in Sth., probably not taking place until 1400. 



44. Middle English close 3 springs from : 

1. OE. 3, or 3 from before certain consonant combinations; 

OE. 3 as in dom * doom/ g3d ' good/ c3k * cook ' ; OE. as 
in gold^ lord, ward. 

2. ON. 3 as in b3ne * prayer, boon/ 3^^ * booth/ cr3k * crook.' 

3. OF. 3 (AN. «), rarely, AN. 3 from OF. ue sometimes : OF. 

3 as in irp3n * treason,' har3ny condicion ; OF. as in /^z^r^ 
(/Jr^) ^ poor/ /ol 'fool'; AN. J from ue as in m3ven *move/ 
proven 'prove/ dolen * grieve,' /^^Z?* people/ 

45. OF. words in 3, especially before n, beside AN. forms with 

u (cf § 46) are common in early Middle English. Forms with AN o 

from OF. ue, by monophthonging, occur beside those with e alreadj' 

noted (§ 35). In unstressed syllables this AN. 3 becomes 0, as in 

coveren 'cover.' 

Note i. — Early Midland and the dialects agree in general. In late Nth. 
this sound is frequently written m, indicating a change in the direction of 
French eu in/eu, the sound of Scotch u in gude ' good.' 

46. Middle English «, with the sound of the vowel in 3oof, is 
found in words from all sources. Under the influence of French 
spelling it is often written ou {ozv)^ but this orthography never 
indicates a diphthong in the case of this vowel. The sources of 
ME. u are : 

1. OE. u, and u when lengthened : OE. ii as in /ui ' foul,' kus 

* house,' ou/, loud, how ; OE. u as in wunde * wound,' 
grund {ground) ' ground.' 

2. ON. u, and u when lengthened : ON. u as in 3un * ready, 

prepared,' MnE. ' bound,' sku/en * project,' drupen * droop ' ; 
ON. u as in liind * nature, disposition.' 

3. AN. u as in croune * crown/ dmte ' doubt,' avowen * avow,' 

mount, acount, flour ^^o\itT^ precious. 

Note i. — Early Midland has no special peculiarity, except that u is never 
written with French ou, but regularly with the English symbol. 

Note 2. — There is general agreement in the dialects with regard to ME. u. 
In the thirteenth century the French ou came to be used for ME. u first in Sth., 
where it was especially necessary to distinguish this sound from u (Ji) for OE. 




^, Later it spread to other dialects, and in late "Middle English became the 
rule. For Sth., in the earlier period especially, ME. u must be carefully 
separated from « (u) for OE. y. For Sth. u from French «, with the sound in 
French iune, see §10, footnote. 


47. As has been shown (§ 3), the OE. diphthongs became 
monophthongs in Middle English. Their place was supplied by 
certain new diphthongs formed from certain combinations of OE. 
vowels and following consonants. The change probably began in 
late Old English, and was certainly completed in the early Middle 
English period. The formation of the new diphthongs follows the 
accompanying scheme : 

1. An OE. palatal vowel, <l, e^ ta, eo-\-2i palatal h or g became 

ai\ eu 

2. An OE. guttural vowel, a, ^+ guttural h px g became au, m^ 

3. An OE. palatal vowel, J, /, m^ eb, t + w^ and occasionally 

mediaiy (i. e. v) when developing into w, became eu, 

4. An OE. guttural vowel, a, o + w, and occasionallyyas above, 

became au, ou, 

48. As the vowels of these formulae were long or short, tw^ sets 
of diphthongs resulted in the earliest period. This is proveii by 
the orthography of Orm, who doubles the second element of the 
diphthong in all cases when the first is short. On the other hand, 
long and short diphthongs were not otherwise distinguished in their 
written form or in their later development, so that they need not in 
general be separated. A more essential distinction, especially in 
the ou diphthongs, is the quality of the first element, which was 
either open or close according as it developed from OE. a and o^ 
or from OE. 0. Even these can be distinguished only by knowing 
their origin in Old English. The diphthongs naturally developed 
most readily in the case of a following ze;, as in souky OE. sawle 
' soul,' growen, OE. grdwan ' grow.' They next appear when g (h) 
are final, medial between vowels, or between vowel and voiced con- 
sonant, as in satde, OE. scegde ' said,' drawen, OE. dragan ' draw/ 



Only occasionally do they appear from a vowel and a medialy^ {v), 
as in hawk, OE. ha/oc * hawk.' Before OE. ht, sometimes before 
final or medial h when still preserved, a parasitic i or u developed 
in later ME., as in etghte ' eight,* draught ' draught,' nought, wrought, 
and these diphthongs have usually had a somewhat different 
development from others* Diphthongs are also occasionally formed 
by the development of a parasitic vowel before other palatal con- 
sonants than h and^, a§ in bleinte, OE. blende 'blenched,' meinde, 
OE. mengde 'mingled,' aische, OE. asce 'ashes,' fleisch, OY., ftmc 
' flesh.' 

49. To these diphthongs of OE. origin must be added some 
from other languages, especially Danish and French. These 
usually associated themselves with those of English origin, as will 
be seen from the following sections, but in the case of OF. oi (ui) 
a new diphthong was added to the language. 

Note. — When it is said above that the OE. diphthongs became monoph- 
thongs in Middle English, it should be remembered that in Kentish the older 
diphthongs were preserved to a late period. These have been noted already 
under § 37, n. 2. The consonants g and h do not immediately disappear on 
the formation of the diphthong, which is probably due to the formation of 
a pasgsitic vowel before the consonant. This accounts for such forms as deigen 
* die,'in * Gen. and Ex.' The consonant h appears especially when in conjunction 
with /. For a late monophthonging of ei and ou sometimes, see §§ 54, 69. 

50. Middle English ai^ in the earliest times, had the sound of 
the diphthong in high. As ai came to rime with ei in late ME., its 
pronunciation probably assumed the sounds a (as in man)'\'Z in 
the course of its development. It springs from : 

1. OE. cBg, as in dai (day), mai {may) * may,' sayde ' said.' 

2. ON. ag (jg) rarely, as in gainen (ON. gagna\ kairlzc (Orm 

kajjerr/ejjc)if from Norse kfgur as Brate*Nord.Lehnworter/ 
p. 46. 

3. OF. ai, as in payment, paien 'satisfy, pay,' bitraien 'betray.* 

51. Attention has been called to the development before OE. ht, 
no diphthong appearing as early as in other cases. In mijt, nijt, 
OE. (Merc.) mceht, nceht, i resulted from the influence of the 


following palatal. There could therefore be no diphthongization 
in these cases. OF. et appears as at from the twelfth century, so 
that the number of at forms is considerably increased in this way. 

Note i. — In early Midland the first element of the diphthong is written a or 
a, and the last element ^sometimes. Thns the * Chronicle ' has flfei {^a^) * day.' 
Orm writes da)) ' day/ ma)) * may,' in accordance with his usual spelling of 
the diphthong. He also has mahht^ nahht^ ' might, night.' In ' Genesis and 
Exodus ' migty nigt appear beside magt^ nagt. 

Note 2. — INth. a/ becomes d (§ 30, n. 1). Early Sth. has ei for Midland 
and Nth. ai, as in dei^^oy,* mei ' may/ in accordance with its usual use of e 
for OK a, Sth. also developed the diphthong ei before ht, sometimes h, much 
earlier than the other dialects, as in eihie * eight.' 

52. Middle English €i\ with the sound oie-{-t\ comes from: 

1. OE. egy or ^g from ag, ag from Teut. aigy and eg from og by 

/-mutation: OE. eg as in wei (wey) 'way/ piet'en *play'; 
OE. £g as in etje {ete) *fear, awe ' ; OE. ^g as iny^/V * fay/ 
clet *clay/ kei 'key'; OE. ^ as m feien 'join/ wreien 
' accuse/ 

2. OM. eg corresponding to various WS. vowels : OM. eg (WS. 

ctg, Goth, eg^ as in gret{y) ' gray ' ; OM. eg (WS. eag, eog) 
as in fleien ' fly/ dreten ' endure ' ; OM. eg (WS. teg by 
/-mutation of eag) as in beien ' bend.' 

3. ON. ei{cBt\ and ^y {ey) by /-mutation of Teut. au : ON. « as 

in reisen ' raise/ beiien ' bait//«* ' they ' ; ON. fy (ey) as in 
ay * aye/ cairen * go, return/ /rat's/ * strong, confident.' 

4. AN. ei as in preien 'prey/ sireit 'strait,' peinten 'paint,' 

kweynte ' quaint,' aqueyntaunce, 

53. While these sources seem to be various they are, in reality, 
very few. Thus ME. ei springs from OE. (Merc.) eg {(£g) from 
whatever source. The principal foreign sources are ON. and OF. 
« diphthongs, which are responsible for a considerable number oiei 
words. In a few native words ei develops from e under the in- 
fluence of a following palatal consonant or consonant combination. 
Here belong j^<fw^ beside y?^jr^ (OE.^^jr) 'flesh/ weisch {wet's) 
beside zvesch ' wash,' leincte beside lengien (lenien) ' spring,' bleincie 


{bletnie) < hlencen * blench,* drdncte {dreinie) < drencen ' drench.* 
Some AN. words have a diphthong et {e\ {at) where OF. forms 
have e (ee); examples are con/raze {con/ray) 'country,' jorneie 
{jornay) 'journey.' Cf. § 37. In the case of words with OE. 
^g by /-mutation of Teut. atg (see i above), we should expect ME. 
ai by early shortening of ce. Either this did not take place in the 
few words belonging here, or more probably the open ^ quality 
was changed to close e under the influence of the following g. In 
a few cases ei {ey) springs from AN. e (OF. te) as maynteynen 
' maintain,' susteynen * sustain,' perhaps by analogy of words ending 
in ei(ai)n€, for example atteinen * attain.' Beside AN. forms in 
ei^ai) occur cognates from Central French in oi\ see § 64. 

54. For early confusion between OF. « and ai words see § 51. 
ON. words with ^y also usually appear in Middle English with ai, 
perhaps indicating early change of quality from ei to ai. There is 
a tendency in late ME. to confuse all e{% and a{^ as already noted 
under ai (§ 50). This is shown even as early as Chaucer, who 
sometimes rimes ei and ai. Besides, ME. «, more especially in the 
southeast Midland as shown by Chaucer's usage, occasionally 
becomes a monophthong 1, by palatalization of the first element 
and contraction. Examples are flien ' fly,' drien ' endure,' dien 
{dyeti) ' die,' sye 'saw.' A similar change took place in late Middle 
English in such words as ^igh, neigh, sleight, by which they 
acquired the long t which later became the Modern English 
diphthong ai. 

Note i. — Early Midland has ei, as in * Chronicle' eie * awe,' OE. ege, Orm 
writes e)^ for H, ej for H in accordance with his usual orthography. 

Note a. — Nth. writes ai even in the earliest texts (last half of the thirteenth 
century) for ei (except for ei from OE. ^(/0)» as in fai * they,' ay 'aye,' raise, 
pray ' ^rey* paint, Ei from OE. ig{h) does not become * in Nth. ; cf. Scotch 
dee, ee, *die, eye.' In INth. ei became /. Sth. does not differ from Midland, 
except that the palatalization oiei, from eg, to f does not seem to occur. 

55. Middle English au, a diphthong with the pronunciation of 
that in house, is of common occurrence in both native and foreign 
words. In general it develops from OE. a + w ox g when final or 


medial in voiced company, while it also appears in many words 
borrowed from Old French. In detail, its sources are : 

1 . OE. aw or eaw, aw or eaw when shortened, and rarely qfo 

{ea/o) by vocalization ofy(=z;): OE. aw or eaw as in 
clawe t claw/ raw^ straw y awel * awl ' ; OE. dw or eaw as in 
iawen (OE. idwian^ perhaps iawian) * prepare/ aunen, 
taunm (OE. *eawman * (Bteawnian) ' show ' ; OE. afo {ea/o) 
as in hauk (OE. hea/oc, ha/oc) * hawk/ nauger (OE. na/ogar) 
' auger/ and OE. afl as in craulen (OE. craflian) ' crawl/ 

2. OE. ag, ahhy and ahi^ or when shortened dht {cehf) : OE. ag 

as in drawen (t2x\\<ti drdjen) * draw/ gnawen 'gnaw'; or 
ahh, as in lau^hen * laugh/ /aw^/^ * laughed ' ; OE. dhi {cehf) 
as in auhie {aujte) * aught/ iauhie {taugte^ tau^te^ iaujhie) 
' taught.' 

3. ON. ag as in lawe Maw/ awe^/elawe 'fellow.' 

4. OF. auy as in cause , pause, applauden 'applaud/ assault, 

56. As already noted the diphthongs which develop from ag (h) 
appear later than those from aw (cf. § 48). In Romance words, au 
from OF. a before a nasal + cons, (except nk and « + the stop g) 
appears in Middle English from the thirteenth century. The exact 
quality of this sound is not clear, but it seems not to have been 
a strict diphthong like OF. au, and was more probably an open 
sound like that of OE. g from a before a nasal, varying with a as 
the interchangeable orthography would indicate. Its development 
during the period is different under different circumstances. It 
falls in with ME. a as in sample, champion^ chance^ branch, and in 
unstressed syllables as servant, countenance) with ME. d as in 
chamber, chdnge, danger, grdnge, strange ; and with ME. au or ou 
before ht as in daunt, vaunt, paunch, staunch^ lawn with loss of final 
d, A similar au appears from OF. ave before a nasal, as in aunter 
beside aventure ' venture, adventure, '/araww/^r, probably launder e 
'laundress.' Cf. Behrens, 'Franz. Sprache in- England/ p. 77, 
Luick, * Anglia,' XVI, 479 f. 

Note i . — In early Midland, as in the other dialects, the change ofgtow 


had not been carried ont. Thus Orm writes dra)henn for OE. dragon ' draw/ 
la)Ae * law.* The change was not completed, perhaps, until the beginning of 
the fourteenth century. 

Note 2. — In early Sth., OE. g, which became vocalized to w, was written A, 
as in drahen * draw/ but the diphthongic change was completed by the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, as in * Ancren Riwle ' drawen ' dra^.' In Kentish, 
however, a) for OEl. ag- is found as late as the middle of the fourteenth century ; 
cf. * Ayenbite of Inwit.' The earliest Nth. texts, the last half of the thirteenth 
century, also show the change complete. In Nth. before ht{hh) no au diphthong 
develops, but the au diphthong is otherwise increased by the addition of au 
from OE. aWf dgy since in Nth. OE. J remained <^ (§§ 5, 43, n. 3). In Kentish 
also, OE. dw frequently remained dw^ beside ou^ and only later iiilly developed 
ou in all cases. 

57. Middle English eu {ew) represents two slightly diflferent 
sounds as the first element was open or close e. This gave a 
slightly different pronunciation to the two through the period, but 
they became one in early Modem English, when the first element 
of each had assumed the sound of /'. 

58. Middle English eu, with the sound of open e + u as in /bol, 
has its principal sources in OE. e {eo)j or ^ {ea) + w. In detail 
these are as follows : 

1. OE. ew {eow), px) {jow) from Teut. aw by /-mutation, ^w, ecciv, 

are rarely ef (^=ev): OE. ew {eow) as in sewen 'sew'; 
OE. fU) (jow) as in ewe ; OE. aw as in mew * sea bird,' 
lewed {lewd) ' lay, lewd ' ; OE. eow as in dew, hewen * hew,' 
fewe 'few ' ; OE. ^as in ewte (OE. efete) * newt.' 

2. OF. eau in originally unstressed syllables as in heaute (fieute) 

* beauty,' lewie ' loyalty.' 

Note i . — In early Midland OE. aw {Saw) was written ceu (w), as in * Chronicle ' 
fctu *■ few,' Orm dcew * dew,' shawen * show.' The consistent use of a for OE. 
a {ea) shows that the first element of the diphthong was still long. 

Note 2. — Nth. does not differ from Midland. Early Sth. has ea niany 
times, as sh€auiw)en * show,' leawede ' lewd.' Kentish also has ea {yed) for 
OE. ea\ see § 34, n. 2. 

59. Middle English eu, with the sounds of close e-^-u {fool), has 
its principal sources in OE. eow, OM. ew {eow), less conunonly 
OE. m and OF. diphthongs of similar quality. It springs from : 


1. OE. eow, sometimes iw: OE. eow, as in ew {yezv) *yew/ 

hrewen * rue/ chewen * chew/ brewen ' brew/ ^w^ze; * knew/ 
grew ' grew ' ; OE. zw, as in steward beside earlier sHward^ 
Tewesdat beside Tiwesdai ' Tuesday/ 

2. OM. ew i^eow) corresponding to different WS. diphthongs : 

OM. ew (WS. aw^ Goth. ew\ as in hilewen * betray ' ; OM. 
eow (WS. lew, iw by /-mutation of eow\ as in ^«:e;<? ' hue/ 
«^Z£;<f * new ' ; OM. eow (WS. iw\ as in spewen ' spew/ 
clewen * ball of thread, clue.' 

3. OF. ^« (ieti)i and sometimes a^, i5?/*: OF. eu {ten), as in Jew 

* Jew/ HebreWj sewen * sue/ curfew, rewle ' rule ' ; OF. w, 
especially when final or before a vowel, as in vi'r/ew * virtue,' 
crezvel * cruel ' ; OF. iii rarely, as in frewie * fruit,' seu/e 
' suit.' 

60. Here belong many preterits of reduplication verbs with OE. 
eow, as hew * hewed,' &c. To these, in later English, a few were 
added by analogy, as dre7v, slew, ME. drok {drou), sloh {slou). 
Words with OE. iw were largely reduced in number for Mercian 
by their appearance in that dialect with eow» Perhaps on this 
account early ME. stiward becomes steward, OF. words with 
U (fit) sometimes show a like phonology. On the other hand, 
words with ME. eu from OF. eu {teu) sometimes have iu beside eu, 
as in riwk * \x\t' Juus=.J\ues, Beside forms with eu [pv) OE. eow 
gives cw sometimes, by absorption of the first element of the 
diphthong, as in trowen 'trust, believe/ trow^ (Jrouthe) * truth,' 
fower * four.' In ME. ou {ow, jou) * you ' OE. eow has become u, \ 
perhaps earlier ou as a diphthong. 

Note i. — In early Midland, OE. eow is sometimes written beside the new 
diphthong. Thus Orm writes neowe * beside,' newe * new.' 

Note 2. — Early Sth. preserves eo, as in treowe * true,' in accordance with 
§ 37, n. I. Otherwise the dialects are in general agreement with Midland. 

61. Middle English lu is rare in native words and later falls in 
with eu (see above). That it developed in later ME. limes from 
OF. ii {ill) when lengthened is certain (cf. Luick, * Anglia,' XIV, 287)* 


How early this came about depends upon the question how far 
OF. ii was adopted in its purity in Middle English (cf. §10, foot- 
note). We shall here assume that OF. « {Hi) were diphthongal 
from the first, or practically so. Middle English tu has therefore 
the following origin : 

1. OE. Z7V as in siiward, later steward, Ttwesntjht * Tuesday 


2. OF. u and ut (AN. ii sometimes) : OF. ii as in rude, huge, 

usen * use/ accusen * accuse/ pursuen * pursue/ nature, m^sure 
' measure/ duk ' duke/ pur ' pure/ vertu * virtue ' ,' OF. Hi 
(AN. ii sometimes) as in /rut {/ruit), sute {suite), anui 

* annoy/ nuisance, 

62. Confusion with the ME. diphthong eu has been noted under 
that combination. OF. ui also becomes oi as in the following 
section. On the other hand some words with ew appear with iu {tw) 
as riwle * rule/ or, in unstressed syllables, u (s=i'w?) as in construe(n) 

* construe/ Sth. asunzen * excuse.' 

Note. — In Nth. and NWMl. OF. H sometimes becomes «, as in ZouJk 

* Luke,' regularly in the ending ure, as armour * armor.' 

63. Middle English oi, with the sound of the diphthong in coy 
but with close as the first element, is almost exclusively of romance 
origin. It springs from : 

OF. oi (i.e. pi), oi (AN. ui, sometimes «*), and AN. oi+I, n. 
(OF. 6) : OF. oi, as in joie * joy,' choice, cloister, noise ; OF. 
oi (AN. ui), as in destroien * destroy,' Trqye ' Troy,' vois 

* voice,' crois * cross,' moiste * moist ' ; OF. oi (AN. ei some- 
times), as in quoynte {coint) * happy, gay,' quointise ' skill,' 
point, enointen {anointen) ' anoint,' Joint, coin ; AN. oi+ 1, n 
(OF. 0), as in soile ' soil,' spoilen * spoil,' despoilen ' despoil,' 
oilfjoinen *join,' Burgoine, 

64. Attention has already been called to AN. ei {ai) for OF. oi 
in some words, accounting for such MnE. forms as acquaint, quaint. 
Nth. aquynt ' acquainted ' shows monophthonging of AN. ei. Beside 
forms with t?/ from w/ may be mentioned the i2jQ/roit, ht^idQ fruit 


(^fruf) * fruit.' WE, jewel ijtiel, jouel) has perhaps been influenced 
by OF. y«, jeu ' game.' ME. doi'e * boy ' is certainly of ultimate 
Teutonic origin, and possibly from an unrecorded OF. word. In 
broidm^ pret. pi. and pp. of OE. hregdan^ oi develops naturally 
perhaps from OE. og before d (§ 179). For ui beside oi see 
§§ 61, 70. 

65. Middle English ou, like eu^ represents two different diph- 
thongs which, however, came together in late Middle English, and 
were not always distinct in the earlier ME. period. The two 
sounds differ, as one had open, and the other close for its first 

66. Middle English gu^ with the sound of open ^+« {foot), has 
its principal sources in OE. oWy og and d-^-w or dg^ while some 
Norse words with au have ranged themselves with these. Its 
sources, in detail, are : 

1. OE. dWy dg{h)i dhi : OE. asx/, as in sowen * sow,' hlowen * blow,' 

crowen * crow ' ; OE. dg{K)^ as in owen * owe,* dou {dok, dogh) 
* dough ' ; OE. dhi^ as in oujt * ought,' oupe * ought ' (vb.). 

2. OE. OWy og (Jiy hh)y ohty and when shortened ok or dhi: OE. 

aWy as in taw * coarse fiax ' ; OE. og {h, hh), as in bowe * bow 
of the archer,' flawen ' fiown,' /rouj {frohy irogh) * trough,' 
couj {cogh) * cough,' coujen (OE. cohhettatC) * cough ' ; OE. 
ohty as in doubter * daughter,' boup ' bought ' ; OE. oh as 
in fouj {/ohy togK) * tough ' ; OE. dhi, as in soup ' sought,' 
foujten ' fought ' (pp.). 

3. ON. ogy oh when shortened, and ou (««) : ON. ogy as in Icrwe 

' fire * ; ON. oh, as in ^ou {/^ohy pouf) ' though * ; ON. ou {au)y 
as in nout ' cattle,' routen * roar,' rousie ' voice.' 

67. In a few cases double forms appear, as OE. ah/ becomes 
short (cf § 55) or remains long until OE. a had become ME. p as 
in I above. 

Note i. — In early Midland the diphthongs had not yet developed in the case 
of <?f, d^, oht, as already noted in § 56, n. i. Orm thus writes a)hen 'owe,' 
OE. dgan, 



Note 3.— The dialects agree in general. In Nth., as OE. d remains, OEl. 
dw, dg become om, not ou. Nth. dh^ aht also do not develop a diphthong. 
The same is true in Kentish of OE. dw which remains aUt though later 
becoming mi ; see § 56, n. 3. 

68. Middle English ou^ with the sound of ^+« {/ool), is of 
infrequent occurrence. It is from 

OE. oWy as ingrcwen ^gtovf* flcwen 'flow/ siowen * stow.' 

69. This diphthong, which occurs in no large number of words, 
assumed the quality of ^ in the fourteenth century, as shown by 
rimes of Chaucer, and has since had a similar development. For 
ou from OE. oh, see § 66. In a few words ME. ou (probably close 0) 
springs from OE. eow by absorption of the first element of the 
diphthong, as in /oure (OE. /iower) * four,' trowen (OE. treouoiaii) 
* believe.' This may also explain u (w, j^ou) from OE. eow * you,' 
but if so the diphthong soon became «, as shown by rimes. 

70. A Middle English ui^ occurring in Romance words, may 
represent OF. Ui, which soon became ME. iu (cf. § 61) or in un- 
stressed syllables u{i) as noted in §§ 23, 27. Otherwise ME. ui 
represents OF. ui^ which has a diphthongal sound approximating 
ME. oi, with which it varies in early texts and by which it is finally 
displaced (§ 63). Examples are desiruien * destroy //utson ' abun- 
dance,' Burguine * Bourgogne.' After k (r) this OF. ui sometimes 
became kwi, as in ME. quylte 'quilt,' Nth. aquyni 'acquainted.' 
Perhaps a similar change also accounts for anguis ' anguish,' which 
sometimes seems to have stress on the last syllable. In originally 
unstressed syllables this OF. m became u or /'as noted in §§ 23, 27. 

Note. — A Sth. ui (iii) rarely springs from OE. y +g as in * Ancren Riwie' 
druie (<0E. dryge) 'dry,* but the quality of the diphthong is uncertain. Ci 
Sweet, 'Hist, of Eng. Sounds,* § 717. 


71. As compared with Old English, Middle English shows 
important variations of vowel quantity. Some of these are exten- 
sions of changes which were operative in late OE. times : see 
Sievers, 'Gr.,' '§§ 120-125 and notes to §§ 150-168; Bfilbring, 


'Altenglisches Elementarbuch/ § 284 f. Others belong to the 
Middle English period, and affect not only a great number of 
English words, but also those borrowed from Norse and French. 
The best criteria for the variations in quantity of ME. vowels are, / 
(i) the orthography of Orm; (2) the doubling of vowels and ' 
consonants, and the use of two symbols for a single sound, as^^y 
for /, uii^y) for Uy ea for e) (3) the occasional use of accents or 
other signs for vowel length; (4) the rimes in Middle English 
poetry, and other metrical evidences as of. syncope, apocope, &c. ; 
(5) the relation of ME. vowels to the course of their development 
in the modern period. Reference may be made especially to 
Morsbach, ' Mittelenglische Grammatik,' pp, 65-92 ; Sweet * History 
of English Sounds,* §§ 392, 616-640. 


Note. — Orm, to whom special reference is made above, tmdertook to indicate 
pronunciation with minute exactness by doubling consonants and the second 
elements of short diphthongs, as well as by the occasional use of the accent and 
the breye. The most striking feature, the doubling of consonants, has led some 
to believe that Orm intended to indicate consonant length, while others think 
vowel length alone was intended. In any case, however, Orm's orthography is 
of practical value mainly in determining vowel quantity. Thus, vowels followed 
by doubled c onsogants are invariably short, as in staff, gladd, inn, aiiderrmdrlH, 
asskenn, clennsenn ; those followed by a single consonant in closed syllables 
are long, as in bald * bold,' fild * field,* child, gold, grund * ground.* The 
quantity of vowels followed by a single medial consonant is indeterminate by 
Orm's orthography, but in these cases, as in closed syllables, Orm uses accents 
to show original length in many words, and the breve to show original short 
quantity in something like a third of the examples. Those who believe that 
Orm intended to indicate vowel length only, explain his failure to double the 
consonant after a short medial vowel because such doubling would have pro- 
duced confusion between such words as sune ' son ' (0£. sunu) and sunm 
*sun ' (OE. sunne), the difference between which was still important In the j f ^. 
case of diphthongs, the first vowel is short when the second element is doubled, 
as in clawwess ' claws,' knewwe * knew,' troivwenn ' trow ' ; otherwise loi^g, as 
in cn&wen * know,* sawle * soul,* sdwen ' sow.* The two views above are sup- 
ported by Trantmann ('Anglia,* 7, * Anzeiger,' 94, 208), Ten Brink ('Chaucer 
Gr.,' §§ 96-97), Effer (' Anglia,* 7, 'Anzeiger,' 167) for the first; Sweet (' Hist, 
of Eng. Sounds,' § 616 f.), Morsbach (*Mitteleng. Gr.,' § 15, anm. 2-3) for the 
second, with which most scholars agree. On Orm's marks of quantity, cf. 
Deutschbein, * Archiv,' cxxvi-vii. 

d 2 


A — LENGTHENING .'j;,- J\ .^ 

(72./ It may be assumed, in accordance mth the evidences <^xy ' 
lengfhening in late Old English, that OE. long vowels and diphthongs \ 
*— ^ remained long in open syllables and before a single final consonant^ 

except as shown hereafter ; and that original OE. short vowels and . 
diphthongs had become long before certain consonant groups made . 
J up of a liquid or nasal and a voiced consonant, ^^J^jJ^l^tJibZiii^-!^ 
^. '»'} mb, nd, ng, Tig i^'=fig as in strange) j though probably not rm. 
Original short vowels were also sometimes long in monosyllables, 
especially when final. Some examples of original short vowels 
/ with long quantity at the beginning of ME. times are kwd {kwo) 
/ S * who,' hi ' he,' bt ' by,' nu * now ' ; wel * well,' Scotch * weel *,' h^l 
L * hole ' ; gld {aid) * old,* cpmb, ende * end,' dzndm ' bind,' hord * hoard,' 
( gold, sund * sound as of body,' bunde * bound.' 

Note i. — ^Lengthening had not taken place in Old English before consonant 
groups made up of a liqnid or and a voiceless consonant. In French 
words, however, ti before »/, ns {nee), shows similar lengthening m MK, as in 
count, mount, ounce^ flounce, &c. ; so also OF. ^ before st in some words, as 
hist * htaist,*flst ' feast.* Lengthening before // in cpit, bplt, mglten, and before 
1st in bglster occurred in late Middle or early Modem English. 

Note 2. — Sporadic shortening occurs very early, as in Orm's tenn *ten,* 
annan ' anon,' while in late ME., the fifteenth century, it was more common, 
especially before dental consonants, as rH, dr&l * dread,' /// * permit,' wit, hdt 
(OE. hdt), brith « breath,' dith ' death,' nine, 

r\ 73. During the Middle English period OE. short a, e, w ere 

V lengthened in open syllables, as in rake * rake,' name, schame ' shame,' 

wlfen 'weave,' mpe'^mtdX,' hgpen 'hope,' hgse 'hose, trousers.' 

' ■ Examples of Norse words showing similar lengthening are taken 

, * take/ ddsen * daze,' sc^ren * scare ' ; French Yrdrds, /ace, grace, cpen 

^ct2i.SQ* ap§len 'appeal,' rgse, clgsen 'close.' Lengthening did not 

take place, however, when the following syllable was weak, as t (y) 

in pet0^ ' penny,' hevy ' heavy,' ho(^. When the following syllable 

consists of a short vowel and /, r, n, or m, in French words le, &c., 

^ Cf. Horstmann, 'Anglia, Beiblatt,' xiii, 16. 



the lengthening sometimes occurred, sometimes not; It would be 
resisted naturally by the strong tendency to syncopation of <?, 
especially in inflexional forms ; but some cases of certain lengthen- 
ing are w^sele ' weasel/ ^en, ndvek * navel/ crddel ' cradle/ pver, 
sfglen. Borrowed words follow the same rule, lengthening some- 
times taking place, sometimes not. Some French words with 
certain lengthening are stable, table, ngble, 

74. Lengthening of OE. short vowels in open syllables did not 
affect OE. /, u, or for u, as in htpe * hip/ pven * given,' sune {sone) 
* son/ numTn^taken* comen * come.' But English words which had 
developed forms with e for OE. i (zb) show lengthening of e^ as in 
clfven \ cleave, adhere ' (OE. cliofian\ Ijnen ' lean ' (OE. hlionian), 
iv^ke * week ' (OE. wiocu, weocu). In all these cases the ME. forms 
Avith e no doubt rest on OE. forms with e {eo), as often in Mercian. 
On the other hand, /, u in French words are long in open syllables 
in ME., as are a, e, 0, Examples are crien * cry/ bible * Bible,' 
bribey dedren * desire,' avow, prow, croune ' crown.' In these cases 
perhaps OF. t, u, because of their close quality, associated them- 
selves with English I, u, rather than with ?, ii, and thus assumed 
long quantity. 

It it/ 

Note i. — Lengthening of OE. short vowels in open syllables does not, 
general, belong to the twelfth century, though there are some evidences that 
may have begun in this period. It was clearly operative in the first half of the' 
thirteenth century, and by the middle of the century was complete. In 
accordance with this principle 0£. vowels i n open syllables are not marked 
Jong in early Midland or Southern selections J even thougKlHe"pfi5nology seems 
to imply lengthening in some cases. Northern selections are all later than the 
change indicated, and therefore show lengthening in all cases. 

Note 2. — Later shortening no doubt accounts for such forms as show short \ 
vowels in Modem English, as rot, knoc ks crack, lap, ME. rgten, kngk en^ crdken, t 
Idpen, Sometimes also analogy accounts /of thechange, aSTli "bllin^.sweai, vK 
by analogy of the preterit with short vowel, ME, swette, J ^ 

75. Compensatory lengthening also occurred "in Middle English, 
as in the case of the /, u vowels, by the vocalization of a following 
consonant. Examples are / from ic (il^ sfie ' Siy ' (OE. stigu, 




early ME. siige), rie ' rye ' (OE. ryge)^ sftle (OE. stiget),fuel (/owel) 
' fowl ' {OE./ugel), sow (OE. sugu) * sow/ 


76. At the close of the Old English period, OE.J^iigjrowels and 
diphthongs, whether in simple or compound words, were usually 
shortened before long, that is Hnyh^i;]^ consonants and before 
consonant groups, except those which had caused lengthening of 
short vowels and therefore preserved the quantity of long vowels 
(§ 72). Examples under the various heads are as follows : 

(a) Before long, that is doubled, consonants, ledde ' led,' spredde 

* spread,' hatte ' called,'/?//, hidde ' hid,' M/fer 'hotter.' 

{d) Before more than two consonants, hercnen * hearken,' ernde 

* earned,' Urnde ' learned.' 

(r) Before two consonants, not those groups which preserved 
long quantity,/?^i? * filth,' MJ^e ' health,' kepfe ' kept,' sl^pfe ' slept/ 
idsfy Brest * breast,' s^/te * soft,' s<ihie ' sought,' idhte ' taught,' lihi 

* light,' Ithkn *make light,' driih/?e 'drought,' but dialectal 'droughth,' 
Hitiey Wednesday f clensen 'cleanse,' bremmil {brembel) 'bramble,' 
slum(e)ren (slumbren) ' slumber,' ever^ every, 

(d) Before two or more consonants in compounds, chapman 
'merchant,' Edward, shephirde, wisdom, /l/iy, goshawk, cUn^ 
' cleanly,' hushonde ' husband,' huswif ' hussy, housewife.' 

Note i. — The short vowel is often replaced by the long under the inflnence 
of analogy. Thus, in inflexional forms, the shortened vowel of the genitive 
singular and the plural, as dihfles^ is replaced by the long vowel of the nomina- 
tive-accusative singular, dlvel, becoming devles. On the other hand, the short 
vowel of the genitive and plural sometimes replaced the long in the nominative- 
accusative, as in fnd}er, brdfer, <3JJ^r * mother, brother, other.* For a similar 
reason there is variation in quantity in compounds, as sufddle ' south part,' 
sdpfast * soothfast,' hgmward 'homeward,' meknesse 'meekness,' wlsly *■ wisely,* 
with long vowels by analogy of the uncompounded su}, so}, hpm, wis. 

Note 2. — Variations in quantity are also found before certain consonant 
groups, as st, before which the long vowel often remains, as in gdst {gpst) 

* ghost,' prist * priest,' Cnst ' Christ,* I^sfe * least.* But if a third consonant 
follows st, the vowel is regularly short, as in wrdstlen 'wrestle,' cHstnen 
'christen/ thtsthtfistren * foster,' bldsime 'blossom/ yet §stren 'caster.* Modern 


English shows many cases of shortening, as hest, breast^ fisty list^ dust, rust. 
Before OE. sc, ME. sh {sch)y a long vowel is preserved by Orm injl^s/i, though 
not in wesA 'washed.' Short vowels are common before sh, as in Modern 
Engiish^esA, niesk^ wisA, rush, 

77. Long vowels and diphthongs were sometimes shortened 
when one or more syllables with strong secondary stress followed / 
the accent. Examples are holiday ' holiday,' hertng * herring,' sUrop 

* stirrup,' n \^ping * nothing/ / 'eiawe ^ fellow ' {O^.Jelqgt), Before the 
syllable 1 ( j/) there is variation, shortening occurring sometimes as 
in rlS(^ * ready/ s^y ' sorry,' any i^y) * any,' while in other cases the 
long vowel is retained, as in ivy, wfry ' weary,' gre(^ * greedy,' hply. 

Note. — Here also analogy may counteract the operation of the rule, as in 
such words as Jredom, rid§re * freedom, rider,' where the long vowel is due to 
the influence of the tmcompounded words^?, rtden * free, ride.' 

78. Bef6re the consonant groups which usually preserved vowel 
length (§72), original short vowels remained short or were shortened, 
when followed immediately by {a) another consonant, as in h Undred y 
children ; {d) a syllable having strong secondary stress, as in zviirj?i 

* worthy,' er/>^ * earthly ' ; (r) a syllable made up of a short vowel 
and /, r, n (though not usually inflexional «), or m, as in gtrdel, 
wUnder, a lderm an^ sllden (seldom) * seldom.' In cases under (c) 
frequent /yncope\)f the short vowel before the liquid or nasal is 
presuppo^, so that shortening would be due to the same influence v 
as in cases under {a). In some words two of the above influences 
were operative at the same time, as in wilderness, alderman. Inflex- 
ional en did not usually affect the preceding vowel, but the vowel 
remained long when n was dropped. 

79. The vowels 1, u, befor e ng, though long in early ME. as ^ 
shown by the orthography of Orm, were short from the middle of 

the thirteenth century, as in /ftng ' thing,' /tinge * tongue.' Many 
cases of shortening before consonant groups also appear, especially 
in later Middle English. Shortening is most common before ng^ 
rn, rl, rj>. Some examples of these are Orm's jerrne beside jerne 
' desire,' turrnenn ' turn.' 



^ X 


Note. — Analogy doubtless accounts for many forms, as frend * friend,' by 
influence oifrend^,frentiship, 


y^ 80. In syllables bearing strongjsecondar-3?.^stj:ess, Middle English 

vowels usually retain the quality of their Old English originals, as 
fredom, Godh§d^ handsum. The same is usually true o f prefixe s, as 
in arisen '2lt\^* forlgren * forlorn,' upbfren 'upbear' (cf. /J, § 82). 
On the other hand, in suffixes and prefixes o and u before a nasal 
sometimes suffer change in quality, the first becoming a or «, the 
second /, partly no doubt under the influence of analogy. Thus 
the sufiix ung (Jung) of OE. nouns became tng {ling) in Middle 
English, and the prefix on, except the privative prefix, became 
an {a). The privative prefix on, as in OE. onlucan ' unlock,' became 
««, perhaps under the influence of the negative un so commonly 
used. The greatest change in vowel quality from Old to Middle 
English, however, is in the case of inflexional endings. In these 
every OE. unstressed a. 0. or u become e, a far reaching change which 
afiected all classes of words. 

Note i. — The change of OE. a, o^ u to e is often carried out in early 
Midland, as in * Chronicle ' and * Ormulum,' but not so fully as later. 

Note 2. — Nth. shows complete change of ung (Jung) to ing{ling\ and of 
the privative prefix on to un, but otherwise the prefix on usually remains on {p). 
The change of vowel quality in inflexional endings has not affected the Nth. 
present participle, which ends in and(e). In early Sth. the suffix ung {lung) 
sometimes remains unchanged, but later regularly appears as ing {ling), as in 
other dialects. The other changes in vowel quality already mentioned are 
carried out, and in addition the ending of the present participle has become 
inde in most cases before the further change to inge, § 163. 


81. Owing to the changes in stress many syllables in Romance 
words which formerly bore principal stress retain a strong secondary 
accent (cf. § 15). These also usually retain their original quality. 
In a few cases already mentioned in the preceding sections, certain 
changes in quality do appear, ere instead of ^^ from OF. aire (§33), 
werrten beside werreien (§ 39), eu instead of /« in beuie *■ beauty ' 
(§ 58), but it is not certain that such changes may not be due to 


some other influence, as the following r in the first case. Similarly 
Romance nouns in -tan, which occasionally seem to show variation 
between -an and /«, may have suffered by the same influence. The 
OF. prefixes desy en, mes often appear as dtSy ttiy mi's^ the latter no 
doubt partly under the influence of OE. mis. Examples are 
disiroien^ znclgseUy mischeef ' destroy, inclose (enclose), mischief/ 
OF. initial.^ sometimes becomes a as in ascdpen 'escape,' anointen 
' anoint,' asunten * excuse.' 

82. The second elements of compounds, when containing a long 

vowel or diphthong, usually retain original length under strong 

secondary stress, as Alfred, harfoi ' barefoot.' The same is often 

true of sufiixes bearing secondary stress, as hgd^ h^d which are 

regularly long, and ddniy /r^, l^s, Uke (Uche) which are sometimes 

short, however. The length is proved by doubling of vowels, as in 

hoody heedy doom, lees, and the occasional shortening by such spellings 

of the suffixes as dam, less. Prefixes with original long vowels show 

shortening in Middle English, as arisen 'arise,' io/gre 'before,' 

from OE. prefixes a and to. In the case of to- the spelling clearly 

indicates occasional shortening, as well as variation in quality; 

cf. tegadere (gtdere), teday 'together, today.' Yet these are on 

the whole rare forms, and the probability is that the prefix to- was 

associated with the preposition-adverb id and was usually regarded 

as long. The same is true of vowels in words unstressed in the 

sentence, as an (a), hut {bot\ any (eny), nat {not), J?oh (though), us, 

sholde, wolde, wel beside wel, &c. 

Note. — In early Midland the long quantity is retained, as shown by Orm's 
orthography in had, dom, l&s * less,* wis * wise,' rede, Itk (Jiki) ' like,' often 
^re, though the latter is sometimes short. So also t {y), from OE. ig, as in 
hdlT^, bodi), and the second elements of compounds as ad{d)modnesse, where 
tndd is long as indicated by the single d following the vowel. Shortening of 
vowels in words unstressed in the sentence is also shown in Orm's butt, uss, 
]>ohh, ann(a), &c. 

83. Other changes in unstressed syllables are those called syncope, | 
apocope, aphaeresis, elision, contraction, the occiurrence of which / 
follows general laws that may be briefly summarized. To begin ^ 

N • 



with, every vowel or diphthong, whether medial or final, makes a 
syllable except as noted hereafter. But unstressed syllables, that 
is those without principal or secondary stress, often show sjojcope 
of medial e. Thus, after an accented syllable, medial e, whatever its 
origin, is syncopated, as in chirche * church,' hevne ' heaven,' lernde 
' learned/ gpnen ' open.' In many such cases, however, the synco- 
pated e is restored by analogy of unsyncopated forms, as chirecke, 
hevene, lernede, gpenen. The same is true of medial e between a 
principal and secondary stress, as trewe^, simlyy Englgndy beside 
irewely, seme^, Engelgnd, Syncope of any other vowel than e is 
rare, though i in the suffixes tj, ish is sometimes lost. 

Note. — Early Midland shows the same syncope in many cases, as in Onn's 
ejffnej ermde^gaddrenn^ heffrUy oppnenn^ &c., while in other forms the loss has 
not occurred. 

84. Medial e is sometimes syncopated or partially lost in certain 
endings. Syncopation frequently occurs before final r, /, «, as in 
stlv{e)ry hung(e)ry striv(e)ny lit(e)L It is especially common between 
a vowel or liquid and n, as in the past participles drawn^ slayn, horn^ 
torn. In past participles of weak verbs, the ending ed shows 
similar syncopation sometimes, owing to such a change in Old 
English (Sievers, ' Gr.,* § 406), though unsyncopated forms also 
occur. Syncopation seldom occurs in the endings est^ ep {etK) of 
the present indicative; in es {is) of the genitive singular, the 
nominative plural, and the adverb ; in en of the infinitive, the plural 
of verbs, and in other forms except the past participle of strong 
verbs ; in ed of preterit singular and plural, and er^ est of com- 
parative and superlative in adjectives. Syncope often occurs in 
words unstressed in the sentence, as arn for dren * are,' wt'In {woln) 
for wt'Ilen {wollen) ' will.' 

Note i. — In early Midland syncope is less common except in the verbal 
endings est, ep^eth)^ in which it is sometimes found. Compare Orm's se^^st 
* sayest,' se))P * sayeth.' 

Note 2. — In addition to general agreement with Midland, Nth. shows 
syncope in es of nouns and verbs. Sth., while also showing general agreement 


with Midland, differs in a much more frequent S3mcopation of e in the est, e} 
(eth) verbal endings, as in Old English. 

85. When medial e, of whatever origin, is followed by a syllable 
with another unstressed e, sjoicope or apocope often takes place. 
This gives rise to double forms, such as afiel, aj>(e)le * noble ' ; adys, 
ad{e)se * adze ' ; ever, ev{e)re ' ever ' ; many also in inflexion, as 
lovedy lov(e)de 'loved'; hevens^ hev(e)nes 'heavens/ In the last 
half of the fourteenth century, apocope of e is preferred in preterits 
of weak verbs, the latter thus agreeing with the past participle. 
Upon this apocope and consequent agreement between preterit 
and past participle, rests the regularity of Modern English forms. 

Note i. — In early Midland the same variation between syncope or apocope 
also occurs, as in Orm*s heffne ' heaven,' afell * noble,' but lufede ' loved.' 

Note 2. — ^In Nth. the final e is usually silent or has suffered apocope. Sth. 
seems to prefer syncope of medial e, Chaucer makes frequent use of both 
forms for the same word, no doubt for metrical purposes. 

86. Apocope of final e is common in Middle English, and 

materially affects the spoken forms of words, whether indicated or 

not by the orthography. It occurred earliest in polysyllables after 

a strong secondary stress, as in almess, OE. celmesse * alms ' ; la/di) 

(Jfodi}), OE. hlwfdige ' lady ' ; and in inflected forms of such words 

as drinking, wurpi} ' worthy,' twenti} ' twenty.' On the other hand, 

some such words occasionally assumed an inorganic e in the 

nominative by analogy of other forms, instead of suffering apocope 

in the latter, as iipende * tidings,' twifdlde ' twofold.' Similar apocope 

often occurred in words not bearing principal stress in the sentence, 

as in pronouns, unstressed adverbs and conjtmctions, and auxiliary 

verbs. Examples are mfn, hir, swich {such\ whan, pan {than), 

shul, myjt, beside forms with e in which the spelling is often merely 

traditional. Total or partial apocope, that is slurring, also occurs 

in poetry when unstressed ne, pi {the), a precede words beginning 

with a vowel, as proved by the metre. 

Note i. — In early Midland, syncope is already clear from such cases as 
Orm's iaffdij, drinnkinng and others ; unstressed words as an, all, mtn, fin ; 
and such evidences of elision 2A]>arrke *• the ark.' 




Note 2. — In the earliest Nth. apocope has taken place even more commonly 
than in other dialects ; compare § 6. Sth. is far more conseryative, with the 
exception of Kentish, which does not differ from Midland. 

87. After syllables bearing principal stress, final e, of whatever 
origin, tends to disappear in Middle English, sometimes through 
analogy, later especially through general weakening. At the 
beginning of the period, the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
final € is usually retained except as already noted. About 1300 it 
remains or disappears at the pleasure of the writer, as shown by 
poetry, and in late Middle English, that is about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, it is wholly lost. Texts written in the northeast 
Midland district show disappearance of final e before those of the 
southeast Midland. 

Note i. — In early Midland final e was still preserved as a rule, though lost 
in words not bearing sentence stress, and in some inflexional forms as the 
dative of nonns. 

Note 2.^-In Nth. final e was wholly lost by the middle of the fourteenth 
century, a centuiy before it disappeared entirely in Midland. It remained 
longest in the adjective inflexion, less commonly in nouns and verbs. In Sth., 
except Kentish, final e was kept somewhat longer than in Midland, though 
sometimes silent in the fourteenth century. In Kentish it is generally kept as 
late as the middle of the fourteenth century. In the dialect of London it is also 
retained somewhat longer than usually in Midland, as shown by the. writings of 
Chaucer, in which, though often silent, it may still form a syllable for metrical 
purposes at the pleasure of the writer. 

88. Elision of weak final e occurs before a word beginning with 
a vowel or weak h, that is h in unstressed words as he, him, or those 
with French h. Examples are numerous in poetry, as indeed they 
are rarely foimd in Old English verse. The commonest OE. elision, 
that of e in the negative ne, remains to Middle English in such 
forms as nas for ne was, &c. In Middle English also e of pi {the) 
is often elided. This is shown by such early Midland forms as 
pempertce 'the empress' in the * Chronicle,' zxAparrke 'the ark' in 
the ' Ormulum.' Common also is elision of in unstressed id, as 
in toffrenn * to offer,' tunnderrgdn ' to undergo ' from the ' Ormulum.' 
Rarely the e of the pronouns me, pi (thee) also suffers elision, as in 
thalighte 'thee alight,' do mmdyte 'do me endyte.' 



89. Aphaeresis, diat is loss of an initial vowel (or syllable), some- 
times occurs in unstressed words or syllables. Examples in un- 
stressed words are hit for he it, wast for was it. So also the un- 
stressed vowel has disappeared in risen from OE. arisan 'arise/ 
faunen from OE. csteawnian ' show/ twiten from OE. cetwitan ' twit.' 
Similarly i (^y) from OE. ge usually suffers aphseresis in Northern 
and Midland, though often not in Southern. Old French e before 
sc \sK), sp, st is often lost as in spy en ' espie, spy/ spouse^ stdt ' state/ 
stgrie (stgry\ scdpen 'escape.' Aphaeresis of a, e under other 
circumstances also occurs sometimes, as prentys 'apprentice,' 
semhlee ' assembly,' nuien {noten) * annoy,' pistle ' epistle/ Aphaeresis 
of an unstressed syllable in Romance words occurs in sample Ken- 
sample, huschmeni<embuschment, /enden<defenden, sport <desporty 
struien < destruien. 

90. Contraction of vowels brought together by vocalization of a 
medial consonant sometimes occurs. Examples are del fox devel, 
el for evel,yede {yode) from OE. ge-eode, whir for wheper^ gr (<?r) for 
QuJ>er ' or,* /r, ner for ever, never ^ 

The Consonants 

91. The Middle English consonant system may be best exhibited 
by a table such as the following: 





































To these must be added the breath consonant k, and the combina- 
tions hw (MnE. wk as in what), ch (=M) as in churchy g, j 
{=:dzh) as in wage, judge, x is but a sign for ks. 

Note. — The pronunciation of most of the consonants is the same as in 
Modem English. The palatal stops k',^ are pronounced as in kid^get, com- 
pared with the guttural stops in cot,goL The voiced/ (p, th) is sounded as in 
the, Sh (sck) represents the simple consonant sound in she, no voiced variety 
being found in Middle English. The palatal spirant ) (A) has the sound of c/i 
in Ger. icA, the voiced ^ (medial and only in early Middle English) may be 
pronounced as ^ in jfet. The guttural spirants represent respectively the 
Ger. ck in auch, and g in sagen, y represents the sound of n before k or g, 

92. The general relations to the Old English consonant system 
may be briefly summarized ; compare also a table similar to the 
above in Sievers, *Gr.,' § 170. In the first place, most consonants 
in Middle English correspond to similar ones in Old English on 
the one side, and in Modem English on the other. Especially is 
this true of the semi-vowels, liquids, and nasals, as well as of the 
dental and labial stops and spirants. The most radical changes 
that have taken place have affected the palatal and guttural stops 
and spirants. In addition to this there are of course some minor 
changes within the limits of each consonant, which will be noticed 
as they occur. Owing to the general similarity between the Old, 
Middle, and Modem English consonant systems, however, it 
seems best here to presuppose knowledge of the Old English 
system, and to consider mainly those changes that are necessary 
for an understanding of Middle English proper. In considering 
the consonants, the order will be that of the table above, the stops 
first, and next the various classes of continuants, spirants, semi- 
vowels, liquids, and nasals ^ 

^ This order is chosen as best exhibiting the essential character of the con- 
sonants on the physical, rather than the physiological side. The physiological 
terms, as guttural, palatal, &c,, and the descriptive terms, as semi-vowels, 
liquids, &c., are also freely employed because of their long acceptance and 
their general value. 



93. The Middle EngKsh voiceless and voiced stops of labial and 

dental varieties, p-d, /-</, correspond so nearly with those of Old 

and Modem English that little space need be given to them. Each 

is a stable consonant in the main, and subject only to such changes 

as may affect any consonant at different times ; see § 1 1 2 f. 

It is worthy of note that the voiceless labial /, which was rare 

initially in Old English, became common owing to the great number 

of French words introduced in Middle English. The geminated 

labial 3, when medial as in a few OE. words, was replaced by v 

under the influence of the numerous forms in which v (OE. medial/) 

occurred in Old English. Examples are Adven, OE. habban * have,' 

Itveiiy OE. Itbban ' live,' hfoen, OE. hebban ' heave.' For d under 

grammatical change see § 116. 

Note.— The dialects in general agree. In late Nth., final unstressed dwas 
often nnvoiced to /, and this has remained to modem Scotch. In Sth. geminated 
dd as above was not replaced by v. Early Sth. shows unvoicing of final un- 
stressed d as in <isket ' asked/ tSwart ' toward/ inempnet * named,' but later d 
was restored by analogy of other forms. 

94. The ME. voiceless palatal stop k (as in kid) springs from 
the OE. palatal stop c {k\ from Norse ^, and in a few words from 
OF. c {=k). It occurs initially before the OE. palatal mutated 
vowels/, e < Of sometimes ^, usually before the OE. guttural j/ (from 
u) which had become palatal i by unrounding, before e, i in words 
from Norse (rarely Old French), and sometimes by analogy of 
guttural vowels in allied forms. Examples of native words are 
ME. kemben 'comb,' Keni^ kine 'keen,' kei (OE. c^ge) *key,' 
kichen (OE. cycene) 'Idtchen,' kite (OE. cytd) * kite.' A consider- 
able number of Norse words also occur, as keiel ' kettle,' kevel ' bit, 
clamp, gag,' kide ' kid,' kindlen * kindle,' kirke ' church/ On the 
other hand, OF. words with palatal k are limited by rare occur- 
rence of OF. c (=^), except before gutturals, but compare AN. 
forms with ^ <^by monophthonging of OF. ue (§ 35, 20), which 
account for ME. keveren beside coveren ' cover,' and keverchef 


{kerche/). Here belong also ME. kenet 'hound/ kerul 'kennel/ 
kitan ' kitten/ By analogy of guttural k in pret. pi. and past parti- 
ciple, the palatal stop k (c) took the place of ME, ch in the present 
of kerven 'carve.' Medially the ME. palatal stop k appears as 
above, as well as before OE. a, o, u, which had become ME. e in 
unstressed syllables (§ 80). Examples are tdkeuy mdken^ aker 
'acre.' By analogy of the indicative present third singular of 
certain verbs as sikepy wirkep^ palatal k often appears in the infini- 
tive and other present forms, as seken^ wt'rken. In chiken ' chicken,' 
istkel ' icicle/ the k is doubtless due to the OE. inflected forms, as 
cycnes, tstkks in which OE. c would remain k. The combination 
J + palatal c (^k) always indicates borrowing, as in jM' reason,' 
skin^ skere ' clear/ 

Note. — The examples of palatal c (k) are increased for the Nth. dialect by 
the lack of palatalization of OE. ^ to ^^ (§ no, n. 2). Examples are mikel 

* much/ swilk * such/ Hk ' like,* sek ' seek,' wirk * work,' and many others. For 
Nth. s < OE. scy cf. § 103, n. 2. 

95. The voiced palatal stop g springs from OE. guttural g 
before j/ which had become palatal I by unrounding, from OF., 
ON. g before palatal vowels, and is sometimes due to analogy of 
allied forms with guttural g. Examples of initial g in native words 
are gtlden 'gild/ gilt, 'guilt/ girden 'gird'; in those from Old 
French, where g represents earlier ^«, gtle * guile,' gimelot {gtmbelei) 

* gimblet,' gtierne ' guitar ' ; in Norse, g^e ' gear,' g^ren ' do, make,* 
gil ' gill of a fish,' gest ' guest,' the last supplanting the native Eng- 
lish word. Analogy of g in preterit and past participle accounts 
for geven {given) 'give' beside English jeven {jiven) and ginnen^ 
beginnen ' begin,' while geten beside )eten ' get ' is of Norse origin. 
Medially, palatal g appears in the combination ng (=^+^) before 
palatal vowels, as singen (OE. singan) ' sing,' gengen (ON. genga) 
' go/ genge (ON. gengt) ' company/ 

g6. The Middle English guttural stops c {k)-g correspond to 
OE. (ON.) guttural stops c-g in Teutonic words, or to similar 
sounds in Old French. Both guttural stops occur before conso- 


nants and the guttural vowels J, J>, o, u. For the stops c {^)-g 
which occur before OE. I, y, sometimes ^ when due to mutation, 
see § 94, and for OF. ch before a, au, see § no. The guttural c 
{k) also appears in the combination x {=ks), qu {=ho), nc (k) 
=^ + ky and the stop^ in the combination ng (=^ +^), occasionally 
in gemination {gg\ Guttural c {k) initially in Teutonic words 
may be illustrated by cl^p ' cloth,' care {kdre), cgld, cgle ' coal,' cumen 
[comen) * come/ and in Romance words by cryen * cry,' cos {case) 

* case,' colur * colour,' curs {cours) * course.' In Romance words the 
stop c (k) before a, au indicates learned origin or Norman-Picard 
dialect, in which vulgar Latin k did not become ch (as in Central 
French). Examples are cas {case), cause, cage, carpenter , and the 
doublets fa///, cachen * catch,' calice, cariie, beside OF, chatel, chacen, 
chaUce, chariie (cf. § no). Medially the guttural stop c (h) appears 
before a guttural vowel in syllables having principal or secondary 
stress, and finally after a guttural vowel. Between a guttural and 
palatal vowel, the stop must have varied between guttural and 
palatal quality as it belonged to the syllable with one vowel or the 
other. The combination s + guttural c (^) always indicates borrow- 
ing, either from Norse as in scmbl, scull, bask. Old French as in 
scorn, scuren, * scour ' scouie * scout,' or other minor sources. 

Note. — In Nth. the number of gnttural k^s is increased by the fact that OE. 
c did not become ch in that dialect (§ 94, n.). Examples are caf * chaff,' 
calk * chalk.' For the combination sk < OE. sc in unstressed words, see 
§ 102, n. 2. 

97. The guttural stop g initially may be exemplified by grene 

* green,' galle ' gall,' gold, god ' good,' gume ' man ' in Teutonic 
words, and glprie, governen * govern,' goule * gout ' in Romance. In 
Teutonic words borrowed by vulgar Latin initial w became gu 
(=^w), and this combination became guttural g in Old French, as 
in ME. garde, gartson, regard, while remaining zv (except before t) 
in Anglo-Norman, and therefore appearing in the doublets warde, 
wartson, reward (§ 106). Before t,g < Teut. w appears in giden 
' guide,' gise * guise,' gile ' guile,' degilen ' beguile.' Medially and 



finally guttural g occurs under 'the same circumstances as guttural 
k above. In a few cases ME. guttural g represents late OE. gemi- 
nated, that is long g {gg)y as in dogge * dog/ frogge * frog/ hogge 
' hog/ stagge * stag/ Usually, however, medial or final guttural g 
implies borrowing, as in draggen *• drag,' bigy egg, legg from Norse. 
ME. sugre, beside sucre ' sugar,' shows voicing of OF. c to g. ME. 
garden represents Picard garden, beside OF.jardtn. 


98. The spirantsy^z> {/) in Teutonic words occurred under the 
same conditions as in Old English and to-day. The voiceless y 
appears initially in a stressed syllable, as in fader ' father,' hefgren 
'before'; medially when preceding a voiceless consonant or in 
gemination (Jf\ as in shaft, offren ' offer ' ; finally, as in wulf, self. 
In Romance wordsy was regularly voiceless and retained this quality 
whether in stressed or unstressed syllables. Examples of Romance 
words in which y appears contrary to the rule in Teutonic are 
comfort, trufle, 

99. The voiced spirant v (sometimes written/) in Teutonic 

words springs from OE. (ON.) f in voiced company, 2is^ver, given 

(jtven, yiven) * give ' ; occasionally also in inflected forms with final 

fin nominative singular, as staves from staf*stB,f(* calves from calf. 

To these were added in Middle English many v's, both initial and 
medial, from Old French. As initial v did not occur in Teutonic 
words, except rarely in those borrowed from the Sth. dialect, Mid- 
land words with initial v or with v beginning a stressed syllable are 
of Romance origin, as vine, devzne. 

Note i. — In early Middle English /" was still written for v, as in the OE. 
period ; cf. idfen { = )dven), hafen 'have,' &c. 

Note 2. — Nth. agrees with Midland. In Sth. the number of initial v\ was 
largely increased by the voicing of initial/, as in voder 'father,* vihten ' fight.* 
Cf. Kt. selections especially. 

100. The spirants/ (^, th), voiceless and voiced without distinc- 
tion of written sign, occurred in Teutonic words under exactly the 


same circumstances as /--v, and need not be especially illustrated. 
While in Modern English some borrowed words have the voiceless 
M, the voiced and voiceless spirants usually indicate Teutonic origin. 
In late Middle English /A came to be written for OF. / (M = /), 
as in thjalrcy ihiorte, ihemCy throne, authour ' author,' and these were 
doubtless still pronounced with / until, in Modem English, they 
acquired the spirant sound by influence of the spelling. There is 
no evidence that initial J> {th) had become voiced in pronominal 
words, z.sJ>efJfai,/}tSyJfu, &c., or final J> in unstressed wifi. Initial 
unstressed/ in pronominal words often becomes / after d, /, some- 
times s by back assimilation, as in and tai * and that,' at tat * at 
that,' is tat * is that/ Occasionally ME. p interchanges with the 
voiced stop d in medial position, as coude beside coupe 'could/ 
aforden * afford/ and finally in the preterit quod * quoth.' After 
a voiceless spirant,/*, j, ^ (^), ME. p becomes /, as in pefte * theft,' 
Uste (OE. IcBspe) Mest,' ^«j/^ * height.' 

Note, — Nth. agrees with Midland. The parallel voicing in Sth, of initial 
/, J, sometimes wh {hw) to w, implies voicing oip in similar position, but the 
orthography gives no evidence of it. 

loi. The spirants j, voiced and voiceless, but usually without 
distinction of written sign, are parallel Xof-v in their occurrence in 
Teutonic words. The voiced spirant is usually written j, z ordi- 
narily indicating ts in Middle English, z is found, especially when 
final in unstressed syllables, as in WMl. forms like sidez ' sides,' 
indicating the voicing of s in this position. Both spirants were 
largely increased from Old French sources. OF. voiceless s 
(written s (jr) ss, or c before ^, i) occurs in all positions and need 
not be especially illustrated. Medial OF. iss usually became ME, 
isch (issh) as in finischen (OF. finir, finiss-) * finish,' perischen 
' perish,' anguische ' anguish.' OF. voiced s is found in such words 
as prtsun * prison,' trjson * treason.' In citesen * citizen ' the voiced 
spirant has been inserted, perhaps by analogy of similar sen (jsen) 
forms. For Picard ck in words with OF. c=s cf, § no. 

Note.— -In general Nth. agrees with Midland, but note Nth. s for Ml. Sth* 

e 2 


sck {sh\ § 103. For OF. stre Nth. has sckir sometimes. Teutonic initial 
s was voiced in Sth., as shown especially by initial 2 in the Kentish * Ayenbite 
of Inwit.* 

102. The Middle English spirant sch {sk) is a characteristic 
ME. sound springing from OE. sc in all positions. Examples are 
schqff (shafi) 'shaft/ schori {shori), asche 'ash/ Englisch, fisch 
{fish) From such strictly English words with ME. sch (sh) are to 
be separated the Norse and OF. borrowed words with sc {sk) ; but 
medial OF. iss gave ME. tsch (Jsh) as already noted. In the pro- 
noun sche {scho, sho) ME. sch springs from OE. s +y ( < f) in un- 
stressed seo (seo) from OE. seo. In asken * ask * (OE. ascian, axiati), 
sk probably represents a late metathesis of x. Scotland^ Scotiisch^ 
seal * school/ are doubtless learned forms, the first two influenced 
by the Nth. Scot, the last by OF. escole or mediaeval Latin scola. 
There was no corresponding voiced spirant in Middle English. 

Note i. — In ' Chronicle/ sc is still written for ME. sch (sA\ bnt Orm writes 
sh after long, ssk after short vowels. 

Note 2. — Nth. agrees with Ml. in the main, but OE. sc in tmstressed words 
and syllables became s, as in sulen, sal, suld^ ' schulen, shall, should,' Inglis, 
'English,' Scots 'Scotch.* In Sth.,. sometimes Ml., ss {s) are written for the 
spirant sound, 

103. The Middle English palatal spirants } (^)-j ( j^), voiceless 
and voiced without much distinction of signs, are exclusively of 
Teutonic origin and of limited occurrence. They cannot occur 
initially because the corresponding OE. palatals c, g had become 
ME. ch^ and the semivowel^ {y) respectively. They are also 
limited, in medial and final position, by their vocalization to form 
diphthongs (§ 47), or f, u (§ 75). While this vocalization was 
probably complete in early Middle English, as shown by the spell- 
ing of Orm'(§ 71, n.), the signs were still sometimes written as heh 
{higt hej) ' high,' lejen {Jejhen) ' lay.' Otherwise the voiceless spirant 
J (H) is found only medially in the OE. combinations ht, hfiy which 
both became j/, written also ht^gt, cf^}hi,ghi, less commonly ^M, 
gihy cih. Examples are riji {rihi) * right,* kntp {kniht) • knight,* 
dri)Un {drthien) ' lord/ and hejU ijiep, hip) ' height/ sijU ' sight/ 


with change of / to / in accordance with § loo. ME.^/ is some- 
times written st by confusion of these high-pitched palatal sounds. 
The OE. combination rhj> had become rjf^ as in mirjfe * mirth/ and 
such forms as WE,/e * money, fee/ spring from OE. forms which 
had lost the final h, as /io beside /eoh ; cf. also ME. Jfur beside 
J?ur) {Jmrh) 'through.' The voiced palatal spirant j {}h) is found 
medially as above until fully vocalized after vowels to form diph- 
thongs, after r or ? to /, as mirie (OE. myrge, myrige) * merry,' 5inen 
(OE. byrgan) ' bury,' stj>e (OE. sigepi) ' scythe,' dru (OE. dryge) 
* dry.* Finally in stressed syllables the voiced spirant had probably 
become unvoiced, but in unstressed 9 (OE. ig) the voiced spirant 
also became J, as in hodi (pody\ hgU {hgly), ME. heU (OE. belg^ 
beltg) no doubt comes from the form with parasitic i, compared 
with that with^ which gave w after / a? in ME. belwe {bebu) 'bellows.' 

Note i. — In early Ml. the voiceless spirant is still spelt h as in Old 
English, and the voiced spirant g, )k as in Orm. 

Note 2. — The dialects agree in general, though in Nth, OE. /// remained 
guttural as in Northumbrian. Sth. has a larger number of palatal spirants, 
owing to the larger number of palatal vowels in that dialect, as le)hen {lichen) 
from WS. kleihan, beside Ml. lahhen (Jauhwen, iauwen) from OM. hiahhan 
' laugh.' Sth. also retains i from OK ig in the present tense of OE. weak 
verbs of the second class (§6). 

104. The Middle English guttural spirants } {h, jh)'-j {jX), 
voiceless and voiced without much distinction of signs, are also 
of Teutonic origin and of as limited occurrence as the palatal 
spirants. They cannot occur initially because not so appearing in 
Old English, OE. guttural spirant g having become a guttural stop 
before ME. times. While occurring in medial and final position 
they later became vocalized after vowels to form diphthongs (§ 47), 
or the voiced spirant became w after / or r, after u was absorbed 
(§ IB)' The voiceless j remained voiceless throughout the period 
only in the OE. combination h/, as in /aj/e {iauhie) 'taught/ 
doubter ' dsLUghter / /ouj/en ' fought/ J>oup ' thought.' When final 
it remained voiceless until finally vocalized in the preceding diph- 
thong which had been formed (§ 66), Examples are /oA {^auj) 


' though/ sloh (slouj) ' slew/ J^urh {/^urj)' ' through.' The OE. 
medial voiceless guttural hh became voiced and developed as the 
voiced guttural through jk to w, as in iaujen (lauwen) * laugh/ 
coujen {couwen) ' cough.' The preterit singular saw has its w from 
the plural sawen (OE. sdzvon), and /forw {porow) developed from 
poru} beside /«rj. The medial voiced spirant j remained as^ {)k) 
until vocalized after vowels to form diphthongs, after u to strengthen 
the preceding vowel, after /, r, to w. Examples are dra^en {drawen) 
* draw/ gjen i^en) ' ovit' fu^el (fuel, /owel) < OE. fugel ^ fowl/ 
foljen (/olwen) ' follow/ sorje {sorwe) < OE. sorh, f., * sorrow.' 
When final, the original voiced spirant had become voiceless and 
fell in with that sound as above. Examples are douj * dough,' 
plou} * plow.' Such forms as ME. scko ' shoe ' rest upon the forms 
which had lost final h in Old'English, as sco beside scvh (cf. § 103). 

Note t. — In early Ml. h was still written for the voiceless guttural, and 
g {gkf )h) for the voiced : cf., however, halechen for more regular haljen 
(fialwen) 'saints*, halechede for later hal^ede {hcUwcde) * hallowed ' of* Chronicle.' 

Note 2. — The dialects agree. 


105. The ME. breath consonant h, essentially a spirant of 
palatal or guttural character^ occurs in general as in Old and 
Modern English, that is only in initial position, or initially in the 
second element of compounds. It haH been regularly lost, ^however, 
from the OE. initial combinations hl^ hr, hn, as in Jfpen, 'leap,' 
ring, nuie ' nut/ and sometimes also initially in unstressed words as 
t/ for OE. hi/. In unstressed syllables it regularly disappeared as 
mfosirild < OE. */os/orMd 'nurse.' OF. A, in words of Teutonic 
origin, falls in with OE., ON. ^, as in hardi, harneis 'harness.' In 
words of Latin origin h, though frequently written by scribes, was 
not pronounced. This accounts for the double Jforms erhf^iie-- 
hermit, ahii-'hahit, oriour^honour. The OE. combination kuo was 
retained in Middle English, though early written wh as by Orm, 
sometimes with the characteristic Nth. qu as in 'Genesis and Exodus.' 


Occasionally wh {kw) is reduced to ^, as in ho for who (§ io6). 
In OR, heo initial h became ^^, as injheyjho ' she/ 

Note. — Nth. agrees with MI. as to h, but uses qu^quk) for w^, showing 
a strengthening of the original hw to >&?&. Sth. shows a more frequent loss of 
initial ^, as in a for 0£. he, heo, and abben ^ have.* In Kt. the orthography Ih, 
nh for OK hl^ hn, perhaps indicates a retention of the original combinations. 


io6. The ME, semivowel ze;, which appears only in Teutonic 
words, though a few are from Romance sources, springs from OE. w, 
though limited by its vocalization to form diphthongs (§ 47). To 
words with OE., ON. w were added a few from Anglo-Norman 
which had retained an original Teut. w instead of the usual OF. gu. 
Examples of the latter are waiten *wait/ wdfre * wafer,' wdge, 
walopy werre ' war,' werreien {werrien) * make war.' Teut. w was 
not retained before t and hence an OF. g appears in such words 
as in § 97. In Teut. words w disappears between an initial con- 
sonant and a following («), as in /d beside fwo * tsvo,* J^png beside 
pwgng 'thong,' soie beside swote 'sweet,' ho beside who (kwo) 
' who.' In sp, aisp, the disappearance of w was earlier than in the 
other words, perhaps as early as late Old English (cf. § 42). w 
also disappears initially in a few unstressed words of common 
breath groups, as nas for ne was, nere for ne were, nille for ne wille, 
ngt for ne wgt, God gt {God wgf), OE. cw, ON. kv (=^) were 
generally written qu, under French influence, and with them fell in 
OF. words with qu together with a few with OF. c (=^k) + ue, ui as 
quire 'choir,' squiere (squire), squireL. For AN. quetnt^ aqueinlen 
see § 53* Similarly gu {=:gw) springs from OF. g + ue, ut in 
anguische ' anguish.' 

Note. — The dialects agree, but Nth. also has qu ijjuh) for OE. kw, and w 
was preserved in twd, qua^ &c. in which OE. a had not become g (/), 

107. The ME. semivowel ^ {y) is exclusively of Teutonic origin, 
and springs from the OE. semivowel^ as in^^r *ye2iT,* jgke 'yoke/ 
i"^ (j^i) 'young,' or the OE. palatal spirant g as in jelden 


* yield,' )frd (jarcl) 'yard.* Before t\ OE. g is sometimes vocalized 
as in j'cchen {OE.gyccean) ' iich,' Ipswtch (OE. Gtpestm^), Ilchesier 
(OE. Gifekeasier), and in unstressed isikel (OE. isgtcel) * icicle.' 
Similarly in the OE. unstressed prefix ge also became t {^y\ though 
regularly preserved only in Sth. ME. ) sometimes develops initially 
before a palatal vowel as in ^ork (OE. Eo/onmc), }du {you) from 
OE. iaw, the latter perhaps by influence of j^ (ye) 'ye.' 

io8. The ME. liquids /, r, do not diflfer in general from their 
Teutonic or OF. originals. In OE. words / disappears before and 
after ch, as in swich^ such (OE, swilc) ' such/ which (OE, hwilc), 
^ch (OE. ale) 'each/ milche beside mUchel (OE. mycel), wenche 
beside wenchel (OE. wencet). The combination rid sometimes 
becomes rd in werde 'world.' The OE. metathesis of r remains 
in Middle English, and some new examples of metathesis appear as 
/resch^ preschm ' thresh.* Double forms of some OF. words are 
found, owing to OF. double forms as marbre'-marhle^purpre-purple. 

Note. — In Nth., / before k does not disappear as before the corresponding 
ch in the other dialects ; cf. swilk, quilk *• such, which.' 

109. The ME. nasals fnyn,p{^n before k org) do not differ 
from their Teutonic and OF. originals, so far as preserved. OE. 
final unstressed m in inflexional endings had become n in late Old 
English. ME. flnal unstressed n in similar position or in un- 
stressed words tends to disappear throughout the period. This 
affects especially the en of verbal endings, and such unstressed 
words as an (a), gn (f), npn (ng), buten {bule, but) * but.' Some 
stressed words show a similar loss at times, as morwe{n), gdme{n)y 
viaide(n)y gpe{n), seve{n). 

Note. — In Nth. infinitives no final n was received from OE. times. This 
indicates the beginning of the tendency to lose inflexional n, a tendency that 
was more pronounced and rapid than in ML, far more than in Sth. 


iio. The ME. combination ch, as in chirch (tsh)^ occurs in native 
and Romance words. In native words it springs from the OE. 


palatal stop c {cc) before palatal vowels, as initially in chirche^ child, 
chesU, cherlj cherren 'turn/ chese 'cheese,' ^^^* chaff' j medially 
in wrecche * wretch,' speche * speech.' After a palatal vowel OE. c 
became M£. ch when final in unstressed words and syllables, as in 
tch %^ which, swich 'such,' Ipeswich^ Ipswich'; sometimes in stressed 
words as lich ' body, ptch * pitch,' French, owing to inflected forms 
with 0£. c in medial position or possibly in some cases to analogy 
of corresponding verbal roots. By analogy also ch appears in chgsen, 
pp. for OE. coren. On the other hand ch is replaced by the palatal 
stop k in the infinitive and other present forms of some verbs by 
analogy of the pres. 3rd sg., which had no ch ; examples are seken 
beside sechen * seek,' wirken {wtrchen) * work.* In Romance words 
ch appears before a, au in those from Central French, before e, i 
in those from the Picard dialect, beside NF. c {JC) for the former 
and c{=-s) for the latter. Examples are charine, charge, chaunge, 
chaumbre,pr^chen 'preach,' aprgchen 'approach,* cherischen 'cherish,' 
chisel, chimeneie 'chimney.' For doublets with NF. c {=k) beside 
OF. ch, and OF. c (=j) beside Picard ch, see §§ 96, loi. For 
OE. J + palatal c, see § 102. 

Note i, — In ' Chronicle,* c is still written for OE. r, but Orm uses ch which 
continues to prevail. 

NqTE 2. — As Old Northumbrian suffered no palatalization of OE. c. Nth. 
has c (k) in place of Ml. Sth. ch; cf. caf * chaff,* calk 'chalk,* mikel, ik 
*I,' quilk * which,* swilk 'such,* sek 'seek,* wirk 'work* (§ 94, n.). Sth., 
on the other hand, shows a greater number of ch forms, owing to the greater 
trr*»ber of palatal spirants in West Saxon ; cf. Sth. chfld^chalcT) * cold * from WS. 
ceald, vith Ml. Nth. cpldixom OAng. c&ld, and mucie/mth ch after an original 
guttural ^owel. 

in. The ME. voiced combination g (j), as in judge (dzh), 
corresponding to the voiceless ch above, occurs also in native and 
Romance words. In native words it springs only from the OE. 
voiced palatal stop g in gemination {eg) or in the combination ng 
(^z=n + dzh). Examples are drigge 'bridge,' eg^e *edge,' hegge 
'hedge,' sengen {singen) *''singe,' cringen 'cringe.' As the OE. 
combinations cg,ng could not occur initially, most such words with/. 


j (=flfe^) are of Romance origin. OE. eg (cge) in the present tense 
of verbs was displaced by analogy of the 3rd sg. in which ^ {^dzh) 
had not developed (cf. § 165). Examples are seien {seyen) * say/ 
ieien * lay/ dyen * buy.' In Romance words ME. ^,j represents OF. 
^,y, as in gen/i'l * gentle/ general, geant {gtanf) * giant,' jote 'joy/ 
j'^lous 'jealous/ engin 'engine/ chargen ^ c\i2iTgQ* juggen 'judge/ 
edge, plegge ' pledge/ In proper names with initial / (/) in the 
MSS. it becomes difl&cult to determine accurately, especially in 
Biblical names, whether they are from Old French or adopted 
directly from Latin with initial /=-K It seems safe to assume that ' 
OF. Biblical names only gradually displaced the OE. and Latin, 
such words zs Jestis, Jghan {Jghn), James, Jordan, Jerusalem being 
adopted before the more unusual as Joseph ; cf. Orm's Joscep, and 
losep {fdseph, Osep), Jacob {Acob) in ' Genesis ^nd Exodus.' 

Note. — Nth. shows no palatalization of OE. eg, ng and the voiced guttural 
stop therefore appears, as in brig * bridge,' Hg * lie,' big * buy,* tneng * mingle, 
disturb.* Sth. retains the voiced affricative in verbs, as seggen * say/ biig^en 


iia. Certain general changes which aflfect consonants more or 
less regularly may best be treated together. The most important 
of these for Middle English, Vocalization, has already been ex- 
plained as it affected the voiced spirants^ (h), rarely v, and the 
semivowel w in the formation of diphthongs (§47). Similarly the 
voiced spirant j after %, u was completely vocalized, causing com- 
pensatory lengthening when the preceding vowel was not long 
(§75); cf. also the vocalization of^ in the suffix i} (§ 103). 
Attention has also been called to the vocalization of the initial 
voiceless spirant } (=^) in § 107. Other consonants are more 
stable, but medial v is also vocalized in hd^i, hadde, and in OF. 
povre (pore) * poor.' The final voiceless y^ suffers the same change 
in the OF. ending tf, as in baily beside bailif, joly beside jolif. 
Medial k is completely vocalized in made from makede, and d in 


disf for didesi. The ME. ending we^ from OE. we, ge, during the 

period vocalizes to a syllable written ou {ow), as in sarow < earlier 

sorje {sorwe). Virtual vocalization in breath groups accounts for 

such forms as m'lk {ne wilk\ nas (ne was), ngi (ne wpf), § io6. 

The opposite tendency, Consonantizing, rarely occurs, and then 

only initially, 2iSprk (OE. Eo/orwtc) * York,*^^, § 107. 

Note. — Nth. carries the vocalization of k, v still further, as in td * take,' 
fan ' taken/ md ' make,* /id ' h&ye,* ^s * gives/ and allied forms. 

113. Voicing and Unvoicing. The most noteworthy voicing of 
consonants in Middle English is the regular shift of initial yj/, s, 
to V, voiced/, z in Sth. English. In Ml. the most common shifting 
was that of j to 2; in unstressed inflexional syllables of late Middle 
English, as indicated by the occasional spelling with z, OE. 
medial ^^ must also have become voiced before developing into the 
second element of the diphthongs, § 104. Besides these, voicing is 
rare, as perhaps of OE. c {k) to g in *bedgen, beggen if from OE. 
bediciafiy and OF. f to ^ in sugre * sugar/ graunien ' grant.' OF. 
/became d mjupar^, diamaund 'diamond/ waraund 'warrant.' 
Unvoicing of d to / occurs frequently in preterits of weak verbs 
ending in Id, rd, nd, vd, as hilte ' built,' girie * girded, girt,' wenie 
'went,' lefie 'left,' and sometimes in past participles, as nempnet 
' named,' glifnit * glanced,' § 93 n. Unvoicing of initial OF. bxo p 
appears in putien (OF. bouter), purse, pudding (OF. boudin), 

114. Assimilation and Dissimilation. Assimilation is common, 
as in all periods. Thus / becomes m before /«, as in wimman 
{wumman) from OE. wifman, lemman from OE. leofman ; n becomes 
/in elle < elne *ell,' T^ille < mz'lne (OE. mylen, myln). By partial 
assimilation the dental nasal n becomes the labial nasal m before 
a labial, as hemp, OE. henep, brinsign < ON. brennistdn, noumpire 
< OF. nonpere, comfort < OF. confort. Assimilation also accounts 
for the disappearance of h in mirpe < OE. myrhpe * mirth,' and 
c, g before p, t ox d in lenien {leinten) < lengten * spring, lent,' 
strenpe {sireinpe) < strengpe, dreinte < drencte 'drenched,' metnde < 
mengde ' mingled.' p in the combination rpf is assimilated and 


disappears in Norfolk^ and p is assimilated toy^in Suffolk, to s in 
Sussex, OE. Nordfolc, Sudfolcy Su3 Seaxan. The stops are more 
stable, but / is assimilated to s in blessen < OE. hUtsian, lest < 
beisty last < *latsf, Essex < East Seaxan ; d becomes s in gossip, 
gospel < Godsib, Godspel, and n by back assimilation in winnow 

< wtndwtan. Back assimilation after d, t (s) also accounts for 
atte < atjfiy and tat < and pat, is tat < is pat, wgst u < wpst pu 
(§ loo). It is virtual assimilation also, when such a form as such 
results from switch through swuch. Dissimilation has often been 
limited to such substitution of / for r as in OF. purple < purpre. 
So ME. pilgrim for pelerin. But a spirant has also been dissimilated 
to the corresponding stop, as / to / in the combination/; s, } {h) 
+p. Examples zxt pe/le < OM pe/pe {WS. pie/pe), teste < OE. 

pf las Pe, nostrils < nosepirles, sipe < OE. gesihp, heijte, OM. 
hehpu (WS. Idehpu), sleipe < ON. slcegp, ' sleight,' (cf. § too). A 
voiced spirant/ after the continuant r, especially before r, n {en), 
has become the voiced stop d as in murdre < OE. morpor, aforden 

< OE. afordian, burdene beside burpene < OE. byrpen. 

Note. — In the dialects such examples as Nth. s from OE. sc in mistressed 
words and syllables must be set down to assimilation ; cf. § loa, n. 2. 

115. Metathesis is occasional in Middle English. Thus sk in the 
verb asken (OE. acsian, axtan) probably springs from a late 
metathesis of ks, since OE. sc would have given sch {sh). Meta- 
thesis of r appears m/resch ' fresh,' pr esc hen * thresh,' but probably 
depends on OE. forms in gras, rinnen {rennen) * run.' 

u6. Substitution. One consonant seems to be substituted for 
another, though the cause is not clearly apparent, in coude < coupe 
* could,' guod < guop (OE. cwcbS), In the latter ^ must first have 
become voiced in the breath group between vowels, and the substi- 
tution in both cases may be due to the preference for a stop 
between continuants. By analogy of forms without grammatical 
change (Sievers, * Gr.,' § 233), consonants due to this influence are 
regularly replaced by their originals, but a few forms remain, as the 


verb sejfen-sodm (pt. and pp.), or the past participles used as adjec- 
tives, Igren {lorn),/orlgren (/orlorn\ cgren {ycgren) ' chosen/ 

ny. Ecthlipsis. The loss of a consonant through assimilation 
has been illustrated. The most common case of loss under other 
circumstances is that of final unstressed inflexional n, mentioned in 
§ 109. Under a similar influence final n, which is not inflexional, 
is also lost in some cases. Examples are a{n)y g{n\ morwein)^ 
seve{n), gpe{n), tg{n) * toe/ OF. final / also disappears in plaHf) 
' plea,' peti(t) * petty.' 

n8. Addition. A stop consonant is frequently added finally in 
word or syllable after a continuant, the kind of stop depending upon 
the preceding, and its voiceless or voiced character on the following 
sound. Thus the labial/ intrudes after m at the close of the syllable 
in nempnen * name,' empty ^ dampnen * condemn,' solempne * solemn,' 
iempten * tempt,' the first two from native, the last from Romance 
sources. Similarly before a vowel or voiced consonant h is intrusive 
after m mpumhe (OE. puma)^ crumhe (OE. cruma), schambles (OE. 
sceamol-sceamles) ' shambles,' brembel ' bramble,' pimhel *• thimble,' 
dumbren ' slumber.' The voiceless dental / is added at the close 
of the syllable after the dental s in listnen * listen,' glistnen ' glisten,' 
dekesf (OE. behces), anjensf * against,' bttim'x/e, and finally after the 
dental nasal n in the French derived /iraun/, flsaunt * pheasant,' 
parchment^ pageant. The voiced d is added after «, / in voiced 
company, 2&punder, kindred, expounden, jaundice^ alder (OE. air a) 
* of all,' and after final n in sound, riband, no doubt because of 
more frequent use before a vowel or voiced consonant. Less 
commonly a liquid /, r is added after a stop or spirant, as in 
principle (OF , principe), manciple, syllable, chronikle, philosgphre {OF , 
philosophe), provendre (OF. provende). N{p) has also been added 
in ni^tingdle, messenger, passenger. By incorrect breaking of the 
breath group an initial / has been added in tg < Mtg(n), toper < 
pat bper, an ft in newt < an ewt, ngnes {ngnce) < pen gnes^ 

ft'y' ■■■ « - • 



ng. As compared with Old English, most changes in the inflexion 
of Middle English words may be summed up under the one head 
of simplification of forms. This simplification, too, far from being 
exceptional in the history of language, has taken place naturally 
and gradually under the influence of phonetic change and analogy. 
How far it had gone during the period may be briefly shown. The 
noun, in general, had come to have but a single form for all plural 
cases, and usually but two forms for the singular; the strong 
adjective and adjective pronoun but one form in the singular, 
and one in the plural; the verb also shows a reduction in the 
number of personal endings and in the number of tense and mode 
forms. The former influence, phonetic change, had made dis- 
similar inflexional endings indistinguishable ; the latter influence, 
analogy, had caused the substitution of more common forms for 
the less common, until they had wholly displaced the latter. Both 
influences were strong in late Old English, and their strength was 
no doubt increased by the unusual linguistic conditions after the 
Conquest. From this time, for a considerable period, English was 
less frequently the language of government and of a national 
literature, while to a less extent it was influenced by the use of 
Anglo-Norman on English soil and by the gradual introduction of 
new words from foreign sources. 

Note. — This is not intended to imply that there was any considerable 
influence of the foreign language on English inflexions. Not a single inflex- 
ional form in the English of common people to-day cannot be accounted for 
by influences within English itself, and foreign influence should be assumed 
only beside the native, or when the latter fails to explain the phenomenon. 
While inflected tense and mode forms were reduced in number as mentioned 
above, it n^ust be remembered that the compound forms with auxiliaries, were 

ISO. Specifically the most general phonetic change affecting 


inflexions from Old to Middle English was the weakening oi a,o,u j / 
in unstressed inflexional endings to e, as in most other unstressed i 
syllables (§ 80), and their consequent union with e already common 
in inflexion. This had followed upon the late OE. weakening of 
unstressed inflexional m to n, as in the dative plural of nouns, | 
adjectives and disyllabic pronominal forms. Except in the earliest 
period also, all words show syncopation of final e before words 
beginning with a vowel or It, and frequent loss of final unstressed 
n. These were followed during the period by the total loss of final 
unstressed n in inflexional endings, and in late Middle English by 
final unstressed <?, whether belonging to the inflexion or the stem. 
Owing to these phonetic changes, which obliterated many of the 
differences between the diff*erent genders — for example the only 
diflierence between weak masculines and feminines in nouns and 
adjectives — the distinctions of grammatical gender in nouns, 
adjectives, and adjective pronouns was quickly lost. The most 
general analogical change was the substitution of the more common 
for the less common form. Specifically it may be pointed out that 
in the noun the accusative is probably the case-form of greatest 
frequency and therefore of greatest influence, and in the adjective 
and adjective pronoun, owing to the loss of grammatical gender, 
the neuter prevailed over masculine or feminine. In the personal 
pronouns, the more frequent use of the dative had almost obliterated 
the accusative before the close of Old English. In verbs, the third 
person of the indicative was more common than the other present 
forms and prevailed in its root over the others (§ 165). In the 
strong verbs the four stems tended to become three, either the 
preterit singular prevailing over the plural, or the preterit plural 
and past participle, when alike, prevailing over the singular preterit. 

NOT£.-*It is significant of the influence of accnsative and oblique case forms 
that nouns adbpted from Norse appear in the stem form found in the accusa- 
tive singular, and nouns and adjectives from Old French almost invariably have 
the form of the OF. oblique case singular rather than the nominative singular. 
Cf. § 136. 



lai. That grammatical gender had about disappeared in early 
Middle English is clear from the loss of feminine forms for the 
adjective and the pronoun (except the personal), and the almost 
entire loss of inflexional forms based on feminine and neuter 
originals in Old English. Even when inflexional forms which 
belong to older feminines or neuters are preserved, as an occasional 
genitive singular and a plural in e, and some neuter plurals without 
ending, there is litde reason to suppose that they were regarded as 
connected with grammatical gender. They are more probably 
forms which had not yet fully assumed the common inflexion, based 
on that of masculine nouns. As an added evidence of the loss of 
grammatical gender, it may be noted that no foreign-derived noun 
assumed grammatical gender in English. When grammatical 
gender disappeared, natural gender took its place, as in Modem 
English. One of the earliest evidences of this is the assumption of 
natural gender by such words as wt/cy maiden, which were neuter 
in Old English, and woman^ lefman ' leman ' which were masculine. 

Note. — As usual, what is said above applies to the Midland dialect. In 
Nth., the loss of inflexional final n had taken place even in OE. (Sievers, ' Gr.,' 
§ 276, anm. 5; § 354, 2, 363, i, 365, 2), as indeed the inflexions had 
been simplified in other respects. The result is that Nth. shows greater 
simplification than Midland even in the earliest period. Sth., on the other . 
hand, was somewhat more conservative than Ml. It retains a greater number 
of inflexional forms, especially in the earliest period, as also some distinctions 
of grammatical gender. Even in Sth., however, natural gender begins to 
prevail over grammatical, as shown by feminine pronouns referring to such 
words as wumman, leofman 'woman, leman.* Further details of dialectal 
usage will be given under inflexions of nouns, pronouns, &c. 


122. Most Middle English nouns are inflected in one of tw^ 
ways, according as they do or do not end in weak e in the 
nominative singular. Both these declensions are based on the 
forms of OE. masculine strong (tf)-stems, as shown by the plural 
in es (OE. as). These OE. masculines were assisted in their 


influence, as in genitive singular, by similar neuter stems, which 
did not differ in inflexion except in the nominative-accusative plural. 
The normal endings of these two declensions are as follows : 

I. 11. 

Singular, N. A.V. — ^ 

G. es {s) es 

^' — W r 

Plural, N. A. G. D. es {s) . es 

123. Instead of eSy is {ys) also occurs occasionally, especially in 
Northern. Forms in parentheses are less common. In addition, 
there are occasional forms, based on the retention of older inflexional 
endings, which are so uncommon as not to be considered normal 
in any sense. Such are plurals without ending, based on the OE. \ 
neuter plural of long stems, and those in en (<?), based on the 1 
OE. weak declension. The first usually belong to declension I, I 
the second to declension II, and will be treated u^der those heads 
(§§127, 132). 

Note i. — Early Midland, as represented in the * Chronicle ' and Orm, differs 
mainly in the somewhat more common retention of older forms, as of dative 
singular in e, and of plural forms without ending or with en {e). In the 
selection from the ^ Chronicle,' out of the first twenty-one plurals of different 
words, sixteen have tfj(j), three have no ending, one has etty and one e. This 
does not include two umlaut plurals, which of course belong under § 133. 

Note 2. — In Nth. of the earliest times from which a literature is preserved, 
these two declensions have largely become one, owing to the loss of final e, the 
change being completed by the middle of the fourteenth century. Nth. also 
commonly shows syncopation of e in the plural, less commonly in the genitive 
singular. A Nth. genitive without ending, especially in proper names, some- 
times occurs. Sth.j on the other hand, preserves many plurals in en, based on 
the OE, an of weak nouns, while there are some other peculiarities, as follows. 
The dative singular of declension I more commonly preserves e, and the 
genitive plural sometimes has forms in e or ene. Nouns of declension II, 
besides having en in N. A. D., have en {ene) in the genitive plural. Texts 
differ considerably in these respects, and plurals in en are gradually replaced 
by es (j) forms. For instance, out of thirteen different plurals in the selection 
from the * Poema Morale,' ten end in es, two in en, one in e. In the 'Juliana * 
selection, out of the first twenty different plurals, eleven have es {s), eight en, 




one no ending. In the selection firom * Robert of Gloucester,' ont of the first 
twenty-four plurals, nineteen have es (^), three gn, and one no ending. 

124. The First declension includes nouns ending in a consonant 
or in any vowel except unstressed e. It may be illustrated by dom 
* doom/ dat * day/ /re {/rezv) * tree/ /pken, as follows : 


N. A. V. dom daj, dai ire {/rew) fgken 

G. domes dajes^ dates trees, irewes (gknes 

D. dani^el da}[e], daz[e] /re, trewe tgken (fghne) 

N, A. G. D. dom^s dates {dawes) trees, Irewes tgknes {Igkenes) 

125. To this declension belong most OE. {tf)-stems and long 
wo'SXtms ; long masculine and neuter /- and long masculine »-stems, 
which had in Old English assumed the inflexion of ^-sterns in the 
main ; some OE. ^-stems which had not assumed, from the accusa- 
tive and other oblique cases, inorganic e in the nominative; and 
some anomalous nouns, as those having mutation, which had 
become regular by the loss of their anomalous inflexion. The few 
OE. a-stems which did not assume inorganic e may have become 
masculine or neuter in Old English, as ME. rerd (reord) * speech,' 
beside rerde {reorde). Special mention should be made of OE. 
feminine long i- and long i/-stems, which had no inflexional final e in 
the accusative singular and show some variation between declensions* 
I and II in Middle English. Their appearance without final e may 
be due to the influence of the accusative singular, possibly to change 
of gender and resulting change of inflexion, as in wip * creature,* 
flor 'floor,* werldy hand {hgnd). Those with final e may have 

assumed it in Old English (cf. Sievers, 'Gr.,' § 269, anm, i), as 
nede. Here belong OE. feminine long stems ending in a vowel, as 
sf * sea/ ig ' toe,* de ' bee,' slg ' sloe,' whether originally strong or 
weak. Such words, as all others ending in a long vowel, assume 
s only in gen. sing, and the plural. 


126. It is impossible in a single table, except a very complex 
one, to represent all variations due to ME. orthography or other 
causes. The most prominent may be briefly mentioned. The 
ending of the genitive singular, as of the plural, is sometimes is {ys)k 
Loss of ^ in the dative singular, common even in early ME., is 
increasingly frequent until that case becomes like the nominative- 
accusative, as in Modern English. In certain expressions, however, 
an OE. dative singular in e still survives. Examples are on live 
( < ^f) ' alive,' to bedde, id wedde ' for a pledge,* /or fere * for fear.' 
Disyllabic stems in el, en, er often show syncopation of the root e 
when assuming an inflexional ending, as in igken above *. Even 
when the spelling shows retention of the stem vowel, syncopation 
is usually to be assumed for the spoken form. Sync6pation, often 
loss of inflexional e, occurs in polysyllables accented on the first 
syllable, as pilgrimes, riveres (pronounced as if spelled pilgrimsy 
rivers) beside humours^ pilours i^peler) ' robbers.' The orthographic 
variations of words with new diphthongs, as da} {dai), are numerous, 
but will be clear by reference to the phonology. Thus ' Grenesis 
and Exodus ' has dai {dei), doges {daiges, dais) * day, day's, dayes,' 
and a plural dawes is also found, based on the development of OE, 
ag to aw (§ 55). The latter has usually been displaced by a plural 
based on the singular, where OE. ceg became ME. aj {ai). Occasion- 
ally, however, a new singular daw develops from the plural dawes. 
Stems ending m /, Jf, s show voicing of these consonants before 
a vocalic ending, as in genitive (sometimes dative) singular and the 
plural. Only in case of y* to v, however, is the voicing indicated 

127. Beyond those noted above, there are but few exceptions to 
the regularity of the common plural form. The most important is 
a plural without ending in the case of certain OE. neuters, or in 
words that have associated themselves with them. Examples are 

folk J ping 'thing,' ger 'years,' swin * swine,' hors 'horses,' shep 

^ Cf. Sievers, • Gr.,' § 244. 


' sheep/ dir ' deer/ «f/ ' neat cattle/ wgfen ' weapons/ Most of 
these gradually adopted the usual es {s) ending, though a few 
remain uninfected in the plural to modem times. Occasionally 
words which were not OE. neuters, 2& fugel, fish *fowl, fish/ are 
uninflected in the plural when used in a collective sense, as in 
Modem English. Variation in the plural of the root finals^/, s 
has been noticed in the preceding paragraph. 

128. Foreign derived words were adopted in the stem form or 
that of the accusative singular or oblique case when that differs 
from the stem. Thus ON. words do not appear with the nomina- 
tive inflexional r, but with the accusative singular as od * point/ 
hoi {hgle) ' tree-tmnk/ iark, garp ' yard/ Orniy ON. oddr, bolr, 
b^rkr, gardr\ Ormr, Similarly, where the OF. oblique case 
singular differs from the nominative, the former is regularly adopted, 
as in OF. degre, castel {chasiet), d$l {del) 'grief < OF. degrez, 
castels {chastels)^ dueh. The apparent exceptions, so far as OF. 
words are concemed, probably represent differences in OF. usage 
as tempest J poverte, beside tempeste, poverti. Only in armes * arms ' 
was an OF. plural directly borrowed, and this the more easily 
because it agreed exactly with ME. plurals in es. Borrowed words 
generally assume the native inflexion in its entirety. Thus ON., 
OF. words regularly assume native endings, as the gen. and pi. 
es (s)j though OF. nouns ending in s often remain uninflected as 
cas ' case,' pas * pace, pass,' and proper names as Eneas^ Priamusy 
Pers * Pierce.' Occasionally other borrowed words, especially 
Biblical names, remain uninflected in the genitive singular, as 
Adam soule, David Ignd, following mediaeval Latin usage. 

Note i. — In early Midland some further traces of inflexion are found, as in the 
nom.-acc. pi. in as in the ' Chronicle ' occasionally, and a gen. pi. in ^ , a dat. in e 
{pn) rarely ; cf. wintrct OE. winira 'winters.' So Orm has a similar genitive in 
such expressions as allrc ktnge king ' king of all kings,' d^qfie folk * folk of 

Note a. — As already indicated (§ 123, n. 2), Sth. is much more conservative 
in inflexions than Midland or Nth., and retains many older forms, as t, in the 
dat. sg., e^ ene (en) in gen. pi., en in dat. pi. Many nouns, also, which belong 


to declension I in MI., have assumed en in the plural in Sth., and hence belong 
to declension II. This is especially true of OE. short stem neuters and a- 

129. The Second declension includes all nouns with final un- '^ / 
stressed e in the nominative-accusative singular, and may be 
illustrated hyende {ende) 'end/ helpe 'help/ soule 'sg\jX,^ J?€we 'habit, 
custom,' as follows : 

Singular, N. A. V. inde helpe soule pevoe {pet4we) 

G. endes helpes souks pewes 

D. ende helpe soule pewe 

Plural, N. A. G. D. endes helpes soules pewes 

130. Here belong most OE. /g a nd shortzyg-stems ; the majority 
of a ( Jd, ze;g)-s tems ; short and many long femininej^tems ; short 
«-stems ; the great body of weak nouns, which had early lost final 
n ; and such others as had assumed inorganic e in the nominative 
singular. OE. feminines (sometimes masculines) ending in g (A), 
by influence of the oblique cases, assume je, later we, as sor^e 
(sorwe) ' sorrow/ /iirje (/urwe) ' furrow,' arwe ' arrow,' while side 
by side a form with final j {h) may exist, z.% fur} (/urH). OE. 
nouns ending in/ assumed ve of the oblique cases, as l§ve ' per- 
mission,' glove ' glove.' OE. neuter wo^ieva^ had no w in the 
nom.-acc. sg. or pi. and so do not assume it in Middle English, as 
m^le ' meal,' smp'e ' ointment,' ip'e ' tar.' OE. short feminine wa- 
stems assume we from the oblique cases, as schadwe 'shadow,' 
sinwe ' sinew,' and long stems show double forms sometimes, as 
m^dey m^dwe * mead, meadow,' corresponding to forms with or with- 
out w in Old English. ME. schdde is possibly from OE. scead 
neut, and not sceadu the ze/a-stem. OE. short neuters with e from 
u in nom.-acc. pi. sometimes assumed e in the singular, as blade 
'blade/ dale, h^de 'prayer,' hgle 'hole,' dgre 'door/ ^gke 'yoke,' 
and a few masculines which may have become feminines, as sjk 
(OE. seolK) ' seal.' ME. ni^re {niare) ' mare ' is from OM. mere 
(WS. mtere), not OE. nuarhy masc. OE. masculines ending in eg 


acquired inorganic <, perhaps under the influence of the greater 
number of such words which were feminine. Some original weak 
nouns have a plural in en, but, for the Midland dialect, are not 
sufficiently numerous to warrant treatment in a separate declension. 
Even when they have en plurals, es plurals are often found side by 

^wde with them. 

[ 131^ so-called genitive singular in e rarely occurs, but such forms 
TR&f be better explained as essentially compounds. Examples 
are heile pine * hell punishment,' chirche dure ' church door,' rode 
cross 'rood-cross.' All such words have originally, or have assumed, 

. inorganic e in the nominative, so that the form is merely the un- 
inflected one which so commonly enters into compounds, whether 
marked by a sign of union or not. In the dative singular, n is 
rarely added, more especially in rimes with forms regularly ending 
in n. As these occur mainly in south-east Midland texts of the 
earliest time, they may be due to the influence of the Sth. dialect, 
in which this peculiarity is more common (see Note 2 below), or 
they may be connected with the influence of the plural en forms. 
>/ 13a. The most important peculiarity of the plural is the retention 
/\ oi en («) forms from the OE. weak declension, and the extension 
of this occasionally to nouns not originally weak. The whole 
number of such nouns is relatively small, and they decrease 
throughout the ME. period, until Jthe only relics left in MnE. are 
oxen, rarely eyen in poetry, diXi^i brethren, children, kine, to which 
this ending has been extended. / Examples in ' Gen. and Ex.' are 
wunnen ^ customs,^ feren^ compaifions ' ; in 'Bestiary,' zc;///f« 'wishes,' 
egen ' eyes.' ' Gen. and Ex.* also shows the extension of this en to 
OE. strong nouns, as cglen * coals,' treen jtren) beside trees 'trees,' 

X m§ten ' meats,' st^den ' places,' j««^«_ beside sunes^ ' sons.' Owing 
to its early date and its south-east Midland dialect, the number of 
such forms. in this poem is greater than in others, especially in 
rime, where the usage can hardly be relied on as showing the forms 
of ordinary speech. More rarely still, plurals in e are found, as in 
* Gen. and Ex/ elne ' ells,' senwe ' sinevfSj' /ere * companions/ 

^? f v^>^' 

., Vv>VN 



Note i. — In early Midland a gen. sg. in e is occasional, as in Orm's sawle 
* sou\\^ fro/re * comfort's/ asse ' ass's,' wicche * witch's.' Probably in all these 
cases the intrusion of s was resisted by the close connexion with the following 
noun. Rarely also, gen. plurals in e are also found, as Orm's sawU ' souls',* 
shaffte 'creatures' '; compare the retention of ^» in true compounds, as Sunenti' 
da^j * Sunday,' uhhtennsang ' early morning song.* Plurals in en are also 
somewhat more common in this period, as haUchen * saints ' in the * Chronicle,' 
wawenn * walls,' hallghenn * saints,' ijkne {ehne^ ehhne) * eyes ' in * Ormulum.' 
Orm also has occasional c plurals, as hcUlfe * halves,' shajfte ' creatures.' 

Note 2. — Nth. is even more radical than Midland in giving up the old weak 
plurals in cn^ but a few still appear in * Cursor ^undi/ .^s qxetiy eten * e^es,' ^reft^^ S/ 
beside fres 'ears.* Occasionally no mHexion occurs, as mheven blis^ heven '^ 
kingy wEicnare essentially compounds. In other respects Nth. does not differ 
markedly from Ml. except as noted in § 123, n. 2. Sth. retains many more 
relics of the 0£. declension, as a g en, sg. in ^, and a dat. in en in case of many 
0£. weak nouns. Indeed en sometimes intrudes itself into the singular nomina- 
tive-accusative forms. In the plural, forms in en, e, rarely a, are especially 
common in the earliest period, as also genitives in ene {en), e, and datives in 
en» All such forms gradually grow less frequent, and are almost entirely re* 
placed in late Sth. by regular forms. 


133. A few nouns belonging to minor declensions in Old English 
show some peculiarities of inflexion. They include nouns with 
mutation as the distinctive feature, nouns of relationship, and those 
with original stems in nd, os {es). Those of the first subclass are 
declined as follows : 

Singular, N.A. /of man 

G. foies mannes 

D. fot(e) man, manne 

Plural, N.A. D. fit men 

G. fetes {fote) mennes (manne) 

134. Few examples of these mutation nouns are found in Middle 
English, since most of them had already lost all traces of mutation 
and had ranged themselves with the regular classes. It is difficult 
therefore to be certain of all forms, but there is a clear corre- 
spondence in the singular with the nouns of declension 1. In the 

i ... 


) W 


plural, the distinguishing feature is a notninative-accusative-dative 
with mutation but no ending. For the genitive plural, Orm has 
menness once, beside manne. An old genitive plural y^/f occurs 
after a numeral, as iwel /ote^ \?NQ\ve feet' (dialectally to-day * twelve 
foot'), ' Havelok,' 1054. Other nouns having mutation plurals are 
gos ' goose,' mus * mouse,' lus * louse,' ku {caw) the plural of which, 
kyn * kine,' has assumed n by analogy of en forms. A few nouns 
have uninflected plurals without mutation, as mdnejf (OE. pi. moneS) 
in twelve monthe ' twelvemonth,' niht in such expressions as seven 
niht 'seven nights, sennight.' ME. brech, 'breech, breeches,' 
preserves the mutation plural of OE. hrbc^ and becomes singular. 

Note i. — Early Midland has a few other mutation nouns, as Onn's got 
* goat,' gcet * goats,* an old feminine. 

Note 2. — Nth. does not differ from Midland, except in greater regularity of 
forms. Thus ku {kou) * cow,* has the regular mutation plural kf (kp) without 
the n of Ml. and Sth. usage. Sth. has a greater variety of forms, as gen. pi. 
monney monnene {en), dat. monnen. So also foten as gen. pi., and hrechen 
{brechts) a pi. of brech * trousers.' 

135. The nouns of relationship are declined as follows : 

Singular, N. A. V. fader ' father ' broper ' brother ' 
G. fader, fadres broper, bropres 

D. fader broper 

Plural, N. A. G. D. fadres brepren, bripere 

The genitive singular without ending persists through the ME. 
period, though the form in es also occurs from the earliest time. 
The older rautated dative has entirely disappeared. Like these 
nouns are declined moder, dohter {doper, douj/er) ' daughter,' st's/er, 
the last from Norse sys/er and the regular Midland form. 

Note i. — Early Midland, as Orm, has uninflected forms more commonly, 
with the mutated form of brepre in plural nom., ace, and gen. Orm also uses 
susstress * sisters,' from the OE. rather than the Norse form of the word. 

Note 2. — ^Nth. prefers the uninflected form of the gen. sg., and the plural in 
es (s) except for broper which has pi. bre}er for all cases. The mutated 
dehteres occurs sometimes, beside the more common dohieres ' daughters.' Sth. 
has both inflected and uninflected gen. sg., but prefers en plurals in the earlier 



period, as brdperen (J>re}eren)y dohiren^ sustren. The native English suster 
from OE. sweoster{swtister), rather than the Norse form of the word, is common 
in Sth. as in Chaucer. 

136. Here may be mentioned the remnants of the OE. oSy es 
stems, cMld, lamb, the only words that show peculiar forms. The 
natural developments of the OE. plurals, cUldru, lambruy were U 
cMldre, lambre, and these are often found in Midland. Later they 
both assumed the en ending, first in Sth., later in Midland, though 
at the same time lamb acquired a regular plural lambes. In the 
North childre {childer) remained the plural form, and lambre gave 
place entirely to lambes (lamhis). In Sth. another word^of this class, 
calfy followed child in adding en(n) to the older plural in r^, as 
calveren ' calves.' 

137. Of stems in nd, only /rend, fend * friend, fiend ' preserve 
peculiarities, and these only in the earlier part of the period. In 
that period uninflected plural forms are found, as /rend, /end 
'friends, fiends.' These were soon displaced by the regular 

/rendeSj/endes. For the quantity oi/rend, see § 79, n. 


138. The adjective has lost all trace of its OE. inflexion except 

for an ending e, which is added to those not originally ending in -j C 
a vowel, to form the plural, the weak form after a demonstrative ^ 
or possessive pronoun, or rarely a dative case. So far as this trace ^ 
of the older inflexion is found, adjectives in Middle English are 
declined in one of two ways, as they do or do not end in un- 
stressed e, [The weak form of the adjective is used afters pos- 
sessive or demonstrative pronoun, mcluding the definite article , and 
in the vocative.; In either case, if the adjective follows the noun 
without the repetition of the demonstrative (definite article), it 
remains uninflected. 

I. Strong 
Singular wis mam Utel /re 

Plural wise mani (manije, mame) It/el {Rile) /re 




Weak, Sg, and PL 

TJtnse mani {manle) litel fre 

II. Strong and Weak 

Singular grene 
Plural grene 

139. To declension I belong (a)-stems, including polysyllables 
and short jo-stems, except a few which have assumed inorganic e ; 
long wo-stems with vowel preceding zv ; and long «^-stems which 
had gone over to the ^sterns in OE. times. Monosyllables ending 
in a vowel, and usually polysyllables, are uninflected The 
participle is also regularly uninflected, as often in Old English. 
Relics of older inflexion appear in aller {aldre), OM. aira (WS. 
eaira) * of all,' both alone and in compounds 2^^alderbest {alperbesf) ; 
and in occasional dative phrases, as of rigne gode^ of harde grace. 
In the latter part of the period the adjective tends to lose all trace 
of inflexion, as shown by poetry, especially when far removed from 
the noun. This is but preliminary to the total loss of final e in 
adjectives as in other words. Adjectives belonging to declension II 
are virtually inflexionless. Here belong OE. longy(?-stems ; short 
wo-stems ; / and «-stems, except such as had taken the inflexion of 
OE. (7-stems. Short 2z;(?-stems, ending in u with w in oblique case 
forms, usually end in we in Middle English, as calwe ' cdXlow, * falwe 
'fallow,' salwe ^ sbWow/ jelwe 'yellow,' but sometimes forms ending 
in e alone are also found, as jdre beside jarwe * ready ' (Shake- 
speare'sj'ar^), ndre beside narwe * narrow.' OE. adjectives ending 
in palatal h (g) lose the final consonant as a rule, those with 
guttural h {g) develop forms in }e {we) from the oblique cases, as 
nohr^nowe ' enough,* woh {wou)h)-wowe * bad,' sor/ul-soru/ul ' sor- 
rowful,' walwe (OM. walg, WS. wealg) 'sickly,' arh^jiy-arwe 
* cowardly.' OE. adjectives ending in / regularly change f \o v 
before e, 

140. Most borrowed words fall into the same classes as the 


corresponding native adjectives and are similarly inflected. Thus 
OF. adjectives not ending in a vowel assume the plural and 
weak <?, as do native words, but OF. polysyllables which have 
acquired the Teutonic accent on the first syllable remain uninflected. 
The OF. seint often appears as seinte, but not exclusively before 
feminines. It is probable that both forms were adopted without 
regard to the OF. distinction of gender, though setnie would more 
naturally occur with certain feminines, as Setnte Marie (ii6, 15); 
but cf. Seint Marie (118, 2), Seinte Powel (200, 19). A few OF. 
adjectives with OF. s plurals are found, as in places delitdhles 
' delectable places/ goodes iemporelles ' temporal goods,' but these 
are mainly in prose translated pieces, rarely poetry and that of the 
more learned poets, so that they can hardly have been living forms 
among the people. 

Note i, — Early Midland shows a somewhat fuller retention of older forms, 
though in the * Chronicle' from the year 1132 there is no variation from what is 
given above. 

Note. 2. — In Nth. the two declensions tend to become one by the loss of 
final unstressed e, as in nouns. The plural e of declension I has generally 
disappeared, and many adjectives ending in unstressed e have lost this ending, and 
have fallen in with those without e. Even the ending e of weak forms is not 
regularly preserved after a demonstrative. In early Sth. some further traces of 
OE. inflexions are still found, as a genitive singular in es, especially when the 
adjective stands without a substantive, but also in some other cases as sumnus 
•weies * some ways * in the 'Juliana * selection. So bg}en * both/ with en^ but such 
forms are rare. The distinction between strong and weak forms of adjectives 
not ending in unstressed e is generally preserved, as in declension I above. 


141. The adjective is compared by the addition of the endings re 
(later er^ for comparative, est for superlative, from the OE. endings 
r<2, ost (est) by regular vowel changes. At the same time com- 
parison by use of the adverbs mpre, mgst begins to be used, especi- 
ally with polysyllables. Long root syllables show shortening in 
comparative and superlative, in accordance with § 76, as grei- 
greiter^ swete-swetter^ but analogy of the positive often restores the 



long vowel. Adjectives from Old French are compared like 
native words, with a tendency to use the adverbial comparison 
with polysyllables. As to inflexion, comparatives could not 
assume ^ after re, and did not usually after the later er; super- 
latives like des/, mgst, first were regularly inflected, as well as those 
with secondary stress upon the superlative ending, for example 
semtiest, but most superlatives remain uninflected. 

143. As in Old English, a few adjectives are irregular in com- 
parison. Thus gldj Igng, strgng still retain mutated comparatives, 
as elder^dest, lenger-lengesi Monger-longest/ sirengerstrengest 

* strong-strongest/ Some adjectives have forms of comparison 
with different roots from the positive, as god ' good,' betire {beirey- 
best] ivil (foil), werse {worsen wurse)-wersi i^orst, tvurs/) ; the 
corresponding Norse forms are also found, as t'lle-werre^ the 
former of which has remained to Modern English ; michel {mtkel, 
muchely much), irigre {mg)-mgst {m^sfj; Rtel (lite), lesse (lassey-l^st 

* least.' Forms of comparison based on adverbs, sometimes pre- 
positions, are /er ' izx^-ferre {/errer) ' farther/ dialectal farer- 

f err est ' hrthesi *; /gre, firs/ ; gver, gverest] utter, utter est] upper, 
uppest. In nerre ' nearer,' ferrest ' furthest,' new forms of com- 
parison have been based on older comparatives. The OE. super- 
lative suffix m^st appears as mpt, mast and mgst, the latter finally 



143. Most numerals are adjectives in function, though often 
uninflected. The older use as nouns with a following genitive 
disappeared entirely, except in sporadic cases, as twelfdte ' twelve 
feet' (* Havelok,' 1054), where the expression is a mere survival 
without syntactical significance for Middle English. The cardinal 
numerals are as follows, though no attempt is made to give every 
variant even of Midland \ gn{^' one ' ; two {tweyne, tweye) * two, 
twain ' ; J?r€ (thre) ' three ' ; foure {/owre) ' four ' ; /if{Jyve) ' five ' ; 



sejc (sexej sixe) ' six ' ; seven {sevene, seve) ' seven ' ; ejte (eghte, 
eighte) 'eight'; ni^en {nine) 'nine'; fen; enUven {elevene, eleve) 
' eleven ' ; iwelf {twelve) ; preitene {priiiene) * thirteen ' ; fourtene ; 
fifiene {fyfiene)\ sexiene {sixtene)\ seventene\ epene {eghtene, 
eighiene) ; ni}entene {ntmiene) ; iwenii {twenty) ; pritti ; fourfi ; 
hundred; pousen {pousende) ' thousand.* The ON. form hun drep is 
found beside the English hundred^ and from OF. the new numeral 
miliun {millimn) 'million' was adopted. Counting by the score 
(ON, skor ME. skgre) is of Norse origin, as the word itself implies 
by its form. 

144. The numeral ^ ' one ' sometimes has the old genitive ^s 
in early texts, and a plural of the same form in the expressiony^r 
pe n^es * for the nonce.' Plurals of the adjective form, gne, npne, 
alpne, ng pnes, also occur rarely. Such forms as /ive, stxe, 
twelve usually occur when standing alone or after a substantive, 
as well as in the plural. Two or three Old French numerals are 
rarely found, as cinq, sis * five, six ' in Chaucer. In early Midland 
the weakened forms of the first numeral, an {a), are common as an 
indefinite article, and these are found throughout the period as in 
Modem English. Owing to the tendency to drop inflexional n 
in unstressed syllables such forms as seve 'seven,' eleve 'eleven' 

Note i.~£arly Midland has other inflexional forms of the first and second 
numerals, as Orm's dness * one's,* anne, ace. masc. 

Note 2. — Nth. forms naturally differ in phonology, as an (a), iwd, ahi {aghf) 
< eight,' bnt these differences will be easily understood. Nth. has lost all forms 
of inflexion for the numerals, except as in other adjectives; see § 138. Nth. 
also has some Norse forms which are less common in Midland, as twin, frin, 
hundref * two, three, hundred.' Sth., especially early Sth., preserves the gen. 
masc. and fem. ^s, anre (Jr^), the latter also as dat. fem. ; the ace. masc. and 
fem. as anne^ ane. Sth. also has a gen. and dat. pi. of OE. iwigen, ' two,' as 
iwetre, twam. These, however, soon give place to regular forms. 

145. The ordinal numerals are firste {forme, firme), oper and 
later secounde, pridde {pirde), ferpe {fourpe), fi/te, sexte {sixte), 
sevepe {sevende, sevenpe), e}tepe {e)tende, etghtepe), nijepe {ni^ende, 



nmpe), ie)pe {tigpe, tende, tinpe), endie/te {elle/te, eUevend, elevenpe), 
twelfie, preiepe i^pretende, pretenpe), &c. Ordinals with ende, as 
sevende, are sometimes Mercian in origin, sometimes perhaps Norse. 
Old English oper is finally displaced by secounde from Old French, 
though remaining pronominal as always. The ordinals regularly 
end in e, owing to their position as weak adjectives after pe ' the/ 

Note. — In Nth. the forms with ende {end, and, ind) prevail, while in Sth. 
these are rare except in Kentish. 

146. Multiplicatives are formed with the suf£ix /^pld, OMerc. 
/did (WS. feald\ as gnfgld ' onefold/ The multiplicative idea, 
however, is expressed in various other ways, as by words meaning 
' times *■ and by various adverbs. Distributives are pn and gn * one 
and (by) one,' two and two, &c. Adverbs also, as betwm, frequently 
express a distributive idea. 


147. As to function, pronouns are either substantive, adjective, 
or both, and this distinction is important in understanding their 
inflexions in Middle English. Those that are wholly or mainly 
adjective in function, as possessives, demonstratives, and most 
indefinites, followed adjectives in their simplification to two forms, 
one for the singular and one for the plural. Those pronouns that 
are wholly or mainly substantive in function, as the personal, inter- 
rogative, and inflected relative, preserve, as their peculiar feature, 
an accusative-dative, generally based on an original dative and 
differing in form from the nominative. But the genitives of the 
personal pronouns have largely lost any substantive function, as 
of a substantive in oblique case, and their adjective functions are 
supplied by the possessives based upon them, together with new 
third personal possessives from the genitives of the so-called pro- 
noun of the third person. The latter, therefore, though given in 


the inflexion, are enclosed in parentheses to indicate their, more 
restricted use. 

148. The Personal Pronouns proper are inflected as follows : — 

First Second 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

N. Ic {Ik, Ick) I we J?u {Jwu, ihou) )e (ye) 

G, {myn) {ure, dure) {J^tn) (jure,jaure,youre) 

D. A. me us {ous) pe {thee) juw {joUjyou) 

149. It is scarcely necessary to give all orthographic variations 
of these and the other personal pronouns. Ic {Ik), /, though 
without capitalization in the manuscripts, are the normal Midland 
forms, as also jure, juw {youre,ydu) with initial j {y) by analogy * 
of je {ye), and a vowel due to shifting of accent from the first 
element of the diphthong in OE. eawer, eow, owing to constant 
use in unstressed position in the sentence. The form /fu, owing to 
similar unstressed position and to assimilation, often becomes /u {u, 
ou) when immediately following a verb ending in /, as ska// tu {u, 
ou) for 'shalt thou/ For ieirompe, see §§ 100, 114. Dual forms 
are rarely found in the earliest texts, as wit^mc, gunker-gunc * we 
two,' * you two,' in * Genesis and Exodus ' ; but these so soon dis- 
appear as to be quite irregular, and not deserving of a place in 

Note i. — Early Midland does not differ materially. For )ure, ^w, the 
earliest ' Chronicle * has iure, suggesting the older Northumbrian form turre 
(Slevers, ' Gr./ § 332, anm. 4). Orm also has $ure, )uw, showing the early 
addition of initial jj'. < ^, 

Note 2. — Nth. does not differ from Midland. In Sth. l£h is t he normal 
form for the first person. This is sometimes united with a following wulle ' 
(wdlle) *will,' as ichulle {ickolle) 'I will,' thongh each word is preserved 
separate in this book. Sth. also preserves genitive and accusative forms of the 
second personal pronoun without initial jj', as iower (awer) * your,' eow {ow, ou) y^^"^^^ 
'you.' Besides, dual forms, which are almost unknown in Midland, are 1 1 
occasionally found. - - - - ^* 



150. The so-called third personal pronoun has the following 
forms : — 


Masc. Neut. Fem. V # ^ -t^ 

N. hf hit, it sche, she {sho\ Iheo {he, ho) 

G. (^w) {hire, hir, here} her) 

D. him hire {hir\ here (her) 

A. him \hin\ hit, it hire {hir) 


N. ftt (hy, he), pei {pey, pai, pay) 

G. * (Jure, hire, peire, peir, pair) 

D. A. hem, pern {peim, paim) 

151. The genitives of the third personal pronoun, under the 
influence of possessives formed from the same case of the first and 
second personal pronouns, became possessives also, as shown by 
their inflexion in Middle English. The old masculine accusative 

V singular, hine {hin), occurs rarely in early texts, as ' Genesis and 
Exodus ' ; but with this exception the masculine and neuter forms 
are quite regular. Those of the feminine singular nominative, on 
the other hand, are numerous, as they are based on OE. heo or on 
the OE. demonstrative seo, from which the prevailing form develops. 
The former appear as ge {ghf) in * Gen. and Ex.,' ge in ' Best.,' 
heo {lu) in ' Flor. and Blanch.,' hye{he) in * Adam and Eve.' Forms 
based on the latter appear first in the ' Chronicle ' as sea, sge 
{=:sye), sche in *Gen. and Ex.,' sche{she, scheo, sho) in other Mid- 
land texts until, about 1300, they prevail over the others. The 
earliest plurals are based on the OE. plurals ht-here-hem. The 
/prototype of the Modern English they, based on the Norse demonr 
^strative which is first found in Orm, occurs once as ^ in ' Gen. 
and Ex.' In general, however, it is not until the beginning of 
the fourteenth century that the nominative pei{pai, they) becomes 
common^ and not until late ME. that all forms with initial ih {p) 


prevail. Chaucer, as representative of London English, has ihei \ 
{^hey\ but here-^hem. In some early texts, as ' Gen. and Ex. ' hit {ti) 
is plural as well as singular, and another plural his {is, es), perhaps 
based on the singular masculine or from Sth., is also found. 

152. As in Old English, the personal pronouns are used re- ^ 
flexively, both alone and in combination with sel/l But such forms 
as mlself, pyself, based on weak forms of the dative-accusative, or 
possibly combinations of the possessives and j<?^ used substantively, 
occur as early as the fourteenth century, and in Sth. a century earlier. 

Note i. — In early Midland the early use of sea * she,* in the * Chronicle,' and 
Ai:^ Q^)^^^)i A^i^' * they-their-them,* in'Wm are the most important ^ /j. 

variations. ^^ 

Note 2. — Nth. regularly has the fern. sciSJ^)^ ace. hir^ as also the plural \ 

forms with /, J>ai {fet)^ fair {feir\ J>aim (J>aifne, fdm, P&nte), but with an 



, - - J^ 

f occasional Iiam * them.' Sth. has preserved the masc ace. hine beside the datt^ ^4r^\l^ 
I him, and the fem. Ago {ha^ he, Al, htte). Variants' for masc. h? are also ha (a)./^- ^rvC»A 
The plural forms are based on those of OE., as nom. ace. At {hii^ huei )ieo\ . - 
here {hire, heore^ hueore, hor), heom {ham, huem, hem, horn), Sth. also has 
a plural jdse {is) * them,' beside ht, &c. As reflexives, Nth. has occasional 
forms with the genitive instead of the dative-accusative, as yourself , fairself, 
which seem to be unknown in Sth. 

153. The Possessive Pronouns are min {mi, my), pin {pi, thy), 
his, hire {hir), Hre {Hr, our),jiire {jiir,youre,your), here {her, hire, 
hir) with their {peir) in late ME. These are declined like adjec- 
tives, with plurals in e when the singular does not end in that vowel. 
The weakened forms mi, pi, occur only before words with initial 
consonants. The predicate and absolute forms are min, pin, his, 
her&i, tire, )ure, here, with plurals in e. Late forms in s are tires, 
^tires, heres, but these do not appear in the earlier part of the 
period.. Some texts also show forms with n, as mren, )uren, heren 
occasionally. The dual possessives uncer, incer appear only in 
the earliest period. 

Note i. — Early Midland (Orm) sho^s fe^jrs, the earliest absolute form in j, 
though perhaps due to Nth. influence. 

Note a. — Nth. works frequently show absolute forms in s, as hers, iirs, 
XpUf's, pairs, while they are unknown in Sth. 


. ") 







154. The Demonstrative Pronouns, like adjectives with which 
bhey agree in use, retain at most only singular and plural forms 
jwithout distinction of gender. They are three in number, two 

from OE. masculine and neuter s e (late OE. J?e ) and JfCBi * the,' . 
* that,' and one from the OE. neuter pis ' this.' The first, (^pt^ 
(Jhe), is invariable and is used as a definite article ; the others are 
declined as follows : — 

Sing, pat {pet, that) pis {pys, this, thys) 

Plur. pg {pa, thg) pise {pis, thts{e)\ pise {pis, thes{e)), pgs. 

155. A relic of the OE. dative plural Bdm remains in the expres- 
sion y»r/^ n^nes z=/or then gnes * for the nonce,' with final n from 
m transferred to the beginning of the next word. In a similar 
way final./ oi pat is sometimes transferred to a word beginning 
with a vowel, 2s>pe tg,pe toper {t^x^tx pet g, pet oper) * the one, the 
other ' ; ' tother ' is still dialectal English. For te, tat, tg from J?e, 
pat, pg after words ending in d, t, sometimes s, see §§ 100, 114. In 
the later period only atte = at pi * at the ' remains. A relic of the 
OE. instrumental pj^ appears in forpl, and as pe, \xi pi mgre and 
similar expressions. Occasionally }on, }gnd {yon, ygnd) < CM. 
g(m (WS. geon) are also found as demonstratives. 

NoTB I. — Early Midland shows J>d for J>p, in accordance with § 43, n. i. 
The * Chr.' once has />ds * these,' the OE. form, under the year 1132. 

Note 2. — Nth. has faas {fas) beside the more common f& (/««) as plural 
of fat, as well as Norse fir {feir, fer) and fits (fis) for the plural of /w. 
Sth., especially early Sth., shows a much fuller retention of OE. forms. Masc 
are N. fi, Q. }>es (Je), B.fin Qe), A. fern (Ji) ; Neut. N. A.>/ (Je), G. fes 
{}>i), D. J>€n ipt) ; Fem. N. feo (fe), G. D. Pfr {]>e). Plural N. A. pio ife), 
G. Jtio, pi {J>lr), D. pso. Pi (Jen), Also Masc N. pis, G. pisses, D. pisse, A. 
pisne ; Neut. N. K.pis, G. D. as masc. ; Fem. N. A. peos, G. D. pisse. Plural 
N. A. G,peos, 'D,pe0s,pissen. 

156. The pronoun of identity, ilc {ilk, ilche, tche,yche), is declined 
like an adjective. The demonstrative /<? and ilk {ilke) often unite 
by elision of <?, z,^ pilke {p ilche). The intensive j^^also appears as 
sehe, selven. 

Note i. — Nth. has ilk, ilke invariably ; Sth. iUh^ ilche, later ich^ 



157. The Relative Pronoun of Middle English, which is used 
universally and in all periods, is J^at * that/ Beside it OE. pe is 
found for a time, but soon disappears altogether. These are both 
indeclinable. In the fourteenth century others appear, as which^ 
pi. whiche (which), and the genitive whos {whose) dative whom come 
to be used ; also compound relatives as J^af he^ pat hisy &c., J^e 
whichy which paty pi which pat. 

Note i. — In early Midland fe is common beside /a/. 

Note 2. — Nth. has fat alone in the earliest texts. Sth. uses Pe^fety later 
J>aty and retains }e much longer than in Midland. In the early fourteenth 
century Sth. also \s3&whan (wan, wanne, wane) *whom, what,* evidently from 
OE. hwam by weakening of m. 

158. The Interrogative-Indefinite Pronouns are who (Jio), while 
{hwilc, which)y wheper {hweper, whether) ' who, which, whether.' 
The first is declined as follows, without distinction of number : 

Masc.-Fem. Neut. 

N. hwo {woy who, ho) hwat {wat^ what) 

G. hwos {woSj whos, whose) 

D. hwom {worn, whom) 

A. hwom {worn, whom) hwat {wat, what) 

159. The others are declined like adjectives, though whether is 
usually uninflected. Compound forms are also found, as hwo sg, ^^^^ 
hwdse * whoso,' &c. Some Midland texts, as * Genesis and Exodus,' j 
have the spelling with qu for hw {wh) which is especially charac- . 
teristic of Nth, Thus quoy qubm {quam), quat, queper, &c. 

Note i. — ^Early Midland shows the earliest use of wh for OE. hw, as regu- 
larly in Orm, a spelling which is not established until the last half of the 
fourteenth century. 

Note 2. — In Nth. the spelling with gu for hw prevails with few exceptions. 
Nth. uses sum as well as swd in compound forms, as quasum, quatsum, Sth. C ' 
variants are hwoa beside hwo, and occasional forms with a, as hwas, hwam 
(Jiwan), hwase, * whoso.' Sth. also has hwuch, hwuj>er, for hwich, hwefery 
by influence of the preceding consonant on the vowel. 

160. Other indefinites are al * all ' ; ant {any, gny, eny) ' zny ' ; 
ajt {aujt, ought) * aught ' ; na^t (naught, nought) ' naught ' ; dgthe 


/' .-/ 




' both ' ; iich {eck, ^che) * each ' ; at/^er {eiper, ouper) * either ' ; 
naiper {neiper, nouper) * neither ' ; evertlc {everich, evert) * every ' ; 
evenwher {where) * everywhere ' ; ?nam * many ' ; man, {men, me) 

* man^ one, they ' ; pn * one ' ; npn * none ' ; oper * other ' ; sum 
{som) ' some ' ; swilc {swich, such) * such * ; wthi iwtght) ' wight/ 
Compound forms are also common, as everilcgn {everichgn) 
' everyone/ mani an{a) * many a/ sumd^l * somedeal/ sumktn * some- 
kind/ sumwat * somewhat/ &c, 

i6i. The indefinites are in general declined as adjectives, but 
a few special forms must be mentioned. An old genitive plurgj of 
al, aller {alder, alper) is found occasionally, and in one or two 
compounds as a stereotyped form, as youre aller cost ' cost of you 
all,' and alderbest ' best of all,' alder first * first of all ' ; hgthe ' both ' 
sometimes has a plural dpthen in imitation of nouns in en; a 
genitive of oper, opres * other's ' also occurs. 

Note. — Nth. has allirs^ bafir {bdfirs) * of all, of both/ instead of aller, 
bpj>e {bgfen) above ; also sdnie * same,* sllke {site, sit) * such,' both Norse forms 
peculiar to Nth. texts or those influenced by Nth. Nth. also retains quon * few,' 
from OE. hwon, Sth. retains many inflexional forms from OE. times, such as 
have been mentioned already under § 140, n. 2. In addition, Sth. has some 
plurals formed under the influence of the en nouns, as bpj>en^ both,* o^eren 

* others.' Other forms of special peculiarity are Sth. em, ei ' any ' ; nenne, ace. 
sg, of ngn * none ' ; sunwtes, pi. of sum ' some.' 


162. With the exception of the few anomalous forms, verbs 
belong to two classes as in Old English, the weak distinguished by 
a preterit tense with dental sufiix, the strong by one with change of 
root vowel ^. As in Old English, also, the verb has both inflected 
and compound forms, the latter made up by the use of verbs 
originally independent but weakened to the force of auxiliaries, as 

* The distinction between gradation and original reduplication verbs need 
not be here regarded, since the distinguishing feature remaining to Middle 
English is a change of root vowel, though sometimes owing to contraction of 
origipal reduplication. 


in Modern English. The inflected forms, all belonging to the 
active voice, are two tenses, a present and preterit; two modes, 
an indicative and subjunctive, or subjunctive-optative since it has 
the uses of both ; an infinitive, and two participles, a present and 
a past. The compound forms are four indicative tenses, a future 
and three perfects, present, past and future; a present and past 
optative, or potential, with auxiliaries may^ can, &c.; a present 
perfect infinitive and participle ; and a passive with all the modes 
and tenses of the active, both inflected and compound. 

163. The normal inflexional endings of the verb may be seen in 
the following scheme : 

Inflexional Endings of the Verb 

Weak Strong | Weak Strong 

Present Indicative Preterit 

* ■ . • 

ede, de (Je) — 

edestj desi {Jest) e (-) 

ede, de {fe) - 

ede(n)y {ed\ de{n), te{n) e{n) 


ede, de (/?) J^ e 


Sing. I. e 

2. est 

3. ep {elh) 
PL I, 2, 3; e(ny 

Sing. I, 2, 3. e 

PL I, 2, 3. e(n) edein), de{n\ ie{n) e{n) 


Sing. 2. e — 

PL 2. ep {eth), e ep {ih), e, - 


ende (ande\ inge \ ed {d, i) e{n), {e)n 

* Loss of final n in all en forms grows increasingly common through the 
period. For dialectal peculiarities, see §f 166, notes. 

* Loss of final e is most common in this inflexional form. 


y 164. So far as inflexional endings are concerned, a single class 
V of weak verbs resulted from the three weak classes of Old English. 
In the present tense the endings of the weak and strong verbs are 
the same, but for slight differences in the imperative. Syncope 
and apocope of € are sometimes found, more commonly in the 
latter part of the period. Loss of final n also grows more common 
through the period, thus reducing the number of forms, while final 
e is regularly silent in late Middle English. The second and third 
person singular of the present indicative, occasionally the plural 
imperative, sometimes have es {s), the characteristic Nth. forms. 
Assimilation and simplification in the consonants of the third 
singular are occasional, 2C^ /int hesidt /indefi, stf beside st'UeJf, 
Verbs ending in a vowel naturally show contraction with the 
vowel of the ending, as see^ sis/, se}? ' see, seest, seeth/ The 
imperative plural ending is reduced to e, or lost altogether when 
immediately followed by its pronoun. The prefix / {y), OE. ge, in 
the past participle is rarely found. 

165. Analogy played an important part in the development of 
inflexional endings. Thus OE. verbal stems in r whiqh retained i 
from the Teutonic Jan ending, whether weak or strong, and verbs 
of the second weak class in mn {jgean) regularly lost i {J) in all 
forms in which i^occurred. Their infinitives came to end in en as 
in the case of other OE. verbs in an, and e in the ist sg. pres., en 
in the plural and ep in the imp. pi. Examples are ?i£ren (OE. 
herian) * praise ' for the OE. first weak class, swfren (OE. swertan) 
* swear ' the only strong verb, and wunen (OE. wunian) ' dwell ' 
for the second weak class. But OE. verbal stems in rgan {rglan) 
retain i from palatal g {tg), as birien ^ bury.' Similarly OE. verbal 
stems in eg, bb, whether weak or strong, lost those combinations in 
the present and assumed those of the third sg., as seien for seggen 
(OE. secgan) ' say/ li^en, Ren (OE. licgan) ' lie, recline,' haven (OE. 
habban) ' have,' hfuen (OE. hebban) * heave, raise.' OE. libban 
'• live,' however, gave way before OE. Ufian of the second weak 
class in preterit and past participle, the present of both verbs falling 


together by reason of both the above changes. For grammatical 
change in strong verbs see § 172. 

166. The verb haven *have/ the only relic of the third weak 
conjugation which has not become regularized, has the following 
peculiarities: present have^ hast {has), hap (Jiai}i)\ pL haven (have)\ 
preterit, hafde (Jiaved^ hadde, had), Mdken * make ' shows a similar 
loss of medial k, and clgpen * clothe ' of medial/, as mdked {mdde\ 
cladde ' clad/ 

Note i. — Early Midland differs mainly in a somewhat fuller preservation of 
OE. forms. Analogical changes, also, had not been fnlly carried out, Orm 
having habben^ libben^ se^en, le^n from OE. forms with bb, cg^ 

Note 2. — Nth. agrees with Midland in the main, but the endings of the 
present indicative are characteristic, as i ^ (-, es)\ a, 3 «; pi. i, 3, 3 «• (^ 
when followed immediately by the personal pronoun). The infinitive has no 
Bnal n and often no e remaining, as bind < bind,* for Ml. btnde{n). Syncopated 
forms of the present are exceedingly rare ; the preterit of the weak verb has, in 
general, lost its personal endings ; the present participle ends in and (^), and the 
prefix of the past participle, i (^), OE. ge, is wholly lost. Sth. retains OE. 
weak verbs of the second class with infinitives in it{ri) and the following 
endings in the indicative present ; Sg, i uij^ye^y) ; PI. i, 2, 3 f<^ {tetfi), OF. 
verbs in ier and sometimes those in eter oi er fall in with this characteristic Sth. 
class. Sth. also often has infinitives in ten from OE. ian after r, and present stems 
with ^g<. OE. eg, bb < OE. bb. In the second and third persons es {s) for s is 
unknown ; syncopated forms are very common^ as also those with assimilation 
and simplification of consonants ; the present participle ends in inde (seldom 
cnde)t later inge ; the prefix i {y) of the past participle is often retained. All 
other verbs have e} {eth) in the plural. The London dialect seldom retains the 
prefix * (^), OE. ge^ of the past participle, as in Midland, but Chaucer makes 
extensive use of it in poetry, no doubt for metrical reasons ; see any glossary of 
Chaucer under ^ (?). 


167. The weak verb in Middle English may be divided into two 
classes, distinguished by a preterit tense ending of ed {e) or de (fe\ 

^ Weak verbs are placed first because they are the most numerous class in all 
periods of English, and hence represent regularity in forms as compared with 
all other classes. Besides, this arrangement brings together all minor divisions, 
as strongs preterit-present, and the four anomalous verbs. 




\ The first, with preterit in ede, includes verbs of the OE, first weak 

^ class with original short stems, except those ending in ^ or /; most 
-^'^ ' ' verbs of the OE. second weak class by weakening of OE. ode to 
; ede\ strong verbs with short stems, when becoming weak by analogy; 
and such borrowed verbs as have ranged themselves with them 
. . A because of similar formation. 
\j i68. Verbs of the second class in Middle English are dis- 

tinguished by a preterit tense-ending de, or te after stems ending in 
a voiceless consonant. To this class belong polysyllabic verbs of 
;, ;> the OE. first weak class, together with those having original long 
stems, or short stems ending in d or /, and those with mutation 
only in the present (Sievers, 'Gr.'§4o7); the small number be- 
longing to the OE. third weak class ; some verbs of the OE. second 
weak class which have lost the connecting vowel of the preterit 
ending ; strong verbs with long stems, when becoming weak by 
analogy; and such borrowed verbs as have ranged themselves 
with them because of similar formation, especially long stems. 

169. The past participles of both classes usually end in ed. 
Certain verbs of class II, however, have d ov i without connecting 
vowel, as those with mutation only in the present, and the few 
originally belonging to OE. class III. Besides, some verbs ending 
in d, /, have past participles without ending, by reason of earlier 
syncopation of e and simplification of the resulting consonant 
group, as fed J set, A few others, as those ending in a vowel or 
liquid, also have past participles in d; for example, yf^« ^^QQ*-fled, 
heren ^ hear '-/lerd, 

170. Some irregularities naturally occur.- In addition to the 
casQS in which /e regularly belongs to the preterit and / to the 
past participle, those endings are sometimes found after consonants 
voiced in the present but becoming voiceless in the other forms 
after syncopation of the connecting vowel e ; examples are losen-^ 

f lode-lost ' lose-lost,' clfuen-clefte-cleft ' cleave-cleft.' Some verbs 
ending in a liquid .+ </ change </ to / in preterit and participle, as 
wenden-ivente-^wenty hilden-bilte-bilt ^ build-built,' girden-girte'-girt 


' gird-girt/ This last change is far less common in Nth. Some v^ 
verbs differ in present and preterit by reason of special phonetic 
changes, as hknchen 'blench, hhxich* -bleznte-hlemt, mengen ' mingle '- 
meynte-meynt, § 48. In § 165 attention was called to the develop- 
ment of OE. palatal g after r as in hirun * bury ' ; when OE. I • j 
guttural g followed /, r it regularly became j later w^ as in fol^en 
(Jhlweri) * follow,' borjen {borwen) * borrow/ 

171. Borrowed verbs, with few ex ceptions, assumed the inflex ion 
of the weak verb, following one of the t wo classes above^ accordin g 
as they agreed with one or other in phonetic peculiarities . ON. 
weak verbs were easily received without much change, yet such 
verbs ending iny^, va {=:wa) follow their presents without those 
endings in English. Examples are eggen < ON, eggja, giren < 
gfrva. Verbs from OF. sources almost invariably became weak in 
Middle English. In general their forms depend upon the form of 
the OF. present stem, as ME. chanten < chanter, platnen, respondm 
< plaindre, respondre, but rendren, battren * render, batter ' < rendre, 
baire; maven < movoir\ atsen {^sen), ckdsen {cachen) < aisier, 
chaster (J^iQZxd cachter) 'ease, chace, catch'; but /waww * marry,' 
canen ' carry,' tarien * tarry,' studien * study,' demen * deny.* The 
present stem is especially important as accounting for ME. verbs 
in 'ischen {men) from the OF. pres. pi. in iss-, infinitives in tr, as 
finischen < finir ' finish,' florischen^ nurischen, puntschen, rejoissen 
* rejoice,' traissen {betraissen) beside iraien (betraien) ' betray,' 
obeischen {pbeissen) beside obeien * obey.' Double forms in OF. 
account for certain peculiarities in ME. verbs, as the two forms 
cldmen, claimen ' claim.' A few verbs are formed from OF. past 
participles used as adjectives, 2^^ clgsen, peinien *^2i\ni,' fainten * faint, 
feint ' beside feinen * feign,' enointen (anointen) ' anoint ' ; cf. OF. 
clore-clos, peindre-peint, feindre-feinty enoindre-enoint. In late 
Middle English other verbs were similarly formed from OF. or Lat. 
perfect participles first adopted as adjectives; cf. credt 'created,' 
desolate 'desolated' and the verbs from them. The greater number 
of borrowed verbs assumed the forms of class I, but some, especially 


those ending in a vowel, took the preterit de of class II ; examples 
are crien ' cry '-^ryde^ payen * pay ^-payde. By analogy of lacchen— 
laujte-laup * seize/ and others of its class, OF. cacchen ' seize, 
catch ' formed its preterit and participle as caughte-caught. 

Note. — Nth. agrees with Ml. Sth. retains infinitives in ten from OF. verbs 
in ier^ the latter falling in with 0£. weak verbs of the second class in that 


172. This class, as in Old English, includes gradation verbs, and 
those with original reduplication, the former including several minor 
divisions. The most noticeable change in strong verbs during 
ME. times is that many of them have become weak by analogy of 
the great weak class. On the other hand, a very few new ones 
appear, owing to borrowings from Norse and to rare analogical 
formations. Strong verbs also show a tendency toward the reduc- 
tion of the two preterit stems of most OE. strong verbs to one, 
but this tendency was not fully carried out until modern times. 
It results naturally from the fact that even in Old English the 
preterits of reduplication verbs, of those of class VI, and some of 
class V had the same stem vowel in both singular and plural. 
The reduction of the four OE. stems to three was further influenced 
by the similar vowel in preterit plural and past participle of verbs 
belonging to class I and most of class III, and by the regularizing 
of consonants in verbs originally having grammatical change. 

Note. — In this reduction of preterit stems the dialects differ markedly. Nth. 
has lost one stem, usually the plural, almost entirely. Sth. retains both forms 
as a rule. Midland stands between the two in this respect, though agreeing 
more nearly with Sth. through most of the period. With this general state- 
ment, dialectal differences in the various classes need not be noted, except in 
special cases. Differences due to the different phonologies of the dialects have 
been sufficiently exemplified in the part on Phonology. 

173. The inflexional endings of strong verbs have been shown 
in § 163. The preterit second singular is often without ending. 
There are also few peculiarities of strong stems not already noted. 


Attention has already been called to the change in present stems 

ending in cg^ and those which retained /* after r in Old English, 

§ 165. Variations originally due to mutation in second and third 

singular present indicative have also disappeared by the influence 

of the unmutated forms, though mutation was never so common in 

the Anglian dialects as in" West Saxon (Sievers, 'Gr/ § 371, 

anm. 5 f ). 

Note. — Nth, seldom preserves the e of the second person preterit indicative, 
while in Sth. it is not uncommon. Sth. also preserves OE. eg" of verb stems as 
^^ ( = dzh) more commonly than Midland. 

174, Gradation verbs belong to six sub-classes, as in Old 
English, with the following vowels in their various stems, — the 
present; preterit singular, preterit plural, and past participle re- 
spectively ^ : 

3. t{e)"a(^)-u{ouJ)-p,u{ou) 6. a{f,o)-d-'d-a{a, ^,0) 

175. Verbs of class I are exemplified by driven ' drive '-^rgf- 
driven (dr^/Y-drtven ] wriien ^ "wni^^-wrgt-wriien {wrgty-wrtien ; 
riden ' ride '-rgd-riden (rgdy^tden. The introduction of the preterit 
singular vowel in the plural is especially to be noticed as suggesting 
the Modern English form. The verb siijen {stten) * ascend ' has a 
pret. sieij as if from OE. *steah of the second class or possibly from 
Norse. To verbs which regularly belong here from OE. times 
must be added two borrowed verbs, riven * rive ' from Norse, and 
striven ^ strive ' from French, the latter with strong forms by analogy. 
The weak verb chiden * chide ' also shows strong forms as early as 
the thirteenth century ; compare chidden, a past participle, in * Gen. 
and Ex.* 1927. 

' The order of these sub-classes is unimportant, except that sub-classes 1-5 
develop from the Teutonic e-a, and 6 from a-o gradation series. In England 
the reduplication verbs are sometimes called class I, and the above are then 
given in the order 6, 4, 5, 3, i, 2. Streitberg, followed by Kaluza, adopts the 
new order 5, 4, 3, i, 2, 6. 


176. Of the contract verbs belonging to this class, only J^en 
{ihee) * thrive, prosper/ and wren {tvrien) ' cover, conceal ' seem to 
be preserved. Even in Old English, too, these had been influenced 
by verbs of class II, so that some of their forms still correspond 
with those of that class. The first has preterit sing, /^eg, pret. plur. 
and past part pggen, later pcwen ; the second, pret. sing, wrej 
(;wreigK), pret. plur. and past part, wrijen {wrejen). 

Note. — Early Ml. and Nth. retain in pt. sg. in accordance with §§ 5, 43. 

177. Class II early adopted a preterit plural with the stem vowel 
py by analogy of the past participle, though occasionally the vowel 
of the preterit singular was introduced into the plural. Examples 
of verbs which are fairly regular are ski^en ' shoot *shp~shgten {sh^l)- 
shgten ; chesen ' choose * -chp-chgsefi {chjs\-chgsen, the latter with j- 
instead of r in preterit plural and past participle by analogy of the 
remaining stems (OE. cifton-^oren). A form with u in the present 
is skuven ' shove '-J^g/* {shg/)-s^gven-'Shgven ; with change of 
consonant due to Verner's law, sej>en * seethe *~s§p-'Sgdenspd€n ; 
lesen * lose W/j {las)-lpen, {Igst^-lgreti] flegen {flyen) ^^y*-flig (^JUty- 
flggen (^flowerCy-flggen {flowen). Beden shows influence of bidden 
(class V) in forms and meaning. 

178. Weak forms are found beside the strong in some, cases, as 
crepen ^ cxQti^*-crepte-crept, beside cr^p (crgp\-crgpm-<rgpeny and 
lesen ' lose '-Igste-lgsi beside the strong forms above. The contract 
verb flen (OE. fleon) *flee' has the same preterit 2.% flegen {flyen) 
'fly/ and there is in other respects much confusion between the 
two. The other contract verb, ien * draw/ has preterit t^k {iet) and 
past part, tggen ijowen). 

Note. — Grammatical change disappears during the period except in sefien 
* seethe/ though past participles sometimes preserve the original consonant 
when used mainly as adjectives. 

179. Class III consists of two subdivisions as the present stem 
has . e or i, the latter before a nasal as in Old English. Both 
classes show occasional intrusion of the vowel of the singular 


preterit into the plural. Verbs with e in the present stem are 
exemplified by helpen 'help -Aa^ (holpy-holpen-holpen] swellen 

* swell ' -swal-swoUen-swollen. A few show peculiarities due to 
lengthening in accordance with § 72, diSjelden {yelden) * yield *-jpid 
{ jaldy-jplden {ygldetiy-jglden {yglden). The \trbfi)teh 'fight' has 
I from original e in the present stem, according to § 22, 2 ; its 
remaining principal parts zxefajt {/aughty-fopen {/oughten)'^open 
{/oughien). The verb meaning * to become' (OE. weordan. North. 
worpan) early appears as wurpen {worperiy-wurp {worp^ warpy- 
wurpen {^orpeny-wurpen {worpen) without change oi p io d in the 
last two forms, and with u {0) in all stems, by influence of pre- 
ceding w{^2 5). Similarly OE. swelgen appears as swellen {swelwen, 
swolwen) ' swallow,' and develops a weak past participle swoljed 
iswolwed). Here also may be mentioned hresien * burst ' with 
preterit singular hrast and hrost (compare § 76, «. 2). OE. hregdan 
becomes hreiden {preden)-'hreid-broiden-broiden. 

180. The more numerous subdivision, with /in the present stem 
before an original nasal + consonant, is exemplified by winnen 

* strive, win '-wan-wunnen-i^dnneny-wonnen ; drinken ' drink '-drank 
"drmken-drdnken-y springen * spring *-jr/ra^ (^sprgngy-sprongen- 
sprongen, the latter with g in preterit singular, beside a, according 
to § 17. The of preterit plural and past participle is of course 
orthographic for « (§ 27). A few verbs have lengthened vowels in 
all forms, zs/lnden ' find '-fgnd i^fandy-fgnden {Joundeny-founden, 
the only others of this sort being binden, grlnden^ wmden 'bind, 
g^nd, wind.' The verb rtnnen ' run ' has a present, in e, as rennen, 
with the remaining forms regular. Similarly hrennen ' bum * has e 
in the present, though like several others belonging to this class it 
has become weak. The preterit of gtnnen * begin ' is frequently 
used as a preterit auxiliary in such expressions as gan gg ' went, 
did go.' 

Note. — In late Nth. begin developed a weak pret. begaupe by analogy of 
couJ>e, The pret. gan also appears as can, as sometimes in Ml. 

i8x. Class IV is a small class, as in Old English, and it early 


shows a tendency to the introduction of the vowel of the past 
participle into the preterit plural, occasionally the preterit singular. 
Verbs which are most nearly regular are stpen * steal '"Stal-sielen" 
stglen ; sh^ren * shear '"Skar^sheren^shgren, With o forms as above, 
b^ren *bear'-3<2r {bgr, hery-heren {bgren)-hgren\ brpcen 'break'- 
hrak-breken {brgkeny-brgken. Quite irregular, as in Old English, 
are nimen {fUmen, perhaps Norse) ' take '-nam {ndm)-ndmen {ndmen, 
nam)-numen, and cumen {comen) * come '-cam {comy^omen (cdmen)- 
cumen {comen), 

182. To this class, which originally contained br^kan 'break' 
irregularly, several others of class V began to attach themselves by 
assuming past participles with the vowel beside e. Examples are 
given under the class to which they originally belonged. 

Note. — For p (eMl. Nth. a) instead of / (Sth. ^ in the pret pi. of this and 
the following class, see §§ 18, 43. 

183. Class V, also a small class in Old English, is made smaller 
during Middle English by the tendency of verbs originally belong- 
ing here to assume forms of class IV, and thus range themselves 
with that class by analogy. Examples of those that still belong 
here in all their forms are mpen *mete,' — mat-meien-meien; ^ten 
* eat '-it (aiy-etenr^ten. Verbs with original i in the present stem 
(Sievers, 'Gr/ §§ 391-3) are exemplified by sitten * sii^-sat-seten— 
seten. The verb jiven {jeven), with i from original ^, has preterits 
}a/-)even^ past participle jiven like the infinitive; besides, its 
initial j gradually gives way to g^ under the influence of Norse 
geve ' give,' as also in ME. ^eien * get ' by influence of Norse geie. 
Irregular, by reason of the final consonants of the stem, is liggen^ 
later Hen Mie, recline, '-/qy-/?y^»-/£j/^«, with analogical present 
(§ 165). Bidden shows influence of beden (class II) in forms and 
meaning. The preterit quop {quoih, quod), alone remaining from 
OE. cwedan * say,' perhaps has its vowel by lack of stress in tite 
sentence (§ 18). The only contract verb retained, sen * see,* has 
also various forms for its remaining principal parts, as $^. (^saw^ 


saug/i)seyen {sdwen^ sgwen, sqyen)-seym {sen, sogen^ sowen). Verbs 
which have been influenced by class IV are as follows : — 

wr^ken * divengty --wrak-wreken-wreken (wrpken), 

spoken * sipeBk/spak-speken {spdken, spgken)spgken {spekeri). 

Wfven * vft^i.wQy-wqf-'Wefen-wgven {weven), 
' dr£pen * kill '-drap {drpp)-drepen (drdpen)-drppen, 

jeien * get '--ja/ {ygty-jeterh-jeten {jp^en). 

Note. — Contrary to the rule, change of j to r by Verner s Law remains in 
was-weren, originally belonging here but defective and associated with bin * be,' 

184. Class VI seems to present greater irregularities than in Old 
English, owing to various phonetic causes. Most verbs have 
lengthened vowels in present and past participle, ^j^fdre-for-foren 
-farm, forsaken ' forsake ^forsdk-forsdken-forsdken. To these 
have been added tdkm * take ^"tok-^ioken-tdken from Norse. Verbs 
with mutated presents suffer various changes. A new form with 
unmutated a appears in shdpen * shape '"Shdp-shdpen-shdpeny some- 
times in siappen beside the prevailing steppen, which soon acquires 
weak forms as well. The infinitive of lajhen (Jau^en, lauhwen) 
* laugh '-^Idh {Jotigh)-lowen-log?ien (Joweiiy-lau^hen (laughen) must 
also have been influenced by the past participle (cf. Orm's lahhjh- 
enn. OE. sceSdan * injure ' gave place to skdpen ' scathe ' < ON. 
skdSa, a weak verb. On the other hand, sw§ren * swear ' and 
hfuen * heave,* have retained present stems in e (/), but have been 
influenced by verbs of class IV. Their principal parts are swjrenr- 
swgr {swar)-swgren {sweren)swgren (swgrn) ; J^en-hgfjiaf)" 
hgfen-hgven. Verbs with stem in OE. g have forms like drajen 
{drawen)-drdj {droufy-drojen {droweny-drajen {drawen). As in 
Old English standen * stand ' has n in the present and past participle 
only. ME. waxen * grow,' originally belonging here, has fallen in 
with the reduplication verbs, and waschen 'wash* has both pre- 
terits, wosck {wesch, weiscjt). By analogy of verbs of this class, 
^udken ' quake,' a weak verb, has acquired a strong preterit quok, 
• 185. Contract verbs, s/gn (sl^n) * slay' and^^« (/^) * A^y ' ^^ve 
the following principal parts : slon (sl^y-slog {slug, slough, slow)- 


slbgen {slawen, slugen^ slagany-slawen (slqyen); flon {Jlpiy-fldgh 
{^flcwyfiowen-flawen {Jlain). 

i86. Verbs with original reduplication are regular in having in the 
preterit /, from OE. i, eo, or ew from OE. cow, while the vowels of 
the present and past participle differ considerably owing to various 
phonetic changes of OE. originals. Examples of these with 
preterits in / are fallen * fall '-/el {^fity-f alien ; leten ' let, allow '-/^/ 
(Jaty-leten {Jaten) ; hglden ' hold '—Jield-hglden. Those with preterits 
in ew are exemplified by blowen ' blow as the wind * -blew-hlowen ; 
graven ' grow '—grew-growen ; hewen '■ hew '—hew-hewen. The last 
example shows how the distinctive forms of Old English became 
one in Middle English, after which the verb frequently became 
weak. The verb hgien * call, promise ' (OE. hdtan) has two preterits 
depending on the two OE. forms hehl and kel, as hihl ijiighf, 
hj'ghle) and hit. At the same time kihle became present as well 
as past, and the OE. passive halle 'am called' became a past. 
The OE. contracts Jon * seize,* hon ' hang,' soon gave way before 
new infinitives fangen^ harden imder the influence of the past 
participles, while a weak fangen was adopted from ON. fanga and 
OE. hangian became Ml. hangen. Many of the reduplication 
verbs also have weak forms, as slepte^ wepie, walkede^ dradde^ 
' dreaded.' 


187. The preterit-present verbs show no exceptional changes 
from OE. times beyond the loss of some of their number, and of 
certain forms, as the infinitive. The more important forms in the 
several classes of strong verbs to which they originally belonged 
are as follows : — 

I. Two verbs gjen (owen) * owe, have ' and wz'len ' know ' ; inf. 
gjen (owen) ; pres. indie, ozvej owes/, owe}) (pwetJi)-awen \ pres. subj. 
owe-owen; preU ajle {gjle, augh/e'y oug/ile); inf. wz'len; pres. indie. 
wgl, wgsl, wgl-wilen {wgl); pres. subj. wile; imp. wile; pres. jjart. 
witende l^iltnge) ; pret. wisl (wisle) ; past part, wtsl. 


Note. — Early Ml. has wd^, d)en ; Nth. dgh {awe) in inf. and pres. indie, 
aght in pret., in accordance with their phonologies. Negative forms of witen 
are niten-ngt (Nth. not) 'uiste, &c. Sth. has wiiteuj nuten. Sec, from IWS. 
wytan, n^tan, 

III. Three verbs, cunnen * be able, can ' and durren ' dare/ 
purven * need ' ; inf. cunnen {connen) ; pres. indie, can {con)y canst, 
can {cony-cunen {cunnen) ; pres. subj. cunne {cdnne)-cunnen (connen); 
pret. cuf?e (couth, couthe, coude). 

Inf. durren (duren) ; pres. indie, dar, darst, dar-dor {dar) ; pres. 
SHbj. durre (ddre)'^urren ; pret. durste {dorste, dirste). 

Inf. purven ; pres. indie, par^ pcirfif), parf-purven ; pres. 
subj, purve-purven ; pret. purfte (porfte, porte^purften. 

Note. — Nth. has no such forms as con, conne, 

IV. Pres. indie, shal, shali, shalshullen {skul, shot, shal) ; pres. 

subj, schuleschulen ; pret. sholde (schulde, schold, scholde). 

Note. — Nth. has sal-suld in accordance with its phonology. It also retains 
pres. indie, nion 'remember, have in mind, most,' -mune; pres. subj. mune; 
pret. mond (jnunde). 

V. Inf. mujen {mowen); pres. indie, mat) miht {mat, mayest), 
mat-mdwen {mow, may)] pres. subj. mowe-mdwen; pret. mijte 
{mihte, mighte, moughte), *" 

Note. — Nth. has only pres. mat, pret. might {mogkt), 

VI. Pres. indie, mot, mist, mot-moten {nwst) ; pres. subj. mote^ 
moten ; pret. moste {muste), 

i88. In the earlier part of the period relics of several other 
preterit-presents are also found, as dugen ' avail ' (class II), unnen 
* grant ' (class III) ; munen * be mindful ' (class IV), but these soon 
disappear, though a pres. and pret. of munen occur in Nth. (see 
above). Relics of the old strong past participles of these verbs are 
found in the adj.-adv. wis {iwts) * certain, certainly,' and the adj. 
owen (eMl. Nth. ajen, dgen) * own.' 



189. Four verbs are quite anomalous in the number and 
character of their forms. They are ben {be) ' be/ willen * will/ don 
' do/ g8^ ' go-' These have the following forms : — 

1. Ben {be) *be/ Pres. indie, am, art{eri\ is {es\ and biy best, 
bep\ plur. arn {are), bin {be); pres. subj. be, plur. ben {be); pret. 
was, were {jju^re, was), was ; plur. weren {waren, wgren) ; pret. 
subj. were-weren {wgren); imp. be-hep {beth); past part. iMi 

Note i. — In early Midland, as Orm, sometimes a little later also, the 
present forms best, beoJ>, pi. sinden, are found, and si as pres. snbj. 

Note 2. — Nth. has for present indie, sg. am, ert {art, es), is (es) ; pi. er {or, 
em, es) ; also third sg. bes, pi. ben {bis) ; pret. sg. was {wes), pi. wer {wire, 
wdre, weir, was), Sth. has pres. indie, second sg. ert, pi. b^of {bip, bufi) ; 
subj. beo, pi. beon ; pret. was, w^re, was, pi. w^ren ; imp. bio-bioj) ; inf. beon ; 
past part, ibian {iben, ybin). Early Sth. also has the gerund, or inflected 
infinitive bionne. 

2. Willen * will.' Pres. indie, wil {wol), wilt {wolt), wil {wol) ; 

plur. wiln (wil, woln, wot) ; pres. subj. wile {wole) ; pret. wolde 

{wilde), woldest {wost, wilde), wolde {wilde, walde, welde) ; plur. 

wolden {wold, welde), A negative form, nillen *will not' also 


Note. — Nth. has pres. indie, sg. and pi. wil {will, wille, wel) ; pret. wald 
{wild, weld), Sth. uses pres. indie, wiile {wUlle, ich ulle, ich olle = ich wulle), 
wiiU, wiile ; pi. wiilleP ; pres. subj. wUle-wiillen ; pret. wolde, 

3. Don {do) ' do.' Pres. indie, do, dost, dbp {ddik) ; plur. ddn ; 
subj. do-don ; imp. do-dop {doth) ; pres. part, doende {dbinge) ; pret. 
dide {dede) ; past part, don {do). 

Note. — Nth. has pres. indie, do, dos {dose, duse) ; pi. do {dose, don) ; pres. 
subj. sg. and pi. do ; imp. do-do {dos) ; pret. did {d€d)-did {dide) ; pres. part. 
doand; past part, don {dune), Sth. has pres. ihdic. do, dist, di}\ pi. dd]> 
{doth) ; pret. diide ; pres. part, donde ; past part iddn. 

4. Ggn {gg) ' go.' Pres. indie, gg, ggst, ggp {ggth) ; plur. ggn ; 


pres. subj. gg-ggp {£9^^) ; pres. part, ggend {gging). The preterit 
is supplied by a different root, in the earlier period by ^ede ( ^dde^ 
yede), OE, geeode, later by wente-wenien from wenden ' wend, go/ 

Note. — Nth, has inf. gan{gd) ; pres. indie, gd, gas {gase, gats), gas {gdsc, 
gats); pi. gas; pres. subj. gd-gd (jgdn) ; imp. gd-gd {gdn) ; gd {gas, goes, gats); 
past part, gdn (gdne, gain) ; pret. supplied by Tvent. Sth. has inf. ggn ; 
pres. indie, gg, gestj gej> igeth) ; pi. ggf {ggth) ; pres. subj. gg-ggn ; pret. eode 
(Jede, ^de). 


190. Many adverbs in Middle English do not differ from their 
Old English forms, except for phonetic changes common to them 
with other words. They are based on adjective, substantive, and 
pronominal roots, and are both simple and compound. Simple 
adverbs, based on adjectives, end in e, tike {It, ly), i nge (linge\ 
^Those of the first class include adverbs which retain OE. e, or have ' 
e from a by weakening, as sofie ' softly,' sope ' in truth,' sone (OE. 
sond) • soon'; those of the second, adverbs which ended in Uce in 
OE., and many which assumed this ending in Middle English, as 
hdrdUke {Jidrdtt) ' hvdly,' sopUke {sdj?it) ' soothly * ; to the third, ^ 
those ending in tnga, enga, unga (linga, lenga, lungd) in Old Eng- 
lish, as allunge ' wholly.' During the period those of the first class '' 
gradually lost final e, and thus had the same form as the corre- 
sponding adjectives. With them came to be associated many 
adverbs from Old French which had the same form as the corre- 
sponding adjectives, as jusf, verVj quite. T^e second adverbial 
ending, Rke, was gradually weakened until it became confused with ^ 
the adjective ending ti {ly), OE. lie, which henceforth came to be ; 

y the distinctive adverbial ending and was greatly extended in its use 
with"^th native and foreign words. The third ending above is 
least frequent of all, and was not extended in the ME. period. 

191. Adverbs, formed from the oblique cases of adjectives or 
substantives in Old English, also remain in Middle English. These 
are most commonly genitives in ^j, the masculine*neuter ending, 



as elles 'else/ unwdres ' unawares/ </a/Vf 'by day/ «/-^/i?j * by night/ 
nedes ' needs.' This ending was considerably extended in its use 
in Middle English, as to adjectives otherwise ending in e, t'nge 
{linge\ and to nouns without regard to original gender. Old 
accusatives are Utel, lit * little/ firn * formerly/ Jul ' fully/ jenoh 
{enougfT, anough). Old datives are sgre, seldom^ wBlom, rehcs of 
OE. dative-instrumental singulars or plurals. Neither of these 
last two case-forms was frequently used in forming ME. adverbs, 
and many formed in OE. gradually disappeared. 
^' ' 192. Pure pronominal adverbs are pg * \v\itxi'j?us * thus,' hu (Jiou) 

* how,' why * why,' J^an {pen)^ whan {when). Adverbs of place, 
based on adjective or pronominal roots, commonly have the ending 
en, from OE. an^ as in case of those signifying ' where ' or ' whence.' 
Examples of adverbs signifying ' place where ' are znnen {inne) ' in, 
within,' uten (uie) * oxxi* fgren (fgrn^fgre^ * before ' ; of those signi- 
fying * place- from which ' hennen (Jienne) * hence,' hwennen (hwenne\ 
whenne) ' whence,' Jsien {fste) * from the east.* To this class was 
added also some Norse forms, as hepen ' hence/ pepen ' thence.' 
On the other hand, some of these adverbs have es instead of en in 
late Midland by extension of the es ending, as already mentioned 

^ above. A few adverbs denoting * place whither ' end in^r, origin- 
i ally comparative, as htder * hither,' pider * thither,' and perhaps by 
' influence of these ^(?«(/(?r. 

193. Compound adverbs are frequent, some being of OE. origin, 
some of Middle English formation. As belonging to the former, 
those ending in like might be counted, although this had become 
a well-established adverbial ending in OE. Better examples are 
/ those ending in ward, OE. weard, as upward, supward ' southward,' 
- and mele, OM. melum, as dropmele *drop by drop.' To these 
were added in Middle English many ending mful, d§l, ' part,' ^?ne, 
while, way, wise, and others. Still other compound adverbs are 
made up of a prefix, the relic of an older preposition, and a noun 
or pronoun, as beside, away, adune * adown,' forpi ' because,' pertn 

* therein,' l?erqf ' thereof.' Such adverbs as alway {always), sunt' 


lime, sumwhile, are made up of an indefinite pronoun and a noun, 
and such as within, wiihouien {withouie) of two adverbs. 

Note i . — In early Midland adverbs differ little from the later time except as 
they conform somewhat more nearly to OE. forms. 

Note 2. — The principal variations of the dialects are as follows. Nth. 
shows the loss of final e in most adverbs, so that adjectives and corresponding 
adverbs are invariable as a rule. The ending ftke was early weakened to It 
(^), and in its place No rse -leiki is sometimes found, as hardlaike * hardly.' 
The ending inge {linge) frequently becomes inges {tinges), and the es ending is 
otherwise extended, as to numeral adverbs dnes *once,* &c. The Norse 
adverbs of place are much more common, as hefen * hence,' qtupen 'whence.' 
Among compound adverbs. Nth. uses the Norse suffix gate * way, manner,' as 
in algdte * dAvisLys* fusg&te * in this manner,' while forms like tUwith ' without,' 
forwith 'before,' are more common. The preposition on, when becoming 
a prefix, remains on {0), as in obove * above,' ondn ' anon,' onlive {olive) ' alive.' 
Sth. retains the e ending, even where wholly lost in other dialects, as in the 
numeral adverbs (ne ' once,' &c. The Sth. form of OE. lice is //V^^r^j yhich is 
not weakened to It {ly), and inge {linge) does not become inges {tinges). The 
ending en (e) is more extended in its use. Norse forms are not found, and OE. 
on, when becoming a prefix, is weakened to an {a) as in alive, about, angn. 

194. The comparative and superlative of the adjective may be 
used as an adverb without change. In addition, a few adverbs not 
derived from adjectives have comparative endings. A few mono- 
syllabic adverbs with mutation remain from OE. times, as bei 
* better,' /r (/r^) ' ere,' leng ' longer ' ; compare Sievers, ' Gr.' 



195. Little need be said of Middle English prepositions, since 
they present no serious difficulties, and show few changes not 
easily understood from the ordinary changes in phonology. Most 
OE. prepositions were preserved in Middle English, and some few 
were added from other sources, as Norse. Thus /rg * from ' is 
derived from Norse yrJ, as is probably umb {urn), cognate with 
OE.ymbe * around/ Some few prepositions altered their meaning, 
as wi/f ' with,' which more commonly meant ' against ' in Old Eng- 
lish. In Middle English it ordinarily came to mean ' with,* doubts 



\^ less through use in such expressions as fight_wiih, in which it 

could have either signification. When this came to be true, mid 

in the latter meaning gradually disappeared. Simple prepositions 

from OF. were adopted in certain phrases, as par amur, par fat, 

paraveniure {^paraunter\ and certain OF. words came to be used 

as prepositions ; examples are rund ' round,' except, maugre ' in 

spite of,' save, acordaunt, later acorSing, Compound prepositions 

^nd prepositional phrases became common in Middle English, as 

ajein {again), ajeines, amgng, algng, beside, ne}hgnd {nerhgnd) ' near 

at hand, near,' toward, uttdken 'except.' OF. words were also 

united in these phrases as bi came of, be rpon of, in regard of, 

around, according id. 

Note. — It is naturally impossible to separate dialects on the basis of prepo- 
sitions only, but some prepositions seem almost peculiar to certain dialectal 
divisions. Thus Nth. uses at and til {intil, until) for to and unto, amel {pmil, 
emel, imil) for betwen, and wij> more commonly instead of mid. Sth. has an 
{a) for on, to, unto, and viedioi wip, 


196. Old English conjunctions in general remain in Middle 
English, subject to such changes as were natural to their phonetic 
forms. Among those deserving special mention are eij?er (etjper) 
* either,' ouper (^per, or) *or,' stpen (sipenes, sipe, sith, sepe, &c.) 
' since,' Nth. sin, sen. Among correlative conjunctions, pe . . .])e 
/remain from : . ./jP with different vowel by analogy oi pi', 
' but OE. swd . . . swd gave place to alswg . . . ase, or as , . . as. 
From OE. correlatives and preceding indefinite pronouns also arose 
the new correlatives of Middle English, as eiper (pper) , . , or, 
neiper {ngper) . . . nor, in which or, nor are weakened forms of the 
indefinite gj>er, OE. dhwceSer, dwSer. The common negative of 
Middle English is ne, which often suffers apocope of e and unites 
with the following word as in Old English. The OE. nd, from 
ne + d, remained sometimes in lig, as to-day in no better, no more of 
it, but at the same time a new negative nat {not), based on OE. 


ndwih/ ^n2LUghty came into use and gradually supplanted both of 
the others in most situations. Sometimes both ne and naf {not) 
were used in the same sentence. In Middle English also, the 
Norse negative net {nay) was adopted, as was also the affirmative ei 
{ay) beside the OE, affirmative jes {jis, yes). 


197. Middle English interjections come from Old English, as /^, 
P {p^)y ^P> with the weak forms la, a (later perhaps la, a, dJi), wa 
{walawa). From Norse came wet^wat) ' woe,' wet'lawet\watlawai\ 
and ho] from Old French alas, Jy, The adoption of foreign 
interjections is probably mainly of literary origin. 



198. The order of words in early Middle English prose follows 
that of the older language in the freedom of word-position. This 
is especially true of the verb, which may appear at the end of the 
clause, that is after object or modifiers, or before the subject 
(inverted order). Examples of the first in principal clauses are: 
oc Crist it ne wolde (i, 8); and te Lundenisce folc him underfeng 
(2, 8) ; and te king it bescBt (2, 13) ; and Ju togcedere comen (2, 16). 
Subordinate clauses with final verb are even more common : peper 
waron (\,&)\ pa hi nan mgr ne mihte (i, 7) ; 9at he nulde man was 
(2, 27). The verb precedes the subject even more frequently than 
it ends the clause. Compare com Henri (i, i) ; was it noht (i, 8) ; 
warthpi king d^ (i, 18) ; andforhi him luveden God and god men 


'and because God and good men loved him' (4, 27); and in 
subordinate clauses, /« wiste J>e king (i, 6); pa pesirede pS dai 
(i, 14); pa diden hi alle wunder (2, 28). The subjunctive inverted 
appears in come pm *if thou shouldst come' (52, 8); were he 
never sg hgly man *if he were, &c.' (74, 11). Poetical usage 
naturally shows metrical inversion, and some greater liberties are 
taken than in the modern period. As Middle English develops, the 
order of the modem language more and more appears. 

Note. — In syntax, as in versification, there are few strongly marked 
dialectal peculiarities. Sth« is most conservative, Nth. most radical. For 
example, early Sth. tends to preserve the older word order. Nth., as later in 
development, shows the modem order ; compare RoUe of Hampole, p. 143 f. 

199. Other peculiarities of word order are not numerous. In 
the early time the appositive sometimes follows the noun, as in 
Henri king and Henri abbot (i, i) ; Siephnes kinges (4, 28) ; pi 
kinges sune Henries (5, 13). When the last usage gave way to 
a phrase for the appositive, it also follows, as m pi lunges suster of 
France (7, i). The predicate modifiers may precede the verb, as 
in godman he wes (2, 3) ; pais hi makede men (2, 4) ; mani pUsend 
hi drapen mid hUnger (3, 18). The adjective sometimes follows the 
noun in prose, but perhaps usually under foreign influence, as in 
}dies everlastand (loi, 24); lufeynesche (144, 14) ; pi hert soraw/ul 
and mike (102, 23). It is common for the relative to be separated 
from the antecedent, as in ^re man . . .pe mihte * every man who 
might' (2, i); Teobdld , . .pe was abbot {^^ 17). The final position 
of the adverb, which later, as preposition, preceded the relative, is 
usual, as in hi pat al his trist is id *he in whom is all his trust' 
(51, 15). In alle hi (2^ 29), alk he 28 20 the order is the reverse 
of what is now possible. 

200. Middle English syntax is loose compared with that of 
to-day. This is shown by the unnecessary repetition of the subject, 
not only as in wan pi ggst it scholde gg (48, 5) ; pi bodi it seide 
(52, 9); pi wreche peoddare mgre noise hi mdked (198, 27); but 
also in such cases as wanne hi is ikindled siille lid ffi liHn (14, 8), 


instead of *when bom the lion lies still'. So the appositive is 
sometimes loosely used instead of a closer syntax, as in Rogtng?iam 
pe castel (4, 22); Vaspdstan hys iyme (220, 7); Vaspdsian pe 
emperor hys ^me (220, 17). 


201. The oblique cases of the noun retain some older uses. 
Thus the objective genitive persists, as in for ure Drihtir^s luve 
' for the love of our Lord' (4, 31); ndness ktnness shaffte (12, 32). 
So the genitive of inanimate Ihings, as in te s^es grund * the bottom 
of the sea' or *the sea bottom' (19, 23). The adverbial genitive 
remains in the phrases here pankes . . . here unpankes ' according to 
their pleasure • . . according to their displeasure ', or ' willingly and 
unwillingly' (6, 31-32). The dative without to appears more 
freely, as in tS Bng iaf 3af ahhotrice an prior *to a prior' (i, 9); 
pe wcerse hi war on him *to him' (5, 20); sais us *says to us' 
(149, 19). It is used adverbially after certain verbs, as and benam 
him al ' and took away from him all' (5, 21); he hitagte losep his 
ring {24, 11); us sal ben hard *it shall be hard for us' (27, 11). 
It is used as an old instrumental in pat God himselve ran on blode 
' on which God himself ran with blood ' (78, 3) ; al his wlite wurd 
qres wp 'with tears' (28, 32). It expresses time in which, as in 
pis gear (i, i); pis geare (2, 18). The accusative without 
preposition denotes duration of time, as in pa nigentene winire 
(3, 21); nigentene wintre (4, 9). Two accusatives occur with 
certain verbs, as in al dat he cUthe dxen him (5, 19). 

202. The adjective syntax is chiefly distinguished by frequent 
use as a noun. Compare yi?r hpie ' for heaviness ' (35, 26)] /or 
ng newe 'for no new love' (37, 14); hidinges 'hiding places' 
(233, 22). The definite form (§ 138) occurs after a demonstrative 
or possessive pronoun, a noun in the possessive, in direct address, 
and when used substantively. The last use is illustrated by the 
examples above. Other examples of the definite form are te 


Lundenisce /olc (5, 33); pe pridde wise (8, 15); piss Englissche 
hoc (13, 22). 

203. The pronoun syntax differs from to-day in several par- 
ticulars. It may be omitted as subject or object, as in dat him 
brcecon alle pe limes 'that they broke', &c. (3, 13); winde to 
hegceion * they thought to get ' (7, 2); wry then to dat * twisted them 
so that^ (3, 8). Again, the subject may be repeated in a pronoun, 
as wan pi ggst it scholde gg (48, 5) ; pi bodi itseide (52, 9). Lack 
of concord between pronoun and antecedent is not uncommon: 
^ive we ilk an pare langdge * if we give each one t?ieir language ' 

(134, 5)- 

204. The personal pronoun is used reflexively, as in me nogi 

w^ren 'not protect myself (22, 19); hi lutten him 'they bowed 
themselves * (25, 3). The plural of the second person is first used 
as a smgular in but gewiSus sinden Benjamin (27, 16). Yet the 
singular remains the rule long after the time of this selection. 
The genitive of the personal pronoun is used objectively, as in her 
nouper 'neither of them' (6, 16); lire ngn 'none of us' (28, 6). 
The dative without a preposition is used much more freely than at 
present : as indirect object in gur silver is gH brogt aggn (28, 4) ; as 
dative of advantage or disadvantage in dat him bracon ' that they 
broke for them' (3, 13); annd forpedd ti pin wille ^ 2LTid. accom- 
plished for thee thy will' (8, 18); what hire were 'what was to her 
= the matter with her' (36, 19). An accusative for the genitive 
appears in wart it war ' became aware of it ' (5, 1 2). 

205. The demonstrative is sometimes used for the possessive, as 
in als the pm wes 'as his uncle had been' (2, 20); alle pi limes 
'all their limbs' (3, 13). It is also omitted where necessary at 
present, as in ^ric man sone rctvede oper pe mihte ' the other ' 
(2, i). It is used as an indefinite in wip pat hi made 'with that 
which he made', OE. wip pat pat hi macode (67, 16); pat under- 
siandes pat I tell (134, 8). The relative pronoun is frequently 
omitted, as in Martin was gehdten ' who was called Martin ' (i, 11). 
It precedes its antecedent, as in that pey receyve in forme of br§d. 


kyt IS Goddes bo^ (122, 5). The nominative-accusative is used 
for a dative in pat birs 0/ buret be ful irk *to which ', &c. (150, 2). 
The relative may refer to a genitive antecedent, as in in his ward 
. . . fiat mdked him 'in the custody of him who made him' 
(67, 28-29); paire wyll pat aghte it * the will of them that owned 

it' (147, 13)- 


ao6. The verb does not always agree with its subject, especially 
if the latter follows, as in wes al unfrtd andyvel and rceflac (2, 10); 
com to Flgrts writ and sgnde (46, 28). The copula is sometimes 
omitted, as in wel me *well is to me' (32, 3). The impersonal 
verb is common, as in unnc birrp *it behooves us two' (8, 26); 
him Ukede *it pleased him' (14, 16); hem drempte *it came to 
them in vision' (21, 13); me wgre levere 'it were pleasanter to 
me' (22, 21). Change from indirect to direct discourse or the 
reverse often occurs, as in passages at* 27, 15-16; 29, i2f.; 
82, 14 f. The auxiliary of the passive for intransitive verbs is still 
the verb to be, as in derde is cumen * dearth has come ' (30, 25) ; 
he ben cumen (35, 8); hu hit is went {^2, ig). 

207. The inflected tenses are still used with general force, the 
present for present and future, the preterit for all past time. Thus 
the preterit is a past perfect in pa was pe king strengere panne he 
^ert ^ was ' had been ' (7, 23). On the other hand the com- 
pound tenses are also common, and make more explicit the time 
relations. The preterit tense is also used as a present in clauses of 
unreality, as hH dg him Ukede , . . mtgte nevre divel witen * may the 
devil never know' (14, 16-17). 

ao8. The subjunctive is common in both subjunctive and opta- 
tive senses. Examples are /are ^^ * if he go ' (16, 26) ; 3ti it s^e 
* if thou shouldst see it ' (19, 4) ; }yf poU hade wolde * if thou hadst 
wished' (102, 20); ware Henri king * Henry should be king' (7, 
16); pat oper deide be/gre *that the other should die before [him]' 
(46» 2); have hi * may he have ' (77, 29). 


209. The infinitive without io is common, as in unnc birrp bdpe 
pannkenn (8, 26); dide hem wassen 'made them wash' (29, 3); 
ddn be 'made to be' (34, 13); wende hir finde 'thought to find' 
(40, 29). The infinitive as a verbal complement still persists, 
especially in Southern, as in //r com , . . Ii9en * there came . . . 
going' (191, 1-2); wkan Ardur cume tiden 'when Arthur may 
come' (191, 10). Occasionally a participle is used as a noun, 
perhaps under Latin influence, as in pi seckand hym ' the [ones] 
seeking him ' (loi, 19). 

210. Certain uses of adverbs and prepositions may be noted. 
Thus sg . . , sg are correlative, as in al sg briht sg it were day 
(83, 2)5 and so for as in al is man sg is /is }rn (16, 13). The 
preposition toward is divided, as in to Gode ward (16, 21); to de 
hevene ward (18, 9). 

Note. — Nth. sometimes uses til {till) for Ml., Sth. /J, as in id cum pi till 
'to come to thee' (140, 2); till end *to the end' (141, 3). So also Nth. is 
characterized by the use of at for to, as in noght at hide ' nought to hide * (158, 5). 


211. Like modern English verse Middle English poetry is 
accentual^ and the metrical stress regularly coincides with the 
principal or secondary stress of the word as usually pronounced. 
Yet ME. verse shows considerable variety of form. There are 
in this book examples of the older alliterative line, the Latin 
septenarius or line of seven jtresses wit hout rime^^tli e same with 

I rime, the foarjand fiv e stress ed couplets, and several stanza forms. 
1 All lines but the alliterative are prevailingly iambic^ 

212. The alliterative line is of complicated structure, its principal 
I features being two half-lines of two principal stresses each, but 

without syllabic regularity. The half-lines are usually bound 
together by alliteration of the stressed syllables, orte in each half- 
line, two in the first and one in the second, or two in each. 
Besides, there may be assonance in the final stressed syllables of 

■ ^ 


the half-lines, or rime with more or less frequency. A good 
example of a verse matching the Old Enghsh scheme is, 

9 9 9 9 

Welle Heg is tat lul tJat is lievenriche (14, 14). 

But the alliterative syllable of the second half-line is often on the 
second, rather than the first principal stress, as in 

19 9 9^ 

Bi wile weie 39 he wille to dgle nitSer wenden (14, 3). 

Again, the alliteration may fail altogether in the second half-line, <! ^ * 

as in li t A 

^99 99 (C^-w'f 

QSer dust gtJer deu tJat he ne cunne is fiaden (14, 6). 

On the other hand, there may be two alliterative syllables in the 

second half-line, as in 


PigteS wis 6is wirin and fare's on him figtande (17, 21). 

C rossed alliteration o f the forms ahah or ahba may also occur, as 
/ 7 / 99 

DrageC dust wi6 his stert 8er he dun steppcS (14, 5) ; 

9 9 9 9 

^Ser t^urg his nfse smel smake &at he negge (14, 2). 

213. Rime sometimes appears in the alliterative line at the end 

of each half, as in 

/ / / 9 

In a st§n stille he lai til it kam &e t^ridde dai (15, 12) ; 

or two lines may be bound together into a couplet, as in 

/ . / 99 

His hgpe is al to Gode ward, and of his luve he ISteV, 

/ / 9 9 

Dat is te sunne sikerlike, 9us his sigte he bdtelS (16, 21-22). 
Again, a couplet may rime finally and in its first half-lines, as 

9 9 9 9 

And tns he neweS him, tJis man, Sanne he nimeS to kirke, 

^^99 9 9 

Qt he it bitfenken oan hise egen weren mirke (16, 15-16). 
Occasionally rime may appear as a tag to the preceding line, as at 
the bottom of page 14. The rime may entirely supersede allitera- 
tion as a binding force for the half-lines, and couplet structure 
results as on pages 15 and 19; compare also the selection from 
Layamon's Bru/ at p. 181. On the other hand alliteration has 
remained an occasional adjunct of all rimed verse; see § 218. 





214. The septenarius without rime appears in the selection from 
the Ormulum (p. 18), and its couplet structure in the Poema 
Morale (p. 176) and Gloucester's Chronicle (p. 203). The first is 
stilted verse, the stress of the word not corresponding to the 
metrical stress, as in affterr (8, 13, and 20), unnderr (8, 17). In 
these and other cases we probably are to see the substitution of the 
trochee for the iamb, so common in modern verse. Orm's lines 
are invariably of fifteen syllables each. In other poems the first 
unstressed syllable may be omitted, as in 

f ft I I rr 9 

Icn sem elder ])en ich wes a wintre and a Igre (176, i) ; 

or after the cesural pause, as in 

f 9 t f f / / 

Wei late ic habbe me bijioht, bute me God do milce (176, 8). 
Robert of Gloucester is considerably less regular in his verse 
structure, often omitting the fifteenth syllable (feminine ending) as 
well as the first, and occasionally unstressed syllablies within the 
line, as well as sometimes misplacing accents. 

215. The four-stressed line is normally of eight syllables, as the 
five-stressed is of ten. But any such line may have an extra 
unstressed syllable at the end, as in 

99 r 9 

And have® dempt losep t5 bale (ai, 2) ; 

9 9 / // / 

As riot, hasard, sty wes and tavernes (237,. 3). 

/Besides, a ^tressed syllable at the beginning of the line may do 

duty for the whole of the first foot, as in 

999 9 

Cupen he let fiUe of flures (35, 15) ; 

or for the first after the cesural pause, as in 
/ / / / 

]>e due })at ))e ring funde (44, 13). 

As in modern verse a trochee may appear for the first iamb, or for 

the first after a cesural^pause, tlie latter as in 

9 99 9 

"pQ Admiral ]^, wel him bitide (46, 9). 

216. The loss of unstressed syllables has already been treated 
in §§ 80-90. In addition, final unstressed e is elided in poetry 


before a vowel or weak h. Sometimes it is also droppj^ before 

a consonant, as in 

/ ^ / / / 

Me drempt(e) als ic was wun(e) to don (22, 3). 

Contraction and slurring in other cases will be clear from the 
principles given above. 

217* Perfection in rime is naturally a gradual development. In 
the earliest verse even assonance is sometimes sufficient, as in 

De kinges kuppe ic liadde on h^nd ; 

De beries tJ^rinne me Sngte ic wrgng (21, 27-28). 

Rime in the consonant and not the vowel of the syllable may be 
found, as in Effraym — hem (24, 23-24). So rime of long and 
short vowels is not unusual, as in win — derin (22, 3-4); sperd—frd 
(22, 29-30); Chanaan—fordan (24, 27-28), Rime words also 
differ in the quality of the vowel, especially open /'s and J's often 
riming with the corresponding close vowels. Examples are sped — 
frigiih^d (26, 29-30); t§den — deden (29, 13-14); gn — Pharaon 
(23, 29-30); gqn-Symedn (26, 3-4). 

ai8. Alliteration has always been an ornament of English 
poetry. When it ceased to be the regular binding feature of the 
half-lines in alliterative verse, it continued as an occasional adjunct 
of the poetic line. In short lines, two or three stressed syllables 
may be bound together by this head-rime. In longer lines, four 
syllables may begin with the same consonant, or with the same or 
different vowels. Examples will be easily found in every selection. 



The numbers refer to paragraphs. 

a, 1 6. 

a, 29. 

Accent) 13, 

Addition (consonant), 

Adjectives, 138. 
Adverbs, 190. 
at\ 50. 

Alliteration, 318. 
Alliterative line, 212. 
Aphseresis, 89. 
Apocope, 86. 
Assimilation, 114. 

««» 55- 


ckj no. 

Comparison, 141. 
Conjunctions, 196. 
Consonantizing, 112. 
Consonants, 91. 

general changes, 112. 

voicing of, 113. 


Dialects of ME., i. 

Diphthongs, 47. 
Dissimilation, 114. 

e, 19. 

^ (close), 3i» 36- 
f (open), 31, 32. 
Ecthlipsis, 117. 
ei, 52. 
Elision, 88. 
eu, 67. 


^ (stop), 95. 
g,j{dzh\ III. 
y (spirant), 103. 

Gender, 120. 

h, 105. 

/', 12. 
f, 38. 

Inflexions, 119. 
Interjections, 197. 
fM, 61. 

J {dzk). III. 

k (stop), 94. 

/, 108. 

Lengthening, 72. 
Liquids, 108. 

;;/, 109. 
Metathesis, 115. 

n, 109. 
Nasals, 109. 
«.f (w), 109. 
Nouns, 122. 

anomalous, 133. 

syntax, 201. 
Numerals, 143. 

0, 24. 

o (close), 40, 44. 
p (open), 40, 41. 
oiy 03. 

Orthography, 7. 
ou, quj 65. 

Phonology, 16. 

Prepositions, 195. 

Pronouns, 147. 

possessives, 153. 

demonstratives, 154. 

relatives, 157. 

ites, 158. 

syntax, 203. 
Pronunciation, 10. 

Quantity, variations in, 


r, 108. 

Rime, 213, 317. 

Sy lOI. 

sch (jA), 102. 
Semivowels, 106. 
Septenarius, 214. 
Shortening, vowel, 76. 
Spirants, 98. 
Stops, 93. 
Stress, word, 13. 
Substitution, consonant, 

Syllables, unstressed, 80. 
Syncope, 83. 
Syntax, 198. 

/, ff, 100. 

«, 26. 

Uy 46. 
Uiy 70. 

V, 93i 99- 
Verbs, 162. 

weak, 167. 

strong, 172. 

preterit-present, 187. 

anomalous, 189. 

syntax, 2c6. 

Versification, 211. 

Vocalization of conso- 
nants, 112. 

Voicing of consonants, 

Vowels, long, 29. 

short, 16. 

w, 106. 

Word order, ig8. 





1 1 3 2 , Dis g€ar com Henri King to |?is land. p5 com Henri abbot 
and * wreide ]>e munecea of Burch to \>e king forjn tSat ' he wolde 
under]>eden "Sat mynstre to Clunie, swa Sat te king was wel neh 
bepaht and sende efter }?e muneces. And J>urh Godes milce and 
)>urh "jpe Biscop ' of Seresberi and' te Biscop of Lincol and te 6J>re 5 
rice men J>e J)er wseron, J>a wiste J>e king tJat he feorde mid swic- 
dom, pa he nan mgr ne mihte, J>a wolde he 8at his nefe sculde 
ben abbot * in Burch, oc Crist ^' it ne wolde. Was it noht swithe 
lang Jjerefter J>at te king sende efter him and dide him gyven up 8at 
abbotrice* of Burch and faren ut of lande ; and te king iaf 8at 10 
abbotrice an prior of Sanct ^ Neod, Martin was gehaten. He com 
on Sanct Petres messedei mid micel wurscipe into the minstre. 
1 1 35. On })is gsere for se King Henri ''•over sse aet te Lammasse. 
. And Sat oj^er dei J>a he lai an slep in scip, |?a J^estrede f>e daei over 
al landes and ward pe sunne swilc als it ware thre niht aid mone, 15 
and ^ sterres abuten him at middaei. Wur{>en men swiSe ofwundred 
and ofdred, and sseden Sat micel })ing sculde cumen herefter, swa 
dide ; for ]?at ilc gaer warth \>e king df d, Sat 6|?er dsei efter Sanct 
Andreas massedaei on Normandi. pa wes trf son a ' pzs landes, for 

^ 1 as often. * ^ only, as usually. ' b. * abb. ' Xpist, as 

usually. • abbrice. "^ S', as always. ''* H*. * an. * westre sona. 



aevric mail sone rgevede 6)>er J>e mihte. pa namen his sune and 
his frend and brohten his lie to Engleland* and bebirieden * in Rfd- 
inge. God man he wes and micel aeie wes of him. Durste nan 
man misdon wiS o8er on his time. Pais he makede men and der ^. 
Wuaswa bare his bjrthen, gold and sylvre, durste nan man sei to 5 
him naht bute god. V^6oi-AA-*^^^^ 

Enmang }?is was his nefe cumen to Engleland, Ste phne de Blais, 
and com to Lundene ; and te Lundenisc^ folc him underfeng and 
senden gefter f>e aercebiscop, Willelm * Curbuil, and 'halechede him 
tojtonge on midewintre daei. On )?is kinges time wes al unfritS 10 
and yfel and raeflac, for agenes him risen sona )?a rice men )?e 
w3eron swipes, alrefyrst Baldwin de Redvers, and held Execestre 
agenes him ; and te king it besaet, and siSSan Baldwin acordede. 
pa tocan )?a o8re and helden her castles agenes him, and David 
King of Scotland toe to werrien him. pa, )?ohwethere )>at, here i? 
sandes feorden betwyx heom, and hi togaedere comen and wurt5e 
saehte, ^pd\p it litel forstode. ^^w4 

1 137. Dis gsere for J)e King * Stephne''^ ofer sge to Normandi and 
ther wes underfangen, for]?! Sat hi wenden Sat he sculde ben alswic 
alse the fom wes, and for he hadde get his tresor; ac he todfld it 20 
and scatered sotllce. Micel hadde Henri King gadered gold and 
sylver, and na god ne dide me for his saule tharof. 

pa J)e King Stephne to Englaland com, f>a makod he his gader- 
ing aet Ox^ineford and f>ar he nam )?e biseop Roger of Sereberi, and 
Alexander Biseop of Lincol and te Caneeler Roger, hise neves, and 25 
dide aelle in pristin til hi iafen up here castles, pa the swikes under- 
gaeton Sat he milde man was and softe and god, and na justice ne ' 
dide, J>a diden hi alle w unde r. HI hadden him manred maked and 
athes sworen, ac hi nan treuthe ne heolden; alle hV wseron for- 
sworen and here treothes foiloren, for aevric rice man his castles 30 
makede and agsenes him^ heolden, and fylden ]?e land ful of castles. 
Hi swencten swySe )?e wrecce men of f>e iSnd mid eastelweorces. 

^ Englel, as usual. ^ bebiriend. ^ daer. * Willm, as usual. 

* k, as often. ® Steph. , as usual. '^ he. 


pa ]?e castles wSren maked, j>a fylden hi mid deovles and yvele 
men. pa nattien hi JJa men ]5e hi wenden tSat ani god hefden, 
bathe be nihtes and bedaeies, carlmen and wimmen, and diden 
heom in prisun efter gold and sylver, and pined heom untellendlice 'w^^* 
pining. For ne wseren nsevre nan martyrs swa pined alse hi waeron ; 5 
me hanged Qp bi the fet and smoked heom mid ful smoke ; me 
henged bi the J>umbes gther bi the hffed, and hengen bryniges on -r«i 
her fet ; me dide cnotted strenges abuton here haeved and wrythen 
to Sat it gsede to }?e hsernes. Hi diden heom in quarterne }>ar 
nadres and snakes and pades waeron inne, and drapen heom swa. 10 
Sume hi diden in crucethQs, Sat is in an caeste )>at was scort and 
nareu and undep, and dide scaerpe stanes ]>eritme and Jjrengde })e 
men Jjserinne Sat him braecon alle )?e limes. In man! of ]?e castles 
wseron lof and grin, Sat waeron rachenteges Sat twa 9]>er thre men ^ ' ' - 
hadden onoh to^aeron gnne ; ]>at was swa maced, Sat is faestned 15 
to an bf om, and diden an scaerp iren abuton }?€ ^ mannes throte 
and his hals, Sat he ne myhte ngwiderwardes, ne sitten ne lien ne 
slepen, oc baeron al Sat iren. Mani ))usend* hi drapen tnid 

I ne can ne 1 ne mai tellen alle ]?e wunder, ne alle }>e pines Sat 20 
hi diden wrecce men on ]?is land ; and Sat lastede }>a nigentene ^ 
wintre wile Stephne was king, and slvre it was werse and werse. 
Hi laeiden gseldes** on the tQnes aevre um wile afid clepeden it . ^ 
tenserie. pa }?e wrecce men ne hadden nan mQre to gyven, ]?a 1 v 
raeveden hi and brendon alle the tunes Sat, \yel )?u myhtes faren all 25 
a daeis fare, sculdest thQ nfvre finden man in tUne sittende ne land 
tiled, pa was corn dsere and flf sc ® and csese and butere, for nan 
ne was 6 fe land. Wrecce men 'sturven of hilnger ; sume ieden 
on aelmeTjje waren sum wile rice men ; sume flugen lit of lande. 
Wes naevre gaet mare wreccehf d on land, ne nsevre hf then men 30 
werse ne diden ]?an hi diden ; for gwer sithon ne forbaren hi « 
nouther circe ne cyrceiserd, oc namen al ]5e god Sat J^arinne was 
and brenden sythen ]?e cyrce and al tegaedere. Ne hi ne forbaren 

* Ja. ^ ])usen. ' hungaer, as often. * xix. * gseildes. • flee. 

B 2 


* • ». 


biscopes ^ lilnd, ne abbotes ', ne preostes, ac roveden munekes and 
clerkes and aevric man other J)e ywer myhte. Gif twa men 9)>er 
8re ' coman ndend to an tun, al J^e tunscipe flugen * for heom ; 
wenden Sat hi waSron raevf res. pe biscopes and If red men heom 
cursede aevre, oc was heom naht J>arof for hi weron al forcursed '' 5 
and forsworen and forloren. V^zjff» ioie tilede, )pk erthe ne bar nan 
com, for ]>e land was al forddn mid swilce d^es and hi sa^en 
openlfce Sat Crist slep and his halechen. Swilc and n^re ]>anne 
we cunnen saein we ]x>leden • nigentene " wintre for ure sinnes. 

On al ]>is yvele time heold Martin abbot his abbotrice twentl^ 10 
wintre and half gier and ehte ' dseis mid micel swihc, and fand ]7e 
munekes and te gestes al ]>at heom behdved; and heold mycel 
^^.^carited in the hus, and )?o})wethere wrohte on }>e circe and sette 
'\, )?arto ISndes and rentes, and goded it swjthe and laet it ^fen, and 
brohte heom into ]>e newae mynstre on Sanct Petres maessedsei mid 15 
micel wurtscipe. Dat was anno db incarnatione Domini mcxly a 
combusiione loci xxiii. And he for to Rome and baer waes w^l 
underfangen fram J?e Pape Eugenie, and begaet thare privilegies, an 
of alle \t landes of )?e abbotrice '® and ano)>er of ]?e landes J>e. lien 
f • . ' ^*n6 )>e circgwican ; and, gif he leng moste liven, alse he mint to don of 20 
J>e horderwycan. And he begaet in landes f>at rice men hafden mid 
strengthe : of Willelm Malduit )?e heold Rogingham ]>e " castel, he 
wan Cotingham and Jstun ; and of Hugo of Waltevile he wan H}Tt- 
a. . lingberi" and Stanewig and sixti" solidi" of Aldewingle aelc gaer. 
And he makede manle munekes and plantede winiaerd and makede 25 
rnani weorkes, and wende )?e tun betere f>an it ier waes, and waes 
god munec and god man and for]>i him luveden God and gode men, 

Nu we willen saegen sum dfl wat belamp on Stephnes Kinges 
time. On his time )?e ludeus of Norwic bohton an Cristen ^^ cild 
beforen ]|stren and pineden him alle }?e ilce pining Sat ure Drihten 30 
was pined; and on lang Fridaei him on rode hengen for ure 
Drihtines luve, and sythen byrieden him. Wenden Sat it sculde 

* b. « abb. 8 ui. « flugaen, « forcurssed. 

'■ folenden. ' xix. « xx. » viii. *» J>abbotrice. " bge. 

>• Hyrtllngb. " Ix. " sot. « Xpisten. 



ben forholen, oc ure Dryhtin atywede Sat he was half martyr^; ct^'^"' 
and 19 munekes him namen and bebyried him heglTce in fe minstre, 
and he maket J>ur Ore Drihtin wunderlice and manifaeldlice miracles, 
and hatte he Sanct Willelm. 

1 138. On J?is gser com David, King of Scotland', mid ormete 5 *^''"' 
fserd to )?is land ; wolde winnan )?is land, and him c5m togaenes 
Willelm Eorl of Albamar, )?e ]?e king hadde ^ betf ht Evorwic, and •^^^ t 
t9 other aevest* men mid fseu men and fuhten wid heom, andy^'*^"'" 
flemden ]?e lung aet te Standard and sloghen swithe micel of his 
genge. 10 

1 140. On )?isg3er wolde )?e King Stephne taecen RodbertEorl of *^' 
Gloucestre, )>e kinges sune Henries, ac he ne myhte for he_wart it 
war. perefter in J)e lengten f>estrede ]?e sunne and te dsei abuton 
non-tid daeies ]?a men eten, Sat me lihtede candles to aeten bi ; and 
f>at was tSretene kalendas Apriles^, Waeron men swythe ofwundred. 15 
perefter fordfeorde Willelm -^rcebiscop of Cantwarberi *, and te 
king makede Teodbald aercebiscop f)e was abbot in the Bee. 

perefter waex swythe micel werre betwyx f>e king and Randolf 
Eorl of Caestre, noht forf)i 8at he ne iaf him al Sat he cuthe axen 
him, alse he dide alle othre, oc »fre ]je mare he iaf heom, Jje waerse 20 
hi waeron him. pe eorl heold Lincol agaenes ]?e king and benam 
him al Sat he ahte to haven ; and te king for J>ider and besaette him 
and his brother Willelm de R[om]are '^ in J)e castel. And te aeorl 
stael ut and ferde efter Rodbert Eorl of Gloucestre and brohte him 
]?ider mid micel ferd ; and fuhten swythe on Candelmasse daei 25 
agenes heore laverd and namen him — for his men him swyken and ^a 
flugen * — and Ised him to Bristowe, and diden f)ar in prisun and 
[fejteres. pa was al Engleland styred mar }>an aer waes, and al 
yvel waes in lande. 

perefter com )?e kinges dohter Henries )?e hefde ben emperice in 30 
Alamanie and . nu waes cuntesse in Angou, and com to Lundene 
and te Lundenissce folc hire wolde taecen and scse fieh and forlfs 

' mr. ' Scotl. ^ adde. * aevez. ' xiii t. April. • Cantwarft. 
' R. . . are ; bracketed letters or words are conjectural. * fluga;n. 


9^ X 




]?ar micel. perefter J)e biscop of Wincestre, Henri J?e klnges 
brother Stephnes, spac wid Rodbert Eorl and wid J)e emperice \ 
and swor heom athas Sat he nf vre ma mid te king his brother 
wolde halden, and cursede alle J)e men )?e mid him heolden, and 
saede heom tJat he wolde iiven heom up Wincestre, and dide heom 5 
cumen ]?ider. pa hi J)aerinne waren, ]>a com )?e kinges. cwen 
mid al hire strengthe and besaet heom, tSat^bej waes inne micel 
hiinger. pa hi ne leng ne muhten )?olen, }>a stali hi ut and fhigen ; 
and hi wurthen war widilten and folecheden heom and nSmen 
Rodbert Eorl of Gloucestre, and ledden him to Rovecestre and 10 
diden him ]>are in prisun ; and te emperice fleh i;it6 an minstre. 
pa feorden J>e wise men betwyx )>e klnges freond and te eorles 
^«-<' freond, and sahtlede swa Sat me sculde leten iit ]?e king of prisun 

for ]?e eorl, and te eorl for Jje king ; and swa diden. ^ 

Sithen }?erefter sahtleden ]?e king and Randolf Eorl at Stanford, 15 ' 
and athes sworen and treuthes faesten Sat her nouJ>er sculde I 
beswiken other. And it ne forstod naht, for J?e king him sithen 
nam in Hamtun )?urh ^ wi^ci raed, and dide him in prisun ; and 
efsones he let him iit )>urh waerse red, to Sat forewarde Sat he 
swor on halidom and gysles fand J?at he alle his castles sculde iiven 20 I 
lip. Sume he iaf iip and sume ne iaf he noht, and dide }7anne 
wgerse ]?anne he her ^ sculde. 

pa was Engleland swythe todfled. Sume helden mid te king 
and sume mid )?e emperice ; for )?a f)e king was in prisun }>a 
wenden f>e eorles and te rice men J>at he nfvre mare sculde cumen 25 
lit, and saehtleden wyd )>e emperice ^ and brohten hire into Oxen- 
ford and iaven hire f)e burch. pa )>e king was iite, )>a herde Sat 
saegen and toe his feord and besaet hire in J)e tiir ; and me laet hire 
diin on niht of ]^ tur mid rapes, and stal iit and scae fleh and ia^e on 
fote to Walingford. paerefter scae ferde over sa5 and hi of Normandi 5° 
wenden alle fra f>e king to J>e Eorl of Angaeu, sume hore^ pahkes, 
and sume here unf>ankes ; for he besaet heom til hi a-iaven iip here 
castles, and hi nan helpe ne haefden of f>e king. 

^ ])emp€rice, as usually. ^ ])urhc, as in next clause also. ^ haer. 


pa ferde Eustace fe kinges sune to France and nam ]>e kinges 
siistex of France to wife ; wende to begaeton Normandi Jyjerjjurh. Mi^^a^ 
oc he spedde litel, and be gode rihte for he was an yvel man, for 
warese he [com he] dide mare yvel )?anne god. He rfvede f>e 
landes and laeide mic[ele geldejs on ; he brohte his wif to Engleland 5 
and dide hire in f>e caste[l on Canjteberl ^ ; god wimman scse waes 
oc scae hedde litel blisse mid him. And Crist ne wolde Sat he 
sculde lange rixan, and waerd df d and his moder befen. *^ ' ' 

And te Eorl of Angaeu waerd df d and his sune Henri t5c to ]>e 
rice. And te cwen of France todaelde fra ]>e king and scae com to i© 
J)e iunge Eorl Henri, and he toe hire to wive and al Peitou mid 
hire, pa ferde he mid micel faerd into Engleland and wan castles ; 
and te king ferde agenes him mid micel mare ferd. And 
• ]?o]5waethere fuhten - hi noht, oc ferden J)e aercebiscop and te wise 
^ men betwux heom and makede "Sat sahte Sat te king sculde ben 15^/^tv^." 
laverd and king wile he livede, and aefter his dsei ware Henri king ; . <;,, 
A^^^ind he helde him for fader and he him for sune, and sib and saehte 
sculde ben betwyx heom and on al Engleland. pis and te othre 
forwardes Ipet hi makeden sworen to halden J>e king and te eorl 
and te biscop and te eorles and rice men alle. pa was J)e eorl 20 
underfangen aet Wincestre and aet Lundene mid micel wurtscipe, 
and alle diden him manred and sw5ren J^e pais to halden ; and hit 
ward sone swythe god pais, swa Sat nf vre was f re ^ pa was J>f ^^ 
king strengere )?anne he severt f r * was ; and te eorl ferde over sse 
and al folc him luvede, for he dide god justise and makede pais. 25 

1 1 54. On J)is gser waerd f>e.King Stephne dfd and bebyried J^er 
his wif and his sune wseron bebyried aet Favresfeld ; J>aet minster hi 
makeden. pa ]>e king was dfd ]?a was ]>e eorl beionde sae, and ne 
durste nan man don o]?er bute g5d for pe micel eie of him. p5 -ut .^ '^ 
he to Engleland com ]?a was he underfangen mid micel wurtscipe, 30 
and to king bletced' in Lundene on \>e Sunnendaei beforen mid- ^-^UC-w 
winter daei, and held ]?8er micel ciirt. pat ilce daei }?at Martin, 
abbot * of Burch, sculde }?ider faren, J>a saeclede he and ward dfd, 

^ teb. ^ fuhtten. ^ here. * her. * bletcsed. " al5b. 


fowre nonas /anuarias \ and te munekes innenAQaeis cusen oJ?er of 
heom saelf, Willelm de Waltevile is gehaten, god clerc and god 
man, and wael luved of J)e king and of alle gode men. And o[n 
circjen ' byrieden pe abbot ' hehlice, and sone ]>e cosan abbot * 
ferde and le muneces [mid him to] Oxenforde to J>e king, [and he] 5 
iaf him "pAt abbotrice *\ And he ferde him son[e to Linc]ol and 
waes J)[3er bletced to] abbot aer he ham come, and [sithen] was 
underfangen [mid mic]el [wurtscipe at] Burch, mid [mice]l proces- 
siun. And swa he was alswa at Ramesaeie, and at Torneie ^, and 
at . . . , and Spallding •, and at S . 1 . bares, and . . . , and [nu Is] 10 
abbot, and fa[ire] haved begunnon. Cristus"' him un[ne god 


Nu, br6j>err Wallterr, br6]?err min affterr J?e flaeshess kinde, 
. - ^ Annd^ br6]>err min iCrisstenndom J)urrh fulluhht annd ])urrh trowwJ)e, 
Annd br5f>err mm i Godess hus ^et ' 6 J)e }?ridde '^ ^vise, 15 

«i^rv»Apurrh )>att witt hafenn takenn ^^ ba an re^hellboc to foll^henn, 
^ s Unnderr kanunnkess -had annd llmsWa summ.Sannt Awwstin sette ; 
Ice hafe don swa summ Jju badd annd for]?edd te ]?in wille, -H^^^^^ 
Ice hafe wennd inntill Ermglissh goddspelless halljhje lare '^, 
Affterr f)att little witt f>att me min Drihhtin hafe]?)? lenedd. 20 

pu Jjohhtesst tatt itt mihhte wel till mikell frame turrnenn, *<*vvvJ-^<' 
giff Ennglissh folic, forr lufe off Crist, itt wollde ^erne lernenn 
Annd foll^henn itt annd fillenn itt vf'iplp Jxjhht, wij)]? word, wijjf) dede ; 
Annd forrJ?i ^errndesst tii J?att ice J)iss werrc f>e shollde wirrkenn,. 
Annd ice itt hafe f6r]^e(ld te, ace all f>urrh Cristess*hellpe, 
Annd unnc birr]? ba)?e )?annkenn Crist J)att itt iss brohht till ende. 

* iiii N*. laii. ^ All bracketed words are conjectural. - ' pahh. 

* ab. ** abbrice. ^ Tom'. * Spall*. ^ Xpus. ^ i, as usaally. 

* 5et, with double accent. '** J)ride. " The breve, as usual when 
in MS. »2 ij^e. 



■<^A^ u 


Ice hafe sammnedd o J?iss boc J)a goddspelless neh alle 
patt sinndenn 6 f>e messeboc inn all )>e jer att messe ; 
Annd ajj afFterr J>e goddspell stannt J>att tatt te goddspell mf nef>]?, ^^^ 
patt mann birrf) spellenn to ]je folic off J^ejjre sawle nede ; 
Annd aet^ tar tekenn mare inoh bu shallt taeronne fmdenri, slu-iwtcj 

Off fjatt tatt Cristess hall^he ]>ea birr)? trowwenn wel annd folljhenn. ie *h 
Ice hafe sett her o ]?iss boc amang goddspelless wordess, •' 
All J>urrh mesellfenn, manij word )?e rime * swa to fillenn ; l^ jr^^ 
Ace )?u shallt findenn J)att mm word, e^jwhser l?ser itt iss ekedd, 9 
Ma33 hellpenn )?a J)att redenn itt to sen annd t' unnderrstanndenn ® 
All fjess te bettre, hu f>e33m birrf) ]7e goddspell unnderrstanndenn. 
Annd forr)?i trowwe ice J>att te birrf) wel f)olenn mine wordess, 
E33whaer )?aer J>u shallt findenn hemm amang goddspelless wordess ; 
For whase mot* to laewedd folic larspell ojfF goddspell tellenn. 
He mot* wel ekenn manij word amang goddspelless wordess. 15 
Annd ice ne mihhte nohht mm ferrs aj^ wij?}? goddspelless wordess 
Wel fillenn all, annd all forr]?I shollde ice well offte nede ^^' - ^^ 
Amang goddspelless wordess don min word, min ferrs to fillenn. 

Annd te bitache ice off J>iss boc, heh wikenn alls itt seme)?}?,*^^^'^'^ 
All to J>urrhse£enn ille an ferrs, annd to Jjurrhlokenn offte, 20 

patt upponn all )?iss b5c ne be nan word ^an Cristess lare, 
Nan word tatt swij^e wel ne be, to trowwenn annd to foU^henn. 'f*^^ 
Witt shulenn tredepij upnderr fot* annd all J)werrtut* forrwerrpenn^'^^^^'j 
pe do^^^ff aUbaU laj)e floce J)att iss f>urrh ni]? forrblendedd, 
patt taelej?]? pattf>jto lofenn is^^Jjurrh nifjfull modi^nesse. ^ 25 
pe33 shulenn laetenn ^ h»)?eli3 off unnkerr swinnc, lef br6f>err, 
Annd all J?e53 shulenn takenn itt onn unnitt annd onn idell,t^ \^^ 
Ace nohht f>urrh skill, ace all ]?urrh ni]?, annd all Jjurrh f>e33re 

Annd unnc birrj? biddenn Godd tatt he forr3ife henmi here sinne ; 
Annd unnc birr)> ba)?e lofenn Godd off J^att itt wass bigunnenn, 30 V 
Annd f>annkenn Godd tatt itt iss brohHTtill ende }>urrh hiss hellpe; 

* 3et, with double accent. ^ rime. ' timnderrstanndenn. 

* vowel with double accent. '' Iwtenn. 





Forr itt 111033 hellpenn alle J)a f>att blij^elike itt herenn, 
Annd lufenn itt annd foll3henn itt ^ip]> ]?ohht, mlpp word, wij)]? 
Annd whase wilenn shall )?iss hoc efft open sif>e writenn, 
Himm bidde ice })att he't* write ^ rihht,(fewa summ)J)iss boc himm 

All Jjwerrtut ^ affterr )?att itt iss uppo )?iss firrste bisne, - 5 

Wip]> all swillc rime ^ alls her iss sett, vfiplp all se fele wordess ; 
Annd tatt he loke wel ]?att he an b5QStaff write ^ twi33ess-Wvct 
E33whaer ]>dbr itt uppo )?iss boc iss writenn o )?att wise. 
Loke he wel J>att he't ^ write swa, forr he ne ma33 nohht elless j 
Onn Ennglissh writenn * rihht te word, ]?att wite he wel t 5^so}?e . 10 

Annd 3ifF mann wile wltenn whi ice hafe don J)iss dede, 
Whi ice till Ennglissh hafe wennd goddspelless hall3he lare, 
Ice hafe itt don forr)?i J)att all Crisstene follkess berrhless i^w^A^ 
fiss lang)uppo J)att an, J)att te33 goddspelless hall3he lare 
Wijpp fuUe mahhte foll5he rihht )?urrh J)ohht, }>urrh word, )>urrh 
dede. ^ ^^ 15 

Forr all |?att sefre onn erj>e iss ned Crisstene foUe t5 foUjhenn 
1 troww]?e, i dede, all t»ehej>]? hemm goddspelless hall3he lare ; 
Annd forrf>i whase leme)?)? itt annd foll3heJ>J) itt wif>J) dede, ^^^^^^^ 
He shall onn ehide wurrj?! ben;f>urrh Godd to wurrf>enn borghenn. 
Annd taerfore hafe ice turrnedd itt inntill Ennglisshe spseche, 20 
Forr )?att I wollde blijjeli; }?att all Ennglisshe lede 
Wi]?]? aere «hollde lisstenn itt, wi)?}? herrte shoUde itt trowwenn, 
Wipp tunge shollde spellenn itt, wipp dede shollde itt foll3henn, 
To winnenn unnderr Crisstenndom att Godd so)> sawle berrhless. 
Annd 3ifF J>e33 wilenn herenn itt, aniid foll3henn itt wif>J) dede, 25 
Ice hafe hemm hollpenn unnderr Crist to winnenn J?e33re berrhless. 
xua.*.^^ Annd I shall hafenn forr min swinne god Ign att Godd onn ende, 
giff p2Lit I, forr pe lufe off Godd annd forr pe mede off hefFne, 
Hemm hafe itt inntill Ennglissh wennd forr ]?e33re saade nede. 
Annd 3ifF pe^^ all forrwerrpenn itt, itt turrnej?)? b«nmtill sinne, . 30 

* het, vowel with double accent. ^ write. / ' rtme. * writenn. 




Annd I shall hafenn addledd me j^e Laferrd Cristess are; 
purrh J>att ice hafe hemm wrohht tiss boo to J^e^^re sawle nede, 
pohh }?att te53 all forrwerrpenn itt )?urrh J^e^jre modljnesse. 

Goddspell onn Ennglissh nemmnedd iss god word, annd god 

li]>enjide, k^J^ 

G5d errnde, forr)?i ]?att itt wass J>urrh halljhe goddspejlwrihhtess **5 "^ 
All wrohht annd writenn uppo boc off Cristess firrste ^ come, 
Off hu s6]5 Godd wass wurr^enn mann forr all mannkinne nede, 
Annd off )?att mannkinn )?urrh hiss dalj) wass lesedd ut * off helle, 
Annd ojfF)?att he wjgslike ras f>e |jridde da^j gff^dsejje, 
Annd off }?att he wisslike stahM siJJ^enn upp till heflfne, lo '^ 

Annd off )?att he shall cumenn efft to demenn alle j>ede, 
Annd forr to jeldenn iwhillc mann affterrTiiss a3henn dede.. '' 
Off all f)iss god uss brinnge)?)? word annd errnde annd god ti)?ennde ^^ 
Goddspell, annd forrj?! ma33 itt wel god errnde ben ^ehatenn. "• 

Forr mann ma33 uppo goddspellboc godnessess findenn seffne 15 
patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist uss hafe]?f> don onn erj>e, 
purrh ]?att he comm to manne annd J?urrh )?att he warrj) mann 
onn erj>e. 

Forr an godnesse uss hafef>)5 d5n ]?e Laferrd Crist onn er]?e 
.purrh f>att he comm to wurrj)enn mann forr all mannkinne nede. ^J' ^ 

O^err godnesse uss hafe)?)? don )>e Laferrd Crist onn erjje 2c^^^%,V^\ 

purrh J>att he wass I flumm Jorrdan fujjhtnedd forr ure^nede ; 
Forr J?att he wollde uss waterrkinfTtill ure fuUuhht hall3henn, -tf^vitov^^vr 
purrh )?att he wollde ben himmsellf onn er]je 1 waterr fullhtnedd. 
pe ]?ridde god uss hafe]?]? don J)e Laferrd Crist onn er])e v I ,.. 

Jjurrh ]?att he jaff hiss a^henn lif wib]? all hiss fulle wille 25 . 

To Jjoknn dse]?}? 6 rodetre sacdaes' wi}?J?utenn wrihhte>i..s^^ ^^^^ 
To lesenn mannkinn jjurrh hiss ^ dse]> ut* off J^e defless waldeT S • < 
pe fer)?e god uss hafe]?}? don J)e Laferrd Crist onn er]?e 
purrh Jmtt hiss hall^he sawle stah fra r5de dun till helle, ' ' 

To takenn ut * off heUewa ]? a gode sawless alle 3° s^^cas- 

^ fisste. * vowel with double accent. ' his. * vowel with double accent. 




Jk^*^ patt haffdenn cwemmd himm i ]?iss lif J)urrh so)? unnsha]7i^nesse. 
pe fifte god uss hafe)?)? don pe Laferrd Crist onn er]?e / 

purrh ]?att he ras forr ure god J)e J>ridde da33 off daej^,- ^ ^ 

o^-u ^ Annd let ' te posstjess sep himm wel inn hiss mennisske kinde ; 

Forr )?att he wollde fesstenn swa so}? trowwf>e i Jje^^re brestess 5 
feiAU*A^OiF j>att he, wiss to fulle so)?, wass risenn upp off daej?e, . ; 

Annd i J)att illke flaesh )?att wass forr uss 6 rode naj^ledd ; ^' ^ 
FojT Jjatt he wollde fesstnenn wel ]jiss troww)?e 1 )?e35re brestess, 
■ He let * te posstless sen himm weljjjgll offte sif>e onn er)?e, 
Wi)?)?innenn da^^ess fowwerrtij fra fatt he ras off ddtpe, 10 

Pe sexte god uss hafe)?)> don pe Laferrd Crist onn erpe 
purrh )?att he stah forr ure god upp inntill heflfness blisse, ^yz 
Annd sennde si)?)?enn Halla Gast till Jiise lerninn gcnihh tess; <-^S{ 
t>vvJt^ To frpfrenn * annd to fieldenn hemm to stanndenn jgen J?e defell, 
To gifenn hemm god ^t inoh off all hiss halljhe lare, 15 

To gifenn hemm god lusst,'gbd mahht, to )?olenn alle wawenn 
All forr J>e lufe oiF Godd, annd nohht forr erjjlij Igff to winnenn. 
pe seflfnde god uss shall ^et* don )?e Laferrd Crist onn ende 
purrh )?att he shall o domess daj^ uss gifenn hefFness blisse, 
giff )?att we shulenn wurr)?i ben to findenn Godess are. ■ * 20 

puss hafe)?]? ure Laferrd Crist uss don godnessess sefFne, 
1/ purrh )?att tatt he to manne comm to wurrj>enn mann onn erpe. 
Annd o ))att hall^he boc J>att iss apokalypsis nemmnedd 
Uss wrat * te posstell Sannt Johan, )?urrh Hali3 Gastess lare, 24 

patt he sahh upp inn heffne an boc bisett wi)?)> sefFne innse^jless, 

i. It,, Annd sperrd swa swi)?e wel ]?att itt ne mihhte nan wihht oppnenn' 
Wi)?))utenn Godess halljhe Lamb )>att he sahh ec inn hefFne^^^ 
Annd Jjurrh J)a sejfFne innse33less wass rihht swij?e wel bitacned^ 
patt sefennf^d g6dle33*c )?att Crist uss dide )?urrh hiss come ; 29 

Annd tatt nan wihht ne mihhte nohht oppnenn f>a sefFne innse33less 
Wi)?f)utenn Godess Lamb, J)att comm forr )?att itt shollde tacnenn 
patt nan wihht, n^n enngell/nan mann, ne naness kinness slisiffte, 

* vowel with double accent. ' frofren. ^ opnenn, but oppnenn 






.jO ^"'^'" 


Ne mihhte })urrh himmsellfenn J)a.seffne godnessess shsewenn ^ 

O mannkinn, swa batt it mannkinn off helle mihhte lesenn^ 
Ne gifenn mannkinn lusst, ne mahht, to winnerin henness blisse. 
• Annd all all swa se Godess Lamb, all Jjurrh hiss a^henn mahhte, 
^Lihhtlike mihhte annd wel inoh )?a seffne innse53less oppnenn, 5 xjj^^'^.^ 
All swa J>e Laferrd Jesu Crist all )?urrh hiss a^henn mahhte, 
Wi}>J) Faderr annd wiJ)J> HalTj Gast, an Godd annd all an kinde, 
All swa rihht he lih htlike inoh annd wel wij?]? alle mihhte ""^Uti ^^"^^^ 

O mannkinn )?urrh himmsellfenn }>a sefFne godnessess shgewenn, 
Swa Jjatt he mannkinn wel inoh off helle mihhte lesenn, 10 

Annd gifenn mannkinn lufe annd lusst, annd mahht annd witt annd 

wille, . ' 

To stanndenn inn to cwemenn Godd to winenn heffness blisse. • 
Annd forr J^att hallj goddspellboc all ]?iss godnesse uss shaewe]?]?, 
piss sefennfald godlejjc J?att Crist uss dide )?urrh hiss are, 
ForrJ)i birr]? all Crisstene folic goddspelles lare folljhenn. 15 

Annd taerfpre hafe ice turmedd itt inntill Ennglisshe spseche, 
Forr )?att 1 wollde blij^elij }?att all Ennglisshe lede 
'WiJjJ? sere shoUde lisstenn itt, wij?]? herrte sholde itt trowwenn, 
WiJ?)? tQnge shollde spellenn itt, vn)p\> dede shollde itt folljhenn, 
To winnenn unnderr crisstenndom att Crist so]? sawle berrhless. 20 
Annd Godd allmahhti3 ^ife uss mahht annd lusst and witt annd wiile 
To foUjhenn J)iss Ennglisshe boo f)att ^ all iss hall; lare, ^ ^-^ ' 

Swa })att we motenn wurr)?i ben to brukenn heffness blisse. 
Am[sen]. Am[3en]. Am[aen]r" ^ 

Ice ]?att tiss Ennglissh hafe sett, Ennglisshe menn to lare, ^ ' 25 
Ice wass jjser )?3er I crisstnedd wass Orrmin bl name nemmnedd ; 
Annd ice, Orrmin, full innwarrdlij wip}? mu)) annd ec wij)}? herrte , 
Her bidde )?a Crisstene menn J>att herenn 9j>err redenix ^ 
piss boc, hemm bidde ice her J>att te^^ forr me J>iss bede biddenn, 
patt brojjerr f>att tiss Ennglissh writtallreaeresst'^wrat*^nnd wrohhte, 
patt brojjerr forr hiss swinnc to laen so]? blisse mote* findenn. 31 

'^"^'^ Am[aen]. , 

* Jat. * redenn. * allrseresst. * vowel with double accent. * m$te. 

11 y 

/ », 

I v>-- 



The L;on*s Nature 


De leun slant on hille; and* he man hunten here, 
iJL ' QVcT Surg his nf se smel smake Sat he negge, ^i y^/n^f^ 
Bi wile weie 59 he wile to djle niSer^ wenden, Juil 
AUe hise fetsteppes after him he filleS]^^"~~- 'tw^^.A^^t-A. 
DrageS dust wiS his stert Ser he dun * steppeS, i «; 

QSer dQst gSer deu, Sat he ne cunne is finden; 
DriveS dun to his den Sar he him bergen wille. 

An oSer kinde he haveS. Wanne he is ikindled**'^'^^ 
Stille liS Se leun, ne stireS he nout of slepe, 
Ait,^ Til Se sunne haveS sinen Sries him abuten; 10 

Danne reiseS his fader him mit te r§m Sat he makeS. c*^ 

De Sridde lage haveS Se leiin; Sanne he lieS to slepen - 
Sal he nevre luken Se lides of hise egen. 


Welle heg is tat hil Sat is hevenriche; 
Ore L9verd is te leun Se liveS Ser abuven ; 15 

Hu'* S9 him llkede to ligten her on erSe, **^t^ 
Migte nevre divel witen, S9 he be derne^ hunte, 
Hu he dun come, ne hu^ h6 dennede him -tM^^ 
In Sat defte meiden, Marie bi name, 
AA^t^tvU^Y W(j^e him bar to manne frame. 20 

* 1, as usually. * he stepped. * wu. 

'. V 


D9 ure Drigten vded was, and dolven. als9 his wille was, ^ 
In a st9n stille he ki til it kam Se tSridde ' dai ; ^ ^ 

His fader him iilstnrae sw? Sat he 193 fr9 dfde 89, 

us to lif h9lden. 
WakeS S9 his wille is, 59 hirde for his folde; -IaK^i^ 5 
He is hIrde, we ben sep; silden he us wille 4t^ 

If we heren to his word Sat we ne g9n n9wor wjHe.,, 

The Eagle*s Nature 

t- < . 


KiSen I wille Se fmes kinde ^ 

Als9 ic it 6 boke rfde; 

Hn^ he neweS his guShf de, 10 ^^^ 

Hu he cumeS ut of elde, 

SiSen hise limes arn unwelde, 

SiSen his bfc is al t6wr9ng,J: . U^Ji> 

SiSen his fiigt is al unstr9ng, u^u^ 
And his egen dimme. 15 

HereS hH^ he neweS him; 
A welle he sekeS Sat springeS ai, 
B9Se bi nigt and bl dai ; 
Der9ver he flegeS and up he teS ^' 
Til Sat he Se hevene seS, ao 

Durg skies sexe and sevene, 
Til he cumeS to hevene. 
S9 rigt S9 he cunne 
He h9veS in Se sunne; 
i^^^j^j^ De sunne swiSeS ' al his fligt, ' . 25 

And oc it makeS his egen brigt, 
Hise feSres fallen for Se hf te, 
And he dun mide to Se wfte ,tt*^\ 
FalleS in Sat wellegrund,. ^M.l*'^^-- ^ A<t' 
Der he wurSeS* heil and sund, 30 

• dridde. ' wu. ' swideS. * wurdeff. 



And cumeS tit al newe, 

Ne were his bfc untrcwe. 

His bfc is get bifom wr§ng. 

Dog hise limes sinden^ string, 

Ne maig he tilen him ngn fode « 5 

Himself to ngne gode. * ^' 

Danne g9S he to a stgn, 

And he billeS Seron, 

KlleS til his bfc bif^ren* 

HaveS .8e wrengtfe forlgren ; /xJiaUh to 

SiSen wiS his rigte bile 

TakeS mf te Sat he wile. 


Al is man S9 is tis f m, wulde ge nQ listen "* 
Qld in hise sinnes dern gr he bicumeS cristen. 14 

And tus hS neweS him, Sis man, Sanne he nimeS to kirke ; 
Qr he it biSenken can hise egen weren mirke; 

vw^ ForsakeS* S9re Satanas and ilk sinful dede^ 

TakeS him t6 Jesu" Crist for he sal ben his m§de, 
LgveS on Qre Lpverd Crist and IfreS prestes Igre; 

-vnjc- Of hise 5gen wfreS Se mist wiles he dreccheS S9re. i*^*'^ 20 
His'hOpe is al to Gode ward, and of his luve he leteS^i^tW'^ 
Dat is te sunne sikerlike, 5us his sigte he bJieS; KJlM^JuUi> 

^ Naked falleS in 8e fupjfat, and cumeS ut al newe, 
Buten a litel ; wat is tat ? his muS is get untrewe ; 
His muS is get wel unkuS wiS paternoster and crede. 25 

FiUe h6 norS or ^ (are he sQS, If ren he sal his nede ; 
^. Bidden bone t6 Gode and tus his muS rigten, 

]^ ; Tilen him 89 Se sowles f5de Surg grace off lire Drigtin. 


senden. ' bifom. ^ listlen. ^ forsaket. ^ iha. 

• leretJ. ^ er. 



■;' The Serpent's Nature 

An wirm is 6 werlde wcl man it knoweS, 

Neddre is te name ; ^"S he him neweS 

Danne he is forbrgken ^ and in his elde al forbroiden ^. ^ 

FasteS til his fel him slaket^ ten daies fulle, -l^H*^ 

Dat he is lene and mainlfs and ivele mai gfangen ; »■ ' ' 5 ^^*^^ 

He crepet> cripelande fortS, his craft he Sus kiSeS, 

SeketS a stgn Sat a "Sirfis on,~^arwe buten he nedgSJ him, ttrU 

NimetS unnfSes Surg, for his fel he Ser leteS. ^rvu^ 

His fl^s for8 crepeS, walketS to Se water ward, 

Wile Sanne drinken. Oc he spewetS gr al tSe venim 10 

Dat in his brest is bred frg his b irde ti me ; -Uvtl\ t^^MX 

DrinketS siSen inog, and tus he him neweS. 

Danne 8e neddre is of his hid naked 
And bare of his bres^atter, Im^^^"" 

If he naked man se ne wile he him nogt neggen, 15 

Oc he fletS frg him als he frg fir sulde. 
If he clgSed man se cgf he waxeS, U^ 
For up he rigteS him rfdi to dfren, Ikc ^ 
To deren er to df d maken, if he it muge fortSen. 
Wat if "Se man war wurSe and wfren him cunne, \ 20 

FigteS wiS Sis wirm and fareS ^ on him figtande ? 
Dis neddr^^^iSen he nede sal 
MaketTseld of his bodi and sildeS his hfved; 
Litel himls of hise limes, bute he llf hglde. ^ 


. Know Cristene man wat tii Crist higtest, 
Atte kirkedure Sar 8u cristned were. 
DQ higtes to leven on him, and hise lages luvien, 
To helden wit herte Se bgdes of hgli kirke ** 



forbroken and forbroiden. 

^ forwurden. 










If Su havest is broken, al 8u forbredes *, 
ForwurSes and forgelwes eche lif to wplden ; 
Elded art fr§ eche blis 59 Sis wirm o werld is. 

ewe t5e forSi * sg SS neddre doS, 
It is te ned. 

Feste Se of stf defastnesse, 
And help tSe povre men 
Ne deme Se nogt wurt5i ' 



Up to tJe hevene ward ; 
Mildelike amgng men. 
Mod ne mannes uncpst ; 
And bote bid ta 8e ai, 



and fill of J5ewes,'^__ ^1 
Se gangen abaten. ^« 
t5at tu d&e J^en 
oc walke M(io 8e erSe, 
N9 mod Su ne cune, 

oc swic of sineginge, 
bgSe bi nigt and bi dai, 
Dat tu milce mote haven of tSne misdedes, 
Dis lif bitgkneB Se sti A t5at te neddre gangetS bi, ^ '"^ 
And tis is 8e 8irl of Se'stgn tJat tu salt "Surg ggn : 
Let Sin filSe (tq Se sg Se wirm his fel doS ; 
Gg Su San to Codes hQs Se godspel to heren, 
©at^is soule drink, sinnes quenching. 
Oc ^ sei Su in scnfte to-Se presf^mhes tinfe, 
Feg Se Sus of Si brestfilSeAi^d feste Se forSwafd 
Fast at tin herte 'Sat tu nrmSrhigteSt____^^^^ 
Dus art tu ging and newe, forSward be Su trewe. \ 
NedfiS Se Se devel nogt, for he ne mai Se d^i'en nogt ; '7^^ 

Oc he fleS frg Se sg neddre frg Se nakede. . Ag 
On Se clgSede Se neddre is cgf, and te devel cliver on sinnes; 25 
Ai Se sinfule bisetten he wile, 
And wiS al mankin he haveS niS and winr 
Wat if he If ve have of ure Hevenlgverd 
For to df ren us 59 he iire eldere gr dede ? 
Do we Se bodi in Se bale and bergen Se soule, ^ 30 

Dat is ure hf ved gevelic, . helde we it wurSliq. < 





* forbieSes. 

2 fordi. 

* nog wurdi. 

< filde. 

r .. 






i 0J/A. * THE BESTIARY 19 

. •• '' '^ The Whale's Nature 

Fk jcI' ' Cethegrande is a lis 

De -nigste oat m water is ; 

Dat tu wuld^s seien get, . 

Gef t5u it sgg e wan it flet^ .. . ^^ 

Dat it were an eil9nd^ . 5 

Dat sete on ^ Se sf sgnd. a-^ ^ p^ '^ 

_rJ^ Dis fis Sat is unride^^vy^ ^ * ' 

Danne him hungreS hq gape8 wide ; ".JT^' ^ 
^^lAUt of his 8r9te it smit an gnde, OjN «^'-^'' 

De swetteste 8ing ^t is o Igndel 

Derfgre oSre fisses to him dragen, 

Wan he it felen he aren Sgen 

He cumen and hgybh in his mu8, 

Of his swike he arn uncuS. . 
hJj^l I^is cete Sanne hise chaveles lOketJ, 15 

Dise fisses alle in sukeS; '^ 

De smale he wile 8us biswiken, 

De grfte maig he^^ijogt bigripen. 
Dis fis wuneS wiS Se sfgrund, 

And live'S 8er evre heil and sund, 20 

Til it cumeS tSe time 
{ :i Dat storm stire8 al tSe sf, ^^ 

! Danne sumer and winter winnen. •V ^ , 

Ne mai it wunen Serinne, . 

Sq drovi is te sfes grund, tR#3»Ha6^ 25 

Ne mai he wunen Ser Sat stiind, 

Oc stire8 up and hgveS stiile. 

Wiles Sat' weder is sq ille, 

De siges Sat arn on sf fordriven, — ^ 

L98 hem is dfS*, and lef id liven, — 30 

* a neilond. ^ one. ' iSar. * ded. 

C 2 

1^ -v 


Biloken hem and sen 8is fis, ^. >./.* ' / .• , 

An eilgnd he wenen it is v.*-" , • /.. ' 

Derof he aren switfe .fag^, Jl^^^ 

And mid here migt Sarto he dragen ^ * 

Sipes on festen, " 5 

And alle up gangen. \ jc ^ j . . I ^ 

Of stgn mid sfel in tSe tunder . " * ' 

Wei to ferennen on^ ?5is wunder, 

V-v V" Warmen hem wel and f ten - and drinken. 

V De fir he feleS and dotS hem sinken, lo 

For sone he divetS dun to grunde; 

j^^^^IjT He drgpeS hem alle wiSuten wunde. >* 


Dis devel is mikel wi8 wil and magt, 
S9 wicches haven in here craft; ^ 

He do8 men hungren and haven Srist, ^ j} "^^h 
And mam oSer sinful list, ^^ kf^ 

dM*j^ Tolled men to him wi8 his ^n^j^^^'y^ .1 

W5s9 him folegeS h5 findetS * SQnde/^ ^ ... \.^ ' 

Dq arn Se little in leve lage, 'v^^' ' - **" ' 

De mikle ne maig he to him dragen; ao 

De mikle, I mf ne 8e stfdefast 

In rigte Ifve mid flg§ and gast. 

W6s9 listneS develes Igre, 

On lengSe it sal him rewen sgre ; 

W0S9 festeS h9pe on him, 35 

He sal him folgen tp helle dim. 

* one. ' heten. 




PuTiFAR trewitS hise wives ^ tale, 

And haveS* dempt losep to bale; 

He bad ben sperd faste' dun, 

And hglden harde in prisun. 

An irtel stund quile he was Ser, 5 

S9 gan him luven Se prisuner, ' --c ' "' ' 

And him tSe * chartre h5vetS bitagt 

WiS "89 pnsunes to liven in agt ^. 

Or for misdede, or for onsagen, 
Dgr wgren to Sat prisun dragen 10 

Qn Sat Se kinges kuppe bfd/\ 
And 9n Se made Se kinges brfa 
Hem drempte drfmes b9Sen o nigt, 
And he wurSen swiSe S9re ofrigt. * , f. 

Joseph hem servede S9r on sel ^^^ ^\ ,i 15 

At here drink and at here mel; 
He herde hem m^rn^n. l^e ^ freinde forquat; 
Harde drfmes 9gen aw9ld Sat. 
D9 seide he to Se buteler*^, 

*Tel me Sin drfm, mi broSer der^; 20 

QueSers9 it wurSe softe or string, 
De reching wurS on God bil^ng/ 

*Me drempte ic stod at a wintre 
Dat hadde ^ waxen buges Sre ; 
Qrest it blomede, and siSen bar 25 

De berles ripe, wurS ic war. 
De kinges kuppe ic ^^ hadde on h9nd i^ -^ • 
De beries S9rinne me Sijigte ic wr9ng, \ 

* wiwes. 2 haved. ' fast. " \^^i '^ • '^ hagt. * he hem 

"^ butnler. ^ her. ^ adde^ ""' '^ kinges ic. 


And bar it drinken to Pharaon, 

Me drempte, als ic was wune to don/ 

* Good is,' quaS Joseph, * to dremen of win, 
Heilnesse and blisse is Serin; 

Dre daies ben get for to cumen, 5. 

Du salt ben ut of prisun numen. 
And on 8in offis \ set agen. 
Of me tSu 8enke^ San it sal ben; 
Bed mm ernde' to Pharapn.^^ 
Dat* ic ut of prisun '8W?}^ uon; 10 

For ic am stglen of kinde Ignd, 
And wrigtelf sllke '^ hglden in bQnd/ 
^ v> QuaS Sis brf dwrigte, * LrSeS nu me : 
Me drempte ic bar brfadlfpes Sre, ^*A 
And Sgrin brfad and oSer mften 15 

Quilke ben wune Se kinges to ften; 
And fiigeles haven S9ron lagt, ^ 

r /f 

D^rfgre ic am in sorge and agt 

For ic ne migte me nogt wfren, 

Ne Sat mfte frg hem bfren/ 20 

* Me ^wgre levere,' quad Joseph, 
* * Of §ddi^drfmes rechen swep;"^**' 
Du salt, after Se Sridde dei, 
Ben do on rode, weilawei! 

And fugeles sulen Si fleis totfren, ^ 25 

Dat sal ngn agte mugen Se wf ren/ 

SoS wurS sg Joseph seide Sat. 
Dis buteler Joseph sone forgat; 
Two ger siSen >yas Joseph sperd \ 
Dgr in prisun wiSutefi frd.' 30 

Dq drempte Pharaon king a dr§m 
Dat he stod bi Se flodes strfm, 

offiz. - ?5henke. ' herdne. * Sa. ' her wrigteleslike. 




And tteSen * utc5men sevene ^ n§§t, 
Everilc wel switSe f§t and gr|t ; 
And sevene Ifne after tS^, 
De deden 8e «evene fette W9. 
De Ifne haven 8e fette freten; 5 

Dis drfm ne mai Se king forgeten. 
An otSer drfm cam him bifQren: 
Sevene fres' wexen fette of corn*, 
On an busk ranc and wel tidi,\ ^^", . . 7-'^ 
And sevene Ifne rigt tSgrbi, 10 

Welkede and smale and dr^e numen, 
De ranee '^ haven Sg gvercumen; 
. . Tosameni^ijb smiten and on a stund 
\ ^^, De fette "Sristen to tSe * griind. 
(jla^V^'^v'^ De king abraid and woe in tSogt"'^, ^ . 

r\. -«.**^'* Des drfmes swep ne wgt he nogt; ^'* 'a^ *^' 
Ne was ngn 59 wise^ in al his Ignd ^^' I ^ 

De kude undon tSis drfmes bgnd. 

D9 him bitSogte® Sat buteler 
Of tSat him drempte in prisun 8er, ao 

And of Joseph in Se prisun, 
And he it tglde Se king Pharaun. 
Joseph was sone in prisun 89 sogt^^ 
And shaven and clad and to him brogt. 
De king him bad ben hard! and bgld, 25 

If he can rechen Sis drfmes wgld; 
He tgid him quat him drempte o nigt, 
And losep rechede his drfm wel rigt. 

'Dis two drfmes bgSen ben gn, 
God wile Se tawnen, King Pharaon.s-*^ 30 

D9 sevene" ger ben get to cumen, 
In al fulsumhfd sulen it ben numen, 

^ Ceden. * vii, as throughout this passage. ' eares. * eoren. 

* ranc he. ® iSrist hem to tJo. "^ (?hogt. * so wis man. * biChc^te. 

*** hogt. ** vii, as usual. 









And sevene otJere sulen after b€n, 

Sgri and nedful men sulen (ll^'sen. 

Al Sat 8ise firste* sevene maken ^ 

Sulen Sis oSere sevene rospen and raken. ^ 

Ic rede Se, King, nu her bifgren, ^^^^ ^ 5 

To maken iSSes and gaderen corn ^ 

Dat Sin folc ne wiirS undemumen 

Quan Sg hungri gere ben forScumen/ 

King Pharaon listnede hise red, 
Dat wurS him siSen sell sped. 10 

He bitagte losep his ring, 
And ms bege of gold for wurSing, ■■'^'■(■'^ 
And badTurh al his Ignd bisen, 
And under him hegest for to ben; 
And bad him welden in his hgnd 15 

His folc, and agte, and al his Ignd.. . 

Dg was under him Sanne Putifar, 
And his wif Sat hem so tobar. V- ■ 
Joseph to wive his dowter nam, — 
OSer is nu San ^ ^r * bicam ; 20 

And ghe Ser him two childer bar, 
Qr men wurS of Sat hunger war. 
First Manassen and EfFraym ; 
He luveden God, he gfld it hem. 
De seviene fulsum geres faren, 25 

losep cuSe him bifgren waren; 
Dan corn^ wantede in oSer Ignd, 
Dg was ynug'^ under his hgnd. 

Hunger wex in Ignd Chanaan, 
And his tene ^ sunes lacob forSan 30 

Sente into Egipt to bringen corn-; 
He bilff at hgm Se was gungest bgren. 

*■ first. * coren. ' quan. * ear. '' lio ynug. * x. 


De tene ^ comen, for nede sogt, 
To losep, and lie ne knewen him nogt.^vV 
And ^9^ he lutlen him frigtilike, W-- 
And seiden to him mildelike, 

* We ben sondes, for nede driven 5 
To bigen corn Sgrbl to liven/ 

losep hem knew al in his 8ogt ^, 
Als he let he knew hem nogt. 
*It seme?5* wel Sat ge spies ben, 
And into Sis Ignd cumen to sen; 10 

And cume ge for ngn QSer Sing 
But f6r to spien ur Igrd Se king/ 

* Nai/ he seiden ever ilc gn, 

* Spies were we never ngn, 

Oc alle we ben gn faderes sunen ; 15 

For hunger doS us * hider cumen/ 

'Oc nu ic wQt ge spies ben, 
For bl gure bering men mai it sen. 
Hu sulde 9n man * povre forgeten, 
Swilke and 59 manige sunes bigeten? 20 

For seldum bitid self ani king 
Swilc men to sen of hise ofspring/ 

'A, Igverd, merci, get is Sgr 9n, 
Migt he nogt frg his fader ggn. 
He is gungest, hgten Beniamin, 25 

For we ben alle of Ebrisse kin.*/ 

*Nu, bl Se feiS ic 9g to King Pharaon, 
Sule ge nogt alle hfSen*^ ggn 
Til ge me bringen Beniamin, 

De^ gungeste broSer of gure* kin/ 30 

For S9 was losep sgre fordred 
Dat he wgre oc Surg^® hem forred.^ 

5og. ' Chogt. * semet. * dcSes. * husuld suld oninan. 
' dStn. * tJa. ^ pore. '• Shurg. 


He dede hem binden, and Ifden dun 

And spfren faste in his prisun; 

De tSridde dai he let hem ggn, 

Al but Sejbn bro'Ser Symeon; 

Dis Symeon bilf f Sgr in bgnd 5 

To wedde under losepes hgnd. ^"^ 

Des oSere bretSere sone ongn 
Token l^e and wenten bgm. 
And sone he weren SfSen^ went, 
Wei sgre he haven hem biment, 10 

And seiden hein San tSgr bitwen, 
*\Vrigtful we in sorwe ben, 
For we siQigeden quilum gr 
On ure* broSer michil mgr 

For we werneden him merci, 15 

Nu drege we sorge al forS/ 
^ Wende here ngn it on his mod, ':C-'^ 

Oc losep al it understod. 
^ losepes men Sgr quiles deden 
Al sg losep hem hadde* beden; 20 

Dg breSere seckes haven he filt, 
And in everilc tSe silver pilt 
Dat Sor was paied* for 8e corn*, 
And bunden Se muSes Sgr bifgren. 
Oc 8e breSere ne wisten it nogt, 25 

Hii Sis dede wurSe wrogt; 
Oc alle he weren gverSogt, 
And haven it sg to lacob brogt, 
And tglden him sg of here sped; 
And al he it listnede in frigtihfd. 30 

Quan men* Sg seckes Sgr unbgnd, 
And in Se cgrn" Sg agtes fgnd. 

* ??eclen. ^ hure. ' adde. * paid. 

® and quan. 

* coren. 


Alle he wpren Sanne sgre* ofrigt. 

lacob Sus him bimf neS origt, 

*Wel michel sorge is me bicumen, 

Dat min two childre aren me fornumen. 

Of losep wgt ic ending ngn, 5 

And bgndes ben leid on Symeon; 

If ge Beniamin (rg me don, 

DfaS^ and sorge me sf get5 on. 

Ai sal Beniamin wiS me bilfven ' 

Dqf quiles ic sal on werlde liven/ 10 

Dg quatJ ludas, * Us sal ben hard, 

If we ng hglden him ngn forward.* 

Wex dertfe, Sis corn* is ggn, 
lacob eft bit hem faren aggn ; 
Oc he ne duren tSe weie cumen in, 15 

' But ge wits us senden Beniamin/ 
Dg quaS he, ' Quan it is ned, 
And ic*^ ne can ng bettre red, 
BfreS Sat* silver hgl aggn 

Dat hem Sgrof he wante ngn, 20 

And oSer silver tSgr bifgren 
For to bigen wiS otSer corn*; 
Fruit and spices of dere prls 
BfreS "Sat man Sat is sg wis. 
God u&ne''^ him fSemoded^ ben, s^--V, 25 

And sende me min childre agen/ 

Dg namen he forSweie rigt, 
Til he ben into' Egypte ligt. 
And quanne losep hem alle sag 
Kinde Sogt in his herte lag^°. 30 

He bad his stiward gerken his^^ mften, 
He seide he sulden wiS him ften^^ 

' 9anno sori. * dead, ' bilewen. * derke Sis coren. * no ic 

in MS. • dat. "^ hanne. ^ eVimodes. • ben cumen into. ^^ iShogt 
. . . was. *^ is. ^* aUe eten. 


He ledde hem alle to losepes bin, ^^' 
Her 11911 hadden t59 I^ten miri. ^- • vvyv>v 

' Lgverd/ he seiden tS^ everilc Qn, 
* Gur silver is gu brogt aggn ; 
It was in ure seckes don, 5 

Ne wiste ure* nyn gilt Sgron/ 

*BeS nQ stille/ quad Se stiward,'* 
'For ic nQ have mm forward/ t^s^^ 

Dgr cam Sat broker Symeon 
And kiste his breSere gn and gn; 10 

Wei fagen he was of here come, 
For he was numen Sgr to ngme. 
It was undren time or mgre, 
Hpm'* cam tSat riche Igverd Sgre; 
And al 69 breSere ' of frigti mod, 15 

Fellen biforn Sat Igverdes * fot, 
And bedden him rlche present 
Dat here fader him hadde" sent. 
And he levelike it understod. 
For alle he weren of kinde blod. 20 

*LiveS/ quad he, 'Sat fader get 
Dat Sus manige sunes bigat?' 

* Lgverd,* he seiden, * get he liveS,' — -.^ 
Wgt ic Sgr ngn Sat he ne biveS,— ^^ ^ 
' And Sis is gunge Beniamin 25 

Hider brogt after bgdeword Sin/ 

D9 losep sag him Sgr bifgren, 
Bi fader and moder broSer bgren, 
Him gverwente his herte ongn; 
Kinde luve gan him gverggn. 30 

Sone he gede ut and stille he gret, 
Dat al his wlite wurS tf res wet. ^ ., . 

* ur. ** quad stiward. ** om. * briffere. * lonerdis. ' hi adde. 



After feat grgt he weis his^ wliten. " ■"' 

And cam tSan in and bad hem f ten. 

He dede hem wassen, and him bifgren 

Sette ^ hem as he weren bgren ; 

Get he Sogte ^ of his faderes wunes, 5 

Hu he sette at 8e mfte hise sunes. 

Of everilc sgnde, of everilc win, 

Mgst and best he gaf Beniamin. 

In fulsumhfd he wurtSen glaSe, 

losep ne Soht Sgrof ng scaSe, 10 

Oc it him likede switSe wel. 

And hem Ifrede and tagte wel, 

And hu he sulden hem best Ifden 

Quane he cSmen in unkinde Seden ; 

*And al Se bettre sule ge speden, 15 

If ge wilen gG witS trewSe * Ifden.' 

Eft on morwen quan it was dai, 
Qr 9r Se bretJere ferden a,wai. 
Here seckes wgren alle filt witS corn ^ 
And Se silver Sgrin bifgren; 20 

And Se seek Sat agte Beniamin 

losepes cuppe hid was t^Qrin. ^ , (i/*.^^^!^ 

And quan he weren ut^ tune went, • y ' 
losep haveS hem after sent. 

Dis sQnde hem gvertaketJ raSe, -v^- >< , 25 
<KAULiA^ And bicalleS of harme and scaSe; 
' Unseli men, quat have ge don ? 
Grft unselhSe* is gu cumen on, 
For is it nogt min Igrd forhglen <u-^v'w.v 
Dat '^ gure pn haveS his ^ cuppe stglen.' 30 

Do* seiden Se breSere sikerlike, , . * ^ 

*,JIp quam Su it findes witterlike, 7 *^ ' ^ 

<UvoU^ J 

* is. * and sette. ' tShogie. < trewei&'e. • coren. * nnsel^Sehe. 


He be slagen * and we agen driven 
Into 8raldom, evermgr to liven/ 
He gan hem ransaken gn and gn, 
And fgnd it Sgr sone angn; 

And nam t59 breSere everilk gn 5 

And ledde hem sorftil ag§n. 
And brogte hem bifgr losep 
cr-*-ti ^**-va WiS reweli Igte, and sorwe and wep. 

Dp quat losep, *Ne wiste ge nogt 
Dat ic am o weP witter tSogt?<r^^*^ 10 

Mai nogt Ignge me ben forhglen 
Quatsgevere on Ignde wurS stglen.' 
v^ *L9verd,' quad ludas, * do wiS me 

Quatsg Si wille on werlde be, 
WiSSan Sat Su friSe Beniamin. 15 

Ic ledde him ut ^ on trewthe min 
Dat he sulde eft* cumen agen 
To hise fader, and wiS him ben.' 

D9 cam losep swilc rewSe upon, 
He dede alle*^ ut Se toSere ggn; 20 

And spac unjSes, sg he* gret, «r*^ '^'fi^*'-^ 
Dat alle hise wlite wurS tfres wet. 
*Ic am losep, dredeS gu nogt, 
For gure helSe §r hider brogt. 
Two "^ ger ben nu Sat derSe * is cumen, 35 

Get sulen five* fulle ben numen, 
Dat men ne sulen sowen ne shfren, 
Sg sal drugte Se feldes dfren. a-^< - \ 
RapeS gu to min fader agen. 

And seiS him quilke min blisses ben ; 30 

And doS him to me cumen hider. 
And ge and gure'orf dl togider. ' -^ 

* he slageti, ?.wol. ^ ledde ut. * ef. * halle. • e. 

' to. * derke. * v. 


Of lewse god i n Ignd Gersen -|***Wt Uv^ 

Sulen ge sundrT riche ben/ 
Everilc he kiste, on ilc he gret, 
lie here was of his^ tfres wet. 

Sone it \vas King Pharaon kid 5 

Hu Sis newe trSing wiirS bitid; 
And he was blfSe, in herte fagen, f '---^ 
Dat losep wulde him Sider dragen, 
For luve of losep migte he timen. ^tHT"^ 
He bad cartes and waines nimen, 10 

And fechen wives and childre and men, 
And gaf hem Sgr al Ignd Gersen, 
And het hem Sat he sulden haven 
Mgre and bet "San he kude, craven, 
losep gaf ilc here twinne srud, 15 

Beniamin mgst he made prud; 
Fif weien best bar Benjamin,^ 
Dre hundred plates of silver fin. 
Alsg f^le oSre Sgrtil i/ ^^ 

He bad ben in his faderes will: .*'' 20 

And tene ^ asses wiS sf mes fest, 
Of alle Egyptes welSe* best, 
Gaf he his bretJere wiS herte bllSe, 
And bad hem rapen hem hgmward swiSe ; 
And he 59 deden wiS herte fagen; 25 

Toward here fader he gunen dragen, 
And quane he comen him bif^ren 
Ne wiste he nogt quat he wQren. 

'Lgverd,' he seiden, 'Israel, 
losep Sin sune greteS Se wel, 30 

And sendeS Se b9de Sat he liveth; 
Al Egipte in his wille* cliveS/ ^*J^- 

is, as often. * x. ' weltJhe. * wil. 


*ka%^ ^ lacob abraid, and trewetS^ it nogt 
Til he sag al Sat wel8e brogt. 
'Wei me/ quaS he, 'wel is me wel 
Dat ic have^ abiden 8us swilc' sel. 
And ic sal to min sune fare, 5 

And sen gr ic of werlde chare.' * 
lacob * wente ut of Ignd Chanaan, 
And of his kinde wel manie a man. 
losep wel faire him understod, 
And Pharaon Sogte it ful good; 30 

For 8at he weren hirdemen 
He bad hem ben in Ignd Gersen. 

lacob was brogt bifgren ?5e king ^t^iL) 

For to geven him his blissing ^ ( /^, . r^ ^^ ^ 
'Fader dereV quaS Pharaon, , bX^^^ '5 

* Hu f|le ger be Se on ? ' Ij^^i^ '•} ^ 

* An hundred ger and 8ritti "^ mg 
Have ic her drogen in werlde wg ; 
Dog SinketS me Sgroffen fp V* 
D9® ic is have drogen in wg, 20 

Si?5en ic gan on werlde ben, 
v^i H-f Her uten §rd, mankin bitwen.' 
S9 SinketS® everilc wise^^ man 
De wpt qugrof mankin bigan. 
And Se of Adames gilte muneS, 25 

Dat he her uten f rdes ^* wunetS. 

Pharaon bad him wur?5en \yel 
In softe reste and sell mel: Uv.^^ 
Him and hise sunes in reste dede 
In Ignd Gersen on sundri stfde. 30 

Si8en tSpr was mad gn site^^ ^^ ., 
De was ihgten'' Ramese 

> trewed. ''* ave. ' swil. * acob. * bliscing. • derer. 

^ XXX. * Cog. ® Sinked. *" wi». " herdes. " scite. '^ yeten. 


lacob on live wunede tSer^ 

In reste fulle fowrtene* ger; 

And God him let bifgren sen 

Quilc time hise ending sulde ben. 

He bad losep his leve sune 5 

Qn ?5ing ' t5at off he * wel mune, 

Dat quan it wurtSe** mid him don, 

He sulde him birlen in Ebron: 

And witterllke he it havetS* him seid '^"^"^ 1 

De stfde tSgr Abraham was leid. 10 

S9 was him lef^ to wurtSen leid 

Qugr Hall* Gast stille hadde seid 

Him and hise eldere fer f r * bifpren, ^^ 

Qugr Jesu Crist wulde ben bgren, w^^^ ~ 

And qugr ben dfad, and qugr ben graven ;,' 15 

He tSogt witJ hem reste to haven. 

losep swor him al sg he bad, 
And he tSgrof wur8 blitSe and glad. 
Qr ?5an he wiste oflF werlde faren, 
He bad hise kinde to him charen, ao 

And seide quat of hem sulde ben; 
Hall Gast dede it him seen, au ^^ 
In clfne ending and hali* lif, 
Sg he forlet 8is werldes strif. 

losep ^^ dede hise Iich faire gfren, ^- 25 

Wassen, and richelike smfren, 
And spicelike swete smaken; 
And Egipte folc him biwaken *v^4.'^ ^' ' 
Fowerti" nigtes and fowerti" daiges; 
Swilce^^ wgren Egipte laiges^^ 30 

First nigen" nigt 8e liches bftSen, 

» »or. « xuij. 3 Ching. * offe. * wariJ. • ave». 

' lif. ® ali. ® ear. ^° osep. " xl. *' swilc. " lages. 

^* ix. 






And smfren, and winden and biqu^n, t^**^** 

And waken is sit$en fowerti^ nigt; 

De men sg deden Se hadden' migt 

And £bris8e folc hadden* an kire, 

Nogt sone delven it wi8 yre, ^ 

Oc wassen it and kepen it rigt, 

WiSuten smerles sevene nigt, * 

And si8en' smfred Sritti* daiges. 

Cristene folc havetJ 68er laiges; 

He ben smfred tJgr quiles he liven, 

Wi8 crisme and olie, in trewtSe given 

For trewtfe and gode dedes mide 

Don* ben Can al 8at wechdede. 

Sum 9n, sum Cre, sum sevene^ nigt, 

Sum tJritti*, sum twelve' moneS rigt. 

And sum everilc wurSen ger, 

Dgr quiles Sat he wunen her, 

Don for 8e dfde chircheggng, 

Elmessegifte, and messesgng, 

And Cat is on Ce weches stfde; 

Wei him mai ben Sat* wel it dede. 

Egipte folc haveS^® him waked 

Fowerti* nigt and f^ste maked, 

And hise sunes Critti daiges. 

In clfne lif and hall" laiges. 

S9 wgren forC ten" wukes ggn, 
Get hadde" lacob biiTgeles ngn. U-^ 
And Pharaon King cam bgde bifgren, 
Dat losSp haveC his fader swgren. 
And he it him gatte Cgr he wel dede, 
And bad him nimen him feres mide, 







• 6on. 

' adden. 

^ Vll. 

" adde. 

ft *• 
" xu. 

' siden. 
• dat. 

* XXX. 

^» ave«. 

• geven. 


Wei wgpnede men and wis of here, ... 

Dat * ng man hem bi weie df re *. » — 

Dat here is led, Sis folc is t^T 

He foren abuten bi Adad. 

Ful sevene nigt he Ser abiden, 5 

And bimfning for lacob deden. 

Sg Ignge he haven S^en numen, ikt.^ 

To flum Jurdan Sat he ben cumen, 

And Qver Pharan til Ebron; 

Dgr is Sat liche in biriele don. 10 

And losep into Egipte went 

WiS al his folc Qt wiS him sent''. 


pi porter Jjojte what to rede ; 

He let flnres gadere on }>e mede, 

CQpen he let fiUe* of fiures 15 

To strawen in J)e maidenes bQres. 

pat was his red to helpe him sg, , 

He let Flgris'* oh f>at gn cupe gg. 

Tweie' gegges f>e cQpe here, * >'.ij 

And for hfvie wrg]? hi were; 20 

Hi beden God jive him yveF fin 

pat S9 manie flures dide^ Jjerin. 

To f>e chaumbre f>er hi scholde gg 

Ne 3eden hi arijt ng ; 

To anoj^er chaumbre hi ben® aggn, 25 

To Blauncheflures chaumbre ngn. 

pe cQpe lu sette to f>e griinde, 

And ggn*^ for)? and lete" hire stQnde*'. \^ ^ ^^^^ 

* dat. * deren. * wid al . . . snt. * fidle. ^ Floriz, as often. 

• tweu ^ vueL ® dude, as often. • beoJ>. " go)>, as often. 

** letez. '* stonde. 

D 2 


Q maiden c5m and wolde ^-^^ 
}7e flures handlen and bihglde; 
Flgris wende hit were his swete wijt, 
Ut of ]5e cupe he lep arijt, 

And f>at maide for f>e drede 5 

Bigan to crie and to grede. 
p9 niste* Flgris what to rfde 
For ]5e ferlich J>at he hadde; 
Into }>e cupe he sterte aje* 

And wij> }>e flures hidde he'. lo 

pis maide Jjojte angn ri^t 
pat hit was Flgris, }?at swete wijt, 
For here chaumbres nije* were, 
Selde was }?at hi t5gadere nere, 
And ofte Blaunchefiur hire hadde itgld 15 

Hu heo was fram him isgld. 

Nu maidenes comen in to hire l|pe, ^^b 
Wei fiftene in gn hfpe, 
And axede hire what hire were, 
And whi heo makede suche here. ^^^^ ao 

Wei heo was bijjojt and whare 
T5 finden hem answare : 
'To ]je ciipe/ heo sfde, 'ich** com and w5lde 
pis flures handlen and bihplde; 
per flijte* ut a buterfli3e, 25 

Are ich wiste on min Tje, 
S9 sgre ich was ofierd of )>an 
pat ich lude^ crie bigan.' 
pis 6f>ere lo^en and hadde gleo, 
And ggn ajen and leten^ beo. 30 

Clarice hatte J^at maide hende; a- ** \ 
To Blauncheflur heo* gan wende 

* nnste. * a^e, from MS. A. ' he hadde him. * nij. * ihc, and 
always. * fliste. ^ lude, not in MS. ® lete]>. * blanncheflares chanmbre beo. 


And s§de, *Swete Blauiicheflur, 

Wilt u seo a wel fair flur? 

Hit ne grew nojt on f>is Ignde, 

pat flur f>at ich bringe j?e to hgnde.' 

'Away, Claris^/ qua]? Blauncheflur, 5 

'Ho }?at luve]? paramur, 

And ha]? ]?erof joye mai luve fliires ; 

Ac ich libbe in sore^e in ]?is tures, Uvikv. 

For ich wene, wi]?ute^ gabbe, -uA' 

pat }?e Admiral me wile^ habbe. 10 

Ac }?ilke day ne schal nevre be, 

Ne schal me nevere atwite me ''*^^^ 

pat ich beo of luve untrewe, 

Ne chaunge luve for ng newe, 

Ne lete J)e plde for ng newe be, 15 

S9 do]? FIqfIs on his contre ; 

Ac j?e5 Flgris forjete* me, 

Ne schal ich nevre forjete }?e/ 

Claris iherde )?es ille reu]?e 
Of trewnesse and of trew)?e ; ' i> \\ ^^ 

pe tfres* glide of hire lere: 
' Blauncheflur,' he sfde, *gode ifere, 
Leve swete Blauncheflur, 
Cum and se a wel fair flur/ 

Togedere hi ggn nu iwis, 25 

And FIgris ha}? iherd al J?is; 
tJt of }?e cupe he lep angn. 
And to Blauncheflur he gan ggn. 
Ei]?er 6]?er sone ikneu, 

B9]?e nu]?e hi chaungen* heu; . • 30 

Togadere wi]?ute word hi lepen, 
Klepte and kiste''^, and eke wepen*; 

* Clariz, occasionally. ^ .bijjute, as often. ^ wnle, as occasionally. 

* forje. * tieres. * chaungej). ^ keste. ^ weopen. 


Here kissinge^ ilfste a mile, 
And J^at hem J'ojte litel while. 

p9< Ci^lrfce biheld' al |n% 
Here cQntenaunce and here blis; 
Seide Clarice to Blauncheflur, 5 

'Knowest u ojt jete o* J?is flur? 
A lltel fr ]?u noldest hit se, 
Nu ne mijte hit ISte fram l^e. 

HS mdste kunne michel^ of art i 

pat Jju woldest jeve J>erof part/ 10 

* Certes/ qua}> Blauncheflur to Claris, 
'pis is min gjene swete Flgris.' 

Nil b§J?e two J?es swete J>inge* 
Crie' hire merci al wepinge, 

T6 J?e Admiral J?at hem ne wreie ^ ;^f' ' 15 

For J?enne were here soreje neie^ 
Clarice hadde of hem pite: 
*N9))ing/ heo sfde, *ne dute je, 
Ne dute je namgre® wi]?alle 

'^Pat hit were to me bifalle. 20 

•. " Hgle ich wille and ngjjing wreie 
^^ , Ower beire cumpaignle/ 

Clarice hem haj? to bedde ibrojt 
pat was of pal and selc iwro^t; 
In bedde heo bro^te hem adun, 25 

And hire ^^ self wende hem fram. 
p9 Fl^rls first"* sp^ke bigan: 
•Ore L§verd/ he sede, *f>at makedest man, 
pe ich ^nke", Codes sune, 
pat ich am to ml leof icume. , 30 

^ ktttinsc. * >$> not in MS. ' biheold. * o,not in MS. 

* mucKcl, AS occasionally* * J^inges. * crie|K. ' niwe. 

* Moumorc* '* Knrci as occasionally. >^* lust '^ )ionki. 



Mi leof, nu ich habbe pe funde*, 
Of al mi care ich am unbQnde/ 

Nu ai]5er haj? oj^er it9ld 
Of here soreje and care CQld,^ 
pat hi hadde ifunde bp 5 

Si}?}?e hi were idgld atwp. iwvs^-^ 
Nil hi cleppen* and kisse^ 
And maken togadere michel blisse; 
If ]5er was ajt bute kiste *, wvU^* 
Swete Blauncheflur hit wiste. 10 

Npn ojjer hevene hi ne bf de 
Bute evre swiche^ lif to Ifde. 

Ac Ignge ne mi^te hi hem wite k^^f 
pat hi neren underjete, 

For* J?e Admiral Eadde such a wune, 15 

5ch'' morefid ]5er moste cume 
Two maidenes wif> michel honur 
Up® into ]?e he^este tQr, 
pat were feire and swif>e' hende; 
pat gn his hfved for to kembe, ao 

pat 6})er'* bringe towaille and bacin 
For to wasse his hgnden in. 
Swiche him serven^® a day sg faire, 
A moreje moste an6}?er peire. 
Ac mf St were wuned '^ -into }>e tur 25 

Maide Claris and Blauncheflur. 

Clarice, joie hire mot bitide, 
Args up in fe more^entide, 
And ha}> cleped^^ Blauncheflur 
To gg wijj hire into f>e tiir. 30 

Quaf) Blaunchefliir, ' Ich am cominge/ 
Ac heo hit sfde al slepinge. 

' iftinde. ^ cleppe]). ^ cusse]>. * custe. ■ swich. * vor. ' ehc. 
* up, not in MS. ^ sujie. '** not in MS. ^^ servej>. ^^ iwuned. *' icluped. 


Claris com into jje tur; 
pe Admiral axede Blauncheflur. 
' Sire, al ni^t at hire * boke 
Heo haf)* }?eron irad and Ipke^ 
rfj^^ And f>eron b|de' hire oresun 
pat God f>at J>5lede passiun 
f>e hplde, Sire, Ignge alive; 
And nu heo is asleped swi}je 
pat heo ne mai come to f>e.' 
^ MA-vJir tt***-V y^^^ 'Is \2X sof^)*?' sfde he. lo 

**^ Heo sfde, 'ge. Sire, withQte If sing/ 

'Heo is,' he sfde, *a swete J?ing, 
Wel ajte ich willen hire to wif 
]jat S9 jerne biddej? ml lif/ 

A moreje ]?9 Claris arist 15 

Blauncheflur heo atwist 
pat he makede S9 Ignge demere*. *-t 
* Aris,' heo sfde, * and gg we 1 fere/ 
Quajj Blauncheflur, 'Ich come angn.' 
Ac Flgris cleppen hire bigon, 20 

And heo* him alsg unwise, 
And felle^ aslepe one jjis wise. 

p9 Clarice to ]?e piler com. 
And }>e bacin of golde nom 

To bfre wi]? hire into ]5e tQr, 25 

Heo lokede after Blauncheflur. 

p9 Clarice com into Jje tiir, 
He axede after Blauncheflur: 
'Sire, ich wende hire finde here, 
Heo^ was arise are ich were; 30 

Nis heo nojt icume jete?' 
Qua]? he, 'Heo dutej) me t5 lite/ 

* heo set at hire. * and haj). • ibede. * soj). ' demure. 

• he. ' feoUe. ® he. 


He clfpede^ 15 him his chaumberlayn, 
And het him g9 wi}> alle mayn 
For to wite whi heo ne c5me* 
To his hfste swij>e^ sone. 

Forjj he wende sone angn, 5 

To hire chaumbre fat he com. 
In* hire bedde he f9nd twg, 
Wei faste iclept*, aslepe bg 
^b to neb, and muj) to muf>; ' 
Sone were here sorejen* cu)?. - 10 

To jje Admiral sone he tej 
And tylde him ^-hat he ise^. 
pe Admiral het his swerd bringe; 
\0^^»-^ Iwite he wolde of })is* fringe. 

Forf> he wende wij? al his mayn, ' 15 

He and his chaumberlayn ; 

In ]?e bed he' fgnd tweie, 

git was fe slep in here eie. 

He let adun Jje clgjjes caste 

BinfJ?en here breste; 20 

Bi here breste he knew angn 

pat 9n was maide and J^at 6]5er men®. 

pe children awgke ]?§ angn, 
And seje }>e Admiral bifgre' hem ggn 
Wijj his swerd al adra^e; 25 

Sgre hi ben offerd, and wel ma^e. 
*Seie/ quaj) )?e Admiral, ' belamy, 
Ho makede )?e sg hardy 
For to come into mi tur, 

And to ligge bi Blaunchefliir ? ' 30 

Hi crien*° him merci bgjje swif>e 
pat he jive hem first of live. ^ 

* clupede. ^ cume. ' suthe, as occasionally. * iclupt. * sorej'en. 
" ))us. ' heo. * a mon. * bevore. " cries. 


After his barnage he ha]? isent^ 
To awrfke him wij? jugement, 
And let hem )>€ while binde faste 
And int5 prisdn ben icaste. 

His palais )>at was 59 faire ibild' 5 

Of erles and barons it was ifild ^. 
Up he stod amgng hem alle, 
Bi semblaunt wel wrgf) wi]7alle : 
* Lgrdinges,' he sf de, * wi]j michel honur 
5e habbe iherd of Blauncheflur, 10 

Hu ich hire bo^te ftplijt r-^ h^^iaa4\/^ 
For seve si}>e of gpiH" hire wijt; 
To hire was mi mfste wene 
For to habbe to mi quene. 

Nis no^t 39re ]7at in^ ich com, 15 

And fgnd hire wi}> boredom ^ 
me to schame.and deshonur 
In hire bedde on mi tdr. 
Ich habbe 30U tgld hu hit is went; 
AwrfkeJ) me wi}? jugement/ ao 

panne spak a freo burgeis 
pat was hende and curteis: 
' Sire, are hi beo to df J?e * awrfke, 
We mote ihere ]5e children spfke; 
Hit nere no^t elles ri5t' jugement 25 

Wifuten answare to acupement/ ^a^^^^^*^ 

pe king of Nubie sfde ]>g, 
*Forso}), ne schal hit no3t gg sg; 
Hit is ri3t J^ure^ alle f>ing. 

Felons inome hgndhabbing -v-^ ^•'^' '^'' 30 

For to suffre jugement 
Wi])ute answare gpcr acupement.* 

* isend. * ibuld. ' ifuld. * ine. ' hordom. 

® di>e. ' rist. 



After J>e children nu me sencl|fe»*;^ 
Hem to heme fir me tendd»^. ^--^ 
Seide Flgns^lS Blauncheflur, 
' Of ure lif nis ng sucur, 

Ac min is Jje gilt', and })e unmf)? Wi.^^ 5 

pat fu for me schalt J>9lle df]? ; 
^^^ju^ Ac if kinde* hit J^glie mi^te 
Ich o^te deie twye wi}? ri^te, 
df J? for J3e, gn ojjer for me, 
For ]5is }?u Jjglest nii for me. 10 

For if 1 nere into J^is tur icume, 
WiJ? mire5]5e fu mi3test herinne wune.' 

He dro^ for]? a riche ring 
His moder jaf him at his parting: 
' Have J?is ring, lemman mIn, 15 

pu mijt* npjt deie while ^ he is Jnn.' 
pe ring he have}> forf> arajt 
And t5 Blauncheflur bita5t. Ai.Uv'<,\ 
' pe ring ne schal nevre aredde me. 
For df}> ne mai ich se on J^e.' ao 

pe ring heo wolde aje rfche 
And to Flgrls him bitfche; 
Ac for al }?at heo mi^te do, 
He him nolde a^en ifo, 

And J>e ring bi Qne stiinde 25 

Fel adun to J>e grunde. 
A due stupede and him upnom, 
And was f^rof wel blijje mon. 

Nu ]5es childre for]? me bringe** 
T5 here dom al wepinge, 30 

Ac f>er nas npn sp stirne^ mon 
pat hem lokede upon, 

* sende]). 2 tende]). ^ guld. * cunde. ^ ne mijt. 

• )« while. ® * bringe)?. ^ stnrne. 


pat nolde ]?9 swif>e %e * *i*<^ 
pat jugement were wijjdra^e; 
For Flpris was S9 fair 3onglmg, 
And Blauncheflur sg swete J^ing, 
•% Of men and wimmen }?at ben^ nu^ ' 

pat g9 and se' and spfke* wi}? mu]?e, 
Ne ben SQ faire in here gladnesse 
S9 hi were in here sorinesse. 
Ac }?e Admiral was sg wrg]? and wod 
He quakede for grame f>er he stod, ' ^ 10 

J"' -b 


And het hem binde wfl faste v^j*/*^ 

And into f>e fire caste. tic ^ (!^^ 

Y\ , pe due fat )?e ring fujide,,....-'"^ K^^**^ 

Com to J?e Admiral and runde,-, 
{ And al togadere he gan him schewe 15 

(^ Of )?at f>e children were biknew e. trvyA* 
pe Admiral let hem a^en clfpe, 
For he wolde wij? Flgrls spfke. 
' Sire/ qua}) Flgris, * forsoj? ich telle 
pu nojtest nojt f>at maide quelle; 20 

Of al J?is gilt ich am to wite, 
Ich 03te deie and heo gg quite.' 
Qua)) Blauncheflur, 'Aquel j)u me, 
And let Flgris alive be; 

gif^ hit nere for mi luve 25 

He nere nojt fram his Ignde icome. 
Qua]) ])e Admiral, '89 ich mote g9, 
ge schulle deie togadere bg ; *^^ 
Miself ich wille me awrfke, 
Ne schulle je nevre g9 ne spfke.' 30 

Flgris for]) his nek^ bfd. 
And Blauncheflur wi|)dra5e him 5et; 
Blauncheflur bid for]) hire swire^ 
And FlgrTs a^en hire gan tire. \ - 

suj)e faje. ^ biij), as occasionally. ^ seoj). * spekej). * jef. ® swere. 



Neifer ne mijte ]?ere Jjgle 
pat 6j?er deide bifgre. 

p9 f>e Admiral, J^ej he wrg]? were, 
per he chaungede his chere ; 

For eyj?er^ wolde for ojjer deie, 5 

And he* se^ mam wepinge' eie, 
And for he luvede sg muche f>at mai, 
Al wepinge he turned away. 
His swerd fel of his hgnd to grunde, 
Ne mi^te he hit hglde }?ilke* stunde. 10 

pe due J>at here ring hadde, 
For hem to spf ke wille he hadde : 
* Sire Admiral/ he sf de, ' iwis 
Hit is Jje wel litel pris 

pis feire' children for to quelle ; 15 

Ac betere hit is fat hi J)e telle 
Hu he com into }n tur 
To ligge fer bi Blauncheflur. 
His engin whan f>ii hit wite -^'^h 
pe betere wi}> oj^er Jju mi^t f>e wite/ 20 

Alle ]?at herde wordes his 
Bisechen* Jjat he graunte ^ jjis. 
He het him telle his engIn, 
Hu he to Blauncheflur com in, 
And ho'** him radde and help J?art6. 25 

' pat,' qua}) he, * nelle ich nevre do 
For }?ing J)at me mai me do, 
Bute hit hem beo forgive also.' 
Alle J>e 6J>ere bisechen® )?is, 
And of f>e Admiral igranted is. 30 

Nu ord and ende he ha]? hem tgld^; 
Hu Blauncheflur^ was fram him sgld®, 

* he sej ]>at eyper. ' for he. ' wepinde. * }nilke. • giatinti. 

»• to. • bisechej. ' itold. » blacheflnr. » isold. 


Hu * he was of Spaygne a kinges sone 
For hire luve f>ider* icume, 
K<^ To fpnden wi]? sume ginne 
HQ he mijte hire awinne ; 

And hu, fjurej j?e cup^ and J^e' gersume, " 5 

pe porter was his man bicume, 
And hu he was in a cupe ibgre.' ^ 
AUe Jjes o]?ere lowe fjerfgre*. 

pe Admiral f>9, wel him bitide, 
pat child he sette** bi his side; 10 

And ha]j forgive his wra])]je bg, 
. Flpris and Blaunchefliir alsQ, 
And sf de wi]? him hi scholde be 
pe beste of al his maine. 

And Flgris he make]? stgnde upri^t, 15 

And ]>er he dubbede him to kni^t. 
Nu b9]7e togadere ))es childre for blisse 
Falle" to his fet, hem to kisse; 
He let hem to gne chirche bringe, 
And spusen hem wi]? gne gold ringe. 20 

purej }>e red of Blauncheflur 
Me fette Claris adun J>e^ tur, 
pe Admiral hire nam to quene; 
pilke f|ste was wel breme, ajUUaJLv/, 
For )>er was alle kinnes* gleo ^ 25 

pat mijte at en! bridale' beo. 

Hit nas Jjerafter ngj^ing Ignge 
pat J?er com to Flgrls writ and sgnde, 
pat ]7e king his fader was dfd 
And J?at he scholde nimen his r|d. <',-.-v«wi 30 

panne seide J>e Admirail", 
' If ]7U dost bl m! consail, 

^ and ho. ' Jmder. ' Jmres pe. * ]iervore. ' set. 

^ failed 7 of ]«. » ktinnes. » briddale. ^o Admiral. 


Bilf f wij> me, and wende najt hgm ; ^hh«ucwv 
Ich wille jeve J>e a kinedom 
Al S9 Igng and al 59 brgd, 
AlsQ evre jet J)i fader bgd*.' 

Ac FlQris nolde for hq winne, 5 

Levere him were wij? his kinne. 
pe Admiral he bid godday, 
And }>onkede Claris Jjat faire may. 
And to hire he ha]? i55lde 

Twenti pund of rf de ' golde ; 10 

And to Dans |>at him sg tajte 
Twenti pund he arajte, 
And alle J)at for him diden ei df 1 
He 5f Id here while swij^e wel. 
He bitajte hem alle God Almi3te, 15 

And com hgm when he mijte. 
He was king wij> michel honur, 
And heo his quene Blauncheflur, 

Nil je haven' iherd J>ane ende 
Of FlQris and his lemman hende, ao 

Hu after bale come}? bote. ^--' 
God leve )?at us 59 mote, 
pat we him mote lovie 59 
pat we mote to hevene g9. Amen. .^' 





Als I lay in a winteris nyjt* 25 

l^"? In a droupening^ bif9r fe day, 

Fors6J)e* I sauj a selly sy^t^, , ^ •: . ^^^ 
A body on a here lay, 

* ibod. * pond of ride. ' habbej). * nyt. • droukening. 

• vorso|>e. *" syt. 



pat havede ben a mody knyjt r^^^ 
And liteP served God to pay^; |*m,^ 

Lgren he haved Jje lives lyjt, 

pe ggst was oute and scholde away. 

'4a<^'v-w~ t*'\**\ vvil 




Wan J)e ggst it scholde g9, 

It ' biwente and withstod, 
Biheld* the body J)ere it cam frp 

S9 serfulli with dredll mod; i*j>^JUfX 

It seide, *Weile and walawgl ^ ^ 

W9 worJ)e \\ fleys, J51 foule blod. sii^ 
Wreche bodi wjy list ou* 39, 

pat 5wilen6)were s§ wilde and wod? 

* pou f)at were woned to ride 

Hey^e on horse in and out, 
S§ kweynte ^ knijt ikuC sg wide, 

As a lyun fers and proud, 
gwere is al J>i michele pride, 

And J)i lede Jjat was S9 loud ? \ 
gwi list ou J)ere 39 bare (o^ side* 

Ipricked in ])at pore schroud? 

* gwere ben ]?! wurSli ® wedes, 

pi somers with J)i riche beddes, 
pi proude palefreys and )>i stedes? 

pat ]70U about ^® in dester leddes ?. ^ 
pi faucouns J>at were wont" to grede, 

And J)Ine houndes J)at f>oii fedde?^? 
Me J)inkeJ) God is J)e t5 gnede, ^-Vi 

pat alle })ine frend beon fr9 J)e fledde. 

<..\ VoX'vs,^ 






^ lutel. 
^ koweynte. 
*^ nouBt. 

=» pays. 
^ knit ikad. 
" ledde. 

^ 3^, as often. 
^ bareside. 

* biheold. 
^ murdli. 

" listouB. 
w haddest. 


'gwere beon \>\ castles and \>\ toures, 

pi chaumbres and })i liche halles 
Ipeynted with 59 riche floures, 

And \>\ riche rgbes alle? 
pine cowltes and Jji covertoures, 5 

pi cendels and ]?i riche palles? 
Wreche, ful derk^ is nou^ \>\ bour; 

Tomoruwe f>ou' schalt J>erinne falle. 

*3were ben fine cokes snelle, 

pat scholden ggn to* greij)e J)i ni§te ^ •^ • 10 
With spaces swete for to smelle, 

pat J>ou nevere were** lol of fr|te, V**'' 
To do J)at foule fleys to swelle 

pat foule wormes scholden fte? 
And ]?ou havest })e pine of helle ' 15 

With glotonye me bigfte. . . / tImaIl .\.' 


V.V V 

I C * *For God J>e schop* aftir his schaft'', 'A'^J 

And gaf Jje bgj^e wyt and skil ; 
In ]7i loking was 1 laft 

To wisse aftir J>m oune wil. 'j."^*' 20 

Ne toe 1 nevere wychecraft, 

Ne wist 1 3wat was god* ngr il, 
Bote as a wretche dumb and daft', 

Bote as tou taugtest me^° }>ertil. 

* Set to serven J)e to queme * - -*^^' 25 

Bgjje at even and at morn^\ 
Si})in 1 was })e bitau^t to ^eme, 

Frg J>e time J)at J>ou was bom. 
pou f)at dedes cou}>est deme 

Scholdest habbe be war biforn 30 

^ wrechede it is. * nou5, as often. ^ fouj, as often, but always 

printed J)ou. * to, from Auch. MS. * werere. • schop ]je. ' schap. 
• guod, as often. • mad. '* me, not in MS. *^ morwen. 




Of mi folye, as it seme ^ ; 
^Jt]^ Nou wij) Jjiselve thou art forlorn.' 

pe gast it seyde, ' Bodi be stille ! 

3wo ha}) Ifred })e al J>is wit^) 
\^^^ pat givest me J)ese wordes grille, 5 

pat list l?er bolten as a bit^^ ' * '\"^ ^-"^ 
Wenest ou, wretche, Jjoj thou fille 

Wi}> \\ foule fleisch' a pitQ 
Of alle dedes thou didest ille 

pat })OU S9 lijtli^ schalt be qui^ef . 10 

' Wenest 6u nou to * gete J)e gri]? 

per Jjpu list rgten in }>e clay? 
pey J)OU be rgtin pile and piJ5, ^ * t*^^ 

And blowen wij? J)e wind away, ^ 

get* schalt ou come wi}> lime and lyp 15 

Agein to me on domesday, 
And come to court ^d I }>e wif» 
, For to kepen oure harde pay. 

•"i 11 

«M« ■*>*» -f- ' >»'••' ' 

*T6 tfche were*^* J>ou me bitaujt; 

Ac 5wan f>ou J^oujtest of J)e qufd, ^^ 20 

Wi}) \\ tef> fe bridel J)ou lau^t, u^ ,^. 

pou dist al J)at I J)e forbfd. 
To sinne* and schame it was J?! dra^jt. 

Til untid and til wikkedehfd; 
Inou5 I stod ageyn and faujt, 25 

Bot ai }>ou nome }>in oune rfd. 

y_ ^ *Wan 1 f)e wolde teme and tfche 

gwat®* was yvel and jwat was god, 
Of Crist ne kirke was ng spgche, 
y^ Bote renne aboute and breyde^ wod; 30 

* semet. ' fleichs, as often. ' litli. * to, from Auch. MS. 

* 5eot. ^* jwere. • snnne, as usually. ^* jwat not in MS. ' breyd. 


Inouj I mijte preye and prfche, 

Ne mi^te I nevere wende J)i mod 
pat }>ou woldest God knoulfche, *cU.H^vsr4o>y' 

But don al J?at J)in herte to^ stod, 

*I bad }>e Jjenke on soulenedes^ 5 

Matines, masse, and evesQng; 
Thou mostist first don 6]>ere dedes\ 

pou seidist al was idel ggng. 
To wode and water and feld thou edest. 

Or to court * to do men wrgng ; 10 

Bote for pride or grettore medes*^ 

LiteP J?ou dist^ g5d amgng. 


*H6 may mgre trayson do, 

Or his* Igverd betere engine, ^^^,; -i' 
an he ]?at al his trist is to, 15 

In and out® as oune hyrr? i^-s,*-**-^^ 
Ay sejjjje }>ou was f>riven and J^rg, * 

Mi3tis did^° I alle mine, 
To porveie" J)e rest and ro, <\'^*^ 

And }>6u to bringe me in pine. 20 

'Nou mouwe }>e wllde bfstes renne 

And lien under linde and Iff, 
And foules file bi feld and fenne, 

SiJ>in ^p\ false herte elf f. 
pine ei^gje are bllnde and connen nou^t kenne, 25 

pi mouth is dumb, Jjin fre is dff; 
And nou 59 IgJ^lP^ j?ou list gr^nne, 

Fr9 Jje come}? a wikke wf f. 

* to, not in MS. ^ soulenede. ' dede. * cour. ® mede. 

' InteL '' dnst * is, as in next line. ' ou^t. ^® mittis ded. 

^' porve^e. " lodli. 

£ 2 


*Ke nis 119 l^vecfi br^t on Ue, 

pat wcl were woned* of |)e to lete, ^^"'^ 
pat volde lye a ni3t' bi ]>e 

For noo^t' )>at men mi^te hem bihete. V ^ 
pOQ art unsemly for to se, 5 

Uncomli for to kissen swete*; 
poll ne havest frend })at ne wolde fle. 

Come ]>ou stertlinde in ]>e strete.' 

pe bodi it seide, 'Ic se}'5e, 

Cast, JxJu hast \^T9ng iwys 10 

Al J>e gilt* on me to leyje, 

pat ]?ou hast lorn ]7i mikil blis. 
'! Were was I bi wode or weyje, 

Sat or st5d or dide ou^t mys, 
pat I ne was ay under fin eyje? 15 

Wei J>ou wgst J>at soth it is*. 

' Wedir I ede up or doun, 

pat I ne bar f>e on my bac, 
Als J>in as^frg toun to toun, 
J. J., ,. Alse ]?ou'' me lete have rap and rac? ao 

pat tou ne were and rede* roun 

Nevere did I }>ing ne spac; 
Here J>e so]>e se men mowen 

On me Jjat ligge sg* blQ and blac. 

*For al J>e wile f>ou were mi fere 25 

I hadde al J^at me was ned, 
I mijte spfke, se and here, 

I ede and rgd and drank and et. 
LgJ^li chaunged^° is my chere 

Sin pe tyme J?at }>ou me let; 30 

* iwoned. " ni^th. * nou^th. * cassen suwete. • wyt, * ys. 
^ als se ])ou3. ' red. * here so, ^'^ lodli chaunched. 


Dgf and dumb 1 ligge on here, 
pat I ne may sterin hand ne fet. 

*I scholde have ben dumb as a schep, 

Or as an ouwe or as a swyn 
pat et and drank and lai and slep, 5 

Slayn, and passid al his pin; 
Nevere of catfl nome* kep, «x<vvvvU~ 
Ne wyste wat was water ne wyn, 
^ Ne leyn in ^elle J)at is 59 dep, 

' Ne were J)e wit J)at al was J)in.^' 10 

pe gast it' seide, *Is ng doute; 

Abouten, bodi, J>ou me bar; 
pou mostist nede, 1 was wi)?oute 

Hand and fot, I was wel war. 
Bote as tou bere me aboute 15 

Ne mijt 1 do J)e Ifste char; 
pgrfQre most I nede loute, Vt^^ 

S9 doth f>at ngn ojjer dar. 

* Of 9 wymman born and bredde, 

Body, were we bot>e twg; ao 

Togidre fostrid fayre and fedde 
. Til ]jou couj^ist spfke and gQ. 
Softe J>e for love I ledde, 

Ne dorst 1 nevere do })e wq; 
To lese f)e 59 sgre I dredde, 25 

And wel I wiste to gete* n5 mg. 

*For me Jjou woldest sumwat do 
f Wjile })ou were 3ong a litil first, 
For frendes eyje J)at J>e stod to, 
\^J^^,^ * pe wile J>ou were bftin and birst; 3° 

^ he ne. ' nevere ne vrist of al j>at was tin. ' yt, as often. * getin. 




^ ^Utu 

Oc wan J>ou were J)riven and Jjfq, 
And knewe hunger, cQld and Jjirst/ 

And jhwilk was eyse, rest and ro, • ->'^'^ 
Al }>in oune wil }>ou dist. 

*I saw ]?e fair on fleysch and blod 5 

And al mi love on Jje I kest;e 
pat Jjou jjrive'me J^oujte god, 

And)let J)e haven ro and rest.e 
pat made }>e 59 stirne^ of m5d, 

And of werkes sq unwrest;c ""-^ 10 

To fi3te with J>e ne was ng hot 

Me }>at J?ou bar in J)i brest.€ 

' ^'Gloterie and lecherie, 

Pride' and wicke coveyfise, . 
Nibe^and_gnde and envTe . ' ^^ 

..,j.v T ^v-r-^ -^_ ^^^ ^^ hevene and alle hise, 

And in unlust for to lye, cAn,\ (--ua^iv^^ 

Was ti wone in alle wise*; 
That 1 schal nou ful dere abye, 

A, weyle ! spre may me grise. 20 

*pou was warned her bifgre, 

gwat we ^ bgj^e scholden have ; 
Idel tale held tou }>at J^gre 

pou sauj ffle dun^ in grave, 
pou dist al J)at J)e werld }>e bad, 25 

And J>at \\ fleys J>e wolde crave ; . ^^ J 
I l>9lede f)e^nd dide' as m2A\X^^^\^^j^^^ k^vvU 
""^^ To be maister and 1 bi cnave.* kxX, 

'Iwenest® J)ou, ggst, J>e geyned oujt® 
For to quite J^e wij)al, 30 

* virst. * stume. * prude. * waste wane non of J)ise. 

* we, not in MS, • bi dun. ^ dide, not in MS. * iweneste. • out. 


pou fat was s? worj?!!^ wrou^t, 

To seye I made ]?e my }>ral? 
Did^ I nevere on live noujt, 

I ne rafte ne I ne stal 
pat first ' of l>e ne cam }>e Jjou^t ; 5 

Aby it J)at abyje schal ! 

3wat wist I wat was wrpng or riht*, 

Wat to take or ^wat to schone, 
Bote }>at J30U pottest in mi sijht^ ^^{ 

pat al J3e wisdom scholdest coiil? \^c<^^* *° 
gwanne J)ou me tau5tist gn jtfnHjht*, ' ^^ 

And me gan JjerofFe mone, 
panne did^ I al my mijht' 

Anojjer time to have my wone. ' 

*0c haddist )?ou, Jjat Crist it ou})e, ' 15 

Given me honger, J)irst® and cQld, 
And Jjou .witest me J?at ng god cou)>e, 

In bismere jwan I was 59 bgld, 
pat I hadde undernomen in joujje 

1 havede hglden ^wan 1 was gld®; 20 

pou let me reykin north and south 

And haven al my wille on wgld. 

*,pou scholdist for uq lif ne Ignd'*, 

Ne for ngn oJ)er worldes winne, 
Have soffrid me to lein gn hgnd, wt* 25 

I pat havede tomd to schame or sinne*^ 

Oc for I J)e SQ eise fpnd, 

And f>i wretche wit sg })inne'°, 
pat ay was wrij>inde as a wpnd, 

perfgre" coufe I nevere blinne. >« 30 

1 wordli. 2 dud. 8 fujst. * rith. » pottist . . . si5th. • unti5th. 
'' mi^th. 8 vurst. ^ I havede holden old. •* for lond. ®*> sunne, 
as occasionally. ^° with so piinne. ^^ ])efore. 




* To sinne J>ou wistist was my kinde, 

As mankinne it is al sq, 
And to J)e wretche world 59 muide, 

And to J)e fend J)at is ure ^ fg. 
pou scholdest \x have late me binde 5 

Wan I misdede, and don me W9; 
Ac ^wanne J^e blinde lat J)e blinde, 

In dike he fallen b9}?e twg/ 

Th9 bigan J?e g9st to wepe, 

Ana seide, * Bodi, alias, alias, 10 

pat I )?e lovede evere ^ete, ^ ^<^vv j"? 

For al mi love on }>e I las. \ i -,. . ^^ 

pat tou lovedest me f>ou lete**, '*' }^ cjsP'^'^''^ 

^ And madest me an ^houve of glas \i | ^ 

I dide al J?at }>e wa^ sete/ ^ (^i^ 

And }>ou my traytor evere was. 

•^■>* ■' 

* pe fend of belle J^at havej) envie ^ 
To mankinne', and evere ha}> had,' 

Was in us as is a* spie 
To do sum god ^wan I ]?e bad. 20 

The werld he toe to cumpaynie'*, 
pat mani a soule haved forrad;^'"' • 

pey bre wisten J>I folye, 
\ ;.• * And maden^, wretche, J^e al mad. 

*3wan I bad J^e reste take, 25 

Forsake sinne ay and 99, 
Do penaunce, faste and wake, 

pe fend'' seide, 'pou schalt noujt S9, 
pus ® sone al f>i blisse forsake, 

To liven ay in pine and W9! 30 

* ore, as often. ^* le. ^ envije. ' mankune. * as a. ^ cam- 
panile. ^ madin. "^ fe. ^ ]>os. 



Joye^ and blisse I rede J)ou make, 
And J>enke to live jeres mg/ 

* gwan I bad te If ve pride, 

pi manie mes, J?i riche schroud, 
pe false world }pzX stod bislde, 

Bad }>e be ful quoynte and proud; - 
pi fleysch with richeTgbes schride, 

Noujt als a beggare in a clout ', 
And on hei3e horse to ride 

Wi]> mikel meyne in and out'/ 10 

*3wan 1 bad J>e frliche to rise, 

Nim of* me }>i soule kep, 
pou seidest thou mi^test a ngne wise 

Forggn J^e mirie* morweslep. 
W3an 5e hadden set your sise, 15 

3e*.})re traytours, s§re I wep; 
Ye ladde me wib joure^ enprfse, , /,,->^< ^-^ • 

As J3e bochere' d5J) his schep. 2, b^"^' * *^ 

* gwan je ® J^re traitours at 9 tale ^ 

Togidere weren agein me sworn, 20 

Al je maden trotevale 

pat I haved seTd biforn. 
3e ledde me bl doune and dale 

As an oxe bi J)e horn, 
Til J)er as him is browen bale 25 

per his J^rgte schal be schorn. 

*For love Jji wille I folewede al. 

And to min oune dfth I drouj, 
To foluwe f)e }>at was mi ]?ral. 

-. v* 

pat evere were false and frouy- ' " ' 30 

* ioj^e, * clonjt. ' oujt. * on. * mnrie. " }»e. 

"* wid oure. ^ bojielere ; Aach. MS. bucher. * )e, not in MS. 


pou it dist and I forhal, '^ '^^ ^^• 

We wisten^ wel it was wouj ; ^ 

perfgre mote we kepe ure fal, - 
Pine and schame and sorewe inou), 

*pei5 alle f>e men nou under mone 5 

To demen weren sete on benche, 
pe schames }>at us schullen be done ^:-^* 
\ojj\ Ne schulden^ halven dfl bif>enche'. 
VJ Ne helpe]> us ng bfde ne bone, 

Ne may us nou ng wyl towrenche; ' lo 

Hellehoundes comen* nou sone, 

Forf)T ne mouwe we noy}>er blenche/ ^ * 

gwan Jjat bo(}i say ]?at gast*^ 
pat mgne and al J?at soruwe make, 
k It seide, 'Alias, }>at mi lif hath last, , - , 15 

^. \*^ k^^^\\' '' pat I have lived for sinne sake. "^ ' ^^^'^ 

''/>^^^"*^..v •• pat min herte« ne hadde tobrast', / 

gwan I was fram mi moder take; 
I mijte have ben in er)?e kast^ 
And lei^en and rgted* in a lake. 20 

' panne haved I nevere lerned 

gwat was yviP^, ne 3wat was god, 
Ne ng Jjing with wrgnge" jernd, 

Ne pine J^gled as I mot, * -^ 
gwere ng saint mi^te bfren ure " emd^^ - 25 

To him Jjat bou^te us with his blod. 
In helle jwanne we ben bemd*^ 

Of sum merci to don us bot." \ 

' Nay, bodi, nay ^*, nou is to late 
For to preien ^* and to prf che, 30 

^ wistin. * schuldin. ' bi])enke. * cometh. * gost. 

• herte anon; '^ toborste. ^ kest. • ilei^en and iroted. *<* uvilne. 
" wrong. ^2 is. " brend. ^* nay, from Auch. MS. '* preije. 



Nou J>e wajoi is atte * 3ate, 
And J)i tonge ha}> (lei)ii'))e spfche. 

bate, - 

Q poynt of ure pine to 

In ]7e world ne is ng 
Al tegidere we ggn 9 ,i|te, y^/^*^""^ 

Swilk is Codes harde wrf che 

Ifche; (^ \ 




' Ac haddest J)Ou a litel f r, 

gwile us was lif togidre lent, 
p9 Jjat was sq sek and sfr, 

Us schriven and fe devel schent, 10 

And laten renne a reuly tfr, ^ . l,\/-' 

And bihi3t amendement, . c-. 
Ne })orte us have frijt ne fgr, 

pat 'God ne wolde us blisse have sent^ 

*pey alle J)e men }>at ben o lyve' 15 

Weren prestes, messes for* to singe, 

And alle J>e maidenes and J^e wyve** 
Wydewes, hQnderi^ for to wringe, 

And mi3te sweche' iyve S' Iu^^^jo a^ /" > 
Als is in werld of all e jjin ge, c(«o( ^ n- « a . ao 

Sijjin we ne moQwen us selven'' schrive, 
px^ Ne schulde us into blisse bringe. 

* Bodi, I may ng mgre dwelle, 

Ne stgnde for to spfke with f>e; 
Hellehoundes here I jelle, 25 

And fendes mg f>an men mowe se, 
pat comen to fette me to helle, 

Ne may I ngjwer^ from hem fle; 
And ]>ou schalt comen with fleys and felle 

A domesday to wone® with me/ "" 30 

1 ate. * his blisse us sent. ' lyves. * for^ not in MS. 

* wyves. • snweche. ^ sulven. • noweder. • wonie. 


Ne havede it nou f r ]?e word iseyd, 

It ne wiste jwider it scholde gg; 
In abreken at a breid 

A Jjousend develene and yt\. mg, 
^wan thei hadden* on him leyd 5 

Here scharpe cloches alle J>9, 
It was in a sgri pleyt, 

Reuliche toyled to and frg. v-* 

For thei weren ragged, roue and tayled, 

With brgde bulches on here bac; \^ ^ ^ 10 

Scharpe clauwes, Ignge nayled, ';»».aa.^ -- 

N9 was ng lime withoute lad. ':-•' ,. /• 

On alle halve it was asayled ^^v*. » 
^>f^' With mani a devel foul and blac: 
V ^ Mercl criende liteP availede 15 

./ ^wan Crist it wolde sg harde wrac^ 



« I 

Some fe chaules it towraste ' .. ; 

And 59ten in J?e Ifd al hgt, 
And bedin him to drinke faste, 

And shenke abouten him abrgt*. .. , ^ ^^ -'^ 20 
A devil kam )?er atte" laste 

pat was maister, wel I wgt; 
A colter glowende in him he J)raste 

pat it l>oru3 })e herte smgt^ 

«icv^i t Gleyves glowende some setten 25 

To bac and brest and bgjje sides, 

pat in his herte J>e poyntes mettin. 
And maden him f>9 woundes wide, 

And seiden him fol wel he lette y^ ^f 

pe herte f>at was 59 fol of pride ; 30 

^ haddin. ' Intel. ' towrasten. * senke abouten him 

a brod. ^ ate. * herte it smot. 


Wei he it hadde fat men him hette \ ^-an«v^ 
For mgre scholde it bitlde. 

Worj^li ^ wedes for to wf re 

pei seiden fat he lovede best ; 
A develes cgpe for to bfre, 5 

Al brennynde on him was kest, c* •■ ^ 
With hgtj^ feS^P imad to spfre 

pat stfeite sat to bac and brest; 
An helm fat was lltel ' to hf re 

Kam him, and* an hors al prest. 10 


Forth was brou^t f erewith a bridel, 
A corsed devel als a cote. 


pat grisliche grennede and 3fnede wide, 
pe ley^e it lemede of his frgte ; '. - . 

With a sadel to the midside 15 

Fol of scharpe pikes schgte, ^ 

Alse an hechele on^ to ride; '>'^-^^' 
Al was glowende, ilke a grgte. . 

Upon* fat sadil he was sloungen, 

As he scholde to fe tornement; 20 

An hundred devel on him dongen 

Her and f er fan he was hent ; 
With hQte spf ps f oru^ was stongen. 

And wif ^les al torent ; 
At ilke dint f e sparkles sprongen 25 

As of a brgnd fat were forbrenf^. 

gwan he hadde riden^ fat rgde 

Upon f e sadil f er he was set, 
He was kast doun as a tgde, 

And hellehoundes to him were let® 30 

} bihette. ' wordli. ' Intel. * anon him kam. ' onne. 

• Opon* ' forbrend. ' reden. • led. 



pat broiden out J>g peces brgde, 

Als he to helle ward was fet; 
Ther alle }?e fendes fet it trgde, 

Men mijte of blod foluwe J>e tred* 

He beden him honten* and blowen, 5 

Crien on Bauston and Bewis, 
pe ratches J?at him were woned to* knowen ^^'' 
\ ) He scholden sone blowe j?e pris ;^ > -fif -^ 

An hundred develes, on^ a rowe, , '„ 

cSiA.- AA/J^vva> Ia>J ' ^^^ stringes him drowen, un)?anc his, 10 

XijjL tr'K* tXst"^ ' Til he kome to })at IqJjIi* lowe ^ 

per helle was, I wQt id wis. 

jwan it kam to J>at wikke won, vy 

pe fendes kasten swilk'' a aelc^/^^ .<jai* 
pe erf>e it gpenede anQn, ^'" /^^' , " .1- 15 

Smgke and smoJ>ef up it wel ^-5 — /rt:^'-^ - 
. B9f>e of*^ pich "and oP brimstgn*, 

Men myjte fif mile have J>e smel. , 
Lgverd, wq schal him be biggn v 

pat haf> J>eroffe f>e tenj?e dflL 20 

gwan J?e ggst J>e sgj^e isey, 
_^ Wiider® it scholde, it kaste a cri, .c; 

And seide, . * Jesu ^° that sittest on hey, , ^^ ^-^ s. 

On me, ^p\ schap, nou have mercl. ^,>j^ ^ fr^'' T 
Ne schope J?ou me f>at art sg .sljg^^*' A'"^. ^-^2$ 

p! crfature al sq was 1 tj P>J^^^ 

Als man J?at sittes J^e sq ny^, ^ ' 

pat f>ou havest sg wel don by. 

* pou bat wistest al biforn '*, . . -u 

W31 schope }?ou me to wrg]?gr hgle,w . 'J^" 30 

^ hontin. * te. ^ ratches on. * lodli. • suwilk. 

• wal. ^ of, from Auch. MS. * brumston. ^ wjide. ^* Uju, 

as usual ; Crist added, but incorrectly for metre. *^ bifor. 


To be J)us togged and totorn', 

And 6})ere to haven al mi wfle? 
p9 j?at scholden be forlorn, 

Wretches }>at tou mi^test spf le, . 
A, weile, W51 lest ou hem be born, 5 

To 5eve j?e fdule fend sq f|le?' 

Agein him )?e fendes gonnen crie^ 

' Caitif, helpej? j?e na mgre 
To calle on Jesus ne Marie, 

Ne to crie Cristes gre. 10 

Lgren f>ou havest the cumpainye, 

pou havest seryed us sq jgre ; 
parfgre nou f)ou schalt abye 

As of>ere }?at leven on ure Igre/ 

pe foule fendes J)at weren fayn, 15 

Bl top and tail he slongen hit, 
And kesten it with my3t and mayn 

Doun into the develes pit, 
per Sonne ne schal nevere be seyn; 

Hemself he sonken in }?ermit; 20 

pe erj?e himself it lek ajeyn, 

Angn \>q donge it was fordit. 

Wjan it was forth, f>at foule Igd-' ^>v-i.rv.v ^ 

To hellewel gr it were day. 
On ilk a her a drgpe st6d^ 25 

For fri^t and fer J)er as I lay; 
T5 Jesu Crist with milde mod: 

gerne 1 kalde and lokede ay, 
gwan J)9 fendes hgt and wod*- 

Come to fette me away. 30 

^ totoren. " crije. ' hem sulf, * hot fot. 



1 ]>onke him ]^t ]79lede dfth, 

His michele * merci and his 9re, 
pat sclulde me fram man! a qufd, * 

A sinful ' man as I lai ]>9re. 
p9 alle sinful I ' rede hem rf d 

To schriven hem and rewen s§re; 
Nevere was sinne idon sg grft 

pat Cristes merci ne is wel mgrej^ 



/ v^ "" 








^ Eve haf) Sef) ylafdd^ ^ 




y^ To Paradys as Adam badde. 

And* Eve drou3 hir fram J>e ^ate, 

Sche ne* durst noujt loke in }>erate^vvv\^ ^w^ 

Sche durst noujt schewe God hir face, 

Bot lete SeJ> abide grace. 

And Se}) in }>ilke stfde, 

SQre wepeaiid, in hgly bfde, r' 

He abQd J>er alle stille 

Godes merci and Godes wille. 

purgh • ]je vertu of Godes mi3t 
per c5m adoun an angel bri^t, 
And seyd to Se]> in J)is manere^, 
pat he mijt wi}) §ren here : 
' God J) at al j?e warld haf> wroujt 
Sent )?e word, J?ou biddest for noujt, 
%x }?e terme® be ygQn 
Of five f>ousende winter and Qn, 
And five and twenti winter and m§.- 




^ muchele. 
'l, as often 

' sunfnl, as also in next line. 
" no, as always. * ]mrth. 

' ))o ]7at snnfnl ben. 
^ maner. ' term.. 


|lr )?at terme * be ag§, 

And God J>at is ful of mijt 

Be into erj?e yli^t, 

And have ynomen kind of man, ^ / 

And baf>ed in J)ej flom Jordan; X'^^^'^ /' • 5 

pan schal Adam and Eve his wiif . 

Be anoint m]> oyle of liif, 

And alle \>q ]>at after hem comen 

pat have cristendom* ynomen. 

Gp tel Adam \>i fader J>is, 10 

pat ngn oJ>er grace }>er nis; 

And to grajr^ him bid him hy^e', . 

His terme nei^e}? ]5at he schal dye. * 

And when pe bodi }>at ha)> don sinne, 

And )>e soule schal parten atwinne, 15 

Rijt whan )>at time schal be, 

Miche mervayl je schullen yse. 

S9 seyj>* mi Lgrd )>at alle haf) wroujt, 

And bidde]? ]>at ^e ne drede nou^t, 

For nou3t }>at 56 schul here ne se ; 20 

S9 he sent 50U w5rd bi me/ 

Eve and Sep her waye nome, 
And went a5ain'^ as p^i come, 
And tgld Adam )>e tiding 
^ pat him sent J>e Hevenking; 25 "J 

And Adam held up hgpe his hgnd, , » ci'^*''"- 
And Jjonked God of alle his sgnd. ;. \M'' ^r 

Adam his eijen imfeld, ri,t.- 

And se]?]>en his sone he biheld 
And seyd, ' Merci, swete Jesus ®, 30 

Who haf) wounded ml sone J>us?' 

*Bi God, Adam,' qua)> Eve, 
*He ]?at is about to greve 

^ term. ' ciristendom. ^ heyje. * seyt. ' o)ain. * Ihns, as usual. 




Oure soules bgjje nijt and day, 

As michel as eyer he may, 

pat is ]je fendi, f>at is our fg, 

pat ha}> ous brou3t into J>is wp. 
.^fc^ viA*^.4^ ^*^ CHc com and mette^ wij? ous tway. ^m^^ 5 

cy-v*-^ ^i-Xl ^'w-As we jeden in ]je iKa^ *- 
^ And wentljtoward Paradys ; 

pus he bgt him in )?e viis/ f«-^ ^ 

'Q wf, Eve,' qua)> Adam }?9, 

' pou hast ywroujt michel wg I lo 

Alle f>at after ous be bpre, 

Alle schal curssen ous Jjerfgre; 

And alle J)at after ous li32e% "\. 

Bgfre a morwe and eke an ev^^i ^ 

Schul be bisy to bfre }?e wg ^ 15 

pat is ywakened of ous two. 

perfgre, Eve, telle alle J?ine chil der / 

Bgfe J?e jonger and ]je elder, ^ 

pat J)ai beTiled of our sinne, 

And bid hem fch Qn^ biginne . ao 

Nijt and day merci to crle. 

Mi time is comen, P schal dye/^^^^ 
pus Adam bad Eve his wiif 

Tfchen his childer after his liif) 

Hou ]jai schuld angn beginne 25 

To crien merci for her sinne. 

And ]?9 he hadde ytaujt hem f>us, 

As J)e bok^ tellef) ous. 

He kneled adoun in his bfde, 

And dyed angn in )>at stfde. 30 

And as ^pQ angel hadde yseyd, 

Alle ]je lijtnisse was yleyd*; *'*^ "^^^ 

1 mett. 2 ichon. * y. * aleyd. 



Sonne and m5ne lorn her li^t 
Sexe ^' days and sexe ^ nijt. 

Eve bigan to wepe and crie, 
p9 sche * seyje Adam dye ; 

And Se)> made reweli mpn, 5 

And fel doun on his fader an^n, 
And as it tellef) in }>e bok* 
In his armes his fader he tok, 
And ful bitterliche he wgjjfi^ \<^fh^ < > SUwy-n^^ • 
And God Alm^ti Jjerof tok^ kepe, 10 

And sent adoun an angel bri^t 

pat sevd to Seb angn rijt, 
* Arise i and lete, J>i sorwe be, 

And wi]j J>ine eyjen Jjou schalt se 

God, })at sj J>e warld schal glade, 15 

What he wil do wi]> J?at he made,' /. - ^ 

God J>at sit in heven hej^e 
Tok Adam soule, J>at Se}? it ^tvj^ 
And bitok it Seynt* Michel, 

And seyd: 'Have, loke J>is soule wel, 20 

And put it in sorwe and f>estemisse. 
Out of joie * and alle li^tnisse, 
Til five Jjousend winter ben agg, 
Two hundred and eijte and twenti mo, 
Frp f»e time J?at he ete^ ^-r € -v*. wX- "'^"^ 25 ^^^ ^ 
Of ]jat appel him J^oujt 59 swete. OK luv • 
S9 Ignge • for his gilt^ 'V^ -^ 'x*-^^ 
In his ward he schal be pilt, 
pat maked him mm hfste^ brfke; 
Sg iQnge ich wil ben awrfke 30 

On him and alle his blod eke, 
Mi comandment for he breke. 

^ sex. * he. ^ boke. * seyn. * ioie, as always. 

* long, as often. ' best. 

F 2 


And whan ]>at terme is agp, \ 

To joie schal turn al his wq; 

And aftenvard ]>an schal he 
, Sitten in J>ilk€ selve se a*>^ 
, » .V pat Lhtfefim sat, min angel brijt, *^ 

'. A • vrV 5r pride was in his hert alijt.' 
\' ty pus seyd Jesus J?at sitt an hey3e', 

^ ^^ ' And se]j]5en into heven he steij^. 

Fram ]>e time }>at cas fel 
j pat curssed Kaim slou^ Abel, <^o 

Til Adam dyed upon mold, 

As swete Jesus Crist it^ wold,'^ 

gete lay Abel above erj?e; 

Til Jesus Crist, — herd mot he werj>e — y 

Bad his angels bat bai scholde ^5 

Biry ]>e bodis under molde. 
pe angels al wiJ)outen chfst^ 

Dede anQn Godes hfstJt 

Into^ clQJjes j?e bodi }>ai feld'; 

Eve and hir children stode and biheld^u ^ 

Rijt in Jjilke selve stfde, 

And hadde wonder what )>ai dede, 

For f»ai ne hadde ar fan 

Never sen biry ng man. 

pan seyd an angel ]>qt he stod^J, ^ 

To Eve and to al hir brode^ 

' Take jeme how we do, 

And her afterward do so. 

Birie}> alle sq ]?at dyen 

As 3e se wi}) ^oure yjen'; 30 

pat we don }?is bodis here, 

D6)> je in J>e selve manere.' 

^ it, not ia MS. ' ito. ' ^our ey^en. 


ADAM AND EVE ^ ^ ^^iJJ^^, 

p9 ]>e angels had seyd ]>\is I ^r^ 

pai wenten ojain to swete Jesus^...— - ^ 
To heven )>er Jjai formast.:i^"ere, 
And Ifved Eve an^Tiir children pere. 

Sex days after Adam was dfd^, 5 

God Almijii an angel bfde 
Gg tellen Eve, Adames wiif, 
pe terme was comen ofhir liif. 

p9 Eve wist sch^ schulde^ dye, 
Sche eloped for]? hir progenie, 10 

BglpQ Ipe jonger and ]>e eldre, 
Hir childer and hir childer childre, 
And sayd })at alle mitten here : 
'p9 ich and Adam, mi fere, 

Breken Godes comandement ', 15 

Angn his wrfj^e^ was ysent 
On ous and on our progenie ; 
And Jjerfgre merci 56 schul crie, 
And b9f>e bi day and eke bi nijt 
D6}> penance bi al jour mijt. ^ ^^'^ ao 

And J)ou, Sep, for anT J>ingx '^ ,, .' /v«,>,a^.?" > 
Ich comand ]>e on mi blisceing 
pat ]>i fader liif be write,^ 
And min als§, everi smue, 

Frp \>e bigining of his liif ' {^25 

pat he was maked, and ich his wiif, 
And hou we were filed wij? sinne. 
And what sorwe we* han lived inne, 
And in whiche maner ]?at l?ou seye 
Rfc^liche wi}> Jjine eyje 30 

pi fader soule t5 pine sent, 
For he brak Godes comandement ''. 

schnld. ^ comandment. ^ wret))e. * whe. 


Alle f>is loke Jjat ]>6u write 

As wele as ]jou kanst it dite, 

pat f>9 f>at be now jong childre 

Mai it see, and her elder, 

And 6f)er ]jat hereafter be bgre, 5 

Hou we han wrou^t here bif^re, 

pat J)ai mowe taken ensaumple of ous, 

And amenden ajain* Jesus.' 

p9 Eve hadde j?us yseyd, 
And hir erand on Se}? yleyd, 10 

Sche kn^led adoun and bad hir b^de; 
And ri3t in J>ilke selve stfde, 
pat alle hir kin stoden and seyje 
Where, sche dyed bifom her ey3e. 

Angn ri^t as Eve was dfd^, ^^ 15 

Her children token hem to rede, 
And beren hir )>ilke selve day 
Unto )>e st^de J?er Adam lay. 
And birled hir in J)ilke stfde, 
Ri^t as J)e Sngels dede ao 

pat biried Adam and Abel ; 
perof J»ai token hede ful wel. 
And J)g sche was in erjje ybroujt, 
pai were sgri in her J^ou^t, 

And wopen and made miche wg. 25 

p9 Adam and Eve was agp, 
BgJ^e an even and a morwe 
pai wopen and made miche sorwe. 

And at ]>e foure^ dayes ende, 
Jesu' made an angel wende, "^ 30 

And seyd J)er ]jai wepen sQre : 
*DoleJ? sex days and na mpre; 

-0^ ^ o^ain. ' four. ' Ihu. 



- / 

h . t 


pe seven day rest of joure * sorwe, 

Bg]>e an even, and a morwe. 

For Goql J>at alle )?e warld ha]? wroujt, 

And alle )>e warld made of noujt, 

As him )?ou5t it wold^ be best, 5 

pe seven day he toke rest. 

And anojjer )>ing witterly^* i/cc*^ 

It bitpkne]? ]>€ day of merci; 

pe seven day was Sonenday ^, 

And f>at day schal be domesday, 10 

And alle ]>e soules )?at wele have wroujt 

pat day schul to rest be brou3t/ 

p9* J>e angel hadde his erand seyd 
pat God Almi3ti" hadde on him leyd, 
Into heven }?e way he nam, — 15 

pai wist never whar he bicam. 

Sep angn rijt bigan 
Of Adam J?at was pe forme man, 
Al togider he wrgt his liif, 

As Eve hade beden, Adames wiif, 20 

As telle}? pe boke Jmt wele wgt, 
In stgn alle J?e letters he wrgt, 
For fir ne water opon moldl^•***^ 
Never greven it ne schold. 

p9 Sep hadde writen Adames liif, 25 

And Eves pBX was Adames wiif, 
Ri^t in }?ilke selve stfde 
per Adam was won to bide his bfde, 
In ]>ilke stf de pe bok he leyd, 
As wise men fr ]?is han seyd*, 30 

per Adam was won to biden his bfde, 
And Ifved it in ]?ilke stfde; 

^ jour. ' wald. ^ sononday. * to. ^ almi^ten. 

• yseyd. * 


And )>er it lay alle Noes flode, 
And ne hadde noujtbgl 

Lgng after Noes* flod was g§, 
Salamon ]7e king c5m \i^ 

pat was heir ' of David Ignd ; 5 

And Adames liif ]>er he f^nd, 
And al in stgn writen it was, 
And damaged' ngn letter J>er nas. 
For alle }>at Salamon coujje 

pink in hert or spfke wi]j mou]>e, 10 

Qn word he ne couJ>e wite. 
Of alle }>at ever was J>er write, 
He ne cou]>e 9 word understand <^ 
pat Se]j hadde writen wi}> his h§nd.^ ^ 
And Salamon \>2X was wiis 15 

Bisou3t }>e King of Paradys, 
pat he schulde* for his mi3t 
Sende him grace fram heven li^t, 
pat he mijt have grace to wite 
What )>ing weren Jjere ywrite. 20 

God — yblisced mot he wer}>e — 
He sent an angel into erj^e 
pat tau^t Salam5n everi smite, 
Alle Adames liif ywrite, 

And seyd Xb Salam5n ywis: 25 

*Here, J?er J?is writeing is, 
Rijt in J?is selve stfde, 
Adam was wont to bid his bfde. 
And here J>ou schalt a temple wirche 
pat schal be clfped hgli chirche, 30 

per men schal bid hgly bfde 
As Adam dede in J>is stfde/ 

nes. ^ air. ^ damaghed. ^ schuld. 


\ 4f^ , 

And Salam5n pe king angn 

Lete rf ren a temple of lime and sign, 

pe firste^ chirche under sonne 

pat ever in warlde* was bigonne. 

Now have 56 herd of Adames liif, 5 

And of Eve }>at was his wiif, 
;* , A -^ -Whiche liif }?ai ladden here on mold, 
i^^^^^ And sej>l?en diden as God wold. 
' And J)9 Adam in erjje was df d, 

For sinne )?at com of her sed, 10 

God sent Noes flod 

And adrenched al }?e brod'; 

Swiche* wreche God ynam* 

Of alle J>at of Adam cam, 

Save Noe* and his wiif 15 

pat God hadde graunted liif, 

And his children \2X he hadde 

To schip wi}) him )>at he ladde. 

Of Noe sej>ben and of his childer ^ ^ 

We be}> yeomen al togider. > ao 

And sef>}?en )?ai lived' in swichcr^inne 

pat for pe liif J?ai liveden inne 

Sodom and Gomore, paX wer ]>g 

Smpe ngble cites twp, 

BqJjc sonken into helle, 35 

As we here clerkes telle. 

And an6J>er npble cite, 

pat was yhgten Ninive, 

Was in filke selve cas; 

Bot as pe prophete jQnas 30 

Bad for hem bl' day and nijt, 

To swete Jesu ful of mijt, 

^ first. ' warld. ' blod. * swich. " nam. 

• noce, as in 1. 19. ^ leved. ' bi, not in MS. 


And made b9])e king and quene, 
And alle )>at opti pople bidene, 
In her bedes he made hem wake, 
^^Aitd hard penaunce he dede hem take. 
'\^^ And ))9 }>ai were to penaunce pilt 5 

\ "" ^*^ ^^ forjaf hem here * gilt ; 
^ Vv:^;^^ pus Ninive saved was 

purch bisekeing of J§nas. 

gete after Noes flod, 
Al }>at com of Noes* blod, — \_ it 

Were ' he never SQ hply man, — ^' 

For }>e sinne J)at Adam bigan, ,^ : ' \ 

per most ngn in heven comXV ' 

^r God hadde his conseyl nome ■ 
To listen in }>e virgine Marie, ^- 15 

And on ]je rode wolde* dye, 
For to higgen ous alle fre, — * ^k^ 

Now have ^e^ herd of swete Jesus, 
As }>e boke'' tellej? ous; ao 

Of }?e warld hou it bigan. 
And hou he. made of molde * man, 
Jesu ]?at was nomen wi]> wrgng, ' 
And Jjgled man! paines strpng 
Among f>e Jewes ]>at were felle, 25 

To bring Adam out of helle, 
gif ous grace for t5 winne 
pe joie J)at Adam now is inne. 

' her. ' noees. ^ weren. * wald, * bok. * mold. 





In ]?at time, sg it bifelle, 
Was in ];>e Ignd^ of Denemark 
A riche king, and swyjje stark; 
pe^ name of him was Birkabeyn. • 
He havede man! knict and sweyn ; 
He was fayer' man, and wight*, [y^^ 
Of bodi he was J?e beste knicht^ 
pat evere micte If den ut* hfre, 
Or stede on*^ ride, or handlen spfre. 
pre children he havede bi his wif, 
He hem lovede 59 his lif; >n. 

He havede a sone and® douhtres twg, 
SwiJ?e fayre, as fel it sg. 
,He J?at wile ngn forbfre, 
/ Riche ne povre, king ne kaysfre, 15 

Dfth him tok }>an he best wilde® 
Liven; but hyse dayes were iilde^^, 
pat he ne moucte ng mgre live 
For gold" ne silver, ne for ng gyvQ. y\ 

Hwan he ]jat wiste, raj)e he sende 30 

After prestes fer and" hende, I 

Chanounes g5de and monkes bgj^e, 

Him for to wisse and to rgSe"; 1 

Him for to hoslen, and to^* shrive, i 

Hwil his bodi were on live. 35 

Hwan hS was hosled and shriven, 
His quiste maked and^for him ^yen, wOU. '^^J^ JUi^^l^[u 

^ Ion, ^ J). * fayr. * wicth. • knicth, as often. | 

« uth. "^ onne. * and, not in MS. • bes wolde. " fulde. 

^^ gol. ^ an, as occasionally. ^^ rede. ^^ hoslon an forto. 



Hise knictes dede he alle site, 

For J)oru hem he wolde wite 

Hwo micte yeme hise children yunge, 

Til }>at he kouJ?en spfken wi]>* tunge; 

Spfken and gangen, on horse riden, 5 

Knictes and^ sweynes bl here siden. 

He spgken ]?eroffe, and chgsen sone 

A riche man )>at' under mone 

Was ]je trewest )>at he wende, 

Godard, l?e kinges oune frende; 10 

And seyden he mouchte* hem best loke, 

Yif ]>at he hem undertoke, 

Til hise sone mouhte' bgre 

Helm on hfved, and Ifden ut hf re, 

In his hand a spfre stark, 15 

And king ben maked of Denemark. 

He wel trowede ]jat he seyde, 

And on Godard handes leyde, 

And seyde, *Here bitfche I }?e 

Mine children alle ]>re, 20 

Al Denemark and al mi fe, 

Til ]?at mi sone of elde* be. 

But )?at ich wille, })at J?ou' swfre 

On auter and on me^gf re, v/v^^^ *^\*vv4/k^ 

On J)e belles ]>at men ringes^ 25 

On messebok Jje prest on singes^ 

pat ];>ou mine children shalt wel® yeme, 

pat here • kin be ful wel queme, y****^ 

Til mi sone mowe ben^knicht*®, 

panne bitfche him ' J>9 his richt *\ 30 

Denemark and }>at J>ertil Ipnges, 

Castcles and tunes, wodes and w9nges/>Jv»> 

^ wit. ^ an, as occasionally. ' was. * moucthe. * mouthe, as often. 
• helde. ^ >o. » we. » hire. ^» knicth. " ricth. 


Godard stirt up, and^ swor al f>at 
pe king him bad, and si]?en sat 
Bi the knictes J>at J>er ware, 
pat wepen alle swij?e sare 

For J>e king J>at deide sone. 5 

'^.j.jj^ Jesu* Crist IpdX maked mdne 
On )>e mirke niht' to shine, 
Wile his soule frg hellepine. 
And Ifve )>at it mote wone 
In heveneriche with Godes sone. 10 

Hwan Birkabeyn was leyd in grave, 
pe erl dede s5ne take J^e knave, 
Havelok, }>at was J>e heir*, 
Swanborow his sister, Helfled }>e t6J>er, 
And in ]7e castel dede he hem do, 15 

per ngn ne micte hem comen t5 
Of here kyn, )>er J)ei sgerd W9re*. 
per he greten ofle sgre, 
B9)>e for hunger and for kgld, 
Qr he weren )>re winter gld'. 20 

Feblelike he gaf hem clgjjes, — 
He ne yaf a n&e of hise 9}>es; 
He hem cl9)>ede riht*^, ne fedde, 
Ne hem ne dede richelike bedde*. 
panne Godard was sikerlike 25 

Under God J)e mgste swike 
pat evre in er)>e shaped was, 
Withuten gn, ]?e wike Judas. 
Have he ]?e malisun today 

Of alle ]?at evre spfken may! jo 

Of patriark, and of pgpe, 
And of prest with loken cgpe ; 

* an. • Ihu, as always. ' nith. * eir. * were. • hold. 

^ rith, as often. ' bebedde. 


Of monekes and hermites b9}>e, 

And of fe leve hpli rode 

pat God himselve ran on blode! 

Crist wane him with his mouth; 

Waned worjje * he of norJ> and suth, 5 

Offe alle men^* ]>at spfken kunne, 

Of Crist )>at maked' mone and sunne! 

panne he havede of al ])e Ignd 
.Al ]?e folk tilled intil his h§nd, h\J^Mt^^ 

And alle haveden sworn' him gth, 10 

Riche and povre, lef and Igth, 

pat he sholden hise wille frfme, ifUuvvvVt- 

And ]7at he shulden him nouht^ grfme, 
• He )x)uhte' a ful strgng trfchery, 

A trayson and a felony, 15 

Of ]?5 children for to make, — 

pe devel of helle him s5ne take! 

Hwan ]?at was Jjouht", on§n he ferde 

To J>e tour f>er he wgren spgrde, 

per he greten for hunger and cgld. ao 

pe knave, ]7at was sumdf 1 bgld, 

Kam him ageyn, on knes him sette, 

And Godard ful feyre he J?er grette. 

And Godard seyde, *Wat is yu? 

Hwi grete ye and goulen nou?' 25 

*For us hungreth swi]>e sgre,' 

Seyden he wijjuten'' mgre; 

'We ne have to fte', we ne have 

Herinne neyther kniht® ne knave 

pat yeveth us drinken, ne ng mfte 30 

Halven dfl ]?at we moun fte. 

Wg is us f>at we weren born! 

* wrj>e. ** man. ^ maude. ^ sworen. * nouth, as often. 

• jHJUthe. • J»outh. ^ wolden. * hete ne. • knith. 


Weilawei, nis it 119 com 

pat men micte maken of br^d? 

Us^ hungreth, we aren ney dfd/ 
Godard herde here wa, — 

Theroife yaf he nouht * a stra, — 5 

But tok J>e maydnes bgthe samen, 

Al S9 it were upon his' gamen, 

Al S9 he wolde with hem leyke , M*^^ '^Wvt 

pat weren for hunger grene and bleike. ^ 

COf b9j?en he karf on two here Jjrgtes, 10 

(And sijjen karf* hem al to grgtes. ^-mail^ 

per was sorwe, wosq it sawe, 

Hwan J>e children bi J)e * wawe 

Leyen and sprauleden in ]?e blod. 

Havelok it saw, and jjer® bi stod: 15 

Ful S911 was ]?at sell knave, 

Mikel dred he mouhte^ have, 

For at hise herte he saw a knif 

For to rf ven him hise lyf. 

But J>e knave* }>at litel was, 20 

He knelede bif9r }>at Judas. 

And seyde, 'L9verd, mere! nou! 

Manrede, l9verd, bidde I * you ; 

Al Denemart I wile you yive'^, 

To ]?at fonvard )?u late me live. 25 

Here I" wile on boke swfre 

pat nevre m9re ne shal I bf re 

Ay en )?e, l9verd, sheld^^ ne spfre, 

Ne o]?er wepne" that may you dfre. ^M^A^^^ 

L9verd, have merci of me ; 30 

Today I wile fr9 Denemark fle, 

Ne nevere m9re comen ageyn. 

^ J>s. * nouth. * hiis. * karf, not in MS. * J>. * )>e. ^ monthe. 
* kave. • biddi. ^^ yeve. " hi. " shel. " wepne here. 


Swfren I wole }>at Birkabeyn* 
Nevere yete me ne gat/ 

Hwan )>e devel herde* }>at 
Sumdf 1 bigan him for to rewe, 
Withdrew J>e knif J>at was lewe v^vvv>*- 5 

Of }>e seU children blod. 
per was miracle fair and god, 
pat he ]7e knave nouht ne slou, 
But for rewnesse him wiJ>drow'. 
Of Havelok* rewede him ful spre, lo 

And jjoiicte he wolde J>at he df d w§re, 
Buten' )>at he nouht wi]>' his hend 
w^ Ne djgpe him^, }>at fule fend; 
poucte hfy als he him bi stod 
Starinde alsQ* he were wod, 15 

* Yif I • late him lives g9 
He micte me wirchen michel wg; 
Grith ne get I* nevere mg, 
He may me** waiten for to slg. 
And if" he were brouct of live, 20 

And mine children wolden thrive, 
Lgverdinges after me 
Of al Denemark micten he be. 
God it wite, he shal ben dfd, 
Wile I taken ngn oJ>er rfd; 25 

I shal do casten him in J>e se*^ 
per I wile J?at he drenched '' be ; 
Abouten his hals an anker god, 
pat he ne flete in )>e flgd/ 

per angn he dede sende 30 

After a fishfre J?at he wende 
pat wolde al his wille do, 

* bircabein. * hede. • witdrow. * avelok. ' but on. • wit. 

^ him nouth. » als. » y. *• me, not in MS. " yf. " she. 

*' drench. 


And sone angn he seyde him to, 

*Grim, J?ou wgst jju art mi f>ral; 

Wilt u^ don mi wille al 

pat 1 wile bidden J?e, 

Tomojwen I^ shal maken J>e fre, 5 

And a€cte }je yeven and riche make. 

With ]?an jju wilt ]?is child take, 

And Ifden him with )>e tonicht, — 

pan jjou sest Jje moneliht', — 

Into J>e s§ and don him ]?rinne*, 10 

Al wile 1 taken' on me ]?e sinne,^ 

Grim tok ]?e child and bgnd him faste 
Hwil J>e b^ndes micte laste, 
pat weren of ful strgnge ® line. 
p9 was Havelok in ful strgng pine ; 15 

Wiste he nevere fr'' wat was wg. 
Jesu Crist^ J)at makede to gg 
pe halte, and J>e doumbe spfke^ 
Havelok, J)e of Godard wrfke^ 
^ Hwan Grim him havede faste bounden, ao 

^^^^>^ft Kndi sij>en in an gld clgth wounden^^ 
^ fir A key el of clutes, ful umyraste, y^ 

pat he mouhte^* spfke ne fnaste K^^lIol 

Hwere he wolde him bfre or Ifde, — 

Hwan he havede don J>at dede, 25 

Hwan )>e swike him havede bede''^ 

pat he shulde him forth Ifde*^ 

And him drenchen ^* in ]?e se, — 

pat forwarde makeden he, — 

In a pgke, ful and blac, 30 

Sone he caste him on his bac, 

* wilte. * I, not in MS. * se mone lith. * J)erinne. ' wile 

taken. • strong. ' her. * speken. * wreken. ^^ wnden. 

" mouthe. ^^ he |)ede. " lede, not in MS. ^* drinchen. 



And bar him hgm to hisc elf ye ; ^v^^*^ 

And bitaucte him Dame Lf ve, 

And seyde, ' Wite J?ou J>is knave, 

Al S9 thou with me* lif have. 

I shal dreinchen him in )>e se; 5 

For him shole we ben maked fre, 

Gold haven ynou and o]?er fe ; 

pat have}>* mi Igverd bihgten me/ 

Hwan Dame Lfve^ herde J>at, 
Up she stirte and nouht* ne sat, lo 

And caste be knave so harde adoun* 
pat he ]?er crakede hise croune* 
Ageyn a grft stgn, ]?er it lay; 
Xp9 Havelok micte sei, * Weilawei, 
pat evere was I kinges bfm !/ 15 

pat him ne havede gnp or f ov 
Leoun or wulf, wulvine^ or bfre, 
Or o}>er bfst ]?at wolde him dfre. 
S9 lay J>at child to middelnicht^ 
pat Grim bad Lfve bringen lict, 20 

For to don on hise ' clgj^es : 
' Ne thenkest ^® u nowt of mine 9]?es 
pat ich have mi Igverd swgren? 
Ne wile 1 nouht be forlgren; 

I shal bfren him to \>q se, 25 

pou wgst ]?at it bihoves" me, 
And I shal drenchen him J^erinne; 
RTs up swij?e and gg J)u binne, 
And blou ]?e fir and liht" a kandel/ 

Als she shulde hise clgjjes handel 30 

On for to don, and blawe }>e " fir, 

* mi. ^ havet. ' Lfve, not in MS. * nonth. * adoun 

so harde. • hise crounc he J)er crakede. ' wlf wlvine. * nicth. 

« his. '« thenkeste. " ]jat hoves. " lith, as often. " ))er. 


She saw f>erinne a liht ful shir, ^'^^^-^ 

Al S9 briht^ 59 it were day 

Aboute }>e knave )?er he lay. 

Of hise mouth it stod a stem, 

Als it were a sunnebfm; 5 

Al sg liht was it }>erimie, 

S9 ]?er brenden ccrges inne. -^^^ c^-vO^ 

* Jesu Crist ! ' quat ^ Dame Lf ve, 

* Hwat is }>at liht in ure elf ve. 

■Ris' up Grim and loke wat it mfnes, 10 

Hwat is f>e liht* as ]30u wenes?' 

He stirten bgjje up to the knave, — 

For man shal god wille have, — 

Unkeveleden him and swij?e unbounden. 

And sone angn upon' him funden, 15 

Als he tirreden of his serk, [•«*j8U ^-^ 

On his riht* shuldre a kynemerk, 

A swijje briht^, a swij?e fair. 

' Godd 9t,' quath Grim, ' J>is is "^ ure eir 

pat shal ben ^ Igverd of Denemark ; 20 

He shal ben kmg strgng and stark, 

He shal haven in his hand 

Al' Denemark and Engeland. 

He shal do Godard ful wg, 

He shal him hangen or quik flg; ^\\ 25 

Or he shal him al quic grave, 

Of him shal he ng merci have.' 

pus seide Grim and sgre gret. 

And sone fel him to J>e fet, 

And seide, 'Lgverd, have merci 30 

Of me, and Lf ve }>at is me bi ! 

Lgverd we aren bgjje }>ine, 

pine cherles, fine hine. 

» brith. * wat. » sir. * lith. » upon, not in MS. * rith. 

^ is, not in MS.- ' ben, not in MS. ' a. 

G 2 


Lgverd, we sholen J)e wel fede, 

Til J>at )?u cone riden on stede, 

Til ]?at J?ii cone ful wel bfre 

Helm on hfved, sheld and spfre; 

Ne^ shal nevere wite sikerlike, 5 

Godard, ]?at fule swike. 

pom ojjer man, Ipverd, than ]?oru f)e 

ShaP I nevere freman be. 

pou shalt me, Igverd, fre maken, 

For I shal yemen J>e and waken ; lo 

poru f)e wile I fredom have.' 

pg was Havelok a blij>e knave; 
He sat him up and cravede brfd, 
And seide, * Ich am neye ' df d, 
Hwat for hunger, wat for bgndes 15 

pat ]?u leidest on mm hpndes, 
And for fe* kevel at J>e laste, 
pat in mi mouth was )?riste^ faste; 
I • was jjerwith ^ 39 harde praQgled Y^^GSvaJ^ 
pat I was J?erwith neye' strangled/ 20 

* Wel is me )?at }3U mayht ^ f te ; 
Godd 9t',' quath Lfve, 'P shal J^e f|te. 
Brfd and chese, butere and milk, 
w^^^^^tO^ Pastees and flaunes, al with swilk 

Shole we sone )>e wel fede, 25 

Lgverd, in }>is mikel nede; 

Soth it is }?at men seyth*° and swfreth, 

per God wile helpen, nouht" ne dfreth. 

panne she" havede brouht" )?e mfte, 
Havelok angn bigan to fte 30 

Griindlike, and was ful blijje; 
Cou)?e he nouht" his hunger mi)>e. 

^ he ne. ' sal. ^ ney. * )«, not in MS. * Jurist. • y. 

"* ])ewLth, as in next line. ^ mayth hete. ® goddoth. '® seyt. 

^ nouth. " sho. " brouth. 


A Igf he et^ I wgt^ and mgre, 

For him hungrede swi})e sgre. 

pre dayes }>er biforn, I wene, 

Et he ng mfte, ]?at was wel sene. 

Hwan he havede f ten and was fed, 5 

Grim dede maken a ful fayr bed; 

UnclgJ^ede him and dede him j^erinne, 

And seyde, ' Slep, sone, with michel winne, 

Slep wel faste and dred )?e nouht', 

Frp sorwe to joye art )?u brouht^A 10 

Sone S9 it was liht* of day, 
Grim it undertok J>e wey 
To J>e wicke traitour Godard, 
pat was Denemarkes® stiward, 
And seyde, 'Lgverd, don ich have 15 

pat )?ou me bfde of J>e knave; 
He is drenched in ]?e flod, 
Abouten his hals an anker god. 
He is witerlike dfd, 

Jteth he nevre mgre brfd ; 20 

He llj? drenched in ]?e s6 : — 
Yif me gold and'' oJ>er fe, 
pat I* mowe riche be, 
And with ]?i chartre make me® fre, 
For J>u ful wel bihet it^® me 25 

panne I laste" spak with J>e/ 
Godard stod, and lokede on him 
porQtlike ^'^ with eyne grim, 
And seyde, * Wilt u nou " ben erl ? 
Gg hgm swi]?e, fule dritcherl ; 30 

G9 hffen and be everemgre 
pral and cherl, as )?ou f r wgre ; 

^ het. ^ y woth. ' nouth. * brouth. ® lith. ^ denemak a. 

^ and, not in MS. * y. ® me, not in MS. " bihetet. " last. 

'^ j-ornthlike. ^^ nou, not in MS. 


Shalt u have* 11911 6)>er mede. 

For litel I shal* do )>e Ifde 

To pe galwes, 59 God me rede, 

For ]>ou haves don a wicke dede, 

poii maiht' stpnden her to Ipnge, 5 

Bute ))ou svnpe hf})en* g^nge/ 

Grim thoucte td late ]7at he ran 
Fr9 J?at traytour, Jat*' wicke man, _^ 

And )>oucte, * Wat shal me to vg]^ ' ? vc^^''^''^ 
Wite him* onlive, he wile us b9j?e' 10 

Heye hangen on galwetre. 
Betere us is of Ignde to fie, 
yJiiJi And berwen bgj^en ure lives, 

Mine* children and mine wives/ 

Grim S9lde sone al his c5m, 15 

Shep wi)>' wolle, nft'^ wi)?® horn, 

Hors and swin, and gpt" wi]? bfrd, 

pe gees, \>e hennes of pe yfrd, — 

Al he sglde }>at ouht douhte", 

pat he evre selle moucte, 20 

And al he to pe peni drou. 

Hise ship he grey^de wel inow ; -^'^'^ 

He dede it tfre and" ful wel pike 

pat it ne doutede sgnd ne krike; 

perinne dide a ful g5d mast, 25 

Strpnge cables and ful fast, 

Qres gode, and ful g5d seyl; 

perinne wantede nouht" a nayl 

pat evere he sholde J?erinne do. 

Hwan he haved it'*^ greyjjed so, 30 

Havelok pe yunge he dide Jjerinne, 

1 shal have. * shal, not in MS. ' malt. * ej^en. ** J>a. * rede. 
* he him. ' wile be])e. • and mine. • wit, as in next line. 

" neth. " and got, not in MS. " outh douthe. " an. ** nouth. 




Him and his wif, hise sones J^rinne, 

And hise two doutres Jjat faire wgre ; 

And sone dede he leyn in an gre, 

And drou him to f)e heye se, 

pere he miht alj>erbeste^ fle. 5 

Frg Ignde wgren he bote a mile, 

Ne were nevere but ane hwile, 

pat it ne gan* a wind to rise 

Out of J>e north men calleth bfee, 

And drgf hem intil Engelpnd, lo 

pat al was si]?en in his hgnd, 

His, ]>at Havelok was ]?e name; 

But 9r he havede michel shame, 

Michel sorwe and michel tenej___ -H/^eA-**'*'^^ 

And sil>e' he gat it al bidene, Vy*^^ 15 

Als ye shulen nou forthwar If re*, 

If* that ye wilen )>ert6 here. 

In Humber Grim bigan to lende, 
In Lindeseye riht® at )>e north ende; 
per 'sat his'' ship upon )>e sgnd, 20 

But Grim it drou up to J>e Ignd. 
And }>ere he made a litel cgte 
To him and to aP hise flOte; 
Bigan he f>ere for to f rde *, 

A litel hus to maken of erj>e, 25 

S9 ]?at he wel )>9re were 
Of here herboru herborwed )?ere: 
And for ]>at Grim J>at place auhte^*, 
pe stf de of Grim J>e name lauhte " ; (Ua>»a^^ 
S9 f>at Grimesbi it *' calle ^* 30 

pat )?erofFe spfken alle, 
And sg shulen men callen it ay 
Bitwene )?is and domesday. 

* mith al)>erbest. ^ bigan. ' )>rie. * here. ' yf. • rith. ' is. 
» al, not in MS. » er>e. ^« ante. " laute. ^^ \^^ not in MS. " calleth alle. 



OkerErs and Ikauersyns,! v^^^^ u*-Atv» 

As wykked J>ey are as Sarasjrns. 

WhosQ myjt preye whych ]?ey wgre, I • V*^^ 

Were ]>ey lewed or were )>ey Igre, 

pey shulde nat come in* Crystys herde, 5 

Ne come in cherche ne chyrchejfrde. 

N9j>elfs, ])urgh J>ys skylle 

pey mowe be saved, jyf ]jat jjey wylle 

Lfve ]?at synne and do n9 mgre, 

And do at hgly cherches Igre; 10 

And 3yve ajeyn }>at yche ]>yng 

pat ]>ey have take in okeryng ; 

gyf ])ey mow nat ajen hyt ^yve, 

Helpe ]>e pore men ]>erwyj>** to lyve 

Largely and wyj> gode wylle, 15 

And J>ey mowejp^se here dedys ylle.^^UA*^ 

A gode ensample mow ^e here, 

Of Pers }?at was a toljere; (yJL * <^f vt-*- 

And 1* shal telle jow as quyk 

How he was bgj^e gode and wyk. 20 

Seynt Jgne' fe aumenere 

Sey]? Pers was an okerere, 

And was swy)?e coveytous, 

And a nygun and avarous, • **) ^ 

And gadred penes'* unto stgre 25 

As okereres' done*^* aywhgre. 

^ yn, as always. ^* |)erwt, as always. ** y> as always. * lone. 

* pens. •* okerers. ^* dou. 


Befyl hyt sg upon a day 
pat pore men sate in J>e way, 
-*AAvuA^ And spred here hatren on here barme Wk»vw^v>^ 
A5ens )?e Sonne ]?at was warm|j, 
And rekened f>e^stome. houses fch 9n\^ "^ ' 5 
At whych ]?ey had gode, and at whyche ngn^^; 
pere J>ey hadde gode J>ey preysed weyl, 
And f>ere J?ey hadde noght, never a deyl. 
As ]?ey spak of manywhat, 

Come Pers forj) in J>at gat; ^~^ 10 

pan seyd fch gn^ f)at sat^ and stod^, 
'Here comj) Pers f>at never dyd gode/ a^UoA*^ 

Jch gne seyd to 6J>er jangland, 'vsrvlk '^A;' 1*vavn 

pey toke never gode at Pers hand; 
Ne ngne pore men never shal have, 15 

Coude he never sg weyl crave. 
Que of hetfi began to sey, 
' A wajour ' dar 1 wyj> 50W ley 
pat 1 shal have sum gode at hym, 
Be he never sgjgryl ne grym/ vxa^ ' 

To )?at wajour Jjey graunted alle, 
To jyve hym a jyft, ^yf sg my^t befalle. 

pys man upsterte and toke |>e gate 
Tyl he com at Pers jate. j. r 

As he stode stylle and bgde )?e qufde, "^25 

One com wyj>* an asse charged wyj) brfde; v^^^^ ' 
pat yche brfde Pers had boght, 
And to hys hous shuld hyt be broght. 
p9 he sagh Pers come }>er wyf>al', 
pe pore f>oght, now aske I shal: 30 

'I aske )?e sum gode pan charyte, V 

Pers, 3yf f>y wylle ^ be.' 

^ oun, as regularly. ' noun, as always. ^ waiour, as in 1. 21. * wt, 
as usually. So also in compounds. ^ wtalle. * wyl. 


• J I 


Pers stode and loked on hjm 

Felunlyche wy)> y^en grym. 

He stouped down to seke a stpne, 

But, as hap was, ]?an fpnde he ngne. 

For ]>e stgne he toke a Igfe, 5 

And at }>e pore man hyt drgfe. 

pe pore man hente hyt up belyve, ***V 
And was j^erof ful ferly bly)>e. 
To hys felawes* faste he ran 

Wij? J>e Igfe, J>ys pore man. 10 

'L9/ he seyde*, 'what I have 
Of Pers 5yft, S9 God me save/ 
* Nay/ ))ey swore by here ]3ryft, 
'Pers jave never swych a jyft/ 
He seyd, 'ge shul weyl undyrstgnde 15 

pat I hyt had at Pers hgnde; 
pat dar I swfre on )?ejhalydom|jaut*AAv.^^' 
Here before 50W fch gn'/ 
Grfte merveyle had ]?ey alle 
pat swych a chaunce my^t hym befalle. 20 

pe ]?ridde day, — ^J>us wryte hyt is*, — 
Pers fyl in a grfte syknes; 
And as he laye^ in hys bedde, 
Hym )?pght weyl J?at he was ledde 
-AYxl' gne j^at aftyr hym was sent 25 

To come unto hys jugement®. 
Befgre J>e Juge*^ was he broght --^'^ 

To jelde acounte how he hadde wroght. 
Pers stode ful sgre adrad. 

And was abashed asjamad®; *AA*^vst ^^ 

He sagh a fende /on^ {?e tg party ►va t* »va 4*^ 
, ^ Bewreyyng hym ful felunly. 

felaws. * seyd. ' echone. * ys, as always. * ley. 

• iugement. ^ inge. * a, not in MS. 



Alle hyt was shewed hym befgre 

How he had lyved syn he was bgre, 

And namely every wykked dede 

Syn fyrst he coude hymselve * l^de : 

Why he hem dyd and for what chf sun, »^^<j,j^ 

Of alle behove}) hym jelde* a rfsoun. 

On J>e t6)>er ^ party stode men ful bry^t 

pat wulde have saved hym at here my^t, 

But )>ey myght np gode fynde 

pat myjt hym save or unbynde. 

pe feyre men seyd, 'What is to rede? 

Of hym fynde we np gode dede 

pat God is payxi of, but of a Igfe fiu^u^ 

pe whych Pers at* J?e pore man drpfe. 

gyt jave he hyt wyj? np gode wylle, 

But kast hyt after hym wy)? ylle; 

For Goddys love ^ave he hyt no3t, 

Ne for almesdede he hyt had }x>ght 

N9}>elf s, J>e pore man 

Had jje Igfe of Pers )?an/ 

pe fende had leyed* in balaunce 

Hys wykked dedes and hys myschaunce; 

pey leyd )>e Ipfe a^ens hys dedys, — 

fty had no^t elles, J>ey mote nedys, — 

pe hgly man telle]> us, and seys 

pat )?e lofe made f ven peys. 

pan seyd ]?ese feyre men to Pers, 

* 3yf J?ou be wys, now J>ou If res 

How jjys Igfe )?e helpe}> at nede 

To tylle \>y soule wyj> almesdede/ ^^fMAArtli 

Pers of hys slepe gan blynke, 
And grf tly on hys drf me gan }>ynke. 






* hymself. 

a to 5elde. 





SyS^y^€» ^y^ momyng chere 
As man )>at was in grfte wjff , ^^^*^ 
^c^A^ui How {>at helacouped/ was 

WyJ> fendes f^le for hys trespas, 

And how ()ey wulde have dampned hym )?ere, 5 

3yf mercy of Jesu** Cryst ne were. 

Alle )>ys in hys herte he kast, 

And to hymself he spak at f)e laste, 

pat 'For a Igfe in fvyP wylle 

Halpe me in S9 grfte perel, 10 

Moche wulde ^ hyt helpe at nede 

Wy)> gode wyl do almesdede/ 

Frg )>at tyme )>an wax Pers 

A man of sq feyre maners, 

pat ng man my^tp' in hym fynde 15 

But to )>e pore b9j>e meke and kynde; 

A mylder man ne myjt nat be, 

Ne to Jje pore mgre of almes fre, 

And reuful of herte alsQ he was 

pat mayst ()0u here Ifre in )>ys pas. 20 

Pers mette, upon a day, 
A pore man by )>e way 
As naked as he was bQre, 
pat in )?e s§^ had alle Igre. 

He come to Pers f>ere he stode, 25 

And asked hym sum of hys gode, 
Sumwhat of hys cl9]?ing, 
For )?e love of Hevenekyng. 
Pers was of reuful herte, 

He toke hys kyrtyl of as smert, K^ 30 

And ded hyt on )?e man above, 
And bad hym wfre hyt for hys love. 

^ eveyl. ^* Ihu, as always. ^ wide. * my^t. 


pe man hyt toke and was ful blyj^e ; 
He jede and sglde hyt as swyj^e. 

Pers stode and dyd beh§lde 
How J>e man ]>e kyrtyl sglde, 

And was ]>erwy]j ferly wrgj)e 5 

pat he sglde so sone hys clgpe. 
He myjt ng lenger for sorow stand , 
But 3ede hgme ful spre gretand, ^w<f r.-^vi^ 
And seyd hyt was an fvyl sygne, 
And ]3at hymselve^ was nat dygne 10 

For to be in hys prej^ere; >^.^,v'^jv-^ 

perfor nolde he ]>e kyrtyl wfre. 

Whan he hadde ful Igng grete, 
And a party J)erof gan * lete, — 
For comunlych after wepe 15 

Fal men sone on slepe, — 
As Pers lay in hys slepyng, 
Hym ]?oght a feyre swevenyng. 
Hym poght he was in hevene l^t, «JtA«A4iJL - 
And of God he had a syght 20 

Syttyng in hys kyrtyl clad, 
pat }?e pore man of hym had ; 
And spak to hym ful myldely, 
'Why wepest ]?ou and art sgry? 
L9 Pers/ he seyd, 'J>ys is ]>y clgth ; 35 

For he sglde hyt, were )?ou wrgth. 
Know hyt weyl, 3yf ]?at j?ou can. 
For me j?ou jave hyt J^e pore man; 
pat )?ou ^ave hym in charyte, 
Every deyl f>ou jave hyt me/ 30 

Pers of slepe oute breyde, 
And j?oght grfte wunder and se]?en seyd*,l 

^ stande. ^ hyraself. ' began. * seyd. 



'Blessyd be alle pore men 

For God Almyjty loveJ> hem; 

And weyl is hem ]>at pore are here, 

pey are wyj) God b^J^e lefe and dere, 

And I shal fgnde by ny^t and day 5 

To be pore, jyf J>at 1 may.' 

Hastly he toke hys k^teyl 

And jave hyt to pore men f che deyL 

Pers kalled to hym hys clerk 
pat was hys ngtarye, and bad hym herk: — 10 

*I shal )>e shewe a prj^te, 
A J>yng J>at )>ou shalt do to me, 
I wyl J>at )>ou n9 man hyt telle; 
My body I take f>e here to selle 
To sum man as in b9ndage, 25 

To lyve in povert and in servage; 
But )>ou do )?us I wyl be wr9th, 
And )?ou and ))yne shal be me Igth. 
gyf )Jou do hyt, 1 shal \<t 3yve 
Ten pound * of gold wel wij? to lyye ; 20 

p§ ten pound I t^e J?e here, k^^^-^y^ 
And me to selle on bgnde manere, 
I ne recche unto whom, 
But gnlych he have )je crystendom. 
pe raunsun j^at ))ou shalt for me take, 25 

parfpre J>ou shalt sykernes make /^^-v^ 
For to jyve hyt bly)?ely^ and weyl 
To pore men every deyl, 
And wyjjhgide J>erof ng J>yng 
.s^v.*^. ^^ pe mountouns of a fer)>yng/ 30 

Hys clerk was wg to do Jjat dede, 
But 9nly for/manas and for drede. ^'^'^«'V>^ 

^ pownd, as in next line. ^ blej)ely. 


For drede Pers made hym hyt d6\ 

And dede hym plyghte hys trouthe J>ert6. 

Whan hys clerk had made hys gthe, 

Pers dede on hym a foule clpthe; 

Unto a cherche hgpe "pey jede 5 

For to fulfylle hys wyl in dede. 

Whan ]jat )?ey to )?e cherche com, 

'Lgrde/ J>oght j?e clerk, 'now whom 

Myjt 1 fynde, J>ys ych^ jele. i 

To whom I my3te^ selle Pers wele?' 10 

pe clerk loked everywhere, 
And at J>e last he knew where 
A ryche man was ' )?at f r had be 
Specyal knowlych ever ibetwe, - cvx^ *^| 

But purgh myschaunce at a cas 15 

Alle hys gode ylgre was; ,, « /* - /Vv 

gdle, Jjus J>at man hyghte,* '^ ij 

And knew J>e clerk wel be syghte. 
pey spak of 9lde aqueyntaunce, 
And gole tglde hym of hys chaunce. ao 

*3e,' seyde pe clerk, *I rede f>ou bye 
A man to d5 py marchaundye, 
pat povL mayst hglde in servage 
To restgre weyl )?yn dammage/ '^ 

pan seyd gole, ' On swych chafiare '^ 25 

aV^ Wulde I feyn my sylver ware. * 

pe clerke seyd, *L9, gne here, 
A trew man and* a dubqjlf^e^ ^^-^^^ 
pat wvl serve pe to (pay ^ ^* 

Peyneble, al f>at he may. 30 

Pers shalt )>ou calle hys name, 
For hym shalt bou have moche frame. ' 

» 11. 1-6, not in Harleian MS., but supplied from Bodl. MS. 415. ^ my5t. 
^ was, not in MS. * an. * dubonure. 



He is a man ful gracyoiis 
Gode to Wynne unto )>yn hous, 
And God shal jyve J)e hys blessyng, ./^., 

^ And %§yn in alle )?yng/ ^'j'^>'^" , 

pe clerk 3ave alle hys raunsun 5 

To J>e pore men of J>e toun, — 
Plenerly alle )>at he toke 

WyJ>helde he nat a ferjjyng (noke. "^ ^ ^-^^^'^^^^^ 
pe emperoure sent hys messageres 
Alle aboute for to seke Pers, lo 

But J>ey ne myjte^ never here 
Of ryche Pers, f)e tollere, 
In what stfde he was nome, 
Ne^ whydyrward he was become; 
Ne )>e clerk wuld telle to npne 15 

Whydyrward bat Pers was gOne. Aaw^^>'"*^ 

Now is Pcts bycome I brychel ••**^ ' 
pat §r was b9f>e stoute and ryche. 
Alle j?at ever any man hym bad ^ 
Pers dyd hyt wy)> herte * glad. 20 

He wax S9 mylde and 59 meke, 
A mylder man ^urt ng man seke ; >^**^*^ 
For he nieked hymself gverskyle 
Pottes and dysshes for to swyle*. 
To grfte penaunce he gan "hym take, 25 

And moche for to fast and wake. 
And moche he loved Jjglmodnesse mOUmaa^ 
To ryche, to pore, to mpre, to lesse. 
Of alle men he wuld have doute, A*^" 
And to here byddyng mekly' logtel; ^ 30 

Wulde f>ey bydde hym sytte or stande, 
Ever he wulde be bowande. 

' my^t ^ no, as in next line. ' do bad. * hert. ' swele. 



And for he bare hym 39 meke and softe, 

Shrewes mysdede hym ful ofte, ' \.-'<^^^ 

And helde hym fqljed or wode ^ 

For he was sg mylde of mode. 

And J?ey )>at were hys felawes^ 5 

Mysseyd hym mgst in here sawes; 

And alle he sufFred here upbreyd, 

And never naght ajens hem seyd**. 

gole, hys Igrde, wel undyrstode 
pat al hys grace and hys gode 10 

Com hym* for J>e love of Pers, 
pat was of S9 hgly maners. 
And whan he wyst of hys bounte. 
He kalled Pers in pryvyte : 

* Pers,' he seyd, ')jou were wurj>y 15 

For to be wurscheped mgre )>an I, 
For J)ou art weyl wyj> Jesu, 
He shewejj for f>e grfte vertu; 
parfpr 1 shal make J>e fre, 

I wyl *J>at my felaw J?ou be.* ao 

parto Pers graunted noght 
To be freman as he besoght; 
He wulde be as he was gre 
In }?at servage for evermore. 

He })anked Jje Igrde myldely 25 

For hys grf te curteysy. 

Sy)5)?en Jesu, Jjurgh hys myjt. 
Shewed hym to Pers syjt, 
For to be stalworf>e in hys fQndyng,^'^^' 
And to hym have lovelgngyng. 30 

*Be nat sorowful to do penaunce, 
I am wij> ]?e in every chaunce; 

^ felaus. *• seyde. * hym, not in MS. 





Pers, I have mynde of )?e, • 

L9 here }?e kyrtyl }?ou ^ ^ave for me, 
perfgr grace I shal J>e sende 
In alle godenesse weyl to ende/ 

Byfyl ]?at serjauntes^ and squyers 5 

pat were wuut to serve Pers 
Went in pylgrymage, as in kas, 
To )>at cuntre )jere Pers was. 
gole ful feyre gan hem kalle, 

And preyd hem hgme to hys halle. 10 

Pers was J?ere ]?at yche ^e, 
And everych gne he knew hem wele. 
Alle he served hem as a knave 
pat was wunt here servyse to have. 
But Pers nat jyt }?ey knew, 15 

For penaunce chaunged was hys hew; 
Nat iox\y J>ey behelde hym fast, 
And oftyn to hym here y^en )>ey kast, 
And seyde', 'He )>iat stonte here 
Is lyche to Pers }?e * toUere/ ' 20 

He hydde hys vysege al fat he myjt 
Out of knowlych of here syjt; 
N9)?el|s jjey behelde hym mgre 
And knew hym weyl, al Jjat were f>ore*- 
And seyd, * gole, is jone f>y page? 25 

A ryche man is in \y servage; 
pe emperoure b9f>e fer and nere 
Hajj do hym seche fat we fynde here/ 

Pers lestned, and herd hem spfkyng, 
And fat fey had of hym knowyng ; 30 

And pryvyly awey he nam 
Tyl he to f e porter cam. 

* kyrtyl J>at Jk)U. * seriauntes. ' seyd. * ))e, not in MS. 


pe porter had hys speche \gre, 
And heryng alsg, syn he was hgxe; 
But ]?urgh ]?e grace of swete Jesu 
Was shewed for Pers feyre vertu. Cl«*<. t^M^^^u^, % 
. Pers seyd, * Late me furj>e ^ gg' • — 5 

pe porter spak and seyd^^ * 39/ ^ 
He ]7at was dff, and doumbe als5, 
Spak whan Pers spak hym to. 
Pers oute at J)e ^ate wente, 
And J>edyr 3ede Jjere God hym sente. 10 

pe porter jede up to fe halle, 
And J>ys merveyle tglde hem alle, 
How )>e^quyler of Jje kechyn, Af^iUrW '^ 
Pers, )?at ha{> woned hereyn, 

He asked Ifve ryjt now late, . 15 

And went imp out at ]?e jate. 
* I rede 50W alle, ^evej? g5de tent, ^^^ 
Whederward ]jat Pers is went; 
Wyj? Jesu Cryst he is pryve. 

And Jjat is shewed weyl on me, 30 

For what tyme he to me spak, 
Out of hys mouj? me poghte ' brak 
A flamme of fyre bryght and clere ; 
pe flaumme made me hgpe spfke and here, 
Spfke and here now hgpe I may, 25 

Blessed be God and Pers today/ *■ 

pe Igrde and pe gestes alle, 
Qne and ojjer J^at were in halle, 
Had merveyle pat hyt was so, 
pat he my5te swych myracle do. 30 

pan as swype Pers J^ey soght. 
But al here seking was for no^t, 

^ furj). ' seyd. ' l>oght, 

H 2 


Never Pers J>ey ne founde, 

Ny3t ne day^ in ng stounde, 

For he )>at toke Ennok and Ely 

He toke Pers J>urgh hys mercy, 

To reste wy)>outyn ende to l|d^, * ^ '^^ 5 

For hys meknes and hys gode dede: 

Take ensample here of Pers, 
And parte]> wyj> )>e pore, je 5kerers, 
For 50W shal never come joye^ wy}?ynne, 
But 56 Ifve fyrst )>at synne, 10 

And 5yve to almes J>at yche ]>yng 
pat 3e have wune wyj? oker)mg. 
Now wyj> God Ifve we Pers; 
God 5yve us grace to do hys maners. ^ . 


Psalm I. 

Blesced be J)e man f>at jede noujt in J>e counseil of wicked, ne 15 
stode nou^t in J)e waie of sjajgies, ne sat naujt in fals jugement .» 
2. Ac his ^ wylle was in )>e wylle of oure Lgrd, and he schal f>enche^ 
in his ^ lawe bgjje daye and nyjt. 3. And he schal be as \>t tre 
\>2X is ^ sett by f>e ernynges of waters, Jjat schal jeve his frut in his ^ 
tyme. 4. And his ^ Iff schal noujt fallwen, and alle )>ynges )>at ]>e 20 
ryjtful d6)> schal multiplien. 5. Noujt sg ben ]?e wicked, nou^t sg ; 
as a poudre J>at J>e wynde caste}? fram J>e face of ]?e erj?e '. 6. 
For)?i ne, schal noujt )>e wicked arise in jugement, ne |>e sinnifrs in 
)?e conseyl of }?e ryjtful. 7. For oure Lgrd knew j?e waie of J>e 
ry5tful, and J>e waye of synnfrs schal perissen. 25 

^ ioye. ^ hiis. ' J«rJ)e. 


Psalm XXIII. . { 
Our Lprd governe]? me, and ngjjyng shal defailen to me ; in f>e 
stf d£ of pasture he sett me f>er. 2. He norissed me up water of 
fyllyng ; he turned my soule fram j?e fende. 3. He lad me up f>e 
bisti3es of rijtfulnes for his name. 4. For jif ]?at ich have ggn 
amiddes of f e shadowe of df ]?, 1 ^ shal nou3t douten ivels, for f>oii 5 
art wy]j me. 5. py discipline and Jjyn amendyng conforted me. 

6. pou madest radi grace in my sijt ojayns hem )?at trublen me. c -' 

7. pou makest fatt myn hfved wy]? mercy ; and my drynk, makand 
drunken, is ^ ful clere. 8. And ]jy mere! shal folwen me alle daies 

of ml lif. 9. And J>at ich wonne in ]?e hous of our Lgrd in leng)?e to 
of daies. 

Psalm XXIV. 
I. pe er)?e is our Lgrdes and his plente ; J^e world* and ich ^n 
J>at wonej? }?erinne. 2. For he bigged it up fe s§^, and made it ' 
rfdl up Jje flodes. 3. Who shal cllmben into )?e mountein of our 
Lprd, Qjjer who shal stgnde in his hgly stfde? 4. pe innocent in 15 
hgnde and of elf ne hert, ]>at ne toke nou3t his soule in idelnesse 
and ne swore nojt in gilgn to his nejbur. 5. He shal take bli'scyng 
of our Lgrd, and mercy of God his helpe. 6. pis is* )?e bijetyng of 
)?e sechand hym, sechand )?e face of God of Jacob ^. 7. Qpene)? 
jour ^ates, je princes of helle, and bef> je lifted, je everlastand ^ates, 20" 
and fe kynge of glprie shal entre. 8. Which is he, ]?at kyng of 
glgrle ? pe Lgrd strgnge and mijtful, f>e Lgrd my^tful in batail. 
9. Qpenejj jour jates, je princes of hevene, and be]? je lifted, je 
jates everlastand, and )?e kynge of glgrie shal entren. 10. Which 
is he, )jat kynge of glgrie? pe L9rd of vertu, he is* kynge of 25 

Psalm LI. 
I. Ha mercy on me, God, efter )?y mychel mercy. 2. And 
efter J?e mychelnes of f>y pites, do way my wickednes. 3. Wasshe ^ 

* y, and always. ^ ys, and occasionally. ' God Jacob. * his. 

^ whasshe. 

6^V. '^ • 


me mgre of my wickednes, and dense me of myn synne. 4. For 
ich knowe ^ my wickednes, and my synne is evermgre ojains me. 
5. Ich have synned to J?e algn, and ich have don ivel^ tofgre \^yn 
J?at ou be made' Vy^tftil in \y wordes, and J>at ou gV^lrciim whan » 
)>ou art juged. .- 6. Se, for ich am conceived in wickednesses, 5 
and»my moder conceived me in synnes. 7. Se, for j?ou loved 
^openes ; J>e uncerteyn J^roges ancfpryve of wisdom ]?ou made to 
me apfert. 8. pou springes! me, Lgrd, wy]? j?y mercy, and I shal 
be made elf ne ; )?ou shalt purifie me, and 1 shal be made^hyte ' 
up snowe. 9. J)ou shalt 3eve joie and gladnes to myn heiyng% ip 
and ]?e mylde dedes of my hert shul gladen. 10. Turne ]?y,face 
fram myn synnes *, and do oway al myn wickednes. 11. Ha, God, 
make in me clfne hert, and newe Jjou a ryjt ggst in mjni hert. 
12. Ne putt me noujt fram J>y face, and ne do naujt oway fram me 
jjyn hgly ggst. 13. gelde to me gladnes of ]?yn helpe, and conferme 15 
me wy}? Jjyn hgly ggst 14. I shal tfchen )?e wicked J?yn wayes, 
and Jje wicked shul ben converted to )je. ig. Ha, )?ou God, God 
of myn hel)>e, deliver me of sinnes ^, and my tunge shal gladen f>y 
ryjtfulnes, i^-vi^^> J'ou shalt 9pen myn lippes, and my moufe 
shal tellen J?yn n^yyrig. 17. For jyf Jjou hade wolde, ich hade 20 
jeven sacrifice; fors5}?e )?ou ne shalt nou3t deliten in sacrifices. 
18. Trubled gQSt^ is sacrifice to God; )?ou, God, ne shal noujt 
despisen }?e hert sorowful and meke. 19. Do blisfullich, Lgrd, to 
]?y chgsen in f>y gode wille, ]?at j?e gode be confermed in hevens. 
20. pan shalt ou take sacrifice of ryjt service, and honours ; hii ^ 
shul J)an setten godenesses tofgre J?y thrgne.- 

Psalm XC. ^\^' 

I. Lgrd, )?ou art made socour to ous fram kynde to kmde. 2. 
Tofpre ]?at ]?e mounteins were made, gjjer J>e erj)e '' were fourmed 
and j?e werld }?ou art God, fram ]?e >^prld unto ]?e world wy)?outen 
ende. 3. Ne turne J)ou noujt into ^nfldnjjs ; and )jou seidest, je 30 

^ knewe. ^ why3te. ^ beryng. * synmes. * sinei^ * god. '' J»er])e. 


childer of men, turnej? 30U. 4. For, a jjousand jeres ben tofgre 
J?yn ejen as ^isterdai Jjat is passed. 5. And J>e kepyng 6 nyjt, 
]?at for noujt ben had, shul be her jeres. 6. Passe he as gresse in 
]?e momyng ; florische he in )?e mornyng and passe ; falle he at 
f ven ^5 and harden and wax he drie^ 7. For we failed in Jjyn ire, and 
we ben disturbed in \>yn vengeaunce. 8. pou laidest oiir wicked- 
nesse in ^py sijt ; our world is in lijtyng of J)y chere/'*" 9.' For alle 
5ur daies^ faileden, and we failed in ^pyn yre. 10. Our jeres shul 
pJSnen as ]?e lob,. Jje dales of our jeres in be seventT^ere. 1 1. 

Fors6J?e jyf e3d~3ere ben inmy^tes, b^^'Ifi^Je'gver hemsnal be i 
travail and sorowe. 12. ForJmMnS^c^eJ) ^ ]?eron, and we shul be 


wi}>numen. 13. Who knew J>e myjt of J>yn ire, and to tellen \>y » \ 

wra)je for )>y drede? 14. Make sg )jyn helpe knowen. and be If red V'^''^'! ' 
of h^g^^^^sdome. 15. Lgrd, be )jou turned ifcitoHi^f^ia ]^^a/> - 
J?ou | j|idlicn uD }?y servantes. 16, We ben fulfild frlich of )jy 15 
mercy, we shul gladen and deliten in alle our daies. 17. We 
ffladerf^in J?e daies in which J>ou lowed us, for J>e jeres in which we 
"lis. 18. Loke to ]?y serva,untes and to }>yn werkes, and 
ier sones. 19. And }>e ^hy^yn^ of our Lgrd God be up us, 
and dresce up us J)e werkes of 5ur hgndes, and dresce^^^i^as ]?e ^^ 
werkes-of our hpndes ^ 

Psalm XCI. ' 

I. He J?at wone]?* in J)e helpe of J>e hejest, he shal dwelle in Jje 
defens of God of heven. 2. He shal sale to our Lgrd, pou art 
m y taker a nd my refut ; mi God, I shal hgpen in hym. ^^ For 
he delivem me fram fe trappes of J>e fendes, and fram|a^per word 25 
of men. 4, And he shal shadow j?e wyj> hys smiWefS, and ]?oii^^'" * 
sbalt hgpe under hys fe]?ers. 5. pe s6]?enes of hym «hal cumpas 
|>e wyj? shelde, and J>ou ne shalt nou^t doute of J>e drede of ny3t ; 
6. Of temptacioun waxand in dale, fram nede ggand in derknes, 
fram ]?e curs of )?e fende bry3t shynyng. 7. A ]?ousand tempta- 3° 
ciouns shul fallen fram J?I ^ syde, and ten Jjousandes fram ]?y ry3t 

^ heven. ^ com. • last clause repeated. * wboneJ>. ^ )«. 

^^AftA/V^AO t4A^ j I 



- half; ]>e devel, forsoj?e, ne shal no3t comen to J'e^^^. pou shalt 
se, forsojje, wy]? f)yn ejen, ]?ou shalt se ]?e jetoyng of synj^rs. 
9. For }3ou, Lgrd, art myn hgpe, and J?ou setted fy refut alder- 
hejest. 10. Yvel ne shal nou3t com to f>e, and turment ne shal 
noujt com nere ]?y tabernacle. 11. For he sent to his aungels of 
J?e, ]?at hii kepe J^e in alle J?yn waies. 12. Hii shul bfre f>e in 
hgndes J>at tou ne hirt nou5t, peraventure, f>y ggst ^ 
13. pou shalt gQn ujTJlSmB!?^ and godenes, and f>ou shal 
f>e fende and helle. 14. For he hgped in me, and I shaT 
hym; I shal defenden hym, for he knew my name. 15. He cried 10 
to me and I shal here hym; ich am wy)? hym in tribulacioun, 
1 shal defend him and glgrifien hym. 16. I shal fulfillen hym 
wy)j leng]?e of daies, and I shal shewe hym mm helbe./^^JU^*^*^ 

^W^^ ^ • ^ HsL cm. r^c'^ 

I, Ha, ]3ou my soule, blisce our Lgrd; and alle J>ynge3 )jat ben 
wy]?innen me, blisce hys hgli name. 2. Ha, ]?ou my soule, blisce 15 
our Lgrd; and ne wille J>ou noujt for3ete alle his j^deinges. 
3. pe which is merciful to alle }jin wickednesses; }5e which hfle}?* 
alle~|>y sekenisses. 4. pe which ransounne]? J>y lif fram df }> ; fe 
which croune]? )>e wyj? mercv and pites. 5. pe which fulfille]? fy ^ . 
desire in godes*; J>y 56wit^"shal be made new as of an frnerv2o. 
6. Our Lgrd is doand mercies andjugement to alle J>e suiFrand 
wrgnge. 7. He made hys waies knowen to Moyses; he did to ]?e 
childer of Israel her willes. 8. Our Lgrd is ry3tful and merciable, 
and j5H§nge wille and michel merciable. 9. He ne shal noujt 
w/afjjje him wy}x)uten ende, ne he ne shal nou3t menacen wyJ>outen 25 
5nde ^ 10. He ne did noujt to us efter our syn3es, ne he ne jeldej? 
noujt to us efter our wicfcednes. 1 1. For efter )>e hejt of heven 
fram erj>e he !?fer^nJ)daMiys mercy up hem J>at dreden hym. 12. He 
made 1^ fram us our wickednes, as )je fste departej> fram )>e west. 

. ' quenitis. ' helj)e. ^ ])e. * goddes. * last clause from Dublin MS. 
* MS. possibly strein])ed ; Dublin MS. streng])id. 


V ^~ .... 

^' I 


13. As be fader has mercy on his childer, our Lord is merciable 
of hem }?at dreden hym; for he knowej? cur^airites. 14. He 
recorded )?at we ben ponder ^. Man is as hai ; hys daies ben as 
floure of }>e feld; 59 he shal florissen. 15. For ggst shal passen 
in hym, and he ne shal nou^t dwelle, and he ne shal ng mgre knowen 5 
his stfde. 16. pe mercy of our Lprd is fors5)?e fram wy)?outen 
ende unto wy)?outen ende,^ up hem )?at dreden hym. 17. And 
his rijtfulnes is unto * child of childer ^^to hem f)at * kepen his 
testament. 18. And hii ben reSSiemDl^iint of his comaundements ^ 
to don hem. 19. Our Lgrd shafSqt^flrhis sfte in heven, and his 10 
kyngdome shaMgrdshipjalle. 20. Ha, alle his angeles, mijtful of 
vertu, doand his worde, to here )?e voice of hys w5rdes, bliscej? 
our L9rd. 21. Ha, alle his vertu, bliscej? our Lgrd ; je his ministris, 
J>at don hys wille, bliscej?'' our Lgrd. 23. ge alle werke of our 
Lp/d, blisce}? our Lgrd in alle stfdes of his Igrdship; ha, )?ou my 15 
solile, blisce ^ our Lprd. 


All they assentyd to the sawe, 

They thoght he spake rfson and lawe. 

Then answeryd )?e kyng wyth crowne, 
'Fayre falle the for thyn avyse.' 20 

He callyd knyghtys of npbyll pryce. 

And badd them be rfdy bowne- 
For to crye thorow all J>e Ignde, 
Bgthe be s§§ and be sgnde, 

If • they fynde mowne 2. 

A man Jjat is " sq moche of myght, 
That for )?at lady dar take l^fjiij'ght ; ^ 

He schall have hys^feSfesoun". 

^ knowe and erasure in MS. ; our, from Dublin MS. ^ prude. ' unto 
wyjjouten ende, from Dublin MS. * into. ^ ))a. • comaundementB. 

^ blisced. • blische. • yf, as always. " ys, as always. " wareson. 


c^^'^^.V' ^or that lady free. 


Messangerys, I* undurst9nde, 
Cryed thorow all pe Ignde 

In many a ryche cyte, 
If any man durste prove hys myjt 
In trewe quarell for to fyght, 5 

Wele avaunsed schulde he bee. 
The Erie d;.Tolous^ herde'' )?ys telle, 
Whar_^^r the lady befelle, 

Thereof he thoghte * grf te pyte. 
^ If he wyste that sche had ryght, lo 

J, v.*."" He wolde aventure hys lyfe to fyght 

'^(9- For hur he morned nyjt and day, 

^ And to hymselfe ^n he say 

He wolde aventure hys lyfe : 
*If I may wytt }>at sche be trewe, 
They Jjat have hur accused schuU rewe, 

But they stynte of ther stryfe.' 
The erle seyde, 'Bi*^ Seynte jQhn, 
Into* Almayn wyll I gg^JJ^^^^vS' 

Where I have fgmen ryfe; 
1 prey to God full of myght, 
That I have trewe quarell to fyjt, 

Out of W9 to Wynne })at wyfe.' 

He rgde on huntyng on a day, 25 

A marchand mett he bi be way, 

And asked hym of whens he was. 
* Lgrde/ he seyde, * of Almayn^ #>*• 
Angn the erle can hym^ayne 

Of that ilke'' case. 30 

* y regularly. ' Tullous, sometimes ToUous. * harde. * thoght. 

* be, as always. * ynto. ^ ylke. 



* Wherefgre is youre ^ emperes 
Put in sg grf te dystress, 

Telle me for Goddys grace; i „,^' 
Is sche gylty^ sg mote thou theii^ 

* Nay, bi hym f)at dyed on tree, 5 

That schope man aftur hys face/ 

Then seyde the erle wythoute* lett, 
'When is the day sett, 

Brente that sche schulde bee?' 
. The marchande seyde, *Sikerlyke*, lo 

5ven thys day thre wyke, 

And therfgre wg is mee/ 
The erle seyde, ' I schall the telle, 
'Gode horsys I have to selle, 

And stedys two or thre. 15 

Certys myght I selle J>em yare, 
Thidur^ wyth the wolde I fare 

That syghte* for to see/ 

The marchand seyd wyth^ wordys hende, 
* * Into the Ignde if ye wyll wende, ^jJt ^^ 

Hyt wolde be for youre prowe ; 1/tA^jj 
There may ye selle })em at your wylle/ 
Angn the erle seyde hym tylle, 

* Syr, herkyn to me * nowe ; 
Thys jurney® wylt f)Ou wyth me dwelle 25 

Twenty pounde*^ 1 schall the telle 

To mede, I make a vowe/ 
The marchand grauntyd hyt" angn. 
The erle seyde, *Bl Seynt Jghn, 

Thy wylle 1 alowe/ 30 

^ yowre, as often. ^ gylte. ' wtowte, as often. * sekyrlyke. 

* thedur. • syght. ^ wyth, not in MS. • herkyn me. * yurney. 

" pownde. ^^ hyt, not in MS. 


The erle tglde hym in J>at tyde, 
Where he schulde hym abyde, 

And hgmeward wente hee. 
He busked hym J>at n9 man wyste 
For mikylP on hym was hys tryste. 5 

He seyde, 'S)t, gp wyth mee/ 
Wyth them they toke stedys sevyn, — 
There were ng fayrer^ undyr hevyn 

That any man myght see. 
Into Almayn J?ey can ryde ; 10 

As a corsur of mikylP pryde 

He semyd for to bee. 

The marchand was a trewe gyde; 

The erle and he togedur can ryde 1 

Tyll they came to that place. 15 

A myle besyde the castell, 
There the emperoure can dwelle, 

A ryche abbey ther was; 
Of the abbot Ifve they gatt 
To sQJorne* and make }?er horsvs^att; ao 

That was a ngbyll cas.€*^f{S2JJ*r^ 
The abbot was the ladyes fme, v^' ' '^ *^ 
For hur he was in grfte wandrfme, 

And moche momyng he mas J 

S9 hytt befelle upon a day 25 

To churche the erle toke J^e way, 

A massfe for to here. 
He was a feyre man and an hye; 
When the abbot hym sye, . 

He seyde, * Syr, come nere. ,30 

* mekyll. ^ fayre. ' coresnr of mekyll. * soyome. * mase. 


Syr, when the masse is done.. 

I pray you f te wyth me at noone, 

If youre wylle were/ 
The erle grauntyd alKwjjh g^e; \ ^^^ 
Afgre mf te they ^scneall same^ 5 

And to mf te they wente in ferew 

Aftur mf te, as I you say, 

Into an orchard J?ey toke })e way, 

The abbot and the knyght. 
The abbot seyde and syghed sare, 10 

'Certys, syr, I lyve* in care 

For a lady bryght; 
Sche is accusyd, my herte is wqq, 
Therfgre sche schall to dfthe g99 

All agayne the ryght; 15 

But sche have helpe, verrament, 
In a* fyre sche schall be brente 

Thys day sevenyght/ 

The Qrle seyde, * S§ have 1 blysse, 

Of hyr mej>)aiky]? grfte rew)>e hyt is, 20 

Trewe if that sche bee.' 
The abbot seyde, *Bi Seynt Poule, 
For hur I durre^ ley my soule 

That nevyr gylty* was sche. 
Soche werkys nevyr sche wroght, 25 

Neythyr in dede nor in thoght, 

Save a rynge S9 free 
To })e Erie of Tolous sche gafe* wyth wynne, 
In fse of hym and for ng synne; 

In schryfte thus tglde sche me.' / - 30 

leve. * a, not in MS. • dar. * gylte. " jafe hyt. 


The erle seyde, * Syth hyi is S99, 
Cryste wif ke hur of hure * W99, 

That boght hur wyth hys bloode. 
Wolde ye sekyr me, wythout fayle, 
For to hQide trewe coynsayle, 5 

Hyt myght be for youre gode/ 
The abbot seyde bi bokes f|le 
And hys* professyon, J?at he wolde hfle, 

And ellys he were wode. 
'I am he })at sche gafe the rynge 10 

For to be owre tgkenynge, 

Now hfle' hyt for the r5de. 

I am comyn, lefe syr, 

To take the batayle for hyr, 

And* thereto stgnde wyth ryght; 15 

But fyrste myselfe I wole hur schryve. 
And if I fynde hur clfne of lyve, 

Then wyll my herte be lyght. 
Let dyght me in monkys wede 
To ]jat place men** schulde hyr Ifde, 30 

To dfthe to be dyght; 
When I have schryvyn* hyr, wythout fayle 
For hur I wyll take J>e ^ batayle, 

As I am trewe knyght/ 

The abbot was nevyr 59 gladd, 35 

Nere for joie' he waxe madd, 

The erle can he kysse; 
They made mery® and slewe care 
All that sevenyght he dwellyd f)are, 

In myrthe, withoute'*^ mysse. 30 

* hnr. ' and be hys. ' heyle. * and, not in MS. ' Jwit men. • schrevyn. 
' )>e, not in MS. • yoye. • mere. " wythout. 



That day }?e * lady schulde be brent 
The erle wyth the abbot wente 

In monkys wede, ywys; 
To the emperour he knelyd blyve 
That he myght J>at lady schryve; 5 

Angn receyved ' he is. 

He examyned hur wyttyrly, 
As hyt seythe in the st^ry; 

Sche was wythoute gylte. 
Sche seyde, 'Bi hym J>at dyed on tree, 10 

Trespas was nevyr ngne in me 

Wherefore I schulde be spylte, 
Save QQnys, wythoute Ifsynge, 
To the Erie of Tolous I gafe a rynge ; 

Assoyle me if thou wylte. 15 

But }>us my destanye is come' to ende, 
That in }?ys fyre 1 muste be brende; 

There Goddys wylle be fulfyllt*/ 

The erle assoyled hur wyth hys hgnde, 

And syjjen pertely he can upstgnde, 20 

And seyde, ' Lgrdyngys, pf se I 
Ye that have accused ]jys lady gente, 
Ye be worthy to be brente/ 

That QQvi knyght made a r^f s : 
*Thou carle monke, wyth all J)y gynne, 25 

Thowe youre abbot be of hur kynne, 

Hur sorowe schalt thou not c^s; 
Ryght S9 thou woldyst sayne 
Thowe all youre covent had bi hyr layn, 

Sg are ye lythyr and l§§s.' 30 

^ ))at Jje. ^ resceyved. ^ comyn. * fulfyllyt. 


The erle answeryd wyth wordys free, 
* Syr, that 9911 I trowe thou be 

Thys lady accused has. 
Thowe we be men of relygyon. 
Thou schalt do us but rfson 5 

For all the fare thou mas; 
1 prove on hur thou sayst not ryght, 
L9, here my glove wyth J>e to fyght, 

I undyrtake thys case; 
As^ false men, I schall you kenne 10 

In redde fyre for to brenne, 

Therto God gyf me grace/ 

All ]>at st5den in that p^ce, 
Thankyd God of hys grace, 

Wythoute any fayle. 15 

z' \ The two knyghtys were full writhe ; 

^ He schulde be dedd, J>ey swfre grf te 9the, 

But hyt myght not avayle. 
The erle wente there besyde, 
And armyd hym wyth mekyll pryde, 20 

Hys enemyes to- assayle. 
Manly, when they togedur mett, 
They hewe thorow helme and basenet, 

And marryd^ many a mayle. 

They ridyn^ togedur wythout lakk, 25 

That hys 99n sp^re on hym brakk, 

That othyr faylyd th99. 
The erle smgte hym wyth hys sp^re, 
Thorow the body he can hym bf re, 

To grounde can he g99. 30 


* OS. ■ martyred. • redyn. 


That sawe that ojjer^ and faste can flee; 
The erle gvyrtoke hym undur a tre, 

And wroght hym mikylP W99; 
There J>ys traytour can hym jelde'^ 
As* recr|aunt in the felde^ 5 

He myght not fle hym frgg. 

Befgre the emperoure they wente, 
And there he made hym, verrament. 

To telle for the nggnys. 
He seyde, *We thoghte* hur to spylle 10 

For sche wolde. not do owre wylle, 

That worthy is in wgnys**/ 
The erle answeryd hym then, 

* Therfgre, traytours, ye schall brenne 

In thys fyre bgthe at gnys.' 15 

The erle angn them' hente, 
And in the fyre he J>em brente, 

Flfsche, felle, and bggnys. 

When J?ey were brent bgthe twgp, 

The erle prevely can ggg 30 

To that ryche abbaye. 
Wyth joye^ and processyoun 
They fett the lady into the towne, 

Wyth myrthe as* I telle may. 
The emperoure was full gladd; 25 

* Fette me the monke,' angn he badd, 

Why wente he S9 awaye? 
A byschoperyke I wyll hym gyve^, 
My helpe, my love, whyll I lyve'*^, . 

Bi God that owyth thys day/ 30 

1 odyr. 2 mekyll. ' 5ylde. * os. * fylde. « thoght. 

•* wonnys. * hym. * yoye. • geve. '° leve. 



The abbot knelyd on hys knee, 
And seyde, 'Lgrde, ggne is hee 

To hys owne Ignde; 
He dwellyth wyth the PQpe of Rome, 
He wyll be glad of hys come, 5 

I do you to undurstgnde.' 
•Syr abbot V quod the emperoure, 
*T6 me hyt were a dyshonoure, 

Soche wordes I rede thou wgnde ; 
Angne, in haste, that I hym see, lo 

Or thou schalt nevyr have gode of me, 

And therto here myn hgnde.' 

'Lgrde,' he seyde, *sythe hyt is sq9 
Aftur hym ]>at I muste ggg. 

Ye muste make me seurte; 15 

In case he have byn youre fgg, 
Ye schall not do hym ng wgg; 

And then, al sg mote I thee, 
Aftur hym I wyll wend^ 
S9 that ye wyll be hys friend, ao 

If youre wylle bee/ 
* gys,' seyde the emperoure full fayne, 
*A11 my kynne J>ogh he had slayne. 

He is welcome to mee.' 

Then spake the abbot wordy s free, 25 

' Lgrde, I tryste now on thee, 

Ye wyll do as'* ye say*; 
Hyt is Syr Barnard of Tolous, 
A ngbyll knyght and a chyvalrous. 

That hath done thys jumay'/ 30 

* abbot, not in MS. ^ wynde. ' os. * sey. ' jumey. 


*Now certys/ seyde the emperoure, 
*To me hjrt is grft dyshonoure; 

Angn, Syr, 1 the pray, 
Aftur hym }?at thou wendS 
We schall kysse and be gode frend", 5 

Bi God that owyth thys day/ 

The abbot seyde, 'I assente.' 
Aftur the erle angn he wente, 

'And seyde, 'Syr, g9 wyth mee. 
My iQrde and ye, bi Seynt J^hn, 10 

Schull be made bgthe at ggn, 

Goode frendys for to bee.' 
Therof ]?e erle was full fayne. 
The emperoure came hym agayne 

And sayde, 'My frende 59 free, 15 

My wrathe^ here I the forgyve; 
My helpe, my love, whyll 1 lyve, 

Bi hym that dyed on tree/ 

Togedur lovely can they kysse; 

Thereof all men had grfte blysse, 20 

The rgmaunse tellyth S99, 
He made hym steward of hys Ipnde, 
And sfsyd agayne into hys hgnde 

That he had rafte hym fr99. 
The emperoure livyd* but yerys thre; 35 

Be elexion* of the l9rdys free 

The erle toke they th99, 
And* made hym ther emperoure, 
For he was styffe in stoure 

To fyght agayne hys f99. 3° 

* wende. * frende. ' wrath. * levyd. * alexion. 

" they. 
- I 2 



He weddyd }?at lady to hys wyfe ; 

With joye^ and myrthe J>ey ladd J^er lyfe 

Twenty yere and three. 
Betwene )>em had J^ey chyldyr fyftene^ 
Doghty knyghtys all b edene, UV '-^ 

And semely on to see. 
In Rome thys geste cronyclyd is\ 
A lay of Bretayne callyd ywys*, 

And evyr mgre schall bee. 
Jesu' Cryste to hevyn uS brynge, 
There to have owre wonnyng ; 

Amen, amen, for charytee. 

5]::' ... :-"'x. gild of the holy trinity and of 


^ In Jje * name of )>e Fader and Sone and Hgly Ggst, thre 

^ persones, 9 God in Trinite, and in }?e worschipe "^ of oure Lavedy, 

Seynte Marie his dere moder, and of Seynt William jje hgly 15 
innocent and digne marter, and alle halewyn : in )?e yer of oure 
Lord Jegu* Cryst a thousande thre hundred seventy and sexe, 
^eltyers and ofere god men begunne J^is gylde and Jjis bretherhgd 
of Seynt Willyam, \t hQly innocent and marter in Norwyche ; and 
alle Jjis ordenaunces undirwriten ®, al })e bretheren and systeren 20 
schulyn helden and kepen upen here power. 

At ]>e fyrste alle )>e bretheren and systeren thus han behgten, 
)5at )5ey every yer, on )?e Sunday next *° aftyr ]?e ff st of Seynt Peter 

^ yoye. ^ xv» ^ geste ys cronycglyd ywis. * callyd hyt ys. 

* Jhn. * \ appears as y except where printed th, ' worchepe, and always. 
*jhesu. • undirwreten. ^® nexst 


and Powel, in worschipe of J>e Trinite and of oure Lf vedy and 
Seynt William and alle halwen, schullen offeren to floured candelys 
afgrn Seynt Willyams toumbe in J>e mynstre of \>q Trinite, and 
even of hem offeren an halpeny at }?e messe and heren al f)e 
messe. And qwosg be absent, )>anne he schal payen to Seynt 5 
Williams lyhte ^ thre pound of wax ; and it schal ben reysed and 
gadered bi J>e alderman and his felas. Als9 a knave chyld inno- 
cent, schal ^ bf ren a candel }?at day, )3e wyghte of to pound, led 
betwyxen to gode men, tgkenynge of )>e glgryous marten 

AlsQ it is ordeyned Jmt np man schal ben excusyd of absence 10 
at J?at messe, but it be for ]?§ kynges' servise, or* for strpnge 
sekenesse, or * twenty myle dwelljmge frg Jjis cyte ^^ )>at he ne schal 
payen J?e peyne of thre pound of wax. And qwosQ schal ben 
excused for any ojjer sch}'!, it schal ben at J>e aldermannes wyl 
and at ]?e cumpany. 15 

Als9 alle J>e bretheryn and systeryn han ordeyned ® and graunted 
for any ordenaunce ]?at is mad or schal ben mad amgnges hem, 
)?at J3e}[ schal save f>e kynge hys ryhte^ and n9n prejudys don 
ageyn his lawe in jjes ordenaunce. 

Als9 it is ordeyned, ]?at everyche brojjer and syster of jjis gylde, 20 
f rly on morwe aftyr f)e gyldeday, schal heryn a messe of rf quiem 
for alle }?e brelhere soules and systeren soules of J)is gylde, and 
for alle crystene soules, at Seynt Williams auter in J>e mynstre of 
]?e Trynyte in Norwyche, and offeren a ferthynge. And qwosg be 
wane, schal paye a pound of wax. And qwan J>e messe is don, 25 
bi® her aldermannes asent J>ey schal alle togedere gpn to an in, 
and every man }?at haj? any * catelle of J^e gilde leyn it doun ; and 
ordeynen J?er of here lykynge bi^ comoun assent, and chesen 
offyceres for \>q nexte yer. And qw6 fayle schal payen three 
pound of wax. And eyghte ^® men of J>e aldermannes chesynge, 30 
on \>Q gyldeday, schulen chesen an alderman and 16 felas, and 
a somonor for J?e nexte yer. 

^ lythe. ^ schal, not in MS. ' kyngges. * er, as always. * syte. 

• hordejrned. '^ rythe. * be, as always. * ony. '* viii. 


Alsg it is ordeyned, in jje worschipe of jje Trinite and of oure 
Lfvedy Seynt Marie, and of Seynt William and of alle halwyn, 
)?at qwat br5ther or syster bi Goddis sgnde falle in mischefe or 
mysf se, and have nout to helpen hemselfe, he schal han almesse 
of ever! broj^er and syster every woke, lestende his myschefe, a fer- 5 
thynge; of qwyche fcFthynges he schal han fourtene pens*, and 
f)e remenaunt g9n to catelle. But if it be his foly, he schal nout 
\han of }?e almes \ 

Als9 it is ordeyned bi comoun assent, qwosQ be chgsen in 
offys and refuse it, he schal paye to Seynt Wylliams lyhte ' thre 10 
pound of wax, and up peyne of his gthe. 

Als9 if any* brother or syster deye, he schal han of ]?e gylde 
foure torches, and foure pore men cladde, abouten his cors ; ande 
every brother and syster schul ^ offeren at his messe, and heryn al 
Jje messe and byden his enterynge, and at messe offeryn a far- 15 
thynge, and an halpeny jeven to almes for f)e ^ soule ; and ^even 
to a messe a peny, }?e qwyche schal "^ be gaderyd bi f)e alderman 
and hise felas to don for f)e soule and for alle crystene. Alsg if 
any brojjer or syster deye sevene myle fr9 }?e cite, J?e alderman and 
of>er sevene bretheryn at his exequTses schul * wende in fere to }5e 20 
cors, and ordeynen and don for f)e soule as for gn of ]?e bretheren. 

AlsQ it is ordeyned bi comoun assent, ]?at J?ese bretheren, in 
worschipe of fe Holy Trinyte and Seynt William, schul ftyn 
togedere on f>at day at here comoun cost. And qwos9 be 
somouned to don semble or to congregacioun beforn ]?e alder- 25 
man and }?e bretheryn and come nout, he schal paye a pound of 
wax to ]?e lyht^ Als9 it is ordeyned bi comoun assent )>at n9 
brojjer ne syster in f>is gilde schal be reseyvet but b! ]?e alderman 
and twelve bretheryn. 

Als9 it is ordeyned bi comoun assent ]?at f>e comoun belleman 30 
schal g9n thurghe jje cite on fe gildeday after none, and re- 
comandyn al ]?e brethere soules and systeres of J?e gilde bl name, 

* xiiij d. ^ elmes. ' lythe. * ony. ' schul, not in MS. * je. 

^ schal, not in MS. ® exequises schul, not in MS. * lyt 


and alle crystene soules ; and seyn f>at a messe of rf quiem schal 
ben seyd f rly on J?e morwen, bl prime day, in memorie of pe soules 
and alle crystene, and somounyn alle J)e bretheryn and systeryn 
}>at ]>ey ben at ]>e messe at f>e auter of Seynt William at )?at tyme 
of prime, up J>e peyne of thre pound of wax. 



God seyth hymself, as wryten we fynde, 

That whenne pe blynde Ifdeth J>e blynde 

Into f>e dyche J>ey fallen b99. 

For ])ey ne sen whareby to gg. 

S9 faren prestes now by dawe; 10 

They beth blynde in Goddes lawe, 

That whenne pey scholde }»e pepul rede, 

Into synne pey do hem Ifde. 

Thus }?ey have do now fulle jgre, 

And alle is ^ for defawte of Igre ; 15 

Wharefgre, f>ou preste curatoure, 

gef }?ou plf se thy Savyoure, 

5ef thow be not grf te clerk, 

Loke thow moste on thys werk; 

For here thow myjte fynde and' rede 20 

That pQ behoveth to conne nede, 

How thow schalt thy paresche prfche, 

And what J?e nedeth hem to tfche; 

And whyche pou moste J^yself be, 

Here als9 thow my^te hyt se, • 35 

^ Latin title reads, * Propter presbiterum parochialem instruendum/ * ys, 
as often. ' 8c, as often. 


For luytel is worthy }?y prfchynge 
gef thow be of ^vuyle lyvynge. 

Preste, J>yself thow moste be chast, 
And say }?y serves wyJ>owten hast, 
That mowthe and herte acorden i fere, 5 

gef thow wole that God )>e here. 
Of h9nde and mow|?e f>ou moste be trewe, 
And grfte 9)>es thow moste eschewe^; 
In worde and dede }>ou moste be mylde, 
BOthe to mon and to chylde. 10 

Dronkelfc and glotonye, 
Pruyde and slouj^e and envye, 
Alle J>ow moste putten away 
gef J>ow wolt serve God to pay. 
That )5e nedeth, ^te and drynke, 15 

But slf jjy lust for any thynge. 
V Tavernes' als9 thow moste forsake, 

And marchaundyse f>ow schalt not make; 

Wrastelynge and schotynge and suche game' 

Thow myjte not use wythowte blame; 20 

Hawkynge, huntynge, and dawnsynge, 

Thow moste f9rg9 for any thynge. 

Cuttede clothes and pyked schone. 

Thy gode fame \ty wole fordone. 

Marketes and feyres I the forbede, 25 

But hyt be for the mgre nede. 

In honeste clothes thow moste ggn, 

Baselard ne* bawdryke wfre }>ow n9n; 

Bfrde and crowne thow moste be schave, 

gef thow wole thy ordere save. 30 

Of m^te and drynke Jjow moste be fre, 

To pore and ryche by thy degre. 

^ enchewe. " taveraef. ^ maner game. * ny. 


gerne thow moste thy sawtere rede, 

And of the day of dome have drede ; 

And evere do gode ajeynes ele^, 

Or elles thow my3te not Ijrve wele. 

Wymmones serves thow moste forsake, 5 

Of evele fame leste they the make ; 

For wymmenes speche that ben schrewes, 

Turne ofte away gode thewes. 

From nyse japes and rybawdye, 

Thow moste turne away jjyn ye; 10 

Tuynde }?yn ye J>at thow ne se 

The cursede worldes vanyte. 

Thus thys worlde J?ow moste despyse, 

And h9ly vertues have in vyse; 

gef thow do )3us, thow schalt be dere 15 

To alle men that sen and here. 

Thus thow moste als9 prfche^ 
And thy paresche 3erne tfche; 
Whenne gn hath done a synne, 
Loke he lye not l9nge thereynne, 20 

But angn that he hym schryve, 
Be hyt husbande, be hyt wyve, 
Leste he forjet by lentenes day, 
And oute of mynde hyt gg away. 

• • • • • 

Als9 thow moste thy God pay, 25 

Tfche thy paresch })us and say. 
Alle that ben of warde and elde, 
pat cunnen hemself kepe and welde. 
They schulen alle to chyrche come, 
And ben ischryve alle and some, 30 

And be ihoseled wythowte bere 
On asterday alle 1 fere; 

evele. * Subtitle, * Quid et qnomodo predicare debet parochianos suos.' 


In )>at day hj costome, 

ge schule be hoselet alle and some. 

T^che hem )>enne, wyth gode entent, 

To beleve on that sacrament ; 

That J>ey receyve in forme of br^d, 5 

Hyt is Goddes body J>at soffered dfd 

Upon the hgly rodetre, 

To bye owre synnes and make us fre. 

Tfche hem Jicnne, never )?e later, 

pat in J>e chalys is but wyn and vvatej 10 

That J>ey receyveth for to drynke, 

After that hgly hoselynge. 

Therfgre warne hem ]?ow schal 

That ]?ey ne chewe ]?at host^ to smal, 

Leste to smale ]?ey done hyt brfke, 15 

And in here teth hyt do stfke; 

TherefQre )>ey schule wj^h water and wyn 

Clanse here mowf> that nojt Ifve J>erin; 

But tfche hem alle to leve sade*, 

pat hyt )?at is in J)e awter made, 20 

Hyt is verre Goddes blode 

That he schedde on f)e rode. 

get ]?ow moste tfche hem mare, 
pat whenne |?ey doth to chyrche fare, 
penne bydde hem Ifve here mony wordes, 25 

Here ydel speche and nyce hordes, 
And put away alle vanyte, 
And say here paternoster and ave^. 
Ne ngn in chyrche st9nde schal, 
Ne Ifne to pyler, ne to wal, 30 

But fayre on kneus )?ey schule hem sette, 
Knelynge doun upon the flette, 

^ ost. ^ sadde. ' here ave. 


And pray to God wyth heite meke 

To 3eve hem grace and mercy eke. 

Soffere hem to make no bere, 

But ay to be in here prayere; 

And whenne |?e gospelle ired be schalle, 5 

Tfche hem f)enne to stQnde up alle, 

And blesse hem^* fejnre, as )?ey conne, 

Whenne gloria Hhi is bygonne. 

And whenne f>e gospel is idone, 

Tfche hem eft to knele downe sone; 10 

And whenne they here the belle rynge 

To that hgly sakerynge, 

Tfche hem knele downe, bgj^e 3onge and glde, 

And b9f>e here hpndes up to hplde, 

And say |?enne in ]jys manere, 15 

Feyre and softely, wythowte bere; 

*Jesu^, Lgrd, welcome J>ow be, 

In forme of brfd as I J>e se; 

Jesu, for thy hgly name, 

Schelde me today frg synne and schame; 20 

Schryfte and howsele, Lgrd, graunte ^ me b? 

%x that I schale hennes g9, 

And verre contrycyone of my synne, 

That I, Lgrd, never dye thereinne. 

And as f)ow were of a may ibgre, 25 

Sofere me never to be forl9re. 

But whenne |?at I schale hennes wende, 

Grawnte me |?e blysse wythowten ende. Amen.' 

Tfche hem |?us, 9f>er sum ofiere f>ynge. 

To say at the hplj^ sakerynge. 30 

Tfche hem als9, I the pray, 
That whenne J?ey walken in ]je way 

^* hem not in MS. ^ Ihn, as in 1. 19. > ])ou grannte. 


And sene |?e preste agajoi hem comynge, 

Goddes body wyth hym bf rynge, 

Thenne wyth grfte devpcyone, 

Tf che hem )>ere to knele adowne. 

Fayre ne fowle, spare ]?ey noghte 5 

To worschype hym )>at alle hath wroghte. 

For ryjt^ glad may J>at mon be 

pat 9nes in J>e day hym ■ se ; 

For S9 mykyle gode do)) Jjat syjt, — 

As Seynt Austyn tfcheth aryjt, — lo 

pat day )?at ))ow syst Goddes body 

pese benefyces schalt ]?ou have sycurly: 

Mfte and drynke, at thy nede, 

N9n schal )?e )>at day be gnede; 

Idele 9thes and wordes alsQ, 15 

God forjeve)) the b9; 

Soden dfth that ilke' day 

The dar not drede wy]?owte nay; 

Als9 l^at day, I the plyjte, 

pow schalt not lese ]?yn yes}3te, 20 

And every fote J>at )?ou g9st )?enne, 

pat h9ly syjt for to sene, 

pey schule be l9lde to st9nde in stf de 

Whenne thow hast 16 hem nede. 

Als9, wythynne chyrche and seyntwary, 25 

Do ry3t thus, as I the say; 
Sgnge and cry and suche fare, 
For to stynte f>ow schalt not spare; 
Castynge of axtre and eke of st9n, 
Sofere hem )?ere to use ngn ; 30 

Bal and bares and suche play, 
Oute of chyrchejorde put away. 

^ ryjt, not in MS. 2 ^lay hym. ^ ylke. 


Courte h9ldynge, and suche maner chgst, 

Out of seyntwary put }>ow most; 

For Cryst hymself tfchelh us 

pat hgly chyrche is hys hows, 

pat is made for np ]?ynge elles 5 

But for to praye in, as J>e boke telles; 

pere )>e pepulle schale geder withinne, 

To prayen and wepen^ for here synne. 

Tfche hem alsg welle and greythe, 
How )>ey schule paye here teythe. 10 

Of alle l?ynge that doth hem newe, 
They schule teythe welle and trewe ; 
After f)e costome of j?at cuntraye, 
Every mon hys teythynge schale paye, 
Bgthe of smale and of grfte, 15 

Of shep and swyn and oJ>er nf te. 
TeyJ?e of huyre and of hQnde 
Ggth by costome of )?e iQnde. 
I hglde hyt but an ydul }>ynge 
To spf ke myche of teythynge, 20 

For |?a3 a preste be but a fonne, 
Aske hys teyjjynge welle he comae. ^ ii^/V*^ ^ 

Wychecrafte and telynge, v^^ '^ ^ ' - ' ' ' 

Forbede f>ou hem for any ]?ynge; 
For whosQ beleveth in )?e fay 35 

Mote beleve thus by any way, 
That hyt is a sleghjje of f)e del ( 
pat make]? a body to cache el ; '^ 
penne syche belfve he gart hem have, 
pat wychecrafte schale hem save, 30 

S9 wyth charmes^ and wyth tele 
He is ibro3te a^eyn to hele. 
pus wyth ]?e fende he is iblende, 
And hys bylfve is ischende. 

^ to wepen. * chames. 





Man yernes ^ rimes Tor to here, 
And rgmans red on maneres sere: 
Of Alisaundur )?e conquerour, 
Of July Cesar f)e emparour, , 

O Grece and Troy J>e strange^ striif , \^(r<^t'''^ ^5 
pere many thosandjesis , J>er liif; X,iJ^ ^ 
Of Brut, J>at birn bald of hand,- 
. pe firste ' conquerour of Inland ; , N-^ 

O KyBgAnhour ]?at was strike, 
Quannngn m hys tim was like ; "xj 10 

O ferlys f>at hys knyhtes* fell 
pat aunters sere I here of tell, 
Als Wawan, Cai, and of>er stabell 
For to wfre f>e ronde tabell; 

How Charles Kyng and Rauland faght, i^ 

With* Sarazins wald f)ai na saght; 
Of Tristrem and hys leif Ysote, 
How he for here becom a sote; 

* yhemes. - Strang. * first. * knythes« * wit (wyt), as usual. 


O l9neck and of Ysambrase, ^^-^ . * €* 

O Ydoine and of Amadase, ' - /^^:'jrjy ;!,' 

StOris als o sere kin'thinges ^"^^odL' '^ 

O princes, prelates, and o kynges, 

Sanges sere of selcuth rime, - '^ ' ' * 5 

Inglis, Frankys, and Latine ; 

To rede and here ilk gn is prest 

pe thynges f>at f>am likes best. 

pe wis man wil o wisdom here, 

pe foul hym draws ^ to foly nere; ^ ^ 10 

pe wrang to her? o right is lath, y^ ^. ;. 

And pride wyth buxsumnes is wrath; 

O chastite has lichQr l^th, 

On charite ai werrais wrgji; 

Bot be j?e fruit may/Scilwi§)se 15 

O quat vertu is ilk a tre. 

Of al kyn fruit ]>bX man schal fynd 

He fettes frg ]>e rote his kynd ; 

O god^ pf rtre coms gode * pf res, 

Wers tre, wars fruit it bfres. 20 

pat I spfke o j?is ilke tre 
Bytakens man, bgth me and |?e; 
pis fruit bitakens alle oure dedis, 
Bgih gode and ille quj^ rightly redis. 
Ur dedis hg ur hert(^as ^rote, < * ^^ 35 

Quedur' f)ai be worthi bale or bote; 
For be j?e pyng man drawes till 
Men schal him knaw* for god or ill. 
A saumpul her be f>am* I say 
pat rages in Jjare riot ay; 30 

In riot and in rigolSge 
Of all J?ere liif spend f»ai fe stage, 

* draghus. ^ god. ' dur. * kaw. ' Jjaem. 


For now is halden ngn in curs 
Bot qua ]^at luve can paramurSfs^ 
pat foly luve, ]?at vanite^ 
pam likes now nan o)?er gle; 
Hit neys bot fantum for to say p > 5 

) \ Today it is, tomoru away. ^^ '^ jc 

V^ytk chaunce of d§d or chaunge ^ of hert, '^^. 
pat soft began ^ has endyng smart ; 
For wen ]?ow traistest ^ wenis at be, /J-^^^"^^^ 
Frg hir schalt )>6u, or scho frg J>e. lo 

He bat stithest* wenis ^ stand, 
Warre hym, his /all is nexst his hand ; 
Ar he swa brithly don be broght 
Wydur. to wende ne wat he noght, » 
Bytwijfiand his luf haf hym ledd 15 

To sll mede als he forwith bedd * ; . 

For )?an sal mede withouten* mere /-u^^- * ^ 

Be mette for dede or bettur or were. 

For)?! blisce I )?at paramour ^ ' / !" \^\a 

Quen I have nede me dos socure; 20 

pat saves me first in erth* fra syn 
And hevenblys me helps to wyn. 
For )x)f I quilum haf ben untrew, 
Hyr luve is ay ilike^ new; / ^ 

Hir luve scho ® halde& Ifle ilike, ^l 25 

pat swetter es )>an hony o bike/ 
Swilk in erth* es fundun nan, 
For scho es modur and maiden; 
Moder and maiden never )?e lesse 
For)?i of hir tok Crist his flesse. 30 

Qua truly loves l?is lemman, 
pis es f)e love bes never gan ; 

^ chaunce. ^ traistes. ' titthest. * bedd, not in MS. " witoten. 

* berth. ' ilik. " sco. 



For in Jjis love scho failes never, ^ 

And in )?at to)?er scho lastes ever.> 

Of swilk an suld ^e mater ^ take, 

Crafty }>at can rimes make, 

Of hir to mak bath rim and sang 5 

And luve hir swete sun aman g. ^^^ ^^--^v't - '^* 

Quat bote is to sette traveil 

On I>yng ))at may not avail, 

pat es bot fantum o )>is werd^ 

Als je have sene inogh and herd? 10 

Mater fynd je large and brade, 

pof rimes f|le of hir be made ; 

Quasa will of hyr fayrnes' spell, 

Find he sal inogh to tell. 

Of hir godnes and hir treuthede, 15 

Men may fynd evermar to rede ; 

O reuth'*, 6 love, and charite, 

Was never hir mak, ne never sal be. 

Lavedi scho es o Ifvedis all, \ 

Mild and mek withouten gall, 30 

To nedi neghest on to can7 

And raises synful quen ]?ai fall. 

Til al oure bale ai for to bete 

Oure Lauerd has made \>2X maiden swete*; 

parbi man mai hir helping kenn, 25 

Scho praies** ai for sinful menn; 

Qua menskes hir, \>dX mai be bald; ' 

Scho sal ]?am ^eld a hundrethfald. 

In hir wirschip wald 1 bigyn 
A lastand ware apon to myn, 30 

For to do man knaw hir kyn 
pat us* sell wirschip cum to wyn. 

^ mater, dim in MS. * warld. ^ hy fames. ' * reut. * snette. 

* prais. • bus. 





Sumkins jestes for t5 scaw, 

pat done were in J>e aide* law, 

Bitwix )>e aid lagc^d )>e new 

How Cristes^brith 5>igan to brew, y 

I sal yow schew-wfm myn entent 

Brefli of ai^ere testament. 
I Al f>is werld, qt \\% bok blin, 

With Cristes help I sal 9v€rrin, 

And tell sum gestes principale, ^ 
j For alle may na man have m tale*, lo 

I Bot forf)i )?at na were may stand 

Withouten grQndwall to be lastand, 

parfgr bis were sal I fund ^ 

Apon a selcuth stedfast grund, 
1 pat es )>e haly trinite 15 

\^ pat all has wroght with his beute. 

At him self first I sette ml mere, 

And sithen to tell his handewerc*; 

O ]?e angels first }?at fell, 

And sithen I will of Adam tell, ao 

Of hys oxspring, and of N5e, 

And sumquat of his sunes ** thre; 

Of Abraham and of Ysaac 

pat haly ware withouten make. 

Sythen sal I telle* yow 25 

Of Jacob and of EsaQ ; 

par neist sal be sythen tald 

How )>at Joseph was boght and said; 

O ))e Juus and Moyses 

pat Goddis folk to Ifde him chfs, 30 

How God bigan )>e law hym gyfe, 

pe quilk the Juus in suld life; 

* hald. ' Crist. ' talle. * hand were ** sunus. • tell. 


O Saul J>e kyng and o Dlviy^ 

How J>at he faght again GoK ; 

Sithen o Salam5n j^e wis, 

How craftilik he did justis ; 

How Crist com thoro prophecl, dxJ^ 5 

How h5 com his folk to bii. .1 . '* -^ ' / 

And hit sal be. redd yuuj^^^ ? %V<\ \ 

O^gachim and of Sant Anne*, ^ 

O MSre als, hir doghter mild, 

How scho^ was born and bare a child; 10 

How he was bom and quen and w5re, 

How scho him to J>6 temple bar; 

O ))e kynges })at him soght, 

pat thre presandes til him brogbt; ^ ^ ^ J 

How J>at Herode kyng, with ^^[^ ^ 15 

For CrTstes' sak J>e childer slogh; 

How )?e child to Egypte fled 

And how J>at he was the))en ledd. * 

par sal ^e find sumkyn dedis 

Pat Jesus'* did in hys barnhedis; 30 

Sithen o J>e Baptist Jghan 

pat Jesu* baptist in flum Jordan; 

How Jesus, quen he lang had fast, 

Was fgndid with }>ewikke** gast,*" 

Sif>en o Jgnes*^ baptisyng, 25 

And how him hefdid Herod ^yng; 

How ))at Jesu Crist him selve 

Chfs til him apostels twelve, 

And 9penlik bigan to preche 

And alle ]?at sek ware to leche, 30 

And did ))e meracles sua riif 

pat ]?e Juus him hild in striif; 

^ sant tanne. ' sco, as in 1. 1 a. ' crist '* Ih's, as ntoaU * Ihn. 

*• wik. ' Ions. 

K 2 


Sy)?en how ]?at haly Drightin 

Turned watur into wyn*. 

O five thossand men ]?at he 

Fedd wyth five laves and fisses thre. 

Of a man sal ^e sithen find 5 

pat he gave sight, and born was blind; 

O ))e* spousebrfk womman 

pat )>e luus dempt to ^J^irps " 

How he hf led §n al <^fere ^' 

pat seke was ihritte and aght yeir; 10 

How ))e Magdalen with grete _ 

Com for to was our Lgrdefifete, 

Of hir and Martha J)at was fus V 

Abote )?e nedes of ]?are hus; 

O Lazar dfd, laid under lam, 15 

How Jesus raised his licam; 

HoW Juus Jesu oft umsetje 

And for his sermonCthralljhrette; .^ 

How ]?ai sched his bHsced blode* 

And pined him opon j)e rode. ao 

With Crlstes ^ will }>an sal I telle V 

How he sijjen hared hell^^t — ^n ^ ^> -^ < 

How Juus with )>er grf t (unschill^ . ^v 

Wend his uprisyng to <^;' ,>^*Ur5 ^^ ' \^i 

How he uprais, how he ups^ey, 5^-^^ ' ^5 

Many man onstad and ^y^J\ — — Y* 

How he f>at 6 mygnt es mast '\ 

Send intill erth his haly gast ; '^.^ 

O twelve apostlis sumkyn gest, 

Bot how J>ai endid at J>e lest^^ ^'''^ — j — " 30 

How our Lfvedl endid and jgld ' v • ^, a 

Hir sely saul, hit sal be laid: 

* vyn. ^ >e, not in Cotton, but in all other MSS. ^ crist. 



O J?e hall croice, how it was kj^d 7 

Lang efterward ]jat it was hid; 

Of Antecrist com, ]jat sal be kene. 

And o J>e dreri days fiveten 

pat sal cum forwith domesday. 5 

Sythen of )?e dome yow sal I say, 

pan of oure Lfvedi murnand mode 

For hir sune scho sagh on rode. 

pe laste rf sun of all ]?is ron^ W> 

Sal be of hir concepci5n. 10 

pis are the maters redde on raw 
pat I thynk in j?is bok to draw, 
Schortly rimand on J?e dede ^ . 

For mani er ]jai herof to spede^ <\ ^ ' J 

Notful me thine it ware to man 15 

To knaw himself how he began; 
How he ^ began in werld to brfde, 
How his oxspring began to sprfde; 
Bath o ]>e first and 5 ]>e last 
In quatkin curs )?is werld es past. 20 

Efter haly kyrces^ state 
pis ilke bok it es^ translate, , 
Into Inglis tongto rede \ ^ V 
For ])e love of Inglis lede, v *- <. 
Inglis lede of Ingeland*, 25 

For ]3e commun at understand. 

Frankis rimes here 1 redd 
Comunlik in ilk a sted*^; 
Mast es it wroght for Frankis man, 
Quat is for him na Frankis can? 30 

Of Ingeland * "pe nacion, 
£s Inglis man ]?ar in commun; 

1 he, not in MS. » kyrc. » ilk bok is es. * Ingland. » ilk sted. 




pe speche ]>at man with mast may spede, 

Mast }»rwith to spfke war nede. "^ j^^ 

Selden was for ani chance Cw'i 

^ Praised Inglis tong in France; ^ 

Give we ilk an J^re langage, / -^ "^ 

Me think we do Mm ngn outrage. ..1 

To lauid I ngHs^ man I spell • * 

pat understandes ))at I tejl, \ . ^ \ 

; And to f99 spf ke I al)>ermast ^^ V ^ 
-^ pat won in miwarces to wastl^ ^^ ,./ lo 

pair liit in trofel and truandls, ^i; ,.;^" 
^_Ip be ware with ]?at self and wis ' 

Silmquat unto ))at thing to tent, " ' 

pat al ]7ar mode might with amend. 

Ful il ha )?ai f>at spending spend, . ^ 15 

pat findes na frute * J^arof at end. \ 
( SlI word and were sum we til heild, 

,.^ Traigtll acountes' sal we yeild; 

parfgr do draw ]?am hiderward 

pat o ]?e pardon will ha part; ao 

To here and hald sal hS pardon 

O plight with Cristes* benisun. 

Now o J)is pr9loug wil we blin^ 

In Cristes* nam our bok begin; 

Cursur o Werld man aght it call, 25 

For almast it gverrennes all. 

Tak we our biginning })an 

Of him \>2X al ))is werld bigan. 

laud and Inglis. * fro. ' armites, but meaningless. 

* crist. » b. 



Saint Andrew, Cristis apostil dere, j ^ ^ 

Whils he went in )?is werld here, > VC"- 'l^-^W / '" "' ^ 

Ful j^^fe'U^ folk in sere cuntre .- *• '^ > 

To cristen trouth convertid h|.; ^ . 

And at }>e last, sgjTSSl ( -^^^^ -^ ^ \ - ^ J 5 

In a cete whpre he gun dwell. 

A domesman in )?at cete was, 
And his name was cald Egeas; 
A man J^at lifed in maumetry 
And in fals goddes, ful of envy. 10 

He gedemTSgedir bglh b9nd and^ fre, \\' 
Riche and pover of ilk cuntre, 
And bad Jai^suld mak^sacrafise 
Unto his goddes of mekil prise; \ ( 

And whosg wold noght ofrand make, t- » - 15 

Grf te vengeance wold he on ]?am take, . 

pe folk ful fast J>an J?eder soght y. 4 ' j 

And to f>9 w arlaus wirschip wroght. ^v^^^"* V <i^^ ^' 

And sone when Saint Andrew herd tell 
Of J)at foul fare how it bifell, 20 

pedir fill playnli gun he pas, 
And ))us sayd* unto Egeas: 
*Sen ))0u covaytes J?at folk J>e ken 
Als domesman gver al 6J?er men, 
pan suld ]70u knaw in dede and stevyn 25 

pi domesman, J>at es God in hevyn, 
pat sal }?e deme efler J?i dgde. 
Him for to knaw now war it nede; 

^ &, as often. ^ he sayd. 

ill- _ >o- 


He es f>I God and gver all mightij I j^^^sA 
And all 6))er er fals maymgtrif ^>*^ ' yj 
Him for to honure evermgre ]?e awe CjL/f i^d'''^ 

And verraily for )>I God him knawe, / 

And draw \>\ hert frg devils oway, 5 

pat Ifdis to pine J>at lastes ay/ 
Egeas )>an answerd ogayne : 
^pir ^wurdes/ he sayd, 'er all in vayne, 
And ngthing suth ]70u tels me till 
^*'"' pat may I prove by propir skill; 10 

For, whils jowre God ]?at ^e on call 
^ Prechid Jje pople in erth gverall, 
' ^ .sftrV^^^ tfchid His men \>2X with him dweld 
'til ^^ * 1'^^ prfche ]?e same J?at ]?ou here teld, 
^/ * * ) jOmang J?e Jews* here tane was he 15 

^' And nayled and hanged high on tre; 
And had he bene God, als )?ou says, 
It had noght bene s§, by ng ways, 
parfpre I say, \>ix wurdes er vayne/ 

Saint Andrew ))an answerd ogayne: 20 

'And }>ou kouth klerely knaw and se 
pe vertu of J)at ilk haly tre 
pat named es J)e cros in land, 
pan wald ]70u wit and understand 
How Jesu^ Crist, my may stir fre, 35 

Bl rfsonable caus of charite, 
And for pete J)at he had in mynde 
Of ])e grf te meschevys of mankynde, 
Payn of J>e cros he put' him till, 
Noght mawgre his, bot with his will/ 30 

Egeas ]?an unto )7is thing c 

Answerd als in grfte hf thing; 

' lews. ' Ihn, as usual. ^ putted. 





He sayd, 'How may }jou say ^ sawes? 

Sen }jat J?iself J)e suth wele knawes ? 

At pe first time bitrayd was he, 

And thurgh ane of his awin mfnje, 

And sethin takin with Jewes^ kene, 5 

And bunden and led furth )?am bitwene 

To Cayfas hall pe graythest gate, 

And frg )?ej?in unto Sir Pilate ; 

pgre was he demid on cros to hang, 

Als J?e Jews ordaned ^ f)am omang. 10 

Maugre his }?ai gun him spill, — 

How proves f>ou J?an it was his will?' 

Saynt Andrew says, *His will it was, 
pat may I prove wele gr I pas; 
Of his mfn3e miself was ane' •' 15 

In J?e same time when he was tane *, i • ^ 
And bifgr J?e time he was bitrayd 
Unto us all samyn f>us he sayd. 
How he suld for mans syns be said*. 
And suffer paynes ful manyfalde* 20 

And dy on }?e cros right als }?ou tels. 
For hfle of mans sauls and for noght'^ els. 
And on ]>e thrid day ful right uprise, 
pir wurdes he tglde us on f>is wise; 
parfpre I tell Ipe in f>is stfde, 25 

pat with his will he sufferd dfde.' 

Egeas J?an thoght grf te dispite. 
And to Saint Andrew said he tite : 
*pou haves Ifrd* of a symple skole, 
pi prfching pr5ves Jjiself a fole; 30 

For, whethir it war his will or ngne, 
pou grauntes pat he on cros was done, 

lews. * ordand ^ one. * tone. * sold. • manyfolde. 

"^ nght. * lend. 



And hangid he was als I said are; 

And jjarf9re Ifve J?at l urfiap s lare ^ 4, ^ : . ^ ^'r^^ 

And unto my goddes offrand make. 

Or els 1 sail for l>i God sake ^^^'' ; 

Ger hang J>e right on swilk a tre 5 

Als pGu sais suld S9 honorde be. 

For fouler df de may ng man have, { ,^ 

parfgre on )>e I vouche it .save/ ' ; '^' 

Saint Andrew J?an, withouten ire, 
Said, 'Sertis )>at es my mpste desire. 10 

I wold be wurthi for his sake 
Opon a cros mf dfde to take; 
parto ever sal I rfdi be 
For any payn J>ou may do me/ 

Egeas J)an, with grfte envy, 15 

Sent efter al his tUQpentry, 
And bad )>am smertly j^am om^ng 
Ordan a cros him for to hang, 
And fest jjarto bgth hend and fete 
pat n$ne of ]7am with olper mete. 30 

'Festes him with ngne nayles, 1 rede, 
To ger him hastili be 59 df de, 
Bot bindes him to with rapes Strang 
S9 })at he may be pyned lang/- -v"^^ \ ^V 

To d5 his biding war Jjai bayne; ^ . ,<* \*2s 
A cros J5ai made with al J^aire maine, ^^f»* ^ j^ 
And handes on him J)an fast }>ai fest^>^ \ x* 
To do him payne J)ai war ful prest.: <y^ 
pal led him thurgh j^at cete i 

To J)e stfde whare he suld^ hansret / be. 30 

And al })e folk paX dweld obout' 
Gedird togyder in ful grf te rout, , 


^ he, not in MS. ' ysae obont. 


And al ]7Us said.])ai ]?am omang: 

'Alias, J?is wirking es al wi^g; 

What has ]>is tightwis man done ill 

pat ^e on ]>is wise will him spill? 

pis nQbill man ]>at never did mis 5 

Fill saklfs suffers he all )>is; 

Ful sakl|s bese he done on rode, 4^'*-< ' 

And saklfs sail men spill his blode, *"^ ' 

For he has ever bene blith and glad a v^^ j A > 

To mend al men fat mister had.' ^'^^^^IJ^ 10 

Saint Andrew J)an J>e puple praid, . ^/ ' ^\ 

And al ]>us unto )>am he sayd: 
*Wendis ogayn, all I 50W pray, 
And lettes me noght of joy ^ J>is day; 
Desturbes noght now mi passioun, 15 

For unto blis it makes me boun/ 
And sone when Saint Andrew bihelde 
pe cros bif9r him in be felde. 
Unto God made he his prayere, 
And unto Jje cros on J>is manere 30 

He cried and sayd with ful high voice: 
* Hayl be J>ou, half and blisced croyce, 
pat haloud es and glgrifide^ 
With Cristes membris on ilk a side; 
And honourd es }>ou with his banes 25 

Wele better ]?an with precius stanes. 
With joyful * hert 1 cum to J>e, 
S9 Jjat fou gladli resayve me, 
Disciple of him withouten pere 
pat hanged on ])e, mi mayster dere. 30 

Now es )>ou rfdi me on to hang, 
pat I in hert have covajt lang; 

* ioy. ' ever glorifide. • ioyfiil. 



1 have ]>e lufde with hert and will, 

And coyayted ever to cum J>e till/ 

Bifgr )>e cros }>an knelid he doune^ 

And pus he made his orisoune : 

'A, ngbil cros of grfte bounte, 5 

Fr9 erthli men resayve now me, 

And jelde me to my maister gode^ 

Sg f>at he may, with milde^* mode, Aj* 

By pe resayve me, J>at he wifigfetj^^/^^ 

Als he thurgh }>e frg bale me boght; 10 

No better bedej t have to byd.' pN^'V 

His 9vermast clpthes jjan of he did ; 

To pe turmentours he gun J>am bede, * 

And bad J)ai suld do furth jjaire dede. V-^j, 

pe turmentours, when Hj^w«r«^de, ; "^ " 15 
Toke his bodi with bitte r bra^rdej ) f\r 
Unto be cros bai gun it Dendr^"'''^ < 

And festid ful fast bpthe fete and hend; ^ ' 
And all his bodi ful fast p2d l^nd 
Als Egeas had J^am comand. ) . ^^ 

When he was bunden S9 on brede, * Tv/^"^ 

pai lete him hing and hgme )?ai 3ede. w^ 
Folk gederd ful faste^ him obout, '^j 

Of al J?at cuntre in grf te rout ; 
He held his eghen up unto hevin, 25 

And Jjus he sayd with joyful stevin: 
*I se mi Lgrd God Alweldand', 
And in his sight now here I stand.' 
Opon J>e cros ]>gxe quik he hang V ►" " 
Two days, prfchand J)e puple omang; 30 

pat was ful lang swilk payn to fele, 
Bot with Crist was he confort wele. 

^ gude. ^ *• mild. ^ fast. ^ god and alweldand. 


TwentT thousand folk war }?are^ 

To here him prfche, with hertes sare ^. 

When ]?e first day till end was went, 

Al J3at puple by pne assent ^ ^ji^yi c^LI^^sa,,^^^^-^ 

Til Egeas hous'^ fast ]?ai ryn, "'K "5 «^ ^vi> 

And said a^<3uik J>ai .suld him brin, f -, 

Bot if ha(^y^erf tak him doune (•/ - ' ^ * ' t , 

pat hangeowas ogajois rfsoune. 

*He es a rightwis man/ J>ai say, 

*And wele has done bgth night and day; 10 

A gude tfcher ever has he bene, 

And m9re suthfast was never sene, 

And swilk a man, sir, for sertayne 

Suld noght suffer 59 hard payne; 

parfgre, bot he be tane doun s5ne, 15 

In fvil tyme J>at dede was done/ 

Egeas dred }?e puple wrake. 
And doun he hight him for to take; -^ ') 
And furth he went with Jjam in hi,^^^^^-'*^^^ t- 
BQth he and al hys turmentri. ..^/^^ . -''', ,/ 20 
pe folk thrang efter al on a/wumj)- 
And when Saint Andrew savFj^amcum, _ 

Of J>aire cumyng he was noght paid, '^ ^sr^^*^ 

And unto Egeas }>us he sayd: 

* Wharto cums j?ou unto me, 25 

Bot }jou wald trow in Jesu fre, 

And Ifve ]>i maumetes mgre and les 

And pray to Jesu of forgifnes ? 

If }jou will noght on J)is wise d5, 

Ryn fast gr vengeance cum f>e to. 

pou gettes ng force ne ng fuysoune • 

To negh my bodi ne tak it doune ; 

^ Jjore. ' sore. ' hows. 


Ml Lgrd will len to me jjat lane ^ \^ 

pat quik sail 1 noght doun be tane/ -^vjAx V^^ 
y pan tunnenturs, with fgir mode rlXj^\ mJ^ 
yr . Went to him, als )>ai war wode. y\ ' ^ /X^ ' Ji 
s^ ^airugget a t him wit h ful^ gte bfr^ ^i \ \ \L - 5 


£ot nothing might ]>ai of him stir^; ' 


paire armes and handes sone in lu • '♦'^ 

Als ]>ai war herdes, wex J>ai dri ; ^ '" 

Als })ai kest up ]>aire armes him till, 

Als dry stykkes ]?an stode J^ai still. 10 

Saint Andrew ]>an made his prayere 
To mighty God on J)is manere. 
He said, * LQrd, if it be )>i will. 
In ]7is stfde let me hing still, 
pat ngne have power me to fell 15 

Doun of ]jis cros J)at 1 on dwell, 
Unto J>at tyme Jnself vouche save 
To J)e blis of hevin me for to have; 
£ot lat me hing still als I do, 
Til tyme ]>ou tak ml saul J>e to/ ao 

When ]>is was said, ]7ar come a light 
Doun frg )>e hevyn with bf mis bright. 
And umbilappid his bodi about. 
pe folk })arf9re had mekil dout; 
pai might noght luke for mekil light ^^ 25 

Unto his bodI, S9 was it bright. \ . ' 
And als J>e light was al^irmaste, >^ c J^^ 
To God in hevyn he gaf fe gSste. -^"^ 

Egeas was ful dredand ]?an, 
And for ferde fast hgme he ran; 30 

Bot in ]je way, qx he come hame, 
He sufferd dfd with mekeP schame. 

^ of stir. * mykel. 


S9 Sudan (mjtojJ^ jm to him sent, x^^ ^ ~ 

Als wurthT was, to wq he went. 

Saint Andrew saul with angell stevyn, 

And with J>at light was lift ' to hevyn 

Wh^re he lendes in ay lastand blis; 5 

Alweldand God J>eder us wis. 

Egeas had a wurthli wife 
pat lufed Saint Andrew in his life; 
For him scho ordand a monument. 
And berid his bodi with trew entent. 10 

And of his grave, als men might s^, 
Sprang up pvle ful fayre plente 
pat medcyn was to m9re and les, 
pat ]?eder soght for siie sekenes. 
And by }jat oyl, als says J>e boke^, 25 

Al paX cuntre ensaumple toke; 
For, when it sprang on sides sere, 
pan hgpid J>ai for to have gude jere 
Of com and fruyt and oJ)er thing ; 
And when }>ai saw it skarsll spring, 20 

pan hgpid J^ai to have skant of corn. 
And of fruyt, als 1 sayd biforn. 


I. On the Nature of the Bee. 
The bee has thr&vfyndis. Ane es }>at^ scho es never ydill, and 

scho es noghte with thaym J>at will noghte wyrke, bot castys 
thaym owte and puttes tha3an awaye. Anothire es }>at, when scho 25 
flyes, scho takes erthe in hyr fete* fat scho be noghte lyghtly 
9verheghede in the ayere of wynde. The thyrde es that scho 

P^ ^' '^ Vlifted. « biike. ' J), as often. * fette. 


kepesSj}fn and bryghte hire wynges. Thus, ryghtwyse men fat 

lufes God are never in ydillnes : for * owthire J)ay ere in travayle, 

prayand or thynkande or redande or othere gude doande, or 

withtakaod-^ ydill mene, and schewand thaym worthy to be put 

fra J)e rj^ste of hevene for thay will noghte travayle here, pay 5 

take erthe, ]?at es ))ay halde ))amselfe vile and erthely that thay be 

^ K noghte blawene with J>e wynde of vanyte and of pryde. Thay kepe 

^ ythaire wynges elf ne ; that es, })e twa commandementes of charyte 

\^, }>ay fulfill in gud concyens, and thay hafe othyr vertus unblendyde 

- ., / with Jje fylthe of syne and unclfne luste. Aristotill sais )?at J)e bees 10 

;^ / are feghtande agaynes hym }?at will drawe^ 

V / swa sulde we do agaynes devells J>at _ 

j\ ^fra us t>e hony o f povre lyfe and ofj[race. For many are J^at never 
' kaiiehildeTlC'b??5rtr^^ 

^. ede, bot duthire })ay lufe }?aym gvermekill or thay lufe ]>am Qverlyttill, 15 

^ settand thaire thoghte unryghtwysely on thaym, or fay lufe thaym 

9verlyttill yf fay doo noghte all as J>ey wolde till fame. Swylke 

kan^ noghte fyghte for thaire honv, Jbrthy f e develle turnes it to 

* i. ' .wormes, and makes beire saules otteBythes full bitter in angwys 

and tene, and b esjhes of vayne thoghtes and ofer wrechidnes ; 20 

"^, for thay are SQ hevy in erthely frenchype fat fay may noghte flee 

intill fe lufe of Jesu * Crfste, in f e wyike fay moghte well forgaa 

>v f e lufe of all erf aturs lyfande in erthe. Wharef^re, accordandly, 

^ Arystotill sais fat some fowheles are of gude flyghyng, fat passes 

^ ' fra a land to anothire. Some are of ill flyghynge for hevynes of 25 

body and for f aire neste es noghte ferre fra fe erthe. Thus es it 

^ ^ of thaym fat tuqie? f am to Codes servys. Some 5re of gude 

: flyghynge for thay flye fra erthe to hevene, and rystes thaym th5re 

x^ ** in thoghte, and are fedde in dellte of Goddes lufe and has thoghte 

"^., -. of na lufe of fe worlde. Some are fat kan noghte flye fra Jns 30 

* C ^ lande, bot in f e waye late theyre herte ryste, and (klytes * f aym in 

X? * H^ere lufes of mene and womene, als fay come and gaa, nowe ane 

* flf for cap f, as occasionally. * wttakand ; wt, as often for with. 

' in, not in MS. ^ Ihu, as always. ' dalyttet. 

t. >l 


\, ( '^^ y^A RICHARD ROLLE ^ I45 

V^and nowe anothire. And in Jesu Criste ]>ay kan fynde na swettnes ; 
>^or if J>ay any tyme^fete oghte it es swa lyttill and swa schorte, for ,V 

- athire thoghtes J?a^ are in thaym, Jjat it brjniges thaym till n5 
^'-^ stabylnes . Or bay are- lyke till a fo^le )>at es callede strucyo, or 
^ storke7fartetSw^i^l& aii3 it may noghte flye for charge of body. 5 
S^^ ]?ay hafe imdirstandynge, and fastes and wakes and semes 
haly ib mens syghte, bot thay may noghte flye to lufe and con- 
templacyone of God, J>ay are sq chargede wyth othyre aflfeccyons 
and othire vanytes. 


Drawene by Richerde the Hermyte off Hampull. ; 


4 > 

The fyrste comandement es, 'Thy Lgrde God I)ou^ sail loute if^-^ 
and til hym Snely J>ou sail serve.' In this comandement es^^for- }T ' ; 
bgden all mawmetryse, all wychecrafte and charemynge, the wylke x^^^ 
may do na remedy till any seknes of mane, woman, or bf ste, for 
f>ay erre be snarrys of ]?e develle by fe whilke he anorces hym to O' 
dysSiyve manekynde. Alswa in ]>is comandement Fs fofbgdyn to 15 
%y^Q trouthe till sorcerye or till dyvynynges^ by sternys, or by 
drfmys, or by any swylke thynges. AstreJ|[5myenes byhaldes J>e 
daye and fe houre and \^ po ff te ^^ j^manes borne in, and undir 
whylke'sygne' he es bome7ancl pe poynte jjat he begynneftto be 
in, and by J>ire sygnes* and ofer fay saye }>at that* sail befall ]>e ao 
man aftyrwarde ; bot theyre errowre es reprofFede of haly doctours. 
Haly crosses nien sail lowte for thay 5re in sygne ' of Cryst^^ 
cmcyfiede. To ymages ** es f)e lovynge J^atifes till thaym of whaym 
J>ai* are )5e ymages; for ]?at entent anely"pai* are for to lowte. 
The tothire comandement es, ' pou sail noghte take J)e name ^5 
of God in vayne.' Here es forbgdene athe withowttene cnjsdn. 
He )5at iift ^ene s God and swf ris fals, disposes ^ God. In thre r^ 
maners mane may syne in swf rynge ; that es, if he swf re agayne 

* J>. * dyvynyngej. ^ syngne. * syngnes. * J)ay say that ; 

xcpetition of preceding. ' ])air€. ** ymage;. '' despyse. 



his concyence, or ifvh|.swfre be Cryste wondes or blude, that es 
evermare grft syne^^lft it be sothe that he swfris, for it sounes in 
irreverence ^ of Jesu Cryste. Alsg, if he com agaynes his- athe, 
noght fulfilland fat he has sworne. The nam of God es takyn in 
vayne one many maners,— with herte, with mouthe, with werke. 5 
With herte takes false crystyn mene it in vayne, f>at rescheyves j^e 
sacrement withowttene grace in sawle. With mouthe "es it tane 
m vayne with all athes brf kynge ; of new prf chynge fat es vanyte 
and undevQcyone ; prayere when we honour God with oure lippes 
and oure hertys erre ferre fra hym. With werke ypocrittes takes 10 
Goddes nam in vayne, for they feyne gud dede withowttene, and 
bey erre withowtten charyte and vertue and force of sawle to 
Stand agayne dl ill st wynges. The thirde comandement es, * Um- 

bethynke the fat thou halowe f 1 halydaye.' This comandement 
may be takyn in thre maneres: firste^ generally, fat we sesse of 15 
all vyces ; sithen, special!, fat we sesse of alle bodilT werkis ^ fat 
lettys devgcyone to God in prayenge and thynkynge ; the thyrde 
es specyall, als in contemplaytyfe ijien fat departis f aym fra all 
werdly thynges swa fat fey haly ^'gffe f aym till God. The fyrste 
manere es nedfull us to do, the tothirc we awe to do, the thirde 20 
es perfeccyone ; forth!, one f e halydaye men awe, als God byddys, 
to If fe all syne and do na werke fat lettis thaym to gyffe f aire 
herte to Godd, thatt fay halowe f e daye in ryst and devgcyone 
and dedys of charyte. 

The ferthe comandement es, ' Honoure thy fadyre and f 1 m6d3Te.' 25 
That es, in twa thynges, fat es bodyly and gastely: bodyly, in 
sustenance, fat fay be helpede and sustaynede in f aire elde, and 
when fay are unmyghtty of fay mese lfe ; gastely, in reverence and 
bouxomnes fat fay say to fam n5 wordes of my^we, ne un- 
r honeste, ne of displf sance unavysedly, bot serve fame mekely 30 
and gladly and lawlyly fat fay may wyne fat Godde hyghte to 
swylke barnes, fat es, lande of lyghte. And if fay be dfde, f aym 

* irrevence. * ffirste. ' * sithen . . . werkis,* from Arundel MS. 

507. * hally. 


awe to helpe J^aire sawles with almousdedes and prayers. The 
fifte comandement es, J>at * Thou slaa na man, nowthire with 
assgjite, ne with worde or favour/ And alsg here es forbgden 
unryghtwyse hurtynge of any persone. Thay are slaf rs gastely 
\>2X will noghte feede J?e pover in nede, and j?at defames men, 5 
and J?at confoundes innocentys. The sexte commandement es, 
' Thou sail be na lichoure/ pat es, thou sail have na man or 
womane bot ]?at J?ou has taken in fourme of haly kyrke. .Alswa 
here es forbgdene all maner of wilfull poUusyone, procurede one 
any maner agaynes kyndly og or 6]?er gates. -^^^^ ^* . 10 

The sevende comandement es, ' Thou sail noghte do na thyfte/ 
In }3e whylke es forbgden all manere of withdraweynge of 6J>er 
men thynges wrangwysely agaynes f>aire wyll fat aghte it, bot 
if it were in tyme of maste nede w-hen all thynges erre comone. 
Als9 here es forbgdene gjUSy^f weghte or of tale, or of mett 15 
or of mfsure, or thorow 9]ijre or violence or drede, als bfd^sHrtr^'> 
and foresters duse, and mynystyrs of J>e kynge, or thurghe ex- \Qxits (iuse. The aughtene commandement es, that b*^^ 
* Thou sail noghte bfre false wyttnes agaynes thi neghteboure,' >' 
als in assys or cause of matremoyne. And alsp lyenges ere for- 20 
bgden in J?is commandement, and forswfrynge. Bot all lyenges 
are noght dfdly syn, bot if fay Qgve till som man bodyly or '**'^^ 
gastely. The nynde commandement es, ' Thou sail noghte covayte 
J>e hous or ofer thynge, mpbill or immgbill, of J>i neghtbour with 
wrange.' Ne f ou sail noghte hald 5fer mens gude if fou may 25 
^elde thaym, ellis fl penance saves J>e noghte. The tend comande- 
ment es, * Thou sail noghte covayte fi neghtebours wyefe, ne his 
servande, ne .his mayden, ne mQbylls of his.' He lufes God fat 
kepis thire commandements for lufe. His neghtebour hym awe 
to lufe als hymselfe, fat es, till f e same gude fat he lufes hym- 30 
selfcv to, na thynge till ill ; and fat he lufe his neghtbour saule 
mare fan his body, or any gudes ^ of f e worlde. 

Xs 2 

K. ^ 




Today Sain Louk telles us, 

In our godspel, J>at Jesus 

Spac of J>ing Jjat es to com,"" • 

And namelic of Jje dai of dom. ' 

Takning he saide^ sal be don * 5 

Bathe in Jje son and in ]?e mon, ,^, ,^<^ 

And in be stemes al biden : , ^ ' " ^' 

And folc sal \>9\ wandi^J) and ten, ^^ 

For fol^^al ^win ^ for din of se ^K^ 

And for baret J>at J?an sal be. 10 

Qver al bis werd bes rfdnes, '" 

Wandrfj? and uglines, 

For mihtl gastes of }?e hevin 

Sal be afrayed of f)at stevin; 

pan sal Crist cum J)at men may se . 15 

In maistri and in grft pgugte. \^ 

Quen fis bigines for to be, 

Lokes up and ye may se 

pat your gjng and your pris \J^^JX^ 



Ful ner cumen tilward you es. 
Himself our biing he es^ calde, 
For he boht us quen he was salde. 

Quen Crist havid said J)is grimli sau, 
An ensampel gan he schau, 

And said, 'Quen ye se Iffes spring, 25 

And ]nr tres froit forfe bring, 

^ said. ^ duin. ^ es, not in MS. 


pan wat ^e* wel f>at somer esner; 

Als may ye wit on J>at maner, 

Quen ye se J>ir takeninges in land, 

pat Crist es ful ner cumand. 

For hevin and erj>e sal passe ^ )?ar, 5 

Bot my word passes never mar*; — 

Als^^^^i, J>ing J>at 1 you telle 

Ne mai na miht fordo ne felle. — 

* Quen J>is werld ]?at I mad of noht 

Sal be gane and til end broht, 10 

pan sal mi word be sof>efast, 

For mi kinric sal ever last.' 

pis es f>e strenj)e of our godspel, 

Als man wij>' Inglis tung may teL 

pe maister on J>is godspel prfches, 15 

And sais )>at Crist ]>arin us -tfches 
For to forsak J>is werdes ^^gorieV'''' 
Ful of wrechedhf d and sinne ; 
For Crist sais us hou it sal end, 
And warnes us ful fair als frend. ao 

He telles us takeninges snelle, 
par he biginnes his godspelle, 
And sais, 'Kinric sal rohly rise 
Igain kinric and ger men grise, ' ** 
For bale sal ger J>ir bernes blede, 25 

And mak in land hunger and nede: 
pis bale sal bald bajgt breu, t 

And fel mikel of bis werSes gleu/ ' 
Slic wordes said Crist of fir wers 
pat folc in werd ful derfe ders*; 30 

For quatkin wer sal fal in land, 
Til pover folk es it sarest schouand. 

• urA 2 

we. ^ pas. ' wit, as usual. * derf deres. 



pat felis wel nou hall kirk ^' 

pat bers * of b|ret be ful irk ; C7 

For it and pover men havis baf>e 

Of wer and wandrf]?^ al fe sch|J)e. 

pis baret pinnes pover pride, 5 

Als }>ai wel wat f>at walkes wide,. r> 

Bot werdes aht* and hey tures^^ . .•.-^^ 

Gftes \>iT cite men fra stures; 

YoTpi riche men havis ay iwis, 

Inohe of mft and drinc and blis, 10 

Bot pover \>Q\es J>e baret, 

pat havis defaut of cla)>e and mft 

And for)?! warnes Jesus baj)e, 

Riche and pover, of )?aire* schajje, 

par he schaues in our godspelle 15 

Takeninges pot bird our pride felle. v ^ 

He sais takeninges sal be don 
Ba]?e in ]>e sone and in pe m5n; 
pe sun sal turn intil mirknes, 

As sais Joel, paX bfrs witnes 20 

Of Crist J>at piT takeninges us schaues 
In our godspelle wif> grisli sawes. 
For mon, he sais, sal turned be . .n 

Intil blod J)at folk sal se ; v- ' iv^^ H "* 

Quen sun and mon sal f>usgat turn, - i^"^ 25 

pan sal pe sinful sare'L^^rt^k.*^*^^^ f ^V 

For J)an may J?ai wit witerly ^^ {P^y^- 

pat Crist sal com to dem in hi. 
X ^ Bot gode* men sal na)?ing dred, 

For J>an sal fai be seker of med, 30 

In )?at blisful land J>at J>ai 
Sal ever lif in gamen and play. 

* Camb. MS. reads aght. ^ wandreht. ' haht. * J>air. 

* sar. • god. 




And Crist in our godspel forpy 

Confortes us ful mildell, 

And bides us lok til grouand tres; 

For quen men Ifves on J>aim sees, 

Men wat J>at ful ner es somer comand, 5 

And riht swa mai we understand, 

Quen we se J>ir takenis cume, 

pat nerhand es ]>e dai of dom. 

Bot for Crist spf kes of takeninge, 
pat tij?and of J)is dom sal bringe, 10 

ForJ>i es god j?at 1 you telle 
Sum ping of f>Ir takeninges snelle. 
Sain Jerom telles Jjat fiften 
Peril takeninges sal be sen 

Bif9r \>e day of dom, and sal 15 

Ilk an of jjaim on ser dai fal. 
pe firste^ dai sal al be se .'>.'■■- 
Boln and ris, and heyer be 
pan ani fel of al f>e land, ^ . 

And als a felle up sal it stand ; ^ ' ^ " 30 

pe heyt J?arof sal passe f>e felles 
Bi sexti fot, als Jerom telles; 
And als mikel Jje tojjer day 
Sal it sattel and ^J: away, 

And be lauer f>an it nou esse 25 

For water sal it haf wel lesse. 1 ^ 

pe J>ride dai, npc^me and ^alle, 
And ojjer grfte^ fises alle, • ' 

Sal yel and mak sa reuful ber 
pat soru sal it be to her. 30 

pe fer})e day, freis water and se ( , , , 
Sal bren als fir and glouand be. 

first. * gret. 




pe fifte^ day, sal grese' and tres 

Suf t blodi deu }p2X grisll bes. 
^e.sexte day, sal doun falle 
^rdes werks, ba)?e tours and halle. 

pe~sevend day, sal stanes grft 5 

Togider smit and bremlv «bf te. 

And all J>e erthe, J?e achtande day, 

Sal stir and quae and al folc slay'. 

pe neynde* day, ]?e felles*^ alle 

Be mad al fvin wij? erj>e salle. lo 

pe tende* day, sal folc up crep, 

Als wode'' men, ofjMttes dep. 

pe elleft day, sal T)aii^irfse 

And stand on graves))ar men nou lies. 

pe tuelfte^ day, sal stemes falle. 15 

pe )?retend day, sal men* dey alle, 

WiJ) oJ>er dfde" men to rise. 

And com wif> )?aim to grft aslse. -^ v ^ 

pe faurtend day, at a schift, ' V 

Sal ba]?e bnn, ba)?e er]>e and lift. '>A*-jP 

pe fifetende day, }?ai baj)e 

Sal be mad newe and fair ful ra]>e; 

And alle dfde** men sal rise. 

And cum bifgr Crist our justlse. 

pan sal Crist dem als king ful wis, 25 

And ger J)e sinful sare grise ; 

Sa grisll sal he t5 ]>aim be, 

pat }?aim war lever }?at ]jai moht fle 

Fra J?at dom ]jat he sal dem / 

pan al J>is werd; sa bes he brem 30 

1 fift. 2 greses. ' Small reads slay. * neynd. « fgig, 

* tend. "^ wod. * tuelft. *quekmen. " ded. 

»' al ded. 

W *^ 




Till ])aim )7at sinful cumes \>^t; 

And for]?! sal )?ai grete* sar, 

And say 'Alias, )?at we w5r born, 

Schamlic haf we us self forlorn/ 

pan salle ]?air wike dedes alle 

Stand and J^aim igaines' kalle, 

And mp J?air takening b^r witnes 

Of ]7air sin and J^air wiknes. 

Of mikel soru saljai teljj;^ 

For Satenas wib f^resfelle, 

To bind \>3xm he sal be ful snelle, 

And bremli drawe' )?aim till belle; 

par ]?ai sal evermare duelle, 

And wafiillic in pines welle, " 

And endelf s of soru telle. 

pis bes bair dom bat her in sin 
Ligges, and wil J>air sin noht hhnj 
Bot w^ld bai^^ink on domesdai, 
paim birdeMff J?air plihtful play. / , 
Alias, alias, quat sal \>Q,i say 
BifQre* him, )?at mihtful maiL. 
Quen al \>e men ]7at was ana esse 
Sal se ]7air sines m^e and lesse, 
And all pe Sngeles of fe hevin, ^ 
And ma fendes p3.n man mai nefen? 
Igainsawe may ]>ar nan be, 
Of f>ing jjat alle men may se. 
Of Jjis 9penlic schauing 
Havis Godd schawed many takning^; 
Of a takning ^ I haf herd telle, 
pat falles wel til our godspelle. 







II < • '\ 





' gret. 

^ igaines ))aim. 
^ taking. 

^ draw. * bird. 

^ taking that. 



A blak mu nk of an abbaye 
Was ervermfr/aTs I herd say ^ ; 
He was halden an hall man 
Imange his felaus everilk an. 

An cloyster monk loved him ful wel, 5 

And ^as tU him ful special, 
For riven(5 logider drawes 
Faijjfulfrendes and god felawes^. 
Fel auntour J>at }>is enfermer 

Was sek, and he ]>at was him' der 10 

Com to mak him glad and blTj>e, . /J^saJ^^ 

And his lufredene til him to kl^ ^^w^-»^^f^ 
He asked him h5u he him felid, 
And he his^stat alle til him telld, 
And said, *Ful harde* fel I me, 15 

To dfde 1 drawe als ye mai se/ 

His felau was for him sary, 
And praied him ful gern for)?ie, 
pat yef Godd did of him his wille 
pat he suld scheu his st^t him tille. 20 

pis seke monk hiht to com him to, 
Yef he moht gete Iff )?arto ; 
* I sal,' he said, ' yef I may, 
Com to })e, my stat to say.V 

Quen j?is was sayd he deyed son, 25 

And his felau asked his bon, 
And prayed Godd, for his mercye, 
pat he suld schew him Qpenly, q 

Oj^er wakand or slepand, ^ 

Of his felawe ^ sum tijjand ; 30 

And als he lay apon a niht, 

* of all i herd say ; Camb. MS. als i herd say. " faithe lufreden god 

felawes ; C^amb. MS. faithefuUe frendes & felaus. ^ til him. * hard. 

^ felaw state ; Camb. MS. omits state. 



His felaw com wij? tmes liht, 

And tald him ba)?e of hevin and helle. 

And he prayed he suld him telle 

His state; and he said, 'Wei far I, 

\>pf\i pe help of our Lffdi ; f 5 

To wonin. heUe wij> Satan/ / 

His felau J>oht herof ferly, , 

And asked him quarfgr and qui, 

And sayd, *We wend alle wel J>at poa 10 

Haved ben an halT man til nou; 

Hou sal it far of us kaytefes 

pat in sin and foil lyfes^, 

Quen )?ou )5at led sa hall life 

Was demed till helle' for to drife?' [y 15 

Quen )?is was said, J?e d§d ansuerd 
And tald his felaw hou he ferd; 
And said; ' Son, quen I gaf pe gaste, S '-'^ 
Till my dom was I led in haste, 
And als I stod my dom to her 20 

Bifpr Jesus, wip drerl cher, 
Of fendes herd ic man! upbrayd, t 

And a hoc was bifQr me layd . <^^\ 

pat was J>e reuel of Sain Benet, . r- .^J. ^ " 
pat ic hiht to hald and sej^^"-^ ^" ".,25 

pis reul f>ai gert me rapli tede; .. - ^ ^^. 

And als I red, sar gan 1 drede, ' \^ ^ ' 

For gverlop * moht I mac nan, , ..;^-<vV 
Bot of 'pe xilauses everilk an 

Yald ic account, hou I J?aim held, 30 

And my consciens gan me meld.^ ' ' 
It schawed ]?ar ful gpenlye 
pat I led ml lif wrangwislie; 

ne hafd. * lyes. ' tille helL * Camb. MS.overlepe. 


For in ]?e reul es man! pas 
pat J>an igain me casten was, 
Quar]7oru almost haved I J^are 
Ben demid til helle for to fare. 
Bot for I lufed wel our Lffdye 5 

Quil I lifd, ic hafd fo^Te 
Ful god help ]?ar, )?oru hir mercy. 
For scho bisoht Crist inwardlle 
pat I moht in purgatorle 

Clens mi sin and ml folye. 10 

For)?i h9p I to far ful weleS , 
For mi soru sal son kele: <^'' C 
ForJ?i^ my frend, I praie^ J?e, 
pat })ou ger felaus prai for me.' 
Quen f)is"was said, awai he went^,^^^,,,»«A 15 

And his felawe ful mikel him ment, ^*' n *^ 
And efter ]7is siht man! a dai 
Gert he for his sawell prai. 
pis tale ' haf I tald you 
To schaw on quat maner and hou so 

We sal be demed, and yeld acount 
Quat our sinnes mai amount; 
For al sal com toq- oun ge*^wis^/ - — ^^ 

par Jjat her mistakin isse x iN t 

Bi ]?e Ifste* idel )?oht, 25 

For f)ar forgifnes bes riht noht. 
pan sal we bye J?e sines dere 
Of quilke we er noht schriven here; 
Yef we be her of sines schriven, 
par havis Godd us baim forgiven, 30 

ForJ>i birdd us our sin her bete 
WiJ? schrift of m6u)5e and wongieV wete. 

* welle. ^ prai. ^ tal. * lest. 


For schrift of moujje es medeclne 

pat schTldes man fra hellepm, 

For if we schrif us elf n of sinne 

WiJ? penans^ dfd we sal haf winne, 

And mai be siker on domesdai v - . 5 

To wind intil }?at blisfiil plai, ;* . 

par Crist sal ever mar be king; 

For his mercl he J>ider us bring. Amen. 


^ V 




I. n^^V^^' 



LiTH£$ and I sail tell ^ow tyll 

pe bataile of Halidon Hyll. ^ 10 

Trew king f>at sittes in tr^ne, 5 ( ^ ' 

Unto J?e 1 tell my tale, 
And unto f>e I bid a bone, * A . A ^ 

For ]?6u ert bifie of all my bale. V^ 
Als J?ou made midelfrd and J?e mone, 15 

And bestes and fowles grfte and smale, J^ 

Unto me send bi socore sone , 

And \dresce my dedes m pis dale. (^ ~ 

In ]?is dale I droupe and dare i :' ^ 

For deme^ dedes f>at done me dfre; ^ 30 

Of Ingland had my hert grfte care 

When Edward founded first to wfre. ^ 
pe Franche men war frek to fare 

Ogaines him with scKeld and spf re ; 
pal turned ogayn with sides sare, 25 

And al J^aire pomp noght worth a pfre. 

* penanz. ^ dern. ^ ' a 

V ^j 


A pfre of prise es m§re sumtyde 

pan ail )?e b^ste of Noraiandye ^ Uo^ ^ ' 
A pai sent J>aire schippes on ilk a side / 

N^ ' ^ With flesch and wine and whgte and rye ; 
cvp^^ ^ \ With hert and hand, es noght at hide, / 5 

^ A.*-^ For to help Scotland gan )?ai hye; * "' * * 

'^V pai fled and durst nQ dede abided -^ 

And all }?aire fare noght wurth a flye. 

^ . 


For^ all J?aire fare J^ai durst ijoght fight ^ 
For dfdes dint had Jjai'^ft^dout; V * J^ 


Of Scodand had J?ai never sight 

Ay whils bai war of .wordes stout, 
pai wald have m^ndf J)am at Jjaire might 

And besy war J>ai ]?are obout; 
Now God help Edward in his right, — 15 

Amen, — and all his rfdy rowt 

His rf dy rout mot Jesu * spede. 

And save J^am b^th by night and day; 
pat Lgrd of hevyn mot Edward Ifde, 

And maintfne him als he wele may. - — 20 

pe Scottes now all wide will sprf de ; 

For jjai have failed of J^aire pray; 
Now er J^ai dareand all for drede, 

pat war bifQre 59 stout and gay. 

Gai ]7ai war, and wele \>2X thoght 25 

On J)e Erie Morrl^and o]?er ma ; 
pai said it suld ful dere be boght 

pe land )?at }?ai war flemid fra. 
Philip Valays wordes wroght, 

And said he suld J>aire enmys sla; 30 

Bot all ]?aire wordes was for noght, 

pai liiun be met if j?ai war ma. 

^ Normondye. ^ habide. * ffor. * Ihu, as usual. 



Ma manasinges ^it have ]7ai maked, 

Mawgre mot J?ai have to mede; 
And many nightes als have J)ai waked 

Tqdere all Ingland with )?aire dede. 
Bot, Joveabe God, J?e pride es slaked 

Of ]?am ]5at war 59 stout on stede ; 
And sum of )>am es If vid all naked 

Noght fer frg Berwik opon Twede. 

A litell frp )?at forsaid toune, 
^^i. ^ '^ Halydon Hill f>at es ]>e name, 



V \.* 


>. ') '^^i^r. 

pare was crakked many a crowne 
Of Wilde ^ Scottes and als * of tame. 

pare was J) aire baner born all doune, 
To mak slike bgste jjai war to ^ blame '5^^ 

Bot never)5elfs ay er J>ai boune '^'t**^''' '^ 
To wait Inglayid with sorow and schame.. 



Shame J>ai have als I here say; 

At Donde now es done J)aire daunce, 
And wend J?ai most an6J>er way 

Jvyn thurgh Flandres into France. 
On Filip Valays' fast crl )?ai, 

pare for to dwell and him avaunce; 
And nothing list J^am J?an of play 

Sen J}am es tide )?is sary chance. 

pis sary chaunce )>am es bitid, 

For J>ai war fals and wonder fell: . 

For cursed caitefes er )?ai kid ^ "' 

Aiid ful of trfson, suth to tell. 
Sir Jgn pe Comyn had J?ai hid, 

In haly kirk }?ai did him qwell ; 
And J^arfgre many a Skottis brid 

With dole er dight^ar* J^ai most dwell 







8 Valas. 



pare dwelled oure king, )>e suth to saine, ^f^^^ 

With his mf 1136 a litell while ; ^^^^"^ 

He gaf gude confort on J>at plaine \-V\\\\v 

To all his men obout a myle. \ 
All if his men wSr mekill of maine, 5 

Ever ]>ai d^ted J>am of gile; 
pe Scottes gaud^s might nothing gain, 

For all }?ai stumbilde at J>at stile. 0^^ . 

pus in J>at stowre )?ai left J>aire live 

pat war bifgre 59 proud in prfse; 10 

Jesu^*, for )?I woundes five, 

In Ingland help us to have pf se. 


Now for to tell 30W will 1 turn *. 
Of )?e * batayl of Banocburn. cUpJ^ j 

Skottes out of Berwik and of .Abirdene, ^Jv^ 15 

At f>e Bannok burn war 36 to kene; 
pare slogh ^e many saklfs, als it was sene. 
And now has King Edward wrgken it, 1 wene. 
o It eg^ wrgken, I wene, wele wurth ]?e while ; 

• War jit with })e Skottes, for bai er ful of gile. ao 

Whare er ie, Skottes of Saint JOhnes toune? 

pe bQste of jowre banej^j^ bf tin all doune ; 

When je bQSting will qSde, Sir Edward es bpune 

For to kindel 50W care and crak jowre crowne. 

He has crakked jowre croune, wele worth J^e while ; 25 
Shame bityde J>e Skottes, for ]jai er full of gile. 

Skottes of Striflin war stem* and stout, 
Of God ne of gude men had }>ai ng dout; 

»• Ihu, as usual. * no >e in MS. ' steren. 



4 ■ 

Now have f>ai, )?e pelers, priked obout, 
Bot at |?e last Sir 'Edward rifild Jjaire rout; 

He has rifild }?aire roufc»r^[ewurth J>e while, 
J^.^ '' Bot ever er })ai under Dot ^udes aind gile. 

'-"^Rughfute riveling, ' now kindels f)T care, //^^ *'^ '^ 5 

^Bfrebag with )?T bgste, f>i bigm g es bare; y ^ , 

. Fals wretche and forsworn, whider wilt ou fare? • Ji -^^ 

^ Busk )>e unto^rughe&»^ and abide }>are ; ^j^^-' 5 % 

^,^^.i^-^7 pare, wretche, salt ou won and yer^^ ^ while, v^ ; ^ 

pi dwelling in Donde es done forpi gile. lo 

pe Skotte* gase in Burghes and bftes be stretes, 
All bise Inglis men harmes he hetes; . * -«.* -'-^ ,, 

Fast^akps he his niQne to men )?at he metes, . , . r '' 

Bot"^me frendes he findes J^at his bale betes: 

Fune beles his bale, wele wurth J?e while, / 15 

He uses all thrfting with gaudes and gile. 

Bot many man thrftes and spfkes ful ill 

pat sumtyme war better to be stanestill; 

pe Skot in his wordes has wind for to spill, , , 

For at ]>e last Edward sail have al his will : 20 

He had his will at Berwik, wele "vyurtl;! J?e while ; 

Skottes broght him J>e kayes, bot gft for baire gile. ^^^ 


y i Cf>^ 


^^\^ How Edward }>e King come in Braband 

And toke homage of all J>e land. 

God ]?at schope bgth sf and sand, 25 

Save Edward, King of Ingeland ^ 

BQthe* body, saul and life, 

And grante him joy withowten strif; 

^ Brig. * skottes. ^ Ingland. * both. 



For mani men ^ him er wrath ^ 

In Fraunce and in Flandres bath *; 

For he defendes fast his right, ♦ 

And }?art6 Jesu grante him might, 

And S9 to do bpth night and day, 

pat yt may be to Goddes pay. 

Oure King was cumen, trewly ' to tell, 
Into Brabant for to dwell. ;. r. ^qu^ 

pe kayser Lowis of Bavere, \^^*^\ 4. w^^"^ 
pat in }>at land f>an had no pere, — 
He, and als his sones* twa'' 
And 6]>er princes many ma®; — 
Bisschoppes and prelates war J)are f|le 
pat had ful mekill werldly wfle, ^, 

Princes and pople, aid and ^ung"^, 
Al ]>at spac with Duche tung, — 
All J>ai come with grfte honowre 
Sir Edward to save and socoure, 
And proferd him, with ^. Jayre rfdCj^^v.^ 
For to hald )?e Kinges vgtfde.- . .^ -;. >'V 

pe duke of Braband first of all 
Swore, for thing j^at might bifall, 
pat he suld, bQth day and night, 
Help Sir Edward in his right. 
In toun, in feld, in frith and fen ; 
pis swore J>e duke and all his men. 
And al J?e Iprdes J>at with him lend, 
And J)arto held J?ai up J?aire hend. 
pan King Edward toke his rest 
At Andwerp, whare him liked best ; . -^ 

And bare he made his mone pl ayne ^^^^^^^--^ 
pat np man suld say J?are ogayne; , 









)J0^^' - 











* two. 





His mflne J>at was gude and lele / ' ' 
"^^JLeft in Braband ful mekill dele: 
^ -^ ^ :ffi3 all )?at land untill f>is day 
^ Fars ]?e better, for ]?at jornay. 

When Philip jje Valays* herd of \>\% 5 

parat he was ful wrQth iwis; 
He gert assemble his barounes, 
Princes and Igrdes of many tounes. 
At Pariss toke )?ai ]?aire counsaile, 
Whilk pointes might f>am mQste availe; 10 

And in all wise J>ai f>am bithoght 
To stroy Ingland and bring to noght. 

Schipmen sone war efter sent / 

To here )?e Kinges cumandment, 
And f>e gdaies men alsa' 15 

pat wiste ' bpth of wf le and wa *. 
r He cumand )?an f>at men suld fare 
V ^^o^^^^'^^Till Ingland, and for ngthing spare 
'/Iaaj: ,i«^'cV' ^ot brin and sla bgth man and wife 
c \^ ^.»And chllde, J?at nQne suld pas with life; ao 

•j^ ' pe galay men held up J>aire handes • 

\:-^ \^^^ And thanked God of J>ir tij>andes. 

fi"^' ^li/'^ At Hamton, als I understand, 
^ -J) ^^ L ^ Come be galayes * unto land, -^ . / , / 

v^ ^ And fill fast f>ai slogh and brend, 25 

\'" . 'Bot noght S9 mekill als sum men wend; / 

^\.'\^ ■ ll'^'ToT, QT )?ai wened war J?ai mett /^ ^j ^^aPv 

.^\.^v>^ ' With men ]>at sone )?aire jaykeiJett. 

^ Sum was knokked on \>e fifvyd Qirv-^*^'" .{ i"'^* 

pat Jje body ]?are bilf vid ; ^ ,< ■ 30 

Sum lay stareand on \>e stemes, ' / 

And sum lay knQked out )?aire hemes ; A^ ' "• 

* Valas. * also. ' wist. * wo, 

* gaylayes. 

M 2 

' . I. 


pan with })am was ngne 6J?er gle, 

Bot ful fain war )?ai J?at might fle. 

pe galay men, J>e suth t6 say, 

Most nedes turn ano]?er way; 

pai soght f)e strfmis fer and wide 5 

In Flandres and in S^land syde. 

pan saw J)ai whare Cristofer stode 
At Aremouth ^ opon J)e flode ^ ; 
pan went^ jpai J>eder all bidene, ' 

pe galayes men with hertes kene, lo 

Aght and fourti * galays and ma *, '' ^ - * 
And with f>am als war tarettes twa *, 
And o]?er many of galiQtesT" 
With grf te noumber of smale bQtes ; 
All f>ai hQved on J>e flode 15 

To stfle Sir Edward mennes'^ gode. 
Edward oure King |?an was noght J>ere, 
Bot sone when it come to his ^re 
He sembled all his men full still, 
And said to )?am what was his will. 20 

• Ilk man made him rfdy ]?en; 

S9 went f>e King and all his men 

Unto Jjaire schippes ful hastily, 

Als men bat war in dede doghty. 

pai fand J^e galay men grfte wane*, ./ 25 

A hundereth ever ogaynes ane , 

pe Inglis men put ]?am to w^re ' *- 

Ful baldely ^° with bow and spf re ; 

pai slogh f>are of f>e galaies men 

Ever sexty ogaynes ten, 30 

pat sum ligges ^it in jjat mire. 

All hfvidlfs withowten hire. 

* armoQth. ^ flude. ' wen. * viii and xl. * mo. • two. 
^ mens. ' wone. " one. ^® baldly. 


pe Inglis men war armed wele 

Bgth in yren and in stele; 

pai faght fill fast, bQth day and night, 

Als lange^ als f>am lasted might; 

Bot galay men war s§ many 5 

pat Inglis men wex all wery; 

Help f>ai soght bot })are come nane', 

pan unto God }>ai made f>aire mane'^. 

Bot sen jje time \2X God was born, 

Ne a hundreth jere bifom, 10 

War never men better in fight 

pan Inglis men, whils J>ai had myght. 

Bot sone all maistrl gan ]7ai mis; 

God bring })aire saules untill his blis, 

And God as^sgyl f)am of )?aire sin 15 

For f>e gude will ]?at J?ai war in. Amen. 

Listens now, and leves me, \ ; ^^ 

WhosQ lifes J^ai sail se 
pat it mun be fill dere boght 
pat f>ir galay men have wroght. 20 

pai h§ved still opon )>e flode, 
And rfved pover men f>aire gode*; 
pai robbed and did mekill schame, 
And ay bare Inglis men f)e blame. 
Now Jesus" save all Ingeland®, 25 

And blis it with his haly hand. Amen. 

^ lang. ^ none. * mone. * gude. * Ihc. • Ingland. 






How Jphn of Lome soucht }>S gud Kyng Robert Bruce wyth 

be sleuth bund. '^ 

pi kyng toward }>e wod* is gane, 0^^"^.,^* 
• i Wery, forswat, and will of wayn ; -^^i^-* ^ m " ', 
Intill J>e wod soyn enterit El7^ 
And held him* doun toward a vale 
Quhar throu )?e wod a wattir ran. 5 

piddir in grft by went' he )?an 
And begoutlT'to* rest hym J?air, 
And said be mycht" ng for)?irmar. 
His man said, 'Schir®, }?at may nocht^ be; 
Abyde 3he heir, je sal soyn se lo 

Fiffe® hundreth jarnand 50U to sla, 
And ]?ai ar f|le aganis us twa; ^ 

And sen we may nocht deill wyth mycbt,^^ " 
Help us all f)at we may wyth slycht.' i- v^ 
pe kyng said, 'Sen )?at }>ou will swa, 15 

Ga furth and I sail with ]>e ga. 
Bot I haf herd oftslfjys® say, 
pat quha endlang a wattir ay . 

Wald wayd a bowdraucht, he suld ger 
Bath }>e sleuthhuncTand his l§dar 20 

Tyne ]?e sleuth men gert him ta; (^"^ Va.^ 

^ vod ; V for w is common, and occasionally w for v. ' him, not in MS. 

' wend. * for to. * my*, as often. • s, and an abbreviation, written 
Schir in other places. ' no*, as often. ® v, as often. * oftsiss. 



Pruf we gif it will do now swa, 

For war 3011 devill hund away 

I roucht nocht of J>e layflf, perfay/ 

As he devisit J)ai haf done, 
And enterit in Jje wattir sone 5 

And held on endlang it ]?ar way; 
And syne to }?e land ^eid J>ai 
And held f>air way as }?ai had fre. i' . . .^ 
And jQhn of Lorn, with grft eff^re, ^^'^ 
Com with his rout richt to ]?e place 10 

Quhar ]?at his fife men slane was. 
He ni^}^t ]pame quhen he J?aim saw, v..- - 
And said, eftir a lltill thraw, 
pat he suld venge in hy J>ar blude; 
Bot obir wayis }?e ganimyn jude. i,Sj 15 

pair wald he mak ng mair duelling, ;;.;» . 
Bot furth in hy foUowit J>e king. '^ 

Richt Xb ]?e burn Jjai^ passit ar; 
Bot }>e sleuthlmnd maid stynting f>ar. 
And waveryt lang tyme to and fra * • 20 

pat he na certane couth ga. 
Till at }>e last ]?an Jghne of Lorn 
Persavit f>e hund }?e sleuth had lorn, 
And said, * We haf tynt J>is travale*; ^ -^ 
To pas for]?ir may nocht avale, 25 

For ]?e wode is bath braid and wyde 
And he is weill fer be Jjis tyde. 
parfgre I rede we turn agane, 
And wast ng mair travale in vayn.' 
With Jjat r elyit ' he his mfn^he, p^ '^ 30 

And his way to J>e hgst tuk he. 

pus eschapit ]>e ngbill kyng; 
Bot sum men sais ]pis eschaping * 

))ame. * travell, but cf. 1. 29. ' releyt, as at 169, 5. * enchaping. 


J ' Apon ane of>ir maner it fell 

pan throu J>e wading; for f>ai tell 
That \>e kyng a gud archer had, 
And quhen he saw his Igrd swa stad, 

-,. -^ j ^ ^^ " 5 ^ 

He ran on fut alwayis hym by 

Till he intill }>e wod wes gane; 

pan said he till hymself allane, 

pat he arest rycht J?air wald ma 

To luk gif he }?e hund mycht sla. lo 

For gif ]?e hund mycht Ifst* on lif, 

He wist full Weill J)at f>ai wald dnP 

pe kyngis trass till J)ai hym la; 

pan wist he weill J>ai wald him sla. 

And for he wald his Igrd succour, 15 

He put his llf in aventur, 

And stud intill a busk lurkand 

QuhiU J>at J)e hund com at his hand. 

And with ane arrow soyn hym slew 

And throu J)e wod syne hym withdrew. 20 

Bot quhefjir his eschaping^ fell 

As I tald first, or now I tell, 

I wat it Weill without Ifsyng, 

At j?at burn eschapit J>e king. 

pe king furth has his way is tane, 25 

And J9hne of Lome agane is gane 
To Schir Amer, J>at fra J>e chass , \ ^ \ 

With his men )?an reparit wass,'^' '* 
pat litill sped in JjaifcBassing ; 
For thow* J^at J>ai maid following 30 

Full fgirly, J>ai wan bot small; 
pair fais neir eschapit all. 

^ left? ^ rif. ^ enchaping. * how. 


Men sais Schir Thomas Randale J)an,, 

Chassand, J?e kyngis baner wan, 

Quharthrou in Yngland wyth J>e kyng 

He had rycht grf t price and lovyng. 

Quhen )?e chaseris relyiL war, v 5 

And Jghne^TLorne had met J>aim J>ar, 

He* tald Schir Amer all J>e cass, 

How J>at f>e king eschapit was, 

And how J)at he his fifF men slew 

And syne he to J>e wod hym drew. ^ / 10 

Quhen Schir Amer herd J)is, in hj^ . ' "^"^ 

He sanyt hym for f)e ferly, y^M-i^ \ 

And said, * He is grf tly to priss, 

For I knaw nane J>at liffand is /A 

pat at myscheif can help hym swa; 15 

I trow he suld be hard to sla, . ^ 

And he war b^dyn all fvynly/f'^-^ ^ x' ^ 

On J>is wiss spalT Schir Amery. 

And ]>e gud kyng held furth his way, 
He and his man, ay quhiU J>at J>ai 20 

Passit throu }?e forest war. ^ 

Syne in a mtre Jjai enterit ar, 
pat wes bath^'iiee and^ lang and^ braid; 
And gr J>ai half it passit had, 
pai saw on syde thre men cumand 25 

Lik to lichtmen and waverand. 
Swerdis ]?ai had and axis als, 
And ane of J>ame apon his hals „ L 

A mekill bundyn weddif bare. > ' t 
pai met Jje kyng and halsit f>ar ; 30 

And ]5e kyng J>ame Jjar halsing jald 
And askit ]^me quehe}?ir J^ai wald. 

» and ; he, in MS. E. » no * and' in MS. ; E has &. ' &, as 



■ { 

pai said, 'Robert J)e Bruce J>ai socht, 

To njgit with hym gif ]?at J>ai mocht; 

pair ^fuelling with hym wald I>ai ma.' 

pe kyng said, ' Gif }?at ^he will sw5, 

Haldis furth jour way with me 5 

And 1 sail ger 50W soyn hym se/ 

pai persavit be his spf kyng, \ 

,'" And his eiFfr, he wes J>e kyng, ^ 

And changit contenanss and lat, . . ^- 

And held nocht in ]?e first estat^; ^ 10 

For )?ai war fayis to ]?e kyng, 

And thoucht to^cum into scowkyng, " \ 

And duell with hym quhill "pi" J^ai saw ^ 

par tym, and bryng hym )?an of daw, 

pai grantit till his spek forjji; ^* 15 

Bot J>e kyng, J>at wes witty, 

Persavit weill be J>air hayyng ^ ^ 

pat }?ai lufit hym in na thing. 

He said, 'Fallowis, jhe man all thre, 

Forthir aquynt quhill Jjat we be, 20 

All be yourself forrou'th us' ga, 

And on }>e sammyn wiss we twa 

Sail fallow 30W behynd weill neir. 

Quod ]>ai, 'Schir, it is na mysteir 

To trow intill us any ill/ 25 

'Nane do 1,' said he, 'bot I will 

pat 3he ga forrowth us*, quhill we 

Bettir with ojjir knawyn be.' 

*We grant,' J>ai saicT,' *sen ^e will swa,' 

And furth apon ]?air gat gan*^ ga. 30 

pus jeid ]?ai till Jje nycht wies neir. 

And Jjan Jje formast cumin weir 

* Stat ' awyng. ^ us, not in MS. * forrow us. * can. 


_ , r-^j 

Till a wast husbandis houss, and }>ar 

pai slew the weddir at Jjai bar. 

And slew fyre for to rQSt f>aFmft, 

And askit f)e kyng gif he wald ft 

And rest hym till )?e mft war dicht. 5 

pe kyng, }>at hungry wes I hicht, 

Assentit to J>air speke in hy; 

Bot he said, he wald anerly 

Betuyx hym and his fallow be 

At a fyre, and Jjai all thre 10 

In ]?e end of ]>e houss suld roa 

Ane 6J?ir fyre ; and Jjai did swa. 

pai drew J>ame in }>e housis end, 

And half J>e weddir till hym send ; 

And ]?ai rgstit in l^J>air mft, 15 

And fell rycht frgjtly' for till ft. 

pe kyng weill lang he fastyt* had, 
And had rycht mekill travale made; 
parfpr he f te richt fgyrly. 

And quhen he f tyn Ead hastel|^ 20 

He had to slepe sa mekill will 
pat he mycht set na let Jjartill; ' , . 

For quhen J>e vanj^s fiUit ar, 
pe body worJ>is hfvy evirmar. 

And to slepe drawis hfvynes'. 35 

pe kyng J?at all fortravalit wes, 
Saw J>at hym worthit slep neidwais; 
Till his fostir br6f>ir he sais, 
'May I trast J>e me to wakk*, 
Till I a litill slepyng tak?' 30 

' gha, Schir,' he said, * till I may drey.' .' ^ '^ ' ^ 
pe kyng Jjan wynkit a litill wey^ 

frakly. ' fastyn. ^ hevynas. * walk; lk = kk. ' we. 


172 , /^ //. THE NORTHERN DIALECT \.. 

And slepit nocht, bot jnkiirly • ' ' , < ^ ""' 


Glifihit* oft up suddanily*; ' 

For he had drede of J>a' thre men, 
pat at J>e t6J>ir fyre war J>en; 
That ]?ai his fayis war he wyst, ^ 5 

parfgr he slepit as foul on twi5t. ' 
The kyng slepit bot litill* ]5an, 
Quhen sic a slepe fell on his man 
pat he mycht not hald up his e, ^ .. 

Bot fell on slepe and routit he. ^ ' .^10 

Now is J>e kyng in grft perilP, 
For slepe he swa a litill quhile, 
He sail be dfd forouten dred; 
For J>e thre tratouris tuk gud hede 
pat he on slep wes, and his man. ^ 15 

In full grft hy, }>ai raiss up }?an, ! ^ '*" 
And drew J>air swerdis hastely, 
And went toward j?e kyng injiy. 
Quhen ]?at Jjai saw he slepit swa, 
And slepand thoucht J>ai wald hym sla. 20 

Till hym J?ai ^eid a full grft pass, 
Bot in }>at tym,"throu Goddis grace, 
pe kyng blenkit up hastely. 
And saw his man slepand him by, 
And saw cumand J>e tratouris thri*'^^ 25 

^Delyverly on fut gat he, 
And drew his swerd out and |?ame met; 
And as he ^eid, his fut he set 
Apon his man weill hfvaly. 

He waknyt^, and raiss all desaly ; "^'^ j 30 

For f>e skip masterit hym swa 
That, gr he gat up, ane of J^' 

and gluffnyt. * suddandly. 3 J)ai, as also in 1. 32. * litill, 

^ pereU. « walknyt. ^ J)ai. 

BARBOUR'S BRUCE o \ ^ 173 

pat com for to sla ]?e kyng 

Gaf hym a strake in his rys)nig, 

Swa bat he mycht iielp hym 119 mair. 

pe kyng 59 fetratjy stad wes J>air, /:2 . • ■ \ 

That he wes never jeit swa stad ; r fy- "- 5 

Na war J>e armyng J>at he had, ) 

He had beyn dfd foroutyn weyr. ,. 

Bot nocht forf>i on siclSianeir 

He helpit hym swa in Jjat bargane, ^- * 

pat f)a^ thre tratouris he has slane, 10 

Throu Goddis grace and his manheid. 

His fostir broJ)ir J?air wes ded; 

pan wes he wounder will of wajoi, 

Quhen he saw he wes left'allane. 

His fostir broJ?ir m^nj^t he, <- .' 15 

And waryit all be tobir thre, (' 

And syne his way tuk hym allane 

And rycht toward his trist is gane. - 

pe kyng went fm'th, wrath and angry, 
Mfnand his man full tendirly, 20 

And held his way all hym allane. 
And richt toward J?e houss is gane 
Quhar he set trist to mete his men. 
It wes Weill lat of nycht be Jjen; 
He com soyn in J>e houss, and fand 25 

pe gud wif on J>e bynk sytand. 
Scho askit hym soyn quhat he wes, 
And quhene^ he com, and quhar he gais. 
*A travalland man, dame,' said he, 
'That travalys heir throu J>e cuntre/ 30 

Scho said, *All j?at travaland ere, 
For saik of ane, ar welcom here.' 

* ))ai. ' quhyne. 



The kyng said, *Gud dame, quhat is he 

pat garrfs 50W have sic specialte 

Till men )>at travalis?' *Schir, perfay, 

Quod ])e gud wif, *I sail 50W say; 

Gud Kyng Robert "pe Bruce is he, 5 

pat is rycht Igrd of }?is cuntre. 

His fayis hym haldis now in thrang, 

Bot I~thynk to se, gr oucht lang, 

Hym Igrd and kyng gvr al f>e land, 

pat nS fayis sail hym withstand/ jo 

*Dame, lufis ]?ou hym sa weill?' said he. 

'gha, Schir,' scho said, *sa God me se/ 

'Dame,' said he, M9, hym here J>e by, 

For I am he/ *Sa ^he suthly?' 

' ^ha, certis, dame/ 'And quhar ar gSne 15 

^our men, quhen ^e ar ])us allane?' 

*At )?is tyme, dSme, I have ng ma/ 

Scho said, *It may ng wiss be swa; 

I have twa sonnys wicht and hardy, 

pai sail becum ^our men in hy/ 20 

As scho devTsit, jjai have done; 
His sworn men becom ]>ai sone. 
pe wif gart soyn hym syt* and ft; 
Bot he had schort quhil at ]>e mft 
Sittyn, quhen he herd grft stampyng 25 

About )?e hous; fan, but lettyng, 
pai stert up J?e hous to defend. 
Bot soyn eftir \>e kyng has k^nd 
James of Douglas ; }?an wes he blith. 
And bad oppyn ]?e dures swith, 30 

And l^ai com in, all at psA. ware. 
Schir Edward pe Bruce wes Jjare, 


'. .•\ 


And James alsua ^ of Douglas, 

pat wes eschapit fra J?e chas 

And with ]?e kyngis br5]3ir met. 

Syne to f>e trist ]?at ]?ame wes set 

pai sped ]?ame with ]?air cumpany, 5 

That war ane hundreth and fyfty, 

And quhen at jjai has seyn ]?e kyng, 

pai war joyfull of }?air metyng, 

And askit how he eschapit was ; 

And he J?aim^ tald all haill ]?e cass, 10 

How J>e fiflf men hym presit fast, 

And how he* throu Jje wattir past, 

And how he met }?e thevis thre, 

And how* he slepand slayn suld be, 

Quhen he waknyt*^ throu Goddis grace; 15 

And how his fostjr brojpir was® 

Slayne, he tald ]7ame all haley. 

pan lovyt ]?ai God all comonly, 

pat J>air Igrd wes eschapit swa. 

^ als. ' hym ; J>aim, MS. E. ' ye. * how, not in .MS. 

^ valknyt. ^ ded wes ; next line then reads, ' 1ms aU he tald ]>ame 

halely.' MS. £ reads 'was slayne.' 






IcH 3em elder ben ich wes a wintre and a lore ; .----^ ^ ,. } 
Ic waelde mgre ]?anne ic diide, ml wit ah to ben mgrdw -^ tjr*^^ 
Wei lange ic habbe childTBeon a weorde and * fch a dfde) ,. . 

pfh ic beo a wintre eald, to' jyng I eom a rfde. ' ^. 

UnnUt lif ic habb ilaed, and jyet me J>inc]? ic Ifde ; "** v. . $p^ 5 

panne ic me bij?enche, wel sgre ic me adrf de. 

M^st al J>at ic habbe ydon ys idelnesse and chilQig ; ^v^,tA^i> — -► 

Wel late ic habbe me biJ?oht, bute me God do milce. 

Feli ydele word ic habb^ iqueden, sy?St5en ic speke cu|?e, 

And fale junge dfde ido f>e me of Jinchet nuj^e. "l^"^ to 

» -I"'' ^' Al to lomfe ic habbe agiilt, a weorch^ and gc a worde ; 
Al to mtichel ic habblpi ispend, to litel yleid an horde. 
Mf St al ]?et me Iicede ser, nu hit me mislichetS ' ; 
pe mychel fol^e]? his ywil, him siilfne he biswikeS, 
Ich mihte habbe bet idon, hadde ic ]?9 yselje; '"ji^:i*^ifS '5 

Nu ic wolde ac ic ne mei, for elde ne for unhel]?e ; 

'v\V — ^'^^ nie is bistolen on ser ic hit awyste ; 

Ne mihte ic iseon before me for snieche ne for miste. v^l^^^ 
iErwe we beoJ> to done god, and to yfele al to fjriste ; 
Mgre seie stent man of manne, ]?anne hym do of Criste. 20 

pe wel ne dej) ]5e hwile he mei, wel oft hit hym scael ruwen ; 
psenne(hy mowen sculen and ripen ]?§r hi ger seowen. /*^ 
, . ^v Don §c to gode wet je mu3e, J>e * hwTle je bfi]? a life ; 
Ne hopie ng man to miichel to chTlde ne to wife ; 

A^-'^^^-l^-ofiei'""' « tu. > misUchet. • J*. 

/ \ \ y 


pe him selve forjut for wife, QSer for childe, 
He sceal cume an tivele stede, bute him God beo mllde. 
Sende aech sum god biforen him, )?e hwile he meiio heovene * ; 
Betere is an elmesse bifore benne beon sefter seovene. 
-Ne beo )?e leovre Jjene J)e stilf, }>I m^ ne tSi maje, 
l^e^^ot is Se is oSres mannes freond betre }>ene his aje. 
Ne hople wif to hire were, ne wer to his wife ; 
Beo for him stilve sevrich man, )?e hwlle he beo alive 
Wis is ]5e him siilfne bij)enc8, Jje hwlle he mote libbe. 
For sone wuUetS him for^ite J>e fremde and J>e sibbe. \'y^ilA 
pe wel ne dej? Jje hwlle he mei, ne sceal he hwenne he wolde ; 
/ Manies mannes sare isWinch habbe8 oft lihholde. AA^^^MA>HA^ 
Ne scolde nan man06n a furS,)ne slawen wel to done \ ^^^^*^ 

For man! man bihateS wel, J>e hit forjitet sone. ( *^ * ^ 
pe man tSe siker wtile beon to habbe Godes blisse, 15 

Do wel him siilf be hwile he mei, Sen haveS he'^mid iwisse. " ■ '" ^ 
pes riche men wene?S beo siker, Ipnrh walle end J>urh cTicne; ' y '^ 

at£Ci He deS his^ sikere stede, J?e sent to hevenerlche ; 
For Sf r ne Sierf beon ofdr^d of fare ne of Jjeove ; 
' \^^ pf r ne mei hi binime tJe laSe neSlleove ; '• v^^v^v^ ao 

' ^^ par ne Jjserf he habbe kare of wyfe ne of childe. "^^^^ y^ A/^ '^- ^ . 
.pider we sendet and siilf bereS^ lite and t5 seldej *^V^ 
pider we scolden drajen'and don^wel_oft ^nd wel ^elqme, | - . ^ • 
For Jjfr ne sceal me us naht binime, mid wrancwise dome. «kv^i -^-^^ 

pider we scolden ^eorne drajen, wolde ^e me ileve, *- 35 

For tSf re ne mei hit binimen eow J>e king ne se ireve. 
pet betste J?et we hedde, J>(ider we scolde sende, 
For J)f r we hit mihte finde eft, and habbe bQte ende. • - v^ 
He }?e her det5 eni god, for habbe Godes are, ■ » • 
Eal he hit sceal finde tSf r, and hundredf|alde mare. 30 

? y^^cA^pe Se ehte wile hf alden wel, f>e hwlle he mei is ' wf alden, ' . 
y.<^ give is for Godes luve, fenne detS he is wel ihf alden. 

' dra^an. ' his, as twice in next line. 

f^"<^ • fet 

Wi " 



^jTTX* jfc***^ .v.-vv* *-*^^ 

Ure iswinch and Ore tilSe is oft iwuned to jwinden ; ^ - 
Ac 8et we ddS for Godes luvc, eft we hit sculen af inden. 

. .i /- Ne sceal nan (ivel beon unboht, ne nan god unforjdde ; ---vy.,aJt- 
Uvel we doS eal to michel, and god lesse ))enne wejgcolde. 
pe 8e mf St detJ nu to gode, and tSe }>e Ifst to latSe, 
JEiptr to litel and to michel sceal Sinche eft him baSe, 5 

pf r me sceal ure weorkes jve^en beforen Hevekinge, 
And jieven us ure swjnches lien, aefter ure farninge.- 

*^^ fvre fic man mid ]?an Se haveS mei biggen heveriche, W^ 
pe 8e mare hefiJ and Se )>e lesse, bajje mei iliche ; «^'" 
Eal sf mid his penie sf tSe olSer mid his punde ; - 10 

Vpct is ^ ?5e * wunderlukeste warg, 8e aeni man «vre funde/ . 
And be Samare ne mei don.mid his god i|?anke,**'^^^^*^^^ 
Eal se wel se oe haveS Roldes feale^manke ' : ^*^f^ r 
And oft God t^J^^SLjeJ^nc oan oe him ^iver lesse ; 
Eal his weorkes and his weies is milce and rihtwisnesse. 15 

.ix Lite lie is Gode leof, Se cumeS of gode iwille, 

, : ' ' And fClfte mtichel jive 8enne Se heorte is ille. 

Hevene and eorSe he oversibS \ his f jen beoS swg brihte ; 
Sunne, mone, dei, and fSr bjS J>3stre tojganes his lihte. ^*\ ^ J^ 

' . ^ Nis him naht forhole ni hfid, swa michel ^ his mihte ; ao 

Nis hit na swa dUfne idon, ne a swa J>Sstre nihte. 
He wat hwet deo and tSenchet ealle quike wihte, 
Nis na hlavord swilc sf is Crist, na king swilch ufe Drihte. 
Heovene and eorSe and eal J)et is biloken is in his hande, -^'^^ ^" 
He deS eal jjet ^ his wille is, a wetere and a lande. 25 

He makede fisces in Se sf , and fujeles in Se llifte ; 
He wit and w^aldeS ealle Sing and he scop ealle jes^eafte. 
He is ord abuten orde, and ende abuten ende ; 
He ane is aevre en flche stede, wende f>f r J>u wende ; 
He is buven us and bineoSen^ biforen and bihinde ; 30 

pe Se Godes wille deS, S^er he mei him finde. 
i^lche rflne he ihfirS and he wat ealle df de ; 

* his. ' 5, as often. ' marke. * ove sihtJ. 


He SurhsinS falches mannes tJanc whet sceal us to r§de. "^-^ 
We )?e brekeS Codes hf se, and gtiltet swa ilome, -»*a.v 

Hwet scule we seggen gtSer don aet ?Se mdchele dome ? 
pa 8a luveden unriht, and tivel lif ledde, 

Hwet scule hi segge gtSer don Sf r engles beoS ofdredde ? 5 

Hwet scule we beren biforen us ^ mid hwan scule we cwemeri * , 
We ]5e naevre god ne duden^}?e hevenliche demen? |***f 
pgr scule beon deones swa vele "Se wiilleS us forwrejen ; *^*^^' 
NabbeS hi na]?ing Forsyte ofeal ]5at hi isfjen. 
Eul f)et we misdiide her, hit wiilleS cuSe j^aere, ^'^^t*^^ y >o 

Buten we habbe hit ibet tSe hwile we her wf re. -^ -^Nm^-o 
Eal hi habbet an heore iwrife bet we misdude here ; " ^tMAtjUu 
Pgh we hi nuste ne isfjen^^ hi wfren ure ivere. u^^t^^sj^^. 
Hwet sculen horlmges do, f)e swikene, f>e forsworene? ^a^axUva^* 
^sVi swa fele beotS icltiped^ swa fewe beoS icorene ? , 15 

Wi, hwi wf re hi bi^te) toEwan wfre hi iborene, 
pe scule beon to dietSe idemd and f vre ma forlorene ? 
Elch man sceal him 8§r biclupien and fch sceal him demen ; -«.'■.. <.t 
His aje weorc and his itmncno witnesse he sceal temen ; -^w^m ( 
Ne mei him na man eal swa wel demen ne swa rihte, 20 

For nan ni cnawa"S him swa w^el bute ane Drihte. 
%\c man wat him stilf betst, his weoixh and his iwille ; 
HeSe Ifst wat he seitS ofte m|st, Se Se hit wat eal is stille. 
Nis nan witnesse eal s§ muchel s| mannes aje heorte ; 
Hwas^ segge f)et he beo hal, him self wat betst his smeorte. " 25 


M - 

» Ac Drihte ne demS nanne man aefter his biginninge, 30 

Ac al his lif sceal beo^lwicn sf but5 his endinge j jt^f,,.*^ 
Kc ^if }>e ende is tlvel eal hit is tivel, and god^^ir god is Jjenne. 
God 57 ve Jjet lire ende beo god and wit }?et he us lenne. 

• v. 

^ US, not in MS. ' cwenlant ^ ni se^en. 

N 2 



pe man }?e nele do na god, ne nf vre god lif laeden, 

Mr dieS and (46m)cume set his dure hemd sare adrfden . ^ ^ .--^ 
pet he ne muje&nne bidde" are, for hitititilome ; ^ , : ■ 

^ Av./ ^ For]?! * he is wis Se beot and bfat, and bit beforen dome. ^ \, 
penne dfatS is set his dure, wel late he bidde?5 are ; ^ ^j^^^^ 

^^.v- Wel late he^lftetS iivel weorc J)e hitne mei d5n na mare. 

Stinnfe If r Jje and \>u naht hirj, ]>anne ]>\Sl is * ne miht don na mire * ; 
For]?!, he is sot ]?e swa abit to habbe Godes are*. 
-^^^^^'^^^pfhwhetJer we hit ileveS wel, for Drihte sttlf hit sfde, 

A whilche time sf fvre tSe man ofSinchet his misdfde, lo 

OSer later otSer ra"5e, milce he sceal imeten ; v*^^ ^ \ j^ 
Ac 8e )?e nafS naht ibet, wel mflchel he sceal beten. r ^"^ jjx* ^ 



? ^^^ 

Lfitel wathe hwet is pine, and lltel he icnaweo/T^ 15 

Hwilc hf te is of r saule wuneS, hu bker \yinde bf r blawetS ; 

Hedde he ibeon Sf r anne dei, gtJer twa bare uSeT^* 

Nolde he. for ael middeneard 8e Bridde here abide. 

pet habbet ised pe conae Sanne, be it * wiste mid iwisse, 

Uvd is.pmie sgove^er for seove nihtes busse, ^*-* 20 

. Ena ure blisse J?e ende hafS for endeliese pine. . . - 

5etere iswpa weter idrunke }>ene atter inaeng mid wine ; \y; > \ -** 
Swflnes br^e is swtitSe swete, swa is^^oi wiuie deore, ^ - 

Ac al t5 dfire he hi bi^S Se jifS ]?f rfore his *^' sweore. 
Ful wambe mei lihtliche speken of hunger and of festen* ; 25 

Swa mei of pine ]?e naht nat hu pine sceal alf sten. 
Hedde he is ' afanded sume stunde, he wolde eal segge 61 
EtSlete him were wif and child, suster, and feder and broSer: 
Evre he wolde inne wa her and inne wawe wunien 
Wio San }?e mihte hellepine bifleon and biscunien, 30 

E'Slete him were eal woruldwele and eal eorSliche * blisse/ 

^ For to oe mtichele miircoe cume ois mtirhoe mid iwisse. I 


* Si ; cf. 1. 8. ' Jras. • no more. * hore ; couplet from Egerton E. 
• J>. •• ia, • andfesten. ' his. * eordliche. 


v.* r 


yAjV^ ^j-AYAMON'S BRUT . l8i 


^^ V^ 



pA com }>f r in are tiden an oht mon riden, K.-^ 
And brohte tidinge Arthure |?an kinge 
From Modrf de ^ his suster sune ; ArtSure he wes wilcume 
For he wende }?at he brohte boden swlSe gode. v^ « j . < y 
^rSiir lai alle l^nge niht and spac wi8 ]?ene ^eonge cniht ; 5 
Swa naver nulde he him sQgge soS hu hit ferde. 
pa hit wes dsei a marjen and du3e8e gon sttirien, 
ArSur f>a up aras and strehte his sermes ; 
He aras up and adun sat swiilc he wf ore swlSe seoc. 
pa axede hine an vaeir cniht, * Laverd, hu havest ]?u ivaren 
toniht?' j^ 10 

ArSur J>a andswarede — a mode him wes unftSe — 
* Toniht a mine slf pe, }?§r ich Isei on bure, 
Me imaette a sweven ; )?§ rvore ich ful sari sem. 
Me imf tte Jjat mon me hof uppen are halle ; ,' j 
pa halle ich gon bistriden swiilc ich wolde riden; 15 

Alle f>a Ignd ]5a ich ah, alle ich J>f r oversah, 
And Walwain sat bivoren me, mi sweord he bar an hgnde. 
pa com Modrfd^ faren f)fre mid unimfte volke; x^\n v^vvt-iA>*M^ 
He bar an his hgnde ane wiax strgnge ; .. 
He bigon to hewene hardliche switSe ; 2.0 

And ]?a pgstes forheou alle }?a heolden up J>a halle. (uU^ '' /"^ ft 1 
pf r ich iseh Wenhever f ke, wimmonen leofvest me ; 
Al J>f re miiche hallerof mid hire hgnden ' heo todroh. 
pa halle gon to hselden, and ich hgeld to gri^nden, ^wc^ ^-u 

* Moddrede, as often, but less commonly than the form with one d. 

' Moddred. ' hondeden. 

C^X »Vw 



pat mi riht aerm tobrac ; }>a seide Modrf d * Have J?at.' 
Adun veol }>a halle • and * Walwain gon to vallefy^ * . i>^ ^ 
And feol a )?f re eorSe ; his sennes broken ^ beine. A^ 

And ich igrap ml sweord leofe mid raire leoft hgnde, * A,Y\J 
And smaet of Modrf dis hafd J>at hit wgnd a {jene veld ',- — 5 
And }>a quene ich al tosnatSde mid deore mine sworde^^j^ 
And seotSSen * ich heo adun ^ sette in ane swarte putte ; 
And al ml vole riche sette to flf me, 
pat litiste ich under Criste whar heo bicumen wforen. 
Buten mi seolf ich gon * atstgnden uppen ane wglden, to 

And ich f>fr wgndrien agon wide jeond J?an moreny^y 
otttMAw p|r ich isah gripes and grisliche fujeles. 

pa com an giildene leo liSen over dune, ^ 
Deoren swTSe hende f>a ure Drihten makede ''. 
^^^ pa leo ihe orn,foreii to and iveng me bi )?an midle, iUA^^ 15 

^^^ And forts hire gun jeongen and to )?f re S2e wende f 

And ich isseh ba^ fiSen 1 bere sae driven, w^v^ 
. V \, And be leo I ban vlode iwende wide mid me ® seolve. 
v^ pa T^it I sse comen, )?a iioen me hire binomen; Aa/*^^ ^ 

Com^f r an fisc liSe and fereden me to Ignde ; 20 

pa wes al ich w|t ^^^ and weri of sor^en and seoc. 
pa gon ich iwakien, swiSe ich gon to quakien ; 
V. ^ ' ^^ pa gon ich to bivlen swtilc ich al ffir burne. ^ 

And swa ich habbe al niht of mine swevene ^° swiSe i)?oht, 
For ich wat " to iwisse agan is al mi blisse ; 25 

For a to mine live sor^en ich mot dri3e. 
Wale, J?at ich nabbe here Wenhaver mine quene I ' 

pa andswarede J?e cnibt, * Laverd jju havest unriht ; 
Ne sculde me navere sweven mid sor^en arecchen. ^ t^^"^ 
pu sert )?e riccheste mon J>a rixleotS on Ignden, 30 

And ]?e aire wiseste f>e wunetS under weolcne.' 

^ &, as occasionally. ^ brekeen. ' sweorede. * seodSen. 

* adum. • gond. ^ make. ® ])ce. * me, not in MS. 

*® sweuenene. *^ what 



3if hit w^pre ilimpe, swa niille hit ure Drihte, / 

pat Modrf d ))ire suster sune hafde J>ine quene inume, / 

4nd al )?i kineliche l9nd isaet an his ajere hgnd 

pe ]?u him bitahtest ^ f>u to Rome J^ohtest, c**s*v,. 

Aja^ he hafde al ]?us ido mid his swikedome, ^-,6'AtN-,^ g 

en ^ 3et ))u mihtest l?e awreken wurtSliche mid wf pnen, 
And aeft \>\ Ignd halden a^i^ walden J>ine leoden, 
And ]3[!ne feond fallen f>e J)e iifel unnen, -p^^ 

And slsen heom alle clane J>et ^ no bilayen nane/ -* •^-'^ ^ 
ArSur ^ andswarede, atSelest aire kinge, >>»* '*'ip 

* Lgnge biS »vere )?at no wene ich nsevere, ^ ^'-* '^'^ d 
pat severe Modrf d mi msei, }>at mon is me leofvest ^ 

Wolde me biswiken for^Ue mine richen,_ / 

JJo Wenhaver ml quene waklen on ]>onk^; v^Vix 

\^''^Nulle?5 hit biginne'^'^for nane weorldmqnne.' - * 15 

^^^'^-dEiilg l?an worde fo^riht J^ andswarede )?e cniht : 

* I siigge ]?e soS, leofe king, for ich aem ]?in underling, ' ? 
pjis hafetS Modrf d idon ; J?!ne quene he hafeS ifon. 

And J?i wunlTche Ignd isat an his a^ere h9nd. ^■'^.^.i - ^ 

He is king and heo is quen^; of )?ine kume nis na wene, 20 

For no weneS heo navere to soSe J?at )?u cumen ajain from Rome. 
Ich aem )?in ajen mon, and iseh J)isne swikedom ; 
And ich aem icumen to ]pe seolven soS J>^ to siiggen. 
Min hafved beo t03redde J>at isaeid ich f>e habbe -j*^ *^ T"^\ 
SoS buten If se of leofen ]?ire quene, 4 ► "^ ♦^ ^ » -^ "^ 25 

And of M5drfde J?ire suster sune, hu he hafveS Brutlgnd }>e 
pa saet hit al ^jyie in ArSiires halle ; 
p^a wes ]?gr, sserinesse* mid sele ]?an kinge; '^^ 
wforen Briittisce men swlSe uij^ialde Vor ]?aen. '-- « \" ^^ 
pa iimbe stunde stefne ^r stiirede ; 30 

Wide me mihte iheren Briitten ibf ren, 

* })e. * half line supplied from text B, but with the forms of A. 

' que; probably intended for que a«quen. * saerinsesse. 


it •v-» 



And gunne to tellen a feole c jinne^ gpellen ^ ^^ 
Hu heo wolden fordeme Modrf d and ]?a quene, 
And al ]?at ^ monciin fordon f>e mid Modrf d heolden. 

ArSur ]?a cleopede, hendest aire Briitte, 
* SittetJ adun stille, cnihtes inne halle, 
And ich eou telle wtille spelles uncu^Se 

Nu tomger^e J)enne hit daef biS, and Drihten hine sende, 

Forts ich wiille bQ^e in toward Briittaine ; 

And Modr^d * ich wtille slSn ' and )?a quen forberne, ^ 

And alle ich wtille fordon ]?a biluveden J>en swikedom. ^ %o 

And her ich bilgojven wtille me leofvest mong^'T^T^^^t^^ 

Howel minne leofve mai hexst of mine ctinne, r^ ^ 

And half mine verde ich bilaefven a Jrissen aerde 

To halden al ]>is kinelQnd J^a ich habbe ^ mire hgnd. 

And J?enne J>as J?Tng beoS alle idone^ ajan ich wtille to Rome, 15/ 

And mi wtinllche Ignd bitache * Walwaine mine maeie, 

And ivor]?e mi b^ot seotSSe " bi mine bare life ; — 

Scullen alle mine feond vseisiS* make^e.' ^a ./-r*< "^ ^ 

pa stod him up Walwain )>at wes ArSures msei, 
And J?as word saide; J?e eorl wes abolje : ')^*^^* '^^M"'^! 20 

* iEldrihten Godd, domes waldend, ^^ 
Al middelaerdes mund, whi is hit iwurSen K>'^ 

pat mi brotSer Modrf d J?is mprS hafveS itimbbred ? »^4 w^^^ 

Ah todaei ich atsake hine here bivoren )?issere du^etSe, ca^^^^T/JsT 

And ich hine fordemen wtille mid Drihtenes wille ; ^^-^r" -^^5 ^ 

Mi seolf ich wtille hine anhon haxte aire wajien; ' W^'**'^ CV'^ nI 

pa quene ich wtille mid Goddes, laje al mid horsen todra^e. >^ 

For ne beo ich navere bliSe J>a wile ha "^ beoS alive, 

And }>at ich habbe mine aem awraeke mid J>an beste '/ 

Brtittes )?a answarede mid baldere stefne] l~ ^ 30 

* Al lire wf pnen stinden jarewe ; nu tomarjen we scullen varen^* 

A marjen ]?at hit daei wes, and Drihten hine senden, 

^ jt, as occasionally. ' xnoddred. ' scaln. ^ bitataeche. 

* seod'Se. • wseisi^. ^ a. * berste. 

LAYAMON'S BRUT - ^ ' 185 



ArtJur * vortS him wende mid atJelen his folke ; ^"^^ 
Half he hit bilaefde, and half hit forS ladde. 
Forts he wende Jjurh J>at Ignd J>at he com to Whitsgnd ; 
Scipen he hsefde sone, monie and wel idone ; 
Ah feowertene niht fulle J>f re laei J)a verde 
^ peos wederes abiden, windes bidflde. oU^>-vx^ ^ 

^ Nu was sum forcutS kempe in ArSures ferde ; ^ -«- ^^^^ 

Ansen swa he deme n iherde of Modrf des dfSe *% k-^ 

He nom his swein gi^oustej and sende to ))issen Ipnde, 
And sende word Wenhaveren heou hit was iwurtSen, ^M^ 4" io) 
And hu ArtSQr wes on vore mid miiclere ferde, 
And hu he wolde taken on, and al hu he wolde don. » 

pa quene com to Modrfd ]>at was hire leofvest monnes - '' ^^'^^ ^ \ 
And talde him tidende of ArtSure ))an kinge, 
Hu he wolde taken an^ and al hu he wolde don. 15 

Modrfd^ nom his sgnde and sende to Sexlgnd ^vo^t.** ^'a*^^ 
After Childriche — )?e king wes swTSe riche — 
And bae'd hine cume to Brtitaine ; J>f rof he bruke sculde. 
Modrf d ^ bad Childriche, Jjene strgnge and )?ene riche, 
Wide '-senden spnde a feouwer half Sexlgnde, 20 

And beoden )?a cnihtes alle fat heo bJ^eten mihte, 
. ■ pat heo comen sone to J>issen kinedome '*, 
And h€ wolde Childriche ^eoven of his riche 
Al bi^eonde pf re * Humbre, for he him scolde helpe 
To fihten wits his seme, ArtSure ))an • kinge. 25 

Childrich bfh sone into BrUtlgnde. iv-^^^^ 
V, pa Mddrf d hafde his ferde isomned of monnen, i ^' r^ 

pa wforen }>f re italde sixti J>usende 
Herek«mpen harde of hgtSene volke, 

pa heawforen icumen hidere for Ar'Sures'' haemie, 30 

Modrf (t to helpen, forcutSest monnen. ic-vmAvCv 
pa J>e verde wes isome of sllche monctinne <j'^^ • '' / 

\^ * ariJu. ** OeSe. ' modrsed. ' weide. * kinedone. * J)erere. 

' arSuren, but cf. 1. 14 and often. ^ ardures. 



pa heo wforen }>^r on hfpe an hundred * fusende, 
HfSene and Cristene, mid Modrfde kinge. 

ArtSur lai at WhitsQnd ; feouwertene niht him fuhte to iQng, 
And al Modrf d wiiste wat ArSur J)3er wolde ; 
^Iche dai him comen sgnde from J)as kinges hirede. CkivT 5 
"' '^vf'i^ pa ilomp hit an gne time miichel rd njiini gon rine, 

[And f)e^ wind him gon wende and stod of pan sestende; ' 
And ArSur to scipe fiisde ' mid alle his verde, 
And hehte f>at his scipmen brohten hiiie to Rpmenel ^, 
p§r he J>ohte up wende into J>issen Ignde. vp*^" ^° 

pa * he to {jf re havene com, Modrf d him wes avorn pn * f* 
Ase )?e daei gon lihten * heo bigunnen to fihten 
Alle j?ene Ipnge dsei ; mom mon }>f r df d Isei. 
. vy-'v' Summe hijuhten a Ignde, summe bi )?an strgnde ; ^ 

. / ^^ . Summeuiep letten lit of scipen |gcerpe ^ren scrij>en.f •^ ^JT^ 

.-t" Walwain biforen wende and ]?ene "wiei runidej ^v^ Jv 

And sloh J)f r aneuste Jseines elleovene ; - 3^ ^ -^> 

He sloh Childriches sune, he was )?f r mid his fader icume. >^\^' 
To rest eode J?a sunne ; wae wes J>a monnen. 

pfr wes Walwain afslaeje, and idon of lifedaje, >» ^ 20 

'. < purh an eorle Sexisne — sserl wurSe his saule. (jltiuW*- 
\ pa wes ArSur sseri and sorhful an heorte forJ>i ; 
And )?as word bodede, ricchest aire Briitte : 
* Nu ich ileosed habbe mine sweines leofe. , c 

Ich wiiste bi mine swevene whaet sor^en me wforen ^evetSe. 25 
Isla5en is Angel f>e king J>e wes min a^en deorling, 
And Walwaine ml suster sune — wa is me Jjat ich was mon 

Up nu of scipen bilive, mine beornes phte/ ^ -^v"* 

-ZEfne ]>an worde wenden to fihte 
SixtT ))usend anpn selere kempen, > 30. 

, ,. • And brf ken Modrf des trume, and wel nfh him seolve wes inome. 
Modrf d bigon to fleon and his folc after teon ; .. I 

. V — » 

\^ * hunddred. ^ ^. ' romerel. * auorn on. ■ lihte. 


Flujen veondllche, feldes bedveden §ke; i^J^^M.(M:v , 

guixen Jm stanes mid )?an bl6dstr§mes. wU<<. '^L.^^^ 

pfr wfore al ]?at fiht idon, ah J)at niht to raSe com ;:' ; '/ 

gif )?a niht nf ore, isla^en hi wf oren alle. cs, ,. - ^^ , 

pe niht heom todflde jeond slades and^eond^ dunen; ^r 

And Modrf d swa vortS com J>at he wes -at Lundene. 

' - Iherden J?a burhweren hii hit was al ifaren, 

^ And warnden him m3eong and alle his folke. 
Modrf d Jjeone wende toward Winchestre ^ 
And heo hine undervengen mid alle his* monnen. 10 

And ArtSur after wende mid alle his mahte, 
pat he com to Winchestre mid miichelre verde, 
And J?a burh al birged ; and Modr^d J)f linne abeod*^ 

pa Modrf d isaeh J>at ArtSur him wes ^a nf hj 
Ofte he hine biJ)ohte wget he don mahte. 15 

pa a ))fre ilke niht he hehte his cnihtes^alle, 
Mid alle heore iwf pnen iit of burh^e wenden, I 

And sseide J)at he weolde mid fihte f)f r atstgnden. j -j^ # * 
He bihehte ]?f re burjewere aver mare freo laje, j ; . 
Wits Jjan f>a heo him heolpen at hf^ere neoden. ^ ao 

pa hit wes dseiliht ^ara J>a wes heore fiht. r^**-^' f 

ArSiir J?at bihedde, J>e king wes abolje ; 
He lette bemen blawen an^J>eeimeh men to fihten ; Wv^V^ "^^ 



He hehte alle his beines, and aSele his cnihte -^ 

Sortsomed to fihten, and his veond* avallen, ^^^^ ' , ^^^ 25 
And ]>e burh alle fordon, and J>at burhfolc ahon. 
Heo togadere stopen and stiimlTche fuhten. / 

Modrf d J?a J?ohte what he don mihte ; 
And he dtide }>f re, alse he diide elleswhare, 

Swikedom mid J>an maeste ; for avere he dude uiwwfete ; ao^"^*" 

He biswac his iveren bivoren Winchestren, v> v ^* 
And lette him to cleopien his leofeste anan cnihtes, . ; : 

And his leoveste freond alle of alien his folke, ^ 


5ecm. ^ winchastre. ^ veod. 


^ ^ 





And bistal from J^an fihte — Jje feond hine a^c — Jr* 

And Jjat folc gode lette al ]?fr forwurtfe. /Ltw^'-^ vS^^ 

Fuhten alle daei ; wenden J>at heore laverd ]?f r laei, v^ vA* <y^ 

And wfore heom a neouste at miichelere nQode. ^"Ci^^^^A^ 

pa heold he J^ene wai )?at touward Hamtone laif-^ ^ ^5 

And heolde touward havene, forcuSest hsJretSe ; vk^*'^'^^ 

And nom alle J^a scipen }>a )?f r ^M wf ore, ^j^^ <> 5^3 v^ ^-fv»K 

And fa steormen alle to ))an scipen neode \ 

And ferden into Cornwalen, forcutSest kin|en a ))an dajen. 

And ArSur Winchestre, J>a burh bilai wel faste ; ^ '*' \v 10 
And al {jat monciin ofsloh — }?f r wes sor^en inoh — ^ 
pa jeonge and J>a aide, alle he aqualde. ^^ 

pa l?at folc wes al df d, J?a burh al |orswelae, .. > v^ 

pa lette he mid alle tobreken ]?a waiiesalie." 
pa wes hit itimed )?fre J?at Merlin peide while: 15 

' Mxm wurSest J?u Winchsestre, ]?» eortfe f>e seal forswal3e/ 
Swa Merlin sseide, fe witeje wes ni^re. -v&WiW*v^ 

pa quQn ^ laei inne Eouwerwic, naes heo naevere swa sarlic ; 
pat wes Wenhaver f>a queue, faeqest wimmonne. 
Heo iherde siiggen soSere ' worden, \ 20 

HQ ofte Modrf d flah, and hu Ar^Qr hine bibah ; %ff^^^ 
Wa wes hire J?f re "while J)at heo wes on lifer* 
Ut of Eouerwike bi nihte h^o iwende, 
And t5uward Karliun tdhte swa swiSe swa heo mahte. 
pider heo brohten bl nihte of hire cnihten twelve; 25 

And me hire hafd biwffde mid ane hali rifte, n 
And heo wes J>f r miinechene, karefullest wife, 
pa ntisten men of }>f re queue war heo bicumen weore, 
No feole jf re seotSSe niiste hit mon to soSe, y^ 
WhaSer heo wf ore on df ?fe, and hii h^o henne wende *, 30 

pa heo hire seolf wf ore isunken in J>e watere. 

Modrf d wes i Cornwale and somnede cnihtes feole ; 

To Irlgnde he sende aneoste his sgnde ; 

j.d^ • 

^ ^ ^ neodde. * qne. ' sot$&ere. * half line from B. 


Ta Sexlgnde he sende aneouste his spnde ; 

To Scotlgnde he sende aneouste his sgnde ; 

Hq hehten heom t5 cume alle anan ]>at wolde Ignd habben, 

QSer seolver gSer g5ld, gtSer * ahte gSer ' Ignd ; 

On aelchere wisen he warjiede-hine seolven, ^-^ <-^ ^ 5 

Swa d^ 3elc "witer mon f>a neode cumeS uvenan ^^^ 

ArSur J>at iherde, wra?5est kinge, 
pat Modrfd waes 1 Cornwale mid miichele monweorede, 
And J?f r wolde abiden f>at ArSur come riden. 
ArSur sende spnde jeond al his kinelpnde, 10 

And to cumen alle hehte ]>at quic wes on Ignde, 
pa to vihte oht wf oren^. wf pnen to^beren ; \y^^^ 
And whaswa^* hit forsfte^ fat^ king hete, 
pe king hine wolde a folden) quic^ al forbernen. ^ ^-^ ^' v»'^^^^ 
Hit l»c toward hirede folc unimf te, A*^wt **-^t^ , ^ \ 

Ridinde and ganninde swa J?e rein falleS ' adune. 
Ar8ur for to Cornwale mid unimf te * ferde. 
Modr^d J>at iherde, and him tojeines heolde 
Mid unimfte folke, — J^f r wf ore monie vseie. -^^^ 
Uppen J>fre Tambre^ heo ttihten togadere ; ' 20 

pa stUde hatte Camelford, evermare ilast f>at ilke weorde ; \^-' ^'^i^ 
And at Camelforde wes isomned sixtl ]?usend, 
And ma )>usend J>f rto ; Modrf d wes heore aelder. 

pa f>iderward gon ride ArSur )?e riche, 
Mid unimfte folke, vaeie ]>ah hit wfore. <Ur^-^ 25 

Uppe }>f re Tambre heo tiihte tosomne ; 
Heven heremarken,^halden togadere; ^u^ -u. « ., v ^ 
Luken sweord iQnge, lei^en 6 f>e helmen ; ^^\ 
Ffir Ot sprengen ; speren brastllen ;c^aM^ 
Sceldes gonnen scanen ; scaftes t5brf ken ; 30 

pf r faht al tosomne folc unimf te. 
Tambre wes on flode mid unimf te blode ; 
Mon I I^an fihte ngn })f r ne mihte ikennen nenne kempe, '.' - - 

' Oder. !• wahswa. * quid, s yim failed; B, ren failed. * unite. • Tanbre. 


N9 hwa dtide wiirse np hwa bet, swa f>at witSe wes imenged ; 

^Ku< i< For selc sloh adun riht, wf ore he swein, wf ore he cniht. 

pf r wes Modrf d ofslaje and idon of llfdaje, [^ 

And alle his cnihtes isla3e ^ in J>an fihte. . y^ 

pfr weoren ofslaje alle J>a snelle, «^^*'^ y^ ^^^ 5 

.1^, .^. ArtSures hiredmen *, hf^e and lowe ', j^/^ g/^ 
And ]?a Bruttes alle of ArtSures borde,'^ ^ \>^ 

jc ..vv>-'^' And alle his fosteHinges of feole Bneriches, ^ '"' 
And ArSur forwunded mid walspf re brade ; ■ 
Fiftene he hafde feondllche wunden ; 10 

Mon mihte 1 )?are laste twa gloven i|?raste. 
pa nas )>fr na mare i J>an fihte'* torlave,_^^ 
Of twa hundred J^Qsend monnen ))a pf f leien tohauwen, 
Buten ArtSur J>e king ane, and of his cnihtes tweien. 

ArtSur wes forwunded wunder ane ,swiSe. 15 

pfr to him com a cnave pe wes of his ciinne ; 
He wes Cadores sune, pe eorles of Cornwaile ^ ; 
Constantin hehte J>e cnave, he wes pan kinge deore. 

-J ^ Art ^iir him lokede on pf r he lai on folden, 

And pas word seide mid sorhfulle heorte : 20 

' Constantin * pu art wilcume, pu wf ore Cad5res sone ; 
Ich pe bitache here mine kineriche, 
y» * And wite mine Bruttes(^ to pines llfes^ ende, «>»rc^ 

And hald heom alle pa la^eh pa habbeotS istgnden a mine da3en. 

And alle pa lajen gode pa bi Uteres dajen stode. 25 

And ich wtille varen to Avalun, to vairest aire maidene, 

To Argante pf re quene, alven swiSe sceone, 

And Eeo seal ^ mine wunden makien alle isunde, 

Al hal me makien mid haleweije drenchen; ^''^'^ 

And seoStSe ^ ich cumen wiille to mine kineriche, 30. 

And wunien mid Briitten mid mtichelere wunne/ / 

^ Gap in text A ; first part of line supplied from B. * Ardmes heredmen. 
^ and lowe supplied from B. 3* fehte. * Corwaile. ^ Costatin. 

^ ])ines lifes. ^ slal. ^ seotJe* 




Mint }>an worden ]?f r com of sf w^nden 
pat wes an sceort bat llSen, sceoven mid iiSen, 
And twa wimmen J>f rinne wunderllche idihte ; Ug^ 

And heo nomen ArSur anan, and aneouste hine vereden, y^^\ ^. 
And softe hine adQn leiden, and forS gunnen liSen '. 5 

pa wes hit iwurSen .J)at Merlin seide whilen, 
pat wf ore unimf te care of ArSiires fortSfare ; 
Brtittes ileveS ^ete }>at he beo ^ on live, 
And wunnie* in Avalun mid fairest aire alven ; ' ^ 

And lokleS evere Bruttes aete whan ArtSur cume * liSen.^ . 
Nis naver "pe mon iboren, of naver nane biirde icoren, 
pe cunne of J>an s3Se of ArSiire stiggen " mare ; 
Bute while wes an witeje, Merliij • ihate ; 
He bodede mid worde — his quides'^ wforen sotSe — t^*^*^ 
pat an ArSQr sculde ^ete cum Anglen to fulste . Ia\ 15 




In ure Laverdes luve )?e is Feader of frumschaft, ant on his 
deorewurSe sunes nome, ant o J)es hall gastes f>et * glidetS of ham -^^ 
baSen] alle lewede men J>et understgnden ne mahen Latlnes If dene ^*^" 
KSin and l iistnin ane meidenes liflade, J>et is of Latin iturnd into 
Englisch bet te lifhall Lf fdi in heoyene luvTe us be mare, ant of bis 20 
llhinde llf If ade'^us, wiS hij^ e^dunge J>e is icoren of Crist, into ]>g ^j^^ 
eche of heovene. 4.1inv\vVv^ Vjtx^^rrivv 

peos meiden ant tis martir wes Juliane inempnet in Nichomedes 

burh, ant' of hfSene ciin icumen, ant hire fleschliche feder wes 

AfTrican ihaten, of J>e hfSene mfst. peo f>et Cristene weren 25 

^y'^rfliche he ^° droh ham to df atSe ; ah heo, as ]>€o pet te heovenlTch 

feder luvede, Ifafde al hire aldrene lahen ant bigon to luvien J>ene 

* hine lit^en. ^ bon. * wunnierv * cume *= cumen, * sugen. 

* Mserlin. ^ quitJes. * J), as usual ; expanded ^t in accordance with 

forms in text. ' 1> as often ; ant only form in the piece. ^^ he not in MS. 


1 -^ 


7 u ' 

liviende Laverd, J>e lufsum Godd J?at wi^eS ant weldetS al fet is on 
worlde' ant al \t\. iwraht is. 


pa wes bl J>on time, as redung^* telletS, Maximian, J)e ^lodi y" 
keiser ine Rome, Jiemae ant hferlejnde hf Sene mawmets wiS unmetr 
miichel hird and*un3mifi^du^Ce, ant fordemde alle J?eo ]>e on 5 
Drihtin bilefden. pes Maximian luvede an beh mon of ctinne ant y 
eke riche of rente, Elewsius wes ihaten, «int weren as feolahes furh \^ 
miiche freontschipe. pis meidenes feder ant he weren switfe wel 
togederes. As he sum cnere iseh hire utnumd'''feir ant freoliche 
-.juhetSe*, he felde him i\i'fin2ret J)et, wiSuten lechhunge of hire, 10. 
libben he ne mahte. Aflfrican wiste wel J^et he wes freoborenjant 
..., i^^wf>et him walae bicumeh a freobgren burde, ant jettede him his 
dohter; and heo* wes sone m9ndsald al hire unwilles. Ah heo ^ 
Us truste on him J?at ne trukeneS na mon ]?et trtistetJ treowliche on ^ 
^him, ant euch deis dei eode to chircheto leornen Codes lare, 15 
Y jeornliche to witen hu hamahte best when hire unweommet and 
^ ' y hire riieitJhad wiSuten'man of monne. Elewsius, "be luvede hire, 
\\ Ipnge hit him J^uhte J>et tis dede nere idon J>et heo ibroht were 
)?urh ^vedlac to bedde. Ah, as ha wende hire summes weis to 
wi|ene, sende him to seggen J?et nalde ha lihten swa lahe, ne ao 
rrr^'^Ti' neWechen him for nan liviende jnoUj^ f r J>en he were under 
Maximian behest in Rome, f>et is hehreve. Sone sp he iherde j^is, 
.. , , lie bi^et et te keiser J?et he jettede him reve to beonne as J>et he 
i3Trnd hefde ; and he, as me ]?a luvede, lette If aden him into curetv*- 
]?et' te riche riden in, ant tuhen him jont te tun. from strete to 25 
strete. And al J^e cur wes bitild f>et he wes in witS purpre, witS pal,^.. 
and wiS ciclatiin ant deorewurSe clatSes,^ J>e J?et heh |>ing hefde 
^ to heden/ And J?a he hefde J?is idon, he sende hire to seggen J)et 
he hefjpfe hire wil iwraht, ant heo schulde his wtirchen. 

Jijfiane J)e fdie, Jesu* Cristes leovemon, of his blisfule luve balde 30 
hiMTseolven, sende him to onswere bi an of hire sgnden : * Elewsius, 
,.j^-"^ wfte J)U hit welJrfadT, wraS^ sq f>u wratSSi, nolengre ntil ich hit 
s /neolen J>e ; jef f>u wult If a^en J>e lahen )?et tii list in, ant leven in 

'./ ^ redegungp, *• k, as usual. 'Supplied from Bodl. MS. ^ ^. * Ihu, as usual. 


I J.W < i- -s^ r.L.v-Vj X<^A— < 


Godd Feder ant in his deorewurSe Sune ant 1 be Hal! Gast, ich 
UUe wel neomen }je ; ^ef f>u ntilt n9, f>u art wUndi of me, ant 68er -~ • 

luve seen J>e/ pa ]?e reve iherde J?is he wreSSede him switJe, ant 
hire feder cleopede ant feng on to tellen him hu his dohter droh M*^^ 
him from deie to dfiie, ant efter ]?et he wende to habben his iwil S9 5 
Tia him Jjis word siBlfchte sende. *Bi Jjet ilke Godd/ quotS hire 
feder, * )?et me is lat5 to greniien, beo hit so?5 }?at tu seist, 10 wratJer 
hf ale seide hS. hit, ant nu ich tille 6 grf at |r3me al bitf achen hire 
J)e to wiirchen f>i wil ant al )jet te wel like?5 as mit tin ahne.' . Ant 
me cleopede hire for8 bivoren hire feder, ant he feng feire to fgnain 

un IP 


hjs dohte^: * Mi deorewurSe dohter, hwerfore vorsakest' Q J?i If. ant 

tl seinSe, be weoien ant te w^nnen bet walden aw^kenin ant waxen 

of ]>i wedlac ]>et ich J)e to reade ? For he is inoh laverd, Elewsius, 

ine Rome, ant tu maht beon Ifafdi, dohter, jef f>u wel wiilt/ 

Juliane )je fadie onswerede him ant seide as beo t?et ine G odd hire 15 

hope hefde, * gef he wiile leven an GodTSmihtT, J?enne mei he 

speoken ]?erof^* ant inoh raSe speden; ant5ef henflle nawt,ne schal 

wlven on me, wive f>er his wil is/ pa hire feder iherde )>is, fa feng 

he t5 swerien : ' Bi ml kinjvirurSe laverd Apollo, ant bi mi deore 

Ifafdi Diane, J?et ich miiche luvTe, ^ef J^u baldest heron ich Qlle ao 

leoten deor toteoren ant toluken J>e, ant jeoven Jn flfsch to^ 

fuheles of J>e liifte/ Juliane him onswerede ant softeliche seide, 

* Ne wen )?u nawiht, leove feder, }>et tu afFeare me swa, for Jesu 

Crist Godes sune, }?et ich on leve ant luvie as Laverd lufsumest on ^^, t^ [u, 

live, }>ah ich beo forbernd ant toloken Jigi^l, niil ich her onotit 35 k^^:- 

l)uhen }>e nawiht/ pa feng eft hire feder ^ on witS olhnunge*dijc^ 

fgndin ^ef he mahte sis^^eis wenden hire hecM^te, ant seide hire 

lufsumllche J?et ne schulde ha nane' wtinrie lihtllche wilnin ]?et he 

ne schulde welden, wiS ]?et ha walde hire J>onc wenden. * Nai,' jivt\ 

quoS f>et meiden, ' schuld ich don me to him J?at is alle deovlen 30 

bitaht ant to eche dfS idemet, to furwurtJen wiS him world abuten i 

ende, for his wedlakes weole pSer for enl wiinne ? ForsoS, ich hit 

segge, unwurS is hit me. Ich iille }jet he hit wite wel, ant lU eke 

*•• Jrof. 1 to supplied from Bodl. MS. « feder not in MS. 



194 //. n/E sourh^N dialect 

mid him, Jiet ich am iweddet to an ]>eb ich tille treowliche to halden, 
ant witJQten If s luvTen, J>e is unlich him\nt alle worldllch men ; ne 
niill ich him nowtSer Igiaven ne lihen for Wimple ne for wtinne, for wa 
ne for wtinne j^et je mahen don me/^^ \ ^^ 

I -^ '^v^ pa feng hire feder t6* wreSSen swiSe ferll^h, and swlSe tiSkeN 5 
.^ liche frdnede, *%le hwet is he, J>es were ]?et ti^^ art to iweddet, \ttt 
tu havest witSuten m€ J^ine luve ijenet for hwain f>u letest Ifltel of 
J?et tu schuldest luvien? Ne ich never J)et ich wite^nes wiS him , 
icnawen/ * For Gode,' quo?5 J)et meiden, * f>Tn harm is J?e mare ; 
nSwt for)>! ]?et tu navest ofte iherd of him jare, J>et is Jesu, Codes 10 
sune }>e, for to lesen monciin J>et forloren schulden beon, lette his 
deorwurtJe lif on rode. Ne ich ne seh him never, J>et me sare for- 
-^^^ JjiinchetS; ah ich him' luvTe ant leve as on ISverde, ne schal me 

y.j^^.^.x^r'^^ firsin him from nowtJer deovel ne monV * For mi lif/ quotJ hire 

feder, *J>e schal l|gft his luve, for ]>u schalt beon ibeaten mid 15 
besmes sw5 bittre J>et ttl wummon were schal t 5 wr5ger** h f ale 
iwurSen/ * Swa mUche,' qvotS ha, ' ich iwurtSe him )>e leovere, 59 

.'xir/ *^Hr^ ^^^ dervre J^ing for his luve drehe. pet ti wil is, wtirch nu/ Ant 
he het hatterliche strflpen hire steortnaket, ant bf ten hire swa 

■ liitSere l>et hire leofliche llch nSen ^oblbde. Aiit swa ha diiden 20 

i^ ' S9 liitSere J>et te blod 3ft adun of )>e if rden. Ant heo bigon t5 
^eien, * Bf aten S9 je bf aten, ^e Beliales bfldeles, ne mahe je nowtSer 
mi luve ne mm bilfave Ifitlen towardhim, ml lufsum leof, mi 
leovinde ' Laverd ; ne jtiflU ich leaven ower read bet l^iladeS ow 
seolven, ne ower mix mawmets* J?et beoS ]?es feondes fetles heien 25 
ne herien, for teli'ne ne for tmtreow \>et 36 mahen timbriti/ '^a,'^ 
quotS he, ' is it swa ? Hit schal sutelin sone, for ich iille bitf achen, ' 
^^i'^'l mislich J)I bodi to Elewsium, pe riche reve 1 Rome, ant he schal ' 
forswelten ant lorreden J?e efter his '^ W^^^xJ^fS ,alles ciinnes pinen/ 
' ge,' quotJ l?is meiden, * J>et mei Crist welaen, for ne mahe je nawt 30 
don me bute hwet he wtife ]>eavien ow, to miichelin ml mede ant 
te mtiroe J>et I18 to^meroKalSes menst:e ; for ever sg ^e mare*^jem^ 
me her, sg ml crune bitS brihtre ant fehere. For ich iille bliSeRche 

1 te. ' ichim, *' wraCel. ' leowinde. * mawmex. • es. 


drehen evergiph detf for mi deore Laverdes luve, ant s(ofte me 
biS euch ^fnwen ich him seryi, J^ah )>u me to Elewsium willes 
bitfache. Ne ^et'e ich for mc nowSer, ))et ^e me mahen harmen ; 
for S9 5e mare me her harme}?, 39 mare ^e me helpetS seovevald to 
heovene. Ant ^ef ^e me doS to df aSe, hit bitS me deorewurSe, ant 5 
ich schal l?er|?urh blitSe bicumen into endelf se blissen, ant je schulen, 
wrecches, — a weij^ower wurges f>et ^e iboren weren — sinken to"^*"^^' 
w raSer hgale ow to fe bale bitter deope into helle.' 

Hire feder Affrican, ))urh }?is bittre teone bitahte hire to Elewsium, >o<*jU^ 
}je liiSere reve, ant he lette bringen hire bivoren him to his heh 10 
seotel as he set in dome as reve of J>e burhe. . . . Ant set j?et bale- 
fule bf ast as an ojlfstTbar Jjet grunde his tuskes, ant feng on to ■ ^^C^ 
f|min ant te ^spatren o J>is meoke meiden, ant Jjohte on hwficche^jr^' 
wise he mahte hire awelden. Ant lette fecchen a feat and wiS pich 
hit fuUen ant hfaten hit^^ISf^hat, ant het warpen hire J>erin * hwen ^5 
hit wodelukest weolle: As me dtide hire J>erin*, ha cleopede to 
Drihtin ant hit colede anan, ant war?5 hire as wiinsum as ever em 
wlech weter ]?et were iwlaht te batmen, ant leop wallinde hat up 
ajein J>eo ilke ]?et hit hefden i3aTKet ant forscaldede of ham seolven 
fifti ant tene, ant fordtide fifti al italde. pa ))e reve iseh }>is, he 20 
rende his claSes ant toe him seolven bl J?e top, ant feng to fiten his Xi-***'"' 
mawmets * ant lasten his laverd. * SwitJe,' quoS he, * ut of mm 1^ ' 
ehsihSe, l?et ich ne seo hire na mare f r Jje bodi wit5 ]>e biic beo U<-i . . 
isundret from hire hfavet/^^ 

Sone as ha Jjis iherde, ha herede Godd in heovene ant warS 25 
swiCe gled, for J?et heo iwilnet hefd^*^ Me ledde hire ant * leac * 
forts, ant heo wes ftSluke. As ha stutte 6 )>e sttide f>er ha schulde "^^jji 
dftJ drehen, ]?a com ]?e ilke Belial of helle J>et ha hefde ibf aten 
hire bihlnden, ant gon to jeien, ' A, stalewurtSe men, ne sparie je 
nawiht, ha haveS ^^a^Hg,^!^®^©^ idon; schendeS hire nOoen ant 30 
jeldetS hire ^arew b(^h, ne stuagi je nfaver/ Juliane ]?e fdie »> *^ 
openede hire ehnen ant lokede toward him, ant te bali blenchte ant^v^ ^ ' 
•aid him a^einward as an ischoten arewe. ' Wumme }>et ich libbe,' 

ti^ ^ Vft"^* * mawmez. ^ Supplied from Bodl. MS. • hleac. 



* t*^- 


quoS he, * f>a ich beo nu nan iKnt, ant jef ha keccheSme nu ne find I 
nfaver leche ; igrTpe h| me §ne§, ne ga I nf aver eft mare.' Ant 
If ac him a^einward as a Kebre, bet unwiht, ne mahtQ him nawt letten. 
As ha schulde stupen ant strecchen fortS J>e swire, ha bed first ant 
feng on pus to If aren )>eo Jiet )>er weren, ant Jms seide : ' LtisteS 5 
me, leove men, ant lldeS ane hwTle. ^^^'^peSant 6ii?owse8 ower 
iy;^^.-vvtA ^(lqp^^ a nt lasseS wiS sptS schrift ant wiS dedbote ; If aveS ower 
unlahen ant btildeS ower ooldes uppon treowe staSele pet ne dredetS 
na wind ne na weder nowSer. LokeS ]>et te heov^llch Laverd beo 
• grun^al of al J>et 36 wtirchetS, for l>et stgnt studdJast, falle J>et 10 
falle '. CleopetS jeorne to Godd in hall chirche }>et he jeove ow 
^ wit wel for te donne, ant strenge ow witS his strenctSe a^ein J>en 
^^ ^trgnge H Pgiht J^et seketS* ever ant aa ow for te iS^^ften. LiistetS 
writen lare ant luvietJ }>erefter**; wel is him J?et w'^KetS^ekin ]?is 
^^^^^ Ifide hwlle, ant witetS wel him seolven ant heorteliche\5^i ofte 15 
' for his stinnen. pis world wKnt^jwei as weter ]3et eorneS^ant asv^^"^ 

'^^"h^ • r inaet sweven aswIndeS hire miirhSen ; ant al nis buten a T^wTnd 
)?et we livTetS. Lf avet5 pe If ase ant luvTeS pe soSe, for we schulen 
leten J?is lif niite we nfaver hwenne, ant reope we of J?et ripe sed 
}>et we seowen. SwiSe ich biseche ow ]>et 56 bidden for me, ao 
br?Sren ant sustren/ Ant cfiste ham a cos of pf s, alle as ha stoden, 
ant biheold uppard ant hehede hire stefne : * Laxerd Godd Almihtl,^ 
J)u Invest treowe bileave ; ne. Iff ]>u to )?in Ttan Jjin ilicnesse, ah 
underfeng me to J^e, ant do me in f>in englene hird wiS meidenes 
fe*"^- '^,S^353|Ov^o pe ml gast, Drihtin/ AjiLw{8^]>et ilke, 25 
rp^e ant df rduv?imige dun to )?er eorSe, sone oinffdet ; ant pG 
^fgTe engles, witS hire sawle, singinde sihen toward heovene. ^^*»^ 
^ SotSSen sone J>erefter com a Jen wummon, Sophie ^^gpttP'^ct, bi 
Nicomedes burh 6 rade toward Rome, of heh ciin akfennet, ant 
nom J>is meidenes bodi ant ber hit in a bat, biwunden deorliche 30 
in deorewurSe clatJes. As ha weren in wettre, com a steorm ant 
draf ham to Ignde into Campaine ; ant |?er lette Sophie, from l>e 
sf a a mile, setten a chirche ant don hire bodi f>erin ^ in stanene 

* ]jet falle, from Bodi. MS. » sele'S. *' >refter. » >rm. 



^^ THE ANCnm RIWLE 197 

]3ruh hehliche as hit deh halhen ^ to donne. pe reve, )5a he herde 
}?is, bigon te rowen efter for te rfayen hit ham, ant i J?e sfa** 1^^'*'"'*' 
(^'^''^chte ; for Jjer arisen stormes starcke ant strange, ant breken 
J>e schipes doto, adrenchten on hare J)rittu"Se sum ant Jjerto eke 
fowre, ant warp ham adriven to Jje Ignde, Jjeras wilde deor limel 5 
toluken ham, ant te unseli sawlen suncken into helle. aaa^^'^^^^^U 
pus f>et fdie meiden wende Jjurh pinen to Jieovenllche wuhnen, 
in ]?e iiSiffecu^ burh Nicomede hatte, o J>e sixtenSe dei of 
Feovereles moneS, J>e fortende kalende of Mearch J>et cumeS efter. 
Heo us erndi to Godd J>e grace of him seolven, bet. rixleS in 10 

"' U freohad, ant Jjah is an untwf amet. Iheret ant iheieT wurSe he >^AMiAA^v«u 
^ him ane as l|e is wurtSe, ant ever ah te beonne, world abuten ende. 


^. ^' \ - 

'' • ^C,.. .A3^ \aJ^ 


Of Speech ft^"^^ ^* 

Spellunge and ^ smecchunge beoS ine mu'Se bgSe, ase sihSe is 1 V»^^^^-\ 
J>en eien ; auhwe schuUen l^ten smecchunge vort tet we spfken of 15^^^^^^ 
ower mf te, and spf ken nu of spellunge and tf refter of herrunge, of 
bg imfn^ sume cherre ase gOS togederes. l^v^^ . 

On aire frest hwon je schulen t5 oure parlures Jjiirle, iwitetS et *^^^^ «^'^ 
ower meiden hwo hit beo f>et ^ is icumen, vor swuch hit mei beon J)et 
^\ ' 3e schulen asunien ou ; and hwon 36 ajles moten vorS, creoisetS ful 20 
jeorne our mu?$, f aren, and eien, and te breoste f ke, and ggS forS 
mid Codes drfde to preoste. On ^rest siggetJ ^confiteory and 

^ deh alhen. ' ^ ^* sea from BodL MS, ^ 1, as ustlal. ^ jJ, as often. 


))§refter ^henediciU\ ])et he ouh to siggen ; hercneS his wordes and 
sitteS al stille }>et, hwon he parteS vrom * ou, J>et he ne cunne ower 
god ne ower uvel nouSer, ne .he ne cunne ou nouSer blamen ne 
preisen.^ Sum is 39 wel ilfred gtSer s| wis iworded bet heo wolde 

]5et he wtiste hit J^e sit and sp^ketS touw^rd him and 5§lf nim word 5 
ajein word, and bicumeS meister f>e schulde beon^^m:rej and 
IfareS him J>et is icumen to If ren hire ; wolde bi hire tale sone 
beon mit te wise icfid and icnowen. Icn0"^en heo is wel, vor J>urh ^* 
])et ilke fet heo wenetS to beon wis ihyRien he understont -^et heo 
is sot, vor heo hunteS efter pris and kec<5heS lastunge. Vor et te 10 
laste hwon he is iwend awei, * peos ancre,' he wtile siggen, ' is of 
mtichele spfche/ Eve heold ine Parous l^nge tale mid te neddre 
V^^*^*' bet tolde hire al bet lescun bet God hire hefde ilered and Adam of 
*''' ^ ]>en epple; and S9 J?e veond Jjurh hire word understod angn iiht 

hK^XK^ hire wgcnesse and ivpnd wei touward hire of hire vorlgrenesse. ^5 
tJre Lf fdi, Seinte Marie, diide al anoSer wise, ne tglde heo J^en 
engle ngne tale, auh askede him Jjing scKeortli^he ]>et heo ne kiitSe. 
5e, mine leove §ti^tren, voleweS ure Lf fdi and nout J)e kakele Eve. 
Vor)?i ancre, Hwatsf heo beo, alsf miichel ase heo ever con and 
mei, hglde hire stille. Nabbe heo nout henne kfinde. pe hen 20 
hwon heo haveS ileid ne con biiten kakelen. And hwat bi3it heo 
fjfrof ? KumetJ ]>e cgve angn riht and rfvetS hire hire eiren, and 
frf t al Jjet of hwat heo schulde vortS bringen hire cwike briddes . 
And riht alsg J?e lii'Sere cQvedeoveljberS awei vrpm ]>e kakelinde 
ancren and vorswoluweS al ]>e g5d ]>et heo istr^oned habbetJ, and 25 
schulden ase bridd es bf ren ham up touward heovene jif hit JJ^ 
,V' ^ Vv icakeled. pe wreche peoddare mgre noise he maketS to ^eien 
t., . v.k^Tsv- his'' sgpe, ben a riche mercer gil his deorewurSe ware. To sume 
ggstliche monne ^]?et 58 beoS triisti ' uppen, ase yd muwen beon/ of 
Ifit,) god is \>et je asken rf d, and salve J^et he tf che ou tojeines 30 


f - igndunges, and me schnfte scheawetS him^gif he wule ihejenjower ^ 

gr|5i^ and ower Igdlukeste sunnen, vorpi ]>et him areowe ou and I 

Jjurh }5e bireounesse crie Crist inwardliche merci vor ou, and habbe I 

* vrorm. *• J, as often. * is. ' strusti. 


ou ine mUnde and in his bonen. ^ Sed multi veniuni ad vos in ^- 
vesiimeniis mjtum, intrinstcus auiem sunt lupi rapaces^\ *Au!h witetS 
ou and beotS iwarre,' he seitS, ure Lgverd, * vor monle cumeS to ou 
ischriid mid Igmbes fleose and beoS wQde wulves/ Worldliche 
men "e\^oJ[ut% religiuse ^etlesse; ne wilnie je nout to mdchel 5 
nJJl'e kSolfchunge. Eve wiSiite drfde spec mit te neddre; lire 
Lf fdi was ofdrf d of Gabrieles spf che^/ 

WitSute witnesse of wfopmon goer of wummon ]jet ou muwe 
iheren, ne spf ke je mid ngne monne ofte ne Ignge ; and }>auh hit 
beo of schrifte 1 J^en ilke hiise 9tSer \%x he muwe iseon touward ou, 10 



^ sitte f>e Jjridde, bute jif J?e ilke l?rid de otSer stu nde^ trukie. l)is nis 
nout vor ou, leove sustren, iseid, ne vor oSer swQche ; nov^lorpi^ 
)?e treowe is misleved, and te sakelfase ofte bilqwen vor wone€*l*^.^vv-^^^ 
. of witnesse. Me ilevetS }>et tivel sone, and te rniMoreste blitJeliche tv^i 
lleS on J?e gode. Sum unis^li, hwon heo seide J?et heo schrgf hire, 15*^*** 
haueS ischriven hire al to wundre. Vor}>i owen J>e gode ever to 
habben witnesse vor twg ancnSsuns ; nomeliche, J>et gn is }>et te 
^onflule ne muwen lien on heom,'s9 })et }>e witnesse ne preove 
heom valse, }>et oSer isvpr te jiven J?e oSre vorbisne, and binime v^^^^<' 
]?e tivele ancre J?et ilke unis|u gile pet ich of seide. 30 

tJt of chirche]7urle ne hglde^e ngne tale mid ngne monne, auh 
bfreS wurSschipe }>frto vor J?et hgK sacrament Jjet je iseoS 
f>f r)3Urh ; and nimeS oSerhwflles ower wummen to }>e buses Jjtirle, 1* 
J)eo oSre men and wummen to J^e parlurs J^iirlelspf ken^bSten vor 
neod^ ne ouwe ^e buten et Jjeos twg J?tirles. 25 

Silence evere et te mf te, vor jif oSre religiuse dotS hit ^se^e j^el^ 
wiitetS 36 ovgen bivgren alle ; gnd jif em havetS deore gist, do hire , 
meiden ase in hire stiide te .gledlen hire, vere/ and heo schal 
habben If ave to gpenen hire })url f nes §Ser twies and makien 
signes touward hire of gne glede chere. Summes kurteisie is 30 
^ • ngSelfas iturnd hire to tivele; under semblaunt of god is ofte 
' ^ih|led sunne. Ancre and buses Iffdi ouh mtiche to beon bi- 
tweonen. Everiche Vrideie of J?e 5^ r hgldetJ silence, biite jif hit beo 

* hit. * stude. 

lt»vv'<«. 1-t- 


duble f|ste, and teoiine hgldetS hit sum oSer dai i tSe wike ; i ?5en 
Advent and i "Se tJmBri^awes, Wodnesdawe^ and Fridawes ; i Se 
Leinten Jjreo dawes, and al ]>e swTwike ' ^v?m non of Jstre f ven. 
To owr meiden ^e muwen ]jauh siggen mid Ifit wordes hwatsf je ^ 
wiilleS ; and ^if eni g6d mon is of feorrene ikumen, hercnetJ his 5 
spfche and onswerleS r^^d lU^orcks to his askun^^ .^^^^^jP^^^^, 

Muche f^l^^h^ wgrej f>e muhte to nis owene bm6ve, nweSersf he 
woldoignhden greot g'Ser hwf te, jif he griinde Jjet greot and lefde 
pene nwfte. Hwf te is hpli spfche. ase Seint Anselme seiS. Heo 
grint greot J)e chfofled. pe twg cneoken beoS ]?e twg grinstgnes; 10 
Jje tunge is fe cleppe. Lok^S^eove stistren, J>et ouwer cheoken 
ne grinden never bute soulwode, ne our faren ne hercnen never 
bute soulehf ale ; and nout ' gne our f aren auh ower eiej>(irles 
tUnetS ajein idel spf che, ]>et to ou ne cume ng tale, ne titJinge of ]>e 
worlde. 15. 

ge ne schulen vor ngne binge ne warien, ne swfrien bute jif ^e 
siggen witterliche OSer'sikerllcne, gVer summe swtiche wise ; ne ne 
prf che je to ngne mon, ne ' ng mon ne aski ou rf ad ne counsail, 
ne ne telle ou. RfadetS wummen gne. Seinte Powel vorbfad 
wummen to prf chen — ' Multeres ^ non permitto docereS Nenne 20 
wrfopmon n$ chg^tl ae, ne ne etwiteS him of his unSf au, bute lif he 

"" ■*" '^i"^ •Art'*'*' * 

beo }5e gvirkuore. Hglie gldF'ancren muwen don hit summes 
weis, auh hit nis nout siker ]?ing, ne ne limpeS nout to J>e ^unge. 
Hit is hore m eister ))et beoS gver oSre iset and habbeS ham to 
witene ; ancre nave^ .to witene buten hire and hire meidenes. 25 
M^a Hglde everich his owene m^er and nout ne rfavie otSres. Moni 
mon weneS to don wel Jjet ne deS al to cw^ade ; vor, ase ich f r 
seide, under semblaunt of gode is ofte ihfjed sunne, and Jjurh 
swiich chastiement havetS sum ancre arfred l?itweonen hire and 
hire preost gSer a valsinde luve gSer a muche weprre. 30 

Seneca seide, ^Ad summam volo vos esse rariloquos^ iuncque pauct- 
loquos ' ; ]?et Is, ' pe ende of Jje tale,' seitS Seneke the wise, ' ich iille 
Jjet 3e spf ken seide, and Jjeonne buten Ifitel/ Auh monl pfint hire 

^ swidwike. ^ No je in MS. ^ ne ne. 

-; ' -. i 


word vor te If ten mg ut, as me. deS water et tf r miilne cluse ; and 
so diiden Jobes freond betpWeren icumen to vrovren him, sften 
stille alle ieovemht, auh \>to neo hefden^ alles ^igunne^ to 
spfkene Jjeone kuSen heo nevere asttinten hore clep^eT' Gregory^: 
' Censura siUncii ^frittira est verhi! Sg hit is ine ^ monie, ase 5 
Seint Gregorie seitS, 'silence is wordes fosmld and bringeS for]? 
chfafle.' An otfer half ase he seit^.V^^^ silencium cogit celesiia 
mediiari^ — 'LQng silence and wel iwiist neSeo Jje Jjouhtes up 
touward \l%x heovene.' Al s§ ase je muwen iseon })et water hwon 
me p3nt hit, and stoppetSJjivQren wel S9 ]?et hit ne muwe adune- 10 
ward, Jjeonne is hit ined a^ein vor to climben upward ; and ^e al 
Jjisses weis ptindeS ower wordes and forstoppeS ouwer ]?ouhtes, 
ase ae wtilleS bet heo climben and hien tpuward heovene and nout 
ne vallen aduneward, and tovleoteti ^eona te world ase detS 
mCichel chfafle. Auh ^^woEiae jiede moten spfken, a Iflte wiht 15 
leseo up ouwer miitSes flodjeten, ase me detJ et tfr miilne, and 
If ted adun sone. 

Of Domestic Matters ^ ' 

Hit ne limpetJ nout to ancre of otSer monne elmesse vor to 
makien ^[^^rge. Nolde me lauhwen ane beggare lude to iise- 
mare )5et bede men to §stei Mane and Marthe bgSe heo wf ren 20 
sustren, auh hore llf suncKae. 3e ancren habbeS inumen ou to 
Marie dgle, J^et tire Lgverd stllf herede. * Maria opiimam partem j 
elegit' 'Marthe, Marthe,' cwetS he, 'bu, ert ine mjachele baret; 
Marie havep ich ose n betere, and ne schal hire ngSing binimen hire 
dgle/ HOswifsdhipe is Marthe dgle, and M^rle dple is stilnesse and 2*5 ^ 
reste of alle worldes noise, J^et ngtSing ne lette hire vor to iheren r* 
Codes stefne. And lokeS hwat God seiS, f>et ngSing nq schal 
binimen ou ]?eos dgle. Marthe havetS hire mester ; IfteS hire 
iwurSen, and sitte ie mid Marie stpnstille et * Godes fet and 
hercnetS him gne. Marthe mester is vor to veden and schriiden 30 

^ ))eo hefden, heo above line. . . * Greg. • ine. * ed. 


J ,1 » 


202 //. THE SOUTHERN DIALECT ..d^ . 

povre men, ase huself fdi : Marie ne ouh njjut vor to entremf teii 
hire )?f rof, and ^if ei blameS hire God stilf Qviralw^reS hire ]5f rof, 
ase h^nvrit witneS. An otSer half, n^n ancre ne ouh for to nimen 
bute ^jildeEha bet hire toneodeS. Hwarof Jjeonne mei heo 
maklen hire larger' Heo schal libben bi elmesse ase neruhliche 
r ,^^ ase heo ever mei, and nout gederen vor to ^iven hit eft. Heo nis 


nout husei^ auh is a c hirche anc re^ Jif heo mei jmrTen en! 
povre schr^aen, sende ham al dernencBfe ut of hire woanes^; under 

t .<- 

semblaunt of gode is ofte ihf led stinne. And hwu sdiukn Jjeos 
- ' riche ancren J)et beoS eorSetilien, 9?ter habbeS rente^ iSfitte, don to lo 
povre neihebmires derneliche hore elmesse? Ne minen nout for 
to habben worn of one large ancre, ne vor to sivien miichel, ne beo 
u V :.o^« jign }>e grfdlure vg^ to habben mgre. Beo^ grfdinesse rote of 
hij^ l^itternesse ; die beotS J^e bowes bittre bet of hire sgnngeS. 
Bidden hit vor to jiven hit nis nout ancf^e Tmte. ''Of ancre 15 
kurteisie, and of ancre* largesse, is ikumen ofte stinne and schfome 
on ende. 

"^ummen and children Jjet habbe^^wunken vor ou^.hwatsf je 
Vdltf^ feparieS on olTmakie'S ham to gtene ; ^^nenne mon bivgrdn 5u bute 
- ^' 3if he habbe neode, ne laSe aje to drinken nout. Ne ^ime ich ]?et 20 

me telle ou hendi ancren. Et gode vreond nimeS al J^et ^e habbetS 
neode hwon heo beodetS hit ou ; auh for ngn bgde ne mme je nout 
wiSuten neode, leste je kecchen Ipene ngme of g^grinde^ ancren. 
Of mon J)et je misleveo ne nimeje nouSer lesse ne mgre, nout sg 
muche bet bet) a rote sringivre. Muchel neode schal driven ou vor 25 

f^<ft((P ^K^k^ ° ^ ',,..^7.. 

te bidden out; J>auh fdmodliche schfaweo to ower leoveste 
vreond ower miseise '. 

5e, mine leove sustren, ne schulen habben np bf st bute kat pne. 

Ancre J)et havetS eihte )?unche8 bet husewif, ase Marthe was, f>en 

;.v. .., ancre; ne ngne weis ne mei heo beon Marie mid griSfulnesse of 30 

heorte. Vor beonne mot heo benchen of be kues fpddre, and of . 

. -. heordemonne htiire, oliihnen bene heiward, warien hwon me piiilt 

hire, and jelden Jjauh J?e hermes. Wat Crist ]>is is Igdlich }>ing 

1 J>eo. 2 gederindde. ® meseise. 

^ <%**■«)<. O-O- r^ •'"' t 


hwon me * makeS mgne in tune of ancre ^te. J>auh jif em mot 
nede habben ku, loke J>et heo ngne monne ne eille, ne ne hermie, 
ne ))et hire ]?ouht ne beo nout Jjfron ivestned. Ancre ne ouh 
nout to ^abben np Jjing Jjet .dr^e utward hire heorte. Ngne ^ 
"^cAeMare ne^Ive je; ancre ]>et is^l^lpiiclrheo chfapeS hire soule 5 
be chepmon of helle. Ne wite je nout in oure jjiuse of oSer monnes 
Jjinges, ne eihte, ne clgtSes ; ne no^t ne un dervp je J>e chirche vesti- ^ 
mentsS ne J?enecalis ^ bute yf strencfe '^hit makiejgtSer miichel eie, \ pJ^ffi^ 
vor of swuche w^unge^is ikumen mtichel tivel ofteslSen. WitSinnen^^^'^ 

i^n slf pen. gif miichel neode mid 10 
hwfile f>et hit ever is ibrgken loke 
]>et 36 habben J?f rinne mid ou gne wummon of elf ne live, deies and 
nihtes. ' / ^ "- 


^ -t^'-' 

ft,,^'..,>\l'^- V ••*^" 



MtJCHE hab * fe sSrwe ibe ofte in Engelgi^e, 
As seTmowe her. and er irmre and * understgnde. 
Of moni baiaile Jjat hijp ^ ibe, and J^at men ]5at Ignd nome. / 
Verst, as 36 habbe)> ^ ihtird, Jje emperours of Rome, 
Sufjje Saxons and Englisse mid batayles strgnge. 
And sViplpe hii of Denemarch Jjat hfilde it al sq Ignge ; 
Atte laste hii of Normandi, Jjat maisters bej> 5fit here, 
Wonne hit and hpldef jfit, ich olle ^ telle i^i wikhrmanefi 
p9 Willam bastard hiirde telle of Karaites swikelhf de, 
Hou he hadde ® ymad him king and mid siich falshf de, — 
Vor Jjat Ignd him was bitake, as he wel wiiste, -j^)''"- 
To wite hit to him wel and he wel to him trust^y^ 25 

* me me. ^ vestimenz. ^ caliz. * ]?eo. * aj). 

• &, as often. ' abbe]?. * icholle = ich wulle. * adde. 

-/«.-' ^ ^'A 


As .J)e hende he dtide verst, and messagers him sende, 

pat he understode him bet his * df de vor to amende, 

And )x)5te on Jjc grgte g]> ]>at he him hadd^* cEydS ^(ji^^rJacJ 

To wite him wel Engelgnd and t& spquspais^cK^ter alsQ, 

And hfilde him )>f rof yi^f^^afdeTas he tih^t f k "pe kinge > ^ JL 
And bote he dtide bitime he wolde sende him 6]?er tldinge^'l^ip^ 
And seche him out ar twelfmon)?e, and his VPilS^L^^*'*^^' ^ 

^Uaa^ pat he ne ssolde habbe ' in al Engelgnd an heim to wite him inne/ 
Harald him sende word Jjat folie it was to triiste 
To siich gp as was ido mid streng)?e, as h| wgl wuste ; 10 

Vor jif a maide treujje ipli3t to do an wleafde . ^ iJU>^ ^ 

Al gnejriveliche, wijjoute hire frendes ^f de^^U, -/^a>*^ 

' I ptiike vorewarde wf re vor no^t ; and watlJbKritajte ber, 
pat ich swor an gp f>at was al in ]?I poer7'~'~^' 
Wijjowte conseil of al f>e Ignd, of ping J^at min no^t nas ; ^ )^ 15 
pf rvgre nede gp iswgre, nede ' ibrgke was. 

And 5if J)ou me wolt seche in Engelgnd ne be pou nojt SQ stfirne ; 
Siker }>ou be Jjou ne ssalt me finde in ngne hfirne.(t\^>l03 "" 

p9 Willam hurde J>at he wolde susteini his ^ Iricherie, 
He let ofsende his ^ kni3tes of al Normandle 20 

To c5nseill him in }?is cas, and to helpe him in such nede ; 

MMAvww^' And he gan of hor porchas largeliche hom bede, v 
As hii founde siippe in Engelgnd, p^tj^fixine was ; 
pe betere was toward him hor'herte vor bis cas. 
pe Due Willam his^ wille amgng Horn alle sfde, 25 

pat four )3inges him made mf st biginne J)ulke df de : 
pat Godwine, Haraldes fader, to df )?e 1ft ido * 

0^"^' Sg villiche Alfrfd his^ cosin, and his* felawes alsg; 

x^ ■- And vor Harald hadde^ his* gp ibrgke J^at he swor mid his* rijt 

hgnd, , ■ . 

pat he wolde to his * blfiS^JT" witle Engelgnd ; 1^ 30 

And vor Seint Edward him ^ef Ehgelgnd alsg ; 

And vor he was next of his * blod and best wurf>e J?f rto, 

1 is, as often. ' adde. » abbe. * do. » biof>e. 

~^'^^ vv '. .U^v' > v'r v^M '.•//- -A -. cn,v^v \') W imtA ca/cl ^aa^-wA 



And vor Harald nadde 119 ri3t bote in falshf de ; . ^^ 

pes )?inges him made mfst biginne )?iilke dfde^tvfr'^'^'y ^jj^ 

And vor he wolde })at alle men iseye his ^ rewefif de,() 
To ]>e P^pe Alisandre he sende in slich cas him to r|de. 
Haraldes falshf de \>g pe Pgpe ysey ]?f re, — c 

And parauntre me him tglde mgre pan soJ> wfre, — ^^♦Mva^ vVn^MA^^x" 
pe Pgpe asoilede and blessede Willam and alle his 
pat into pis bataile mid him ssolde iwis, 
And halwede his * baner Jjat me atvgre him bf re. 
p9 was he and alle his gladdore ]?an hii fr wf re. 10 

S9 f>at J>is due hadde * J^en hervest al ^are 
His barons and knijtes mid him vor to fare. / 

To Jje havene of Sein Walri'^e due wgode "pg, '^ ' • 
Mid be men bat he hadde' ancfroiaemSA .^ />. Y 
After hervest pg hor ssipqgjnd biij^rpreste w^re, ^u^to '5 
And wynd ' hom com ax^TVille hor seiles hii gonne arf re, 
And hidenvard in J?e sf wei glad f>en wei nome, 
S9 J?at biside Hastinge to Engel9nd hii come ; 
Hom Jjojte pg hii come a l9nd J^at alwas in hor h^nd. 
As sone as pe Due Willam his ^ fot sette a l9nd, 30 

Qn of his ^ kni^tes gradde, ' H9ld vaste, Willam, nou 
Engel9nd, vor Jjfr nis 119 king bote pou; 
Vor siker J?ou be Engel9nd is nou f>in iwis/ 
pe Due Willam an9n vorbed aJU^is 

pat n9n nfre 39 \v6d to fooby, ne n9 maner harm do Jjfre 25 

Upe pe \gnd pot his * was, bote hom"}?at-fk5€ii,him wf re. 
Al an fourtene ni3t hii bilf vede J)f r aboute, 
And conseilede of batayle and ordeinede hor route. 

King Harald sat glad ynou at Euerwik ^t^nif t^, 
S9 }>at ))fr com a messager ar he Hadde ^ i3fte,f/* ^ i ^ ^ <^. 30 ^ 
And sf de j^at Due Willam to Hastinges waslcome, 
And his * baner hadde * arf rd, and |>e contreie al inome. 

^ is. ' adde. ' wynd, not in MS. ; supplied from MS. B and 

others. * it. 


Harald angn mid cpret e hert e c orageGs ynou, ; 

As he of ng mon ne^He jjtiderward vaste he dron. 
He ne 1ft nojt cltipie al his ^ folc, sg willesfol he was, . ^ >.- ' 

And al for in f>e oJ?er bataile him vel"sg^aTr cas. ^ 

p9 Due Willam wiiste jjat he was icofiie sg neL J^ ^oiJ^iA -^/lA 5 
A monek he sende him in message and OToelis pe sleyTj 
pat Ignd f)at him wa& ijive bat he ssolde him up jelde, 
Qj?er come and otfi^iii peri^te mid swerd in pe velde. 
gif he sf de Jjat he nadde ngne rijte J>f rto, 

pa^upe J?e Pgpes "jSkii^eoT Rome^he ssolde it do, 10 

nckhejvolde J)f rto stgnde al wi]?oute firtgi^ 

fr Seint Edward hit him ^af, an(H^|rh§ hadde^ Jjf rto rijte. \ 

Harald sende him word a3en J?at he nolde hii^ gK-n g Ignd, 
^^ 09 lokipge of Rome, bote swerd and rijt hgiflir* 
p9 hit oI)er ne mhte be, ei]>er in his * side 15 

Conseilede ano^ai'kede honi bataile vor to abide. 

pe Englisse al pS nijt bivpre vaste bigonne to singe. 
And spende al J^e nijt in glotonie and in drinkinge. v4^' 

pe Normans ne dude no^t sg, ac criede on God vaste, cl ♦ ^^>^^^^ 
,^^v^G^NA^ And ssriv e hom, f ch after 6J>er, J^e wule f>e nijt ylaste, ao 

And a morwe hom 1ft hosell mid milde' herte ynou. 
And siij^jje f>e due m]> his ^ hgst^* toward J>e bataile drou, 
An stounde he gan abide, and his ^ kni3tes rf de : 
* ge kni^tes,' he sf de, * f>at be]? of sg ngble df de, 
pat nfre nevere gvercome, ne joure elderne naj^emg, 25 

Understgndejj of J>e kynge' of France |>at jSure elderne diide 

S9 w9, 
Hou mi fader in Paris amidde his * kinedom. 
Mid prowesse of ^oure faderes mid streng]?e him Overcome. 
Understgnde)) hou ^oure elderne "pe king nome alsg, 
And held him vorte he hadde ^ amended J>at he hadde * misdo ; 30 
And feichard J?at was ]>g a child i^glde Normandie, ^ ; * 
^ pat was due her bivgre, and ]5at to siich maistrie * 

* is. 2 adde. ** ost, as always. ' kunde; other MSS. kynge. 



pat at f che Parlement J>at he in France wf r^, 

pat he wf re igtird wi)> swerd J^e wule he wf re J>f re, 

Iifi_feit Jje King of France ne his sp hard! n^re, TVv>v^v^ 

Ne ngn atte Parlement J>at knif ne swerd bf re. 

UnderstgndeJ) f k \>e df des )?at ))ulke Richard dtide alsg, 5 

pat he ne overcom nojt kinges algne, ac wel mpre ]?f rto, 

Ac he overcom Jje devel and adoun him caste, 

Togadere as hii wrastlede, and bpnd his ^ hpnden vaste 

Bihinde at his ^ rugge ; of siich prowesse je J^enche, ' ^ 

Ne ssame ^e nojt )?at Harald, )?at 6vere was of lUJ?er wrenc he, ^ 10 

And bivpre 50U was vorswgre, J^at he wolde mid his * l^ile . 

Turne his * wgmbe toward us and his * face in bataileV ^ 

Understgndejj ))e swikedom )>at his * fader and he wrojte, 

And hii J?at mid him here be)?, )pg hii to df J>e brojte 

Sq villiche Alfrf d mi cosin, and my ktinesmen alsg. 15 

Hou mijte in eny wise mgre ssame be ido ? .^ 

Monie \>2X dude J?tilke df de je mowe her ise ; • 

Hou Ipnge ssoUe hor Itljjer hf ved above hor ssoldren be ? 

AdraweJ) joure swerdes, and loke w^^may do best, 

pat me ise ^oure prowesse fram f st to J)e west, 20 

Vor to awrf ke }>at gentil blod J?at sp vlUiche was inome 

Of iir ktinesmen, vor we mowe wel, ur time is nou icome/ 

pe due nadde nojt al isf d, J?at mid f rnest grf t 
His folc quicliche to J)e bataile sscf t. 

A swein Jjat het Taylefer smpt vSqp bivpre }?f r, 25 

And slou anpn aiTEngliss mon Jjat a baner bf r, 
And eftsone ' ano)?er baneur, and J^e )?ridde almost alsp, 
Ac himstilf ' he was aslawe ar ]?e dfde wfre ydo. 

pe verst ende of his ^ hgst bivpre Harald mid stich ginne 
S9 J?ikke * sette pat np mon ne mijte come wij>inne, 30 

Wi}? strgnge targes hom bivgre Jjat archers ne dtide hom no3t, 
Sg \>2X Normans wf re pei to grounde ibroht. 

1 is. ^ ef sone ; other MSS. eft sone. ' hom suit'. * >ilke. 


Willam bijjojte an quointlse, and bigan to fie vaste, 

And his * folc vorJ> mid him as hii wf re aghaste^ 

And flowe gver an iQnge dale and 39 up an hey. 

pe ErigTfW hgst was prout ynou ]?q he }>is isey, 

And bigonne him to sprf de, and after ]jen wey nome. 5 

pe Normans wf re above J>e hiil, }>e 6)>er upward come, 

And bitumde horn above al f sellche, as it wolde be donward, 

And Jje oj^ere binf }>e ne mijte n03t 59 quicliche upward, 

And hii wfre bivpre al tosprad }>at me mijte bitwene hom wende. 

' pe Normans wfre Jjq wel porveid, aboute in fche fnde^ 10 

And stgnes adonward slonge upe hom ynowe, *^ . 

And mid spf res and mid flgJL ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ slowe, (•^^'^'^ 
And mid swerd and mid ax-vor hii Jjat upward nome^ 
Ne mi3te ng wille habbe ^ or diint as hii ^p^t donward come, • 14 
And hor vantwarde was tobrgke Jjat me mijte wijjinne hom wende ; 
Sq \>dX f>e Normans vaste slowe in fch ende 
Of J>e Englisse al vor no^t, \>zX J>e valgifi was nei ••' 

As hei iftild mid dfde men as }>e doune an hei. ''^'*' 
pe ssetare donward al vor no3t vaste slowe to grounde, 
S9 paTHarald Jjoru ]?en eie issgte was df J?es wounde ; 20 

And a knijt J?at isei J>at he was to df f>e ibro^t, 
And smQt him as he lay binf )?e, and slou him as vor nojt. 
Fram jjat it was a morwe J)e bataile ilaste strgng, 
Vorte it was hei mid 9vernon, and Jjat was somdfl l9ng. V- " 
Kfoni was }>e gode dtint Jjat Due Willam jef a day; - 25 

f" 'Yox J?re stedes he slou under him as me say, . . 

Vorpriked and vorarned aboute, and vorwounded als9. 
And debrused ajen df de men ar Jje bataile wf re ido ; 
And 3tit was Willames grace ]?ulke day S9 god 
pat he nadde n9 wounde warjjoru he ssedde ^ an dr9pe blod. 30 

pus, I9, J?e Englisse folc vor nojt to grounde com, 
Vor a fals king ]?at nadde n9 ri^t to )?e kinedom, 

Ms. i» agaste. 2 ^bbe. ' ssedde. 


^ ^^y^^H , 





Ani} come t5 a nywe iQverd Jjat mgre in rijte was ; * 

jc_hOTn9)5er, as me may ise, in pur rijte nas. 
And }>us was in Normannes hgnd Jjat Ignd ibrojt iwis, 
pat an aunter jif evermQ keveringe J?f rof is. 
Of Jje Normans be]? heye men fat hep of EngelQnde 
And pe lowe men of Saxons, as ich understgnde, 
S9 pat 36 sej? in eij?er side wat rijte 56 habbe)> ^ ]?f rto ; 
Ac ich understQnde f>at it was Jjoni Godes wille ydo. 
Vor J>e wule pe men of )jis iQnd pur hf ]?ene wf re, 
N9 Ipnd ne ng folc ajen bom 4n armes nf re ; 
Ac nou siXppQ Jjat ]>et folc av)§hge cristendom, 
And wel Ifite wfile hfilde J)e biheste paX, he nom, 
And tumde to sleuj^e and to prfite, and tg lecherie, 
To glotonie, and heye men mScES t5 robberie, 
As pe ggstes in a vision to Seint Edward sf de, 
Wu ]?f r ssolde in Engelgnd come siich wrecchf de 
Vor robberie of heie men, vor clerken hordom, 
Hou God wolde sorwe sende in Jjis kinedom. 

Bitwene Michelmasse - and Sein Luc a Sein Calixtes day, 
As vel in piXlke jf re in a Saterday, 
In pe 5f r of grace as it vel alsg 
A ]70usend and sixe and sixti ]>is bataile was id5. 
Due Willam was pg gld nyne and Jjritti jf r. 
And gn and J)ritti ^f r he was of Normandie due f r. 
p9 Jjis bataile was ydo Due Willam let bringe 
Vaire his ^ folc J>at was aslawe an eije J?oru alle ]?inge. 
AUe fat w olde lev e he jef fat his ' fgn an erfe brojte ; 
Haraldes moder vor hire sone wel jerne him biso^te 
Bi messagers, and largeliche him bf d of hire * f inge 
To grant! hire hire sones bodi an erf e vor to bringe. 
Willam hit sende hire vaire inou wif oute eny f ing warevgre, 
S9 fat it was foru hire, wif grf t honour ybgre, 







^ abbe]). ' misselmasse. 


' is. * ire. 


To }5e hous of Waltham, and ibro3t an erjje y%x^ 
In )>e hgll rode chirche J^at he let himsiilf rf re, 
An hous of religion, of canons ywis. 
Hit was f>f r vaire an er]?e ibrojt, as it jfit is. 

Willam, ]jis ngble due, fv he hadde ^ ido al f)is, 5 

pen wey he nom to Londone, he and alle his, 
As king and prince of Ignde wi]j ngbleye ynou. 
A^en him wij> vair procession f)at folc of toune drou, 
And underveng him vaire inou as king of J>is Ignd. 

pus com, Ig, Engelgnd into Normandies' hgnd ; lo 

And ]je Normans ne cou}>e spf ke )?9 bote hor owe spf che, 
And spf ke French as hii diide at hgm ^, and hor children diide alsg 

tf che, 
S9 J?at heie men of ]?is Ignd J?at of hor blod come 
Hglde}) alle Jjulke spf che ]?at hii ofjiom nome ; 
Vor bote a man conne French ' me telle]? * of him Iflte. 15 

Ac lowe men hglde)) to Engliss, and to hor owe spf che jfite. 
Ich wene ]?f r ne bej? in al J>e world contreyes ngne 
pat ne hplde)? to hor owe spf che, bote Engelgnd gne. 
Ac wel me wgt vor to conne bgjje wel it is, 
Vor ]3e mgre })at a mon can Jje mgre wurjje he is.^x^ 20 


On the Calming of the Sea. 

* Ascendente Ihesu in naviculam, secuti sunt eum discipuli eius, 
Et ecce motus factus est magnus in mari ita, ut operiretur fluctibus. 
Erat autem illis ventus contrarius.' 

We redeth 1 }>e hgll godspelle of todai )?at ure Lgrd Jesu ^ Crist 
yede gne time into ane ssipe and hise * deciples mid him into }>e 

1 adde. ^ ^^^ s Frenss. * tel>. * ihu. « ise. 


see. And 59 hi were in J?9 ssipe, sq args a great tempeste of 
winde ; and tire Lgrd was ileid him don to slepe ine )>9 ssipe f r 
Jjane Jjis tempeste arggs. Hise deciples hedde gret drede of J?ise 
tempeste, sg awakede hine and seiden to him, * Lgrd, save us ; for 
we perisset/ And ha^iste wel J)et hi ne hadde nocht gode 5 
beleave ine him, )?9 seide to hem, * Wat dret yQ, folk of litle be- 
iTave ? ' p9 args up ure Lgrd and tokbane wynd and tg see, and ^ 
al S9 raf>e hit was stille. And alse Jjg men f)et weren in fjg ssipe 
hedde iseghe J>9 miracle, sg awondrede hem michel. ^ ^ ^ 

pis is SI vaire miracle }>et }?et godspel of teday us teljj ; J>eref9re 10 
sal ure beliave bie J^e betere astreng)>ed ine swiche Lgrde J>et 
siche miracle mai do, and d6)> wanne he wile. Ac hit is us nyede 
)>et sepet sucurede hem ine Jja peril, J)et us sucuri ine ure niedes, 
]?et we clfple to him J?et ha uis help)e. And he hit wille do 
blejjeliche, yef we him bisecheth mere! mid good iwille, al 59 15 
himselven seith bi Jje H9I1 Writes, ' Salus populi ego sum, et cetera j' 
' Ic ^ am/ ha seij?, * helere of J^e folke ; wanne hi to me elf pieth * ine 
hire sorghen and ine hire niedes, ic hi sucuri, and beneme hem al 
here evel withute ende.' Grede we t5 him merci sikerliche, yef se 
devel us wille acumbri ]?urch senne, J>urch prede, gjjer Jjurch anvie, 20 
9]>er ]?urch wref)e, 9j?er Jjurch oj^er manere of diadliche senne ; 
grede we to him merci, and sigge we him, * Lgrd, sauve us, J>et we 
ne perissi,' and ]?et he us delivri of alle eveles, and fet ha yef us 
swiche werkes to done in )>ise wordle, ]jet Jjg saulen of us mote 
bien isauved a domesdai, and ggn to j?9 blisce of hevene. Quod 25 
ipse prestare dignetur, etc. 

On the Parable of the Vineyard. 

* Simile est regnum celorum homini patrifamilias qui exiit, primo 
mane, conducere operarios in vineam suam.' 

Ure ' Lgrd God Almichti to us spf ke)? ine Jjg hgli godespelle of 
teday, and us seaweth one forbisne J^et, yef we willeth don his 

^ hie ; so in next line also. ^ clepiedh. * Huie. 

P 2 


service, l?et we soUen habbe }>9 mede wel griat ine heyene. For 
S9 seyth Ore L^rd ine |>9 godspelle of todai/pfej^ 9» -goodman was 
J?at ferst u^e^e * bl J>e moreghen for to her e werkmen intd his 
winyarde, Jot ane peny of forewerde ; andal 39 he hedde iraad 
)>ise forewerde, S9 ha sente hi int5 his wynyarde. S9 1^ dede at 5 
imdfen, and at midday alsg. pp, ]7at hit was ayen }>an even sg ha 
kam into J>e marcatte, sg he fgnd werkmen }>et were IdeL \>Q 
seyde he t5 hem, ' Wee bie ye idel ? ' And hie answerden and 
seyde, * Lprd, for we ne fgnden tedai ]?at us herde/ ' GgJ? nu/ ha 
seide, se godeman, ' into mine wynyarde, and ic ' J>at richt is yu 10 
sal yeve/ pQs yede into J>ise wynyarde mid ]>9 6)?re. pQ }>et hit 
was wel even', J>9 seide J>e Lgrd to his sergant, 'Clfpe J)9 
werkmen, and yeld hem here travail, and agyn to hem J>at c5meR 
last, and g9 al to ]>9 ferste; yel^everiche of hem ane peny/ Se 
sergant dede ]?es Lgrdes commandement, s^paide \>q werkmen and 15 
yaf everich ane peny. And sg hi seghen, ]>9 ]?et bi J)e morghen 
waren icomen, J>et hi J)et waren lastlcume hedden here everich 
ane peny, ]?§ weriden hi mgre habbe. pg gruchchede hi amenges 
hem, and seydenT ^ pgs laste gn ure habbe]? itravailed, and ]>u his ~ - 
makest velaghes to us fet habbeth al deai ibye ine ]?ine wynyarde, 20 
and habbeth * ij^gled }>e berdene of J>9 pine, and of J>9 hete of al fg 
daie/ p9 answerede se gode man to gn of hem : * Frend,' ha 
seide, * I ne do J>e nggn unricht, Wat for]>ingketh J>at ic * do min 
iwil/ And alsg ure Lgrd hedde itgld J>ise forbisne, 39 he seide 
efterward, * S9 sulle \>q verste bie last, and ]?9 laste ferst; f|le bie]> 35 
iclf pede ac feawe bie J) icornee/ J - "^ ^ ^^ 

NQ ihere}> f>e signefiance. pes godeman betgcknej) God 
Almichti, ure Lgrd. Se winyard betgcknej? f>e servise of ure Lgrd. 
pe werkmen betgcknej? alle ]?9 J>et do]> Cristes servise. p9 tides 
of ]?e daie betgckne)? }?e time of )?is world. Bie l>e morghen 30 
iherde ure Lgrd werkmen into his winyarde ]?9 ha sente )% 
patriarches at e begininge of ]?is wordle * ine his "^ servise, J?et 

* natyede4 * hie. ' hi wel even. * habbe)i. * hio. 

® wordl. ^ is« 


- n c 

J>urch gode beleavee him servede and seden his techinge to alle )>9 
J>et hi hedden hit to siggen. AIsq, at undren and at midday, 
iherede he werkmen into his winyarde )?9 HaTsente be J>9 time fet 
Moyses was and Aaron ; and 1 J>e time of his prophetes dede he , 
mani god man into his servise })et, f»urch ^riat^ luve to him, helden 5 
and deden his servise. Toyenesban ^ven, God Almichti ihlerde 
werkmen into his winyarde hg |?atne aljast ofjis wprdle naam fle^ - / ' 
and blod ine be maidene Seinte Marie, and sea^Meme bis world ^^:?h^, 
pg ignd he men J>et al day hedden ibe idel ; Is^r&re^re he fgnd pevkA,^ 
hej?en folk, Jbet be ]>g time J>et was ig9, hedden ibe ut of Godes 10 
beliave and* ofhis luve, and of his servise. Hi ne hedden nocht ibe 
idel for to done pg devejes werkes; ac jjerefQre seith f)et godspel 
fet nedden ibe Idel, f>9pet hi nedden bileved ane God Almichti, 
ne him lovie, ne him servi. For al fat is ine ]>is wordle pet man is,: 
bote yef h^ luvTe God Almichti and him sem, al hit him may f $ 
f>enche forlpre ind Idelnesse. pg ^fsunede ure Lgrd J>e pSens be ^ 
hise apostles, werefgre ^ hi hedden iBe" 59 Ignge Idel, pg }?et hi ne 
hedden ibe in his servise. pg answerden |>e p^ens, ]>et ngn ne 
hedden iherd hii ; J>et is to sigge, f>et hi ne hedHen never te iheed 
prophete, ne apostle, ne prfchur, ]>et hem seajwie, ne hem ta^Jite, 20 "^^ W- 
hii hi * solden ine Gode beleve, ne him servl. * GgJ?,' a seide, Ore ' 
Lgrd, ' into mine winyarde, J^et is into ^ mine beleave, and ic * yQ ^ 
sal yf ve yUre peni, fet is heveriche blisce.' pg hef)en men yeden 
be fa daghen into Cristes servise. And we, fet of hem ble]> icume 
and habbej? cristendom underfgnge, blef ientred into Cristes ser- 25 
vise ; perefgre we sollen habbe lire penI, fet is fe blisce of hevene, 
al S9 wel ase pg fet comen bl pe morghen. For al 39 we hgplef 
for te habbe heveriche blisce, ase pg patriarches and pg prophetes 
and pg apostles and pg gode men fet hwllem ine f>is world God 
Almichti serveden. 30 

S9 as we habef iseid of divers wordles, J>et God Almichti dede 
werkmen into his winyarde, sg we mowe sigge of pg elde of 
everiche men. For God Almichti dej? werkmen into his winyarde 

1 vrefore. ' i. ' inte. * hie 




bl ]>e morghen wanne ha elf pej> of swiche J)er blej? into his servise 
ine here chlldhfde, wanne hi of ]>is world wendeWbeswg Jjet hi ne 
be ine n9 diadllch senne. At undren ha sent men~uuo"iiig win- 
yarde, J>et a tume)> into his servise of age o? man. At middai, 
wanne J>e dai is al J>er hgtest, betgkned pg men of )>rytti ^ wyntre, 5 
9j)er of furti, for "pe nature of man is of greater strengj>e and of 
greater hete ine "pg age. Sg even bitgckne]) elde of man, J>et is se 
ende of pe live. tJre Lgrd dej> werkmen into his winyarde agenes 
pg even, wanne f|le ine here elde wendef> ut of here sdijine into 
Cristes servise. Al ' sg soUe hi habbe pg blisce of hevene ase pg 10 

. ]>et ferst comen into pe winyarde ^. Nocht foTpittJor f)ise griate 
bunte J>et ure Lgrd yefj? ne solde ng man targi for to wende to 
Ootf 'Almichtl, ne him to servl ; for alsg seid ]?et H9I1 Writ }>et ngn 
ne T^Ot f>ane dai of his diaj^e, for man mai Ignge lives wene, and 
ofte^him leghe^ se wrench.^ • • ^^^^^^^ 15 

Nu, gocte men, ye habile}? iherd J>et godspel and pe forbisne. Nu 

^lokej? yef ye ble}> withinne pg winyarde, }?et is yef * ye ble}? ine 
Godes servise, yef ye blej? withute diadllche senne, yef ye hatle]? ® 
paX he* hate)?, yef ye luvlej? J>et he luve]?, and do]? J?et he hgtj and 
bute ye do, ye ble}? ut '^ of his winyarde, J>et is ut of his servise. 20 
And ye doJ> )>et ure Lgrd hppt, 59 ye ofserve}? J>ane peni, J>et is 
heverlche blisce, ^y^dfservej? l>et good J>et nggn herte ne may 
ij^enche, ne nggnf yare ijlere, ne tunge telle pg blisce }>et God, halt 
alle f>9 f>et hine luVte]< pider, Lgrd, grant! us to cumene. Quod 
ipse prestare dignetur per, etc. 








^ win3ryarde. 
* he he. ' hut. 

])et yef. 

» hatied.^' 

•^ v^^. 


,\ . > 




VoR TO Lyerny Sterve. 

OnneaJ^e sterfj) ^ jjet ylyerned ne he]\ Lyerne to stervt, J?anne 
sselt ^ ]?ou conne libbe ; vor ngn wef libbe, ne ssel conne, j?et t5 
sterve ylyerned ne he]?, and J>e ilke aggtris yclf ped wrechche f et 
ne can libbe, ne ne dar sterve. Yef bou wylt libbe vriliche, lyerne ^ 
to sterve gledliche. Yef J>ou me zayst, hou me hit ssel lyerny, ich 5 
hit wyle J>e zigge an haste, pou sselt ywyte J>et }?is lyf ne is bote 
dya)?, vor dyaj? is a wendinge and J)et ech wQt ; and JjervQre me 
zay}> of ane manne hwanne he sterf J), ' He went/ and hwanne he 
is dyad, *He is ywent.' pis lyf alswQ ne is bote a wendynge 
vorz5]?e. vorzo]?e a wendinge wel ssort ; vor al J)et lyf of ane 10 
manne, ba^'he levede a Jjousond year,)3et ne ssolde by bote gnlepy ^ 
•pril^ke to \>^^}^ of J^e oj^re lyve J>et evre wyJ>oute endessel 
yjeste, 9}?er ine zor^e 9j?er ine blisse wyjjoute endynge. pis ous 
wytnesset wel ]?e kyng, f>e erl, })e prince, ]?e emperour, J?et J)e 
blysse of })e wordle hedden zomtyme, ac^ nou ine helle wepej? and 15 
grede|>, yellej? and zorjej) : * A, alias *, hwet is ous worj) oure pouer, 
wor)?sippe, ngblesse, richesse, blisse, and bgst? Al hit ys ywent 
wel ra)>re ]?anne s$ed, gj^er vo^el vlyinde, 9)>er quarel of ayblgiste; 
And fous ge)> al oure lyf Nou we were ybgre, and an haste dyad ; 
ne al oure lyf nes najt bote a lyte prikke, nou we bye)? ine zor3e 20 
wy)>oute ende. Oure blisse is ywent into wop, oure karoles into 
zorje ; gerlgndes, rgbes, playinges, messinges, and alle guodes bye J> 
cms yfayled.' Zuyche bye}) Jjg zgnges of helle ase )?§ writinge ous 

^ sterf. ^ Margin, Note wel jjeme capitele. ' ac, not in MS. 

* Margin, J?e zang of helle. 





tel}), ous vor to ssewy J>et )>is lyf ne is bote a wendynge wel ssort ; 
and }pv& wordle ne is bote a wendynge, and libbe ne is bote a 
wendynge. panne ne is libbe bote sterve, and ]?et is zof ase pater- 
noster ; vor hwanne f»ou begonne libbe, an haste J>ou begonne to 
sterve ; and al }>in elde, and al f)ine time f>et ys yguo, J>e dya]> J>e 5 
he J) ywonne and halt, pou zayst J^et f)Ou best zixti year ; J>e dyaj> 

\ hise he}>, and neveremg his nele J>e yelde. pervgre is J>et wyt of 
be wordle folye, and jje clerk, zyinde^ ne yzyjf i^ajt ; day and nijt ^ 
make)? 9 fing, and J>e mgre J>et hit makej? J>e lesse zup kn5we}> ; 
alneway sterve)?, and hi ne conne sterve, vor day and nyjt J)ou 10 
sterfst, as ich f»e habbe yzed. / 

Yet eft ine ofre ^manere ich ^e teche J>ise clerge, fet f>ou conne 
wel libbe and wel sterve. Nou yhyer and onderstand. pe dyaj) 
ne is bot a todelinge of J>e ?aule and of }?e bodye, and f>et ech wel 
WQt. ' Nou ous tekj> J>e wyse Catoun : * Lyeme we,' zayj? he, * to 15 
sterve ; t odele we J>ane ggst of fe bodie ofte„' pet deden J?e meste 

,'vwyse of J>ise philosgphes )>et }?is llf zug moche hateden, and f)e 
.* wordle zug moche onwor}>ede, and zug moche wylnede lyf najt 

7 dyeadlich J>et hi westen be hare wylle ; ac hit nes ham najt wor}?, 

I vor hi ne hedden n^n grace ne )>e beleave of Jesu Crist. Ac \>e ao 
hgly men }>et lovieJ> God and ylevej) ]?et, of J?ri dyeaf^es habbej) j?e 
tway ypased. Vor J>er is dya}) to zehne ^ and dyaj? to fe wordle ; 
nou abydej? f>ane ]?ridde dyea)>, f>et is J>e todi^tinge of f»e zaule and ^ 
of }>e tpd?^ . ^etwene ham and Paradys ne is bote a lyte \\-9j^t^ 
hy. ageitej>,be f^enchinge and be wylnynge. \ And yef )>et boiitis of 25 
b^§Jbalf^ be herte and j?e ggst is of 6}?er half, per by habbej? hyre 

\i)levinge, as zayj? Saynte Paul, hire sglas, hire blisse, and hire 
cDirft3rt;^and alle hire Idfe'tes. And Jjervgre hy hatye]> }?is lyf, J>et ne 
is bote dya]?, and wylne}? ]?ane dyaj? bodylich ; vor l?et is damezele 
Bf reblisse, J?et is ^* J>e dya)? )>et alle f)e hal^Sn coroune)) and d6}> 30 
into blisse. Dyab* is to guode men ende of alle kweade, and gate 
and inguoynge of alle guode. Dyaf> is J>e stream j?et todelj? dySp 
and lyf. Dya)? is of ]?is half, lif of 6j>re half. Ac J>e wyse of )>ise 
5 Margin, Note wel )>ri dya)>es. * * is, not in MS. * Margin, Hwet is dya>. 


, . .- \ ) 





wordle, })et of j^is half f^e streme yzyej> zug bri^te, of jfej^er half hi 
najtne yze]?, and J^ervgrejiis^ clfpej? )>e writingeM^and yblent; 
vorfffime^ya)? hi elf ple)> lyf, and J?ane dya)>, }>et is to J>e guoden 
beginnynge of live, hi hit elf pie]? )>an ende. And J^ervgre hy' 
hatyejj zup moehe J>ane dyaj>, vor hi njrte)? hwet hit is, ne^of * j j 
ober half be streame ne habbe)> na^t yble vc'd.. and Irfk^^e wgt bet 
out ne gep.'yx^-^^^ '^^ 7 »- </o^ 

panne yet J>ou wylt ywyte hwet is guod and hwet is kwead, guo 
out of ]?i zelve,. guo out of J?e wordle, Heme to sterve. Todel J?ine 
zaule vram ]?e bodye be ]?03te ; zend J>ine herte into \>q ojjre wordle, lo 
]?et is to hevene, into helleTinto purgatorie, J^er J>ou sselt ^ yzy hwet 
is guod and hwet is kwead. Ine helle f»ou sselt ^. yzi mg zorjes 
Jeanne me mo3e devisy, ine purgatorie mg tormens ]?anne .me mo^e 
Jjglye, ine Paradys mgre blisse }?anne me moje wjjjqy. Helle \>q 
ssel teehe hou God awrfkj? dyadlyeh zenne; purgatorie J>e ssel 15 
seaw} hou God elenze}? vfniel zenne; ine hevene ]?.ou sselt yt^y 
gpenliehe hou virtues and guQd.^ dedes byej> he3liche yglde. Ine 
J)is \>r\ f>inges is al J)et is nyeS, wel to wytene hou me •SSeTcpime 
libbe and wel sterve. Nou loke eftzone a lyte and ne ^ene j>e 
na^t to ]>ise fri ]?inges, vor ]?et J>ou lyemest to hatye zenne. 20 
Voryet f>i body gnes a day ; guo into helle ine f>ine libbinge. ]>et 
))6u ne guo ine J?ine stervinge. pis de]> ofte f>e hgli man j|jd J?e 
wyse. per' )>ou sselt yzy al )?et herte hatej? and lievl^b, and 
defaute of alle guode, ynoj of alle kweade, ver bemynde/^w^stgn 
stinkinde, tempeste brajjinde, voule dyevlen, honger and f>orst ]?et 25 
me ne may na3t stgnchi, dyverse pines and wepinges and zorjes mg ' ^ 
f>anne herte mplS^'^flwiche, ne tonge telle, and evre ssel yleste 
wy}?oute ende. And J>ervgre is f»e ilke zor3e wel yclfped dyaj? 
\vj']?oute ende. And hwanne J>ou yzi3t Jjet hit behovej? zug dyere 
abegge gnlepy dyadlich zenne, J>e woldest j?e raj^re lete be vla3e 30 
quit })anne ^ou dorstest to gnelepi dyadllche zenne eonsenti. ^ 

Efterward * guo into purgatorie ]>er ]?ou sselt yzi Jje pines of J>e 

1 sselelt. ' ssel. ^ Margin, }>e pines of helle. . 

* Margin, Of Purgatorie. 

\ ^ 


21 8 //. THE SOUTHERN DIALECT . J^'^ y^^ 

zaules Jjet hyer hedden vorjjielichinge, ak nere na^t volliche yclenzed. 
Nou hi doJ> }?er J>e levinge of hare penonce al^wet J^et hi byef> 
brijle and clene ase hi weren at e, poynt and,,at^ time hwanne hi 
yeden out * of f>e welle of cristtitnge. Ac J>e ilke^nonce ys wel 
grisllch and hard ; vor al }?et evre j^gleden }?e hgly martires, 6}>er 5 
wyfmen J?et travaylej? of chIlde,,of zor^e ne ys bote a bej? ine chald 
weter to jje reward of J)e fornayse hwerinne bernej? J>e zaules alhwet 1 
hi bye)> yclenzed, ase gold al yclenzed * ine J)e veie. Me ne vInt , \ 
lesse f>anne yclenzed, vor )>et vSr is of zuyche k efade, al J)et hit 
Vint ine ]?e zaule of gelte, of dede, of speche, of Jojte J?et jeraef) t5 10 
zenne 9]?er lite 9]?er moche, al vorbern]? and clenze}>. And ]?er byej) 
ypunissed and awrfke alle vf nyal zennes, J>et we elf plej> lltle,zennes, 
]>et we doj) ofte, and smale fole Jxjjtes, wordes ydele, trf fles, s cOfA ^^^ 
and alle 6f)re ydelnesses, alhwet hi by wor J>e to guo into hevene hwer 
ne gejj in na^t bote hit by ri^t brijt. pet ilke ver drede{? J?9 f)et by 15 
hare nayjte ham 16ke)> vram dyadllch zenne, and lokef hQlyliche 
hare herten and hare bodyes and hare moujjes and f>e vif wjrttes 
vram alle zenne, and zug libbej? ase hi ssolden eche daye to dome 
come tovpre God. And f)f rvgre }?et hqh ne may libbe wyJ>outc 
zenne ; vor, ase zayj? Salomon, ' Zeve zVpt a day valj> J>e guode 20 
man/ And ]?erv9re, be hgly ssrifte and be tyeares and be benes, 
hi dof hare mi^te ham zelve to arere and to amend!; ancriiam 
J zelve zu9 deme f>et hi onderstgnde to V0I5I Jane laste dom, vor hwg 
^ .' hier him demj? z6}?liche him ne worj? ngn hede to by vorlgre at e 
I daye of dome. And )3us me lyernej? kwead to knawe and to bevly, 25 
and alle zennes to hatye, grat ^ and smal, and onderstgnde J>e hgly 
drede of God J>et is beginnynge of guod lif and of alle guode. 

Ac hit ne is na^t yno^ to lete )>e kweades bote me lyemy J>et 
guod to done, ^nd bote yef me zeche J)e virtues, vor wyf>oute ham 
ngu'Ari^t wel ne leve)?. panne yef J?ou wylt lyemy wel to libbe be 30 
virtue, lyerne zug, ase ich })e habbe yzed, to sterve. Todel j?ine 
ggst vram |>ine bodye be Jjo^te and be wylninge ; guo out of jjise 
wordle stervinde ; guo into ]?e Ignde of ]?e libbynde )>er ngn ne 

* ouot. ^ ychenzed. ^ and grat. 



sterfj? ^ ne jeaifo^]?et is ine Paradys. per me lyeme)> wel to libbe / 


an wyt and |4ortey^e, vor ]?er ne may guo in ng vylejmye ; ]>er is 
blisfoUe' x)feia3reaeOT God and of angles and of hal3en ; ^er opwexej? 
alle guodes, vayrhede, richesse, worJ?ssippe, bljsse, yirtue, IpA'e, .wjft, / \j^ 
joye^wyJ>oute ende ; J>er ne is ngn ypocrisf e, ne tarei^ ne^pl^iiairige, 
ne discord, ne envye, ne honger, ne J>orst, ne hete, ne chfle, ne 
kwead, ne zorje, ne drede of vyende s, ac alneway f^stes anTKinges 
bredales, zgnges and blisse wyJ)oute ende. pe ilke blisse is zug grat 
\>et hw9 ]>et hedde ytake J>erof ennelepi drQpe of j?e leste }?inge ]>et 
}>er ys, he ssolde by of 4>e love of God zug dronke J>et al J>e blisse lo 
of f»ise wordle him ssolde by d^ede^ and wg ; rychesses, dong ; 
J worbssipes, voulhede, and be ilke./^]^ greate love bet he ssolde^ 

J habbe to come f>er, hijn ssolde, by an hondred }?ouzen zy)e, J>e \ 
I mgre hardillche h^^ zenne and lov^e virtues \>et is al J>e drede of ^ 

( helle hwerof ich habbe bevgre ispeke ; vor love is mgre stranger if 
Jeanne drede. And f>anne is ]>et lyf vayr and oneste, f>anne me 
. l^vl^3t ]>et kwead and me dep ]>et guod, najt vor drede vor to by 
yspild, ac vor J)e wylnynge of hevene and vor f>e love of God and 
^r f>e greate clennesse bet virtue heb and guod lyf. And J>e UKeU'"*, 
f>et love ledef), Ke^zSkJ? rafre, and lesse him testne)?, J>anne him 20 - 
}?et serve)? God be drede. pe hare yoxxipf \>e gryhond hym volje)?, , .^ ^ 
\>G gn be drede, f>e o{?er be wylnyngej ]>e gn vly3p, {^e of>or hyne . ' 
dryf}>. pe holy nian yernj?* asef gnjigjid J)et habbe}> al day hare 
eje to hevene, hwer hi yzyej? j?e praye jjet hi driyjej?; and J^ervgrei ^ . 
hy' voryete{? alle oj>re guodes, ase dej? \>g gentyl bond hwanne 25 
ha zyj> his praye tovgre his ejen. / , , , • , ■ - osdU^^^- ft ^ 

' pis is J?et lyf of J>e wel loviynde of gentil herte and at^ted, }>et 

. zu9 moche lovyep virtue and hatyej? zenne f>et, yef hi w'^ren zykere 
\>et me ne ssolde his conne ne God ne ssolde his awrf ke, ham ne 
daynede najt to do zenne; hare benchinges ahdal hare 30 
wyllis hire herten clenliche lokl^and ig5*iy^ipet hi by worbl to - ^'^ '• ^ 
habbe f>e blisse of Paradys, hwer ng cherl ne ssel come in, ne 
vals, ne }?yef, ne proud, vor )>e worse Si^olde by J>e velajrede.^- ^ 1 *^^ ' 
^ aterf. "and wyt an. ' Margin, Of ]je blisses of paradis. 








\ ' Book I, Chapter LVIII. The Inhabitants of Britain. 

Brytons wonede ftirst in )>is ylQnd )>e 5fr of Hely J>e preost 
ey^tetene; of Silvius Posthumus, King of Latyns, enlevene; after 
J>e takyng of Troye f>re and fourty jf re ^ ; tofgre J>e btildynge of 
Rome foure hondred and twg and thryty. Hy * come hyder and ' 
tok here cours fram Armoryc fat * now ys J>e 6}?er '^ Brytayn ; hy 5 
hiild Igng tyme J>e souJ> contrays of J>e ylpnd. Hyt byfSl afterward 
in Vespasian hys tyme, Duk of Rome, J?at J?e Pictes out of^Sfiitia ® 
schipede into occean, and wfre ydryve aboute wij? J>e wynd and 
entrede into J>e norj) cgstes of Irlgnd, and fgnd J)f r Scottes and 
prayede for to have a place to wony ynne, and my^te ngn gete; 10 
for YrlQnd, as Scottes seyde, my3te nojt susteyne bgj^e people. 
Scottes sende fe Pictes to J?e^ norjj sydes of Britayn, ^nd^tyheet 
ham help a^enes f)e Britons )>at wfre enemyes ^if hy \raae ar^se, 
and tok ham to wyves of here doujtres apon siich condicion : ^if 
douteful wh9 scholde have ry^t for to be kyng, a scholde raj>er 15 
cheose ham a kyng of J?e moder syde }?an of jje fader syde, of J>e 
wymmen kyn ra|?er })an (^ }?e (menl kyn. Yn "^ Vespasian j?e 
emperor ® hys tyme, whan Marias Arviragus hys sone was kyng of 
Britons, gn Rodric, Kyng of Pictes, com out of Scitia and gan to 
destruye Scotland, panne Marius ]?e kyng slou^ }?is Rodric arid 20 
5af f>e norj? party of Scotlgnd, }?at hatte Catti^i^a^ to }>e men J>at 
wf r ycome wij? Rodric and wfre Qvercome wij> hym, for to wone 

^ ^ere not in MS. ^ Beda, libro primo, before sentence as authority 

for statement ; so in other cases of authorities. ' &, as often. * '\^., as 

usual. ^ |>o))er. * Scicia, as always. >' Gaufridus before sentence. 
® pempor, with abbreviation for ur, or. 



/'Y^vJjuA- ".vi\ 'tt^^j 



ynne. Bote f>eos men hadde ng wyves, ne ngn my^te habbe of \^ 
nacion of Britons; J?f rfgre hy seylede into Yrlgnd, and tok ham 
to * wyves Yryschmen^^ters, at J>at covenaunt fat J?e moder blod 
scholde be put tpf^te yn succession of heritage. i70]?elf s ^ Servius • 
super VergiKtim seij) J>at Pictes btij) Agatirses J?at hadde som wonyng 5 
places aboute Jje watere^or Sert i a ,^ and a btiJ? ycl^pud Pictes 
bycause of peyntyng and smj^tyngSf wondes |?at bfib vsene on her <^ 
bodies ; for hy hadde mu^nefl Jm, and wf r ofte boistoufwch ylete 
blod and hadde meny wondes ysene on here body, sg ]?at hy semede 
as^yt wfre men ypeynt wij) wondes; fjfrfgre a wfre yclfpud 10 
Pictes, as hyt wfre peynted * men. pSose men and ]?e Gptes bfij? 
al 9n people; for whanne Maximus f>e tiraunt was awent out of 
Britayn into Fraunce for to occupie )>e empere,** Jeanne Gratianus 
and Valentinianus, f>at wfre brej^eren * and felowes of Jjc emperor, 
brou3te J?eose G^thes out of Scitia wif> gr^t 5eftes,,^yiJ;> flatryng and 15 
fair byhestes, into }>e north contrays of Britayn, for a wf r stalworJ> 
and string men of armes, and sende ham by schipes to werre apon 
)?e Britons fat wf r fg naked said baar, wifoute knyjtes and men 
of armes. And 59 feoves and br ibors wfr ymad men of Ignd and 
of contray, and wonede in J?e norp TOntrayes and bulde J?f r cites 20 
and tounes. Carausius"' f)e tiraunt slou^ Bassianus by help and 
trf son of )?e Pictes f>at c5me in help and socour of Bassianus, and 
jaf j?e Pictes a wonyng place in Albania, fat ys Scotland, par 
fay wonede Igng tyme afterward, ymelled wif Brytons. panne 
sef fe ' fat Pictes occupiede raf cr f e norf syde of Scotland, hyt 25 
semef fat f e wonyng place fat f is ® Carausius ^af ham ys f e souf 
syde of Scotlgnd fat strechchef fram f e fwart^y^j^wal of Romayn 
work to fe Scottysch sf, and conteynefGalway and Lodovia, 
Lodway. pfrof Bfda, libro ierito, capUulo secundo, spfkef in fis 
manere : Ninian, f e hgly man, convertede f e souf Pictes ; after- 30 
ward f e Saxons come and made }?at contray Ignge to Brenicia, f e 
nor}? party of NorJ^iimberlgnd, forto J>at Kynadius, Alpinus hys 

* two. ' Giraldus. ' Sirvins. * peyntud. ' J)emp€re, as in next line, 
^ bre])eron. ^ Gaufridus. * sej^the. ' ])es. 

222 ^^* ^^^ SOUTHERN- D I ALEC 7 

sone, kjmg of Scotland, put out )>e Pictes and made J?at contray 
]>at ys bytwene Tvvede and }>e Scottysch sf Ipnge to hys kyngdom. 
Afterward* Igng tyme J>e Scottes wfr ylad by Duk Reuda and 
come out of Yrlgnd, J>at ys J>e propre contray of Scottes, and wi}? 
love 9}?er with strengthe made ham a place fast by J?e Pictes, in J>e 5 
nor)> syde of f>at arm of J>e sf ]>at brfke]? into }?e Ignd in f>e west 
syde, f)at departede in gld tyme bytwene Britons and Pictes. Of 
J)is Duk Reuda }>e Scottes hadde f>e name, and - wf r yclf ped 
Dalreudines, as hyt w§re Reuda hys part, for in here speche a part 
ys yclf ped dal. pe "^ Pictes myjt have np wyves of Britons, l)ote lo 
}?ay tok ham wyves of Yrisch Scottes and byjeode ham fair for to 
wony wi]> ham, and grauntede ham a Ipnd by J?e sf syde J>ar J)e s§ ys 
narow ; ]?at l9nd now hatte Galway. Yrisch ' Scottes Ipndede at 
Argail, }>at is Scottene clyf, for Scottes Ipndede f>are for to harmye 
J>e Britons gj^er for ]?at place ys next to Yrlpnd for to come'^lgnd 15 
in Britayn. And * sg f>e Scottes, after Britons and Pictes, made 
"peJ^dde maner people wonyng in Bretayn. 
^yyy2ii\ne after f)at come f)e Saxons, at }>e prayng of })e Britons, to 
-" helpe ham a^f nes f>e Scottes and ]?e Pictes. And J>e Britons wf r 
yput out angn to Wales, and Saxons occupied J)e Ignd lytel and 20 
lytel, and eft mgre and mgre, strey^t anpn to J^e Scottysch sf ; and 
§9 Saxons made f)e fur]>e maner of men in pe ylgnd of Britayn. 
For ^ Saxons and Angles come out of Germania ; ^et som Britons 
J>at wonej? nyj clfpe}) ham schortlych Germans. Ngfjelf s, aboute 
]>e 5f r of oure Lgrd eyjte hondred, Egbertus, kyng of West Saxon, 35 
comaundede and heet clfpe al men of J>e Ignd Englyschmen. 
panne ® after ]>at )>e Danes pursued "^ ]>e \gnd aboute an twg hondred 
5f r, )3at ys to mf nyng fram ]?e forseyde Egbert hys tyme angn to 
Seint Edward hys tyme, and made f>e fyfte maner people in )>e 
ylgnd, bote hy failede afterward. At te laste come Normans under 3° 
Duk William and sudwyede Englyschmen, and ^et hgldej) }>e Ipnd ; 

^ Beda, libro quinto, capitulo quinto. ^ Giraldus, distinctio prima. 

3 Marianus. * Beda. * Beda, libro quinto, capitulo quinto. 

• Alfridus. "^ pursuwed. 


."^ ^ 




and hy made }?e syxte people in j?e ylgnd. Bote in jje ftirste Kyng 
Henry hys tyme come meny Flemmyngs and feng a wonyng place 
for a tyme bysides Mailrgs, in })e west syde of Engelpnd, and made 
]?e sevej>e people in ^e ylgnd. Ngj^elf s, by hf ste of f>e same kyng, 
a wf r yhgve J>ennes and yput to Haverford hys syde, in ]?e west 5 
syde of Wales. And S9 now in Brytayn Danes and Pictes faile]> 
al out, and fyf nacions wone}? J>§rynne : J^at btij? Scottes in Albania, 
J>at ys Scotland ; Britons in Cambria, f>at ys Wales, bote jjat Flem- 
myngs wonej? yn West Wales; and Normans and Englyschmen 
ymelled yn al f)e ylgnd. For hyt ys ng doute in stgryes how ^ and 10 
in what manere ]?e Danes wfr yputt away and destroyed out of 
Britayn ; now hyt ys to declaryng how J)e Pictes ^ wf r destruyd and 

Britayn ' was somtyme occupied with Saxons, and pf s was ymad 
and ystabled wij> }?e Pictes. panne ]?e Scottes J>at come wi)> ]?e 15 
Pictes sye }?at f»e Pictes f)ey wf re * l§§s f>an }?e Scottes, and wf r 
npbler of df des and bettre men of armes }?an wf r J>e Scottes, f)anne 
J?e Scottes turnde to here kflnde trfsons )?at hy use)? ofte, for in 
trfson 5 passe]? 6f>ere men and bfl]> traitours as hyt wfr by kfinde. 
For f)ay prayde to a feste al }?e grf te of J>e Pictes, and weytede here 20 
tyme whanne f>e Pictes wfr at fse and mery,and hadde wel ydronke'', 
and drouj out nayles J>at htild up )>e holouj benches under ]?e . 
Pictes, and J>e Pictes sodeynlych and unwar fel gver J^e hanimes 
into a wonder ptitfal. panne J>e Scottes ftil on J?e Pictes and slou^ 
ham. and lefte ngn alyve ; and S9 of ]?e twey people })e better 25 
werriour was hglych destruyd. Bote }?e oj^er *, J>at bfi]> \^ Scottes 
pat wf re wel unlych t5 }?e Pictes, tok profyt by pat fals trfson ; for 
a tok al pat Ipnd and hgldeth hyt 3et hederto, and clfpej? hyt Scot- 
Ignd after here oune name, pat tyme, f)at was in Kyng Edgar 
hys tyme, Kynadius, Alpinus hys sone, was Ifdar of Scottes, and 30 
werrede in Picte Ignd and destruyde pe Pictes; he werrede six 

^ hou5. 2 pittes, as also in 1. 15. ' Giraldus, distinctione prima, 

capitnlo septimo decimo. * awere. ^ ydrongke. * )>o])er. 


sy}>es in Saxon, and tok al J^e Ignd )>at ys bytwene Twede and ]>e 
Scottysch s| wij> wrgng and wij> streiigthe. 

Chapter LIX. On the Languages of the Inhabitants. 

As hyt ys yknowe houj meny maner people bfij? in J?is yl^nd, f)f r 
bU J> als9 of S9 many people Igngages and tonges ; npj^elf s Walsch- 
men and Scottes, J>at bBj) no^t ymelled wif> ojjer nacions, hglde)> 5 
wel ny5 here ftirste Igngage and spf che, bote jef Scottes ^p^X wf re 
som tyme confederat and wonede wij> f)e Pictes drawe somwhat 
after here spf che. Bote J>e Flemmynges, fat wone]? in J)e west syde 
of Wales, habbej) yieft here strange spf che and spfkej> Saxonlych 
ynow. Alsg Englysch men, J^eyj hyhadde fram J?e bygynnyng ]>re 10 
maner spfche, sou)>eron, norferon, and myddel spfche, in }?e 
myddel of ]?e Ignd, as hy come of fre maner people of Germania, 
n9]>elf s, by comm3^sti5n and mellyng fiirst wij) Danes and afterward 
wi]? Normans, in menye J>e contray Ipngage ys apeyred, and som 
usej> strange wlaffyng, chyteryng, harryng and garryng, grisbittyng. 15 
pis apeyryng of f>e bQrJ»torige ys bycause of twey f>inges. Qn ys, 
for chyldern in scole, ajenes J^e usage and manere of al o))er 
nacions, bfl}> compelled for to If ve here oune Igngage and for to 
construe here lessons and here )>inges a Freynsch, and habbej* 
su]?the )>e Normans come fiirst into EngelQnd. Alsg gentilmen 20 
children bSf> ytau^t for to spfke Freynsch fram tyme f>at ^ bfij> 
yrokked in here cradel, and conne]> spfke and playe wij? a child 
hys brouch ; and uplpndysch * men wol lykne hamsylf to gentil- 
men, and fgnde)? wi]> grf t bysynes for to spfke Freynsch for io be 
mgre ytgld of. 25 

pys' manere was moche yused tofgre )>e fiirste morejm, and ys 
sej)the somdfl ychaunged. For Jghan^ Comwal,-«~Tnayster of 
gramere, chayngede J^e Ipre in gramerscole and construccion of 
Freynsch into Englysch ; and Richard Pencrych lurnede J?at manere 
tf chyng of hym, and ojjer men of Pencrych, sg )?at now, J)e jf r of 30 

^ oplondjrsch* ' Trevisa, indicating addition by translator. ' lohan. 

\ ^ 


oure Lgrd a ]>ousond J>re hondred foure scgre and fyve, of )>e 
secunde Kyng Richard after J>e conquest nyne, in al J^e gramer- 
scoles of Engelgnd childern IgveJ? Frensch and construe]? and 
lurne}? an Englysch, and habbe]> J>erby avauntage in gn syde and 
desavauntage yn anoJ?er. Here avauntage ys, ]5at a lurnej? here 5 
gramer yn lasse tyme fan childern wf r y woned to do ; disavauntage 
ys, J?at now childern of gramerscole conne]? ng mgre Frensch J>an 
can here lift heele, and ]?at ys harm for ham and a schoUe passe }?e sf 
andtravayle in strange iQndes, and in meny caas alsg. Als9 gentilmen 
habbe]? now moche yleft for to tf che here childern Frensch. 16 

Hyt semef> a grft wonder hou ^ Englysch, f>at ys f>e burjjtonge of 
Englysch men and here oune Ipngage and tonge, ys 59 dyversof soun* 
in J?is ylgnd ; and })e Igngage of Normandy ys comlyng of an6]?er 
Ignd, and ha]? gn maner soun * among al men }?at spf ke}> hyt aryjt in 
Engelgnd. NgJ^elf s ', fjf r ys as meny dyvers maner Frensch yn })e 15 
rfm of Fraunce as ys dyvers manere Englysch in Iph rfm of 
Engelgnd. Alsg, of f>e forseyde Saxon tonge, J>at ys dfled a }?re 
and ys abyde scarslych wi)> feaw uplgndysch men, and ys grft ' 
wondur ; for men of ]5e f st wif> men of \>t west, as hyt wf re undur 
^pQ same party of hevene, acorde}) mgre in sounjmg of spfche ]?an 20 
men of })§ nor]? wij? men of }?e souf>. pf rfgre hyt ys }?at Mercii, 
jpat bSj) men of myddel Engelgnd, as hyt wf re parteners of f>e endes, 
understgndej) betre ]?e syde Igngages, nor}?eron and souJ?eron> ]?an 
norJ)eron and souJ>eron understgndej> eyj?er 6]?er. Al * J>e Igngage 
of J>e Norjjhtimbres, and specialych at gork, ys sg scharp, slyttyng 25 
and frgt^ng and unschape, J>at we souJ>eron men may }>at Igngage 
unnf }?e"understgnder ""i^ trowe J>at }jat ys bycause })at a bfi]? ny3 to 
strange men and aliens })at spf kef> strangelych, and alsg bycause : 
J>at ]>e kynges of Engelgnd wone}> alwey fer fram J)at contray ; for 
a btij> mgre yturnd to J?e sou)? contray, and jef a ggj? to ]?e nor}? 36 
contray a gQ\> wi]? grft help and strengthe. pe cause why a bfif? 
mgre m ]?e souj? contray J?an in }?e norj? may be betre comlgnd, 
mgre people, mgre ngble cytes, and mgre profytable havenes. 
^ hou5. ^ soon. ' Trevisa. * Willelmus de Pontificalibus, libro tertio. 



A'^' 777^5* DIALECT OF LONDON jJ^^^ 


THIRD . / y^MO ^ 

1*fr / /r^ 

igfjoB Engjehelgande. Lhoj 

Henri ^ Jjurj Godes fultume KingfloM Engjehelgande. Lhoavetti 
on Yrloande, Duk On Normandi, on Aquitaine, and Eorl on Alijo w, 
send igretinge to alle hise holde, ilaerde and ilf awede, on Hunten- 
doneschire : J^aet witen je wel alle }?aet we willen and unnen )?aet 
faet Ore raedesmen alle, 9f)er pe moare dael of heom jjget beojjt^^^ 
ichgsen purj us and \>ut^ J>set loandes folk on ure kiineriche, 
habbetS idon and shullen don in J?e wor]>nesse of Gode and on ure 
treowjje, for }>e frf me of \>e loande ]?ura }>§ besijte of fan tof Qren- 
iseide rfdesmen, beo stfdefsest^nd ilfstinde in alle ^inge abuten 
aende. And we hoaten alle lire treowe in pe treowf>e f>aet heo us lo 
95en, J>3et heo stf defaestliche h^alden and swf rien to hf alden and to 
wf rien ]>g isetness^s f)3et beon imakede and beon to makien, Jjurj 
]?an tdfgreniseide. raedesmen, 9f>er Jjur^ J>e moare dael of heom 
alswg alse hit is bif gren iseid ; and ]>aet aech ^ oJ?er helpe ]?aet for to 
done bl ]5an ilche gpe a^fnes alle men ri^t for to done and to 15 
foangen. And noan ne nime of loande ne of ejte whf rjjur^ }?is \ 
besijte muge beon ilet 9j>er iwersed on gnie wise. And ^if gni 
9j)er 9nie cumen her onjf nes, we willen and hoaten f>aet alle ure 
treowe heom hfalden df adliche ifoan. * And for }?aet we willen J>aet 
J?is beo stf defaest and If stinde, we senden ^ew ]?is writ 9pen, iseined ao 
wij? ure s§§l, to halden amanges ^ew ine hord. Witnesse us selven 
aet Lundene f»ane e^tetenj^e day on J?e mon)>e of Octgbre, in pe 
tw9 and fowerti^Jje jf are of Ure cruninge. And pis we# idon 
aetfgren iire iswgrene rfdesmen, Boneface Archebischop on Kante- 

^ Henr*. ^ aehc. 



biiri^ Walter ^ of Cantelow, Bischop%n Wirechestre, Sim5n* of 
Muntfort, Eorl on Leirchestre, Richard * of Clare, Eorl on Glow • 
chestre and on Hurtford, Roger ^ Bigod, Eorl on Northfolke 
and Marescal on Engleneloande, Perres of Savveye, Willelm • of 
Fort, Eorl on Aubemarle, Jphan ^ of Plesseiz, Eorl on Warewlk, 
Jghan"^ GefFrees sune, Perres of Muntfort, Richard* of Grey, 
Roger' of Mortemer, James of Aldithele®*, and aetfgren 6])re inoje. 
And al on Jjq ilche worden is isend into aevriche* 6]?re schire 
gver al f>aere kiineriche on Engleneloande, and fk intel Irelgnde. 



To oure Lgrde Jesu®** Crist in hevene > 10 

Ich today shewe myne swevene, '' 

pat ich mette in gne nijht • 

Of a knijht of mychel mi^ht ; 

His name is ihgte Sir Edward \>q Kyng, 

Prince of Wales, Engelgnde f)e faire f>in^ 15 

Me mette Jjat he was armed wel 

Bgjje wi}? frne and^" wij> stel, 

And on his helme ]>at was of stel 

A coroune of gold bicom hym wel. 

Bifgre Jje shryne of Seint Edward he stood, 30 

Myd glad chere and mylde of mood, ^ v' 

Mid tw9 kni^ttes armed on eijjer side 

J>at he ne mi3ht f^ennes ggg ne ride.. . ' ' 

Hetilich hii leiden hym upon \ c* *- ^ * 

Als hii mijtten myd swerde" don. % p.1^ is 

1 Kant' bur.' « Walt.' » Sim.' * Ric' » Rog.' 

« Will.' ' loh,' 8 sevrihce. »• Aldithel. »»> Ihu, as usual. 

^ nijth ; so 5th to 5ht in all words. ^° &, as often. ** swerd. 

• Q 2 

\ * 




He stood J)f re wel swijje stille, 

And ]>g\ed al togedres her wille ; 

Ne strggk ne jaf he a^einward 

To }?ilk )?at hym wf ren wij?erward. 

Wounde ne was J>f re blody ngn, 5 

Of al J?at hym ]5f re was don. 

After ]3at me Jjoujht ongn, '>^ 

As Ipe tweie kni^ttes wf ren ggn, ^ 

In eiper fre of oure kyng, 9 

pf re sprgnge out a wel fare Jjing.-^-^ ^ a \ 10 

Hii wexen out 39 bright sg glfmj 6C\M 

pat shynetS of }>e sonnebfm, " 

Of divers coloures hii wf ren 

pat comen out of hg\>e his f ren ; > " 

Foure * bendes alle by rewe on eiber er&r . ^ t e 

Of divers colours, rfd and white (als hii -wf re ; ' ,_^ 

Als fer as me Jjoujht * ich mijhfisee 'oi, ^^ ^ 

Hii spredden fer and wyde in ]>e cuntre. .^ . > ^ 

Fors6J>e me mette J^is ilke ^ swevene — ^ ' - ». 

Ich take to witnesse God of hevene — 20 

pe Wedenysday bifgre ]>e decollacioun of Seint Jgn, 

It is m9re f>an twelve monej? ggn. 

God me graunte sg heveneblis, 

As me mette bis swevene as it is. 

Now God Jjat is Hevenekyng, y^ /N *- 25 

To mychel joye tourne f)is mf tyng. ' '. W 

An6J?er swevene me mette on a Tiwesni^ht, ^ J^ ^ 

Bifgre }?e ff st of alle halewen, of ]?at ilk kni^hti^*'''*^ 
His name is nempned here bifpre ; — 

Blissed be pe tyme ])at he was bgre ; 30 

For we shuUen \>e day see, 
Emperour ychgsen he worJ>e of cristiente> 
God us graunte pat ilke ' bone, 

* ffoure; flf—F, as occasionally. * Jx)u. ' ilk. 

,u.v,. ,_. '^ 


ADAM DA yy '5 DREAMS 229 

pat Jjilke * tydyng here we sone 

Of Sir Edward oure derworj? kyng. 

Ich mette of hym an5bere fair mf tyng : 

To oure Lgrde of hevene ich telle J?is, \. .. \ 

pat my swevene tourne to my^el blis. w 

Me jjoujht he rggd upon an asse, ^:i^:> 

And bat ich take God to witnesse : 

Ywonden he was in a mantel gray ; 

T5ward Rome he nom his way. 

Upon his hevede sat an gray hure, ^ \ 10 

It semed hym wel amf sure. 

He rggd wi)?uten hgse and sho, 

His. wone was nought sg for to do ; 

His shankes semeden al bloodrf de ; 

Myne herte wep for grf te drf de. 15 

Als a pilgryme he rggd to Rome, 

And f>ider he com wel swij^e sone. 

pe J?ride ^ swevene me mette a ni^ht 
Ri^ht of ]?at derwor)?e knight ; 

pe Wedenysday a ni^ht it was 20 

Next J>e day of Seint Lucie bifgre Cristenmesse. 
Ich shewe )?is, God of hevene, 
To mychel joye he tourne my swevene. 
Me Jjoujht J?at ich was at Rome, 

And ]?ider ich com swif>e sone ; 25 

pe Pgpe and Sir Edward, oure kyng, 
B§J?e hii hadden a newe dubby ng. 
Hure gray was her clgj^ing ; 
Of 6]?ere clQj>es sei3 ich ng)>ing. 

pe Pope 3ede bifgre, mytred wel faire iwys, 30 

pe Kyng Edward com corouned myd grf t blis ; 
pat bitgkne]) he shal be 
Emperour in cristianete. 

1 )>ilk. 2 j^id^ 


Jesus Crist, ful of grace, 

Grannte oure kyng in every place ) 

Maistrie of his wi]?erwynes, ; ' r u*^^V.* 

And of alle wicked Sarasynes. , ^ u 

^ .. ^^ Me met a swevene on worfingni^ht, jsLPji^ f ^^J^^oaJZir^ * 
* Of Jjat ilche derwprj?e knijht ; ^ 

God ich it shewe, and to witnesse take, 
And sg shilde me frg synne and sake. 
Into an chapel ich com of our Lf fdy ; 

Jesus Crist, hire leve son, stood by ; 10 

On rode he was, an lovellch man 
Als }>ilke * fjat on rode was don. 
He unneiled his hgnden twg, 
And seide wi]> ]?e knijht he wolde gg : 

* Maiden and moder and mylde quene, 15 
Ich mote my knight t5day sene. 

Leve moder, jive me Ifve, 

For ich ne may n9 lenger bilf ve ; 

Ich mote conveye J?at ilke knijht 

pat us haj? served day and nijht ; ao 

In pilerinSge he wil g^n, 

To ben ^ awrf ke of oure fpn.' 

* Leve son, joure wille sq mote it be, 

For Jje knijht hQ]>e day and nijht haj? served me, 

Bgjje at oure wille wel faire iwys, 25 

pf rf9re he haf) served heveneriche blis/ 

God )>at is in hevene sg bright, 

Be wi]? oure kyng bQ]?e day and nijht. 

Amen, amen, sg mote it be ; ^\ 

pf rto bidde)> a paternoster and an Sve. , ^ ^ 30 

Adam pG marchal of Stretford-atte-Bowe, ^ ' * 
Wel swi]?e wide his name is yknowe, 
He hymself mette J^is mf tyng, 

' ))ilk. * bien. 




To witnesse he takeb Jesu, hevenekyng; ^ . } ^ ' ". , • \*-^ 

On Wedenysday in elf ne leinte, . , ' C ^ 

A voice me bfde I ne shulde nou3ht feinte ; ' ^^..-v^ r^ ^\ 

Of Jje swevenes J?at her ben write, ' c/ ., 

I shulde swT})e don my Igrde kyng to wite. 5 ■' 

Ich answerde J?at I ne mijht for derk ggn. 

pe vois me bad ggg, for li^ht ne shuld ich faile ngn, 

And Jjat I ne shulde lette for npj^ing, 

pat ich shulde shewe J?e kyng my mftyng. 

For|? ich went sw!f>e ongn, 10 

Jlstward as me f)0U3ht ich mi^ht g9n ; 

pe li3ht of hevene me com to, 

As ich in my waye shulde gg, 

Lgrd, my body ich ^elde f>ee to, 

What joure wille is m]> me t5 do. 15 

Ich take to witnesse God of hevene, 

pat s6)>llch ich mette j^is ilche swevene ; 

1 ne reiche what ^ee myd my body do, 

Als wissellch Jesus of hevene my soule undergo. 

pe pursday next f>e bfryng of oure Lgfdy, /^' 20 • I 

Me f)0U3ht an aungel com Sir Edward by ; I 

pe aungel bjtQpk Sir Edward on hgnde, j 

Al bledyng J?e foure forj^er clawes sg wf re of ]>e Lgmbe. . ^ I 

At Caunterbiry, bifgre Jje hei3e autere, f>e kyng stood, ^ 
Ycl9j>ed al in rfde murre^; he was of }?at blee rfd as blood. 2\ 
God, fjat was on gode Friday don on pe rode, 
So turne my swevene ni3ht and day to mychel gode. 
Tweye poynts ^ fjf re ben f>at ben unshewed 
Fo^ me ne worj^e to clerk ne lewed ; 1 

Bot t5 Sir Edward oure kyng, 30 

Hym wil ich shewe f>ilk mftyng. 
Ich telle 50U, fors5J)e wijjouten If s, 
Als God of hevene maide Marie to moder chf s, 

* m're. * poyntz. 

^ ..^-^ 



pe aungel com to me, Adam Davy, and sf de, 
* Bot ]30u, Adam, shewe )?is, )?ee worjje wel yvel mede.* 
I shewe 30U fis ilk mf tyng, 
As Jje aungel it shewed me in a visioun ; 
Bot )?is tpkenyng bifalle, sg dooj? me into prisoun. 
Lgrde, my body is to 55ure wille * ; 
peij jee wille}? me fjf rfgre spille, ^ 

Ich it wil take in J^glemodenesse, 
Als God graunte us heveneblfsse ; 
And l^te us nevere Jjfrof mysse, 
pat we ne moten f>ider wende in clennesse. 
Amen, Amen, sq m5te it be, 
And If te us nevere to of>ere waye tee. 
WhQsg wil spf ke myd me, Adam )>e marchal, 
In Stretforjje-Bowe he is yknowe and gvere al ; 
Ich ne shewe nou3ht j?is for to have mede, 
Bot for God Almijttles drede, 
For it is soof. 



K. 1 




ENGLISH l^;^.^^^^'^ 

To 'the mggst ngble and' worthiest Igrdes, rnggst ryghtful and 
wysest Conseille to owre lige Lgrde the Kyng, compleynen,if it lyke ao 
to yow, the folk of the Mercerye of London as * a membre of the 
same citee, of many wrgnges subtiles and alsg gpen oppressions ydo 
to hem by Ignge tyme here bifgre passed. Of which ggn was, whfre 
the eleccion of mairaltee is to be to the fremen of the citee bi gode 
and paisible avys of the wysest and trewest, at 9 day in the yf re 
frelich, — thfre, noughtwithstgndyng the same fredam or fraunchise, 
^ willelle. * T. ' 1, as usual. * as not in MS» 






^ ' 

CJ lL>^^^ 


rmST ENGUS^E^ITrON^O,^AR^tAMENT ,.233 . ,^, 

Nicholus^ Brembre wyth his upbfrfrs propgsed hym, the yfre -7 ^ 
next after Jphn ^ Northampton mair of the same citee with strgnge . ' ^ ' 
hgnde as it is ful knowen, andthQurgh debate and strenger partyef^^^^ 
ayeins.the p§^a bifpre < puryfeyde /was chgsen mair, in destruccion^^^^^j^ 
of many ryght. For in the same yfre the forsaid Nicholus, withouten 5 'a<-^ 
nede, ayein the p§^s made dy verse enarmynges bi day and ^ke bi'Sv^^^*," 
nyght, and destniyd the Kynges trewe lyges, som with gpen 
slaughtre, somme ' bl false emprisonementz ; and some fledde the 
citee for f§§re, as it is 9penlich knowen. 

And S9 ferthermgre for to susteyne thise wrgnges and many 10 
othere, the next yfre after th.e same Nicholus, ayeins the forsaide 
fredam and trewe communis ^, did crye 9penllch that ng man 
sholde come to chese lier mair but such as wfre sompned; and 
thg that wf re sompned wf re of his oroynaunce and after his avys. " '* 
And in the nyght next after folwynge he'clid carye grfte quantitee 15 
of armure to the guyldehalle, with which as wel straungers of the 
contree as othere of withinne wfre armed on the morwe ayeins uv-' 
his owne proclamacion/^hat was such that ng man shulde be 
armed; and certeiiiDUsshmentz wfr^ laidejhat, when freemen of 
the citee come to cheseTier mair, brfken-^ armed cryinge with 30 
loude voice / Slf , slf / folwyng hem ; whgrthourgh the peple for fg^re 
fledde to houses and other hidynges ^, as in Ignde of werre adradde 
to be d^d m comlnune '., ^ • 

And thus yet hiderward hath the mairaltee ben hglden as it 
wf re of conquest or maistrye, and many 5th ere offices als, sg that 25 
what man, pry ve or apert in special that he myghte v^yit grocchyng, '^ '11-^- 
pleyi}ed or Jielde ayeins any of his wrgnges or bl^puttyng forth of n ' • 
xvr^rhsgl'twfre, wfre it never sg uuprenable, wfre apfched and Ix^ 
wfre displfsyng to hym Nicholus, angh was empriqpnedj^M,' though 
it wfre ayeins falshfde of the l^gst officer thaVhym Tust meyn- 30 
teigne, was hglden untrewe ligeman to owre Kyng ; for whg 

' Nichol, generally with a curl indicating us, ^ John, with crossed h. 

' some, with macron overm. * coes, with curve over o. * nges. 

• coe, with curve over o. 

1 I 


reproved such an officer, maynteigned\by hym, of wrgnge or elles, 
he forfaited ayeins hym Nicholas andNJie, unworthy as he saide, 
represented the Kynges estat. Alsg if any man bicause of servyce 
or other Ifyeful comaundement apprgciied a Igrde, to which 
Igrde he, Nicholus \ dradde his falshf de to be knowe to, angn was 5 
apf ched 'that he was false to the conseille of the citee and sg to 
"Ihe Kyng. 

And yif in general his falsenesse were ayeinsaide, as of us 
togydre of the Mercerye or othere crafles, or gny conseille wolde 
have taken to ayeinstande it, or, — as tyme ^ out of mynde hath 10 
be used, — wolden companye togydre, how lawful sg it wfre for 
owre nede or profite, we ' wgre angn apf ched for arrysf rs ayeins 
the p§§s, and falsly many of us of* that yet stgnden endlted. 
And we ben 9penlich disclaundred, hglden untrewe and traitours 
to owre K)mg; for the same Nicholus sayd bifgr mair, aldermen, 15 
and owre craft bifgr hem gadred in place of recorde, that twenty 
or thirty ' of us wfre worthy to be drawen and hang^, the which 
thyng lyke to yowre worthy Igrdship by an |v<^juge to be 
' proved or disproved the whether that trowthe may shewe ; for 
■^^ trouthe amgnges us of fewe or elles n§ man many day dorst be 10 
shewed ; and nought ggnlich unshewed or hidde it hath be by many 
now, but als9 of bifgre tyme the mggst profitable poyntes of trewe 
govemaunce of the citee, compiled togidre bi Ignge labour jf_ 
discrete and wyse men,;'wythout conseille of trewe men, — fOT^fili 
sholde nought be^kfiowen ne contynued, — in the tyme of Nicholus 25 
Exton, mairj'OTtertehe wfre brent. 

And s§ fer forth falsehfde hath be used that oft tyme he, 
Nicholus Brembre, saide, in sustenaunce of his falshf de, owre llge 
Igrdes wille was such that never was such, as we suppose. He 
saide alsg, whan he hadde disclaundred us, which of us wolde 30 
yelde hym false to his Kyng, the Kyng sholde do hym grace, 
chS'ise hym, an^ be good Lgrde to hym : and if any of us alle, 

* Nich, with curl indicating abbreviation. * tyme, not in MS. ' we, 

not in MS. * of, not in MS. ^ xx or xxx. 


that wyth Goddes help have and shuUe be founden trewe, was sg 
hardy to profre provyng of hymself trewe, angn was comaunded 
16 pris5ne as wel bi the mair that now is, as of hym, Nicholus 
Brembre, bifgre. 

Als9, we have be fiomaunded ofttyme, up owre llgeaunce, t5 5 
unnedeful and umfveful diverse doynges, and als§ to wythdrawe us 
bl the same comaundement frg thynges nfdeful and IffFul, as was 
shewed whan a companye of gode wofnen, thf re men dorst nought, 
travailleden barf5te to owre llge Lgrde id seche grace of hym for 
trewe men as they supposed ; for thanne wf re such proclamaciouns 10 
made that ng man nF woman sholde apprgche owre lige Lgrde 
for sechyng of grace, and gvermany othere comaundementz als^, 
bifgre and sithen, bi suggestion and informacion of suche that 
wolde nought her falsnesse had be knowen to owre llge Lgrde. 
And, l§rdes, by yowre Ifve, owre lyge L§rdes comaundement to 15 
symple and unkonning men is a grf t thyng to ben used S9 fami- 
lerlich wi thou ten nede ; for they, unwyse to save it, mowe lyghtly 
thf r ayems forfait. 

Forthy, graciouse Igrdes, lyke it to yow to take hede in what 
manere and whfre owre lige Lprdes power hath ben mysused by 20 
the forsaid Nicholus^ and his upbfrfrs, for sithen thise wrgnges 
bifgresaide han ben used as accidental or comune^ braunches 
outward, it sheweth wel the^Trote.of'hem is a ragged subject or 
sto'k' inward, that is the forsaid Hbrere or Brembre, the whiche 
comune^ wrpnge uses,' and many other if it lyke to yow, mowe be 25 
shewed and wel knowen bi an indifferent juge and mair of owre 
citee; the which wyth yowre ryghtful Lgrdeship ygraunted ^ca^-Uj^ 
mggst pryncipal remedye, as Goddes lawe and al rfsoun wiSle^ -^ 
that n9 domesman stgnde togidre juge and partye^ wrpnges sholle 
■mgre gpenlich be knowe and trouth dor ap^re. And ellis as sp 
amgnge us, we konne nought wyte in what manere without a 
moch gretter disfse, sith the govemaunce of this citee standeth, as 

* Nich*. 2 coe, with curve over o. 


it is bifgr said^and jwele stande, whil vittaillers bi suffraunce 
presyjB^n thilke states upon hem; the which govemaunce, of bifgr 
this tyme to moche folke yhidde, sheweth hymself now 9pen, 
whether it hath be a* cause or bygynnyng of dyvysion in the citee 
and after in the rewme, or ng. 5 

Whfrf9re for grettest nede, as to ypw mggst worthy, mgQSc 
ryghtful, and wysest Igrdes and Conseille to owre lige Lgrde the 
Kyng, we biseche mekelich of yowre grace ^ coreccion of alle 
the wrgnges ^jifgresa^d^and that it lyke to yowre iQrdeship to 
be gracious ffienS to ^e lyge Lgrde the Kyng, that suche 10 
wrgnges be knowen to hym, and that we mowe shewe us and sith ben 
hglden suche trewe to hym as we ben and owe to ben. Alsg we 
biseche unto yowre gracious Igrdeship that if any of us, in special 
or general, be apfched to owre lige L^rde or t5 his worthy Con- 
seille bi comunyng with Sthere, or apprgchyng to owre Kyng, as ?5 
wyti|i Brembre or his abettours with any wrgnge wytnessebf ryng, 
as that it stode otherwyse amgnges us here than as it is now 
proved it hath ystgnde, or any other wrQnge suggestion by which 
owre lige Lgrde hath ybe unl^^ffuljich enfourmed, that thanne 

' ' ' 

yowre worshipful Igrdship be such jjbittJYf f^^owe come in answer ao 
to excuse us ; for we knowe wel^ as jfofp v "moche the mgre )partye 
of us and as we hppe for alle, alle suche wrgnges han ben unwytyng 
to us or elles enterlich ayeins owre wille. 

And, ryghtful Iprdes, for ggn the grettest remedye with othere 
for to ayeinstgnde many of thilke disf ses afpresaide amgnges us, 25 
we prayen wyth mekenesse this specialich, that the statut ordeigned 
and made bl parlement, hglden at Westmynstre ^ in the sexte yf re 
of owre Kyng now regnynge, mowe stgnde in strengthe and be 
execut as wel here in London as elleswhfre in the rewme, the 
which is this : 30 

Item, ordinatum est et statutum, quod nee in civitate Londonie 
nee in aliis civitatibus, burgis, villis, vel portubus maris, per totum 
regnum predictum, aliquis vitallarius ofBcium judicale de cetero 

^ gracious, changed to grace. ^ westmystre. 


habeat, exerceat, neque occupet quovis modo, nisi in villis ubi alia 
persona sufficiens ad hujus statum habendus repperiri non potent, 
dumtamen idem judex pro tempore quo in officio illo steterit ab 
exercicio vitallarii, sub pena forisfacture victualium suorum sic 
venditorum, penitus cesset et se abstineat, per se et suos omnino 
ab eodem, et cet. 

The Tale of the Pardoner 

In Flaundres whilom was a compaignye 

Of yonge folk that haunteden folye, 

As riot, hasard, stjrwes and tavernes, 

Whfreas with harpes, lutes and gyternes 10 

They daunce and pleyen at dees bgthe day and nyght, 

And ften alsg, and drynken gver hir myght; 

Thurgh which they doon the devel sacrifise 

Withinne that develes temple in cursed wise 

By superfluytee abhomynable. 15 

Hir pthes been sq grf te and s§ dampnable 

That it is grisly for to heere hem swfre, 

Oure blissed Lgrdes body they totf re ; 

Hem thoughte Jjat Jewes rente hym noght ynough, 

And §ch of hem at otheres synne lough. 20 

And right angn thanne comen tombestfres 

Fftys^ and smale, and yonge frutestfres, 

Syngfres with harpes, baudes, wafereres, 

Whiche been the verray develes officeres, 

To kyndle and blowe the fyr of lecherye, 25 

That is annexed unto glotonye. 

* ffetys; ff for F, as often. 


The hpply writ take I to my witnesse. 
That luxurie is in wyn and dronkenesse. 
Lp, how ]>at dronken Looth unkyndely 
Lay by hise doghtres twg unwityngly. 
S9 dronke he was he nyste what he wroghte. 5 

Herodes, whg sg wel the stories soghte, 
Whan he of wyn was repleet at hise f^^ste, 
Right at his owene table he yaf his h^^ste 
To sl§§n the Baptist Jghn, ful giltel§§s. 
Senek seith §§k* a good word, doutel^^s; 10 

He seith he kan np difference ^nde 
Bitwix a man that is out of his mynde 
And a man which that is dronkelewe^ 
Bot that woodnesse, fallen in a shrewe, 
Persevereth lenger than dooth dronkenesse. 15 

Q glotonye, ful of cursednesse; 
Q cause first of oure confusion, 
Q original of oure dampnacion, 
Til Crist hadde boght us with his blood agaynl 
L9, how deere, shortly for to sayn, 20 

Aboght was thilke cursed vileynye; 
Corrupt was al this world for glotonye. 
Adam oure fader, and his wyf alsp, 
Frg Paradys to labour and to wg 
Wf re dryven for that vice, it is ng drfde : 35 

For whil ]?at Adam fasted, as I rfde. 
He was in Paradys, and whan f>at he 
5^t of the fruyt deflfended on the tree, 
Angn he was outcast to wg and peyne. 
glotonye, on thee wel oghte us pleyne! 30 

• •••••• 

Thise riotoures* thre, of which I telle, 
Lgnge frst f r prime rpng of any belle, 

^ eek, not in MS. ; Corp. MS. eek good wordes. * riotoors. 


Wf re set hem in a taverne to drynke ; 

And as they sat they herde a belle clynke 

Bifbm a cors was caried to his grave. 

That 99n of hem gan callen to his knave, 

' G9 bet/ quod he, * and axe rf dily 5 

What cors is this )>at passeth heer forby, 

And looke Jjat thou report his name weel/ 

' Sire/ quod this boy, ' it nedeth never a d§§l, 
It was me tggld f r ye cam heer tw9 houreis ; 
He was, pardee, an g\d felawe of youres, 10 

And sodeynly he was yslayn tonyght, 
Fordronke, as he sat on his bench upryght. 
Thfr cam a privee theef men clfpeth d§§th, 
That in this contree al the peple sl§§th, 
And with his spfre he smggt his herte atW9 15 

And wente his wey withouten wordes mg. 
He hath a thousand slayn this pestilence, 
And maister, fr ye come in his presence. 
Me thynketh that it wfre necessarie 
For to be war of swich an adversarie ; ao 

Beth rfdy for to meete hym everemggre, — 
Thus taughte me my dame, I sey namgpre/ 

'By Seinte Marie,' seyde this taverner, 
The child seith sooth, for he hath slayn this y§§r, 
Henne gver a mile withinne a gr§§t village, 25 

Bgthe man and womman, child and hyne and page; 
I trowe his habitacion be thfre. 
To been avysed gr^^t wysdom it wfre, 
5r that he dide a man a dishonour/ 

'Yf, Goddes armes,' quod this riotour, 30 

* Is it swich peril with hym for to meete ? 
I shal hym seke by wey and ^§k by strete, 
I make avow to Goddes digne bgnes ! 
Herkneth, felawes, we thre been al gnes, 


Lat fch of us hglde up his hande til oother 

And fch of us bicomen otheres brother, 

And we wol sl^^n this false traytour d§§th. 

He shal be slayn which Jjat 59 manye sl^^th, 

By Goddes dignitee, gr it be nyght.' 5 

Togidres han thise thre hir trouthes plight 
To lyve and dyen fch of hem for oother, 
As though he wf re his owene ybgren ^ brother. 
And up they stirte, aP dronken in this rage, 
And forth they g99n towardes that village 10 

Of which the taverner hadde spgke biforn ; 
And many a grisly 99th thanne han they sworn, 
And Cristes blessed body they torente, — 
D§§th shal be d§§d, if that they may hym hente. 

Whan they han g99n nat fully half a mile, 15 

Right as they wolde han troden 9ver a stile, 
An 99ld man and a povre with hem mette. 
This 9lde man ful mekely hem grette 
And seyde thus, * Now, Igrdes, God yow see.' 
The proudeste of thise riotoures' three 20 

Answerde agayn, ' What, carl, with S9ry grace 
Why art ow al forwrapped save thy face? 
Why lyvest 6w S9 l9nge in S9 gr§§t age ? ' 

This 9lde man gan looke in his visage 
And seyde thus: 'For I ne kan nat lynde 25 

A man, though \>it I walked into Ynde, 
Neither in citee nor in n9 village, 
That wolde chaunge his youthe for myn age; 
And thfrf9re moot I han myn age stille 
As l9nge tyme as it is Goddes wille. 30 

Ne d§§th, alias, ne wol nat h5n my lyf ; 
Thus walke I lyk a restelggs kaityf, 
And on the ground, which is my moodres gate, 

* ybom. * and. ' riotours. 


I knokke with my staf bgthe grly and late, 

And seye, " Leeve mooder, l^§t me in ! 

L9, how I vanysshe, flessh and blood and skyn; 

Alias, whan shul my bgnes been at reste? 

Mooder, with yow wolde I chaunge my cheste 5 

That in my chambre iQnge tyme hath be, 

Yf, for an heyre clowt t5 wrappe me." 

But yet to me she wol nat do that grace ; 

For which ful pale and welked is my face. 

But, sires, to yow it is n9 curteisye 10 

To spfken to an 9ld man vileynye, 

But he trespasse in word or elles in dfde. 

In hggly writ ye may yourself wel rfde, 

Agayns an QQld man, hggr upon his h§§d. 

Ye sholde arise; wherfgre 1 yeve yow r^^d, 15 

Ne dooth unto an ggld man nggn harm now, 

Namggre than }?at ye wolde men did to yow 

In age, if that ye sp iQnge abyde ; 

And God be with yow whfre ye gQ or ryde, — 

I moote gg thider as I have to gQ.' 20 

' Nay, 9lde cherl, by God thou shalt nat 39/ 
Seyde this oother hasardour angn; 
* Thou partest nat 39 lightly, by Seint Jghn ! 
Thou spak right now of thilke traytour d^^th. 
That in this contree alle oure freendes sl^^th; 35 

Have heer my trouthe, as thou art his espye, 
Telle whfre he is or thou shalt it abye, 
By God and by the hggly sacrement. 
For soothly thou art ggn of his assent 
Tg slf^n us yonge folk, thou false theef.' 30 

* Now, sires,' quod he, * if j^at ye be 39 leef 
To fynde d^^th, turne up this croked wey, 
For in that grgve I lafte hym, by my fey, 
Under a tree and thfre he wole abyde; 



Noght for youre bgpst he wole him ngthyng hyde, 

Se ye that Qgk? Right thfre ye shal hym fynde; 

God save yow, ]>at boghte agayn mankynde, 

And yow amende/ Thus seyde this glde man; 

And everich of thise riotoures * ran 5 

Til he cam to that tree, and thfr they founde 

Of flgryns fyne of gold, ycoyned rounde, 

Wei ny an eighte^ busshels, as hem thoughte. 

Nq lenger thanne after d§§th they soughte, 

But f ch of hem sg glad was of that sighte, 10 

For Jjat the flgryns been 59 faire and brighte, 

That doun they sette hem by this precious hoord. 

The worste of hem he spak the firste word. 

* Bretheren/ quod he, * taak kepe what I seye, 
My wit is gr^ft though f>at I bourde and pleye. 15 
This trfsor hath fortune unto us yeven 
In myrthe and joliftee oure lyf to lyven, 
And. lightly as it comth sg wol we spende. 
Ey, Goddes precious dignitee, whg wende 
Today that we sholde han sg fair a grace? 20 

But myghte this gold be caried frg this place 
Hggm to myn hous, or elles unto youres, — 
For wel ye wggt f>at al this gold is oures, — 
Thanne w§re we in heigh felicitee. 
But trewely by daye it may nat bee ; 25 

Men wolde seyn fat we wfre theves strgnge, 
And for oure owene trfsor doon us hgnge. 
This trfsor moste ycaried be by nyghte 
As wisely and as slyly as it myghte. 
Whfrfgre 1 rfde f>at cut among us alle 30 

Be drawe, and lat se whfr the cut wol falle; 
And he f>at hath the cut with herte blithe 
Shal renne to the' towne, and that ful swithe, 
1 riotours. * viij. ' the, not in MS. 



And brynge us br^^d and wyn ful prively. 

And twg of us shul kepen subtilly 

This trfsor wel, and if he wol nat tarie, 

Whan it is nyght we wol this trfsor carle 

By QQXi assent, whfreas us thynketh best/ 5 

That ggn of hem the cut broghte in his fest, 
And bad hem drawe and looke whfre it wol falle; 
And it fil on the yongeste of hem alle, 
And forth t5ward the toun he wente angn* 
And al sq soone as that he was ggn, 10 

That 9Qn of hem ^ spak thus unto that oother : 

* Thow knowest wel thou art my sworne ^ brother ; 
Thy profit wol I telle thee angn. 
Thou wggst wel that oure felawe is aggn, 
And heere is g5ld and that ful grft plentee, 15 

That shal departed been amgng us thre ; 
But nathel^^s, if I kan shape it sg 
That it departed wfre amgng us twg, 
Hadde I nat doon a freendes torn to thee?' 

That oother answerde, ' I nggt hou that may be ; ao 
He wggt how that the gold is with us tweye ; 
What shal ' we doon, what shal we t5 hym seye ? ' 

' Shal it be conseil ? ' seyde the firste shrewe, 
*And I shal tellen in a wordes fewe 
What we shal doon and bryngen it wel aboute.' 25 

'1 graunte/ quod that oother, 'oute of doute, 
That by my trouthe I shal thee nat biwreye/ 

' Now,' quod the firste, * thou wggst wel we be tweye, 
And twg of us shul strenger be than ggn. 
Looke, whan ^p^X he is set, thou* right anpgn 30 

Arys as though thou woldest with hym pleye. 
And I shal ryve him thurgh the sydes tweye 

' of hem, not in K MS. ; all others have the words. ^ sworn. ^ wha 1. 
* that; Harl. MS.thou. 

R 2 


Whil that thou strogelest with hym as in game, 

And with thy daggere looke thou do the same; 

And thanne shal al this gold departed be, 

My deere freend, bitwixen me and thee. 

Thanne may we bgthe oure lustes all fulfille, 5 

And pleye at dees right at oure owene wille.' 

And thus acorded been thise shrewes Iweye 

To sl^^n the ihridde, as ye han herd me seye. 

This yongeste, which f>at wente unto the toun, 
Ful ofte in herte he rolleth up and doun 10 

The beautee of thise flgryns newe and brighte. 
' L^rd,' quod he, ' if sg wfre J>at I myghte 
Have al this trfsor to myself allgne, 
Thfr is n§ man J>at lyveth under the tr§ne 
Of God that sholde lyve S9 miirye as 1.' 15 

And alte laste the feend, oure enemy, 
Putte in his thought fat he sholde poyson beye. 
With which he myghte sl§§n hise felawes tweye; 
Forwhy the feend fggnd hym in swich lyvynge, 

That he hadde Ifve hym^ to sorwe brynge, 20 

For this was outrely his fulle entente 

To sl^^n hem bgthe and nevere to repente. 

And forth he gPQth, ng lenger wolde he tarle, 

Into the toun unt5 a pothecarle. 

And preyde hym f>at he hym wolde selle 25 

Som poyson j^at he myghte hise rattes quelle; 

And §§k thfr was a polcat in his hawe 

That, as he seyde, hise capons hadde yslawe; 

And fayn he wolde wrfke hym, if he myghte, 

On vermyn f>at destroyed hym by nyghte. 30 

The pothecarle answerde, *And thou shalt have 

A thyng that, al sg God my soule save, 

In al this world thfr is ng crfature, 
* hem ; all others hym or him. 


That f ten or dronken hath of this confiture 

Noght but the montance of a corn of whgte, 

That he ne shal his lif angn forlfte; 

Yf, sterve he shal, and that in lasse while 

Than thou wolt gQQn apaas nat but a mile, 5 

This poyson is 89 strgng and violent.' 

This cursed man hath in his bond yhent 
This poyson in a box, and sith he ran 
Into the nexte strete unto a man, 
And borwed of* hyiii large hotels thre, 10 

And in the twQ his poyson poured he ; 
The thridde he kepte clfne for his drynke^ 
For al the nyght he shoope hym for to swynke, 
In cariynge of the gold out of that place. 
And whan this riotour with sgry grace 15 

Hadde filled with wyn hise grfte hotels thre, ! 

To hise felawes agayn repaireth he. I 

What nedeth it to sermone of it mp^re ? 
For right as' they hadde cast his d§§th bifggre, 
Right 89 they ban hym slayn, and that angn. 20 

And whan |7at this was doon, thus spak that ggn : 
* Now lat us sitte and drynke and make us merle, 
And afterward we wol his body berie.' 
And with that word it happed hym, par cas, 
To take the hotel thfr the poyson was, f 25 

And drank and yaf his felawe drynke alsg ; 
For which angn they storven bgthe twg. 
But certes 1 suppgse that Avycen 
Wrpgt nevere in ng canon, ne in ng fen, 
M9 wonder signes of empoisonyng 30 

Than hadde thise wrecches twg fr hir endyng. 
Thus ended been thise homycldes twg, 

* of, from Harl. MS. * owene drynke ; all other MSS. drynke. 

' so as ; all others as. 


And §§k the false empoysonere alsp. 

Q cursed synne of alle cursednesse I 
Q traytours homycide, 9 wikkednessel 
glotonye, luxurle, and hasardrye ! 
Thou blasphemour of Crist, with vileynye 5 

And gthes grfte of usage and of pride,— r 
Allas mankynde, — how may it bitide 
That to thy Crfatour, which J)at the wroghte 
And with his precious herteblood thee boghte, 
Thou art 59 fals and S9 unkynde, alias! 10 

Now, goode men, God foryeve yow youre trespas. 
And ware yow frQ the synne of avarice. 




This part contains specimens of the several varieties of this dialectal 
division, bat especially of East Midland, as that npon which later English is 
especially based. Only two selections represent West Midland, the 'Prose 
Psalter * (p. lOo) and the * Instructions to Parish Priests' (p. 119), as that dialect 
in its purity does not materially differ from East Midland. More important is 
the distinction of Early East Midland from that of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, which may be regarded' as normal Middle English in this dialect. 
Jiarly East Midland, represented by the first two selections, shows the language 
in a transition state. For example, OE. /f still remains J, the characteristic 
lengthening of OE. ^, a, in open syllables had not taken place, and other less 
significant changes already mentioned in the Grammatical Introduction. 



The last part of the ' Chronicle,' from 1080 to its close, occurs only in Laud 
MS. 636 of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The whole has been frequently 
edited, as by Thorpe and Earle, before the latter's edition was re-edited by 
Plummer, *Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel' (1892-9). Selections are 
found in Morris (* Specimens,' 1, 9) and Zupitza (* tJbungsbuch ,' p. 57,Schipper 75). 

* These Notes are intended to give, in methodical manner, some account of 
MSS. and editions ; time and place of composition, as well as author if known ; 
character of the work, relation of the extract to the whole, and metrical 
relations, if poetry ; source of derived material, when known ; bibliography 
of more important monographs; explanations of words, phrases, allusions, 
and other difficulties. General works of reference are not mentioned in con- 
nexion with each selection, for teachers will naturally refer to Ten Brink's 
' History of English Literature,' Morley's ' English Writers,' Brandl's ' Mittel- 
englische Litteratur * in Paul's ' Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie,' and 
Korting's ' Grundriss der Geschichte der Englischen Litteratur.' Cross-references 
to the texts are by page and line, the Notes to each page of text being arranged 
in a single paragraph. 


Written at Peterborough, Northampton, the part chosen includes all that is 
written in the hand of the last continuator, who gives a summary of Stephen's 
reign immediately after his death in 11 54. The selection therefore represents 
Northeast Midland (NEMl.) of the middle of the twelfth century. See 
Behm, * The Language of the Latter Part of the Peterborough Chronicle ' (1884) ; 
H, Meyer, ' Zur Sprache der jUngeren Teile der Chronik von Peterborough * 

The * Chronicle,' as the most important source for the history of the period, 
cannot be too highly regarded. Especially valuable is this contemporaneous 
account of Stephen's reign, since it is more detailed than most of the other 
entries and more vividly narrated. On the other hand the order of events is 
not chronological, as shown by Plummer (as above), II, 307. 

As to language, the orthography of this selection is less regular than most 
others of the book. It shows the unstable condition of the written form when 
English was less commonly used in literature, as well as some orthographic 
influences of older works. Special peculiarities of orthography are a for 
OM. £?, ia, rarely So ; e for OM. e (a), especially in unstressed syllables ; ia 
for OM. S, as in gear ; io for OM. e, So, rarely ea ; eo (ao) for OM. eo, rarely ea. 
Among consonants the most important peculiarities are ck for the OE. medial 
spirant ^ in a few words ; £^t) for the OE. initial palatal spirant g ; t initially 
for 0^,Jf (9) in pronominal words when immediately following a final d 01 1\ 
w for OE. hwy as in warsa. The vocabulary shows a larger French element 
than the selections immediately following, partly owing to the number of terms 
connected with government and the church. The inflexions, which have 
been thought quite irregular, will fall into fairly definite schemes. Noim 
plurals in esis) prevail, though a few OE. neuters with long stems still remain 
without ending. Adjectives have almost wholly lost oblique case forms. 
Verbs show somewhat more irregularities, but are fast tending to the simplicity 
of normal Middle English. The syntax of the period is also comparatively 
simple. On the other hand, the inverted order of subject and predicate is 
common, and the construction according to sense with collective nouns 
occasional. The title ktng (1. i) is. still an appositive and follows the personal 
name, or the personal name is in apposition with king (1. 13). The most 
striking single construction, from the standpoint of Modem English, is the 
double genitive, as Stephnes Ktnges (4, 28), ps klnges sum Henries (5, 13) ; 
yet these are quite in accord with OE. usage and the appositive noted above. 
Subjunctive forms of the verb are naturally much more frequent than in English 
of to-day. 

Page ly 1. 1. Henri King. Henry I, who had come to the throne in 1 100. 
Henri abbot. Henry of Poitou, abbot of St. Jean d'Angely, from which 
he was expelled in 1 131, to the great rejoicing of the monks who had been 
under him. He was related to Henry I and the Count of Poitiers, and had 
been a monk at Cluny or Clugni (1, 3) in Burgundy. This monastery was at 
the height of its prosperity in 5ie, twelfth century, some 2,000 religious houses 
throughout Europe acknowledging allegiance to it. 2. Burch. That is 
Borough of St. Peter, Peterborough, a name which supplanted the earlier 
Medeshamstede. A Benedictine abbey of St. Peter had been founded in 655 by 
Oswy, King of Northumbria, and Peada, the first Christian King of Mercia. 
Plundered by the Danes in 870, it was re-established in 966 by Athelwold, 
Bishop of Winchester, who also changed its name. 3.^ te. For //, after 


a word ending in / or ^ 5. Biscop of Seresberi. Roger of Salisbury and 
Alexander of Lincoln, his nephew. 6. )?e. Note the retention of the OE, 
relative particle in early Middle English, though soon to be replaced by J>at» 
he. The abbot Henry. As in Old English, pronouns are often lacking in 
explicit reference. So Ae,,. , his of the next line refer to the same Henry. 

10. iaf. This form, among others, shows how completely OE. palatal 
spirant g had assumed the quality of MnE._y. Cf. idfen (2, 26), teden (3, 28). 

11. Sanct Need. St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire. The MS. abbreviation for 
St. gives us no hint as to whether the OE. noun form, sandy or sant (cf. Orm's 
sannt) was actually used. It is doubtless too early for the OF. form saint 
with a diphthong. 12. Sanct Fetres messedai. June 29, the feast of 
St. Peter and St. Paul in commemoration of their martyrdom ; really the date 
of reburial of their supposed remains in 358 a. d. 14. pa pestrede. Henry I 
left England, never to return, on Aug. i (Lammas), 1133. The eclipse 
occurred on the next day, but Henry did not die until Dec. i, 1135 (1, 18). 
Perhaps the traditional bringing together of these two dates accounts for the 
wrong dating of Henry's departure from England. 15. ware. * Might be ' ; 
subjunctive preterit singular. For other forms with a in pret. pi. cf. ndmen 
(2, i), drdpen (8, 18), wdren (3, 29), forbdren (3, 31), stdli (6, 8). 
16. sterres abiiten. The copulative verb omitted as often. 18. tJat oper 
dael. ' The second, or next day,* ofer being used with ordinal force as in Old 
English. St. Andrew's day is Nov. 30, and Henry died on Dec. i. Andreas, 
a borrowed word ending in j, takes no ending in the genitive. 19. pa wes 
trfson. The MS. reading was long a puzzle, and various emendations were 
suggested before the present editor pointed out the true reading in * Mod. Lang. 
Notes,' VII, 254. This was adopted by Plummer in a note to this passage 
(II, 307). Incidentally this is the first example so far discovered of the French 
word treason in English. 

Page 2y 1. 2. Bf dinge. Henry I had founded an abbey at this place, no 
doubt the reason for his burial there. 10. midewintre dsBi. That is 
Christmas day, but authorities give the date variously, as Dec. 22, 24, 25, 26, 
the latter being St. Stephen's day. The name midwinter day is Teutonic, 
and antedates the Christianization of Britain. With the Conquest, Christmas 
{Cristes mcessi) came to be used. 12. Baldwin de Bedvers. The 
rebellion really belongs to the year 1136, as also the compact with David, 
King of Scotland. This Baldwin, first Earl Redvers (Rivers), died in 1155. 
18. for ... to IS'ormandi. The journey was in March, the return (1, 23) in 
December. 20. get. Plummer says past participle of a weak verb geten 
* get,* but this is not likely on several accounts. The word is the adverb get 
(OM. get, WS. giet) * yet,* as given in the glossary to Morris's * Specimens,' J ; 
cf. for the same word 16, 3 ; 29, 5. The treasure which Stephen yet had, and 
for which they received him so gladly, was about ;f 100,000. 23. gadering 
8Bt Oxeneford. This was in June, 1139. Bishop Roger was justiciar, or chief 
justice, and regent in the king's absence. Roger, the chancellor, was nephew 
only by courtesy. 25. hise neves. The plural form of the pronoun shows 
that the OE. genitive his^ from he, had developed a possessive pronoun, with 
inflexion, as min onAftn had done in the older period. 

Page 3, 1. 3. be nihtes ... be daeies. The force of the OE. adverbial 
genitive is apparently not felt, and the adverbial relation is more clearly 
indicated by a prepo»tional phrase. oarlmen and wimmen. ' Men and 


women/ The word man was general in its meaning, and probably on this 
account the more distinctive carlmen was employed. 6. me heiiged. ' They 
hanged (them) up by the feet/ &c. The indefinite me^ an old singular, implies 
a plural, as indicated by the verbs hengen (1. 7) and wry then (1. 8). 11. cru- 
cethiis. The context sufficiently explains the meaning of this term. The 
first part is apparently Lat. cruciatus\ for the quantity of u cf. criic in 
Pogatscher, *Die griechischen, lateinischen und romanischen Lebnworte im 
Altenglischen.* 14. lof and grin. This must be regarded as still a crux. 
The MS. reads lof'^grT^ which suggested to Thorpe Ipp and grim ^ 'loathsome 
and grim/ as the names of the instruments, lpj> being for OE. lad. The use of the 
two names then accounted for the plural verb. On the other hand, the use of 
two adjectives in this way for an instrument would presuppose a singular verb, 
besides being unsatisfactory in other ways. rachenteges. Really a com- 
pound of OE. racente 'chain' and OM. teh^g)^ WS. teah{g) 'fetter/ but the 
relation of the parts of the compound had probably been lost. 9por. To 
be carefully distinguished from oper^ OE. oper. Qfer, OE. dghwieier, soon 
became ME. pr, or^ and MnE. or, 15. bseron. This form for the infinitive 
beren is paralleled by aien = eien (5, 14), begcBien =» begeten (7, 2). While not 
marked long here they probably represent sporadic cases of lengthening of ^ in 
an open syllable, a change which was not regularly carried out until the 
thirteenth century. 21. t$at lastede. This proves conclusively that the 
account was not written until the close of Stephen's reign. Cf. also tlje reference 
to Martin's abbacy (4, 10 f.) lasting to Jan., 1155. 23* ®^Te tun "wile. 
* Ever from time to time,* OE. afre ymbe hivile. The form um is Old Norse, 
cognate with 0^,ymbe\ cf. umstund in 'Cursor Mundi/ 24. tenserie. 
First explained by Mr. Round and Mr. Toynbee in the ' Academy/ July 11, 
1892. It is a NF. form based on LL. tensarium, 'a generic term for certain 
irregular taxations'; the latter is iioxa. tensare, *to protect, exact tribute for 
protection.' 31. gwer sithon. 'Everjrwhere thereafter, or afterwards.' 
The first word is OM. dhwery WS. dhwar. 

Page 4, 1. 3. tunscipe flugen. Notice the construction according to 
sense ; tunscipe is a grammatical singular, a logical plural, and the verb agrees 
with the latter, as often. 6. -wars8B, perhaps -s». OM. hwer {hToarT)^ 
WS. hwcer^ and see from older swct, 8. Crist slep. In interpreting Christ's 
sleeping in the ship during the storm (Matt. viii. 24), the ME. ' Metrical 
Homilies' (ed. by Small, p. 135) explain that the ship is the church: 

*And Crist J?arin gasteli slepes, 

Quen he Jjoles god men and lele 

Wit wic(ce) men and fals(e) dele, 
* fiat betes ^aim wit dede and word 

Als se bare betes on schipbord.* 
11. f&nd. ' Provided for.' Still used in dialectal English in which a country 
labourer is engaged for * so much and found,' that is, so much pay in addition to 
board and lodging. 14. Iset it refen. ' Let roof it, caused it to be roofed.' 
17. for to Home. This event, though placed under the year 1137, could not 
have taken place until 1145, since Eugenius did not become pope until that 
year. Cf. note to 3, 21. 18. prfvilegies. The OF. form is privilege^ 
so that ie is here not long, unless it shows influence of OF. words in ie. 
20-21. circewican . . . horderwycan. That OE. wice had acquired final 
n in the nominative is clear from Orm's use, so that these examples can hardly 


be assumed to be weak datives. 22. Bogingham pe castel. ' The castle 
of Rockingham.* 24. solidi. The MS. abbreviation is expanded as a Lat. 
plural, since the word was hardly English. The words «lc gser, inserted above 
the line by the writer of the MS., were bracketed by Morris as if not in the 
MS. ('Specimens/ I), and this led to the proposal of solidaias, *a measure of 
land,' as the true reading (* Mod. Lang. Notes,* VII, 134). The correct reading 
of the MS. shows that a sum of money is intended. 25. winieerd. Plummer 
notes, on Bede (' Hist. Eccles.,* Bk. I, ch. i), that vine-growing was formerly 
common in England, especially in some of the monasteries. 28. Stephnes 
Kinges. Each word is made genitive in form as in Old English. The MnE. 
group genitive has not yet developed; cf. j?<? kinges sune Henries (5, \2)yJ>e 
kinges dohter Henries (5, 30). 29. On his time. The death of William 
of Norwich, afterwards St. William, is placed in 11 44 and 1146 by different 
chroniclers, Plummer says, * The charge against the Jews of using the blood 
of murdered gentiles, especially Christian children, for ritual purposes is as old 
as the time of Josephus'; see his * Contra Apionem,* II, 8, Cf. the similar 
story in Chaucer's * Prioress's Tale.' 31. lang Fridsei. The term occurs 
occasionally in OE. langa Frigadag {Frigedcsg), and is common in Old Norse 
as langifrjddagr. 

Page 5, 1. 2. and 19 munekes. <And those monks.' Editors have 
seemed to think to an unusual form, but it is a natural development of OE./J 
after a final d\ cf. 5, 8. 8. ievest, MS. 8Bvez, The MS. z is an OF. 
spelling, usually of /j, but here of st, 9. aet te Standard. The battle was 
fought at Northallerton, Yorkshire. Its name comes from the fact that banners 
of St. Cuthbert of Durham, St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverley, and 
St. Wilfired of Ripou were fixed upon a pole in a four-wheeled cart and placed 
in the centre of the English army. 12. wart it war. ' Became aware of 
it.' 13. pestrede pe sunne. This date of March 20, 1140 (1. 15), is shown 
to be correct by the table of eclipses. 16. "Willelm^ .^rcebiscop. The 
Willelm Curbuil mentioned at 2, 9. 24. Bodbert Eorl of Gloucestre. 
Robert was a natural son of Henry I and hence half-brother of Matilda, whose 
claims to the throne he vigorously espoused. 26. heore laverd. That is. 
King Stephen; so him of 1. 27. Stephen was taken prisoner Feb. 2, 1141. 
30. kinges dohter Henries. This was iEthelic (Adelaide) of earlier 
references, the daughter of Henry I, who was given in marriage to Henry V 
of Germany. On her coronation, July 25, 11 10, her name was changed to 
Matilda. At her husband's death, 11 26, she returned to England, and her 
father caused homage to be done to her as his successor. This was reason 
enough for her enmity toward Stephen. Soon after she was given in marriage 
to Geoffrey of Anjou. She readied England in 11 39 and was chosen Lady 
(the name Queen was not used for her) in 1141. In June of the same year 
she fled from London. 32. 8o». This is especially noteworthy as the 
earliest use of the form which became MnE. she. 

Page 6, 1. 1. biscop of "Wincestre. Henry of Blois, formerly abbot of 
Glastonbury. 8. stali hi. Preterit plural with loss of final n when 
immediately followed by a subject pronoun. In Old English this occurred 
only in the case of the first and second persons, but it seems to have heen 
extended to the third person in ME. times. Cf. 25, 11, 14. 14. swa diden. 
The exchange was made in 1141. The next year came the reconciliation with 


Randolph, earl of Chester. 26. brohten hire into Oxenf5rd. This was 
in March or May, 1141, the chronicler doabling back in his narrative to tell of 
the divided state of England. Matilda was besieged in Oxford during 
October or November, 1142, and she escaped to Wallingford in December. 
She did not go over sea (I. 30) until the early part of 1147. 27. pa horde 
"Bat saegen. *Then heard he that sajring'; sagen is OE. segen (sagen\ 
'saying, assertion,* and not an infinitive {O^, secgan) as usually interpreted. 
Confusion has resulted from the form of the infinitive in 4, 28. 30. hi of 
Normandi. This happened between 1141 and 1144. 

Page 7, 1. 1. ferde Eustace. Stephen's son Eustace married Constance, 
sister of the French king, in February, 1140. He died (1. 8) in August, 1153, 
his mother May 3, 11 52. 2. to wife. The OE. dative remains longest in 
such expressions as this, though finally displaced by the invariable nom. 
dat. ace. form; cf. iff wive (24, 19), iff wif (40, 13). 9. his sane Henri. 
Henry succeeded to the dukedom of Anjou on the death of his father, Sept. 7, 
1 151. In March, 11 52, Eleanor was divorced from Louis VII, and she 
married Henry (I. 11) in May of the same year. toe to pe pice. 

* Succeeded to the kingdom.' The OE. idiom was fon to, and fon had now 
been displaced by taken, from ON. taka, 12. pa ferde he. This was in 
January, 1153, and in November peace was made (1. 15). 16. "ware. 
Pret. snbj., ^ ^ould be.' Cf. 1. 15. 27. pffit minster. Stephen and his 
queen had founded the religious house at Feversham, Kent, and the minster 
had been completed in 11 48. 

Page 8, 1. 1. innen d»is. Some number is perhaps omitted before dais, 
ousen. The OE, curon had already given way to a form with j, by analogy of 
the present and preterit singular. So with the past participle cosan =■ cosen 
in I. 4. 9. Bamesseie . . . Tomeie . . . Spallding. These are Ramsey 
(Huntingdonshire), Thomey (Cambridgeshire), and Spalding (Lincolnshire , 
all in the neighbourhood of Peterborough. The other places named cannot be 
made out wiui certainty. 


The * Ormulum ' is preserved in Junius MS. i of the Bodleian Library, not 
improbably the MS. of Orm himself. It has been edited by White (1852), and 
this revised by Holt (1878), though a more scholarly edition is still much needed. 
Selections occur in Morris (* Specimens,' I, 39), Matzner (' Sprachproben,' 
I> 3)> Sweet (* First Middle English Primer,' 43), Zupitza (* tf bungsbuch,' 7, 
Schipper, 99). An indispensable collation of the MS. was printed by Kolbing 
in * Englische Studien,' I, i. Of the author nothing is known beyond what is 
given in this Introduction (see various notes). The ' Ormulum ' was composed 
in the neighbourhood of Lincoln about 1200, and the language therefore 
represents the Northeast. Midland of that period. Orm's language, in relation 
to orthography an^Tvowel quantity, is discussed in the Grammatical Intro- 
duction (§ 7'> note). Besides may be noted Callenberg, 'Layamon u. Orm 
nach ihren Lautverhaltnissen verglichen' (1876); Sachse, ' Das unoiganische 
e im Ormulum' (1881) ; Brate, * Nordische Lehnworter im Ormulum* in Paul 
u. Braune's * Beitrage,' X, i ; Kluge, 'Englische Studien,' XXII, 179. 


The name of the work is given by the author (Preface, 1. i) : JJiss hoc is 
nemmnedd Orrmulum, forrj^i J)att Orrm itt wrohhte. Ormulum is clearly a 
diminative, after the Latin, of the author's name. The book consists of an 
introduction, called dedication and preface, paraphrases intended to cover the 
gospels read in the church during the year, and homilies upon them. Of 
these paraphrases and homilies only about one-eighth were completed, or at 
least remain in MS., but these extend to nearly ten thousand long lines. The 
work has little literary value, as it is prosaic in the extreme, but is especially 
valuable for the light which it throws on the language of the time. The 
metrical form is that of the lo ng l ine of fifteen syllables with caesura after the 
eighth, ^but wi thout rimeor reguTaf "anifefation. The metrical flow is 
iambic, and the^ metre is"clearly based^ on the Latin septenarius. With the 
addition of rime this metre became the Mn£. quatrain of alternate eight aSid 
seven syllables, the long line being broken at the csesural pause. On the other 
hand, Menthel, following Trautmann, tries to connect Orm's verse with that 
of Otfried, ' Zur Geschichte des Otfriedischen Verses in England ' (Anglia, VIII, 
Anzeiger, 49). The sources of the * Ormulum ' have been shown to be prin- 
cipally Bede and Gregory the Great; cf. Sarrazin, *tjber die Qnellen des 
Ormulum' (* Englische Studien,' VI, i). 

As to language, the peculiarities of Orm's orthography have been discussed 
in the Grammatical Introduction. Here may be added Orm*s a for OE. <^, 
sometimes OM. ^, the exact limits of the use not having been accurately 
made out ; the use of ^ or w for the second element of a true diphthong (cf. 
J>e)) * they,' Awwsttn for OF. Austin), as well as for OE. ) or w; / {or OE. 
mediaiy"=: v ; gin god * good ' distinguished from g in strange, though no example 
occurs in our selection ; sk{ssA) for OE. sc, beside sk for ON., OF. sk {sc=^sk). 
The poetical form naturally gives special assistance in regard to language, as 
in accent of words, and elision of final e (occasionally other vowels) before ^ 
a vowel or weak h» Orm*s vocabulary is characterized by a large Norse r 
element and a smaller OF. element than in the ^ Chronicle.' His inflexions ] 
are exceedingly simple, and the s)'ntax, at least of this selection, requires no 
special explanation other than an occasional note. 

Page 8y 1. 13. broperr min. Probably not blood -relationship in the 
restricted sense, but rather that in which Philemon is desired to, receive 
Onesimus as * a brother in the flesh,' Philem. 16. Cf. Henrici, * Otfrid's 
Mutter und Orm's Bruder' (* Zeitschrift f. Deutsches Alterthum,' XXII, 231). 
14. Annd. The MS. sign ( 1 ) is thus expanded in accordance with occa- 
sional forms of the word in the * Ormulum.' Of course there can be no question ^ 
of the shortness of the vowel in this unstressed word. 15. i Godess hus. 
In the religious house of which they were both canons, it would seem from 
1. 17. 16. Witt. The dual forms of the pronouns are rare except in the 
earliest period, 17. Unnderr. While the rhythm of Orm's lines is pre- 
vailingly iambic, a trochee instead of an iamb often occurs at the beginning 
of the line, or immediately after the caesura; cf. Affterr (1. ao), t^jwhar 
(9» i3)» and following the caesura affterr (1. 13), goddspelless (1. 19). Those 
who suppose that these words are given iambic stress assume that Orm did 
violence to the natural accent of words, instead of following a frequent custom 
in all English iambic rhythm. swa summ Sannt Awwstin sette. 

That is, St. Augustine, the great patron of the monastic life. The more 
explicit rule actually followed by Augustine monks was that of St. Benedict 


(Benet), based on the brief directions in the writings of St. Augustine. 
19. ISnngliash. The substantive English seems already to have become 
established, since it never occurs with final e in Orm, while the adjective 
appears with or without ^, as in 1. 22, where Ennglissh ffolc is practically 
a compound y and at 10, 20. hall^he lare. The adjective is in the weak 
form after a genitive, as shown by Sachse (mentioned above). 20. Drihlitui. 
According to Orm*s manner of indicating vowel quantity the i of the last 
syllable is long, though the word represents 0£. drihien ; cf. Morshach, § 67, 
Anm. 4. 21. )x>hhte88t tatt. The rule that initial/ of pronominal words 
becomes / after / or ^ is followed absolutely in Orm, as shown by Blackburn 
(* Amer. Journal of Philology,' III, 46). See also note on 9, 11. 22. lufe 
ofr. Elision of weak e occurs regularly before a vowel or weak h ; see Gram. 
Infrod. 26. unno birr]>. ' It becomes (behooves) us both.' 

Page Oy 1. 1. pa goddspelless neh alio. The Latin texts given by Orm 
after the * Dedication * show that he followed, in general, some gospel 
harmony of his time. 2. sinndenn. This form is less common in Mid- 

land, except in the early period. It is displaced by are{ft), found in the 
Anglian district in OE. times ; cf. * Vespasian Psalter ' earon. Nth. aron (un), 
and Sievers, ' Angelsachsische Grammatik,' § 427. 4. sawle node. This 
might almost be written as a compound. Such examples scarcely prove 
retention of the OE. feminine genitive, with gender signification, at least for 
Midland and Northern. 7. amang. Orm's orthography gives no clue to 
the length of the first a, but the constant appearance of a instead ofo (= ^ 
in later texts seems conclusive proof of shortness ; cf. ampng, 18, 10. 

10. t'unnderrstanndenn. Occasional elision of other vowels than weak e 
occurs in the * Ormulum ' ; cf. het^ 10, 4. 11. pesa to bettre. The change 
of initial / to / in pronominal words occurs after s in only a few such ex- 
pressions as the above. pe^^m. This form, with the nominative j?<^;^ (1. 26) 
and genitive /^r;^^r^ (1. 4), shows that Orm's dialect had already begun to use 
the ON. forms of the pronoun, a change which had not been fully accomplished 
in Southeast Midland in Chaucer's time. 16. ferrs. OE. ferSy from 
Lat. versus, soon to give way to OF. vers, YJ. wel . . . well. Both forms 
occur in Orm. Holthausen has shown (* Anglia Beiblatt,' XIII, 16) that wel is 
the prevailing form in both stressed and unstressed positions, and is used in 
independent positions, while well is employed when modifying an adjective or 
adverb. There are some exceptions even to this rule. annd all forrpi. 
' And therefore {all forrfi) I was compelled, full often of necessity, to put 
{don) my word among the words of the gospel, to fill my verse.' J^Sde is an 
adverb, and shollde has the old sense of ' was obliged, had to.' 19. wikenn. 
This OE. ;^-stem has acquired final n in the nominative singular, contrary to 
the usual rule. Cf. the compounds circewtkany horderwycan (4, 21-22). 
26. IStenn. 'Think, judge/ less common meanings of OM. litan, \VS. 
laiany but common in Old Norse. 

Page 10, 1. 6. fele wordess. Note the early use oi fele (OE. ^.feola) 
as an adjective, and cf. German viel, 24. att Godd. * From God ' ; cf. 
' at the hands of,' a relic of this use in modem English. 30. ^iff pe^a all 

forrwerrpenn itt. The same thought is to be found in iElfric's * Homilies,' 

11, 528 : Gif we for synfuUum mannum gebiddatf, and hi Caere Vingunge un- 
wui%e synd, ne beo we swaCeah bedaelede edleanes paes godan willan, 6eah 
pe we t5am forscyldegodan geSingian ne magon. ' If we pray for sinfiil men 


and they are unworthy of the intercession, yet we shall not be deprived of 
the reward of good intention, though we may not be able to mediate for 
the guilty.' 

Page 11, 1. 7. all mannkixine node. Mannkinne is an 0£. genitive 
plural, which has not yet taken the invariable plural ending es^ perhaps 
because it was felt to be part of a compound. The form mannkinness is also 
found in such expressions. 21. flumxn Jorrdan. Owing to the regular 
appearance of the two words in this order Kluge assumes that both are of 
OF. origin. While I have followed Kluge here, the whole subject of Scripture 
proper names in English needs fuller investigation. In Middle English the 
lack of certainty with regard to Latin or French origin of such names par- 
ticularly affects names beginning with MnE.y^, since they are written with 
I OT J indiscriminately. 26. ds&pp. The doubling of/ would indicate 

shortness of the vowel, but the latter is marked long in accordance with the 
more common writing daj> ; cf. 1. 8. wipputenn wrihhte. * Without 
merit or desert,' so * undeservedly.' 

Page 12, 1. 6. wiss to fulle sop. * Certainly, in full truth.* IViss is 
OE. gewissy strengthened by to fulle so}, 18. seffnde. The OE. seo/cHe 

has already been displaced by the analogical form on the basis of the cardinal, 
as in MnE. seventh. 25. patt he sahh. Cf. Rev. v. i f. 32. naness 

kiness shaffte. Note the genitive inflexion of both adjective and noun. 
The uninflected adjective is more common, but the inflected form remains in 
certain expressions. 

Page 13, 1. 4. all all swa se. The doubling of all for emphasis is not 
uncommon in Orm. 26. Orrmin. Matzner regarded the name as formed 
on the Latin model, but Zupitza (* Guy of Warwick,' note to 1. 9529, EETS., 
Extra Series, 25-26) makes it a diminutive of Orm on the French model ; cf. 
Awwstin, 8, 17. Orm's name is believed to be from ON. ormr, cognate with 
OE. wyrm * worm, serpent.' 30. allre eeresst. The MS. gives clear evi- 
dence, as in some other cases, of elision. 



The * Bestiary,* from which these selections are taken, is found in Arundel 
MS. 292 of the British Museum. It has been edited by Wright (' Altdeutsche 
Bliitter,' II), by Wright and Halliwell ('Reliquiae Antiquae,* I, 20S), by 
Morris (* An Old English Miscellany,' EETS. 49, 1), by Matzner (* Sprach- 
proben,' I, 55), and a selection by Morris (* Specimens,' I, 133). The language 
of the * Bestiary' is that of the Southeast Midland (SEMI.) during the first half 
of the thirteenth century. 

The poem consists of more or less fanciful descriptions of thirteen animals, 
with allegorical interpretations of their supposed characteristics. The first 




twelve sections are based on the Latin * Physiologus * of Theobaldus, an Italian 
monk of the eleventh century, the thirteenth upon Alexander Neckam's * De 
Natnris Reram.' The * Physiologns * of Theobaldus is printed by Morris as an 
appendix to * An Old English Miscellany.* Fragments of an older ' Physio- 
logus * occur in Old English poetry. The metrical forms of the * Bestiary ' are 
various. The first and third selections are in long unrimed lines with some 
attempt at alliteration. The second, with exception of the first line, breaks up 
into rimed couplets of four (occasionally three) stresses. The * Signification ' 
of the Eagle, however, shows long rimed lines with the first half-lines frequently 
riming together also. If the latter feature were perfectly carried out we should 
have a four-line stanza riming abab. The metre of the fourth is similar to the 
first part of the second, but all show many irregularities in detail. These 
metrical forms are especially interesting in relation not only to the alliterative 
line of Old English, but also to the rimed couplet of four stresses which was 
soon to be so common in England. 

As to language, all Old English diphthongs have become simple vowels, and 
the new diphthongs are appearing ; OE. ^ is no longer used; the change of OE. 
a to ^, and the lengthening of vowels in open syllables, have taken place ; in 
other words t)rpical East Midland is before us. Special peculiarities in ortho- 
graphy are OF. c = j initially ; giox grngod^ * good,' and for ^ in Itgt^ * light,* 
or ^ = ^ in ^/, * ye * ; s {ss) = sh; d always for OE. 9 or/. 

(Page 14, 1. 1. leun stant. Both l^un and /tun occur in Middle English 
as in Old French, the latter finally prevailing. Contractions like stani = stande} 
are more common in SEMI, than in NEML, and still more common in Southern, 
hille. No doubt dative of hit (1. 14) , though possibly from the OE. hylle f., 
beside hyll m. and. * If ' ; it translates Lat. si of Theobaldus, introducing 
the subjunctive here. The Latin also shows that the first half-line is a separate 
sentence, not immediately connected with the next as usually punctuated. 4. 
fetsteppes. Note that the plural in MnE. compounds of mutation nonns, 
except many loses all trace of mutation. 6. diin. The addition of this word, 
though not corresponding exactly to anything in the Latin, seems justified by 
the context and especially by 1. 18. It was first added by Morris. 6. he. 
Refers to* hunter,' implied in hunten (1. i). 9. liC. With this^contracted 
form compare Iteti in 1. 12. 16. Hii. Both hu and wu are found in the selec- 
tions, and represent OE. hu and hwu respectively, the latter commonly becom- 
ing wu in Stn. English. For convenience they have been regularized throughout 
the selection on the basis of the first form, the more common Midland variety. 
17. divel. This form shows conclusively that shortening of OE. deofol had 
taken place, since only devel could have become diveL The latter is still 
common in dialectal English. 18. dennede him. ' Made a resting-place 
for himself.* The Latin is : 

* Viscera Marie tibi, Christe, fuisse cubile,* 
and OE. denn is glossed * cubile.* 19. defbe. * Mild, gentle, meek.* OE. 
gedceft^ whence MnE. daft by a change of meaning similar to that of * simple,* 
* innocent.* MnE. deft, from the same root if not the same word, has acquired 
the sense * skilful * through * easy,* a natural development from * mild.*' 20. 
to manne frame. * To the profit of men.* Marine is a relic of the OK gen. 
pi. manna. Such a genitive plural is preserved only in certain expressions, 
and probably the folk-mind regarded combinations like manne frante as essen- 
tially compounds. 


Page 16, 1. 3. dfde = df])e, with d from voiced/. Ded for death still 
exists in English dialects. Cf. 122,6 for the word in rime. 6. hirde. The 
strict Ml. form is herder MnE. (shep)herd. Htrde doubtless comes from WS. 
hJerde ; cf. stlden = shilden (1. 6^ for Ml. shelderty MnE. shield. 16>16. 
dimme . . . him. The rimes of tne * Bestiary ' are sufficiently irregular so that 
the extra syllable of the first line does not seem remarkable. As dimme is pi. 
we assume the word was disyllabic, though compare 20, 26. 21. skies 
seze and sevene. Referring to the traditional view of the heavens, based on 
the Ptolemaic system. 25. Be sunne swiSeiO. The Lat. reads Tunc sibi 
sol ambas accendit fervidus alas. 

Page 16, 1. 2. Ne wSre. ' If his beak were not ' ; wire pt. subj. 15 
kirke. A distinctly Nth. or NEMl. form, perhaps used for rime. 16. 9'. 
Distinguish from or, * or ' ; this is ON, dr cognate with OE. <f r, ' ere.* 21. to 
G-ode ward. This is a not uncommon order of words in OE., though t9weard 
{toward) also occurs. Cf. to tie water ward (17, 9). ISteU. * Thinks' ; 
this makes a perfect rime with betett and gives a good meaning. The MS. 
reading lered ^ l^retS is an imperfect rime in both vowel and consonant. 22. 
te stmne sikerlike. The allegory here may be illustrated by an OK 
* Treatise on Astronomy ' attributed to JEXinc (' Popular Treatises on Science,' 
Wright, p. 3), in which this passage occurs: * Seo sunne getacne?? ume Hselend 
Crist, se tJe ys rihtwisnesse sunne, swa swa se witega cwseC, Timentibus autem 
nomen Domini orietur sol iustUiaey et sanitas in pennis eius : — t^am mannnm 
])e him ondrseda^ Godes naman ]>am arist rihtwisnysse stmne, and h3el]>e is on 
hyre Rt^erum.' The sun betokens our Saviour Christ, who is the sun of righteous- 
ness, as the prophet said : ' Upon the men who fear God's name shall arise the 
sun of righteousness, and health is in his wings.* The prophecy is in Mai. iv. 2. 

Page 17, 1. 3. forbr9ken. Note the MS. reading in footnote. Some emen- 
dation is clearly necessary, and I suggest that in the text as better preserving the 
alliteration. . 7. narwe buten. The Latin original makes the passage clear : 

' Querit angustum lapidis foramen ; 
Vix movens sese veniensque tandem 
Inde pertransit spoliatque camem 

Pelle vetusta.* 
Thus narwe refers to dirl. * He seeks a stone in which {pat . .-. on) is a hole, 
narrow, but he forces himself (moves through with difficulty) for,* &c. 24. 
litel him is. < Little (advantage) will be to him from his limbs ' ; ' he shall 
have little advantage,* &c. 25. higtest. Note the shorter form higtes in 
the next line. 

Page 18, 1. 5. It is td ned. A half-line is lost as shown by the allitera- 
tion. 6. ful of t$ewes. It seems best to regard ful as imperative of OE. 
fulliany * become full.* Otherwise, we must supply the imperative of the verb 
to be, or take ful as an adjective and omit and at beginning of the next line. 
The Latin gives no assistance. 31. Dat is lire hfved gevelio. * That is like 
our head.' The full sense is shown by the Latin, where our head refers to Christ : 

'Vis novus vitam sine fine dignam. 
Semper illesum caput est habendum, 
Hoc caput, dico, quod habes in ipso 

Principe Christo.' 
helde we. ' Incline we to,' * if we incline to.* But helde might be a Sth. form 
for Ml. hplden, WS. healdan {hialdan\ OM. haldan {JuUdan), 



Page 10, 1. 8. seien. Note the early development of a Midland infinitive 
based on the present indicative 3nl singular. Sth. seggen, 0£. secgan^ still remains 
for some time. 4. S9ge. Pret. snbj. 3rd sing., early ME. sage ; cf. note on 1, 
15, and Siev. § 391, anm. 7. 9. it smit. 'It thrusts out.' Smii = smtUd. 
23. stixner and winter winnen. ^ Fair weather and storm strive together/ 
The Lat. has Si sit tempestas cum vadit, vel venit estas. 28. tSat, MS. tSar. 
The emendation was suggested by Matzner {* Sprachproben/ I, 69). 

Page 20, 1. 10. dots hem sinken. ' Maketh them to sink.' 18. Bis 
devel. The whale was so commonly used as a figure for the devil that the 
English writer begins at once with * This devil,' not following the Latin asser- 
tion of similarity : Viribus est zabulus quasi cetus corpora magnus. This was 
common interpretation of such Scripture passages as Ezek. xxxiii. 2 ; Isa. xxvii. 
I ; Job xli. I. 18. wosf him folegetS. Note how the indefinite wosp 
approaches relative force by the repetition of the subject (at first the clause) in 
hi. The next step was to place hi before wofp or who, when wosp becomes 
wholly relative to hi as an antecedent. 22. gast. A short secondary form 
of 0£. gdst occasionally occurring. 


The ' Genesis and Exodus/ from which this selection is taken, is found in 
MS. 444 of the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. It was edited 
by Morris in EETS. 7 (1865) and reprinted with corrections in 1874. 
Specimens are found in Matzner ('Sprachproben,' I, 75), Morris ('Specimens,' I, 
153), Zupitza ('tJbungsbuch,* 81), Wiilker (' Lesebuch/ I, i). As in the case 
of the preceding selection, with which this has much in common, the language 
of the ' Genesis and Exodus ' is of the southern portion of the East Midland, 
and the poem was composed in the first half of the thirteenth century. 
A single author, otherwise unknown, is believed to have composed the whole 
poem ; cf. Fritzsche, ' 1st das altenglische Story of Genesis and Exodus das 
Werk eines Verfassers,' * Anglia,* V, 43. Notes are to be found in ' Anglia,* VI, 
Anz. i; XV, 191 ; XXII, 141; ' Englische Studien,* II, 120; III, 273; XVI, 
429 ; XXII, 292 ; < Archiv fiir neuere Sprachen,' XC, 143 ; * Mod. Lang. 
Notes,* I, 65. 

The poem consists of a paraphrase of the Scripture story, mainly based on 
the 'Historia Scholastica,* composed by Petrus Comestor between 11 69 and 
1 1 75. As usual in such cases the treatment is free, many parts of the Bible 
story being omitted and many additions of mediaeval legend and interpretktion 
being added. The metre is the rimed couplet of four stresses with iambic 
movement, but with the syllabic irregularity so common in the period. Thus 
the line often ends with an unstressed syllable after the principal stress, and as 
often lacks an unstressed syllable at the beginning. In the latter case the first 
stressed syllable forms a monosyllabic foot. Alliteration of the stressed syllables 
is sometimes found, though without the regularity of alliterative verse. Our 
selection includes lines 2037-2490, covering Genesis xxxix. 19 to 1. 14, though 
with large omissions. Another version of the story of Joseph may be read in 
'Cursor Mundi' (EETS. 57, 59), beginning at 1. 4037, and the part corre- 
sponding to our selection at I. 4417. The latter is much fuller and moze 
dramatic, while also showing some interesting variations upon the story. 


The langu^e of the poem is similar to that of the * Bestiary/ with which its 
orthography agrees so thoroughly that in general no further remarks are 
necessary. A few cases of OE. diphthongs occur, as at 22, 14-15, but similar 
words are so frequently written with simple vowels as to prove that the older 
forms did not represent true diphthongs. Otherwise the most noticeable 
orthographic peculiarity is ^« for OE. Aw, as in ^ui/e (21, 5), perhaps through ^ 
Nth. influence. The language of the poem is treated by Morris in the 
Preface to his edition, by Hilmer in * Die Sprache von Genesis nnd Exodus ' 
(1876), and byFritzsche as above. 

Page 21, 1. 1. Putifar trewiJJ. The form of Potiphar's name is that of 
the Latin original, as are most of the other Scripture names in Genesis. 
2. losep. The form here and the rimes at 22, 21-22 and 30, 7-8 prove 
conclusively that the Latin, not OF. form of the word is meant. 3. sperd. 
Orm's sperrd (12, 26) shows the shortness of the vowel. Metrically the word 
is disyllabic, and might be written sperred\ though compare 22, 29-30. 
6. prisuner. Note that this is not the MnE. word 'prisoner.' 13. hem 
drempte. Impersonal uses of the verb were still common, as in OE., 
though soon to disappear; see Kellner, * Hist. Outlines of Eng. Syntax,' § 151. 
15. on sel. Lines 15-16 paraphrase Joseph . . . ministrabat eis of the Vulgate 
and Petrus Comestor, but the above words were added to imply regularity of 
the service. 17. he freinde, MS. he hem freinde. The MS. reading is 
impossible metrically, unless he hem are to be read as h^m. The text follows 
Kblbing, * Eng. St,' III, 305. 18. Harde drfmes. * Unpleasant (harde) 
dreams have that power,' that is, to make people mourn. 27-28. hgnd . . . 
wr9ng. Note the assonance instead of rime. 28. me "Sug^te. Morris says 
dugie = dogtej corrected by Egge in 'Mod. Lang. Notes,' I, 66. ME. au^ie, 
'seemed,' and 6ojie, 'thought,* later fell together \mder Pou^te, MnE. thought. 

Page 22, 11. 3-4. win . . . Verin. Many imperfect rimes in the poem 
show differences in vowel quantity. With rimes 01 long and short i cf. those 
at 28, 25-26; 29, 7-8; 30, 15-16; 31, 17-18; 34,4-5; see also 85, 21-22. 
10. Bat, MS. t$a. Morris suggested the emendation. 21. quad = 

qua^, 'quoth.' For the change cf. Gram. Introd., §§ 100, 116. 25. fleis, 
fleish. For the diphthong see Gram. Introd. Cf. weis (29, i). 26. agte. 
* Possessions, wealth,' not ' care * as Morris. The line means ' that no wealth 
may protect thee.' Cf. ^g agtes (26, 32). This addition to the Scripture 
narrative is not found in Petrus Comestor, but occurs in * Cursor Mundi,' . 
1. 4493. 

Page 23, 11. 7-8. bif^ren . . . com, MS. coren. The MS. reading makes 
a good eye-rime, but it is doubtful whether cdm was disyllabic in pronuncia- 
tion. Better assume hifom {biforn) for biforen. 12. De ranee, MS. tJe ranc 
he. The emendation makes ranee the correct plural, and leaves sevene l^e as 
the more direct subject of haven pvercumen, 13. it smiten. ' They smote.* 
Morris regards it as a neuter plural form, but perhaps this use is derived 
from that of // as introducing plural verbs in OE. 14. "Sristen to ISe, 
MS. tSrist hem to tSo. The emendation seems justified by the syntax. The 
plural Hrlsten is required and iSe fette must be object of it. Cf. the Latin : 
Septem spicae plenae pullulabant in cultno uno, aliaeque totidem tuxta orie- 
bantur tenues, et percussae uredine, et devorabant priores. 29-30. 911 .. . 
Pharadn. The NF. form of Pharaoh should rime with long close J, as it 



does at 22, i-2, 9-10. Cf. 82, 15-16, and the OF. Pharaun at 23, 21-22. 
30. tawnen. See the explanation of the form in the Glossary, and cf. Mn£. 
twit for a similar initial / from OE. at in a compound word. 

Page 24, 1. 8. gSre. The noun ger = ^^r, * year,' appears with the plural 
ger at 23, 31, gere here, and geres in 1. 25. So most OE. neuters gradually 
assumed the es ending of masculines. 17. ISanne Futifar. Confusion in 
the names Potiphar and Potiphera of our Bible is easy from the Lat. forms 
Putiphar and Putiphara. It was then easy to make Asenath the daughter of 
Joseph's old master, as here. Hebrew tradition explained Joseph's marriage 
of a foreign woman by saying that Job's second wife was Dinah, daughter of 
Jacob (Gen. xxxiv), from whom a daughter was bom and became the mother 
of Asenath (Petrus Comestor). Moslem tradition gave a romantic turn to the 
story by making Joseph marry Zuleekha, wife of Potiphar, after the latter's 
death (Weil's * Biblical Legends,' 97 f.). 20. ©tJor is nu. * Another 
(condition) is now than had happened before.' 24. He laveden G-od. 

* They (the sons of Joseph) loved God, he (God) repaid it to them.' 
29. Hunger wez. The ' Cursor Mnndi ' shows an interesting addition, 
probably from Hebrew tradition. Joseph, after threshing, casts the chaff 
upon the Nile, where Jacob, who casually walked by that river (geography did 
not trouble many me(U3eval writers) » found it, and sent his sons along the Nile 
to Egypt to-buy com. 29-30. Chanaan • . . foxISan. Another qualitative 
rime, as Chanaan seems to be disyllabic in ' Genesis,' though trisyllabic in 

* Cursor Mundi,' as in Latin. Cf. 32, 7-8. 

Page 25, 1. 1. for nede sogt. Morris defined sogt as ^ reconciled,' asso- 
ciating it with OE. sahtf but it is the past participle of seken in the less 
common sense of * attacked, driven.* 8. als. A connective oiknew (1. 7) 
and let (1. 8), ah must mean * yet ' or * though,' not * also ' as Morris. Cf. Egge, 

* Mod. Lang. Notes,' I, 66^ and Kock, * Anglia,' XXV, 321. 11. cume ge. 
Note the form without ending before ge, as in OE, Cf. 1. 28, and with 
wi in similar position, 1. 14. Morris and Matzner change cufne to came, 
but this is surely unnecessary, since the action is regarded as present in time. 
16. ddS us, MS. doiSes. Matzner suggested cMi us, though retaining the MS. 
reading. The change is simple and satisfactory. Kock (' Anglia,' XXV) inter- 
prets do9es as equivalent to dotfe*s=ddd he (Jacob) us, but Matzner's suggestion 
seems better. 19. Hii siilde. This addition to the Scripture is in Petrus 
Comestor : Impossibile est enim mro idiotae tales filios esse, cum etiam regibus 
talis filiorum copia valde est difficilis. The first part of the line was emended 
by Morris ' ani man,' but MS. oninan ^ pn man, 32. Dat he W9re. 
Kolbing shows (* Eng. St.,' Ill, 305) that hf refers to Joseph, not to Benjamin 
as Morris had assumed. He compares Petras Comestor : Timebai enim ne 
forte et in ilium aliquid deliquissent. This is added to explain Joseph's 

imprisonment of his brothers. 

Page 26, 1. 4. tSe t^n. The /, originally a part of Het (pal), seems to have 
become an integral part of the following word, and is so printed. Cf. tofere 
(30, 20), which still remains in dialectal English. 6. Td*wedde. *For 
security,* * as a pledge.* The frequent occurrence of OE. wedn, in this dative 
phrase no doubt accounts for the retention of the OE. dative form. Cf. to 
wive (24, 19). 12. Wrigtful we. 'Deservedly we are,' translating Merito 
haec patimur, quia peccavimus infratrem nostrum. 19. deden . . . beden. 


The rime assumes that both dic/en and deden must have occurred in speech. 
This seems better than assuming dJden . • . beden, 24. Vgr bif9ren. Cf. 
Egge (* Mod. Lang. Notes,' I, 66) : ' I take in a local sense, ** there before, at 
the top," referring to the mouth of the sacks.* 27. 9vei15ogt. Morris 
suggests * over-anxious,' but the word corresponds to obstupefacti turbatique of 
the Vulgate : Et obstupefacti turbatique tnutuo (Gen. xlii. 38). * Amazed, 
stupefied' are better. 81. Quaji men, MS. and qnan men. And is 
omitted, as it seems to have been copied from the preceding line by mistake. 

Page 27, 1. 5. Of losep. ' Of Joseph I do not know the end,' para- 
phrasing the Vulgate, Joseph non est super, 7-8. don . . . on. Cf. rimes 
of long and short i in note to 22, 3-4. Perhaps the adverb on had long g\ see 
rimes at 28, 5-6; 29, 27-28. 8. sfgetS. Note the plural subject with 
singular verb; probably dlati predominated in the mind of the writer. 
16. But ge. Note the abrupt transition from indirect to direct discourse ; also 
the use of the plural pronoun in addressing one person, the earliest instance in 
English. 17. Qnan it is ned. Kolbing points out (* Eng. St.,' Ill, 306) 
that qtian = *■ if here, the clause translating Si sic necesse est. 18. And io ne. 
M'atzner adds ic here as rightly. 25. ^emoded. Matzner's emendation of 
MS. edimodeSf making the word agree with its form in 1. 1584 of the poem. 
28. ben into Egypte ligt. Matzner's reading of the line. He suggests that 
cufften of the MS. was originally a gloss of ben ligt, 30. lag, MS. was, 
making no rime. Morris's Hag = OE. da is impossible, and Matzner suggests 
assonance. Koch's late suggestion of stag = OE. stag is equally impossible, as 
OE. a has regularly become p in * Genesis.* 

Page 28, 1. 2. Her nfn. ' None of them.' The objective use of the 
genitive plural ; cf. fire ngn (1. 6) and gtire gn (29, 30). 7. 15e stiward. 

Matzner's suggestion for stiward of the MS. Otherwise the pause after stille 
must do duty for the omitted unstressed syllable. 8. For ic. This part 

of the steward's answer does not very well agree with the Latin of the Vulgate, 
though the probable meaning is ' I have my instructions.' 11-12. come . . . 
n9me. Such seems to be the rime. The first word is Orm's comef ' coming,' 
and the second OE. nam f. There may have been, however, an OM. nom 
showing the root of the pret. pi. of nitnan. 24. "Wot ic. * I think none 
there did not tremble.' The line corresponds to the Vulgate, Et incurvati 
adoraverunt eum (Gen. xliii. 28). Incurvati was apparently understood in 
its metaphorical sense *■ disturbed in mind, trembling,' rather than the literal 
* bowing.' 32. wui1$ tf res wet. ' Was wet with tears.' The expression 
occurs with and without a preposition; cf. 30, 22, and 31, 4. 

Page 29, 1. 4. Sette hem, MS. and sette hem. The reading of the 
text seems simpler than retaining and at the beginning of this line and omit- 
ting it before him in the preceding. 12. And hem. There is nothing 
in the Scripture or Petrus Comestor for these lines, as Kolbing pointed out. 
In * Cursor Mnndi ' the same 'sarmun ' occurs, and the brothers are especially 
warned against ^eft. 18. 9^ 9'. * Before.' The doubling of the particle 
is not uncommon. 29. For is it nogt. All reference to divination (Gen. 
xliv. 5, 15) is omitted by the English writer here and at 30, 10. Petrus 
Comestor adds, after paraphrasing Joseph's words about divining. Forte ioco 
dictum est ^ nee est imputandum. 30. Bat, MS. "Sa. Morris's emendation, 
which seems necessary. 32. T7p quam. A very early use of qudm, ' whom,' 


as a relative pronoun. Such nse appears first in the oblique cases, but is not 
established until Late Middle and Early Modem English. 

Page SOy 1. 1. He be slaffen. Matzner's emendation from MS. reading 
he slagen. agen. ' Back,* not ' again,* as Morris. * There is no reference 
to an earlier state of slavery ' (Egge). 

Page 3I9 1. 1. lewse. This seems to be the only form of the MS., 
occurring also at 1. 1576. No doubt the form should be ieswe, OM. les 
(ace. leswe), WS. laSf connected with OE. lesan-las, * to glean.' Ghersen. 
The Lat. form is Gessen^ which a copyist seems to have transformed by 
mistaking s for r. With this rime with long e cf. 31, 12-13; 32, 12-13, 
where the vowel is clearly short. 9. For luve of losep migte he 

timen. The him of 1. 8 and the he here seem to refer to the father (30, 31), 
and the line means ' For (on account of) love of Joseph might he prosper.' 
The rime of timen here and in other places may indicate shortening. 

19. Alsg f|le. Kolbing suggested connecting with following rather than 
preceding line. It translates Petrus Comestor, Et totidem (deferring to Ben- 
jamin's gift) misit patri. 

Page 32, 1. 8. Wei me. No verb is necessary in the exclamation. Cf. 
wumme (195, 33). 6. And sen. Matzner adds him, but it is unnecessary 
and adds an extra syllable to the line. 8. manie a man. Note the early 
introduction of a to make the singular number clear, indefinites tending to lose 
their singular uses and forms. 16. Fader dere, MS. derer. Matzner's change. 

20. t59, MS. tJog. The copyist was influenced by the preceding ddg just 
above ; cf. Gen. xlvii. 9. 23. S9 "RinkeU. Kolbing (*Eng. St.,° III, 307) 
pointed out that the speech of Jacob ends w^ith the preceding line, these words 
paraphrasing a comment of Petrus Comestor : Peregrinationis dixit y quia 
sancti vitam hanc pro incolatu habent, 29. Him. ajid hise, MS. he. 
The change is Matzner's. 

Page 33, 1. 2. fowrtene ger, MS. xiiij. The writer is in error, as the Vulgate 
reads decern et septem annos. That the error is not a copjdst's is clear from 
the fact that ME. seventene would be too long to icplsuce fowrtene, 6. oflf 
hS, MS. offe. Matzner added ^^ after oj^e, and Schumann ('Anglia,' VI, Anz. i) 
proposed the reading adopted. 7. Dat quan it wuitJe. Literally, * that 
when it should be done. with him,' an idiom easily understood to-day though 
not a literary form. 16. hem. Kolbing (* Eng. St./ Ill, 307) would change 
hem to htm, referring to Crist (1. 14) only. He quotes the comment of 
Petnis Comestor : Cura fuit Sanctis sepeliri in terra, qua sciebant Christum 
resurrecturum, ut cum eo resurgerent. But surely the wish of Jacob twice 
repeated (Gen. xlvii. 30 ; xlix, 29) was to be buried with his fathers, and it is 
more likely that hem is correct. It would include Christ with hise eldere 
(1. 13). 27. smaken. Matzner alters to mdken, but the sense of smdken 
is clear ; cf. 14, 2. 28. biwaken. The whole passage upon the burial customs 
occurs in Petrus, though with several slight, differences. 29-30. daiges . . • 
laiges. For forms see Gram. Introd. 

Page 34, 1. 5. delven it wit5 yre. *Bury it with iron (instrument).' The 
last two words add nothing of value, but no doubt the whole was a common 
expression in rime. 12-13. mide . . . wechdede. Perhaps for mide we should 


read mede {pi^deT) with the vowel of ON. me^, Dan. med. CC 34, 30--31. 
21. wel him. * Well may it be with him {to him) that has done well.' 
30-31. dede . . . mide. Another rime which shows the short form of ME. dede^ 
if not indeed that which Orm regularly uses, dide* 


The story of * Floris and Blauncheflur,'. of which this selection forms a part, 
is found in four MSS. : Gg. 4, 27, 2 of Cambridge University Library; Cotton 
Vetellius D. Ill of the British Museum ; Auchinleck MS. of the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh; Trentham MS. of the Duke of Sutherland's Library. 
Of these the first and best, so far as complete, was edited by Lumby, EETS. 
14 (1866), and re-edited by Dr. G. Mcknight in 1901. Other editions of 
the poem are those by Hartshome (* Ancient Metrical Tales' (1829)), Laing 
(Abbotsford Club Publ. (1857)). A critical edition, with valuable introduc- 
tion from a comparative standpoint, was made by Emil Hausknecht for the 
* Sammlung englischer Denkmaler' of Zupitza in 1885. The Cambridge 
MS. belongs to the middle, possibly the second quarter, of the thirteenth 
century. The language is that of the Southeast Midland, with a considerable 
number of strictly Southern forms, as shown by the footnotes. This direct 
Southern influence points to a district farther south than that of the * Bestiary ' 
or * Genesis and Exodus.' Owing to the mixture of Southern with Midland 
forms this selection does not represent the East Midland in its purity, but 
is added largely because of its greater literary interest. The metre of the 
poem is the rimed couplet of four, sometimes three, stresses. 

* Floris and Blauncheflur ' is a romantic tale, probably of Eastern origin, 
and brought to the West in the twelfth century, perhaps by crusaders. The 
English poem was freely translated and condensed from a French version, 
and is one of the earliest of a long series of French romances in Middle 
English literature. The main current of the story to the beginning of our 
selection (1. 433 of Camb. MS., 847 of the Hausknecht text) is as follows. 
Floris and Blauncheflur had become passionately attached as children. The 
father of Floris, the king of Spain, disapproves of the union, and suggests 
killing the maiden. In the original French version Blauncheflur is the 
daughter of a Christian captive, and the father of Floris a Saracen, The 
queen, mother of Floris, proposes sending him away, and this was done. 
Blauncheflur is then sold to the * Admiral ' of Babylon for a marvellous cup, 
a tomb is erected, and Floris, on his return, is told that she is dead. He is 
so heart-broken that he attempts his life, and the king and queen reveal to 
him the truth. Floris proposes to seek Blauncheflur, and the king gives him 
the marvellous cup, the queen a magic ring. He has various adventures in his \' 
search, and finally reaches Babylon. Here, by giving him the marvellous cup 
and promising great wealth, Floris at last persuades the porter of the tower in 
which Blauncheflur is confined to assist him. Then follows our selection. 

The Southern forms in the original text have been largely replaced by those 
of the Midland. This applies especially to those with «, OE. ^, and in- 
flexional forms, while some with eo\heo^ 36, 16), which would probably not 
be found as late as this text but for Southern influence, have been retained. 
Besides these peculiarities, among vowels may be mentioned the rare use of 



o for u (jonglingy 44, 3), a nsage to become much more common in the follow- 
ing selections. Among consonants, the regular use of ) ioi y initially and for a 
palatal and guttural spirant medially separates these sounds from the stop g (as 
m go), though the latter character is still used for^ = <a^ (as xajugement^ 42, 2). 
For the latter sound initially, OF. j also appears. OF. ^ « j is found as in 
certes (38, 11), Clarice (38, 3), and sch for sh. Contrary to the practice of the 
last two texts wh represents 0£. kw^ as in Orm. Among inflexional forms, 
a few with the prefix i—OK,ge have been left, as perhaps properly belonging 
to SEMI., at least longer than to Ml. and Nth. English. A special treatment 
of the language occurs in Hausknecht's edition, with which cf. ' Eng. St.,' 
IX, 92, ' A^glia,' Anz., VIII, 150. For notes see * Anglia,' 1, 473 ; ' Eng. St.,* 
Ill, 99, 272, IX, 389. 

Page 35, 1. 15. oupen. Hausknecht takes this as OF. cupe, not Sth. 
cupe — OE. cype, because of the form in the Auchinleck MS., coupg {couppe) 
= cupe. The meaning is the same in either case. 19. gegges. The 
Trenth. MS. has maydens, 20. for hfvie. A substantive use of the 
adjective, as in the colloquial *■ for cold,* * for hot.' 28. lete hire stunde. 
Hire refers to the basket (cupe), the SEMI, apparently agreeing with Sth. in 
preserving grammatical gender later than in Ml. and Nth. ; cf. he referring to 
ring (43, 10). The adverb stUnde, MS. stonde, completes the rime and sense : 

* and go forth and leave it {hire) at once/ It is easy to see how stande was 
misunderstood for stgnde. 

Page 36, IL 1-2. wolde . . . bih^lde. Long 5 in wolde is proved by 
occasional rimes like these, though the short form is equally clear from Orm*s 
wollde ; cf. 23-24. Otherwise we must assume qualitative rimes only, in such 
cases. 7-8. rf de . . . hadde. These two lines, with imperfect rime, are 
found only in Camb. MS. and are rejected by Hausknecht from his critical text. 
Perhaps we are to read h^de (OE. hctde < hafde)* 9. agd, MS. ageu. The 
MS. rime agen . . . him is of course impossible. Agiy from Auch. MS., and 
a slight change in the following line, makes all right. Trenth. MS. reads : 

' When he saw) it was not shee, 
Into \^ lepe ajen stert he.' 
16-16. it9ld . . . Isold. The retention of the OE. prefix ge- as }'-, occasion- 
ally found in Ml., is characteristic of Sth. English ; cf. if ere (37, 22). 16. lieo. 
Note the Sth. feminine of the pronoun, as well as the 0£. diphthong eo, 
17. Ifpe. An infinitive dependent upon comen, as Zupitza pointed out in 

* Anglia,' I, 473 : ' Now maidens came running (leaping) in to her.' 19. ^what 
hire were. * What might be to her,' that is, * what was the matter with her ? ' 
a common idiom. 21. Wdl heo was bi|>o^t. ' She was very (well) con- 
siderate and (considered) where to find them answer ' ; or could whare be for 
ware, * wary ' ? Trenth. MS. has : 

'Clarys byJ)ou5t hur anoon ry|t 
J>at hit was Blaunchefiur \t white, 
And gave ])e maydens answere anoon.' 
23. ioh, MS. ihc always. This can hardly indicate the true Sth. form ich =■ 
it/ {ch in church), but rather a SEMI, ic in which c {k) is shading out into 
a spirant like German ch in ich. 

Page 37, 1. 2. Wilt u. Usually printed as one woj^, but in this book the 
identity of each word has been consistently preserved by separating even the 


reduced forms, as here. 8. libbe. Another form at least more common in 
the South. In Ml. and Nth. bh of the 0£. infin. and ind. pres. ist sing, has 
been replaced by Vy by analogy of the 3rd sing, and the other forms of the verb. 
Cf. MnE. hcoje^ Uve, and for a similar loss of ^, lie (* recline '), buy, say, lay. 

"P&ge 38, 1. 3. pg. This addition to the MS. line seems to be required by 
the metre, though not added by Hausknecht. 6.0 = of. Theoretically we 
must assume a long J as in J from on, but partly to differentiate the two wor ds 
I have used short in this word, even in these early instances. 22. Ower 
beire. An objective genitive, * of you two.' 25-26. adun . . . fram. An 
impossible rime. All other MSS. read aroum (aroom, rown), i.e. arum, 
OE. on{an)t gerum, ' apart,' and no doubt this is the correct form, though 
giving assonance only with aduru 

' Page 39, 11. 13-14. wite . . . underrate. Correct rime form here requires 
undergitCy not uncommon in Sth., or possible wete < wite. * But they might 
not long guard them, that they should not be perceived,' or as we should say, 
* They could not long prevent them from being perceived.' 

Page 40, 1. 4. loke. So MSS., but syntax requires loked, in which final d 
is rarely dropped. 15-16. arist . . . atwist. Matzner explains the first as 
a contracted form of arUeti (Siev. * Angelsachsische Gram.,' § 359, 8), and the 
second as an analogical preterit like 0£. wiste. We should expect preterits 
in both cases from the form of the narrative, but no such preterit as arlst seems 
to be known. 23. piler. The pillar in which the water-pipes were con- 
'cealed. 28. He axede. The pronoun refers to ^(/;v»>a/, which the other 
MSS. repeat here as in 40, 2. 

Page 41, 11. 9-10. mu]> . . . ciip. Perhaps we should read mti])e ds., 
cu}e pi. of the adjective. 11. tej. The short form belongs here, or the rime 
is qualitative only, as in 11. 21-22. 19-20. caste . . . breste. With keste for 
caste t a not uncommon ME. form, the rime would be correct ; cf. 42, 3-4. Breste 
is an OE. neuter which has not yet acquired the es plural. 30. ligge. A 
characteristic Sth. form, the prevailing Ml. being lie{n). Cf. note on 37, 8. 

Page 42, 1. 30. h^ndhabbing. A legal expression handed down from 
OE. times, the original word being a participle handhcebbende ; cf. * Anc. Laws 
and Inst, of England,' I, Index, habbendce hatida. 

Page 44, 1. 32. ^dt. This word has not been satisfactorily explained, but 
the best assumption seems to be that it is for ^ed{e\ with wi])draje as an infini- 
tive depending upon it : ' And Blaunchefiur went (endeavoured) to withdraw 

Page 45, 1. 2. pat oper. The line is too short metrically, and probably 
we should read jxit eiper ofer deide bifgre ; cf. 37, 29 and 45, 5. 

Page 46, 1. 1. of Spaygne. It looks as if this were originally a gloss 
which had been thrust into the line, perhaps because the beginning of the story 
is incomplete in all the Engli^ texts, and the connexion of Floris's £ather with 
the Saracens was lost sight oL 




The * Debate of the Body and the Soul ' is found in six MSS. : Auch. MS., 
Edinburgh ; Laud MS. io8, and Vemon MS., both of the Bodleian ; Digby 
MS. 102, Royal MS. i8 AX, and Additional MS. 2a, 283 of the British 
Museum. Our text is from Laud MS, 108, which was edited by Th, Wright in 
'Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes,' by Matzner ('Sprach- 
proben,* 1, 92), and by Linow in * Erlanger Beitrage zur englischen Philologie,' 
in which the Laud MS. is accompanied by three others and an important intro- 
duction, together with appendices. The * Debate ' was written in the second 
, half of the thirteenth century, and the Laud MS. represents East Midland in 
the main, * of northern rather than southern variety, but with a considerable 
number of Sth. forms. The interest of the poem rather than the purity of the 
text has led to its inclusion here. 

The * Debate' is based on a motive common in Western Europe in the 
middle ages. It finds expression in Old and Early Middle English in an 

* Address of the Soul to the Body.' The * Debate ' or * Dialogue ' between the 
two belongs to Middle English only ; cf. Bruce, * A Contribution to the Study 
of the Body and the Soul Poems in English' (*Mod. Lang. Notes,' V, 197). 
To the * Debate ' two poems bear close relation, the Latin * Visio Fulberti 
(Philberti) ' printed by Wright in the above-mentioned work, as by Meril in 

* Poesies populaires latines ant^rieures au douzifeme siecle,' and an OF. poem 

* Un Samedi par Nuit,* Anhang I, to Linow above. A modern version of 
the 'Debate' was made by Sir Theodore Martin in the 'Monk's Dream,' 
and one was printed by Prof. F. J. Child of Harvard for private circulation. 
The metre of the poem is an eight-line stanza made up of lines with four 
stresses and iambic movement, riming aJbabababy with the h rimes more exact 
than the others. The poem has been treated in relation to sources, language, 
metre, by Kleinert, *Dber den Streit zwischen Leib u. Seele' (1880), Heesch, 
*Uber Sprache u, Versbau' (1884), Linow as above, Kunze, 'pe Disputisoun 
bitwen }« Bodi and ]« Soule* (1892), Bruce as above. 

Special peculiarities of language which appear for the first time are the new 
diphthongs ei (ey) and au (ou) before palatal and guttural ) (^) respectively, as 
et^m (61, 25), SOU) (47, 27). The former occur rarely in * Genesis and Exodus,' 
as already noted. Here also o = u commonly, and ou ^ u almost invariably. 
/ Among consonants ^ represents OE. kw^ as in jwJlene (48, 12), and )ih of the 
MS. = )t {jht). Owing to lateness of the MS. copy, rather than the poem, 
final ) is often omitted, or added to words to which it does not belong. Thes2 
peculiarities, as scribal, have been placed in the footnotes. Strictly oth. forms 
have also been placed in the footnotes, and attention will be called to some of 
Nth. origin. The much more frequent loss of final n in inflexional forms 
should be noted in this and the following selection. 

Page 47, 1. 26. droupening. The MS. reading droukening can hardly 
be correct, as it must be connected with ON. droukna^ * to drown,' an inappro- 
priate meaning. Auch. and Vem. MSS. have droupening {droupnynge), while 
Digby MS. has derkyng^ as if the scribe had not understood the form before 

Page 48, 1. 2. to pay. ' For pleasure, satisfaction.' The MS. pay^ 
seems to indicate that, at the time of the copy, ^ had already shaded out into i^ 


since it is here added to an OF. word to which it could not have belonged. 
Cf. similar forms in the footnotes. 5. g9St it. Such repetition of the sub- 
ject in pronoun form, originally used for emphasis, came to be employed by the 
metrist to complete his line. Cf. Kellner, * Hist. Eng. Syntax, § 284, 286. 
6. It, MS. yt. Initial y for i has usually been replaced by the latter in these 
early selections, to reduce the number of variants, especially in initials. 
18. ISde. The changes of meaning and use in this word are especially 
interesting. First, * Latin (tongue),' a borrowed adjective; next, *dis- 
coursey speech, in Latin * ; then, * any tongue, language, speech ' ; here, 
'speech in sense of voice,' perhaps ' boasting speech ; the word nlay also 
mean * song of a bird.' 21. ^wdre ben. In Laud MS. this and the next 
stanza change places, all other MSS. giving the order of the text. The Auch. 
MS. also has another stanza between the two. 26. fedde, MS. ledde. 
The other MSS. have/?^ {Jeddes\ Feddes would agree in use with leddes^ but 
would not rime yriXhJiedde Q., 28). 

Page 49, 1. 10. g^n to greipe. So Auch. MS., which seems better metri- 
cally than g^ grei]>ey though the latter is the older syntax. Two forms have 
developed, that of Auch. MS., and gg and greife of Digby, a well-known 
form in colloquial and dialectal English. 16. me bigfte. At this point 
the Laud MS. lacks seventeen stanzas as compared with the Auch. text. Eleven 
of these continue the speech of the * Soul ' (see Linow, or a modernization), after 
which the * Body ' (Auch. MS.), 

'Lift up his heved opon J)e swere; 
As it were sike it gan to gron, 
And seyd, ** Whe])er J)ou art mi fere, - 
Mi gost ))at is fro me gon?"' 
The * Body ' admits that it must decay, and then turns upon the ' Soul ' with 
a countercharge : 

* Soule, jif ))0U it me wilt atwite, 

pat we schul be hope yspilt, 
3if ]>ou hast schame and gret despite, 

Al it is Jjine owhen gilt. 
Y ))e say at wordes lite, 

Wi]> rijt resoun jif ))at ow wilt, 
JJou berst ]>e blame and y go quite; 
f>ou scholdest, fram schame ous have yschilt.' 
Then follow the stanzas at 49, 17. 14. swelle. Note the new vowel which 
has developed in the MS. suwelle, and cf. koweynie (48, 15). 17. pe schop, 
MS. schop J)e. The text is the reading of all the MSS. except Laud. If the 
poet intended to mark the contrast between J>e (the * Soul ') and the ' Body,* 
the Laud MS. is correct. 22. god, MS. guod. The MS. form is of Nth. 
origin, unless perhaps Kentish can be assumed to have influenced the Laud MS. 
23. dumb and daft. An example of the alliterative phrases, once so common, 
and still often preserved in poetry. Cf. lime and iyp (50, 15), time and t^che 
(50, 27), iinde and 1^{^1, 22) y feld and fenne (51, 23). Under the influence 
of these phrases of OE. origin new ones have often been made, as pile and 
pip (50, 13), where the first is OF., ^si^preye and pr^che (51, i), where both 
words are of OF. origin. In rest and ro (51, 19) the second is ON., and in 
pHven and Prg (51, 17) both are of Norse origin. 24. me ]>grtil. Me, 
omitted in Laud, occurs in all other MSS. and is necessary to the metre. 


Page 50, 1. 3. gast. Both ggst and gast occur in the poem, the latter 
riming with short a, as at 58, 13, so that it probably represents not Nth. g&sij 
bat a secondary form from 0£. gast, Cf. Morsbach, ' Mitteleng. Gram./ 
§ 62, anm. 22. ^Ust. A somewhat nnnsual shortening of didesi, Cf. the 
form in rime at 54, 4. 28. 3wat was yvel. Linow has the impossible 
reading ^at was wel from a misunderstanding of Sth. iivel of the MS. ^at 
at the beginning of the line was suggested by Matzner; cf. 58, 22. 

Page 51, 1. 9. Sdest. The shorter and earlier edes would make the rime 
perfect. Cf. Uddes (48, 24). 13. Ho may. This stanza, found at this place 
in Anch. and Digby MSS., occurs in Land after 56, 16. As to sense it fits 
either place. 18. Mi^tis did, MS. znittis ded. Matzner proposed the 
reading of the text. Pluralizing an abstract noun for emphasis was common in 
0£., and remained in the ME. period sometimes ; cf. Kellner, ' Hist. £ng. 
Syntax,' § 21. 19. ro. Though from ON. rd{f)^ and so having close J, it 
is possible the o has become open under the influence of preceding r, 20. me 
in pine. Matzner added mS, which occurs in all the other MSS. 

Page 62, 1. 3. ni^t, ni^th. This is the beginning in our texts of the spell- 
ing )th « ^t (jhi). Cf. he — ch in * Florls and Blauncheflur.* 8. Come pou. 
* If thou shouldst come.' Subjunctive in transposed clause, as in Mn£. ' had I.' 
14. Sat OP 8tdd. That is, ' (Where) sat (I) or stcd,* in ellipsis with the pre- 
ceding line. 21. pat tou ne were. . ' That thAi were not (present) and 
advised course (counsel), * that is, * Unless thou wertj present,' &c., * I never did,' 
&c. 23. mowen. The shortened form mown is necessary for the rime; 
cf. 78, 31. 29. chaunged, MS. chaonched. Matzner suggested the 
change, which is obviously necessary. 

Page 53, 1. 7. N evere of catfl. ' I should have ' from the first line is to 
be supplied. Then nonu ( = nume) is a past participle depending upon * should 
have. 10. WT e were pS wit. * Were it not for the wit that was wholly 
thine.* 18. S9 doth. *As doth that (one) who dares no other (thing).' 
26. gete, MS. getin. The change seems necessary for metre, and is proper 
owing to the many infinitives which have lost final n, 30. bftin and 
birst. Matzner connects the last word with berstettt * burst, broken,' but the pp. 
in Ml. would be bersted rtgaisxly, while both form and meaning point to OE. 
gebrysed with s3aicopation of e and shortening of the vowel after metathesis. 

Page 64, 1. 4. dist. So MS., althchigh breaking the rime sequence. 
Perhaps dirst, * durst,' connected with OE. dy{f)ste, found once in the Rush- 
worth * Matthew,' a Mercian text. 13. gloterie. Altered by Linow and 
Matzner to glotonte, but a substantive of this form, with the same meaning as 
gloionJe, occurs in OF. works. 22. we. Matzner added to the text as 
necessary. So also dide in 1. 27, though Matzner uses the Sth. form dikU. 
24. pou sau^. It has been customary to add ^), ' though,' at the beginning 
of this line, and Vem. and Digby MSS. so read. Auch. MS. reads : 

'Litel hede tok pou of \>&t 

When ))ou sei^e ded men in grave.' 
This seems to indicate that the third line of the stanza refers to the fourth and 
not to the second, and I therefore keep the MS. reading. The * Body * took 
no heed of the many dead seen in the grave, and thought no such fate could 
come to it. 


Page 66, 1. 6. Aby . . . aby^e. Note the donble forms of the same 
verb, one without the spirant j. 11. 9^ untight. Matzner says, 'only 
orthographically different from an untiht of Vem. MS.,* but pti implies greater 
emphasis on the word than would be implied by the article. 25. lein 
911 h9iid. Matzner interpreted lein as 'conceal, hide,* and Linow regards 
gn as an adverb modifying lein^ taking hgnd as a direct object. I assume 
that MS. on is ^ one/ and that the expression means ' lay a (one) hand,' 
i. e. ' initiate one hand that hath turned to shame and sin.' 

Page 66, 1. 7. ^wajine pe blinde. Cf. Matt. xv. 14. 12. las. Matzner 
assumes this is pret. of lesen^^i^s (OE. leosan = lias), *lose,' when it must be 
accounted a shortened form, certainly not common. I propose the pret. of 
I^sen=^las (OE. lesan=^las), 'gather, collect*; *for all my love on thee 
I collected or centered.' The usual, but special sense of * glean,' is not the 
only one, as shown by *Elene' 1238, where ic las is used intransitively. 
23. pay. Note the double forms of the pronoun fey, he (1, 8) in this poem. 
29. pus sone. The Auch. MS. reads so )ong, * so young,' and Vem. and Digby 
^us }ong. There seems no sufficient reason for departing from the Laud reading. 

Page 57, 1. 4. mes. Note the plural without ending in an OF. word 
ending in s. With its meaning of 'messes, courses at table,* cf. OE. sand 
(sfnd)f ME. sande (spnde) from send, 12. Nim of me. Laud MS. reads 
on, all others of. )>t soule^ is appositive, of course. 18. boohere. Both 
I^ud and Vem. MSS. read bopelere, Auch. bucher, Digby, bell-wether. The 
Auch. reading is to be preferred. 21. trotevale. The origin of the word is 
obscure. Perhaps from OF. *trotevale^ with some such meaning as * a trifling 
thing.' Halliwell quotes : 

*Yn games and festys and at the ale 
Love men to lestene trotevale.' 

Page 68, 1. 20. in a lake. ' In a lake.' The MSS. vary greatly, as if 
the passage were misunderstood. Auch. reads : 

*And sej)))en into a pit yeast 
Unto a nadder and a snake.' 

Page 69, 1. 1. pe wayn. Matzner thinks the reference is to the wagon 
used for carrying the dead body, and cites Tumer's * Hist, of the Anglo- 
Saxons,' III, 84. 2. leid J>e spf ohe. ' Laid (aside) the speech.' Auch. 
MS. reads : 

And }>e tong ha]) lorn his speche,' 

giving the sense clearly. The other MSS. agree with Laud. 9. P9. 
Matzner would change to fouy ' thou.* The Auch. MS. gives the sense : 

*When ])ou feldest "pe sike and sere.' 

Our line may be read, * When that (the life) was so sick and sere.' 19. And 
ini^te. * And might five (times) such as there are in the world of all things,* 
that is * five times as many things as there are in the world.' 

Page 60, 1. 4. A pousand develene. The plural develene = Ml. devels 
is another indication of Sth. influence in this poem. 10. With br^de 
bulohes. In the middle ages devils were often pictured as having the most 
hideous deformities. 20. shenke aboiiten. Matzner proposed the emenda- 


Page 61, 1. 12. a 09te. Matzner alters to colU^ ' colt/ on the ground that 
the devil was often represented as a horse. I have preserved the MS. reading, 
assuming that if the word is for coUe the / has already been lost, thus preserving 
the rime. 18. like a grgte. Note the addition of a after tike, to make the 
singular clear. Cf. note on 32, 8. 30. to him were let, MS. led. Surely 
led is impossible in both rime and meaning ; /^/, * permitted/ fits both exactly. 

Page 62, 1. 6. Bauston (MS. Hauston) and Bewis. All but Laud MS. 
agree in usingalliterative names : Auch. Bausan and Bewevns, Vern. Bauson 
and Beufys,V\^y Bau)an and Beaufitz. Can the original names in Laud 
be connected with those in the OF. romance * Beuves d^Hanstone * ? . 30. to 
wrgper hfle. Wrpfer seems to be an old fern. dat. sing, which has become 
fossilized in this stereotyped expression. 

Page 64, 1. 5. pg alle sinful. The Laud line is too long metrically, and 
Vern., Digby agree in alie synfuL 


The metrical * Adam and Eve,' or * Canticum de Creatione ' as it has been 
called, occurs in Auchinleck MS. at Edinburgh, and Trinity College MS. 57 at 
Oxford. The former, from which our selection is taken, was edited by Laing 
for the Abbotsford Club (1857), and by Horstmann, * Altenglische Legenden ' 
(1878), p. 139. Prose versions of the story are found in Vern. MS. (Horst- 
mann's 'Legenden,' 1878, p. 120), Egerton MS. 876, Harl. MS. 4775, Bodl. 
MS. 596, both the latter having been edited by Horstmann for the * Archiv fiir 
neuere Sprachen,' LXXIV, 345. The language of the poem is that of the 
SEMI, dialect, as shown by Bachmann in his excellent monograph 'Die 
beiden Versionen des ME. Canticum de Creatione,' and the time of writing 
about 1300. 

The poem contains an apocryphal story of the fall of man, the repentance 
and penance of Adam and Eve, and their death. It is based on the * Vitae 
Adae et Evae ' (see edition of W. Meyer, 1878). Just before the beginning of 
the selection Adam, in his last illness, has commanded Eve to go with Seth to 
Paradise, where they are to receive a message from God. They are met in the 
way by the devil, who bites Seth in the face before the latter commands him to 
be gone. Then they proceed on their journey as in the passage chosen. To 
the latter version, represented by the Trinity MS., was added the story of the 
cross tree, said to have grown from the seeds brought by Seth from Paradise 
and placed under Adam's tongue on his deathbed. Both stories also appear 
in * Cursor Mundi,' 1. 1237 £ The metre is the rimed couplet of four stresses, 
with occasional lines of three stresses and other irregularities. 

The language shows fewer peculiarities than any selection so far. The MS. 
omits final ^ in a number of forms to which it must be restored on metrical 
grounds, probably indicating that the copyist's speech had lost this sound, 
though perhaps owing only to scribal carelessness. On the other hand, the metre 
proves that nnal e was beginning to disappear in many classes of words, as 
pronouns and other unstressed words. Bachmann also thinks that imail e 
at the end of the line was wholly lost, but his position seems not to be 
demonstrated by the examples cited. See his monograph for a fuller treatment 
of language. 



Page 64, 1. 12. ne, MS. no. The MS. form can hardly be regarded as the 
emphatic negative np, 0£. nd, and must be an orthographic variant of un- 
stressed ne; cf. o)am of MS. at 65, 23. 13. Sche ne durst nou^t. Earlier 
in the poem Adam had told Eve to take Seth : 

*For he ha)) noujt trespast so miche 

As have we, sikerliche, 

JJerfore he may \>e balder be 

To speke wi)) Jhesu Crist ]>an we.* 
20. an angel bri^t. According to the Trinity version this is Michel, 
*■ Michael.' 21. mandre, MS. maner. The MS. shows lack of final e in 
a number of places in which it must have been originally written or pro- 
nounced; cf. term (1. 35 and 65, i), mett (66, 5), &c. 26. Of five 
pousande. That is, as is not very clearly told, until Christ's death and the 
'harrowing of hell' during his three days in the grave. Cf. the various 
versions of the 'harrowing of hell* story in Old and Middle English, and 
67, 23. 

Page 65, 1. 12. hyje, MS. hey^e. The change is fully justified by the 
rimes crie . . . dye (67, 3-4), c^en . . . y)en (68, 29-30), dye . . . progeme (69, 
9-10). Such rimes as hey^e . . ,sei)e (67, 17-18), hey^ . . ,stet)e (68, 7-8), 
probably represent older forms still preserved by the scribe. 23. a^ain, 
MS. o^ain. The MS. form may mean ojain, but probably is merely the 
weak vowel in unstressed syllable, and it is altered to reduce the number of 
variants, especially of initials. 

Page 66, 1. 9. 9* '^^^ is the strong form of the OE. interjection a, and 
accounts for MnE. (oh). The weak form A, from which MnE. ah comes, 
occurs at 25, 23 and commonly. 11. ous. The regular spelling with ou 
indicates the preservation of long H in this dialect, beside the short form, for 
which we have the authority of Orm's uss» On the other hand, rimes like 
Jms . . . ous (11. 27-28), ous . . , Jesus (70, 7-8 and 74, 19-20) indicate the 
short form, though the written form is the same and has been retained. 
13-14. liven . , . even. Such a rime cannot be wholly reconciled in its 
stressed vowels, but rime of unstressed syllables were often regarded as 
sufficient; cf. childer . . , elder (11. 17-18). 32. alle Jje li^tnisse. In the 
* Revelation of Moses ' (above) the sun and moon fell down and prayed for 
Adam, and were * black-looking, because they could not shine in the presence 
of the Light of the Universe, and for this reason their light was hidden * ; 
Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, 565, 569. 

Page 67, 1. 7. bok, MS. boke. Both forms appear in the poem, though 
the word is usually disyllabic. Here, however, a disyllabic is impossible in 
perfect rime. 17. sit. The contract form for sittef^ as occasionally. 
18. Adam soule. A genitive without ending in proper names, especially 
Biblical names, is not uncommon, no doubt through the influence of the Latin 
Scriptures in which it so occurs ; cf. Dcpvid lond (72, 5). 

Page 68, 11. 11-12. mold . . . wold. Perhaps moide . . . wdlde, the final 
e in each case being organic; but cf. mdld . . . schold (71, 23-24). Such rimes 
seem to indicate long forms of wold{e\ schold{js), beside the usual short ones ; 
cf. note on 36, 1-2. 13. 5^*© lay Abel. There is no reference to this in 
the Trinity MS. version, but it occui-s in the apocryphal 'Revelation of 
Moses,' Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, 570. 


Pa^^e 60, 1. 28. fader liif bd write. Petrus Comestor, following another 
tradition, says that Enoch invented letters and wrote certain books from 
which the death of Adam is known. 

Page 71, 1. 22. In sign. In the Trinity version Eve is represented as 
having been more explicit in her directions. Seth was to make ' tables tweye * : 

'Tweye of erthe and tweye of ston, 

For long er domesday falle, 

]?is worlde shal ben fordon alle 
By water or by fere (fire).' 
The stone pillars would thus resist water, and the earth the fire. This Hebrew 
tradition appears commonly. Petrus Comestor, following Josephus (ch. ii), 
says two such pillars of marble and tile were made by Tubalcain to preserve 
the knowledge of his arts; 'Hist. Schol.,' Gen. xxviii, also 'Genesis and 
Exodus/ 461, 'Cursor Mundi,' 1533. 

Page 74, 1. 13. com. So the MS., as if final e were not preserved in the 
infinitive. Probably, however, we should read come = cumey to rime with 
nonie » nume, since final e must certainly be added within the line as shown 
by the metre. 


The poetic romance from which this selection is taken is found in Laud 
MS. 108 of the Bodleian, Oxford. It was edited by Madden for the Roxburghe 
Club (1828) ; by Skeat for the Early English Text Society, Ex. Ser. 4 (1868), 
and re-edited for the Clarendon Press (1^2) ; and by Holthausen in the 
Morsbach-Holthausen series of Old and Middle English texts (1901 ). A selection 
appears in Wiilker ('Lesebuch,' I, 80), and Morris ('Specimens,' I, 22a). The 
date of the poem is about 1300 (see Skeat's introduction for full discussion), 
and the dialect is probably that of Lincolnshire of that time, that is, NEMi. 
This original dialect, however, has been somewhat modified by different 
scribes, as so often in the case of popular poems. The metre is the rimed 
couplet, regularly of four stresses. 

The complete poem consists of 3001 lines, and the story is as follows. 
An English king Athelwold had a daughter Goldborough, whom he entrusted 
at his death to the care of Earl Godrich of Cornwall, charging him to marry 
her to the fairest and strongest man he could find, and place the government 
of England in her hands. The Earl, resolving to seize England for his son, 
imprisoned Goldborough in the castle of Dover. Then our selection takes up 
the hero Havelok. To finish the tale, Havelok assisted Grim in his trade as 
a fisherman at Grimsby. When a famine came he left his foster-father, 
walked to Lincoln, and took service as a scullion to the Earl of Cornwall's 
cook. One day, at some games, Havelok showed his great strength, and 
Godrich determined to fulfil his oath by marrying Goldborough to the sup- 
posed menial. Havelok at first rebelled, but finally took Goldborough to 
wife and departed for Grimsby. At night, as Grim's wife had done before, 
Goldborough perceives the light from Havelok's mouth, and the royal cross 
on his shoulder. An angel also tells her of good fortune to come. At the 
game time Havelok has a dream that he possessed all Denmark and England. 


They go to Denmark and, with many adventures, Havelok becomes king 
after Godard is defeated and hanged. He invades England, Godrich is made 
prisoner and burnt, and Havelok and Goldborough are crowned at London, 
reigning happily for . sixty years. The source of the tale, though clearly 
Teutonic and English in characters and localities, is probably an OF. poem 
now lost, but the ancestor also of the OF. * Lai d'Havelok,* as of the stories 
in Gaimar's 'Estorie des Angleis,* and in Manning's translation of Peter 
Langtoft's * Chronicle.' For further particulars see the bibliography in Skeat^s 
edition of 1902. 

Peculiarities of orthography, it is believed, will no longer trouble the 
student. Some Nth. and some Sth. forms occur, as indicated in notes and foot- 
notes. For the first time y is used for initial ) (OE, g, as usually printed), while 
chty hi (MS. cth, th) are employed for OE. ht, ME. ^U That this th does 
not mean OE. ]> would be clear from the scribe's using it for / in such words 
as uth =■ at J * out.' 

Page 76, 1. 1. In pat time. The time of the earlier part of the story 

when Goldborough was placed in charge of Godrich. The line preceding 

reads : 

*Sa(y) we nou forth in ure (hure) spelle. 

2. l9nd, MS. Ion. Note omission of final d here, ia.gdld(}.. 19), and in and 
(1. 21). 6. fayer, MS. fayr. The word is disyllabic for metre. Morris and 
Skeat both add something to the line, but unnecessarily. 16-17. wilde . . . 
filde, MS. wolde . . . fulde. If the first MS. form is correct, /»/<flfe as a Ml. 
form must represent y«//<?</i? (OE. fullode). It seems more probable ihat fulde 
= S\h.f tilde, MX.Jiide, in which case the true Ml. rime must be wilde. This 
would either be for willede (OE. willode), or better a new form on the basis 
of wille(ft), such as occurs in * Cursor Mundi.' The latter seems to settle all 
difficulties. 23. rgpe, MS. rede. The MS. form makes no rime, but the 

ON. form of Ml. redein) is rdSay ME. rg6ey and makes perfect rime. Cf. 86, 
9-10. 26. hosled. Besides ME. h1isle{n\ howsle{n)y a shortened form 

occurs with o ^ u, 27. and for him gyven. For explanation cf. the 
statement at the death of Athelwold (1. 218) : 

* He made his quiste swi))e wel, 
And sone gaf it evere ilk del.' 
He not only made his bequest but gave over his property as well. 

Page 76, 1. 9. "Was pe trewest. Zupitza, 'Anglia,' I, 468, proposes, 
quite unnecessarily, the change oipat to as, Wcnde here takes the accusative 
directly, as sometimes in OE. usage. 22. elde, MS. helde. The addition 
of h initially is common in words beginning with a vowel ; cf hgld for gld 
(77, ao). . 25-26. ringes ... singes. Both Nth. present indie. 3rd sing. 
Men is the weak indefinite form of man; cf. 84, 27. 

Page 77, 11. 3-4. w&re . . . sare. An example of Nth. forms which have 
been allowed to remain. . The Ml. forms appear in 17-18, as one of them 
exists in the MS. were . . . sc^a, 6. Jesu Cnst. Holthausen says a mistake 
for God, and he even proposes a new line, in spite of 78, 7 and frequent other 
references of the same sort, as at 149, 9. All these are based on John 1. 3, 
and the usual interpretation of * word ' as Christ. Cf. the use of that passage 
in Tatian's * Diatessaron,' and Milton's * Paradise Lost,' VII, 139. Codes sone 
(1. 10) does not interfere with this interpretation, since the two lines express , 



the ordinary prayer for the dead, and the inconsistency is only apparent 
13-14. heir . . . td])er. Such a rime is certainly suspicions, and Holthausen 
assumes an omission of two lines. On the other hand, the sense is complete, 
and a form hir from heir (cf. Behrens, ' Franzosische Sprache in England,' 
p. 141, for similar forms) may be assumed, though still riming with an un- 
stressed syllable. 13. Havelok. The name has been traced to OE. Anlaf 
(ON. Olaf) through Irish Amlaib, Welsh Abloc, AN. Avelok {Havelok). 
This Anlaf was Olaf Sitricson, called Cuaran < of the sandal.* 14. Swan- 
borow . . . Helfled. These names seem thoroughly English. The first may 
be OE. Swan J * swan/ or swan^ * herdsman/ by shortening in the compound, 
and OE. burh, also found in Goldborough (1. 284). Helfled is doubtless 
Elfledj WS. rifled. 22. yaf a note. Cf. the expression at 79, 5. 
.25-26. sikerlike. . . swike. With the short form of the ending -like cf. the 
same rime at 84, 5-6. 

Fag^ 78, 1. 3. pat God himselve. * On which C})at . . . on) God himself 
ran (with) blood.' For the use of bldde without a preposition cf. the similar 
expression t^res witf * wet with tears,* at 28, 32. 23. grette. Note the 
clear indication in the rime of the shortening of OE. grette. 24. Wat is 
jxi. Cf. the indirect form of the same question at 36, 19. 

Page 79, 1. 1. nis it 119 corn. * Is there no com ? ' Note use of the 
expletive *it,' as in OE. syntax. 29. wepne, MS. wepne bare. The 
latter is no doubt repeated from 1. 27 above, but quite unnecessarily. 

Page 80, 1. 6. Of J>e sell. Note the plural ' children ' without distinctive 
genitive ending. 11. And ]>oucte. Napier proposed to read^^wA, * never- 
theless,* instead oi }oucte, and Holthausen accepts. It may be easily read as 
it stands, except that ftouht (1. 13) must be assumed to have intruded from 
the preceding line : * And thought, he would that he [Havelok] were dead, 
except that he would not kill him with his [own] hand, the foul fiend.' 
The MS. but on here and at 1. 962 of the poem Skeat has properly explained 
as OE. baton. 

Page 81, 1. 10. prinne, MS. ]7erinne. The shorter form is required for 
the rime here and perhaps at 85, 7. 21. And 8i)>en. Holthausen assumes 
the loss of two lines to say that Grim put the gag in Havelok's mouth. This 
is not necessary, as in , . , wounden with the next two lines are quite explicit 
enough as to what was done. If any emendation is to be made I suggest that 
math might be added after sifen in, 26. Hwan ]>e swike. Most editors 
have assumed that hwan was incorrect, perhaps repeated from the line above, 
and have altered it to fan (Morris) or as (Holthausen and Skeat). It is 
possible, however, to consider this as a second subordinate clause to Sone he 
caste (1. 31). L. 25 merely emphasizes the action begun in 1. 20, before taking 
up the next one. The last word of the line is also an emendation of the 
MS. hefede. Morris reads him gan bede, omitting havede entirely. Holthausen 
and Skeat change the line to As fe swike him bad he yedCy but this seems to 
anticipate the action in 11. 30-32. Zupitza*s explanation of hepede as ifede, 
based on OE. d6y is highly improbable if not quite impossible. The punctua- 
tion will make the passage clear. 

Page 82; 1. 2. Lfve. The word rimes with open ^ words, but this does 


not especially assist in its etymology. 4. Al 89 thou. Holthansen, fol- 
lowed by Skeat, alters to 

* Also thou wilt mi lif save (nou save),' 
but it seems to me the slight emendation of mi to me is sufficient. Grim 
commands his wife to watch Havelok as she values her own life, and then 
explains the rewards to follow. 11. so harde adoun . . . crakede hise 
croune. The change, suggested by Morris, is unquestionably right, final 
e in croune not being pronounced. 16. pat him. Prof. Browne (^Mod. 
Lang. Notes/ VII, 134) makes the lament end with 1. 18, at the same time 
suggesting the change of d^re^ * injure,' to n^rey * save, deliver/ No emenda- 
tion is necessary, however, as Havelok laments not only that he is a king's 
son, but that wild beasts do not have him rather than such inhuman people. 
Holthausen makes him refer to Grim, but surely this is impossible. The 
peculiarity seems to be that the last part is quoted indirectly rather than in 
the first person. 31. blawe. Another Nth. form, equivalent to ML blowe. 

Page 88, 1. 10. Bis up, MS. sir up. Morris's change is obviously right 
and generally accepted. 17. kynemark. As Goldborough sees it, this is 
later described (1. 1262) as follows : 

* On his shuldre, of gold red 
She saw a swij^e noble croiz. 

Page 85, 1. 14. Denemarkes stiward, MS. denemark a stiward. It 
seems clear that Godard is not a stiward^ but the stiward^ appointed by the 
king above all others. Instead of inserting ^before Denemark (Holthausen), 
I prefer to think the genitive s has been lost in the initial of stiward. 

Page 86, 1. 9. "Wat shal me. *• What shall (be) to me for counsel.' So in 
1. 118 of the poem. 16. shep. . .nft. The MS. shep^ net, hors,swm, might 
all be plurals without ending, as they are all 0£. neuters. But they are more 
likely general singulars, as are the descriptive words wolley horn, bird. For 
this reason the omitted word gpt, not git (gi^t), the mutated plural (Skeat, 
Holthausen), is adopted. 21. And al hd. 'And he drew all to the 
penny,' i. e. obtained money instead of barter for his possessions. 

Page 87, 1. 4. sd. This word, with open i in 0£. dialects, invariably 
rimes close in Havelok ; cf. Ten Brink, * Chancers Sprache,' § 24 a. 
15. si)>e, MS. prie. The MS. reading is meaningless, and some change 
must be made. I repeat sipe from sifen (1. ii) ; Holthausen and Skeat read 
j^ete, * yet.* 24-25. f rde . . . erj)e. The MS. erfe in both lines is impossible, 
and the change of the first to irde is probably the best that can be made. 
30. Grimesbi it calle, MS. oalleth alle. The change is Zupitza's and is 
generally accepted. 



The * Handlynge Synne,' or * Manual of Sins,' is found in Harleian MS. 1 701 
of the British Museum, and Bodleian MS. 415. It was edited by Furnivall for 
the Roxburghe Club (1803) and has appeared in a new edition for the Early 
English Text Society. A selection occurs in Morris (* Specimens,* II, 50). 
Our selection is from the Harleian MS. as edited by Furnivall, and includes 

T 2 


lines 5555 to 5946. The author, Robert Manning, was born at Bninne or 
Bourn near Market Deeping in Lincolnshire about 1260, and died about 1340. 
In 1303, while living at Brimwake in the hundred of Kesteven, he translated 
this work, as he fells us in the prologue. The language therefore represents 
NEMl. of the early fourteenth century. 

Manning's work is translated from the French * Manuel des Pechiez ' of 
William of Waddington. It treats the seven deadly sins and seven sacraments, 
the twelve requisites of a good confession, and the twelve graces resulting 
therefrom. In illustration of various points such tales as this of Pers are intro- 
duced. In this case, as usually, the translation follows the OF. tale with 
slight variations. The metre, as so commonly at this time, is the- rimed 
couplet of four stresses. 

Like the last selection, the language of this contains some Nth. forms. The 
use of y^ long and short, for % is exceedingly common. An occasional Nth. « 
(^ey) represent Ml. Nth. /, an orthographic peculiarity which also grows more 
frequent. Final e is more generally lost in pronunciation than in previous 
selections, but is often written where it must have been silent, and even added 
where it never belonged historically. It is probably silent at the end of the 
line in most cases. A medial e which is necessary for the metre has often been 
omitted. Among consonants gh appears fpr ^ before t^ as in Mn£. spelling. 
Some of. these are no doubt connected with the fact that the MS. is later than 
the time of Manning, that is about 1360. 

Page 88, 1. 1. kauersyns. Though used as a general name, as in OF., 
the word was originally more specific, since it is derived from the Provence 
town of Cahors, early noted for its usurers. Dante (*Infemo,* XI, 50) con- 
nects Cahors with Sodom, and Matthew of Paris has a chapter near the begin- 
ning of his * History ' on the extortions of these usurers. The word kauersin 
has been generally missed by the dictionaries, or wrongly glossed as * hypo- 
crite.' 2. wykked. Note how early ME. wikke has assumed excrescent 
Rafter the analogy of adjectives and participles ending in ^^. 5. nat. This 
is probably a retention of 0£. nahty rather than an early unrounding of o in 
fwnt, 18. Pers. Here, and often elsewhere, to be read as a disyllabic. 
Perhaps we should print Peres (cf. pens, okerers ■= penes, okerereSy 11. 25, 26), 
but I have preferred to leave the MS. forms with this note. 21. Seynt 

Jgne. This St John, the Almoner, was patriarch of Alexandria in the seventh 

Page 89, 1. 2. s&te. Evidently a Nth. form if th^ vowel is long, or 
possibly a new formation on the basis of the singular. 7-8. weyl . . . deyl. 
Examples of the Nth. use of ei {ey) for e, 25. bpde pe quf de. ^ Awaited 
the evil (man).' 

Page 90, 1. 1. Pers stode. Cf. 85, 27-28, thought by Skeat to have 
suggested this passage. It was probably a rather common expression in one 
form or another at the time. 5-6. Igfe . . . dr^fe. A good example of the 
addition of final e where it could not have been pronounced,* a practice 
increasingly common in later Middle English. 22. fyL A shortened pre- 
terit oi fallen =fel J with e become i (y), 24. Hym poghte. Note the 
confusion which has already taken place between ME. ^)(e and /o^e, 
30. abashed as amad, MS. as mad. Morris suggested a mad, < a maid,* but 
the correct form is the shortened pp. of amaden, 0£. gemSdan, 


. Pago 91, 1. 28. now ]>ou If res. < Now thou shalt learn how this loaf 
shall help you at need, (and how) to improve thy soul with alms-deeds.' Note 
the present 3rd sing, in -« and -ef side by side. 

Page 92, 11. 29-30. herte . . . smert. Another indication of the loss of 
final e from the spoken language of this region ; cf. also breyde . . . seyd (93, 


Page 93, L 14. And a party. ' And began in part, or in some measure, 
to leave off.* 

Pag^ 94, 1. 31. Hys o.lerk was W9. In 0£. syntax clerk would require 
a dat. after waSy but the loss of distinctive ending for that case made a noun 
in such position seem the subject, and this syntax has prevailed in Mn£. 

Pag^ 95, h 10. To whom. Note the clear use of whom as a relative. 
17. 3ol®* 'i^he etymology is uncertain, but I have assumed its connexion with 
ON. jol, OE. giol, * yule,* still found in MnE. Yule. 

Page 96, 1. 7. Flenerly alle pat. Cf. Havelok, 11. 819-20 : 
* Al J)at he J)erfore tok 
Withheld he nouht (nouth) a fer}>inges nok/ 
From some such resemblances between the two poems it is believed that Man- 
ning may have known the Havelok, another Lancashire work. 

Page 98, 1. 19. stonte » stgnde]). The contracted form is less common 
in Ml. and Nth. than in Sth. English. 25. jone. The OM. demonstrative ^^«, 
WS. g^on^ which is only dialectal in MnE., though the root occurs in yonder^ 
OM. *gonre. 

Page 99, 1. 13. squylSr. Though OF. in immediate relation to English, 
it is based on a Teutonic root which appears in MnE. swill, OE, swilian, * to 
wash,' as at 96, 24. 23. A flamme of f^re. A frequent attendant of super- 
natural manifestations, and probably connected in the mediaeval mind with the 
Pentecostal fire, Acts ii. 3. Havelok is known to be of royal birth by a similar 
token (88, 1-7). 


The translation of the Psalms from which our selection is taken is found in 
Additional MS. 17,376 of the British Museum and in MS. A 4, 4 of Trinity 
College, Dublin. On the basis of the former it has been edited from both 
MSS. by Karl Bulbring (Part I, EETS., 97), and Biilbring has been followed 
here. The language is almost pure West Midland, and belongs to the first 
half of the fourteenth century. This * Psalter * was formerly attributed to 
William of Shoreham, with whose poems it occurs in the MS., but such 
authorship is impossible, as Shoreham s poems are Kentish and there is no trace 
of Kentish in this version ; cf. Konrath, * Beitrage zur Erklarung u. Textkritik 
des William von Shoreham* (1878). A WMl. selection is added to show how 
closely that dialect agreed with EMI. in most particulars. 


This ' Psalter' is a close, though sometimes mistaken rendering of the Latin 
text, presumably the Italic version of the Scriptures. Some interesting 
examples of mediaeval rendering and interpretation are given in the notes. 
For these and other peculiarities it may be compared with Hampole's earlier 
Nth. version (ed. by Bramley, 1884), and with the Wiclifite version (ed. by 
Forshall and Madden). It will be seen that the verse division is not quite the 
same as in our modem Bible, but the original numbering of the Psalms has 
been made to correspond with our own. 

As already stated in the Grammatical Introduction the West Midland does 
not differ materially from East Midland, and this is especially true of the 
present selection, in its phonology. As to orthography, we may note c {ce) for 
s in OF. words; ck « kk {wicked, 100, 23), sc for ss {hUsced, 100, 15). The 
one striking peculiarity of inflexion is the use of -and{e) in the present 
participle. Rarely, too, is = es appears in the plural of nouns. 

Page 100, 1. 16. sin^fres. The word is based on the root of OE. 
syngian, not the sb. synne; but note the variants, sinni^rs (1. 23), synnfrs 
(1. 25). 19. firut. The OF. diphthong ui is usually presented in stressed 
syllables, but other cases of its appearance as simple u{^ iu) are well known. 
20. fallwen, MS. fallen with w in later hand. As the Lat. is dejluit it is 
not impossible that the translator thoughtya//if», * fall, fail, pass away,' a good 
rendering. 22. as a pdudre. The connective has been omitted ; c£ the 
Lat. sed tamquam. 24. oure Ii9rd knew. The translator has taken Lat. 
rurvit for a preterit, as in other places (108, 12 ; 104, 10). On the other hand, 
cogncvit is translated knowef at 105, 2. 

Page 101, 1. 2. water of fyllyng. Lat. aquam refectiantSt and Dub. 
MS. water of fulfillyng ; MnE. Bible, stiU waters. No doubt fyllyng is used 
in the sense of ' fulfilling, restoring,' and is thus a good rendering of refectio, 
3. he turned . . . firam |>e fdnde. The Lat is animam meant cofroertit, and 
the addition is probably due to some commentator. 4. For ^if pat ioh 
have g9n. Lat. nametsi ambulavero, and the translator has mistaken the fut. 
perf. for the perf., or had a different text before him. 8. pou makest fatt. 
A literal rendering of the Vulg. Impinguasti in oleo caput meum, 15. innocent 
in h9nde. Lat. innocens mantbus ; Dub. MS. dene of hondes and dene of 
hert, 19. ]>e sechand hym. The translator uses the English participle 
exactly as the Latin : Haec est generatio quaerentium eum, quaerentiumfaeiem 
Dei Jacob. 20. princes of lielle. Ofhelle here and ofhevene in verse 9 are 
additions to the original in accordance with mediaeval interpretation, as referring 
to Christ when * harrowing hell,* and later ascending to heaven. This is based 
on the apocryphal * Gospel of Nicodemus,' which was closely followed in 
English versions of the * harrowing of hell ' story. 

Page 102, 1. 9. whyte up snowe. The Lat. reads super nvvem deaU 
bdbor, and the translator has not perceived that super means * beyond, more 
than,' not *up.* 29. fram pS world. A good example of the OE., ME, 
use of world in sense of time, as in world without end. 

Page 103, 1. 2. pe kepyng 6 ny^t. * And the watching {kepyng) at 
night that avails not {for nou^t ben had) shall be their years ' ; Lat. Custodia 
in node, quae pro nihilo habentur, eorum anni entnt. Our modem version is 
based on a different text. 9. penchen as pe lob. Lat. anni nostrt sicut 


aranea meditabuntur^ and the verb has been translated fenchen, * think,' not 
J>incheny 'seem/ This is natural since nieditor properly meant *to think,' and 
only in mediaeval times acquired the passive sense ' to seem.' in pd 

seventi jere. The Lat. dies annorum nostrorum in ipsis, septuaginta anni 
evidently puzzled the translator. He has left in ipsis untranslated and the 
syntax of the phrase is not clear. 10. J)e mgre 9ver hem. * The more 
(years) beyond, or in addition to them,' another slavish rendering ; cf. Lat. 
amplius eoriim, 14. be ])ou tumed. Untd nou perhaps translates usque 
of the Vulgate with possibly some other word. * Be thou turned until now,' 
though not clear, seems to be the meaning. 19. dresoe her sones. ' Direct 
their sons,* translating literally Lat. dit'igejilios eorum. So the first part of the 
verse translates Respice in servos tuos etin opera tua, where the modem version 
has a different reading. 25. trappes of )>d fendes. Lat. de laqueo venan- 
tium, the latter being interpreted as 'devils,' according to the commentary 
attributed to Jerome, * Breviarium in Psalmos ' (Migne's 'Jerome,* VII). See 
my article on ' Some of Chaucer's Lines on the Monk,* * Modem Philology,* I, 
105. asper word. Lat. verbo aspero^ where our version has 'noisome 
pestilence,' a different reading. 29. temptacioun waxand. Lat. a sagitta 
volante, familiar in our * arrow that flieth.' With the application of the whole 
passage to man's contest with the devil, sagitta has been understood in the 
figurative sense of 'temptation.' 30. fram pe ours. There are various 
readings of the original, as often. The Vulgate has ab incur su et daemonio 
meridianOy the last words being regarded as a reference to Lucifer. pousand 
tempt aciduns. Lat. merely cadent . . . miller and the translator assumes a 
connexion with the preceding and adds temptdctouns implied in/^ curs, 

"Peige 104, 1. 1. pe devel. The translator refers the subject of the verb, 
unexpressed in Latin, back to /ende in verse 6. 17. pe whioh. The earliest 
use in our selections of this compound relative ; cf. ' Chancers Sprache,* § 254. 
21. is doand. A translation of "Lat./aciens. 28. streinped. The MS. is 
not clear, but seems to have been corrected to read as in the text. 

105, 1. 2. faintes. The Vulgate reads figntentum. 3. pat we. 
The OE. Vespasian text reads quod pulvis suniuSy not quoniam as the Vulgate, 
and the former was prolmbly before.our translator. ^ r ! * ' 

IX. ' THE EARL oV TOULOUSE ' ^^^ \ ^ ' '^^ ^ (^ 


This poetic romance is found in four MSS., Cambridge Ff II, '38; 
Ashmole 45 and 61 of the Bodleian Library ; and Thornton MS. A 5 of Lincoln 
Cathedral Library. The first of these, represented in our selection also, was 
edited by Ritson, 'Ancient English Metrical Romances,* III, 93 (1802, revised 
by Goldsmid, 1885), and a so-called critical edition from all the MSS. was 
made by Liidtke for Zupitza's ' Sammlung englischer Denkmaler ' in 1881. The 
poem was composed in the NEMl. district about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, although the MS. belongs to the fifteenth century, and therefore shows 
a later orthography than the time of composition. 

The poem consists of 1,224 verses arranged in twelve-line stanzas, riming 
acdfccbddbeeb. The first two verses of each triplet have four stresses, the last 
three stresses. Our selection begins with 1. 895 and continues to the end. The 

' \ ^ - . - ^ J . ' V «^ 


earlier part tells how Earl Barnard made war upon the Emperor Diocletian, 
because the latter had deprived him of territory. Earl Barnard was successful, 
and, among other captives, takes Sir Trylabas of Turkey, whom he agrees to 
free ;f he will obtain for the earl a sight of the beautiful Empress i^ulybon 
(Beaulyoun, Beaulilion). Trylabas arranges the meeting in the presence of 
others, Barnard appears as a hermit, and, on leaving, is given by the empress 
some coin and a ring. About the same time two knights are enamoured of the 
empress and, on her refusal to comply with their base wishes, contrive to make 
her appear guilty of adultery, of which they accuse her to the emperor. He 
condemns her to be burned alive, unless, as suggested in ' parliament ' just before 
the opening of our selection, some one shall be found to support her innocence 
in combat with her accusers. The favour which this proposition meets is shown 
by the first line of the passage chosen. The story is believed to have historical 
foundation in the life of the Empress Judith, wife of Louis I (778-840). A 
romance based on this historical foundation became widely reproduced in Spain, 
Italy, France and other countries ; see Ludtke's excellent Introduction, 61 f. The 
immediate source of the English poem, the 'Lay of Bretayne,' mentioned in 
the last stanza, is unknown. 

As already noted the orthography is late. For example, ou (pw) is always 
used for long «, th for earlier/, ght often for ^/, and wh for OE. hw. On the 
other hand, sch for sh still prevails. Besides, y is used with great frequency for 
if both alone and in the diphthongs ai^ ei, and occasionally for e in unstressed 
syllables. The doubling of long vowels is also common. 

Page 105, 1. 18. h§ spake. The 'olde knyght' who had proposed the 
trial by combat to decide the guilt of the empress. 24. be s^f and be 
sonde. An alliterative expression for the whole world, quite common in 
Middle English ; cf. 161, 25. 

Page 106, 1. 14. can = gan. This weak form with voiceless initial is 
more common in Nth. English. 

Page 107, 1. 4. 89 mote thou the. ' So may thou prosper,' that is, ' as 
you hope to prosper.' 27. make a vowe. The last two words represent 
OF. avoUf * vow,' but they became separated so as to suggest *a vow* as here. 
We still say viake avowal^ and an avowal. 

Page 108, 1. 24. mas. Another form which suggests the Nth. dialect or 
a district near it. 29. "When the abbot. The shortness of the verse suggests 
an omission, as of did after abbot ; cf. Ashmole MS. 45. 

Page 109, 1. 23. durre, MS. dar. LUdtke reads dare as a disyllabic, 
but surely that is not a likely form. One MS. reads durste, but I assume 
a subjunctive form as more probable. 

Page 112, 1. 22. Manly. One MS. reads manfully, which shows the 
content of the word. 

Page 114, 1. 9. Soche wordes. 'I advise [that] thou shouldest alter 
such words.' VVgnde is subjunctive preterit of desire, from wlftde{n). Note 
the preterit in a clause of unreality; cf. Introd. § 207. 10. An^ne in 

haste. Note the absence of the verb in the clause as representing the abrupt 
manner of address. 



Page 116, 1. 4. ohyldyr fyftene. So Havelok and Goldboroagh have 
fifteen children, all kings and queens. 7-8. geste oronydyd is . . . oallyd 
ywis. Some change is necessary, as shown by footnote readings, and I have 
adopted that of LUdtke. 



This selection is from a MS. in the Public Record Office, London, Bundle 
CCCX 1 16, as edited by Lucy Toulmin Smith in ' English Gilds ' (EETS., 40), 
p. 29. The 'Return' was made in January 1389, and the language is the 
East Midland of Norfolk, the descendant of East Anglian of Old English times. 

These 'Returns' concerning the gilds had been ordered by a Parliament 
held at Canterbury in 1388. The extract is an account of the formation of the 
gild and the statutes under which the brotherhood was constituted. It is 
preceded in the MS. by a recital, in Latin, of the lyng's writ to the sheriff of 
Norfolk, and followed by two Latin sentences saying that no other statute had 
been established, and that the property of the gild consisted of four pounds, 
four shillings, *et non plus nee minus,' The whole is endorsed 'Fratemitas 
Sancte Trinitatis ac beati Willelmi Innocentis et martins in Norwico.' It is 
similar to other * Returns,' and is chosen as a prose piece of sufficient length to 
represent one part of the EMI. dialect. 

Few peculiarities of language need be mentioned. Th now interchanges 
with Pi written with open top and resembling y. Qw = OE. Aw occurs as in 
Ml. occasionally (cf. * Genesis and Exodus '), in Nth. commonly. For a special 
treatment of the language see Schultz, *Die Sprache der English Gilds' (1891). 

Page 116, 1. 13. In ]>d n&me. This is immediately preceded by the 
Latin word Constitutiones, 15. Sesrnt 'William. For the account of his 
martyrdom see the passage in the 'Chronicle* at 4, 28. Note the modem 
form of the name as compared with Willelm of the * Chronicle.* 18. gylde. 
The form of this word with initial guttural stop is not English, since OM. geld, 
WS. gieldy became Ml. 0d^ Sth. ^Id or )zid respectively, and the Ml. form 
would have become MnE. yield \ cf. the corresponding verb, the sb. yield 
applied to crops, and ChaxLcei* s yeldkalle {MSS. yelde/ialle, yeldAalle, jeldehall, 
^ildehalle). The ME. form with guttural stop must therefore show external 
influence, probably that of ON. gildi\ cf. MDu. ghilde, 20. systeren. 

Note the extension of the OE. weak plural ending under the influence of 
constant association with bretheren, 21. upon here power. * According 
to their power, or ability.' This meaning does not seem to belong to OE. uppan, 
but is easily derived from it. 23. p$ ffst of Seynt Peter and Fowel. 

That is June 29. The Sunday after is then the gyldeday of 117, 21 f. 


Page 117, 1. 2. to. This form of OE. twd, ME. twS, but with loss of w, 
is exactly parallel to sp from OE. swd^ though I have assumed close o in to 
owing to a later disappearance of w. 14. pe aldermannes wyl. The 
alderman, a master or president of the gild, was regularly chosen each year on 
the gildday, as indicated at 1. 30. Other * Returns * speak of wardens who 
have charge of the property. 15. at J)e oumpany. Note the genitive 


withont ending, no donbt as the last word of the clause. 18. sa^e ]ie 
kynge hys ryhte. ' Preserve (save) to the king his right,* probably not 
' Preserve the king^s right.' 27. any. The MS. ony may indicate gny^ bnt 
the prevailing short a seems to show that this o is short also. leyn it 

doun. Dependent upon schal above, which would be repeated in Mn£. usage. 

Page 118, 1. 7. But if it bd. The gild laid great stress upon character, 
and every member was in some sense responsible for every other. 24. at 
hare comoun coat. ' At the cost of them all, or in common '; cf. Chaucer's 
well-known at (mr alUr cost, ProL to ' Cant. Tales/ I, 799. 


These * Instructions * are preserved in three MSS., Cotton Clandins A 1 1 in 
the British Mnsenm, and Douce MSS. 60,103 in the Bodleian. The first 
and best was edited by Peacock for the Early English Text Society, 31 
(1868), and from this havf been selected 11. 1-76 and 234-371. The writer 
was a canon of Lilleshall, Shropshire, and is supposed to have written the 
work about 1400. The extract therefore represents WMl. of that time, though 
the MS. is of the early fifteenth century. 

The title gives a good idea of the general character of the work. A note 
at the end tells us that it was translated from Latin, but its source is not 
definitely known. It is similar to many other mediaeval treatises, the prior 
of Mire's own house having written a more complete ' Manuale Sacerdotis.* 

The language will present few difficulties after the previous selections have 
been read. We meet for the first time uy for OE. y^ Ml. j? (J), Sth. «. 

Pag^e 119) 1. 10. dawe. Really a new singular based on the plural 
daweSy OE. dagos, and preserved in only a few phrases. 11. b6th. Note 
the Sth. plural of the verb, as occasionally ; cL the Ml. -^yu^ fallen (1. 8), 
sht (1. 9), f&ren (1. 10). 

Page 120, 1. 14. serve God td pay. 'Serve God to his pleasure.' 
28. Outtede clgthea and pyked schone. For the first we should say 
*■ slashed,' that is, with long narrow openings to show the rich lining beneath. 
The shoes called pyked were long and pointed ones, used first in the reign 
of William Rufus, and often prohibited to the clergy by local' councils. 
27. honest clothes. Note the old meaning of honest, * honourable, suitable, 
according to law and custom.* 28. Baselard. A short sword much worn 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but not allowed to priests. They 
often failed to obey the prohibition, as shown by the following lines quoted 
by Peacock from the * Plowman's Tale ' : 

' Bucklers brode and swerdes long 

Baudrike with baselardes kene, 
Such toles about her necke they hong: 

With Antichrist soche priestes been.' 
Cf. also * Piers Plowman,' III B, 303. SO. thy ordere. Mire's order was 

a branch of the canons regular of St. Austin, taking its name from the city of 
Arras, where they were first established. The branch had been transplanted 
to England by Richard de Belmeis about IT45. 


Page 121, 1. 25. AIS9 thow. The passage omitted relates to shriving: of 
women, marriage and childbirth, and is of less general interest than that which 
follows. SO. ischryve. The retention of the OE. prefix ^e as i is dis- 
tinctly Sth., and is probably here indicative of Sth. influence, though it 
occasionally occurs in. Ml., when it cannot certainly be attributed to Sth. 
influence. 32. asterday. A natural shortening of OE. easterdag, but 
usually resisted by the influence of the uncompounded easier^ * Easter,* so that 
the two agree in MnE. 

Page 122, 1. 10. but wyn and water. Peacock says : ' After commu- 
nion it was the custom for the laity to drink unconsecrated wine, to assist 
them in swallowing the eucharistic wafer.' At this time it was not customary 
to give the cup to the laity. 32. Knelynge doun. Peacock notes this 

as evidence that there were no pews or benches in the churches. 

Page 123, 1. 11. the belle. The so-called sanctus bell {sance-j sauce- 
bell) hung in mediaeval churches, says Peacock, on the east gable of the nave 
outside the church. It was rung to permit those not present to join in the 
devotion. A hand- bell was also sometimes ttsed, as to-day in Catholic 
churches. All these were ordered to * be utterly defaced, rent and abolished ' 
in 1576. 

Page 124, 1. 10. As Seynt Austyn. Peacock says not in St. Augustine's 
writings, though possibly in some work once attributed to him. 25. seynt- 
wary. The reading of Douce MSS. chirchhay^ ' churchyard,* restores the 
rime, and is no doubt correct. In explanation of the MS. reading Peacock 
says ; * In mediaeval documents belonging to this country TEngland) sancttta- 
rium and its equivalents in English almost always mean churchyard.* As 
bearing this out cf. seyntwary (125, 2), where the Douce MSS. have ckyrch- 
yerdf very likely the correct sense here also. 27. Sgnge and cry. Peacock 
mentions that the Douce MS. 103 has a note in a somewhat later hand, which 
reads : * danseynge, cotteyng, bollyng, tenessyng, handball, football, stoilball, 
and all manner other games out cherchyerd.' 29. Castynge of axtre. The 
axletree was sometimes used instead of the bar or the stone; cf. Strutt's 
< Sports and Pastimes of the Middle Ages/ p. 140. 31. Bal and bares. 
The former may be one of several games of ball. The latter is Base or Bars, 
or Prisoner's bars, the name being due to the practice of staking out the * base.* 
CL for both Strutt, as above. 

Page 125, 1. 1. Oourte holdynge. Peacock notes that the use of 
churches and diurchyards for secular purposes was not uncommon, citing local 
histories for particular instances. 14. Every mon. No doubt ^che^ occur- 
ring in one of the Douce MSS., is the correct reading. 23. Wychecrafte. 
In the service of excommunication, given in Douce MS. 60, reference is 
especially made to witchcraft. telynge. Cf. 'Ancren Riwle* (ed. 

Morton), p. 208 : * Sigaldren and false teolunges,- levunge on ore and of 
swefnes, and alle wicchecreftes . . . nis hit J)e spece of prude J)et ich cleopede 
presumciun?' Telynge is connected with OE. tilian^ * to strive, labour,' and 
may be equivalent to ME. experiment^ * sorcery,* as in a passage in Douce 
MS. ^o : ' All ])at maken experimentes or wichecrafte or charmes.' Cf. also 
145, II. 



This Part is designed to illustrate the Northern and Southern dialects, and 
London English as it gradually changed from Southern to Midland. Northern 
is placed first, as most closely allied to Midland, and examples are here given 
of Northern English in the more distinctive sense, as well as of Middle Scotch 
which is based upon it. As there are few available selections until the end 
of the thirteenth century, no division of * Early' Northern need be made. 


The 'Cursor Mundi * is preserved in various MSS., of which Hupe (EETS., 
99, p. 62*; loi, p. 113*) describes no less than ten. Four of these, Cotton 
Vesp. A III of the British Museum, Fairfax 14 of the Bodleian, Gottingen 
MS. Theol. 107 r at the University of Gottingen, and Trinity College MS. 
R3, 8 at Cambridge, were edited by Morris for the * Early Engli^ Text 
Society' (57, 59, 62, 66, 68, 99, loi). The purest of these completer texts is 
the Cotton above, of which our selection includes lines i to 270. The poem 
was written about 1300 (Hupe thinks as early as the last half of the thirteenth 
century) in a region placed by Murray as near Durham, and by Hupe in 
North Lancashire, owing to forms that suggest Ml, influence, as the words 
with g instead of Nth. d, OE. a. These indicate that the MS., if not the 
author, belongs to a region affected by the Ml. change. No author is known, 
but Hupe argues for a certain John of Lindberghe, whose name appears in the 
Gottingen MS., though usually assumed to be that of a scribe. 

The * Cursor Mundi ' is a poetical history of the Hebrew and Christian 
world based on various sources, the Scriptures, the *Historia Scholastica* of 
Petrus Comestor, the apocryphal books of the New Testament, and otheis ; 
see' Hsensch's * Inquiry into the Sources,* EETS., 99, p. i*. Some notes to 
our selection from the ME. * Genesis and Exodus ' show the common basis of 
the two, but the * Cursor Mundi * is much fuller in all respects. Especially 
are the legendary portions interesting, as reflecting the credulous character of 
the mediaeval mind. The metre, as will be seen, is the common rimed couplet 
of four stresses. 

As to language, the mixture of Ml. p with Nth. a from OE. a has been 
mentioned. Otherwise the vowel phonology is simple. Among the pecu- 
liarities of consonants are the use of ^ in unstressed syllables for OE. sc, as 


IngliSf Ml. Englisch (127, 6) ; suldy ML schuld^ schold (129, 3) ; sc ^ sk^ as 
in scaw (180, \)<f^qu for OE. hw^ as sometimes in Ml.; th beside^; ghtiox 
^/regularly. —"^" ^ 

Page 126, 1. 3. Alisaundur. The widespread romances relating to most 
of these heroes are well known, as those of Alexander, Brutus, Arthur, Charle- 
magne (Charles King, 1. 15), Tristrem (1. 17), Amadas (127, 2). 6. lesis. 
The form is clearly pres, pi., but perhaps we should read /fj, preterit with thou- 
sand as a collective sing. On the other hand, the only pret. form recorded by 
Kellner in his excellent glossary is lest, * lost.' The pres. pi. could be explained 
as used in vivid narration. 9. 89. Note this among many examples of 
strict Ml. forms, beside those of the North. 13. Wawan, Oai. More 
commonly Gawain, Kay^ as in Malory's *Morte D'Arthur.' 6j)er 

stabell. * Other brave ones.' 17. Ysote. Hupe, in his critical text, 
changes to Ysoudy spoiling the rime in both vowel and consonant With so 
many hnal ^'s becoming /*$ it is not strange that this name should have 
suffered the same alteration. 

Page 127, 1. 1. loneck . . . Tsambr&se. The first is one of the principal 
characters in the French romance * Yonec' The second . is the subject of 
a romance in ' Thornton Romances,' p. 88. 2. Amadase.^ The romance of 
Sir Amadace is found in Robson's * Three Metrical Romances,' Camden Society 
(1842), based on the OF. romance of *Idoine and Amadas.' 6. Inglis. 
The regular Nth. form of the adjective and substantive. Note change of e to i 
before the nasal as in the Mn£. form, though we still write E, 10. draws. 
The MS. form draghus is common in the Lancashire dialect (cf . dra)e) in * Sir 
Gawain and the Green Knight,' 1. 1,031), but a monosyllabic form is necessary 
for the metre. 15. scilwis se. Hupe adopts iik wits for scilwls, considering 
the latter a mistake for sltwisy but the change is wholly unnecessary. Scilwls 
is used substantively, and the line means * but by the fruit may wise (men) see,' 
25. tas. Both ids and mas for takes and makes are common in Nth. 

Page 128, 1. 7. ohaunge of hert. The reading of Gott. and Trin. 
MSS., while Fairfax has a different expression, or elles of hert, 9. at 
be. Note the Nth. use of at with the infinitive for Ml. and Sth. td. Modem 
English has a contraction of the Nth. form in ado = to do, 10. Fr9 hir 
sclialt J}du. The reference is to foly^ vanite of 1. 3. 16. he forwith 
bedd. The MS. has he hym forwit { = forwith), but no rime word. The 
other MSS. vary greatly. Itaie bedd as a shortened form of b^d, * offered, 
announced, threatened,' and the meaning of the passage to be, beginning with 
1. 13: ' Ere he shall be brought down so violently he knows not whither to 
tnm, until his love has led him to such reward as he before announced.' 
17-18. mere . . . were. The other texts have let {lett), * hindrance,' and 
this, together with the rime, suggests a noun not recorded for OE. but connected 
with OAng. merran, WS. mierrattj * hinder, mar.' Mere would thus represent 
OAng. nierre, whidi occurs in Trin. MS. 24,803. The rime with were = 
werre, 'worse,' would then be perfect. Kaluza, in his glossary, translates 
* harm, trouble' without explanation. 23. ]>of. The OE. guttural spirant 
h (g) has become the labio-dental spirant/ as in MnE. laugh, cough, tough, 
and a few others. 32. pe love bee never gan. ' The love (that shall) be 
never gone/ that is, ' shall never perish*' 


"PAge 129, L 3. mater take. Matir added by Moiris from the other 
MSS. 7. Quat bote is. Morris would insert hit, *• it/ after is, as in Trin. 
MS., bat bdU may be disyllabic and the line complete. 9. w^erd, MS. 
warld. The MS. reading must be a scribal alteration, as shown by the rime 
and the reading of the other MSS. 10. lavedi . . . Ifvedis. Doable forms 
of the word appear in two of the four MSS. 

Page ISO, 1. 1. acaw. Such a form beside schtw (1. 5) indicates scribal 
alteration or that both forms were found in the dialect of the poet 10. have 
in tale. ' Have in tale,' that is, ' relate, be able to tell.* 21. Oxaprin^:. 
The other MSS. have ospringe {hospring), indicating that x in the word prob- 
ably represents s, 26. fiaao. The word is r^ularly trisyllabic in the 
poem, as in Lat. and OF. 29-30. Moysea . . . cli^a. The same rime 
occurs once in ' Genesis and Exodus,' though May sis usually rimes with close?. 

Page 131, 1. 7. redd yuu. Reddynn of Morris is impossible, and the MS. 
must have been misunderstood. 20. ]>at Jesus did. The account is based 
upon the apocryphal ' Childhood of Jesus,' so literally accepted in the middle 

Page 132, 1. 6. pat. ' To whom.* Without change of form /a/ is nom. 
dat or accus., though when dat. or accus. a preposition-adverb often follows the 
verb. 12. Lorde fSte. All the other MSS. have a genitive in es (is). On 
the other hand, the genitive without ending is common in Nth. English. Cf. 
Ifvedt (133, 7). 23. unschill. Morris notes as equivalent to unscill, that 
is, sch ^ sc. 26. onstad and sey. Hupe reads onstand and sey. But 
a preterit stad appears in rime with badd, * bade,' at 1. 5,541, as well as a past 
participle stad {stadd) in several places. These indicate that onstad is prob- 
ably correct, baised on ON. ste6ja-staddi. The line means ' many a man was 
present and saw.' 31. How our Iifvedi dndid. The 'assumption' of 
the Virgin, believed to have occurred on August 15, and still celebrated in 
some countries. 

Page 133, 1. 4. |>e dreri days fiveten. A full account of these days 
occurs in the selection from ^ Metrical Homilies,' beginning on p. 148. 
7. oure Lf vedi mumand mdde. This theme was often treated by mediaeval 
poets, and frequently in- English with such titles as ' Compassio Mariae,' 
* Lament of Mary,' &c. In the * Cursor Mundi' it is found at 1. 23,945. 
14. er. Cf. note on 9, 2. The form preserves the original vowel of the root, 
which has become a in later English under the influence of r. 23. Into 
Inglis tong. The passage is interesting as showing the national spirit which 
produced a literature for Englishmen, notwithstanding the period of French 
influence following the Conquest, and the dominance of Latin as the language 
of learning. 

Page 134, 11. 13-14. tent . . . amend. The rime was probably perfect 
with / in both words, as final d so often became / in Nth. Cf. the past partici- 
ples in et (it) for ed (id) in Bums. 15. Ful il ha pai. Morris reads il- 
/ia[yt], * ill luck,' and Hupe follows him. But surely our text is complete and 
makes admirable sense, while with the reading of Morris another verb naust be 
supplied. 17. sum we til heild. * As we incline to.* 18. aoountes, 
MS. armites. The MS. reading seems impossible if the word means ' hermits.' 
Acountes is from Fairfax MS. 



The story of Saint Andrew, of which this selection forms a part, belongs to 
the Northern collection of legends found in various MSS. ; see Horstmann, 

* Altenglische Legenden,' Neue Folge, p. Ix. That from which this is taken 
is Harl. 4,196 of the British Museum. Horstmann believed the collection was 
made in the diocese of Durham in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, 
though the MS. is of the fourteenth. The prevalence of Midland forms, how- 
ever, indicates a region nearer the border of the Midland district ; cf. Retzlaff, 

* Untersuchungen iiber den nordenglischen Legendencyclus * (1888). The 
collection bears the marks of having been written by a single au^ior, but 
nothing is known of him. 

The legend of St. Andrew first appears in Old English times in the poem 
' Andreas * of the eighth century, and in a prose version of the tenth century. 
Both these relate the story of Andrew's rescue of Matthew, but give no account 
of his death. The latter is told in the * Acts and Martyrdom of Andrew ' ; see 
the translation in ' Ante-Nicene Fathers,' VIII, 511. 

Page 136, 1. 1. Saint Andrew. The story of Andrew, the first in the 
collection, is preceded by four introductory couplets, one of which tells us ; 

*Out of Latyn pus er ])ai draune, 
Omang laud men for to be knaune/ 
3. in sere ountre. Tradition assigns Andrew's labours to Scythia, Greece, 
and Thrace, his martyrdom as here related to Fetrae in Achaia. 5. sg.. 
Note the Ml. form as frequently. J3nly in rimes have these been replaced by 
those of strict Nth. English. 8. Egeas. Called proconsul of Achaia in ' Acts 
and Martyrdom of Andrew.* His wife (143, 7) is called Maximilla. 18. war- 
laus. Applied to the * fals goddes * of 1. 10, who were regarded as devils and 
often so called. 

Page 136, 1, 8. pir. An ON. form of the plural demonstrative pronoun. 
9. suth. OE. p shows change to » » » {iu) as in Scotch gude, * good.* In 
this text the change is only partially indicated, and perhaps is due wholly to 
. the scribe of the later MS. 23. oros. Kluge (* Eng. Etymol.,' 1898) explains 
this form beside croiSf OF. croisy as borrowed from Olr. cross. 29. put, MS. 
putted. The dissyllabic form makes the line too long, and I assume the 
unchanged preterit, occurring" in Tib. MS. E VII and often in ' Cursor Mundi.' 

Page 137, 11. 15-16. ane . . . tane. That a is correct in both words is 
shown by the fact that tdne « taken by contraction, and so has a vowel which 
never became ME. p. The MS. forms with p must therefore be purely scribal 
in origin. 28. tite. This adverb, of ON. origin, is still preserved in MnE. 
tight, with incorrect gh, which has been wrongly supposed to have come from 
OE,J>iht ; cf. *run as tig/tt as you can.' 

Page 138, 1. 8. vouche it save. From this phrase, with object after the 
adjective, has sprung our anomalous compound vouchsafe, 19. hend. Note 
this ON. plural, used beside the English plural handes. Probably hind was 
associated in the folk mind with mutation plurals like men. 30. he suld 
banget. The pronoun necessary to the sense is from Tib. MS. £ VII. 
Ildnget is the first in our selections of the common Nth. past participle in ei 
C«V) for Ml. Sth. ed {id). 

288 //. THE NORTHERN DIAlfQT ^^^^ \Q^I fi 

, MS. and ever glor^de. The reading 

Page 139, 1. 23. and glpriHde 
in the text is from Tib. MS. E VII. 

Page 140, 1. 13. To pe turmentours. Evidently in imitation of the 
taking of Christ's clothes at the crucifixion. 29. hang. This preterit form 
is common in Nth., as in ' Cursor Mundi ' for example. It is probably a modi- 
fication, by analogy of the present, of the old reduplicated preterit Ad/tg, 
Beside this preterit, only the weak past participle hanged {hangef) seems to 


Page 141, 1. 17. puple. The u of this word is one of the numerous 
forms of OF. ue. The AN. monophthong i has become the standard modem 
form, but pople^ puple and other forms occur in ME. Note also the genitive 
without ending. 


The selections from the writings of Richard Rolle are from Thornton MS. 
A I, 17, preserved in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral. They have been edited 
by Perry (EETS., 20), by Matzner (' Sprachproben,* II, 120), and by Horstmann 
(' Richard Rolle and his Followers,' I, 184). Hampole, where Rolle lived as 
a hermit, and from which he takes his name, is near Doncaster in South York- 
shire. As the Thornton MS. was written about 1330-40 (Rolle died in 1349?, 
these treatises represent the Northern dialect of the first half of the fourteenth 

Rolle was a prolific writer of both prose and verse, Latin and English. Some 
of his most important works in English are the * Prick of Conscience * and the 

* Mirror of Life * in verse, and a translation and exposition of the Psalms in 
prose. The extracts- give a good example of the religious character of all his 
writings, most of which are tinctured by the ascQticism he exemplified in his 

As to language Rollers Treatises are pure Northern, for example, in the 
appearance of a for OE. « with no mixture of Ml. g. 

Page 143, 1. 23. thrS kyndia. Cf. Pliny's ' Natural Hist.,' XI, 10, on 
which this is based. 26. fete, MS. fette. The MS. form perhaps indicates 
shortening of the vowel ; ci.fotte=fdt h^xAt fette ^ fit in * Cursor Mundi.* 

Page 144, 1. 10. Aristotill sais. The reference is to the so-called 

* Historia Animalium,* IX, 40. 14. kane halde in pe ordjrro of Infe 
ynesche. The MS. lacks in and Matzner supplies of instead, placing it after 
ynesche, but without improving the sense of the passage. Perry in his edition 
solved the difficulty by translating ynesche as * towards,' a wholly impossible 
rendering. The meaning seems to be, * For there are many that can never hold 
in the condition {ordyre) of tender love their friends,* &c. For lufe ynesche 
cf. hnesce lufu in the Alfredian 'Past. Care,* 17, 11. 19. wormee. Horst- 
mann alters to wormed — wermod^ * wormwood,* but the change is too violent 
and quite unnecessary. ' Worms ' was often used figuratively for that corruption 
characteristic of the devil's working. Besides, though this is not conclusive, 
the alteration of OE. wermod toward wormwood does not appear until the 
fifteenth century. 24. Arystotill sais. Cf. ' Hist Anim./ IX, 7 and 8. 

' 'C. i^c.= ' : (vaa-wk/T Cft>LHrf, C<i^^^^, r*<^&H* • 


Page 146, 1. 4. struoyo or scork. Ar Matzner points out, RoUe has 
confused the ostrich and t'HB stork, the Latin name being the same for both. 
12. mawmetryse. Matzncr assumes this as a second form of maumetrte^ but 
the latter was used for * idol ' as well as * idolatry,' and this seeras merely a 
plural in the latter sense. Perhaps RoUe had in mind the deos alienos /of 
the Vulgate. thd wylke. Note the voioed initial w, instead of the 
unvoiced kw {qu) of Nth. ; of. fi whilke (1. 14). 27. dispyses, MS. dia- 
pyse. Matzner's alteration is adopted on account of the syntax. Horst- 
mann retains the MS. reading without explanation. 


Page 146, 1. 1. wondes. For for u (older u) in such words cf. Mors- 
bach, * Mittelenglische Gram.,* § 125 b, and Heuser, * Eng. St.,' XXVII, 353. 
6. resoheyves. The writing with sch must be assumed to represent x, as in 
some other Nth. forms. 8. ftthes brfksrnge ; of new preohynge. The 
punctuation of this passage has met with curious treatment by different editors. 
"Without illustrating these at length, I understand there are three ways of taking 
the name of God in vain, false swearing, vain preaching, and prayer without the 
spirit. The difhculty is that RoUe, forgetting the exact connexion, has introduced 
the three clauses in three different ways. 13. ill styrringes. ' Evil passions.' 
Even in Old English the word had acquired this metaphorical sense as applied to 
the mind, and it is so used several times by Rolle, as well as by other writers. 

14. ]>i halydaye. Matzner suggests that /f should be//, * the.' But the text 
of John Gay tryge's sermon, whidi quotes Rolle, shows that the commandment 
is given a direct and personal application, and the MS. is therefore correct. 

15. sesse. This is Or . cesser in its exact form, while beside it is found ME. 
cise{n), MnE. cease, 16. sithen, speoiali. This second ' manner ' is omitted 
in Thornton MS., but is supplied from Arundel MS. of John Gay tryge's sermon, 
quoting Rolle. 81. may wyne. Perry wholly misunderstood the passage, 
and altered it. It is complete as it stands : * That they may win that (which) 
God promised to such children, that is land of light.' 

Fag^ 147, 1. 2. slaa = sift. The usual Anglian form of original slahan, 
WS. slean, 10. oys. A form peculiar to the Nth. dialect ; <?. Jameson's 
*• Scottish Diet.' 24. neghtbour. The common occurrence of this form 
-with excrescent t proves that it is a natural development in Nth. ; it is still 
found in Scotch. 


The * Metrical Homily' here chosen is from a MS. preserved in the Library 
of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons at Edinburgh, though also 
found in at least five different MSS. in Cambridge, Oxford, and London. 
A portion of this MS. was edited by John Small in 1862, and short extracts are 
given by Matzner (* Sprachproben,*^ I, 278) and Morris (* Specimens,' II, 83). 
The collection was made about 1330 — where is not known — and thus represents 
the Northern dialect of the first half of the fourteenth century. 

The Homilies, of which this is one, became an important feature of litera- 
ture, especially in the North. They consist of a paraphrase of the Scripture for 
the day, a homily interpreting it, and a legend or tale illustrating the subject. 
Gradujdly there grew up a series of these poetical homilies connected with the 



gospel story, as in the ^ Onnnlum/ or with the Scripture lessons assigned by the 
church, as in the collection from, which our extract is taken. These followed 
the eccledastical year, beginning with Advent, our selection being that for the 
second Sonday in Advent. The metre is the common rimed conplet of four 

Page 148, 1. L Today. The second Sunday in Advent, the gospel for 
which is Luke xxi. 25. The writing oi Louk for Luk indicates a true long u, 
as sometimes in Ntib. ; cf. Behrens, 'Franz. Sprache in England,' p. 118, 
11. bte rfdnes. Based on Matt xxiv. 39, probably associated with Joel ii. 10, 
31 ; iii. 15, the second of which mentions that the sun shall be turned into blood. 
Cf. 150, ao-34. 13. For mihti gastes. The Vulgate has nam Tfirtutes 
coelorum movebunturt translated in our version * the powers of the heaven shall 
be shaken.' The mediaeval poet has taken virtuies to refer to one of the orders 
of angels, the 'virtues* of Milton's 'Par. Lost,' V, 772. 26. froit. An 
occasionid form of OF. fruit ; cf. Behrens, * Franz. Sprache in England,' 

p. 159- 
Page 149, 1. 7. Als qu& sal. ' As any one may say.' The two lines are 
the poet*s explanation, Christ's words ending with 1. 6. The next lines seem 
to be put in direct form, though not based on any words of Christ. 9. Quen 
bis world. Cf. note on 77, 6. 12. For mi kinric. No doubt based on 
Luke i. 33. 15. p5 maister. The reference is not clear, unless intended for 
Jerome, mentioned at 151, 13. 23. Kinric sal. See Luke xxi. 10; Matt. 
xxiv. 8. 27. sal bald b&ret. Probably the true reading should be bdldt^ 
the adv., * quickly.' 

Page 160, 11. 11-12. baret . . . mf t. Perhaps met is short here, as indicated 
by such spellings as mett in other Nth. texts. 20. As sais Jodl. In three 
passages Joel mentions such signs, ch. ii. 10, 31 and iii. 15. 

Page 161, 1. 18. Sain Jerdm telles. These ' signs of the doom,' attri- 
buted to Jerome, are not found in his works as printed, and probably belong to 
some work now lost. Jerome is said to have found them in a Hebrew MS., as 
in 'Cursor Mundi,' I, 23, 441 : 

*Als Jeromme that well man trowes 
Telles he fand in the bok of Juwis.' 

Page 162, 1. 24. And cum. This line is followed by thirty-three Latin 
verses on the signs, with the rubric : Isti versus omittantur a lectore quando 
legit Anglicum coram laycis. 

Page 164, 1. 1. A blak munk. That is, one who wore a black habit, as 
a Benedictine; cf. reference to 'Rule of Saint Benet' (155, 34). A similar tale 
is told by Roger Wendover in his * Chronicle ' under the year 1073. 8. Faip- 
fUl firSndes. The MS. clearly needs emendation, and the Camb. MS. seems to 
suggest the proper correction. 13-14. felid . . . telld. The rime is no doubt 
monosyllabic, with shortening of the vowel oifild {{Jeldd)^ as in weak preterits 
of the first class. 

Page 166, 1. 28. gverlop. The strict English form would be ^oertip 
(Camb. Ms. merlepe\ and this one is probably of Scand. origin ; see Bjorkman, 
* Scandinavian Loan- Words in Middle English,* p. 71. Cf. English lope^ elope. 





The * Songs of Minot,' preserved in a single MS., Cotton Galba E IX of 
the British Museum, have been frequently edited. They are found in Ritson's 
* Poems on Interesting Events in the Reign of Edward III' (1795, 1825), 
Wright's 'Political Poems* (1859), * Quellen und Forschungen,' 52 (Scholle,' 
1884), ^^^ i^ Hairs 'Poems of Lawrence Minot* (1887). Extracts occur in 
Matzner ('Sprachproben,* I, 320), Morris (* Specimens,' II, 126), Wiilker 
('Lesebuch,* I, 77). Nothing is known of the author but His name, and his 
probable connexion with the Minots of Yorkshire or Norfolk in the fourteenth 
century. The poems were clearly written at the time of the events they 
celebrate, so that they represent the Nth. dialect of about 1333 to 1352, some- 
what modified by a Midland copyist ; or possibly Minot lived on the border of 
the two districts and used a mixed dialect. Cf. Scholle, p. vii ; Hall , p. xvii. 

The * Songs of Minot * represent the native political lyric which had been 
first written in England in the second half of the thirteenth century, beside 
Latin and Anglo-Norman poems of the same sort. The poet takes a^religious- 
patriotic view of Edward's victories, with special emphasis of the attitude of 
Englishmen toward Scotchmen at tiiis time. The poems chosen are the first 
three of the eleven preserved as a monument to Minot*s genius. The metres of 
the poems are various, as indicated by the selections, and in this respect suggest 
the new metrical influences of the fourteenth century. 

The language of Minot's poems, as already indicated, is a mixture of 
Northern and Midland, very likely due to a scribe. It has been especially 
investigated by Scholle and Hall, as by Bierbaum, < Uber Lawrence Minot und 
seine Lieder* (1876), and Dangel, * Lawrence Minot's Gedichte* (1888). 

Page 167, 1. 9. Lithes. All but two of the poems are introduced by 
short couplets giving the general subject of the poem. A few of the main 
points of history leading up to the battle of Halidon Hill may be briefly given. 
Robert Bruce had gained the independence of Scotland by the treaty of 
Northampton (1328), but died the year after, leaving the throne to a son eight 
years old. Civil dissensions arising, Edward Balliol, claimant of the Scottish 
throne, headed an invading force of English barons who claimed estates in 
Scotland (133a). Edward III, who had opposed the expedition until its 
success in the crowning of Balliol at Scone, now obtained an acknowledgement 
of England's suzerainty and supported Balliol when driven from the realm. He 
personally appeared before Berwick, which had been garrisoned by BallioVs 
opponents, after Easter, 1333, and the battle chronicled resulted (July 19) from 
one of several unsuccessful attempts of the Scots to raise the siege. 11. tr9iie. 
The correct form of the word from OF. trone. Later, written throne in imita- 
tion of Lat. thronuniy the th came to be pronounced like th from OE. /. Cf. 
author, authority y apothecary. 18. dresce my dedes. Perhaps in allusion 
to Ps. xc. 19; cf. 103, 19. 19. In pis dale. As in other of the 'Songs,* 
the first line of each stanza after the first repeats an emphatic word, sometimes 
a phrase, from the last line preceding. In the only departure from this (159, 9) 
pi^ forsaid toune takes the place of Berwick in 1. 8. For such linking of 
stanzas cf. * Pearl,* * Aunters of Arthur,' and other poems of Northern or North- 
we^ Midland. 20. dome, MS. dern. Hall thinks MS. reading a mistake 
for 4erv {derve), 'terrible, injurious.' But OAng. demey WS. dteme, means 

U 2 




'•^a^o • -^ 


I u *^* ' 


' deceitful, evil ' as well as * secret/ and I see no reason to change the word, 
except to add ^ for metrical reasons. 23. pe Franche men. This refers to 
a fleet often ships, armed and victualled by Philip VI of France {Philip Valays 
of 158, 29), which had been sent in aid of the Scotch besieged in Berwick, 
according to the French chronicler Nangis. These were defeated and the 
vessels destroyed by the Knglish fl^et at Dundee (1333). 26. noght worth 
a pfre. A great number of such expressions are common in Middle and 
Modern English ; cf. Matzner*s ' Grammar/ II, 2, 128, and the expression at 
158, 8. 

Page 168, 1. 2. ]>e b^ste of Normandf e. The French ships were armed 
with Norman sailors, between whom and those of the Cinque Ports there was long 
rivalry. This probably, rather than any traditional hatred of the Norman con- 
querors, accounts for the exultation over their defeat. 8. And all ]>aire 
fare. Note development in meaning of fare, * journey, going,* into * behavior, 
boasting/ and cf. the same change in the word gaiU 26. On }>5 £rle 
Morrd. A rising at Annan (Dec. 13, 1332), under John Randolph, Earl of 
Moray, and Archibald Douglas, Earl of Dunbar, had expelled Edward Balliol 
from the kingdom. 27. pal said. The Scotch who had been expelled from 
the kingdom by Balliol and his English followers. 29. Philip Valays. 
Note the form at 159^ 21 and the MS. reading. See note to 157, 23. 


Page 169, 1. 7. all n&ked. The stripping of the dead is illustrated by 
Barboar*s ' Bruce/ XIII, 459 f, in describing the battle of Bannockbum : 

' And quen ]7ai nakit spubeit war 
pat war slayne in ])e battale J>ar, 
It wes, forsuth, a gret ferly 
Till se sammyn so feill dede ly.* 

18. At Dondd. See note to 157? 23. 29. Sir J^n pd Comyn. John 
Comyn of Badenoch, killed by Robert Bruce in the church of the Minorites at 
Dumfries, Feb. 10, 1306. Comyn was Balliors nephew and heir, and at his 
death Bruce definitely began the struggle for independence which ended at 
Bannockbum. For the Scotch use of ihe before a surname see note in Boswell's 
* Tour of the Hebrides/ Sept. 6. 

Page 160, 1. 1. p&re dwelled. That is, before Berwick. 3. Hd gaf 
fi^de confort. He encouraged them in a speech that lasted as long as it 
would take to go a mile. Examples in M'atzner (' Worterbuch ') show this to 
have been a common expression. On fat plaine, as Hall points ont, is not 
appropriate to the hilly ground of the battle field, but as Minot was probably 
not present at the battle he uses the expression in a general sense. 13. TSlow 
for to tell. Evidently this is not a title in the strict sense, since Minot gives 
no account of Bannockbum. He regarded Halidon Hill as avenging the 
former defeat of the English, and in this sense is to Xx^vXPsbatayl of Banocbum^ 
17. many saklfs. Hall quotes Barbour's ' Bmce/ XX, 1 73 f, where Bruce says : 

'For Jjrou me and my warraying 
Of blud J>ar has beyne gret spilling 
Quhar many sakles men wes slayne.' 

21. Saint Jghnes toun. This is Perth, occupied and fortified by the English 
after defeating the Scotch at Gaskmoor, or Dupplin Moor. A church in Perth 
is dedicated to St. John, and this accounts for the name ; cf. Froissart's nse of 


St, Jehanstone, 27. Striflin. That is, Stirling, the Strevillyne of Barbour's 
* Brace.* Perhaps the allnsion is to Wallace's most famous victory over the 
English, Sept. 11, 1297. The implication then is that Halidon Hill had wiped 
out the memory of that defeat also. 

Page 161, 1. 1. ]>§ pilers. Matzner, Wiilker, and Kolbing take this as 
meaning 'pillars/ either of state or boundaries of the country, but Hall is 
doubtless right in assuming connexion yriih OF, pil/eur (AN. *pt/er7)f * robber, 
raider.' 6. Bughfute riveling. The riveling is a rough sthoe made of 
raw hide tied round the ankle, and regarded as characteristic of the Scotch, 
who were thus called * rough-footed.' So Skelton's *0f the out yles the roughe 
foted Scottes,' I, 187. Bfrebag. So called because the Scotch soldier 

carried his own baggage and was thus enabled to move more rapidly. 
8. Brughes. The MS. drt^ represents one pronunciation of the name ; but 
Minot uses Bruge {BrugheSy Burgkes\ all with u, and the last no doubt 
a scribal error for Brughes, The place was well known to Scotchmen in the 
fourteenth century. 11. bf tes ]?§ stretes. Hall thinks imitated from OF. 
batre les ckemtnSy * to riot or revel in the streets,* but the idea of revelling seems 
hardly appropriate, and the words may mean no more than 'go about the 
streets persistently.' 23. How Edward. Out of the war with Scotland 
came the great Hundred Years' War with France, Scotland's ally. At the 
beginning of 1338 Philip attacked Agen in Gascony, still claimed by England, 
and Edward was forced to declare war. He crossed to Antwerp (162, 30) in 
July, in order to negotiate with his allies the princes of the Low Countries, and 
Lewis of Bavaria (162, 9), the German emperor. 

Page 162, 1. 3. his right. The claim to France, more or less fully 
acknowledged by the French king himself. The war on the part of France 
was virtually a straggle to free all French territory from English rule, an end 
accomplished at the close of the Hundred Years' War in 145 1. 9. pe 
Kayser Lewis of Bavere. Louis IV, German king and Roman emperor 
from 1 3 14 to 1347. Though he had been excommunicated by the pope, the 
electors, in the very month of Edward's departure for the continent, declared 
his power was derived from them and not from the church. The reception of 
Edward was by no means as flattering as Minot makes out. 31. made 

his xnond playne. Louis had made Edward vicar-general of the empire, 
and he was empowered to coin money to pay his German auxiliaries. Jehan 
le Bel says he ' coined money in great abundance at Antwerp.' 

Page 163, 1. 23. at Hamton. On Oct. 4, 1338, the French from fifty 
galleys landed at Southampton, plundered the country, and burned the town 
on hearing that the English were gathering to oppose them. So rapidly did 
the country rise that some three hundred of the French were cut off from 
their ships. 

Page 164, 1. 7. J>an saw pai. The poet has reversed the order of events, 
for the Christopher was taken by the French before the attack on Southampton 
(Froissart's 'Chronicle,' ch. 44). It was later recovered by Edward after the 
battle of the Swyn. 8. Aremoiith. The word has gained an initial > in 
modem English, as also the river Yar, on which it is situated. 11. galays. 
These were long narrow boats used by the Genoese and sailors of the 
Mediterranean. In 1337 Philip had engaged twenty such galleys of two 


hundred oars from Ayton Doria of Genoa, who was present at the attack on 
Southampton. 12. tarettes. A large vessel like a galley, but commonly 
used for transport. 13. gali9te8. These were similar to the galleys, but 
about half the size, each carrying a crew of one hundred men. 17. Bd'wurd 
oure King. Hall notes that no chronicler mentions the presence of Edward 
at the fight, and perhaps the poet has confused the ship Edward with the 
king, a suggestion of Sir Harris Nicolas in his * History of the Navy,' II, 37. 
27. put pam to wfre. Surely Hall is wrong in suggesting that this may 
mean ^ put the enemy in distress.* It is, as Skeat explains, * prepared them- 
selves for battle,* * put themselves (in readiness) to war.' 32. withowten 
hire. Literally, ' without hire or recompense,' but idiomatically for a con- 
quered and ignominious condition. Similarly in Minot*s * Poems,' VII, 65-66 : 

' Inglis men with site }>am soght 
And hastily quit ]7am )>aire hire ' ; 
that is, vanquished them. 

Page 166, 1. 9. sen ]>e time )>at God was born. Often used to empha- 
size a situation by referring to a long time in general. 26. with his haly 
hand. The expression depends ultimately, doubtless, on the biblical use of 
the hand as a symbol of power and goodness. 


The * Bruce ' occurs in two MSS., of which the better, so far as it is 
complete, is MS. G 23 in the Library of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
This was made the basis for the edition of Prof. Skeat for the Early English 
Text Society (Extra Series 12, 21, 29, 55), though the Edinburgh MS. had 
to be used for the first four books. The * Bruce ' has been frequently printed, 
as by Hart (1616), Pinkerton (1790), Jamieson (1820); see also a list of 
editions in Skeat's 'Introduction,' p. Ixvi. Selections are found in Matzner 
(* Sprachproben,' I, 371) and Morris (* Specimens,' II, 203). The poem was 
completed in 1378, and therefore represents Northern of the last half of the 
fourteenth century, except for such differences as come from a later copyist, 
the MS. being a lillle more than a century younger than the original. As 
Barbour was Archdeacon of Aberdeen from 1357 ^^ his death in 1395, the 
Northern dialect here represented is that of the extreme North or Scottish 
English. Of Barbour little is certainly known. He first appears in 1357 ^ 
Archdeacon of Aberdeen, when he was granted a safeguard to study at 
Oxford. From the responsible position he held at the time it is inferred that 
he was born about 1320. He again visited England for study in 1364, and 
passed through it to France in 1365 and 1368. He attained further honor 
in his own country, held a position in the king of Scotland's household, and 
was granted several sums of money by the king at different times. According 
to Wyntoun's * Chronicle' (about 1420), on the authority of which rests 
the ascription of the * Bruce ' to Barbour, he also wrote the * Bmt ' and 
a genealogical poem called the * Original of the Stuarts.* Two other works 
formerly attributed to Barbour, the * Siege of Troy * and a collection of * Lives 
of Saints,' have been shown not to belong to him. 


The 'Bruce* is a national epic, valuable alike for history and literature. . 
It consists of some 13,500 lines, and covers the years 1286 to 1335. The * 
passage chosen is a good example of the poet's power in vivid narration. 
Just before the selection begins, John of Lorn had sought to track the king 
with a hound, and five of his men had been slain by the king and his foster- 
brother. The latter then retreat before Lom's approaching company to a wood 
near at hand. 

As already noticed the MS. is younger than the work itself by a century 
and this no doubt accounts for some differences in language, or at least 
orthography. For example, the Northern use of/ {y) after a lojig vowel 
indicate length becomes more common. Compare such rimes as gane, wayn ; 
fair, mar ; agdne, vayn ; and such forms as soytij * soon,' heiry * here,* dHll^ 
* deal,' in the early lines. Perfect participles ending in / instead of d are also 

Page 166, 1. 7. begouth. Note this interesting example of analogy, 
formed on the model of couth, preterit of can. This was perhaps assisted by 
the constant confusion, especially in Nth., of can and gan, 9. His man. 
Really his foster-brother, as shown by 173, 15, and by references in Book VI 
of the poem. 10. Abyde ^he heir. * If you abide here'; the subjunctive 
in condition. 

Page 167, 1. 9. Jghn of Lome. John MacDougal of Lorn in Argyle- 
shire, son of Allaster of Lorn, and descendant of Somerled, Thane of Argyle 
and Lord of the Isles, who fell at Renfrew in 1164. See Scott's * Lord of the 
Isles' and notes thereon. 

_ Page 168, 1. 11. Ifst on Uf. * Last, or remam, alive.' 27. Sohir 
Amer. Sir Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke and leader of the English 
forces. He was a son of the half-brother of Henry III. 

Page 169, 1. 1. Schir Thomas Bandale. Sir Thomas Randolph, Bruce's 
nephew, first fought with the latter until made prisoner at the battle of 
Methven. Then, submitting to the English, he even took part against Bruce 
as indicated here. Later, captured by Douglas, he was reconciled to his 
micle and made Earl of Moray (Murray). He now distinguished himself by 
many exploits, especially the capture of Edinburgh. See note to * Lord of the 
Isles,' VI, I, and reference to his descendant John Randolph in Minot 
(168, 26). 9. And how. An adventure narrated in Book VI, 589 f. 
Five of Lom's men had overtaken Brace and his brother, but were all slain by 
the two, Bruce himself killing four. 17. And he war bodyn all fvynly. 

* If he were bidden or challenged (to fight) on even terms. 19. And J)e 
gud kyng. This adventure is told with some alterations by Scott in ' Lord 
of the Isles,* III, 18 f. 26. Lik to lichtmen. Skeat explains as light- 
armed men ; cf. light-horse. 

Page 170, 1. 14. bryng hym pan of daw. * Bring him then out of day,' 
that is, * kill him,' a common ME. idiom. 

Page 171, 1. 3. slew fyre. Skeat replaces slew of both MSS. by sircJ^e, 

* stnick,' on the ground that slew must have been repeated from the preceding 
line. On the other hand, slew fire is not uncommon (cf. the * Bruce,' XIH, 26), 
and I prefer to keep the MS. reading. 10. At a fyre. * At a fire,' with 


stress on a * one.' The line might still .be improired bj an extra syllable, 
though the csesural panse may account for its absence. 27. vorthit. A 
weak preterit of wiir^(n), ' be, become ' ; ' saw that sleep had becom e necessaiy 
to him.* 

Page 172, L 1. And sUpit nooht. Skeat reads And sUpit nockt \JuU\ 
ynkerlyABot gliffnyt up ofti suddan/y, supplying the bracketed words from 
Edin. MS. With the different punctoation I have given the line, no syntactical 
alteration is necessaiy. 6. as foul on twist. Supposed to be indicative 
of readiness for any emergency ; cf. Mn£. * with one eye open ' in similar 

Page 173, 1. 6. Vft war. Pret. subj. * and had [it] not been [for] the 
arming (armor),' &c. 18. his tiist. Bruce had divided his men ^to small 
bands when hard pressed, and had appointed a rendezvous for such as should 
not be taken. His party alone had been followed by the hound. 

Page 174, 1. 29. J&mes of Douglas. This Douglas, son of William 
who supported Wallace, had been the first to take up the cause of Bruce, and 
one of the most faithful. 31. at. At for /a/ is especially common in Nth., 
though no doubt found in all dialects as a reduced form of the spoken lan- 
guage. 82. Edward pe Bruce. The brother of Robert, fiery and head- 
strong. As Barbour says, thinking Scotland too small for him and his 
brother he tried to make himself king of Ireland, but lost his life in the 
attempt ; cf. Book XVIII. 



Southern English represents several somewhat different varieties. In our 
selections the first three pieces are of Early Southern, in which, as in Early 
Midland, certain changes of Old English forms had not yet taken place. 
The third of these pieces belongs to Southern of the so-called Katherine 
group (Morsbach, *ME. Gram.,' § 3, anm. 2), that is, shows a Southern 
English with Midland peculiarities. This is due to the fact that the works of 
this group were written in a northern part of the Southern region near to 
Midland. Selections VI and VII represent Kentish English, the remaining 
pieces Southern of the normal type. 


This characteristic bit of mediaeval moralizing exists in six MSS., Digby 
A 4, Egerton 613 (two versions), and Jesus Coll. I Arch. I 29 at Oxford, 
Lambeth MS. 487 in London, Trinity Coll. MS. B 14, 52 at Cambridge. 
Not all of the MSS. are complete, and of the two groups into which they fall, 
the versions in Digby and Trinity Coll. MSS. are Kentish rather than Southern 
in the more restricted sense. Of the Sth. texts those of the Egerton MSS. are, 
on the whole, the best, and a selection from Egerton e is here taken. The 
poem has been edited at various times, as by Fumivall in * Early English 
Poems and Lives of Saints,' p. 22 ; by Morris (* Cld English Homilies,* I, 
159, 288, II, 220) ; ^* Specimens,* I, 194) ; (*An Old English Miscellany,' p. 58) ; 
by Zupitza (* Anglia,' I, 6); ('Ubungsbuch,' p. 58); by Lewin in a critical 
edition (1881). The poem was written about 1120 in South Hampshire or 
Dorsetshire, and thus represents Southern of the middle district. 

The * Moral Ode * consists of 396 long lines of seven stresses, riming in 
couplets. As in the * Ormulum,' with the metre of which it has close rela- 
tions, the long line is divided into two parts by a csesural pause after the 
fourth stress, so that each couplet might be printed in alternate lines of four 
and three stresses, riming adcd. Indeed this is the original of such a stanza 
in MnE. poetry, and this is the second stage in the development from the 
unrimed lines of Orm, The lines are often irregular in number of syllables, 
though many irregularities may be easily explained as due to lost inflexional 
or other elements, or to metrical peculiarities of Middle English. In content 
the poem begins with a penitential portion of eighteen lines in the first person, 
after which the moralizing becomes more general in character, and approaches 
that of a sermon in verse. The selection gives a good idea of the whole. 

The language of the * Ode ' shows a mixture of early and late forms to some 
extent; cf. ^ for OE. ^ in the rimes of the first couplet, but a usually. 


Besides, a {e) appear for WS. a, ea\ a, ia for WS. ct, ea, beside ^ = #; rarely 
io {eo) are fbund for WS. eo {eo), and the former sometimes for WS. o, as iji 
wiordty ' word.* These are in addition to the typical l^th. y, u fo r WS. j, 
though occasionally ^, as in yldcy yfele. As to inflexion, Southern Is more 
conservative than Midland or Northern, a nd therefore longer r etains Old 
English forms ; there are also typical Southed pecnlianties which, have been 
already sufficiently mentioned in the Grammatical Introduction. 

Page 176, 1. 1. Ich. This is the characteristic Sth. form of the pronoun with 
ck as in church from OE. c after a palatal vowel. Note that both other forms 
also occur in the selection, ic (1. 2), / (1. 4). 1-2. l9re . . . m^re. A later 
Sth. rime modifying the earlier Idre . . . mare ; cf. md^ . . . a^e (177, 5-^) and 
art . . . mare (177, 29-30). . 8. habbe. The Sth. dialect, with characteristic 
conservatism, retains such forms in case of verbs with different consonants in 
infinitive and ist pers. pres. indie, from those in the remaining forms. Thus 
inf. habbe{n\ libbeiti)^ se£ge{n), and ist pers. pres. indie. haJfUj libhe (177, 9), 
segge^ In the Anglian districts, on the other hand, under the influence of 
analogy, these have adopted the consonant of the other pres. forms, as have{n\ 
/rW(«), jtftf(«), * have, live, say.' Cf. Gram. Introd., § 165. ibdon. Note 
the characteristic Sth. prefix, a retention of OE. ge in reduced form. In this 
particular instance no OE. gebeon is known to literature, but it must have 
existed in speech at some time. 7. cfailclie. This difficult word, known 
only here, seems to have been formed from child (OE. *chilts for childs f.), as 
OE. milts, ME. milce {milcheT), is formed from mild. At least the meaning, 
*' childishness, puerility,' seems to fit the connexion fairly well. 21. pe wel 
ne de]>. The OE. relative particle Pe was retained in Sth*. much longer than 
in the other dialects. 

Page 177, 1. 6. oSres. Note retention in early Sth. of the OE. inflexion 
of the adjective. 12. Manias mannes. The line has met somewhat 
different interpretations, based especially on different conceptions of the words 
iswinch and unholde, Morris (' Specimens,' I, 350) translates : ' Many a man's 
sore trouble often hath ungracious ones, i.e. a man often receives no return for 
his hard work.' In ' OE. Homilies ' he translates quite freely : ' many kinds of 
sore trouble have often the infirm.' Lewin, opposing this quite rightly, finally 
proposes manches Mannes sauer errungenen Gewinn haben oft die Wider- 
sacher. The sense is * Ungracious (or hostile) ones often obtain (have) the 
sore labor (or gain) of many a man,' and is probably based on Ps. xxxix. 6 
and Luke xii. 20. 13. don a fiirst. Literally, ^ put in time or respite,' 
and so * put off, or delay.* The phrase occurs in several forais, ds in j^rsU 
<* OE. Homilies,' I, 71) ; do , . , on f rest (* Havelok,' 1. 1,337), printed by Skeat 
and Holthausen onfrest, 21. of wyfe ne of childe. The imperfect rime 
chiide , . . selde is at once suspicious, and it is not strange to find other MSB. 
with a different reading. The Lambeth reading of ^efe ne of jelde, * of gift nor 
of reward,' is probably the older form of the line. 23. wel oft and wel 
Jelome. A common phrase with two words for the same idea, in order to give 
it emphasis. 26. se ireve. The prevalence oi J>e for OE. se throws some 
suspicion on this expression. Digby MS. reads ne his serreve^ * nor his sheriff,' 
and Trin. MS. ne ne scirreve. Lewin reads nefe scirreve. 

Page 178, 1. 12. And pe "Se mare. ' And the one who may do no more 
(may do) with his good intention as well as he that has many pieces (manke^ 




of gold/ 14. kan mare pane. The phrase is 0£. cunttan J>onCy beside 
witan fonCf and it has survived in Scotch con thanks. Literally, * to know 
thanks/ it is equivalent to * feel (or express) gratitude, show favor.* * And 
often God feels more gratitude to those who give less to him.* 19. biU. 
The plural subjects are thought of as one and so take singular verb ; cf. did . . . 
denchet (178, 22), where the verbs agree with hwit^ not with wihte^ the real 

Page 179, 1. 8. Acule w§. Based on the OE. form when the verb was 
immediately followed by we or ge. In Middle English it was extended to the 
third pei-sonal pronoun also ; cf. scule he (1. 6), but Nabbed hi (1. 9). 8. vele. 
Note this first case in our Sth. selections of initial v for older / 28. com 
to manne. ' Came to man's estate.* 

Page 180, 1. 4. t$e beot and bfat, and bit. All texts give two verbs 
with initial ^, indicating intentional alliteration, and Lambeth agrees with our 
text in its three forms biet and bit and bet. Three verbs that are possible in the 
place are OE. betan^ *to amend,* bedan, ME. b^dein), *to pray,* biddan, 'to 
pray, beseech.' The line then means : * therefore he is wise who repents and 
prays and beseeches before the judgement' Lewin bases his text on the Trih. 
MS. reading, J>e bit and bi^t and bet, though I cannot Ihink with a better 
result in sense. The former are all contracts of the third singular present 
indicative. 7. Siinne 1ft ]>e. ' Sin leaves thee and thou not it (or them), 
when thou art not able to do them any more.* . ^f may be either sing, or pi., 
but is of the following clause seems to iiidicate that it was considered plural. 
Lewin alters is to hi, in order to agree with the former word. This line and 
the next, owing to omission and erasure, cannot be easily made out in the MS. 
8. }>e 8wa abit. *■ Who so awaits,* that is as implied in the preceding line. 
14. Ne bidde na bet. ' Should (I) not better pray to be loosed from bonds 
on doomesday ? * Several MSS. have ich {ic) after bidde, and it has probably 
disappeared from our text. 20. tJvel is. * Evil is it to suffer seven years 
for seven nights* bliss.' Ovel is must be understood with the next line also. 
32. For to Ue miichele miirdSe. * For to come to the great bliss (of heaven) 
is happiness with certainty.* 


Layamon*s * Brut ' is preserved in two MSS. of the British Museum, Cotton 
Calig. A IX and Otho C XIII, from the former of which, the older, our 
selection is taken. Both texts were edited in 1847 by Sir Frederic Madden, 
and extracts are given in Matzner (* Sprachproben/ 1, 2 1), Morris ('Specimens,' I, 
64), Zupitza-Schipper ('Ubungsbuch,' p. 92). The poem is the work of a 
priest Lajamon (later text Lawemon), but more commonly written Layamon, 
son of Leoyenath, of Amley in North Worcestershire, and was composed about 
1200. The language therefore represents Southern of the Western division 
during the last of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. 

The 'Brut' consists of some 16,000 long lines (a little less than 15,000 in 
the later MS.), or double the number of short lines as printed by Madden. 
These long lines are based on the older alliterative line and shdw frequent 
alliteration, though rime and assonance are also common in binding together 


the two half-lines. The metrical form is thus a combination of the old 
alliterative line and a rimed couplet of irregular character. Compare the 
similar lines of the ' Bestiary.* In content the poem is a legendary history of 
Britain from the destruction of Troy to the year 689 A.D. It is based on the 
Norman Wace's ' Roman de Brut/ which in turn has its source in Geoffrey 
of Monmouth^s 'Historia Regum Britanniae.* Our selection begins with 
1. 13,996 (Madden, 1. 27,992). Arthur, the world conqueror, resting after the 
great feast on the overthrow of the emperor of Rome, is summoned home 
by bad news as told in the passage chosen. 

The language of the poem does not greatly differ from that of the ' Moral 
Ode.' It shows a similar mixture of older and later forms. 0£. d still 
appears as dy long and short a are not infrequent, and eo^- eo are still preserved. 
The latter, eo, sometimes appears for Sth. ^, 0£. <j?, as in w^ore, unless indeed 
this is for Ml. were with close e. Assuming the open quality of the first 
element, as indicating Sth. f, the e is marked open (^. Some Ml. forms 
certainly occur, as halden (183, 7), beside hSlden (1. 1416). Among con- 
sonants the Sth. initial v for OE./is more common than in the * Moral Ode.* 
Inflexions show the usual Sth. conservatism. A special peculiarify^f Layamoa 
is the more frequent final n of inflexional forms, either retained Xxova an older 
inflexion or often added where not original; cf. Stratmann, 'Anglia,' III, 552. 
Examples are tldeny dsg. (181, 1) ; deoretiy nsg. (182, 15) ; cumen^. pr. snbj. sg. 
(183, 21); warTeUy gpl. (184, 26), perhaps from OE. gpl. in ena. In many 
cases inflexional en is a retention of OK dpi. urn* The vocabulary of X^yamon 
is full of epic phrases from OE. poetry, so full as to imply some considerable 
acquaintance with OE. literature. For convenience of reference the line- 
numbering of Madden is always given in the notes, except of course when 
referring to our selection. 

Page 181, 1. 1. pa com pfr. Arthur is represented as being inne Burguincy 
'in Burgundy,' when the news reaches him. are. Note retention of inflexional 
forms in the pronoun, as are ■= OE. dnre\ fan (1. 2) ^}dm ; hine (1. 20) ; dm 
(1. 29) f. asg. ; J>ire (1. 2Z)=^fare. 8. Modrfde. In setting out from 
England Arthur had left his kingdom in charge of Modred and Wenhavere 
(Guenevere), as told at 1. 25465 (Madden). 6. Swft naver. * Yet never 

would he/ the young knight. Only in a supernatural manner, through the 
vision, does Arthur find out the truth. 17. Walwain, B text 'Wa'weyn. 
Better known as Gawain, nephew of Arthur and brother of Modred. 22. "Wen- 
hever, B text Gwenayfer, The Welsh Gwenhwyvar, Eng. Guenevere. In 
Layamon she is simply an extremely fair woman, whose mother was of Roman 
birth and relative of Cador, Earl of Cornwall. 24. to hi&lden. The 
MuE. form has lost final d and appears as heel, * to incline.* Layamon's word 
seems to be Midland helden, a form which also appears in his text. 

Page 182, 1. 6. deore mine sweorde. This order of adjective and 
possessive is especially common in Layamon. Cf. the Elizabethan dear my 

Page 183, 1. 20. quen. The MS. que is probably for que « quen^ though 
the commoner form in Layamon is quene, 21, cumen. The form is pres. 
subj. with excrescent n so common in Layamon. Qi,pcU ArUurJnder comen, 
* that Arthur thither shou^ come,' 11. 27,078 and 19,1 10 (Madden). 27. ]» 

flffit hit. * Then it remaihed all still.' 


Page 184, 1. 18. vseisiS, MS. wsBisIt^. Madden suggested the change, 
required, by the context and alliteration. Cf. feiesiiSe makede (1. 304) and 
faieside (1. 261O40), in both cases alliterating with f. Here, of course, we 
must assume an earlier f-f alliteration, now become f-v or v-v by the regular 
Sth. change of initial / to v, 28. ha, MS. a. The third^ personal 

pronoun, both masc. and fern., sometimes appears as <l, ka, 82. A marten 
pat hit. So MS., but the correct reading is probably ^rt, 'when.* The B text 
has ^^, 'when.* and Drihten. 'And the Lord had sent it (the day),' 
perhaps referring to its favorable character for an expedition. 

Page 186, 1. 3. Whitsfnd. Wissant, Pas-de-Calais, called Hwitsand in 
the * Chronicle * under thfe year 1095. 17. Childriche. Childric was in 
those days an emperor of great authority in Alemaine, as we are told at 1. 20,198. 
Arthur had already vanquished him when he came to Britain to assist Colgrim 
and Baldulf, as told in the lines following that quoted above. 

Page 186, 1. 9. Bomenel, MS. BomereL Romney in Kent without 
doubt. 11. avorn on, MS. avomon. The phrase is an interesting example 
of the replacing of a worn-out form. Avorn is OE. onforan, the first part of 
which was no longer recognized in the reduced prefix a, and on was again 
added at the end. 26. AngeL A king of Scotland whom Arthur had 
assisted to regain his kingdom. He had last led the foremost troop in the 
fight against * Luces,' emperor of Rome. The name appears as Aguisel in 
Wace, Augusel {AnguseH) in Geoffrey of Monmouth, and is possibly Scotch 

Page 187, 1. 2. ^urren ]>& stanes. ' The stones babbled with streams of 
blood.* * Roar, resound ' are too strong for ^urren, which applied to the 
chattering of people, the whirring or singing of ropes when the ship met 
a storm; cL garring, from the same root, at 224, 15. Such exaggerated 
descriptions of battle are common in Layamon, as in all early poetry. 
Cf. 189, 32. 

Page 188, 1. l. pd fsond hine &je. 'May the devil take him.* 
30. and hii. The B text really reads ana ou ^eo hinne ende, with place for 
an initial in the last word. I have assumed the lost letter to be w, and have 
otherwise used the forms of the A text. 31. pa heo hire seolf. No doubt 
this is one of the alternatives beginning with wkaOer, and we are to supply 
' or whether* at the beginning of this line. The loss of the preceding half-line 
makes the connexion uncertain. 

Page 189, 1. 16. 8w& ]>3 rein falldS, MS. rim fiEOled. The change of 
rim to rem was suggested by Madden. Either this is a scribal error or 
perhaps the noun was influenced by the verb, which appears as rtne — rinde in 
the ' Brut* 20. Tambre. The river Tamar between Devon and Cornwall. 
In Malory's 'Morte D* Arthur* the great fight is by the sea near Salisbury. 
21. Caznelford. A Camelford, ford of the Camel, still exists in the north of 
Cornwall, but is naturally not connected with the Tamar river. Geoffrey 
of Monmouth says the battle took place near the ' river Cambnla,* while Wace 
has Camblan ... a V entree de Comuailley Tambre , . . en la terre de Como- 
atlUy Tamble, See. in different MSS. (' Brut,' L 13,659). Conftision was easy 
because of the likeness between the MS. c and /, as well as by reason of the 


frequent interchange of l-r. Once in the ' Chronicle ' CaniermuOa is found for 
TamamnacL, The reference to the sea (191, i) would imply a situation like 
that of Camelford in North Cornwall, and probably Cambre for Tambre is the 
correct reading of the preceding line. 

Page 190, 1. 11. i pare lasten. 'In the least (of the wounds)/ as 
mentioned in the line preceding. 26. Avalun. Geoffrey of Monmouth 
twice speaks of the 'island of Avalon (Avallon)/ and Wace follows with 
en Vile ct Avalon (* Brut/ 1. 9,516). In the passage corresponding to this Wace 
does not say an island, and Layamon also makes no specific reference to the 
situation of the place, except that Arthur reaches it by sea (191, i). See 
discussions of the place in 'Romania,' Oct. 1898, and 'Mod. Lang. Notes,* 
XIV, 47. 27. Argante. Wace and Geoffrey of Monmouth make no 
mention of this personage. Malory names four, three queens and the Lady of 
the Lake. 30. And sedSSe. Wace makes mention of the tradition that 
Arthur should come again, and Layamon, whose more dramatic treatment 
is seen in several places, puts it into the mouth of Arthur himself. 

Page 191, 1. 7. Jxtt wfore. *That immeasurable trouble should come (be) 
after (of) Arthur's death.' 


The Middle English prose * Life of St. Juliana ' is preserved in two MSS., 
Royal 17 A 27 of the British Museum, and Bodleian MS. 34 at Oxford. Of 
these the first is the purest text, and from it our selection is taken. Both MSS. 
were edited for the Early English Text Society by Cockayne in 1872 
(EETS., 51), and extracts from both are found in Morris ('Specimens/ I, 96). 
The work was written about laoo, the MSS. themselves being of the first half 
of the thirteenth century. It belongs to the northern part of the Southern 
district, and has certain Midland peculiarities. The language is therefore Sth. 
with Ml, coloring, as explained below. 

The story of St. Juliana has already been told by Cynewulf in an Old English 
poem (cf. Gamett, ' The Latin and Anglo-Saxon Juliana,' Publ. of Mod. Lang. 
Ass., XIV, 379). It also appears, later than our prose version, in a poem of 
long rimed couplets (EETS., 51, 81) similar to those of the 'Moral Ode/ as 
also in an unpublished version ; cf. Horstmann, < Altenglische Legenden,' 
p. xlvi f. As to the form of the present * Life,' at once noticeable for its 
alliterative and rhythmical character, there is difference of opinion among 
scholars. Ten Brink speaks of the long alliterative line or the rhythmical 
alliterative prose (* Eng. Lit.,' p. 199). Einenkel undertook to prove that this 
work, together with the similar * Lives' of St. Margaret (EETS., 80) and 
St Katherine (EETS., 13), are in long alliterative lines. From this view 
Schipper dissents (* Grundriss der englischen Metrik,' p. 75), and I see no reason 
to print otherwise than as prose, though the alliterative and rhythmical elements 
will be clear to any reader. The source of the story is that found in the * Acta 
Sanctorum* for Feb. 16. 

The language of the * Juliana,* like that of the prose * Lives * of St. Katherine 
and St. Margaret, is a mixture of Sth. and Ml. ; cf. Morsbach, * Mittelenglische 
Grammatik, § 3, anm. 2 ; § 9, i. The chief Ml. peculiarities are the close 

' THE LIFE OF SAINT JULIANA * ^ 3^3 -> ) " 

instead of open i^ Goth, iy WT. a, as in Mercian and the non- Wessex dialects, 
and the preservation of the u and o mutations in many cases. In other respects 
the dialect is Southern, as shown especially by e for 0£. a, Ml. a, and », u for 
OE. y, y. Besides may be noted the preservation of OE. «, as in the preceding ^ ' 
early Sth. selections, and the diphthongs eo, eOj ia {ea\ The long diphthong 4 m. " i' * 
ea, used for OE. ia or a and certainly a mere graphic representation of ME. f, ■! 

has been marked ^a. No voicing of initial y^/, and j* is indicated by the ortho- 
graphy, but unvoicing of final d is common. 

Page 191, 1. 16. In ure. This paragraph is preceded by the rubric : Her 
cutnsed J>e vie of seinie iuliane and telleti of lijlade hire^ * Here conmienceth 
the life of Saint Juliana, and (it) telleth of her manner of life.' Feader. 
The usual form is the Sth. feder = Ml. fader. ant. The usual form in 

this * Life,' as in the others of the group, so that the sign for and is regularly 
expanded an^. 23. Nichomedes bvirh. Nichomedia in Asia Minor, founded 
by Nichomedes I. In the OE. 'Juliana' it appears as Commedia. 25. of 
pe hf pene mf st. ' Greatest of the heathen.* Not in the Latin, and Bodl. MS. 
has a different reading : * Affrican hehte, "pe heande ") heascede mest men J)e 
weren cristene.' Egge (* Mod. Lang. Notes,* 1, 138) connects with following clause, 
but I think not rightly.' 26. derfliche he droh, MS. derfliche droh. The 
Aij subject of droky was probably lost by scribal confusion with Ae of the pre- 
ceding word. 

Page 192, 1. 3. Maximian. Really Galerius Valerius Maximinus, made 
emperor in 308, and one of six to claim the title at that time. He renewed the 
p>ersecution of the Christians after Galerius had published an edict of toleration, 
but was soon overthrown by Licinius and died in 314. Here he seems to have 
been confused with Maximian, contemporary emperor of the West, as in the 
OE. poem. Perhaps this is due to the frequent confusion of the Eastern and 
Western Roman empires, as shown also in the next note. 4. Borne. Of 
course Constantinople, or New Rome, in this place. mawmets, MS. 
maumez. The final z is unquestionably equivalent to /j, and I have not 
hesitated to expand it as if it were an abbreviation; cf. 195, 2 2 'and note on 
194, 25. 13. ih9ndsald. 'Betrothed wholly against her wilL' 24. as 
me pSk luvede. * As they (me) then loved,* that is, as was the custom of the 
time. into cure pet, MS. '^. ' Into a chariot that the powerful rode in, 
or in which,' &c. Cockayne and Morris retain the MS. and, reading ' and ride 
into the kingdom.' I have assumed a phrase descriptive of the chariot, as ricke 
' kingdom ' seems inappropriate to a reve. The Bodl. MS. has another descrip- 
tive phrase, i cure up ^ fowr hweoles, *up into a chariot of four wheels.' 
30. balde hire seolven. As it stands, bdlde must be a past participle 
jnodifyiag Ju/tane. The Bodl. MS. has a sign for and before sende, making 
3dlde and sende correlative, and this may be the correct reading. 32. wralSSi 
39. 'Be angry as thou wilt.' Cf. a similar construction in the third pers. at 
196, 10. 

Page 193, 1. 20. Ich iille, MS. ichulle. The MS. form indicates that the 
two words were spoken in close association, as in the MnE. Sth. dialectal cAu/i, 
* I will.' 27. eis weis. * In any way (ways),* one of the few examples of 
the inflected adjective in this selection. 

Page 194, 1. 6. Me hwet. 'But what.' The conjunction me, * but,' is 
found especially in Sth. texts, but apparently not in Old English or the Anglian 


territory. This would argue for the Low German origin suggested for it 
10. wtunmoii. Note the influence of the preceding w upon the original i from 
f in this word, causing it to become u as still preserved in the singular. 
25. mix mawmets, MS. mawmex. Final x in the latter may be due to 
scribal influence of the preceding word. 28. Ijlewsium. Foreigii derived 
names retain their original inflexion as here, remain uninflected, or assnme the 
inflexion of English nouns, depending on the frequency of their usage. 

Fag^e 196, 1. 8. ow. A dative which seems redundant to-day, but no doubt 
added force to the expression. It may be translated as a possessive, ' for your 
evil fortune.' 11. as reve of pe burhe. Since the ' Life' was too long to 
use as a whole, the trial before Eleusius has been omitted and the account 
resumed at the close of the tortures. The intervening part tells how Eleusius 
is again struck with Juliana's beauty, and how she again repels his advances. 
She is then beaten a second time, hanged by the hair, has boiling brass poured 
over her, and is finally cast into prison. Here a supernatural visitor tempts her, 
but she seizes him and makes him confess he is the devil. She binds him with 
chains and drags him to the judgement seat of the prefect. She is torn to |Meces 
on a wheel of spikes, but is made whole by an angel, thus converting the 
executioners. She is thrust into a great fire, but an angel quenches it. This 
angers the prefect still more, and at this point the narrative is resumed. 
31. )§lde!8 bire ^arew borh. The speech differs here from that in the ' Acta 
Sanctorum,* in which the devil speaks to Eleusius. )arew borh seems to be used 
ironically, ' ready payment ' as if for a debt, the Bodl. text reading ' jeldeff hire 
^arow borh efter ]iat ha wurOe is.' 

Page 196, 1. 3. nnwiht. Not found in OE. literature, but there is the 
similar uniydre, * monster,' literally ' no child or offspring.' 8. uppon treowe 
stalKele. Referring to Matt. vii. 24-27. 24. underf§ng. Cf. with this im- 
perative onderfang of Layamon (* Brut,' II, 168) and uftdervongoi ' Anc. Riw.,* 
p. 114. wiS meidenes im§ane. No doubt alluding to Rev. xiv. 3-4. 
Cf. ' Pearl,' 1. i ,096 f. 26. pe f die engles. See, for an early instance of the 
same, the account of the death of Chad in Bede, * Eccl. Hist,* Bk. IV, ch. iiL 
28. Com ft sell wummon. This incident, given in the Greek and Latin lives, 
is omitted by CynewulC The name of the woman is variously given as Sophonia 
(Sophronla) and Sophia, the latter by Symeon Metaphrastes the Greek martyro- 
logist. 32. from, pd sea ft mile. In the territory of Puteoli, as stated by 
the first life in the ' Acta Sanctorum.' Later (the late sixth century) her remains 
were transferred to Cumae for greater safety. Thence, in 1207, they were said 
to have been taken to Naples, and various cities now claim them, as Brussels 
for example. 

Page 197, 1. 1. pe r§ve. In the ' Acta Sanctorum ' no mention is made of 
the reeve's pursuing Sophie, and twenty-four, not thirty-four, are destroyed by 
the storm. 4. prittiroe. Both MSS. have the form, though surely ioxfriifi^ 
* thirty,' it would seem. 6. warp ham adriven. * Cast them, driven about, 
on (to) the land.' The change from plural to singular in the verbs is also found 
in the Bodl. MS. No doubt the general idea of storm was in the writer's mind. 
8. |>e 8ixt§xiSe dei. This is the day on which the Romish church celebrates 
her martyrdom, while the Greek church prefers Dec 3i. 



There are five MSS. of the * Ancren Riwle,' Cotton Nero A XIV, Titus D 
XVIII, Cleopatra C VI in the British Museum, Corpus Christi Coll. MS. and 
Caius Coll. MS. 234 at Cambridge. Besides, a fragment of another MS. was 
recently discovered by Napier (* Jour, of Germ. Philology,* II, 199). The first 
of these, with collation of the second and third, was edited in 1853 for the 
Camden Society by Morton, and selections are found in Morris ('Specimens,* I, 
no) and Matzner (*Sprachproben,* II, 5). Our selection follows Morton's 
edition with such changes as are necessary by reason of Kolbing's collation 
with the MS. ('Jahrbuch fiir rom. und engl. Philologie,' XV, 180). The 
work was written about the beginning of the thirteenth century, in the middle 
part of the Southern district, since it mentions Tarente (Tarent-Kaimes or 
JCin^ton) near the Stour, in southwest Dorset. Morton suggested (Preface, 
p. xii) that its author may have been Rich. Poor, who was bom at Tarente 
and died there in 1237. ^^ ^^^ in turn bishop of Chichester, Salisbury, and 
Durham, and may have been a benefactor of the house since he was sometimes 
called its founder. 

The * Rule of Nuns ' is a free and not uninteresting treatment of monastic 
duties, prepared for three sisters of good family who had become nuns. It 
consists of a brief introduction and eight parts : of religious service ; keeping 
the heart ; of monastic life ; of temptation ; confession ; penitence ; love ; of 
domestic matters. Of plain and simple style, it contains numerous quotations 
from the Bible and the Church Fathers, with allusions to saintly lives but 
practically no legendary or moral tales. The first extract is from Part II 
(Morton, p. 64), dealing with each of the senses in turn ; the second from part 
VIII (Morton, p. 414). 

The language of the * Rule of Nuns ' is a pure Southern, and in most respects 
represents the normal form of that dialect, as distinct from the Early Southern 
of the preceding selections. OE. a has now regularly become g, the new diph- 
thongs have developed, and the voicing of initial/ to v is the rule. On the other 
hand, OK»eo{eo\ea ijd) still appear as in preceding texts. Occasionally eo 
of this text is equivalent to open ^, so that it has in such cases been marked ^0. 
Consonant peculiarities are not numerous. The most important is / for initial 
J> after a word ending in / or d^ as vort tet (1. 15) for vort J>et; and terefUr 
(I. 16) for ferefier. Further see Wiilker in Paul and Braune's * Beitrage/ 

Page 197, 1. 14. SpeUunge and smeoohiinge. Note the retention of the 
unge ending of OE. nouns. 

Page 198, 1. 1. pet he ouh to siggen. Morton connects with preceding 
clause, but it belongs, as Matzner shows, to the following. * (To) that (which) 
he has to say, hearken to his words.' The peculiarity is in the repetition of 
* his words.' 12. Farais. Both this and Faradts occur in OF. and ME. 
22. pe ogve, MS. coue. The word here and in 1. 24 has been somewhat 
variously read, as the MS. u may be u or v. Morton connects with OE. ceo{h)t 
' chough,' but this should appear with ME. c/i initially, to say nothing of the 
diphthong. Matzner assumes a Netherland kauwe (kauvi), which ought, it 
would seem, to give caue ; cf. Mn£. caw, Icl. kofay * young pigeon,' is also not 



easily connected with the word. To accomit for thefform, and preserve the 
play npon the word, I assume 0£. €df, ME. c^^ nsed in the first case as a sub- 
stantive adj.,Mhe swift, the deceitful,* perhaps/ 'the thief.* Cumes te ^apt, 
*■ comes the cunning (one)/ of Titus MS. shows the understanding of another 
scribe, and that he had no idea of the chough or any other bird. 

Page 199, 1. l. Bed multi veniunt. Matt vii. 15, the Vulgate for 
which is Attendiie a falsis prophetis^ qui veniunt, 7. Qabrieles spf che. 
The annunciation, Luke i. 29. 11. dtSer stunde, MS. stude. Morton's 

emendation is proved correct by the Latin text (Magd. Coll., Oxford), which 
conveys the same idea in positive form : si tertius haberi possit. 32. Ancre 
and huiiBS If fdi. * There ought to be much (difference) between an anchoress 
and a housewife.* 


Page 200, 1. 3. swiwike, MS. swiSwike. Matzner suggested retaining 
the MS. reading as 0£. equivalent for MLat. hebdonieda maior^ though no such 
0£. word is known. On the other hand, we know that 0£. swigdag, * day of 
silence/ was used for the three days of Holy Week between Thursday evening 
and Sunday morning ; cf. ^lfric*s * Homilies,' I, a 18, 31 ; II, 268, 16. Besides, 
Titus MS. reads swihende wike, and Cleopatra MS. swiwike. The emendation 
therefore seems fully justified. The nuns are advised to make the whole week 
one of silence, rather than the customary three days. 9. Ase Seont An- 
selme. I have not found the original. 10. chf ofled ^ chf ofle'S. Here, 
as occasionally in most texts, 9 is replaced by ^by scribal error ; cf. 201, 17. 
20. Mulieres. i Tim. ii. 1 2 and i Cor. xiv. 34. Neither passage is followed 
verbatim, the former more nearly. 22. pe 9rerktc8re. Morton*s omission 
oife led Matzner to a wrong understanding of the words. He rightly pointed 
out Morton's error in connecting this with the following sentence. 27. ase 
ich fr seide. See 199, 31. 31. Ad snmmam volo. Morton has made 
the strange misAke of including/^/ is in the quotation as he translates it, and 
omitting ich ulle^ &c, ]>e ende of fe idle is of course a free rendering of ad 

Page 201, 1. 6. Censnra. I do not find the exact words here or in 1. 7, 
but a discussion of silence with the fissure of the water (201, 8) occurs in 
Gregory's * Regulae Pastoralis Liber,' ch. 38 (Migne, 77, 53). 22. Maria 
optimam. Luke x. 42. The translation begins with the preceding verse. 

Page 202, 1. 16. Bidden hit. *To ask (or beg) it^in order to give it 
away, is not the part (rihte) of an anchoress.' 10. on ou. * On yourselves,' 
that is, 'from your own wants.' nenne mon. That is, 'Let no man eat 
before you,' mdki^ of the preceding clause being understood with this also. 
25. Muche neode. That is, ' only much need.' 32. heiward. The hay- 
ward was the keeper of the cattle in the common field or pasture, and it was his 
duty to prevent trespass on cultivated ground. There was a similar officer of 
the manor or religious house. As the hayward could assess damages against 
the owner of cattle, a little flattery was evidently considered a good investment 
hwon me punt hire. * When men impound her (the cow).' 

Pag^ 203, 1. 1. hwon me maket$ m^ne. ' When they (me) make com- 
plaint in town of anchoresses' cattle.' Probably refers to formal complaint as 
before the town reeve. 



This metrical ^ Chronicle ' is found in an earlier and later form. To the earlier 
belong the following MSS. : Cotton Calignla A XI, Harleian 201, Additional 
19,677 and 18,631 of the British Museum, and Hunterian MS. at Glasgow; 
to the latter, Trinity Coll. MS. R 4, 26 at Cambridge, Digby 205 of the Bod- 
leian, Univ. Library Ee 4, 31 at Cambridge, Lord Mostyn's Library 259, 
Pepysian Library, Magdalen Coll., Cambridge, 2,014, Sloane 2,027 of the • 
British Museum, and Herald's Coll. MS., London. There are editions by 
Heame (1724) based on the Harleian MS., and by Wright in the Rolls 
Series (1887) based on the Cotton MS. above. Extracts are found in Matzner 
(' Sprachproben,' I, 155), Morris ('Specimens,' II, i), Wiilker ('Lesebuch,' I, .„, 
55). The name of the author is based on 1. 11,748, which tells us that 
* Robert l)at verst ))is boo made' saw the battle of Evesham (1265), but other- 
wise we know nothing of him. Stow first connected him with Gloucester, and 
this is at least probable. More recently Strohmeyer ( * Das Verhaltnis der Hds. 
der Reimchronik Roberts von Gloucester,' 'Archiv fiir neuere Sprachen,' 
LXXXVII, 217) shows that the 'Chronicle* is the work of three different 
authors, the first writing about the end of the thirteenth century lines 1-9, 137, 
the second (Robert of 1. 11,748) lines 9,138-12,049, and a third \mting and 
somewhat extending the later version. As the work mentions the canonization 
of St. Louis in 1297, it could not have been written before that event, and was 
probably composed about ,1300 in Gloucester. The language is therefore 
Southern of that district about the last of the thirteenth century. Our selection 
is from Cotton Caligula A XI, the purest text, and consists of 11. 7,395-7,513 
as printed by W^right abdve. ' V^ 

The 'Gloucester Chronicle' relates the history of England from the legendary 
Brutus to 1 271. It contains about 12,000 long lines (i2y(oo in the later 
version), riming in couplets. As to the number of stresses the lines are suffi- 
ciently irregular to occasion considerable difference of opinion. They seem to 
be based on the line of seven stresses with caesura after the fourth, but many 
lines o<?cur with only six stresses. The sources of the poem are Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, Henry of Hui^gdon, William of Malmesbury, and other 
chroniclers. ^-. 

The language of the * Chronicle ' is some three-quarters of a century later 
than that of the 'Ancren Riwle.' The OE. diphthongs have entirely disappeared 
even from the orthography, and the language is therefore typical Southern in 
most respects. Among vowels there is a largely increased use of for u. 
Among consonants the selection often shows loss of initial hy and a frequent 
voicing of kw to w which is parallel to some extent with that of initial / to v. 
Besides ss {s) regularly represents sh» 

Page 203, 1. 14. hap. Note the unusually frequent omission of initial h in 
this text 15. her and §r. Other MSS., as Harleian 201, read her and fery 
' here and there,' perhaps a better reading. On the other hand, her is constantly 
used, especially in the Chronicles, for ' now, at this time,' and/|ir may be due 
to a scribal misunderstanding of her in this sense. 17. Verst. Strict Sth. 
would require viirst, but e for ii is found in ft few words in this writer. See 
heme {heme) 204, 8 for Sth. hurtu, but the latter in rime (204, 18), and 
cf. Morsbach, ' Mittelengl. Gram.,' § 133, anm. a. 

X 2 


VmgjB 3M, L L As p6 hdnde. < As tbe comteons one,' so ' politely, 
couiteoofly.* 8. ^ grfte &f. See Fieeinan's 'Nonnan Cooqnest,* 

III, 91. 14. tet WM at The Harleian MS. reads fo after Jmij <tfaat 
then was,' &c., frat it seems no material improvement. 27. Godwine. 
The crime was attributed to Godwine, though committed by foUowen 
of Harold L William now gives this as a reason for malring war on God- 
wine's son Harold. 28. Alfirfd. The brother of Edward the Coo&ssor, 
son of iEtbelred II and Emma of Normandy, the latter sister of William the 
Conqueror's grandliather. Costn is therefore very £reely used« as often in earlier 
English and sometimes to-day. On Alfred's return to England from Normandy 
in 1036 he was seized, his followers killed or enslaved, and his eyes torn out at 
Ely. 31. Seint Hdward. Edward the Confessor, who had promised the 
throne to William, so the latter said. That he was ' next of his Mod ' (L 32) 
was of course true. 

Page 203, 1. id. Beln VTalri. This is St Val^ry at the mouth of the 
Somme, with w for OF. v, as in Wace*s Waleri, 14. and abide 1119. We 
should expect a sing. pret. to agree with wende, hadde, but the construction 
certainly changes in the following clauses, and there is uo reason to suppiose it 
may not here. Otherwise we must assume an infin., with an omitted to or for 
id expressing purpose. 21. On of bis kni^tes. The well-known story of 
William's stumbling as he set foot on the land is here omitted entirely. The 
words of the knight therefore lose point. 

Page 208, 1. 2. As hS of n9 mon. ' As if he took account of no man.^ 
4. l>§ dper bataile. The battle of Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire^ September 25, 
1006, in which Harold had defeated and killed King Harold of Norway. 
10. hat upe pS Fgpes. ' That he should rest {do) it upon the judgement 
(Jdktnge) of the Pope.* 13. him take ng Ignd. * Give or deliver him no 
land.* For this sense of tdke{n) see the use of bitdke{n). 12. Wf r Seint 
Bdward. Morris suggests * whether,' and Matzner * if* for wer. But the 
meaning is rather ' notwithstanding, although.* 27. mi fader. Really his 
ancestor Rollo, first Duke of Normandy, in the early tenth century, or a hundred 
and fifty years before. 81. Richard. This was Richard the Fearless, who 
reigned from 943 to 996. The French king who was taken prisoner was Lewis 
(Louis) IV. 

Page 207, I. 7. bS overoom. There are numerous references to this 
story in the chroniclers. See also Uhland's poems on the subject. 31. "Wip 
strange targes. 0£. poems often refer to making a ' war-hedge,' or close 
protection of overlapping shields before the men. No doubt this custom is 
intended here, diide bom no^t, * did them no harm.* 

Pag^ 208, 1. 14. n9 wille babbe. ' Have no chance (wtlle) of striking 
(diint).* 17. al vor no^t. A phrase of varying import, * all in vain, all for 
nothing.' Here it seems to imply lack of resistance, and so * easily.' 

Pag^ 209, 1. 15. ggstes. See Freeman's 'Norman Conquest/ III, 11. 
19. Seint Caliztes day. October 14, when Pope Calixtus is supposed to have 
been martyred in a a a. 81. 'Willam bit sonde bire. This is a mistidce. 
Harold's mother offered a large sum for the body, but William would not give 
it up and had it privately buried by the sea-shore, so that the graye could not 
be identified ; cf. Ramsey, * Foundations of England,' II, 35 f. 



Page 210, 1. 20. Vor pe m^re. This line shows that the writer had no 
strong feeling either for or against the conditions he mentions. The antipathy 
of the races had long passed away. 


These * Sermons ' are found in Laud MS. 47 1 of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 
and were printed by Morris in * An Old English Miscellany * (EETS., 49), p. 26. 
They represent Kentish of about 1250, so that they really precede in time the 
previous selection, but are placed here to bring together the two specimens of 
Kentish in the book. 

But five of these sermons are preserved, all brief and simple in plan. They 
are translations from the French of Maurice de Sully (d. 1 196), the earliest 
French sermon writer to give up Latin for the vernacular. They all follow the 
same general plan of text, narrative, exposition, application, as exemplified in 
the fourth and fifth, here printed. 

An outline of Kentish grammar is given by Morris in the Introduction to the 
volume quoted above, and more completely in the Introduction to * Ayenbite of 
Inwit.* The characteristic mark of Middle Kentish is the retention of Old 
Kentish e, S for non-Kentish y^ y\ cf. prede (211, 20), ^eles (211, 23). 
Besides, Kentish agrees with the non-Wessex dialects of Old English in having 
e for T. Sy \VT. 5, WS. <f, and ^, u for t-mutation of OE. ia, eo, while it is 
itself peculiar in having i for non-Kentish a by t-mutation of a. It has also 
the diphthongs ^a(t"' 'beside ea^ for WS. ea or lengthened ea, and au from OE. 
dw. The special ife atise on Kentish of the Middle English period is by 
Danker, *Die Laut-lund Flexionslehre der mittelkeotischen Denkmaler* 





^^) ' >Vx, iVv^' 



Page 210, 1. 24. godspelle of todai. This is indicated by the Latin rubric, 
Dominica quaria post ociavam Epipkanie, and the gospel is Matt. viii. 23 f. 
Apart from slight lack of verbal agreement with the Vulgate, the last clause is 
from Mark vi. 48, and no doubt suggests a gospel harmony as the basis. 

Pag^ 211, 1. 15. blepellohe. This form of the word also appears regu- 
larly in * Ayenbite of Inwit.' As the OE. word is blipelJce not blyfeltcCy the 
first e may be short or lengthened from a short e which took the place of 
shortened i, 16. Salus populi. Hardly a quotation from any one passage 
of Scripture, certainly not from Christ's words. It may have come from one 
or more Psalms which were regarded as messianic ; cf. Ps. xxxv. 3 ; and for 
the last part xviii. 6; 1. 15; Ixxxvi. 7; cxviii. 5, 24. wordle. The pre- 
vailing form in Kt., as shown by the next selection. 25. Quod ipse pre- 
stare. An expression used as a benediction and closing, qui vivit et regnat 
Deus per omnia secula seculorum. But it has various forms. 29. gode- 
spelle. Lat. rubric, Dominica in sexagesima ; gospel. Matt. xiii. 24. 

Page 214, 1. 13. 11911 man wgt. The preacher quotes very freely as 
before. Reference seems to be to the interpretation of such passages as Malt. 
xxiv. 36, 42 ; Luke xii. 19-20. 14. for man. A common proverb, cf. 
' Ancren Riwle,' p. 338 ; * Ayenbite of Inwit* (Morris), p. 129. A poem on 
long life (* Old Eng. Misc.,' p. 156) begins : 

* Mon mai longe lives wene, 
Ac ofte him lietJ ]« wrench.* 





This work, in the handwriting of the author, is contained in Anindel MS. 57 
of the British Museum. It was edited by Stevenson in 1855 and by Morris for 
the Early English Text Society (No. 23) in 1866. Extracts appear in 
Matzner (* Sprachproben,' I, 60), Morris (* Specimens/ 11,98), WUlker (' Lese- 
buch,* I, 112). The author gives his name as Dan Michel (Michael) of North- 
gate (Kent), tells us that he was an Augustine monk of Canterbury, and that 
he finishea the 'Remorse of Conscience' in 1340. Hi$ language therefore 
represents Kentish of the first half of the fourteenth century, about three-quarters 
of a century later than the preceding selection, and a quarter of a century later 
than the * Gloucester Chronicle.* 

The work is a translation of * La Somme des Vices et des Vertus ' by Lorens, 
a Benedictine monk of the later thirteenth century. It treats of the ten cominM'- 
ments, the twelve articles of faith, the seven deadly sins, &c., with occasional illus- 
trative tales, anecdotes, or lives of saints. It is strongly allegorical throughont, 
but the style is not as pleasing as that of the ' Ancren Riwle,' or as simple as 
that of the * Kentish Sermons. Our selection, * How to learn to die,' is based 
on the text of Morris above (p. 70 f.), where it begins the more constructive 
teaching of the book. Special monographs on the work are by Vamhagea, 
'Beitrage zur Erklarung und Textkritik' (*Eng. Stud.,* I, 379; II, 27) ; by 
Evers, dissertation with same title (1888) ; by Konrath, * Die lateinische 
Quelle zu Ayenbite ' (* Eng. Stud.,* XII, 459). 

In Notes to * Old Kentish Sermons ' reference was made to the principal 
treatises on the Kentish dialect, and to important peculiarities. In the present 
selection are to be noticed ia {^a, pea) for WS. Pa or lengthened ea, and uo for 
OE. ME. ff (p) sometimes ; ctguodes = gddes (215, 22); guo = gg (218, 32). 
Among consonants z is regularly written for voiced j, clearly indicating the 
voicing of the latter when initial as well as when medial between vowels. 

Pag^ 215, 1. 18. rapre panne ssed. The figure is a common one in 
Scripture ; cf. 2 Chron. xxix. 15 ; Job viii. 9 ; xiv. 2 ; Ps. cii. 11 ; cix. 23. 

Page 216, 1. 16. pe wyse Catoun. Presumably Dionysius Cato, whose 
* Disticha * were so highly regarded in the middle ages. Nothing exactly like 
this occurs, but for contempt of death see * Disticha * at I, 22, IV, 22. 21. pri 
dyeapes. Another interpretation of the three deaths occurs in * Old Eng. 
Homilies,* II, 169. 29. damezele Bfreblisse. Explained in the following 
clause, * death that crowns and places {dof) in bliss all the i^^ints.' For a name 
made in the same way cf. 161, 6. 

Page 218, 1. 7. to pe reward of. ' In respect of or to.' Reward has 
the sense of * regard,' the cognate word. 20. ase zayp Salomon. Prov. 
xxiv. 16, which reads in the Vulgate, Septies enim cadet iustuSj et resurget. 

Page 219, 1. 2. pSr ne may guo in. Referring to Rev. xxi. 27 ; cf. 1. 32. 
15. mgre stranger. The double comparative appears thus early. 

,„f .HiQDEirs ipolys:hronicon r / . 3^1 / 


^ed iii at least four MSS., 
St. John's Coll. H I at Cambridg?, and Cotton Tiberius D VII, Harleian 
1 ,900, Additional 24, 194 of the British Museum. Of these the first was printed 
by Caxton in 1482, and with a later version (Harl. MS. 2261) was edited by 
Babington for the Rolls Series. Extracts from Trevisa are found in Matzner 
(* Sprac^proben,' II, 343), Morris (* Specimens,' II, 235), and Wiilker (* Lese> 
buch,' II, 205), Our selection is from Cotton Tiberius D VII, a contemporary 
MS. in pure Southern. The translator, John Trevisa, was vicar at Berkeley, then 
canon at Westbury, Gloucestershire. He finished his translation in April 1387, 
as he tells us. The language is therefore Southern of Gloucestershire in the last 
half of the fourteenth century. 

The ' Polychronicon ' was originally written in Latin by Radulphus or 
Ranulphus Higden of Chester. As the name implies, the work is a sort of 
history of the world, brought down to the year 1342. This Trevisa translated 
freely, adding here and there, and extending to 1387. Besides this he is 
supposed to have translated other works, though these cannot be proved to be 
his with certainty. 

As to language, Trevisa's Southern shows no voicing of initial^/, and j, so 
far as orthography is concerned, but otherwise well represents the dialect. The 
selection shows a for h& (ka), beside At (hv), in tb© pwral of the third persona&v ^ , 
pronoun ; cf. 'Juliana,' p. 191. "?).// / 7 C ^ »: " '^ '■ ' ' ''^^ ^ ' '^ 

Page 220, 1. 1. }>d ^f r of Helf. (/ ^he mediaeval historians were fond ot 
such union of sacred and secular history, and it was natural to their annalistic 
form of historical writing. 7. Vespasian hys tyme. That is 69-79 ^' ^* 
Pictes out of Scitia. This tradition appears in numerous chroniclers back 
to Bede. That the Picts entered Britain later than the Britons is probably true 
enough. Cf. 221, 6. 17. Tb Vespasian. Based on Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
as the footnote shows. This a^coxmts for many statements of which authentic 
history gives no confirmation. 18. M&rius. Geoffrey of Monmouth, * Hist. 
Brit.,' IV, ch. zvii. Arviragus, his father, is mentioned in ch. xiii f, but neither 
is known to be historical, though Geoffrey connects them with the Roman 
emperors, as here. The same may be said of Rodric in the same line. 
21. Cathenesia. The present Caithness doubtless. 

Page 221, 1. 4. Servius. The commentator on Virgil, who lived in the 
last of the fourth and beginning of the fifth century, the time of Jerome and 
Augustine. 5. Agatines. Cf. * Aeneid,* IV, 146, where occurs picft Aga^ 
thyrsi^ giving rise to the comment of Servius. 12. Mazimus. The chronicler 
has here confused Magnus Clemens Maximus (383-388) with Maximus Tyrannus 
(408-411), as shown by the references to Gratianus and Valentinianus in 1. 14. 
He has also mistaken the name Tyrannus for a descriptive title. Marius is 
mentioned, not by Geoffrey but by Gildas. 21. Caransius. Mentioned by 
Geoffrey/ Hist. Brit.,' V, ch. iii. Bassi&nus. Better known as Caracalla. 

Geoffrey recounts the death of Geta as in battle between the brothers for 
supremacy in the empire. 27. bwartover wal. The wall of Hadrian firom 
Newcastle to Carlisle and the Solway Firth, here called the Scatty sch^ that is. 


the Irish sea. So also at 222, 3 and 22. 28. Ijodovia. Treyisa seems 
to have misread the Latin Lodoneya, which he should have translated by 
'Lodonia (Loudonia), Loudon.' 30. Ninian. Bade gives the tradition 

regarding Ninias or Nyniaa (' Eccl. Hist./ Ill, iv), but his date cannot 
be definitely 6xed. He is said to have died in 432. 31. Brenicia. Beienicia, 
founded according to Bede in 547 A. D. 

Page 222, 1. 3. Duk Reuda. In his edition of Bede, Plummer says the 
northern portion of County Antrim, Ireland, was called Dal Riada, after an 
ancient leader who is supposed to have died in 165 a.d. Thence the name 
was transferred to Britain with an Irish colony. 

Page 228, 1. 2. Plenunyngs. In mi Henry I established a colony of 
this people in Pembrokeshire, Southwest Wales. 11. "pe Banes. Reference 
is doubtless to the massacre on St Brice's day, 1002 ; cf. Freeman, 'Norm. 
Conquest,' I, 182, 312 f, 634 f. 

Page 224, 1. 7. drawe somwhat. An early recognition, perhaps, of words 
borrowed from the Celts. 26. pys manere. This whole paragraph is an 
addition to his original by Trevisa himself, and is naturally of greatest interest 
as a contemporary account. pe forste moreyn. The great plague of 
1348-9. A second occurred in 136 1-2, a third in 1369, and some redcon a 
fourth in 1375-6. 27. J^ban Comwal . , . Bichard Pencrych. Both 
( Comishmen, as it would seem from their names. It is not improbable that they 
were both at Oxford, as was Trevisa, for the name Master John Cornwall appears 
in the records of Merton College, and the names Pencrych (Penkrissh) and 
Pencrych Hall are also found. The latter was about opposite Nunne Hall, 
where Cornwall taught. See Stevenson's article on the * Introduction of English 
in English Schools* in * An English Miscellany,* p. 421. 

Page 225, 1. 1. of pe secunde Kyng Bichard . . . nyne. The ninth 
year of Richard II began June 22, 1385, so that this part must have been written 
in the last half of that year. 6. disavauntage. This shows that Trevisa 
was not in the least prejudiced against French, when properly added to a know- 
ledge of the mother tongue. Cf. Robert of Gloucester at 210, 19, 20. 
11. grf t wonder. Trevisa was scarcely more in the dark than many a later 
historian of our language. Of course the changes in spoken English were doe 
to an unconscious variation in different districts, -whUt pe l^tgage of Normanij 
— ^that is French in general — was taught and learned, with some idea oi a 
normal or standard form. Had Trevisa been more widely acquainted with the 
French as was Chaucer, he would have known that there was some variation as 
spoken in England and on the continent ; cf. what Chaucer says of the Prioress, 
Prologue to * Cant. Tales,* 1 24 f. 28. bycause )?at pe kynges. Just what 
influence Trevisa supposed the kings to have had is not clear, but the relation 
of the capital city and the center of government to the development of a standard 
language is well known. 


The importance of the language of the capital city to the development of 
standard English has led to the placing of four selections from London 
English in this place. A comparison of these will show how the language 
gradoally changed, in most particulars, from Southern to Midland. 


This proclamation occurs in two MSS., one in the Public Record Ofiice, 
London, and the other in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The first of these 
was published by Rymer (1816), by Ellis in 'Transactions of the Philological 
Society' (1868), and by Matzner (* Sprachproben,' II, 54). The second was 
printed in 'Memorials of Oxford* by J. Ingram (1837), ^^^ by Skeat in 
'Transactions of the Philological Society' (i88o-i). Our text follows the 
tirst. As indicated, the ' Proclamation ' was issued Oct. 18, 1258, so that we 
have here the English of some London scribe in the middle of the thirteenth 

This * Proclamation * is the earliest in English, after the disuse of the latter 
in public documents following the Norman Conquest; cf. the author's 
' History of the English Language,' ch. v. It was issued to confirm to the 
people the * Provisions of Oxford, a charter of rights which had been Wrested 
from the king. As indicated at the end, a copy was sent to every shire in . 
England and to Ireland. The copy we print indicates Huntingdonshire as 
its destination, as that of the Bodleian indicates Oxfordshire. The writ was 
issued in both French and English ; cf. the French version in Ellis's edition. 
For the ' Provisions ' themselves, which accompanied this Proclamation, see 
Stubbs's * Select Charters ' ; Adams and Stevens's * Select Documents of Eng- 
lish Constitutional History,* I, 56. ^ 

The language of this selection shows the use of the OE. diphthongs eo, eo, 
ea, and the ligatures a, a, as ia Southern texts of the same period ; cf. the 
' Ancren Riwle ' with the Midland ' Genesis and Exodus.' To these are 
added the digraph oa, probably an early writing of ME. p from OE. 5. In 
other respects the laliguage shows a mixture of Southern and Midland, prob- % 
ably characteristic of London English of the time. True Southern forms are ^ 
those with ii^^ = ^^'^ those with the prefix^(OE. ^<?), and such verbal 
forms as d^, habbetiy mdkien. \ besides these the older inflexional forms, as 

h ^ - ^- - ~ - - - - - 

Page 226, 1. L pur; G-odes ftdtume. For the OF.par le grace Deu, 
Lat. dei gratia* 3. send = sendeV. 4. witen Jd. The subjunctive 
of mild command. willen and unnen. Note the present plural$ in 

• / 


en. Ml. forms, and compare the Sth. hgef (1. 5), haddett (1. 7). 5. ure 

rSdesmen. Reference is made no doubt to the Committee of Twenty-foar, 
twelve elected by the barons and twelve by the king, who had drawn up tlie 
* Provisions * in the Oxford session. 24. Bone^e. No special note is 
necessary on these prominent men of the time. Thirteen sign here, sixteen 
the corresponding French translation. The same thirteen in the Oxford 
copy, in the same order, probably indicates, as Skeat emphasized from another 
circumstance, that all the copies were alike in this respect. 

Page 227, 1. 8. And al on. This part does not occur in the Oxford copy. 
It suggests that we may have before us the original, on which this note was 
made for general reference. 9. pere kiineriche. Note the peculiar use 

of the feminine form of the pronoun with a noun originally neuter. 


This text is found in Laud MS. 622 at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and 
was edited by Fumivall for the Early English Text Society (69) in 1878. 
The 'Dreams' were written between 1307 and 1327, probably soon after the 
accession of the kine. Of Adam Davy, the author, little is certainly known 
beyond what he tells us in his verses ; cf. the * Diet of Nat. Biography.' 
The * Dreams ' have no special literary value, but are important as exhibiting 
the language of the capital city. Their purpose was doubtless to obtain 
favor of the king. Certainly, that Edward II should be * emperor in Cristen- 
dom * (229, 33) could hardly have been expected long after his troublous 
•reign began. 

The diange of the language of London from a mixture of Southern and 
Midland toward pure Midland is very evident in this selection. The notable 
Sth. characteristics are wanting, a&.^, u for OE. y, J, though the Sth. open f 
(WS. <?, Merc, f) still prevails. Similarly the indicative present plural ^ 
verbs ends in the Midland en, not Sth. ef {eth). Forms with the Sth. prefix i 
(y)t OE. ^(?, are not numefbus. Even at the beginning of the fourteentB* 
century, therefore, the language of London was closely approximating the 
Midland dialect of Chaucer. 

Page 227, 1. 15. Frinoe of "Wales. This title, coupled with that of 
king in the preceding line, shows that the * Dreams ' relate to Bxlvrard II, the 
first to possess the former title and the only one of the Edwards of the 
fourteenth century to be both prince and king. 20. Seint Sdward. 
Edward the Confessor, conunemorated on Jan. 5, though the title might applj 
to the second Saxon king of that name. 

Page 228, 1. 21. pe deooUacioun of Seint Jgn. The beheading of John 
is commemorated on Aug. 29. 28. pe ff st of alle halew^n. All Saints' 
day, Nov. 1. 

Page 229, 1. 2L pe day of Seint I<ucie. That is, Dec 13. 

Page 230, 1. 5. worpingni^ht. This has not been identified, but wcnil<i 
seem, from the chronologic«'il order followed, to fall between All Saints az^ 
Lent. The only analogous compound in 0£. is dizgv9eor}ing^ ' celebratioc. 
festival,* but this does not assist us unless worpingni^ht could be some ver 
important festival as, perhaps, the ' Purification of the Wx^bbl^ F^>. 2. 


Fag^e 231, 1. 2. in clfne leinte. Already the old word for spring 
(0£. lengten^ has been specialized to the clerical use, as in modem English. 
20. J)S be pyng of our I<f fdy. The birth of the Virgin Mary, commemorated 
on £»ept. 8. 29. For me ne wor]>e. ' On accoont of me/ ' nor shall be 
(shewed) to learned or nnleamed.' 


This * Petition ' is preserved in a MS. of the Public Record Office, London. 
It was printed, quite imperfectly, in 'Rolls of Parliament,* III, 325, and later 
by Morsbach in ' Neuenglische Schriftsprache,' p. 171. As it bears the date 
1386, the language is London English of the last quarter of the fourteenth 
century. Apart from its linguistic value the ' Petition * is highly interesting as 
giving us a most vivid conception of municipal politics in early London. 
The language presents few peculiarities, and these will be readily understood 
from the previous readings. The sentence structure hardly suggests one 
accustomed to the pen, and the document may easily have been composed by 
some clerk of the Mercery. 

Page 232, 1. 21. as a membre. One of the twelve great Livery Com- 
panies of the city, and having an important place in the government. 
22. WT9nges subtiles. Note the OF. adjective following the noun and 
taking the plural form, no doubt a documentary usage rather than one 
colloquially common at the time. 24. is td bd to. <Is to be by' or 
'belongs to,' as we should say. 25, at 6 day. The Anglo-French text 
reads : chescun an le jour de Seint Edward U Koy, that is, Jan. 5 ; cf. note on 
227, 20. 

Page 233, 1. 1. Nicholus Brembre. A member of the Grocers' Company 
and chief supporter among the people of Richard II, Brembre became mayor 
in 1383-4 by forcible means as narrated. In 1386 he secured the election of 
his accomplice Nicholas Exton (284, 35), and he himself became a councillor 
of the king. In the next year he was charged with treason and fled to Wales. 
He was brought bade and hanged in London in 1388. 2. J9I111 Northamp- 
ton. Also called Comberton. He was leader of the faction supporting 
Wyclif and itself supported by John of Gaunt. Elected mayor in 1381, for 
two years he was imprisoned in 1384 by Brembre, but was released in 1387 and 
fully restored to London citizenship in 1390. 13. her mair. While the 
preceding np man is sing., it implies the pi. and accounts for the pluml 
pronoun. 14. of his ordynaunce. The Anglo-French text reads : par son 
assent, * of his assent or party,' explaining the passage. 15. grf to quantitee 
of armure. This passage is a wonderful revelation of the political methods 
sometimes employed at this time in the freest and most powerful city of 
England. 17. of withinne. Those of the city, besides the *straungers 
of the centre.' 27. of whgznsg it wfre. *0f whatsoever it might be.' 
The whpm is dat-acc, the older dat. of the neuter what, 28. and it 
wfre. ' If it were.' Morsbach adds (if) after and, but this seems unnecessary 
as shown by the punctuation. 

Page 234, 1. 10. tyme out of mynde. That iytne was omitted by 
mistake is cl^r from the Anglo-French text, del temps dount nulle memoire 


ru court* 11. wolden. A subject w^, which may have been omitted by 
the scribe, is implied in * the Mercer^e or 5there craftes ' above. Or perhaps 
the writer intended another construction connected with the danse beginning 
as (L 8). 17. thS whioh thyng lyke t6 yowre. * Which {the which thyng) 
may it please your worthy lordship to be proved or disproved, that trath may 
show which of the two {the whether) (is correct).' Here and several times the 
word lordship is an abstract, used instead of the plural but implying all the 
lords in council. 24. for thei. ' So that (for) they should not be known 
or continued,* equivalent to * lest they should be known and continued.' 
25. Nicholus Ezton. Made mayor in 1386 by Brembre and his party. As 
here accused, he is said to have publicly burnt a book of good customs called 
the 'Jubilee.' This event marks the revival of the party of Northampton 
in the oity. 80. which of us . . . thd Kyng sholde do hym. Note the 
anacoluthon. Brembre made a charge of being false to the king, and then 
offered immunity to any who would admit the charge, hoping thus to gain 
a good witness for his case. 32. and if any. Note the indicative in the 
condition, perhaps in emphasis of the reality of the case. 

Page 236, 1. 8. the mair that now is. That is, Exton, mentioned above. 
8. thfremen. < Where men,* implying also < because.' 13. bi sugsestidn. 
This seems to imply that the offer by Brembre (234, 30) had been accepted by 
some, who had tnus shielded themselves from punishment in other particnlais. 
16. to ben used. The sense is : ' your lord*s command is too great a thing to 
be used familiarly among or toward simple men, lest they, because of their 
ignorance in obeying it (unwise to save it)* &C4 24. brere or Brembre. 
To understand the play upon the name it must be remembered that our word 
bramble had, in both Old and Middle English, a form brember. For this 
period cf. brember'/lour (Harl. MS. of Chaucer) for brembeUJlour of the 
received text. 27. thS which. 'Which being granted by your lordship'; 
that is, whnt is implied in that clause (1. 29). 30. as am^ng us. * Among 

Page 286, 1. 2. vittaildrs. Brembre's party 'had its strength among 
the . . . grocers, then dominant, and the fishmongers, whose monopoly it 
upheld against the claims of the populace.* — *■ Diet, of Nat, Biog./ Brembre. 
28. in thd sezte yf re. That is, in 1 384. 


It is needless to give details regarding the Chaucer MSS., or the numerous 
editions of his works. The extract is from the Ellesmere MS, as reprinted by 
the Chaucer Society, except for the few changes indicated in the footnotes. 
Nor is it necessary to say much of place and language, since every detail of this 
sort is so easily accessible. It will be generally admitted that the • Pardoner's 
Tale * represents London English, in the last decade of the fourteenth oentniy, 
that is, somewhat later than the time of the last selection. 

For the originals of the story, so far as known, see the account in Skeafs 

'Chaucer,' III, 439 f. For Chaucer's language it is scarcely necessary to 
references, as to Ten Brink's * Chaucer's Sprache nnd Verskunst' 

give special 



(trans, as the ' Language and Metre of Chancer *), and the nnmerons introductory 
treatises giving two or three Tales with grammar, &c. 

Page 237, 1. 7. In Flaondres. The place was perhaps so indicated in 
the original form of the story which Chaucer used. 18. they totf re. One 
of the best illustrative passages is from the 'Parson's Tale*: * For Cristes sake 
ne swereth nat so sinfully, in dismembringe of Crist by soule, herte, bones, and 
body. For certes it seemeth that ye thinke that the cursede Jewes ne dis- 
membred nat ynough the preciouse persone of Crist, but ye dismembre him 

Page 238, 1. 2. luzurie is >- luzuri 's. The Scriptural passage (£ph. v. 
18) reads in the Vulgate Nolite inebriari vino, in quo est luxuria. As the 
passage is quoted by Innocent III in ' De Contemptu Mundi,' which (^haucer 
translated, he may have taken it from that source. 6. the stories. Reference 
is to the ' Historia Scholastica ' of Petrus Comestor, called *■ clerke of the stories ' 
in * Piers Plowman,' B VII, 73, and ' maister of storyies ' by Lydgate. The 
plural is used because each of several parts of the work is called * Historia.' 
The clause then means 'whoso has well perused the stories.' 10. Senek 
seith f ^k. T3rrwhitt suggested Seneca's Epistles Ixxxiii : Extende in plures 
dies ilium ebrii habitum ; numquid furore dubitabis? nunc quoque non est 
minor y sed brevior ? 14. fallen in a shrewe. ' Fallen on a shrew or evil 
person.' 18. Q original. The line is metrically complete without O, which 
may have intruded frdm the preceding lines. 22. Corrupt was. Cf. the 
* Parson's Tale,' § 70 : * This sinne (glottony) corrumped al this world, as is wel 
shewed in the sinne of Adam and Eve.' 30. 9 glotonye. The original of 
this (Ecclus. xxxvii. 32) was quoted by Innocent III in * De Contemptu Mundi.' 

Page 239, 1. 2. a belle. The custom of the time as shown by the 
direction of Myrc, ' Instructions for Parish Priests,' 1. 1,964 : 

'Make J)y clerk before J>e 5ynge, 
To here ly3t and belle rynge.* 
4. That 99n of hem. MnE. ' one of them ' rather than ' the one ' ; that is 
the old demonstrative with / retained before a vowel. Cf. thi tpn, the tother. 
17* this pestilence. This shows that the story is placed in the time of one 
of the great plagues which swept western Europe, perhaps that of 1348-9, the 
worst of all. 34. al gnes. The usual expression is at ^es, ox at at pnes. 

Page 240, 1. 19. God yow see. Cf. *Cant. Tales' B 156, D 2,169; 
'Troilus,' II, 85, God you save and see. While the corresponding OE. word 
seems not to have the meaning of ' protect,' that is found in the case of the 
corresponding ON. form. 26. Tnde. Taken as an example of the far 
distant land. Sometimes Greece is used in the same way. 31. Ne d^^th. 
As Prof. Kittredge pointed out, the next seven lines are imitated from the first 
elegy of Maximian ; cf. Skeat's ' Chaucer/ v, 287. 

Page 241, 1. 5. my olieste. That in which his worldly belongings were 
kept ; usually found in old times at the foot of the bed in the bed-chamber. 
13. In h99ly writ. Lev. xix. 32; in the Vulgate, Coram cano capite 
consurge, 17. did* * Should do ; subj. mode. 

Page 242, L 31* the out. The shortest, as in a fuller account of a drawing 
of cuts in the Prologue, 835-845. 


Page 244, 1. 6. at dure owene wille. ' According to our own pleasure,' 
a common idiom. 19. Forwhy thd feend. Cf. ' OE. Homilies,* II, 39 
(EETS., 53) : * Swagiveff ure Drihten leve J)e devle to ben on J>e swinisshe men 
]>e ihc er of spec, and on hem to waniende and hem to drenchende, and of here 
wit to bringinde and to driven fram unrihtw to ot^er, fram eVeliche laste to 
michele, fram synne to synne, fram ivele to ivele, and et tan ande hem drenche'S 
on shameliche deSe and mid hem to helle lede9.' 

Page 245, 1. 5. gppn apaaa. The first part of the last word is not the 
article, as sometimes explained, but a = on. The expression means go on foot, 
and is thus indicative of the time required for such travel. 29. canon . . . fen. 
The work of Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) is called * Book of the Canon in Medicine,' 
and one part in the Latin version is named y^», from Arabic^^M. 

Page 246, 1. 11. goode men. The metre requires that these two words 
should be read as a compound of two syllables. 


The Glossary is arranged on a strictly alphabetical basis, except as follows : 

'^ initially, )> (9) occurs after /, and ) jnst before y^ with which it belongs in its 

' modern development ; but medially^ (9) are placed after tg, and ^ with Rafter 

' y, since these positions are most natural to the modem reader. Each word is 

- given in its notmal form, rather than in the form in which it happens to occur 

'" the first time, as usually done in the so-called glossarial index. But words 

tending to lose a final element (usually final «), even in normal Middle English, 

^ are sometimes given in the shorter form. The great diversity of ME. spelling 

makes frequent cross-reference necessary, and such references have been freely 

given. Only in case of Orm^s forms with extra doubling of consonants has 

normalizing occasionally been practised ; though in rare cases forms with 

medial r for i have not been given. Orm's forms, owing to their importance, 

are designated by (O) after them. 

The etymology is given so far as the immediate form and language from 
which the word is derived. To attempt more would have been to increase 
unwisely the size of the book. Yet when some considerable change in the form 
of the word has occurred a hint of this is given. Thus OE. nouns (mainly 
feminines) which have assumed inorganic e in the nominative-accusative, under 
the influence of the oblique cases, are indicated by adding the OE. gender, as 
y., w., neut. So the stem-forms of OE., OF. verbs, when differing from the 
infinitive, are added to explain ME. forms. In case of all irregular verbs, 
weak, strong, and minor classes, the OE. present and preterit-singular are 
given. With strong verbs a number in parentheses indicates the class, according 
to the numbering of the Grammatical Introduction. An (R) denotes reduplica- 
tion verbs. 

Common abbreviations need no explanation, as sb,^ substantive, vb.y verb, 
inf,y infinitive, &c. The following may be explained : ».,^., d.^ a,, nominative, 
genitive, dative, accusative ; «j., ds,, etc., nom. sg., dative sg. ; wk.j weak ; wkv,, 
stv., ptprv.f anv., weak, strong, preterit-present, anomalous verbs, as in the 
Grammatical Introduction. For other abbreviations, see list at the beginning 
of the book. All references to the text are to page and line. 

The maimer of marking quantity has been explained in tihe Grammatical 
Introduction. In addition some few diacritics have been added in the Glossary 
to assist in differentiating certain sounds. Thus c = ch is marked^; ^— / in 
judge (dj), ^; g=y initially in stressed syllables,^; ^ = older English «, 6\ 
OF. umtu^ short and long, u. Medial or final ^, when certainly silent, is 
sometimes marked §. 

B, see an, adj,^ disijprep, <ulv,, he. 

a, see an, art, 

a, a, inierj.y OF. a, Lat ah ; ah 25, 

23 ; a, 140* 5- 

a, aa, adv., OE. a; ever, 196, 13. 
Aaron, sb., Lat. Aaron; Aaron, 213, 

abashed, pp, as adj., abassen < OF. 

abair, 3 sg, abaiss-; abashed, 90, 




Abbeye, abbaye, sd„ OF. abbeie; 

addey; abbey, io8, i8; abbaye, 113, 

abbot, sd,, 0£. abbod, infl. by OF. 

abbat(?) ; aidot, 1,1. 
abbotrloe, sd», 0£. abbodrice; ofice 

of abbot ^ I, 10. 
abeige(n), wkv,, Kt. »M1. abi^Ben 

(abien) ; OE. abycgan-bohte ; buy^ 

pay for ^ atone far \ fij/Iabegge, 217, 

Abdlf sb.y Lat. Abel ; Abel, 68, 10. 

, abel^e(n), stv.^ 0£. abelgan-bealg 

(3) » S^o^ ^*^ify> 'wa^ fl»^^ ; pp. 
abolBe, 184, 20. 

abeod, see abide (n). 

abettour, sb^ OF. abettonr ; abettor ; 
//. abettoars, 236, 16. 

abhomynable, adj, ^OF, abominable *, 
abominable, 237, 15. 

abide(n), abyde(n), stv., 0£.abldan 
-bad (i ) abide, wait for ; inf abyde, 
108, 2; pr, isg. abydej), 216, 23; 
//. 5g, abgd, 64, 1*1 \ pt, pi. abiden, 
35, 5 ; abide, 205, 14 ; pp. abiden, 
32, 4. Sth. 3 sg. ablt, 180, 8 ; //. 
sg. abeod, 187, 13. 
' Abirddne, sb., Aberdeen, 160, 15. 

aboght, see abye(n). 

abol^e, see abel^e(n). 

abote, aboute(n), see abuten. 

above, see abuven. 

Abraham, sb., Lat Abraham ; Abra- 
ham, 33, 10. 

abreide(n),j/z^., OE.abregdan-brsegd 
(3) ; draw out, spring up, awake ; 
//. J^. abraid, 23, 15. 

abr§ke(n), stv., 0£. gebrecan-braec 
(4) ; break ; pt. pi. abreken, 60, 3. 

abrgt (MS. a brod), adv., OE. on 
brad; widely, profusely, abroad, 

, s 60, 20. 

absence, sb., OF. absence; absence, 

117, 10. 
absent, adj., OF. absent ; absent, 117, 

5- _ __ 

abuten (abuton), abouten, obout, 

abote, prep, adv., OE. abuton < 

onbuton ; about, !> ^6 ; 3y 8 ; a- 

bouten, 53, 12 ; obout, 138, 31 ; 

abote, 132, 14; aboute, 222, 24. 

abuten,. prep., OE. on-be-utan;. 

tidthout, 178, 28. 
abuven, buven, adv. prep., OK 

abufan < onbu£ui ; above ^ 14, 15; 

above, 92, 31 ; buven, 178, 30. 
abyde(n), abyden, see abide (n). 
abye(n), aby^e(n), wk., OE. abyc^an ' 

-bohte ; pay for, atone for^ Mn£. 

abide by confusion with M £. ctbiden ; 

inf. abye, 54, 19, abyje; 55, 6; pr, 

sbj. sg. dhj, 55, 6 ; pp. aboght, 238, 

ac, oc, conj., OE. ac, oc ; but, 2,20; 

ace (O) 8, 25 ; oc, i, 8. Sth. ah, 

184, 24; auh, 197, 15. 
acoidental, adj., OF. accidentel (al ?) ; 

accidental, 235, 22. 
accordandly, adv.. Nth. pr. ppl. of 

accorden (OF. accorder) + ly ; ac- 
cordingly, 144, 23. 
account, see aoounte. 
aceu8e(n), wkv., OF. acuser ; accuse \ 

pp. accused, 106, 17; accusyd, 1O9, 

achtande, see aughtene. 
aoorde(n), wkv., OF, accorder; 

accord, agree, reconcile', pr. pi. 

acorden, 1 20, 5 ; //. sg. acordede, 

2, 13; pp. acorded, 244, 7. 8th. 

pr. pi. acorde]), 225, 20. 
acdunte, aoount (account), sb., 

OF. cnnte (conte), inflLby vb. acunter; 

accottnt, 90, 28; acount, 156, 21; 

account, 155, 30. j 

acoupe(n), wkv., OF. encaper < 

enculper; accuse, inculpate; pp. \ 

acouped, 92, 3. ^ 

acumbTi(n), wkv., OF. encombrer; 

encumber ; B%h,.inf. acumbri, 2 1 1 , 20. 
acupement, sb., OF. acoupement; 
_ accusation, 42, 26. 
Adad, sb., Lat. Atad ; Atad, 35, 4. 
Adam, sb., OE. Adam, Lat. Adjunus ; 

Adam ; gs. Adames, 32, 25 ; Adam, 

67, 18. 
adle(n), wkv., cf. dialectal Eng. ad- 
dle; cf. ON. o'Slask; gain; pp. 

addledd (O), 11, i. 
admiral, admirail, sb., OF. amiral, ' 

admiral, admirail; amir, Setrace* > 

ruler, 37, 10; admirail, 46, 31. 



Adonward, see adunward. 

adoun, adrad, see adun, adrdde(n). 

adTaje(n), adrawe(n), siv,, 0£. 

*aaragan-dr6g (6) ; draw out ; imp. 

pi, a£awe]), 207, 19; //. adra^e, 

4^ 25. 
adrede(n), 8th. adrgde(n), stv.^ 

OM. dredanCWa draedan)-dred 

(R) ; dread, fear ; pp, adrad, 90, 

29. 8th. inf. adrfcf^n, 180, 2 ; pr, 

I sg, adrfde, 176, 6. 
adrenche(n), wko.y 0£. adrencan; 

drown, drench ; //. sg. adrenched, 

73, 12 ; //.//. adren(£ten, 197, 4. 
adrive(n), stv,^ OE. adrlfan-draf (i) ; 

drive^ drive away; pp, adriven, 

197,5- __ 
adun, adoim, adv» prepy OE. of 

dune ; doran, 38,25; adonn, 82, 11. 

aduneward, adonward, adv,, OE. 
on dun,/'., + ME. ward; downward, 
201, 10; addnward, 208, 11. 

advent, j^., OF. avent, advent ; ad- 
vent; ecclesiastically, the period 
including the four Sundays before 
Christmas, 200, 2. 

adversarie, sb., OF. adversarie ; ad' 
versary, 239, 20. 

Soh, sdfhe, see f ch, f ven. 

eefre, see fver, 

eeft, 6ef ter, see eft, after. 

8Bh, 8sie, see ac^ie. 

8Bi)>er, Sic, (£Rh), 5^^ ei]>er, §oh. 

fillder, sb,, Sth. = Ml. alder; WS. 
ealdor; chief , prince, 189, 23. 

esldrihten, sb, as o^*., OE. eal +. 
drihten; almighty, 184, 21. 

salle, sdlmes, x^ al, almes. 

»m, ffiin, Snde, 5^^ bS(ii), fm, dnde. 

aeni, em, indef pm., OE, senig; 

awjK; seni, 178, 12; eni, 46, 26. 

"Sth. ei, 47, 13 ; ^. eis in pkr,^ eis 

weis, wi any way, by any means, 

193, 27. Cf. am. 

ffiorl, seB drl. 

,8er, firesst, J'f^ §r. 

aercebiscop, ^^^ arohebiaohop. 

ard, Sre, »rni, j^^ frd, §re, arm. 

eert, serwe, see bd(ii), ar^. 

sstende, sb,, eME. for fst-; OE. 
eaistende (ende) ; east end, 186, 7. 

89t, sdten, see at, f te(n.) 

sdtf^ren, prep, adv,, OE. aetforan; 

before, 226, 24. 
£ve8t, i^*., OE. sefaest; loyal, trusty, 

on^nsXly pious, 5, 8. 
aevre, avert, see f ver. 
»vric, elvrioh, see everilo. 
v'afande(ii), wkv., OE. afandian ; try, 

tempt; pp* afanded, 180, 27. 
afb7tie(n), wkv,, OF. affaitier; ^ 

feet; fcuihion,prepare; adorn; tame, 

subdue; pp, affaTted, 219, 27. 
sfCgare(ii) » ofC§re(n), wkv., OM. 

ofieran, WS. offseran; frighten, 

frighten off; Sth./r. sbj, sg, affeare, 

193, 33- 
affeccyon, sb,, OF. aneccion; affec- 
tion ; pi, affeccyons, 145, 8. 
aflbrce(n), wkv.^ OF. aforcer;^^^^^, 

try, attempt ; Nth. pr, pi, afforoes, 

144, 12. 
AfEHoan, sb,, Lat. Africanns, OF. 

♦African (?) ; Africanus, 191, 25. 
affter, see aiter. 
afl]ide(ii), j'/v., OK gefindan (findan) 

-fand (fgnd) {^;find, obtain ; inf, 

afinden, 178, 2. 
af§re(xi), B/^^m^ prep, adv,, OE. on 

foran; before^ archaic and dial. 

afore, 109, 5 ; afjm, 117, 3- 
afiraye(n), wkv,, OF. effraier ; 

frighten^ startle; pp.^Sxvj^, 148, 

afslf (n), stv,, Sth. -Ml. ofelgn (sl|n) 

WS. slean-sloh (6); slay, strike 

down; Sth.//. afslse3e(n), 186, 20. 
after, aftir (aftyr), efteTy prep, adv,, 

OE. setter ; after, afterward; sefter, 

2, 9; affterr (O), 8, 13 ; aftir, 49, 

17 ; aftyr, 90, 25 : efter, 1,4; after, 

afterward, 236, 0. 
afterward, aftyrwarde, adv,, OE. 

aefterweard ; afterward, afterwards) 

68, 3 ; aftyrward^, 145, 21. 
agffines, see agdnes. ^9 

aga(ii), anv., eSth. «M1. ggn (ag§n) ; 

OE. agan--eode; go; pp. agan, 

182, 25. 
agane, aganis, see agein, agaynes. 
Agatirses, sb., Lat. Agatifsis ; Aga- 

tirses, 221, 5. 



agayne, see agein. 

agaynes, a^ayins, ag&nis, igaines, 
ado. prep,, OM. on(an)gegn infl. by 
ON. igegn ; again, 144, 1 1 ; aganis, 
166, 13; igaines, 153, 6; agayns, 
241, 14; Grains (o^ayns)) loi, 7. 
Sth. ayeins, 233, 4. 

&^e, a^ere, see 9^en. 

agein, ageyn, agayne, a^eiii(a)eyn), 
prep, ach,y OM. on(an)gegii (WS. 
ongen, gean) infl. by ON. igegn; 
again, 50, 16; ageyn, 50, 25; 
agayne, 109, 15; ajeyn, 63, 21; 
ajain, 183, 21. 19'th. ogayn, 139, 
13; ogayn?, 136, 7; igain, 149, 
24; agan^, 167, 28. Sth. a^an, 
184, 15. 

a^einward, ach., 0£. ongegnward, 
WS. ongeanweard ; backwards, 195, 


agelte(n), wkv,, Et. =M1. agilte(n) ; 

OE. agyltan ; be at fault ; pr, pU 

ageltej), 216, 25. 
§^e(n\ ftge(n), su gjeCn). 
age(n), ag(ftgh), ptprv., eME., 

M"th, = Ml. §ge(n), owe(n) ; OE. 

agan-ahte; have, owe, ought \ eME. 

/^. i> 3 ^S» ah, 176, 2.; pr, sbj\ sg, 

aje, 188, i; //. sg, ahte, 5, 22; 

agte, 29, 21 ; auhte, 87, 28. Nth. 

pr, I, z ^^' awe, 136, 3; pr, pi, 

awe, 146, 20;//. sg, aght, 134, 25 ; 

pt. pi, siglite, 147, 13. 
a^e(n), agen, ayen, adv., OE. on 

gen <gegn; bach; again, 88, 13; 

a5e, 36, 9; agen, 32, 7; ayen, 79, 

agenes (agSnes), a^enes, adv. prep,, 

OE. on gen <gegn; WS. on gean; 

against; agenes, 2, 11 ; agsenes, 2, 

31. n'th. ogayns, 141, 8. Sth. 
aBfnes, 222, 19; on^fnes, 226, 18. 

a5eve(n), a^eove(n), stv,, OM. age- 
fan-g3ef(WS. giefan-geaf)(5); give 
up, surrender; pt. pi, aiaven, 6, 

32. Sth./r. I sg, ajeove, 196, 25. 
ageyn, a^eyn, see agein. 

a^^, see ai. 

aghast, pp. as adf,, OE. ^agsestan^ cf. 

gaestan ; terrified, aghast ;pl, aghaste, 

208, 2. 

&^henn, see o^en, adj. 

aght, aht, o^'., ITth. «H1. ehte, eijte, 

ONth. sehta; eight, 132, 10. 
aght, aghte, see aht, a)e(ii). 
aginne(n), agynne(n), stv., OE. 

aginnan-gan (3) ; begin ; pt, sg. 

agon, 182, II ; imp, sg, agyn, 212, 

ag9(n), //. as adj., OE. agan ; agone, 

gone; agg, 65, i. 
ag9n, adv,, OE. *ongan <ongagn; 

again, 27, 19. 
agray]>i(n), -e(n), whv,, ME. a + ON. 

grei)>a ; prepare ; Sth. pr, sbj. pi, 

agray>I, 319, 31. 
a^t, indef, pm., OE. awiht, awht, aht ; 

aught, anything, 39, 9. Ct o^t. 
agt = aht, sb,, OM. seht, W& eaht, 

/.; council, care, 21, 8 ; 22, 18. 
agte, ahte (ehte), auote, sb., OE. 

seht,yi ; possessions, property, power y 

money, 22, 26; ahte, 189, 4; aucte, 

81, 6. Sth. ehte, 177, 31 ; ejte, 

226, 16; eihte, 202, 29. 
&gte, &hte, see &ge(n). 
agulte(n), wkv., Sth. = Ml. agilte(n) ; 

OE. agyltan; be in fault; pp. 

agtilt, 176, II. 
agyn, agynne(n), see aginne(n). 
ah, ah (ahne), see ao, a^e(n). 
ahon, stv., OE. ahSn-heng (R) ; inf. 

ah5n, 187, 26. 
aht, see aght. ^ 

ahte, see agte. 
ai, ay, a^^, ado,, ON. ei, cognate 

OE. a ; ever, 15, 17 ; a55 (O), 9, 3 ; 

ay, 87, 32. 
aiaven, see a^eve(n). 
ai]>er, see ei)>er. 
akenne(n), wkv., OE. acennan; 

beget; pp. akennet, 196, 29. 
al, adj., OM. al, WS. eal ; a//, a, 10 ; 

//. al (for alle?) 1, 15 ; aelle, 2, 26 ; 

alle, 2, 28 ; gpl. allre (O), 13, 30. 

Sth. eal (eSth.p, 177, 30; ^. alles, 

in phr, alles cunnes, cf every kind, 

194, 29; ds, alien, 187, 33; fas, 

alle, 181, 5 ; gpl. aire, i8a, 31. 
al, aU, adv., OAng. al, WS. eal; 

wholly, 3, 25 ; all if, although, 

160, 5. I 



Alamanle, sb,^ OF. *Alamanie; 
Germany, Almaigne, 5, 31. 

Albamar, sb,, OF. Albemar, Albe- 
marle, Fr. Aamale ; Albemarle, 5, 

Alb&xiia, sb,, Lat. Albania ; Albania, 

321, 2r3. 
aid, adj,, eMe., ITth. for Ml. §ld; 

OAng. ald,.WS. eald; <>A/, i, 15 ; 

130, 2. eSth. eald, 176, 4; £^/. 

aldrenei 191, 27. Cf. ^Id. 
aXderhe^est, culv,, OM. alra (WS. 

ealra) + superl, of OM. heh (WS. 

heah) ; highest of all, 104, 3. ' 
alderman, 5^., OM. alderman, WS. 

ealderman ; eUderman, chief of a 

guild, 117,7. 
Aldewingle, sb,, Aldwinkle (North- 
ampton), 4, 24. 
Alditheld, sb,, AldUhley ; James of, 

227, 7. 
aldrene, su fild. 
alfste(n),z&^., OE.alsestan; endure, 

last, 180, 26. 
Alexander, .r^., OF. Alexandre ; 

Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, 2, 

Alfred, sb., OE. iElfrfd; Alfred, 

204, 28. 
alhwet, conj., 8th. » Ml. alwhat ; 

0£. eal + hwset ; until^ 218, 2. 
alien, sb,, OF. alien, dr^;'. ; alien, 

foreigner ',pl. aliens, 225, 28. 
Aliaandre, Aliasundur, sb., OF. 

Alisandre ; Alexander ; Alisanndur, 

126, 3 ; Alisandr^ 205, 4. 
aHve, eidv,, 0£. on live ; alive, 

allan^, j^ al^n. 
alias, interj., OF. alas, halas ; alas, 

56, 10. 
alien, see al. 
alles, ot/z'., based on OE. eall ; 

wholly, altogether, 197, 20. 
allmabliti^, ^'.,0M. almsehtig, WS. 

ealmihtig; almighty, (O), 13, 21. 
all^ne, see al^n. 
allre, alia, see al, als. 
almast, adv», Nth. s Ml almost ; 

OAng. almkest-mast ; almost, 134, 


Almayn, ^3., OF. Allemftigne, Ale- 

maine; Almaigne, Germany, 106, 

almes, sb*, OE. selmesse, f ; a/wx, 

100, II ; eMJB. selmes, 3, 29. 8th. 

elmesse, 177, 4* 
almesdede,,aJmouBddde, sb», OE; 

selmesse + OM. ded, WS. dsed, f ; 

almsdeed, almsgiving, 91, 18 ; 

//. almonsdedes, 147, i. 
almfst, ado., OM. almsesty WS. eal- 

msest ; almost, 207, 27. 
alxniohti, see almi^ti. 
almi^t, adj,, OM. almseht, (almiht) ; 

almighty, almighte, 47, 15. 
almi^U, almihti, (oJxnichti), adj., 

OM. almsehtig (almihtig); al- 
mighty, 67, 10; almihti, 193, 16; 

almichti, 211, 27. 
almousddde, see almesdede. 
alneway, alwey, sb,, 0£. ealne + 

weg; always, 216, 10 ; alwey, 225, 

alfn (allfne), adj,, OM. al, WS. 

eal + an; alone, 102, 3; allgne, 

244, 13. n'th. allane, 168, 8. 
alond^ adv., OE. an (on) + land, 

l^nd ; aland, on land, 222, 15. 
alowe(n), wko,,OY, allouer; allow; 

pr. I sg, alowe, 107, 30. 
Alpinos, Alpynns, x^., Lat. Alpi- 

nus ; Alpinus, 221, 32. 
alref^Tst. adj., OM. alra, WS. 

ealra + i^uH; first of all, 2, 12. 
als, alae, conj., OM. al swa \ as,\, 

15 ; aise, 2, 20; als^, 52, 20; alls 

(O), 9, 19 ; yet, 25, 8 ; also, 1 27, 3. 
al89 (so), alswg, ITth. alsa, alswa, 

adv., OM. al swa (*sa) ; WS. eall 

swa; also, 15, i ; alswa (eME.), 

8, 9. Nth. alsa, 163, 15. 8th. 

alsw§, 215, 9. 
alswic, adj. adv., OM. al (WS. eal) 

+ swylc ; sHch, wholly such, 2, 19. 
alswg, see alsg. 
al]>erbeste, adv., OM. alra, WS. 

ealra + beste; best of all, 87, 5. 
alpermast, alpirmsAt^, adv., Nth. ^ 

Ml, al]>enn9st ; OAng. alra, (WS. 

ealra) + mast ; most of cUl, 134, 9: 

a1]7irmaste, 142, 27. 

Y 2 



alve, sh,, OE. selfen, /; faityf el/; 

SpL alven, 190, 27. 
alwayis, adv,, OAng. al(ne)weg + 

es; always, 168, 6. 
alweldAnd, pr, ppL as adj., OAng. 

alweldan ; almighty , 140, 27. 
alwey, am, see alaeway, b§(ii). 
amad, pp, as adj., 0£. gemiedan; 

driven mad, insane, 90, 30. 
Amadase, .r^., OF. Amadace ; Ama-- 

dace, 127, 2. 
ameen, j«^ amen, 
amang, imang^, adv. prep,, eME., 

Nth. BD Ml, am^ng; 0£. on ge- 

mang ; among, 9, 7 ; 129, 6. Nth. 

omang, 137, 10; imange, 154, 4. 
amanges, adv,, 0£. on gemong; 

among, amongst, 226, 21. 
amen, amSn, adv,, Lat. amen ; amen, 

so de it; amsen (O), 13, 24, 
amendement, s6., OF. amendement ; 

amendment, 59, 12. 
amende(n), Sth. amendie(n), wkv,, 

OF. amender; amend, satisfy, 70, 

8 ; pp, amended, 206, 30. Sth. inf. 

amend!, 218, 22. 
amendyng, sb,pr,ppl,, ME. amenden ; 

atnending, correction^ loi, 6. 
amenges, cidv., 0£. on gemong infl. 
^ by geniengan? ; among, 212, 18. 
Amer, Amery, sb,, OF. Aylmer; 

Aymer; Sir Amer de Valence, Rati 

of Pembroke, 168, 27 ; Amery, 169,18, 
amf sure, ctdj,, OF. a mesnre ; fitting, 

suitable, 229, 11. 
amidde, amiddes, adv, prep., 0£. 

on + midde ; amid, amidst, 206, 27 ; 

amiddes, loi, 5. 
am9ng, adv, prep,, 0£. on gemang 

(-mgng); among, 18, 10. 
amenges, adv^ OE. on gemang ; 

among, amongst, 117, 17. 
am5ante(n), wkv,, OF. amunter 

(amonter) ; amount, rise to ; Nth. 

inf, amount, 156, 22. 
an(a)y adj,, eME., Nth.«=Ml. gn; 

0£. an ; one, alone, i, 11 ; 129, 3 ; 

a, 144, 25 ; ds, ane, 87, 7. Sth. as, 

anne, 180, 17 ;7^J. are< anre, 181, 

i; fas, ane, 191, 19; wkns, ane, 

0/^ 178, 30. 

an(s), indef, art,, OE. an ^ one ' in 
woUc form ; on, 17, i, 7 ; a, 3, 26. 

an(&), ane, adv, prep,, OE. an, on; 
a«, in, 1, 14; a, I, 19; ane, 213, 13. 

anftn, an&n, see angn. 

ancheiaun, sb,, AN. encheisoun; 
cause, reason; pi. ancheisiins, 199, 

17- , 
anore, sb., OE. ancra; anchorite, 

nun, 198, 6 ; gs, without ending, 

202, 15; 303, I. Sth. pi. ancien, 

198, 25. 
and, and^, conj*, OE. and, 9nd ; and, 

I, 2; annd (O), 8, 14; and^, 118, 

13; \fi i4» I* eSth. ant, 191, 16; 

end, 177, 17. 
Andreas, sb,, OE. Andreas, Lat. 

Andreas, later displaced by OF. 

Andreu ; Andrew, 1,19. 
Andrew, sb,, OF. Andreu ; Andrew, 

135. I- 
andswarieCn), wkv,^ 8th. «= Ml. 

answere(n), (-swareQi) \ : OE. and ^ 

(9nd)-swarian (swenan;; answer \ n 

//. sg, andswarede, 181, 11 ; pt,pl, 

answarede, 184, 30. 

Andwerp, sb,, OF. Andwerp, Ant- 
werp ; Antwerp, 162, 30, j 

ane, ftnne, see an. 

aneoste, aneouste, anenste, euh., 
0£. on + ofest, ^est; quickly, in 
haste; aneouste, 185, 9; aneoste, 
188, 33. 

anerly, cuh., based on OE. an, or ON, 

_ einarCr?; alone, 168, 5. 

Angel, sb., OE. Angel, Qngel ; Angel, 
name of one of Arthur* s followers^ 
186, 26. 

angel(l), aungel, sb,, OF. angel; j 
angel, 64, 20; pi, aungels, 104, 5; 
angel^s, 105, 11; angles, 219, 3. 
Nth. gs, without ending, angell 
stevyn anger s voice, or music, 143, 3. \ 

anger, sb., ON. angr; anger, grief, 
distress, 106, 8. 

Angle (ai)gle), sb,, OE. Angle; 
Angle, English ; //. Anglis, 222, 
23; Sth. dpi, anglen, 191, 15. 

Anion (Anjou), An^u, sb,, OF. 
Anjou; Anjou, 5, 31 ; Angaeu, 7,9; 
Anjow, 226, 2. 



angwys, j3., Nth. = ML anguische 

(anguisse) ; OF. anguisse ; anguish^ 

144, 19. 
anhd(ii}9 stv,^ 0£. onhon-heng (R) ; 

hang^ crucify \ inf, anhon, 184, 26. 
ani, any, 9111, indef pm., 0£. senig 

infl. by an ; any^ 3, 2. Nth. any, 

147, 10. 8th. 901, 226, 17; ds, 

gnie, 226, ^*l\ pL gnie, 226, 18. 

Cf. 8sni, eni. 
Adjow, see An^u. 
anker, sb,, OE. ancor ; anchor , 80, 28. 
annd, see and. 

Anne, sb., OF. Anne; Anne, 131, 8. 
annexe(n), wko,^ OF. annexer; 

anneXy add; pp. annexed, 237, 26. 
anoint, adj.f OF. //. enoint< 

enoindre ; anointed, 65, 7. 
an9n, adv,, 0£. an, an; at once, 

quickly, anon, 36, 11; angn riht, 

right at once, immediately, 198, 14. 

eSth. ansen, 185, 8; anan, 187, 

ano)>er (eME. an5]7er), anothir^, 

adj.^pm., OE. an + 6tJer, another; 

ano^er, 4, 19; anothire, 143, 25. 
anre, see an. 
Anselme, sb., OF. Anselme; An- 

selm, 200, 9. 
answare, answer, onswere, sb,, OE. 

andswara; dr^&ne/^,36, 22 ; answer, 

236, 21 ; onswere, 192, 31. 
an8were(n), wkv,, OE. andswerian 

(swarian) ; answer; pt,sg, answeryd, 

I05> 19 » answerd (ansuerd), 136, 7 ; 

//. pi. answerden, 212, 8. Sth. 

onswerie(n); imp, pi. onswerieS, 

200, 6 ; pt, sg» onswerede, 193, 15. 
ant, see and. 
Antecrist, sb., Lat. antichristus, 

modified by OE. crist ; Antichrist, 

gs. without ending, Antecrist com, 

I33» 3. 
anvie, see envie. 

apaas, sb.^ OE. on (an, a) + OF. pas ; 

in pace, on foot, apace, 245, 5. 
apeche(n), wkv., OF. empecher; 

hinder, impeach ; pp, apfched, 233, 

apf'pW* Wife., OF. aper- < aparoir ; 

appear; inf apfre, 235, 30. 

apert, adj., OF. apert ; open, mani- 
fest, 102, 8. 

apeyre(n), wkv:, OF. enpeirer; im- 
pair; pp. apeyred, 224, 14. 

apeyryng, so., based on apeyre(n); 
impairing, 224, 16. 

apli^t, adv., OE. on pliht ; on my 
faith, 42, II. 

apokalypsis, sb., Lat. apocalypses; 
apocalypse, 12, 23. 

Apollo, sky Lat Apollo ; Apollo, 

193, 19- 
apon, see upon. 

apostel, apostil, apostle, sb,, OE. 
apostol ; OF. apostle ; apostle, 131, 
28; apostil, 135, i; apostle, 213, 
20 ; //. apostlis, 132, 29. 

appel, sb., OF. aeppel ; apple, 67, 26. 
eSth. ds. epple, 198, 14. 

ftppr90he(n), wkv., OF. aprocher; 

approcu:h; pr, ppl. appr9chyng, 

236> 15; /'• ^i' apprgched, 234, 

aqaelle(n), wkv,, OE. acwellan-OM. 

cwalde (WS. cwealde) ; kill, quell; 

imp. sg, aquel, 44, 23. Nth. pt. sg. 

aqualde, 188, 12. 
aqueyntaunce, sb,y NF. aqueintance, 

OF. acointance; cuquaintance, 95, 

Aquitaine, sb,, OF. Aquitaiue ; 

Aquitaine, 226, 2. 
aquynt, adj.. Nth. = Ml. aqueint 

(aquaint) ; NF. //. aqueint, OF. 

acoint ; cuiquainted, 1 70, 20. 
ar, are, adv,. Nth. = Ml., Sth. gr; 

ON. ar, cogn. with OE, ser ; ere, 

128, 13; are, 138, i. 
ar, ar§, adv. prep. OE. ser, by shorten- 
ing; ere, before, 68, 23; 204, 7; 

ar?, 36, 26. Cf. fr. 
aras, see ari8e(n). 
ara^t, ara^te, see arfchen. 
arblaste, sb,, OF. arbaleste ; arbcdist, 

cross-bow, 215, 18. 
archebischop, sb., OE. arcebiscop; 
* archbishop, 226, 24; eME. serce- 

biscop, 2, 9. 
archer, sb., OF. archier; archer, 

168, 3. 
are, see an. 



kt^, ar^, seekt, bx, be(n). 

&re, sb,, eMXS., Nth. = Ml. gre ; 0£. 

Ixj f.^fawfTf grace f ii, i. 
areoche(n)y w>&z^.,0£. areccan-reahte ; 

expound^ explain^ 182, 39. 
arfche(n), wkv.^ 0£. arScan-nehte 

(rahte) ; reach ; pt, sg.^ ara^te, 47, 

i2\ pp.zxK'it, 43, IJ7. 
aredde(n), wkv,, 0£. ahreddan; 

delivery save ; inf, aredde, 45, 19. 
Aremouth, sb,, earlier £iemou)>; 

Yarmouth en the Isle cf Wighty 

164, 8. 
&reCn), see b5(]i). 
ardowe(n), stv,, eSth.BMl. (a)re- 

we(n) ; OE. *ahreowan-hreaw (2) ; 

commiserate, repent \ pr, sbj, sg. 

areowe, 198, 32. 
arfTe(n), Et. arere(n), wkv.j OE. 

SUr^ran ; raise^ rear\ inf, ar|re, 

205, 16; pp. ar|red, 200, 29; ar|rd, 

205, 32. Et. tnf, arere, 218, 22. 
arest, sb,, OF. arest; arrest ^ stoppage, 

168, 9. 
arfsune(n),o;>^.,AN.araisttner; call 

to account ; //. sg, arf sunede, 2 1 3, 1 6. 
arewe, arrow, sb. , OE. earh,/. ; arrow ; 

arewe, 195, 33 ; arrow, 168, 19. 
ar^, adj., OE. earh, pi, earge; 

cowardly \ pi, aerwe, 176, 19. 
Argail, sb,^ Argyle (?), 222, 14. 
Argante, sb,, OF. Argante ?; Argante, 

190, 27. 
ari^t, ary5t, aryht, adv., OE. on (an) 

+ riht; rightly, aright, arijt, 35, 

24; ary5t, 215, 3. 
arise (n), stv., OE. arisan-ias (i); 

arise ; pr, 3 sg, arist = arise)), 40, 1 5 ; 

ifnp, sg, aris, 40, 18; arisf, 67, 13 ; 

pt. sg, (eME. aris, iSi, 8); args, 

39, 28; arggs, 211, 3; arisen, 

i97» ^ ; //• arise(n), 40, 30. 
ArietotiU, Arystotill, sb,, OF. Ari- 
stotle ; Aristotle, 144, 10, 24. 
arm, sb., OE. arm, earm ; arm, S'j, 8. 

eSth. serm, 181, 8. 
arm, serm, ad;., OE. earm ; poor, 

eSth. serm, 188, t6; arm, 222, 6. 
arme(n), w-fe'., OF. armer; arm; 

pt. sg. armyd, 112, 20; iyt>, armed, 

227, 16. 

armes, sb,pL, OF. armes ; arms, 209, 

Armor^o, sb,, OF. Armoriqne; Ar- 

morica, 220, 5. 
armure, sb,, OF. armnre; armor, 

233* i6- 
armyd, see arme(n). 

armyng, sb., OF. armer; arming- 

armor, 173, 6. 
am, see be(n). 
args, ar998, see ari8e(n). 
arrow, see arewe. 
arrysfr, sb., based on OE. arisan; 

ariser, revolter, 234, 12. 
art, sb., OF. art; flr^, 38, 9. 
Ardur, Arthour, sb,, OF. Artfaonr; 

Arthur, jlSi, 8 ; ds, Arthiiie, 181, 

2 ; Arthour, 1 26, 9. 
Arviragns, sb,, Lot, Arviragos ; 

Arviragus, mythical king of 

Britain, 220, 18. 
ary^t, aryht, see ari^t. 
as, see asse. 
as, as^, adv., OM. al swa, WS. eal 

swa; as, so, also, ^9, 4; ase, 186, 

a8ayle(n), see as8ayle(ii). 
ase, asent, see as, assent, 
asise, assys, sb,, OF. assise; assize, 

152, 18 ; assys, 147, 20. 
aske(n), Sth. a8kie(n); wko,, OE. 

acsian by late metatheEds of cs (ks) ; 

ask ; inf, aske, 89, 30 ; pr, i sg. 

aske, 89, 31 ; pr, shj. pi. asken, 

198, 30; //. jr^. askede, 198, 17. 

Nth. pp. askit, 171, 4. 8th. pr. 

sbj. aski, 200, 18. 
askunge, sb., OE. acstmg,^; by late 

metathesis ; asking, request, 200, 6. 
aslawe, see aslf (n). - 
aslf (n), stv., Sth. **= Ml. asl9(n\ 

asl|(n) ; WS. aslean-sl6h(g'), (6) ; 

kill, slay\ pp. aslawe, 207, 28. 
aslepe, adv., OE. on slepe; asleep, 

40, 22. 
asldpe(n), st. wko., OM. ^aslepan 

-slep (WS. slapan), (R) ; possibly 

OAng. geslepa, wkv. ; fall asleep, 

be overcome of sleep \ pp, asleped, 

40, 8. 
a8oile(n), see a88oyl6(n). 



asper, adj,f OF. aspre ; karshf cruel j 

103, 25. 
9AB9.j\e{p),wkv.y OF. assailer; assail^ 

attack \ inf. assayle, 112, 21; pp, 

asayled, 60, 13. 
asse, sb., 0£. assa; ass, 31, 21 ; asse, 

89, 26 ; as, 52, 19. 
a88emble(n)) wkv,^ OF. assembler $ 

assetnble^ come together ^ 163, 7. 
assent, assente, asent, sb*, OF. 

assent, asent ; assent, 141, 4; 

assent^, 147, 3 ; asent, 117, 26. 
as8ente(n), w/fe/., OF. assentir; 

assent; pr. i sg, assente, 115, 7; 

pt, pi, assentyd, 105, 17. Nth. //. 

sg» assentit, 171, 7. 
as8oyle(n), asoile(n), wkv,, OF. 

assoldre ; pr, st, assoil- ; absolve ; 

imp, sg, assoyl^, iii, 15; pr, sbj\ 

assoyl, 165, 15 ; pt, sg. assoyled, 

III, 19 : asoilede, 205, 7. 
assys, see asise. 
asterday, sb,, 0£. easterdseg by 

shortening; easier day ^ 121, 32. 
astreng]>e(ii), a/yfe;.,OE.*astrengtJian, 

or based on ME. streng})e ; 

strengthen'^ pp. astreng])ed, 211, 

astronomy en, sb,, OF. astronomien ; 

astronomer, astrologer, 145, 1 7. 
a8tunte(n)» wkv., Sth. — Ml. astinten; 

0£. astyntan ; cease ; inf. astiinten, 

201, 4. 
a8unie(n), wkv., OF. essonnier, 

essoigner; excuse; inf. asunien, 

197, 20. 
a8winde(n), stv.^ OE. aswindan 

(swindan) - swand (swgnd), (3) ; 

vanish, pass away; pr, 3 sg. 

aswindetS, 196, 17. 
at, prep, adv,, OE. set ; to, at, from, 

according to ; get, 2, 24 ; a t, 8, 9 ; 

att (O), 9, z ; atj^iM^ me, friendly'; 

115, 11; att Godd {O),from God, 

10, 27 ; at hym, from him, 89, 19. 

Nth. at (used for to), 128, 9. Sth. 

et, 192, 23. See also atte. 
at, see pat. 
ath, athe, sb., eME., Nth. -Ml. 9]); 

OE. a8; oath, 2, 29;'ath^, 145, 26 ; 

//. athas, 6, 3. 

alSele, adj., OE. se^d; noble, generous; 

Sth. ds. atSelen, 185, i ; superl, 

atJelest, 183, 10. 
atsake(n), stv., OE. setsacan-soc (6); 

deny, disown ; eME. pr. x sg. 

atsake, 184, 24. 
atst9nde(n), stv., OE. setstandan 

(st9ndan)-stod (6); stand, stand 

by; inf. atst^nden, 182, 10. 

atte =3 at be, prep. + dem. pm. , OE. 
5e. 1C~ 

3et se, lOE. J)e; cU the, at, 17, 

atter, sb,, OE. ator, attor; poison, 

pus, 180, 22. 
atvgre, adv., Sth. » Ml. atf§re ; OE. 

setforan ; before, 205, 9. 
atwinne, adv., OE. on(an) + ON. 

twinnr; in two, asunder, 65, 15. 
atwist, see atwite(n). 
atwite(n), siv., OE. getwitan-wat 

(i) ; blame, twit ; pr. 3 sg. atwist = 

atwitej), 40, 16 ; pr. pi. atwite, 37, 

12 ; imp. pi. etwiteS, 200, 21. 
atwo, Sth. atW9, cuiv., OE. an + twa ; 

in two, in twain, 39, 6. Sth. 

atw9, 239, 15. 
atfwen, wkv., OM. setewan (-Iwan?), 

WS. aetiewan (-ywan) ; show, 

appear; pt, sg. atywede, 5, i. 
Aubemarle, sb., OF. Albemarle, 

Anbemarle; Albemarle, 227, 5. 
aucte, see agte. 
aughtene = aughtende, achtande, 

adj.. Nth. = Ml. ehte)?e ; OAng. 

aehtoCe; eighth, 147, 18; achtande, 

152. 7- 
auh, auhte, see ac, age(n). 
aumenere, sb., OF. almonier, au- 

monier ; almoner, dispenser of alms, 

88, 21. 
aungel, see angel, 
aunter, auntour, see aventure. 
Austin, Austyn, sb., OE. Austmus, 

Lat. Augnstinus; Augustine, Austin; 

Awwstin (O), 8, 17; Austyn, 124, 

auter (awter), sb., OF. auter, alter ; 

altar, 76, 24; awter, 122, 20; ds. 

autere, 231, 24. 
availe(n), avail(en), wkv., OF. vaile 

< valoir ; avail, profit ; pt. sg. 



avaUede^ 60, 15. ITth. inf. avail, 

139,8; aval?, 167, 25. 
avalle(ii), wkv.t Stii. » Ml. afidlen ; 

OM. a fellan (WS. a fiellan^ by 

conAision with fallan (WS. feallan) ? 

Jfeily cut doTVHf destroy y 187, 35. 
Avalnn, j^., AN. Avalnn; Ava/un, 

Avalm, 19O; a6. 
avazioe, J^., OF. avarice; avarice, 

svarous, eufy',, OF. averons; avart- 

cious, 88, 34. 
svauiice(n), wkv,, OF. avancer ; ad- 
vance ; f'l^ avaunce, //. avannsed, 

106, 6. 
svaunt&ie, sb,, OF. avantage; ad- 

vantage, 335, 4. 
&ve, 5^., Lat ave ; ave, hail, 122, 28. 
avenge, see avd(n). 
aventure (aunter), Nth. aventtir 

(-oiir, -er), sb., OF. aventure; 

adventure*. Nth. aventur, 168, 16; 

auntour, 154, 9; fl. annters, 126, 

13 ; an annter, \tt »] a venture, 

309, 4. 
aventure(n), wkv., OF. aventnrer; 

adventure*, inf. aventure, 106, 11. 
aver, see ever. 
avd(n), stv., 8th. » ML af5n ; 0£. 

afon-ieng (R); receive, take; pt, 

pi, avenge, 209, 11. 
avom, am). prep,, eSth. « Ml. afgren 

(fom) ; 0£. on foran ; before ; avom 

on, opposite, 186, ii. 
avow, sb,, OF. *avon, cf, avouer, vb, ; 

ccDow, vow, 339, 33. CC vow. 
Avycen, sb., OF. Avycen; Avicen, 

Avicenna, 245, 28. 
avys, Kvfw^, sb,, OF. avis; advice, 

232, 25 ; avys?, 105, 3o. 
avy8e(n), wk^,^ OF. aviser; advise ; 

^. avysed, 339, 28. 
awai, sway, awey, awayf, adv,, 

OE. on weg; away, 29, 18; awey, 

98, 31; oway, 103, 13; away?, 

143, 35. Nth. oway, 136, 5. 
awake(n), stv,^ OE. *awacan-w5c 

(6) ; awake ; pt. pi. aw^ke, 41, 23. 
awakene(n), wkv., OE. awacnian; 

awaken^ arise ; eME. it^. awakenin, 

193. 12. 

aw&kie(ii), wkv,, 8th. «& ML a- 
wake(n); OE. awacian; awake; awakede, an, 4. 

awe, aw6i(y), see age(n), awai. 

awdlde(n^, wkv,, OM. geweldan 
(weldan), WS. wieldan ; rule, con- 
strain ; inf. awelden, 195, 14. 

awendeCn), wkv., OE. awendan 
(wendan) ; turn away ; pp. awent. 

221, 12. 

awin, adj. <pp. Nth. e ML §wen; 

OE. agen ; 07un, 137, 4. 
awinxie(n), j/t'., OE. gewinnan-wann 

(wgnnj (3) ; win, 46, 4. 
awite(n), ptprv., OE. gewitan-wiste; 

^if^nr; //. sg, Kwyste, 176, 17. 
awoke, see swake(n). 
awold, sb., OM. gewald (gewald), 

WS. geweald; power, 31, 18. 
awondne(n), wkv., Sth. » MI. 

awundre(n) ; OE. awmidrian; 

amaze, surprise ; //. sg, awondrede, 

211, 9. 
awTfke(n), awT8dke(n), stv., OE 

awrecan-wrsec (5); drive away, 

avenge ; inf. awrfke, 42, 2 ; (eME 

awreken, 183, 6) ; pr. 3 jr^.awr|k>, 

217, 15 ; awrekej), 43, 20 ; 

//. awrfke, 67, 30 ; (eME. awrseke, 

184, 29). 
awter, Awwstin, see auter, Austfn. 
awyste, see av7ite(n). 
az, sb,, OE. eax, /,; ax; pi. axis, 

169, 27. 
aze(n), eME azen, Sth. a:ae(xi), 

wkv,, OE acsian (ascian); ask; 

eME. inf. axen, 5, 19; pt, sg, 

axede, 181, 10; axede, 36, 

aztre, sb., OE. eax + treo, perk. 

♦eaxtreo; axeltree, 124, 29. 
ay, ayeina, see ai, agaynes. 
ayeixi8aie(n), wkv,, OE. ongegn + 

ME. saie(n), seie(n); gainsay, 

deny, pp. ayeinsaide, 234, 8. 
ayein8tande(n), 8t9nde(n), stv., 

OE. ongegn +,standan-stod (6); 

stand against,' withstcuul; iirf. 

ayeinstande, 234, 10; ayeinst§nde, 

236, 26. 
ayen, see a^en. 



ayer^y sd,, OF. air; otir, 143, 27. 
ay whgre, adv., ON. ei + h^^, coga 

with 0£, ahwer, awer, everywhere^ 

88^ 26. 


ba, adj,, eMK, Nth. <= Ml. bg ; 0£. 

ba,jt ofbegen; doth,Sf 16, 
baar, j«^ bar, o^/. 
bao, j3., 0£. bsec ; ^a:>&, 52, 18. 
baoin, sd., OF. bacin; iasitty 39, 21. 
bad, badde, bsdd, see bidde(ii). 
bsTon. see bfreQn). 
bal, sb,, OE. *bal ; daH, ball playing^ 

124, 31. 
balaunce, sb*^ OF. balance; balance^ 

91, 21. 

bald, o^., eME„ I9'th.B:Ml. b^ld; 
OAng. bald, bald; bald^ 126, 7. 
eSth.y^jJf. baldere, 184, 30. 

baldely , adv,^ OAng. baldlice ; boldly ^ 
164, 28. 

baldie(n), wkv,, eME., Nth. == Ml. 
b9lde(n); OM. baldian, baldian, 
WS. bealdian ; embolden^ bear one- 
self bravely ; Sth. //. balde, 192, 

bale, sb,, 0£. bealu ; bale, harm, 

calamity ^ 18, 30. 
baleful, adj., eME. = Ml. baleful ; 

OE. bealuful; baleful \ wk. 195, 

ball = bale, eME. » Ml. bale ; sb. 

<.adj,y OE. *bealo, adj.\ baleful , 

evil one, 195, 32. 
ban, band see bgn, binde(ii). 
baner, sb,, OF. banere ; banner, 159, 

baneur, sb,, OF. baneur ; standard- 
bearer, 207, 27. 
Banocbum, Bannok bum, sb,, 

BannockburUj 160, 14 ; ])e Bannok 

bnm, 160, 16. 
bapti8(e), wkv,, Nth. « Ml. bap- 

tise(n); OF. baptiser; baptize; pt, 

sg, baptist, 131, 22. 
baptist, sb., OF. baptiste; baptist) 

])e Baptist Jjhan, 131, 21. 

hapiAgyv^, pr» ppl, as sb., baptizing; 
Jgnes baptisyng, John's baptizing, 

131, 35- 
bar(e), bftre see b§re(n). 

bar, sb., eME., Nth. « ML bgr ; OE. 

bir; boar, T95, 12. 
bar, bfire, adj., OE. bser; bare, 17, 

14; baar, 221, 18. 
baroi sb,, OF. bane ; bar; pi. bares, 

bare, sb,, ON. bara := OE. bsera ; 

tidal wave, bore, p. 250. 
baret, sb,, OF. barat ; debate, trouble, 

148, 10. 
barfot, adj., OE. baerfqt ; barefoot ; 

/^- 335, 9. 
bargane, sb,, INth. ^ Ml. bargaine ; 

OF. bargaine ; bargain, 1 73, 9. 
barm, barme, sb., OE. bearm; bosom, 

lap ; barme, 89, 3. 
bam, sb.j OE. bearn ; child, 146, 32. 
bamal^e, sb., OF. baronage, bamage ; 

baronage, 42, i. 
Barnard, j^., OF. Barnard ; Barnard 

of Toulouse, 114, 28. 
bamhed, -hed, sb., ONth. ^bamhsed ; 

childhood, 131, 20. 
baron (dun), sb,, OF. baron, AN. 

barun ; baron ; pi. barons, 42, 6. 
baselard, sb,, OF. baselarde ; dagger, 

120, 28. 
basenet, sb,, OF. basinet; helmet, 

basinet, 112, 23. 
Bassianus, sb,, Lat. Bassianns ; ^ox- 

sianus, 221, 21. 
bastard, j^., OF. bastard ; bastard, 

203, 22. 
bataile (batayle), batail (batayl), 

sb,, OF. bataille; battle; batail, 

loi, 22; batayl^, no, 14; bataile, 

157, 10 ; batayl, 160, 14. 
bate(n), for abate(n), wkv., OF. 

abatie ; cd>cUey bate ; cast down, 

abolish ; inf, bate, 59, 3. 
bathe (bath),, eME., Nth. 

for Ml. b9J>e; ON. baj)ir; both, 

<^s^i 3> 3 ; bath, 129, 5. Sth. dpi, 

batmen, 191, 18. 
bape(n), Sth. ba!Kie(n), wkv., OE. 

batfian; bathe; pp. baj>ed, 65, 5. 

Sth. inf. ba9ien, 195, 18. 



bAUde, s6,, NF. *battde; bawd; pi. 

baudes, 237, 23. 
bftudrike, see bswdrike. 
Bauston, MS.Hsutton, sd,,Baustcn, 

62, 6 [see note]. 
Bav&re, sd,, Bavaria, 162, 9. 
bawdryke, sd,, OF. baldret, ♦baldrik ; 

baldrick, belt, 120, 28. 
bayn, bayn^, adj., ON. beinn; 

straight, prompt, 138, 25. 
bd, be, see bd(ii), bi, 
bf ast, see bf at. 

b|at, bf ate(n), see bfdo(n), bf te(ii). 
beautee, beutd, sb.^ OF, beante; 

beauty, 244, 11 ; bente, 130, 16. 
bebirie(ii), wkv,, 0£. bebyrgan 

(byrigan) ; bury;, bebineden, 

2, 3 ; bebyried, 5, 2 ; pp. bebyried, 

Beo, sb., OF. Bee; Bee (Normandy), 

bf o, sb,, OF. bee (lengthened) ; beak, 

beoume(ii), see bioiime(ii). 
bed(d), bedden, see bidde(n). 
bed (bedde), sb., OE. bedd ; bed, 41 , 
i*j \ ds. bedde, 38, 23 ; //. bedes, 

Bfda, sb., Lat. Beda; Beda, Bede, 

221, 29. 
bedde(n), wkv., OE. beddian ; put to 

bed; inf. bedde, 77, 24. 
bfde, eME. bede, sb., OE. gebed; 

prayer, petition, Mn£. bead; bede, 

I3» 29. 
bSde, bf de, see bidde(]i). 
bfdell, sb., OF. bedel ; beadle, 147, 16. 
bdden, bedin, see bidde(n). 
bfde(n), wkv., OE. bedan j pray\pr. 

3 sg. bfat = bft, Ml. bftej>, 180, 4. 
bede(n). stv., OE. beodan-bead (2) ; 

offer, bid, announce^ proclaim, com- 

fnand; early confused with bidde(n), 

pray, command; inf. bede, 140, 

13; pr„ sbj, sg. bede, 201, 20; 

im^p. sg. bed, 22, g; pt, sg. b|d, 21, 

II ; bfde, 69, 6 ; bedd, 128, 16 ; //. 
pi. bedden, 28, 17, clearly from 

bidden in form ; pp. bfdyn, 169, 17. 

eSth. beoden, 185, 21 ; /r. 3 S£, 

beodeV, 2oai 23. 

beddne, see bidfine. 

bee, sb., OE. beo; bee, 143, 23. 
befaUe(]i), ue bifiEme(n). 
beforen, see bifgren. 
beg»t, begaBton, see bi^ete(ix). 
b65e(n), wkv., OM. began, WS. Me- 
gan, bygan; bend; pt. sg. beide, 

196, 20. 
b€ge, sb., OM. beh(g) (WS. beah), 

m, ; ring, collar, bracelet, 24, 1 2. 
begete(n), see bi^ete(n). 
beggare, sb., based on begge(n); 

^^ggar, 57, 8. 
begixme(n), (begonth), see bigin- 

beginnynge, sb., OE. beginning, /., 

beginning, 218, 27. 
bfh, see bu^e(n). 
beh9te(n), see bih5te(n). 
behove (n), wkv., OE. behofian ; be- 
hoove, profit; pr, 3 sg, behove>, 91, 

6; beboveth, 119, 21; pt. sg, be- 

h5ved, 4, 1 2. Nth./^. 3 sg. bihoTes, 

82, 26. 
behynd, see bihinde. 
beide, see be2e(n). 
beien, adj'.pl., OE. b^en ; bot^, also, 

7> 8; glp. beire, 38, 3a; beine, 

182, 3. 
beionde, beire, see beyond, beien. 
belamp, see belimpe(n). 
belamy, sb., OF. bel ami; fair friend, 

bdlde(n), wkv., OM. beldan, beldan. 

WS. bieldan; embolden, encourage; 

inf. beldenn, 12, 14. 
beleave, beHave, sb„ Kt. » Ml. be- 

Ifve ; OE. *beleafe, geleafe ; belief, 

311, 6; beleavee, 213, 1 ; billave, i 

213, II. 
beleve, see biUve(n). J 

Belial, sb., Lat. Belial ; Be/ia/y 194, 

beliave, see beldave. 
belimpe(n), stv.; OE. belimpan-lamp 

(Igmp) (3) ; happen; pt. sg. belamp, 

4, 28. 
belle, sb,, OE. belle; bell, 76, 25. 
belleman, sb,, OE. bell + man : bell- 

man, 118, 3a 
beUe(n), stv., OM. bellan-baU (WS. 



beall) (5) ; roar, bellcw^ swell with 

rage ; ^. bollen, 50, 6. 
belyve, bilive, adv,j OE. be + life; 

quickly, 90, 7 ; bilive, 186, 28. 
b^, sb., OE. beam; be{un\ eM£. 

bfom, 3, 16; pi, bfmis, 142, 22. 
beme, sb., OM. beme (WS. bleme)> 

/. ; trumpet ;pL bemen, 187, 23. 
be(n), anv.t 0£. beon-wses ; be ; inf. 

ben, I, 8 ; beo, 36, 30 ; bee, 106, 

6; pr. I sg. am, 22, 11 ; 2 jr^. art, 

18, a a ; 3 ^^» is, 8, 2 ; ys, 176, 7 ; iss, 

9, 9 ; ^4' 3 ^<f- nis, 05, 1 1 ; (eME. 
pr, pi, sinndenn, 9, 2 ; sinden, 16, 
4) ; pf, pi, SLien, 19, 12; are, 111, 
30 ; am, 15, 12; pr, pi. beon, 48, 
28 ; ben, 105, 3 ; pr. sbj. sg. be 9, 
21 ; pr, be, 32, 16 ; imp, sg, 
be 18, 22 ; imp, pi, beC, 28, 7 ; //. 
j^. was, I, 3 ; wass, 9, 30; wes, i, 
19 ; neg. jpt. sg. nas, ^3, 31 ; pt. pi. 
(eME. wseron, i, o; weron, 4, 
5); weren, 16, 16; were we, 25, 
14; wer, 73, 23 (eME. waren, 3, 
i; ware, 77, 3); wgren, 21, 10; 
w§re, 77» ^7 ; neg, neren, 39, 
14 ; nere, 36, 14 ; //. sbf. sg. were, 

10, 2 (eME. ware, i, 15); w§re, 
22, 21; //. byn, 114, 16; been, 

243» '^* ^^^« ^V* ^c, 128, 9; /r. 
I j;f. am, 174, 14; /n 2 i;^. ert, 157, 
14; P^» 3 sg. es. 128, 27; ess?, 151, 
25; is, 127, 7 ; iss?, 156, 24; neg. 
pr, 3 sg, neys«ne ys, 1 28, 5 ; /r. 3 
j^. bes, 128, 32 ; bes?, 139, 7 ; /r. 
//. er, 136, 2 ; ere, 144, 2 ; ar, 173, 
32 ; pr. be, 127, 26 ; pt. sg. 
was, 1 26, 9 ; //. //. ware, 130, 24 ; 
war, 138, 28; was, 158, 31 (late 
Nth. weir « wer, 170, 32) ; pt. sbj. 
sg. war, 134, 2 ; ware, 246, \2\ pt. 
sbj. pi. ware, 1 33> ^ 5 J //• ben?, 1 36, 
18. 8th. inf. beon, 198, 6; ben, 
176, 2 (eME. gerund beonne, 192, 
23) ; pr. I sg. (eSth. eom, 176, 4 ; 
gem, 176^ i) am, 194, \\ pr. 2 sg. 
(eSth. aert, 182, 30) art, 201, 23; 
pr. 3 sg. IS (ys), 176, 7; pr, pi. 
(eSth. sdnden, 184, 31) ; pr. 1 sg, 
beo, 176, 4; /r. 3 sg. bi«, 178, 
21 ; ^. 3 j^. biC, J^tf// ^, 183, 

II; pr. pi, (eSth. beo]>, 176, 
ig); beb, 203, 20; beth, 119, 11; 
bu>, 176, 23; bi«, 178, 20; byej), 
3i5> 23, /r. 5^*. (eSth. si, 17a, 
29 ; beo, 177, 8) ; pr, (eSth. 
beon, 177, 4) ; imp. sg, (eSth. beo 

i77» 5) ;/^« ^^- ^es « was, 176, i;, sg. nes, 194, 8; nas, 204, 
15 ;//. //. w|re, 179, 1 1 ; wfr, 223, 
5; //. sbj. sg. (eSth. wfore, 181, 
9); wfre, 243, 18; (eStlu 
wforen, 182, 9) ; wfre, 242, 24 ; 
neg. pt, sbj, sg, (eSth. neore, 187, ' 
4) J //• (eSth. ibeon, 176, 3) ; ibe, 
203, 14; ybe, 236, 20. Kt. inf. 
bie, 211, II ; blej>, 212, 25 ; 
bieye, 212, 8; pp. ibye, 212, 20;, waren, 212, 17, 

benam, see beninie(n). 

benche, sb., OE. bene, /. ; bench^ 

bdnd, sb., OE. bend, bend; tie^ 
ribbon^ bend {in heraldry), 228, 


bdnde(n), wkv,, OE. bendan (ben- 
dan) ; bendy bind, fetter; Nth. inf. 
bend, 140, 17. 

bende, sb., OE. bend, bend,/. ; band, 
fetter, 180, 14. 

bene, sb., OE. ben, /. ; prayer, en» 
treaty; pi. benes, 218, 21. 

benefyce, sb.y OF. benefice ; fcpvor, 
gift, benefit y 124, 12. 

beneme, see bexiime(n). 

BenSt, sb.y NF. Beneit, OF. Benoit ; 
Benet, Benedict, i«i5, 24. 

Beniamin, sb.^ Lat. Beniamin ; Ben- 
jamin, 25, 25. 

benime(n), binime(n), stv., OE. 
beniman-n5m (4) ; take away ; 
inf, binime, 177, 20; pr. i sg. 
beneme, 211, 18; //. sg. benam, 
5, 21 ; //. //. binomen, 182, 19 ; pp. 
binume, 183, 26. 

benisun, sb,, OF. beneisun; blessing, 
benison, 134, 22. 

bdode(n), bf om, see bfm, bfde(n). 

b§o(n), beore, see be(n), bfre. 

bdonne(n), stv., based on OE. ban- 
nan, (b§nnan), beon (R); summon, 
command; beonneui 187, 23. 



beom, s6,, eSth. = Ml. bern, bem; 

OE. beorn, beoxn; man, hero^ 

warrior y i86, a 8. Cf. bdm. 
boot, sb,, eMC-iMl. bet; OE. beot; 

threat, boast, promise, 184, 17. 
bdot, bdo]>, see bdte(n), be(xi). 
beovie(n), wko., eSth. — Ml. bive(n); 

OE. bifian, beofian ; tremble ; pt.pL 

beoveden, 187, i. 
bepeche(n), wkv,, OM. bepecan 

( WS. -paecan)-pehte ; deceive ; pp, 

bepaht, i, 4. 
bep, sb„ NUl. = Ml. bere ; OM. bere, 

WS. bsere ; noise, uproar, 150, 2. 
b§rd, sb., OE. beard, beaid ; beard^ 

86, 17; bfrd?, 120, 39. 
berdLene, sb., Kt. = Ml. birl)ene, bir- 

dene; OE. byrtJen,yC ; burden, 212, 

b§re, sb., OE. bera ; bear (J he animoT), 

82, 17. eSth. beore, 196, 3. 
bere, sb.^ OE. bser, /. ; 3?*^^, litter, 

35, 3. 

bere, j^., OM. geberu, WS. gebaeru,yi; 

bearing, deportment, noise, uproar, 

36, 20. 

bfrebag, sb., based on OE. beran + 
ON. baggi; bag-bearer (nickname 
of Scots), 161, 6. 

b§re-blis8e, sb., OE. beran + blisse ; 
bear'bliss ; as name, 216, 30. 

bfre(n), stv., OE. beran-baer (4); 
bear\ inf. bfren, 22, 20 (eME." 
baeron, 3, 15); imp* pi. bfreS, 

27> 19; /^- /^- bfrynge, 134, 2 ; 
//. sg. bar, 4, 6; pt. pl» beren, 
70, 17; bere, 35, 19; pt. sbj. sg. 
bere, 53, 15 ; bare, 2, 5 ',pp. bgren, 
33» 14; ^re, 66, 11 ; born, 49, 28. 
Wth./n 3 jr^. bfres, 127, 19 ; bfrs, 
150, 20; pt. sg. bar?, 131, 10; pt. 
pi. bare, 165, 24 ; pp. born, 132, 6. 
Sth.^. 3 j^. ber©, 198, 24 ; 
(eSth.) bered, 177, 22 ; imp. pi. 
b|re8, 199, 22; pt. jr^.bar, 181, 17 ; 
pt. pi. b|re(n), 205, 9 ; pp. (eSth. 
iboren, 179, 16); ib§re, 46, 7; 
ybgre, 209, 32 ; yb^ren, 240, 8, 
berge(n) = ber^en, berwe(n), stv., 
OM. bergan-barg (WS. beorgan- 
bearg) (3); protect^ sazfe; inf. ber- 

gen, 14, 7; berwen, 86, 13; pp. 

borblienn, 10, 19. 
berid, berie(n), see birie(n). 
berie, sb., OE. berige, berie, /.; 

berry, 21, 26. 
bering, sb., based on OM. ber, WS. 

beer; bearing, behaviour, 25, 18. 
bdrxiy sb., OE. beom, beom; hero, 

126,7; 149,25. 
bf m, sb., OE. beam ; child, Scotch 

beam, 82, 15. 
bemd, see beme(n), wkv. 
beme(n), stv.^ OE. beoman-b^m (3) ; 

bum; pt. bume, 182, 33. 
bdme(n), wkv., OM. *beman, WS. 

bseman ; bum; inf. beme, 43, 2 ; pp. 

bemd, 58, 2 7. Sth. pr. pi. beme>, 

218, 7 ; pr.ppl. bemynde, 217, 24, 
berrUess, sb., OE. *beorhels, berhels ; 

salvation, 10, 13. 
bf rst, see bfre(ii). 
berwe(n), see berge(n). 
Berwik, sb., Berwick, 159, 8. 
bf ryng, sb., OE. *berang,/. ; bearing; 

nativity, 231, 20. 
bessBt, bessstte, see besitte(n), be- 

bes(e), see be(n). 

besetten, wkv., OE. besettan; sur- 
round, beset ; eME. //. sg. bessette 

= besette, 5, 22 ; pp. bisett, 12, 25. 
besi^te, sb., OE. ♦besih'5, *besih^/ ; 

provision, 226, 8. 
besitte(n), stv., OE. besittan-sset (5) ; 

sit upon, oppress, besiege ; eME./^. 

sg. besset, 2, 13. 
besme,j^.,OE.besma; besom, bundle 

of rods, 194, 1 6, 
best, see god. 
bfst, sb., OF. beste; beast, 82, 18; 

pi. bfstes, 51, 21. eSth. bfast, 195, 

beswike(n), see biswike(ii). 
besw9, adv., Sth. = Ml. beswo; OE. 

be + swa ; by so, so thaiy 214, 2. 
besynes, see bisines. 
bet, adv. {adj.) comp., OE. bet; 

better, 31, 14; quickly, 239, 5, 
betfche(n), bete^t, see bit§ohe(n). 
b3te(n), wkv., OE. betan ; mend, 

remedy^ better ; it^. bete, 129, 23 ; 



/r. 3 j^. beteC, i6, 22. eSth. /n 

3 J^. beot=bet«-beteC, 180,4 ; //. 

ibet, 179, II. 
bfte(n), stif., OE, beatan-beot (2); 

deaf; tnf, bfte, 152, 6; ^, bftin, 

53> 3^« eSth. f/n(/. //. bfaten, 

194, 22 ; />p, ibeaten, 194, 15. 
betere, bettre, bettur, betste, see 

bd]>, see bd(ii). 
bep, sd,, 8th. a: Ml. ba]>; OE. bse^; 

iath, 218, 6. 
bfBe(n), w^., OE. be9ian; wash, 

foment \ inf. bfCen, 33, 31. 
betdknep, betwd, ^^ bitokne(n), 

betwiz, bitwix, bitwixen, adv. 

prep,^ OM. betwex (betwix), WS. 

betweox(betwiix) ; betwixt J>etween ; 

betwyxy 2, 16; betwnx, 7, 15; 

betwyxen, 117, 9; bitwix, 130, 3; 

bitwixen, 244, 4. Nth. bytwixand, 

128, 15. 
beutSy see beautee. 
bevlye(n), j^z^., 8th. i* Ml. befle(n); 

WS. befleon-fleah (2); infl. by 

fle^en (flien) ; flee from, avoid ; 

inf. bevly, 218, 25 ; /r. 3 s^. 

bevly3>, 217, 23 ; bevlyjt, 219, 17. 
Bewis, sd,, Bewis (Bev^? see note), 

62, 6. 
bewTeyynge, bewreyyng, sb., OE. 

♦bewreging, f ; bewraying, accus- 

beye(n), beyne, see bige(n), b6(n). 

bi (by), be, prep, adv., OE. bi ; by, 

bi, 3, 6; be, 3, 3. Kt. bif, 212, 

bibu^eCn), stv., OK bebugan-beah 

(2) ; avoid, surround, reach ^ at- 
tain ; //. sg. bibahy 1 88, 2 1 . 

bioaUe(ii), wkv., ME. bi + ON. kalla 
(OE. ceallian) ; call out upon, accuse ; 
Pr, 3 sg. bicalleff, 29, 2^ 

bicam, see biouine(ii). 

bioause, see byoauae. 

biolupie(n), wkv., 8th. a Ml. bi- 

, clipe(n) ; OE. bedypian ; summon, 
accuse, 179, 18. 

biciime(ii), stv., OE. becuman-com 
(4) ; become ; inf. bicdmen, 240, 2 ; 

pr. 3 sg. bicmneS, 16, 14 ; //. sg, 
bicam, 24, 20; becom, 126, 18; 
bic5m, 227, 19 ; pp. bictime, 46, 6. ^ 

vbidde(n), bydde(n), bide(n), bid, 1/ 
stv., OE. biddan-baed (5) ; pray, 
pray for, beg, command, offer, in- 
vite, by confusion with bede(n) ; 
inf. bidden, 16, 27; biddenn (O), 
9, 29 ; biden, 71, 31 ; bide, 71, 28 ; 
bid, 72, 28 ; pr, 1 sg. bidde, 10, 4 ; 
pr. I sg, biddest, 64, 24 ; /r. 3 sg. 
bidde)), 40, 14; bit, 27, 14; pr.sbj. 
pi, bidden, 196, 20; bid, 18, 
1 2 ; imp. pi. bidde)), 2 30, 30 ; pt. sg. % 

badd(O), 8, 18; bad, 21, 3; badde, 
64, 10 ; //. sg. offer, bid, 44, 33 ; bid 
godday, bid good day, 47, 7 ; //.//. 
beden, 35, 21 ; bedin, 60, 19 ; bfde, 
39, II ; ^, beden, 26, 20 ; bfde, 40, 
5. Nth. inf, byd, 140, i|« 8th. 
pr, 3 sg. bit, 180, 4 ; pt. sg, (eSth. 
bged, 185, 18) ; bed, 196, 4. 

bidfle(n), wkv., OE. bedselan; dc' ., 
prive of; pp. bidflde, 185, 6. J( 

bide(n), byde(n), stv., OE. bidan ^ 

-bad(i); abide, await, expect', inf. 
bydin, 118, 15 ; pt. sg. bgd, 47, 4; 
bgde, 89, 25. 

bidene, biden, ^z'., origin uncertain ; 
by that, thereby, together, also, at 
once ; bidene, 74, 2 ; biden, 148, 7 ; 
bedene, n6, 5. 

biding, su byddynge. 

bidlich, adj., based on OE. biddan, 
* to pray * ; that may be implored, 
gracious, 103, 15. 

ble, see bi. 

bie(n), bie]>, see bd(n). 

bifaUe(n), stv., OM. befallan (WS. 
befeallan)-feol (R) ; befall; inf. 
bifalle, 38, 20 ; pr, sbj. sg. bifalle, 
332, 5 J /^- Ji^- bifeli?, 75, i ; befell?, 
106, 8 ; byfyl, 89, i ; byfell, 135, 5. 
8th.//. sg. \>yiv\, 220, 6. 

bifleo(n), stv., eMB.^MI. bifle(n); 
OK befleon -fleah (2) ; flu, escape ; 
inf. bifleon, 180, 30. 

bifgren, bifom, bifpr, prep, adv., j 
OE. beforen ; before ', eME. beforen, 
4) 30 ; bif9ren, 16, o ; biforn, 16, 
3 ; bifgr, 47, 26 ; bi(99re, 345, 19. 



bUgrat fti de, fp. or adj., OE. beforen, 
adv.-i-yijL snide; foresaid, 235, 

bifoniy iM bifljren. 

bigaty J^tf bi^ete(n). 

bige(n)-bixe(n), ble(n), «r>ky., OE. 
byi^fan-bonte ; ^y, atone for ; f »/*. 
bigen, 35, 6 ; bye, 95, 21 ; //. sg. 
bon^te, 58, a6; bognt, no, 3 ; pt. 
pL bohton, 4, 2^\ pp, b<^ht, 89, 
27. Nth. inf bii, 131, 6 ; bye, 156, 
27. Cf. 8th. (bUtten). Kt. inf 
beye(n), 244, 17. 

biadonde, adv, prep*, OE. begeondan ; 
beyond, 185, 24. 

biget, see bi)ete(n). 

bi)ete(n), bigete(n), begfte(n), 
stv,, OE. be^etan-gaet (5) ; receive, 
obtain ; li^ oi^eten, 185, 21 ; begse- 
ton, 7, a ; begeten, 25, 20 ; pt. sg. 
begat, 4, 18 ; bigat, a8, 23 ; bigf te, 
49, 16. 

bijetyxig, sb.<pr, ppL, OM. begetan, 
WS. begietan; begetting, genera- 
tion, loi, 18. 

bi^(n), wku., 8th. « Ml. biggen, 
ble(n) ; OE. bycgan-bohte ; buy, 
purchase, atone for', inf biggen, 
74, 17 (SEMI.), bigge, 178, 9; pr, 
3 sg. bi3C, 180, 24. 

bigge(n), wkv., ON. byggja; build; 
pt. sg. biggcd, 101, 13. 

bigines, see bigiime(n). 

biging, sb.f ON. bagging ; habitation, 
dwelling^ 161, 0. 

biginne(n), stv., OE. beginnan-gann 
(3); begin; inf biginne, 66, 20; 
pt. sg. bigon, 181, 20; pt. pi. 
beganne, 116, iS; pt. sbj. sg. be- 
gonne, 2 16, 4 ; //. begunnon, 8, 1 1 ; 
bigunnenn (O), 9, 30. Nth. pr. 3 
sg. bigines, 148, i*J', pt. sg. begouth, 
166, 7. 

biginninge, bigin(n)ing, sb,, OE. 
♦beglnnung,/ ; beginning, 134, 27 ; 
byginnyng, 236, 4. 

bijite(n), stv., 8th. a Ml. bi)ete(n) ; 
WS. berietan-geat (5); receive, 
obtain, beget ; pr. 3 sg. bi^it » 
bigite^, 198, 21 ; //. sg. biget, 192, 

23 ; PP- bijite 

" ; pt' sg. 
, 179, 16. 

Biffod, sb., Bigod; Roger, Eazl of 
Norfolk, 227, 3. 

big9(ii), anv.t OE. b^^-beeode ; go 
around, occupy, possess; cherish, 
honor; pp. big§n, 62, 19. eSth. 
//.//. byjeode, 222, 11. 

bigon, see bigixiziie(ii). 

bigTipe(xi), stv., OE. b^^npan-grap 
(i) ; gripe, chasten, chtde ; inf. 
bigrlpe(n), 19, 18. 

bi^, see bi^e(n). 

bigunnen, su biginne(n). 

bihald, stv.. Nth. « Ml. Sth. be- 
holde(n) ; ON. behaldan (haldan) 
-heold (R); behold; pr. pi. by- 
haldes, 145, 17; //. sg. bihelde, 

bih&te(n), stv., eMS., Nth. »MI. 

bih9te(n) ; OE. behatan-het (R) ; 

promise ; pr. 3 sg. bihatet^, 177, 14. 

bih$de(n)^ wkv.^ OE. behedan; 

watch, observe, guard; pt. sg. 

bihedde, 187, 22. 
bih|fdie(n) (h|vde(n)),fe;iz^., 8th. « 

Ml. behgvde(n) ; OE. beheafdian ; 

behead; pp. bihgfdet, 196, 26. 
bihSlde, biheold, see bih&lde(n), 

biheste, sb., OE. behses,^ ; behest, pro- 
mise, 209, 12 ; //. byhestes, 2a i, 16. 
bihete(n), stv., based on pt. het?; 

promise; inf bihete, 5a> 4. QL 

bihi^t, see bihgteCn). 
bihinde, adv. prep., OE. behindan 

-hindan ; behind, 178, 31. 
bihdf, sb.y OE. *beh5f, cf. behofian ; 

behoof profit, use, Sth. cb. bihove, 

200, 7. 
bihofjje, sb., OE. *bih6f», /, cL 

OFris. behofte ; behoof use, 204, 30. 
bih9lde(n), stv., OM. bihaldan (WS. 

healdan)-heold (R) ; behold, lookon; 

inf bihglde, 36, 2 ; //. sg. biheld, 

38, 3 ; pt,pl. biheld, 68, 20. Nth. 

see bih&ld. eSth. //. sg. biheold, 

196, 22. 
bih9te(n), stv., OK behatan-het (R); 

promise ; pt. sg. bihet, 85, 25 ; 

biheet, 220, la ; pp. bihoten, 8a, 8 ; 

behjten, 116, aa ; pp. bifaijt, 59, la. 



bihdve, see bihdf. 
bilidve(n), see beh5ve(n). 
bii (by), see bige(n). 
biing, sb., OE. bycging infl. by vb. ; 
buying^ atonement^ salvation^ 148, 

bike, sb.^ origin uncertain; nest^ as 

of bees ^ 128, 26. 
bikxiowe(n), stv., 0£. becnSwan 

-cneow (R) ; acknowledge, know ; 

pp, biknewe, 44, 16. 
bilSfde, see bil§ve(n). 
bilSve, see bil|ve(n). 
bilai, see bili^e(n). 
bilaven, see bilf ve(]i). 
bilde(n), wkv,, 0£. byldan, byldan ; 

buUd\ pp, ibild, 42, 5. 
bile, sb.y 0£. bile ; bill^ beak, 16, 11. 
bilff, see bil§Te(n). 
bile^e(n), bilewe(]i), stv., OE. bi- 

leogan-leag ( a) ; belie^ calumniate ; 

pp. bilowen, 199, 13. 
bilf ove(n), see bU§ve(n). 
bileve(n), wkv., OM. belefan (WS. 

beliefan); believe \ inf. beleve^ 122^ 

4 ; />^. bileved, 213, 13. 
bil|ve(ii), wkv.y OE. belsefan; re- 

hnquish, leave^ remain ; inf, be- 

Ifven, 27, 9 ; pr, i sg, bilseve, 184, 

13 ; ^W- ^^- IjilH 4i> I ; /^- ^& 
bilsefde, 185, 2 ; //. //. bil§vede, 

305, 27. Nth. pt sg. bilevid, 163, 

30. eSth. inf. bilfofven, 184, 11 ; bilaven, 183, 9. 
bili&&e(n), stv., Sth. = Ml. bilie(n) ; 

OE. bilicgan-lseg (5); lie by^ beset \ 

pt. sg. bilai, 188, 10. 
bilive, see belyve. 
bilive(n), stv., OE. belifan-laf (later/ 

Isef, leaf) (i) ; remain^ leave ; //. sg. 

bilef, 24, 32. 
bille(n), wkv., OE. *billan; bill, 

peck with beak ; pr. 3 sg. billetJ, 1 6, 8. 
bildke(n), wkv., OE. bel5cian : look 

atf look around \ pr. pi. biloken, 

20. I. 
biloken, see biluke(n). 
bil9iig, culj., cf. OE. gel^ng: de- 
pending, belonging, 21, 22. 
bUowen, see bileje(n). 
biluke(n), siv., OE. bilucan-leac (2) ; 

shut in, close around; fp, biloken, 

178, 25. 
bilavie(n), wkv,, 8th. » Ml. bi- 

luve(n) ; OE. belnfian ; delighted 

in, loved; biluveden, 184, 10. 
biinfne(n), wkv., OE. bemsenan ; 

bemoan, lament ; pr. 3 sg. bimfneS, 

27, 2 ; pp. biment, 26, 10. 
bimf ning, sb. < pr. ppl,, OE. be- 

iDsenan ; bemoaning, lamentation, 

35, 6. 
biment, see bimf ne(n). 
biiide(n), stv., OE. bindan (bindan) 

-band, bfnd (3) ; bind, fetter ; inf 

binden, 26, i ; pt, sg. bfnd, 207, 8 ; 

//. pi. bilnden, 26, 24 ; //. bunden, 

137, 6; bounden, Si, 20. Nth. 

itnp. pL bindeB, 138, 23; pt. pi. 

band, 140, 19. 
binf]>e(n), adv. prep,, OE. beneo^an; 

beneath, 41, 20; binfj^e, 208, 8. 

eSth. bineoffen, 178, 30. 
biiume(n), see benixxLe(n). 
binne,. adv. prep., OE. binnan ; 

within, in, 82, 28. 
binome, binume, see binime(n). 
biqufSe(n), wkv., OE. *becw9e9an 

< cwitJan ; lament, bewail ; inf 

biqneSen, 34, i. 
bip, so., ON. byrr, 'strong wind'; 

force, speed, 142, 5. 
birsed, su biride(]i). 
bird, see bire(n) 
birde, sb., OE. gebyrd, /. ; birth ; 

birde time, birth time, 17, 11. 
bire(n), wkv., OE. (ge)byrian ; 

belong to, behoove; pr, 3 sg. birr^ 

(O), 8, 26; bird, 150, 16; birrd, 

156, 31 ; pl' ^^« Ijirde, 153, 19. 
birSoonesse, sb., eME. » Ml. bi- 

rewne^se ; OIL, *belireowness, f. ; 

commiseration, pity, 198, 33. 
birdow8e(n), wkv., eME. =s Ml. bi- 

rewse(n); OE.behreowsian; repent; bireowseS, 196, 6. 
biri, sb., OE. byrig, ds. of buih ; 

castle^ city, 28, i. 
biride(n), stv.t OE. ber!dan-rad (i); 

ride around, surround, besiege ; pt. 

sg. birsed for birad, 187, 13. 
biriele, see birigeles. 



birie(n) (berlen), wkv,, 0£. byrgan 

(byrigean); duty; in/, birien, 33, 

8; biry, 68, 16 ; bene (Kt. ?), 245, 

33 ; iV»/. fl, birie^, 68, 39 , //. //. 

byneden, 4, 3a ; bined, 70, 19. 

Nth.//, f^. berid, 143, 10. 
birigeles, bMele, s6., OE. birigels; 

burial, 34, 27 ; 35, 10. 
Birkabeyxiy sO,, ON. Birkibeinn (a 

nickname) ; Birkabein, 75, 4. 
bind, birrp, see bire(n). 
bint, pp, or adj,^ OE. gebrysed < 

0£. brysan ; bruised \ bftin and 

birst, beaten and bruised, 53, 30. 
bisoop, sb.y eME. » Ml. bischop; 

OK biscop ; bishop, i, 5. 
bi8oaiiie(n), wkv., Sth. == Ml. bi- 

schmie(n); OE. bescunian; shun, 
flee from, 180, 30. 
bise, sb, , OF. bise ; name of north 

wind, 87, 9. 
bisdche(n), w^.,0£. besecean-s5hte 

(sohte) ; beseech ; pr. i sg. biseche, 

196, 201 pr, pL bisechen, 45, 22. 

Nth. //. sg, bisoht, 156, 8. Sth. 

pr, pL bisecheth, 211,15. 
bisekeing, sb. <^pr, ppL^ OE. be- 

secan ; beseeching, imploring, 74, 8. 
bisemarey see bismere. 
bise(n), stv,, ON. beseon-saeh (WS. 

seah) (5); oversee, look after; inf, 

bisen, 34, 13. 
biaett, see besette(ii). 
biside, bi8ide(8), adv. prep., OE. 

bi side; beside, besides, 57, 5; by- 
sides, 223, 3. 
bisines, besynes, sb., OE. ^bysignes, 

f; business, care, trouble; besynes, 

144, 20 ; bysynes, 224, 24. 
bismere, bismare, sb., OE. bismer, 

neut,m.; insult, evil, scorn, 55, 18; 

bismare, 201, 19. 
bisne, sb. , OE. lbisen,f. ; example, copy, 

bisohty see bi8eohe(n). 

bissohop, see biscop. 

bistele(n), stv., OE. bestelan-stsel 
(4) ; steal, steal away; pt. sg. bistal, 
188, I ; //. bistolen, 176, 17. 

bistije, sb., OE. *bestig, /. or new 
cpa. ; path, way, ctseent, loi, 4. 

bistolen, see bi8tfle(n). 
bistride(xi), stv., OE. bestndan-strad 
(i); bestride; inf. bistndeiiy 181, 

biswike(n), stv., OE. beswican — 

swac (i) ; deceive; inf. beswiken, 

6, 17* biswiken, 19, 17; jpt. sg. 

(eME.) biswac, 187, 31. 

bisy, €idj\, OE. bysig ; anxious, 
sorrowful, busy, 66, 15. 

bit, see biddp(n). 

bitaohe, bitnohen, see bitfolLe(n). 

bit&cne(]i), wkv., eMS. for bi- 
tgkne(n) ; OE. *bitacnian ; betoken ; 
pp. bitacnedd (O), 12, 28. ITth. 
P^' 3 sg. bytakens, 127, 22. 

bitagt(e), bita^t, bitaht, see bit^ 

bitake(n), stv,, OE. bi (be) + ON. 
taka-tok (6) ; commit, betake ; pt. 
sg. bitok, 67, 19 ; bitook, 231, 22 ; 
//. bitake, 203, 24. 

bitakens, see bit&cne(xi). 

bitauote, bitaugt, see bitf che(n). 

bite, sb., OE. bytt,/. ; bottle, flagon 

I {originally lecUher); bollen as a 

/ bite, swollen as a bottle, 50, 6. 

bitfche(n), bit§ache(n), wkD., OE. 
betsecean-taehte (tsehte) ; otssign, 
deliver, commit \ itrf^ bitleche, 9, 
19; bitgche, 43, 23 ; bit^:te, 
24, II; pp, betfht, 5, 7; bitagt, 
21, 7; bitagt, 43, 18; bitaujt, 49» 
27. eSth. inf. bitfachen, 193,8; 
pr. I sg. bitache, 190, 22 ; pp. 
bitaht, 193, 31. 

bite(n), j/z;., OE. bitan-bat (i); biU\ 
pt. sg. bgt, 66, 8. 

biter, see bitter. 

bi8, see be(n). 

bipenche(n), biSexike(n), who., OE. 
bit$encan-^ohte (Sohte) ; think, 
bethink, conceive; inf. biSenken, 
16, 16; pt. sg. biCogte, 23, 19; 
bi>oBte, 208, I ; pp. bi}>o3t as adj., 
thoughtful, discreet, 36, ai ; bi]K>ht, 
176, 8. Sth. bijienche, 176, 6; 
pr. 3 sg. bi))enct5, 177, o. 

bitide(n), 2if/lv.,0£.bet!dan; happen, 
betide ; inf. bitlde, 39, 27 ; /^. 3 sg. 
bitid, 25, 21 ; ^. bitid, 31, 6. 



bitilde(n), wkv„ OK beteldan (?) ; 

cover, surround; pp, bitild, 192, 26. 
'bitime, adv, 0£. *bet!ma ? ; betimes^ 

promptly, 204, 6. 
Isitdk, see bltake(n). 
131151016(11), bitookne(]i), whv,, 0£. 

'''bitacnian ; betoken ; pr, 3 sg, 

bit§kne)>, 71^ 8; bet^ckne]), 212, 

bitook, i^tf^ bitake(xi). 
bitray, wkv., Nth. » Ml. bitraischen 

(bitraissen, betraien) ; OE. be(bi) + 

OF. trair ; betray ; pp, bitrayd, 

bitter, bittre, adj., OE. biter ; bitter, 

140, 16 ; bittre, 194, 16. 
bitterliohe, adu,, OE. biterlice; 

bitterly, 67, 9. 
bittre, see bitter, 
bittemesse, sb., OE. bitemess, /.; 

bitterness, 202, 14. 
bitamie(n), wkv.t Sth. » Ml. bi- 

tume(n) ; OE. ♦beturnian ; turn 

ahout ; pt, pi, biturnde, 208, 7. 
bitwen^ betw§(n), adv» prep,, OE. 

betweonan; between, among, 26, 11 ; 

betwe, 95, 14; bytwene, 222, 2. 
bitwiz, bitwixen, see betwiz. 
bive(n), wkv,, OE. bifian ; tremble; 

pr* 3 sg, bive'5, 28, 24. Sth. inf. 

bivie, 182, 23. Cf. beovien. 
blvie(n), j^tf bive(ii), 
biv9re(n), adv, prep. Sth. = Ml. bi- 

^re(ii); OE.beforan; before; eSth. 

bivoren, 181, 17; bivgre, 206, 17. 
biw&ke(n), wkv.^ OE. *bewacian ; 

watch over; f»/.biwaken, 33, 28. 
blw§fe(n), wkv., OE. bewsefan; 

clothe ; pt, sg. biwffde, 188, 26. 
biwende(n), wku,, OE. bewendan 

(wendan) ; turn away, turn around; 

pi. sg. biweute, 48, 6. 
biwdpe(n), wku., OE. bewepan; 

weep for ; imp, pi, biwepeC, 196, 6. 
bewinde(n), stv,, OE. bewindan 

(windan)-wand (wgnd) (3) ; wind 

about, surround; pp. biwunden, 

196, 30* 
blwreye(n), wkv., OE. ♦biwregan, 

cf^ wregan ; bewray, accuse ; inf. 

biwreye, 243, 27. 

biwunden, see biwinde(n). 
blao, adj., OE. blaec; black, 52, 24. 
Blais, sb., OF. Blois ; Blois, 2, 7. 
blame, sb., OF. bl^me < blasme ; 

blame, 120, 20. 
blame (n), wkv. OF. blasmer, blUmer ; 

blame; inf. blame, 159, 14; pr. 3 

sg. blame]), 202, 2. 
blasphgmour, sb,, OF. blasphemenr 

(or) ; blasphemer, 246, 5. 
Blaunoheflur, sb., OF. Blanchefltlr ; 

Blanchefleur, 36, 15; gs. Blaunche- 

flures, 35, 26. 
blawe(n), stv., eMB., Nth. ^ Ml. 

blowe(n); OE. blawan-bleow (R); 

blow; inf., blawe, 82, 31 ; pp. 

blawene, 144, 7. eSth. pr. 3 sg. 

blawetJ, 180, 16. 
ble, blee, sb., OE. bleo ; color, com- 
plexion, 52, I ; blee, 231, 25. 
bldde(n) wkv., OE. blldan; bleed; 

pr.ppl. bledyng, 221, 23. 
bleike, adj., ON. bleikr; pale, 79, 

blenohe(n), wkv., OE. blencan ; 

blench, flinch ; inf. blenche, 58, 1 2 ; ' 

pt. sg. blench te, 195, 32. 

blende(n), wkv., OE. blendan, blen- 
dan; make blind; Sth. //. iblende, 
125,33; yblent, 217,2. 

blenke(n), see bl7xike(n). 

wkv., OE. bledsian, bletsian ; bless, 
cross oneself, blesse hem, cross them- 
selves ; inf. blesse, 123, 7; /r. i sg. 
blisce, 128, 19; imp. sg. blisce, 
T04, 14; imp. pi. blisce]), 105, 12 ; 
//. sg. blessede, 205, 7 ; pp. (eME. 
bletced, 7, 31) blesced, 100, 15; 
blisced, 132, 19; blessyd, 94, i'; 
blissed, 228, 30. Sth. pp. yblisced, 
72, 21. 

blessyng, sb., OE. bletsnng,/. ; bless- 
ing, 96, 3; bliscelng, 69, '22; blis- 
cyng, loi, 17 ; blissing, 32, 14. 

bldtcen, see blesae(n). 

ble])eUche, see bli]>6like. 

bleve(n), whf., OE. bilsevan, Kt. 
bilevan ; remain; "SX.pp. ybleved, 

bldvinge, sb.^ St. » ML blfvinge ; 



0£. *be'ixvvaig, /. ; abiding, exis- 
tence, 216, 27. 

blin, see blixme(n). 

blind, adj,, 0£. blind, blind ; blind, 
51.25; blynd?, 119,7. 

blinxie(]i), bline(]i), stv,, 0£. blin- 
nan — ^blann (blgnn) (3) ; cease ; inf. 
blinne, 55, 30. Nth. iftf, blin, 

130, 7. 
bli8, blifloe, see blisse. 
bliseeiag, bliBoyng, see blessyng. 
blisoe]), see ble88e(n). 
bliafol, blisfta, adj\ OE. *blisfia; 

blissful, happy ^ 219, 3; blisfiil, 

192, 30. 
blisfollioh, adj.^ OK *blisfulUce- 

blissfully, 102, 23. 
blisse, blis, sL, OE. bliss,/. < bli>s 

[blTCf] ; bliss, happiness, 7, 7 ; blis, 

38, 4; blisce, 211, 25. eSth. ds, 

blissen, 195, 6. 
blissing, see blessyng. 
bllSe, bl^|>e, blith, adj., blTSe ; glad, 

blithe, 31, 7 ; blith, 139, o. 
bHpeHke, bUj^U), ado., OE. blithe- 

lioe; gladly, blithely, 10, i', bli))eli3 

(O), 10, 21 ; blyj>ely, 94, 27. Kt. 

ble])ellche, 211, 15. 
blj, adj., ON. blar, cogn. with OE. 

blaw ; livid, blue-black, 52, 24. 
blod, blood, sb,, OE. bl5d ; blood, 

28, 21 ; blood, 238, 19. eSth. ds, 

bl5de, 189, 32. Urth. blnd^, 

146, 1, 
blodi, blody, adf, OE. blodig; 

bloody, 152, 2; blod^, 228, 5. 
blodstrfm, sb,, OE. *blodstream; 

stream of blood, 187, 2. 
bl6dy, see blodi. 

bldme(n), wkv., ON. *bloma I, cog- 
nate with OE. blostmian; bloom' 

pt. sg. blomede, 21, 25. 
blondix&ge, sb., based on OF. blandir ; 

blandishing^ flattery t 219, 5. 
bloodrf dj adj., OE. blodread ; blood- 

red, 229, 14. 
blowe(n), stv., OE. blawan-bleow 

(R) ; blow ; inf blowen, 62, 5 ; 

imp. sg. blou, 82, 29 ; pp. blowen, 

50, 14. 
blud9, blfnd^, su blod, blind. 

bl7nke(n), wko., ON. *blhika, Dan. 

blinke ; look, wink, blinfcy wake 

from sleep \ inf blinke, 91, 31. 

INth./^. sg, blenkit, 172, 33. 
bl7]>e, see bli]>e. 
bl^]>ely, see blypellke. 
blyve, oflfo., OE, be + life; quickly, 

III, 4. 
bg, adj., OE. ba (begen) ; both, 38, 5. 

Cf. bft. 
b6o, see b6ke. 
bochdre, sb., OF. bochier; butcher, 

57, 18. 
boostaf, sb,, OE. bocstsef ; letter of 

alphabet ; bocstaff (O), 10, 7. 
bgd, bgde, see bide(n). 
bgde, sb., OE. gebod, neut. ; com- 

mand, request^ message ; pi. bgdes, 

17, 28. eSth.//. boden, 181, 4. 
bodede, see bodie(n), 
bgdeword, sb., QE. *bodwoid or new 

cpd. ; message^ 23, 26. 
bodi, body, sb., OE. bodig ; body, 

I7» 23 ; //. bodis, 68, 16; bodies, 

221, 8. 8th. ds. bod^e, 216, 14. 
b9d!e(n), wkv., Sth. = Ml. b9de(n) ; 

OE. bodian; announce, proclaim, 

speak', pt. sg. bodede, 18^ 23. 
boctili, bodylioh, adj., OE. '^bodig- 

lice; bodily, 146, 16; bodyl^, 146, 

26. Sth. bod^lich, a 16, 29. 
bgdyn, see bgde(n). 
boght, bohton, see bige(n). 
boistouslyoh, adv., origin uncertain; 

boisterously, 221, 8. 
boke, boo (bok), sb., OE. boc, /; 

book ; b5c, 9, i ; boke, 15, 9 ; 40, 

3 ; 66, 28 ; bok, 67, 7. 
bold, sb., OE. bold, b5ld; house, 

building ; //. boldes, 196, 8. 
bgld, adj., OM. bald, bald, WS. 

beald; ^^Zsf, 23, 25. ' • 

bollen, pp. as adj., 0£^ belgan, 

swollen, 50, 6. 
bolne(n), boln, wkv., ON. bolgna; 

swell. Nth. inf. boln, 151, iS. 
hgn, b99n, 5^., OE. ban ; bone ; //. 

bggnys, 113, 18. Nth. ban, 139, 25. 
bgnd, see binde(n). 
bgnd, sb., ON. band, lOE. bgnd; 

bond, durance, 2^2, 12, 



b^ndaSe, sb,, OF. *bondage, ML. 

bondaginnus ; bondage, 94, 15. 
bonde,' b^nd, sb,, OE, bonda < ON. 

bon^; bondman, servant; bgnde 

manere, manner of a bondman, 94, 

22. 19'th. bgnd, as in phr. bond 

and free, 135, 11. 
bone, sb., ON. bon, f, cogn. with 

OE. ben; prayer, boon, 16, 27, 

Sth.//. bonen, 199, i. 
Boneface^ sb,^ OF. Boniface ; Boni- 
face of Sa!voy, 226, 24« 
bord, sb,, 0£. bord, bord, neut. \ 

board, plank, table, side of ship ; 

ds. borde, 190, 7. 
borde, sb,, NF. boide, OF. bonrde ; 

jest, 122, 26. 
b9Pe(n), bom, see bfre(ii). 
borh, A, OE. borh, m, ; bail, security, 

payment, 195, 31. 
borrgheniiy see berge(n). 
borwe(n), w/^z/., OE. borgian; receive 

on pledge, borrow ; pt, sg* borwed, 

b^st, bgste, j3., based on root of 
OE. bogan, 'boast' ?j boast, 158, 
2 ; b99st, 242, I. 

basting, sb, < pr. ppL ; bocLsting, 160, 

bgt, J^^ bite(n). 

bot, bote, see bdte, bate. 

bote (bot), sb,, OE. bot,/.; A?//, 

remedy, salvation, 18, 12 ; bot, 54, 

II. Ua'tb. bnte, 157, 14. 
botel,53., OF.bouteille; ^<7///.^, 245, 10. 
bol» (bgfle), b^tbe, adj,, pm,, ON. 

b|]^r ; both, also, 37, 30 ; //. (Sth.) 

bgt^en, 21, 13. Cf. ba.])e. 
bou^te, ^^^ bige(n). 
boun, CLdj,, ON. //. buinn; r<fa^, 

prepared, 139, 16; bowne, 105, 22. 
bounden, see bmde(n). 
bounte, biintd, sb,, AN. btmt^, OF. 

bont6; bounty, goodness, 97, 13; 

bunte, 214, 12. 
bour, see bur. 
bourde(]i), wkv,^ OF. hoxaditt; jest, 

J42, 15. 
bouzomnes, see btizsumnes. 
bowande, see bowe(n). 
bowdraucht, j^.,0£. boga + *draht? ; 

bow-draft, distance a bow will carry, 

166, 19. 
bowe(n), stv,, OM. bugan-beg (WS. 

beah) (2); bow, bend, turn aside, 

be obedient ; pr, ppl, bowande, 96, 

32. Cf. bu5e(n). 

bowes, bown, see bug, boun. 
box, sb,, OE. box ; box, 245, 8. 
Braband, Brabant, sb,, OF. Braband, 

Brabant ; Brctbant, 161, 23 ; Bra- 
bant, 162, 8. 
brad (brade), braid, adj., eME. 

Nth. s Ml. brgd ; OE. brad; broad; 

eME. brad, 190, 9; brad^^ 122^ 11. 

INth. braid, 167, 26. 
brscon, see brf ke(n). 
braid, see brad, bre7de(n). 
braie(n), wkv., OF. braire ; bray, 

resound harshly ; pr, ppL brayinde, 

217, 25. 
bra8tUe(n), wkv,, Sth. = Ml. brast- 

le(n) ; OE. brastUan ; rustle, crackle, 

fnake a noise ; pr, pl» brastlien, 1 89, 

brathly, adv., Nth. = Ml. brgthly ; 

ON. braSligr ; violently, 128, 13. 
braunche, sb., OF. branche ; branch ; 

pi. brannches, 235, 22. 
brayde, see breid. 
brayinde, see braie(n). 
brf ad, see brfd. 
brfadlfp = brf dlfp, sb», OE. bread 

+ leap, 'basket'; bread basket, 22, 

bred, bredde, see brede(n). 
bredale, see bridale. 
brfd, sb., OE. bread ; bread, 21, 12 ; 

brfad, 22, 15 ; brgde, 89, 26 ; br^"8^. 

243, I- 
brfde, sb,, Sth. = ML brede; WS. 

brsede, OM. brede; roast meat, 180, 

brede, Nth. brede sometimes ; sb., 

OE. brsedu; breadth", on bred, in 

breadth, stretched out, 140, 21. 
brfde(n),ze;^.,OE.br8^an; broaden, 

expand \ inf. brede, 133, 17. 
brede(n), wkv,, OE. bredan; breed; 

pp, bred, 17, ii ; bredde, 53, 19. 
brf dwrigte, sb,, OE. bread + wyrhta 

(wryhta); baker, breacUwright, 22,1^. 

Z 2 



br^^y see br^ 

brdfli. adv., OF. briefs ME. -li; 
briefly, 130, 6. 

breid, brayde, sb., 0£. braegd ; rapid 
movement, cunning, throw, strata- 
gem ; at a breid, rapidly, at a bound, 
60, 3. Nth. brayd^, 140, 16. 

breken, siv,, OE. brecan-brsec (4) ; 
break, tear upj violate ; inf^ broken, 
303, II ; /'•• 3 Jif- brfkej), 222, 6; 
/^. sg, brak, 69, 32 ; brakk, 1 12, 26 ; 
brek^, with, vowel oi pi., 67, 32; 
pt. pi. (eME. brsecon, 3, 13) ; 
breken, 69, 15 ; pp, broken, 18,1. 
Bill,, brekeC, 179, 2; pt.pL 
brfken, 186, 31 ; pp. ibr^ken, 203, 
II ; ibr§ke, 204, 16. 

brekynge, sb., OE. brecnng, /. ; 
oreaking, 146, 8. 

Brembre, sb., OM. Bremel, Brember? 
(WS. Brsemel) ; Brember; Nicholns, 

233; I. 
br^me, adj\, OE. breme ; famous, 

excellent, 4fit 24. Nth.bremy 152,30. 
brdmliy brexnly, adv., OE. *breme- 

lice ; fiercely, 152,6. 
bren, brend, see brenne(n). 
Brenioia, sb., Lat. Bcmicia, OE. 

Beoroica rice ; Bemicia, 221, 31. 
brenne(n), wkv., ON. brenna; burn; 

iyr, ppl, brennynde, 61, 6; pt. pi, 

brendon, 3, 25, brenden, 83, 7 ; pp. 

brent, iii, i ; brent?, 107,9. Wth. 

inf. bren, iSiiZ^;^ brend, 163, 

brenstgn, brixnstgn, sb., OE. *bren- 

stan, cf. ON. brennistein ; brimstone, 

sulphur, 217, 24; brimst^n^ 62, 17. 
brent, see brenne(n). 
brdoste, see brest. 
brere, sb., OE, brer; briar, 235, 24. 
brest (brest), sb., OE. breost ; breast, 

pi. brestess (O), 12, 5; //. breste, 

41, 20; brest, 54, 12. eStfa.. //. 

breoste, 197, 21. 
brSstatter, sb., OE breost + ator, 

atter; breast poison, 17, 14. 
brestfiiKe, sb.,OE. breost + fyl6,/. ; 

breastfilth, evil in the heart, 18, 20. 
Bretayne, sb,, OF. Britaine, Bretaine ; 

Brittany, 116, 8. 

brethere, brethere(n), see brother, 
bretherhod, sb., OE. br5Sor + had; 

brotherhood, 116, 18. 
brdSren, see brdther. 
brewe(n), brew, breu, stv., OE 

breowan -breaw (2) ; brew, prepare; 

pp. browen, 57, 25. Nth. inf. brew, 

130,4; breu, 149, 27. 
breyde(n), stv,, OE. bregdan-brsegd 

(3) ; wrench, move, tum^ cut ; inf. 

breyde, 50, 30 ; pt, sg. breyde, 93, 

31 ; braid, 195, 33 ; //.//. broiden, 

62, I. 
bribor, sb., OF. bribeur, NF. bribeor; 

ihief, rasccU, 221, 19. 
brid, sb., OE, bridd; bird; pi. 

briddes, 198, 23. 
brid, sb.. Nth. = ML bride ; OE. bryd, 

/; bride, 159, 31. 
bridale (MS. briddale), sb., OE. 

brydealo; bridal, bride-feast, 46, 

26. Kt. bredale, 219, 8. 
bridel, sb., OE. bridel; bridle, 50, 

bri^t, brigt, briht, adj., OE. briht; 

bright, 52, i; pi. brigt, 15, 26; 

brihte, 178, 19; bryghte, 144, i; 

comp. brihtre, 194, 33. 
brimst^n, see brenston. 
brin, stv., Nth. «= Ml. brinne(n); 

ON. brinna -brann (3) ; bum ; inf. 

brin, 141, 6. 
bringe(n), wkv., OE. bringan-brohte 

(brohte); bring; inf. bringen, 24, 

31 ; bringe, 41, i3;/r. i sg. bringe, 

37> 4 ; P^' 3 sg- brinngel)J) (O), 11, 

13 J /^- s& brohte, 4,15; brojte, 38, 

25 ; pi' pl» brohten, 2,2; //. sbj. 

pi. brohten, 186, g;pp. brohht (O), 

8, 26 ; broght, 89, 28. Nth. /r. 

3 sg. brynges, 145, 3 ; sbj. sg. bring, 

157, 8. Sth. pp. ibroht, 207, 32 ; 

ibro5t, 38, 23 ; ybroujt, 70, 23. 
Bristowe, sb,, OE Bry<^t6w, /. ; 

Bristol, 5, 27. 
Britayn, Brytayn, sb, OF. Britaine ; 

Britain, 220, la; Brytayn, 220, 

brith, sb.. Nth. = Ml. bir])e; *gebryj), 
cogn, with OE. gebyrd,/; or ON. 
byrC; birth, 130, 4« 



Brlt5n, Brytdn, sd,, OF. Breton, 

Briton; Briton; pU Britons, 220, 

15; Brytonsy 221, 24. 
bir9d, adj,^ OE. brad; broad, 47, 3. 
brode, j^., OE, br5d, f> : offsprings 

broody 68, 26. 
broght, broste, see bringe(n). 
bTohte(n), brohht, see bringe(n). 
broiden, see breyde(n). 
broken, see br6ke(n). 
br^nd, sh,, OE. brand, bi$nd [bren- 

nan] ; brandy 61, 26. 
brother, sb,, OE. broCor ; brother, 5, 

23 ; br5>err (O), 8, 13 ; //. (eME. 

brethere, 26, 7; breSren, 196, 21); 

brethere, 117, 22; brctheren, 116, 

brouch, sb,^ OF. broche; brooch, 

224, 23. 
browen, see br6we(n). 
Bruce, sb,, Bruce \ Robert l>e Bruce, 

170, I, 
Brushes (MS. Brig, Bnrghes), sb,^ 

OF. Bruges ; Bruges, 161, 8. 
bruke(n), j/z'.jOE. briican-breac(2) ; 

enjoy, brook ; inf, brukenn (O), 1 3, 

23 ; bruke, 185, 18. 
Brut, sb,, OF. Bmt ; Brutus, 126, 7. 
Brut, sb,, Sth. = Ml. Brit ; OE. Bryt ; 

Briton; gpL Briitten, 183, 31; 

Briitte, 184, 4; pL Briittes, 184, 

Brutljnd, sb., OE. Brytenl9nd (Bryt- 

Ignd) ; land of Britain, England, 

183, 26. 
Briittaine, Brutaine, sb,, Sth. « Ml. 

Bretaine; OF. Bretaine, mod, by 

OE. Bryt, Bryten ; Britain, 184, 8. 

Cf. Britayn. 
Bruttisc, adj,, Sth. = MI. Brittish ; 

OE. Brytisc; British, 183, 29. 
bryche, adj,^ OE. bryce; useful, of 

service, 96, 17. 
bryght, see bri^t. 
bryiige(ii), see bringe(]i). 
brynige, sb., ON. brynja, OE. byme ; 

coat of mail; pi. br3miges, 3, 7. 
Brytayn, see Bretayne. 
Brytdn, see Briton, 
buc, sb., OE, bfic ; belly, paunch, 

abdomen, 195, 23. 

bnckler, sb,, OF, buoler; buckler, 

p. 282. 
biidel, sb,, Sth.=:Ml. bidel, bfdel; 

OE. bydel; beadle, 194, 22. > 
bug = bu5, sb,, OE. b6h(g) ; bough ; 

pi, buges, 21, 24; bowes, 202, 

bu^e(n), biihe(n), stv,, OE. bugan 

-beah(2); bow,tum,go; be obedient; 

inf bu3e, 184, 8; buhen, 193, 26; 

Sth. //. sg, bgh, 185, 26. Cf. 

bulche, sb,, OE. *bulce, cogn. with 

ON. bulki, MnE. bulk ; hump, heap, 

bunch, 60, 10. 
'bulde(n), wkv,, Sth. = Ml. bilde(n) ; 

OE. byldan ; build; imp. pi. 

buldeC, 196, 8; //.//. biilde, 221, 

btildyng, sb,, Sth. -= MI. bildinge, 

based on bulde(n) ; building, 220, 3. 
bunden, see binde(n>. 
bundyn, adj.<,pp, ME, bunde(n); 

bound, 169, 29. 
bunts, see bounte. 
biir, bour, sb,, OE. bur ; bower, ori- 

gincUly the womatis part of the 

house, 35, 16 ; hour, 49, 7. eSth. 

ds, bdre, 181, 12. 
BuTcb, see burh. 
burde, sb,, Sth. = Ml. birde ; OE. 

♦byrdu ? ; woman, 1 91 , 11. 
bur^ewere, see burhwere. 
burgeis, sb,, OF. burgeis; burgess, 

citizen, 42, 21. 
burh, burch, sb., OE. burh(g), /. ; 

town, borough, 6, 27; specifically 

^ya(^^ Peterborough, i, 2. eSth. 

ds. burhse, 187, 17. 
burhfolc, sb., OE. *burhfolc ; people 

of the town, citizens, 187, 26. 
burble, see burh. 
burhwere, sb, OE. burhwaru ; dweller 

in a city J citizen ; pi, burhweren, 

187, 7; burjewere, 187, 19. 
biim, sb., OE. burna, bume; brook, 

little stream, 168, 24, 
bume, see beme(n). 
burst, adj., Sth. » ML brist ; allied 

to OE. byrst, sb., * bristle ' ; bristly. 

clothed with bristles, 195, 12. 



htrptonge, si. , Sth. « Ml. bir>timge ; 

0£. (ge)byxd + timge; Urtk tongue, 

mother tongue, 324, 16. 
buak/f^., 0£. *btisc ?, cf. Dan. bask, 

LL. *baxicDin; bush, stalk, 23, 

bii8ke(n), wko,, ON. buask, 'get 

oneself ready*; prepare, ad^n, 

disguise, go i imp, sg, bnsk, 161, 8 ; 

//. sg, basked, 108, 4. 

buashel) sb., OF. boissel ; bushel \ 
pi, basihels, 242, 8. 

busshment, sb,, OF. bnschement; 
ambush", pi. basshmentz, 233, 19. 

but, bute, see bute(]i), bdte. 

bute(n), later but, bdt(e), prep, 
conj'.y 0£. butan ; but, except, with- 
out, 2, 6; buten, 16, 24; bQte, 17, 
24 ; but, 26, 4 ; but if, except, 118, 
7. eSth. bute jif, 199, 33, bCte, 
without, \*i*i, 28. 

buteldr, sb,, OF. bonteillier ; butler, 
21, 19. 

butere, sb., 0£. batere, Lat baty- 
rum; butter, 3, 27. 

bup, see be(n). 

butipflije, sb,, OM. battorflege(flige), 
WS. -fleoge ; butterfly, 36, 25. 

baven, see abuven. 

buxsumnes, bouzomnes, sb,, 0£. 
buhsomnes,^ ; obedience, humility, 
127, 12; bouxomnes, 146, 29. 

by, see b§, bige(n), be(n). 

by cause, adv. prep., 0£. bi + OF. 
cause; because, 221, 7. 

byd(de), byddys, see bidde(n). 

byddynge, byddyng, biding, sb., 
OE. *biddang,y. ; praying, bidding, 
command', byddyng, 96, 30; biding, 
138, 25. 

bf den, bydin, see blde(n). 

by •(n), see bige(n). 

b^ep, set b6(n). 

byfalle(n). byfell, byfiil, byfyl, 
see bifalle(n). 

bygdoden, by^dode, see big5(n). 

bygynnyng, see biginning. " 

byb&Iden, see bih&lde(n), 

byheste, byn', see biheste, bS(n). 

bylf ve, sb., OE. *beleafe, geleafe ; 
belief, 125, 34. 

bynk, sb., Vth. » MI. benk ; ON. 

bennk; bench, 173, 26. 
b7xiede(n), see birie(n). 
byrthen, sb., OE. byi^en ; hurden, 

a, 5* 
bysoboprylce, sb., 0£. biscoprice; 

bishopric, 113, 28. 
bysides, see biside. 
bysfnes, see bisines. 
bytaken, see bitaone(n). 
bytwfine, su bitwdn. 
bytwixand, su betwix. 


oaas, see oas. 

e&ble, sb., OF. cable ; cable, 86, 26. 

oaobe(n), wkv., NF. cachier; catch', 

in/, cache, 125, 28. 
Cador, sb., OF. Cador ; Cador, 190, 

d»88, sb,, eMS. « Ml. chese ; OM. 

ceae, WS. ciese; cheese, 3, 27. 

deBste, see cheste. 

CsBstre, sb,, eMlS. a Ml. Chestre, 
Chester ; OE. Ceaster, Lat castra ; 
Chester, 5, 19. 

Cai, sb. Kay, 126, 13. 

Oaim (Kaim), [KaXm], sb,, OK 
Cain with change of final consonant, 
or OF. *Caim ; Cain, 68, 10. 

oaitif, sb,, NF. caitif ; caitiff, wretch, 
63, 8 ; kaityf, 240, 32 ^ pi, kaytefes, 

oakel, adj,, ON. *kakel, cf. Swed. 

kackla?; cackling; kakel, T98, 18. 
oakele(n), wkv., ON., cf. Swed. 

kackla?; cackle*, ^V^kakelen, 198, 

21 ; pr. ppl, kakelinde, 198, 24; 

pp, icakeled, 198, 27. 
o&lende, sb., 0£. calend ; first of the 

month', ^e fortende kalende of 

Mearch, the fourteenth day front the 

first of March, 197, 9. 
ci^ia, sb., OF. (Picard) calice ; 

chalice, 203, 8. 
Calixtes, sb., Lat. Calixtns; Calix- 
^ tus, Pope and Saint, 209, 19. 
oalle(n), wkv,, ON. kalla; cail; inf. 

calle, 87, 30 ; pt, sg, kalde, 63, 28 ; 



kalled, 94, 9; callyd, 105, 21 ; //. 

cald, 135, 8. 
Oambria, sd.^ Lat. Cambria ; Cam' 

bria, 223, 8. 
Camelfdrd, sb,, Camelford^ 109, 21 ; 

^. Camelforde, 189, 22. 
Caxnpaine, sb,^ NF. Campaine ; 

Campania^ 196, 32. 
oan = gan, see ginne(n). 
oanceler, sb,, NF. canceler, later 
^displaced by OF. chancelere; 

chancellory 2, 25. 
oandel, candel, sb,^ 0£. candel 

(candel), candel ; candle ; kandel, 

82, 29 ; //. candles, 5, 14, candelySi 

117, 2. 
oandelmasse, oandelmasse, sb., 0£. 

Candelmaesse (candel-) ; CandelmaSf 

6» 25. 
oandelys, see oandel. 
oanozL; sb.f 0£. canon ; canon, rule, 

245, 29. 
canon, sb,, OF. (Picard) canone; 

canon, prebendary, pi, canSns, 

210, 3. 
Cantelow, sb,, Cantelupe, Walter of, 

Bishop of Worcester, 227, i. 
Cantwarbexi, sb,, 0£. Cantwarabnrh 

(-b3rrig, Kt. -berig); Canterbury, 

5, 16 ; Cannterbiry, 231, 24. 8th. 

Kantebiin, 226, 24. 
cannnk, sb,, ON. kantinkr; canon, 

prebendary ; gs, kanunnkess (O), 8, 

oapon, sb,^ OF. capon, AN. capun ; 

capon ; pi, cap5ns, 244, 28. 
Carausius, sb., Lat. Carausius; 

CarausittSj 221, 21. 
oare, sb,, OM. earn, WS. ceam ; care, 

sorrow, 39, 2 ; eM£. kare, 177, 21. 
careful, adj,^ 0£. cearfhl; full of 

care, careful; eM£. superl, kare- 

fullest, 188, 27. 
carie(n), wkv., NF. carier; carty, 

inf carye, 233, 15 ; pr,ppl, cariynge, 

245, 14; pp, caried, 239, 3. Sth. 

pp, ycaried, 242, 28. 
oarited-icarite]?, sb., NF. cariteth, 

OF. carite, charite, Lat. caritatem ; 

charity, almsgiving, 4, 13. 
oariynge, see carien. 

carl, 5b\ as adj,, ON. karl ; man, male, 

contemptuously, low, common man ; 

carl, 240, 21 ; carle, iii, 25. 
Carliun, sb,y AN. Carliun ; CaerUon; 

Karliun, 188, 24. 
oarhnan, sb,, ON. karl, 0£. man; 

vicUe person, man; pi, carlmen, 

Carole, sb,, OF. carole; carol, song; 

karole, 215, 21. 

cart, sb,, ON. kartr, perh, OE. craet ; 
cart; pi, cartes, 31, 10. 

car^e, see carie(n). 

cas, cas, sb., OF. cas ; ccue, circum- 
stance, 68, 9 ; kas, 98, 7 ; cas^, 106, 
30; //. caas, 225, 9; par cas, by 
chance, 245, 24. 

eastelweorc, sb,t NF. cast«l + 0£. 
weorc; work of building ccutles, 
castle work; pi, castelweorces, 2, 

caBte(n), wkv,, ON. kasta; ccut; 

iff, caste, 41, 19; pr. 3 sg. caste)), 

100, 22 ; pt, sg. caste, 207, 7 ; pp. 

kas^ 58, 19; cast, 245, 19. Nth. 

pr, 3 sg. cas^s, 143, 24 ; pp, casten, 

156, 2. Sth.//. icaste, 42, 4. Cf. 

caBtel(l), sb,, NF. castel; castle; 

castell, 108, 16; //. castles, 2, 14; 

casteles, 76, 32. 
castynge, sb, <pr.ppl,, ME. casten; 

casting, hurling, 124, 29. 
oastye, see ca8te(n). 
cat, sb,, OE. catt; cat; kat, 202, 28. 
catfl, oatell^, cateyl, sb., NF. catel, 

OF. chatel ; ccUtle, property, 53, 7 ; 

catelle, 117, 27 ; kateyl, 94, 7. 
Cathenesia, sb,, Lat. Cathenesia; 

Caithness, 220, 21. 
Oatoun, sb., AN. Catun ; Cato, 216, 

oauersyn, kauersyn, sb., OF. *caiier- 

sin ; money-lender, 88, i. 
Caunterbir^, see Cantwarberi. 
cause, sb,, NF. cause; cause, Nth. 

caus, 136, 26. 
caye, sb,, OE. caeg, /., cage ; key, 

161, 22. 
Oayfas, sb„ Lat. Caifas; Caiaphas; 

gs, Cayfas, 137, 7. 


OAyffra, j^., ON. keisari ; eifperor; 
kaysere, 75, 15; kayser, 102, 9; 
keiser, 192, 4. 

oe -i a», 

o^f s, see o$8e(n). 

oendel, sd. , OF. cendal, sendal ; rick 

cloth, 49, 6. 
oeri^e, sb,^ OF. cirge; wax candle, 

certain, sertayn^, oert&n^, adj,, 

<Ml^.)OF.certein; certain ; sertayne; 

141, 13; UrUi. certan^y 167, 21. 
oert&n^, j^^ certain, 
certes, certys, adv,, OF. certes ; cer- 
tainly, 38, 11; certys, 107, 16; 

sertis, 138, 10. 
Cdsar, sb,, OF. Cesar; Casar; July 

Cesar, J 26, 4. 
c§8e(n), wkv., OF. cesser; r^oj^, 

cause to cease ; ii;/! c^, iii, 27. 
cet6, see citd. 

odte, sb,, OF. cete ; whale, 19, 15. 
cdthesrande, sb., OF. cetegrande; 

NF. cethegrande; whale, 19, i. 

ch «= t£(t8lL). 

chaffftre, cheffare, 5^., OM. *ceap 

fare; chaffer, trade, 95, 25. 8th. 

cheffare, 203, 5. 
ch&ld, see 09ld. 
ohalys, sb,, OF. chalice; chalice, 

communion cup, 122, 10. Cf. calls, 
chambre, see chauxnbre. 
Ch.anaan, j^.,Lat. (Vulgate) Chanaan ; 

Canaan, 24, 29. 
chance, see chaunoe. 
chanoiin, sb,, OF. chanotm, AN. 

canon ; canon, 75, 22. Cf. canon. 
change(n)y wJh,, OF. changer; 

change; pi, sg. chayngede = 

changede, 224, 28; Nth. //. 

changit, 1 70, 9. 
chapel, sb,,0'F, chapele ; chapel, 230, 9. 
char, see cher. 
charemynge, sb., based on channen, 

OF. charmer; enchantment, 145, 1 2. 
oh&re(n), wkv,, 0£. cerran ; turn, 

go ; inf, charen, 33, 20 ; pr, 1 sg, 

chare, 32, 6. 

charie, sb,, OF. charge; charge, 

wiight, 145, 5. 
oharge(n), wkv,, OF. chargier; 

charge, load, weigh doTvtt ; pp. 

charged, 80, 26. 
Cniarles, si,, OF. Charles, NF. 

Carl ; Charles; Charles the Greaty 

Charlemagne, 126, 15. 
chartre, sb,, OF. chartre ; charter, 

chartre, sb,, OF. chartre; prison, 

dharsrtd, oharitd, sb., OF. charite, 

NF. carite; charite, 89, 31 ; chary- 
tee, 116, 12; charite, 127, 14. 

Cf. caritdd. 
oh&sdr, - sb», based on chasse(n) ; 

chaser, pursuer; pi, chaseris, 169, 5. 
chaas, sb,, OF. chace ; chcue, 168, 27. 
cha88e(n), wkv,, OF. chacier ; chase; 

pr,ppl, chassand, 169, 2. 
chasidng, sb., based on OF. chacier; 

chasing, chase, 168, 29. 
ch&st(e), adj,, OF. chaste; chaste, 

120. 3. 
cha8tie(n), «/^.,8th. - Ml.chaste(n) ; 

OF. chastier; chastise, chasten; 

imp, pi, chasti ^e, aoo, 21. 
chastiement, sb., OF. chastiement; 

chastisement, 200, 29. 
chaatitd, sb,, OF. chastete ; chastity, 

"7» 13. 
chaiJ, see oh&vel. 

chaumberlayn, sb,, OF. chamberlene, 

-lain; chamberlain, 41, i. 
chaumbre, ohambre, sb,, OF. 

chambre ; chamber, 35, 23 ; chanm- 

bre, 49, 2 ; chSmbre, 241, 6. 
chaunce, sb,, OF. cheance; chance, 

90, 20. 
channge, sb,, OF. change; change, 

128, 7. 
chaan&e(n), wkv,, OF. changier; 

change; pr. i j^. chaunge, 37, 14; 

pr, pi, chaungen, 37, 30; pt, sg. 

chaungede, 45, 4; pp. channged, 

52, 29. 8th. ;^. ydiannged, 224, 27. 
ch&vel, chaul, sb., OM. cafl, WS. 

ceafl; jaw, beak; tcUk, chatter; 

chavel, 19, 15 ,•' chaul, 60, 17. 

eSth. cheafle, 201, 7; 



ohaynSede, see oli&xi|;e(]i). 
oheafle, see oh&vel. 
olieapie(n),n;>^.,Sth. «§pe(n) ; 

OE. cheapian; duy, sell; pr, 3 sg, 

chfapetJ, 203, 5. 
ohfapild, sb.f based on 0£. ceap + 

nyld; fond of bargaining, a bar- 

gainer, 203, 5. 
oheffare, see oha£E&re. 
ohfle, sb,, OM, cele, WS. ciele ; chill, 

cold, 219, 6. 
ohfofle(ii)9 wku», eME » Ml. chf- 

vle(n); OE. *ceaflian, cf. LG. 

kavilen ; chatter, converse aimlessly ; 

pr, 3 sg, chfofled = chfofleS, 200, 

oheoke, sb., eME. « Ml. cheke ; OE. 

ceoce; cheek, Sth. pi, cheoken, 

200, 10. 
oheose, see ehdseCn). 
ohepmon, sb., 8th. » Ml. chapman ; 

OE. ceapman ; merchant, chapman, 

303, 6. 
oher, ohar, sb,, OM. cerr, WS. cierr; 

turn, time, piece of work', char, 53, 

i6« Sth. ds, chere, 192, 9; cherre, 

oherohe, see ohirohe. 

ohgre, sb,, OF, chere, chiere ; counten- 
ance, cheer {with change of meaning), 
45, 4. Nth. cher, 155, 21. 

oheriBe(n), w/iz'., OF. cherir, pr. st, 
cheriss- ; cherish ; inf cherise, 234, 


oherl, oherl, sb., OE. ceorl ; husband- 
man, rustic, churl, 83, 33. 

cherre, see cher. 

chese, 5"^., OM. ce^e, WS. ciese; 
cheese, 84, 23. Cf. eME. cSse. 

ch§8e(n), stv,, OE. ceosan -ceas (2) ; 
choose; iff, chese, 233, 13 ; //. sg, 
chfs, 130, 30; //.//. (eME cusen, 
8, l); chgsen, 76, 7; pp, (eME. 
cosaU) 8, 4) ; chosen, 102^ 24. Sth. 
(eSth. inf cheose, 220, 15); pp, 
icoren, 179, 15; icomee, 212, 26. 

cheste, sb,, OE. cist, cest, f ; chest, 
box, 241, 5 ; eME. cseste, (MS. 
c^te?) 3, II, 

chf Ate, oh^st, sb,, OE. ceast, f ? ; 
strife, contention; chfst, 68, 17. 

ohesun, ohfson, sb,, AN. acheisim, 

OF. (-on) ; occasion, motive, 91, 6 » 

ch§s5n, 145, 26. 
ohgsynge, sb,, OE. *ceosung, /.; 

choosing, 117, 30. 
ohewe(n), stv,, OE. ceowan -ceaw 

(2) ; chew ; pr, sbj, chewe, 122, 14. 
chilce, sb,, OE. *cildse ; childishness, 

puerility, 176, 7. 
child (ohyld),//. chUder (childre), 

children ; OE. cild ; child; eME. 

cild, 4, 29; child?, 163, 20; pi. 

childer, 24, 21; chyldyr, 116, 4; 

gpl, without ending, childer, 69, 

12; children, 80, 6. Sth.^. childe, 

176, 24; //.children, 202, 18; chil- 
. dem, 225, 6; chyldem, 224, 17. 
chadhfde,^^., OE. cild, cild + *haede ; 

cf. OE. cildhad; childhood^ 214, 2. 
Ohildrich(e), sb,, OE. *Cildric; 

Childrichj 185, 17. 
chirche, sb,, OE. cirice ; church, 72, 

30 ; eME. circe, 3, 32 ; cherche, 

ohiroheg^ng, sb., OE. cyrice + gang ; 

church-going, church-service, 34, 

chirohepiirl. sb,, Sth. — Ml. chirche- 

J)irl; OE. cyrice + pyrl; church 

window; ds, chirche>urle, 199. 21. 
ohiroh-hay, sb,, OE. cirice^ hege, 

* hedge, endosure'; churchyard, 

124, 25. 
ohgsen, see ohd8e(n). 
chgst, sb., OE. ceast becoming ceast?; 

dispute, strife, 125, i. 
chyldyr, see child, 
chyrche, see ohirche. 
chyrche^f rd, -^frde, -^orde, sb., OE. 

*ciricegeard (geard); churchyard^ 

88, 6 ; cME. cyrceiserd, 3, 32 ; 

chyrch^jord?, 124, 32. 
chytering, sb,, based .on chitere(n) ; 

chattering, 224, 15. 
chyvalrous, cuij., OF. chevalerens ; 

chivalrous, 114, 29. 
oiclatun, 5^., AN. ciclatun ; Hclatoun, 

sort of rich cloth, 192, 27. 
cild, dirce, see child, chirche. 
dircewioan, eME. for chirchewiken, 

OE. cirice + wice, wkf, office of the 




ckurcAwardm; circewican, 4, ao. 

CL wiken. 
• dte (cyte), sitd, sb., OF. cite ; ci/y, 

73, 24; cyte, 106, 3; site, 3a, 31. 

TS[tL, cete, 135, 6. 
clad, oladde, see ol9^(n). 
olane, adv., 0£. cl^e (clane) ; 

wholly, clean (in dial. English), 

183, 9- 
clsnse(n), wkv., 0£. clsensian by 

shortening ; cleanse ; inf, clanse, 

122, 18. Cf. olen8e(n). 
Cl&re, sh., OF. Clare ; Clare, Richard 

of, 227, 2. 
Clarice, Cl&ria, sh,^ OF. Claris ; 

Clarice, 36, 31. 
olati, ola]>^, sb,^ eMS., Nth. » Ml. 

CI9)); OKclaC; cloth, garment, pL 

clothes^ 150, 12; pL clat^esy 192, 

clause, sh,, OF. clause; clazise^ sen- 
tence, 155, ag. 

olauwe, olawe, sb,, OE. clawu ; claw, 
60, II ; clawe, 231, 23. 

clay, sb,, OE. clag ; clay, 50, la. 

clff, see cleve(n). 

cl|ne, clen, adj,, OE. clsene ; clean, 
pure, chaste, 33, a3. INth. clfn, 

clenliche, a^., Sth.^ML clenli; 

OE. clsenlicc ; cleanly, 219, 31. 
dennesse, sb,, OE. claenness, /.; 

cleanness, chastity, 232, 11. 
clense(ii), wkv., OE. clansian ; 

cleanse; inf. dense, 102, i. Nth. 

inf, clens, 156, 10. Kt. pr. 3 sg. 

clenzej), 217, 16; //. yclenzed, 

218, 8. 
deopien, see clfpe(n). 
clfpe(n), wkv,, OE cleopian (cli- 

pian); cdll\ inf, clfpe, 222, 26; 

pt, sg. clgpede, 41, i ; pt, pL (eME.) 

clepeden, 3, 23; //. clfped, 39, 

29. Sth. inf (eSth. cleopien, 187, 

32); pr, pi, clfpieth, 211, 17; 

clfpe>, 222, 34; pr. shj,pl, elf pie, 

211, 14; imp. sg, clfpe, 212, 12; 

imp, pi (eSth. cleopetJ, 196, 11); 

pt, sg. (eSth. cleopede, 184, 4); 

pp. yclfDud, 221, 6; Cf. Sth. 


oleppe, sb., Sth. » Ml. clappe; OE 

*cl8eppe ; cf. MDu. klappe, kleppe ; 

clapper, 200, 11. 
cleppe(n), wkv., Kt. ^ Ml. clippe(n); 

OE. clyppan ; embrace ; inf. cdeppen, 

40, 20 ; pr, pi. cleppen, 39, 7 ; pt. 

pi, kleptc, 37, 32 ; Sth. pp, iclept, 

olerc, see clerk. 
oler(e), adj., OF. cler. clier; clear, 

excellent, loi, 9. 
cler^e, j3., OF. clergie; learning, 

216, 12. 
clerk, sb,, OE. cleric, infl. by OF. 

clerc ; clergyman, scholar ^ clerk; 

clerc, 8, 2. Sth.//. clerken, 209,17. 
olf ve, sb,, OE. cleofa ; chamber, den, 

house, 82, I. 
oleve(n), stv,, OE. cleofan-deaf (a) ; 

cleave, split ; //. sg. clff, 51, 24. 
oliinbe(n) ,str,,OE, climhan (climban) 

-clamb (clgmb) (3) ; climb ; * inf. 

climben, 10 1, 14; pr. sbf, pi. 

cUmben, 201, 13. 
clive(n), wkv,, OE. clifian ; adhere^ 

cleave, belong; pr, 3 sg, cliveO, 31, 

eliver, adj,^ OE. clibbor ? ; tenacious, 

bold, 18, 25. 
cloche soluohe, sb., origin uncertain; 

clutch, 60, 6. 
CI9P, sb,, OE. claS ; garment, pi, 

clothes; clg))?, 93, 6; cl9})es, bed- 

cldihes, 4I; 19. 
cl9]?e(n), wkv., OE. claSian ; clothe; 

pp. sg. cl9J)ede, 77, 23 ; pp. cl^Sed, 

17, 17; clad, 23, 24. Sth. pp, 

yclJCed, 231, 25. 
cl9]>ing, sb,, based on OEl. claff; ' 

clothing, 92, 27. 
clout, clowt, see clut. 
cloyster, sb, or adj., OF. cloistre; ^ 

cloister, 154, 5. 
Clunie, sb., OF. Clunie ; Cluny, dep. 

Saone-et-Loire, i, 3. 
duple (n), wkv„, Sth.«=Ml. clipen 

(clepen) ; OE. clypian ; cry out, 

call ; inf. cliipie, 206, 3 ; pp. 

icliiped, 179, 15. 
cluse, sb,, OE. clus, f, ; enclosure, 

dam {of a mill), 201, i. 



olut, clout, clowt, sb.f 0£. clut; 

clout f rag; //.clutes, 8i, 22 ; clout, 

57, 8; clowt, 241, 7. 
clyf, sb,, OE. clif (cleof) ; ^/«^, 222, 

clynke(n), w-^., cf. MDu. clinkcn ; 

dinky ring as a bell', inf. clynke, 

239, 2. 
cnave, sb,, OE. cnafa; boy, servant, 

54, 28; knave, 82, ii' 
cn&we(n), see knawe(n}. ~^ 
cniht, sb,, OE. cniht; knight, 181, 5. 
cnotted, pp. as adj,, OE. cnottod < 

cnottian ; knotted, 3, 8. 
c§f, adj., OE. caf ; swift, eager, bold, 

^7> '7 ; J^ cgve, Mtf jwj/? <ww, //^ 

thief 1. 198, 22. 
coine(n), w^ls?., OF. coigner; coin; 

Sth.. ^. ycojmed, 242, 7. 
cok, j3., OE. coc; cook\ pi. cokes, 

C9ld, du^'.y OM. cald, cald, WS. ceald ; 
^^/flf, 39» 4? k9ld, 77, 19. eKt. 
chaid. 218, 6. 

cdlie(n), wkv,, Sth. = Ml. cole(n) ; 
OK colian; become cool, cool ; //. j-^. 
c5lede, 195, I7» 

colter, f^.y OE. cnlter, Lat cnlter; 
colter^ 60, 23. 

com, cdm(aii), see oiime(n). 

com, see come. 

comande(n), ttr>&z'., OF. commander ; 
command; pr. i sg. comand, 69, 
22\ pt. sg. commandede, 222, 26; 
cnmand, 163, 17 ; //. comannded, 
235, 2. comand, 151, 
5; pp. comand, 140, 20. 

comandement, oomandment, sb., 
OF. comandement ; commandment, 
engagement; comandement, 69, 15; 
comandment, 67, 32 ; cnmand- 
ment| 163, 14 ; //. commande- 
mentes, 144, 8 ; comanndement, 

234» 4- 
con%aunde(n], see oomande(n). 

comaundement, see comandement. 

come, sb,, OE. *c6me; cf. ON kvama, 

f.; coming, arrival, 11, 6. Nth. 

<»m» 133? 3' * 
come(n), see came(n). 

coming, see CTune(n). 

comlyng, sb., OE. '*'cnmelung ?, cf. 

OHG. chomeling; new comer, 

stranger, 225, 13. 
oonmi, see oume(n). 
oommandement, see comandement. 
oommun, oomdne, adj., AN. cumnn, 

OF. comon; common, 133, 26; co- 

mone,i47,i4; in commune, /^^^/^r, 

all together, 233, 23 ;//. as sb. coror 

ToSmes, commons, 233, 12. 
commyzstion, sb., OF. commistion, 

AN. commistiun, infl. by Lat. com- 

mixtio; commingling, 224, 13. 
comon, see oiime(n). 
oomdne, comoiin, see commun. 
compaignye, cumpany, sb,, OF. 

compaignie ; company, 237, 7. 
companye(n), wkv., OF. com- 

paignier ; accompany, meet together ; 

inf. companye(n), 234, 11. 
compelle(n), wkv., OF. compeller; 

compel; pp. compelled, 224, 18. 
compile(n), wkv., OF. compiler; 

cofnpile; pp. compiled, 234, 23. 
compleyne(n), wkv., 0¥. com- 

pleindre ; complain ; pr. pi. com* 

pleynen, 232, 20. 
corns, com]>, see cume(n). 
comune(n), wkv., AN. communier; 

commune, converse \ pr.ppl. comun- 

yng, 236, 15. . > 

comunlych, comunlik, adv., AN. 

comun + ME. liche ; commonly, 93, 

15. N"th. comunlik, 133, 28. 
Comyn, sb., Comyn; J§n [)e, 159, 

comvn, see ciime(nV 
con, conne, see cunne(n). 
conceive(n), wkv., NF. conceivre, 

OF. concoivre; conceive, beget ; pt. 

sg. conceived, 102, 6 ; pp. conceived, 

102, 5. 
concepcion, sb., OF. conception; 

conception, conceiving, 133, 10. 
concyence, concyens, conscience, 

sb., OF. conscience ; conscience, 144, 

9 ; concyence, 146, i ; consciens, 

condicion, sb., OF. condicion ; condi- 
tion, 220, 14. 
cone, see ounne(n). 



oonf^derat, ad/., Lat. confederatus ; 

confederate, associated with, 224', 7. 
oonferme(n), wkv,, OF. confermer; 

confirm; imp. sg, confenne, 102, 

conflture, sb,, OF. confiture \ preserve, 

confection, 345, I. 
oonfort, sb^ OF. confort; comfort, 

oonforte(n), wkv., OF. conforter; 

comfort', pt,' pL conforted, loi, 6. 

Nth. ^. 3 sg. confortes, 151, a; 

pp. confort, 140, 32. 
ooxifoiizide(n), wkv., OF. confhndre ; 

confound, injure, destroy ; Nth. pr, 

pL confoundes, 147, 6. 
confuflddn, sb., OF. confusion ; con^ 

fusion, 338^ 1 7« 
coiigreg&oioun(exi), wkv., based on 
AN. Gongiegatinn; assemble, 11^, 

coniie(nV^^ oanne(n). 
oonquerour, sb*, OF. conqnereur; 

conqueror, 126, 3. 
oonquest, sb., OF. conqueste; ^^n- 

quest, 225, 2. 
cdnsail, cdnseil, see cdnseyl. 
oon9ciens, x^^ oonoyence. 
odn8eilie(n), wkv., Sth.sMl. con- 

seile(n) ; AN. cnnseilier, OF. con- 

seilier; counsel; inf. cdnseili, 204, 

21', pt. sg, conseilede, 206, 16; //. 

pi. conseilede, 205, 28. 
consenti(n)y wkv., Sth. s Ml. con- 

sente(n); OF. consentir; consent; 

inf consent!, 217, 31. 
cdnseyl, conBadl, sb., OF. conseil, 

AN. cnnseil; counsel; c5nseyl, 100, 

24 ; conseil, 204, 15 ; conseille, 

236, 7 ; consayl, 46, 32. Cf. coun- 
' sell. 
Constantin, sb., 0£. Constantin; 

Constantine, 190, 18. 
constraccidn, sb., OF. construction ; 

construction, 224, 28. 
construeCn), wkv., OF. construire; 

constt^ue, explain, translate; inf. 

construe, 224, 19; construe]), 

225, 3. 
contemplaoydn^, sb., OF. contem- 

placion; contemplation, 145, 7. 

oontemplaytffe, adj., OF. contem- 

platif ; contemplative, 146, 18. 
contenanss, see cuntenaunce. 
ooiiteyne(xi), wkv.^ OF. continir, 

*conteinir ; contain^ include ; pr. 

3 sg, ; conteynej), 221, 28. 
oontrd, contray (contrei), sb., OF. 

cuntree; country, 37, 16; contree, 

339, 14; contray, 221, 31; pi. 

contrays, 220, 6; contreie, 205, 

32 ; cuntre, 98, 8. 
oontrycyon, sb., OF. contridon, AN. 

QOXiXTizviiii; contrition; contrycyon^, 

123, 23. 
oontynue(n), wkv,, OF. continaer; 

continue ; pp. cont3mued, 334, 25. 
oonverte(n), wkv., OF. converter; 

convert; pt. sg. convertid, 135, 4; 

convertede, 221, 30 ; pp. converted, 

102, 17. 
oonveye(n), wkv., OF. convder; 

convey, 230, 19. 
09pe, sb., ON. kapa, LL. capa ; cope, 

oora^us, adj.,OY. corageus ; courage- 
ous, 206, I. 
coreodon, sb., OF. correction; cor* 

rection, 236, 8. 
06m (corn), sb.f OE. com; com, 

grain, 3, 27. 
ooml^nd, sb.^ 0£. com + l§nd; com 

land, 225, 32. 
Comwal, ComwoUe, sb., OE. Corn- 
weal ; Cornwall; ds. Comwale, 

188, 32 ; Comwalen, //. ?, 188, 9; 

Comwaile, 190, 17; Jghan, 224, 

ooroune, sb., AN. conine ; crown, 

227, 19. Cf. croune (onme). 
ooroune(n), wkv., OF. conmer; 

crown ;_pr, 3 sg, corounep, 216, 30; 

pp. corouned, 229, 31. 
oomipt, cuij., OF. corrapt ; corrupt, 

238, 22. 
cors, sb., OF, cors; corpse, corse, 

body, 118, 13. 
coTsed, see our8e(n). 
coTSTir, sb., origin uncertain, cf.corser, 

N.E.D. ; dealer in horses, io8, ii. 
COS, sb., OE. coss ; kiss; 196, 21. 
CO811X1, see oh§8e(ii).^ 



cosin, sb., OF. cosin ; causm, relative, 
204, 28. 

cost, sb,f OF. coste ; expense, at here 
comoun cost, at their expense in 
common, 118, 24. 

cgfite, sb,, OF. coste ; coast, 220, 9. 

oo8tme(n), wkv.^ ON. kosta ex- 
tended?; cost, expend; pr, 3 sg, 
costne]), 2 1 9) 20. 

costome, see oustome. 

ogte, ^^. OE. cote; cote, cot, 87, 22. 

C9te, MS. oolte, j^., 0£. colt ; colt, 
6t, 1 2.* 

Cotingham, sb., Cottingham (North- 
ampton), 4, 23. 

counseil, counfiayl^, sb., AN. cun- 
seil; .r(7»»j^/, 100, 15; counsayl^, 

1 10, 5 ; counsail^ 200, 1 8. 
cours, see curs. 

court, sb,, OF. curt; court, 50, 17; 

_curt, 7,_32; court?, 125, i. 
couth, coupest, see cunne(xi). 
covayte(n), wkv., OF. cnveiter; 

covet) Nth. inf, covayte, 147, 27 ; 

pr, 2 sg. covaytes, i35> 23 ; //. J^. 

covayted, 140, 2 ; //. covayt, 139, 


C9ve, j^^ cgf. 

covenaunt, sb., OF. covenant ; cove- 
nant, agreement ; at the covenaunt ; 
with the agreement, 221, 3. 

covent, sb., OF. convent, covent; 
convent, monastery, order of monks, 

111, 29. 

oovertoupe, sb., OF. coverture; 

coveriftgy bedclothes, 49, 5. 
coveytise, sb,, 0¥, coveitise ; cove' 

tousness, 54, 14. 
coveytous, adj,, OF. covdtous ; 

covetous, 88, 23. 
cowlte, sb,, OF. coulte, cuilte ; quilt, 

OT&del, sb,, OK cradol ; cradle, ^24, 

craft, sb,, OE. crsft; power, skill, 

craft, 17, 6. 
oraftilik, o^., OE. crseftiglTce ; 

powerfully, wonderfully, craftily, 

crafty, adj,, 0£. crseftig; crafty, 

skilful, 129, 4« 

crake(n), crakke(n), wko., OE. 

cracian ; crcuk ; //. jr^. crakede, 82, 

12. Nth. 2>^ crak, 160, 2\\ pp, 

crakked, 159, 11. 
orave(n), wkv,, OE. crafian ; craa)e ; 

inf, craven, 31, 14; crave, 54, 26; 

pi, sg, cravede, 84, 13. 
erf atour, sb., OF. creatour ; creator, 

246, 8. 
orfature,j3., OF. creature; creature, 

creation, 6a, 26. T!ltih.,pl, crfaturs, 

i44» 23. ;; 

orede, sb,, OE. creda, Lat. credo; 

creed, 16, 25. 
oreoissen (croissen), wkv,, OF. 

croiser ; cross, sign with the cross ; 

imp, pi, creoiseC, 197, 20. 
OTSpe(xi), stv,, OE. creopan-creap 

(2) ; creep', pr, 3 sg, crepeC, 17, 6. 

Nth. inf, crep, 152, 11. 
cri, cry, sb,, OF. cri ; cry, 62, 22, 
crie(xi), wkv,, OF. crier; cty; inf, 

crie, 36, 6; crye, 105, 23; pr, pi, 

crien, 4^, Zi; pr. sbj, crie, 198, 33 ; 

pr. ppl, criende, 60, 15; //. sg, 

cried, 104, 10; pt, pi, criede, 206, 

cripele(n), wkv,, based on OE. 

cryppel ?; go as a cripple ; pr, ppl, 

cripelande, 17, 6. 
crisme, sb,, OF. cresme; Chrism, 

sacred oil, 34, u. 
Crissten, see Oristen. 
orisstenndom, see oristendom. 
orisstned, see cristne(n). 
Crist, sb,, OE. Crist, Lat. Christus, 

through Olr. Crist : Christ, i,S;gs, 

Crystys, 88, 5. JJTth. gs, Cristis, 

135, I ; Sth. ds, Ciiste, 176, 20. 
Crlsten, crystyn, ad/,, sb,, OE. 

cristen ; Christian, 4, 29 ; pi 

Crisstene (O), 10, 13, crystyn, 

146, 6. 
cristonddm, sb,, OE. cristendom; 

Christendom; Crisstenndom (O). 

8, 14 ; crystendom, Christianity, 

salvation, 65, 9 ; 94, 24. 
Oristenmesse, sb,, OE. cristen + OF. 

messe; Christmas, 229, 21. 
oristientd, sb,, OF. chrestianite, 

crifttianite; cristindom, 228, 5a. 



oaristne(n): wkv., 0£. cristnian; 

christen \ pp. crisstnedd (O), 13, 

oristnixiee) sb,, based on cristne(n) ; 

christenings 218, 4. 
Cristofer, j^., OF. Cristopher; 

Christopher^ 164, 7. 
GriBtns, j3., Lat Christns ; Christ, S, 

OToio^, oroyo^, sb., OF. crois ; cross, 

133. I ; croyc?, 139, 3 2. 
croked, pp, as adj,, ME. croke(n) : 

crookuty 241, 32. 
oronycle(n). wkv.y OF. croniqner, 

*cronikler; chronicle, record', pp» 

cronyclyd, 116, 7. 
oro8, sb,, Olr. cross, through ON. 

kross; cross, 136, 23. 
croune, orune, sb», AN. corone; 

crcmn, 82, 12; crowne, 105, 19; 

crtine, 194, 33. Cf. corune. 
or6uiie(n),ze/|z'.,OF.coruner; crown; 

/^. 3 sg. crounej), 104^9. 
cTOwne, oroyce, see oroune, croice. 
oruoethuB, sb,, origin of first part 

unknown ; torture house, 3, n. 
oruoyfie(n), wkv,, OF. crucifier; 

crucify ; pp, crucifiede, 145, 23. 
CTuninge, sb,, based on crQne(n) ; 

crowning, reign, 226, 23. 
ory, opye(n), see csri, orie(n). 
oryfitenddm, ste oxistendoxn. 
crystyn, Crystys, see Cristen, Crist, 
ou, ^u, sb,, 0£. ctl ; cow ; gs, kues^ 

302, 31. 
oamandxnent, see oomandment. 
camand, see coinande(n). 
oame(n), stv., OE. cuman~c5m 

(cwom) (4) ; come ; inf. cumen, i, 

17; cume, 39, 16; com, 74, 13; 

pr, 3 sg. cumety, 15, 11 ; corn]), 89, 

12 ; /r, //. cumen, 19, 13 ; cume 

ge, 25, II ; cdmen, 58, 11 ; pr, sbj, 

sg, come, 52, 8 ; pr. sbj, pi. cumen, 

226, 18; cume, 180, 2; imp. sg. 

cum, 37, 24; pr. ppl. cominge, 39, 

31 ; /^' ^S^' com, I, I ; comm (O), 

II, 17; cam, 23, 7; kam, 15, 2; (eME. c5men, 2, 16) ; c5me, 

63* 30 ; /^- ^^J' ^,r* come, 8, 7 ; //. 
x^'.//. (eM£.coman,4, 3); comen, 

185, 22; pp, cumen, 2, 7 ; comyn, 
no, 13. Xth./r. 2 jr^. cums, 141, 
25; P^' Z ^8' coms, 127, 19; pr. 
sbj, sg, cum, 141, 30; pr. ppl, 
cumand, 149, 4; //. cumin, 170, 
32. Sth. ger, cumene, 214, 24; 
//. icumen, 183, 23 ; icnme, 40, 
31; icdme, 44, 26; yeomen, 73, 

cumpaignie, ouinpasniie, sb., AN. 
cumpaignie ; compcmy, companion- 
ship, 38, 22; cumpaynle, 56, 21; 
cumpany, 117, 15. * 

cumpany, see cuinpaigiiie. 

ciiinpa88e(n), wkv,, AN. cumpasser ; 
compos, surround, protect ; late ME 
inf, cumpas, 103, 27. • 

cuma, su oiiine(n). 

oumyng, sb,y O Ang.*cumung ; comings 

I4i> 33- 
cun, sb., Sth.sMl. kin; 0£^ cynn; 

kin, kind, race\ ds. ciinne, 184, 12; 

gpl, ciinne, 184, i. 
cuiine(n), ptprv,, OE. cunnen^cut$e ; 

know, be able, can ; inf, kmme, 38, 

9 ; cone, 55, 10; /r. i, 3 sg, can, 

3, 20 (WMl. conn^, 125, 22); cdn, 

168, 19 ; kan, 243, 27 ; /r. 2 sg. 

kanst, 70, 2 ; pr. pi. cunnen, 4, 9 ; 

connen, 51, 25; knnne, 78, 6; 

konne, 235, 31 ; pr, sbj, sig, cunne, 

14, 6 ; cune, 18, 10 ; cone, 84, 2 ; 

conne, 210, 15; pt, 1,3 sg. cuthe, 

5, 19; kQt5e,_i98, 17; kiide, 23, 

iS; pt. 2 sg, cou])est, 49, 29 ; //. //. 

kou^, 76, 4; ku^fen, 201,4; pt, 

sbj. sg. coude, 89, 16. JSftl^. pt. sg. 

couth, 167, 21 ; konth, 136, 21. 

&ttL,, c6nne>, 225, 7. 
oimtenauncd, sb., AN. cuntenance; 

countenance, expression, 38, 4. 

Nth. contenanss, 1 70, 9. 
cuntesse, sb., AN. cnntesse, OF. con- 

tesse; countess, 5, 31. 
oiintraye, ciintre, see oontre. 
cupe, sb,, OE. *cupe; bcuket, 35, 18; 

pi. cupen, 35, 15. 
cuppe^ oupe, sb,^ OE. cappa; cup, 

29, 22 ; kuppe, 21, II ; cupe, 46, 5. 
our, sb,, OF. curre, cure ; chariot^ 192, 

26 ; ds, cure, Z92, 84. 




ouratoure, sb, , OF. curateur ; curatory 
119, 16. 

Ourbuil, sb,,0¥, Corbuil, Corbeil ; 
Curbeuil {Curbuil, Corbeil) \ Wil- 
liam of, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

curs, sb.y OF. curs, cours; course, 

attcukf assault^ regard \ 103, 30. 

Nth. halden in curs, hold in regard, 

128, I. 
CTirsednesse, sb., based on curse(n) ; 

cursedness, 246, 2. 
car8e(n), wkv,, OE. cursian; curse; 

inf. curssen, 66, 12 ; //. sg, cursede, 

6, 4 ; //. //. cursede, 4, 5 ; pp. 

curssed, 68, 10; cursed, 121, 12; 

corsed, 61, 12, 
cursur, sb., Lat. cursor, infl. by OF. 

coursier; courser, runner; Cursur 

o Werld^ translating cursor mundi, 

curt, court, 5^., OF. curt ; c<mrt, 7,32. 
curteis, adj. , NF. cuiteis, OF. curtois ; 

courteous, 42, 22. 
curteisye, curteysye, curteysy, sb., 

NF. curteisie ; OF, curtoisie ; 

courtesy, 97, 26; corteys^e, 219, 2 ; 

curteisye, 241, 10; kurteisiC; 199, 30. 
cusen, see ohese(ii). 
cus8e(ii), wkv., Sth. =M1, kisse(n) : 

OE. cyssan ; ikiss ; //, sg. ciiste, 

196, ai. 
custome, costome, sb., OF. custume; 

custom, 89, 5; costome, 122, i. 
cut, sb.y Celtic origin, cf. Cymr. cwta 

* short'; cut, lot, 242, 30. 
cu]>, adj.f OE. cvSS ; known, 41, 10. 
cupe(n), wkv., Sth. = Ml. kiSe(n) ; 

OE. cytJan ; make known ; pp. icud, 

198, 8. 
cuSlfchunge, k'&Slfcliunge, sb,, 

Sth. = Ml. cumechinge; OE. *cu?y- 

]xcxmg,f. ; cf. cuClsecan ; acquain- 
tance, 1 99, 6. 
catted,/^, as, slashed, 120, 23. 
cwfad, see quf d. 
cwenie(]i), wf^^, OE, cweman ; please ; 

inf, cwemen, 179, 6 ; pp^ cwemmd, 

(O), 12, I. 
cwene, oweiS, see queiie, cwf]7e(n). 
owike, see quik. 

6yrcei»rd, see chircheBf rd. 
cyte, see cite. 


dffide, dsdi (dsdis), see dede, dai. 
d»iUht, sb., OE, *dsegleoht (liht); 

daylight, 187, 21. 
dsdl, dffire, deep, see dfl, dere, df ]?. 
daft, adj.,0^. (ge)d3eft; mild, stupid, 

49, 23. See deft, 
daggere, sb., ON. daggarSr; dagger^ 

244, 2. 
daghen, dawen, sb,, OE. da^ung?, 

♦dajen; dawn, 213, 24. 
da^, da^aess, da^en, see dai. 
dai, sb., OK dseg-dagas ; day, dawn; 

(eME, daei, i, 14; dei, i, 14); 

da53 (O), 11,9 ; dai, 15, 2 ; day, 37, 

11; gs. (eME. dseies, 3, 3 ; daeis, 3, 

26); ds. (WMl.dawe, 119, 10) ; //. 

da53ess (O), 12, 10; daiges, 33, 

29. Nth. ds. in expression bryng 

of daw ; kill, 170, 14. eSth. dei, 

178, 20 ; ds, deie, 193, 5; dpi. 

da^en, 188, 9; pi. dawes, 200, 3. 

deis dei, day's dawn, 192, 15. Kt. 

deai 212 20 
dai, sb.. Nth. « Ml. dgle; OE. dai, 

neut., division, part, 222, 10. 
dale, sb., OE. dael, neut., Dan. dai, 

m.f.; dale, 57, 23. Sth. (SEMI.) 

dfle, 14, 3. 
Dalreudiney sb., Dalretidine ; pi. 

222, 9. 
dania^(n), wkv., OF. sb. damage; 

damage ; pp. damaged, 72, 8. 
dame, sb., OF. dame; dame, 82, 2. 
damezele, sb., OF. damisele ; damsel, 

216, 29. 
damma^e, sb., OF. damage ; damage, 

loss, 95, 24. 
dampnable, adj., OF. damnable; 

damnable, condemnahle, 237, 16. 
dampnacion, sb., 0P\ danmation ; 

damnation, condemnation, 238, 18. 
dampne(n), wkv., OF. damner; con- 
demn, damn ; pp. dampned, 92, 5. 
Dane, sb., OF. Dane; Dane; pi. 

Danes, 222, 27. 



dar, see dtme(n). 

d&re, wkv,^ OAng. *daran ?, cf. Du. 
Fris. (be)daren; lurk, lie concealed^ 
be disconsolate', inf. dare, 157, 19 ; 
pr.ppL dareand, 158, 23, 

Dftris, sb,, OF. Daris; Doris, 47, 11. 

daiinoe, sb,, OF. dance, danse ; dance, 
159, 18. 

daanoe(n), wkv., OF. dancer, danser; 
dance ; /r. //. daunce, 237, n, 

Dftvid, Dftvi, eME. David, sb,, OF. 
David ; David, King cf Scotland, 
2, 14; David, the Psalmist, gs, 
without ending, 72, 5. Nth. Davi, 

131, I. 
D&vy,j^., OF. David; Davy; Adam, 

232, I. 

daw(e), dawes, see dai. 
dawnsyng^j/r.///. as sb,, daimce(n); 

dancing, 120, 21. 
day, see dai. 
dayneCn), wM;., OF. deigner; deign; daynede, 219, 30. 
dfad,* cL§ap> see df d, dai, df ]>. 
debftte, sb., OF. debat ; strt/e, debate, 

233, 3. 

debru8e(n), wkv., OF. debruisier; 

bruise, breakjin pieces; pp. debmsed, 
208, 28. 

deciple, see diffciple. 

decl&re(n), wkv.y OF. declarer ; de- 
clare; pr. ppl. declaryng, 223, 12. 

decollacioiin, ^3., AN. decoUacinn; 
beheading, 228, 21. 

dfd, adj., 0£. dead; dead, i, 18; 
dfad, 33, 15; ded^, 112, 17 ; dggd, 
240, 14. Nth. (I§de, 138, 22. 

df d, dfde, su df ]>. 

d6db6te,*j^., OM. dedbot, WS. dsed- 
bot,y!; cUonement, restitution, 1^6, 

df de, dejle, see df ]>, dd(n). 

dede, sb., OM. ded, WS. dsed, /. ; 

deed; dsede, 4, 7; dede, 8, 23. 

Nth. //. dedis, 127, 23 ; dedys, 

146, 24. 

dfdly^ adj., 0£. deadlic; deadly^ 

147. 22. 

ddden, deden, see dd(n). 
df^, d§§l, see dfd, d§l. 
daere, see dSite, 

dees, sb. pi., OF. de, * die for play ' ; 
dice, 237, II. 

df $th, see df p. 

dff, adj., OE. deaf; deaf, 51, 26. 

dff, see duve(xi). 

de&Ue(n), whv., OF. defaillir; 
grow feeble, enfeeble^ weaken; inf. 
defailen, loi, i. 

defSme(n), wkv., OF. defamer ; de- 
fame; s[ 3 sg. defames, 147, 

de&wte, defoute, sb., OF., defante; 

default, lack, 119, 15. Nth. de£eiat, 

150, 12. 
defel, ddfles, su ddveL 
defend(en), wkv,, OF. defendre; 

defend, forbid; inf. defenden, 104, 

10; defend, 104, 12; pp. deffended, 

238, 28. 
defenfl, sb., OF. defense; defence, 

protection, 103, 23. 
deffended, see defend(en). 
def5ule(]i), wkv., OF. defouler;- 

tread under foot, defoui; inf. de- 

foule, 104, 8. 
deft, adj., OE. (ge)daefte (dfft?); 

mild,gentle,\sLX.eiskilful,d^, 14^ 19. 
degrd, sb., OF. degre; degree, rani, 
, condition ; by thy degre, according 

to thy condition, 120, 32. 
dSH, dei, see duge(n), dai. 
deie(n), wkv., ON. deyja; eUe% M. 

deie, 43, 8 ; deye, 118, 12 ; dye, 65, 

13; /^« pi' dyen,. 68, 2^; pi. sg. 

deide, *2*2, 5 ; dyed, 66, 30. JSTth. 

inf. dey, 15a, 16; dy, 137, 21; 

pt. sg. deyed, 154, 25. 
deies, cuiv., Sth. = Ml. dales ; by day, 

203, 12. 
deill, del, see dfle(n), ddvel. 
dfl, sb., OE. dsel ; deal, part, 47, 13; 

(eME. dsel, 226, 5) ; never a d^l, 

not at all, 239, 8 ; deyl, 89, 8. 
dfl^, see dale. 
dfle(n), wkv^, OE. dselan; divide, 

share, deal; pp. dfled. INth. inf. 

deill, 1 66 , 1 3. Sth. pp> idfld, 39, 6. 
delit^, sb., OF. delit; delight, 144, 29. 
delite(n), wkv,, OF. deliter; delight; 

inf deliten, 102, 21. "SiStL