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A Modern 
English Grammar 





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1 8 East Seventeenth Street^ New York 

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R 1018 L 

G)pyright, 1900, by Huber Gray Buehleil 

AU rights reserved. 

. • • • 


• • • • 

• • •• * 

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• » • • ^ - >. 

• •• •* »-'• V* 


This book is an attempt to present the grammar of 
modern English in the manner prescribed by modem 
methods of instruction. 

The general treatment of the subject has been deter- 
mined by two considerations. The first is that when 
pupils begin the .study of grammar, they not only are 
able to understand the language of standard English 
literature, but they are continually using sentences of 
their own with considerable fluency and accuracy. The 
second is that, though pupils have considerable skill in 
the use of language, they have little knowledge of the 
nature of sentences and little insight into the funda- 
mental relations of subject, predicate, complement, and 

The second consideration makes unsuitable for class- 
instruction those formal treatises that take for granted 
a knowledge of the elements of sentence structure, and 
begin with the discussion of single words. The first 
consideration discredits the method of those text-books 
which, following the line of progress of a child's first 
efforts at language, begin with single words, and 
require pupils to build up the mother tongue bit by 
bit, as if it were something new and strange. The 
pupils whom we set to study grammar learn to use the 
parts of speech and the various types of the English 
sentence when they are very young ; and they naturally 
find dry and unprofitable a study which ignores the 
power and knowledge already acquired. When a new 
language is to be learned, a synthetic treatment is 


natural and interesting. But when the mother tongue 
is the subject of critical study, the aim is, not to learn 
new forms of speech, but to investigate the nature of 
forms that are already familiar ; therefore the treatment 
should be analytic. 

With regard to arrangement, the starting point is the 
sentence; for surely the first months given to the formal 
study of the mother tongue should be spent, not in ex- 
amining the properties of nouns and the other parts of 
speech, but in learning to separate sentences into sub- 
ject, predicate, complements, and modifiers, whether 
these be single words or groups of words, and whether 
the sentences be long or short. These larger elements 
of sentence structure are the foundations of grammar, 
and they must be familiar before the pupil is ready for 
the study of separate words. They influence both the 
classification and the inflection of the parts of speech ; 
therefore neither the classification nor the inflection of 
the parts of speech can be effectively studied until these 
are mastered. 

With regard to method, the presentation is as far as 
possible inductive, taking familiarity with English for 
granted, and leading the pupil to observe, compare, 
and classify grammatical facts for himself. But while 
the author has avoided dogmatic instruction, he has, 
on the other hand, shunned with equal care that vague- 
ness which results from merely asking the pupil ques- 
tions and leaving him to answer them for himself. 
The pupil is not only led to observe for himself ; he is 
also guided to the right inferences. Whenever, as in 
discussing some points of usage, it has been necessary 
to employ dogmatic teaching, care has been taken to 
speak no more strongly than the facts of usage warrant. 
The forms employed to exhibit graphically the logical 


stnictureof sentences — ^in many books a hindrance to 
the pupil rather than a help — have received the united 
attention of the printer and the author in an attempt to 
make them appeal through the eye directly to the under- 

The fund of knowledge that pupils bring into the 
class-room has also determined the limits which the 
author has set to his work. Many things often elabo- 
rately set forth in text-books may be safely taken for 
granted as already known. To explain them is a vio- 
lation of the pedagogic maxim, ** Teach the pupil what 
he does not know." Even the analysis of sentences, 
important as it is, has its limits as a means of instruc- 
tion and training. In going beyond the general analysis 
which brings into relief the logical structure of a com- 
plex sentence we do not help the pupil, but present him 
with linguistic riddles that make his native tongue of- 
fensive to him. ' 

As to inflections and the uses of the various parts of 
speech, these are already known empirically, and the 
business of the grammarian is simply to help the pupil 
to systematize his knowledge and to avoid common 
errors. Distinctions and classifications, if they are too 
minute or numerous, confuse the mind and loosen its 
grasp of important things. The author has tried to 
make a book that will help teachers to awaken in boys 
and girls what is sometimes called the language sense, 
and strengthen their grasp of their mother tongue. 

Perhaps the greatest difficulty that confronts the 
author of a school grammar is the diversity of opinion 
among grammarians as to the proper classification and 
nomenclature for certain locutions. Anyone, for ex- 
ample, who undertakes to present the English verb 

> S, S, Laurit: *' Lectures on Language and Linguistic Method in the SchooL" 


after the method of the most approved grammarians, 
will soon learn how futile it is to try to please every- 
body. **High and reverend authorities lift up their 
heads on both sides, and there is no sure footing in the 
middle." The author can only say that he has tried 
to follow those philologists who seem most likely to 
influence current opinion. 

With regard to the exercises, the sentences for analy- 
sis have been chosen as far as possible with reference 
to fine literary quality. Special exercises have been 
prepared on the subjects that most frequently baffle 
students. The numerous exercises bearing on ques- 
tions of good usage have been made practical. No 
sentences for correction have been admitted. Most of 
the exercises have been made fuller than usual, since it 
is much easier to shorten an exercise that is too long 
than to lengthen one that is too short. 

The author acknowledges his indebtedness for help- 
ful suggestions to Mr. Edward G. Coy, Headmaster of 
the Hotchkiss School ; Mrs. Ella F. Young, Assistant 
Professor of Pedagogy in the University of Chicago - 
and Mrs. Sarah Ellen Andrew, Teacher of English in 
the Detroit (Mich.) Public High School. 



Introduction i 

Sentences and their Structure 


I. Of Sentences in General 15 

II. Of Subject and Predicate 21 

III. Of Substantive and Verb 36 

IV. Of Complements 48 

V. Of Modifiers 59 

VI. Of Substantive Phrases and Clauses 81 

VII. Of Independent Elements 90 

VIII. Of Sentences as Simple, Complex, and Compound 96 

IX. Of Elliptical Sentences 105 


The Parts of Speech 

I. Of the Recognition of the Parts of Speech 1 1 1 

II. Of Inflection, Derivation, and Composition 140 

III. Of Nouns 143 

IV. Of Pronouns 171 

V. Of Adjectives * 207 

VI. Of Articles 213 

VII. Of Verbs 218 

VIII. Of Adverbs 272 

IX. Of Prepositions 278 

X. Of Conjunctions 284 

XI. Of Interjections 286 

Appendix , 287 


!• lion^iiasre. — Everybody has an instinctive 
desire to tell his thoughts and feelings to others ; 
indeed, exchange of ideas is necessary in social 
life. One way of expressing thoughts is to make 
motions with the hands or other parts of the body, 
as children and deaf and dumb persons do. But the 
usual and very much better way is to make with the 
tongue and adjoining organs certain combinations 
of sounds which by common consent have certain 
meanings. These combinations of tongfue-sounds, 
by which people express their thoughts and feelings, 
form Xanguagre (from Latin lingua^ **tongfue"). 
Combinations of sounds that stand for single ideas 
are called Words. These are in turn combined into 
thought-groups called Sentences. 

2. Wliy Our lianguagre Is Called Englisli. — Our 

language is called English because it is the language 
that has been spoken for more than fifteen hundred 
years in England, whence it has been carried to 
America and other parts of the world by English 


3. The Early Home of Engrllsh. — But tie Englisli 
language did not have its beginning in England. It 
■wascarriedtherein449A, D. by people whomigrated 
from the banks of the river Elbe and the southwest 
coasts of the Baltic Sea. These people were from 
\hree tribes, called Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. Of the 
Jutes who moved to England nearly all trace has been 


lost. The Angles and the Saxons drove the original 
inhabitants — the Britons — into the mountainous 
parts of the island, and in course of time founded 
the Anglo-Saxon race. They called their new coun- 
try " Angleland," or " England ;" themselves and 
their language they called " English." 

The wonderful way in which the English lan- 
guage has spread over the world is shown by the 
accompanying maps. The map on this page shows 


tie early home of English, when it was a mere 
dialect of German, spoken by a few tribes. The 
shaded portions of the map below show the regions 
of the world in which English is now used. 


How far English has outstripped other languages 
may be seen from the following table, which shows 
the number of people speaking the principal Euro- 
pean languages in 1890: — 

English 111,100.000 

Geniian 75,200,000 

Russian 75,000,000 

French 51,200,000 

Spanish 42,800,000 

Italian 33.400,000 

Portuguese 13,000,000 

4. Old Kngllsli Different Axtin Modem Bngllata, 
— The language carried to England by the Anglo- 


Saxons was so unlike the English of to-day that at 
first glance it seems to be quite a different tongue. 
Here, for example, is the Lrord's Prayer in Anglo- 
Saxon, or Old English, with the corresponding 
modern English words printed underneath : — 

Faeder tire, Jju ]je eart on heofenum 
Father our, thou that art in heavens 

SI ]7in nama gehalgod 
Be thy name hallowed 

To becume thin rice 
Arrive thy kingdom 

Geweorjje Jjin willa on eorjjan, sw5 swa on heofenum 
Be-done thy will on earth, so-as in heavens 

Urne daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to daeg 
Our daily loaf give us to-day 

And forgyf us fire gyltas, swa swa we forgifajj tirum gyltendum 
And forgive us our debts, so-as we forgive our debtors 

And ne gelaede Jju us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle 
And not lead thou us into temptation, but loose us of evil 

Soothly (Amen). 

6. Kelatlon of Old Engrlisb. to Modem En^llsli. 

— Strange-looking as this Old English is, it is the 
same language as that which we use. The differ- 
ence between it and modern English is no more to 
be wondered at than the difference between a young 
child and the same child when gjown to manhood. 
Some knowledge of how our language has grown 
and changed is helpful to the study of it as it is 


e. HoT^ Our iLanguftSe luis Grown.— When our 
language was carried to England, it consisted of 
probably not more than two thousand words ; now 
it contains more than two hundred thousand — a 
much larger number than any other language. 
These new words have come into the language in 
many interesting ways: — 

(i) British Words. — When the Anglo-Saxons set- 
tled in England and drove off the Britons, they 
adopted some British words, just as the Americans 
have adopted some Indian words. Of these words, 
adopted from the Britons, examples are: "cradle" 
and "crock." 

Built by Ihe Romans as a defense gainst native tnbes. 

(2) Latin Words Found in Britain. — For several 
hundred years before the arrival of the Anglo- 
Saxons, England had been in the possession of the 
Romans. When the Romans withdrew from the 
island in 410 A. D., they left behind a few Latin 


words, which were adopted by the Anglo-Saxons. 
Examples are: " street " {Latin j/nz/d via, "paved 
way"), " mile " (Latin milia passuum, " a thousand 

paces"), and "wall" (Latin vallum). 

;8 feet long, 


o feet broad. Found in a peat bog in Jaliand, 

(3) Missionary Words. — About the year 600 A. D. 
Christianity began to be received by the Saxons 
through Roman missionaries; and with the mis- 
sionaries came_ many new words from the Latin. 
Examples are: "monk" (Latin monachus) and 
"clerk" (Latin clericus). 
I (4) Danish Words. — Toward the end ot the eighth 
century Norsemen or Danes overran parts of Eng- 
land, and many of their words were adopted by the 
English. Examples are : ' ' sky " and ' ' ugly. " 

(5) Norman- French Words.^-ln 1066 William of 
Normandy conquered England in the great move- 
ment known as the Norman Invasion. The Nor- 
mans, who came from France, spoke Norman- 
French, which was for the most part modified Latin. 


In England tney seized the land and all the political 
power, filled all the offices, and made their language 
the language of the court, the law, the schools, and 
the church. We cannot dwell on the particulars of 
the tremendous change in our language which was 
wrought by this Norman Invasion. It is enough to 
say that after three hundred years of contact with 
Norman-French the English language was very 
much richer in vocabulary and softer in sound. Of 
the many hundreds of Norman-French words in 
our language examples are: ** battle," ** forest,'* 
*' duke," and ** family." 

(6) Words from Latin Books. — In the sixteenth cen- 
tury, through the influence of what is called the 
Revival of Learning, the study of Latin became 
very popular in England. No one was considered 
well educated unless he could read Latin; nearly 
all important books were written in Latin; and 
Latin words began to appear in English conversation 
and writing. Since these Latin-English words were 
learned from books, they closely resembled in spell- 
ing the original Latii: words. Examples are : * * ex- 
ample " (Latin exempluni)y **fact" (Latin factum), 
and ''quiet" (Latin quietus). 

(7) Imported Words, — The descendants of the 
Anglo-Saxons have always been great travelers and 
traders; and in their traveling and trading they 
have .collected words from all parts of the world. 
Examples are: from Spain, ** mosquito;" from 
Italy, • • piano ; " from Holland, * * skate ; " from 
Germany, "zinc;" from Africa, ** gorilla;" from 


the American Indian, ** hammock** and "tomato;** 
from Arabia, **sofa;*' from China, **silk;'* from 
India, ** sugar;" from Persia, '* awning;'* from 
Turkey, ** tulip.*' 

(8) New Words for New Things, — New discoveries 
and inventions, as they have occurred, have given 
new words to our language. Examples are : ** pho- 
tograph ** and *' telephone.*' 

7. Proportion of Foreign Words in Modem 
Unglisli. — The proportion of words in modern Eng- 
lish which have been drawn from the sources just 
described may be roughly represented as follows : — 

Old tnglish Words 

Latin Words 
(including Norman-French) 

Greek Words 

Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Hebrew, Arabic, 
Persian, American Indian, etc. 

8. Changes In Our Xian^uag^e. — Our language has 
not only grown ; it has changed. 

(i) In Inflections. — Old English was what is called 
a highly inflected language. An inflected language 
is one that joins words together in sentences by 
means of ** inflections** or changes in the words 
themselves. For example, in Old English oxan 
meant **oxen,** oxena meant **of oxen,** oxum meant 
**with oxen.** Accordingly, instead of saying as 
we do ** tongues ^/oxen,** our Anglo-Saxon ances- 


tors said **tungan oxena.*' Traces of these word- 
changes or inflections still remain in our language : 
as, **sing," **singj." 

(2) In Order of Words. — The order of words in Old 
English was clumsy and involved. For example, 
instead of saying as we do, — 

When Darius saw that he would be overcome, 

our Anglo-Saxon ancestors would have said, — 

When Darius saw that he overcome be would. 

(3) In Sound. — Old English was a guttural speech, 
full of harsh, choking sounds. For example, our 
**holy" was once **halig," our ** bridge'* was once 
*' brigg" (as in Scotland to this day), our ** day '* was 
once "daeg," our ''light" was once pronounced 
like the Scotch "licht." 

9. HoTV Cliang^es Came About. — The greatest 
changes in our language occurred between 1 100 and 
1500 A. D., that is to say, during the four centuries 
that followed the Norman Conquest. The storyof the 
changes is too long to be told here ; but some idea 
of how they came about may be gained by noticing 
what happens to-day when a foreigner who has only 
half learned English tries to speak it. He mispro- 
nounces the words, arranges them after the manner 
of his own language, neglects the inflections. In 
somewhat the same way, when the Anglo-Saxons 
and the Norman-French became one people, and 
their languages were fused into modern English, 
sounds were modified, the order. was changed, aind 
inflections were dropped. 


10. Iiangrnage Still Sniiject to Change. — Since 
the invention of printing, changes in English have 
not been numerous ; for the vast number of printed 

books and papers, and the immense spread of the 
ability to read and write, have given to our lan- 
guage a rigidity of form which it could not have 
so long as it existed chiefly on men's tongues. For 
example, the language of the English Bible, which 
is sixteenth-century English, differs little from the 
English of to-day. But some change is still going 
on, for modifying influences are still at work. Eng- 
lish-speaking people in different parts of the world 
do not talk exactly alike ; new words are coming in ; 
old words are dropping out ; the forms and uses of 
other words are changing. An example of this 
modem change is found in the word "whom." The 


**m**-in this word is an inflection, once useful in 
conveying meaning ; and we still say, when we wish 
to speak very accurately, "Whom did you see?" 
But since the **m** is no longer necessary to the 
meaning, people have become very careless about 
using it, and even good speakers often say, ** Who 
did you see? " 

!!• Good En^lisli. — Good English is the English 
used by the best speakers and writers ; and the use 
of such English is ** only a phase of good manners." 
Bad English, that is, English unlike that which is 
used by well-informed and careful writers, produces 
in the mind of a well-informed reader an impression 
of vulgarity or ignorance similar to that which we 
get from seeing a person eat with his knife. It is 
with language as with clothes and conduct. Persons 
who wish to be classed as cultivated people must 
not only dress and act like cultivated people ; they 
must also speak and write like them. A help toward 
this end is the study of grammar. 

12. Grammar. — Grammar is an account of the 
relations which words bear to one another when 
they are put together in sentences. An understand- 
ing of these relations requires some knowledge of 
the nature, the forms, and the history of words, but 
only so far as these bear on the uses of words in 
sentences. The proper starting point of English 
grammar is the sentence. The discussion of words 
considered by themselves belongs to the dictionary. 


13. Uses of Grammar. — It is not by grammar, 
however, that we learn to speak or write. Speak- 
ing and writing our mother tongue are habits, 
formed by imitation long before we acquire that 
knowledge which is the subject-matter of grammar. 
The object of the study of grammar is to learn the 
uses of words in sentences, so that we may test the 
habits of speech which we have already acquired, 
and make them conform to the best models. Inci- 
dentally the study of grammar affords invaluable 
mental training. 

14. Grammai*s Old and New. — Among English- 
speaking peoples grammar was first studied as a 
step toward the learning of Latin, and the first 
English grammar was called an ** Introduction to 
Lily's Latin Grammar.'* The author of that first 
English grammar, keeping his eye on Latin rather 
than on English, and making his work conform to 
Latin models, treated English as if it were in all 
important respects like Latin and Greek, with no 
history or laws of its own. As a matter of fact, 
English differs greatly from other languages. In 
structure it is essentially Anglo-Saxon. Yet the 
mistake of the first English grammar was followed 
by succeeding books for nearly four hundred years. 
Now we have learned better, and study our language 
with reference to its own nature and history. 





16. Ideas and Phrases. — The word **dog/' when 
heard or seen, instantly creates in the mind a men- 
tal picture of a well-known animal. This mental 
picture is called an idea. The idea may be made 
more definite by the addition of other words, as, 
* * The big bulldog in Mr. Smith's yard ; " but though 
the idea is now complex, that is, has several parts, it 
still remains a single mental picture. 

Definition. — A group of related words expressing 
a single idea is called a Phrase. 

16. Thongrlits and Sentences. — The phrase **The 
big bulldog in Mr. Smith's yard " is satisfactory as 
an expression of a mental picture or idea ; but as a 
remark made by some one it is incomplete, for we 
at once find ourselves asking, ** Well, what about 
that dog?" We are satisfied when we hear that 
**The big bulldog in Mr. Smith's yard barked y 
From this group of words we get more than a 
single idea. We get, first, the idea of a certain 
dog, and, secondly, we get an idea of what the dog 
did. Of these ideas, the second is an assertion 
about the first. Two ideas of this kind — something 
thought of and an assertion about it — together form 
a complete thought. 

Definition, — A group of related words expressing 
a complete thought is called a Sentence. 


17. Sentences and Phrases Distingrnislied. — 

'*The big bulldog barking in' the yard" is not a 
sentence, for it contains no assertion. ** Barking" 
does, indeed, imply action ; but it does not assert. 
It is merely a descriptive word, like ** big," helping 
to fill out the mental picture of a certain dog, about 
which as yet no assertion has been made. ** Big" 
shows the size of the dog, ** barking" shows his 
occupation, ** in the yard " shows his whereabouts ; 
what the big dog barking in the yard did, we have 
yet to learn. The words as they stand express a 
single complex idea, not a thought; that is, they 
form a phrase, not a sentence. The phrase will 
become a sentence if we add an assertion : as, **The 
big bulldog barking in the yBx6. frightened me ;'' or 
if we connect ** dog" and ** barking " by an assert- 
ing word like ** is," which turns the implied action 
into an asserted action: as, **The big bulldog is 
barking in the yard." In either case we shall 
have two separate ideas, one of which is an asser- 
tion about the other. 

Query : What other asserting words might be 
used in the last sentence instead of ** is "? 


I . Tell which of the following groups of words are 
phrases and which are sentences. Make sentences out of 
the phrases by adding appropriate asserting words : — 

1. The man in the moon. 

2. The man in the moon came down too soon. 

3. The boy in blue. 


4. The boy reciting his lesson. 

5. The boy in blue reciting his lesson. 

6. The boy reciting his lesson is my brother. 

7. His attempt to catch the ball. 

8. A primrose by the river's brim. 

9. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 

10. The children playing in the street. 

11. Vessels carrying coal. 

1 2. The apples hanging on the tree. 

13. Wounds made by words are hard to heal. 

14. Charles, seeing a crowd in the street. 

15. The girl at the spring, having filled her pitcher. 

16. To play football well. 

2. Construct five phrases about things in the school- 
room ^ and show that they are not sentences, 

3. Construct five sentences about things in the school- 
room^ and show that they are sentences. 

18, Sentences Classified, — Examine the sentences 
in the following conversation : — 

Donald: I found these big apples in grandfather's barn. 
Dorothy : Show us where you got them. 
Jack: Are there any more left? 
Helen : Aren't they beauties ! 

You observe that, in the first sentence, Donald's 
thought is an assertion; in the second, Dorothy's 
thought is a request or a command ; in the third. 
Jack's thought is a question; in the fourth, Helen's 
thought seems at first glance to be a question about 
the beauty of the apples; but a little reflection 
shows that this cannot be, since she already know* 
that the apples are beauties. As a matter of fact 


she is merely expressing her delight by an exclama- 
tion y which has the interrogative form. 

Definitions. — Sentences that assert are called 
Assertive Sentences. 

Sentences that ask are called interrogative Sen- 

Sentences that command are called Imperative 

When assertive, interrogative, and imperative 
sentences are used as exclamations expressing 
strong feeling, they are called Exclamatory 


Tell the kind of each sentence in the following selec- 
tions : — 

1. We all do fade as a leaf. 

2. Fear God. Honor the king. 

3. The king is dead ! Long live the king ! 

4. A living dog is better than a dead lion. 

5. Can a man take fire in his bosom, and his clothes not be burned? 

6. Half a league, half a league. 

Half a league onward, 
All in the valley of death 

Rode the Six Hundred. 
" Forward, the Light Brigade ! 
Charge for the guns ! " he said. 

Into the valley of death 

Rode the Six Hundred. 

9K 3K 3K ♦ 

When can their glory fade ? 
O the wild charge they made I 

All the world wonder'd. 
Honor the charge they made I 
Honor the Light Brigade, 

Noble Six Hundred ! 


19, Written Sentences. — In writing, the first 
word of every sentence begins with a capital letter. 

The end of an assertive or an imperative sentence 
is marked by a period (.). The end of an interroga- 
tive sentence is marked by an interrogation point (?). 
When the sentences are exclamatory, these marks 
are changed to exclamation points (!). 


I. Write two assertive sentences about noted men. 
2. Write two interrogative sentences, 3. Write two im- 
J>erative setitences. 4. Write an exclamatory sentence, 

SO, Assertive Sentences Most Common. — Most 
sentences are assertive in character. Interrogative 
and imperative' sentences are like assertive sen- 
tences in fundamental structure, the difference be- 
ing often only a difference in the order of words : 
as, ** Can he sing? " ** He can sing." Therefore, 
in our study of sentence-structure, we shall speak 
chiefly of the assertive sentence, taking it as the 

21, The Orig^ln of Sentences. — If you ever cut your fin- 
ger with a knife or other sharp instrument, you probably exclaimed 
" Ouch ! " before you clearly realized what had happened. By this 
exclamation you gave expression to your feeling of pain, and a per- 
son hearing you would know that you were suddenly hurt; but 
what hurt you or how it hurt you he would not know, for you had 
not yet said anything definite. Indeed, you said *' Ouch ! " before 
you yourself had any clear idea of what the trouble was. As 
soon as you had time to think, you perceived that the cause of the 
pain was a cutting, and that the person wh© did the cut^ng was 
yourself. In other words, out of yonr feeling there presently grew 


a thought^ which had two parts — the idea of the person who had 
caused the pain, and the idea of what this person had done. This 
thought you perhaps expressed in the words, " I cut myself " — a' 
sentence which has two parts corresponding to the two parts of 
your thought : namely, somebody (" I "), and an assertion about this 
somebody (" cut myself "). A person hearing these words would 
immediately recognize the two parts of your thought — the somebody 
and the assertion — in other words, the actor and the act. 

Perhaps you were once frightened by a noise in a dark room. If 
so, the exclamation " Oh ! " probably expressed your fear, — a feeling 
which was immediately followed in your mind by a thought con- 
taining two parts : " That — what is it ? " Putting these two 
parts together — an idea of something, and a query about it — you 
perhaps expressed your thought in the question, " What is that ? " 

Similarly, if you should see a child about to eat a poisonous 
berry, you would say quickly, " Throw that away." In this case 
the thought aroused by what you see takes the form of a com- 
mand, with two parts as before — what is to be done, and the person 
who is to do it; but the latter is not named, because you are 
speaking to him, and to name him is unnecessary. 



22, Ttvo Necessary Parts to Every Sentenee.- 

Examine the following sentences: — 

Naming Part. Asserting^ Part. 

Fire burns. 

I cut myself. 

The school bell has just rung. 

Thebig bulldog in Mr. Smith's yard barked at me. 

You observe that each sentence has two parts — 
the naming part and an asserting part — and that 
both parts are necessary. 

23, Subject and Predicate Beflned. — The part 
of a sentence which denotes that about which an 
assertion is made is called the Subject. 

The asserting part is called the Predicate (Latin, 
''thing said'*). 

In an interrogative sentence the predicate asks something 
about the subject. 

In an imperative sentence the predicate commands^ and the 
subject is generally omitted, because the subject of a command is 
always the person or persons spoken to, and to name it is unneces- 
sary : as, " Listen [ye] ; " " Don't [you] forget." 


• ■ •• • 

••• • . ^— 


i ■ 

. 'u- 

.i. • 



'^- He -_. 

--- .'V- 

"*:c » 

"•* coes 





How fast the snow falls ! 

Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 

At the appointed time the gladiators marched into the arena.. 

Has every pupil in the class brought his book ? 


Construct two sentences in which the subjects come 
^rst ; two in which the subjects come last ; two in 
suhich the subjects come between parts of the predi^ 


Tell the stibject of each of the following sentences : — 

I. Which way does the wind come? 2. Up flew the windows 
.11. 3. Down went the Royal George. 4. Flashed all their sabers 
>are. 5. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. 6. Ten spears he 
.wept within his grasp. 7. One new-made mound I saw close by. 
J. Where are those lights so many and fair ? 9. Now wherefore 
itopp'st thou me? 10. There lay the rider distorted and pale,' 
II. A dainty plant is the ivy green. 12. Deep drank Lord 
Vlarmion of thewave. 13. Doubtful seemed the battle. 14. Wise 
ire all His ways. 15. That gale I well remember. 16. Where 
lid you find your book ? 17. Are your friends coming? 18. Thorns 
md thistles shall the earth bring forth. 19. Me restored he to 
nine office. 20. Great is your reward in Heaven. 21. Of his; 
jarly life few particulars have reached us. 22. Overhead I heard a 
nurmur. 23. Of noble race the lady came. 24. Oft did the 
larvest to their sickle yield. 25. About half-past one in the after- 
loon, on the twenty-first of September, Sir Walter Scott breathed 
lis last, in the presence of all his children. 

26. At the door, on summer evenings, 
Sat the little Hiawatha. 

27. On the car 

Drops the light drip of the suspended oan 



Write out a thought or a fceli7ig suggested by each of 
the following subjects : — 

I. Flowers . 5. Chalk . 9. I 

2. Lions . 6. Farmers . 10. He . 

3. Indians . 7. Chickens . 11. Who ? 

4. Stars . 8. Bees . 12. My desk . 


With what subjects would the following predicates be 

1. sing. 7. will be here soon. 

2. climb. 8. Is coming.? 

3. spin. 9. Can ride a bicycle } 

4. trot. 10. Twice was thrown. 

5. grow. II. What large muscles has ! 

6. are playing. 12. will help me.? 

24. Position of the Subject. — ^The subject does 
not always come first. Thus : — 

Predicate. Subject. 

■^ r 

Up went the balloon. 

Then burst his mighty heart. 

There was a little man. 

The last of all the bards was he. 

In the shade of the great elm trees stands a weather-beaten house. 

Sometimes the subject is put between parts of 
the predicate like a wedge. In the following sen- 
tences, for example, the subjects are printed in 
italics : — 

Is Fred coming ? 

Where do pineapples grow ? 


How fast the snow falls ! 

Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 

At the appointed time the gladiators marched into the arena.. 

Has every pupil in the class brought his book ? 


Construct two sentences in which the subjects come 
first ; two in which the subjects come last ; two in 
which the subjects come between parts of the predi^ 


Tell the subject of each of the following sentences : — 

I. Which way does the wind come? 2. Up flew the windows 
all. 3. Down went the Royal George. 4. Flashed all their sabers 
bare. 5. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. 6. Ten spears he 
swept within his grasp. 7. One new-made mound I saw close by. 
8. Where are those lights so many and fair ? 9. Now wherefore 
stopp'st thou me? 10. There lay the rider distorted and pale.' 
II. A dainty plant is the ivy green. 12. Deep drank Lord 
Marm ion of the wave. 13. Doubtful seemed the battle. 14. Wise 
are all His ways. 15. That gale I well remember. 16. Where 
did you find your book ? 17. Are your friends coming? 18. Thorns 
and thistles shall the earth bring forth. 19. Me restored he to 
mine office. 20. Great is your reward in Heaven. 21. Of his; 
early life few particulars have reached us. 22. Overhead I heard a 
murmur. 23. Of noble race the lady came. 24. Oft did the 
harvest to their sickle yield. 25. About half-past one in the after- 
noon, on the twenty-first of September, Sir Walter Scott breathed 
his last, in the presence of all his children. 

26. At the door, on summer evenings, 
Sat the little Hiawatha. 

27. On the car 

Drops the light drip of the suspended oan 


28. Her wing shall the eagle flap 
O'er the false-hearted. 

29. To seek thee did I often rove 
Through woods and on the green. 

30. Stormed at with shot and shell 
Boldly they rode and well. 

Caution. — Consider carefully whether *^ stormed at with shot and 
shell " belonj^s to the subject or to the predicate. Be on your guard 
against mistakes in similar cases. 

31. The pavement damp and cold 
No smiling courtiers tread. 

32. Under the walls of Monterey 

At daybreak the bugles began to play. 

33. Meanwhile, from street and lane, a noisy crowd 
Had rolled together, like a summer cloud. 

34. In the courtyard of the castle, bound with many an iron 

Stands the mighty linden planted by Queen Kunigunde's 

35. In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas, 
Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pr6 
Lay in the fruitful valley. 

36. The castle's bound 
I wander round. 
Amidst the glassy graves. 

37. Up and down the dreary camp 

In great boots of Spanish leather. 
Striding with a measured tramp. 
These Hidalgos, dull and damp. 

Cursed the Frenchmen. 

25, Compound Subjects. — Very often the same 
predicate is used with two or more connected sub- 
jects: as, 


Connected Subjects. Predicate. 

■\ r 


Flowers ^xiA ferns /grow beside the brook. 
The mountain and the squirrel had a quarrel. 
The present scene t the/uturelot^his toils, 
his wants, all were forgotten. 

Definition. — Two or more connected subjects hav- 
ing the same predicate form a Compound Subject. 

26, Compound Predicates. — Very often the same 
subject has several connected predicates : as, 

Sabject. Connected Predicates. 

\ / — —^ \ 

States rise 2Si^falL 
Charity suffereth long and is kind. 
The King of Hearts called for the tarts and beat the knave full 


Definition. — Two or more connected predicates 
having the same subject form a Compound 

27. Compound Subject and Predicate. — Some- 
times both subject and predicate are compound : as, 

Compound Subject. Compound Predicate. 

t ^ , ,: > V 

Spring and summer came and went, 


Construct two sentences with compound subjects; 
two with compound predicates ; two in which both 
subject and predicate are compound. 



In the following sentences separate the subjects from 
the predicates. If a subject or a predicate is compound , 
separate it into its parts : — 

1. She and her brother were there. 

Model for Oral Exercise.— The predicate is "were there; " 
the subject is "She and her brother," a compound subject consist- 
ing of " She " and "her brother," connected by "and." 

Model for Written Exercise. — 


were there. 

2. Copper and tin are found in England. 

3. Spring and summer, autumn and winter, rush by in quick 

4. Scepter and crown 
Must tumble down. 

5. Jack and Jill went up the hill 
To fetch a pail of water. 

6. The lion and the unicorn 
Were fighting for the crown. 

7. The stranger came with iron hand 
And from our fathers reft the land. 

8. Little Bo- Peep fell fast asleep 

And dreamt she heard them bleating. 

9. Then my heart with pleasure fills 
And dances with the daffodils. 

10. Only the foolish and the dead never change their opinions. 

11. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the 
leyeball, and there spreads out. 

12. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables 
and were fed at the same time. 


13. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunks of cocoa- 
nut palms and thatch the roofs with the leaves. 

14. In the best books, great men talk to us, give us their most 
precious thoughts, and pour their souls into ours. 

1 5. Under the benignant influence of peace and liberty, science 
has flourished, and has been applied to practical purposes. 

16. In England, two hundred years ago, the seats of the gentry 
and the larger farmhouses were fortified against roving bands of 

17. Arms, huge stones, and boiling water were always kept in 
readiness for use in repelling plunderers. 

18. Of the old baronial keeps many had been shattered by the 
cannon of Fairfax and Cromwell, and lay in heaps of ruin. 

19. The fine horses of the Life Guards, their rich housings, their 
cuirasses, and their buff coats adorned with ribbons, velvet, and gold 
lace, made a splendid appearance in St. James's Park. 

20. Dragoons were armed with muskets, and were also provided 
with bayonets, fitted into the muzzles of the guns. 

21. The common law of England knew nothing of courts-mar- 
tial, and made no distinction in time of peace between a soldier 
and any other subject. 

22. A soldier by knocking down his colonel incurred only the 
ordinary penalties of assault and battery, and by refusing to obey 
orders, by sleeping on guard, or by deserting his colors, incurred 
no legal penalty at all. 

23. The thunder. 

Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage. 
Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now 
To bellow through the vast and boundless deep. 

24. The mind is its own place, and in itself 

Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. 

28. Impersonal Subject. — Examine the following 
sentences : — 

It rains. 

It is snowing. 

It is growing dark. 


If we try to find the subjects of these sentences 
by asking **What rains?" **What is snowing?" 
** What is gfrowing dark? " the only answer is ** It." 
But *' it " does not here denote any person or thing. 
Therefore it is called an impersonal Subject, and 
the sentence is an impersonal Sentence. 


Make five impersonal sentences of your own. 

29. "It" Expletive. — Compare the following 
sentences : — 

{a) To find fault is easy. 
{b) It is easy to find fault. 

In meaning these sentences are exactly alike; 
but, they differ in (i) form and (2) emphasis. 
With regard to form, the first sentence begins 
with the subject, ** to find fault," which is followed 
by the predicate, **is easy;" the second sentence 
begins with **it," followed immediately by the 
predicate, which in turn is followed by the subject. 
The effect of the second form is to shift the em- 
phasis from the predicate to the subject. The sen- 
tence tells us, not so much that something is easy, 
as that what is easy is to find fault. In such sen- 
tences the introductory word ** it " has no meaning, 
and is therefore commonly called an Expletive 
(Latin, ** filling up"). Other examples are: '*// 
is doubtful whether he will come;" **// is certain 
that the sun spins like a top." 

In such sentences, and indeed in all sentences. 


the subject is invariably the answer to the question 
foimed by putting **who'* or** what** before the 
predicate: as, in the sentences above, ** What is 
certain? *' ** What is doubtful? *' 


Tell the subject and the predicate of each of the fol- 
lowing sentences : — 

1. It is good to be here. 

2. It does not pay to worry. 

3. It is not all of life to live. 

4. It will not suit us to go with you. 

5. It is easy to see where the fault lies. 

6. It is more blessed to give than to receive. 

7. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord. 

8. It is said that Paris uses one million oysters a day. 

9. It was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill. 

10. It is said that in Alaska horses and cows eat salmon. 

11. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. 

12. It is hard to believe that the finest railway station in the 
world is in India. 

13. It is excellent to have a giant's strength ; but it is tyrannous 
to use it like a giant. 

14. It has been proved by actual measurement that the thread 
forming the cocoon of the silkworm is eleven miles long. 


Construct five sentences that begin with " // '* expletive^ 
and tell the subject and the predicate of each. 

30. "There** Expletive. — Compare the follow- 
ing sentences : — 

(a) A gust of wind came. 

{p) There came a gust of wind. 


You observe that these sentences, too, are alike 
in meaning, but differ in (i) form and (2) emphasis. 
The second sentence begins with ** there,** and, 
like the sentences beginning with **it** expletive, 
shifts the emphasis from the predicate to the sub- 
ject, which is put last. The second sentence tells 
us, not so much that a gust of wind came, as that 
what came was a gust of winfi. The use of the word 
** there ** is precisely like that of the word ** it ** de- 
scribed in the last section. Having no meaning by 
itself i it is an Expletive. Other examples are: 
** There was water in the well;'' ** There are two 
sides to every question.** 

The expletive ** there** is regularly used before 
the various forms of **be** when they denote ex- 
istence: as, ^^ There is a God;** ''There were giants 
in those days.** 


Tell the subject and the predicate of each of the fol- 
lowing sentences : — . 

1. There is no one here. 

2. There was no help for him. 

3. Is there no hope ? 

4. May there be enough for all ! 

5. There is no peace to the wicked. 

6. Is there anything more to do ? 

7. There was a jolly miller once. 

8. There was silence deep as death. 

9. There is no royal road to learning. 

10. There came a voice from heaven. 

11. There's a divinity that shapes our ends. 


12. There is a reaper whose name is Death. 

1 3. There was a sound of revelry by night. 

14. There is a higher law than the Constitution. 

1 5. There is no good in arguing with the inevitable. 

16. There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin. 

17. There is no gathering the rose without being pricked by the 

18. There is now less flogging in the great English schools than 


Construct five sentences that begin with " there ** ex- 
pletive^ and tell the subject arid the predicate of each. 

To th.e Teacher. — Power to distinguish the logical subject 
from the predicate must precede all efforts at grammatical analysis ; 
and until the pupil has acquired this power, nothing else should be 
attempted. The end to be kept in view in the following exercise is 
not the mastery of definitions — a comparatively easy thing — but 
the development of power to see instantly the fundamental structure 
-©f sentences. In other words, the end in view is not knowledge but 



In the following sentences separate the subject from 

the predicate :-T- 


1. Come with me. 

2. Our revels now are ended. 

3. Give me your attention. 

4. Whom did the old man ask for? 

5. Sweet are the uses of adversity. 

6. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. 

7. The way of transgressors is hard. 

8. Adown the glen rode armed men. 

9. The aged minstrel audience gained. 


10. The memory of the just is blessed. 

11. There came a burst of thunder-sound. 

1 2. What became of your toy steamboat ? 

13. A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance. 

14. The precious morning hours should not be wasted. 

1 5. The cat, prowling round the yard, caught a young robin. 

16. The sentinel on Whitehall gate looked forth into the night. 

17. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100,000,- 
000 miles, 

18. The great qualities of Charlemagne were alloyed by the vices 
of a barbarian. 

19. The history of the Anglo-Saxon race is emphatically the 
history of progress. 

20. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the 
fifteenth century. 

21. In 1895 Nansen got within two hundred and twenty-seven 
miles of the North Pole. 

22. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected 
by the Saracens at Seville, in Spain. 

23. From Clive*s second visit to India dates the political ascend- 
ency of the English in that country. 

24. On the first day of the battle of Gettysburg the Confederates 
captured several thousand prisoners. 


1. Here stands the man. 

2. Wide open stood the doors. 

3. Overhead I heard a murmur. 

4. Great and marvelous are Thy works. 

5. In those days came John the Baptist. 

6. In my Father's house are many mansions. 

7. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. 

8. A little boy with crumbs of bread 
Many a hungry sparrow fed. 


9. From floor to ceiling 

Like a huge organ rise the burnished arms. 

10. Unwounded from the dreadful close. 
But breathless all, Fitz-James arose. 

Caution.— Consider whether " Unwounded from the dreadful close, 
But breathless all" belongs to the subject or to the predicate. Be on 
your guard in similar cases. 

11. Underneath this sable hearse 
Lies the subject of all verse. 

12. Within a windowed niche of that high hall 
Sate Brunswick's fated chieftain. 

13. bn the British heart were lost 
The terrors of the charging host. 

14. Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear, 

1 5. Down the street with laughter and shout. 
Glad in the freedom of school let out, 
Come the boys. 

16. Somewhat apart from the village, and nearer the Basin of 

Benedict Bellefontaine, the wealthiest farmer of Grand- Pr6, 
Dwelt on his goodly acres. 

17. Far down the beautiful river, 

Past the Ohio shore and past the mouth of the Wabash, 
Into the golden stream of the broad and swift Mississippi 
Floated a cumbrous boat. 

18. Meanwhile, apart, at the head of the hall, the priest and the 

Sat, conversing together of past and present and future. 


I. Down went the Cumberland all a wrack, 
With a sudden shudder of death. 
And the cannon's breath 
For her dying gasp. 


2. Serene in the rapturous throng, 
Unmoved by the rush of the song. 

With eyes unimpassioned and slow. 
Among the dead angels, the deathless 
Sandalphon stands listening breathless. 

3. Hearing his imperial name 

Coupled with those words of malice, 
Half in anger, half in shame. 
Forth the great campaigner came 

Slowly from his canvas palace. 

4. To confirm his words out-flew 

Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs of mighty 

5. Satan, above the rest 

In shape and gesture proudly eminent, 
Stood like a tower. 

6. His face 
Deep scars of thunder had intrenched. 

7. . Him the Almighty Power 

Hurled headlong flaming frpm the ethereal sky. 
With hideous ruin and combustion, down 
To bcttomless perdition. 

8. On each hand the flames 

Driven backward slope their pointing spires. 

9. The imperial ensign, full high advanced. 
Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind, 
With gems and golden luster rich emblazed. 

10. Anon out of the earth a fabric huge 
Rose like an exhalation, with the sound 
Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet. 
Built like a temple. 

11. From the arched roof, 

Pendent by subtle magic, many a row 
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets, fed 
With naphtha and asphaltus, yielded light 
As from a sky. 


London Streets in the Seventeenth Century. 

The houses were not numbered ; there would, indeed, have been 
little advantage in numbering them ; for* of the coachmen, chair- 
men, porters, and errand boys of London, a very small portion could 
read. It was necessary to use marks which the most ignorant 
could understand. The shops, were therefore* distinguished by 
painted signs, which gave a gay and grotesque aspect to the streets. 

When the evening closed in, the difficulty and danger of walking 
about London became serious indeed. The garret windows were 
opened, and pails were emptied, with little regard to those who 
were passing below. Falls, bruises, and broken bones were of 
constant occurrence ; for", till the last year of the ieign of Charles 
the Second, most of the streets were left in profound darkness. 
Thieves and robbers plied their trades with impunity; yet* they were 
hardly so terrible to peaceable citizens as another class of ruffians. 
It was a favorite amusement of dissolute young gentlemen to 
swagger by night about the town, breaking windows, upsetting 
sedans, beating quiet men, and offering rude caresses to pretty 
women. — Macaulay: "History of England," chapter iii. 

^ A connecting word, belonging^ neither to the subject nor to the predicate 



31, liO^c vs. Grammar. — ^The distinction be^ 
tween subject and predicate belongs to thought as 
well as to the expression of thought. It exists 
in a speaker's mind before he expresses his 
thought in words. The distinction is therefore a 
logical distinction rather than a grammatical one ; 
for grammar has to do only with the expression of 
thought, that is, with words. We come now to 
consider the words used in forming the subject 
and the predicate, and here we enter the field of 
grammar proper. 

8S. Substantive and Verb Defined. — Compare 
the following sentences : — 

Subject. Predicate. 

Stars twinkle. 

The beautiful stars^ which are really twinkle brightly on frosty 
suns about a million miles in di- nights, 
ameter and trillions of miles away. 

You observe that one sentence is composed df 
two words, the other of many ; but the fundamental 
structure of both is the same. Both make assertions 
about starsy and in both cases the assertion is that 

^^ To the TeacAer.—Only those features of the verb are treated in this chapter 
which are needed for an understanding of the general structure of sentences. 

The term ** substantive " is in Part I preferred to **noun/' becau^(x) it is a con- 
venient term to include both nouns and substitutes for nouns, and (2) it nimishes tlie 
useful word *' substantively." 


Stars twinkle. But in the second sentence the fun- 
damental words, ** stars" and ** twinkle," are ac- 
companied by words and groups of words called 
Adjuncts (** joined to "). 

Definition. — A word used (with or without ad- 
juncts) to denote an object of thought is called a 

Definition. — A word used (with or without adjuncts) 
as the predicate of a sentence is called a Verb (Latin, 
••the word; " so named because of its supreme im- 

When we say that a sentence must contain a sub- 
ject and a predicate, we speak logically. Speaking 
grammatically, we say that it must contain a sub- 
stantive and a verb. 

33. Grammatical and liO^ieal Terms Distin- 
gruished. — In the sentence ** The beautiful stars, 
which are really suns about a million miles in diam- 
eter and trillions of miles away, twinkle brightly on 
frosty nights," the substantive ** stars** is called the 
Simple Subject to distinguish it from the Com- 
plete Subject, which consists of the simple sub- 
ject and its adjuncts. ** Twinkle** is called the 
Verb to distinguish it from the Predicate, which 
consists of the verb and its adjuncts. Other ex- 
amples are: — 

Complete Subject. Predicate. 

Low black clouds usually gather before a storm. 

Simple Verb. 


The conditions of war vary from age to age with the 
Simple Verb. [progress of weapons. 




Constnict four sentences in which the simple subject 
is different from the complete subject, and the verb from 
the predicate. 


In the following sentences point out, in the order 
named, the complete subject, the predicate, the simple 
subject, and the verb : — 

1. The ripest fruit falls first. 

2. She dwelt on a wild moor. 

3. The good news arrived yesterday. 

4. A soft answer tumeth away wrath. 

5. A hot fire of coals burned in I he grate. 

6. A fox jumped up on a moonlight night. 

7. The sudden splash frightened the nurse. 

8. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere. 

9. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. 

10. Three wise men of Gotham went to sea in a bowl, 

11. Waldo, playing on the bank of the brook, tumbled into the 

12. The master of the district school 
Held at the fire his favorite place. 

34. Verbs of Action, Bein^, and State. — Com- 
pare the meanings of the verbs in the following 
sentences : — 

Birds sing. *^ 

My lady sleeps. 

He Icrves children. 

There is a flaw in the metal. 

You observe that ** sing ** asserts ^r//^« / •* sleeps' 
asserts state or condition; * 'loves'* asserts feeling; 


**is" asserts existence or being. It is sometimes 
said, therefore, that a verb is a word that asserts 
action, being, or state — feelings being looked on as 
mental actions. 

Most verbs assert action. 


1. In Exercise 7 tell whether the verbs assert ac» 
tion, being, or state. 

2, Construct three sentences in zvhich the verbs assert 
action; two in which they assert state or condition; 
one in which the verb asserts existence or being. 

35. The Verb "To Be." — **Am," **is,*' **are," 
was," **were," and the less common '*art/' 
wast,*' and **wert*' — all of them forms of the 
verb **to be" — are so peculiar in their use that 
they require special notice. The peculiarity will 
appear if we carefully compare the predicates in 
the following sentences: — 

The \\^\xi\x\% flashed. 
Lightning is electricity. 

In the first sentence, you observe, the predicate 
consists of the verb ** flashed," which does two 
things: first, it calls up in the mind an idea of 
sudden brilliance; secondly, it asserts this bril- 
liance of the lightning. In other words, it has 
both meaning and assertive power. 

In the second sentence, the predicate consists of 
two words, ** is" and ** electricity," each of which is 


necessary. But mark the difference between them. 
•* Electricity*' is a word of definite meanings calling 
tip instantly a mental picture or idea of that some- 
thing of which it is the name. But it has no assert- 
ive power ^ as appears when we try in vain to make 
a predicate with it alone: as, ''Lightning elec- 
tricity.** The assertive part of the predicate is 
supplied by the verb **is/* which connects the two 
names, ''lightning" and "electricity," in such. a 
way as to declare that the objects named are iden- 
tical. But though "is" has this assertive power, 
it has no meaning of its own, that is, it calls up no 
mental picture. The predicate gets its meaning 
from the idea- word " electricity." 

It appears, therefore, that "is," "are," "was," 
"were," and the other forms of "be," are mere 
instruments of assertion, conveying in themselves, 
no idea at all, except in those cases in which 
they express existence. Meaningless themselves 
they are used to make predicates with words that 
have meanings, but cannot by themselves make as- 
sertions. They link together two different ideas in 
such a way as to predicate one of the other. For 
this reason the verb "be" is often called the 
Copula (Latin, "link"). It often resembles in 
force the mathematical symbol of equality or 
identity, "=." 

The following verbs, in some of their uses, re- 
semble "be": — 













1. Construct Jive sentences in which forms of the 
verb ^^ to be '* are used with assertive power only, 

2. Construct two sentences in which forms of ^^ to 
be " are used to denote existence^ 

3. Construct sentences in which the following verbs 
are usedy like *' ^^,*' to form predicates whose meaning 
is determined by a following word : — 

seem become look appear 

feel taste smell remain 

36. Verb Plirases. — Examine the following pred- 
icates : — 

Subject. Predicate. 

studies, (a) 

does study, {p) 

has studied, (c) 

has been studying, {d) 

will study, (e) 

may be studying. (/) 

may have been studying, {g') 

should have been studying, {h) 

Here we have eight different assertions about 
Dorothy. One of them contains a single asserting 
word, others two words, others three, still others 
four. All of the predicates refer to a single action, 
namely, Dorothy's studying ; but they refer to it in 
different ways. Predicates (a) and (p) assert it as a 
customary act, with a difference in emphasis; {c) 
and (^) as a completed act ; {e) as a future act ; (/) 
and (^) as a possibility, with a difference in time ; 
{K) as a duty. In other words, the eight predicates 
are alike in expressing a single action, denoted by 



one or another form of the verb ''study; " they 
differ in representing this action tinder various as- 
pects, as the speaker happens to view it. 

Now examine the predicates that contain two or 
more words, and see whether any one of the words 
can be omitted without altering or destroying the 
assertion. You observe that in each case every 
word is necessary. 

Finally, consider whether the helping words 
*'does," **has,*' ** has been," etc., taken by them- 
selves, are of the nature of substantives or verbs. 
They do not denote objects of thought ; therefore 
they are not substantives. They do have assertive 
power, as in '* Dorothy does embroidery," " She has 
a book ; " therefore they are verbs. 

From all this it appears that frequently, to ex- 
press varying shades of thought, we employ in 
our predicates several words which together have 
the force of a single verb. 

Definition. — A group of words which together 
form one verb is called a Verb Phrase. 

87. Verb Pbrases in Interrogative, Xeg^ativey and 
Empbatic Sentences. — In interrogative and nega- 
tive sentences modern usage requires verb phrases. 
Compare, for example, the following sentences : — 

Assertive : She sings. 
Interrogative : Does she sing f 
Negative : She does not sing. 

Sometimes a verb phrase has the force of an em- 
phatic affirmation, implying that the thing which is 


asserted has been doubted. Compare, for example, 
the following sentences ; — 

Assertive : She sings. 
Emphatic : She does sing. 


Point out the verb phrases in the following sentences: — 

I. I am reading "Ivanhoe." 2. Katherine has finished the 
book. 3. To-morrow I shall have finished it. 4. John has cut his 
finger. 5. Who will help him ? 6. Swallows were twittering round 
the eaves of the general's headquarters. 7. Father may be in his 
study. 8. Carrie must have been dreaming this morning. 9. You 
will have paid too dear for the whistle. 10. By this time he should 
have learned more caution. 11. You might have told me before. 
12. I did tell you. 13. A large eagle was soaring overhead. 
14. Father has been writing all morning. 15. The child would 
play by himself for hours. 16. She would have her own way. 
17. He might have been doing something useful. 18. This ring 
may have been worn by a Roman dandy. 19. By to-morrow I 
shall have had enough of this. 20. They had had a hard day. 


Change the sentences in Exercise 17 {^page 38) into 
mgative^ interrogative^ and emphatic form, and point 
out the verb phrases which you use in the new sentences. 

38. Caution. — In such sentences as * * The sun is 
shining'* and **The sun is hot^'* beginners often 
find it hard to decide at this stage of their work 
whether the italicized word, coming after a form 
of the verb **be,** is or is not a part of the verb. 
A good working test is this : If the predicate of the 
sentence expresses action^ the word in question is 
part of the verb. If the predicate expresses a con- 


dition or quality of the subject, the word in questiofi 
is not a part of the verb. For example, in the fol- 
lowing sentences the verbs are printed in italics : — • 

The sun is shining " (action). 
The sun is hot " (condition). 


Tell whether the words printed in italics are to he 
viewed as parts of the verbs : — 

I. The key is lost, 2. The key was hst by Bridget. 3. Tenny- 
son is dead, 4. He was buried with solemn ceremony in West- 
minster Abbey. 5, I shall be studying Latin by that time. 6. I 
shall be rested by that time. 7. Charlie has hurt his ankle* 
8. The ligaments are sprained, • 9. They were sprained in the 
football game last Saturday. 10. We have been happy together. 
II. Books are soiled by use. 12. These books are not soiled, 
13. The house is deserted, 14. It was deserted hy the owners two 
years after it was built, 15. The prisoners 2JQ guilty, 16. The 
sun is bright, 17. The stars are shining, 18. Dandelions are 
blossoming by the road. 19. The baby has been crying. 20. Ralph 
has been sick, 21. The cry was loud, 22. The cry was heard by 
a passer-by. 23. Were you careful? 24. The troops were ex- 
hausted, 25. They had been marching all night. 

39. Verb Phrases Separated. — The parts of a 
verb phrase are often separated by other words. 
For example, the verb phrases in the following 
sentences are printed in italics : — 

I have just returned. 

Have you not heard? 

I do not yet know. 

Has the man in the moon been married indeed ? 

Point out the verb phrases in the following sentences:^\ 

1. What did you see? 2. The leaves are slowly changingj 
5. He will certainly lose his place. 4. I have not seen him 


5. She will sometimes lose her temper. 6. Why is he running 
away ? 7. Have you finished your lesson ? 8. We are now read- 
ing " Tom Brown's School Days." 9. Did the man in the boat see 
the thief ? 10. May not the coat have been taken by some one 
else? II. A general's orders should always be promptly obeyed. 
12. He had a few days before been elected captain of the team. 

40. Verbs Transitive or Intransitive. — Compare 
the verbs in the following sentences: — 

John frightened Helen. 
John laughed. 

In the first sentence, ** frightened'* denotes an 
action which, from its nature, involves two persons: 
John, the doer of the action ; and Helen, on whom 
the action falls. In other words, the action which 
originates with John passes over, as it werp, from 
him to Helen, who is affected by it. 

In the second sentence, '* laughed'* denotes an 
action which involves only one person. The 
laughing ends with John, where it began. It does 
not pass over to any other object. Nothing else 
is affected by it. 

Definition, — A verb that denotes an action or 
feeling that passes over from the doer of the action 
to an object on which it falls, is called a Transi- 
tive Verb (Latin transire, ** to pass over *'). 

Definition. — A verb that denotes an action, 
feeling, or state that involves only the subject, is 
called an Intransitive Verb. 

Verbs like "have," "own," "possess," "inherit," etc., though 
they do not express action or feeling, are nevertheless called tran- 
sitive, because they involve two objects, the possessor and the 
thing possessed. 



I. Consider the meaning of the following verbs (as 
ordinarily used)^ and tell whether they are transitive 
or intransitive: — 


















2. Construct three sentences in which you use transi- 
tive verbs not in the preceding list, and two in which 
you use intransitive verbs, 

41. Verbs both Transitive and Intransitive* — 

Compare the following sentences : — 

He walked. 

He walked his horse. 

You observe that some verbs may in one sentence 
be transitive and in another intransitive. 


Construct ten sentences^ using each of the following 
verbs first transitively , then intransitively : — 

break fly move return speak 

42. Verl>s Active and Passive. — Compare the fol- 
lowing sentences: — 

John frightened Helen. 
Helen was frightened by John. 

These sentences vary in form, but not in meaning. 
In both of them the verbs are transitive, because 
they denote action passing from one person to an- 


other. But in the first sentence the verb represents 
the subject as doing the action ; in the second sen- 
tence, as receiving it. 

Definition, — A transitive verb which represents the 
subject as doing an action is in the Active form. 

Definition, — A transitive verb which represents the 
subject as receiving an action is in the Passive form. 

Query : Can an ijitransitive verb have a passive 
form ? Give the reason for your answer. 


Construct two sentences in which the verbs are in the 
active form ; two in which they are in the passive form, 


Tell whether the verbs in the following selection are 
in the active or the passive form : — 

Apples in Ancient Times. 

It appears that apples made a part of the food of that unknown 
primitive people whose traces have lately been found at the bottom 
of the Swiss lakes, supposed to be older than the foundation of Rome, 
so old that they had no metallic implements. An entire black and 
shriveled crab apple has been recovered from their stores. * * * 

The apple tree has been celebrated by the Hebrews, Greeks, 
Romans, and Scandinavians. Some have thought that the first 
human pair were tempted by its fruit. Goddesses are fabled to 
have contended for it, dragons were set to watch it, and heroes 
were employed to pluck it. — Thoreau : "The History of the 
Apple Tree." 


(General Review.) 

Point out the simple subjects and the verbs in Exer- 
cise 15 {page 31), and tell whether the verbs are transi- 
tive or intransitive ; if transitive ^ tell wfiether the form 
is active or passive. 



In the last chapter we learned that some verbs 
cannot form complete predicates without the help of 
other words (35, 40), We must now look more 
closely at such verbs and the words which are used 
with them to complete the predicate. 

43. Verbs of Complete Predication. — Examine 
the following sentences : — 

Subject. Predicate. 

■^ \ / — ^^ 

The wind arose. 

The lightning flashed. 

The thunder rolled. 

The rain fell. 

In each of these sentences the predicate consists 
of a verb which makes a complete assertion. 

Definition, — A verb that by itself can form a 
complete predicate is called a Verb of Complete 

44. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. — Now let 

us try to make assertions with the verbs *'are," 
''was/' ''became," "frightened,** "built," "have:" 


Sabject. Verb* 

These men are 

Washington was 

Tennyson became 

You frightened 

The Romans built 

Battleships have 

You see at once that something is wanting. 
Though we have in each case put together a sub- 
ject and a verb as before, we have not in these 
groups of words said anything, for the ideas ex- 
pressed by the verbs are not complete in them- 

Definition. — A verb that does not by itself convey 
a complete idea is called a Verb of Incomplete 

46. Complements Defined. — In order to form 
a predicate with a verb of incomplete predication 
we must add a completing word : thus, 


- — Predlcate.^-% 

Verb. Complement. 

/ 1 
These men 




The Romans 

are soldiers, 
was president, 
became poet-laureate, 
frightened me. 
built ships. 

Battleships have armor. 

Definition. — ^The completing word added to a verb 
of incomplete predication in order to form a predi- 
cate is called a Complement (** completing part *'). 


Caution. — Complements, which vtust be added to make the 
predicate complete, are to be carefully distinguished from words 
that may be added to make the meaning more precise. For exam- 
ple, in the sentence "The rain fell fast," the word "fast" is not a 
complement, for we should have a complete sentence without it. 

46. Attribute Complements. — Are all comple- 
ments of the same kind? In order to answer, let us 
examine some typical sentences, taking first the 
following: — 

Subject. Verb. Complement. 

Tabby is a cat. 

Tabby looks wise. 

In both of these sentences the verbs are intran* 
sitive, and the complements serve to describe the 
subject. In the first sentence the complement ' * cat " 
describes Tabby by attributing to him in a single 
word all the qualities or marks that distinguish cats 
from other objects. In the second sentence the 
complement ** wise" describes Tabby by attributing 
to him a single quality, wisdom. 

To understand more clearly what is meant by qualities or attri- 
butes, compare an orange and a nail. An orange is yellow, round, 
soft, eatable, juicy, sweet, etc. A nail is gray, thin, hard, not eat- 
able, juiceless, tasteless, etc- These distinguishing characteristics 
are qualities or attributes. When we say of an object " This is an 
orange," or " This is a nail," we describe it by asserting of it the 
various attributes of oranges or of nails, as the case may be ; when 
we say "This orange is sweet** or "This nail is hard** we describe 
it by noting a single attribute ; when we say " This is Tabby" we 
describe it by naming it. 

Definition. — A complement that describes the sub- 
ject IS called an Attribute Complement. Other 
examples are : — 


Subject. Verb. Complement* 

These men are soldiers. 

Washington was president. 

Roses smell sweet 

His name is John. 

47. Object Complements. — Let us examine, 
now, the following sentence : — 

Subject. Verb. Complement. 

/— *-— N <— *"— \ 

Tabby catches mice. 

In this sentence you observe that the verb 
*' catches" is transitive, denoting an action which 
involves two things, the doer of the action, and the 
object on which the action falls. The doer of the 
action is named by the subject ** Tabby," the com- 
plement "mice" names the object on which the 
action falls. 

Definition. — A complement that denotes the ob- 
ject on which the action of a transitive verb falls is 
called an Object Complement, or, more briefly, an 
Object • 

Since an object complement denotes the object 
directly aflfected by the action of the verb, it is often 
called a Direct Object. Other examples are : — 

Sulvfect. Verb. Object. 


t — * — V 








The Romans 



To the Teaclier.— As all teachers of language know, the 
important distinction between objects and attribute complements is 


a stumbling-block to many pupils. Many mistakes have been 
caused by the old but very misleading saying that "An object 
answers the question * what ? * or * whom ? * placed after the verb." 
The weakness of this test may be seen by applying it to the sen- 
tence, " These men are soldiers : " thus, " These men are what ? *' 
Answer, " Soldiers." But " soldiers " is not an object complement 
In the following exercises the pupil should be guided by what he 
has learned in Sections 46 and 47. 


Complete the following sentences by supplying appro* 
priate complements to the verbs, and tell whether the 
complements which you supply are objects or attribute 
complements : — 

1. Squirrels crack . 7. Columbus discovered . 

2. Grocers sell . 8. Farmers raise . 

3. Lincoln became . 9. The sky is . 

4. Lee was . 10. The air grew . 

5. Charles saw . 11. The room looks . 

6. The sun g^ves . ' 12. I feel . 


I. To each of the following subjects add an appropriate 
predicate consisting of a verb and a complement ^ and 
tell whether the complement is an object or an attribute 
complement: — 

1. Hens . 7. Carpenters 

2. Jewelers • 8. Monkeys — 

3. Cats . 9. Clouds 

4. We . 10. Mary 

5. Birds . II. Soldiers — 

6. Elephants . 12. Trees 

2. Construct two sentences containing object com- 
plements ; two containing attribute complements. 



Point out the complements in the following sentences ^ 
and tell whether they are objects or attribute comple* 
ments : — 

I. Tom broke a window. 2. Bruno bit the tramp. 3. Chaucer 
was a poet. 4. Who killed Cock Robin ? 5. Who will toll the 
bell ? 6. Saul was made king. 7. Gladstone became prime min- 
ister. 8. Some one took my bicycle. 9. Demosthenes and Cicero 
were orators. 10. Do you study Latin ? 11. None but the brave 
deserve the fair. 1 2. My father remained secretary for the rest of 
his life, 13. Righteousness exalteth a nation. 14. A man's house 
is his castle. 15. The bird forsook her nest. 16. She looked a 
goddess. 17. Arnold turned traitor. 18. She turned her back. 
19. Joan of Arc seemed a holy woman. 20. Sir Samuel Baker was 
a great hunter. 21. He killed many lions, tigers, and elephants, 
and innumerable smaller animals. 22. Britannia rules the waves. 
23. Augustus was made emperor. 24. Comparisons are odious. 
25. King Alfred was called Truth Teller. 26. Who wrote " The 
Star-spangled Banner?" 27. To-night no moon I see. 28. To 
Lord Byron Venice seemed a sea-goddess. 29. The laws of 
nature are the thoughts of God. 30. Washington was elected the 
first president of the United States. 31. The two roads run par- 
allel. 32. The kings of Egypt are in the Bible called Pharaohs. 
33. Nathan Hale died a martyr to liberty, 34. He came a foe and 
returned a friend. 35. Ethel grew tall, beautiful, and queenly. 
36. The dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, 37. A wise 
son maketh a glad father. 38. A foolish son is the heaviness of his 

48. Objective Attribute Complements. — Exam- 
ine the following groups of words : — 

Subject. /—Predicate. — » ^ 

Verb. Object. 

The Hebrews made Saul 

This made him 


In these groups of words we have subject, verb, 
and object ; yet we do not have complete sentences. 
Additional words are needed, to answer the ques- 
tions, ** What did the Hebrews make Saul?** and 
** What did this make him ? ** The lack is supplied 
in the following sentences : — 

Subject. i ^Predicate.- 

Verb. Object. Second Complement. 


The Hebrews made Saul king. 

This made him vain. 

The function or use of the second complements, 
**king** and "vain,** will appear if we write the 
sentences as follows : — 


4 — ^Predicate. — * 
Verb. Object. 

The Hebrews 






Prom this we see that **king*' and *'vain" help 
the verb **made** to express a certain action, and 
at the same time they denote attributes of Saul re- 
sulting from that action. 

Definition. — A word that helps a verb to express 
action, and at the same time denotes attributes of 
the object resulting from that action, is called an 
Objective Attribute Complementy or, more briefly, 
an Objective Complement. 



Objective complements complete the predicate 
and also describe the object. Or, if you prefer, 
they assist the verb to express the action which 
falls upon the object. Other examples are: — 





The Persian army 








—Predicate. » 

Object. Objective Complement. 


the rivers 







I.' Fill the blanks with objective complements , and 
show that they belong both to the verb and to the 
object : — 

1. They named the boy . 

2. The people made Washing- 

ton . 

3. Henry painted his house 

4. They called the state 

5. Let us appoint her — 

6. Do you think him 

7. Why did you choose me- 

8. I consider her . 

2. Construct three sentences containing objective com^ 

EXEBaSE 33. 

Point out the objective complements^ and show that 
they belong both to the verb and to the object : — 

I. Victoria made Tennyson a baron. 2. They sang themselves 
hoarse. 3. Tell the carpenter to plane the board smooth. 4. Cra- 
dles rock us nearer to the tomb. 5. You think him humble, but 
God accounts him proud. 6. We cannot pump the ocean dry. 
7. Attention held them mute. 8. One touch of nature makes the 
whole world kin. 9. Get the horses ready immediately. 10. Time 


makes the worst enemies friends, ii. Dr. Holmes called Boston 
the hub of the universe. 12. King George H appointed Franklin 
Postmaster-General of the British Colonies in America. 13. Cus- 
tom renders the feelings blunt and callous. 14. Madame de StaSl 
called architecture frozen music. 15. Cromwell made the poet 
Milton Secretary of State, 16. God called the light day, and the 
darkness he called night. 17. All Napoleon's conquests did not 
make him happy. 18. She carries her head high. 19. A crumb 
of bread thrown in jest made Prescott, the historian, blind for life. 

20. Whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar. 

21. Make the memory a storehouse, not a lumber room. 

49* Complements wltli Passive Forms. — Compare 
the uses of the word ** captain" in the following 
sentences 2 — 

{Active) We elected Harry captain. 
{Passive) Harry was elected captsdn. 

You observe that in one sentence the verb is 
active, in the other it is passive, and in each ** cap- 
tain " expresses attributes bestowed on Harry by 
the election. In the first sentence, where ** Harry" 
is an object^ ''captain" is an objective complement 
describing the object; in the second sentence, 
where ** Harry" is the subject ^ ''captain" is an 
attribute complement, describing the subject. 


Change the following sentences into the passive fornix 
and show the use of the italicized words in the new 
sentences : — 

1. He kept vciq waiting, 

2. This made him angry. 

3. God called the light day. 


4. They painted the house green, 

5. You cannot pump the ocean dry, 

6. Victoria made Tennyson a* baron, 

7. Perseverance keeps honor bright, 

8. A thunderstorm often turns milk sour, 

60. Several Complements to One Verb. — Some- 
timeg' a single verb has several complements : as, 

Sabjeot* Verb. Complements. 

■N t • » t • ^ 

We study arithmetic 2Xi^ grammar, 
Addison was a gentleman and a scholar, 

61. Several Verbs "wltli One Complement.-^-Some- 

times a single complement belongs to several verbs : 

Subject. Verbs. Complement* 

Noble minds loathe and despise falsehood. 

62. Summary of Sentence Types. — Gathering 
together the diflferent kinds of sentences that we 
have been studying, we find nine rudimental types 
of the simple assertive sentence : — 

(1) Dogs bark. Grace is singing. (Intransitive verb of 
complete predication^ 

(2) Tabby is a cat. Alice was feeling ill. {Intransitive verb, 
with attribute complement^ 

(3) John frightened Helen. Dorothy is studying arithmetic 
( Transitive verb, with object,) 

(4) The Hebrews made Saul king. Mr. Smith is painting his 
house yellow. {Transitive verb, with object and objective compU* 


(5) Harry was hurt. {Passive verb,) 

(6) Saul was made king. {Passive verb, with attribute compie^ 

(7) It rains. It is snowing. {Impersonal subject^ 

(8) It is wrong to steal. ("// " expletive:) 

(9) There was water in the well. {** There" expletive,) 


Illustrate each of the types of the simple sentence 
with a senteftce of your own. 

To the Teacher. — Indirect objects, which are modifiers 
rather than complements, are treated in the next chapter. 



Prom our previous study it is clear that the essen- 
tial parts of language are Subject, Verb, and Com- 
plement. They are, as it weie, the bones of every 
sentence, giving shape to the thought, and holding 
it together. But these essential parts are seldom 
used alone. Generally they are accompanied by 
expressions that, without being essential, fill out 
the thought and give it definiteness and accuracy, 
something as flesh rounds out the human form. 

63. Modiflers Beflned. — Many words have mean- 
ings so wide that they must be narrowed before they 
exactly fit our thought. For example, the word 
•* horses** applies to all the horses in the world; but 
we seldom wish to speak of all horses. To bring 
the meaning of the word down to the measure of 
our thought we add to it some word, or words, by 
way of limitation or description : thus, 













>■ horses. 



Similarly there are many varieties of tlie action 
expressed by the verb **went:" as, 

He went J again. 



Often we use several limiting or describing words : 


Your beautiful black trotting horses. 
He often went there before. 

Definition, — A word joined to some part of the 
sentence to qualify or limit the meaning is called a 

Modifiers may be attached to any or all of the 
principal parts of a sentence : as, 

Modified Subject. 

Modified Verb. 

Modified Com- 



yesterday 1 

— » 












- boys 




' apples 













green . 



Join appropriate modifiers to the following words: 

I. oranges. 13. houses. 


— music. 14, candy. 

3. clouds. 15. dogs. 

4. roses. 16. Come . 

5. wind. 17. Go . 

6. Lie . 18. Stay . 

7. Run . 19. Step . 

8. Think . 20. Rise . 

9. Sit . 21. Sleep 

10. balls. 22. Speak and 

II. churches. 23. Write and 

12. chair. 24. Work 

64. Caution. — Care must be taken not to con- 
found modifiers of the verb with complements. A 
modifier shows the time, place, manner, or degree 
of the action, being, or state expressed by the verb. 
An object complement denotes the object on which 
the action expressed by the verb falls ; an attribute 
complement points back to the subject, mentioning 
one or more of its attributes. 


In the following sentences tell whether the italicized 
words are objects^ attribute complements^ or modifiers 
of the verb: — 

I. Father called again, 2. Some savages are cannibals. 3. The 
regiment marched /<?rM. 4. Gehazi went out a Z?/^r. 5. She sang 
a ballad. 6. Bismarck was a German. 7. She sang well. 8. The 
ship sailed yesterday. 9. The policeman looked surly. 10. Lot's 
wife looked 3^7^>&. 11. They went below. 12. The deacon's horse 
ran a race. 13. The deacon's horse ran away. 14. Vesuvius is a 


^^aicano, 15. Helen vfroie j^^s/erday, 16. She wrote a composU 
Hon, 17. She writes welL 18. Mother is sewing late to-night. 
19. She is sewing my dress, 20. To-morrow will be Saturday, 
21. The man turned his head. 22. The men turned pirates. 
23. The man turned round. 24. He walked a mile, 25. He walked 
his horse, 26. The Romans were great soldiers, 27. Who fought 
there? 28. Who fought King Richard? 29. Who fought bestt 
30. The ship struck a r^^>&. 31. The ship struck head-on. 


Separate the following se^ttences into simple subject^ 
verb 9 complemoitSy and modifiers :^^ 

1. Have you much time ? 

Model for Oral Exercise. — An interrogative sentence. 
The subject is "you," unmodified. The predicate is "have much 
time/' consisting ^f the verb " have " and the object •* time," which 
is modified by " much/' 

Model for Written Exercise.— 

V. s. o. 

Have you time? 

I much 

2. Where is your hat ? 3. Every dog has his day 4. Many 
.jands make light work. 5. Lit lie strokes fell great oaxs. 6. An 
undevout astronomer is mad. 7. When shall I see you again? 
8. The postman comes twice daily. 9. We often meet nowadays , 
sometimes we exchange a few words; we seldom converse long. 
10. Here he comes. 11. They walked up and down. 12. Where 
did you find those apples? 13. I have nearly finished my work. 
14. We shall surely expect you to-morrow. 15. Perhaps your 
sister will come too. 16. To and fro and in and out the wan 
stars danced between. 17. Why did you come here to-day? 
18. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 19. Meanwhile we did 
our nightly chores. 20. The old horse thrust his long head out, 
21. This good news arrived yesterday. 22. The first carnage con- 
tained four persons. 23. A large black dog carried the basket 


24. The plowman homeward plods his weary way. 35. The cold . 
November rain is falling dismally. 26. The noblest mind the best 
contentment has. 

27. Gayly the troubadour 

Touched his guitar. 

28. The cock his crested helmet bent 

And down his querulous challenge sent 

55. Modifying Phrases and Clauses. — Compare 
the modifiers in the following expressions : — 

(i) Blue-eyed g\x\s, 

(2) Girls wzih blue eyes, 

(3) Girls whose eyes are blue. 

In (t) the modifier of *'gfirls" is a single word 
(** bine-eyed*') ; in (2) it is a group of words (**with 
blue eyes *') having the force of a single word ; in 
(3) it is a group of words having the force of a sin- 
gle word, and containing a subject (** whose eves'*) 
and a predicate (** are blue **). 

Definition. — A group of words used as a single 
word, and containinjg neither subject nor predicate, 
is called a Phrase. 

Other examples of modifying phrases are : — 


He Stayed at home. 


Stunned by the sound, he lay unconscious. 


Having finished his work, John went home. 


Definition. — A group of words containing a sub- 
ject and a predicate, and used like a single word 
as part of a sentence, is called a Clause. 

Other examples of clauses are : — 


Jf it rains, we cannot go. 


They started when the sun rose* 


Whether he will come is uncertdn* 

Clause. Clause. 
'^ >, * 

He that is giddy tlunks the world turns round. 

Phrases and clauses are alike in being groups of 
words used as single words. They differ in this : a 
clause contains a subject and a predicate, a phrase 
does not. 

To tlie Teacher. — Phrases and clauses used as substantives 
are treated separately in Chapter VI. 


1. Narrow the meaning of the following words by 
adding to them modifying phrases : — 

1. Clouds . 5. News . 9. Sit . 

2. A ride . 6. Wind . 10. Write . 

3. A house . 7. He went . 11. The fox ran . 

4. Boats . 8. We walked . 12. Ships sail . 

2. Construct four sentences containing modifying 


I. Narrow the meaning of the following words by 
adding to them modifying clauses y and point out the 
subject and the predicate in each clause .•— 


1. Men . 6. The States . 11. The ground is wet 

2. The pictures . 7. Those . . 

3. Children . 8. He came . 12. The brook is 

4. The train . 9. Stay . deep. 

5. The book . 10. Make hay , 

2. Construct four sentences containing modify irig 


1 . Construct a sentence in which the subject is modi^ 
fed by single words ; one in which it is modified by a 
phrase ; one in which it is modified by a clause. 

2. Construct a sentence in which the verb is modified 
by single words ; one in which it is modified by a 
phrase ; one in which it is modified by a clause. 


To the Teacher. — This formal exercise is intended only for 
pupils who are slow to distinguish phrases and clauses. Ordi- 
narily it may be omitted. 

Tell whether the following groups of words are 

phrases or clauses : — 


I. How he got home. 2. Whether he is ready. 3. To tell the 
truth. 4. Doomed for a certain lime to walk the night. 5. Stand- 
ing by the door. 6. Where Shakspere was born. 7. Before 
leaving the city. 8. Before we leave the city. 9. Busied with 
public affairs. 10. That you have wronged me. 11. Ignorant of 
his duty. 12. Having made his fortune. 13. Made by Indians. 
14. Till on dry land he lights. 15. Having struck twelve. 
16. Where the gray birches wave. 17. The train having started. 
18. To better his condition. 19. Darkness coming on. 20. Where'er 
the navy spreads her canvas wings. 21. The left wing having been 
repulsed. 22. As soon as the bridge was lowered. 23. The bridge 
having been lowered. 24. Having lowered the bridge. 25. Before 
he had lowered the bridge. 



In the following sentences point out the modifying 
phrases y and tell what they modify : — 

1. We sped the time with stories old. 

2. A basket of fruit stood on the table. 

3. Hearing a shout, she ran to the door. 

4. The borrower is servant to the lender. 

5. We saw a brick schoolhouse standing by the road. 

6. Surrounded by familiar faces, she breathed freely again, 

7. A comfortable old age is the reward of a well-spent youth. 

8. Pins were first made by machinery in New York, in 1835. 

9. The author of " The eve of St. Agnes " was born in a stable. 

10. The first submarine telegraph was laid in New York harbor, 
i.i 1842. 

11. Glass windows were introduced into England in the eighth 

12. Icebergs fall into the ocean from Arctic glaciers, and drift 
slowly toward the south. 

13. The winter palace of the Czar of Russia is lighted by twelve 
thousand electric lamps. 

14. General Toral, hemmed in by the American army, surren- 
dered Santiago to General Shafter. 

15. Flocks of birds, wheeling round the lighthouse and blinded 
by the light, dashed themselves to death against the glass. 

16. Un warmed by any sunset light 
The gray day darkened into night. 

17. We piled with care our nightly stack 
Of wood against the chimney back. 

18. The moon, above the eastern wood. 
Shone at its full. 

19. Down in the green and shady bed 
A modest violet grew. 

90. Two robin redbreasts built their nest 
Within a hollow tree. 



In the following sentences pick out the modifying 
clauses^ tell what they modify^ and give the subject and 
the predicate of each clause : — 

1. He lay where he fell. 

2. A glutton lives that he may eat. 

3. Where the bee sucks, there suck I. 

4. Just as I awoke, the clock struck six. 

5. The evil that men do lives after them. 

6. God helps those who help themselves. 

7. Blessed is he that considereth the poor. 

8. The task which you have to do is easy. 

9. A temperate man eats that he may live. 

10. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. 

11. They that govern most make least noise. 

12. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 

13. My eyes make pictures when they are shut. 

14. The city to which I refer is Constantinople. 

1 5. When the heart stops beating, life stops too. 

16. People who live in glass houses must not throw stones. 

17. Rex found a young robin, which had fallen from its nest. 

18. The average age of those who enter college is seventeen. 

19. The man who wanted to see you went away an hour ago. 

20. The fur which now warms a monarch once warmed a bear. 

21. He that loses his conscience has nothing left that is worth 

22. Where the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered 

23. Kindness is the golden chain by which society is bound 

24. The moon, that once was round and full. 
Is now a silver boat. 


25. My heart leaps up when I behold 
A rainbow in the sky. 

26. He who ascends to mountain tops shall find 

The loftiest peaks most wrapped in clouds and snow. 

66. ModifyinfiT Clauses Classified.— The principal 
ideas expressed by modifying clauses are the fol- 
lowing ; — 

(i) Description : Water that is stagnant is unwholesome. 

(2) Time : He started when the sun rose, 

(3) Place : Wherever I went was my poor dog Tray. 

(4) Manner : He did as he was told, 

(5) Condition: Rob will go if Ethel goes, 

(6) Concession: Though pain is not the greatest evil, -^^X.W 
is an evil. 

(7) Cause : I came because you called me, 

(8) Purpose: A glutton lives that he may eat, 

(9) Degree : Ralph is stronger than Katherine \is\ 
. (10) Result : I am so tired that I cannot stand, 


Tell what idea is expressed by each of the modifying 
clauses in Exercise 44. 

67, Indirect Objects. — Compare the following 
sentences : — 

{d) Jack gave a penny. 
ip) Jack gave me a penny. 

In each of these sentences the word * ' penny " 
is an object complement, indispensable to the pred- 
icate. Giving, however, involves a receiver as well 
as a thing given, and in the second sentence this 


receiver is indicated by the single word **me," 
placed immediately after the verb. But **me" is 
less closely related to the verb than ** penny," 
because (i) it is not indispensable, and (2) if we 
change its place, we must indicate its relation by 
prefixing **to: ** as, '* Jack gave a penny to me.'' 
Moreover, the action of giving reaches the receiver 
only indirectly through the thing given. *'Me** 
in sentence (b) is therefore called an Indirect 
Object, in distinction from ''penny,** which is 
called the Direct Object. Other examples are : — 

Mother bought Alice a doll. 
She made Ruth a new dress. 

Definition. — A word used to denote the object in- 
directly affected by the action of a verb is called an 
Indirect Object. 

The indirect object of a verb denotes the object 
/^ or /^r whom the action is performed. But not 
ever)^ word answering the question * * to whom or 
what?** or **for whom or what?** is an indirect 
object,^ For example, the italicized words in the fol- 
lowing sentence are not indirect objects: **Mother 
went to town and bought me a doll for a dollar,*' 

The verb "ask " takes an indirect object in a relation sometimes 
expressed by " of : '* as, " He asked me a question ; " " He asked 
a question ofme" 


I . With the following verbs form ten sentences^ each 

containing an indirect object : — 

ask forgive make promise teach 

bring get pay send tell 



2. Change your sentences so that indirect objects that 
were single words shall now be expressed by phrases ^ and 
vice versa. 


Point out the indirect objects in the following sen- 
tences : — 

1. Will you do me a favor? 

2. He paid the men their wages. 

3. Give me liberty, or give me death. 

4. He wrought the castle much annoy. 

5. Riches certainly make themselves wings. 

6. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice. 

7. Nature teaches beasts to know their friends. 

8. Owe no man anything, but to love one another, 

9. The God who gave us life gave us liberty at the same time* 

10. If thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if he thirst, g^ve him 

11. Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul, as the swift 
seasons roll. 

68. Indirect Objects In Passive Sentences. — 

When sentences containing a direct and an indirect 
object are turned into the passive form, it would 
seem that the direct object should become the subject 
of the paSwSive verb, because it denotes the object 
which directly receives the action expressed by the 
verb; and that the indirect object should remain 
unchanged: thus, 

Ind. Obj. 

(Active) He handed her a chair. 

Ind. Obj. 

(Passive) A chair was handed her. 


As a matter of fact, however, not the direct ob- 
ject, but the indirect is often made the subject of 
the passive verb : as, 

She was handed a chair. 

This cannot be logically explained, but it is 
accepted as good English. ** Chair*' is for con- 
venience called a Ketained Object. 


Change the following sentences into the passive 
form : — 

1. Harry gave me a penny. 

2. She promised me a book. 

3. I gave him a receipt in full.' 

4. Mother bought Alice a doll. 

5 He paid the men their wages. 

6. He wrought the castle much annoy. 

7. Nature teaches beasts to know their friends. 

8. He told them many strange stories of the sea. 

69. Apposltives. — Compare the following sen- 
tences: — 

Paul was beheaded in the reign of Nero. 

Paul, the apostUy was beheaded in the reign of Nero, emperor 
of Rome, 

In the second sentence, you observe, the mean- 
ing of *'Paul** and of **Nero" is made clear by 
setting next to each of them a modifier consisting 
of another name for the same person or thing. 

Definition. — A name set next to another name 
by way of explanation, and denoting the same per- 


son or thing, is called an Apx>osltive (Latin, **set 
next to "). 

The two names set next to each other are said 
to be in Apposition. 

If an appositive is accompanied by adjuncts, it 
is usually set off by commas. 

In the definition of an appositive, the words " denoting the same 
person or thing " are needed to distinguish an appositive from a 
possessive modifier, like ** John's" in the expression "John's hat." 
In this expression the words are not in apposition because they do 
not denote the same person or thing. 


In the following sentences poitit out the words in ap-- 
position : — 

1. Hail, holy light ! offspring of heav'n first-bom. 

2. The meek-ey'd Mom appears, mother of dews. 

3. Come, gentle Spring ! ethereal Mildness ! come. 

4. The postman comes, the herald of a noisy world. 

5. Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celes- 
tial fire — conscience. 

6. Let not women's weapons, water drops. 
Stain my man's cheeks ! 

7. A famous man is Robin Hood, 
The English ballad singer's joy. 

8. Aurora now, fair daughter of the dawn, 
Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn. 

9. The spacious firmament on high. 
With all the blue ethereal sky. 

And spangled heavens, a shining frame, 
Their great Original proclaim. 

10. She dwelt among the untrodden ways 
Beside the springs of Dove — 
A maid whom there were none to praise 
And very few to love. 


11. In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 

A stately pleasure-dome decree. 
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran 
Through caverns measureless to man 

Down to a sunless sea. 

12. Our fathers* God, to thee, 
Author of liberty. 

To thee I sing ; 
Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light ; 
Protect us by thy might. 

Great God, our King ! 


Construct four sentences containing appositives. 

60. Modifiers of Modifiers. — Thus far we have 
considered only modifiers of subject, verb, and 
complement. But modifiers are themselves often 
modified, and we find phrases attached to phrases, 
clauses attached to clauses. Thus : — 

{a) Fanny sings very well. 

Subject. Verb. 

Fanny sings 


I very 

{p) The widow of the fisherman who was drowned lives in a cot 
tage by the sea. 

Subject. Verb. 

widow lives 

The in a cottage 

of the fisherman by the sea. 

who was drowned 


(c) This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

Si > O 

This is the rat 

fthat ate the malt 

that lay in the house 

that Jack built. 

.61, Analysis. — When, in order to show its struc- 
ture, we separate a sentence into its parts, we are 
said to Analyze it. 

Definition, — The process of separating a sentence 
into its parts in order to show its structure is called 
Analysis (Greek, ** a taking apart"). 

In order to analyze a sentence we must tell — 

(i) The kind of sentence. 

(2) The complete subject. 

(3) The predicate. 

(4) The simple subject. 

(5) The verb. 

(6) The complement, if any. 

(7) The modifiers of subject, verb, and complement. 

(8) The subordinate modifiers. 

62. Diagrams. — It is sometimes convenient, as a 
time-saving device, to show the fundamental struc- 
ture of a sentence by means of a graphic represen- 


tation called a Diagram. For example, the struc- 
ture of the sentence, 

All boys like the game of baseball, 

may be exhibited thus : — 

S. V. o. 

boys like game 



of baseball. 

This diagram shows at a glance that the sentence 
has three principal parts, and that the subject has 
one modifier, the object two. 

Similarly, the structure of the sentence, 

The lion and the unicorn 
Were fighting for the crown, 

may be shown thus : — 

S. V, 





were fighting 

I for the crown. 

Phrases and clauses, being used with the force 
of single words, are best treated as units and not 
broken up into parts. 

For other examples see 60. 

To the Teaclier. — The chief value of the diagram is that it 
enables the teacher to test a pupil's insight into sentence-structure 
with a minimum of time and effort. The chief objection to it is 
that, being mechanical, it is unnatural as an expression of logical 
relations, reducing the beautiful subtleties of language to hard and 
fast lines, wresting the words out of their order, and fostering in 


the pupil mechanical ideas of the English sentence. Used occasion- 
ally and in moderation, it is a help ; but it should not attempt to go 
beyond the graphic separation of subject, verb, complements, and 
modifiers ; and it should never be allowed to usurp tlie place of 
oral analysis, which remains the chief instrument of the teacher 
for developing quick perception and easy expression. 

The author doubts the expediency of ever extending the use of 
the diagram beyond the expression of the fundamental /(^/r^i/ struc- 
ture of the sentence. To attempt to show graphically all grammat- 
teal relations leads to niceties of detail in the diagram which turn it 
into a puzzle requiring a key. When a pupil becomes concerned 
not so much with the use of a worH as with how to express that use 
graphically, the purpose of the diagram has become perverted, and 
the real, object of analysis is lost sight of. 


Analyze the following sentences : — 

I. Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower 
And trimmed the lamps as the sun went down. 

Model for Oral Analysis.— The subject is " Three wives." 
There are two predicates, " sat up in the lighthouse tower '* and 
"trimmed the lamps as the sun went down." The simple 
subject is " wives," modified by " three." The verb in the first 
predicate is "sat," a verb of complete predication, modified by 
" up " and the phrase " in the lighthouse tower." In the second 
predicate the verb is " trimmed," with " lamps " as object comple- 
ment. " Trimmed " is modified by the time clause " as the sun 
went down," and "lamps " is modified by "the." 

Model for Written Analysis.— 

S. V. 




in the lighthouse tower 




trimmed lamps 

I as the sun went down. | the 


2. Bright the lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men, 

3. Animals that live in the Arctic regions among snow and ice 
have white fur, 

4. Near the ** bonny Doon " stands the little clay-built cottage 
in which Robert Bums was bom. 

5. Rip Van Winkle assisted at the children's sports, made their 
playthings, and told them long stories of ghosts, witches, and 

6. Close beside her, faintly moaning, fair and young, a soldier 

Tom with shot and pierced with lances, bleeding* slow his 
life away. 

7. Between the andirons* straggling feet 
The mug of cider simmered slow. 

8. The house dog on his paws outspread 
Laid to the fire his drowsy head. 

9. Sharply clashing horn on horn. 
Impatient down the stanchion rows 
The cattle shake their walnut bows, 

10. A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the wisest men. 

11. I stood on the bridge at midnight, ^ 
As the clocks were striking the hour. 

12. Forth into the forest straightway 
All alone walked Hiawatha 
Proudly, with his bows and arrows. 

13. Whene'er a noble deed is wrought, 
Whene'er is spoken a noble thought. 
Our hearts, in glad surprise. 

To higher levels rise. 

14. In my^study I see in the lamplight. 

Descending the broad hall stair, 
Grave Alice and laughing Allegra 
And Edith with golden hair. 



(General Review.) 

Analyze the following sentences : — 

I. I came to a shady spot where the grass was wet with the dew 
that still lay upon it. 

Model for Oral Analysls.— The subject of this sentence 
is *• I," without adjuncts. The predicate is the rest of the sentence. 
The principal verb in the predicate is ** came," a verb of complete 
predication, modified by the phrase " to a shady spot." " Spot " is 
modified by " a *' and " shady " and the clause of place, " where the 
grass was wet," in which " the grass " is the subject, " was " is the 
verb, and " wet " is an attribute complement. " Wet " is^modified 
by the phrase " with the dew." " Dew " is modified by " the " and 
the descriptive clause " that still lay upon it," in which " that '* is 
the subject and " lay " is the verb, modified by ** still " and the phrase 
" upon it." 

Model for Written Analysis. — 

S. V. 

I came 

to a shady spot 

where the grass was wet 

with the dew 

I that, etc. 

2. Nearly all dogs like the water. 

3. My bosom's lord sits lightly in his throne. 

4. The man in the moon came down too soon. 

5. Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth. 

6. Trust that man in nothing who has not a conscience in 

7. When I look upon the tombs of the great every emotion of 
envy dies in me. 

8. Pompeii was suddenly buried beneath a shower of ashes 
from Mount Vesuvius.^ 

9. People will not look forward to posterity who never look 
backward to their ancestors. 


10. Books that you may carry to the fire and hold readily in your 
hand are the most useful after all. 

11. The deep cave among the rocks on the hillside was long 
the secret home of a family of foxes. 

12. In Holland the stork is protected by law, because it eats the 
frogs and worms that would injure the dikes. 

13. The water of our brook, after flowing under the bridge and 
through the meadow, falls over little precipices of rock till it reaches 
the level of the lake, fifty feet below. 

14. When he was a boy, Franklin, who afterward became a 
distinguished statesman and philosopher, learned his trade in the 
printing office of his brother, who published a paper in Boston. 

15. A king sat on the rocky brow 
Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis. 

16. At the doorway of his wigwam 
Sat the ancient Arrow-maker, 
In the land of the Dacotahs, 
Making arrowheads of jasper. 

17. At his side, in all her beauty. 
Sat the lovely Minnehaha, 
Plaiting mats of flags and rushes. 

18. Soon o*erthe yellow fields, in silent and mournful procession. 
Came from the neighboring hamlets and farms the Acadian 

Driving in ponderous wains their household goods to the 

19. In the Old Colony days, in Plymouth, the land of the Pil- 
, grims, 

To and fro in a room of his simple and primitive dwelling. 
Clad in doublet and hose, and boots of Cordovan leather, 
Strode, with a martial air, Miles Standish, the Puritan captain. 

20. Shut in from all the world without, 
We sat the clean-winged hearth about, 
Content to let the north wind roar 
In baffled rage at pane and door. 
While the red logs before us beat 
The frost line back with tropic heat 


21. That orbed maiden with white fire laden, 

Whom mortals call the moon. 
Glides glimmering o'er my* fleece-hke floor. 
By the midnight breezes strewn. 

22. Hearing the Imperial name 

Coupled with these words of malice. 
Half in anger, half in shame. 
Forth the great campaigner came 

Slowly from his canvas palace. 

23. When I see kings lying by those who deposed them ; when 
I consider rival wits placed side by side, or the holy men that di- 
vided the world with their contests and disputes, I reflect with 
sorrow and astonisMhnent on the little competitions, factions, and 
del)ates of mankind. — Addison: "Visit to Westminster Abbey." 

'A cloud is supposed to be speaking. 



In the last chapter we learned (55) that groups of 
words are often used with the force of single words, 
and that such groups are Phrases if they contain 
neither subject nor predicate, Clauses if they do 
contain a subject and a predicate. The illustrative 
sentences and the exercises contained many such 
groups used as modifiers. We are now to learn 
that phrases and clauses are also used as substan- 

63. Phrases as Subjects. — Examine the subject 
of each of the following sentences, and, if possible, 
pick out the single word that may be used as the 
simple or bare subject : — 

Subject. Verb. Complement. 

Over the fence is out. 

To jump across the chasm was impossible. 

Tom*s being there saved the house. 

You observe that no single word can be taken as 
the bare subject. The assertion is made about the 
idea expressed by the entire phrase used as a sub- 

To the Teacher. — The internal, structure of substantive 
phrases is discussed in Part II. 




Construct assertions about the ideas expressed by the 
following phrases : — 

1 . To die for one's country 

2. Skating on the pond — 

3. Writing compositions — 

4. Playing football , 

5. To write a story — 

6. Chopping wood 

7. To find a horseshoe 

8. To tell a lie . 


Fill the blanks with phrases used as subjects: — 




is dishonorable, 
annoys me. 
is bad luck, 
is hard work. 

5. was great fun. 

6. would make you laugh. 

7. is impossible. 

8. Does make you tired ? 

64. Phrases as Complements. — Examine eacli of 
the following" complements, and determine whether 
any single word may be taken as the bare comple- 
ment : — 




Object Complement. 


the bridge to be lowered, 
him do it. 



Subject. Verb. 

Verb. Attribute Complement* 


out of bounds, 
in no danger. 


Objective Complement* 



I \ 



out of breath, 
waiting an hour. 

From this it is clear that phrases are often used 
substantively as complements. 



Complete the following sentences by adding ideas ex- 
pressed by phrases^ and tell whether the phrases are used 
as objects, attribute complements^ or objective comple- 
ments : — 

I. Our house is -. 5. What I want is . 

2. We intend . 6. Washington forced the British 

3. He made us . 7. The Alps are . 

4. He seemed , 8, I like . 


In the following sentences point out the phrases^ and 
tell how they are used: — 

1. Study to be quiet. 

2. The vessels were of oak. 

3. Out of sight is out of mind. 

4. Out of debt is out of misery. 

5. I found the book growing dull. 

6. I did not enjoy crossing the ocean. 

7. The price of wisdom is above rubies. 

8. A man should learn to govern himself. 

9. To break a promise is a breach of honor. 

10. Giving to the poor is lending to the Lord. 

11. England expects every man to do his duty. 

12. This morning Carrie seemed in good spirits. 

13. Men called the first steamboat "Fulton's Folly." 

14. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position. 

1 5. The true university of these days is a collection of books. 

16. The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of 

17. Being in a ship is being in a jail, with the chance of being 





18. To be conscious that you are ignorant is a g^eat step toward 

19. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest 

20. The only argument available with an east wind is to put on 
your overcoat. 

21. To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means 
of preserving peace. 

22. Early to bed, and early to rise. 

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 

23. Immodest words admit of no defense, 
For want of decency is want of sense. 


Write a sentence containing a phrase used as sub- 
ject ; as object ; as attribute complement ; as objective 
complement . 

65. Clauses as Subjects. — Examine the following 
sentences, and consider whether any single word 
can be named as the bare subject. 

Consider, also, whether the groups of words ex- 
pressing the subject are phrases or clauses. Give 
the reason for your answer : — 

Subject. Predicate. 

A , . A , 

What they say is not to the point. 

That you have wronged me doth appear in this. 

Whether I can go is uncertain. 

From this it is clear that a clause may be used 
substantively as the subject of a sentence. 



Make assertions about the ideas expressed by the fol- 
lowing clauses : — 

1. What he wants . 

2. Whether you go or stay . 

3. That two and two make four 

4. Whom it belongs to . 

5. What he does . 

6. Where he went . 

7. When we shall start — 

8. " Charge for the guns " 


Fill the blanks with clauses used as subjects : — 

1. is unknown. 5. is of no importance. 

2. will never be discovered. .6. was foretold. 

3. pleases me. 7. were his words. 

4. is doubtful. 8. has been proved. 


Review Exercise 1 1 {page 29), and tell whether the 
subjects are phrases or clauses. 

66. Clauses as Complements. — Examine the fol- 
lowing sentences, and consider whether any single 
word can be named as the complement. Consider, 
also, whether the groups of words expressing the 
complementary idea are phrases or clauses: — 

Subject. Verb. Object. 

taught that the earth moves, 

asked who I was. 

showed where she had put it. 

doubt whether I can go. 


Subject. Verb. Attribute Complement* 

This is what I want. 

Her chief fault was ' ' that she would not read. 

He seemed what he pretended to be. 

This is - where the arbutus grows. 

From this it is clear that clauses may be used sub- 
stantively as object or attribute complements. 


Fill the blanks with clduses used as complements, and 
tell whether they are used as objects or attribute com- 
plements : — 

1. Do you know ? 6. Have you heard ? 

2. I fear . 7. The question is . 

3. My hope Is . 8. Things are seldom . 

4. We saw . 9. Let us ask . 

5. His cry was . 10. I think . 

67. Clauses as Appositlves. — Examine the fol- 
lowing sentence : — 

The Arabs have a superstition that the stork has. a human 

Here the clause **that the stork has a human 
heart'* is in apposition (59) with the word "super- 

From this we see that clauses may be used sub- 
stantively as appositives. 


Fill the blanks with clauses in apposition with the 
italicized words: — 


1. The report is untrue. 

2. The news has jiist come. 

3.. We have just learned the fact , 

4. I cherish the hope , 

5. He made the assertion . 


Point out the appositives in the following sen-- 
tences : — 

1. The popular idea that water is purified by freezing is a 

2. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down 
his life for his friends. 

3. Dr. Watts's saying that birds in their little nests agree 
is far from being true. 

4. The proverb " Never cross a bridge till you come to it " is 
old and of excellent wit. 

5. Books have this advantage over travel, that they convey 
information from remote times. 

6. It was a maxim with Bentley that no man was ever written 
out of reputation but by himself. 

7. The Declaration of Independence announced the truth that 
all power comes from the people. 

8. In the armory of Venice is this inscription : " Happy is that 
city which in time of peace thinks of war." 

9. The theory that the earth revolves around the sun was not 
generally accepted till after the hivention of the telescope. 

10. Know then this truth (enough for man to know), — 
" Virtue alone is happiness below." 


Write a sentence containing a substantive clause used 
^as subject * as object ; as attribute complement ; as an 
appositive. . - c^ 




In the following sentences point out the clauses^ 
and tell how they are used ;— 

1. Ask if you may go too. 

2. Life is what we make it. 

3. What he does is well done. 

4. What you want is not here. 

5. Take whichever you choose. 

6. Show us where you found it. 

7. This is not what I asked for. 

8. What he promises, he will do. 

9. No one can tell how this will end. 

10. A servant must do what he is told. 

11. No man can lose what he never had. 

12. "I am going a-milking, sir/' she said. 

13. Whether you go or stay is of little account. 

14. The village all declared how much he knew. 

15. He acknowledged that he had made a mistake. ^^ 

16. Whatever is worth doing at all, is worth doing well. 

17. Reputation is what we seem ; character is what we are. 

18. Lawrence's dying words were, " Don't give up the ship." 

19. That the earth is round is proved by the shape of its shadow. 

20. Columbus did not know that he had discovered a continent. 

21. What a man puts into his head cannot be stolen from him. 

22. The war cry of the Crusaders was, " It is the will of God ! ** 

23. "Where is Abel, thy brother?" was God's question to 
guilty Cain. 


24. One of the many objections to betting is that it demoralizes 
the character. 

25. The world will not inquire who you are. It will ask, "What 
can you do ? " 

26. Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any 
control over dreams. 

27. The explanation of the apparent daily motion of the sun and 
stars is that the earth spins like a top. 

28. I dreamt that I dwelt in marble halls. 
With vassals and serfs at my side. 

To the Teacher.— Substantive phrases and clauses used as 
the objects of prepositions are treated in Part II. 



.68. Independent Elements Defined.— Examine 

the following sentence : — 

I am going a-milking, sir. 

Here, you observe, the subject is *' I ;*' the pred- 
icate is **am going a-milking." The word **sir** 
belongs neither to the subject nor to the predicate, 
and therefore is not really a part of the sentence! 
It is merely attached to the sentence to show to 
whom it is addressed. 

Definition, — A word or group of words attached to 
a sentence without forming a grammatical part of it 
is called an Independent Element. 

69. Vocatives. — Independent elements are of 
several kinds. In ** I am going a-milking, sir," the 
independent element **sir" indicates the person to 
whom the sentence is addressed. 

Definition, — A word used to call to or indicate 
the person or thing addressed is called a Vocative 
(Latin voco, ** I call"). 

Care must be taken not to confound vocatives with 
the subjects of imperative sentences. In ** Come 
on, boys," **boys" is a vocative. The subject of 
the command **come on" is omitted as usual; if 
expressed, it would be **you:" as, **Come [you] on, 



Point out the vocative words in the following sen- 
tences : — 

1. Drink, pretty creature, driitk. • 

2. Give me of your balm, O fif tree. 

« .' »■ • 

3. Mr. President, my object' is^peace. 

4. Thou, too, sail on, O ship of State. 

5. Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again. 
. 6. Wave your tops, ye pines, in sign of worship. 

7. Roll on, thou dark and deep blue ocean, roll ! 

8. Sir, I would rather be right than be president. 

9. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 

10. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. 

. II. To arms ! To arms! Sir Consul, 
Lars Porsena is here. 

70. Exclamations. — Examine the following sen- 
tence : — 

What ! are you going ? 

Here the subject is ** you ;'* the predicate is ** are 
going.'* ** What! '* is '^an independent word at- 
tached to the sentence as an outcry or sudden ex- 
pression of feeling. 

Definition. — A word or group of words used as an 
outcry or sudden expression of feeling is called an 


Point out all the independent elements in the follow- 
ing sentences^ and tell whether they are vocatives or 
exclamations :• — 


1. Oh, hurry, hurry! 

2. Well, let us try it 

3. Why, that is strange ! 

4. The boy, oh, where was he ? 

5. Poor man ! he never came back. 

6. Mortimer! who talks of Mortimer? 

7. Ba, ba, black sheep, have you any wool? 

8. Ha! laugh *st thou, Lochiel, my vision to scorn? 

9. Alas ! poor creature ! how she must have suffered t 
10. Ay me ! what perils do environ 

The man that meddles with cold iron ! 

71, Parenthetical Expressions, — Examine the 
following sentence : — 

This, to tell the truth, was a mistake. 

Here the subject is "This;" the predicate is 
** was a mistake." •' To tell the truth " is a phrase, 
forming no part of the sentence (which is complete 
without it), but attached to it as a sort of comment 
or side remark. 

Definition. — A phrase or a clause attached to a sen- 
tence as a sort of side remark or comment is called 
Parenthetical (Greek, ** put in beside "). 


Pick out the parenthetical expressions in the follow* 

ing sentences : — 

1. At all events, he did his best. 

2. In fact, there was nothing else to do. 

3. Considering his age, he did very well. 

4. I felt, to say the least, a little nervous. 

5. So far as I can see, there is nothing more to do. 

6. Her conduct, generally speaking, was admirable. 

7. Properly speaking, there is no such thing as luck. 

8. The ship leaped, as it were, from billow to billow. 

9. To speak plainly, your manner was somewhat rude. 

Thy rod and thy staff , 

* comfort me. 


10. To the best of my recollection* she was not therie. 

11. Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between thee and me. 

12. The army of Xerxes, to put it in round numbers, comprised 
2,500,000 persons. 

72, Pleonasm, — Examine the following sen- 
tence: — 

Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me. 

Here the words **Thy rod and thy staflf ** name 
the subject of the thought, but are independent of 
the sentence ** they comfort me," which is complete 
in itself, the grammatical subject being **they" 
and the predicate ** comfort me." It is as if we 
used two subjects denoting the same thing : thus, 

They J 

Definition. — The use of more words than are 
needed is called Pleonasm (** more than enough"). 
Other examples of pleonasm are: — 

The smithy a mighty man is he. 

My banksy they are furnished with bees. 

This construction was once very good English, 
but it is now uncommon, and as a rule should not 
be imitated. 

73, Punctuation of Independent Elements. — It 

is customary to separate independent elements from 
the rest of the sentence by commas or (in the case 
of exclamations) by exclamation points. 


Write two sentences of your own with vocatives at- 
tacked; two with exclamations ; two with parenthetical 



74. Summary of the Parts of a Sentence.-^The 

parts of a sentence, which we have now sttidjed, 
may be summarized as follows: — ^ -^^ 









Word (32). 
Phrase (63). 
Clause (65). 




Verb Phrase 



Transitive , 

' Complete predication (43). 

Copulative (35) with attribute 
complement (46). 

With object (47). 

With object and ob- 
jective complement 








Complete predication 

With attribute com- 
plement (49). 

With retained object 


Word (46). 
Phrase (64). 
I Clause (66). 

r Word (47). 
7^ff Phrase (64). 
^^^^ [clause (66). 

Odjec/ivef "^ord (48). 
(48) I Phrase (64). 

f Word (53). 

^^^^ [Clause (55. 67). 

( Vocative (69). 

Independent Expressions Exclamatory (70). 


Parenthetical (71). 
Pleonastic (72). 



(General Review.) 

1. Reproduce from memory the preceding summary, 
omitting the numerical references. 

2. Define and illustrate each of the terms used in the 

To the Teacher. — The nominative absolute, which is in- 
dependent in form, though it is really a modilier, is treated in 
Part II. 



With respect to meaning, sentences are classified 
as Assertive, Interrogative, or Imperative. With 
respect to fornty they are either Simple, Complex, 
or Compound. 

76. Simple Sentences. — Examine the following 
sentences: — 

Subject. Predicate. 

^ , , N- 

a. The horses were in the stable. 

b. The horses ) 

and > were in the same stable, 

the cattle ) 

( took fright 
r. The horses < and 

( ran away. 

d. The horses ) ( were fastened in the same stable 

and > < and 

the cattle ) ( were fed at the same time. 

Each of these sentences, you observe, consists of 
but one subject and one predicate, though several 
of the subjects and predicates are compound. 

Definition, — A sentence which contains only one 
subject and one predicate, either or both of which 
may be compound, is called a Simple Sentence. 

In a simple sentence with compound subject and predicate, 
every verb belongs to every grammatical subject, and every gram- 
matical subject belongs to every verb. 

Some grammarians hold that there are as many sentences or 
clauses in anything we say as there are verbs. According to them. 


sentences (c) and (</) are not simple sentences, but two separate 
sentences united, with some words omitted : as, " The horses took 
fright and [the horses] ran away ;'* " The horses and the cattle were 
fastened in the same stable and [the horses and the cattle] were 
fed at the same time." 

76, Complex Sentences. — Examine the following 
sentences: — 

Subject. Predicate. 

/ • - \ t - \ 

Where the accident occurred is not known. 

Substantive Clause. 

The spot where the accident occurred is not known. 

Modifying Clause. 

In each of these sentences a clause, performing 
the ofl&ce of a single word, forms an indispensable 
part of the whole. It cannot be removed without 
injury to the meaning of the sentence. On the other 
hand, it depends on the rest of the sentence for its 
own significance. It is clear that the subject and 
the predicate of such a clause are subordinate to, 
that is, of lower rank than, the subject and the 
predicate of the sentence of which the clause is 
only a part. 

Definition. — A clause used like a single word as 
a dependent or subordinate part of a sentence is 
called a Dependent or Subordinate Clause. 

Definition. — A sentence containing a principal 
clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called 
a Complex Sentence (Latin, *' woven together'*). 

The ** principal clause'* in the first illustrative 
sentence is the entire sentence ; in the second sen- 
tence it is, '*Thpspot • • • is not known." 


Subordinate clauses are either modifying or sub- 
stantive clauses ; and all modifying or substantive 
clauses are subordinate. 

It is sometimes said that subordinate clauses can be recognized 
by the fact that they do not by themselves make complete sense. 
This is not a sure test ; for — 

(i) Some subordinate clauses make complete sense by them- 
selves ; for example, " '/ am going a-milking, sir,* she said." 
Here the direct quotation is clearly the object of "said," and is 
therefore a dependent clause ; yet it makes complete sense by itself. 

(2) Some principal clauses cannot stand by themselves ; for 
example, *' As a man lives, so must he die,** 

'7'7. Compound Sentences. — Examine the fol- 
lowing sentences : — 

The rain descended, | and | the floods came, | and | the winds 
blew, I and | [they] smote upon that house; | and | it fell: | and | 
great was the fall thereof. 

The way was long, | the wind was cold, | 
The minstrel was infirm and old. 

In these selections we see united into one sen- 
tence several that are complete in themselves. 
Although closely related in thought, they could be 
separated without injury ; therefore they are inde- 
pendent of one another. Not being dependent one 
on another, they are said to be coordinate^ that is, 
of equal rank. 

Definition, — A sentence consisting of several in- 
dependent or coordinate sentences joined together 
is called a Compound Sentence. 

The independent sentences joined together may theniselves be 



S/iow whether the following sentences are simple^ 
complex y or compound : — 

' I. In the multitude of counselors there is safety. 

**2. A cow is a very good animal in the field ; but we turn her 
out of a garden. 

3. Where the bee sucks, there suck I ; 
In a cowslip's bell I lie. 

4. Flow gently, sweet Afton, among thy green braes ; 
Flow gently, I'll sing thee a song in thy praise. 

5. My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here ; 
My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer. 

6. The mossy marbles rest 
On the lips that he has prest 

In their bloom ; 
And the names he loved to hear 
Have been carved for many a year 
On the tomb. 

7, Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains ; 

They crowned him long ago 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds, 
With a diadem of snow. 

8. The mountains look on Marathon, 

And Marathon looks on the sea ; 
And musing there an hour alone, 

I dreamed that Greece might still be free, 

9. He who fights and runs away 
May live to fight another day ; 
But he who is in battle slain 
Can never rise and fight again. 

10. God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform ; 
He plants his footsteps in the sea 
And rides upon the storm. 



78, Compound Sentences Classified. — If we 

examine compound sentences closely, we find that 
they are of four kinds : — 

(i) Sentences in which the separate sayings are 
united because of a similarity of meaning or a con- 
tinuation of the same line of thought : as, 

He called for his pipe, | and | he called for his bowl, | and | 
he called for his fiddlers three. 

Fear God | and | keep his commandments. 

(2) Sentences in which the separate sayings are 
united because they stand in contrast : as, 

He ran to the station, | but | he missed the train. 
We called at the house, | but | we did not see her. 

(3) Sentences in which the separate sayings are 
united because they present thoughts between which 
one must make a choice : as, 

The book is lost | or | some one has taken it. 

(4) Sentences in which the separate sayings are 
united because they express cause and effect: as, 

Carl was tired, | therefore | he went to bed. 

79. Connecting: Words. — In the sentences given 
in the last section as illustrations, the connecting 
words are ''and," **but,*' '*or," and ''therefore." 
These are the most common joining words in the 
four kinds of compound sentences ; but other con- 
nectives are frequently used, such as "also," "more- 
over," "nor," "nevertheless," "for." Often there 
are no connecting words at all, the connection 


between the united sentences being indicated 
only by the punctuation. To tell, therefore, how 
the separate parts of a compound sentence are 
related to one another, we must consider, not the 
connectives, but the meaning of the parts. 


Separate the following compound sentences into their 
independent parts i and tell how the parts are related: — 

1. Man proposes, but God disposes. 

Model for Oral Analysis. — This is a compound sentence, 

formed by uniting, by way of contrast, the separate sentences 
"Man proposes" and "God disposes." The connecting word is 
•• but." 

2. She must weep or she will die. 

3. They toil not, neither do they spin. 

4. It rained on Saturday, so we put off the game. 

5. He says what he means, and he means what he says. 

6. The leaves are falling ; therefore the swallows will soon be 

7. The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war 
was in his heart. 

8. The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows 
himself to be a fool. . 

9. The heavens declare the glory of God ; and the firmament 
showeth his handiwork. 

10, Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some 
have greatness thrust upon 'em. 

11. Truly there is a tide in the affairs of men ; but there is no 
gulf stream setting forever in one direction. 


12. There were gentlemen and there were seamen in th« navy 
of Charles II ; but the seamen were not gentlemen, and the gentle- 
men were not seamen. 

13. Meager were his looks, 

Sharp misery had worn him to the bones. 

14. Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind ; 
The thief doth fear each bush an officer. 

15. Cowards die many times before their deaths; 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 

16. My words fly up, my thoughts remain below ; 
Words without thoughts never to heaven go. 

17. Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow; 

He who would search for pearls must dive below. 

18. Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear ; 
Robes and furr'd gowns hide all. 

19. When beggars die, there are no comets seen ; 

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princess 

20. Night's candles are burned out, and jocund day 
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. 

21. I have found out a gift for my fair ; 

I have found where the wood pigeons breed. 

22. A thousand years scarce serve to form a state ; 
An hour may lay it in the dust. 

23. He reads much ; 
He is a great observer, and he looks 
Quite through the deeds of men. 

24. This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses. 

25. The rude sea grew civil at her song. 

And certain stars shot madly from their spheres 
To hear the sea-maid*s music. 

26. But yesterday the word of Caesar might 

Have stood against the world ; now lies he therCf 
And none so poor to do him reverence. 


27. The glories of our blood and state 

Are shadows, not substantial things; 
There is no armor agjainst fate ; 
Death lays his icy hands on kings. 

28. Doubt thou the stars are fire ; 

Doubt that the sun doth move ; 
Doubt truth to be a liar ; 
But never doubt I love. 

29. Arms on armor clashing bray'd 
Horrible discord, and the madding wheels 
Of brazen chariots rag'd ; dire was the noise 
Of conflict. 

80. Improper Compound Sentences. — Untrained 
speakers and writers sometimes unite in one com- 
pound sentence thoughts that are not related : as, 

Oliver Goldsmith was the son of a clergyman, and when he was 
young he had the smallpox. 

Such a sentence offends the taste of a cultivated 
person. There is no connection at all between the 
two facts that are mentioned, and this independence 
should be indicated by putting them in separate 
sentences. Other examples are : — 

** Diggs belonged to the fifth form, and he was large for his age, 
and his clothes were always too small, and he used to run into 
debt." — From a school exercise, 

" The Acadians were a French colony living in Acadia, in Canada, 
and in the war between France and England the latter sent some 
ships to Acadia to remove the inhabitants to other countries."— 
From a school exercise, 


I . Construct a simple sentence with compound subject; 
with compound predicate; with both subject -and predi- 
cate compound. 


2. Construct a complex sentence containing a modify - 
ing clause ; a substantive clause used as subject; a 
substantive clause used as complement. 

3. Construct a compound sentence in which the sepa- 
rate sayings are related by similarity of meaning; by 
contrast; by alternate choice ; by cause and effect. 



81, Elliptical Sentences Defined. — Language is^ 
an intensely practical matter, designed only to 
express thought, and never employed for its own 
sake. In using it we very properly think far more 
of clearness and force than we do of grammatical 
completeness. It is, therefore, both natural and 
proper that we should from time to time omit from 
our sentences grammatical parts which it is un- 
necessary to use, our meaning being well under- 
stood without them. Such omissions are especially 
common in familiar conversation, where language 
has the aid of tone and gesture, and in lively or 
impassioned speech, where from haste or strength 
of feeling we express only the most important ideas. 

Definition. — The omission of part of a sentence 
necessary to grammatical completeness but not to 
the meaning is called Ellipsis (Greek, * * a leaving 
out "). 

A sentence in which an omission occurs is called 
an Elliptical Sentence. 

The following examples of ellipsis should be 
carefully studied. The words inclosed in brackets 
are usually omitted : — 


(1) This is important if [it is] true. 

(2) He fell while [he was] bravely leading his men. 

(3) Who did that ? Jack [did it]. 

(4) I can't come. Why [can you] not [come] ? 

(5) He has gone, no one knows where [he has gone]. 

(6) She has a pink gown, I [have] a blue [gown], 

(7) Do you promise ? I do [promise], 

(8) I have never seen her, but Blanche has [seen her]. 

(9) You may stay if you want to [stay].* 

10) The sun gives light by day, the moon [gives light] by night 

11) He is not so tall as I [am tall]. 

12) She put him off as long as [it was] possible [to put him off]. 

13) You are wiser than I [am wise]. 

14) He looks as [he would look] if he were tired. 

1 5) Speak so as [one speaks in order] to be understood. 

16) [They being as] poor as they are [poor], they will not beg. 

17) She is seventeen [years old]. v 

18) It is half past ten [o'clock]. 

19) School closes on the twenty-second [day of the month]. 

20) [I] thank you. 

21) Why [is] this noise [made] ? 

22) [God give you a] good morning, sir. 

23) O [ I long] for a glass of water. 

24) If [it] you please.' 

25) [If it] please [you] lend me your book. 

26) Broadly speaking, [I should say that] the object of educa- 
tion is to train the faculties. 

(27) You are the man [whom] I want to see. 

* This omission of the verb after *• to " is not approved by careful writers. 

* In this sentence the subject is " it,** 



What words, necessary to grammatical completeness, 
but not to the meaning, are omitted in the following 
elliptical sentences ? 

1. I walk when I can. 

2. He is witty but vulgar. 

3. I treat him as a friend. 

4. She is as pretty as ever. 

5. She loves Fido as well as I. 

6. She loves Fido as well as me. 

7. Love thy neighbor as thyself. 

8. I love my mother more than he. 

9. I love my mother more than him. 

10. Who steals my purse steals trash. 

11. You have known her longer than I. 

12. She is more generous than prudent. 

13. Father made and I painted the boat. 

14. Are you dumb ? If not, speak to me. 

15. Either a knave or a fool has done this. 

16. If the day be fine, and I can go, I will. 

17. All seems as calm as an infant's dream. 

18. A greyhound can run faster than a hare. 

19. He has never seen the ocean, but I have. 

20. You should not imitate such a girl as she. 

21. John is at the door, David at the window. 

22. He was seen before the battle, but not after it. 

23. He said that he had found his book and lost it again, 

24. Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots } 

25. Pride goeth before destruction, and an* haughty spirit before 
a fall. 

* This is quoted from the translation of the Bible made in 1611. In modem 
Englbh vire say *' a haughty spirit." 


26. There is nothing so powerful as truth — and often nothing 
so strange. 

27. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and 
writing an exact man. 

28. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallovvred, and 
some few to be chewed and digested. 

29. Histories make men wise ; poets, witty ; the mathematics, 
subtle ; natural philosophy, deep ; moral, grave ; logic and rhetoric, 
able to contend. 

30. We must take the current when it serves. 
Or lose our ventures. 

31. Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind; 
And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. 

32. Six hours in sleep, in law's grave study six, 
Four spend in prayer, the rest on nature fix. 

33. I dare do all that may become a man ; 
Who dares do more is none. 

34. Trifles light as air 
Are to the jealous confirmations strong 
As proofs of holy writ. 

35. Blow, blow, thou winter wind ! 
Thou art not so unkind 

As man's ingratitude. 

36. Think naught a trifle, though it small appear ; 
Small sands the mountain, moments make the year. 
And trifles life. 

37. Who dares think one thing, and another tell. 
My heart detests him as the gates of hell. 


Construct five elliptical sentences^ and tell what 
words are omitted. 





Having in Part I studied sentences as wholes and 
become familiar with their general structure, we are 
now prepared to study the uses and forms of single 

83. Words Classified According to Function. — 

Our language contains more than two hundred thou- 
sand words; but when we examine the ways in 
which these words are used in sentences, we find 
that we can arrange them all in a few general 
classes according to their function, that is, accord- 
ing to what they do. These general classes are 
called the Parts of Speecli.' 

83. N'ouns. — Examine the italicized words in the 
following sentence: — 

The gallant crew of the battleship Maine were under perfect 

The italicized words, you observe, are names. 
Definition, — A word used as a name is called a 

' To the Teacher. — The definitions of the parts of speech seem to present no 
special difficulty to pupils ; the real difficulty is to recognize the different kinds of 
words as they occur. la this chapter, therefore, much space has been given to 


Other examples are : — 

Names of objects: Webster, Chicago, army, iron. 
Names of actions : walking, laughter, retreat, delay. 
Names of qualities : sweetness, warmth, beauty, vice. 
Names of conditions : sickness, sleep, death, fatigue. 
Names of thoughts : idea, doubt, belief, opinion. 


Write the names of two things that you can see ; of 
two that you can hear but not see ; of two that you can 
feel but not see ; of two that you can taste but not see ; 
of two that you can smelt but not see; of two that you 
can neither see^ taste ^ feel, hear^ nor smell. 



Point out the nouns in the following sentences : — 

I. Brevity is the soul of wit. 2. Misery acquaints a man with 
strange bed-fellows. 3. They that die by famine die by inches. 
4. Nothing is impossible to diligence and skill. 5. The music 
of the great organ sometimes sounds like the roll of thunder. 
6. The length of the journey and the difficulty of the road over the 
mountains discouraged the soldiers, though the general spirit of the 
army remained excellent. 7. Sailing on this lake is somewhat 
dangerous, because the wind comes through the gaps of the moun- 
tains in sudden and uneven puffs. 8. Pride goeth before destruc- 
tion, and an haughty spirit before a fall. 9. Solitude is as needful 
to the imagination as society is wholesome for the character. 

10. The tongues of dying men 
Enforce attention like deep harmony. 

1 1. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountain in its azure hue. 

To the Teacher. — If more drill in the recognition of nouns 
is needed, Exercises 15 and 71 will be found suitable. 


84. Pronouns. — No one would ever say : 
** Charles bought Charles a top; the top Charles 
afterward gave to Charleses sister Frances ; Frances 
wanted the top." Such a sentence would be both 
disagreeable to the ear and obscure : it might 
to one Charles and one Frances or to more tnan 
one. We should probably say instead : * * Charles 
bought hunself a. top, which /le afterward gave to 
Ais sister Frances, wAo wanted //.'* In this sentence 
the obscurity and the monotonous repetition are 
both avoided by using the words ** himself,'* 
•'which,'' **he," ''his," ''who," and *' it"— little 
words that indicate the objects referred to without 
naming them. 

In asking a question about some object the name 
of which we do not know, we represent the object 
by * * who " or * ' what : " as, • ' WAo is there ? " * * WAaf 
did you say ? " 

Definition. — A word used to stand for a noun is 
called a Pronoun. 

Definition. — A noun for which a pronoun stands is 
called the Antecedent of the pronoun. 

The antecedents of pronouns are often not ex- 
pressed. ^ 


What is your name ? What five substitutes for your 
name do you use in referring to yourself ? What five 
substitutes for names do you use in speaking of yourself 
and others together ? What words do you use as substi- 
tutes for the names of persons to whom you are speaking? 
of a boy about whom you are speaking? of a girl ? of a 
thing? of two boys? of three girls ? of foui things? 



Point out the pronouns^ and give their antecedents^ if 
the antecedents are expressed :-^ 


Philadelphia, 5 July. 1775. 

Mr. Strahan : — You are a member of Parliament, and one of 

that majority which has doomed my country to destruction. You 

have begun to burn our towns and murder our people. Look upon 

your hands; they are stained with the blood of your relations! 

You and I were long friends ; you are now my enemy, and I am. 


B. Franklin. 

Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying. I do re- 
member my faults this day : Pharaoh was wroth with 'his servants, 
and put me in ward in the house of the captain of the guard, me 
and the chief baker : and we dreamed a dream in one night, I 
and he ; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of 
his dream. And there was with us there a young man, an Hebrew, 
servant to the captain of the guard ; and we told him, and he inter- 
preted to us our dreams ; to each man according to his dream he 
did interpret. And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it 
was; me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged. Then 
Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out 
of the dungeon : and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, 
and came in unto Pharaoh. (Genesis xli, 9-14.) 

To the Teacher. — If further drill in the recognition of pro- 
nouns is desired, Exercises 20,44, 52, and 65 will be found suitable. 

85. Adjectives. — Many nouns have very wide 
meanings. The noun ** horses," for example, ap- 
plies to all the horses in the world ; and to bring 
the meaning of the word down to the measure of 
our thought we add to it one or more distinguish- 
ing words or modifiers : as, 





These y Jiorses. 




Pronouns have no tneaning in themselves; but 
they represent objects which have distinguishing 
attributes, and therefore they, too, may be accom- 
panied by distinguishing or modifying words : as, 

Tired and hungry^ I lay down to sleep. 

Definition, — A word joined to a noun or a pronoun 
by way of limitation or description is called an 

Though the word ** adjective " means ** put next 
to," adjectives are often separated from the nouns 
or pronouns which they modify : as. 

You look happy. 

The pears that you laid away have become ripe. 

There, silent and stilly lay the army. 

Some adjectives show a quality or attribute of the 
object we have in mind ; others show which objects ; 
others show how many or how much. 


Join appropriate adjectives to the following nouns, and 
tell what each adjective shows : — 

1. House. 4. Soldiers. 7. Grass. 10. Flowers. 13. Cents. 

2. Bottle. 5. Paper. 8. Store. 11. Wisdom. 14. Money. 

3. Pens. 6. Shoes. 9. Peaches. 12. Dollars. 15. Road. 



Point out the adjectives^ and tell what each shows : — 

• I. Little strokes fell great oaks. 2. Please make no noise. 
3. Where did you find those big apples ? 4. I found them in the 
third bin. 5. Let us climb yonder mountain. 6. Certain women 
were there. 7. All men must die. 8. Most boys like football. 
9. There are several sailboats on the lake. 10. Every dog has 
his day. 11. No school to-morrow ! 12. He has enough money. 
13. Along both banks are beautiful shaded walks; and near the 
mill are two little islands covered with ancient trees. 

Point out the.adjectives, and tell what each modifies .•— 


1. The stately homes of England,— 

How beautiful they stand 

Amid their tall ancestral trees. 

O'er all the pleasant land ! 

2. The castled crag of Drachenfels 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine. 

3. Up from the meadows rich with com. 
Clear in the cool September mom, 
The clustered spires of Frederick stand. 
Green- walled by the hills of Maryland. 

4. Night, sable goddess ! from her ebon throne, 
In rayless majesty, now stretches forth 

Her leaden scepter o'er a slumbering world. 

5. How beautiful is night ! 

A dewy freshness fills the silent air ; 
No mist obscures; nor cloud, nor speck, nor stain. 
Breaks the serene of Heaven : 
In full-orbed glory, yonder moon divine 
Rolls through the dark blue depths ; 
Beneath her steady ray 
The desert circle spreads 
Like the round ocean, girdled with the sky. 
How beautiful is night I 


To tlie Teaclier. — If more drill in the recognition of adjec- 
tives is needed, Exercises 7 and 1 5 will be found suitable. 

86. Articles. — Examine the words attached to 
the nouns in the following selection : — 

A man and a lion once had a dispute as to which belonged to 
the nobler race. The man pointed to an ancient monument on 
which was sculptured a triumphant hunter standing over a van- 
quished lion. " That doesn't settle the question*' said the lion; 
** for if a lion had been the sculptor, he would have represented 
the lion as standing over the hunter** 

Every noun in this selection is accompanied by 
•*a/' **an/' or **the/' of which **a'' and **an'' 
are merely different forms of the same word. 
These remarkable little words, attached to nouns 
by way of limitation, are of the nature of adjec- 
tives; but they are so peculiar in their function 
and so frequent in recurrence that they are usually 
put in a class by themselves, with a name of their 

Definition,—'' A *' or '* an*' and *' the '' are called 



Tell what part of speech each word is in the follow^ 
ing sentences : — 

1. Facts are stubborn things. 

2. Order is Heaven's first law. 

3. Time rolls his ceaseless course. 

4. No mate, no comrade, Lucy knew. 

5. The groves were God's first tempfes. 



87. Verbs. — The nature and importance of verbs 
have already been studied in Part I, Chapter III. 

To tlie Teacher.— Whether or not it is desirable at this 
point to review Chapter HI of Part I must be determined by the 

88. Adverbs. — The action or state denoted by a 
verb may vary in time, place, manner, or degree. 
For example, a person may laugh now or to-morrow, 
here or there, loudly or quietly, much or little. 
Words joined to verbs to express such modifica- 
tions of time, place, manner, or degfree are called 
Adverbs. Other examples are : — 

He went 




' Time. 

yesterday. - 



. Place. 


cheerfully. * 


• Manner. 




' Degree. 


A few adverbs denote affirmation, negation, em- 
phasis, or uncertainty : as, 

He certainly went. 
He did not go. 
Yes, he went. 
He went indeed. 
Perhaps he went. 


The attributes or qualities denoted by many ad- 
jectives may vary like the actions denoted by verbs, 
especially in degree ; therefore adverbs, especially 
of degree, are often attached to adjectives : as. 

He is 









Similarly, the ideas denoted by many adverbs 
may vary in degree ; therefore adverbs of degree 
are often attached to adverbs : as. 

Adverbs. Adverb. 

He writes 



Gathering together these different uses of ad- 
verbs, we have the following definition. 

Definition. — An Adverb is a word joined by way 
of limitation to a verb, an adjective, or another 


Join adverbs to the verbs in the following sentences^ 
and tell what they show : — 

I. Come 

2. He came 

6. We heard the noise 

7. The policeman looked 

3. He will come — 

4. The ship sailed - 

5. The agent called 

8, The tired traveler slept . 

9. The soldier was wounded. 

10. Were you — — thrown from a horse ? 



Pick out the adverbs in the following sentences^ and tell 
what they modify : — 

I. She sang well. 2. I was agreeably disappointed. 3. How 
is it done ? 4. You have spoken truly. 5. I can hardly believe it. 
6. He was ill pleased. 7. Cut it lengthwise. 8. Tear it apart. 
9. Put them together. 10. He was pitched headlong into the sea. 

11. I never saw her. 12. We came to school late yesterday. 13. 
Once or twice we have met alone. 14. Ambition urges me for- 
ward. 15. Where is your hat ? 16. Are you going far? 17. We 
are going abroad. 


Join appropriate adverbs to the following adjectives : — 

I. good. 3. more. 5. tired. 7. sick. 

2. happy. 4. rich. 6. famous. 8. discouraged. 


Point out all the adverbs y and tell what titey modify : — 

I. Are you quite sure? 2. He was a very tall man. 3. He 
was wholly unfit for the position. 4. Iron is much heavier than 
aluminum. 5. Too many cooks spoil the broth. 6. The sky was 
nearly black. 7. Mother is somewhat better. 8. We were drip- 
ping wet. 9. The wide fringe is too dear. 10. The Alps are far 
grander than these mountains. 11. Trout are exceedingly shy. 

12. The walk was rather long. 


Join appropriate adverbs to the adverbs in the follow 
ing sentences : — 

1. He ran fast. 5. Write carefully. 

2. She sings well. 6. I must go soon. 

3. She reads more. 7. Don't go far. 

4. They come often. 8. I went — — before. 



Point out all the adverbs^ and tell what they modify : — 

I. I was very kindly received. 2. Go directly south. 3. You 
read very much too fast. 4. Do not show your feeling too plainly. 
5. That was not done well enough. 6. I will surely disturb you 
no more. 7. We are indeed almost there. 8. He is always there. 
9. Yes, we unfortunately arrived' too soon. 10. I surely expect him 
to-morrow. 11. The current runs very fast here. 12. The shadow 
on the dial never goes backward. 13. To and fro, and in and out, 
the wan stars danced between. 14. She dances very well indeed. 
15. He is not much distressed. 16. Possibly he has forgotten how 
much you grieved. 17. The clock that usually stands here has 
never run accurately. 18. Why did you come to-day .> 19. You 
are far too hasty. 20. I am now much better ; I hope to be quite 
well very soon, but I must not try to walk too far to-day. 21. You 
may do that once too often. 22. 'Tis always morning somewhere 
in the world. 23. He's armed without that's innocent within. 
24. Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further ; and here shall thy 
proud waves be stayed. 

25. The mouse that always trusts to one poor hole 
Can never be a mouse of any soul. 

To tlie Teaclier. — If further drill in the recognition of ad- 
verbs is needed, Exercises 23, 38, and 52 will be found suitable. 



Tell what part of speech each word is in the following 
sentences : — 

1. Thou shalt surely die. 

2. There he was quite safe. 

3. My sister will come presently. 

4. This child was very little hurt. 

5. Little white lily smells very sweet. 



89. Prepositions. — Compare the following ex- 
pressions : — 

{a) Last year. 

{b) The last year of the century. 

In the first expression we describe the year by 
the adjective ** last." In the second expression we 
further describe it by telling its relation to the 
century. To express this relation we use the word 
** of," which unites with the words ** the century " 
to form an adjunct or modifying phrase. 

Definition. — A word placed before a noun or a 
pronoun to show its relation to S9me other word, 
and forming with it a modifying phrase, is called a 

Definition. — The noun or the pronoun used with a 
preposition is called its Object. 

Definition. — A phrase consisting of a preposition 
and its object (with or without modifiers) is called a 
Prepositional Phrase. Other examples are : — 

The book 


onal Phrases 

used as 



Noun or 


the table. 


the desk. 


the seat. 


the door. 


the window. 


the cover. 


the top. 


the dictionary. 


the lamp. 








The preceding prepositional phrases are attached 
to a noun ; the following are attached to a verb or 
an adjective : — 

We walked 

Prepositional Phrases 
used as Adverbs. 


Noun or 


the villa^^e. 
the fields. 


the lake. 


the street. 






the bridge, 
the schoolhouse. 
the tunnel, 
the storm, 







It is long 

Though the word ** preposition " means ** placed 
before," a preposition and its object are often sepa- 
rated by other words; and sometimes the prepo- 
sition comes after its object : as, 

He came with at least two thousand men. 

The top of yon high eastern hill. 

What are you looking aif (i. e., At what are you looking ?) 


Show relation between the following words by using 
appropriate prepositions : — 

1. Clouds 

2. Men — 


3." Train 
4. Bom • 

- Boston. 
■ Savannah. 

5. Asleep 

6. Talk- 

7. Dust- 

8. Travel 


— England. 



Point out the prepositions and their objects^ and tell what 
tlu prepositional phrases modify : — 

The Battle of Plassey. 

The day broke — the day which was to decide the fate of India, 
At sunrise the army of the Nabob, pouring through many openings 
of the camp, began to move toward the g^ove where the English 
lay. Forty thousand infantry, armed with firelocks, pikes, swords, 
bows and arrows, covered the plain. They were accompanied by 
fifty pieces of ordnance of the largest size, each tugged by a long 
team of white oxen, and each pushed on from behind by an ele- 
phant. Some smaller guns, under the direction of a few French 
auxiliaries, were perhaps more formidable. The cavalry were 
fifteen thousand. The force which Clive had to oppose to this 
great multitude consisted of only three thousand men. * * * 

The battle commenced with a cannonade, in which the artillery 
of the Nabob did scarcely any execution, while the few field pieces 
of the English produced great effect. Several of the most distin- 
guished officers in Surajab Dowlah's service fell. Disorder began 
to spread through his ranks. * * * Clive snatched the moment, and 
ordered his troops to advance. The confused and dispirited multi- 
tude gave way before the onset of disciplined valor. In an hour the 
forces of Surajah Dowlah were dispersed, never to reassemble. * * * 
With the loss of twenty-two soldiers killed and fifty wounded, Clive 
had scattered an army of nearly sixty thousand men, and subdued an 
empire larger and more populous than Great Britain. — Macaulay : 
" Essay on Lord Clive." 

To tlie Teaclier. — If further drill in the recognition of prep- 
ositions is needed, Exercises 9, 15, 51, and 52 will be found suitable. 

90. Conjunctions. — Examine the following: — 

Compound Sentences. 

Independent Clause. Word. Independent Clause. 


The wind blew, and the rain fell. 

I ran fast, but I missed the train. 


Complex Sentences. 

Principal Clause. Word. Subordinate Clause. 


Rob will go if Ethel goes. 

He says that he will come. 

Guy is older than Lewis [is old]. 

Connected Phrases. 


/ ' V 

By the people and for the people. 

Connected Words. 


t ' V 

Sink or swim. 

From this it appears that some words are used 
as mere connectives, joining together sentences, 
phrases, or words. 

Definition. — A word used to connect sentences, 
phrases, or words is called a Conjunction. 

When subordinate clauses come first, they carry 
with them the conjunction which connects them 
with the principal clause : as, 


Subordinate Clause. 

, . *.. . . 

Principal Clause. 

r - — ". ^ 

r ■% 

Ethel goes 

r ' ■» 

Rob will go. 


it rains 

we shall all go. 


he will come 

is certain. 


father can come 

is doubtful. 

Conjunctions sometimes occur in pairs, the first 
of the pair being not really a connective, but a sort 
of forerunner announcing that something will pres- 
ently be added : as, 


Either you or I must go. 

It is neither useful nor ornamental. 

The king was weak both in body and in mind. 

Sometimes a conjunction is used at the beginning 
of a separate sentence, or even of a paragraph, to 
connect it with what precedes. 

Prepositions connect words, but not in the same way as con- 
junctions. When words are connected by prepositions, one always 
bears a modifying relation to the other. When words are con- 
nected by conjunctions, they are grammatically on an equality, the 
conjunction merely indicating that they are to be taken together. 


Fill the blanks with appropriate conjunctions : — 

1. Poor honest. 

2. Beautiful good. 

3. I wonder he will come. 

4. 1 could buy borrow it. 

5. I cannot deny he means well. 

6. He was punished, he was guilty. 

7. We cannot go we finish our task. 

8. He was punished, he was not guilty. 

9. I do not know I shall walk ride. 

10. There is no doubt the earth is round. 

11. Scarcely had I thrown in my line I felt a nibble. 

12. She could dance sing, she played the piano. 


Point out the conjunctions^ and tell what they connect .•— 

1. She was good as she was fair. 

2. Handsome is as handsome does. 

3. Neither a borrower nor a lender be. 


4. Better one bird in hand than ten in the wood. 

5. Rich gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind. 

6. If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me. 

7. Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no 

8. So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our 
hearts unto wisdom. 

9. A dwarf sees farther than the giant when he has the giant's 
shoulder to mount on. 

10. Dost thou love life ? Then do not squander time ; for that 
is the stuff life is made of. 

il. Mend your speech a little. 

Lest it may mar your fortunes. 

12. When sorrows come, they come not single spies. 
But in battalions. 

13. O what a tangled web we weave. 
When first we practice to deceive ! 

To tlie Teaclier, — If further drill in the recognition of con- 
junctions is needed, Exercises 27, 72, and 74 will be found suitable 

91. Interjections. — Examine the use of the ital- 
icized words: — 

Ouch / I cut myself. 
Bravo! that was well done. 

You observe that **Ouch!** and ''Bravo!** form 
no part of the accompanying sentences (which are 
complete without them), but are sudden outcries, 
uttered as condensed expressions of some kind of 
feeling. Other examples are: **0h!*' ** Pshaw!" 
''Alas!" "Hurrah!" "Fie!" 

Definition. — A word used as a sudden expression 
of feeling, but not forming part of a sentence, is 
called an Intei^Iection. 



Mention five interjections different from those given 



Tell the part of speech to which each word in the fol- 
lowing sentences belongs : — 

1. Procrastination is the thief of time. 

2. Custom reconciles us to everything. 

3. The march of the human mind is slow, 

4. Patience is a necessary ingredient of genius. 

5. Earth with her thousand voices praises God. 

6. How blessings brighten as they take their flight ! 

7. Assassination has never changed the history of the world. 

8. Fine manners need the support of fine manners in others. 

9. Honor and shame from no condition rise ; 
Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 

92. Verbals. — Besides these nine parts of speech 
just described, there are two important kinds of 
words that are intermediate between verbs on the 
one hand, and nouns and adjectives on the other. 
They are formed from verbs and retain some of the 
characteristics of verbs, with which they are usually 
classed ; but they differ from verbs in being used, 
not as predicates of sentences, but as nouns or ad- 
jectives. They are called Verbals, and they are of 
two kinds: noun-verbals, called Infinitives; and 
adjective-verbals, called Participles. These words 
are, in a sense, forms of the verb ; but they are so 
peculiar in their nature and frequent in their oc- 
currence that they require separate description now. 


93. Infinitives. — Examine the italicized words in 
the following sentence : — 

^,. , . f steep hills requires a slow pace. 
Chtnbtng ) 

Here **To climb" and ** Climbing*' are formed 
from the verb ** climb,** and are followed by a di- 
rect object, ** hills;" therefore they partake of the 
nature of verbs. They are used, however, not to 
assert an action, but to name it; therefore they par- 
take also of the nature of nouns. 

Definition. — A word that partakes of the nature 
of both verb and noun is called an Infinitive. 

The distinguishing marks of an infinitive are 
these: (i) it is derived from a verb; (2) it takes, or 
may take, the same complements and modifiers as 
the verb from which it is derived ; (3) it is used as 
a noun. 

With regard to form^ infinitives are of two prin- 
cipal kinds : (i) the Boot Infinitive, with or without 
**to," so called because it is the same as the root, or 
simple form, of the verb ; (2) the infinitive in -ing. 

The infinitive with **to" sometimes has the force 
of an adjective or an adverb : as, ** Water to drink; " 
** He came to see us." In such cases ** to " is a real 
preposition with the infinitive as its object, the two 
forming a prepositional phrase. 

The root infinitive without "to" is seen in "You 
need not wait,'' where "wait" is the object com- 
plement of " need." Other examples are : — 

•* You dare not do it ; " "I saw him fall ; " " We must go 
now ; " "I had rather die than do it." 



Point out the infinitives in the following sentences, and 
show that they partake of the nature of both verb and 

1. Always take lime to do your best. 

2. It is better to wear out than to rust out. 

3. Wounds made by words are hard to heal. 

4. It is much easier to be critical than to be correct. 

5. One can show his moral courage by daring to do right. 

6. Censure is the tax a man pays to the public for being eminent, 

7. If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, 
chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' palaces. 

8. How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is 

To have a thankless child ! 

9. Of all those arts in which the wise excel 
Nature's chief masterpiece is writing well. 

10. Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway, 
And fools who came to scoff remained to pray. 

11. O, it is excellent 

To have a giant's strength ; but it is tyrannous 
To use it like a giant. 

12. Unpracticed he to fawn, or seek for power, 
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour ; 
Far other aims his heart had learned to prize. 
More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise. 

13. Why so pale and wan, fond lover? 

Prithee, why so pale ? 
Will, when looking well can't move her. 
Looking ill prevail ? / 

Prithee, why so pale ? * ^>. *i 



Construct sentences illustrating the use of the root 
infinitive and the infinitive in ^^-ing'' as subject ; as ob- 
ject ; as attribute complement ; as object of a preposition. 


94. Participles. — Examine the italicized words in 
the following sentences : — 

The girl intently reading a book is my cousin. 

The plant commonly called Nightshade is poisonous. 

In the first sentence ** reading," formed from the 
verb ** read," has an object, ** book," and is modi- 
fied by an adverb, ** intently ;'* therefore it partakes 
of the nature of a verb. But it is attached to the 
noun **g^rl" by way of description, and therefore 
it partakes also of the nature of an adjective. 

In the second sentence ** called," formed from the 
verb ** call," has an attribute complement, ** Night- 
shade, " and is modified by an adverb, * * commonly ; " 
therefore it partakes of the nature of a verb. But 
it is attached to the noun ** plant" by way of de- 
scription, and therefore it also partakes of the 
nature of an adjective. 

Definition. — A word that partakes of the nature of 
both verb and adjective is called a Participle. 

The distinguishing marks of a participle are 
these: (i) it is derived from a verb; (2) it takes, or 
may take, the same complements and modifiers as 
the verb from which it is derived ; (3) it is used as 
an adjective. 

FrcMn simple participles are derived Phrasal Par- 
ticiples: as, "Florence, ^<a:z'/«^j^/ic/ good-bye, turned 
to go." 

Very often a participle is loosely attached to the 
subject of a sentence, not so much to describe it, as 
to express some attendant action or condition : as, 

Hearing a noise in the street, I went to the window. 



Point out the participles in the following sentences ^ ana 
show that they partake of the nature of both verb and 
adjective : — 

1. I am going the way of all the earth. 

2. The smallest worm will turn, being trodden on. 

3. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell. 

4. Sweeping and eddying through the bridge rose the belated tide. 

5. Peter the hermit, dressed in a coarse robe, and bearing in 
his hand a crucifix, traveled through Italy and France, preaching 
the duty of rescuing the Holy Sepulcher from the Mohammedans. 

6. A little fire is quickly trodden out ; 
Which, being suffered, rivers cannot quench. 

7. Now mom, her rosy steps in the eastern clime 
Advancing, sowed the earth with Orient pearl. 

8. The world is too much with us ; late and soon. 
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers. 

9. Sudden a thought came like a full-blown rose, 
Flushing his brow. 

10. A falcon, towering in her pride of place. 
Was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. 

11. Morn, 
Waked by the circling hours, with rosy hand 
Unbarred the gates of light. 

12. The cattle are grazing. 
Their heads never raising ; 

There are forty feeding like one ! 

13. I have heard the mavis singing 

Its love song to the morn ; 
I've seen the dewdrop clinging 
To the rose just newly born. 

14. By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled. 
Here once the embattled farmers stood. 
And fired the shot heard round the world. 



Construct two sentences containing participles ending 
in ^^'ing; " two containing other participles. 

95. Caution. — Not all words ending in **-ing"are 
infinitives or participles. Examine, for instance, 
the italicized words in the following sentences: — 

(i) The child slept during all the noise. 

(2) Nothing daunted, he began again. 

(3) There is something in the wind. 

(4) This constant climbing of steep hills takes my breath. 

(5) Spelling is harder for some persons than for others. 

In (i) the word ending in *' -ing" is a preposi- 
tion. In (2) it has the force of an adverb, modifying 
the participle * * daunted. " In (3) it is a noun derived, 
not from a verb, but from the vague noun ** thing." 
In (4) it is a noun derived from a verb, and so far it 
resembles an infinitive ; but it differs from an in- 
finitive in having completely lost its verbal charac- 
teristics, for it is modified by adjectives instead of 
by adverbs, and instead of taking a direct object like 
the verb from which it came, it is followed by a 
prepositional phrase. In (5) it is impossible to tell 
whether the word ending in **-ing** should be 
classed as an infinitive or as a pure noun, for it has 
no adjuncts to guide us. Nor is the question im- 
portant. When adjuncts are present the classifica- 
tion is easy : thus. 

Good spelling is easier for some than for others. (Pure noun, 
because modified by an adjective, "good.") 

Spelling long words is easier for some than for others. (Infini- 
tive, because accompanied by an object, " words.") 



Classify the italicized words in the following sen^- 
tences : — 

1. A boy came sauntering along. 

2. Do you call that being a soldier ? 

3. I have 2l feeling that you may be right. 

4. I found her reading " Idyls of the King." 

5. Feeling one's way in the dark is slow work. 

6. According to my watch, it is just ten o'clock. 

7. His mother is opposed to \C\^ playing football. 

8. Feeling sure that he would come, I waited longer. 

9. He was elected captain, notwithstanding his youth. 

10. Good writing is fostered by the reading of good books. 

II. Unless the kettle ^^///>^ be. 
Filling the teapot spoils the tea. 

12. He would do nothing to relieve the distress of his starving 

13. Linnaeus knelt beside the mountain gorses, M<z«>&/>i^ God for 
their beauty. 

14. In the battle off Cape Vincent, Nelson gave orders for boards 
ing the " San Josef," exclaiming, "Westminster Abbey, or victory ! " 

15. I have done with expecting from her any course of steady 
reading, for she will not submit to anything requiring industry 
and patience or much exercise of the understanding, 

16. Gladstone protested against people's going to Monte Carlo, 
and putting down their five francs just for the fun of the thing, 
and so adding to the respectability of the place, and then thinking 
that they are doing no harm. 


Construct a sentence containing an infinitive in 
^^'ing;'' a participle ending in ^^4ng;** a pure noun 
ending in ^^-ing;'* a preposition ending in ^^-ing,** 


96. Caution. — It must not be supposed that the 
same word is always the same part of speech. Ex- 
amine, for instance, the function of ** iron " in the 
following sentences : — 

(a) Iron is heavy. 

{b) An iron kettle hung on the crane. 

{c) Laundresses iron clothes. 

(</) An iron-hoMxsA bucket hung in the well. 

In {a) ** iron " is a noun ; in (d) it is an adjective ; 
in (c), SL verb ; in (d), an adverb. It is clear, there- 
fore, that the function of a word may vary, requir- 
ing us to classify it sometimes as one part of speech, 
sometimes as another. 


Tell to what part of speech each word in italics 
belongs : — 

1. (a) The sun shines on rich and poor alike, {b) He is a rich 
man, but a poor scholar. 

2. (a) YoM must, must you? {b) ** Must** is made for the 

3. (a) They summer at Bar Harbor, (fi) One swallow does not 
make a summer, {c) This is a summer hotel. 

4. (a) Farewell/ {b) Adieu / (c) Where thou art gone adieus 
BXid farewells are a sound unknown. 

5. {a) I am very glad to see you. {b) You are the very man I 
was looking for. (c) " Very " is a common word. 

6. I was about to send/<^r yo\i,for I have something to show 

7. {a) Farmers //// the soil, (b) Look in the ////. {c) Stay tiU 
the bell rings, (d) Stay //// the next train. 


8. (a) Do not lose a second, {b) I second your motion, {c) She 
won second prize, {d) You come second, 

9. {a) We walked about, (b) What did you talk about? {c) 
We talked about golf. (^) About a dozen girls were there. 

10. (a) The tops of many mountains are above the clouds, {b) 
The captain went above, {c) Above five hundred were present. 
{d) A voice came from above, (e) He rooms on the floor above, 

11. {a) All men are mortal, {b) He staked his a// on the turn 
of a card, (c) All agreed with me. (</) That is all right. 

12. (a) Take ^/M^r road, {fi) He must either work or starve. 
(^) Ask either of them. 

13. (a) Heran/tfj/. . (^) He was a/<jzj/ runner, (r) They/^^/ 
twice in a week. (^) TMxsfast lasted forty days. 

14. {a) I //i^^ him. (^) I shall not look upon his like again. 
if) He looks like his grandfather, {d) He talks like his mother. 
(e) Like causes produce like results. (/) Like produces like, 

15. {a) A /////^ child shall lead them, {p) It matters /////^ what 
he says, {c) Give me a little, 

16. (<2) We want more men. (^) Fear «^ more the heat of the 
sun. {c) Have you any more of this ? 

17. {a) He laughs too much, {b) Much learning hath made 
you mad. {c) She made much of him. 

18. («) It was his only chance, (b) He went ^«^ to the comer. 
(c) " Only " should come next to the expression that it modifies. 

19. {a) Turn over a new leaf. (^ We came over the mountain. 
{c) We must have walked over six miles. 

20. (<2) 5/«r^ that time I have not seen her. {b) Since it is 
raining, we will not go. {c) I have not seen her since, 

21. {a) The house still stands, {b) All is still, (c) A still 
small voice, (d) Alcohol is made in a still, (e) With his name 
the mothers still their babes. 

22. (a) That bird is a thrush, {b) I thought Ma/ it was a robin, 
(r) A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. (d) That you have 
wronged me doth appear in this, {e) That is what I meant. 


23. (a) Since then he has done better, {b) The apple trees were 
then in blossom, {c) If you stay, then I will stay. 

24. (a) T'i^^r^ is a spider. (^) T'i^^^ is nothing more to do. 
{c) There I there ! be quiet. 

25. (a) We read for a w^/Z?. (^) We read while they played 
tennis, {c) They w^/7? away the time with books and games. 


1. Use each of the following words first as a noun^ 
then as a verb : — 

bark / cheat comb fall guide pen run talk 

2. Use each of the following words first as a moun^ 
then as an adjective : — 

autumn / cloth dinner hollow much plain silver tin C 

3. Use track of the following ivords first as an adjec- 
tive^ then as a verb : — 

clean dullV lame left lower smooth thin weary 

4. Use each of the following words first as a noun^ 
then as an adjective^ then as a verb : — 

blind calmv last light roast sound spring steel 

5. Z/jf ^ach of the following words first as an adjec^ 
tive^ then as an adverb^ then as a verb : — 

better long wrong 

6. Use each of the following words first as an adverb y 
then as a preposition : — 

about above behind down on up 

7. Use each of the following words first as an adverb^ 
then as a preposition^ then as a conjunction : — 

after before since 


97. Summary of the Parts of Speecli. — The 

classes of words described in this chapter comprise 
all the words of our language. They may be sum- 
marized as follows : — 

N"ouiis : Words used as names. 

Pronouns : Words used to stand for nouns. 

Adjectives : Words joined to nouns or pronouns by way of 
limitation or description. 

Articles: The words "a," "an/' or "the." 

Verbs : Words used, with or without adjuncts, as the predi* 
cates of sentences. 

Infinitives : Words that partake of the nature of both verb 
and noun. 

Participles : Words that partake of the nature of both verb 
and adjective. 

Adverbs : Words joined by way of limitation to verbs, adjec- 
tives, or other adverbs. 

Prepositions : Words placed before nouns or pronouns to 
show their relation to other words, and forming with them modify- 
ing phrases. 

Conjunctions: Words used to connect sentences, phrases, 
or words. 

Interjections : Words used as sudden expressions of feel- 
ing, but not forming part of a sentence. 


(General Review.) 

Classify the words in the following sentences : — 

1. Striving to better, oft we mar what's well. 

2. If all the year were playing holidays. 
To sport would be as tedious as to work. 

3. Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay. 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. 


4. Heaven's ebon vault 
Studded with stars unutterably bright, 

Through which the moon's unclouded grandeur rolls, 
Seems like a canopy which love has spread 
To curtain her sleeping world. 

5. He sung Darius, gp-eat and good. 

By too severe a fate. 
Fallen, fallen, fallen, fallen. 

Fallen from his high estate, 

And welt'ring in his blood ; 
Deserted, at his utmost need. 
By those his former bounty fed. 
On the bare earth exposed he lies. 
With not a friend to close his eyes. 

6. I walk unseen 

On the dry smooth-shaven green. 
To behold the wandering moon 
Riding near her highest noon. 
Like one that had been led astray 
Through the heaven's wide pathless way : 
And oft, as if her head she bowed, 
Stooping through a fleecy cloud. 

7. There was a jolly miller once, 

Lived on the river Dee ; 
He worked and sung from morn till night : 

No lark more blithe than he. 
And this the burden of his song 

Forever used to be, — 
I care for nobody, no, not I, 

If no one cares for me. 



Before proceeding with the study of the parts of 
speech, we must learn to distinguish those changes 
in the form of a word that are made by Inflection, 
Derivation, and Composition. 

98. Inflection. — Examine the following groups 
of words : — 

Noun. Pronoun. Adjective. Verb. 

man he sweet sing 

man's his sweeter sings 

men him sweetest sang 

In each of these groups we recognize the same 
word under different forms. These variations in 
form denote slight modifications in the meaning 
and use of the word, but they do not change either 
the general meaning or the part of speech; the 
noun remains a noun, the verb a verb. Moreover, 
most other words of the same class, as **boy," 
**they,'* **sick," **hear," undergo similar altera- 
tions in form, corresponding to similar changes in 
meaning and use. 

Definition. — A change in the form of a word to 

show a slight change in its meaning or use is called 



Mention as many inflections as you can of the follow^ 
ing words : — 

child do eat heavy move they teeth who 


99. PerlTation.— Compare the following words : — 







Here we have six words entirely different in 
meaning and use. Some belong to one part of 
speech, others to another ; and those that belong to 
the same part of speech, as *' truth," **untruth," and 
** untruthfulness," have distinctly different mean- 
ings. But though they are thus different in mean- 
ing and use, the last five words are clearly formed 
from the first by attaching a Prefix (**un-") or a 
Suffix (**-ly," ''-th," '*-ful," **-ness"), or both. 

Definition. — The process of forming a new word 
from another word by attaching a prefix or a suffix, 
or by changing a vowel, is called Derivation. The 
new word is called a Derivative. 

Examples of derivation by change of vowel are : 
bless, bliss; feed, food; gild, gold; heat, hot; 
'pride, proud ; raise, rise ; tale, tell. 

Definition. — The original form of a word in inflec- 
tion or derivation is called the Boot. 


Mention derivatives formed from the following wordi^ 
and show that the new form^ are derivatives^ not inflec* 
tions : — 

child friend give man pure wise 


100. Composition. — Examine the following 
words: — 


Here we have three different words, entirely dis- 
tinct in meaning and use ; but the last is formed by 
combining the first two. 

Definition. — The process of forming a new word by 
combining two other words is called Composition. 
The new word is called a Compound word. 

The parts of a compound word are often connected 
with a hyphen: as, "hair-brush,** "son-in-law." 
Whether to use the hyphen or not cannot be de- 
cided by rule. It is for the most part a question of 
usage, which must be learned from observation or 
from the dictionary. 


Make a list of five compound words^determining from a 
dictionary how they should be written. 



A Noun is a word used as a name (83). 

101. Different Kinds of N"oiins. — Examine the 
names in the following sentence : — 

The crew of the battleship Maine were under perfect discipline^ 

'* Battleship '* and ** Maine " both name the same 
object, but in different ways: ** Battleship** is the 
name of any one of a class of ships resembling one 
another in structure and purpose ; ** Maine ** is the 
name of a particular battleship. **Crew" is the 
name of a body of men considered collectively. 
** Discipline " is the name of a condition. 

IDS. Proper Nouns. — The noun ** Maine," in our 
illustrative sentence, is the name of a particular 

Definition. — A noun that is the name of some par- 
ticular object, to distinguish that object from others 
of its kind, is called a Proper Noun. 

Other examples of proper nouns are : — 


Abraham Lincoln Monday Nashville Oregon Pike's Peak 

Proper nouns, when written, always begin with 
capital letters; so also do words derived from 
them : as, America, .American, Americanism. 

103. Common N"ouns. — The noun * * battleship " 
is a name common to all ships of the same class. 


Definition^-^K noun that is common or applicable 
to all objects of the same class is called a Common 


Other examples of common nouns are : — 

city day man mountain state 

Common nouns, when written, begin with small 


Write two proper nouns suggested by each of the fol- 
lowing common nouns : — 

boy city dog girl newspaper ocean river state 


Give the common nouns that are applicable to the fol- 
lowing individual objects : — 

Brooklyn California Donald England Friday Helen July 

104. Collective Nouns. — The common noun 
** crew *' is applied to a body of men considered col- 

Definition, — A noun that is the name of a number 
of objects taken together is called a Collective Noun. 

Other examples of collective nouns are : — 

army (a collection of soldiers) 
fleet (a collection of vessels) 
herd (a collection of animals) 

This distinction is important when collective nouns 
are referred to by pronouns or are used as subjects 
of sentences. For instance, we refer to a committee 
as ** it '* when we think of it as a whole; when we 
think of the individuals who compose it, we use the 


pronoun *'they." Similarly we say, *'The jury 
has retired," thinking of it as a single body; ** The 
jury have dined,'* thinking of the members. 


What objects are grouped together by the following 
collective nouns ? 

audience choir drove flock squadron swarm team 

105. Abstract Nouns. — An ivory ball we know to 
be round, white, and elastic. These qualities exist 
together in the ball ; but in the mind we can con- 
sider them separately, apart both from the ball and 
from one another. The mental power that enables 
us thus to separate a quality or attribute from the 
object that possesses it is called Abstraction (Latin, 
** separating*'). 

Definition. — A noun that is the name of a quality, 
action, or condition withdrawn or abstracted in 
thought from the object to which it belongs, is 
called an Abstract N"oun. 

Examples of abstract nouns are : — 

ability discipline freedom hardihood strength 

carelessness faith friendship influence velocity 

This distinction has only slight grammatical bearing ; but it is 
occasionally useful. 


Give two abstract nouns suggested by each of thi 
following objects : — 

a flower a lemon a mountain a race horse a stone 



Classify the nouns in Exercise yj (page 112). 

Nouns are occasionally inflected to show Gender, 
and regularly inflected to show Jfumber and Case. 


106. Gender Defined. — Observe the distinction 
between the following nouns : — 

lion lioness 

Both nouns name animals of the same general 
class ; but one is the name of the male animal, the 
other of the feniale. This distinction is indicated by 
the inflection **-ess.** The distinction between the 
objects themselves is called Sex. The distinction 
between their names is called Gender. 

Definitiofi. — Gender is a classification of nouns 
and pronouns according to the sex of the objects 
for which they stand. 

Definition. — A word denoting a male object is in 
the Masculine Gender. 

Definition, — A word denoting a female object is in 
the Feminine Gender. 

Definition. — A word denoting an object that has 
no sex is in the Neuter Gender (Latin/* neither**). 

Words like ** friend,'* ** child," ** thief,** **bird,** 
which apply without change to either male or fe- 
male objects, are masculine or feminine according 
to the sex of the particular object spoken of. 

Words that apply to objects of either sex are said by some 
grammarians to be in the Common Gender ; but most modem 
grammarians reject this classification as useless. 



107. Ways of Denotinsr Gender. — Compare the 
following pairs of words : — 






maid- servant 

You observe there are three ways of distinguish- 
ing gender : — 

I. By a Feminine Suffix, usually "-ess."— In the fol- 
lowing list note the occasional changes in the body of the word :— 









































































2. By. a Prefix Denotinsr Grender. — The following are 
important examples : — 

Masculine. Feminine. 

bull-elephant cow-elephant 

cock-sparrow hen-sparrow 

he-bear she-bear 







3. By Separate Words. — These are to be learned from con- 
versation and reading. The following is a list of some that are 
often confounded or otherwise misused : — 

























Give the gender of the nouns in the following selec- 

tion : — 

Dr. Primrose and the Face Wash. 

As we expected our landlord the next day, my wife went to 
make the venison pasty. Moses sat reading, while I taught the 
little ones. My daughters seemed equally busy with the rest ; and 
I observed them for a good while cooking something over the fire. 
I at first supposed they were assisting their mother, but little Dick 
informed me, in a whisper, that they were making a wash for the 
face. Washes of all kinds I had a natural antipathy to, for I knew 
that, instead of mending the complexion, they spoil it. I therefore 
approached my chair by sly degrees to the fire, and grasping the 
poker, as if it wanted mending, seemingly by accident overturned 
the whole composition, and it was too late to begin another. — Gold- 
smith : " The Vicar of Wakefield." 


To tlie Teaclier. — (i) and (2) should be used as a dictation 
exercise. Other words may be added from the foregoing lists at 

I . Write the feminine word corresponding to : — 

abbot bachelor bullock drake earl marquis ram sultan 
actor buck czar duke hero monk stag tiger 


2. Write the masculine word corresponding ta : — 
doe duck ewe goose heifer hind spinster witch 

3. Construct sentences illustrating the correct use of 
the foregoing words^ consulting a dictionary for their 

108. Gender and Pronouns. — Distinctions of gen- 
der are grammatically important because on them 
depends the right use of the pronouns ** he,** ** his,*' 
**him,** **she,** **her,** **hers,** ** it," and **its.** 
Examine, for instance, the italicized nouns and pro- 
nouns in the following selection : — 

King Midas at Breakfast. 

King Midas took a nice little trout on his plate, and, by way of 
experiment, touched its tail with his finger. To his horror, // was 
immediately transmuted from an admirably fried brook trout into a 
goldfish, though not one of those goldfishes which people often 
keep in glass globes, as ornaments for the parlor. No ; but // was 
really a metallic fish, and // looked as if // had been very cunningly 
made by the nicest goldsmith in the world. Its little bones were 
now golden wires ; its fins and tail were thin plates of gold ; and 
there were the marks of the fork in /V, and all the delicate, frothy 
appearance of a nicely fried fish, exactly imitated in metal. 

"Well, this is a quandary!" thought he, leaning back in his 
chair, and looking quite enviously at little Marygold, who was now 
eating her bread and milk with great satisfaction. 

And tnily, did you ever hear of such a pitiable case in all your 
lives ? Here was literally the richest breakfast that could be set 
before a king, and its very richness made // absolutely good for 
nothing. The poorest laborer, sitting down to his crust of bread 
and cup of water, was far better off than King Midas, whose dtW- 
Z2Xt food was really worth its weight in gold. — Hawthorne: *' A, 
Wonder Book." 

You observe that the Masculine Nouns, like * * King 


Midas," are referred to by '* he," '* his," or '*him ;" 
Feminine Nouns, like ** Marygold," by '* she " or 
• 'her ;" Neuter Nouns, like **breakfast" and **food," 
by ** it " or ** its." ** Trout," which is either mas- 
culine or feminine, is here referred to by **it" 
or ** its," because the object named is thought of 
as a mere thing, without any reference to sex. 
** Laborer," which is also either masculine or femi- 
nine, but which denotes a person instead of a thing, 
is referred to as ** he," in accordance with an estab- 
lished custom of our language when there is no desire 
to emphasize distinctions of sex. If the author had 
thought distinctions of sex were here important, he 
would have said, ** The laborer sitting down to his 
or her crust of bread." 

Sometimes animals are referred to as **he" or 
** she," even when no distinction of sex is intended. 
Thus, ** The tiger steals silently on his prey;" ** A 
hare popped out from a furze brake, and ran for her 
life." In such cases the speaker uses **he" if he 
fancies the animal to possess masculine qualities, 
such as strength, fierceness; **she" if he thinks 
the animal's qualities are rather feminine, such as 
timidity, gentleness. 

109. Gender in Personifleation. — Examine the 
following sentence : — 

Spring hangs her infant blossoms on the trees. 

You observe that the writer refers to spring, which 
has neither life nor sex, by a feminine pronoun. 
The explanation is that he imagined spring as a 


gracious goddess, and spoke accordingly. When 
we thus speak of an object without life as if it were 
a person, we are said to Personify it. Gender in. 
personification is determined by the same principle 
as in speaking of animals without regard to sex : 
things remarkable for size, power, strength, or 
other manly qualities are referred to as masculine; 
things remarkable for beauty, gentleness, grace, or 
other womanly qualities are referred to as feminine. 
Other examples are : — 

(a) The sun now rose upon the right ; 

Out of the sea came Ae, 

{b) Now morn, her rosy steps in the eastern clime 

Advancing, sowed the earth with orient pearl, 


Fill the blanks in the following sentences with appro* 
priate pronouns : — 

1. Can a leopard change spots ? 

2. Close in covert cowered the doe. 

3. The ewe lamb bleated for mother. 

4. The child was unconscious of danger. 

5. The heifer rubbed nose against the bars. 

6. The goose had wandered from companions. 

7. The hind knew the dogs to be mortal enemies. 

8. The duck was pluming feathers after swim. 

9. Even a fool, when holdeth peace, is counted wise. 

10. If any person in the class needs a pencil, I will lend mine. 

11. Every witch, it was thought, kept a broomstick ready behind 

12. The wild beast from cavern sprang, the wild bird from 


13. As for man, days are as grass : as a flower of the field, 

so flourisheth. 



1. Write sentences in which the following things skaU 
be personified as masculine : — 

time war winter electricity 

2. Write sentences in which the following things shall 
be personified as feminine : — 

a ship the earth night liberty 


110. Number Defined. — Examine the difference 
between the words in the following pairs : — 

book fox ox man 

books foxes oxen men 

The first word of each pair suggests a single ob- 
ject; the second word suggests more than one. In 
the first three pairs the difference in meaning is 
brought about by the addition of a suffix ; in the 
last, by an internal change in the word. 

Definition. — A difference in the form of a word to 
distinguish objects as one or more than one is called 

Definition, — ^The form of a word that denotes one 
object is called the Singular Number. 

Definition. — ^The form of a word that denotes 
more than one object is called the Plural Number. 

Number has an important influence on pronouns, 
verbs, and the adjectives ** this " and ** that." For 
example, we say: — 

This bell was ringing, but it has stopped. 
These bells were ringing, but they have stopped. 

111. Formation of the Plural. — Most nouns 
form the plural by adding **s" to the singular; as, 



book, books. The following variations from this 
regular rule are important : — - 

1. '' -es." — When the singular ends in a sound that does not 
unite with " s " alone, " es " is added, forming an additional sylla- 
ble : as, fox, foxes. 

2. Plural of Nouns Ending In " o."— If the final "o " 
is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed regularly, i. e., by 
adding " s : " as, cameo, cameos. If the final '* o *' is preceded by 
a consonant, the tendency of modern usage is to form the plural by 
adding " es : " as, hero, heroes ; potato, potatoes. The following 
common words, however, still form the plural by adding "s" 
alone : — 






3. Plural of Nouns Ending In "y."— If the "y" is 
preceded by a vowel, the plural is regular : as, valley, valleys. 

If the " y '* is preceded by a consonant, " y " is changed to " i " 
and ** es " is added to form the plural : as, lady, ladies ; city, cities. 

4. Plural of Nouns Ending in " f."— The following 
nouns ending with the sound of " f " change "f " or "fe" to "v" 
and add " es " : — 















5. Survivals of Ancient Plurals. — In Old English there 
were other ways of forming the plural, traces of which survive : — 

(i) Plurals in "-en." — These were once in very common 
use. The only surviving examples are : oxen, brethren, children. 
Kine (cows) is used in poetry. 

(2) Plurals by Inward Change.— Of this method the 
sur\'iving examples are: foot, feet ; tooth, teeth ; goose, geese; 
louse, lice ; man, men ; mouse, mice ; womaLii, women. 


6. Plural of Proper Nouns, — Proper nouns, when made 
plural, are not changed internally : as, Henry, Henrys ; Nero, 

Proper names preceded by titles, as " Mr. Smith," " Miss Smith," 
" Colonel Smith/' are treated in two different ways. We say " the 
Mr. Smiths," "the Mrs. Smiths," "the Miss Smiths," "the Colonel 
Smiths ; " but we also say " the Messrs. Smith," ** the Misses 
Smith," and " the Colonels Smith." 

7. Plural of Compound Nouns. — Most compound nouns 
form the plural by adding the proper sign of the plural to the 
fundamental part of the word, i. e., to the part which is de- 
scribed by the rest of the phrase : as, ox-cart, ox-carts ; court- 
martial, courts-martial ; aide-de-camp, aides-de-camp. When no 
single word is fundamental, as in " forget-me-not," the sign of the 
plural is put at the end : as, forget-me-nots. Words like " spoon- 
ful," the compound nature of which has been almost forgotten, also 
take the sign of the plural at the end : as, spoonfuls, cupfuls, 
"Man-servant," "woman-servant," and "knight-templar" often 
add the plural sign to both words : as, men-servants. 

Caution.— "Brahman," "Mussulman," "Ottoman," and "talis- 
man " are not compounds of " man." They resemble " German " 
and "Norman," and form the plural by adding "s:" as, Mussul- 
mans, talismans. 

8. iJetters, Figures, and other Symbols are made plural 
by adding an apostrophe and " s " ('s) : as, " There are more e^s 
than as in this word ; " " Dot your i's, and cross your fsJ* 

9. Unclianged Plurals. — Some names of animals are the 
same in both singular and plural. The important examples are : 
cod, deer, grouse, sheep, salmon, swine, trout. 

Some nouns of number and measure may be used in a plural 
sense without change of form. Important examples are: "Two 
brace of ducks ; " " She bought three dozen ; " " His years are four 
score ; " " Ten head of cattle ; " " Two hundredweight of iron ; " 
" Three pair of horses ; " " Twelve yoke of oxen." In these ex- 
pressions the plural meaning is sufficiently indicated by the pre- 
ceding numeral. 



(Dictation Exercise.) 

Write the plural of the following nouns : — 

(i) Deer, trout, grouse. 

(2) Apple, peach, rose, box, bush, grass. 

(3) Ox, child, tooth, goose, mouse, woman. 

(4) Mary, George, Harry, Miss Clark, Mr. Brown, Dr. Young. 

(5) German, Dutchman, Frenchman, Brahman, Mormon, Mus- 
sulman, Ottoman, talisman. 

(6) Ally, chimney, fairy, baby, mystery, turkey, body, journey. 

(7) Chief, calf, dwarf, fife, elf, grief, gulf, half, hoof, knife, leaf, 
loaf, roof, sheaf, shelf, strife, thief, wife, wolf. 

(8) Buffalo, echo, canto, volcano, portfolio, banjo, dynamo, 
solo, memento, mosquito, bamboo, negro, hero, chromo. 

(9) Man-of-war, goose-quill, spoonful, commander-in-chief, 
major-general, man-servant, court-yard, court-martial, father-in- 
law, step-son, forget-me-not, bill-of-fare, looker-on, knight-errant. 

lis. 'Two Plurals. — We say '* There are big fish 
in the lake," using fish in a plural, collective sense ; 
and we also speak of **The story of the three ^^//^j,** 
having in mind a story about three separate fish. 
From this it appears that some nouns have two 
plurals, which differ' in meaning. The following 
is a list : — 

Slngrnlar. Plural. 

brother brothers (by birth), brethren (of a society), 

cloth cloths (of different kinds), clothes (garments). 

die dies (for coining or stamping), dice (for play), 

fish fishes (separate objects), fish (collective), 

genius geniuses (persons of great ability), genii (spirits), 

index indexes (in books), indices (in algebra), 

penny pennies (separate coins), pence (sum of money), 

shot shots (discharges), shot (balls). 




Distinguish between : — 

1. How many shot (shots) did you count? 

2. The story tells of two genii (geniuses). 

3. He gave the beggar six pennies (pence). 

4. He showed me some new cloths (clothes). 

5. I have two handfuls (hands full) of gold dust 

6. He was always kind to his brothers (brethren). 

7. Two dice (dies) were found in the prisoner's pockets. 

8. He carried two pailfuls (pails full) of water up the hill. 

9. There are serious errors in the indexes (indices) in this new 

113. Foreign Plurals. — Some nouns of foreign 
origin have peculiar foreign plurals. In the fol- 
lowing list of such nouns, when two plural forms 
are given for the same noun, the English plural is 
preferable: — 




























formula ] 


genus ("class") 

memorandum ] 









geniuses (persons 
of great ability) 
genii (spirits) 




(Dictation Exercise.) 

1 . Write the plural of : — 

Alumna, analysis, bandit, beau, cherub, crisis, curriculum, datum, 
formula, genius, genus, hypothesis, oasis, nebula, parenthesis, 
phenomenon, seraph, stratum, synopsis, tableau. 

2. Write the singular of: — 

Alumni, animalcula, bacteria, cherubim, curricula, data, genera, 
oases, phenomena, seraphim, strata, theses. 


Construct sentences containing the plural of the fol- 
lowing words^ first consulting a dictionary for their 
meaning : — 

Aide-de-camp, ally, animalculum, antithesis, bacterium, canto, 
court-martial, crisis, curriculum, datum, elf, genus, hypothesis, 
memento, phenomenon, solo, stratum, talisman. 

To the Teacher. — This exercise may be extended at dis- 
cretion by selecting additional words from the lists in Sec- 
tions 111-113. 

114. Divided Usa^e. — Some singular nouns look 
like plurals, e. g., **alms;*' and some plural nouns 
are singular in sense, e. g., ** measles." In regard 
to such nouns custom is divided, treating them at 
one time as singulars and at another as plurals. 

The following are generally treated as singular : 
amends, gallows, news, the United States, math- 
ematics, optics, and other words in **-ics,*/ except 
'* athletics,** which is generally plural. 

. The following are generally treated as plural : 
ashes, assets, dregs, eaves, nuptials, oats, pincers. 


proceeds, riches, scissors, shears, suds, tongs, 
trousers, victuals, vitals. 

For further information on cases of doubtful 
usage a large dictionary must be consulted. 


Which of the italicized forms is preferable ? 

1. The dregs was {were) bitter. 

2. Ethics IS {are) the science of duty. 

3. The assets of the company ts {are) $223,000. 

4. Please pour t/u's {these) suds on the rose bed. 

5. Where did you get i/iis {these) pretty scissors? 

6. Why was this {were these) ashes dumped here ? 

7. In many schools athletics is {are) carried too far. 

8. His riches has {have) taken to itself {themselves) wings. 

9. Mathematics is {are) harder for some persons than for 


10. The eaves of the house is {are) thirty feet above the 

1 1. The proceeds of the lecture was {were) given to the Orphan 


12. The United States has {have) informed Spain of its {their) 
intention regarding Cuba. 

13. Politics, in its {their) widest extent, is {are) both the science 
and the art of government. 

14. Their nuptials was {were) celebrated at the same time as 
that {those) of Bassanio and Portia. 


Construct sentences illustrating' the number ofthefol- 
loiving nouns : — 

amends news oats physics pincers shears tongs trousers 



116. Case Defined. — In the sentence ** John has 
given Henry Annie's pencil," each of the four nouns 
bears a peculiar relation to other words. Three of 
them are related to the verb: ** John," as subject, 
/'pencil," as direct object, ** Henry," as indirect 
object. * 'Annie's " is related to * * pencil "by showing 
ownership — a, relation indicated by the suffix ** *s." 

In Old English these relations were often indi- 
cated, as in Latin and Greek, by special forms of 
the noun, called Cases. After the Norman Conquest 
these forms fell into disuse, and nouns in modern 
English retain only one relic of them, namely, the 
Possessive. With the single exception of the ** *s" 
denoting ownership or possession, the relation of a 
noun to the other parts of a sentence is now shown 
mainly by its position. 

But though most of the forms have disappeared, 
the names of some of them have been retained 
to denote relations which the forms used to show. 
For example, in the sentence *' John has given 
Henry Annie's pencil," we still say **John " is in the 
N'ominative case, referring to its relation as sub- 
ject; and sbme grammarians say that ** Henry" is 
in the Dative case, and ** pencil" in the Accusa- 
tive. But since the dative and accusative cases 
are now never distinct in form, most grammarians 
merge them into one case called the Objective. 

Definition, — The form of a noun or pronoun that 
shows its relation to other words is called Case. 

Definition, — The form of a noun or pronoun 


that shows the relation of subject is called the 
XomlnatlTe Case. 

Definition. — The form of a noun or pronoun that 
shows possession is called the PossesslTe Case. 

Definition. — The form of a noun or pronoun that 
shows the relation of object is called the Objective 

The nominative and objective cases of nouns, being always alike 
in modern English, might be merged into one if it were not for 
the fact that in pronouns these cases have distinct forms : as, / 
help him^ and he helps me. 

The function of case forms may be well illustrated by reference 
to a line from Gray's " Elegy : " "And all the air a solemn stillness 
holds." Critics cannot agree as to whether " air " or " stillness " 
is the subject of this sentence ; that is, whether the poet meant that 
the air contained stillness or that stillness held fast the air. In 
Latin or Greek there could be no doubt, because the forni of the 
words would show which was subject and which object. 

116. rorm of tlie Possessive Case. — In the SIN- 
GULAR number the possessive of nouns is formed, 
as a rule, by adding- an apostrophe and *'s** (*s): 
as, *'The boysQ,02Xy Often the pronunciation of 
the added **s** makes a new syllable. If this 
additional syllable makes an unpleasant sound, the 
**s" is omitted, but the apostrophe is retained: 
as, '*For goodness' sake.*' If the **s** is sounded, 
it is always written ; and if it is written, it should 
be pronounced in reading*. The putting in or the 
leaving out of the **s** in such cases is chiefly a 
matter of taste. Whenever there is doubt it is 
well to add the "s:'* as, ''^Horace's odes," ^^ Charles's 
ball/* ''Dickens s * David Copperfield.' 

» »> 


In the Plural number, when the plural already 
ends in ** s ** (as it usually does), the possessive case 
is formed by adding an apostrophe alone ('): as, 
^^ Boys' shoes.** The possessive of those few nouns 
whose plural does not end in ** s '* is formed, as in 
the singular number, by adding an apostrophe and 
^* s ** (*s) : as, ** Mens shoes.** 

The possessive case of Compound nouns and ex- 
pressions used as compound nouns is formed by 
adding the proper sign of the possessive to the end 
of the compound : as, * * That is my sister-in-law's 
pony;** ** This is the Prince of Wales's palace.** 

When two or more persons possess a thing in 
common, the sign of the possessive is attached to 
the last name only: as, **John and Mary's home.*' 

Separate ownership is indicated by adding the 
sign of the possessive to each name : as, ** Alice's and 
Jessie's dresses." 

In forming the possessive of ''anybody else " and 
'* who else *' usage is somewhat divided and incon- 
sistent. The weight of good usage seems to in- 
cline to ** anybody else's;** but, on the other hand, 
we usually say ** whose else." 


I. Write the possessive case^ singular and plural^ of 
the following nouns: — 

Actor, calf, child, countess, day, deer, eagle, elephant, fairy, 
farmer, fox, goose, horse, king, lady, lion, man, monkey, mouse, 
mouth, ox, prince, princess, thief, wife, witness, wolf, woman 


2. Write the possessive case of— 

Charles, Dickens, Douglas, Eggleston & Co., father-in-law, 
Frederick the Great, Harper & Brothers, Henry the Eighth, his 
sister Mary, James, Jones, man-of-war, Miss Austen. 

117. Declension. — We are now prepared to draw 
up a scheme of the inflection of any English noun 
for number and case : thus. 





Nominative : 





Possessive : 


men s 



Objective : 





Definitio7i, — The inflection of nouns and pronouns 
for number and case, arranged in order, is called 

When we give the declension of a noun or a pro- 
noun we are said to Decline it. 


To tlie Teacher. — Since the only difficulty in declining 
nouns lies in the writing of the possessive case, declension should 
always be a written exercise. 

Decline the following nouns : — 

calf deer Henry king monkey ox princess 

child fox James lady mouse prince wolf 


118. Person. — In the sentence, '* I, John, was in 
the isle Patmos," John names the speaker; in 
** John, please come here,'* John names the person 
spoken to; in **John has come,*' John names the 
person spoken of. 

Definition, — The distinction between nouns or pro- 


nouns as denoting the person speaking, spoken to, 
or spoken of, is called Person. 

Definition, — A noun or pronoun that denotes the 
person speaking is in the First Person. 

Definition. — A noun or pronoun that denotes the 
person or thing spoken to is said to be in the Second 


Definition, — A noun or pronoun that denotes a 

person or thing spoken of is in the TMrd Person. 

Nouns do not change in form to denote person ; and most nouns 
are in the third person. The distinction has importance only in 
connection with pronouns and verbs. 


119. Construction Defined. — In the study of 
sentences the most important question about a 
noun, or any other part of speech, is its relation to 
the other words of the sentence. 

Definition, — The relation of a word to the rest of 
the sentence is called its Construction (Latin, ** put- 
ting together '*). 

130. Constructions of Nouns Summarized. — If 

we examine the constructions of the word **day ** 
in the following sentences, we shall find that a 
noun may be used in fourteen different ways : — 

1. Subject of verb : The day is past and gone. 

2. Attribute complement : To-morrow is the appointed day, 

3. Object complement : I've lost a day, 

4. Objective complement : God called the light day, 

5. Possessive : Another day*s work is done. 

6. Appositive: Sunday, the day of rest, is precious to the 


7. Adjective modifier : The day star arise in your hearts. 

8. Adverbial modifier : We waited a day. 

Note. — In this construction the noun expresses measure of some kind. 

9. Object of preposition : Rome was not built in a day, 

10. Indirect object : Give every day its task. 

11. Vocative : Come, day, and chase the shadows of the night 

1 2. Exclamation : O happy day ! The battle's won, 

13. Nominative absolute : The //ay being rainy, we stayed at 

14. Subject of infinitive : I considered the dayXoy^t. unfavor- 

Of these constructions the first twelve need no 
explanation beyond what has been said in preced- 
ing pages. The last two require explanation now. 

131. Subject of Infinitive. — Compare the fol- 
lowing sentences: — 

{a) I think that he is honest, 
{b) I think him to be honest. 

In {a) the object of '* think'* is the clause **that 
he is honest,*' in which ** he " is the subject of the 
verb ** is ;** in {b) the object of ** think *' is the phrase 
** him to be honest,** in which the objective ** him " 
has the same relation to the infinitive *' to be ** that 
the nominative ** he,** in the corresponding clause, 
has to the verb '* is.** ** Him,** theiefore, is called 
the Subject of tbe Infinitive. 

The subject of an infinitive is always in the 
objective case. 

Other examples are : — 


** He ordered me to mcyve on." 

"The teacher saw her go*' 

** The colonel commanded the bridge to be burned*^ 

" He declared them to be counterfeit," 

122. I^omlnatlve Al>solute. — Compare the fol- 
lowing sentences : — 

(a) When night came on, we lighted a fire. 
{p) Night coming on, we lighted a fire. 

These sentences are alike in meaning, but differ 
in form. In {a) the time of the principal action is 
shown by the subordinate clause, **When night 
came on," in which ** night ** is the subject of the 
verb ** came." In {U) the connective ** when " has 
been dropped and the verb **came" has been 
changed to a participle attached to ** night." 
* * Night " is thus left without any grammatical con- 
nection with the rest of the sentence, and is said to 
be in the Nominative Absolute (Latin, ** free "). 

Other examples of the nominative absolute are : — 

The sea being smooth, we went for a sail. 

Bruce lay down, his heart [being] heavy with sorrow. 

The ceremony [having been] completed, we dispersed. 

Caution. — The nominative absolute must not be confounded 
with constructions in which a participle is loosely attached to the 
subject of a sentence (94). 

The participle belonging to a nominative absolute may be 
omitted, but the nominative itself may not ; otherwise the participle 
will be left dangling, apparently attached to. the nearest substan- 
tive. For example, in the incorrect sentence, " Crossing the ferry, 
my hat blew off," "crossing '* seems to be attached to " hat," which 
is not intended. 



Construct sentences illustrating each of the ways in 
which nouns may be used. (It is not necessary to use 
the same noun, ) 

123, Uses of tlie N'omlnatlTe Case. — A noun is 
said to be in the nominative case when it is — 

1. The subject of a verb. 

2. An attribute complement. (Often called a predicate noun 
ox predicate nominative^ 

3. A vocative. (Often called nominative of address^ 

4. An exclamation. (Often called nominative of exclamation^ 

5. A nominative absolute. 

Exception. — An attribute complement of the infinitive " to be " is in the objecttxft 
case if the infinitive has a subject of its own ; because the subject of an infinitive is in 
the objective case, and forms of the verb*^ to be," which resemble the sign **«," take 
the same case after them as before them. 

124. Uses of tlie ObJectlTe Case. — A noun is 
said to be in the objective case when it is — 

1. A direct object. 

2. An objective complement. 

3. An indirect object. 

4. The object of a preposition. 

5. An adverbial modifier. (Often called an adverbial objective^ 

6. The subject of an infinitive. 

126. Use of tlie Possessire Case. — It is some- 
times a question whether to use the possessive case or 
a phrase beginning with **of,** i. e., whether to say 
** Arnold's treason" or **the treason of Arnold." 
The tendency of the best modem usage is to con- 


fine the possessive case to nouns denoting living 
beings, and with them to use it only in instances 
of actual or imagined possession : as, * * Arnold's 
sword,'* **the treason of Arnold.** Yet some short 
phrases, like **a week's wages,** **a day*s march," 
'*a dollar's worth,** **atdeath*s door,** **for pity's 
sake,** are supported by the best usage. With pro- 
nouns still greater latitude is allowed. No one 
hesitates to write ** on our account," **in my ab- 
sence,*' **to their credit,** ** for my sake,*' **in his 

The possessive case and a phrase introduced by 
**of**are not always exact equivalents. For in- 
stance, ** John's story** means a story told by 
John ; but a ** story of John ** means a story about 


Express relation between the nouns in the following 
pairs by putting one of them in the possessive case or by 
using the preposition **^y*,'* as seems best from what you 
have learned in Section 125. Give the reason for your 
choice : — 

Witness, testimony ; horse, hoof ; the President, public recep- 
tion; Delmonico, restaurant; battleship Maine, destruction; 
Charles the Second, reign ; Henry the Eighth, wives ; teacher, ad- 
vice; Paris, siege; book, cover; princess, evening gowns; Spain, 
navy ; Napoleon, banishment ; Napoleon, camp chest ; Demos- 
thenes, orations; Webster, orations; gunpowder invention; con- 
science, sake; general, horse; cat, claws; enemy, repulse; the 
United States, army; Major Andr6, capture; mountain, top; sum- 
mer, end. 



Distinguish between the following : — 

1. Mother's love. Love of mother. 

2. A sister's care. Care of a sister. 

3. Ethel's drawing. A drawing of Ethel. 

4. Charles and Harry's toys. Charles's and Harry's toys. 

5. Admiral Dewey's reception. The reception of Admiral 

6. Let me tell you a story of Doctor Brown. Let me tell you a 
story of Doctor Brown's. 

126. Double Possessive. — The sentence, '*Let 
me tell you a story of Doctor Brown's,** con- 
tains a double possessive {^'' oi Doctor Brown's"), in 
which we use both the possessive case, after the 
manner of Old English, and the preposition **of," 
after the manner of Norman-French. Though this 
double possessive cannot be logically justified, it is 
nevertheless recognized by the best writers as good 
English. Moreover, it is often convenient ; as when 
it enables us to distinguish between * * a story of 
Doctor Brown" and **a story of Doctor Brown's." 
Other examples are : — 

That boy of yours, 

A friend of my brother* s, 

O speak good of the Lord, all ye works of his, 

127. Case In Apposition. — Nouns in apposition 
are said to be in the same case. But when the 
nouns are in the possessive, the sign of possession 
is usually attached only to one of them: as, *' Jack 
the Giant Killer's boots. " 


128. Substitutes for Nouns, — Words or groups 
of words that are not commonly to be classed as 
nouns are often used substantively in the construc- 
tions of nouns, as follows : — 

(i) Pronoun : I see him, 

(2) Adjective : I did my best, 

(3) Adverb : Now is the accepted time. 

(4) Infinitive : To delay is fatal. 

(5) Phrase: ''Ay, ay, sir!" burst from a thousand throats. 

(6) Clause : What you want is not here. 

129. How to Parse Nouns. — When we describe a 
word as it stands in a sentence, we are said to Parse 
it. To parse a word we must give a description of 
its class, form, and use. 

To parse a noun we must give its — 

(i) Class. 

(2) Gender. 

(3) Number. 

(4) Construction. 

(5) Case. 


Parse the nouns in the following selections : — 

A Farewell. 

My fairest child, I have no song to give you ; 

No lark could pipe to skies so dull and gray ; 
Yet, ere we part, one lesson I can leave you 

For eveiy day. 

Be good, svi^eet maid, and let who will be clever ; 

Do noble things, not dream them, all day long ; 
And so make life, death, and that vast forever 

One grand sweet song. — Charles Kingsley, 



Evening in Paradise. 

Now came still Evening on, and Twilight gray 
Had in her sober livery all things clad ; 
Silence accompanied ; for beast and bird, 
They to their grassy couch, these to their nests, 
Were slunk, all but the wakeful nightingale ; 
She all night long her amorous descant sung : 
Silence was pleased. Now glowed the firmament 
With living sapphires ; Hesperus, that led 
The starry host, rode .brightest, till the moon, 
Rising in clouded majesty, at length 
Apparent queen, unveiled her peerless light, 
And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw ; 
When Adam thus to Eve : " Fair consort, the hour 
Of night, and all things now retired to rest. 
Mind us of like repose, since God hath set 
Labor and rest, as day and night, to men 
Successive ; and the timely dew of sleep, 
Now falling with soft slumberous weight, inclines 
Our eyelids. Other creatures all day long 
Rove idle, unemployed, and less need rest ; 
Man hath his daily work of body or mind 
Appointed, which declares his dignity. 
And the regard of Heaven on all his ways ; 
While other animals unactive range, 
And of their doings God takes no account." 

— Milton : ** Paradise Lost" 



A Pronoun is a word used to stand for a noun (84)* 
The noun for which a pronoun stands is called 
its Antecedent. 


130. Personal Pronouns Defined. — Examine the 
pronouns in the following sentence : — 

/ have lost my pencil ; please lend me yours till you need // 

**!,** **my," and *'me" stand for the person 
speaking, and cannot be used to refer to the person 
spoken to or spoken of. **You,** ** yours," and 
"yourself** stand only for the person spoken to. 
** It " is used only for a thing spoken of. 

Definition. — Pronouns that distinguish between 
the person speaking, the person spoken to, and the 
person or thing spoken of are called Personal 

Personal pronouns are so called, not because they stand for per- 
sons, but because they mark grammatical person (118). 


Point out the personal pronouns in Exercises 20 and 
38, and tell of each zvhether it stands for the person 
speakings the person spoken to^ or the person or thing 
spoken of. If it stands for the person or thing spoken 
ofy give its antecedent. 


131. Personal Pronouns of tlie First Person. — 

Fill the blanks with personal pronouns representing 
(i) a boy speaking, (2) a girl speaking, and note the 
differences, if there are any: — 

know Mary. Mary knows . Mary is cousin. 

The pen she is using is . 

Fill each of the following blanks with a pronoun 
representing the speaker and some others: — 

love Carlo. Carlo loves , Carlo is dog. Yes, 

he is . 

You observe that personal pronouns of the first 
person are not inflected to denote gender, since the 
sex of the person speaking is always supposed to be 
known ; but they are inflected to show number and 
case • 

Tabulating the forms used in filling the blanks, 
we find that the personal pronoun of the first per- 
son is thus declined : — 






Possessive : 

my, mine 

our, ours 

Objective : 



These forms are really fragments of different words, and not 
true inflections. But they serve the same purpose as inflections. 

" I " is always written as a capital letter. 

The plural forms represent, not two or more speakers, but the 
speaker and others for whom he speaks. Sometimes they are used 
by an editor or a sovereign to refer to himself alone : as. 

Editor : We are sure we voice the sentiments of the people. 

King Duncan : This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air 

Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses. 

This is called the *' editorial " or " majestic " use of we* 



Construct sentences containing the different forms of 
the personal pronouns of the first person. 

132. Personal Pronouns of tlie Second Person. — 

In the following selections examine the pronouns 
that stand for the persons spoken to: — 


Singular, Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth ; and let thy 
heart cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and walk in the ways of 
thine heart, and in the sight of thine eyes : but know thoUy that for 
all these things God will bring thee into judgment. 

Plural, Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord_y^«r God. 
. , . Blessed are^^ poor, {g^ yours is the kingdom of God. 


Singular, Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean — roll ! 
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain ; 
Man marks the earth with ruin — his control 
Stops with the shore ; — upon the watery plain 
The wrecks are all thy deed. 

* * i|c i|c 

Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow, — 
Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now. 

Plural. Ye crags and peaks, I'm with_y^« once again. 


Singular, Young gentleman, your spirit is too bold for your 
years. I pray you^ give over this attempt. It requires greater 
strength th3.n yours. 

Plural, Come early, girls ; and if you feel like it, bring your 
mandolins; I want to hear you play. 

These selections show that the pronouns used to 
represent the person spoken to differ according to 
the character of the language employed. In the 


Biblical and poetical passages they are, for the 
singular, **thou/' *'thy/* ** thine," and '*thee/* ac- 
cording to the case ; for the plural, ** ye," *' your," 
** yours," and **you." In the ordinary prose pas- 
sages they are, for both singular and plural, ** you," 
**your," and ** yours." There is no inflection to 
denote gender, because the sex of the person spoken 
to is presumably always known. Tabulating these 
forms, we may say that the personal pronoun of 
the second person is thus declined: — 

Biblical and Poetic. Ordinary. 




/ N 

Singular and Plural. 

Nominative : 




Possessive : 

thy, thine 

your, yours 

your, yours 

Objective : 




The forms marked " Biblical and Poetic " were once the 
*• Ordinary " forms. In course of time, however, a peculiar distinc- 
tion grew up between the singular and the plural forms. The 
singular forms were used in the language of affectionate intimacy 
or superiority ; the language of politeness or respect employed the 
plural forms. This distinction became stronger and stronger, until 
now " thou," " thy," " thine," and ** thee " are no longer used in ordi- 
nary conversation, except by members of the Society of Friends. 
"Ye" has been displaced by " you " through a confusion of nomi- 
native and objective (137, Note). 

Since " you," which is now the common pronoun of address, is 
really a plural word, it takes a plural verb when it is a subject, 
even though only one person is addressed ; as, " You were mis- 
taken, Edith " (not " You was "). 


Construct sentences containing those forms of the 
personal pronoun of the second person that are used in 
ordinary discourse. 


133. Personal Pronouns of tlie Third Person. — 

Fill the blanks with personal pronouns represent- 
ing (i) a boy spoken of, (2) a girl spoken of, (3) a 
tree spoken of: — 

is ten years old, I do not know height. I often go 

to see . 

Fill the blank in the following sentence with a 
pronoun referring to (i) a boy spoken of, (2) a girl 
spoken of: — 

This book is . 

Fill the blanks in the following sentences with 
pronouns representing (i) two or more boys spoken 
of, (2) two or more girls spoken of, (3) two or more 
trees spoken of : — 

are each ten years old. I do not know heights. I 

often go to see . 

Fill the blank in the following sentence with a 
pronoun referring to (i) two or more boys spoken 
of, (2) two or more girls spoken of: — 

These books are . 

You observe that personal pronouns standing for 
persons or things spoken of vary with gender, 
number, and case. Tabulating the forms used m 
filling the blanks, we find that the personal pro- 
nouns of the third person are thus declined : — 



— Smgrular. — 




All Genders. 

Nominative : 





Possessive : 


her, hers 


their, theirs 

Objective : 






" Its " is a modem form, found only once in the English Bible of 
i6i I (Lev, XXV, 5). The old possessive of " it " was " his : " as. 
The iron gate ** opened to them of his own accord " (Acts xii, lo). 
Since ** his '* was also the possessive of " he," confusion arose, 
which led gradually to the formation of a new possessive for " it." 


Construct sentences containing the different forms of 
the personal pronouns of the third person. 

134. Special Uses of "It." — The pronoun *'it ' 
has a variety of special uses: — 

(i) As substitute for a group of words : as, 

To cross the ocean was once a mighty undertaking ; now // is 
a mere pleasure trip. 

I heard that he was comifig, but I didn't believe //. 

(2) As impersonal subject (38) : as, 

Is /*/ well with thee ? 
// has been raining. 

(3) As impersonal object : as, 

They roughed // for two weeks. 

Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of //. 

(4) As an expletive (39) : as, 

What pain it was to drown ! 
How is // that you come so soon ? 


Describe the use of the pronoun ^^ it'' in each of the 
following sentences : — 

I. I won't go, and that's an end of //. 2. // is excellent to 
have a giant's strength, but // is tyrannous to use // like a giant. 


3. There was nothing for // but to return. 4. Come and trip // as 
you go. 5. He deserved his punishment, and he knew //. 6, Is // 
far to London } 7. Low-bom men like to lord // over their infe- 
riors. 8. // is L 9. I will fight // out on this line if // takes all 
summer. 10. // will soon strike ten. 11. They footed /*/ through 
the streets. 12. // is growing dark fast. 

135. Uses of the Possessive Forms. — Each of the 
personal pronouns except ** he *' and ** it " has two 
possessives in each number: namely, **my," 
'*minef *'our/* **ours;" **thy/' ''thine;" **your/' 
''yours;*' **her," **hers;*' ** their/' ** theirs." 

'*My," **our," **thy," **your," **her," and 
"their" are always followed by nouns indicating 
the thing possessed: as, ^^My new sled." 

In Biblical and poetical language **mine" and 
"thine "are used before nouns beginning with a 
vowel sound or " h :" as, 

** \i- thine enemy hunger, feed him." 
" Stretch forth thine hand." 

In ordinary discourse " mine " and ** thine," and 
the forms ending in "s" (" ours," " yours," " hers," 
"theirs"), are never followed by nouns, but are 
used only as substantives. They represent both 
the possessor and the thing possessed, and are 
equivalent to a noun in the nominative or the ob- 
jective case modified by a possessive: as, "This 
book is mine'' (i. e., "my book"); ^^Yours (i. e., 
"your book") is on the table." " His" is often 
used in a similar manner. 

Caution. — No apostrophe is used in writing the possessive 
case of pronouns. 



Construct sentences containing the possessive forms 
of each of the personal pronouns ^ both siftgular and 
plural^ and tell how each form is used. 

136, Uses of the Nominative Forms. — The nom- 
inative forms of personal pronouns — **!,*' **we/' 
'*thou," ''he/* *'she/* '*they" — are used mainly 
in the following constructions : — 

1. Subject of a verb : as, " / am young ; " ** We are coming ; " 
'" He fell ; " " She laughed ; " " They live in New Orleans." 

2. Attribute complement : as, "Is it If*' "It was not we ;** 
" Was it he? " " I think it was she; " " No, it was they" 

Exception. — The attribute complement of the infinitive to be is in the objective 
case if the infinitive has a subject : as, ** He knew it to be me'''* (123)* 

3. Vocative: as, "O thou who hearest prayer." 

, 4. Nominative absolute: as, ** He being there, we said nothing 
about it." 

137. Uses of the Objective Forms. — The objec- 
tive forms of the personal pronouns — ** me/* *' us," 
** thee/' ** him/' ** her/' ** them/' — are used mainly 
in the following constructions : — 

1. Direct object: as, "Help us, O Lord." 

2. Indirect object : as, " Give me your hand." 

3. Object of preposition : as, " Show it to them** 

4. Subject of infinitive: as, " Did you see him fall ? " 

Exclamations, — In exclamations either the nominative or the 
objective is used : as, " O. unhappy I ! " " O, wretched me ! " 

Note. — In the middle of the sixteenth century the distinction 
between the nominative and the objective began to break down, 
and "me," "thee." " us," "you," "him," " her," and "them " were 
often treated as nominatives. In the case of " ye " and " you ** 


this confusion became permanently established in the language, 
"you " being now the regular form for both nominative and objec- 
tive. In the other pronouns the original distinction between the 
cases gradually reasserted itself, and is, perhaps, more strongly 
insisted on now than at any period since the sixteenth century. 

The case of "you" and "it," which have the same form for 
both nominative and objective, must be determined from the con- 


Tell the case and construction of each per sonal pronoun 
in Exercise 20; in Exercise 38; in Exercise 74. 


To the Teacher. — In order that both eye and ear may be 
trained to correct forms of expression, it is a good plan, after the 
blanks in this and similar exercises have been filled, to write on the 
board such sentences as give pupils trouble, and to have them read 
aloud again and again. 

Another helpful exercise to the same end is to let pupils repeat 
rapidly such forms as " It is I," " It is he," " It is she ; " " It is not 
we," " It is not they ; " " Is it I ? " etc., using in succession different 
nominative forms, and the affirmative, interrogative, and negative 
forms of the verb. 

Insert the proper form of pronoun in each blanks and 
give the reason for your choice : — 

I. /, me. 

I. Who will go ? . 

2. He is taller than 

3. She knew it to be . 

4. He is not so old as . 

5. Wait for Helen and . 

6. She knew that it was . 

7. She will come, and too. 

8. You and will go together. 


9. May Annie and go home ? 

10. It was that gave the alarm. 

11. If you were , would you go? 

12. Will you go with John and ? 

13. Jessie gave Roy and a kitten. 

14. She let Annie and come home. 

15. Yes, you and were both invited. 

16. It makes no difference to you or . 

17. She invited you and to go driving. 

18. Everyone is going except you and , 

19. The kite was made for Harry and . 

20. Father expects you or to meet him. 

21. Between you and , he is losing his mind. 

22. Which do you think is the older, Carrie or ? 

23. When you saw Mary and , we were walking home. 

24. Dr. Holmes shook hands with the girls, among the rest. 

II. IVe, us. 

1. He knew it was . 

2. He knew it to be . 

3. It was whom you saw. 

4. boys are going swimming. 

5. They play golf more than , 

6. They know that as well as 

7. Everybody was late except 

8. Our parents are wiser than 

9. The Smiths are going, and too. 

10. The Browns, as well as , are invited. 

11. It isn't for such as to ride in coaches. 

12. That is new doctrine among Americans. 

13. He took a picture of girls sitting in the boat. 


III. He, him. 

1. I knew it was - 

2. I knew it to be 

3. Was it you saw ? 


4. It must have been 

5. that is idle, reprove. * 

6. His sister is darker than - . 

7. If I were , I wouldn't go. 

8. Whom can I trust, if not ? 

9. and James played together. 

10. Let who can answer this question. 

11. What were you and talking about ? 

12. Was it who objected to our going? 

13. To William and belongs all the credit. 

14. It makes no difference to either you or . 

15. I shook hands with all, among the rest. 

16. Not many could have played as well as . 

17. Have you ever seen Fred and together? 

18. What else can you expect from such as ? 

19. There isn't much difference between you and - 

20. that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple- 

IV. She, her. 
I. I am stronger than . 

2. It was or her mother. 

3. I wouldn't go if I were 

4. and Constance sang a duet. 

5. Was it that came yesterday ? 

6. When will you and come again ? 

7. Father told you and to stay here. 

8. Grace and met at dancing school. 

9. I invited them all, among the rest. 

10. With Edith and I have no trouble. 


11. Very few girls can play as well as - 

12. What can you expect from such as 

13. I supposed the tall, stately lady was , 

14. I supposed the tall, stately lady to be . 

15. What is the trouble between you and ? 

16. Girls like you and —. — should know better. 

17. Everybody came except and her brother. 

18. Have you ever seen Sarah and together? 

19. Father is afraid to let you or drive the colt 

V, T/tej^, them. 

1. It was . 

2. It must have been , 

3. We are not so poor as . 

4. I know it to have been . 

5. I never saw Guy and together. 

6. that talk must stay after school. 

7. that talk I will keep after school. 

8. It isn't for such as to dictate to us. 

9. None so blind as that will not see. 

10. Let none touch it but that are clean. 

11. Their opponents were heavier than . 

12. It makes no difference to either you or . 

13. It could not have been , for were at home. 

14. Few school-teachers could have done as well as 

138. Use of Gender Forms. — In the very nature 
of things pronouns should be of the same gender 
and number as the nouns for which they stand. 
The following peculiar uses of gender forms require 
special mention (108, 109) : — 

I. Words like trout and child, which apply to both male and 
female objects, are referred to by the neuter pronouns " it " and 
•* its " when the object named is thought of as a mere thing, the sex 


being unknown or unimportant : as, " King Midas took a nice little 
trout on his plate, and touched its tail with his finger;" " The child 
reached out its little hands." 

2. Words like laborer and person, which apply to both men and 
women, are referred to by the masculine pronouns "he," "his," and 
" him " when there is no desire to emphasize distinctions of sex : as, 
'-* The laborer is worthy of his hire ;" *' Let every person do as he 
likes." In such cases " he," " his," and " him " stand for mankind 
in general, and include women as well as men. 

3. Sometimes animals are referred to by " he " or " she," even 
when no distinction of sex is intended. In such cases the mascu- 
line pronoun is used if the speaker fancies the animal to possess 
masculine qualities, such as strength, fierceness; tlie feminine pro- 
noun, if the speaker thinks the animal's qualities are rather feminine, 
such as timidity, gentleness. Examples are: "The tiger steals 
silently on his prey ; " " The hare ran for her life." 

4. Personified objects remarkable for size, power, strength, or 
other manly qualities, are referred to by masculine pronouns ; those 
remarkable for beauty, gentleness, grace, or other womanly quali- 
ties, are referred to by feminine pronouns. Examples are : " The 
sun sheds his beams on rich and poor alike ; " " The moon has 
hid her face behind a cloud." 


1. Review Exercise 116. 

2 . Fill each blank with a pronoun, and give the rea- 
son for its gender : — 

1. Every author has faults. 

2. A writer should be careful with pronouns, 

3. Venice sat in state, throned on hundred isles. 

4. A person who is rude in table manners will be disliked. 

5. Winter had bound the lakes and rivers fast in icy grasp. 

6. The mocking-bird shook from little throat floods of 

delirious music. 


7. The " Oceanic " is a huge steamer. is longer than the 

** Great Eastern.** 

8. A calf can distinguish mother's lowing from that of a 

hundred other cows. 

9. When a cat comes near a light contracts and elon- 
gates the pupils of eyes. 

10. The polar bear suffers so much from heat that cannot 

live long in warm climates ; therefore is seldom seen in 


130, Use of Numljer Forms, — Difl&culties in the 
use of the number forms of personal pronouns arise 
mainly in connection with such expressions as 
** anybody,'* ** everybody," "each," ** either," 
** neither," and '* nobody." Such expressions, in 
spite of the comprehensive meaning of some of 
them, are grammatically singular ; and in literary 
English they are referred to by singular pronouns : 
as, **If anybody calls, ask him to wait." If the 
writer considered reference to sex worth while, he* 
would say, **ask him or her to wait." Ordinarily, 
.however, he would use **him" only, taking for 
granted the application to women. 

In colloquial English such expressions as ''anybody/' "every- 
body," "each," " either," etc., are referred to by the genderless 
plurals " they," " their," " them : " as, " If anybody calls, ask 
iheui to wait." This usage is partly an attempt to find a pro- 
noun that will stand for both "he" and "she," and partly a 
reflection of the comprehensive meaning of "anybody," "every- 
body," etc. It is shunned by those who have an ear for gram- 
matical accuracy. 

* Note the author's unconscious use of " he '* to refer to " writer," which here in* 
dudes in its meaning women as well as men. 



Fill the blanks with th^ proper pronouns : — 

1. Each must take turn. 

2. Anyone can do this if tries. 

3. Has everyone finished work ? 

4. Every girl can do this if tries. 

5. Each day and each hour brings own duty. 

6. Either Mary or Lizzie will lend you pencil. 

7. Each pupil was requested to name favorite color. 

^8. Probably everybody is eloquent at least once in life. 

9. Man after man passed, carrying golf clubs with . 

10. Each of the g^rls married well, at least in own opinion. 

11. Each of the children married well, at least in own 


12. Whoever loves school should do best to keep its 

school tone high. 

13. Many a brave man met death in an obscure moment of 

the war with Spain. 

14. Whoso keepeth mouth and tongue, keepeth 

soul from troubles. 

1 5. Everybody believes the world is watching , but is 

usually mistaken ; for the world is generally doing what is 

doing, namely, thinking of itself. 

16. He does not know a single belle ; even if he did,— ^ — would 
not care to dance with so stupid a fellow as he is. 

17. The man and his wife were both there; but neither would 
tell what had seen.' 

140, Componnd Personal Pronouns, — Kxamine 
the form and uses of the italicized pronouns in the 
following sentences : — 

1 Observe that the meanine of this sentence changes according as wn fill the blank 
with *• he." *» she." or *» they.'*^ 


(a) She herself told me. 

{p) We saw the Queen herself, 

(c) He cut himself, 

{d) They think too much of themselves. 

You observe that ** herself," "himself," and 
** themselves" are formed from personal pronouns 
by adding the words ** self" or ** selves;" and that 
they are used {a, b) for emphasis, or {c, d) after a verb 
or preposition to refer back to the subject of the 

Definition, — A pronoun formed from a personal 
pronoun by adding '*self " or ** selves" is called a 
Compound Personal Pronoun, 

Definition, — A compound personal pronoun used 
after a verb or a preposition to refer back to the 
subject of the verb is called a Reflexive Pronoun, 

The compound personal pronouns are myself, 
ourself (editorial or majestic), thyself, yourself, him- 
self, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves. 
Notice that in the first and second person the com- 
pound is made from the possessive form of the simple 
pronoun, and in the third person from the objective 

The compound personal pronouns have the same 
form for both nominative and objective, and have 
no possessive. The place of a possessive is sup- 
plied by '*myown," ''your own," etc.: as, ** He 
keeps his own horse;" **He has a house of his 

In the last sentence the phrase " his own " is used substantively 
as the object of the preposition " of," like the possessive "mine" 
in " He is a friend of tm'ne " (135). 


141. Uses of the Compound Personal Pronouns. 

— ^The compound personal pronouns are properly 
used as follows : — 

1. For emphasis: as, " I will do it myself;** "The great globe 
itself ^2^ dissolve ; " *' We saw the king himself** . 

2. As reflexives : as, " I cut myself; " " We told him to give 
himself plenty of time." 

Besides these well-established uses, the compound personal 
pronouns are sometimes employed as substitutes for simple per- 
sonal pronouns : as, " She invited Ethel and myself Xo go driving." 
This usage is avoided by the most careful writers. 

Sometimes, especially in poetry, a simple pronoun is used re- 
flexively : as, " Now I lay me down to sleep ; " " He looked about 


I. In the following sentences point out the compound 
personal pronouns^ and tell whether they are used reflex- 
ively or for emphasis ; — 

1. I myself have seen him. 2. I think myself happy. 3. Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 4. Quit yourselves like men. 
5. He will tell you himself. 6. Whosoever shall exalt himself shall 
be abased. 7. Sinai itself trembled at the presence of God. 8. You 
have yourselves heard the report. 9. Why should you be so cruel 
to' yourselves? 10. It is usually best to study by ourselves. 

2 . Construct sentences illustrating the use of each of 
the compound personal pronouns for emphasis ; as 
a reflexive. 


142. Demonstrative Pronouns Defined. — Ex- 
amine the italicized pronouns in the following sen- 
tences: — 

This is my book ; that is yours. 
These 2X^ my books ; those are yours. 


In these sentences **this" (plural "these*') and 
" that ** (plural ** those **) are used to point out cer- 
tain objects. Each is, in a way, equivalent to a 

Definition, — A pronoun used to point out is called a 
Demonstrative Pronoun. 

The only demonstrative pronouns are **this" 
(plural ''these ") and ** that '* (plural *' those "). 

143. Uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns. — 

"This*' and "these" are used to indicate persons 
or things near in space, time, or thought; "that" 
and "those" indicate persons or things farther 
away: as, " These are my jewels;" "Our rivers are 
larger than those of Europe." 

When " this " and " that " are followed by nouns they are 
Pronominal Adjectives: as, " This book is mine;*' " That 
word is hard to pronounce." 


Construct sentences illustrating the use of the demon- 
strative pronouns ^ singular and plural, 


144. Interrogative Pronouns Defined. — Exam- 
ine the italicized pronouns in the following sen- 
tences: — 

Who is he ? Whom did you see? Which is he? 

Who is she ? What is that ? Which is yours ? 

Who are they ? What are these ? Which are yours ? 

Whose is this ? What do you want ? Which do you prefer? 


These pronouns, you observe, are questioning 
words, ** who," ** whose,** and ** whom " asking for 
names of persons, **what'* asking for names of 
things, and '' which " asking for a selection from a 
group of persons or things. Each stands for the 
noun or pronoun that answers the question. 

Definition, — A pronoun used to ask questions is 
called an Interrogative Pronoun. 

Tabulating the forms used in the illustrative sen- 
tences, we find that the only interrogative pronoun 
which is inflected is ** who,*' and that it is declined 
as follows: — 

Sin^lar and Plural. 

Nominative : who 

Possessive : whose 

Objective : whom 

The interrogative "whether," meaning "which of the two," is 
no longer used as a pronoun, though it is found in the English 
Bible : as, *' Whether is easier ? " 

When " which " and ** what " are followed by nouns they are 
Pronominal Adjectives: as, " Which book is yours?" 
" What new trick is this ? " 


Point out the interrogative pronouns in the following 
sentences^ and tell the construction of each : — 

I. Who ran to help me when I fell? 2. What are the wild 
waves saying? 3. What care I how fair she be? 4. What do 
you read, my lord? 5. What is so rare as a day in June? 
6. What did you ask for? 7. Whose dog is that? 8. Whom 
did you see ? 9. Whom v/ere you speaking to ? 10. Which of 
the samples have you selected? 11. Who do you think she is? 
12. Whom do you take her to be? 


145. Interrosrative Pronouns Distingrulslied. — 

Ordinarily **who*' asks for names of persons, 
**what'* for names of things; but sometimes 
**what'* has a personal reference: as, ^^Wkat is 
he? — a lawyer?'* In such cases ** what'* asks for 
a description f in distinction from ** who,** which asks 
for identity : as, ^'Who is he? — the new minister? '* 
* * Which ** is selective ; that is, it implies that 
the right one is to be selected from a nurriber of 
persons or things: bs,'^ Which is she?** ''Which 
of the pictures do you like best? ** ** Which have you 
decided to take ? ** 


Construct sentences illustrating the use of the inter- 
rogative pronoun '' who ;'^ the ordinary use of the 
interrogative ''what;'' the personal use of the in- 
terrogative "what;'' the use of the interrogative 
" which," 

146. "Who" or "Whom." — In spoken English 
" whom,** as an interrogative form, has been prac- 
tically abandoned by most persons as an unneces- 
sary and cumbersome inflection; but in literary 
English, and in the conversation of persons who 
have a strong feeling for grammatical consistency, 
**who** is used only in nominative relations, and 
' ' whom '* in objective relations : as, * * Who is that? *' 
** Whom did you see?** ** By whom was this 
written ? *' ** Whom are you making that sofa- 
pillow for ? ** 



Insert in each of the blanks the proper form of pro- 
noun (* * who ** or ^^ whom **) according to literary usage ^ 
and give the reason for your choice : — 

1. do you mean? 

2. have we here ? 

3. will you invite ? 

4. did you give it to ? 

5. do you think I am ? 

6. are you writing to ? 

7. were you talking to ? 

8. I don't know to send. 

9. — do you take me to be ? 

10. I don't know to ask for. 

11. was that speaking to you? 

12. I do not know he has met. 

13. did you say sat beside you ? 

14. do you think will be elected ? 

1 5. do you expect to call on next ? 

16. do you think it was that called ? 

17. I do not know will finish the work. 

18. He is going to be married to I don't know , 

19. should I meet yesterday but my old friend Jones! 

147. Direct and Indirect Questions Distin- 
guished. — Compare the following sentences : — 

Maude asked, " Who is he? ** 
Maude asked who he was. 

In the first sentence Maude's question is given in 
her exact words, and the question is said to be 
quoted. In the second sentence the question 


blends with the principal clause, and the original 
words are changed. 

Definition, — A question expressed in the exact 
words of the speaker is called a Direct Question. 

Definition, — A question used as a dependent 
clause, with changes from the original words of 
the speaker, is called an Indirect Question. 

A direct question may be (i) independent : as, "Who is he?" 
or (2) dependent : as, ** Maude asked, * Who is he ? * " 

Indirect questions depend on expressions implying inquiry, 
doubt, knowledge, ignorance, or the like: as, "Maude wondered 
who he was ; '* " Maude discovered who he was ; " '* Maude did not 
know who he was ; " " Maude told us who he was." (The direct 
question presented to Maude's mind was, " Who is he ? '*) 


Co7istruct three direct questions^ and then change 
them into the indirect form, 


148. Relative Pronouns Defined. — Compare the 
following sentences: — 

{a) The man thinks the world turns round. The man is giddy, 
{b) The man that is g^ddy thinks the world turns round. 

In {a) we have two separate sentences about * * the 
man,*' with nothing to show that they are related. 
In (p) the two sentences are brought into their 
proper relation by the word ** that,'* which takes the 
place of the noun ** man ** as subject of the second 
sentence, and also connects this sentence with 
** man " in the first sentence, as a modifying clause. 
In other words, it is both pronoun and connective. 


Definition. — A pronoun which attaches to its 
antecedent a subordinate clause of which it is a 
part is called a Kelative Pronoun. 

A relative pronoun is so called because it relates directly to a 
substantive in the principal clause. •* 


Point out the relative pronouns in Exercise 44, and 
give their antecedents, 

149. Relative Clauses. — A clause introduced by 
a relative pronoun is called a Relative Clause. 

Compare the relative clauses in the following 
sentences : — 

{a) Water that is stagnant is unwholesome. 

(^) The water, which was beautifully clear, gently lapped the 
side of the boat. 

{c) She brought the boy a glass of water, which he drank 

In the first sentence the relative clause, '* that is 
stagnant," limits or restricts the general meaning 
of ''water'* to the particular sort that is in mind. 
The clause cannot be removed without changing 
the meaning of the sentence. 

In the second sentence the relative clause, ' * which 
was beautifully clear," describes the water which 
the speaker has in mind, but does not restrict the 
meaning of the word ** water." The clause might 
be removed without injury to the sentence, being 
in fact parenthetical. 

In the third sentence the relative clause, *' which 


he drank eagerly," neither limits nor describes the 
word " water/* but merely carries on the narrative, 
like the second member of a compound sentence. 
** Which ** is, in fact, here equivalent to ** and it,'* 
and the relative clause, though subordinate in form, 
is logically coordinate with the first clause. 

Definition. — A relative clause which limits or 
restricts the meaning of the antecedent is called a 
Restrictive Relative Clause. 

Definition, — A relative clause which describes the 
antecedent without restricting its meaning is called 
a Descriptive Relative Clause. 

Definition, — A relative clause which neither de- 
scribes nor limits, but merely carries on the narra- 
tive, is called a Progressive Relative Clause. 

Descriptive and progressive relative clauses, being 
either parenthetical or independent in their nature, 
should be separated from the rest of the sentence 
by commas. 

Restrictive relative clauses should not be sepa- 
rated from the rest of the sentence by commas. 


1. Pohit out the relative clauses in Exercises 44 and 
52, and tell zvhether they are restrictive^ descriptive, or 

2 . Construct a sentence containing a restrictive rela- 
tive clause ; a descriptive relative clause ; a progressive 
relative clause. 

150. Relative Pronouns Distinguished. — Exam- 
ine the forms of the relative pronouns in the follow- 
ing sentences : — 


He praycth best who loveth best. 

The lady who went out is my aunt. 

They who will not work must starve. 

The boy whose manners you liked is my brother, 

I know the person of whom you speak. 


The letter which came this morning was from Ruth. 
We played a new game, the name of which I forget. 
I still have the letter which Ruth wrote last week. 

This is the house that Jack built. 
Happy is the man that findeth wisdom. 

What (i. e., That which) is done cannot be undone. 
What (i. e.. That which) you say is true. 

From these examples we see that (the ordinary 
relative pronouns are "who," ** which," **that," 
and ' * wKat." Tabulating the various forms, we find 
that only ** who " is inflected, and that it is declined 

as follows :— singular and Plural. 

Nominative : who 

Possessive: whose 

Objective : whom 

WAo, whose ^ and whom are used chiefly of persons, 
but sometimes of animals: as, ** He prayeth best 
wJis loveth best;" ** The robins have succeeded in 
driving off the blue jays who used to build in our 
pines." ** Whose" is occasionally used of things 

Which, as a relative pronoun, is used of animals or 
things. Sometimes it refers to an idea or thought 
expressed by a preceding phrase or clause: as, 
** This description may seem much exaggerated, 
which it certainly is not ; " * * I relieved his pain, 
which made him very grateful," 


That is used of either persons or things. It is 
always very closely connected with its antecedent 
in both meaning and position, never being used 
when there is any pause between the relative clause 
and the antecedent. Hence it is never used to 
introduce a clause that is merely descriptive or 
progressive. We say, "Water that [or, which'] 
is stagnant is unwholesome;" '*The water, 
which was beautifully clear, lapped the sides of 
the boat." Another peculiarity of that is that it 
never has a preposition before it. We say, '*The 
hook of which you told me," or, **The book that you 
told me ^/," putting the preposition last when 
*' that " is substituted for ** which." 

What is peculiar in that it combines the functions 
of both antecedent and relative pronoun : as, 

C what ) , , 
" I mean i ., . » . ^ }■ I say. 
( thatwhtch ) ' 

'* Who," '* which," and '* that " introduce adjec- 
tive clauses; clauses introduced by "what" are 
substantive clauses. 

To the Teacher. — Some grammarians would make '*that" 
obligator}' whenever the relative clause is restrictive, reserving 
" who " and *' which " exclusively for clauses that are merely 
descriptive or progressive. According to them, "He prayeth 
best who loveth best " ought to be " He prayeth best that loveth 
best.** But this obligatory use of " that " in restrictive clauses has 
never been a rule of English speech, and is not likely to become 
one, partly because of the impossibility of using " that " after a 
preposition, and partly because of the disagreeable sound of such 
combinations as **That remark M^/ I made yesterday." As a rule, 
euphony decides in restrictive clauses between " who " or ** which " 
and "that" 



Insert appropriate relative pronouns in the blanks in 
the following sentences^ and give the reason for your 
choice : — 

1. Man is the only animal can talk. 

2. Time is lost is never found again. 

3. The dog bit the child has been killed. 

4. That is the man spoke tc us yesterday. 

5. We have a mastiff, — — ioUows us ever)rwhere. 

6. I met the boatman took me across the ferry. 

7. The crow dropped the cheese, the fox then ate. 

8. I worked six problems, was the best I could do. 

9. Do you knew that man is just entering the car ? 

10. Shakespeare was the most expressive man ever lived. 

11. The cat you despise so much is a very useful animal.* 

12. We have done many things we ought not to have done. 

13. He does all he can does all can be expected. 

14. Her hair, wsis dark brown, was gathered in a Grecian 


1 5. Why should we consult Charles, knows nothing of the 

matter ? 

16. At the comer I met a policeman, consented to go 

with me. 

17. pleased me most, and has been most frequently 

mentioned by visitors to Florence, was the profusion of flowers 
— one sees there, 


Construct sentences illustrating the use of the rela- 
tives ** whOy' ** which,'' ** that,'* and ** what." 

^Thepunctuationof this sontence, and probably the choice of pronoun, will vary 
with the meaning. 


151. Gender, Number, and Person of Belative 
Pronouns. — In the nature of things the gender, 
number, and person of a relative pronoun are the 
same as those of its antecedent, but they are never 
indicated by the form of the relative. *' Who/' for 
example, may be singular or plural, masculine or 
feminine, and may refer to the person speaking, 
spoken to, or spoken of: as, ** I, who3.m your friend, 
would not pain you needlessly; " ** You, who are my 
trusted friend, should not deceive me ; " * * They w/io 
refuse to work must starve." Since relatives thus 
agree in number and person with their antecedents, 
it follows that the form of a verb used after a relative 
should be the same as that which we should use 


after its antecedent. 


Tell which of the italicized forms is rights and give 
the reason : — 

1. She. is one of the best mothers that has {have) ever lived. 

Caution.— The antecedent of ** that " is " mothers." 

2. My room is one of those that overlook {overlooks) the lake. 

3. That is one of the best books that was (were) ever written. 

4. She is one of the writers who is {are) destined to be immortal 

5. It was one of the best games that has {have) ever been played 
o» our field. 

6. You are not the first man that has {have) been deceived by 

7. He is one of those restless boys who ts {are) always wanting 
to do something. 

8. One of his many good traits that come {comes) to my mind 
was his modesty. 


162. Case of Belative Pronouns. — The case of a 
relative pronoun has nothing to do with its ante- 
cedent, but is determined by its use in the clause 
in which it stands. It may be — 

(1) The subject of a verb : as, " The lady who went out is my 

(2) A possessive modifier: as, "The boy whose manners you 
liked is my brother." 

(3) A direct object: as, " He whom thou lovest is sick." 

(4) The object of a preposition : as. ** I know the person of whom 
you speak." 

In Milton's expression, " Satan, than whom none higher sat," 
•* than whom," found in all the best authors, but now going out of 
use, is an idiomatic exception to the rul«s governing the choice 
between " who " and " whom." 

Caution. — To determine the case of the relative "what" 
consider only its relation to the words of the substantive clause in 
which it stands. In *• What followed was only a natural conse- 
quence " it is the subject of " followed." In ** What he did was 
well done" it is the object of "did." In *' What I asked for was 
denied me " it is the object of the preposition " for." In each 
sentence the entire' relative clause is the subject of the verb "was." 


Tell the construction and the case of each relative pro- 
noun in Exercises 44 and 148. 


Insert the proper form of pronoun (* * whoy " ' * whom ") 
in each of the following blanks ^ and give the reason for 
your choice : — 

1. She is a girl I know is trustworthy. 

2. She is a girl I know to be trustworthy. 

3. We recommend only those we can tmsX. 


4. I met a man I have no doubt was your uncle, 

5. A lady entered, , I afterwards learned, was his aunt. 

6. He gave the watch to Norman, he thinks will take care 

of it. 

7. They have found the woman they thought had been 


8. We like to be with those we love and we know 

love us, let them be they may. 

163. "Whose" or "Of which.''— '* Whose," 

which is properly the possessive of the masculine 
or feminine **who," is sometimes used of neuter 
objects as a substitute for the longer and harsher 
'* of which :'* as, ** The undiscovered country from 
whose bourne no traveler returns.** When this sub- 
stitution is not required by euphony it is avoided 
by careful writers. 


Tell w hick of the italicized expressions you consider 
preferable, and give your reason: — 

1 . She asked for a book whose name {the name of which) I had 
never heard. 

2 The •• White Captive" is a woman bound to a tree, in whose 
bark {the bark of which) arrows are sticking. 

3. Another side of one's education is the scientific — a side whose 
importance {the i?nportance of which) is fast being recognized the 
world over. 

4. Through the heavy door whose bronze network {the bronze 
network of which) closes the place of his rest, let us enter the 
church itself. 

5. I swept the horizon, and saw at one glance the glorious ele- 
vations, on whose tops {the tops of which) the sun kindled all the 
melodies and harmonies of light. 


6. Beneath the sluggish waves of the Dead Sea lay the once 
proud cities of the plain, whose grave {the grave of which) was 
dug by the thunder of the heavens. 

7. Men may be ready to fight to the death for a religion whose 
creed {f he creed of which) they do not understand, and whose pre- 
cepts if he precepts of which) they habitually disobey. 

164. "As" and "But" as Relatives. — After the 
words **such** and **same" the word *'as *' is used 
as a relative pronoun; as, ** Tears, such as angels 
weep, burst forth/' After '*such*' the relative is 
always ** as/* After *• same " it is ** as '* or ** that," 
with a difference in meaning. **The same as*' 
usually means *' of the same kind :*' as, ** My trouble 
is the same as yours.** "The same that*' means 
** one and the same:" as, ** He uses the same books 
that his brother does." This distinction, however, 
does not hold in elliptical sentences, where ** the 
same that " is never found : as, *' He uses the same 
books as his brother.*' Occasionally **who" or 
** which'* is used instead of '*that:" as, ** This is 
the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles " 
(Goldsmith) ; * * With the same minuteness which her 
predecessor had exhibited ** (Scott). 

Occasionally **as*' is used as a substitute for 
** which *' to refer to a preceding idea or thought: 
as, '*The ship was frozen in, as often happens in 
polar regions." 

** But*' is sometimes used as a relative pronoun 
equivalent to ** that not ** or ** who not:" as. 

There is not a wife in the west country 
But has heard of the well oi St. Keyne. 




1. Construct sentences illustrating the usesofrela* 
fives after ^"^ such " and ** same.'' 

2. Fill the blanks in t/ie following sentences with tlie 
proper relative (** as^'* ** tliat '*), and give tlie reason for 
your choice : — 

1. Such I have give I thee. 

2. This is the same book my father used. 

3. I hold the same political opinions my father. 

4. I hold the same political opinions my father holds. 

5. These are not the same tramps were here yesterday. 

6. She is the same merry girl since her marriage she was 

before it. 

^ 166. Relative Pronouns Omitted. — ^The relative 
** that ** (or its substitute), when it would be the ob- 
ject of a verb or a preposition, is often omitted: as, 
''The book \that or which'] I left here is gone;*' 
**The girl [that or whom] you are looking for has 
not come yet.*' 

Occasionally a relative pronoun in the nominative 
case is omitted: as, ** 'Tis distance [that] lends en- 
chantment to the view." 

156. Compound Relative Pronouns. — Examine 
the forms and uses of the relative pronouns in the 
following sentences : — 

Whoever (i. e., Any person who) goes must start at once. 

Whosoever (i. e., Any person who) exalteth himself shall be 

Take whichever (i. e., any which) you want. 

Whatever (i. e., Any thing which) he does he does well. 

Sell whatsoever (i. e., anything which) thou hast, and give to 
the poor. 


With regard to form you observe that the itali- 
cized pronouns are made from **who/' ** which/' 
and ** what '* by adding *' ever** or ** soever/* With 
regard to use, (i) they perform the functions of both 
relative and antecedent, like **what** (160); and 
(2) they are very indefinite in their meaning, being 
equivalent to **any person who,*' **any which,** 
or ** anything which/* 

Definition. — A pronoun formed from * ' who, *' 
* ' which, '* or * * what ** by adding the suffix * * ever ** or 
** soever** is called, with reference to its form, a 
Compound Relative Pronoun ; with reference to its 
meaning, an Indettnlte Relative Pronoun. 

Other compound relatives, seldom used now, are " whoso " and 

" Who," " which," and " what " are sometimes used as indefinite 
relatives : as, ** Who steals my purse steals trash ; " ** Take which 
you will /' *' Do what you can." 

167. " Whoever" or " Whomever." — The only 
difficulty likely to arise in connection with the use 
of indefinite relatives lies in the words ** whoever'* 
and ** whomever.'* One is a nominative form, the 
other an objective. **Give it to whoever comes to 
the door *' and ** Give it to whomever you see '* are 
both correct. * 'Whoever** is the subject of * * comes ; " 
''whomever*' is the object of "see.** In each sen- 
tence the object of the preposition " to " is the rela- 
tive clause, used substantively. 

** Whosoever " and " whomsoever " are used in the same way : 
as, " Unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much re- 
quired ; " *• Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased." 



Fill the blanks with the proper forms (** whoever. 
** wlwmever **), and give the reason for your choice: — - 

1. Ask you meet. 

2. Elect you wish. 

3. I will entertain you send. 

4. We will give it to you say. 

5. > did it ought to be ashamed of himself. 

6. We will give it to seems to need it most. 


158. Indefinite Pronouns Defined. — Examine 
the italicized words in the following sentences : — 

Some have gone. 
Each took his turn. 

You observe that ** some *' and ** each*' are sub- 
stitutes for names, but do not refer definitely to any- 
particular individuals. 

Definition. — A pronoun that does not refer to any 

particular individual is called an Indefinite Pro- 

The indefinite pronouns may be grouped as fol- 
lows: — 

1. Distributives, referring to individuals of a class taken sep- 
araiely: each, either, neither. 

2. Words of number or quantity: all, any, both, few, many, 
much, several, some, aught, naught, one, none. 

3. Comparatives : such, other, another. 

4. Phrasal pronouns : each other, one another (called recip^ 
rocals) : a certain one, many a one. 

When these words accompany nouns, they must be classed as 
adjectives : as, **Each boy took his turn ; " '*Some men are born great." 



Construct sentences illustrating tlie use of each of the 
indefinite pronouns. 

169. Ho^w to Parse Pronouns. — To parse a pro- 
noun one must give its — 

(i) Class. 

(2) Antecedent (if it has one), 

(3) Gender. 

(4) Number. 

(5) Person. 

(6) Construction. 

(7) Case. 


Parse the pronouns in the following sentences : — 

1. Love thy neighbor as thyself. 

2. God helps them that help themselves. 

3. Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he 
that putteth it off. 

4. I find the Englishman to be him of all men who stands 
firmest in his shoes. 

5. Ye are the salt of the earth : but if the salt have lost his 
savor, wherewith shall it be salted ? 

6. I am monarch of all I survey, 

My right there is none to dispute. 

7. There's a divinity that shapes our ends. 
Rough-hew them how we will. 

8. What's in a name } That which we call a rose 
By any other name would smell as sweet. 

9. 'Tis with our judgments as our watches, — none 
Go just alike, yet each believes his own. 



10. Go, lovely rose ! 

Tell her that wastes her time and me 

That now she knows. 
When I resemble her to thee. 
How sweet and fair she seems to be. 

11. My mind to me a kingdom is ; 

Such present joys therein I find. 
That it excels all other bliss, 

That earth affords or g^ows by kind : 
Though much I want which most would have. 
Yet still my mind forbids to crave. 

12. Some have too much, yet still do crave ; 

I little have, and seek no more : 
They are but poor, though much they have. 

And I am rich with little store : 
They poor, I rich ; they beg, I give ; 
They lack, I hav« ; they pine, I live. 



An Adjective is a word joined by way of descrip- 
tion or limitation to a noun or a pronoun (86). 

160. Classification of Adjectives. — Adjectives 
may be arranged in two general classes, as fol- 
lows : — 

1. Descriptive Adjectives, denoting qualities ox aitri- 
butes of objects : as, " A black hat." 

2. liimltingr Adjectives, denoting which, how many, or 
how much : as, ** Yonder -mountains ; " " Three kittens ; " ''Great 

Among limiting adjectives we distinguish Numeral Adjec- 
tives, denoting number: as, ''Three kittens;" "Second base;" 
and Pronominal Adjectives, words often used 2.% pronouns: 
as, " This (adjective) hat is mine ; " *' This (pronoun) is yours." 
Such words are pronouns when they stand for nouns ; adjectives 
when they accompany nouns (143, 144, 158). 

161. Singrular and Plural Adjectives. — The only 
adjectives that have separate forms for singular 
and plural are the pronominal adjectives **this'' 
(plural ''these") and ''that'' (plural "those"). 
Mistakes in the use of these forms frequently occur 
in connection with such words as ' ' sort " and 
"kind," which are grammatically singular. The 
following sentences are correct: " That kind of 
house is common in New England;" '* How do you 
like this sort of horses? " 



Insert the proper form {''this,** ''these,** "that,** 
" those '*) in each of the following blanks .•— 

1. I do not like sort of men, 

2. We want no more of sort of goods. 

3. What do you think of kind of golf clubs ? 

4. Young gentlemen should let — sort of thing alone. 

5. I always delight in overthrowing — sort of schemes. 

16S. Comparison of Adjectives. — Examine the 
adjectives in the following sentences: — 

This is a high mountain. 

That is a higher mountain. 

Yonder is the highest mountain of all. 

** High," '• higher," and ** highest" are all forms 
of the same adjective, and all denote the same 
quality; but they denote it in different degrees. 
" High" merely denotes a quality; ** higher" de- 
notes that the object described has more of that 
quality than another object with which it is com- 
pared ; •* highest " denotes that the object described 
has the most of the quality. 

Definition. — A difference in the form of an adjec- 
tive to denote degree is called Comparison. 

Definition. — The simple form of an adjective is 
called the Positive Degree. 

Definition, — The form of an adjective that rep- 
resents an object as having more of a quality 
than another object is called the Comparative 


Definition, — The form of an adjective that repre* 
sents an object as having the most of a quality is 
called the Superlative Degrree. 

Sometimes the superlative degfree is used when no 
comparison is intended: as, ** My dearest mother/' 
In such cases the superlative inflection has nearly 
the same force as the adverb ** very." 

163. Methods of Comparison. — Examine the itali- 
cized forms in the following sentences : — 

I never knew a j^^7/^^^ J man. ' 

From this it appears that there are two ways of 
comparing adjectives: — 

1. By Inflection, adding "er " and " est" to the positive to 
form the comparative and the superlative. 

2. By Phrasal Comparison, using the adverbs " more " 
and " most." 

Adjectives of one syllable, and some adjectives of 
two syllables, are usually compared by the addition 
of *'er" and **est." 

Some adjectives of two syllables, and all longer 
adjectives, are usually compared by using * * more " 
and **most.** 

In general the method of comparison is a matter 
of taste, determined for the most part by the ear. 


Compare the following adjectives : — 

Able, happy, honest, fearless, worldly, lively, careful, particular, 
unkind, earnest, beautiful, virtuous, proud, ungrateful. 



164. Irregrnlar Comparison. — The comparison of 
the following adjectives is irregular : — 

Positive. Compar. Snperl. 


evil > 
ill ) 




[(onh,adv,] further 

1°^ \ ''*"«'■ 







Positive. Compar. Snperl. 

i later latest 


many ) 
much f 








165. Adjectives Incapable of Comparison. — 

Some adjectives denote qualities that do not vary in 
degree : as, * * straight, " * * perfect, '* * * circular, " 
'* daily," ''square,** ''round,*' "untiring." Strictly 
speaking, such adjectives cannot be compared ; yet 
custom sanctions such expressions as " straighter," 
" roundest," " more perfect," because they are con- 
venient and their inaccuracy is of no consequence. 

166. Use of tlie Comparative and Superlative. — 

The comparative degree properly implies a com- 
parison of two things or sets of things ; the superla- 
tive, of more than two: as, " He is older than I; " 
" She is the youngest of the family." 

In modern English, however, this distinction is 
not always followed, good writers frequently using 
the superlative when only two things are compared : 
as, "Who was the ^rst^ Ruth or Maude? " " He is 
the dest of the two." In general, when two things 
or sets of things are compared, the comparative 


degree is preferable: as, "Which is the taller, Ruth 
or Maude?" 

The words denoting the objects compared are 
called the ** terms** of the comparison. When 
two objects are compared, the latter term must 
exclude the former; as, ''Iron is more useful than 
any other metal.'* When more than two objects are 
compared, the latter term must include the former ; 
as, ''Iron is the most useful of metals.** 


Construct sentences comparing the following things^ 
using first a comparative^ then a superlative form : — 

1. The large population of China ; the smaller populations of 
other countries. 

Example .—QXam. has a larger population than any other country. China has the 
largest population of all countries in the world. 

2. John, who is very mischievous ; other boys in the school, who 
are less mischievous. 

3. Mary's recitations ; the poorer recitations of her classmates. 

4. The population of London ; the population of the other cities 
in the world. 

167. Sul)stitutes for Adjectives. — The function 
of an adjective may be performed by — 

(i) A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case : as, "That is 
fohn*s book ; " " This is my book." 

(2) A prepositional phrase : as, "The path by the lake is shady." 

(3) An infinitive phrase : as, " Water to drink was scarce." 

(4) A participial phrase : as, " The boy reciting his lesson is 
my brother." 

(5) A clause: as, "The girl whom you sawvs^wc^ ^VsX«r 


168. How to Parse an Adjective. — To parse an 
adjective one must tell — 

(1) Its class. 

(2) Its comparison. 

(3) Its use. 


Parse the adjectives in Exercise 15. 



The Articles are the words ** the " and ''an*' ot 


The articles always limit nouns, and therefore might be classed 
as limiting adjectives. But their uses are so peculiar and delicate 
that it is best to treat them separately. 

169. Origin of tlie Articles. — ** The** is a weak- 
ened form of the demonstrative pronoun ** that." 

**An** (shortened to **a" before consonant 
sounds) is a weakened form of the numeral adjec- 
tive *' one," which was formerly written ** an." In 
general it always implies oneness, but usually in a 
vague, indefinite sense that does not belong to the 
numeral adjective ** one." 

170. "An" or "A." — The choice between "an " 
and **a," which are different forms of the same 
word, is determined by sound. Before a vowel 
sound *'an" is used; before a consonant sound 
** a" is used. 

Caution. — Sound and spelling do not always coincide. For 
example, " one " and " unit " begin with vowels, but the initial 
sounds are those of the consonants "w" and "y " in ** won " and 
" you ; ** therefore we say " a unit," ** such a one." " Honor " be- 
gins with a consonant, but the initial sound is that of the vowel 
" o " in " onset ; " therefore we say " an honor." 

Usage is divided as to "a" or **an" before words beginning 
with " h " and accented on the second syllable. We say ** an 
historical sketch" or "^ historical sketch," according to taste. 



Put the proper form of the article ^^ an'' t>r **^^" 
before each of the following expressions : — 

Article, onion, union, uniform, uninformed reader, universal be- 
lief, useful invention, umpire, unfortunate mistake, eulogy, European, 
hour, honest man, house, humble dwelling, habitual drunkard, 
hotel, heroic people, hereditary disposition. 

171. Tlie Articles Dlstlngrulslied. — Compare the 
italicized expressions in the following sentences : — 

Man is mortal. 

The child is dying. 

A soldier stood on guard. 

**Man,** unlimited by an article, applies to all 
mankind. ** Child,** limited by **the,** applies to 
an individual, singled out as already before the 
mind. ** Soldier,** limited by **a,*' applies to an 
individual, singled out at random as a representative 
of his class. **The'* points definitely to a par- 
ticular object; ** a '* selects one, no matter which. 

Definition, — * * The '* is called the Definite Article ; 
** an " or ** a ** is called the Indefinite Article. 

172. Uses of the Articles. — In general both the 
definite and the indefinite article single out indi- 
viduals from the rest of a class: the definite, a par- 
ticular individual; the indefinite, any individual. 
Ordinarily, therefore, they are used, not with proper 
nouns or names of materials, but with nouns that 
apply to many objects of the same class. Yet no 
one principle covers all the uses of articles. These 
must be learned chiefly through observation and 


imitation. It may be helpful, however, to enumer-^ 
ate some of their special functions. 
The Definite Article is used — 

(i) To designate objects ^s already before the mind : as,-** One 
night a wolf fell in with a dog. The wolf was all skin and bones, 
while the dog was as fat as he could be." 

(2) To designate objects as near by ox prominent in the mind: 
as, " I sprang to the window; " " The birds are singing ;** "We 
saw the queen ; " " There is a higher law than the Constitution ; " 
*' The Scriptures tell the story of the Flood." 

This use of the article tends to change a common into a proper 
noun, as indicated frequently by the use of capitals. 

(3) To give to a common noun a representative or collective 
force : as, " The reindeer is a native of Norway." 

This use of the article — called the Generic {Ldiim ^ener, "a 
class ") — is borrowed from the French. The English article, as re- 
marked above, singles out ; the generic article collects. 

The Indefinite Article is used — 

(i) In its original numerical sense of " one:'* as, " Not a word 
>vas said ; " " Two at a time." 

When nouns have the same form for both singular and plural, 
this use of the article distinguishes the numbers : as, " He has a 
sheep ; " ** He has sheep.'' 

(2) In the vague sense of " a certain : " as, "One night a wolf 
fell in with a dog." (The word " one " in this sentence hardly 
differs in function from the articles.) 

(3) In the sense of. '* any^" to single out an individual as the 
representative of a class : as, **A ball is round." 

(4) To make a common noun of 2l proper noun: as, ** A Daniel 
come to judgment." 

Note. — In "many a child," "such a person," and similar ex- 
pressions, the article follows the adjective, instead of preceding it 



1. Construct sentences illustrating the common uses 
of the definite article, 

2. Construct sentences illustrating the common uses 
of the indefinite article, 


Distinguish between — 

1. Give me a (one) pen. 

2. I have caught (a) cold. 

3. A black and (a) white cat. 

4. Bring me the (that) candle. 

5. Grass (The grass) is green. 

6. Earth (The earth) is heavy. 

7. I sprang to a (the) window. 

8. Birds (The birds) are singing. 

9. Men (The men) admired him. 

10. He has (a) trout in his basket. 

11. Bring me a (the) lighted candle. 

12. Trees (The trees) are in blossom. 

13. Man (The man) is a strange being. 

14. Wanted a cook and (a) housemaid. 

15. Men (The men) ran to give the alarm. 

16. There were few (a few) friends with him. 

17. He behaved with little (a little) reverence. 

18. The (That) road crosses the (a) mountain. 

19. A man (The man) on the shore rescued her. 

20. Mr. Smith (A Mr. Smith) called to see you. 

21. If you wish to have virtue (a virtue), you must practice it. 

22. Shall I tell you a (the) story of a (the) wolf and a (the) dog ? 



Insert the proper article in each blanks if an article 
is needed ; if no article is needed y leave the place blank: 

1 . lion is king of beasts. 

2. What kind of bird is that ? 

3. My favorite fiower is violet. 

• 4. At present he is out of work. 

5. What sort of pen do you like ? 

6. Colonel Waring died of yellow fever. 

7. He well deserves the name of scholar. 

' • 8. Omit third and fourth page (pages). 

9. An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. 

10. There are two articles, the definite and indefinite. 

11. Nouns have two numbers, singular and plural. 

12. Two figures came slowly down the road; one was a 

man, other a boy. 

173. Cautlon.-^Not every **the** is an article, 
nor every ** a.'* 

In **7%^ more they get the more they want," 
and similar constructions, *'the" is an adverb, a 
survival of an old adverbial case-form of the pro- 
noun ** that.*' 

In ** Who goeth a borrowing, goeth a sorrowing," 
and similar constructions, **a** is a survival of an 
old preposition. 

174. How to Parse Articles. — To parse an article 
one must tell — 

(1) What it limits. 

(2) Its effect. 


Parse the articles in Exercises 92 and 114. 



A Verb is a word used, with or without adjuncts, 
as the predicate of a sentence (3g). 

The verb is the instrument of assertion. Usually 
it denotes action; less often, being or state (34); 
sometimes it is without meaning, having assertive 
power only (36). Sometimes it is a single word, 
sometimes a phrase (36). 



Classified according to meaning, verbs are either 
Transitive or Intransitive, 

176. Transitive Verbs. — A transitive verb de- 
notes action that passes over from the doer of the 
action to an object on which it falls: as, ** A hunter 
shot a deer *' (40). 

The action expressed by a transitive verb involves 
two persons or things, either of which may be 
made the subject of the sentence. In one case we 
represent the action as passing from the subject ; in 
the other, as passing to it. In other words, we 
may represent the subject either as performing the 
action, or as receiving or suffering it. Thus : — 



Subject. Action. Object. 

A man shot a deer. 

Subject. Action. Agrent. 

A deer was shot by a man. 

Sometimes, when the subject of the verb names 
the receiver of the action, the agent or doer of the 
action is not mentioned ; but this does not change 
the nature of the verb, which remains transitive. 
Thus :— 

Subject. Action. 
A deer was shot. 

For such verbs as "have," "own," "possess," "inherit," etc., 
see 40. 

To tlie Teacher. — A transitive verb is sometimes defined 
as "a verb that requires an object." This definition is satisfactory 
when the verb is in the active voice ; but when the verb is in the 
passive voice, the definition confuses the pupil, since the passive 
voice transforms the object into the subject of the sentence. 

176. Intransitive Verbs. — An intransitive verb 
denotes action, being, or state that involves only 
the subject: as, ** The rainbow comes and goes;'' 
** Enough is as good as a feast " (40). 


Intransitive verbs are of two kinds: (i) Verbs of Complete 
Predication^ which can be used by themselves as complete pred- 
K^ates : as, " The rainbow comes and goes ; " (2) Verbs of Incom- 
plete Predication, which cannot by themselves be used as com- 
plete predicates : as, '* Enough is as good as a feast " (43, 44). 

177. Some Verbs Either Transitive or Intran- 
sitive. — The distinction between transitive and in- 
transitive verbs is based solely on meaning and use, 
and if the meaning and use of a verb change, its 
classification changes too. Hence it happens that 
some verbs are at one time transitive, at another 
intransitive: as, 

Transitive : She wore a wreath of roses 

The night that first we met. 

Intransitive : Never morning wore 

To evening, but some heart did break. 

A peculiar instance of change from one class to another oc- 
curs when a verb usually intransitive becomes transitive through 
the addition of a preposition used as an inseparable adjunct: 
as, ** T\ity laughed ; " **T\\ey laughed at me." That the words 
" laughed at " in the last sentence are to be taken together as a 
transitive verb is shown by the fact that if the sentence is thrown 
into the passive form, " at " remains attac^ed to the verb : as, 
'* I was laughed at by them." 

Sometimes the preposition is prefixed to the verb : as, " Caesar 
overcdsci^ the enemy." 


1. Review Exercises 24 and 2^, 

2. Tell whether the verbs in Exercises 17 and 37 
are transitive or intransitive. 

178. Transitive and Intransitive Distingnlslied 
by Form. — A few verbs in common use are distin- 



guished as transitive or intransitive by their spell- 
ing, the transitive being causative forms of the 
corresponding intransitive verbs. They are : — 


Fall : as, " Divided we/^//." 

Pastf fell : as, ** Great Caesar 

Past Participle,^ fallen : as, 

" She \i2iS fallen asleep." 

Lie : as, "Z/V still." 

Past, lay : as, " Behold, Sisera 

lay dead." 
Past Participle, lain : as, 

** Had he lain there long ? " 

Rise: as, "i?«<? with the lark." 

Past, rose : as, " Then up he 

Past Participle, risen ; as, 

** The lark has risen** 

Sit : as, " Let us sit down." 

Past, sat : as, " We sat on 

the piazza." 
Past Participle, sat: as, 

" He has sat there all day." 


Fell ("cause to fall"): as, 
' " Woodmen/?// trees." 

Past, felled: as, "They 
felled all the good trees." 

Past Participle^ ^ felled: as, 
*• This tree was felled yes- 

Lay (*• cause to lie ") : as, " Lay 
the book down." 

Past, laid : as, ** He laid the 

book down." 
Past Participle, laid : as, 


Raise ("cause to rise"): as, 
" Raise your head." 

Past, raised : as, "He raised 

his head." 
Past Participle, raised: as, 

" He has raised his head." 

Set ("cause to sit"): as, "5^/ 
the lamp on the table." 

Past, set: as, "She set the 

lamp on the table." 
Past Participle, set: as, 

" She has set the lamp on the 



Insert the proper word in each blank in the following 

sentences : — 

I. Lie, lay, lying, laying, lain, laid, 

1. Let him there. 

2. It has never smooth. 

* English verbs have two simple participles : the Present Participle^ ending ill 
**-ing," and x)\t Past Participle^ used in verb-phrases after forms of '^be ' and** have.*' 


3. I found it on the floor. 

4. Now I me down to sleep. 

5. Ireland s west of England. 

6. Slowly and sadly we him down. 

7. You had better down for a while. 

8. Hush, my dear, still and slumber. 

9. During the storm the ship at anchor. 

10. He told me to down, and I down. 

11. The carpet does not smooth on the floor. 

12. I was so weary that I down in my clothes. 

13. He told me to it down, and I it down. 

14. After he had down he remembered that he had left 

his pocketbook ing by the open window. 

II. Rise, rose, risen, raise, raised. 

1. up, you lazy fellow. 

2. The price of corn has . 

3. Let them up and help you. 

4. She cannot get her bread to . 

5. Cain up against Abel, his brother. 

6. Many are they that up against me. 

7. Abraham up early in the morning. 

8. He himself up before I could reach him. 

9. •* up," said I, "and get you over the brook. 


III. Sit, sat, set. 

1. Where do you ? 

2. Have you there long ? 

3. down and talk a while. 

4. Let us a good example. 

5. She had to up all night. 

6. The calamity heavy on us. 

7. Let us here and listen to the music. 

8. Yesterday we round the fire telling stories. 

9. He the basket on a rock, while he went to the spring. 



To the Teacher. — The classification of verbs according to 
form necessarily presupposes an elementary knowledge of the past 
tense and the past participle. If the pupils are not already ac- 
quainted with these terms. Sections 189, 190, and 217 may be 
studied at this point; or the classification of verbs as strong and 
weak may be postponed. 

Classified according to form, verbs are either 
Strong: or Weak. 

179. Strong Terl>s. — Examine the forms of the 
verb **give" in the following sentences: — 

Present. Past. Past Participle. 

Theyg-zve liberally. Thtygave liberally. They hayeg-tven liberally. 

You observe that the past is formed from the 
present by changing the vowel **i'* to **a,'* and 
the past participle has the sufl&x **-en." 

Definition, — A verb that forms its past tense* by 
an internal vowel change, without any sufl&x, is 
called a Stronjg: Terb. 

All strong verbs originally had the ending "-n " or " -en " in the 
past participle ; but this ending has been lost in many verbs, as 
" fight," " fought[en] ; " therefore no mention of it is made in the 
definition. An added " -n " or " -en " in the past participle is, how- 
ever, always a sign of a strong verb. 

Strong verbs are among the oldest verbs in our language ; there- 
fore their mode of forming the past tense is sometimes called the 
Old Conjugratlon. 

ISO. Weak Terbs. — Examine the forms of the 
verbs ** obey," ** hope," and ** mean " in the follow- 
ing sentences: — 

1 See Section 189. 


Present. Past. Past Participle. 

I obey you. I obeyed you. I have obeyed you. 

We hope for the best. We hoped for the best. We have hoped for 

the best. 

They mean well. They meant well. They have meant 


You observe that both the past tense and the 
* past participle are formed by adding ** -ed," **-d/* 
or ** -t." 

Definition.— K. verb that forms its past tense by 
adding **.ed," **-d," or **-t/'is called a Weak Verb. 

The past participle of a weak verb is always like the past tense. 

Many weak verbs undergo an internal vowel change, like strong 
verbs ; but they differ from strong verbs in having an added " -d " 
or "-t" in the past tense: as, tell, t^l^; teach, taught; buy, 

In such strong verbs as "find," "iound" "fight," "f^wght," the 
" -d " or *' -t " of the past tense is not a suffix, but belongs to the 
present form also. 

Some weak verbs change " d " of the present to ** t " in the 
past : as, build, bull/; send, sen/; spend, spen/. 

In general, the test of a weak verb is the presence in the past 
tense of a " d " or a " t " that is not in the present. 

The following verbs, in which the past tense is like the present, 
or merely shortens the vowel sound, have lost their suffix and are 
known to be weak only from a study of Old English : bet, bleed, 
breed, cast, cost, cut, feed, hit, hurt, lead, let. meet, put, read, rid, 
set, shed, shoot, shut, slit, speed, spit, split, spread, thrust, wet. 

Most weak verbs are of later origin than strong verbs. Hence 
this mode -of forming the past tense is sometimes called the New 

181. Mixed Verbs. — Some strong yerbs have 
adopted the method of the new conjugation while 
retaining also that of the old: as. crow, crew or 


crowed; dig, dug or digged ; hang, htmg or hanged ; 
thrive, throve or thrived. 

A few verbs form their past tense according to 
one conjugation, and their past participle according 
to another: as, hew, hewed ^ hewn; show, showed^ 
shown ; sow, sowed ^ sown ; swell, swelled^ swollen ; 
wake, woke, waked, 

18S. Principal Parts of a Terb. — The present, 
the past, and the past participle are commonly 
called the Principal Parts of a verb, because from 
them we can determine all the other forms or parts. 

The principal parts of a verb are the forms used 
in filling the blanks in the following sentences : — 

Present. Past. Past Participle. 

I now. I yesterday. I have . 


Give the principal parts of the following verbs ^ tell 
whether the verbs are strong or weak^ and give the 
reason for the classification : — 











































To tlie Teacher. — To require a pupil to learn by heart the 
principal parts of all the strong and the irregular weak verbs is 
an unprofitable exercise; therefore no tables of such verbs are 
given here. A list, however, is inserted for reference in the 
Appendix ; and the forms that are frequently misused are treated 
in Section 200. 



Classified according to use, verbs are either 

Kotlonal or Auxiliary. 

183. IN'otional and Auxiliary Terbs Defined.— 

Compare the uses of the verb ** have 'Vin the follow- 
ing sentences : — 

I have a ball. 

I have lost my ball. 

In the first sentence * * have " expresses a distinct 
idea or notion of its own, namely, the idea of pos- 

In the second sentence it has laid aside this 
meaning and merely helps to express the meaning 
of another verb, **lost.*' 

Definition, — A verb that expresses a distinct idea 
or notion of its own is called a IN'otional Verb. 

Definition, — A verb that merely helps to express 
the meaning of another verb is called an Auxiliary 

The verb that follows an auxiliary is always an infinitive or a 
participle, and is sometimes called the Principal Verb in the 

To tbe Teacher. — There is much divergence among gram- 
marians in the treatment of can, let, may, must, ought, should, and 
would. These verbs cannot stand alone as predicates, but are 
always followed by the infinitive of another verb ; therefore they 
are all often classed as auxiliaries. On the other hand, can, must, 
and ought always have meanings of their own; therefore many 
object to calling them auxiliaries. According to the latter view» 
which is adopted in this book, let, may, should, and would are 
sometimes notional, sometimes auxiliary (219-224), 



Tell whether the italicized verbs are notional or 
auxiliary: — 

I. She does her work well. 2. She does not see me. 3. Do you 
know where my book is ? 4. Have you a sled ? 5. Have you 
read "Ben-Hur?" 6. Yam reading it now. 7. It w an interest- 
ing story. 8. May I leave the room? 9. I hope you ;««/ succeed. 

10. You may come to see me whenever you can find time. 

11. She was afraid we might lose the way. 12. Yom should \it 
punctual. 13. If it j^^///^ rain, we 7£//7/notgo. 14. Kx\x\\^ would 
not come. 15. Can you speak French ? 16. Yes, and I can speak 
German too. 17. I must go now. 18. Everyone ought to tell 
the truth always. 

184. Verbal Inflections. — ^Verbs undergo many 
modifications in form, which add to their root mean- 
ings certain ideas of time, completion, uncertainty, 
number, person, etc. These accessory ideas are 
attached partly by inflections and partly by auxil- 


185. Inflection for Number and Person. — In 

some languages the form of the verb changes wi^h 
the number and person of the subject, and the verb 
is said to agree with its subject in number and per- 
son. In Old English such number and person forms 
were numerous; and in the case of the verb ** be '* 
we still say: ''lamT "Thou art;'' "He isT "We 
are;'' "I zvas ;" **You were," etc. Other verbs in 
modern English have lost all their inflections for 
number and person, except in the second and third 
persons of the singular number, as follows: — 


J^i'rs^ Person : I make. 
Second Person: Thou mak^^/. 
Third Person /He mak&y (mak^/^). 

The termination " -st " (subject " thou ") is used only in Biblical 
and poetical language (132.) 

The termination " -th " or " -eth," which was once used instead 
of " -s," survives only in Biblical language and in poetry : as, " He 
that tnaketh haste to be rich shall not be innocent; " " H^prayeth 
well who loveth well. " 

Therefore, except in the verb " be," the only inflection for num- 
ber and person in common use is "-s " in the third person singular. 

186. Construction of Number Forms. — Exam- 
ine the verbs and their subjects in the following 
sentences : — 

A sense of duty pursues us ever. (Singular subject ; singulai 

Troubles never come singly. (Plural subject ; plural verb.) 

Half of them are gone, (Subject singular in form but plural 
in sense ; plural verb.) 

•* Gulliver* s Travels " was written by Swift. (Subject plural 
in form but singular in sense ; singular verb.) 

Tom and his sister wereihcrQ, (Two singular subjects together 
forming a plural ; plural verb.) 

Bread and butter is good enough for me. (Two singular 
subjects taken together as one thing ; singular verb.) 

Neither Fred nor his sister was there. (Two singular subjects 
considered separately ; singular verb.) 

You observe that, in general, a singular form of 
the verb is used when the subject is singular or re- 
garded as singular ; a plural form, when the sub- 
ject is plural or regarded as plural. 

The principle that a verb agrees with its subject 


in number is in most oases followed unconsciously. 
A few constructions, however, require special 
notice : — 

1. The pronoun "you " takes a plural verb even when the mean- 
ing is singular : as, ** Tom, you were late." 

2. A collective noun in the singular number takes a singular 
verb when the collection is viewed as a whole; a plural verb 
when the members of the collection are thought of as indi- 
viduals : as, " The committee was discharged." (Here the com- 
mittee is thought of as a body.) " The committee were eating 
dinner," (The committee ate, not as a body, but as separate 

3. Sometimes a singular noun takes a plural sense from the 
presence of two or more distinguishing adjectives : as, " Mental, 
moral, and physical education here go hand in hand." 

4. When subjects connected by " or " or " nor " are of different 
numbers, the verb usually agrees with the nearest : as, " One or 
two were there." 

Caution. — When one or more plural words come between a 
singular subject and its verb, a writer is in danger of forgetting the 
real subject and of giving to the verb the number of the nearest 
substantive. The following sentences are correct : ** The forma- 
tion of paragraphs is very important." (Here the subject is 
" formation.") *' Every one of us has had this feeling." (Here the 
subject is " Every one.") 

Words joined to a singular subject by " with," *' together with," 
"in addition to," or "as well as," are not on the same grammatical 
level as the subject, but are parenthetical, and therefore do not 
affect the number of the verb: as, "Justice, as well as mercy, 
allows it." 


Construct sentences illustrating each of the special 
eases of agreement mentioned in Sectiou 186. 



Insert in each of the blanks the proper form of the 
verb ** ^^," and give the reason for your choice : — - 

1. I know you there. 

2. One of you mistaken. 

3. One or two ready now. 

4. Two years a long time. 

5. Books a common noun. 

6. Five years* interest due. 

7. A hundred yards not far. 

8. There many things to do. 

9. Bread and milk good diet. 

10. The public cordially invited. 

11. Each of the sisters beautiful. 

12. Neither of the girls very much at ease. 

1 3. A number of the boys waiting outside. 

14. Manual and physical training necessary. 

1 5. Either the master or his servants to blame. 

16. Two thousand dollars a year a good salary. 

• 17. Fluency and eloquence two different things. 

18. Neither the servants nor their master to blame. 

19. Neither the painter nor his picture very famous. 

20. She has one of the prettiest fac«s that ever seen. 

21. "Tales of a Traveler " published by Irving in 1824. 

22. General Custer, with all his men, massacred by Indians. 

187. "Don't." — ** Don't," which is a contraction 
of **do not/* and which is proper enough in its 
place, should not be misused for ** doesn't*' when 
the subject is in the third person singular. The 
following sentences are correct: ** Why doesnt she 
come ? *' ** Why dont you speak ? ** 



Insert the proper contraction (dont, doesn^t) in each 
blanks and give the reason for your choice : — 

1. Why he write? 

2. It seem possible. 

3. She like croquet. 

4. I know what it is to be afraid. 

5. The captain says he know what it is to be afraid. 

188. Construction of Person Forms. — A prac- 
tical difl&culty in using correctly the personal 
forms of verbs arises when the subject consists of 
two or more substantives of different persons con- 
nected by either — or, or neither — nor. Shall we say, 
for example, ** Either he or I is mistaken,** or 
** Either he or I am mistaken ? " If driven to a 
choice, we usually, but by no means always, let the 
verb agree with the nearest subject ; or, we give the 
preference to the first person over the second or third. 
But it is far better to avoid such difficulties (i) by 
using some verb that has the same form for all 
persons: as, ** Either he or I must be mistaken;" or 
(2) by rearranging the sentence: as, ** Either you 
are mistaken, or I am;** **One of us is mistaken,*' 

Occasionally mistakes in person are made in 
relative clauses, the speaker forgetting that the verb 
should have the same person as the antecedent of 
the relative pronoun (161). 


m. TENSE. 

180. Tense Defined. — Compare the verbs in the 
following sentences : — 

I see the Brooklyn Bridge. 

I saw the Brooklyn Bridge. 

I shall see the Brooklyn Bridge. 

Here we have three different forms of the same 
verb, denoting the same action, but referring it to 
dilBferent times — the present, the past, and the 

Definitions. — A dilBference in the form of a verb 
to denote time is called Tense (Old French, 

A verb that denotes present action is in the 
Present Tense. 

A verb that denotes past action is in the Past 

A verb that denotes future action is in the 
Future Tense. 

190. Simple Tenses. — The English verb has only 
two simple tense forms : the Present Tense, which is 
the same as the root-form of the verb: as, **I 
write y'' *' I hope;'' and the 'just Tense, which is 
formed from the present by inflection: as, ** I 
wrote,'' *' I hoped," To denote future action the 
present tense was at first employed, as it still is 
occasionally: as, '* We ^^^/;^ practice to-morrow.** 

The methods of forming the past tense are described in 179- 

191. Phrasal Tenses. — In course of time the two 
simple tenses were found insufficient ; and to denote 


further distinctions of time, verb-phrases were em- 
ployed, formed by means of auxiliary verbs. By 
combining the present and past tenses of will, shall, 
have, be, or do with infinitives and participles, a sys- 
tem of Phrasal Tenses was built up, by which we 
are able to express the time of the action with 
great accuracy. 

The infinitive used in forming verb-phrases is 
the root infinitive, without ** to " (93). 

The participles used in forming verb-phrases are 
the present participle and the past participle. 

The present participle ends in ** -ing." 

The past participle of a weak verb is the same 
as the past tense and ends in **-ed," **-d,** or **-t " 
(ISO). The past participle of a strong verb changes 
the vowel of the present tense, and often ends in 
"-en*' or **-n'' (1'79). 

192. Phrasal Tenses : Future.— To form a Fu- 
ture Tense we use ** shall " or " will ** as an auxil- 
iary, followed by the root infinitive without **to: 
as, ** I shall write to him ;*' ** He will write to me. 

The distinction between shall and will as future auxiliaries is 
given in 199. 


Construct sentences containing the present, past, and 
future tenses of ^^ fight ** and ^^ standi 

193. Phrasal Tenses : Perfect. — To represent an 
action as ended or complete at a given time we 
use the present, past, or future of **have" as an 
auxiliary, followed by the past participle: as, 




'•There, I have written my exercise;** ** Yesterday, 
when the clock struck nine, I had written two 
pages/* ** To-morrow, by dinner time, I shall have 
written all my letters.*' Since these phrasal tenses 
denote action as completed or perfect in present, 
past, or future time, they are called the Perfect 

The Present Perfect Tense denotes action com- 
pleted at the time of speaking. It is formed by 
putting **have** (** hast,** **lias**) before the past 

The Past Perfect Tense denotes action completed 
at some point in past time. It is formed by put- 
ting ** had'* (** hadst**) before the past participle. 

The Future Perfect Tense denotes action that 
will be completed at some point in future time. It 
is formed by putting ** shall have ** or ** will have " 
before the past participle. 

Originally "have " in the perfect tense phrases was a notional 
verb, and the participle described the object, as when we now say, 
•' 1 have my letters written ; " " I had two pages written ,•" " 1 
shall have my letters wrilten'* Moreover, " have " was used only 
with transitive verbs, intransitive verbs forming their perfect tenses 
with " be : " as, " Thy sister-in-law is gone back unto her people." 
In course of time the participle was transferred from the object to 
the auxiliary as part of a verb-phrase, and the use of " have" was 
extended to intransitive verbs also: as, "The sun has gone down." 


Construct sentences containing the perfect tenses of 
''fight'' and '' sta^idr 

104. Phrasal Tenses: Progressive. — Compare 
the verbs in the following sentences: — 


I write my letters carefully. 

I am writing my letters carefully. 

Both . of these sentences refer to present time, 
but with a dilBference. In the first sentence the 
simple present ** write** does not necessarily mean 
that the writing is going on at the present moment ; 
it merely asserts a present custom. In order to rep- 
resent an action as going on or progressing, we usu- 
ally put a form of ** be " before the present parti- 
ciple, as in the second sentence. Since such phrasal 
tenses denote action as progressing in present, 
past, or future time, they are called Progrresslve 

The Present Progrressive Tense represents an 
action as going on at the time of speaking. It is 
formed by putting ** am " (** art," ** is," ** are ") be- 
fore the present participle. 

The Past Progrresslve Tense represents an action 
as going on at some point in past time. It is 
formed by putting * * was " (* * wast, " * * were ") before 
the present participle. 

The Future Progressive Tense represents an 
action as going on at some point in future time. It 
is formed by putting ** shall be " or ** will be " be- 
fore the present participle. 

Now compare the verbs in the following sen- 
tences; — 

I have written my letters. 

I have been writing my letters. 


In the sentence ** I have written my letters" the 
verb **have written" merely represents the action 


as completed. If we wish to add to the idea of com- 
pletion the idea of previous duration or progress, we 
combine the perfect tenses of ** be '* with the pres- 
ent participle : as, * * I have been writing a composi- 
tion ; " * * Yesterday evening my hand was cramped, 
for I had been ivriting all day;*' ** When the clock 
strikes ten I shall have been writing twenty minutes." 
Since these phrasal tenses denote action as com- 
pleted in present, past, or future time, after con- 
tinuance or progression, they are called respectively 
the Present Perfect Progrresslve Tense, the Past 
Perfect Progressive Tense, and the Future Per- 
fect Progrressive Tense. 

Logically the present participle in the progressive tenses is an 
attribute complement, describing the subject ; but grammatically 
it is best to treat it as part of a verb-phrase. 


Construct sentences illustrating each of the six pro- 
gressive tenses of ''''fight '* and ** stand,'' 

195. Phrasal Tenses: Emphatic, Interrogative, 
and Negative. — In the sentences ** I write my let- 
ters carefully" and **I tvrote to her yesterday*' 
** write " and ** wrote ** merely assert action. If we 
wish to make the same assertions emphatically, in 
the face of doubt or denial, we substitute for the 
simple tenses certain phrasal tenses formed by put- 
ting the present or the past of **do'' before the root 
infinitive of the principal verb : as, ^'Ido w^rite my 
letters carefully," " I did write to her yesterday.** 


These phrasal tenses are appropriately called the 
Present Emphatic Tense and the Past Emphatic 
Tense. Other tenses are made emphatic by laying 
emphasis on the auxiliary that is already present* 
as, ** I hofve written my letters.'* 

In liTegratlve and Interpogratlve sentences the 
same phrasal tenses formed with **do" and ^^did** 
are substituted for the simple present and past 
tenses, without the effect of emphasis: as, ''Do you 
write to her often?" ''Did you write to her to-day?*' 
** You do not write well ;*' ** You did not write care- 

The emphatic meaning of the auxiliary '* do " is modern. For- 
merly the phrasal tenses formed with '* do " and " did " were 
equivalent to the simple present and past, and did not imply 

The use of the auxiliary " do " in negative sentences is in accord- 
ance with the tendency of modern English to attach the word 
" not " to auxiliaries rather than to principal verbs. 

The use of the auxiliary " do " in interrogative sentences en- 
ables us to follow the prevailing method of turning an assertion 
into a question, which is, to put the subject between an auxiliary 
and the principal verb : as, ''Are you coming?'* ''Did you Aearf* 


Construct sentences illustrating the present and past 
emphatic^ negative^ and interrogative tense forms — six 
kinds in all, 

196. Summary of Tense Forms. — Gathering to- 
gether the different tense forms described in the 
preceding sections, we may tabulate the tenses of 
the English verb as follows: — 



Emphatic, etc. 




do write 

am writing 



did write 

was writing 


will write 

will be writing 

Pres, Perf, 

have written 

have been writing 

Past Perf, 

had written 

had been writing 

Fut, Perf, will have written will have been writing 

Note. — Besides these regular tenses, we sometimes employ a 
sort of future tense phrase formed by combining the progressive 
tenses of " go " with the root infinitive of the principal verb : as, 
" I am going to write a composition ; " "I have been going to 
write to him for a week." It is best to resolve such phrases into 
their parts, rather than to classify them as parts of the tense system. 
The same is true of such phrases as " I used to write " and " I am 
about to write** 


Give the tense of each verb in Exercises 23 and 38. 

To tlie Teachep. — A complete discussion of the uses of 
English tenses is impossible here, nor would it be desirable ; for the 
tenses and their uses are, for the most part, learned unconsciously 
from conversation and reading. The following discussion is limited 
to the few instances in which experience shows that special com- 
ment is helpful. 

197. Uses of the Simple Present. — The simple 
present tense has the following uses: — 

1. To denote action belonging to a period of time that includes 
the present : as, " He goes to town every Saturday ; " " Two and 
two make four." 

2. As an occasional substitute for the present progressive, to 
denote action going on at the present moment : as, " I see a robin ; " 
"I hearWi^ bell." 

3. As an occasional substitute for the future : as, " We sail for 
Europe next Saturday." 


4. In vivid narrative as a substitute for the past : as, " At this 
news Caesar hurries to Gaul." This is called the Historical 

198. Uses of the Present Perfect. — The present 
perfect tense, which ordinarily represents some- 
thing as cojnpleted at the time of speaking, is also 
used, instead of a past tense, to represent a past 
action (i) as continuing to the present, at least in 
its consequences, or (2) as belonging to a period of 
time not yet ended : as, 

(i) " I have lost my book " (so that now I am without it), 

(i) " We have lived here five years " (we live here now). 

(2) " I have seen him three times to-day** 

(2) " We have had a great deal of rain this year** 

The use of a past tense in any of these sen- 
tences would cut away the action from all connec- 
tion with present time : as, 

" I lost my book " (it may have since been found). 
" We lived here five years *' (we have moved away)i 
" I saw him three \\vc\ts yesterday.** 
" We had a great deal of rain last year** 


Distinguish between : — 

He studies (is studying) now. 

I came (have come) to see you. 

I read (am reading) Thackeray. 

She always goes (is going) to church. 

He lived (has lived) here a good many years. 

We expected (were expecting) you yesterday. 


You did not tie (have not tied) it fast enough. 
I have written (liave been writing) letters all day. 
What have you done (have you been doing) to-day ? 
I have received (have been receiving) letters from him. 
I shall travel (shall be traveling) in Europe next summer. 
I wrote (had written, was writing) my letter when he came. 


Tell which of the italicized forms is preferable y and 
give tlie reason for your answer : — 

1. I was {have been) here yesterday. 

2. Shakespeare says {said) that love is blind. 

3. I knew {have known) him since he was a child. 

4. How far did you say it is {was) from here to Chicago ? 

5. The earth is a ball that always turns {is turning) round. 

6. When we saw {had seen) everything in Geneva we went on 
to Paris. 

7. As soon as the ships were within range the Admiral opens 
{opened) fire. 

8. By this time to-morrow I shall pass {shall have passed) my 

9. I shall finish {shall have finished) my letter by the time 
you come back. 

10. Mr. Williams regrets that a previous engagement prevents 
{will prevent) him from accepting Miss Smith's kind invitation for 
Monday evening. 

199. Shall or Will. — There is an important dis- 
tinction between the auxiliaries used in forming the 
future tenses. At first '* shall*' and *'wiir* were 
notional verbs, ** shall*' meaning **to be obliged,*' 
and ** will '* meaning "■ to wish.** At present they 
often retain some trace of their original meanings, 


** will " implying a reference to the will of the sub- 
ject, and **shair' implying obligation or compul- 
sion: as, *'I will never forsake you-/* **He shall 
be brought to justice." Just as often, however, 
**shair* and **wiir* are mere auxiliaries, with no 
trace of their original meaning : as, * * The bell will 
soon ring, and I shall be late/' 

Modern usage may be exhibited as follows : — 

Future, with added 
Simple Future. idea of determination. 

I (we) shall I (we) will 

You will * You shall ' 

He (they) will He (they) shall • 

In clauses introduceci by the conjunction ^^ thatj'* 
expressed or Understood, the same auxiliary is used 
that would be used if the clause were an independ- 
ent sentence: as, *'I fear that we shall miss the 
train.** (Independent : ** We shall miss the train/*) 

Such clauses are common after say, declare, think, believe, hope, 
fear, and words of similar meaning. 

In all other subordinate clauses * * shall ** in all per- 
sons denotes simple futui^ity ; ** will ** in all persons 
implies an exercise of will : as, * * When He shall 
appear (simple futurity) we shall be like Him/* 
** If you will come (i. e., are willing to come), we 
will give you a good time." 

In questions ** shall** is the proper auxiliary in 
the first person; in the second and third persons 
the same auxiliary is used that is expected in the 

' Sometimes used in a courteous command to a subordinate officer. 
* Also used in speaking of what is destined to take place. 


answer : as, ''^ Shall we go to-morrow? *' ** Will you 
go? " (Answer : ** I will go/*) '''Shall you be glad 
when to-morrow comes?" {Answer: **I shall be 

*' Should'* and ** would" are the past tenses of 
*'shair* and** will," and in general follow the 
same rules. See, however, 821 and 822. 


Distinguish detween : — 

1 . He will (shall) not go. 

2. Shall (will) you be there ? 

3. I shall (will) not hear you. 

4. She will (shall) not see me. 

5. He thought I would (should) go. 

6. We will (shall) see you to-morrow. 

7. What shall (will) the admission be ? 

8. If he would (should) help, we could do it. 

9. You will (shall) know my answer to-morrow. 

10. If she disobeyed, she would (should) be punished. 

11. Do you think I would (should) go under the circumstances? 


Insert the proper auxiliary {'' shall,*' '^ will*') in each 
blank in the following sentences : — 

1. we go to-morrow ? 

2. We have rain soon. 

3. I be glad to see you. 

4. you be able to come ? 

5. we ask her to come too ? 

6. I be twelve in December. 


7. How I send the package ? 

8. If I do not hurry, I be late. 

9. I hope you be able to come. 

10. I bring a chair for the lady ? 

11. He thinks we soon have rain. 

12. I am afraid we miss the train. 

13. She says she be glad to see us. 

14. We never forget this kindness. 

1 5. we have time to get our tickets ? 

16. We be pleased to have you call. 

17. I hope we not be so late as that. 

18. He fears we have to ask her too. 

19. I fear that I not be able to comew 

20. He thinks he not be able to come. 

21. John thinks he be sick to-morrow. 

22. He asks how he send the package. 

23. John thinks James be sick to-morrow. 

24. She wonders whether we -^ go to-morrow. 

25. It is probable that I be away at that time. 

26. you meet me at the corner in five minutes ? 

27. They declare they never forget this kindness. 

28. we have another chance at this examination ? 


Insert the proper auxiliary {^^ would,** ^^ should'*) in 
each blank in the following sentences : — 

1. He thought I be hurt. 

2. We be sorry to be late. 

3. He thought he be hurt. 

4. He thought she be hurt. 

5. He thought you be hurt. 

6. I like to see a yacht Mice. 



7. What we do without cooks ? 

8. At first I didn't think I like Latin. 

9. If I tried to walk a tight-rope, I fall. 

10. I asked him whether he come again. 

11. I : think they have known better. 

12. I feel glad if she tell me wherein I have offended 


200 Misused Forms. — The past tense and the 
past participle of the verbs in the following list are 
often confounded or incorrectly formed : — 



Past Participle 














































lay (" to cause to lie **) 



Ke (" to recline ") 






ride " 






raise (" to cause to rise ") 









set (" to put ; " of the sun. 



moon, etc., "to sink ") 



Past Participle 

































In using the verbs drink, ring^ shrink, sing, sink, springs swim, 
it is better to confine the forms In "a" to the past tense, and 
the forms in " u " to the past participle : as, ** The bell rang five 
minutes ago ; " " Yes, the bell has rung*' 


Change the italicized verbs in these sentences to the 
past tense : — 

1. 1 doii myself. 

2. Tom swims very well. 

3. Harry sees me coming. 

4. The sun wakes me early. 

5. The wind Mows furiously. 

6. The guests begin to go home. 

7. They sit in the third pew from the front. 

8. The Susquehanna River overflows its banks. 

9. Helen comes in and lays her coat on a chair. 

10. Both short-stop and pitcher run for the balL 

11. The wild goost flies southward in the autumn. 

12. They eat their supper as if they were half starved. 

1 3. The Negro women set their baskets on their heads. 

14. George dives better than any other boy in the crowd. 

1 5. The catcher often throws the ball to the second base. 


1 6. The savages who live on this island slay their captives. 

17. The workmen lay the rails for the track with great care. 

18. Obedient to the doctor's directions, she lies down an hour 
every day. 


Change the italicized verbs in these sentences to the 
perfect tense : — 

1. He writes home. 

2. I forget his name. 

3. The sleeper awakes. 

4. He stole my watch. 

5. Ethel broke her arm. 

6. They^^ by steamer. 

7. Some one takes my hat. 

8. I see the President often. 

9. He gets along fairly well. 

10. They slay their prisoners. 

1 1 . The enemy come in force. 

12. The boys dive three times. 

13. I set the lamp on the table. 

14. A mist rises before my eyes. 

15. The water in my xtiicher froze, 

16. He speaks his declamation well. 

17. The boys are eating their supper. 

18. He throws cold water on my plan. 

19. The Ohio River overflows its banks. 

20. He sits by the hour talking politics. 

21. Rab shakes the little dog by the neck. 

22. This proves the truth of my assertion. 

23. The wind dlows my papers off the table. 

24. A roh'm flies to the vines by my window. 

25. John is driving the cows out of the corn. 


26. I lie on the couch twenty minutes to rest. 

27. This fact clearly shows the prisoner's guilt. 

28. He wakes me every night by his restlessness. 

29. He rides alone from Litchfield to Waterbury. 

30. They lay burdens on me greater than I can bear. 


201. Mode Defined.-T-Compare the verbs in the 
following sentences : — 

He is here. 

Would he were here. 

Be here at daylight. 

In these sentences we have three different forms 
of the verb ** be,** indicating different ways in which 
the thought is presented to the mind. ** Is ** shows 
that it is presented as q. fact; ** were** shows that 
it is presented as a mere thought (he is not here) ; 
** be '* shows that it is presented as a command. 

Definition, — A difference in the form of a verb to 
show how the thought is presented to the mind is 
called Mode. 

Definition, — The form of a verb used to present a 
thought as a fact is called the Indicative Mode. 

Definition. — The form of a verb used to present a 
thought as a mere thought, uncertain or contrary 
to fact, is called the Subjunctive Mode. 

Definition, — The form of a verb used to present a 
thought as a command or entreaty is called the 
Imperative Mode. 

' To the Teacher.— \n recognizing only three modes the author has followed the 
hest modern philologists. The forms often called '* potential " fall easily within either 
the indicative or the subjunctive. 


802. Tlie Indicative Mode. — The indicative mode 
is the most common, being used in expressing a 
fact, or what is assumed to be a fact, and in asking 
questions of fact. 

Caution.— The indicative is often used in sentences that ex- 
press what is uncertain or contrary to fact ; but in such cases the 
uncertainty or untruth is expressed by some other word: as, " Per^ 
haps it will rain ; " " He is not here." The subjunctive, on the other 
hand, often expresses uncertainty or untruth by its own form 
without the help of other words : as, " Were he here, he would 
go with us." 

203. The Subjunctive Mode: Form. — In form 
the subjunctive differs from the indicative in the 
following ways : — 

I. In the single case of the verb ** be '* the sub- 
junctive has distinct forms for the present and past 
tenses, namely: — 

Present. « 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

. Past. ^ 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

I am 


I was 

I were 

Thou art 

Thou be 

Thou wast 

Thou wert 

He is 


He was 

He were 

We are 


We were 

We were 

You are 

You be 

You were 

You were 

They are 

They be 

They were 

They were 

Examples of the Subjunctive of "Be."— "Judge not, 
that ye be not judged ; " *• Hallowed be Thy name ;" ** If I were 
you, I would not say that ; *' " Would that Alice were here ! " 

2. In other verbs the subjunctive has the same 
form as the indicative, except that in the second 
and third persons singular there are no personal 
endings: as, 





Indicative. Subjunctive. 

I write I write 

Thou writest Thou write 

He writes He write 


I wrote 

Thou wrotest Thou wrote 

He wrote He wrote 


I wrote ^ 

Examples of the 'Subjunctive of Other Verbs than 
" Be."—" It is better he die ; " " Govern well thy appetite, lest sin 
surprise thee ; " " Long live the King ! " " If thy hand offend thee, 
cut it off." 

3. Sometimes the subjunctive is phrasal, being 
formed by means of the auxiliaries ** may*' (past, 
'* might "), '* had,*' ** would," and ** should." 

Examples of the Phrasal Subjunctive.— " Bring me 
a light, that I may see what this is ; " "I hope you may suc- 
ceed ; " " May you live long and happily ; " " We were afraid we 
might miss the train ; " " It is better he should die ; " ** Let us 
start early, lest we should be late ; " "It would be better if we 
should start now ; " " If my sister had seen that mouse, she would 
have screamed** 

Caution.— It does not follow that the verbs " may," " would," 
" should," and " had " are always subjunctive. In the following 
sentences, for example, they make simple statements of fact, and 
are therefore indicative ; " You may (i. e., are permitted to) go 
now ;'* " You should (i. e., ought to) start earlier ; " " Annie would 
not (L e., was unwilling to) sing." (219-223.) 

204. The Subjunctive Mode: Uses. — The sub- 
junctive mode expresses action, being, or state, not 
as a fact, but as something merely conceived of in 
the mind. It is the thought-mode as distinguished 
from the fact-mode, and indicates some uncertainty 
or disbelief in the speaker's mind. It is most fre- 
quently used to express — 


X. A wish : as, "God forbid !" " O, that I were a man." 

2. A purpose: as, *' Judge not, that ye benoi judged ;** ** Bring 
me a light, that I may see what this is." 

3. A possibility : as, " We were afraid we might miss the 
train ; " " Strike ere it be too late." 

4. A supposition regarded as untrue or unlikely /as, " If I were 
you, I would go." 

5. A conclusion regarded as untrue or unlikely : as, " If I were 
you, I would gc ;** " If my sister had seen that mouse, she would 
have screamed!* 

The subjunctive is much less used than it was 
formerly ; but it is still common in the writings of 
authors who are artistic and exact in expression.' 

205. The Subjunctive Mode: Tenses. — The use 

of the tenses of the subjunctive is peculiar, the time 
referred to not always corresponding to the name 
of the tense. Frequently the present subjunctive 
refers to future time, and the past subjunctive to 
present time: as, ** Strike ere it be too late;'* **0, 
that I zvere a man.'* (307.) 

206. The Imperative Mode. — The imperative 
mode expresses commands, entreaties, or advice 
addressed to the person spoken to. It is used only 
in the second person ; and it has the same form for 
both singular and plural, namely, the root-form of 

• ** Some people seem to think that the subjunctive mood is as good as lost, that it 
Is doomed, and that its retention Is hopeless. If its function were generally appreci- 
ated, it might even now be saved. . . . If we lose the subjunctive verb, it will 
certainly be a grievous impoverishment to our literary language, were it only for Its 
value in giving variation to diction — and I make bold to assert that the writer who 
helps to keep it up deserves public gratitude." — John Earle : " English Prose, Its Ele- 
ments, History, and Usage," p. 172. 


the verb: as, ''Be just, and fear not;'* ''Have 
mercy on us/' It is usually distinguished from the 
present indicative by the omission of the subject. 

Caution. — Commands or entreaties addressed to the person 
spoken to must not be confounded with wishes concerning a per- 
son or thing spoken of : as, " Long live the Queen ! " " Thy king- 
dom come." In these sentences the verbs are in the subjunctive 

For " let " as an imperative auxiliary see 219, 


Tell the mode of each verb in the following sentences ^ 
and give the reason for your opinion : — 

1. God forbid. 

2. Love me, love my dog. 

3. I could cry my eyes out. 

4. Thy money perish with thee. 

5. The law is good if a man use it lawfully. 

6. He serves his party best who serves the country best. 

7. Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost, 

8. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen 
of them. 

9. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with 
all men. 

10. Boast not thyself of to-morrow ; for thou knowest not what 
a day may bring forth. 

11. Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil 
not, neither do they spin. 

12. God sifted a whole nation that he might send choice grain 
over into this wilderness. 

13. It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about 
his neck, and he cast into the sea. 


14. If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a 
foreign troop was landed in my country I never would lay down 
my arms, — never ! never ! never ! 

15. Come what come may, 

Time and the hour runs through the roughest day. 

16. Shall I, wasting in despair. 

Die because a woman's fair? 
Or make pale my cheeks with care, 

'Cause another's rosy are ? 
Be she fairer than the day, 
Or the flowery meads in May, 

If she be not so to me. 

What care I how fair she be? 

207. Modes in Conditional Sentences. — A sen- 
tence containing a supposition or condition is called 
a Conditional Sentence. Now, a supposition may 
refer to present, past, or future time. If it refers 
to present or past time, it may be viewed by the 
speaker as true, untrue, or as a mere supposition 
with nothing implied as to its truth ; if it refers to 
the future, it may be viewed as either likely or un- 
likely. A supposition which is assumed to be true, 
or which is made without any hint of its incorrect- 
ness, is expressed by the indicative: as, **If it is 
raining, we cannot go/* A supposition which is 
viewed by the speaker as untrue or unlikely is 
properly expressed by the subjunctive. When the 
character of the supposition makes the conclusion 
untrue or unlikely, the conclusion also is expressed 
by the subjunctive : as, * * If I were you, I would not go. 

In clauses that express conditions, the Present 
Subjunctive refers to Qiih.Qr present or futvre timey 
and suggests doubt. 


The Fast Subjunctive refers to present time and 
implies that the supposition is not a fact. 

The Past Perfect Subjunctive refers to past time, 
and implies that the supposition was not a fact. 

Note i. When "if" is equivalent to " whenever," the condition 
is called " general." to distinguish it from " particular " conditions, 
which refer to some particular act at some particular time. Gen- 
eral conditions properly take the indicative : as, " If (i. e., when- 
ever) it rains, I stay at home." 

Note 2. Sometimes there is no " if," and then the verb or a 
part of the verb precedes the subject : as, " Were it raining, I should 
be sorry ; " " Had it been raining, I should have been sorry." 

Note 3. Clauses introduced by ** though," " although," and 
** unless " take the same forms as clauses introduced by *• if," 


Tell the difference in meaning between the sentences 
in each of the following groups , and tell the mode of 
each verb : — 

1. (a) If she goes, I will go. {b) If she should go, I would go. 
{c) If she were going, I would go. {d) If she had gone, I would 
go. (<?) If she had gone, I would have gone, 

2. {a) If he follows my advice, he will succeed, {b) If he fol- 
lowed my advice, he would succeed, if) Had he followed my 
advice, he would have succeeded, {d) If he should follow my 
advice, he would succeed. 

3. {a) If she speaks French, she does not need an interpreter. 
{b) If she speaks French, she will not need an interpreter, (r) If 
she spoke French, she would not need an interpreter. 

4. {a) If he is faithful, he will be promoted, (3) If he should 
be faithful, he would be promoted, {c) If he were faithful, he 
would be promoted, {d) If he had been faithful, he would have 
been promoted. 


5. (a) O, that he may be truthful ! (d) O, that he were truth- 
ful ! {c) O, that he had been truthful ! 

6. (a) Even though it is raining, I will go. {£>) Even though 
it rain. I will go. {c) Even though it should rain, I would go. 
(if) Even though it rained, I went. (^) Even though it rains, I 
will go. (/) Even though it rained, I would go. (£■) Even 
though it has rained, I will go. (A) Even though it had rained, 
I would go. (/) Even though it had rained, I would have gone. 


Tell which of the italicized forms is preferable y and 
give the reason : — 

1. I wish I was {were) a man. 

2. I wish she was {were) at home." 

3. If I was {were) you, I would stay at home. 

4. The train could go faster if it was {^ere) necessary. 

5. Though a liar speaks {speak) the truth, he will not be be- 

6. Though gold is {be) more precious than iron, it is not so 

7. If he was {werey should be) found out, he would lose his 


208. Voice Defined. — We have already seen 
(42, 175) that a transitive verb may represent the 
subject as doing the action expressed by the verb 
or as receiving it: as, 'fohn frightened Helen;'' 
* ^ Helen was frightened by J ohn . * ' 

Definition, — A difference in the form of a verb to 
show whether the subject acts or is acted upon is 
called Voice. 

Definition, — The form of a verb that represents 


the subject as doing an action is called the Active 

Definition, — The form of a verb that represents 
the subject as receiving an action is called the 
Passive Voice. 

209. Form of tlie Passive Voice. — Compare the 
following sentences; — 

{Active) Grocers sell butter. 
{Passive) Butter is sold by grocers. » 

{Active) Congress made Dewey an admiral. 
{Passive) Dewey was made an admiral by Congress. 

{Active) The manager will give you a ticket. 
{Passive) A ticket will be given you by the manager ; or (occa- 
sionally), You will be given a ticket by the manager.' 

You observe that the passive voice of a verb is 
formed by putting a form of the verb ** be ** before 
the past participle. 

You observe, also, that when a sentence is changed 
from the active to the passive form, the object of the 
active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. 

The subject of the active verb becomes an agent 
after the passive verb — a relation expressed by the 
preposition ** by." 

An objective complement becomes an attribute 
complement (49). 

An indirect object usually remains an indirect 
object. Sometimes, however, it is made the subject 
of the passive verb, the direct object then becom- 
ing a ** retained object'* (58).' 

' Though this illogical construction is supported by excellent authority, It is con- 
demned by some grammarians. 



1. Review Exercises 2T ^ 34, and /^%. 

2. Change the following sentences into the passive 

form : — 

I. Sculptors mal(e statues. 2. The Puritans founded Harvard 
College. 3. Many New England farmers have abandoned their 
farms. 4. Manners reveal character. 5. A sense of duty pursues 
us ever. 6. Gentle deeds make known a gentle mind. 7. Little 
strokes fell great oaks. 8. Public amusements keep people from 
vice. 9. No one ever achieved anything great without enthusiasm. 
10. Garrick's death eclipsed the gayety of nations, and impover- 
ished the public stock of harmless pleasure. 11. God had sifted 
three kingdoms to find the wheat for this planting.' 12. Before 
man made us citizens great Nature made us men. 13. A crumb 
of bread thrown in jest made Prescott, the historian, blind for life. 
14. They saw the storm approaching. 15. They found her lying 
in the snow frozen to death. 16. All believed him to be an honest 
man. 17. She told me to stand up. 18. We dropped the subject, 
and have not referred to it since. 19. The sly agent imposed upon 
us both. 20. The wounded man's wife took care of him. 

3. Change the following sentences into the active 
form : — 

I. The com has been badly damaged by the late storm. 
2. Forty thousand persons were killed in 1883 by the eruption of 
the volcano of Krakatoa. 3. It will be said by the newspapers 
that congratulations are showered on you by your friends. 4. In 
1453 Constantinople was captured by the Turks and made the 
capital of their empire. 

210. Caution. — Sometimes the past participle of 
a verb is used as an attribute complement, to denote 
the condition of the subject: as, ** Our revels now 
are ended; '* ** He is gone,'' Such constructions must 

» Thts plantings the Colony of Plymouth. 


not be confounded with the passive voice, which 
denotes action received by the subject. 

Beware, also, of confounding the passive voice, 
which consists of ** be *' and a past participle, with 
progressive tenses, which consist of ** be " and a 
present participle: as, (Passive) ** Birds are shot for 

their feathers;" (Progressive) ** The birds are sing- 



1. Review Exercise 22. 

2. Tell whether the italicized words in the following 
sentences are attribute complements or parts of passive 
verb-phrases : — 

I. The melancholy days are come, 2. Our little life is rounded 
with a sleep. 3. The school bell is rung at nine o'clock. 4. The 
quality of mercy is not strained, 5. It is enthroned in the hearts 
of kings. 6. The apples were picked yesterday. 7. The spectacle 
was well adapted to excite wonder. 8. Man is born unto trouble, 
as the sparks fly upward. 9. The lines are fallen unto me in 
pleasant places. 10. Rome was x\o\built in a day. 11. I am not 
prepared to recite this morning. 12. A fool and his money are 
soon parted 

3 . Tell the voice of each verb in the following sen^ 
fences : — 

I. Annie is studying her lesson. 2. Tom has been mending 
his kite. 3. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown. 
4. The lawn is being watered by the gardener. 5. The stars 
are shining brightly. 6. The grammar class is taught by Miss H. 
7. By whom was this ink spilled } 8. Is it raining ? 


An Infinitive is a form of the verb -that partakes 
of the nature of both verb and noun (93). 


811. Nature of Infinitives. — Infinitives are in- 
termediate between verbs on the one hand and 
nouns on the other. They express action, being, 
or state, and take the same adjuncts or modifiers as 
the verbs from which they are formed ; but they 
have the constructions of nouns. They diflfer from 
verbs in not being instruments of assertion ; they 
differ from nouns in having the adjuncts of verbs. 
An infinitive is ** a verb in a substantival aspect.** 

The name " infinitive " means " unlimited," and refers to the 
fact that the action, being, or state expressed by an infinitive is 
usually not limited to a particular subject or time : as, " To climb 
steep hills requires strength and endurance." 

The indicative, subjunctive, and imperative forms of the verb, 
which take the person and number of their subject, are often 
called Finite ("limited ") verbs. 

212. Form of Infinitives. — With regard to form, 
infinitives are of two principal kinds: — 

1. The Root-Inftnitive, which always has the 
same form as the root or simple form of the verb : 
as, ** Better wear out than rust out;'* ** You need 
noX^wait."' It is often preceded by ** to:" as, ** It 
is better /d? wear out than to rust out;" ** I prefer 
to waity 

2. The Infinitive in -ing:, formed from the root 
of the verb by adding- **-ing:" as, **She under- 
stands boiling an ^^^ better than anybody else." 

Historically the infinitive termination " -ing "seenris to be a form 
of the ancient infinitive termination " -an '* (later " -en "). In the 
case of the root-infinitive, *' -an " (** -en ") has been dropped ; in the 
infinitive in ** -ing,'* *'-au " (" -en ") has been changed to " -ing." 


213. "To" before tlie Root-Inflnltlve. — Origi- 
nally ** to '* before the root-infinitive denoted pur 
pose, and always had the force of a preposition, as 
it still has in many expressions: as, ** Boats to let ** 
(i. e., ^'for letting**); ** He came to see us*' (i. e., 
*''for seeing**) ; *' We grieve to liear it ** (i. e., ** at 
hearing **) ; * * He is ashamed to beg ** (i. e. , ^'of beg- 
ging **). In these sentences **to let,** **to see,** 
**to hear,** and **to beg** are really adjective or 
adverbial phrases, in which root-infinitives are used 
as objects of the preposition ** to.** 

In many other modern expressions "to** before 
the root-infinitive has no other value than to mark 
the following word as an infinitive: as, "7<? bear 
our fate is to conquer it.** Here ** to ** resembles an 
inflection, and is called the %\^fx of the Infinitive. 

The root-infinitive without " to ** is used after 
auxiliary verbs, and in many other cases that are 
learned by observation. Examples are : **I will go ;** 
* * You dare not do it ; ** " She heard him cry /'* " He 
had better start now.** 


Review Exercise 97. When the root-infinitive is 
preceded by '^ tOy"' tell whether or not ^^ to'' has the 
force of a preposition, 

2>\4:. Tenses of the Infinitive. — With the infini- 
tives of **be** and "have** as auxiliaries we form 
certain Phrasal Infinitives, corresponding to some 
tense forms of the indicative, active and passive : as 



Present Progressive : " I expect to be writing letters." 
Perfect: " I am sorry to hceve written so poorly." 

"He was reproved for having written it." 
Perfect Progressive: " I ought to have been writing my exercise." 

" His arm was cramped from his having 
been writing all morning." 


Present: "The exercise must be written'* 

"She disliked being called^ proud." 

Perfect: "The exercise ought to have been written** 

" She is angry at having been called^ proud." 

The infinitive forms may be tabulated as follows : 


-Ordinary.- * , ^Progressive. , 

Present: \\.6\ write. [to] be writing. 

Perfect: [to] have written. [to] have been writing. 


Present: [to] be written. Perfect: [to] have been written* 

Infinitives In ^^-Ing." 

/—Ordinary. » < ■■ Progressive. » 

Present: writing. 

Perfect : having written. having been writing. 

Passive. ' 
Present: being called. Perfect: having been called. 

A Present Infinitive denotes action wbich is in- 
complete at the time expressed by the principal 
verbt as, " He tries to write;'' *' He tried to zvrite;'* 
** He will try to write.'' 

A Perfect Infinitive is properly used to denote 
action which is completed at the time expressed by 
the principal verb: as, ** Alfred is said/t? have drawn 

* Passive infinitives in *'-ing" are rare, occurring only with certain verbs. 


up a body of laws;** "I felt glad to have seen 
Niagara Falls ; " ' * I shall be glad to have finished 
my task/* 

Exception,— *' OM^\.y " must," "need," and " should " (in the 
sense of " ought ") have no distinctive form to denote past time ; 
and with these verbs distinctions of time are denoted by changes in 
the form of the following infinitive, the present forms denoting pres- 
ent time, and the perfect forms past time : as, " You ought to go," 
"You ought to have gone ;*' ** He should de careful," "He should 
Aave been careful." A similar use of the infinitive forms to denote 
time is found after " could " and " might " in some of their uses : 
as, "I could ^^,*' " I could have gone;'' "You might answer,'* 
" You might have answered** 


1 . Construct sentences illustrating the use of the dif- 
ferent tenses of the infinitive, 

2. Tell which of the italicized forms is rights and 
give the reason : — 

1. Lee intended to attack {to have attacked) at daybreak. 

2. We meant to start {to have started) long ago. 

3. It was his business to prevent {to have prevented) such an 

4. He is said to lose {to have lost) ten dollars. 

5. It would have been better to wait {to have waited), 

6. He could noi fail {have failed) to arouse {to have aroused) 

215. Constructions of tlie Infinitive. — The in- 
finitive, with or without adjuncts, is common in the 
following constructions: — 

I. Subject of a Verb: as, ** To find i^vW. i? easy;" ** Being able 
to play the piano is not knowing music." 


2. Attribute Complement : as, " Her greatest pleasure is to raise 
flowers ; " *' His chief difficulty is learning to spell." 

3. Object Complement : as, " He likes to read history ; " "I hate 
traveling alone." 

Here belong, historically, infinitives used after ** ought," " must," 
*• dare," *' need," " can," and in verb-phrases after auxiliaries (183, 

4. Object of a Preposition : as, " He had no choice but (i. e., 
except) to obey ; " " Gladstone was fond of chopping down trees." 

This construction properly includes root-infinitives used as the 
object of *' to "in infinitive phrases that have the force of adjectives 
or adverbs (213) : as, " Boats to let ; " " He came /^ see me." 

5. With a Subject in the Objective Case, after Verbs of Telling , 
Thinking, Perceiving, and Knowing : as, " I saw him go ;*' " We 
heard her cry "(121). 


Construct sentences illustrating the uses of the root- 
infinitive; of the infinitive in * * -ing, " 


A Participle is a form of the verb that partakes 
of the nature of both verb and adjective. 

216. Kature of Participles. — Participles are in- 
termediate between verbs on the one hand and 
adjectives on the other. They express action, be- 
ing, or state, and take the same adjuncts or modi- 
fiers as the verbs from which they are formed ; but 
they have the constructions of adjectives. They 
differ from verbs in not being instruments of asser- 
tion; they differ from adjectives in having the 
adjuncts of verbs. A participle is * * a verb in • an 
adjectival aspect.'* 


217. Form of tlie Participles. — With regard to 
form, participles are of two principal kinds: — 

1 . The Present Participle, formed from the root 
of the verb by adding *' -ing:** as, ** The girl read- 
ing a book is my cousin.** 

The present participle describes an action as 
going on at some particular time. 

2. The Past Participle, usually formed from 
the root of the verb by adding **-ed,** '' -d," *'.t,** 
*' -en,** or '* -n *' (179, 180) : as, ** The plant called 
Nightshade is poisonous;** ** The \iOo\-taken from 
my desk has been returned.** 

The past participle describes an action as past or 
completed set some particular time. 

With the participles of *'be** and **have** as 
auxiliaries we form certain Pbrasal Participles : as, 


Perfect : ** Having written my leUers, I went to bed." 

Perfect Progressive : " Having been writing all day, I am tired." 


Present: Being written in ink, the name was hard 

to erase. 

Perfect : Having been written hastily, the letter con- 

tained many mistakes. 

The participles may be tabulated as follows : — 


Present: wrh'ing. Perfect: having written. 

Past: written. Perfect Progressive : having been writing. 


Present: being written. Past: written. Perfect : having been 




1 . Review Exercise 99. 

2. Point out the participles in Parts III and IV of 
Exercise 15, and tell the tense of each. 

218. Constructions of Participles. — Participles 
have all the ordinary uses of adjectives, and the 
following special uses in addition : — 

1. Loosely attached to the Subject of a Sentence, to express 
some attendant action or condition : as, *' Hearing a noise in the 
street, I sprang to the window ; " " Mom, waked by the circling" 
hours, unbarred the gates of light." 

2. Attached to a Nominative Absolute (122): as, "Night 
coming on, we lighted a fire.'* 

3. With Auxiliaries in Verb-Phrases : as, " Mother is looking 
for you ; '* "He has written a letter." 


Point out tne participles in Exercises 43, 51, and 52, 
and tell how they are used, 


Some verb-phrases are difficult to classify, be- 
cause they have several meanings, according to the 
connection in which they are used. 

219. liOt. — " Let,** followed by the root-infinitive 
without "to,** has in modern English two comn;,on 
uses: — 

1. As a notional verb meaning "to permit:" as, "At last 
Pharaoh let the Israelites go." ^ 

2. As an auxiliary, to form a verb-phrase expressing an exhorta- 
tion in the first or third person : as, ''Let us be merry ; " ''Let us do 


or die;" "Let thy words be few;" *'Z<?/him that thinketh he 
standeth take heed lest he fall." 

220. May, Might.—*' May *' (past, " might *'), fol- 
lowed by the root-infinitive without ** to/* has in 
modern English the following common uses : — 

1. As a notional verb denoting permission: as, "You may go 
now ; " " She may come in ; " " Mother said we might go." 

2. As a notional verb denoting possibility: as, " It may rain ;" 
" She may be at home ; " " It might have been." 

3. As an auxiliary, to form a subjunctive verb-phrase: as, "I 
hope you may succeed ; " **May you live long and happily ; " " He 
said he hoped that we might succeed/* 

221. Sbould. — "Should/' followed by the root- 
infinitive without ** to/* has the following common 
uses : — 

1. As a notional verb denoting duty or obligation: as, "You 
should speak more slowly." 

2. As an auxiliary to express futurity from the standpoint of 
past time : as, " He said he should go,*' 

3. As an auxiliary to form a subjunctive verb-phrase : as, " If 
he should come, I should have no more fear ; " ** It is better he 
should die** 

222. Would. — " Would/' followed by the root- 
infinitive without " to/' has the following common 
uses: — 

1. As a notional verb denoting determination : as, '^Yi^ would 
not lie." 

2. As a notional verb denoting custom : as, " He would sit there 
by the hour." 

3. As an auxiliary to express futurity from the standpoint of 
past time : as, " She said he would come** 

4. As an auxiliary to form a subjunctive verb-phrase: as, " It 
would be better if we should start now." 



223. Can, Must, Oug^ht. — Can, meaning '*to be 
able;" fnust, meaning ** to be obliged,** and oughty 
meaning **to be in duty bound,'* are sometimes 
classed as auxiliary verbs, because they are usually 
followed by an infinitive. But since they always 
retain their regular meanings, it seems better to 
class them as notional verbs, with the infinitive as 


224. Conjugation Defined. — It is often conven- 
ient to have the different forms of the verb arranged 
together in regular order. 

Definition. — The regular arrangement of the forms 
of a verb in a table or scheme is called its Conju- 

225. Conjugation of " Be." — The irregular verb 
*' be *' is conjugated as follows: — 

Indicative Mode. 


I am. 

We are. 

You are (Thou art). 

You are. 

He is. 

They are. 


I was. 

We were. 

You were (Thou wast, or wert). 

You were. 

He was. 

They were. 


I shall be. 

We shall be. 

You will be (Thou wilt be). 

You will be. 

He will be. 

They will be. 

Present Perfect. 

I have been. 

We have been. 

You have been (Thou hast been). 

You have been. 

He has been. 

They have been. 



Past Perfect. 

I had been. 

You had been (Thou hadst been). 

He had been. 

Future Perfect. 

I shall have been. 
You will have been 

(Thou wilt have been). 
He will have been. 

We had been. 
You had been. 
They had been. 

We shall have been. 
You will have been. 

They will have been. 

Subjunctive Mode.' 

(Often preceded by "if.") 

I be. 

We be. 

You be (Thou 


You be. 

He be. 
I were. 


They be. 
We were. 

You were (Th( 

Du wert). 

You were. 

He were. 
I have been. 

Present Perfect. 

They were. 
We have been. 

You have been 


ou have been). 

You have been. 

He have been. 

They have been. 

I had been. 

Past Perfect. 

We had been. 

You had been 


Du had been). 

You had been. 

He had been. 

They had been. 

Imperative Mode. 


Be, do be. 



J^oot • In fin i lives . 


[ToJ be. 

[To] have been. 


Infinitives in " ~ing 

, »» 





Having been. 






Having been. 

* For subjunctive verb-phrases formed with '* may," " might," ** should," and 
"would" see S30-333. 




226. Conjufiratlon of " Call." — ^The conjugation 

of the verb **call," which may be taken as a type 

of all regular verbs, is given below. For the sake 

of brevity, only the third person singular is given 
in the indicative and subjunctive, since the other 

forms may be easily supplied: — 

Active Voice. 

Indicative Mode. 



Prejient Emphatic. 

Present Progressive. 

He calls. 

lie does call. 

He is calling. 


Past Emphatic. 

Past Progressive. 

He called. 

He did call. 

He was calling. 


Future Progressive. 

He will call. 

He will be calling. 

Present Perfect. 

Present Perfect Progressive. 

He has called. 

He has been calling. 

Past Perfect. 

Past Perfect Progressive. 

He had called. 

He had been calling. 

Future Perfect. 

Future Perfect Progressive. 

He will have called. 

He will have been calling. 

Subjunctive Mode.* 

(Often preceded by " if.' 



Present Emphatic. 

Present Progressive. 

He call. 

He do call. 

He be calling. 


Past Emphatic. 

Past Progressive. 

He called. 

He did call. 

He were calling. 

Present Perfect. 

Present Perfect Progressive. 

He have called. 

He have been calling. 

Past Perfect. 

Past Perfect Progressive. 

He had called. 

He had been calling. 

Imperative Mode 



Present Emphatic. 

Present Progressive. 


Do call. 

Be calling, do be calling. 

* For subjunctive verb-phrases formed with "may," "might," ** should," and 
•'would" see 220-222. 






Present Progressive. 

[To] call. 

[To] be calling. 


Perfect Progressive. 

[To] have called. [To] have been calling. 

Infinitives in " 'ing^.** 



Perfect Progressive. 


Having called. 

Having been calling. 







Perfect Progressive. 

Having called. 

Having been calling. 

Passive Voice. 

Indicative Mode. 


Present Progressive. 

He is called. 

He is being called. 


Past Progressive. 

He was called. 


He was being called. 

He will be called. 

Present Perfect. 

He has been called. 

Past Perfect. 

He had been called. 

Future Perfect. 

He will have been called. 

Subjunctive Mode.^ 

(Often preceded by " if.") 

He be called. 

Past. Past Progressive. 

He were called. He were being called. 

Present Perfect. 

He have been called. 

Past Perfect. 

He had been called. 

» For subjunctive verb-phiases formed with *'raay," ** might," ** should." and 
•* would*' see 220-222. 



Present. Present Emphatic. 

Be called. Do be called. 


Present. Perfect. 

[To] be called. [To] have been called. 


Present. Past. Perfect. 

Being called. Called. Having been called. 

227. How to Parse Verbs. — ^To parse a finite 
verb (211), we must give its — 

(i) Class : whether transitive or intransitive, strong or weak. 

(2) Principal parts. 

(3) Voice. 

(4) Mode. 

(5) Tense. 

(6) Person. 

(7) Number. 

(8) Construction. 

To parse an infinitive or a participle we must 
give its — 

(i) Class: whether transitive or intransitive, strong or weak. 

(2) Voice. 

(3) Tense. 

(4) Construction. 


Parse the verbs and verb-phrases in the following sen- 
tences ; also the infinitives and participles that are not 
used with auxiliaries to form verb-phrases : — 

1. She watches him as a cat would watch a mouse. 

2. What is read twice is commonly better remembered than 
what is transcribed. 


3. A man may write at any time if ne will set himself doggedly to it. 

4. A falcon, towering in her pride of place. 
Was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. 

5. When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept ; 
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff. 

6. The moving moon went up the sky. 

And nowhere did abide ; 
Softly she was going up, 
And a star or two beside. 

7. Full fathom five thy father lies ; 

Of his bones are coral made ; 
Those are pearls that were his eyes : 

Nothing of him that doth fade 
But doth suffer a sea-change 
Into something rich and strange. 

8. True ease in writing comes from art, not chance, 
As those move easiest who have learned to dance ; 
'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense, — 
The sound must seem an echo to the sense. 

9. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard. 

It seems to me most strange that men should fear; 
Seeing that death, a necessary end. 
Will come when it will come. 

10. Had I but served my God with half the zeal 
I served my king, he would not in mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies. 

11. Blandishments will not fascinate us, nor will threats of a 
*• halter " intimidate. For, under God, we are determined that 
wheresoever, whensoever, or howsoever we shall be called to make 
our exit, we will die free mtn.^Joszah Quincy, Jr.: "Observations 
on the Boston Port Bill, 1774." 

12. Yesterday the greatest question was decided which ever 
was debated in America ; and a greater perhaps never was, nor 
will be, decided among men. A resolution was passed without one 
dissenting colony, that these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent SisXts.^/ohn Ada?ns : Letter 
to Mrs. Adams, July 3, 1776. 




An Adverb is a word joined by way of limitation 
to a verb, adjective, or other adverb (88). 

Most adverbs are used only with verbs; hence 
the name " adverb." The adverbs that are joined 
to adjectives or other adverbs are few in number. 

228. Adverbs Classified Accordingr to Meaning^. 

— Classified according to meaning, adverbs are of 
six kinds: — 

(i) Adverbs of time : as, " Let us go now** 

(2) Adverbs of place : as, " Come here" 

(3) Adverbs of manner : as, " He fought bravely** 

(4) Adverbs of degree : as, " He talks little" 

(5) Adverbs of cause : as, " Why did you come ? ** 

(6) Adverbs of assertion : as, *' Perhaps I can help you ; " **No; 
you can not help me." 

" No " and " yes," which are used by themselves as the equiva- 
lents of sentences, are classed as adverbs for historical reasons. 


Construct sentences illustrating the different kinds of 
adverbs^ classified according to meaning, 

229. Adverbs Classified According to Use. — 

Classified according to use, adverbs are of three 
kinds : — 


1. Limiting Adverbs ^ used to modify the meaning of a verb, an 
adjective, or an adverb: as, "He walked rapidly ;'' "She is very 
pretty, and talks exceedingly well'* 

2. Interrogative Adverbs^ used to ask questions : as, " When 
did you arrive ? " Indirect : ** He asked when we arrived." 

3. Conjunctive Adverbs^ used to introduce clauses : as, " We 
went on to Paris, where we stayed a week." 

Conjunctive adverbs shade off into conjunctions, from which 
they frequently cannot be distinguished. 


Construct sentences illustrating the different kinds of 
adverbs^ classified according to use, 

230. Adverbs Classilled According to Form. — 

Classified according to form, adverbs are of three 
kinds: — 

1. Simple Adverbs, which express their meaning without the 
aid of an adverbial termination : as, " Come here ; " " That is too 
bad." This class includes nouns and adjectives that are made 
into adverbs by being set in an adverbial position : as, " He was 
stone dead ; " " Pull hard:* 

2. Flexional Adverbs, which have distinctive adverbial termina- 
tions : as, " You acted wisely,** 

3. Phrasal Adverbs, which are idiomatic adverbial phrases 
that cannot easily be separated into parts. The following are 
common examples : — 


at once 

m vam 

as yet 

at worst 


at all 

by all means 

of course 

at best 

by far 

of late 

at large 

face to face 

of old 

at last 

for good 

on high 

at least 

ere long 

one by one 

at length 

in general 

two by two 

at most 

in short 


The most common form of adverb in literary 
English is the flexional form in ** -ly.'* It is made 
freely from all kinds of adjectives except those that 
already end in **-ly.** Adjectives that already end 
in **-ly," as ** lively*' and ** friendly,** usually have 
no corresponding adverb. We use instead some 
adverbial phrase: as, **ina friendly way;" **ina 
lively manner." 

Adjectives used as adverbs are frequent in the literature of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : as, " Then was the king 
exceeding glad '* (Dan. vi, 23) ; " The sea went dreadful high ** 
(Robinson Crusoe). They also occur somewhat freely in modem 
poetry. In modem literary prose they are seldom used, good 
writers preferring the adverbial forms in " ly," except in a few 
cases which may be leamed by observation : " Pitch dark ; '* " He 
X2Si fast :'* "Come quick;** "Stand right;** ** I bought it 


Tell which of the italicized words is correct according 
to the best usage ^ and give the reason : — 

1. She gets her lessons easy {easily) enough. 

2. Are you coming with us ? Sure {surely), 

3. Speak slow {slowly) and distinct {distinctly), 

4. He could scarce {scarcely) control his feelings. 

5. A person should dress suitable, {suitably) to his station. 

231. Comparison of Adverbs. — Many adverbs 
denote ideas that vary in degree, and therefore 
they admit of comparison, like adjectives (162). 

Monosyllabic adverbs (and a few others) usually 
form their comparative and superlative degrees by 
adding **-er " and **-est:" as, ** Pull harder'" 


Adverbs in **-ly" usually form the comparative 
and superlative by prefixing ** more" and ** most;** 
as, ** He felt it most keenly.*' 

In other respects the comparison of adverbs re- 
sembles in form and meaning the comparison of 



Tell which of the italicized expressions is preferable^ 
and give the reason : — 

1. I can study easiest {?nost easily) in the morning. 

2. He v^v'Mqs plainer (more plainly) than he used to. 

3. You ought to value your privileges higher (more highly), 

4. Which can run the faster {fastest), Conner or Boardman } 

5. Which is \\\^ farther (farthest) north, New York, Chicago, 
or San Francisco ? 

232. A(^ective or Adverb. — It is sometimes a 
question whether to use an adjective or an adverb 
after such verbs as ** grow/' **look,*' ** sound/* 
** smell/' ** taste.** If the added word applies to the 
subject of the verb, it should be an adjective ; if to 
the verb, it should be an adverb. We say, ** We 
feel warm,'' when we mean that we are warm; 
we say, **We feel warmly on this subject," when 
we mean that our feelings are stirred up. In the 
first sentence **warm*' is an attribute complement; 
in the second, ** warmly '* is a modifier of the verb. 
As a rule, it is proper to use an adjective whenever 
the verb resembles in meaning some form of the 
verb **be** or "seem;" otherwise we use an adverb. 
Sometimes we may use either adjective or adverb, 
with no difference in meaning: as, **We arrived 
safe {safely^," 



I. Distinguish between : — 

1. That looks good {^ell), 

2. We found the way easy {easily), 

3. The potatoes are boiling soft {softly), 

4. The new bell-boy appeared prompt {promptly), 

2. Tell ivhich of the italicized words is correct^ and 
give the reason : — 

1. She plays very ^^<?^/(7e/^//). 

2. The door shut easy {easily), 

3. VitsiX gentle {gently) with them. 

4. How sweet {sweetly) those blossoms smell ! 

5. He stood Tfrw {firmly) in spite of opposition. 

6. He felt awkward {awkwardly) in her presence. 

7. She looks beautiful {beautifully) in a pink gown. 

8. He did not act awkward {awkwardly) in her presence. 

9. The wind blows cold {coldly) through the gaps in these moun- 

233. Position of Adverbs. — Adverbs, like other 
modifiers, should be placed next to the word or 
words that they modify. 

The word ** only " requires special care, as will 
appear from observing how changes in its position 
affect the meaning of the following sentences: — 

{a) Only he lost his hat. {b) He only lost his hat. {c) He lost 
only his hat. {d) He lost his only hat. {e) He lost his hat only. 

As a general rule, ** only " should be placed im- 
mediately before what it is intended to modify. 
Occasionally, when no ambiguity would arise (as at 
the end of sentences), it may be placed after the 


word it modifies, with an emphatic, almost dispar- 
aging eJBfect: as, ** He lost his hat only.'" 

234:. Double Negatives. — Formerly two or more 
negative adverbs were frequently used to strengthen 

one another. 


In modern literary English two negatives destroy 
each other, and are equivalent to an afl&rmative: 
as, ** I can't do nothing " = ** I can (and must) do 

235. Substitutes for Adverbs. — The adverbial 
function may be performed by — 

(i) A noun: as, "The book cost b, dollar;** "We studied an 

(2j An adverbial phrase : as, "He came on foot,** 

(3) An adverbial clause : as, " They started when the sun rose** 

236. How to Parse Adverbs. — To parse an ad- 
verb we must give its — 

(i) Class according to {a) meaning, {p) use, and (r) form. 

(2) Comparison. 

(3) Construction. 


Parse the adverbs in Exercise 196. 



A Preposition is a word placed before a noun 
or a pronoun to show its relation to some other 
word (89). 

The function of a preposition is to bring a noun 
or a pronoun into a modifying relation with a noun, 
a pronoun, an adjective, a verb, or an adverb: as, 
** The book on the table ;" "What in the world was 
that?'* "I am sorry for them;" **We traveled 
through England;" ** He stayed out in the cold." 

337. Prepositions Classified. — The following is 
a classified list* of the prepositions in common 
use :— 

simple Prepositions. 





















Compound Prepositions. 

























amidst, amid 


toward, towards 

among, amongst 

beside, besides 


* To the Teacher. — This list is for reference, not for memorizing. 



Prepositions Derived firom Verbs. 

barring past respecting 

concerning pending saving, save 

during notwithstanding touching 

excepting, except regarding 

according to 
apart fr om 

as regards 
as to 

because of 
by means of 
by reason of 

Phrasal Prepositions. 

by way of 
for the sake of 
in accordance with 
in addition to 
in case of 
in compliance with 
in consequence of 
in front of 

in opposition to 
in place of 
in preference to 
in spite of 
instead of 
on account of 
out of 
with regard to 


Construct sentences illustrating the use of such prepo- 
sitions as the teacher may select, 

238. Objects of Prepositions. — The substantive 
following a preposition is called its Object, and is 
in the objective case. It is commonly a noun or 
a pronoun; but it may be any word or group of 
words used as a noun : as, 

(i) Noun : Come into the garden, 

(2) Pronoun : I stood behind htm, 

(3) Adverb: I never felt it till now. 

(4) Adjective : Lift up your eyes on high, 

(5) Prepositional phrase : He stepped from behind the tree, 

(6) Infinitive phrase : None knew thee but to love thee, 
iy) Substantive clause : Listen to what I say. 

Used before clauses, prepositions often become indistinguish- 
able from conjunctions : as, " He came before I did. 



Construct sentences illustrating the different kinds of 
object that a preposition may have. 

239. Prepositional Phrases. — A phrase consist- 
ing of a preposition and its object, with or without 
modifiers, is called a Prepositional Phrase. If it 
modifies a noun or a pronoun, it is an Adjective 
Phrase: as, **The wages ofsiri is death." If it 
modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb, it is 
an Adverbial Phrase: as, ** Man shall not live by 
bread alone y 

Occasionally a prepositional phrase is used substantively : as, 
**Over the fence is out." In such cases there is really an ellipsis 
of some word which the prepositional phrase modifies. 


Construct two sentences containing adjective preposi- 
tional phrases ; two containing adverbial prepositional 

240. Position of Prepositions. — Ordinarily a 
preposition, as its name implies, is placed before 
its object: as, **I sprang to the window,'' Some- 
times, however, it is put after its object: as, **JVhat 
are we coming tof** 

To the Teacher. — The theory, advanced by some gram- 
marians, that a sentence should not end with a preposition, is not 
supported by the practice of the best writers, as may be seen from 
the following representative quotations : — 

Some little toys that girls are fond of** — Swz/t, 

You see what my tricks have brought me to.** — Goldsmith. 

What god doth the wizard pray to ?** — Hawthorne, 

** Rather bear those ills we have 
Than fly to others that we know not of*' — Shakespeare. 



The following sentences are entirely in accord with the best 
English idiom : — 

What are you looking at ? What are you thinking of? 
What did you ask for ? That is all 1 came for. 

341. Prepositions Used as Adverbs. — Some of 
the simplest prepositions, such as " in," '* on,'* " off." 
"up," "to," were originally adverbs; and in mod- 
ern English many of them are used adverbially. 

1. Sometimes a preposition is used adverbially as an tnsefia^ 
rable adjunct of the verb : as, " She carried off the prize ; " " The 
people laughed at Fulton's steamboat." The adverbial force of 
such prepositions is shown by the fact that they stay with the verb 
when the sentences are changed into the passive form : as, " Ful- 
ton's steamboat was laUghed at by the people." From this last 
sentence it is clear that in the former sentence, "The people 
laughed at Fulton's steamboat," " steamboat " is the object, not 
of the preposition " at," but of the transitive verb " laughed at." 

2. Sometimes a preposition becomes an adverb through the 
omission of its object : as. 

It was nothing to joke about, (Omission of " which.") 
That is all I 2isVfor, (Omission of " that.") 

242. Special Use of Some Prepositions. — Prepo- 
sitions play a very important part in our language, 
and have many idiomatic uses. Most of these can 
be learned only by observing the custom of good 
speakers and writers. The following notes on some 
special uses of a few prepositions may prove help- 

At, /«.•— Before names of places to denote "where," at is used 
when the place is viewed as a mere point ; in is used when the 
speaker desires to make prominent the idea '* within the bounds 
of : " as, " He arrived at Liverpool in the morning and remained in 
that city two days." 


Compare to, compare with : — We compare one thing to another 
to show similarity : as, " Burice compared the parks of a city to the 
lungs of the body." We compare one thing nvith another to show 
either similarity or (Jifference, especially difference : as, " Compare \ 
our comfort with their poverty." 

Confide in, confide to : — Cofifide in means " trust in : " as, 
"/« thy protection I confide** Confide to means " intrust to : " 
as, " He confided the secret to his mother." 

Differ from, differ with : — We use differ from when we refer 
to unlikeness between objects ; when we refer to disagreement in 
opinion we use either differ from or differ with : as, " These two 
books differ entirely /r<?/« each other;" "I differ /r£?;« or with the 
honorable gentleman on that point." 

Different from : — According to the best usage the proper 
preposition after " different " and " differently " is from : as, " He 
is very different from his brother." 

Like : — Like, which is historically an adjective or an adverb, 
is in some of its uses frequently called a preposition, because it 
resembles a preposition in function : as, '* Quit yourselves like 
men;" •* She looks like him." Since, however, it admits of com- 
parison, some grammarians prefer to call it, even in these sentences, 
an adjective or an adverb governing the objective case. Similar 
remarks apply to some of the uses of near. 

Of : — (9/* is often used to denote identity; and then the prepo- 
sitional phrase has the force of an appositive: as, *' the city of St. 
Louis," « the State of Ohio," "the island <?/"Cuba." 

Wait for, wait on : — Wait for means " await : " as, " We will 
wait for you at the corner." Wait on means " attend : " as, " At 
dinner the women waited on the men." 


Fill the following blanks with appropriate preposi- 
tions : — 

I. The king confided -WV- his ministers. i 

2. We stayed -^^-^^ London two weeks -t*^ the Victoria 


3. The marriage customs of the Russians are very different 
hp^ ours. 

4. He says that he shall be back in an hour ; but we cannot 
wait jtol- him. 

5. Admiral Dewey remained ^^^ the Philippines a year after 
his victory -^^ Manila Bay. 

6. The conspirators confided the execution of their plot '^ 
the youngest of their number. ^ 

7. We arrived M^ Paris in the evening. -4^*^ that city we 
stayed ^t- the Hotel Normandie. ^U 

8. He who compares his own condition -SdJL^that of others 
will find that he has many reasons for thinking himself fortunate. 

243. How to Parse Prepositions. — To parse a 
preposition one must give — 

(i) Its object. 

(2) The construction of the phrase which it introduces. 


Parse the prepositions in Exercise 196. 



A Conjunction is a word used to connect sen- 
tences, phrases, or words (90). 

Conjunctions must be carefully distinguished from prepositions 
and relative pronouns, which are also connecting words. A prepo- 
sition introduces a modifying phrase ; a relative pronoun stands 
for a noun with which it connects a modifying clause ; a conjunc- 
Hon merely connects sentences, phrases, or words that have the 
same grammatical construction. 

Sometimes a conjunction is used at the beginning of a para- 
graph to connect it with what precedes. 

The most important conjunctions are : " and," "^7' *^although," 
" though," Xpggaus^ " "but," "for," ** however," •^ "lest," 
"nevertheless^" "nbr," "or."'." since," "still," "than," "that," 
" therefore," " wherefore," " whether," " unless," "*yet," 

244. Classific^^tion of Conjunctions, — Conjunc- 
tions may be arranged in two general classes: — 

(i) Coordinating Conjunctions, which connect words, phrases, 
or independent sentences : as, " Sink or swim ; " " By the people 
and for the people ; " "I ran fast, but I missed the train." 

(2) Subordinating Conjunctions, which introduce dependent 
clauses : as, " I came because you called me ; " " Guy is older than 
Lewis [is] ; " " Galileo taught that the earth moves ; " " Unless it 
rains, we shall all go." 

245. Correlative Conjunctions. — Conjunctions 
are sometimes used in pairs, the first of the pair in- 
dicating that something will presently be added ; as, 
** His conduct was neither wise nor just;** ^^Both 
John and Henry may go with you.'* 

Definition. — Conjunctions used in pairs are called 
Correlative Conjunctions. 


The most common correlative conjunctions are : 
**both — and," ** either — or," ** neither — nor," 
** whether — or," ** not only — but also." 

When conjunctions are used as correlatives, as 
** both — and," ** either — or," each of the correlated 
words should be so placed as to indicate clearly 
what ideas are to be connected in thought. This 
principle is violated in ** He not only visited Paris, 
but Berlin ^/^^." In this sentence the position of 
** not only " before the verb ** visited " leads one to 
expect some corresponding verb in the second part 
of the sentence ; in fact, however, the two con- 
nected words are * * Paris " and * * Berlin ; " * * visited " 
applies to both. This meaning is clearly indicated 
by putting ** not only" before ** Paris:" thus, '* He 
visited not only Paris, ^«/ Berlin also'* As a rule, 
the word after the first correlative should be the 
same part of speech as the word after the second 

246. Phrasal Conjunctions. — The following ex- 
pres^ons are best parsed as Phrasal Conjunctions : 

7/ as if ^ as sure as y'in order that 

as though ^ except that y/y^ ^s much as 

/ as long as ^ in case that y "provided that 
J as soon as 

247. How to Parse Conjunctions.; — To parse a 
conjunction we must tell — 

(i) Its class. 

(2) What it connects. 


1 . Review Exercises 93 and 94. 

2. Parse the conjunctions in Exercise 196. 



An Intexjection is a word used as a sudden 
expression of feeling, but not forming part of a 
sentence (91). 

248. Classification of Interjections. — Interjec- 
tions may be arranged in three general classes : — 

1. Simple Interjections^ which are never anything else than 
interjections : as, " Oh ! " "eh!" "hurrah!" " pooh !" "psha!" 
" tut ! " 

2. Secondary Interjections, which are other parts of speech 
used as interjections : as, " Mercy ! " " farewell ! " ** nonsense ! " 

3. Phrasal Interjections, which are groups of words used as 
single interjections : as, " Goodness gracious ! " 


Point out the interjections in Exercise 6y. 



The forms given in the following Jist are all supported by good 
usage ; but they are not in all cases the only authorized forms. 
For full information on the subject, students must have recourse 
to the best dictionaries. 



Past Participle. 





alighted, alit 

alighted, alit 




am (be) 




awoke, awaked 


bear (" bring forth ") 



bear (" carry ") 

^ bore 















bereft, bereaved 

bereft, bereaved 







bid ("command") 



bid ('* offer money ") 













blent, blended 

blent, blended 


























Past Participle. 













cleave (" adhere ") 



cleave (" split ") 

clove, cleft 

cloven, cleft 



clung , 

















dug, digged 

dug, digged 








drest, dressed 

drest, dressed 





















































gilt, gilded 

gilt, gilded 

















Past Participle. 


hung, hanged ^ 

hung, hanged^ 








hove, heaved ' 

hove ', heaved 




















knelt, kneeled 

knelt, kneeled 


knit, knitted 

knit, knitted 






laded, laden 
















lie ('* recline ") 



lie ("tell a falsehood") 




lighted, lit 

lighted, lit 




















quit, quitted 

quit, quitted 





















riven, rived 

^ '* Hanged " is used only of execution by hanging. 

^ '' She heaved a sigh ; " '* The crew hove the cargo overboard." 





Past Participle. 













seethe (intransitive) 



seethe (transitive) 



seethed, sodden 





























shred, shredded 

shred, shredded 







shriven, shrived 





















slidden, slid 











smelt, smelled 

smelt, smelled 






sowed, sown 








spelt, spelled 

spelt, spelled 







spilled, spilt 
















































Past Participle. 



spoiled, spoilt 

spoiled, spoilt 







stove, staved 

stove, staved 

stayed, staid 

stayed, staid 














struck, stricken 










swelled, swollen 















throve, thrived 

thriven, thrived 







woke, waked 

woke, waked 


















The numerals refer to pages. 

A. Articles, con f.-— uses o(a or an^ 215 ; 

j4y preposition, 217. not every ike or a an article, 217 ; 

A or an, articles, choice between, how to parse, 217. 

213; meaning of, 214-215. -<4j, relative, 201. 

Abouito,2^%, Assertive sentences, defined, 18; 

Absolute nominative, 165, 178. punctuation of, 19. 

Abstract nouns, 145. At, in, distinguished, 281. 

Active voice, 46-47, 218-219, 254- Attribute complements, defined, 50- 

255. 51 ; case of, 166, 178. 

Address, nominative of, 166. Auxiliary verbs, defined, 226. 
Adjectives, defined, 114-115 ; as 

nouns, 169; classified, 207; singu- B» 

lar and plural, 207 ; comparison, Bare subject, 37, 

208-210 ; use of comparative and Be^ copula, 39 ; complement of, 

superlative, 2 10-2 1 1 ; substitutes when infinitive, 166, 178 ; inflec- 

for, 211 ; parsing, 212 ; adjective tion for person, 227-228; as pro- 

or adverb, 275. gressive auxiliary, 234-236 ; forms 
Adjuncts, defined, 37. in the subjunctive, 248 ; as pas- 
Adverbial objective, 166. sive auxiliary, 255 ; conjugation. 
Adverbs, defined, 118-119; nouns 266-267. 

as, 166, 169, 277; classified accord- Biblical language, pronouns in, 174. 

ing to meaning, 272 ; according to British words, 5. 

use, 272-273 ; according to. form, But, relative, 201. 

273-274 ; comparison, 274-275 ; 

adjective or adverb, 275; position, C 

276 ; double negatives, 277 ; sub- Call, conjugation, 268-270. 

stitutes, 277 ; how to parse, 277. Can^ 226, 266. 

Agent with passive verbs, 219. Case, defined, 159; nominative. 

Although, verb with, 253. possessive, and objective, defined. 

Analysis, defined, 74. 159-160; form of possessive. 

Angles, 2. 160-161 ; uses of nominative, 

Anglo-Saxon, origin of name, 2 ; 166 ; uses of objective, 166 ; use 

relation to modern English, 4. of the possessive, 166-167; ^^ ex- 
Antecedent, defined, 113. clamations, i66, 178 ; double pos- 
Anybody, number and gender of, sessive, 168 ; in apposition, 168 ; 

184. of personal pronouns, 177, 179 ; 

Anybody else*s, 161. of interrogative pronouns, 189- 

Appositives, 71; clauses used as, 190; of relative pronouns, 199, 

86 ; case of, 168. 203. 

Articles, defined, 117; origin of. Causative verbs, 220-221. 

213; choice between an or a. Changes in our language, 8-9 ; how 

213 ; definite and indefinite dis- they came about, 9 ; still going 

tinguished, 214 ; uses of the, 215 ; on, lo-ii. 



Clauses, defined, 63-64 ; as modi- 
fiers, 63-64; modifying, classified, 
68 ; as subjects, S^ys-s comple- 
ments, 85 ; as appositives, 86 ; 
subordinate, 97 ; relative, 193- 

Collective nouns, 144. 

Common gender, 146. 

Common nouns, 143-144. . 

Compare to^ compare with^ distin- 
guished, 282. 

Comparison of adjectives, 208-210 ; 
of adverbs, 274-275. 

Complements, defined, 49 ; attri- 
bute, 50; object, 51 ; objective, 
53-54 *. ^^'it^^ passive forms, 56 ; 
several with one verb, 57 ; phrases 
used as, 82 ; clauses used as, 85 ; 
case of, 166, 178. 

Complete predication, verbs of, 48. 

Complete subject, 37. 

Complex sentences, defined, 97. 

Compound personal pronouns, 185- 
187; relative pronouns, 202-203. 

Compound sentences, defined, 98 ; 
classified, 100 ; improper, 103. 

Compound subject, 25 ; predicate, 

Compound words, formation of, 

142 ; plural of, 154 ; possessive 

of, 161. 
Conditional sentences, 252-253. 
Confide in^ confide to^ distinguished, 

Conjugation, defined, 266 ; be^ 266- 

267 ; call, 268-270. 
Conjunctions, defined, 124-125 ; 

position, 125, 284 ; distinguished 

from prepositions and relative 

pronouns, 284; classification, 284; 

correlative, 284 ; phrasal, 285 ; 

parsing, 285. 
Conjunctive adverbs, 273. 
Connecting words, 100, 284-285. 
Construction, defined, 163 ; of nouns, 

163-165 ; of pronouns, 177-179 ; 

of verbs, 231 ; of infinitives, 261- 

262 ; of participles, 264. 
Coordinate clauses, 98 ; conjunc- 
tions, 284. 
Copula, 39-40. 
Correlative conjunctions, 284-285. 


Danish words, 6, 

Declension, defined, 162 ; of nouns, 
162 ; of pronouns of the first per- 
son, 172 ; of pronouns of the sec- 
ond person, 174 ; of pronouns of 
the third person, 175 ; of interrog- 
ative pronouns, 189 ; of relative 
pronouns, 195. 

Definite article, 214-217. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 187-188. 

Dependent clause, defined, 97. 

Derivation, defined, 141. 

Descriptive adjectives, 207 ; rela- 
tive clause, 193-194. 

Diasjrams, 74-76. 

Differ from, differ with, distin- 
guished, 282. 

Different from, 282. 

Direct object, defined, 51 ; case of, 
166, 178. 

Direct questions, 191-192. 

Do, auxiliary, 236-237. 

DonU, doesn*t^ 230. 

Double possessive, 168 ; negatives, 


Each, number and gender of, 184. 

Editorial use o(we,i'j2; our self , 186. 

Either, number and gender of, 184. 

Either — or, verbs with, 231 ; posi- 
tion of, 284-285. 

Elliptical sentences, defined, 105. 

Emphatic tense forms, 236-237. 

English, origin of name, 1-2 ; early 
home of, 2 ; spread of, 2-3 ; 
changes in, 4, 8-1 1 ; growth of, 5 ; 
good, defined, 1 1. 

Everybody, number and gender of, 

Exclamations, defined, 91 ; case of, 
l66, 178. 

Exclamatory sentences, defined, 18. 

Expletive use of //, 28 ; oithej-e, 29. 


Fall, fell, distinguished, 221. 

Feminine gender, defined, 146; 
forms, 147-148 ; in personifica- 
tion, 150-151 ; in pronouns, 175, 



Finite verb, defined, 258. 

Foreign plurals, 156. 

Foreign words, proportion of in 
English, 8. 

Future perfect tense, 233-234 ; pro- 
gressive, 234-236. 

Future tense, defined, 232 ; forma- 
tion, 233 ; sAa// or «////, 240-242 ; 
conjugation, 266 flf. 


Gender defined, 146; of nouns, 146- 
151 ; ways of denoting, 147-148 ; 
relation to pronouns, 149-150 ; 
in personification, 150-151 ; per- 
sonal pronouns, 175, 182-183 ; 
relative pronouns, 198, 

Generic article, 215. 

Going to, 238. 

Good English, defined, 11. 

Grammar defined, 11 ; uses of, 12 ; 
grammars old and new, 1 2 ; gram- 
mar vs. logic, 36. 

Grammatical and logical terms dis- 
tinguished, 37. 


Had, subjunctive auxiliary, 249. 

Have^ transitive, 45 ; as auxiliary of 
perfect, 233-234. 

He, declined, 175 ; gender, 175, 182- 
183; construction, 178. 

Her^ declined, 175 ; gender, 175, 
182-183 ; construction as possess- 
ive, 177 ; as objective, 178. 

Hers, case, 175; gender, 175. 182- 
183; construction, 177. 

Herself, 185-187. 

Him, case, 175; gender, 175, 182- 
183 ; construction, 178. 

Himself^ 185-187. 

His, case, 175 ; gender, 175, 182- 
183; construction, 177. 


/, classified, 171 : declined, 172 ; 

how written, 172; use, 178. 
Idea, defined, 15. 
If, verbs with, 252-253, 
Imperative mood, defined, 247 ; 

use, 250-251 ; let, 264. 

Imperative sentences, defined, 18 ; 
punctuation of, 19 ; predicate in, 

Impersonal subject, 27, 176; object, 

Imported words, 7. 

Improper compound sentences, 103. 

/», at, distinguished, 281. 

Incomplete predication, verbs of, 

Indefinite pronouns, 203, 204 ; ar- 
ticles, 213-217. 

Independent elements, defined, 90; 
vocatives, 90 ; exclamations, 91 ; 
parenthetical, 92 ; pleonastic, 93 ; 
punctuation of, 93 ; nominative 
absolute, 165 ; case of, 166. 

Indicative mood, defined, 247 ; use, 
248 ; in conditional sentences, 

Indirect object, defined, 68-69 ; 
as subject of passive verb, 70-71, 
255 ; case of, 166, 178. 

Indirect questions, 191-192. 

Infinitives, defined, 129, 258 ; form 
of, 129, 258 ; subject of, 164, 178 ; 
attribute complement of to be, 
166, 178; kinds, 258; with to, 
259 ; tenses, 259-261 ; construc- 
tions, 261-262. 

Inflection, defined, 140; of nouns, 
162 ; of personal pronouns, 172, 
174, 175; of demonstrative pro- 
nouns, 180 ; of interrogative pro- 
nouns, 189; of relative pronouns, 
195 ; of adjectives, 207, 209; of 
verbs, 266-270. 

** -ing,** words in, 133. 

Interjections, 127, 286. 

Interrogative adverbs, 273. 

Interrogative pronouns, defined, 
188-189 ; declined, 189 ; distin- 
guished, 190; who or whom, 190 ; 
in indirect questions, 191-192. 

Interrogative sentences, defined, 18; 
punctuation of, 19 ; predicate in, 

Interrogative tense forms, 236- 

Intransitive verbs, 45-46, 218-221. 

Irregular comparison, 210. 

//, expletive, 28-29, I7^» 



//, pronoun, classified, 171 ; de- 
clined, 175; gender, 175, 182-183; 
special uses, 176 ; constructions, 

Its, 175 ; history, 176. 

Itself, 185-187. 

Jutes, 2. 



Language, defined, i ; changes in, 

Latin words found in Britain, 5 ; 

from books, 7. 
Laugh at, 220. 
Lay, lie, distinguished, 221. 
/>/, 226, 264-265. 
Lie, lay, distinguished, 221. 
Like, 282. 
Limiting adjectives, 207 ; adverbs, 

Logic vs. grammar, 36. 


Majestic use of w^,i 72 ; ourself, 186. 

Masculine gender, defined, 146 ; 
forms, 147-148 ; in personifica- 
tion, 150-151, 183 ; pronouns, 
175, 182-183. 

May^ 226, 249, 265. 

Me, classified, 171 ; case, 172; con- 
structions, 178-179. 

Might, 249, 265. 

Mine, 172; use, 177. 

Missionary words, 6. 

Mixed verbs, 224-225. 

Mode, defined, 247; indicative, 248; 
subjunctive, 248-250; imperative, 
250-251 ; in conditional sentences, 

Modifiers, defined, 59-60; distin- 
guished from complements, 61 ; 
phrases and clauses used as, 63- 
64 ; themselves modified, 73. 

Must, 226, 261, 266. 

My, classified, 171 ; case, 172 ; con- 
struction, 177. 

Myself, 185-187. 


Need, 261. 

Negative tense forms, 236-237, 

Negatives, double, 277. 

Neither, number and gender of, 184. 

Neither — nor, verbs with, 231 ; po- 
sition of, 285. 

Neuter gender, defined, 146; in 
pronouns, 175, 182-183. 

New conjugation, 224. 

No, adverb, 272. 

Nobody, number and gender of, 184* 

Nominative, defined, 159-160 ; ab- 
solute, 165 ; uses of, 166 ; of per- 
sonal pronouns, 178-179; of in- 
terrogative pronouns, 189-190 ; 
of relative pronouns, 199, 203^ 

Nor, verbs with, 231. 

Norman- French words, 6. 

Notional verbs, 226. 

Nouns, defined, iii ; proper, 143; 
common, 143-144; collective, 144; 
abstract, 145 ; gender, 146-148 ; 
personified, 150; singular and 
plural, 152-154; two plurals, 155 ; 
foreign plurals, 156; case, 159- 
161 ; declension, 162; person, 162- 
163; constructions, 163-168; sub- 
stitutes for, 169 ; how to parse, 

Number, defined, 152 ; formation of 
plural, 152-154; two plurals, 155- 
156; divided usage, 157; per- 
sonal pronouns, 172, 174, 184; 
relative pronouns, 198 ; adjec- 
tives, 207 ; verbs, 227-230, 

Numeral adjectives, 207. 


Object, direct, 51 ; retained, 71 ; 
case of, i66, 178, 199. 

Object, indirect, defined, 68-69 \ i** 
passive sentences, 70-71, 255; 
case of, 166, 178. 

Object of preposition, defined, 122 ; 
case of, 166, 178, 199 ; kinds, 279. 

Objective, adverbial, i66. 

Objective attribute complements, 
defined, 53-55 ; case of, i66. 

Objective case, defined, 160 ; sub- 
ject of infinitive, 164 ; uses of, 
166 ; of personal pronouns, 178- 
179; of interrogative pronouns, 
1 89, 190 ; of relative pronouns, 
199, 203. 

INDEX 297 

Of, 278, 282. Phrase, defined, 15 ; distinguished 

Old conjugation, 223. from sentence, 16 ; from clause. 

Old English, 3-4. 63-64 ; as modifier, 63-64 ; as 

Omission of subject, 21, 202, 251 ; subject, 81 ; as complement, 82 ; 

of words, 105-106. prepositional, 122, 280. 

Only^ position of, 276. Pleonasm, 93. 

Or^ verbs with, 231. Plural number, defined, 152 ; for- 

Ought, 226 ^ 261, 266. mation of, 152-154; two plurals, 

Our^ ours, 172 ; use, 177. 155 ; foreign plurals, 156 ; di- 

Ourself, ourselves, 185-187. vided usage, 157 ; pronouns, 172, 

Own, 186. 174, 184; adjectives, 207; verbs, 


•^« Poetical language, pronouns in, 174. 

Parenthetical expressions, 92. Position of subject, 22 ; of adjec- 

Parsing, nouns, 169; pronouns, 205; tives, 115 ; of prepositions, 123, 

adjectives, 212; articles, 217; 280 ; of conjunctions, 125, 284- 

verbs, 270 ; adverbs, 277 ; prep- 285 ; of adverbs, 276-277. 

ositions, 283 ; conjunctions, 285. Positive degree, defined, 208. 

Participles, defined, 131, 262; con- Possessive case, defined, 160; form 

structions, 256, 264 ; form, 263. of, 160-161,177; use of, 166-167, 

parts of speech, distinguished, iii- 177 ; double, 168 ; in apposition, 

142; summarized, 138. 168; of personal pronouns, 177; 

Parts of verb, principal, 225. of interrogative pronouns, 189 ; 

Passive voice, 46-47, 218-219, 254- of relative pronouns, 199, 200. 

■ 257 ; complements with, 56, 255. Predicate, defined, 21 ; in interroga- 

Past perfect tense, 233-234 ; pro- live and imperative sentences, 21 ; 

gressive, 234-236. position of, 22 ; compound, 25 ; 

Past tense, simple form, 223-225, distinguished from verb, 37. 

232 ; defined, 232 ; progressive, Predicate nominative, 166. 

234-236; emphatic, interrogative. Predication, verbs of complete and 

and negative, 236-237 ; misused incomplete, 48-49. 

forms, 244-245 ; conjugation, Prepositional phrase, defined, 122 ; 

266 ff. classified, 280. 

Peculiar verb-phrases, 264-266. Prepositions, defined, 122 ; object 

Perfect tenses, 233-236; uses of the of, 122, 166, 178, 199, 279; clas- 

present perfect, 239 ; misused sified, 278-279 ; position, 280 ; as 

forms, 244-245. . adverbs, 281 ; special uses of 

Person, of nouns, 162-163 » of pro- some, 281-282 ; parsing, 283. 

nouns, 171, 198 ; of verbs, 227- Present perfect tense, 233-234; 

231. progressive, 234-235; uses, 239; 

Personal pronouns, defined, 171 ; misused forms, 244-245. 

first person, 172 ; second person. Present tense, simple, 232 ; pro- 

173-174; third person, 175-176 ; gressive, 234-235 ; emphatic, in- 
special uses of //, 176 ; uses of terrogative, and negative, 236- 

possessive forms, 177; uses of 237 ; uses, 238-239 ; conjugation, 

nominative forms, 178; uses of 266 ff. 

objective forms, 178-179; use of Principal parts of verb, 225. 

gender forms, 182-183 ; use of Progressive relative clause, 193- 

number forms, 184; compound, 194. 

185-187; as reflexives, 187. Progressive tenses, 234-236. 

Personification, gender in, 1 50-1 5 1, Pronominal adjectives, 188, 189, 

183. 204, 207. 

298 INDEX 

Pronoans, defined,! 13; antecedent, Set, sit, distinguished, 221. 

113; personal, 171-184 ; com- 5ia// or wiV/, 233, 240-242. 

pound personal or reflexive, 185- SAe, declined, 175 ; gender, 175, 

187; demonstrative, 187-188; in- 182-183: constructions, 178. 

terrogative, 188-192; relative, Should^ classification, 226; distin- 

192-202 ; compound relative, guished from tM>uhi, 242 ; sub- 

202-203; indefinite, 204; how to junctive, 249 ; tense of infinitive 

parse, 205. with, 261 ; meanings, 265. 

Proper nouns, defined, 143 ; plural Sign of the infinitive, 259. 

of, 154. Simple sentence, defined, 96. 

Punctuation, of sentences, 19 ; of Simple subject, defined, 37. 

appositives, 72; of independent Singular number, defined, 152 ; di- 

efements, 93 ; of relative clauses, vided usage, 157 ; personal pro- 

194. nouns, 172, 174, 184; adjectives, 

Q. 207 ; verbs, 227-230. 

Questions, direct and indirect, 191- Sit, set, distinguished. 221. 

102. Strong verbs, 223. 

j( Subject, defined, 21; omitted, 21, 

Xaise, rise, distinguished. a«i. lV'l^^^J^.ll '^f T'^r^' 

ca..:.. Jlrnni^nn. •a> .a, *4-*5 ! impersonal, 27-28; sim> 

R^UH«r?J^r. ,«,,?;;; ^" ?•«. distinpUshed from complete. 

Relative clauses. 193-194. ;, '. .r * :„, v.,|, -5., %,al 

Relative pronouns, defined. 192- " . "! P''.*'X«« u^d as 8i" 

.93; distinguished .94-196; gen- 'J^^JH^ J"^. "Tverb '15^ 

t'l ?r^n,' •"/ r"°?' l'^,' '60. 166. .78. 4 of infiAitilt 

case, !<)(}, aoy, v)Mse ot e/ wAie A, .aj .78 ' • »*' • 

aoo ; as and iui, 201 ; omitted. ^ f^' /. . .^c . .._. 

202' comoound 202-201- inl Subjunctive mode, defined, 247; 

d^riiteT)^ ' '■*'"»• «'»^«'»9 : uses. a49-aSO ; 

RetSob^'ct. 71. !!r.S IS "^i'^ ~"'"""'^ ^"■ 

/{ise, raite, distinguished. 221. „ k j- , Z^P:^ „,. ^^x 

Root, defined, 141. Subordinate clauses, 97; conjunc- 

Root infinitive, 129, 258-262. SuCan.fvT defined, 3S-37. 

Substantive clauses, as subjects, 84 ; 

®' as complements, 85-86; as ap- 

Same as, same that, distinguished, positives, 86. 

201. Substantive phrases, as subjects, 81, 

Saxons, 2. 280; as complements, 82. 

Sentences, defined, 15; distin- Substitutes for nouns, 169 ; for ad- 
guished from phrases, 16; assert- jectives, 211: for adverbs, 277. 
ive. interrogative, imperative, Summary of sentence types, 57 ; of 
and exclamatory, 17-18, 21 ; how sentence structure, 94; of parts 
written, 19; assertive most com- of speech, 138 ; of tense forms, 
mon, 19 ; origin of, 19 ; essential 237-238. 
parts of. 21 ; impersonal, 28 ; Superlative degree, 209-210. 
types of, summarized, 57 ; parts 
of, summarized, 94 ; simple, de- 
fined, 96 ; complex, defined, 97 ; T. 
compound, defined, 98 ; com- Tense, defined, 232; simple pres- 
pound, classified, loo; improper ent and past, 232: perfect 
comi)ound, 103; elliptical, 105 ; tenses, 232-234; future, 233; 
conaitional, 252-253, progressive tenses, 234-236; 



Tense, cont. — emphatic, interroga- 
tive, and negative, 236-237 ; sum- 
mary of tense forms, 237-238 ; 
uses of the simple present, 238- 
239 ; uses of the present perfect, 
239 ; shall or will, 240-242 ; mis- 
used forms, 244-245 ; tenses of 
infinitive, 259-261 ; of participles, 

Than whom, 199. 

That, demonstrative, 187-188, 207 ; 
relative, 195-196. 

The^ adverb, 217. 

Thf, article, 213-215. 

Thee, case, I73-I74: distinguished 
from you, 1 73-1 74 ; constructions, 


Their, theirs, case, 175 ; construc- 
tion, 177; as genderless plurals, 

Them, case, 175 ; constructions, 
178; as genderless plural, 

Themselves, 185-187. 

There, expletive, 29-30. 

These, 187-188, 207. 

They, declined, 175 ; construc- 
tions, 178 ; as genderless plural, 

Thine, csise, 173-174; distinguished 
from yours, 173-174; construc- 
tion, 177. 

This, 187-188, 207. 

Those, 187-188, 207. 

Thou, declined, 173-174 ; distin- 
guished from you, 1 73-174; con- 
structions, 178. 

Though, verbs with, 253. 

Thought, a, defined, 15. 

T'A/, case, 173-174; distinguished 
ixomyour, 173-174; construction, 

Thyself, 185-187. 
To before the root infinitive, 129, 

Transitive verbs, 45-46, 218-221. 


Unless, verbs with, 253. 
Us, 172 ; constructions, 178. 
Used to, 238. 


Yerb-phrases, separated, 22, 44; 
defined, 41-42 ; interrogative, 
negative, and emphatic, 42-43* 
236-237.; future, 233; per- 
fect, 233-234 ; progressive, 234- 
236 ; emphatic, interrogative, and 
negative, 236-237 ; subjunctive, 
249 ; peculiar, 264-265. 

Verbals, 128. 

Verbs, defined, 36-37; distinguished 
from predicate, 37 ; of action, 
being, or state, 38 ; transitive and 
intransitive, 45-46, 218-221 ; ac- 
tive and passive, 46-47, 218-219; 
254-257 ; of complete predica- 
tion, 48 ; of incomplete predica- 
tion, 48-49; infinitives, 128-129, 
257-262 ; participles, 128, 131, 
262-264; subject of, 163, 164, 
178, 199 ; strong and weak, 223- 
225 ; principal parts, 225 ; no- 
tional and auxiliary, 226; num- 
ber and person, 227-231 ; tense, 
232-245; mode, 247-253; peculiar 
verb-phrases, 264-266 ; conjuga- 
tion, 266-270; how to parse, 

Vocatives, defined, 90 ; case of, 166, 

Voice, 46-47, 218-219, 254-257. 


Wait for, wait on, 282. 

We, declined, 172 ; editorial or 
majestic, 172 ; constructions, 

Weak verbs, 223-224. 

What, interrogative, 188-190; rela- 
tive, 195-196, 199. 

Whatever^ 202-203. 

Whatsoever, 202-203. 

Which, interrogative 188-190 ; rel- 
ative, 195-196 ; of which or 
whose, 200. 

Whichever, 202-203. 

Who, interrogative, 188-190 ; rela- 
tive, 195-196, 198. 

Whoever, 203-203. 

300 INDEX 

Whom^ interrogative, lo-ii, 189- T« 

190 ; relative, 195-196, 199. Kr, classified, 173-174 ; case, 174; 

Whomever^ 203. constructions, 174, 178-179. 

Whose, intern^ative, 188-189; rela- JVj, 272. 

tive, 195-196, 200 ; whose or of You^ classified, 171 ; case, 174, 179 ; 

which, 200. construction, 174, 178-179 ; nun- 

Whose else, 161. ber, 174, 229. 

Whosoever, 202-203. Your, yours, classified, 171 ; case. 

Will ox shall, 233, 240-242. 174; construction, 177. 

Would, 226, 242, 249, 265. Yourself, yourselves t 171, 185-187. 

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