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SMITHSONIAN INSTITOTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bulletin 68 



A MONOGRAPH OF WEST AMERICAN 
PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS 



WILLIAM HEALEY DALL and PAUL BARTSCH 

Of the Division of Mollnsks, U. S. National Museum 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1909 






• •• 
• • • • 

> • • • • 

• • • 






• t 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Issued Dec^ember 13, 1909. 



II 



1 46fi7« 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The scientific publications of the National Museum consist of two 
series — the Bulletin and the Proceedvnga* 

The BvUetin^ publication of which was begun in 1876, is a series 
of more or less extensive works intended to illustrate the collections 
of the United States National Museum and, with the exception noted 
below, is issued separately. These bulletins are monographic in scope 
and are devoted principally to the discussion of large zoological and 
botanical groups, faunas and floras, bibliographies of eminent natural- 
ists, reports of expeditions, etc. They are usually of octavo size, 
although a quarto form, known as the Special Bulletin, has been 
adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed 
indispensable. 

This work forms No. 68 of the Bulletin series. 

Since 1902 the volumes of the series known as '^Contributions from 
the National Herbarium," and containing papers relating to the botan- 
ical collections of the Museum, have been published as bulletins. 

The Proceedings^ the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are 
intended as a medium of publication of brief original papers based 
on the collections of the National Museum, and setting forth newly 
acquired facts in biology, anthropology, and geology derived there- 
from, or containing descriptions of new forms and revisions of lim- 
ited groups. A volume is issued annually, or oftener, for distribution 
to libraries and scientific establishments, and in view of the importance 
of the more prompt dissemination of new facts a Umited edition of 
each paper is printed in pamphlet form in advance. 

Richard Kathbun, 
Assistcmt Secretary y Smithsonian Institution^ 
In charge of the United States National Museum. 

Washington, U. S. A., Novefmber 10, 1909. 

Ill 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



Pftge. 

[ntiodoction 1 

Dlaasification 7 

Sjmopsis of the genera, subgenera, and secdons 8 

Beferencefi to citations and synonomy of the genera, subgenera, and sections 

of the family Pjrramidellidffi ..^ 17 

West American Pyramidellidfie 18 

Genus Pyramidella 18 

Key to the subgenera of Pyramidella ^ 19 

Subgenus Pyramidella 19 

Pyramidella (Pyramidella) baiidi 19 

Subgenus Voluspa *. 19 

Key to the species of the subgenus Voluspa 20 

P3rTamidella ( Voluspa) aurioomat 20 

oerrosana 20 

Subgenus Longchsus 21 

Key to the species of the subgenus Longcheus 21 

Pjrramidella (Longchffius) adamsi 21 

bicolor 22 

mexicana 23 

conica 23 

mazatlanica 24 

Species of uncertain standing of the subgenus Longchseus 24 

Odostomia lamellata 24 

subsulcata 26 

vallata 25 

Subgenus Pharddella 25 

Key to the species of the subgenus Pharddella 25 

PjrramidelU (PharcidelU) hastata 25 

panamensis 26 

moflati 26 

achates 27 

Genus Turbonilla 28 

Key to the subgenera of Turbonilla... 28 

Subgenus Turbonilla 29 

Key to the species of the subgenus Turbonilla 29 

Turbonilla (Turbonilla) gilli 29 

delmontensis 30 

centrota 30 

ima 31 

diegensis 31 

acra 32 

lucana 32 

prolongata 33 

Subgenus Chemnitzia 33 

Key to the species of the subgenus Chemnitzia 33 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) hypolispa 34 

gabbiana 35 

sepynota 35 

muricata 36 

santarosana 36 

V 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Tarbonilla (Ohemnitzia) paramoea 37 

honaeri 37 

aculeuB 38 

moricatoidee 38 

kelseyi 39 

raymondi 39 

Subgenus Strioturbonilla 40 

Key to the species of the subgenus Strioturbonilla 40 

Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) stephanogyra 42 

panatnensis 42 

buttoni 43 

yanoouverensis 44 

asser 45 

mezicana 45 

attritSi 46 

nicholsi 46 

• 

torquata 47 

stylina 48 

calvini 48 

carpenteri 49 

simpsoni 49 

profundicola 50 

galianoi 51 

humerosa 52 

c. b. adamsi 52 

serrse 53 

aresta 54 

pazana 54 

galapagensis 55 

undata 55 

affinis 56 

phanea 56 

imperialis 57 

smithsoni 57 

gracilior 58 

Subgenus Ptycheulimella 59 

Key to the species of the subgenus Ptycheulimella 59 

Turbonilla (Ptycheulimella) obsoleta 59 

abreojensis 59 

Subgenus Pjn^olamppos 59 

Key to the species of the subgenus Pyrgolampros 60 

Turbonilla (Pyigolamproe) victoriana 61 

gibbosa 61 

ridgwayi 62 

valdezi 62 

newcombei 63 

taylori 64 

lowei 64 

halibrecta 65 

gouldi 66 

aurantia 66 

pedroana 67 

halia 68 

lyaUi 68 

berryi 69 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 

Page. 

Tarbonilla ( Py igolam pros ) alaakana 70 

chocolata 70 

painei 71 

keepi 71 

halistrepta 72 

litayana 73 

oregonenoB 73 

Subgenus Pyi^giflcos •. 74 

Key to the species of the subgenus Py rgiscus 74 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) annettse 76 

gradllima 77 

vexativa 77 

obesa Y8 

favilla 78 

pequensis 79 

nuttingi 79 

calUa 80 

superba 80 

pluto 81 

jewetti 82 

signse 83 

striosa 83 

m5rchi 84 

aragoni 86 

recta 85 

weldi 86 

nereia 86 

antestriata 87 

antemundii 88 

flavescens 89 

macbridei 90 

nuttalli 90 

macra 91 

angusta 91 

tenuicula 92 

virgo 93 

marshalli 94 

canfieldi 96 

ahuo 96 

callipeplum 96 

dina 96 

shimeki 97 

sanctonim 98 

eucosmobasis 98 

halidoma 99 

auricoma 100 

castanea 101 

castanella 102 

indentata 102 

cora 103 

craticulata 104 

ceralva 104 

lepta 106 



Vni TABLB OF OONTHHTS. 

P«e. 

TOTbonilla(PyrgiacQH)hiBliM 106 

sabala 108 

wickhaml 106 

Ura 107 

cinctella 10S 

aduato 108 

UnmcU 109 

Subgenus Hormnla 110 

Key to the species of the Bubgenns Mormula 110 

TarbonillA (Uormnla) lordi Ill 

lepniL 112 

catolinensis 113 

' eechscbolUi 113 

tridentatft.... 114 

ambosta 116 

major 116 



pentalopba 117 

heterolopha 118 

ignacia 119 

periecellda 119 

phalera 120 

BubgenuH Dunkeria -.-. 120 

Key to the species o( tbe aubgenuB Dunkeria 121 

- Turbonilla (Dunkeria) sedillina 121 



hipoliteneis 123 

escolpa 123 

subangulate 124 

andrewai 124 

arata 125 

genilda 1 25 

Sabgenue PyrgisculuB 126 

Key to the spedee of the eabgenue Pyrgieculiia 126 

Turbonilla (PyrniBculus) moniiifera 126 

cancellata 1 27 

fcflUva , 1 27 



paucilireta . . 
Subgenus Asmunda 



Btenogyra 

• Genus OdoBtomia 

Key to the sul^nera of Odoetotoia 

clausiliiormis ... 

Key to a^^ ^ ealaamella.. 

Odostomia (Balaodella) laza 

ricbi 



TABLE OF OONTENTa IZ 

Page. 

Key to the species of the sabgenus Salaasia 134 

Odoetomia (Salaasia) tropidita 134 

scalariformis 136 

Subgenus fiesla 135 

Key to the species of the subgenus Besla 136 

Odostomia (Besla) convexa 136 

callimorpha 186 

Subgenus Chrysallida 186 

Key to the species of the subgenus Ghiysallida ,.. 187 

Odoetomia (Chrysallida) reigeni 186 

inconspicua 139 

telescopium 189 

excelsa 140 

acrybia 141 

communis 141 

torrita 142 

licina 143 

talama 143 

effusa 144 

paupercula 144 

clathratula 146 

ritteri 146 

linella 146 

eugena 147 

trachis 148 

lucca 148 

Clementina 149 

oonisca 160 

oldroydi 160 

nodosa 161 

ovata 162 

cincta 152 

loomisi 153 

vicola 163 

astricta 164 

cooperi 166 

hipolitensis 166 

lapazana 166 

proxima 167 

tyleri 157 

scammonensis 158 

pulchra _ 158 

monterevensis 169 

pulcia 160 

virginalis 160 

defolinia 161 

contracta 162 

difficilis 162 

oregonensis 162 

benthina 163 

promeces 164 

pulcherrima 164 

vincta 165 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Odostomia (Chrysallida) faaciata 165 

helga 166 

sanctorum 167 

sapia 167 

rotundata 168 

deceptrix 169 

Sabgenos Pyignlina 169 

Odoetomia (Pyrgulina) marginata 169 

Subgenus £gila 170 

Key to the species of the subgenus Egila . 170 

Odostomia (Egila) lacunata 170 

poppei . . 170 

Subgenus Haldra 171 

Odostomia (Haldra) photis 171 

Subgenus Ividella 172 

Key to the species of the subgenus Ividella 172 

Odostomia (Ividella) pedroana 172 

navisa 173 

delmontensis 174 

quinquecincta 174 

orariana 175 

Subgenus Miralda 176 

' Key to the species of the subgenus Miralda 176 

Odostomia (Miralda) hemphilli 176 

armata 177 

exarata 177 

terebellum 177 

sepynota 178 

galapagensis 179 

Subgenus Ivara 179 

Odostomia (Ivara) turricula 179 

Subgenus Evalina 180 

Key to the species of thesubgenus Evalina 180 

Odostomia (Evalina) americana 180 

intermedia 181 

Subgenus lolaea 181 

Key to the species of the sub^nus lolaea 181 

Odostomia (lolaea) amianta 182 

eucosmia 183 

delicatula 183 

Subgenus Menestho 184 

Key to the species of the subgenus Menestho 184 

Odostomia (Menestho) grammatospira 185 

pharcida 185 

exara 186 

ziziphina 186 

recta 1 87 

amilda 187 

callipyrga 188 

farma 188 

enora 189 

chilensis 189 

fetella 189 

hypocorta 190 

flBqniflcalpta 191 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. XI 

Page. 

Odo0tomia(Mene8tho)harfordensi8 191 

gablirulata 192 

Sabgenofl Eyalea 192 

Key to the species of the subgenus Evalea 193 

Odostomia (Evalea) uunivakensis 194 

killisnooensis 195 

tillamookensis 195 

edlda 196 

aleutica 196 

kadiakensis 197 

herilda ^. 197 

tenuis 197 

valdezi 198 

nemo 198 

io 199 

piatoma 199 

septentrionalis 200 

capitana 200 

jewetti 201 

inflata 201 

Columbiana 202 

onalaskensis 203 

atosea 203 

obesa 203 

lucasana 204 

phanea 204 

phanella 205 

santarosana 205 

tenuisculpta 206 

ang:ularis 207 

socorroensis 208 

donilla 208 

califomica 208 

serilla 209 

tacomaeiisis 209 

amchitkana 210 

stephensi 210 

clessini 211 

minutissima 211 

raymondi 212 

gravida 212 

notilla 213 

movilla ^13 

altina 214 

profundicola 214 

baranoffensis 215 

sitkaensis 215 

hagemeisteri 216 

resina 216 

deliciosa 216 

parella 217 

granadensis 217 



XII TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Subgenus Axnaura 218 

Kmy to the species of the subgenus Amaura 218 

Odostomia (Amaura) lastra 219 

kennerleyi 219 

elsa 220 

beringi 220 

satiira 221 

fiirallonensis 221 

siUana 222 

talpa 222 

krausei 223 

* orcia 223 

gouldi 224 

arctica 224 

avellana 225 

moratora ' 225 

pesa 226 

nota 226 

iliuliukensis 227 

nuciformis 227 

canfieldi 228 

Bubturrita 228 

martensi 229 

Subgenus Scalenostoma 229 

Key to the species of the subgenus Scalenostoma 230 

Odostomia (Scalenostoma) dotella 230 

rangii 230 

Subgenus Heida 231 

Odostomia (Heida) panamensis 231 

Subgenus Odostomia 231 

Key to the species of the saligenus Odostomia 232 

Odostomia (Odostomia) farella 232 

dinella 232 

ooronadoensis 233 

mammillata 233 

Explanation of plates 236 

Index 249 



A MONOGRAPH OF WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDRLUD 

MOLLUSKS. 



By William Healet Dall and Paul Babtsgh, 

0/ the Divigion of Mollushs, U. S, Natianal Mmeum, 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Pyramidellidffi are a family of mollusks mostly of small size 
and world-wide distribution. No record of unmistaJsable Pyrami- 
dellidsB has been fomid in the Cretaceous faunas, though such may 
occur, but they are numerous in the Tertiaries and perhaps most 
fully represented in the existing faunas. 

Numerous names have been applied to them; sometimes a particu- 
lar group has been supposed to have no pUcation on the pillar, a mis- 
take which can be corrected by grinding down the whorls so as to 
expose the interior more fully than may be done by inspecting the 
natural aperture. The plication in such cases is present, but falls 
short of reaching a point where it can be observed through the 
aperture. 

In all the species of which the soft parts are known the external 
anatomy is very similar. In examining a large number of species, as 
noted by Fischer, intermediate types occur, until it becomes a matter 
of great diflSculty to decide where, if anywhere, the generic lines can 
be drawn. It is not surprising that some authors have resorted to 
the expedient of regarding most of the species, notwithstanding the 
contrasted extremes of the series, as belonging to a single genus. 
When a group is composed of such a multitude of species, it seems 
more convenient in practice and leads more efficiently to clear 
thinking to take the other view, and subdivide the groups sufficiently 
to make it reasonably clear where a given species belongs in the 
series. 

In the absence of anatomical characters it has been necessary to 
fall back in large part on the form and sculpture of the shell the 
presence or absence of an umbilicus, and the character of the plica- 
tions on the piUar, as distinctive characters, although it must be 
admitted that between the different sections some intermediate forms 
may occur. So many names have been applied to members of the 

I 



2 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

group that in most cases it has not been necessary to coin new 
denominations. The synonymy, which is often much involved, is 
treated of in the text which follows. 

The classification adopted is essentially that proposed by us in our 
synopsis of the family published in February, 1904. Some revision 
and some additions as was expected have been found necessary. 

Many of the specific names given in the past by different authors 
have been repeatedly used for different species, rendering it neces- 
sary in many cases to give new ones. In all cases the synonymy of 
group names adopted has been based on researches which began 
with the typical species of the original authors, which in the case of 
some of the more anciently named forms has involved no Uttle 
labor. 

When any doubt existed in regard to the internal characters the 
specimens have been ground down until the pillar has been made 
visible over a great part of its extent, and in all cases the characters 
recorded are the result of microscopical examination. Only a few 
of the many named forms have been inaccessible, as the collection of 
the U. S. National Museum is remarkably rich in species of this 
group, while the junior author, during a recent visit to England, has 
been able to examine the original types of Carpenter and Adams in 
the British Museum, and later visited Amherst, Massachusetts, to 
confirm earUer notes on the types contained in the C. B. Adams 
collection, the property of Amherst College. The Zoological Museum 
of Berlin, Germany, submitted its entire collection for study, and the 
authorities of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and of Amherst College, of the 
University of CaUfomia, of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, of the 
Field Museum of Chicago, of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York City, granted faciUties for study, for photographing 
type-specimens or at various times loaned material required for 
study. The faciUties of the National Museum have, of course, been 
at the disposition of the writers, and most of the types of species form 
part of its collection. 

The amount of assistance rendered by private correspondents and 
collectors has been very large. Many of the friends of the Museum 
have sent in all their Pyramidellid material, and have allowed it to 
remain for study, in some cases several years. Others have gener- 
ously resigned the opportunity of working up themselves the material 
they had collected and have donated to the Museum type-specimens 
of rare and even unique forms. For this generous assistance we are 
deeply indebted. Among those to whom we desire to make the most 
cordial acknowledgment are Mr. and Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd, Mr. Herbert 
N. Lowe, and Mrs. Eshnaur, of Long Beach, California; Dr. Fred 
Baker, Prof. F. W. Eelsey, Mrs. Kate Stephens, Mr. Heniy Hemphill, 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 8 

Mr. C. W. Gripp, of San Diego; Mr. Fred L. Button, of Oakland; Mr. 
S. S. Berry and Mr. J. H. Paine, of Stanford University; Rev. Dr. 
G. W. Taylor, of Nanaimo, British Columbia; Hon. Delos Arnold and 
Dr. Ralph Arnold, of Pasadena, California; and Dr. R. E. C. Steams, 
of Los Angeles, California; Mr. E. A. Smith, of the British Museum, 
and Dr. G. W. Chaster, of Southport, England. Among those who 
have contributed material bearing on the general subject though not 
on the West American fauna in particular, we are especially indebted 
to Rev. H. W. Winkley, of Danvers, Massachusetts. Material in 
the collection of the U. S. National Museum, contributed without 
special reference to this monograph, was received from Mr. Belding, 
Mr. S. A. L. Brannan, Mr. Blood, Mr. J. G. Cooper, Mr. P. P. Carpenter, 
Dr. W. H. Dall, Mr. G. H. Eldridge, Mr. W. J. Fisher, Mr. Hansen, 
Dr. George Hewston, Mr. O. B. Johnston, Mr. E. Jewett, Mr. Trevor 
Kincaid, Mr. C. B. Kennerley, Mr. A. Krause, Mrs. Merrihew, Dr. C. F. 
Newcombe, Capt. H. Nichols, U. S. Navy, Mr. C. R. Orcutt, Dr. E. 
Palmer, Mr. E. S. Roper, Mr. J. G. Swan, Mr. J. O. Snyder, Mr. Turrill, 
Mr. F. Woodworth, and Mr. J. Xantus. We have had the advantage 
of consulting specimens from the Eocene of the Paris Basin, named by 
M. Maurice Cossmann, of Paris. Lastly, the Jeffreys collection with 
its multitude of specimens, author's examples, types, and cotypes, 
of British, abyssal Atlantic, north European, and Mediterranean 
species, has been a means of reference without which we should have 
been in numerous instances most seriously handicapped. 

The senior author desires to say that with the exception of this 
introduction and a certain amount of editorial supervision and 
advisory assistance, the labor of microscopically studying the. speci- 
mens and preparing the manuscript of this paper is the work of the 
junior author, to whom the credit should be given. This labor has 
been very great and has been performed in the intervals of other work 
officially more pressing. We hope, therefore, that friends who have 
from time to time intrusted us with material which has often been 
retained for a considerable time before being returned to its owners, 
will make allowances for what has in no case been intentional delay 
or neglect. 

We may here repeat an explanation printed in 1904, that the 
Museum Calonnianum is an anonymous pamphlet with no pub- 
Usher's name attached to it, no diagnosis or figures, and which was not 
prepared by George Humphrey, the dealer who distributed it. We 
have therefore declined to regard the name ObeliscuSy which is con- 
tained in it, as having been regularly published, or as having preced- 
ence over PyramideUa Lamarck. 

A brief historical review of the progress of the study of the Pyra- 
midellidiB on the western shores of the two Americas may be in 
plaoehexe. 



4 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

While it is probable that Hugh Cuming, in the first third of the 
nineteenth century, during his researches on the coast of western 
South America, may have collected some Pyramidellidae, the system- 
atists who described his novelties after his return to England were 
long busy with the larger, more attractive, and more conspicuous 
shells. 

The first PyramideUid described was named by Alcide D'Orbigny 
in 1840, in the report of his voyage to South America, the Chemnitzia 
eara from Peru. 

The next contribution was that of Prof. C. B. Adams, of Amherst 
College, in his account of the shells of Panama, published in 1852, in 
the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. It 
included the following species: Pyramidella conica; Chemnitzia acur 
leu8, acundruUa, affinis, dathraivla, communis, gracUiorf m4ijor, m/ir- 
ginata, panamensis, similis, striosa, turrita; Oirigula inconspicua, 
paupercula, terebeUum, and turrita. 

In the same year Dr. A. A. Gould described, in the Boston Journal 
of Natural History, from Mexico and the Gulf of California, the fol- 
lowing species : Odostomia gravida and achates; Chemnitzia torquata. 

In 1854, Earl Theodor Menke, in the Malakozoologische Blatter, 
described PyramideUa bicolor, from California. In the same year Arthur 
Adams, editing the Pyramidellidae of Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchy- 
liorum, named Oheliscus hastatus and clavulus. 

The most numerous addition to the known species of the coast yet 
made appeared in 1856 in the Mazatlan Catalogue of the Reigen col- 
lection in the British Museum, by Dr. Philip P. Carpenter. This 
comprised the following forty species: Odostomia subUmlata, lamsl- 
laia, suhsulcata, vaUata, mximmiUata, tenuis; Parthenia scalariformis, 
quinquedncta, lacunata, armata, exarata, ziziphina; ChrysaUida ovata, 
nodosa, rotundata, ohlonga, telescopium, reigeni, effusa, fasdata, ovulum, 
convexa, photis, indentata, clausUiformis; Chemnitzia c-b-adam^, muri- 
cata, prolongaia gibbosa, gradUima, undata^ flavescens, terebraJis, ienuir 
lirata, unifasdaia; Dunkeria paudlirata, subangulata y cxin4^eTlata, inter- 
m^dia; and Eulimella obsoleta. Camera drawings of these by Doctor 
Carpenter are among the archives of the U. S. National Museum. 

Morch, in the Malakozoologische Blatter for 1859, describes Turbo- 
niUa craticulata, subula, and dnctella. Baird in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, 1863, names Chemnitzia Vancouver ensis. 

In the report of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science for 1863, Dr. P. P. Carpenter names the following species: 
Pyramidella adamsi; Obeliscus variegatus; Odostomia nuciformis^ and 
variety avellana, 0, satura and variety gouldii, 0. injlata, strnmin^a, 
tenuisculpta^ dncta, and pumila; DunJceria laminata; Chemnitzia tri- 
dentata, chocolata varieties aurantia, subcuspidata, and stylina, C. 
virgo; all these have a few words of diagnosis, but not enough to 



WEST AMEBICAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 5 

identify them. They were more fully described later. The same 
author in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for 1864, 
pi^es 46-47, describes Oheliscus variegatua, Odostomia (EvcUea) sequir 
sculpta and ddicatuUi, and Chrysdllida anguata. In the same pubU- 
cation for 1865 he describes Odostomia sdtara, govMiiy nudformis, 
aveUana, tenuiscul'pta, and injlata; Chemnitzia crehrifilata, variety sty- 
Una, and virgo; DunJceria laminata; and Chemniizia ccdata. 

In the Journal de Conchyliologie for April, 1865, Doctor Carpenter 
names Odostomia straminea, CTiemnitzia tridentata, and (var. ?) auran- 
tia. The last contribution to the knowledge of this group made by 
Doctor Carpenter was during the following year, when in the Pro- 
ceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, page 219, he describes 
OhryaaUida pumiia. 

William M. Oabb, in the same pubhcation (p. 186) a year earUer 
had added TurboniUa graciUima (now T, gabbiana) to the California 
fauna. 

In a separate publication on the minute shells found on imported 
pearl oysters, and entitled '*Les M616agrinicoles,*' in 1867 the Mar- 
quis de Folin describes from the Pacific coast (?) TurboniUa f estiva and 
Chemniteia rangii. 

In 1870, in the American Journal of Conchology, page 66, Dr. J. G. 
Cooper changes the preoccupied name TurboniUa gra4siUima Gabb 
into T. gabbiana Cooper. 

In the series entitled '^Les Fonds de la Mer," vol. 2, 1872, the Mar- 
quis de Folin describes the following species: Salassia carinata; 
Noemia proxima, pulchra, angusta, with varieties contrdcta and ovata; 
Odetta recta and elegans. 

Among some Vancouver shells described in the Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History for 1880, by Mr. E. A. Smith, we find Chem/- 
nitzia lordi. 

In the report on the Gastropoda of the Blake expedition, 1889, 
Dall describes PyramideUa auricoma; and in the Bulletin of the 
Natural History Society of British Columbia, 1897, page 14, he 
names Mumiola tenuis, subsequently found to be preoccupied, and 
renamed Odostomia (Menestho) phardda Dall and Bartsch. 

In Zoe (vol. 4, 1894, p. 395), Hemphill named a shell EulimeUa 
ocddeniaMs, but this has proved not to be a Pyramidellid. 

In a monograph in the new edition of the Conchylien Cabinet of 
Martini and Chemnitz, Clessin named Odostomia Tcrausei and pana- 
mensis, in 1900. 

In a memoir by Dr. Ralph Arnold on the Marine Pliocene and 
Pleistocene of San Pedro, California, the portion relating to the 
PyramidellidsB was prepared by the authors of the present paper, 
March, 1903. Twenty-three species are treated of, the types of 
which are in the National Museum, and of these the following are 
266&— BuU. 68—09 2 



6 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

regarded as new: Turhonilla penUdopJuif auricoma, latifundia, lowei 
and variety pedroana, amoldi, and adleri; Odostomia steamsii, die- 
gensiSf and grammatospira. 

In 1904, the present authors prepared and published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington a Synopsis of the 
Genera, Subgenera, and Sections of the Family Pyramidellidae. This 
hardly admits of condensation, but contains numerous new divi- 
sional names and the descriptions of the following new species serving 
as types of groups named in the table: PyramideUa (SulcorineUa) 
dodona, Turhonilla (BaMra) archeri, Odostomia (Vilia) pUshryi, and 
Odostomia (Evalina) a/mericana, of which, however, only the last- 
mentioned is a native of the Pacific coast. 

In 1906, through the kind intervention of the late Prof. Eduard 
von Martens, in charge of the conchological collection of the Berlin 
Zoological Museum, we received for study their entire series of Pyra- 
midellidae, including numerous author's types derived from many 
sources, of which the most important were from the collections of 
the late Henry and Arthur Adams, of Paetel, of Dunker, of Clessin 
and of Hilgendorf. Numerous species inadequately described by 
Arthur Adams were included, and were for the first time figured and 
placed on a valid basis in the report on this collection." Among the 
species discussed or described from the west coast of America in this 
report were the following: Odostomia (EvaJea) sitka'ensis Clessin, 0. 
(Amaura) martensin. n., 0. (A.) iraw^gi Clessin, 0. (Heida) panamensis 
Gessin; PyramideUa (Longchseus) hicolor Menke, P. (PharddeUa) 
hastata A. Adams, and P. (P.) moffati, n. n. 

In 1907,* the present writers discussed the Pyramidellid moUusks 
of the Oregonian faunal area. In that paper the following new 
species, or names^ appear for the first time: Turhonilla giUi (and 
subspecies delmorUensis) \ T. (CTiemnitzia) montereyensis n. n. (= gah- 
hiana J. G. Cooper), T, (C.) muricatoides; T {StrioturhoniUa) serrse; 
T {Pyrgolampros) taylori, T. (P.) herryi, T (P.) lyaUiy T, (P.) vic- 
toriana, T (P.) valdezi, T. (P.) newcomhei, T (P.) oregonensis; T 
(Pyrgiscus) canfieldif T, (P.) Tticrchij T (P.) aniestriataj T (P.) 
eucosmoha^, T, (P.) ca^tanea (= castaneUaj Dall, later); T. {Mor- 
mvla) eschschoUzi; Odostomia (ChrysaUida) cooperi, 0. (C.) astricta, 
0. (C) montereyensis y 0, (C.) oregonensis ^ 0, Uvidia) navisa (and sub- 
species delmo7\iensis)\ 0, (lolsea) amiania; 0. (Menestho) pharcida 
n. n., 0. (M,) harfordensisj 0, (M,) exara; 0. (Evalea) tiUamooJcensis, 
0. (E.) angularis, 0, (E.) jewetti, 0, (E.) Columbians, 0. (E.) delidosay 
0. (E.) tacoTna'ensisy 0. (E,) valdezij 0. (E,) phanea; 0, (Amuura) 
Icennerleyiy and 0, (A.) montereyensis (preoccupied, later 0, canfieldi 
Dall). 



a Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, pp. 321 to 369, with ten plates, 
frldem, vol. 33. 



WEST AMEBICAN PTRAMIDELUD M0LLU8K8. 7 

Two of the species above mentioned having been inadvertently 
given names which had already been used, W. H. Dall in the Nautilus 
for March, 1908, proposed the new names TurhoniUa (Pyrffiscus) 
castaneUa and Odostomia (Amaura) canfieldi, for T, caaianea and 0. 
mofUereyenais. 

In 1908,^ Dall describes Odostomia (Evalea) atossa from San Pedro, 
California. 

It would have extended this review to inordinate length had we 
attempted to refer to the instances where west American species are 
merely alluded to in the literature. 

The drawings with which the present paper is illustrated were 
mostly made by Miss Evelyn G. Mitchell; some of them were the 
work of our regretted collaborator, the late Dr. J. G. McConnell. 

The temperatures of seawater cited ih the text are in degrees of 
the Fahrenheit scale. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

Family PYRAMIDELLIDiE.* 

Gastropods with the radula absent or obsolete ; the operculum ovoid 
paucispiral, with the apex anterior, a thread-like arcuate ridge on the 
proximal side, the inner margin notched in harmony with the plaits 
of the pillar when prominent; foot short, moderately pointed behind, 
with a small opercuUgerous lobe above and sometimes a small tentac- 
ular appendix on each side, in front feebly auriculate or undulate ; 
mantle feebly canahferous on the right upper margin; a single 
branchia; verge subcylindric, elongate; head with two flattened 
subtriangular or elongate tentacles, connate, grooved or auriform 
in the larger forms, the funicles with a ciliated area; eyes behind or 
between the bases of the tentacles; below the tentacles an oral orifice 
from which extends a long retractile subcylindric proboscis, but 
there is no muzzle Uke that of Scala; below the oral orifice is an 
organ named by Lovftn the mentumy which is usually more or less 
medially grooved or fissured, and hence, at its anterior end, more 
or less bilobate, and extensile or retractile before or behind the 
front margin of the foot. The shell is turrited, with a plicate axis; 



aProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 34. 

^In the preparation of the present diagnoses the following terminology is used: 
"Axial sculpture/' the markings which extend from the summit of the whorls 
toward the umbilicus. 
The axial sculpture may be — 

"Vertical/' when the markings are in general parallelism with the axis of 
the shell. 
"Protractive," when the markings slant forward from the preceding suture. 
"Retractive/' when the markings slant backward from the suture. 
"Spiral aculpture," the markings following the directions of the coils of the 
whoris. 



8 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the outer lip frequently internally Urate; in the larger forms the 
aperture is obscurely channeled in front; the larval shell is sinistral 
the adult dextral, the former frequently set at an angle to the adult 
axis, or more or less immersed in the adult apical whorls; it is usually 
belicoid and smooth; the sculpture varies from nothing to ribbed, 
spirally sulcate or reticulate; the coloration when present usually 
reddish, brownish or yellow. The eggs are numerous and depos- 
ited in a lenticular mass. The distribution is world-wide, but the 
larger forms are mostly tropical. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA, SUBGENERA, AND SECTIONS. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. 

Genus PYRAMIDELLA Lamarck. 

Shell elongate-conic, whorls usually inflated and regularly increasing; the pillar 
with from one to three folds; the outer lip entire; the shell usually laiger than in 
TurbonUla. 

Type, — Trochiu dolabratus Linnseus. 

Genus TURBONILLA Risso. 

Shell cylindro-conic, many whorled, generally slender; columellar fold single, 
varying in strength, outer lip entire; shell usually smaller than in Pyrumidella and 
laiger than in Odostomia, 

Type. — TurbonUla typica Dall and Bart8ch=2\cr6ont7^ plicatula Risso, not Turbo 
pliodtalua Scacchi. 

Genus ODOSTOMIA Fleming. 

Shell usually short, few whorled, subconic or ovate; columellar fold single, vary- 
ing in strength, outer lip entire. 
Type. — Turbo plicatus Montague. 

Genus MURCHISONELLA Morch. 

Shell minute, cylindro-conic; outer lip with an anal sinus behind the periphery 
of the whorl; pillar with the plait obsolete or internal, whorls numerous and inflated. 
Type. — Murchisonella spectrum Mdrch. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA OF PTRAMU>ELLA.<> 

A' Columellar folds three. 
Shell umbilicated. 

Basal fasciole absent, surface polished, marked by extremely faint lines of 
growth and microscopic spiral striations. 

Subgenus Pyramidella Lamarck, s. s., 1799 (p. 19). 
Type, Trochua dolabratus Linnaeus. 

Basal fasciole present, surface less polished than in Pyramidella k. 8., marked 
by lines of growth and microscopic spiral striations. 

Subgenus Milda Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (1). 
Type, Obeliacus ventricosus Quoy. 

<* In order to keep the key in its present compact form we have placed all references 
to citations iwd sytoonyms^iit the end of the key. The numbers in brackets (1-45) 
following the names r^er to the citations. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYBAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 9 

A' Columellar folds three — Continued. 
Shell not umbilicated. 

Surface polished, marked only by fine lines of growth and microscopic spiral 
striations. 

Periphery sulcate. 

Subgenus Longchsua MOrch, 1875 (p. 21). 

Type, Pfframidella punctata Schubert and Wagner. 

Periphery not sulcate. 

Subgenus Volus|Mi Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (p. 19). 
Type, Pyramidella aurieoma Dall. 

Surface sculptured. 
Basal cords absent. 
Periphery sulcate. 

Shell marked by strong axial ribs which terminate at the pe- 
riphery, and microscopic spiral striations. 
Subgenus Pharcidella Dall, 1889 (p. 26). 
Type, Pharcidella folinii Dall. 

Shell marked by strong spiral keels and weak axial riblets. 
Subgenus Callolongch»us Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (2). 
Type, Pyramidella jamaiceniu Dall. 

Periphery not sulcate. 

Shell marked by strong axial ribs, intercostal spaces strongly 
spirally striated, aperture auricular. 
Subgenus Otopleura Fischer, 1885 (3). 

Type, Pyramidella auris-cati Chemnitz. 

Basal cords present. 

Shell marked by strong spiral ridges, moderately strong axial 
ribs and two basal cords. 
Subgenus Triptychus Mdrch, 1875 (4). 
Type, Triptychus niveus Mdrch. 
A^ Columellar folds two. 
Shell umbilicated. 

Surface polished, marked by very fine lines of growth and microscopic spiral 
striations. 

Subgenus Tiberia Monterosato, 1875 (5). 

Type, Ptframidella nitidula A. Adams. 

Surface polished, marked by fine lines of growth and strong spiral striations. 

Subgenus Ulfa Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (2). 

Type, Pyramidella ( Ulfa) coasTnanni Dall and Bartsch 

=Symola striata Cossmann. 

Surface marked by strong axial ribs, intercostal spaces spirally pitted; early 
post-nuclear whorls sculptured differently from the later ones. 

Subgenus Tropsas Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (2). 
Type, Pyramidella subulata A. Adams. 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Surface polished, marked by very faint lines of growth and microscopic 
spiral striations. 
Basal fascicle present. 

Subgenus Vagna Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (2). 
Type, Pyramidella pauTnotensis Tryon. 



10 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

A' Columellar folds two—Continued. 
Shell not umbilicated — Continued. 

Surface polished, marked by very faint lines of growth and microscopic 
spiral striations — Continued. 
Basal fasciole absent. 

Subgenus Eulimella Forbes, 1846 (6). 

Type, Eulimella crassula Forbes, =E. $cUlx Scacchi. 

Aperture subquadrate. 

Section Eulimella Forbes, s. s. 
Aperture suboval. 

Section Cossmannica Dail and Bartsch, 1904 (7). 

Type, Pyrarnidella clandestina Deshayes. 
A' Columellar fold one. 

Shell umbilicated. 

Surface polished, or with fine lines of growth and microscopic spiral striations. 

Peripheral sulcus absent. 

Subgenus Orinella Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (8). 

Type, Orina pinguicula A. Adams. 

Peripheral sulcus present. 

Subgenus Sulcorinella Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (8). 

Type, Pyramidella (Sulcorinella) dodorux, Dall and 

Bartsch. 
Shell not imibilicated. 

Large, heavy, elongated shells. 

Surface spirally Urate. 

Subgenus ActaMipyramis Fischer, 1885 (9). 

Type, Monoptygma striata Gray. 

Slender, medium sized shells. 

Surface polished, marked by fine lines of growth and microscopic spiral 
striations. 
Postnuclear whorls increasing slowly in size at first, then rapidly, 
lending the shell a mucronate appearance. 

Subgenus Styloptygma A. Adams, 1860 (10). 
Type, Monoptygma stylina A . Adams. 

Postnuclear whorls increasing regularly in size. 

Subgenus Syrnola A. Adams, 1860 (11). 
Type, Syrnola gradllima A. Adams. 

Aperture suboval. 

Section Syrnola A. Adams, s. s. 

Aperture subquadrate. 

Section Stylopsis A. Adams, 1860 (12). 
Type, Stylopsis typica A. Adams. 

Surface spirally striated. 

Subgenus Iphiana Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (8). 
Type, Syrnola densistriata Garrett. 

Surface axially and spirally striated with a strong spiral keel at the sum- 
mit of the whorls. 

Subgenus Syrnolina Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (8). 
Type, Syrnola rubra Pease. 

The status of Agaiha virgo A. Adams 1860, [Menestho, 1861, Myonia, 1861, Amxithis 
1861], is not known to us. From the meager description we are inclined to believe 
that it is allied to Actxopyramis Fischer. 



WEST AMERICAN PTEAMmSLLID M0LLU8K8. 11 

KBT TO THE 8UBQBNBRA OF TURBONILLA. 

A' Shells without basal keels. 
B ^ VariceB abeent. 

Spiral sculpture abeent, or if present consisting of microscopic striations 
only. 
Surface of the early post-nuclear whorls marked by feeble axial ribs, 
later ones smooth. 

Subgenus Ptycheulimella Sacco, 1892 (p. 59). 
Type, Tomatdla pyramidata Deehayes. 

SuT&ce marked by strong axial ribs which terminate at the periphery 
of the whorls, intercostal spaces excavated between the sutures. 
Nuclear whorls helicoid on planorboid. 

Subgenus Chemnitzia Orbigny, 1839 (p. 33). 
T3rpe, lieUmia campanellm Philippi. 

Nuclear whorl elongate pupoid. 

Subgenus Nisiturris Dall and Bartsch, 1906. 
T3rpe, Chemnitzia crystallina Dunker. 
Surface marked by strong axial ribs and intercostal spaces which extend 
over the periphery to the umbilical region. 

Subgenus Turbonilla Risso, 1826 (p. 29). 

Type, TvTboniUal^yj^ ^^^ ^^ Bartoch= 
^ '^ \plicala Risso. 

Spiral sculpture present, always stronger than microscopic striations. 
C * Axial sculpture consisting of well developed ribs. 

Spiral markings consisting of many very fine spiral striations. 
Aperture subquadrate. 

Shell with peripheral sulcus. 
Pselliogyra, new subgenus. 

Type, Turbonilla monocyda A. Adams. 
Shell without peripheral sulcus. 
Subgenus Strioturbonilla Sacco, 1892 (p. 40). 
Type, Strioturbonilla alpina Sacco. 

Aperture suboval. 

Subgenus Pyrgolampros Sacco, 1892 (p. 59). 

Type, Pyrgolampros mioperplicatulus Sacco. 

Spiral marking absent between the sutures, base strongly spirally 
lirate. 

Subgenus Sulcoturbonilla Sacco, 1892 (14). 
Type, Tomatella turricula Eichwald. 

Spiral markings consisting of strong striations. 
Summits of the whorls strongly shouldered. 

Subgenus Pyrgisculus Monterosato, 1884 (p. 126). 
Type, MeUmia acalaris Philippi. 

Summits of the whorls not strongly shouldered. 
Subgenus Pyrgiscus Philippi, 1841 (p. 74). 
Type, Melania ru/a Philippi. 

Spiral markings consisting of one or two strong punctate cords in 
the intercostal spaces between the sutures; whorls slightly shoul- 
dered. 

Subgenus Pyrgolidium Monterosato, 1884 (15). 
Type, Pyrgolidium roseum Montagu. 



12 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

A^ Shells without basal keels — Continued. 
B* Varices absent — Continued. 

Spiral sculpture present, always stronger than microscopic striations — Con. 
C* Axial sculpture consisting of well developed ribs — Continued. 

Spiral markings consisting of one or two strong cords; whorls some- 
what overhajiging. 

Subgenus Tragula Monterosato, 1884 (16). 
Type, Odostomiafenestmta Forbes. 

Spiral markings consisting of three to six raised threads between the 
sutures and lirations on the base; whorls strongly shouldered. 
Subgenus Dunkeria Carpenter, 1857 (p. 120). 
Type, Dunkeria subangulata Carpenter. 

C ^ Axial sculpture consisting of faint riblets 

Spiral markings consisting of strong raised threads. 
Subgenus Cingulina A. Adams, 1860 (17). 
Type, Cingulina dngulata Dunker. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of depressed lirations, sculpture granulosa. 
Subgenus Saccoina, new name (18). 
T3rpe, Spica monterosatoi Sacco. 

C Axial sculpture consisting of lines of growth only. 

Spiral markings consisting of many subequally spaced striations; 
sculpture finely reticulated. 

Subgenus Careliopsis Mdrch, 1874 (19) (p. 130). 

Type, Monoptygma (Careliopsia) styliformis Mdrch. 

C^ Axial sculpture absent. 

Spiral markings consisting of a broad strong fold at the summit of 
the whorls, separated from the rest of the whorl by a deep, broad, 
rounded sulcus. 

Subgenus Visma Ball and Bartsch (20). 
Type, Eulimella tenuis Sowerby. 
B' Varices present. 

Sur&u:e marked by axial ribs and strong spiral striations. 
Subgenus Mormula A. Adams, 1864 (p. 110). 
Type, Mormula rissaina A. Adams. 

Surface marked by axial ribs and strong spiral lirations, sculpture 
granulose. 

Subgenus Lancella Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (21). 
Type, Turhonilla (Lancea) elongata Pease. 

A' Shells with basal keels. 

Axial sculpture consisting of strong ribs. 
Spiral sculpture absent. 

Subgenus Asmunda Dall and Bartsch (p. 129). 
Type, Chemnitzia iwrrita C. B. Adams. 

Spiral sculpture present. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of strong ridges. 
Basal keels two. 

Subgenus Peristichia Dall, 1889 (22). 
Type, Peristichia tareta Dall. 

Basal keels three. 

Subgenus Babella Dall and Bartsch, 1906 (23). 

Type, Turbonilla (Babella) cstlatior Dall and Bartsch. 



WEST AMEBICAN PTBAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 18 

A' Sheila with basal keels — Continued. 

Axial sculpture consisting of strong ribe — Continued. 
Spiral sculpture present — Continued. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of two tumid ridges, one at the 
periphery the other at the summit of the whorls, and many 
fine striations in the intercostal spaces. 
Subgenus Baldra (24). 

Type, TurboniUa (Baldra) archeri Dall and Bartsch. 

Axial sculpture consisting of lines of growth only. 
Spiral sculpture consisting of faint lirations. 

Subgenus Discobasis Cossmann, 1888 (25). 
Type, Adculina demissa Deshayes. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA OP 0D08T0MIA. 

A^ Poetnuclear whorls sculptured similarly throughout. 
B * Varices absent. 

C ^ Axial ribs present, rounded. 

Spiral markings, when present, consisting of mere microscopic striations. 
Shell inflated. 

Summit of the whorls slightly shouldered. 

Subgenus Elodiamea De Folin, 1884 (26). 

Type, Odostomia (Elodiamea) giana, new name = 
Elodia eUgans De Folin, not Odostomia (Evalea) 
elegant A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell not inflated. 

Summit of the whorb not shouldered. 

Subgenus Odostomiella Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and 

Dollfus, 1883 (27). 
Type, Rissoa doliolum Philippi. 

Summit of the whorls tabulated. 

Subgenus Salassia De Folin, 1885 (p. 134). 

Type, Odostomia (Salassia) tropidita^ new name = 
Salassia carinata De Folin. 

Spiral markings consisting of a strong, broad, raised cord at the summit 
of the whorls, separated from the remaining part by a strongly impressed 
spiral groove. 

Subgenus Vilia Dall and Bartsch 1904 (28). 

Type, Odostomia ( Vilia) pilsbryi Dall and Bartsch. 

Spiral markings consisting of two tumid ridges, one at the periphery and 
one at the summit of the whorls; with many striations on the base. 
Subgenus Folinella Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (28). 
Type, Amxmra anguli/erens De Folin. 

Spiral markings consisting of several to many raised threads in the inter- 
costal spaces, always less strongly developed than the axial ribs. 
Intercostal s{>aces crossed by equally spaced, raised spiral threads, 
sculpture reticulated. 

Subgenus Trabecula Monterosato 1884. 

Type, Odostomia jeffreysiana Monterosato (29). 

Intercostal spaces crossed by several raised spiral threads, base not 
spirally marked. 

Subgenus Parthenina Bucquoy, Dautzenberg. 

and Dollfus, 1883 (30). 
Type, Turbo interstinctus Montagu. 



14 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL BiUSEUM. 

A^ Poetnuclear whorls sculptured similarly throughout — Continued. 
B* Varices absent — Continued. 

C* Axial ribs present, rounded — C<mtinued. 

Spiral markings consisting of several to many raised threads in the inter- 
costal spaces, always less strongly developed than the axial ribs — Con. 
Intercostal spaces crossed by several spiral threads, base spirally 
striated. 

Subgenus Besia Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (p. 135). 
Type, Chryiallida convexa Carpenter. 

Spiral markings consisting of strong, raised threads or cords, equal to 
or even stronger than axial ribs. 
Spiral cords equally spaced, and equally well developed between 
the sutures and on the base; sculpture nodulose throughout. 
Subgenus Mumiola A. Adams, 1864 (31). 
Type, Monoptygma apirata A. Adams. 

Spiral cords subequally spaced between the sutures, where the eculp- 
ture is nodulose; base spirally Urate and axially striated. 
Subgenus Chrysallida Carpenter, 1856 (p. 136). 
Type, Chemniuia communis C. B. Adams. 

Spiral cords confined to the base. 

Subgenus Egilina Dall and Bartsch, 1906. 

Type, Parthenia mariella A. Adams (45). 

Spiral markings consisting of impressed lines. 

Spiral striations subequally spaced, present between the sutures and 
on the base of the whorls. 

Subgenus Pyrgulina A. Adams, 1864 (p. 169). 
Type, ChryMllida casta A. Adams. 

Spiral striations on the base only, periphery deeply sulcated, axial 
ribs extending to the umbilical region. 

Subgenus Egila Dall and Bartsch 1904 (p. 170). 
Type, Parthenia lacunata Carpenter. 

Spiral striations on the base only, axial ribs terminating at the pe- 
riphery, which is not sulcated. 

Subgenus Spiralinella Chaster, 1901 (32). 
Type, Turbo spiralis Montagu. 

C ^ Axial ribs present, lamellar. 
Spiral markings lamellar. 

Ribs and spiral lamellee moderately strong, subequally spaced be- 
tween the sutures and on the base; sculpture cuspidate. 
Subgenus Haldra Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (p. 171). 
Type, Chrysallida photis Carpenter. 

Ribs and spiral lamellse few, very strong. 

Subgenus Ividella, new name (p. 172). 

Type, Odostomia {Ividia) navisa, Dall and Bartsch. 

C ' Axial ribs present but very feeble, usually only indicated near the sum- 
mit of the whorls. 
Spiral markings consisting of several strong, broad, tumid cords, one or 
more of the posterior cords crenulated. 

Subgenus Miralda A. Adams, 1864 (p. 176). 
Type, Parthenia diademn A. Adams. 



WEST AMBBICAN PTBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 15 

A' Postnuclear whorls Bculptured similarly througfaout— Continued. 
B' Varices absent — Continued. 

C* Axial ribs present but very feeble, usually only indicated near the sum- 
mit of the whirls — Continued. 
Spiral markings consisting of many subequally spaced lirations. 
Whorls tabulated at the sunmiit. 

Subgenus Ivara Dall and Bartsch, 1903 (p. 179). 

Type, Odostomia ( Jvara) turrictila Dall and Bartsch. 

Whorls not tabulated. 

Subgenus Evalina Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (p. 180). 

Type,OdMtomia{Evalina) americana Dall and Bartsch. 

C^ Axial ribs usually reduced to mere lirations, frequently only present 
between the spiral ridges. 
Spiral markings consisting of moderately well-developed cords usually 
equally spaced and present between the sutures and on the base; 
axial ribs indicated by faint threads between the spiral sculpture. 
Shell umbilicated. 

Subgenus lol&a A. Adams, 1867 (p. 181). 
Type, lole scUula A. Adams. 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Subgenus Menestho Mdller, 1842 (p. 184). 
Type, 7\arbo aUmlua Fabricius. 

C Axial ribs absent; axial sculpture represented by lines of growth only. 
Spiral markings consisting of many, usually subequally and universally 
distributed impressed lines. 
Shell elongate-conic. 

Subgenus Evalea A. Adams, 1860 (p. 192). 
Type, Evalea elegans A. Adams. 

Shell short, subglobose. 

Subgenus Oda Monterosato, 1901 (33). 

Type, Odostomia dolioli/ormis Jeffreys. 

C^ Axial sculpture absent, shell polished. 

Spiral markings consisting of two tumid ridges, one at the peripher>'. 
and the other at the summit of the whorls. 

Subgenus Cyclodostomia Sacco, 1892 (34). 
Type, Cyclodostomia mutinensU Sacco. 

Spiral markings consisting of a more or leas conspicuous tumid ridge 
on the summit of the whorls. 

Subgenus Doliella Monterosato, 1880 (35). 
Type, Odostomia niteiis Jeffreys. 

Spiral markings consisting of a strong peripheral keel. 

Subgenus Scalenostoma Deshayes, 1863 (p. 229). 
Type, ScalenostoTna carinata Deshayes. 

Spiral markings consisting of a peripheral sulcus. 
Subgenus Jordaniella Chaster, 1898 (36). 
Type, Turbo nivosa Montagu. 

Spiral sculpture absent or indicated only by extremely fine micro- 
scopic lines of growth or stride; surface polished. 
Summits of the whorls with a strongly tabulated shoulder. 
Subgenus Spiroclimax Mdrch, 1874 (37). 
Type, Spiroclimax scalarU M6rch. 



16 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

A^ Postnucleaf whorls sculptured similarly throughout — Continued. 
B* Varices absent — Continued. 

C* Axial sculpture absent, shell polished — Continued. 
Summits of the whorls not tabulated. 
Columellar fold present. 

Peritreme discontinuous, aperture not rissoid. 
Shell inflated, very large. 
Subgenus Amaura Mailer, 1842 (p. 218). 
Type, Amaura Candida M5ller. 

Shell not inflated. 

Subgenus OdoAtomia Fleming, 1817 (p. 231). 

Shell of medium size. 
Section Odostomia ^eming, s. s. (p. 231). 

Type, Twrho plicatus MtmtBigu. 

Shell rather large. 
Section Stomega Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (38). 
Type, Odostomia conspicua Alder. 

Shell smaU. 
Section Brachystomia Monterosato, 1884 (39). 
Type, Odostomia rissoidea Hanley. 

Peritreme continuous, aperture rissoid. 

Subgenus Heida Dall and Bartsch, 1904 (p. 231). 
Type, Symola cahosa'insis Dall. 

Columellar fold obsolete. 
Shell umbilicated. 

Subgenus Myxa Hedley, 1903 (40). 
Type, Myxa exesa Hedley. 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Peritreme continuous, aperture rissoid. 
Subgenus Pseudorissoina Tate and May, 1900 (41) 
Type, Stxlifer tasmanica Tenison-Woods. 

Peritreme not continuous, aperture not rissoid. 
Subgenus Liostomia O. Sars., 1878 (42). 
Type, Rissosllaf ebumea Stimpson. 
B ' Varices present. 

Shell smooth, axial sculpture indicated by a few varices, spiral sculpti 

wantinsr. 

Subgenus Oceanida De Folin; 1870 (43). 
Type, Oceanida gradata De Folin. 

Shell with sublamellar axial ribs. 
Salassiella new subgenus (p. 133). 

Type, Odostomia (Salassiella) laxa new species. 

A* Early postnuclear whorls sculptured differently from the later ones. 

Early postnuclear whorls loosely coiled, plain; later ones closely coiled witl 

spiral keel at the periphery and one at the summit of the whorls; base spira 

Urate. 

Subgenus Lysacme Dall and Bartsch (p. 132). 

Type, Chrysallida dausiliformis Carpenter. 

Early postnuclear whorls axially ribbed, succeeded by one or two strongly spira 
and faintly axially lirate whorls; the rest of the whorls are marked by a reti' 
lated sculptiue consisting of raised axial and spiral cords. 

Subgenus Obtortio Hedley, 1899 (44). 

Type, Rissoa pyrrhaeme Melvill and Standen, 1899 



WEST AMEBIC AK PYBAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 17 



REFERENCES TO CITATIONS AND STNONOMT OF THE GENERA, SUBOENEBA, AND SCO 

TIONS OF THE FAMILY PTRAMiDELLIDiB. 

The page references after a name in the key refer to the present paper, while the 
Dumbere refer to the data cited below. 

(1) Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 4. 

(2) Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 5. 

(3) Man. de Conch., 1886, p. 787. 

(4) Malak. Bl&tt., vol. 22, 1875, p. 158. 

(5) Tiberia Monterosato, Atti Acad. Palermo, 1875, pp. 5, 31=7V6ma Jeffreys, Proc. 

Zool. Soc., 1884, p. SeS= Tiberiola Cossmann, Rev. Crit. Pal., vol. 4, 1900, 
p. 44. AU have the tame type. 

(6) Mimella Forbes, Ann Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, 1846, p. 412+ Loxoptyxis Coss- 

mann, Cat. Coq. Fob. Env. Paris, 1888, p. 103; type, Symola conuliu 
CoBBmBjm;-\-Belon%dium Cossmann, Jomn. de Conch., vol. 40, 1892, p. 360. 
Type, Aciculina gracilis Cossmann. 

(7) Cownannica Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 6=Z>ip- 

tyckus Cossmann, Cat. Coq. Fos. Env. Paris, 1888, p. 96; type, Pyramiddla 
dandettina Deshayes, not Diptychtis Milne Ekl wards, 1880. 

(8) Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 6. 

{9} Acixopyramia Fischer, Man. de Conch., 1886, p. 7S7 ^Monotygma Gray, Syn, 
Brit. Mus., 1840; typographical error for Mcmoptygma; type, Monotygma 
ttriata Gray, not Monoptygma Lea, Tert. Form. Ala., SuppL, 1863, p. 203. 

(10) Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 1860, p. 406. 

(11) Symola A. Adams, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 1860, p. 40b;-\-Anisoqfcla 

Monterosato, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vol. 6, 1880, p. 72; type, Aclis nitidisnTna 
Montagu 4- ^ot/dltmux Bayan, Bull. Soc. Geol. Paris, 3d ser., vol. 1, 1873, p. 236; 
type, Aciculina gracilis Deshayes, not Baudxmia Mabille, 1868 ;=/?apM'um 
Bayan, Etud. faites dans la Coll. de TEcole de Mines sur des Foss., Nov., 
1873, p. 106; type, Aciculina gracilis Deshayes, not Raphium Meigen, 1864;= 
Aciculina Deshayes, Des Anim. s. Vert. Basin Paris, 1864, pp. 530-631; type, 
Aciculina gracilis Deshayes. 

(12) Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 1860, p. 406. 

(13) Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 1906, p. 341. 

(14) 1. Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 92. 

(15) Conch. Medit., 1884, p. 89. 

(16) Conch. Medit., 1884, p. 86. 

(17) Cingulina A. Adams, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 1860, p. 414;-\-Oscilla 

A. Adams, Idem, 1860, p. 418; type, Oscilla lirata A. AdamB;-{- Polyspirella 
Carpenter, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 7, 1861, p. 407; type, Chemnitzia 
tradualis Gould. 

(18) Saeooina Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. S=Spica 

Sacco, I. Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 63; type, Spica monte^ 
rosatoi Sacco, not Spica Swinhoe, 1889. 

(19) Malak. Bl&tt., vol. 22, 1876, p. 169. 

(20) Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 8. 

(21) LanceUa Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. S=Lancea 

Pease, Am. Joum. Conch., vol. 3, 1867, p. 293; type, Twrhonilla (Lancea) 
elongata Pease, not Lancia Walker, 1859. 

(22) Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1889, p. 339. 

(23) Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 1906, p. 347. 

(24) Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 9. 

(25) Cat. Coq. Foe. Env. Paris, 1888, p. 113. 



18 BULLETIN 68^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(26) Elodwmea De Folin, Zool. Record, vol. 22, 1885, p. 94;=EMia De Folin, La 

M616agrinicole8, 1867, p. 66; type, Elodia elegant De Folin, not EhSa 
Desvpidy, \%^\-\-Herviera Melvill and Standen, Joum. Conch., vol. 9, 1897, 
p. 185; type, Pyrgulina glineUa Melvill and Standen. 

(27) Moll. Roufisillon, 1883, p. 167. 

(28) Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 110. 

(29) Notiz. Conch. Medit., 1872, p. 41. 

(30) Moll. Roussillon, 1883, p. 168. 

(31) Joum. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 7, 1864, p. 5. 

(32) Spiralinella Chaster, Joum. Conch., vol. 10, 1901, p. 8; type, Turbo $piraU^ 

Montag\i=^Spiralina Chaster, Proc. Royal Irish Acad., 3d s^., vol. 5, 18CS 
(p. 20 reprint). Same type, not Spiralina, Hartman, 1840. 

(33) Joum. Conch., vol. 10, 1901, p. 8. 

(34) I. Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 46. 

(35) Doliella Monterosato, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vol. 6, 1880, p. 73; type, Odo$Umim 

nitena JefEreys-f- ^urio^tomia Monterosato, II. Nat. Sicily, 1885, p. 20;'typey 
Odostomia erjaveciano Brusina. 

(36) Jardaniella Chaster, Proc. Royal Irish Acad., 3d ser., vol. 5, 1898 (pp. 20-21 

reprint); type. Turbo nivo8a Montagu, Jordanula Chaster, Joum. Conch., vol. 
10, 1901, p. 59, same type. 

(37) Malak. Blatt., vol. 22, 1875, p. 168. 

(38) Stomega Dall and Birtsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 13; type, 

Odostomia conspicua Aiders Megastoma Monterosato, Conch. Medit., 1884, p. 
94, same type. 

(39) Conch. Medit., 1884, p. 94. 

(40) Mem. Austr. Mus., vol. 4, 1903, p. 362. 

(41) Proc. Royal Soc. Tasmania, 1877, p. 152. 

(42) Moll. Reg. Arct. Norveg., 1878, p. 205. 

(43) Ponds de la Mer., vol. 1, 1870, pp. 264-265. 

(44) Mem. Austr. Mus., vol. 3, 1879, pp. 412-413. 

(45) Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 1906, p. 354. 

WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID^. 

Genus PYRAMIDELLA Lamarck. 

PyramiikUa Lamarck, Prod, d'un Nouv. Class, des Coq., 1799, p. 76. =0&«2iacii« 
ANONYMOUS, Museum Calonnianum, 1797, p. 24. = Pyramidellus Montfobt, 
Conch. Syst., vol. 2, 1810, p. 499. 

Shell elongate-conic, increasing regularly in size with three folds on 
the columella in the subgenera PyramideUa, MildUy LongchseuSj 
Voluspay PharcideUa, CallolongchseuSj Otopleuraj and Triptychus; of 
these the first two are umbilicated, the rest imperforate. The fol- 
lowing subgenera have two columellar folds, umbilicated: Tiima, 
Ulfdj and Tropaeas; imperforate: Vagna^ Eulimellaj and Cossmanica, 
In the unipli(*ate members Orinelln and SulcorineUa are umbilicated 
and AcUeojyyramis, Sfyloptygma, Symola, Stylopsis, IpManaj and 
Symolinu imperforate. The shell is usually strongly polished and 
porcellanous in luster. 

Type, — Trochus dolabratus Linnaeus. 

This genus is represented on the west coast by the subgenera Pyrd- 
mideUa, Langchseus, Voluapa, and PJtarddella. 



WEST AMEBIGAN PYRAMIBELLID M0LLU8KS. 19 

KEY TO THE SUBOENBBA OF PTBAMIDELLA. 

SheU with axial ribs Pharcidella, p. 26. 

Shell without axial ribs. 

Shell umbilicated Pyramidella s. s., p. 19. 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Peripheral sulcus present LongchsmSy p. 21 . 

Peripheral sulcus absent Volmpa, p. 19. 

Subgenus FTBAXIDSLLA Lamarck, i. i. 

Pyramidella Lamarck, Prod, d'un Nouv. Class, dee Coq., 1799, p. 76. = Oheliicus 
ANONYMOUS, Museum Calonnianum, 1797, p. 24. = Pyram\deUu9 Montfobt, 
Conch. Syst., vol. 2, 1810, p. 499. 

Shell of many whorls, turrited, umbilicated; columella with three 
folds; outer lip usually reenforced within, at irregular intervals, by 
spiral lamellar thickenings. The sculpture consists of mere lines of 
growth and very fine spiral striations. 
Type. — Trochus dolahratus Linnseus. 

PTRAMmSLLA (PTRAICDBLLA) BAIRDI, new ^mIm. 

Plate 1, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-white, with a narrow pale yellow band 

at the periphery, deeply, broadly umbilicated. Nuclear whorls at 

least two and one-half, forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis 

is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which 

it is about one-half immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well roimded. 

faintly roundly shouldered at the summit. Sutures well impressed. 

Periphery and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, well rounded. 

Entire surface of spire and base marked by exceedingly fine lines of 

growth, and microscopic closely spaced spiral striations. Aperture 

rather large ; posterior angle acute ; outer lip thick within, where it 

is reenforced by six short spiral lirations, three of which fall anterior 

and three posterior to the periphery; columella straight, slender, 

provided with three folds, the posterior of one of which is strongly 

lamellar and at some little distance anterior to the insertion; the 

other two are less strongly developed and much more oblique. 

The type (Cat. no. 73932, U.S.N.M.) has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 5.1 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. It comes from 
the Gulf of California. 
Named for W. Baird. 

Siibfenns VOLXJSPA Dall and Bartsch. 
Voluspa Ball and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 4. 

Shell of many whorls, turrited, smooth, devoid of all sculpture 
other than mere lines of growth; not umbilicated; columella pro- 
vided with three folds; outer lip frequently reenforced within at 
irregular intervals by spiral lamellar thickenings. 

Type. — Pyramidella cmricoma Dall. 



20 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

KIBY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS VOLUSPA. 

Adult of 11 whorle, slender, length under 15 mm. . : auricom/a- 

Adult of 11 whorls, stout, length over 25 mm cdroaewM*- 

PYRAMIDELLA (VOLUSPA) AURICOMA Dall. 

Plate 1, fig. 3. 

Pyramidella auriooma Dall, Blake Report, Gastropoda, 1889, p. 332. 

Shell regularly elongate-conic, yellowish-white, with fine goldeiB. 
yellow spiral lines between the sutures and on the base. Nuclear* 
whorls small, deeply obliquely immersed in the first post-nuclear* 
turn. PoSt-nuclear turns well roimded, feebly shouldered at the 
summit, scarcely a^ all contracted at the sutures. Sutures weakly 
impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
smooth. Aperture ^irregularly oval; outer lip thin, reenforced deeply 
within by five stroi^ spiral cords, one of which is at the periphery, 
two divide the ppupQ between this and the summit into three equal 
parts, and two a Uttl^ less strong are on the base; columella strong, 
straight, posterior ffl|4 very strong and lamellar, obUque; anterior 
two about one-fourtl^ ^ high as the posterior, very obHque; parietal 
wall glazed by a thw pallus. 

The type (Cat. no. 39268, U.S.N.M') and two additional specimens 
were collected by Df, Edward Palmer in the Gulf of California. 
The type has ten post^-puclear whorls and measures: Length 10.6 
mm., diameter 3.8 mm. Another specimen (Cat. no. 168681, 
U.S.N.M.) comes from Mazatlan, Mexico. 

PYRAMmSLLA (VOLUSPA) CBRROSAIf A, new ipeciM. 

Plate 1, fig. 1. 

• 

Shell very large, broadly conic. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, moderately shouldered 
at the summit, and moderately contracted at the sutures. Sutures 
well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded. 
Aperture ?; outer lip reenforced within by seven spiral lirations, 
one of which is at the periphery, three between this and the suture, 
of which the one next to the periphery is the strongest of all seven, 
while the two posterior to it are the weakest; the three anterior to 
the periphery are equally spaced and grow successively weaker; 
columella strong, straight; posterior fold very strong, lamellar; 
anterior two about one-fourth as strong, very oblique. 

The type (Cat. no. 6332, U.S.N.M.) comes from Cerros Island, Lower 
California. It has lost the nucleus and early whorls; the ten remaining 
measure: Length 25.5 mm., diameter 10.2 mm. 



] 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 21 

Snbgenns LONGCHJEUS Mtfrch. 
Longchstus Morch, Malak. Blatt., vol. 22, 1875, p. 158. 

Shell elongate-conic, not umbilicated, having three columellar 
folds, a basal fasciole and peripheral sulcus. The entire surface is 
marked by fine lines of growth and microscopic spiral striations. 
Typ€. — PyrumideUa punctata Schubert and Wagner. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS LONOCHiBUS. 

Shell variegated adamn, p. 21. 

Shell not variegated. 

Shell roee-purple anteriorly bicohr, p. 22. 

Shell brown. 

Adult shell more than 18 mm. long mexicana^ p. 23. 

Adult shell less than 14 mm. long. 

Sutures very strongly channele<l arnica^ p. 23. 

Sutures moderately channeled mazatlanica^ p. 24. 

FYRAMIDELLA (LONGCHAUS) ADAMSI Carpenter. 

Plate 1, figs. 6, 6a. 

Pyranddella adamsi Carpenter, Rept. Moll. West Coast Amer. Brit. Ass. Adv. 
Sci. (for 1863), 1864, pp. 546, 547. = Obeliscus conicus jun. Carpenter, Cat. 
Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 409-10. = Obeliscus variegatus Carpenter, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 14, 1864, p. 46. 

The type of this species is a very young individual of five post- 
nuclear whorls which was taken from a species of Chama at Mazathm, 
Mexico. It is on tablet 1951 of the Liverpool collection in the 
British Museum. 

Shell elongate-conic, early whorls white, later ones diversely 
variegated, frequently dark brown on the later turns. It is this 
striking variegated color pattern which at once distin^iishcs this 
species from the other west American forms Tlie spaces between 
the sutures are crossed by light areas, which are vertical inlEte 
middle, bending suddenly forward at the periphery and the summit, 
thus forming ^shaped areas. The space immediately below the 
peripheral sulcus on the base has short light areas, corresponding to 
those above the sulcus, but with retractive slant. The space ])etween 
these light areas, near the summit, forms a series of elongated dark 
spots. The varices which are disposed at irregular intervals ai^ 
chestnut brown, preceded usually by a band of white. Posterior 
half of the base light chestnut brown; anterior white. Nuclear 
whorls small, two, forming a planorboid si)ire w hose axis is at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 
one-half immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened; moderately 
shouldered at the summit, which is crenulated. Periphery with a 
25e5— Bull. 68—09 3 



22 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



strong sulcus. Base moderately long, well rounded. Entire surface 
of spire and base marked by fine lines of growth and exceedingly 
fine, microscopic spiral striations. Aperture oval; outer lip thin, 
showing the following color marking within; a white zone at the 
periphery, a narrow chestnut band immediately posterior to the 
periphery and another at the summit, a broad band extending over 
half the base immediately below the peripheral zone; deep within, 
the lip is reenforced by five strong, spiral cords, one at the periphery, 
two on the base, and two between the periphery and the summit; 
columella strong, provided with a strong fasciole, posterior fold 
very strong, lamellar, anterior two very obUque, slender. 

The specimen figured (Cat. no. 11866, U.S.N.M.) comes from La 
Paz, Mexico. It has lost the nucleus, the twelve remaining whorls 
measure: Length 11.3 mm., diameter 3.8 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined: 



U. S. N. M. 
cat. no. 



56764 

46409 

109367 

194465 



105558 

34171 

11866 
46468 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



1 
7 
1 
1 



3 

1 

1 
2 



Locality. 



San Diego, California 

do 

do 

Station 2901, off 
Santa Rosa Island, 
California. 

Scammon Lagoon, 
Ix)wer California. 

La Paz. Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

do 



From whom 
received. 



Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 



Temp., 
deg. 



Steams coll 

n. Hemphill.... 
U.S. Fish Com. 



II. Hemphill. 



55.1 




L. Belding. 



Gulf of California. 



Steams coll. 



Disposition of 
material. 



U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Cat. no. 206854, U.S.N.M., contains a young individual from 
Monterey, California, which is much smaller and more slender than 
the typical form, and may prove to be a new species when perfect 
material s^j^UgMflM-ttTlTand. 

PYRAMIDELLA (LONGCHiBUS) BICOLOR Menke. 

Plate 1, fig. 2. 
PyramideUa bicolor Menke, Malak. Blatt., vol. 1, 1854, p. 28. 

Shell elongate-conic, shining. Early whorls white, the succeed- 
ing ones gradually acquiring a pinkish tinge, which deepens and 
finally tints the last whorl rose-purple. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls overhanging, flattened, shghtly shouldered and 
minutely crenulated, and deeply sulcato at the periphery. Sutures 
strongly impressed. Base short, moderately rounded, with a weak 
fasciole at the insertion of the columella. Aperture?; (outer lip 
badly fractured); columella conic, moderately strong, provided 
with a strong lamellar fold at its insertion, a moderately strong 
median one and a weaker anterior to it; the last two much more 
oblique than the posterior. 



WEST AMEBICAN PTBAMIDELLID MOLLUBKS. 23 

The specimen described and figured (Cat. no. 13522, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from GKiacamoyo, Mexico. It has eight post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 9.8 mm., diameter 3.5 mm. 

PTRAMmBLLA (LONOCHJBUS) MSZICANA, new ipeciM. 

Plate 1, fig. 12. 

Shell, large, robust, broadly conic, dull brown. (Nuclear whorls 
decollated.) All but the last post-nuclear whorl flattened, flatly 
aKouldered and crenulated at the summit; the last inflated and 
w^ell rounded. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a strong 
sulcus. Sutures chaimeled. Entire surface of spire and base 
inarked by lines of growth, which are quite prominent on the last 
turn. Base inflated, strongly rounded, with a slender fasciole at 
tlxe insertion of the columella. Aperture oval; posterior angle 
acute; slightly channeled anteriorly; outer lip thin, with a white 
band at the periphery, the remainder brown with darker colored 
lines, reenforced deeply within by five spiral cords, two of which 
SLre posterior and three anterior to the periphery; columella stout, 
clonic, with a strong lamellar fold at ite insertion and two much 
naore oblique ones anterior to it. 

The type (Cat. no. 105558, U.S.N.M.) comes from Scammon La- 
Soon, Lower California. It has lost the nucleus and probably the 
fii^t post-nuclear turn; the thirteen remaining measure: Length 19 

^tun., diameter 6.5 mm. Another specimen (Cat. no. 56764, U.S.N.M.) 

'^as collected at San Diego, California. 

PYRAMn>ELLA (LONOCHJBUS) CONICA C. B. Adams. 

Plate 1, fig. 9. 
Pyramidella conica C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 1852, p. 424. 

Shell very regularly elongate, conic. Early whorls flesh-colored; 
later ones light brown with an occasional varix of flesh color. Nu- 
clear whorls at least two and one-half, depressed helicoid, having 
their axis almost at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in 
the first of which they are about half immersed. Post-nuclear 
whorls decidedly flattened, slightly shouldered and weakly crenu- 
lated at the sununit, marked with a strong peripheral sulcus which 
is crossed by numerous axial threads. Periphery of the last whorl 
slightly angulated. Base short, well rounded, provided with a 
strong fasciole at the insertion of the columella. Entire surface 
of spire and base marked by numerous exceedingly fine lines of 
growth only. Aperture? Posterior angle acute; outer lip fractured, 
reenforced within by five slender lirations. Columella strong, 
slightly revolute. Posterior lamella very strong; anterior two much 
weaker and much more oblique. Parietal wall glazed with a faint 
callus. 



24 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Prof. C. B. Adams's type, at Amherst College, was collected at 
Panama Bay. It has thirteen post-nuclear whorls, and measures: 
Length 13 mm., diameter 4.3 mm. 

The present species recalls P. (L.) mazatlanica, but differs in 
being in every way much larger and having the sutures decidedly 
more channeled. 

PYRAMmELLA (LONOCHAUS) MAZATLANICA. new ipeciM. 

Plate 1, fig. 7, 7a. 

Shell very regularly conic, horn color, with a little darker band 
on the middle between the sutures, wliich is bordered at its anterior 
margin by a faint Ught Une. Nuclear whorls two, forming a de- 
pressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the 
succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about two-thirds im- 
mersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, scarcely at all contracted 
at the suture, with a narrow, very finely crenulated shoulder at the 
summit. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl 
strongly, sharply, and deeply sulcate. Base short, well rounded, 
A\ath a strong fasciole at the insertion of the columella. Entire sur- 
face of spire and base marked only by hnes of growth. Aperture 
irregularly oval; posterior angle acute, with a moderate channel 
anteriorly; outt^r lip tliin, reenforcod by four strong internal Urations, 
two of which arc above and two below the periphery; columella 
slender, twisUnl and revolute, posterior fold lamellar, anterior two 
slender and very obHque. 

The type (Cat. no. 162714, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 3019, in 14 fathoms, temperature 66®, 
on broken shell bottom, off Cape Tepoca, west coast of Mexico. 
It has tliirteen post'-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 11 mm., 
diameter 3.5 mm. Another specimen (Cat. no. 46468, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from the Gulf of CaUfornia. Two tips (Cat. no. 46477, 
U.S.N.M.) come from San Diego. A fragment (Cat. no. 206855, 
U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 
3566 in 3 fathoms, off San Diego, California. 

SPECIES OP VNCERTAIM STANDINCJ OP THE SUBOENl'H LONCJCH^KUS. 

ODOSTOMIA LAMELLATA Carpenter. 
Odostjomia latnellata CARVESTERy Cat. Mazatlun Shelln, 1H56, p. 411. 

Tablet 1954, British Museum, contains (^irpenter's cotypes. One 
of these served for the description of the nucleus, and there is little 
more to it. The other is a badly fractured specimen wliich has lost 
the early whorls, the Up is broken so as to almost obliterate the 
two weak basal folds of the columella. 

It maybe a young specimen of PyramideUa- {Ijongchwas) mdzaUanica. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 25 

ODOSTOMIA SUBSULCATA Carpenter. 
Odostomia mbtuleata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1857, p. 411. 

The two CO types on tablet 1955 in the British Museum show one 
strong and two weak basal folds on the columella. They are youn^ 
badly worn specimens of some species of Longchseus. 

ODOSTOMIA VALLATA Carpenter. 
Odostomia vaUata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1857, pp. 411-412. 

Tablet 1956 of the British Museum collection contains the tliree 
cotypes which Uke the above must be placed imdor Ijongchapns for 
the same reason. 

Snbgenus PHAJtCIDSLLA Dall. 

PharddeUa Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 18, 1889, p. 233. 

Shell of many whorls, turriculate, faintly spiraUy striaie, not 
umbilicate; with faintly vertically ribbed sulcate periphery, surface 
of the whorls weakly ribbed ; columellar folds three ; outer Hp usually 
provided with internal Urations. 

Type. — PharcideUa folinii Dall. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS PHARCIDELLA. 

Shell broadly conic, stout, large haatatay p. 25. 

Shell narrowly conic, slender, small panamensis^ p. 26. 

Shell elongate-ovate. 

Aperture auricular moffatif p. 26. 

Aperture not auricular achates, p. 27 . 

PYRAMmSLLA (PHARCmELLA) HASTATA A. Adams. 

Plate 1, fig. 4. 
Obeliacus hastatus A. Adams, Sowerby Thes. Conch., 1854, p. 811, pi. 171, fig. 24. 

Shell broadly elongate, conic, pale yellowish to flesh-color, irreg- 
ularly clouded with light brown, sliining. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear whorls flattened, decidedly crenulated at their 
summits, with faint grooves extending from the base of the crenula- 
tions down and across the whorls giving them the appearance of being 
obsoletely ribbed. Sutures deep and channeled. Periphery of the 
last whorl angular, deeply sulcate, sulcus more or less regularly 
closely transversely ribbed. Base well rounded, axially striated, the 
striae extending to the umbilical region and over the posterior colu- 
mellar fold. Basal fasciole present. Entire surface covered with 
microscopic spiral striations. Aperture suboval, subchanneled at the 
junction of the outer lip and columella, posterior angle acute. Colu- 
mella straight and strong, posterior fold very strong, lamellar slightly 
obhque; anterior two of about equal size and much more oblique than 
the posterior one. Inner surface of the outer lip provided at intervals 
with five lirations, two posterior and three anterior to the peripheral 
sulcus. 



26 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Three specimens of this species, all with decollated apex, are in the 
collection of the U. S. National Museum (Cat. no. 59321). They 
were collected at Acapulco, Mexico. The one figured is the largest 
fragment. It has eight whorls, (if complete it would probably have 
fourteen) and measures: I^ength 11.5 mm., diameter 4.6 mm. The 
Dunker collection of the K. K. Zoological Museum of Berlin contains 
two specimens of this species. 

PYRAMTOBLLA (PHARCmELLA) PANAMBNSIS, new ^mIm. 

Plate 1, fig. 8, So. 

Shell slender, elongate-conic, horn-yellow, excepting the last whorl 
which is suffused with pale rose-purple. Nuclear whorls small, two 
and one-half, forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is a 
little more than half immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, flatly 
shouldered at the summit, which is crenulated and decidedly chan- 
neled at the periphery, marked on the posterior half by feeble riblets 
which disappear before reaching the middle of the whorl. Sutures 
strongly channeled. Periphery of the last whorl with a deep sulcus, 
which is crossed by numerous very slender and closely spaced axial 
riblets. Base well rounded, with a strong fasciole about the colu- 
mella. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute, slightly channeled 
anteriorly; outer lip thin; columella slender, re volute, provided with 
a lamellar posterior fold at the insertion of the columella, and two 
equally slender, very oblique ones anterior to it. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 122792, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2805, in 51 fathoms, mud 
bottom, in Panama Bay. It has twelve post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Ijength 8.8 mm., diameter 3 mm. 

PYRAMU>ELLA (PHARCmELLA) MOFFATI DaU and BaxtKh. 

Plate 1, fig. 11. 

Oheliscus clavulus A. Adams, Sowerby Thes., 1854, p. 811, pi. 171, fig. 33, not 
Obeliscus clavulu8 (Ferussac) Beck, Index Moll., 1838, p. 62.=^ Pyramidella 
(Pharcidella) rrvoffati Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis., vol. 30, 
1906, p. 323. 

Shell moderately large, strong, early part of the spire hroadly conic, 
later subcylindric, white, marked diversely with various shades of rust 
brown. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls moder- 
ately rounded, scarcely at all contracted at the periphery, narrowly 
shouldered at the summit, which is finely crenulated, marked by many 
lines of growth, some of which are a little stronger than the rest, the 
stronger corresponding to the crenulations at the summit and lend 
the surface the appearance of being obsoletely ribbed. Periphery of 
the whorls marked by a slender well-unpressed spiral channel, which is 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 27 

not apparent in the suture in the first four whorls, but from the 
fifth on, the summit of the whorl drops more and more anterior to the 
peripheral sulcus until, on the last whorl, it is about one-fifth of the 
distance between the whorls posterior to the suture. Base of the last 
whorl rather prolonged, marked by lines of growth, provided with a 
strong basal fasciole. Aperture ear-shaped; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, marked in the following manner within : A white band 
unmediately below the sunmiit, one-fourth of the width of the space 
between the sutures, followed by an interrupted band of dark rust 
brown, succeeded by a broad area, clouded with various shades of 
rust brown which connect the dark colored band with the white colu- 
mellar area; columella moderately strong, provided with three 
oblique folds, the posterior one of which is lamellar; parietal wall 
covered with a thin callus. 

The specimen described belongs to the Paetel collection, Berlin 
Museum. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures : Length 11.5 
nun., diameter 4 mm. It was labeled Obeliscus achates Gould, cf. 
(Tocahs A. Adams, Japan. In the aperture of the shell a specimen 
of Amchis diminuta C. B. Adams, was firmly wedged, which species 
is at home on the west coast of Central America and Mexico. The 
Pyramidena therefore very likely belongs to the same region. The 
type of 0. davuhis A. Adams, comes from Acapulco, Mexico. 

It is much narrower with much higher whorls, decidedly less chan- 
neled periphery and narrower aperture than P. {Pharcidella) achates 
Gould. 

PTRAMmELLA (PHARCmELLA) ACHATES Gould. 

Plate 1, fig. 10. 

Odostomia achates Gould, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, 1852, p. 385, pi. 14, 
fig. 13. 

Shell stout, shining, milk-white, with irregular, flammulated spots 

of rust color, which are densest about one-third of the distance 

between the sutures anterior to the summits, where they form an 

almost continuous band. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear 

whorls weakly rounded, slightly shouldered and faintly crenulated at 

the summit, marked by lines of growth, which are somewhat variable 

in strength, the strongest being on the side of the crenulations. 

Sutures well impressed. Periphery marked by a moderately strong, 

spiral sulcus. Base rather long, crossed by many lines of growth. 

Aperture elongate-pyriform, rather compressed laterally; posterior 

angle acute; outer lip thin; columella short, heavy, bounded by a low, 

strong basal fasciole, bearing three oblique folds, the posterior one of 

which is lamellar and situated a little anterior to the insertion of the 

columella; the other two folds are much less strongly developed and 

more oblique; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 



28 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The type (Cat. no. 43, Orig. no. (228) A. 3111) is in the State 
Museum at Albany, New York. It is said to have been collected at 
Santa Barbara, California, which we consider doubtful. It seems 
more likely that it came from the Gulf of California. It has ten post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 11.6 mm., diameter 4.4 mm. 
The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, has a specimen (Cat. 
no. 57870), collected by Colonel Jewett, at Mazatlan, Mexico, which 
has eight whorls and measures: Length 9.8 mm., diameter 4 nmi. 
It is this specimen which has served for our figure. 

Genus TURBONILLA Risso. 

Twrbonilla Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. M^r., vol. 4, 1826, p. 224; EutwrhoniUa Semper, 
Arch. Nat. Fr. Meek., 1861, pp. 354-361. No type+£Zi«a A. Adams, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 1861, p. 297. Type, Elusa teres A. Adams. 

Shell with sinistral apex, cylindro-conic, many whorled, generally 
slender; with a single columellar fold which varies in strength and 
frequently is not visible in the aperture. The sculpture both axial 
and spiral ranges from obsolete to strongly incised lines or raised 
lamellae. 

Type, — TurboniUa typica Dall and Bartsch. 

Of the twenty-four subgenera now recognized belonging to this 
genus, eleven occur on the west coast of America. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA OF TURBOr^ILLA. 

Shell with basal keel Asmunday p. 129. 

Shell without basal keel. 

Varices present \formula, p. 1 10. 

Varices absent. 

Spiral sculpture absent, or if present, consisting of microscopic striations only. 
Axial ribs strong. 

Axial ribs between the sutures and on the base. . . Twrlxmilla, p. 29. 

Axial ribs between the sutures only Chemnitzia, p. 33. 

Axial ribs feeble, usually only developed on the early whorls, 

Ptycheulimellay p. 59. 
Spiral sculpture present, always stronger than microscopic striations. 
Axial sculpture consi^ing of well-developed ribs. 

Spiral markings consisting of very fine striations. 

Aperture subquadrate StriotwrboniiUa, p. 40. 

Aperture suboval Pyrgolamproa^ p. 59. 

Spiral markings consisting of strongly incised lines. 
Summits of the whorls strongly shouldered. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of very fine incised lines, 

Pyrgisculuiy p. 126. 
Spiral sculpture consisting of incised grooves and cords of 

about equal strength Dunkeria, p. 120. 

Summits of the whorls not strongly shouldered . . PyrgiscuSy p. 74. 
Axial sculpture reduced to mere raised threads CareliopaiSy p. 130. 



WEST AMERICAN PYKAMIDKLLII) MOI.Ll'SKS. 29 

Subgenus TUBBONILLA Bisso, s. s. 

Turbonilla Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer., vol. 4, 1826, p. 224. Type, Turbonilla 
ylicatn Kisso. -\-EuiwrbonUla Semper (part), Arch. Nat. Fr. Meek., 1861, pp. 
354-361. No type. -^EliaaK. Adams, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 6, 
1861, p. 297. Type, Eluaa teres A. Adams. 

Turbonillas without spiral sculpture, having prominent vertical 
ribs which extend from the summits of the whorls to the umbilical 
r^on; the same is true of the intercostal spaces. Usually both ribs 
and intercostal spaces are less strongly defined on the base below 
the periphery, than on the exposed portion of the whorls above it. 
Columella straight or sUghtly twisted. All our west coast forms 
belonging to this subgenus are small and slender, of semitranslucent 
bluish-white to milk-white color. 

Type. — TurhoniUa typica Dall and Bartsch=r. plicata Risso, 1826, 
not Turbo plicatus Brocchi, 1814. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBOEMTS TURBONfLLA. 

^Tiorls with a low rounded cord at the periphery-. 

\^Tiorl8 strongly contracted at the suture (jilli, p. 29. 

WTiorls not strongly contracted at the suture's delmonterms^ p. 30. 

Whorls without a cord at the periphery. 

Stunmit of the whorls strongly tabulated centrota, p. .30. 

Summit of the whorls not tabulated. 

Intercostal spaces and ribs marked by fine crinkly axial nculpture. .inia, p. 31 . 
Intercostal spaces and ribs not marked by fine crinkly axial sculpture. 

Whorls overhanging diegensisy p. 31 . 

Whorls not overhanging. 

Shell large (adult 10 mm.) acra, p. 32. 

Shell small (adult 6 mm. or less). 

Axial ribs of penultimate whorl 30 Ibuana^ p. 32. 

Axial ribs of penultimate whorl 22 frrolongata, p. 33. 

TURBONILLA (TURBONILLA) GILLI Dall and Bartach. 

Plate 2, fig. 8. 

TwrbimiUa (Turbonilla) ffilli Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1JK)7, pp. 493, 494, pi. 14, fig. 5. 

Shell small, rather stout, inflated, dirty wliite. Nuclear whorls 
decollated, early post-nuclear whorls well rounded, later ones flat, 
broader at the summit than at the suture ; sculpture of about fourteen 
strong, almost vertical, scalariform axial ribs on the second, and six- 
teen quite protractive ones on the succeeding whorls ; on the penulti- 
mate turn, however, they are less obhque than on those preceding it. 
These ribs are very strongly developed at- the summit of the whorls 
and render the deeply channeled suture decidedly coronated. Inter- 
costal spaces deep, of about double the width of the ribs, interrupted 
suddenly at the decidedly angulated (almost keeled) periphery of the 
last whorl beyond which they reappear. Base strongly contracted, 
quite short, marked by the faint continuations of the axial ribs which 



30 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

extend to the umbilical region. Outer lip fractured; aperture? col- 
umella very strong, somewhat curved and revolute, provided with a 
subobsolete oblique fold. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 163009, U.S.N.M.) were 
collected by Mr. H. Hemphill at San Diego, Cahfomia. The type has 
eight post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 3.3 mm., diameter 
1.1 mm. 

Two other lots belonging to the University of Cahfomia have been 
examined — one, a single specimen, comes from station 30 off Catalina 
Island. The other three specimens were obtained at station 47, San 
Diego, California. 

TURBOmLLA (TURBONILLA) GILLI DELMONTENSIS DmU and Bartich. 

Plate 2, fig. 12. 

Turhonilla ( Turhonilla) gilli delmontensis Dall and Bartsck, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mu8., vol. 33, 1907, p. 494, pi. 14, fig. 7. 

Shell, similar to T. gilli, but much more stout and less turrited, with 
the ribs less strongly developed and the peripheral thickening only 
weakly represented. The type has lost the nuclear whorls, the eight 
remaining measure: Length 3.4 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Type.—Csit. no. 195921, U.S.N.M. was collected by Mr. S. S. 
Berry in 12 fathoms off Del Monte, Monterey, Cahfomia. 

TURBOinLLA (TURBONILLA) CBNTROTA, new aame. 

Plate 2, figs. 6, 6«. 

=Chemnitzia acuminata C B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 1853, p. 388. 
=Chry8allida acuminata C. B. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 351. Not Twrbo- 

nilla acuminata Goldpuss, = Turritella acuminata Goldfuss, 1852; nor Chem- 

nitzia acuminata Keyserlincj 1846 (not a Turhonilla). 

Shell very broadly conic, tabulatedly shouldered, milk-white. 
Nuclear whorls two and one-half, forming a decidedly elevated spire, 
the axis of wliich is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, 
in the first of which it is slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorls 
with decidedly tabulated summits, constricted at the sutures, well 
rounded, ornamented by strong, narrow, protractive axial ribs. Of 
these ribs 14 occur upon the first, 16 upon the second and third, 18 
upon the fourth and fifth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. Inter- 
costal spaces a little more than twice as wide as the ribs, well im- 
pressed, terminating at the periphery. Sutures very strongly marked. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the 
continuations of the axial ribs. Aperture oval ; posterior angle acute ; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columeUa 
slender, somewhat curved and slightly revolute. 

The specimen described is C. B. Adams's type and is registered as 
number 219 Amherst College. It is a mature specimen of seven 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.8 nmi., diameter 1.1 nam. 

It was collected at Panama. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMTDELLTP MOLLUSKS. 31 

TT7RBONILLA (TURBONILLA) IMA, new species. 

Plate 2, fig. 1. 

Shell large, elongate-conic, yellowish-white. - (Early whorls eroded.) 
Those of the post-nuclear whorls remaining are very high between 
the sutures, slightly rounded, feebly shouldered at the summit, and 
somewhat contracted at the sutures, marked by low, rounded, some- 
what sinuous, vertical axial ribs, of which there are 24 upon the 
penultimate whorl and 20 upon the second above it. Intercostal 
spaces about one and one-half times as wide as the ribs, shallow, 
scarcely depressed below the general surface. The intercostal spaces 
and ribs between the sutures are marked by rather strong Unes of 
growth, which gives them a decidedly crinkly appearance. Sutures 
well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs. Aperture 
large; posterior angle acute; outer Up thin, showing the external 
markings within; columella slender, decidedly sinuous, not reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 123026 U.S.N.M.) has the last eight whorls wliich 
measure: Length 9.4 mm., diameter 2.2 mm. It was dredged at U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 3392, in the Gulf of Panama, in 1270 
fathoms on hard bottom, temperature 36.4°. 

TUKBOimXA (TURBONnXA) DIBGRNSIS, new species. 

Plate 2, fig. 13, 13«. 

Shell small, subdiaphanous to dingy white. Nuclear whorls two 
and one-half, heUcoid, loosely coiled, decidedly elevated, about one- 
fifth immersed, having their axis at a right angle to that of the later 
whorls. Post-nuclear whorls, moderately rounded, somewhat over- 
hanging, the greatest convexity being on the \o\feT tliird of the 
exposed portion of the whorls, traversed by 14 broad, coarse and 
strong, obUque, and somewhat flexuous axial ribs on the fourth 
and seventh whorl and 18 on the eighth. These ribs extend over 
the angulated periphery to the umbiUcal region, appearing fainter 
on the base; the deep intercostal grooves terminate at the periphery, 
i. e., do not appear on the base as gouged out spaces, as they do pos- 
terior to the periphery, but simply as plain shallow grooves between 
the ribs formed by the raising of these above the general surface of 
the shell. The whorls slope rapidly toward the suture and are some- 
what contracted and shouldered at the summit, thus marking a 
prominent subchanneled suture. Aperture large, broadly ovate, 
showing the axial ribs within; outer Up thin, subpatulous, shortly 
curved to meet the short, somewhat revolute, sUghtly twisted, colu- 
mella. 

The type figured has ten post-nuclear whorls, and measures: 
Length 5.3 nmi., diameter 1.7 mm. It comes from San Diego, CaU- 
fomia, and forms Cat. no. 130316, U.S.N.M. Cat. no. 10916, U.S.N.M., 
has two spedmens from the same locality, while Cat. no. 163217, 



32 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

U.S.N.M., covers seventeen individuals from San Pedro, Califor- 
nia. About twenty from the same place were identified for Mrs. 
Oldroyd. Cat. no. 195334, U.S.N.M., seven specimens from San 
Die^o, California. Three individuals were dredged by the University 
of CaUfomia; off San Diego, California. 

TURBONnXA (TURBONnXA) AGRA, new species. 

Plate 2, %. 14. 

Shell very long and slender, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear whorls high between the sutures, varying in 
outline, the first to eleventh being flattened, almost cylindric, with 
very strongly shouldered summits, the rest moderately well rounded, 
with less strongly shouldered summits. Axial ribs very strong on 
the first 11 whorls, less so and more rounded on the remaining^ 
There are about 14 upon each of the first eleven turns, 22 upon the 
twelfth, 20 upon the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth, and about 
30 much enfeebled and irregular ones upon the last turn, where they 
pass over the well-rounded periphery and base to the umbilical 
region. On the early turns the axial ribs terminate as strong, exserted 
cusps at the summit; on the last turns they are merely rounded. 
Early sutures strongly marked, later ones weU impressed. Aperture 
ovate, posterior angle acute; outer Up thin; columeUa slender, 
almost straight, obUquely inserted. 

The type. (Cat. no. 206848 U.S.N.M.) has seventeen whorls, and 
measures: Length 10 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. It was collected oflf 
CataUna Island, CaUfomia. 

TURBOimXA (TURBONnXA) LUCANA, new species. 

. Plate 2, fig. 3. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-wliite. (Nuclear whorls decoUated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, slightly excurved at the summit, 
weakly shouldered, marked by slender, sinuous, retractive axial ribs, 
of which 20 occur upon the third, 22 upon the fourth and fifth, 26 
upon the sixth and seventh, and 30 upon the penultimate whorl. 
Intercostal spaces a httle narrower than the ribs, shallow, the de- 
pressed portion terminating at the periphery. Sutures weU marked. 
Base moderately long, marked by the slender continuations of the 
axial ribs, wliich extend to the umbiUcal area. Aperture oval; pos- 
terior angle acute; outer Up thin, showing the external markings 
within; columella moderately strong, curved, reenforced by the 
attenuated base for two-thirds of its length and provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 4103, U.S.N.M.) was collected by J. Xantus at 
Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. It has nine post-nuclear whorls, 
which measure: Length 6 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 33 

TURBOlflLLA (TURBONILLA) PROLONOATA Carpenter. 

Plate 2, fig. 18. 
Chemnitzia prolongata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 185G, p. 429. 

Shell small, very slender, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, 
two, forming a moderately elevated, helicoid spire, whose axis is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it 
is one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls almost flat, rather high 
between the sutures, slightly contracted at the suture, and weakly 
shouldered at the summit, marked by well-rounded, slender, pro- 
tractive axial ribs, of which 12 occur upon the first to fourth, 14 
upon the fifth, 16 upon the sixth, 20 upon the seventh and eighth, 
22 upon the ninth and the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces not 
quite as wide as the ribs. Sutures well impressed, rendered slightly 
wavy by the axial ribs. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. 
Base rather long, well rounded, marked by the continuation of the 
axial ribs, which extend to the slight umbilical chink. Aperture 
rather large, oval; somewhat expanded anteriorly; posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col- 
umella slender, somewhat revolute; parietal wall covered by a faint 
callus. 

The type is on tablet 1995, Liverpool collection, in the British 
Museum, and comes from Mazatlan, Mexico, It lias eleven post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.37 mm., diameter 1.25 mm. 

Subgenns CHSXNtTZIA D'Orbigny. 

ChemniUia D'Orbiony, Hist. Nat. lies Canaries, 1839, p. 77; -|- EuturhoniUa 
Semper (part), Archiv. Nat. Fr. Meek., 1861, pp. 354-361; no t>q)e; -\- 
Microheliscug Sandberoer, Land u. Stissw. Conch, d. Vorwelt, 1874, 
p. 690; tyx>e, 7\urhonilla (Miaroheliacus) inaspectus Fuchs. 

Turbonillas without spiral sculpture, having prominent axial ribs 
which fuse or terminate at the periphery. The intercostal spaces are 
deep and sunken and terminate at or a little above the periphery, 
extending upward to the summits of the whorls. Base smooth, devoid 
of all sculpture. Columella straight. All our West American species 
belonging to this group are small, slender forms of semitranslucent 
bluish-white to milk-white color. 

Type, — Melania campaneUse Philippi. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE 8UBOENUM CHEMNITZIA. 

Adult shell more than 7 mm. long. 

\Miorlfl well rounded hi/polLspa, p. 34. 

Whorls flattened gabhiana, p. 35. 

Adult shell less than 7 mm. long. 
Summit of the whorls tabulated. 

Whorls strongly contracted at the suture n pynola, j). 35. 

Whorls only sli^tly contracted at the suture muricata, p. 36. 



34 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult shell leas than 7 mm. long— Continued. 
Summit of the whorls not tabulated. 

Intercostal spaces terminating a little posterior to the suture. 

Whorls slopingly shouldered, summit appressed aantcarosana, p. 36. 

Whorls narrowly squarely shouldered, summit not appreesed 

paramcsa, p. 37. 
Intercostal spaces not terminating posterior to the suture. 

Axial ribs strongly protractive Aotwen, p. 37. 

Axial ribs not strongly protractive. 

Shell very slender, acicular aculetUf p. 38. 

Shell conic. 

Wliorls narrowly equally shouldered at the siunmit. 

Axial ribs vertical muricatoideSf p. 38. 

Axial ribs protractive, sinuous kelsqfi^ p. 39. 

Whorls almost appressed at the summits ratpmondi, p. 39. 

TURBONILLA (CHEBINITZIA; HYPOUSPA, new species. 

Plate 2, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell broadly conic, yellowish-white. Nuclear whorls very small, 
two and one-half, forming a rather elevated helicoid spire, the axis 
of which is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which it is a little more than half immersed. Post-nuclear 
whorls wtU rounded, slightly shouldered at summit, marked by very 
strong, sublamellar, protractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon 
the second and third, 16 upon the fourth to eighth, 18 upon the 
ninth and tenth, 20 upon the eleventh, 24 upon the twelfth, and 25 
upon the penultimate turn. On the early w-horls these ribs are very 
strong in the middle, bending suddenly toward the summit, which 
gives them a decidedly angulated appearance a little below their 
termination; on the last three whorls they are more closely crowded 
and less strongly developed. Intercostal spaces about one and one- 
half times as wide as the ribs on the earlv whorls; on the last three 
they are about equal to them, well impressed, terminating a little 
above the sutures. Sutures well marked . Periphery of the last whorl 
slightly angulated. Base short, well rounded. Aperture rhomboidal; 
columella slender, somewhat curved, and slightly reflected. 

The two cotypes (Cat. no. 206851, U.S.N.M.) were dredged by 
the University of California at station 43, off San Diego, California. 
One of these is a young specimen with the nucleus; the other has the 
last eleven whorls and measures : Length 8.1 mm. , diameter 2 mm. 

The University of California has another specimen from the same 
lot (Cat. no. 206852, T^vS.N.M.), one specimen from San Diego. 
Cat. no. 205940, U.S.N.M., one specimen dredged by the T'niversity 
of California, at station 32, off Catalina Island; also two specimens 
dredged at stations 47 and 73, ofl* wSan Diego. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 35 

TURBONQXA (CHEMNITZIA?) OABBIANA Cooper. 

Chemnitzia gabbiana Cooper, Am. Joum. Conch., vol. 6, 1870, p. 66=Turb(milla 
gracillima Gabb, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1865, p. 186; not Chemnitzia ffradllima 
Carpenter, Cat. Maz. Shells, 1856, p. 431 ; + Turbonilla (Chemnitzia f) monterey- 
ensis Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 494-5. 

• 

Mr. Gabb's description is as follows: 

Shell small, very slender, long, white; vertex broken; whorls eleven or more, flat- 
tened on the sides; sutures strongly impressed, ribs about 23, large, obtuse, running 
from the suture to the margin of the base; base con vexly truncated, smooth; aperture 
Bubcircular; columella thick. Li>ngth 10 mm., diameter 3.3 mm. 

Habitat, Monterey, California; Dr. J. G. Cooper, collector. This shell can be readily 
distinguished by its extremely slender form and the strong, slightly oblique ribs. 

The type, according to Mr. Gabb, is in the collection of the Cali- 
fornia Geological Survey,** but appears to have been misplaced or 
lost. From the description we are led to believe that it is a form 
similar to T, torquata, but of considerably broader spire. 

TURBONILLA (CHBMNnZIA) APTNOTA, new tpedes. 

Plate 2, figs. 10, 10a. 

Shell small, elongate-conic diaphanous. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-half, small, helicoid, forming a moderately elevated spire, having 
their axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first 
of which they are about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls 
high between the sutures, very strongly shouldered at the summits. 
Somewhat contracted at the periphery, well rounded, marked by 
strong, sublamellar axial ribs that render the summits strongly 
crenulate. Sixteen of the axial ribs appear upon the first and 
second, 18 upon the third, fourth, and fifth, and 20 ui)on the remain- 
ing turns. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, deeply 
sunk below the general surface, extending to the suture on all the 
turns of the spire. Sutures strongly marked. Periphery of the last 
whoii feebly angulated. Base short, well rounded, smooth. Aper- 
ture rather large, subquadrate, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, 
bent abruptly anteriorly toward the columella, which it joins almost 
at right angles; columella very slender and gently cun'ed. 

The type (Cat. no. 162443, l-.S.N.M) has eight post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3.2 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. It was collected 
by Mr. F. W. Kekey, in 30 fathoms, off San Martin Island, Lower 
California. Three additional specimens (Cat. no. 163242, U.S.N.M.) 
were collect€»d by Mrs. Oldroyd, at San Pedro, California. 

a Proc. <'al. Acad. Sci., 1865, p. 183. 



36 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (CHEMNITZIA) MURICATA Carpenter 

Plate 2, fig. 9. 
Chemnitzia muricata Cakpentek, Cat. Maz. Shell, 1856, p. 428. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls three, forming 
an elevated helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the 
succeeding turns, in the first of which it is almost half immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, somewhat contracted at 
the suture, strongly shouldered at the summit, marked by veiy 
strong, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the 
first to fourth and 16 upon the remaining turns. These ribs extend 
prominently to the summit which they render muricated. Inter- 
costal spaces as wide as the ribs, deeply impressed, terminating at 
the periphery. Sutures very strongly marked. Periphery and base 
of the last whorl well rounded, smooth. Aperture rhomboidal; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within ; columella slender, slightly twisted and curved. 

The type and four specimens were taken from Spondylus at Mazat- 
Ian, Mexico. The type and one other specimen are on tablet 1993, 
Liverpool collection, British Museum. It has seven post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 2.3 mm., diameter 0.7 mm. 

This shell, as far as the structure of the spire is concerned, strangely 
recalls Turbonilla (Asmunda) turrita of C. B. Adams. The base, 
however, is entirely different. 

TURBONaLA (CHEMNITZIA) SANTAROSANA. new tpectet. 

Plate 2, fig». 7, 7a. 

Shell small, delicate, subdiaphanous to milk-white. Nuclear 
whorls two and one-half, forming a moderately elevated helicoid 
spire, the axis of which is at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which it is very slightly immersed. Post-nuclear 
whorls well rounded, slopiiigly shouldered near the summit, slightly 
constricted at the suture, marked by broad, low, rounded, axial ribs, 
which become somewhat flattened at the summit. Of these 16 occur 
upon the fii-st to fourth, 18 upon the fifth and sixth, while upon the 
penultimate they are veiy much enfeebled and ill-defined. Inter- 
costal spaces narrow, shallow, the depressed area terminating a 
little posterior to the suture. Sutures constricted. Periphery and 
base of the last whorl somewhat inflated. Aperture moderately 
large, rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella very thin and strongly 
curved. 

The type and five specimens (Cat. no. 163239, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2902, in 53 fathoms, 
temperature 45**, off Santa Rosa Island, California. The type has 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 37 

eight and one-half post-nuclear whorls antl measures: Length 4.5 
mm., diameter 1.4 mm. Six specimens (Cat. no. 163240, U.S.X.M), 
were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2901 in 48 fathoms, 
temperature 55°. 1, off Santa Rosa Island. Four specimens were 
obtaineil by the University of California, at station SI, off San Diego, 
and another individual at station 19, off Xewport, California. 

TURBOniLLA (CHEMNnZIA) PARAMCEA. new name. 

Plate 2, figH. 4, 4a. 

Chemnitzia Mtmilis i\ B. Adams, Ann. Lyr. of Nat. UiA. N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
pp. 392-393. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls strongly rounded, roundly shouldered at the 
summit, marked by moderately strong, rounded, protractive axial 
ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first, 18 upon the second and third, 
20 upon the fourth to seventh, 22 upon the eighth and the penulti- 
mate whorl. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, terminat- 
ing a little above the sutures. Sutures constricted. Peripherj^ and 
the short base of the last whorl well rounded. Aperture (defective): 
columeUa stout, somewhat sinuous. 

The above description is based upon Professor Adams's type, which 
has lost the nucleus and early whorls. The ten remaining measure: 
Length 5.9 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. It comes from Panama. 

This species resembles Turbauilla (Strioturbonilla) panamens^is 
C. B. Adams, but differs in having the whorls more rounded, fewer 
and less strongly developed ribs and more constricted sutures. 

TURBOHILLA (CHBMNrrZIA) HOUSERI, new tpedes. 

Plate 2, tip*. 15. Ifw. 

Shell small, elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-fourth, fonning an elevated helicoid spire, tlie axis of which is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in tlie lirst of which it is 
about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear wliorls strongly rounded, 
slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by strong, sublamellar, 
decidedly protractive axial ribs, wliich are so arranged as to i)racti- 
cally form continuous obUque lines, from whorl to whorl. Of these 
ribs 14 appear upon the first to third, 10 upon the fourth and iifth, 
and 18 upon the remaining whorls. Intercostal spaces about as wide 
as the ribs, deeply impressed. Sutun»s somewhat constricted. 
Periphery of the last whorl and base well i-ounded. Aperture rhom- 
boidai; outer lip thin, columella moderately strong, slightly curved 
and slightly reflected. 

The two cotypes (Cat. no. 206853, U.S.N.M.) were dredged at U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 2813, in 40 fathoms, bottom temperature 
81 °y on oorai sand bottom, off Galapagos Islands. One of these is a 

Stt—BuU. 68-09 4 



38 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

young individual from which our description of the nucleus and 
early whorls was taken. The other has lost the nucleus, the nine 
remaining whorls measure: Length 3.7 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 
Named for Prof. G. L. Houser. 

TURBONILLA (CHEBINITZIA) ACULBUS C. B. Adams. 

Plate 2, figs. 2, 2a. 

Chemnitzia acuUus ('. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
p. 388. • 

Shell very slender, elongate-conic, subdiaphanous to milk-white. 
Nuclear whorls small, two and one-half, forming a small elevated 
helicoid spire, the axis of which is at right angles to that of the suc- 
ceeding turns, in the firet of which it is about one-third immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, weakly shouldered at the sum- 
mit, marked by low, rounded, somewhat sinuous, protractive axial 
ribs, of which 14 occur upon the first to third, 16 upon the fourth 
and fifth, 18 upon the sixth to eighth, 20 upon the ninth, 22 upon the 
tenth, and 25 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about 
as wide as the ribs, well impressed, terminating at the sutures. 
Sutures well marked. Periphery and base of the last whorl well 
rounded, smooth, excepting faint lines of growth. Aperture small, 
rhoniboidal; outer lip thin, showing the external markings within; 
columella oblique, almost straight, strongly reenforced by the base. 

The above description is based upon Professor Adams's types; one 
a young specimen, of six and one-half whorls, has a little more per- 
fiM't nucleus than the adult shell; the latter has twelve post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: I^cngth 4.4 mm., diameter 1 mm. They come 
from Panama. 

TURBONaLA (CHEMNITZIA; MURICATOmES DaU and Baxtoch. 

Plato 2, fi^H. 11, llfl. 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) muncatoidcs Dall and Hartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 495, pi. 14, figs. 2, 2a. 

Shell small, slender, su})(liai)hanous to milk wliitc; nuclear whorls 
two and one-half, helicoid but slightly elevated, well rounded, having 
their axis at right angles to the axis of the post-nuclear turn. Post- 
nuclear whorls smooth, rather high between the sutures, moderatelv 
rounded, marked by strong sublamellar axial ribs, which are about 
half as wide as the spaces that sei)arate them, and extend strongly to 
the very summit of the whorl where they render the well-marked 
sutures crenulate. There are 14 of these ribs upon the first, 18 upon 
the fifth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. The depressed inter- 
costal spaces terminate abruptly at the periphery. Base of the last 
whorl well rounded, smooth, without sculpture. Aperture: (outer 
lip fractured), columella slender, slightly twisted. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYBAMIDELiLID M0LLU8K8. 



39 



The type has seven post-nuclear turns and measures : Tjength 3 mm., 
diameter 1 mm. It is Cat. no. 195942, U.S.N.M., and comes from 
Monterey, Califomia. Another specimen (Cat. no. 160488, U.S.N.M.) 
was collected by Doctor Dall at the same place. 

TURBOIIILLA (CHBBfinTZIA) KELSBTI, new tpectes. 
Plate 2, figB. 16, 16a. 

Shell small, semitransparent. Nuclear whorls small, two and one- 
fourth, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that 
of the succeeiling turns, in the first of which they are about one- 
fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, orna- 
mented by somewhat sinuous, slightly protractive, rounded axial 
ribs, which are lower and somewhat expanded at the slightly shoul- 
dered summits of the whorls; 14 of these appear upon the third, 16 
upon the fourth, 18 upon the fifth, 20 upon the sixth and seventh, 
22 upon the eighth, and 24 upon the penultimate post-nuclear whorl 
of the type. Intercostal spaces only moderately impressed, about as 
wide as the ribs. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last 
whorl well rounded. Base moderately long, well roimded. Aper- 
ture suboval, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture \^4thin; columella short, stout, twLsted, provided 
with a weak fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 46506, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, Cali- 
fomia. It has lost the nucleus and probably the first two post- 
nuclear turns, and measures: Length 4.7 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 
The nuclear whorls were described from a specimen of lot Cat. no. 
56789. U.S.N.M. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



Cat.no. 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 




56780 


3 


152197 


22 


152314 


2 


1 00916 


2 


162435 


1 


46503 


2 


106513 


2 


162432 


1 



10 



Ixicalitv 



Santa Barbara, California 

San Pedro, Califomia 

Ocean Beach, San Diego, Califomia. 

San Diego, Califomia 

Pacific Beach, San Diego, Califomia. 
Todos Santos Bay, Lower Califomia 

Point Abreojos, Lower Califomia 

San IgDBcio, Lower California 



Disposition of 
material. 



U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Named for Prof. F. W. Kelsey. 

TUKBONILLA (CHSMinTZIA) RATMONDI, new apedes. 

Plate 2, figs. 17, 17fl. 

Shell acicular, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two and one- 
half, forming a low, helicoid spire, the axis of which is almost at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which the nuclear 
spire IS about one-fifth immersed. Postz-nuclear whorls well rounded. 



40 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

increasing very regularly in size, high between the sutures, almost 
appressed at the summit and ornamented by well-developed, rounded, 
axial ribs, of which there are 16 upon the second and tlurd, 18 upon 
the fourth, 20 upon the fifth to eighth, 22 upon the ninth and penulti- 
mate whorls. Intercostal spaces deep, about one and one-half times 
as wide as the ribs. Sutures strongly impressed, rendered slightly 
wavy by the ribs. Periphery of the last whorl angulated. Base 
short, well rounded. Aperture subquadrate. Colmnella short, 
slightly curved and somewhat oblique. 

The type (Cat. no. 206849, U.S.N.M.) was dredged off Catalina 
Island. It has eleven postnuclear whorls and measures: Length 
6.2 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. Another specimen from the same local- 
ity is in the University of California, which also has a specimen 
dredged off San Diego. Cat. no. 163252a, U.S.N.M., contains a speci- 
men dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2901, off Santa Rosa 
Island, in 48 fathoms. Cat. no. 206850, U.S.N.M., contains another 
specimen from San Diego, California. 

Named for Prof. William J. Raymond. 

Subgenus STBIOTUBBONILLA Saoco. 

Striotwrhonilla Sacci), I Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 94. 

Shell as in Turbonillci and Chemnitzui but finely and closely spirally 
striated on the spire and base. 

Tifpe, — Strioturbonilla alpina Sacco. 

All our West American species, with the exception of T. affi/nis and 
T, smithsonij are of blueish-white to milk-white color; the two excep- 
tions being of a yellowish cast. 

KEY TO THE HPECIE8 OF THE 8UBOENU8 STUIOTUKBONILLA. 

Spiral Htriations extending uniformly over the axial ribn and intercoetal spacee be- 
tween the sutures. 
Intercostal spaces terminating p>06terior to the periphery, having a plain, smooth 
band in the suture. 
Intercostal spaces pinched in to form a step immediately below the sum- 
mit stephanogyra, p. 42. 

Intercostal spaces not pinched in at the summit. 
Axial ribs exceedingly protractive. 

Axial ribs straight patiamenns, p. 42. 

Axial ribs sinuous buttoni, p. 43. 

Axial ribs moderately protractive. 
WTiorls overhanging. 

Axial ribs 10-18 vaiicouvereii^, p. 44. 

Axial ribs 14-22 asser, p. 45. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M()I:-L:USKS. 41 

Spiral striations extending uniformly over the axial ril>8 and intercostal spacer be- 
tween the sutures — Continued. 

Intercostal spaces terminating posterior to the peripher>', having a plain, smooth 
band in the suture — Continued. 

Intercostal spaces not pinched in at the sunmiit — Continued. 
Axial ribs moderately protractivo — Continut^d. 
WTiorls not overhanging. 

Intercostal spaces 4 times as wide as the ribs mexicanaj p. 45. 

Intercostal sp)aces less than 3 times as wide as the ribs. 
All post-nuclear whorls well rounde<l. 

Axial ribs poorly developed attrita, p. 46. 

Axial ribs well developed. 

Spiral striations strong nichoUi^ p. 40. 

Spiral striations microscopic. 

Axial ribs 16-22 torquata^ p. 47. 

Axial ribs 16-28 stylina, p. 48. 

Early post-nuclear whorls well rounded, later ones flat- 
tened calvini, p. 4S. 

Axial ribs vertical or nearly so. 

Axial ribs much enfeebled on the last whorl carpenteri, p. 49. 

Axial ribs strong upon all the whorls. 

Axial ribs 16 »imp807i% p. 49. 

Axial ribs 16-22 profundicola, p. 50. 

Intercostal spaces extending to the suture. 

Shell very robust galianoi, p. 5 1 . 

Shell not robust. 

Shell broadly conic. 

Shell large, length 6 mm humerosa, p. 52. 

Shell small, length less than 4 mm c — h — adamm, p. 52. 

Shell slender. 

Axial ribs extending over the base serraf, p. 53. 

Axial ribs not extending over the base. 

Axial ribs 14-21 aresta, p. 54. 

Axial ribs 14-16 pazana, p. 54. 

Spiral striations confined to the intercostal spaces between the sutures. 

Spiral striations only two between the sutures galapagensU, p. 55. 

Spiral striations more than two between the sutures. 

Intercostal spaces uniformly spirally striated vndata, p. 55. 

Intercostal spaces not uniformly spirally striated. 

Intercostal spaces marked by a peripheral line. of pits and numerous 
striations. 

Intercostal spaces less wide than the ribs affivis, p. 56. 

Intercostal spaces wider than the ribs. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 16 phanea, p. 56. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 24 imperialism p. 57. 

Intercostal spaces marked by a peripheral and a submedian line of pits 
and numerous fine striations. 

Fine striations between median pits and summit 40. .smilhso?n, p. 57. 
Fine striations between median pits and summit 20. . .gracilior, p. 58. 



42 BULLETIN -68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBOIVILLA) STBPHANOGYRA. new species. 

Plate 3, fig8. 8, 8a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls three, forming 
a well-elevated spire, the axis of which is at right angles to that of 
the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are about one-fifth 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls decidedly flattened, with strongly 
beveled shoulders, marked by strong, almost cylindrical, narrow, 
well rounded, vertical axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the first to 
third, 16 upon the fourth to sixth, and 18 upon the remaining turns. 
Intercostal spaces about twice as wide as the ribs, well impressed, 
with a decidedly pinched-in area near the summit, which gives this 
part of the shell a step-like aspect. Sutures well marked. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl well rounded. Entire surface of spire and 
base marked by exceedingly fine, closely spaced, spiral striations. 
Aperture rhomboidal, rather long; outer lip thin, showing the external 
sculpture within; columella slender, almost straight. 

The type (Cat. no. 162440 U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2799, in 29^ fathoms, in the bay of Panama. It 
has ten post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 4.8 mm., diameter 
1.3 mm. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) PANAMBNSIS C. B. Adsms. 

Plate 3, figs. 12, 12a. 

ChemniUia panamensis C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
p. 392. 

Shell with the sides of the spire forming a straight line, light yellow. 
Nuclear whorls small, two and two-thirds, forming a quite elevated 
spire, the axis of which is at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which they are about one-fourth immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls rather low between the sutures, decidedly flat- 
tened and slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by strong, 
rounded, very protractive axial ribs, which are of equal strength 
from the summit to the periphery, of these 16 occur upon the first 
seven whorls, 18 upon the eighth, 20 upon the ninth, 22 upon the 
tenth, and 25 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about 
as wide as the ribs, terminating a little above the sutures. Sutures 
well impressed, rendered slightly sinuous by the ribs. Periphery of 
the last whorl and the moderately long base, somewhat inflated and 
well rounded. Entire surface of base and spire marked by very fine 
closely spaced spiral striations. Aperture pear-shaped; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella strong, almost straight, decidedly revolute, reenforced for 
half its length by the base. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 43 

The Amherst collection contains a tube with six specimens; one 
of these is a splendid individual which undoubtedly served Professor 
Adams for his diagnosis. We have used it for our description and 
figure. It has twelve post-nuclear whoris, and measures: Length 
5.5 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. They came from Panama. 

TURBOmLLA (STRIOTURBOmLLA) BUTTONI, new tpedet. 

Plate 3, fifrs. 4, 4a. 

Shell irregularly elongate-conic, yellowish-white. Nuclear whorls 
two, very small, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that 
of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are very slightly 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, ornamented by 
veiy regular, rounded, somewhat sinuous, and decidedly protractive 
axial ribs, which extend undiminished from the summit to the 
periphery of the whorls and very feebly beyond this on the base. 
There are 16 of these ribs upon the first to third, 18 upon the fourth 
and fifth, 20 upon the sixth to ninth, and 22 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces well impressed, about as wide as the ribs. 
Sutures well marked, rendered wavy by the strong ribs. Periphery 
of the last whorl well rounded. Base short, well rounded. Entire 
surface of spire and base marked by numerous exceedingly fine 
H^avy spiral striations. Aperture subquadrate, posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin; columella short, moderately strong, slightly 
twisted and reflected, provided with a weak oblique fold at its inser- 
tion. 

The t3rpe (Cat. no. 163241 U.S.N.M.) and nine specimens were 
^Dected at San Pedro, California. It has eleven post-nuclear 
^Wls, and measures: Length 6.3 nmi., diameter 1.5 mm. 

The following additional specimens have been examined : 



No. of TT »j R V I>epth, 
U.8.K JM. cat. no. , specl- i g^lVion fath- , Ixjoality 

I mens. , oms. 



183246 1 2,901 

56867 2 i 



4S 



Off Santa Hosa Island, California. 
Do. 

205038 2 'San Pedro, CaUfornia. 

206039 12' I Do. 

208245a 5 Do. 

Berrycoll 2i Do. 

160401 2 ! I San Diego, CaUfornia. 

152314a ' 1 : I Do. 

Deles Arnold coll 2 ' Do. 

Catalina Island, California. 

Point Abreojos, Lower California. 

Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. 



162436 ' 1 

106513 3 

56358 2 

46503 3 



Do. 



Named for Fred L. Button. 



44 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBOimXA (STRIOTURBONILLA) VANCOUVBRBNSIS Balid. 

Plate 4, fig. 9. 

ChemnUzia vancouierensis Baird, Proc. ZooL Soc., 1863, p. 67. Turhonxlla{Stri(h 
turhonilla) vancouverensis (Baird), Dall, and Bartsch, Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., 
vol. 30, 1907, pp. 495-496, pi. 44, fig. 1. 

Shell solid, rather broad and stout, subdiaphanous, bluish to milk- 
wlute. Nuclear whorls two, large, helicoid, partly obliquely im- 
mersed in the first of the later turns. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, with the neatest convexity on the lower half of the exposed 
portion; ornamented by about 10 very broad, strong, slightly pro- 
tractive axial ribs on the second, 14 on the fifth, 16 on the eighth, and 
18 on the penultimate whorl. These ribs terminate before they reach 
the periphery of the whorl, leaving a plain band above the suture, as 
in T. torquata Gould, but not as broad as in that species. Intercostal 
spaces deep, narrower than the ribs. Sutures well marked by the 
shouldering at the summit and the sudden sloping of the ribs just 
above the periphery of the whorls. Aperture subovate; lip thin, 
joining the short, somewhat revolute columella in an even curve. 
Entire surface marked by faint, wavy, spiral striations. The speci- 
men figured has 10 post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length, 6 nun.; 
diameter, 1.8 mm. 

Another specimen from the same locality, which has 12 post- 
nuclear whorls but is minus the nucleus and probably the first of the 
succeeding turns, measures: Length, 9.2 mm.; diameter, 2.5 mm 

This species resembles 7\ torquata Gould, but can easily be dis- 
tinguished from it by its broader base, its large, partly immersed, 
slanting nucleus, and the robust character of its whorls and ribs, the 
latter being fewer and much broader; the intercostal spaces being 
comparatively narrower. Baird's cotypes, three specimens, were 
taken from the crop of a pintail duck shot in Esquimalt Harbor, Van- 
couver Island, British Coluntl)ia; they are in the British Museum. 

Tlie following specimens have been examined: 



mens. oms. 



109489 ' 2 Kadiak Island. A hiska 13 W. II. Dall ' U. S. Nat. Mus. 

ir)0490 1 Litiiva Bav, Alaska 8 do Do. 

1C0993 1 Tort Etches. Alaska do Do. 

120670 4 Victoria, Vancouver Is- (\ K. Newcomlw.. Do. 

land, British Colombia. 

44938 ' 1 Piipet Sound, Washington C. B. Kenneriev . . Do. 

1961S4 ' 1 Carier Bay, British Colum- (5 . W. Tavlor. * Do. 

bla. 

1 do do Taylor coll. 

196183 3 Tort Simpson. British Co- do l. S. Nat. Mus. 

lumbia. 
11 do do Taylor coll. 

2 West of Rose Spit . Queen do Do. 

Charlotte Island, British 
Columbia. 

, 1 Alert Bav, British Cohim- do Do. 

• ' bia. * 

20 Departure Bay, British do Do. 

Columbia. 
196185 6 . .do do I'. S. Nat. Mus. 



I 



I 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLVSKS. 45 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) ASSER, new speciei. 

Plate 3, figs. 1, in. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two, 
depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that of the 
succeeding turns, in the first of which they are about one-third im- 
mersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, slightly overhanging, 
ornamented by well developed, somewhat sinuous, rounded, pro- 
tractive axial ribs, of wliich there are about 14 upon the third, 16 
upon the fourth and fifth, 18 upon the sixth to eighth, 20 upon the 
ninth to eleventh, and 22 upon the twelfth and penultimate turns. 
Intercostal spaces almost equal to the ribs in >\4dth, shallow, ter- 
minating some little distance posterior to the summit of the suc- 
ceeding whorl, thus leaving a rather broad, plain band above the 
suture in each turn. Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery of 
the last whorl well rounded. Base short, well rounded. Entire 
surface of spire and base marked by very fine, closely spaced, spiral 
striations. Aj>erture subquadrate. Posterior angle obtuse, outer lip 
thin, showing the external markings within, columella slender, well 
curved and slightly revolute. 

The type and a young specimen (Cat. no. 205932, U.S.X.M.) 
from which the nucleus has been described, come from off Redondo, 
California. The type has lost the nucleus and first post-nuclear 
whorl. The thirteen remaining whorls measure: Length, 8.3 mm.; 
diameter, 1.9 mm. Two additional specimens (Cat. no. 205933, 
U.S.N.M.) come from San Pedro, California. Two more (Cat. no. 
163244, U.S.N.M.) are also from the same locality. 

TXTRBOlflLLA (STRIOTURBONn.LA) MEXICANA, new tpedet. 

Plato 3, figs. 5, 5<i. 

Shell broadly conic, yellowish-wliite. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-half, forming a decidedly elevated helicoid spire, the axis of 
which is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first 
of which it is slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
appressed at the summit, marked by slender protractive axial ribs, 
of which 16 occur upon the first and second, 14 upcm the third and 
fourth, and 16 upon the remaining whorls. Intercostal spaces well 
impressed, at least four times as wide as the ribs, terminating a little 
distance posterior to the suture, marked by many very fine, closely 
spaced spiral striations, which do not appear to extend over the 
ribs. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl some- 
what angulated. Base short, well rounded, marked only by exceed- 
ingly fime, spiral striations. Aperture large, subquadrate, posterior 
angle obtuse; outer lip thui, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, slightly curved and somewhat revolute. 



46 



BULLETIN «8, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



The type (Cat. no. 162515, U.S.N.M.) and three additional speci- 
mens were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2830, in 66 
fathoms, temperature 74°. 1, off Lower CaHfomia. The type is not 
quite mature; it has nine post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length, 
4.5 mm.; diameter, 1.3 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined: 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. no. 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



162515 1 4 

9H501 5 

163253 ' 4 

I 

191566 , 1 



U.S.IJ. F. 
station. 



2830 
2830 
2823 



Locality 



Depth,! '^™" 

I ture, 
°™^- ;degrees. 



Disposition of 
material. 



2H26 



Off Lower California i 66 

do : 66 

Off La Pai, I>ower Callfor- ! 26J 
nia. I 

do ' 91 

I 



74.1 I U.S. Nat. Mns. 
74.1 ! Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



TURBONn.LA (STRIOTURBOmLLA) ATTRITA, new ipecies. 

Plate 4, figs. 11, 11«. 

Shell slender, elongate-conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, 
two and one-half, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 
slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very high between the 
sutures, almost flattened, ornamented with very low, flattened, 
somewhat irregular, protractive axial ribs, which are best developed 
on the early whorls. Of these there are 18 upon the second, 22 upon 
the third, 18 upon the fourth and fifth, 22 upon the sixth, 18 upon the 
seventh, 20 upon the eighth and ninth; on the next turn they become 
quite enfeebled, and on the penultimate turn they are obsolete. Inter- 
costal spaces about half as wide as the ribs and very shallow. Sutures 
well impressed. Peripherv of the last whorl well rounded. Base 
short, somewhat inflated. Entire surface of the spire and base 
marked by numerous very fine, wavy spiral striations. Aperture 
broadly oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella short, 
slender, somewhat curved, and slightly reflected. 

The type and six individuals (Cat. no. 163248, U.S.N.M.) come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has twelve post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 7.4 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. Cat. 
no. 163243, U.S.N.M., contains five specimens from San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia. Another specimen (Cat. no. 152314, U.S.N.M) comes from 
San Diego, California. Another specimen in Mr. Berry's collection 
is from Long Beach, California. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONaLA) NICHOLSI, new species. 

Plate 3, fig. 2. 

Shell large and robust, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, slightly shouldered at the summit, 
marked by strong, somewhat sinuous, decidedly protractive axial 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDKIJ.ID MOM.l'SKS. 47 

ribs, of which 14 occur upon the first, 16 upon the second to sixth, 18 
upon the seventh, 20 upon the eighth, 22 upon the ninth, and 25 
upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces almost as wide as the 
ribs, well impressed, terminating a Httle distance posterior to the 
suture. Sutures strongly marked. Periphery and rather k)ng base 
of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the feeble continuations 
of the axial ribs. Entire surface of base and spire marked by numer- 
ous, strongly incised spiral striations, of which those on the spire 
somewhat exceed the ones on the base in strength. Aperture large, 
oval; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; colu- 
mella slender, sigmoid, slightly reflected. 

The t3rpe (Cat. no. 160210, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Lieutenant 
Nichols in the Gulf of California. It has lost the nucleus. The 
twelve remaining whorls measure: length 8.8 mm., diameter 2.4 mm. 

TURBONnXA (STRIOTURBONILLA) TORQUATA Gould. 

Plate 4, t\^. IT), lo</. 

Chemnitzia torquata Gould, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, 1852, p. 384, pi. 14, 
fig. 16; not Turhonilla {Strioturhonilla) torquata (Golld) Dall and Bartsch, 
Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, pp. 271, 272, pi. 2, figs. 4, 4a, which may 
take the name Turhonilla (Strioturhonilla) ralphi Dall and Bartsch. 

Shell robust, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, two, depressed, 
helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which thev are about one-fifth immersed. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, ornamented by strongly elevated, 
slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon all of the 
whorls except the penultimate, which has 22. Intercostal spaces 
about twice as wide as the ribs, terminating a little above the summit 
of the preceding whorl, thus leaving a narrow, plain band in the 
suture. Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded. Base moderately long, well rounded. Entire surface 
of spire and base crossed by numerous very fine, closely spaced, wavy, 
spiral striations. Aperture suboval, outer lip thin, showing the exter- 
nal sculpture within. Columella slender, decidedly curved, and 
somewhat reflected. 

The specimen described and figured (Cat. no. 205934, U.S.N.M.) 
has lost the nucleus. The eleven remaining whorls ii^.eixsure: Length 
6.5 nun., diameter 2.1 mm., and comes from off Point Firmin, Cali- 
fornia. Another specimen (Cat. no. 60916, U.S.N.M.) comes from 
San Diego, California. Still another (Cat. no. 205935, U.S.N.M.) was 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 4322, in 110 to 197 
fathoms^ off La Jolla, California. Two additional specimens in the 
University of California collection were obtained at their stations 22 
and 28 off San Diego. Mr. Berry's collection contains two specimens 
dredged in 40 fathoms off Catalina Island, California. 



48 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) 8TTLINA Cupeoter. 

Plate 3, figs. 7, 7a. 

Chemniizia {ftorqtuita var.) stylina Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d a»., 
vol. 15, 1865, p. 396. Turbonilla {StnotyrboniUa) torquata stylina Dall and 
Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Arad. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 272, in part. Turbomlk 
(Striotiarbonilla) stylina Dall and Bartsch, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, p. 497, pi. 44, figs. 11, 11a. 

Shell slender, subdiaphanous to milk-white. Nuclear whorls two, 
smooth, depressed, helicoid, scarcely extending beyond the outline of 
the spire and having their axis at right angles to the axis of the 
succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, separated by 
strongly constricted sutures, rather high, ornamented by rather low, 
broad, rounded, sinuous, pro tractive axial ribs, of which there are 16 
upon the first, 20 upon the fifth, and 28 upon the penultimate turn. 
Intercostal spaces moderately depressed, about as wide as the ribs, ter- 
minating a short distance above the sutures, thus leaving a narrow, 
smooth band between the termination of the ribs and the suture as in 
T, (StrioturboniUa) torquata Gould, but not quite as wide as in that 
species. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base rather 
short, well rounded. Entire surface marked by very fine, wavy spiral 
striations. Aperture subovate, outer lip thin; columella slender, 
moderately long, slightly twisted, almost vertical. The specimen 
described and figured (Cat. no. 56420, U.S.N.M.) was collected by 
Doctor Dall in 8 or 10 fathoms at Monterey, California. It has 11 
post-nuclear whorls and measures : T^ength 6.5 mm., diameter 1.7 nun. 
(not 8 and 1.9 mm., as erroneously stated in the last-cited reference). 
Another spechnen was dredged in 12 fathoms off Del Monte, Monterey, 
by Mr. S. S. Berry (Cat. no. 165199, U.S.N.M.). Two specimens (Cat. 
no. 163249, U.S.N.M.), both immature, dredged by the Bureau of 
Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 2932 in 50 fathoms oflF Coro- 
nado Island, are provisionally referred to this form. 

TURBONILLA CSTRIOTURBONILLA) CALVINI. new spedet. 

Plate 4, fipp. L, Ifl. 

Shell elongate-c*.onic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and three- 
fourths, forming a decidedly elevated helicoid spire, the axis of which 
is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which 
they are about one-fourth immersed. Early post-nuclear whorls 
strongly rounded, decidedly shouldered at the summit, and con- 
stricted at the sutures. Later ones flattened in the middle, less 
shouldered and less contracted. Axial ribs strong, sublamellar, 
shouldered a little below the summit; 14 upon the first to ninth, 16 
upon the tenth, and 18 upon the penultimate turn. lAtercostal spaces 
about two and one-half times as wide as the ribs, well impressed, a 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 49 

little more so on the shoulder than on the summit, which gives them 
a contracted appearance at this place, terminating a little above the 
suture. Sutures well impressed. Entire surface of base and spire 
marked by fine, wavy, spiral striations. Peripheiy and the moderately 
long base of the last whorl well rounded. Aperture rhomboidal; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture >^^thin : columella mod- 
erately strong, slightly curved. 

The two cotypes and four additional specimens (Cat. no. 162442, 
U.S.N.M.) were dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, at station 
2823, in 26J fathoms off La Paz, Lower California. One of the 
cotypes has the nucleus and nine post-nuclear whorls, and measures: 
Length 3.1 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. The other cotype consists of the 
last seven post-nuclear whorls; if perfect, it would probably have 
had twelve. This measures: Length 3.6 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Named for Prof. Samuel Calvin. 

TURBOIflLLA (STRIGTXTRBOinLLA) CARPBNTSRI. new ■pedes. 

Shell long, slender, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, two and 
one-half depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that 
of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are about one-lifth 
inunersed. Post-nuclear whorls exceedingly high l)etween the sutures, 
evenly rounded, marked by almost vertical axial ribs, which become 
slightly expanded and flattened at the sununits. There ai'e IS of 
these ribs upon the first to third, 20 upon the fourth to sixth, 22 upon 
the seventh, 24 upon the eighth and ninth, and 26 upon the tenth. 
Upon the penultimate turn they become decidedly irregular and en- 
feebled. Intercostal spaces about one-half as wide as the ribs, but 
little depressed below the general surface of the shell. Sutun»s some- 
what constricteil. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base 
short and somewhat inflated, nuirked by feeble extensions of the axiid 
ribs. Entire surface of spire and base* crossed by numerous fine, 
wavj', spiral striations. A|H>rtur(» subcfuadrat^*, rather elongated, 
posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin: columella rather long, slender, 
slightly sinuous. 

The type (Cat. no. 160065, l\S.N.M.) has twelve post-nuclear 
whorls, and measures: Ijength 7.9 nun., diameter 1.7 mm., and was 
collected at San Pedro, 'California. T>*'o specimens fi-om the same 
locality were identified for Mi-s. Oldroyd. 

Named for Doctor P. P. Carpenter. 



TUXBOHILLA (STRIOTURBGNnXA) SIMPSOlfl. new 

Plate 3, figF. 6, ^i. 

Shell eloDgate-conic, rather slender, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls 
two and three-fourths, depressed, hehcoid, having their axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 



50 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
marked by very strong, well raised, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 
16 occur upon all the whorls of the type. These ribs are strongest 
in the middle and slightly lower at the summit and periphery. 
Intercostal spaces deeply impressed, equaling the ribs in width, ter- 
minating a very little posterior to the suture. Sutures somewhat 
constricted. Peripher}^ of the last whorl well rounded. Base rather 
short, well rounded. Entire surface of spire and base marked by 
fine, wav}^, spiral striations. Aperture subquadrate, posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col- 
umella short, slender, and oblique. 

The type (Cat. no. 152750, U.S.N.M.) has lost the nucleus and 
probably the first one and one-half post-nuclear turns; the 12 remain- 
ing measure: Length 6.7 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. , It and another 
specimen, listed under the same number, were collected in 10 fathoms 
off San Pedro, California. 

The following sj)eciinens have been exaiiiined: 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. no. 


No. of 
speci- 
mens. 

2 

l 

1 
6 
1 
2 
4 
1 
5 
1 


Univ. 

Cal. 

station. 


• 

Locality. 


Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 

10 


Disposition of 
material. 


152750 
163247 




Off San Pedro. California 


U. S. Nat. Mns. 


do 


Do. 


122750 


' do ' 


Do. 


1523146 
'205941 


; do \ 


Oldroyd ooll. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. 


1 San Diego, California I 


-do 1 


Do. 


12 
27 
32 
47 


Off Redondo, California ■ 


Univ. Cal. coll. 


Off Catalina Island, Califomla 


Do. 


do i 


Do. 
Do. 


Off Long Beach, California 










Named for Charles T. Simpson. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONnXA) PROFX7NDICOLA, new ipecies. 

Plate 3, figH. 11. Ua. 

Shell elongate-(!onic, milk-white, shining. Nuclear whorls very 
small, two and one-half, depressed, heUcoid, having their axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 
but very slightly immersed. Post-nuclear turns well rounded, very 
slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by gently protractively 
curved, low, rounded, well-developed axial ribs, of which 16 occur 
upon the first three whorls, 18 upon the fourth and fifth, 20 upon the 
sixth and seventh, 22 upon the eighth and the penultimate turn. 
Intercostal spaces about one and one-half times as wide as the ribs, 
well impressed, terminating about one-tenth of the width of the space 
between the sutures, posterior to the basal suture, leaving the part 
anterior between their termination and the basal suture as a plain 



■' -^1. _j 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLTD MOLLUSKS. 51 

band. Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded. Base short, well rounded. Entire surface of spire and 
base marked by numerous microscopic, closely crowded, wavy, spiral 
striations. Aperture subquadrate, very broad at base, posterior angle 
obtuse ; outer lip thin, bent very strongly at its basal angle ; columella 
slender, slightly oblique, almost straight, weakly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206856, U.S.N.M.)has ten post-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: Length 6.3 mm., diameter 1.9 mm. It was dredged 
by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries at station 4322, off La Jolla, Cali- 
fornia, in 110 to 197 fathoms. Another specimen was dredged by 
the University of California off Catalina Island. 

TURBOIflLLA (STRIGTURBGNnXA) GALIANOI, new species. 

Plate 4, figs. 12, 12a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white, shining. Nuclear whorls very 
small, two and one-half, forming a rather elevated spire, having their 
axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of 
which they are about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls 
well roimded, very strongly tabulately shouldered at the summit, 
ornamented with well-developed, rounded, slightly protractively 
curved axial ribs. Of these ribs, 16 occur upon the first, second, and 
third, 18 upon the fourth and fifth, 20 upon the sixth, 22 upon the 
seventh, 24 upon the eighth, 26 upon the ninth, and 28 upon the 
penultimate tiun. These ribs extend equally strong from the sum- 
mit to the periphery of the whorls. Intercostal spaces not quite as 
wide as the ribs, well impressed, extending anteriorly to the suture. 
Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base rather long, well rounded. Entire surface of spire 
and base marked by exceedingly fine spiral striations. Aperture 
subquadrate, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella almost straight, slightly revolute. 

The specimen described and another individual (Cat. no. 4104, 
U.S.X.M.) were collected by J. Xantus at Cape St. Lucas, Ix)wer Cali- 
fornia. It lacks the nucleus; the ten remaining whorls measure: 
Length 6.1 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

Three additional specimens (Cat. no. 162437, U.S.N.M.) come fn)m 
Pacific Beach, San Diego, California. C^it. no. 162438, U.S.N.M., 
three specimens from San Ilipolite Point, Lower California. Cat. 
uo. 162441, U.S.N.M., another specimen from the same locality. 
Cat. no. 162439, U.S.N.M., two specimens from Point Abreojos, 
Lower California. The Delos Arnold collection contains two indi- 
viduals from San Hipolite Pointy Lower California. 

Named for Galiano, the Spanish explorer of California. 



52 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) HUMBROSA. new speciet. 

Plat<j 3, lips. 10, 10a. 

Shell eloiigate-<*oui(5, iiiilk-white. Nuclear whorls very small, 
two and one-half, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of ^hich they are 
about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very strongly 
rounded, moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by many 
strong lamellar, protractive axial ribs, which slope suddenly from a 
point about one-third of the distance between the sutures, anterior 
to the summit, givbig the whorls a shouldered appearance at this 
place. Of these ribs, 14 occur upon the second to fourth, 16 upon 
the fifth to ninth, IS upon the tenth, and 20 upon the penidtimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces deeply impressed, double the width of the 
ribs. Sutures strongly marked. Periphery of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base short, well rounded. Entire surface of spire and 
base marked by many line, wavy, spiral striations. Aperture sub- 
quadrate, posterior angh* obtuse. Outer lip rather thick and some- 
what revolute. 

The type (Oat. no. 206857, U.S.X.:M.) was collected off Cataiins 
Island, California. It has twelve post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Lengtli 6 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. Two additional specimens (Cat. 
no. 205937) were collected at San Diego, California. 

TURBONn^LA (STRIOTURBONUXA) C-B-ADAMSI Carpenter. 

Plate* a, tig. :\. 
Chemnitzui (-B-Adamsi Carpenter, Cat. Maz. Sliell.**. 1S56. j). 427. 

Shell elongate-<H)nic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
half, forming a moderately elevated helicoid spire, whose axis is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 
about one-fourth immei-sed. Post-nuclear wliorls slightly rounded, 
slightly contract(»<l at the suture, somewhat shouldered at the sum- 
mit, marked by w(*ll-(lev(»loped, rounded, somewdiat protractive axial 
ribs, of which 12 occur upon the iirst and second, 14 upon the third 
to sixth, 10 upon the seventh, and IS upon the penultimate whorl. 
Intercostal spaces a little* wider than the ribs, terminating at the 
periphery, marked by v(tv distinct, equally spaced, equal spiral stria- 
tions. Sutures well marked, rendered wavy by the ribs. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl well rounded. Aperture rhomboidal; 
outer lip thin; columella moderately curved. 

The type and twelve specimens were collected off Chama and 
Spondylus at Mazatlan, Mexico. The type is on tablet 1990, Liver- 
pool collection, British Museum. It has nine post-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: Length 3.75 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 53 

TXJRBOIflLLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) SBRILS DaU and Bartach. 

Plate 4, figs. 3, 3a. 

7\arbonilla (Strioturbonilla) serrx Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pi. 44, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell slender, very elongate-conic, subdiaphanous to milk-white. 
Nuclear whorls two and one-half, depressed, heUcoid, having their 
axis at right angles to that of its succeeding turns, in the first of which 
they are about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very high 
between the sutures, moderately rounded, slightly contracted at the 
periphery and somewhat shouldered at the summit, rendering the 
sutures subchannelled. The whorls are marked by subequal and sub- 
equally spaced, rather broad, rounded, almost vertical axial ribs, 
which are a little wider than the intercostal spaces, the depressed por- 
tion of the latter terminating a little above the suture. In the type, 
which has lost the nucleus and probably the first two post-nuclear 
turns, there are 16 ribs on the third of the remaining whorls, 20 on the 
eighth, 22 upon the eleventh, and 34 upon the next, the penultimate 
turn. On this whorl the axial ribs are less regular and less strongly 
developed, showing senile degeneration. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded. Base short, well rounded, marked by slender con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs, which extend feebly to the insertion of 
the columella. Entire surface of spire and base crossed by numerous 
closely placed spiral striations. Aperture subquadrate, posterior 
angle obtuse, outer Up thin, columella rather strong, somewhat 
oblique, and slightly revolute, without apparent fold in the aperture. 
The tjrpe has thirteen whorls and measures: Jjength 7.7 mm., diameter 
1.4 mm. 

The type and seven specimens were collected by Mr. S. S. Berry in 
12 fathoms off Del Monte, Monterey, California; five of these are in 
Mr. Berry's collection. The type and one other, form Cat. no. 196198. 
Cat. no. 196200, U.S.N.M., contains a specimen from 40 fathoms 
off Pacific Grove, Monterey, California, dredged by Mr. Berry. An- 
other specimen in Mr. Berry's collectioji was dredged in shelly sand at 
Monterey, California, at a depth of 29 fathoms. 

This species is nearest related to StrioturhoniUa stylina Carpenter, 
but can readily be distinguished from it by its less rounded whorls, 
straighter and much stronger ribs, and by having the ribs continuing 
over the base, and scarcely any space showing between the termination 
of the intercostal spaces and the suture. 

It is named in honor of Father Junipero Serra, the early Spanish 
missionary to California. 

2565— Bull. 68—09 5 



54 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) ARBSTA. 

Plate 4, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell very slender, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two and 
one-half, forming a moderately elevated, helicoid spire, which has 
its axis at ri^ht angles to that of the succeeding whorls, and is not 
at all immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, marked 
by sublamellar, protractive axial ribs, which extend undiminished to 
the summit of the whorls, rendering this crenulated. There are 14 
of these upon the first three whorls, 16 upon the fourth to eighth, 
18 upon the ninth, 20 upon the tenth and eleventh, and 21 upon the 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about one and one-half times 
as wide on all but the hust three whorls ; on the latter they are about as 
wide as the ribs and terminat<^ a little posterior to the suture. Sutures 
strongly marked. Periphery of the last whorl faintly angulated. 
Base short, well rounded. Aperture moderately large, stibquadrate, 
posterior angle obtuse. Outer lip thin, bent almost at right angles 
to the anterior lateral angle. Columella slender, slightly curved and 
slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206858, U.S.N.M.) has tliirteen post^-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Ijength 6.4 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. It was 
dredged off Catalina Island, together with nine additional specim.ens, 
by the ITnivorsity of California. Kvc additional specimens were 
dredged by the same instituticm oiF San Diego. Another specimen 
(Cat. no. 10;V252, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
station 2901 , off Santa Rosa Island, in 4S fathoms. Another specimen 
(Cat. no. 20()Sr).S, r.S.X.M.) comes from San Diego. 

TURBONILLA r STRIOTURBONaLA) PAZANA, new species. 

Plato -1. figs. i:j, 13«. 

Shell very sIoiuUm-, elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls 
two and three-fourths, forming a decidedly elevated spire, the axis 
of which is at a right angle to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which it is scarcely Qt all inimei'sed. Post-nuclear whorls 
moderately rounded, with very feebly shouldered summits, oma- 
mented with well-deyeloped narrow protractive axial ribs, 14 occur 
upon the first to tenth, and 16 upon the remaining turns. Inter- 
costal sj)aces about two and one-half times as wide as the ribs, 
well impressed, marked by exceedingly fine, closely spaced, spiral 
striations. Sutures well iinj)ressed, rendered somewhat sinuous by 
the ribs. Perij)hery of the last whorl somewhat angulated. Base 
short, well rounded, marked by tine sj)iral striations. Aperture 
rather long, rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture withhi; columella moderately strong, 
curved, and slightly revolute. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLTD M0LLUSK8. 55 

The type (Cat. no. 162430, U.S.N.M.) and 35 specimens were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, in 26^ fathoms, off 
La Paz, Lower CaHfomia. The type has fourteen post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 5.7 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. Cat. no. 163250, 
U.S.N.M., two from U. S. Bureau of Fisherias station 2822, 21 
fathoms, off La Paz, Lower California; Cat. no. 162431, U.S.N.M., 
seven from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries stations 2826 and 2828, 9^ to 
10 fathoms, oflF Cerros Island. Cat. no. 191565, U.S.N.M., three 
specimens from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries stations 2826 and 2828,. 
off Ceraivo Island, Gulf of California, same depth and locality as the 
preceding. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBOinLLA) GALAPAGENSIS, new species. 

Plate 4, fig. 7. 

Shell yello¥rish-white. (Early whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear 
whorls contracted a Httle posterior to the middle between the sutures, 
which gives them a concave outline, slightly shouldered at the summit 
and somewhat contracted at the sutures; marked by about 22 low, 
rounded, almost vertical, axial ribs. Intercostal spaces almost as 
wide as the ribs, marked by fine lines of growth, which gives them a 
somewhat crinkly appearance, and two incised spiral lines at the 
contracted part. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked by the continuations of the axial ril)s. Aperture somewhat 
fractured, pear-shaped? 

The type (Cat. no. 206859, U.S.N.M.) was obtained at U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 2808, in 634 fathouLs, temperature 39.9°, 
off the Galapagos Islands. It consists of the last four and one-half 
whorls and measures: length 3.5 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. 

TURBOmLLA (STRIOTURBONnXA) UNDATA Carpenter. 

Plate 4, fig. 8. 
Cktmnitzia undata Carpenter, ('at. Mazatlan Shells, 1H.36, pp. -^ai, 432. 

**Shell graceful, slender, soiled white. Nuclear whorls extending 
somewhat beyond the outline of the post -nuclear spire. Post- 
Quclear whorls subplanate, separated bv strong sutures and marked 
by about eighteen narrow, acute axial ribs which are very weak at 
the periphery and disappear entirely on the base. Intercostal spac<;s 
broad, marked by superficial spiral st nations which are stnmgest at 
the periphery. Outer lip thin; columella graceful, scarcely t\i'isted.*' 

The above is Carpenter's description, to which he adds: **0n com- 
paring this shell with the corresponding portion of T. graHlior V, B. 
Ads., it is found to have fewer and much finer and shari>er ribs which 
do not end at the periphery, like the curved interspaces; length 1.6 
nun., diameter 0.55 mm. Ilab. Mazatlan; two young perfect sjwci- 
mens off Spandylus; Liver])ool collection, tablet 2002 contains the 
liiger specimen; the smallest is of a much darker color." 



56 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The specimen referred to above, tablet 2002, is a badly worn young 
shell, with indications of very protractive axial ribs and finely spirally 
striated base. 

Carpenter's mamiscript fi^ire is evidently taken from the young 
individual referred to above, which shows a peripheral series of pits 
and numerous fine spiral striations. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) AFFINIS C. B. Adams. 

Plato 4, f\cr. 14. 
ChemnUzia affinis C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye*. Nat. ITist., of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, p. 389. 

Shell slender, wax yellow, with a narrow brighter colored band 
about one-third of the distance between the sutures, anterior to the 
simimit. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls slightly 
rounded and moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by well- 
rounded, low, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon 
the first and second, 20 uj)on the third and fourth, 22 upon the fifth, 
24 upon the sixth and the remaining turns. Intercostal spaces a 
little narrower than the ribs, shallow, marked by a moderately strong 
series of ])eriphcral pits and i)robably 60 to 80 fine, equal, and equally 
spaced, strongly incised spiral lines. Periphery and base well rounded, 
marked by numerous, closely spaced, well incised, wavy spiral stria- 
tions. Aperture rhomboid, outer lip thin, showing the external 
sculptiu'o within; columella moderately strong, almost straight and 
somewhat rcvolute. 

Professor Adams's ty])e, which has served for our description and 
figure, consists of the la,st eight whorls and measuras: Length 5.3 
mm., diameter 1.3 mm. It is in the Amhei*st College collection and 
comes from Pamuna. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONILLA) PHANEA, new species. 

riatc 4, fif^s. 4, Aa. 

Shell very small and slender, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two, 
depressed, helicoid, liaving tli(»ir axis at right angles to that of the 
succeeding turns, in tlie first of which thcv are about one-fourth 
immersed. Post-nuclear wliorls well rounded , with their greatest con- 
vexity on the anterior third between the sutures. Summits appressed, 
marked by strong, narrow, slightly j)rotra('tive axial ribs, of which 
fourteen occur upon all of th<^ whorls. Intercostal spaces about three 
times a^ wide as the ribs, marked between tlie sutures by a peripheral 
series of pits and sixteen equal and equally spaced incised fine lines. 
Sutiu'es well impresscMl. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, 
appearing as a plain band. Base short, well roumled, marked by the 
faint continuations of the axial ribs and about fifteen very fine, wavy 
incised, spiral lines, of which the first below the periphery is a little 
stronger than the rest. Aperture rhomboid, rather long; posterior 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 57 

angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella rather long, almost straight, slightly revoliite; parietal wall 
marked by a faint callus. 

The type and two additional specimens (Cat. no. 206860, U.S.N.M.) 
were obtained at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, in 26^ 
fathoms, on broken-shell bottom, off La Paz, in the Gulf of California. 
The type has 8 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.2 mm., 
diameter 0.8 mm. Cat. no. 163251, U.S.N.M., contains a specimen 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2822, in 21 fathoms, off 
La Paz, Ix)wer California. Cat. no. 206861, U.S.N.M., has five 
specimens dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries statioiLs 2826 to 
2828, in 9h to 10 fathoms, off Ceralvo Island, Lower California. 

TURBONn.LA (STRIOTURBONaLA) Htf PERIALIS, new species. 

Plate 4, figs. 2, 2a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-wliite, with a narrow, faint yellow band 
in the middle of the whorls between the sutures. Nuclear whorls at 
least two, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that 
of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are about one-half 
iimnersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, depressed at the 
summit, somewhat contracted at the sutures, marked by slender, 
&lmo8t vertical axial ribs, of which 20 occur upon the first and second, 
22 upon the third, 24 upon the fourth, 26 upon the sixth and penulti- 
mate turn. Intercostal spaces are twice as wide as the ribs, marked 
by a series of moderately strong pits at the periphery, and about 
twenty-six well incised, equal and subequally spaced spiral striations, 
which pass up on the side of the ribs but do not cross their summits. 
Periphery of the last whorl angulated. Base short, well roim<led, 
marked by the very feeble continuations of the axial ribs and about 
twelve equally strong, slender, wavy, spiral striations. Apertiu'e 
Jefective, rhomboidal ? 

The type (Cat. no. 206862, U.S.N.M.) comes from Panama. It has 
8 post-nuclear whorls and measures: l^^ngth 3.3 mm., diameter 
11 mm. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTURBONaLA) SMrrHSONI, new species. 

Plate 4, figs. 10, 10</. 

Siell very regularly conic, wax yellow, the area from a little above 
the suture to the middle of the whorls between the sutures a little 
higher than the rest. Nuclear whorls small, at least two- thirds 
obliquely immersed in the first post-nuclear turn, beyond the outline 
of which it extends some on the left side. Post-nuclear whorls 
decidedly flattened, very slightly shouldered at the sunmiit, scarcely 
At all contracted at the periphery, marked by rounded, low, poorly 
developed, axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon the first and second, 22 



58 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

upon the third, 24 upon the fourth, 28 upon the fifth, 32 upon the 
sixth and the penultimate turn.- Intercostal spaces a little narrower 
than the ribs, sliallow, marked by series of well-impressed pits at 
the periphery and a second one a little less strong a little anterior to 
the middle of the space between the sutures; the space between the 
peripheral and the other series of pits is crossed by about twenty-five 
equal and equally spaced spiral striations; that between the middle 
pits and the suture by about forty of equal strength. Sutures poorly 
defined. Peripherj'^ ana base of the last whorl well rounded, marked 
by numerous fine, w^avy, spiral striations. Aperture? (outer lip 
fractured); columella strong, with an oblique fold a little below the 
insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 160068, U.S.N.M.) comes from Cape St. Lucas. 
It has 8 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Ijength 4 mm., diameter 
1.3 mm. Cat. no. 46502, U.S.N.M., contains a specimen from Boca 
de los Piedras. 

Named for James SmitlLson. 

TURBONILLA (STRIOTTJRBONILLA) ORACIUOR C. B. Adams. 

Plate 4, fig. G. ' 

Chemnitzia granlior C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. of Nat. Hist. N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
p. 391. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-wliit<*. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately shouldered at the 
summit; later ones slightly exserted at the summit; marked by 
slender, sinuous, slightly protractive axial ribs, of wliich 16 occur 
upon the first and second, 18 upon the third, 20 upon the fourth 
to seventh, 22 upon the eighth, 26 upon the ninth, and 32 upon 
the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about twice as wide as the 
ribs, marked by a double series of pits, the first of which is at 
the periphery, the second a little posterior to the middle between the 
sutures. In addition to these pits, they are marked by fine, equal 
and equally spaced spiral striations of which thirty-one probably 
occur between the peripheral and median pit and twenty between that 
and the sununit. Sutures well marked. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well roimded, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs 
and numerous line, well-incised, wavy spiral striations. Aperture 
rather long, rhomboidal: outer lip fractured; columella moderately 
strong, slightly curved and somewhat reflected, provided with a weak 
oblique fold at its insertion. 

Professor Adams's type has served for our description and figure. 
It has lost the nucleus. The eleven remaining whorls measure: 
Length 6.1 mm., diameter 1.4 mm. It is in the Amherst College 
collection and comes from Panama. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 59 

Snbffenns PTTCHSXJLDfELLA Sacco. 
Ptyekeulirndla Sagco, I. Moll, de Piemonte e della Liguria, pt. 11, 1892, p. 59. 

Shell elongate-conic. Axial sculpture consisting of obsolete ribs 
frequently only shown in the early post-nuclear turns. Spiral 
sculpture, if present, consisting of microscopic striations only. 

Type. — TomateUa pyramidata Deshayes. 

KBT TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS ITYCHEULIMELLA. 

Shell very broadly conic obsoleta. 

Shell slender ahreojensis. 

TUSBONILLA (PTTCHBULIMELLA) OBSOLETA Carpenter. 

Plate 5, fig. 6. 

7 Eulimella ohtoleta Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlau Shells, 1850, p. 436. 

Shell broadly elongate, grayish white. Post-nuclear whorls feebly 
rounded, marked by obsolete axial ribs which are best shown imme- 
diately below the appressed summit. Entire surface marked by 
extremely fine spiral lines. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin; coliunella sUghtly twisted and somewhat 
revolute. 

The type which is on tablet 2011, Liverpool collection, British 
Museiun, has lost its early whorls, the four and one-half remaining 
measure: Length 1.5 mm., diameter 0.6 mm. It comes from Mazat- 
Ian, Mexico. 

TURBOIflLLA (PTTCHBX7LIMELLA) ABRBOJBNSIS, new spedet. 

Plate 5, fig. 7. 

Shell conic, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately well rounded, very slightly shouldered at 
the summit, marked by mere indications of obsolete ribs near the 
summit of the early whorls, only. Sutures well impressed. Periph- 
ery well rounded. Base moderately long, well rounded. Surface of 
spire and base marked by fine, closely crowded, spiral striations. 
Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; colmnella rather strong, mod- 
erately curved, somewhat revolute, provided with an obUque fold a 
little anterior to the insertion. 

The miique type (Cat. no. 205951, U.S.N.M.) comes from Point 
Abreojos, Lower CaUfornia. It has lost the nucleus and first post- 
nuclear whorl. The nine remaining measure: Length 5.2 mm., 
diameter 1.6 mm. 

Sabffenns PYBOOLAKPBOS Sacco. 
Pyr^lampros Sacco, I. Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 85. 

Turbonillas with low, broad, roimded vertical ribs which almost 
always disappear as they pass over the periphery and base of the last 



60 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

whorl, and many very fine, faint, wavy spiral striations; surface 
covered by a thin epidermis. Colimiella usually somewhat flexuose. 

Type, — Pyrgolampros mioperplicatulus Sacco. 

All our west American species are of a light-yellow to chocolate- 
brown color. The intercostal spaces are not depressed as in Chem- 
nitzia, but appear as simple shallow undulations between the axial 
ribs. The spiral striations, in perfect specimens, appear as if they 
were situated beneath a light-colored epidermis and were shining 
through it. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUBGENUS PYRGOLAMPROS. 

Axial ribs well developed. 
Shell short and stout. 
Shell unicolor. 

Whorls excurved at the summit inctoriana, p. 61. 

Whorls not excurved at the summit. • 

Shell brown. 

Axial ribs 12-1() gibbosa, p. 61. 

Axial ribs 18-20 ridgwayif p. 62. 

Shell light fulvous valdezi, p. 62. 

Shell banded vewcombei, p. 63. 

Shell elongate-conic. 
Shell unicolor. 

Shell large, adult more than 10 mm. long tayloHy p. 64. 

Shell smaller, adult less than 8 mm. long. 

Whorls well rounded lowei^ p. 64. 

Whorls flattened. 

Axial ribs strong, acute hallbrecta^ p. 65. 

Axial ribs weak, rounded gouldi, p. 66. 

Shell bicolor. 

Spire golden yellow, base white aurantiaf p. 66. 

Posterior two-thirds between the sutureii light brown, anterior third and 

base darker pcdroana^ p. 67. 

Shell banded. 

Band single, broad, extending over the periphery and to both sides of it. 

Shell large, adult more than 8 mm. long halia^ p. 68. 

Shell small, adult less than 6 mm. long lyallif p. 68. 

Bands double. 

Bands lighter than rest of shell berryi, p. 69. 

Bands darker than rest of shell alaskaruif p. 70. 

Bands triple. 

Bands not visible on the spire only in the outer lip. .chocolata, p. 70. 
Bands visible on the spire. 

Axial ribs on penultimate whorl 22 painei, p. 71. 

Axial ribs on penultimate whorl 30 keepi, p. 71. 

Axial ribs poorly developed on the early whorls, never indicated on the later ones. 

Shell dark brown with a narrow lighter band halistrepta, p. 72, 

Shell wax yellow with a light brown peripheral zone. 

Shell large, adult more than 11 mm. long Utuyaruiy p. 73. 

Shell smaller, adult less than 9 mm. long oregonensiSj p. 73. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 61 

TURBOIfUXA (PTRGOLAMPROS) VICTORIANA DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 5, fig. 3. 

Turhonilla (Pyrgolampros) victoriana Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 501, pi. 44, fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-conic, wax yellow to light brown. Nuclear whorls 
and the early succeeding turns eroded in all the specimens examined. 
Post-nuclear whorls quite high between the sutures, somewhat con- 
cave in the posterior two-thirds of the exposed portion, only slightly 
contracted toward the periphery and faintly shouldered at the sum- 
mit ; ornamented by low, rounded, somewhat sinuous axial ribs, which 
are about as wide as the shallow intercostal spaces. Sutures well 
marked. Periphery and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, 
marked by weak continuations of the axial ribs which extend feebly 
to the umbilical region. Entire surface crossed by numerous, wavy 
spiral striations. Aperture rather elongate, oval, outer lip thin; 
columella moderately long, decidedly twisted and somewhat revolute 
in its free anterior portion; the twist at its insertion appearing as a 
fold. 

The type (Cat. no. 126660a, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Dr. C. F. 
Neivcombe at Victoria, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. It has 
the last seven and a half whorls and measures: Length 7 mm., diame- 
ter 2.1 mm. Ten additional specimen ts were collected by Rev. G. W. 
Taylor, at Departure Bay, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, four 
of which form Cat. no. 196220, U.S.N.M. 

This species appears nearest related to TurboniUa (Pyrgolampros) 
newcombei Dall and Bartsch, but is readily distinguished from that 
form by its concave whorls. 

TURBONHXA (PYRGOLAMPROS) OIBBOSA Carpenter. 

Plate 6, fig. 2. 
Chemnitzia gibhosa Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 430. 

Shell pupiform, reddish brown, irregular. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear whorls ten, flattened, marked with about eight- 
een poorly developed, more or less rounded, vertical axial ribs. This 
species is described, although from a solitary and very imperfect 
specimen, in consequence of its great peculiarity of form, in which it 
resembles ChrysaUida. It is short, stumpy, and very broad; without 
any trace of fold on the columella or notch on the base. Length 
6.75 mm., diameter 5 mm. 

Hahitai. — ^Mazatlan; off CJiama, extremely rare; Liverpool collec- 
tion. 

Tablet 1996 contains all that was found, namely, the broken speci- 
men, and a fresh fragment displaying sculpture. 



62 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The above is Doctor Carpenter's original description. An exami- 
nation of the two speciments in the British Museum sheds little addi- 
tional light. The frugment is a thick, stumpy shell too poor to be 
determined. The small individual is of a light-brown color, showing 
irregular axial ribs and smooth intercostal spac-es. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) RIDOWATI, new spedM. 

Plato 6, fijars. 10, 10a. 

Shell robust, brown. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, moderately 
large, forming a depressed helicoid spire, the axis of which is almost 
at right angles to that of the succcH»ding turns, in the first of which 
they are about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened 
in the middle, roundod at the moderately strong shoulder at the 
summit, and at the periphery; marked by strong, well elevated, 
rounded, almost vertical axial ribs, which are slightly contracted in 
the middle and somewhat sinuous. Of these ribs, 18 occur upon 
the third to sixth and 20 upon the penultimate whorl. Intercostal 
spacer well impressed, decidedly so in the middle, a little wider than 
the ribs. Sutures strongly marked, rendered sinuous by the ril>s at 
the sununits of the whorls. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. 
Base moderately long, well rounded, marked by the feeble continua- 
tions of the axial ribs. Entire surface of base and spire marked 
by closely crowded, wavy, well-incised spiral striations. Aperture 
moderately large, oval; j)ostorior angle acute; outer lip thin, show- 
ing the external sculpture \nthin; columella moderately strong, 
somewhat curved and revohite, provided with a weak oblique fold 
at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 1G2560, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, 
('alifomia. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Ijength 
4.6 mm., diameter 2 mm. 

Named for Robert Kidgway of the 17. S. National Museum. 

TURBONn.LA (PYRGOLAMPROS) VALDEZI Dall and Bartsch. * 

Plalo fi, fijr.8. 

TurhoniUa (Pi/rgolam pros) gihhosa I>aix ami Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
vol. 3, 1903, pj). 27-9, j)l. 1, fi^. 2, 'la, \vA (' /umn it :ia gibbosa Carvkstek, Cat. 
Maz. Shells, 1856, j). 430, No. h27).- -TnrhoniUn (Pyrgolampros) valdezi Dall 
and Bartsch, Pn>c. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, p. 502, pi. 44, figs. 3, 3a. 

Shell inflated, robust, broad and stumpy, of light fulvous coloration. 
Nuclear whorls decollated in the type. Post-nuclear whorls fiattene^i, 
somewhat contracted at the periphery and rounded at the sununit, 
traversed by broad, coarse, irn^gularly slanting axial ribs, which 
extend over the inflated periphery of the last whorl to the umbilical 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 63 

region, appearing less prominent on the base. About 16 of these ribs 
occur upon the second, 18 upon the fifth, and 24 upon the i)enultimate 
post-nuclear whorl. Entire surface of the shell crossed by very 
minute, close spiral striation. Suture subchanneled and wavy. 
Aperture ovate, outer lip thin, joining the twisted and re volute colu- 
mella in a broad curve. 

The type (Cat. no. 32273, U.S.N.M.) was collected at Monterey, 
California. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
5.6 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

Another specimen, not quite adult (Cat. no. 176624, U.S.N.M.), 
comes from Pacific Grove, California. This has the nuclear whorls 
preserved, which are two, depressed helicoid, smooth, obliquely about 
one-fourth immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, having 
their axis at right angles to that of the later whorls. The left side of 
its nucleus projects sUghtly beyond the outline of the spire. 

The present form is in every way much more robust than T. (P.) 
ffibhosa Carpenter, which was described from Mazatlan, Mexico. 

TUBBOmLLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) NEWCOMBEI Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 6, fig. 3. 

TSirbonUla {Pyrgolampros) netrcambei Dall and Bartsch, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 503, pi. 45, fig. 6. 

Shell regularly, broadly conic, white on the posterior half and light 
brown on the anterior half of the exposed portion of the whorl; base 
white. Nuclear whorls decollated in all the specimens seen. Post- 
nuclear whorls somewhat overhanging, decidedly contracted toward 
the periphery from the anterior fifth of the exposed part; almost 
flattened posterior to this, and closely appressed at the summit, sepa- 
rated by strongly marked sutures. Ribs about 18 upon all the turns, 
almost vertical, moderately elevated, rounded in the middle, decidedly 
flattened and widened at the summit, disappearing at the periphery. 
Intercostal spaces not depressed below the general surface, a little 
wider than the ribs. Periphery and the moderately long base well 
rounded, smooth, excepting the fine spiral striation which covers the 
entire surface of the shell. Aperture subquadrate, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the color bands within; colimiella 
slender, oblique, and sUghtly revolute. 

Th6 type (Cat. no. 126660, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Dr. C. F. 
Newcombe, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. It has 
seven post-nuclear whorls which measure: Length 5.4 mm., diameter 
2.1 mm. Eighteen additional specimens were collected by Rev. 
G. W. Taylor at Port Simpson, British Columbia, 12 of wliich are in 
his collection, the other 6 form Cat. no. 196214, U.S.N.M. 



64 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBOIflLLA (PTROOLAMPROS) TATLORI Didl uid Butach. 

Plate 6, figs. 7, 7a. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) taylori Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 499, pi. 44, figs. 9, 9a. 

Shell very regularly elongate-conic, purplish-brown. Entire sur- 
face marked by numerous closely placed minute spiral striations. 
Nuclear whorls small, depressed helicoid, smooth, scarcely at all 
immersed, having their axis at a right angle to that of the later turns, 
the sides not projecting beyond the outline of the spire. Post-nuclear 
whorls quite high between the sutures, only slightly contracted 
toward the periphery and very weakly beveled at the appressed 
siunmits, marked by low, broad, retractive axial ribs, which are 
much more numerous and less strongly defined on the early whorls 
than on those succeeding. There are about 36 on the second, 30 
upon the third, 24 upon the fourth, and 26 upon the antepenultimate 
post-nuclear turn. On the last whorl they become irregular and 
irregularly spaced, showing seniUty. The ribs become flattened and 
less strongly defined toward the summit and the periphery, disap- 
pearing at the well-roimded periphery. Sutures well marked. Base 
short, inflated, rounded. Aperture suboval, somewhat effuse anteri- 
orly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, white edged, chestnut 
brown within except at the very base, which is white; columella slen- 
der, twisted, and slightly revolute anteriorly. 

The above description is based upon two cotypes (Cat. no. 196210, 
U.S.N. M.); one, an immature specimen liaving the nucleus and 9 
post-nuclear whorls measures: Length 6.5 mm., diameter 1.9 mm., 
the other an adult individual having 10 whorls is minus the nucleus 
and probably the first five post-nuclear turns, and measures: Length 
11.5 mm., diameter 3.1 mm. 

The two cotypes and 30 specimens were collected by the Rev. G. W. 
Taylor at Departure Bay, British Columbia. The cotypes and five 
specimens arc in the U. S. National Museum (Cat. no. 196210). The 
rest are in the Taylor collection. 

This species was collected at five additional stations in British 
Columbia by the Rev. G. W. Taylor, all the specimens being in his 
collection except where otherwise stated. One specimen at Carter 
Bay; 3 at Port Simpson, 1 of which is Cat. no. 190211, U.S.N.M.; 
11 at Banks Island, 3 of which are (Vt. no 106212, U.S.N.M.; 6 at 
Alert Bay, 2 of which are Cat. no. 196213, U.S.N.M. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) LOWEI Daii and Bartsch. 

Plate 6, figs. 11, 11a. 

T\irb<milla (Pyrgolampros) lowei Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad., voL 3, 
1903, p. 278, pi. 1, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell elongate-conic, uniformly Ught brown. Nuclear whorls two, 
small, depressed, helicoid, having their axis almost at right angles 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 65 

to that of the succeeding turns, m the first of which they are about 
one-fourth immersed. Early post-nuclear whorls increasing but 
little in diameter, rather high between the sutures, ornamented by 
very slender, somewhat sinuous, almost vertical axial ribs. Later 
whorls increasing more rapidly in diameter, less elevated between 
the sutures, ornamented by low, broad, rounded, almost vertical 
axial ribs, which become decidedly enfeebled as they approach the 
sunttmit. There are almost 40 axial ribs upon the first, 34 upon the 
second, 30 upon the third, 25 upon the fourth, 20 upon the fifth to 
eleventh, and 22 upon the penultimate whorl. Intercostal spaces 
mere lines, on the first whorl, on the later ones shallow impressed 
areas of about half the width of the ribs. Sutures well marked. 
Periphery of the last whorl inflated. Base short, well rounded, pos- 
terior portion marked by the very feeble extensions of the axial ribs; 
the anterior smooth, excepting the very fine and exceedingly closely 
spaced spiral striations, which cover the entire surface of the shell. 
Aperture subquadrate; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella slender, slightly twisted. 

The type and four additional specimens (Cat. no. 152751a, 
U.S.N.M.), were collected by Mr. H. N. Lowe, in 10 fathoms off San 
Pedro, California. The type has lost the nucleus. The ten remaining 
whorls measure: Length 7.2 mm., diameter 2.2 mm. Cat. no. 
204941, U.S.N.M., was dredged by Mrs. Oldroyd, in 4 fathoms off 
San Pedro. Cat. no. 159982, U.S.N.M., one specimen from San 
Pedro. Cat. no. 163257, U.S.N.M., San Pedro, collected by Mrs. 
Oldroyd. Cat. no. 205948, U.S.N.M., one specimen from Pacific 
Beach, collected by Mr. Henry Hemphill. One (Cat. no. 206864) 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, station 4345, in 25 fathoms, 
gray sand bottom, off Point Loma, CaHfornia. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) HALIBRECTA, new species. 

Plate 5, figH. 10, 10a. 

Shell elongate-conic. Nuclear whorls two, depressed, helicoid, hav- 
ing their axis at nearly right angles to that of the succeeding turns, 
in the first of which they are very slightly immersed. Post-nuclear 
whorls flattened in the middle, slightly rounded toward the somewhat 
shouldered summit and the periphery, marked by strong, rounded, 
almost vertical axial ribs, of which there are 20 on the first to fifth, 
18 upon the sixth, and 16 upon the remaining turns. Intercostal 
spaces a little wider than the ribs, well impressed, sutures strongly 
marked. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the 
feeble continuations of the axial ribs. Base short, well rounded. 
Entire surface of spire and base marked by exceedingly fine, closely 
crowded, spiral striations. Aperture rather small, oval; posterior 
angle acute; columella short and curved. 



66 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The type (Cat. no. 205950 U.S.N.M.) was collected off Catalina 
Island. It has 9 post-nuclear w^^orls and measures: Length 6.2 mm., 
diameter 1.7 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) OOULDI, new apedes. 

Plate 6, fijj^. 1, la. 

Shell slender, light browTi. Nuclear whorls small, two, depressed, 
helicoid, having their axis almost at right angles to that of the suc- 
ceeding turns, in the first of which they are slightly inmiersed. Post- 
nuclear whorls increasing regularly in size, marked by low, rounded, 
feebly develoj^ed axial ribs, of which there are 21 upon the second 
to fourth, 20 upon the fifth to eighth, 22 upon the ninth and 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces narrow and shallow. Sutures 
.m()derat(»ly impressed. Perij)heiy of the last whorl well rounded, 
somewhat inflated. Base short, inflated. Entire surface of spire 
and base covc^red by niuiierous fine, closely spaced, wavy spiral stria- 
tions. A])erture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thick within, 
thin at edge ; columella moderately long, sinuous, and slightly reflected. 

The above d(\scription is based on two cotypes, one (Cat. no. 163256a 
U.S.N.M.) from San Pe(ho, California, has furnished the description 
of the nucleus and early whorls, the other (Cat. no. 159990, U.S.N.M.) 
also from San Pocho, consisting of the last seven whorls, has fur- 
nished the axhdt charact(M*s. Tlie yoimg specimen has 9 post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length, 5.S nun., diameter 2 mm. The adult 
specimen measures: Length 0.1 nun., diameter 2 mm. 

Cat. no. 162561, U.S.X.M., contains a fragment collected by Henry 
Hemphill at Pacific Beach. Cat. no. 163256, U.S.N.M. , nine speci- 
mens from San Pedro, collected bv Mrs. Oldrovd. Cat. no. 163258, 
LT.S.X.M., one s|)ecim(*n, dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
at station 2000, in 13 fathoms, off Santa Rosa Island. Another 
specimen was dredged 1)V the University of California at station 59, 
off San Diego, California. Twelve specimens were identified for Mrs. 
Ohlrovd fiom San Pcflro. 

Named for the late Doctor A. A. (lould. 

TURBONILLA r PYRGOLAMPROS) AURANTIA Carpenter. 

Plato (j, fi«:. 1. 

Chcmnitzia (? vur.) miraniia ('aui'KXTkr, Journ.dc Conch., vol. 12, 1865 (3d ser.), 
vol. 5, ]). 117. Turhonilla {Pifrg(>l(unj)rns) aurnntia (Carpenter) Dall and 
Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 502, 503, pi. 45, fig. 5. 

Shell similar to T. (P.) chocohta Carpenter, but much broader, with 
the close spiral striation a little more pronounced than in that species, 
covered by a golden-yellow epidermis. Xuclear whorls decollated in 
all our si)ecimens. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, but 
little contracted at base and but very slightly shouldered at the sum- 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 67 

mit, omamented by about 22 moilerately developed, slightly retractive 

axial ribs on each of the whorls. These ribs become quite obsolete as 

they pass over the well-rounded peripheiy and ba^se of the last whorl. 

Intercostal spaces weak, much narrower than the ril)s. Sutures quite 

prominent, simple. Aperture lai^e, broadly ovate, posterior angle 

obtuse, somewhat effuse at base; outer lip thin, columella slender, 

quit^ oblique, twisted, and revolute. 

Doctor Carpenter's type (Cat. no. 44936, U.S.X.M.), upon which 
the description is based, has 6 post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 5.8 mm., diameter 2.4 mm. It bears the two localities Puget 
Sound and Santa Barbara, and probablyt'omos from Pugot Sound. 

Three other specimens (Cat. no. 126660, U.S.X.M.) were collected 
by Dr. C. F. Newcombe at Victoria, Vancouver Island, British Colum- 
bia, and five more by the Rev. G. W. Taylor at Departure Bay, British 
Columbia, one of which is Cat. no. 196205, U.S.N.M., the others being 
in the Tavlor collection. This one has whorls remaining!: and meas- 
ures: Length 9.5 mm., diameter 2.S mm. 

TURBONILLA (PTRGOLAMPROS) PEDROANA DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 6, a^. 12, ]2a. 

TurbonUla (Pyrgolampros) lowei pcffroana Dall and Kartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad., 
vol. 3, 1903, p. 279, pi. 2, figs. 3, 3«. 

Shell elongate-conic, posterior two-thirds between the sutures 
%ht brown, anterior third and base darker, the two areas being 
separated by a still darker narrow band. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the michUe, rounded 
^^'ard the summit and the suture, ornamented l)y broad, low, 
^^U rounded, slightly protractive axial ribs, which become slightly 
"*ttened toward the summit; of which 16 appear upon the first and 
^^ond, 18 upon the third to fifth, 20 upcm the sixth, 22 up(m the 
^'^enth and the penultimate tuni. Intercostal spaces ahnos* as 
^*de as the ribs, shallow. Sutures well impressed. Peripheiy and 
^"^^ rather short base of the last whorl somewhat inflated and well 
^*^Uiided. Entire surface of spire and base marked by well incised, 
closely spaced, fine, spiral striations; aperture rather small, oval; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip tliin, shownig the external sculp- 
ture and coloration within; columella sis:moid, slender and slightly 
r^Volute. 

Tlietype (Cat. no. 15275, U.S.X.M.) and three additional specimens 
^©re dredged in 10 fathoms off San Pedro, California. The type 
^ 10 post-nuclear whorls and measures: l^»ngth 7 mm., diameter 
2.3 mm. Oat. no. 163255, U.S.N. M., contains three specimens col- 
lected at San Pedro by Mrs. Oldroyd. One specimen. Cat. no. 
206865, U.S.N.M., dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 
4309, in 67 to 78 fathoms, on fine sand and broken shell bottom, 
9 miles off Point Ix>ma Light, California. 



68 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) HALIA, new speciM. 

Plate 5, fig. 11. 

Shell elongate-conic, wax-yellow at the summit, grading to brown 
at the suture; anterior part of base, wax-yellow. (Nuclear w^horls 
decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, rounding 
gently toward the summit and the suture, marked by low, broad, 
well rounded, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon 
the second, 18 upon the third and fourth, 20 upon the fifth to sev- 
enth, 24 upon the eighth, and 28 upon the penultimate turn; upon 
this they are less regular, somewhat enfeebled and retractive. Inter- 
costal spaces a little narrower than the ribs. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base moderately long, 
well rounded. Entire surface of spire and base marked by numerous 
fine, crowded, wavy spiral striations. Aperture oval; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture and 
coloration within; columella slender, slightly curved and revolute; 
parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 59328, U.S.N.M.) was collected at San Diego, 
California. It has 10 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
8.5 mm., diameter 2.5 mm. 

Cat. no. 205946, U.S.N.M., contains a specimen collected by Mr, 
H. N. Lowe in 8 fathoms off San Pedro. Cat. no. 205947, U.S.N.M., 
two additional specimens from the same gentleman, collected in 10 
fathoms off San Pedro. One specimen in Mr. S. S. Berry's collec- 
tion comes from Santa Barbara, California. 

TURBONnXA (PTROOLAMPROS) LYALLI DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 6, figs. 6, 6a. 

Titrbonilla {Pyrgolampros) lyalli Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pp. 500,501, pi. 44, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell small and slender with strong sculpture, whitish with a broad 
chestnut band which extends almost halfway over the exposed por- 
tion of the whorls above the periphery and an equal distance anteri- 
orly over the base below the periphery. Nuclear whorls two, closely 
appressed to each other, forming a polished depressed helicoid spire, 
which does not extend beyond the outline of the post-nuclear spire, 
is not at all immersed and has its axis at right angles to the axis of 
the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls decidedly flattened, 
moderately contracted at the periphery, and slightly shouldered at 
the summit, ornamented by strongly elevated, moderately broad, 
rounded retractive axial ribs, which become somewhat flattened 
toward the summit and periphery of the turns. There are about 22 
ribs upon the second, 20 upon the fifth and the penultimate turn. 
Upon the first they are very weakly expressed. Intercostal spaces 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 69 



\ 



broad, almost double the width of the ribs. Sutures strongly 
impressed. Periphery and base of the last whori well rounded, 
marked by the continuations of the axial ribs which extend feebly 
to the umbilical region. Entire surface marked by numerous 
closely placed spiral striations. Aperture pyriform, posterior angle 
acute, columella almost straight, obliquely inserted, slightly revolute. 
The unique type (Cat. no. 196221, U.S.N.M.) was collected by 
Rev. G. W. Taylor at Banks Island, British Columbia. It has 9 
post-nuclear turns and measures: Length 5.7 mm., diameter 1.4 mm. 

TUBBONHXA (PTROOLAMPROS) BBRRYI DaU and Baxtsch. 

Plate G, figs. 5, 5a. 

Turbonilla {Pyrgolampros) herryi Dall and Hartsch, Pnx^. L'. S. Nat. Mup., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 500, pi. 44, fign. 10, 10a. 

Shell slender, very regularly acutely conic, bright chestnut-brown, 
with two narrow spiral bands of a lighter shade; one, the narrower of 
the two, is at the periphery, the other has its posterior edge at about 
the middle of the exposed portion between the sutures. Nuclear 
turns two and one-fourth, smooth, depressed, helicoid, not immersed, 
having their axis at a right angle to the axis of the later whorls, their 
sides projecting slightly beyond the outlines of the spire. Post- 
nuclear whorls very high between the sutures, slightly beveled at the 
summit and moderately constricted at the periphery, ornamented by 
well-developed, acute, retractive axial ribs, of which there are about 
20 upon the second, 24 upon the fifth, and 26 upon the penultimate 
turn. These ribs extend quite strongly to the summit, w^here they 
leebly crenulate the well-impressed sutures. Periphery and base of 
the last whorl well rounded, marked by the continuations of the axial 
"bs, which gradually disappear as they cross the base. Entire sur- 
'^o-e marked by numerous very fine, closely spaced, wavy, spiral 
st^Hation. Aperture suboval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior 

*^glc acute; columella oblique, very slightly twisted and weakly 

'^Volute at its outer extremity. 

The type (Cat. no. 196223, U.S.N.M.) has 9 post-nuclear whorls 

*^<l measures: Length 8 mm., diameter 2.2 nun. It and another 

^P^cimen in Mr. S. S. Berry's collection were dredged by him in 39 

^^thoms on sandy bottom in Monterey Bay. 

-Another specimen (Cat. no. 196225, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the 

*^Vireau of Fisheries steamer Albatross, at station 4564, in 9 to 10 

'^thorns, rocky bottom, with a temperature of 59°, 2 miles off Santa 

^^^^uz Light, Monterey Bay, California. 

A fourth shell (Cat. no. 196224, U.S.N.M.) was dredged in 52 
^^thomsy off Catalina Island, California. 
2&e&— Bull, es— 09 6 



70 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PYROOUIMPROS) ALASKANA, new spedM. 

Plate 6, fig. 9. 

Shell elongaUvconic, wax yellow, with a broad, peripheral, lighl 
brown band and a narrow one immediately below the summit; thee 
are best seen in the aperture. (Nuclear whorls decollated in all oi 
specimens.) Post-nuclear whorls increasing very slowly in diameti 
in the first three turns, then more rapidly. The summits of succee< 
ing turns fall a little bdow the periphery, which gives the whorls a 
overhanging appearance. The whorls are marked by very stroni 
well elevated, broad, rounded, irregularly slanting axial ribs whic 
become slightly widened and flattened both at the summit and at tl 
periphery. There are about 18 of them upon all but the last tun 
upon this there are about 22. Intercostal spaces about as wide i 
the axial ribs. Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery of the la 
whorl somewhat angulatod, base moderately long, well rounde< 
marked by feeble extensions of the axial ribs and many fine, close! 
spaced, wavy spiral striations: the latter also mark the spaces betwe( 
the sutures. Aperture moderately large, ovate, posterior angle acut 
outer lip moderately thick; columella oblique, curved and strong 
re volute; parietal wall covered by a strong callus. 

The type and seven specimens (Cat. no. 160206, U.S.N.M.) were c< 
lected at St. Paul, Kadiak, Alaska, in 13 fathoms, mud bottom, I 
Dr. W. H. Dall. The type has lost the nucleus and probably the fir 
one and one-half post-nuclear turns. The nine remaining measui 
Length 8 mm., diameter 2.6 mm. The following specimens were i 
collected by Doctor Dall (Cat. no. 205149, U.S.N.M.). Nine specime: 
from Chagafka Cove, Kadiak, Alaska; (Cat. no. 205150 U.S.N.M 
one specimen from Granite Cove, Port Althorp, Alaska, in 8 fathoi 
on sand bottom; (Cat. no. 160209, U.S.N.M.) three specimens fro 
Sitka Harbor, Alaska, in 12 fathoms on mud and gravel bottom. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) CHOCOLATA Carpenter. 

Plato 5, figs. 9, 9fi. 
Chemnitzia chocolatn ('ARrESTER, Pnj<'. Cal. Aca«l. Sci., ltS65, p. 220. 

Shell slender, elongate-conic, uniformly golden-brown, shinic 
Nuclear whorls very small, j)lan()rh()i(l, two and one-half, havi: 
their axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns; not immerse 
Post -nuclear whorls rather high between the sutures, slightly shoi 
dered at the summit, flattened on the posterior three-fourths betwe< 
the sutures; rounding on the anterior fourth to the somewhat co 
tracted suture. Axial ribs slightly retractive, well rounded, 22 up 
the first eight whorls, 24 upon the ninth, and 28 upon the tenth; < 
the penultimate whorl they are poorly developed, split, and othc 
wise indicating a senile stage. Sutures well impressed. Periphe 
and base of the last whorl inflated and well rounded. The enti 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 71 

surface of the base and spire marked by numerous fine, wavy, closely 
spaced spiral striations. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer 
lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; also three bands of 
color upon a bluish-white surface, one immediately below the sum- 
mit, another covering the part corresponding to posterior half of the 
base, and a narrow one dividing the space between these two areas 
in equal halves; columella curved, moderately strong, and revolute. 
The specimen described and figured (Cat. no. 15315, U.S.N.M.) 
was collected by J. C. Cooper at San Pedro, California. It has 12 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 14 nm[i., diameter 3.6 mm. 

TURBONHXA (PYRGOLAMPROS) PAIITBI, new spedet. 

Plate 5, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell very slender, horn-yellow with a chestnut band about two- 
fifths the width of the space between the sutures immediately below 
the summits, and another about one-third as wide <lividing the light 
w^a of the spire into equal parts. Posterior half of base chestnut 
hrovnUj anterior horn-yellow. Nuclear whorls small, two and one- 
fourth, depressed, heUcoid, having their axis ahnost at right angles 
^ that of the succeeding turns, in the first of wliich they are slightly 
'^ninerse<l. Post-nuclear whorls sHghtly shouldered 4it the summit, 
^eakly rounded, marked by strong, well rounded retractive axial 
^bs, of which 24 occur upon the first, 22 upcm the seccmd, 20 upon 
^he third to fifth, and 22 upon the sixth to penultimate turn. Sutures 
^ell impressed, rendered somewhat wavy by the strong terminations 
P* the ribs at the summit of the whorls. Periphery of the base 
^^ated, well roimded. Base moderately long, well rounded, marked 
"7 the feeble continuations of the axial ribs. Entire surface of l)ase 
^d spire bearing fine, closely crowded, wavy spiral striations. Aper- 
^^^ large; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external 
^Ulpture and color markings within; columella slender, straight, 
^blique^ and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 205952, U.S.N.M.) was collected near Kedondo, 
^^fomia. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
'•3 mm., diameter 2.2 nun. Cat. no. 171911, U.S.N.M., contains 
Mother specimen collected by S. S. Berr}^ and J. II. Paine in 50 fathoms 
^ff Avalon, Catalina Island. Cat. no. 205953, U.S.N.M., one speci- 
men collected by Mr. F. W. Kelsey in 35 fathoms off Coronado Hotel, 
San Diego; and Cat. no. 203507, U.S.N.M., one specimen collected 
oy Mr. C. W. Gripp at San Diego, California. 
Named for J. H. Paine. 

TUBBONHXA (PTRGOLAMPROS) KEEPI, new species. 

Plate 5, fig. 1 . 

Shell elongate-conic, yellowish-w^liite with a brown band about 
two-fifths the width of the space between the sutui-es, immediately 



72 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

below the summits, and one about one-third as wide, a little anterior 
to the mid<lle of the remaining light area. Posterior half of base a 
little lighter brown than the bands between the sutures, grading into 
wliite on the anterior half. (Nuclear whorls decollatesd.) Post- 
nuclear whorls slightly shouldered, flattened, somewhat contracted 
at the periphery, marked by strong, well rounded, almost vertical 
axial ril)s, of which there are 22 upon tlie fourth to sixth, 24 upon the 
seventh to ninth, 26 up(m the tenth, and 30 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces a little narrower than the ribs, well 
impressed. Sutures strongly impressed, rendered sinuous by the 
strong terminations of the axial ribs at the summits of the whorls. 
Peripheiy of the last whorl well rounded. Base moderately long, 
well rounded. Entire surface of spire and base marked by numerous, 
veiy closely crowded, wavy, spiral striations. Aperture large; poste- 
rior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture and 
color bands within; columella very oblique, almost straight and 
sliii:htlv revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 173080, TJ.S.N.M.) was collected by Mr. Lowe 
at Lcmg Beach, California. It has lost the nucleus and the first three 
post-nuclear whorls. The nine remaining measure : Length 1 1 .7 mm., 
diameter 3.5 mm. The I-niversity of California has obtained this 
species at the following stations: 14 ^"^N^fT Point Fimiin; 21 ^'^ off 
Catalina Island; 32 off Catalina Island; 73 off San Diego, California. 

Named for Prof. Josiah K(»ep. 

TURBONU.LA (PYRGOLAMPROS) HALISTREPTA, new species. 

Plate 5, ixii. 2. 

Shell elongate-conic, wax yellow with a l)road subsutural, narrow 
submedian and a l)road subporipheral band of goldenbrown. (Nuclear 
whorls decollated.) Post-nucl(*ar whorls rather high between the 
sutures, very slightly shouldenMl, marked by almost obsolete, nearly 
vertical axial ribs, which are best <leveloped near the summit and 
practically disappear Ix^fore they reach the suture on the early whorls; 
on the last three thev are scarcely indicated. Of these ribs there 
are about 2S upon the third and 24 upon the seventh whorl. Sutures 
well im])ressed. Periphery and the short l)ase of the last whorl some- 
what inflate<l, well rounded. Kntire suiface of spire and base marked 
by many well incised, closely s[)aced, wavy, spiial striati(ms. Some 
of the fine Hrations between the inciscMl lines are a litlh* darker colored 
than the rest of the surface and appear as reddish-l)rown hair lines. 
Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the 
external markings within; columcdla slender, strongly curved and 
moderatelv revolute. 

The tyi)e (Cat. no. 205054, U.S.N.M.) was dredged l)y the Univer- 
sity of CaUfomia; off Newport, California. It has lost the nucleus 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 73 

and probably the first post-nuclear whorl; those remaining measure: 
Length 9.5 mm., diameter 2.7 mm. Two topotypes are in the collec- 
tion of the University of California. 

TURBONILLA (PYROOLAMPROS) LITUYANA, new species. 

Plate 5, fig. 8. 

Shell elongate-conic, light wax yeUow, with a supra and subperiph- 
eral light chestnut band, separated by a veiy narrow, dark wax 
yellow i>eripheral zone. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear 
whorls rather high between the sutures, early ones with moderately 
stn)ng, broad, low, almost vertical axial ribs, which become quite 
obsolete on the last turn and a half. About 22 of these ribs ai)pear 
upon the eighth whorl. Intercostal si)aces narrow and weakly 
impressed. Sutures well rounded. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl well rounded, the latter marked by continuations of the obsolete 
riblets and the fme, close, wa^^■ si)iral striations which also cover the 
entire surface of the spire. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin ; columella slender, oblique, slightly curved and revolute, 
with a slight fold at its insert i(m; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 160208, l\S.N.M.) was collected by Dr. W. II. 
Dall, at Lituya Bay, Alaska. It has the last nine post-nuclear whorls, 
having lost the nucleus and probably the first two post-nuclear turns, 
and measures: length 11.5 mm., diameter 3.7 mm. Two additional 
specimens (Cat. no. 160207, U.S.N.M.) were also collected by Doctor 
Dall in the same locality, in 8 fathoms, on sandy bottom. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGOLAMPROS) OREGONBNSIS Dall and Bartsch. 

Plah' 5, li^. 5. 

Turhomlla (Pifrgolampros) ortgomnais 1)ai.l and Hautsch. Pnx'. V . S. Xat. Miis., 
Vf»l. 33, 1907, pp. 503, 504, pi. 45, i\vr. 2. 

Shell elongate-<*onic, wax y(»llow, with two yeUowish-brown si)iral 

bands, the posterior one of which encircles the turns a little above 

the peripherj', while the anterior one, which is a little wider, is iinine- 

iliately posterior to it, the two l)eing separated by a space* about 

as wide as the posterior band. (Nuclear whorls decollated in all our 

specimens.) Post-nuclear turns veiy slightly round(»d, moderately 

contracted at the periphery', and closely appn^ssed to the preceding 

turn at the summit. There are no well-defined ribs, the axial sculpture 

being reduced to mere lines of growth, with here and there a weakly 

impressed area, probably representing an obsolete* intercostal space. 

Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl faintly 

angulated. Base short, well rounded. Kntire surface marked by 

fine, r^ular, close, spiral striation. Ai)ertun» pyriform, j)osterior 

angle acute; outer lip thin, columella somewhat twisted, scarcely 

reyolute at its free end. 



74 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL liUSEUM. 

The type has 8^ whorls remaining which measure: Length 8.5 mm., 
diameter 2.7 mm. It and another specimen (Cat. no. 181112, 
U.S.N.M.) were dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer 
Alhatross at station 2885, off Oregon, in 30 fathoms, with a bottom 
temperature of 49°. 

Another specimen (Cat. no. 196222, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at 
station 2868, off the coast of Washington, in 31 fathoms, on gray sand, 
with a bottom temperature of 40.9°. 

Subgenus PTBOISCITS PhUippi. 

Pyrgiscus Philippi, Wieg. Arch. , vol . 1 , 1841 , p. 50. Type, Melania rvfa Philippi= 
Pyrgostelis Monterosato, (^ouoh. Medit., 1884, p. 89, same type=Ortoft^/« 
Aradas, Atti Dell Acad. Giov. di Catania, 1843, vol. 20, same type. 

Turbonillas having prominent axial ribs and deeply incised spiral 
lines, but no varices or internal lirations on the outer lip. Columella 
usually somewhat flexuous. 

T\ii)e, — Melania rufa Philippi. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS PYROI8CU8. 

Base without spiral sculpture. 

Shell with a tuberculate cord near the summit annetise, p. 76. 

Shell without tuberculate cord near the summit gracillinuif p. 77. 

Base with spiral sculpture. 

Axial ribs terminating abruptly at the p<*ripher>*. 
Shell broadly conic. 

m 

Incised spirals between the sutures G of uniform strength.. i^aw/iiJa, p. 77. 
Incised npirals between the sutures 7 not of uniform strength. o&<'«a, p. 78. 
Shell elongate-conic. 

Incised spirals between the sutures of uniform strength famlUiy p. 78. 

Incised spirals between the sutures not of \iniform strength. 

Spiral lines 5 strong and 3 slender pequerm^, p. 79. 

Spiral lines 7 nlrong and G slender nuttingi, p. 79. 

Spiral lines 2 strong and 1 1 slender callia^ p. 80. 

Spiral lines 2 strong and 20 slender superha^ p. 80. 

Axial ribs passing feebly over the periphery, but tnanescing before they reach 
the middle of the base. 
Shell stout and very robust. 

Axial ribs somewhat tubercUiate pluto, p. 81. 

Axial ribs not tuberculate jev:ctti, p. 82. 

Shell broadly conic. 

Incised spiral lines between the sutures of uniform strength. 

Incisod spirals bet w(»en the sutures G »ign«, p. 83. 

Incised sj>irals between the sutures 7. 

Intercostal sj)aces about as wide as the ribs stn'osa, p. 83. 

Intercostal spaces double tho width of thcj rib.s. 

Base with 13 well-incised spiral lines only... morchiy p. 84. 
Base with 15 well-incised lines and narrow 

spiral striations aragoni^ p. 85. 

Incised spirals between tho sutures 8 recta, p. 85. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 75 

M© with spiral sculpture — Continued. 

Axial ribe passing feebly over the periphery, but evanescing before they reach 
the middle of the base — Continued. 
Shell broadly conic — Continued. 

Incised spirals between the sutures not of uniform strength. 
Incised lines between the sutures all strong. 

Incised spirals between the sutures 8 ireldij p. 86. 

Incised spicals between the sutures 9 nereia, p. 86. 

Incised lines between the sutures partly strong and partly fine. 

Base with 11 well-incised spiral lines antestriatay p. 87. 

Base with 9 slender and numerous micro- 
scopic lines antemundaj p. 88. 

Shell elongate-conic. 

Incised spiral lines between the sutures of uniform strength. 
Spiral striations between the sutures more than 10. 

Whorls well rounded fiavescens^ p. 89. 

Whorls flattened. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 15 macbridei^ p. 90. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 30 nuttalliy p. 90. 

Spiral striations between the sutures less than 10. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 5 ttiocto, p. 91. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 6 angusta^ p. 91. 

Incised spiral lines between the sutures not of uniform strength. 
Incised spiral lines between the sutiu'es all strong. 

Summits of the whorls excurved tenuicuUiy p. 92. 

Sunmiits of the whorls not excurved. 
Spacing regular. 

Incised spirals 6 strong and 1 fine virgo^ p. 93. 

Incised spirals 7 strong and 3 fine marshnlli, p. 94. 

Spacing irregular. 

Whorls flattened canfieldij p. 95. 

Whorls well rounded alrnOy p. 95. 

Incised spirals between the sutures consisting of well-impressed pits or 
lines and fine striations. 
Spiral markings consisting of two strong series of pits, one the pe- 
ripheral, the other the sub or supra-median and many fine striations. 
Whorls strongly shouldered. 

Incised spiral lines between the two pits IS. callipeplum, p. 96. 
Incised spiml lines between the two pits 12. . ..dinay p. 96. 
Whirls not shouldered. 

Whorls exserted at the summit shimeki, p. 97. 

Whorls not exserted at the summit sanctorum, p. 98. 

Spiral markings consisting of more than two series of strong pits or 
lines and wavy fine striations. 

Whorb exserted at the summit tenuicula, p. 92. 

Whorls not exserted at the summit. 

Shell large, adult more than 11 mm eucosmobasisj p. 98. 

Shell smaller, adult less than 7 mm halidomay p. 99. 

Axial ribs extend over the base to the umbilical area. 
Base of the last whorl very decidedly inflated. 

Adult shell less than 8 ram. long auricoma, p. 100. 

Adult shell more than 10 mm. long castanea, p. 101. 



76 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Base with spiral sculpture — Continued. 

Axial ribs extend over the base to the umbilical area — Continued. 
Base of the last whorl not decidedly inflated. 

Shell very large, adult more than 13 mm coBtanella, p. 102. 

Shell less than 10 mm. 

Incised spiral lines between the sutures of uniform strength. 

Whorls strongly shouldered indentata, p. 102. 

Whorls not strongly shouldered. 

Incised spirals between the sutures 3 coniy p. 103. 

Incised spirals between the sutures 7. 

Axial ribs 14-22 craticulata, p. 104. 

Axial ribs 36-40 ceralva, p. 104. 

Incised spirals between the sutures 8, or 8 on the early turns 
and 10 on the later ones. 

Basal striations 5 leptay p. 105. 

Basal striations 12 histiaSt p. 105. 

. Incised spirals between the sutures 9 subula^ p. 106. 

Incised spiral lines between the sutures not of uniform strength. 
Incised lines between the sutures all strong. 

Shell large, adult more than 8 mm. long wickhami, p. 106. 

Shell small, adult less than 6 mm. long. 

Incised spiral lines between sutures 9 lara, p. 107. 

Incised spirals between the sutures consisting of strongly impressed 
pits or lines and fine striations. 
Spiral pits 2, one peripheral and one median, fine lines 28. 

cinctelUif p. 108. 

Spiral pits 5, fine lines 5 adusta, p. 108. 

Spiral pits 7, fine lines 4 larunda, p. 109. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) ANNBTTiB, new species. 

Plate 7, fifr. 7. 

Shell very thin and delicate, yellowish-white. (Nuclear whorls 
decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls concave with a tuberculated 
shoulder a little below the summit, marked by strong, sinuous, slender, 
almost vertical axial ribs, of whicli 18 occur upon all but the penulti- 
mate whorl, the latter having 20. Intercostal spaces about four 
times as wide as the ribs, marked by seven broad, incised, spiral pits. 
The space between tlie first and second pit below the summit forms a 
ratlier strong raised spiral cord, the junction of which with the ribs 
renders them tuberculate. Periphery of the last whorl angulated. 
Base well rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of the axial 
ribs only. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle acute; outer lip 
thin, sliowing the external markings within ; columella slender, curved 
and slightlv revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 163265, U.S.N. M.) and another specimen were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2792 in 401 fathoms, oflf 
Manta, Ecuador. 

The type has the last six and one-half whorls and measures: 
Length 3.7 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 



WEST AMEBICAK PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 77 

TURBONILLA (PTR6ISCUS) GRACHXIMA Cmipenter. 

Plate 7, fig. 9. 

Chemnitzia ffradllima Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 431; not 7Vr- 
bonilla gracillima Gabb, 1865, nor Turbonilla gradllima Koch and Wibgh- 
MANN, 1872, not Turbonilla gracillima Almers and Bofill, 1898. 

Shell very slender, acute, milk-white. Nuclear whorls prolonged, 
partly lost. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded at first, later flattened, 
moderately contracted at the periphery and slightly shouldered at the 
summit, marked by slender, almost vertical, axial ribs, of which 12 
occur upon the first, 14 upon the second and third, 16 upon the fourth, 
18 upon the fifth and penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces as broad 
as the ribs, terminating suddenly at the periphery, crossed by about 
fourteen equal and equally spaced spiral pits, which are equal to the 
spaces which separate them. Periphery and base of the last whorl 
^ell rounded, without sculpture, smooth. Aperture rhomboidal ; pos- 
terior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columeUa slender, somewhat 
tiristed. 

Two specimens were collected off Chama at Mazatlan, Mexico; the 
larger of these has eight post-nuclear whorls, and measures : Length 3 
^i^ini., diameter 0.9 mm., and is on tablet 2001, Liverpool collection, 
British Museum. 

TXJRBONn.LA (PTROISCUS) VEZATIVA, new spedes. 

Plate?, fig. 11. 

Shell stout, chestnut brown. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, slightly rounded toward the 
oppressed summit, and weakly contracted at the periphery, marked 
^^7 Vireak, rounded, vertical axial ribs, which terminate abruptly at the 
Periphery, of which 22 occur upon the fifth, 24 upon the sixth and 
^^enth, and 26 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about 
^^^ and one-half times as wide as the ribs, marked by six equal and 
^^Ually spaced spiral grooves, which divide the space between the 
sutures into seven equal parts. Sutures well impressed. Periphery 
P* the last whorl angulated. Base short, marked by eight strongly 
*^^ised spiral lines, which decrease in spacing from the periphery to 
^^^ umbilical area. The space immediately behind the columella 
"^^J8 a number of closely spaced, fine, spiral striations. Aperture 
'"^Omboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
®^temal markings within; columella slender, somewhat twisted and 
^^ightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 160200, U.S.N.M.) was coUect^d by Mr. E. W. 
Roper at San Pedro, California. It has lost the nucleus. The nine 
remaining whorls measure: Length 6.2 mm., diameter 2.1 mum. 



78 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PYR6ISCUS) OBSSA, mw ipedM. 
Plato 7, figs. 3, 3a. 

Shell robust, chocolate brown. Nuclear whorls smally deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first post-nuclear turn, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last one projects. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, 
moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by strong vertical 
axial ribs, which are decidedly contracted at their junctions with the 
spiral grooves, which lends them a somewhat nodulous aspect. Of 
these ribs, 16 appear on the first, 18 on the second, 20 upon the third 
to fifth, 22 on the sixth, and 24 on the penultimate turn. Intercostal 
spaces about as broad as the ribs, crossed by five strongly incised 
spiral grooves which almost cross the ribs. One of these is at the 
periphery. The remaining four appear in a double series; the one 
placed about as far below the summit as the other is above the periph- 
ery, the space between them being wider than that bietween the 
summit and the first pit below it. Tw^o fine incised spiral lines mark 
the space between the summit and the first serias of pits below it. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a broad plain band, well 
rounded. Base very short, well rounded, marked by about six un- 
equal and unequally spaced strong incised lines. Aperture pear- 
shaped; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external 
scidpturc within; columella oblique, slightly revolutei, provided with 
a moderately strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 1 6200:1 U.S.N.M.) was collected at Pacific Beach, 
California. It has eight post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 
5.2 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) FAVttLA. new name. 

Chemnitzia cahita Cakpentkr, Ann. Maj^. Xiit. Hist., 3d eer., vol. 15, 1865, p. 
4(M), not ('hvmvUz'ui volatn (iocld, PrcH\ Bost. S(K'. Nat. Hist., vol. 3, 1861, 
J). 40(>. 

''Shell quite lartije, elonc^ate, ashy. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls V.\, Ilattened, separated hy weakly impressed 
sutures. Axial ribs 20 to 2S, straij^ht, subacute, suddenly truncated 
at the periphery. Intercostal spaces marked by 4 to 5 deeply im- 
pressed spiral grooves, wliich i)ass up (m the sides of the ribs but do 
not cross their summits. Perii)hery of the la.st whorl angulated. 
Base short, marked by spiral lines. Aperture subquadratei; col- 
umella strongly twLsted. l..ength S.8 mm., diameter 2.3 mm." 

The above is Doctor Carpenter's description, to which he adds: 
''TliLs beautiful and unique sliell was probably from Panama; but 
there was no locality mark. It is remarkable for its deep furrow and 
the suddenly shortened and spirally sculptured base. It is much 
larger and broader than the northern C virgo, and differs in details of 
sculpture." We have not seen this .species. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 79 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) PEQUENSIS. new tpecies. 

Plate 7, figs. 5, 5n, 

Shell slender, light yeUow, with a broad golden band encircling the 
whorls in the middle between the sutures, and another a little wider 
immediately posterior to the periphery. Nuclear whorls two, plan- 
orboid, having their axis almost at right angles to that of the suc- 
ceeding turns, in the first of which thoy are about one-fourth im- 
mersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, wdth a strong 
sloping shoulder, which occupies about one-fifth of the space between 
the sutures; somewhat contracted at the periphery, marked by 
moderately strong, sUghtly protractive axial ribs, wliich are strongest 
at the angle of the shoulder and terminate at the periphery. Of these 
ribs there are 14 upon the first to tliird and IG upon the remaining 
turns. Intercostal spaces almost as wide as the ribs, shallow, marked 
by eight equal, strongly incised, but unequally spaced spiral grooves; 
the three immediately posterior to the periphery being a little more 
closely spaced than the rest. Two feebly incised fine lines divide 
the space between the summit and the first strong line and that 
between the first and second. These fine lines are best shown on 
the last whorls. Sutures well impressed. Biise short, well rounded, 
marked by about a dozen ver^'fine, wavy spiral striations. Aperture 
rhomboid; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
colimiella somewhat twisted, slighth^ revolute, provided with an 
oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 97019, U.S.N.M.) has eight ])ost-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: Length 4.6 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. It was coUected 
at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2834, near Point Abreojos, in 12 
fathoms, on sand bottom, off I^ower California. 

TUBBONILLA (PYROISCUS) NUTTmGI, new ipecies. 
Plate 7, figH. 13, 13«. 

Shell long and slender, wax yeUow on the posterior half between the 
sutures, light brown on the anterior and the periphery. Nuclear 
whorls large, two and one-half, forming a depressed helicoid spire, the 
axis of which is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which it is about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls 
moderately well rounded, slightly shouldered at the summit, marked 
by strong, broad, well rounded, somewhat protractive axial ribs, of 
which 20 occur upon the first to sixth, 22 upon the seventh to ninth, 
and 24 upon the pemdtimate turn. These ribs extend prominently 
from the siunmit to the periphery of the whorls, but do not cross the 
latter. Intercostal spaces very narrow, not more than half the wadth 
of the ribs; anterior half between the sutures marked by five equal 
and equally spaced spiral grooves; posterior half marked by two 
which equal those on the anterior half in strength, but are a Uttle 



80 • BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

more distantly spaced, and six fine incised lines which divide the 
space posterior to the last groove. Sutures somewhat constricted. 
Periphery of the last whori well rounded. Base short, well rounded, 
marked by nine slender incised spiral lines, which are successively a 
Uttle closer spaced from the periphery to the umbiUcal region. 
Aperture rhomboid; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip tliin, showing 
the external markings within; columella slender, somewhat curved 
and sUghtly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 160067 U.S.X.M.) was dredged by Mr. F. W. 
Kelsey in twenty fathoms off San Diego. It has eleven post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 12.3 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. 

Named for Prof. C. C. Nutting. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



U. S. N. M. 
cat. no. 






I 



160067 
173075 
152752 



1 ' Off San DIepo. ralifomla ' 20 I IT. S. Nat. Mus. 

2 I ' Northwest of San Diepo.Cailfomia.; 50 ' Do. 

3 , I OlT San Pedro, California 8 Do. 

1 28 Off San Dlepo. California ' Univ. Cal. coU. 

1 I 28 I San Diego, California 50 Kelsey <t)ll. 

II ■ ■ 



TURBONU.LA (PYROISCUS) GALLIA, new spedes. 

Plate 7, fig. 4. 

Shell elongate-Iconic, yeIlo\\ish-white. Nuclear whorls decollated. 
Post-nuclear whorls moderately well rounded, ornamented bv rather 
weak, slightly protract! ve, axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first 
four of the remaining turns and IS upon the rest. Intercostal spaces 
shallow, double tlie width of the ribs, marked by two lines of pits, one 
of which is at the peri])hoiy, the other a little posterior to the middle 
of the whorls an<l a series of finer incised lines of which seven irreg- 
ularly spaced ones occur between the two rows of pits and four 
betweentheup])errowof])its and the summit. Sutures well impressed. 
PeripheiT of the last whorl well roundcMl. Base short, well rounded, 
marked by several well incised spiral striations. Aperture subquad- 
rate; posterior angle obtiLse: outer lip thin, strongly bent at its 
anterior margin; columella short, twisted and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 2059:30, T.S.X.M.) was collected at San Diego, 
CaUfornia. It has lost the early whorls. The nine remaimng 
measure: Length 4.7 mm., <iiameter 1.4 mm. 

TURBONttLA (PYRGISCUS) SUPERBA. new species. 

Plait' 7, figs. 10, lOr/. 

Shell elongate-conic, pale yellow with a darker broad vollow band 
a little posterior to the middle of the whorls between the sutures, 
and another of about equal width at the periphery. Nuclear whorls 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 81 

me and three-fourths, moderately lai^e, depressed, helicoid, having 
heir axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first 
)f which they are about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls 
veil rounded, the strongest convexity falling a little anterior to the 
niddle between the sutures, appressed at the summit, marked by 
itrong, sublamellar, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur 
ipon the first to seventh whorl, 18 upon the eighth, 20 upon the ninth 
md the penultimate tuni. Intercostal spaces about three times as 
wride as the ribs, shallow, marked by a series of deep spiral pits, at 
Lhe periphery and another a little posterior to the middle of the 
nrhorls. The space between the peripheral and the median pits is 
caressed by ten unequal and unequally spaced, fine spiral striations. 
The space between the median row of pits and the summit is crossed 
by ten incised spiral lines of similar character. Sutures well 
impressed. Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated. Base 
short, well rounded, marked by about thirteen fine, well incised, 
equal and equally spaced spiral striations. Aperture rhomboid; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella straight, oblique and revolute, provided with a 
weak fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 163261, U.S.N.M.) has eleven post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Ijength 6.5 mm., diameter 1.6. mm. It and 
two additional specimens were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
station 2822, in 21 fathoms, gray sand and broken shells, off La 
Paz, Lower California. 

TURBONn^LA (PYROISCUS) PLUTO, new species. 

Plate 9, fig. 9. 

Shell very robust, chestnut brown. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened, moderately shouldered at the summit 
and scarcely at all contracted at the sutures, marked by rather 
irregular, low, rounded, variously slanting axial ribs which are 
completely eroded on the first four whorls, on the fifth and sixth 
there are 24, on the seventh and the penultimate there are 38. Inter- 
costal spaces a little narrower than the ribs, marked by four spiral 
^ries of broad strongly impressed spiral pits, on the anterior two- 
thirds of the whorls between the sutures; the posterior third is marked 
by two closely spaced, well incised, strong spiral lines, the first of 
?^hich is about as far posterior to the neighboring pit as the space 
p^hich separates that from its fellow. Both spiral pits and lines cut 
jtrongly into the sides of the ribs and pass feebly over their summits, 
rendering them somewhat tuberculate. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery of the last w^horl marked by a plain band, well rounded. 
Base moderately long, well roimded, marked by the very feeble con- 
jnuations of the axial ribs and six equal and equally spaced, broad 



82 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



and deeply incised spiral lines. Aperture pear shaped; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip rather thick; columella short, oblique and 
somewhat re volute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206866, U.S.N.M.) was dredged in 10 fathoms, 
off San Pedro, California. It has nine post-nuclear whork and 
measures: Length 7.5 mm., diameter 2.3 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) JEWBTTI, new tpedes. 

Plate 7, fip^. 2, 2a. 

Shell short, robust, rose pink, wax yellow at tip. Nuclear whorls 
two and one-half, very small, low, helicoid, having their axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 
about one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, shoul- 
dered at the summit, marked by strong, rounded, slightly protract- 
ive axial ribs; of which 18 occur upon the second, 20 upon the third, 
22 upon the fourth and fifth, 24 upon the sixth, and 26 upon the 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about equal to the ribs, 
strongly impressed, marked by five series of equal and equally 
spaced spiral pits, the first of which is at the periphery, the last a 
little farther from the summit than its neighbor. Sutures strongly 
marked, rendered sinuous by the ribs. Periphery of the last whori 
rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs. Base 
moderately long, well rounded, marked by eight unequal and 
unequally spaced spiral striations, the two immediately below the 
periphery being stronger than the rest and somewhat interrupted. 
Aperture oval; outer lip thick within, columella stout, somewhat 
twisted and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 15304S, U.S.N.M.) and another specimen were 
obtained at low tide at San Diego, California. The type has eight 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.5 mm., diameter 1.9 nun. 

Named for tlio late Col. Ezekiel »lewett. 

We have exaniiued the f()ll()win<j: specimens: 



r.s.N.M. 

cat. no. 



ir>3048 
le>32(i3 

1625fi4 
152310 



4()307 
ie)256o 
l«2.'Wl 



N'lmi- 
l>er of 
speci- 

IIK'IIS. 



r. S. 11. F 
.station. 



l/«M-;ilitV 



l>epth, 
fath- 
oms. 



Disposition of 
material. 



2 OIT San Diego, Califoniiii.. ■ j 

1 do '^ 

1 'IVnniual Island, California. . . ' 

1 I'lu-ifie Be;u'h,('alifornia 

2 < )c'ean Hcaoh, Califoruia 

1 A rt'h n««a(h, California tt.. „, „ 

1 San I'edro. California J nlv. Cal. ooU. 

1 1 Todos Santos Hay, I^wer ('al- J^q®^^- w 

ifornia. , t . S. Nat. Mus 

4 ' '^'an llii)olito Point, Lower Cal- i i 

I Ifornia. i 

1 2X35 . Lower California i c c I ^ 

; 1 ^^1 Do. 



S. Nat. Mus. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



WEST AMEBIGAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 83 

TDRBOlflLLA (PYR6ISCUS) SIONiB. new species. 

Plate?; fig. I. 

Shell elongate-conic, of very regular outline, wax yellow, variegated 
with asliy. (Nuclear whoris decollated.) Post-nuclear whoris very 
flat, with appressed sxunmits, scarcely at all contracted at the periph- 
ery, marked by low, rounded, slightly sinuous, somewhat protractive 
axial ribs, of which 22 occur upon the second, 24 upon the third, 26 
upon the fourth, 28 upon the fifth, 30 upon the sixth, 36 upon the 
seventh, 46 upon the eighth, and, of those remaining, the same num- 
ber upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about half as 
wide as the ribs, marked by six equal and equally spaced spiral rows 
of pits, the last of which is at a little greater distance from the sunmiit 
than its fellow. Sutures very faintly indicated. Periphery of the 
last whorl somewhat angulated. Base short, well rounded, marked 
by about a dozen fine, wavy, equal and equally spaced spiral lines. 
Aperture rhomboidal ; outer lip thick ; columella moderately strong, 
sightly sinuous and somewhat reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 160210, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Mr. Roper 
at San Pedro, California. It luis lost the nucleus and probably the 
first three post-nuclear whorls. The ten remaining measure: Length 
10.2 mm., diameter 2.7 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) STRIOSA C. B. Adsms. 

Plato 7, ligs. 8, 8a. 
Ckemniizia ttriom C. H. Adams, Ann. Lyr. Nat. Hipt. of X. Y., 1852, p. 393. 

Shell elongate-iconic, wax yellow, nuclear whorls at least two, 
fonning a planorboid spire, the axis of which is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-third 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, feebly shoul- 
dered at the summit, very slightly contracted at the sutures, marked 
by poorly developed axial ribs which are scarcely at all expressed 
on the first two whorls, and become decidedly weakened and irregu- 
lar on the last. Of these ribs there are 24 upon the third to fifth, 26 
upon the sixth, and 28 on the seventh whorl. Intercostal spaces as 
irregular as the ribs and usually a little wider, marked by six equally 
strong, and equally spaced, incLsed s[)iral lines, which become quite 
^H'^gular on the last whorl. Sutures well impressed. Periphery 
*nd base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter marked by six 
<^ually strong incised spiral lines. Aperture moderately large, oval; 
<'uter lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
slender, twisted and slightly revolute. 

Professor Adams's type, which has served for our description and 
figure, is in the Amherst College collection an<l comes from Panama, 
h has nine post^nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.4 nun., 
diftmeter 1 .5 mm. 



84 BUU^TIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBOimXA (PYROISCUS) M^RCHI DftU and BaitKh. 

Plate 7, figs. 6, 6a. 

Thirbonilla (Pyrgiscus) morchi Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, pp. 505, 506, pi. 45, figs. 1, la. 

Shell broadly elongate-conic, the posterior third of the exposed 
portion of the whoris on the spire and a narrow area about the 
umbilical region flesh-colored, the rest of the shell light chestnut 
brown. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, small, smooth, forming a 
depressed helicoid spire which has its axis at right angles to the axis 
of the succeeding tiims and is about one-fifth immersed in the first of 
them. Exposed portion of the post-nuclear whorls flattened in the 
middle, posterior fourth sloping gently toward the summit, which is 
closely appressed to the preceding turn; the anterior portion slopes 
more abruptly, roundly toward the periphery. The whorls are orna- 
mented by strong rather distantly spaced, moderately acute, slightly 
protractive axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon the first three, 16 on the 
next three, 18 on the seventh, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. 
The ribs weaken slightly and become somewhat flattened as they 
approach the constricted sutures. Intercostal spaces broad, almost 
double the width of the ribs, crossed by 7, equal and equally spaced, 
deeply incised spiral lines, which extend up on the sides of the ribs and 
feebly across them. The space between the second and third lines 
appears slightly nodulose on the ribs. Periphery of the last turn 
angulated, crossed by the continuations of the ribs, which disappear 
as they pass on to the short and well-rounded base. Base marked by 
13 continuous incised spiral lines of about equal strength which are 
much more closely spaced near the umbilicus than the periphery, the 
distance between the succeeding striations diminishing in regular 
ratio from the periphery to the umbilical area, the first two below the 
periphery being considerably more distantly spaced than the rest, the 
spaces inclosed between them being about equal to the space inclosed 
between the spiral lines on the spire. Aperture subquadrate, posterior 
angle acute, outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, oblique, somewhat twisted and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 173081, U.S.N.M.) has nine post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 6.4 mm., diameter 2 mm. It was coUected 
by Mr. H. N. Lowe at Long Beach, California. Another specimen is 
in the collection of the University of California from station 122, near 
Redondo. Another (Cat. no. 176622, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by 
Mr. John Paine in 8 fathoms off Catalina Island. Five (Cat. no. 
196230, U.S.N.M.) were collected by Mr. H. N. Lowe at San Diego, 
and four additional specimens from the same locality are in Mr* 
Lowers collection. One, coUected at station 83, off San Diego, is in. 
the collection of the University of California. 

This species is nearest related to TurboniUa (Pyrgiscus) Jati^ndk^ 
Dall and Bartsch; from the post-Pliocene of San Pedro, California. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 85 

TURBOlflLLA (PYROISCUS) ARAGONI, new species. 
Plate 9, figs. 12, 12a. 

Shell elongate-conic, anterior half of whorls chestnut brown, the 
rest, flesh colored. Nuclear whorls two, forming a depressed helicoid 
spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding tunis, in 
the first of which it is one-fifth ininiersed. Post-nuclear whorls w(»ll 
rounded, slightly contracted at the suture, appressed at the sununit, 
marked by acute vertical axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first to 
seventh, 20 upon the eighth, and 26 upon the penultimate turn. 
Litercostal spaces about two and one-half times as wide as the ribs, 
marked by fine lines of growth and seven strongly incised spiral 
grooves, and numerous exceedingly fine, spiral striations. Sutures 
slightly contracted. Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated, 
marked by a narrow plain band. Base short, well rounded, marked 
by fifteen well incised and numerous ver^' fine spiral lines. Aperture 
Aomboidal, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external markings within ; columella slender, slightly curved. 

The type (Cat. no. 206867, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by Mr. S. S. 
Beny, in 29 fathoms, on sandy bottom, off New Monterey, Monterey 
Bay. It has ten post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 7.2 nun., 
diameter 2 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYR6ISCUS; RECTA, new species. 
Plato 7, fi«s. 12, 12«. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two 
Mid one-half, depressed, helicoid, having their axis nt right angles 
to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of wliich they are about 
one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, some- 
what exserted, weakly shouldered at the summit, marked by slender, 
protractive axial ribs, of which 22 occur uptm the second, 24 upon the 
^hird,28 upon the fourth and fifth, and 30 upon the penultimate whorl. 
Intercostal spaces about as wide as the ribs, marked by eight equal and 
®^Ually spaced spiral series of pits. Sutures strongly marked, crenu- 
jated by the ribs. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, appear- 
^'^ as a broad plain band, marked only by the feeble continuations 
^' the axial rite. Base short, well rounded, marked by ten equal 
*^^ almost equally spaced spiral striations. Ai)erture oval; pos- 
^^^or angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
^"^tliin; columella slender, strongly cui-ved, slightly revolute, with a 
^^uk fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162635, U.S.X.M.) comes from Point Abreojos, 
^'Wer California. It has seven post-nuclear w^horls and measures: 
*^iigth 3.6 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. Another specimen (Cat. no. 
162634, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, California. 
2565— BuU. (»-09 7 



86 BULLETI^' 08, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PYR6ISCUS) WBLDI, MW ipedM. 

Plates, fig. 11. 

Shell large, chestnut brown with a broad peripheral light band, 
and a light area about the columella. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, somewhat overhanging, strongly 
contracted at the suture, appressed at the summit, marked by mode^ 
ately strong, roimded, slightly retractive axial ribs, of which 24 
occur upon the third to fifth, 28 upon the sixth, and about 35 upon 
the penultimate turn, upon which they are less regular than on the 
others. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, marked by 
eight broad, deep spiral series of pits which are subequal, excepting 
the three above the peripheral one, the median one of which is much 
narrower than the re^^t. Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl inflated, well rounded, marked by the 
feeble continuations of the axijd ribs, a broad line of pits immediately 
below the peripherj', and seven equal and equally spaced, broad, weU 
incised spiral lines. Aperture large, broadly oval, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip verj' strongly curved, thin, sho\ving the external 
markings witliin; columella slender, twisted, curved and slightly 
revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206868, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the Uni- 
versity of California at station 14, off Point Fermin, California. It 
has lost the nucleus and probably the first post-nuclear whorl. The 
eight remaining whorls measure: Length 8.8 mm., diameter 2.7 mm. 

Named for Prof. Laenas G. Weld. 

TURBONaLA (PYROISCUS) NBRSIA, new tpedes. 

Plato 8, liirs. 1, la. 

Shell broadly conic, pale yellow, with a broad dark wax yellow 
band, which extends over a little more than one-half the distance 
from the middle of the whorls to the summit, between the sutures. 
A secondary of the same color extends from a little posterior to the 
periphery to the middle of the base. Nuclear whorls small, two and 
one-half, forming a <lei)resse<l helicoid spire, the axis of which is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they 
are very slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the 
middle, slightly rounded at the summit and at the periphery, orna- 
mented by well rounded, strong, almost vertical axial ribs, which 
become weakened toward the summit. These ribs are scarcely 
indicated on the first and second whorls, upon the tliird and fourth 
there are 20, upon the remaining (excepting the penultimate whori 
which has 20) there are 18. Intercostal spac^^s about double as wide 
as the ribs, marked by nine spiral series of pits, all of which pass 
strongly upon the sides of the ribs, but do not cross their summits. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 87 

Of these pits the peripheral one and the three anterior to the one at 
the summit are stronger than the rest; the space separated by the 
second and third below the summit is a Uttle wider than the rest, and 
the pits biting in the ribs render these somewhat nodulose at tliis 
place. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base moderately long, well rounded, marked by the 
continuations of the axial ribs which extend feebly to the umbiUcal 
region, and about eight weakly incised spiral lines, those nearest the 
periphery being somewhat interrupted by the ribs. Aperture sub- 
oval; posterior angle acute; outer Up thin, showing the external 
markings within; columella slender, sUghtly twisted and very 
oblique. 

The type (Cat. no. 206869, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego. It 
haa ten post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.8 mm., diameter 
J.7 nun. Cat. no. 163260, U.S.N.M., contains another specimen, 
collected by Mrs. Oldroyd at San Pedro, CaUfomia. 

TUSBONnXA (PYRGISCUS) ANTBSTRIATA Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 8, figB. 5, 5a. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) antestriata Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pp. 506, 507, pi. 45, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell large and strong, light brown. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-half, small, smooth, forming a depressed rounded heUcoid spire, 
which projects somewhat beyond the left side of the outline of the 
spire of the later whorls and has its axis at a right angle to the axis 
o{ these, being about one-fourth immersed in the first turn. Post- 
nuclear whorls sUghtly rounded, ornamented by low, rounded, 
narrow, vertical axial ribs wliich become decidedly flattened and 
enfeebled near the summit of the turns; there are 9 of these ribs on 
the second, 20 upon the fifth, and 28 upon the penultimate post- 
nuclear tiuns. Intercostal spaces about double the width of the ribs, 
shallow, rounded, crossed by 6 equal and equaUy spaced, strongly 
incised, spiral lines which extend stronger upon the sides of the ribs 
*nd feebly over their summits. In addition to this sculpture, the 
spire is marked by many fine lines of growth and many fine spiral 
striations between the incised lines. Sutures well marked, simple. 
Periphery of the last whorl subangulated, marked by the feeble con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs, wliich disappear at the periphery. Base 
snort, marked by 11 continuous, equal, strong, incised spiral lines 
^nich are more closely spaced above the umbiUcal area than at the 
Periphery; the space between the first basal incised Une and the first 
swpraperipheral one being a Uttle wider than the space inclosed 
wtween the spiral lines on the spire. Aperture subquadrate, outer 
lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columeUa almost 
sbaight and Tertical, slightly revolute. 



88 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The above description is based upon two cotypes. One, an adult 
shell (Cat. no. 168867, U.S.N.M.), has the last 10 whorls, having lost 
the nucleus and probably the first two and one-half post-nuclear 
turns, and measures: Length 9.7 mm., diameter 2.8 mm. It was 
dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 
3194 in 92 fathoms, on gray sand, bottom temperatiire 45®.9, off 
Esteros Bay, California. The other (Cat. no. 196232, U.S.N.M.) was 
collected by Mrs. Oldroyd at San Pedro, California, and has the 
nucleus and 9 post-nuclear turns, and measures: Length 5.5 mm., 
diameter 1.8 mm. Three specimens (Cat. no. 196233, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged by the Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 2902 in 53 
fathoms, fine gray sand and mud bottom, temperature 45°, off Santa 
Rosa Island. One in the collection of the University of California 
comes from station 122, near Redondo; another in the same institu- 
tion was dredged at station 12, off Point Vincent. Two (Cat. no. 
196231, U.S^N.M.) were dredged in 12 fathoms at San Pedro by Mr. 
H. N. Lowe. Another specimen was dredged by the University of 
CaUfornia at station 30, off Catalina Island, and two at station 58, 
off San Diego, California, the last two lots being in the University 
collection. 

TURBOMaLA (PYRGISCUS) ANTEMUNDA, new ipedes. 

riatoS, thru, JT). loa. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-while with a moderately broad pale yellow 
band at the periphery and another at the middle of the whorls between 
the sutures of the same width. Nuclear whorls two and three-fourths, 
helicoid, having its axis at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which it is about one-third immersed. Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately rounded, appressed at the sunmiit, 
strongly contracted at the peripher}', somewhat overhanging, orna- 
mented by well-developed, narrow axial ribs, which become decidedly 
enfeebled toward the summit. Of these there are 16 upon the first 
to fourth, 18 upon the fifth to seventh, 20 upon the eighth, 22 upon 
the ninth and penultimate whorl. Intercostal spaces about two and 
one-half times as wide as the ribs, ornamented with a double series 
of spiral markings, the first of which consists of seven strongly incised 
and subequally spaced pits between the sutures, the third and fourth 
of which above the periphery bound the color band and are a little 
closer spaced than the rest. The first one below the summit passes 
over the axial ribs and gives them a truncated appearance; the others 
pass up on the sides of the ribs but do not cross them. The second 
series of spiral markings consist of very fine lines, of which three 
occur between the peripheral series of pits and the second two occur 
between the second and third, one between the fourth and fifth, 
two between the sixth and seventh. In addition to this sculpture 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 89 

there are many microscopic lines of growth and microscopic spiral 
striations. Sutures well marked. Periphen' of the last whorl some- 
what angulated, marked by the feeble extensions of the axial ribs. 
Base short, well rounded, smooth, excepting the fine lines of growth 
and excee<lingly fine, weakly incised spiral striations, among which 
about nine equal and equally spaced are a trifle stronger than the 
rest. Aperture rhomboid; outer lip thin, showing the external sculp- 
ture within; columella moderately strong and slightly revolute. 

The above description is based on two cotypos (Cat. no. 16S866, 
U.S.N.M.). This has furnished the description of the adult shell. 
It has lost the nucleus and first post-nuclear whorl. The ton remain- 
ing measure: Length 6.9 mm., diameter 2.2 mm. The other is 
a young individual and has served for the description of the nucleus 
and first post-nuclear whorl. These were dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries, station 2901, off Santa Rosa Island, California. 

The following specimens have been examined: 



II'' I 

«*-™»- mens. *''''"*»"• . ' oins. 



I 



lfiR866 

I 

20nflT2 20 



2901 



Temp. . Disposition of ma- 
U'fiPHS. tcrial. 

I 



Santa Rosa Island. Call- 48 

fornia. 

2902 do :.3 

1 Off Cat alina Island. Call- 

fornia, sta. 32. 



.Vk 1 ! r. S. Nat. Mils. 

•J"> I>o. 
Tniv. Cal. 



TURBOniLLA (PYROISCUS) FLAVESCENS Carpecter. 

Plate 8, fij?. fK 
CkannilnaJlaveKenM CARPESTEJiy Cat. Maz. Shells, 185G, p. 4!V2. 

Shell slender, yellowish. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, form- 
ing a helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to- that of the suc- 
ceeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-fourth immersed. 
Poet-nuclear whorls at first well rounded, later flattened, marked 
by slender, somewhat curved, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 
18 occur upon the first, 20 upon the second, 22 ui>on the third and 
remaining whorls. Intercostal spaces about twice as wide as the 
ribs, marked by numerous fine, closely spaced spiral striations. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked bv the 
feeble continuations of the axial ribs, and many fine spiral striations. 
Aperture oval; posterior angle acute: outer lip thin; columella slen- 
der, strongly curved. 

The single specimen of this shell knowTi is on tablet 2003, Havre 
collection, British Museum, and was taken from a specimen of 5/>o/i- 
iylu ealeifer at Mazatlan, Mexico. It has six i>ost-nuclear whorls, 
^aperture being badly broken, and measures: Length 2.75 mm., 
diameter 0.8 nun. 



90 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) BfACBRIDEI, new spedei. 

Plate 8, figs. 13, 13a. 

Shell exceedingly slender, light yellow, with a broader darker yellow 
band immediately below the summit and another halfway between 
this and the suture. Nuclear whorls large, one and three-fourths, 
forming a depressed helicoid spire, the axis of which is at right angles 
to that of the succeeding turns, on the first of which it rests, but is not 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls exceedingly high between the sutures, 
moderately rounded, marked by slender, very regular, slightly curved, 
well rounded, somewhat retractive axial ribs, of which 24 occur upon 
the first, 22 upon the second and third, 24 upon the fourth and fifth, 
26 upon the sixth and seventh, and about 32 upon the penultimate 
whorl. Intercostal spaces about as wide as the ribs, well impressed, 
marked by fifteen equal and equally spaced spiral series of pits, which 
owing to the narrowness of the intercostal spaces, appear as mere 
punctations. Sutures well marked. Periphery of the last whorl 
without spiral sculpture. Base moderately long, marked by the con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs, and six equal and equally spaced spiral 
striations on its anterior two-thirds. Aperture oval; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; colu- 
mella slender, decidedly flexuose, and very slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 191563 U.S.N.M.) of this exceedingly slender 
shell comes from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, station 2826, in 9^ fathoms, 
off La Paz, Lower California. It has nine post-nuclear whorls, and 
measures: Length 4 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 

Named for Prof. Thomas H. Macbride. 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) NUTTALLI, new spedei. 

Plate 8, fig. 2. 

Shell large, elongate-conic, yellowish- white, with a light-brown 
area about the columella. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, slightly shouldered at the summit, 
scarcely at all contracted at the periphery; marked by strong, narrow, 
well rounded, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon 
the third, 16 upon the fourth to eighth, and 18 upon the remaining 
turns. Intercostal spaces about one and one-half times as^ wide as 
the ribs, shallow, marked by about 30 incised spiral lines which are 
strongest at the periphery and gradually weaken toward the summit. 
A moderately broad, plain area on the middle between the sutures 
is left unmarked. Periphery and base of the last whorl well roimded, 
marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and munerous 
exceedingly fine, closely spaced, wavy, spiral striations. Aperture 
small, rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella strong, straight, and revo- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLTD MOLLUSKS. 91 

The type (Cat. no. 56791, U.S.N.M.) is labeled ''South America/' 
without specific designation of locality. It has lost the nucleus 
and probably the first post-nuclear turn. The thirteen remaining 
measure: Length 9.9 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

Named for Thomas Nuttall. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) MACRA, new species. 
Plate 8, figs. 10, 10a. 

Shell very small, subcyUndric in the middle, tapering rapidly at the 
apex, early whorls wax-yellow, later ones white, with a very broad, 
wax-yellow band at the periphery, which extends above the sutures 
and on the base. Nuclear whorls very small, at least two, forming a 
depressed helicoid spire, which is obliquely half immersed in the first 
of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear wliorls moderately rounded at 
first, later flattened, ornamented by almost straight, vertical, slender, 
well-developed axial ribs, of wliich there are 22 upon the first, 24 upon 
the second to fifth, and 25 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal 
spaces about as wide as the ribs, marked by five equal but not equally 
spaced series of spiral pits. The first four of these above the periph- 
ery are equally spaced; the fifth is a little nearer to the summit of 
the whorl than its neighbor. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of 
the last whorl well rounded, marked l)y the feeble continuations of the 
axial ribs. Base of the last whorl prolonged, well rounded, marked 
by six equally spaced and equally strongly incised spiral lines. Aper- 
ture ovate; posterior angle acute: outer lip thin, showing the external 
markings witliin ; columella moderately strong, reenf orced by the base, 
provided with a weak fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with 
a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 162632, U.S.N.M.) and five other specimens were 
obtained at Point Abreojos, I^wer California. The type has seven 
post-nuclear whorls, and measures: I^ength 3.2 mm., diameter 
0.9 nmi. 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) ANOUSTA Carpenter. 

Plat<» 8, €\K. (>. 
CIryaa/'wiB anj^la Carpenter. Ann. Ma^. Nat. Hint., (iklscT.,) vol. 14, 1864, p. 47. 

Shell elongate-conic, slender, crystalline. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lited.) Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, moderately contracted 
•t the sutures, slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by low, 
nxmded, axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon all but the penultimate 
vliori, upon which there are 18. Intercostal s])aces about one and 
ooe-half times as wide as the ribs, marked by 6 equal and equally 
ff^cti spiral lirations between the sutures. Base somewhat pnv 
Aiced, moderately rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of 
(he axial ribs and nine spiral lirations which become successively 
VMker from the periphery to the umbiHcal area. Aperture oval; 



92 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella stout, somewhat reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 16212, U.S.N.M.,) was collected by Xantus at 
Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. It has 6 post-nuclear whorls, and 
measuras: length 2.8 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) TENXnCULA Gould. 

Plate 8, figs. 3, 7, 7a, 12, 12a, 14, 14a. 

Chemniizia tenuicula Gould, Boet. Joum. Nat. Hist., voL 6, 1853, pp. 383-384, 
pi. 14, fig. lb. = Chemniizia ierebralis Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, 
p. 432 :=Chemnitzui unifasciata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 433. 
^Chemnitzia ? var. suhcuspidaUi Carpenter, Rept. Brit. Assn. Adv. Sci., 
1863, p. Gb9. = Ch€7nnit2M crebrifUata Carpenter, Rept. Brit. Assn. Adv. 
Sci., 1863, p. Gb9. = Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) crebrifilata (Carpenter) DALLand 
Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 276, pi. 2, figs. 6, Qa.= Tur- 
bonilla (Pyrgiscus) subcuspidata (Carpenter) Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 276-277, pi. 2, figa. 2, 2a. 

"Shell small, elongated, lanceolate, turrited, rather solid, shining, 
wax yellow, a little dusky below the suture; whorls 10, flat, slightly 
shouldered above, marked by about 20 direct, longitudinal folds, the 
summits of which are cut by numerous fine revolving striae, deeper 
in the interstices, which also extend over the base of the shell, though 
the folds terminate at the periphery, or are extended in delicate fur- 
rows; aperture narrow, ovate; lip sharp; revolving striae apparent 
within. 

Dimenmons. — Length 7.5 mm.; diameter 1.3 mm. 

Found at Santa Barbara." 

The above is the original description by Gould. TurboniUoL (Pyr- 
giscas) tenuicula Gould is the most abundant and most variable species 
of all the west American forms, presenting many varieties or incipient 
species; to describe these would not aid science or the collector, but 
would only add to the confusion which this paper is intended to dispel. 
The following comprehensive description will embrace, we believe, 
all the forms coming under this name: 

Shell slender to somewhat stubby and inflated, varying in color from milk-white 
to waxy yellow or to dark brown, variously banded or plain monocolored; nuclear 
whorls three, moderately larjj:e, planorboid, slightly slantingly immersed; post- 
nuclear whorls rounded to flattened, contnvcted at base and strongly shouldered at 
the summit, traversed by 18 to 28 strong vertical ribs, which are excurved and 
usually somewhat thickened, and connected at their summits, which appear beaded; 
these ribs extend fc*ebly over the rounded base of the last whorl; the entire shell is 
crossed by incised spiral line«>*, 10 to 16 or more of which app>ear on the exposed por- 
tion of the whorls, and more, closer placed, wavy ones on the base of the last whorl; 
the suture is deep, subchanneled and wavy; aperture ovate, produced at basie; outer 
lip thin, meeting the oblique, slightly curved and revolute columella in a broad 
curv'e; a faint callus connects the ])osterior angle of the aperture with the insertian 
of the columella. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELIJt) MOLLUSKS, 



93 



The specimen figured is from Todos Santos Bay, Lower California, 
has 9 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.5 mm., diameter 
J. 9 mm. Figures 12 and 12a represent the forms described by 
Carpenter as crebrijilata and figures 14 and 14a that named avbcus- 
pidata by the same author. Figure 3 shows an extreme variant. 

TVe have examined the following specimens: 



I 



V.8.N.M. 

C8t.no. 



No. of 
speci- 
men. 



I.»ocaIity. 



Collator. 



Disposition of 
material. 



32245 
ie267a 
162637 

151724 
152196 
191547 
160480 
196227 

196226 

206873 



192228 
122318 
153065 

46504 



14829 

60083 
160481 
206874 



206875 
15720to 
106565 
106510 
32284 



2 
«1 
1 
6 
2 
2 
7 
1 
1 
428 
25 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
7 
3 
2 
4 

3 
2 
5 
1 



1 
1 
1 
2 
c7 



Monterey, California Carpenter 

Santa Barbara, California I Col. Jewett 

Santa Barbara Islands, Califomia 

I Arch Beach, California 

San Pedro, Caliibmla E. W. Roper — 

do Mrs. Johnston. . . 



.do. 
.do. 



F. L. Button. 



do Mrs. Oldroyd. 

do do 

San Pedro (White's Point;, California. do 

do do 

Off Catalina Island, California 



Pacific Beach, San Diego, California. . : 

do i II. Hemphill... 

Ocean Bi^ach, San Diego, California. . .! F. W. Kelsey . . 

do do 

San Diego, California i H.K.C.SU'ams 

do i Delos A mold ... 

do ' 

do J. (J. Cooper 

do H. Ilempnill 

do I C. R. Orcutt... 

do ' 

U. S. Bureau Fisheries station 354)6 

off San Diego, California. Three 

fothoms. 

San Di^o, California 

do , 

Point Abreojos, Lower California 11. Hemphill 

do do 

Todos Santos Bay, California ' R. K. C. Steams. 



I'. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 
Univ. Cal. ' 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Oldroyd coll. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Oldroyd coll. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
I'niv. Cal. coll. 
Oldroyd coll. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Univ. Cal. coll 

Do. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



a Figured. 

^ Figured type of Turbonilla tenuicula »ubeuapidata. 

c Figured erebrifiUUa. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) VIRGO Carpenter. 

Plate 8, figs. 4, 4a. 

Chemnitzia virgo Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 15, 1865, p. 396. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two, form- 

^^ a depressed helicoid spire, the axis of which is almost at right 

^^les to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 

^tie-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, 

^lightly shouldered at the summit, weakly contracted at the periphery, 

Ornamented by slender, sinuous protractive axial ribs, of which 24 

Occur upon the first and second, 22 upon the third, 20 upon the fourth 

to sixth, 22 upon the seventh and penultimate turn. Intercostal 

Spaces about one and one-half times as wide as the ribs, well impressed, 

mariced by six strongly impressed series of pits which extend up on 



94 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the sides of the ribs but do not cross them; the peripheral and the 
third posterior to this are of equal strength and stronger than the rest. 
The space between the third and fourth above the perihery is a little 
wider than that between the others, which are about equally spaced. 
The space between the summit and the first spiral line below it is 
about equal to about double the space included between the other 
spirals. A fimely incised line divides it into equal areas. Sutures 
strongly impressed, rendered wavy by the ribs. Periphery well 
rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and a 
few distantly spaced spiral striations. Aperture oval ; posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin, columella moderately strong, sinuous and 
.slightly reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 73993 U.S.N.M.) was collected by Dr. R. E. C. 
Steams at Santa Barbara, California. It has nine post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 4.8 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) MARSHALL!, new vpedes. 

Plate 8, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell very small, slender, light yellow, with a darker band imme- 
diately posterior to the periphery, and another slender one about 
halfway between the middle of the space between the sutures and the 
summit. Nuclear whorls depressed, helicoid, two and one-half, hav- 
ing their axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which they are about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear 
whorls high between the sutures, flattened in the middle, gently 
rounded at the periphery and the summit, marked by slender, retract- 
ive axial ribs, of which 22 occur upon the first and second, 24 upon 
the third to fifth, 26 upon the sixth, and 24 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, moderately 
well impressed, marked by seven strong subequal series of pits 
between the periphery and the subsutural color band, and three fine 
incised lines posterior to this. Periphery of last whorl well rounded. 
Base moderately long, marked by the feeble continuations of the 
axial ribs and five subequal, equally spaced spiral striations. Aper- 
ture ovoid; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the ex- 
ternal sculpture within; columella very oblique, curved, twisted, and 
slightly revolute. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 163262, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2822, in 21 fathoms, oflF 
La Paz, Lower California. The type has eight post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3.6 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 95 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) CANFISLDI Dall and BartKh. 

Plate 9, figs. 3, 3a. 

Turhonilla {Pyrgiscm) canfieldi Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis., vol. 
33, 1907, pp. 504, 505, pi. 47, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell slender, elongate-conic, with the posterior half of the exposed 
portion of the whoris on the spire white and the anterior half chest- 
nut brown, base white. Nuclear whorls two and two-thirds, large, 
smooth, forming a depressed helicoid spire whose axis is at right 
angles to the axis of the succeeding turn; not immersed and extend- 
ing slightly beyond the outline of the spire on both sides. Post- 
nuclear whorls very slightly rounded, weakly roundly shouldered at 
the sunmiit and very moderately contracted at the periphery, orna- 
mented by very strong, broad, low, rounded, almost vertical axial 
ribs of which there are 22 upon the first, 24 upon the antepenultimate, 
and 28 upon the penultimate turn. These ribs extend prominently 
to the sununit and crenulate the subchanneled sutures. Intercostal 
spaces narrow, not more than half the width of the ribs, crossed by 19 
ineised spiral lines which are of almost equal width and subequally 
spaced with the following exceptions, the seventh, eleventh, and the 
la^t three above the periphery are much wider, appearing as quad- 
ra^rigular pits in the intercostal spaces, the eleventh falling on about 
the middle of the exposed portion of the whorl on the spire, and the 
^^"venth about halfway between this and the summit. Periphery and 
^^.se of the last whorl well rounded, the latter marked by the feeble 
Continuations of the axial ribs which gradually disappear after cross- 
'^^g the periphery, and about 16 subequally spaced incised spiral lines. 
^t)erture oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly, columella oblique, some- 
^liat twisted, with a weak oblique fold a little anterior to its insertion. 
The type (Cat. no. 196229, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by Mr. S. S. 
5rry in 12 fathoms off Del Monte, Monterey, CaUfomia. It has 10 
J^^^t-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.3 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

TURBOmLLA (PYROISCUS) ALMO. new spectet. 
Plate 9, figs. 8, %a. 

Shell slender, light brown, wax-yellow at tip. Nuclear whorls 
«iy small, two and one-half, planorboid, having their axis at right 
^ciigles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 
^lightly immersed. First post-nuclear whorl almost smooth, the sec- 
ond with a mere indication of ribs, well rounded. The remaining 
\>08t-nuclear whorls somewhat overhanging, appressed at the sum- 
init, well rounded, marked by moderately developed, rounded, 
tetractive axial ribs, of which about 20 occur upon all but the penulti- 
mate whorl; upon this there are 22. Intercostal spaces a little wider 



96 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

than the ribs, marked by seven deep pits of unequal width and une- 
qual spacing. Periphery of the last whori marked by a broad plain 
band. Base well rounded, marked by the veiy feeble continuations 
of the axial ribs and nine irregular, wavy, incised spiral lines, the first 
two of which below the periphery are interrupted. Aperture ovate; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external markings 
within; columella slender, very oblique, somewhat flexuose and revo- 
lute, with a slight fold at its insertion. 

The type and three specimens (Cat. no. 162633, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged in 2 fathoms off San Diego, California. The type has eight 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.6 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 



TURBOinLLA (PYRGISCUS) CALUPSPLUM, new 

Plate 9, figs. 11, 11a. 

Shell elongate-conic, rather stout, milk-white. Nuclear whoib 
two, forming a planorboid spire, whose axis is at right angles to the 
succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-fourth im- 
mersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, with a strongly 
sloping shoulder which extends over the posterior fourth between tb© 
sutures, forming a decided angle at its anterior termination; slightly 
contracted at the suture, marked by slender, sinuous, slightly 
retractive, sublamellar, axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the fir^* 
two whorls, 16 upon the third and fourth, 18 upon the fifth, and 2r^ 
upon the remaining turns. Intercostal spaces varying somewhat i 
width, about four times as wide as the ribs, marked by a doubl 
series of narrow pits, one of which is at the periphery and the other a 
the anterior termination of the posterior third of the whorls, 
addition to these pits there are finely incised lines of varying strength^ 
18 of which occur between the two pits and 9 between the posterior*' 
pit and the summit. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last^ 
whorl slightly angulated. Base marked by the feeble continuation^ 
of the axial ribs, which extend a little ways beyond the periphery, 
and 17 almost equal and almost equally spaced, slender, incised 
spiral lines. Aperture? (outer lip fractured); columella reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 122797, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2805 in 51 fathoms, on mud bottom, in Panama 
Bay. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.1 
mm., diameter 1.4 mm. 

TURBONnXA (PYRGISCUS) DIN A, new speciet. 

Plate 9, fig. 10. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
half, forming a depressed, helicoid spire, the axis of which is at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLTD MOLLUSKS. 97 

one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded on the 
anterior two-thirds between the sutures, posterior third forming a 
strong sloping shoulder, marked by narrow, lamellar ribs, of which 
18 occur upon the first, 16 upon the second to seventh, and 18 upon 
the eighth and penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about four 
times as wide as the ribs, marked by a double series of pits, one of 
which is at the periphery and the other at the angle of the shoulder. 
The space between the two pits is crossed by nine equal and equally 
spaced spiral striations, the space between the simunit and the sub- 
median pit is marked by twelve incised spiral lines of which those 
near the siunmit are finer and closer spaced than the rest. Sutures 
strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated. 
Base short, well rounded, marked by about twenty equal and almost 
equaUy spaced spiral striations. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior 
angle acute; outer Up thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, almost straight and somewhat revolute. 
The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 162428, U.S.N3I.) was 
' dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2799, in Panama Bay, 
in 29i fathoms. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 5.2 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. 

TURBOnnXA (PYROISCUS) SmMBKI, new ipedes. 

Plate 9, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell elongate-conic, with a very large nucleus which extends be- 
yond the outline of its post-nuclear s[)ire; bluish- white with four 
rather broad, pale yellow bands, one of which is immediately below 
the summit and another at the i>eriphery, a third halfway between 
the two, while the fourth is on the middle of the base. Nuclear 
whoris one and one-half, planorboid, having their axis at right angles 
to that of the succeeding turns, upon the first of which it rests. Post- 
nuclear whorls somewhat overhanging, appressed and slightly ex- 
serted at the summit, well rounded, the greatest convexity falling 
^^ the anterior third between the sutures, marked by broad, low, 
funded, slightly retractive axial ribs on all but the first two whorls, 
^hich are smooth. Of these ribs, 14 occur upon the third to sixth, 
1^ upon all the remaining whorls excepting the penultimate, which 
l^^s 18. Intercostal spaces shallow, almost twice as wide as the ribs, 
Marked by nineteen series of incised spiral pits, of which the periph- 
®^B.l and the sixth below the summit are a little stronger than the 
r^st. Sutures well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl 
^^11 rounded, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs and spiral 
^es like those between the sutures. Aperture moderately large, 
^"^al; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external 
i^^ftikings within; columella slender, flexuose, and slightly revolute. 



98 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The type and one other specimen (Cat. no. 206877, U.S.N Jil.) were 
dredged by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries at station 2813, in 40 
fathoms, on coral sand bottom, off the Galapagos Islands, South 
America. It has ten post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.6 
mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Named for Prof. B. Shimek. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) SANCTORUM, new species. 

Plate 9, figs. 2, 2a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
fourth, forming a depressed, helicoid spire, the axis of which is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 
about one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very strongly 
rounded, appressed at the simunits, contracted at the periphery, 
marked by strong sublamellar, slightly protractive axial ribs, of 
which 16 occur upon the first to eighth, 18 upon the ninth, and 20 
upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about four times 
as wide as the ribs, marked by two series of broad spiral pits, one of 
which is at the periphery, the other a little posterior to the middle of 
the space between the sutures. In addition to these pits there are 
fine, almost equal, incised spiral lines, of which eight occur between 
the peripheral and median pits and ten between the median and 
the siunmit. Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery marked by a 
narrow plain band. Base well rounded, marked by the feeble con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs and fourteen equal, fine wavy, incised 
spiral lines. Aperture subquadrate; posterior angle obtuse; outer 
lip thin, showing the external markings within; columella very 
oblique, almost straight, reflected. 

The type and twenty specimens (Cat. no. 162514, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, oflF La Paz, in 26^ 
fathoms, off Lower CaUfomia. The type has ten post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 5.8 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. Cat. no. 162516, 
U.S.N.M., contains four specimens dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries station 2827, off Ceralvo Island, Gulf of CaUfomia, in 10 fathoms, 
off Lower California. 

TURBONaLA (PYRGISCUS) EUCOSMOBASIS DaU tnd Bvtach. 

Plate 10, figs. 11, 11a. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) eticosmobasis Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pp. 507-508, pi. 45, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell quite large, of very regular outline, creamy white. Nucleus 
rather small, composed of two and one-half whorls, helicoid with 
much depressed spire, somewhat obliquely about one-third immersed 
in the first of the succeeding turns, the axis of the nuclear spire being 
almost at a right angle to the axis of the later whorls. Post-nuclear 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 99 

whorls moderately rounded, widest a little above the suture, sloping 
gently toward the summit and more abruptly toward the base, orna- 
mented by moderately strong, rounded, somewhat flexuous, axial 
ribs, of which about 18 appear upon the second, 20 upon the seventh, 
22 upon the eighth, and 27 upon the penultimate whorl. Intercostal 
spaces only moderately deep, a little wider than the ribs, marked by 
6 strong incised spiral lines which extend up on the sides of the ribs 
and frequently pass over their summits ; the uppermost or posterior 
one of these incised lines is least pronounced, the second one above 
the suture, and the third one about half again as far apart as the 
remaining, which are equally spaced. In addition to these the shell 
f is marked by many faint wavy spiral striations between the deep 
I ones. Sutures plain, well defined. Base of the last whorl very 
short, well rounded, marked by the faint continuations of the axial 
ribs and about 15 well defined more or le.ss equally spaced deep spiral 
striations with fainter ones between them as on the ex]:)osed portion 
of the whorls of the spire; the first deep basal spiral striation and the 
one above the suture are some Httle distance apart and mark a plain 
band excepting the fainter sculpture. Aperture quite large, sub- 
quadrate; columella short, somewhat tw^isted, re volute. 

The type (Cat. no. 162679, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 2902, off Santa 
Barbara, California, in 53 fathoms. It has 12 post-nuclear whorls 
which measure: Length 11.2 mm., diameter 2.8 mn. 

Another specimen (Cat. no. 162680, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at 
station 3195, in 252 fathoms, on green mud, bottom temperature 
43*^.2, in San Luis Obispo Bay, California. Four specimens (Cat. no. 
162681) were dredged at station 2901, on gray sand and nuid bottom, 
*t a depth of 48 fathoms, temperature 55^.1, off Santa Rosa Island. 
The University of California has two lots, one specimen dredged at 
station 32, off Catalina Island, and two from station 59, off San 
Wego, California. 

TURBONILLA (PYROISCUS) HALIDOMA, new species. 

Plate 9, figs. G, 6a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two and 

one-fourth, forming a moderately elevated spire whose axis is at 

^Sht angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 

*lH>ut one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorLs flattened in the 

'^'^ddle, with a sloping shoulder that extends over the posterior 

'ourth between the sutures and renders the whorls slightly angulated 

^^ their anterior margin; weakly contracted at the suture, marked 

"y moderately strong, well rounded, low, retractive axial ribs, of 

^hich 24 occur upon the first, 26 upon the second and third, and 24 

^Q the remaining turns. Intercostal spaces a little more than 



100 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

double the width of the ribs, marked by pits and incised spiral lines. 
Of these the one at the periphery and the one at the anterior termina- 
tion of the posterior third between the sutures are of equal width, 
and much wider than the rest; two other pits a little less strong 
divide the space between the two strong pits into three segments, 
the middle one of which is a trifle wider than the other two which are 
equal. The three areas are again divided by finer lines, the first 
above the periphery being crossed by one, the next by three and the 
third by two fine striations. The space between the summit and 
the deep series of pits anterior to it is crossed by four incised and 
wavy, exceedingly fine spiral lines. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded, marked by the feeble extensions of the axial ribs 
which disappear shortly after crossing it. Base well roimded, 
marked by twenty-two well incised subequal and subequally spaced 
spiral lines. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture within; columella slender, twisted 
and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 162693, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2822 in 21 fathoms, off La Paz, Lower California. 
It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.7 mm., 
diameter 1.8 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) AURICOMA Did! and ButKli. 

Plate 9, figs. 5, 5a. 

Turhonilla (Pyrgiscus) auricoma Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 
1903, pp. 274, 275, pi. 1, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell slender, attenuated, brown, lighter on the early whorls, 
becoming dark on the last. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, large, 
helicoid, not immersed, projecting somewhat beyond the outline of 
the spire, their axis being at a right angle to the ajds of the later 
whorls; post-nuclear whorls at first somewhat roimded, later.flattened, 
marked by well-developed, rather strong, retractive axial ribs, of 
which 16 appear upon the third and fourth, 18 upon the fifth to eighth, 
20 upon the ninth, 22 upon the tenth, and 30 upon the penidtimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs on all but the 
penultimate whorl; on this they are somewhat narrower, crossed be- 
tween the sutures by nine subequally spaced, almost equally strong, 
spiral lines of pits, which pass up on the sides of the ribs but do not 
cross their sumimit. Periphery and base of last whorl inflated, well 
roimded, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs, which extend 
almost undiminished to the umbilical area and eight equally strong 
and almost equally spaced, well-incised spiral lines. Aperture ovate; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within, the spiral markings appearing as red threads; columella 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



101 



slender, rounded, reflected, the reflection givinj^ the base an umbiU- 
cated appearance; the parietal wall covered by a strong callus. 

The type and three specimens (Cat. no. 106511, U.S.N.M.) were 

colWted at Scammon Lagoon, Lower California. The type has 

12 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 7.2 mm., diameter 1.9 

mm. Cat. no. 73997, U.S.N.M., contains a specimen from San Diego. 

Three have been determined for Mrs. Oldroyd from San Pedro and 

two for Doctor Arnold from Scammon Lagoon. 

TURBONU.LA (PYRGISCUS) CASTANEA Keep. 
Plato 9, figM. 1, la. 
Chemnitzia castanea (Carpenter,) Keep, West Coast Shells, 1888, p. 52, fig. 33. 

Shell elongate-conic, chestnut brown. Nuclear whorls very small, 

two and one-half, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles 

to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are about 

one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, 

slightly excurved at the summit, where they are faintly shouldered 

and somewhat contracted at the periphery, marked by rather ir- 

J'^lar, strong, low, rounded, retractive axial ribs; of which 20 occur 

on the third, 22 on the fourth, 24 on the fifth to seventh, 2G on the 

eighth, 28 on the ninth, and about 50 upon the penultimate whorl; 

npon this they are very irregular. Litercostal spaces less wide than 

the ribs, shallow, marked by a series of spiral pits, which vary in 

width and number on the various whorls ; on the early ones there are 

^^ht, on the ninth there are twelve, while on the penultimate there 

^^G sixteen between the peripheral series and the summit. Sutures 

well marked. Periphery and base of last whorl inflated, marked by 

the continuations of the axial ribs, which extend almost undi- 

'^^niished to the umbilical area ; and about twenty subequal and sub- 

^^Xially spaced incised spiral lines. Aperture pear-shaped ; posterior 

*^le acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 

^^^tnut brown; columella slender, strongly curved, and slightly 

'^'Volute; parietal wall covered by a thick callus. 

*The specimen described and figured (Cat. no. 160224, U.S.N.M.) 
^"^^s collected by Mrs. Oldroyd at San Pedro, California. It has eleven 
^^^t-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 10.5 mm., diameter 2.5 mm. 
j^^ofessor Keep's types which we have had for examination came 
^^om San Diego. 

The following specimens have been exajninod: 



est. DO. 



10Q2M 
1AM82 
163264 



No. of 

8pCCl« 

mens. 




U.S. B.F. 
station. 



Locality. 



3o66 
3573 



Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 



Disposition 
of material. 



San Podro, California U.S. Nat. Mus. 

San Diego, California 3 Do. 



.do. 
.do. 



I 



1.5 



Do. 
D. Arnold coll. 



256(h-Bull. 68—09 8 



102 BULLETIN I5S. UNITED STATES XATIOXAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONQXA (PYRGISCUS) CASTARBLLA DaO. 

Plato 9. fig. 7. 

TurhoniUn yPiji^isruji' cojitatuUa Dall, Nautilus, veil. 22, 1908, p. lZl.==Turbt>- 
nillfiyPi/rg's^itsy fyistama Dall and Bartsch, Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus., voL 33, 
1907, i>i>. 509. r»IO. pi. 47. fig. 7; not ChemnUzia caHanea Keep, Wert Coa^ 
shells. ISSS, p. 5, fig. 33. 

Shell very larjre, stout and hea\'A', chestnut brown. Xuclear whorls 
dec'ollatetl. Post -nuclear whorls well rounded, ornamented by many 
broad, flattened, more or less regular and evenly placed retractive 
axial ribs, of which about 22 appear upon the third, 26 upon tbi« 
fifth, and 40 upon the seventh whorl. On the penultimate and ant 
penultimate whorls they are more or less irr^ular in form, numb^:x 
and spacin<r. Intercostal spaces much narrower than the ribs. Thm. 
spiral sculpture consists ot eight deep, quite regularly spaced' lini 
of pits, which are very pronounced in the intercostal spaces and 
the sides of the ribs, but do not appear to cross their summits exce 
on the penultimate and the last whorl. Sutures well defined, simpl 
Periphery and base of the hist whorl evenly rounded, the latter omi 
niented by the prolongation of the axial ril>s and quite a number 
continuous welI-inij)res.so<l spiral lines with faint spiral striati 
between I hem. Aperture suboval, somewhat effuse anteriorly, 
terior angle obtu.se (outer lip fractured, very thick) ; columella 
slightly curved, and strongly revolute, with a weak, very obliqi 
internal fold near its inscTtion: parietal wall and umbilical reg](^ 
covered by a weak callus. Columella antl extreme anterior port)<^ 
of the ajHTture white. 

Th<» type (Cat. no. 74()()(), U.S.X.M.) belongsjto the Steams collec:^'' 
ti(»n and was obtained at Monterey, Cahfornia. It has 10 posfc^^ 
nnclejir whorls (the juicleus and j)erhaps the first three being Icki 
tiiid ni(»asure>: Length 1.S.5 nun., diameter 3.7 mm. 

This species is remarkable for being the largest known member 
the section Pijrglscn.s on the west coast of America. 




€ 



TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) INDENTATA Carpenter. 

IMiito 10, tig. 10. 
('hnjmllldn uKhntnta r.vKPENTKH, (at. Mazatlau Shells, 1856, p. 425-426. 

Shell elongate-conic, wux y(»ll()w. Nuclear whorls two, forming 
subglobose, heliroid spire, whose axis is almost at right angles to 
of the succeeiling turns, in the first of which it is about one-thircC^ 
imnierse<l. Posi-iuiclear whorls moderately rounded, slightly con-' 
tracted at the sutures, subtabidatedly shouldered at the summit, 
marked by strong, slightly protractive, axial ribs, of which 14 occur 
ui)on the first, 10 upon the second, IS upon the third and fourth, 20 
uptm the fifth and sixth, and 22 upon the penultimate turn. Inter- 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 103 

costal spaces as wide as the ribs, crossed by subequal, irregularly 

spaced, raised threads, the posterior one of which forms quite a cord 

at the summit of the whorls; this is followed by a rather wide pit; 

then two closely spaced, raised threads; another pit equal to the 

first; then six very fine closely spaced threads; a third pit equal to 

the others; two strong threads, followed by a peripheral pit. 

Periphery of the last whorl well roimded. Base rather prolonged, 

i«^ell rounded, marked by the continuation of the axial ribs, which 

e,xtend to the umbilical area and eight spiral threads. Aperture 

o'v^al; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella slightly exuded; 

pa.iietal wall covered by a faint callus. 

TV'o specimens were obtained off Spondylus, at Mazatlan, Mexico, 
or&c a young individual, the other an adult ; the latter is on tablet 
1 9S6, Liverpool collection, British Museum. It has eight post- 
ttvidear whorls, and measures: Length 3.8 mm., diameter L2 nmi. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) CORA D'Orbigny. 
Chemnitzia com D'Orbkjny, Voy. Am. M6rid., vol. 5, 1847, p. 398, pi. 76, figs. 7-9- 

** Shell elongate-conic, tliick, ornamented longitudinally by very 
)p folds, between which are fine, regular spiral striations, among 
^"Viich four are deeper, three of which reproduce themselves in very 
regular manner on all the whorls. Nucleus very large, oblong; spire 
elongate-conic, composed of eight flattened whorls which are sepa- 
r^^'ted by a very marked suture; aperture oval; lip tliin; color white. 
L*ong. 5 nmi., diam. 1.5 nmi.'' 

To the above diagnosis he adds: ** Ornamented witli ribs and trans- 
v^^Tse stria;, like C. omata, this is larger in proportion, and is remark- 
a-l>le in that four of the striae are more profoundly traced than the 
otters and reproduce themselves on all the whorls of the spire." 

3t inhabits the coast of Peru near Payta. We have not seen any 
specimens belonging to this species, and have translated the above 
fx-om the original description by D' Orbigny . 

The figures referred to do not depict the specimen described. 

They represent a short, stout individual having six post-nuclear 

"w-horls of a light brown color, with about 12 strong axial ribs on the 

^^t, 18 on the fourth, and 20 on the penultimate whorl; and instead 

of four (three between the sutures) spiral lines the figure shows 

®®^en between the sutures and about an equal number on the base. 

^'Qtbigny carefully points out that C, cora has only three strong 

^iTal lines visible between the sutures, and compares it with C. ornatu. 

"^ therefore are inclined to believe that some mistake has been made 

^ the figures. The wrong specimen may have been figured or the 

•rtist may have figured C. cora wrongly. 



104 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) CRATICULATA Mttrch. 

Plate 10, figs. 1, la. 

Tiirbonilla craticulata IfioRCK, Malak. Blatt., vol. 6, 1859, p. 119. 

Shell elongate-conic, brown. Nuclear whorls one and one-third, 
forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-fifth 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, sUghtly con- 
tracted at the periphery, and weakly shouldered at the summit; 
marked by moderately strong, straight, very regular, almost vertical 
axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the first to third, 16 upon the third 
to sixth, 18 upon the seventh to ninth, and 22 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces a Uttle wider than the ribs, marked by 
seven series of pits, which are a Uttle wider than the raised spaces 
that separate them. The third of these pits anterior to the summit 
is a little stronger than the rest; the remainder are of equal strength 
and spacing. Sutures well impressed. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of the 
axial ribs. The base is marked by incised spiral lines, the first two 
anterior to the periphery being similar in character to those between 
the sutures; the rest are successively finer from the periphery to 
the umbiUcal region. Aperture ovate, somewhat eflFuse anteriorly, 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella oblique, slightly curved, and very strongly revo- 
lute, provided with a strong oblique fold a little anterior to its inser- 
tion; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

Three specimens were dredged by Dr. A. S. Oersted in 30 fathoms 
at Los Bocorones, a small island near Punta Arenas, Costa Rica. 
This is Doctor Morch's type lot in the museum in Copenhagen, Den- 
mark. Our description and figure are taken from the most perfect 
specimen, which has eleven post-nuclear whorls, and measures: 
Length 7.8 mm., diameter 2. mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) CERALVA, new tpedes. 
Plate 10, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell small, slender, milk-white. Nuclear whorls one and three- 
fourths, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right angles to that 
of the succeeding turns, not immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very 
high between the sutures, moderately rounded, very slightly shoul- 
dered at the summit, and somewhat contracted at the sutures, 
marked by slender, curved, rounded, decidedly retractive axial ribs, 
which are very feebly expressed on the first whorl, on all the re^t 
excepting the penultimate, wliich has 40, there are 36. Intercostal 
spaces about as wide as the ribs, marked by seven equal and equally 
spaced spiral pits. Periphery and base of the last whorl well roimded, 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDEIXTD MOLLUSKS. 105 

the latter marked by the continuations of the axial ribs and eight 
equally spaced series of spiral pits, of which those nearest the umbili- 
cus are a little less strongly developed than the rest. Aperture 
moderately large, oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella slender, decidedly curved, 
and somewhat twisted. 

The type (Cat. no. 162685, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2823, off La Paz, in 26 ^ fathoms. It has seven 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Ijength 3.7 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 
Ajxother specimen (Cat. no. 206878, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 2826, off Ceralvo Island, Gulf of CaUfor- 
nia, in 9^ fathoms. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) LEPTA. new tpedet. 
Plate 10, figa. 7, 7a. 

Shell elongate-conic, very slender, milk-white. Nuclear whorls 
one and three-fourths, depressed, helicoid, having their axis at right 
a-rkgles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which they are 
^^ry slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorLs slightly rounded, 
nriarked by well-developed, straight, rounded, strongly retractive 
ai:3cial ribs, of which there are 20 upon the first, 18 upon the second 
to sixth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about 
ft-s wide as the ribs, marked by eight equal and equally spaced incised 
si>iral lines. Sutures well impressed. Periphery and base of the last 
^*^Horl well rounded, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs 
^^O.dfive equal and equally spaced incised spiral lines. Ai)erture oval; 
Posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
^^thin; columella slender, curved, and slightly re volute. 

The tjrpe (Cat. no. 162584, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
^^ Fisheries station 2823 in 26^ fathoms, off La Paz, Lower CaUfomia. 
^^ has eight post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.7 mm., 
^immeter 0.7 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PTRGISCUS) mSTIAS, new species. 
Plate 10, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell elongate-conic, slender, posterior half between the sutures, 
^^ht yellow; anterior half of btise, chestnut. Nuclear whorls two, 
^'^nning a depressed, helicoid spire, the axis of which is at right 
^^les to that of the succeeding turns, upon the first of which it 
^^ts. Post-nuclear whorls slightly overhanging, flattened in the 
^ddle, very slightly shouldered at the summit, quite strongly con- 
tracted at the suture, marked by strong, somewhat sinuous, narrow, 
^tractive axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon all but the penultimate 
turn, which has 24. Intercostal spaces about two times as wide as 
the ribs upon all but the last turn, upon which they are a little nar- 
rower; marked by eight equal and equally spaced spiral series of pits 



106 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

on all but the last two whorls; on these the third and fourth pos- 
terior to the periphery split into finer lines. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the 
axial ribs which extend imdiminished to the umbiUcal area, and 
twelve incised spiral lines, of which those immediately below the 
periphery are the stronger. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
slender, slightly twisted, decidedly curved, and somewhat revolute; 
parietal wall covered with a strong callus. 

The type and two specimens (Cat. no. 162636, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2822, off La Paz, in 21 
fathoms, on sand bottom off Lower California. The type has ten 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.8 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) SUBULA Mtfrch. 

Plate 10, fig. 3. 
Turhonilla mbula Morch, Malak. Blatt., 1859, vol. 6, p. 120. 

Shell of medium size, white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, moderately contracted at the 
suture, and slightly shouldered at the summit; ornamented by 
strong, somewhat flexuose, narrow, and sUghtly retractive axial ribs, 
of which about 16 occur upon the first of the remaining whorls, 18 
upon the second and third, 20 upon the fourth to sixth, and 24 upon 
the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about as wide as the ribs, 
marked by nine dubequal and subequally spaced incised spiral lines, 
which pass up on the sides of the ribs, but do not cross their summits. 
Sutures well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well 
rounded, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs, which extend 
to the umbiUcus. The base has in addition a series of spiral striations, 
the first of which below the periphery is interrupted like those are 
between the sutures, separated by a little greater distance from the 
first one posterior to the periphery than that is from its neighbor 
posterior to it ; the remaining are more or less continuous, less strong, 
wavy, and more closely spaced. Aperture suboval; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin; columella twisted and revolute; parietal wall 
covered with a thin callus. 

The specimen described and figured is Doctor Morch's type and is 
in the collection of the Copenhagen Museum. It was collected by 
Dr. A. S. Oersted at Los Bocorones, a small island near Pxmta Arenas, 
Costa Rica, in 30 fathoms. It has lost the early whorls; the last 
eight only remain, which measure: Length 4.9 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) WICKHAMI. new spactot. 

Plate 10, fig. 9. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, contracted at the sutures. 



WEST AMERICAK PYRAMIDELLII) MOLLTSKS. 107 

with a moderately broad, sloping shoulder at the summit marked by 
well-developed, rounded, very reji^lar, slightly ])r()tractive axial ribs, 
of which 20 occur upon the second and 22 upon the remaining, excei)t- 
ing the penultimate whorl, which has 32. Intercostal spaces a little 
wider than the ribs, marked by seven series of spiral pits, of which 
the third below the summit is almost twice as ^vide as the rest. 
Sutures moderately constricted. Perii)herv of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base short, well roimded, marked by the continuations of 
the axial ribs, which extend to the umbilical area, and 1 1 incised 
spiral lines, of which those immediately l>el(>w the periphery are some- 
what interrupted and wider than the rest. Aperture rhomboidal; 
posterior angle acute; columella rather stout, revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206879, U.S.N.M.) and tlu*ee specimens were 
dredged by the University of CaUfomia at station 32, off Santa Cata- 
lina Island, California. It has 10 post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 8 nun., diameter, 2.1 mm. 
Named for Prof. H. F. Wickham. 

TXTRBOIflLLA (PTROISCUS) LARA, new spedet. 
Plate 10, figs. (), 6n, 66. 

Shell small, slender, milk-wliite. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
fotirth, forming a depressed, helicoid spire, having its axis at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is very 
slightly immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, 
rounding slightly toward the moderately shouldered summit, some- 
what contracted at the suture, marked by fairly strong, straight, 
slightly retractive axial ribs, of which IS occur upon the first and 
second and 20 upon all the remaining whorls excej)ting the penulti- 
niate turn, which has 22. Intercostal spaces varying from one and 
one-half to two times the width of the ribs, marked by nine series of 
^iral pits, of which the peripheral and the fifth above the periphery 
^ the widest; the third and fourth above the periphory and the two 
'^^^ediately below the summit are a little narrower than the rest. 
The segments left between the pits form almost equal raised cords. 
^utuxes well marked. Periphery of the last whorl and base moder- 
ately ^p-ell rounded, ornamented by the continuations of the axial ribs 
*^d three strong, interrupted lines of pits on the posterior half and 
^^o slender lines on the anterior. Aperture oval; posterior angle 
*^t€; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture >vithin ; columella 
**®ixder, curved, and slightly revolute. Parietal wall covered by a 
^•^11 callus. 

^he type (Cat. no. 96707, U.S.N.M.) and sixty-six specimens were 
*f^dged at U.S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, off La Paz, in 
*^ fathoms. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
^•^ mm., diameter 2 nmi. 



108 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



The following specimens have been examined : 



U.8.N.M. 
cat. No. 


96707 
16268:* 
19I5<>4 
151929 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 


U.S. B. F. 
station. 


Locality. 


oms. 


Disposition of 
material. 


6<> 
8 


2823 

2822 

2826-2828 

282()-2828 


Off La Paz, Gulf of California 

.. ..do 


27 

21 

9H0 

9J-IO 


U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


5 
31 


Off Coral vo Island, Gulf of California. 
do 







TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) CINCTELLA Mtfrch. 
Plate 10, figs. 2, 2o, 26. 
Turhonilla cinctellaWoncHf Malak. Blatt., vol. 6, 1859, p. 119. 

Shell broadly elongate-conic, milk-white, with a faint broad 
yellowish band on the middle of the space between the sutures, a 
second narrow one at the periphery, a third at the insertion of the 
columella. Nuclear whoris two and one-half, forming a depressed 
helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which it is about one-third immersed. Post- 
nuclear whorls extremely regular, well roimded, appressed at the 
smnmit, somewhat contracted at the suture, marked by slender, 
somewhat sinuous, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 20 occur upon 
the first and second, 22 upon the third, 24 upon the fourth and fifth, 
and 26 upon the remaining turns. Intercostal spaces twice as wide 
as the ribs, marked by a series of moderately strong pits at the periph- 
ery and a second about half as broad, a little posterior to the middle 
of the whorls. In addition to these pits the intercostal spaces are 
marked by 28 slender, equally spaced and equally strong, incised 
spiral lines, 16 of which occur between the periphery and the median 
pit, and 12 between this and the summit. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl well roimded, the latter marked 
by the continuation of the axial ribs, wliich extend feebly to the 
umbilical area, and slender spiral striations, which are stronger and 
more distantly spaced than those on the spire, growing successively 
weaker from the periphery to the columella. Aperture oval ; posterior 
angle acute; out lip thin, showing the external markings within; 
columella almost straight, slightly revolute. 

The type which has served us for our description and figure has 
nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5 mm. diameter 
1 .6 mm. It was collected by Dr. A. S. Oersted at Sonsonate, Guate- 
mala, and is in the museum in Copenliagen, Denmark. 

TURBOmLLA (PYRGISCUS) ADUSTA, new spedM. 
Plate 10, figs. 12, 12a. 

Shell robust, pale brown. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened, slightly exerted at the summit, where they 
are moderately squarely shouldered, marked by well developed; 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 109 

rounded, slightly retractive, axial ribs, of which 20 occur upon the 
second and third, 22 upon the fourth and fifth, 24 upon the sixth of 
the remaining turns, and 28 upon the penultimate whorl. Inter- 
costal spaces equaling the ribs, crossed by a double series of spiral 
pits, five are strong and of equal strength, one of which is at the 
periphery, the other a little posterior to it, the third occupies the 
middle of the space between the sutures, while the other two divide 
the space posterior to this into three equal areas. The fine lines are 
arranged in the following manner: Between the second and third 
supra-peripheral pit, two fine lines ; between the third and fourth, one; 
between the fourth and fifth, one; between the fifth and summit, two. 
Sutures well impressed, rendered sinuous by the ribs. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a broad band, crossed by the extensions of 
the axial ribs, which continue feebly over the well-rounded base to the 
umbilical area. In addition to these ribs, the base is marked by 
eleven incised spiral lines, the three immediately below the periphery 
being somewhat interrupted, the remaining are equal and equally 
spaced. Aperture ovate; posterior angle acute; coliunella slender, 
somewhat curved and reflected. 

The type (Cat. no. 206880, U.S.N.M.) was collected at San Diego, 
California. It has lost the nucleus and probably the first post-nuclear 
whorl. The eight remaining measure: Length 5.7 mm., diameter 
1-7 nun. 

TURBONILLA (PTROISCUS) LARUNDA. new ipedes. 
Plate 10, figs. 4. 4a, 46. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white, with a broad j^ellow band a little 

interior to the middle of the whorls between the sutures. Nuclear 

w^horls two, forming a depressed helicoid spire, which has its axis 

Jtt right angles to that of the succeeding turns, upon the first of which 

it rests, but is not immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the 

middle, rounded at the summit, quite strongly contracted at the 

suture, ornamented by narrow, sinuous, well developed, retractive 

axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first to seventh, 18 upon the 

eighth to ninth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal 

spaces about three times as wide as the ribs, marked by eleven 

incised spiral lines, of which the three immediately below the simimit 

Mid the one between the third and fourth above the periphery are 

finer than the rest, and the fourth and fifth below the simimit and 

wie peripheral one are of about equal width, and considerably stronger 

"^ the intervening four, which are subequal. Periphery of the last 

^horl well rounded. Base moderately long, well rounded, marked 

"7 the continuations of the axial ribs and seven strongly incised sub- 

^tially spaced spiral lines, of which the three inmiediately below 

™ periphery are somewhat interrupted and stronger than the rest. 



110 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella slender and somewhat sinuous. 
The above description is based upon two cotypes which, together 
with a third specimen, were obtained at U.S. Bureau of Fisheries sta- 
tion 2822 in 21 fathoms, off La Paz, Lower Cahfornia. They are 
entered as Cat. no. 206881, U.S.N.M. One of the two cotypes has 
the nucleus and nine post-nuclear whoris and measures: Length 3.6 
mm., diameter 0.8 mm.; the other has lost the nucleus and probably 
the first four post-nuclear whoris, the seven remaining measure: 
Length 4.3 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Subgenus MOBMTTLA A. Adams. 

Mormula A. Adams, Joum. Linn. Soc. London, voL 7, 1864, p. l^-^-Pyrgottyhis 
MoNTEROSATO, IL Nat. Hist. Sicil., 1884, p. 90. Type, Twrho atriatuliu 
Linnseus. 

Turbonillas having axial ribs and deeply incised spiral lines; also 
irregularly disposed varices on the outer surface, which usually mark 
internal lirations on the outer lip, or internal lirations of the outer 
lip only. Sculpture never nodulose. 

Type. — Molrmula rissoina A. Adams. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS MORMULA. 

Varices present on the outside of the whorls. 
Adult shell more than 16 mm. long. 

Shell conspicuously banded lordif p. 111. 

Shell not conspicuously banded. 

Strongly incised lines between sutures 6, axial ribs 18-40. . .regina, p. 112. 
Strongly incised lines between sutures 9, axial ribs 10-28 . catalinermt, p. 113. 
Strongly incised lines between sutures 12,axial ribs 10-26 . eschschoUziy p. 113. 
Adult shell less than 13 mm. long. 
Shell brown. 

Strongly incised lines between sutures 5, axial ribs 16-24 . tndenuua^ p. 114. 
Strongly incised lines between sutures 10, axial ribs 16-22. omfriKta, p. 115. 
Shell white. 

Shell laige, adult more thanOmm.long major, p. 116. 

Shell small, adult less than 4 mm. long aantotanaf p. 117. 

Varices absent on the outside of the shell. 
Spiral sculpture strong. 
Shell brown. 

Adult shell more than 8 mm. long pentalopha, p. 117. 

Adult shell less than 6 mm. long heuroloj^, p. 118. 

Shell white ignaeia, p. 119. 

Spiral sculpture absent or microscopic. 

Whorls shouldered pen$uUda, p. 119. 

Whorls not shouldered pkdUm^ p. 120. 



112 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



(Cat. no. 196234, U.S.N;M.), has furnished the description of the 
nucleus. It has 9 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.2 mm., 
diameter 2.1 mm. 

This is the largest species of this group known from the west coast 
of America. 

TURBONILLA (MORMULA) RBOINA, new speclet. 

Plate 11, fig. 1. 

Shell very large, elongate-conic, slender, pale chestnut. (Nuclear 
whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls well roxmded, appressed at 
the summit, moderately constricted at the periphery, marked at 
irregular intervals by strong varices and by very regularly narrow, 
low, rounded, slightly pro tractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon 
the first and second, 18 upon the third, 22 upon the fourth, 24 upon 
the fifth to seventh, 30 upon the eighth and ninth, 36 on the tenth, 40 
on the eleventh and the penultimate whorl. Intercostal spaces 
about. one and one-half times as wide as the ribs, marked by 6 well 
incised spiral lines, which extend strongly upon the sides of the ribs 
and wBakly over them; the space between these lines is marked hy 
numeipus exceedingly fine, spiral striations. Sutures constricted. 
PeriphjBry of the last whorl slightly angulated, marked by an incised 
spiral line. Base short, well rounded, marked by the feeble con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs and numerous very fine, closely spaced, 
wavy, spiral striations. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle 
obtuse; columella strong, almost straight, decidedly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 162686, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2902 in 15 fathoms, temperature 45°, off Santa 
Rosa Island, California. It has 13 post-nuclear whorls, having lost 
the nucleus and probably the first post-nuclear whorl, and measures: 
Length 19.6 mm., diameter 5 mm. 

We have examined the following specimens: 



U.8.N.M. 
cat. no. 


No. of 
speci- 
mens. 


U.S.B.F. 
station. 


■ 
Locality. 


Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture, 
degrees. 


Disposition of ma- 
terial. 


162686 

162687 

160119 


1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 


2902 

2901 


Santa Rosa Island, Cali- 
fornia. 
do 


15 
48 


45 
55.1 


U.S. Nat Mas. 

Do. 
Do. 
Univ. Cal. coU. 

Do. 

Do. 




Catalina Lsland, California. 


i4o 

2la(3).... 
32o 


Off Point Ferxnin. Call- 






fomia. 

Off Catalina Island, Cali- 
fornia. 

do 



















a University of California station. 



114 BULLETIN 08, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

spaces. In addition to the axial sculpture the whorls are crossed by 
twelve deeply incised , somewhat irregularly spaced spiral lines, tl» 
raised spaces between which are again divided by many fine struc 
All the spiral markings pass over the intercostal spaces and the ribs. 
Periphery of the last whorl obscurely angular, marked by the feeble 
continuations of the ribs which vanish immediately below the periph- 
ery and the usual fine lines of growth and spiral striation. Base 
rather short, well rounded, brown, with a narrow whitish band about 
the umbilicus, marked by closely spaced continuous wavy spiral stria- 
tion, which varies in strength, several finer strise alternating with the 
stronger. Aperture subquadrate, outer lip thin, showing four narrow 
dark-brown bands within, upon a lighter background — these are the 
three already referred to — and a fourth one on the base adjoining the 
periphery; columella almost vertical, slightly twisted and revchite. 

The t}T)e (Cat. no. 196241, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Rev. Q. W. 
Taylor, at Carter Bay, British Columbia; it has 11 post-nuclear whorls 
(the nucleus and probably three of the post-nuclear whorls being lost), 
and measures : Length 13.3 mm., diameter 4 mm. Another specimen 
from the same locality is in the Taylor collection. Three additional 
lots were collected by him in British Columbia; 1, a fragment, from 
west of Rose Spit, Queen Charlotte Islands; 6 at Departure Bay, 1 
of which is Cat. no. 196242, U.S.N.M.; 15 at Port Simpson, 5 of 
which are Cat. no. 196243, U.S.N.M. No. 196242 is the laijest 
specimen, it has 12J^ whorls, having lost the nucleus and probably the 
first throe of the succeeding turns, and measures: Length 17.8 mm., 
diameter 4.5 mm. 

TURBOmLLA (MORMULA) TRH^BirrATA Carpenter. 

Plate 11, fifra. 12, 12a. 

Cheinnitzia tridentata Carpenter, Jour, de Conch., vol. 13 (3d ser., vol. 5), 18ft 
p. 147. Turhonilla (iMnceo) tridentata Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad., 
vol. 3, p. 273, 1903, pi. 2, figs. 1, la. Turhonilla (Mormula) tridentata DaU^ 
and Bartsch, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 511, 512, pi. 45, fig.l>- 

Shell large, broad; chestnut colored, obscurely banded. Nuclear 
whorls three, helicoid, about one-third immersed, scarcely extendioE 
beyond the mai-gin of the spire, their axis being at a right angle to the 
axis of the later whorls. Post-nuclear whorls slightly convex, some- 
what contracted at the periphery and slightly shouldered at the sum- 
mit; traversed by about 20 to 24 strong, well-roimded, somewhat 
oblique axial ribs, which continue faintly over the decidedly angultf 
periphery of the last whorl and the base to the umbilical r^on; these 
ribs are considerably enfeebled on the last whorl of old shells and fre- 
qii(»nt ly l)ecome ahnost obsolete on these. The exposed portion of the 



j 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 115 

whoris is traversed by five spiral grooves, whicli appear most pn)mi- 
nently in the shallow and broad intercostal spaces, and less so on the 
ribs; these deep spiral lines are regularly spaced, leaving a broader 
interval on the middle of the exposed portion of the whorl ; the base 
of the last whorl is likewise ornamented by spiral grooves, but here 
they appear less developed than on the spire. In addition to this the 
entire surface of the shell is marked by numerous very fine, somewhat 
wavy, spiral and axial stnm, which show most prominently on the last 
whorl and base, and give the shell a very minutely reticulated second- 
ary sculpture. At irr^ular intervals the whorls are marked by thick 
callous varices, which are usually of a lighter color than the remainder 
of the shell. Aperture large, subquadrate; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, having three strong internal lirations, joining the 
whitish, short, straight, revolute columella at a little less than a 
right angle. By transmitted light two spiral light color-bands be- 
come apparent on the inside of the lip, each of which is bordered by 
a zone of a darker color than the remaining shell. The general color 
effect of the exterior is that of a flesh-colored shell, covered by a 
dark epidermis, which is stretched tight over the ribs, permitting 
the lighter color beneath to shine through it at their summits. 

Doctor Carpenter's type (Cat* no. 153156, U.S.N.M.) was collected 
at Monterey, California. It has 1 1 post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 11.1 nun., diameter 3.2 mm. The s]XH*imen figured (Cat. no. 
150983, U^.NJd.) is from San Pedro, CaUfomia. It has 13 post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 12.8 mm., diameter 3.6 mm. 

The U. S. National Museum has five lots of this species: Cat. no. 
153156 is the type from Monterey, California; Cat. no. 196239, four 
specimens dredged by the Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at 
station 2902, off Santa Rosa Island, in 53 fathoms, fine gray sand 
and mud, with a bottom temperature of 45°; Cat. no. 196240, ten 
specimens from San Pedn), collected by Mrs. T. S. Oldmyd; Cat. no. 
150983, three individuals, one of which is figured, dredged by Mrs. 
Oldroyd in 4 fathoms, at San Pedn); Cat. no. 46505, two shells from 
San Diego in the Steams collection. In ad<lition to these, specimens 
have been determined for Mr. Berr\\ fnmi Monterey. 1 2 to 39 fathoms ; 
University of California, ofl" Catalina Island; Mrs. Oldnml and Mr. 
Lowe, at San Pedro; Mr. Kelsey and Mr. ArnoKl, fi\)ni San Diego. 

TURBONnXA (MORMULA) AMBUSTA, new species. 

Plato 11. Hjr. IH. 

Shell medium size, slender, chestnut-l>i-own. (Nuclear whorls de- 
collated.) Poet-nuclear whorls moderately rounde<l, appresse^t at the 
summit, slightly contracted at the periphery, markeil by stroncTf 
loimdedi oUghtly protractive axial libs, of wliich 16 occur upon the 



116 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

first and second, 18 upon the third to seventh, the eighth has a 
strong varix, 20 upon the ninth, and 22 upon the tenth. On the 
penultimate whorl they are decidedly enfeebled. Intercostal spaces 
a Uttle wider than the ribs, marked by ten equal and equally incised 
spiral lines, the space between which is crossed by numerous ex- 
ceedingly fine spiral striations. Periphery and base of the last whorl 
well rounded, marked by fine lines of growth and numerous very 
fine spiral striations. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; also color 
bands, of which a narrow white one occurs at the periphery which is 
bounded on both sides by a brown band equaling it in width; an- 
other narrow brown band bordered on each side by a narrow white 
area occurs halfway between the periphery and the summit ; columella 
slender, slightly curved and somewhat revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 152751, U.S.N.M.) was dredged in 10 fathoms, 
off San Pedro, California, by Mr. H. N. Lowe. It has lost the nucleus 
and probably the first post-nuclear whorl; the twelve remaining 
measure: Length 10 mm., diameter 2.3 mm. Another specimen 
from the same station is in Mr. Lowe's collection, and another was 
collected by Mrs. Oldroyd. 

TURBONILLA (MORMULA) MAJOR C. B. Adams. 

Plate 11, fig. 11. 
CJiemnitzia major C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, p. 391. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white with a few irregular faint rust 
spots. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, appressed at the summit, moderately contracted at the 
periphery, with moderately strongly developed varices at irregular 
intervals and almost straight, well developed, vertical axial ribs, of 
which 16 occur upon the first to fourth, 18 upon the fifth to ninth, 20 
upon the tenth to twelfth, and 24 upon the penultimate turn. Inter- 
costal spaces about double the width of the ribs, marked by seven 
well-incised spiral lines, which, if the fourth were removed, would 
be equally spaced. The spaces between the strongly incised lines 
are marked by exceedingly fine spiral striations. Sutures slightly 
impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
posterior half of the latter marked by seven equal, well incised, 
wavy spiral lines; anterior half with exceedingly fine spiral striations 
only. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture within; columella strong and some- 
what twisted. 

Professor Adams' type (Cat. no. 225 Amherst College) is the only 
specimen of this species we have seen. It has lost the nucleus and 
probably the first two post-nuclear turns. The fourteen remaining 
measure : Length 9.7 mm., diameter 2.5 mm. It comes from Panama, 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 117 

TURBONILLA (MORMULA) SANTOSANA, new species. 

Plate 11, fig. 7. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls inflated, well rounded, appressed at the summit, 
strongly contracted at the sutures, marked by strong, sublamellar, 
curved, slightly protractive axial ribs, of which 10 occur upon the 
second to fifth, 18 upon the sixth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. 
Intercostal spaces about two times as wide as the ribs, terminating at 
the periphery, marked by a strong series of spiral pits at the periphery 
and six strongly incised lines, which are equally spajced, excepting the 
third and fourth below the summit, which are a little closer than the 
rest. Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base short, well rounded, marked by three weakly in- 
cised, equally spaced, spiral striations. Aperture ?; outer lip re- 
enforced within by five strong spiral cords; three of which, a little 
weaker than the rest, are between the periphery and the summit, and 
two on the base; columella strong, twisted, and revolute, with an 
oblique fold near its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162689,U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. wS. Bureau, 
of Fisheries station 2830, in 66 fathoms, temperature 74.1°, oflF 
Todos Santos, Lower California. It has lost the nucleus and prob- 
ably the first postnuclear turn; the eight remaining whorls measure: 
length 3.7 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

TURBONILLA (MORMULA) PBHTALOPHA DiOl and Baitsch. 

Plate 11, figs. 3, 3a. 

Turbonilla (Laruxa) pentalopha Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 
1903, p. 282, pi. 1, figs. 1, la. 

Shell elongate-conic, chocolate-brown. Nuclear whorls small, 

""^e, forming a depressed, helicoid spire, whose axis is at right 

^hs to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 

^"^Ut one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls rounded on the 

^^''Uer and flattened on the later turns, marked by strong, rounded, 

*^^ewhat flexuose, slightly retractive, axial ribs, which are scarcely 

*^ ^U expressed on the first, and of which there are 18 upon the first 

*^d second, 20 upon the third and fourth, 22 upon the fifth, 24 upon 

^^^ sixth, and 28 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces as 

^^e as the ribs, marked by six equal and equally spaced, spiral series 

^' Pits which pass up on the sides of the ribs, but do not cross them. 

^^txires well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well 

'^^tided, marked by the continuations of the axial ribs and seven 

^"^ally spaced spiral striations, agreeing in strength with those on 

^^ spire. The first spiral line above and below the periphery are 

* little farther apart than the rest. Aperture large, oval; posterior 

2665— Bull. 68-09 9 



118 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
provided with five strong, spiral cords, the anterior one of which is 
a little closer to its neighbor than the rest,which are equally spac^; 
columella moderately strong, curved, and revolute. 

The t>T)e and 35 specimens (Cat. no. 46501, U.S.N.M.) were col- 
lected at San Diego, California. The type has ten post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 8.5 mm., diameter 2.3 mm. 

The following specimens have been exammed : 



U.S.N.M. 
Cat. no. 



2008S5 

46501 

59328 

206882 

206883 

206884 

32284 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. I 



U.S.B.F. 
station. 



Locality. 



Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 



Disposittoi of 
materiaL 



San Pedro, California. 
do 



1 

4 

36 ' ' San Diego, California, 



5 
1 
3 
1 
1 



3564 
3566 



do. 

do 

do 

Southern California 

Todos Santos Bay, Lower Califor- 
nia. 



5 
3 



U.S. Nat. Mils. 
Oldroyd colL 
U.S.NatMus. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
U.S.NatMus. 

Do. 



TURBONILLA (MORMT7LA) HBTBROLOPHA, new species. 

Plate 11, %. 9. 

Shell small, slender, chestnut-brown, with wax yellow apex. 
Nuclear whorls two and one-half, forming a depressed, helicoid spire, 
whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which it is one-fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flat, 
appressed at the summit, not constricted at the periphery, forming a 
spire of ahnost straight, uninterrupted outline. Axial sculpture con- 
sists of very broad, low, rounded, slightly retractive axial ribs, which 
are absent on the first turn but of which 20 occur upon the second to 
fourth, 28 upon the fifth and penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces 
very narrow, marked by six spiral lines of pits. Sutures poorly de- 
fined. Periphery and base of the last whorl well roimded, marked by 
the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and seven equally spaced, 
incised spiral lines. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer Up 
thin, showing the external markings within; reenforced on the inside 
by four or five slender, equally spaced, spiral cords; columella strong, 
somewhat t^^nsted. 

The tvpe and three specimens (Cat. no. 153065, U.S.N.M.) come 
from San Diego, California. The type has lost the nucleus; the seven 
post-nuclear whorls measure: Length 5.5 mm., diameter -1.8 nun- 
Cat, no. 162690, U.S.N.M., contains four specimens from San HipO" 
lito Point, Lower California; collected by Mr. Henry Hemphill ^ 
whose collection there are five more from the same locality. €•*• 
no. 206886, U.S.N.M., one from San Diego, dredged in 12 fathoms* 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 119 

TUSBOIIILLA (MORMT7LA) I6NACIA, new tpedM. 
Plate 11, figs. 2, 2a. 

Shell small, elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-half, forming a depressed, helicoid sj)ire, whose axis is at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 
one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whoris slightly rounded, appressed 
at the sunmiit, moderately contracted at the suture, marked by low, 
rather broad, rounded, almost vertical axial ribs, of wliich 18 occur 
upon the second to fourth, 20 upon the fifth, 22 upon the sixth, 24 
upon the seventh, and 28 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal 
spaces a little narrower than the ribs, marked by six spiral series of 
well incised, equally spaced pits. Peri])hery and base of the last 
whorl well rounded, marked bv the verv feeble continuations of the 
axial ribs, and numerous exceedingly fine spiral striations. Aper- 
ture rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thick, reenforced 
by two strong spiral lamellse, one of which is a little posterior to the 
peripherj'' and the other a little posterior to the middle between the 
periphery and the summit ; columella rather strong, decidedly twisted 
with an oblique fold a little below its insertion. 

The type and two other s])ecimens (Cat. no. 162691, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from San Ignacio Lagoon, Lower California. The type has 
nine post-nuclear whorls and measures: l^ength 4.1 mm., diameter 
1 .2 mm. 

TURBOmLLA (MORMULA) PBRISCEUOA, new ipeciet. 

Plate 11, fip«. 0, (ki. 

Shell pupiform, milk-white, shining. Nuclear whorls small, two, 
forming a depressed, helicoid s])ire, whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-half 
inunersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, slightly contracted at the 
sutures, appressed at the summit, with a strong, sloping shoulder 
which extends over the i)osterior fourth of the si)ace l)etween the 
sutures, marked by strong, vertical axial ribs, of which about 14 
occur upon all the whorls. These ribs become flattened and decid- 
edly expanded on the shoulder. Intercostal spaces about three times 
as wide as the ribs, shallow, smooth. Sutures slightly constricted. 
Periphery of the last whorl somewhat attenuated, base well rounded, 
smooth. Aperture oval; somewhat effuse anteriorly: posterior angle 
acute: outer lip reenforced by three, broad, internal si)iral lirations, 
two of which are ])osterior to the ])eri])hery and the other immediately 
below it; columella decidedly twisted and somewhat revolute: rcen- 
forced by the base, ]>rovide(l with a very stnmg, oblique fold at its 
insertion; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type and two specimens (Cat. no. 163266, U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2901, off" Santa Kosa 



120 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Island, California, in 48 fathoms, temperature 55*^.1. The type h 
seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.2 mm., diamet 
1 mm. 

TURBONILLA (MORMULA) PHALERA, new spades. 

Plate 11, fig. 5. 

Shell small, milk-white. (Xuclear whorls decollated.) Post.— 
nuclear whorls well rounded, sUghtly contracted at the sutur&s, 
marked by moderately strong, curved, protractive axial ribs, of which 
14 occur upon the first to fourth, 16 upon the fifth, and 18 upon the 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, 
well impressed, terminating at the periphery. Sutures well marked. 
Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated. Base short, well 
rounded, smooth. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thick, with a single, strong, internal cord, a little posterior 
to the periphery; columella strong, somewhat twisted, with a weak 
fold near its insertion. 

The type ((^at. no. 163267, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2794, in 62 fathoms, temperature 59^6, in Pananui 
Bay. It has seven post-nuclear whorls, having lost the nucleus and 
probably the first post-nuclear turn, and measures: Length 2.5 mm., 
diameter 0.8 mm. 

Subgenus DUNKEBIA Carpenter. 
Dunkeria Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 433-434. 

4 

Turbonillas having the whorls stronger, rounded, and usually 
shouldered, marked by strong axial ribs and strong spiral cords, the 
junctions of which are frequently subnodulous. 

Type. — Dunkeria' subaugulata. 

Doctor Carpenter, after diagnosing Dunkeria laminaia,^ writes: 
*'This beautiful Fenelloid species may be regarded as the type of th** 
group of Dunkeria^ Unfortunately this species was not included 
in the original list, hence can not ser^^e as type for the group. W6 
had selected the first specimen, Dunkeria paudJirataj of the four cited 
b}^ Carpenter in his Mazatlan (Catalogue, for the type in our Synopsis 
of the Genera, Subgenera and Sections of the Family Pyramidellidc* 
Since then we have seen Doctor Carpenter's material in the British 
Museum and we find that Dunker^i paucilirata is a PyrgiscuhUf aD^ 
that the second species Dunkeria suhangulata resembles D. lamifi^ 

• 

in form and sculpture and thus bears out the author's intent of typi" 
fying the group. D. canceUaia must be removed to PyrywctiZtw and 
D. intermedia to Evalina. 



o Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1865, p. 396. 

b Proc. Biol. S()c. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 8. 



i 



WEST AMEBICAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 121 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS DUNKERIA. 

iral soulpture between the sutures of uniform charart<T. 

Spiral cords between the sutures H sedillina, p. 121. 

Spiral cords between the sutiu'es 5 or 5}. 

Adult shell more than 6 mm. long Inminata, p. 122. 

Adult shell less than 4 mm. long. 

Whorb slightly rounded hipoliterms^ p. 123. 

Whorb strongly rounded. 
Shell elongate-ovate. 

Basal cords 5 siibangulatay p. 124. 

Basal cords 6 andreusi^ p. 124. 

Shell elongate-conic excolpa, p. 123. 

Spinl sculpture between the sutures not of uniform character. 

Adult shell more than 10 mm. long araiay p. 125. 

Adult shell less than 6 mm. long genilda, p. 125. 

TURBONHXA (DUNKERIA) SBDILLINA. new tpedes. 

Plate 12, figH. 3, 3a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
half, forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles 
to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is one-fourth 
Duneraed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, with a 
strong sloping shoulder, which extends over the posterior tliird be- 
tween the sutiu'es, appressed at the summit and sUghtly constricted 
at the suture, marked by slender, sublamellar, sinuous, almost verti- 
cal axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first three whorls, 18 upon 
the fourth to sixth, 20 upon the seventh and eighth, and 24 upon the 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces three times as wide as the 
rihs, marked by seven rather broad and deeply incised spiral grooves, 
the interspaces appearing as flattened cords, of which the one be- 
tween the second and third groove below the summit is at the shoulder 
wid a little broader than the rest. Sutures strongly constricted. 
Periphery of the last whorl somewhat angulated. Base short, well 
rounded, marked by seven irregular and irregularly spaced spiral 
striations. Aperture broadly oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip 
thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella slender, and 
decidedly curved. 

He type and nine specimens (Cat. no. 162697 U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, in 26i fathoms, off 
^ Paz, Gulf of California. It has nine post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 5.3 mm., diameter 1.4 mm. Cat. no. 2068S7, 
^•S.N.M., one specimen at U. S. Biu'eau of Fisheries station 2822, in 
21 fathoms, also from La Paz. Cat. no. 206888 U.S.X.M., one speci- 
'^en, from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2826, 9 J fathoms, off 
Ceralvo Island, Gulf of CaUfornia. 



122 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



TURBONILLA (DUNKERIA) LAMINATA Carpenter. 
Plate 12, figs. 10, 16a. 
Dunkeria laminata Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d sor., vol. 15, 1865, p. 396. 

Shell broadly conic, wax yellow at the tip, chestnut-brown on the 
last whorl, columellar area white. Nuclear ^whorls two and one-half, 
forming a depressed heUcoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one- 
fourth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, strongly rounded, 
moderately contracted at the suture, marked by very regular, 
rounded, strong, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon the 
first, 24 upon the second, 26 upon the third, 28 upon the fourth and 
fifth, 30 upon the sixth and seventh, and about 40 upon the penulti- 
mate turn. Intercostal spaces a Uttle wider than the ribs, crossed b}^ 
five spiral series of broad, deep pits, which cause the five intermediate 
areas to appear as broad, raised bands, which are about as wide as 
the ribs, and render their junction with the ribs tuberculate. Sutures 
strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base 
moderately long, marked by the faint continuations of the axial ribs, 
and about ten spiral Urations, which are narrower and less strongly 
developed about the umbiUcal area. Aperture broadly oval ; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external markings witliin; 
columella strongly curved, and completely reenforced by the base. 

The specimen described and figured (Cat. no. 9465, U.S.N.M.) was 
collected by Cooper at San Pedro, California. It has nine post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.6 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

The coloration of this species varies considerably; it may be uni- 
color, white to chestnut, or diversely banded. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



U.S.N.M. 
Cat. no. 


No. of 
speci- 
meos. 


Locality. 


Depth, 
fath- 
oms. 


Collector. 


Disposition of 
material. 


14946 
130564 

160111 

153049 

152315 
152317 
109366 
206891 

322846 
106517 


3 

3 

34 

62 


San Pedro, California 




Cooper 

Oldroyd 

do 


U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 
Oldroyd coll. 
Roper coll. 
Lowe coll. 
Eshnaurcoll. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Arnold coll. 
Lowe coll. 
Oldroyd coll. 

Do. 
Univ. Cal. coll. 

Do. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 


do 




do 




do 1 do 




do 




Roper 


do 




Lowe 


3' 

7 

1 
2 
2 
1 

2 
2 


Tenninal Island, California 




Eshnaur 

Kelsey 

do 


Off Ballast Point (San Diego), 
California. 

Ocean Beach, San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 
do 


12-16 




do 


San Diego, California 




do 


do 




UemphUl 


San Diego, U. S. Bureau of 

Fisheries (station 3566). 
San Diego, California 


3 


Hemphill 

Lowe 


do 




1 
4 

1 
1 
1 
5 


San Diego (Whites Point), 
California. 

San Diego (foot of Ash street), 
California. 

Station 37, off San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 

Station 32. off Catalina Island, 
California. 

Todos Santos Bay, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

Point Abreojos, Lower Call- 
fomia. 




Oldroyd 

do 




Univ.Cal 

do :... 




Hemphill 

.....do. ....... 







West American pyramidellid mollusks. 123 

TURBOIIILLA (DUNKERIA) HIPOIJTBNSIS, new species. 

Plate 12, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell milk-white, with a light yellow narrow band midway between 
the sutures. Nuclear whorls small, two and one-half, forming a 
depressed heUcord spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the 
succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-third immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, slightly shouldered r.t the 
summit but very sUghtly protracted at the suture, marked by mod- 
erately strong, rounded, retractive axial ribs, of which IS occur upon 
the second, 20 upon the third, 24 upon the fourth and fifth, and 30 
upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces as wide as the ribs, 
crossed by five series of broad spiral pits, which are not quite as wide 
as the five raised cords which they bound, and which render the ribs 
somewhat nodulose at their junction. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well rounded, the latter marked by six spiral cords and a 
feeble continuation of the axial ribs. Aperture oval; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture Antliin; 
columella moderately strong, cun-ed, reenforced by the base. 

The type and two additional specimens (Cat. no. 206889, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from San Hipolito Point, Lower California. The type has 
seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.3 mm., diameter 
1.2 nmi. 

TURBONILLA (DUNKERIA) EXCOLPA, new tpedes. 

Plato 12, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell wax yellow on the early whorls, ranging to chestnut brown <m 
the last. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, forming a depressed lieli- 
coid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, 
in the first of which it is about one-tliird immei-sed. Post-nucl<»ar 
whorls well rounded, marked by well-develojHMl, narrow, rounded, 
almost vertical axial ribs, of which 24 occur upon the fii*st to third, 
26 upon the fourth, 28 upon the fifth, and about 30 upon the jM»nuhi- 
mate turn. Intercostal spaces about as wide as the ribs, crossed l>y 
five series of spiral pits which are as wide as the five raised spaces 
which they separate. The junction of these raised cords with tlie 
ribs renders them nodulous. Sutures constricted. Periphery of the 
last whorl and base well rounded, the latter marked l)v seven spiral 
cords. Aperture oval ; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture >^ithin columella slender, somewhat twisted, 
reenforced by the base. 

The type (Cat. no. 206892 U.S.N.M.) comes from the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
3.7 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 



124 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBOIIILLA (DUNKBRIA) SX7BAN6ULATA Ciopcater. 

Plate 12, fig. 11. 
Dunkeria subangulata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 434. 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls two, forming a mod^T- 
ately elevated spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the simo- 
ceeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-third immerse? <1. 
Post-nuclear whorls strongly rounded, obhquely shouldered at tlae 
summit, marked by slender, vertical, axial ribs, of which 20 occur 
upon the first, 22 upon the second and third, and 24 upon the penuL 
mate turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are crossed 
four slender, spiral cords between the sutures and by a fifth at tlie 
periphery and five on the base. The spaces inclosed by the ribs axitd 
cords appear as round pits. Periphery and base of the last whorl 
well rounded. Aperture suboval; outer Up thin; columella soirxe- 
what twisted and reflected; parietal wall covered with a thin caUtJKS. 

An adult and a young specimen are on tablet 2008, Liverpool collec- 
tion, British Museum. The adult has five post-nuclear whorls itxad 
measures: Length 2.8 mm., diameter 0.93 mm. 

TXJRBOinLLA (DUNKERIA) ANDRBWSI, new qpadM. 

Plate 12, figs. 7, 7a. 

Shell small, conic, light chestnut, umbilical area white. NucI^^ 
whorls two and one-half, forming a depressed hehcoid spire, who^ 
axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first *^ 
which it is about one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls vr^^ 
rounded, moderately contracted at the suture, with a sloping shoulder 
which extends over the posterior third between the sutures, marked 
by slender, well-rounded, slightly retractive axial ribs, of which 1^ 
occur upon the first, 20 upon the second and third, 22 upK>n the fourth* 
and 32 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces about one ai3-d 
one-half times as wide as the ribs upon all but the last whorl, mark^^ 
by five spiral series of broad pits, which are wide as the five cord-li 
interspaces which they bound and which render the ribs somew 
tuberculate at their junction. Sutures well impressed. Periphe 
and base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter marked by the co 
tinuation of the axial ribs, which extend feebly to the umbilical 
and six spiral cords which grow successively a little narrower from 
periphery to the umbilical area. Aperture oval; posterior 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col 
mella rather thick, reenforc^d by the base; parietal wall covered bjT 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 162696 U.S.N.M.) comes from Panama. It 
six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.9 mm., diame' 
I mm. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 125 

Prof. C. B. Adams's type lot of CJiemnitzia clathraiula in the Amherst 
collection contains two specimens of this species. His type lot of 
Chemnitzia communis contains another specimen. Both lots are 
from Panama. 

Named for Prof. Lancelot W. Andrews. 

TURBONILLA (DUNKKRIA) ARATA, new ipedet. 

Plate 12, fig. 12. 

Shell large and rough. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls somewhat inflated and overhanging, appresse<l at the 
sununity well rounded, with the greatest convexity on the anterior 
third between the sutures; marked by strong, narrow, rounded, well 
raised, retractive axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon the first four, 20 
upon the fifth, 22 upon the sixth and seventh, 24 upon the eighth, 26 
upon the ninth, and 28 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal 
spaces about twice as wide as the ribs, marked by very deej) i)its, which 
leave the intervening spaces as strongly elevated cords, nine of which 
occur between the sutures. Of these cords the second and fifth below 
the summit and the first above the periphery are of equal width and 
wider than the rest; the first, which forms the summit, and the three 
posterior to the one at the periphery are again of equal width; the 
third and fourth below the summit are a little more slender than the 
rest; the pit at the periphery and those that bound the fifth cord are 
a little wider than the rest; the first and second l)el()w the summit 
and the second and third pit above the periphery are ecjual and those 
between the third and fourth cords are also equal. Sutures well 
impressed. Periphery of the last whorl inflated. Base well rounded, 
marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and eight almost 
equal incised spiral lines. Aperture large, oval; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip somewhat flaring in its middle; columella slender, 
curved, and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206S90, U.S.N.M.) was dredged off Santa Cata- 
lina Island, California. It has twelve i)ost-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 10.2 mm., diameter 2.4 nun. 

TXTRBONUXA (DUNKERIA) GBIOLDA, new speclat. 

Platt» 12, fig. 2. 

Sbell elongate-conic, white on the shoulder, the rest light brown. 
(Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the 
middle, well contracted at the sutures, with a strong sloping shoulder 
which extends over the posterior third between the sutures, rendering 
them angulated at its anterior termination. The whorls are marke<l 
by strongly elevated, narrow, axial ribs, which are vertical on the early 
wfaorifl and decidedly retractive on the later ones. Intercostal spaces 



126 BULLETIN 68, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

about two and one-half times as wide as the ribs, marked by a very 
broad, deep, peripheral pit and two less wide on the anterior third 
between the sutures; the median third is marked by three moderately 
broad pits, separated by slender lirations, the shoulder has a narrow 
line immediately below the summit and three well incised lines anterior 
to this, the anterior of which is less strongly developed than the other 
two. The spaces between the second and third, and third and fourth, 
posterior to the peripheral one, are wider than the rest. All the 
raised areas between the pits are crossed by very fine spiral striations. 
Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated. Base short, well 
rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and ten 
spiral striations, which decrease in size and spacing from the periphery 
to the umbilicus. Aperture rhomboidal; posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin; columella slender, very oblique, and sUghtly revolute. 
The type (Cat. no. 96806, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2799, in 30 fathoms, on green mud bottom in 
Panama Bay. It has lost the nucleus and probably the first post- 
nuclear turn. The nine remaining measure: Length 5.3 mm., diame- 
ter 1.6 mm. Cat. no. 162694, U.S.N.M., contains three more speci- 
mens from the same station. 

Subgenus PTBGISCITLnS Monterosato. 

Pyrgisculu^ Monterosato, Conch. Medit., 1884, p. 28. 

Turbonillas with turrited spire having the whorls decidedly con- 
tracted at the suture, and tabulated at the summit, marked on the 
spire and base by many well incised spiral lines. 

Type. — Melania scalaris Philippi. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS PTROISCULU8. 

Whorls shouldered. 

Shoulder strongly excavated. 

Axial ribs almost interrupted at the shoulder monilifera^ p. 126. 

Axial ribs continuing strong to the summit cancellatay p. 127. 

Shoulder not excavated. 

Axial ribs 12-8 fesHva^ p. 127. 

Axial ribs 16-20 ettco^mia, p. 128. 

Whorls not shouldered. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 8 paudlirata, p. 129. 

Spiral striations between the sutures 15 iwaniy p. 129. 

TURBONILLA (PTR6ISCULUS) MOinUFERA, new Bpedes. 

Plate 12, fig. 15. 

Shell pupiform, bluish-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened in the middle, scarcely contracted at the 
suture, with a strong shoulder that covers the posterior fourth 
between the sutures, forming a decided angle at its termination. The 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 127 

whorls are marked by strong, axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the 
second to fourth, 18 upon the fifth, and 20 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces about twice as wide as the ribs, marked by 
eleven incised spiral lines between the shoulder and the suture, which 
are a little less strongly developed and a Uttle closer spaced near the 
'suture. The shoulder is marked by five slender, spiral lines. Periph- 
ery and base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter marked by 
the feeble continuations of the axial ribs, and about eighteen slender, 
incised spiral lines. Aperture broadly oval; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip rather thick; columella decidedly cui*ved^ and somewhat 
twisted. 

The type (Cat. no. 58334, U.S.N.M.) comes from the Gulf of CaU- 
fomia. It has lost the nucleus. The seven remaining whorls meas- 
ure: Length 5.6 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

TURBOIIILLA (PTRGISCULUS) CANCELLATA Carpenter. 

Plate 12, fig. 6. 
Dunkeria amcellata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 435. 

Shell reddish-brown. Nuclear whorls two, tumid, helicoid, having 
their axis at right angles to that of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls two and one-half, decidedly inflated, strongly angu- 
lated at the summit; marked by many acute axial ribs and somewhat 
less strong spiral threads, which render the whorls elegantly can- 
cellated. Outer lip angulated, columella without fold. 

Doctor Carpenter's type was found on a specimen of Spondyhis at 
Mazatlan, Mexico. It is preserved in the Liverpool collection on tab- 
let 2009 in the British Museimi. This young individual has two and 
one-half post-nuclear whorls, measuring: length 0.95 mm., diameter 
^-5 mm. It has very strong tabulated shoulders, acute lamellar 
axia.1 ribs, of which about eighteen occur on the last whorl, and line, 
spiral striations in the broad intercostal spaces. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCULUS) FESTIVA De Folin. 

Plate 12, fig. 5. 
Turbonilla /estiva De Folin, Lea Mel^^agrinicolos, 1867, pp. 49, 50, pi. 5, figs. 4-6. 

Shell smooth, vitreous, elongate-conic. Nuclear whorls two and 

^^^^half, forming a moderately elevated, helicoid spire, whose axis is 

f"^ right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which 

is about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately 

^^Xnded, strongly contracted at the sutures, ha\nng a strong sloping 

^Oxildeir which extends over the posterior fourth of the space between 

^^ sutures; the whorls are crossed by strong lamellose axial ribs 

*Uch extend over the periphery to the umbilical area. Ten of these 

^^^^ur upon the first, 12 upon the second, and 8 upon the remaining 



I'Zh iji;m-kijn ^i>*, uxeted states xatioxal museum. 

! \Aiiin l/jh-mistnl sparfij about eitzht times as wide as the axial ribs, 
tii,r-*t\ Ia (uw si)iral .striatioas. of which about fourteen occur 
\,i'\ '/.*4'u r.li<- sutures. Base sli^rhtly excavated. Aperture oval; colii- 
jii'lla *l<-rrii|cr||y curved. 

TUt' type has five po.st-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.5 
f 11(11., diaiiH*t<»r 0.0 mm. 

Tlie .s[)ecii's described in I^s Mtl^ajrrinicoles were taken from pearl 
oy.sti'rs which are said to have come from Negritos and the Margarita 
iMlarid in the Bay of Panama. No specific station is cited for tKis 
species. It has lM»en referred to Panama by Tiyon in his Manual of 
('onchology. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCULUS) EUCOSMIA. new tpedM. 

Plato 12, fip*. 13, l:to. 

Sliell ])upoid, light yellow, with a narrow, darker band at ttie 
sluMdder. Nuclear whorls one and t iiree-fourtlis, forming a depressoc 1, 
liclicoid s]>ire, the axis of which is at right angles to that of the svio- 
ceeding turns, in the fii-st of which it is about one-fourth inunersocJ. 
Post-nuclear whorls slightly flattened in the middle, with a strong 
sloping shouhler which extends over the posterior fourth between th^ 
sutuivs and renilers them decidedly angulated at its anterior term*" 
nation; slightly contracted at the sutui*e, marked by strong, sul^" 
lamellar, axial ribs, which are vertical on the first four whorls an^ 
deciilcdiy retractive on the later ones. Of these ribs, 16 occur upon 
tlu» lli-st live whorls, IS u]>on the sixth, and 20 upon the penultimfl't^^ 
turn. Intercostal spaces about two and one-half times as wide ^^ 
I ho ribs, marked by a double series of very broad pits, one of whi<^^^ 
is at the periphery and tlie other immediately anterior to the shovi*" 
lU'r. The space between these pits is divideil into four equal coi"*"^* 
l>\ tinve moderately wide pits, the cords in turn being divided hy * 
lim' iiioisod line. The shouldei's are marked by five equal and eque^l-*^ 
spai'c*! . inviscd. s[Mral Unos. Sutures strongly impressed. Base m*^**-^' 
oiatv^lv Inv^, wAi rminded. marked by eight almost equal andequ^^^^^ 
^piUi'tl <pinil s!.:iati«nis. Aperture oval: posterior angle acute: oi*-'^^' 
hp I'll!!, slit'wiri:: r!n^ external sculpture within: columella siencl^'^' 
sinU'^::-". arnl sti'^iiLrly n^tloctcil: parietal wall covered with a strC^*^ 

r!:.- ■ yp.' I'iii:. !.... 1»'.J»'»'»n, I'.S.N.M. » was dredged at U. S. Bure^^" 
o( V^>':wrx< <:;i:;'^:i J^JJ. in .1 fatlnMiis. olT La Paz. Lower Califon3-»- ^• 
li lias o.i^i.: *^i>r-L.-.L''-rar wii.trls and measures: Length 4.S m-X*^*-* 
diai:i«;ii':- I.^ :::'.::. T'a-- ■ :i.-::i:L"Ual specimens iCat. no. 16325 1^^' 
r.S.N.M. \v.. :v .[::vi[^^i\ .^r i' < Biirt'au of Fisheries station 2827 .• ^ 
10 t'atliouLS. tm" CVrulvv l-^aLi'.:. Li'.iit vt California. 



i 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 129 

TDRBOmiXA (PYR6ISCULUS) PAUCILIRATA Carpenter. 

Plate 12, fig. 10 
Dunkeria paueUirata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 434. 

The type and only known individual of this species is an imperfect 
specimen mounted on tablet 2007 of the Liverpool collection in the 
British Museum. 

The nucleus is two-thirds immersed, and the axis is at right angles 
to that of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls strongly 
rounded, well constricted at the sutures ; moderately slender, almost 
vertically curved axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first and 
about 18 upon the rest of the turns. Intercostal spaces very broad, 
shallow, marked by fine spiral striations. Sutures strongly con- 
stricted. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.1 
mm., diameter 0.7 mm. 

The specimen was collected on a Chama at Mazatlan, Mexico. 

TURBOlflLLA (PYRGISCULUS) SWANI, new tpedee. 

Plate 12, figs. 9, 9a. 

Shell elongate, pupoid, semitranspaix^nt, light yellow. Nuclear 
whorls at least two, forming a low helicoid spire, whose axis is almost 
at right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which 
it is about one-half immersed. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, very 
strongly roimded, appressed at the summit, contracted at the periph- 
ery, marked by strong, decidedly curved, lamellar, protractive axial 
ribs, of which 18 occur upon all but the last whorl, the latter has 20. 
Intercostal spaces twice as wide as the ribs, marked by 15 almost 
equal and almost equally spaced spiral series of pits. Sutun^s con- 
stricted. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, the 
latter marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs, and 
about 20 feeble ver}^ wavy incisiMl spiral lines. Aperture oval; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the extenial sculpture 
within; columella slender, curved, with the posterior two-thirds 
reenforced by the base. 

The tyi>e (Cat. no. 1604S5, I^.S.X.M.) comes from San Pedro, 
California. It has eight post-nuclear whorls and measun^s: L<*ngth 
5 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. 

Named for J. G. Swan. 

Subgenus ASMTJNDA DaU and Bartsch. 
Atmunda DALLand Bartsch, Pnx'. Hiol. Stx*. Wo^h., vol. 17, 1904, p. 9. 

Shell with strong axial ribs which terminate at the keele<l i)eriphery ; 
base with many axial riblets, a strong median spiral cord, and a 
constriction between this and the peripheral keel. 

Type. — Chemnitzia turrita C. B. Adams. 



130 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TURBONILLA (ASMUNDA) TURRTTA C. B. Adami. 

Plate 12, figs. 14, 14a. 

Chemnitzia turrita C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., voL 5, 1852, 
pp. 393, 394. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, two and 
one-half, forming an elevated helicoid spire, whose axis is at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 
one-third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately well rounded, 
with a very broad, flat, tabulated summit, marked by strong, lamellar, 
somewhat sinuous, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 18 occur 
upon the first, 14 upon the second to fifth, 16 upon the sixth, 18 upon 
the seventh, 20 upon the eighth, and 24 upon the penultimate whorl. 
Intercostal spaces about four times as wide as the ribs, deeply 
impressed, sinooth. Sutures very strongly marked. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a strong keel, middle of the base with a 
strong tumid fasciole, the space between which and the periphery 
forms a shallow, well-rounded channel. Umbilical area slightly 
excavated. In addition to this sculpture, the base is crossed by 
many, subequal, slender, raised axial threads, which do not corre- 
spond to the axial ribs, between the sutures. Aperture irregular; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella strong and shghtly curved. 

Cat. no. 230 of Professor Adams's Panama Shells, in Amherst Col- 
lege, contains two specimens, the cotypes. We have selected the 
better of the two for our description and figure. This has 10 post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.7 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 
In the same collection, no. 251, Rissoa, sp. indet., a fragment, belongs 
here. 

Subgenus CABELIOPSIS MOrcli. 

Careliopsu Morch, Malak. Blatt., 1874, p. 169. 

Turbonillas having the surface marked by many subequal well- 
impressed spiral lines and numerous feeble axial riblets. Under low 
magnification the sculpture appears to consist of impressed pitted 
spiral lines only. 

Type. — Monoptygma (Careliopsis) styliformis Morch, 

TURBONILLA (CARSUOPSIS) STBNOGTRA, new tpedM. 

Plate 12,*fig8. 1, la. 

Shell acicular, transparent. Nuclear whorls small, two, forming 
a depressed, helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of 
the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is very slightly immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, somewhat contracted imme- 
diately below the sutures which causes the summits to appear some- 
what exserted. The first three post-nuclear whorls show traces of 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 131 

axial ribs on the posterior half of the whorls. Of these there appear 
to be about 18 upon the third turn. The whorls are marked by 
spiral lines of well-impressed pits, of which 6 appear upon the first, 
7 upon the second, 8 upon the third and fourth, 10 upon the fifth, 
1 1 upon the sixth, 14 upon the seventh, and 18 upon the penultimate 
turn, between the sutures. Upon the last, they are more or less 
irregular. Sutures poorly marked. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded. Base moderately long, well rounded, marked by 11 
spiral lines of pits. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer 
lip thin, showing the external markings within; columella moderately 
strong, very strongly curved, reenforced by the base. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 162699, II.S.N.M.) comes 
from San Hij>oUtol^oint, Lower California. The type has nine post- 
nuQlear whorls and measures: Length 5.5 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Genus ODOSTOMIA Fleming. 

Odoitomia Fleming, Edinburgh Encyol., vol. 7, 1817, pt. 1, p. 76,—Odontostomia 
Jeffreys, Mai. and Conch. Mag., 1839, p. SS.= Turrito8tomia Sacco, Moll, del 
Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 41, Rame type. 

Shell with sinistral apex, usually short, few whorled, subconic or 
ovate, with a single columellar folil which varies in strength and 
sometimes is not apparent at the aperture. The sculpture varies 
from smooth to lamellar axial ribs and spiral keels. 

Tkfpe. — Turbo plicatus Montagu. 

Of the forty subgenera now recognized under Odostomia nineteen 
haTe been found represented on the west coast of America. 

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA OK ODOSTOMIA. 

Emrly poet-nuclear whorls sculptured difforently from the later oTn^.Lysanm'y p. 132. 
Port-nuclear whorls sculptured similarly throughout. 

Varices present Salassidla, p, 133. 

VariceB absent. 

Axial ribs present. 

Axial ribs rounded. 

Spiral markings absent or if present coiiHu»ting of iui<'ro«H)pi<' Mria- 

tions only Sahssia, i>. VM. 

Spiral markings consisting of s^'eral to many raided threads. 

Spiral sculpture less stnmg than axial, not n<Mlulous. /?M/f/. p. l,Hf>. 
Spiral sculpture equal to the axial, n(Hiul«»M» between the su- 
tures (Itn/sallida, j). 13t). 

Spiral markings consisting of incised lines. 

Spiral lines on spire and base Ptfrgulinn, i>. IfiO. 

Spiral lines on base only -fcV'/"r P- I '*^*- 

Axial ribe lamellar. 

Spiral sculpture lamellar. 

Intersection of axial and spiral sculpt un^ cuspidate, 

7/flWrfl, p. 171. 
Intersection of axial and spiral si^ulpture not cuspidate, 

IvideUa.y. 172. 



132 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Poet-nuclear whorls sculptured similarly throughout — Continued. 
Varices absent — Continued. 

Axial ribs present — Continued. 

Axial ribs feeble, usually only indicated near the summit of the whorls. 
Spiral sculpture consisting of several strong, broad cords, one or more 

of the posterior of which are crenulated Miralda^ p. 176. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of many subequal lirations. 

WTiorls tabulated at the summit Ivaray p. 179. 

Whorls not tabulated at the summit Evaliruij p. 180. 

Axial sculpture reduced to mere lirations, frequently only present 
between the spiral cords. 

Shell umbilicated lolaay p. 181 . 

Shell not umbilicated Menestho, p. 184. 

Axial sculpture represented by lines of growth only. 

Spiral markings consisting of well incised lines Evalea, p. 192. 

Spiral markings consisting of many fine wavy striations, 

Amaura, p. '•218. 
Spiral sculpture consisting of a strong peripheral keel, 

ScalenostoTna, p. 229. 
Spiral sculpture absent. 

Aperture rissoid Ileida, p. 231. 

Aperture not rissoid Odostomia, p. 231. 

Subgenus LTSACKE Dall and Bartsch. 
Lysacme Dall and Bartsch, Proo. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 14. 

Early post-nuclear whorls loosely coiled, plain, later ones closely 
coiled with a spiral keel at the periphery an(l another at the summit 
of the whorl; base spirally 1 irate. 

Type. — ChrysaUida clausiliformis Carpenter. 

ODOSTOMIA (LYSACMB) CLAUSILIFORIiCIS Carpenter. 

Plate 13, fig. 2. 
?? ChrysaUida clauailiformis Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 426. 

Shell clausiliform. Nuclear whorls two, forming a depressed heli- 
coid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns, in the first of which it is scarcely at all immersed. First two 
and one-half post-nuclear whorls loosely coiled, strongly rounded, 
smooth, separated by very strongly impressed sutures. Remaining 
whorls moderately rounded, with a strong spiral cord at the summit 
and another at the periphery, the two being closely appressed at the 
sutures. Base prolonged, marked by low spiral cords. Aperture 
irregularly oblong, decidedly effuse anteriorly; columella provided 
with a strong fold at its insertion. Operculum paucispiral. 

Four specimens were taken off Chama at Mazatlan, of which the 
best preserved is on tablet 1987, Liverpool collection, British Museum, 
which has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.8 mm., 
diameter 0.9 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 133 

It is a curious shell, entirely different from anything else that we 
have seen. Unfortunately the outer surface is too badly worn to 
permit of a positive statement regarding its finer markings. 

SALASSIELLA, new subgenus. 

Shell pupiform, whorls inflated, marked by axial ribs which extend 
undiminished from the summit to the imibilical area. Varices strong, 
irregularly distributed. 

Type, — Odostamia (SalassieUa) laxa Dall and Bartsch. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS SALAS8IELLA. 

Summit of the whorls rounded laxa. 

Summit of the whorls tabulated richi. 

ODOSTOlftIA (SALASSIBLLA) LAXA, new tpedM. 

Plate 13, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell pupiform, milk-white. Nuclear whorls at least two, small, 
forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about two- 
thirds immersed. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, contracted at the 
sutures, and strongly roundedly shouldered at the summit, marked 
by lamellar, flexuose axial ribs, which are only feebly expressed on 
the first. On the second there are 18, on the third 20, 22 upon the 
fourth, and 28 upon the penultimate turn, upon which there is a 
strong varix. Intercostal spaces about one and one-half times as 
^de as the ribs, well impressed. Sutures constricted. Periphery 
wid base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the continua- 
tions of the axial ribs. Aperture broadly oval; posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col- 
lunella slender, strongly curved, and slightly revolute, provided with 
& weak fold at its insertion. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 106512, U.S.N.M.) comes 

from Scammon Lagoon, Lower California. It has six post-nuclear 

whorls, and measures: Length 4.3 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. Another 

specimen (Cat. no. 286893, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 

ODOSTOMIA (SALASSIELLA) RICHI, new tpedM. 
Plate 13, figs. 6, 6a. 

Shell smaU, broadly conic, white. Nuclear whorls three, forming 
' depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that of 
^^ succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-third 
^^^^rsed. Post-nuclear whorls strongly rounded, moderately con- 
^^ted at the suture, broadly tabulated at the shoulder, marked by 
'^Hg, lamellar, axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the first, 14 upon 
256&-Biill. 6fr-09 ^10 



134 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the second and third, and 18 upon the penultimate turn. Intercos- 
tal spaces somewhat wider than the ribs, strongly impressed. Periph- 
ery of the last whorl marked by a broad, low keel. Base with a 
strongly raised tumescence about the umbiUcal area, the space 
between which and the peripheral keel appears slightly concave. 
The axial ribs continue weakly over the base. A strong varix 
appears on the last whorl, between two axial ribs, and extends from 
the summit to the umbilical chink. Aperture suboval; posterior 
angle obtuse ; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within ; 
columella strong, straight, and decidedly revolute; parietal wall 
covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 160484, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Pedro, 
California. It has five and one-half post-nuclear whorls, and meas- 
ures: Length 3 mm., diameter 1.4 mm. 

Subgenus SALASSIA De Folin. 
Salassia De Folin, Const, d. Chemnitzidse, 1885, p. 15. 

Shell pupiform, whorls not inflated, marked by axial ribs which 
extend from the tabulated siunmit of the whorl to the umbiUcal area. 
Varices absent. 

Type. — Salassia tropidita Dall and Bartsch. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUBGENUS SALASSIA. 

Summit of the whorls tabulated tropidita^ p. 134. 

Summit of the whorls rounded scalariformis, p. 135. 

ODOSTOBUA (SALASSIA) TROPmiTA. new name. 

Plate 13, fig. 3. 

Salassia carinala Db Foun, Fonds de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 168, pi. 6, fig. 6; 
not Scalenostoma carinala Deshayes, 1863, nor Odastomia carinala H. Adams, 

1873. 

Shell pupiform, white. Nuclear whorls one and one-half, forming 
a moderately elevated heUcoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one- 
third immersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately roimded, some- 
what contracted at the sutures, strongly tabulated on the summits, 
marked by rounded, weak, axial ribs of which 8 occur upon the 
first and second, 10 upon the third, 12 upon the fourth and fifth, 
and 14 upon the penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces broad and 
shallow. Periphery of the last whorl and base well roimded, marked 
by the continuation of the ribs. Aperture broadly oval; outer lip 
thin; columella slender, slightly curved. 

De Folin's type comes from Isle of Pearls, Bay of Panama. It has 
seven post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 2.6 mm., diame- 
ter 1.2 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 135 

ODOSTOBUA (SALASSIA) SCALARIFORMIS Carpenter. 

Plate 13, fig. 1. 
Parthenia scalari/ormis Carpenter, Cat. Maz. Shells, 1856, p. 413. 

Shell pupiform, white. Nuclear whorls small; almost completely 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, scarcely at all con- 
tract^i at the periphery, strongly roundedly shouldered at the sum- 
mit, marked by slender, distant, scalariform, retractive axial ribs, 
of which about 20 occur upon the first and 16 upon the remaining 
turns. Intercostal spaces very broad, shallow. Sutures strongly 
marked. Periphery and the somewhat prolonged base of the last 
whorl well rounded, marked by the undiminished continuations of 
the axial ribs, which extend to the umbUical chink. Aperture ovate; 
outer lip thin; columella slender, curved, provided with a moder- 
ately strong fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a thick 
callus. 

Two specimens of this species were found on CTiama at Mazatlan. 
Tablet 1962 of the Liverpool collection in the British Museum con- 
tains the finest of the two. This has six post-nuclear whorls, and 
measures: Length 5 mm., diameter 0.93 mm. 

Subgenus BSSLA DaU and Bartsch. 
Besla Dall and Bartsch, Phk*. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 10. 

Small Odostomias with axial ribs and three strong spiral raised 
threads, one at and two posterior to the periphery between the 
sutures; base marked by raised spiral threads. 

Type. — ChrysaUida convexa (^vrpenter. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TIIE SUBGENUS BESLA. 

Whorltf overhanging con vexa, p. 135. 

Whorls flattened caUimorpha, p. 136. 

ODOSTOMIA (BBSLA) CONVEXA Carpenter. 
Plate 13, fig. 4. 
Ckrynallida convexa Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells', 1856, p. 424. 

Shell small, slender, elongate-conic. Nuclear whorls two and one- 
half, foroiing a moderately elevated helicoid spire, whose axis is at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 
about one-fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls overhanging, strongly 
contracted at the sutures, apj)ressed at the summit, angulated at the 
posterior extremity of the anterior third: l)etween the sutures, 
nuirke<i by strong, rotmded, sinuous, almost vertical axial ribs, of 
which 16 occur upon the second and third, 18 upon the fourth, and 
22 upon the penultimate tuni. Intercostal spaces a little more than 
twice as wide as the ribs, crossed by three equal and equally spaced 
q>inl cords, which are about one-half as strong as the ribs. The first 



136 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

of these cords is at the periphery, the third at the posterior termina- 
tion of the anterior third between the sutures, which it renders 
strongly angulated. Sutures constricted. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well rounded, marked by the continuation of the axial ribs, 
and about eight slender spiral lirations. Aperture broadly oval; 
posterior angle acute ; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella slender, slightly curved, decidedly oblique and 
re volute, provided with a slender fold at its insertion; parietal wall 
covered with a strong callus. 

Two specimens (Cat. no. 162734, U.S.N.M.) were dredged at U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, in 26 fathoms, on broken shell bot- 
tom, off Cacachitas, Gulf of California. The larger of the two speci- 
mens has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.4 mm., 
diameter 0.7 mm. 

The type which is on tablet 1984, Liverpool collection, British 
Museum, and another specimen were collected on Spondylus at 
Mazatlan. 

ODOSTOBUA (BBSLA) CALLIMORPHA, new name. 

Plate 13, fig. 5. 

Chrysallida pumila Carpenter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1866, p. 219; not 
Odostomia pumila A. Adams, 1861. 

Shell very small, pupiform, milk-white. Nuclear whorls com- 
pletely immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, slightly contracted 
at the sutures, moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by 
strong, depressed, rounded, almost vertical axial ribs, of which 22 occur 
upon all but the first whorl, which is smooth. Intercostal spaces 
about as wide as the ribs, crossed by three slender, spiral lirations on 
the anterior half of the whorls between the sutures. Sutures sub- 
channeled. Periphery and base of the last whorl weU rounded, 
marked by the continuations of the axial ribs, which extend almost 
undiminished to the umbilical area and five equal slender, spiral lira- 
tions on the posterior half of the base. Aperture broadly oval ; pos- 
terior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within ; columella strongly curved, slightly revolute, reenf orced on its 
posterior half by the base, provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 15565, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 1.5 
mm., diameter 0.6 mm. 

Subgenus CHBTSALLIDA Carpenter.' 

Chrysallida Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 4l6.=^No'&mia De Folin, 
Fonds de la Mer, 1873, p. 314. Type. — No'imia angusta Db Folin; Noe- 
miamea De Folin, Zool. Rec., 1885, p. 94 (Mollusca). Same type. Not 
No'emia Pasco, 1857. 

Odostomias having strong axial ribs crossed by equally strong. 
spiral keels between the sutures, the intersection of these two ele- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 137 

ments forming nodules. The axial ribs pass only faintly over the 
base, while the spiral sculpture remains quite prominent. 

Type. — Odostomia (ChrysaUida) torrita n. n. = ChrysaUida communis 
Carpenter; not Chemnit2ia[== ChrysaUida] communis C. B. Adams. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS CHRYSALUOA. 

AU spinj cords between the sutures nodnlo$«e. 

Sutures etrongly channeled. 

Axial ribs always stronger than the npiral oordA. 

Basal cords 5 reigeni^ p. 138. 

Basal cords 6 inconspinui^ p. 139. 

Basal cords 7 tehscopium^ p. 139. 

Basal cords 8 exccha, p. 140. 

Basal cords 9 acrybia, p. 141 . 

Basal cords 10 communis^ p. 141. 

Basal cords 12. 

Outer lip of adult shell pinched in torrita^ p. 142. 

Outer lip of adult shell not pinched in. 

Axial ribs of last whorl 16 /jWna, p. 143. 

Axial ribs of last whorl 22 talama^ p. 143. 

-^xial ribs not as strong as the spiral cordn. 

Spiral cords 4 between the sutures on the later whorln. 

Shell slender, elongate-conic. 

Basal cords 8. 

Diameter more than 1 mm effusa^ p. 144. 

Diameter less than 1 mm paupercuhy p. 144. 

Basal cords 7 clathratula, p. 145. 

Basal cords 6. 

Adult shell 4.5 mm. long ritteri^ p. 146. 

Adult shell 2.3 mm. long rineUay p. 146. 

Basal cords 5 eugena, p. 147. 

Shell ovate or broadly conic. 

Basal cords 4 trachis, p. 148. 

Basal cords 5. 

Shell large, adult 4.0 mm. long lucca, p. 148. 

Shell small, adult 2.3 mm. long Clementina, p. 149. 

Basal cords 6. 

Outer lip of adult shell decidedly j)incho<l in .oonwca, p. 150. 

Outer lip of adult shell not pinched in. 

Whorls fllopingly shouldercil oldroydi^ p. 150. 

Whorls not shouldered. 

Axial ribs decidedly retractive nodosa^ p. 151. 

Nodules round ovata, p. 152. 

Nodules oval cincta, p. 152. 

Basal cords 7. 

Base of the last whorl strongly inflated loomisi, p. 153. 

Base of the la.Ht whorl somewhat excavateii . 

Spaces between the spiral cords mere impressed lines. 

vicola, p. 153. 

Spaces between the spiral cords broad, deep channels. 

astrictOy p. 154. 

Basal cords 8 cooperiy p. 155. 

Basal cords 9 hipolitensiij p. 155. 

Spind cords 5 between the sutures of the later whorls, ^apo^ona, p. 156. 

Sphml cords 6 between the sutures of thelaterwhorls.proxtma, p. 157. 



138 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

All spiral cords between the sutures nodulose — Continued. 
Sutures not channeled. 

Axial ribs always stronger than the spiral cords tylerij p. 157. 

Axial ribs not as strong as the spiral cords. 
Spiral cords 4 between the sutures. 

Adult shell more than 5 mm. long 9cammonensis, p. 158. 

Adult shell 3 or less mm. long. 

Basal cords 4 pul^^ra, p. 158. 

Basal cords 6. 

Spaces between the spiral cords deep, broad channelB. 

montereyensis, p. 159. 
Spaces between the spiral cords mere impressed lines. 

pulcia, p. 160. 

Basal cords 10 or more virginalii, p. 160. 

Spiral cords 5 between the sutures de/oUnia, p. 161. 

Spiral cords more than 5 between the sutiures. 

Basal cords 6 orcgonenm^ p. 162. 

Basal cords 10 or more xirginalis, p. l^O. 

All spiral cords between the sutures not nodulose. 

Anterior spiral cord between the sutures smooth and wholly exposed, the rest 
nodulose. 
Nodulous spiral cords 4 between the sutures. 

Shell large, adult more than 4.5 mm. long henthina^ p. 1^- 

Shell small, adult less than 3 mm. long promeces^ p. 1^- 

Nodulose spiral cords 3 between the sutures. 

Shell large, adult 5 mm. long pulcherrimayp. 1^* 

Shell small, adult less than 3 mm. long. 

Basal cords 5 tnncto, p- 1^- 

Basal cords 6 .fasdata, p- 1^^- 

Anterior half of the whorls between the sutures usually not nodulous, the rest 

strongly so virginalis^ p . !""• 

Early whorls and frequently only the posterior part of these nodulose. 

Shell long, adult more than 4 mm. long hdga, p - ^^ 

Shell small, adult less than 3 mm. long. 

Base decidedly attenuated anteriorly sanctorum^ p - ^^ 

B£u»e not strongly attenuated. 

Spiral cords 6 between the sutures sgpia, p- X®' • 

Spiral cords less than 6 between the sutures. 

Spiral cords ver>' strong rotundata^ p- ^ ^^' 

Spiral cords almost obsolete deceptrix^ p. X ^ • 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) RSIGENI Caxpenter. 

Plate 13, fig. 7. 
ChrysaUida reigeni C.\rpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 422. 

Shell elongate-ovate. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply immersed ^ 
the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls flatten^^' 
strongly contracted at the sutures and well shouldered at the sU^^' 
mit, marked by strong axial ribs of wliich 18 occur upon the &TSt 
and 20 upon the second and penultimate turn. In addition to tb^ 
axial ribs, the intercostal spaces, which equal the ribs in width, a^ 
marked by four slender spiral cords between the sutures, which ipBSS 



WEST AMERICAN PTEAMIOELLID MOLLUSKS. 13d 

up on the sides of the ribs but do not cross their summits. The 
spaces between the ribs and cords are well impressed, round pits. 
Sutures channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a groove. 
Base well rounded, marked by five subequal and equally spaced 
spiral cords, the spaces between which are crossed by slender axial 
threads. Aperture pyriform, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture within; columella slender, provided 
with an oblique fold at the insertion; parietal wall covered ^dth a 
thin callus. 

Tablet 1979, Liverpool collection, British Museum, contains the 
tjipe which was taken off Spondylus at Mazatlan, Mexico. It has 
four post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 1.4 mm., diameter 
0.7 mm. 

ODOSTOBUA (CHRTSALUDA) INCONSPICUA C. B. Adami. 

Plate 14, fig. 3. 

Cingula incompicua C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
p. 405. 

Shell ovoid, milk-white. Nuclear whorls deeply, obliquely im- 
mersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the tilted 
edge of the last volution projects, which is smooth. Post-nuclear 
whorls very slightly rounded, ornamented by strong axial ribs, of 
which 18 occur upon the second and third and 20 upon the penulti- 
mate turn. In addition to the axial ribs the whorls are marked by 
four equal and equally spaced slender spiral cords, which are a httle 
less strong than the ribs, and render the junction with these nodu- 
lous. Sutures channeled; periphery and base of the last whorl well 
rounded, the latter marked by six equal spiral cords, which are about 
as wide as the spaces that separate them. The impressed grooves 
are crossed by numerous slender axial threads. Aperture ovate; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, pinched in in the middle; 
columella slender, moderately curved, slightly reflected, partly reen- 
forced by the base. Parietal wall covered with a strong callus, 
which renders the peritreme complete. 

The type is at Amherst College, and was collected by Prof. C. B. 
Adams at Panama Bay. It has five post-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 1.5 mm., diameter 0.6 mm. 

ODOSTOBUA (CHRTSAIXmA) TELBSCOPITJM Carprater. 

Plate 13, fig. 9. 
ChywaUHa Uletcopium Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 421, 422. 

Shell very elongate-conic, wliite. Nuclear whorls two, forming a 
moderately elevated helicoid spire which is about one-half obliquely 
immeroed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
almoet flattened, strongly contracted at the suture and strongly 



140 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

shouldered at the summit^ marked by strong, vertical, axial ribs, of 
which 18 occur upon the first, 22 upon the second, 20 upon the third, 
22 upon the fourth and penultimate turn. In addition to the axial 
ribs the whorls are marked by four slender, spiral cords which do not 
render the ribs tuberculate. The spaces between the cords and the 
ribs are deep round pits. Sutures channeled. Peripherj' of the 
last whorl marked by a groove. Base somewhat attenuated anteri- 
orly, well rounded posteriorly, marked by seven spiral cords which 
become somewhat diminished in size from the periphery to the 
umbilical region. Grooves separating the cords marked by numer- 
ous slender axial threads. Aperture irregularly pjTiform, effuse 
anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip tliin, showing the exter- 
nal sculpture within; columella moderately stout, reflected, reen- 
forced by the base, provided with a fold at its insertion; parietal 
wall covereil with a thin callus. 

Ten specimens (mostly young) off Chama and SpondyluSf Live^ 
pool collex^tion, British Museum, were taken at Mazatlah, Mexico. 
Tablet 1978 contains three specimens, the largest of which has six 
post-nuoloar whorls and measures: Length 3.1 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) EXCSLSA, new tpadet. 

Plate 14, fig. 11. 

Shell broadly conic, white. Nuclear whorls smooth, almost com- 
pletely obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which the tilted edge of the last whorl only projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls flattened, strongly contracted at the sutures and somewhat 
shouldered at the summit, marked by strong protractive axial ribs, 
of which 16 occur upon the second, 18 upon the third, and 20 upon 
the remaining turns. In addition to the axial ribs the whorls are 
marked by four slender spiral cords between the sutures, which 
render the ribs tuberculate at their junction, the spaces inclosed 
by the ribs and spiral cords are deep, quadrangular pits, the long 
axLs of which coincides with the spiral cords. Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a strong suIcils which is crossed by the continuation 
of the axial ribs. Base of the last whorl attenuated, well rounded, 
marked b\' eight subequal and subequally spaced low spiral cords, 
the grooves between which are crossed by many slender axial thre^wls. 
The summit of the last whorl falls below the first basal keel and 
leaves this in the suture. On the last half of the last turn, an addi- 
tional slender s[)iral thread divides the space between the first and 
second and second and third strong spiral cords. Aperture pyrifonn, 
somewhat effuse anteriorh'; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip (frac- 
tured), thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella strong} 
curved, decidedly reflected over the reenforcing base, provided with 
a strong fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with' a strong 
callus which renders the peritreme complete. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYKAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 141 

The type (Cat. no. 206894, U.S.N.M.) comes from the Bay of 
Panama. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
3.3 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALUDA) ACRYBIA. new ■pedM. 

Plate 14, fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls very slightly rounded, somewhat contracted at 
the sutures, feebly shouldered at the summits, marked by strong, 
almost vertical axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the second, 16 upon 
the third, 18 upon the fourth, 20 upon the fifth, and 22 upon the 
penultimate turn. Intercostal spaces a little wider than the ribs, 
crossed by four slender spiral cords, the junction of which with the 
ribs renders them feebly noduh)us. Sutures strongly impressed but 
not channeled. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
the latter marked by nine slender spiral cords, the spaces between 
which are crossed by fine axial threads. Aperture oval, slightly 
effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within ; columella twisted, decidedly reflected ante- 
riorly, provided with a strong fold at its insertion; parietal wall 
covered with a thick callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206895, U.S.N.M.) comes from Point Abreojos, 
Lower California. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 3.2 mm., diameter 1 .2 mm. Another specimen from the same 
locality is in Mr. Hemphiirs collection. 

ODOSTOlftIA (CHRTSALLmA) COMBCUNIS C. B. Adami. 

Plate 14, figs. 10, 10a. 

Ckemnitzta eommunis C. B. Adams, Ann. Lyo. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
p. 390. 

SheU conic, vitreous to milk-white. Nuclear whorls at least two, 
forming a depressed helicoid spire » whose axis is at right angles to 
that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is alK)ut one-half 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, strongly contracted at the 
suture and decidedly shouldered at the summit, marked by strong 
vertical axial ribs of which there are 16 upon the first and second, 
18 upon the third to fifth, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. In 
addition to the ribs the whorls are marked by four spiral cords about 
one-half as strong as the ribs, l)etween the sutures: the first of these 
ia at the angle of the shoulder. The junction of the spiral cords 
and ribs nodulous; the spaces inclosed between them rectangular 
pits. Sutures channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a 
spiral cord at whose posterior margin the axial ribs tenninate. Base 
produced, moderately rounded, marked by ten spiral cords, which, 
like the grooves separating them, decrease regularly in size from the 



142 BULLETIN 68^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

periphery to the umbilical area. The grooves on the base are crossed 
by numerous slender axial threads. Aperture pyriform, somewhat 
effuse anteriorly ; channeled at the posterior angle, which is obtuse ; 
outer lip thin, decidedly arched in the middle, flattened on the side, 
showing the external sculpture within; columella stout, reflected very 
much anteriorly ; provided with a strong fold at its insertion; parietal 
wall covered with a thick callus. 

Professor Adams collected 90 specimens in the Bay of Panama, 
which he listed under this species; 28 of these are in the Amherst 
collection which belong to three species. We have taken the finest 
for our description and figure of Odostomia (CJirysaUida) communis, 
of which there are 15 specimens. The specimen described and figured 
has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.2 mm., diam- 
eter 1.2 mm. 

. ODOSTOBUA (CHRYSALUDA) TORRTFA. new epMies. 

Plate 14, fig. 2. 

Chryaallida communis (C. B. Adams) Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, 
pp. 419, 420; not Chemnitzia communis C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, 
of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, p. 390=O(fo«tomta (Chrysallida) communis [C. B. 
Adams]. 

Shell small, very elongate-ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls smooth, 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which the tilted edge of the last volution only projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls slightly rounded, moderately contracted at the periphery and 
well shouldered at the summit, marked by strong axial ribs, of 
which about 20 occur upon all the whorls. Intercostal spaces about 
as wide as the ribs, marked between the sutures by four slender 
spiral cords which pass up on the sides of the ribs but do not cross 
their summits. On the last whorl the first basal keel falls between 
the sutures; here, too, the ribs are rendered slightly tuberculate by 
the spiral cords. Sutures strongly marked but not channeled. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a groove. Base somewhat 
produced, marked by twelve slender, spiral cords which are a little 
wider than the spaces that separate them and become successively 
narrower and more closely spaced from the periphery to the umbilical 
area. The spaces between the cords are marked by numerous 
' slender, axial threads. Aperture pyriform, slightly effuse anteriorly; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip pinched in posteriorly; thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella stout, strongly reflected 
anteriorly, reenforced by the base, provided with a weak fold at its 
insertion ; parietal wall covered with a strong callus. 

The type and four specimens are part of the 500 specimens of this 
species found on Chama and Spondylris at Mazatlan, Mexico. 

The type has five and one-half post-nuclear whorls and measures : 
Length 2 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 143 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) UCINA. new tpedea. 

Plate 14, fig. 9. 

Shell pupiform, vitreous. Nuclear whorls large, o])liqueIy immersed 
in the first of the succeeding turns, above which the tilted ed^e of 
the last volution only projects. Post-nuclear whorls flattened, 
slightly excurved at the shouldered sunmiit, strongly contracted at 
the sutures, marked by very strong, vertical axial ribs, of which 1 6 
occur upon all the whorls. In addition to these ribs, the whorls 
are marked between the sutures by four moderately strong spiral 
cords, which render the junction with the ribs obscurely nodulous. 
The spaces inclosed between the ribs and cords are well impressed 
squarish pits. Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery and base of 
the last whorl well rounded, marked by the feeble continuations of 
the axial ribs and twelve slender spiral cords which grow successively 
weaker from the periphery to the umbilical area. Aperture elon- 
gate, oval; posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella slender, decidedly curved, 
slightly reflected, reenforced by the l>ase, provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 106500, U.S.N.M.) were 
collected at Manuel Lagoon, Ijower California. The type has six 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 3 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) TALAMA, new species. 

Plate 18, fig. 6. 

Shell conic, vitreous. Nuclear whorls small, smooth, obliquely 
d^ply umnersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution })rojects. Post-nuclear 
^horb flattened, strongly contracted at the ])eriphery and moder- 
ately shouldered at the summit, marked by moderately strong, 
ahnost vertical, axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the second and 
tWrd, 18 upon the fourth, 20 upon the fifth, and 22 upon the penulti- 
Daate turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked by 
four slender spiral cords between the sutures, the junction of wliich, 
^th the axial ribs, renders them feebly nodulous. The spaces inclosed 
"7 the ribs and cords are well impressed squarish pits. wSiitures 
strongly channeled. Periphery marked b}^ a slender spiral cord, on 
^^ posterior edge of which the axial ribs terminate. Base of the 
"^t whorl well rounded, slightly attenuated anteriorly, marked by 
^^clve spiral cords which grow successively weaker from the ]>eriph- 
^'y to the umbilical area. Aperture oval, posterior angle acute, 
^yter lip thin, showing the external sculpture within, rendered 
smuous by the spiral cords; columella slender, slightly reflected and 
Enforced by the base; provided with a slender fold at its insertion. 



144 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The type and three specmiens (Cat. no. 106618, U.S.N.M.) come 
from Scanmion Lagoon, Lower California. The type has six post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.4 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALIXDA) EFFUSA Carpenter. 
Plate 14, figs. 5, 5a. 
Chrysallida effusa Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 422. 

Shell elongate-conic, vitreous. Nuclear whorls small, smooth, 
almost completely obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened, strongly contracted at the sutures and 
moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by strong, tuberculate 
retractive axial ribs, of which 18 occur upon the first and second and 
20 upon the remaining turns. In addition to these axial ribs the 
whorls are marked by four slender, spiral cords between the sutures, 
which pass over the axial ribs and render them tuberculate at their 
junction. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and cords are rectangular 
pits, which have their long axis parallel with the spiral cords. Sutures 
channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a spiral groove. 
Base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by eight spiral cords 
which grow successively weaker and closer spaced from the periph- 
ery to the umbilical area. The wide grooves between the spiral 
cords are marked by slender, raised, axial threads, which correspond 
to the ribs on the spire. Aperture ovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly; 
posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin, showing the external mark- 
ings within; columella stout, strongly reflected, provided with a 
slender fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered by a strong callus. 

The type, which is on tablet 1980, Liverpool coUection, British 
Museum, came off CJiamu at Mazatlan, Mexico. The specimen 
described and figured (no. 16194, U.S.N.M.) was collected by 
J. Xantus, at Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. It has six post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.8 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

ODOSTOBUA (CHRTSALUDA) PAUPERCULA C. B. Adami. 

Plate 14, fig. 4. 

Cingula (f) paupercula C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
pp. 405, 406. 

Shell very elongate, conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls two, 
smooth, forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right 
angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about 
half iimnersed. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, slightly 
shouldered at the summit, somewhat contracted at the sutures, 
marked by four strong spiral cords and axial ribs, which are a little 
less strong than the cords; 18 of the ribs occur upon the first, 16 
upon the second to fifth, 20 upon the sixth, and 34 upon the penulti- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 145 

mate turn. The junctions of the ribs and spiral cords form moder- 
ately strong tubercles, while the spaces inclosed between them appear 
as almost circular, weU-impressed pits. Periphery of the last whorl 
mailed by a spiral keel a little less strong than those between the 
sutures. Base well rounded, somewhat attenuated anteriorly; 
marked by five almost equal and equally spaced spiral cords and 
two very slender lirations, the latter near the columella. The deep 
grooves between the spiral cords are marked by numerous slender 
axial lirations. Sutures subchanneled. Aperture irregular, some- 
what channeled anteriorly. Posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin, 
rendered sinuous by the spiral cords. Columella slender, sigmoid, 
reenforced by the base, provided with a strong, dee}>-seated fold at 
its insertion. Parietal wall covered with a faint callus. 

Prof. C. B. Adams's type is at Amherst College, and was collected 
in the Bay of Panama. It has eight j)ost-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 3.3 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) CLATHRATULA C. B. Adami. 

Plate 14, fig8. 7, 7a. 

Ckemnitzia dathratula C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vol. 5, 1852, 
pp. 389, 390. 

Shell elongate-conic, slender, vitreous. Nuclear whorls two and 
one-halfy forming a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is almost at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is 
about one-half immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very slightly rounded, 
strongly constricted at the sutures and prominently shouldered at 
the summit, marked by well rounded, tuberculate, axial ribs, of 
which 14 occur upon the first and second, 16 upon the third, 18 upon 
the fourth and fifth, and 24 upon the penultimate turn. In addition 
to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked between the sutures bv four 
spiral cords which equal the ribs in strength, and render them tubt^rcu- 
late at their junction. Sutures broadly and deeply channeled. Periph- 
ery and the somewhat prokmged base of the Inst whorl well rounded, 
the latter marked by seven narrow, almost equal, and ecjually spaced 
spiral keels, the broad space between wliich and the peripheral sulcus 
are marked by many slender axial riblets. Aperture oval; outer lip 
(fractured anteriorly) thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columellastout, slightly curved, strongly reHected over the rt»enforcing 
base, provided with a strong foKl at its insertion. 

Professor Adams states that ten specimens in various stages of 
growth were collected in the sand of the Bay of Panama; two of 
these are in the collection at Amherst (\)llege. 

We have figured the better of the two individuals which has seven 
poet-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.S mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 



146 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) RITTERI, new species. 

Plate 14, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls at least two, 
smooth, deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns, above which only a portion of the last two turns project. 
Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, strongly constricted at the 
sutures, slopingly shouldered at the summit, ornamented by strong, 
retractive axial ribs of which 14 occur upon the first, 16 upon the 
second to fourth, 18 upon the fifth, and 20 upon the penultimate 
turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked by spiral 
cords between the sutures, which are a little more than half as strong 
as the ribs and of which three occur upon the first three whorls and 
four upon the succeeding turns; the second one below the summit 
marking the angle of the long sloping shoulder. Junction of ribs and 
cords strongly nodulous; the spaces inclosed between them are deep 
squarish pits. Sutures strongly channeled. Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a broad groove that is crossed by the continuations 
of the axial ribs which terminate at the posterior margin of the first 
basal keel. Base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by six 
spiral cords which are of unequal strength, separated by grooves of 
different wddths, which are crossed by fine axial threads. Aperture 
oval, effuse anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip rendered 
sinuous by the cords, thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, strongly reflected, provided with a fold at its 
insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206896, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at station 30, 
University of California, off Catalina Island. It has seven post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.5 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. 
Four topotypes are in the collection of the University of California, 
which has the following additional specimens: Four from station 47, 
off San Diego; three from station 59; and two from station 83, also 
from off San Diego. Cat. no. 206897, U.S.N.M., one dredged in 
50 fathoms, off Catalina Island. 

Named for Prof. W. E. Ritter. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) RINELLA, new species. 

Plate 15, figs. 6, 6a. 

Shell elongate-ovate, cream-colored. Nuclear whorls at least 
two, smooth, forming a depressed helicoid spire, which is obliquely 
three-fifths immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately rounded, strongly contracted at thesutures, 
somewhat shouldered at the summits, marked by strong, tubercu- 
lated axial ribs and four spiral cords almost as strong as the ribs 
between the sutures which renders their junction with the ribs 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 147 

tuberculate. Of the ribs which are slightly protractive, 17 appear 
upon the first to third and 19 upon the penultimate whorl. Sutures 
strongly channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a sulcus 
which is crossed by the continuation of the axial ribs. Base moder- 
ately long, well rounded, marked by six slender spiral threads, the 
axial sculpture being reduced to mere lines of growth. Aperture 
oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella oblique, 
almost straigut, decidedly revolute, marked with a strong fold at 
its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162781, U.S.N.M.) comes from the !Bay of 
Panama. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.3 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

ODOSTOlftIA (CHRYSALUDA) BUGBNA, new species. 

Plate 14, figs. 1, la. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls at least two, 
small, smooth, obliquely half immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted 
at the suture, well shouldered at the summit, marked by strong, 
very retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon tlie first, 16 upon 
the second, 18 upon the third to fifth, and 22 upon the penultimate 
whorl. In addition to these ribs the whorls are marked by four 
strong spiral cords between the sutures which render their junction 
with the ribs tuberculate. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and cords 
form oval pits, the long axis of which coincides with the spiral sculp- 
ture. Sutures channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a 
moderately broad groove, which is crossed by the continuation of the 
axial ribs which terminate at tlie posterior edge of the first basal keel. 
Base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by six spiral keels wliich 
grow successively weaker from the periphery to the umbilical region. 
The broad spaces between these keels are crossed by slender, raised 
axial threads. Aperture oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip 
thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella stout, curved, 
strongly reflected and reenforced by the base, provided with a strong 
fold at its insertion. 

The type and three specimens (Cat. no.l27545, U.S.N.M.) comes 
from San Hipolito Point, Lower California. The type has seven and 
one-half post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.3 mm., diame- 
ter 1.5 mm. Cat. no. 168566, U.S.N.M., one specimen from San 
Pedro. Two specimens were identified from the same region for 
Mr. Berry. Cat. no. 168567, U.S.N.M, one specimen from San 
Diego. Another from the foot of Ash street, San Diego, was identi- 
fied for Mrs. Oldroyd. 



148 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) TRACHIS, now «pedM. 

Plate 15, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell small, elongate-conic. Nuclear whorls small, smooth, strongly 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls 
moderately rounded, strongly contracted at the sutures, slopingly 
shouldered at the summit, marked by strong, rounded, decidedly 
retractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the second, 18 upon the 
third, and 20 upon the penultimate turn. In addition to the axial 
ribs the whorls are crossed between the sutures by four spiral cords, 
which are as strong as the ribs and render them nodulous at their 
junction. The second of these cords below the summit marks the 
angle of the shoulder. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and cords are 
deep, squarish pits. Sutures subchaimeled. Periphery of the last 
whori marked by a groove, crossed by the spiral ribs, which terminate 
at the extremity of the first basal cord. Base well rounded, marked 
by four subequal, distantly spaced, narrow, spiral cords, the broad 
spaces between which are crossed by numerous axial threads. Aper- 
ture oval; posterior angle obtuse ; outer Up thin, showing the external 
sculpture within; columella slender, reflected, reenforced by the base, 
provided with a fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 168619, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.5 
mm., diameter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) LUCCA« new ipedes. 
Plate 15, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls large, obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which the tilted 
edge of the last volution only projects, which shows five strong spiral 
threads. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, strongly contracted at 
the sutures, appressed at the summits with a sloping shoulder that 
extends from the summit to the second spiral keel, marked by narrow 
decidedly elevated, retractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the 
first and second, 18 upon the third, and 22 upon the penultimate turn. 
In addition to the ribs, the whorls are marked between the sutures by 
four spiral keels, which equal the ribs in strength and render them 
decidedly nodulous at their junction. The spaces inclosed by the 
ribs and cords are well impressed rectangular pits whose axis coin- 
cides with the spiral sculpture. Sutures subchanneled, showing a 
portion of the first basal keel in the last two volutions. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a broad channel, crossed by the axial ribs 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 149 

which terminate at the posterior edge of the first basal keel. Base 
of the last whorl well rounded, marked by five subequal and subequally 
spaced spiral lirations, separated by broad spaces which are marked 
by numerous prominent axial threads. Aperture broadly oval; pos- 
terior angle obtuse; outer Up thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella moderately strong, curved, reenforced by the base, 
provided with a weak fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with 
a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206898, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego. It 
has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 4 mm., diameter 
1.4 mm. The University of California has one specimen from station 
30, off Santa Catalina Island, and four from station 47, off San Diego. 

This species is closely aUied to Odostomia (Chrysallida) oldroydi. It 
differs in having a comparatively larger nucleus which is more promi- 
nently sculptured, in being more attenuated and having more slender 
ribs and spiral cords and in having the axial sculpture on the base 
much stronger. It is likewise much smaller. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) CLEMENTINA, new spwdes. 

Plate 15, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell elongate-conic, vitreous. Nuclear whorls obliquely immersed 
in the first post-nuclear turn, above which only the tilted edge of the 
last volution projects, which is marked by five slender spiral threads. 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted at the 
sutures, strongly slopingly shouldered at the summit, marked by 
strong, somewhat retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the 
first and second, 18 upon the tliird and the penultimate turn. In 
addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked by four spiral cords 
between the sutures, of which the second one anterior to the summit 
marks the angle of the shoulder. On the last two whorls the first 
basal is apparent in the strongly contracted sutures. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a spiral groove. Base well rounded, some- 
what attenuated anteriorly, marked by five distant spiral cords which 
grow successively weaker from the periphery to the umbilical region. 
The broad spaces that separate these cords are marked by numerous 
fine, raised, axial threads. Aperture broadly oval; posterior angle 
obtuse ; outer Up thin, showing the external sculpture within, rendered 
sinuous by the spiral cords; columella moderately strong, sUghtly 
reflected, reenforced by the base, provided \vith a slender fold at its 
insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162043, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Clemente 
Island, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.3 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 
2565— Bull. 68-09 11 



150 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) OONISCA« new name. 

Plate 15, fig. 3. 

Chrysallida ovulum Carpenter, Cat. Maz. Shells, 1856, pp. 423,424; not Pasithea 
(=^0do8tomia) ovulum Lea, 1845. 

Shell ovate, white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely immersed in 
the first post-nuclear whorl above which only the tilted edge of the 
last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, 
strongly contracted at the sutures, moderately shouldered at the 
summit, marked by the moderately strong, tuberculate, slightly 
retractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the second and 18 upon 
the third and penultimate turn. In addition to the axial ribs the 
whorls are marked by four spiral cords between the sutures which 
are a little less strong than the axial ribs and render them nodulous 
at their junction. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and spiral cords 
are deep round pits. Sutures channeled. Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a groove. Base well rounded, marked by six 
strong, spiral cords which decrease successively in size and spacing 
from the periphery to the umbiUcus. Grooves between the spiral 
cords marked by slender threads corresponding to the axial ribs. 
Aperture irregularly pyriform, posterior angle acute; outer lip 
pinched in posteriorly, thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, slightly reflected, provided with a fold at its inser- 
tion; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

Tablet 1982, Liverpool collection, British Museum, contains nine 
specimens taken from Spondylv^ and Chama at Mazatlan, Mexico. 
A specimen of four whorls measures: Length 1.4 mm., diameter 
0.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CmiTSALLmA) OLDROYDI, new ipedes. 

Plate 15, figs. 1, la. 

Shell elongate-ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls small, obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which projects 
the tilted edge which is marked witji five raised spiral lirations. Post- 
nuclear whorls somewhat inflated, well rounded, moderately con- 
tracted at the sutures, strongly slopingly shouldered at the summit, 
ornamented with somewhat retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur 
upon the first, 16 upon the second, 18 upon the third, and 20 upon 
the penultimate turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are 
marked by four spiral cords between the sutures which are as strong 
as the ribs and render them strongly nodulous at their junction. 
The second of these ribs below the summit marks the angle of the 
shoulder. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and cords are strongly 
impressed oblong pits, the long axis of which coincides with the spiral 
sculpture. Sutures strongly constricted. Periphery of the last whorl 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 151 

marked by a spiral groove, crossed by the continuations of the axial 
ribs, which terminate at the posterior edge of the first basal keel. 
Base well rounded posteriorly, somewhat attenuated anteriorly, 
marked by six almost equal spiral keels, which are less developed 
about the lunbilical area. The deep grooves between these keels are 
crossed by numerous very slender, raised axial threads. Aperture 
oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external 
sculpture within; rendered decidedly sinuous by the spiral cords; 
columella moderately strong, decidedly reflected anteriorly, provided 
with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162765, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.5 
mm., diameter 1.7 mm. Cat. no. 162766, U.S.N.M., one specimen 
from Whites Point, San Pedro. Cat. no. 168569, U.S.N.M., one 
specimen from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2932, in 20 fathoms, 
temperature 58°, off Los Coronados Islands. 

Named for Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLmA) NODOSA Cupenter. 
Plate 15, figs. 9, 9a. 
dtrygallida nodosa Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 417, 418. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls small, deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately rounded, considerably contracted at the sutures 
and moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by strongly nodu- 
lous, decidedly retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon the first, 
16 upon the second to fourth, and 22 upon the penultimate turn. In 
addition to the axial ribs the whorls are marked between the sutures 
by four spiral keels which are a little less strong than the ribs and 
render them nodulous at their junction. The spaces inclosed between 
the ribs and spiral cords are oblong oval pits on all the whorls but the 
last on wliich they are round. Sutures subchanneled. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a strong broad groove, is curved by the 
axial ribs which extend to the posterior border of the first basal cord. 
Base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by six strong rounded, 
spiral cords which are a little weaker at the umbilical area than at 
the peripher}^ Spaces separating the spiral cords of the base about 
as wide as the cords, covered bv numerous slender axial threads. 
Aperture oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture ^vithin; columella slender, curved, provided with 
a strong fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

Five specimens of tliis species were taken off Spondyhis at Mazatlan, 
Mexico. Tablet 1969, Liverpool collection, British Museum, contains 
two specimens; one of these has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 4.1 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 



152 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) OVATA Carpenter. 

Plate 15, figs. 7, 7a. 
Chrymllida ovata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 417. 

Shell ovate, white. Nuclear whorls obliquely immersed in the first 
of the succeeding turns above wliich only the tilted edge of the last 
volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, well con- 
tracted at the sutures, and moderately shouldered at the summit, 
marked by nodulose slightly retractive axial ribs of which 20 occur 
upon the first to second, 18 upon the third, and 22 upon the penulti- 
mate turn. In addition to the ribs the whorls are marked between 
the sutures by four spiral cords considerably less strong than the ribs, 
which render them nodulous at their junction. The spaces inclosed 
by the ribs and spiral cords are deep round pits. Sutures well marked 
but not channeled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a narrow 
spiral groove. Base well rounded, marked by six strong broad 
rounded almost equal and equally spaced spiral cords, the grooved 
spaces between which are marked by numerous fine axial threads. 
Aperture oval, slightly effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer 
lip rendered slightly sinuous by the spiral cords; columella slander 
and curved, provided with a fold, deep witliin, at its insertion; parie- 
tal wall covered by a thin callus. 

Three specimens of this species taken from Spondylus at Mazatlan, 
Mexico, are on tablet 1968, Liverpool collection, British Museum. 
One of these has five whorls and measures: Length 3.9 mm., diameter 
2.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CmiYSALLmA) CINCTA Carpenter. 
Plate 15, figs. 2, 2a. 
Chrysallida cincta Carpenter, Rep't Brit. Assn. Adv. Sci., 1864, p. 659. 

Shell elongate-ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above wliich only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, marked by vertical axial ribs which are strongest near the 
summit, becoming much enfeebled as they pass to the suture. Of 
these ribs 18 occur upon the second and third and 20 upon the fourth 
whorl. In addition to the ribs the whorls are marked by four broad, 
strong, spiral keels which form nodules at their junction with the ribs. 
On the last whorl the axial sculpture is obsolete on the anterior half 
between the sutures. Sutures subchanneled. Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a strong keel. Base well rounded posteriorly, effuse 
anteriorly, marked by six low, spiral cords, the two nearest the um- 
bilical area being very faint. Aperture oval, decidedly effuse ante- 
riorly; posterior angle acute; outor lip rendered sinuous by the spiral 
cords, tliin, sho^nng the external sculpture within; columella slender, 
very long, almost straight, reflected, reenforced by the base^ provided 
with a weak fold at its insertion. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 153 

The type (Cat. no. 15730, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Cooper at 
Santa Barbara, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 3 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. Cat.no. 162768, U.S.N.M., 
contains another specimen from San Pedro. Cat. no. 162769, 
U.S.N.M., one specimen from Pacific Beach, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALUDA) LOOMISI, new species. 

Plate 16, fig. 3. 

Shell very small, pupiform, vitreous. Nuclear whorls smooth, 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only a portion of the tilted edge of the last volution projects. 
Early post-nuclear whorls well rounded, later ones flattened, some- 
what excurved at the shouldered and beaded summit, and slightly 
contracted at the sutures, marked by strong rounded, tuberculated 
axial ribs, which are decidedly protractive on all but the last whorl; 
on this they are only moderately protracted. Of the axial ribs, 14 
appear upon the first, 16 upon the second, 20 upon the third, and 
24 upon the penultimate turn. In addition to the ribs the whorls 
are marked between the sutures by four spiral cords, which almost 
equal the ribs in strength, forming tubercles at their junctions with 
the axial ribs. On the lust whorl and one-half the summit drops 
below the peripheral keel and leaves this in the suture; the axial 
ribs, however, terminate at the posterior edge of it, and thus leave 
it without tubercles. The si)aces inclosed by the ribs and cords 
appear as deep oval pits having their long axis parallel to the cords. 
Sutures well marked but not channeled. Base of the last w^horl 
long, well rounded, marked by seven spiral cords, the four anterior 
to the periphery l)eing equal and equally spaced, the other three 
growing successively smaller; channels between the cords very reg- 
ular, marked by many slender axial riblets. Aperture oval, some- 
what effuse anteriorly ; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within ; columella slender, curved, and reflected, 
not reenforced by the base. 

The type and five specimens were witli Prof. C. B. Adams's type of 
Chemnitzia comynunis at Amherst College. They come from the 
Bay of Panama. The type has five post-nuclear whorls and measures : 
Length 2 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 

Named for Prof. F. B. Loomis. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) VICOLA« new spedes. 

Plate 16, fig. 11. 

Shell ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls large, deeply immersed in the 
first of the succeeding turns, above which the tilted edge of the last 
volution only projects, which is marked by five slender spiral threads. 
Post-nuclear whorls rounded on all but the first whorl, marked by 
very broad, strong, retractive axial ribs, of which 16 occur upon the 



154 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

second and third and 20 upon the penultimate turn. In addition to 
the axial ribs the whorls are marked by four very broad, low spiral 
cords, which are separated by mere incised lines between the sutures, 
which render their junction with the axial ribs very strongly nodu- 
lous. Sutures constricted, showing a portion of the peripheral cord. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a strong, well rounded spiral 
cord. Base of the last whorl decidedly attenuated, marked by 
seven subequal spiral cords, the spaces between which are marked 
by numerous slender, axial threads. Aperture elongate-ovate, 
decidedly effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture within, rendered sinuous by the 
spiral cords; columella long, moderately strong, somewhat sinuous, 
reflected, reenforced by the base, and provided with a fold at its 
insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206899, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Pedro Bay, 
California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.6 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) ASTRICTA JHU and Bartach. 

Plate 16, fig. 2. 

Odostomia (Chryaallida) astricUiy DALLand Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 515, pi. 46, fig. 1. 

Shell elongate-conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls decollated. 
Post-nuclear whorls very slightly rounded, separated by deeply chan- 
neled sutures. In tliis species the axial ribs exceed the four spiral 
keels in strength, their junction forming elongated tubercles the long 
axis of which coincides with the spiral keels. The axial ribs, of 
which there are 16 upon all of the turns, slant decidedly backward 
near the aperture. They are rather distantly spaced and the spaces 
inclosed between them and the spiral keels are deep oblong pits, 
the long axis of which coincides with the spiral sculpture. Periphery 
of the last whorl marked by a deep, wide channel across which the 
ribs extend feebly to the first subperipheral keel. Base rather long 
and well rounded, marked by seven rather narrow, slender spiral keels 
which successively decrease in strength from the periphery to the 
umbilical area, the anterior ones being only faintly indicated; the 
spaces which separate the keels are about twice as wide as the keels 
and are crossed by many YQvy slender raised axial threads. Aper- 
ture oval, outer lip rather thick, columella twisted, reenforced by the 
attenuated base and provided with a moderately strong fold at its 
insertion; parietal wall covered by a strong callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 1962S0, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Mr. F. L. 
Button at Monterey, California; it has the six last whorls remaining, 
having lost the nucleus and probably the first post-nuclear turn, and 
measures: Length 2.9 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDKLLID MOLLUSKS. 155 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) COOPBRI Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate IG, fig. 4. 

Odottomia {Ckrysallida) coopcri Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, pp. 514, 515, pi. 46, fig. 7. 

Shell broadly conic, white. Nuclear whorls smooth, largely 
obliquely inmiersed in the first of the succeeding, turns above which 
only about half of the last turn projects. Post-nuclear whorl mod- 
erately rounded, slopingly shouldered at the summit, the shoulder 
bearing the first of the four stronger tuberculate spiral ridges. The 
connections which join the tubercles in the spiral series are a little 
more strongly developed than those which Unk them vertically, the 
spaces inclosed between them being deep squarish pits. The tuber- 
cles are very prominent and rounded; there are about 16 upon the 
second, 20 upon the third, and 26 upon the penultimate turn. The 
axial series slants retractively from the posterior suture. Sutures 
deep and broad, considerably wider than the spaces between the keels. 
Periphery of the last whorl deeply channeled, the channel marked by 
a weak extension of the axial bars which terminate at the first supra- 
peripheral keel. Base prolonged, well-rounded, marked by seven 
strong moderately raised spiral keels which, like the channels that 
separate them, diminish regularly in width from the periphery to the 
umbilical area; the last, the eighth, inmiediately behind the colu- 
mella, being less distinct and considerably broader than the rest. The 
channels between the keels are about equal to the keels in width and 
are crossed by numerous very slender raised threads, which extend up 
on the sides of the keels but do not cross them. About five of these 
threads fall in the space between two tubercles on the spire, in the 
first supra-peripheral groove. Aperture oval, large, effuse anteriorly, 
posterior angle obtuse, outer lip rather thick, not showing the exter- 
nal sculpture within; columella somewhat twisted, revolute ante- 
riorly, reenforced by the attenuated base, and provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered by a callus which joins the 
columella with the posterior angle of the aperture and renders the 
peristome almost complet(\ 

The type (Cat. no. 162771, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Doctor Dall 
at Monterey, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 3.1 mm., diameter, 1.4 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) Hn>OLITBNSIS, new ipecles. 

Plate 16, fig. 8. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely impressed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls w^ell rounded, marked by four strong spiral cords 
between the sutures, w hich are separated by narrow, deeply incised 



156 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

channels. In addition to these spiral cords the whorls are marked by 
weak axial ribs which extend only feebly to the first supra-peripheral 
cord, rendering the junction with the cords feebly nodulous. Sutures 
strongly constricted, not channeled. Periphery of the last w^horl 
marked by a spiral cord. Base well rounded, slightly channeled 
anteriorly, marked by nine spiral cords wliich become successively 
weaker and closer spaced from the periphery to the umbilical area. 
The spaces between the cords are marked by numerous slender axial 
threads. Aperture oval, effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
moderately strong, twisted, strongly reflected, reenforced by the 
base, provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162770, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Hipolito 
Point, Lower California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and meas- 
lures: Length 3.5 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CmiYSALLmA) LAPAZANA, new ipecies. 

Plate 16, figs. 9, 9a. 

Shell broadly ovate, white. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately contracted at the sutures, strongly slopingly 
shouldered at the summit, where the angle of the shoulder falls on the 
second spiral keel. The w^horls are marked by well developed, nodu- 
lous axial ribs, of wliich 20 occur upon all the whorls. Intercostal 
spaces about t\\ice as wide as the ribs, crossed by five equal spiral 
cords, wliich are about half as strong as the ribs and render them 
nodulous at their junction. The first spiral cord is a little posterior 
to the middle of the shoulder. The spaces inclosed by the ribs and 
cords are deep, rectangular pits, the long axis of wliich coincides 
with the spiral cords. Sutures strongly marked, but not channeled. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a spiral cord to the posterior 
extremity of which the axial ribs extend, but whose summits they do 
not cross. Base short, well rounded, marked by nine spiral keels 
w^hich are about as wide as the spaces that separate them, decreasing 
successively in strength and spacing from the periphery to the 
umbiUcal area. The grooves between the spiral cords are marked by 
numerous fine, axial raised threads. Aperture oval, slightly effuse 
anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella slender, 
strongly reflected, provided with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 1()277S, U.S.N.M.) and two specimens were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2823, in 26.5 fathoms, 
off La Paz, Lower California. The type* has five post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 2.8 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 157 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) PROXIMA de FoUn. 

Plate 16, fig. 7. 
Noemia proximo de Foun, Fonda de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, pp. 166, 167, pi. 6, fig. 3. 

Shell ovate, conic, crystalline. Nuclear whorls one and one-half, 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls strongly constricted at the sutures, moderately 
shouldered at the summit, marked by strong vertical axial ribs, of 
which 20 occur upon the second and third and 22 upon the penulti- 
mate turn. These ribs disappear at the periphery. The spaces 
between the ribs are marked by sj)iral cords a little less strong than 
the ribs; four of these occur between the sutures on the second and 
third, and seven upon the penultimate turn. Their intersections 
with the ribs form nodules. Sutures channeled. Base somewhat 
attenuated, marked by eleven spiral cords, the spaces between which 
are axially Urate. Aperture subpyriform, posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
slender, somewhat curved and reflected, provided with a strong fold 
at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a tliin callus. 

De FoUn's type was collected at Margarita Island, Bay of Panama. 
It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.5 mm., 
diameter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALUDA) TYLERI, new species. 

Plate 10, fig. 5. 

Shell robust, subdiaphanous to milk-white. Nuclear whorls 
smooth, immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only a part of the decidedly tilted edge of the last whorl projects. Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened, slightly excurved at the summit, scarcely at 
all contracted at the periphery and moderately shouldered at the 
summit, marked by very strong, rounded, axial ribs, of which 14 
occur upon the first, 16 upon the second, IS upon the tliird, 20 upon 
the fourth, 22 upon the fifth, and 24 upon the penultimate turn. In 
addition to the axial ribs the whorls are marked by spiral cords, less 
strong than the ribs, the junctions of which with the ribs render them 
tuberculate. Of these cords, four occur uj)on all the whorls but the 
penultimate and last, whicli have live between the sutures. The 
spaces inclosed between the ribs and cords are deep square pits. 
The posterior cord is on the summit of the whorl and is a httle 
stronger than the rest, rendering the whorls, which are excurved, 
crenulated. Suture well marked but not channeled. Periphery 
and the somewhat attenuated base of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked by seven strong, rounded, spiral cords wliich diminish succes- 
sively in size and spacing from the periphery to the umbilical area. 
The channels which se4)iir.ile the cords are marked by numerous fine 



158 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

axial riblets. Aperture irregularly pyriform, somewhat effuse 
anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella stout, twisted, curved, slightly 
reflected, reenforced by the base and provided with a strong fold at its 
insertion ; parietal wall covered by a strong callus, which practically 
renders the peritreme complete. 

The type and five specimens were Prof. C. B. Adams's type lot of 
Ohemnitzia communis collected in the Bay of Panama. They are at 
Amherst College. The type has seven post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 2.8 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

Named for Prof. J. M. Tyler. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) SCAMMONENSIS, new species. 

Plate 16, fig. 6, 6a. 

Shell large, elongate-conic, white. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only a portion of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear w^horls 
very slightly rounded, moderately contracted at the sutures, slightly 
excurved at the shouldered summit, marked by strong, vertical axial 
ribs, of which 16 occur upon the second and third, 18 upon the 
fourth, 20 upon the fifth and sixth, and 26 upon the penultimate 
turn. Intercostal spaces about twice as wide as the ribs, crossed 
by five slender spiral cords between the sutures, which render the 
ribs feebly nodulous at their junction. Sutures strongly impressed. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl decidedly inflated, the latter 
narrowly umbilicated, marked by seven weak spiral cords. Aper- 
ture large, elongate-oval; outer lip thin, showing the external sculp- 
ture within; columella slender, curved, reflected, provided with a 
strong fold at its insertion. 

The tyi>e (Cat. no. 106518a, U.S.N.M.) comes from Scammon 
Lagoon, Lower California. It^ has lost the nucleus and the first 
post-nuclear whorl. The seven remaining measure: Length 5.1 mm., 
diameter of antepenultimate whorl 1.3 mm., diameter of last whorl 
1.7 mm. Cat. no. 162770, U.S.N.M., four specimens from San 
Hipolito Point. Cat. no. 162780, U.S.N.M., eight specimens from 
Point Abreojos, Lower California, one of which has served for our 
description of the nucleus. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) PULCHRA de FoUn. 

Plate 16, fig. 1. 
=Noemia pulchra de Folin, Fonds de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 165, pi. 6, fig. 2. 

Shell ovate, conic, white, subvitreous, shining. Nuclear whorls 
one and one-half, obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, marked by four spiral 
cords between the sutures and equally strong axial ribs, of which 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 159 

14 occur upon the second, 16 upon the tliird, and 18 upon the penul- 
tunate turn. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl 
marked by a slender channel. Base well rounded, marked by four 
subequal, broad, rounded keels, the spaces between w^hich are marked 
by slender riblets. Aperture subpyriform; posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
slender, strongly curved, decidedly reflected, provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion. 

De Folin's type came from Margarita Island, Bay of Panama. 
It has four and one-half post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.2 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) MONTBREYEITSIS DaU and Bartsch. 

Plato 17, fig. (). 

Odostomia (Chrysallida) montereyen»\H 1)all and Bartsch, Pror. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 516, pi. 40, fig. 4. 

Shell broadly conic, milk-w^hite to subdiaphanous. Nuclear whorls 
smooth, largely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only half of the last whorl projects. Post-nuclear whorls sepa- 
rated by broad, deep sutures ; well rounded between the sutures w here 
they are ornamented by four strongly tuberculate spiral ridges; the 
spiral connections between the tubercles are equal to the axial con- 
nections or ribs, of which 16 appear upon the second, 18 upon the thir- 
tieth, and 20 upon the penultimate whorl. The spaces inclosed be- 
tween the axial ribs and the spiral connections which join the rounded 
tubercles are deep, squarish pits. The axial ribs extend strongly 
across the deep peripheral channel and stop at the first subperipheral 
keel. Base moderately long, well rounded, marked by five equal 
and subequally spaced, well raised, strong, spiral keels, and a sixth, 
much broader, low, and rounded at the columellar margin. The 
grooves between the keels are equal to the width of the keels near 
the periphery, but diminish in breadth successively from the periph- 
ery to the umbilical area. They are crossed by numerous slender, 
raised, axial threads, which extend up on the sides of the spiral keels, 
but do not cross them. There ar(> about five of these threads between 
each two ribs in the first subperipheral channel ; aperture oval, some- 
what effuse anteriorly; j^osterior angle acute; columella reenforced 
by the atteniiat(»d base, against which it appears like a thickened 
callus, provided with a moderately strong oblique fold at its inser- 
tion; parietal wall covered by a thick callus, which joins the colu- 
mella with the posterior angle of the aperture. 

The type (Cat. no. 106281, U.S.X.M.) has 5 post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. It was collected 
by Mr. S. S. Boitv, in 12 fathoms, off Del Monte, Monterey Bay, 
California. Three specimens from the same station are in Mr. Berry^s 



160 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

collection. Another specimen (Cat. no. 74003, U.S.N.M.) was col- 
lected by Doctor Canfiold at Monterey, and a sixth (Cat. no. 196282, 
U.S.N.M.) by Mr. F. L. Button at the same place. A seventh (Cat. 
no. 162767, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd at San 
Luis Obispo, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) PULCIA, new ipeclet. 

Plate 16, figs. 10, 10a. 

Shell small, ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls deeply, very ob- 
liquely immersed in the first of the post-nuclear whorls, above which 
oiJy the tilted edge of the last volution projects, which is marked by 
five slender spiral threads. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
strongly contracted at the sutures and shouldered at the summits, 
marked by very strong, decidedly retractively curved, axial ribs, of 
which 16 occur upon the first, 18 upon the second, and 20 upon the 
penultimate turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are 
marked between the sutures by four very broad, low, spiral bands, 
which are separated by mere impressed lines, and which render the 
axial ribs feebly tuberculated. Suture subchanneled. Periphery 
of the last whorl marked by a narrow deep groove, which is not 
crossed by the axial ribs. Base well rounded, crossed by six spiral 
cords which grow decidedly weakfer and closer spaced from the 
periphery to the umbilical area, the spaces between them being 
crossed by numerous slender, axial threads. Aperture oval ; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; 
columella stout, strongly reflected anteriorly, provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion. 

The type and 35 specimens (Cat. no. 162763, U.S.N.M.) come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has four post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 2.2 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. Seventy speci- 
mens from the same locality were identified for Mrs. Oldroyd. Cat. 
no. 168568, U.S.N.M., thirty-seven specimens also from San Pedro. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) VmCINALIS, new name. 

=Evalra gracilicnta (Carpenter) Keep, West Coast Shells, 1888; p. 52; not 
Odostoniki gracilienta Monterosoto, 1884. 

Plate 18, figs. 7, 7a. 

Shell elongate-conic, thin, semitranslucent. Nuclear whorls 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects, which is marked by 
thrc^c strongly elevated spiral threads. Post-nuclear whorls wtII- 
rounded, moderately contracted at the sutures, and strongly slop- 
ingly shouldered, marked by weak rounded axial ribs which are best 
dc^'eloped near the edges of the shoulder. Of these ribs about 24 are 
indicated on the first turn, IS upon the second to fourth, and 20 upon 
the penultimate turn. In addition to the axial sculpture the whorls 
are marked between the sutures by a number of spiral keels of diverse 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



161 



strength, of which 4 occur upon the first and second, 5 upon the third, 
6 upon the fourth and the penultimate whorl. Of these spiral ridges 
the second one below the summit is the strongest and marks the angle 
of the shoulder. The jimction of the ribs and cords form feeble 
nodules best shown at the shoulder. Sutures strongly constricted. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a low cord. Base well rounded, 
marked by four low, broad cords and seven exceedingly fine incised 
lines, the latter about the umbilical area. The narrow, strongly 
incised groovci which separate the cords are crossed by numerous 
fine axial threads, which give them a j)itted appearance. Aperture 
oval, slightly effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip 
rendered slightly wavy by the external cords, tliin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella slender, curved, provided with 
a deep-seated fold at its insertion. 

The type and ten specimens (Cat. no. 46152, U.S.N.M) come from 
Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. The type has six i)ost-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 3 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

This is the most variable and the most abundant member of the 
subgenus ChrysaUida. On some the axial ribs ext^^nd only over the 
first two cords below the summit, on others they extend strongly over 
the periphery and part of the base. The spiral cords also vary in 
number and strength. The general form, however, seems quite 
constant. 

The following specimens have been examined: 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. no. 



158570 



127546 

105474 

106499 

60914 

46177 

46152 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



48 

10 

47 

I 

4 

4 

4 

1 

1 

11 



Localltv 



Disposition of 
niateriul. 



Whites Point, San Pedro, California I U. 8. Nat. Miis. 

do Oldroyd coll. 

Sun Pedro. California Do. 

.\rch Beach, San Diego, Call foniia T'niv. Cal. coll. 

San Hipolito Point. I^ower California U. S. Nat. Mm. 

Point A l»reojos, Lower California Do. 

do Do. 

Todos Santos Hay, Lower California Do. 

do Do. 

....do Do, 



ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) DEFGLINIA, new name. 

Plate 17, fig. 5. 

Noemia angusta dk Folin, FoikIh de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 165, pi. 6, fig. 7; not 
ChrysaUida angusta Carpenter, 1864. 

Shell conic, crystalline, sliiiiing. Nuclear whorls one and one-half, 
the greater part iminers<Hl in tin* first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls flattened, marked by four spiral ridges between the 
sutures and axial ribs, the intersections of which form low squarish 
tubercles of which about H occur upon the second and 18 upon 
the penultimate whorl. Suture poorly impressed. Peripherj' of the 



162 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

last whorl marked by a spiral cord. Base attenuated, marked by 
six equally spaced spiral cords and slender axial threads in the 
grooves between the cords. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
moderately strong, slightly curved, provided with a strong fold a 
little below its insertion. 

De Folin^s type comes from Margarita Island, Bay of Panama. 
It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.6 mm., 
diameter 1.5 mm. De Folin's figure, which we copy, not having 
seen any specimens of this species, is inconsistent, in showing five 
spiral cords on the second and third whorls. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) DBFOLINIA CONTRACTA de FOlin. 

Noemia anguata var. contracta de Foun, Fondfl de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 165. 

Of this form de Folin says:* ''Shell similar to Noemia angusta but 
smaller, less ventricose, and more oval; length 3 mm., diameter 
1.2 mm." 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) DEFOLINIA DI7FICIUS, new name. 

=Noemia angusta var. ovaia de Folin, Fonda de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 166; not 
Chrysallida ovata Carpenter, 1856. 

Of this form de Folin says:^ *' Shell similar te Noemia angusta 
but smaller, with a spire more ovate, and the whorls more convex j 
aperture broader; outer lip crenulate; columella less expanded; 
length 2.7 mm., diameter 1.3 mm.*' 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) OREGONBNSIS DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 17, figs. 3, 3a. 

Odostomia (Chrysallida) oregonensis Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pp. 516, 517, pi. 46, figs. 10, 10a. 

Shell elongate-conic, slender, subdiaphanous to milk-w^hite. Nuclear 
whorls immersed, the last one only being visible. This is some- 
what tilted and marked by three strong narrow spiral keels and 
many slender raised axial threads which cross the grooves between 
the keels. Post-nuclear whorls well roimded, slopingly shouldered 
at the summit and separated by constricted sutures, ornamented by 
almost equal and equally spaced spiral keels and axial ribs between 
the sutures on the spire. There are 4 spiral keels on the first, sec- 
ond, and third whorls, 6 on the fourth, and 7 upon the penultimate 
whorl. The first of these keels is on the shoulder of the whorl near 
the siunniit and is somewhat less developed than the rest. The axial 
ribs are best developed on the early whorls, where they extend 
equally strong from the siumnit to the periphery; on the antepenul- 

a Fonds de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 165. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMTDELLTD MOLLUSKS. 163 

timate and penultimate turns they become somewhat enfeebled from 
the middle of the whorl between the sutures to the pe^iphe^}^ 
There are about 16 of these ribs on the first, 18 on the third, 20 
upon the fourth, and 22 upon the penultimate turn. The intersec- 
tions of the ribs and spiral keels form low elongated tubercles, the 
long axis of which coincides with the spiral sculpture. The meshes 
inclosed by the keels and ribs are deeply impressed squarish pits. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter somewhat 
inflated and marked by six spiral cords, which are successively 
closer spaced and a little less strongly developed from the periphery 
to the umbilical area. The channels between the cords are crossed 
by many very slender raised vertical threads. Aperture oval, 
slightly effuse anteriorly; outer lip thin; columella reenforced on its 
posterior two-tliirds by the attenuated base, free and somewhat 
revolute anteriorly; parietal wall glazed by a thin callus. 

The type has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.3 
mm., diameter 1.2 mm. It and nine additional specimens are Cat. 
no. 107690, U.S.N.M., and were collect(»d by Dr. C. F. Newcombe 
at Cumshewa Inlet, Queen Charlotte Island, British Columbia, in 10 
fathoms. Two other lots of one specimen each come from Monterey, 
Cat. no. 73998, U.S.N.M., in the Stearns collection, and Cat. no. 
196283, U.S.N.M., collected by Mr. F. L. Button. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLmA) BENTmNA, new name. 

Plate 17, fi^s. 9, 9a. 

Chrysallida ohlongn Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 418-19; not 
Odostomia oblonga Macoillivray. 1848. 

Shell elongate-conic, white. Nuclear whorls small, deeply obUquely 
immersed in the first post-nuclear turn, above w^hicli only the tilted 
edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
marked by slender, nodulous, retractive axial ribs, wliich terminate 
at the posterior extremity of the supra-peripheral cord, leaving tliis 
smooth. Of these ribs about 35 occur upon the first whorl, 28 upon 
the second and third, 22 upon the fourth, and 26 upon the penultimate 
turn. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked by five 
strong, spiral cords, the junction of which with the ribs form tubercles. 
Periphcrj" of the last whorl marked by a groove. Base well rounded, 
ornamented with seven equal and equally sj)aced spiral cords, the 
grooves between which are marked by fine, raised axial threads. 
Aperture pyriform, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip tliin, showing the external sculpture \vdthin; columella 
slender, curved, and reflected, provided with an obUque fold at its 
insertion; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

Four specimens were taken from Spondylus at Mazatlan, Mexico. 
Tablet 1971, Liverpool collection, British Museum, contains the largest 



164 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

specimen and a very young shell. The large one has six post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 4.8 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) PROMBCBS, new tpedes. 

Plate 18, figs. 2, 2a. 

Shell elongate-ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects, which is marked by five 
slender spiral threads. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, strongly 
contracted at the periphery and slightly shouldered at the summit, 
marked on all but the first whorl, which is but feebly sculptured, by 
strong, rounded, decidedly retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur 
upon the second, 16 upon the third, and 20 upon the penultimate 
turn. In addition to the ribs, the whorls are marked between the 
sutures, by four low, broad, spiral bands, separated by narrow channels 
which render their junction wath the ribs decidedly nodulous. On 
the last two whorls the peripheral cord is apparent in the strongly 
constricted suture. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a strong 
cord. Base well rounded, marked by three subequal spiral cords and a 
plain area about the umbiUcus. The grooves separating these cords 
are marked by many slender axial threads. Aperture ovate, posterior 
angle obtuse; outer Up thin, showing the external sculpture witliin; 
columella moderately strong, slightly reflected, reenforced by the 
base, provided with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162777, U.S.N.M.) conies from Todos Santos 
Bay, Lower California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.5 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) PULCHERRIMA, new species. 

Plate 17, r\\r. 7. 

Shell large, elongate-oval, vitreous. Nuclear whorls small, smooth, 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first post-nuclear turn, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear w^horls 
strongly lounded, decidedly contracted at the sutures and strongly 
shouldered at the summit. The first is marked by four slender spiral 
cords and numerous exceedingly fine axial threads. The next three 
have twenty strong, rounded, axial ribs, which terminate at the 
posterior edge of the fourth keel, leaving this smooth. On the last 
whorl the ribs are decidedly enfeebled, being replaced by numerous 
axial threads. The spiral sculpture consists of four strong cords 
between the sutures, the three which cross the ribs form strong 
nodules at their junction with them, wliile the supra peripheral one 
is smooth. Suture strongly impressed, slightly channeled. Periph- 
ery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by eight 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 165 

spiral keelsy which grow successively weaker from the periphery to 
Uie umbilical region, the last three being verj'' fine. Spaces sepa- 
rating the cords equal to them, crossed by numerous slender, axial 
threads. Aperture irregularly ovate, posterior angle obtuse; outer 
lip strong, rendered decidedly sinuous by the axial ribs ; columella 
short, decidedly twisted, strongly curved, reflected, reenforced by 
the base and provided with a deep-seated fold at its insertion; parietal 
wall glazed with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206900, U.S.N.M.) comes from Terminal Island, 
California. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
5 mm., diameter 2.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) VINCTA, new speclet. 

Plate 17, fig. 4. 

Shell elongate-ovate, wliitc. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
flattened, strongly contracted at the periphery, well shouldered 
at the summit, marked by strong, somewhat retractive axial ribs, 
which terminate at the posterior edge of the first supraperipheral 
keel, which is smooth. Of these ribs, 18 occur upon the second, 20 
upon the third, 22 upon the fourth, and 27 upon the penultimate 
turn. In addition to the axial ribs the whorls are marked by four 
spiral keels, wliich equal the ribs in strength and render their junction 
nodulous. The spaces inclosed by the axial ribs and spiral cords 
are well impressed round pits. Sutures strongly channeled. Periph- 
ery of the last whorl marked l)y a strong groove. Base of the 
last whorl well rounded, marked by five spiral cords, which grow 
successively a little weaker from tlie periphery to the umbilical area. 
The spaces between these cords are marked by slender spiral threads, 
which correspond to the ribs on the spire. Aperture oval, posterior 
angle obtuse; outer lip tliin, rendeied wavy by the spiral cords; 
columella moderately strong, decidedly curved, reflected, and 
reenforced by the base, j)r()vided with a slender fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 1027G2, U.S.X.M.) comes from San Pedro, 
CaUfomia. It has six post-nuclear wjiorls and measures: Jjcngth 
2.7 nmi., diameter 1.3 mm. Another specimen was identified for 
Mr. Berry from the same locality. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRYSALLIDA) FASCIATA Carpenter. 

Plate 17, lig. 2. 
Cfaryiollidafasciata Carpenter, Cut. Mazatlaii Shells, 1856, p. 423. 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls small, obliquely im- 
mersed in the first of the succeeding tiu'iLs. Post nuclear whorls 
moderately rounded, ornamented by decidedly retractive axial ribs 
2566—Bull. 68—09 12 



166 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

which practically terminate at the posterior edge of the suprape- 
ripheral spiral keel. Of these ribs, 12 occur upon the first, 14 upon 
the second, 18 upon the third, and 22 upon the penultimate turn. 
In addition to these ribs the whorls are marked by four spiral keels 
between the sutures which equal the ribs in strength and render the 
three anterior to the summit tuberculated at their junction, the 
fourth one being smooth. Sutures strongly channeled. Periphery of 
the last whorl marked by a groove. Base well rounded, marked by 
six slender spiral keels, which are a little less strongly developed and 
more closely spaced at the umbilical area than at the periphery. 
Grooves separating these keels, about twice as wide as the keels, 
crossed by slender axial threads which correspond to the ribs. Aper- 
ture ovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer 
lip sinuous, thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
moderately strong, reflected, provided with a slender fold at its in- 
sertion; parietal wall glazed with a thin callus. 

Twenty specimens were taken off Spondylus at Mazatlan, Mexico. 
Tablet 1981, Liverpool collection, British Museum, contains five speci- 
mens, one of which has five post-nuclear whorls and measures : Length 
2.1 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSAIXmA) HSLGA, new species. 

Plate 17, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding whorls, above which only a 
portion of the last two volutions project. Post-nuclear whorls moder- 
ately rounded, slightly contracted at the sutures, feebly shouldered 
at the sununits, marked between the sutures by four broad low spiral 
bands which are separated by narrow, deeply incised lines. In addi- 
tion to these bands, the first three and one-half whorls are marked by 
feeble axial ribs which are best developed near the summit of the 
whorls and scarcely reach the suture. The junction of the ribs and 
cords form weak nodides. Sutures strongly impressed but not chan- 
neled. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, marked by a low 
spiral cord. Base strongly roimded posteriorly, attenuated anteriorly, 
marked by seven spiral cords, which grow successively weaker from 
the periphery toward the umbilical region and are separated by 
slender, deeply-incised spiral lines. Aperture large, broadly oval; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella moderately strong, curved, reflected, and reinforced 
by the base; provided with an oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 60905, U.S.N. M.) and ten specimens come from 
San Diego, California. The type has six post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 4.2 mm., diameter 2 mm. 



WEST A3i£BICA2? PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 167 

Examination of the following specimens has been made : 



cat. DO. 



60006 
162774 



306002 
162773 



mpiu. 

11 San Dipp>, California I'.S. Nat.Mus. 

100 San IVxlro, California Do. 

190 do oidrovd coll. 

I San Pedio Bay, California T. S. Nat. Miis. 

11 ' Terminal Island. Califoniia Do. 

6 ' Pacific Beach, California Do. 

1 Arch Beach. California Tniv. CaLwll. 



ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) SANCTORUM, new apMlea. 

Plate IS, %. 1. 

Shell elongate-ovate, light yellow. Nuclear whorls smooth, iloeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeiling turns, abi>vo which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post -nuclear whorls 
moderately roimded, very slightly contracted at the sutures, moiler- 
ately shouldered at the summits, nvirked by a strongly incised spiral 
line a little distance below the summit, and three feeble ones of which 
one is at the periphery, the other two dividing the space between 
those two into three equal areas. These lines, excepting the one near 
the summit, which is strong throughout, are best developed on the 
early whorls. In addition to the spiral sculpture, the whorls are 
marked between the sutures by strong lines of growth and in<lica- 
tions of feeble axial ribs which tend to render the earlv whorls some- 
what nodulous. Sutures strongly impressed. Periphery of the last 
whorl strongly inflated. Ba.se well rounded posteriorly, slightly at- 
tenuated anteriorly, marked by six well incised equal and subequally 
spaced spiral grooves which are crossed by many slender axial 
threads. Aperture large, oval, effuse anteriorly; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within: colu- 
mella moderately strong, curved, reflecte<l, reinforced by the base, 
provided with a deep-seated fold. 

The type and tliree specimens (Cat. no. 46490, U.S.N.M.) comes 
from Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. The type has four and 
one-half post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 2.5 mm., diame- 
ter 1.3 mm. Cat. no. 200S():3, U.8.N.M., three from San Ilipolito 
Point, Lower California. 

ODOSTOMIA cCHRYSALLIDA) SAPIA, new apecies. 

Plate JS, fi^'s. ;i, 3n. 

Shell oval, semitranslucent . Nuclear whorls small, dec^ply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects, which is marked by five 
slender spiral threads. Post-nuclear whorls amply rounded, slightly 



168 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

constricted at the sutiires and appressed at the summits, marked 
by six spiral cords between the sutures, of which the second and 
third below the summit are very narrow, occupying together about 
as much space as one of the other cords. These cords are separated 
by grooves which almost equal them. Axial sculpture reduced to 
feeble indications of ribs which are best shown near the summit of 
the whorls, where they render the spiral keels feebly nodulous. About 
twenty-two of these ribs appear upon the penultimate whorl. Periph- 
ery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by seven spiral 
keels, which grow successively weaker from the periphery to the um- 
bilical area. Channels separating the cords narrow, well incised, 
crossed by numerous slender axial tlireads. Aperture large, broadly 
ovate, posterior angle acute; outer lip tliin; columella moderately 
strong, curved, slightly reflected; parietal wall glazed with a thin 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 162775, U.S.N.M.) comes from wSan Diego, Cali- 
fornia. It has foiu" post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 1.8 
mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALLIDA) ROTUNDATA Carpenter. 

Plate 18, fig. 4. 
Chrysallida rotundata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan shells, 1856, p. 418. 

Shell ovate. Nuclear whorls two and one-half, forming a depressed 
helicoid spire whose axis is at right angles to that of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted at 
the sutures, very slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by five 
strong spiral keels on all the whorls between the sutures, excepting 
the first wliich has four and obsolete axial ribs on the first two. 
These axial ribs are best expressed near the summit of the whorls, 
scarcely reaching the suture, and rendering the spiral cords feebly 
tuberculate. On the last whorl the axial sculpture is reduced to 
numerous raised axial threads, like those between the cords on the 
base. Suture poorly defined. Base of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked by six spiral cords of wliich the two anterior ones are .i little 
weaker than the rest; separated by spaces wliich are a Httle narrower 
than the cords and crossed by numerous fine axial threads. Aperture 
pyriform, posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external 
sculpture witliin; columella stout, curved, provided with a weak 
fold at its insertion; parietal wall covere<l with a thin callus. 

Nine complete shells and a few fragments were found on Spondyluj? 
at Mazatlan, Mexico. Tablet 1970, Liverpool collection, British 
Museum, contains two specimens. One of these has four post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.3 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 169 

ODOSTOMIA (CHRTSALUDA) DBCBPTRIX, new spedM. 

Plate 17, tig. 1. 

Shell ovate, wliite. Nuclear whorls smooth, deeply obUquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls some- 
what inflated, constricted at the sutures and feebly shouldered at the 
summits, niarked by four equal well incised, spiral lines between the 
sutures and numerous very retractive lines of growth, with a few 
feeble indications of axial ribs, at and near the summit, which renders 
the first and sometimes the second space between the incised Unes 
below the summit feebly nodulous. Suture strongly impressed. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, well rounded, 
marked by seven incised spiral lines, wliich decrease regularly in 
spacing from the periphery to the umbilical area. Aperture broadly 
oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external 
sculpture within; columella quite strong, strongly curved, provided 
^ith a strong fold at its insertion; parietal weU glazed with a thin 
callus. 

The type and four specimens (Cat. no. 206904, U.S.N.M.) comes 
from San HipoUto Point, Lower California. The type has five post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Ijcngth 2.8 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 
Cat. no. 206905, U.S.X.M., contains three specimens from Point 
Abreojos, Lower (\difornia. 

Subgenus PTBOULINA A. Adams. 
Pyrgulina A. Adams, Jourii. Linn. Soo. London (ZooL), 1863, p. 4. 

Shell with strong axial ribs which extend from the summit to the 
umbilical area; intercostal spaces of spire and base marked by fine 
incised spiral lines — not raised tlireads. 

Type, — CJirysallida ra^sUi A. Adams. 

ODOSTOMIA (PYRGULINA) MARGINATA C. B. Adamg. 

Plato IS, iifTfi. 5, oa. 

Chemnitzia marginnta <". !». Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Ilist. of N. Y., voL 5, 1852, 
pp. 391, 392. 

Shell small, elon^^ate-conic, rather stout, semitranslucent. Nuclear 
whorls small, two and one-half, forminjj: a depressed heUcoid spire, 
whose axis is at right anglcvs to that of the succeeding turns, in the 
first of which it is about one-fourth immei*sed. Post-nuclear whorls 
flattened, moderately contractcMl at the sutures and slightly shoul- 
dered at the summit, marked by very strong, lamellar, somewhat 
retractive axial ribs, of which 14 occur upon all of the whorls. The 
termination of these ribs form cusps at the summits. Intercostal 
spaces four times as wide as the ribs, marked by six equal and equally 



170 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

spaced incised lines, the space between the summit and the first line 
below it appearing as a thickened cord. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery of the last whorl and base well rounded, marked by the 
strong continuation of the axial ribs and about five incised spiral lines. 
Aperture ovate; posterior angle acute; outer Up thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella stout, slightly curved and some 
what re volute; parietal wall covered by a very strong callus. 

Professor Adams's type, which comes from Panama, has served for 
our description and figure. It is at Amherst College. It has six and 
one-half post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.8 mm., diam- 
eter 1.1 mm. 

Subgenus EGILA Dall and Bartsch. 
Egila Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 11. 

Odostomias with the axial ribs extending from the summit of the 
whorls to the umbilical region; periphery with a deep sulcus bounded 
on each side by a tumid area; the base is spirally striated. 

Type. — Parthenia lacunata Carpenter. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUBGENUS EGILA. 

Axial ribs about 18 upon the last whorl lacunata. 

Axial ribs about 30 on the last whorl poppei. 

ODOSTOMIA (BGILA) LACUNATA Carpenter. 

Plate 19, fig. 1. 
Parthenia lacunata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 414. 

Shell small, oval, white. Nucleus almost completely obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
flattened, with subtabulated summits and deeply sulcated periphery, 
marked by sublamellar, slightly retractive axial ribs, of which 14 
occur upon the first and second and 18 upon the penultimate turn. 
Intercostal spaces three times as wide as the ribs, smooth. Periphery 
deeply and broadly sulcate, bordered on each side by a low spiral 
cord, crossed by the continuations of the axial ribs. Base of the 
last whorl well roimded, marked by the axial ribs which continue 
almost undiminished to the umbilical chink and about twelve spiral 
lirations. Aperture oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, 
showing the external sculpture within; columella slender, curved, 
and slightly revolute; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

Doctor Carpenter's type, which is on tablet 1964 Liverpool collec- 
tion, British Museum, and six specimens were taken from Spondylus 
at Mazatlan, Mexico. The type has four post-nuclear turns and 
measures: Ijength 1 mm., diameter 0.57 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EGnJl) POPPEI, new spedes. 
Plate 19, fig. 3. 
Shell elongate-ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, com- 
pletely obliquely inuiiersed in the fii^st post-nuclear turn above 
which the tilted edge of the last volution only projects. Post- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLH) MOLLUSKS. 171 

nuclear whorls slightly rounded, strongly tabulatedly shouldered at 
the summit, and decidedly sulcate at the peripliery, marked by 
strong, well-rounded, curved, somewhat retractive axial ribs, of 
which 22 occur upon the second, 26 upon the third, and 30 upon the 
penultimate turn; on the first they are obsolete. Intercostal spaces 
well impressed, about as wide as the ribs. The posterior edge of 
the peripheral sulcus coincides with tlie summits of the whorls, 
which render the sutures profoundly channeled. The sulcus is bor- 
dered on each side by a well-rounded, slender, spiral cord, which 
forms low tubercles at the junction with the ribs. The peripheral 
sulcus is crossed by the undiminished axial ribs, which break it up 
into a series of de^p pits. Base of the last whorl somewhat attenu- 
ated, with a shallow pit at the umbilical region, marked by the con- 
tinuations of the axial ribs, which here have a decidedly retractive 
slant, and about twelve slender, spiral lirations. Aperture oval; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella stout, curved, reenforced by the base, provided 
with a well-developed fold at the insertion of the columella; parietal 
wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 106519, U.S.N.M.) and another specimen come 
from Point Abreojos, Lower California. The type has five post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.2 mm., diameter 1.1 mm. 

Three additional specimens from the same locality nave been 
examined in Mr. Delos Arnohrs collection. 

Named for Professor Ewald Poppe. 

Subgexms HALDBA Dall and Bartsch. 
Haldra Dall and Babtsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 11. 
Odostomias with more or less irregular, acute axial ribs extending 
from the summits of the whorls to the umbilical region, crossed by 
subequally spaced acute spiral ridges between the sutures and on the 
base. The intersections of the ribs and spiral ridges are thickened, 
but scarcely nodulous, lending the shell a very rough appearance. 
Type. — OhrysaUida 2>ltotis Carpenter. 

ODOSTOMIA (HALDRA) PHOTIS Carpenter. 

Plato 18, %. 8. 

Chrysallida pholis Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 425; + OhrysaUida 
clatkratula Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 424; not Chemnitzia 
clathralula C. B. Adams. 

Shell small, pupiforni, white. Nuclear whorls at least two, form- 
ing a depressed helicoid spire, whose axis is at right angles to that 
of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one-half 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately con- 
contracted at the suture, slightly shouldered at the summit, marked 
by strongly raised, narrow, somewhat retractive axial ribs, of which 
12 occur upon the first, 14 upon the second, and about 20 upon 



172 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the penultimate turn. In addition to the axial ribs the whorls are 
marked between the sutures by five strong, narrow, spiral keels 
which render the intersections of the ribs cuspidate. Sutures well 
impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked by the strong continuations of the axial ribs and five spiral 
keels, similar to those between the sutures. Aperture pear-shaped; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
strongly curved and revolute, provided with a weak fold at its 
insertion; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

The type and another specimen were taken off SpondyluSf at Ma- 
zatlan, Mexico. The type has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 1.2 mm., diameter 0.48 mm. The type is on tablet 1985, 
Liverpool collection, British Museum. Another specimen taken 
from Cliama at Mazatlan, is on tablet 1983, Liverpool collection. 
It is listed as ChrysaUida clathratula C. B. Adams. 

IVn)ELLA, new subgenus. 

^ FuniculariaMoif TER08AT0, Conch. Med., 1884, p. 85. Type. — Rissoa excavata 
Philippi; not Fwnicutena Lamarck. + Ividia (species), Dall and Bartsch, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 517-18. 

Odostomias marked with lamellar spiral ridges and equally strong 
lamellar axial ribs, both of which ornament spire and base. 

Type. — Odostomia (Ividia) navisa Dall and Bartsch. 

When we diagnosed Ividia^ we unfortunately selected Parthenia 
armata Carpenter as type. Since then we have examined Doctor 
Carpenter^s type of Parthenia annata in the Britisli Museum and 
find that the species must be referred to Miralda, which necessitates 
the selection of a new type for the group defined. Since this can 
not be done without change of name, we propose IvidcUa. 

Type, — Odostomia {hndia) navisa Dall and Bartsch. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TICK SlBOKNl S IVIHELLA. 

Base with a single spiral lamella. pedroana^ p. 172. 

Base with two spiral lamella?: 

Diameter of shell more than 1 .2 mm. 

Shell robust, short navisa, p. 173. 

Shell thin, slender n. delmontaxsis, p. 174. 

Diameter of shell less than 1 mm orariana, p. 175. 

Base with three spiral lamelhe quinquccincta, p. 174. 

ODOSTOMIA (IVIDELLA) PEDROANA, new species. 

Plate 19, figs. 8, 8fl. 

Shell large, robust, chocolate-brown. Nuclear whorls two, mod- 
erately large, fornimg a holicoid spire whose axis is at right angles 
to that of the succeednig turns, in the first of which it is about one- 
fifth immers(Hl. Post-nudeiir whorls very strongly sculptured, 

"Proc. Biol. Soe. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 11. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



173 



with three spiral keels between the sutures, one of which at the 
summit is slender, the other two are strong and equal, the supra- 
peripheral one being about as far posterior to the suture as the one 
at the summit is from its neighbor. In addition to the spiral keels 

the whorls are marked by narrow retractive axial ribs, of which 14 

ft • 

occur upon the first, 16 upon the second to third, 18 upon the fourth, 
20 upon the fifth and sixth, and 24 upon the i)enultiniate turn. 
The junctions of the axial ribs and spiral keels are somewhat tuber- 
culated, while the spaces inclosed between them are deeply impressed 
pita. A strong keel marks the peripliery of the last wliorl and 
another equally strong occupies the middle of the base, the space 
between them being a concave channel, which, like the one posterior 
to the peripheral keel, is crossed by the axial ribs. The axial ribs 
become much enfeebled as they pass over the basal keel and are 
almost obsolete on the spaces anterior to it. Aperture irregularly 
oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, rendered angidar by the 
spiral ke^ls; columella very strong, almost straight, slightly reflected; 
parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 107422, U.S.X.M.) comes from San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia. It has eight post-nuclear whorls, and measures: length 
6.7 nun., diameter 2.5 mm. 

We have examined the following specimens: 



U.8.N.M. 
cat. na 



No. of 

si)eci- 



162845 
ISaiTla 


1 
4 
9 
2 


46162 


2 


162846 
162847 
10d364 

IGOOM 


5 

7 
4 

2 

1 


74022 

322n5 

106425 


4 

1 
1 



r. S. B. F. 
station. 



Locality. 



Depth. I 
ftith- Collw'tor. 
oni2>. 



• do. 



I 



r 

San Pedro, California II. N.Lowe j I 

do : Johnston . . ' 

do Oldroyd 

San Pedro (Whites 

I'oint). 
...... \ Catalina Island, Cali- 12 

I fomia. I 

35ti6 San Diego. California.. 3 

3572 do 2 

do ! 

do 

Sun Diego (oil Coro- 

I nado Hotel), Cali- 

I fornia. 

I do 

' «lo 

Sc-aniinon Lagoon. 

Lower California. 



Oldroyd. . 
Kelscv... 



Disposition of 
material. 



. S. N. Mus. 
Da 
Oldroyd coll. 
Da 

r. S. N. Mas. 

Do. 

Da 

Da 
Oldroyd coll. 
I'. S. N. Mus. 



Da 
Da 
Da 



ODOSTOMIA (IVIDELLA) NAVISA Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 18, figfi>. U, llo. 

Odostomia (Ividia) iiari^a Dall and Hart.sch, Pnx:. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, pp. 517, 518, pi. 4(), ivr^. 2, 2//. 

Shell of medium size, strongly sculptured, subdiaphanous to milk- 
white. Nuclear whorls at least two, oblitiuely a little more than half 
immersed. Post-nuclear whorls stron«:ly shouldered, suhtahuhited, 
with a strong, broad, spiral keel limiting the anterior oih^o of the 
shoulder and an acute raised keel on the middle of the whorls 



174 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

between the sutures, while a thu-d equally acute keel marks the 
periphery of the last whorl. Two other keels ornament the base, 
the anterior one of which is not quite as strong as its neighbor. The 
axial sculpture consists of narrow, more or less lamellar, almost 
vertical ribs, which render the intersection with the spiral keels 
somewhat thickened, but not nodulose. These axial ribs extend over 
the periphery and base of the last whorl to the umbilical region, grad- 
ually growing weaker as they approach this point. There are about 
18 on the second and 20 upon the penultimate whorl. The spaces 
between the ribs and keels appear as concave quadrangular depres- 
sions. Umbilicus narrowly perforated. Suture deeply channeled 
by the shouldered whorl. Aperture suboval, posterior angle decidedly 
obtuse; outer lip thick, marked by 5 projections, corresponding to 
the 5 keels; columella almost straight, strongly revolute with a 
conspicuous oblique fold near its insertion; parietal wall covered by 
a faint callus showing both basal keels, the anterior faint and just pos- 
terior to the insertion of the columella and the next on the middle of 
the wall. 

The type has 5 post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.7 mm., 
diameter 1.3 mm. It and three additional specimens (Cat. no. 
106502, U.S.N.M.) were collected by Mr. Henry Hemphill at Scam- 
mon Lagoon, Lower California. Three additional lots are in the U. S. 
National Museum collection: Cat. no. 129336, 30 specimens collected 
by Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd in the drift at San Pedro; Cat. no. 162843, 3 
specimens also from San Pedro by the same donor; Cat. no. 62844, 
1 specimen collected by Mr. Henry Hemphill at Ocean Beach, San 
Diego, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (n^IDELLA) NAVISA DELMONTENSIS DaU and Bartich. 

Plate 18, figs. 10, lOo. 

Odoslomm {Ividm) navisa delmonlensis Dall and Bartsch, I*roc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 33, 1907, p. 518, pi. 4(>, figs. 3, 3a. 

Shell similar to 0. (I.) navisa but more elongate, and in every way 
more delicate, with the lamellose sculpture reduced almost to raised 
cords and with stronger shouldered summits and more open umbilicus. 

The type (Cat. no. 196297, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Mr. S. S. 
Berry in 12 fathoms, off Del Monte, Monterey Bay, California. It 
has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 3.2 mm., diam- 
eter 1.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (IVmELLA) QUINQUECINCTA Carpenter. 

riate 18, fig. 9. 
Parthenia quinquecincta Carpenter, Cat. Mazallaii Shells, 1856, p. 414. 

Shell elongate-ovate. Nuclear whorls tumid, obliquely immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened, strongly tabulatedly shouldered at the 



WEST AMEBICAK PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 175 

summit, and strongly contracted at the periplion^ marked by strong 
lamellar ribs, of which 12 occur upon the first, 14 upon the second, 
and 16 upon the penultimate turn. In addition to the axial ribs the 
whorls are marked by six strong spiral cords, one of which is at the 
angle of the shoulder and another at the periphery, the third falls a 
little anterior to the suture, while the other three divide the remainder 
of the base into four almost equal parts. Ai)erturo oval, posterior 
angle obtuse; outer lip thin, rendered angulated by the spiral cords; 
columella slender, curved, and somewhat revolute, provided with 
an oblique fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a strong 
callus. 

Two specimens were taken off Spondylus, at Mazatlan, Mexico. 
The finest of these is on tablet 1963, Liveri>ool collection, British 
Museum. It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: Ijength 
1.8 nun., diameter 0.6 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (IVmSLLA) ORARIANA, new name. 

Plate 18, fig. 12. 

Cingula (?) turrita C. B. Adams, Ann. hyv. Nat. IliHt. of N. Y., 1852, pp. 406, 407; 
not Odostomia turrita IIai^^ley, 1844. 

Shell elongate, conic, turreted; niilk-wliite. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely immersed in the iirst of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls 
strongly tabulately shouldered at the summit, flat in the middle, 
sloping suddenly toward the suture; ornamented by slender axial 
ribs, of which 15 occur upon the second and IS u|)on the remaining 
whorls. In addition to the axial ribs, the whorls are marked between 
the sutures by two strong spiral keels, one of which is situated at the 
angle of the shoulder, the other at the i>osterior termination of the 
anterior third between the sutures. The junctions of the axial ribs 
and spiral keels are very slightly nodulous. Sutures deeply chan- 
neled. Perii)hery of the last whorl well rounded, marked by a s|)iral 
keel. Base w^ell rounded, marked by two spiral keels, which divide 
the space between the peripheral keel and the umbilical area into 
three equal j)arts, and the continuation of the axial ribs, which are 
fainter on the base than on the spire. Aperture ovate; posterior 
angle obtuse; outer lip thin, rendered angular by the keels; columella 
slender, decidedly curved, reenforced hy tlie base; parietal wall cov- 
ered with a thin callus. 

The type, which is at Andierst College, was collected by Prof. C. B. 
Adams at Panama. It has six j)()st-nuclear whorls and mciisures: 
Length 2 mm., diameter O.S mm. 



176 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Subgenus HIKALDA A. Adams. 

Miralda A. Adams, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 7, 1864, p. 3. -h Lia de Folin, 
Fonda de la Mer, 1870, p. 515. Type, Lia decorata de Foun. -\-Ividia Dall 
and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 11. Type, Parthenia 
armata Carpenter. 

Odostomias with very strong spiral keels between the sutures and 
on the base; the anterior one of which, and sometimes the one next 
to it, strongly crenulate; the remainder simple and acute. Base 
axially lirate. 

Type, — Parthenia diadema A. Adams. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUBGENUS MIRALDA. 

Spiral keels between the sutures 3 hemphilli^ p. 176. 

Spiral keels between the sutures 2. 
Base with 3 spiral cords. 

Posterior keel between the sutures much wider than its nciglilx)r .anmita, p. 177. 
Posterior keel between the sutures not wider than its neighbor. 

Spiral keels between the sutures almost smooth exarata, p. 177. 

Spiral keels between the sutures nodulose terehellum, p. 177. 

Base with two basal cords. 

Shell stout apynota, p. 1 78. 

Shell slender galapagemis, p. 179. 

ODOSTOMIA (MIRALDA) HEMPHILLI, new gpecles. 

Plate 19, fig. 10. 

Shell broadl}^ conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed, apparently smooth. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
marked w^ith three strong, equal spiral keels, the posterior two of 
which are tuberculate, the third one smooth. The tubercles are con- 
nected axially by slender riblets, which extend to the third keel. 
There are about twenty tubercles on the latter whorls, while on the 
early whorls they are ill defined. Sutures deeply channeled. Periph- 
ery of the last whorl marked by a smooth spiral keel, equal to the one 
posterior to it. Ba.se moderately long, well rounded, marked by four 
spiral keels which grow successively weaker anteriorly. Aperture 
irregularly ovate; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella stout, provided with a strong 
fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 162S41, II.wS.N.M.) was collected at San Ilipolito 
Point, Lower California. It has six post-nuclear whorls and meas- 
ures: Length 3.5 mm., diameter 1.4 mm. Another specimen from 
the same locality is in Mr. Henry llemphiirs collection. Cat. no. 
162842, U.S.N.M., one specimen from wSan Pedro, California. One 
specimen from Point Abreojos, Lower California, Cat. no. 106498 
U.S.X.M. 

Named for Henry Hemphill. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMTDELLID MOLLUSKS. 177 

ODOSTOICIA (MIRALDA) ARMATA Carpeneer. 
Plate 19, %. 6. 
Parthenia armata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlaii Sholln, 1856, p. 415. 

Shell elongate-conic, white. Nuclear whorls two, deeply, ob- 
liquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear 
whorls marked by two strongly elevated tuberculate keels between 
the sutures, the posterior one of which is about twice as wide as 
its neighbor. Of the crenulations about 20 api>ear upon the second 
and third, 22 upon the fourth, and 24 upon the penultimate turn. 
Sutures strongly channeled. The periphery is marked by a slender 
keel, while the base has two a little weaker than the peripheral one 
which divides the space between this and the uinl)ilical area into 
three equal parts. Aperture ovate; outer lip thin; columella rather 
thick, reflected and provided with a slender fold at its insertion; 
parietal waU provided with a thin callus. 

Twelve specimens were taken off Chama and Sp&rulyhis at Mazat- 
lan, Mexico.. The most pc*rfect specimen in the lot is on tablet 
1965, Liverpool collection, British Museum. It has six post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 2.5 mm., diamotor 0.85 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MmALDA) EXARATA Carpenter. 
Plate 19, %. 2. 
Parthenia exarala Carvest^r, Cat. Mazatlaii Shells, 1856, pp. 115, ilC). 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls oblicjuc^ly immersed, 
only the tilted e<lge of the last volution is visible. Post-nuclear 
whorls marked by two very strongly c»lcvatecl spiral k(»cls which 
divide the space between the sutures into three equal i)arts. The 
posterior of these keels shows weak crenulation. Periphery of the 
last whorl marked by a third ktu'l which is almost as strong as those 
on the spire. A fourth keel considerably less strong occupies the 
middle of the base. The rounded sj)accs l)etween the keels are 
marked by feeble lines of growth. Af)crtun» irregularly oval; po.s- 
terior angle obtuse; outer lip angulated by the keels; columella 
strong, reflected, provided with a weak fold at insertion; parietal wall 
covered with a thin callus. 

Doctor Carpenter's type and another specimen wow taken from 
Chama at Mazatlan, Mc^xico. The type is on tabh^t \\H)i\, I.iverjxx)! 
collection, British Museum. Jt has five |)ost-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length f).3 nun., diann^ter o.s nun. 

ODOSTOMIA 'MIRALDA) TEREBELLUM C. B. Adams. 

Plato 11^ fi«:. 1. 
Cingula (?) Urebdlum <\ B. Adams. Ann. Lyr. Xm. Hist, of X. V.. 1852, p. 4(M). 

Shell elongate, ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls completely 
immersed in the fii*st of the succeeding turns, al)ove which the 
tilted edge of the last volution only projects, which shows faint 
traces of spiral hrations. Post-nuclear whorls ornamented with two 



178 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



strong spiral lamellae, the first of which renders the summit of the 
whorls decidedly tabulated, while the second one is situated a little 
posterior to the posterior termination of the anterior tliird between 
the sutures. Both lamellae are faintly nodulous; the posterior one 
sUghtly more so than the anterior. The deep channel between the 
two keels is marked by very feeble slender axial threads. Periphery 
of the last whorl marked by a lamella a little less strong than those 
between the sutures. Base with two lamellae, the anterior of which is 
immediately behind the columella and much less developed than the 
median one, which is somewhat weaker than the peripheral lamella. 
The depressed spaces between these lamellae are crossed by axial 
threads, as on the spire. Aperture irregularly ovate; posterior angle 
decidedly obtuse; outer lip rendered angular by the spiral lamellae; 
columella strong, somewhat twisted, reenforced by the base. 

The type, which is at Amherst College, was collected by Professor 
C. B. Adams in Panama Bay. It has five post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 2.2 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MIRALDA) iBPYNOTA, new species. 

Plate 19, fig. 5. 

Shell pupiform, translucent. Nuclear whorls small, obliquely im- 
mersed in the first post-nuclear turns, marked by four spiral cords. 
Post-nuclear whorls with the summits appressed, marked by two 
strong, spiral keels between the sutures, a third at the periphery, 
and a fourth on the middle of the base, the last two somewhat less 
strong than the rest. The posterior keel forms the strong tabula- 
tion at the summit of the whorls and is strongly tuberculated, 14 
tubercles appearing upon the second and 20 upon the remaining 
whorls. The space between the keels is marked by rather strong 
lines of growth. The greatest convexity coincides \\ath the super- 
peripheral keel. Aperture irregularly ovate, somewhat effuse ante- 
riorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip angulated by the keels, 
thin, showing the external markings within; columella strong, curved, 
without visible fold in the aperture; reenforced by the base; parietal 
wall covered bv a thin calhis. 

The type and 30 specimens (Cat. no. 129335, U.S.N.M.) comes from 
San Pedro. Tlie type ha^j five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 1.0 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 

Examination of the following specimens has l)oen made: 



U.S.N.M. 


No. of 


cat. no. 


SptN'i- 




iiiens. 


129335 


31 


1054C7 


3 


16222 


1 




23 




2 




1 



I.ot^alllv, 



Disposition of 
material. 



San Pedro, California 

San Diego, California 

Cape St. Luras. Lower California 

San Pedro, California 

Whites Point, California 

Catalina Island, California 



U. S. Nat, Mus. 

Do. 

Do, 
Oldroyd ooU. 

Do. 
S. S. Berry ooIL 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSK8. 179 

ODOSTOMIA (lORALDA) GALAPAOBNSIS, new species. 

Plate 19, fig. 7. 

Shell conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls at least two, forming a 
depressed helicoid spire, which is slightly tilted to one side and for 
the greater part immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. The 
tilted edge of the nucleus shows traces of spiral lirations. Post- 
nuclear whorls appressed at the summit, ornamented by two very 
strong, lamelliform keels, whose edges are decidedly upturned, forming 
deeply channeled troughs. The posterior of the two lamellse is feebly 
crenulated. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a spiral keel 
which is about half as strong as those between the sutures. A fourth 
keel, a little weaker than the periplieral one, marks tlie middle of 
the base. The deep concave channels between tlie keels are marked 
by strong lines of growth. Sutures strongly channeled. Aperture 
irregularly oval ; posterior angle obtuse ; outer lip rendered angular by 
the spiral keels; columella stout, curved, reenforced by the base; 
parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206906, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2813, in 40 fathoms, on coral sand bottom, near 
the Galapagos Islands. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.0 mm., diameter O.S mm. 

Subgenus IVABA DaU and Bartsch. 

Ivara DALLand Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad., vol. 3, 1903, p. 285; I'roc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 11. 

Odostomias having feebly developed axial ribs which are usually 
only indicated near the summits of the whorls; spiral sculpture con- 
sisting of many subequaily spaced line lirations; summits of the 
whorls strongly tabulated. 

Type. — Odostomia (Ivara) turricula Dall and Bartsch. 

ODOSTOMIA (IVARA) TURRICULA DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 19, n^r. 9. 

Odostomia {Ivara) terricuJa (mis«print inr turrumln) DALLand Harthch, Mem. Cal. 
Acad. Soi., vol. 3, 1903, p. 285, pi. 4, fig. 14. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls smooth, 
obliquely immersed in tlie first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the la.st volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately rounded, very broadly tabulately shouldered at 
the summit, moderately contracted at the peripherj^, marked by 
low, feebly developed axial ribs, which are best shown at the angle of 
the shoulder and scarcelv extend to the suture. In addition to the 
axial ribs, the whorls are marked by well-incised spiral lines, of which 
7 occur between the sutures on the second and 9 upon the third and 
the penultimate turn. Periphery and base of the last whorl well 



180 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



rounded, the latter somewhat produced, marked by the very feeble 
continuation of the axial ribs and eight spiral lines. Aperture ovate, 
.posterior angle squarely truncated; outer lip thin; columella strongly 
curved and reflected over the reenforcing base; provided with a 
strong fold at its insertion. 

The type and 34 specimens (Cat. no. 168716, U.S.N.M.) were col- 
lected at San Pedro, California. The type has five post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 4 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

The following additional specimens have been examined : 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. no. 



168716 
207128 



168717 

46176 
105499 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



35 
10 
21 
2 
3 
2 
1 
1 



Locality. 



San Pedro, California 

do 

do 

do 

Catalina Island, California 

Arch Beach, California 

Todos Santos Bbx, Lower California. 
Point Abreojos, Lower (California 



Disposition of 
material. 



U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 
Oldroyd coll. 

Do. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
Univ. Cal. coll. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 



One specimen (Cat. no. 73990, U.S.N.M.) not quite perfect, come^ 
from Monterey, California, and is provisionally referred to the species. 

Subgenus EVALINA DaU and Bartsch. 

Evalina Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 1904, p. 12. 

Odostomias having feebly developed axial ribs which are usually 
only indicated near the summit of the whorls; spiral sculpture con- 
sisting of many fine lirations; summit of the whorls not tabulated. 

Type, — Odostomia (Evalina) americana Dall and Bartsch. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS EVALINA. 

Spiral lirations on the body whorl 23 americana, p. 180. 

Spiral lirations on tho body whorl 15 intermedia, p. 181. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALINA) AMERICANA Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 20, fi^'s. 7, la. 

Odostomia (Evalina) americana Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 
17, 1904, p. Uj. 

Shell elongate-conic, subdijiplianous to milk-white. Nuclear whorls 
quite larfi:e, at least two about three-fourths obliquely immersed. 
Post-nuclear whorls rather broad between the sutures, well rounded, 
faintly shouklen^d at the summit, ornamented with depressed, 
rounded, rather broad axial ribs, about IS of which occur upon the 
second, 20 on the third, and 18 upon the penultimate whorl. The 
ribs are best developed near the summits of the whorls and scarcely 
extend to the periphery. Spiral lirations low, rounded, subequal, 
al)out 12 occur between the sutures u{)on the third and the penulti- 
mate whorls. These spiral lirations like the axial ribs appear strong- 
est near the summits of the whorls. Periphery and base of the last 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMTDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



181 



whorl well rounded, the latter ornamented by about eleven lirations, 
which are similar in character to those between the sutures but much 
less strongly expressed. Aperture rather broad, suboval, somewhat 
effuse anteriorly, posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella 
shorty somewhat curved, strongly revolute anteriorly, having a weak 
oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 168718, U.S.N.M.) and nine specimens come 
from San Pedro, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 2.9 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



U.8.N-M. 
cat. DO. 



168718 
168n9 
168720 
182677 



No. of 
sped- 
mens. 



12 
1 
2 
2 
2 

10 



Locality 



San Pedro, California 

San Die{K), Colilbmia 

Santa Catalina Island, California. 

La Jolla, California 

Andi Beach, California 

San Pedro, Califcmiia 



Disposition of 
niatprial. 



r. 8. Nat. Mils. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
I'niv. ral. I'oll. 
Oldroyd coll. 



ODOSTOMIA (SVALINA) mTERMBDIA Carpenter. 

Plate 20, fig. 6. 
Dunkeria intermedia ('arpentek, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, pp. 4:^5, 430. 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls large, two and one- 
half, forming a depressed helicoi<l spire, whose axis is at right angh*.s 
to that of the succeeding turns, in the first of which it is about one- 
fifth immersed. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, marked by very 
much enfeebled indications of axial ribs, which are best shown at the 
sunmiit of the whorls, and broa<l low spiral lirations, of which 7 occur 
between the sutures. Periphery and base of the List whorl w^ell 
rounded, marked by eight low spiral cords, which arc somewhat closer 
spaced about the umbilicus. Aperture oval; outer lij) thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella slender and curved. 

The type and another specimen were taken ofT SpondyluSj at Mazat- 
lan, Mexico. It has three post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
1.4 mm., diameter 0.7 mm. It is (m tablet 2010, Liverpool collection, 
British Museum. 

Subgenus lOUEA A. Adams. 

lolxa A. Adams, Prm'. Zool. Soc., IS07, p. :U0. =Ioh A. Adams, Aim. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 5, 1800, p. 300; not lak RL\'ni, Joiirn. Asiat. So<:. 
Bengal, vol. 13, pt. 1, 1844, p. 38(). 

Shell umbilicated, marked by spiral cords, and axial riblets which 
cross the grooves between them. 
Type. — lole scitulu A. Adams. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS lOL^A. 

Shell strongly shouldered. 

Shell stout, adult 2.? mm. in diameter amiantay p. 182. 

Shell slender, adult I mm. in diameter ewcosmia, p. 183. 

SheO not shouldered delicatula, p. 183. 

aS6fr-Bull. 68—09 13 



182 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ODOSTOMIA (lOLiBA) AMIANTA DaU and Baitach. 

Plate 20, figs. 8, 8a. 

Odostomia (lolsca) amiania Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, p. 519, pi. 46, figs. 9, 9a. 

Shell broadly conic, yellowish- white. Nucleus small, of two whorls 
which increase extremely rapidly in size and are obliquely placed. 
Post-nuclear whorls very strongly shouldered, marked by three very 
strong lamellar spiral keels on the first and second and four on the 
succeeding whorls between the sutures. The posterior keel marks the 
limit of the broad, sloping shoulder and is much the strongest. It 
is also placed a little farther apart from the next spiral keel than that 
is from its anterior neighbor. Base of the last whorl well rounded; 
ornamented by eight spiral ridges, which are less elevated and much 
more closely and regularly spaced than those between the sutures. 
The peripheral groove is about equal in width to the one anterior to 
the posterior keel. The entire shell is marked by fine, sublamellar, 
regularly spaced, retractive axial ribs, which render the spiral keels 
somewhat crenulated at their meeting points and break the spaces 
between them into small squares or oblongs. These riblets extend 
from the sutures to the small umbilicus. Aperture subovate, poste- 
rior angle obtuse; outer lip thin, somewhat wavy, showing the 
external sculpture within; columella moderately stout, somewhat 
curved and strongly revoluto, having an oblique fold near its insertion 
which is barely visible when the aperture is viewed squarel}^; parietal 
wall covered by a fairly thick callus. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 105483, U.S.N.M.) were 
collected at Point Abreojos, Lower California, by Mr. Henry Hemp- 
hill. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.4 mm., 
diameter 2.3 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined: 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



I 

5 

11 
o 



Locality 



Collector, 



Catalogue No. 



1 Monterey Bav Rev. G. \V. Tavlor 

(i Monterey, off Del Monte (12 S. S. Berry 

fallionis;. 

I : (Jo I W. II. Dall 

1 1 San redro I Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd 

1 ' San Pedro, Lonn Beach II. N. Lo.ve 

1 San Tedro, station K\ ! University of Califoniia. 

OJCatalina Island, station 28..' do 

Oil Catalina Island, station 30. do 

San Diego, station 47 i do 

. . . .do F. W. Kelsev 



No. 372r.3 U.S.N.M. 
S. S. Berry's coll. 



1 ! do ' Henry Hemphill 



1 



1 



OtI Corona'lo Island. 20 fath- 
oms; bottom temperature .'>n°. 
Point Abreojos, Jx)\ver Uali- 
fomla. 

Pacific Bea<'h. California 

San Pedro, California 



U. S. B. F. station (2932). 
Henrj' Hemphill 



No. ir>8GS3 
No. ir»S<iS4 
No. 19(1298 
Unlv.Cal. 
Do 
Do. 
Do. 
I(i0115 
1054<i9 
108GS5 



No. 
No. 
No. 



U.S.N.M. 
U.S.N.M. 
U.S.N.M. 
coll. 



U.S.N.M. 
U.S.N.M. 
U.S.N.M. 



No. 105483 U.S.N.M. 

t\T)<?>. 
Oldroyd coU. 
Do. 



(1= 



WEST AMKRICAN PYKAMIDELl.II) MOLLl'SKS. 



183 



0D08T01CIA (lOLJCA) BUCOSMIA. new unM. 

»OjeiUa inMculpta (Carpenter) Keep, West CnaAt ShollH, IKSS, p. 52; not 
Odoitomia irunUpta De Kay, 1843. 

Plate 20, figs. 10, 10a. 

Shell elongate-conic, subdiaphanous to milk-white. Nuclear whorls 
deeply obliquely immerse<l in the first of the succeeding: turns, above 
which only the tilted edge of the last one project.*^. Post-nuclear 
whorls somewhat contracted at the i)eriplien% very strongly slopingly 
shouldered at the summit, marked by three strong himellar keels 
between the sutures, of which the middle one is a little nearer to its 
anterior neighbor than to the posterior, the latter being about as far 
from the summit as it is from the median keel. The deep cliannels 
between the keels and the shoulders are crossed bv Klender axial rib- 
lets which have a protractive slant on the shoulder and are decidedly 
retractive in the channels. Periphery of the last wliorl niarke<l liy a 
keel a little weaker than those between tlie sutures. Base sliort, well 
rounded, narrowly imibilicated, marked by tliree spiral eords an<l a 
slender raised thread about the umbilicus, tlio cliannels ])ounding the 
peripheral cord and those of the base are erosscul by riblets as on 
the spire. Ai>erture large; posterior angle obtuse*; outer lip rendered 
angulated by the keels, thus sliowing the external sculpture within; 
columella slender, very strongly curved, slightly reflected, provided with 
a weak fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered witli a weak callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 106501, U.S.N. M.) comes from Point Abreojos, 
Lower California. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.5 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

The following spe<'iniens have been examined. 



cat. no. 


No. of 
speci- 
mens. 


106501 
10M83 
46175 
12B204 
153001 
I0M60 


1 
1 

32 
1 
2 
2 

27 



L(M-iiIitv 



Point Abreojjw, Ix>\vpr California 

....do 

Todos Santos Hay. l.owcr Callforiiiii 

San Ppilro. Calif')rrjia 

d» 

San Die^o. Califdrnia 

Arch licai-h, Califdrnia 

San I'lMin), ("aliforiiia 



I>is|M>sition of ! 
material. 



r. S. Nat. M»ii<. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Cniv. Cal. coll. 
UMrovfi t"olI. 



n Tyix». 
ODOSTOMIA (lOL^A) DELICATULA Carpenter. 

V\'dW 20. fijrs. 5, fyi. 

OdoBlomia (Emlia) drtlratuhi ('.\ri'ENTkii. Ann. Majr. Xat. llisi., vnl. M, IS04, 
p. 47. 

Shell very elongate, ovate, crystalline, transparent. Nuclear 
whorls wholly iinniersed in the first of the succeedinjjj turns, above 
which only a portion of the bust two proje<*t. Post-nuclear whorls 
well rounded, moderately contracted at the suture, strongly shoul- 
dered at the summit, marked by five strong, well-rounded, equal 



• 



184 BULLETIN 68^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and equally spaced spiral keels between the sutures, the first of which 
is at the summit. The spaces separating the keels are strongly in- 
cised, a Uttle wider than the keels and crossed by numerous, slender 
retractive axial riblets. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a 
keel. Base somewhat protracted, well roimded, minutely imibili- 
cated, marked by seven spiral cords which grow successively weaker 
from the periphery to the umbilicus; spaces between the cords 
marked like those on the spire. Aperture large; posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; colu- 
mella long, slender, somewhat curved, very strongly reflected, pro- 
vided with a strong fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered by a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 4102 U. S. N. M.) comes from Cape St. Lucas, 
Lower California. It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.3 mm., diameter 0.7 mm. 

Subgenns KEl^STHO M5Uer. 

Menestko Mollek, Ind. MolL Greenl., 1842, p. 10. -^Odetta de Folin, Fonds de 
la Mer, 1870, p. 314. Type, Odetta elegans de Folin. -^Jaminea de Folin, 
Const it. Method, de la Fam. Chemnitiziidse, 1885, p. 15. Type, Jaminea 
bilirata de Folin; not Jaminea Brown, 1827. -^Jaminina de Folin, Zool. 
Record, vol. 22, 1885, p. M. Type, Jaminea bilirata de Folin. 

Shell not umbilicated, marked by moderately well developed and 
usually equally spaced spiral cords; axial sculpture reduced to mere 
lines of growth which frequently appear as very slender raised threads 
in the grooves between the cords. 

Type, — Turbo albxilus Fabricius. 

KEY to the species OF THE SUBCJENITH MKNE8THO. 

Entire surface of the shell marked by spiral cords. 
Shell elongate-conic. 

iShell large, adult more than 5 ram. long (jrainmaiospira, p. 1S5. 

Shell small, adult less than 2.5 mm. long pharcida, p. 185. 

Shell elongate-ovate or ovate. 

Last whorl marked by about 40 spiral cords exara, p. 186. 

Last whorl marked by less than 20 spiral cords. 

Spiral cords 2 between the sutures of the last whorl ziziphina, p. 186. 

Spiral cords '^ between the sutur(?s of the last whorl recta, p. 187. 

Spiral cords 4 b(»tween the sutures of the last whorl. 

Basal cords 3 amilda, p. 187. 

Basal cords 4 . 

Shell ovate callipyrgay p. 188. 

Shell elongate-ovate. 

Spiral sculpture very strong farmaj p. 188. 

Spiral sculpture ver\' feeble enora^ p. 189. 

Basal cords 7 chilerms, p. 189. 

Basal cords 11 feUlla, p. 189. 

Spiral cords 6 between the sutun^s of the last whorl. 

Basal cords 5 hypoatrtaj p. 190. 

Basal cords 6 lequisculpta, p. 191. 

Basal cords 8 har/ardenais, p. 191. 

Bas*» of tin* shell only marked by spiral cords subliruUUa^ p. 192. 



WEST AMEBICAK PYRAM1DELLID MOLLUSKS. 185 

OD08T01CIA (MBHBSTHO) ORAMMATOSPIRA DaU and BactKh. 

Plate 21, figp. 7, 7a. 

Odotiomia (Otdtta) grammatospira Dall and Bartsch, Mom. Cal. Acad. Soi., 
vol. 3, 1903, p. 285, pi. 1, figs. 6, 6a. 

Shell elongate-conic, semitranslucent. Nuclear whorls small, form- 
ing a depressed helicoid spire, which is a little more than half ob- 
liquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately rounded, marked by four strong, equal, and al- 
most equally spaced spiral cords which are soj)arated by three well- 
incised spiral grooves. Suture subchannelod. Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a depressed cord which is not quite as strong as 
those between the sutures. Base somewhat attenuated, well rounded, 
marked by ten spiral cords w^hich grow successively weaker and 
closer spaced from the periphery toward the umbilical area, disap- 
pearing altogether on the extreme anterior portion. The spaces be- 
tween the spiral <'ords on spire and base are marked by slender axial 
threads. Aperture oval, effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within, rendered wavy 
by the keels; columella stout, reflected, rcenforced by the base, pro- 
vided with a weak fold at its insertion; parietal wall glazed with a 
faint callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 161625, U.S.X.M.) wius collected at Cai)e St. 
Lucas, Lower California. It has eight post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 5.8 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) PHARCmA Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 21. %. •'>. 

Odostomia (Menestlio) pfiarcida Dall and Haktsi ii, Phk*. 1'. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, p. 520, pi. 4(), fig. 8. Mumioln trriuis Dall, \Ui\\. Nat. So(!. Brit. Col., 
1897, p. 14, pi. 1, f}^. 10; nr)l Odostomia tennis ('AurEN'TEii, 1856, nor 
Odostomia tenvis Jeffrey , 1SH4. 

Shell small, subcylindric, yellowish-white. Nuclear whorls deei)ly 
immersed, a portion of the last and tlu* ])enultimate only appear when 
viewed from the side; this gives the shell a truncated appearance*. 
Post-nuclear whorls raod(»ratelv well roundcMl, rather wide between 
the sutures, and somewhat shouldered at the siunmits; ornamented 
by strong, low, nmnded spiral cords, which are separated ))v moder- 
ately deep, narrow, depressed channels. Six of these cords occur 
upon the first, 7 upon the second to the penultimate whorl between 
the sutures; the posterior cord is a little broader and less elevated 
than the rest, wliile some of those on the ])enultimate turn show a 
tendency to divide — that is, a faint spiral line is apparent on the mid- 
dle of some of these coids. Sutures well impressed. Periphery and 
base of the last whorl w(»ll rounded, the latter ornamented by eight 
rounded spiral cords similar to those between the sutures. The 



186 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

spaces between the spiral ridges on the base and between the sutures 
are marked by closely placed, exceedingly slender, raised axial 
threads. Aperture pyriform, somewhat effuse anteriorly, posterior 
angle acute; columella short, curved, reenforced by the attenuated 
base, free only at its extreme anterior end, with an oblique fold near 
its insertion; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 107440, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by Dr. C. F. 
Newcombe, in 10 to 15 fathoms, at Cimashewa Inlet, Queen Charlotte 
Island, British Columbia. It has four post-nuclear whorls, which 
measure: Length 2.2 mm., diameter 0.9 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENBSTHO) BXARA Dall and Bartadi. 

Plate 21, fig. 1. 

Odostomia (Menestho) exara Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 3.3, 
1907, pp. 521, 522, pi. 46, fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-ovate, subdiaphanous. Nuclear whorls smooth, 
deeply immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, only a part of 
the last one appearing above it. Post-nuclear whorls somew^hat 
inflated, well roimded, marked on the first whorl by 8, on the second 
by 12, on the third by 14, and on the penultimate between the sutures 
by 20 subequal and equally spaced, low, depressed spiral cords which 
are separated by narrower channels. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl inflated, sculptured Uke the spire by probably 20 spiral cords. 
In addition to the spiral sculpture the entire surface is marked b}^ fine 
incremental lines which are best marked in the spaces between the 
cords. Aperture oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle 
acute; outer Up thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella 
decidedly curved, reenforced by the attenuated base, free only at its 
anterior extremity, wliere it is somewhat revolute, provided with a 
prominent fold at its insertion wliich appears as the thickened inflec- 
tion of the columella; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 196250, U.S.N.M.) comes from Pacific Grove, 
Monterey, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 3.0 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) ZIZIPmNA Carpenter. 

Plato 20, fij?. 2. 
Parthenia ziziphina Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1S5(), p. 416. 

Shell conic, white. Nucleus manmiillated. Post-nuclear whorls 
marked by five spiral lirations of which two appear between the 
sutures, one at the perij)her3^ and two on the base. Coliunella with 
an oblique fold. 

To the above, Doctor Carpenter adds: '^Tablet 1967 (Liverpool col- 
lection) contains a small Zizipliinus-shaped shell, very young, dif- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 187 

fering from P. exarata in the numbcM* and strength of spiral ridges. 
Length 0.65 nun., diameter 0.55 mm. One specimen was taken 
from Ckama at Mazatlan, Mexico." 

From an examination of the type we are able to add that it is a 
much worn, yoimg, and distorted Mfrustho. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) RECTA de FoUn. 
OdeUarecta db Folin, Les Fonds do la M<t, vol. 2, 1S72, j)i>. 107, IGS. 

Shell conic, ventricose, subcrvstalline, robust, with straight spire. 
Nuclear whorls three, forming an acute apex, having their axis at 
right angles to that of the succeeding turn. Post-nuclcMir whorls 
four, marked by three broad, strong, somewhat rounded, spiral keels 
between the sutures, the spaces between whicli are less wide than 
the keels. Sutures ill defined. Last whorl almost e([ual to half the 
length of the shell. Base marked bv less developed spiral cords. 
Aperture oval; columella provided with a strong fold. 

De Folin's type, which was unfortunately crushed by him while 
being drawn, comes from the Margarita Island, Bay of Pananui. It 
had four post-nuclear whorls and measured : Length 2.0 mm., diameter 
LI mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) AMILDA, new species. 

Vl'dW 21, liir. 4.- 

Shell ovate, transparent. Nuclear whorls deeply ()l)li([uely 
immersed in the first of the succeedin;^ turns, above which only 
the tilted edge of the last whorl projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, slightly contracted at the sutm-es, and somewhat shoul- 
dered at the summits, the first marked l)y four slender e([ual and 
subequally spaced incised sj)iral lines: the r(\st are markt^l by a 
strongly incised groove a little below the sununit whicli causes this 
to appear bounded by a well-rounded cord; th(* ic^uiaindcn- of the 
whorls between the sutures show a f(»\v distaiitlv spaccMl and fe(*l)lv 
incised s])iral lines and luunerous xcry line, decidedly r(*tracii\e 
lines of growth. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, llasc 
somewhat inflated, well roundccl, sliglitly attcnuat<vl anteriorly, 
marke<l by numerous excecHlingly i\iu\ microscopic spiral striations 
and three well incised e({ual and ecpially spaced lin(\s on the antcM'ior 
half. Aperture oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; postcM'ior ani^^le 
obtuse; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col- 
umella slender, deci(l(Hlly curved, som(»what rc^llected, rei'nforced by 
the base; provided with a strong fold at iis insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. OOOOr), U.S.N.AL) comes from San Diego, 
California. It has four post-iuiclear whorls and measures: J^ength 
2.6 mm., diameter !..'> mm. Two additional specimens (Cat. no. 
206907, U.S.N.M.) come from Round Island, Lower CaUfornia. 



188 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (MBNBSTHO) CALLIPTRGA DaU and Bartach. 

Plate 20, fig. 9. 

Odoatomia {Odetta) callipyrga Dall and Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 17, 
1904, p. 12. =Odetta elegans de Foun, Fonda de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 167, 
pi. 6, fig. 4; not Odostomia {Evalea) elegans A. Adams, 1860, nor Harvella 
[=Odo8tomm] elegans H. and A. Adams, 1863, nor Odostomia elegans Mon- 
te rosato, 1869. 

Shell oblong-ovate, somewhat ventricose, white. Nuclear whorls 
nearly half immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls somewhat inflated, moderately contracted at the 
periphery and moderately shouldered at the summit, marked by 
strong spiral cords of which 2 appear upon the first, 3 upon the sec- 
ond, and 4i upon the penultimate turn between the sutures. These 
cords are separated by well impressed, narrow, spiral grooves which 
are crossed by slender axial threads. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl well rounded, marked by four spiral cords, similar to those on 
the spire, the space between which is ornamented Uke the grooves in 
the spire. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, show- 
ing the external sculpture within; columella slender, somewhat 
curved and slightly reflected, provided with a fold at its insertion. 

The type was collected at Margarita Island, Bay of Panama. It 
has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.2 nmi., diam- 
eter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENBSTHO) FARMA. new species. 

Plat(i20, figs. 1. la. 

Shell elongate, ovate, cream-colored. Nuclear whorls at least two, 
marked with three slender, spiral lirations, the apex being deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. The junc- 
tion of the nucleus and the post-nuclear whorls is marked by a varix. 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, marked by three equal and sub- 
equally spaced s])iral grooves which are crossed by slender axial 
riblets, the combination of grooves and ribs giving the whorls a 
pitted appearance. The four raised spaces bounded by the spiral 
grooves are finely spirally striated. Suture deeply channeled. 
Periphery of the last whorl marked by a spiral groove. Base of the 
last whorl well rounded, marked by four incised lines on the i)osterior 
two-thirds, which are equally spaced but grow successively weaker. 
The peripheral and first subperipheral channel are equal to those on 
the spire: all are rendered pitted ])y the slender axial riblets. An- 
terior third smooth. Aperture broadly oval, somewhat effuse an- 
teriorly: posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella slender, 
curved, somewhat reflected and reenforced by the base; parietal wall 
covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206908 U.S.N.M.) comes from Catalina Island, 
California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.4 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 189 

0D08T01CIA (IIBNXSTHO) BNORA. new ipaclM. 

Plate 21, fig. 2. 

Shell elongate-ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, slightly contracted at the sutures and weakly shouldered at 
the summits, marked between the sutures bv four feeblv incised 
spiral grooves of which the second one above the periphery is the 
weakest. Periphery of the last whorl somewhat inflated. Base well 
rounded posteriorly, somewhat attenuated anteriorly, marked by 
four subequal but unequally spaced incised spiral lines. Aperture 
oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior anj^le acute; outer lip 
thin; columella slender, slightly curved and somewhat revolute, pro- 
vided with a weak fold at its insertion. 

The type and two specimens (Cat. no. 207126 U.S.N.M) come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 2.8 mm., diameter 1..S mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) CmLENSIS, new species. 

Plat«' 21, fifr. 6. 

Shell milk-white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear 
whorls well rounded, slightly constricted at the suture and moder- 
ately shouldered at the summit, marked ])v four ])itted spiral grooves, 
three of which divide the posterior two-thirds between the sutures 
into three almost equal areas, while the fourth is at the perij)hery. 
The space between the peripheral grooves and the one posterior to 
it is equal to one-third the spac(» between the sutures. Th(\set grooves 
as well as those on the base are crossed by nianv slender axial riblets 
which break them up into pits. Tlie raised spaces between the 
grooves are marked by slender lines of growth and many (»xtreniely 
fine spiral striations. Suture well impressed. Base of the last 
whorl well roimded, marked by seven pitted, well incised lines and 
microscopic spiral striations. Aperture l)roa(lly ovate; ])osterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin; columella slender, curved, decidedly revo- 
lute, provided with a strong oblique fol<l at its insertion; parietal 
wall covered' with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 1093G3 T.S.N.M.) was taken from the anchor 
of the Bureau of Fisheries steamer Alhatross at Tome, Chile. It is 
a fragment consisting of the last three whorls (the nucleus and prob- 
ably the first two post-nuclear whorls being lost), and measures: 
Length 2.3 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) FETELLA, new species. 
Plate 21, ligs. {), 9a. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls small, 
obliquely two-thirds immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. 



190 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted at the 
sutures and slightly shouldered at the summit, marked by four strong 
flattened cords which grow successively a little weaker from the sum- 
mit to the periphery, separated by narrow, deeply incised spiral 
grooves. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a broad, flat cord 
somewhat wider than the first supra-peripheral one. Base of the 
last whorl somewhat attenuated anteriorly, well rounded, marked by 
eleven equal and equally narrow, rounded, spiral cords. In addition 
to this sculpture, there are many very fine incised spiral lines and 
decidedly retractive axial lines of growth on the spire and base. 
Aperture broadly oval, slightly effuse anteriorly, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; colu- 
mella moderately strong, slightly curved, somewhat reflected, com- 
pletely reenforced by the base, provided with a strong fold at its 
insertion; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 46478, U.S.N.M.) and 124 specimens come from 
San Diego, CaUfomia. The type has seven post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Length 4.4 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. DO. 



120<)2o 
40498 

2080l>8 
4&478 
46477 



127053 
106520 



Num- 
ber of 
speci- 
mens. 



12 

1 

150 

125 

80 

1 

4 

10 
1 



Locality. 



Disposition of 
material. 



San Pedro, California 

...do 

do 

San Diego, California 

do 

Foot of Ash street, San Diego, California. 

San Diego, California 

Ix)ng Beach, California 

San Jgnacio Lagoon, Lower California. . . 



IT 



Mus. 



S. Nat. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Oldroyd Coll. 
Univ. of Cal. 
V. S. Nat. Mils. 

Do. 



ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) HYPOCURTA, new species. 

Plate 21. fig. 8. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, bluish-white. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, marked hy five broad, 
strong, deeply incised spiral grooves, that divide the space betw^een 
the sutures into raised, flattened keels, which are successively a little 
wider from the summit to the peripher\\ Periphery of the last 
whorl marked by a groove similar to those above. Base rather short, 
moderately rounded, marked by five subetjual and subequally spaced 
spiral grooves which are a little weaker than those on the spire. The 
entire surface of the shell is marked by slender lines of growth, and 
the raised s])aces between the spiral grooves are finely spirally stri- 
ated. Suture strongly impressed. Aperture ? (outer lip fractured); 
columella strong, curved, revolute, its posterior two-thirds reenforced 
by the base; eolumellar fold not visible in the aperture. Operculum 
paueispiral. 



WEST AMEBICAK PYBAMIDELLID MOLLUSK8. 191 

The unique type (Cat. no. 168660, U.S.N.M.) was (lre(l|s:eil at U. K. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 3306, olT Bristol Bay. Bering Soti, Alaska, 
in 33 fathoms, bottom temperature 3S.0. It has five post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: length 4.3 mm., diamotor 2.2 mm. 

0D08T0MIA (MBIfBSTHO) iBQUISCULPTA Carpenter. 

Plate 20, fig8. :\, :ki. 

Odoitomia (EvaUa) aequiMailpta <\\kpen'tek. Ann. Ma^. Nat. IIi.st., :^d mt., vol. 
14, 1864, pp. 40, A7 =()do9tomia {(jHcilla) ivquiaculpta (Carpenter) D.vll and 
Bartbch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1!K)3, p. 2H4, pi. 1, figs. 3, :kz ({xirt). 

Shell elongate-ovate, semitranslucent. Nuclear whorls doojjy 
obliquely immersed, the tilted edge of tlie last only l)eing visible. 
Post-nuclear whorls rounde<l, somewhat inflated, marked by strong, 
well-rounded, ei^ual spiral keels, of which 4 occur upon the fii-st, 5 
on the second, and 6 between the sutures upon the i>cnultiniatc 
turn, half of the i>eripheral one falling in (ho suture; here too there 
is a tendency in the one at the summit to l)econu> s))lit. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked by six spiral cords, 
which grow^ successively weaker from the periphery lo the l)iuse. 
Spaces between the cords and s])ire and base narrow, marked by 
numerous, decidedly retractive axial threads. Suture well im- 
pressed. Aperture broadly oval, somewhat efluse anteriorly; po-s- 
terior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 
within; columella strong, decidedly reflected anteriorly, n^enforced 
by the base, provided with a small foM at its insertion; parietal wall 
covered with a faint callus. 

The type (Gat. no. 16221, U.S.N.M.) comes from (\ipe St. Lucas. 
It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: LcMigth 2 mm., diam- 
eter 1.2 nun. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO; HARFORDENSIS Dall and Bartsch. 

OdoBtomia(}lenc80io) harfnnit nnia Dai.i.siihI MAHTsni, Vnn'. I'.S. Xal. Miir»., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 521, pi. 4(>, lij,'. T). 

Shell elongate-ovate, l)luish-whit(». Nuclear whorls smooth, ob- 
Uquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, only two- 
thirds of the last volution ])r()jccts ab()V(» them. Post-nuclear whorls 
well rounded and somewhat inflated, marked by numerous incre- 
mental lines and five cfpially strong, but irregularly distributed, 
punctate, incised, sj)iral lines ])etween tlu^ sutures. The two near 
thesununit are placed closer to (»ach other than any of the others, the 
space between the summits and tlu^ second line being about e([ual to 
the space inclosed l)etwe(»n the fii-st and second supra-peripheral 
lines. The third line falls on about the middle of the exposed por- 
tion of the w^horls and is a little nearer to the second line than the 



192 BULLETIN 08, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

one anterior to it. In addition to these five strongly incised lines 
there are numerous very fine and closely spaced spiral striae which 
cross all parts of the surface of the shell. Periphery and base of 
the last turn inflated, the latter marked by lines of growth and eight 
strongly incised, punctate spiral lines, which are a little less strongly 
impressed and a little more closely spaced at the umbilical area than 
at the peripheral part of the base. These lines equal those of the 
spire in strength. Sutures constricted. Aperture very large, some- 
what efl'use anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, showing 
the external sculpture within; columella curved, reenforced by the 
attenuated base and provided with a strong fold and its insertion; 
parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 196299, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Mrs. Merri- 
hew, at Port Harford, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3.2 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (MBNESTHO) SUBLIRULATA Carpenter. 

Plate 20, fig. 4. 
Odostomia sublirulata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 185C, p. 410. 

Shell elongate-ovate, milk-white. (Nuclear whorls ?) Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately rounded, smooth between the well im- 
pressed sutures. Periphery of the last whorl somewhat angulated. 
Base slightly elongated, well rounded, marked by seven subequal 
slender, raised spiral cords which are separated by channels about 
cme-half as wide as the cords. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin, decidedly thickened within; columella straight, rather 
thick, somewhat reflected over the umbilical chink; provided with 
an oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type was taken from a Spondyln^ at Mazatlan, Mexico; it is 
on tablet 1952, Liverpool collection, British Museum. It has five 
j)ost-nuclear turns and measures: Length 2 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

Subgenus EVALEA A. Adams. 

Evalca A. Adams, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, I860, p. 22; -\-Ojiditia de Folin. 
Fonda de la Mor, 1870, p. 214; t>T>e, Ondina sulcata de Folin; -\-Auriculina 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1847, p. 159; type, Odostomia obliqna Alder; -\-Ptyvh- 
ostomon Locard, Prod, de les Moll, de France, 188(i, p. 228; type. Turbo 
conoidcus BROCCia. 

Odostomias having the surface marked by fine incised spiral lines. 
Type. — EvaJen elegans A. Adams. 



WEST AMERICA!? PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 193 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUB(JENUH EVALEA. 

Shell umbilicated. 

Spind eculpture consisting of incised lines only. 

Columellar fold on th6 middle of the columella nunirakenmjty p. 1U4. 

Columellar fold decidedly posterior to the middle of th(» columella. 

Spiral sculpture strong. 

Shell tiiick and robust l-illuinooetisift, p. 195. 

Shell thin and delicate. 

Shell small, adult 4.1 mm. long tiUamookenjfis, p. 195. 

Shell larger, adult 5.5 mm. long esilda, p. 196. 

Spiral sculpture very fine. 

Shell very broadly conic. 

Sutures very strongly contracted aleiiticn, p. 196. 

Sutures not strongly contracted kadiak^nsn'ji, p. 197. 

Shell elongate-conic. 

Sunmiit of the whorln narrowly tiil)ulat<*<l henhhi, i>. 197. 

Summit of the whorla not tubulated. 

Sutures strongly contracted. 

Whorls well rounded. 

Shell very small, adult l.() mm. lon^.///n/<.v. p. It>7. 

Shell larger, adult .'{ mm. long vdldci, j). 19S. 

Whorls flattened in the middle nemo, j). HIS. 

Sutures not strongly contracted in, p. 199. 

Shell ovate pralnnm, p. 199. 

Spiral sculpture consisting of fine incised lines and sl(»n<ler raised lirations, the 

latter stronger than the spaces between the striations. 

Spiral lirations confined to the ba.se scplcnfrlotialis, p. 2(M), 

Spiral lirations on spire and biuse nipitatm, p. 2{M). 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Incised spiral lines strong over the entire surface of the shell 

Periphery of the last whorl subangulated. 

Spiral sculpture unifonn jemtti, p. iOI . 

Spiral sculpture consisting of fine and strong striaiions . . . i/ijidtn, p. 201 . 

Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. 

Shell elongate-conic rohniihiand, ]>. 202. 

Shell elongate-ovate ininhiskrusis, p. 20:i. 

Incised spiral lines strong on the early whorls and much fin<'r on the later turns. 

Shell very broadly ovate. 

Shell with incised lines and raised lirations on the last whorl, ^//o.sw/, j). 203. 

Shell with incised lines only. 

Outer lip decidedly ex])and('d anteriorly ohcsn, p. 203. 

Outer lip evenly curved lurasdtui, p. 204. 

Shell elongate-ovate. 

Shell white, semitranspareni. 

Adult shell -I.S mm. lonir phnncd, p. 204. 

Adult shell 3.3 mm. loni; phdtulla, p. 205. 

Shell not white nor semitransparent. 

Incisc^l spirals u])on the t^cnond whorl 7 suntamsand, p. 205. 

Incis(»d spirals upon the second whorl \h. ..tcniiisvulpta, p. 206. 

Incised spiral lines only moderately strong. 

Periphery of the last whorl very strongly angulated dugtilaris, p. 207. 

Periphery of the last whorl subangulated. 

Posterior angle of aperture with weak notch socorroenaiji, p. 208. 

Posterior angle without notch. 

Adult shell 4.5 mm. long donilUi, p. 208. 

Adult shell 3 mm. long californica, p. 208. 



194 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Shell not umbilioated— Continued. 

Incised spiral lines only moderately strong — Continued. 
Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. 

Summits of the whorls tabulately shouldered aerUlaj p. 209. 

Summit of the whorls not tabulately shouldered. 

Shell broadly conic iacomaensis, p. 209. 

Shell elongate-conic. 

Shell very small, adult 3.3 mm. long amchiikana, p. 210. 

Shell larger, more than 5 mm. long stephensi, p. 210. 

Shell elongate-ovate dessini, p. 211. 

Incised spiral lines exceedingly fine. 

Periphery of the last whorl strongly angulated. 

Shell conic minutissima^ p. 211. 

Shell broadly conic. raymondi, p. 212. 

Periphery of the last whorl subangulated. 

Shell lai^e, adult more than 6.5 mm. long gravida^ p. 212. 

Shell small, adult less than 4 mm. long. 
Shell elongate-ovate. 

Summit of the whorls subtabulated notUla^ p. 213. 

Summit of the whorls slopingly shouldered movillaj p. 213. 

Shell ovate altina, p. 214. 

Periphery of the whorls well rounded. 
Summit of the whorls tabulated. 

Shell small, adult 4.5 mm. long pro/undicola^ p. 214. 

Shell larger, adult 6.3 mm. long haranoffenaia, p. 215. 

Summit of the whorls not tabulated. 
Shell broadly conic. 

Columella almast straight sitka'ensis, p. 215. 

Columella very strongly curved hagemeisteri, p. 216. 

Shell conic. 

Shell minute, adult 2.2 mm. long rcsiruiy p. 216. 

Shell larger, adult 4 mm. long delicioaa, p. 216. 

^Shell slender, conic. 

Spiral striations on base and spire uniform parella, p. 217. 

Spiral striations stronger on the base than spire. ^ranade?wi«, p. 217. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) NUNIVAKENSIS. new species. 

Plate 22, fij,'. 6. 

Shell elongate ovate, deeply uinbilicated, milk-white. Nuclear 
whorls small, deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls increasing very regularly in size, rather 
high between the sutures, well rounck^l with strongly tabulated sum- 
mits. Suture strongly marked. Periphery and base of last whorl 
well rounded, umbilicus bounded by a slender thread. Aperture 
elongate-ovate, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella 
slender, f-shaped, slightly revolute, free from the base, armed with a 
strong fold near its center. Entire surface crossed by fine lines of 
growth and (exceedingly fine, closely spaced, wavy spiral striations. 

The unique type (Cat.no. 159476, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Dr. 
William II. J)all at the north end of Nunivak Island, Alaska. It has 
live post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3 mm., diameter 1.6 
mm. Th(» fine spiral striati(ms have been omittetl in the drawing. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 195 

ODOSTOICIA (EVALSA) KILUSNOOBlf SIS. turn ipedM. 

Plate 22, fig. 7. 

Shell very elongate ovate, umbiiicated, yellowish white. Nuclear 
whorls very small, obliquely, almost completely immersed in the first 
of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls evenly, moderately 
rounded, with very faintly shouldered summits, marked by numerous, 
fairly strong, equal and equally closely spaced, wavy, spiral stria- 
tions, and fine retractive lines of growth. Periphery and base of last 
whorl well rounded, marked like the spire. Suture wtU impressed. 
Aperture ovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly, posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin; columella very oblique, posterior two-thinls straight, 
and strongly reflected, anterior third strongly curved; columellar 
fold strong, oblique, situated at the insertiim of the columella; 
parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 159457, U.S.N.M.) was coliectetl by A. Krause, 
at Killisnoo, Alaska. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 6.4 nmi., diameter 3 mm. Three other specimens (Cat. no. 
205214, U.S.N.M.) from the same place by the same collector were 
donated to the U. S. National Museum by the Berlin Museum, in 
whose collection three additional specimens are listed under Cat. no. 
36334. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) Tn,LAMOOKENSIS Deill and Bartsch. 

Platf 22, (ig. 2. 

Odostomia {Evalea) tillamookrnsis Dall and Hartsch, Vtov, V. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, pp. 522, 523, pi. 47, lig. 1. 

Shell elongate-conic, thin, yellowish white. Nuclear whorls sur- 
rounded by the first of the succeeding turns and so inmiersed as to 
give the apex a broadly tnmcated apj)oarance. Post-juiclear whorls 
inflated, evenly strongly roundt^d, wry slightly shouldered at the 
summit, separated by well-marked sutures. Periphery and base of 
the last whorl well rounded, the latter inflated, narrowly openly 
umbilicated. Entire surface markcMl by numerous line, wavy, sub- 
equal, weakly incised spiral lines, of which al)out 35 occur between 
the summit and the j)eripliery of the last whorl and about an equal 
number on the base. Aj)erture oyal; outer lip thin; columella slen- 
der, evenly gently eurvcul, and slightly revolute, free, not reenforced 
at the base, provided with a slender fold at its insertion, which is not 
visible when the aperture is yiewed squarely. 

The type (Cat. no. 106244, U.S.N.M.) has four post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 4.1 mm., diameter 2.2 nmi. It was dredged 
by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 3340, off 
Tillamook. Oregon, in 786 fathoms, green mud, bottom tempera- 
ture 37^3. 



196 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALSA) ESILDA, new tpedet. 

Plate 22, lig. 1 . 

Shell elongate-ovate, light yellow. Nuclear whorls decollated. 
Post-nuclear whorls inflated, shghtly rounded in the middle, more so 
toward the suture, and the appressed summit. ' Periphery and base of 
the last whorl well rounded, the latter narrowly umbilicated. Entire 
surface of spire and base marked by vertical lines of growth and 
numerous very fine, closely spaced, spiral lirations. Aperture large, 
oval, slightly effuse anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; 
columella slender, strongly reflected, almost closing the umbilicus; 
provided with a strong, deep-seated fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206909, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2936, in 359 fathoms, temperature 49°, oflF San 
Diego, California. It has lost the nucleus and the &rst post-nuclear 
turn; the five remaining measure: length 5.5 mm., diameter 2 mm. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALSA) ALBUTICA, new ipedM. 

Plate 22, fig. 5. 

Shell broadly conic, light green. Nuclear whorls small, deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear 
whorls somewhat inflatedly rounded, with well-rounded summits. 
Entire surface marked by fine lines of growth and numerous very 
fine, closely spaced, wavy, spiral striations. Sutures strongly 
impressed. Peripher}' of the last whorl and base well rounded, the 
latter quite strongly inflated. Aperture broadly ovate, somewhat 
efl'use anteriorly, posterior angle acute; outer lip broadly curved, 
thin; columella slender, curved, and reflected, free from the base, 
forming a suggestion of an umbilicus; columellar fold slender, situ- 
ated a little below the insertion of the columella ; parietal wall covered 
by a thin callus. 

The above description is based upon two individuals which, together 
with twelve other specimens form Cat. no. 205179, U.S.N.M., and 
which were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 3336, in 
Iliuliuk Harbor, Bering Sea, Alaska, in 55 fathoms, bottom tempera- 
ture 41 °.6. The nucleus was described from a young individual and 
the post-nuclear whorls from an adult specimen, which has lost the 
nucleus and the first post-nuclear turn. The five remaining turns of 
this measure : Length 4.4 mm., diameter 2.8 mm. Another specimen, 
Cat. no. 159464, U.S.X.M., was collected in Captains Harbor, 
Unalaska, Alaska, in 25 fathoms on mud bottom, by Dr. W. H. Dall. 
Another, Cat. no. 1G095S, I^.S.N.M., also collected by Doctor Dall, 
comes from Amaknak Island, Unalaska, Alaska. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 197 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) KADIAKENSIS, new species. 

Plate 22, fig. 9. 

Shell very regularly elongate conic, iimbilicatcd, yellowish white. 
(Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls moderately 
rounded, marked by vertical lines of growth and numerous, exceed- 
ingly fine, wavy, spiral striations. Sutures deeply impressed. Pe- 
riphery of the last well rounded. Base strongly inflated, marked like 
the spire; lunbilicus narrow, partly covered by the strongly reflected 
columella. Aperture ovate, effuse anteriorly, posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin; columella thin, very oblique, strongly curved ante- 
riorly and decidedly reflected, provided with a weak fold a little 
anterior to its insertion. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. no. 159470, IJ.S.N.M.) were 
collected by Dr. W. H. Dall at Kadiak Island, Alaska. The type has 
six post-nuclear whorls and measun^s: T>(»ngth 5.2 mm., diameter 

2.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALBA) HBRILDA. new species. 

Plate 23, fi^. S. 

Shell elongate-conic, light yellow. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
cylindric in outline, moderately rounded in the middle and very much 
so at the very strongly shouldered summit. Sutures well impressed. 
Periphery short, base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter nar- 
rowly umbilicat<Ml. Entire surface of spire and base marked by 
nxmierous vertical lines of growth and exceedingly fine, closely spaced, 
wavy spiral striations. Apertiu*e ovate, posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin; columella slend(»r, somewhat sinuous, slightly reflected, 
provided with a deep-seated fold a little anterior to its insertion; 
parietal wall glazed with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 200910, U.S.N.M.) was dredged off San Diego, 
California. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Tjcngth 

3.8 mm., diameter 1.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) TENUIS Carpenter. 

Plate 22, fip. '^. 

Odostomia tenuis Carpkntkk, ('at. Mazatlan ShelN, 185G, p. 412; not Odostomia 
tenuis Dall and Bartsch, Mom. Cal. Acad. Sri., vol. 3, 1903, p. 281, pi. 1, 
fig. 14. 

Shell elongate-conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, deeply 
obliquely immei'sed. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, well roundetl, 
somewhat overhanging, strongly constricted at the suture. Periph- 
ery and base of the last whorl somewiiat inflated, w^ell rounded, 
strongly umbiUcatod. Entire surface of spire and base marked by 

2566— Bull. G8— 00 14 



198 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

many equal closely and equally spaced spiral striations. Aperture 
oval; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella thin, curved, 
with a slender fold opposite the umbilicus; parietal wall covered with 
a thin callus, wluch renders the peritreme complete. 

Two specimens of this species were obtained off SpoTidylus, at 
Mazatlan, Mexico. Tablet 1958, Liverpool collection, British 
Museum, contains the largest, which has five post-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: T^.ngth, 1.6 mm.; diameter, 0.7 mm. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALEA) VALDEZI Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 23, fig. (i. 

Odnslomia{Evalea)valdezi DALi.aud Barthch, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mum., vol. 33, 1907, 
p. 526, pi. 48, fig. 2. 

Shell small, thin, very elongate-oval, subdiaphanous to milk-white, 
having the entire surface marked by rather strong lines of growth 
and numerous microscopic spiral striations. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obUquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last turn is visible. Post-nuclear turns 
rather liigh between the sutures, well rounded, with narrowly roundly 
shouldered summits. Periphery and base of the last turn inflated and 
well rounded, the latter with a very narrow umbilical chink. Aper- 
ture moderately large, oval; posterior angle acute; columella strongly 
curved, reinforced by the attenuated base and provided with a moder- 
ately strong fold opposite the umbilical chink. 

The type has five post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 3 
mm., diameter 1.3 mm. It and another specimen (Cat. no. 196249, 
U.S.N.M.) were collected by Mr. S. S. Berr>^, in 12 fathoms, off Del 
Monte, Monterey, California. Two additional specimens from the 
same station are in Mr. Berrv's collection. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) NEMO, new species. 

Plate 22, fig. S. 

Shell elongate-conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
lilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls flat- 
tened in the middle, moderately contracted at the suture, and 
roundly shouldered at the summit. Suture strongly impressed. 
Periphery and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, well rounded, 
the latter very frequently narrowly umbilicated. Entire surface of 
spire and base marked by vertical lines of grow^th and numerous 
exceedingly fine, spiral striations. Aperture ovate, somewhat effuse 
anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip tlun; columella thin, 
curved, strongly reflected, provided \nth a fold at its insertion; 
parietal wall glazed with a thin callus. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



199 



The type (Cat. no. 206911, U.S.N.M.) comes from San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.8 
mm., diameter 2.1 mm. 

Examinations of the following specimens have been made : 



UJ3.NJif. 
Cat. no. 



126626 
200912 



2068n 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



5 
15 
29 

2 
al 



Station 
No. 



IxK^ty. 



San Pedro, Califomia. 

do 

do 

San Diego, California. 
do 



Disposition of 
material. 



U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do, 
Oldroyd coll. 
Univ. Cal. roU. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 



a Type. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALEA) ID. new species. 
Plate 22, fi^. 4. 

Odostomia tenuis Dall and Bartsch, Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 287, 
pi. 1, fig. 14; not Odostomia tenuis Carpenter, 1856. 

Shell regularly conic, umbilicated, white. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely immereed in the fii>jt of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted etlge of the Liist volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls sUghtly rounded, feebly contracted at the sutures, and very 
faintly shouldered at the summit. Sutures poorly defined. Periph- 
ery faintly angulated. Base somewhat inflated, well rounded, nar- 
rowly umbilicated. Entire surface marked by retractive lines of 
growth and closely spaced spiral striations. Aperture ovate, some- 
what eflfuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer Hp thin; columella 
slender, very strongly curved, slightly revolute, provided with a 
strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 56770, U.S.N.M.) and another specimen comes 
from Santa Rosa Island, California. The type has six post-nuclear 
whorls and metisures: Length 5.6 mm., diameter 2.3 mm. Cat. no. 
107741, U.S.N.M., two specimens dredged in 6 fathoms, in Santa 
Barbara Channel. Cat. no. 15316, U.S.N.M., one specimen from 
San Pedro. University of California has a specimen dredged at 
station 30, off Santa Catalina Island. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) PRATOMA, new spedes. 
Plate 23, fijjj. 4. 

Shell elongate-ovate, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the la.st volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, strongly contracted at the sutures, with a rounded sloping 
shoulder at the summit. Periphery obsoletely angulated. Base 



200 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

well rounded with an obscure umbilical chink. Entire surface of 
base and spire marked by numerous, sUghtly retractive lines of 
growth and exceedingly fine, closely spaced, spiral striations. Aper- 
ture ovate; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip very thin; columella 
slender, strongly curved, sUghtly revolute, provided with a weak, deep>- 
seated fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206913, U.S.N.M.) and twenty-one specimens 
were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 2902, in 53 fathoms, 
temperature 45°, off Santa Rosa Island, CaUfomia. 

The type has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.9 
mm., diameter 1.4 mm. Fifteen additional specimens (Cat. no. 
206914, U.S.N.M.) were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station 
2901, in 48 fathoms, temperature 55°. 1, also off Santa Rosa Island. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) SEPTENTRIONAUS, new species. 

Plate 26, fig. 9. 

Shell very elongate, ovate, thin, umbiJicated, soiled yellowish white. 
Nuclear whorls small, smooth, very obliquely, deeply immersed in 
the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, well 
rounded, summits appressed, marked by fine, retractive lines of 
growth and numerous fine, wavy, spiral striations between the sutures 
and on the base. The posterior half of the base has, in addition to 
the above marking, three broad, low, feeble, raised, spiral threads. 
Umbilicus very narrow. Aperture large, very regularly oval; pos- 
terior angle obtuse, the thin outer lip bending strongly outward in a 
broad sweeping curve; columella long, slender, regularly curved and 
moderately reflected, not reenforced by the base, provided with a 
feeble obli(|ue fold at its insertion; parietal wall glazed with a thin 
callus. 

The type, Cat. no. 159462, U.S.N.M., and two additional specimens, 
were collected by Doctor Dall, at Unalaska, Alaska. It has five post- 
nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 4.3 mm., diameter 2.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) CAPITANA, new species. 

Plate 26, fig. 7. 

Shell elongate oval, unbilicated, light yellow. Nuclear whorls 
small, deeply, very obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, with strongly rounded 
summits. Entire surface marked by fine lines of growth and exceed- 
ingly numerous, very fine, wavy, spiral striations. In addition to 
these markings the whorls are covered by eight very slender, sub- 
equally spaced, obsolete threads between the sutures and four which 
are. considerably stronger and equally spaced on the base. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter narrowly umbili- 
cated. Aperture rather large, broadly ovate, posterior angle acute; 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 201 

outer lip thin; columella slender; very strongly eurveil and reflected, 
not reenforced by the base; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type, Cat. no. 1594646, U.S.X.M., was collected in 25 fath- 
oms, on sand bottom, in Captains Harbor, Unalaska, Alaska, by Dr. 
W. H. Dall. It has five post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 
4.6 mm., diameter 2.5 mm. Another specimen, Cat. no. 159468, 
U.S.N.M., also collected by Doctor Dall, conies from 12 fathoms, mud 
bottom, St. Paul, Kadiak Island, Alaska. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALEA) JEWETTI Dall and Bartsch. 

Piatt' 2'^, fig. :\. 

Odostomia {Evalea) jewctti Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mils*., vol. 33, 
1907, pp, 523, 524, pi. 47, fig. 3. =Odostomia inflata rAHPENTEii, part, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, 1865, p. 394. 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls very small, sjnooth, 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the last one is visible. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, a little 
more abruptly so on the posterior third between the sutures. Sum- 
mits very narrowly flattened which renders the sutures well marked. 
Periphery of the last whorl slightly angulated. Base slightly con- 
tracted, moderately rounded between the periphery and umbilical 
area, narrowly produced to reenforce the columella. Entire surface 
marked by numerous somewhat wavy, subequal and subequally 
spaced minute slender spiral lirations, of which there are about 85 
between the summit and the periphery and an e(iual number between 
the periphery and the base on the last turn. Aj)erture large, patulous 
anteriorly; posterior angle acute, outer lip thin at the edge, thick 
within; columella curved, somewhat reflected, reenforced by the 
attenuated base, and i)rovide(l with a strong oblique fold at its 
insertion. 

The two cotypes (Cat. no. 15521r, U.S.N.M.) were collected by 
Colonel Jewett at Santa Barbara, California. One is a young speci- 
men consisting of the nucleus and three post-nuclear whorls; the other 
has lost the nucleus and y)robably the first two post-nuclear turns ; the 
five which remain measure: Length 6.1 mm., diameter 8.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA; INFLATA Carpenter. 

Plat«' 23, fig. 7. 

Odostomia {Evalea) inflata (('.\rpenter) Dall and Baktscu, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 33, 1907, p. 524, pi. 47, fig. 8. 

Shell ovate, white. Nuclear whorls decollated. Post-nuclear 
whorls inflated, gently curved over the anterior two-thirds of the 
whorl between the sutures and more strongly so on the posterior 
thirdy this portion forming an evenly curved shoulder. Extreme 
summit of the whorls slightly flattened and narrow, rendering the 



202 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

sutures well marked. Periphery of the last whorl subangulated. 
Base attenuated, rather suddenly contracted below the periphery, 
which gives the space between the periphery and the umbilical area 
a concave aspect. Entire surface marked by fine lines of growth and 
many fine, closely placed spiral lirations, five of which are a little 
stronger than the rest and divide the space between the sutures into 
subequal areas. There are about 30 of these threads upon the last 
turn between the summit and the periphery and about 60 on the base. 
Aperture very large, patulous anteriorly; outer lip thin at the edge 
but very thick within; columella decidedly curved, and revolute, 
reenforced to the very edge by the attenuated base, provided with a 
strong oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type and a young individual (Cat no. 155216) were collected 
by J. G. Swan at Neah Bay, Washington. It has the last four whorls 
(the nucleus and probably the first post-nuclear turn being lost) and 
measures: Length 6.2 mm., diameter 3.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) COLUMBIANA DaU and Bartsdi. 

Plate 23, fig. 1. 

Odostomia (Evalea) Columbiana Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 525, pi. 47, fig. 9. 

Shell large, elongate-conic, white. Nuclear whorls small, vitreous, 
planorboid, deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution is visible. 
Post-nuclear whorls increasing regularly in size, well rounded, very 
narrowly roundly shouldered at the summits, which renders the sut- 
ures well marked. Periphery of the last whorl somewhat inflated. 
Base well rounded, attenuated anteriorly to reenforce the columella. 
Entire surface covered by numerous somewhat wavy, subequal and 
subequally closely placed spiral lirations, of which about 40 occur 
between the summit and the periphery and about an equal number on 
the base of the last whorl. Aperture large, decidedly patulous ante- 
riorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin at the edge, very thick 
within; columella curved and strongly reflected, free only at its ante- 
rior extremity, provided with a strong oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type and five specimens (Cat. no. 126658, U.S.N.M.) were col- 
lected by Dr. C. F. Newcombe at Victoria, Vancouver Island, British 
Columbia. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 8.3 
mm., diameter 4.2 mm. Three other specimens (Cat. no. 196245, 
U.S.N.M.) were dredged by the Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross 
at station 4213, off Port Townsend, Washington, in 23 to 25 fathoms, 
gray sand and broken shell, bottom temperature 51 °. Another (Cat. 
no. 196246, U.S.N.M.) at stationat 4203, Fort Rupert, British Colum- 
bia, in 25 to 30 fathoms, volcanic sand and gravel and broken shell 
and sponge, bottom temperature 49°.l. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 203 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) UNALASKENSIS, new species. 

Plato 20, fis. 5. 

Shell elongate-ovate, stout and strong, li^jlit yellow. (Nuclear 
whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls llattenod on their outer 
three-fourth, rounding suddenly to the closely ai)pressed summit, on 
the posterior fourth. Entire surface of the shell marketl by lines of 
growth and numerous equal and eciually spaced, well marked spiral 
striations, of which about 2S occur between the sutures of the i)cnul- 
timate whorl. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl 
somewhat angulated. Base elongated, rounded, marked like the 
spire. Aperture ovate, slightly effuse anteriorly, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin; columella short, strongly curved and reflected, 
reenforced for the greater part b\' the attenuated base and provided 
with a strong oblique fold at its insertion: parietal wall covered by 
a thin callus. 

The imique type. Cat. no. 150464a, was collected by Dr. W. II. 
Dall, at Captains Harbor, Unalaska, Alaska. It has five and one-half 
post-nuclear turns and measures: Length 4.S mm., diameter 2.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA; ATOSSA Dall. 
Plate 2(), i\\r. s. 

Odottomia (Evalea) atossa Dall, Proc*. L. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 34, p. 253, June, 1908. 

Shell large, ovate, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls small, deeply 
obhquely immersed in the first of the suc(^eeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls inflated, well rounded, feebly contracted at the sutures, very 
weakly shouldered at the summit, marked by fine, slightly retractive 
lines of growth, and by 7 WTll-incised spiral lines on the fii*st, 10 on the 
second, and 20 on the third. On the last whoil they are very feeble 
between the sutures, where they are replaced by four slender, spiral 
threads. Periphery of the last whorl inflated. Base inflated, well 
rounded, marked by numerous, closely s])aced, fine spiral striations. 
Aperture large, ovate; ])ostenor angle acute; outer lip thin; colu- 
mella moderately strong, strongly curved, decidedly reflected, ])artly 
reenforced by the base and j)rovided with a fold at its hisertion. 

The type (Cat.no. 110687, U.S.N.M.) and another specimen comes 
from San Pedro, California. The type has five post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 0.5 mm., diameter .^5 mm., and was collected 
by Mr. H. N. Lowe. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) OBESA, new species. 

Plate 26, fipf. 4. 

Shell large, ovate, yellowish-white. Nuclear whorls very small, 
very deeply obliquely immei*sed in the first of the succeeding turns, 
above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post- 



204 BtJLLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

nuclear whorls inflated, very strongly rounded, weakly contracted at 
the sutures, appressed at the summit, marked by numerous, very 
retractive, lines of growth, and on the first three whorls by strongly 
incised s])iral lines, of which 6 occur upon the first, 17 upon the second, 
25 upon the third whorl between the sutures, while on the last whorl 
they are less strongly expressed and more numerous. Periphery and 
base of the last w^horl inflated, w^ell rounded, marked like the space 
between the sutures of the last whorl. Aperture broadly ovate; pos- 
terior angle acute; outer lip thin, decidedly expanded anteriorly; 
columella short, strongly curved, revolute, reenforced by the base and 
provided with a deep-seated fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206915, U.S.N.M.) and eight specimens come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has five post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: I^ength 6 mm., diameter 3.5 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALSA) LUCASANA, new species. 

Plate 26, fig. 2. 

Shell broadly oval, light yellow. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
inflated, weakly contracted at the sutures, appressed at the summits, 
the first marked by several slender strongly incised spiral lines, the 
remaining with uumcrous very fine closely crowded, wavy, spiral 
striations. Suture well impressed. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl well inflated, marked like the space between the sutures. 
Aperture very large, very broadly ovate; posterior angle acute; 
outer lip thin; columella stout, strongly curved, reflected, reenforced 
by the base and provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 16220, U.S.N.M.) comes from Cape St. Lucas, 
Lower California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 4.7 mm., diameter 3.2 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) PHANBA Dall and Bartscli. 

Plate 23, ii^. 5. 

Odostomia (Evalea) phanea Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 
1907, p. 528, pi. 48, fig. 7. =0do8tomia (Evaka) gouldi Dall and Bartsch, 
Mem. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1903, p. 282, pi. 1, fig. 15, not Odostomia (? vwr.)gouldii 
Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. HL^t., 3d ser., vol. 15, 1865, p. 30 (=Odostomia 
(Amaura) gouldi Carpenter, of the present paper). 

Shell elongate-ovate, subdiaphanous to milk-white, stout and shin- 
ing. Nuclear whorls small, deeply immersed in the first of the suc- 
ceeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls rather high betw^een the sutures, 
well rounded with scarcely an indication of a shoulder at the sunmiit, 
separated by well-marked sutures. Periphery and the rather long 
base of the last whorl well rounded. The first two whorls are regu- 
larly closely spirally striated, in the third striation becomes enfee- 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 205 

bled and on the penultimate decidedly obsolete, while the base is 
smooth. About 18 of the striae are visible on the third tuni. Aper- 
ture large, oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; columella decidedly 
curved and reflected, reenforced by the attenuated base, provided 
with a strong oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
4.8 mm., diameter 2.6 mm. It and another specimen (Cat. no. 46408, 
U.S.NJi.) belong to the Stearns collection and come fromMontere^^, 
California. 

There are four other lots in the collection of the U. S. Natiomal 
Musemn, all from Monterey. Cat. no. 46496, one specimen belongs 
to the Steams collection; Cat. nos. 46474 and 46479, one specimen 
each collected by Doctor Canlleld, and Cat. no. 159459, two collected 
by Doctor Dall. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALBA) PHANELLA. new species. 

Plate 28, tij:. 9. 

Shell ovate, vitreous, translucent. Xu: lear whorls deeply, very 
obliquely immersed in the first of tlie succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the hist volution proje<*ts. Post-nuclear 
whorls inflated, slightly contracted at the suture, appressed at the 
summit, marked by S strongly indsed sj)iral lines on the first and 
second and 20 upon the third, between the sutures. Suture well 
marked. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, marked 
by numerous spiral striations, which are a little weaker than those 
between the periphery and summit of the last whorl. Aperture oval; 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella moderately strong, 
decidedly curved and strongly revolute, provided with a strong fold 
at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 19634S, U.S.X.M.) ( oiues from San Pedro Bay. 
It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.3 nmi., 
diameter 1.7 mm. One specimen (Cat. no. 16267(), U.S.N.M.) from 
La Jolla and one specimen (Cat. no. 152324, U.S.N.M.) from Ballast 
Point, San Diego. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALEA) SANTAROSANA, new speiies. 

Plat(» 2(), li^. <;. 

Shell elongate-ovate, light olive. Nuclear whorls very deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution j)rojects. Post-nuclear 
whorls much broader at the moderately constricted suture than at 
the feebly shouldered summit; well rounded. The first 4 are 
marked by strongly incised spiral lines, of wliich 7 occur upon the 
second, 10 upon the third, and 13 upon the fourth, of which the 5 
immediately below^ the smnmit are finer and closer spaced than the 



206 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

rest, wliich are equal. The entire surface of the last whorl is marked 
by numerous very fine, closely spaced, wavy, spiral striations. 
Suture well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl inflated 
and well rounded. Aperture oval; posterior angle acute; outer lip 
thin; columella moderately strong, decidedly curved, somewhat re- 
flected, reenforced by the base, provided with a fold at its insertion. 
The type (Cat. no. 56770 U.S.N.M.) comes from Santa Rosa 
Island. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.9 
mm., diameter 2.7 mm. 

OIX>STOMIA (EVALEA) TENUISCULPTA Carpenter. 

Plate 23, fig. 2. 

Odostomia tenuisculpta Carpenter, 2d Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1864, p. 
659; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, 1865, p. 30. -\-Oclo8tomia straminea 
Carpenter, Journ. de Conch., vol. 13, 1865, p. 146-147. Odostomia (Evalea) 
tenuisculpta (Carpenter), Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 527, pi. 47, fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-ovate, yellowish, with the early whorls spirally Urate 
and the later ones only obsoletely so. Nuclear whorls small, smooth, 
' obliquely, ahnost completely, immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns. Post-nuclear whorls evenly well-rounded with appressed sum- 
mits. The first three marked between the sutures by many subequal 
lirse of which there are about fifteen on the second turn. On the last 
two turns these lirations become quite obsolete. Periphery and base 
of the last whorl inflated and well rounded, marked by very feeble 
spiral striation and lines of growth. Aperture moderately large, oval; 
somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; 
coliunella strongly curved, reenforced partly by the attenuated base, 
moderately reflected anteriorly, bearing a strong fold at its insertion, 
which appears as if it were the inflected termination of the columella. 

Doctor Carpenter's type (Cat. no. 15520, U.S.N.M.) is a young 
individual. It was collected by J. G. Swan at Neah Bay, Washington, 
has three post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 2.3 mm., 
tliameter 1.7 mm. The adult characters were described from two 
specimens (Cat. no. 46483, U.S.N.M.) collected by J. G. Swan at 
Neah Bay, Washington. One of these, the one figured, has six post- 
nuclear whorls and meaisurcs: Length 5.3 mm., diameter 2.9 mm. 
A specimen collected by Merrihew (Cat. no. 196247, U.S.N.M.), at 
Port Harford, California, bears a slender raised cord on the periph- 
ery of the whorl. 

The large series of specimens in the U. S. National Museum proves 
(conclusively that 0. straminea Carpenter is the smooth southern rep- 
resentative of this species. 



WEST AMERICAN PVRAMTDELLII) MOLLUSKS. 



207 



The U. S. National Museum has the followin*^ matorial : 



Naof 
speci- 
mens. 


Locality. 


Collertor. 


1 
Catalogue No. 


1 

2 

75 

6 

2 

30 

30 

30 

21 

2 

4 

1 

17 

5 

13 

1 

> 


Neah Bay, Washington 

do 

UtUe River, Mendocino County. California. 

Oualala, Mendocino County, California 

San Fianclaco Bay. Califorhia 


J. G. Swan 


15520 U.S.N.M. 

4<W83 U.S.N.M 

40480 U.S.N.M. 
101945 I'.S.N.M. 

74006 U.S.N.M. 

4W82 U.S.N.M. 

46485 U.S.N.M. 

46493 U.S.N.M. 

46489 U.S.N.M. 

46491 U.S.N.M. 

46476 U.S.N.M. 
159475 U.S.N.M. 

159477 U.S.N.M. 

159478 U.S.N.M. 

159479 U.S.N.M. 

159480 U.S.N.M. 


do 


G. W. Harford 


Steams collection 


Doctor llewston 


Monterey. California. 


Stearns coiietrtlon 

<lo 

do 

do 

do 

P. P. Cariicnter 

W. ir. Dall 

do 

do 

do 


do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do \ 

do 

do 








ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) ANGULARIS DaU and Bartach. 

Plate 24, fig. 0. 



Odoslomia (Evalea) angulcais Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Muh., vol. 33, 
1907, p. 523, pi. 47, fig. 2. 

Shell very regularly elongate-conic, subdiaphanous to milk-wliite. 
Nuclear whorls small, deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the 
succeeding turns, above which the tiUed edge of the last turn only is 
visible. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, separated by con- 
stricted sutures, marked by numerous slender, wavj% subequal and 
subequally closely spaced spiral striations, of which about 33 occur 
upon the last turn between the summit and the periphery. Periphery 
of the last whorl marked by a slender raised keel, decidedly angulated. 
Base short, moderately rounded, narrowly attenuated anteriorly to 
reinforce the columella, sculptured like the posterior portion of the 
whorls. Aperture o^^ate, very broad, slightly effuse anteriorly; pos- 
terior angle acute; columella very slender, evenly curved, closely 
appressed to the attenuated base, with a strong fold at its insertion, 
which is barely visible when the aperture is viewed squarely. 

The type has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 5.6 
mm., diameter 2.8 mm. It and four additional specimens (Cat. no. 
150565, U.S.N.M.) were collected by Rev. G. W. Taylor at Nanaimo, 
British Columbia. 

Five other lots are in the collection of the U. S. National Museum; 
Cat. no. 159474, one, collected by Doctor Dall at Sitka Harbor, Alaska; 
Cat. no. 126664, three specimens collected by Dr. C. F. Newcombe at 
Victoria, Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Cat. no. 43384, one 
specimen from Puget Sound; Cat. no. 161624, four from Port Har- 
ford, California, collected by Mrs. Merrihew; Cat. no. 196300, one, 
dredged by the Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 3194, 
off the Caiifomia coast, in 92 fathoms, gray sand, bottom tempera- 



S08 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ture 45°.9 ; eighteen specimens were determined for Mr. S. S. Berry 
from 12 fathoms off Del Monte, Monterey Bay, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) 80C0RR0ENSIS, new tpedes. 

Plate 24, fig. 1. 

Shell ovate, light yellow. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, moderately contracted at the sutures, appressed at the 
summit. Suture strongly impressed. Periphery of the last whorl 
feebly angulated. Base rather long, slightly rounded. Entire sur- 
face of spire and base marked by very numerous, closely crowded, 
exceedingly fine spiral striations. Aperture ovate; posterior angle 
with a decided notch; outer lip strongly arcuate, thin; columella 
slender, curved, slightly revolute, provided with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 153024, U.S.N.M.) and 84 specimens come from 
Socorro Island, Mexico. The type has six post-nuclear whorls and 
measures: Ijcngth 4.6 mm., diameter 2.2 mm. . 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) DONILLA, new species. 

Plate 24, fig. 3. 

Shell broadly conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, slightly contracted at the suture, appressed at the summit. 
Periphery of the last whorl angulated. Base slightly rounded, 
sloping abruptly from the periphery to the umbilical area. Suture 
slightly impressed. Entire surface of base and spire marked by 
numerous almost vertical lines of growth and many well-incised 
spiral striations. Aperture ovate, slightly effuse anteriorly; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin; columella strongly curved, reflected, 
reenforced by the* base, provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 126626, U.S.N.M.) and eight specimens come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 4.5 mm., diameter 2.2 mm. Cat. no. 152324, 
U.S.N.M., two specimens from Ballast Point, California. Cat. no. 
46470, U.S.N.M., two si)ecimens from Todos Santos Bay, I^wer 
California. Cat. no. 46497, U.S.N.M., one from the same locality. 
Eight specimens were identified for Mrs. Oldroyd, from San Pedro 
Bay, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) CALIFORNICA, new species. 

Plate 24, fig. 2. 

Shell small, broadly conic, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls deeply 
very obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects, the whole 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 209 

giving the spire a decidedly truncated oifect. Post-nucloar whorls 
moderately rounded, feebly contracted at the suture, appressed at 
the summit, through which the preceding whorl shines, which gives 
the summit the effect of having a double suture. Suture moderately 
impressed. Periphery of the last whorl inflated, weakly angidated. 
Base short, sloping in a gentle curve from the periphery to the umbil- 
ical area. Entire surface of spire and base marked by decidedly 
retractive lines of growth and numerous well-incised spiral striations. 
Aperture large, ovate ; posterior angle acute ; outer lip thin ; columella 
strongly curved, slightlj" reflected, reenforced by the narrow base, and 
provided with a strong deep-seated fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206916, U.S.X.:M.) comes from Ocean Beach, 
California. It has six post-nuclear whorls and mejisures: Iy(»ngth 
3 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. Another specimen (Cat. no. 1 03056, 
U.S.N3I.) comes from the government j<*tty at San Diego, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA; SERH^LA, new species. 

Plate 24, li^'. J). 

Shell elongate-conic, white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
titled edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
rounded, rather high between the sutures, contracted at the peripherj^ 
strongly, narrowly tabulately shouldered at the summit. Suture 
strongly marked.* Perii)herv' of the last whorl and the rather long 
base well rounded. Entire surface of spire and base marked by 
numerous lines of grow^th and well-incised spiral striations. Aperture 
ovate, posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella strongly 
curved, slightly revolute, j)rovid(»d w^th a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206017, T.S.X.M.) comes from University of 
California station 50, off San Diego. It has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Ix^ngth 4.S nmi., diameter 2 mm. 

QDOSTOMIA (EVALEA; TACOMAENSIS DaU and Bartsch. 

Plate 24, i\^. H. 

Odoslomia (Evalea) tacomacnsis DalmiikI Bartsch, PrcM-. V . S. Nat. Mils., vol. ;i3, 
1907, p. 52G, pi. 47, fi^. 10. 

Shell ovate, yellowish. Nuclear whorls small, deeply inunersed in 
the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, 
faintly roundly shouldered at the extreme summits. Periphery of the 
last whorl rounded. Base inflated, well rounded, somewhat attenuated 
anteriorly. Surface covered by numerous ecjual and equally closely 
spaced slender wavy s{)iral striati(ms, of which there are al)out forty 
between the summit and the periphery of the last whorl. Base marked 
like the space posterior to it. In addition to the spiral sculpture the 
entire surface of the shell is crossed by numerous fine lines of growth. 



210 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Aperture moderately large, oval, well rounded anteriorly; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin; columella curved, slightly reflected, 
reenforced, except at its extreme anterior end, by the attenuated base 
and provided with a strongly oblique fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 159267, U.S.N.M.) has five post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 4.3 mm., diameter 2.5 mm. It was collected 
by Mr. Fisher at Tacoma, Washington. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) AMCmTKANA, new tpedet. 

Plate 24, fig. 7. 

Shell broadly conic, thin, semitranslucent, bluish-white. Nuclear 
whorls very obhquely immersed in the first of the succeeding* turns, 
above which only the last half of the last turn is visible. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, faintly shouldered at the summit, 
marked by fine lines of growth and numerous very fine equal and 
equally spaced spirally incised lines, of which there are probably 
more than forty between the periphery and the summit of the last 
turn. Sutures rendered subchanneled by the slight shoulder at the 
summit of the whorls. Periphery and base of the last whorl weU 
rounded, the latter somewhat attenuated and marked like the spaces 
between the sutures. Aperture large, broadly pear-shaped, posterior 
angle obtuse ; outer lip broadly recurved, thin, showing the fine ex- 
ternal striation within; columella slender, curved, and revolute; reen- 
forced by the attenuated base and provided with a weak fold at its 
insertion, which is not visible when the aperture is viewed squarely; 
parietal wall glazed with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 161088, U.S.N.M.) and another specimen were 
collected by Doctor Dall at Constantine Harbor, Amchitka Island, 
Alaska. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.3 
mm., diameter 1.7 mm. 

Six specimens, collected by Mi's. Kate Stephens at Bear Bay, Peril 
Straits, BaranofT Island, Alaska, agree well with the present species. 
Two of these form Cat. no. 204013, U.S.N.M. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) STEPHENSI, new species. 

Plate 24, fig. 5. 

Shell elongate-conic, l)luish-white. Nuclear whorls almost com- 
pletely ol)liquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only the outer edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls rather high between the sutures, moderately rounded, orna- 
mented by numerous fine but well incised subequal and subequally 
spaced s])iral lines; about thirty-three of which appear between the 
summit and the periphery of the last whorl. Suture well marked. 
Periphery of last whorl well rounded. Base rather prolonged, well 
rounded, its entire surface marked by incised spirals like the spaces 
between the sutures. In addition to the spiral markings the entire 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 211 

surface shows fine incremental lines. Aperture elongate-oval, effuse 
at the junction of the outer lip and the columella; posterior angle 
obtuse; outer lip thin; columella stout, curved, and decidedly re- 
flected over the reenforced base, provided with a strong oblicjue fold 
opposite the obsolete umbilical chink: parietal wall covered with a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 204010, U.S.N.M.) has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 5.3 mm., diameter 2.6 umi. It and eight 
additional specimens were collected by Mrs. Kate StepheiLs at Bear 
Bay, Peril Straits, Baranoff Island, Alaska. Two in addition to the 
type were listed under the same number as the type in the U. S. 
National iluseum. The rest are in Mrs. Stej)hens's collection. 

Named for Mrs. Kate Stephens. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) CLESSINI, new species. 

Plate 24, %. \. 

Shell elongate-ovate, rather thick, yellowish-white. Nuclear whorls 
small, very obliquely inmiersed in the first of the succeeding turns, 
above which the edcre of ordv about two-thirds of the last nuclear 
whorl project. Post-nuclear turns very high between tlie sutures, 
moderately rounded, marked by lines of growtli aii<l fine, irregular 
and irregularly distributed incised sj)iral lines. Suture well im- 
pressed. Periphery and base of tlio last whorl well rounded, marked 
like the spacer between the sutures. Aperture ])ear-shaped, ])osterior 
angle acute; outer lip rather thick within, thin at the edge; columella 
shoil, stout, curved, reflected, reenforced by the ba^e and ])rovided 
with a strong oblique fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered by a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 204014, U.S.N.M.) has lost the nucleus and 
probably the firet post-nuclear whorl. The five turns remaining 
measure: Length 6 mm., diameter 2.9 mm. This and another speci- 
men listed under the same number were donated by Mng. Kate 
Stephens, who collected them an<l seven othei*s at Bear Bay, Peril 
Straits, Baranofl' Island, Alaska. Five additional specimens, two of 
which (Cat. no. 204015, U.S.N.M.) were collected by her at Ilawk 
Inlet, Alaska, and one* more at Mole Harbor, Alaska. Two others 
(Cat. no. 159461, U.S.X.M.) were collected l)y Doctor Dall at Sitka, 
Alaska. 

Named for T. Clessin. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) MINUTISSIMA. new species. 

Plate 2.-), fig. 4. 

Shell very small, very regularly narrowly conic, bluish-white. 
Nuclear whorls deeply oblicjuely immersed in the firet of the succeed- 
ing turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution pro- 
jects. Post-nuclear whorls slightly rounded, feebly contracted at the 



212 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

sutures, and very narrowly laLulately shouldered at the summit. 
The spiral thread at the periphery and the narrow tabulated summits, 
which fall a little anterior to this, render the suture narrowly chan- 
neled. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a slender raised thread. 
Base short, well rounded, impressed at the umbilical area. Entire 
surface of spire and base marked by slightly protractive lines of 
growth and many very fine, closely spaced spiral striations. Aper- 
ture rhomboiilal, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella 
slender, curved, slightly revolute, provided with a strong fold at its 
insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206918, U.S.N.M.) and five specimens come 
from San Diego, California. The type has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3.1 mm., diameter 1.3 mm. Two additional 
specimens (Cat. no. 206919, U.S.N.M.) come from San Hipolito Point, 
Lower California, and three more (Cat. no. 105484, U.S.N.M.) from 
Point Abreojos, Lower California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALBA) RAYMONDI, new tpedes. 

Plate 25, fig. 9. 

Shell regularly conic, milk-white. Nuclear whorls very obbquely 
deeply immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects, which gives the spire 
a decidedly truncated aspect. Post-nuclear w^horls well rounded, 
slightly shouldered at the summit, marke<l by a raised spiral thread 
at the decidedly angulateci periphery. The sununits of the whorLs fall 
a little anterior to the periphery, and cause the sutures to appear 
subchanneled. Base short, well rounded. Entire surface of base 
and spire marked by strongly retractive lines of growth and numerous 
closely spaced spiral striations. Aperture oval ; posterior angle acute ; 
outer lip thin; columella curved, reflected, reenforced by the base 
and provided with a moderately strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206920, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the Uni- 
vei-sity of California, at station 30, off Catalina Island. It has six 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3.6 mm., diameter 1.6 
mm. A topotype is in the University of California collection. 

This s])ecies resembles Odostomia {Evalea) mmutissima, but is much 
broader w^ith a stronger peripheral keel and wuth an oval instead of 
rhomboidal aperture. 

Named for Prof. William J. Raymond. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) GRAVIDA Gould. 

Plate 25, fig. 7. 

Odostomia gravida Golld, Proc. Bust. So<'. Nat. Hist., vol. G, 1852, p. 376. 

Shell large, broadly conic, milk-wliite, shining. Nuclear whorls 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 213 

whorls moderately rounded, somewhat shouldered at the summit, 
marked by fine lines of growth and numerous, very fme, closely spaced 
spiral striations. Sutures well impressed. Periphery of the last 
whorl somewhat angulated. Base sloping from tlie periphery to the 
umbilical area, but slightly rounded. Aperture ovate; posterior 
angle obtuse; outer lip fractured; columella short, strong, curved, 
and revolute, provided with a strong fold at its insertion; parietal 
wall covered with a weak callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 44, State Museum, Albany, New York (original 
ilo. 24), A 31, 10) was collected at Santa Barbara, California. It has 
seven post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 6.6 mm., diameter 
3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) NOTaLA, new species. 
Plate 25, fig. G. 

Shell very elongate, ovate, yellowish-wliite. Nuclear whorls 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above 
which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, feebly contracted at the sutures, nar- 
rowly subtabulately shouldered at the summit. Suture strongly 
marked. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a low raised (!ord, 
which renders it decidedly angulated. Base short, well rounded, 
somewhat pinched in at the umbilical area. Entire surface of spire 
and base marked by almost vortical lines of growth and numerous 
very fine, well incised, spiral striations. Aperture ovate, posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin; columella slender, slightly curved, pro- 
vided with a fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a thick 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206921, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the Uni- 
versity of California, at station 30, off Catalina Island, California. 
It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.7 mm., diam- 
eter 1.3 mm. The topot3^pe is in the University of California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALBA) MOVn.LA, new species, 
Plate 25, tig. 1. 

Shell elongate-ovate, white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls feebly 
rounded in the miildle, strongly so at the slopingly shouldered sum- 
mit, and moderately contracted at the suture. Periphery weakly 
angulated. Base rather long, moderately rounded, sloping gently 
from the periphery to the umbilical area. Suture well impressed. 
EIntire surface of spire and base marked by fine retractive lines of 
growth and numerous very fine closely spaced wavy spiral striations. 
Aperture broadly oval, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; col- 

25e5— Bull. 68—09 15 



214 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

umella slender, very strongly curved, very oblique, provided with a 
deep seated fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a thin 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206922, U.S.N.M.) and seven specimens were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, station 2936, in 359 fathoms, 
temperature 49°, off San Diego, California. It has five post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 3.6 mm., diameter 1.7 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) ALTIN A, new tpedM. 
Plate 26, fig. 2. 

Shell ovate, white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely immersed in 
the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the tilted edge of 
the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, feebly 
contracted at the suture, appressed at the summit. Suture slightly 
impressed. Periphery obscurely angulated. Base well rounded. 
Entire surface marked by slightly retractive lines of growth and 
exceedingly fine spiral striations. Aperture ovate, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin; columella strongly curved, decidedly revolute, 
provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206923, U.S.N.M.) and two additional speci- 
mens were dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, station 2936, in 359 
fathoms, temperature 49°, off San Diego, California. The type has 
five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 3 mm., diameter 
1.5 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) PROFUNDICOLA, new species. 

Plate 25, fig. 8. 

Shell turrited, milk-white. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls mod- 
erately rounded, slightly contracted at the sutures, broadly tabu- 
lately shouldered at the summit. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl somewhat inflated, strongly rounded. Entire surface of spire 
and base marked by numerous vertical lines of growth and exceed- 
ingly fine microscopic, closely spaced, spiral striations. Aperture 
very large, ovate; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella 
slender, somewhat twisted, oblique, slightly revolute, provided with 
a deep-seated fold. 

The type (Cat. no. 206924, U.S.N.M.) and eight specimens were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, station 2936, in 359 fathoms, 
temperature 49°, off San Diego, California. The type has six post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4.5 mm., diameter 2 mm. 
The University of California has a specimen dredged at station 13, off 
Point Vincente. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 215 

ODOSTOMIA (BVALEA) BARANOFFENSIS, new spedae. 

Plate 25, fig. 3. 

Shell elongate-ovate, rather stout, yellowish-white. Nuclear 
whorls obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, the 
outer edge of the last turn only being visible. Post-nuclear whorls 
well rounded, with a narrow, tabulate shoulder at the summit. 
Suture rendered subchanneled by the shoulder at the summit of the 
whorls. Periphery and base of the last whorl inflated, well rounded, 
the latter with a depressed pit, but no perforation in the umbilical 
area. Entire surface marked by lines of growth and very fine spiral 
striations. Aperture ear-shaped; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip 
thick within, thin at the edge; columella very stout, twisted and 
obliquely revolute, armed with a thick oblique fold opposite the 
umbilical chink; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 204011, U.S.N.M.) has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: length 6.3 mm., diameter 2.8 mm. It and two addi- 
tional specimens were collected by Mrs. Kate Stephens at Bear Bay, 
Peril Straits, BaranoflF Island, Alaska. Two additional specimens 
were obtained by the same collector at Mole Harbor, Admiralty 
Island, Alaska; one of them forms Cat. no. 204012, U.S.N.M. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALBA) SITKAENSIS Clessiii. 

Plate 26, fig. 3. 

Odostomia sitkacwtis Clessin, Martini Chemnitz Conch. Cab., 2d ed., Pyrami- 
dellidsc, 1900, p. 121, vol. 30, fig. 1. Odostomia (Evalea) sitkaemtis Clessin, 
Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1906, p. 360, pi. 17, fig. 8. 

Shell elongate-conic, very regular in outline, yellowish white, shin- 
ing. Nuclear whorls almost completely immersed in the first of the 
succeeding volutions. Post-nuclear whorls moderately roimded, 
rather high between the sutures, slightly shouldered at the summits, 
marked by many fine lines of growth and numerous fine wavy spiral 
striations; the latter are more regularly developed and distributed 
than the lines of growth. (Our figure does not show the spiral mark- 
ings.) The periphery of the last whorl marks the greatest diameter 
of the shell. The base, though rather long, falls off rather abruptly 
at the periphery, then tapers gradually to the anterior end of the 
columella; it is marked like the spaces between the sutures. Aper- 
ture large, oval; posterior angle acute, outer lip decidedly curved, 
almost patulous, thin; columella long, slender, gently curved, and 
somewhat reflected, provided with a moderately strong, oblique fold 
near its insertion; parietal wall without callus. 

The Berlin collection contains two specimens of this species. No. 
26232| which were collected by F. Schmidt, at Sitka, Alaska. We 
have described and figured the most perfect of the two, which we 



216 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

consider Clessin's type. This specimen measures: Length 4 mm., 
diameter 2 mm. Clessin's figure is worthless. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) HAGEMBISTSRI. new species. 

Plate 26, fig. 1. 

Shell small, elongate ovate, yellowish white. Nuclear whorls small, 
almost completely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. 
Post-nuclear whorls moderately well rounded, with rounded summits, 
marked by retractive lines of growth and many fine, closely placed 
spiral striations. Suture well impressed. Periphery of last whorl 
well rounded. Base well rounded, marked like the spire. Aperture 
ovate, posterior angle acute; outer lip thick within, thin at edge; 
columella very short, very strongly curved, somewhat revolute, reen- 
forced by the attenuated base and provided with a strong fold at its 
insertion. 

The unique type (Cat. no. 159469, U.S.N.M.) was collected by 
Dr. William H. Dall at low-water mark at Hagemeister Island, 
Bering Sea. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Liength 
4.4 mm., diameter 2.4 mm. The fine spiral striations have b^n 
omitted in the drawing. 

ODOSTOBCIA (BVALRA) RBSIN A, new tpedee. 
Plate 27, fig. 6. 

Shell very smaU, vitreous, transparent. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls inflated, strongly rounded, decidedly contracted at the suture, 
and appressed at the summit, where the preceding whorl is reflected 
through it, and gives the summit the false appearance of having a 
spiral cord. Suture strongly constricted. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well rounded. Entire surface of the shell marked by lines 
of growth which are of varying strength, and numerous closely spaced, 
exceedingly fine, spiral striations. Aperture ovate, posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; col- 
umella slender, strongly curved, slightly revolute, reenforced by the 
base, provided with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206925, U.S.N.M.) comes from Arch Beach, 
California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.2 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA; DELICIOSA Dall and Baxtsch. 

Plate 25, fig. 5. 

Odostomia (Evalea) deliciosa Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., vol. 33, 
1907, pp. 525, 526, pi. 47, fig. 5. 

Shell small, elongate-conic, translucent to milk-white. Nuclear 
whorls small, deeply immersed in the first of the Isucceeding turns, 
above which only a portion of the last turn is visible. Post-nuclear 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 217 

whorls moderately rounded, very weakly roundly shouldered at the 
summit, separated by a strongly marked suture; a narrow band 
appears about the summit showing its junction with the preceding 
turn. Periphery and base of the last whorl inflated ancj well rounded. 
Entire surface of base and spire marked by very fine lines of growth 
and numerous microscopic wavy spiral striations. Aperture rather 
large, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer lip 
thin; columella rather stout, strongly curved, and revolute, recn- 
forced by the attenuated base, and covered with a strong fold at its 
insertion. This fold can be seen through the transparent shell as a 
quite strong lamella on the pillar of the turns. 

The type (Cat. no. 46492, U.S.N.M.) is from Monterey, has 6} 
post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 4 mm., diameter 1.9 mm. 
Another specimen (Cat. no. 196301, U.S.N.M.) also comes from Mon- 
terey, California. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) PARELLA, new tpedes. 
Plate 27, fig. 5. 

Shell elongate-conic, pale yellow. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened in the middle between the sutures, 
strongly contracted at the periphery, moderately roundly shouldered 
at the summit, marked by rather strong Unes of growth and exceed- 
ingly fine, closely spaced, microscopic spiral striations. Suture 
strongly contracted. Periphery and base of the last whorl well 
rounded, the latter slightly inflated, marked like the spire. Aper- 
ture ovate; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella very 
strongly curved, somewhat revolute, reenforced by the base, provided 
with a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206926, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2S08, in 634 fathoms, temperature 39.9°, near 
the Galapagos Islands. It has the last five whorls remaining which 
measure: Length 3.7 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. It has lost the nucleus 
and probably the iimt two succeeding turns. 

ODOSTOMIA (EVALEA) GRANADENSIS, new ipedes. 

Plate 27, fig. 4. 

Shell very slender, ovate-conic, wliite, with a narrow, faint yellow 
band a little posterior to the middle between the sutures. Nuclear 
whorls very deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding 
turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. 
Post-nuclear whorls flattened, slightly contracted at the sutures, and 
feebly shouldered at the summits. Periphery and base of the last 
whorl well rounded, the latter somewhat attenuated. Entire surface 
of spire and base marked by many fine, closely spaced, wavy spiral 
striations, which are considerably stronger on the base than between 



218 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the sutures. Aperture ovate; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; 
columella short, slender, curved and feebly revolute, provided with 
a fold at its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 206927, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2794, off Panama Bay, in 62 fathoms, sand, 
temperature 59°.5. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 2.7 mm., diameter 1 mm. 

Subgenus AlCAUBA MtfUer. 
Amaura Moller, Index Moll. Groenlandica, 1842, p. 7. 

Very large, usually inflated Odostomias, the sculpture of which con- 
sists of very fine lines of growth and still finer wavy closely placed 
spiral striations. 

Type, — Amaura Candida MoUer. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP THE SUBGENUS AMAURA. 

Shell umbilicated. 

Shell very large, adult more than 10 mm. long. 

Shell very elongate-ovate lastrOf p. 219. 

Shell broadly ovate kennerleyif p. 219. 

Shell less than 10 mm. long. 

Shell ovate. 

Summit of the whorls concavely shouldered elsa, p. 220. 

Summit of the whorls narrowly flatly shouldered heringiy p. 220. 

Shell very elongate-ovate. 

Umbilicus rather wide. 

Summit of the whorls with a faint shoulder satura^ p. 221. 

Summit of the whorls with a strongly tabulated 

shoulder farallonen»i8y p. 221. 

Umbilicus very narrow. 

Summit of the whorb appressed sillanay p. 222. 

Summit of the whorls shouldered. 

Shoulder concave t.alpa, p. 222. 

Shoulder narrowly tabulated. 

Whorls strongly contracted at the suture krausei, p. 223. 

Whorls not strongly contracted at the suture. 

Adult shell 7.8 mm. long orcia, p. 223. 

Adult shell 6.1 mm. long gouldi^ p. 224. 

Shell not umbilicated. 

Shell very large, adult more than 12 mm. long arctica, p. 224. 

Shell less than 10 mm. long. 

Shell elongate-ovate. 

Summit of the whorls appressed avellana^ p. 226. 

Summit of the whorls not appressed. 

Columella free for its entire length. 

Shell finely spirally Urate moratora, p. 225. 

Shell not finely spirally lirate. 

Shell large and robust, adult 9.3 mm. long pe»a, p. 226. 

Shell of medium size, not robust, adult 7.5 mm. long-.rtoto, p. 226. 

Columella free only in its anterior half iliuliuJcennSt p. 227. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M0LLUSK8. 219 

Shell not umbilicated — Continued. 

Shell leas than 10 mm. long — Continued. 
Shell ovate. 

Summit of the whorls appressed nuciformiSy p. 227. 

Summit of the whorls tabulated. 

Adult shell more than 9 mm. long canfieldi, p. 228. 

Adult shell le.sa than 7 mm. long subturrita^ p. 228. 

Shell very broadly ovate marterm^ p. 229. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAT7RA) LASTRA, new species. 
Plate 28, fig. 7. 

Shell thin, large, elongate-ovato, tapering very regularly to an 
acute point, narrowly unibilicated. Nuclear whorls very small, 
deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding whorls, above 
which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls well rounded, moderately constric ted at the sutures and nar- 
rowly shouldered at the summit, marked by numerous slender wavy 
spiral striations and fine lines of growth which give the surface a 
somewhat malleated appearance. Peripherj^ and base of the last 
whorl strongly rounded, the latter narrowly umbilicated, marked 
like the spire. Aperture large, broadly oval, slightly eflTuse anteriorly; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin; columella slender, very obUque, 
almost straight and somewhat reflected; parietal wall glazed with a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206928, U.S.N.M.) was dredged at U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2917, in 90 fathoms, temperature 49°.l, off 
southern California. It has eight post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 13.6 mm., diameter 7 mm. Other specimens examined are 
as follows: One, Cat. no. 170794, U.S.N.M., from Santa CataUna 
Channel, California; one dredged by University of Cahfomia at sta- 
tion 21 (3), oflT Santa Catalina Island, University of California coll.; 
one dredged by University of California at station 30, off Santa Cata- 
lina Island, University of California c oil. ; one dredged by University 
of California at station 81, off San Diogo, University of California coll. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) KENNERLETI Dsll snd Bartsch. 

Plate 28, fig. 8. 

Odottomia (Amaura) kennerlcyi Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 529, pi. 48, figa. 8, 8a. 

Shell large, very tliin, broadly conic, umbilicated, yellowish-white; 
marked by subobsolete, subequal, and subequally spaced spiral 
wrinkles, about fifteen of which may be seen on the body and base of 
the last whorl. In addition to these wrinkles, many faint, closely 
placed spiral and vertical striae are present. Nuclear whorls small, 
about two and one-half, forming a depressed spire which is deeply 
[, the axis of which is almost at right angles to the axis of 



220 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the latter whorls. Post-nuclear whorls very wide, inflated, well 
rounded, faintly shouldered at the summit. Suture well marked, 
simple. Periphery and base of the last whorl inflated, well roxmded, 
the latter decidedly contracted and narrowly umbilicated. Aperture 
lai^e, suboval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle obtuse; 
outer lip thin; columella straight, obliquely inserted, revolute, not 
reenforced by the base, w^th an oblique weak fold near its insertion; 
parietal wall apparently without a callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 150564, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Rev. G. W. 
Taylor at Nanaimo, British Columbia. It has six post-nuclear whorls 
which measure: Length 10.2 mm., diameter 6 mm. 

Two other specimens (Cat. no. 44936, U.S.N.M.) were collected by 
Doctor Kennerley at Puget Sound, Washington, and another (Cat. 
no. 129121) by Prof. O. B. Johnson, at Seattle, Washington. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAT7RA) BLSA, new spedae. 
Plate 29, fig. 1. 

Shell ovate, lunbilicated, yellowish white. Nuclear whorls very 
small, deeply immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, with strongly concave summits, form- 
ing deeply channeled sutures, marked by slightly retractive lines 
of growth, and exceedingly fine, closely placed, wavy spiral stria- 
tions. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base short, 
inflated, moderately umbiUcated, marked hke the spire. Aperture 
ovate, posterior angle obtuse; columella curved, slightly reflected, 
not reenforced by the base, provided with an obhque fold some little 
distance anterior to its insertion; parietal wall covered by a thin 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 55811, U.S.N.M.) was collected by W. J. Fisher 
at Kadiak Island, Alaska. It has six post-nuclear whorls, and meas- 
ures: Length 6.1 mm., diameter 3.6 mm. 

OpOSTOMIA (AMAURA) BERINGI Dall. 
Plate 27, fig. 8. 
Odostomia heringi Hall, Am. Joum. Conch., vol. 7, 1872, p. 117. 

Shell ovate, umbilicated, bluish white. Nuclear whorls small, 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately rounded, slightly shouldered at the summits, 
marked by retractive lines of growth. Periphery of the last whorl 
well rounded. Base short, strongly umbilicated. Aperture oval; 
posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin; columella strong, sinuous, 
decidedly reflected, provided with a strong fold a little below its 
insertion. Parietal wall glazed by a callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 169456, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Doctor Dall 
at St. Michael, Norton Sound, Alaska. It has five post-nuclear 
whorls, and measures: Length 5.7 mm., diameter 2.8 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 221 

ODOSTOBCIA (AMAURA) SATT7RA Carpenter. 

Plate 27, fig. 1. 

Odotiomia aahara Carpenter, Ann. Mag. \at. Hist., 3d ser., vol. 15, 1805, p. 29. 
-f var. pupi/ormis Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d eer., vol. 15, 1865, 
p. 29. ^Odostomia {Anvawra) satura (Carpenter) Dall and Bartsch, Proc. 
U. 8. Nat. Mu8., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 529-530, pi. 48, figs. 5, 5a. 

Shell of medium size, broadly conic, wliite. Nuclear whorls at least 
two, forming a depressed spire, the axis of which is almost at a right 
angle to the axis of the later whorLs, and which is deeply, somewhat 
obliquely inunersed in the first post-nuclear turn. Post-nuclear whorls 
moderately well rounded, faintly shouldered at the summit, marked 
all over by irr^ular rough, low, tumescenses, which simulate obso- 
lete vertical ribs. Sutures simple, well marked. Periphery of tlie 
last whorl well rounded. Base quite sliort, decidedly rounded, and 
umbilicated. Umbilicus partly covered by the revolute columella. 
Aperture large, very broadly oval, somewhat effuse anteriorly; pos- 
terior angle obtuse; outer lip thick; columella moderately strong, 
oblique, decidedly curved, with a decided oblique fold, situated con- 
siderably anterior to its insertion; parietal wall covered by a fairly 
thick caUus. 

The type (Cat. no. 15520, U.S.N.M.) was collected by J. G. Swan 
at Neah Bay, Washington. It has five and one-half whorls w^hich 
measure: Length 6.4 mm., diameter 3.5 mm. 

The specimen upon wiiich Doctor Carpenter fixed the name piipi- 
formis (Cat. no. 15520a, U.S.N.M.), collected by J. G. Swan at Neah 
Bay, Washington, is not worthy of a varietal name. It is a freak, 
having the spire less elevated, which is, perhaps, due to some injury 
received at an early date, evidence of which seems present. It agrees 
perfectly in every detail with the type of satura excepting the shape 
of the 9pire. 

ODOSTOMIA r AMAURA) FARALLONENSIS, new species. 

Plato 27, fig. 7. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, deeply umbilicated, light yellow. Nu- 
clear whorls very deeply immersed. Post-nuclear whorls very 
slightly roimded in the middle between the sutures, more strongly so 
near the anterior end and toward the summit. Summit strongly 
narrowly tabulate. Periphery of the last whorl inflated. Base very 
strongly suddenly rounded, widely and deeply umbilicated. Entire 
surface marked by numerous fine, closely spaced, spiral striations. 
Aperture broadly ovate, posterior angle obtuse, outer lip thin; colu- 
mella very slender, strongly curved, revolute, provided with a deep 
fold a little below its insertion; parietal wall glazed wnth a thin 
callus. 



222 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The type (Cat. no. 168827 U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries station 3180, in 24 fathoms, temp. 50.^7, off 
the Farallones Islands, California. It has five post-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: Length 5.5 mm., diameter 2.7 mm. 

ODOSfoMlA (AMAT7RA) SILLANA, new tpedesl 
Plate 28, fig. 9. 

Shell short, conic, yellowish white. (Nuclear whorls eroded.) 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, sUghtly overhanging. Summits 
appressed, marked by almost vertical lines of growth and numerous 
closely spaced, wavy, microscopic, spiral striations. Suture well 
marked. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base rather 
short, inflated, narrowly umbilicated and marked like the spire. 
Aperture broadly ovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly. Posterior angle 
acute; outer lip thin, strongly curved in the middle; columella slen- 
der, strongly ciurved and reflected anteriorly, provided with a weak 
fold near its insertion; parietal wall glazed by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 168809, U.S.N.M.), collected by Doctor Dall 
west of Amaknak Island, Unalaska, in 60 fathoms, on stony bottom. 
It has five and one-half post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 
5.6 mm., diameter 2.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAT7RA) TALPA, new species. 
Plate 27, fig. 9. 

Shell stout, rough, very broadly conic, narrowly umbilicated. Nu- 
clear whorls small, deeply obliquely immersed in the first post- 
nuclear turn. Post-nuclear whorls with quite strong concavely 
shouldered summits, Ihe rest well rounded (usually showing decided 
erosion marks which coincide largely with the lines of growth). The 
parts bearing the original surface show traces of exceedingly fine 
spiral striations. Periphery and base of the last whorl rather inflated, 
well roimded, the latter narrowly umbiUcated, marked like the spire. 
Aperture broadly oval, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip rather thick, 
columella stout, thick, somewhat flexuose and reflected, provided 
with a strong fold a little anterior to the umbilicus; parietal wall 
covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 204027, U.S.N.M.) has seven post-nucleur whorls, 
and measures: Length 8 mm., diameter 3.8 mm. It and two other 
specimens were collected by Mrs. Kate Stephens at Mole Harbor, 
Alaska. Two additional specimens (Cat. no. 159472 U.S.N.M.) were 
dredged by Doctor Dall in 12 fathoms in Sitka Harbor, Alaska. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M0LLU8K8. 223 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) KRAUSBI CleMin. 
Plate 29, fig. 5. 

(kbsiomia kraitsei Clessin, Mart. (-hem. Conch. Cab., 2d ed.. Pyramid., 1900, 
p. 115, pi. 28, fig. 1. OdoBtomia (Amaura) krausci (Clessin) Dall and 
Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., vol. 30, 1906, p. 362, pi. 23, fig. 2. 

Shell elongate-conic, thick and heavy, rough through erosion, yel- 
lowish white. (Nuclear whorls decollated in the type, judging from 
the pit in the apex they are pr6bal)ly deeply, obliquely immersed.) 
Post-nuclear whorls only moderately rounded, somewhat shouldered 
at the summit (surface decidedly eroded). Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well roundexl, the latter with a minute umbilical cliink. 
Aperture auricular, somewhat effuse anteriorly, posterior angle 
scarcely acute; outer lip very tliick, reflexed, pillar with a broad, 
strong, oblique fold, a little anterior to its insertion; parietal wall 
covered by a thick callus. 

The type has six post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Ijength 
9.9 mm., diameter 5 mm. It was collected by Krause at Killisnoo, 
which is in Alaska, and not in Japan, as stated by Clessin. The regis- 
tration number of his type in the Berlin Museum is also wrong; the 
specimen described and figured by him is Cat. no. 36335, and not 
Cat. no. 36336, as given in his account of the species. 

The U. S. National Museum has two lots, one specimen (Cat. no. 
159454, U.S.N.M.) from Killisnoo, collected by Krause, and another 
(Cat. no. 159471, U.S.N.M.) from Kadiak. 

The last is in better state of preservation than the rest of the 
material examined; from it we learn that the whorls are strongly 
rounded, subtabulate at the summit and decidedly constricted at 
the sutures, marked by fme, slightly retractive lines of growth and 
exceedingly fine, closely spaced, microscopic spiral striations. Our 
figure is made from this specimen, which has seven post-nuclear 
whorlS; which measure: Length 8.8 mm., diameter 4 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) ORCIA, new spedM. 
Plato 27. fin;. 3. 

Shell elongate-ovate, narrowly umbilicated , yellowish-white. 
Nuclear whorls small, deeply immersed in the first of tlie succeeding 
turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. 
Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted at the 
sutures, and narrowly shouldered at the summit, marked by numerous 
closely spaced, wavy, spiral striations. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl mflated, well rounded, the latter narrowly umbilicated, 
both marked by spiral sculpture like that of the spire. Aperture 



224 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

moderately large, ovate, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; 
columella strongly curved and somewhat reflected, provided with a 
strong fold a little posterior to its insertion; parietal wall covered 
with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206929, U.S.N.M.) comes from Santa Rosa 
Island. It has six post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
7.7 mm., diameter 3.8 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) GOULDI Carpenter. 
Plate 27, fig. 2. 

Odostomia (Amaura) gouldii (Carpenter) Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mu8., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 531, 532, pi. 48, fig. 4. Odostomia (? \s^.) gouldii 
Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat, Ilist., 3d ser., vol. 15, 1865, p. 29. 

Shell of medium size, elongate-conic, yellowish-white, the exterior 
surface marked by irregular tumescences, giving it a much worn ap- 
pearance. Nuclear whorls three, deeply immersefl, having their axis 
at about a right angle to the axis of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately well rounded, faintly shouldered at the 
summit. Sutures simple, well marked. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl well rounds, the latter somewhat elongated. Umbilicus 
faint. Aperture quite lai^e, pyriform, posterior angle obtuse, outer 
lip moderately thick; columella very oblique, fairly strong, revolute, 
with a strong fold somewhat anterior to its insertion; parietal wall 
covered with a fairly strong callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 22821, U.S.N.M.) comes from Neah Bay, Wash- 
ington. It has six post-nuclear whorls, and measures: Length 6.1 
mm., diameter 3.1 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (ABdAURA) ARCTICA, new tpedes. 

Plate 28, fig. 5. 

Shell large, elongate-ovate, straw yellow. (Nuclear whorls decol- 
lated.) Post-nuclear turns well rounded, with subtabulate summits, 
marked by lines of growth and numerous fine, closely-placed, wavy, 
spiral striations. Periphery well rounded. Suture well impressed. 
Base rather elongated, marked like the space between the sutures. 
Aperture pear-shaped, rather narrow posteriorly, and somewhat 
effuse anteriorly, posterior angle rendered obtuse by the tabulation; 
outer lip thin; columella short, curved, slightly reflected, reenforced 
by the attenuated base and provided with a weak fold at its inser- 
tion; parietal wall covered by a thin translucent callus. 

The type has lost the early whorls; the last four and one-half 
only remain, which measure: Length 12.4 mm., diameter 6.5 mm. 

It and another spechnen are entered as Cat. no. 168766, U.S.N.M., 
and were collected at U. S. Fish Commission station 3305, southwest 
of Hagemeister Island, Bering Sea, m 23 fathoms, at a bottom 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 225 

temperature of 41°.8. Another specimen (Cat. no. 109454, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from Sea Horse Isiands; Arctic Ocean. Two lots (Cat. no. 
168807, U.S.N.M.) four specimens collected in 15 fathoms off Icy 
Cape, Arctic Ocean, and a single specimen (Cat. no. 168808, U.S.N.M.), 
in 7 to 15 fathoms, from the same locality. Eight additional speci- 
mens were dredged at U. S. Fish Commission station 3306, off Bristol 
Bay, Bering Sea, in 33 fathoms, bottom temperature 38°.9. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) AVBLLANA Ciupenter. 

Plate 28, fip. 3. 

Odoitomia (? var.) avellana Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hint., 3d wr., vol. 15, 
1865, p. 30. Odostomia (Amaura) nuci/ormis avdlana (Carpenter) Dall 
and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu8., vol. 33, 1907, pp. 530, 531, pi. 4K, figs. 
1, la. 

Shell large, elongate-ovate, yellowish to milk white. Nuclear whorls 
deeply vertically immersed; only part of the last volution is visible 
when viewed from above, their axis evidently being at a right angle 
to the axis of the later whorls. Post-nuclear whorls increasing rapidly 
in size, early ones well rounded, later ones less so, their summits being 
closely appressed to the preceding whorl. Suture well impressed, 
simple. Periphery and base of the last whorl well rounded, the latter 
somewhat elongated. Aperture large, ovate, somewhat effuse ante- 
riorly, milk-white within; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin at the 
edge, thick within; columella short curved; reenforced partly by the 
attenuated base, having a strong oblique fold at its insertion; parietal 
wall covered by a moderately strong callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 155175, U.S.N.M.) comes from Neali^Bay, Wiush- 
ington. It has five post-nuclear whorls and mcjusures: Length 8.3 
mm., diameter 4.3 mm. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) MORATORA, new tpedes. 

Plate 30, fig. 7. 

Shell elongate-ovate, imperforate, yellowish white. Nuclear whorls 
decollated. Post-nuclear whorls strongly rounded, moderately con- 
tracted at the sutures, narrowly flatly shouldered at the summit: 
marked by strong lines of growth and subol)solete fine spiral lira- 
tions which lend the surface a somewhat reticulated ap[)earance. 
The spaces between the feeble lirations are nnirketl by numerous 
very fine spiral striations. Peripher}' of the last whorl and base 
inflated, stn)ngly rounded, marked like the spire. Aperture oval, 
posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella stout, obliciue, 
revolute, provided with a strong fold a little below its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 207201, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries at station 31()4, n)cky bottom, temperature 
48^.5, in 61 fathoms, off Point Reyes, California. It has six post- 
nudear whorls and measures: Length 9.5 mm., diametet 4.Q isisp 



226 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) PBSA, new tpedes. 
Plate 29, fig. 2. 

Shell elongate-ovate, very coarse and heavy. Nuclear whorls 
small, deeply, obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. 
Post-nuclear whorls rather high between the sutures, well rounded 
with narrowly tabulate summits, marked by somewhat retractive 
lines of growth and numerous, closely placed, wavy spiral striations. 
Sutures well marked. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, 
marked like the spire. Base slightly prolonged, well rounded. Aper- 
ture ovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly; posterior angle acute; outer 
lip very heavy; columella strong, flexuose with a strong, broad fold 
somewhat anterior to its insertion; parietal wall covered by a thin 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 157458, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Doctor Dall 
at Kadiak Island, Alaska. It has six post-nuclear whorls, and meas- 
ures: Length 9.3 mm., diameter 4.4 mm. 

ODOSTOBCJA (AMAURA) NOTA, new spedM. 
Plate 28, fig. 6. 

Shell very elongate-ovate, light yellow. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls moderately rounded, slightly contracted at the sutures, 
narrowly tabulately shouldered at the summits, marked by numerous 
closely spaced, wavy spiral striations. Periphery and base of the 
last whorl somewhat inflated, well rounded, marked like the spire. 
Aperture ovate, posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella 
short, strongly curved, reflected and provided with a moderately 
strong fold a little anterior to its insertion. 

The type (Cat. no. 46490, U.S.N.M.) and sixteen specimens come^ 
from San Diego, California. The type has seven post-nuclear 
whorls and measures: Length 7.5 mm., diameter 3.5 mm. 

The following specimens have been examined : 



U.S.N.M. 
cat. no. 



200930 
168804 



46490 



Num- 
ber of 
speci- 
mens. 



9 

4 
3 

1 
8 
6 

5 
3 
2 
3 
17 



U.S.B.F. 
station. 



2901 



a20 
a32 

a 34 
»36 



a 47 



Locality. 



OfT Santa Rosa Island, 

California. 
San Pedro, California 

do 

do 

Off Newport, California. . 
Off Catallna Island, Call 

fomia. 

do 

do 

Pacific Beach, California. , 

San Diego, California 

do 




Disposition of 
material. 



U. S. Nat. Mns. 

Do. 
Oldroyd coll. 
Berry coll. 
UnIv.Cal.coU. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Kelsey coll. 
Univ. Cal. coll. 
U.S.Nat. Mas. 



a University of Calilomia statioo. 



WEST AMEBICAN PYRAMIDEIXID MOLLUSKS. 227 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) OIULIUKBlf SIS, new spedM. 

Plato 29, fi^. 4. 

Shell very elongate-conic, heavy, verj^ light yellow. Nuclear whorls 
small, almost completely obliquely immersed in the first of the suc- 
ceeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls rather high between the sutures, 
well rounded with narrowly tabulate summits, marked by fine, re- 
tractive lines of growth and numerous fine, closely spaced sj)iral 
striations. Suture well marked. Peripheiy of the last whorl well 
rounded. Base rather prolonged, evenly rounded, marked like the 
spire. Aperture pear-shaped, posterior anfi;lo obtuse; outtT lip thin 
at the edge, thickened within; columella twisted, strongly curved 
anteriorly, where it is also reflected and reenforced by the base, pro- 
vided with a low fold at its insertion; parietal wall glazed by a thin 
callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 159463, U.S.N.M.) was collected by Doctor 
Dall in 6 fathoms, on mud bottom, off lUuliuk Village, Ca[)tains 
Bay, Unalaska, Alaska. It has six and one-half post-nuclear whorls, 
and measures: Length 9.5 mm., diameter 4.6 mm. Ten additional 
specimens (Cat. no. 159453, U.S.N.M.) were collected by Doctor Dall, 
at Eider Cove, Captains Bay, Unalaska, in 25 fathoms on sand bot- 
tom. Another specimen (Cat. no. 159465, U.S.N.M.), likewise col- 
lected by Doctor Dall, beai-s the legend Unalaska, without specific 
locality. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) NUCIFORMIS Carpenter. 

Plate 28, fin;. 1 . 

Ododamia nuciformis Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d scr., vol. 15, 1865, 
p. 30. Odostomia (Aniaura) jiuri/ormU (Carpenter) Dall and Bartsch, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1907, p. 530, pi. 48, figa. 3, 3a. 

Shell large, shortly ovate, yellowish to niilk-white. Nuclear whorls 
deeply immersed; only half of the last tuni is seen in tilted j)()sition 
when viewed from above. Post-nuclear whorls increashig raj)i(ily in 
size, well rounded, liavhi^; their summits closely aj)pressed to the j)re- 
ceding whorl. Suture moderatel}' well impressed. Periphery and 
base of the last whorl well rounded. Aj)erture rather lar^e, ovate, 
white within; [)osterior angle acute; outer lip moderately thin at the 
edge, thicker within; columella short, stnmji^ly cun-ed, with a strong 
oblique fold at its insertion; recnforced by the attenuated base; parie- 
tal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 15517a, U.S.N.M.) comes from Neah Bay, Wash- 
ington. It has five post-nuclear whorls which measure: Length 7.7 
mm., diameter 4.4 mm. 



228 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) CANFIELDI DalL 

Plate 28, fig. 2. 

Odostomia (Amaura) can/ieldi Dall, Nautilus, vol. 31, 1908, p. 131. =Odo$tomia 
(Ajnaura) montereyenais Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
33, 1907, p. 531, pi. 48, figs. 6, 6fl; not Odostomia (Chrysallida) moniereyensis 
Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mue., vol. 33, 1907, p. 516, pl.46, fig. 4. 

Shell large, similar in form to 0. (A,) avellana; white, shining. 
Nuclear whorls 3, helicoid, quite elevated, deeply immersed in the first 
of the succeeding whorls, having their axis at a right angle to the axis 
of the later whorls. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, with a beveled 
shoulder at the summits. Suture well marked, simple. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl well rounded and inflated, the latter some- 
what elongated. Aperture subovate, somewhat effuse anteriorly; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin at the edge, thick within; colu- 
mella curved and somewhat revolute, having a prominent oblique fold 
near its insertion ; parietal wall covered by a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 46473, U.S.N.M.) is from Monterey, California. 
It has six post-nuclear whorls which measure: Length 9.6 mm., diam- 
eter 5.1 mm. 

In addition to these, others have been named for the University of 
California from Monterey; for Mr. S. S. Berry from 12 fathoms off 
Del Monte, Monterey Bay; for Mrs. Oldroyd from San Pedro, and 
for Mr. Kelsey from San Diego, California. 

This species resembles 0. (A.) aveUana Carpenter, but differs 
markedly from that form by having the summits of the whorls 
shouldered. 

ODOSTOBHA (AMAURA) SUBTURRITA, new species. 

Plate 28, fig. 4. 

Shell ovate, light yellow. Nuclear whorls small, deeply obliquely 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls 
flattened, scarcely at all contracted at the sutures, with a very broad 
tabulate summit, crossed by numerous spiral striations, which are 
a little darker colored than the general surface of the shell. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, well rounded, marked 
like the space between the sutures. Aperture large, oblong-ovate, 
slightly effuse anteriorly; posterior angle veiy obtuse; outer lip 
thick within, thin at the edge; columella curved, somewhat twisted, 
strongly reflected, provided with a strong fold a little anterior to its 
insertion. 

The typo (Cat. no. 168801, U.S.N.M.) and nine specimens come 
from San Pedro, California. The type has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures; Length 6.9 mm., diameter 3.5 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 



229 



The following additional specimens have been examined : 



U.8.N.M. 
cat. no. 



206031 



206832 
105635 
206033 

46473 



No. of i 
speci- 

mens. I 



L> •S.B.F . 
Station. 



Locality. 



^f«fh**' Disposition of 
iiiatorial. 



fath- 
oms. 



2 ' ! Santa Barbara, California. 



I 
1 
8 
5 
3 
2 



29UI 
a 12 



Off Santa Kosa Island, California. . | 48 



Rodondo, California. 

San Pedro, California 

do 

San Diepo. (California 

San Diego (faiidc Hcaih). Cuii- 
fomia. 

Todos Santos Bay, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 



Univ. Cal. coll. 
U.S.Nat.Mus. 
Univ. Cal. coll. 
Oldroyd coll. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



« University of Califomiu. 
ODOSTOMIA (AMAURA) MARTBNSI Dall and Bartsch. 

Plate 29, fij,'. 3. 

Odoitomia (Amaura) martensi Dall and Bartsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 
1906, p. 361, pi. 15, fig. 5. Odoitomia curta Clessin, Mart. Chem. Conch. 
Cab., 1900, p. 116, pi. 28, fijr. 3; not Odostomia curtum Deshayes, An. Sans. 
Vert. Paris Basin, 1862, p. 551, pi. 19, figs. 9-11. 

Shell ovoid, heavy, yellowish white. Nuclear whorls small, almost 
completely immersed in the first of the succoedin^^ volutions. Post- 
nuclear whorls increasinjij ro^larly and rapidly in size, inflated, 
subtabulately shouldered at the summit, marked by numerous fine 
lines of growth and equally abundant, ( losely placed, wavy spiral 
striations. These lines of growth and spiral markinj^s give the 
surface a finely reticulated appearance wdien viewed under high 
magnifications. (We have omitted this sculpture in our drawing, 
which should be considered as an outline sketch only.) Periphery 
and base of the last whorl decided Iv rounded and inflated, marked 
like the space between the sutures. Aperture large, suboval, slightly 
effuse anteriorly, i)()steri()r angle acute; outer lip sharp at the edge 
but thick within; columella very strong, curved, recnforced by the 
body whorl, from which the slightly reflected edge is separated only 
by a narrow line. A strong oblique fold, not completely visible when 
the aperture is viewed squarely, is located a little anterior to the in- 
sertion of the columella. 

The type has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 5.3 
nun., diameter 3.1 mm. Clcssin gives the diameter as 1.3, evidently 
a transposition. He also cites the registration number as 36336, while 
it should be 36335. Ilis figure almost represents this species. The 
type comes from Killisnoo, Alaska, not Japan, as cited by Clessin. 

Subgenus SCALENOSTOMA Deshayes. 
Soalenostoma Deshaye8, ("at. Moll. He '^le la R^'union, 1863, pp. 58-60. 

Smooth Odostoniias having a strong perij)heral keel. 
Type. — Scalenostoma carinatum Deshayes. 
2565-Bull. 68—09 16 



230 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS SCALENOSTOMA. 

Aperture irregularly ovate rangii. 

Aperture regularly broadly ovate doUlla. 

ODOSTOldIA (SCALENOSTOMA) DOTELLA, new species. 

Plate 30, fig. 5. 

Shell elongate-conic, vitreous, translucent. Nuclear whorls deeply 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which 
only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear 
whorls flattened, very strongly angulated at the periphery where they 
are much wider than at the appressed siunmit. The summit of the 
succeeding turns falls very much anterior to the angulated periphery 
and gives to the whorls a decided overhanging appearance. Base 
well roimded. Entire surface of spire and base marked by niunerous, 
almost vertical lines of growth and yeiy many exceedingly fine spiral 
striations. Aperture broadly ovate, posterior angle acute; outer lip 
thin; angulated at the periphery; columella slender, very strongly 
curved and slightly revolute. 

The type (Cat. no. 206934, U.S.N.M.) and six specimens were 
dredged at U. S. Bureau of Fisheries stations 2826-2828, in 9i to 10 
fathoms, off Ceralvo Island, Gulf of California. The type has six post- 
nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.3 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 
Cat. no. 206935, U.S.N.M., contains six specimens from U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries station 2823, off La Paz, in 26i fathoms, broken shell 
bottom, off Cacachitas, Gulf of California. These and the next are 
provisionally referred here. One specimen from U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries station 2822, in 21 fathoms, off La Paz, Mexico (Cat. no. 
206936, U.S.N.M.). 

ODOSTOldIA (SCALBIfOSTOMA) RAlTOn de Feiin. 

Plate 30, fig. 2. 
Chemnitzia rangii de Folin, Les M^16agrinicoles, 1867, p. 61, pi. 6, fig. 1. 

Shell elongated-turrited, white. Nuclear whorls small. Post- 
nuclear whorls flat in the middle, somewhat excurved at the summit 
which is (closely appressed against the preceding whorl immediately 
anterior to the keel. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a very 
strong acute lamellar keel. Base moderately well rounded. Aper- 
ture irregularly ovate, posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, strongly 
angulated at the periphery; columella curved and reflected; parietal 
wall covered with a thin callus. 

De Folin's type comes from the Bay of Panama or Negritos Island. 
It has twelve post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 2.7 mm., 
diameter 1.1 nmi. 



WEST AMEBIC AS PYBAMIDELUD MOLLUSKS. 231 

Snbfemiu HSIDA ]>all and Bmztsch. 
DALLand Bastbch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wa£ih., vol. 17, 1904, p. 13. 

Shell without axial or spiral sculpture bevond mere lines of growth 
and exceedingly fine spiral striations; peritreme contimious, aperture 
rissoid. 

Type. — Synwla caloosaemis Dall. 

ODOSTOlfIA (HSn>A) PANAMKNSIS CtoMiii. 

Plate 30, fig. 6. 

Odottawda panamentii CiXBSsSf Mart. (1iem. Conch. < ab., 2d ed., P>Tamidellidse, 
1900, p. 120, pi. 28, fig. 9. OdoMtomia (Ileida) panamensis (Clessin) Dall 
andBABTBCH, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 1906, pp. 365, 366, pi. 26, fig. 4. 

Shell small, heavy, elongate-ovate, whorls increasing regularly in 
size, milk white, shining. Nuclear whorls small, almost completely 
obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding volutions. Post- 
nuclear whorls moderately and evenly rounded, of porcellanous tex- 
ture, without any apparent marking, separated by a well marked 
suture. Periphery of the last whorl full and roimded. Base inflated, 
well rounded. Aperture small, decidedly rissoid, almost channeled 
anteriorly, posterior angle acute; outer lip decidedly curved back- 
ward anteriorly, very thick within but beveled to form a sharp edge; 
columella extremely short, somewhat reflected, and connected pos- 
teriorly with the very strong parietal callus, which is fully as thick as 
the edge of the outer lip and connects ^ith it at the posterior angle of 
the aperture, thus forming a complete peristome. A prominent 
obUque fold is present on and a little anterior to the insertion of the 
columella. 

There are two specimens of this species in the Berlin collection from 
Panama. We have considered the best preserved individual, which 
evidently served Clessin for liis description and figure as his type, and 
have here rediagnosed and figured it. It has six post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Length 3.1 mm., diameter 1.5 mm. 

Clessin for some unaccountable reason changed the characters of the 
aperture in the above-cited figure to harmonize with the typical 
Odoeiomia aperture. He seems to have failed entirely in recognizing 
the peculiarities of the present species. 

0. (Heida) panamensis Clessin, represents the first member of this 
subgenus on the west coast of America; several additional species 
inhabit the southeast coast. 

Subgenus ODOSTOHA s. s. 

OdoaUmia Fleming, Edinburgh Encyc, vol. 7, pt. 1, 1817, p. 76. =Odontostom\a 
Jeffreys, Mai. and Conch. Mag., 1839, p. 34, same type. ^ Turritostomia 
Saoco, I Moll, del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1892, p. 41, same type. 



232 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Shell without axial or spiral sculpture excepting microscopic lines 
of growth. 

Type. — Turbo plicatus Montagu. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS ODOSTOMIA. 

Periphery of the last whorl angulated. 

Whorls overhanging farellay p. 232. 

Whorls not overhanging. 

Whorls well rounded dinelUif p. 232. 

Whorls flattened mammillataf p. 233. 

Periphery of the last whorl well rounded coronadoensi8j p. 233. 

ODOSTOMIA (ODOSTOMIA) FARSLLA, new tpedea. 

Plate 30, fig. 4. 

Shell small, white. (Nuclear whorls decollated.) Post-nuclear 
whorls flattened in the middle, slightly rounded at the appressed 
summit, strongly contracted at the suture, where they are decidedly 
overhanging. Suture well impressed. Periphery angulated. Base 
well roimded, narrowly lunbilicated. Entire surface of spire and 
base marked by fine lines of growth only. Aperture ovate, poste- 
rior angle acute; outer lip thin; coliunella very oblique posteriorly, 
decidedly curved anteriorly, strongly reflected, provided with a weak 
fold somewhat anterior to its insertion; parietal wall covered with a 
thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206937, U.S.N.M.) was dredged off Long Beach, 
California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.5 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 

ODOSTOBAIA (ODOSTOBHA) DINBLLA, new sfwcies. 

Plate 30, fig. 1. 

Shell small, ovate, vitreous, semitransparent. (Nuclear whorls 
decollated.) Post-nuclear whorls forming a spire with ahnost 
straight sides, slightly rounded, feebly contracted at the suture, 
appressed at the summit, marked only by lines of growth. Suture 
well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl obscurely angulated. 
Base somewhat inflated, well rounded, narrowly umbilicated, 
marked like the spire. Aperture ovate, posterior angle acute; outer 
lip thin; columella slender, almost vertical, slightly revolute, pro- 
vided with a weak fold at its insertion; parietal wall covered with a 
strong callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206938, U.S.N.M.) was dredged near Redondo, 
California. It has five post-nuclear whorls and measures: Length 
2.2 mm., diameter 1.2 mm. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 233 

ODOSTOMIA (ODOSTOMIA) CORONADOEIfSIS, new tpedea. 

Plate 30, fig. 3. 

Shell minute; ovate, vitreous. Nuclear whorls almost vertically 
deeply immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which the 
tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post-nuclear whorls well 
roxmded, sUghtly contracted at the sutures, with a well rounded 
shoulder at the summit, marked by retractive lines of growth only. 
Suture well impressed. Periphery and base of the last whorl 
slightly inflated, well rounded, marked like the spire. Aperture 
ovate; posterior angle acute; outer lip tliin; columella slender, 
strongly curved, slightly revolute, reenforced by the base, provided 
with a weak, deep-seated fold; parietal wall covered with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. no. 206939, U.S.N.M.) was dredged by Mr. F. W. 
Kelsey in 35 fathoms, off Coronado Beach, San Diego, California. 
It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: length 1.7 mm., 
diameter 0.8 mm. Two topotypes are in Mr. Kelsey's collection. 

ODOSTOMIA (ODOSTOMIA) MAMMILLATA Carpenter. 

Plate 30, fig. 8. 
Odostomia mammillata Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells, 1856, p. 412. 

Shell ovate, milk-white. Nuclear whorls large, obhque, two-tliirds 
immersed in the first of the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls 
decidedly flattened, rather high between the sutures, smooth. 
Suture well impressed. Periphery marked by a slender, raised cord, 
which renders it angulated. Base rather short, slightly inflated 
immediately below the umbilical area. Aperture broadly oval; 
posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, angulated at the periphery; 
columella short, slender, strongly curved and slightly reflected; pari- 
etal wall covered by a strong callus. 

A single specimen of this species is known. It is on tablet 1957, 
Liverpool collection, British Museum, and was taken off Chama at 
Mazatlan, Mexico. It has four post-nuclear whorls and measures: 
Length 1.1 mm., diameter 0.7 mm. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 1. 

Page. 

Fig. 1. Pyramidella ( Voluspa) cerrosanay new species, type 25.5 mm 20 

2. Pyramidella (Longchxus) bicolor Menke, type 9.8 mm 22 

3. Pyramidella ( Volttspa) ayricoma Dall, type 10.6 mm 20 

4. Pyramidella (PJutrddella) fiastata A. Adams, type 11.5 mm 25 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

5. Pyramidella (Pyramidella) bairdif new species, type 5.1 nmi 19 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Pyramidella (Longchasus) adamsi Carpenter, type 11.3 nmi 21 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. Pyramidella {LongchsRua) mmatlanicaf new species, type 11 mm 24 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Pyramidella (Pharddella) panamensisy new species, type 8.8 mm 26 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Pyramidella (Longchaeus) conica C. B. Adams, type 13 nmi 23 

10. Pyramidella (Pharddella) achates Gould, type 9.8 nmi 27 

11. Pyramidella (Pharddella) moffati Dall and Bartsch, type 11.5 mm 26 

12. Pyramidella (Longchseus) mexicanay new species, type 19 mm 23 

Plate 2. 

Fig. 1. Turbonilla ( Turbonilla) ima, new species, type 9.4 mm 31 

2. Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) aculetis C. B. Adams, type 4.4 mm 38 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

3. Turbonilla (Turbonilla) liLcana f new BpecieBf type 6 mm 32 

4. Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) paramaoy new name, tjrpe 5.9 mm 37 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

5. Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) hypolispa^ new species, cotype 8.1 mm 34 

5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Turbonilla ( Turbonilla) centrota^ new name, type 2.8 mm 30 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. Turbonilla ( Chemnitzia) santarosana, new speciee, type 4.5 mm 36 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Turbonilla ( Turbonilla) gilli Dall and Bartsch, type 3.3 mm. 29 

9. Turbonilla ( Chemnitzia) muricata Carpenter, type 2.3 mm. .' 36 

10. Turbonilla ( Chemnitzia) aepynotOy new species, type 3.2 mm 35 

10a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

11 . Turbonilla ( Chemnitzia) muricatoides Dall and Bartsch, type 3 mm 38 

11a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

12. Turbonilla (Turbonilh) gilli delnumtensis I>9l\ and Bartsch, type 3.4 

mm 30 

13. Turbonilla ( Turbonilla) diegensiSf new species, type 5.3 mm 31 

13a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

235 



BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Fig. H. Turbonilla ( Tvrbonilla) acra, new apeciee, type 10 mm 

15. Turbonilla {Chfmnitzia) houseri, new species, type 3.7 mm 

15a. Nucleus of same, lateral liew much enlarged. 

16. Turbonilla {Chtm7iitzia) jt<i»ey>, new species, typo 4.7 mm 

16a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

17. Turbonilla (CAemnitoa) raymondi, new species, type 6.2 mm 

17a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much cnlajrged. 

18. Turbonilla ( Turbonilla) prolongata Carpenter, type 5.37 mm 

Copy of a camera lucida skelc h Hy Dr. Carpenter. 

Plate 3. 

Fig. 1. Turbonilla auer, new species, type 6.3 mm 

The have been omitted in this Sgure. 

la. Nucleus of much enlarged. 

2. Turbonilla nichoUi, new species, typo 6.8 mm. . . 

3. Turbonilla c- b- adamsi Carpenter, type 3.75 mm. 

have been omitted in this figure. 
^^ sketch hy Dr. Carpenter. 

4. newBpecic«, type 6.3 mm 

The I^Mi^ in ihia figure. 

4a. Nucleua of 

5. Turbonilla K^ type 4.5 mm.. 

The iS/ii in this figure. 

6a. Nucl.u.ol9aK^ «« 

6. Turbonilla type 6.7 mm.. 

The in Ihis figure. 

6a. Nucleus of 

7. Turbonilla Carpenter, type 6.5 mm 

The fi WIS been omitted in this figure. 

7a. Nucleus of 

8. Turbonilla new species, type 4.8 mi 

The fine spiral 'MG in thin figure. 

Sa. Nuclear of ttamc, latcml 

9. Turbonilla w, typo 7.9 mm.. 

The in this figure. 

90. Nucleus of 
JO. Turbonilh .type 6 mm... 

The fi ZSmiC in this figure. 
10a. Nucleus of 

11. Turbonilla species, type 6.3 mi 

The M*&S in this figure. 

lid. Nucleus of ^il%C 

12. T\irbonilla Adams, type 5.5 mm 

The in this figure. 

IZa. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlatgwl. 

Fig. 1. Ttirbonilla {Strioturbonilla) euliiiii. new species, type 3.1 mm 

The fine spiral strialiona have been umitled in this figure. 
la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlar^nHl. 
2. Turbonilla {Striolurbonilla) imprrialit, new spcciea, type 3.3 mm, 
2a. Nucleus ol same, lateral view much enlarged. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID M0LLU6KS. 237 

Page. 

Eig. 3. Twrhonilla (Strioturbonilla) sense Dall and Bartsch, type 7.7 mm 53 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
3a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

4. Twrhonilla (Strioturbonilla) phaneUf new species, type 3.2 mm 56 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

5. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) aresta, new species, type 6.4 mm 54 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) gracilior C. B. Adams, type 6.1 mm 58 

The fine incised spiral lines of the intercostal spaces have been 
omitted in this figure. 

7. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) galapagensis^ new species, type 3.5 mm. . . 55 

8. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) undata Carpenter, type 1.6 mm 55 

The spiral striations have been somewhat exaggerated. 
Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

9. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) vancouverensis Baird, type 6 mm 44 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

10. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) smithsoniy new species, type 4 mm 57 

The fine incised lines of the intercostal spaces have been omitted 
in this figure. 
10a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

11. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) attritay new species, type 7.4 mm 46 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
11a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

12. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) galianoiy new species, type 6.1 mm 51 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
12a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

13. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) pazana^ new speciee, type 5.7 mm 54 

The fine spiral striations l^ave been omitted in this figure. 
13a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

14. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) 'affinis C. B. Adams, type 5.3 mm 56 

The fine incised spiral lines of the intercostal spacee have been 
omitted in this figure. 

15. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) torqunla Gould, type 6.5 mm 47 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 
15a. Nucleus of name, lateral view much enlarged. 

Plate 5. 

Pig 1. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) keepi, new speciee, ty|)e 11.7 mm 71 

2. Turhonilln (Pyrgolampros) halistreptttf new species, type 9.5 mm 72 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

3. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) victoriana Dall and Bartecth, type 7 mm 61 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

4. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) painei^ new species, type 7.3 mm 71 

4a. Nucleus of name, lateral view much enlai^ed. 

5. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) oregonejtsis Dall and Bartsch, tjrpe 8.5 mm. 73 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

6. Turbonilla (Ptycheulimella) ohsoUta Carpenter, type 1.5 mm 59 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

7. Turbonilla (Ptycheulime.lla) abreojensiSf new species, type 5.2 nmi 59 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

8. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) lituyaruif new specie^fi, type 11.5 mm 73 



BULLETIN fi8, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Fig. 9. Tarbonitla ehoeolala Carpenter, li nua 

9a. Nucleus of eDUrsed. 

10. Turbonilla type 6.3 mm 

The ia this figure. 
10a. NiicleuH of 

11. Tiirbonilla Mia, Dcwepeciee, typ«8.5 mm 

Plate 6. 

Fig. 1. Turbonilla gituUH, aewppeciea, c(>type6.1 mm 

The ^S:^ been omitted in thi^ figure. 

10. NucleiM ft 

2. 7W™«faSSSi«H«» typ.6.75«n 

Oopy of 

3. TwhoniUa Bartech. type5.4 mm 

4. Tvibonilla type6.8mm 

6, IWfconi'Ua type 8 mm 

5a. Nucleus cf 

6. Turbonilla |^K, , type5.7 mm.,.. 

The y^:^ mt in tiis fijrure. 

6o. Nucleus of 

7. Turh<milla , cotype 11.8 ma 

The l« in thi* figure. 

la. Nucleus of ;g^ 

5. TurhoniUa typeS.flmro... 

9. 

W. ^is- 

The fine in thia figure. 

10a, Nui^leup of 

11. Twhonilla "Z^X^ type7.2mm 

11a. Nucleua of !3 enlarged. 

12. TuThonilla Dall and rtarMrb, type 7 mm.. 
12a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much piilarged. 

Fig. 1. TurboniUa(Pyr^tcu*)t\gna:. new species, type 10.2 mm 

2. Turbonilla {Pyrgitna) jewttti, 5.5 mm 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view 

3. Turbonilla (Pyrffi^cui) 1«5.2 mm 

3a. Nucleus of same. 

4. Turbonilla (Pyrgitcm) 4.0 mm 

5. Turbonilla (Pi/Tgisetu)'^!)^'^^ type 4.7 mm 

5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view 

6. Turbonilla (Px/rgitcua) morchi type 6.4 mm 

6a. Nucleus o[ iiame, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. TurboniUa {Pyrgitnii) a-nnrtlic, new 3.7 mm 

8. Turbonilla l_Pyrgitcut) 5.4 mm 

8a. Nucleus of same. 

9. Tvrbonilla (PgrgiteuM) type 3 mm 

Copy of a camera Carpenter. 

10. Turbonilla {Pgrgiiaii) -^^i^^ species, type 6.5 mm 

10a. Nucleus of bud^ JfttenJ view much enlarged. 



WEST AUERICAN PYRAMIDEU.ID MOLLUSKS. 



!Rg. 11. Twbonilla (Pyryuciu) veraHva, new apeciee, type 6.2 mm 77 

12. TwbonitUi (Pyrgitnu) type 3.6 mm 85 

12a. Nucleus of eame, enlarged. 

13. Twboniila (Pyrgisnu) i^ Bpeciee, type 12.3 mm 79 

13a. Nucleus of aame, lat«rail view much eolftrged. 

Plate 8. 

1. Twbonilla (Pyrgiteut) nereia, new epeciee, type 5.8 mm 86 

la. Nucleus of same, enlarged. 

2. Twbonilla (Pip'gitau) species, type 9.9 mm 90 

3. TwbonUla (Pyryiietu) var 92 

4. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) type 4.3 mm 93 

4a. Nucleus of same, 

5. Twbonilla (Pyrgiteut) cotype9.7 mm. .. 87 
5a. Nucleus of eame, StrH 

6. Turbonilla (Pyrgiteut) type2.3mm 91 

7. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) il 92 

7a. Nucleus of eame, m^ 

_ 8, Turbonilla {Pyrffiacut) marihalli, new epeciee, type 3.6 mm 94 

8a. Nucleus of same, 

9. T\iTbonilla {Pyrginna) type 2.26 mm 89 

Copy oi a camera lucida Carpenter. 

10. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) maara, 5.2 mm 91 

10a. Nucleus of same, >^&:i^ 

11. Turbonilla {Pifrgitcut) 8.8 mm 86 

12. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) , 5.4 mm 93 

12a. Nucleus of 

13. Turbonilla type4mm 90 

13a. Nucleus of 

14. Turbonilla Gould, 6 mm 93 

14a. Nucleus of 

15. Turbonilla cotype6.9mm 88 

15a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlanted. 

Plate 9. 

Fig. 1. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) eatlanea (Carpenter) Keep, type 10.5 mm 101 

la. Nucleus of enlarged. 

2. Turbonilla ^^^ffiJlH^^-ft: species, type 5.8 mm 98 

2a. Nucleus of 2!^af3 enlarged. 

3. Turbonilla PSSandButsch, type6.3 mm 95 

3a. Nucleus of much enlarged. 

4. Turbonilla 5.6 mm 97 

. 4a. Nucleus of 

5. Turbonilla f;'9ii type 7.2 mm 100 

5a. Nucleus of 

6. Turbonilla type 6.7 mm 99 

6a. Nucleus of nffc54fH 

7. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) eatUmtlla JI^B 5 mm 102 

8. Turboiiilta {Pyrgiteut) 4.6 mm 9G 

8a, Nucleus of same, 

9. Turbonilla {Pyrgiteut) 7.6 mm 81 

10. Turbonilla (Pj/rgiacut) dina, new epeciei, type 6.2 mm 96 



240 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Page. 

Fig. 11. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) callipeplumy new species, type 5.1 mm 96 

11a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

12. Twrhonilla (Pyrgiscus) arcugoniy new species, type 7.2 mm 86 

12a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Plate 10. 

1. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) craticulata Mdrch, type 7.8 mm 104 

la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

2. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) cincUlla Morch, type 5 mm 108 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

26. Detail sketch of sculpture in the intercostal spaces between the 
sutures. 

3. 2Vr6om7te (Pyr^cu*) «ti6wZa M6rch, type 4.9 mm 106 

4. TSjurbonilla (Pyrgiscus) larunda, new species, type 4.3 mm 109 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Ah. Detail sketch of sculpture in the intercostal spaces between the 
sutures. 

5. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) ceralva^ new species, type 3.7 mm 104 

5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) laray new species, type 4.3 mm 107 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

66. Detail sketch of sculpture in the intercostal spaces between the 
sutures. 

7. rurftoni/ia (Pyr^Mcu*) fepto, new species, type 2.7 mm 106 

7a. Nfucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) histias, new species, type 4.8 mm 105 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) wickhami, new species, type 8 mm 106 

10. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) iridentata Carpenter, type 3.8 mm 102 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

11. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) eiicosmobcLsis Da\\ &udB2iTtsch, type l\. 2 mm. . 98 
11a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

12. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) adusta, new species, type 5.7 mm 108 

12a. Detail sketch of sculpture in the intercostal spaces between the 

sutures. 

Plate 11. 

Fig. 1 . Turbonilla ( Mormula) regina, new specien, type 19.6 mm 112 

2. Turbonilla ( Mormula) igmuia, new species, type 4.1 mm 119 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

3. TurbonilUi (Mormula) pcntalopha Dall and Bartsch, type 8.5 mm 117 

3a. Nucleus of same, lateral ^^ew much enlarged. 

4. Turbonilla ( Mormula) lordi E. A. Smith, 20.8 mm Ill 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

5. Tiirbonilla ( Mormula) phahra, new species, type 2.5 mm 120 

6. Turbonilla ( Mormula) perisaivla, new ppecien, type 3.2 mm 119 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. Turbonilla ( Mormula) santosana, new ppecie^<, type 3.7 mm 117 

8. Turbonilla ( Mormula) eschscholtti Dall and Bartsch, 17.8 mm 113 

9. Turbonilla ( Mormula) hetcrolopha, new species, type 5.5 mm 118 

10. Turbonilla ( Mormula) catalinensis^ new species, type 16.5 mm 113 

10a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLtD MOLLUSKS. 241 

Page. 
Fig. 11. Turhonilla ( Morrtiula) viajor C. B. Adams, type 9.7 mm 116 

12. Turbon ilia ( Mumxula) tridentata Carpenter. 12.8 mm 114 

12a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlanred. 

13. Turbonilla ( Mormula) ambustaj new species, t>T)e 10 ram 115 

Plate 12. 

Fig. 1. Turbonilla ( Careliopsis) atenngyra, new species, type 5.5 mm 130 

la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

2. Turbonilla {Dunkeria) genilda^ new species, type 5.3 mm 125 

3. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) sedilUna, new species, type 5.3 mm 121 

3a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

4. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) excolp^, new species, type 3.7 mm 123 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

5. Turbonilla ( Pyrgisculus) festva de Folin, type 2.5 mm 127 

Copy of de Folin's figure. 

6. Turbonilla (Pyrgisculus) eancellata Caroenter, type 0.95 mm 127 

Copy of a camera lucida sketeh by Dr. Carpenter. 

7. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) nndreicRi^ new species, type 2.9 mm 124 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) hipoliten»is, new species, type 3.3 mm 123 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Turbonilla (Pifrgisculus) swani^ new species, type 5 mm 129 

9a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

10. Turbonilla ( Pyrgisculus) paurilirata Carf)enter, type 2.1 mm 129 

Copy of a c^amcra lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

11. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) subangulata Carpenter, type 2.8 mm 124 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

12. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) arata, new species, type 10.2 mm 125 

13. Turbonilla (Pyrgisculus) eufosmiay new species, type 4.8 mm 128 

13a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

14. Turbonilla (Asniunda) turrita C. B. Adams, type 4.7 mm 130 

I4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

15. Turbonilla (Pyrgisculus) monilifcra, new species, typK? 5.6 mm 126 

16. Turbonilla (Dunkeria) laminata Carpenter, 6.6 mm 122 

16a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Plate 13. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Solassia) scalarifomiis ( 'arpenter, type 5 mm 135 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

2. Odostom in ( Li/sacme) clausililormis ( 'arpenter, type 3.8 mm 132 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

3. Odoslomia (Salassia) tropidita^ new name, type 2.5 mm 134 

4. Odostomia (Besla) roniexa Carpenter, 2.4 mm 135 

5. Odostomia (Besln) callimorpha. new name, 1.5 mm 136 

6. Odostomia (Salassiella) richi, new species, type 3 mm 133 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. Odostomia ( ^'hn/saUida) reigeni Carpenter, type 1 .4 mm 138 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

8. Odostomia (Salassiella) lara^ new species, type 4.3 mm 133 

8a. Nucleus of «ame, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odostom ia ( Chn/sallida) telcscojnum Carpenter, type 3. 1 mm 139 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 



242 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plate 14. 

Fig. 1 . Odostomia {Chrysallida) eugena, new Rpecies, type 4.3 mm 147 

la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlax^i^. 

2. Odostomia ( Chrygallida) torrita^ new species, type 2 mm 142 

3. Odostomia (Chrysallida) inconspicua C. B. Adams, type 1.5 mm 139 

4. Odostomia (Chrysallida) paupercula C. B. Adams, type 3.3 mm 144 

5. Odostomia (Chrysallida) effusa Carpenter, type 2.8 mm 144 

5a. Detail sketch of basal sculpture. 

6. Odostomia (Chrysallida) amjhia^ new species, type 3.2 nun 141 

7. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) clathratula C. B. Adams, type 2.8 mm 145 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Odostomia (Chrysallida) ritteri^ new species, type 4.5 mm 146 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) licina, new species, type 3 mm 143 

10. Odostomia (Chrysallida) communis C. B. Adams, type 3.2 mm 141 

10a. Nucleus of bame, lateral view much enlarged. 

11. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) exeelsa^ new species, type 3 .3 mm 140 

Plate 15. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Chrysallida) oldroydif new species, type 3.5 mm 150 

la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

2. Odostomia (ChrysaUida) dncta Carpenter, type 3 mm 152 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

3. Odostomia (Chrysallida) oonisca^ new name, type 1.4 mm 150 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

4. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) trachis^ new species, type 2.5 mm 148 

4a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

5. Odostomia (Chrysallida) clementinaf new species, type 2.3 mm 149 

5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) rinelkij new species, type 2.3 mm 146 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

7. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) ovata Carpenter, type 3.9 mm 152 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

8. Odostomia (Chrysallida) lucca^ new species, type 4 mm 148 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odostomia (Chrysallida) nodosa Carpenter, type 4.1 mm 151 

9a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

Plate 16. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) pukhra de Folin, type 2.2 mm 158 

Copy of de Folin'a figure. 

2. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) asiricta Dall and Bartach, type 2.9 mm 154 

3. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) loomi»i^ new species, type 2 mm 153 

4. Odostomia (Chrysallida) coopcri Dall and Bartsch, type 3.1 mm 155 

5. Odostomia ( ChrysaUida) tyUri, new species, type 2.8 mm 157 

6. Odostomia (Chrysallida) scammonensiSy new species, type 5.1 mm 158 

6a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLTD MOLLUSKS. 243 

Page. 
Fig. 7. Odostomia (Chrysallida) proxima de Folin, type 2.5 mm 157 

Copy of de Folin's figure. 

8. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) hipolitensis^ new species, type 3.5 mm 155 

9. Odostomia (Chrysallida) lapazana^ new species, type 2.8 mm 156 

9a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

10. Odostomia (Chrysallida) puhiay new species, tyx)e 2.2 mm 160 

10a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

11. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) vicola^ new species, type 2.5 mm 153 

Plate 17. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Chrysallida) deceptrix, new species, type 2.8 mm 169 

2. Odostomia (Chrysallida) fasdata Carpenter, type 2.1 mm 165 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

3. Odostomia (Chrysallida) oregonensis Dall and Bartsch, type 3.3 mm 162 

3a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

4. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) vincta^ new species, type 2.7 mm 165 

5. Odostomia (Chrysallida) defoliniay new name, type 3.6 mm 161 

Copy of de Folin's figure. 

6. Odostomia (Chrysallida) montereyensis Dall and Bartsch, type 3 mm 159 

7. Odostomia (Chrysallida) pulcherrima^ new species, type 5 mm 164 

8. Odostomia (Chrysallida) helga^ new species, type 4.2 mm 166 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) henthina^ new name, type 4.8 mm 163 

9a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

Plate 18. 

Fig. 1, Odostomia ( Chrysallida) sanctorumy new species, type 2.5 mm 167 

2. Odostomia (Chrysallida) promeceSf new species, type 2.5 mm 164 

2a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

3. Odostomia ( Chrysallida) sapia^ new species, type 1.8 mm 167 

3a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlaxged. 

4. Odostomia (Chrysallida) rotundata Carpenter, type 2.3 mm 168 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

5. Odostomia (Pyrgulina) marginata C. B. Adams, type 2.8 mm 169 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 
5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Odostomia (Chrysallida) talama^ new species, type 3.4 mm 143 

7. Odostomia (Chrysallida) virginaliSf new name, type 3 mm 160 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Odostomia (Haldra) photis Carpenter, type 1.2 mm 171 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

9. Odostomia (Imdclla) quinquedncta Carpenter, type 1.8 mm 174 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

10. Odostomia ( Ividella) navisa delmontensis Dall and Bartsch, type 3.2 mm . 174 
10a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

11. Odostomia (Ividella) nav^isa Dall and Bartsch, type 2.7 mm 173 

11a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

12. Odostomia (Ividella) orariana^ new name, type 2 mm 175 



244 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plate 19. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia ( Egila) lacunata Carpenter, type 1 mm 170 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

2. Odosiomia ( Miralda) exarata Carpenter, type 6.3 mm 177 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

3. Odosiomia {Egila) poppei, new species, type 2.2 mm 170 

4. Odosiomia ( Miralda) terehellum C. B. Adams, type 2.2 mm 177 

5. Odosiomia ( Miralda) xpynota, new species, type 1 .9 mm 178 

6. Odosiomia ( Miralda) armata Carpenter, 2.5 mm 177 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

7. Odosiomia ( Miralda) galapagengis, new species, type 2 mm 179 

8. Odostamia (Ividella) pedroana^ new species, type 6.7 mm 172 

8a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odosiomia (loara) turricula Dall and Bartsch, type 4 mm 179 

10. Odosiomia ( Miralda) hemphilli, new .•'pecies, type 3.5 mm. * 176 

Plate 20. 

Fig. 1 . Odosiomia ( Menestho) Jarma, new species, type 2.4 mm 188 

la. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

2. Odosiomia ( Menestho) ziziphina Carpenter, type 0.65 mm 186 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

3. Odosiomia ( Menestho) xquisculpta Carpenter, type 2 mm 191 

3a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

4. Odosiomia ( Menestho) suhlirulaia Carpenter, type 2 mm 192 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

5. Odosiomia {lolaea) delicalula Carpenter, type 2.3 mm 183 

5a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

6. Odosiomia (Evalina) intermedia Carpenter, type 1.4 mm 181 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

7. Odosiomia (Eralijia) americana Dall and Bartsch, type 2.9 mm 180 

7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Odosiomia {lolxa) amiania Dall and Bartsch, tyx)e 4.4 mm 182 

S(t. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

9. Odosiomia ( Menestho) callipt/rga, Dall and Bartsch, type 2.5 mm 188 

Copy of de Folin's figure. 

10. Odosiomia ( loUia) atcosinia, new name, type 2.5 mm 183 

10a. Nucleus of Hame, lateral view much enlarged. 

Plate 21. 

Fig. 1 . Odosiomia ( MencMo) exara Dall and Bartsch, type 3.9 mm 186 

2. Odostomia ( Menestho) cnora^ new species, type 2.8 mm 189 

3. Odostomia ( Menestho) harfordensis Dall and Bartsch, type 3.2 mn . . . . 191 

4. Odostomia ( Menestho) amilday new species, type 2.6 mm 187 

5. Odostomia ( Menestho) pharcida Dall and Bartsch, type 2.3 mm 185 

6. Odostomia ( Menestho) ehih-nsis^ new species, type 2.3 mm 189 

7. Odostomia (Menestho) grammaiospira Dall and Bartsch, type 5.3 mm.. 185 
7a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 

8. Odostomia ( Menestho) hypocurta, new species, type 4.3 nmi 190 

9. Odostomia ( Menestho) J'etellaj new species, type 4.4 nmi 189 

9a. Nucleus of same, lateral view much enlarged. 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 245 

Plate 22. 

Page. 

Pig. 1. Odostomia (Evalea) esilda, new species, type 5.5 mm 196 

2. Odostamia {Evalia) tiUwnookensis Dall and Bartsch, type 4.1 mm 196 

3. Odoatomia ( Evalea) ten u is ( 'arpenter, type 1 .6 mm 197 

Copy of a camera lucida Hketch by Dr. Carpenter. 

4. Odosiomia (Evalea) to, new species, type 5.6 mm 199 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

5. Odostomia ( Evalea) alcutv^a, new species, type 4.4 mm 196 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

6. Odostomia (Evalea) nunivakensiSj new species, type 3 mm 194 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

7. Odostomia (Evalea) killisnooensis^ new species, type 6.4 mm 195 

8. Odostomia (Eialea) nemo, new s|>ecies, type 4.8 mm 198 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

9. Odostomia (Erah-a) kadinkensis, new speines, type 5.2 mm 197 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

Plate 23. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Evalea) columhUina Dall and Bart*;ch, type 8.3 mm 202 

2. Odostomia (EvaUa) tcnuisnilpta Carpenter, type 2.3 mm 206 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

3. Odostomia (Evalea) jewetti Dall and Bart.sch, type 6.1 mm 201 

4. Odostomia (Evalea) pratoma^ new species, type 2.9 mm 199 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

5. Odostomia (Evalea) phanea Dall and Bartsch, type 4.8 mm 204 

6. Odostomia (Evalea) valdezi Dall and Bartsch, type 3 mm 198 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

7. Odostomia (Evalea) injlata (Carpenter) Dall and Bartsch, type 6.2 mm. 201 
8* Odostomia (Evalea) herilda, new species, type 3.8 mm 197 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

9. Odostomia (Evalea) phanella, new species, type 3.3 mm 205 

Plate 24. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Evalexi) socorroensis, new species, type 4.6 mm 208 

2. Odostomia (Evalea) calif arnica, new species, type 3 mm 208 

3. Odostomia (Evalea) donilla, now specia**, type 4.5 mm 208 

4. Odostomia (Evalea) chssihi, new species, type 6 mm 211 

5. Odostomia (Evalea) stephensi new species, type 5.3 mm 210 

6. Odostomia (Evalea) aiujularis, Dall and Bartsch, tj'pe 5.6 mm .*. . 207 

7. Odostomia (Evalea) amcJnthina, now species, type 3.3 mm 210 

8. Odostomia (Evalea) tncovmensis Dall and Bartsch, type 4.3 mm 209 

9. Odostomia {Evalea) serilla, new species, type 4.8 mm 209 

Plate 25. 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in all the figures on this plate. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Evalea) mx>villa, new species, type 3.6 mm 2U 

2. Odostomia ( Evalea) altimi^ new species, type 3 mm 214 

3. Odostomia (Evalea) baranoffensis, new species, tyjx; 6.3 mm 215 

4. Odostomia (Evalea) mitiutissimaj new species, type 3.1 mm 211 

5. Odostomia (Evalea) diliciosa Dall and BarUKrh, type 4 mm 216 

6. Odostomia (Evalea) notilla, new species, type 2.7 mm 213- 

7. Odostomia (Evalea) gravida Gould, type 6.6 mm 212 

8. Odostomia (Evalea) profundicola, new species, type 4.5 mm 214 

9. Odostomia (Evalea) raymondi, new species, type 3.6 mm 212 

2565— Bull. 68-09 17 



246 BUIXETIK 68, UNITED STATES KATIOSAL MUSEUM. 

Plate SB. 

Fig. 1. Odoitomia (Ei-alra) kagem^ttri, neWHpecies, t>-pe4.4mm 

The fine spiral Btriationa in this figure. 

2. Odostomia (EvaUa) liieatana, type 4.7 mm 

3. Odottomia (EraUa) sUkaemii 4 mm 

The line apital in this figure. 

4. Odottomia (BvaUa) ^^^ mm 

5. Odoalomia {EiHtUa) tinaUukensig, new Bpeciee, type 4.8 mm 

6. Odoilomia (Evalea) lanttirotana, new species, lyp« 4.9 mm 

7. Odottomia {Evalea) 4.6 mm 

8. Odottomia (Evalea) rm 

9. Odottomia (Eualta) ^Sir 4.3 mm 

The fine apiral Btriations have been omitted in this figure. 

Plate 27. 

Fig. 1. Odottomia (ArnauTa) taltira Qiu^nteT, tj^pe 6.4 mm 

2. Odottomia [Amaura) gouldi Carpenter, lype 6. 1 mm 

3. Odottomia {Amaura) type 7.7 mm 

The fine spiral omitted in this figure. 

4. Odottomia (EvaUa) type2.7mm 

The fine spiral omitted in (his figure. 

6, Othttomia (EvaUa) type 3.7 mm 

The fine spiral omitted in this figure. 

6. Odotiomia {EvaUa) 2.2 mm 

7. Odottomia ( tj-pe 5.5 mm 

The fine spiral omitted in this figure. 

8. Odottomia (Amaura) .7 mm 

9. Odottomia (Amaiira) (ypp 8 mm 

The fine spiral atriations have been omiiied in this figure. 



3. Odoilomi 

4. Odottomi 
6. Odoilomi 



.4mo»rn)ni(Ci/onjLi>Carpen(er, 7.9 mm 227 

2. OdoslomUt I Anui'iraj canfitldi Dall. lype9,Gmm 228 

( Amaura) avtUaiui Carpenter, 8.3 mm 225 

(,lmoi<ra) Ivpc 6.9 mm 228 

(.Amaura) artfiea, new species, type 12.4 mm 224 

6, Oda$lomia(AmaitTa)nota, new sjieiricB, tjire 7.-5 mm 226 

The fine spiral slrialions have been omitlcd in Ihitt figure. 

7. Odottomia (Aniaiira) lypi- 13.« mm 219 

i. Odottomia (Amaura) ^2 Barlsch, l>-pe 10,2 mm 219 

9. Odottomia I Amaura) type 5. G mm 222 

The fine spiral strialions have been omilted in this figure. 

Plate 29. 

The fine spiral sirialions have been omitted in all figures on this plale. 

Fig. I. Odottomia I Amaura) fUa, new species, lype (i, I mm 220 

2. Odottomia I Amaura) ptta, new species, type 9.3 mm 224 

3. Odottomia ( Auiaura) marltntt Dall and Bartech, type 5 mm 2» 

4. Odottomia (Amaiira) itiiitiukentit, new species, type 9.5 ram 227 

5. Odottomia i Amaura) *ran*d Clessin, tj-pe 9,9 mm 223 



WEST AMERICAN PYRAMIDELLID MOLLUSKS. 247 

Plate 30. 

Pago. 

Fig. 1. Odostomia (Odostomia) dinelUif new species, type 2.2 mm 232 

2. Odostomia (Scalenosloma) rangii De Folin, type 2.7 mm 230 

Copy of de Folin 's figure. 

3. Odostomia (Odostomia) coronadoensiSy new species, type 1.7 mm 233 

4. Odostomia (Odostomia) farellay new species, type 2.5 mm 232 

5. Odostomia (Scalenostoma) dotella^ new species, type 2.3 mm 230 

6. Odostomia (Ileida) panam£n8is Clessin, type 3.1 mm 231 

7. Odostomia (Amaura) moratora, new species, type 9 mm 225 

The fine spiral striations have been omitted in this figure. 

8. Odostomia (Odostomia) mammillata Carpenter, type 1.1 mm 233 

Copy of a camera lucida sketch by Dr. Carpenter. 



INDEX. 



A. Page. 

Aciculina Desh 17 

demiiea Desh 13 

gracilis Cosranann 17 

gracilis Desh 17 

Aclls 17 

nitidiMima Mtg 17 

Actsopyramis Fisch 10, 17, 18 

striata Gray 10 

Agatha A. Ad 10 

Virgo A. Ad 10 

Amathis A. Ad 10 

AmauraMdller 16,182,218 

arcticaD.&B 218, M4 

avellanaCpr 218,226,228 

beringiDall 218,220 

Candida M511er 16,218 

canfieldlDall 6,7,219,228 

elsaD.&B 218,220 

iarallonensis D.iScB 218, 221 

gouldiiCpr 204,218,224 

iliuliukensis D. & B 218,227 

kennerleyi D.iScB 6,218,219 

kratmei Clcssin 6. 218, 228 

lostraD.A B 218,210 

martensi D. <Sc B 6,219,229 

montereyensis D.&B 6, 228 

moratora D. <Se B 218,225 

notaD.<ScB 218,226 

nucilormis Gpr 219,227 

orciaD.<Sc B 218,228 

I>e8aD.<ScB 218,226 

papif ormis Cpr 221 

saturaCpr 218,221 

sillanaD.&B 218,222 

subturrita D. & B 219,228 

talpaD.<Sc B 218,222 

Amoura anguliferens De F 13 

AnLsocycla Monterosato 17 

Asmunda D. dt B 12,28,129 

turrita C. B. Ad 12,36,129,180 

Auriculina Gray 192 

Auriostomia MonteroKuto 18 

B. 

BabellaD.&B 12 

cselatior D. & B 12 

BaldraD.<ScB 18 

archcriD.<b B 6,18 

Bandonia Bayuu 17 

Baadonia Mabille 17 

Belonidimn CkMsmanii 17 

BeslaD. &B 14,181,188 

callimorpha 1>. <Sc B 135.186 

con vcxa Cpr 14, 188 



Page. 

Brachystomia Monterosato 16 

riSBoidea Hanley 16 

C. 

Callolongchsns D. & B 9, 18 

jamaicensis Dall 9 

Careliopsls M5rch 12,28,180 

stenogyra D. <& B 180 

styliformls M6rch 12.180 

Chemnitzia d'Orb 11,28,88 

arnicas C. B. Ad 4,84,88 

acuminata C. B. Ad 4,80 

acuminata de Keyserling 80 

sepynota D. <& B 83,86 

affinis C. B. Ad 4,66 

aurantia Cpr 4, 5, 66 

campanellse Phil 11,88 

castanea (Cpr.) Keep 101.102 

c. b. adamsiCpr 4,62 

chocolata Cpr 4, 70 

clathratula C. B. Ad 4,125,145,171 

ccelata Cpr 5, 78 

ccelataOouId 78 

communis C. B. Ad 4, 14, 125, 187. 141, 142 

cora d'Orb 4,lu8 

crebrifllata Cpr 5,92 

crystallina Dkr 11 

flavescensCpr 4,89 

gabbiana Cooper 0,83,86 

gibbosaCpr 4,61,62 

gracHior C. B. Ad 4,68 

gfracillimaCpr 4,86,77 

houserlD. ^B 84,89 

hMwIispaD. AB 88,84 

kelseyiD.&B 84,89 

lordl E. A. Smith 5,U1 

major C.B. Ad 4,116 

maiginata C. B. Ad 4,109 

montereyensis D. AB 6,86 

muricata Cpr 4, 88, 86 

muricatoides D. AB 6,84,88 

panamcnsisC. B. Ad 4,42 

paramceaD. 4&B 84,87 

prolongata Cpr 4, 88 

rangil De F 5, 280 

ra>'mondiD. &B 84,89 

santa-rosana D. AB 84,86 

simllia C. B. Ad 4,87 

striosa C. B. Ad 4,88 

stylinaCpr 4.6 

subcuspidata Cpr 4. 92 

tcnuiculaGld 92 

tennilirata Cpr 4 

terebraliaCpr 4,92 

249 



250 



INDEX. 



Pa«e. 

Chemnitzia torquata Gould 4,47,48 

trachealis Gould 17 

tridcntata Cpr : 4, 6, 114 

turrita C. B. Ad 4,12,129,180 

undata Cpr 4 

unifasciata Cpr 4, 92 

vancouvcrensia Baird 4, 44 

Virgo Cpr 4,78,98 

Chryaallida Cpr 14, 131, 1M,187 

acrybiaD.&B 187,141 

acuminata C. B. Ad 80 

angusta Cpr 6, 91 

aatricta D. <fe B 6,187,1M 

benthina D. <& B 188, 16S 

casta A. Ad 14,169 

cinctaCpr 187,162 

clathititula C. B. Ad 187,145,172 

olathratula Cpr 171 

clausUif ormis Cpr 4, 16, 132 

clemcctinaD.ikB 187,149 

oommonls C. B. Ad 14,187,141,142 

communiB Cpr 187, 142 

contiactaDeF 168 

oonvexaCpr 4,14,135 

oooperiD.4&B 6,187,166 

deceptrixD.<&B 188,189 

deXcliniaD.&B 188,161 

difficillsD. &B 168 

effusaCpr 4,137,144 

eugenaD.&B 187,147 

excelsaD. &B 187,140 

fasciataCpr 4,188,166 

helgaD. <&B 138,166 

hlpolltensis D. & B 137,166 

inconspicua C. B. Ad 187, 189 

indentata Cpr 4, 102 

lacunata Cpr 14 

lapazanaD.&B 137,166 

liclna D. & B 137. 148 

ioomisi D. (& B 137,158 

luccaD.&B 137,148 

montereyenais D. & B 6, 188, 169 

nodosa Cpr 4, 137, 161 

oblonga Cpr 4, 163 

oldroydi D. «fe B 137, 160 

oonisca D. & B 137, 160 

oregonensis D. <& B 6, 138, 162 

ovata Cpr 4, 137, 162, 162 

ovulum Cpr 4, 150 

paupercula C. B. Ad 137, 144 

photisCpr 4.14.171 

promeccfl D. & B 138, 164 

proxima De F 137, 167 

puleberrima I). & B 138, 164 

pulchra De F 138, 168 

pulcia D. & B 138, 160 

pumlla Cpr 5, 136 

reigeni Cpr 4, 137, 188 

rinella D. & B 137.146 

rittcri D. & B 137, 146 

rotundata Cpr 4, 138, 168 

winctorum D. <& B 138, 167 

saplal). & B 138,167 

Rcammonensis V.&B 138, 168 

talama 1). & B 137, 148 

leleseopium Cpr 4,137,189 



Chrysallida torrita D. & B 137,142 

tracbisl). &B 187,148 

tyleriD. <feB 188,167 

vlcolaD.ifeB 137, 16» 

vlnctaD. <feB 138,166 

vliginalia D. & B 138,160 

Virgo Cpr...'. & 

Cingula Inconspicua C. B. Ad 4,199 

paupercula C. B. Ad 4,144 

terebellum C. B. Ad 4,177 

turrita C.B. Ad 4,176 

Cingullna A. Ad 12,17 

• cingulataDkr 12 

CommannicaD. 4&B 10,17,18 

clandestina Desh 10 

Cydodofltomia Sacco 15 

motinensia Sacco 15 

D. 

Diptychus Cossmann 17 

Diptychua Milne EdwardH 17 

Diacobasia CoBBmann 18 

demlasaDeah IS 

Doliella Monterosato 15,18 

nitenaJefTr 16 

DunkeriaCpr 12,28,120,121 

andrewalD.AB 121,124 

arataD.&B .* 121,126 

cancellata Cpr 4,120,127 

exooIpaD. &B 121, 12t 

genllda D.<&B 121,126 

hipoUtensis D. <Se B 121,12t 

intermedia Cpr 4, 120, 181 

laminataCpr 4,5,120,121,122 

paucilirata Cpr 4,12,120,129 

sedillina D. ife B 121 

subangulata Cpr 4,120,121,124 

E. 

EgilaD.<&B 181,170 

lacunata Cpr 14, 170 

poppeiD:&B 170 

EgilinaD.&B 14 

mariella A. Ad 14 

ElodiaDcF 18 

Elodia Desvoidy 18 

eleganaDeF 13,18 

ElodiameaDeF 13,18 

el^auH De F 13 

gianaD. <& B 18 

Eluaa A.Ad ....^. 28,29 

teres A. Ad .?. 28,29 

EulimellaFbs 10,17,18 

cnisaula Fbs 10 

obsoleta Cpr 4, 59 

occldentalis Hemphill 5 

scillae .Scacchi 10 

tenuis Sby 12 

Euturbonllla Semper 28,29,33 

EvaleaA.Ad 132,192,198 

CDquisculpta Cpr 5,191 

aleuticaD.tfc B 198,196 

altinal). & B 194.214 

amchitkanu D. <k B 194,210 

angularis D. <& B 6,196,207 

atoBsaDall 7,198,1 



calllorni™ I>. A B 193. am 

npltanaU. &B IM.SOO 

clcnlnlD.AB 1M,*II 

colnmbEBiia IKdiB 6,1Ci3,W£ 

doUcalulaCpr S.lto 

(lellcliw D. 4 B B,1W,!I« 

■m^ti 193,808 

(Ifeani A. Ad 13,lB,ltl8,IKi 

CTlld«D. *B 19S.1M 

n MM 

160 

Knnadeiuls D. & B IM,*!' 

giBTldm Gould ■, 1H*1* 

hBg«mcin«ri D. ^ B IM.IIS 

hertldaD. AB 193, 1« 

InBaUCpr... m.MI 

ioD. Afl 133. IN 

jewem D.4B 6.198,101 

IcwlUkenfilsD.&B 193. IBJ 

kllllmooenslB D. A B 193.193 

lucanoaD, &B 193, MM 

mlp minima D. iiB 194, til 

mavllla D. J^ B 1W,*IS 

nemoD. &B... 193,118 

noUlUD. iB 191. til 

naaiTikcnii!) D. ,b B 1M,I»4 

obtmD.&B 193, SM 

|«rell»D.AB 194. tn 

ptunea D.&B 6. 193, KM 

phanclUD. AB. 193,10S 

piBtoma D. i B 193, liW 

profundleolaD.AB 191, til 

lajmondl D. 4 B 1«. Jit 

rertniD.AB l>4,(ia 

nDUnnnaD.AB IK.tOi 

KptcntiionailsU.&B I93.t00 

nertllaD.&B IM.IOS 

"Ilkaenais Clcssln G,194,tii 

HJCorrocnBLiD.i: B lai.MB 

Btephensl r. 4 B 191, tlO 

"ttBInln™ Cpr 106 

iPDulsculpla Cpr I93,CM 

iB 8,193.19$ 

S&B 193,101 

VHldGilD.dtB 6,193,198 

Eralina 1). d: D IS. 132, ISO 

Hmcrlcana 1>. i B 6,15.180 

Cpr 180,181 

F. 

PtoilnellaD. &B IS 

nifnillleren". He F la 

Fonlcularia Lam I7J 

iMoiilei™alo IM 

n. 

atdraU.diB 11,131.171 

phollsCpr 14,171 

arvellHcleKansH. AA. Art ISS 

elda D. A B 16,131,01 

ealoosatni'lH Dall 16.281 

panamensiiiCletaln fl.ttl 

:sm«m Helvlll A siuiden is 



I'.HeaA. Ad iri,132,Ig| 

amianiaD.AB fi,lBl,ISt 

dellcalulaD.AB 181. 18( 

.■ucoamlaD.ftB 131,18) 

BCltula A. Ad 181 

loleA.Ad 131 

loleBlyth ISl 

BCilala A. Ad 15,181 

IphtaaaD. £B lO.lS 

1M32.I7B 

terricula D. A B 179 

tuiricnlaD.AB lfi,I70 

IvldeltaD.iliB 11.131,17* 

delmontcnidBtl. All 171,114 

excavKUPhll IVS 

iiavlaaD. AB M. 172,17* 

orariana D. A B 172,178 

pedroana Dall tit 

qnlnqoeclnda t'pi 172,174 

iTtdlaD.AB 172,178 

Cpr 175 

tenslii D.A B 8,174 

O.AB 8,14,172,173 

J. 

Jamlnoa Brown 184 

JaralneaDeF IM 

blUialaDeF 184 

164 

14,18 

B IB 

Jnrdanula Chuler 18 

L. 

elongsUPM 12,17 

pentalophm D. A B 117 

trldcntataD. &B 114 

LADMllaD. AB 12,17 

elongalaPw II 

L»ncla Walker 17 

LlaDeF 17* ' 

decoialaDpF 178 

LioKtiHiiIa O. San 16 

IB 

9,18, ig,« 

II 

bEcolorHke B.Jl.t* 

FODlcaC.B.Ad a.W 

lamelUtaCpr 14 

DAB Il.t4 

D.AB tl,n 

'S''^H'A Wasn 9 

25 

25 

17 

IeB lMn,UI 

D.AB 16,111 

M. 

Megaatooa HonteroMlo IS 

UelanlamnpaDelisPhil II,3S 

rutaPhU 11.74 

MftUtbPhU U 



252 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Mene8tho Mdller 10.15,132,184 

sequisculptaCpr 184,191 

albulaFabr 15,184 

amlldaD. &B 184.187 

blUrataDeF 184 

calUpy rga D. & B 184, 188 

chllenslsD.&B 184,189 

elegans Do F 184, 188 

enoraD.<&B 184,189 

exam D. <& B 6, 184, 186 

farma D.&B 184.188 

fetellaD. &B 184,189 

grammatospira D. <& B IM. 186 

harfordensLs D. &B 6,184.191 

hypocurtaD.&B.. 184.190 

pbarcida D. & B 5.6.184,186 

recta DeF 184.187 

sublirulata Cpr 184,198 

sisyphlna Cpr 184,186 

Microbcliscus Sandbcrgcr 88 

i nasipec tua Fucha 88 

Hilda D.&B 8,18 

ventricoaa Qaoy 8 

MiraldaA.Ad 14,132.176 

aepynotaD. &B 176,178 

annataCpr 176,177 

diadema A. Ad 14,176 

ezamtaCpr 176,177 

galapegenaia D. & B 176,179 

hemphiUi D. A B 176 

terebellam C. B. Ad 176,177 

Monoptygma Lea 17 

apirata A. Ad 14 

striata Gray 10,17 

styllformia M5rch 12,130 

stylina A. Ad 10 

Monotygma Gray 17 

striata Gray 17 

Mormula A. Ad 28, 110 

ambusta D.&B 110. 116' 

catalinensia D. & B 110. 1 IS 

eachscholtzi D. d: B 6, 110, 116 

heterolopha D. & B 110, 118 

ignada D. & B 110, 119 

lordlE. A.Smith 110,111 

major C. B. Ad 110,116 

pentalopha D. A B 110, 1 1 7 

periflcelida D. & B 110, 119 

phalera D. A B 110, 120 

reglnaD.AB 110,112 

rlssolna A. Ad 12,110 

santoaana D. <& B 110,117 

Ktriatulos L 110 

tridentataCpr 110.114 

MumiolaA. Ad 14 

spirata A. Ad 14 

tenuis Dall 5,185 

Murchisonella Mdreh 8 

spectrum M5rch 8 

Myonia 10 

Myxa Hedley 16 

exesa Iledley 16 

N. 

Nlslturris Dall 11 

crystal! ina 11 

NofimiaDeF 186 



N<«miaPasco 138 

angustaDeF 6,186,161 

contracta DeF. 6,162 

difflcilisD. &B 162 

ovataDoF 6,162 

proxima VeV 6, 167 

pulchra De F 6,166 

Ndfimiamea De F 186 

O. 

Obelibcus (anonymous) 8,18,19 

achates Gould 27 

clavulusA. Ad 4,26,27 

clavulus (F^r.) Beck 26 

conicosCpr 21 

crocatnaA.Ad 27 

hastatus A. Ad 4,26 

variegatusCpr 4,6,21 

ventrlcoeus Quoy 8 

Obtortio Hedley 16 

pjrrrhacme Mel T. <b Stand 16 

OceanldaDeF 16 

gradataDe F 16 

Oda Monteroeato 16 

dolioliformla Jeffr 16 

OdettaDeF 184 

callipyiga D. <fc B 188 

elegansDcF 6,184,188 

recta DeF 6,187 

Odontostomla Jeffr 131,281 

Odostomla Fleming 8« 13. 181, 132, 281,282 

achates Gould 4,27 

acrybiaD. <&B 137,141 

sepynotaD. <bB 176,178 

fl&qulsculpta Cpr 5,184,191 

albula Fab 15, 184 

aleuticaD.&B 103,196 

altinaD.&B 194,214 

amchitkana D.&B 194,210 

amerlcana D.&B 6, 15, 180 

amianta D. <& B 6, 181, 182 

amildaD. AB 184.187 

angularis D. A B 6,193,207 

angulifercns De F 13 

arctica D.&B 218, 224 

armataCpr 172,176,177 

aatricta D. & B 6, 137, 164 

atoiwaDall 7,198,206 

avellana Cpr 4. 5. 218, 226, 228 

baranoffeniiis D.&B 194,216 

benthina D. «t B 188,168 

beringlDall 218,220 

bllirataDeF 184 

califomicaD.&B 198,206 

callimorpha I). <& B 136, ISO 

callipyrgaD. & B 184,188 

caloomcnNis Dall 16 

Candida Mdller 16,218 

canfleldi Dull 6, 219, 1 

cttpitana I). A- li 198.1 

carinata Dc F 13 

carinata Desh 16,229 

carinata H. Ad 184 

casta A. Ad 14,169 

chilensis D. A B 184,180 

cinctaCpr 4,187,! 



INDEX. 



253 



Page. 

Odotlomia clathratula C. B. Ad 187, 145 

claufliliformis Cpr le.lJK 

Clementina D. <& B 137, 14» 

cleaginlD. AB 194,211 

Columbiana D. & B 6,193,202 

communis C. B. Ad 14, 137, 141, 142 

communis Cpr 142 

conspicua Aid 16, 18 

contracta De F 1*2 

convexa Cpr 14, 186 

cooper! D.&B 6,137,166 

coronadoensis D. <& B 232,288 

curtaClessin 229 

curtum Deah 229 

deceptrixD. AB 138, 16» 

defolinia D. «fe B 188,161 

delicatula Cpr 5,181.188 

dellclosa D. & B 6,194.216 

delmontensis D. & B 6, 172, 174 

dladema A. Ad 14 

diegensis D. <& B 6 

difficllisD. &B 162 

dinellaD.AB 282 

doliolaPhil 18 

doliollformis Jeffr 16 

donlllaD.AB 193,208 

dotellaD. &B 280 

ebumea Stimpson 16 

effusaCpr 137,144 

elegans A. Ad 13,15,188,192 

clegans De F 184, 188 

elegans, H. A A. Ad 188 

elef^ans Monterosato 13, 188 

elHaD. A B 218,220 

enoraD. A B 184,189 

erjavcciano Bnw 18 

esildaD. AB 193,196 

eucosmia D. A B 181. 188 

engenaD. AB 137,147 

exara D. A B 6, 184, 186 

exarata Cpr 176, 177 

excavata Phil 172 

excelsaD. AB 137,140 

exesa Hedley 16 

farallonensis D. A B 218,221 

farellaD. AB 282 

farmaD. AB 184,188 

fasciataCpr 188,166 

f enestrata Fbs 12 

fetellaD.AB 184,189 

galapagensis D. A B 176, 179 

gisnaD. AB 13 

gouldiiCpr 4,5,204,218,224 

gouldiiD. AB 204 

gracilenta Monterosato 160 

gradata De F : . . . 16 

grammatospira D. A B 6,184.186 

granadensis D. A B 194,217 

gravida Gould 4,194,212 

hagemeisteri D.AB 194,216 

harfordcnsis D. A B 6,184,191 

helgaD. AB 138,166 

hemphilli D. A B 176 

herildaD.AB 198,197 

hipolitensLM D. A B 187,166 

hypocurta D. A B 184,190 



Page. 

Odostomia iliuliukensis D.AB 218. 227 

inconspicuaC. B. Ad 137.189 

inflataCpr 4,5,93,201 

insculpta (Cpr.) Keep 183 

inseulpta De Kay 183 

intermedia Cpr 180, 181 

interstinctus Mtg 13 

ioD. AB 198,199 

jeffreysiana Monterosato 13 

jcwettlD. AB 6.193.201 

kadiaken.^is D. A B 198,197 

kennerleyi D. A B 6,218,219 

killisnooensis D. A B 193,196 

krausei Clessln 6,6,218.228 

lacunata Cpr 14, 170 

lamellata Cpr 4, 24 

lapazanaD. AB 137,166 

lastraD. AB 218,219 

laxaD. AB 16,188 

lIcInaD. AB 137.148 

loomisiD. AB 137,168 

lucasanaD. A B 193,204 

luccaD.AB 187,148 

mammillata Cpr 4, 282, 288 

marginata r. B. At! 169 

mariella A. Ad 14 

martensl D.AB 6, 219, 229 

minutissima D. A B 191,211 

montereyensis D.AB 6, 138, 169, 228 

moratoraD. AB 218.226 

movlllaD. AB 194,218 

mutinensis Sacco 15 

navlsaD. AB 6,14,172,178 

nemoD. AB 193.196 

nltens Jeffr 15, 18 

nivosaMtg 16 

nodosa Cpr 137,161 

notaD. AB 218,226 

notillaD. AB 194,218 

nuciformis Cpr 4,5, 219, 227 

nunivakensls D. A B 193,194 

obesaD. AB 108,208 

obliqua Aid 192 

oblongaMacg 163 

oldroydiD.AB 187,160 

ooniscaD. AB 187,160 

orarianaD. AB 172,176 

orciaD.AB 218,228 

oregonensis D. A B 6,138,162 

ovataCpr 137,162 

ovulum Lea 150 

panamensis Cleasin 5,6,281 

paiellaD. AB 194,217 

paupercula C. B. Ad 137,144 

ped roana Dall 1 72 

pesaD.AB 218,226 

phaneaD. A B 6,198,204 

phanellaD.AB 193,206 

pharcldaD.AB 5,6,184,186 

photisCpr 14.171 

pilsbryiD.AB 6,18 

pllcataMtg 8.16,131,232 

poppeiD. AB 170 

pratomaD. A B 198,199 

piofundicola D. A B 194,214 

promecesD. A B 188,164 



254 



INDEX. 



Page. 

OdoHtomia proxizna De F 187, 1&7 

pulchcrrima D. & B 138,164 

pulchm De F 138, 168 

pulcia D. & B 138. 1(M) 

pumila A. Ad 4, 136 

pupiformis Cpr 221 

pjrrrhacme Melv. & Stand 16 

quinquecincta Cpr 172, 174 

rangii De F 280 

raymondlD. <feB 194,212 

recta DeF 184,187 

reigenlCpr 137,188 

retdnaD.&B 194,216 

richlD. <ScB 188 

rinellaD. <fcB 187,146 

rlwoidea Hanley 16 

ritteri D. <Sc B 137,146 

rotundata Cpr 138, 168 

sanctoram D. dc B 188, 167 

mntarosana D. & B 198,265 

sapiaD.^B 188,167 

saturaCpr 4^5. 218,221 

BcalariformlB Cpr 186 

acalaris M5rch 15 

scammonensis D. & B 138,168 

Bcitula A. Ad 16,181 

septentrionalis D. <& B 198, 

BerlllaD.<&B 194, 

sUlanaD. &B 218, 

fitkaensiBClessin 6,194,216 

flocorroensis D. <& B 198,208 

RpirallsMtg 14 

fipirata A. Ad 14 

steamsii D.&B. 6 

stephenslD. & B 194,210 

straminea Cpr 4, 5, 206 

Bublinilata Cpr 4, 184, 192 

subfiulcata Cpr 4, 26 

fTibturrita D. <fe B 219, 228 

tacomaensifl D. <& B 6, 194, 209 

talama D. & B 137, 148 

talpaD. &B 218,222 

tasmanica Tenison- Woods 16 

telescopium Cpr 137, 189 

tenuis Cpr ia% 193, 197, 199 

tenuis D. & B 197, 199 

tenuis Jeffr 4, 185 

tenuisculpta Cpr 4,5, 193, 206 

terebcllumC. B. Ad 176,177 

terriculft D. <fc B 179 

tillamookensis D. & B 6, 1?3, 196 

torrita D. & B 137. 142 

tmchi? DAB 137, 148 

tropiditaD.A B 13,184 

turricula D. & B 15. 179 

turrita Hanley 175 

tyleri D. & B 138. 167 

unalaslteniiiH D. & B 193.208 

valdezi D. & B G, 193, 198 

vallata 4, 25 

vicolaD. <fcB 137,168 

vinctaD.«tB 138,166 j 

virginnlis D. «t B 138,160 j 

zizyphina Cpr 184, 186 

Odostomiella B. D. <b D 13 

doliolaPhll 18 



Page. 

OndliutDeF 192 

sQloataDeF 192 

Orina pingoicnla A. Ad 10 

OrinellaD. <&B 10,18 

pinguicala A. Ad lo 

Ortostells Aradaa 74 

Oacilla A. Ad n 

sequisculpta Cpr 191 

grammatospira D. <& B 186 

Insculpta (Cpr.) Keep 183 

llreta A. Ad 17 

Otopleura Fiscb 9, 18 

auris-cati Chemn 9 

P. 

Parthenia armata Cpr 4,172,176,177 

diadema A. Ad 14,176 

examtaCpr 4,177 

lacunataCpr 4,170 

nuiriella A. Ad 14 

quinquecincta Cpr 4,174 

scalariformia Cpr 4,186 

sis31>hina Cpr 4,186 

Parthenina B. D. <fc D 18 

interstincta Mtg 18 

PasitbeaovulumLea 160 

PerisUchiaDall 12 

tocetaDall 12 

Pliareldella Dall 9,18,19,26 

achates Gould 26,27 

foUniiDall 9,26 

bastata A. Ad 6,26 

moffatiD.dEB 6,26,26 

panamensiA D. &B 26,26 

Poljrspirella Cpr 17 

Pselliogyra D. dc B n 

monocycla A. Ad il 

Pseudorissoina Tate&May 16 

tasmanica Tenison-Woods 16 

Ptyc heullmella Saceo 1 1 , 28, 60 

abreojcnsis D. de B 60 

obsoleta Cpr 60 

pyramidata Desh 10,69 

Ptychostomon Locard 192 

Pyramidella Lam 3,8, 18, 10 

achates Gould 25, 27 

adamsi Cpr 4, 21 

auricoma Dall 5, 9, 19, 20 

auris-cati Chemn 9 

bairdi D. <fe B 10 

bicolor Mke 4. 6.21.22 

cerrosana D.& B 20 

clandcstina Desh 10. 17 

conicaC. B. Ad 4,21,28 

cossmanni D. A B 9 

cra.<«ula Fbs 10 

densistriata Garrett 10 

dodonaD. AB 6, 10 

dolabratUR L • 8 

folinilDall 9,25 

gracillima A. Ad 10 

hastata A. Ad 6.26 

jamaicensis Dall ; 9 

lamellata Cpr 24 

mazatlanica D. dc B 21, 24 

mexicanaD. AB 28 



INDEX. 



255 



Page. 

Pyramidella moffatl D. <&B 6,25,26 

nitldula A. Ad 9 

nlvea M 5rch 9 

panamensis D. & B 26, 86 

paumotenais Tryon 9 

pingnicula A. Ad 10 

punctata Schub. <& Wagn 9,21 

pyramidata Desh 11 

rubra Pse 10 

striataGray 10 

Btylina A. Ad 10 

subeulcata Cpr 25 

subulataA. Ad 9 

typica A. Ad 10 

vallate Cpr 25 

ventricosa Quoy 8 

Pyramldellus Montfort 18,19 

I^rgiaculus Monteroeato 11, 28, 126 

cancellata Cpr 126, 127 

euoosmiaD. &B 126, 128 

fe«tivaDeF 126,127 

monilifera D. & B 126 

paucillrataCpr 126, 129 

scalarisPhil 11, 126 

swanlD.ifeB 126,129 

Pyrgiscus Phil 11,28, 74 

adusta D. & B 76, 108 

almo D.& B 75,95 

angnsta Cpr 75, 91 

annettffi D. <Sc B 74,76 

antemundaD. &B 73,88 

antestriatoD. & B 6, 75, 87 

aragonlD. <&B 74,85 

auricoma D. & B 75, 100 

culliaD.&B 74,80 

calllpeplum D. & B 75,96 

canfieldiD. &B 6,75,95 

castanea (Cpr.) Keep 75, 101, 102 

eastanea D. & B 6,7, 102 

castanella Dall 6, 7, 76. 102 

ceralva D. & B 76, 104 

cinctella Mfirch 76,108 

cora D'Orb 76,106 

craticulata Morch 76,104 

crebrifllata Cpr 92,98 

dmaD.A B 75,96 

eucosmobft,Mi8 D. «fe B 6,75,98 

favillaD. & B 74,78 

flavencenR Cpr 75, 89 

gracillima Cpr 74, 77 

halidoma D. & B 75,99 

histia-sD. & B 76,105 

IndcntataCpr 76,102 

jewettlD.&B 74,82 

laraD.&B 76,107 

larunda D. & B 76,109 

latifundia D. & B 84 

IcptaD.&B 76,106 

macbridei D. & B 75, 90 

macra D. & B 76,91 

marshal li I). & B 75,94 

mfirchiD. &B 6,74,84 

nereiaD.<& B 75,86 

nuttalliD. & B :. 75,90 

nuttlnglD.AB 74,79 

obesa D. «fe B 74,78 



l*uge. 

Pyrgiscus pequensis D. &B 74,79 

pluto D. &B 74,81 

recta D.<&B 74,86 

ruiaPhil 11,74 

sanctorum D. & B 75,96 

shlmckiD. &B 75,97 

signseD.dc B 74,8S 

striosa C. B. Ad 71,88 

subcuapidata Cpr 92,98 

HUbula M6rch 76,106 

superbaD. «& B 74,80 

tenuicula GOuld 75, 92 

yexativaD. <& B 74,77 

Virgo Cpr 75,98 

weldiD.A B 75,86 

wickhamiD.&B 76,106 

PyrgoIamprosSacco 11,28,69,60 

alaskanaD. <&B 60,70 

aurantia Cpr 60,66 

berryiD. <& B 6,60,69 

chocolata Cpr 60,70 

gibbosa Cpr 60,61,68 

glbbosaD.<&B 62 

gouldiD. & B 60,66 

haliaD. &B 60,68 

halibrecta D. & B 60,66 

halifltrepto D. «fe B 60,72 

keepID.&B 60,71 

lituyana D. <k B 60,71 

loweiD.&B 60,64,67 

lyalliD.<&B 6,60,68 

miopcrplicatulufl Sacco 11, 60 

newcombci D. <&B 6,60,61,68 

oregonensis D. & B 6,60,78 

paineiD. &B 60.71 

pedroana D. & B 60,67 

ridgwayi D. & B 60,62 

taylorlD. & B 6.60,64 

valderiD. &B 6,60,68 

victoriana D. dc B 6,60,61 

Pyrgolidium Monterosato 11 

roseum Mtg 11 

PyrgosteliH Monterosato 74 

Pyrgostylus Monterosato 110 

Pyrgulina A. Ad 14,181,169 

casta A. Ad 14,169 

gUriella Melv dc Stand 18 

marginataC. B. Ad 169 

R. 

RaphiumBayan 17 

Raphium Meigen 17 

Rissoa doliolum Phil 18 

excavataPhil 172 

pyrrhacme Melv. dc Stand 16 

Ri8soeIla?ebumeaStimp 16 

S. 

SaccoinaD. & B 12,17 

monterosatoi Saooo 12 

SalasBiaPer 18,131,184 

carinata De F 5,13,134 

Rcalarilormis Cpr 186 

tropldita D. & B 13,184 

Salassiella D. dt B 16,131,188 

laxaD. d^B 16,188 



256 



INDEX. 



BalawieUa rich! D. <b B 18S 

Scalenofltoma Dcsh 15,182,229,230 

carinataDesh 16,1S4 

carinatum Deah 229 

dotcllaD. &B 280 

rangilDeF 280 

SpicaSacco 17 

Spica Swinhoe 17 

monterosatoi Sacco 12, 17 

Bpiralina Chaster 8 

Spinilina Hartman 18 

Spiralinella Chaster 14,18 

spiralis MtK 14 

Spiroclimax M5rch 16 

scalaris Mdrch 15 

Stilifer tasmanlca Ten- Wood 16 

Stomega D. 4& B 16,18 

oonsplcua Alder 16 

BtrlotarbonlllaSaooo 11,28,40 

afflDisC.B.Ad 40,41,66 

alpinaSaoco 11,40 

areata D.^eB 41,64 

asserD.&B 40,46 

attritaD.ibB 41,40 

button! D.&B 40,« 

calvinlD.&B 41,48 

carpenteilD.&B 41,49 

c.b.adanudCpr 41,62 

galapagensis D. & B 41,66 

galianoiD.&B 41,61 

gracillor C. B. Ad 41,68 

humeroHa D. & B 41.62 

ImpcrialisD.AB 41,67 

mexicana D. <& B 41, 46 

nicholsi D.&B 41,46 

panamensis C. B. Ad 87, 40, 42 

pazanaD.&B 41,64 

phaneaD.<&B 41,56 

profundicola D. <& B 41, 60 

ralphiD.&B 47 

serraj D.&B 6, 41, 68 

simpfloniD.<&B 41,49 

smlthsoni D.&B 40, 41, 67 

stephanogyra D. & B 40, 42 

HtylinaCpr 41.48,63 

torquata Gould 41,44,47,48 

undataCpr 41,66 

vancouverensis Baird 40, 44 

Btylopsis A. Ad 10,18 

typica A, Ad 10 

Btyloptygma A. Ad 10, 18 

stylina A. Ad 10 

8ulcorinellaD.&B 10,18 

dodona D.&B 6,10 

Sulcoturbonilla Sacco 11 

turricula Elchw 11 

Symola A. Ad 10, 17, 18 

caloosaensis Dull 16,281 

conulus Cossmann 17 

dcnsiKtriata Garrett 10 

gracillima A. Ad 10 

rubra Pse 10 

striata Cossmann 9 

8ymolinaD.<&B 10,18 

rubra Pse 10 



T. Page. 

TiberiaJeffr 17,18 

Tiberia Monteroflato 0,17,18 

nitldulaA.Ad 

Tiberiola Cossmann 17 

Tomatella pyramidata Deah 59 

turricula Eichw 11 

Tiabecula Monterosato 18 

Jeilxeysiana Monterosato 18 

Tragula Monterosato 12 

f enestiata Fbe 12 

Triptychua Mdrch 9,18 

niveusMdrcb 9 

TrochusdolabratUfLinflenus 8,18.19 

TropaeasD.dEB 9,18 

BubulataA.Ad 9 

Turbo albulus Fabr 15,184 

conoidens Brocchi 192 

intentinctus Mtg 18 

nivosaMtg 15,18 

plicatulus Scacchi 8 

plicatus Brocchi 29 

plicatusMtg 8,16,181.282 

spiralis Mtg 14,18 

striatolusL 110 

TurbonillaRlsK) 8,11,28,29 

abreojensis D. & B 69 

acraD. &B 29,82 

aculeusC. B. Ad 84,88 

acuminata Ooldf 80 

adleri D.&B 6 

adustaD.&B ,.. . 76,108 

eepynotaD. &B 88,86 

affinisC. B. Ad 40.41,66 

alaskanaD. &B 60,70 

almoD. &B 75,96 

alpina Sacco il, 40 

ambustaD. &B 110,116 

andrcwsi D. & B 121,124 

angusta Cpr 7n, 91 

anncttseD. &B 74,76 

antemunda D. & B 75.88 

antestriata D. & fi 6,75,87 

aragoniD. &B 74,86 

arataD.&B 121,126 

archeriD. &B 6,13 

arestaD. & B 41,64 

amoldiD.&B 6 

ajiserD.&B 40,46 

attritaD.&B 41,46 

aurantia Cpr 60, 66 

auricoma D. & B 6.75,100 

berryiD.&B 6.60,69 

button! D.&B 40,48 

caelatior D. & B 12 

caUiaD. &B 74.80 

callipeplum D.&B 75,96 

calviuiD. &B 41,48 

campancllae Phil 11 

cancellataCpr 120,126,127 

canfieldi D. & B 6,75.96 

carpenter! D. & B 41,49 

odstanea (Cpr.)Keep 75,101.102 

castanea D. & B 6,7.102 

castanella Dall 6,7,76.102 

catalinensis D.&B 110,118 



IKDEX. 



257 



Turbonilla c. b. ndamsi Cpr 41, 52 

centrota D. & B 29,80 

ceralvaD.<&B 76. IM 

chocolata Cpr 60, 70 

cinctella M6rch 4,76.108 

cingulata Dkr 12 

coraD'Orb 76,l(tt 

oraticulata Mdrcb 4, 76, 104 

crebrifilata Cpr 92,98 

crystallina 11 

delmon tensis D. & B 6, 29, 80 

demissa Desh 13 

dlegensis D. <& B 29,81 

dinaD.ifeB 75,96 

elongata Pse 12, 17 

eachscholui D. & B 6,110,118 

eucosmla D.&B 126, 128 

eucosmobasia D. & B 6, 75,98 

excolpaD. & B 121,128 

favilla D. &B 74,78 

fenestrata Fbs 12 

festivaDeF 5,126,127 

flavescens Cpr 75, 89 

gabbiana Cooper 5, 6, 33 

galapagcnsis D. & B 41, &5 

galianol D. &B 41.51 

genilda D.&B 121,125 

gibboeaCpr 60,61,68 

gibbosa D. & B 62 

gilliD. &B 6,29,30 

gisna D. «fe B 13 

goiildiD. &B 60,66 

gracilior C. B. Ad 41,58 

gracillima Almero & BofiU 77 

gracillima Cpr 74, 77 

gracillima Gabb 5, 36 

gracillima Koch & Wiechmann 77 

httlia D. & B 60,68 

halibrectaD. <fe B 60,65 

halidoma D.&B 75,99 

hal Istrepta D.&B 60, 72 

heterolophu D. & B 110, 118 

hipolitensLs D.&B 121, 128 

histias D.&B 76, 105 

houseri D. & B 31, 87 

humerofcia D.&B 41, 52 

hypolispa D. & B 33,84 

ignacia D.&B 110, 1 19 

ima D. & B 29, 81 

imperialifl D.&B 41, 57 

ina*<pectus Fuchs 33 

indentala Cpr 76, 102 

intermedia 120 

jeweiti D. & B 74, 82 

keepl D.&B 60, 71 

kelseyi D.&B 34, 89 

laminata Cpr 120, 121, 122 

lura D.&B 76,107 

larunda D. & B 76, 109 

latifundiaD. &B 6,84 

lepta D. & B 76, 105 

lituyana D. & B 60, 78 

lordi E. A. Smith 110, 1 1 1 

lowei D.&B 6,60,64,67 



Page. 

Turbonilla lucana D. & B 29.82 

lyalliD. &B 6,60,68 

maebridel 1). & B 75,90 

macraD. &B 75,91 

major C. B. Ad 110,116 

marshalli D.&B 75,94 

mexicana D. & B 41,45 

miopcrplicatula Sacco 11, 60 

moniliferaD. &B 126 

monocyclaA. Ad U 

montereyensis D. & B 6.7,35 

montcrosatoi Sacco 12 

m5rchiD. &B 6,74.84 

muricataCpr 83,86 

muricatoides D. &B 6,^,88 

nereiaD.&B 75,86 

newcombei D. &B 6,60,61,68 

nlcholsiD. &B 41,46 

nuttalUD. &B 75,90 

uuttinglD. &B 74,79 

obesaD. &B 74,78 

obsoleta Cpr 59 

oregonenaifl D. & B 6, 60, 78 

palneiD. &B 60,71 

panamcnsisC. B. Ad 40,42 

paramoea D. & B 34, 87 

paucillrataCpr 12,120,126,129 

pazanaD.&B 41,54 

pedroana D. & B 6, 60, 67 

pentalopha D. & B 6,110,117 

pequcnsis D. & B 74, 79 

pcriscellda D. & B 110,119 

phalerosD. &B 110.120 

phaneaD. &B 41.56 

plicata Risso 29 

plicatula Riaso 8,11 

plutoD. &B 74,81 

profundicola D. & B 41,50 

prolongate Cpr 29,88 

pyramidata Desh 11, 69 

ralphi D.&B 47 

raymondi D. & B 34,89 

recta D.&B 74,85 

reginaD. &B 110,112 

ridgwayiD. &B 60,62 

rissoina A. Ad 12,110 

roseum Mtg 11 

rufaPhil 11,74 

.««anctorum D. & B 76,96 

santaroeana D. & B 34,86 

(^ntosana D. & B 110, 117 

scalaris Phil 1 1, 129 

sedillinaD. &B 121 

serraeD.&B 6,41,53 

shimekiD.&B 75,97 

signaeD. &B 74,88 

simpsoniD. &B 41,49 

smithsonlD. &B 40,41,57 

Htenogyra D. & B 180 

stephanogyra D. & B 40,42 

Btriatulus L 1 10 

striosa C. B. Ad 74,88 

styllformte MSrch 12.130 

stylina Cpr 41,48,53 



258 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Turbonilla subangulata Cpr 120, 121, 124 

subcuspidata Cpr 92, 98 

BUbula MSrch 4,76,106 

BuperbaD. & B 74,80 

swani D. <kB 126,129 

taylori D.&B 6,60,64 

tenuicula Gould 75, 92 

tenuis 8by 12 

toretaDall 12 

torquata Gould 41,44,47,48 

tridentataCpr 110,114 

turricula Eichw 11 

turrita C. B. Ad 12,36,129,180 

typicaD. <feB 8,11,28,29 

undataCpr 41,55 

valdezlD.&B 6,60,62 

yanc^uverensis Balrd 40,44 

vexativa D. <& B 74,77 

victoriana D. <Sc B 6,60,61 



Pige 

Turbonilla Virgo Cpr 75,78,96 

weldi D.&B 75,86 

wickhami D. & B 76,106 

Turritella acuminata Goldf 30 

Turritoetomia Sacco 131,231 

U. 

Ul£aD. &B 9,18 

coflsmanni D. <& B 9 

V. 

VagnaD. <&B 9,18 

paumotensifl Tryon 9 

Vilia D. AB 13 

pilsbryl D. & B 6,13 

Vi8maD.<&B 12 

tenula Sby 12 

Volu8paD.<&B 9.18.19 

auricoma Dall 19,20 

oerrosana D. d^ B 20 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Bulletin 69 



THE T/ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH 
AMERICAN BIRDS 



BRAYTON HOWARD RANSOM 
t Custodian, Hclminthological Colleaioas, U. S. National Muteum 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Issued December 31, 1909. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The scientific publications of the National Museum consist of two 
series — the Bulletin and the Proceedings. 

The Bulletin^ publication of which was begun in 1875, is a' series 
of more or less extensive works intended to illustrate the collections 
of the U. S. National Museum and, with the exception noted below, 
is issued separately. These bulletins are monographic in scope and 
are devoted principally to the discussion of large zoological and 
botanical groups, faunas and floras, bibliographies of eminent natural- 
ists, reports of expeditions, etc. They are usually of octavo size, 
although a quarto form, known as the Special Bulletin, has been 
adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed indis- 
pensable. 

This work forms No. 69 of the Bulletin series. 

Since 1902 the volumes of the series known as " Contributions from 
the National Herbarium," and containing papers relating to the botan- 
ical collections of the Museum, have been published as bulletins. 

The Proceedings^ the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are 
intended as a medium of publication of brief original papers based 
on the collections of the National Museum, and setting forth newly- 
acquired facts in biology, anthropology, and geology derived there- 
from, or containing descriptions of new forms and revisions of limited 
groups. A volume is issued annually, or oftener, for distribution 
to libraries and scientific establishments, and in view of the impor- 
tance of the more prompt dissemination of new facts a limited edition 
of each paper is printed in pamphlet form in advance. 

Richard Rathbun, 
Assistant Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution^ 
In CJiarge of the United States National Museum. 

Washington, U. S. A., December 16, 1909. 

3 



PREFACE. 



In 1900, while a graduate student at the University of Nebraska, I 
underfook, upon the suggestion of Prof. Henry B. Ward, of the de- 
partment of zoology, an investigation relative to the cestodes of birds. 
So far as the North American fauna was concerned, this topic repre- 
sented a field which had scarcely been touched. Although a consid- 
erable number of species had been reported from birds occurring in 
North iVmerica, the descriptions of most of these forms were based 
upon specimens collected in other parts of the world from birds 
belonging to species whose range included this continent, or which 
had been introduced here either wild or in a state of domestication. 

Owing to interruptions this investigation has never been carried 
out to the extent originally planned. However, a number of hitherto 
unknown species, and some already named but imperfectly known 
species, have been studied and described, and a synopsis prepared of 
the superfamily Toenioidea to which they belong, together with a list 
of all the species which have been repoited as parasites of birds 
occurring in North America. This material was presented to the 
graduate faculty of the University of Nebraska as a thesis for the 
degree of doctor of pliil()S0j)hy and accepted January 4, 1008. Delay 
in its final preparation for publication has enabled me to take into 
consideration a number of recent j)aj)ers, the most important of which 
are those of Dr. O. Fuhrmann, the well-known authority on avian 
cestodes. It has thus been j)ossibIe to incorporate some valuable data 
that would otherwise have been omitted. 

To Prof. II. B. Ward, of the University of Nebraska, I am in- 
debted for much helpful advice during the progress of my investiga- 
tions, and to Mr. II. C. Oberholser, of the Biological Survey, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, for his kindly assistance in selecting for 
me the names of hosts as recognized by ornithologists at the present 
time. 

B. H. Ransom. 

4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pace. 

Introductory remarks 7 

Notes on collection and preservation of specimens 7 

Description of species 10 

Davainea rhynchota, new species 10 

Davainea comitaia, new species 15 

Li^ hrcuiliensU (Parona, 1901) 21 

Rhnbdometra ntdlicoUiSf new species 25 

Rhahdometra similis^ new species 30 

Anonchotsmia globata (Linstow, 1879) 34 

IlymenoUpis cantaniana (Polonio, 1860) 36 

Diorchis acuminata (Clerc, 1902) 42 

Diorchis americaiia, new species 48 

Synopsis of the superfamily Tsenioidea 52 

Key to genera 53 

Diagnoses of families, subfamilies, and genera, and lists of species occur- 
ring in North American birds 59 

Compendium of species parasitic in North American birds, arranged 

according to hosts 108 

Bibliography 117 

Index 129 

5 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 1. Davainea rhynchota: Head and anterior portion of strobila 11 

2. Davainea rhynchota: Hooks; (a) large hook from rostellum, (6) small 

hook from rostellum, (c) hook from sucker ., 12 

3. Davainea rhynchota^- Sexually mature segment, horizontal section 12 

4. Davainea rhynchota: G ravid segment, horizontal section 13 

5. Davainea comitata: Head and anterior portion of strobila 15 

6. Davainea comitata: Hooks; (a) from sucker, (6) from rostellum 15 

7. Davainea comitata: Sexually mature segment, reconstruction from sec- 

tions, ventral view 16 

8. Davainea comitata: Gravid segment, ventral view 17 

9. Liga brasiliensis: Entire worm 22 

10. Xt^a 6ra«7i«m«; Rostellum, extruded 23 

11. Liga brasiliensi'i: Hooks from rostellum 23 

1 2. Liga brasiliensis: Sexually mature segment 23 

13. Liga brasiliensis: Gravid segment 24 

14. Liga brasiliensis: Egg 25 

15. Rhabdometra nullicoUis: Head and anterior portion of strobila 26 

16. Rhabdometra nullicoUis: Head and anterior portion of strobila, median 

horizontal section 27 

17. Rhabdometra nullicollia: Sexually mature segment 27 

18. Rhabdometra nullicoUis: Sexually mature segment, transverse section. 28 

19. Rhabdometra nullicoUis: Section through cirrus pouch 28 

20. Rhabdometra nullicoUis: Section through vagina, seminal receptacle, 

and extruded cirrus 29 

21. Rhahdometra nxdlicollis: Gravid segment 29 

22. Rhabdometra nidlicoUls: G ravid segment 30 

23. Rhahdomdm i<imiHs: Sexually mature segment becoming gravid, hori- 

zontiil section 31 

24. Rhnhdometra simills: Sexually mature segment becoming gravid, trans- 

verse section 32 

25. Rhabdometra si m His: iSeotion through cirrus pouch and vagina 32 

26. Rhal/doindnt similts: ( i ravid segment 33 

27. Anonchot:nu(i glohata: Sexually mature segment, transverse section .. 35 

28. Ilfpnenolrpis rmitan 'i<m<i: Entire worm 40 

29. Hi/mrnolepis cantaniaiKt: Egg 41 

30. Diorrhis ncutninota: Head and anterior portion of strobila 42 

31. Diorrhis arumindtit: Head with retracte<l rostellum 43 

32. Dlorrh'iH anuniiiottc Hook from rostellum 43 

33. Diorrjiis aciun'ntdtd: Sexually mature segment 44 

34. Diorchis amtitiuat'i: Sexually mature segment, transverse section 44 

35. D'torcliis (K'linnnoto: Sexually mature segment, horizontal section 45 

36. Diorrhis iu'dininato: Sexually mature segment, horizontal section 45 

37. Diorch is anwricana: Head 48 

38. Diorchin ainerivdiKi: Hook from rostellum 48 

39. DIorchis dmerlcatid: Sexually mature segment, at high focus to show 

male organs, dorsal view 49 

40. Diorchis amerirana: Sexually mature segment, at deep focus to show 

female organs, dorsal view 49 

41. Diorchis americana: Gravid segment, transvei'se section 50 

42. Diorchis americana: Gravid segments, horizontal section 50 

6 



THE TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN 

BIRDS. 



By Brayton Howard Ransom, 

Assistant Custodian, Hchninthological Collections, U. 8, 'National Museum. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The taenioid cestodes are tapeworms characterized primarily by the 
presence of four cup-shaped suckers upon the head. They form a 
natural group, classed by some authorities as a superfamily Tsen- 
ioidea, by others as an order Cyclophyllidea. At least 8 families 
may be recognized, and nearly 70 genera. Over 50 of these genera 
are represented *kmong the species, about 500 in number, parasitic in 
birds. About 140 species have been reported from North American 
birds, and these represent nearly 40 genera. It is with these forms 
that the present paper is concerned. In order to render clear their 
relationships, it has been considered desirable to include a synopsis 
of the entire superfamily to which they belong, giving a diagnosis 
of every known genus in the group and a key to genera. By means 
of this key a given specimen may readily be placed in its proper 
genus. Under each genus is given a list of all species known to 
occur in North American birds, with references to the more important 
published descriptions which will be of material assistance in arriv- 
ing at specific determinations, and in this connection the compendium 
of parasites arranged according to hosts will also be useful. 

Preceding the synopsis are given a few notes on the collection and 
preservation of specimens, and descriptions of a number of species 
which have been specially studied. 

NOTES ON COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS. 

The tapeworms of birds are found usually in the small intestine. 
The collection of specimens is not particularly difficult. The small 
intestine is slit from end to end with a pair of scissors of suitable size, 
and by stripping the slit intestine between the thumb and finger or by 
scraping the inner surface with the back of a scalpel blade the con- 
tents are removed into a tall vessel (beaker or glass cylinder) of phys- 
iological salt solution. In some cases special care is required if the 
heads of the worms are to be obtained, and it may be necessary to cut 

7 



8 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

off and place in a shallow dish of salt solution portions of the intestine 
to which the worms are attached, and by careful manipulation with 
the hack of a scalpel blade cause them to release their hold. In the 
t4ill vessel of salt solution the tapeworms and more or less ingesta 
will sink to the bottom within a few minutes. It is well to break up 
the masses or clumps of material which sometimes float on the sur- 
face of the salt solution in order to dislodge any worms which may be 
entangled theiv and thus give them opportunity to sink. When suf- 
ficiently settled, the top of the liquid should be poured off until the 
layer at the bottom containing the tapeworms is reached. The vessel 
is then tilled up again and the liquid stirred a little and allowed to 
st»ttle as Ix^foiv. This operation is repeated until the fluid is no 
longi»r douily when agitated. The tapeworms and such ingesta as 
may Ih» remaining at the bottom are poured out with a sufficient 
amount of li(|uid into a sliallow flat-bottomed glass dish, for example, 
a petri dish of suitable size. The worms may now be readily seen 
by placing the dish over a dark background, and may be picked out 
by means of a disstH'ting needle, splinter of wood,^etc., or, if very 
small, by the use of a pi|)ette. It is advisable, in order that very 
small forms mav not Ik» overlooked, that tlie contents of the dish be 

ft 

carefully examined with a lens. If the wonns are small and very 
numerous, they may Ik» poured with the ingesta and the supernatant 
liquid into a hcnker, as much of the salt solution as possible removed 
by |)ouring or by drawing off with a pipette, and the killing solution 
then adilcd. Otherwise it is belter to pick out the worms from the 
invest a ami |)ut them into a ilish of clean salt solution, w^hich may be 
(h*a\vn oil* and re|)la('ed several times in order to free the worms from 
mueus ami ailhereiit t't>rei<i:n particles. 

A very salisfaetory killinir solution is a mixture of equal parts of 
To |)er tviit alcohol and >aturate<l acjueous solution of corrosive subli- 
mate. It) which, aft(»r mixing, alunit 1 per cent of glacial acetic acid is 
added. This mixture mav l)e (Muploved cold, but acts better when 
heated to al>(>ut 70 or SO C. A lil)eral (Quantity should be used. 
The worms mav l»e liftetl into the killin<r solution one bv one on a 
w<M)tlen s|»linter (imMal should not he used on account of the action 
of the corrosive sul)limale. which will cause thi^ worms to blacken 
wIku'c tout'hed by \\w metal), or they may be dumped into the killing 
reagent together with the least |)ossil)le (juantity of sidt solution, or 
the |)ro(H'ss niay he iwersed and the killing reagent ])Oured on the 
worms after as much of the salt solution as possible is drawn off. 
When th(» worms are long and liable to tangle and twist into knots, 
the first nu»thod is |)ref curable. Occasionally the worms, if very active, 
get into this condition in the salt solution, and require to be disen- 
tangl(Ml before fixation. This may generally be accomplished with 
the aid of a couple of dissecting needles. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 9 

According to the size of the worms, the killing solution is allowed 
to act from ten to twenty minutes, rarely longer. It is then poured 
off or removed with a pipette and replaced with 70 per cent alcohol, 
to which enough of a solution of iodine in alcohol is added to give it 
a sherry-wine tint. If after a day or two all the color has disap- 
peared from the alcohol, more iodine solution is added, and this is 
repeated if necessary. ^Vhen no further extraction of color is appar- 
ent, the alcohol is poured off and fresh 70 per cent alcohol added, in 
which the specimens may remain until required for study. 

When conveniences required in the technic described above are 
lacking, tapeworms may be preserved by simply opening the intestine 
of the bird, spreading it out on a piece of board or paper, scraping off 
(he parasites with a knife and putting them directly into 70 per cent 
alcohol or 5 to 10 per cent solution of formalin. Less favorable 
specimens are, of course, to be expected from this method than from 
the other. 

The label should show the name of the host (it is important that 
the species of the bird should be accurately determined, and it is 
advisable to give the common name as well as the scientific name), 
the locality, the date, and the collector's name. 

Some specimens afford toto mounts favorable for study ; in others, 
on account of tlie thickness or the contracted condition of the worm, 
practically nothing can be made out from toto mounts concerning the 
internal structure, but by pressing a specimen between two glass 
slides after it has been softened for, twelve to twenty-four hours in 
water and bringing it into strong alcohol again before the pressure 
is removed, it can generally be sufficiently flattened so that the in- 
ternal structure becomes more apparent. Before this flattening is 
done, however, the specimens should be stained, the most generally 
useful stain being alcoholic acid carmine. The specimens may be 
stained overnight in dilute stain and then decolorized by soaking in 
70 per cent alcohol, to which two or three drops of hydrochloric acid 
to the 100 c. c. have been added. The stage at which to stop decolor- 
ization can only be determined by experience. After staining and 
flattening, the specimens are dehydrated, cleared in xylene or cedar 
oil, and mounted in balsam. Small worms may be mounted entire, 
larger ones in pieces. If the head is armed with hooks and their 
shape and size can not be accurately determined in a toto mount, and 
if a sufficient number of specimens are available, preparations to 
show these structures may be made by tearing the heads into small 
pieces with fine pointed needles and mounting in glycerin, glycerin 
jelly, or balsam. 

In addition to toto mounts serial sections are indispensable in 
working out the details of internal structure. These should be made 



10 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

with portions from various regions of the strobila chosen to show the 
male and female organs in diflFerent stages of development. Trans- 
verse and frontal sections are the most useful; occasionally sagittal 
sections are valuable. Except for fine histological details, thick 
sections are more satisfactory than thin ones. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES. 
Genus DAVAINEA Blanchar4 and Railliet, 1891. 

(For generic diagnosis see p. 67.) 
DAVAINEA RHYNCHOTA, new species. 

Figs. 1-4. 

This species is represented by specimens in the collection of the 
U. S. National Museum, and of H. B. Ward, collected in Nebraska, 
Iowa, and Maryland, from Colaptes auratus and Melanerpes eryihro- 
cepholiis. 

The type-specimens (from the collection of H. B. Ward, deposited 
in the U. S. National Museum Helminthological Collection, No. 7235) 
were collected in Iowa fi'om Colaptes auratus. 

External anatomy. 

The length of this form is 50 to CO mm., the maximum width about 

1 mm. 

Tho head (fig. 1) measures 300 to 380/x long and 320 to 380/* broad. 
Its anterior portion forms a large protuberance, cylindrical or trun- 
cate conical in shape, measuring 1()0/a in length by 150 to 250fi in 
breadth. The surface of this protuberance, as in Davainea frontina 
(Dujardin), is thickly covered with minute spines arranged in di- 
agonal rows. The rostelluni ])r()per is a muscular bulb, broad (120 to 
\i'A)i^L) and flat, enilxMUlcHl in the anterior end of the spine-covered 
j)rotul)erance. It is armed witli a crown of alternating longer and 
shorter hooks (figs. ^l(f and />), 18 and 14/x in length, respectively, 
and about 400 in number. Instead of l)eing circular the crown of 
hooks forms a rosette with 8 limbs. 

The suckers are round, 150 to lt)0/i, in diameter, with their borders 
armed with numerous booklets {{\i^. *2r) of varying size up to lOfi, 
arranged in diagonal rows. \i\ to 18 booklets in each row. 

The neck is somewliat narrower than the head, measuring 160 to 
250/x in breadth, and varying in length according to the state of con- 
traction (observed maxinuun 400/i). The fii*st segments are equal in 
width to the neck and are very short, gradually increasing in both 
dimensions toward the posterior end of the strobila. where they meas- 
ure 0.5 nun. in length and 1 mm. in width. The number of segments 



TilNIOID CESTODES OP NORTH AMEBICAN BIRDS. 11 

in a strobila t>0 mm. long was aI)Out 175. The posterior 8 or 10 seg- 
ments ill this strobila contained fully formed e^s. In shape the seg- 
ments are trapezoidal, broader than long, and the posterior border of 
each segment overlaps more or less 
the anterior portion of the next 
following segment. 

The genital pores are unilateral 
on the left-hand margin of the 
strobila. located slightly in front of 
the middle of each segment. 

Internal analomji. 

Nervous system. — The lateral 
longitudinal nerves are well devel- 
oped, situated toward the lateral 
borders of the segment just within 
the inner layer of longitudinal 
muscles. 

Muscle system. — The longitudinal 
muscles are arranged in two layers; 
a thicker outer layer of several 
irregular rows of very numerous 
small bundles and a thinner inner 
layer of larger bundles in a single 
row, about 40 in number, 20 in the 
dorsal and 20 in the ventral half of 
the segment. The dorso-ventral 
and transverse muscle systems are 
very weakly developed. 

Excretory system. — The dorsal 
(fig. 3, d. ex.) and the ventral ex- 
cretory canal are situated in about 
the same vertical longitudinal plane 
a short distance from the lateral 
nerve on its inner side. The dorsal 
canal is, as usual, the smaller and 
its course more wav;v'. ■ h 

In a segment in which the ventral IOQm. 

canals measured fiOfi in diameter ^'o- i— d*v*isb4 i 
the dorsal canals measured 15/»- 
The ventral canals are connected by a transverse canal in the posterior 
portion of each segment ; the dorsal canals (fig. 3) are also connected in 
the same region in most of the segments by a slender transverse canal. 



12 



BULLETIN eS, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



With the I'xception of the cirrus pouch and the distal portion of 
the vagina, the n'productive organs are all contained in the medullair 
portinn of the segment, as the portion within the inner longitudin&l 
musc}e layer may be termed. The vas deferens and vagina pass 
between the dorsal and ventral ex- 
cretory canals and dorsal of the 
lateral longitudinal nerve. 

Male reproductive organs. — The 
testicles (fig. 3, t.) are of the usual 
oval shape, elongated dorso-veo- 
trally, measuring CO to 120;i in diam- 
eter, in number about 24. They are 
located in the lateral and posterior 
portions of the segment, inside of 
t he inner layer of longit ud inal 
muscles, extending forward to the 
anterior border of the segment on 
the dextral side. On the sinistral 
srcKEn""^'^'^'^'^^" "^' """" *^"*' ^''^^ *^^ *'** segment the testicles do 
not extend so far forward, the an- 
terior third of the segment on this side being occupied by the vas 
di'fei-ens and seminal roreptacle, 

Tn segnu'utM in which the fetiiule glands arc at the height of their 
developiiu'nt thi' to^itielos in the middle third of the segment are 




iiKn:iTAir,K. f.. Tustic-i.eh. r. drf.. Vas ih:kkiii:vs. ,,. ,i.. Viii.K cu..\M>. 

(Towilcd tnwnril the -.ides anil an* thoii ilispowd in two groups, one in 
carh hitonil tliinl of the medullary piirtifin nf tlio tH^jrinent. In a 
Heginent <'<nitniniug '2)1 testiclof^, !) were locjitod on tlie left-hand 
(pore) side of the segment and 13 on the righl-hiuid side. Tlie vasa 
effen-utiu unite near the middle of the segment, towiud the dorsal 



l^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMEBICAN BIBDS. 13 

side of the medullary portion, to form the vas deferens, which ex- 
tends forward nearly to the anterior border of the segment, and then 
laterally in n very tortuous course toward the genital pore. The 
muss of coils formed by the vas deferens occupies most of the anterior 
third of the medullary portion of the segment on the left-hand side 
of the median line. The middle portion of the vas deferens is c<Mn- 
monly dilated in older segments, forming a capacious seminal reser- 
voir measuring 40 to 60;i in diameter ; the remainder of the vas defer- 
ens measures about 10^ in diameter. 

The cirrus pouch (figs. 3, 4, e. p.) measures 115 to 135/( in length 
and has the pyriform shape common in the genus Davainea. The 
outer muscular layer is very thin, 2 to 3/i, the fibers running mostly 
lengthwise in the basal portion and transversely in the distal portion 
of the pouch. The vas deferens after entering the cirrus pouch is 



Fio. 4.— DiVilKEi anTNCH»«fi: Obatid higuini, hobimntil bkciioh. r, p., ClarnDs 

ForcH. emb., EooR. lag., VtaiSi. p. g,. Yolk aiulM). 

supplied with a muscular wall, and its terminal portion is modified 
to form the cirrus, which in the retracted condition measures 50 to 
60fi in length and 2 to ifi in diameter, without apparent spines. 

Female reproductive organs. — The vagina (fig. 4, vag.) opens into 
the genital sinus immediately behind the male opening, and extends 
inwards along the posterior side of the cirrus pouch. The distal por- 
tion of the vagina has a thick muscular wall and measures from 200 
to 235/( in length. Before crossing the excretory canals the vagina 
becomes very thin-walled, and in older segments the thin-walled por- 
tion is dilated to form an elongated seminal receptacle (fig. 3, tem. 
recept.). Near the center of the s6gment the vagina joins the oviduct. 

The ovary (fig. 3, ov.) is situated in the middle of the segment, and 
measures about 250 to 320^ in width when folly developed. It is a 
compact lobulated organ deeply hollowed out behind. In this space 



14 BULumv 

is aituated the yolk idl f^ai 

dorsally. The yolk BBtar nl 
the shdl ^and inm 

Ab in other mcnil 'imntiniHi 
uterus is not develo ae^naA 
are scattered throoj b the pa- 
renchyma and net are iR> 
rounded by three mi leoiipki^ 
which measures 20 i 87 to Qp 
in diameter, and a tv. Tte 
last is apparently c jtw, witk 
deep staining nuclei about $i^ in duBMtw, irtuoh iarga^ tt ^i tti 
spaces between the eggs. 



Davainea compacta Clerc (1906, p. TS5, figi 39) from ^TrMv 
ffatbula is very similar to /?. rAynoA^to. Aa described t^ Clerc it ii 
150 nun. in length l^ 1.8 mm. in breadth, llw socdez is 980^ m 
diameter. The rostellum is armed with about 400 hooka mvnged in 
two rows. The larger hooks measore Ififi in length. The hooks m 
the suckers measure lOfi in length. Hm — g""*"*" ar« alwaya Inoadv 
than long. The genital poree are nnilatenl and the genital canab 
pass between the excretory Teeaels. The testidea are about S5 in 
number and the cirrus pouch measures 160^ in Imgth. TIm ovaiy 
occupies nl)Oiit one-third the wid(^ of the segment. The egga aie 
verv small, the onibni'o measuring but 14ft in diameter, and they an 
contained singly in egg capsules. 

Darnitiea roiiipacta and D. rhynckota correspond very well in the 
size of the head, number, and size of hooks on the rostellum, their 
arrangement in a double crown, size of the hooks on the suckers, 
imilnterality of the genital pores, shape of the segments, number 
of testicles, size of the ox-ary, and the arrangement of the eggs singly 
in egg capsules. Davahtea compacta, however, is a much longer 
species than D. rkyru^hota- (not an important difference), the cirrus 
pouch is somewhat larger, and the eggs are much smaller, the embiyo 
of the fonner being but 14ft in diameter, of the latter about 25;i. The 
two apparently differ in regard to the rostellum. The presence of 
spines over the surface of the very prominent rostellum, and the ro- 
sette arrangement of the hooks are marked features of Davainea 
rhynckota, which would hardly have been overlooked by Glerc if 
they were present in Davainea compacta. The differences between 
the two forms seem fully sufficient to justify the recognition of the 
two species. 

Of the tapeworms whidi have been reported from ^woodpeckers, 
Davainea cruciata (Budolphi) and />. longispina Fuhrmann, 1908, 



T^NIOID CE8T0DES OF NORTH AMERICAN RIRDS. 15 

are the only other species of this genus besides Davainea rhynchota, 
in which the eggs are not groupecl in egg capsules, Davainea cru- 
ciata, as described by Fuhmiann (1909, p. Ill) from the type-speci- 
mens, possesses only about 200 hooks on 
the rostellum, and the cirrus pouch meas- 
ures only nbout 70^ in length. This 
species is therefore clearly different from 
Z>, rhynchota. That D. longispina as 
described by Fuhrmann (1909, p. 112) 
is a different species from D. rhynchota 
is evident from the facts that the ros- 
tellum measures but 64^ in diameter 
and that the genital pore is located 
in the posterior half of the segment. 

DAVAINEA COHITATA, new apccici. 

FiKures 5-S. 

This form occurs in Calaptes auratus 
and Melanerpes erythrocephalus, com- 
monly in company with the preceding 
species. It has been collected in Iowa, 
Nebraska, and Maryland. The type- 
specimen (from the collection of H. B. 
Ward, dejwsited in the U. S. National 
Museum Helmintho logical Collection, 
No. 7234) was collected in Iowa from 
Oolaptes auratus. 

Ertcmal anatomy. 

Davainea comitata 
measures 45 to 55 
mm. in length, with 
a maximum breadth 
of I.IG mm. 

The head (fig. 5) 'loQii.' 

is 250 to 320;i long Fio. 5.— Datainu cohit ata: 
and 250 to 290^ broad, 

covered thickly with 
!. — Davainea . . . ■ ■. , ■ 

iiooKH. mmute spines m its anterior portion over a zone 



'^ 



(0) fkou sDciiEB. about 75u in width bordering the rostellum. This 

LDM. Spine-covered zone corresponds to the prominent 

protuberance of the head in Davainea rhynchota. 

The rostellum is about 90;» in diameter, armed with a crown of 

about 80 hooks (fig. 66) 11 to 13>i long arranged in a single row. 



16 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL HUSETTM. 

'Hie siirkei-s are oval, 116 to 135>i wide by 160fi long, armed with 
iiiuiii>n)iiH houklets (tig. 6a) lOfi and less in leng^, arranged in 
tliuj^timl rows nn the border of the suckers, IG to 18 in each row. 

The n<H-k is of variable length up to 400f*, and measures in width 
fnmi -iOO to :W0^. 

'I'lie sofT'iii'iil'* are similar in shape to those of Davainea rhynthota 
and iiici'oas),' grndually in size toward the_ posterior end of the stro- 
bila. Ill a sti-obila 4') mm. long the number of segments was ap- 
|iri>\iiiint(>Iy IT.'i, of which the last 17 contained egg capsules. .A. 
sejriiU'Ht (No. 130) iu the middle of the strobila measured 320fi in 
li>n^h Iiy HSO;* in width, and a segment at the end of the strobila 
nu-nr'itivi] *^7^^|t in leiif^h by l.G nun. in breadth. In some cases Ibc 
gravid se^iiK-iits aiv iKjiiul in length and breadth. 



Tlu> ^p'hiltil pmvs an- iiiiitalertil on the left-hand margin of the 
sliiibila. siUtaled in iiboiit the inii]ill<' nf each sefnuent. 



'I"lic THTvinis svsiteni, iiiiiseiiliUuri'. and oxcietory cHiials are ar- 
nnifred n?; in Ihir.uin'o rlu/iifhotii, and llie. rchitive locution of the 
rcpnwlin-live urfnins is the same. 

The viis (li'feirns and vajrina pass between the exei-etory eanalK and 
(lofsal of llie nerve enrd. as in the other species, 

.!/(//( irpnit/iirfii'o orijaiiH. — The testicles (fig. 7. /.) number from 
!10 to ;t.">, arraiigi'd in a mass occupying the lateral and i»)sterior por- 



TaiNTOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 17 

tions of the segment within the inner field. As in Davainea rhi/n~ 
chota, on tiie rijiht-hand side this mass extends nearly to the anterior 
bonier of the segment; on the left-hand (pore) side it is limited to 
the posterior two-thirds. The vas deferens (fig. 7, i\ dcf.) forms a 
mass of coils in the anteri<ir third of the segment extending from the 
median line to the l)iise of the cirrus pouch. The cirrus pouch (figs. 
7, 8, (■. p.) is pyriform in shape, with thin outer muscular wall, as in 
Dai'ainea rhy>\'-hot<i. It is. however, somewhat smaller in the present 
species, measuring 90 to 100^ in length by 45 to 50^ in diameter in 
its widest jwrtion. The arrangement in the pouch of the vas def- 
erens and cirrus is similar to that in the other species. The cirrus is 
without apparent spines, and measures in the retracted condition 
about 50/1 in length by 2 to 4/i in diameter. 



Female organti.—1\i^ vaginal opening is immediately posterior of 
the male oiiening. The vagina and seminal receptacle are in this 
form similar to those of Davalnea rhynchota, with the exception that 
the vagina for a distance of 25;» from the genital pore is constricted, 
and this constricted jwrtion is surrounded by a bulbous sphincter. 

The ovary (fig. 7, ov.), located as in Davainea rhynchota, is similar 
in shape, l<^ulation, etc., and measures about 200/i in width at its 
maximum of development. 

Posterior and ventral of the ovary is the yolk gland (fig. 7, y. g.) 
100 to 130/1 in diameter, and dorsal and anterior of the latter is the 
small shell gland, 50^ in diameter. 

In tlic gravid segment the eggs are grouped 6 to 12 together in egg 

capsules (fig. 8, cap.), measuring 80 to 90^ in diameter. From 40 to 

50 capsules are visible from a surface view of tiie segment. They are 

confined to the medullary portion of the segment inside the inner 

3264— Bull. 6! 



18 BULLETIN eO, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

lay«'r of loiijritudinal muscles. The eggs are supplied with two thin 
nieinhraiies. an inner one close to the oncosphere, which measures l^ 
to liO/i in diameter, and an outer one 30 to 35/a in diameter. 

Rcmarkn. 

In addition to D. comitata^ two species of Daoainea^ in which the 
e^^s aro ^'oiiped in epg capsules, have been reported from wood- 
peckers — namely Darainea frontina (Dujardin) and Z>. lutsi Parona. 
It is i)ossible that in />. cruciata (Rudolphi) also there is a grouping 
of the e^<i:« in ejr^ capsides. but Fuhrmann (1909, p. Ill) says that 
the (»^gs, probably, ai-e isolated in the parenchyma, as in D. lon^ispiha 
Fuhrmann. />. totnitata is certain!}', however, specifically different 
from />. crufidta^ since it possesses only about 80 hooks on the rostel- 
lum, whereas the latter has al)out 200. Darainea frontina has about 
'280 hooks and is thus distinct from />. comiUtta, The size of the 

hooks in />. lufzi — namely, 18 to lO^i in len^h — distinguishes this 
species from I>, romitata^ whose hooks are only 11 to IB^i in length. 

Th(» two species are also different, in that D. lutzi has but 12 to Iti 

egg capsules in each segment (Fuhrmann, 1909, p. 112), while D. 

romifftta has 40 to 50. 

Genus LIGA Weinland, 1887. 
For ^<MHMi<' <1i:i;niosis stv j). SO.) 

The «>einis A/V/^/, proposed by Weinland (18571), p. ()2), has up to 
the pi*es(Mit time I'eceived |)i-acti('ally no reeo<rnition by other authors, 
and in few instances has it even l)een mentioned. Stiles (lOOGa, j). 
()'J) lists />///// as a ])ossil)](» svnonvm of Ihirnliicn and also refei*s to it 
in an eiirlier paper (llHKUih); it has also be<Mi noted by Fuhnnann 
( liH)7a. |). -JiW: r.M)Sa, p. (>0). but otlier writers have passed it l>y 
without eonunent. 

Weinland's ori;Lrinal description of Li(i(i and its type species Lifja 
piiuitata is as follows: 

In tilt' niidcUt' of April. lsr)<>. I found n siii^jU' livhijr specimen of a new kind 
of l{i|>cwonii in ilir small inii'siint* of our ^^old-winircd w(UHl[>ecker {Pirus 
auratus). This TwnUi is rcmarknhlo for the structure of its orpuis of repro- 
duction. 

As in the human tnpt'worm {T<rnia snlhinn, so :ils<» in this, the genital oi>on- 
Inps jilternntc from one articulation to the next : hiit in the former, and as 
seems jrenerally to be the case In TaMiloids. tlie testicles lie in the middle of 
eacli articulation. (See von Siehold, Ver^leichende Anatomic der wlrlK»llosi»n 
Thiere, p. 147; and the li^suro in Hlanchard. Kcn-herehes sur Torpudzatlon des 
Vers. pi. 15, figs. 4, 7.) They were i)laccHl. on the contrary, in the taiieworm of 
the woodin\:ker, in the anterior i)art of the articulation, just iu front of the 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 19 

genital oi>eiiing, filling up by a large mass of oonvoluto 8i)erniatic canals all 
that part of the articulation, and thus excluding from it the uterua Further- 
more, the uterus did not consist of branched, tree-like canals (see Blauchard, 
1. c), but, on the contrary, of a large number of balls, perhaps connected with 
each other by slender ducts. Von Siebold (I. c. i>. 14(J, and note Zi) seems to 
speak of a similar structure observed by him or Delia Chiaje in Taniia ocellata^ 
and Dujardiu (Histoire naturelle des helminthes, Paris, 1845) has observed 
exactly the same structure of the uterus in a tai)eworm of the European Picmt 
major. 

As in other tai)eworm8, the s|)ermatozoa were very fine, filiform, of one diame- 
ter throughout, without the so-called head or body of other spermatozoa. But 
what was very strange, these si)ermatozoa were of very different lengths; some 
twistetl, thrice or even four times as long as others. Moreover, they would 
readily break into pitH*es and were not so soft and pliable as they generally an». 
I saw several break into two piwes (i»articularly when coming out from the 
cirrus bag) and both pieces moved on. Whether this phenomenon occurreil 
accidentally or whether it was a natural characteristic of these si)ermatozoa I 
am at a loss to say. No water was used in the examination, of the bad effects 
of which uiK)n si)ermatozoa I am fully aware. In either case this is a subject 
worthy the investigation of phj-slologists, for such a power of division would 
imply a nature In these sjiermatozoa entirely different fn»ni wliat we have 
hitherto observed. Other si)ermatozoa present individual elements; on the con- 
trary, those of this tajjeworm would be really dividual, at lejist virtually, as 
they have the faculty of dividing and thus multii)lying themselves. Not the 
slightest difference could be observed in activity, movement, or form between 
the divided iiortions and the whole animals, so that we may sui>pose that each 
of the divided pieces had the frnctifjMng jiower as well as the others, t^irther- 
more, the motion of these spermatozoa was extraordinary. Whilst others move 
in a peculiar, quick, vibratory manner, these progress much more slowly in a 
succession of long curves, reminding one of the motion of an eel at the bottom 
of a river. 

This same tai)eworm is also remarkable for the stninge shai»e of its eggs. 
While the eggs of taiK»worms generally are globular or oval, the shape of these 
was that of a large ball runnhig out on both sides into tubes which terminated 
in balls of al)out half the diameter of the central one. I found these eggs in 
all stages of develoi>meut, some containing nothing but a clear yolk, while others 
l>resented embryos with six little sjiines. The yolk as well as the embryo was 
found only in the central ball, and there also the yolk membrane terminated. 
Thus the lateral tubes of the egg, as well as the balls in which they terminated, 
are to be considen^d merely as excrescences and ai)pendages of the outer (the 
third) coating of the egg. Similar ajipendages to the eggs of tai>eworms have 
been met with previously by other observers, namely, threads running out on 
two sides in T(Fnia infundibuliformis and planicvpH, by von Siebold (1. c, p. 148), 
and Twnia ci/athifonnis, by Dujardin (1. c, p. 5G8, and figured pi. 9, fig. R., 2), 
while von SielK)ld (1. c.) describes the eggs of the same worm as provided at 
the i)olnted ends of their outer pear-shaped coatings with two bladder-like 
api^endages, which remind one more of the new form just described. Two 
delicate tufts, one on each side, have been observed by Meissner in Mermia 
nigresccna (Beitriege zur Anatomie und Physiologie der (Jordiaceen, in von 
Siebold and KiUlikers Zeitschrift f. Wissensch. Zool., vol. 7, pi. 2, fig. 2), and 
by Siebold (1. c.) in Twnia variabilis. All these api)endage8 belong to the third 
coating of the egg, adjoining the so-called chorion. Analogous appendages 



20 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

are fouud in the egj^s of sbarkH and skates. Some of the embryos were hatched 
under uiy eyes, and In spite of the greatly diflfereut organizatiou of the adult 
worms, their orpmization was seen to be throughout identical with that of ibe 
embryos of the genuine Twnian (those of man, dog, eat, etc.), namely, a roundish 
disk, eontaininjr smaller and larger granules, and provided with six little spiues, 
disiK)S4:Ml in three pairs, two lateral and one in front. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The new geniis. which we found uiK)n the structural i>ecu]iarities mentioned 
above, we will call Liya, and the si)ecles, from its many yellowish-brown dots, 
punctata. 

A full di'scriptioii of both genus and si>ecies, with drawings, will be given on 
soHJe future occjision. 

Ill 18r)8 (ISoSc, pp. 14, IG, 52) Weinland refers a nuinbt*r of times 
to the tapeworm from the golden -winged woodpecker, and although 
he does not use the name Li(/a punctata there can be no doubt that he 
has in mind the species which he described in 1857. Weinland 
(1858c, p. 52) chisst»s the " Taenioid from the golden-winged wood- 
pecker " in tlie subgenus Dllepls^ genus Hymenoleph^ from which 
fact infen'iices may be drawn with regard to certain characters of 
Li(j(t pnnrtatu which were not clearly defined in the earlier paper. 

The following characters are given by Weinland for the genus 
Ilj/nwnolcp'is: '* The outer shell of the egg membranaceous; one, 
rai-ely two, rows of small booklets on the proboscis. The booklets 
much less developed than in the Sderolepidota. Uterus consisting 
of hall-like blind sacs." In the subgenus Dilepin ''the ag^g^ has two 
shells only : the outer shell is membranaceous, and often bears strange 
a])j)eiKlap'^/' 

\\\ coinbiiiiiio' these data with the description given in the earlier 
j)aj)er we lind the essential characters of Lh/d pint(t(ft<i to be as 
follows : 

Head armed with one or two rows of small booklets. Strobila 
with many yellow i>h-l)rowii |)ini('tations. (Jenital pores alternate 
at or in front of the middle of the seirment. Vas deferens '^ foi'in- 
in«r a nia>s of coil^ in the anterior portion of the segment in front 
of the genital j)ore. Utei'us consisting of a large number of blind 
sacs, perhaps coniuM'ted with one another. Kggs with two shells; 
outer shell nu'ml)ranac(M)us. with a tubular [)r<)cess at each pole ter- 
minating in a globular ex])ansi()n. 

Although fi'oni the more modern stand|)oint, Weinland's account 
of L/f/(f pinicfdtd is rather meager, the characters given would seem 
sufiicient to enable the s[)ecies to l)e recognized in case it should 
again In* met with, and I believe that there can Ix^ no reasonable 
doubt that c(M*tain tapewoi'ms which 1 have found in the golden- 
winged W()()(l|)ecker {('ohtpfc.s (nn(itn,s) bc^long to (he identical 

'^ The larp? nuiss of enuvolute spermatic eauals in the anterior part of the 
sc^'inent. which Weinland (isriTl)) mentions, evidently represents the va.s defer- 
ens, and not. as misinterpretetl by Weiuhuid. testicles. 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 21 

species described by Weinland. Furthermore, it appears upon com- 
paring these specimens with Fuhrmann's (IDOTb, p. 521) description 
and jfigure of Fuhrmannia hrasiUensis from Pwus^ species, Brazil, 
incompletely described by Parona in 1901, that the latter is of the 
same species. 

In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture the name Liga punctata is invalid, since prior to the publication 
of this name the species to which it belongs was referred to under the 
name of T(enia punctata^ which is a homonym of Tcenia punctata 
Rudolphi, 1802. This reference (Weinland, 185Ga, p. 25) is as fol- 
lows : 

III another and now species of tapeworm, the Twnia punctata Welnl., found in 
the golden- winded wooilpecker, he had obst»rved the embryo just hatching. The 
shell of the egg of the worm has tw^o processes, each terminating in a large 
ball ; the embryo is providetl with six siiines. 

Tamia punctata Weinland, 185G, l)eing a homonym, and Liga punc- 
tata accordingly invalid, the species takes the next available name, 
which is Liga brasiUcnsia (Parona. 1001). 

LIGA BRASILIENSIS (Parona. xgoi) Ransom, 1909. 

Figs. D-14. 

Taenia pun<:tata Weinland, ISHGa, p. 25 (not T. punctata Rudolphi, 1802). — 

Braun, 1894a. p. 1143; 190()a, p. KJ70. 
Liya punctata Wkinland, 1807b, p. G2.— Stiles. 1903hh, pp. 10, 20; llKKJa, 

I). ()2.— Fuhrmann, ll)07a, p. 202; 1008a, pp. CO, 61, IGO. 
Fuhrniannin hrasiHensis Parona, lOOlb, pp. 10-11; 1901a, pp. 8-9. — Ftjhb- 

MANN, 1007b, p. 521. fig. 12; 1907a, p. 202; 1908a. pp. 28, 60, 61. 

Fuhrmann descrilx^s Fuhmiannia hrasiUensis as a very small ces- 
tode, consisting when mature of only about 10 proglottids ; its length 
scarcely 8 mm., its greatest breadth 0.5 mm. The scolex has a diam- 
eter of 0.80 mm., suckers 0.15 mm. The rostellum is armed with a 
double crown of hooks, which are almost exactly similar in shape. 
Each crown consists of 10 hooks, the larger of which measure 0.048 
mm., the smaller 0.030 mm. in length. Genital pores regularly alter- 
nate. Testicles 12 to 14 at posterior border of segment. Cirrus 
pouch small, pyriform. Cirrus surrounded at its base by a crown of 
long fine spines, forming in the genital cloaca a small dark staining 
cone. The last segment is entirely filled with the sac-like uterus and 
measures 0.7 mm. in length and 0.5 mm. in breadth. Oncosphere 
0.027-0.03 mm., outer membrane, 0.043 mm. in diameter. The outer- 
most shell appears to have not yet developed. 

The specimens upon which the following description is based were 
collected from the small intestine of a golden-winged woodpecker 
{Colaptes auratus) killed near Bowie, Maryland. They are pre- 
served in the Hehninthological Collection of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, No. 4577. 



: (111, I'SITKlt STATES NATIONAL Ml'SEUM. 

The worms (tip. IM ih.--i— 
frdiii 1-2 t(> l/i scpiiu'iits. !i iiiii:.- 
Ut sliphtlv less tliail lliiit ;:iv.;j 
liy Kiihriiinnii. who writi'^ tbt 
liiori.' mv about l(i scgiiu-nt-. A 
spi'^-iiiiiL'ii wilh 1-2 >c;riii'iii- 
ineasured 3 nun. in len^li Ky-i.T 
nun. in width. 

Thelieiul {fip. it) ij! litMV '"i.' 
l.y 4(MV wide, with wi.'ll-.l.-v,l- 
o|ic<l riistollum ((i{r. 101 sinin-ii 
wilh -JO hooks (Rff. 11). nri-aii?."-! 
in u (lonble on>wn of ahi-niiuiui' 
loufrcr and shoi-Ier hook-. Tin- 
loiifTcr liooks nii'asnre 4-'i id .'■"« 
ill tcnfith whirh iis i)ractir!ill_v Uji' 
>i;iiiu' size as (hat piven bv Fulii- 
iiLunn. The hooks of th.- iw,. 
rows are similar In sluipe iiml 
(.(iT^^scss a lonj^ (Uii-sal nxit and a 
>lnii'l ventral root, tlie dor-iii 
nxii !ii>d l)iade of the h(K>k Ix-iiiL' 
mIhiiii <>i|iial inlenjrth. Snel;i-i- 
M"i/i I \:<f)fi Fnhrniannt in diaiu- 
I'li']'. ."^I'lriiientalion bi'i.'iii- im- 
iii.vli;ii,-ly lieliind the lieiul. Tli- 
l.'Jiijlli .ifllicsefrmeiil-jrnuhNillv 
turn-.,---, i.ii.l liefriiiniii- «l(ii 
^ .■Ll>u.it ilir lirili .-.■•rmeiii ill! iti- 

■■tva-. in vviiltll also liikes |,|;in.. 

jffl „ ilii- m.'lfili M'lrim-m iiiiMMiiiiii: 

:;i;ii,. ii.n-l.y 7i)(V wide. In >iill 
nldrl- M-niriils (he IcnfTth nmv 
iie.irre;il..|-lll:in iliowidtli. I nuji. 
and O.r, niiii.. ii-s|HH-li\elv. I'lir- 
.■iK-li.Mnat..n- lisHie -f i"he l.odv 
very .jniiiiiliir ( I'mni wliirh aj,- 
l<;nviill\- ih,' iiaiiif /'.o- t.if.i ,<( 
a W.'iiihiiidl. Mai,, orfiaiis 1.,- 

.■oi.ie fniieiioiiid iti sixth 01- 
sev.'iiih seL'iiieiil. fi'iiiide or^raii- 
■• in iiinlli or t,Miih. ntei'iis Iw- 

r°'??"i.M.r, «.,.„ '■"""■- I'liiM'liniial in Hevrnlh ..i' 
Ivveinii sr^'i.u-iil- (iniitul |>'.iv- 



TMKlOm CEBTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 23 

ivfTiilarly alternate in tlie anterior tliird of tlio segment. Male and 
feniiple genital canals pass doi-sal of excretory vessels ami nerve. 

Mafe reproductirc organg. — Testicles (fig. 12, t.) about 18 (12-14 
Fiihnnann) in number, oval, maximum size 80 to lOO^i. located in the 




Fin. in.— i.iR, 



middle field of the posterior two-thirds of the segment, nine in each 
lateral half of the segment. Vas deferens (figs. 12, 13, *■. def.) forms 
a mass of coils in the anterior third of the segment, beginning near 
the median line and extending outward nearly to the genital pore, 



(., TEBTrrLF.s. ran.. 



and also describes a number of coils after entering the cirrus sac. 
No v^icular enlargements in any part of the vas deferens. Cirrus 
sac (figs. 12, IS, V. p.) oval, elongated, 80 to lOO/i long by 40 to 55ft 
wide. Cirrus 40 to ii0;i long, armed with highly refractile spines, 



24 BULLETIN 68, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, 

which in Rtuined tipecimcns are deeply stained and form a conspicu- 
ous cone-sltaped structure in the cirrus pouch or in the genital cloaca. 
Female repyodiifUce organs. — Viigiua (figs. 12, 13, vag.) enlarged 
aftor crossing the excKtory canals, to form a seminal receptacle (figs. 
12, 13, sem. recepi.), varying greatly in size in different segments. 
Ovary (fig. 12, or.) in central portion of segment, sac-like, faintly 
bilobed, somewhat elongated transversely. Yolk gland (fig. 13, y. g.) 



about lOOfi in diame(er, nearly round, or reniform. Shell gland 
small, inconspicuous. (Jravid uterus (fig. 1.^, nt.) consists of a thin- 
walled siic with uiiiny small, incouipletely separated lobules or out- 
pocketings, filling nearly the entire middle fipid of the segment 
excepting a j-niall anterior portion occupied by the vas deferens. 
Eggs (fig. 14) with II lliin outer shell with a tubular process at each 



T^NIOID CESTODES OP NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 25 

pole terminating in a small globular expansion. Length of outer 
sliell, including processes, 120 to 125^; central portion 50^. long by 
38 to iOfi wide ; diameter of tubular processes 3 to 4/i, of globular ex- 
pansion 10 to 17/1. Inside of the outer shell a 
second thin, well-defined shell, spherical, 33 to 
36^ in diameter. Oncosphere 26ft in diameter. 



(For peiieric illnEHnslM see p. 811.) 

SHABDOMETRA NULLICOLLIS. new ■peciet. 
FlBS. ir.-22. 

This species has been found in the sagecock 
{Centrocercua urophasianus) and in the sharp- 
tailed grouse (Pedioecetes pltasiaiwlbin cohim- * 
hianus). The type-specimens (Nn. 6018, U, S. 
Nat. Mus.) were collected from the first- 
name<l host in Colorado. 

Hxlvrnal analomp. 

The various specimens of this species which 

) 1 have been studied measured 50 to 100 mm. in 

5Qu« length by 2 to 2.5 mm. in maximum width. 

^"'' ^^^nT'eta'"'""'" The head (figs. 15, 16) is obtusely pointed 
anteriorly, 560 to CSO/t wide, about SGO/i thick, 
and 280 to 330/i long, without rostcllum. The suckers are 140 to 100/* 
in diameter. A neck in absent, segmentation beginning immediately 
behind the liead. The segments are at first of the same width us 
the head, or slightly wider, and gradually increase in width, finally 
decreasing again at the posterior end of the strobila. The first seg- 
ments are less than 20j( in length, sexually active segments measure 
330ft in length by 1.25 mm. in width, the largest segments measure 
1.25 mm. in length by 2 to 2.5 mm. in width, and the final segments 
2.8 mm. in length by 1.3 mm. in width. The posterior border of each 
segment overlaps the anterior end of the following segment only very 
slightly, and is but slightly wider than the anterior border, so that 
the segments are nearly quadrate in shape. 

The sexual pores are irregularly alternate, located in the anterior 
third of the segment. 



26 BULLETIN 63, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Intrninl anatiimy. 

Neri'ovs systejii. — Thp lateral longitudiitat nerves (fig. 18, I. n.) 
are large and well developed, locnted in the lateral portions of the 
segment inside the inner layer of longitudinal muscles. 

Musnilatnre, — The longitudinal muscles (fig. 18) are arranged in 
numerous small bun^Hes disposed in two layers close together, and a 
considerable distance from the surface of the segment. Dorsoventral 
fibers are numerous. Trans- 
verse fibers are compara- 
tively few, in relation with 
the outer and inner sides of 
the inner longitudinal mus- 
cles which they cross at 
right angles. 
• Excretonj system. — The 

excretory system is well de- 
veloped. The dorsal (fig. 
18, (/. ex.) and ventral ca- 
nals (fig. 18, \\ ex.) are 
located a considerable dis- 
tance mediad from the lat- 
eral nerves'. The ventral 
canal is much the larger. 
measuring in places 80;i in 
diameter, whereas the dor- 
H!il <'anul measures less thim 
^n. The vfiitral canals are 
(■unnt'cte<! by a transverse 
canal in the posterior por- 
tion of each segment, and 
also send off anai^tomosing 

, , branches which run among 

lOQu. the various organs of the 

Pio. is.-mumii.M!;Tiu^N^^ fiegi„i,„t. and also form a 

plexus, which extends later- 
ally on CJicli side of the segment as far as the lateral longitudinal nerve. 
The viiginn and cirrus pouch pass Iwtween the dorsal and ventral 
excivtorv canals and dorsal of the lateral nerve. 

Malf 'irpnxhirfirv or<,<n.>*.—'V\w testicle^ (figs. 17, 18, 20, t.) are 
about i;o ill number, arranged in two hiyei-s in the middle field, in 
the p(j>iei'i()r |iortiiiii of tlie segment. They measure from 80 to 
H)0/i ill liiiimeter when fully developed. The nuiss of testicles is 
hollowed (lilt in front, and this <lepression is occupied by the female 



TJENIOID CESTODKS OP NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 27 

genital glands. The vii.s deferens (figs, 20, 2\, r. ilcf.) forinn a muss 
of coils ill the anterior third of the segment extending from the 
median line to Hu; baf« of the drnw pouch. The cirrus pouch {figs. 
17, 10, 21, 2-2. t: p.) is elon- 
gated, hivDadest near the base 
and tapering toward its outer 
en<l. It measures 850 to SaO/i 
in length by 80 to 100^ in 
thickness. It is covered with 
a layer of muscle fibers inter- 
lacing and crossing diago- 
nally, forming a sort of basket 
work (fig. 1!)). In the distal 
three-fifths of the pouch this 
laj'er is very thick, but is thin 
in the proximal or bnsal por- 
tion of the pouch. The cirrus 

(figs, in, 20, r!r.) is from 250 ' ' 

to 350;. in lengtli, about 10^ ^°*** 

in diameter when evaginuted, 
with a lumen about 2^ in 
diameter, and is armed with short spines 2 to 3ft long. A number of 
slender muscles, which extend from its inner end to attach to tlie 
distal iMJrtion of the pouch, serve as protractors. The portion of the 



Fm. n. — RiiiniMiMKTHA N 



vas deferens which lies within the cirrus pouch possesses a thick 
miiscidar wall. From the base of the cirrus jwiich a prominent re- 
tractor muscle (fig. ID, retr.) extends diagonally inwards and for- 
wards to the anterior end of the segment near the median line. The 



28 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

axis of the (lirrus poiicli is nearly transverse in younger segments, 
with its inner end slightly tilted forward, bnt as the segments be- 
come older the cirrns pouch becomes more and more oblique. 

Fi'?na/i' iTi>roihiftii>e organs. — The vagina (figs. 17, 18, 20, 21, 
22, oay.), which opens into the genital sinus immediately behind the 



FlQ. 18. — Rn^mWMFTHA NCLUrOLLls; HKIIMLLI MATIUK HKlllIEST, TKANMVEIIMK KElTlflS. 
(I. ex., LNlBNAI. RXI'RETURT VKHSET,. 1. m., NkUVK ['tmil. III'., OVAIIV. HFH. rCTCpl., 

HehiNai. HKi-EiTiCLB. (., TKHTifLE, tit., irTEHrn. rog., Vaulka. r. art.. ViB 

male opening, has three distinct portions. The first is very short 
witii a narrow lumen and is surrounded by a spherical muscle bulb 
2S to 30fi in diameter which serves as a sphincter (fig. 20, sph. I'ag.). 
The second portion is 250 to .'tOO/; long, and possesses a muscular wall 
by the expansion or contraction of which the size of the lumen may 
be varied: this jwrtioii is lined with closely set cilia-like projections 



8 to 10^ long. The third portion has a thin membranous wall, and 
its lumen is nt first very narrow, about 2^, but toward its inner end 
it swells out t« form a seminal receptacle (figs. 18, 20, acm. ivcept.) 
about r)0;( in dianu-ter and Iti to lOOju long. 

The ovaiy (figs. 17, 18, or.) is small, compact, and but slightly 
lobed. At its maximum of development it does not exceed l76/( 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



29 



in width. It is located about in the center of the segment nearer 
the ventral than the dorsal surface, and in contact with the injier 
side of the inner longitudinal muscle layer. Immediately behind 



cir.-. 



a ph. Tag 




sem. recept. 



lOQtu 

Fig. 20. — Rhabdumktka ntllicollis : 8kctiox TiiKoruii vagina, kkminal rkckitaclk, 
AND KXTKCDKi) ciKKUM. dr., CiRKus. sem. rcccpt.. Seminal Ki!:rKi*TACLK:. ttph. vap., 
Sphincteb of vaqina. t., Tekticles. Hi., Uterus, vatf.. Vagina, r. dcf., Vas 

DEFERENS. 

the ovary is the rounded yolk gland (fig. 17, y. g.) which measures 
100 to 180/i in diameter. Dorsal of the yolk gland is the shell gland 
slightly smaller. The uterus (figs. 18, 20, 21, 22, ut,) develops im- 




yag. 



-I 



X nvn* 

KlG. *J1. — UnABDOMETUA Nt'LLirOLLlH : <tRAVID SEOMENT. C. p.. 
riRKlS nirCII. pur. Ut., PARA-rTKRINE ORGAN. Ut., rTEKr.H. 

ray.. Vagina, i*. def., Vas deferens. 

mediately in front of and dorsal of the ovary, as a simple sac-liko 
organ. As the uterus develops, growing anteriorly and posteriorly, 
the ovar>' disapi)ears. The parenchyma in front of the uterus 
becomes dense and fibrous, and develops into a prominent para- 



30 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

uterine organ (figs- 21, 2'2, pur. nt.) which behind is in immediate 
relation with the anterior end of the uterus. The para-ut«rine organ 
when fully developed extends forward to the anterior end of the 
segment in a slightly tortuous course. Its wall is 5 to lOfi thick, 
composed in large part of muscular elements, and its cavity before 
the eggs pass forward info it from the uterus is filled with a finely 
fibrous mass. The eggs ore oval, with a tliin outer membrane 36 
to iO/i in diameter, u thicker middle shell 24 to 27ju in diamet«r, and 



par, ut 3 



a thin inner mcnihrani' closely enveloping the oncosphere, whicli 
niciisuros J^/i in diiinietcr. AVhen the eggs first enter tlie uterus 
by ti single membnine. tlie others developing 



RHABDOMETRA SIMILIS. i 



This s|>eeies is l)ased on specimens (from the collection of H. B. 
Ward, (U'posited in the U. S. National Museum Helminthological 
Collection. Xo. 723*1) collected from a ruin crow (Corri/sus america- 
iiim) in Nebraska. No heads were present in this material, but the 



TiENIOID CE6T0DES OF NORTH AMKHICAN BIBDS. 31 

anatomy of the strobila shows the iifluiitR's uf thiij species with tliu 
gi'nus Rhahdometra. 

External analtimy. 

The length of this species, so far as could Ik- judged from tho 
specimenH examined, which were broken into small pieces, is about 
75 mm. The maximum breadth of the strobila is 1.5 nnii. The first 
segments are very short (80 n) and about 0.5 mm. broad, the oldest 
segments slightly longer than broad, 0.95 to 1 mm. long by 0.85 to 
0.95 mm. broad. The posterior border of each segment overlaps the 
anterior portion of the following segment only very slightly. The 
segments are nearly as broad at the anterior border as at the posterior 
border and are hence neiirly quadrate in shape. 





lOQu. 


lo. =3.— Bhabdometiia hihh.ih: 


Hexi;allv m 


iWSTAL HECTIOS. C. p., LtKllli 




Neevk 1,-oiu.. p.ir. !.(.. r*m-uT 




TEHTICLEH. Ut., ['TERL'S. vog.. 




■xcKrmiix VBSMEL, a. u.. Yolk 


OLi.lD. 



The genital pores are irregularly alternate, located in the anterior 
Iialf of each segment. 



Nervous nyatem. — The usual lateral longitudinal nerves (fig. 24, 
I. II.) are present and are located a short distance beyond the most 
lateral bundles of the inner longitudinal muscle layer, and inside 
of the outer longitudinal layer, about equidistant from the lateral 
border of the segment and tlie longitudinal excretory canals. 

Musculature. — The longitudinal muscles are arranged in two layers, 
an outer layer of iiumeron.s small bundles and an inner layer of 
larger bundles which are far apart and not over 20 to 24 in i 



32 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Dorso-ventral fibers are fairly numerous throughout the segment, but 
transversi' fibers are not present. 

Excretory system (figs. 23. 24, d. ex., v. ex.). — In sexually active 
segments the ventral excretory canals measure from 25 to 60;* in 



loqu. 
Fra. 24. — Bbabimiuitu aiuiLia : Sbxdallz uiroBB ugmint, BBCOMina okatiii, 

THAVBVEBaE SBOTHIS. C. p., ClKBUIt IMLfU. J. e*.. D0*S1I< EKCBBTgBI VBH8GU i, ■-, 

(li)iiiK'ter, the dorsal canals 8 to lOfi. The latter are located dorsal of 
the ventral canals in about the same vertical longitudinal plane. In 
the posterior portion of each segment the ventral canals are connected 
by a transverse canal. 



Fig. 25.— Hhab 



The vagina and vas dcfei-cns pass between the excretory canals and 
dorssil of the lateral nerve. 

Miih' irpmiiii'fivr orfjans. — The testicles (fig. 23, t.), numbering 16 
to 20, are located in tlie posterior third of the segment, are oval in 



TJ5N10ID C'ESTODES OF NORTH AMliRICAN BIRDS. 33 

shape, and measure about 50/» in diameter. The vaa deferens (fig, 23, 
V. def.), formed by the junction of effereht canals from the testicles, 
extends forwanl near the median line to the anterior end of the seg- 
ment, then turns and passes outward and backward in a tortuous 
course toward the cirrus pouch. The cirrus pouch (figs. 23, 24, 25, 
c. p.) is comparatively small, measuring but 80 to 90/* in length by 
40/1 in diameter. The outer muscular wall is rather thick (8 to 
lOft) compared to the size of the pouch. The cirrus pouch is not sup- 
plied with a retractor muscle, but numerous muscle flbu^ extend from 



Via. SG. — nUABDUUETBA HIUILIS : GlUVlD SEOMBNT. par. uf.. PlRA-rTEIIINE DKIAN. 
«/., TteRi-m. 

the base of the pouch outward to attach to the cuticula surrounding 
the genital pore. The cirrus (fig. 25, dr.) in the retracted condition 
is very slender (2^) and is apparently without spines. When evagi- 
nated it measures about 4^ in diameter. 

Female reproductive organs. — The vagina (figs. 23, 25, vag.) , which 
opens into the genital cloaca immediately behind the cirrus, is at 
first rather thick-walled. It has no definite sphincter. Before cross- 
ing the lateral nerve the vagina becomes n thin-walled tulie with nar- 
row lumen, and after passing the excretory canals is dilated to form 
3204— Hull. iHi— nil 3 



34 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

an elongated seminal receptacle (fig. 23, sem, recept.) which extends 
first inward toward the median line, and then diagonally backward 
and inward toward the female glands, which are located in the 
median line close to the posterior border of the segment. 

The ovary, which is very small and compact, measures about lOQ/x 
in diameter and is near the median line in the ventral half of the 
segment near the posterior border. Ventral of the ovary is the yolk 
gland, about 80/a in diameter. A definite shell gland was not seen. 

The uterus (figs. 23, 24, 26, ut,) develops immediately in front of 
the ovary in the median line. It is a simple sac-like organ slightly 
irregular but somewhat spherical in shape. In front of the uterus 
the parenchyma becomes modified to form a para-uterine organ (fig. 
20, par. vt,) with bulbous anterior end, which extends forward in the 
median line nearly to the anterior border of the segment. The ccm- 
tents of this organ before the eggs have entered it present the usual 
fibrous appearance. 

The eggs, which are oval in shape, have three membranes, an outer 
one, very thin, about 45/jt in diameter, a thicker prominent middle 
membrane 30 to 38|x in diameter, and a thin inner membrane closely 
investing the oncosphere, which measures 25 to 30/a in diameter. 

Genus ANONCHOTv^NIA Cohn, 1900. 

(For generic diagnosis, sec p. 80.) 
ANONCHOT-ffiNIA GLOBATA (Linstow. 1879). 

Fii;. 127. 

Some specimens of tapeworms (No. :^)0*27, Ilelminthological Collec- 
tion. P>iii('an of Animal Industry) collectcHl in Marvhuul from Den- 
(Iro'tcd siihiiit and otlicrs ( No. 5055, Holuiinthological Collection, U. S. 
Xat. Mns. ) coIIectcMl in Maivland from Mvlo^p'iza meJodla agi'ee very 
closoly witli tlic i)ul)Ii>lHM] d(v<ci'ij)(ions of Aitonchotarkui qlohatiu and 
I liavc ac'cordinirly identiHcMl tlicni a> hclon^rin^j: to this species. 

Hi'frrnnl (inddtfuif. 

Tho lonofth of tlioso specimens is from *i() to :^0 mm., and the maxi- 
mnni l)rea(ltli is alH)nt 1 nnn. The \n\\d is roundcMl, without rostellum, 
and measures 500 lo (;50/i. in diameter. The suckers are about 230/x 
in dianiet(4'. Cohn (ll)Olh) states that a neck is abs(»nt, segmentation 
l)eirinnin<r iinnKnliately l)eliind t!ie head. In the specimens wliich I 
have examincMl, however, tliere is an un>(»<rniented re<!:ion inmiediately 
l)ehind tlie head nieasurin«r <^.^> nnn. in widtli l>v 1.5 to 2 nmi. in length. 
Fuhrniann (li)OSc, p. (;l>5) has also noted tliat the neck is relatively 
long. The first segments are very short; the final segments nearly as 



TJ5NI0ID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 35 

long as broad. The gt'iiitai poi-es are irregularly allernate at about 
till- middle of the segment. The genital sinus is deep and narrow. 

Internal awilomy. 

The ventral excrt'tory canals are connected in the posterior portion 
of each segment by a transverse canal. 

The longitudinal muscles are arranged in two concentric layers, the 
inner layer {ini. mtisc.) consisting of abont SO bundles, the outer {ext. 
mmr.) of more numerous smaller bundles. Well-defined transverse 
fibers are present just inside the inner longitudinal layer. Dorso- 
ventral fibers are very weakly developed. 

The sexnal canals pass on the ventral side of the excretory vessels 
and the nerve. 



or., OvABY. t.. Testicles, rap.. Vaoin*. i'. ei., Ventbai. kicretohy vebskl. y. g,, 

YlJtK CJLANr. 

^fale reproduHire organs. — The testicles (t.) ai-e five in number 
located toward the dorsal surface in the anterior portion of the seg- 
ment. They measure when fully developed 30 to 40/i in diameter. 
The vas deferens is somewhat tortuous, without, however, forming a 
mass of coils, and is without vesicular enlargements. The cirrus 
pouch (e. p.) broadest at the base and tapering toward the end, 
measures from TO to 80^ in length by 25ft in diameter. Cohn <le- 
scril)es the cirrus pouch as short, club-shaped, and " recht nniskuliis." 
In my specimens the outer wall of the pouch is thin, with weakly 
developed musculature. 



86 BUULBTIK 60, mxrOD STATU VATIOVAL MUHBUM . 

Female reproductive orgoM^ — ^The Vftginm {vag.) paflSBB inwud 
parallel with the dmis pouch, and in older sagmentB after croflrini 
the excretory canals dilates to form a small seminal raceptade. 

The yolk gland (y. g.) is sphmeal about 40/i in diameter locate 
in the posterior pari of the segment about in die madian Iuml Hi 
ovary (ov.) is a simple sac-like oigan, spherical in dimpe, about CQ 
in diamater, add is in dose relation with the yolk i^and on die sid 
toward the genital pore and doser to the ventnd snrfaoe than th 
yolk gland. The uterus develops immediately in frmt of and docsi 
of the ovary and becomes a roqnded simple sac-13m otf[an. In froo 
of the uterus and in immediate relation with it a pata-aterine orgu 
develops. The outer wall of the para-uterine organ is made up o 
fibers running in a circular direction* Its contents have in some case 
a granular, in others a finely fibrous appearance. The utems aiii 
para-uterine organ, before the egg& have left the uterusi togethe 
form an ovoid structure occupying most of the •median field of tb 
segment. In the specimens which I have examined, this strocture i 
placed diagonally in the segment,- the litems posterior toward tb 
side of the segment on which the genital pore is located, and tb 
para -uterine organ toward the opposite anterior ccnmer, except in con- 
tracted segments, in which the axis of uterus and para-uterine orgai 
may be transverse. 

The eggs are few in number and spindle shaped. The oncosphen 
measures from 20 to 25/;* in diameter. It is surrounded by two mem 
branes, an inner membrane prolonged at each pole into a long, slendei 
])rocess, with finely granular contents and an outer membrane 3C 
to ^O/x in diameter, prolonged at each pole into a long pointed process 
wihin which lies the j)rolongation of the inner membrane. 

Genus HYMENOLEPIS Weinland, 18B8. 

(For j^euerk- diugiiosis sec p. 1)1.) 

HYMENOLEPIS CANTANIANA (Polonio. x86o) Ransom. 1909. 

Vil-8. 28. 2J). 

Taenia rantaninnn Polonio. IKOOl), pp. 21-22. 

{ yi>iirainrn) <nntaniuna (Polonio) HLANciiAitn. ISOlt, pp. 4S^-440. 
t>n rained nUguphorn Macjaliiaes. IMOSc. pp. 445-449, figs. 1-6. 
Davninva cantaniana (Polonio) Uailliet and Lltkt. ISOOa. p. 140. 

This species, which occurs in turkeys, chickens, pheasants {Phasi- 
anvH rolchirtfs)^ and peafowls (a host hitherto unrecorded), is oni 
con(»erning which there has been considerable* discussion. 

It was originally described by Polonio (ISOOb, pp. 21-22). His 

description translated reads as follows: 

T. cantaniana Polonio. Head jrlobose, nnihonat(* In the oonter: miekers placed 
at equal intervals about the major clrcuniferenoe of the head: neck absoit; 



T^NTOTD CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 37 

body iucroased in size posteriorly, with the first segments campaniform, fol- 
lowing segments campaniform traiiezoidal imbricate; genital pores marginal. 
Length, 13 mm. 
Ilabitaculum : Melcagris gallopavo. Intestine, October, Padua (Polonio).<» 

In a second paper Polonio (ISGOa, p. 221) gave a figure of the 
species. 

Blanchanl (1891t, pp. 430-440) looked upon this form as a pos 
sible member of the genus Danainecu and from Polonio's figure 
deduced the following characters: 

Suckers large and round; the head seems to be surmounted by a 
very short rostellum, probably retractile. The neck is quite long, 
distinctly separated from the head. Segments number about 60. The 
genital pores are unilateral; cirrus pouch is visible in the twenty- 
sixth to the forty-fifth segment ; the forty-sixth to sixtieth segments 
are filled with eggs, which, so far as may be judged from the figure, 
are scattered and isolated as in Davainea prorflottina. 

Stiles (1896f, p. 57) considers that Polonio's description and figure 
are insufficient to allow the recognition of the species, and would 
therefore ignore the species entirely. 

In 1898 Magalhaes (1898c, pp. 445-449, figs. 1-6) described as a 
new species Darainea oligophora^ a tapeworm found in chickens in 
Brazil. His description may be summarized as follows: 

Length, 1.73 to 3.2 mm.; width, 170 to 390/i. Head relatively 
large, 85 to IO8/1 long by 51 to 108/jt wide, with a small rostellum 
armed at its base with a crown of numerous small hooks, which are 
very instable and usually absent. Tlie form of these hooks is that 
of a hammer with recurved beak. The suckers are almost circular, 
slightly elliptical, measuring 61 to 72/;* in longitudinal diameter by 
43 to 54/1 in transverse diameter. They are armed with three to four 
circular rows of little hooks, which are very instable. The neck is 
short, at times even lacking, and measures 16 to I8/1 long by 51 to 
90/x wide. The segments number from 45 to 75, much wider than 
long, with posterior borders somewhat longer than the anterior bor- 
ders. The length of the segments gradually increases from 20/a in 
the first segments to lOO/i in the final segments, and the width from 
80 to 100|x in the first segmentsto 300 to 390/i in the final segments. 
The sexual pores are unilateral, located one in the anterior portion 
of each segment. The cirrus is very small, cylindrical, apparently 
provided with few small spines. A seminal vesicle [misinterpreta- 
tion of the seminal receptacle] is very apparent in the posterior half 

^T. cnntaniana Polonio. Caput globosum, centro umbonatum; acetabuMs 
cruclatim oppositis ob majorem capitis circnhim : collnm nullum : corpus rotror- 
sum dilatatum, articulis supremis campanaeformibus, sequentibus campanse- 
formibns imhricatistrapezoidalibus; ai)erturtegenitale8marginalea Long. 0.013. 

Habitaculum : MeUagris gallopavo.Jn intestiua. Octobrl. Patavi (Polonio). 



38 BULLETIN G9, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

of the strohila, especially in the last 15 to 25 segments. This organ, 
which is hxnted in the region of the genital pore, is ainpullifonu, 
ellipsoidal, and filled with spermatozoa; from it may be traced the 
long sinuous vas deferens, llie last three to eight segments contain 
fully developed eggs, which are few in number. They seem to be 
scattered in the parenchyma or contained in a cavity which has 
])ushed aside the parenchyma, and they so fill the segment that no 
other structures are visible except the seminal vesicle [receptacle]. 
They are spherical, with three envelopes, and measure 45 to 50fi in 
diameter. The outer membrane is smooth and transparent ; between 
it and a second membrane of double contour is a granular mass. The 
third membrane is that which immediately surrounds the oncosphere. 
The oncosphere measures 25 to 30/4 in diameter; its hooks, 18/i in 
length; the diameter of the second membrane is 32/x. 

Kailliet and Lucet (18JH)a, pp. 144-140) have reported the discovery 
of tapeworms in turkeys which thev consider identical w^ith Trfuia 
ccDttcuiiaiKi. TlicK* worms pi*esent the following characters: Length, 
l.J) to 3.2 nun.; nuiximmn width, 200 to 320/a. Strobila consists of 
50 to 8S segments. Kggs fully formed in the last 6 to 8 segments, 
also apparent in less fully developed condition in preceding segments 
so that the last 1.5 to IS segments may be looked upon as gravid. The 
eggs are spherical with three envelopes, the internal and external on.» 
the (liicker. The external env(»lope has a diameter of 54 to 57fi, the 
middle .'VJ to Il^/j: the internal one surrounding the oncosphere is 21^ 
to ')()/( in (linnu'tcr. 'riic Iiooks of the oncosphere are 12 to lo/i in 
leii<^^li. 

TIh'-c Miithors ai'e of the oj)ii;ion that Ihirdiitca oVigopliora Ma^al- 
lifuvs i> idcni icjil with Id n'm < (Hifnn'nnKi Polonio in view of the strik- 
in<r ^iInila^i(^ of llx* lianrrs of Polonio and Ma<ralhaes. 

Ma<iallia('^ ( 1S1>'.>1). j)i). ls()-js*_{) refused to accept the view of 
Kailliet and Lucet on the i^ionnd that Polonio's description is too 
in(*()nij)l(Ue to iii\(' the >|)ecies Taunt <(inf(tntan<f any standing. Con- 
trarv to the (>|)inions of Stiles and Mairidhru^s. it seems to me that 
Kailliet and Lncct are correct in considering Tnhia contanlarm a 
reco<j:nizal)lc >|)ecies, and 1 helievc that th(» forms which I have studied 
are sullicicnlly >imilar to Polonio's (lescrij)tion and figure to justify 
their ident ihcat ion as T<i hid i-dniduuiini. Thev also airree so closely 
with Ma<ialhricsV de>crij)tion of Dtnuinnn oJ'HjopJtoiui that there is 
little (loiil)t of their idcMitity \vith that sj)ecies. 

TIk* lack oF hooks in all sj)ccinicns which 1 have examined is one 
j)oint of (lillenMicc fi'om Dura'nnd oJ'n/ophora^ l)ut as Magalhaes 
found hooks in hut few cases and states that they are very instable 
and usually absent, this ditferenee is not very remarkable. In other 
n^sjx'cts ihe head is entirely like that of Pard'nun oJii/ophom^ though 
I have found it sli<j:htly larger than described bv Magalhaes. There 



T-a:NIOlD CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 39 

is almost perfect correspondence in the characters of the strobila so 
far as may be determined from Magalhaes's description. The struc- 
ture which Magelhaes interprets as a seminal vesicle corresponds to 
the seminal receptacle in my specimens. The eggs of the two forms 
agree in size, number, arrangement, and in all respects except the size 
of the hooks of the oncosphere, a difference which, on account of the 
small size of these structures and the consequent liability of error in 
measurement, can not be considered of great importance. 

The species which I have identified as Twnia cantaniana has been 
found several times in this country in chickens and once in a pea- 
fowl. After brief study it became evident that it belonged in the 
genus Hyraenolepis and not in Davainea^ where it has been commonly 
placed. The following description is based on specimens in the col- 
lection of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Nos. 4109, 4198, 4569, 
14554, and 14814 from chickens, Maryland and District of Columbia, 
No. 14423 from a peafowl. District of Columbia, and No. 2761, col- 
lected from a turkey in France by Railliet and determined by him 
as Tcenia cantaniana. 

External anatomy. 

The specimens (fig. 28) which I have examined vary in length 
from 2 to 12 mm. The maximum breadth is about 0.4 mm. The 
head measures 120 to 160/jt in width and thickness, by 100 to 120/a in 
length. 

The rostellum is rudimentary, an elongated sac-like structure in 
the central axis of the head, 80/4 long by 35/i in diameter, into the 
anterior end of which is a deep, narrow invagination with cuticular 
lining 30 to 40/i in depth by 4 to 6/li in diameter. 

The suckers measure 60 to 70/a in diameter. In none of the speci- 
mens studied, including some which were very young and immature, 
was there any trace of hooks either upon the rostellum or suckers. 
The neck is 80 to 90/x wide by 100 to 130/x long. 

The width of the strobila gradually increases from the neck toward 
the posterior end, near w^hich it reaches the maximum. 

The segments are considerably broader than long throughout the 
strobila, the posterior angles project but slightly, and there is no 
overlapping of tlie posterior border of one segment over the anterior 
portion of the next following segment. A strobila 6.5 mm. long 
consisted of about 100 segments, of which the posterior 13 contained 
fully developed eggs. In the widest portion of this strobila the 
segments measured 80/;* in length by 250/* in width. A strobila 8 mm. 
in length consisted of about 215 segments, of which the posterior 
16 contained fully developed eggs. In the widest portion of tliis 
strobila the segments were 60 to 70/* long and 300/* wide. Segments 



BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

2.5 mm. behind the head in 
which the niqle organs ha<l 
just reached the functionai 
stage measured 30/i in length 
by 120n in width. 

The genital pores are uni- 
lateral on the right-hand mar- 
gin of the strobila. locate*! 
slightly in front of the middle 
of each segment. 

Internnl atvtlomy. 

g The cirrus pouch and semi- 

X nal vesicle are dorsal of the 

excretory vessels. 
3 Male reproductire organs. — 
* The testicles are three in num- 
5 ber, dorsally located one on the 
« right-hand side and two on the 
left-hand side of the segment. 
5 They reach a maximum size of 
^ 25fi in diameter. A seminal 
q vesicle is present in the an- 
terior portion of the .sognieni 
^ near the mediiin line; it at- 
: liiini- 11 size of 25 to 45fi in 
s ilianic'tt'r. 

= The cirnis pouch is elon- 

J: K!it*'tl' tapering toward its 
'[ iinli-r end. and monsures "5 to 
I li-V in length by 12 to 18;. in 
diiiinetor. Its inner end is 
near the anterior border of 
the ^egnlent and extends be- 
yond the median line in the 
yoniifrer segments. The outer 
wall iif the pouch is thin with- 
out definite muscle elements, 
AVilhin (he pouch the vas 
defiTt-iw i> enlarged to form a 
seminal reservoir, which occu- 
pies more or less of the cavity 
of the pouch. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



41 



Female rcproihivHrc oi-ijuim. — In sexually mature hegiiieiits tlie vji- 
gina is swollen to form a prominent seminal receptacle located near 
(he right-hand bonier of the segment ventral of the ciniis pouch, 
oval in shape, and attaining a maximum pf 30 to 35/i by 45 to 
60/t in width and length. 

The ovarv when fully developed is transversely elongated, extend- 
ing laterally as far as the excretory canals and measuring 135ji in 
its longest dtmensioil. It extends forward to the anterior border nf 
the segment, Init does not reach the posterior border. In the median 



the small rounded yolk gland, 



vhich 




line behind the ovary 
measures iilioiit 'lOn in di- 
ametf'r. 

The uterus develops as 
a simple sac on the ven- 
tral side of the ovary, and 
the latter rapidly degen- 
erates after the appear- 
ance of the former, ^Mien 
fully developed the uterus 
occupies practically the 
entire segment, and as its 
wall becomes folded in- 
ward in various places its 
cavity is divided into a 
number of incompletely 
separated chambers. The 
number of eggs in the 
gravid segment is small, 
18 to 20. but on account of the large size which they finally attain 
the cavity of the uterus is fully occupied. 

A\1ien they first enter the uterus the eggs have but a single thin 
membrane and measure but '20^ in diameter. Later other membranes 
are developed, and the egg (fig. 29) in the final stage of development 
possesses two well-defined shells, an inner one 27 to 35^ in diameter 
and an outer one \h to r>0/t in diameter. Between the outer and inner 
shell is an intermediate finely granular layer limited by a very thin 
membrane internally and externally. The on(»sphere measures 22 to 
25/1 in diameter with hooks 13 to 14>i in length. 



5Qa. 



42 BULLETIN 60, UNITKD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus DIORCHIS Clerc, 1903. 
(For generic diagnosln see p. 98.) 

DIORCHIS ACtlUINATA (Clirc, 1901) Qerc, 1901. 
Figs. 30-3a 

Drepanidottmia acamlnala Clebc. I902n. p. fiSTt. Hgs. 3. 4. 

DUirchi* acuminiita (Clebc. ]tH)2) Clebc. IUU:^. iip. 24K, 249, 266. 2S1-2S4, {d. 

8, fig. IS; pi. 9, fig. 25; pi. 11, flgs. 78, 79. 
Dioivliis acctttninata Clebc, 1903, p. 249 (misprint for D. aeuminala). 
Ttmia avuminafa Clebc. ia03, p. 283 
Specimens of u tapeworm (from the collection of H. B. Ward, de- 
posited in the U. S. National Museum Helminthological Collection, 
No. 7237) collected in Nebraska from Fuliea 
americana apparently belong to the species 
Diorchia acuminata. 

External anatomy. 

These specimens measure 35 mm. in length 
by 0.65 mm. in maximum breadth. The 
final segments were not yet gravid, and it is 
consequently evident that the full-grown 
worm may be considerably larger than indi- 
cated by the above figures. 

The head (figs. 30, 31) mesisure.s llJO^i in 
length by 22.'> to 23.V in width. The rostel- 
liim is cylindrical when protruded, slightly 
broader iit tlic tip than at tlio base, measur- 
ing 100^ in length by -W^ in diameter at the 
base and 70/i in diameter at the tip. It is 
armed with 10 books (fig. 3;i), with long 
dorsal and short vi'ntral nK>t and measuring 
liSfi in length, the dorsal root l)eing 2.V and 
the prong i;V in length. The suckers are 
^^_^_^ about 80fi in diameter and are armed with 

lOQn, minute s|)ines less (ban -V in length, set close 

F:o, :;ii-— inoHciMs .u-umt- '"f.'<'tbt''' i» diagonal rows covering the entire 
.NATi: II KM) .»sii AN- surface of the sucker- 

tehc.ii: roiiTio> tii ktko- Segmentation begins^ very close behind 
the head, and in (his region the strobila is of 
about the same breadth as the head. The breadth then becomes re- 
liiici'd til about 150n an<! afterwards gradually increases throughout 
the remainder of the sti'ubrla. The >egmeiits are broader than long, 
the largest mca-uring SO/i in leuglh by (i.W^ in width. 



TJENIOEl) CESTOUKS OF NORTH AMKRICAN BIRDS. 43 

Tlie genital pores are unilateral. In each f-egment tlie pore is 
located near the middle of the right-hand margin. 



.Verrous nystem. — The hiteral longitudinal nerves (fig. 34, I. n.) 
are about midway between the lat- 
eral borders of the segment and the 
excretory vessels. 

Mmcidature. — The longitudinal 
muscles are arranged in two lay- 
ers. The outer layer (fig. 34, ext. 
muse.) is composed of numerous 
small bundles of fibers close to 
the surface of the segment. The 
inner layer (fig. 'M, int. mu8<i.) 
consists of eight bundles, as a rule 
somewhat larger than the outer 
bundles, and conspicuous only in 
young segments. 

Transverse muscle fibers are well 
developed only at the junction of 
the segments. The dorso-ventral 
fibers are very weakly developed. 

Excretory system. — The longi- 
tudinal excretory vessels (figs. 34, ^ , 

c. ex., d. ex.; 35, i\ ex.) in the 10*1. 

older segments are located near the Via. a: 
ventral surface on the right-hand "' 

(pore) side of the segment and near the dorsal surface on the left- 
hand side. The doi'sal vessel is close to and dorsal of the ventral 
vessel. The ventral vessels are not connected by 
transverse ves.sel.s. 

Tlie cirrus pouch' and vagina pass dorsal of the 
nerve and excretory vessels, 

MaU reproductire orffans. — The testicles (fig- 
33, t.) are two in number, located near the dorsal 
surface in the posterior portion of the segment, 
one on either side of the median line, and reach 
a maximum size of 100 to 130;». A portion of the 
vas deferens is swollen to form a seminal vesicle 
(figs. 33, M, vea. sem.), which attains a size of 80 to 
130fi in diameter. This seminal vesicle is located in 
the median line close to the anterior border of the 
segment near the dorsal surface. 

The cirrus pouch (figs. 33, 34, c. p.) is elongated, extending trans- 
versely across the segment. As a rule its inner end does not reach 



44 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

th(! median line. It ineasiires ISO to 280/t in lenfrth, and 45 to 55fi in 
maximnni thickness. It is covered with a layer of longitudinal 
muscles, thickest near the middle and diminishing in thickness toward 



each end of the pouch. Within the cirrus poudi the vas deferens i? 
swollen to form a seminal reservoir occupying more or less of the 
cavity of the pouch, according to the quantity of spermatozoa con- 



tained. The cirnis (lifr'. -i^. 35. cir.) is unarmed: when extruded it 
measnivs (i to H/i in diiiniclcr. with ii pliibular swelling at its base 14 
til 111^ in (liiinK'tcr. \\'hfii fully e\tiiided it measures over 150^ in 
leiijrth. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMEBICAN BIRDS. 45 

Female reproductive organs. — The vagina, after crossing the excre- 
tory canals, is enlarged to form a seminal receptacle (tigs. 34, 3K, sent,, 
recept.), which extends inward as far as the inner end of the cirrus 
pouch. 



The ovary (figs. 33-36, ov.) is trilobed, one lobe being anterior and 
median, the other two lateral; often by a division of the left lateral 
lobe it becomes four-lobed. When fully developed the ovary extends 



laterally as far as th(^ excretory canals, and the median lobe extends 
forward to the tuitcrior border of the segment. It is ventral with 
respect to the testicles. 



46 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The 3^olk gland (figs. 33, 35, 36, yg,) is spherical, 45 to 60/i in 
diameter, located in the median line near the ventral surface of the 
segment, behind the middle of the ovary, in the niche between the 
right and left lateral lobes. 

The uterus was not yet developed in the specimens studied. 

Remarks, 

In certain respects the tapeworm described above is strikingly simi- 
lar to a form from Fulica atra described by Jacobi (1898c, pp. 95-101:, 
pi. 6, figs. I-IC) as Tcpiiia hvflata Rndolphi. 

The chief characters of this form, summarized from Jacobi's de- 
scription, are as follows: 

Length 80 to 100 mm., width 2 to 3 mm. Head with a prominent 
rostellum [similar in shape to that of Diorchis acuminata^ ^^Tined with 
a crown of 10 hooks, 23ft long [similar in form to those of Diorchis 
aci/minata]. Segments broader than long throughout the strobila. 
Genital pores unilateral. Ijongitudinal muscles arranged in two 
lavers of bundles, an outer laver of numerous small bundles close to 
the surface of the body, and an inner layer of 8 larger bundles [as in 
Diorchis acuminata^. The cirrus pouch and vagina pass on the dor- 
sal side of the longitudinal nerve and excretory vessels. Testicles 
two. Seminal vesicle absent; vas deferens enlarged within the cirrus 
pouch to form a seminal reservoir. Cirrus pouch with an outer layer 
of loii^jfitudinal muscles [as in Diorchis actnninata^. Size of cirrus 
j)Ouch " not exactly stated, but it does not extend as far as the median 
line. Cirrus unarmed; when extruded has a bulbous enlargement at 
the base [as in Dion/u's aciffninafd], and, to-judge from the scale of 
magnification to wliich JacohiV figurc^s are drawn, measures from to 
8^ in diameter, the bulbous enlargement JKMng 12 to 14^ in diameter. 
Vagina enlarged to form a seminal rece})tacle. Ovary trilobed; shell 
gland s})herical, ventral of and posterior of the ovary. The ovarv. 
when fully mature, is about one-fourth as wide as the se<J:ment. The 
uterus is a sim})l(» sac, which develops on the dorsal side of the ovary 
and ventral of the testicles. Eggs with two thin shells in addition 
to a membrane, which closely invests the oncosphere. The shells 
nro drawn out into |)ointe(l |)rocesses at the poles. Oncosphere 17/i 
in niaximum diameter, outer shell ^^7 to 41/i in length, hooks of onco- 
sj)liere 1).2// long. 



'^ ricrc (V.io.'l) (lcsrril)t's mikI fi;;nros the clirns noucli in n form from FiiJiea 
aim wliidi lie li:is idcnt ilied with .I.-u-ohi's specit's. as very lonjr and extending 
fur heyond tiic ni(Mliaii line. .Ia(M»i>i. altlion;:!! reniarlvin^ that the cirrus pouch 
is M'vy lon^^ distinctly states tliat it extends nlmnsl to the nie(Unn line, and it is 
thus slidwn in his lii^nres. Whether snch a wide variation in the size of cirrus 
ponrh may occni'. <»i- whetlier (Merc had hefore him s<jme other species, are ques- 
tions wlncli can not he detinitely iletermined until further evidence is available. 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 47 

In general structure the form from Fulica americana and Jacobi's 
species are alike, and the cirrus pouch and cirrus in size and shape 
are practically the same in both. Comparing, however, the length 
of the hooks of Jacobi's species, 23ft, with that of the hooks of the 
form which I have described, 38ft, and taking into consideration the 
lack of a seminal vesicle in the former, its presence in the latter, the 
small size of the fully developed ovary in the former, and the very 
large size of the ovary in the latter, it seems necessary to look upon 
these forms as two different species. 

Diorchis acaininata^ collected from Anas crecca^ A, strepera^ and 
Fulica atra, as described by Clerc (1903, pp. 281-284, pi. 8, fig. 13; 
pi. 9, fig. 25; pi. 11, figs. 78, 88), measures about 80 mm. in length 
and 1.2 mm. in maximum breadth. The width of the head varies 
from 230 to 320ft. The rostellym is armed with 10 hooks 27 to 
39ft in length. The segments are broader than long throughout the 
strobila, the usual ratio being 14 to 1. Fully developed eggs are 
present in segments 50 to 60 mm. from the scolex, and the female 
genital glands are well developed in segments 25 mm. from the scolex. 
The genital pores are unilateral. The excretory vessels are without 
commissures in the posterior part of the segment. The longitudinal 
muscles are arranged in two layers, numerous small bundles in the 
outer layer, and 8 larger bundles in the inner layer. The vagina and 
cirrus pouch pass dorsal of the excretory vessels and nerve. There 
are two testicles present in each segment, reaching their maximum 
development in segments 15 to 17 mm. from the head. The cirrus 
pouch measures at its maximum of development 150 to 160ft in length, 
is straight or slightly curved, shaped like a thick spindle, and does not 
reach the median line of the segment. Its musculature consists 
especially of longitudinal fibers. The female glands occupy very 
' little space, never exceeding in size one-third of the width of the 
segment. They are located exactly in the middle of the segment 
beneath the testicles. The ovary is '' double, non lobe, en forme 
d'haltere recourbe dont les extremites epaissies sont tournees vers la 
face dorsale." The yolk gland is globular, small, and located between 
the two wings of the ovary. The vagina is ventral of the cirrus 
pouch. Its initial portion is muscular, the remainder is swollen, 
possesses thin walls and acts as a seminal receptacle. The uterus is 
, sac-like. At the beginning of its development it is like a narrow 
transverse canal. It develops large lobes which penetrate between 
the longitudinal muscles and beyond the excretory vessels. The eggs 
are elongated in form. 

The only differences between the form from Ffdica americana and 
Clerc's species, so far as may be determined from Clerc's description, 
are in the length of the cirrus pouch (which is slightly greater in the 
specimens from Fulica americana) and in the shape and size of the 



48 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES RATIONAL MUSBUM. 

ovary. Although Clerc makes no reference to tlie presence of spines 
on the suckers, this is a feature which is very 
inconspicuous and may have been overlooked 
by that author." 

The differences mentioned seem to be in- 
sufficient to warrant a separation of the two 
forms, and the identification of the tape- 
worms from Fulica americatm as Diorchu 
amminuta, accordingly, seenis fully justi- 
Hiiblo. Fuhrmann (l!)08a, pp. 7, 81), how- 
ever considers it improbable that the same 
si>ecies should occur in birds so different as 
Anserines and Ralliforms, and explains 
Clerc's record of Dtorvkis acuminata in Fu- 
lira as due' to some error, possibly a mis- 
take in labeling. A comparison of specimens 
is needed to settle the question whether the 
forms from ducks and Fulica are of the 
same or different species. 



lOOjL. 



PiC. 3T,— IHoi 



DIOKCHIS AIIERICANA, n 



KIgs. 37-42. 



This sixKiies, which seems heretofore to 
have iH'en (uidcscrilK-d, was foun(] in com])uny with Diorfhix -I'-'imi- 
until in Fidifti iimrrirtuia. and is based on s]>eciniens 
(fioni the collection of II. It. Ward, deposited in 
the U, S. National Mtiseuni Ileiniinthological Col- 
lection, No. 7-J3B). collected in Nebraska. 

I!.r<.-n,til <imln„i)i. 

Tlic l.'n;:(h of siM'cini.'iis «h(ise posterior st'g- 
nieiifs were j;riivid, but in which the e^gs had evi- 
dently not vet iVHchcd flu'ir full develo|Hnent. 
WHS frcHn •!() to '25 mm. and the maxiniiun width 
li.C. mm. Tliir head (lig. :M) niea>.niTs IHO^ in 
Icnjrth by -IMp. in wi.Itli. The nislelliim is similar 
in shape to lh:it of h'u,i<hh <i(-,imh»it,i but hirfrcr. 
mcii-urinf: whi'n fidly estended i:i;V in lenifth. 
Uy -Vl,, in (tiamct.T at the ba-i- and S0/< in diani- 
eU'i- -aX Ihc lij>. armed with a ci'own of 10 hooks 
(Hjr. :iH} <■'■> haifr. siuiihir In form lo iXm-K- of }>m-<hi« ncuminntn. 

■' Sinrc t>Mlilisl]Liii.' liiK clcMTi|Hii.ii iif inuy,h\H iiciiiiihiiilii <'U>ro lias liifi>ria(«d 
Knlirniaiiii i llMKlh, |i. lil")!! tli:ii Ik- Ii:is iilisci-vi-d iliiil llie wm-liprs amy he iiruieil. 




T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIBDS. 49 

The dorsal root measures about 40*1 and the prong of the hook about 
25/1 in length. The suckers are 100 to 120^ in diameter, covered over 
the entire surface as in D. acuminata with regularly arranged mi- 
nute spines less than 5/t in length. 



loqu. 

Fia. 39. — DiORCHIS tUERlCANA: SEXUAI.M UATlnE smUIST, AT BIGB FOCUS TO SRO^ 
HALB OBOANS, DOBBAL VIIW. dr., ClBBCB. C. p., CCKKUS FODCH. 01',, OtABT. (., TEBtl- 

CLBS. re*, »em., Seuinal vEaiOLB. y. p., YOI.K uland. 

As in D. acuminata, segmentation begins close behind the head, the 
width of the strobila at its beginning being about 160;u The segments 
are broader than long throughout the strobila, and near the posterior 
end measure 110 to 115^ in length by 500 to 600;» in width. 



Fic. 40— Dio 



The genital pores are unilateral on the right-hand margin of the 
strobila at about the middle of the segment. 



The nervous system, musculature, antl excretory system are as de- 
scribed above for Diorrhis acufninata, and as in the latter the vagina 
3264— Bull, 09—09 4 



50 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and cirrus pouch pass on the dorsal side of the nerve and excretory 
vessels. 

Ill this species the segments become gravid much earlier than in 
the other, as the posterior segments of a strobila 20 mm. long con- 



PlO. 41. — DIOBCHIB J 



taiiied a well -developed uterus, whereas in Diorckis acuminata the 
uterus had not yet appeared in the posterior segments of a strobila 
35 mTn. long. 



J/-//, ,:,,ro,h„i;rr „niu,...— V\n- (.-licl.-s ( fij.'. WW t.). Uvo in niiru- 
'■V. :i(liniiiny a ni;ixiniiii(i -izc of 100 U> i;Ky an located, iis in 
'. .;. .in'nuiiii, in i||(. [io>lcrioi' iiortidii of lh<> segment near the d.prsal 
ii'fatT. Diiv on I'itluT >i(If of llie median line. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 51 

111 the anterior half of the segment in the median line the vas 
deferens is swollen to form a prominent seminal vesicle (figs. 39, 41, 
res. sem.)^ 150/ji or more in diameter. Usually the seminal vesicle is 
dorsal of, occasionally ventral of, the proximal end of the cirrus 
pouch. The cirrus pouch (figs. 39, 41, e, p.) , usually somewhat curved, 
extends transversely across the anterior portion of the segment, 
measuring 250 to 300ft in length by 30 to 40ft in thickness. It is 
somewhat longer than the cirrus pouch of D. acuminata and usually 
extends be^'ond the median line of the segment. As in the latter 
species, the pouch is covered with a prominent layer of longitudinal 
muscles, thickest near the middle of the pouch. The vas deferens is 
enlarged to form a seminal reservoir within the cirrus pouch. In 
sharp contrast to D. acuminata^ the cirrus (fig. 39, cir.) is very 
slender without bulbous enlargement at the base, measuring but 1.5 
to 2fi in diameter when extruded, whereas in the other species it is 
from G to 8/x in diameter, and has a bulbous enlargement at the base 
14 to 16/1 in diameter. As in the latter species, it is unarmed. Its 
length when fully extruded is at least lOO^t. 

Female reproductire organs, — The vagina (figs. 40, 42, vag»)^ at 
first very narrow, becomes swollen beyond the excretory canals to 
form an elongated seminal receptacle (figs. 40, 42, sem^. recept,)^ 
which lies against the ventral side of the cirrus pouch and extends 
as far as the inner end of the latter. 

The ovary (figs. 39, 40, 6>/'.), as in Z>. acuminata^ is trilobed with 
occasionally a fourth lobe on the left-hand side, and when fully de- 
veloped it extends laterally as far as the excretory canals, and its 
median lobe reaches the anterior border of the segment. It is located 
on the ventral side of the cirrus pouch, seminal vesicle, and seminal 
receptacle. The yolk gland (figs. 39, 40, y, gJ) is similar in shape 
and size to that of D, acuminata and is similarly located. 

The uterus (figs. 41, 42, nt,) is a simple sac, without partitions, and 
develops behind and dorsal of the ovary and ventral of the testicles. 
As the uterus increases in size and becomes filled wuth eggs the ovary 
degenerates and disappears. When fully developed the uterus extends 
from the posterior to the anterior border of the segment, and later- 
ally beyond tlie excretory canals on each side, dorsal of the canals 
on the right side and ventral of the canals on the left side. 

The eggs when they first enter the uterus measure 12 to 15ft in 
diameter and are closely surrounded by a very thin membrane. Eggs 
containing fully formed oncospheres were not present in the speci- 
mens studied. 



52 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE SUPERFAMILY T^NIOIDEA. 

In the following synopsis I have adopted with a few modifications 
the arrangement into families recently proposed by Fuhrmann 
(1907a, 1908a), but instead of giving the group the rank of an order, 
Cyclophyllidea, I have followed Stiles (1906a) in classing it as a 
superfamily, Tsenioidea. This change from order to superfamily is 
simply a change in name and rank and in itself does not necessitate 
any changes within the group. The subordinate groups of the order 
Cyclophyllidea as arranged by Fuhrmann can be arranged in a simi- 
lar way in the superfamily Taenioidea, and this is what has been done 
in the present article, with, however, a number of modifications, the 
most important of which are as follows: 

In his family " Dilepinidae " Fuhrmann has recognized three sub- 
families, " Dilepininae," Dipylidiinae, and " Paruterinae," and has 
placed in a separate family, '' Hymenolepidse," the genera Ilymeno- 
lepis^ Oligorchis^ Diorchis^ and Aploparaksis. I have, however, pre- 
ferred to unite " Hymenolepidae " with " Dilepinidae " and " Dilepi- 
ninae " with DipylidiinsB, and accordingly recognize, instead of the 
two families, one family Hymenolepididse, with Dipylidiina?, Hy- 
menolepidinse, and Paruterininse (= Paruterinse Fuhrmann) as sub- 
families. 

The genus Stilesla appears to me much more closely related to the 
Paruterinina? than to the Anoplocephalida?, and I have accordingly 
placed it in the former proup. 

A number of minor changes, such as changes in names, are noted in 
their appropriate phices. Changes in names have been made in ac- 
cordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 

Superfamily T-^NIOIDEA.. 

Superfamily diagnosis. — Costoda : Scolex with four cup-shaped 
suckers which may exceptionally (Tetrabothriida*) l)ear auricular 
ap})on(la<^cs. Apical rostellum present or lacking. Suckers and ros- 
telluni may he armed with hooks or unarmed. Neck present or 
absent. Strobila with well-developed segmentation, or, exceptionally 
(FinilH-iariida'^i without division into segments. A single series or 
complete or incomplete double scries of reproductive organs. Genital 
pores usually present and marii:inal, or exceptionally on ventral sur- 
face. Testicles usually numerous, in medullarv portion of segment. 
Ovary more or less hilohecl. Yolk gland compact, and posterior, dor- 
sal, ventral, or laterad of ovary, rarely (family Tetrabothriida*) an- 
terior of ovary. Shell gland between ovary and yolk gland. Uterus 
without special opening to the exterior, except that rarely a second- 
arily formed opening may be present. Egg (i. e., fertilized Qgg= 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 53 

embryo, oncosphere) with one or several membranes; without oper- 
culum. Larval stage in vertebrates or invertebrates. Adults in ali- 
mentary canal of vertebrates. 

Type-family. — Taeniidae Ludwig, 1886. 

KEY TO GENEBA.<» 

1. Genital pores mnr^innl or (?) absent 2. 

(xenital jwres ventral, In or near median line; seolex unarmed, without 

rostellum ; a single egg capsule in the gravid segment. 

Mesocestoididfe, Mesoceatoidea, p. 61. 

2. One cirrus pouch in each segment, or two in each segment, one on either 

side 3. 

Several cirrus i)ouches in each lateral half of each segment; segmentation 
not apparent externally; one testicle, ovary, yolk gland, and uterus in 
each lateral half of the segment ; egg with weIl-develoi)e<l pyriform appa- 
ratus ; head unarmed, without rostellum ; adults in marsupials. 

Triplottmia, p. 62. 

3. Vaginal pore anterior of male opening TetracisdieotyJa, p. 106. 

Vaginal i)ore i)osterior, dorsal, or ventral of male oi)ening, or absent 4. 

4. Anterior iwrtion of strobila enlarged and modified to form a large pseudo 

seolex ; strobila grooved transversely, but without proglottids. 

Fimbriariidie, Fimbriaria, p. 105. 

Strobila without pseudo seolex; with more or less definite proglottids, or 

segments 5. 

5. Yolk gland in front of ovary; suckers with auricular api)endages on an- 

terior border Tetrabothriidffi, Tetrabothrius, p. 59. 

Yolk gland posterior, dorsal, ventral, or lateral of ovary; suckers without 
auricular appendages 6. 

6. Vaginal pore lacking 7. 

Vaginal iwre present 15. 

7. Male and female genital openings both (?) lacking; seolex without ros- 

tellum: suckers unarmed; a single set of reproductive organs in each 
segment; female glands near one side of tJie segment; cirrus pouch 
rudimentary, unites with distal end of vagina in lateral field of seg- 
ment Aporina, p. 64. 

Male genital oi)ening present 8. 

8. Seolex with armed rostellum; segments with lateral appendages; accessory 

female genital canal present, functioning as vagina, with dorsal, ventral. 

or marginal oijening 9 (Amabillidse). 

Seolex with or without rostellum ; segments without lateral appendages ; 
vagina, without external opening, functions as seminal receptacle. 

11 (Acoleidffi). 

9. A double set of male reproductive organs and a single set of female organs 

in each segment ; two male genital pores in each segment, one on each side; 

opening gf aecess<^)ry vagina ventral Amahilia, p. 103. 

A single set of reproductive organs in each segment; male genital pores 

regularly or irregularly alternate 10. 

10. Suckers and posterior portion of head covered with minute spines ; segments 
of strobila not numerous; testicles few; vagina of each segment turns 
backward into and communicates with the seminal vesicle of the next 

«The genus Copcsoma (p. 106) is not included in this key. 



\ 



54 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

following segment ; an accessory vagina in the opposite side of the segment 

from the cirrus pouch, sometimes with marginal opening Tatria, p. 104. 

Rostellum very large ; suckers and posterior portion of head without spiny 
armature; testicles numerous, extend across entire width of segment; 
vagina absent; accessory vagina dorso-ventral, with median opening on 
dorsal and ventral surfaces of segment Schist ottEnia, p. KM 

11. Dioecius, entire strobila male or female; male with a double set, female with 

a single set of reproductive organs in each segment Dioicocestus, p. 103. 

Monoecius ^. 12. 

12. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment 13, 

A double set of male reproductive organs and a single set of female repro- 
ductive organs in each segment, with two vaginae functioning as large 
seminal receptacles DipIophaUus, p. 102. 

13. Scolex with armed rostellum 14. 

Scolex without rostellum, but with apical papilla ; cirrus conical in shape. 

armed with large hooks i^hiplcya. p. 10.3. 

14. Rostellum armed with a single crown of hooks arranged in a zigzag row 

having right angles; testicles few; seminal receptacle very small; uterus 

with dorsal and ventral openings (iyrncwUa, p. 102. 

Testicles numerous; seminal receptacle very large; uterus without opening 
to the exterior Avoleus, p. 102. 

15. Scolex with rostellum armed with a double row (rarely a single or triple 

row) of very numerous (and generally very small) hammer-shaped hooks, 
i. e., with long ventral root, very short dorsal root, and short blade; 

suckers usually armed 16 (Davaineidse). 

Scolex with rostellum armed with hooks not hammer shaped, without ros- 
tellum, or with rudimentary unarmed rostellum ; suckers usually armed- 21. 

16. Rostellum broader than rest of scolex ; suckers armed only near anterior 

border; n single set of reprotluetive orgjins in each sejxment ; uterus sac- 
like, persistent Oitfnintcotiflr. p.' 07. 

Rostellum not l)roader than rest of scolex: suckers armed with several 
rings of booklets around the periphery or unarmed ; a single or double 
set of repHMluctive organs in each segment : uterus not persistent, rc- 
I)laced by egg capsules, with or without the formation of para-uterino 
orga ns IT. 

17. Uterus breaks down into numerous egg capsules, each containing one or 

more eggs; para-ntcrine organs not present is. 

A para-uterine organ present, into which the eggs pass, and which trans- 
forms into an egg capsule '2^1 

18. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment 10. 

A double set of reproductive organs in each segment; eggs become inclostni 

singly in egg capsules Cotngnid, p. 00 

19. Ilostelluni armed with a double or single row of hooks; dorsal excretory 

vessels present: g<Miital pores unilateral or irregularly alternate; egg 

capsules contain one or several eggs Darainm, p. t»7. 

Rostellnni arnie<l with three rows of hooks; dorsal excretory vessels 
absent; genital pores unilateral: female glands on pore side of median 
line, near the ventral excretory vessel: eggs become inclosed singly in 
egg capsules _ Poragynia, p. 69. 

20. Eggs i>ass directly from uterus into a para-uterine organ, which trans- 

forms into an egg capsule Idiogenes, p. 70. 

Eggs become inclosed in numerous egg capsules following the dLsappear- 
ance of the uterus, and llnally are pressed into a large anteriorly located 
[)ara-uterine organ which transforms into an egg captsule-CViapmawia, p. 70. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 55 

21. Scolex without rostellum. or with rudimentary unarmed rostellum 49. 

Scolex with armed rostellum 22. 

22. Rostellum armed with a double crown of large hooks ; genital pores irregu- 

larly alternate; uterus with'*medlan stem and lateral branches; egg with 
thin outer membrane and thick, brown, radially striated inner shell. 

Twnia, p. 100. 
Egg with thin transparent shells. I 2,S. 

23. Para-uterine organ present; rostellum armed with a double crown of 

hooks 24. 

Para-uterine organ absent 26. 

24. rterus single 2'). 

rterus more or less completely divided Into two spherical sacs; hooks of 

rostellum triangular Biutcrrtta, p. 8.S. 

25. Uterus much broader than long; para-uterine organ a transversely elongated 

l^arenchymatous mass in front of uterus ; on pore side of segment the large 
usually ventral longitudinal excretory vessel is dorsal in position, and the 
narrow usually dorsal vessel ventral, the i)Osition being normal on other 

side CuUHtelUh V- ^' 

Uterus slightly broader than long, crescentic, in front of ovary, or straight, 
near posterior border of segment; para-uterine organ elongated antero- 
l)osteri()rIy in front of uterus; position of excretory vessels normal on 
both sides of segment Parutcrina, p. 85 

26. Rostellum armed with a single or double row of hooks; suckers armed or 

unarmed 27. 

Rostellum armed with several rings of rose-thorn booklets; a double set of 
reproductive organs in each segment; two genital iwres in each segment, 
one on each side; uterus reticular, later breaking up Into egg capsules. 

Dipylidium, p. H4. 

27. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment 28. 

A double set of male reproductive organs and a single set of female organs 

with two vaginae in each segment ; two genital pores In each segment, one 
on each side; uterus sac-like, persistent Diplopoathe, !>. 101. 

28. Uterus persistent 29. 

Uterus breaks down into egg capsules, each containing one or several eggs; 

rostellum armed with a double or single crown of hooks; genital pores 
Irregularly alternate, rarely unilateral; testicles numerous, behind the 
female glands or also laterally on both sides of the latter. 

Monopylidium, p. 76. 

29. Hooks of rostellum arranged in a circular crown 30. 

Hooks of rostellum arranged in a zigzag crown; genital canals pass dorsal 

of excretory vessels; uterus very irregularly lobulated Angularia, p. 83. 

30. Crown of hooks single 31. 

Crown of hooks double 41. 

31. Genital pores unilateral 32. 

Genital pores alternate 34. 

32. Genital pores subdorsal ; testicles few, but more than 4 In each segment ; 

eggs few Trichovephaloidcfi, p. 73. 

Genital jwres strictly marginal ; testicles numerous or few ; eggs numerous, 
or. rarely, few 33. 

33. Base of cirrus provided with one or two pairs of -powerful spines lying In 

special pockets; genital canals pass between longitudinal excretory 
vessels Qryporhynchus, p. 83. 



56 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Base of cirrus not provided with spines In special pockets; genital canals 
pass dorsjil of excretory vessels 36. 

34. Segments numerous, rarely less than 30; neck present; genital \yore» irregu- 

larly alternate near anterior border of segment; testicles numerous, 
posterior of female glands or also laterally on both sides of the latter; 
uterus a simple sjic. or incompletely divided into numerous small com- 
municating compartments Choanotcpnia, p. 74 

Segments less than 30 in number ; neck absent ; genital pores regularly 
alternate 35. 

35. Testicles in i)osterior iwrtion of segment ; cirrus pouch short. 

AmwhotfPnia, p. 80. 

Testicles lateral in position toward the pore side of the segment; cirrus 

IK)uch very long Leptot€Fnia, p. 81. 

36. Testicles, 12 or more in each segment Lateriporus, p. 73. 

Testicles, 1 to 4 in each segment 37 (Hymenolepidinae). 

37. Testicles, 4 in each segment OHgorchis, p. 89. 

Testicles. 1 to 3 in each segment 38. 

38. Testicles. 3 in each segment 39 (Hytnenolepis). 

Testicles. 1 or 2 In each segment 40. 

39. Entire surface of suckers armed with minute spines, or (generally) un- 

armed : siu*<'ulus accessorlus usually absent Hymenolcpis s. str., p. 90. 

Suckers armed on borders and in the middle with small booklets; sacculus 
accessorlus always present Echinocotyle, p. 98. 

40. Testicles, 2 in each segment; entire surface of suckers armed with minute 

spines, or unarmed; rostellar hooks with long dorsal and short ventral 
roots (or exceptionally with very short dorsal root, and with ventral 

root nearly as long as the blade) Diorchift. p. 9S. 

One testicle in each segment: suckers (?) unarmed; rostellar hooks with 
vontrnl root as lontr or nearly as long as the blade: strobila small and 
slendor \i)1oparakf<is, p. 99. 

41. (^cnitjil pores nnilatornl 42. 

(icnital pores alternate . 45. 

42. Koot of cirrus with one or two i)airs of powerful spines lying in si^ecial 

pockets: testicles few: genital canals pass between the longitudinal ex- 
cretory vessels (irjfpfn'Jijpichus, p. cS3. 

Sjiiniferons sacs at base of cirrus lacking 48. 

43. No testicles in front of female glands, but usually very numerous behind and 

at the sides: rostellar hooks with long dorsjil and short ventral roots; 

irenital canals pass (l(»rsal of excretory vessels and nerve DUcpia, p. 71. 

Testicles entirely surrounding the female glands, or limited to the region 
in front of the female glands 44. 

44. Testicles very numerous, entirely surrounding the female glands; cirrus 

pouch c<>nininni -atin;: with the genital cl(»aca by a narrow canal opening 
u|MHi a inline |)aiiilla : rostellar hooks with a very large dorsal root and 
small hook portion Cyclorvhida, p. 82. 

TcsniU's liiiiiicd to (lie rcjLTion in front of female glands Proorchida, p. S2. 

4.">. Testiclrs st-nitei-jHl t hrouirliont entire dorsal |)ortion of medullary paren- 
chyma : ovary and yolk gland surrounded by a ring-like uterus with 
sc<f»n(lary hranclies: genital canals pass l>etween excretory vessels; longi- 
tutlinal ninsculatnre in thrtM» layers Cifrhistcra, p. M. 

Testicles, in lateral or i»osterior portions of segment only 46. 

40. Testicles in lateral portions of segment only 47. 

Testick's in posterior portion of segment only 48. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OP NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 57 

47. Division of strobila into segments well marlsed ; female glands toward pore 

side of segment; genital canals pass between the excretory vessels and 
ventral of the nerve; genital pores irregularly alternate. 

Laterotwnia, p. 82. 
Strobila small, division into segments not well marked ; scolex large with 
small rostellum; reproductive glands very small; ovary and yolk gland 
towlEird iJore side of segment; genital pores irregularly alternate. 

Part'irostrum, p. 81. 

48. Genital canals pass l)etween the longitudinal excretory vessels and dorsal 

of the nerve; genital pores irregularly alternate; strobila usually with 

numerous segments; uteru.s sac-like Anomotwnia, p. 77. 

Genital canais pass dorsal of the longitudinal vessels and nerve; strobila 
with few segments (less than 30) ; genital pores regularly alternate; 
uterus much lobulated; outer shell of egg with tubular prolongation at 
each i>oIe terminating in a globular expansion Liga, p. 80. 

49. A single genital pore in each segment i 50. 

Two genital i^ores in each segment, one on each side 67. 

50. Para-uterine organs absent 51. 

Para-uterine organs present 62. 

51. Uterus persistent 52. 

Uterus not persistent, breaks down into numerous .egg capsules, each con- 
taining one or more eggs 60. 

52. Three testicles in each segment; rostellum present but rudimentary and 

unarmed IlymenoJcpis s. str., p. 90. 

Testicles more than three in each segment 53. 

53. Uterus with median stem and lateral branches; rostellum rudimentary and 

unarmed, or lacking - 54. 

Uterus sac-like or reticular, without median stem ; rostellum lacking 55. 

54. Female glands in posterior median portion of segment; testicles scattered 

throughout the medullary parenchyma except the i>osterior median por- 
tion ; eg:g with a thin outer membrane, and thick brown radially striated 
inner shell ; rostellum present but unarmed and rudimentary. Tcpnia, p. 100. 
Female glands in anterior portion of segment; testicles In posterior portion; 
egg with thin transparent shells; rostellum absent Cntenotwnia, p. 84. 

55. A distinct pedunculated prostatic gland near ventral excretory vessel on 

pore side of median line; egg with pyrlform apparatus, the horns of 

which are rather short; adults in mammals Andrya^ p. 63. 

Pedunculateii prostatic gland absent 56. 

56. Eggs with pyrlform apparatus 57. 

Eggs without pyrlform apparatus 59. 

57. Uterus a transversely elongated sac with outpocketings anteriorly and pos- 

teriorly . 58. 

Extreme lateral portions of uterus sac-like, remainder a complicated system 
of irregular lacunje; testicles near the posterior border of segment ex- 
tending from the excretory vessels of one side to those of the other; 
adults In mammals ' fichizotwnia, p. 64. 

58. Testicles in anterior portion of segment extending entirely across the median 

field as far as the excretory vessels; adults in birds and mammals. 

Bertirlla, p. 62. 
Testicles in median field toward side of segment opposite genital pore; fe- 
male glands in median field toward iK)re side; adults in mammals. 

Anoploccphala, p. 62. 



58 BULLETIN 6d, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

59. Testicles in anterior portion of segment extending entirely across the 

median field as far as the excretory vessels; uterus a transversely elon- 
gated sac with numerous outpocketings anteriorly and posteriorly ; adults 

in birds and mammals Bertiella, p. 62. 

Testicles mostly in the lateral portions of the segment on both sides of the 
longitudinal excretory vessels, extending from the anterior to the posterior 
border of the segment ; uterus median, bilot)ed, with a prolongation i)os- 
teriorly on each side which crosses the longitudinal excretory vessels, 
and passes forward laterad of and parallel with the latter; adults in 
birds Aitorina, p. 64. 

60. Cortical layer of parenchyma thin; testicles behind and at sides of female 

glands; adults in mammals and reptiles Oochoristica, p. S4. 

Cortical layer of parenchyma very thick; testicles dorsal, scattered through- 
out the entire length of the segment 61. 

61. Genital pores unilateral; genital canals pass between excretory vessels: 

female glands between dorsal and excretory vessels on i)oro side of seg- 
ment; adults in birds Zschokkeella, p. 65. 

Genital ix)res alternate; genital canals pass ventral of the excretory vessels; 
female glands submedian. only slightly displaceil toward pore side of 
segment; adults In monotremes and marsupials Linntoiria, p. 65. 

62. One testicle in each segment ; strobila circular in cross section with seg- 

mentation distinct only at iK)sterior end; adults in amphibia. 

Nematotwnia, p. 88b 
More than one testicle in each segment , - ^ 63. 

63. Uterus transversely elongated, comi)osed of numerous ascou-like pouches, 

each supplied with a para-uterine organ; adults in mammals. 

Thysanosoma, p. 66. 

A single and simple or bilobed uterus with a single para-uterine organ In 

each segment, or two uteri, each with a i)ara-uteriiie organ 64. 

64. Two utori in each scfrnicnt. sniall, spherical, sac-like, one in each lateral 

half l>otwccn the dorsal and ventral excretory vessels; testicles rela- 
tively few, in two sets, one in each side of the segment in the neighbor- 
hood of the excretory vessels; ovary small, globose, between the excretory 

vessels on pore side of the segment; adults in mammals Siilrsia, p. si>. 

T'terns single and simple or bilobed; adults in birds 6.'). 

65. Testicles dorsal of female glands and toward anterior border of segment: 

genital canals pass ventral of excretory vessels; uterus simple, sjic-like, 
commonly displaced toward side of segment opiK)slte genital iK)re, 

Aiumchotwnia, p. S<i. 

Testicles in posterior iM»rtion of segment, behind the female glands, may 

alsT) extend forward along sides of latter; genital canals pass between 

excretory vessels 66. 

(U). rterns tubular and elongated longitudinally, or globular, occupying the 

nuHlian line of the sej^nient Rhahilomctrn, p. 8<>. 

rterns when fully <levelopO(l consisting of two spherical sacs t<niching in 
the median lim* and more or h^ss fiistnl MvtntHanthvs, p. ST. 

67. I*ara-nterine orgjins present 6S 

I'ara-nterine organs absent 00. 

68. rterns single, transversely elongated, undulating, composeil of numerous 

ascon-like pouches, e.ich sn|>pruMl with a para-uterine organ; adults in 

mamma Is ___ Thifsdiiottoma, p. iM\. 

Two small, spherical uteri in each segment, one on either side, between the 
dorsal and ventral <»xcretory vessels, each with a single iMira-uterine 
organ: adults in mammals Stilesia, p. 89. 



TiENIOm CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 59 

69. Uterus not persistent, the eggs becoming isolated in the parenchyma mostly 

in the lateral fields of the segment, few in the median field; testicles 
in lateral fields, absent from the median field; adults in reptiles. 

Pancerina, p. 85. 
Uterus i^ersistent 70 

70. Uterus single or double (one on each side of median line), transversely 

elongated, tubular, generally with simple anterior and posterior out- 
pocketings; vagina ventral of cirrus pouch on both sides of segment; eggs 
with or without pyriform apparatus ; adults in mammals and birds. 

Cittotwnia, p. 63. 

Two reticulate uteri which may become more or less fused with one another 

in the median line; vagina ventral and cirrus dorsal on right-hand side of 

segment, vice versa on left side; eggs with or without pyriform apparatus; 

adults in mammals and birds MonieziQj p. 64. 

DIAGNOSES OF FAMILIES, SUBFAMILIES, AND GENFJiA, AND LISTS OF SPECIES OCCUR- 

RIN(} IN NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Under each genus are listed the species which have been reported as 
parasites of North American birds, and references are given to articles 
in which descriptions of these forms may be found. Species which 
have been collected in this country, and of which I have examined 
specimens, are indicated by an asterisk, and the names of hosts from 
which such specimens were collected- are indicated in a similar 
manner. Among the hosts are included a number of species which 
are not North American, comprising (1) forms which have been in- 
troduced, such as the English sparrow and various game birds, (2) 
forms which are present in this country in the domesticated state, and 
(3) forms which are represented in the North American fauna by 
varieties or subspecies. 

Familv TETRABOTHRIIDiE. 

Tetrabothriilw Diesing, 1850, in part. 

Family diagnosis. — Taenioidea : Scolex unarmed, without rostellum. 
Suckers with an outwardly projecting auricular appendage on the 
anterior border. Neck short. Segments of the strobila, with the 
exception of the hindermost segments, always much broader than 
long. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Genital 
pores unilateral. Genital cloaca deep. Cirrus pouch small and nearly 
spherical, united with the genital cloaca by a muscular cloacal canal. 
Yolk gland in front of the ovary. Eggs with three transparent en- 
velopes. Adults in birds and mammals. 

Type-genua. — Tetrabothtius Rudolphi, 1819. 

Genus TETRABOTHRIUS Rudolphi, 1819. 

Amphoterocotyle Diesing, 1863 (type, A, elegans Diesino, 1863). 
' Proathecocotyle Monticelli, 1892 (type, Twnia farateri Krefft, 1871). 
Bothridiotwnia Lonnbebo, 1896 (tyi)e, Tcpnia eroatris, Lonnbebg, 1889). 



60 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Generic diagnosis. — Tetrabothriidse : With the characters of the 
family. 

Type-species. — Bothriocephalus macrocephalus Rudolphi, 1810. 

TETRABOTHRIUS ARCTICUS Ltnstow. 1901. 

For description see Linstow, 1901e, pp. 285-286, fig. 42. 

Host. — Somateria mollissima. 

TETRABOTHRIUS CYLINDRACEUS (Rudolphi, 18x9) Dtesing, 1850. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1899b, pp. 872-873 (Prosthecocotyle 
cylindracca). 

Hosts. — Rissa tridactyla^ Larus hyperhoreus., Larus marinus^ Lams 
argentatus^ Lar-us canus^ Larus atricilla^ Xema sdbini^ Sterna 
maxima^ Uria troile. 

TETRABOTHRIUS DIOMEDE£ (Fuhrmann, 1900). 

For description see Shipley. 1900c, pp. 557-558, pi. 56, fif?8. 27-29 {Prosthe- 
cocotyle diomedeo'). 

Host. — Diomedea exvlans, 

TETRABOTHRIUS EROSTRIS (Ldnnberg. 1889). 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1899b, pp. 871-872 {Prosthecocotyle 
erostria). 

Hosts, — Rissa tridactyla^ Larus marinus^ Larxts argentdtus^ Larus 
camfs^ Sterna hirundo. Sterna paradisma. 

TETRABOTHRIUS HETEROCLITUS Diesing. 1850. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1899b, p. 874 {Prosthecocotyle heteroclita) ; 
18i)9c. i)p. (^48-650, figs. 4-S ( Prosthecocotyle heteroclita) . 

Hosts. — Pt/ffi)nts pu-ffiniiH^ Pf/ffinus kii/iIL Priocella glacialoides, 
Daption capensis^ Diomedea exulan.s, Diomedea albatrus. 

TETRABOTHRIUS MACROCEPHALUS Rudolphi. 1819. 

For description see Fuiikmann, 1801)1). i)p. 873-874 {Prosthecocotyle 
murnHvphiila ). 

Hosts. — Gdr'ui stellata^ Garia arctka^ Garia Immer^ Colymhns 

ail r it us. 

TETRABOTHRIUS MONTICELLII (Fuhrmann. 1899). 

For description see T'iiirmann. ISOOb, p. S70 {Prosthecocotyle moniicellii). 
Host. — Fidm (mis (jlariulis. 

TETRABOTHRIUS PELECANI Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Fiiikmann, ISOOb, pp. S7r)-876 {Prosthecocotyle peleconi 
nquUa). 
Hosts, — Suld hticogastnu .'^Frcf/ato a(jiiila. 

TETRABOTHRIUS PORRIGENS Molin. 1858. 

For descnptifMi see Moi.ix. ls<;ic, p. 2.*J7, pi. 5. tigs. 18, 19 {Tetrahothrium 
i (iniinnnthohothi'miH ) iton it/ens) . 

Host. — X i/rff<()i(i.r nycticoviij'. 

TETRABOTHRIUS TORULOSUS Linstow, 1888. 

F()r description see Fiiikmanx, 1S0!)c, pp. (J43-048, figs. 1-3 { Prosthecoco- 
tylc torulftfi(i). 

Host. — Diomedea alhatnts. 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 61 

TETRABGTHRIUS UMBRELLA (Puhrmann, 1899) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Fuhbmann. 1809b, p. 871 (Prosthecocotylc umbrella). 
Hosts, — Diomedea exulans, Phoebetria paVpebrata, 

TETRABGTHRIUS. species. 

Listed by Fuhrmann, 1908a, p. 136. 
Host, — Sula bassana. 

Family MESOCESTOIDIDiE Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Mesocestoidinw LOhe, 1894. 
Mesocestoidw Ariola, 1899. 
Family diagnosis, — Tsenioidea : Scolex without rostellum or hooks. 
Suckers unarmed. A single set of reproductive organs in each seg- 
ment. Genital pores located in the ventral surface of the segment. 
Vagina opens in front of or beside the cirrus pouch. Eggs in gravid 
segments inclosed in a single thick-walled egg-capsule. Adults in 
mammals and birds. 

Type-genus, — Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863. 

Genus MESOCESTOIDES Yaillant, 1868. 

Monodoridium Walter, 1866 (type, Twnia.utriculifera Walter, 1866). 
Ftychophysa Hamann, 1885 (type, Twnia canis-lagopodis Rudolph i, 1810). 

Generic diagnosis, — Mesocestoididse : With, the characters of the 
family. Adults in mammals and birds. 

Type-spedes, — Mesocestoides ambiguus Vaillant, 1863. 

MESOCESTOIDES ALAUD£ Stossich. 1896. 

For description see Stossich, 1896a, p. 133. 

Host, — Alauda arvensis, 

MESOCESTOIDES PERLATUS (Goeze. 178a) Mtthling. 1898. 

For description see MChlino, 1898b» pp. 105-108.-— Volz, 1900, pp. 156-157. 

Hosts, — Cerchneis tinnunculus^ Aquila chrysaietos. 

Family ANOPLOCEPHALID^ Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Family diagnosis, — Tsenioidea : Scolex unarmed, without rostellum. 
Suckers relatively large, unarmed. Neck absent. Segments usually 
broader than long. A single or double set of reproductive organs in 
each segment. Genital pores marginal and bilateral, unilateral, or 
irregularly alternate or (?) absent. Testicles numerous or rarely 
(Triplotcenia) one in each lateral half of the segment. Median axis 
of female glands lateral of the median axis of the segment. Uterus 
persistent, and transversely elongated, either tubular, sac-like, 
branched or reticular; or not persistent, replaced by egg capsules 
whose formation may or may not be preceded by the appearance of 
para-uterine organs. Egg with thin transparent shells with or with- 
out a pyriform apparatus. Adults in mammals and birds. 

Type-genus. — Anoplocephala E. Blanchard, 1848. 



l>t 

de 



reproductive organs in each segment. Genital pores unilateral or 
irregularly alternate. Genital canals pass on the dorsal side of the 
longitudinal excretory vessels and nerve. Testicles and female glands 
in the median field; female glands toward the pore side of the seg- 
ment, testicles toward the opposite side. Uterus a transversely elon- 
gated sac with pocket-like appendages, anteriorly and posteriorly. 
Eggs with well-developed pyriform apparatus. Adults in mammals. 
Type-npecie^.—Anoplocephala pcrfoliata (Goeze, 1782) E. Btanch- 
ard, 1848. 

Genus BERTIELLA Stiles and Hassall, 1902. 

Bertia Blabchard, 1801 (liomoayni of Brrtia Ancey, 1888, moUusk). 

Generic diagnosis. — Anoplocephalins': Segments always broader 

than long. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment 

Genital pores regularly or irregularly alternate. Genital canals pass 

dorsal of longitudinal excretory vessels and usually dorsal of nerve. 

"The BpeclnienB on n-hleh tbe spetlps Triplota-niu mirahiiix w«a based each 
consisted of a heuil to whlcb apiiareiUiy two strolillie were attacbed. Janlckl 
(1906), however, has shown that this condition U prolMibly teratologtcat. aod 
that the double stroblla represents the segrarated lateral halves of a single 
Ktroblla. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 63 

Testicles dorsal and anterior, extending in an unbroken mass from 
one side of the median field of the segment to the other as far as the 
excretory vessels. Uterus transversely elongated with numerous out- 
pocketings, anteriorly and posteriorly. Eggs with or without pyri- 
form apparatus. Adults in birds and mammals. 

Type-species. — Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stiles and Has- 
sail, 1902. 

BERTIELLA DELAFONDI (RaiUiet. 189a). 

For description see Stiles, 1896b. p. 57. pi. 20, figs. 2.57-262 (Tcrnia, dcla- 
/ondt).— FuHRMANN, lJM)2i. i)p. 132-135, figs. L3, 14 {Bertia delafondi.— 
WolffhOgel, 1904a. i)p. 45-48. figs. 1-A (Bertia delafondi), 

Ilosts. — Columha liria^ Columha livia domestica. 

Genus ANDRYA Railliet, 1893. 

Generic diagnosis, — Anoplocephalinip : Segments broader than 
long or as long as broad. A single set of reproductive organs in each 
segment. Genital pores irregularly alternate, but mostly upon the 
same side of the .strobila. Testicles in median field. A distinct round 
or elongated pedunculated prostatic gland near ventral excretory 
ves.sel on pore side of median field. Female glands in the median 
field on the pore side of the median line. Uterus net-like, with forked 
processes, occasionally somewhat sac-like. Eggs with pyriform appa- 
ratus, the horns of which are rather short. Adults in mammals. 

Type-species. — Andrya rhopalocephala (Riehm, 1881) Stiles, 1895. 

Genus CITTOTvENIA Riehm, 1881. 

Ctenoiwnia Railliet, 1893 (type. Tama mannotw FrOlich, 1802). 
Ccclodcla Shipley, 1900 (type, Vwlodchi kuvaria Shipley. 1900; see Fuhr- 
MANN, 19021. p. 142). 

Generic diagnosis. — Anoplocephalina*: Segments broader than long. 
Two sets of reproductive organs in each segment. (lenital pores 
bilateral. (lenital canals pass dorsal of longitudinal excretory ves- 
sels and nerves. Interproglottidal glands absent. Vagina ventral of 
cirrus pouch on both sides of segment. Uterus single or double (one 
on each side of median line), transversely elongated, tubular, gen- 
erally with simple anterior and posterior outpocketings. Eggs with 
well-developed pyriform apparatus, the horns of which are long, 
crossing each other, or in some cases without this apparatus (see 
Fuhrmann, 1902i, p. 142, Cittotttnia kuvaria). Adults in mammals . 
and birds. 

Type-species. — Cittotamia latissiina Riehm, ISSl =Cittot€Bnia den- 
ticulata (Rudolphi, 1804) Stiles and Hassall,.1896^ 



64 BTTLLETIN 09, X7KITED STATES NATIOHAIi 1CU8KUM. 

Genus MONIEZIA Blanohard, 1891. 

Poronia Diamabe, 1900 (type, P. oarrimH Diamabb, 1900; see FuHiMAnr, 
1907a, p. 295). 

Generic diagnosis. — ^Anoplocephalinas : Segments generally broador 
than long. Two sets of reproductive organs in each segment with 
two reticulate uteri which may become more or less fused with aod 
another in the median line. Genital pores bilateral. Grenital canals 
cross on dorsal side of longitudinal excretory vessels and nerves. 
Interproglottidal glands generally present Vagina ventral and 
cirrus dorsal on right side of segment ; the reverse on left ^de. Eggs 
with three shells and with well-developed pyriform apparatus, the 
horns of which generally end in a disk, or (in species from birds) 
without pyriform apparatus. Adults in manmials and birds. 

Type-species. — Moniezia expansa- (Rudcdphi, 1810) Blanchard, 
1891. 

Genus SCHIZOT.£NIA Janicki, 1Q04. 

Generic diagnosis. — ^Anoplocephalince : Segments broader than 
long. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment Grenital 
pores alternate. Grenital canals pass dorsal of the longitudinal excre- 
tory vessels and nerve. Testicles near the posterior border of the 
segment in a group extending from the longitudinal excretory vessels 
of one side to those of the other. Cirrus pouch very muscular. Fe- 
male glands almost median, their longitudinal axis but slightly 
displaced toward the genital pore, l^xtreme lateral portions of the 
uterus become functional early as sac-like enlargements; remainder 
of uterus devek)i)s as a complicateil system of irregular lacunse. 
Eggs with pyriform apparatus. Adults in mammals. 

Typ<'-{ii>(<Ut<, — Tivnia decresceiis Diesing, 1856 (not T. decrescens 
Creplin, 184y). 

Genus APORINA Fuhrmann, 1902. 

Generic dia(jno>r'if<. — Anoplocephalina*: A single set of reproductive 
organs in eacli segment. (Jenital |)ores (?) absent. Female glands 
near the side toward which the vagina runs. Testicles dorsal, very 
numerous, mostly in the hiteral portions of the segment on both sides 
of the longitudinal excretory vessels, extending from the anterior to 
the posterior border of th(* segment ; veiy few in the median field. 
Vagina aiul rudimentary cirrus pouch (? without external openings), 
irregularly alternate on right or left side of tlie strobila, pass dorsal 
of the excretory vessels and unite with one another in the lateral field 
of the segment. Utei'us median, bilobed, with a prolongation pos- 
teriorly on each side, which crosses the longitudinal excretory vesselS| 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 65 

and passes forward outside of and parallel with the latter. Eggs 
with two shells without pyriform apparatus. Adults in birds. 
Type-species. — Aporina alba Fuhrmann, 1902. 

Subfknxily LINSTOWIN^E: FulimxaTiii, 10O7. 

Subfamily diagnosis. — Anoplocephalidse : A single set of reproduc- 
tive organs in each segment. Uterus breaks down into egg capsules. 
Adults in mammals and birds. 

Type-genus. — Linstowia Zschokke, 1898. 

Genus LINSTOWIA Zschokke, 1898. 

Generic diagnosis. — Linstowinae: Segments broader than long. 
Cortical parenchyma greatly increased in thickness, medullary par- 
enchyma correspondingly reduced. Dorsal longitudinal excretory 
vessels along the outer side of the ventral vessels. Genital pores 
alternate. Genital canals pass ventral of the excretory vessels and 
nerve. Testicles dorsal, scattered throughout the entire length of the 
segment. Female glands submedian, only slightly displaced toward 
the pore side of the segment. Uterus a thin-walled folded tube, dis- 
appearing early, the eggs becoming inclosed singly in egg capsules. 
Eggs without pyriform apparatus. Adults in monotremes and mar- 
supials. 

Type-species. — Tcenia echidnas W. Thompson, 1893. 

Genus ZSCHOKKEELLA, new name. 

Linstowia (in part) (see Fuhrmann, 19021, p. 138). 
Zschokkia^ Fuhrmann, 1902. 

Zschokkca ^ Fuhrmann, 1902 (homonymous with Zschokkca KoEff ike, 19dl2,^ 
a genus of mites). 

Generic diagnosis. — Linstowinse: Segments much broader than 
long. Cortical parenchyma and musculature greatly developed. Dor- 
sal excretory vessel lateral of ventral vessel. A fine capillary network 
in the periphery of the cortical parenchyma connects all four excre- 
tory vessels. Genital pores unilateral. Genital canals pass dorsal of 
the nerve, and ventral of the dorsal excretory vessel. Cirrus pouch 
weakly developed. Testicles dorsal scattered through the entire 
length of the segment. Female reproductive glands toward pore side 
of the segment between dorsal and ventral excretory vessels. Uterus 
early breaks down into egg capsules. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Zschokkcella linstowii (Parona, 1885). 

« Fuhrmann, 1902i, p. 138, ar»parently a misprint for Zschokkca. 

^ Fuhrmann. 1902i, p. 140. 

<? Zool. Anz., vol. 15, pp. 320-321. 

3264— Bull. 69—09 5 



uil: 



Family diagnosis. — Tsenioidea: Scolex with simple rosteUu 
armed with double row (rarely a single row) of very numerous (ai 
generally very small) hammer-shaped hooks. Suckers armed < 
rarely, unarmed. A single or double set of reproductive organs 
each segment. Genital pores marginal, and bilateral, unilateral, 
irregularly alternating. Uterus sac-like, persistent; or sac-like 
branched, not persistent, replaced either by numerous egg capsul< 
or by a single egg capsule whose formation is preceded by the appea 
ance of a para-uterine organ. Egg with thin transparent shel 
Adults in mammals and birds. 

Type-species. — Davainea Blanchard and Railliet, 1891. 

Sulifaiiiily OPHRYOCOXVLIN-JE F\jhrm(mn, 1007, 

' Subfamily lUagnoais. — Dnvaineidtc: RostelUim," very broad, armi 
with a double row of hooks on border. Surface of suckers armi 
oiily near the anterior border. A single set of reproductive orga 

" Fulirmnim (IflOSn. p. 41 ) has foiimi thnt the iiplcn] strnctnre, with five ( 
preSRioRS, wlilch lins l>een dewrlbt^d In (llfTo'eiit epeclefl of Opiiryocotyle, la ree 
a rostelluw witb m\ anterior eiiliiret-niont wblcb In certain stages of coutractl 
presents tbe peculiar nppearance noticed b; vnrlouB authors. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 67 

in each segment. Genital pores irregularly alternate. Uterus sac- 
like, slightly bilobed, persistent. Adults in birds. 
Type-genus, — Ophryocotyle Friis, 1870. 

Genus OPHRYOCOTYLE Friis, 1870. 

Generic diagnosis. — Ophryocotylinse : With the characters of the 
subfamily. 

Type-species. — Ophryocotyle proteus Friis, 1870. 

OPHRYOCOTYLE INSIGNIS Ldnnberg. zSgo. 

For description see Lonnberg, 1890b, pp. 15-18.— Blanchard, 1891t, pp. 
442-^43.— B^HRMANN, 1909, pp. 94-97, figs. 1, 2, 4-6. 

,Host. — Hcrmatojyus ostralegiis. 

OPHRYOCOTYLE PROTEUS Friis. 1870. 

For description see Blanchard, 1891t, pp. 440-442, fig. 20.— Stiles, 1896t 
p. 5G, pi. 19, figs. 252-255.— FUHRMANN, 1909, fig. 3. 

Hosts, — /Egialitis hiaticula^ Calidris leucophcea^ Erolia ferruginea^ 
Pelidna alpina^ Lams canus. 

OPHRYOCOTYLE. species Ldnnberg. 

Listed by Fuhrmann, 1908a, p. 159. 
Host, — Mergiis serrator. 

Subfamily DAVA.IN'EI:N^>K Braun, 1900. 

Svh family diagnosis, — Davaineida*: Suckers armed around the 
periphery with several rings of booklets which are unstable or per- 
sistent. Uterus breaks down into numerous Q^g capsules, each con- 
taining one or more eggs. Para-uterine organs not present Adults 
in mammals and birds. 

Type-genus. — Davainea Blanchard and Railliet, 1891. 

Genus DAVAINEA Blanchard and Railliet, 1891. 

Bothriot(rnia, Railliet, 1892 (type, Dihothrium longicollc Molin, 1858; 
see LtJiiE, 1899c, p. 40). 

Generic diagnosis, — Davaineina*: A single set of reproductive or- 
gans in each segment. Genital pores unilateral or occasionally irreg- 
ularly alternate. Uterus breaks down into egg capsules each contain- 
ing one or several eggs. Adults in mammals and birds. 

Type-species, — Darainea proglottina (Davaine, 1860) Blanchard, 
1891. 

DAVAINEA AN ATI N A Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see IYmiumann, 1909, p. 107, fig. 16. 

Host, — AyuiH platyrhynchos domestica. 

* DAVAINEA CESTICILLUS (Molin. 1858) Blanchard. 189X. 

For description set* IUnsom, 1905b, pp. 283-285, figs. 8, 14, 18, 26, 32. 

Hosts, — *Meleagris gaUlopavo domesticaj *Gallus gaUus dome^- 
ticiis. 



68 BUI4LBTIK 09, XnnTBD STATES NATIOVAL ICUSBUM. 

DAViUNBA CISCUMVALLATA (Krabb«p 1869) BlaaclMfd. U§u 

For deflcription see Keabbb, 1860b» i». MS, pL 10; llg. 206 {Twmia dram- 
tHillata).— Blanch An, laoit, p. 484, flg. 10b— Stilbb, ISBM; pp; 47- 
48, pi. 10, figs, aoa-211.— MOLA, 1907, pp. 196-1801 flgi. 1-7. 

Host.—Cotumix coturmof. 

• DAVAINBA COMITATA RaaMm. 1909. 

For description see Rahsom, 1900, pp. lG-18^ figs. 6-8 (the p re s en t paper). 

Hosts. — *Colaptes auratuSj *Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 

DAVAINSA CRA88ULA (SndolpU. iStg) BaOIitt stss. 

For description see Keabbe, ISOOb, pp. 845-840, pL 10, llg. 801 (Tarnia cnu- 
9ula) ; 1882b, p. 868, pi. 2, figs. 06^ 07 (T. orsMtfto).— Snucs, 1896t ppi 
53-64, pi. 18, figs. 243-240.— FuHBMANir, 1900, p. 104, flff. IS. 

Hosts. — Columha livia, Columba Uvia domestiea. 

• DAVAINSA SCHINOBOTHSIDA (MigBin. s8io) BlaaclMfd, itsi. 

For description see Ransom, 1904b, i^ 65-66, figB. 42, 44, 40, 48, 60, 52; 
1906b, pp. 279-283, figs. 6, 7, 18, 17, 20, 26, 8L 

Host. — * OaUtis gaUus domestums. 

DAVAINBA FRISDBSRGSSI (LiiiMow, sStS) Blimeiittrd, itsi. 

For description see Stiles, 1890t pp. 62-68» pL 18^ figs. 28&-242. 
Host — Phasianvs colchicus. 

(? DAVAINBA) LONGICOLLIS (MoUn, iSsS). 

For description see Stiles, 1806f, pp. 26-27 {Boihriotwmia longicolUs). 

Host. — OaUus gaUus domesticus. 

DAVAINEA MUTABILIS • Rfltlier, 1901. 

For description Rc*e ROtheb, llK)lb, pp. 353-357, 362-364, figs. 1-12. 

Host. — GalluH gallus domesticus. 

DAVAINEA PARAECHINOBOTHRIDA l> Magalh&es, 1893. 

For description sec Magalhaks, IHOSc, pp. 442-448, 444. 

Hofit. — Gallus gallus dom<}8ticuH. 

DAVAINEA POLYUTERINA Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description seo PVhrmanx. 1000, p. 103. 

Host. — Cotu m ix cot u mix. 

•DAVAINEA PROGLOTTINA <- (Davaine. i860) Blanchard. 1891. 

For de8CTii)tlon see Stiles, ISiHJf, i>. 47, pi. 15, figs. 194-198; pi. 16, figs. 
199-202. 

Host. — * Gallus gallus domesticus. 

♦DAVAINEA RHYNCHOTA Ransom. 1909. 

For description see Hansom, 1909, pi). 10-15. figs. 1— J (tlie present imper). 

Hosts. — *Colaptes auratus^ *Jfelanerpes erythrocephalus. 

• DAVAINEA TETRAGONA (Molin. 1858) Blanchard, 1891. 

For description see Ransom. 1904b, pp- 55-()5, figs. 41, 43. 45, 47, 40. 51; 
190.51), pp. 27.S-279. figs. 5, 12, 16, 19, 24, 30. 

Host. — * (r alius galhfs dojnesticus. 



<»Tbl8 fomi Is probably Identical with D. ccftticiUus. 

^Thls form Is i>erhaps Identical wltb D. rchinohothrida or D. tetragona. 

<^Thls siHM'les has lH»en collected In this country In Pennsylvania (Bureau of 
Animal Industry Collection, No. 4372) and In Maryland (Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry Collection, Nos. 14442, 14522, and 14759). 



T^NTOTD CKSTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 69 

DAVAINEA VOLZI « Fuhrmaim. 1905. 

For description see F^jhrmann, 1905b, pp. 303-^08, pi. 10, figs. 1-7. 

Host, — Galhts gallus dafneaticus. 

Genus POROGYNIA h Railliet and Henry, 1909. 

Linstowia Zschokke, 1898 (In i)art; see Fuhbmann, 1907a, p. 293). 
Polyccelia I^thbmann, 1907 (homonymous with Polycoelia King, 1849, 
Coelenterata ) . 

Generic diagnosis. — Davaineinse: Scolex with simple rostellum, 
armed with three rows of hooks. Segments much broader than long. 
Cortical parenchyma and longitudinal musculature greatly developed. 
Dorsal excretory vessels absent. A single set of reproductive organs 
in each segment. Genital pores unilateral. Genital canals pass dorsal 
of the longitudinal ventral excretory vessel and nerve. Testicles 
numerous. Female glands on the pore side of the median line, near 
the ventral excretory vessel. Yolk gland between the ovary and me- 
dian line. Uterus with very thin walls, which early disappear. The 
eggs become inclosed singly in egg capsules, closely packed together 
filling the medullary parenchyma. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Porogynia lata (Fuhrmann, 1901). 

Genus COTUGNIA Diamare, 1898. 

Generic diagnosis. — Davaineinse: Segments broader than long. 
Several layers of longitudinal muscles alternating with layers of 
transverse muscle fibers. A double set of reproductive organs in each 
segment, close to the longitudinal excretory canals. Genital canals 
pass dorsal of longitudinal excretoiy vessels and nerve. Testicles 
numerous, filling the median field and extending dorsal of the female 
organs and excretory vessels to the extreme edge of the medullary 
parenchyma. Uterus breaks down, and the eggs become inclosed 
singly in egg capsules. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890) Diamare, 
1893. 

COTUGNIA DIGONOPORA (Pasquale. 1890) Diamare. 1893. 

For description see Stiles, 1896f, p. 30, pi. 1, figs. 1-11. 

Host. — Gallus gallus domesticus. 

^ This species is very similar to and perhaps Identical with Davainea eehino- 
hothrida. 

^ Fuhrmann (1907a) placed the genus Polyc(Blia{= Porogynia ) in the subfamily 
Dipylidilnffi, but more recently (1908a, p. 47) in the light of later Icnowledge 
concerning the anatomy of its tyi)e-8i)ecles has transferred it to the subfamily 
Davaineinje. 



; I 



-i 






1 ; 



■ « 



70 BULLETIN CO, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Subfhinily IDIOO-KN'IN'.^E I^iaiirniaiiii. lOOT. 

Subfamily diagnosis. — Davaineidae: Suckers (?) unarmed. A si; 
gle set of reproductive organs in each segment. Uterus not persisler 
sac-like, more or less lobed or much branched. A para-uterine orgs 
develops into which the eggs finally pass. Adults in birds. 

Type-genus, — Idiogenes Krabbe, 1868. 

Genus IDIOGENES Krabbe, 1868. 

Generic diagnosis. — Idiogeninae: Genital pores unilateral. Cirr 
pouch very large, with retractor. A para-uterine organ develops 
front of the uterus into w^hich the eggs finally pass directly from tl 
latter, and which transforms into a single egg capsule. Adults 
i)irds. 

Tyve-species, — Idiogenes otidis Krabbe, 1868. 

Genus CHAPMANIA Monticelli, 1893. 



Capsodavainca Fuhrmann, 1901 (type, Capsodarainea tauricollis {Cn.s 

fl MAN. 1876) Fun RM ANN. 1JX)1). 

Generic diagnosis. — Idiogeninae : Longitudinal musculature great! 
developed, consisting of several layers of muscle bundles. Genii 
pores unilateral. Uterus much branched, disappears, and the egt 
become inclosed in numerous egg capsules, and finally are pressc 
into a large anteriorly located para-uterine organ, which transforr 
into a single o<x^ capsule. Adults in birds. 

Typc-sjH'cics. — Vlid pimniUi tanricolUs (Chapman, 187(5) Monticel 
1898. 

Faniilv IIYMKXOLKPIDID.E Kailliet and llenrv, 1909. 

"///////r//o/r />///(/ " Altioi A. \s\\\\ ( typc-jrrnns, 11 innrnttU pis: ) . 
; J EchlnocotiiliiUr '^ Auioi.a. 1S!>1> ( typc-^'oniis, lUhinovotyJi ). 

!' "nil(iiiiii(l(r " FuiiKMANX, 1!M>T Uyi-o-^cims. Dilcitis). 

4 

'1 FdfniJy dhtf/nosis. — Tivnioidc^i : Scolex with an armed rostellui 

^ or witlioul rostelluni. Hook- on ro-tcllnni not hammer-shape 

Suckers usually unarmed. A sin«rk'. <>i* rarely, a double, set of repr 
ductive or<j:ans in each se<zinenl. (lenital pores marginal and bila 

; j eral, unilateral, or i'e<rularly or irre^^ularly alternate. Egg with thi 

'; transpaiTnt shells. Adults in mammals, birds, reptiles, and an 

'^ phibia. 

j T {ipr-</chus. — II y/iK hoh'p'f.^ AVeinland, lsr)8. 



S?nl>(aiiiil.v Dir»^^LIi:)IlX .1-: Stil<>K, IBOO. 



Rhyuchotaina Diksini;. IS.V). 
\ Malacoh piihfta Wi:im-am>. is.^s. 



® EcbinocotyUda' aiul Ilyniciiolepid:'' aro both r<>fori*«Ml to by Ariola (ISOii 
p. 100) on the sanic i>a^o, lIyiiieiiolei>id:u beiiij; nunitioiKHl first. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 71 

Cystoidew Leuckabt, 1863. 

Cyxtoidei Lf^jckabt, 188(5. 

Cystoidotamiw Kaillikt, 188(5. 

Microtconicp Claus, 1891. 

Dipylidinw Railliet, 189(5. (See Stiles, 1906a, p. 48.) 

"IHlepininw " Fuiirmann, VMM, 

Dilepidina' Railliet and Henry, 1901K 

Suhfamily diagnosifi, — Hyinenolepididse : Rostelluni armed, or, 
rarely, absent. Suckers unarmed. A single set, or rarely a double 
set, of reproductive orpins in each segment. Uterus sac-like, simple 
or lobulated, or not persistent, breaking down into numerous egg cap- 
sules, each containing one or several eggs. Para-uterine organs not 
developed. Adults in birds, mammals, and reptiles. 

Type-genus, — Dipylidium I^euckart, 1863. 

Genus DILEPIS Weinland, 18B8. 

Generic dlagnonis. — Dipylidiina^: Rostellum armed with a double 
crown of hooks, with long dorsal and short ventral root and long 
blade. Inner longitudinal nniscle layer consisting of numerous bun- 
dles. Genital pores unilateral. Genital canals pass dorsal of the 
longitudinal excretory vessels and nerve. Vas deferens coiled, semi- 
nal vesicle not developed. Testicles in medullary portion of segment 
surrounding the fenuile glands at the sides and behind, typically 
numerous (40 to 50), but may be reduced in number (7). Uterus 
sac-like, with few or numerous out pocket ings. Adults in birds and 
mammals. 

Types pedes, — Tamia angidata Rudolphi, 1810 {^Tipnia ftndula 
Schrank, 1788, according t() Cohn, 1901b, pp. !288-21)3). 

DILEPIS ATTENUATA (Dujardin. 1845) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description boh Dujardin, 1845a, p. 566, pi. 9, fig. S ( Taenia attemuita). — Lin- 
stow, 1875a, pp. 184-185, pi. 2, figs. 7, 8 {Txnia attentuita). 

Hosts. — Anthus pratensisy Passer domesticus, Passer moiUanus, 

DILEPIS CAPRIMULGORUM Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1908b, pp. 49-50, fig. 35. 

Host. — Chordeiles mrginianus. 

( ? DILEPIS) CYLINDRICA Clcrc, 1903. 

For description see Clerc, 1903, pp. 337-.339, pi. 10, figs. 48, .50, 52, 60. 

Host. — Lams canus. 

DILEPIS LIMOSA Puhrmann, 1907. 

For doacription see Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp. 516-517, fig. 1. 

Hosts. - Numenius pli^opus, Limosa limosa. 

DILEPIS NYMPHOIDES Clerc, 1903. 

For dcBcription soo Clerc, 1903, pp. 340-341, pi. 10, fig. 70. 

Tlosi. Pisohia damacensis. 



72 BULLETIN 69, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

DILEPIS PAPILLIFERA Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Fuhbmann, 1908b, pp. 48-49, figs. 33, 34. 

Host, — Florida caerulea, 

DILEPIS RETIROSTRIS (Krabbe. 1869) Zschokke, 1903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 282-283, pi. 5, figs. 97-99 ( Taenia retirostm). 

Hosts. — Arenaria interpres, Pdidna alpina. 

DILEPIS SCOLECINA (Rudolphi, 18x9) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 280-281, pi. 4, figs. 88-90 (Tamia teoU- 
cina). 

Host. — Phaldcrocorax carho. 

• DILEPIS TRANSFUGA • (Krabbe, 1869). Fuhrmann. X908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 281, pi. 4, figs. 91-93 (Taenia tranafuqa). 

Host. — *Ajaia ajaja. 

DILEPIS UNDULA (Schrank, 1788) Cohn, 1900. 

For description see Volz, 1900, pp. 130-135, pi. 6, figs. 5, 6; pi. 7, fig. 7 (DiUpis 
undulata). 

Hosts. — Stumus vulgaris, Turdus musicus, Pica pica, Corvuscorax. 

DILEPIS UNILATERALIS » (Rudolphi, 18x9) Clerc, X906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 276-278, pi. 4, figs. 79-83 (Tamia unOat- 
eralia).— Clerc, 1906b, pp. 714-715, figs. 3, 4. 

Hosts. — Butorides virescens, Casmerodius egreUa, Ardea cinerea. 

DILEPIS URCEUS (Wedl. 1856) Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 279-280, pi. 4, figs. 85-87 (Tamia urceita). 

Host. — Plegadis autumnalis. 

« This species has been collected a number of times from birds {Ajaia ajaja) dying 
at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. (Bureau of Animal Industry, 
Helminthological Collection, Nos. 4102, 4163, 4165, 4452.) 

b This species was first described by Rudolphi (1819a, pp. 696-697). Under the 
caption A. Ardesc vinsa'ntis, he refers to a large specimen about 7 inches long and 
several small specimens. The description which Rudolphi gives of these specimens 
indicates that the material comprised more than one species. Krabbe (1869b) rede- 
scribed and figured Taenia unilateralis on the basis of the small specimens in Rudol- 
phi's original material. Fuhrmann (1906b, p. 740), who reexamined Rudolphi's 
material, states that the species T. unilateralis belongs in Hymenolepis and is identical 
with 11. ardcn' Fuhrmann (1906b, pp. 451-452, figs. 37-39), the latter name falling as 
a synonym of //. unilateralis. 

It should be noted, however, that Ilymenolcpis ardex, as described by Fuhrmann 
(1906b, J). 451), is a species of considerable size, which indicates that Fuhrmann in 
examining Rudolphi 's material did not find the small specimens which Krabbe 
described as T. unilateralis. As the specimens from Rudolphi's collection, which 
Krab})e described and figured, are quite different from Hymenolepis ardeac, it is 
evident that the type material of Txnia imilateralis originally represented more than 
one species, Krabbe having studied one form and Fuhrmann another. As Krabbe's 
description antedates Fuhrmann's, the species which the former author selected as 
Taenia unilateralis should retain that name, rather than the form which Fuhrmann 
selected. Dilepis cartipylancristrota (Wedl, 1850), which Fuhrmann (1908a, p. 52) 
accepts as the appropriate name for the form described by Krabbe, falls into synonymy. 



TiENTOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 73 

Genus TRICHOCEPHALOIDES Sinitsin, 1896. 

Generic diagnosis. — Dipylidiinse : Rostellum with single crown of 
hooks. Genital pores unilateral, subdorsal. Testicles few, but more 
than four, in posterior region of segment. Uterus sac-like; eggs few. 
Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — TrichocepTialoides inermis Sinitsin, 1896 (= Tsenia 
megalocephala Krabbe, 1869; see Fuhrmann, 1901a, p. 761, and 
Clerc, 1902a, p. 662). 

TRICHOCEPHALOIDES MEGALOCEPHALA (Krabbe. 1869) Clerc. xgoa. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 283-284, pi. 5, figs. 100-103 (Taenia mega- 
locephala).—CLERCy 1902a, pp. 662-663, fig. 5; 1903, pp. 350-353, pi. 9, fig. 
33; pi. 10, fig. 57. 

Hosts, — Totanus totanuSy Oalidris leucopJisea, Pisohia damcLcensis, 
Erolia ferruginea, Pelidna alpina, ArquateUa maritima. 

Genus LATERIPORUS Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Gejieric diagnosis. — Dipylidiinee : Rostellum armed with a single 
crown of 12 to 16 hooks (120 to 170/i long),* with long dorsal and short 
ventral root, and well-developed blade. Genital pores unilateral. 
Genital canals pass dorsal of the longitudinal excretory vessels. 
Testicles 12 to 30 in number, behind, or at the sides of, the female 
glands. Uterus sac-like, filling the entire medullary parenchyma in 
gravid segments. Adults in birds. 

Type-species.^ — Lateriporus teres (Krabbe, 1869) Fuhrmann, 1907. 

LATERIPORUS 6IUTERINUS Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1908b, pp. 56-68, figs. 44-46. 

Hosts, — Oidemiafuscay Cairina moschata, Dendrocygna aviumnalis. 

LATERIPORUS TERES (Krabbe, 1869) Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Fordescription see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 284-285, pi. 5, figs. 106-108 ( Tsenia teres).— 
Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp 521-523, figs. 13-15. 

Hosts. — Somateria moUissima, Harelda hyemalis. 



a Fuhrmann in his original publication on this genus (1907b, p. 521) did not select a 
type-species. He refers only to two species Lateriporus teres ( Krabbe) and Lateriporus 
propeteres Fuhrmann, hence one of these under the International Code of Nomenclature 
must be the type. Fuhrmann (1908b, p. 54; 1908a, p. 53) has selected L. spinosus 
Fuhrmann, 1908, as type, a selection which evidently can not stand, since this spe- 
cies is not one of the original species of the genus. 



74 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus CHOANOT>ENIAa Railliet, 1896. 

Monopylidium Fuhrmann, 1899 (type, Davainea musculoga Fuhrmann, 18%; 

in part). 
IcUrotxnia Railliet and Henry, 1909 (in part). 

Generic diagnos^is. — Dipylkliinse : Rostellum armed with a single 
crown of hooks usually with long dorsal and short ventral root. 
Segments numerous, rarely less than 30. Genital pores irregularly 
alternate near the anterior border of the segment. Genital canals 
pass between the longitudinal excretory vessels and dorsal of the 
nerve. Vas deferens coiled, seminal vesicle absent. Testicles numer- 
ous, in the posterior region of the segment, or, also, laterally on each 
side of the ftunale glands. Uterus persistent, sac-like, but may be 
subdivided into numerous small communicating chambers incom- 
pletely separated by partitions infolded from the wall of the uterus, 
so that in some cai>es the eggs appear almost as if isolated in the 
parenchyma. Adults in birds and mammals. 

« Although Fuhmiann (1908a, lfK)7a) and Clero (1903) recognize Monopylidiujii and 
ChiHuiotania m^ distinct genera, thoy would place Ch. infundibuliformiSf the type of 
(%Hinotnnia in Moiiopyliiiium, and Fuhrmann (1908a) has selected Choanotxnia 
yalbuhi (Zcdcr, 1J<()3) ai< a new type for ('hoanotamia. This arrangement, as has been 
pointed out by Railliet and Henry (1909, j). 338), is in violation of the law of priority 
of the International Code of Zcxdogical Nomenclature, inasmuch as a type once fixed 
can not be changed. MDnopfjIldiuin mnM fall into synonymy if Ch. infundihuliformii 
(type of i'hoam>i:i Ilia) is made coiigeiieric with Monopylidium viusculosum (tyj)e of 
M(nti>/)i/l{(li(im 1. ( lnHun)t:i niti { 1S!>:> ) being of date ])rior to that of Monopylidium (1899). 
Il", as ( Irn- and I'lilirinann bclicxi-. Ch . in/uii(lif)ulijorntl.s aiul M. musculosum should 
\io into tln' same i:''nii>. lliai iri-niis \\\\\A Ix' known as Choanot.rnia, not a^? Monopyli- 
(limn. Surh a<tinn wouM \va\v the i:«Mni.-! Cluuinotunia of Fuhrmann (not Railliet) 
will- >ut a name, and it wouM IxMomr necessary to rename the genus. This Railliet 
and lbMU\ 1 l!K)!i. |». ;'.;lM ha\»' done, })ntjM)sing the name IcUrotunia for the species 
" lif, .■,>!. I mil ifiUxi!., . />n/i)s<i, jxiriifi. ric" I'litil, however, a more careful compara- 
ti\c .<tudv (•! tlir \arinus spctirs ni Moiiopiiinlimn and ilioanotunia, especially the 
t\ pr .<;|)(t ir> nj' ilic twn genera, has l»een made 1 believe it justifiable to recognize 
Ixith th«'se u'eiierir names, nnt with.-^tandim,' this necessitates the separation of Chmno- 
t:i niii i/ii'miiiih'ih'/iiiinis -Mul MuKopi/liili itni imisrulostnn, which ( 'lerc and Fuhrmann 
wunhl place loL'eilier. I am inclineil to doul»t that th(^ uterus of the former species 
})reaks down into cli^ cap.-ules as (lerc (!!)();>) has stated. My own obs(Tvations 
sup|)ori tlio.-e of Colin I l!M)ll) . wlio aliirms that the uterus is persistent, and |)0S- 
se>.-es an irrcjularix lol)nlat«'d cavity incompletely Mibdivided by infoldings from the 
wall. If tliis is true, and if no later development of egg ca])sules occurs, Choiinotnnia 
infundilnili/nrinls diiYcrs from MoKojtulidimu, in which the uterus is said to break 
down into cltl: capsules, and it is thiTefore ixx-^sibh' to recognize both Choanofunia 
and Monopi/lidimn changing but slightly Fuhrmann's arrangement of sj)ecies, namely 
remo\ini: ('lioanof.i nin irijii ndihiilijnrniis from Moiiopi/ltdidin to (^hoanotxnidf where 
it beloUL's. 1 ha\e not considert'il the ditferences between Monopylidivm and such 
genera as (liodnotA nia, and Anom<)l<i md, sufliciently marked to warrant placing them 
in dilTerent sul)families, as I'uhrmaiin (ll)()7a, IDOSa) has done. Monopylidium, in spite 
of the breaking down of the uterus, seems to me much more closely related to the 
genera name(l than to Dipylidiuni, with which Fuhrmann has united it in a sub- 
family separate from the others. 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 75 

Type-species. — Choanotxnia infundihuliformis^ (Goeze, 1782) Rail- 
liet, 1896 = Taenia infundihulum Bloch, 1779. 

CHOANOT^NIA BILATERALIS Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1908a, pp. 32-33, figs. 9, 10. 

Host, — Colymbus dominicus, 

CHOANOT^NIA 60REALIS (Linstow, X905) Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For dfscription see Linstow, 1905dd, pp. 11-12, pi. 2, fig. 41;. pi. 3, figs. 42, 43 
(Aporina 6or«a/w).— Fuhrmann, 1908a, p. 55. 

Host. — Harelda hyemalis. 

CHOANOT^NIA CORONATA (Creplin, 1829) Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 275-276, pi. 3, figs. 74-76 ( Tssnia coronata). 

Host. — ^gialitis nivosa. 

CHOANOT^NIA DODECACANTHA (Krabbe, 1869) Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 261, pi. 1, figs. 14, 15 ( Tasnia dodecacantha). 

Host. — Lams minutus. 

CHOANOT^NIA EMBRYO (Krabbe. 1869) Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 273-274, pi. 3, figs. 65, 66 (Tania embryo). 

Hosts. — GaUinago gaUinagOy Scolopax rusticola. 

* CHOANOT^NIA INFUNDIBULUM (Bloch. 1779) Cohn. 1899. 

For description see Cohn, 1901b, pp. 365-368, pi. 31, fig. 46; pi. 32, fig. 47.— 
Clerc, 1903, pp. 354-356, pi. 11, figs. 72, 74-76, 83 {Mmopylidium 
infundibuli/ormis). —Ranbom, 1905b, pp. 276-277, figs. 4, 11, 15, 23, 29 
{Choanolaenia infundibuliformis). 

Hosts. — ^GaUus gaUus domesticus, PJuisianus colchicuSy Gotumix 
cotumix. 

CHOANOT^NIA INVERSA (Rudolphi, 18x9) Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Rudolphi, 1819a, pp. 156, 510-611 (Tasnia inveraa). — Villot 
1875, p. 475, pi. 12, fig. 8 ( Tasnia inveraa). 

Host — Sterna paradisaea. 

CHOANOTiGNIA L^VIGATA (Rudolphi, 18x9) Clerc, X906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 275, pi. 3, figs. 71-73 {Taenia laevigata). — 
Clerc, 1906b, pp. 719-720, figs. 16, 17. 

Hosts. — Charadrius apricarius, jEgialitis TiiaticuUij ^gialitis nivosa. 

CHOANOT^NIA PARADOXA (Rudolphi. X802) Clerc, X903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 274-275, pi. 3, figs. 69, 70 (Taenia 
paradoxa).— Clerc, 1903, pp. 327-332, pi. 10, figs. 53, 55, 61, 62. 

Hosts. — Hxnvatopus ostralegus, Charadrius apricariuSj Erolia fer- 
rugineaj GaUinago gaUinagOy Scolopax rusticola, Lobipes lobatus. 

CHOANOTiENIA PARINA (Dujardin. 1845) Clerc, 1906. 

For description see Dujardin, 1845a, p. 698, pi. 9, fig. E (Taenia parina). — 
Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 341-342, pi. 10, figs. 291, 292 (Tasnia parina).— Clerc, 
1906b, p. 719, fig. 15. 

Hosts. — Passer domesticus, Parser montanus, f Stumus vulgaris. 



^According to the law of priority the correct name of this species is Choanolaenia 
infundibulum (Bloch, 1779). 



76 



BotU.- 
oaHfomie 



Qenerit 
or amgle 
each segi 
Genital ( 
dorsal of 
Testiclea 
also, late: 

vesicle absent. Uterus breaks down into egg capsules, each con- 
taining one or several e^s. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Mojiopylidium musculosum (Fuhnnann, 1896) 
Fuhrmann, 1899. 

UONOPYLIDIUU CINOULIFERUM (Kribbe. 1B69) Clare. Igoa. 

For description SCO Erabbe, 1869b, p. 272, pi. 3, flga. 69, 60(7'JEniaeinfuZt/'c7«).-' 
CLBRC, 1903, pp. 356-359, pi. 9, fig. 43; pi. 10, fige. 49, 51. 
Hosts. — Mgialitis duJna, Totanus t^Aanvs, Machetes pagnax, Piaofna 
damaceneis. 

IIONOPYLTDIUH MACRACANTHUU Puhrmuin. tgo;. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp. 530-531, fig. 33. 
Host. — Helodromas ochropus. 

KONOPYLIDIUU UUSCULOSUM (Fuhrmann, iSsfl) Fuhnnann, »g». 

For description see Fuhruann, 1896n, pp. 122-127, pi. 4, figs. 6-9 {[tDaaiinea] 

ntusculow); lS99f, pp. 622-627. 

Host. — Stumua rndgaris. 

MONOPYLIDIUH PASSERINUH Pubrmann. iga;. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 190Tb, pp. 528-529, figi. 28, 29. 
Host. — Passer domesticus. 

MONOPYLIDIUM ROSTBLLATUM Pubtmann, tftoB. 

For deflcriptioQ see Fuhrmann, 190Sb, pp. 63-65, fig. 52 
Host. — Himantopua mexicanus. 

o See footnote under ChoanoUema, p. 74. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 77 

Genus ANOMOT/ENIA Cohn, 1900. 

Chocmotsenia "Cohn" of Clerc, 1903. 

DiplochetoB Linstow, 1906 (type, D. volvulm Linstow, 1906). 

Generic diagnosis. — Dipylidiinse: Rostellum with double crown of 
hooks, with long dorsal and short ventral root, and long blade. 
Genital pores irregularly alternate near anterior border of segment. 
Genital canals pass between the longitudinal excretory vessels and 
dorsal of the nerve. Vas deferens coiled, seminal vesicle absent. 
Testicles numerous, in posterior portion of segment, or, also, laterally 
on both sides of the female glands. Uterus sac-like. Adults in 
birds and mammals. 

Type^species. — Anomotsenia microrhyncha (Krabbe, 1869) Cohn, 
1900. 

ANOMOTJENIA ACOLLUM Fuhrmann. 1907. 

For description see Fuhrmann 1907b, pp. 517-518, fig. 2. 

Host. — Crotophaga ani. 

ANOMOTJENIA JEGYPTIACA (Krabbe, 1869) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe 1869b, pp. 272-273, pi. 3, fig. 61, 62 (Tmnia xgyp- 
tiaca). — Clerc, 1903, pp. 333-334 {Choanotxnia asgyptiaca). 

Hosts. — Scolopdx rusticola, GaMnago gaUinago. 

ANOMOTiENIA ARIONIS (Siebold. 1850) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description sefi Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 26^-269, pi. 2, fig. 47 (Tsenia arionia). — 
Clerc, 1903, p. 333 {Choanotxnia arionia). 

Hosts. — Totanus mdanoleucas, Totanus JlavipeSy Hdodromas ochro- 
pus. 

ANOMOTJENIA AURITA (Rudolphi. 18x9) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Rudolphi, 1819a, pp. 697, 698-699 (Tasnia aurita). 

Host — Florida cseruka. 

ANOMOTJENIA BACILLIGERA (Krabbe, 1869) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 273, pi. 3, figs. 63, 64 ( Tasnia bacilligera). 

Hosts. — GaUinago goMinagOy Scolopax rusOcola. 

ANOMOT^NIA 60REALIS (Krabbe. 1869) Puhrmann, X908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 338, pi. 10, figs. 282, 283 ( Tasnia borealia).— 
Clerc, 1906b, pp. 718-719, figs. 12-14 (Choanotxnia borealia). 

Hosts. — MotaciUa albaj Plectrophenax nivalis. 

ANOMOT^NIA CAMPYLACANTHA (Krabbe. 1869) Zschokke, 1903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 263, pi. 1, figs. 22-24 (Taenia campy- 
lacantha). 

Host. — CeppTius ^Ue. 

ANOMOT^NIA CINGULATA • (Linstow, 1905) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Linstow, 1905dd, p. 9, pi. 2, figs. 32-34 (Dilepis cingulata). 

Host. — Pelidna alpina. 



aThlH species is perhaps the same as Anomotadnia clavigera. (See Fuhrmann, 
1908a, p. 57 ) 



■ i 



78 BUUuETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ANOMOTJENIA CITRUS (Krabbe. 1869) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 270, pi. 2, .figs. 48-50 (Taenia citrui). 
Clerc, 1903, p. 321 (Choanotsenia citnut). 

Host. — GaUinago gaUinago, 

ANOMOTJENIA CLAVIGERA (Krabbe, 1869) Cohn, 1900, 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 267, pi. 2, figs. 41-43 (Tsenia davigera). 
Cohn, 1901b, p. 405. 

Hosts. — Arenaria interpreSj Pisohia damacensis, Pdidna alpim 
Tringa canutus, 

•ANOMOT£NIA CONSTRICTA (Molin, 1858). 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 329, pi. 9, figs. 252-256 {Taenia co 
s^ricto).— VoLZ, 1900, pp. 117-126, pi. 6, figs. 1-3 (T. con8tricta).—Qon 
1901b, pp. 405^07 {Anomotaenia puncta).— Clerc, 1903, pp. 334-335 (C^oon 
tdduva constricta). 

Hosts. — Turdus musicuSy *Pica jnca°' *Gorvus ossifraguSj^ *Oorvt 
brachyrhynchos,'' Corvus corax. 

ANOMOTJENIA CYATHIFORMIS (Prfilich, 1791) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 330-331, pi. 9, fig. 260 (Taenia cyaO 

formia) 

Host. — Rijxiria riparia. 

ANOMOT^NIA ERICETORUM (Krabbe. 1869) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description nee Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 270-271, pi. 3, figs. 51, 52 (Tam 
ericetonim) . 

Host. — Cliaradrius ap?^arin^. 

ANOMOT^NIA GLOBULUS (Wedl, 1856) Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Kuabhe, 18()0b, j). 271, ])l. 3, figs. 53-55 (Taenia glob 
luji). — Clerc, 190;^. pp. ;i2;^-;52r) {C/ioanoUi'fiia (jlobuhis). 

Hosts.- -Ilflodromas ochroims, MacluUs pugnax, 

ANOMOT/ENIA HIRUNDINA Fuhrmann. 1907. 

For (Icscriptioii see FrjiiRMANN. l!)07b, p. 518, fi,u:s. 5, 6. 

Host. — 1{ ipa r'ui ripa j'ia . 

ANOMOT^NIA LARINA (Krabbe, 1869) Zschokke, 1903. 

For (Inscription sro Kkahhk. iMilH), })p. L*<)l-'2()2, ])1. 1, iigs. 16, 17 [Ticnia larina 

Hosts. — Hissa tndactyUi , Lams /njp( t'fjonus. 

ANOMOT^NIA MICRACANTHA (Krabbe. 1869) Zschokke. 1903. 

For description sec Kkahhk, 1S()'J1), })p. 2G2-2G3, pi. 1, figs. 18-21 (Txn 
viicmcmithd). 

Hosts. — Pagophila (ilha, nissa tr'nlnctifld, Lams hyperhoreus , Larij 

marinus, Lams caniis, (^eppims (jrijlh . 



<i Bureau of Animal Industry Holminthological Collection, No. 3656 iromPira />/< 
hudsonid, Montana. 

^ Bureau of Animal Industry Ilelminthological Collection, \o. 2752. 

t-'U. 8. National Mu.seum llelminthological Collection, Nos. 5956, 50SS. GW3. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 7.9 

ANOMOT£NIA MICROPHALLOS (Krabbe. 1869) Puhrmarn, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 266, pi. 2, figs. 35-37 (Tsmia micro- 
phallos). — Clerc, 1903, pp. 336-337 {Choanotsenia microphalloa). 

Hosts, — VaneUus vaneUus, Pisohia damacensis. 

ANOMOT^NIA MICRORHYNCHA (Krabbe. 1869) Cohn. Z900. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 266, pi. 2, figs. Z^-AO(Txniamicrorhrfncha). — 
Cohn, 1901b, pp. 403-405, 

Hosts. — Charadrius apricariuSj jEgialiiis Tiiaticula, jEgialitis dubia. 
Machetes pugnax. 

ANOMOT£NIA MUTABILIS (Rudolphi, 18x9) Puhrmann. 1907. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp. 517-518, figs. 3, 4. 

Host. — CrotopJiaga ani. 

ANOMOTiENIA NYMPHiEA (Schrank, 1790) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 264-266, pi. 2, figs. 30-34 ( Tasnia nymphxa). 

Hosts. — Numenius horecHis, Numenius pJisRopuSy Bartramia longi- 
cauda. 

ANOMOT£NIA PLATYRHYNCHA (Krabbe. 1869) Cohn, 1900. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 271-272, pi. 3, figs. 56-58 (Taenia platy- 
rAync^).— Cohn, 1901b, pp. 400-403, pi. 34, fig. 80. 

Hosts. — Totanus totanuSy Pisohia damacensis, 

ANOMOTJENIA PYRIPORMIS (Wedl, 1856) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Kbabbe, 1869b, p. 264, pi. 2, figs. 28, 29 (Taenia pyriformis). 

Host. — Orex crex. 

ANOMOT£NIA SLESVICENSIS (Krabbe, z88a) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1882a, p. 352, pi. 1, fig. 9 (Taenia slesvicenaia). 

Host^. — Gallinago gaUinago, Scolopax rusticola. 

ANOMOTiGNIA SOCIABILIS. new name.* 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 258, pi. 1, figs. 1-3 (Taenia socialia). 

Host. — Uria troile. 

ANOMOTiENIA TORD£ (Pabricius. 1780) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 259, pi. 1, figs. 4-6 (Taenia armillaria). 

Hosts. — Uria troUe, Alca torda. 

ANOMOT^NIA TRIGONOCEPHALA (Krabbe, 1869) Puhrmann, 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 339, pi. 10, figs. 284-286 ( Tajnia trigono 
cephala). 

Host. — Saxicola cmantJie. 



a New name for A. socialis (Krabbe, 1869) Fuhrmann, 1908. Taenia sodalis Krabbe, 
1869 is a homonym of Taenia socialis Retzius, 1786. 



hU 



For descriptioD aee Cohk 1901b, pp. 381-385, pi. 33, figs. 57-59 (..Ima&otm 

cuTUata). 

Host.^* GaUus gallus domesticus. 

Genus LIGA Weinland, 18B7. 

F'jhrmannia Pabona, 1901 {type, F. brasHUntit Parona). 

Generic diagnosis. — ^Dipylidiinie : Rostellum armed with a doub 

crown of hooks with long dorsal and short ventral root. Strobil 

■with 12 to 16 segments. Genital pores regularly alternate; locate 

a FF5licb (180211, pp. 8G-87, pi. 2. fi^. 23-25) described a apeciee under the nan 
of Txnia aUnlorca from Tringa hypoleucog, which Rudolph! (1819a, p. 498) conaide 
identicBil with Txnia variabilis. The name stentoTfa ebould replace variabiltM if 
can be proved that Frolich'a paper appeared prior to Rudol phi's paper of 1802, othe 
wise the species should coDtinuc to be known as variabilis. 

bSifnonomy ^Tsnia cuneata Linstow, 1872, not Batsch, 1786; Tssma tphenaid 
Railliet, 1S92; DicrarioUenia cuneata (Linntow, 1872) Railliet, 1893; Diaanotsen. 
»phenoid€» (Railliet, 1892) Railliet, 189G; AmctboUeniA tphmoidei (Railliet, 1S9: 
Cohn, 1899; Ammbotxnia cuneata (Linstow, 1872) Cohn, 1901. 

Thia species ban been fully described by ('obn (1901b) under the erroneous nun 
AmaboUmia cuneata. Txnia ntneala Linstow, 1872, in a homonym of Tania cuntai 
Batsch, 1786; hence, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, tb 
name curuala can not be uxed for the species described by Linstow in any generi 
combination whatsoever. 

AmcebaUmia tphenoidet has been found in thin country in Maryland and the Dii 
trict of Columbia (Bureau of Animal Industry Helmintholt^ical Collection Nob. 14621 
X4713, 14746). 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 81 

in the anterior third of the segment. Genital canals pass dorsal of 
excretory -vessels and nerve. Testicles about 18 in number, located 
posterior of the female glands. Vas deferens much coiled, in the 
anterior portion of the segment, without vesicular enlargement. 
Ovary a simple sac, median, in anterior half of segment. Yolk 
gland a simple sac posterior of ovary. Uterus thin-waUed, much 
lobulated, occupying most of the medullary portion of the gravid 
segment. Outer shell of the egg with a tubular prolongation at each 
pole terminating in a globular expansion. Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Liga punctata'* OVeinland, 1856) Weinland, 1857= 
Liga hrasiliensis (Parona, 1901) Ransom, 1909. 

* LIGA BRASILIENSIS (Parona, X90Z) Ransom, 1909. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1907b, p. 521, ^g. 12 {Fuhrmannia hrasiliensis), — 
Ransom, 1909, pp. 22-25, figs. 9-14 (the present paper). 

Host — *Colapte8 auratus. 

Genus LEPTGT/ENIA Cohn, 1901. 

Generic diagnosis. — Dipylidiinae : Scolex relatively very large. 
Rostellum armed >\dtb a single crown of hooks with long dorsal root 
and short ventral root, and rather short blade. Neck absent. Seg- 
ments few (12 to 15). Genital pores regularly alternate. Repro- 
ductive organs protogynous in development. Testicles rather numer- 
ous (12 to 15), lateral in position toward the pore side of segment. 
Cirrus pouch and cirrus very long. Uterus sac-like, fills entire gravid 
segment. Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Leptotsenia ischnorhyricha (Luhe, 1898) Cohn, 1901. 

Genus PARVIROSTRUM 6 Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Generic diagnosis, — Dipylidiinae: Strobila small, division into seg- 
ments not well marked. Scolex large, rostellum small, armed with 
double crown of hooks. Genital pores irregularly alternate. Repro- 
ductive glands very small. Testicles in lateral portions of segment. 
Ovary and yolk gland toward pore side of segment. Uterus sac-like. 
Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Parvirostrum reticvlatum Fuhrmann, 1908. 

Genus CYCLUSTERA Fuhrmann, 1901. 

Generic diagnosis, — Dipylidiinae : Rostellum with double crown of 
hooks. Longitudinal musculature in three layers. Genital pores rega- 

o As Liga punctata in invalid (see p. 21), and Liga hrasiliensis is the next available 
name, the latter is the correct designation of this Bp>ecies. 

ft This genus was first mentioned without description or designation of type by 
Fuhrmann in 1907 (1907a, p. 292), and was first deecribed in 1908 (1908b, p. 60), 
P. reticulatum being the only species. 

3264— Bull. 69—09 6 



My 
tory- 

imine 
of tb 
uteru 
birds. 

2V 
•era 

Ft) 



doaU 
telca 
thed 
oua, i 
ezciai 
ment 
sac-Iil 

Type-species. — LateroUenia naUeri Fuhrmaniii 1906— Zateroter 
ruMereri Fuhrmann, 1908 (orthographic emendation). 

Genus PROORCHIDA* Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Generic diagnosis. — Dipylidiinse : Scolex armed with a doul 
crown of hooks. Genital pores unilateral. Testicles in front of t 
female glands. Uterus mueh lobulnted (?). Adults in birds. 

Type-npecieM. — Proorckida lohata Fuhrmann, 1908. 

Genus CYCLORCHIDA Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Generic diagnosis.— \)'\py]\d'unei: Kostellum armed with a doul 
crown of hooks, which have a very lai^e dorsal root and small ho 
portion. Genital pores unilateral. Genital canals pass betwei 
the longitudinal excretorj' vessels. Cirrus pouch conununicatij 
with the genital cloaca by a narrow canal opening upon a lai; 

" This Hpci-iea, originally described by Rudolphi on the basis of Bpecimens colled 
ID Brazil, has been found in the same host, Ajoio ajaja (Bureau of Animal Induab 
Belminthological Collection No. 4164), in thin country, at the National Zoologii 
Park, Washington, D. C.. whero the bird hail been brought from Texae. Fuhmu 
(1908a, p. 138), probably through error, liMtJi C. capita in PtataUa leucendia, but i 
in Ajaia ajaja. 

» This genus was lirst mentioned by Fuhrmann in 1907 ( 1907a. p. 292), but ma i 
deacribed nor wm the type dedgnated until 190S (l90Sb, p. 59). 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 83 

papilla. Testicles very numerous, entirely surrounding the female 
genital glands. Uterus ventral, growing laterally between the 
excretory vessels into the cortical parenchyma. Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Cychrchida omcUancristrota (Wedl, 1856) Fuhr- 
mann, 1907. 

Genus GRYPORHYNCHUSo Nordmann, 1832. 
Acanthocirrus Fuhrmann, 1907 (type, A. macrorostratus Fuhrmann, 1907). 

Generic diagnosis, — Dipylidiinae : Rostellum armed. Genital pores 
unilateral. Genital canals pass between the longitudinal excretory 
vessels. Root of cirrus with one or two pairs of powerful spines 
lying in special pockets. Testicles few (6 to 8). Uterus sac-like. 
Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Gryporhynchus pusHlus Nordmann, 1832 = larva of 
Acanthocirrus macropeos (Wedl, 1856). 

GRYPORHYNCHUS PUSILLUS Nordmann, 1833. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 279, fig. 84 (Taenia macropeos Wedl). 

Host, — Nycticorax nycticorax. 

GRYPORHYNCHUS CHEILANCRISTROTUS (Wedl, 1856). 

For description see Clerc, 1906b, pp. 716-718, figs. 7-11 (Dilepis macropeos).^ 

Host, — Ardea cinerea, 

GRYPORHYNCHUS MACROROSTRATUS (Fuhrmann, 1907). 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp. 527-528, figs. 24-27 (Acanthocirrus 
macrorostratus) . 

Host. — Anthus pratensis. 

Genus ANGULAR! A Clerc, 1906. 

Generic diagnosis, — Dipylidiinse* Rostellum armed with a zigzag 
crown of numerous hooks (about 50). Genital pores irregularly 

(^ Acanthocirrus, described by Fuhrmann (1907b) for the two species A. rrvacroros- 
tratiLs (designated as type by Fuhrmann, 1908a, p. 63) and DUepis macropeos (Wedl) 
of Clerc, 1906 falls into synonymy. Fuhrmann (1908a, p. 63) lists the following species 
in Acanthocirrus: A. macrorostratus , A. cheilancristrota (Wedl, IS6Q) =Dilepis macropeos 
(Wedl) of Clerc, and A. macropeos (Wedl, 1856). Krabbe (1869b, p. 279) who ex- 
amined Wedl's original specimens of Taenia macropeos, states that in the shape and 
size of the hooks they correspond so exactly to Gryporhynchus pusHlus that the latter 
must be considered the larval form of Taenia macropeos. Now as Gryporhynchus 
pusillus described in 1832 by Nordmann is the only original and hence type-species 
of Gryporhynchus, this generic name takes precedence over any later genus in which 
its type may be placed. Accordingly the placing of Taenia macropeos Wedl=Grrypo- 
rhynchus pusillus in Acanthocirrus necessitates the dropping of the name Acanthocirrus. 

&The form which Clerc describes and figures under the name Dilepis macropeos^ 
according to Fuhrmann (1908a, p. 63), is in reality the species Taenia cheilancristrota 
Wedl, 1856. 



rings of rose-thom booklets, which usuall; hftve a discoidal bam 
Suckers iinarme<l. Gravid segments generally longer than broad 
A double set of reproductive organs in each segment. Genital porei 
double snd opposite. Testicles very numerous, scattered throughoul 
entire niedullarv parenchyma. Vas deferens coiled, seminal vesicle 
absent. I'terus at first reticular, later breaking up into e^ cap 
sules, each containing one or more eggs. E^s with two shells, 
Adults in mammals and birds. 

Typesperifs. — Dipylidium eaninum (Linnteus, 1758). 

Genus OOCHORISTICA Lu he, 1868. 

Oeneric diajrnosw. — Dipylidiinie: Scolex unarmed, without rostel- 
lum. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Genital 



Fuhnnann (1907a, p. 293) would suppress this generic name in favor of Cltufotarnu 
Cohn, 1901, type-spec ief I Tsenia gloH/era BatBch, 1786. aBpecies which(BeeFuhniuuui| 
190Ga, p. 220) in conBiticred sufiiciently similar to Tienia inlium to belong in the aamc 
geoue, but, under the rules of nomenclature, if Vladolxnia gtobifera is tranefeired tc 
Tsctwt, the generic name Cladotxnia becomes a synonym of Txnia, aad can not ht 
used aa a separate genus »o long as the species glohi/era remains in Tsmia, Cohn 
(1901b, p. 380) definitely designated Ticnia ghbifera as the type of Cladolama, and 
hence no other species can be taken as the type of this genus. Accordingly, Fuhr- 
mann's propoeal to take Txma dcndritim Goeie (one of the species originally included 
both in Cladolxnia Cohn and CaUnatxnia Janicki) as type of Cladolania Cohn, and 
to supprees Catenotxnia Janicki is entirely at variance with article 20 of the Inbx- 
national Code of Nomenclature. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 85 

pores irregularly alternate. Testicles numerous, surround female 

glands posteriorly and on the sides. Vas deferens coiled, seminal 

vesicle absent. Uterus breaks down early and the eggs become 

inclosed singly in egg capsules. Adults in mammals and reptiles. 

Type-species, — Oochoristica tuherculata (Rudolphi, 1819) Luhe, 

1898. 

Genus PAJ^CERINAa Fuhrmann, 1899. 

Panceria Sonsino, 1895 (not Andres, 1877, sponge). 

Generic diagnosis, — Dipylidiinae: Scolex unarmed, without rostel- 
lum. A double set of reproductive organs in each segment. Tes- 
ticles numerous, in the lateral fields of the segment, absent from the 
median field. Uteri develop in the lateral fields of the segment but 
disappear early, tlie eggs becoming isolated in the parenchyma, 
situated mostly in the lateral fields, few in the median field. Adults 
in reptiles. 

Type-species, — Pancerina varanii (Stossich, 1895) ^^^ Panceria are- 
naria Sonsino, 1895. 

Svibfamily FARTJTERIN'IN'JK (emenclecl naxxxe). 

^^Paruterinx^' Fuurmann, 1907. 

Subfamily diagnosis. — Hy menolepidida* : Scolex usually armed, 
rarely without rostellum. A single (double in StUesia, provisionally 
placed in this subfamily) set of reproductive organs in each segment. 
Uterus simple or double with a single para-uterine organ or multiple 
with several para-uterine organs, into which the eggs pass in the final 
stage of development of the segment. Adults in birds and amphibia 
{StUesia in mammals). 

Type-genus, — Paruterina Fuhrmann. 1906. 

Genus PARUTERII^IA Fuhrmann, 1906. 

Generic diagnosis, — Parutennin/e: Rostellum simple, armed with 
a double crown of hooks. Genital pores unilateral or irregularly 
alternate. Testicle^ (20 to 30) surrounding the female glands behind 
and at the sides. In front of the uterus a longitudinal!}^ elongated 
parenchymatous organ develops into which the eggs pass after the 
gravid segments become separated from the strobila. Adults in 
birds. 

Ty^e-spedes, — Paruterina candeldbraria (Goeze, 1782) Fuhrmann, 
1906. 

PARUTERINA CANDELABRARIA (Goeze. 1782) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Krabbe 1869b, p. 333, pi. 10, fig. 265(T«nia candeldbraria). — 
WoLFFHUGEL, 1900a, pp. 153-1*64, figs, 85, 87-96 {Tstnia candelahraria) . 

Host. — Asia jlammeus, 

a Fuhrmann (1890f, p. 627; 1901a, p. 758) refers to this genus by this name, which 
may well be adopted in view of the fact that Panceria Sonsino, 1895, is a homonym 
of at least one earlier genus. 



inj 

pa 

an 

lii 

uterus and extends forward nearlj to the anterior border of the 

segment. Adults in birds, 

Type-spedes. — Rhabdomeira tomiea Kholodkovski, 1906. 

RKABDOMETRA NICROPUNCTATA (Crety, 1890) Fuhraunn. , Igol. 

For (Irscriptioii si-c C'retv, 1890d, pp. 8-10, figs. 1-3 (Tmnia ni^ropundala).— 
Stiles, I896f, p. 59, pi. 20, figs. 268-270 ( T. nigrajMnctata). 

Host. — Cottimix cotumix. 

■ BHABDOHBTRA NULLICOLLIS Rinwrn, 1909. 

For description avc Ransom, 190!I, pp. 25-30, figs. 15-22 (the present paper). 

Hosts. — * Centrocercus uropkaslanus. *Pedioecetes phaaianeUus colum- 
bianus. 

■ RHABDOMETRA SIHILIS, Riniom, isof. 

For description dee Ransom, 1909, pp. 30-34. tifrg. 23-26 (the present paper). 

Host. — *Coccyzu8 americanus. 

Genus ANONCHOTvENIA Cohn, 1900. 

Anurina Fuhhhank, 1901. 
Amerina Fuhrmann, 1901. 

Generic diagTiosis. — Paruterininse: Scolex unarmed, without rostel- 
lum. Genital pores irregularly (typical) or regularly alternate. 
Genital canals pass ventral of longitudinal excretory vessels and 



TiENIOTD CESTODES OF NORTH AMEKTCAN BIRDS. 87 

nerve. Testicles few (5 to 10) or more numerous (15 or more), 
dorsal of female glands and toward anterior border of segment. 
Ovaiy and yolk gland, small, ovoid in shape, in middle of segment. 
Uterus simple, sac-like, median, or displaced toward side of segment 
opposite genital pore, its antero-posterior axis assuming a diagonal 
and sometimes a transverse position. In front of or lateral of uterus 
a para-uterine organ develops into which the eggs finalh'^ pass. Adults 
in birds.. 

Type-species, — AnoncTwtsenia clava^ Cohn, 1900 = AnoncTwtfenia 
globata (Linstow, 1879). 

*ANONCHOT^NIA GLOBATA (Linstow, 1879) Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Cohn, 1901b, pp. 392-399, pi. 33, figs. 66-68; pi. 34, figs. 
69-73 (^1. clava). — Cerruti, 1901a, pp. 1-6, figs. 1-11 {ATnerina alaudse). — 
FuHRMANN, 1908c, pp. 623-626, figs. 1-71.— Ransom, 1909, pp. 34-36, fig. 27 
(the present paper). 

Hosts. — Aluuda arvensiSj *Dendroica striata, * Melospiza melodiaf 
Passer domesticuSy Passer montanus, JEgiothus linaria, Loxia curvi- 
rostra, 

ANONCHOTJENIA LONGIOVATA (Fuhrmann, X90X) Puhrmann. X908. 
For description see Fuhrmann, 1908c, pp. 627-629, figs. 8-11. 

Host. — fPlegadis guarauna. 

ANONCHOT^NIA MACROCEPHALA Puhrmann. X908. 
For description see Fuhrmann, 1908c, p. 629, fig. 13. 

Host. — Progne subis. 

ANONCHOT^NIA. species. 

Mentioned by Fuhrmann, 1908a, p. 188; 1908c, p. 631. 
Host. — Tyrannus melancholicus. 

Genus METROLIASTHES Ransom, 1900. 

Generic diagnosis. — Paruterininee : vScolex unarmed, without ros- 
tellum. Genital pores irregularly alternate. Genital canals pass 
between dorsal and ventral longitudinal excretory vessels and dor- 
sal of the nerve. Testicles rather numerous (20 to 40), in posterior 
portion of segment. Uterus single in origin and coiisisting, when 
fully developed, of two spherical sacs touching in the median line 
and more or less fused with one another. A para-uterine organ, 
developing in front of the uterus, and into which the eggs pass, 
becomes transfonned finally into a spherical egg capsule. Adults 
in birds. 

Type-species. — Metroliasthes ludda Ransom, 1900. 

o Fuhrmann (1908a, p. 70; 1908c, p. 623) has shown that j4noncAota?niacfeva is identical 
with Tasnia globata Linstow, 1879, hence Anonchotasnia globata is the correct name of 
this species. 



88 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

* METROLIASTHES LUCIDA Ransom. 1900. 

For (Ic'vription 80C Ransom, 1900a, pp. 213-226, pi. 13, 14; 1905b, pp. 27:pr4. 
fiffH. 2, 0.21,27. 

Hosts.- -* Meleagris gaUopavo domestical *GaUu8 gaUus domesticusf^ 

Genus BIUTERINA Fuhrmann, 1902. 

Generic diagnosis. — PaniterininaB: Rostellum armed with a double 
crown of hooks triangular in shape, i. e., with short dorsal and ven- 
tral roots. Genital pores irregularly alternate. Genital canals pass 
between the longitudinal excretory vessels. Uterus single in origin 
becomes more or less completely divided into two parts in front of 
which a para-uterine organ develops. The latter is transformed into 
an egg capsule after the passage of the eggs into it from the uteri. 
Eggs with two envelopes. Adults in birds. 

Tifpe-spcc'us. —Biuterina paradisea Fuhrmann, 1 902 = BiMterina 
clavulus^ (Linstow, 1888). 

BIUTERINA LONGICEPS (Rudolphi, 1819) Fuhrmann. 1908.' 

Forclesoriptioii see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 337-338, pi. 10, fij^. 277, 278 (Txnin 
longiccps).—VvuHMASS, 1908d, pp. 424-425, fig». 22, 23. 

Host. — fCair'ina moschata. 

BIUTERINA PASSERINA Fuhrmann, 1908. 

For description sim* Clkrc, 1906b, pp. 721-722, fig8. 19, '2Q (BiuUrina mrropina).- 
Fuhrmann, lOOSd. pp, 426-428, fiK^H. 28-31. 

Host. -Ahiiida arr(nsis. 

BIUTERINA TRAPEZOIDES Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For (IcMripii.'ii >..• Im urmann. lOOSd, pp. 42(M21, fii?*. 12-14. 

I lost.-- Molothrus (iff r. 

Genus NEMATOT^ENIA Luhe, 1899. 

(nfhric (Ihifjiiosis. -Viivutcvhuniv: Scolcx unarmed, without ros- 
tidluin. Scixincntation of strohila distinct only at the posterior end. 
Strohila circular in cross section. (Icnital pores alternate. Genital 
canals pass dorsal of the lontxitudinal cxcretor}' vessels and nerve. 
Uterus lioi'S(\sli()e-shaped, disap|)ears early. K^^^s through the action 
of numerous i)ara-uterine origans become inclosed in c^r^ capsules, 
3 or 4 in each capsule. Adults in am|)hil)ia. 

D/jK-sjfn'Hs. Tiiu'ia (I'isiKir Vn)V'/A\ 17S2. 

"A >|K'(iin«'ii in tht* collection ol tlx' Bureau ol Aniiniil Industry is recorded as 
coll(M't(Ml iroiu a chicken, l)Ut it is very probable that a mistake in lab«4in^ has Ix'en 
made in this case. 

/' I''uhrmann (HJOSa. p. OS; KMlSd,]). 414) lias found that liiiitcrina paradLstii is iden- 
tical with T.inid (((nnhis binsluw, 1888. Hence, tlie correct name of this ^*pi'cies is 
Biut4ritui ('/(uulus. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 89 

Genus STILESIA Railliet, 1893. 

Generic diagnosis. — (?)Paruterinin8B: Head unarmed, without 
rostellum. Neck present. Segments broader than long. A dou- 
ble set of reproductive organs in each segment, with opposite pores, 
or with irregularly alternating pores, those of one side, with the cor- 
responding cirrus pouch, vagina and ovary having been suppressed, 
both of which conditions may occur in the same strobila. Genital 
canals pass between the longitudinal excretory vessels and dorsal 
of the nerve. Dorsal excretory vessel a considerable distance mediad 
from the ventral vessel. Testicles relatively few (6 to 12 in each set) 
in the lateral portions of the segment in the neighborhood of the lon- 
gitudinal excretory vessels. Ovary small, globose, between the 
dorsal and ventral excretory vessel on pore side of segment. Yolk 
gland not apparent. Uterus small, spherical, sac-like, one in each 
lateral half of the segment between the dorsal and ventral excretory 
vessels. When the ovary is absent from one side, eggs from the op- 
posite side of the segment appear to pass across through the median 
field in a manner not understood and enter the uterus of the side in 
which the ovary is lacking. Immediately anterior and mediad of 
each uterus a para-uterine organ develops into which the eggs prob- 
ably pass. Eggs with two envelopes. Adults in mammals (rumi- 
nants) . 

Type-species. — Stilesia globipunctata (Rivolta, 1874) Railliet, 1893. 

SubfUmily HYMET-O'OLKI'IIDIN^lfi (emeTideci xxazne). 

Hymenolepinx Perrier, 1897. 

Family diagnosis. — Hymenolepididse : Rostellum armed with a 
single crown of hooks, or inore rarely rudimentary and unarmed. 
Segments always broader than long. Longitudinal muscles in two 
layers. A single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Genital 
pores unilateral. Genital canals pass on the dorsal side of the lon- 
gitudinal excretory vessels and nerve. Testicles one to four. Vas 
deferens always short with seminal vesicle. Uterus persistent, sac- 
like. Egg with three transparent shells. Adults in mammals and 
birds. 

Type-genus. — Hymenolepis Weinland, 1858. 

Genus OLIGORCHIS Fuhrmann, 1906. 

Generic diagnosis. — Hymenolepidinse : Rostellum armed with a 
single crown of hooks, four testicles in each segment. Seminal 
vesicle and seminal receptacle large. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Oligorchis strangulatus Fuhrmann, 1906. 

OLIGORCHIS STRANGULATUS Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906a, pp. 217-218, figs. 26-30. 

Host. — Elanoides forjicatus. 



90 



lei 



cul 

Type-Species. — Hymeru>lepia fiavopundata Wemland, 1858 — Hy- 
menolepvi diminuta (Rudolph!, 1819) Blanchard, 1891, 

KYHENOLEPIS ABORTIVA Lin.iow, 1904. 

For <lc9cri|)lion boo Lisstow, 1904m, pp. 382-383, figs. 7-10 (Txnia (Bjpnmo- 

Upia) foluta)." 

Host. — Anas platyrJiynchos. 

HYMENOLEPIS £QUABILIS (Rudolphi. iSio) Cohn, igoi. 

For dcacriptioii ace Krabbe, ISG9b, pp. 316-317, pi. 8, figg. 212, 213 (Tsnia 
xqvafrilis). —S-nhKB, 1896[, pp. 33-34, pi. 3, figs. 29, 30 {Dienmolxnia xqua- 
6a«).— Clerc, 1903, pp. 290-293. pi, 8, figs. 2, 16, 24 (Drepanidotxnia 
xqtmbilk). 

Hosts. — MarUa ■marila, Oygnus olor, Oygnus olor domesHeua, Olor 
.cygnus. 

HYMENOLEPIS AMPHITRICHA (Rudolphi, 1R19) Puhrmann, 1906. 

For tleacriptioci foo Krabbe, 18t)9b, pp. 311-312. pi. 8, figs. 195-197 {Txtiia 
amphitrwka). — Olerc, 1903, pp. 293-295, pi, 8, fij;. 21 {DrepanidotKnia amfhi- 

Hosts. — Totanus tetanus, Pelidna alpimt, ArquateUa Tnaritima, 
Scohpax rusticola. 

a Corrected to Tmnia (HymenoUpit) ahortiva, Ceotralbi. f. Bak., vol. 36, p. 592. 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 91 

HYMENOLEPIS ANATINA (Krabbe. 1869) Cohn, xgox. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 287-288, pi. 6, figs. 114-116 (Tsenia 
analina). — ScHMfor, 1894a, pp. 65-112, pi. 6 (Taenia anatina), — Stiles, 1896f, 
pp. 39-40, pi. 9, figs. 100-111; pi. 10, figs. 112-llb (Drepanidotxnia anatina). — 
Cohn, 1901b, pp. 322-323. 

Hosts, — Spatula clypeata, Dajlla acitto, ChavMasmus streperus, 
Anas platyrhynchoSf Anas platyrhynchos domestical Cygnus olor 
domesticuSy Fulica atra. 

- HYMENOLEPIS ARCUATA Kowalewski, 1904. 

For description see Kowalewski, 1905a, pp. 3-9, pi. 7, figs. 1-9; 1905b, pp. 532- 
533, pi. 14, figs. 1-9. 

HoM. — Marila marUa. 

HYMENOLEPIS ARDEJE • Puhrmann, X906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 451-452, figs. 37-39. 

Host. — Butorides virescens. 

HYMENOLEPIS BASCHKIRIENSIS (Clerc, X9oa) Fuhrmann, 1906. 

For description see Clerc, 1903, pp. 288-290 (Drepanidotasnia baschkiriensis). 

Host. — Larus canus. 

HYMENOLEPIS BISACCATA Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 444-445, figs, 21-24. 

Host. — Cairina moschata. 

HYMENOLEPIS BRACHYCEPHALA (Creplin, x8a9). 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 294-295, pi. 6, figs. 136-140 {Taenia 
brachycephala).—Cons, 1901b, pp. 280-284, pi. 29, figs. 13, 14. 

Host. — Machetes pugnax. 

HYMENOLEPIS BRASILIENSIS Fuhrmann, 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, p. 446, fig. 26. 

Host. — Antrostomus carolinensis. 

m HYMENOLEPIS CANTANIANA (Polonio. x86o) Ransom, 1909. 

For description see Ransom, 1909, pp. 36-41, figs. 28, 29 (the present paper). 

Hosts. — Meleagris gaUopavo domestical *Pavo cristatus, *GaUus gallus 
domesticuSj Phxisianus colchicus. 

HYMENOLEPIS CAPILLARIS (Rudolphi. 18x0) Fuhrmann. X906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 307, pj. 7, fig. 179 {Taenia capillarU). 

Hosts. — Gavia steUata, Gavia arctica, Gavia immer^ Colymhus 
auritus. 

HYMENOLEPIS CAPILLAROIDES Fuhrmann. X906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 355-356, figs. 6, 7. 

Host. — Colymhus dominicus. 

• HYMENOLEPIS CARIOCA (Magalhaes, 1898) Ransom. 1902. 

For description see Ransom, 1902a, pp. 151-158, pi. 23, figs. 1-7; pi. 24, figs. 8-10; 
1905b, pp. 274-276, figs. 3, 10, 22, 28. 

Host — *GaMv^ gaUus domesticus. 



a See discussion under Dilepis unihUralis (p. 72). 



92 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

HTMENOLEPIS CLANDESTINA (CicpliB in Krabbe. 1869) Colm. 1904. 

For doscription 8i*e Krabbe, 1869b, p. 316, pi. 8, figs. 208, 209 {Taenia, elanda- 
Una).— Cons, 1904, pp. 243-246, pi. 11, ^. 9-12. . 

Host. — Haemaiopus ostralegtis. 

HYMENOLEPIS COLLARIS (Batsch. 1786) Fnhniuuui. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 298-299, pi. 7, figs. 151-153 {Tatnia 
nnuoOT).— Stiles, 1896f, pp. 40-41, pi. 10, figs. 116-124; pi. 11, figs. 125-139; 
pi. 12, figs. 140-146; pi. 13, fig. 153 {Drepanidolxnia «nuo«i). —Cohx, 1901b, 
pp. 323-325 (Uymenolepis ginuosa). 

Hosts, — Dqfila acuta, Mareca penelope, Anas plaiyrhyncJios, Anas 
platyrhynchos domestica, Anser anser, Anser anser domesticfis. 

HYMENOLEPIS COMPRESSA (Linton. 1893) Puhrmann, 1906. 

For description see Lixtox, 18921, pp. 108-110, pi. 8, figs. 83-92 {Taenia am- 
pressa). —K0WALEW8KI, 1907, p. 775, pi. 23, figs. 7-11; 1908, pp. 638-641; 
pi. 20, figs. 7-11. 

Hosts, — Oidemia americana, Aristonetta valisineriay MarUa marHa. 

HYMENOLEPIS CORONULA (Dujardin. 1845) Cohn. 190X. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 317-318, pi. 8, figs. 216-219 (Tsenia 
roronula). — Stiles, 1896f, p. 33, pi. 3, figs. 21-28 {Dicranotaenia coronula).— 
Wolffhugel, 1900a, pp. 165-175, figs. 97-105 {DicranoUenia coronula).— 
LiNSTOw, 1905dd, p. 5, pi. 1, figs. 16-18 (77. megalhystera). 

Hosts. — Hareldaliy emails, Clangula clangvla, MarUamarUa, Mareca 
penehpe. Arias platyrhynchos. Anas platyrhynchos domestica, Anser 
anser, 

HYMENOLEPIS CREPLINI (Krabbe. 1869). 

For a<srni)n..ii s... Kuahhk. iSCfib. j). 317. pi. 8, figs. 214, 215, (Taenia 
crrj>lini\. CoHN. 19011), pp. 304-307, pi. 30, figs. 31-33. 

ff osts. — Ansn- <nis(f\ Aii-^(r alJ/ifrons, Cygnus olor, Olor cygnvs. 

HYMENOLEPIS ECHINOCOTYLE Fuhrmann. 1907. 

For (K'ScriptiDii ^^IM• J'lUFiMANN, 1907l>, pp. r)32-.")33. figs. 37, 3S. 

Host. — Spafula clypcafd . 

HYMENOLEPIS EXILIS " (Dujardin. 1845) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For (l«'S(iij)tinn .«•«• Dujardin, l^4")a. p. <J02 [T;i nia exilis). — Stilks, 189Gf, p. 5vS 

( Tn mil t 11} IS !. 

Host. — (Jdlhis (jdllu.^ (lonHstlrus. 

HYMENOLEPIS FALLAX (Krabbe. 1869) Cohn. 1901. 

For d<'scTiplioi» soo Krabbk, ISiiUh, p. 319, pi. S. li;:.^. 221, 222 {Tirnin/allaj). 

Hosts.— Sornatfr'ta jnoUisshud, Mdrild nuirild, Mareca pent lope. 

HYMENOLEPIS FARCIMINOSA CGocze. 1782). 

For (Icsdiplioii s.c KuAitHK, lS(39b, pp. 321-322, ])1. 9, iv^:^. 230-232 {T:ini'i 
/(irriml/uili.s). X'oi.z, 19(X), i)p. 32-35, pi. 2, fi«:. \0{l>lj>laainth}is /nrciniirifilU' 

Host. Sturnus vulgatis. 



"This speci<'.^ is perhaps iclcnticai with Iliffncnolt pis rariora, hut the original dt-- 
s<Tij)tion is so incomplete that tliis question can not he selth'd. 



T-ENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 93 

HYMENOLEPIS PASCICULATA. new name.a 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 300, pi. 7, figs. 156, 157 {Tseniafca- 
ciato).— Stiles, 1896f, pp. 37-38, pi. 5, figs. 56-66; pi. 6, figs. 67-76; pi. 7, figs. 
77-79 (Drepanidotxnia /a8ciata).'-Comiy 1901b, p. 329.— Clerc, 1903, p. 307 
(Drepanidotaenia faaciata) . 

Hosts. — Mareca penslopSf Anser anser, Anser anser domesticus, 
Anser alhifrons, 

HYMENOLEPIS FRAGILIS (Krabbe, 1869) Puhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 300-301, pi, 7, figs. 158-160 {Txnia 
/ra^7w).— FuHRMANN, 1906b, pp. 747-748, figs, 11-12. 

Hosts. — Nettion crecca, Chauldasmus streperus. 

HYMENOLEPIS PASSERIS (Gmelin. 1790). 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 326-327, pi. 9, figs. 245-247 (Tsmia 
fringillarum). 

Hosts. — Passer domesticus, Passer montanuSj jEgiothus linaria. 

HYMENOLEPIS FURCIFERA (Krabbe. 1869). 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 306, pi. 7, figs. 176-178 {Taenia fur- 
cifera). — Sztmanski, 1904a, p. 344, pi. 8, figs. 6, 7 (Taenia furcif era); 1905b, 
p. 734, pi. 16, figs. 6, 7 {T3eniafurcifera).—LTSSTOW, 1908, pp. 3S-39, figs. 1, 2. 

Host.—^Colymhus auritus. 

HYMENOLEPIS FUSUS (Krabbe. 1869) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 307-308, pi.* 7, figs. 180, 181 {Taenia 
fusus). 

Hosts. — Lams hyperboreuSy Larus marinus. 

HYMENOLEPIS GRACILIS (Zeder, X803) Cohn. 190X. < 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 299, pi. 7, figs. 154, 155 {Taenia ffraeilis).— 
Stiles, 1896f, pp. 38-39, pi. 7, figs. 80-91; pi. 8, figs. 92-99 {Drepanidotaenia 
gracilis).— ^^OLFFHiJQELy 1900a, pp. 176-183, figs. 106-109 {Drep. gracilis).— 
CoHN, 1901b, pp. 327-329.— Clerc, 1903, pp. 305-306 {Drep. gracilis). 

Hosts. — Mergus serrator, Marila marila, Spatula clypeata, Nettion 
creccaj Mareca penelopey ChauleUismus streperus, Ana^ plaiyrhynchoSf 
Anus platyrhynchos domestica, Anser anser domesticus. 

HYMENOLEPIS GRCENLANDICA (Krabbe. 1869) Fuhrmann. X906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 316, pi. 8, figs. 210, 211 {Taenia 
grcenlandica). 

Host. — Hardda hyemalis. 

HYMENOLEPIS HIMANTOPODIS (Krabbe. 1869) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 309-310, pi. 8, fig. 190 {Taenia himan- 
topodis).—FvHRMASS, 1906b, pp. 748-749, fig. 13. 

Host. — Himantopus mexicanus. 

HYMENOLEPIS INTERRUPTA (Rudolphi. i8oa) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 745-746, fig. 8. 
Host. — Scolopax rusticola. 



« New name for Tamiafasciata Rudolphi of Krabl>e, 1869. Taenia fasdata Rudolphi, 
1810= Tasnia seligera Frolich. 1789. 



Hosts. — Marila marUa, Cairina mosdiaia, Nettion creeea, *Dq 
acuta, Anas pUihfrhtfnchoa dome*tua, Olor njgnus. 

HYHBNOLEPtS MBLEAGRIS (Ckn. Igoi) PuhnBuii. igoS. 

For deacription sw Clbrc, 1902a, pp. 574-575 {Dreparri^txrua TneUagris);!; 
p. 306 (uu Ce^tude dans Mtteagri* galloparo). 

Host. — ileleaffris gaUoparv domestira. 



Host. — Ohr cygnus. 

HYHENOLBPIS MICROCEFHALA (Rudolphi. iSig) Fuhrmann. igot. 

For description sc« Krabbb, lS6db. p. 310. pi. 8, figs. 191, 192 (Tsenia tni 

ctphabi).— Cobs, 1904, pp. 246-248, pi. II, figy. 13-16( Txniamultifonni*). 

Host. — NycHcoTux nycHcorax, Ardea dnerea, PUgadis atUumnalit 

HYHENOLBPtS HICROPS <Diain(, iBso) Fuhmuna. iga6. 

For deKriptton Bee WouraBoEi,, 1900a, pp. 191-192, Ar. 110 (H. Utraonit). 

Host. — CeiUrocercus uropkasmnusf 

oLeidy (1887a, p. 1) identified tapewomu fntm thia hiixt ah Txnia miervpt Dies 
but Bccording to FuhnnsBD (190&a, p. 103) they are probably a species of Davav 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 95 

HYMENOLEPIS MICROSOMA (Creplin, 1839) Cohn. X901. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 296-298, pi. 6, figs. 146-150 ( Tsmia 
micro«07na).— Cohn, 1901b, pp. 284-288, pi. 29, figs. 15-22. 

Hosts, — Oidemia fusca, Somateria spectabilis, Somateria moUissima, 
Harelda hyemalis, Marila marUaf fLarus hyperboreus. 

HYMENOLEPIS MINOR, new name.' 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 292, pi. 6, figs. 127-129 (Taenia minuta). 

Host, — Lobipes lohatus. 

HYMENOLEPIS MUSCULOSA (Clerc. x9oa) Puhrmann. X906. 

For description see Clebc, 1903, pp. 303-305, pi. 8, figs. 17, 23; pi. 9, figs. 29,' 35 
(Drepanidotaenia musculosa). 

Host — Mdeagris gaUopavo domestica. 

HYMENOLEPIS OCT AC A NTH A (Krabbe, 1869) Puhrmann, 1906, not Cohn. 1901. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 301, pi. 7, figs. 161, 162 {Taenia octa- 
can^).— FuHRMANN, 19U6b, pp. 746-747, figs. 9, 10. 

Hosts, — Spaiula clypeataj Nettion creccay DaJUa acuta, Ohavlelasmus 
HtreperuSj Anas platyrhynchos, 

HYMENOLEPIS ORIENTALIS (Krabbe, 1879) Puhrmann, 1906. 

For description see Krabbe, 1879a, p. 11, figs. 50-52 {Taenia orientalis); 1882a, 
p. 360, pi. 2, figs. 43, 44 (T. orientalis). 

Host, — Saxicola cenanOie. 

HYMENOLEPIS PACHYCBPHALA (Linstow, 1872) Puhrmann, X906. 

For description see Linstow, 1872d, p. 55, pi. 3, figs. 2-4 {Taenia pachycepfiala); 
1904n, p. 305, pi. 13, figs. 17-20 {Drepanidotaenia pachycepfiala). 

Host, — Colymhus aurilus, Histrionicus histrionicus, 

HYMENOLEPIS PAPILLATA Puhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 357-358, figs. 10, 11. 

Host, — Cairina moschata, 

HYMENOLEPIS PARVULA Kowalewski. 1904. 

For description see Kowalewski, 1905a, pp. 9-16, pi. 7, figs. 10-17; 1905b, pp. 
533-534, pi. 14, figs. 10-17. 

Host, — Anas platyrhynchos domestica. 

HYMENOLEPIS PHASIANINA Puhrmann. 1907. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1907b, pp. 533-534, figs. 40, 41. 

Host. — Ph/isianus colchicus. 

HYMENOLEPIS PIGMENTATA (Linstow. x87a) Puhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Linstow, 1872d, p. 56, pi. 3, figs. 7, 8 ( Taenia pigmentata). 

Host, — Marila marUa. 



« New name for Taenia minuta Krabbe, 1869, not Taenia minuta Braun in Rudolphi, 
1810. 



96 



BOJLETIX 69, UXITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



:, 



i 



HTMENOLEPIS POCUUFERA (Liastow. itry) PidmBsim. 1906. 

For di>«CTip^i«>n *^-^ Lixsrow, ISTSai, pp. 186-187, pi. 12, figs. 37, 38 (Tami 

Ho^t. — Fxilica atra. 

HTMENOLEPIS PODICIPINA Ssymaaski. 1904. 

For dcecriptioii **i-e S2TMax9KI. 1904a, pp. 342-344, pi. 8, figs. 1-5; 1905b, pi 
733-734. pi. 16, fi«s. 1-5. 

//()«/. — Colymhus auritus. 

HYMENOLEPIS RECTACANTHA Fnlinnaim. 1906. 

For di-j^Tiption s^t^ FrHRMAXX. 19fi6b. pp. 44t>-447. fig. 27. 

Host, — JlguiUti^ h iaticula. 

HYMENOLEPIS RETRACTA Unstow. 1905. 

For description si*<^ Lixsrow. 1905dd, p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 15. 

Host. — SomaUria sp€ctabiU^, 

HYMENOLEPIS ROSTELLATA (AbOdgaard. 1790) Fahrmann. 1908. 

For description sit> Krabbe, lS69b. pp. 2S6-287, pi. 5, fip». 112, 113 (Ts-n 
rapi7W/<i/<i .— FiHRMAXX. lS9(Jk. pp. 443-449, pi. 14, fip». 5-10 {Txnia cap 
UUata , 

Ho$t^, — Oaria sUllata, liavia aniiai, Oavia irnmer. 

HYMENOLEPIS RUGOSA Clerc. 1906. 

For di'iKTiption s*-*' Clerc. 190t>a. pp. 4;W— 434, tii:<. 1— J. 

Host. — (Wutitfm liria. 

HYMENOLEPIS SAGITTA .Rosseter. :oo6^ Fuhrmann. 1908. 

F-T .1. s«iijt:i >:\ - •■ Il<>>>KrFK. !!♦<►• i . |'j'. L'TV^T^, 1 pi. i [>rrj*nniflf>t:* nin sagittn 

HYMENOLEPIS SERPENTULUS , Sckrank. 17S8) Wcinland. 1858. 

For vKscrijui'U >< «• \»>i/.. 1*mh». ].{•. 1:;'>-14(>. |»1. 7. lii:. s ^ UipUirnnOni.s s( 
f.,>.ti'/> . (MHN. l!»nn,. pi>.J'M JIC. pi. J", l!--. lM.lM; pi. 80. fi«:. 2.'). 1 i(- 

II(^sts. — .^Phuifsficus fmoidinims. Pud j>n<i, ( onus annx. 

HYMENOLEPIS SETIGERA vFrolich. 1789) Cohn. 1901. 

For <l.-«Tipu.'ii .^,o Kh.\hiu:. i^«;:»i.. ].j». 2>!* l*'h». j.l. j;, lit's. 117-lLM (^T:m 
.s((i<jtni . SriiKs. IMM.i. j)p. ll-rJ. ]'l. i'2. Til:-. 117 l-')(); pi. 13, fu^. l.')4-U 
, l)rt p<:,,'>.Inij ,.',r. >,t:,},r,i . Tikhi . l!M):;. j)p. iM^s-i-jo^. j.ps. li<rs. 3, G, 7, 1*2, *. 
I Hrt IKI ii I'lol.t li 111 stft'Jt;'!! . 

Ilitsis. Ilvduin In 1)1 icJii . Ihdhfii h ucnjisis, ^[)(si r ajisf ;*, AjiSfv/afxili 

HYMENOLEPIS SIBIRICA ( Linstow. 1905) Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For (U'scriplioii set- Lin.niow, IIMI.'xM. pj». «; 7. pi. 1. Iil'. '-- ^ Ihorrhis sihirini'). 

I last. — S()tn(it( rid sjti ddhihs. 

HYMENOLEPIS SPH^ROPHORA (Rudolphi. 1810) Fuhrmann, 1906. 

l-'nr (ic.'^criplinn s«'<' Krnoi.F'in, IsjOa, pp. \\U VIO (T.t nm .^ i)},:f ntphorn ). — Co 
H(>M>, lsr>S}), p. Ui4, pi. 33. li^^. <)3-()7 ( 7*. ,sj)h:i rophora . 

Hosts, — (idll\na(jo yallinagoy Scolopai msticola. 



T^NIOTD CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 97 

HYMENOLEPIS COLUMBJE (Zeder. 1800). 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 449-450, figs. 34, 35 {H. spheno- 
cephala). 

Host. — Columba livia domestica. 

HYMENOLEPIS STYLOSA (Rudolphi. i8zo) V0I2, 1899. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 326, pi. 9, figH. 242-244 (Tamia slylosa).— 
VoLZ, 1900, pp. 141-144, pi. 7, fig. 9 (Diplacanthus styloms). 

Hosts. — Pica pica J Corvus corax, 

HYMENOLEPIS TENERRIMA (Linstow. 1882) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Linstow, 1882a, p. 21, pi. 2, fig. 26 {Tamia tenerrvma). 

Ilost, — Marila marila, 

HYMENOLEPIS TENUIROSTRIS (Rudolphi. 1819) Cohn. 1901. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 291-292. pi. 6, figs. 123-126 (Tamia 
tenuirostris) . — Stiles, 18961, p. 43, pi. 14, figs. 165-172 {Drepanidotania tenvi- 
rostris).— Cobs, 1901b, pp. 326-327. 

. Hosts. — Mergus serrator, MergeUusalheUuSjOidemiafu8ca,Somateria 
moUissimaj Marila marila, Arias platyrhynchos domestica, Anser anser 
domesticus. 

HYMENOLEPIS TERESOIDES Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1906b, pp. 443-444, fig. 20. 

Host. — Chaulelasmus streperus. 

HYMENOLEPIS TRI FOLIUM Linstow. 1906. 

For description see Linstow, 1905t, pp. 361-362, pi. 23, figs. 6, 7. 

Host. — Atuis platyrhynchos. 

HYMENOLEPIS ULIGINOSA (Krabbe. i88a) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Krabbr, 1882a, p. 355, pi. 1, figp. 25-27 ( Txnia uliginosa). 

Host. — Numenius phxopus. 

HYMENOLEPIS VALLEI (Stossich, 1892) Fuhrmann. 1906. 

For description see Stossich, 1892b, pp. 68-69, pi. 1, figs. 3, 4 {Tstnia vallei). 

Host. — fPisobia damacensis. 

HYMENOLEPIS VENUSTA (Rosseter. 1897). 

For description see Rosseter, 1898a, pp. 10-23, pis. 1, 2, figs. 1-17 (Drepanido- 
txnia venusta). 

Host. — Anas platyrhynchos domestica. 

HYMENOLEPIS VILLOSA (Bloch, X782) WolffhUgel. 1899. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 303-304, pi. 7, figs. 168, U9 {Taenia vil- 
losa); 1882a, pp. 354-355, pi. 1, figs. 19-22 (Tavia ri7fo«a).— WolffhIjoel, 
1900a, pp. 184-188, pi. 7, fig. 11. 

Host. — fGaUus gaUus domesticus. 

HYMENOLEPIS. species Cohn. 

For description see Cohn, 1901b, pp. 312-319, pi. 31, figs. 38, 39. 

Host. — Marila marila. 

3204— Bull. (50— OJ) 7 



98 BrixETiN e9. itkited states national museum. 

Subgenrric diagno^s. — HffmenoUpis: Rostellum armed with a single 
crown of ten slender hooks with dorsal root and blade about equal in 
len«rth and ventral root rudimentary. Suckers large, flat, armed on 
the bonlers and in the middle with small booklets. A sacculus acces- 
sorius always present. Adults in birds. 

Tyi^^l}€ci€s, — EchinocotyU rosseteri Blanchard, 1891. 

ECHINOCOTYLE NITIDA (Knbbc. 1869) Qerc, 1903. 

For dt>!<*ription see Krabbb, 1869b, p. 294, pi. 6, figs. 133-135 (Taenia nitida).- 
Olkrc. 190:^, pp. 310-315, pi. 9, figs. 26, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 40-42. 

IliVit^. — Limosa limosa, Pisobia damacensis, Pelidna alpina, Ar^ia- 
UUa maritima, irallinago gaUinago. 

ECHINOCOTYLE NITIDULANS (Krabbe, i88a) Puhrmann. 1906. 

For di^scriptioii see Krabbb, 1882a, p. 353, pi. 1, figs. 16, 17 ( Txnia nitidulum), 

Ih^sUi. — ^Egialiti^ hiaticula^ Pelidna alpina. 

ECHINOCOTYLE ROSSETERI Blanchard. 1891. 

For tl« 'script ion see Bl.\nchard, 1891t, pp. 424-428, figs. 1-3. — Stiles, 18961, 
pp. 55-56, pi. 19, figs. 247-251. 

Ih)st. -Anas platyrhfjnchos domestica. 

Genus DIORCHIS Clerc, 1903. 

Ge nine diagnosis. — llyinein>le|mlmtv: Rostellum with a single crown 
of ton liooks witli lonji dorsal and sliort ventral roots or exceptionally 
witli v(My stuMt dorsal root and with ventral root nearly as lon^ as the 
blatlo. Surface of suckei^s may be armed with minute spines. Inner 
longitudinal muscle laver eonsistinu: of S bundles, 4 dorsal and 4 ven- 
tral. Twt) testicles in each seo:inent. A^iults in birds. 

'rt/jn-sjKcifS. — Diorchis acuinhuita (Clerc, 1902) Clerc, 1903. 

* DIORCHIS ACUMINATA (Clcrc. 1902) Cicrc. 1903. 

Fora<'S(Tii)ti()ii sec (^lerc, mrA, pp. 2S1-2S4. |)1. 0, fig. 20; pi. 11, fip*. 78, 88.- 
Ransom, l^MM). ]»]). fJ^S. ligj*. 'M)-'M) (the present paper). 

I!()sts. Xfition en era, Muncii jkjhIojh, (■hauhhisnms sin perm, 
Fulica (itra, "^Fiilicd aim rirana. 

* DIORCHIS AMERICANA Ransom. 1909. 

For (l(\«ripii(»ii see Hansom, 190i), pp. 4S-51, lip^. 37—42 (the prenent paper). 

Host. "^ Fulicd (irtK ricdna. 

DIORCHIS INFLATA (Rudolphi. 1819) Clerc. 1903. 

For (lescriptiou see Kkahbe, 18()91», pp. 2Sr>-2S<), pi. 5, tigs. 109-111 (T:rfiia 
inJIatcD.—iACOiii, 189Sc, pp. 95-104, 1 pi. {T. injhita).—CouK, 1901b, pp. 
380-331 (IJymnioIepis inji a la).— Clerc, 1903, pp. 284-288, pi. 11, fig. 89.— 
L1N8TOW, 1906, pp. 15-17, pi. 1, figs. 17, 18 (//. injiata). 

Host .— Fu I i ca atra . 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMEBICAN BIKDS. 99 

DIORCHIS PARVICEPS (Linstow, 1872) Liiutow. 1904. 

For description see Linstow, 1872d, p. 67, pi. 3, figs. 11, 12 {Tsenia parviceps); 
1904n, pp. 306-307, pi. 13, figs. 23-25. 

Host, — Mergus serrator. 

Genus APLOPARAKSIS Clerc, 1903. 

Monorckis Clerc, 1902 (type, Jf. ./i/um (Goeze, 1782); not Monordm, Trematoda). 
Skorikowia Linstow, 1905 (type, S. clausa Linstow, \^b=Aploparalc9is hrachy- 
phallos (Krabbe). (See Fuhbmann, 1908a, p. 82). 

Generic diagnosis. — HymenolepidinaB: Strobila small and slender. 
Rostellum armed with a single crown of hooks, with ventral root as 
long or nearly as long as the blade. Suckers unarmed. One testicle, 
dorsal. Seminal vesicle large. Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Aplopamksis filum (Goeze, 1782) Clerc, 1903. 

APLOPARAKSIS BIRULAI Linstow. 1905. 

For description see Linstow, 1905dd, p. 8, pi. 2, figs. 26-28. 

Host, — Somateria spectabUis, 

APLOPARAKSIS BRACHYPHALLOS (Krabbe. 1869) Fuhrmann. 1908. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 310-311, pi. 8, figs. 193, 194 (Tamia 
hrachyphallos). 

Hosts, — Aegialitis hiaticula, Calidris leucophseaj Pisohia damucensiSy 
Pelidna alpina, ArquateUa rruiritima, Tringa canutus. 

APLOPARAKSIS CIRROSA (Krabbe. 1869) Clerc. 1903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 308, pi. 7, figs. 182-185 (Tsenia cirrosa). — 
Clerc, 1903, pp. 269-271, pi. 8, fig. 14. 

Hosts, — Lams canus, Larus minutusj Sterna hirundo, 

APLOPARAKSIS CRASSIROSTRIS (Krabbe. 1869) Clerc. 1903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, p. 314, pi. 8, figs. 202-204 (Tsmia craa- 
sirostris).— Clerc, 1903, pp. 265-267, pi. 8, fig. 20. 

Hosts, — Hsematopus ostralegus, Sqwatarola sqtuitarola, Aegialitis 
hiaticulaj Machetes pugnax, Pisohia damacensisj Pelidna alpina^ Gal- 
linago gaUinagOj Scolopax rusticola, Lohipes lohatus, 

APLOPARAKSIS DIMINUENS Linstow, X905. 

For description see Linstow, 1905dd, pp. 8-9, pi. 2, figH. 29--31. 

Host, — Phalarojms fulicarius, 

APLOPARAKSIS DUJARDINII (Krabbe. 1869) (:ierc. 1903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 319-320, pi. 9, figs. 223-225 (Taenia 
dujardinii). — Fuhrmann, 1896k, pp. 436-442, pi. 14, figs. 1-4 (Tsenia dujar- 
dini). — Clerc, 1903, pp. 274-275 (A, dujardini). 

Hosts, — Stumus vulgaris, Turdus mu&icus, 

APLOPARAKSIS PILUM (Goeze. 1782) Clerc. X903. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 312-313, pi. 8, figs. 198-201 (Tsenia 
filum),— Clerc, 1903, pp. 257-263, figs. 1, 2, pi. 8, figs. 11, 15. 

Hosts, — Arenaria interpres, Limosa limosa, Totanus tetanus, Helo- 
dromas ochropus, Machetes pugrmx, Pisohia damacensis, Pelidna alpina, 
OaUinago media, GaUinago gaUinago, Scolopax rusticola, Lohipeslohatus, 



developed with lateral branches. Egg with a thin outer membrane, 
and a thick brown radially striated inner shell. Adults in mammals 
and birds. 

Type-genus. — Titnia Linnieus, 1758, 

Genus T/CNEA Linneeus, 1788. 

fhuhtscniaa Cohn, 1901 (lype, C. globi/era (Batbch, l7S6)=Tmnia a/tijiAaem 
BuKB, 17S2; pce Pubrmann, 1906a, p. 220; 1907a, p. 293; 1908a, p. S4). 

Generic diagnosis. — Tteniida": With the characters of the family. 
Adults in mammals und birds. 

Tij pes pedes. — Taenia solium Linnipus, 1758. 

T£NIA CYLINDRACEA BliKh. 1781. 

For description see Mohell, 1895b, pp. 87-92, pi. 7, figs. 5-7 ( T. gMttfera).~~\oiz, 
1900, pp. 157-160, pi. 8, fig. 14 (T. globifrm); pp. 161-163, pi. 8, figs. 15, 1( 
{T. armigrra).—Con!i, 1901b, pp. 373-380. pi. 32, fige. 51-53; pi. 33, figp 
55, 56 ( Cladolmnia globifero). 

Hosts.— Cerckneis tinnuneuiits, Falco sesalon, Falco peregriTms, 
Balistetus albiciUa. 

TJENIA CONSCRIPTA Rtilliet and Henry, igog. 

For description Bee Kowalewski, 189Sa, p. 359, pi. tj, %. 27 (Tmnia hubbei).- 
SrlLBs, 1896f, pp. 42-43, pi. 12, figs, 151. 152 ( Tamia trabbei). 
Host. — Anser anser domesticus. 



<>For eariier synonyms ol TVnui, see Stilee, 1906a, p. 36. 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 101 

Genus DIPLOPOSTHE Jacobi, 1896. . 

Generic diagnosis. — ^Tflenioidea: Closely related to the Aooleidae 
(according to Fuhrmann, 1907a, p. 294; 1908a, p. 85). Scolex with 
rostellum armed with a single crown of ten hooks. Suckers unarmed. 
Inner longitudinal muscle layer, except for two or three small bundles 
in the lateral portion beyond the excretory vessels, developed only 
in the median portion of the segment, consisting of about ten dorsal and 
ten ventral bundles of imequal size. Outer longitudinal muscle layer of 
numerous equally developed bundles, interrupted only at the sides 
where the genital canals pass through. Outside the outer longi- 
tudinal layer a thin layer of diagonal fibers, and at the posterior end 
of the segment a well-developed muscle ring. Genital pores marginal, 
one on each side of the segment. Testicles few (3 to ? 7), in the pos- 
terior portion of the segment. Vasa efFerentia unite to form two vasa 
deferentia. Seminal vesicles present. Cirri two, one on each side of 
the segment, armed with strong hooks. A single set of female glands 
in the median field. Ovary bilobed; behind it, near the posterior 
border' of the segment, the yolk gland. Two vaginae. Uterus sac- 
like, transversely elongated, with large diverticula, wliich push 
through the musculature dorsally and ventrally, and also extend 
forward to the anterior border of the segment. Eggs with three thin 
transparent envelopes. Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Diploposthe hevis (Bloch, 1782, of Diesing, 1850) 
Jacobi, 1896. 

DIPLOPOSTHE LiEVIS (Bloch. 178a) Jacobi. 1896. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 302-303, pi. 7, figs. 165-167 ( Txnia Ixvis).— 
Jacobi, 1897a, pp. 287-306, pis. 26, 27.— Cohn, 1901b, pp. 421-430, pi. 35, figs. 
81-85.— FuHRMANN, 1905a, pp. 217-224. 

Hosts. — Clangula clanguUij MarUa marUa, Netta rujinay Spatula 
dypeata, Nettion creccay Chaulelasmus streperus. Anas ruhripes, Anas 
platyrhynchoSy Anas pUUyrhynchos domestica, Branta canadensis. 

Family ACOLEIDiE (emended name) . 

Acoleinx Fuhrmann, 1900. 
*'Acoleinidx" Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Family diagnosis. — Tsenioidea: Scolex generally armed, seldom 
without rostellum. Suckers unarmed. Strobila thick, with short 
segments. Musculature consists of at least two layers of longitudinal 
muscles alternating with layers of transverse muscles. A single set, 
double set, or partial duplication of reproductive organs in each seg- 
ment. Male genital openings marginal. Female genital (vaginal) 
openings lacking. Cirrus always very large and armed with strong 
hooks or spines. Egg with thin transparent shells. Adults in birds. 

Type'genuH.-Acoleus Fuhrmann, 1899. 



102 BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

. Genus ACOLEUS Fuhrmann, 1899. 

Generic diagnosis, — Acoleidae: Scolex with armed rostellum. A 
single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Male genital pores 
regularly alternate. Cirrus pouch passes ventral of longitudinal 
excretory vessels and nerve. Testicles numerous. Vagina fimctions 
as a very large seminal receptacle. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Acoleus armatus Fuhrmann, 1899 = Acoleus vaginaius 
(Rudolphi, 1819) Fuhrmann, 1900. 

ACOLEUS VAGINATUS (Rudolphi. 18x9) Fuhrmann. 1900. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1899e, pp. 620-622, figs. 4-6 (A. armatus); 1899g, 
pp. 347-350, pi. 17, figs. 10-14 {A. armatus); 1900(', pp. 369-370. 

Host. — Himantopus mexicanus. 

Genus GYROCCELIA Fuhrmann, 1899. 

Brochocephalus Linstow, 1906 (type, B. paradoxus Linstow, 1906; see Fuhnnann, 
1908a, p. 86). 

Oeneric diagnosis, — ^Acoleidse: Rostellum armed with a single 
crown of hooks arranged in a zigzag row having eight angles. A 
single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Male pores 
irregularly alternate. Cirrus pouch passes between the longitudinal 
excretory vessels and dorsal of the nerve. Testicles few. Seminal 
receptacle very small. Uterus ring-like with numerous outpocket- 
ings and with an opening in gravid segments dorsally and ventrally. 
Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Gyrocodia perversus Fuhrmann, 1899. 

GYROCCELIA PARADOXA (Linstow. 1906). 

For dcacription sec Linstow, 1906, p. 183, pi. 2, figs. 36, 38; pi. 3, figs. 35, 37 
{Brochocephalus paradoxus).^ 

Host, — /Egialitis mongola. 

Genus DIPLOPHALLUS Fuhrmann, 1900. 

Generic diagnosis, — Acoleidae: A double set of male reproductive 
organs and a single set of female organs in each segment. Two 
vagince functioning as large seminal receptacles. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Diplophallus polymorphus (Rudolphi, 1819, partim 
Krabbe, 1869) Fuhrmann, 1900. 

DIPLOPHALLUS POLYMORPHUS (Rudolphi. 1819) Fuhrmann. 1900. 

For description see Krabbe, 1869b, pp. 301-302, pi. 7, figs. 163, 164 (Tamia 
polymorpha).—\yoLVViiVsQELf 1900a, pp. 136-152, pi. 5, figs. 67-80, pi. 6, figs. 
81-84 (Taenia polymorpha).— Cons, 1900c, pp. 277-288, pi. 15, figs. 19-22 
(Taenia polynwrpha).— Fvhrm ass ^ 1900c,. p. 371. 

Host, — Himantopus mexicanus. 



a Fuhrmann (1908a, p. 86) examined the original material of Brochocephalus para- 
doxus and found that this species belongs in Gyroccelia in spite of Linstow's different 
description. 



TiENIOID CEST0DE8 OP NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 103 

Genus SHIPLEYAo Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Generic diagnosis, — Acoleida?: Scolex without rostellum, but with 
apical papilla. Single set of reproductive organs in each segment. 
Male genital pores regularly alternate. Cirrus conical in shape, 
armed with large hooks. Yolk gland dorsal of ovary. Vagina rep- 
resented only by a small seminal receptacle in central portion of 
segment. Uterus at first ring shaped, later becomes much branched. 
Adults in birds. 

Type-species, — Shipleya inermis Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Genus DIOICOCESTUS Fuhrmann, 1900. 

Generic diagnosis, — Acoleidae: Dioecius, entire strobila male or 

female. Female thicker and broader than male. Male with a 

double set; female with a single set of reproductive organs in each 

segment. Irregularly alternating vagina reaches almost to the edge 

. of the segment. Eggs with three envelopes. Adults in birds. 

Type^species, — Dioicocestus paronai Fuhrmann, 1900. 

DIOICOCESTUS ACOTYLUS Fuhrmann, 1904. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1904a, pp. 327-331; 1904b, pp. 131-148, pi. 10, 

figs. 2-11. 

Host, — Golymbus dominicus, 

DIOICOCESTUS PARONAI Fuhrmann, 1900. 

For description see Fuhrmann, 1900c, pp. 363-366, figs. 1-3. 

Host. — Plegadis guarauna. 

Family AMABILTTDiE (emended name). 

**Amabilinidas^' Fuhrmann, 1907. 

Family diagnosis, — Taenioidea: Scolex with armed rostellum; 
suckers usually unarmed. Segments with lateral appendages. A 
double or single set of reproductive organs in each segment. Male 
genital pores marginal. Vaginal opening lacking, replaced by the 
marginal, ventral, or dorsal opening of an accessory genital canal. 
Egg with thin- transparent shells. Adults in birds. 

Type-genus, — Amabilia Diamare, 1893. 

Genus AMABILIA Diamare, 1893. 

Aphanobothrium Linbtow, 1906 (type, A. catenatum Linstow, 1906; see Fuhr- 
mann, 1908a, p. 88). 

Generic diagnosis. — Amabiliidse: Scolex very small with armed 
rostellum. A double set of male reproductive organs in each seg- 
ment, with two pores, one on either side of the segment. Cirrus 

oThis genus and its type-species mentioned by Fuhnnann in 1907 (1907a, p. 294), 
were described by him in 1908 (1908b, p. 70). 



104 

•nned 
Female 
acoge-I 
Teatral 
ppMiiiig 
extern 
line, i 
Type- 



Qener 
rosteJlui 
Mslege 
betweei 
extendii 
Tagiud 
sory va 
ventral! 

1007b,] 

SCRISTC 

For description eee Kkabbb, 1869b, p. 305, pi, 7, fig. 172 (Tenia noso- 
rftjowAo).— CoHN, 1900c, pp. 265-277, pi. U, figs. 8-*l8 (S. tnaenr*gndta ud 

fi. icolopendra),—Gi.hRC, 1907, pp. 704-708, pi. 1, figs. 3-7. 

Hosts. — Colymbus dominicus, Gohjmhua aurihia. 

Genus TATRIA Kowalewski, 1904. 

Generic diagnosis. — Aniabilii<l«e : Rostellum witb a siogle crown of 
few large hooks at apex and with numerous rows of small spine-like 
hooks behind the crown of large hooks. Suckers and posterior por- 
tion of head covered with minute spines. Segments not numerous 
(about 30). A single set of reproductive organs in each segment. 
Male genital pores regularly alternate. Cirrus pouch large. Tes- 
ticles not numeroua (7 in the type species). Male and female canals 
pass between the longitudinal excretory vessels. Distal end of 
vagina instead of opening to the exterior turns backward into the 
next following segment and opens into the seminal receptacle of that 
segment. Seminal receptacles in meilian line of strobila. An 
accessory vagina present in the opposite side of the segment from the 
cirrus pouch, sometimes with an opening in the margin of the seg- 
ment. Adults in birds. 

Type-species. — Tairia Uremia Eowalewski, 1904. 



t.«:nioid cestodes of north American birds. 105 

TATRIA APPBNDICULATA Puhrmann. 1908. 

For description 8t»e Fuhrmann, 1908b, p. (>9, fij»B. 56, 57. 

Host. — Colyrnhus dominicus, 

TATRIA BIRBMIS Kowalewtki. 1904. 

For description see Kowalewski, 1904o, pp. 284-304, pis. 5-6, figs. 1-21; 1904e, 
pp. 367-369, pi. 9, figs. I-IO; pi. 10, fip*. 11-21. 

Host, — Colyrnhus auritus. 

Family FTMBRIARIID/E WolflFhu|rel, 1S9S. 

Family diagnosis. — Tsenioidea: Scolcx small, unstable, and fre- 
quently lost, with rostellum armed with a single row of hooks. Largo 
pseudo-scolex. Strobila without segments, but with transverse 
•grooves which produce an appearance of segmentation. Three pairs 
of longitudinal excretory vessels. Reproductive organs not segmen- 
tally arranged. Genital pores marginal, most of them opening on 
the same side of the segment. Testicles numerous, arranged in 
transverse rows. Uterus not persistent, breaking down into a large 
number of e^^ sacs. Egg with thin transparent shells. Aihilts in 
birds. 

Type-genus, — Fimhriaria Frolich, 1802. 

Genus FIMBRIARIA Frolich, 1802. 

Epuion Linton, 1892 (ty[)e, Epision plicatus Linton, 1892). 
Notobothrium Linstow, 1905 (type, Notobothrium arcticum Linhtow, 11K)5= 
Fimhriaria fasciolaris Pallas; see Fuhrm ann, 1908a, p. 90). 

Generic diagnos'is. — Fimbriariidie: With the characters of the 
familv. 

Type-species. — Fimhriaria malleus Frolich, \H02= Fimbriaria fas- 
ciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Wolffhiigel, 1899. 

FIMHRIARIA FASCIOLARIS (Pallas. 1781) Woimiagel. 1899. 

For description sev WolfphI^oel, 1900b, pp. 67-135, fipj. 1-<J6. 

Hosts. — Afergus serraior, Oidemia am^ricana, Oidemia fusca, Soma- 
teria moUissimUy Ilarelda hyemalisy Clangula clanguUi, Afarih mania, 
Netia rufina, Cairina moschata domestica, Spatula clypeata, Nettion 
crecca, Mareca penelope. Anas platyrhynchos^ Anas pUityrhynchos 
domesticay Anser anser donfiesticus, fGaUus gallus domesticus. 

PIMBRIARIA PLANA Linttow. 1905. 

For descTiption we Linstow, I^OTA, pj). 3«2-3«5, pi. 2:^ fiipi. 10-14. 

Host. — Anas platyrhynchos. 



6CM 

rarteD 
orgtD 



Grwm 
y>Kin 
mini 

2Vl 
nmu 

Pa 
fioM. — tfuiontta v tr eteent. 

Oenus COPESOMA Slnltain, 1898. 

* Omerie diagnoria. — ^Taeoioidea: Scolex with latge Tostdlam. Oe 
ital pores iireguUriy Alternate, in young aegmentm ventral, in grav 
segments marginal. Adulte in birds. 

T)fpe-$peci«a. — Copesoma papiBontm Sinitdn, 1896. 

COPUOMA PAPILLOSUM SinlMia. >Mu 

Fof deacription see Fubxmanh, 1901a, p. 761. 

Host. — fPiaobia damaceTims. 

IMPERFECTLY KNOWN SPECIES. 

TSNIA COLLtCULORUH Knbbt. i»6g. 

For d.'Hcriptinii wi' KRAHitE. ISIiflh, |i. 330. pi, 9, %, 259. 

flout. — Riparia ri/xiria. 

TMlllA CONICA' Uolin. tSsS. 

For (Uscripliori hci-Moun, 1861r. pp. 2.^V254, pl.7, figs.l, 2.— Stilbb, 1896(, 
pl.3, HgR. :15, 36. 



Hoat. — Anas platijrhynchos. 



fJost.— Larus canus. 

TiGKIA PILUH ' Q«H ol Linton. 1891. 

For <lL-Bcriplion anu Linton, I892L pp. 106-107, pi. 8, figs. 72-78. 
Host. — Larus califomicus. 

« Part of MoIid'h origiDal {Bureau of Animal Industry, No. 1390) shows the lo 
promiaent rostcUuni, with markn indkating that at oue time there were 10 ho" 
present. 

6 Accordin);t« FuhrmaDn (l90Sa, p. 126) this form is probablya BymmoUpu, pa 
bly Il.fumH. 



TJENIOID CESTODES OP NORTH AMEBICAN BIBD6. 

TSNIA LEUCKARTl K[*bbc. i>6g. 

For d<-soriptioii wi- Kradbb, IK691), p. 337, pi. 10, fijiH. 268, MH. 
Host. — Ardfa cinena. 

TJEmA HACROCANTHA Untoii. i89>. 

For descriplion wo I.ivton, 18921. p. 107, pi. 8. fie». 79^2. 

H americana. 



Host. — Arqwiteiln marilinia. 

TSNIA HUSCICAP£ Liiutaw. 

Mentioned by Fukbmann, 19(l8a, pp. %. 173, 182. 
Host. — MotaciUa alba. 

TSNIA ODtOSA Lcidy, 1H7. 

For dfscriptiod «•<■ I.eidy, 18fl7a, pp. 5-6. figB. 9-1 1 ; 1904a. pp. 203-203, fifn.. 9-11. 
Hnst. — Colinua virffinianvs. 



>. 9-10, figx. 23-25: 1904a, | 



Host. — Oporom is ftimi osa . 



T£NIA PESTIFERA Lcidy. i>ss. 

For deocriplbn two I.EIDY. 185.5a, p. 443; IS87a, pp. 3-4,fipi. 2-4; 19D4e, pp.76, 
201, figs. 2-4. 
Hosts. — Icteria virena, Uolichonyx oryzivorus. 



an^enM^i, Saxicola muijitht-, Anthus jtraterm^. 

T£NIA SIMPLA Lcidy, 1887. 

For I.Binv, 1887a, p. 8. fig. 18; 1904a, p. 20ri, flp. 18. 

carolinen»is. 

T£NIA Leidy. tSsj. 

For TMi iDv, ISS.'ia, p. 444; 1904a, p. 70. 

Host. — - acadica. 

TJBNIA RIOIDBS U6niibttg. iSgo. 

For description bto Lonnbbbh, 1890b, pp. 13-15. 
Host. — Pelidna alpina. 



Host.— Molotkrus ater. 

TAENIA VEXATA Lcidy, 1887- 

For deecription mx I.eidy, 1887a, pp. 7-K, figs. 15, 10; 1904a, p. 204. fip>, l.'),16. 
Hoat.—PhUpotomus jnlfatus. 

TSNIA VIATOR Leidy, 1887- 

Fof description wo Leidy, 1887a, pp. 6-7, figs. 12-14; 1904a. p. 203, figs. 12, 14. 



Host. — Klanoithn /orficatxts. 



108 



BULLSTIK 69, UKITBD ACATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM. 



COMPENDIUM OF 8PBCIB8 PARASITIC IN NOBTH AMERICAN BIRDS ARRANORD AOOORI 

TO HOSTS. 

The scientific names of hosts have been selected for me by ! 
H. C. Oberholser, of the Bureau of Biological Surv^ey, U. S. Dept 
ment of Agriculture. 

Species of tapeworms collected in this country of which I h 
examineil specimens are indicated by an asterisk, and the namec 
the hosts in which they were found are similarly marked. 



COLTMBIPORMES. 



Oavia stellau (Pontoppidan). 

TetrabotkriuM maeroeephaluSf p. 60. 
HymmoUpiM eapUlarii, p. 91. 
roiidlaUif p. 96. 

Qavia arctica (LiniueuB). 

TetnbothriuM maawsephaliu, p. 60. 
HymenoUpia eapUUmM^ p. 91. 
rotteUata, p. 96. 

Qavia immer (RrQnnich). 

Tetnhotkritu maerocephaliu, p. 60. 
Hffmenolepu capUlariMf p. 91. 
roaUUata, p. 96. 



Colymtma dominicua a Liniueufl. 

ChoanoUenia bUateralUp p. 75. 

Hymenolepu capillamdeM, p. 91. 

DMcocatus aeo^f/tu, p. 103. 

SdiutoUmia maenrhjfneka^ p. 104 

Tatria appendicuiatOf p. 105. 
Colymbas auritua Lmnieiis. 

TetrabotkrivM maeroeephahUt p. 6Q 

HipnenolepiM oapiUariM^ p. 91. 
furcifera, p. 93. 
podwipina^ p. 96. 

SdiutoUmia macrarhyndia^ p. lOi 

Tatria biremis^ p. 105. 



PROCELLARnPORM E8 . 



Puffinus puffinus (BrOnnich). 

Tetrahothriui htterocliUts, p. 60. 
Pufiinus kuhli 6 (Hoio). 

Tetrabothrius hettroclitwHy p. 60. 
Priocella glacialoides (Smith). 

Tetrabothrius hettroctituSy p. 60. 
Daption capensis (Linna*UH). 

Tetrabothrius hetrrodituSj p. 60. 
Fulmarus glacialis (Liniuvus). 

Tetrabothrius moiiticeUii^ p. GO. 



Diomedea ezulans Linnsus. 

Tetrabothrius diomtdese, p. 60. 
heteroclittiSy p. 60. 
umbrella y p. 61. 
Diomedea albatrus Palla.«i. 

Tetrabothrius hcteToclittis, p. 00. 
toruloftuSj p. GO. 
Phcebetria palpebrata ( F< irst er ) . 
Tetrabothrius umhriila, p. 61. 



CICONIIFORMK8. 



Phalacrocorax carbo (Linna?u8). 

D He pis scolecina, p. 72. 
Sula bassana (Linna»ii.'<). 

Tetrabothrius, spocics, \k 01. 
Sula leucogastra (Bodduort). 

Tetrabothrius pelecani, p. 60. 
Fregata aquila ( Linnwiis). 

f Tetralu)'hrius yW».ra/u*, p. fJO. 



Nycticorax nycticoraxc (Linnaeus). 

Tetrabothrius porrigens, p. 60. 

Cryfmrht/nchus pusillus, p. S3. 

Ilymenolepis m icroeephaln. 
Butohdes vircscens (Linuieus). 

Dilepis vnilateralis, p. 72. 

llynuuohpis ardeiVy j). 91. 

TetracisiHeotijtn iimrroseolecinaj y*. 



« Th<» ty pit'ul form, C, dominicus doiniriicus in South Am('ri<ari ; ( '. (htmitiiras hrtm 
terus (,'hapmiin is tlu» North Amoricau form. 

<» lIyi)oth<'tical North Ammcan form. 

cTho tyi)iral form in P^uropean; the North Amoriran form is A', nycticorax mr 
(Rodda(»rt). 



TJENIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



109 



Florida caerulea (Linneeus). 

Dilepis papilli/eraf p. 72. 

Anomotasnia auritay p. 77. 
CasmerodiuB egretta (Gmelin). 

Dilepis unilateralism p. 72. 
Ardea cinerea Linnaeus. 

Dilepis unilateralism p. 72. 

Gryporhynchus cheilancristrotuSf p. 83. 

Hymenolepis microcephalay p. 94. 

Taenia leuckarti, p. 107. 

AN8ERIF0RME8 



Plegadis guarauna (Linnaeus). 

fAnonchotaenia longiovata, p. 87. 

Dioicocestus p<xraruii, p. 103. 
Plegadis autumnalis (Linnseus). 

Dilepis urceuSy p. 72. 

IJipnenolepis microcephalay p. 94. 
*Ajaia ajaja (Linnseus). 

* Dilepis transfuga^ p. 72. 

*Ci/clustera capita , p. 82. 



Mergus serrator Linnseus. 

Ophryocotyley species, p. 07. 
Hymenolepis gracilis , p. 93. 

tenuiroatris, p. 97. 
Diorchis parviceps, p. 99. 
Fimbriariafasciolarisy p. 105. 
Mergellus albellus (Linnseus). 

Hymenolepis tenuirostris, p. 97. 
Oidemia americana Swainson and Rich- 
ardson. 

Hymenolepis compressOj p. 92. 
Fimbriaria/asciolaris, p. 105. 
Taenia macrocanthay p. 107. 
Oidemia fusca (Linnaeus). 

Lateripoms hiuterinuSy p. 73. 
Hymenolepis microsomaj p. 95. 
tenuirostris, p. 97. 
FimhriariafascioUtris, p. 105. 
Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus). 
Hymenolepis microsoma, p. 95. 
retracta, p. 96. 
sibirica, p. 96. 
Aploparaksis birulai, p. 99. 
Somateria mollissimaa (Linnseus). 
Tetrabothrius arcticttSj p. 60. 
Lateriporus teres y p. 73. 
Hymenolepis fallaXy p. 92. 

microsoma, p. 95. 
tenuirostris, p. 97. 
Fimbriariafasciolaris, p. 105. 
Harelda hyemalis (Linnseus;. 
iMteriporus teres, p. 73. 
Choanotxnia borealis, p. 75. 
Hymenolepis coronula, p. 92. 

gra',nlandica, p. 93. 
mirrosoma, p. 95. 
Fimhriaria fnsciolaris , p. 105. 



Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus). 
Hymenolepis pachycephala, p. 95. 
Clang^la clangulab (Linnaeus). 
Hymenolepis coronula, p. 92. 

macracanthoSy p. 94. 
Diploposthe lacvis, p. 101. 
Fimbriaria/asciolariSy p. 105. 
Aristonetta valisineria (Wilson). 

Hymenolepis compressa, p. 92. 
Marila marila (Linnseus). 

Hymenolepis aequabilis, p. 90. 

arcuata, p. 91. 

compressa, p. 92. 

coronula, p. 92. 

fallax, \). 92. 

gracilis y p. 93. 

megalops, p. 94. 

microsoma, p. 95. 

pignumtata, p. 95. 

tenerrinuiy p. 97. 

tenuirostriSy p. 97. 

spwcies, p. 97. 
Diploposthe laevis, p. 101. 
Fimbriariafasciolaris, p. 105. 
Netta rufina (Pallas). 

Hymenolepis lanceolata, p. 94. 
Diploposthe laevis y p. 101. 
Fimbriaria/asciolaris, p. 105. 
Cairina moschatac (Linnaeus). 
Lateriporus biuterinus, p. 73. 
f Biuterina longiceps, p. 88. 
Hymenolepis bisaccata, p. 91. 

lanceolata, p. 94. 

megalops, p. 94. 

papillata, p. 95. 
Cairina moschata domestica. 
Fimhriaria fasdolarisy p. 105. 



a The typical form cKcurs only in the Old World; the North American form is 
Somateria mollissima borealis Hrehm. 

&The typical form oi-curs only in the Old World; C. clangula americana Bonaparte 
is the North American form. 

c In its natural state this HfX'cieH occurs only in South America, but is domesticated 
in the United HtsiUnt. 



110 



BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). 
Hymenolepis cmatina^ p. 91. 

echinocotyle, p. 92. 

gracilis y p. 93. 

ociacantha^ p. 95. 
Diphposthe Iannis, p. 101. 
Fimbriaria/asciolarw, p. 105. 
Nettion crecca (Linnseiu). 

Hymenolepis fragilis^ p. 93. 

gracilis, p. 93. 

megalops, p. 94. 

octacantha, p. 95. 
Diorchis acuminata, p. 42. 
Aploparaksis furcigera, p. 100. 
Diphposthe lasvis, p. 101. 
Fitnbruiriafasciolaris, p. 105. 
*Daiila acuta (Linnaeus). 

Hymenolepis anatina, p. 91. 

collaris, p. 92. 

*megalop8f p. 94. 

octacantha, p. 95. 
Mareca penelope (Linnaeus). 
Hymenolepis coUaris, p. 92. 

coronula, p. 92. 
fallax, p. 92. 

fasciculata, p. 93. 

gracilis, p. 93. 
Diorchis acuminata, p. 42. 
Fimbriaria/asciolaris, p. 105. 
Chaulelasmus streperus (LinnaeuH), 
//ymenolepis nnnllna, p. 91. 

frag His, p. 9:^. 

gnirilis, p. 93. 

(K-(ficanth(i. p. 05. 

ffrr.soiffrs. p. 97. 
Piorrhis (irunniuiin, p. -12. 
f)ij)lf)jn)stfu l.rris, p. 101. 
Anas rubripes Hr('w.-;(rr. 

Jfi/incnf)l(j)is hnicfolatd. p. 94. 
Diphiposthc l.rris, p. 101. 
Anas platyrhynchos J.innaMis. 
Hymenolepis lOmrtira, \). 90. 

<nin(in(i, p. 91 . 

(■(tlhiris, p. 92. 

eoronula, p. 92. 

(/nn'i/i.s, p. 93. 

(H'taaintfin, j>. 95. 

(rij'olintn. j). 97. 



Anas plat3rrhynchos LiDnaeus — Coz 
Aploparaksis/urctgera, p. 100. 
Diphposthe Issvis, p. 101. 
Fimbriaria/asciolaris y p. 105. 

plana, p. 105. 
Tamta contca, p. 106. 
Anas plat3rrhyncho8 domestica. 
Davainea anatina, p. 67. 
Hymenolepis anatina, p. 91. 
collaris, p. 92. 
coTonuUi, p. 92. 
gracilis, p. 93. 
hnceolata, p. 94. 
megahps, p. 94. 
parvuhj p. 95. 
sagitta, p. 96. 
tenuirostris, p. 97. 
v^nu^to, p. 97. 
Echinocotyle rosseteri, p. 98. 
Diphposthe he vis, p. 101. 
Fimbriaria/asciolaris, p. 105. 
Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus 

Lateriporus biuterinus, p. 73. 
Branta bemicla» (Linnaeus). 

Hymenolepis lanceolata, p. 94. 
setigera, p. 96. 
Branta canadensis (Linnaeun). 

Diphposthe Iannis, p. 101. 
Branta leucopsis (Bechs»tein). 

Ilymennlepis longivagiiuita, p. 9- 
setigera, p. 90. 
Anser anser '^ (Linnanis). 

Hymenolepis eollaria, p. 92. 
roronula, p. 92. 
ereplini, j>. 92. 
Jasriculnld, p. 93. 
hineeoldta. p. 94. 
setigera, p. 9(). 
Anser anser domesticus. 

Uymenolejiis collar is, p. 92. 

fnsriculatu, p. 93. 
gniriliji, p. 93. 
Ifitireolatd, p. 94. 
leniilroslris, j). 97. 
T.enid coiiserlpfd, \). 100. 
Fimbridrid/dsrioldris. p. 105. 
Anser fabalis (Latham). 

Hymenolepis seligeni, j). 9(). 



* "ii 



''The typical form occurs only in the Old World; the Xortli Amcri<aii form 

« I * 

herniela gldnr()</d,s(rd (Brchm). 

'' In its natural state this species occurs only in the Old World, hut is domestic 
in the United vStates. 



* n 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NOBTH AMEBICAN BIBDS. 



HI 



Anser albifrons (Gmelin). 

Hymenolepis creplini^ p. 92. 

/(uciculata, p. 93. 
Cygnus oloro (Linnseus). 

Ui/menolepis seqiiabilis, p. 90. 
creplinx, p. 92. 
Cygnus olor domesticus. 

Hymenolepis aequabilisy p. 90. 
anatinay p. 91. 
setigera, p. 96. 



Olor cygnus (LinneeuH). 

Hymenolepis sequahilis, p. 90. 
creplinif p. 92. 
lanceohUij p. 94. 
liophallosy p. 94. 
megalopSy p. 94. 
micrancristrota, p. 94. 
setigera, p. 96. 



FALCONIIFOBME8. 



Cerchneis tinnunculus (Linnseus). 

Mesocestoides perlatuSj p. 61. 

Taenia qflindrajcea, p. 100. 
Palco aesalon Tunstall. 

Taenia qflindracea^ p. 100. 
Palco pereg^nus b Tunstall. 

Taenia cylindracea, p. 100. 



Halisetus albicilla (Linneeus). 

Taenia cylindraceay p. 100. 
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus). 

Mesocestoides perlatuSj p. 61. 
Elanoides forficatus (Linnseus). 

Oligorchis strangulatuSy p. 89. 

Taenia viator ^ p. 107. 



OALLIFORlfES. 



^Meleagris gallopavo domestica. 
*Davainea cesticilltuty p. 67. 
* Metroliasthes lucidOy p. 88. 

* Hymenolepis cantanianay p. 36. 

meleagrisy p. 94. 
mtuculosat p. 95. 
*Pavo cristatusc Linneeus. 

* Hymenolepis cantaniana, p. 36. 
*Gallu8 gallus domesticus. 

*Davainea ccsticilluSy p. 67. 
*tetragonay p. 68. 
*echinobothriday p. 68. 
l?Darainea\ longicollisy p. 68. 
Davainea mutahilisy p. 68. 

paraechinobothriday p. 68. 

*proglottinay p. 68. 

voUiy p. 69. 
Cotugnia digonoporay p. 69. 
*Choanot3enia in/undibulumy p. 75. 
*Ama'botar.nia sphenoideSy p. 80. 
*f Metroliasthes luciday p. 88. 
^Hymenolepis cantanianay p. 36. 

*cariocay p. 91. 

«n7w, p. 92. 

rillosay p. 97. 
t Fimbriaria fasciolarisy p. 105. 



Phasianus colchicus << Linnaeus. 

Davainea friedbergeriy p. 68. 

ChoanoUenia infundibulumy p. 75. 

Hymenolepis cantanianay p. 36. 
phasianinay p. 95. 
*Centrocercu8 urophasianus (Bonaparte), 

*RfMbdometra nullicollisy p. 25. 

f Hymenolepis micropSy p. 94. 

^Pedioecetes phasianellus columbianus 
(Ord). 
*Rhabdomttra nullicolliSy p. 25. 

Cotumix cotumixd (Linnaeus). 
Davainea drcumvallataf p. 68. 

polyuterinay p. 68. 
Choanotaenia infundibulumy j). 75. 
Rhabdometra nigropunctatOy p. 86. 
Hymenolepis lineay p. 94. 
Pulica atra'Linnaeus. 

f Hymenolepis anatinay p. 91. 

poculiferay p. 96. 
fDiorchis acuminalay p. 42. 
inflatay p. 98. 
*Pulica americana Gmelin. 
*Diorchis acuminatOy p. 42. 
*ammcami, p. 48. 



a In its natural state this species occurs only in the Old World, hut is domesticated 
in the United States. 

ft The typical form occurs only in the Old World; the North American form is F. pere- 
grinus anatum HonajmrU^. 

« Domesticated in North America. 

<* Introduced in North America. 



112 



BULLETIN 69, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Crex crex) Linneeus). 

Anomotsenia jyyriformis^ p. 79. 
Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus. 

Ophryocotyle irmgniSf p. 67. 

Choanotsenia paradoxa, p. 75. 



Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus — Con. 

Hymenolepis ckmdestinaf p. 92. 

Aploparctksia crassirostris, p. 99. 
Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus). 

Taenia odiosa, p. 107. 



CHARADRIIFORMES. 



Vanellus vanellus (Linneeus). 

Anomotxnia microphalloa^ p. 79. 
variabilis, p. 80. 
Squatarola squatarola (Linnaeus). 

Anomotxnia variabilis, p. 80. 

Arruxboixnia brevis, p. 80. 

Aploparaksis crassirostris, p. 99. 
Charadrius apricarius Linnaeus. 

Choanotxnia Ixvigata, p. 75. 
paradoxa, p. 75. 

Anomotxnia ericetorum, p. 78. 

miarorhyncha, p. 79. 

Amxbotxnia brevis, p. 80. 
^gialitis hiaticula (Linnaeus). 

Ophryocotyle proteus, p. 67. 

Choanotxnia Ixvigata, p. 75. 

Anomotxnia microrhyncha, p. 79. 

Am^botxnia brevis, p. 80. 

Hymenolepis rectacantha, p. 96. 

Echinocotyle nitidulans, p. 98. 

Aploparaksis brachyphallos, p. 99. 
crassvrostris, p. 99. 
^gialitis dubia (Scopoli). 

Monopylidium cinguli/erum, p. 76. 

Anomotxnia microrhyncha, p. 79. 
^g^alitis nivosa Cassin. 

Choanotxnia coronata, p. 75. 
Ixvigata, p. 75. 
^gialitis mongola (Pallas). 

Gyrocalia paradoxa, p. 102. 
Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis retirostris, p. 72. 

Anomotxnia ctaxngera, p. 78. 

Aploparaksis filum, p. 99. 
Numenius borealis (Forster). 

Anomotxnia nymphxa, p. 79. 
Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis limosa, p. 71. 

Anomotxnia nymphxa, p. 79. 

Hymenolepis uliginosa, p. 97. 
Limosa limosa (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis limosa, p. 71. 

EchinocotyU nilida, p. 98. 

Aploparaksis filum, p. 99. 



Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin). 

Anomotamia orionis, p. 77. 
Totanus flavipes (Gmelin). 

AnoTTvoixnia orionis, p. 77. 
Totanus totanus (Linnaeus). 

Trichocephaloides megalocephala, p. 73. 
Monopylidium cinguli/erum, p. 76. 
Anomotxnia platyrhyncha, p. 79. 

variabilis, p. 80. 
Hymenolepis amphitricha, p. 90. 
Aploparaksis filum, p. 99. 
Helodromas ochropus (Linnaeus). 

Monopylidium macracanthum, p. 76. 
i4nomo^a?nia orionis, p. 77. 

globulus, p. 78. 
Aploparaksis filum, p. 99. 

pubescens, p. 100. 
Machetes pugnax (Linnaeus). 

Monopylidium cinguli/erum, p. 76. 
^Tiomo^amia globulus, p. 78. 

microMync/Mi, p. 79. 
Hymenolepis brachycephala, p. 91. 
Aploparaksis crassirostris, p. 99. 
filum, p. 99. 
Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). 

Anomptxnia nymphxa, p. 79. 
Calidris leucophaea (Palias). 
Ophryocotyle proteus, p. 67. 
Trichocephaloides megalocephala, p. 73. 
Aploparaksis brachyphallos, p. 99. 
Pisobia damacensis (Horsfield). 
Dilepis nymphoides, p. 71. 
Trichocephaloides megalocephala, p. 73. 
Monopylidium cingulifenim, p. 76. 
i4rMwioia?nta clavigera, p. 78. 

microphallos, p. 79. 
platyrhyncha, p. 79. 
t Hymenolepis vallei,^ p. 97. 
Echinocotyle nitida, p. 98. 
Aploparaksis brachyphallos, p. 99. 
crassirostris, p. 99. 
filum, p. 99. 
penetrans, p. 100. 
fCopesoma papillosum, p. 106. 



a Fuhrmann (1908 a, p. 118) lists this species as a parasite of P. domoceTms, a possible 
error. Stossich (1892 b) described Txnia vallei as a parasite of TWn^a minuto, but 
Fuhrmann has not listed it under the latter host. 



TiENIOID CESTODES OF NOBTH AMERICAN BIBDS. 



113 



Erolia femiginea (BrUnnich). 
Ophryocotyle proteus, p. 67. 
Trichocephaloides nugalocepkala^ p. 73. 
Choanotsenia paradoxay p. 75. 
Anomotaenia vanabilis, p. 80. 
Pelidna alpina (Linnaeus). 
Ophryocotyle protetLSy p. 67. 
Dilepis reiirostriSy p. 72. 
Trichocephaloides megalocephaloy p. 73. 
Anomotasnia cingulata, p. 77. 
clavigerGy p. 78. 
variabilis y p. 80. 
Hymenolepis amphitrichay p. 90. 
Echinocotyle nitida, p. 98. 

nitidulansy p. 98. 
Aploparahsis brachyphalloSy p. 99. 
crassirostris, p. 99. 
filuMy p. 99. 
Taenia tetrabothrioideSy p. 107. 
Arquatella maritima (Brtinnich). 

Trichocephaloides megalocephaUiy p. 73. 
Uymenolepis amphitrichay p. 90. 
Echinocotyle nitidtty p. 98. 
Aploparaksis brachyphalloSy p. 99. 
Taenia megalorhynchdy p. 107. 
Tringa canutus Linnaeus. 

Anomotaenia clavigeray p. 78. 
Aploparaksis brachyphalloSy p. 99. 
Gallinago media (Latham). 

Aploparaksis filuniy p. 99. 
Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus). 
Choanotaenia embryoy p. 75. 

par(Kfo3:a, p. 75. 
Anomotasnia asgyptiactty p. 77. 
bacilligera, p. 77. 
citrus y p. 78. 
slesvicensisy p. 79. 
variabilis y p. 80. 
Hymenolepis sphaerophora, p. 96. 
Echinocotyle nitida, p. 98. 
Aploparaksis crassirostris, p. 99. 
filumy p. 99. 
penetranSy p. 100. 
Philohela minor (Gmelin). 

.4no7notenia variabilis, p. 80. 
. Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus. 
Cfioanotaenia embryo y p. 75. 
paradoxay p. 75. 
stelli/era, p. 76. 
Anomotaenia at^gyptiaca, p. 77. 
badlligeray p. 77. 
slesvicensis, p. 79. 
Hymenolepis amphitricha, p. 90. 
interruptay p. 93. 

3264— Bull. 69—09 8 



Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus — Cont*d. 
Hymenolepis sphasrophora, p. 96. 
Aploparaksis crassirostris, p. 99. 
filum, p. 99. 
pubescens, p. 100. 
Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus). 
Aploparakiis diminuens, p. 99. 
Lobipes lobatus (Linnaeus). 

Choanotaenia paradoxay p. 75. 
Hymenolepis minor y p. 95. 
Aploparaksis crassirostris, p. 99. 
filumy p. 99. 
Himantopus mexicanus ^M tiller). 
Monopylidium rostellatumy p. 76. 
Hymenolepis himaniopodiSy p. 93. 
Acoleus vaginattiSy p. 102. 
Diplophallus polymorphus, p. 102. 
Pagophila alba (Gunnerus). 

-^Tiomotenia micracanthay p. 78. 
Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus). 

Tetrabothrius cylindraceuSy p. 60. 

erostriSy p. ^. 
Choanotaenia porosay p. 76. 
ilnomotemia larinay p. 78. 

micracanthay p. 78. 
Lams hyperboreus Gunnerus. 

Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, p. 60. 
^nomo^a?nia larina, p. 78. 

micracantha, p. 78. 
Hym£nolepis fusuSy p. 93. 
f Hymenolepis microsome y p. 95. 
Larus marinus Linnaeus. 

Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, p. 60. 

erostriSy p. 60. 
Choanotaenia porosa, p. 76. 
Anomotasnia micracantha, p. 78. 
Hym^enolepisfusus, p. 93. 
Larus argentatus BrUnnich. 

Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, p. 60. 

erostris, p. 60. 
Choanotaenia porosa, p. 76. 
• Larus californicus Lawrence. 
Choanotaenia porosa, p. 76. 
Taenia filum, p. 106. 
Larus canus Linnaeus. 

Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, p. 60. 

erostris, p. 60. 
Ophryocotyle proteus, p. 67. 
[? Dilepis] cylindrica, p. 71. 
Choanotaenia porosa, p. 76. 

stemina, p. 76. 
Anomotaenia micracantha, p. 78. 
Hymenolepis baschkiriensis, p. 91. 
Aploparaksis cirrosa, p. 99, 
Taenia distinctay p. 106. 



114 



' Colaptes auratnm (Limueua). 

* Davainta comilabt, p. 16. 

* rhtfJiehola, p. 10. 

* Liga brtuilinms, p. 21. 
*MelBnerpe9erythrocephalu9(LinnieuB). 

* Davainea comitala, p. 15. 

• rhynchcta, p. 10. 
PblceotomuB pileatus (Linnsua), 

Txnia veiala, f. 107. 



CinMogUax acadica (Omelin). 



TyrannuB fnelanchalicu*li VieUlnt 

ATiOTKkoUenia, Hpeciee, p. 87. 
Alauda arvensisc LJDDseus. 

Menorasloideii alaudse, p. 61. 
Biuttrina pasaerina, p. 88. 
Anondtnta-.nia globala, p. 34. 
Txnia ptalyctphala, p. 107. 
StumuB vulgaris LinnieuH. 
IHIcpia undtila, p. 72. 
fChoanoticnia parina, p. 75. 



Tenia ttrigit-aeadiat, p. 107. 
Asia flammeuB (Pontoppidan). 

Paruterina oandtltAraria, p. 85. 
AntroBlomua catoUnenBis (Gmelin). 

HymenoUjnM bnuiliertiu, p. 91. 

Tamia timpla, p. 107. 
Chordeilea virginianns (Gtnelin). 

DiUpii eaprimulgoTum, p. 71. 



StumuB vulgaris Liniueus — CoDtinued. 

Monopylidium miaculiMnan, p. 76. 

IlymenoUpii /arciminota, p. 92, 

Aphparatsii dujardinii, p. 99. 
Turdus musicus LinuKue, 1756. 

DiUpit undiila, p. 72. 

Anomotienia corutrieta, p. 78. 

Aploparaktit dujardmii, p. 99. 
Planesticus migralorius (Limueug). 

f llymenoUpit terpenluiiu, p. 96. 



n In its natural atate this speciwi wcure only in the Old World. 
I> The typical form ia South American; the North Americas form U T. melancholieta 
couehi Baird. 

'Introduced io North Am«rica. 



T^NIOID CESTODES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



115 



Sazicola oenanthe (Linnseus). 

Anomotasnia trigonocephalaj p. 79. 

Hymenolepis orientalis, p. 95. 

Taenia platycephala, p. 107. 
*Pica picao (Linnceus). 

Dilepis undula, p. 72. 

^Anomotae^ia constricta, p. 78. 

Hymenolepis serpentulns, p. 96. 
atylosa, p. 97. 
^Corvus ocsifragus Wilson. 

*Anomotxnia constricta, p. 78. 
*Corvu8 brachyrhynchos Brehm. 

*Anomot3dnia constricta^ p. 78. 
Corvus corax b Linnaeus. 

Dilepis undula, p. 72. 

Anomotasnia constricta^ p. 78. 

Hymenolepis serpentulus, p. 96. 
stylosa, p. 97. 
Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). 

Anomotamia cyathiformis^ p. 78. 
hirundina^ p. 78. 

Angularia beema, p. 84. 

Taenia colliculorum, p. 106. 
Progne subis (Linneeus). 

Anonchotaenia macrocephala^ p. 87. 
Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis attenvjata, p. 71. 

Gryporhynchus macrorostralus, p. 83. 

Taenia platycephala, p. 107. 
Motacilla alba Linnaeus. 

Anom4)taenia borealis, p. 77. 

Taenia musdcapaey p. 107. 



Icteria virens (Linnaeus). 

Taenia pestifera^ p. 107. 
Oporornis fonnosa (Wilson). 

Taenia oporornis y p. 107. 
^Dendroica striata (Forster). 

*Anonchotaenia glohata, p. 34. 
Dolichonyx oryzivonis (Linnaeus). 

Taenia pestifera^ p. 107. 
Molothnis ater (Boddaert). 

Biuterina trapezoideSy p. 88. 

Taenia umigeray p. 107. 
*Melo8piza melodia (Wilson). 

*Anonchotaenia globata^ p. 34. 
Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus). 

Anamotaenia borealis ^ p. 77. 
Passer domesticusc (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis attenuatay p. 71. 

Choanotaenia parina, p. 75. 

Monopylidium passerinum, p. 76. 

AnoTvchotaenia globata, p. 34. 

Hymenolepis passeriSy p. 93. 
Passer montanusc (Linnaeus). 

Dilepis attenuatay p. 71. 

Choanotaenia parina, p. 75. 

Anonchotaenia globata, p. 34. 

Hymenolepis passerisy p. 93. 
Agpiothus linaria (Linnaeus). 

Anonchotaenia globatxiy p. 34. 

Hymenolepis passeriSy p. 93. 
Loxia curvirostra d Linnaeus. 

Anonchotaenia globata, p. 34. 



o The typical form is confined to the Old World ; the North American form is Pica 
pica hudsonia (Sabine). 

b The typical form occursonly in the Old World ; two North American forms are 
recognized, C. corax principalis Ridgway (northern), and C. corax sinuatus Wagler 
(southern). 

c Introduced in North America. 

<^The typical form occurs only in the Old World; the North American form is 
L. curvirostra minor (Brehm). 



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1895 a. Idem. Original. In Rozpr. . . . wydz. mat.-przyr. Akad. Umiej. w 

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122 



KOWALS 

1S06. 



KSKVIT, 

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• T-ENIOH) CESTODES OF NOBTH AMEBICAN BIBDS. 123 

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1905 b. Idem. In Bull. Int. Acad. Sci., Cracovie, Class. Sci. Mat. et Nat., no. 

10, December, 1904, pp. 733-735, pi. 16, figp. 1-1 . \,^\bl,^^\ 



figa.1-43. [Wb.] 
Weinland, D. F. 

1S56 a. [ReproductioQof paraaiticanimals.] [Secretary'eabstractof remorkSiJuly 
23.] In Proc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hi8t., vol. 6, October, pp. 24-26. [W».] 

1857 b. ObaSrvationBonanewgenuBoE twnioidB. [Paperrettd Novembers, 1856.] 

Ibidepi, JaDuary, pp. 59-62^ diBcusaion, pp. 62-63. [Wa.] 

1858 c. Human cesloides. An essay od the tapeworms of man, etc. x+93pp.. 12 

figs. Cambridge, Mass. [Wa, Wm.] 

WoLPFHtOEL, K. 

189S b. Tienia malfeiuGoeze, BepraseataDt einer eigenen Ceelodenfamiliei Fim- 

briariidse. In Zool.Anz., Leipzig, no. 561, vol.21, June 13, pp. 388-389. 

[Wa, Wm.] 
1899 a. Beitiag zur Kenntnia der Anatomie einiger Vogelceetoden. Ibidem, 

no. 588, vol. 22, May 29, pp. 217-223. [MS. dated April 25.] (Wa, Wm.] 
1900a. BeitragzurKeDDtnia der Vogelbelminthen. Disa. (Baael). 204 pp., pl«. 

1-7, figs. 1-114. Freiburg i. Br. [Wa.] ' 
1904 a. £in intereseantee Exemplar des Taubenbandwm-mee, Bertia dela/ondi 

(Railliel). In Berl. tierarztl. Woch., no. 3, January 14, pp. 45-48, figs. 

l-l. [Wa, Wm.] 

ZSCHOKEE, P. 

1898 c. Die Ceatoden der Maraupialia und Monotremata. (In Semon, Richard. 

Zoologiflche ForechungareiBen in Australien [etc.], vol. 5, 4. Lief., Jena. 

pp. 1-24.) In Denksch. med.-nat. Ges., Jena, vol. 8, pp. 357-380, pi. 

24, figs. 1-13. [Wc] 
1903a. Die arktischen Ceatoden. In Fauna Arctica, Jena, vol. 3, 1. Lief., pp. 

1-32, figs. 1-3, pis. 1,2, figB. 1-23. [Publiahed July.] [Wa, Wb.] 



INDEX. 



(Sjmonyins are printed in italics; principal page references in Ijold-facetl type.) 



Pasre. 

abortlva, Hymenolepis »0, 110 

Txnia 90 

acadica, Cryptoglaux 107, 1 14 

AcarUhocimu 83 

eheilancristrota 83 

maeropeot 83 

maeroroHratus 83 

accuminata, DiorchiM 42 

AcoleidflB 53,101,102.103 

AeoUinx 101 

Acoldnidx 101 

Acoleus 54, 101 , 1 02 

armattu 102 

vaglnatus 102, 113 

acoUum, Anomotsnia 77 

acotyhis, Dioicooestus 108, 108 

actinioides, Thysanosoma 66 

acuminata, Diorchis... 42-48, 49,50,51,98, r 0,111 

DrepanidoUmia 42 

Tstnia 42 

acuta, Daflla 91,92,94,96, 1 10 

^giaUtls dubia 76, 79, 1 1 2 

hiaUcuIa 67,75,79,80,96,98,99, 1 12 

mongola 102, 1 12 

ni vosa 75, 1 1 2 

iEglothus linaria 87,93, 1 16 

segyptiaca, Anomotsenia 77, 113 

Choanotxnia 77 

Tstnia 77 

squabllis, Dicranotxnia 90 

Drepanilotxnia 90 

Hymenolepis 90, 100, HI 

Tstnia 90 

eesalon, Falco 100,111 

AJala ajaja 72, 82, 109 

AJauda arvensls 61,87,88, 107, 114 

alaudffi, Amnina 87 

Mesocestoides 61,114 

alba, Aporlna 66 

Motacllla 77,107,116 

Pagophila 78, 1 1« 

albatnis, Diomedea 60, 108 

albcllus, Mergellus 97, 109 

alblcllla, HaUaeetus 100, 1 1 1 

albifrons, Anser 92,93, 1 1 1 

Alca torda 79, 1 14 

alpina,Pelldna. 67,72,73,77,78,80,90,98,99,107,118 

Amabllia 53, 1 0»-104 

lamelligf ra 104 

3264— Bull. 69— €9 9 



Page. 

AmabUiida? 53, 108, 104 

AmabiUnidst 103 

ambiguus, Mesocestoides 61 

americana, Clangula clangula 109 

Diorchis 48-61,98,111 

Fullca <2, 47, 48, 98, 111 

Oldemia 92,105,107, 109 

americanus, Coocyzus 30,86, 1 14 

A merina 86 

alaudst 87 

Amcebotaenia 56, 80 

brevis 80, 112 

cuneata 80 

sphenoldes 80, 111 

amphitricha, Drcpanidotstnia 90 

Hymenolepis 90,112,113 

Tstnia 90 

AmpKoUrocotyle 50 

eUyan» 50 

Anas crecca 47 

platyrhynchos 90,91, 

92,93.95,97,100,101,106,106,110 

platyrhynchos domcstica 67,91, 

92,93,94,95,96,97,98,101,105,110 

rubripes 94, 101 , 1 1 

strepaa 47 

anatina, Davainoa 07, 110 

Drepanidotstnia 91 

Hymenolepis 91,110, 111 

Tstnia 91 

anatum, Falco percgrinus Ill 

Andrya 57, 68 

rhopalocephala 63 

Angularia 65, 88-84 

beema 84,115 

angulata, Tstnia 71 

ani, Crotophaga 77,79, 1 14 

Anomotaenia 57,74, 77 

acoUum 77,114 

segyptiaca 77,113 

arlonis 77,112 

aurlta 77,100 

bacllligcra 77,113 

borealis 77,115 

campylocanthu 7 7, 114 

clngulata 77,113 

• citrus 78,113 

cUvigera 77, 78, 112, 113 

constricta 78,114,115 

129 



130 



nvDcz. 



cgrUhllBraiis I^IU' 

«ieelQnim Y8,112 

dobahis Y8 

hlrandtM Y«,ltf 

telM 78,118 

mtaMMitiift 98,m»m 

jnionpliidkK 98^119 

mienihyiMli* 77,98,111 

matftbUls ;. 98^U4 

ujmjfimtk 98»118 

platyibjiiclia 7%VI$ 

pwMla... 78 

pyiifofmis :.. 98,U8 

98,11* 

98,114 

78 

tcmhe 98,114 

Mfooooaitliato 98,115 

vartadMUt 88^11%US 

tesliotMila 8l,tt, 88-89 

Omm '.....s.... 87 

tfolMte 84-88,874Hll« 

10Bgiof»t» 89,108 

89,Ui 

89,U4 

«... 87,81,88 

ptribHtla.. . ^ n 88 

iJi9|»iooepluaifto 88,81,811^88,88 

Anojiiocw^tMiHiHn 88,81,84 

■lUfhJOS.t 88,98,111 

98,98,84,88,118 

anaer doniesticus 92,83,84,97, 100, 105, 1 18 

fabalis 80,118 

Anseriformes 108 

Anthus pratensis 71 , 83, 107, 115 

Antrostomus carolinensis 91, 107, 114 

Anurina 86 

Apkanobolhrium 103 

cateruUum 103 

Aploparaksis 52,66, 99 

birulal 99, 109 

brachyphallos 99, 112, 1 13 

cirrosa 99, 113, 114 

crassirostris 99, 112, 113 

diminuens 88, 113 

dujardini 99 

dujardlnii 99, 114 

fllum 99, 112, 113 

furclgera 100, 110 

penetrans 100, 112, 113 

pubescens 100, 112, 113 

Aporina 53, 58, 64-65 

alba 65 

borealis 75 

appendlculata. Tatxia 106, 108 

apricarius, Charadrius 75,78,79,80,112 

Aquila chrysactos 61, 1 1 1 

aquila, Fregata 60, 108 

arctica, Gavia 60,91,96,108 

arcticum, Notobothrium 105 

arcticus, Tetrabothrius 60, 109 

arcuata, Ilymenolepis 91, 109 

Ardea cincrea 72.83.94, 107, 109 

ardese, Ilymenolepis 72, 01, 108 

Arenaria interpret 72.78,99, 112 



88,18^118 

.^ 99,1B 

77 

77 

AxlilooetteralUiierIa 98^188 



■fmipim, nmio. 



Mqiatlltam^amiUaM,... 78,80,88,88,187,118 

AUnidA 61,87,88,187,114 

81,114 

•Hr, ICMotbrai 88^187,115 

8le«,FiiltaL 88,47,81,88,98*111 

tUUm^hmm 8^114 

rttMMMi t a , lMlqE>is 91,115 

. nnrft 71 

anntQi»Ool^^ 18, 15^88, 81,86,8I« 114 

fiom IS 

99,188 

77 

Mritai,CQijabiit.... 88,81, 98,85»88,»M,]fl^ 188 

Mtmuuilii, DtodTDoygiift ^ 71^118 

79^81^188 

99,U8 

77 

78,118 



81,118 

81,188 

bMDift, Ancatela 84,115 

benUflU, Bnnta 94,88,118 

glMOOfagtra, Braota 110 

BerUa 89 

delafondi 63 

BertleUa 57,58,89 

delafondi 68,114 

studeri .• 63 

bllateralls, Choanotsenia 75,106 

blremls, Tatria 104,105,106 

birulal, Aploparaksis 88,109 

bisaocata, Ilymenolepis 81 ,109 

Biuterina 55, 88 

davulus 88 

longloeps 88,109 

meropina 88 

paradUea 88 

passerina 88,114 

trapesoides 88,115 

biuterinus, Lateriporus 78, 100,110 

borealis, Anomotsenia 77,115 

Aporina 75 

Choanotaenia 75,109 

Choanotaema 77 

Numenlus 79, 1 19 

Somateria raollisslnia 109 

Taenia 77 

Bothridiotxnij 59 

Bothriocejihaliu macrocephalut 60 

Bothriotxnia 67 

longicoUis 68 

brachyoephala, Ujnnenolepls 81 , 112 

Tttnia 91 

brachyphallos, Aploparaksis 88,112,113 

Ttenia 99 

brachypterus, Colymbus dominJous 108 



INDEX. 



131 



I'agf. 

brachyrhynchos, Corvus 78, 1 16 

Branta bernlda 94,96, 1 10 

bemida glauoogastra 110 

canadensis 101,110 

leucopsls 94,96,110 

brasiliensis, Fuhrmannia 21,80,81 

Uynienolepis 91 , 114 

LIga 21-26,81,114 

brevis, Amcebotsenia 80, 112 

Txnia 80 

Brochoeephalui 102 

paradoxut 102 

Butorldes viresoens 72,91,106, 108 

CffiTulea, Florida 72.77, 109 

Calrina raoschata 73,88,91,94,95, 109 

moschata domesticu 105, 109 

Calidris leucophsBa 07,73,99, 1 12 

califomlcus, Larus 76,106, 118 

campylacantha, AnomoUcnia 77,114 

Txnia 77 

campylancristrota, Dilepis 72 

canadensis, Branta 101 . 1 10 

candelabraria, Paruterina 86, 114 

Txnia 85 

caninum, Dipylidiiim 84 

canis-lagopodis, Txnia 61 

cantaniana, Davainea 36 

Hymenoiepis 86-4 1 ,91 , 111 

Txnia 36,37,38,39 

canus, Larus 60.67,71,76,78,91,99,106, 118 

canutus, Tringa 78,79, 118 

capensis, Baption 60, 108 

capillaris, Ilymenolepls 01,106 

Txnia 91 

capiilaroides, Ilyinenolepis 91 , 108 

capiteliata, Txnia 96 

capito, Cyciustera 82, 109 

Txnia 82 

caprimulgonim, Dllepis 71 ,114 

Oapsodavain^a 70 

iaurieoUis 70 ; 

carbo, Phalacrocorax 72, 108 ; 

carioca, Ilyrnenolepls 91,92,111 | 

carolinensis, Antrostomus 91 , 107, 114 

carrinoi, Paronia 64 

Casmerodiiis egretta '. 72, 1 09 

cateuatum, A phanobothrium 103 

Catenotaenia 57, 84 

pusilla 84 

Centrocercus urophasianus 25,86,94, 1 1 1 

Cepphus grylle 77,78, 1 14 

Cerchneis tinnunculus 61 , 100, 111 

cesticillus, Davainea «7.68,111 

C!estoda 52 

Chapmania 54, 70 

tauricollis 70 

Charadrilformes 112 

Charadrius aprlcarius 75,78,79,80,112 

Chaulelasmus streperus. . . . 91,93,95,97,98,101,110 
cheil&ncTistTOta, A canthocirr us 83 i 

Txnia 83 

chellancristrotiis, Gr>'porhynchiis 88, 109 

ChoanoUeniii ."Vi, 74,7ri.77 

xgypfiaca 77 

arionis 77 

bilateralis 76, 108 



Page. 
Choanotsenia— Continued . 

borealis 76,100 

borealis 77 

citrus 78 

constricta 78 

coronata 76,112 

dodecacant.ia 76,114 

embryo 76,113 

galbulat^ 74 

globulus 78 

infundibuliformis 74, 75 

Infundlbulum 76, 111 

inversa 76, 114 

laevigata 76, 112 

micro phallos 79 

paradoxa 76, 112, 113 

parina 76, 114, 116 

porosa 76. 113, 114 

stellifcra 76,113 

stemina 76, 113, 114 

variabUis 80 

Chordoilcs virglnlaniis 71, 1 14 

chrysaetos, Aquila 61,111 

Clooniifomies 108 

cincrea, Ardea 72. 83, 94, 107, 109 

cingulata, Anomotfenia 7 7, 113 

Dilepis 77 

cinguUfRra, Txnia 76 

clnguliforum, Monopylidiui:: 76, 112 

circumvallata, Davalnoa 68, 111 

Txnia 68 

cirrosa, Aploparaksis ^9, 113, 114 

Txnia 99 

citrus, Anomotaenia 78, 113 

Choanotxnia 78 

Txnia 78 

Cittotffinia 59, 68 

denticulata 63 

kuvaria — 63 

latissi ma 63 

Cladotxnia 84, 100 

globifera 84, 100 

elandestina, llyincnolopls 92, 112 

Txnia 92 

clangula aTnericana. Clangula 109 

Clangula clangula 92, 94, 101, 105, 109 

clangula americana 109 

clausa, Skorikowia 99 

clava, A rumchotaenia 87 

clavlgera, Anoraotapnia 77, 78. 112, 113 

Txnia 78 

clavultis, Btuterina 88 

Txnia 88 

clypc^ata, Spatula. 91 , 92, 93. 9.\ 101 , 105, 1 10 

Ck)ccyzus americaini > 30. 86, 1 1 4 

CaUodela 63 

kuvaria 63 

Colaptes auratus 10, 15,20,21,68,81, 114 

colchicus, Phasianus 36, 68, 75, 91, 95, 1 1 1 

Collnus virginianus 107, 112 

collaris, Hymenolepis 92, 110 

eolUculorum, Taenia 1 06, 115 

Colunil)a livia 63.fi8,96. 1 14 

iivla doiupstica <i3. 68, 97, 1 14 

columbat^ Ilyinonolepls 97, 114 

columbianus, I'edioecetes phasianellus.. 25,86, 1 1 1 



132 



INDEX. 



I'age. 

ColymbUormes 108 

Colymbus auritus 60, 91. 93, 9o, 96, 104, 105, 108 

domlnicus 75. 91. 103, 104. 105, 108 

dominicos brachypionis 108 

domlnicus dominieus 108 

comitata, Davainea 1«-I8,ti6,114 

compaeta, Davainea 14 

compressa, II>Tnenolepis 02, 100 

Taenia 92 

conlca, Taenia 106, 110 

conseripta, Taenia 100, 110 

constricta, Anomotapnia 78. 114, 115 

Choanotamia 78 

Tstnia 78 

Copesoma 53, 100 

papillosum 100, 112 

Coraciiformes 114 

corax, Corvus 72,78,96,97. lU 

principalis, Corvas 115 

sinuatus, Corvus 115 

coronata, Choanotsnia 76, 112 

Tstnia 75 

coronula, Hymenolepis 02. 109. 110 

Corvus brachyThjrnchos 78. 1 16 

corax 72,78,96,97. lU 

corax principalis 115 

corax sinuatus 115 

ossifragus 78, 1 1 6 

Cotugnia 54, 00 

digonopora 00, HI 

Coturnlx cotumix 68,75.»»,94. Ill 

couctii, Tjrannus melancholicus 114 

crassirostris, AploparaksLs 99, 112. 113 

Tatnia 99 

crassuhi. Davaim-a 08. 1 14 

TarJiia •> 

creeca, A na.o 47 

N»'tt ion 'Ai. 'M. [Ck \t\. ^•.♦. 101 . 1(0. 1 1 

rrfplirii. Ilyinmolfpi- 9*2. IKi. Ill 

Tjnirt «r2 

('n'Xf-r.'X 7!», Hi 

crLslatii>. I'avo 1*1. 1 11 

(Totopha-'a aiii 77,79,114 

eriniat:i. I>avaiinM 14, 1'l. IS 

(""ryptotrlaiix a^'a<li<a 107. 114 

ftf not.fnifi «»^{ 

CiK'ulifoniK'S 114 

Culciti'lla .V». 86 

niparicula 

ciincata. A inofb'itu ni i 

Tj nin. . . 
c'ur\iri»tra. Loxia.. 

iniiior. Lt)\ia. . 
oyathifonni^^. Anoino!,»-ni.;.. 

Titnid 

< y(lo[tliylli'i«'a 

Cyclorthi.la 

(iinalancri-^troi.i 

Cyriu^tora 

<-apitii 



**7 



S4» 

SO 

SO 

115 

11.'. 
. 78.11.-. 

19. 7s 

7. :.2 

-.».. Hi-S3 

:x.. HI H-i 

Hi. 109 

cyiimis. Mior mi. ^fj. -n. (h,. 1 1 1 

('y^iin.>ol(.r '•<».'''.•. Ill 

olor «iuiii»'>ti.u-.. *J0.wl.!»»,. 1 II 

• vliO'lraiiM. Pr<i^ffi'r'H-'''>jh 'io 

T:.ni:i. 100.111 

«yliii'ira<cMi^. Tctrai.othriu- 6I>. 11;}. 114 

cylin-irifA. DiJepis 71.113 



I'age. 

CptUrideat 7\ 

CftUMei 71 

CpsUMoiarnix 71 

Dafila acuta 91,92,01,96,110 

damacensis, Pisobia 71, 

73. 76, Tls 79, 97, 98, 99, too, 106, Hi 

baptioo capensis eo^ 108 

Davainea 10,14,18.37,39^54,66,07,94 

anatina 07, UO 

cantefliiana X 

oesticUlus 07, 68, 111 

cimimvallaia.. 08, 111 

comitata I«-18,e8,114 

compaeta 1 4 

craasula 08, 114 

cruciata 14,15,1« 

echinoiM>tbrida 08, 69, 111 

friedbeigeri 08. 1 1 1 

frontina 10^18 

longicoms 08, 1 1 1 

longispina 14 

lutri 18 

mutaUoM 74, 76 

mutabilis 08, HI 

oligopkma 36,37.38 

paraechinobothrida 08, 111 

polyuterina 08, 111 

proglottina 37,67, 08, 111 

rhynchota 10-15, 16, 17,68,114 

tetragooa 08,111 

voW 00,111 

I )avaineidi]e 54. 00, 67. 70 

Davaineina? 07,69 

docrescons. Tsmia 64 

dolafoiidi. Berth f>3 

lierliella 63. IH 

Tsinia . t^ 

clriKlritica. Tstnia M 

I)en<lrocy>nia autumnali.N 73.110 

DendrDit'a .striata .'M. .S7. 1 K» 

dpiitkulala. Tlttota'nia r»3 

Dihnthrium longicolU (u 

Dicranfit^nia *M) 

:rqunbili.^ 90 

jurcigfTn lOO 

uphdioidt V >0 

di>;onopora.roTuirni:i 09, 111 

DiUpidinar 71 

Diltpinida- .'»2. 70 

Diltpinins .'.2. 71 

Dilepis 20, o«i. 70. 71 

attoniiata 71,115 

campylancriJ'tr' f : 72 

raprimulpon ni. . 71,114 

cingulata 77 

cylindrii-a 71.113 

iiinosii 71,112 

mdCTitpt'i'* 83 

nympholdf> 7 1, 112 

papillifera 72. 109 

nnirostris 72.112,113 

s<ole»iiui 72,108 

transfuk'a 72.1(19 

uiidiihi 72,114.115 

undulnl'i ?2 

imilat«'rali> 72.91.108.109 

urceu< 72, 108 



INDEX. 



133 



Papo. 

dlminuens, Aploparaksis 99, 113 

dtminuta, Hymenolepis 90 

Dioicooestus 54, 108 

aootylus 108, 108 

paronai 108, 109 

Diamedea albatrus 60, 108 

exulans 00.61, 108 

diomedese, Prosthecocotyle 60 

Tetrabothrius 60. 108 

Dlorchls 42.52,56. 98 

accuminata 42 

acuminata 42-48,49,50.51,98.110,111 

amerlcana 48-51, 98. Ill 

Inflata 98,111 

pan-iceps 99. 109 

sUrirka 96 

DiptacarUhus 90 

fardmiftaUs 92 

serpentuliu 96 

stylo8u» 97 

Diplochetos 77 

volvulus 77 

DIplophallus M, 102 

polymorphus 102, 1 13 

Diploposthe 65, 101 

iBBViS 101, 109, 110 

DlpylidiinaP 52.69, 

70-71.73,74.76,77.80,81.82,84,85 

Dipylidinx 71 

Dipylldlum 55. 71 , 74. 84 

caninum 84 

dispar, TjBtiia 88 

distincta, Tmnia 106. 113 

dodecacantha, Choanotaenia 75, 1 14 

Tatma 75 

Dolichonyx oryzlvorus 107, 115 

domestica. Anas platyrhynchos 67, 91 . 

92.93.94.95.96.97,98.101.105,110 

Cairina moschata 105, 109 

Columba llvia 63,68,97, 1 14 

Mcleagrls gallopavo 67,88,91,94,95. 1 1 1 

domestlcus, Anser anser . . 92, 93, 94, 97, 100, 105, 110 

Cygnus olor 90, 91, 96, 1 1 1 

QaUus gallus 67, 68, 

69, 75, 80. 88, 91, 92, 97, 105, 1 1 1 
Passer 71,75,76,87,93,116 

dominlcus, Colyrabus 75,91, 103, 104, 105, 108 

brachypterus. Coljrmbiis 108 

dominicus, Colymbus 108 

DrepaTiidotxnia 90 

acuminata 42 

xquabUis 90 

amphitrieha 90 

anatina 91 

baschkirienaid 91 

fasdata 93 

gracilis 93 

lanceolata 94 

mekagris 94 

musculosa 95 

pachycephala 95 

sagitta 96 

serperUulus 96 

setigera 96 

sinuosa 92 

tenuirostria 97 

venusta 97 



dubia, ^gialitls 76, 79. 1 12 

dujardini, Aploparaksia 99 

Tmnia 99 

dujardlnli, Aploparaksis 99, 114 

Txnia 99 

echldnsB, Taenia 66 

echlnobothrida, Davainea 68, 69, 1 11 

Echinocotyle 56,70,90.98 

nitida 98. 1 12, 1 13 

nitldiilans 98, 112. 113 

rosseterl 98.110 

echinocotyle, Hymenolepis 92. 1 10 

Echinocotylidx 70 

egretta, Casmerodius 72. 109 

Elanoides forflcatus 89. 107. 1 1 1 

elegans, AmpholerocotyU 59 

embrj-o. Choanoteenia 75.113 

Txnia 75 

Epision 105 

pUcatus 105 

ericetorum, Anomotsenia 78. 112 

Tstnia 78 

Erolla femiginea 67,73,75,80,118 

erostris, Prosthecocotyle 60 

Txnia 69 

Tetralwthrius 60, 113, 114 

eiythroocphalus, Mclancrpes 10,16,68,114 

exilis, Hymenolepis 92.111 

Tsenia 92 

expansa, lioniezla 64 

exulans, Dioraedea 60.61,108 

fabalis, Anser 96, 1 1 

Faloosesalon 100,111 

peregriniis 100, 11 1 

peregrinus anatum Ill 

Falooniiformes Ill 

fallax. Hj-menolepls 92. 109, 110 

Txnia 92 

farciminalis. Diplacanthus 92 

Tamia 92 

farciminosa, Hymenolepis 92,114 

f asciata. Drepanidotaenia 93 

Tasnia 93 

fascieulata, Hjrmenolepts 98.110,111 

fasclolaris. Fimbrlaria 105, 109, 110, 111 

ferruginea. Erolia 67,73,75,80,118 

fllum, Aploparaksis 99, 112, 113 

Monorchia 99 

Tamia 90 

Taenia 106,113 

Fimbriaria 53.105 

fasciolaris 1 05, 109, 1 10, 111 

malleus 105 

plana 105,110 

Flmbriariida? 62, 63, 105 

flammeus, Asio 85, 1 14 

flavipes, Totanus 77,112 

flavopunctata, Hymenolepis 90 

Florida caerulea 72,77, 109 

forflcatus, Elanoides 89, 107, 111 

formosa, Oporomis ^ . . 107, 115 

forsteri, Tamia 69 

fragills, Hymenolepis 98, 110 

Taenia 93 

Fregata aqulla 60. 108 

fricdbergeri, Davainea 68. 1 11 

fringillarum, Tamia 93 




53KBKS "."«' 

bcrnlcta 1 10 

t4-Sa,n,lU,lI6 

87 

84,™ 

W.lflO 

SB 

78,112 

Mnia 78 

TmlB -78 

gracilis. Drfpsniifoteiifo S3 

Ilj-imnolfpis #1,109.110 

grfpnlandlcs. lEymoDolepLi VS.IOB 

giylle. CepphuJ 77,78,114 

Oryporhynchus SS,»,8» 

chcilnniTlslrotHS 8S,H» 

88,115 

, 88,108 

1. l-lcimdis 87,ia3,10> 

arroeacliB 54, IM 

paiuloxs 10i,ll2 

PCTVHSU3 IM 

lOO.llI 

73.75.B2.93.9S.iaS,10> 

7«.77.;8,M.ii»,ni 

80,108 

117, 75.^.80.96. 98. 99, 113 

Sa,113 

M 

Htoiknlopia niriicaiiiis 76.B3. 102. US 



M^mui 
.. M^mu 
,. 9t,ut,m 

■ M.l» 

... n,n,im 

M,m 

ti.i» 

ti,in 

»I,1M 




Index. 



135 



Page. 
Hymenolepla— Continued. 

pigmentata 96, 109 

poculifera 96,111 

podidpina 96,108 

rectacantha 96, 112 

reteacta 96,109 

rosteUata 96,108 

rugosa 96, 114 

sagitta 96,110 

serpentulus 96, 1 14, 115 

setlgera 96.110,111 

siblrica 96,109 

tinuosa 92 

species 97,109 

sphserophora 96. 113 

»phenocephala 97 

stylosa 97,115 

tenenima 97. 109 

tenuirosUls 97, 109, 110 

teresoides 97, 110 

Utraonis 94 

tritolium 97.110 

uliginosa 97,112 

unilateraUa 72 

vallel 97,112 

veniista 97, 110 

villosa 97,111 

voliUa 90 

hyperboreus, Larus 60.78,93.95,118 

hypoleucos, Tringa 80 

Icteria virens 107, 1 15 

IcteraUenia 74 

gaUmlx 74 

parina 74 

porosa 74 

Idiogenes 54, 70 

otidis •- 70 

Idlogeninsn , 70 

Immer, Gavia 60,91,96,108 

inermis. Shipleya 103 

Trichocephaloides 73 

inflata, Diorchis 98 

Hymetwlepia 98 

Tmnia 46,98 

inXundibulifonnis, Choanotxnia 74, 75 

Monopylidium 75 

Tsmia 19 

Infundlbulum, rhoanotJi*nla 76, 111 

Txnia 75 

Insignis, Ophryocotyle 67, 112 

interpres, Arenaria 72.78,79,112 

interrupta, llymenolcpis 98, 113 

inversa, Choanolcpnia 75,114 

Tstnia 75 

Ischnorhyneha. Lcptotwnia 81 

krabbei. Tarnia 100 

kuhll, Puffinus 60, 108 

kuvaria, Clttotaenia 63 

Calodfla 63 

laevigata, Choanotainia 76, 112 

Taenia 75 

tevis, Diploposthe 101,109,110 

Txnia 101 

lamelligera, Amabllia 104 

lanceoiata, DrepanidoUrnii 94 

Hyraenolepls *- - - - »4 . 109, 110, HI 



Page. 

larina, Anomotsenia 78, 113 

Txnia 78. 

Larus argentatus 60, 76, 1 18 

atrlcllla 60,114 

ealifornieus 76, lOtl. 1 18 

canus 60,67.71,76,78,91,99, 106, 1 18 

hyperboreus 60,78,93,95, 118 

marinus 60,76,78,93, 118 

minutus 75,76,99, 1 14 

lata, Porogynia 69 

Lateriporus 6(i, 78 

biuterinus 78, 109, 110 

propeteres 73 

splnosus 73 

teres 78. 109 

Laterotsnia 57. 82 

nattereri 82 

naUeri 82 

latissima, Cittotxnia 63 

Lepidotrias 90 

Leptotsenla 541, 81 

ischnorhyneha 81 

leucerodia, Platalea S2 

leuckarll, Teenia 107, 109 

leucogastra, Sula 60, 108 

leucophsea, Calldrls 07,73,99, 1 12 

leucopsls, Branta 94,96,110 

Liga 18-21,67,80-81 

brasillensis 21-26,81, 114 

punctata 18,20,21,81 

Umosa, Dilepls 71,112 

Limosallmosa 71,98,99,112 

linaria, ^giothus 87,93, 1 16 

linea, Hymenolepis 94,111 

Txnia 94 

Llnstowla 58, 66, 69 

linstowii, Zschokeella 66 

Linstowinse 66 

liophallos, Hymenolepis 94, 111 

Txnia 94 

Uvia, Columba 63,68,96,114 

domestica, Columba 63,68,97, 114 

lobata, Proorchida 82 

lobatus, Lobipes 75,95,99,118 

Lobipes lobatus 75,95,99, 118 

longicauda, Bartramia 79, 112 

longiceps, Biuterina 88. 109 

Txnia 88 

longicolle, Dibothrium 67 

longiooliis, Bothriotxnia 68 

Davainea 68, 1 U 

longiovata, Anonchot»nia 87, 109 

longispina, Davainea 14 

longivaginata, Hymenolepis 94, 110 

Loxia curvirostra 87, 1 1 5 

ciu'virostra minor 115 

■ lucida, Metroliasthes 87,88,111 

i lutzi, Davainea 18 

Machetes pugnax 76, 78, 79, 91, 99. 1 1 2 

macracanthos, Hymenolepis 94, 109 

Txnia 94 

macracanthiun, Monopylidium 76,112 

macrocantha, Tsenia 107, 109 

macrocephala, AnonchoUenla * 87,115 

ProsthecocotyU 60 



136 



INDEX. 



Page, 
macrocephalus, Bothriocej^udus 60 

Tetrabothrius 60, 106 

macroipeos, Acanthocimu 83 

DUepif 83 

Tstnia 83 

macrorhyncha, Schistotspnia 104, 106 

Taenia 104 

macTorosintus, Acanthocimut 83 

Oryporhynchus 88, 115 

macroscolecina, Tetraclsdicotyla 1 06. 108 

major. PIcus 19 

MalacdUpidota 70 

malleus, Fimbriaria 105 

Mareca penelope 92,93,08, 106, 110 

Marilamarila.... 90.91,92,93,94.95,97,101,106,109 

marinus. Larus 60,70,78,93,111 

maritlma, Arquatella 73, 90, 98. 99. 107, 1 1 S 

marmots, Tamia 63 

maxima. Sterna 60, 1 14 

media, OalUnago 99, 1 IS 

megalocephala, Txnia 73 

Trlchocephaloides 78, 112, 113 

megalops, Hymenolepls 04 , 109, 110, 1 11 

megalorbyncha, Tamia 107,113 

melancbolleus, Tyrannus 87, 1 14 

couchi, Tyrannus 114 

Melancrpes erythrocephalus 10, 15, 68, 1 1 4 

melanoleucus, Totanus 77,112 

Meleagrls gallopavo 37,94 

gallopavo domestlca 67, 88, 91, 94, 95, 1 U 

meleagrls, DreparUdoUmia 94 

Hjrmenolepls 94, 111 

melodia, Melosplza 34,87, 1 16 

Melosplza melodia 34.87, 116 

Mergellus albellus 97, 109 

Mcrgus st^rrator (i7. 93, 97, 99. 105. 109 

Mermis nigroscens 19 

moropina, Biuterinn 8K 

Mcsocfstoidx 01 

Mesocestold«»s 53. 6 1 

alaudrt? 61.114 

amblguus til 

porlatus 61.111 

Mftsoct'stoididjr 53. 6 1 

MenoctstnidiTue t»l 

Metroliasth«'S 58, 8 7 

luoida 87, 88. 1 1 1 

moxlcaniis, llirnantopiis 7(»,93,102, 113 

mlcnioanlha, Aiiomota'nia 78.113,114 

Taenia 78