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• F T H S 

IN THE TBjRs lypo, AND lygi; 







•F THE ^ 

S L A V E- T R A D E. 

^ <.' V I 'J > III I , LI 


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[Price Kinepcnce.j 


IN confequence of the numerous Petitions which 
were fent to Parliament from different Countiesy^ 
Cities, and Towns of Great Britain, in the year 1 788, 
for the AB9LITION of the SLAVE-TRADE, it 
was determined by the Houfe of Commons to hear 
Evidence upon that fubjeft. 

The Slave« Merchants and- Planters accordingly- 
brought forwai-d feveral perfons as witnefles, the firfl: 
in behalf of the continuance of the Slave-trade, the 
latter in defence of the Colonial Slavery. Thefe were 
heard and examined in the years 1789 and 1790. 

Several perfons were afterwards called on the fide of 
the Petitioners of Great Britain, to fubftantiate. th© 
foundation of their feveral petitions, and to invalidate 
feveral points of the evidence which the others had 
offered. Thefe were examined in the years 179c, - 
and 1791. . 

This Abftraft then is made up from the evidence of 
the latter, in which little other alteration has been made 
than that of bringing things on the fame point into one 
chapter, which before lay Scattered in different parts of 
the evidence 5 . and this has been done to enable the 
reader to fee every branch of the fubjeft in a clear.and 
diftin(ft ihape. . 

The evidence for Africa and the Middle Paffage, on 
the fide of the Petitioners of Great Britain, is given by 
perfons, who have been to almoft all the confpicuouV 
parts of Africa, from the River Senegal to Angola, 

A Man/ 




Many of them have had great opportunities of inf(5f- 
, mation, from having been refident on (hore, or having 
been up and down the different rivers, or from having 
made each of thtrn feiteral voyages* Among thefe, as 
well as among thofe who have only had the opportunity 
perhaps of a fingle voyage^ are to be reckoned feveral 
refpe^ftable perfons of education) obfervation^ and leifure^ 
and it is to be obferved, that the information of the 
whole goes to things at diiFerent periods, from the year 
1754 to 1789. The evidences again for. the Weft 
Indies and America arc numerous and refpecSable, 
Many of them h^ve had the advantage of being refidenC 
there for years, and the information which ihey have 
gfvcn) extends to things as they were at various timcS 
from 1753 to 1790* Of all thefe it mull be faid, <haC 
ihey are totally dijinierejhd perfons^ and therefore cart 
have had rrothin^ to blafs them either one w^iy or ihd 
other in the evidence they havie given* The 'Editor, 
on the other handj feels It incumbent upon him to 
«cktiowfedgc5 that feme of them eame up as cvidLn^^g, 

from iAfenle ef iluty^ find this a^airijt their f/'WH appaNfit 

iQnJi^rMj for fuch ft eondy&h 

Of th€ Evidences, on the other li^nd, brought for- 
ward by the flave-merehants ^nd planters, there are few 
indeed who are not deeply inUreJled in the teftimony they 
havt given, and the event of the decifion. In the African 
part of the queftion, all but two are immediately con'-' 
cerned in the flave-trade;.and in the Weft- Indian, the 
Admirals only can be fairly excepted. And of what 
does their information confift but of round and general 
aflertions, without any fpecifick faAs ? Thefe affertrons, 
however, kre in behalf of the planters, and tend to 
prove the comforts and happinefs of their flaves. 

We have no right to fuppofe that perfons of their 
charadier had any intention of mifleading the publick in 
a cjueftion of fo much importance to the interefts of 
mankind ; but we may fuppofe, that in their fttuation 
ihey had little or no opportunity of objerving the treatment 
wf thejlavts \ and this is adually the faft. The Admirals; 



V^henon fhore, were almoft entirely in the towns. Now 
aH the evidences for the petitioners of England are una- 
nimous in aflerting that the flaves in the, towns appear 
to be better treated than thofe in the country Henc^ 
the Admirals may have been in fome meafure warrantee} 
in faying what they have done; but they ought to havQ 
obferved that their evidence related to but a partial and 
not the general body ofthejlaves^ and that their opfortuni" 
ties of information were exceedingly limited and confined. . 

When, however, they went into the country, their 
fituation again precluded them from getting the fame in-r 
formation as other men. Mr. H, Rofs, examined among 
others, fays, that as to the information which may have 
been gotten by thofe holding, high commands in tli^ 
• Weft indies, he cannot fpeak decidedly; but if it h^ 
meant to know whether fuch, on occafional vifits tp 
eftates, were likely to obtain a thorough knowledge of 
the treatment of flaves,. he thinks they could not. He has 
often accompanied Governors and Admirals in their 
tours there. The eftates vifited, belonging to perfons 
of diftinftion, might be fuppofed under the beji manage^ 
ment, Befides, all pofftble care would be taken to keep 
every difgtifting qbjeSifrpm view^ and on no account by tha 
excrcife of the whip or other punifhments, to harrow- 
up the feelings of perfons of fuch dlfiin£lion. 

The above accounts fliewthat the rank and fituation 
of the Admirals precluded them from feeing as much as 
others, or in other words, that their opportunities of in- 
formation were not as great as thofe of other men. Many 
other circumftances may be cited to prove the fame 
thing. Among thefe are the preambles and claufes of 
certain laws, and extrafts from the Weft Indian pub- 
lick prints. To begin with the former. 

Bahama Iflands, — So lately as in 1784 it was enaftedl 
there, that " if any flave (hall abfent him or herfelf 
** from his or her owner, for the fpace of three months> 
** fucceffively, fuch flave (hall be deemed an outlay^, 
** and, as art encouragement to apprehend and bring tO' 
** juflice fuch runaways, any.perfon or perfons who mall 
** apprehend any fuch runaway, ^//A^r alive or ^<?i?f/,.fhaU 

A 2 • * be 

if P R E F A C E. 

* be paid out of the paMick treafury twenty powrils, for 
*« every flave fo apprehended and taken," &c.* 

St. Chriflopher*s. — ^<* An adi to prevent the cutting 

* off or depriving any flaves lit this tfland of any of 
** their limbs or members, t)r otherwife difaWing 
•* them/'— pafled March iith, 1784. 

*< Whereas fome perfofts have of fate been guilty of 
*• cutting off and deprruing Jlaves ef their mrz^ which 
** praftice is contrary to the principles of humanity and 
*' diflionourable to fociety ; for prevention whereof in 
** future, be it enafted by the Governor, &c. That if 
•* any owner or pofleffbr of any negro or other flave ia 
^ this ifland, fhall wilfully and wantonly cut or dtfable, 
^ or caufe or procure to be cut out or difabkd the 
*' tongue ; put out, or caufe or procure to be put out, 
** an tyi ; flit the nofe^ ear^ or lip^ or cut off a nofe, 
** ear, or lip, or caufe the fame to be done ; br break 
** or caufe to be broken, the army legj or any other hmhj 
** or member of any negro," &c. The penalty rs 500I. 
currency, or about 300!. fterling, and fix months 

Barhadoes. — " An Aft to prevent diftempered, 
** maimed, and worn out negroes, from infefting the 
'* towns, ftreets, and highways of this ifland." Pafled 
Jan. 18, 1785. 

" Whereas ithas, for fome time pafl:, been thr cruel 
** pradlice of fome perfons poflTefling negroes, who, from 
** their old age and infirmities^ are incapable vf further 
•* fervice to their inhuman owners, to drive them from 
" their plantations to heg^Jleal^ or Jtarve^ which faid 
** unhappy objecfts are daily infeftin? the piiblick ftreets 
*^ of the ieveral towns in this ifland, &c. The penalty 
to fuch owner is 5/. currency, or about 3/; i2x. fter* 
ling; and the aft ordains that thofe* unhappy objcfts 
Jhall be taken home to their mafters.|| 

Grenada^ 1788.—** Whereas die laws heretofore 
^' made for the proteftion of flaves have been found 
** injufficient\ And wheffeas humanity and the intcreft 
** of the colony require that falutary and adequate re- 
•* gulations and* provifions fliould be adopted fort ten- 

* Privy Csiimcirs Report. \ Ibid, , || Ibid. 

'* dering 


^ dering their fcrviludc as limited and cafy as poffible, 
** and for promoting the increafe of their population, 
^ as the moft likely means xn^ remeving^ in the courfe 
** of time, iht wcejiiy of further importations of negroid 
^from Africa ; And u^io'eas thcfc dcfirable ends cannot 
•* be fo cfieftually obtained as by prefcribing reafonabie 
** bounds ttf 'the power of majhrs^ and others having 
•* the charge of ilaves, by compelliTtg thtmfufficiintiy and 
^properly to hdge^feed^ clothe^ and mamtain tkem^'^ &c,* 

As to die extra6fcs from the Weft Indian puUick 
prints, the foiiowing, among many others, jnay 
itiffice :-•*• 

From the Jamaica paper, cafled the Cornwall Chro- 
nicle, of December og, 1787, it appears. That an 
addition to the Conibltdated Slave-law veas propofed 
in thefe terms :— 

*' Whereas the extreme cruelties and inhumanity of 
" the managers, ovcrfeers, and book-keepers of eftates, 
•* have frequently driven flaves into the woods, and oc- 
^^ cafioned rebellions and internal infurreSions, to the 
** great prejudice of the proprietors, and the manifeft 
•* danger of the lives of the inhabitants of this ifland ; 
.*' for prevention whereof, be it enafted,*' &c. ** And 
" whereas alfo, \t frequently happens, that flaves come 
** to their deaths by hafiy and fever e blows j and other 
**• improper treatment of oveffeers and book-keepers, in 
" the heat of paffion^ and, when fuch accidents do hap- 
•* pen, the viclinfis are entered in the plantation* books, 
" as having died of convulfions^ fits^ vr othfr caufes not to 
•* be accounted for^ and to conceal the real truth of the 
** caufe of the death of fuch ilave or flaves, he or they 
•* is or are immediately put under ^roun(\** &c. 

The member, ( Mr. Gray) who introduced the above^ 
premifed, ** That to his own certain knowledge, very 
" unnatural punifimenis were ^/>^« inflided on negroes j 
" and that, in Jeveral inftancesy he had been obliged ti^ 
** interpofe as a mogijirate^ to prevent actual rebellion 
** from uich inhuman treatment." 

In the Jamaica pap^r, called the Gazette of St. Jag6 
lie la Vega, ^ted Odober i j) 1787, we number 9^ 




runaway (laves advertifcd, viz. 45 " branded'* and 5a 
, \yithout " brands." Among the former is '* William 
" marked on the right fhoulder R A, heart and dia— 
^ mond between, and on the left R A, heart at top/* 
alfo " Batty on both flioulders H P in one," and 
** Guy marked, on the fi^t fhoulder W D, and on 
*' the left I H,"*' — In the fame Gazette, dated Novem- 
ber 8th, 1787, there are notified 23 runaways marked^, 
and 44 unmarked. Among thofe marked is ^' Apollo^. 
^ W S on his face and breaft," — Robert RP on each 
** cheek, and Kingftbii marked YORKE on each 
" fhoulder and breafts."— We find, in the Cornwall 
Chronicle, of Jamaica, dated December 15, 1778, 
** 84 runaways advertifed, 13 of whom only arebrand- 
" ed." Among thefe are "Pompey, a Creole negro man,. 
*' marked on both fhoulders and breafis M L, diamond 
** on top," James a carpenter ** branded on both 
*' cheeks," and ** Billy belonging to the King, marked 
•' broad arrow, on die fhoulder." — ^In the Kingflon 
Morning Poft, of April 8th, 1789, fi^n runaways^ 
from onfc owner are advertifed, namely " a fifherman, 
** a taylor, a fhipwright, a fempflrefs, and three other 
*' wenches*" In the fame paper we find *^ an old 
^^ grey headed Coromantee man," a runaway; alio 
another taylor " marked on both fhoulders I T, and 
** right fhoulder R G." — In the Cornwall Chronicle 
of G&. 10, 1789, a runaway is advertifed named 
*' Prince, branded on the back, with a cattle mark 
^ TH."— In the Kingflon Morning Pofl of Nov. 4, 
1789, we find again, feven runaways from one pro- 
prietor, viz. ** an old woman with her two fons and 
two daughters, one of them very big with child,!? 
alfo a field negro and a carpenter.— In the fupple* < 
ment to the Cornwall Chronicle of Nov. 7, 1 789, there 
are 135 runaways advertifed, viz. 48 with, and 87 
without brands. Of the former fome have two^ tbreey 
and four brands on the facey breajlsy and Jhoulders* 
One in particular is ^^ marked D£ on both cheeks and 
** left fhoulder.*' Among thofe not branded is ** a 
*^ woman with a wooden leg." One man is diflin^ 

. guifhed 


guifhed by having ** hefh ean cr$pt^** and another by 
" his mfe and ears being cat ^"— — In the Jamaica 
Daily Advcrtifer of Feb. 1I5 1791, wc find fix run- 
aways advertifed by one owners viz^; twt: iften and four 
Womenj befides a girl child of one of the latter. BatA 
the men and two of the wom^n are of one family^ be* 
ing an old woman, her brother, her fon, anH her 
grand nephew (marked RDC) and who abfcnted 
tliemfelves at diflferem times.— An advertifement in* 
the Jamaica Daily Advertifl^r of Feb. 44, 1^91, begins 
thus :— ** Feb* 22j 1791^ Efcapcd on Sunday laft with 
'* a chain and collar round his neck^ a negro man of the 
***Mandingo country, marked T Y 4 on top,*' &c. 

In the Barbadoes Gazette of Jan. 14, 1784, the 
reader will find this advertifement — »— — 

** Abfented herfelf from^ the fervicc of the fubfcriber, 
** a yellow fkin negro wench,* named Sarah Deroral,'* 
whofe perfon and furmifed place of concealment, be- 
ing very particularly d^efchbedj the advertifement end5 
with th«fe wo^s " f^lfevcr will apprehend the /aid 
•* ijoench ALIVE tr DEAD, Jh^ll rticem i^m mddpni 

Joi8i>fi Charui HoWAHi).'* 

^ The dauftf , preamWe«, and advcrtifementi juft cited 
will, it is prefumed, without any farther extrafts brinj 
additional convi£Hon to the mind of the reader, that 
the Admirals could have known little or nothing about 
the treatment of thejlttvts during their rcfidence in the 
iflands : for they (hew, firft, that the flaves have been 
infufficitntly fed, lodged, and clothed \ that they have 
been under the power oPthe matter and ovcrfeer to an 
unreafonable degree ; that they have been often turned 
adrift, when incapable of labtnir, ** to beg, fteal, or 
ftarve j" that their ears and nofes have been flit and cut 
offj that they have been alfo other wife disfigured, as well 
fts deprived of limbs and members ; that they have been 
fuddenly murdered and buried j arid that in fome cafes 
where they have run away, rewards have been offered to 
kidifTerent peribns to bring them to their owners alive or 


viii PREFACE. 


dead. They fhew, fecondly, that thefe different cif- 
cumftances have happened, and that mahy of them 
muft have been notorious for why virere laws introduced 
bvthe colonifts themfelves for their preventioa?) /wf^ 
the year 1783, for the dates of the feveral adb or adver- 
vertifemems are in 1784, 1785, 1787, 1788, 1789^ 
and 1 791. But 4f they muft have been notorious fince 
the year 1783, it is clear (the treatment of the flaves 
hiving improved though not kept pace with the im- 
provement of the age) that they muft have been equally 
notorious previous to the year 1783, that is to fay, at the 
very time the Admirals were in the different iflands with 
their refpeflive fleets. Now the Admirals are as fi- . 
lent about thefe notorious fa<Ss in their evidence, 
• as if they had never exitted at alL If they knew them 
and concealed them (which we cannot believe) 
their evidence is unworthy of refpedt upon this occa- 
fxon ; and if they did not know them, it onlv con- 
firms what has been faid before, that they had not the 
fame opportunities as other men^ and that they were 
therefore Incompetent as evidences upon fo great a 

The Admirals again have fhewn themfelves cgrcgi- 
oufly ignorant of a mofl notorlous'law, a law too, which, 
cxifts at the preftnt day, namely, ** that the evidence 
of a flave is not valid againft any white man." Had 
they been acquainted with this, they would have per- 
ceived inftantly that it was in any matter's power to 
♦torture or even murder his flave with impunity, and 
this in the fight of a thoufand black fpeSators, provided- 
he only took care that no white perfon beheld him.. 
Had they known this, they would have perceived the 
unprote<Sted ftate of the flaves, and would never have 
^ ipoken as they have. It is iropoflible therefore that 

• Though the reader-has feen laws enafted to prevent mafters from 
cutting oft the ears •and nofes of their flaves, and being guilty of other 
cruelties, he is not to imagine that the mafier cannot do them now as 
heretofore j for it is clear, that while aflave's evidence i| not admifiiblc 
againft a white man, he may da them with impunity at the prcfeaC 


-PREFACE. tie 

they could have become acquainted wkh this law, and 
this only brings us to the fame conclufion as before, 
vix. thiir incapacity as evidences on thefubje^ of the 
treatment of tbejlaves. 

Before the Preface is clofed, it may be neceflary to 
anticipate, that fome ohe may afk the Editor, why he 
has given in this Abftrad the Evidence on the part of 
the Petitioners only, and omitted that which has been 
adduced on the other fide. To this the Editor might 
reply, that it is the bufineis of the Slave-merchants and 
Planters, if they think their cafe 'defenfible by the 
evidence they hav& produced, to do it; but he would 
radier wi(h to reply, that it is unnecessary : fdf" 
admitting the witnefles on the part of the Slave-mer- 
chants and Planters, never to bavefeen among them all 
even tme Jingle inftance of enormity^ either in Africa, or 
on the Middle raflage, or in the Weft Indies, (which 
none of them will pretend to aflert) this negative evidence 
can make nothing againft the numberlefs pojitive and 
Jpecifick faffs mentioned in this Abftra£l to nave fallen 
undfT the eyes of the witnefTes on the other iide. Thefe 
pofitive and fpeciiick inftances muft therefore Jiillftand 
uncontradiffedand true. , They muft ftill ftand as having 
pojitively happened: and if but a fmall part of them only 
did ever happen, ^his fmall part would be a fufficient 
fcafon for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade. 


A K 


or T ■ 


SeUdl CommttUa of the Houje of Commns^ 

QM Till FAUT «r 

The Petitioners of Great Britain 

r o » T » «' 

Abolition of the Slave Trade, 


AILLIE (George, Efq.) refided 25 yean in South 

Carolina and Georgia, firft as a merchant, after- 
wards as a planter, and then as Commiflary Gene* 
ral of Georgia. He was in Jamaica alfo from about 
December, 1778, to February or March, 1779. — 
^[III. ♦ 181.] 
Beverley, (William, Efq. Lincoln's Inn) was born 
inVirginia,and lived there the firft i6years of his life: 
he returned in 1786, and refided afterwards above 
two years in different parts of America.—— 
[IV. 215.] 

* The Evidencei according to the method In vhich It vat printed fop 
thf Houfe of Commons, is divilibleinto four parts: The Roman Capitalt 
therefore (hew the part in which the Evidence of the perfon it to be found, 
aad the Figures the Page whec iibcgins* 


BoTHAM, (Henky, Efq.) went to the Weft Indies !• 
177O) and, in about two years, vifited all the 
iflands, Englifli and French, and was employed by 
Government in Grenada. He direded a fiigar 
eftate for a fhort time in the»Weft Indies ; but he 
carried on fugar works many years at Bencdolen in 
the Eaft Indies. — [IV* 241.] 

Bowman, (Mr. John) was in the African employ 
-from 1775 to 177 6, mofflyon the Windward Coair, 
as third, fecond, and chief mate. He was alfo S. 
months refident as a fa£lor at the head of the River 
Sierra Leone, and feventeen or eighteen- months at 
that of the River Scaffus in Africa. — [IV. Ii2,] 

Glapham, (John, Efq.) was upwards of twenty 
years in Maryland. — [IV. 249.} 
Clappeson, (Mr. Thomas) was at Jamaica in 1762 
and 1763, and from 1768 to 1778, and from i*jS6 
to 1789. For the firlttwo years he was in the fea-* 
faring 1 ine, but the reft of the time as wharfinger 
and pilot. — [IV. 207.] 

CjLAXTON, (Mr. Ecroide) failed in the Garland for 
Africa in 1788, as furgeon*s mate, and there, on 
the Bonny Coaft, commenced furgeoo to the Young; 
Hero flave-veffel.-r-[IV. 23.] 

Cook, (Captain) of the 89th regmient, was in Bar- 
badoes, St.Lucia,St. Kitt's, &c, in 1780 andl78i, 
[IV. 199.] 

Cook, (Mr. Mark) arrived in Jamaica in 1774, and • 
' left it in 1790 ; was three years in the planting bu- 
finefs ; the reft of Ae time as clerk arid fchoolmaftcr 
there.— [IV. 889.] 

CooR, (Henry, Gent.) wias in Jamaica fifteen years, 
endihg in 1774, as a mill-wright, chiefly in Weft'- 
moreland, but did bufinefs in three other parifhes; 
[IV. 69.] 

Crew, (Robertt, Efi}.)^s a native of Virginia, and 
always refided there till 178;^. — [IV. 250.] 

Palrymple, (Henry. Hew, fcfq.) was lieutenant in 
the 75th regiment, in garrifon at Goree, and on 
Yariops parts of the coaft, from May to the end of 

t B September,. 

September, 1779. He was, on his.paflage to tha 
Weft Iiuiie'-, in a fliive-Vefler two' immtns,"* He 
tVas thii3e times, in- the' Weft Indies ;• iif 1773 at 
Qpeoada fix months J in 1779 and 1780^1 Anti* 
gua, B^rbadoes, Tobago, St. Liicia, and St, Chrif- 
tdpher*s ; and, in 1788, and 1789, a^ Grenada, 
Cariacou, St. Vincents, and Tobago.— 7-[IIL 291.3. 

Davies, (The Rev. Mr. ) rciided at Barbadocs foufteeOr 
* years, the three h.A herring the maiiagcmei][t oipjr 
fugareftate ; he l«ft jt-^rydl'ta fLgo.'^[fV,' 125,] 

DAvisoNV CBak-er^ lieuteMarit of ^'e late 79tH regi- 
ment, was \n Jamaica from the middle of 177 1 to 
the end of 1783, except a few months on th^'Spa- 
ImAi main. He alfo praftifed furgery in Jamaica^ 
[IV. 150.] 

Dove, (Mr. WitLiAM) was>tn 1769, a voyage to,the 
Cbaft of Africa forflaves. From 1774 to 1703 
he refided at Bofton and New-York.».«--p[Ii. roc. j 

t>OUGLA», (Mr. John) bpatfwain of the Ruflelman 
of war, was one voyage to the Coaft of Africa for 
- flaves in 1771. — [IV. 121.] 

Duncan, (Mr. William) was in Antigua froqi Jti- 
nuary 1785 to July 1789, firft as clerk in a ftore for 
fix or eight months, afterwards as overfeer for about 
two years and a half. The reft of the tim^ he kept^ 
a ftore for him felf. — [IV. 141.] 

EtLisoN, (Mr. Henry) gunnerof theRefifi^nce,man 
of war, was in the flave-trade from 1759 101770^^ 
He has been in many Weft India Iflands, particu- 
larly Barbadoes and Jamaica. He has alfo; been 
many voyages! to Virginia and Maryl^d, and often 
on the tv.bacco jjlantations while the flaves were a^ 
work.— [HL 361.] • 

Falconbridge, (Mr. Alexander, furg^cn,) was four 
voyages to Africa for flaves, from 1780 or 1781 to 
1787. In the firft he was taken at Cape mount \i\ 
the Tartac, The other three were regular voyages, 

[II. 581.] 
FiTZMAURiCE, (Mr. William) was in Jamaica front 
June 1771 ^0 March 1786^ as overfeer the laft ten 


^ ( XV, y 

ycarsj but the former part of the time book-keeper, 
except for the firft fix months, when he was clerk 
to a ftbre in Klngfton. — [IV. 205.] 

FoRSTER, (Mr. Robert) was in every Britifli ifland 
except Jamaica, in all about fix years, ending ih 
1778 ; the firft four years he was apprentice in a 
ftore in St. John's, Antigua, the reft of the timfc a 
midfhipman and fecond mafter and pilot of the 
King's brig Endeavour. He lived among the town 
flaves, and often went to coIle£t debts, and vifit 
managers in the country. When in the King's 
Aiip, he fpent much of his time among them.H^ 

^ [IV. 129.] 

tjiLES, (Mr. John) farmer, near Hay, Brecknock- 

j^ {hire, was in Monrtferrat from 1757 ta 1762, in 
Grandtene in 1763, in Grenada 1764 and part of 
1765, lA North America the reft of 1765, in St. 
Croix from 177410 1778. — [IV. 74.] 

GxLES, r Captain) of the 19th regiment of foot, was 
ih Barbadoe?, Antigua, St. Lucia, and Jamaica, 
from June 1782 to April 1790, except about 14 or 
15 months in England.— [IV. 103.] 

Hall (Captain) of the Royal Navy, was at Barbadod^ 
and the Leeward Iflands from 1769 to 1773, and 
from 1780 to 1782 at thofe places, and at Jamaica 
and St. Domingo.-r-^riV. 99.] 

Hall (Captain John Ashley) now in the Weft 
India trade from London, was in the Afi-ican trade 
from 1772 to 1776 inclufive. He made two voy- 
ages to Africa for flaves as third, fecond, and chief 
mate.— [IL 513.] 

Harrison (M. D.) was upwards of ten years in 
Jamaica, from 1755 to 1765, and in America 
from 1765 to 177B, and in the medical line in both 
.— [i'V.44.J- 

fiiLLS (Captain John) of the Royal Navy, was at 
. ' Goree and up the Gambia, as commander of his 
Maj^y's floop Zephyr, at the end oF 1781 and be- 
ginning of 1782, in all about fi3t months.— :[III. 

B z How 

( xvi ) 

How (Anthony Pantaleo, Efq.) was in Africa 
in 1785 and 1 786, chiefly on tbe Gold Coaft, in 
the Grampus man of war, employed by govern- 
ment as a botanift. — [III. 219.] 

Jackson (Robert, M. D.) went to Jamaica in 1774^ 
and refided there four year*?, chiefly at Savanna-la- 
Mar, where he praftifed medicine. His profeflion 
led him daily "eight or ten or more miles into the 
country. He has occafionalfy been in moft parts 
of the ifland. He weat alfo to America to join 
his regiment (the 71ft) in 1778, with which he 
went through all the fouthcrn provinces. — [III. 54.] 

Jeffreys, (Mr. Ninian) matter in the Royal Navy 
was at Jamaica in 1773, Tobago in 1774^ Jamaica 
1775, Grenada 1776, Tortola 1770, as mate of a 
' Weft Indiaman, and employed in taxing off fugars 
from the difl^erent eftates, but in 1782 Aiftigua, 
and St. Kitt's 1783, and at Jamaica a few days in 
1784, in the Royal Navy.— (III. 231.) 

KiERNAN, James, Efq.) was. in Africa rn 1775, 1776, 
1777, and 1778, to learn the nature of the trade, 
to carry it on. He refided on the River Senegal.— 
(IV. 237.) 

Lloyd, (Captain Thomas) in the Royal Navy, was 
in the Weft Indies in 1779. He commanded his 
Majcfty's fliip Glafgow, and was burnt out of her 
in Montego Bay, Jamaica.-— [IV. 147.] 

Millar, (Mr. George) gunner of his Majefty's ftiip 
' Pegafe, has been in Africa. His laft voyage was to 
Old Calabar, in '1767, in the (hip Canterbury, 
Captain Sparkes. — [III. 385.] 

Morl:EY, (Mr. James) gunner of his Majefty^s (hip 
Medway, made fix voyages to Africa, the fir ft in 
1760, the laft in 1776. He haf^ been ever fincein 
the king's fervice. He has vifited moft parts of 
Africa, from the beginning of the Gold Coaft to 
Angola — [III. 149.] 

Newton, (The Rev. John) Reftor of St. Mary 


f xvn ) 

' Woolnoth, made-five voyages tb Africa; In the- 

- ' vhft, in 'I7S4> he wa? mafter of a flave fhip. He 

; iitea on iborfc. about a year and a half, chiefly at 

the, i|lafld , of Phntanes, at. the mouth of the jRiver 

Sherbro. — [III. 137.] 

jNiCHOLLs j[the ReV; RoB^RTf BoucHfcR) Dean <5f 

Middleham, Yorkfliire, was born in. Barbadoesy 

,/; ^ ai^d^reiided there folne years in his youth, and two 

years after he \Mas 0/ age, from 1768 to 17 70,, 

. ' ivh^ in h^ly orders. In his laft refidence, he live4 

^ • ofi. * Very. Urge plantation, and obferved the ma- 

^ nagefrieiit of. that and the furrounding eftiles.— • 

^Parkbf ( Mr. Isaac) fhip-keeper of the Melampiis fri- 
gate, failed in 1764. to the R. Gambia, and ia 
i^ '. ^765 to Old Calabar. He. liyed five months oft. 
i; - lCl|K>re, at New Calabar. He has been more than 
f .. : 'ojic§ in .the Weft Indies, in. Jamaica, Barbadoes^ 
fc.;.;. A«itigua, .the.»Grenades, &c.— [III. 122.] 
RooKE (Major General) was .in Africa, at Goree, fron» 
c ; r May 6, to Aug. 16, 1779, — [HI.. 45.] 
^I^^s (the Rev. THOJiiAs GwyI^n) arrived at Bar- 
badoes in the end of 1.7^3^ as Chaplain of his Ma* 
• ; Jeft^'s . fliip Princefs Amelia, During the . fix 
< ; l^beks he, ^as there, he vifited the ^antations with- 
, ! . -. In four or:ftve miles.of Bridge-town*, He was bje- 
.\ I . lijM^en two and three months alfo at St*. Li^ia.— • 

[111:247.] . . -. 

:£oSs (HtBRCUL^S, Efq.) refided from 1761 to \^%%. 
i chiefly'ia: Jamaica, and^Hifpfinioia- 
JBe.Was in every parifli in the-fcrmer ifl«ind.— 
::.^ flV. 252.] . ^ ^ 

fRj98s..(.Cft^taift.Ro«BjiT.). was fooia 176a. ltd 1786 im 
- Jamaica. He was for three years and a half a 
book-keeper, and afterwards an overfeer on three- 
eftates..' He then' commanded a compiny^ of 
Rangers for fix years. In 1775 he fettled a pro* 
, . perty of his own, and refided bri it from 1781 to* 
^ * 1786— [IV. 63.] 

B 3 SAVACf^ 

Sayace, John, (Efq.) refided in Carolina from 1729 

to 1775. — [IV. 247.] 
Scott, (Captain Alexander) of the Royal Navy, 

was from Senegal to C, Coaft in his Majefty's 

Chip Merlin, in 1769. He has alfo heen in the 

Weft Indies.— riV. 178.] 
Simpson, (Lieut. John) of the Marines, went out in 

his Miajefty's fhip Adventure, and was on the Coaft 

of Africa, chiefly from Settra Crue to Accra, in 

1788 and 1789.— [IV. 40.] 
Smith, (Captain John Samuel) of the Royal Navy, 

was in the Weft Inidies in 1772, 1777, and 1778, 

for above a year altogether.— [IV. 136.] ^ 

Storey, (Lieut. Richard) in the Royal Na#y, was 

from 1766 to 1770, on every part of. the Coaft, 

from S. Leone to theR. Gaboon.— [IV. 3.] 
Stuart, (The Rev. James) vifited many of the Weft 

India iflands, Englifh and French, in 1778 and 
( 1779, when he returned to America. He had a 20 

years acquaintance with the condition of flaves 

upon that continent.— [IV. 175.] 
•Terry, (Mr. John) was in Grenada from 1776 to 

1790, the firft feven or eighr years as an bverfeer, 

then a manager^. — [IV. 107.] 
Terry, (Mr Matthew) was four years in Domi- 
. nique as book-keeper and overfeer, one at Tobago 

a> iand-furveypr, in the King's fervice, and feven 

m Grenada, ending in 1781',' as a colony furveyor* 

—[IV. 82.] 
.Thompson, (Captain Thomas Bolton) of the Royal 

Navy, was fecond Lieutenant of the Grampus in 
' 1784, 17B5, and 1786, and commanded his Ma- 

jefty's fhip the Nautilus in 1 787 v in carrying out 

the black poor to Sierra Leone, where he was from 

• Theehief perfon ivlio fuperiijtendi a fugareftatey is called in Ja* 
jMica thcoverieer> and in the Windward ^nds the naoager; where 
a^ cUiver is called oveiieer* 

' the 

( XIX ) 

the beginning of May to the end of September*— ■ 
[III. 167.] 

Tottenham,' (Major- General) went out to the Weft 
Indies in 1779^ with four regiments under his com- 
mand. He was about 20 months in Barbadoes, and 
fome time at St. Lucia, St. Kitt's, and St. Euftatius. 
—[III. 125.] 

Tow^TB, (Mr. James) carpenter of his Majeftv*s fhip 
Svren, made two voyages in 1760 and 1768 to the 
ides de Los and Grand Cape Mount. In the iirft he 
was between feven and eight months on the coaft as 
a boy ; in the fecond, as carpenter, he ftaid more 
than fix months. — [IV. 15.] 

Trotter, (Thomas, M. D.) furgeon in the Royal 
Navy, was a voyage in the African flave-trade, 
from Liverpool, in 1783, as furgeon of the Brookes, 
Captain Noble. He was ten months on the coaft* 

Wadstrom, (Charles Berks, Efq.) Chief Direc- 
tor of the Affay Office in Sweden, was in Africa 
near three months, in 1787 and 1788, with Do£lor 
Spaarman, engaged by the King of Sweden to make 
difcoveries. — [III; 18, & 19.] 

Wilson, (Captain Thomas) of |the Royal Navyi was 
between five and fix months in Africa, between 
Cape Blanco and the River Gambia, in 1783 and 
1784, as commander of his Majefty's Ihip Kace- 
horfe : he was fent out to embark the troops and 
ftores from Goree.— [III. 3, &4*] 

Wilson, (Mr, Isaac) furgeon in the Navy, made 
one voyage to Africa in the Elizabeth, Smith, 
from London. He failed the lothof May, 1788, 
and returned 6th of December, 1789.— [II. 561. 1 

Woodward, (Gborqe, Efq.) is both an owner and 
mortgagee of property in Barbadoes, where he re- 
fided in 1782 and 1783, and was alfo therein 1777* 

-[IV. 233O 

Woodward, (Mc* Joseph^ was in Barbadoes in 
, 1788, 1789, and X 790,— [IV. 230.] 


•WooLRiCH, (i^HOMAs, Efq.) was in th€*Wd(t indies 
from 1753 ^^ ^773 » ^"* ^^ ^^® interim tppk three 
trips to England, and two to America ; Kc was m* 
the mercantile line,. chiefly at Tortola. ,He was 
alfo occafionally at Barbadqes, Aiitigiia, and St. 
Kitt's. — JII. 264.] 

YouNO, (Sfr George) Captain in t"he Royd Nav|% 
was four voyages to Africa, in 1767, 1768, 1771* ' 
and 1772, from Cape Blanco to Cape Lopez, in- 
cluding every Englifli fettlement%audfomeDutcbr 

, , fill. 5,53/ 


. ■« - # 

>^ • • 

< 4 


^he Enormities committed by the Natives of Africa on the 
Perfons of one another'^ to procure Slaves for the EurO' 
peans — proved by the Tejlimony of fuch as have vijited 
that Continent^ — and confirmed by Accounts from the 
Slaves themfelvesy after their arrival in the Weft Indies* 

THE Trade for Slaves, (fays Mr. Kiernan) in the 
River Senegal, was chiefly with the Moors, on 
the Northern bahks,^ who got them very often by war, 
smd not feldom by kidnappings that is. Lying in wait 
near a village, where there was no open war^ and felzing 
whom they could. 

He. has often heard of villages, and feen the remain^ 
of fitch, bro_kcn up by making the people flaves. 

^Xnat the Moors ufcd to crofs the Senegal to catch the 
negroes was fpoken of at Fort Louis as notorious ; and 
he has feen inftances of it where the perfons fo taken 
were ranfomed. 

General Rooke fays, that kidnapping took place in the 
neighbourhood of Goree. It was fpoken of as a com- 
mon praAice? It was reckoned difgraceful there, but he 
cannot Ipeak of the opinion about it on the Continent, 
He remembers two or three inftances of negroes being 
brought to Goree, who had been kidnapped, but he could 
not difcover by whom. ^ At. their own requeft he imme- 
diately Tent them back. 

Mr. Dalrymple found that the great droves (called 
CafFdlas or Caravans) of flaves brought from inland, 
by way of Galam, to Senegal and Gambia, were pri- 
foners of war- Thofe fold to veflels at Goree, and near 
it, were procured either by the grand pillage, the lefler 


( * ) 

pillage, or by robbery ef irnHvithmls^ -or in -confequcnce 
of crimes. The grand pillage is executed by the king's 
foldiers, from three hundred to three thoufand at a time^ 
who attack and fetfire to a village, and felifce the inhabitants 
as they can. The fmaller parties generally lie in wait 
about the villages, and take off all they can furprife^ 
which is alfo done by individuals, who do not belong to 
the king, but are private robbers, Thefe fell their prey 
bh the coaft, where it is well known no qucftions as to 
flie means of obtaining it are afked. 

"As to kidnapping ft is To notorious about Gorec, tSat 
he never heard any perfon deny it there* Two men 
while he was there, offered a ^erfont a meffenger from 
Senegal to Rufifco, for fale, to the garclfon, who even 
boafted how they had obtained him* Many, alfo wer^ 
brought to Goree while he was there, procured, iti fii^ 
fltftic manner. 

'' Thefe depf"edatrons are alfo praftifed by the Moors i 
ht few many flaves ?n /Vfrica who told him they wet6 
taken by them ; particularly three, one of whotii was i, 
woman, who cried very much, and fecmed to be in great 
€iftrefs ; the two others were more reconciled to their fate- 
Captain Wilfon fays, that flaves are either procureiJ 
fcy inteftine wars, or kings breaking up villages, or 
trfmes real or imputed, or kidnapping. 

Villagers are broken up by the king's troops fOrrounrf- 
ing them in the night, and feizing fuch of the inhabi- 
tants as fuit their purpofe. This praflice is mod com-;- 
Tnon when there is no wir with another ftate. 
* It is univerfally acfknowledged that free perfons are fold 
for real or imputed curtxts^ for the benefit of their judges » 
Soon after his arrival at Gor^e, king Dame! fent 
ti frbe rhan to him for fale, and was to have the pric6 
iriinfelf. One of the king's guards being afked whether 
the man was guilty of the crime imputed to him, 
^nfwered, that was of no confequence^ or ever ihquir^if 
into. Captain Wilfon returned the man. 

Kidnapping was acknowledged by all Ke converfed 
"Vrith to be generally prevalent. * It is the'firfl: principle 
bf the natives, the principle of felf-'preferyation, never 

U go.unarmid^ while qfiav^ v^flM on the coa?^, fofj 
fear of being ftolen. \V(\en he K^s m<?t with then? thus^ 
acipefd, ana inqiiiredl oi ^eiiij^ ijirougti his. iuterprcterji 
the reaf^n of it, th^y have pointecT 'tp^ a. Frexiqh flave-, 
veflel then" lying at Portudal, ai;d fai^ their feais axofe 
fi-om that quarter. As a pofi^ive jnftaiice, he fay?, a^ 
courier of Captain L^qy'i, his predgceflbr, though ^ 
Moor, a free ipan^ j^j^, op,p who ^9ke the French 
feneuage fluently, yf^% kidnapRecl, as l^e was travelling on 
t)ieContin<?nt with djfps^tches qn^h^sBritann^cV Majefty'^ 
account, and iibld to a ^rjerich veflel, f^rpm which he. 
Captain Wilfon^'ajtei; much trouble, actually gpt hiq^ 

When he prefided in a coQrt at Gorge, a- Marat^o 
fwore, with an energy which evinced the truth of bi$ 
evidence, th^t his bjcoijher^ apj9tiher M^raboo, b^d beei) 
_ ki^dnappedin the aft of dri^il^ing, a xuot^tii^ kno^wn to be 
Jai'ved by theix religioHj at the iijcftigation of a foraiei; 
governor, who hadTtalcea a diflike to hirn. This was s^ 
foatter notorious at Gore.e. 

Mr. Wadftrom knows flaves to be procure^ between 
Sepegal and Gambia, either by the general pillage or by 
robbery by individuals, or by ftratagem at^d cjeqeit* 

The general pillage is executed by the king's troops 
on lv)ifeba<^k, armed, whp feijze the unprepared. Mr. 
Wadftrom, during the week he was at Toal^ accoxnpa-% 
nying one of thofe embaiEes which the J^ rench governor 
fends yearly with prefents to the black kings, to hep up 
the flave trade, faw I)a4*ties fent out fir this purpQfe^ bj 
king Barbefifn, almoft every day. Thefe parties went 
6ut generally in the evenings and were armed with bpw^ 
and arrows, guns, piltols, fabre$, and long laiices. 

'The king of Sajlum pra6lifes the pillage alio. Mr, 
Wadftrom faw twenty fevea flaves from S3lum, twenty ^ 
t;hree of whom were women ana children, thi^s taken. 

He was told alfo by merchants at Goree, that iwg^ 
Damei praftifes the pillaige in like manner. 
^ Robbery wa§ a general way of tak;ing Angle flaves. He 
once faw a woman and a boy in thj? fl^ye^hold at Goree ^ 
l;|tie.l«k^r haJ'&eeii taken by ftealth from Ills parehts in 





( 4 ) 


die interior parts aboveCape Rouge, and he declared^ that 
fuch robberies were very frequent in his country ; the 
former, at Rufifco, from her hufband and children. He 
could ftate feveral inftances of fuch robl^ries. He very 
often faw negroes thus taken brought to Goree. Ganna 
of Dacard was a noted man^JiiaUrj and employed as 
fuch by the flave merchants there. 

As inftances of ftratdgem employed to obtain flaves, 
he relates, that a French merchant taking a fancy to a 
negro, who .was on a vifit at Dacard, perfuaded the 
village, for a certain price, to feize him. He was accord* 
ingty taken from his wife, who wifhed to accompany 
him, but the Frenchman had not merchandize enough t3 
buy both. Mr. Wadftrom faw this negro at Goree,^' 
the day he arrived from Dacard, chained, and lying on 
the ground, exceedingly diftreiled in his mind. 

The king of Sallum alfo prevailed on a woman to 
come into his kingdom, and fel) him feme millet. On 
her ariival, he feized and fold her to a French officer, 
with whom Mr. Wadftrom faw this woman every day 
while at Goree. 

Mr. Wadftrom was on the ifland of St. Loui?, up 
the Senegal alfo, and on the continent near the river, and 
fays, that all the flaves fold at Senega], are brought down 
the river, except thofe taken by the robbery of the Moors 
hi the neighbourhood, which is fometimes conducted by 
large parties, in what are called petty wars. 

Captain Hills faw while lying between Goree and die 
continent, the natives, in an evening, often go out in 
war drefles, as he found to obtain Jlaves for king Darnel^ 
to be fold. The reafon was, that the king was then 
poor^ not having received his ufual dues from us. He 
never iaw the parties that went out return with flaves, 
but has often feen flaves in their huts tied back to back, •j 
He remembers alfo, that fome robbers once brought him 
a man bound on board the Zephir, to fell, but he, Captt 
Hills, would not buy him, but fuftered hini to efcape. \ 

The natives on the continent oppoftte. to Goree aUg§ 
crtMd^ be imagines for fear of^eing takoa. 



When in the River Gambia, wanting fervants on boarii 
his (hip, he exprefled a wifh for fome volunteers, A 
black pilot in the boat called two boys who were on fhorc 
carrying bafkets of fhallots, and a(ked Capt. Hills if they 
tvouUdoj in which cafe he would taJt^ tbtm off^ and bring 
them to him. This he declined. From the eafe with 
which the pilot did it, he concludes this was cuftomary. 

The black pilot faid the merchantmen would not refufe 

Juch an offer* He apprehends thefe two boys were/rv^ 

peopky from the pilot's mode of fpeaking, and from his 

winking, implying, it was an illicit thing. 

^ A boy, whom he bought from the merchants in the 

[ ^ fame river, had been carried in the night from his father's 

' lioufe, where a Ikirmifh hapf)ened, in which he believes 

he faid both his parents, but he well remember?, one were 

kiUed. The boy . faid many were killed, and fomc 


Mr. EHifon fpoke the Mundingo language, in conlk^ 
quence of which he has often converfcd with flav^s from, 
the Gambia, to which river he made three vovagef, and 
they univerfally informed him^ that they, bad b^n j!?*/^« - 
and fold. 

The natives up the river Scafius informed Mr. Boyrr 
man, that they had got two women and a. girl, whooii 
they then brought him, in a fmall town which they ha^ 
furprized in the night ; and others had got off, but they 
expedled the reft of the party would bring them in, ill: 
two or three days. When thefe arrived, they brought^ 
^yith them two men whom Mr. Bowman knew and h|id 
traded with formerly ; upon queftioning them, he difco^ 
vered the women he had bought to be their wives. Botit 
men and women informed him, that the war-men had 
t^ken them ivhile afieep. . , 

The war-men ufed to go Qut, Mr. Bowman fays, onc^ 
or twice in eight or ten days, while he was at ScafTas* 
It was their conftant way of getting flaves, he believed, 
becaufe they alwaj^s came to the factory before fetting^ 
out, and demanded powder, ball, gun flints, and fmall - 
(hot ; alfo rum, tobacco, and a few other articles* When 
fupplied, they bfew the hornj and made the war-cry, and 

t C fee 

( 6 ) 

fet off. If they met with no flaves, they would bringin'm 
feme ivory anti camwood. Sometimes he accompanied 
thema mA9 ocfo, and he once joined the party, anxious 
toknow'by what means they obtained the flaves. Having 
travelled all day, they came to a fmall river, when he 
vas'told they had but a little Way farther to go. Having 
cfofled die river, they flopped till dark. Here Mr* 
Bowman^ (it was about the middle cf the night) was 
Aiiraid to go farther, and prevailed on the king's fon to 
leave him a guard of four men. In half an hour he 
iMard the war-cry, by which he underftood they ba^ 
reached the town. In about half an hour more they re- 
fined, bringirtg'from twenty-five to thirty men, women, 
and children, (ome ^t the breaft. At this time he (aw the 
town in flames. When they had re-croffed the river, i^ 
Hiras jirft day-Hght, arid they reached Scaflus about mid- 
day. The prifoners were carried to different parts of the 
town. They arc ufually brought in with firings around 
ibeir trecks, and fome have their hands tied acrofs He 
never <aw any flaves there who had been convified of 

• ifc has been called up in the night to fee fires^ and 
told by the town's people, that it was war carrying on. 
. Whatever rivers he has traded in, fuch as Sierra I^c- 
#Re, Jufik, and little Cape Mount, he has ufually pafled 
kumt and dcfertcd villages, and learned from the natives 
]D the boat with him, that war had been therc^ and the na- 
lIWi had hem taken in the manner as^ before defer ibedj and 
4ierrifd to the flips. ^ . 

fle has alfo ieen fuch upon the Coafl : while trading 
aft <}rand Baffiiu, he went on fliore with four black 
tfaders to the town a mile off. In the way, there was 
ar^owndeierted, with only two or three houfes ftanding, 
which feemed to have been a large one, as there were 
two fiii^ {Aantations of rice ready for cutting down. A 
little further on they came to another village in much 
the iame ftate. He was told the iirft town had been 
ta^en by war, there being manyjhips then lying at Bajfau ; 
the people of the other had moved higher up in the 
cpvoktxyfir fior of the white mn» In pafling along to 

( 7 ) 

» I ' 


die trader's towrt he hw feveral villages deferted j thcfe 
tfte natives faid had been dejiroyedby war^ and tbe j^opic 
taken out and fold. 

Sir George Young found flaves to bcprocurcd by waff 
by crimes, real or imputed^ by kidnappings which is 
called panyarhigy and a fourth mode was the inhabitants 
of one village feizing thofe of another weaker village, 
and felling them to the fhips. 

He believes, from two inftances, that kidnapping wat 
frequently praftifed up Sierra Leone River* * One waa 
that of a beautiful infant boy, which the natives after 
trying to felt to all the different trading fliips, came along 
fide his, (the Phenix} and threatened to tofs overboardf 
if no one would buy it ; faying they had fanyared it with 
many other people, but could not fell ity though thcf 
had fold the others. He purchafed it for fome wine> 

The fecond was, a captain of a Liverpool fliip had^ 

§ot as a temporary miftrefs, a girl from the king^ 
rerra Leone, and inftead of returning her on (bore o* . 
feavrng the coaft, as is ufually done, he took her awa)^ 
with him. Of this the king c6mpkined to Sir Georg« 
Young very heavily, calling this ?i&\oty pany<iring by tht 

The term party arlngy feemed to be af word generally' 
ufed all along the coaft where he was, not only aniongf. 
Che Englifli, but the Portuguefe and Dutch. 

Captain Thompfon alfo fays, that at Sierra Leone hi" 
has often heard thg word panyarihg ; he has heard alfa^ 
that this word, which is ufed on other parts <rf the coailr^< 
means kiclnappin^^ or feizing of men. 

Slaves, fays Mr, Town, are "brought from tltfe chan- 
try very diftant from the coaft. The kif>g of •Barrar 
informed Mr. Town, that on the arrival of a (hip, hft 
has gone three hundred miles up the country with his 
guards, and driven down captives to the fea-fide. Fronrv* 
Marraba, king of the Mundingoes, he has heard that 
they had marched flaves out of the country fome hundred 
miles; that they had gone* wood- ranging, to pick up 
every one they met with, virhom .they ftripped naked,i 
and^ if men, bounds but if women^. brought down^' 

G 2 loof^- 

( 8 ) 

loofe^: this he had from themfelves, and alfo, that they 
©ften went to war with the BuUatn nation, on purpofe ta 
get Jlaves. They boafted that^they (hould foon have a 
line parcel for the .fhallops, and the fuccefs often an- 
fwered. Mr. Town has feen the prifoners (the men 
bound, the women and children loofe) driven for fale to 
the water-firde. He has alfo known the natives go iii 
gangs, marauding and catclyng all they could. In the 
Galenas River he knew four "blacks feize a man who had 
l)een to the fea*fide to fell one or more flaves. This 
man was returning home with the goods he had received 
in exchange for thefe, and they plundered and ftripped 
him naked, and brought him to the trading fliallop, 
which Mr. Town commanded, and fold him there. 
' He believes the natives alfo fometimes become flaves^ 
in confequence of crimes, as well as, that it is no un- 
common thing on the coaft, to impute crimes falfely for tht 
fake of felling the perfms fo accujed. Several refpe<9:able. 
pfiffons at Bance ifland, and to windward of it, all told 
Mr. Town that it was common to. bring on * palaver i 
iomak^ flaves^ and he believes it from the information 
of the flaves afterwards, when brought down the coun- 
try, and put on board the fhips. 

OfFPlccaninni Seftus, farther down on the windward 
coaft, Mr. Dove obferved an inftance of a girl be- 
ing kidnapped, and brought on board, by one Ben 
Johnfoji,^ a black trader, y/ho had fcarcely left the fhip 
In his canoe, with the price of her, when another 
canoe with two black men came in a hurry to the 
fliip, and inquired concerning this girl. Having been 
allowed to fee her, they hurried down to their canoe, 
and haftily paddled off. Overtaking Ben Johnfon, they 
brought him back to the fhip, got him on the quarter- 
deck, and calling him teefee (which implies thief) to the 
captain, offered him for fale. Ben Johnfon remonftrated, 
atfking the captain, " if he would buy him whom he 
knew to be a grand trading man :" to which the cap- 

• An African word, which lignifies confcipnces of the natives on any 
vublick fubjeift, or as in this placei acatjafhns aii4. iriah* 


r 9^ )" 

fhin anfw€Ted> ** if they would feH hittivHe WoM cer- 
tainly buy him, be he what he would," which heacceirdr* 
ingly did, and put him into irons immediately with an- 
other man. He was led to think, from this in(lanee» 
that |cidnap{ring was the itiode of obtaining, flaves upom 
this part of the coaft. . ^ 

Lieutenant Storey (ays^ that (laves are genemlly ob» 
tained on the Windward coaft by marai^ingp parlieeiv 
from one village to another in the night. He has. knowo} 
canoes come from a diftance, and carry ofF numbers ios 
tile night. -He- has gone into the interior cottitfry, be«^ 
tween Bai&u and the River Seftus ; and aU the nations 
there go armed, from the fear of marauding partUsy wbofet 
pillages in thefe countries an termed ix^ar. 

At one time in particular, while Mr. Storey wasr odv 
the coaft, a marauding party from Grand Seftus came 
in canoes, and attacked Grand Cora in the night, andfr 
Cook off twelve or fourteen of the mhahitants. TRfi: 
canoes of Grand Seftus carry tvirelve or fourteen me%« 
and with thefe go a marauding among their nelghbours«L 
Mr. Storey has often feen them at fea out of fight of 
land in the day, and taking the opportunity of night to» 
land where they pieafed. 

Mr, Fakonbridge fuppofes the flave trader on thele* , 
parts to be chiefly fuppiied by kidnapping. On his fecond^ 
voyage,, at Cape Mount and the Windwai^ COaft, » 
man was brought on board, well known to the captain 
and his officers,, and was purchased. Tht$ man faid he- 
had been invited one evening to drink with his neighs 
bours. When about to depart, two- o£ them got up*- 
to ieixe him; and he would have efcaped, but he waa^ 
flopped by a large dog. He faid this mode of Jcidoapptng^ 
wa» Gonunon in hta couirtry.1 

In the fame voyage^ two black traders came in at 
canoe, and* informed the captain there was trade a little.l 
lower dtown. The captain went there, and finding r»* 
trade, faid he would not be made a fool, and therefore-, 
detained one of the canoe-men.. In about twp hours^. 
afterwards a very fine man was brought on board, and 
foldj and die canoe-man was ^eleafed. He was informed 

C i b 

{ 10 ) 

by the black pilot, that this man had been furrounded and 
fei!&ed on the beach, from whence he had been brought 
to the fhip and fold. ^ 

Lieutenant Simpfon faySy from what he faw, he believes 
the flave trade is the occafion of wars among the natives* 
From the natives of the Windward Coaft he underftood 
that the villages were always at war; and the black 
traders and others gave as a reafon for it, that the kings 
wanted fiaves* If a trading canoe, along -fide Mr. 
Simpfon's (hip, iaw a larger canoe coming from a village 
they were at war with, they inftantly fled ; and fometimes 
without receiving the value of their goods. On inquiry, 
lie learnejd their reafons to be, that if taken they would 
have been made flaves. 

'Mr. How ftates, that when at Secundee, fomc or-, 
der came from Cape Coaft Caftle. The fame after- 
noon feveral parties went out armed^ and returned the 
(ame night with a number of (laves, which were put 
into the repofitory of the fa<S^ory. Next morning he few 
people, who came to fee the captives, and to requeft Mr. 
M arfh, the refident, to releafe foitie of their children and 
relations. Some were releafed, and part fent off to Cape 
Coaft Caftle. He had every reafon to believe they had 
been obtained unfairly^ as they came at an unfeafonable 
time of the night, and from their parents and friends 
crying and begging their releafe. He was ' told as 
much from Mr. Marfli himfelf, who laid, he did not mind 
how they got thenij for he purchafed. them fairly. He 
cinnot tell whether this practice fubfifted before; but 
when he has gone into the woods he has met thirty or 
fCM'ty natives, who fled always at his appearance, although 
they were armed. Mr. Marfii faid, they were afraid of 
bis taking them priipners. 

The fame Mr. Marfli made no fcruple alfo of {hewing^ 
kim the ftores of the faftory. They confiftcd of different 
kinds of chains made of iron, as likewife ap inftrument: 
made of wood, about five inches long, and an inch ia 
diameter, or le(s, which he was told by Mr. Marifh was 
thruft into a man's mouth horizontallyi and tied behind 


io prevent him from crying outj when- iranjported at nightC 
along the country. 

Dr. Trotter fays, that the natives of thefe parts are 
fomctimes flaves from crimes, but the greater part of the 
flaves are, what are called prifoners of war. Of his 
whole cargo he recoHefts only three criminals j two fold ' 
for adultery, and one for witchcraft, whofe whole family 
fhared his fate. One of the firft faid he had been decoyed 
by a woman who had told her hufband^ and he was'fen- 
tenced to pay a flave ; but being foor^ was fold himfelf^ 
Such fir atagems are frequent 'y the fourth mate of Dr. . 
Trotter's (hip was fo decoyed, and obliged to pay a flavC) 
tinder the threat of flopping trade. The laft faid he 
had had a quarrel with a Cabofheer, or great man, who 
in revenge accufed him of witchcraft, and fold him an3 
his family for flaves. 

Dr. Trotter having often afked Accra, a principal^ 
trader at Le Hou, what he meant by prifners of wary 
found they were, juch as were carried off by afet ofma^ 
raudersy who ravage the country for that purpofs* The 
bu(h-men making war to make trade (that is to make 
flaves) was a common way of fpeaking among the 
tfaders. The practice was alfo confirmed by the flave» 
on board, who (hewed by geftures how the robbers had 
come upon them : and during their paflage from Africa 
to the Weft Indies, fome of the boy- flaves played a 
game, which they cMed fave^taking^ or bufli-fighting ;. 
fliewing the different manoeuvres thereof in leaping, fa^- 
lying, and retreating. Inquiries of this nature put to 
women, were anfwered only by violent burfs offorrow^. 

He once faw a black trader fend his canoe to take 
three fifhermen employed in the offing, who were imme- 
diately brought on board, and put in irons, and about a 
week afterwards he was paid for ^hem. He remembers 
another man taken in the fame way from on board a 
csmoe along-fide. TT^e fame trader very frequently fent. 
J/aves on board in the nighty which, from their own infcr- 
mation, he found, were every one of them taken in the 
neighbourhood of Annamaboe. He remarked, that 
jiaves fent oiFin the nighty were not paid for tiU they liad . 


Been fome time on board, left, he thinks, they ffiouFd Ke 
claimed i for fome were really reftored, one in particulary; 
a boy, was carried on fliore by fome near relations, 
which boy told him^ he had lived in the neighbourhood' 
of Annamaboe, and was kidnapped. 

There were many boys and girls on board Dr. Trot- 
ter's (hip, who had no relations on boards Many ofT 
them told him they had been kidnapped in the neigh- 
bourhood of Annamaboe, particularly a girl of about 
eight years old, who faid fhe had been carried off from, 
her nfK)ther by the man who fold her to the (hip* 

Mr. Falconbridge was aflured by the Rev. Philip^ 
Quakoo, chaplain at Cape Coaft CafUe, on the Gold 
Coaft, that the greateft number of (laves were made by: 

He has heard that the great men on this part- of the 
eoaft, dnjs up and employ women to entia young men to* 
be conne^iea with them> that they may be convi^id of 
adultery and fold* 

Lieutenant Simpfon heard at Cape Coaft Caftle,^ and- 
otber parts of the Gold Coaft, repeatedly from the black 
traders, that the^ave-trade made wars and palavers. Mr. 
Quakoo, chaplain at Cape Coaft Caftle, informed hinn,. 
that wars were made in the interior parts, for the y^ilr 
purpofe of getting Jlaves. 

There are two crimes on the Gold Coaft, which feen\ 
made on purpofe to procure (laves ; adultery and the re- 
moval or fetiches*. As to adultery, he was warned 
againft conneSing himfelf with any woman not pointed^ 
out to him, for that the kings keptfeveral who were fent 
out to allure the unwary^^nd that, if found to be connected 
with thefe, he would be feiacd, and made to pay the. 
pnce of a man (lave. As to /etiches, confifting of 
pieces of wood, old' pitchers, kettles, and the like,Taid> 
in the path- ways, he was warned to avoid difjplacing. 
them, for if he (hould, the natives, who were on the 
watch, would feize him, and, as before, exa<Sl the price. - 

^ Certain things ol various (brts, to which the fttperfiitioii of tSie 
ceuiitry hM <Ntdcrc4, fer nriow nhCoAtf «a Mtcntiott f he ptM. 


( 13 ) 

•f a^tnan flare. Thefe baits are laid equally for natives 
and Europeans ; but the former are better acquainted 
with the law, and confequently more upon their guard* 
• Mr. EUifon fays, that while one of the fhips he be*- 
longed to, viz. the Briton, was lying in Benin river 
Captain Lemma Lemma, a Benin trader, came on board 
to receive his cuftoms. This man being on the deck 
and happening to fee a canoe with three people in it, 
crofling the river, difpatched one of his own canoes to 
feize and take it. Upon overtaking it, they brought it 
to the {hip. It contained three perfons, an old man, and 
a young man and woman. The chief mate bought the 
two latter, but the former being too old, was refufed 
Upon this. Lemma ordered the old man into thccanoe^ 
where his head was chopped off, and he was thrown over-, 
board. Lemma had many war canoes, fome of which 
had fix or eight fwivels ; he (eemed to be feared by the 
reft of the natives. Mr. Ellifon did not fee a canoe out 
on the river while Lemma was there, except this, and 
if they had known he had been out, they would not have 
come. He difcovered by figns, that the old man killed^ 
was the father of the two other negroes, and that they 
w^re brought there by force. They were not the fub- 
jeiSls of Lemma. "' 

At Bonny, (ays Mr. Falconbridge, the greateft num-.#^ 
ber of flaves come from inland. Large canoes, foipe 
having a three or four pounder laflied on their bows, go 
to the up-country, and in eight or ten days return with 
great numbers of flaves : he heard once, to the amount, 
-of twelve hundred at one time. The people in thefe* 
canoes have generally cutlafles, and ^ quantity of muf^ 
kets, but he cannot tell for what ufe. 

Mr. Falconbridge does not believe that many of thefe-. 
flaves are prifoners of war, as we underftand the word war. ^ . 
In Africa, a piratical expedition for making Jlaves^ is 
termed war^ A confiderahle trader at Bonny explained 
to him the meaning of this word, and faid, that thejr 
went in the night, fet fire to towns, and caught the peo- 
ple as they fled from the flames. The fame trader faid, 
that this pradice was very common. 


( »4 J 

Mr. Falconbridge fays alfo, that in hjs third voyage, 
^hich was to Bonny, a woman was brought on board 
big with child. As me attra£bd his notice, he afked her^ 
by means of the interpreter, how flie came to be fold* 
Her reply was, that returning home from a vifit, (he was 
feiied, and fcfter being pafled through various hands, 
was brought down to the water-fide, and fold to a trader, 
who afterwards fold her to the (hip. 

In the fame voyage an elderly man brought on boards 
fard, (through the interpreter,) that he and his fon were 
feized as they were planting yams, by profefled kidnap- 
pers i by which, he means perfons who make kidnapping 
their c$nflant praSiice. 

On his laft voyage, which was alfo to Bonny, a canoe 
came along^fide his veffel, belonging to a noted trader 
in flaves, from which a fine ftout fellow was handed on 
board, and fold. Mr. Falconbridge feeing the mar^ 
amazed and confounded when he difcovered himjlelf ta 
be a Have, inquired of him, by means of an interpreter^ 
jfVhy he was fold. He replied, that he had had occafion ta 
Come to Bonny to this trader's houfe, who aflced if he 
bad ever feen a fhip : replying no, the trader (aid, he 
would treat him with th6 fight of one. The man con- 
fenting, faid he was thereupon brought on board, and thus 
"treacheroufly fold. All the flaves Mr. Falconbridge. 
ever talked to by means of interpreters, faid they had 
been ftolen. 

Mr, Douglas, when afhore at Bonny Point, (aw a 
young woman come out of the wood to the water-fide 
to bathe. Soon afterwards two men came from the wood,' 
feized, bound, and beat her for, making rcfiftance, and 
bringing her to him, Mr. Douglas defired them to put her 
on board, which they did ; the captain's orders werej when 
any body brought down flaves, inftantly to put them off 
to the (hip. 

When a (hip arrives at Bonny, the king fends his war 
canoes up the rivers, where they furprife?all they can lay 
hold of. They had a young man on board, who was 
thus captured, with his father, mother, and three fifters. 
The young man afterwards in Jamaica having learnt* 



{ 'I ) 

Englifhy told Mr. Douglas tbe fiory^ aoif (aH It was ^ 
common praSice, Thefe war canoes are always armedM. 
The king's* canoes came with ilavcs openly in the day ; 
others in the evening, with one or two flaves boundy ly-^ 
ing In the boat's bottom, covered with mats. 

Mr., Morley ftates, that In Old Calabar p^rfons are 
fold as flaves for adultery and theft. On pnUncf 9f 
adultery^ he remembers a woman fold* 

He has been told alfoby the natives at Calabar, that 
they took flaves in what they caUwar^ which he found 
'was putting the villages in eanfufton^ and catching them as 
they could. A man on board the (hip be was in, (hewed 
how he was taken at night by furprize, and faid his wife 
and children were taken with him, but they wore not 
in the fame (hip. Mr. Morley had reafon to think, from 
the man's words, that they took nearly the whole village, 
that is, all tbofe that, could not get away. 

Capt. Hall fays, when a fhip arrives at Old Calabar, 
or the River Del-Rey, the traders always go up into 
the country for flaves. They go in their war canoes, 
and take with them fome goods, which they get previ-.^ 
oufly from the fliips. 

He has feen from three to ten canoes in a fleet> each 
with from forty to fixty paddjlers, and twenty to thirty, 
trades and pther people with muflcets, (iippofe one to 
each man, with a three or four pounder laflic.d on the bow 
of the canoe. They are generally abfent from ten days 
to three weeks> when they return with a number of flaves 
pinioned, or chained together. 

Captain HaH has often a/ked the mode o^" procuring 
/laves inland, and has been told by the traders^ that they 
have been got in war, and fold by the perfons taking . 

• Mr. J. Parker fays, he Irft the fhip to which he be- 
longed at Old Calabar, where being kindly reoMved by 
the king's fon, he ftaid with him on the continent for 
five months* During this time he was prevailed upon 
by .die king's Ton to accompany iiitn to war *. Accord - 


1^ T^ rc9tU|r is car^neftly jpe^ueHed to take notice, tbat the woe<i«uar« 
as adopted ioto tKc AfrkaL&langQ'^SCi means In general r^tttyy^ or .a mti* 


( 16 ) 

ingly, having fitted out and armed the canoes^ they went 
up the river Calabar, In the day time they lay under 
the buflies when they approached a village, but-at night 
flew up to it, and took hold of every one they could fee ; 
thefe they handcuffed, brought down to the canoes, and 
fo proceeded up the river till they got to the amount of 
forty-five, with whom they returned to New Town, 
where fending to the captains of the fliipping, they di- 
vided thenl among the fliips. 

About a fortnight after this expedition, they went 
again, and were out eight or nine days, plundering other 
villages higher up the river. Thev feized on much the 
fame number as before, brought them to New-Town, 
gave the fame notice, and diipofed of them as before 
among the fliips. 

They took man, woman, and child, as they could 
catch them in the houfcs, and except fucking children, 
who went with their mothers, there was no care taken to . 
prevent the feparation bf the children from the parents 
when fold. When fold to the Englifh merchants they la- 
mented, and cried that they *were taken away by 

The king at Old Calabar was certainly not at war 
with the people up this river, nor had they made any at- 
tack upon him. It happened that flaves werfe very flack 
in the back country at that time, and were wanted when 
he went on thefe expeditions. 

Mr^ Falconbridge thinks crimes are falfely imputed, 
for the Jake of felling the accufed* On the fecond voyage 
ai the River Ambris, among, the flaves brought on board 
was one who had the craw craw, a kind ot itch. He was 
told by one of the failor«, that this man was fifliing in 
the river, when a king's ofiicer, called Mambdoka, 
wanted brandy and other goods in the boaty but having n§ 
Jlave to buy them with, accufed t^s man of extortion in the 

tauding expedhhrty far the purpoje of getting JIaves* Two noted black tra- 
ders ^e f«und therorelves to have explained the temxto two of the £vio . 
dences ^Trotter, p. ii. FalconbritTge, p. 14.) and it appears decidedJy 
by the accounts of Wadflrom, Town, Bowman* Storey, Morlcy, and 
J. Parker^ that the catching oif men ii dcnomiaated by the Africans t* 

( »7 ) 

Jidi ^fhii fifliy and after fome kind of trial on the beach^ 
condemned (um to be fdd. He was told this by the 
boat's crew, who were afliore when it happened, who 
told it as of their own knowledge. 

Befides the accounts juft given, from what the above 
witnefles (aw and heard on the Coaft of Africa, as to the 
different methods of making flaves, there are others con- 
tained in the evidence, which were learnt from the mouths 
of the flaves themfevles, after jthetr arrival i-n the Weft 

Some of thefe have informed feveral of the witnefles 
#n this occafion, that they were taken in war,-{HaIl and 
Woolrich) others, that they were taken by Airprife in 
tbeirtowns, or whileat work in their fields, (Hail) or as 
diey were ftraggling from their huts, or cultivating their 
Wds, ( Dairy mple) or tending their corn (Woolrich) : 
others, that they wen» taken .by armed canoes up the 
rivers, (Douglas) others, by flratagem, (Cook) or kid-, 
napped, (Rev. Mr. Davies, Dean of Middleham, Mr.* 
Fitsmaurice) which kidnapping prevailed in the' inland 
parts at a g^t diftance from the fliore, (Dr. HarrifpnJ 
and was with fome a profefled occupation, and a com* 
mon pra6lica (Falconbridgeand Clappefod.) 


Europeam'i hy nuans of the Trade in Slaves^ the occafion of 
thefe Enormities. — Sometimes ufe additional Means t^ 
excite the Natives to praSfife them'.^^Often attempt 

themfehes to fieal jhe Natives^ and fucceed. Force 

Trade as they plea fe^ and are guilty of fnjuftice in their 
Dealings f " 

THE Moors (fa)^ Mr. Kicrnan) have always a 
ftrong inducement to go to war with the negroes, 
mofl of the European goods they obtain^ being got in ex^ 
change for flaves. Hence defolation and wafte. 

t D Mr. 

( »8 ) 

/'MK Tbwne obferves, ^^tiAitintercourferf the Africans 
with the Europeans^ has improved them in roguery, to 
plunder and fteal, and pick up one another to fell. 

Dr. Trotter aiking a black trader, what they made of 
their flaves when the French and Englifh were at war, 
was anfwered, that when Jhips ceafed to comei^Jlaves ceafed 

to be taken. 

Mr. Ifaac Parker fays, that the king of Old Calabar 
was certainly not at war with liie people up that river,* 
nor had they made any attack on him. It happened that 
flaves were very flack in the back country at this time, 
find were wanted vf\itT). he went on the expeditions^ de- 
fcribed in a former page (p. i6.) 

Mr. Wadftrom fays, that king Barbefin, whrle he, . 
Mr. Wadftrom, was at Joal, was unwilling to pillage 
his fubjefts, but he was excited io- it by means of a con- 
ftant intoxication, kept up by th^-French and Mulattoes 
of the embafly, v\^ho generally agreed every morning on 
taking this method to efFeffc their purpofe. When fober, 
he always expreffed a reludance to harrffs his people. 
Mr. Wadftrom alfo heard the king hold the fame Ian-- 
guage on different days 5 and yet he afterwards ordered 
the pillage to be executed. Mr. Wadftromhas no doubt, 
but that he alfo pillages in other parts of his dominions, 
fince it is the cuftom of mulatto merchants (as both they 
and the French officers declare) when they want flaves 
to go to the kings, and excite them to pillages^ which are 
ufually pradlfed on all that part of the xroaft. 

The French Senegal company alfo, in order to obtain 
their compliment of flaves, had recourfe to their ufua^^ 
method on fimilar occafionfe, namely of bribing the 
Mbors^ and fufplitng them with arms and ammunition^ to 
feize king Dalniaramy's fubjefts. By January ladi, 
1788, when Mr. Wadftrom arrived at Senegal, fifty had 
been taken, whom the king defired to ranfom, but they 
had been all difpatched to Cayenne. Some were brought 
in every day afterwards, and put in the company's flave-^ 
hold, in a mifcrable ftate, the greater part being badly 
wounded by fabres and raufket balls. The direftor of^ 
the company condufted Mr, Wadftrom there, with Dr. ^ 

Spaa r man 

( 19 ) 

Spaarman, whom be confultied as a medical man in tlieir 
behalf. Mr. Wadftrom particularly remembers one ly- 
ing in his blood, whith flowed from a wound made by a 
ball in his fhoulder. 

Mr. Dairymple underftood it common for European 
traders to advance goods to chiefs, to induce them to feize 
their fubjedte or neighbours. Not one of the Mulatto 
traders at Goree ever thought of denying it. 

Mr. Bowman having fcittled at the , head of Scaffus 
River, informed the king, and others, that he was come 
to refide as a trader, and that his orders were^ to fuppfy 
them with powder andball^ and to encourage them to go to 
war. They anfwered they would go to war in two or 
three days. By this time they came to the fa(5lory, fatd 
th^y vere going to war, and wanted powder, ball, riim;^ 
aad tobacco. When thefe were given them, they went off 
to the number of from twenty-five to thirty, and in* fix 
or feven days, a part of them returned with three flaves, 
, In 1769, (fays Lieut. Storey) Captain Paterfon, of a 
Liverpool (hip, l)ring off Briftol Town, fet two villages at 
_^ariance^ and bought prifonefs, near a dozen, from both 

^ Mr. Morley owns, withihame, that he has madethi' 
natives drunk, in orxier to buy a good man or woman 
flave, to whom he found them attached. He has ken 
this done by others. Captain Hildebrand, commanding 
a floop of Mr. Brue's, bought^one of the wives of a man, 
whom he' bad previoujly made drunky and who wifhed to 
redeem her,. when fober next day, as did the perfon he 
(Mr. Morley) bought the man of, but neither of theni 
was given up. He fuppofes they would have given a 
third more than the pricepaid> to have redeemed them. 

Sir George Young fays, that when at Annamaboc, at 

Mr. Brue's,* (a very great merchant there) Mr. Brue 

had two hoftages, king's fons, for payment for arms, and 

9II kinds of military ^otts, which he had fupplied to the 

two kings J who were at war with each other, to procure- 

fiavesfor at leajl fix or feven Jhips^ then lying in the road^ 

The prifoners on both iides were brought down to Mr. ' 

3rue, and fent to the (hips. 

D 2 Mr. 

( aa ) 

thiftt there were no depredations except in their laft voy- 
ages. He has known Liverpool and Briflol (hips ma* 
terially injured from the condu£): of fome fbips, from 
the fame ports, that had left the coaft. It is a fadl that 
ibme captains have committed depredations in their laft 
voyages who have not been known to have done it 
before. * 

Mr, Towne was once prefent with part of the crew of 
his ihip the Sally, at an expedition undertaken by the 
whites for feizing negroes, and joined by other boats to 
receive thofe they could catch. To prevent all alarm, 
they bound the mouths of the captives, with oakum and 
handkerchiefs* One woman fhrieked and the natives^ 
turned^out ia defence. He had then five of them tied in 
the boat, and the other^boats were in readinefs to take 
in what more they could get. All his party were armed^ 
and the men of the town purfued them with firft a feat- 
tering, and at length a general, fire, and feveral of the 
men belonging to the boat?, he has reaibn to believe, 
were killed, wounded, or taken, as he never heard of 
them afterwards. He was wounded himfelf. The 
flaves he had taken were fold at Charleftown, South 
Carolina. The natives had not previpufly committed 
any hoftilities againft any of the fliips, whofe boats were 
concerned in this tranfaftion. They owed goods to the 
captain, for which he refolved to obtain flaves at^ any 
rate. - He has had feveral ihip-mates, who have them- 
ielves told him, they 'have been concerned in fimilar 
tranfadlions, and have made a boaft of it, and who have 
teen wounded alfo. 

Mr. Falconbridge was informed by Captain Gould 
of the Alert, that he had carried off a man from Xattle 
Cape Mount. 

Mr. Storey believes the natives of the Windward 
Coaft are often fraudulently carried ofF by the Euro* 
peans. He has been told by them, that they had loft 
their friends at different times, and fuppofed them taken 
by European fbips going along the coaft. He has him-» 
felf taken up canoes at fea, which were challenged by 
the natives, who fuppofed the men in them had been 
laken off the day before by a Dutchman. 

: ' Whea 

( *J ) 

When once at an anchor, in his boat, between th« 
river Seilus and Settra Crue, he prevented the crew of 
a long-boat, belonging to a Dutchman then lying oiF 
jbore, from being cut oft by the natives, who gave as a 
reafon for their int^tions, that a (hip of that country 
forne days before had taken off four men belonging to th« 

Afterwards, in 1768, being in a boat, with two other 
white perfons, the natives attacked them. Both the 
former were killed, aud he himfelf^ covered with blood 
and wounds, was only fuffered to efcape, by confenting 
to give up boat and cargo, and to go. to Gaboon. The 
reaion the natives gave for this procedure was, that a 
ihip from Liverpool (one Captain Lambert) had, fome 
time before, taken a canoe full of their Urwnfmeny and 
carried her away. He heard the fame thing confirmed 
afterwards at Gaboon • 

Mr. Douglas ftates, that near Cape Coaft the natives 
make fmoke as a fignal for trade. On board his (hip 
(the Warwick Caftle) they faw the fmoJce and ftood in 
(hore, which brought ofF many canoes. Pipes, tobacco^ 
and brandy, were got on deck, to entice the people in 
them on board. The gratings were unlaid, the ftave-^ 
room cleared, and every preparation made to feis^ them ; 
two only could be prevailed on to come up the Hiip'f 
fide, who ftood in the main chains, but on the feameri 
, approaching them they jumped ofF, and the canoes all 
made for (hore. > 

. The Gregfon's people, while at Bonny, informed Mr» 
Douglas that in running down the coair, they bad kid-* 
napped thirty-two of the natives. He faw flaves on 
board that (hip when (he came in, and it is not cujhmary 
for (hips bound to Bonny, to ftop and trade by the way*^ 

Mr. How fays, that ^reaft of Cape La Hou, feveral 
canoes ca^me alongfide of His Majefty's (hip Grampus^ 
^ and on coming on board informed the captain, that an 
£ngli(h Guinea trader a fortnight before had taken o(F 
fix canoes with men, who had gone ofF to them with 
provifions for trade. On coming to Appolonia he was 
alTo told by Mr.. Buchanan, the reildent there, that a 


Guiticaman, belonging to one Griffith, atn EngliOimair^ 
and a notorious trader and kidnapper, between Cape- 
La Hou and Appolonia, was then in that latitude. 
- Captain Hall was toJd by Capt. Jeremiah Smith, that 
in 177 X, a Captain Fox had taken ofFfomc people from 
the Windward Coaft. 

He fays alfo, that the boat's crew of the Venus^ 
Captain Smith, which had been fent to Fernandipo for 
yams from Calabar, enticed a canoe to come alongfidb 
that had about ten men in her. As foon as ifae got 
near, the boat's crew fired into her, on which they 
jumped overboard : fome were wounded, and one was 
taken out of the water, and died in lefs than an hour ia 
the boat : two others were taken up Unhurt, and carried 
to Old Calabar to the (hip. Captain Smith was angry 
at the officer for this procedure, and feht back the two 
men to the bay, from whence they had been taken;. 
Immediately after the boat had committed this depre- 
dation, Captain Hall happened to go into the fame bay 
in his own (hip's long-boat, and Tending on (hore two 
men to fill water, they were furrounded by the natives^ 
who drove three fpears into one of the men, and wounded 
the other with a large ftick, in confequence of taking, 
away the two men juft mentioned. It was faid that the 
crew had difputed with the natives on (hore when trading 
with them for yams, but the former had not done any 
of the boat's crew any injury. 

Mr. Ellifon knew two flaves taken from the i (land of 
Fernandipo by the Dobfon's boat of Liverpool, and car- 
ried to Old Calabar, where the (hip lay. He went to the 
feme ifland for yams, a few days after the tranfa£liony 
and fired, as the ufual fignal, for the natives to bring 
them. Seeing fome of therii peep through the bu(hes^ 
he wondered why they would not come to the boat. He 
accordingly fwam on (hore, when (bme of the iflanders 
came round him : an old man (hewed, by figns, ihat a 
(hip's boat had (tolen a man and woman. He was then 
loon fiirrounded' by numbers, who prefentcd darts to hiraj 
fignifying they would kill him, if the man and woman 
were not brought back. Upon this, the people in the 


( as ) 

boat fired fome fliot) when they all ran into the woods. 
Mr. Ellifon went to Calabar, and told Captain Briggs he 
could get no yams, in confequence of the two people 
being ftolen ; .upon which Capt. Briggs told the captain 
of the Dobfon, there would be no more trade if he did 
not deliver up the people, which he at length did. As 
ibon as the natives faw their countrymen, they loaded 
the boat with yams, goats, fowls, honey, and palm -wine : 
and they would take nothing for them. They had the 
man and woman delivered to them, whom they carried 
away in their arms. The Dobfon did not ftay above 
eight, ten, or twelve days. This was the la/i trip heo 
boat was to make, when they carried off the two flaves. . 

Mr. Morley fays, that when off Taboo, two men 
came in a canoe, along-fide his veflel. One of them 
came up, and fat on the netting, but would not come 
into the fliip. The* captain at length, inticing him, in- 
toxicated him fo with brandy and laudanum, that he iidl 
in upon deck. The captain then ordered him to be put 
into the men's room, with a centry over him. The 
other man in the canoe, after calling in vain for his. 
companion, paddleH off £ift towards the ihore. Thq 
captain fired* feveral liaufket balls after him, which did not 
hit him. About three or four leagues farther down, twoi 
men came on board from another canoe. While they 
were on board, a drum was kept beating neap the man 
who had been feized, to prevent hi& hearing them, or 
they him. 

He fay$ again^ in fpeaking of another part of the 
coaft, that Captain Briggs's chief mate, in Old Calabar 
River, lying in ambufli to ftop the natives coming dowi^ 
the creek, purfued Oruk Robin John, who, jumping on 
{hore, fhot the mate through the head. 

He fays a\fo, .of auother part of the coaft, that a Mr-, 
Walker, matter of a Hoop, was on board the Jolly Prince^ 
Capt. Lambert, when the king of Nazareth ftabbed the 
captain at his own table, and took the veflel, putting all 
the whites to deaths except the cook, a boy, and, he" 
believes, one man. Captain Walker, being afked why 
the. king of Nazareth took this ftep, (kid it was- on 


( a^ ) 

account of the people, whom Matthews had carried oflT 
from Gaboon and Cape Lopez the voyage before. Walker 
cfcaped, by knowing the language of the country. . 

Mr. Morley failed afterwards with the fame Captain 
Matthews to Gaboon River, where the Chiefs fons 
came on board him to demand what he had done with- 
their fons, and the boys he had carried off, (the fame as 
"Walker alluded to) and told him, that if he dared to 
come on ftiore, they would have his head. 

As a farther corroboration, that fuch practices as the 
above take place, it appears in evidence, that^the natives^ 
of the coaft and iflands are found conftantly hovering in . 
their canoes, at a diftance,- about fuch veflels as are 
pafling by,, fliy of coming on board, for fear of being 
taken ofF, [Hall, Falconbrldge, Claxton, Bowman, &c.j- 
Bi^t if they can difcover that fuch veflels are not in the 
Jlave trade^ hut are men of war^ they come on board 
rtadily^ [Sir George Young], or without any hejitation^ 
which they would not otherwtfe have done, [Mr. Howe] 
and in numbers'^ [Lieutenant Simpfon] and traverfc the 
fliips with as much confidence as if they had been on Jhore^ 
[Captain Wilfon.] 

Mr. EUifon fays, when he was lying at Yanamaroo^ 
in the Gambia, flaves were brought down. The traders- 
raifed the price. The captains would not give it, but 
tiiought to compel them by firing upon the town. Thejr 
fired red hot (hot from the fhip^ and fet feverai houfes on- 
fire. All the (hips, (even or eight, fired. 

Mr. Falconbridge heard Captain Vicai's, of a Briftol 
fliip, f^y at Bonny, when his traders were (lack, he firai^ 
% gun into or over the town, to freflien their way. 
Captain Vicars told this to him and other people there 
at the time, but he has feen no infiance of it himfelf^ 

Mr. Ifaac Parker fays, the Guinea captains lying in 
Old Calabar River, fixed on a certain price, and agreed' 
to lie under a L*y> bond, if any one of them mould 
give more for flaves than another; in confequence of 
which, the natives did not readily bring flaves on bpard 
to fell at thofe prices ; upon which, the captains ufedta 
row guard at night, to take the canoes as they paflfed the 




( 27 ) 

fltips, and fo Aopjping the flaves from getting to their 
towns, prevent the traders frpm getting them. Thefe 
they took on board the different (hips, and kept them 
//// the traders agreid to fell at the old prices. 

Lieutenant Storey fays, that Captain Jeremiah Smith,' 
in the London, in 1766, having a difpute with the natives 
of New Town Old Calabar, concerning the ftated price 
which he was to give for. flaves, for feveral days flopped 
every canoe coming down the Creek from New Town, 
and alfo fired feveral gun$ indifcriminately over the woods 
into, th^ town, till he brouzht them to his own terms. y 

Captain Hall fays, in Old Calabar River there are two 
towns, Old Town and New Town. A rivalfliip in trade* • 
produced a jealoufy between the towns ; fo that through, 
fear of each other, , for a confiderable time, no canoe 
would leave their towns to go up the river fpr Jlaves . This 
happened in 1767. In^this year feven fhips, of which 
five were the folio wing^Duke ©f York, Bevan^-^Edgar," 
Lace, — Indian Queen, Lewis, — ^Nancy, Maxwell, — ^and 
Canterbury, Sparks, — lay ofF the point which feparates 
the towns. Six of the captains invited the people of 
both towns on board on a certain day, as if to reconcile 
them : at the fame tirrie they agreed with the people ofi 
New Town to cut off all the Old Town people who 
fliould remain on board the next morning. The Old- 
Town people perfuaded of the fincerity of the captains, 
propofal, went on board in great numbers. Next morning,* 
♦ at eight -o'clock, one' of the ^fhips fired a gun, as a 
fignal to commence hoftilities. Some of the traders? \ 
were fecured on board, fomc were killed in refifting, and 
fome got overboard, and were fired upon. When the 
firing began, the New Town people, who were in ambuih -^ 
behind the Point, came forward, and picked up the peo- 
ple of Old Town, who were fwimming, and had efcaped 
the firing. After the firing was over, the captains of 
five of the fhips delivered their prifoner?, (perfons of con-, 
fequence) to the New Town canoes, two of whom were 
beheaded alongfide the fhips. The inferior prifoners were 
carried to the Weft Indies. One of the captains, wh« 
bad fecured three of the king's brothers, delivered one of 


( »8 ) 

Iketh to the chief man of New Town, wha was orte of 
the two beheaded alongfide $ the other brothers he kept 
on board, promifing, when the Jhip wasflaved^ to deliver 
them to the chief man of New Town. His £hip wa» 
foon flaved on account of his promife, and the number of 
prifoners made that day ; but he refufed to deliw the 
king's two brothers, according to his promife, and car- 
ried them to the Weft Indies, and fold them. It hap- 
pened in procefs of time, that they efcaped to Virginia, 
apd from thence, after three years, to Briftol, where the 
captain who brought them, fearing he had done wrong, 
meditated carrying, or fending them back \ but Mr. Jones 
of Briftol, who had fiiips trading to Old Calabar, and 
hearing who they were, had them taken from the ihip, 
(where they were in irons) by Habeas Corpus. After 
inquiry how they were brought from Africa, they were 
liberated, and put in one of Mr. Jones's (hipis for Old 
Calabar, where Captain Hall was, when they arrived in 
the (hip Cato, Langdon. 

So fatisfied were the people of Old Town, in i ;^6.7, 
of the fmcerity of the captains who invited them, and of 
the New Town people, towards a reconciliation, that the 
night before the maflacre, the chief man of Old Town 
gave to the chief man of New Town, one of his favourite 
women as a wife. It was (aid that from three to four 
hundred perfons were killed that day, in the (hips. In the 
water, or carried oiF the coaft. 

The king efcaped from the (hip he was in, by killing 
two of the crew, who attempted to feize him. He then 

frot into a one* man canoe, and paddled to the Chore. A 
IX pounder from one of the (hips ftruck the canoe to 
# pieces; he then fwam on (hore to the woods near the 
Ihips, and reached his own- town, though clofely purfued. 
It was faid he received eleven wounds from mufket (hot. 

Captain Hall, in his firft voyage on board the Nep- 
tune, had this account from the boatfwain, Thomas 
Rutter, who, in 1767, had been boatfwain to the Caii- 
terburyj Captain Sparkes, of. London, and concerned in 
die faid maiTacre, Rutter told him th9 ftory exa^y as 


related, and never varied in i.t. He had it alfo ftom the 
king's two brothers, who agreed cxadlly with Rutter. 

Captain Hall sdfo faw at Calabar, in the pofleiiion of 
the king's two brothers, their depofitions taken at Brif- 
tol, and of Mr. Floyd, who was mate of one of the (hips 
.when the tra,nfa£lion happened, but he took no copy. 

Mr. Millar fays, that a quarrel happened between the 
people of Old and New Town, which prevented the fhips 
lying in Calabar river from being flaved. He belie v^ 
in June 1767, Captain S. Sparkes, (captain of his (h'tpy 
the Canterbury) came one evening (o him, and told hidfi 
that the two towns, fo quarrelling, would meet on board 
the different fhips^ and ordered him to hand up fome 

The next day feveral canoes, ^s Sparkes had before ad- 
vertifed Jiim, came from both of the towns, on board the 
Canterbury, Mr. Millar's own fliip, and one of the per- 
fons fo coming on board, brought a letter, which he gave 
Sparkes; immediately on the receipt of which, he, Sparke, 
took a ganger, and attacked one of the Old Town peo- 
ple then on board, cutting him immediately on the arms, 
head, and^body* The man fled, ran down the fteps lead- 
' ing to the cabin, and Sparkes ftill following him with the * 
hanger, darted into the boys room. Mr. Miller is fure 
this circumftance can never be effaced from his memory. 
From this room he was however brought up by means 
of a rope, when Sparkes renewed his attack as before, on 
him, who, making for the entering port, leaped over* 

This being concluded, Sparkes Uft his own fhip to go 
on board fome of the other (hips, then lying in the river. 
Soon after he was gone, a boy belonging to Mr. Millar's^ 
ftiip, came and informed him, Mr. Millar, that he had 
difcovered a man concealed behind the medicine cheft. 
^r. Millar went and found the man. He was the per- 
fon before-mentioned to have brought a letter on board* 
On being difcovered by Mr. Millar, he begged for mer- 
cy, intreating th.>t he might not be delivered up to the 
people of New Town* He was brought on the quw- 
ter-deck, where were fome of the Ne^y Town- people, 
who would have killed him, had they not been prevents 

t E ed 

( 50 ) 

mi* The 'man was Aen iioned, and con^Sed iato the 

xoom of the men flaves. 

Soon sifter this trafifii£kian, the captain returned^ and 
iHOught with him a New Town trader, named WUly 
Konefty. On coming on board he was informed of 
what had hap|)ened in his abfence, and Mr. Millar be- 
lieves, in the hearing of Willy Hendfly, who imme-; 
idiately exciainied, ^^ Captain, if you will give me that 
f^ man, to cut ofF his head, i will give you the beft man 
** in my canoe, and you Jkali he Jkpu^d the firfi Jhip.** 
The captain upon this looked into WiQy HcmdSpy's ca- 
noe, picked his man, and delivered the other in his ftead, 
when his head was immediately ftruek. oiF in Mx» Mil- 
lar's fight. 

Mr. M3tar believes, that fome other cruelties, befides 
^i& parttculajr ^SHj were done, faSscaufe he'faw blood on 
the uarboard fide of the mizen-maft, though he does not 
recollect feeing any bodies from whence the blood might 
icome,; and others m other ihips, becaufe he heard feve- 
•ral mu&ets or pift^ls fired from them at the fame time. 
This a£^ir might kft ten minutes. , He remembers a 
£>ur-pounder fured at a canoe, but knows not if any da* 
mage was done. 

As to otif^r a£^s of injuftice on the part of the Eu* 
fopeans, fome'confider frauds, (fays Mr. Newton) as a 
nefejery brand of the flave trade. They put felfe heads 
aoto powder caiks ; cut oflT two or three yards from the 
nuddteiof a piece of cloth ; adulterate their fpirits, and 
fteal back articles given. Befidcs thefe, there are others 
^fvbo pay in bottles, which contain but half the contents 
£ii the famples fliewn (Wadftro^n), ufe falfe fteelyardi 
^ttnd weigiits, (Bowman) and fell fuch guns as burft on 
firing, fo that many <if the natives of the Windward 
Coaft, are without their fingers and thumbs on this ac- 
count, (Lieutenant Storey) and it has become afayingj 
i* That thefe guns kill more out of the butt than the 
** muzzle,'* (Falconb ridge). 

M*'. Dalrymple, while at Goree, remembers a fliip 
^tterppting to CiU out of the bay with a number of flaves, 
without paying for them, but jjw w^s (topped by the guns 

•^ theiort. , ' 


( JI ) 



The enjlaved Africans come dejeEted^on hotrd — Caufeofthtf 
DejeSihn — Methods of confininj.^ airings fcediniy ani 
exerciftrig them-^Moae of Jf owing them^ with tts bad 
Confequences — This Mode and its Gonfequences confirmed 
hy another Species of Pfoof-^Incidents on the Pajfage — 
Manner of felU'rZg them when arrived at their dejlined' 
Poris-^Depi'jra^e Situation oftheRefufe or Sickly Slaves^ 
"^Separation of Relettictns and Friends — Mortalify on the 
Pajfage^ and frequently after Sale — Caufes of this Mor» 
• taliiy-^Ofintons of feverdofthe Evidences on theTrlidep> 

THE natives of Africa having be«i ma*B fia*e^«u 
in the tnaaner ^efcribed in the former chapcet%; 
syre brought clown for £de to tiie European /hips. 

Oa being broiight on hoard, ikvs Dr. lYotter^ they" 
iia&w figns of extreme diftrefs and itfpair^ /?'** * fe^i^ 
of their fituatfon^ and regret at Being torn from their friHidp 
^nd conne/^ions \ mahy fetmh thofe ItHf^lsffibn^ for a long 
tim€ ; in proof of which, the ilaires on board hi» (hip be- 
ing often beard in the ntght^ making an howling tnelait*. 
choly -noife, cxpreiSve of extreme angutfli, he repwat- 
edly ordered the wonaaii, who had been his interpreter, 
^o inquire into the caufe. She difcovered it to be owing; 
to their having dreamt they were in their own country 
agaln^ and finding themfelves when awake, in the h^ld of 
a JJave Jkip. This exquifite fenfibility was particularly 
obfervible among the women, many K^ whom, on fuch 
occafions, he found in hyfteric vfits. 

The foregoing defcription as far as relates to their' de- 
jection when brought on board, and the caufe of it iii 
confirmed by Hall, Wilfojij Claxton, EUiforH Towne, 
and Fakonbridgc, the Utter of whom; retaCes^ ai» Inftance 
of a young woman who cried and pined away; after being 

E. 2 hjought' 

{ 32 ) 

brought on board, who recovered when put on (bore, 
and who hung herfclf when informed (he was to be fcnt 
again to the mip« 

Captain Hall fays, after the firft eight or ten of them 
come on board, the men are put into irons. They are 
linked two and two together by the hands and feet, in 
, iwhich fituation they continue. till they arrive in the 
Weft Indies, except fuch as may be ftck, whofe irons 
are then taken off. The women however, he fays, are 
always loofe. 

On being brought upi in a morning, fays Surgeon 
Wilf«n, an additional mode of fecuring them takes plac^, 
for to the fhackles of each pair of them there is a ring, 
through which is reeved a large chain, which locks them 
aill in a body to ring-bolts faftened to the deck. 

The time of their coming up in the morning, if /air, 
is defcribed by R'Ir. Towne to be between eight and 
nine, and the time of their remaining there to be till four 
«ifi>fli6 aftbrnoon, when they are again put below till the 
ije^t morning. In the interval of being upon deck they 
are fed twice. They have alfo a pint of water allowed 
to each of rhem a day, whkh being <iivided is ferved out 
to them at two different times, namely, after their 

• Thefe meals, fays Mr, Falconbridge, confift of rice, 
]rams, Und horfe-beans, with now and then a little beef 
and, bread. After meals they are made to jump in their 
irons. This fs called dancing by the flaye- dealers. In 
every Jhipht has been de fired to fiogfuch as would not 
jump. He had generally a cat of nine tails in his hand 
among the women, and the chief mate, he believes, ano- 
ther among the men. 

• The parts, fays Mr. Claxton, (to continue the ac- 
count) on which their fliackles are faftened, are often 
excoriated by the, violent exercife they are thus forced to 
take, of V^hich they m^de many grievous complaints to 
him. In his fliip even thofe who had the flux, fcurvy, 
and fuch cedematous fwellings in their legs as made it 
painful to them to move at all, were compelled co daac^ 

by the cat. 


( 53 ) 

H^ fays alfo that on board his fliip they temetimes 
fwt'^M but not \ot their amufemeiiti The captain of- 
dered them to fing, and ^^y fungfongs offorrow. The 
ftjbje6l of thcfe fongs were their wretched filuatim^ and 
the idea of never returning home. He rtcoHefts their 
very words upon tficfe occafions. 

The above account of {hackling, melHog, dancing ♦, 
and finging the flavcs, is allowed by all the evidences 
as far as they fpeak to the fame points, except by Mr. 
Falconbridge, in ^ofe (hips the flaVes had & pint andi 
Salf-of water per day. 

Oh the fuWeft of the ftbwage and its c6n<e<}ttence$, 
Dr- Trotter lays, that the flaves in the paflfage arc fo- 
crowded below, that it is impofSble to walkthrough^ 
thcmi without treading on them; Thofe, who are out: 
of irons, ^rc' locked fpooftways {\nXht iechnitni *>hra/e) to- 
one another. It is the firft mate's duty ^o fee them 
ftowed* in this Way every morning ; th^fe Who do n*t 
get quickly into thehr places, are compelled by tt-cai-of» 

When the fctrttleS are oMrged- to be ^!%t^ the gr«tng»- 
are not fufficient for airing the rooms. He nevcr-hlnt «• 
fclf could breathe freely, unlcfs imfnediatdyurtder the 
. hatchway. He has feen the flavd^ drawing their breath '■ 
with all thofe kboriotts and anyiOus efforts for life,. 
which are ohfervid in expiring anirrtnts^fubfeSfedBf^i^pirl^ 
merit to foul c(ir^ or in the exhau/ted receiver of an air ptemf^. 
He has alfp feen them when the tarpaWlings hav» Inad- 
vertently been thrown over ihe gratings, ^ttempctng ID' 
heave them up ; crying out in ^ their OWn < language, . 
^^-^IVe are dying:** on renWVlrig the tar^^4i4igs and* 
^ratings, they would fly to the hatfchWJry wi^h all t»^' 
Sgns of terror and dread of ftiffocatibn. •Mtti^yofthem: 
he has feen in a dying ftat«, but ftMfite have^^covered by/ 
bcin^ brought hitljeri or on the deck j othera were irre* 
cdverably \oA-bj Jtefficati&n^, fasting ktA no frivi4ui'fign$ ^ 
of irtdi/pofition» . ' . u 

% The MceAiy oli«WrcB<f iii^KealA is lihte reafift ILvorioRfWi- 

A 34 ) 

Mr. F^lconbridgc alto ftates on this head, that whetrem^ 
I^oycd in flowing the flaves he made the moft of the 
room, and wedged them in. They had not fo much room 
- as a man in bti coffin either in length or breadth. It was 
impoffible for them to turn or fhift with any degree of 
cafe. He had often occafion to go from one fide of their 
rooms to the other, in which cafe he always took off his 
Jboes^ but could not avoid pinching them ; he has the 
marks oo his f(?ct where they bit and fcratcbed him. In 
every voyage when the fhip was full they complained of 
heat and want of air. Confinement in this fituation was 
io injurious^ that he has known them go down apparently 
in good health at nighty and found dead in the morning. On 
.hislaft voyage he opened a flout man whofo died. He 
found the contents of the thorax and abdomen healthy, 
. and therefore concludes he died of fuffocation in the nights ' 

He was never among them for ten minutes below 
.'together, buthi^ (hirt was as wet as if dipt in water. 

One of his fhips, the Ale^^ander, comi ng out of Bonny, 
got aground on the bar, and was detained there flx »or 
fevendaysy with a great fwelland heavy rain. At this 
time the air ports were oblieed to be ihut, and part of 
die gratings on the weather nde covered : almoft all the 
men^laves were taken ill with the flux. The laft time 
,be.Wjent down to fee them it was fo hot that he took off 
•bis fhirt. More than twenty of them had thenfaintedy or 
W4re fainting* He got however feveral of them hauled 
Ott.deck*. Two or three of thefe died, and moft of the 
reft before they reached the Weft Indies. He was 
down only about fifteen minutes, and became fo ill by 
k that he cot|ld not get up without help, and was difabled 
(the dyfentery feizing him alfo) from doing duty the reft 
t>f the pafTage^ On board the fame fhip he has known 
two or three inftances of a dead and living Jlave found 
in the morning JhaikUd together » 

The. crowded ii^te of the flaves, and the pulling off the 
/hoes by the furgeons as defcribed above, that they might 
not hurt rhem in traverfing their rooms, are additionally 
•iMnttone4 by rfuifgeoas Wilfon and Claxton. The 
Iggres are faid alfo hy Hall voA-^Mm^Q complain Q^ 
•-^^ V - account 

( 35 ) 

account of heat.' Both Hall, Towne, and Morley de^ 
fcribe them as often la a violent perfpir'ation or dew 
fvjeat. Mr. Ellifon has feen them faint through heaty 
and obliged to be brought on deck, the fieam coming 
up through the gratings like a furnace. In Wilfon's 
and Towne'^ihips fome have gone helawwell in an even-* 
ingyZni in the morning have been found dead^ and Mr. 
Newtonhas often feen a dead and living man chained to* 
^ether, and toufehis own words, one of the pair dead. - 

To prove that this ftowage, and of courfe that the 
confequences of it, muft unavoidably be as defcribed by 
the gentlemen above> the following fpecies of evidence 
and calculation may be rcforted to* 

Captain Parrey, of the Royal Navy, was lent by go* 
vernment in the year 1788, to meaAire iuch of the (Iav6 
veflels as were then lying at Liverpool, and to make a 
report of the fame to the Houfe of Commons. In this 
report are mentioned the names of the different vefTelsj, 
and their refpediive dimenfions as takep by him. The 
firftofthefe, as delivered in by himfelf, is the Brooktfs, 
and as fome one ,ihip muft be taken to make out the 
proof intended, it will be lefs obje£lionable to take the 
firft that comes than any other. The dimenfions then 
of the Brookes, as reported by Captain Parrey, 
found as in the annexed plans. 



C 36 ) 

tJlM^NSIONS OF THE. SHIP.. jCcot fbdliet 

tensth of the Low^rDeck^ gfatihgsaftd buHc- 1 - 

"^hca* mtUitd at A A * * -4 '^ ^" 

Breadth of S^^yzfi on the Lower DeckindA^ MB 45 . 4 

Depth of iii?/^ 000 frottbdeling to deling 10 o- 

Height between liecks fmiti deck to deck -- 5 g* 

^ Length of the Mens Sj)om^ CC on the bw^tff deck 46 o 

Breadtb of the Mens Rjjom^ CU on tbelower deck 15 4 

Length ofthe P/^//i?r/7MiDD in the mens room /^ ou 

Breadth of the P/atfirms in the mens room I ^ 

on each Me - * - — ' - ]> 

Length of the \ff(5>>j Jib^w, E£. - • - '3 9 

Breadth of the 5^^ ^^/« - - - - 515 O' 

Breadth of Plafforms^ FF in boys room - - 6 6 

Length of W77«rw^bff«y GGv - - - 28' 6 

Breadth of Wofnens Room - -. — - *3L 6* 

Length of Platprmsy HH irt womens ro(W(r 3t8 fe > 

Breadth of P/<7(;^rwjr in womens room - - 60 

Length of tlie Gan Room^ II on the lower.deck 10 6 

Breadth of Gun Room on the I6w6r deok - la d 

Length of the ^drter Deck^ KK^ ... 33 6 

iireS^thof xht ^iarter Deck - . - ^9 6^ 

Length of the <3!5r^?4, LL - - -- - 14 O 

Height of ihe Q?Ww - . *. • - 6 i^ 

Length of the ii^/I>^i:>^^ MM - . . 16 6 

Height of the //^^i>/?fi - - - . 62 

Length of the Plai/ormsj NN on the half deck 26 ^ 6 - 

Breadth of the Platforms on the half deok - 6 a: 
Upper deck, PP ' 

Let it now be fuj^fcd that the above are the real' 
dimenfions of the ihip Brookes, and farther, that every 
man Have is to be aliowed fix feet by one foot four iaches 
for rdoofij every woman five feet ten by Ofje foot four» , 
every bay five feet by one foot two, and every girl four. 
Itet fix by ^ne foot, it will follow that the annexed plan . 
ef a flave veilel will be precifely* the reprefentation of 
the (hip Brookes, and of the exa£i number of perfons^ , 
aeithermoce nos le(% that, could be ftowed in tbe dtf- 



(' 37 ) 


ferent rooms of it upon thefe data. Thefe, if counterf^ 
(*dedufting the women flowed in Z of Figures VI. and 
VII,) will be found to amount to four hundred and fifty ' 
one» Now, if it be confidered that the fhip Brookes is 
of 320 tons, and that flie is allowed to carry by A<Jt 
df Parliament four hw^dred and fifty-four perfons^ it is 
evident that if three more could be vedged among the 
mimber reprefented in the plan, this plan would contain 
precilely the number which the Aft direfts ; and if it 
Ihould be farther confidered that there ouoht to be in 
each apartment in the plan one or more tubs, as well as 
ftanchions, to fupportthe platforms and decks, for which 
no dedu6lion has been made, in order to give every 
poffiWe advantage in flowing, then the above plan may 
•tonfidered as giving a very favourable reprefentation of 
the flowing of the negroes even fine e the late' regulating 
Aei. The plan therefore abundantly' proves that the 
ftowage of thefe poor people, as well as the confequences 
of it, mufl have been as defcribed by the c(idences 
above ; for, if when four hundred and fifty-one flaves 
are put into the different rooms of the Brookes, the floors 
are notonly covered with bodies, but thefe bodies a<Sual- 
ly touch each other, what mull have been their fituatioji .. 
when fix hundred were flowed in them at the time ali'* 
luded to by Dr* Trotter, who belonged to this fhip, and 
fix hundred and nine by the conf^ffion of the flave-mer-' 
chants in a fubfequent voyage f? 

To come now to the different incidents on the paflage. * 
Mr. Falconbridge fays, that there is a place in every fhip. 

• i 

* By the late aft of ParUara^nt the fpacc Z, which is half of the half 
4ecky iVXZ, is appropriated to the feamen. 

'\' The lituation of the Haves nuift be dreadful even on the prefcnt re- 
gulated plan ; for their bodies not only touch each other, but manv of 
them have not even room to fit upright ; for >yhen every deduftion'has 
been made, the heighr ab>vc the plaifonn D F H, Fig. I. and below it 
C E G, is in the B roots but two feet fevcn inches. Tlie average height 
in nine other veflelsmeat'ured by Captain Parrey was only five fcittwo 
inches; and in the Venus ao«l Kitty the flaves had not two feet .abwe- 
or below the platforms. 1 he flaves immediately under the beams mnil be 
in a liill more dreadful fituation, as is leen by the plan ; for in Fig. T. 
under ihc upper deck- PP, and lower deck A A., thefc beams are reprefent- 
ed by (haded iquarcs, as al(b they ar&int)rodaced in Fig., U andXU.. 


for the (ick flaves^ but there are no accammochiions %r 
them, for they lie en the hare plonks. He has feen frew 

auently the prominent parts of their bones about the 
loulder-blade and knees bare. 

He fays he cannot conceive any fituation fo dreadful * 
and diigufting as that of flaves when ill of the flux : iit • 
the Alexander the deck was covered with blood and mu^us^ , 
and rcfembled a flaughter-houje. l^he ftench and foul 
air were intolerable. 

. The flaves^ (hackled together, frequentty quarrel. \€k 
each apartment there are three or four tubs placed for 
their convenience : thofe, "however, at adiftancefind it 
difficult to gctover other flaves to thefe tubs : fomctimes 
if one wants to go to them, his companion refufes to go 
with him; if rela^xed, he exonerates, while di(puting». 
Qver his neighbours. This caufes great difturbance. 

He has koown (bveral flaves oa board refufe fuflenancey 
with a defign io ftarvt themfeives* Conapulfioft was ukd 
in every (hip he ^fva6 in to make them take their food. 
He has alfo known many inflances of their refuH^ to 
take medicines when fick, becaufe they tvi/hed to di^^ A • 
woman on board the Alexander, was dejected from the 
momenit fhe came on board, and refu&dboth food, and: 
medicine.: being afked by the interpreter what the want*' 
ed, (he replied, neMng but to dk — ^and (he did die. Many 
Qther flaves expfefl^d tl)e (ame fvifh. 

The (hips^ he hy$^ are fitted up with a vie^Ufrt^ 
v/»/ flaves jumping Overboard j notwithftanding which 
he has known inftances of their doing fo. In the Alcx- 
aivder two were loft in this way. In the fame voyage 
near twenty jumped overboard out of the Entcrprizei 
Captain W ilfon, and fevel-al from a large Frenchman i» 
Bonny River. 

In his firft voyage he faw at Bonny, on board the 
Epiilia, a woman chained to the deck, who, the,chief 
matefaid, was mad. On his fecond voyage, there was 
a woman on board his own fliip, whom they were forced, 
to chain at certain times. In a lucid interval, fee was 
fold at Jamaica. He afcribes this ioAnity, to their beings 
Urn from their ^onw&iom and friitnds* 

•" ■ ( 39 ) 

Do£lor Tiotter, examined on the fame fubje£t, hy^ 
that the man fold with his &mily for witclicraft, (of 
which he bad been accuied, out rf revenge^ by a Cabo- 
fheer, p- ii*) refufed all fuftenance after he came on 
board. Early next morning it was found he had attempt- 
ed to cut his throat. Dr. Trotter iewed up the wound, 
but die following night the man had not only torn out 
the futures, but had made a Amilar attempt on the ocher 
fide. From the ragged edges of the wound, and the 
blood upon his fingers ends, k appeared to have been 
done with his nails, for though ftrkS^ fearch was'inade 
through all the rooms, no 'inftrument was found. He 
declared he never would go with white men^ uttered inco- 
lierent fentences, and looked wifllfully at the ikies. His 
hands were fecured, but perfifting to refufe all fujlenanc0% 
he died of hunger in eight or ten days. 

He remembers alfo an inftance of a woman who perilh. 
ed for refufing food : ihe was repeatedly flogged, and 
vii^uals forced into her mouth, but no means could make 
her fwallow it, and ihe lived for the four laft days in a 
ftate of torpid infeniibiKty. 

A man jumped overboard at Annamaboe, and was 
downed. AiK)ther alfo, on the middle pafiage, but he 
was taken up. A woman aHb, after having been taken 
up, was chained for fome time to the mizen maft, but 
being let loofe again made -a fecond attempt, was again 
taken up, and expired under the floggings given her in 

Mr, Wilfon,fpeaking jdfo on the &me fubje£^, relates, 
among many cafes where force was neceffary to oblige the 
(laves to take food, that of a young man. He had not 
been loh^ onboard before he perceived him get^thiQ;• 
On inquiry, be found the man had not taken his food^ 
and refufed taking any. Mild means \vere then ufed to 
divert him from bis refolution, as well as promifes that 
he (hould have any thing he wiibed for : but ftill he refuf«- 
ed to eat> They then whipped him with the cat, but this 
alfo was ineffe£);uaKf He always kept his teeth fo bAy 
that it was impoffible ta get any thing down. They theii 
endeavoured to introduce a Sp£CUxajm oitis between 

them i 

( 40 ) 

them, biit tbe points were too obtufeto coter,. and next 
tried a bolus knife^ but with the fame effea:. In this ftate 
he was for four or five days, when he was brought up as 
dead;, to be thrown overboard 5 but Mr. Wilfon finding 
life ftillexifting, repeated his endeavours, though in vain, 
and two d^ys afterwards he was brought up again in the 
fame ftate as before. He then feemed to wifh to get up. 
The crew aiEfted him, and brought him aft to th^e fire- 
place, when in a feeble voice, in his own tongue,, he afk- 
«d for water, which was given him. Upon this they be- 
gan to have hopes of difiuading him from his defign, but 
he again fhut his teeth as faft as ever, and refohed to die^ 
and on the ninth day from his firft refufal he died. 

Mr. Wilfon fays ' it hurt his feelings much to be 
.obliged to ufe the cat fo frequently to force them to take 
their food. In the very a<9: of chaftifement they have 
looked up at him with afmile, and in their own language 
bave faid, ^^ prefenttyive Jhall be no moreV ' 
- In tbe fame fhip a woman found mdans to convey below 
the night preceding fome rope-yarn, which flie tied to 
the hea4 of the armourer's vice, then in the womens 
t^oom. She faft:ened-it round her neck, and in the morn- 
ing was found dead, with her head lying on her ihoulder, 
whence it appeared, fhe muft have ufed great exertions 
to accomplifti her end. A young woman alfo hanged 
herfelf by tying rope.)rarns to a batten, near her iifual 
fleeping-place, and then flipping off the plat-form. 1 he 
next morning fhe was found warm, and he ufed the pro- 
per means for her recovery, but in vain. 
• In the fame fliip alfo, when off Anixabona, a flflve on 
the fick Htt jumped overboard, and was picked up by the 
natives, but dtedfoon afterwards. At another time, when 
zt fea, the captain and officers when at dinner, heard the 
dlarmof aflave'sbeing overboard, and found it true, for 
they perceived him making every exertion to drown him- 
lelf. He put his head under watery but lifted his hands up ; 
and thus went down, as if exulting that he had fot away. 

£efides the above inftance, a man (lave who came on 
board apparently well, became afterwards mad, and at 
length died infane^ 


( 4t > 

Mf. Claxton, the fourth furgeon examined on ihefe 
points, declares the fteerage and boys room to have been 
infufficient toieceive the fick ; they were therefore 
obliged to place together thofe that were, and thofe that 
were not, difeafed, and in confequence the difeafe and 
mortality increafed more and more. The captain treated 
them with more tendernefs than he has heard wa§ 
lifual, but the men were not humane. Some of the moft 
difeafed were obliged to keep on deck, with a fail fpread 
for them to lie on. This, in a little time, became nearly 
covered with blood and mucus^ which irivoluntarily iffued 
from them, and therefore the failors, who had the difa- 
greeable tafk of cleaning the fail, grew angry with the 
flaves, and ufed to beat them inhumanly with their hands^ 
or with a. cat. The (laves in confequence grew fearful 
of committing this involuntary aftion, and when they 
perceived they had done it, would immediately creep to 
the tubs, and there fit ftniining with fuch violence, as to 
produce a prolapfus ani, which could not be cured. 

Some of the flaves on board the fame fhip, fays Mr. 
Claxton, had fiuh an averjion to /eavh^ their natrvi 
p/acejy that they threw themfelves overboard, with an idea 
that iheyjhou.d get back to their own country. The captain, 
in order tr> obviate this idea, thought of an expedient, 
viz. to cut off the heads of thofe who died, intimating 
to -them, that if determined to go, they muft return 
without their heads. The flaves were accordingly brought 
up to witnefs the operation. One of them feeing, wheit 
on deck, the carpenter {landing with his hatchet up rea-« 
dy to ftrikc off the head of a dead flave, with a violentf 
exertion got loofe, and flying to th^ place where the net- 
tings had been unloofed, in order to empty the tubs, he 
darted overboard. The ftl^p brought to, and a man wai 
placed in the main chains to catch him, which he perceiv- 
ing, dived under water, andrifing again at a diftance from 
the (hip, made figns^ which words cannot defcribe, ^a-- 
frcjjlve of his hapfinefs in efidping* He then went down| 
and was fecn no more. This circumftance deterred the 
captain from trying the expedient any more, and there- 
fore he refolved for the future (as he Jaw they wert detcr^ 

F wmui 

( 4» 1 

mnneif *^ throw ihemfehes overboard) to keep a ftri<5 
fratch }. nptwit^ftanding which, fome afterwards contriv-. 
^d to unloorethe lafliing, fo that two afkually threw them- 
4elves into the fea, and were loft ; another was caugh^ 
ivhen about three parts overboard. 

All the above incidents, defcribed as to have happened 
0n the middle paflage, are amply corroborated by the 
other evidences. 7he Jlave^s lie on the bare boards.^ (ays 
furgeon Wilfon. They, are frequently bruifed^ and the 
prominent ^parts of the body excoriated^ adds the fame 

fentleman, as alfo Trotter and Newton. Their being 
nked together^ their quarrelling^ and the difficulty of getting 
U their tubs^ are additionally mentioned by H^l and 
^evi^OQ. They have been feen by Morley wallowing 
in their blood and excrement. Claxton, Ellifon, and Hal], 
^efcribe them as refufmg fuftenance, and compelled to eat 
hy the whip. Morley has feen die paniiekin daflied 
^gainlft their teeth, and the rice held in their mouths, to 
make them fwallow it, till they were almoft ftrangled, and* 
they have been even thumbfcrewed * with this view in, 
the fhips ofTowne and Millar.- 

The man alfo, (ays the former, ftolen at Galenas ^ 
Jliyer, (ip. 8. ) refufed to eat, and perjifled till be died, j ^ ^ ' 
A woman, fays the latter, who was brought on boarjj^^^ 
fehi&d (ufteoance, neither would (he fpeak. She.Wa^/^ 
llien orde^red the thumb-fcrews, fufpended in the mizen 
prigging, and evx^y attempt was made with the cat to 
compel her to eat, but to no purpofe» She dierf in three 
or four days afterwards. Mr. Millar was told that fhe 
liad faid the night before (he died, ^^ She was going to 

' As atnbd fpecific inftance, in another veflel, tnay be 
mentioned that related by Mr. Ifaac Parker* There waj 
achild^ &y$ he, on board, of nine months old, which 
licfi^d .tp <e?it, for which the captain took it up ii;i his 

♦ ToftidW the fpvcrlty of thispunifhment, Mr. Dove fays, that while 
itwo flaves were under the torture of the- thumb -fcrcws, the fweat ran 
,^wn their faces^ and they trembled as under a violent ague fit { anil 
Mr. Ellifon has known inftances of their dying, a mortification having 
^kcA pUccia their thumbs in ctnfc^vcQCC of ihcfcfcrews. 

( 43 T 


lian^, and ffogged it with a cat, faying at tfr^lfchie tlm^^ 
« Damn pu, Til make you feat, or>l1l kilt you.*' ThC 
feme child having fwelled feet,, the Captain ordered dieni* 
to be put into water, though the Jhip^s cook told him it wat 
too hot. This brought off the fkin and nJiils. He theiie 
ordered fweet oil and cloths, which Ifaac Parker himfelf 
applied to the feet; and as the chiy at'mefs-time agair^ 
refufed to eat, the captain agaJrr- took it up, and flogged- 
it, and tied a log of mango- wood eighteen or twent/ 
inch,es long, and of tweli^e or thirteen pounds weight., 
round its neck, as a punishment. He repeated the flog- 
ging for four days.tG^ther at mefs-time. The laft time* 
after flogging it^ he let it dropout of his handy with the 
feme expreflion as beforehand accordingly in about three- 
4|uarters of an hour the child died. He then, called its 
mother to heave it overboard, and beat her for rcfufing. 
He howey^r forced her to take it up, and go to the ftiip'^ 
fid6, wheri holding her head on one fide to avoid the fight y 
fi>e dropped her child overboardy aft£r whhch fi3$ cried for 
fnany hours* 

' Befides inftances of flaves refufing to eat, with the' 

*^>j*fSew of deftroying themfelves, and dying in confequence 

« ©fit, thofe of their going mqd^ are confirmed by Towne^ 

and of their jumping overboard^ or attempting to do it, by 

•f6wne, Millar, Ellifon, imd Hall. 

Other incidents on the paffage, mentioned by fomeof 
the evidences in their examination, may be' divided intO'* 
three kinds. ~ 

T'fae firft kind confifts of infurretSEions on the part of 
tb<f flaves. Some of thefe frequently attempted to rife, 
but were prevented, ( Wilfon, To wne, Trotter, Newtop^ 
Dalrymple, Ellifon,) others rofe, but, were quelled,. 
(Ellifon, Newton, Falconbridge) and others rofe, and 
fucc.eeded, killing almoft all the whites: (Fa'conbridge 
andTowne.) — Mr. Towne fays, that inquiring of the 
flaves into the caufe of thefe infurreftions, he has been 
afked what bufinefs he had to carry them from their country, 
l^hey had wives and children whom they wanted to be with. 
After an infurredion, Mr. Ellifon fays, he has feen 
them flogged, and the cook's tormentors and ion^^ heated 

- F 2 ts 

( 44 ) 

U hum their flejh. Mr. Newton alfo adds, that it if 
ufual for captains, after infurrecSions and plots happen^ 
to flog the flaves. Some captains, on board whoie fixipd 
he has been, added the thumb-fcrew, and one in particu- 
kr told him repeatedly, that he had put Jjaves to death after 
0n. infurreSiion by various modes of torture. 

The fecond fort of incident on the paffage is mentioned 
by Mr. Falconbridge in the inftance of an Englifli vef- 
fel blowing up ofF Galenas, and moft of the men flaves, 
entangled in their irons^ perijhing. 

The third fort is defcribed by Mr. Hercules Rofs, as 
follows : Ope inftafnce, fays he, m.arked with pecuirar 
circumftances of horror, occurs. - About twenty years 
dgo, a fliip from. Africa, with about four hundred flaves 
on board, ftruck upon fome flioals, called the Moranij 
Keys, diftant eleven leagues, S. .Sr E. off the Eaft 
end of Jaqnaica. The officers and feamen of the fhip 
landed in their boats, carrying with them arras and pro- 
vifions. The flaves were left on board in their irons 
and (hackles. This happened in the night-time. Thq 
Alorant Keys confift of three fmall fandy iflands, and he 
iinderftood that the (hip had ftruck upon the ihoals, at 
nbouthalf a league to windward of them. When morn-- 
ing came, it was difcovercd that the negroes had go<i 
out of their irons, and were biify making rafts, upon> 
which they placed the women and children, whilft the 
men, and others capable of fwimming, attended upoi^ 
the rafts, whilft they drifted before the wind towards the 
ifland where the leamen had landed. - From an appre^ 
- henfion that the negroes would confume the water and 
provifions which the feamen had landed, they came to 
the refolution of deftroying them, by means of their 
lire-arms and other weapons. As the poor wretches 
approached the fliore, they a^ually deflrqyed between thru 
and four hundred of them. Out of the whole czxgo only 
thirty-three or thirty-four were faved^ and brought to 
Kingfton, where Mr. Rofs faw them fold at public 
vendue. This fliip, to the beft of his recolleftion, was 
configned to a Mr. Hugh Wallace, of the parifli of St. 


( AS y 

Mr. Rofs fays, in extenuation of this maflaere, thatt 
the crew were probably drunk, or they would not have* 
aifted fo, but he does not know it to have been the* 

When the fhips arrive at their dcftincd ports, the- 
flaves are expofed to fale. They are fold either by 
ftramble or by vendue, (i. e.) publick au£lion, or by 
rots. The fale by fcramble is thu» dcfcribcd by Mr. 
Falconbridge. " In the Emilia, (fays he) at Jamaica>.^ 
the {hip was darkened with fails and covered round. 
The men Oaves were pkced on the main deck, and ther 
women on the quarter deck. The purchafers on (hore- 
were informed a gun would be fired when they, were 
ready to open the fale. A great number of people earner 
on board with tallies orcards in their hands, with their 
own ndmes upon them, and ruflied through the barricada* 
door with the ferocity of brutes. Some had three of 
four handkerchiefs tied together, to encircle as many as 
they thought fit for their purpofe; In the yard at Gre* 
tiada, he adds, (where another of his fhips, the Alexana. 
der, fold by fcramble,) the women were fo terrified, thafe 
feveral of them got out of the. yard, and ran about St. 
George's town as if they-^werc mad. In his fccond' 
voyage, while lying at Kingfton, he (awa &le by fcrambfe' 
tMT board the. Tryal, Captain Macdonald. Forty or* 
fifty of the flaves leaped into the fea, all of which, bow*«« 
«ver, he believes, y/ere take^x up again;'* This is a 
very general mode of fale. Mr. BailHe fays, it way the 
common mode in America where he has been. Mr. 
Fitzmaurtce has been at twenty ialbs by fcramble im 
Jamaica. Mr. Clappefon ncveriaw any other mode ofc 
ialc during his refidence there, land-it is mentioned as- 
having been pra^^ifed under the infpe<^ion of Motley and^ 
cf. Troter.. / 

The flaves fold by public aiiftion^ or vendue, are* 
generally the refofe, or fickly flaves.. Thefe are in fflchr^ 
a ftate of health, that they, fell, fays ^MViCy greatly 
uTuler price^. Falconbridge has known' them fold for' 
five dollars each^ Towne for a guinea^ and Mr, Herculeis i 
Jiio& as low as aftngU dollar . 

( 4^ ) 

The ftatc of fuch is defcribed to be very deplorable bjr 
General Tottenham and Mr. Hercules Rofs. The for- 
mer feys, that he once obferved at Barbadoes a' number 
of flaves that had been landed from a fhip. They were 
brought into the yard adjoining the place of iale, Thofe 
that were not very ill were put into little huts, and thofc 
riiat were worfe were left in the yard to die, for nel^ady 
gave them any thing to eat or drink ; and fame $fthem lived 
three days in that fituation. The latter has frequently feen 
the very refufe (as they are termed) of the flaves of Gui- 
nea ihips, landed and carried to the vendue mafters in a 
very wretched ftate, fometimcs in the agonies of death ; 
and he has known inftances of their expiring in the pi- 
Mzza of the vendue majier. 

Mr. Newton fays, that in none of the fales he faw 
yns there any care ever taken to prevent fuch flaves as 
were relations from being feparated. They werefeparated 
as Jheep and lambs by the butcher. This feparation of 
relations and friends is confirmed by Davifon, Trotter, 
Clappefon, and Town. '^ Fitzmaurice s^lfo mentions th« 
fame, with an exception only to infants; butMr.Fal- 
conbridge iays, that one of his captains (Frazer) re* 
commended it to the planters nevjer to^ fepan>»te relations 
and friends. He fays he once heard of a perfon refufing 
to purchafe a man's wife, aud was next day informed the 
nian had hanged himfelf 

With refpefl: to the mortality of flaves in the paflage, 
Mr. Falconbridge fays, that in three voyages he pur- 
chafed HOC, and loft J91 j Trotter, in one voyage, 
about 600, and loft about 70 ; Millar, in one voyage 
490, and loft 180 ; Ellifon, in three voyages, where 
he recolle£is the mortality, bought 895, and loft 356. 
In one of thefe voyages, fays the latter, the flaves ha4 the 
fmall-pox. In this cafe he has feen the platform one 
continued fcab : eight or ten of them were hauled up dead in 
a mornings and the flejh and Jkin has peeled off their tvrijis 
iuhen taken hold of. 

Mr. Morlcy fays, that in four voyages he purchafed 
»bout I J25, and loft about 313. Mr. Towne, in two 
voyages, 630, and loft 115. Mr, Claxton, in ope 


( 47 ) 

voyage, 250, and loft 132. In this voyage, he hy% 
diey were fo ftreightened for provifions, that if they had 
been ten more days at fea, they muft either- have eaten 
theflaves that died, or have made the living flaves walk 
the plank j a term in ufe among Guinea captains formaking 
the Jlaves throw them/elves overboard. He fays alfo, that 
he fell in with the Hero, Captain Withers, which had 
loft 360 flaves, or more than^half of her cargo, by the 
fmall-pox. The furgeon of the Hero told him, that_ 
when the flaves were removed from one place to another, 
they left marks of their Jkin and blood upon the deck^ and it 
was the moft horrid fight he had ever (een, 

Mr. Wilfon ftates, that in hisfliip, and three others, 
belonging to the fame concern, they purchafed among 
them 2064 flaves, and loft 586. He adds, that he fell 
in with the Hero, Captain Withers, at St. Thomas's, 
which had loft 159 flaves by the fmallpox. Capt. Hall, 
in two voyageS) purchafed 550,- and loft no. He adds, 
that he has known fome fliips in the flave trade bury a 
quarter^ fome a thirds and others halfoi their cargo. // 
is very uncommon to find Jhips without fome lofs * in their 

Befides thofe which die on the paflTage, it muft be no- 
ticed here that feveral die foon after they are fold. Six- 
teen, lays Mr. Falconbridge, were fold by au£l:ion out 
of the Alexander, all of whom died before the ftip left the 
Weft Indies. C3ut of fourteen, iays Mr. Claxtori, fold 
jfrom his fhip in an infeSious ftate, only four lived -y and 
though in the four voyages mentioned by. Mr. Wihbxi 
no lefs than 586 periflied on the paflTage out of 2064, 
yet 220 additionally died of the fmall pox in a very little 
time after their delivery in the River Plate, making the 
total Ipfs for thofe (hips not lefs than 836 out of 2064. 

The caufes of the diforders which carry off the flaves 
in fucb numbers, are afcribed by Mr. Falconbridge to be 
<J difeafed mind-^fudden tranfitionsfrom heat to coldy a putrid 

* Total purchafed 7904, 10(^1053, exclufive of the Hero, being above 
«ne*fourth of the number purchared. The reader will oblerve, that Mr» 
Glaxton fell in with thcHero on one Yoyagfc, and Mxi Wilfon on an- 


( 4« ) 

afmofphere^ wallowing in. their 9ijun excremenii^ ancF hein^ 
Jhackled together,. Adifeafed mind, he fays, is undoubt- 
edly one of the caufes ; for many of the flaves on board' 
refufed medicines, giving as a- reafon that they wanted i9 
dte^ and- could never be cured. Some few, on the other 
hand, who did niit appear to think fo hiuch of their Jit ua-^ 
tioTiy recovered. That fhackling together is alfo^* 
another caufe, was evident from the circumftance of the 
men dying in twice the proportion the women did ; and- 
fo long as the trade continues, -he adds, they mujl he 
fhackled together, for no man will attempt to carry 
them out of irons. 

Surgeon Wilfon, examined on the fame topick, fpeaks^ ^ 
nearly in the fame manner. He fays, that of the death of 
two-thirds of thofe who died in his fhip, the primarjr^ 
caufe was melamholy. This was evident not only /rom- 
tiie fymptoms of the diforder, and the circumftance that 
no one who had it was ever cured^ whereas thofe^w/?^ hai^ 
it noty and yet , were ill, recovered^ but from the Ian-- 
guage of the flaves themfelves, who declared tjpat they: 
wijhedto die^ as alfp from Captain Smith's own declar- 
ation, whp faid their deaths were to be afcribed to their 
thinking fo much of their fttuation. Though feveral died of 
the flux, he attributes their death primarily to the caufe* 
before afKgned ; for, fays he, their original diforder wa»- 
z fixed melancholy^ and the fympt9 ns, lowttefs of fpirits- 
and defpondency. Hence they refufed food. This only/ 
increafed the fymptoms. The ftomach afterwards got. 
weak. Hence the belly achetij^ fluxes enfued, and they 
were carried off. 

Mr. Towne, the only other perfon who fpeaks of the 
caufes of the diforders of ttie flaves, fays, " they oft^n fall 
ficic, fometimes owing totheircrowded-ftate, but mo/ily 
to grirf^ fi^ being carried away from their country and 
friends** This he. knows from inquiring frequently 
(which he was enabled to do by underlfanding theit 
language) into the circumftances of tbcirgrievous com-* 
plaints ♦• 

* It is evident from hence, thtu m Regukuioa of. the trade ctn httA 
the evils in this branch of the fubje^* Zl cau nevcf cwe ft mkntboi^ «r # 


( 49 ) 

'As the trade may be faid to end on the delivery of the 
(laves in the Weft Indies, it may not be Improper to 
ftate the opinion of fome of tne Evidences concern- 
ing it, r 

Air. Wilfon ftates, that his reafon for quittingTiis late 
employment was, that he did not like to continue in a 
trade, that did not perfe<31y coincide with his ideas, and 
was not to his fatisfaftion, being obliged to make ufe or 
means for the prefervation of the cargo, contrary to his 
f^elingSy andfenfe of humanity. 

Mr. Falconbridge declares^^ that in his firft and fecond 
voyage he refledled but little on the jufticc or injuftice 
of the trade. In his laft voyage he refledled more, and 
the more he didfo^ the more he was convinced it was an 
unnatural^ iniquitous^ and villainous trade^ and he coif Id 
not reconcile it to his confcience. This was the reafon 
for his leaving it. He adds, that he believes at the time 
he left it, he could have gone again with Cnpt. Frazer, 
if he had chofen it, and he was afterwards repeatedly fi" 
licited to go to the Gold Coaft by Captain Thompfon. 

Captain Wilfon declares from the whole of his ex- 
perience, as an impartial man, he has long fince formed 
an opinion, (which each fucceeding dafs experience has 
jujiified and confirmed) that it is a trade ^vx^zn^y founded 
en injujlice and treachery^ manifejily ^rried on by oppref" 
Jion and cruelty^ and not urfrequcntly terminating in 
murder. . 

Captain Hall makes a declaration alfo, that when he 
left the trade he could have obtained the command of a 
ihip in it, which command at that time would have been 
a very lucrative one, but that he quitted it from d con» 
virion that it was perfe^ly illegal, and founded in blood. 

t^fiofcd mind. It can never pretcnt an htjured people from rtji'rg if out of 
ii-om, nor can it take away corrupted air, unleft it reduce tl^ number 
to be carried fo low, as to make it not worth the while of the ilave-mer* 
thants to tranfport them. 




Africans^ when boughty their general Efiimation andTreAt^ 
ment — Thefe become either Plantation or In-and^Out^ 
door^S laves — Labour of the Plantation Slaves in and 

ottt of Crop — Their Days of ReJl-^Food-^Clothing - 

Houjes — Property — Situation of the In^and-Out-'doot* 
Slaves-^Ordinary Punijhment of the Slaves by thm 
JVhip and Cow-Jkin — Frequency and fever ity of thefk 
Punijhments — Extraordinary Punijhments of manyt. 
Kinds — The concern which the very Women take in thefe 
Ordinary and Extraordinary Punijhments — The difi^ 
ferent nominalOffences mentioned in the Evidence^ which 
occajion ihem-'^Capital Offences and ^Punijhments---^ 
Slaves turned offtojleal^ beg orjlarve^ when incapable of 
Labour — Slaves have little or m Redrefs a^ainjl ill 
Vfage of any fort — Laws lately enaSledy but not with Offi 
Xntmtion tojervi the SlaviSy emd of Uttk ^r m Vft^ 

THE natives of Africa, when bought by the Eu*- 
ropean Colonifts, are generally efteemed, fays- 
Dr. Jackfon, a fpecies of inferior beingSy whom the right 
of pur chafe gives the owner a power ^ ufing at his wilL 
Confiftently with this definition we find the evidence af- 
ferting with one voice, that they "have no legal pro- 
teSion againft their mafters," and of courfe that " their 
treatment varies according to the drfpofition of their 
matters J' If their matters be good men, feys the Dean. 
of Middleham, they are well ofFi but, if not, they fufFer. 
The general treatment, however, is defcribed to be verjr 
fevere. Some fpeak more moderately than others upon it^ 
but all concur in the general ufage as being bad. Mr. 


( 51 V 

TVoolricb, examined upon this point, fays, that Jie never, 
Jcnew the beft mafter in the W. Indies ufe his flaves Co 
ivell as the worft mafter hisferyants in England ; that their 
ftate is inconceivable; that it cannot be defcribed to the 
full underftanding of thofe, who have never feen jt, and 
that a fight of fome gangs would convince more than 
all words. Others again make ufe of the words, 
** ufedwith great cruelty,-— like beafts^ or worfe :" and 
the Dean of Middleham, after balancing in his mind all 
his knowledge upon this fubj.e£t, cannot fay, (fetting 
afideonone hand particular inftances of great fevcrity, 
and on the other hand particular inftances of great hu- 
tnanity] that treatment altogether humane and proper 
*vra$ the lot of fuch as he had either obferved or heard of. . 

To come to a more particular defcription of their 
treatment, it will be proper to divide them into different 
piaffes* The firft may be fakl to confift of thofe who 
^re bought for the plantation ufe^ Thefe will bft arti^ 
ficers of various defcriptiens, and . the field * flaves« 
The fecond will confift of what may be termed In-or 
Out 'door fiaves. The former are domeftick?, both in 
town and country, and the latter porters, fifhcrmen, 
4>oatmen, and the like. 

The field flaves, whofe cafe is the firft to be confider-* 
«d, are called out by day-light to their work. For this 
purpofe the fhell blows^ and they hurry into the field. If 
they are not tliere in time they are flogged. When pu^ 
to their work, they perform it in rows, and without ex* 
£eption under the^ whip of dnversy a certain number of 
whom are allotted to each gang^ By thefe means the 
weak are made to keep up with the ftrong. Mr. Fitz- 
maurice is foary to fay, that firom this caufe many of ' 
them are hurried to the grave, as the able, even if 
placed with the weakly to bring them up, will leave 
^hem .behind, and then the weakly are generally flogged 
lip by the driver. This, however, is the mode of their 
Idbowc. As to the time of it, . they begin, as before faid, 


* Aoiong tkefe -sure again includci vatcbmer, ^men^ and head*' 

■ at 

» # 

( 52 ) 

•t^ay-light, and continue, with two intermiffions, (one 
for half an hour in ihe'mornirig, and the other for two 
hotirs at noon) till fun-fet* 

The above defcription, however, does not include the 
whole of their operations^ for the day, for it is expected 
that they (hall range about and pick grafs for the cattle. 
It is clear from the different evidences, that the cuflom 
of grafs-picking varie?, as to the time in which it is to 
be done, on different eftates; for oh fome it is to be done 
within the intervals of reft faid to be allowed at noon, 
and on others after the labour of the day. It is complain- 
ed of however, in either cafe, as a great grievance, inaf- 
much as it lengthens the time of work ; as alfo becaufe, 
particularly in drought?, it is very difficult tofind grafs at 
all, and becaufe if they do not bring it in fufficient 
quantities, they ar6 puni(hed. Grafs-picking, fayS Capt.' 
Smith, 'is one of the moft frequent caufes cf puntfhment. 
He has feen fome flogged for not getting lo great a 
quantity of it as others, and that at a time, when he 
has thought it impojjible they could have gotten half the 
quantity^ having been upon the fpot. 

It is impoflible to pafs over in filence the almoft total 
want of indulgence which the women flaves frequently 
experience during the operations in the field. It is a^- 
ferted by Dalrymple, that the drivers in ufing their 
whip never liillinguifli fex. As to pcegnant women, and 
fuch as had children, Mr, Davits believes they were al- 
lowed to come into the field a little later than the reft. 
They did little work after they were four months gone 
with child, in the experience of Mr. Duncan. Dr. Har- 
rifon alfo has known fome overfeers allow complaining 
pregnant women to retire from work, but he has fetn 
them labouring in the field, when they fee med to have 
.but a few months to go : they were generally worked as 
long as able. Much the fame work, fays Mr. Cook, 
was cxpe<Skd from pregnant women as others. He has 
feen them holing till within a few hours of their delivery, 
and has known them receive thirty-nine lafties while in 
this ftate.Mr. Woblrich thinks the pregnant women had 
fome little indulgencies, but it was cuftomary for ihcm 


( 53 ) 

to Work in the field till near their time. The Whip ifras 
occaiionally ufed upon them, but not fo feverely as upon 
the men. Mr. Reea obferving the gangs at work, faw 
a' pregnant womaA rather behind the reft. The driver 
called her ^o come on, and going back ftruck her withr 
the whip up towards her flioulders. He a(ked another 
pregnant woman, if (he was forced to work like the reft, 
and (he fald, Yes. Sir G. Young adds, that women 
Were confidered to mifcarry in ge^oral from their hard 
field labour j and^Captain Hall fays^ thaty where they had 
children^ they were fent again after die month to labour 
with the children upon their backs, and fo little time af- 
forded them to attend their wants, that he has fecn a wo- 
man feated to give fuck to her child, roufed from AaC 
fituation by a fevcre blow from the cart whip,* 

The above accounts of the mode and duration of the 
labour of the field flaves, are confined to that feafon of 
the year, which is termed, " Out of Crop," or the time 
in which they are preparing th^ lands for the crop. In 
the crop feaion, however, the labour is of much longer 
duration. Weakly handed eftates, fays Mr. Fitimau- 
rice, which arefarthe moft numerous, form their negroes 
in crop into two fpells, which generally change at twelve 
at noon, and twelve at night. The boilers and others 
about the works, relieved at twelve at noon, cut canes 
from (hell-blow, (half paft one) till dark, when they 
carry cane-tops or gr^fs to the cattle penns, and then 
they may reft till twelve at night, when they relieve the 
fpell in the boiling-houfe, by which they themfelves had 
been relieved at twelve in the day. Qn all efiates the 
boiling goes on night and day without intermiffion : but 
well handed eftates have three fpells, and inter mii&onft 
accordingly. , 

Mr. Dalrymple, (peeking alfo of their labour iff time 
of crop, fays diey are obliged to work as long as they can^ 
which is as long as they can keep awake or ftand on 
their legs. Sometimes they fall afleep, through excefs 

* In Come eftatesy it U ufuAl to dig a tiole m the ground^ iii which 
thev put the bellies of pregnant women, tthxlt thfcy whip theni, that tkcjf 
diay aot excafe puoithinent, nor yet eadao^ei xhs, li6e of the WMtian or 
child. (Dr. Jackfoa^ Lieutoaaat Davif^n.) . ■' 

G of 

( 54 j 

of fatigue, when their arms are caught in the mill, ani 
tora 0:F. He law fcveral, who had loft their arms in 
that way. 

Mr. Cook ftates, on the fame fubje<ft, that in crop- 
time they work in general about eighteen, hours out of 
the twenty-four, and are often hurt through mere fatigue 
and want of feep. He knew a girl Ipfe htr hand by the 
mill while feeding it, for being overcome by fleep, fhe 
dropped againft, the ix)lleis. He has heard of feveral in« 
ftances of this kind. 

To this account pf the labour of the flaves, both in 
and out of crop^ k mud be added here, that on fome 
^ftates, it appears by ^lie evidence, they have Sunday and 
Saturday afternoon out of crop to themfelves, that is, to 
ea'tivate their own grounds for their fupport ; on others, 
Sunday corily 5 and on qthers,, Sunday only in part; for* 
fome peopje, fays the I^e«n of Middleham, required 
ineat For the cattle on Sundays to be gathered twice in 
the day; and Lieutenant Davifon f;^ys he has known 
them forced to work on Sundays for their matters. It 
sippeais again, that in crop, on no eflates, have they 
inore than Sunday for the cultivation of their lands.. 
The Dean ©f Middleham has known them continue 
Wiling the iugar till late on Saturday night, and in 01. e. 
^ uiftance remembers it to have .b^cn -pr(xir*icled till fun- 
rife on SuDLday"* morning : and. t|ie care, after w«irds of 
Vcttino- up the fugar-j^.rs rnuft. ii;«ye Vcqu. red feveral 

The point, which may be confidered next, may be 
that of the flaves food. This appears by the evidence 
to be fubj ft to no rule. On fome eilates they are 
allowed land, which they cultivate for thenrfelves at the 
times mentioned above, but they have no provifions 
sdiowed them, except perhaps a fmall prefent of f^t fifli' 
or beef, or fait pork, at Chriflmas. On others they arc 
allowed provi^i4)ns, but no land :. and on others again 
they are allowed land and provifions jointly. Without 
cnumeratinor the different ratios mentioned to be allowed 
them by the different evidences, it may be fuSicient t« 

« Itapfcars^ tbat ther have three or four holidays in the year, bat 
the days -are w©t fpcci-fied. ^ . ^ . , 


■ ( • 55 ) 

take the higheft. The baft allowance is evlcfently at 
Barbadoes, an J the f >llowtn^ is the account of it. The 
flaves in general, fays General Tottenham, appeared to 
be iHfed: each (lave had a pint of grain for twenty-four 
hours, and fo?Tietimes half a rotten herring when to be 
had. When the herrings were u\fit for the whitesy they 
were bo?J2:ht up by the planters /??' the Jl/jves, Mr. 
Davis fays, that on thofe eftitss in Birbadoes where he 
has feen the flaves allowance deilt out, a grown negro 
had nine prnts of corn, and about one pound of fait fifli 
a week, bu: the grain of the Weft -Indies is much lighter 
th m w')e It. He is of o,)ii1ion, thit in general they w?re 
too fparingly fed. The Dean of iVfiddlcham alfo men- 
tions nine pints per we^!c as the quantity given, but thit 
he has kriowi mafters' ahridi;e it in the time of crop. 
This is the greateft allowance mentioned throughout /the 
whole of the evidence, and this is one of the cafes rn 
whicii the flaves had provifions but no land'. Where, on 
the other hand, they have land and no provifions, all the 
evidences agree that it is quite ample to their fupp^t, but 
that they have not fufficic'rii time to cultivate it. Their 
lands too are often at the diftance oi three mile^ from their 
houfes, and Mr. Giles thinks the flaves were often fo 
fetigued by the labour of the week as fcarcety to he capabU 
9f working in them on Sunday for their own ufe. It is a I fa 
mentioned as a great hard ihip, that often when they had 
cleared thefe lands, their malier has taken them away for 
canes, giving them new wood -land in th' ir ftead, to be 
cleared afrem. This circumflanje, together with the 
removal of their houfes, many of them havefo taken to 
heart, as to have died. 

Whether or no their food may be confidered as fuf- 
/icicnt in general for their fupport, may be bett r feen 
from the following than the preceding account. Mr. 
Cook fays that tiiey have not fufficient food. He hits 
known both Africans and * Creolss eat the putrid carcafes 


• AH thofe hoyti ir.thc t/Iands^ are called C-enleu Some have attributed 

the c«mg of the putrjd circaft-s of animals to the vit-atid taflc of th« 

flavCJ, coitraiJ'^ed in thiir own enu ifyj but ih • cticumftance of ihofe 

eating them, who arc bom in the illands, totally dilprovcs the allo^ 

gation^ andpoioc& out the real caufe as alUgned above. 

G 2 of 

( 56 ) 

•f animals, aarf is convinced they did \t through want. 
Mr. J. Terry has known them, on eftates where they 
hniie been worfe fed than on other s^ cat the putrid carcaies 
of animah alfo. Dead mules, horfes, and cows, fays 
Mr. Coor, were all burnt under the infpeftion of a white 
man. Had they been buried, the negroes would' have 
dug them up in the night to eat them through hunger. It 
was generally faid to be don^ to prevent the negroes fromi 
ecting them, left it ihould breed diftempers. 

Befides thefe, there are proofs of a different nature. 
Giles, Coor, Captain Giles, Captain Smith, Davifon^ 
Duncan, Harrifon, and Dalrymple, agree, that many of 
the flaves in the Weft-Indies were. thJeves^ but they all 
agree alfo in aflertin^, that they ftole in confequence ^f 
hunger., or being Hi fed. The ufual objefls of their theft 
are faid by Terry, Glappefon, Duncan, Harrifon, and the 
Dean of Middleham, to be proviftons or food. Where 
they were well ^e^^ on the other hand, fay pavifo:% and 
CajAain Giles, they f did met fleaL, an4 whew they were 
iH fedf faid Terry and Duncan, they, ftole at the very 
hazard of their lives. The Dean of Middleham and 
Harrifon confirm this, by ftating that feveral in confe- 
quence of attempting to fteal pi:ovifions, have been 
brought home wounded^ and almoft cut te pieces by the 
watch men « 

On the fubjeS of their clothing, there is the feme 
variation as to quantity a$ in their food. It depends oa 
the difpofitk>n and circumftances of their mafters. . The 
largeft allowance in the evidence is that v/hich is men*> 
tioncd by Dr, Harrifon. The men, he fays, at Chrift- 
mas, are allowed two frocks, and two p^ir of Ofnaburgh 
trowfers, and the women two coats and two fhifts apiece. 
Some alfo have two handkerchiefe for the head. They 
have no »ther clothes than thefe, except they get them By 
their own extra labour^ Woolrich and C<K>r agree, that 
as far as t^eir experiqnce went, the mafters did not ex- 
pend for the cloth ng of their flaves more than half a 

-f- There is a faying in the Weft Indies, ** -that you neyer fee a negro 
hue yoix fee a thief;*' — a faying which has a tendency to hurt the ne» 
groes in the e(Via>ation of thoie who hear it> but whiqh it is aafy to 
•xplaln from the abav« a<;cauut&. 


( 57 ) 

crown of three fhillings a year ; and Cook bys'that they 
are in general very indifferently clothed, and that one 
half of ihem go almoji naked in the fields 
. With refpeift tp their hoafes and lodging, the accounts 
of the three fojjowing gentlemen will fufRce. . 

Mr, Wodrich ftates their houfe to be ftnall fquare 
huts, built with' poles, and thatched at the top and fides 
with a kind of bamboo,and built by the (laves themfelves. 
He defcribes them as lying ia the middle of thefe huts 
before a Cnall iire, but to have no bedding. Some, he 
"fays, obtain a board or mat to lie on before the fire. 
A few of the head-flaves have cabins of boards raifed 
from the floor, but no bedding, except fome, who have 
a coarfe blanket. 

^ The Reverend Mr. Rees, defcribing their houfes nearly 
m the &me manner, obferves that their furniture confifts 
pf ftools and benches, that they had no beds or bedding 
in ti^ houieshe was. in, but that fome of them flept on 
the ground, and others on a board raifed from it. 

Some of the new flavcs, fays Dr. Harrifon, have a few. 
blankets, but it is not the general practice : for in gene- 
ral they have no bedding at all. 

Of the property of the field flaves, (the next article 
to be confidered) the following teftimonies will give' a 
fiiificient illuflration. 

. Many field flaves, fays Mr. Woolrich, have it not in 
their power to earn any thing, exclufive of their mafler's 
work. Some few raife fowlS, and. fome few pigs, and fell 
thern, but thsir number is very few. 
' Mr. Dalrymple does not fay, that flaves never 'become 
pofleflTei of much property, but he never knew an in- 
ffanc^ of it, nor can he conceivehosju they can have time 
fir it. 

, The Dean .of Middteham obferves, that the quaitfity. 
of ground allowed to field flaves for taifing provifions 
does not admit of their frequently pofFefling any confider- 
able property. It is not likely they can fpare much of 
their produce for fale. Sometimes they poflefs a pig, and 
tv/o or three fowls, and if they have alfo a few plantain 
trces^. thefe may be the means of fupplying them with 

G . 3 knivesj 

kstivesy iwn^potSf and fuch other conveniences' tfaeir 
mafters do not allow them. 

The greateft property Mr, M. Terry ever knew a 
field flave to poflefs was two pigs, and a little poultry. 
Ajieldjlave has not the tmans of getting much property, 

Mr. J. Terry has knqwn the field flaves (o poor as not 

to be ahJi to havs poultry. They were not allowed to 

keep (heep on any eftate he knew. On fomctlvey might 

* keep two or three goats^ but very few allowed it. Some 

keep pigs and pouitry^ if able to buy any. 

Ta thefe teftimonies it may be added^ that all the 
evidences^ to whom the queftion has been pnopofed, agree 
in anfwering,. that they- nevear knew nor heard of a held 
flave ever amaOing'fuch a fum, as enabled him. to purchafe 
his own freedom. 

With rdpe£l to the artificers, fijcb ashoufe-carpenters^ 
coopers, and mafons,.and the drivers: and head^^fiaves^ 
who form the remaining part of the plaatation.flawes, 
they are deicribed as having in general a more, certain 
allowance of proyifions, ' as being better offl. 

Having now defcribed the ftate of the plantatiafty it 
- will be proper to fay a few words on tjiat of the In^and^ 
Out^door Jla^es,^ The In-<h>or flaves, or domeftics, are 
allowed by ali the evidences to be better cLothed^and le& 
worked than the others, and invariably to look better* 
Some, however^ complain, of their being much pinched 
for food** and the women often fo as to be driven ta 
proflitution, but the general account is that they are- 
better fed than the field flaves. Their life,, however, is, 
defcribed to be often wretched by being continual ty un« 
der the eye of their mafters and miftreues, and thereforer 
continually fubje£l to be teized and mprlified at their 
caprice, fo that Forflrery (as ^yill be explained hereafter )l 
thinks their fituation even harder in ^is rtfycA than- that 
of the f eld Jlaves^ and Coor has known many of them 
wifh to be fent into the field. 

' * Some give thftn one, two, or three bits a week to maintain them-* 
fclve&upon, but the mode of fecdlug them, as weUfti their allowance, 
ii fu'^jeA to no rule* 

' u With 

t S9 ) 

With refpeft to. die Out-door flaves, fevcnJ peribitt; 
who have* a few ilaves, and little work,- allcw them to 
work out, and oblige them to bring home three or four 
bits a. day* The fituadon of thefe i^ confidered to be 
very twd, for they are often unable to find work, and to 
earn the flawed (una, and yet, if they fail, they are feverelf 
puniflied* Mr. Clappefon has known them fteal grau, 
and fell it, ta make up the: fum required. 

In this deicriptton may be ranked fuah\as^ follow the 
occupation of porters^ Thefe are dil&wod to work out^ 
and at the eild of the week obliged to bring home to their 
mafters ascertain weekly fum. Their fituation is muck 
aggranrated^ by. having no fixed rates. If,* fays f Porfter^ 
on being offered too little:fbr their work diey remonftratey 
they are often beaten,- and receive nothing, and fhould 
they refufe tbs next call from- the fame perfoi^ they 
are iummoned b^re* a magiftrate^ and- puiiiflied on 
the. parade for reftUal, and he hag known diem fo pu« 

To the fame defcriptron belong thofe unhappy female^i 
who have leave to go^out for proftitutipn, and are obliged 
to bring their owners a certain payment per week. 
Handfbme' women are expefted to bring home more mo^^ 
ney than the ordinary. They arepunijhtd if they reOfiH 
xvithout the full wages of their proflitutioH. 

Having naw defcribed the labour,f6od, closing, houfeS| 
property, and different kinds of employment of the plan- 
tation, as well as the fxtuation of the Iii-and-out^door 
Saves, as far as the evidence will warrant, . it maybe 
p]X)per to advert to their punifhments ;, and,, firft, to tnofe 
that are inflif^ed by the cow«fkin or the v/hip. 

In the townf many people have their ilaves flogged ^ponr 
their own premifes, in which cafe it is performed by a: 
man, who is paid for it, and who goes round the tow» 
inqueft of delinquents^ But thofe, fays, Mr. H. Rois, 
who'^do not chufe to difturb their neighbours with the 
flaves cries, fend them to the wharfs or gaol, where they 
alfo are corre<!!ted by perfons pud. At otheif times diey 

■^ arc 

9re whipped publicly round the town, and at odiers tied 
down, oc made to ftand in Ibme publick place, and re -^^ 
ccive it there. 

- When they ire flogged on the.wharfe, to which thejr- 
go for the convenience of the cranes and weights,, they 
are defcribed by H. Rofs|, Morley, Jeffreys, Towne, and 
Captain Scott, to have their arms tied to ^chocks of the 
crane^ and weights of fifty-fix pounds applied to their feet.- 
In this fituation the crane is woundup, fo that it lifts 
them nearly from the ground, and keeps them in a 
ftretched pofture, when the whip or cow-ikin is ufed. 
After this they are again whipped, but with ebmy bu/kes 
(which are more prickly than the thorn bufhes in this 
country) in ordpr to let out the congealed blood* Captain 
Scott, defcribing it, fays, that he faw a white man 
purfue a negro into the water, bring him out, and take 
him to the wharf, where he had him hung up to a crane 
by the hands, which were tied together, and weights tied 
to his feet. When thus hoifted up, but fo as ftill ta 
touch the ground, another negro was ordered to whip 
him with a prickly bufli. He walked away from the 
difagreeable fight. The next ,day he faw the fame ne- 
gro lying on the beach, and, with the afliftance of an- 
pth^f) taking the prickle? out of his breech, feeraingljr 
fwelled land bloody> The negro affigned as a reafon forr 
he whipping, the wharfinger, thought hi had Jiaid. tot 
ong on an errand* 

Refpefting the whippings in gaol and round the town,* 
Dr. Harrifon thought them too fevere to be infli<^ed on 
any of the human fpecies. . He attended a man, who had 
beea flogged in gaol, who was ill in ponfequence five, 
©r ilx weeks. It was by his mailer's order ^r not coming 
when l^e was called* He could lay two or . three fingers- 
in the wjpunds made by the- whip, . 

On the other mode. Genetal Tottenham obferves, that 
he was at a planter's houfe when the Jumper came. He 
heard him a(k the mafter, if he had any commands fon 
him* The Maftef replied. No* The Jumper ; then: 
alked the Miftrefs, who replied, Yes. She direded 
him to take out two very decent women}* who attended 



( 6i ) 

table, and to gtire each of diem a cfozen lidhes. Ge* 
neral Tottenham expoftukted with her, but in vain. 
Thejrwere taken out to the publick parade, and he had 
the curioffity^ to go twth them. The Jumper carried a 
long whip like our waggoners. He ordered one of the 
w>)men t5 turn her back, and to take up her clothes 
entirely, and he-gave her a dozen on the breech. "Every 
ftroke broaght flefli from her. She behaved with 
aftoni&ing foititude. After the punifhment, fhe, ac*- 
corcUng to cuftom, ciartefied and thanked him; the 
oth^r had the (ame puni&ment, and behaved in the 
fame way. 

The punishments in the country by means of the 
whip andcow-fkin appear to differ, except in one in- 
ftance, from thofe which have been mentioned of the 

Itis uibal forthofe, fiiysMr. Coor, who do not come. 
int0k|he field in time^ to be punifhed^ In this cafe a feytr 
fteps before they join the gang they throw down the hoe, 
dap both hands on their heads, and patiently take ten^ 
fifteen, or twenty laihes. 

The mode of punifliment, asieenljy Captain Smith 
and feveral- others (and which is the general mode) was 
as follows : — A negro was ftretched oir his belly on thfe 
ground, with a flave to hold each hand and leg, or each 
hand aj^ leg was fki^ened to a ftake. The punifhment 
was innicled by a negrO' with a long whip tapering from 
the fize of a man^s thumb to a fmall laflr. At every 
ftroke a piece of flefli was drawn out, and that with 
much uncont^ern to the dtredor of the punifliment. 

There is another mode defcribed by Mr. Coor, 
About eight o'clock, fays he, the overfeer goes to break- 
fafl", and if he has any criminals at home, he orders a 
black man to follow him ; for it is then ufual to take 
fuch out of the ftocks,. and^ flog them before the over- 
feer*s houfe. - The method is generally this :— The de^ 
liiKjuent is ftrtpped and tied on a ladder, his legs on the 
fides and his arms above his head, and fometimes a rope 
i&tied round his middle. The driver whips him on the 
bore Ikin, an4 if the overfeer thinks he does not lay it on 
- - hard 


( 62 ;) 

hard eoough^ he fometimes knocks- him down with hi» 
own hand, or makes him change places with the delink 
quent, and be feverely whipped- Mr. Coorhas knaw^n 
'many receive on the Isidder, from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty laflies, ^;id feme two cool hundreds, as 
they are generally called. He has known many rerurn- 
ed to confinement, and in one, two or three days, 
brought to the ladder, and receive the fame compliment^ 
or thereabouts, as before. They ieldom take them oiF 
the ladder, until all the fkin, from the hams to the 
finall of the back, appears only raw.flefh and blood, and 
then they wafh the parts with fait pickle. . This ap- 
peared to him, from the convulfions it occafioned, more 
cruel than the whipping, but it was done to prevent mor* 
tification. He has known many after fjich whipping fent 
to the field under a guard and worked all day, with no 
food but what their friends might give them, out of their 
own poor pittance. He has known them returned to the 
flocks at night, and worked next day, fucceffively-* This 
cruel whipping, hard working, and ftarving has, to his 
knowledge,, made many comtpit fuicide. He remem- 
bers fourteen flaves, "s^ho, from bad treatment^ rebelled 
on a Sunday, ran into the woods, and all cut their 
throats together. 

In fpeaking of the punifliments of the flaves by means 
of the whip and cqw&in, it is impoffible to pafs over 
the frequency and feverity of them as defcribed in tho^ 
evidence, as well as the lengths to wliichfame of theit 
ewners go, upon thefe cccafions. 

On the frequency of thefe punifhments.fomething may 
be deduced from the different expreffipn^ which the dif- 
ferent evidences adopt according to their different oppor-- 
tunitiefi of obfervation. Many of the field flaves are faid 
by Duncan, Dalrymple, Fitzmaurice, and Rees, to bs 
jaiarked with the whip ji great proportion of them is the 
.term ufed by Captain Wilfon. That they are marked 
commonly or generally'^ or that the generality of thtm are 
marked, are the expreflions agreed in by the .Dein of 
Middleharj^ Lieutenant Simpfon, Captain Rofs, Captain 
Hall, (navy) Captain Giles, CaptainSmiihj.anJiieut 



( 63 ) 

tenant Davifom The greaUr part of them, lays JeifTreys, 
moji tfthem^ fay Coor and Woolrich, bear the marks of 
the whip. 'Thef^ marks again, fays G;le«, you will find 
on alm9ft all th$ wtaker part of tne gang; and Falcon- 
l>riJge, GeneraJ Tottenham, and ToA^ne, agree in fay- 
ing, either that they hardly ever f aw any^ or that very 
few were, to befsen without fcais or other marks of the 

With refpeft to the feverity of thefe punifliments, it 
may be fhewn by defcribing the nature of the inftru- 
ment with which they are infli£ted, and the power it 
has, and the eiFecS it produce?, wherever it is ferioufly 

The whip, fays Woolrich, is generally m^e of plaited 
cowfkin, with a thick ftrong lifh. It is fo formidable 
an inftrument in .the hands of fome of the overfeers 
that by means of it they can take the fkin ofFa h:>rfe*s 
back. He h^.s heard themboaft of laying the marks of 
it in a deal board, and he has fcen it done. On itsap^ - 
plicat 01 on a flave's back, he has fesn the blood fpurt 
uut immediit Jy on the firft ftroke *. 
; f Nearly the &iHe''account of its conftruftion is given 
by other evidences, and its power and efFe<fls are thus 
defcribed. At every ftroke, fays Captain Smith, a piece 
•ffiejb was d'-awn out. Dalrymple avers the fame thing. 
It will even hrlng blood through the breeches^ fays J* Terry; 
iknd fuch is the efFufion of blood on thofe occafions, 
adds Fitzmaurice, as to. make their frocks, if immedi- 
ately put on, appear a% Jl'tff a's buckram ; and Coor ob- 
ferves, that at his firft going to Jamaica, 9i fight of a com- 
mort flogging would put him in a tremble^ fo that be did not 
feel right for the rejl of the day^ It is obi'erved alfo by Dr. 

* The military whip, fays General Tottenham, cuts the skiu, whereas 
that for the negroes cut:> out eke ticfb.- 

\ Dr. Jackfon and others mention another kind of whip in ufe, 
which' they defcribe to be like what our wagToners ufe, and to be thrown 
at thediftance of three or tour paces, \ihich the former obfervcs greatly 
iucreafes the wcigrtof the laJhes. To this whip Captain Cook ?Uudrs» 
when he fays, a dtxirous liogger could flrike fo ex^&\^ as to lodge the 
pf»int of thelafh juft within the flcMh, Where It woulU remain till picke^ 
oat with his finger and thumb. 


Harrrfoii'ftnd^lfie Dean of MiddMiaQi, that the incifioiiB 
are fometimes fo deep that you may iay your fingers in the 
wounds. There are alfo ^heals^ fiiys Mr. Coor, from 
their hams to the firiall of their backs, Thefe wheals, cu^ 
or markS) as defcribed by C^^tain Thompfofr, Dean of 
Middleham, Mr. Jeffreys, and General Tottenham, as 
indelible^ as la/ling to oU/ige^ or a^ fiich as no time oan trefe^ 
and Woolrich has often feen their backs one undijitn^ 
guijhedmafs oflumps^ hoks^ and furrows. 
. As feirther proofs of the feverity of thefe punlfhmentt 
by the whip or CQwfkin, the following fa£b may be ad- 
duced. Duncan and Falconbridge have known them 
fo whipped that they could not lie down. Fitzmaurice has 
often known pregnant women fo feverely whipped as 
to have mifcarried in confequence of it. Clappefon alfo 
i^new a pregnant woman , whippedf and delivered on the 
fpot* Davifon was once fent for to a woman flave, 
who mifcarried from fevere flogging, when both Jhe and 
the child died. He knew alfo a new negro girl die of a 
mortification of her wounds two days after the whipping 
had taken place. A cafe Similar to the lafl is alfo m«i* 
tioped by Mr. Rees. Finding one day in his walks 
a woiiian lying down and groaning, he underftood from 
her that fhe had been fo feverely whipped for running 
away, riiat (he could hardly move from the place where 
flie was. Her left fide, where fhe had been moft whip- 
ped, appeared in a mortifying Jiate^ and almofi covered 
with worms. He relieved her, as flie was hungry, and 
in a day or two afterwards going to vifit her again, 
found ft)e was dead and buried. To mention other in- 
ftances : a planter flogged his driver to deathy and even 
boaft^ed of it to the pcrfon from whom Mr. Dalryniple 
had die account. Captain Hall alfo (of the navy) 
knows by an inftance that fell under his eye, that a 
flave' s death may be occafloned by fevere punifhment. Dr. 
Jackfon thinks alfo fevere whippings are fometimes the 
. occafion of their death. He recollects -a negro dying un^ 
der the 4afl)^ or foon afterwards \ and Captain Rofs avers, 
that they often die in a few days after their fevere punifh- 
• ments, for having but little food, and little car^ being 


C 6s ) 

4teken to keep the fores clean after tlie wJ^lpping^ their 
death is often the confequence. 

Having now collefted what isJaid on thepunifhments 
by the whip and cowfkin, it will be proper to ixientfon 
thofe other modes with which the evidence prefents us. 
Thefe, however, are iiot eafily fubjeft to a divilion from 
die great variety of their kinds. 

1. Captain Cook, (peaking of the towns, fays, he ' 
has been locked to fee a girl of fixteen or feventeen,. 
a- domeftick flave, running in the ftreets on her ordinary; 
bufinefs, with an iron collar^ having twc hooks proje£fing 
Jj^eral inches both before and behind. 

Captain Rofs, (peaking of the country, has known 
flaves feverely puni/hed, then put into thejiocks^ a cattle 
chain of fixty or feventy pounds weight put on them, 
and a large' collar about their necks, v^xiAtl weight of fifty- 
fix pounds fattened tp the chain when they were drove 

• Mr. Cook ftates that,, when runaways are brought in, 
they are generally feverely flogged, and fometimes have 
7m iron boot put ori one or both legs, and a chain or collar 
round their neck. The chain is locked, the collar fat- 
tened on by a rivet. When the collar is with three pro^ 
jefiions^ ijt is impojjible for them to lie down to fleet : even 
with two^they mitfl lie uneaftly. He has feen collars w/VA . 
four proje^ions. He never ki^ew any injury from the 
chain and collar, but feverely galling their necks. He 
has, however, known a negro lofe his leg from wearing 
the iron boot, 

2. Mr. Dalrymple, in June 1789, faw a' negreft 
brought to St. George's, Grenada, to have her fingers 
cut off. She had committed a fault, and ran away to 
avoid puni(hment ; but being taken, )\^v m2Atx fufpend- .. 

'ed her by the hands\ flogged her and cut her cruelly on 
the back, belly, breaft, and thighs, and then left herfuf 
pended till her fingers mortified. In this ftat^l^. Dal- 
rymple (aw her at Dr. Gilpin's houfe. . ;;. 

3. Captain Rofs has feen a negr^ v^jpma'ri, in Jamai- 
ca, flogged with ebony bufljes (much worfe than our own 
thorn-bulhes) fo that thefi^in of her back was taken offy 
dvivn to her heels. She was then turned round and fio j- 

11 '^*'* 

( 66 ^ 

»gcd/w« her hreaft down to her watfty and in conTequencre 
:ne fiw her afterwards walking upon all four s^ and unable 
to get up. 

4- Captain Cook being on a vifit to General 
Frere at an eftate of his in Barbadoea, and riding one 
morning with the General and two other officers, tber 
ikw near a houfe^ upon a dunghill, a naked negro nearfy 
\fufpended^ byjfringsfrom his elbows backwards^ to the bough 
if a tree^ with his feel barely upon the ground^ and an iron 
weight round his neck^ at leaft, to appearance of i\\b^ 
weight : and thus without one creature near him^ or ap- 
parently near the houfe, was this wretch left expofed to 
the noon-day fun. Returning a few hours afier^ they 
fhund himjitll in the fame flat e^ and would have releafed 
him, but for the advice of General Frere, who had an 
tcftate in the neighbourhood. The gentlemen, through 
\ttifguft, fhortened their vifit, and xeturned the next 

5. Lieutenant Davifon and Mr. Woolrich men- 
«tion the thumb-fcrew^ and Mr^ Woolrich, Captain Rofs» 
Mr. Clappefon, and Dr. Hanifon, mention the picket^ 
.as inftniments of puni(hment. A negro man, in Ja- 
maica, fays Dr. Harrifon, was put on the picket fo long 
,as to caufs <i mortification ofhiifoot and handy on fu(picion 
of robbing his mafter, a publick officer, of a fum of 
money, which it afterwards appeared, the majler had taken 
hitnfetf Yet the mafter was privy to the punilhment, 
and the (lave had no compenfation. He was puniihed 
by- order of the majier^^ who. did not then chufe to make it 
jhiown that he himjelfhad nuade yfe of the money. 

6. Jeffreys, Captain Rofs, M. Terry, and Coor, 
mention the cutting off of ear s^ as another fpecies of pu- 
nifhment* 'JThe laft gentleman gives the following in- 
stance in Jamaica. CTne of the houfe-glrls having broken 

49 plate^ fi^fpi^^ ^ ^^P rftea^ the doSor, ( witb whom Mr. 
Coor bparded) nailed her ear to a pojf.. Mr. Coor re- 
monifarated with him in vain. They went to bed, and 
left her there. In the morning (he was gonc^ having 
torn the head ofthie nail through hex ear. ohe was foon 
brought back, and when Mr. Coor came to breakfafl, 
he found flie had been very fevcrely whipped by the doc- 

" * tor. 

fbfi who' in' his fxxrji clipped both hef ear's' offchje iohif 
heady with a pair ot large fciffars,- attd fhe wa^ fent to 
pick feedis out of cottoiij among three or four more, ema- 
ciated by his cruelties, until' they were fit fornothing elfc.- 

7* Mr. M. Cook, while in' Jamaicaj knew a runr 
away flave brought in^ with part of a turkey with himi 
which he had ftolen, and' which Mr. Cook thinks, he ^ 
hadjiolenfrnm hungevy ay he' was mthing ifut Jkin and 
bone. His matter immediately made two negroes hold 
him down, and with a hammer and a punch, knocked ou0^ 
two of his upper^ and two of his undtr te^th,- 

Mr. Dalrymple was informed by ^young womian flave^ 
in Grenada ) m4io had no teeth, that her miftrefs had, 
with her own hands, pulied theht out', artd given her a^ 
fcvere flagging bcfides, the ^arks of which fhe then^ 
bore.- This- relation was confirmed by feveral town's* 
people of whom he inquired concerning it. 

8; Mr.. Jeffreys has feen flaves with one of their' 
hands off,- which he underftood tO' have been cut off for* 
Rfiing it up againjt a whiti man. Captain Lloyd alfo^ 
iaw at Mrs. Winners at Manwnee Bay in Jamaica, a^ 
ftmale flave, with tut ohfe hand onlyi ^e other having 
been cut off for the fame offence. Mrs. Winne haJi- 
endeavoured to prevent the amputation, but in- vain, for' 
her indented white woman could not be diffuaded from- 
forearingdiat tbe flave had ftruck her, and the hand wa^ 
accor^ngly cut off*- 

9i Captain GileSy Dtxftor'Jackfonv. Mr. Fltzinau-^ 
rice, and Mr. M* Terry,, have feen negroes whofe lega^ 
have been cut offy by their mafler's orderly for running 
away J and Mr. Dalrymple gives the following account : 
A r rench planter, fays he, in the Englifhjfland of Gre--; 
riada, fent for a furgeon to cutoff the leg of a negro who* 
had run away. . On the furgeon's refuiing to do it, the 
jJanter took an iron bar^ and broke the kg in pieces^ and- 
then the furgeon cut it off. This planter did -many fuch^ 
acts of cruelty, and all with impunity.- 

10. Mr. Fitzmaurice mentions,/ among other in-' 
ftances of cruelty, that of dropping hot lead upon ne-- 
groes, which he often faw pra£tifed by a planter of the- 
name of Rufhie, during his refidence in Jamaica. 

H 2- w. M' 

( 68 ) 

H. Mr. Hercules RoTs, hearing one day, in JamaU 
ta, from an enclofure, the cries of fome poor wretch 
tifider torture, he looked through^ and faw a young fe-^ 
vs\2\t Jufpended by the wrifls to a tree^ fivinging to andfrOk^ 
Her toes could barely touch the ground, and her body 
Was exceedingly agitated. The hght rather confounded 
him, as there was no whipping, and the mafter was jufl: 
by, feemingly motionlefs; but, on looking more atten- 
tively, he law in his hand afiick of fir e^ which he held fi. 
as occafionally to touch her about her private parts aft 
flic fwung. He continued this torture with unmoved, 
countenance, until Mr. H. Rofs, calling on him to defift, 
and throv/ing ftones at him over the fence, flopped it. 
' 12. Mr. Fitzmaurice once found Rufliie, the Ja- 
maica planter before memtioned, in the aSl sf hanging 
a negro. Mr. Fitzmauri3f begged leave to intercede, as 
he was doing an adlion that, in a few minutes, he would 
repent of. Ruihie, upon this, being a paffionate mai^ 
ordered him off his eftate. Mr. Fitzmaurice accord- 
ingly went, but returned early the next morning, before 
Rufhie was up, and going into the curing-houfe, beheld 
the fame negro lying dead upon a boards It was notorious 
that Rufhie had killed many of his negroes, and deflroyed 
(hem fo faft, that he was obliged to fell his eflate.-** 
Captain Rofs (ays alfo, that there was a certain planter 
in the fame ifland, who had hajiged a negro on a pofi-i clofit 
to his houfsy and in three years dtftroyed forty negroes^ 
"©ut of fixty, by fevcrity.* The refl of the conducSl of 
this planter, as defcribed by Captain • Rofs, was, after a 
debate, cancelled by the Committee of the Houfe of 
Commons who took the evidence, as containing cir- 
cumflances too horrible to be given to the world ; and 
therefore the reader will find their places fupplied by 
aflerifks, in the evidence at large. 

13. On Shrewfbury eflate, in Jamaica, fays Mr- 
Coor, the overfeer fent for a Have, and in talking 
with him, he h2&\UJlruck him on the head, with afmall 
hanger', and gave him two Jlabs about the waijl. The 

• It is not improbable, bat thai Captain Rofs, and Mr. FLtzmturice, 
allude to the fame perfoji* 


C ^9 )' 

ffave fai3, " Overfeer, you have killed me," He pufHed^ 
him out of the piazza. The flavewent home, and died* 
that night. He was buried,., and no moi-e faid about it. • 
A manager of an eftate, feys Mr. Woolridi, in Tor- 
tt)la, whofe owner did notrefide on the ifland, fitting at 
dinner, in a fudden refentmentat his cook,, went directly 
to his fword,. atid ran^ the negro woman through the hodyy* 
and Jhe died upon the Jloor immediately^ and the negroes 
Were called in-to take her away, and bury her.. 

14. Mr, Giles recolle£ls fcveral^flioekmg inlfences 
of punifhment.. In particidar, on the eftate where he 
lived,, in Monfeirat, the driver at day-break once in-- 
formed the ovcrfeer,, that one of four 6r five negroes = 
chained in the dungeon would not rife.- He accom- 
panied the overfeer to the dungeony. who fet the others 
that were in- the chain to. drag him out, and not rifing 
when out, he ordered a bundle of cane-trajh to\ be put' 
round him^^ and fit f re to^ As he ftill did not rife, he^ 
had a (mdilfoldering iron heated^ and thrufl hetwse'Q his 
teeth* As theman^did' not yet rife, he had the chaim 
taken olt,. and fent him to the hofpital,-, where he. lan-^ 
guijhed {omedzpyZnidied,. 

15. An overfeer, on the eftate where Mir. J^ 
Terry was in G4fenada,^ (Mr..Cbghlari) threw a flave 
into the boiling cane-jidice^ who died in four days. Mr.- 
J. Terry was told of this by. the owner's fon, bythe 
carpenter, and by, many flaves on the eftate.. He has 
heard it often^. ' 

16. Mr. Wooliich' fays, a negro ran away from": 
a planter in Tortola, with whom he was well acquainted. 
The overfeer having orders to take him dead or. alive,, 
awhile after found him in one of his huts, faft afleep, in. 
the day time, andjhot him through the body. The negro- 
jumping up, faid, ^ What you kill me afleep 5'* andi 
dropped dead immediately. The overfeer /o^ off his 
heady and carried it to the owner: Mr. Woolrich kne\^' 
another inftance in the famei ifland^ A planter, offended^ 
with his waiting man, a mulatto, ftepped fuddenly to liisi 
gun^ on which the man ran off, but his mafter Jh^h him^ 
thrmgh the head with aftngle halL. 

H J^ Eromi 

< 7^ ) 

From the above accounts, there. are no lefs tbanyjjr- 
teen forts of extraordinary puniuiments, which the ima- 
gination has invented in the moments of paffion and ca- 
price. It is much to be lamented, that there are others 
in the evidence not yet mentioned. But as it is neceflary 
to infert a new head, under which will be explained 
the concern which the very. * women take^ both in th« 
ordinary and extraordinary punifhments of the flaves, 
and as fome of the latter, not yet mentioned, are , infepa- 
rably connefted with it, it was thought proper to cite 
them under this new diviilon rather than continue them 
und^r the old. 

It will appear extraordinary to the reader, that many 
women, living in the colonies, fliould not only <?r-f/^r, 
and ohtn fuperintend<i but fometimes actually /;2/?/^^ with 
their onm hands fome fey ere punifhments 4jpon their 
ilaves, and that thefe fliould not always be women of a 
low order, hut frequently of refpeSiabihty and rank. 

In the inftance of whipping, mentioned by General 
Tottenham (p. 60) we find the order for it given by 
the wife of a planter, whom the General was viliting, 
though the hufband had declined it on his part. * A lady 
is reprefented by Mr. Cook as having' her domeftics 
flogged every Monday morning. Capt. Cook reprefents 
a woman of refpeSfable condition as fending her i^rrvant to 
be flogged for a mijtake only* Lieutenant Davifon Ijas 
often known the miflrefs fend her domeftics to h^', pur 
nifhed a72d without telling them for what* He has k^n 
^ flave alfo,both whofe nojlrils had heen flit byher mi/lrefs's 
arder^ who was of fome confequence^ being the wife of 
the chief engineer of the ifland ; and he alfo remembers 
a new negro girl, flogged by the order of her miftrefe, 
who died in two days afterv/ards of her wounds. 

Lieutenant Davifon, Captain Smith, and Dr. Jack- 
fon, all agree that it was coramonfor ladies of refpe Si ability 

* The Editor feels a reluftanre in mcnrioning women on this occafiooi. 
Vut whcii he copfttlers how much i he explanation of their conduftwilt 
fliew the iniquity of the fy ft em of llavery, ani its baneful inflacnce on 
thofe moft Uilpolcd to benevolence and coinpairi«n, heiccli ic a duty 10 
f roceed ia tin: iwrratioa* without any fartKtr apology. 


( 71 ) 

Und rank to fuperintend the punijhment of their Jlaves* 
Conformably with this, we find Dr. Harrifon Hating 
to the Committee, that a negro, n\ Jamaica, was flogged 
to death by her miftrefs's order, who flood by to fee the 
puniftiment. Lieutenant Davifon alfo flates, that in the 
fame ifland, he has feen feveral negro girls at work: 
with the needle, in the prefence of their millreflcs, with 
a thumb-fcrew on their left thumbs, . and he has fecit 
tjie blood guih out from the ends of them. He has alfo 
feen a negro girl made to kneel with her bare knees on 
pebbles, and to work there at the fame time ; a fort of 
punifhment, he fays, among the domeftics, which he - 
knows to be in common ufe. 

On the fabject of women becoming the executioners 
of their own fury, Do£lor Jackfon obferves, that the firfl: 
thing that {hocked him in Jamaica was a~creole lady^ of 
fome confequeuce^fupirintending the punijhment of her Jlaves^ > 
Diale and female^ ordering the number of lajhes^ and^ with 
her ovDii hands^ f'^g^'^^Z ^^^ negro drivet'y if he did not 
punifn properly* 

.. Capt. Cook relates, that two young ladies of fortune, 
in Barbadoes, fifters, one of whom was difpleafed at the 
piegnaiKy of a female flave belonging to the other, bjr 
the fon of the furgeon attending the eftate, proceeded to 
fome very derogatory a£ts of cruelty. Jvith^ their owHt 
garters they tied the young woman neck and heels, and 
then beat her alraoft to death with the heels of their fliocs. 
One of her eyes continued a long while afterwards in 
danger of being loft. They after this continued to ufe 
her ill, confining and degrading her. Captain Cook 
came in during the beating, and was an eye witnefs to 

Capt. Cook ftates farther^ that he faw a woman, 
named Rachael Lauder, beat a female flave molt unmer- ' 
ci fully. Having hruifed her head almoji to a jelly ^ with 
the heel of her flioe, Ihe threw her with great force on 
the feat of the child's neceilary, and then tried to flamp. 
her head through the hole^ and would have murdered her, 
if not prevented by two officers. The girl's crime was 
the not bringing money enough from on board fhip, 

^ where 

r 72 ) 

^rficre (he was fentby her miftrefeyor ^ii? purpofe of 

Lieutenant Davifon ftates, in his evidence,. that the 
clergyman's wife at Port Ropl, was remarkably cruel ^ 
She ufed to drt)p hot fealing in; ax on her negroes, after 
flogging them. He was ferrt for as fargeon to one of 
them, whofe breaft was terribly burnt with fealing. wax*- 
He was alfo once called in to a woman flave, who had" 
been tUd up all night by her hands, and had been abufed 
with cayenne pepper^ * by the fame mijtrejs^ and in a way: 
too horrid and indecent to mention. He lived next 
door, he ftates alfo, to a waflier*^ woman at Port Royal^, 
who was almoft continually flogging her negroes. He- 
has often gone in and r^monftrated againft her cruelty^, 
when he has feen the negro women chained to the wajhing 
tubs^ almojl naked^ with their thighs and backs in a gore if 
bhod^.fromJUgging.^ He could mention various other 
capricious puniihments, if neceflary. 

Mr. Forfter, examined o» the feme fubjed^ fays he 
has known a creole wbman in Antigua,, drop i^/y^tf/zw^- 
vfax on a girl's back,< after a flogging. He and many- 
others few a young woman of fortune and chara<5fcer . 
flogging a ncgf d man very feverely with her own hands^ 
Many nmilar inftandes he could rehte if ncceflary. Theji^ 
are almoft innumerable among the domeftick''fiave5k 

If it mould be a&cd for what offciices the different, 
punifhments now cited have taken pkce, the following, 
anfwer may be given. 

The flaves appear to have been punifhed, as fef as can. 
beafcercained from the evidence under the head of ordi- 
nary punifhments^ for not coming into the field in time^^ 
not picking a fufficient quantity of grafs^ not appearing 
willing to work, when in izSkfickandnot ableyfor fta3dng 
too long on an errand, for not coming immediately when 
called, for not bringing home, (the women) the full 
weekly fu?n cnpinei by their owners, for .running away^ 
and for theft, to v^ich they were often driven bt hunger. 
. Under die head of " extraordinary punifliments,"' 
foiiie appear to have fuffered for running away, or for 
lifiing up a hand againft a white man^ or for breaking 
i, plate. 

•( 73 ) 

flatij orfpHKfig a cjtp of tea^ or to extsri canfifjiort. 
Others ^aiii in the moments ofjfudden refentmenty and one 
on a diabolical pretext, which the mafter held out to the 
world to conceal his own villainy^ and which he knew to be 

' Under the head of " the part which the very women 
take inthefe puniihments,'' a female (lave is panifhedfor 
being found pregnant ; another for not bringing home the 
full wages of projlitution ; another foxjealoufy on the part 
of her miftrefs; others again, from an opinion that flave* 
could not be managed without feverity ; and others in 
the moments of pa&on, without even the allegation of a 
fault* In {hort, it appears that they are often punimed 
as caprice and paffion di<£bates ; and to fu^h lengths d^o 
people go wh«fe minds are depraved by the exercife of 
unlimited power, that we find an inftance in the evi- 
dence, related by Dr. Harrifon, ('who knows alfo others 
of the kind), of a man buying a negro, who belonged to 
another man, but wiio mimicked him, for the purpofe of 
gratifying his revenge. After having bought him, he or- 
dered him to be puniihed, and the confequence was, 
that thejlave cut his own throat. 

On the fubjeft of capital ofFences and punifhments, a^ 
man aud a woman flave are mentioned to have been 
hanged, the man for * running away, and the woman 
for having fecreted him. The l)eari of Middleham few 
two inftances ef flaves being gibbetted alive in chains^ 
but he does not fay for what, only that this is the pu- 
nifliment for enormous crimes : and Mr. Jeffreys, the 
only other perfon who fpeaks on this fubjedl, fays, that he 
was in one of the iflands, when feme of the flaves mur- 
dered a white man, and deftroyed fome property on the 
«fiatc. The execution of thck he defcribes as follows : 

He was prefent, he fays, at the execution of (^y/Qw ne- 
groes in Tobago, in the year 1774, whole right arms 
were chopped off; they were then dragged to kvi^vi 
flakes J and a fire, confifting of trafh and dry wood, was 

* Slaves ruaning away are puniihed Tarioufly, but on abfenting t))em« 
fclves for a certain time, tUcy ni^y b« punUheJ with death. 


lighted about them. They were thare huthtWdestAv- 
He does not remember hearing one of them murmury. 
complain^ cry^ or do any thing that indicated fear. One 
of them in particular, named ChuW), was taken in thc^ 
woods that morning, was tried abput noon, and ivas 
thus executed with the reft in the evening. Mr. Jelfrey^- 
fiood clofe by Chubb when his arm was cut off. He 
ftretched his arm out, and laid it upon the block, pulled 
up the fleeve of his fliirt^ with more coolnefs than he^ 
(Mr. Jeffreys) fliould have done,, if he had been to be 
kt blood. He afterwards would not fuffer himfelf to be^ 
dragged to the ftake, as the others had been, but got 
upon his feet, and walked to it. As he was gx>ing to the' 
ftake, he turned about, and addreiled himfelf to Mr.- 
Jeffreys, who was ftanding within two or ^ree yard^ 
of him, and faid, ^< Buckra, you fee me now, but to-^ 
^ morrow I fhail be like that," kidcing up the duit:" 
with his foot. (Here Mr. Ji^reys folemnly added in* 
his evidence the wordfe, " So help me God*") The 
impreffion^ this made upon his^ mLndy Mr: Jefmys <^-» 
clared,- no time ever could erafe. Sampfon^ who made" 
the eighth, and a negro, whofe name Mr.. Jt^neys doe^ 
not recolle<Sl, was prefent at tbisi execution. Sampfon, 
next morning was hung in chains all ve^. and there he 
hung till he was dead, which, to^ the beft of his recol-^ 
leclion,. was feven daj^s. The other negro^ was fen*- 
tenced te be fent to the mines< in South America, and,, 
he believes, was fent accoidingiy. Neither of thofe 
two, during the time of the execution, fhewed any 
marks of concern, on diftnay, that he could obferve. 
A ftrongerinftance. of human fbrtitude, he declared, 
be never faw. 

Having now ftsaited the fubftance of the evidence* 
en the £abje£fc of offences and puniflunents,. we come 
to a cuftom which appears too general to be paffed * 
over in filence.. 

Dalrymple, Forfter, Captain Smithy Captain Wilfon, 

and General Tottenham, affert that // /> no uncommon 

thing for perfons to negkSf and turn off their flaves when 

paft Jabour*. They are turned oQ\ lay Captain Wilfon, 

g^ ' Lieutenants 

( 75 ) 

Xieutenant Davifon, and General Tottenham^ to plunder^ 
*b4gy or ftarve. Captain Cook has kno>yn fome take 
care of them.; but fays, others leave t\i^m to /I arve and 
die. They are often defired when old,^ fays Mr. Fitss- 
maurice, ta provide for themfelvei^ and they fufFer much* 
Mr* Clappefon knew a man who had an old, decrepid 
woman flave, to whom he would allow nothing. When 
paft labour, the owner did not feed them^ fays Giles ; aod 
Cook dates that, within his experience, they bad no food 
but what they could get from fuch relations as they might 
' have had. This is the adcount given by the different 
•witncfles ; and accordingly we find fome of the fuper- 
anrmated Haves oh the different eftates, whi wanted every 
.thing (Harrifon)4 others begging (Rees); others digging in 
the dunghill for food^ (IXalrymple); and others lying, mU 
ierable objects, about the wharfs and beaches y and in the 
roads and ftreets (Jeffreys, J. Woodward, and Cook)* 
General Tottenham has often met them, and, once m 
particular, an^ld woman, paft labour, who told him that 
her mafter had jf// her adrift to Jhift for herfelf He faw 
her about three days afterwards, lying dead in the fame 
place. This cuftom of turning them off when old and 
.helplefs .is called in the iflands (Captain Wilfon and 
Captain Lloyd) ** Giving them free." 

As a proof hffu) little the life of an old flave is regarded 
in the Weft Indies, we may make the following extraflr 
from the evidence of Mr. Coor. Once when he was 
dining with an over leer, an old woman who had run 
away a few days, was* brought home, with her hands tied 
Jjehind. After dinner, the overfeer, with the cleri', 
named Bakewell, took the woman, thus tied, to the 
.hot^houfe, a place for the fick, and where the (locks ace 
in one of the rooms. Mr. Coor went to work in the 
mill, about one hundred yards oS^ and hearing a mof): 
cBftrcfsful cry from "(hat houfe, he afked his men, who 
and what it was. They faid they thought it was old 
Quaiheba* About five o'clock the noife ceafed, and 
about the time he was leaving work, Bakewell came to 
him, apparently in great fpirit-s, and faid, ** Well, Mr. 
.Coor, Old Quaiheba is dead. We took ha| to the 

• flocks- 

t 76 ) 

ffocks^-room ; the overfeer threw a rope over the beam, 
1 was Jack Ketch, and hauled her up, till her feet were 
ofF the ground. The overfeer locked the door, * and took 
the key with him, till my return juft oow, with a ilsk;ve 
for the flocks, when I found her head." Mr. Coor (aid, 
^* You have killed her, I heard her cry all the after-* 
noon." He anfwered, " D — n her/or an old b — h^ 
/he was good for nothing \ what fignifies killing fiich an 
eld woman as her.'* Mr, Coor faid, " Bakewell, you 
fhock me," and left him. The next morning his men 
told him, they had helped to bury her. 

But it appears that the aged are not the only, perfoils 
whofe fate is #0 be co'mmiferated, when theyt)ecome of 
no value \ for people in youth, if difabled affc abandoned 
. to equal milery. General Tottenham^ ..^out threr 
weeks before the hurricane, faw a youth, about nine« 
teen, -walking in the ftreets, in a moft deplorable-fitua- 
tion, entirely naked^ with an iron collar about his necJkj 
with jive long projeSling fpikes. His body^ before and be^- 
hind^ his breech^ belly ^ and thighs^ were almojl cut to piecesj 
and with running fores all over them^ and you might put 
your finger in fome of the wheals. He could not fit dowrt^ 
owing to his breech being in ajiate of mortification^ and it 
%vas impojftble for him to, lit down^ from the,pt*aje£iion of 
the prongs. The boy came to the General. and afked re- 
lief. He vf2L% Jhocked at his appearancej\znd ^(ked him 
what he had done tofufferfuch a punijhment^ and who in - 
fli6^ed it. He faid it was his mafter, who lived about 
two miles from town, and that as he could not work^ he 
would give him nothing to eat. . 

If it be poffible to view human depravity in a worfe 
light than it has already appeared in on the fubje<S of the 
treatment of the (laves when difabled^from labour, it 
may be done by referring to the evidence of Capt. Lloyd, 
who was told by a perfon of veracity, when in the Weft 
Indies, but whom he did not wi(h to rame in his evU 
dence, that it was the pradice of a certain planter to 
frame pretences for the execution of bis old 3Uuorft oat Jlaves^ 


( n ) 

in Brd^ get thi * ifiand alki/uimefm And-it was fuppo{e4 
ihat he dealt largely in that way. 

Having now cited both the ordinary and extraordi- 
nary punifhrnents inflii^ed upon the flave$, it may be 
prefumed that fprae one will afk herey whether, under 
ihefe various aflfi of cruelty, they arc wholly without 
redrefs ? To this, the fiollowihg anfwer may be given-* 
That, with refpeStto the ordinary puniflmicnts, by the 
whip and co^in (where they do not terminate in 
death) the power of the mafter or overfeer is under little 
f6r no controul. 

. Firft, Becaufe, as we have already fecn, they can 
order or inflict punifhment for any, even imaginary, of*» 

Secondly, Becaufe the law of thirty-nine lafljes (the 
greateft number allowed to be given toa flave, at any one 
time) is a mere farce, and never attended to by nraders 
or owners, if they ihouid think it proper to inflid more : 
for, Woolricb fays, that thechief whipper lays on their back 
forty y fifty ^futy-^ or more laihes, at the pUaJure of the owner 
9r averfter. Captain Rois has known negroes receive^u;^ 
hundred laihes, where the law would give only thirty^ 
nine. Mr. Cook has known a field flave receive tw9 
hundred laihes, by order of the overfeer^ and a domeftick 
ffty^ by order of his mijtrefs. Mr. M. Terry alfo bb^ 
ierves, that the Jaw was reftri£ted to thirty-nine^ but it 
.was not in the leofi attended to during his experience* 
He has, in fhortjfeen it broken repeatedly. The fame lan^ 
guage is ajfo fpoKen by others. 

Thirdly, Becaufe, if there fhould be fome, who bear 
the law m their minds, at the time of punifljing, they 
evade it by various means. Whipping, iays Mr. Fit^.- 

• maurice, was underftood to be limited to thirty-nine 
Jafhes i but it was often evaded by putting the negro into 

ihejiiicks^ and giving him thiriy^nine for the fame offence^ 

-next day. Wc find alfo, by Captam Rofs's account, a 

jnagijirate^ and of courfe, a guardian of the laws^ evadinfi^' 

it ii^ like manner j for that gentleman has feen Johi. 

• * .... 

* The iHand allowaoce in Jamaica to the mafter is 40U currency ff r 
any oae •£ kit llaTes if executed for a breach ai (he ]«irs« 

t X Shackle^ 

( 78 ) 

£haclde) Efq. a magiftrate in Jamaica, flogging a nvgra 
^hree times in one day^ namey at hreakfaft^ dinner^ and at 
fix in the evening : hut the negro was in thefi(fcks bettveen 
the floggings. Captain Cook alfo exprefsly fays, that 
the law may he evaded by fpUtting a crime into many^ 
^nd, by intervals, dividing the times cfpunijhment ; andof 
this, where (laves are puniflied at home, he fays there are 
daily irjiances. Returning home one evening late vjrith 
Major Fitch of the 90th regt. they heard moft dreadful 
xries, and, on approaching the fquare at Bridge-to-wn, 
found they proceeded from the houfe of a man that fold 
iiquor, and heard the repeated lafhes of a whip, on a crea- 
ture whom they conceived to be dying. On their re- 
quefting admiflion, th« cruelty feemed to be wantonly in- 
creafed, which (o provoked them that they broke open 
=the door, and found a negro girl of about nineteen, chain- 
ed to the Aoor, almoft expiring with agony and lofs of 
jslood. The man taking refuge behind his counter from 
.their indignation, and thinking himfelf free from the 
law, immediately cried out with exultation, that he had 
only given her thirty-nine lajhes at one time^ and that only 
three times ftnce the beginning of the night. He then 
sthreatenedihem for breaking his door, and interfering he- 
iween him and his flavey whom he would flog to death, for 
all any one^ and he would give her the fourth thirty ^nine 
laflies before morning}; which muft have killed her> as 
ihe feemed then to be dying. In ihort, to ufe the lan- 
•guage of the different evidences, it appears that the flaves 
have no legal r^drefs, in the cafe alluded to^ againft their 
«nafters and miftreffes, the latter of whom* even when 
they become the executioners on fuch occaiions, are not 
-received the worfe for it in fociety. Perhaps, iays Dr. 
J[ackfon, ^^ fuch a me might be called a termagant^ but fbe 
\ufas not the lefs refpe^ed. It was indeed thought necefjary 
for an indujlrious wife to be rigid in the punijhment of her 
flaves*^* It is impoflible to omit mentioning here that 
^>Lieutenant Davifon was fo hurt at the fevere and fre- 
quent whippings of one of thefe women, that he Com- 
plained to a magiftrate^ who faid he had nothing to d» 

with it. 


( 79 > 

. With refpe£k to Ae ovcrfecr, whom we have' fcftilP 
alfo exercifing a difcretionary power, he is certainly fub- 
yeH to the controul of the mafter, if. he refides, and in- 
cafe of his non-refidence, to that of the attorney of the 
eftate : but then,fays J. Terry,4iie flaves,if feverelypunifh-^ 
.ed for trifling faults, dare not complain of him to the matter 
for fear of worfe treatment. J. Terry has known them 
punijhed b^ their, majier ibr fo doing, and fent back to- 
Ae plantation, though their complaints were juft. Mr. 
Cook alfo has known flaves punijhed for complaining /* 
the rnafter^ and,. in his abfence, to the attorney againjt the 
overjeer^ for ill uftge.. . If again,* fays Coor, the llav^ 
complain to the attorney, and the attorney liftens, the 
overfeer &ys he will leave the eftate, H? has alfo feen 
the attorney wink at the oppreffion of the flaves, becaufe 
he has 2. per centage on the crop, and. the more the over-' 
ieer puihes them, the more the attorney gains. The 
fame per cent/ige on the crop is acknowledged alfo By 
Xrieutk Davifon. Captain Ro& neverthelefs ftates thae 
pverfeers are often- turned away for fevere whippings j 
but he is the only one of the evidences who fays ib, and 
it appears that there mutt be frequently great obttacles 
to thisj for it is obferv^d by Davifon, Fitzmaurice, and 
Cook, that fome attornies live thirty^ forty y ot fifty miles 
from the e^ate^ and of courfe the^ flaves * cannot go 
to complain ; and the fame three gentlemen, together 
with Coor, J/ Terry, and Duncan, ftate that on fome 
cftates one perfon holds the oflice of attorney and 
.overfeer at the fame timey where his power is of courfe 
under no controul. 

As to fuch of the extraordinary punifliments before 
mentioned as did not terminate in death, fuch as picket- 
ing, dropping hot fealing-wax on the flelh, cutting oflF- 
ears and the like, it appears that flaves had no redrefs 
whatever, for that thefe a£tions alfo on the part of the 
matters were not deemed within the reach of the law.- 
In the inftance cited of the Dodor clipping oiF the. ears 

* If a Have Ihould btfecn'any day, except Sunday, wandering aboat, - 
"and even then without a ticker, he would be taken up, put into giol, and^ 
ffdvertifed as a- runaway. ■ 

I 3 of' 

( 80 ) 

^f a femak flave, no more, notice pas ta^en ofif^ feys Coor, 
than if a dog's ears had been cut off\ fihcmgh it muft have 
been knbwri to the vtagijirafes* in the dreadful inftancc 
alfo cited of a planter's breaking his flave's leg^ by an 
iron bar, to induce the furgeon to cut it off, as a punifli* 
Inent, Mr, Dalrymple obferve« that it was not the pu1>« 
lick opinion, that any funijhment was due to him on that 
account^ for though it was generally k?fown^ he wa* equalfy 
well received in fociety afternvards as before : and in the 
xrafe alfo mentioned of the owner torturing his' female 
Have by the application of a lighted torch to her body^ 
Mr. H. Rofs ftates only, that this owner was not a 
iHan of character: with refpe£l to his fuffering by the 
law, he obferves that he was never brought to * any triai 
for it ; and he did not know that the law then extended /» 
the punijhment of whites for fuch aSfs as thefe. 

With refpe£t to fuch of the puni&mentf as have ter* 
kiinated in death, the reader will be abk to coHe^h^ 
what power the mailers and overfeers,- Mid what pro- 
te^ion the flaves have had by the la^t^ firom 4!he fellow^ 
ifig accounts. 

There are no left than feven fpecifick infiances mtn-^ 
tkned in the evidence, in which flaves died in confeqaehce 
of the whipping they received, and ytt in no one of them 
was the murderer brought to an account. One of the per* 
pctrators is mentioned by Mr. Dalrymple as having 
i^^^iofwhathehad (lone; and Dr. Jackfon fpeaks of 
the other in thefe words 5 ** No attempts^ fays he^ were 
made to bring him tp jujiice : people fa id it was an unfortu^ 
nate things and were furpri%ed he was not more cautious^ 
0s it was not the firjl thing of the kind that had happened 
to him\ but they dwelt chiefly- on ihe proprietor's lofs.** 

Itt fuch of the extraordinary punlfements, as termi- 
fnated irj death, there are no lefs than feven fpecifick ir^ 
Jlanees alfo in the evidence. In one of them vi^. that of 
throwing the flave into the boiling tanc-jurcc, we fit d 
from Mr. J. Terry, the overfeer punifhed, but his pii* 
nifhment confifted only of replacing the flave and leaving 
bis owner^ fervice. In that of killing the flave by Iight>- 
ing a fire round him and putting a hoc foldering iron into 


his mouth, the overfeer's condudl, fays Mr: Giles, was 
net even condemned by his mafter ; nor in any of the reft 
were ajiy means whatfoever ufed to puniih the offenders. 
In the three mentioned by Mr. Woolrich he particularly 
fays, all the white people in the ijland were acquainted with 
thefe fa6ls* Neither of the affendersyho^ivever,^ vcere called 
to an account^ nor were theyjhunned infocietyfor ity or cott" 
ftdeted as in difgracs. 

In going over the evidence we find three or four other 
inftancef, not yet cited in this chapter. The firft is that 
of an huckfter in Antigua, who murdered his woman 
flave with circumftances^o/* /A^ mofl atrocious barbarity^- 

This man however was tried, convi(5led, and -fined. 

He is reprefented by Mr. Forfter, as having been uni- 
verfally blamed, but he was dealt with as ufual in the' 
snurfe of trade. 

At Grenada in the town of St. George, a mafon^ 
named GhamberSj killed a negro in the middle of the day, 
and Mr. Dalrymple believes in the church yard, but na* 
native was tgken ofit,- 

Twoflaves, fays Captain Cook, were murdered and 
thrown into the road during his refidence in B^rbadoes v 
yet no Jegal inquiry ever took place that be heard of. 

He was repeatedly informed by the inhabitants that' 
they did not chufe to make examples of white men there^^ 
fearing, it might* be attended with dangerous confe* 

Going over the evidence we come at laft to an in-- 
({ance (and the only inftance of the kind mentioned) of a 
white man being banged for the murder of another's flave;.. 
and it is very remarkable, that he (hould be reprefented 
as having been hanged more becaufe he was an obnoxious -^ 
man^ than that the marder of a flave was confideredas a 
crimen for Mr. Dalrymple flates that the Chief Juftice 
of the Ifland (Grenada) told \ivaiy he believed if this 
murderer, whofe name was Bacchus Preftdn, had been a 
man of good chanu^er^ or had had friends or money to 
have paid for the flave^ he would not have been brought ta- 
trial. Hfe was of a very, had character and had been* 
obliged to leave Barbadoes up^nthat account. At Gre- 

I 3 ' nada 

( 82 ) 

nada he had bccti a Bailiff^ s follower., and, from his rigour 
in executing his oflice and bad charaSitr^ he was particU' 
hrly ohnoxifft/s to ths inhabitants ofihet:w7iafSi. George, 

Such appears to have been, in the experience of the dif- 
ferent evidences cited, the foilorn and wretched fituation 
of the flaves. They often complain, fays Df» Jackfon, 
■chat thty are an opprefied people > that they juffer in this 
worlds hut expeSf happinefs in the next ; whilft they de- 
nounce the vengeance of God on the white men their op^ 
preffhrs : if you fptak to them of future puniftiments they 
fay, " ff^y Jhould a poor negro he punijhedy he does «* 
wrong ; fery cauldrons., and * fuch diings, are reCervcd 
for white people^ as punijhments for the opprejfion ofjlaves.*^ 

If it fhould be afked here> whether fome new laws have 
not lately paffed- the. legiflature of fome of the iflands 
with a view of amending the fituation of liie flave?, it 
rtiuft be anfwered in the affirtnaCive. The firft is the 
celebrated confolidated a£i of Jamaica, and the other is 
an z8t of the affembly of Orepada, entitled " an aft for 
the bettel* protection and promoting the increafe and po* 
t^ulation of flaves." Thefe ai5ts, however, the evidence 
obliges us to obftrve, never originated in etny intention /# 
ferve the flaves^ and are in reality of little or no ufe. 

Captain Giles, who was in Jamaica both bdbre and 
fince the pafling of the conibiidated ad):, gives his evi-* 
^snce without any diftinftion of this epoch, and as if n^ 
difference had happened in the treatment of the flaves. 

Mr. Cook, long refident alfo in the fame ifland, and 
fince the pallEng of the a£t, knows of no legal prote^Nen 
fhatJJaves have ag^in/f injuries from their makers. 

Mr, Ciappefon, examined exprefsiy on the fubjed^ 
ikys that he was in Jamaica v^n the aflfembly paflled 
the confolidated law. fie has often heard ic was p^ifibd 
becaufe Cffheflir in England about tbejla^e trade. He 
never heard that any regard was paid to it, flaves being 
Jtill treated as before : nor did he ever hear of any profe- 
cution for fuch difregard. He recoUeds an inftance of 
difregard to it, which came under his eye. The owner 
•f an old and dccrepid female flave would allow her nci* 
tiler viduals nor clothings upon which he advifbd a fott 


( 83 ) 

of the woman to complain to a maglftrate, who would 
perhaps order her to be taken care of, if he regarded 
the law ; but he believes he zuas deterred from fear ofpu^ 
nijhment^ as that owner treated his flaves very harmly in 

With refpeft to the other adl, namely that paiTed in 
Grenada, Mr. J. Terry fays, that the opmion there upon 
pafling it was, that it never would have the intended ejfell. 
He did not obferve yX make any difference^ except in the 
half days in the week. The clergymen of the parish 
where he refided, never performed the duty the a5i impofed 
on them, and he never heard of any complaints againft 
them for the non-performance of it. . 

Mr. Dalrymple nates he was in Grenada, in 1788^ 
when the aft was pafled. The principal objection, and 
which he repeatedly heard, to its pafHng was, that it 
might make the Haves belk\iSy 4hat the authority of their 
mafiers was lejjened: but otherwife, many thought it 
would be of little ufsy as it was a law made by themf elves 
againfi themfelves^ and to he executed by themfelves : they 
obferved belides, that fuch lavvs were unneceflary for the 
proteftion of negroes who were treated well j and that 
others hatd fi many opportunities of evading the laiv (the 
evidence of negroes not being admitted) that it would be of 
no ufe. At the time of pafling the f^id aft, the propofal 
in the Britifli Parliaqieat for the abolition of the flaye^ 
trade was a matter of general difcuflion in the ifland : 
and he believes was a principal r^afin for pajjing if^ Mr* 
Dalrympje believes it will prove ineffe^ual : becaufe, as 
no nes^ro evidence is admitted^ thofe who abufe them will 
Jiill do it with intpu^nity ; ' and people, who live on terms 
of intimacy, would diflike the idea of becoming fpies and 
informers againfi each other • 

All the fefts having been nowcrtpd, and the obfer-* 
rations made, which it wa<s intended to introduce intb 
this chapter, it may be concluded in the words of the 
Rev. Mr. Stuart, and General Tottenham. ^ 

The former {ays, he is warranted in declaring the ne-^ 
groes an opptTefled find ipucb injured race, and in no 
betto jpftimatiw. th^ JW>QUCiiig. c^e^ ,ajad every de-» 


( »4 ) . 

fcription' of their treatment he has met Vfixh falls Jborf of 
their real Jlate, He read Mr. Ramfay's Effay in manu- 
fcript at St. Kitt's, and comparing // on thefpot with the 
treatment of the flaves, lie thought it too favourable. 

The latter ftated to the Committee, that he thought 
the flaves in Barbadoes were treated v/ith the great eji bar^ 
harityy and that he was very poftive that the impreiHon 
concerning their treatment was made on his mind at the 
time and on the f pot ^ for he repeatedly told the people of 
Bridgetown^ that he hoped to live to fee the unfortunate 
fituation of thefe poor wretches taken up hy fome Mem^ 
her of P arliainent^ and that, fhould fuch an event take 
place, he Jhould look upon it as his duty to offer a voluntary^ 
declaration ifvjhat he knew of the matter* - 

c H A P. v: 

Whether the Natiires of Africa^thus procurtd^iranfportedi. 
and enjlaved^ are mi equal td the Europeans in Capacity^ . 
Feelingy Affe^ion^- and M&ral Charaher\ and Wiether^ . 
if Individuals Jhould he found inferior in Moral Cba-^ 
ra£ler^ it be not owing to their Connexion wkh the lat^- 
ter^ or tO'th0 Trade in Slaves*. 

MR. WADSTROM thinks the undcrftandings of 
the natives of Africa capable of equal improvement 
with thofe of the whites^ zndj as a proof) he ftates feveral' 
of the manufkdhires, which they carry on from the Ri-* 
ver Senegal to the River Sallum. < 

The natives, fays he, are particularly fkilfiil in mahu« 
hn&urmggold and /r^;i. The art of working the former, 


( «5 ) 

he bcliertt^ they derived from the Moors, bat they arc 
now almoft the ible artiils thenofelves, having never feen 
but one Moor working in that branch. They are equal 
to any European goldunith in filagree or trinket work, 
and even in other articles, fuch as buckles, except in the 
chafes,' tongues, "and anchors, virhich they do not manu- 
fefture fo well. The iron which they forge is on anvils 
of a remarkable hard and heavy wood, when they cannot 
get ftbne for the purpofe. 

They manufaSure Mo cloth ^nd leather, with uncom- 
mon neatnefs. The former they dye alfo blue, yellow, 
brown, and orange. The cloth is made beft at Sallum« 
The latter they tan and wqrk into fandals, and' into a 
variety of ufeful and ornamental articles. 

Beudes the above, they are fkilful in making indho and 
foap. They make alfo tottery warey and prepare y^/f for 
their own ufe from die £» water. 

They make alfo canoes, bat as wood of a fafficiently 
cloie texture is feldom found on the fea fhore, they make 
them principally in the interior parts. Here they fhapd, 
but do not hollow dienu When flipped, they are ar^ge4> 
bv a number of the natives for weeks together (each ' 
village generally undertaking to drag them to the next^ 
And receiving m return partly European merchandize, 
luod i^rdy fi& mnd iak) till tbty come to the fea (hore. 
The r<^es, with which t*tey drag them, are made of a 
kind of aloe, growing abundantly in the country ; and 
when well made by the natives, dsey are exc;eeding]y 
ilrong and good. 

Mr. Wadftrom offered to produce, if neceffary, fpe- 
ciniens of feveral of the above manufeilures, which he 
had brought with him from the coaft. 

Nearly the fame accounts are^ giv:;n of their manufac- 
tures by DalrympleJ Kiernan, and Captain Wilfon : and 
Hall, Newton, Surgeon Wilfon, Sir George Young, 
Falconbridge, Captain Thompfon, and Towne, (without 
enumerating many of their manufaftures like the former) 
declare their capacities, cither to be gaody or equal to thofc 
4f the Europeans n 


- ( «6 ; 

With rcfpefi to thcHr feeling and affection one inftance 
may be |iaken from Mr. Falconbridge. Being fent to 
choofe feme flaves out of a yard at Cape Coaft Caftle, 
he objected to one that was meagre^ and put him afide. 
Mr. rakonbridge obferving a tear fteal down the man's 
cheek, which the man alfo endeavoured to conceal, 
inquired of him the reafon, — upon which he faid he was 
going to be parted from his brother. 

As a fecond inftance, Surgeon Wilfon fays, that at 
Bonny,, one of the people called Breechies, of the higher 
clafs, was brought on board. He feemed to take his 
fituation to heart, and became illj but from indulge ncies, 
which" none of the reft had, he partly recovered. When 
he was convalefcent, a young woman was alfo brought 
on board, who proved to be his fifter. On their firft 
meeting, they ftood in filenc#, and looked at each other 
apparently with the greateft affe<5lion ; — they rufhed into 
each others arms— ^mbracedr—feparated themfelves again, 
—and again embraced. Surgeon Wilfon perceived die 
tears to run down the female's cheeks. The man had 
a returh-of his former complaint, and his fifter attended 
him with the greateft care. The firft thing {he did of a 
morning, was to come to Surgeon Wilfon, and a(k how 
her brother did. He at length died— on the news of this^ 
his fifter wept bitterly, tore her hair, and ihewed other 
figns of diftraftion. They carried her fafe to South 
America, and there delivered her as a flave. 

As a third inftance, that mentioned by J. Parker may 
be introduced, (page 43) of the poorw^pman turning her 
head on one fide, when obliged by the whip, to drop her 
dead child overboard, and weeping afterwards for many 

Mr. Wadftrom is clearly convinced, that the natives 
of Africa aftually furpafs in affe£kioh fucli of the Euron 
peans as he has known. 

On the moral cbarafter of the natives, Mr. Wadftrom 
fays, that they are very honefl and hojpi table. He has 
often pafled days and nights alone with them without 
the leaft fear, and was treated with all civility and 


( 8? ) 

Captain Wilfon calls Hl^em grateful and affeSfionate*^^ 
They treated him moft kindly, he fays, when many miles 
lip their country, and unprotected, vying with each other 
in entertaining him, and numbers ihed tears at his de« 

Captain Thompfon, in fpeaking of them, calls them 
harmlefsandinnocenS, Storey, Dairy mple, Howe, Towne, 
and Bowman, join in the epithets of *' Friendly and hof" 
pitabU'^*' to which the latter adds, "/»// and pun^u^l in 
their dealings \^ and they are defcribed by Hall to be as 
capable of virtue as the whites. 

Such appears to be the moral charafter of the Africans 
when they have but little inlercourfe with the Europeans, 
er the trade in flaves: but as they became connected with 
thsfe^ it appears by the evidence, that it becomes proper •^ 
iionably changed. 

In proof of this, Mr. Newton obferves, that the 
natives are often friendly, and may be trufted, where not 
previoufly deceived by the Europeans* He has lived in 
fafety among them when the only white man there. Ihe 
bejl people he ever met with were on the river Gaboon and 
at Cape Lopez.- Thefe had then the leaji interourfe 
with Europe^ aad he believes no trade in flaves^ for their 
trade was ivory and wax^ and he has heard them fpeak 
in cmphatick terms againji the other. 

Dr. Trotter feys, they afe fufceptible of all the facial 
virtues J and he has feen no bad habits, but among thofc 
(one inftance excepted) who were engaged in trade with 
the whites. 

Lieutenant Storey fays, that they are more honeft /«- 
land thzn upon thejhore. 

They are alfo defcribed by Mr. Towne to be in general 
hofpitahle and kindy but to differ as our own people in 
character. Thofe, who live inland^ are innocent : thofe 
on the coaJi\Q2irn to be roguijh^ which he af tribes to their 
intetcourfe with the Europeans. 

The iame accounts are alfo given of them after their 
^UTival in the Weft Indies. Giles and Woo'rich obferve ' 
their intelie;^s to be goody and Harrifon, Jackfon, Duncan, 
Scuart| Cook^ the Dean of MidcBeham, and Rees, to be 


( 8e ); 

iqual to tbofe of the Europeans. The fame equaitty t» 
the whites is mentioned by Harrifon, Cook, Duncan^ 
and Davies, to hold good with refpe£l to ihfir dijfojitions 
alfo. Generofity\fidetityiy^XiA grat'ttudf^ are ;Ulowed them, 
by Stuart. Theie virtues Dr. Jackfon enumerates, aod 
^ds, charity to all in difirefs^ 2if%d a &xon^ attachment, on 
the part of the parents to their children*^ Baillie infifts oa 
thejamey of which he gives fome inAance?, and Wool- 
rich, after ftating that be knows of no exception to their 
pofleffing xhefocjalaffe^ionsasjironglyas thewhiiesy fays> 
that he never knew an African, who could exprefs him- 
felf, kut allowed of a Supreme Being, 

To this account may be added the words of Captain 
Smith, who fays, he always confldered them as a keea^ 
fenfible, well-difpofed people, iukere their habits were not 
vitiated by cruel ufage on the part of the Europeans* 


Whether the Natives of Africa have not many and vf- 
hiahle Prodn^ions in their own Country^ in which they 
could offer a Trade to the Europeans in the Place if 
iheTradi in Slaves* 

AMONG the productions of Africa, rtientioned 1>y 
the different evidences, may be reckoned millet of 
various forts, pulfej Indian corti^ and riee.^ Of the laft 
of thefe articles it appear* to have been proved often by 
experiment, that it is much heartier and better t/?an tot 

\ The African rice has a re4 hulk* but is beiutifully' white >rhen the 
liufiL is taken of. ^ . ^ 


( «9 ) 

In the next clafs may be reckoned cotton^ indigey uImcco^ 
and the fugar cane. Dalrymple fays of the cotton, that it 
is cftecmed far fuperior to that from the Wefi Indies. He 
fays ihtfame of the fugar cane, and as to the indigo^ it 
is confidered to be equal to that from Guatimala, 

In the next clafs may be mentioned black pepper^ the 
fame as from the Eaft Indies, long pepper^ Malaguetta^ 
or grains of paradife^ red pepper of various forts, but 
particularly the cayenne^ a fpecies o^ finger ^^ cardamoms^ 
wild niitmegSy and cinnamon. Mr. How fays of the cin- 
namon, -that one fort of it is not inferior to that imported 
from the Rajl Indies^ Some of the former brought to 
England fetched a better price than the latter. He has 
feen the real cinnamon both at Bombay and Cambay, 
brought there as prefents from Ceylon, and fays, that the 
bark, leaves, and whole flrrucSure of the tree are alike in 
Africa and the Eafl Indies. He has no doulit whatever 
but that * fpices in general might be cultivated witn 
great fuccefs in the African foil and climate. 

In the fourth clafs it may be mentioned that there arc , 
gums of various kinds, but particularly the gum copah 
JJfifoetida alfo is to be found in Africa, and Mr. Wadftrom 
afTerts, that the celebrated Dr. Spaarman, his fellow- 
traveller, among ne^ly three thoufand plants, which he 
collefted there for the Cabinet of Natural Hiftory of the 
Royal Academy at Stockholm, found a great party if net 
the whole, of the Materia Medica^ as well as drugs for 
various manufaSfuring ujis. 

In the fifth clafs may be included woods and roots. 
Among thefe are mentioned irony , woody bar^woody cam*" 
woody and ebony : alfo various woods, roots, and vegeta- 
bles for dying : the root of a pfimt called Fooden, dyes 
fcarlet, and the ftalks of it a beautiful yellow. Thiere 
are -alfo orange and brown dyes produced from vegetable 
produftions, which grow in fuch abundance, fays Mr. 
Wadftrom, in the dominions of Darnel, that his whole 
army is dreffed in cloth that is dyed from thefe, The^ 

♦ Captain Thompfim only heard of the wild nutmcgi being thtit^ 
whereas the ock^^r anicles have b(^th been\eefi andcolledcd. 

t K fame 

( 90- ) 

ftme' gentlemsin mentions alfo a kind .of 1)ean, in his 
.pofleffion, Which is alfo ufed in dying, and carried on 
camels for this puipofe, in quantities, to Morocco. There 
are alfo timber trees. Of the latter a fpecies of the 
Ticktonja grandis is found in plenty all over the Gold 
Coaft* This wood is confidered as the be/i in the world ' 
Soxjhif buildings the worm neither touching, nor the iron , 
xrorroding it. Sir peorge Young fays, in addition to ^ 
fthis, that he has found a great deal of fine timber fit for ^ 
fliip-building on other parts of the coaft, and he once [ 
iaw a vdlel actually built of the woods, of Sierra Leone. 
Befides thefe, it is afferted by feveral of the evidence?, 
^hat there are beautiful woods for cabinet work, and 
Mn How ftates, that there are many parts of Africa, 
'where the foil is the fame as that in the Province of 
Guzzerat in the Eaft Indies, where he found the real 

To the productions above may be added, in a fixth 
clafs, wax J honey ^ palm-oil^ ivory ^ and gold ; and in a 
feventh, plantanes^ yamsj Jiveet potatoes^ eddoesj cajfada^ 
d9Coa nutSj bananas^ pine apples^ oranges^ limes.^ wild grapes^ 
and all odier tropical productions^ 



Jf^efher the Natives of Africa have not afujputnt fpirtt 
of, Commerce^ as well as a fvfficient Portion of Induflry 
among thern^ to embark in a new Trade in the Product' 

♦ tions of their own Country ; but whether the Slavi*trade 
he not an injuperable Impediment ihereto^\ 

MR. WADSTROM obferves of the natiyct of 
Afeica, that they have an extraordinary gemius 
for commerce^ and that their induftry is in all regards/f^ 

tortionate to their demand^ 


Confidently with this idea, we find fome of thcfn rift^ 

' •nly cultivating fuiHcient proviiions for themfelves, but 

\ an overplus fbr certain town(!s (Kiernan, Wadftrom^- 

-'^T-ssWilfon, and Howe); others cultivating corn and rice 

H^^^or the (hipping that come among th6m, (Kiernan, 

. TrFalconbridge, Dove, Bowman, Wadftrom, Hall, New- 

n) 5 others bringing large bundles of rice on their 
heads of forty or fifty pounds weight from the inland* 
country to the fea Ihore, anJ then travelling back loaded' 
with European goods, (Hall, Storey, Bowman) ; otherV 
going in armed bodies even a month ^s journey inland 
with various articles for trade, (Storey) ; others wooding 
and watering the (hips, ( Falconbridge) ; and others hiring 
' themfelves out to the Europeans to work at a low price 
both in boats and on the ihore, (Newton, Sir George 
Young, and Thompfon.) 

In fhort,. fays Hall, they were never indolent wA/Ji' 
they could work to advantage; They were willing to do 
any thing,- fays Morley,.^r which they had a profpe^ gT 
being paid. They were always induftrious, lays Dal- 
jrymple, where there was a demand. Bowman nelieves 
they would have put more land into cultivation than 
they did when he was there, had a greater fupply ofrici 
been wanted' hy the (hipping — they tolihira that they 
ihould like to trade more in their own produce ; and- 
Falconbridge is fo fure, that, if properly encouraged^- 
they- would make any change the Europeans pleafedy 
that he Js himfelf going again to Africa to make the ex-' 

Mr. Kiernan fpeaks in the fam^ terms. They culti- 
vate, fays he, cotton^ indigo^ and tobaccO'^ but this they da- 
fbr themfelves only \ for though they are never backward 
when encouraged, yet the Europeans have encouraged 
them only to raife provifions, and never the other articles.- 

It is evident then, from the above accounts, that the 
luant of encouragement is at leaft one reafon why the na- 
tives of Africa do not eftablifh a trade in the produiSlionifc 
of their own country, as enumerated in the laft chapter^ 
Now this want of encouragement we trac^ from Wad- 
il^om.finally to proceed ^r^^ the^tradeinjlavesy forfuch 

K< X conibuit 

i g2 ) > 

conftant encouragement he obfervcs is given by the mer- 
chants to the flave trade, and the minds of the native^ 
are in confequence fo wholly occupied in it, that little or 
no encouragement remains for the btner. 

Sir George Young, and Lieutenant Storey, both 
come to the fame concluflon ; and Lieutenant Simpibn 
avers, that on repeatedly afking the black traders what 
they would do if the Jlave trade were abolijhed^ he was 
repeatedly anfwered that they -woxjX^ foon find out another 

Mr. Wadftrom alfo mentions the fiave trade as an 
impediment to a trade in the natural productions of the 
country, not only becaufe it diminiflies the enceurage- 
ment of the latter, as juft explained, but becaufe it fub- 
jefls the natives, who might be willing to follow it, to 
be made flaves, for, as he obferves, they never^ dare g§ 
out into the fields unlefs ^well armed, 

Mr. Wadftrom is fupported in this fecond •ircum- 
tlance as a caufe by Captain Wilfon, who, in giving a 
reafon why the flave trade obftru£t$ the civilization and 
commerce of the natives, fays, they will not for a tem- 
porary gratification rifque the being kidnapped, and 
carried into perpetual flavery. 

That the flave trade then, either by diminifliing thr 
proper encouragement to the natives, or endangering 
their perfons, or by doing both, is the real caufe why 
they do not or cannot exert their induftry in cultivating 
the various articles, which their country has been proved 
to produce, can be afcertained from fafts ; for Mr. Dal- 
rymple has remarked, that in thofe parts of the coaft 
where there is little or no trade for fiaves^ they are adually 
more induftrious than in thofe places where the trade is 
carried on* 

Captain Hall fays alfo, that he found cultivation in by 
^ar the highejljlate at the ifland of Fernandipo, fo that 
the yams, which were the principal produce there, were 
made to run up like vines upon fticks. But here he 
©bferves, firft, that the natives had great encouragement^ 
for all the (hips from Calabar, Del Rey, and the Came- 
toons, fent their boats there for thefe articles, as to the 


(' 93 y 

regular market, and, kcondly^'thzttkey had no traJiim' 


Mr, Falconbridge alfo has occafion to obferve, that at 
Bonny, the moft confiderable place for flaves, there was 
a time in the late war when the flave trade was fo inter- 
rupted, as to ceafe tb be carried on; and that on his ancine;, 
the black traders what they had done during this interval^^ 
they anfwered they had been obliged to cultivate the earth 
for their fupport. 

Mr. now adds, that he has beenalmoft upon every 
fcttlement that belongs ta the Englifli onthe coaft of 
Africa, and that be found the culture always in a higher 
de^ree^ . where there was but little of thejlave trade^ and 
jujl the reverfe vAire thejlave trade was carried on mrt- 
€t large.' , 

^■■■■M— — ■ifc— ^i ■ m-i 


Whether the Slave Tradt Be not a Grave for the Seanun 
employed in it^-^nd whether a Trade tn the Natural^ 
Produ^fions^^af Africa would be the fame. 

TH^ ftatemcntSvmadc by the dffferent evidences, of' 
the lofs of feanjen white on board their refpe6Hve 
{hips, unqueftionably prove the flave-trade to b^ the; 
grave of our marine : but as an account has been fincej* 
made for the Hdufe of Comnricns exprefsly upon this 
|ioint, taking all the flave-fhrps prooiifcuoufly from the 
ports of Liverpool and Briftol for a number of years 
back, and made up from the mufler-rolls of eack fhip^y. 
it will be more proper to quote from fo general an4 

' K 3 cxtcnfive 

( 94 ) 

>«xtenfivc att account, than from the tcftlmony of a fcvr^ 
<ven the beft informed, mdividuals. 

ABStRACT of fuch of the Mufter-rolls of Liverpool* 
and Briftol Slave Ships as were returned into the* 
Cuftom-Houfes there, from September, 1784, to- 
January ftb, 1 790. 


Wo. of Origwal Wiedof 
* VcffcU. Crews mglnul 

From 1784 to 1785^ 
From 1785 to 1786, 
From 1786 to 1787, 
From 1787 to 1788, 

From 1788 to Jan. 5, 17*90, 




I 136 








Hot/fC •/' 








5760 * 

It appears firft then, that if we look at the feamen* 
T?i'bile employed on board their refpe6i:iv$ (hips, and judge 
of them from the above accourtts, we fhaH fee the de-^ 
ftruftive nature of the flave trade, for it appears that in' 
350 veffels 12,263 feamen were employed, out of whom 
2643 were loft, that is to fay, that more than a- fifth of 
the whole number employed^ or more than feven tn every 
fingle voyage^ perifhed. 

if agaip we look at fuch of them as are difcharged or 
deiert in the Weft Indies, where the mufter- rolls ceafe 
to take an account of them, (forfo fyftematical does the 
management of the trade appear by theTecond and fourth 
columns, that ruarly one-half of thofe who go out with the 


C gs }5 

S>ipf are cmiflantly * left behind) znA'^yxigt of them fcy 
what the different evideitces have to fay of them there, 
we fliair fee great feafon to apprehend another very fever© 
lofs bejides that already ft ated to happen among them while 
on board their refpedive fhips. 

To- fhew this in the moft unqueftionable manner^ 
we may begin with Captain Hall, (of the merchants fer- 
vice.) T hecrewSTof the African fliips, fays he,.when they 
arrive in the Wefl Indies, are generally^. {J:e does not 
know afingletnjiance to the contrary) In 2ijkkly debilitated 
ftate^ and the feamen,. who are difcharged or defert from 
thofe (hips in the Weft Indies,, are the moji miffrahU 
$bje£is he ever met with in" any country in his life. He 
has frequentFy feenthem with^ their toes rotted off^ their" 
legs fwelled to' the fize of their thighsy^xA in an ulcerated 
^ate all over.- He has k^n them on the different 
wharfs in th^ iflands of Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica,- 
particularly at tiie two laft iflands. He h^s alfo feen 
them lying undej-the cranes and balconies of the houfes 
near the water-fide- in Barbadoes and -Jamaica expiringy 
and fome quite dead. He met with an inftance laft July 
^1789) of ^ dead featnan lying on one of the wharfs in 
Bridge town, Barbadoes, who- h^Aht^n landed out of an 
African jhip» 

To confirm the afTertion of Captain Hall, of the mer» 
ehants fervice, that the crews of Guinea- men generally 
arrive at their deftined ports of fale in aftchly^ debilitated 
Jiate^ we may appeal to Captain Hall, of the navy, who 
ailerts, that in taking men (while in the Weft Indies) 
out of merchant fliips for the king's fervice, he has, in 
taking a part of the crew of a Guinea fliip,.whbfe number 
then confifted of feventy, been afeje to feledt but thirty^ 
who could have been thought capable of ferving on board 
any (hips of war, and when thofe thirty were furveyed 
by order of the admiral, he was reprimanded for bringing 
fuch men into the fervice, who were more likely to breed 
diftempers>xh?iTi to be of any ufe^ and this at a time when 

* Some of thefc are again taken up by other Guinea-men, but very 
lew. When a veHel hM once fold her HdYesi ihe requires but few feameA 
to bring her home* . 


. ( 96 ) 

ftamen were fa much wanted, that almoft any thing would 
have been taken. He adds alfo that this was not 2ijingular 
inftancc, but that it vi?iS generally the cafe\ for he had 
many opportunities between the years 1769 and 1773 of 
feeing the great dijhefjes of crews rf Guinta Jhips^ wher^ 
they arrived in the ff^/t Indies, 

We may appeal alfo to Captain Smith, of the navy, 
who afierts that though he may have boarded near twenty 
of thefe^veffels in the Weft Indies, for the purpofe of 
impreffing men, he was never able to get more than tujo 
men. The principal reafon was the fear of infeSliohj^ 
having feen many of them in a very dtfordered and ulce^ 

The aflfertion alfo of Captain Hall, of the merchants- 
fcrvice, relative to their fituation after their arrival af 
l^eir deftined ports of fale, is confirmed by the reft of 
the evidences in the minuteft manner; for the feamea^ 
belonging to the fiave-veflels are there defcribed, as lying 
abotet the wharfs and cranes^ or wandering abo.ut th«' 
ftreets or iflands *full of fores and ulcers^ by Jeffreys,- 
Dalrymple, EUifon, Morley, Davifon, Baillie, Towne, 
Bowman, H. Rofs, Ipouglas, Simpfon, Thompfon, and- 
pbrftcr. The epithets alfo of Jickly^ emaciated^ abjeJ3^ 
deplorable obje^fs^ are ap{died to them. They are men«^ 
tioned again to be de/litute zni fiarving^ and without th$ 
means 9ffupport\ no merchantmen takiqg them in, be-- 
paufe pey are unable to worJty and men of war reefing. 
themforfear ofinfeSfion^yiznyof them are alfo defcribed 
to be lying about in z dying Jlate ; and others have been* 
a£hially found dead, aiul the bodies of others have beea ; 
feen carrying by the negroes to be intirred.- 

As a farther proof, and that an undeniable one, that 
the above defcription of perfons is notorious in the iflands, 
it appears by the evidence, that they are marked by » 
peculiar and cant-name^ according to the fort of place 
which they ufually haunt. When they are feen lying 
about the cranes and wharfs, they are termed wharfingers^ 

** It is al&rted by the evidences, that they ncrer fxw any other than 
Goinca fcameo in that ftatc in the Weft Indict, 


C 97 ) 

when on the beach, and where there are no wharfii. 
Beach' Homers^ and they arc known by the appellation 
of Scowbankers at Dominique. 

It maybe remarked here, that this difeafed and forlor-n 
ftate of the feamen is fo infeparahU from the Jlave iradi^ 
that the different evidences have not only witnefled it at 
Jamaica, Antigua, andBarbadoes,.(the places mentioned 
by Captain Hall) but wherever they have feen Guinea- 
men arrive, namely at St. Vincents, Grenada, Domini- 
que, and in North America alfo.* 

Having now traced the bad eff^fts of the flave trade 2A 

vifible among the feamen, while . employed in it, and 

'among thofe alfo who leave it at the port of delivery, it 

maj^ be proper to add, that they are perceptible among; 

^many of them, even after their return to their naiiv£ 

country : for Mr. Falconbridge fays, that he was a pupil' 

in the Briftol infirmary for twelve months, and jiiat 

the greateft part of the difeafed feamen there, in thi^t 

'time, were feamen who had belonged to thiflavi veffils\ 

and though thefe generally went out of the infirmary 

better than when they c^me in, yet thieir health appeared 

lo be fo far deftroyed as never to be able to be perfedFy 

rellored. . 

As to the queftlon, whether the trade in the natu»d 
produ£lions of Africa would be equally deftrudlive to tiie 
feame;n employed in it as the trade in (laves, there cannot, 
in the nature of things, be that fort ofpofitive evidence as 
in the former cafe. There are, however, three fpecies of 
prefumption,from whence fome conclufion maybe dfawn« 

The firft is the folfowing. Captain Thompfon, whea^ 
on the Coaft of Africa, Jay for feveral weeks near a. 
Veffel, which traded in wood^ ivory ^ and' gum, {which is 
a cafe in point) and he had: the beft acconnts from his 
officers, of t\ie heaithinefs and good order of this fhip. 

• The reafons <vhy fuch immenfe numbers are left bekliul io th-« Wc" 
Indies, as are found, in this deplorable ftatey.are the folio-wing* The fei- 
nicn leave their ihips frjom ill-ufage, ^ysEUifoti. It. is: vriualfor cap- 
tains, fays Clappefon. and Young,, to treat them ill, that they may de- 
fert and forfeit their wages. Three others ftate,. they are left behind ptir- 
pofely by their Captains ; and Mr. H. Rofs adds, .in thefe emphacjcal 
words : *' that it was co uncommon thing for the captains to fend on 
fhore, a few hours he fore th^y fail, Uieir.lxme^.cnkaciated,' and fickfea* 
men,, leaving them lo pcitbL.!'. 


( 9» ) 

This, however. Is the only veflcl of the kind> which anjr 
of the evidences have feen, 

A fecond fpecies of prefumption is to be entertained 
from the opinion of thofe, who have vidted the Coaft of 
Africa, The feme Capt. Thompfpn fays, that he does 
not think a* trade in the natural produSions of Africa 
would be fo detrimental to the health of the (^amen as- 
the (lave trade, for they would not be liable to fo much' 
unpleafant and hard work, or fuch expofure to dews and' 
♦weather. Mr. Newton afferts alfo th^t fuch a trade 
might be carried on without much expofure to weather 
and ill treatment, the * natural attendants of the flave 
trade : and Sir George Young is of opinion, that a 
trade in the natural produ<ftions of Africa would not be 
attended with more inconvenience to the health of the fea— 
men employed in it than thepreient f Weft India trade. 

The third fpecies conlxfts in certain veflels going tf»^ 
the fame coaft, viz* men of war, which do not expfr-- 
rience the fame degree of lofs. 

Captain Scott, of the Merlin^ which carried loa 
men, loft eight, of whom only four died of the difordecs 
of the country. 

Sir George Young, inthefhip he commanded, which.- 
had too men,, loft two,. who wert fick when* Aey left: 
England, and a boy by accidqnt. 

Capt. Thompfon, of the NautiUis, out of lOO buried> 
one, who died by his ownnegledl. 

Captain Hills, of the Zephyr, out of 90 buried none*. 

And Captian Wilfon, of the Race-Horfe, out of 100,, 
did not lofe a man. Thus, out of 490 in. die fhips of 
war, only twelve were buried Jj. , 

* It*- U evidenr^ that InfurreAions and contagious diforders from the 
flaves muil be naturaPcaufes of xnortallty to feam^n in flaveihips^Hhich 
could not «xift in Ihips in the other trade. 

f It was formerly urged by the enemies of the abolition, that the 
Weft India trade was as dcftru^^ive to Teamen as the Slave trade, but br 
tn account made up for the UouCe of Commons, from the Mufter-Rulls 
of Weil Indiamen, it appears, that out of 462 veflels, carrying 7644 
feam^n, only iiS were loft, or about one in 65. 

X it mufl: be remarked} that when Captain Scott Ibft eight out of 100, 
it was in the year 1769, fince which great improvements haVe been made 
for the health of the Teamen ; and the Editor knows, .that the men of 
ifsr^.now going to Africa^ fcldoai }pi<c a man* 


( 9» ) 



Whttber tie Seamen employed in the Slave^Trade be not 
barbaroufy v^td in general^ and whether fuch barbarous 
ufage he not peculiar tOy orfpring out of the very nature 
^fy this Trade. 

THAT the (eamen employed in the /lave trade are 
worfefedj both in point of quantity and quality of 
proviilons, than the feamen in other trades, is allowed 
by moft of the evidences, and that they have little or no 
Jheiter night or day from the inclemency of the weather ^ 
during the wh$U of the Middle Paffage^ is acknowledged 
by them all. 

With refped to their perfonal ill u&ge, the following 
extra£ls may fuffice. 

Mr. Morley aflerts that the ieamen in all the Guinea* 
men he failed in, except one, were generally treated with 
£reat rigour, and many with cruelty, lie recollefts 
many inftances : Matthews, the chief mate of the Venus, 
•Captain Forbes, would knock a man down for any fri* 
volous thing, with a cat, a piece of wood, or a'cook*s 
axe, with which he once cut a man down the fhoulder, 
Tb% tiurowing it at him in a paffion. Captain Dixon 
irkewiie, in the Amelia, tied up the men, and gave them 
four or five dozen lalhes at a time, and then, rubbing 
them with pickles, made ufe ofcertain vulgar expreifions. 
Mr* Morley alfo himfelf, when he was Dizon'^ cabin- 
fttoy^ for accidentally breaking a glais, was tied to the 


( 100 ) 

tiller by the hands, ^logged with a cat, and kept hanging 
for fome time. 

Mr, MorJey has fecn the feamen lie and die upon deck. 
They are generally, he fays, treated ill when fick. He 
has known men a(k to have their wounds or ulcers 
drefled ; and has heard the do<3or, with oaths, tell them 
to take their own dung anddrefs them. 
' Mr; Ellifon alfo, in defcribing the treatment in the 
Briton, fays, there was a boy on board, whom Wilfon, 
the chief mate, was always beating. One morning, in 
the paflage out, he had not got the tea-kettle boiled in 
time for his breakfaft, upon which, when it was brought, 
Wilfon told him he would .feverely flog him after break- 
faft. The boy, far fear of this, went into the lee fore 
chains. When Wilfon came from the cabin, and called 
for Paddy, (the name he went by, being an Irjfh boy) he 
would not come, but remained in the fore chains; on' 
which Wilfon going forward, and attempting to haul 
him in, the boy jumped overboard, and was drowned. 

Another time, on the Middle Paflage, the fame Wilfon 
ordered one James Allifon, (a man he had been conti- 
nually beating for trifles) to go into the women's room 
to fcrape it. Allifon faid he was not able, for he was 
very unwell ; upon which Wilfon obliged him to go 
down* Obferving, however, that the man did not j 
work, he aflced him the reafon, and was anfwered as 
before, " that he was not able." Uposi this, Wilfon 
threw a handfpike at him, which ftruck him on the 
•bijeaft, and he dropped down to appearance dead. — 
Allifon recovered afterwards a little, but died the next 

Mr. Ellifon relates other inftances of ill ufage on 
board his own (hip, and with refpe^ to inftances in 
others, he fays, that in all Jlavi Jhips they are moft com- 
monly beaten and knocked about for nothine:. He re- 
colleas that on board the Phoenix, a Briftol mip, while 
lying on the coaft, the boatfwain and -five of the crew 
made their efcape ip the yawl, but were taken up by the 
xu^tives. When Captain Bifhop heard it, he ordered 
them to be kept on fhore at Forje^ a fmall town at the 


( lOI ) 

nmidt of Calab^ Kiver^ cloiflM by the fiedcB, li 
and hands, and to have each a plantaiti a day otAj* H 
boaffwain, whofe naaie was Tom Jones* ana an *ol4 
fttipmate of his, and a. very' good Ibaman, dki raving 
mad in his cbmns there, im odber five elied in tbeif 

: Mr. T6wiie» itr freaking of the treatment on board 

the Peggy, Captain Davifon, fays, that theic cbefts were 

wrought upon deck^ and flaved and bumt^ and thenriblvea 

turned, out from lying below v and tf^uiy^mumiurs were 

Jieard among than,. they were inhiMiaaty beaten Witk 

any thing ttuit cahie in the way,* or- flogged, both Jeg^ 

put in iron^ and chained abaft to 'the pumps, and iberb 

madfi to work points and ga&tta, ^during the Captain^ 

{rfeafure % and very often beat juft jadie Captatiithpttght 

*j»roper» He himfelf , has often firea the Captaii> roa^^hp 

has walked by, kick theia repeitedHbr, add if/they bairt 

-faid any thioff that he might deeoi ^imoSMi ke has isi'* 

medmtely catted Ibr^a ftick to heat tern ^vMi ^ ih^, ait: 

thb fiune time, having bodi legs inaraO% tMvaxmJOcXLzt 

jknit their necks, an a ofaEata; week whenLO^ithe^Cdaft 

^f Guinea^ if not rdeafed biefiare thdr fariival tbeic froim 

dieir cdnfinenient, diey wore: pdft intb the bints, and 

made to row backwarda> and jforwacds, eiiher widi.the 

: Captain from (hip to iQiip^ or^oa aaayjOdier.dii^^ Aitt 

bodi leg* in irons, an JxttncoUar^boittiibeiriMk:k%.witk 

a <^ain locked to the boat,?aad taketi ont whcniiia odier 

«diity was required of ^pim at flight, ao4' locked ikft 

•upon the. opeh deck, ime heairy rains an4 

dews,, without any thii^'to lie upon, or' any^thii;^ eo 

> coyer them. This was apra&ice on boanl theBeggy*^ - 

He fays, alfo, that iimilar tceatoient paeviriledt oa'boai^ 

die Sally, another of the (hip^in wbicb he <fiiHed»^ .One 

of the (eameii had.both.ljBSS.iiYkonBi: ahd a coUar tabout 

his neck, and was chained to die boat (far thres aomfas, 

%an(i. very often inoft inhumanly beaten;iGa:{«^nspl^^ii^ 

of his fituation, both by the captiaiitf andrdther ^oSidoijb. 

:At laft: he became fo wcak^ that he could: 'an4'^t upon 

' the thwart or feat, of die boat to row^ or. Jcr'any^dUng 

elio> Tbe)^ thea {mtLbim. out rpf > tiio^ bos^lsW imode 

- ' • t L him 

J^m piok?iialeiiin dn;.Masd.^ the ftip^ wth onhr tliret 
fK>iixid&'of bread a wsok^ snd^jialf a {>ound of &lt beef 
^ 4^^. J He cem^incA in ;tiiat Ajuatiotiy. with b^di him 
ijcgs fii'k^BV bat dkdbttsrr part: of thc^ time wtdiout: a 
xotbn : 'One.eifenuilg; he. came aA^ daring die Middle 
Paflage, to beg fomething to eat, or he fliould die. T&< 
I^&ax on tfads. tfihumwv beat hirn^ a|id ii&d a gceat 
3iiitDbe^fo6 nepooacbssy aha ordered him to go forwaGiNl^ 
ajiddiaf ^d:ibrdq^ifid. ^fae una died in the nigiiti 
tTte ttlittrcatinefitx)!! beard the Sally was :genenal«: 
r/As.as3odier(|airt»uiiar inftancei a, landman, oneEdiprw 
Ijilton, w^Atx the-tbo^ ;»ratering, and complaiqed of his 
haxng loog itt^dfieilKXii widiout meat or drinlc. The 
J>oadViKUii> ^being the officer, beat him with theboat^s 
:)d}|«v havuig nothing elfe, and cuk his head kt fevenil 
^ibais^iiar that 9rben& came on board, he was aU ov«y 
Mood* >^Mr..Tov(rriisaflcBdfaua the reabnofit; ' Hikioti 
43q|aa.taielj:luaiirllnit before he could properly tdl the 
dftorr^^itii^ itei<»';cacie:?forward,*(by order of dieicaptain) 
the fiimedman^ibe;boat6fvain, and alt of .them together 
£3tl tibseatiogribiHi Midi ^i^s canes* ~ The fiirgeim ftnadt 
ibii3i.^aii die.Merttf'ifab epi & ^at k afterwards morti- 
tited,.«od was.idftk 1 He immediatdy had both his legs 
^tilta\'ioansi:<afitec.iie.hadiieQaib'beat, that he couU 
4tieit l^d* . . Tke-dKXlt miHrnit^ hewas put into the bostt 
pto7t)»! ^Mteddatsjas befckse, fiiQ . remaining with both 
*k^s< iaiirctti^r sod kudcsdwidi^chaincto the boatj until 
:Aich tiiDe.aiiue becaene ib weds, that he was not aUe to 
asmainany longer there. He was.^en put.on board lix 
\iht9^ ^atidirlaid: forwards, ftill in iron^ ^metf ill* His 
.^ovamcaer )wi» imme&ttEly flopped, as' it vraS the fuf- 
(^eod'fi'Opifiioai ifc wtasithetoiily miethod of curing any one 
-Mof )theik 'mdio ioeanfilained cf Ulnieb. He remained ib* 
.tliab:r!lstatiDa,:afliei^%eifigitaketi:oi]t of the boat, for feme 
mteks^izttaui DKning dtis tone, Mr. Towne was obliged 
^^ta^OL^.faHkiKftver^ And oD;liis. return he inquired for 
.Id^tain^ madwmi told, fhat.he was Iving befom the fore* 
ijiifift,.a)aH>il!deadk He vmtt and ^ike to htm, but 
^jiiitoiiLferined mfenfible. The iame day Mr. Towne 
siasabWsh^s0^flC& tOsgo^afepond . tipm in ^. iballn-so 

^nk Rtfcr. After he iiAd gotten! ttnlftr,{wligK^4li!9 
commander of the AaIlQp'was'ordei*e'dIto brim^^ and 
trice Htteon in^ and lettw hhn on /hdre anji^AhBar^ Mbi 
fived that evening and night dut^ aod'dieilteirty tho 
next morning) and mkm thrown overkoatd- oil Caper 

Mr; Faltonbridg^ being eatle#upon allb td^^eak t^^ 
the iU linage of featnen^ (ays that on board' ^heAlexaad^r^i^ 
Capt. M^Taegart; hrhas feen^them tied upaiid flog^edl^ 
with.the cat frequently* He remembers alto aivfnftanc^ 
ef an> old man^ who was bofttfvrain of the Alexander^ 
having one, night fome words with the mate, when the 
boatfwain was feverely beaiten, and^had one or two of hW 
teeth knocked out. The boatfwairv faid he wtmld jump 
overboard ; upon which he was tied to thcr rail, of the 
qoartsr-^eck) and a pairpwbolc put intso Ms nKMtth'fa|r 
way of gaging him. He was then ^mtied^ put unddr 
die Mf^deckt and a tentinel put over Irnniaill n^ht^iir 
the morning he waS.releafed. Mr. Falconbri^e aiway^^ 
eonftdered hitfi as'a ^itiet) i«i6flren6ve titah.- itv the 
fiimo voyage a black boy was beaten every day, and one» 
da^i. after be was tb beaten, he jumped dirough one ol 
tbrgim^ports 6f the cabin into the river. A canoe vrm 
lying. a)o[^-fide> whidi dropped aflem, amd picked hiotr 
up. Mr. ral^oAbridge gJlve him one of tit own* (him t^ 
pat on^ and a^ed htnl if he did not exfxsA to be de^ 
Voured by the iharks. The boy faid he did, and that it 
woidd be much better for him to be killed at once, thatt? • 
tobe daily trcatsed with lb much cruel tyk ^ 

Mr. Faleonbridge remembers alfe, on board the fsmM^ 
flnp, that the bliafck cook one day broke a plate. Fei^ 
this he had a fifli-gfg darted at him, ^ which wottlcl 
certainly have dcftroyed htm if he had nor ftoo|Jed op 
dropped down. At amotfeer time alfo, the C'4rpetrter*s 
mate had let his pitch -pot catch fire. He and the coote 
were accordingly both- tied up^ ftripped, and ftogged, tet 
the cook with th^ greateft fe verity. After' that ^e cook 
had fidt W9cer and cayenne pepper, ritbbed ap<m hrs back* 
A man alfo came on b<^rd at Bonny, belonging to a ■ 
Uttlef Ihip,.(Mr. Faleonbridge believes the capjtain'^ name 

L 2 wafi 

( 104 ) 

«rift JJlpifonj- of Liverpool) which had been vrcrfet at 
NewCahbar. Tht^man, when he came on board, was 
in a convaiefeent ftate. He was feverely bea(efi one 
Ai^t) but for what caufe Mr. Fakonbridge knows not; 
vipon whichi he canne and ^applied to Mr. Falconbridge 
for fomcthing to rub his back with. Mr.. Falconbridge 
w&s told by the captain not to give him any thing, and 
the man was defired to go forward. He went accord-' 
inglyf Sand lay under the forecaftle, Mr. Falconbridge 
Tinted' :him very often, at which times he complained of 
his bruifes. After this, he had a' return of his flux, and 
died in about three weeks from the timb he was beaten. 
The laft words he ever fpoke to Mr. Falconbridge were' 
Rafter fhedding tears) ^* I iannot punijh himy* (meaning- 
the captain) ** but Cod wiil.*' Thefe arc the mod re- 
mtrkMe inftknces which Mr. Falconbridge recoUeds.^ 
H^ £iys, ho;0^e^r^ that the ill treatment was fo general, 
that only threer in this (hip efcaped being beaten out of 
fifty perfons,-'. ' ' 

To thefe inftances, which fUl under the eyes of the 
#vidences now, cited, we may add the )cd)fervation8 of 2 
ger^eman, who,, though never in the flave^trade, had 
y^ great c^portunities of obtaining information upoA 
d^ts fubje<St. Sir George Young remarks, that diofe. 
feamet), whomhe faw in the flave*trade, while on the 
coaft in a man of war, complained of their ill treatment, 
bad feeding, and cruel ufage. They all of them wanted 
to eftter on board his fhip. It was likewife the cuftom 
for the feamen of every fliip he faw at a diftance, to 
come on board him with their boats ; mofl: of them quiti 
fiahdy and threatening to turn pirates^ if he did not take 
them. This they toW him openly. He is perfuaded, if 
he had given them encouragement, and had had a (hip 
of the line to have manned, he could have done it in a 
very (hort time, for. they would all have left their Jhips^ 
He has alfo received feveral feamen on board his ihip 
from the woods, where they had no fubfiftence, but t» 
vrhich they had fled for refuge from their refpe&ive 


. . Tlat! 

TSatAe above »« not ftie only inftvi«««H>fVarbafit;y 

epotatiied int)|i«€vi4eBce, aiul chat this barbarous uia^e 

K pecttlijirt^ ^ fpringing out of the very imturc of (h^ 

trjKic i(i flivfS), pc^ay W imifted on frooi the ^fiowiii^ 

awwntfr^ :. t ■ > 

Ckplaiii H<di, (of the merchants fervke) belieVes the 

ffwitmarA in g^oend treated with great barbarity in Ac 

dtve-ftipS| and bed^^, fiot know p( t^elr. being; iu 

m2it^i in (mf other fifryU/A ^ *'. . 

. Q^iiiThi^inpipxi.cQcv^'u^e^ (pppa^ ^e m^oycQrnV 
yfatitt^A^ received from feamen, s^Kile oi^ the co^{(,-that 
tfccy ari^fiif ffom^bfipg, w^l ^eafcd on board thejiaver 
fiip.. On* Bowden fwanv frpm t^ Fiflier, of Liverpool^ 
&w^im%kM^ V> the HautUi^. amid^ ^ nti^mber of 
Aarka^ t^^elaini hif proteaion^^ tCendal wrote for thf 
|IMIH whe refufed tp return^ . (avin^ his life would be 
«ldMlgercd» He therefore kept nim in tie Nautllwa twi' 
Ae. waft paid of^ and found him a diHgcnti willine^ 
aAive.feaoiaii*. Several of the xrew,- he. thinks, of the 
firotbers, of LiKer^oI,Captam Clark,, Avam toward; 
tfce Nautilus, wh^^n paffingby^- Two only reached her» 
rhe rcfti hejbriieves,^. regained their owr\ fiiipV "The 
naJQfity of the crew had the- day be&re come on boai^a . 
lie Nau|f(u9 in a boat to cornplain of ill ulage, but he 
Aui mturned tbem .witb an o$per to inqi^Ire into and^ 
edreft theii-'Complaints. . Irfe received many letters frona 
^mtn in flave-ibips, coipplaimng of ill ufage, andde*-- 
rtrtg him to prete(^ thein^pr take them on boar^» He is»^ 
\cY\f\zit to tbiok, t\^vflHps4radtr{g-jn the produce of Africa^ 
*e not f$ iUmJed as thojf in, the jlave-Jh^ps, Several bf his - 
irn nfEicks% gave hnn; ^ feett accounts of the treatment 
the Ifik% ^ veflel tBi4i^g for waodlygums^ ^xAivoryy jiear^ 
tieh the Nfluti^u^ lay ibpfoaie weeks. 
LrieulDenant Simpfon fay^ that oif his firft voyage^ w1>ei| ^ 
ng at FortfAppobnia, thel£]y Giiineaman was in tb< - 
ds)» Ok the return of the Adventure's bbat^fom ^be * 
t^ tbcy , were 'bailed by ipnie<"feamen^ belon^ ihg to the 
\^ reqsiefting that they might be taken ^Qm pji bp^i^ > 
Qifti«ieaci[|4)9» ^nd>ut on bo^d the man'of v^af, '^ 
^^~*-^ tieatment was iuclv as to make their ^ives 

L 3 mifeiaiiaev > 

( ro6 ) 

"iniferaMc. The boat, bjr the dire^on of Czpt. Vaeff^ 
ivfts feAt to the Fly, and one or two mai were brougbt 
pn bbard him. In his fecond voyage, he recotie£b, that 
en firft feeing th^ Albion Guineaman^ {he carried a pre& 
of fail, feemjngly to avoid them, but finding it ifppnic-* 
jticable, {he fpoke them ; the day after whkh riie CapCaiix 
'i>flht Albion brought a feantan on board the AdrtPtame^ 
^hom he Wi&ed to be left there, complaining that he 
was a very riotous and diforderly ^an. The man, oa 
}iit contrary, |)i%ved ^rv pea^ceable and weU-^bdnvec^ 
nor was there one i^n^Ie mftance of hia condo^ frooi 
which he could fupp<^ he merited the cbarader given 
him. He feemed to rejoice at quitting die Albion, and 
informed Mr. Simplbn, that he was cruelly beaten both 
by the ca(>t^in and furgofbn ; that he was half ffauved ; 
and that ttfe furgeon ne^efbd the'fick feamen, sdlegtw 
that be was only paM for attending the flaves% He aUS 
informed Mr, Simpfoti, that their allcwance of pfx>vi{i<mt 
was increased, and their l;reatment fomewhat better wbe» 
k man of war was on the coaft. He recolie£b another 
inftancb of a feamkn, with a le^ {hockingly uloeraini, 
re^uefting a paflage in the Adventure' to Ei^iand^ 
alleging that he was left behind from a Guinearnan. He 
alleged various inftances of ill tfe&tment he had received, 
' land confirmed the failor of the Albion's account, that thets 
Allowance of provifiohs was increafed, and treatment 
better, when a man of war was on the coaft. During 
Mr. Simpfon*s ftay at C. Coail Caftle, the Adventure's 
t>oat was fent to Ahnaitiaboe to die Spy Guineaman ; oa 
her returh, three men were concealed under her fails, 
who had left the flave-{hip— they colnplained their treat- 
Inent ' was ' fo bad, that then: lives were milbrable on 
board— beaten and half ftarved.-^There weise' vaneus 
l»ther inflances which efcape his memory. Mr. Simpfon 
feys; however, that he hat never heard any con^Iainti 
jfromWefi lndiamer?j or other merchant J/hips -y-^ on the 
<;ohtrary, thdy wifhed fo avoid a man of war ; .whereas; 
ff the eapjtain of the Adventure had liftened tO' all the 
eotnjplaint^ okde to him from fitilors of Aai¥e*&»ps, and 
^"; ; ' '"• * • ' ' •- •••'''• '-iMtiarci 

( »07 ) 

remove them, he muft havi gnaiff i^triffii thi Afru^i^ 

Captain Hall, of the nary, fpeaking on the Amim iUb-' 
e£li aflerts, that as to peculiar modes of puniihmenft 
idopted in Guineamen, he once law a man chained by 
he neck in the main top of a flave-ihip^ .^hen paffing 
tnder die ftern of his Maj^fty's i)iip Crefcent, in King* 
ton'-Bay, St. Vincent's; and was told by part of me 
rew, taken out of die. ihip,.i7f their own reqiuji^ that 
le man had been there one hundred and twenty days* He 
lys he has great reafon to believe, that in no, trade an 
amen fo badly treated as in the Jlave-tradiy from^eir 
S»ayi flying to men ef war for redreft, and whenever 
ley come within reach; ixdiereas men from Weft Indian 
other trades Mdom apply to ajhip ofynx.* 
The laft evidence, whom per^aj^ it will appear ne-^ 
flary to cite on this occafion, is the Rev. Mr. Newtom 
his gendeman agrees in the f ill ufage of the feamen 
uded to, and believes that ^p flave'4rade itielf is a 
urt cavfe of it, for he thinks that the real or fuppofed 
cieffity of treating the negroes widi rigour, gradually 
ngs a nwnbnefs upon the hearty afid renders moft ofthofe 
i> are engaged in tt too indifferent to thefufferings of their 
fW'^creatures \ and he fpppofes there is no trade in 
ich feamen are treated with fo litde humanity as in 

The circumftance of feamen ia the Siare-trade being defirous of 
.og their (hi ps^ and of thofe in other trades ftaying by. them,, when 
ght of men of war, is confirmed alfo by Capfains Smith and Wilfon, 

le »*yT» 

It will be proper to mention here^ that feYei^aJi fpecifick fa^fcs of the 
eatment of feamen in the Slave-trade have been omitted in thele 
ints^ as well as that this ill -ufage is conHrmed by more- of the wit- 
Sy viz, XroHer> Dove^ Parker^ Storey, and Forfter; on the other 
^ about feven captains may; be traced, three of whofe naines onlj 
lentionedy (viz. Hutler^ Smith, and Fcazer^ w]>o have had the merit 
ing agaihft the current oTbad example in the'abufe of feaftienlti thi^ 
If it Ihould be aflted^ how it happens that feamen eater for Have- ' 
s»,when fuch general' ill ufjpige there can havdly fail of being known, 
rply nH]ft be taken from the evidence,. '< that whereas fome of them 
vol an tarily, the greater part of them are trt;panned,. for that it is 
ilixieis of certain laflidlordrto-raake them intoxicated^ and get thtiwi 
ebt^ alter which tktir onfy aittmaiiw ua GuirMtman or agaoL** 

■ ■ •• ■•••-. . ••' • t 

fbt y^ii^H flmfi^froA. He fuft himfelf (em die faiIors«> 

whenfjck^ lieatea for being /r7a^v ^1 tfae]i.have died- under 


%*■ tAf An^ Jf s^ JL«v 

H^tther it be true^as farm Jdy^jh^t the Ndtives of Afrti{r^ 
. art happier in the European Cohnies than in tl^sif'. 



F there Beaiqr Qf the flaVerlMp|^i<r in t^cpkmie^ 

than they were at liome, they muft be fiich as were> 

formerly ilaves in (ftustr own country; and if io, the AA>- 
rican muft be flwwn to be^ more of^preffive d^o t^ co*^- 
loxnsl flsivery« 

Thisy- howevervis fo farrffom being &e ca(e,«tbat> as 
Mn H. RoTfi obfervesy. though on .anothefi oc9afio%\ 
any comparifoni between the flate of the two is an ♦ in- 
iuk to common. fet^e* Theflaves in Africa are men- 
tioned by Mr. Towne a$ never ill ujed hythtir <y^^\ 
people. They are treated,, fays Mr^, Keirnati,^ as Eut— 
ropeans treat ppeopie of their" own family ^ They are de-^- 
fcrihed again by HaB and Dairy rn^^e as eating and drink--- 
ing vdth their mafters,- Captain WiUbn (ays alfo they^ 
Uve lOiih their maJiersyZnA zse not diftingmifljabli from^ 
them* Mr* Fatconbridge never; fiiw any wbom^y^fAWr - 

* Some Kbvc fev^n eone ib fftr aoto fay that they arc happier than the ■ 
labourtng poor of thia counn;y t but >it .bfta been cooft amply refuted ityc, 
Woolrtchy OaptMa WiUbiH Jeffrtys; Ret^ Dean , «f MiddUham^ ^nA>^ 
Ji^Ro6y the Jatrer «l.wh«Mri -tlMVf h.he compared th«4iicscat circ«UM^ ' 
ilaaces in theic ne^ie^ iji^ rc^ueft of the ConwnhttCy ppe^ . 
faced it by fay ing, that aay cooDp^iiToB between the ilaicx>t the two wm ' 


( »o4 ) 

• • • 

ttiotfMbi mid fay were-Jlaves. Mxi Wadftrom fpeaks 
of them as well ujedy and Mr. Morley as treated with 
kindnffsj and better than in the Weji Indies. * 

Ndw, if the lives of the flaves in Africa fliould be h 
much luppier (as may be feen by comparing; the above 
accounts with diofe in Chap* IV.) than the lives of the 
flaves in the European colonies, It will noti>e doubted 
that freemen in the former parts of the world muft be 
happier than flaves in the latter. - 
« Though the obfervations already made might be fuf- 
ficient (both with refpedt to fuch as having been orfgt** 
jially freemen, and fuch as having been origmally * flaves 
\Ti their own country, are fent to the European cold-' 
lies), to difprove the ailertion infinuated in the title to 
his chapter, yet as therfe are other very ftrong proofs' 
B the evidence, it would be unpardonable not to cite 
iem in the prefent cafe. 

MrrM. Gook has oftea heard Africans in the Weil* 
idies eacprefs tkHr frMe rf their 9wn country and their^ 
gret at leaving it: . Lieutenant Davifon obferves it is 
immon for fiek Africans to fay, wth pkafure^ they arc 
tng ta disy and are going home from diis Buccra (or' 
Tfite manfs) country. It is alfo notorious that the Afri-*' 
is^ when brought into tfaecolonies, frequently deftroy 
mldvits. Dr. Harrifon, Coor, M. Terry, Cook, 
Emaimce;, Clappefon, Batllie, Dalrymple, D^vifdn, 
an of MiddUdiam, Captain Rofs, and Woolrich,'air 
ee in this h&^ The caufes of it are deicribed in ge*- 
il to be illtreatnunty the deiire of returning b9mey a'nd 
preference ef death to life when in the fituation of' ' 
fly aJl of which are io many proofs of their fuperiour 
inefs in their own country^ It is alfo very remark- 
as vre. find from Mr. Coor, ^t diele acts of def-' 
ion fhould have been fo frequent as to have occa-- 
d it to have pafled into an obfenration, <<^diat the 
[ Cooft n^roes^ when driven to defpair, always cuif 

itrjr. Ibw ilsvc* in tlit Weft IndKettfefadi ts hmt btfim (kv«t m 
, iow i^j% Dalrymple A«d Wai^ram, there are yfttj few Aaret t» 
ac all, ami tkoie !itk« We tkeip^ %• Mocky, cU not Ukc (afeU 

• •• their 

ihiir thr^ats^ and thti/e of the nsoiti^ihnd cotuitff iS9^ 
hang themfelves. 

lo gi\re a few extniifb from die evfdeiiocs on tiiia 
•ccaffonr. A begro boy of hts, fays Dr* Harrifoa> de« 
tefted flavery fo much tet he refund ell fupparty wixich 
Wought on a dropfy that kill^ him. Another negra» 
y^bo had been a great main in his owa country, refiifed ts^ 
work for any white man, tolA being therefore pimcQied 
by the overfeer, he defired him to ten his ihafter that fas 
would h aflame fa na man. His mafter ordered hkm. to 
be removed to another eftate. Ris hands were tied be- 
hind hioi) and in going over a bridge he jumped intoi 
the water and appeareono more. Thefe wrc two fe^Sfcs 
of Dr. Harrifon^s own knowledge, out of u great matp^ 
which he omnot new recoiled. -. 

yitm Fitzmaurice too has knowti many fiiieidev- 
amotig new negroes erpecially, both by hanging lfa8i»*: 
fdvfs^aai dttt«eatin'gi ^ieh' ^ krum im kefaud^ He 
loil one vear twelve nelnr negroes by tt^ tiiovgh he IMt 
tiiem w^ On fais remonftrating, they , conft^ntly tcMv 
him di^ preferred dying ta living. A grtat pr9pmtimt> 
of ^e BMr nei^rbes th»t go oh ibgSH: eflaUe% die sir Aim. 

A fAM^Tj bft Mr. Wesolricb, pord^aftdi fix mn» 
ftaves out of a Guinea {hip, and put them ^s a.lbMJS 
iQand to plant ^^iSotH* They had a i^ite^sMi: wWntbeaiL 
as overfeer, vi^ ]e^ tiiem of a Saturday iiighl^ ' Tfaa^- 
were no w^^ inhaibttants on the ifland.. Oh the Mmm 
iky following the overfeer returned, when he foond edf 
t^e^x banging near together in the w$od^^ Mr. Wool* 
rich often inquired of the moA fenfiUe negroes what^ 
could be the eaufe erf' fach adions, ahd the aiifwer wasy 
<^ that they VMuld rather die. than Hve' in the Jitudts9m: 
they were in.** 

As tfae-lail pvoof in the evideneo, and that an irre- 
Ih^aMe onev h^iii mvcb happier dx Africans are' iof 
their own country than in the colonies, may be ad- 
duced -the i^r^tfl^ty winch IS' difcoveared a^ titotr iui«srab 
by their fellow-flaves> and which joy is faid to pi'ocee* 
fr6m die ide^ that the decesif^d are returning home. , ^ 

Mr. Douglaa 


Mr. Douglas Taw' three funerals of Gulmajlavis ik 
Ae Weft Indies. At thefe funerals, fays hc^ they Jingj 
end areftdrfj^zni^ naming the deceafed, fay, he is gone 
it Guinea* 

Gnat rejoicings^ fays Cook, are made by African 
negroes at the Rtne'rals of each other^ from a belief 
that the deceafed are gone to their own country again* 

^rican negroes, fays Forfter, feewed the mofl ex^ 
fravagant jajf at their friends funerals, from bdueving 
the deceafed gone back ta their country. 

Captain' Wilfon confirms the aboye by ftating, that 
he never faw any figns of happinefs among the imported 
ftave^ except at their funerals, when they fliewr exira^' 
vageintjoyy from a perfuafion that the decca&d is tfisMped 
^rom Jhvery to his own country* Captai|i \ViK01Q9 hi)W- 
;Fer, does hot ftop here, for he goes on to declare, that 
9 j^ica their fimerak /ire aUended witjj the moji mmn^ 
ul cries. 

It is impoffible to conclude this chapter better than by 
1 -extra^ from th& evidence of Mr. Dalrympt^.^^ 
liat gentlemaH lays, He might have had th^ i9ieai|8 of 
tting his eftate in Grenada under cultivation, as. he 
gfit have had (laves from the hoi^ 'of B^d^emfe ami 
itlton ; Biit having bad an opportin^^, w^xi oa ihe 
ifi of Africa, of Icnowiqg. bou} fuipff tiht negroes 
V iri their own country^ and knowiiig the lUijuAiU 
!e means by which diey were made flaves thare, 
r cruel ufage when on bpard {hip^ and their Jiverse 
e when in the Wefi Indies.^ be c^d npt coniifteAft* 
"ith his ideas of what was right, purchafe.any flaM^es, 
particularly as he didnotiotend to leoiain on the 
atlion hioxielE . > 

^ ivJAi^s* 



WhethiY the Africans hy .good ufage have not in feveral 
inJlances increajtd by births in the Colonies ; and whe-^ 
iher'it be not clear from other fa^s as well as the opinions 
of perfons in the Evidence j that they would increafe by 
Population^ generaliyj in confequence of general good 
VfagCy fo as to fuperfede entirely the necejftty of the 

- SJave'Trad^. 


CAPTAIN ROSS frjrs, he. knows of three elites 
in the iflahd of Jamaica, one belonging to Lord 
-Dudley, another to Meflrs. Muir and Atkinfon, and a 
third to Mr« Malcolm, rni which there was a conJiderabU 
incremfe of th^Jbtves by birth. 

Lieutenant Davifon confirms the account given of 
-Mr. Malcolm's eftate : that gentleman, he (ays, had not 
.bought a negro for ten or twelve years, during which 
time the flaves had.confiderably increafed. Lieutenant 
•Davifon alfo knew an eftate, where the negroes were 
all Creoles. 

Mr. M. Cook knew two eftates iti the fame ifland, 
#n which he really bdieves the negroes to have ix^- 
creafed b¥ births. 

Mr. Cocr fays, there was a plantation in Jamaica be- 
tongine to a Mr. Dunn, which, when he (Mr. Coor) lirfl 
went were, was a fmall one, not for want of land but 
of negroes. This eflate at that time made about fifty 
hpgflieads of fugar yearly. In confequence, however^ of 
^goOd ufage^ the negroes incrcafed fo faft (the children 


( n3 ) 

feming to fwarm on this eftate) that, before Mr. Coor 
quitted the ifland, Mr. Dunn had not only doubled the 
produce, but had fettled another eflate out ofit^ which 
made fjxty hog(heads per year, and he had never bought 
Ifutfix new negroes in the whole time. 

In the fame ifland, and parifti. of Clarendon, the n«- 

pm on Ramfbury eftate increafed fo faft, fays Mr. 

f itzmaurice, that a ganp of them was drawn off t« 

fetle a new eftate, called Yarmouth, which he had then 

tf^e care of, but the fettlement was difcontinued from the 

fbnge of the attorney. On Orange, in St. James's, 

'JO negroes were bought for at leaft fifteen years, and 

^i'Cy increafed ; as alfo on ]L^Qn in the fame parifli* 

^ /(Ved on both thefe eltates. 

Mr. Forfter, fpcaking of the ifland of Antigua, fay«, 
^"^t on the whole of Colonel Farley's plantations they 
[iid no need of new negroes. He has heard the Colonel 
3y there was a confide rable increafe, but on one particu- 
irly. Mr. Thomas Gravenor's negroes alfo increafed. 
jc knevv Captain Thomafon, of Seacow Bay, Tortola, 
'ho wanted no new negroes for many years. 
Mr. Duncan obferves, that the treatment on the 
hit that he lived on, which was in the ifland of 
fitigua, was better than common : the efFe<ft was 
It the flaves^ iiicreafed. The flavcs alfo on Sir G. 
lomas's Bel faft eftate, and Carliflc's, arid feveral 
lers he cannot now name, increafed, or kept up their 
T)bers without any addition by purcbafe. 
^r. Giles fays, that on two eftates where he lived, thtf 
r^eafe of the flayes, under a milder treatment in the 
>d of St^ Croix, exceeded tjbeir decreafe by one per 

apt. Hall, of the navy, mentions an eftate, belonging 
e Marquis de Rouvray, in the Ifland of St. Domingo, 
'e in confequence of good ufage ibc flaves increafed 
^ as to have rendered any farther purchafes unne- 

r. Bifhdp told Mr. Towne, that in a plantation of 
iiBftrbitdoes^ they had not bought a Guinea negro 

\M for 

( "4 ) 

€or upwards of forty years, and that by good u/lige tbefte 
' ivere a great many more now there than formerly. 

The Reverend Mr. Daviesfays, that on Kendal plan- 
tation, in the ifland of Barbadoes, belonging to Mr. 
.Steel, the ftock of flaves was kept up by births. He 
fl^new alfo a few other ^ftateswbich kept up their num- 
Ibers without imiportation. 

The IDean of Middleham, while in Barbadoes, under«- 
^ood from Dr.. Mapp*s fon, that the ftock on the eftat^ 
^o which hq had jaft fucceeded, had increafed fo much by 
births, that there was a redundance fwfficient nearly to 
ftock another eftatCL. Tie Rev, Mr. Carter's flaves alf® 
increafed isConCderably^ and thefe cultivated his glebe and 
planted -canes. The Dean's brother alfo informed .him^ 
ihat his own negroes had doubled their number by natu- 
•ral increafe in twenty years, and they were employed, he 
believes, in common fi^ld bufinefs as other negroes. The 
Dean had heard of feveral others of his acquaintance, who 
^ad kept up their ftocks by the natural increafe, wkhoujt 
• ^jpurchafe. 

Having now mentioned thofe eftatcs, on which it ap^i. 

.piears that the flaves have increafed by birth, it will be 

|)roper to njerition thofe other fa£l:s in ther evidence, by 

which it wiH be clear, that the Africans, by general goa4i 

ufage, w3I increafe fo generally as to fuperfedc the ne- 

jQcflity of .the flave-trade. 

I. In the Ifland of Barbadoes the field flaves appear 
io be better tfeated than elfewhere. Accordingly we find 
from Mr Woodwa»rd, that while refident there, in the 
years 1782 and 1783, he never heard any complaint of 
ihc want of negroes to carry on the plantation or other 
Jbufinefs. Apd yet he does not recolleft the fale of a 
Jingle cargo of Jlaves during that time. 

%. Fi4d Jlaves cultivating cotton, pimento, and coflTce^ 
^re defcribed by Mr. Cook^i being treated better j and as 
increaftng f after by birth than thofe employed on fugar 

J, Domejiics are univerfally faid to be treated better 
,on4he v^rhoie thzn field flaves, and thefe are generally faid 
f^ Vf^^^f^* Thicre arc many more children, fays Jeffreys, 


( "5 J 

mong dome/ties thM field JJaves, Captain Hfall ilys^tfiaf 
in his time the domeftrcs wrre tender ftood to increafe by btrthj^ 
and Lieutenant Daviforf^ that' they did a5iually increafe^ 
Mr. Forftcr gives an inftance ofrapicf Increafe among 
the domcftics. A widow Shervington was left in debt ' 
with five or fix negroes, who by kind treatment in fifteen- 
or twenty years increafed to fifteen' or more. He knows 
fever al inftances of the kind, 

" 4. The Maroon negroes, originally Africans, whey 

five in fmall communities in Jamaica, as free people, and 

who of courfe are not fidhjeSi to ill ufage like the fiaves^ are' 

/aid to increafe alfo. M. Cook believes the Mirom 

negroes Xa be increafing very faft. Lieutenant Davifon 

aflerts, that \ti his time thfty increafed mo ft certainly. He' 

lias often been in all their towns, and always faw great 

numbers of children. Their numbers were confiderably 

jnore when he left, than when he came to the illand. it 

was impofEble for them to have received *iny addition of 

number from other quarters. 

5. African negroes alfoj when tranfported' to the Eafi 
^^zdiesy have, by good ufage^ increafed there, Mr. Botharn 
lySy that in the vear 1764, the Eaft India Company fent 
ave-lliips to Africa and Madagafcar, and tranfported t6 
'encoolen, for their public and other works, heai^ly a thou- 
nd flaves, and in muc,h the fame proportion of men, wo-^ 
en, and children, as they are carried from Africa to the 
^eft Indies, that is, more men than wo nen and children.- , 
befe flaves, on the firft years of their arrival, from the 
hialthinefs <ff the climate^ and other caufes, decreafed ^ 
t when they had been at Bencoolen a few years, where 
y zvere humanely treated^ ^^y began annually to increafe ;• 
withftanding from" the little attention that was paid to 
fr way of life, both men and women lived in the moft 
ndoned way. The wonder was, that they did increafcy 
he young women flaves were common proftitutes to 
/bidiers and failors. 

African negroes alfo, tranfported to different parts 
^brth America, have, in corifequence of being * better 
increafed by population there. 

"he tfvidcoces unanimoufljr malauaii^ that their ufage is better Jt^' 
ica than io the Weil Indies. 

M 2 Dr. HarrifonV 

( n6 ) 

Dr. Harrffon's diftinclion between the difference af 
the treatment of the ne::roes by the Weft Indians and 
Amerrcan5^ ts as^follo^vs. In Jamaica, he fays, flaves- 
were generally treated ill,' and only individuals treated 
them well ; in Carolina, on the other hand,, they were 
generally treated well, and only individuals ufed them, ill* 
—Let us now fee the confequences. 

Mr. Dove fays, that from. 1774 to 1783 there were no 
importations of flaves to Bofton or New York, and yet 
he thinks that they did not decreafe in their number 
during that time. 

It Was generally believed, fays Mr. Stuart, that the 
Carolina flaves inrreafed without importation. 

Mr. Savage fays alfo, that where they were well ufed 
in Carolina they increafed greatly. A friend of his, 
Gabriel Manigault, Efq. informed him, that in 17 37^ 
he had on his eflate eighty-fix negroes, of which twelve 
or fourteen were fuperannuated. The latter he replaced 
by others. With no more addition than this, they had 
iincreafed to two hundred and feventy about a year or two 
(1773) before he left the country. 

Mr. Baillie alfo, fpeaking of Carolina, believes the 
negroes are raifed there in as great a proportion a^ children 
in Kuaope, when they are in healthy fituations ; notwith- 
fiandipg which he obferves, that thQ cultivation of ria 
iis as laborious as thai of fugar^ and that the climate of 
famaica is much more favourable to the conftitution of tbt 
ftegroes than that of Carolina, 

Dr, Harrifon alfo gives his opinion as a medical ^an, 
that the climate of Jamaica is more favourable to the 
increafe of flaves than that of Carolina ; nptwithftanding 
which difadvantage Carolina increafed in flaves^ while 
thofe in Jamaica deer ea fed. 

Mr. Irving mentions the increafed population of flaves 
by birth an Carolina to have been reckoned in his time at 
from two to ten per cent, and yet he fpeaks of the climate 
in the fame manner as the reft, ^he breeding of flaves^ he 
Jfays, was confidercd fo advantageous^ that the planter 
generally valued a child, 60 the day of its birth, at five 

Mr. Claphstt 

( >i7 ) 

Mr.Claphani) examined on this fubje£b, for Maryland, 

fays, the negroes kept up their numbers there by propa- 

gatioji, and increafed, fo that the overplus^ in fome in-r 

fiances, were Jhipped to the JVeJt pidies. He has know* 

an hundred fales, where proprietors have had too many fot 

their ufe^ in confequence of increafe by propagation, yet 

they were not thought to be * well treated, though better 

than to the fouthward, and the climate wasfubjiSi tdgree^ 

endfudden variety of heat and cold, ^ 

Mr. Beverley, examined refpeSing Virginia, ftates^- 

that the negroes there al ways kept up their numbers, an(| 

generally increafed. His father's more than doubled theif 

numbers. In 1761 he had about two hundred, and ii| 

1788 he paid taxes on above five hundred and forty, of 

whom not above twenty or thirty had been added b; 


Mr. Beverley was told in America, that when the' 
aboiirion of the flave- trade was firfl: agitated in 1774^ 
many doubted the practicability of keeping up the nuna-^ 
!>er5 by births; and the perfons- of doubting have, fmcc' 
be abolition of the flave trade, . expreffed to him a con* 
'i^ion that their fears were graundle/s. 

Air. Crew jdatesiijl/b, that the negroes in Virginia 
fcreaied raptdly without importation, fo much fb, thaf- 
wa$ a general opinion that it was profitable to holdJTaves 
this acMunt^ exclujrue of the profits of their labour • 
e thinks, at the fame time, that the culture of tobaccQ 
nearly as laborious as that of fugar^ and that the climate* 
Virginia is not fo favourable as that of the We(J Indier 
/Ifrican conftitutions^ on account of ^t fever e f cold in - 
tvinter. Mr. Crew obferves, that the impprtation of 
ican ilaves into Virginia has been generally difcoa- 
led fince 1772. 

"rom the above accounts, (by which the natives oiF^ 
kra have been viewed in different climates and fitua- 


The evidence warrants os in faying, that a flave in Acnerica, faid to 
r, w^cll ufed, would be confidered as well wfed in the Weft Indies. 
A.S a "fartHer proof, that the climate of North America is not con- 
: to t&« /Vfrlcan conftitutioii, it appears from BaUUe and Bcferley UmC^ 
S^ro«s are ^Iway^ healthier in tbtfummtr ih»& in ihc winter. 

}A 3 tions) ; 

jlons) but. particularly from the feft, it is evJJent Aat 
'f they were in general well ufed in the European co'o^ 
nies, they would fo generally increafe, as to fuperfede 
Ac neceffity of the flave trade : for if in the American cli* 
mate, totally uncongenial to their conftitutions, they have 
generally increafed by births, much more would they in 
the Weft Indian, which is reprefented as much more fa* 
vourable to their propagation- This will be ftill more 
evident, if we prove that they are prolifick in their 
cwn country, and that the Weft Indian climate is the 
feme as their -own at home. Mr* Falconbridge fays, 
that the females are more prolifick than thofe of other 
countries. Out of four or five delSj^eries, at which he 
was prefenf, there were twice twins. Captain Hall has 
fecn as many children in the towns and villages in Africa 
in proportion to the grown people, as he has met with 
jn this country. Sir G. Young declares, that the negro 
women on the coaft of Africa appeared to him 2L%prolffick 
as any race af people he ever faw in any part of the worlds 
and the climate of the Weft Indies to be not lefs favourable 
to them than their own,- Hence he fays^ the ftock of 
flaves might he kept up or increafed without any zmporta" 
Hens from Africa* At firft the deficiencies nlight be felc 
for a few, perhaps twenty years^ but after a while, they 
would double their numbers ; for he (ees no phyiical caufe 
to pr^event a black man and woman being equally prolifick 
in the Wejt Indies as in Africa. 

There are others, who from their experience in the 
Weft Indies are of a fitnilar opinion. Dr. Jackfon can- 
not conceive, if flaves were well ufed, why they (hould 
jiot iceep up their numbers. They are naturally prolifick^ 
and the iflands in general conginial to their conjiitutions, — 
It is the opinion of Mr. Coor, that, with kind and ju- 
dicious treatment of the infants, the flaves in Jamaica 
would increafe without any importations from Africa. Mr. 
Davies fays ^t fame thing for Barbadoes. Mr. Wood- 
ward is not apprehenfive that the abolition of the flave- 
trade would ruin his Weft Indian property. He thinks it 
Would be of advantage to Barbadoes* By ufing them 

- well, 

: ( "9 ) 

well, and by gooJ management, the ftock of flaves would 
naturally increafe without importation* And Mr. Giles 
believes, that, if they were properly treated^ thek inenqfe 
would ke gtmral throughout the ijlands* 

CHAP, xn. 

What appear to have been the principal eaufesj implied sn 
the term Good Ufage^ of fhe Increafe by Births^ in the 
inflances mentioned^ and what Regulations ought to take 
place in the general pra^ice of the Colonies^ to infure an 
univerfal Increafe^ 

rT'\HE caiifes of the increafe by births, on one of the 
J^ eftates mentioned, viz. on the Marquis de Rouv^ 
ray's of St. Domingo^ are defcribed by Captain Hall 
as follows : 

The flaves were never hard prefled in their work. 

The Marquis fufFered no improper intercourfe between 

fhe males and females : every man had his owa wife, 

and no white was fufFered to disjoin that union. Hof- 

. pitals were built for the fick and pregnant. The latter, 

when far advanced, were taken in there, and employed 

in trifling work, till the tVme of their delivery. Here 

they might remain, feparated from their huibands, and^ 

excufed from field labour, till the child could be fupported 

without the mother's help, or when their flrength would 

permit, return with the child to their huibands, and take, 

the chance of work. In confequence, the Marquis had 

not, for fome years, occafion to buy negroes. Having, 

however, left his eftate to the care of a nephew, upon 

\a% return} after an abfence of two yearS| inftead of the 


( 120 ) 

happinefs that reigned when he left it, he found nothing 
but mifery and diiconteht. The whites had feized upon 
the pretty women: their hufbands, through difcontent, 
ran away, and. the labour falling heavier upon the reft, ' 
they became difcontented, and their work was badly car- 
ried on : fo that it coft him two years, before he could 
re-eftablifh order. It was a pleafure to walk through his 
cftate J for the flaves ufed to look upon him as a father. 

It is of importance to cite thisjeftate, becaufe, in con- 
fequence of the above regulation^, its gang increafed ; 
becaufe, when they were violated, it went back ; and be- 
caufe, when they were re-eftabliflied, it Was reftored to 
its former ftate, Thefe regulations alfo include all the 
regulations, except two, in confequence of which the 
flaves increafed by births on the other eftates mentioned 
in the preceding chapter, and therefore the citation of 
thefe, in particular, avoids a repetition, and faves time. 
The two regulations not included in thefe, are the fol- ' 
lowing : — Mr. Giles aflTerts, that the purchafing of a 
few mules, on an eftate which he managed, to carry the 
canes which the negroes had before this been accuftonted 
to carry on their heads, fo lightened their labour, as to 
occafion them to increafe in population, whereas they 
had decreafed fefore : and, on the eftate cited by Lieut. 
Davifon, the circumftance of Mr. Malcolm's going 
among his own negroes, hearing their complaints, and ' 
not fuiFering them to be punifhed without his knowledge, 
are reckoned among the caufes.that contributed to their 

Let us now fee what is the general praftice in the 
colonies, and what alterations fhould be made in it, to 
infure an univerfal increafe. 

I. It is the opinion of Mr. Fkzmaurice, as obfervcd 
in chap. 4, that the forcing the flaves to labour beyond 
riieir ftrength, is the means of bringing many of them 
to the grave. Mr. Baillie fays, that many of their com- 
jdaints arofe froiri extreme fatigue, and that a Uttte reft 
generally reftored thtem, without any medicine being 
necefTary. In general, fays Forftcr, the planters have 
JK> idea of improvcmeiits to titik iSmx Saves. It feemed 

a geiiefd 

( 121 ) 

a general epinion, that if negroes W3re not conftantly 
kept at work, they would become unruly* 

t, Wehavefeen, in chap. 4, the very trifting faults, 
for which (laves are frequently puniibed, atthediicretion 
of the overfeer, and the unlimited fe verity of thofe pu- 
niihinents by the chain, dungeon, ftocks, projc6ling iron 
collar, iron boot, cowfkin, cart- whip, picket, and the 
like ; all of which have a manifeft tendency to harrafs 
human nature, and in conjun£Hon with other caufes, to 
fubdue it. 

3. It appears that no attention is paid to the marriage 
of the flaves, fo that one man iliould be reftridled to one 
wife, but that there is a promifcuous intercourfe amongft 
one another as they pleafe, (General Tottenham, Capt. 
Smith, Sir G. Young, Forfter, Coor^ ; an4 that this is 
not only the cafe of the negroes one with another, but ' 
with the negro women and the whiter, the latter of whom 
violate the chaftrty of the former at difcrction, (Dean of 
Mtddleham, Captain Smith, Davifon, Cook, Harrifort, 
Coor, and Dalrymple). If the women arc fent for by 
.the overfeers, feys. Cook, for thefe purpofes, theywwj? 
tome $r he Hogged^ and to fuch a pi^h has Dalrymple 
known this intercourfe to proceed, that female flavet 
are offered by their matters, even to thofe who vifit 
them, and he has known compulfion ufed to oblige fach 
to fubmit to proffitution. 

. 4* It appears again, from chap« 4, that pregnant 
women, to get the moft out of them, are frequently 
worked within a very little time of their delivery, andio 
hard and fo near to tnis period, that they often mifcarry^ 
as well as tliat, even in this fituation, they are not ex* 
cmpt from the whip. 

5, The fides of the huts, fays Coor, in which the 
pregnant women . are delivered, and children born, art 
no vdott defence againft the cold night damps, than one 
of our pafture hedges. Bedding they have none, but a 
board or bafs mat. The infant, for the firft eight days^ 
Is never put to the mother's breaft, but siven to a, wo« 
inan out of the field, who nurfes it, and who probably 
bs^ a . child two, three, or four months old ; and heto 

( *22 ) 

Mr. Coor fubmits it to medical men what effcflf the 
milk of a woman hardJy wrought and badly fed would 
have on a tender infant. They moftly die convulfcd 
about the eighth day* This want of care is the more 
lamentable, becaufe, if they furvive the eighth day, they 
snoftly do well. What convinces him farther it is for 
want of care, is, becaufe, where they have warm houfes^ 
kind treatment^ and the child is fet to the mother's- 
ireajt^ he very feldom knew any die. 

Moft of the negro-houfes, fays Fitzmaurice, are open* 
to the weather, being wattled without plaifter. They 
deep on a board on the ground, near the fire, and after 
it goes out, they {\xStr from cold and damp* This caufes 
many diforders, efpecially to lying-in women, who lofe 
more children by this than any^other caufe, as they ge- 
nerally die of the locked jaw. 

6. . The Dean of Middleham fays, it ftruck him,' t6 
fpeak generally, that negro mothers commonly Went intd 
the field too early after their delivery, taking their chiU 
dren with them ; that the milk of the mother became- 
fcvcrifli with labour, and the heat of the fun Was too 
powerful for th^ child, which wais commonly expofed in 
a bafket, and, in miny weather, unfheltered. The famt 
is confirmed by others. 

It is evident then, if the above be the general prac- 
tice in the colonies; if the flaves are otrer- wrought 
imd haftily and Severely punifhed; if promifciious ••in- 
tercourfe be allowed : if the women are oppi^efled dur- 
ing their pregnancy ; if, while* lying-in, they and their 
iniknts are fo much expofed to damp and cold in their 
houfes, that many of the latter perifli : and if, after 
delivery, they are too foon hurried, with their furviving 
in&nts, into the field, it is evident, we 'repeat, that they 
cannot poffibly, in general, increafe : but that fome 
chai^ muft oe made in the fyilem, and that the fol- 
lowing regulations are the moft likely to anfwer the end,., 
inafmuch «$, upon the Adopting of them or fimilar 
ones, the Saves on the eftates cited havi^ experienced an 


• * 


< ^^3 ) 

Regulation i . The maxim obferved on the cftate of 
die Marquis de Rouvray, and fome of the others ctte4a 
" of never prefling the flaves Hard in their work," and 
" the fubftitution of animal for human labour, wherever 
*' it is praflicable,** as mentioned by Mr. Giles, (hould 
be adopted on every eftate. 

2. A more general refidencc of proprietors on their 
own eftates, as on Mr. Malcolm's, to attend to the 
£omplaints and punifliments of their flaves, is necef- 

3. Marriage, or the union of one man to one wo* 
man, fhould take place, as in the Masquis de Rouvray's 
jdantation •, and this union no white or other perfon 
fhoald be (ufFered to difturb or disjoin. - 

4. The women flaves, when -advanced in their 
pregnancy four monthf, (hould be taken from the fielcl,. 
and fhould have little and light work, as pradiifed on 
feme of the eftates cited to have increafed by births. 

5. During the lime of their lying-in, they fliould be 
put into convenient hofpitals, or, if allowed to remain 
in-their huts, thefe (hould be fo conftrudled as to exclude 
^he cold and damp, and every female (bould fuckle her 
own child from the birth. 

6. In fuch hofpitals or huts, they-fliould remain, as 
on th6 Marquis de Rouvray's eftate, and beexcufed from 
field -labour, till the child could be fupported without 
the mother's aid, or, when their ftrength would permit, 
i-eturn with the child to their hu(bands, and take the 
>chance of work. 

Now, if it could be made appear, as it can, that the 
flaves in fome of the eftates cited, increafed by the 
adoption of fome vne of the" above regulations alone, 
ar>d that they increafed on others by adopting two or three 
of .them, and no more, and that on no one eftate, as 
appears by the evidence, were all of them in force at a 
jtime, it is plain, that if all of them combined were put 
ijito execution on each and every eftate in the colonies, 
jtbere muft be an uiiiverfal increafe of the flaves there. 



( «24 ) 


C H A p. XIII. 

jyhciher other Regulations may not be deduced from the 
Evidence^ which would accelerate this Increafe by 

WE have founds that lightening the labour of the 
flaves, attending to their grievances, punifh- 
mcnts, and the like, have been the means of contribut- 
ing to their increafe by population; hence any new modes 
fuggefted by the evidence, that will produce the fame 
effe(9:s, or. will tend to their better riourifliment or eftab- 
lifhment in fociety muft accelerate that increafe. 

1. Let the plough be introduced on every eftate 
which will admit the ufe of it. 

The introdudion of the plough would, in the opinion 
of Forftcr, Sir G. Young, Rees, Harrifon, Giles, and 
Duncan, fave the flaves much labour. Mr. Fitzmaurice 
has known it anfwer this end. Mr. Woodward an^l 
Mr. J. Woodward farther confirm the fame : the for- 
mer has reduced its utilfty on his own eftate to the fol- 
lowing rule: one plough.^ two men^ and four horfes^ do as 
much work as thirty negroes^ and, after the plough, it does 
not require, fays he, much negro labour to prepare tho 
ground for the cane. He tliinks that the largeft part of 
the cane and ginger land in Barbadoes, may be ploughed 
to the advantage of the proprietor, and the Javing ofne» 
groes labour. 

2. In the earthing of canes, let the Eaft Indian 
(hovel be introduced, in the place of the hoc, where it 
is pra£licable. 

When the cane is ready to earth up, fays Mr. Botham, 
the fpace between the ro\vs is ploughed deep, the cane. 


( 125 ) 

top* tied up, and an inftrumentlike a broad fliorel^ witk 
teeth at the bottom» a fpade handle, and two cords fixed 
to the body of the ihove), ending by a wooden handle 
for a purchafe, is ufed by two perfons to earth up the 
cane, the ftrongeft holding the handle of the fliovel, an^ 
preffing it into the ploughed earth, while the other on 
the oppofite fide of the plant, by a jerk of the cord, draws 
up to the plant all the earth that the plough had Ioofened« 
Two perfinsj fays Mr. Botham, and he has been in the 
'Weft as well as in the Eaft Indies, with this inftrument, 
will earth up more canes in a day than Un negnes with 
their hoes according to the W. Indian method. 

3. Let the commiilions or premiums paid it^fomt 
iflands on the crops, be taken from the attorneys and 
overfeers 0^ eftates, and let ialaries or an augmentation 
of falary be fubftituted in their ftead ; or, kt Ae pre- 
miums and commiiBons continue, bu< be paid fo much 
per head for the increafe of the flakes. 

It is the common pra<3ice for attorneys, and often 
for overfeers, to have a commiflion on the crops (Cook, 
Davifon, Fitzmaurice, Clappefon, and Coor). This has 
a manifeft tendency. to. make them pu(h the negroes be- 
yond their ftrength. Accordingly we find, fi-om Davi- 
fon, that kc has been with attorneys to vifit the eftates, 
and he has feen them dorlittle elfe than inquire about the 
€rops. He never heard them make any inquiries into the 
treatment orjiate oftheflaves. Goor lays, he* has known 
attornics wink at overjeers * prefling the flaves to per- 
form more work than human nature could hear* 

4. Let the picking of grafe neither be extra work, 
feof done in the intervals of reft ; but let a grafs-gang 
be felefted for this purpofe ; or entirely ab olifli grafs* 
picking, by laying out pafture land. ^ 

This regulation, as may be feen in Chap. IV, would 
tend wonderfully to leffen the labour and punifhment^ 
^d, of courfe, promote the' increafe of the flaves. 

* There is alfo a very deftn^^Hve notion prevalent, viz. « That he is 
the hf^ ovcrroer who makes the Urged crops." To<hU crilciiop of an 
loverfeer's merit it is owing that thoufands of flaves have been killed by 
Veing overworked. This notion ought to be changed for the following : 
<* Th«l he Is the bcft ovcrlecr who nrefervcs ibc jiarc*,** 

t N 5- Let 

( ia6 ) 

. 5. L«t the corn given to the negroes be ground for 

This regulation' would tend much to leilen their la* 
bour, as will be feen from the following account. When 
the women return home, Cays Davies, they have to' grind 
their corn, by t\itftrengib of their arms rubbing it between 
two /tones. They muft rife with the earlieft dawn to 
prepare their food, that they may be in the field in time, 
to cfcape puniibment, Thefe circumftances, but particu- 
larly the grinding of their corn, tended to difcourage mar- 
I'i^^i the woman's life becoming harder then from being 
thus a flave to her hufb^nd. Forfter alfo obferves, that 
the grinding of their corn at night, by hand^ was in 
crop-time a great hard(hip. 

6. Let tafks of fuch parts of the work, as will admit 
them, be ailigned to the flaves^ as pradifed in America. . 

In America,, fays Baillie, the overfeer roufed the 
flaves, and fet them to work in the morning, T'hey did 
not work for fet hours, but by talk- work, generally k 
rood of land to each, when eafily cultivated ; when other- 
wife, the overfeer fets the ftrongeft to the hardefl work, 
and vice vtrfa : and indeed it was ufual to leflen the 
45iece of land coniiderably, when uncommonly foul. 
The negroes generally helped thofe wbo could not finifh 
as foon as the reft, fo that they left the field at once, 
|>rcUy early in the afternoon, when their work ceafed, 
and they wejre at perfedl liberty for the reft of the day* 
Air. Baillie adds, that the drivers feldom or never whip- 
ped the flaves through their day's work 5 becaufe it was 
jmpoffible to know till towards the clofe of the day, 
whether a flave would or would not fini(h his tafk, and 
Jt was.^ought time enough to punifli when the negroes 
defervcd it. 

This politick method of working by taik has beefi 
triedin Jamaica. Mr. Fitzmaurice hired fixty negroes, 
aU Aiziericans, from a* Mr. Douglas who refided there, 
and employed them in this, manner. They hadataflE 
«ieafured out to them every morranj^ by Mr. Douglas or 
his overfeer, and which they finiQiea by^ one or two 
o'clock ,and had the reft of the dav to themfelves. The 


( 1^7 ) 

tiriver carried no whip, and only went occafionally to fee 
that the work was properly done. 

It will now be evident to the reader how much the 
introduftion of tafk-work into the Weft Indies would 
add to the eafe and comfort, and of courfe to the na- 
tural increafe, of the flaves ; for, by this wife and poli- 
tick method, the work is apportioned to the Jirength of the 
JJaves^ and the weak are not obliged to keep up i^ith the 
firong. The whip alfo, by which they are incefl'antly 
barrailed, is avoided, l^his alone is of great importanccr 
Mr. Crew thinks the nfe of the whip formed a difference 
in the treatment of American and Wejl Indian Jlaves great' 
ly to the difadvantage of the latter. They have alfo, by 
means of the fyftem recommended, the important ad- 
vantage of a part of the afternoon and evening to them- 
felves^ in which they ean cultivate their little portions 
pf lands, prepare their provifions, and yet have fufficicnt 
thne to reft : all which would greatly add to the ccm- 
fort of their lives. 

If' there fcould be any obje£lion to the introdudtion 
of tafk-work into the Weft India iflands, after what has 
been faid, it can only arife from a fuppofition, that the 
flaves getting their work done by two or three in the af- 
ternoon, cannot do fo much tor their owner, as thofe 
who work till fun-fet, on the prefent fyftem. The very 
reverfe, however, is the cafe : for Mr* Fitzmaurice ob- 
fcrves, that thoft negroes whom he employed by tafk io 
Jamaica, finiflied their work by one or two o*clock, 
whereas the plantation negroes on the adjoining land 
would not finilh //// dark^ even with the driver^ the Jame 
quantity of land, 

Having now ftated all that appears in the evidence^ 
Q\\ the fuhjeft of eafing the labour of the flaves, as the 
means of increafmg ijiem by birth, we come to a few 
regulations of another kind. 

, 7. Never let the fame perfon hoJd the offices of at- 
torney and overfeer, or manager: nor let an eftate be 
put under the care of an attorney who either has many 
eftates to attend to,, or who lives many iniles fix>m the 
efiate he is to fuperintend. 

N a All 

( 128 ; 

All thcfc evils are abundantly ftated in the evidence, 
and, it is therefore clear, that the above regulation would 
have a tendency to obtain profedton for the flaves, in 
cafes of unmerited or exceflive punifliilient, on the part' 
of the overfeer : for, by the 3d regulation, it would be 
the intereft of the attorney to inquire into their com-^ 
plaints, and redrefs them, and not, as at prefent, to 
wink at their oppreflion ; and by this regulation, he . 
would be at hand and have time to do bis duty. The 
flaves alfo would not be precluded by diftancc, from pre- 
ferring their own complaints. , This fuperintendance of 
punifhment?, was one of the caufes that contributed to 
the ihcreafe on an eftate mentioned in the preceding^ 

8, Let a fmall part of the cane-lands be difmantled 
and turned into provifion grounds, for the flaves, - 

The great want of provifions, which the flaves experi- 
ence, has been amply explained in Chap. IV. It has 
been proved that thofe who have land » enough allowed 
thetn have not fufficient time to cultivate it; but that evil 
will be removed by the introduSion of taik-work 
(Regul. 6.) and' thofe who have little or no land will 
poflefs it'by the prefent. This would be particularly 
ufeful, becaufe provifions rarfed, fays Botham, feed ne-< 

f;roes better than any dry or of her prtruifionr imptrtedi 
t would alfo prefer ve them from falling off as they do at 
prefent. Epidemicks, fays Coor, are more fatal to poor 
and ill-fed, than to well-fed, hearty flaves. But one 
fatal epidemick prevailed while he was in Jamaica. It 
attacked all rank« of whites and blacks, and generally 
poor, ill-fed negroes died of it. Few well-fed negroes 
died of it, and not one white man* Nor need the planters 
be afraid that the difm^ntling of the canes for provifion- 
landj'wiH rob them of their former profits. If a hun-* 
dred negroes cultivate as many acres of canes, and fifty 
acres be dedufted for their fupport, it is not improbable 
but that the fifty in canes, with the labour of a hundred 
perfons, may product as much as the hundred acres be- 
fore ; for a hundred labourers arc better able to cultivate 
and improve fifty, than twice the number of acres, and 
• tbe 

( 1-29 ) 

the earth will remunerate in proportion to the toil and 
improvement beftowed upon it. Of this we may ad- 
duce a ftriking inftance, from Fitzmaurlcc. He ob- 
fcrves that a gentleman had two eftates in Clarendon^ 
one of which Mr. Fi^tzmaurice managed. This gentle- 
man had too few negroes for both eftates, but fuflicient 
for one. He, however, cultivated both. They pro- 
duced him together 150 hogfceads of fugar per annum. 
He became in debt, and his negroes fuffered. At 
length, changing his plan, he difmanded one of. his 
eftates, and put both the gangs on the other. Thefe 
wece then amply fufficient, and he is np^y making 400 
hhdjs-. that' is 250 mare hhds. per year upon this one eft at i^ 
than upon both together before^ and is now a clear min. 
This regnlatron then would tend to the proprietor's be- 
nefit, as well as to the increafe of the flaves. 

9^ Let every encouragement be givcn^totbe moral 
and* religious inftruftion of the. flaves. 

A dehciency in this particular, appears throughout- 
the whole of the evidence. There has been, however, 
here and there, a folitary inftance of a contrary nature,. 
in the knowledge of* Goor, Forfttfr, Captain Smith, 
Duncan^ and Fitzmaurice ; and thefe declare, that 
where fuch. moral and religions inftru6tions have been 
encouraged, the flaves have fl:iev/n a better difpofitioh and 
b'et^aviour ; that they haw alfo paid a more general at-^ 
tention to marriagey,?it\d thas they have increajed more by. 
the births. 

Haying now mentioned the principal regulations 
which *th€ evidence fuggefts, in addition to thofc recom- 
mended in' the former chapter, for producing a natural 
increafe of the" flaves, it is plain that were ail thofe re- 
gulations combined,' and generally enforced in the co- 
Itaiet, jthat increafe would he pjropprtionably accelerated, . 

N3^ CHAP. 

{ '30 ) 



l^iihir the Colm!/ls could carry on the necejfary Cultiva* 
. tion of their Landsywitbout a frejh Importation of Slaves 
while this Increafe was becoming effeiiive ; ^r, in other 
Wordsy while the Generation immediately fucceeding theft 
Regulations were growing up to fupply the natural 
Deaths rf the Slaves of all Ages^ now in their Pbf^ 
: feffion. 

^^HIS queftion may be anrwered from what has ap* 
peared in fome of the preceding chapters^ 
laves have been, (hewn to have been w^ounded by 
the watchmen, in ftealing proyifions to which they have 
been impelled by hunger ; but as, by fome of the fore- 
going regulations, they would be (u£Sciently fed, (and 
where they have been fufEciently fed the evidence has 
ihewn that they have hot ftolen at all) thofe watchmen 
would become unneceflary as fuch, and might be turned 
into the efFeftive field-gangs. 

It has appeared alfo, that where tafk-work is intro- 
duced the whip is unneceflary : hence the drivers, whofe 
only bufmefs is to force labour (and of whom there are 
four or five, fays Coor, to every 1 00 flaves) might them- 
felves be converted into field-labourers. 
. * It has been ihewn too, that, in confequence of their be-. 


( i3« ) 

ing better fed, according to feme of the regulation's fug^^ 
gefted, they would be far lefs liable to fufier from epi- 
demicks ; and it is evident, that, being better fed, lefs 
worked and harrafled by the whip, that is, ih eyery re-^ 
fped, better ufed, their lives would be proportionably 

It has likewife appeared, that two ilavei^y affilled by 
d)e plough, do the work of thirty without it ^ and that, 
in the earthing up of the canes, two (laves ufing the 
Eaft Indian implement mentioned^ would do the work of 
ten with the hoe. 

> From the prefent compulfive and oppreffive^fyftem, it 
has appeared in evidence, that numbers of flaves run 
?way^ and are laid up (ickly. But the regulations would 
put an end to thefe evils, and the gangs, not being deferted 
and thinned as before, would become more dBicient in 
ftrength and number. 

This ftrength and this number would be'- retKkred ftill 
more effective, by the affiftance'and labour of fuch, as we 
nave feen, are under the prefent lyitem, often crippled of 
badly wounded by the watchmen. From the above 
tiien it appears, ' 

I. That on the day the importation (hould ceafe, thd 
colonifts, by incorporating the watchmen and drivers irt 
their f^eld'i'gangs, would have an additional number (and 
that a conuderable one) of feafoned hands by which they 
would be compenfated for the natural deaths of th^ 
working flaves, during at leaft, a part of the time in 
which the rifing generation were growing up for la<^ 

2: That the natural deaths of the working flaves 
would be greatly and progreflively retarded, from that 
day, and could not poffibly happen fo frequently as 



3. That, taking into confidcratipn the retarding oF 
the deaths of the working flaves, and the augmenting of 
their number, they might not, in three or four years be 
fo reduced, but that their ni^mber might be then equal 
to what it was on the day t>if* flopping the importation^ 

' when 

( 13* > 

when the whole of the efficient hands under the formec 
wvetch«d fyftetn were not thus called into employ*. 

4.^ That €ven if na augmentation could be made. t9 
the number of working Haves, and their natural deaths 
were as frequent as before, it by no means follows that 
tTie cultivation need be impeded till the rifing' generation 
could grow up ; becaufe a much, lefe number of hands^ 
affifled by cattle and the implements mentioned, would 
evidently do much more work than, a greater^ under the 
preient fyftem. 

In (hort, after the circumftances ftated, and confider> 
Ing alio that there is now in the colonies a feries of 
Creoles of all ages, ready to, fupply fucceilively the places 
of many that would go off by natural death, no maa 
can rationally fuppofe, that the ' number of working 
flaves could ever be reduced fo low, while the rifing ge- 
neration were growing up, as not to be as fully adequate, 
to the cukivation^^ of the colonies, as they are at prefent* 
Mr..B'otham.fays, that by means of two-thirds, nay even 
cw^halfof the prefentjhrce (and-he fpeaks experi mentally )^j 
the iflands mjght be much better cultivated^ under certain^ 
regulations, than under what he terms, the prefent mifer^ 
able management: and yet the regulations fuggefted by 
Mr*. Botham are not fo numerous as thofe deduced fron:|- 
the evidence, in the preceding chapters* 

if,, however, any one fhould difputeihis ppint, be- 
niuft be told, diat the colonifts have yet many other: 
refources.. They have* generally, in. the firft place, a., 
number of domeftick flaves that. are. fupernumerary 
and ufelefs. They have a great number of fuperfluour 
domeiHcks at Bajhaidoes, . fays Woodward,, in town, 
and country* Mr. Giles thinks half the domefticks 
of Grenada, and Montferrat unneceflary. I/ieutenant 
Davifon has known, in Jamaica, from twelve to twen^^ 
ty domefticks in a houfe, . where half , the number would 
have done as well. . Dr. . Jackfon too > obferves, that 
there are three times more domefticks ia Jamaica than - 
would be inEixgland, for the fame v/ork5..,and Jeffreys, 
fpeaking of thofe in th^ £une ifland, fays they are toQ 
many \ they are a nuifance from their numbers. Hex^e. 


( 133 ) 

it is clear, that were it pofBble a failure of hands for the 
field could take place before the aiSgned epocha ar- 
rived, many domefticks might be fpared, without any 
inconvenience, for field -labour. Nor would this change 
be at all difagreeable to many of them : for we have 
feen their lives often rendered miferable, by beihe con- 
ftantly under the eye, and fubjeft to the caprice of their 
mafters and miftrefles. Coor, indeed, has often heard 
many of them (ay, that they would rather be under the 
field hardfhips, than in the houfe. 

This refource, though very confiderable, is yet not 
the only one the planters are poiTefled of: for many of 
the flaves are coopers, carpenters, mill-wrights, copper* 
finiths, black-fmiths, and the like, all of whom could 
perform field-labour, and their places, if nectary, be 
fupplied with white men, who, if temperate, would not 
fiiffct, in their health, Land-furveying, fays Tcfiry, 
is exceedingly laborious in the Weft-Indics ; andyet^he 
followed it for kven years, without injury to his health* 
He has often feen white mill-wrights at work in the 
fun, whofe health ^iid not CaScr* There are alfo white 
coopers and black-fmiths there* but the former only di- 
red negroes working under them. Lieutenant I/avi- 
fon is fure whites, if temperate, could, without material 
injury, do any kind of out-door work. It is well knowik 
tiiat the ihip-wrighte and other tradefmen in the king's 
yard, Port-Royal, often wor4c all day long, and he never 
knew them unhesathier than people in general. White 
artificers do Work at their trades in die Weft Indies^ 
without materially hurting their health. Captain Cook 
has no doubt, and he fpeaks from many, infiances, that 
vAite people by habits of temperance and regularity of 
hours, might bring themfelves to go through nearly as 
much labour and fatigue in the Weft Indies, as any 
people whatever. Mr. Clappefon thinks the whites, 
if temperate, are able to labour in Jamaica. He fays, 
no people work harder than the Engliih failors there : 
a^d Dr. Jackfon apprehends, as a medical man, that 
white men may work as artificers, in the Weft Indies, 
without any material detriment to their health. 


( ?3+ J 



/Fbetier thrs Be n9t a prevailing Opinion in the CobuieSy, 
tb^tit is cheaper to buy or import Slaves than thus to 

: increafe them h Pfpulfltion^^^nd whether the very re-- 
ver/e of this Opinion be not true \ namely^ that it ii 
more profitable to bned than imports 


THAT fuch an opinion prevails in t^e eolonies is 
too evident. Dalmnpfe, Captain Wilfon, Har- 
rifon) and Sir George. Youns^ all affirm, thatintheii^ 
time it was thought by fome planters to be cheaper, to bu% 
than tir breed. The prevalence of the fame notion is alio 
confirmed by others. Mr.^Rees was informed that tho 
planters did not think it worth their while to breed more 
than they did. The buying fyftem is fajd by Dr. Jack-^ 
(an to have been generally preferred. Captain Hall 
iays, the planters efleemed the charge of rearing a child 
to maturity, more troublefome and greater than buving a 
^ave, fit for work ; and the fame opinion is defcribed as 
prevailing by Fit^maurice, Duncan, and Davifon. As 
a farther proof of the exiflence of fuch a notion, we may, 
Ttitx to the calculations made upon thefe occaAons.^If % 
neg^o lafted a certain time^ £iys Baillie^ his death vtras 


( I3S ) 

accounted nothing. This time i« defcribed by Fit«- 
jiuuftceto be feven years. Captain Giles alfo heard 
the term of feven years affixed for the exiftence of a 
gang of negroes, which he iaw, and we find a man of 
the name of Yemman> by Captain Scott's account, re- 
ducing his calculation to four years, treating his (laves 
jnoft cruelly, and fa}|(ng that four years labour of a negro 
was enough for him ; for tha/ he then had his pennyworth 
cutofhimy andhedtdnot'care what became of him after" 
wards* • - ^ - 

As this notion is fo fatal to population, and is indeed 
evidently one grand fource from whence the prefent 
evils in the colonial fyftem fpring, it will- be proper to 
examine the evidence, to fee if we cannot (hew the re- 
verfe of it to be true. 

There is one circumftance that leads us ftrongly to 
fufped that it is not fo well founded as its general pre- 
valence would warrant, which is, that one-third of all 
that are bought die in the feafoning* This feafoning is 
not a diftemper, but is the time an African takes to be 
fo habituated to the colonial labour, as to be counted 
an efFe&ive fupply* 

Some planters, (ays Woolrich, who have bought lots 
of (laves, have informed him, that they have lofl one- 
third of them or more in the firft year of their feafoning. 

Mr^ Terry ftates, that very confiderable lolTes were 
common among the newly imported Africans. One- 
third die within the firft year. Of a lot of fix, bought 
hy himfelf, two died within the firft year, and at the end 
of five years, two only furvived. 

Mr. Forfter recoUelS^is a planter, who bought thirty 
new negroes, and loft them all within the year. 

Mr. Fit^maurice, in the laft four years he was in Ja- 
maica, bought ninety- five new negroes. At the end of 
that time, he fold lifty-two, all that were then alive, 
,and thofe not feafoned. Had he kept them till feaToned, 
he (hould have loft more, and for this very reafon he fold 
them. He thinks, upon an average, at leaft one-third of 
the new negroes imported, die in the firft three years* . 

Though this circumftance would induce us to think 
that it was cheaper to rear than to buy 'a (lave, (for in 


( 136 ) 

dftimating the price given for one that is bought, not 
only the prime coft is to be confidered, but a thifd more 
is to be added to it, with various odier circumftainces) 
yet, as fufHcient data are not to be found in the evidence 
to enable us to come to a calculation, we muft be con- 
tent to abide by the fefts that follow* 

Thofeeftates, fkjrs Forfter, which bought the greateft 
number of new negroes, were not thought to be the 
moft flourifbing. It was exaSily the reverfe* 

On an eftate, which Mr, Coor knew, the proprietor 
was often buying lots of twenty^ thirty^ or forty Jlaves^ and 
yet this man, by ill ufing them, (which ill ufage is infe^ 
^arahh connected with the buying fy/t em) fuffered a reduc- 
tion both in the number of his negroes and the produce 
of his eftate ; fo that, from good circumftances* his credit 
was in eleven years reduced to a low ebb. 

Captain Scott was prefent aj the fate of Temman^spro-^ 
fertVj the perfon mentioned to have adopted the fyftem of 
Duymg in* preference to that of breeding, and working 
his negroes up in the fpace of four years. 

Lieutenant DavKon believes owners of flaves are very 
commonly involved with Guinea merchants; for they 
'often ilay on the eftates all the week, except Sundays, 
zinth their gates always locked. 

' The dependence on the imported flaves, fays the Rev. 
*Mn Davies, certainly contributed toemharrafs planters. 
* Mr. Woolrich, who is qualified to give the hiftory of 
Tortola in this particular, fays, that >yhea he firft went, 
there, there were but few flaves, and that at this time 
the planters were in good credit, and none of them in- 
volved in debt. In about three or four years, however, 
after his arrival* there, fome Guinea fliips came down 
with cargoes of flaves. The planters in general bought: 
many of the new negroes died in the feafoning, -and 
Guinea (hips coming down time after time, the planters 
l)ought to fupply their places. This continuing, many 
of them got much into debt, by purchafuig flaves on 
credit, and were obliged-to mortgage their eftates and 
:flavesto merchants in England. He has never known 
a planter, who thus mortgaged, pay off the debt. Some 

{ 137 ) 

in confequence have been obliged to have them fold bjr 
auaion, mjuch under value ; and he has' known others, 
even obliged to lecome overjeers where they were proprt^ 
itors before. JSince he left Tortola, he has been informed, 
by means of correfpondence, or feeing fome perfon frpni 
the inand, (which is generally the cafe once a j^ear) of 
its annual ftate to the prefent time. The laft mforma- 
tion reprefented the planters to be in very diftrefled cir- 
cumftances. Divers of their eftates, mortgaged in Eng- 
land, had been fold at publick vendue upon very low 
terms, becaufe few were able to pay for them, and th« 
general credit fo low with the planters, that but few 
could obtain the neceflaries they wanted from the ftores 
kept there, by reafon of their debts to the Englifli mer- 
chants. It has been his opinion for many years, that th« 
unnec e [far y pur chafe of African flaves has been the m%\n 
caufe of their embarrajfments^ and the accumulation of their 
debts. He is fure that feven eighths of them would 
have been in much better circumftances^ if they had not 
Sought any negroes during the time of his refidence there^ 
but had ufed thofe they had with humanity and care* 

To the above accounts we ,may fubjoin the following 
from Mr. Savage. In the year 1739, he obferves, a 
duty was laid in Carolina on the importation of flaves, 
which amounted to a prohibition, and which continued 
to 1774. The pur chafe of new negroes having involvH 
the planters greatly in debty was the reafon why the legif^ 
lature laid it. 

Thefe aire fome of the circumftances, which are in- 
tended to ihew, that the reverfe of the notion or opRiion 
mentioned, is true, that is to fay, that it is cheaper to 
breed than to import. Others are, that wherever eftates 
are mentioned in the evidence as flourifhing, and the 
proprietors of them as clear men, it is where they have 
adopted the principle of breeding, and of treating the 
flaves they have had with humanity and care *. It may 

• Mwy other advantages appear by the evidence to rcfult from iho 
fyftcm of breeding flaves and ufing them well. Suicide and rebellion are 
peculiar to the imported (laves. Hence the peace of mind and intereft of 
the proprietor are materially. concerned, and it f«lly appcart that fuch 
laves <}• jmuch mora work tbat^ oth^s in. tka ivtti% Uiac 

( »38 I 

alfe be added here from die evidence, that die bfeediu^ 
of Daves was tonfidered fo frofitahlt io fome parts" ^' 
America, that people A*/rf them fir this turpofe al(»uAn-> 
dependently of any profpeft from the ftuits ef theif 



Whether it li mn politiik ts ixt^nJ the Cultivation of ihi 
Colonies hy the Continuance of the- Slave-Tradey or wait 
till the rifin^ Generation Jhatt be eapable of peiformini 


MR. IRVING ftates, bjr mctas of official pape^ 
from the Cuftotn-houfe^ that the Britifh Weft 
india Iflands, in their prefent ftate, produce annually a 
greater quantity of fugar and rum thaii is requifite fot 
the confumption of Great Britain, her immediate depen^ 
dencies, and the kingdom of Ireland, and, to extend the 
CultivatiQn> be conliders to be very impolitic> for twa 
reafons : 

Firft, becaufe fuch exteniion can only be made from 
Prltifh capitals, which might be employed in carrying 
4^0 and extending the manufa^ur^Si coounerce and agri-« 


( '39 ) ; 

iiltare of the mother country, but which niuft thus be 
transferred to the moft vulnerable parts of the empire, 
and there in^efted in purfuits, which do not appear to 
him to be produSdve of a profit to the proprietor, or ' 
cf advantage to the public, in any degree adequate to the 
precarious fituation in which fuch property ftands, from 
the contingencies of climate and of war : for, iP but 
one ifland mould be loft, it is a complete lofs of fo much 
capital to the empire c and Mr. Irving ihews their ex- 
tremely hazardous Atuation, by the capture of fix o 
them, and the final feparation of Tobago in the latef 

Secondly, becaule the fugar and rum to be produced 
by extending the cultivation (the prefent cultivation be* 
ing more than fufficient for the demand of England and 
her dependencies) muft be exported to foreign ftates. This, 
{ays Mr. Irving, is exceedingly impolitick; for the fugar 
made in the French iflands can be aiForded (which he 
ihews by official papers) fo much cheaper than the 
Britifh, that, in order to enable the planters to fell it at 
the fame price as their rivals. Government muft give 
large and deftru£live bounties. Mr. Irving even ftates, 
^d this again officially, that, in the moft favourable 
period for the Britifh iflands, viz. before the late war, 
the French [danters were able to fell their fugars from 
twenty to Airty per cent, cheaper than the Britifh plan- 
ters : and he -conceives it to be a maxim thoroughly 
eftablifhed in national commerce, that it is unwife to 
pufh forward by monopolies, reftri(5tive regulations or 
bounties, any branch of commerce or manufaftures, 
which cannot be carried on, after a hir trial, within 
fifteen per cent, of the prices of other rivd countries. 

To the above reafons, given by M*"- Ir\'ing> we may 
add, that the extenfion of the cultivation, by means of 
purchafing new flaves, mufjb be exceedingly impolitick, 
if we bear in mind the evidence adduced in the preceding 
chapter: inafhiuch as it muft be, as it has ever been, 
^f tended with debt$. mortgages, and ruin. 

UpWp if the above arguments fbould, in the opinion