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Curator, Gorennnciit Oriental Library. Mysore. 










F|{ES.«. ITD'HAM's l!rUiAl>\VAY. 

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Curator, Government Oriental Library, Mysore. 

/IftaDras : 


lAll Rights Reserved.'] 




INTRODUCTION. ix — xxiv. 

Sanskrit Text ...]. 16 

S'a'nti-pa'tha op the Atharvana-Upanishads ... 1 


] ntroduction ... 5 

Pure and impure manas ... 6 

Manas the cause of bondao^e and liberation... 7 
Manas should be completely restrained from 

objects ... 7 

Nirodha leads to liberation ... 8 
S'ri Gtaudapa'da'cha'rya's exposition op Mano- 

NIRODHA ... 9 

Emanation of duality from the One Sat ... 9 

Manifestation of the One as many ... 10 

Manas identical with Atman ... 11 

Evidence that duality is nothing but manas... 12 
What is meant by " manas becomes no- 

manas" ... 13 
Brahman is the Absolute self-luminous con- 
sciousness ... 15 
Amanibhava cot identical with sushupti ... 17 



Wherein lies the difference between the two... 18 

Nirodha state described ... 21 
Brahman is none other than the wise man 

in the nirodha state ... 24 

Nirodha marks the end of the path ... 25 

Few can I'each nirodha ... 26 

Self-deluded Karma- Yogins ... 27 

Self-deluded Sankhyas ... 28 
The doctrine of Vaiseshikas and Madhya- 

mikas ... 29 
Higher Grade of Yogins ... 30 
Lower Grade of Yogins ... 30 
Inferior Yogins should practise mental re- 
straint ... 31 
Strong will and cheerfulness are necessary... 32 
The legend of tittibhas ... 33 
Obstacles to samadhi ... 36 
Vikshepa and laya ... 37 
Antidotes to viksliepa and laya ... 38 
Kashaya and its antidote ... 39 
Rasasvada and its antidote ... 40 
Manas identical with Brahman ... 41 
Brahman realized in nirodha-samadhi ... 42 

Amritabindu-upanishad {continued) : — 

The farthest limit of the process of restraint. 43 
Restraint of manas is the essence of all wor- 
ship ... 43 
Higliest end attained by restraint of manas.. 44 



Perfect restraint of manas possible ... 45 

Restraint of manas by means of Pranava ... 46 

Manas completely restrained is Brahman ... 48 

Brahman known to the wise only ... 49 

Atman ever changeless ... 49 

Atman beyond the three states ... 50 

A'tman appears diffei'ent owing to up^dhis... 51 

Analogy of Atraan to ^kasa ... 52 

How Atman differs from akasa ... 53 

How jiva is identical with Brahman ... 53 

Relation between A'tman and jiva ... 55 

Gaudapa'da's Ka'rika's. 

Unrealit}'^ of phenomena ... 57 

Maya and its action ... 60 

Amritabindu-upanishad {continued) -. — 

Yoga for the realization of the unity ... 62 

Lower and Higher Wisdom ... 63 
On attaining the higher, the lower should be 

given up ... 64 

Unity of Vedic Wisdom ... 65 

Meditation necessary ... 66 

" I am Vasudeva." ... 67 


First Khanda- 

Introduction ... 71 

Brahmavidya ... 72 

Threefold Path ... 74 



The goal of the path ... 75 

Contemplation of the Nirguna- Brahman ... 76 

Contemplation of the Saguna-Brahman ... 77 

Brahman is all ... 80 
Knowledge of Brahman is the sole path to 

liberation ... 82 

Meditation by Pranava ... 82 

Atman in jagrat, svapna and sushupti ... 83 

Maya is the cause of Atman's Samsara ... 85 

Guru is the Deliverer ... 86 

J iva is identical with Brahman ... 86 

The Grand Truth ... 88 

Realization of Truth leads to liberation ... 88 

A'traan is not identical with the Universe ... 89 

The Disciple's recognition of the True Self ... 89 

Immutability of A'tman ... 90 

A' tman is Omniscient ... 90 

Atman is formless ... 91 

The Sakshatkara ... 91 

Second Khanda. 

Recitation of S'atarudriy a ... 92 


The mind has been a great bugbear to all 
philosophers. In seeking to find out what 
things are in themselves as distinguished from 
what they appear to be, the ontologist, like any 
other enquirer, must ultimately resort to the 
mind for data on which to base his specula- 
tions. But all knowledge acquired through 
the mind comes invested with the limitations 
under which it works. Everything that is 
known is tinged with the colour of the mind 
perceiving it. The metaphysician, therefore, 
who suspects that things are not what they 
appear to be, concludes that things in them- 
selves, — the noumena= underlying the pheno- 
mena, — are inconceivable and unknowable, 
though he is instinctively led to believe in 
them. As opposed to him there is a metaphy- 
sician of another school, who hrlds that what 
is known or conceivable can alone be said to 
exist, and that therefore whatever is unknown 


and unknowable and even inconceivable can 
never be said or thought to exist. 

A third position is also possible. It may be 
that the mind as it is at present constituted is 
biassed and subject to limitations. If, how- 
ever, it be possible to divest the mind of all its 
limitations and imperfections, to make it quite 
colourless and unbiassed, it will also be possible 
to know what things are in themselves. 
The establishment of the validity of this posi- 
tion is the unique pride of the Brahmavadin. 
He has from time immemorial proclaimed the 
possibility of knowing the Thing in itself, and 
he has had distinguished representatives 
in the historical period, such as S'ri-Gauda- 
padacharya and his pupil's pupil S'ri-S'ankara- 
charya, not to mention a host of others in the 
later periods of history. This, however, is not 
to ignore that there have been others besides 
the Brahmavadins in the historical period, who 
have spoken of the Thing in itself under such 
designations ns 'The Absolute'. But, between 
them and the Brahmavadin, there is a differ- 
ence. While the conclusions of the former 
are professedly based on pure speculation, the 
latter stands alone as one who has spoken of 
the Thing in itself with that certainty which 
is born and bred of conviction produced by an 


immediate or intuitive cognition thereof. The 
whole literature of the Vedanta is devoted to 
an exposition of what Brahman, the Thing in 
itself, is^ or rather what It is not. The truth 
of its teachings has been testified to by the per- 
sonal experience of an unbroken line of teachers 
including S'ri-Gaudapadacharya and S'ri- 
S'ankaracharya. Ac_cgrdingly the Brahmavadinj 
concerns himself not only with the tlieory as to' 
the nature of the Absolute, but also with the de- 
velopment of the faculty by which to come facei 
to face with It. While logically establishing the 
nature of Brahman by an elaborate course of 
metaphysical argument, the Vedanta describes in 
some detail the process of purifying the mind 
or Manas as it is called. As Manas is piirged 
of its dross, of its desires for and attachment 
to earthly and celestial pleasures, it loses its 
fickleness and tends to become steady. On 
attaining to a state of perfect steadiness, it 
ceases to be what it now appears to be and 
becomes one with Brahman ; and this unity of, 
Manas with Brahman is what is called Brahma- 
Sdks/idtkdra, an intuitive or immediate cogni 
tion of Brahman. Nothing short of thei 
Sakshatkara can produce an absolute convic- 
tion as to what the Thing in itself is. 

With the Brahmavadin, metaphysics is 


I nothing if it is not associated with religion ; 
I and in fact it forms the soul of his religion. 
His metaphysical conclusions form the ground- 
.. work of his religious devotion. The path of 
} any particular religious devotee runs along the 
I line of the conclusions his mind is capable of 
I forming as to the nature of God, Soul and the 
I Universe. No course of abstract contemplation 
of the Divine Being is recommended to one 
whose mind cannot rise to that level. Hence 
the multiform and apparently divergent paths 
of devotion recommended in the writinsfs of the ; 
Aryan sages. I 

The Brahmavadin's metaphysical philosophy 1 
derives its peculiarly religious significance from 1 
the fact of its being based on the direct ex- • 
perience of the enlightened sages who de- \ 
scribe Brahman, the Absolute, as transcending \ 
in Its Eliss the highest reaches of human con- I 
ception of happiness and pleasure. The Brah- \ 
-tnan of the Vedanta is at once the Absolute 1 
which the metaphysician strains his intellect 
to apprehevA, the sum?mim bonu))i which the 
I moralist strives to attain by his acts, and the 
j Divine Bliss which the ardent religious devotee 
' aspires to realize in life by exclusive devotion to 
God with all his being. In fact, every orthodox 
Arvau system of science, art, and philosophy 


has its basis in religion and is calculated to 
subserve the interests of spiritual progress. 
Thus the Brahmavadin affords a unique in- 
stance of a theologian, who has from the 
very dawn of his religion not learned to hate 
the light of truth thrown by the most astound- 
ing discoveries of science and the grandest 
conclusions of philosophy ; who, on the other 
hand, has based the superstructure of his relii: 
gion upon the deepest and the most far-reach- 
ing conclusions of all science and philosophy, 
nay upon nothing short of Divine Omniscient 

The Brahmavadin's theosophy is primarily 
founded on Revelation embodied in the 
scriptures known by the name of Upanishads 
and forming part of the Vedas. They are also 
known as the Vedanta, the last word of the 
Veda concerning what is called Vaidika- 
Dharma or Vedic Religion. It is not very 
easy to say exactly how many Upanishads 
there are. Tradition assigns one Upanishad 
to each Vedic school or S'akha ; so that there 
being one-thousand-one-hundred-and-eighty 
oakhas enumerated, there must be as many 
Upanishads in all. As most of the S'akhas are 
said to have become extinct, the Upanishads 
attached to them may have disappeared also. 


Nevertheless, there are now found as many as 
one hundred and thirty or more Upanishads. 
Of these one hundred and odd Upanishads, only 
ten have been fully commented upon by S'ri- 
S'ankaracharya, whose commentaries on Upa- 
nishads are the earliest extant. It is only 
these ten Upanishads and four others that have 
been cited as authorities by S'ri-S'ankaracharya 
in his commentaries on Brahma-S'utras, and 
among them alone are those few that can be 
traced to the current Vedic schools. This fact 
as well as a striking difference in diction and 
subject-matter between these Upanishads and 
the rest has led some critics to regard the 
former alone as genuine Upanishads and the 
latter as mere imitations if not worse. Without, 
however, venturing the bold opinion that this 
view is altogether unfounded, one may still 
hold that even those Upanishads which Sri- 
S'ankaracharya has not commented upon or 
otherwise noticed may justly be allowed the 
title, as they conform to the accepted definition 
of the term. The great commentator derives 
the term from three words ///c? (near), ;«' (quite) 
and sad (to go, to perish, to waste away) and 
explains that the word means Brahma-vidya, 
the Spiritual Wisdom which, by leading its 
devotee very near to Brahman, brings about 


the final extinction of misery by eradicating it 
and burning up its very seed, avidyd. And in 
this widest acceptation of the term, the title has 
been extended by later writers to such works 
as the Bhagavadgita, which treat of Brahman 
and the means of attaining Divine Bliss. 
This elasticity in the application of the term 
does not altogether militate against the 
Brahmanical doctrine of revelation ; for, while 
holding that Vedas including Upanishads 
are eternal as embodying the eternal truths 
which, though not accessible to the mind of 
the ordinary man, are yet within the ken of 
the spiritual vision of the divine sages who 
can read them as it were recorded in the pages 
of superphysical nature, the orthodox Brahman- 
ism admits the possibility of sages and even 
the Divine Being revealing at different ages for 
the guidance of people so much of truth con- 
cerning transcendental matters as may be neces- 
sary for their spiritual progress, in the langu- 
age of the people to whom the teaching is 
addressed. Unless, therefore, the application 
of the term is restricted to works of a particular 
age in the historical period^ the title cannot be 
refused to the Upanishads in question. The 
settlement of the question as to how far they 
are genuine or authoritative must be made, in 


view of the foregoing considerations, to rest ulti- 
mately on the inherent truth of the teaching 
contained in each individual Upanishad, judged 
as all such cases are in the last resort by one's 
own intuition. But the fact that Sri-Sankara- 
nanda, who for many years occupied the aposto- 
lic seat of Sringeri Mutt (monastery) in the 
fourteenth century as the head of the most 
orthodox school of Aupanishadas (the followers 
of the Upanishads), has commented and other- 
wise discoursed upon many of those Upani- 
shads which his great predecessor had left un- 
noticed, is enough to show that they form a 
valuable block of the sacred Scriptures, at least 
in so far as they have been made by religious 
teachers channels for conveying to their dis- 
ciples spiritual instruction of no mean order. 
Sankaracharya's omission to explain or other- 
wise notice them in his writings may be 
explained on the following ground. His main 
object was, — as may be seen from his attitude 
towards the various religious systems of his 
day which were too full of mischievous doc- 
trines and corrupt practices under the cloak of 
devotion to a personal God or Goddess, — to 
purify them all by placing them on a rational 
basis. With this end in view, he concerned him- 
self with the establishing of the essential prin- 


ciples of Universal Religion— of the Vaidika- 
Dhanna or Wisdom-Religion— as treated of in 
the ten classicalUpanishads and the Bhagavad- 
gita. These writings supplemented by ex- 
cerpts from four more Upanishads and from 
such other works as the Mahabharata, Vishnu- 
Purana, IManava-Dhannasastra which are least 
affected by predilections for any particular 
religion, afforded him ample materials for the 
laying of a common rational foundation of all 
religions. As to details in doctrine or practice 
connected with any particular religion, he was 
not opposed to anything which did not mili- 
tate against the fundamental doctrines of the 
Vedic Religion, 

The classical Upanishads have been trans- 
lated into English by more than one scholar, 
and English translations of »^ankaracharya's 
commentaries on one or two of them have also 
been published. There is a near prospect of 
his commentaries on other Upanishads also 
being made available to the English-reading 
students. It is now proposed to publish 
with necessary comments English translations 
of the minor Upanishads, — in small volumes 
like the one now issued, — inasmuch as they 
throw much light upon the practical aspect of 
the Vedantic system of theosophy, 


Amoug the many distinguishing features 
of the minor Upanishads two may be men- 
tioned here : (i) a more detailed system of 
Yoga by which to realize the Unity established 
on the authority of the more classical Upani- 
shads ; (2) the sectarian character of most of 
them which treat of the Supreme Being in a 
particular aspect, as ^^iva, Narayana, Ganapati, 
Krishna, Rama, Devi and so on, and which 
enjoin external practices and ceremonies 
which have become specially associated w4th 
particular sects. Both the Upanishads com- 
prised in this volume are said to belong to the 
Atharva-veda and treat in some detail of the 
Yoga of meditation by which to realize the 
true nature of the Supreme Being. As re- 
gards the second characteristic mentioned 
above, the Amritabindu-upanishad may be 
said to be altogether free from any sectarian 
bias. The name ' Vasudeva' occurring in the 
last verse of the Upanishad is not used in the 
same way that it is used in some of the sec- 
tarian Upanishads, Puranas, A ganias and 
Tantras. But the Kaivalya-upanishad is held 
by the f^aivas as peculiarly favouring their 
doctrine of S^iva, the personal God, being iden- 
tical with the Parabrahmau and superior to 
other Gods such as Vishnu, Brahma, because 


of the occurrence of sucli terms as ^iva, SadA- 
siva, Nilakantha, Rudra, Uma. These terms 
are, however, explained by some as applicable 
in their generic sense to the Supreme Being 
conceived in other forms. The followers of S'ri- 
Ramanujacharya, for instance, who claim Su- 
preme Divinity to the personal God Vishnu, 
explain these terms in their generic sense 
and apply them to Vishnu. To show that 
the Supreme Being is none of the personal 
Gods as such, others refer to the passage in 
which Siva, Vishnu and all other personal Gods 
are mentioned as the manifestations of the One 
Existence which has no form. The peculiar 
merit, however, attached to the recitation of 
the S'atarudriya text may be regarded as fa- 
vouring to some extent the contention of the 
Saivas. But even this argument loses much 
of its force if we take into consideration the 
difference of opinion among commentators as 
to what text is referred to in the Upanishad, 
as the S'atarudriya {vide p. 71) ; the S'aivas 
holding that the section beginning with 
" Najuaste Rjtdra'' iTaittiriya-Samhita IV. v.) 
is particiilarly sacred as designating the 
Supreme Being in a special way. These 
considerations notwithstanding, the Kaivalya- 
Upanishad seems to contain within it the seed 


capable of developing into the S'aiva system of 
Religion as we now find it. 

The notes accompanying the text of the 
Upanishads have been compiled from the well- 
known comments on Upanishads by S'ankaia- 
nanda and Narayanattrtha. Sankarananda's 
comments on these and many other Upan- 
ishads, especially as found in his masterly ex- 
positions which go under the name of A'tma- 
purana, are particularly valuable as embody- 
ing much information of a traditional charac- 
ter onl}'^ vouchsafed by a well-informed teacher 
to the disciple. While discoursing on the 
teaching of the Amritabindu-Upanishad, he has 
made two extracts from Gaudapada's Karikas 
on Mandukyopanishad. To make clear the 
full meaning of these verses, it has been 
thought necessary to add to them S'ankaracha- 
rya's commentaries thereon as expounded by 
A'nandagiri, — the bhashya being too terse to be 
clearly understood without A' nandagiri's gloss. 
The real nature of Manas and the process of 
restraining it are so pointedly treated of by 
Gaudapada in the verses quoted by S'ankara- 
nanda that they have been accorded a place 
in the volume co-ordinate with that of the main 

The two Upanishads under notice represent 


the curretit orthodox Brahmanism as founded 
on the teaching of the Upanishads, While 
maintaining that truth in the abstract and the 
ultimate aim of life is one and the same for all, 
Brahmanism points out different paths to dif- 
ferent classes of aspirants, each path being 
suited to the intellectual, moral and spiritual 
progress of those to whom it is recommended. 

He whose mind is so well prepared by along 
course of training in the previous incarnations 
as to realize at the first hearing the Vedantic 
teaching regarding the unity of the Self and 
Brahman and the evanescent nature of all else, 
— such a Mahatman lives in the infinite Bliss of 
Brahman and has achieved the highest object 
of life. 

It is others who are to walk in one or 
other of the various paths pointed out by the 
S ruti. The one aim to be achieved in all these 
is the perfect purity and steadiness of ]\Ianas, 
which being attained, Brahman will shine 
forth in Its true nature in INIanas The paths 
described in the following pages are these : 

( I ) Contc7nplation of the Nirguua or Uncondi- 
tioned Brahvian :— He alone is fit to enter on 
this path who is intellectually convinced of the 
reality of A'tman and the unreality of all else. 
In connection with this path a note of warning 

xxn iXTRODUcrrox, 

is often sounded exhorting the aspirant of this 
class to contemplate Nirguna-Brahman, not as 
devoid of all characteristics, but as Sat-Chit- 
A'nanda^ as Being, Consciousness and Bliss. To 
do this the aspirant has only to strip his own in- 
dividual consciousness of all the limitations 
caused by the Upadhis till it becomes one with 
the Universal Consciousness as he can conceive 
it. He has thus to transfer his own individuality 
to that of Brahman till all idea of separateness 
vanishes away, and to fix his consciousness 
there, never losing hold of it. In fullness of 
time this contemplation will lead to an intui- 
tive realization of the True nature of the Ab- 
solute Brahman. Any attempt to contemplate 
Brahman at the initial stage as altogether un- 
conditioned will be tantamount to the contem- 
plation of the Chaotic Tamas — of Avyakta, of 
Prakriti— which, if pursued to the culminating 
point, would lead to Prakriti-laya or absorption 
in the universal nature, thus throwing back 
the .soul's spiritual evolution almost to its start- 
ing point. It is from this point of view that 
Lord ^ri Krishna has recommended contem- 
X^lation of Isvara or Saguna-Brahman mani- 
fested in the Universe as the best for all as- 
pirants excepting the perfected men called 
Sankhyas who have had glimpses into the true 


nature of the Absolute Brahman as identical 
with their Highest Self and who are therefore 
never liable to confound the Nirguna-Brahman 
with the Avyakta or Prakriti. 

(2) Conteinplation of Saguna or Conditioned 
Bralunan : — Brahman being viewed in relation 
to the Universe, as its Source and its Guide ; 
as the all-pervading self-conscious Supreme 
Lord of the Universe, as immanent in every 
particle of the universe emanating from Him. 

(3) Contemplation of Sagnna- Brahman as 
external to oneself: — Brahman being conceived 
as distinct from the devotee and endued with 
the attributes of infinite knowledge, power, 
love, glory, &c., in their perfection. As the idea 
of perfection differs with individuals, no univer- 
sality of conception can be expected among this 
class of aspirants. Though conceived and 
worshipped in ever so many ways, the Divine 
Being, who in Himself is one and the same, 
dispenses His Grace to all alike, just in the way 
they approach Him. 

(4) Symbolic contemplation : — Those who 
cannot meditate upon Brahman in Himself, 
should have recourse to a symbol representing 
Him. The symbol may be a word such as 
Pranava ; or it may be an image, mental or 


(5) Performance of religious works witlioiU 
thoughts of rezvard: — He who, owing to his 
attachment to things of the world, cannot fix 
his mind on one object shonld continue to 
perform unselfishly all the duties pertaining 
to his station in life, contemplating God at 
intervals of work and occupied in the recita- 
tion of sacred texts. In course of time, his 
mind will be prepared to enter on the path of 

These are the different stages on the Nivritti- 
IMarga or the Path of Liberation. A pilgrim 
may commence his journey at any one of these 
stages. True unselfish single-hearted devotion 
to the Supreme Being will sooner or later lead 
him on through all the intermediate stages to 
the Ultimate Goal. 

Mysore, ^ A. M. S. 

2 ']th A ngust 1898. > 

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What is auspicious with our ears ma>- we 
liear, O Gods. With our eyes may we see what 
is auspicious, always engaged in worship. 
Adoring with organs and bodies perfect, may 
we enjoy the length of life granted us by the 

^lay the wise-taught Indra grant us welfare. 
May the all-knowing Piishan grant us welfare. 
^lay Tarkshya of unfailing wheel grant us 
welfare. May Brihaspati grant us welfare. 
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! ! Peace ! ! ! 
The two mantras here cited are chanted when 
begiuuing the study of an ixpanishad belonging- to 
the Atharvaveda. 

2 s'A'NTI-l'A'rHA. 

Wise-tanglit : tiiuglit by the Uiviue Sage Brihas- 
|)nti. Fashan: WievdWy nourislier ; generally applied 
to the sun. Tarkshya : " the name of a mythical 
l)eing described either as a horse or as a bird, and 
originally one of the personifications of the sai;, 
which was represented under tliese i'ornis." Tarkshya 
is explained by Bhattabhaskara to mean a vehicle 
(ratha) made of metres (chhandases). The word is 
sometimes treated as synonymous with Garndti, the 
Divine Bird whereon God Vishnu rides. Garuda is 
very probably a symbolic representation of Time, 
either directly, or indirectl}- thiough the sun. 
Brihaspati : the name of a deity who may be regard- 
ed as Piety and Religion personified... He is the type 
of the priestly order and is represented as the chief 
priest of the Gods. 






Tin's uparjishad is said to belong io the Athar- 
Yiiveda and is known by two names, Amrita-hindu 
and BraJnna-hindu, meaning " a small work treating' 
of the immortal Brahman;" or, "a treatise of which 
every syllable is like a drop of nectar." It is chiefly 
intended to reveal how best to attain to Brahma - 
sakshatl;ara, to an intnitive recognition of Brahman 
as identical Avith one's own Self. The best process, 
tlif one which lies at the root of all others, the type 
of which those others are more or less imperfect 
specimens, is said to consist in rnano-nirodha, the re- 
straint of 9II the internal and external — subjective 
and objective — wanderings of the raanas till it 
ceases to be Avhat it appears to be and attains to its 
true being, which is nothing but Brahman, the Bliss. 
This state is called samadhi. 

The conclusion of all upanishads may be summ- 
ed up thus : by a knowledge of the identity of Jiva 
or the individual Self with Brahm?)n, cessntion of 


all evil may be brought about and Spiritual Bliss 
attained. And this Brahma-jiiana can be acquired 
by an enquiiy into the teaching of the upanisliad s, 
followed by i-eflection and contemplation tliereof , 
Avliich require again the aid of manas. Manas is, 
1 i ke a wild elephant, very hard for men to control, ami 
it i.s therefore first taken up for treatment in tliis 

Pure and impure manas. 

I. Manas, \erily, is said to be twofold, 
pure and impure ; the impure one is that 
which has thoughts of objects of desire (K^nia), 
and the ptire one that which is free from 
desire (Kama). 

Manas is thf> antah-karana, the inner sense, which 
nndcigoes various modifications called vvittis. The 
wise say that it is twofold, pure and impure. Inipure 
as it genei'ally is, it is rendered pure by the innumer- 
able acts of righteousness ( punya) done in the past, 
by Brahmacliarya (physical and mental chastity), by 
upasana or meditation and other such observances in 
the present birth. Manas is said to be impure 
when it is full of de.sire, when it thinks of objects 
of desire. When it is altogether free from desire, 
manas is said to be pure. Sometimes it is neithoi- 
quite pure nor quite impure : and sometitnes it is 
quite dull and inactive. 


Manas the cause of bondage and liberation. 

Xow the question arises : what is the evil of the 
inanas being impure, or Avhat is the good of its 
being pure ? The answer follows : 

2. jNIaiias, verily, is the cause of bondage 
and liberation of men : engrossed in objects (it 
leads) to bondage ; free from objects (it leads) 
to liberation : so they say. 

The antnh-kai'ar.a is the cause of bondage 
(bandha) and liberation (mukti) in the case of all 
of us, the children of Manu. Bondage consists in 
the egoistic thought of ' I' and ' mine' and their 
cause; and liberation consists in the manifestation 
in ourselves of the self-luminous Bliss or A'tman, 
in the A'tman manifesting Himself in His true 
nature. When manas is engrossed in the ohjects of 
sense — in food and drink and other carnal pleasures, 
in sound, touch, colour, taste, smell — with a long- 
ing desire, it causes bondage. When manas is free 
from a longing for the sense-objects mentioned 
above, it leads to liberation. Thus by anraya and 
vyatireka, by what is called the method of agree- 
ment and difference, we find that pure manas con- 
duces to moksha. So, too, do the wise people think. 

Manas should be completely restrained 
from objects. 

Kvei-y one should strive to render manas 
nirvishaya, to set it free from sense-objects : 


3. Since liberation is ensured to this nianas- 
(when) free from objects, therefore by the 
seekers of liberation should the manas be ever 
made free from objects. 

This : Mnims is Suhshi-prafyaksha, ever directly 
piesent before A'traaii, the Witness. We are ever 
conscious of the existence of manas. Mukti 
consists iu liberation from such Iionds as avidya ; 
I.e., mukti is attained when iiianas is dissolved or 
merged in the heart-lotus, wlien it attains to wliat 
is called vnmani-bhdva or nis-sankalpald state, 
the state in which there is no thon^fht whatever in 
the manas. It is the condition known also as- 
manoninavl, that state in which there reigns a- 
perfect steadiness of manas. 

Nirodha leads to liberation. 

Tlie result of such a nirodha or restraint of 
Mianas is stated as follows: 

4. When manas, free from engrossment of 
objects, well restrained in the heart, attains to 
the A'tman's being, then it is the supreme 

Manas, when completely lestraintd in the heart- 
lotus, attains to the A'tman's being, i.e., it attains to 
a consciousness of the identity of Jiva and 
Brahman, to the consciousness that "lamlirah- 
ivifiu". This attaining to the A'tman's state is the 

(iAldapa'da's ka'iuka's quoted. 9 

result of the restraint of m anas. Than this there 
is, indeed, nothing higher to be attained. 

Sri Gaudapadacharya's exposition of 
mano = nirodha. 

In this connection, a study of S'ri- Gaudapada- 
charya's exposition, in the Advaifaprakarana (a 
section of his commentary on the ^landukya- 
upanishad), of the process of mano-nirodha which 
leads to the attainment of A'tman's real being may 
he found very inst-ructive. Before describing the 
actual process he proves, by itastning from 
experience, the declaration of the S'rnti that A'tman 
is all and that therefore manas has no real existence- 
except as A'tman. 

Emanation of Duality from the One Sat. 

With this end in view the A'charya proceeds ta 
establish the emanation of the dual universe from 
the one Sat or Absolute Existence. In the section 
above referz'ed to, he says : 

'' As in svapna mana.s acts by maya, as 
though it were dual, so in the jagrat, manas 
acts by mavA, as though it were dual." (verse 

It is, indeed, held by philosophers tliat it is the 
manas regarded as an independent entity that 
transforms itself into the whole world cf duality 


as experienced in the jagrat and svapna states, 
in oui- waking aud dream consciousness. The fant, 
however, is somewhat different. It is the Sat, 
IBraliman, Atmau Himself that, by maya, emanates 
into various fo'ms of being including manas. 
And manas itself is nothing but the Sat, as it is 
but a mexe appearance of Biahman. Where a 
rope, for example, is mistaken for a serpent, the 
serpent has a real existence only when seen as iden- 
tical with the rope. So also manas exists only 
in the sense in which it is identical with Xtnian, 
Avith the Absolute Consciousness which alone is the 
Supreme Reality, and on whi(di the whole super- 
structure of manas with all its modifications is 

rianifestation of the One as many. 

Tt may be here asked, how can manas, identical 
with the one Sat or A'tman, transform itself into 
the whole Universe P This question can be answered 
by an appeal to the svapna state, in which th.e 
•one manas is fo'.ind to transform itself into Viiri- 
ous forms of being, into the percipient and the 
various objects of perception. It is admitted by 
all philosophers that the dual world which pre- 
sents itself to consciousness in drearn is a mei-e 
illusory ci-eation of niAja, just as the soijiont is 
un illusory appearance of the rope. In the jagrat 
state as much as in the svapna state, it is by niavii 

(iALPATA'DA's Ka'rIKa's QL'OTED. 11 

iihat manas tiansforms itself into various forms of 
Manas identical with Atman. 

It should not be supposed that we liave thus 
admitted two causes of the universe, manas and 
Bralivian. For, as vve have already pointed out, 
nianas is but an illusory manifestation of Atman, 
just as the serpent is an illusory manifestation of 
the rope, and as such it is really identical with 
A'tman and is therefore one and secondles*. Tlie 
A'charya says : — 

" And the non-dual manas appears, no 
doubt, as dual in svapna ; so, too, the non- 
dual appears, no doubt, as dual in jagrat." 
(verse 30}. 

It is manas indepd which manifests itself as 
the whole seeming duality of svapna. In the 
svapna state, as everj'body is aware, there really 
exists nothing bur, vijiiana or consciousness ; 
there neither exist the objects perceived such as 
elephants, nor are the eye and other organs of 
perception awake by which to perceive them. So. 
too, in tlie jagrat 'or waking state, manas which is 
one and identical with Atman, the only absolutely 
Real Being, manifests itself as senses and sense- 
objects. Thus, manas is o\\\y an illusory manifes- 
tation resting upon vijnana or consciousness, inas- 
much as consciousTiess alone is absolutely real, 


being present alike in the jagrat and svapna fitates 
without any change whatevei'. And it is the 
manas of this sort, — that is, the nianas which ia 
really identical with Atman, — that [iresents itself 
in tlie form of all this dual world. Hence no 
jdui'ality of causes. 

Evidence that duality is nothing 
but manas. 

It may be asked, what evidence is there to show 
that manas alone differentiates itself into the 
world of duality and is rooted in mere avidya or 
ignorance of the reality, like a rope manifesting it- 
self by illusion as a serpent ? The question is 
thus ansivered : 

" Seeu b)- manas is this duality, whatever 
is moving or nnmoviiig ; in non-manasic state 
of manas, diialily is not at all perceived." 
(verse 31). 

The proposition is proved by resorting to^ 
anuniana or inference in its two aspects, anvaya 
imd vyatircka, positive and negative. When mnnns 
undergofs differentiation, this world of duality 
is perceived. This constitutes the anvaya or 
positive proof, as in the following case of 
inferential evidence : only wh< n chiy is present 
do we perceive the jar, which, therefore, in its 
essence is no more than mere clay. The propo- 
sition to be pioved liere is that the whole duality is- 


manas and inauas only ; and the proof adduced is 
that the world exists only when manas exists. 

The negative proof is of the following form : 
when there is no manas, there is no world of 
duality. This negative aspect of inferential evi- 
dence is indicated by a reference to the following 
facts of experience. In samadhi manas becomes 
no-manas ; it attains to the state called amanibhava. 
It is then completely restrained from its subjective 
and objective oscillations and thus reduced to 
no-manas by vairdf/ija or indifference to worldly 
objects, by constant meditation, and b}' the discrimi- 
native knowledgre as to what is real and what is 
unreal. Where, for instance, a rope is mistaken 
for a serpent, the serpent is reduced to no-serpent 
by the knowledge of what it really is- In sushupti 
or dreamless sleep manas attains to laija or dis.«o- 
lution. In samadhi and sushupti alike the woi-ld 
of duality is not perceived. And whatever is not 
perceived cannot be said to exist. Meya or an object 
I )f perception can be said to exist cnly when we 
perceive it: Dnhnldhhid ineyasiddJoh. Thus in san)a- 
dhi and sushupti in whi<;h no manas exists, the 
world of duality is not perceived and does not 
therefore exist. 

What is meant by "manas becomes 
no = manas." 

The foi'egoing statement may be objected to 
on the ground that, tliough not experienced in 


siiBiadhi and sushupti, manas does exist even in 
those states, inasmuch as manas is real in itst-lf 
and always exists. This objection is answered as 
follows : 

"When by the conviction of Atman's 
reality, manas imagines no more, then it be- 
comes no-manas, unperceiving for want of 
objects of perception." (verse 32). 

Vtman alone is real, as shewn hy the 8'ruti 
lefeii'ing to clay as an example : 

•"All changing forms are mere names, a mere 
wold of mouth ; what we call clay is alone real." * 
.lust as clay is alone admitted to be real, being 
(tonstant in jars and all other earthen vessels which- 
are unreal, so it should be admitted that A'tman 
alone Is i-eal, existing as he does in all objects that 
Hic looked upon as non-A'tman. AN' hen tin's truth 
is brought, home to the mind by the (eachings of 
tlie .Sastras and the A'charya, manas, owing to the 
non-t'xistence or unreality of the objects of thought, 
no longer thinks of them. In the absence, for 
instance, of fuel, tire can no longer bmst into flame.. 
'I'hen, in the absence of objects of perception, manas 
no longer undergoes difFerentiation in the form of 
peroc'Jver, perception and objects of perception, and 
lluis comes to be no-manas. 

'I'o our ordinary thinking, in vj'avahara, manas 18 

* Clihundogya-UpaniBhad 6-1-4, 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quoted. 15- 

Tiianas only as made of sankalpas, of thoughts anct 
imaginings. These thoughts depend for their exist- 
ence upon objects of thoiught, and the former cannot 
therefore exist in the absence of the latter. When 
the conviction arises that all is A'tnian and A'tmau 
only, then, owing- to non-existence of objects of 
thouglit, manas no longer continues to be manas. 
Thaf which then shines forth as consciousness is- 
nothitig but A'tman. Thus, in the e^'e of one who 
is endued with discrimination, what we call manas. 
does not exist. 

Brahman is the Absolute self=luminous 

AV'hen manas, whei^eof the existence is due to- 
illnsion (bhrama), thus becomes no-manas, z'.e., when 
it ceases to exist, /.e., again, Avhen it is known to be 
unreal, then there remains A'tman alone freed from 
niHfias. This state is described by sages as follows :: 

" Without any more imaginings, unborn, is 
knowledge inseparate from tlie Knowable, 
they declare. Brahman the knowable (it is),. 
unborn and eternal. By the unborn the Uii- 
l)orn knows." (verse 33). 

Then there remains knowledge which is not given 
to any imagining, and which is therefore unborn, 
i.e., not subject to birth or other changes to which 
all phenomenal beings are subject. This knowledge 


which Is mere consciousness is, as the Brahraavadins 
declare, none other than Brahman, the Absolute 
Reality. Indeed, the knowledge of the Knower 
never fails, like the heat of fire never fails. Accord- 
ingly, the S^rutis declare : " Brahman is Knowledge 
and Bliss,"* " Reality, knowledge and infinite is 
Brahman. "t In that knowledge itself is Brahman 
the knowahle : it is inseparable from Brahman as 
heat is inseparable from fire. Since it is nnborii, it 
is eternal (nltya) ever-existent. 

One may object to this as follows: If all du:ility 
iucluding raanas be unreal or non-existent, llien 
there remains nothing by which A'tman can be 
known, and therefore no knowledge of A'tman is 
possible. The S'roti, however, says that " It can be 
seen by mana^ only. "J And m;inas has beensnid to 
be unreal or non-existent. 

This objection is anticipated by the sage who says 
that " by the unborn the Unborn knows." 'l^he 
residual knowledge has been shewn to be iiiiboin, 
and this unborn knowledge is the essence of A'tiiuni. 
By that knowlelge, the Unborn — the A'tman that 
lias to be known — knows Himself. A'tman is one 
mass, as it were, made uj) solely of vijnana oj- con- 
sciousness in essence, just as the sun is essentially 
a mass of unfitiling light. A'tman is consciousi:ess 
itself. Atman does not stand in need of external 

* Brihadaraiiyaka-npanishad, 8-9-28. f Taittiriya-ii]iani- 
shad, 2-1, X Brihad^iaiiyaka-npanishad, 4-4-19. 

CAUDA PA'I'A's Ka'kIKA's yLOTED. 17 

knowledge to sliine forth. That is to say, by that 
consciousness alone which is inherent in His essence, 
a knowledge of A'tman is possible ; no such, thing as 
mauas external to Him is required for the purpose. 

Amanibhava not identcial with Sushupti. 

it should not be supp(jsed tliat, owing to the 
absence in it of nil acts of thouj^ht, samadhi is the 
same as sushupti. For, 

" The behaviour of manas thus restraiued, — 
freed from imagining and endued with wisdom, 
— is clearly perceived (b)- yogins) ; in sushupti 
it is different ; it is not the same as that." 
(verse 34). 

We have said above: — When convinced of the 
grand truth that A'tman alone is real, a^ has been 
shown above, there i-emainsno external object which 
raanas may think of. Having nothing to think of in 
the absence of external objects, manas ceases to 
think altogether. Like fire having no fuel to feed 
upon, manas grows ti-anquil- Then it is said 
to become niiudilha, completely restrained and 
neutralized ; it is said to have attained to samadhi. 
And it has been further said that when manas 
becomes no-manas, the Dvaita or Duality which is 
but manas in motiqp, is absent. 

Thus, when manas is possessed of viveka, of the 
conviction that A'tman alone ia real and the rest 


unreal, it becomes thoroughly restrained, and freed 
from all imaginings owing to the absence of all 
objects of thought. Manas then gets resolved into 
Piatvagatman, the Innermost Self. This peculiar 
beliaviour of mauas is familiar only to the yogins ; 
it is vidvatpratyaktiha, it is intuitively known only to 
the wise sages, only to the Illuminate. 

(Objection:) — Since all cognition is absent alike 
in sushupti and nirodha states, the behaviour 
of nianas in the nirodha state is the same as 
in sushupti state, i.e., the behaviour ofmanasin 
nirodha is quite as far beyond consciousness as that 
in sushupti, and therefore in the nirodha state there 
remains nothing of which the yogin may become 

(A7iswer :) — The behaviour of manas in the niro- 
dha state is quite distinct from its behaviour in the 
sushupti state. 

Wherein lies the difference between the two. 

In the sushupti state, manas is embraced by avidyo, 
by dfliisicn, by the Tamas* and is pregnant 

* These three terms, Avidya, Moha, and Tamas are 
descriptive desiguations of one and tlie same thing, showing 
that what is called Avidya is not a mere negative of VidyA, 
i.e., the mere absence of Vidya, nor is it a mere hallucina- 
tion of the mind {chitta-hhruma). It is, on the other hand, 
a distinct principle called Tamas or Darkness, far snbtlor 
than chitta or the thinking principle ; and it is that 
extremely thin veil which envelops the Absolute Keality. 

GAUDAI'a'da'.S KA'KlK:.\'d QUOTKD. 19 

with vjisatias or tendencies which, concealed 
'withiu nianas, are the source of all the activities 
that lead to many an evil result ; whereas, in the 
nirodha state, avidya and all other seeds of activity 
leading to many an evil result are burnt up by the 
fire of the conviction that A'tman alone is real, and 
all Rajas giving rise to all sorts of pain is perfectly 
neutral. Manas, is then in its own state, quite 
independent, having attained to Brahman's own 
state of being. Thus, the behaviour of nianas in 
the uirodha state is quite distinct from rliat in the 
sushupti state. And though very hard to know, 
it is a thing which one may realise in consciousness. 

Thus liberation, the result of jnana, is not a 
-remote (paroksha) result like svarga resulting from 
karma performed here. It is as immediately ex- 
perienced as the sense of satisfaction immediately 
following the act of eating. The result of jiiana 
<;onsists, as here described, in mano-nirodha which, 
as has been shewn above, follows closely upon jnana 
and becomes a fact of experience. 

Gaudapada describes the difference between 
sushupti and samaibi as follows : 

" In sushupti, manas attains laya ; when 
restrained it does not attain laya. That alone 
is the fearless Brahman, luminous with know- 
ledge all around. It is unborn, .sleepless^ dream- 


less, nameless, formless, ever-luminous, omni- 
scient. No ceremony whatever." (verses 35-36.) 

In susbupti attains laya, i. c, is resolved 
into its seed, its primal cause, tlie chaotic unconsciouiJ 
principle of Tamas, — along with all the vasauas, the 
tendencies or latent impressions of avidja * aud 
other seeds of affliction. In tlie nirodha state, on 
the other hand, nianas is restrained in virtue of its^ 
discriminative knowledge, in viitvie of the convic- 
tion that A'tman alone is real. Ic does not attain 
laya ; it is not resolved into its seed, the chaotic 
Tamas ; it does not exist even in the subtlest form, 
in the form of its cause. Wherefore it is but right 
to say that the behaviour of manas is different in 
the nii^odha and susbupti states. 

* The five afflictions ai'e thus eniimernted and defined 
l>y Patanjali in liis Yoga-Sutras ii. 3 — 9 : 

(1) AvidyCi or Ignorance : The mistaking of what is non- 
eternal, impure, painful, and uon-self to be eternal, piue, 
joyous and self. 

(2) AsmUd or E(ioism : the identifying of the .seer witli the 
act of seeing. 

(3) Raga or Desire : a longing for pleasure or for the cause 
of pleasure. 

(4) Dvesha or Aversion : a dislike for pain or for the cause 
of pain 

(5) Ahhinivem or Tenacity of life : a strong natural desire 
to live, cherished even by the wise. 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quotbd. 21 

Nirodha state described. 

When manas, brought into samadhi state, is I'icl 
of the twofold dirt caused, by avidya, — the dirt of 
perception and the dirt of organs of perception, — 
manas becomes the very Brahman, supreme, second- 
less. That, therefore, is verily the fearless — 
since there exists no perception of duality 
which is the cause of fear — tranquil Brahman, 
which being known man has none to fear. It 
shines forth as jiiana (consciousness) which is the 
essential nature of A'tman ; that is to say, Atman is 
one solid mass, as it were, made up solely of consci- 
ousness, pervading all around, like the akasa or 
ether. It is the very Brahman. It is the unborn : 
it has, indeed, been said that avidya is the cause 
of all birth. When a rope, for example, is mis- 
taken for a serpent, it is certainly avidya that has 
given rise to the birth of the serpent in the rope. 
And this avidya has been removed by the convic- 
tion that Atman alone is real. Avidya, which is 
the cause of all brith, being thus absent in the 
viirodha state, that Avhich then persists and shines 
forth is not subject to birth, either within or 
without. For the same reason that it is unborn — 
i. e., because there is no avidya — It is anidra, 
without nidrd ; for, nidra here denotes avidya itself, 
the beginningless maya. It is asvapua, sleepless, 
as having completely awakened from the sleep of 
jnaya and become the non-dual Atman. It is 


nameless and formless : Brahman is not designated! 
by name ror represented to be of this or that 
form. The S'ruti says : — " From whom all words 
as well as manas return, havino^ failed to reach 
Him."* Name and form applied to us are products- 
of mere ignorance. By knowledge they have 
been extinguished ; just as, where a rope has 
been mistaken for a serpent, the serpent has 
been extinguished by knowledge. It is, moreover,. 
ever-luminous. It is light ever shining ; for, It is 
rever unperceived nor misperceived ; It neither 
comes into manifestation nor goes out of sight. It 
is said to be unperceived when no consciousness that 
' I am' arises in Jiva or the individual Self asso- 
ciated with upadbi (avidya) ; then Atman goes out 
of sight. When there arises in the same Jiva the 
consciousness that ' I am the agent,' — when the 
Atman is wrongly perceived, — then Atmau is- 
.«<!\id to come into manifestation. As manifestation 
and disappearance of this kind are alike absent in 
Brahman, It is evei'-effulgeut. 

Now an objector may say : — Before Brahman is- 
taught by S'ruti or Acharya, It is said to be unper- 
ceived, and after It has been taught, It is said to be- 
perceived. Thus Brahman is subject to perception 
and non-perception. 

"We answer : — Not so ; for, perception and non- 
perception are like day and night. As to the sun 

*' Taittiriya-upanvshad, 2-4. 

gaudapa'da's ka' Rika's quoted. 23 

considered in himself, there can be neither day nor 
night ; they are pure imaginations, born of another 
illusory notion that the sun rises and sets. So also, 
in Brahman considered in Itself there can be no 
perception or non-perception ; they are mere imagina- 
tions due to upadhi : Brahman without upadhi is 

Moreover, Tamas which is of the nature of avidya 
or ignorance is the cause of Brahman's not being 
ever-effulgent to us. Fi'om the standpoint of 
Brahman there can be no connection whatever with 
Tamas ; and in itself Brahman is the eternal, ever- 
effulgent consciousness. For the same reason, 
Brahman is All and is Himself the Knower 

The wise man whose manas has attained to nii'odha, 
and who therefore has attained to the state of 
Brahman, has nothing more to do. With regard to 
thenirupadhika or unconditioned Brahman, no form- 
al worship is necessary. He alone who has not 
realised A'tman has to resort to samadhi and other 
forms of W'Orship, by which to approach the Divine 
Being regarded as external to himself. Brahman 
being ever-Existent, Pure, Conscious, and Free, 
for the wise man whose avidya has been extinguished 
and who has himself become Brahman, there can be 
nothing whatever to do. 

All vyavahara or action in general existn only in 
tlie state of avidya; in the state of vidya or en- 
lightenment, avidya is entirely absent, and therefore 

24 AMIUTAHlXDU-Ul'ANl,'=;HAb. 

no vyavahara can exist. A mere semblance, liow- 
ever, of vyavaliara is possible, owing to a temporary 
continuance of what has been found to be unreal. 

Brahman is none other than the wise man 
in the nirodha state. 

The A'charya describes the wise man who has 
attained samadhi in the following words : 

" Free from all speech, having risen above 
all thought, perfectly serene, ever-effulgent, 
the samadhi, immutable, fearless." (Verse 37.) 

It has been said that what shines forth in the 
nirodha state has no name and form, and so on. It 
has tlien no organ of speech — the soui'ce of names of 
all kinds — or any other external organ of sensation. 
It has lisen above all thought : It has then no 
buddhi, no antah-karana by whicli to think. It is 
thus quite pure. There exists not in It even a trace 
of these, not even their cause, avidya, in its subtlest 
form. As devoid of all objects of perception, It is 
perfectly serene. It is ever-eifulgent as the self- 
conscious A'tman. It is spoken of as samadhi 
because It is attainable by the prajfia 01 conscious- 
ness Avhich results from samadhi, or because It is 
the Supreme A'tman in whom Jiva (the individual) 
and liis upadhi find their resting place. It is immu- 
table and therefoio fearless. This state of nirodha- 
samadhi is attainable only as the result of a vast 
amount of good karma. 

oaudapa'da's ka'rfka's quoted. 25 

Nirodha marks the end of the Path. 

On attaining to nirodha-sa-Diildld, nothing more 
remains lo be done, as the Acharya says ; 

" No taking or giving up is there where no 
thought exists. Centred in Atman then is 
knowledge, withoiit birth, having attained 
equality." (Verse. 38). 

Because Brahnaan alone shines forth in the nirodha 
state and is spoken of as immutable and fearless, 
therefore in that state, i.e., in Brahman, there can 
be neither taking nor giving* up. Where there is 
change or liability to change, there alone taking and 
giving up are possible ; but neither of the two can 
exist in Brahman. There can be no change in 
Brahman because there is no second thing which 
can cause change ; and there can be no liability 
to change, because Brahman has no parts. In 
Brahman there can be no thought of any. kind. 
When manas has thus ceased to be manas, how can 
there be taking or giving up ? On the rise of the 
conviction that Atman alone is real, then, in the 
absence of all objects of perception, consciousness 
(jnana) becomes centered in Atman alone, just as 
heat becomes centred in fire itself when there is no 
fuel to burn. Such a consciousness is birthless and 
has attained to absolute identity. 

Thus it has been shewn how Brahman which is 
immutable and present ever and everywhere is 


leally uuborn, though by illusion It appeal's to be- 
this thing now and that thing at another time. 
Compai'ed with the conviction that Atman alone is 
leal, all else is low and mean. On attaining to this 
knowledge, a brahman has achieved all and has 
nothing more to do. 

Few can reach Nirodha. 

Thus, Brahman, the Supreme Reality, the Inner 
Self, the Immutable (ki'itastha), Existence (sat), 
Intelligence (chit) and Bliss (ananda) is attainable 
b}- a knoAvledge of the Reality, by a firm conviction 
of Its non-duality. Still the self-complacent un- 
enlightened men do not apply themselves to it. Of 
this class of people the Acharya says : 

" Unstained Yoga, verily, is this called,, 

hard to see for all yogins. Yogins, indeed, are 

afraid of this, seeing fear in the Fearless." 
(Verse 39.) 

Nirodha is well known in the upanishads by 
the name of untainted (asparsa) yoga, as untouched 
by, or unrelated to, anything whatever : ilisasparsot 
or imfainted because of the very intuitive experience 
of non-dual A'tman in virtue of which neither the 
merit (dharma) of caste and religious order nor the 
dirt of sin can affect the soul ; and it is yoga because 
,1iva is thereb}' united to Brahman. It is very hard 
for a yogin to attain, — for him who does not possess- 

gacdapa'da's ka'hika'.s quoted. 2T 

vedAntic wisdom. A jogin attains it only after 
undergoing a gfood deal of trouble involved in the 
processes of s'ravana, manana and nididhydsana, 
i.e., of learning the ancient wisdom from the Teacher^ 
and of reflecting and contemplating thereon, and 
so on, — the processes by which alone one can attain 
to the conviction that A'tman alone is real. 

Self-deluded Karma = Yogins. 

The real nature of the Supreme Brahman is very 
haid for yogins to realize, — for those devotees who 
work in the path of Karma with their vision always 
diiected to the external world. They are afraid of 
the nii-odha-yoga, though it is free from all taint of 

These followers of A-edic ritual look upon this 
samadhi — this knowledge of the Reality — with great 
fear as leading to mere self-extinction, thinking that 
thereby they would lose their brahman caste and 
all. They are unwise, being given to imagining 
fear of self-extinction where there is really no fear 
at all : knowledge of Reality is indeed the very 
means of attaining to fearless state. 

Like men born blind, these yogins always- 
engrossed as they are in matters external, do not 
see and realize their own real Self; they declare 
that araanibhava or samadlii is allied to sushupti. 
The first cause of their fear is ajuana which gives 
ri?e to many an illusory phenomenon. Next^ 


born of this illusion corae the manifold groundless 

Self = deluded Sa'nkhyas. 

Those yogins, for instance, who follow the Sankhya 
vSystem of philosophy hold as follows : It cannot be 
that one A'fman alone exists in all beings without 
any distinction, nor that He is essentially composed 
of mere Intelligence and Bliss. Since in ourexperience 
we find happiness and misery differently allotted 
to different beings, the Atmans (Purushas) must be 
different in different bodies. The Prakriti which is 
the cause of the Purushas' enjoyment and suffering 
is one onl3^ They explain the behaviour of Pi'akviti 
in raoksha in various alternative ways : 

(1). Though one and common to all Purushas, 
Prakriti manifests Itself in many a form and vanishes 
altogether in mukti. 

(2). Though in bondage Prakriti is what we find 
It to be, evolving into many a form, from the sub- 
tlest to the grossest ones, yet in mukti It retraces 
back Its steps and withdraws — or becomes resolved 
— into Its own primeval form. 

(3). The cause of bondage is not Prakriti as 
such, but Prakriti evolved into manas. In mukti 
it is manas which, having achieved all its purposes, 
changes form by way of being resolved into the foiin 
of its cause. 

Holding one or another of these views as to 
what happens in mukti the yogin of the Sankhya 

gaudapa'jia's ka'rika's qcotkd. 29- 

school stoutly opposes the doctrine of the followers 
of the Upanishads as to the inanas becomino- one 
with A'tman, on the ground that manas could be 
resolv^ed only into Prakriti. irs cause. Afraid on and similar grounds and held captive by avidya, 
they reject the doctrine of amanibhava established 
bc-yond doubt by both S'ruti and the experience of 
the sages, and regard it as mere sushupti. These 
yogins regard themselves very wise, though alto- 
gether devoid of true wisdom. They practise res- 
traint of breath and do other hard things with a 
view to realise the true A'tman. But as the blind 
can never see the treasure though held in the palm, 
never can such men reach ilie fearless Blissful Self 
though ever present in their own hearts. 

Ths doctrine of Vaiseshikas and 

Tliough self-luminous as the witness of every act 
of thought, and always free from all upadhis, still 
soiwe philosophers, such as Vfii.seshikas, and Madhya- 
mikas, iiold that A'tman is naturally devoid of con- 
sciousness. The Vais'eshikas* hold that A'tman has, 
in himself, neither consciousness nor bliss, and' 
that he becomes conscious only when in contact with- 
manas ; while the Madhyamikasf hold that Atman 

* The followers of Kaniida. 

t The nihilistic school of Buddhistic metaphysicians. 


never possesses them. Both of them are labouring 
under a delusion, and declare that amanastd or free- 
dom from the sway of manas is possible only at the 
time of moksha or at death, not during life. 

Higher Grade of Yogins. 

The best class of aspirants comprises those 
who look upon manas, the sense-organs and 
all the rest as a mere fiction apart from 
Brahman's being, just as, where a rope is mistaken 
for a serpent, the serpent is a mere imagination. 
They ai'e themselves Brahman, and in virtue of the. 
very wisdom which they have acquired ; fearlessness 
and the endless Peace — the manifest unsurpassed 
Bliss — called moksha exists in their very being and 
does not depend on anything else. Tliese men of 
wisdom are Jivanmuktas, having already attained 
to mukti. Hence no need for them to tread tlio jiafh 
any more. 

Lower Grade of Yogins. 

Others again — all those yogins who, doing light- 
eous deeds atul thus treading on the right patli, 
have purified their buddhi, but who hold to beliefs 
removed one or more degrees from the absolute 
truth, — are convinced of the independent existence 
of manas, which is held to be quite distinct from 
A'tman and yet in contact with Atman. To them 

gaiidapa'da's ka rika's quoted. 31 

who have not attained to the conviction that A'traan 
alone is real, fearlessness — i. e., sakshatlalra or 
direct perception of A'tman, the Supreme Reali- 
ty—is unattainable except by the restraint of 
ananas. With reference to this class of aspirants, 
the acharya says : 

" Dependent npon the restraint of inanas is 
fearlessness for all yogins ; as also extinction of 
pain, and trne wisdom, and also endless peace." 
(verse 40). 

For him wlio does not distinguish A'traan from 
non-A'tman extinction of pain can be brought about 
only by the restraint of manas ; for, pain must 
necessarily arise so long as manas, which is always 
in contact with A'tman, is subject to motion. More- 
over, that insight also into A'tman which has 
already been spoken of as fearlessness depends alto- 
gether on the restraint of manas. Similarly, that 
endless Peace Avhich is called moksha is dependent 
on the restraint of manas. 

Inferior Yogins should practise mental 

Accordingly all yogins should i-esort to the res- 
training of manas in the manner recommended by 
those who are versed in the traditional knowledge 
of the process. We say ^all yogins' advisedly, in- 


Hsniuch as even the hitherto misguided yoojins 
will ultimately reach the goal if the}- would but 
turn away from their former course and begin to 
woi'k in the right path. He who desires the well- 
I)eing of his own Self (A'tman) should first conquer 
nianas ; and the conquest of manas, though hard to 
achieve, must be possible, because Sastra enjoins 
it, and the sages have borne testimony to its being 
H fact of their own experience. 

Strong will and cheerfulness are necessary. 

The aspirant should practise restraint of manas 
with a resolute and cheerful heart : 

" Like the emptying of the ocean by the 
tip of kiis'a grass, drop by drop, so has the 
restraint of manas to be achieved without 
weariness." (verse 41.) 

Those who exert themselves strenuously, never 
dispirited in their antah-karana, — that is, never 
chafing thus : " when the eye is closed, 1 see dai-k- 
ness ; when I open my eyes I see objects, such as a 
cloth orapot ; never am I able to see Brahman ; " — 
whose firp.t resolution to conquer manas is perhaps 
like the resolve to dry up the ocean by pouring out 
its water drop by drop with the tip of a kusa grass ;. 
never wearied or despondent, they can achieve the 
restraint of manas. 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quoted. 33 

The legend of tittibhas. 

The legend about the attempt to empty the 
ocean by pouring out its water drop b}'' drop is 
narrated by tradition as follows : — 

Once upon a time there lived a couple of tittibhas on the 
shore of an ocean beaten hard by surfs. The male bird, 
puffed up with pride, set the Ocean at naught and left the 
newly laid e^r^s on the shore, despite the renionstrations of 
the wife. He then addressed her thus : " Do not fear, my 
dear! If the Ocean be so proud as to carry off my eggs, then I 
shall deprive the infatuated fellow of all his water ; and you 
will then see him quite powerless by fear." The wife 
shewed him in many ways what an impossibility it was. 
What was he when compared with the Ocean ? The hus- 
band, however, left the eggs in the same spot and went with 
the wife in search of food. 

When they were gone, the Ocean who had all the while 
been listening to the conversation, with all his pride carried 
off the eggs by his big surfs. But remembering the Sup- 
reme Lord, the Ocean thought thus within himself : " All 
things, animate and inanimate, are the manifestations of 
the Supreme Lord. There is no knowing what may happen 
to a being, when, by whom, or how. His Maya works 
miracles in the world. I am not sure who he (the tittibha) 
is, what his abode, who his friends, what his power or 
his time. I shall therefore keep his eggs safe in a place." 
Thus thinking, the Ocean secured them in a safe place and 
roared aloud as before. 

When with a full belly the tittiiha returned to the place 
with his wife, the eggs were missing. He was beside him- 
self with anger and resolved to dry up the Ocean. Then 
his well-meaning wife addressed him thus : " What are you, 
a small creature born of an egg, compared with the mighty 



Ocean ? Why do you wagu war against him, against all 
reason? Alliance or enmity .is fitting only among equals. 
You and the Ocean are not equals. Thy body is but six- 
teen inches long, and thy Tvings not more than a foot wide. 
Thy legs are like the stiim of a mango-fruit, and thy 
beak is like the kusa'grass. Tby wings are soft like silken 
cloth and no more than twelve inches. So small is thy 
whole extent, either within or without. Time is ever 
the same with one born in the brute creation. Time pro- 
duces change in mankind, in Devas and Daityas." Friends 
you have none except myself, a poor and helpless creature. 
Enemies become friends in consideration of the money to 
be got in future or of the good recepl^ion at the hands of 
the wealthy. But even fhvA wealth dost thou of the 
feathered creation lack. Thou canst not fly in the air even 
to the distance of an arrow's flight. By birth thou art 
tittibho, the meanest of the oviparous race. Whereas, the 
Ocean is a million miles long on one side and two million 
miles on the other, and he is as deep as the earth itself. At 
the time of cosmic pralaya ho floods all the three worlds by 
his waves as a lake inundates the earth by its outlet. '' He 
holds within him quite as many beings as there are on 
earth ; and in him thore are pi-ecious gems of all sorts. 
Among his friends may be reckoned powerful Devas and 
'Munis of great austerity, j'tid ho holds for the Devas and 
men an inexhaustible Fi'pply of gems. He has given 
refuge to the mighty mountains such as Mauiflka when 
they were afraid of Indra.''^ Thus do thou think all about 
thyself and the Ocean. Do not in vain provoke enmity lead- 
ing to thy death. Already by tliy folly I have lost my 
children. Do uoi by thy df.atri ada to my misery." ^' 

When thus harangued at length, his ej-es became red and 
his hair stood oij end. With i iirra resolve he addressed 
his wife, who loo kcd quite miserable, as follows : 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quoted. 35 

" In times of prosperity friends are found iu millionH, but 
he who is a friend in need is a friend indeed. Whoso forsaketh 
in need is an enemy, even if it be the son or the wife. He is 
a friend, who is a firm adherent in virtue and sin, in happi- 
ness and misery. But as an enemy is he to be regarded who, 
trusted as the very self for his wisdom, proudly prattles 
much in adversity. He who seeks success in life should slay 
first the enemy who is disguised as a friend, and then the 
declared foe. So, though a friend in appearance, thou 
speakest like a foe. But I think it is wrong to slay one of 
the weaker sex, and I abstain therefore from the sin. As 
the wise say, seven paces make friendship. I have lived 
long and happily with thee ; how shall I now injure thee, 
a friend and a woman ? So, do leave this place and go else- 
where. Do not tarry here. Alone, by my own might, I 
will dry up the Ocean. With my beak and ray two wings I 
will pour out his water and ere long reduce him to a shallow 

Thus saying, he flew into the air and began to work, with 
a view to dry up the ocean. The hen-tittibha saw his 
resolve, and as a dutiful wife begged his pardon and fol- 
lowed suit. Both day and night, without being tired, they 
worked to dry up the ocean. They dipped their beaks and 
wings to pour the water out ; but the water evaporated so 
soon as was taken up. They, however, went on doing so 
for a long time, when other tittibhas began to dissuade them 
from the attempt. They were merely told to evince their 
friendship by co-operating with them in the attempt to dry 
up the Ocean or else to go back their way. Thereupon they 
joined the couple in the act of pouring out the water ; and 
So did the rest of the feathered race of all classes. Then, 
at last, Narada, the Divine sage, wending on his unimpeded 
course through the three regions, saw these birds at work and 
tried in many ways to dissuade them. But they did not desist. 


Seeing they were firm in their resolve, he advised them to 
invoke Garuda's help. At the very sight of the fierce 
Garuda the ocean trembled with fear and restored the eggs 
to the tittibhas." 

Thus untired like tlie tittibhas should a person 
woi'k at the subjugation of manas. Once he makes 
a firm resolve, Gods will come to his help in the 
same way that Garuda came to the help of the 
tittibhas. Help invariably comes from all beings 
in a righteous act. Even the monkeys helped 
Rama to recover his wife. He can achieve all, 
who possesses the attributes of manliness,self-contro], 
courage, strength, skill and prowess. No man 
should ever abnndon an undertaking, great or 
small, just as the lion never retraces his steps when 
once he has begun to march. Bearing all this in 
mind, he who engages in the subjugation of manas 
should never turn back even in the face of a deadly 

Obstacles to 5amadhi. 

It should not, howevei% be supposed that unwea- 
ried effort alone can help far in the subjugation of 
manas. If that were an adequate means of conquer- 
ing manas, then there would be no necessity for 
the other ways pointed out by the scriptures. On the 
other hand, there are various obstacles in the 
way of the man who practises samadhi with a view 
to attain to aakshatkara, to an intuitive realization 
of truth. They are enumerated as follows : lay a 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quoted. 37 

(mental inactivity), vikshepa (distraction), kashdya 
(passion), and sukJiardga (taste for pleasure). So, 
manas should be restrained fi'om. falling into 
these states, by resorting to the ways recommended 
below. Otherwise the object of the practice cannot 
be attained. 

The neophyte should study the scriptures, and 
then reflect and meditate upon them. By this course, 
supplemented by his unwearied efEorts to restrain 
manas, he can acquire a knowledge of the True. 

S'ri-Gaudapadacharya teaches us what those 
snares are and how to avoid them or how to escape 
from them : 

Vikshepa and laya. 

" By skill should one restrain manas when 
distracted by kama and enjoyment, and even 
when it is tranquil in laya. As kama is, so is 
laya." (Verse 42). 

When manas becomes distracted by desires and 
objects of desire, the neophyte should restrain it by 
resorting to the course described below and cause it 
to dwell on A'tman. Moreover, he should restrain 
manas from getting into laya or mental inactivity — 
which is equivalent to the sushupti state, — though 
it be a state which is marked by the absence of all 
trouble. Laya or mental inactivity is as much a 
source of evil as kama, and therefore it is that 
manas should be prevented from lapsing into that 


condition as much as it should be restrained from 

Antidotes to vikshepa and laya. 

The A'charya points out the means of avoiding or 
escaping from vikshepa and laya : 

" Ever thinking that all is pain, he should 
restrain (manas) from the enjoyment of Kama ; 
ever thinking that all is the Unborn, he never 
sees the born." (Verse 43). 

" In laya let him wake up the chitta ; when 
distracted, let him withdraw it again. Let 
him know it is (then) sakashdya (impassioned) ; 
when balanced, let him not disturb it." (Verse 


By always thinking that all duality set up by 
avidya is only a source of pain, he should withdraw 
the "wandering manas from objects of enjoyment to 
-which it has been led by kama. This is the means 
known as vairdgya-hhdva7id, — practice of dispassion 
or indifference to worldly pleasures by thinking of 
their irapermanence and evil nature. By always 
meditating on the instructions of the sastra and 
the Teacher, which point to the doctrine that the 
Unborn or Brahman is all — that is, by what is 
called jilnndbhydsa, by a repeated study, reflec- 
tion and contemplation of the teaching of the 
sastra,— he never sees the born, the world of 

gaudapa'i'aS ka'iuka's quoted. 39 

dualit}'^ as opposed tu lirsihiiian, because it does not 

Thus by the twofold means of jnanabhyasa and 
vairagya-bhavana, let the neophyte wake up manas 
sunk ill laya, in nidra ov snshupti ; i. e., let the 
manas be engaged in seeing* A'tman as distinguished 
from uon- A'tman. When di.stiacted by desires and 
pleasure.'', let him at once withdraw the mind from 

Kashaya and its antidote. 

Though, by repeated practice, manas is awak- 
ened from laya and its wandering checked by the 
twofold process of jnanabhyasa and vairagya- 
bhavana, still it is far fi-om having attained perfect 
balance, the state of the une mditioned Brahman, 
When in this intermediate stage, the manas is 
known to be sakashoya or impassioned, as still 
possessed of rdga or attachment which is the seed 
of all its activity in the direction of external ob- 
jects. From this state, as from the st ates of laya 
and vikshepa, manas should be restrained by a 
special effort, by means of what is known as 
Sainprajndta-Samdclhi,^ and brought to a perfectly 
balanced condition, i. e., to the state of Aaaiapraj- 

* Samadhi is of two kinds, (1) Samprajridtii or Sav i- 
kalpala, and (2) Ana.npraj'iata or Nirvikalpaka. Wli en 
manas is engaged in jn'Ofouud contemplation of Brahm an, 
always thinking " I am Brahnian," at a certain stage it 


When once by the twofold Samadhi manas tends 
to a state of perfect balance, to that of the uncondi- 
tioned Being, it should no longer be disturbed ; 
care should be taken that it does not again fly to- 
■\vards sense-objects. 

Rasasvada and its antidote. 

There is j'et another obstacle which the A'ch^rya 
treats of in the following verse : 

" Let him not taste the pleasure therein. 
Without attachment let him resort to wisdom. 
Let him with effort make the steady chitta 
one when it tends to go out," (Verse 45). 

The Yogin who wishes to attain to Samadhi 
should not taste the pleasure which manifests it- 
self in the Samadhi state : he should restrain 
manas from cherishing any longing ev^en 
for the intense pleasure which is felt in 
Savikalpaka- Saniildhi . What should he do then ? — 
Without longing for the pleasure, he should have 
recourse to discrimination : i.e., he should dwell on 
the tliought that the pleasure which is found to 

assumes the form of Bratiman, but without ceasing to think 
of a distinction between the meditator and Brahman who'is 
meditated upon. So long as this distinction continues in 
thought, tyie samadhi is said to be in the savikalpaka or 
samprajndta stage. When this distinction disappears in 
thought altogether, when manas is en rapport with Brahman 
so as to be completely identified with Him, it is said to 
have reached the asamprajiidta or nirvikalpaka stage of 

gaudapa'da's ka'rika's quoted. 41 

arise in the Savikalpaka-Samidhi is a mere fiction 
due to avidya and is therefore false, and that what- 
ever is accidental is a mere fiction like the serpent 
imagined in a rope. Thus, the yogin should prevent 
the mind from longing for even this sort of pleasure. 
When again manas, though restrained from a long- 
ing for the pleasure by vairagya and made to dwell 
steadily in the A'tman by practice of SamAdhi, still 
tries to assert its nature and is inclined to wander 
outside by a longing for pleasure and objects of 
pleasure, it should again be restrained witli effort 
from so wandering, by resorting to the means 
already described, such as jiitinabhyasa and 
vairagya. To sum up : by practice of Samprajnata- 
Samadhi culminating in Asamprajnata-Samadhi, 
the aspirant should make manas one with Para- 
Brahman and he himself should remain as the pure 
all-full Brahman. 

flanas identical with Brahman. 

When does manas become completely identical 
with Brahman ? The A'charya says : 

" When the chitta is not dissolved nor is 
distracted again, uninoving and unmanifest- 
ing, then it becomes Brahman." (Verse 46). 

When, thus freed from all obstacles and complete- 
ly withdrawn from sense-objects by jfiauabhy^sa 
and other means described above, manas is no 


longer subject to laya nor resolved into its cause 
nor distracted by external objects, and is steady- 
like the lamp-flame in a windless spot, not manifest- 
ing itself as an external object of any kind, — then 
mauas has become Brahman. 

Brahman realized in Nirodha = 5amadhi. 

Brahman as realized when manas attains to a 
state of perfect balance — i.e., to what is called 
Asamprajnata-Samadhi — is described by the Acharya 
as follows : 

"Existing in itself, tranquil, endued with 
bliss, indescribable, it is the highest bliss ; 
unborn, as the Unborn-Knowable ; they declare 
(it) Omniscient." (Verse 47). 

Thus, manas in Asamprajnata-Samadhi is the 
\evj Brahman, is the Real Bliss, the Reality of the 
Self. It exists hy itself, by its own greatness, i.e., it 
is quite independent of all. It is Peace, the cessation 
of all evil. Ithas attained to Nirvana. It is indescrib- 
able and quite an uncommon thing. It is the highest 
bliss felt by yogins only. The Bralnnavids 
declare that this bliss and knowledge is uuboni, 
unlike sensuous pleasure .and knowledge, and as 
such it is one with the Unborn, with That which we 
seek to realize. Being omniscient it is identical- 
wit h the omniscient Brahman who is bliss itself. 


The farthest limit of the process of restraint. 

How long is this process of restraining to be 
carried on ? The SVuti says : 

4^. So long only should it be restrained, 
till it attains dissolution in the heart. 

When manas is dissolved in the heart-lotiis, all 
external perceptions being replaced by the conscious- 
ness " I am Brahman," then there is no more need 
for restraint ; and it has been shewn, by quoting' 
the sayings of Teachers belonging to the line of 
the Ancient Tradition, that the dissolution of manas 
consists in attaining to a state of perfect equilibrium, 
i.e., to the state of Brahman. 

Restraint of manas is the essence of all 

How then is it that no jfiana or dhyana is taught 
here ? It is only restraint of manas that is taught 
here. But mere restraint cannot constitute a human 

In reply the sruti says : 

5. This is jfiana and dhydna ; the rest, 
mere dispute and prolixity. 

This restraint of manas constitutes jndna the 
sakshdt-Jcdra, an intuitive 'perception of the fact 
that ' I am Bi-ahman'. It is this restraint which 
conduces to jnanat The jfiana which results from 


an investigation of the sastras ultimately takes the 
■form of this uirodha. Yoga, too, is the same. It 
constitutes also dhyana, the meditation that ' I am 
Brahman.' In short, uirodha is the culmination of 
s^nkhya and yoga, and it is the uirodha which 
underlies all other sadhanas or spiritual exercises. 
All else, all acts other than the restraining of manas 
■within, are tantamount to quarrels of disputants. 
He who constantly studies sastras may acquire 
erudition, the main result being no better thap 
mere waste of breath. An}^ more teaching in books 
forms a mere string of words. So, a wise man 
should content himself with a moderate amount 
of book-learning. All except what contributes to 
the restraint of manas and to a knowledge of its 
process, does not in the least lead to I'eal happiness. 
Charity, worship, austerity, purificatory ablutions, 
pilgrimages to sacred places, vedas and learning, — 
all this is useless to a man whose manas is tiot 
tranquil. Therefore, above all, one should practise 
restraint of manas. B3' restraint of manas one can 
achieve all his aspirations, here and hereafter. With- 
out it no human end that is good can be attained. 

Highest end attained by restraint of manas. 

It has been said that when manas has been 
completely restrained, the highest end of man is 
attained. How ? 


6. Never to be thought nor unthought, 
unthinkable but altogether worthy of thought 
is That, free from one-sidedness ; Brahman, 
then, it becomes. 

This highest stage now attained cannot be 
thought of as an external something which is agree- 
able to the mind. ITeither has it to be avoided in 
thought, as an external object of dislike. It cannot 
be spoken of by any word of mouth ; and while 
immersed in this samsdra, none can think of it. It 
can only be thought of as the immortal Self. It 
cannot even be felt as any sensual pleasure can be. 
Nevertheless it is none other than the eternal 
unsurpassable self-luminous bliss which is quite 
worth contemplating. It is the very thing describ- 
ed as the True, Intelligent and Infinite Bliss and 
so on. In the nirodha state when manas is free 
from all activity, it becomes Brahman, the same 
in all beings. When manas is free from all 
predilections caused by friendship or enmity, then 
man becomes Brahman without much ado. 

Perfect restraint of manas possible. 

Or the verse may be explained as an answer to 
the question, how can manas ever attain to an un- 
thinking state, to the condition of Brahman, in- 
asmuch as there always is something- to be con- 


stantly thought of and something else to be 
constantly avoided in thought ? 

6. The unthinkable has not to be thought 
of ; nor is what is thinkable to be avoided in 
thought ; then freed from all one-sidedness it 
becomes Brahman. 

The Reality being quite inaccessible to thought, 
there is really nothing to think of. Neither is 
there any necessity for forgetting anything ; for, 
the external objects of sense which alone the mind 
can ever think of, have no real existence. When 
thus freed from one-sidedness — from tlie thinking of 
the Real and the forgetting of the unreal, — 
then manas becomes Brahman. 

Restraint of manas by means of Pranava. 

The sruti proceeds to point out the way in which 
the restraint is to be effected : 

7. By sound let a man effect Yoga. Then 
let him meditate upon the not-sound. Then 
by the realization of the not-sound, the non- 
being is seen as being. 

By meditatii.g upon Pranava — upon its consti- 
tuent sounds— in accordance with the instructions 
of the sruti and the Teachei% tho aspirant should 
achieve Yoga, the restraint of manas, culminating 



in the knowledge ' I am Brahman.' When firmly- 
established in Pranava, he should meditate upon 
the Pranava beyond sound, i.e., he should 
dwell on the mere idea without the help of the 
sound. When meditation without the help of the 
sound reaches the culminating point in the form of 
the intuitive knowledge ' I am Brahman,' then, in 
the absence of avidya and all its effects, is seen the 
essence of Brahman free from all limitations. 
There remains then nothing but Brahman, who is 
Existence, Intelligence and Bliss in essence. 

Or, the meditation here enjoined may be described 

as follows : 

By svaras, by the vowels a and u, i.e., in the 
jagrat-svapna* state which these vowels represent, 
yoga should be practised. By earnestness and 
zeal, the practice of yoga is possible even in the 
jagrat-svapna state. He should then meditate 
upon m which is next to the vowels a and u in Om, 
i.e., upon the ananda state which is next to jagrat- 
svapna. Thus meditating on m or ananda state, 
one attains, not to tbe non-being, but to the all- 
full Being, the Turiya or the Fourth state. So it 
is elsewhere said, " By m beyond the vowels, one 
reaches the subtle state." 

* ./djD'at-suapwa is defined to be thafc state of manas ia 
■which — whether restrained by yoga or not — it retui'ns to 
itself and is exclusively concerned wifch its own snbi^ctive 
world, never going out towards external objects of sense. 


Manas completely restrained is Brahman. 

In the nirodha state manas is not reduced to a 
nullity. It is the particular form of this or that 
object assumed by manas which distinguishes it 
from Brahman. But when manas is engaged, in 
the thought of the unconditioned Atman, then the 
pure Brahman's being as existence in the abstract 
divested of all forms becomes manifest. The real 
nature of a thing does not merely consist in the 
particular loi-m in which it presents itself to the 
senses ; it exists also as existence in the abstract. 
That which manifests itself in manas when all its 
particular forms are neutralized is none else than 
Brahman. Accordingly the S'ruti describes this- 
state of being thus : 

8. That verily is partless Brahman, which 
is beyond all thought, unstained. Knowing 
" That Brahman am I" one becomes Brahman, 
the immutable. 

That be-ness which manifests itself when 
avidya and the rest are absent is Brahman. It is 
devoid of all phases of manifestation such as 
prana.* It transcends all. It cannot be described 
as this or as not this. It is unstained by avidya 

* The other kalas or phases of being are : faith, ether, 
air, light, water, earth, sense, mind, food, vigour, penance, 
hymns, sacrifice, the worlds, and name. (Prasna>Upanishad, 
V. 4). 


which is the seed of all evil. Brahman of this 
nature is intuitively realized by all Brahma- 
vadins. To them the Self which is self-luminous 
■consciousness and bliss and which is present in 
the mind of every one as his Ego is not different 
from Brahman, the Infinite. Thus perceiving 
intuitively his identity with Brahman, the yogin 
becomes the very Brahman. 

Brahman known to the wise only. 

It is known only to tbe enliohtened ; for It is 
9. Beyond all thought and Infinite, beyond 
argument and illustration, unknowable and 
causeless; knowing which, the wise man is 

It is net limited by spnce and time, nor is it limit- 
ed by otiier things. Nothing can be inferred about 
It. In short It is accessible to no instiument of 
cognition. But there is the wise man who, having 
realised Braliman, has been liberated. He is quite 
familiar wirh Braliman as described above. When 
the Atman is known and manas iia* nndereone dis- 
solution, to the manas-le-ss yosjin Brahman thns 
described becomes self-manifest. 

Atman ever changeless. 

Now tht' following question may arise: if it be 
admiltid that manas is subject to biith and death 
and that ihe Atman who is unattached and in- 


different to all is really affected by the attributes- 
ot iiianas, then tlie A'tman must be possessed of 
those attributes. 

The sruti says in reply : 

10. No death, no birth ; not the bonnd, nor 
the aspiring ; not the seeker of liberation, nor 
the liberated : this is the supreme truth. 

There is really neither matias nor the body subject 
to birth and death ; none really bound by the 
b(;nds of avidyn etc. ; none practising sannyasa, 
bi ahmacliaiya and the like subsidiaiy acts. Theie 
is really none who seeks moksha. What appears 
to be the birth and death of manas, the renunciation 
of this or that man, all this is false, not real. This 
notion is an intuitive conviction of consciousness, 
and is the real truth. 

Atman beyond the three states. 

Question : — The A'tman passes through jagrat, 
svapna and sushupti states. As no being can pass 
through these three conditions without under- 
going change, how can there be no death etc. P 

In answer, the sruti says : 

11. In jagrat, svapna and .su.shupti, it 
should be thought that there is one Atman 
alone. To Him who has risen beyond the three 
states, there is no longer any birth. 

It should be understood that the Atman, the.«!elf- 


luminous witness of fJuddlii, present to every body's 
consciousness as the Ego, is one alone, undergoing 
no change iu all the three states of consciousness — 
namely, jdgrat, tiie state of sensuous perception of 
objects ; svapna, the state in which the mind is con- 
scious of the impresisions left upon itself by previous 
sense-perception ; and siishiipti, the state in which the 
mind is unconscicns of any particular object. He 
is the 'J'uiiud. the Fonitli ; He is beyond the three 
states. He is unaffected by the birth etc. of the 
three states. Once a man realises ' I am 
Bral)man' he is no longer subject to birth any- 
where, at any time, or in any manner, though by 
illusion he has hitberio fancied that he was subject 
to it. 

Atman appears different owing to upadhis. 

It may be asked, how can one appear as many ? 
In answer the sruti says : 

12. For, one only is the Self in all beings, 
appearing different in different beings. As one, 
and also as many, is He seen, like the moon in 

The A'tman is one only in all beings, moving and 
unmoving ; there is none else of the same or different 
sort. Nor is there any division into parts in the 
Atman. The one Atman appears different in differ- 
ent beings, putting on the form of the bodies and 
the antah-karanas in which He manifests Himself. 


Thoupfh He is one in virtue of His essential nature 
as existence, intelligence and bliss, He appears as 
many in the many ufjadhis. He ai>pear8 as one 
when the upadhi is one, and as muny when the 
upAdhis }ne nr>aiiy. To illustrate : in a vastexpanse 
of water there is only one image of the moon reflected ; 
and when water is contained in many vessels, the 
reflected imatros are as many. This illustration is 
inteniled to show tliat the jivais to be conceived as a 
reflection of the I'svarH, whether we hold that there 
is only one jiva or t'>at there are many jivas. But 
theillu^tratioii is more apt when the jivais supposed 
to be one Mil ly. Once the full meaniuL' of tliis scriptural 
statement is clearly understood after beintjtanght by 
the Guru, the enlightened man, in whatever state 
he may be, — in tlie jagrat or svapna or sushupti 
state, — slioiiM ever inciitate that the A'tman who 
isbe\oiid tiie three states is one and the same in 
all persons. He. wlio knows the Atnian who is 
beyond the tlirre .'■tates shall even become the 
Atm:in. On Icrning that the Atman is free from 
all the dilftrencf s, the idea, of plurality a.=sociated 
with jiva will disappear by refleciion and reasoning. 

Analogy of Atman to akasa. 

Here follows a de.<;cripLiou of the real nature of 
ParamatniJin : 

13. as, when a jar is carried (from 
place to place, it is; the jar (that) is carried 


(from place ^o place), not the akasa — the 
akasa which is enclosed as it were in the jar, — 
so, jiva is like the akasa. 

This is intended to illustrate the view that 
jiva is I'svara with an upadhi. When, on death, 
the body passes from one region to anorher, the 
Atman who is enclosed as it were in the body goes 
nowhere. It is the body alone that passes from one 
region to another. 

How Atman differs from akasa. 

Jiva is not like the akasa in all respects : 
14. Like the jar, (the body) is of different 
forms, breaking up again and again. And 
(akasa) knows not that it is broken, while He 
always knows. 

The jar breaks up again and again, but never the 
all-pervading akasi ; so, too, the body etc. undeigo de- 
cay again and again, but not the Oiuniptesent A'traan. 
The illustration applies only thus far. A-» regards 
consciousness there is a difference. When tlie jar 
is carried from one place to another or when it is 
broken, the akasa does not know it ; whereas the 
jiva, tbe self-conscious blis-ful A'tn:an, is ever con- 
scious of the clianges the body etc. undergo. 

How Jiva is identical with Brahman. 

.Jiva is one or many. If jiva is one only, it cannot 
he different from Atman, each of them being one, and 


of the same iiatare as the other. Atman is thus 
descrilied in the sruti : 

" He is the one Gud, hidden in all beings, all- 
pervadins", the Self Mithin all beings, watching 
over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, 
the peiceiver, the only one, free from qualities." 
(S'vetasvaiara-Ujjanishad, VJ, 11). 

If there be many jivtiS, even then jiva cannot 
be different lro;a A'rruan. A'tman bei.i;'- the essence 
of jiva, jiva cnnnot be eenceived to exist apart 
from A'tman. Alihongli A'iman is idmtical with 
jivas who arc many, tin re can be vo plurality in 
Atman, avIio is ?i]l-|iervadinj?. Atmnn is one in the 
many jivas, as tl.e genus is one in ihe mnny indivi- 
duals whieli niiikeup the genus. In jioint of fact, 
ther<^ is not even one jiva distinct from Atman. 
How can there be many? WLnt npjiarent differ- 
ences 'here are anioiig jiv;is are only due to the 
diffeienoes which aie foui d in tt e upadhis with 
which the Atm;in is connected. If, out of these 
upadhi«, he eliminnttd that element uf reality which 
pertains t<> the busic substance, the A'tman, then the 
upadhis themselves become ni'renl. 

This identity cnn be seen fvotn the illustration 
cited abi>ve of the jar and the akasa. A'tman with- 
out tlie upacfhis — ihe physical (sthula\ subtle 
(sukshina) and causal (karana) bodies — coiTesponda 
to the mahakji^i or the vast expanse of ^ka^a; while 
jiva in the body corresponds (o the A^kasa of the jar. 


Except through the upadhi of the jar, the akasa in 
the jar cannot be distinguished in any way from the 
mah akasa. 

Relation between Atman and jiva. 

This iHustrafion of akasa and jar serves to indicate 
many other f;icts concerning the relatiun between 
jiva and A'lnaii : 

(1) When the idea of limitations caused by a jar 
etc. is removed from the mind, the limited akasas 
become merij^e I in the mahakas.i ; so also when 
jivas are distingui-^hed from tlnir upadhis, they 
become one with A'tman. This points to the fact 
that liberation is coeval with kuowlerlffe. 

(2) When the fikasa encljsed in one jar is 
associated with dast and smoke, the other limited 
akasas are uimlfe'jted by the dnsb and tlie smoke; 
so, too, when one jiva is associated with pie isure or 
pain, other jivas are unaffected by it. For, pleasure 
■or pain pertains only to the upadhi, which is not the 
same in all jiva^. 

(S) The akasas in the jar etc. have different 
names given to them, serve different purposes, and 
assume different forms according to the npadhis, 
while the aka^ain itself remains uncbaiige 1. So, too. 
different jiv;is are associated with different forms and 
names and serve different purposes accordintr to the 
upadhis, while the A'tman remains one and the 
same in them all. 


(4) The akasa in the jai's etc. cannot be said to 
be a part or transformation of the mahakaiSa ; so 
jiva can never be a part or modified form of 

(5) Just as to children the akasa appears as if 
stained with dirt, so, also, to the unenlightened 
manas A'tman appears as bound, as tainted witb 

(6) When a thing comes into existence or is 
destroyed, when a body goes or comes, t)ie akasa 
within undergoes no change ; so also the Atmau. 
Accordingly, no jiva, be it one with Atraan or 
diffei-ent, is ever born or ever dio'^ ; for, birth, 
and death pertain only to the body. It is, therefore, 
meaningless to HKy that the jiva is born and dies. 
Just as jivas, as seen in dreams or projected by the 
jugglei's art (maya or indrajala) or imagined to 
dwell in an artiticial idol, are supposed to be born 
and to die though actually no jivas are born and 
die in them ; so, too, all these" jiviis are devoid ol:' 
birth and death, and it is only by illusion that they 
are said to be born and to die. Thus no birth or 
any otber change ever bef.:lls jiva. On the other 
hand, it is only the cliitta or manas undergoing 
these changes that cause them to appear to pertaini 
to the A'tman. It is only when the jivHS come in 
contact with manas and identify themselves with 
manas that they appear to be born &c., though< 
immutable in themselves. 

gaudapa'da's ka'rik'a's quoted. 57 

Unreality of phenomena. 

In point of fact even manas has no real existence. 
Really it is identical with Chit, the Absolute Consci- 
ousness. Manas is consciousness in motion, as it 
were. This aspect of manas is cU'scribed by 
GaudapAdachatj-a, the moutlipiece of aju-ieiit tradi- 
tion, in his karikas on Mandukyopanishad, Aldta- 
sdnti-Prakarann (verses 47 — 52j. He speaks of 
manas hs consciousness in motion . Manas in 
motion being' consciousness in motion, manas at rest 
being identical with Absolute Consciousness. 

'' It is the firebrand* in motion that appears 
straight, crooked and so on. So, too, it is the 
consciousness in motion that appears as per- 
ceiver and perception." (Verse 47). 

Consciousness only appears to be in motion owing 
to avidya. There can be no motion in conscious- 
ness which is immutable. Absolute Consciousness 
is parcless, all-pervading, unborn and immutable. 
This mere semblance of motion in consciousness 
which all the while undergoes no leal change is 
what is failed vivarta or illusory chanore. 

" The unmoving firebrand produces no such 
phenomenon and is nnbornf ; so, too, conscious- 
ness without motion produces no phenomenon 
and is unborn." (Verse 48). 

* The plowing end only is meant here. 

+ ;. e., as straight or ci'ooked. 


The same firebrand, when at rest, does not appear 
as straight or crooked. So, too, consciousness which 
was in motion as it w«re o-.viog to Jividja ceases, 
on the cessation of avidya, to move and give rise to 

For the following reason also wo should regard the 
phenomena as false : — 

" When the firebrand is in motion, the phe- 
nomena do not come from without. They are 
not gone elsewhere when it is not in motion, 
nor do they enter the firebrand." (Verse 49). 

We have not seen these phenomeiia coming from 
without into the firebrand when it is in motion, or 
going out of the firebrand when it is at rest. Nor 
-do they enter into firebrand when it is at ; 
for it is not their updldna or materia' cause. If 
firebrand were to be reg;irded as the matoiial cause 
and motion as the efiicient cause of the pheno- 
mena, then on the withdrawal of the latter cause, 
viz., motion, the effect should still reside in tlie 
materia] cause ; for it cannot be proved that mere 
absence of the efiicieat cause is accompanit^d by dis- 
uppearance of the effect*. Thus the, origin as well 
as the disappearance of the phenomena being quite 
inexplicable, the phenomena themselves inn.~t be false. 

* In the case of a pot, clay is said to Ije the material 
cause, and tlie potter etc. the efficient cause. Once a pot is 
prpducod, it will not necessarily disappear on the withdrawal 
of the efficient cause. 

GAUDAPa'da's k'aRIKa's QUOTED. 59 

" They do not go out of the firebrand, because 
they are no substances ; and so also in the case 
•of consciousness, inasmuch as they are equally 
phenomenal." (Verse 50.) 

The phenomena of strniofhtness and ci'oolcedness 
are no real substances. They cftmiot, tht-refore, be 
said to go out of tbe fiiel)rand as from a liouse. 
Indeed it is a real substance that can enter or go out 
of another substance. So, too, the phenomena of 
birth and death associ:ited with conscio isness aie 
no realities, because fb*-}' aie mere aipe:irances like 
the straightness and crookedness of the firebrand in 

When consciousness is in motion, the pheno- 
mena do not come from without. They do not 
go elsewhere out of the consciousness when it is 
at rest, nor do they enter consciousness. They 
do not go out of consciousness because they 
are not substances, unthinkable as they always 
are, being unrelated as cause and i fFtrct " 

(Verses 51 — 52.) 

It cannot hf held that, consciou-ness being some- 
how in motion, these phenomenM of bii-th etc. 
come into it t'lora without; fur, there is no testi- 
mony of consciousness to that effect. N'U' can it 
be held that, con ciousness being i in mutable, these 
phenomena have their being el>e\vhere ; there 
being no testimony of consciousness to this effect 


either. Neither can it be said that when they dis- 
appear these phenomena enter into consciousness ; 
for, it can never be held that consciousness by 
itself is the upadana or material cause. Moreover, 
being unsubstantial and unreal, they cannot enter 
into or go out of consciousness. 

Then it may be asked, how is it that they present 
themselves to consciousness ? 

We answer : they are illusory. It being impos- 
sible to suppose tliat consciousness and these pheno- 
mena are related to each other as cause and effect, 
the phenomena are ever inexplicable, and as such 
they are mere illusions and are therefore unreal. 

Thus, consciousness is like the firebrand in all 
respects, only consciousness is never really subject to 
motion, — it is alsvays itnrautalde. Not being related 
as the effects of any cause, as things produced out 
of something else, the phenomena are non-entities 
and are therefore undefinable. In the case of the 
firebrand appearing as straight or crooked, there 
exists really nothing straight or crooked, and yet 
there arises with regard to the firebrand tlie consci- 
ousness of a straight or crooked thing ; accordingly, 
though birth etc. do not really exist, the idea of 
birth etc. arising with reference to pure coascious- 
ness is an illusion. 

Maya and its action. 

A mere word sometimes gives rise to an idea 
without the corresponding reality, as for instance, 


"a man has a horn." Maya or illusion produces 
the same effect, as when a juggler causes the phe- 
nomenon of a c'tj in the air. So, the idea of this 
whole woild of duality arises by word and by maya. 
In fact everything else besides Atman is unreal. 

Even this word and this maya are not real. Ex- 
isting as it does only by the name ' mAya', maya is 
not real. There is no evidence to prove that may^ 
has a real existence. The woi'd, too, is ui real, exist- 
ing only in name. But unlike them, Atman is inacces- 
sible to thought or speech and does not therefore 
-depend on them for existence. Atman is svayam- 
prakdsa or self-conscious, shines by Him.^elf and is 
independent of all. 

A question no v arises : Why, if Atman is 
omniscient, is He not always that He is 
essentially the Bliss (ananda) itself r* The answer 
follows : 

15. Veiled by word-illusion, never goes one 
by darkness to the Holy Place. And darkness 
removed, the One alone sees the Unity. 

Maya (illusion) is a mere word, havirgno corres- 
pond inir realiiy. It is a power capable of achieving 
impos.«ibilities and is th^ cause of th' whole universe 
we perceive around us by the senses, of the universe 
comprisino- both subtle and gross objects of nature. 
It looks very fine when not closely exami ed. He 
who is veiled by this maya is deprived of the 


knowledge that he is the very Bliss (atianda) iu 
essence. He sees himself a limited being-, tliough 
Ive is really identical with the infinite Brahman ; 
just as a pot when immersed deep in water looks 
A'ery mu-h smaller than it actually is. On account 
of this darkne.'^s, of ajnana caused by word-illusion, 
one does not recognise one's own holy blissful 
Atnian that pervades all ; like a man, who, tliough 
having eyes an<l knowing all, cannot at all, when 
surrounded by thick darkness, reach a holy place- 
orH:hiiig situated ever so near. When this darkness 
of ajfiana is pierced through by the light cf wisdom 
realising the unity of the Real Ego with Brahman, 
then immeiliateiy all distinctions such as perceiver 
and perceived being absent, the jiva stands alone 
as the self-luminous Atman and sees his identity 
with Brahman. 

Yoga for the realisation of the Unity. 

Now the sruti proceeds to describe the yoga 
by which to rt!a!i/,e this unity ; — 

i6. The syllable Oin, the Word, is Para- 
Brahman. That disappearing, he who knows 
That which is the Indestructible should 
meditate upon that Indestructible, if he would 
seek peace for himself. 

First the word, the syllable ' Om,' should be- 
meditated upon as Parabrahman. The three matras 
or the component parts of ' Om,' — viz., a, u, 7«,— 


respectively denote the three upadhis of Para- 
brahman, viz.. the sthiila (gi'oss), the siikshma 
(subtle) and the karana (causal) aspects of cosmos. 
When these three aspects of cosmos, together with 
the three matras of the Pranava representing them, 
gradually disappear, there remains the One alone 
which is beyond the three upadhis, hence called the 
Turiya, the Fourth. It is indestructible, and as 
transcending all ditt'erentiations it is the Unity 
above lef erred to. Therefore he who wishes to 
realise this Unity, the Supreme Brahman, should 
first practise the meditation of Brahman as identical 
with Pranava oi' some such word. Tlien knowing- 
this Unity, — this Indestructible Blissful Atman — aa 
treated of in the sastra, the wise man should 
f-ontinuously meditate npon It as one with himself, 
if he would at all attain moksha, the cessation of 
all pain caused by avidya and other sources of evil 
— leading him to identify himself with the body as 
though it were himself or something belonging to 

Lower and Higher Wisdom. 

17. Two vidyas, verily, need to be known,, 
the S'abda-Brahman and what is known as the 
vSupreme. The adept in the S'abda-Brahman 
reaches the Supreme Brahman. 

Both sorts of wisdom, what we call and know of 
as vidyas, are necessary for a mumukehu to acquire. 


One of t.hem is what is known as S'abda-Brahman, 
that lore which comprises the vedas including the 
sy\]a.h]e om.vydhritis* (the utterances), angas (aaxi- 
liary sciences\ and upavedas (minor vedas) ; the other 
being the Parit-Bi-ihrnnn descrilh d as the Real Ex- 
istence, Intelligence, Bliss and so on. 

It is no doubt true that inasmuch as a knowledge 
of Parabriilinian leads to the consummation of 
happiness, it is necessary to know Parabrahman. 
The other lore, how<ver, is not altogether useless. 
. He will) has thoroughly mjistered the drift of the 
teaching of the S'abdn- Brahman, of the vedas etc.. 
can soon know " I jim Para-Br*ihman". 

On attaining the higher, the lower should 
be given up. 

On knowing <!;»' P.\i a-Brahman, the S'abda-Brah- 
man should I)':' gven up: 

i8. Having studied books, the wise man, 
solely devoted to knowledge and wisdom, 
should give up the books entirely, like the man 
who, seeking for rice, gives up the husk. 

After m-iking the S'abda-Brahman his own by a 
study of th(! texts comprise! thciein toe'tlior with 
their nieninnu, tlie student who can keep I he teach- 
ing of tliese t' xts ii) nund without I'ori^eniiig should 
devote hiiusi If to knowled'/e aud wisdom (jnana 

* Thev are seven : BJiAli, Bhuvah, Savah, Mabah, Janah, 
Tapah, Satyani. 


and vijnaiin). — Jnana and vijiiana may be thus dis- 
tinguished from each other: one of them consists 
in the sakshatkara or the direct perception that 
'• 1 am Brahman'' from which all idea of dhyatri 
and dhyana, of meditator and meditation, are 
absent ; while the other consists in the knowledge 
that " 1 am Brahman" as taught by the S'astra, 
involving all such distinctions as meditator and 
meditation on the part of the student. 

Unity of Vedic wisdom. 

19. Of the cows of different colours, the 
milk is of one colour onh'. The wise man 
regards wisdom like unto milk, but its forms 
like unto the cows. 

Though the cows may each be oF a different 
colour, white, black, red, &c., their milk is of one 
colour only, namely, white. So, too, knowledge 
taught by all the Vedas is the same, though there 
ai^e different texts taught by different teachers and 
known by different names, such as S'ankhayana 
Kaushitaki, Madhyandina, Katha, Kanva, Taittiri- 
ya and so on. 

The latter part of the verse is also explained 
thus : The A'tman is the same in different bodies 
which are found to behave differently in different, 
individuals. In all beings there is only one Atman 
who can be known only b}- manas exalted by study, 
reflection and contemplation. 


The latter part of the verse ia explained in yet 
another way : The wise man culls wisdom from 
Vedas after careful investigation, just as cowherds 
take the milk of cows after careful examination. 

rieditation necessary. 

For this purpose, manas should be brought under 
control and made to dwell on the Atman the subject 
of our search : 

20. Quite concealed in all beings dwells 
Vijnana as butter in milk; ever churn, O 
aspirant ! with manas as the churning stick. 

The Vijnana, the A'tman who is Consciousness and 
Bliss, lies hidden in the body. Do thou, aspirant, 
always meditate upon the Atman. — In this figurative 
representation, curd represents all beings ; the 
churning stick, manas ; the charning rope, the 
notion that ' I am Brahman'; and butter, the Atnian, 
the secondlpss. The extraction of butter represents 
moksha, the extrication of tlie soul from the ocenn 
of samsara. 

21. With the churning rope of knowledge 
one should rouse up the Supreme, like unto the 
fire. " Partless, motionless, tranquil, such a 
Brahman am I"; so it has been found. 

Churning produces fire also.* Hence the second 
illustration, "like unto the tire." Fire here no 

* Sacrificial fire is produced by churning. Vide verse 11. 


doubt stands for sakshatkara which elsewhei'e is 
spoken of as fire: " The fii^e of wisdom reduces, 
Arjuna, all actions to ashes" (Bhagavad-Grita, iv. 
37). Or Agni may stand for Pranava : one should 
repeat Pranava. 

The first part has also been explained as follows : 
with the eye of the knowledge that " am Brahman" 
— free from all doubts andmisconceptions — do thou 
unearth the Supreme, as gold from a mine. This idea 
of identity of the Self with Brahman is the organ 
by which to see Brahman, to attain the sakshatkara 
that " I am Brahman,^' 

'* I am Va sudeva." 

Brahman and Atman have been thus shewn to 
be identical. The sruti now concludes this proposi- 
tion, the main drift of the S'astra, only speaking of 
Brahman as Vasudeva, 

22. Of all beings the abode; He who, as 
gracious to all, dwells in all beings ; He am I, 

Vdstideva : He is vds^o because, by His grace, He 
dwells in all beings, and all beings dwell in Him ; 
and He is Deva because He is self-luminous, shining 
by His own light- 

/ €.'^ 







This upanisbad is so-called because it teaches the 
means by which the soul can completely emancipate 
itself from matter and further transmigrations. 
Narayana* calls this upanishad, especially the first 
of its two sections, by the name of S'atarudriya, 
i. e., literally, a century ov designations applicable 
to Rudra. To distinguish it perhaps from the so- 
called S'atarudriya, namel}', the fifth prapathaka of 
the fourth kanda of the Taittiriya-SamhitA, begin- 
ning with '' Namaste rudra manyave,' he call this 
upanishad Brahma-Satarudriya, i. e., that S'ataru- 
driya which is dedicated to the glorification of the 
Nirguna or Unconditioned Brahman, as opposed to 
Saguna or conditioned Brahman, the personal God 
called S'iva, who is glorified in the other. According 
to Narayana it is this Brahma-S'atarudriya which is 
recommended for recitation in the second khanda. 

* Narayana -tirtha and S'ankariinauda have written com- 
ments on this and many other Upanishads. 


S'aiikrirananda, S'likantha-S'ivacharya* and others, 
however, speak of 'uly one S'atarudriya, viz.^ that 
which occurs in the Tfiittirij'a-Samhitu- 


1. ,Then did A "svalay ana approach the Lord 
Parameshthin, and said : 

Do thoii, O Lord ! teach Brahmavidya, the 
most excellent, always resorted to by the 
righteous, quite hidden, by which the wise 
man ere long shakes off all sin and reaches the 
Purusha (Spirit), greater than the great. 

Then : after the acqinsition of the four (|ua- 
lification.s (sadhanas), viz. : 

(1) Viveka : discrimination hetween tlie real and 
unreal . 

(2) Vai.rdgya: indifference to enjoyments here 
and hereafter. 

(8) L S'awa : control of manas. 

2. Damn : suhjngation of the senses. 
'.]. Uparati : abstention fi'om all formal 
religious rites, accompanied with Ihe 
renunciation of all desii'es. 

* He baa written a commentary on the Brabma-Siitras 
interpreting them so as to mean that S'iva is the Supreme 


4. Titikshd : endurance. 

0. Samddhdna ; ability to fix manas on one 

single object for a long time. . 
6. S'raddhd : faith in the teachings of the 

Veda and of the Teaclier. 

(■i) Mumukaliutva : a longing for libeiation. 

A's'valdyana : the son of A'svala, a teacher of 
Rig-Veda. Paraineshthin : (lit. dwelling in the 
Supreme Abode), Brahma, the father of all, known 
also as the Pitamaha or Grandfather. Asvalayaua 
appi'oached Brahma in due fashion and put him a 
question with a view to learn Brahma-vidya, the 
Divine Wisdom. Brahma-vidyd: that knowledge 
which leads to an intuitive pei'ception of Brahman, 
the One, Infinite in time and space. This Brahma- 
vidya exists in the hearts of all beings ; only it is 
quite concealed from view by avidya. It is resorted 
to by those who have subjugated the body and the 
senses, and it is well guarded from those who are not 
qualified for it. The wise man : he who has realized 
that his own true Self is Brahman. All sin: -aW 
■cause of pain which may be summed up in ajn^na 
and its vasanas or latent impressions. Greater, 
&c. : Avyakta which is the cause of the whole 
universe is great, and the Atman, the Supreme Lord, 
who is the seat and object of the highest wisdom, 
is even greater than Avyakta. He is called Purushai^ >dvj(C 
because He is all-pervading. '-■^ 

74 KAIVAl,YA-L'l'AMSHAr). 

Threefold Path. 

2. And to him, verily. He, the Grandsire, 
said : do thou know it by means of Faith, 
Devotion, and Aleditation. Not by work, not 
by progeny, nor by wealth, but by renounce- 
ment, the Great Ones attained immortality. 

The Grandsire : Brabma the '' Lotus-seated" is 
the father of Daksha and other Prajapatis who 
are the fathers of the whole universe. Because 
Brahma-vidya cannot be directly said by word of 
mouth, — Brahman transcending all speeoh and 
thought, — the Teacher proceeds first to teach the 
means by which it can be attained. There 
are three means of attaining Brahma-vidyji : 
'\) Sraddhd : the firm faith that there is some- 
thing beyond the visible and that what the 
Scriptures and the Teachers teach conceriung 
the Invisible is nothing but truth. (2) Bhakti : 
complete devotion to the Guru and to the 
Lord who is the Goal of the Path. (3) Dhydna : 
deep meditation, an unbroken current of the thought 
of Atman, uninterrupted by any other thought. 
Endued with S'raddha and Bhakti, the aspirant at- 
tains Brahma-vidya by practice of meditation. Like 
S'raddha and Bhakti, Sannyasa — the renouncing of 
all sacrificial rites and everything dear in the world 
—constitutes a means of attaining Brahma-vidya. 
By renunciation alone the great sages acquired the 


aucient wisdom and attained imraoi^fality. Without 
renunciation, no intuitive or direct knowledge of 
Atman can be attained. Without renunciation, it 
is at best only an indirect knowledge of rhe Reality 
that can be attained. 

When the aspirants resort to complete 

The Goal of the Path. 

3. That which is higher than svarga^ 
That which, seated in the cave, shines 
resplendent, — That do those aspirants enter, 
who b}- vedantic wisdom have well ascertained 
the Thing, — those aspirants whose minds have 
been purified by sannyasa-yoga. 

4. In the regions of Brahma, at the last 
moment of Para, the}- all become released from 
the Great, the Immortal. 

The aspirants of unsullied minds, — those who, 
having renounced the world, by mighty effort 
attained an intuitive realizatior! of Brahman, — 
become, while still alive on earth, one with their 
own immortal blissful Atman far transcending 

If by any obstacle, such as a desire to enjoy the 
pleasures of Brahmaloka, those aspirants who, after 
renouncingall world as something not worth longing 
for, have ascertained the nature of Brahman 
by the study of the scriptures, fail to attain in 


their earthly life to a complete realization of 
their identity with Brahman, they go after death 
to the regions of Bi'ahma the Demiurge, and there 
they as well a-? Brahma will be completely liberated 
at the last moment of Para, the great cycle of 
Bjahma's life, i.e., at the time of Pralaya or Kosmic 
Dissolution, — not before,— and become one with 
the Absolute Brahman. 

Contemplation of the Nirguna = Brahman. 

The S'ruti now proceeds to describe the Yoga by 
which He who dwells in the h«^art of all may mani- 
fest Himself to the disciple in his own heart. 

4^. At a retired spot, seated in an easy pos- 
ture, pure, erect being the neck, the head and 
the body ; 

5. Leading the highest order of life, res- 
training all the sense-organs, and having 
saluted his own Guru in devotion, regarding 
the heart-lotus unstained and quite pure, and 
in its centre contemplating Him who is free 
from all taint and grief; 

6. Who is Unthinkable, the Unmanifest, 
whose forms are endless; who is the Good, tran- 
quil, immortal ; who is the womb of Brahma ; 
and who is devoid of a beginning, middle, or 
end ; the One ; who is Intelligence and Bliss ; 
the Formless ; the Wonderful. 


For the attainment of BrahniMU, the aspirant 
should practise yoga in the following- manner. He 
should resort to a clean and lonely place, Hnd when 
there is nothing- to disturb the mind he should sit 
on a comfortable seat. He should then perform all 
the internal and external ablutions prescribed by the 
S'astras, without any feeling- of trouble. Firmly 
seated in a regular posture — such as Padraasana 
— ho should hold erect his head, neck and body. 
He should become a sannyasin of the highest or 
Paramahamsa order. Restraining the mind and all 
the senses, he should bow down to his own Graru 
with Bhakti as laid down by law. regarding Him 
equal to Devas, if not even superior to them. He 
should then regard the heart-lotus as perfectly 
pure, free from all rajasic and tamasic dirt, free 
from all passions and delusions, etc, — containing 
within it the orbs of the sun, the moon and the fire. 
Within it he should contemplate the Parames- 
vara, the Unmanifesfced and the Unthinkable, 
as transcending all speech and thought; the Infi- 
nite ; the Good ; the Bliss itself ; free from May^, 
free fi'om birth and death, the One, self-luminous, 
endued with all powers ; the source of all Vedas ; 
the Formless ; quite a wonderful Being. 

Contemplation of the Saguna-Brahman. 

If the mind cannot rise to think of Paramesvara 
as such, he should contemplate Him in His Saguna 


or conditioned aspect as made up of the Lord and 
His Spouse. 

7. Him whose help-mate is Uma ; who is 
the Supreme Lord, Mighty, Three-eyed; Dark- 
necked, and Serene : having meditated thus, 
the sa.{?e reaches Him who is the womb of all 
beings, the witness of all, transcending dark- 

Umd : S'iva's help-mate, i.e., the Brahma-vidya 
which protects 8iva from such assailants as pas- 
sion, love, etc. Or, Uma may refer to the Goddess 
Bhavani associated with Siva, the Lord, conceiv- 
ed as half man and half woman. The aspii-ant 
should contemplate Uma, — the Divine Lady spoken 
of in the Kena-Upanishad as an incarnation of 
Biahma-vidya, — as a help-mate of the Supreme Lord 
conceived as man. This Divine Lady is the pro- 
totype of all other beings of the female sex, who 
may be looked upon as Her mere reflections. Siie 
is the Divine Being composed of all potencies 
(Saktis) and all principles (i'attvas). It is b}' Her 
Grace that all living creatui^es including Devas at- 
tain to svarga or moksha in future, and to woildly 
happiness on earth. By Her mere glance, Brahma, 
Vishnu, Rudra, S'akra and other Devas exist or cease 
to exist. Possessed of a high .ind broad chest, wide 
loins, slender waist, moon-like face, fish -like eyes, 
black hair, the Divine Lady, beauiifnl in every 


limb of tlie body, cannot but bewitch the heart 
of Her Divine Lord. Bedecked with a jewelled 
belt in her waist, with bracelets in the wrists, 
arms and ankles, with gai-lands of pearls and other 
jewels round the neck, with an ornamental crown 
and earrings, and with many other jewels, she shines 
with incomparable splendour. Though the mother 
of the whole world, yet she never looks more than 
sixteen years old. 

Associated, with such a Divine Lady is He, 
the Divine spouse, even more perfect in all attri- 
bute?, the Overlord of Biahn\a and other 
mighty beings, bedecked with all sorts of 
ornaments. Clad in the tiger's skin or quite naked, 
His whole body is smeared with ashes. He wears 
a garland, containing a number of Br^hman-skuUs, 
with a digit of the moon shining in His clotted 
hair. Brilliantly white like cow's milk, He wears 
the Gang'es on the head and puts on a smiling 
face. He is a thousand times more beautiful than 
Kandarpa, the god of love, anil a thousand 
times mare brillisuit than the sun. Himself 
without birth and dt>ath, He is the cause of the 
birth, existence and dissolution of the universe. His 
faceis as handsome as the full-moon, and He has the 
sun, the moon, and the fire for His eyes. Every 
part of the body is very beautiful. His neck being 
shaped like a conch. He has arms extending" down 
to the knees and wears a serpent as the sacred 


thread (yajuopavita) the ov^ei- body. He ia seated 
in Padmilsana, with the eyes resting- on the tip of 
the nose. He is called Muhddeva and Vdmadeva, 
the highest and the most gracious God. He is the 
rti\sf' Guru of all Clurus. He is self-luminous. He is 
Bliss in essence. He is without a second. From 
Him wns born the H iranyagarbha, the father of 
the Virilj and of all the other Devas. 

The aspiiant whose mind is not equal to the 
contemplation of theNirguna-Brahnian, the Absolute, 
should resort to Yoga and contemplate the Para- 
raesvara as described above ; as Dark-necked, as 
the Lord of the universe, as the destroyer of all 
sins, as seated in the heart-loti;s, or in the sun, or 
in the fire, or in the moon, or in the Kailasa or some 
other mountain. When the manas of the Yogin 
who contemplates the Divine Beinij in this form as 
half-man and half-woman becomes steadfast, then 
he realizes S'iva — that wonderful Supi-eme Divine 
Beiu"-, who is the cause of the universe and 3'et 
who is devoid of the whole or any part of the uni- 
verse, who transcends all speech and thought — as 
his own true Self who is above all delusion and 
never tainted by it, who is a mere witness in the 
Buddhi of all beings while in himself unconnected 
with it. 

Brahman is all. 

He whose helpniate is Uma and who is reached 
by the meditation described above, has no. 


avidya. To the enlightened, He is the Self of all, 
He is all. When the Lord is conceived as associated 
with UmS, He is said to be the Saguna or 
conditioned Brahman. That same Lord is the Nir- 
guna or unconditioned Brahman ; for, when all 
avidyji has vanished, none else will be found to 
«xist besides the Lord, who is all. 

8- He is Brahma, He is S'iva, He is ludra, 
He the Indestructible, the Supreme, the Self- 
luminous ; He Himself is Vishnu. He is 
Prana. He is Time, He is Fire, He the Moon. 

9. He Himself is all, what has been and 
what is yet to be, the Eternal. 

He is Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, S'akra and all other 
Gods ; He is fire, the sun, the moon and Time ; the 
eleven senses, the antah-karana in its four aspects, 
the five pranas, the five maha-bhutas, the main and 
intermediate quarters, the up and down, all beings of 
life, the Brahmanda (Brahma's Egg or the Mun- 
dane Egg) itself which is the body of the Viraj, 
the Viraj himself, the Hiranyagarbha, Jiva 
and Tsvara, Maya and its modifications, the mani- 
fest and the unmanifest ; what was and whnt is yet 
to be ; — all these are the Mahesvara and none else. 
Just as one man alone becomes many in dream, so 
the one Deity exists as many. Just as the city of 
the Gandliarvas appears in the sky where there is 
really no such city, so all this manifold material 


existence proceeds from, appears, endures and 
ultimately dissolves iu the single Bliss- A'tmaii. 

Knowledge of Brahman is the sole path to 

Except by a realization of the one secondless 
Atman, except by realizing beyond all doubt that 
the One Self is in all beings and all beings are in the 
One Self, there is no other way for liberation, — 
there nevei- was in the past, nor will ever be in the 
future. Accordingly the sruti says : 

9^. Having known Him, one crosses beyond 
death. There exists no other path to liberation. 

10. Seeing the A'tman abiding in all beings 
and all beings in the A'tman, one reaches the 
Supreme Brahman, — not by any other means. 

Meditation by Pranava. 

When the n)editation practised on the line re- 
commended above does not lead to the right 
knowledge of Brahman, then the neophyte should 
lave recourse to the meditation of the One Self by 
means of Pranava : 

11. Having made the A'tman the arani, and 
Pranava the upper arara, by practice of 
knowledge, by repeated churning, the wise man 
burns up the bond (pas'a). 

Two pieces of wood (of the i^amitree, respectively 


termed nltara-arani and adhara-arani, the upper 
aud lower aranis) are used for kindliug sacrificial 
tire by attrition, one being placed above the 
otber. These two pieces of wood are rubbed 
togfctlKV by chui'ning with a stick which has a 
sr ring running round it. The practice of medita- 
tiui. is couipai'ed to the process of churning fire for 
sacrificial purposes. One's own body, — the aggregate 
of nil the shertths of the Self, — corresponds to the 
lower (/v a/a' ; the three-syllabled Om to the upper 
one ; raanas to the churning stick ; the repeated act 
of ineditatiug lo the act of churning ; and what is 
called the Ananda-Atman or the Bliss-Self to 
the fire produced by churning. That is to say, 
by a constant reflection and meditation — by means 
of Pranava — of the thought "I am Brahman, the 
Self of all," the non-dual Self manifests itself in 
the heart of the yogin. Once this fire of the non- 
dual Self is brought into existence, the yogin will 
be able to burn up all ajnana anl kama, which are 
known by the name of Pasa (bond), giving rise to the 
tie.=; of ' r aud 'mine'. AVhen these are burnt up, 
the Self will remain alone by Himself. 

A tman in jagrat, svapna and sushupti. 

It ma}' be asked, whence comes the bond o£ 
.samsara to him who is secondless and who, free 
from attachment, is indifferent to all ? la reply 
the h'wti says : 


12. It is He who becomes deluded as to the 
real Self by Maya, and who, seated in the body, 
does everything. He it is who, while awake, 
attains satisfaction by women, food, drink and 
other divers pleasnres. 

13, In svapna, He, the jiva, is the enjoyer 
of pleasures and pains in all world created by 
his own Maya. At the time of sushupti, 
everything vanished, by darkness (tamas) enve- 
loped. He attains the blessed condition. And 
again, in virtue of Karma of past births, the 
self-same jiva dreams or becomes awake. 

The jiva who bums up all bonds by Self- 
kuowledf^e, — by the knowledge that his real Self is 
Brahman, — beccmes identical with Brahman. In 
himself he is without attachment and quite indiffer- 
ent to all. When completely veiled by His own 
Maya, Brahman is called Purusha or Jiva. Veiled 
by Maya which has the power both of concealing 
the true nature of the Self — which is self-luminous 
and blissful, — and of causing engrossment in things 
external to the Self, he lives in the body composed 
of various sheaths, gross and subtle, identifying 
himself with it. Thus he does many an act and 
reaps the fruits of his own acts. 

In the jagrat state when external objects are per- 
ceived by organs of sensation, he puts on various 
bodies, and enjoys pleasures or suffers pains of vari- 


ous sorts caused by the external objects ; though all 
the while it is not theKeal Self that enjoys or suffers. 

When in svapna or dream all the organs of sen- 
sation are quiescent, the jiva enjoys and suffers in a 
world of his own composed of things — such as cars, 
horses, elephants — which are all tlie creation of 
maya, of ignorance and misconception, inasmuch 
as they are nothing but the re-vivified impressions 
which have been left on the manas in the jagrat or 
waking state. In jagrat, as much aa in svapna, the 
jiva perceives objects which are mere creations of 

When in sleep he is unconscious of external 
objects and all consciousness of the external world 
is merged in its cause (ajiiana), then it is that the 
jiva enjoys his own inherent bliss, but without being 
aware of it. Thus, the same Seif that has been 
associated with the jagrat and svapna states now 
passes into sushupti ; and then he is free from 
vikshepa ; he is completely shut out from all exter- 
nal world. He then enjoys his own inherent bliss; 
but, being then overpowered by Tam is, he (rather 
his manas, is not conscious of the fact. 

riaya is the cause of Atman's samsara. 

In samsara, as in the jagrat and svapna states, 
we enjoy or suffer in a world of maya. By maya 
the Self becomes variously deluded and is merged 
in samsara. Just as under the influence of 
certain drusrs and incantations a man loses all know- 


ledge of himself, so under the influence of mayd lie 
knows nothing of the Self. While thus causing in 
jiva forgetfulness of the Self, mSjA gives rise to a 
further delusion. It makes him think that he is a 
samsarin. This is merely due to his association 
with maya. When found associated with thieves, 
even an innocent man is regarded a thief and 
punished. There is in reality no raayd in jiva. 
Mtiya itself is a creation of maya. In Akas'a, f<n- 
example, where there is no form or colour, the 
unenlightened man sees form and colour. Though 
undeluded in himself, the A'tman becomes deluded 
while in samsara, like a man who, however educa- 
ted and wise while awake, sees all sorts of unrealities 
in his dreams. So long as the sleep of maya con- 
tinues, thei'e is no end of misery for jiva. 

Guru is the Deliverer. 

The jiva who has been soiely suifering from the 
throes of samsara is at length awakened by a 
m^erciful and gracious Guru. Thus enlightened, he 
no longer sees any misery at all. The jiva acquires 
this enlightenment only as the result of a vast 
store of good karma he has done in the past. This 
state of enlightenment is called the fourth stat^ ; 
and it is a condition to wliich very few can attain. 

Jiva is identical with Brahman. 

The A'tman, who as jiva causes the synthesis of 
the whole body and life, is identical with Brahman. 



14. And it is verily from Him, who as the 
jiva amuses himself in the three bodies, that 
the whole variegated being is born. He is the 
basis, the Bliss, the Infinite Wisdom, in whom 
the three bodies and (all) get dissolved. 

15. From Him are born prana, manas, 
and all the indriyas ; the akas'a, vayn, light, 
water, the earth which maintains the whole 

The gross body, the subtle body and ajnana 
constitute the three bodies which are the scenes of 
jiva's enjoyment. These tliree bodies become ex- 
tinct only when the jiva has entered into the 
fourth state, but not otherwise. .So long as jiva is 
ignorant of his true Self, he pnts on body after 
body according to his karma, and abaadons each 
when it is worn out and no longer fit for enjoyment. 
So long as avidya continues, he is born again and 
again : he is now a child, then a youfh, then a 
decrepit old man, and then he dies ; then again he 
is born and passes through all the stages, and so on. 
Thus by avidya he oscillates unceasingly in sam- 
sara like the pendulum of a clock. When jiva 
attains to the fourth condition, ho becomes that 
Being, the .Absolute Brahman, who is said to be the 
basis of all existence. He is the self-lumiuous 
Bliss itself. He brings the whole universe into 
being out of Himself, there being no material causes 


nor instruments external to Himself. From Him 
■who is the Lord of the three bodies and the Witness 
in Buddhi, is born prana and manas ; that is, He i& 
the source of all activity and knowledge, of Kriya- 
s'akti and Jndnas'akti : from Him are born all senses, 
organs, &c. 

The Grand Truth. 

It is this fourth condition which the great 
Gurus, the Mahatmans, teach as the true being of 
the Self to such of their disciples as have purified 
their hearts of all dirt. This ia what the Vedan- 
tins call the Mahavakya, the Grand Utterance, 
whose teaching, declaring the unity of Brahman 
and Jiva, is expounded in this Upanishad as fol- 
lows : 

i6. That Supreme Brahman, the Self of all, 
the great abode of the universe, subtler than 
the subtle, the Eternal, That is thyself, and 
thou art That. 

Brahman : the Infinite, unlimited by space. The 
Self of all : dwelling in the hearts of all beings and 
one with them all. Thou art That : though an enjoyer 
and doer by avidya, thou ait in reality none other 
than the Supreme Brahman. 

Realization of Truth leads to liberation. 

The sruti now declares what the fruit is of a 
Jcnowledge of this truth : 


17. That which illumines the universe com- 
posed of jagrat, svapna, sushupti and so on, — 
knowing " I am That Brahman", from all 
bonds one is released. 

/: the knower of Brahman, the self-conscious- 
Bliss, the Self. Bonds : of egoism. 

Atman is not identical with the Universe. 

Atmau is of a different natui'e from the whole 
universe, as the s'ruti says : 

r8. Whatever in the three states is the 
object of enjoyment, the enjoyer and the en- 
joyment itself, from them distinct am I, the 
Witness, the pure Intelligence, the Ever-Good. 

Three states: jagrat, svapna and sushupti. The 
Et'er-Good: SadasivM, or Mahadeva who is the 
Pure, Eternal Good itself. 

The Disciple's recognition of the True Self. 

When thus taught by the granious Guru, the 
disciple recognizes his Ti-ue Self and thus declares 
his experience : 

19. In me all is born, in me all things firmly 
stand, in me all attains dissolution. So, I am 
Brahman, the secondless. 

In me all is horn, etc : I being none other than 


Immutability of Atman. 

One should not suppose that because Atman is 
thus the cause of the world's origin, stay and dis- 
solution, He is of the same form as the world and 
changes with it. On the other hand, Atman is never 
subject to change : His nature is inscrutable and 
-very hard to realize. The s'ruti says : 

20. I am verily subtler than the subtle, so 
am I the Great; I am the universe diverse; I 
am the ancient, I am full (Purusha), the Ruler, 
I am the Golden ; and the Auspicious am I in 

The. Golden : full of wisdom ; that Self in the 
Sun who underlies all the things in universe. 

Atman is Omniscient. 

Though Atman has no hands and other organs 
of action or of sensation. He is omiiiscient. So 
the S'ruti declares: 

21. Without hands and feet I am of un- 
thinkable activity ; without eyes, I see ; with- 
out ears, I hear; distinct (from Buddhi), I under- 
stand ; and there is none who knows Me ; I am 
ever conscious. I am He who is knowable by 
the many Vedas : I am the Maker of the Vedan- 
ta, as well as the Knower of the Vedas. 

I am the Holy One, the Great Omniscient l^ord. 


-without duality, inaccessible to all speech and 
thought. J am the Maker of the Veddnta : I am the 
Revealer of the truths taught in the upanishads ; I 
am the Teacher of all sciences; lam the God be- 
yond the universe. 

Atman is formless. 

As the s^stra declares, Atman is devoid of all 
form : 

22. To me there is no virtue or sin, no death 
or birth, no body, senses or buddhi. No earth 
or water exists for me, and no fire, and no air 
exists for me, nor ether. 

The whole universe is made up of mdya and 
the ludimental elements (bhutas) ; these and ti.e 
things made of them are only illusory appearances of 
the self-conscious Bliss, of A'tman Avho is altogether 
free from duality. 

The Sakshatkara. 

The immediate result of an intuitive recognitiou 
of the identity of the Self with Brahman is de- 
scribed by the S'ruti as follows : 

23. Thus knowing the essence of the Para- 
matman, the Supreme Self lying in the cave, 
partless and secondless, the Witness of all, 

having neither the existent nor non-existent 

one reaches the pure essence of Paramatman. 


Lying in the cave : dwelling in the Buddhi of all 
as the witness of all its functions. 


Recitation of the Satarudriya. 

In this section the s'ruti proceeds to teach hoA' to 
purify the autah-karana which, owing to its im- 
purity, is unable to comprehend the Supreme Self : 

r. He who recites the S'atarudriya becomes 
purified by sacred fires ; he has atoned for wine- 
drinking ; he has atoned for brahmanicide ; he 
has atoned for vohmtary and involuntary sins. 
Thereby he is refuged in the Avimukta, (the 
Lord). He who is of the highest order should 
recite it alwaj^s, or once. 

2. By this he attains wisdom which is 
destructive of the ocean of samsara. There- 
fore, having thus known Him, he attains 
liberation as the result, 

Avimukta: He who is distinct ironi the jiva, from 
the vimukta or the abandoned. Avimukta is one of 
the names applied to the sacred place now called 
Benares. It is so named because it is 7iever — not 
even at the time of pralaya — deserted by S'iva and 
S'akti, by the I'svara and His Prakriti, who dwell 


there in perfect bliss. The place itself is full of 
Divine Bliss, as the abode of the Blissful Divine 
Pair, and it is said to have been created from t he 
Divine Feet as the region where the Divinity may 
abide when the whole nniverse is merged in dissc lu- 
tion. This sanctnary is identified by the Yogins 
with the region of the human body between the 
chin and the forehead, — with the nasal root where 
the two eyebrows meet. It is, by pre-eminence, the 
seat of jiva inasmuch as when Manas is concentia- 
ted there, the individual consciousness reaches the 
lower lovels of I'svara who, enrobed in the Supreme 
Light of Divine Consciousness (Para-Chit), wards 
off and destroys all sin brought on by sensuality. 
In whatever part of the world he may live, the 
Yogin whose thoughts dwell on the Divinity mani- 
fested in this region called A'jna-Chakra — the region 
where a slight glimpse into the Divinity is attained — 
lives in the real sanctuary called Kdsi (the shining 
one), Avimukia (the undeserted), A'nandakdnana (the 
forest, or manifestation, of Bliss), Vdrdndst (that 
which wards off and destroys all sins), Rudrdvdsa 
(Rudra's abode), Mahasraasana (the great crema- 
tion-ground). The highest order : the order of 
Sannyasins known as Paramahamsas. 

"When, owing to an impure manas, a man is not 
equal to the contemplation of the Nirguna-Brahman 
or even of the Saguna-Brahman, then he should not 
resort to nydsa, i. e., the fourth sacerdotal order of 

94 KArVALYA-lJfANr.^FrAr). 

iSnnnyAsa. On tlie otlier hand he Hhoiild constantly 
recite the holy chapter of the Veda, called Rtulra- 
dliyaya, wliicli washes away all sins. There is no 
fixr in the whole Veda superior to it. By the 
refutation thereof his heart becomes pure and attains 
ex'reme vaitatjya or indifferenco to worldly objf-cta. 
N'aira^ya indicates thatchitta, the thinkinj^principle^ 
has become j)nre, Then he may enter on the fourth 
order. ?iven then he shonid continue to recite the 
KudiAdhyaya and conieni[>late S'iva as Uma'» 
Spouse, till ho attains the SAkshatkara. or direct 
cotrnition of th'? Supremo Self. While thus 
enyairod in the recitation, he should at the same 
time pursue the study of the Vedanta, always endued 
with stron*^ faith and renderinf? service to the 
Teacher. He who perseveres in this path will 
^liou attain spiritual illumination. 


p. 71. 1. 13, for call road calls. 

p. 75. II. 7-8 should be in fmall print. 


Yedic Religion Vol. I 

THE B H A Q A \ A D G I T A 


^ : .. izUted into En^ttfk. 


Cloth Rs. 4. Stiff Board:- Rs. 3. 
\ppty to— 

He littff ; If leurv TtoHfSfsAGiL, 


? tfag BftaganrifeliU 
irtth: .-i.'saaeaf n.. 



have fallen to the lot of one so eminently qualified tor the 
task as the author has proved himself to be... It has been the 
aim of the author to give a literal translation of both the 
BhSshya and the Bhajravadgita... Explanatory notes have als© 

been added from Anandagiri's Tika and other sources 

The extensive and highly valuable commentary of this 
work constitutes its distiuguishing feature, and makes it a 
trustworthy guide to students of Vedic Religion and Philoso- 
phy. The Sanskrit has been rendered into verj' good Kng- 
lish and the mechanical execution of the work I'eflects much 
credit upon the publishers." 

The Pra"buddha Bharata or Awakened India — 

"...Judging from the book before us, we liave no hesitation in 
saying that the scries will be an excellent addition to Anglo- 
Oriental literature.. The present work cf Mr. Mahadeva Has- 
triar is about the first respectable contribution to ' Oi-iental 
literature by a sympathetic Indian Scholar.' To translate 
S'ankara's commentary is no easy affair, and our Sastriar has 
done it well. It is as literal as could be desired and withal 
very clear. There are several abstruse passages in the origi- 
nal, as for example the latter half of the elaborate comment 
on XIII, 2 ; but these have been rendered into simple and 
idiomatic English and explained by means of footnotes which 
seldom fail their purpose. A typical example of these notes 
is the last one on page 230 which throws considerable light 
on the very abstruse discussion to which it is appended. 
The translation of the text is equally satisfactory... The trans- 
lation is more literal than most of the current ones. Every 
page of the book bears testimony to the translator's 
scholarship and labour, and it is our sincere hope that the 
newly started Vedic Series would be at least as valuable 
as Trubner'a Oriental Series." 

. * * * 

NOTICES an;i oi'inioxs. in 

" Every genuine English-knowing stufleut of the Yedantn 
should furnish himself with a copy of the present excellent 
work, which, besides giving an accurate translation of the 
comparatively short but supremely suggestive commentary 
of the great Bhash3'akara, contains a faithful and consistent 
7^ t.,'n«lation of the text of the Gi'-'i." 

The Dawn- — "With regard ta the merits of Mr. Sastri's 
performance, we are clearly of opiiiion that for accui'acy and 
lucidity of expression, combined with a close literaluess of 
rendering of a treatise so abstruse as Sri S'ankara's Bha- 
shya, it deservedly marks an epocli in the history of 
Indian Anglo- Samskrita scholarship. Eveiy .sentence of the 
book bears testimony to the translator's watchful care anp 
patient labour ; and his is an example of thoroughness and 
conscientiousness of work which augurs good for our country 
...We have also with some care compared Mr. Sastri's trans- 
lation of a considerable niimber of the S'lokas of the Gita 
with their translations as given in some of the more usually 
read renderings and have found Mr. S'astri's work by far the 
most helpful both as regards close literaluess and pointed- 
ness of expression. 

" Xot the least valuable feature of this translation is the 
full references given of the passages quoted by the Bhashya- 
kara, a most necessary part of the work of the elucidator, 
which, however, is so shamefally overlooked by the average 
Indian scholar. 

" Mr, S'astri has by this single work of translation estab- 
lished his reputation as a distinguished Samskrita Scholar 
and an able translator ; and has deserved well of his 

Light of the East- — " it is a neat volume of 360 pages 
and the translator hag spared no pains to make it useful to 
the general reader. The S'ankara-Bhashya has been very 



ably and carefully translated. No doubt this work will fill a 
f^ap in the curriculum of study of the student of oriental 
literature for whom the S'ankara-Bha?hya was hitherto a 
stumbling block." 

The Light of Truth.—" We now give thanks to European 
Scholarship and Dr. Thibaut for a valuable translation of 
S'ankara's famous Sutra-Bhti?hya ; and it is a matter for 
sincere cimgratulation that an Indian scholar has brought 
out a careful translation of S'ankara's Tiext great commentary. 
The work is as well turned out as it can be. And we note 
with pleasure that the learned translator has given mostly 
the Sanskrit, in brackets or otherwise, of most important 
terms, which are more intelligent to us in the original than 
in the English fcrm " 

The Madras Mail- — " Although new translations of the 
Bhagavad Gita have been appearing at almost regular 
intervfils during the ceutuiy — since, in fact. Sir William 
Jones did so much to encourage the study of Sansknt by 
Western Scholars and Students — there still ssenis to b3 room 
for additions to the number, provided always that the 
translation is undertaken by scholars who are known to 
possess two qualifications, an extensive knowledge of Vedic 
Sanskrit and a knowledge of Vedic and Vedantic philosophy. 
The latter of tb3se two is more especially requisite with 
respect to translations of the Gita.... Mr. Mahideva Sastri, 
the author of the latest contribution to the number of 
translations, may justly claim to possess both qualifications ; 
lii.s position as curator of the Mysore Government Oriental 
Library is a satisfactory credential of his capacity, and he has 
added to the obligations which many will doubtless fee, 
towards him by not only giving us a clear translation of the 
text of the Gitsl, but adding to it an almost (sic) complete 
translation of S'ankaracharya's commentary, the gi'eatest 


work of the famous Southern Indian Philoaopher, who, to all 
intent"? and purposes, founded the Advaitist or Monistic 
>'cliool of Indian Philosophy... A noticeable feature, and one 
that will be appreciated, is that the language is intentionally 
less technical than that of the majority of other translations 
in which respect it may be said to occupy a worthy place 
with the volume issued by Babu Mohini Chaterjee, written 
especially for western students." 

The Brahmavadin : — " We believe it was Sir William 
Jones who, in defining the translator's task, pointed out that 
two translations are necessarj' for an oriental book whenever 
it is rendered into a European language — one a skeleton, 
word-for-word translation and another a free, idiomatic 
translation- -for, otheiwise, it is impD^sible to render in 
fujrrect idiomatic language the ideas of an oriental into a 
European language whose genius is thoroughly different from 
that of the former. Of the several works of that master of 
diction, Sri Sankaraeharya, his Bhilshya on the Bhagavadgitd 
bjingthe stiffest, the translafor has laid the students of 
religion under a deep debt of gratitude in attempting to 
combine both the above mentioned requisites of translation 
into one by rendering into English, simple, lucid, and at the 
same time true to the original, the " Song Celestial" with 
the oldest and the best commentary thereon. Every lover 
of Hindu religion who does not know Sanskrit and who is 
anxious to have an in.sight into its grand ethics and meta- 
physics mutt provide himself with a copy of this excellent 
work. We trust that Mr. Mahadeva Sastrlar will be able to 
bring out the remaining parts of the " Vedic Religion" of 
which the translation under notice is said to be the first 

Rt. Hon. Prof F. Max Muller.— " Please to accept my 
best thanks for your translation of the Bhagavadgita. I have 



just prepared Telang's translation for a new Edition in the 
Sacred Books of the East, and T regret that I received yours 
too late, as I see that it would have been of great help to 
me. You have done your work very couscientiously. ... I 
hope you will coutiuue j'our labours." 

Mr. Bertram Keightley, M- A., F. T. S— " I congratu- 
late you most warmly on the Very successful way in which you 
have rendered the Sauskrit into admirable, lucid and flowing 
English. I believe that this translntion with similar notes will 
form one of the most valuable contributions to our theosophi- 
cal literatiire that we have had for a long time ; for, Bhaga- 
vadgita is greatly studied among our members in the West, 
especially in America, But they much need the guidance 

and assistance of so good a commentary Without any 

compliment, let me conclude by saying that I have seldom 
seen abetter or more English translation of a difficult San- 
skrit work." 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice S. Subramanya Iyer, C- 1. E . 

— " The good workjyou have so cheerfully undertaken for the 
good of your countrymen has been excellently done." 

Sir K. Shesliadri Iyer, K. €• S. I.—" It ia equal tosomi- 

of the most important volumes of the ' Sacred Books of the 
East.' " 

Sri Swami Vivekananda— " ...The Gita-Bhashya, in 

the opinion of many, is the most difficult of the Achar3'a's 
works, and I am glad to find that you have undertaken a 
most difficult task and performed it so well." 

The Hon. Dr. Justice GooroojDass Banerji:— " ...From 

t he rapid glance I have had of its pages, I think the transla- 
tion is elegant and faithful. By giving a translation of 
S'ankara's commentary yon have made your book really 
v-aluiible to those readers of the Git;\ who do not know 
Sanskrit." ^^ 

*<' V J" '.1 f 

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