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On my visit to Asia Minor in 1838, of which I gave an 
account in my former Journal, I found that the district 
of ancient Lycia was so rich in all that is most inter- 
esting to the traveller, that, my time then allowing of 
only a short excursion into it, 1 could not but feel a 
strong desire to return at a future day, and explore it 
more carefully. 

This desire was increased when, on reaching England, 
I learned how completely unknown this country is 
to modern travellers, and how much importance the 
learned attached to many of my discoveries. 

On my second visit therefore to Asia Minor, in 1840 
(the account of which is given in the Journal now pub- 
lished), I determined to turn my steps at once to Lycia; 
and I have, as will be seen from the line of my route on 
the map, traversed it in several directions. The new 

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discoveries which I have made on this excursion, have 
richly rewarded me ; and I am led to believe that the 
materials for the historian, the philologist, and the lover 
of art, which I have rescued from the ruins I visited, 
will be found of no inconsiderable value. The geogra- 
pher will see that I have mapped the interior of the 
country, which hitherto has been unknown, and left 
blank in the maps : for the coast 1 am indebted to the 
admirable Survey of Captain Beaufort. 

In this small province I have discovered the remains 
of eleven cities not denoted in any map, and of which 
I believe it was not known that any traces existed. 
These eleven, with Xanthus and Tlos described in my 
former Journal, and the eleven other cities along the 
coast visited by former travellers, make together twenty- 
four of the thirty-six cities mentioned by Pliny as having 
left remains still seen in his age. I also observed, and 
have noticed in my Journal, many other piles of ruins 
not included in the above numbers. 

Many of the coins which I have found, and of which 
I give copies in the following pages, were before un- 
known to the numismatist, and others will enable him 
to assign place and date to coins in various museums, 
which have before been unexplained or erroneously 

Of the beautiful sculptures and coloured bas-reliefs 

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found amoDg the ruins, I have brought away numerous 
drawings, with which my Journal is illustrated. 

Some of the inscriptions, of which I took copies on 
this tour, are of great value, as supplying a key to the 
hitherto unknown Lycian language, and others are im- 
portant as bearing upon, and in some instances eluci- 
dating very curiously, questions of remote history. 

To Mr. Hermann Wiener I have great pleasure in ex- 
pressing my acknowledgments for his translations of 
the nimierous Greek inscriptions which I copied ; as I 
have to my friend Mr. Daniel Sharpe, for his paper on 
the Lycian inscriptions. I have also to thank Pro- 
fessor Don for kindly furnishing me with the names 
and classes of the plants which I collected, many of 
which he describes as of species hitherto unknown. 

C. F. 

London, April, 1841. 

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LYCIA 104 














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AT MYRA 197 




AT MYRA 198 











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Smyrna— Climate — ^Bazaars — Horses — Provisions — Ball — Road 

to Thera, the ancient Caystras — Passage of the Mountains to 

Idin, the ancient Tralles — ^Tahir Pasha — ^his Museum^ Inscrip« 

tions — ^Valley of the Mseander — Sultan Hiss<£ — Soldiers — An- 

tiocheia — the Valley of the Mosynus — Karasoo — ^to Yeerah, 

the ancient Aphrodisias ^ 1 


The ancient Aphrodisias — ^Temple of Venus — ^Pagan Age — ^Chris- 
tian Age — ^Present State — Sarcophagi — Natural History — Ka- 
rasoo — ^Arrival of the New Firman or Code of Laws — Conse- 
quent Changes — Return to the Valley of the Maeander — ^The 
River Harpasus — ^Passage of the Mountains — Valley of the 
Marsyas 32 


Arab Hiasci, ancient Alabanda — Ruins — Demmeerge-derasy, an- 
cient Alinda — ^Tombs — Ruins — Passage of the Mountains — 
Unknown Ruins — Mylasa — ^Temple of Labranda [?] — Ancient 
Remains — Mausoleum 54 

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Stratoniceia, its Ruins — Route to Moolah — ^Ancient Tombs 
The Pasha — Longevity — Change in the Laws — Detention 
among the Peasants — Music — Dancing — Customs — Passage 
of the River — ^DoUomon 80 


Inconvenience for want of Com — Ancient Tombs — Customs of 
the People — Peculiar Architecture — Discovery of Calynda — 
Natural History — Telmessiis — Tombs, Works of Art — Pecu- 
liar Climate — Hoozumlee — ^its Inhabitants — State of the Arts 
among the ancient Lycians — Discovery of Cadyanda — its 
Ruins — Valley of the Xanthus — Hoorahn — Ancient Tombs 
and Ruins, probably of the ancient Massicytus 100 


Architecture; Rocks, Buildings, Cottages, Granaries — Tlos — 
Rock-Tombs — Ancient Sculpture — Minara, the ancient Pi- 
nara — Ruins — ^Bas-reliefs in Tombs — Habits of the People . . 128 


Discovery of Sidyma — its Tombs — ^Temples — Natural History — 
lions — Ancient Fort — Xanthus — Sarcophagus-Tomb — Ly- 
cian Inscription upon Obelisk — Ancient Sculptures — Harpies 
— Chariots — Animals — Processions — ^Tomb — Customs of the 
Peasants 151 


Patara — Coins — Passage of Mountains — Discovery of the an- 
cient Phellus — ^Antiphellus — its Tombs — Kastelorizo, the an- 

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cient Megiste — Jewels and Costume of the Peasantry — Cas- 

gabar — ^Ancient Trabala ? — Singular gorge in the Mountains 

— ^Myra — ^Tombs — Sculptures — Difficult Passage of Mountain 

— ^Ancient Isium? — ^Limyra — Ruins, Tombs, and Sculptures. 179 


Ruins of Myra — Tombs — Coloured Bas-reliefs — Ruins — ^Passage 
of Mountain to Phineka — Ancient Isium? — Limyra — Scul- 
ptures and Inscription — ^Ancient Bridge — Gags — Excursion 
by the Promontarium Sacrum to Olympus — A deserted Village 
— Valley of the Arycandus — Tombs — Ruins — Discovery of 
Arycanda — ^its Ruins 196 


Avelan — ^its Lake — ^Extensive Plains — ^Disappearance of a River 
— ^Almalee — its Population — Mosques — ^Trade — Ancient Site, 
probably Podalia — Source of Rivers — Passage of Mountain — 
High Plains — ^The Yeeilassies — Annual Migration of the Tribes 
— ^Valley of the Xanthus— Macry 227 


Rhodes — City of Rhodes — Sailors — Lavisse — Carmyleseus — Re- 
turn to the Yeeilassies — ^Review of Lycia 243 


Gule-Hissei-ovassy — A large Lake — Ancient River Calbis — Ex- 
tensive Plains — Carreeuke — ^its Bazaar — ^Price of Cattle — Cus- 
toms of the People — Denizlee — ^its Inhabitants — Change of 
Law — Laodiceia — Hierapolis — Return to Smyrna 256 

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Some Results arising from the Investigation of the Lycian In- 
scriptions — Origin of the Language — ^Date obtained — its Im- 
portance in elucidating Ancient History — Suggestions for the 
Future Researches of Travellers 272 

List of Coins, and whence they were obtained, together with 
Plates of many rare or inedited ones 280 

List of Plants seen or collected during the Journey, with Re- 
marks upon them by Professor Don 286 


Appbndix a. — Greek Inscriptions copied during the Journey, 
and Translations of them by Mr. Hermann Wiener 297 

Appendix B. — An Essay on the Lycian Language, elucidating 
the Characters upon the Coins of the Ancient Inhabitants and 
many of the Inscriptions brought from Lycia, communicated 
to the Author by Daniel Sharpe, Esq 427 

Index 521 

Index to the Greek Inscriptions 526 

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Smyrna — Climate — Bazaars — Horses — Provisions — Ball — Road to 
Tliera, the ancient Caystrus — Passage of the Mountains to Idin, the 
ancient Tralles — ^Tahir Pasha — his Museum — Inscriptions — Valley 
of the Mseander — Sultan Hissd — Soldiers — Antiocheia — the Valley 
of the Mosynus — Karasoo — to Yeerah, the ancient Aphrodisias. 

S^TTia, February 14th, 1840, — ^When the Turkish 
peasant said, as I left this country a year and a half 
ago, " Mountains never meet, but men may," he ex- 
pressed an idea of our again meeting, stronger than I 
entertained of renewing my visit to Asia Minor. No- 
thing but an earnest desire of knowing more of the 
highly interesting monuments found in this country, 
and of the natural features peculiar to it, together with 
the total absence of any published accounts whence I 
could obtain such information, would have induced me 
to wander thus far from the society of friends I so . 
much value, and from the description of civilization 
to which an European is habituated. I have just left 

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Rome^ wbere^ in visiting its museums, which mark the 
ebbing and flowing of art from the earliest ages, I have 
wondered at the incomparable distance at which the 
works of the ancient Greeks stand, raised like the 
Acropolis of their cities, above the productions of all 
succeeding ages. How changed is Greece now ! — ^for I 
look upon this country, in its earliest ages, as a part of 
Greece — the present inhabitants knowing nothing of 
its history, and being entirely ignorant of the arts 
which distinguished its former people from the rest of 
the world. 

In this, now almost unknown part of ancient Greece, 
three of the seven Wise Men, in the early history of the 
world, had their birth*. Poetry, History, Fable, and 
Philosophy, had each their fathers in this countryf. 
Among the wonders of the world, it boasted its Temple 
at Ephesus, its Mausoleum in Caria, and its Colossus at 
Rhodes. The finest work of art, the celebrated Venus, 
is attributed to this people. The most wealthy of 
kings}, and the greatest of armies $, arose in this re- 
gion, and their tumuli remain still undisturbed ||. The 
sites of its cities are unknown to us ; and even the lan- 
guage of a considerable portion, abounding with in* 
scriptions, has hitherto almost escaped the observation 
of the philologists of Europe. Impressed with this 
feeling, and attracted by the natural beauties of the 

* Thales, Bias, and Pittacus. 

t Homer, Herodotus, iEsop, and Pythagoras. I Croesus. 

§ Xerxes' expedition. )| Of Alyattes at Sardis. 

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country, as well as by the hospitality of its inhabitants, 
I have returned hither to accumulate information and 
materials for future study. 

Smyrna is at this season intensely cold, the distant 
hills are covered with snow, the wind blows keenly 
from the north-east, and the pools in the town are 
frozen over. English coal, which is amply supplied for 
the numerous steam-vessels, affords the comfort of a 
fire, as welcome here as on the coldest of our winter 
days in England. 

February 26f A. — ^This morning we had intended to quit 
Smyrna for the interior, but could not obtain horses ; 
they are promised us for tomorrow morning by six 
o'clock. The Bazaars are to me always a pleasing 
lounge ; the variety of trades, the novelty of the articles 
for sale, the busy scene among the camels and porters, 
contrasted with the composure of the shopkeeper, who, 
with his luxurious pipe in his hand, awaits patiently on 
his cushioned couch the call of a chance customer, offer 
ceaseless novelty to an Eiu'opean. By the assistance of 
my companion, Mr. Scharf, I hope to possess many 
sketches, to call to mind these scenes ; but the harmo- 
nious cries of the traders, and the sonorous bells of the 
passing camels, can be retained only in the memory. 
The shops for the sale of eatables are very numerous, 
and mostly for dried fruits and sweetmeats. There are 
also many for the favourite food of the Turks, which is 
principally composed from the produce of the dairy. 
Among the most novel to me was a dish called Moha- 


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lahbee, a kind of blancmange, which is served in white 
plates, sifted over with sugar and sprinkled with rose- 
water; this hasty-pudding-like substance is made of 
rice-flour boiled in milk ; it is semi-transparent, and in 
consistency like blancmange. Saloop is also much sold 
about the streets, as well as kymac, youghoort, and all 
kinds of curd, cream, and milk, flavoured with scents of 
various kinds. The total absence of shops for the sale 
of stimulants, of spirituous or fermented liquors, still 
continues a striking feature to an European. 

Thursday, February 27th. — ^No horses came this morn- 
ing as promised, and we waited until four in the after- 
noon before we could even be assured of obtaining them 
for tomorrow morning: these are to be hired horses, 
at the rate of one dollar (4^. 4d.) a day, and half a dollar 
for their return ; even more than this was expected, and 
we have had to collect them from various small pro- 
prietors. We should not be able to obtain them from 
the Post, for which we are prepared with all the powers 
of a firman from Constantinople, for four days, several 
Governors being now detained awaiting the return of 
horses from other expeditions. The greatest inconve- 
nience is now felt from the want of horses in Smyrna, 
where the supply is very limited, although a few years 
ago the town abounded with them ; but the establish- 
ment of steam-vessels has superseded the more than 
daily lines of Tartars hence to Constantinople. Scarcely 
any horses are now kept for the service of the post, the 
ordinary demand being very trifling. 

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Another great pecuniary inconvenience has arisen 
since 1 was last here, but it will probably be temporary. 
Smyrna is now the market for the combined fleets of 
several nations, stationed in her gulph ; at Vourlah are 
five English ships of war, and one here : the French 
have six, and the Austrian three, lying in front of the 
town of Smyrna ; these bring an additional population 
of many thousand consumers. Meat, poultry, eggs, 
game, butter, and indeed all provisions, are four and 
five times the price they were two years ago. The 
charges at the inns are more than doubled, as well as 
the hire of horses for riding about the neighbourhood, 
in consequence of the demand occasioned by the ofiicers 
of the navy. The appearance, and I fear the morals, of 
the ■ * Frank town" — the designation of the quarter near 
the sea, which is occupied by Franks of all nations — 
are also much changed by the immense number of 
French sailors, who seem to be allowed to spend their 
days on shore : hundreds are each evening reeling into 
their crowded boats, and many, too much intoxicated ta 
walk, are put on board by their less drunken mates. 
This irregularity has caused the total absence of our 
sailors from Smyrna ; for a few weeks ago they resented 
an afiront received from some French sailors, and, 
although double their own number, so severely treated 
them, that it was thought better they should not come 
again in contact while such disorder prevailed among 
the sailors of that nation. The Austrian seamen ap* 
pear to be under much better discipline. 

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On Tuesday last, Prince Frederick of Austria gave the 
people of Smyrna a ball at their Casino, which was en- 
larged for the occasion by the erection of temporary 
rooms, formed of sails and flags, upon the terraces of 
the building. Everything was done by the prince most 
handsomely and liberally, but the Smymese want of 
taste and style was very apparent. The great redeeming 
feature was the elegance and splendour of the costumes 
of the ladies, who generally appeared in the Greek 
dress, which does not seem overloaded by the costly 
addition of jewels and embroidery ; the wearers are also 
particularly good-looking. Among the Frank popu- 
lation, a study of dress is on all occasions a marked 
characteristic of the females of Smyrna. This must 
be observed by every passer through their streets : at 
every window and doorway is seen, at all hours of the 
day, a fuUy-dressed head, ornamented with flowers or 

Determined not to delay the commencement of our 
expedition another day, I made arrangements for the 
men and eight horses to join us in the morning at 
Boojah, a village composed of houses of the Frank 
merchants, to which we walked, passing the Caravan 
Bridge at four o'clock, on Thursday the 27th of Fe- 
bruary. Instead of turning to the south-east or to the 
right hand, soon after crossing the bridge, we con- 
tinued on the road which led eastward, lengthening our 
walk by passing through Cooklajah and over the moun- 
tain to Boojah, and enjoying the splendour of the view 

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of Smyrna and its lovely bay, carried into the moun- 
tains by the most luxuriant valleys. It was seven 
o'clock, and quite dark, before we arrived at the small 
inn recently opened by our landlord of the Navy Hotel 
at Smyrna. 

Friday, February 28th. — Our horses arrived at eight 
o'clock, and we started, returning nearly half the way 
to Smyrna, to join the route leading up the valley to- 
ward the south-east, the same road as that to Ephesus. 
On our right lay the pretty village of Sideecooe, on our 
left that of Boojah: for many miles the country is scan- 
tily cultivated with mulberry-trees, but much of the land 
is capable of far greater produce ; the alluvial soil of 
the valley is deep, and of a nature to grow excellent 
corn. The spring had scarcely as yet unfolded a single 
leaf; only a few anemones of various colours sparkled 
among the bushes, and one or two creeping plants* were 
blossoming on the winterly stems of the wild pear-tree. 

By half-past twelve o'clock we had ridden six post 
hours, or about twenty-three miles, and arrived at Tri- 
andeer, a few huts on the bank of a river, which we 
had previously crossed about six miles from this place. 
We here learned that our baggage, which had kept the 
direct road from Smyrna, and which we fancied was 
before us, had not yet passed. We therefore waited 
an hour at the cafi^, which, with an adjoining hut, 
firequently serves as a halting-place on the first day's 

♦ Clematis cirrhosa (Evergreen Virgin's Bower). 

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journey towards Idin. Biendeer, the place of our de- 
stination for the evening, was still distant seven hours. 
About five miles on the way, the track lay through 
several Turkish burial-grounds, each containing remains 
of ancient sculptured marbles — columns, cornices, and 
squared stones; upon one was the following inscription: 


which could not have been moved far from its original 
site. Its first intention may have been to commemo- 
rate the course of a great conqueror; at present it 
marks the grave of some unknown Yourook, or herds- 
man, whose race occupy the black goats-hair tents scat- 
tered over the widely extended plains. The country 
for several horn's before us was perfectly level, forming 
as it were an immense lake, bounded on the south by 
the long range of Mount Messogis, whose promontory 
(the ancient Trogilium), with its detached island of Sa- 
mos, is concealed by the ranges of intervening hills 
rising behind the ancient Colophon and Teos in the 
west. To the east the range of Mount Tmolus rises, 
with its barren crags capped with snow. Perhaps no 
valley in the world would produce more than this if 
well cultivated. The quantity of olives grown on the 
sloping base of the mountains is very great, but the 

* ** Marcus Antonius Nicephoros." 

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rich plains are abandoned to the scattered sheep or 
goats, and in the more swampy parts the buffalo is seen 
wallowing in the marshes. 

Before eight o'clock, after a ride of nearly fifty miles 
upon the same horses, we arrived at Biendeer, a town 
which seems only occupied in crushing the produce of 
the surrounding forest of olive-trees. The oil from 
this district ranks high in the Smyrna market ; and this, 
as well as other articles of merchandize sold there, has 
within the last three years risen to four times the price 
formerly paid. 

February 29tA. — The situation of Biendeer, a large 
Turkish village with four minaretted mosques, is very 
beautiful, commanding a view of the wonderfully fine 
valley in which we travelled yesterday, and across 
which our road continues today, to the large town of 
Thera, about eleven miles distant, which is distinctly 
visible to the S.S.E. on the steep side of the Messogis 

Saturday Evening, — I have just returned to my room 
in the picturesque Greek khan at Thera. What a 
Qountry we have passed through today ! — teeming with 
produce, and promising a still greater abundance to 
more active cultivation. For three or four miles before 
we crossed the river Caystrus, the plains were covered 
with the stems of last year's cotton plants, and the rich 
soil is again yielding to agricultural implements'*^ of 
the same form as those which tilled it more than two 

* See Journal of 1838, pp. 70 and 333. 

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10 LYDIA. 

thousand years ago ! while the seeds of another crop 
are scattered over it. Crossing the very considerable 
river by a newly built bridge, the land gradually rises, 
and is well cultivated with corn ; and ascending still 
further up a slight range of rocky mounds, we found 
them covered with vines and in high cultivation. 
These continued, as we travelled over this undulating 
ground, until we arrived in front of the long and beau- 
tifully situated town of Thera, the minarets of whose 
mosques (of which we counted twenty-eight) are scat- 
tered over a range of nearly two miles. 

This town, which occupies the site of the ancient 
Caystrus, is built on so steep an acclivity, that almost 
every house is visible, peering above its neighbour's 
roof; the cypress and plane, of splendid growth, enrich 
the whole extent of the place. In the streets, as is 
often the case in Turkish towns, are rapid streams of 
water, up which we rode, and crossed several well-stored 
bazaars. The most striking articles exposed for sale 
were the largest grapes I ever saw ; these are grown in 
the neighbourhood in great quantities, for the making 
of raisins, which, from being sent to the port of Smyrna, 
acquire the name well known in our shops of Smyrna 
raisins : each grape is as large as a nutmeg, and on send- 
ing a man with a piastre and a half (not quite 3^({.), to 
purchase some for us, he returned with two okes and 
a half — ^about seven pounds weight. Each bunch is 
plaited with a cord of rushes, and in the manufacture 
of raisins these strings of fruit are dipped into boiling 

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water several times, and then hung up in cool cellars 
for three months ; when taken down they are fit for the 

Our whole route from Smjrma has been crossing or 
following valleys ; no hill, excepting a slight rise out of 
the town of Smyrna, has interrupted our course. In 
this tract the geologist finds little to interest him ; the 
soil is alluvial, and generally mixed with stones, the 
debris of the neighbouring mountains, which vary from 
the simple marble limestone to the tortuous slaty stone, 
shivered by volcanic heat, and glittering with schisty 
micaceous particles. The castle hill, near Smyrna, is an 
igneous rock of spurious granite ; several tracks of bare 
rock on the valley are composed of massed pebbles or 
pudding*stone, probably of recent formation. The soil 
is generally light, but near the immediate valley of the 
Caystrus it is a simple sand, of considerable depth, with 
scarcely a pebble. Thera stands on a range of moun- 
tain limestone, much baked and distorted by volcanic 
powers, and frequently veined with a crystallized white 
marble or quartz*like substance, often tinged with ferru- 
ginous colouring. I have added several plants to my 
collection, but none strike me as peculiar to this di- 
strict. I see the black Iris in the turbans and hands of 
the peasants, but have not yet gathered it myself; the 
Christ's-thorn and a kind of broom, form the bushy 
tufts of the country. 

On Sunday, the 1 st of March, we started at nine 
o'clock for Idin ; our cavalcade consisted of two Zoo- 

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12 LYDIA. 

rigee8, men who have the charge of the horses and 
the three loads of baggage. I followed, with my 
friends Mr. Hesketh and Mr. Scharf, attended by 
Pagniotti Mania, as servant and dragoman*; and in 
the rear was a Kezann, or officer of the police, well 
mounted and superbly armed. This addition to our 
train was insisted upon by the Governor as a guard of 
honour : I wished to decline it as unnecessary, but he 
said that the roads were in a dangerous state, (meaning 
from the late rains, I believe,) and that we had better 
have assistance in case of need. Thus, with ten 
horses, we commenced our route up the narrow streets, 
which are so steep that many literally rise in steps. 
On arriving a little above the town we paused, as 
such trains are often obliged to do, to re-arrange the 

From this point we had a fine view of this curi- 
ously situated and extensive city ; its position is highly 
picturesque, and resembles the other ancient sites 
now occupied by the modem towns of Manser and 
Kootcfya; they all face the north. Although this is 
doubtless the site of Caystrus, scarcely a trace of the 
ancient city is to be found ; a few columns and capitals 
of white marble, built into the walls, are all that remain 
to tell of the former important city. An ascent through 

* Pagniotti Mania was an honest and industrious servant, and well 
acquainted with the habits and requirements of the English, having 
been several years cook on board the Tribune ship of war, as well as 
in English families. 

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woods of olive-trees showed another abundant source of 
wealth to this people, so highly favoured by nature. 

Our route lay directly to the south, and we breasted 
the steep ascent most boldly. I have never, excepting 
on this same range, in the pass from the ancient Priene 
over the Trogilium promontory, ascended so steep a 
track ; in many instances we were obliged to tack at 
every twenty yards, doubling our own course ; afford- 
ing those in the rear a collective view of our diversi- 
fied cavalcade, all in slow motion, and shifting as the 
objects in a kaleidescope. One of our party, dis- 
mounting to collect some plants, had left his horse to 
keep its place in the train; but cutting across an 
angle in the road, it thrust itself between the baggage- 
horses, which were connected by cords : this checked 
them, and as the narrow grip worn in the rock was 
scarcely wide enough for their feet to pass each other, 
they all stumbled, and fell in confusion. My expe- 
rience told me that our progress was stayed for fully 
an hour. Our Turk Kezann was also aware of this, for 
he immediately dismounted, and, sitting on the rock, 
prepared his pipe for an hour's repose and meditation 
on the interruption. The poor animals were unloaded, 
and with difficulty lifted up ; a few cuts, and slight ex- 
haustion from struggling, were all the ill effects beside 
the delay. During our detention we were passed by a 
Turkish family travelling towards Idin : the female of 
the party afforded the annexed subject for the pencil. 

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14 LYDIA. 

Two hours of uninterrupted ascent brought us to the 
sumn^it of this splendid range of mountains. Turning 
to the north-west, to review our route, we saw the hills 
of Smyrna over the uninterrupted level of the valleys 
we had crossed. On our right lay the fine range of 
Mount Tmolus, partially concealing Mount Sipylus at 
its western extremity, and between these ranges lay 
Sardis and Philadelphia. On our left rose the high 
mountains at the back of Colophon and Teos, and still 
nearer were the hills concealing the ancient and re- 
nowned city of Ephesus. Immediately below lay the 
productive valley down which winds the river Caystrus, 
circling the hills and finding its way to the sea in front 
of Ephesus. Icicles were around us, and snow covered 
the higher peaks on either side of our pass. The 

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mountain is composed entirely of a slaty schist, veined 
with a quartz-like substance, at times almost of an agaty 
semi-transparent stone, the whole much contorted and 
shivered with volcanic heat. 

Two hours of rapid descent brought us within sight of 
a point that highly interested me. We were travelling 
along ridges of mountains so perfectly hog-backed, that 
a stone dropped from either hand would have rolled 
into different valleys; from these abrupt elevations 
the whole nature of the country was visible. On the 
soil which clothed the hills upon which we stood, and 
which we had traversed, not a green leaf was seen, 
unless olives may be called green ; the chestnut and 
dwarf-oak trees were brown with the dead leaves of last 
year ; all others were grey with the naked branches of 
winter. About two •miles before us appeared a distinct 
line marked with a slight valley, cut by the increasing 
stream from the mountains, beyond which all was 
green ; and the red, broken and rotten-looking cliffs, 
seen through the woods of fir-trees, at once reminded 
me of the peculiarity I had noticed in the hills lining 
and flanking the mountains on the northern side of the 
valley of the Mseander. I now discovered that this 
mass of deposited gravel and sand formed a belt of at 
least ten miles in width. As we approached, we saw 
that it had the other peculiarities of being cavernous, 
and varying in its colours and component parts. 

Continuing our passage of the mountain towards the 
south, we arrived at a comparatively level road, which 

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16 LYDIA. 

we followed eastward to the town of Idin. The whole 
distance from Thera can only be reckoned by time, 
and the journey took us eight hours, two hours of 
ascent and six hours of descent, and this necessarily at 
a very slow pace. The geological peculiarities did not 
engage my attention sufficiently to prevent my admi- 
ration of the splendid scenery, which we should have 
enjoyed more had daylight continued longer ; but even- 
ing closed upon us before we arrived at Idin at seven 
o'clock. I today recognised the clear and sonorous 
chirp of the Bee-Heater hovering over the fir-trees, and 
the sweet song of the Bunting* ; several of the small 
white vultures were also soaring high above our heads. 
March 2nd. — Idin is at present like a large builder's 
yard ; almost the whole of the bazaars are rebuilding, 
and scarcely a street is passable.* I have spoken in 
my former Journal of the town ; it has lost much of its 
beauty by the difference of season, as the numerous 
trees in the streets are now without their leaves. I 
have seen more of its antiquities, which chiefly consist 
of the various marbles and coins found daily upon the 
hUl overhanging the present town, and upon which 
stood the ancient Tralles ; the most conspicuous build- 
ing that now remains is the ruin of the Palaestra or 
Gymnasium. I have before noticed this as having 
materials of much older buildings worked up in its 
formation, several of which have inscriptions in the 

* Emberiza mehnocephala (Blackheaded Bunting). 

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Greek language. This morning, with the aid of a tele- 
scope and with xjonsiderable dilSSculty, I copied the fol- 
lowing, which is high up in the building. I fear it is 
too imperfect to be of service. 



At Smyrna I had heard much of the statues disco- 
vered and preserved by Tahir Pasha, and of persons 

* The four last lines inform us, that M. Aurel. Gogerichus [Sote- 
ricus?], a Secretary to the Council, the People and the Gerusia, super- 
intended the erection of a statue in honour of his father, whose name, 
according to the second line, seems to be M. Aurel. Arestus. The 
first part of the inscription mentions the honorary decree of the Coun- 
cil and the People, and then follow doubtless some of the titles, which 
appear in two other Trallian inscriptions published by Colonel Leake 
(Diary, pp. 339. 340). We can distinguish those of Bularches (Presi- 
dent of the Council }), Agoranomos (Superintendent of Markets, like 
the Aedilis of the Romans), Eirenarches and Strategos (Praetor or 


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who had travelled thence to see them : how strange it 
seems that such specimens as the following should alone 
he prized, when the country is rich in the works of the 
ancient Greeks ! Upon two marble blocks, apparently 
pedestals, which are now built into the wall on either 
side of the entrance to the Pasha's house, are bas- 
reliefs of a low age, probably Byzantine, or perhaps as 
late as the Crusades : they each have a superscription. 


lencn poTorAPOvrnce 


v, ■ ^ 

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On the other side of the door is a somewhat similar 
pedestal, with this inscription : 


These were found only a few months ago, as well as 
several broken statues, which are preserved with great 
care by the Pasha, who is anxious to acquire the Euro- 
pean taste for such things ; at present a well- sculptured 
eagle, which has lost its own head, is supplied with that 
of a female figure. Beneath the eagle is the following 
inscription : 




The whole of the antiquities found here are of a base 
Roman age : the coins are very numerous, but among 

* The little we can make out in these two inscriptions, which seem 
in some way to correspond with each other, shows that they were 
consecrated to the honour of warriors, or a warrior " conquered by 
late," and perhaps buried near the spot. Judging from the last lines, 
they were written in hexameters ; in the second inscription we may 
trace several verses, not altogether unintelligible, but are unable to 
connect them. 

t TVanslatioH, — " Diogenes Orthios has gratefully consecrated these 
two eagles to the god Jupiter." 


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20 LYDIA. 

hundreds brought to me I have not seen one of the 
ancient Greek: they are generally of the Byzantine 
empire, and have monograms and effigies of saints 
upon them. 

I fear I have been rude to the Pasha, but his too great 
attention almost merits the same charge. My object for 
travelling is to see the people and the country, its na- 
tural history, and its remains of ancient art, and not to 
waste time and money in visiting the higher classes, 
whose attempts to act the European rather disgust 
than amuse. I was told by my Smymese friends that I 
must take a letter of introduction to Tahir Pasha, as he 
was one of the most powerful and enlightened men in the 
country — an excellent fellow, who speaks Italian, drinks 
champagne, smokes cigars^ dances, and wears white-kid 
gloves ! I explained, that to pay a visit to him would 
not accord with my plans, for, as a traveller, my time 
was limited and my wardrobe scanty, and I received the 
letter without any intention of using it ; notwithstand- 
ing this, I found that my arrival had been anticipated 
by the Pasha, and on my applying for horses to leave 
the town, he sent word that he had been expecting me 
some days, and that I must come and stay with him. 
I returned an answer, regretting that my haste in pass- 
ing through the town would prevent my doing myself 
that honour, and sent many civil acknowledgments for 
his kindness ; he again sent to beg me to come to him, 
but I was from home. The servant asked for horses, 
but the Pasha told him that no answer would be given 

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NYSA. 21 

until the next day, evidently wishing to detain me ; ob- 
serving at the same time, that English lords and great 
princes had visited him, and that I ought to come to 
stay at his palace ; but I much preferred our humble but 
independent khan. During his absence from the palace, 
I went up and saw his few relics in the garden, and left 
my thanks and apologies for not calling upon his Ex- 
cellency, adding as my excuse that I had no costume fit 
to wear in his presence. About eighty piastres were 
greedily swallowed by the begging servants on this occa- 
sion. After detaining us for want of an order for horses 
until two o'clock the following day, we at last made an 
escape without a visit of form. 

March 2krd. — ^The day being so far spent, we have 
only journeyed twelve miles, to the small village of 
Keosk, where I copied from a pedestal in the burial- 
ground the following inscription : 










* We can decipher only the three first and the four last lines with cer- 
tainty. In the fourth there was probably the name of the corporation 

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22 LYDIA. 

On the evening of the 4th we proceeded eight miles, 
to Sultan Kissd, which lies about a mile on the left of 
the road : leaving the horses at the village, we walked 
about two miles further up the hill, to examine the 
ruins of an ancient city, supposed to be Nysa, a mile 
above which lies the modern village of Esky Hissa. 
The ruins are interesting ; they show distinctly the form 
of a theatre, facing the south ; and many of the seats, 
with overhanging mouldings, still remain. The theatre, 
as well as the general situation of the city, is a stri- 
king instance of the selection by the ancient Greeks 
of a site for their theatres commanding extensive and 
beautiful views. 

The prospect was here exquisite : in front, on either 
hand, stood the ornamental buildings of the city, form- 
ing a vista which embraced a view of richly- wooded 
hills, divided by rapid streams, hastening to a valley un- 
rivalled in luxuriant vegetation. Through this runs the 
** winding Mseander," visible for upwards of fifty miles, 
and making as many curves in its meandering course. 

who " consecrated [the statue of) Nero Claudius Augustus Germanicus, 
the Emperor and God." This is the emperor known to us by the name 
of Nero, who, like many others, was in his lifetime styled God by Gre- 
cian flattery. In the last lines are the names of Tiberius Claudius 
Nero, being however not those of the emperor, but of the person who 
'* superintended the erection — Hierocles, the son of Philormas [or 
Philoromaeus], belonging to the Roman tribus Quirina, and an hon- 
ourable son of the city," i. e. presented, as it were by adoption, with 
its freedom. 

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NYSA. 23 

The whole of the scene is bounded by the mountains 
of Caria, many at this time capped with snow. A 
stream originally ran through an arched passage under 
the theatre, and another building, probably a stadium, 
in front; but much of this subterranean course had 
fallen in, rendering the broken arch and walls on either 
side an accumulated mass of ruins. I found but one 
inscription, and that was in the village below, of which 
the following is a copy : 


From Sultan Hissei, called by the Greeks Heliopblis, 
we rode for twelve miles to Naslee, the whole country 
from Idin being a continued succession of orchards 
and fields of com. The soil is light, and the roads are 
perfectly flat : for many miles they serve as the courses 
for the water drawn oflf from the mountain-streams for 
the purposes of irrigation. Scarcely a quarter of a mile 
in the whole distance is without some wrought stone 

* Translation, — " Aelia Flavia Egnatia Capitolina, the most illus- 
trious [erects this to the memory of] Aelius Julius Euhulia- 

Dus [?] of a consular and senatorial family, her husband." 

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24 LYDIA. 

of a former age ; hundreds of capitals and bases of 
columns have been converted into well-copings and 
troughs. Some few appeared of fine workmanship, 
but the greater number are of a low Roman age. 

March 6th. — We were detained the whole of yesterday 
hourly waiting for horses ; for the establishment of the 
Post had been drained for the use of some soldiers on 
their way to Constantinople. It is to be regretted that 
these naturally peaceable people should not attend 
more to the cultivation of their country, instead of 
so industriously learning of the Europeans their vices 
and arts of war. I have alreadv seen three Turks in- 
toxicated, and, with their bottle in hand, still asking 
for arrack. 

I observed several young soldiers idling about the 
village: their costume is worn in a most unbecoming 
manner; they are dressed in children's short-waisted 
jackets, of various colours, but mostly grey ; they have 
no stocks or shirts, and the white lining of their red 
fezes is pulled over their ears ; the trousers, which are 
the peculiar pride of the modernized Turk, are of white, 
but often so wide in the waist that they drag, and hang 
loosely round the loins ; the boots, which are yellow, 
generally dirty, and trodden down at heel, are intended 
to be worn as our Wellington boots; but the Turks 
always push the loose bottoms of their trousers into 
them, and walk in their customary slipshod way : the 
legs also have too long been accustomed to bend out- 
ward at the knee, in the sitting posture of the Turk, to 

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straighten themselves at the word of command. The 
pay to these training-soldiers, who are ever at com- 
mand, and devote one day in each week to drill, is 
twenty-five piastres (4^. 8d.) a month, and a ration of 
half an oke of bread (nearly a pound and a half)> worth 
half a piastre {\^d.)y a day : additional clothes are given 
when the recruit joins the army at Constantinople. 

There has been a great market or fair here, and the 
busy scene was highly amusing ; but from the excessive 
dirt of the streets, increased by the heavy rains, which 
wetted us through before our arrival last evening, we 
could not half enjoy the bustle. While standing amidst 
the crowd, I copied an inscription from a sarcophagus, 
ornamented with wreaths and Apollo-like heads, but of 
a low style of sculpture. 


In the afternoon we rambled in search of a clean 
walk, down the lanes to a village of the same name 

* Dransiatian. — " A copy of this inscription has been deposited in 
the archives, under the Stephanephorus, Claudius Alexander, on the 
twelfth day of the month Panemus." 

These are the last lines of the usual sarcophagus inscription ; those 
preceding contained the names of the persons buried, and were proba- 
bly cut upon the lid, which has been removed. The month of Pane- 
mus was both in the Macedonian and Ephesian almanacks, and in the 
latter began on the 24th of May. 

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26 CARIA. 

as this, in which the Aga resides. Naslee bears an 
additional name, indicating its being the mercantile 
town. The sun shone brightly, and its warmth made 
the banks by the way-side interesting to the natura- 
list. The early spring iBowers were just bursting, and 
I added the crocus, hyacinth, heart's-ease and many 
others to my collection*. Among the fresh green weeds 
basked a small chameleon ; we watched it, and handled 
it in its green retreat. The peculiarities of this little 
creature were novel to some of our party. I there- 
fore took it into my hand, to show them the revolving 
motion of the eye ; its colour was then a bright yel- 
low green ; gradually it burst out in blotches of grey, 
giving a dull appearance to the whole body. I then 
placed it on the dark-coloured earth, and in a few 
seconds its colour was entirely grey, the remaining yel- 
low spots becoming gradually indistinct. On the grass 
it soon recovered its primitive hue, and we left it crawl- 
ing clumsily among the weeds on the sunny bank. A 
few steps further, one of the beautiful green lizards lay 
basking, but its quick eye saw us, and with the nervous 
rapidity so peculiar to it, it sheltered itself among the 
dead reeds. T was surprised to see a frog also en- 
joying the sun, avoiding the water, and sitting on the 
sandy bank : its colour is of the lightest and bright- 
est green, and it is of a kind I have never seen in 

* A list of the plants which I collected during my tour will be 
given in the Appendix. 

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Europe. The cimex, and many others of the insect 
tribe, are adding their happiness to the joys of the 
season. The birds were not numerous ; several varie- 
ties of hawks were sailing about or hovering over their 
prey ; and the favoured storks were flying with sticks 
to add to their last year's nests, which had remained 
undisturbed on the chimneys, mosques, or baths of 
their protector the Turk. 

From a broken column I also copied the following 
inscription : 


Yehnejahj March 6th. — It was 1 1 o'clock this morn- 
ing before we could get horses, which has caused us to 
halt here after a ride of six hours. The direct distance 
is not more than eighteen or twenty miles, but we have 
gone out of our way to visit the ruins of what is 
thought to be the ancient Antiocheia; its situation upon 
an isolated rock, rising in the centre of the mouth of 
the valley of the Mosynus, and commanding a view of 
that of the Maeander, is worthy of the ancient Greeks ; 
but the ruins now covering and undermining its sum- 
mit are not equal to any works attributed to the worst 

* " The Emperor Vespaaianus. The People has consecrated 

it/' — t. €, his statue, which may have heen on the column. 

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28 CARIA. 

age of the Romans ; with the exception of the nume- 
rous arches under the ground, the whole is built of 
loose stones, as picked up from the mountain. I 
should say that the city, if it has been one, bears the 
appearance of having been a camp hastily fortified by 
a powerful people ; cement is used in some places, but 
the walls are mostly packed together with loose stones 
of a small size, all unwrought. I saw but eight or 
ten squared stones in the whole place ; one fragment 
of a fluted column of white marble stood a solitary 
work of art. The ancient river Mosynus is spread 
over a wide expanse towards the west, which we forded, 
fearing the muddy swamps more than the depth of the 
water, which scarcely reached to the knees of our 

On leaving Naslee, we travelled up the valley for two 
hours, nearly to the town of Goojak ; then turning off 
the road, towards the south, we soon found a few huts, 
forming the village of Andaluh, neai* the wooden bridge 
crossing the Maeander; about a mile further, on the 
southern banks, stands the village of Birlehbay. Travel- 
ling for two hours to the eastward, and turning up the 
valley of the Mosynus to the south, we passed a pretty 
little woody village called Arrdchiflee ; from this place 
the country is rendered unfit for cultivation by the 
stones and masses of rock rolled down from the schisty 
slaty mountains forming the western boundary of the 
valley of the Mosynus. The road from Yehnejah to 
Karasoo passes for about twelve miles over an unpro- 

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ductive but highly picturesque country. The Spring is 
not stirring, and the wind from the east is rendered 
still more cold by passing over the snows of Mount 

The hills which vary the road up this valley are of 
a curious composition ; on the surface the stones are 
so niunerous that the plough is not used ; the beautiful 
stone-pine and tufts of underwood are almost the only 
produce, and beneath the surface the hills are formed 
of broken and generally washed or rolled stones, held 
slightly together by a white limy-looking substance, 
which appears slacked and crumbling in pieces ; this is 
occasionally stratified, and then shows layers of a hard 
flinty kind of opake clay, somewhat resembling the sin- 
gular layers of chalcedony that I have seen in Phrygia. 
These hills, from the nature of their composition, are 
gradually washed away by the mountain-streams, and 
deep ravines intersect the valley in all directions. 
These ravines a£ford a beautiful variety of luxuriant 
vegetation; the oleander, pomegranate, vine and plane, 
are in the summer contrasted with the dark green pines 
on the cli£fs above. 

March 7th. — Karasoo is a large straggling Turkish 
village, with more than usual activity, from the various 
trades of the potter, the dyer and bleacher, which seem 
to be carried on upon every open space in the town. 
Streams of excellent water, as usual, run through almost 
every street; but here a clear stream with its deep 
ravine divides the town, and forms an important tribu- 

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30 CARIA. 

tary to the Mosynus, which has its course in the valley 
about two miles below the town. The name of Kara- 
BOO, meaning: * black water/ is probably given from the 
appearance of the water in the shadowed ravine, con- 
trasted with the red or white muddy colour of the 
water of the Maeander or Lycus. Coins and gems of 
a late Greek age, and down almost to the time of the 
Crusades, are offered here abundantly for sale, and are 
all obtained from the neighbourhood of Yeerah, the 
ancient Aphrodisias, about eight miles distant, which 
city was our attraction in visiting this district ; but the 
difficulty of obtaining horses in these small places de- 
tains us here until tomorrow. 

Sunday y March 8th. — In traversing the extended val- 
ley, which at a distance appeared an immense plain, 
wherein are collected the waters of the Mosynus, we 
found it varied with considerable hills and very deeply 
cut dells, formed by the numerous streams. These 
streams have their mills with overshot wheels, and are 
shadowed by the enormous arms of the spreading plane- 
trees : around them is a tract of land generally well 
cultivated, the whole forming a pleasing variety in this 
too neglected district. We arrived at Aphrodisias be- 
fore noon, approaching the city through the district 
of its tombs : sarcophagi marked the road for the last 
mile ; and as we entered the gate, so much of interest 
met the eye, that we determined to remain here some 

The present state of the village is most ruinous; 

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twenty only out of about a hundred huts are occu- 
pied, all the others being inhabited by owls ; the soci- 
able crane seems to have deserted the bundle of sticks 
piled upon the ruined houses, and a few solitary birds 
stand, like monuments of melancholy, on the chimneys 
of their protectors' huts. I hear that there are still two 
hundred people, including women and children, in the 
village and neighbourhood, but I have seen scarcely 
an individual amongst the masses of ruins forming the 

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The ancient Aphrodisiaa — ^Teiaple of Venus — Pagan Age— Christian 
Age — Present State — Sarcophagi — ^Natural History — Karasoo — Ar- 
rival of the New Firman or Code of Laws — Consequent Changes — 
Return to the Valley of the Mseander — the River Harpasus — Pass- 
age of the Mountains — Valley of the Marsyas. 

AphrodisiaSj March \Oth. — We have taken possession of 
a house once attached to that of the Aga, which forms 
a picturesque object from our window ; its owner has 
for some years left it to decay. I must endeavour to 
describe in some degree the interesting objects that 
detain us here. Aphrodisias lies to the east of the head 
of the valley which gives rise to the Mosynus, and 
is beautifully bounded by mountains of considerable 
importance. Cadmus rises majestically on the east, 
while the distant summits of Mount Tmolus towering 
above the range of Messogis, are seen in the north : 
the elevation of the city above the sea is about a 
thousand feet, the air healthy and cool, and the water 
excellent. I see no river or stream, but the old foun- 
tains are supplied from distant sources in the hills. 
Aphrodisias is not in appearance the site of an an- 

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cient Greek city ; it lies low, and its principal buildings 
are not, as usual, elevated above the rest of the town. It 
is difficult to describe the ruins of this city ; I never 
saw in one place so many perfect remains, although by 
no means of a good age of the arts. The opinion I 
shall venture to give is founded wholly upon my ob- 
servation of the ruins as they exist, in perfect ignorance 
of any historical accounts. I have copied many of the 
inscriptions, and hope to increase my knowledge by 
their after-examination. 

On this site I see no trace either of the position, 
grandeur of design, or hard style of sculpture, accom- 
panied with the beauty of simplicity, which so pecu- 
liarly mark the cities of the early Greeks. In much of 
the material of the temple, and perhaps in the arrange- 
ment of many of its columns, may be traced a city 
probably of a date two centuries before the Christian 
aera : its stadium on the north side of the city is still 
magnificent, running from east to west, and having 
both ends circular ; most of its seats are still remain- 
ing, and in itself this building alone would repay the 
trouble of a visit to this city. On the south side is a 
small hill, artificially formed, probably to contain a thea- 
tre, the ruins of which face the south-east ; a few foun- 
dations would lead us to suppose that temples may have 
ornamented this little acropolis. In the centre of the 
city stood a beautiful Ionic temple ; fifteen of its white, 
marble, fluted columns are still standing, and some have 
tablets left uncut where the shaft was fluted, telling by 


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34 CARIA. 

their inscriptions that they were offerings to the temple 
of Venus or Aphrodite, the goddess to whom the city 
was dedicated. 


These stand, I doubt not, upon their original bases, 
although from their reversed tablets, the irregular join- 
ing of the flutes, and several other points, I judge that 
they have been thrown down and afterwards piled up in 
their present form. 

Many other remains, showing different orders of ar- 
chitecture, in columns and friezes, attest, without doubt, 
the existence of numerous temples, and indicate a beau- 
tiful city built wholly of white marble, large blocks of 
which are found in all parts of the ruins, many measuring 

* Translation, — " Eumachus Diogenes Philocsesar, the son of Athe- 
nagoras, the son of Athenagoras, the son of Eumachus ; and Ammias 
Olympias, the [adopted] daughter of Dionysius, hut hy hirth that of 
Adrastus, the son of Molon; [give] this column to the goddess 
Aphrodite «nd to the People." 

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nine or ten feet in length. Slabs, probably from the 
cellas of temples, covered with inscriptions, are used as 
material to a very great extent. I copied inscriptions 
from upwards of fifty of these, all of an age perhaps 
one or two centuries before our aera. The sarcophagi, 
which extend half a mile to the west, must also rank 
with this state of the city. A few Greek coins are found 
in the ruins, but they are very scarce. 

My next description carries us to an age probably two 
or three centuries subsequent to the Christian aera. The 
whole of the temples and public buildings, excepting only 
the stadium (which, by a wall built across it near the cir- 
cular end, seems to have been converted into an amphi- 
theatre) must have been demolished ; for a city arose 
surrounded by walls two miles in circuit, with gates of 
triple arches to the west, east, and south : these walls are 
composed of the remains of temples, tombs, and theatres, 
removed, although uninjured. The reversed inscrip- 
tions and inverted bas-reliefs bear testimony to the 
change ; and the beautiful cornices of Greek Pagan tem- 
ples are now rudely carved with inscriptions, and placed 
over the gateways, recording the changed religion and 
the age in which they were piled up. Even the Pagan 
name of the city was changed, for in the following in- 
scription it appears to be called Tauropolis. 



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36 CARIA. 



The Cross, with the alpha and omega, and other mo- 

* "The Senate and the People honoured [probably by erecting a sta- 
tue] the most splendid Flavius Constantius, who, among other works, 
also rebuilt the wall. For the welfare of the splendid metropolis of 
the Taurupolitans, the works also about the gate were repaired under 
Flavins Ampelius, the most distinguished lawyer, and father [of the 
corporation, viz. its representative in legal affairs], in the eighth year 
of the Indiction." 

Given by Boeekh, 2746. 

The date of the latter inscription we cannot fix, although Francke, 
who, as we are informed by Boeekh, has very well ei^plained it, 
thought it was the year a.d. 349-350. The Indictions we know 
to have begun a.d. 313 ; but there is nothing to show how many of 
them elapsed before the one in the eighth year of which Ampelius 
repaired the gate of Aphrodisias-Tauropolie. The name of Tauro^ 
polis, which we see in this and other inscriptions, is also mentioned 
by Stephanus Byzantinus in connection with Aphrodisias, or rather 
with Plarasa, a district which formed part of the town. It is uncer- 
tain which of these names was the original one ; certainly, in Pagan 
times, when the town derived a great income and celebrity from the 
festivals in its far-famed temple of Aphrodite, the name of Aphrodisias 
prevailed, which to the Christians was an indecent one ; they therefore 
altered it to Taurupolis, a name which afterwards was changed by 
some Christian authors into 2ravpovVoXi«, i. e. the city of the Cross ; 
from the space preceding the name, this may have been the case in 
ours. When, after the time of the above inscription, the festivals of 
Venus at Aphrodisias, by the exertions of Asclepiodotus AJexandrinus, 
came again into celebrity (towards the end of the fifth century), the 
name of Aphrodisias re- appears. 

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nograms used by the early Christians, are the emblems 
over the gates. Sarcophagi within the walls tell the 

end of many of the wealthy Christian inhabitants ; and 
others are registered upon the bases and columns of 
temples which were afterwards used to support Chris- 
tian churches ; the title of archdeacon is sculptured in 
large letters on the fragment of a frieze. In this age 
the temple of Venus must have undergone great change. 
I have said that the columns are still standing, and from 
their proportion, distance and form, I doubt not upon 
their original bases — but how changed ! The cella has 
wholly vanished from the interior of the colonnade; 
and many of the slabs of marble inscribed with the 
ajBairs of the city, each bordered or grooved as those I 
have seen at Nicaea, are now built into the walls sur- 
rounding the Byzantine city. A circular end is con- 
structed of rude stones, closing the east, probably for 
an altar, where formerly the sun rose on the portico of 
the pagan temple. Surrounding the whole of this build- 
ing, are traces of walls of the same rude workmanship, 
in which cement was the main support of the construc- 

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38 CARIA. 

tion ; and in this line there are still standing several 
jamhs of door-ways, of mean proportion as compared 
with the old temple ; on these appear Christian em- 
blems and inscriptions. The outer colonnade of the 
Temple of Venus must then have served to form a sup- 
port to the larger Christian church : at present all is in 
confused but undecayed ruin. Surrounding this chief 
church are several other columns, in pairs, supporting 
architraves of pretty proportions, but perfectly eclipsed 
by the comparatively gigantic temple of the goddess, 
whose simple fluted shafts of Greek workmanship dis- . 
play a beauty not discoverable in the circularly sur- 
rounding flutes and laboured ornaments of its diminu- 
tive Byzantine neighbour. Two large tazze, or fonts, 
ten feet in diameter, and a sitting lion, lie broken among 
the ruins : I know not to which age these belong. 

The walls of the town, in their present decay, show 
better the extent of depredation and size of the former 
city than any other remains ; it is equally a study for 
the lover of art, of history, or of morality. The coins 
found are very numerous, but most of those I saw were 
of the Byzantine age, and many with Roman inscrip* 
tions. I have selected some, upon which is the name 
of this city, Aphrodisias, and others of Plarasa, together 
with coins of the neighbouring cities of Laodiceia, Phi- 
ladelphia and Antiocheia, and a few of the early kings 
of Caria, in silver, which were exceptions to the gene- 
ral late age of the many brought by the industrious 
inhabitants of this remnant of a village. 

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I copied the following inscription, which seems in- 
tended to commemorate a priestess : — 


From this sarcophagus, which stood close by the side 
of one less ornamented and without inscriptions, we 

copied the following interesting record, which shows 
how carefully the owners of the tombs endeavoured to 

* *' The Seoate and the People honoured, even when she had de- 
parted» Claudia Tiyphosa Pauleina, the daughter of Apollonius the 
high-priest, herself a high-priestess, who, for the sake both of the most 
honourable zeal of her father and forefathers towards the common 
weal, as of her own comeliness, was distinguished in praise, and died 
still a maiden.*' 

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secure their preservation and sole occupancy, and may 
also add to our knowledge of their construction, and 
of the technical names of the various portions. These 
sarcophagi stood upon a stone substructure, too much 
buried for our examination ; but in many others we 
saw, and in some were able to enter, a low apartment 
beneath ; this seems to be called here the platasy and 
to be appropriated to the less honoured individuals of 
the family. 

* Translation of Inscription on the preceding page, 

" The substructure [^Platas"] is [the property] of Adrastoa Polychro- 
nios, the son of Glykon, the son of Glykon, the son of Leon, the son 
of Hekatomnon. The substructure that Polychronia, the daughter 
of Kallikrates gave up to him, on that substructure he built a monu- 
ment, l3ring upon the substructure, and both the sarcophagus ISoros"} 
and the compartments [^Isostai] in it, and the other things in it. In 
that sarcophagus I buried Barilla, my wife ; and likewise I wish my- 
self to be put into the sarcophagus, but nobody else. Into the first 
compartment, lying under the sarcophagus, I wish my [second] wife, 
and Polychronios my son to be buried. But in the other compart- 
ment I wish to be put Tatianos and Adrastos, my children ; but nobody 
else to be put either into the sarcophagus or into the compartments. 
But if my heirs, after having put me into the sarcophagus, shall not 
make fiast the bolt, let my heir be the goddess Aphrodite. The trus- 
tees of the temple for the time being shall institute proceedings about 
it, who shall be responsible for it. But if, contrary to the directions, 
anybody shall bury another [in the monument], let him be accursed, and 
besides pay into the most holy treasury five thousand denaria, of which 
one-third is to be his^ who institutes proceedings'." 

> Published by Boeckh, 2824, from the manuscript of Sherard, who 
saw the monument in a more perfect state. 

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Some of the sarcophagi of the Byzantine age are 
richly wrought, and, although many of them are of 
Christian date, they appear to have retained the Pa- 
gan devices : at the end of the one represented appears 
an altar burning in front of a door. 

The remaining inscriptions I have copied at Aphro- 
disias are so numerous, that I shall place them at the 
end of this volume, in an Appendix. 

We had provisions with us, and our only want of 
firewood was supplied by these civil but simple people. 
It was amusing to see their curiosity when we were 
copying inscriptions, by beating wet pulpy paper into 
the hollowed letters in the marble, and allowing it to 
dry in the sun ; they showed great delight, and soon 
learned to assist us. I regretted my not understanding 
the words in which they indicated their surprise, but I 
read it in their unaffected and expressive countenances. 
The instruments, and their use in making observations 
of our latitude and longitude, as well as the taking our 
altitude by boiling the thermometer, were of course all 
objects of wonder to them, and I dare say will be long 

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talked of by these simple people*. Three days ap- 
peared but a short time to remain in this interesting 
place, but on Wednesday evening, the 11th of March, 
we were again at Karasoo. On the 12th, we remained 
to arrange for horses for our further travels, and ram- 
bled for a few miles about the valleys and deeply-cut 
ravines of the beautiful neighbourhood. In the vege- 
table world all is still-bound in the chains of winter ; 
scarcely a flower is seen but the anemone, and a beauti- 
ful species of fernf, new to me, both of which I have 
added to my collection. The thermometer has not 
risen above 34^ for several days, and all the rippling 
streams are frozen at their edges ; but objects of interest 
may be found in a ramble at all seasons, and the valley 
or ravine of the Mosynus is not deficient in them. In 
walking down by the side of the river, I observed 
streams of water issuing from fissures in the white 
cliffs, and no ice around them. On examination I 

* I made a series of observations at Aphrodisias, to determine its 
place on the map. I took a set of double altitudes of the. sun about 
the time of noon, and other sets morning and afternoon to learn the 
error in the watch, so that the former might be reduced to the me- 
ridian. Hence ve have 37^ 36' for the latitude. I also took a set of 
lunar distances for the longitude, but on my return home I found that, 
though there may be a doubt whether this city should not be placed 
even a little more eastward than I have ventured to place it, yet the 
point in doubt is not great enough to be lessened by my lunar distances 
made with a box-sextant. 

t Aitantum CapUlus Veneris (Maiden-hair Fern). 

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44 CARIA. 

found that they were warm springs, and strongly 
charged with sulphur : several tributary streams to the 
crystal waters of the Mosynus were clouded as with 
milk from these springs, and were long before they 
became mixed with the purer waters of the river. On 
further examining the cliffs, I was surprised and pleased 
to find them similar in many respects to the singular 
geological formation which I noticed as so abundant in 
Phrygia. The great mass was of a rotten limestone, 
which cracked and crumbled as it became exposed to 
the moisture of the atmosphere. This soil bed is in- 
terstratified with a harder substance, containing much 
lime, but of that peculiar clayey or earthy fracture 
which I observed in Phrygia. I could see here no pu- 
mice-stone, but found nodules of pure yellow sulphur 
protruding from the decomposed chalky cliffs ; in other 
parts were beautiful crystals of sulphate of lime or se- 
lenite : these are continually fractured, and their glit- 
tering surfaces attracted my attention. The whole of 
the hills in this valley are of a similar composition, 
but the surface is generally covered for many feet with 
a red gravel, containing clay, which is manufactured 
into the classic forms of antique pottery by the present 
inhabitants. Probably the peculiarity of the waters in 
the neighbourhood may also attract the bleachers and 
dyers, so numerously employed in this valley. 

March I3th. — The first of March is with the Turks the 
beginning of the year, and from that date hitherto have 
commenced the contracts or farmings with the Sultan, 

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for the taxes of the various cities and districts. I have 
ventured to condemn the principle, but my experience 
has shown that either the working of it, or other circum- 
stances, has left a good and happy peasantry; all Turks 
indeed appear to be contented. The Greeks were, I am 
aware, oppressed by the different governors with heavier 
taxes, and were treated as a conquered people ; but, on 
the other hand, they escaped the trouble and annoyance 
of personal service as citizens. 

When we left Karasoo, the newly appointed Aga (or, 
as he is always called in eastern countries, Arrdh) had 
not arrived from Constantinople. Up to this period the 
chief person of the place was generally appointed its 
governor, and if no complaint were lodged against him 
for extortion or general ill-conduct, he, as a matter of 
course, received his engagement from the government, 
— his own conduct thus being kept in check by the 
humblest of the subjects of the Sultan, who is at all 
times accessible. The whole system is this week altered ; 
the tree of liberty is to be planted, and the reform com- 
menced by the late Sultan in Constantinople is to be 
adopted throughout his dominions. This change was 
working its way too tediously by the old system of ap- 
pointing locjEd governors ; the present Sultan therefore, 
from this time, takes the whole of the revenues of his 
kingdom into his own hands, and sends from Constan- 
tinople tutored strangers, with fixed salaries, to collect 
his taxes and to carry out his new system. I doubt 
not that this will effect his intention ; the result I can- 

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46 CARIA. 

not foresee ; but it is to be feared, that, like the attempt 
to imitate the more superficial part of our European 
customs, it will xmder the appearance of the good retain 
much of our more tempting vices. He was a bold man 
who first ploughed up the green pasture and made the 
earth fallow, and his faith must have been great when 
he buried his good grain in the ground. 

On the horses arriving to carry our baggage from 
Yeerah, we first heard of the arrival of the new Aga, and 
of his having read publicly the firman or code of regu- 
lations. The changes introduced were the subject of 
conversation among all the groups we saw collected 
on our arrival at Karasoo. New laws are important 
things, for their non-observance creates new crimes. An 
instance of this stood first on the new code. The for- 
mation of an army is a new thing in this country, and 
it has been required that each district should supply a 
certain number of soldiers, to be sent to Constantinople 
or elsewhere. This law, to a peaceable and indigenous 
peasantry, alarmed many families, and the shepherds' 
sons, as I had witnessed in several instances two years 
ago, were frightened at our approach, fearing that 
we were coming to take them for soldiers. This fear 
has driven many for a time from their houses into the 
mountains, or other villages ; it became therefore requi- 
site (if the formation of an army is requisite, after so 
many centuries without one,) to prevent this by some 
law not found in the Koran — a code of laws which is 
instilled into the very h§art of the citizen and follower 

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of the Prophet. Fifty police soldiers or patrol were 
ordered for this valley of the Mosynus, to scour the 
mountains, and a pass-paper or passport is to be taken 
by every person removing from his village. 

The next order which puzzled the Turk was a strict 
injunction that the Greek was to be treated as a 
brother, and that no distinction whatever should legally 
exist in the treatment of the people of the various na- 
tions subject to the Porte. The taxes which have 
hitherto fallen with tenfold weight on the more indus- 
trious Greek, who is generally poor, or at least has no 
visible property in flocks or lands, is now to be levied 
upon property, or so much a head upon all the flocks ; 
on sheep and goats, for instance, one piastre is to be 
paid annually for each, and the new system thus at once 
places the taxation almost wholly upon the richer Turk. 

Two boys had quarrelled in our khan ; one injured 
the other, and was taken before the new governor. 
The boy was bastinadoed until he was unable to bear 
more, and was waiting until he was sufficiently recovered 
to receive the remaining number of stripes written in 
the law against his ofience. A requisition was sent by 
the leading people of the place, the friends of the boy, 
to beg a mitigation of the sentence ; but the Aga, for the 
first time in Turkey, avowed that he had in himself no 
power — he was merely the passive agent of the law. The 
ostentatious carrying of arms, hitherto the pride and 
ornament of the Turk, is forbidden, and no persons 
are now allowed to possess arms unless licensed to bear 

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48 CARIA. 

them. We are accustomed to this, but it is new in Tur- 
key. The change which most affected ourselves was the 
regulations of the Post : hitherto the Menzilkhanner, or 
postmaster, had a salary, and for this he was bound to 
supply such horses as might be required by the mes- 
sengers of Government or Post, and those persons who 
were provided with a firman, or teskary, at a stated 
price of one piastre an hour for each horse, the only 
profit to the postmaster being his salary. The new 
regulations put an end almost to this office ; it with- 
draws the salary, and allows him to charge two and 
a half piastres an hour to the few private individual 
travellers provided with teskaries, on condition of his 
carrying the Government dispatches free ; in this village 
it was evident that the very small demand by travel- 
lers, even at the former low price, bore no proportion 
to the continual requirements of the Government, and 
at the new price would probably be superseded by the 
hire of horses from individuals on more reasonable 
terms. We were therefore applied to by the late 
Menzilkhanner, who tendered himself and his stud of 
ten horses for our service by the month, we taking 
him wherever we pleased. His first demand was like 
all proceeding from the Turk, honest and moderate, 
the result of consideration; he offered himself, two 
Zooregees and ten horses, he paying all expenses of 
the men and horses on the road ; his own food he pro- 
posed to share with our servant. The charge was 
1400 piastres a month, and we might leave him 

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when and where we chose — a sum less than ten shil- 
lings a day; the bargain was closed, and he placed 
his hand on his breast and head, and touched my 
hand ; his word was thus given, and no further agree- 
ment was requisite. . The Governor soon sent down 
to say that he was for a time left without horses, until 
a new contractor could be found, and asked us as a 
favour to defer our departure for one day, that he 
might be enabled to send oiF some dispatches ; he at 
the same time renewed his invitation to us to take up 
our abode at his Konak, or official residence* 

We took advantage of this day's rest, and rambled 
about the neighbourhood. I have mentioned that the 
soil of this country consists of rapidly decomposing 
limestone, and as the streams carry down this lime in 
their waters, of course incrustation of vegetable matter 
and of loose pebbles on the banks is the consequence. 
This conglomerate has not been overlooked by the 
people, and superstition was fed by the occurrence. 
They tell us, that before the time of Mahomet, lived 
Haziratallee, and the print of his horses' feet was made 
upon a rock in the valley ; that in order to pay respect 
to his memory, all passers-by are said to have thrown 
a stone on the pile raised to his honour; and every 
stone was fastened down by some good spirit, and thus 
formed into a mountain. 

March \Zth. — This morning we left Karasoo in the 
formidable cavalcade of our newly-arranged party ; in 
front rides our Cavass, a kind of courier, in a most 

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50 CARIA. 

superb Turkish costume, with the beautiful embossed 
silver pistols and sword of the country stuck into the 
front of his sash ; his horse caparisoned to correspond 
with his dress, and trained to the prancing pace of such 
an officer in a Turkish procession. Next came a Zoo« 
rigee with green turban ; then three loads of baggage, 
and another Zoorigee. I followed, with Mr. Hesketh 
and Mr. Scharf, and the rear was filled by Mania. 
I fear the extent of our cavalcade will impede a rapid 
progress, but at present the road lying over the same 
stony district by which we had ascended the valley, 
prevents our exceeding a walking pace. This evening 
we are at Arrachiflee, on the side of the river opposite 
to the ruins of Antiocheia. I find by my thermometer 
that we have descended above five hundred feet from 

March I4th. — ^We have travelled for eight homte, or 
more than thirty miles, to the westward, along the 
southern side of the valley of the Maeander, which is 
far more picturesque than the northern; the moun- 
tains, at whose feet our road lay, being rock, and not 
the crumbling gravelly hills, which, at the distance 
across the valley, now assume a more pleasing appear- 
ance. The country immediately on our right is a per- 
fect level, and is cultivated with corn ; the plough is 
seen moving in every direction. On our left the sloping 
green of the lower hills of the mountains are spotted 
with cattle and the black tents of the Yourooks. Many 
small villages are sheltered among them, the principal 

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of which are Birrejeh and Arepas ; the latter is situated 
at the foot of a hill covered with the ruins of a city or 
fortress of unhewn stone, similar to those at Antiocheia ; 
these may probably have been the ancient Harpasa. 
Beneath this runs the river Harpasus, winding down 
the valley in a broad, strong, and quiet stream, cutting 
deeply into the sandy soil. A profusion of ducks and 
wild-fowl find shelter in the reeds and bushes growing 
on the waste track, occasionally inundated by its waters; 
the valley is about four miles across. A ferry-boat is 
at the end of the valley, and lands you at the village of 
Dondoorahn on the western side. Here, as at the other 
ferries I have seen in this country, the boat is of a tri- 
angular form, and looks like the head of a boat cut off 
at midships ; the rope which stretches across the river 
is of very considerable length, and is formed of vine- 
stems, many thirty or forty feet long, spliced together 
at their ends. We are now in the Konak, or house of 
the Aga, in the little village of Yennibazaar, which is 
erroneously laid down in all the maps, as are also many 
of the rivers in this district. I have been shown some 
sheep here, which appear of the same breed as all others 
of this country; having the broad tail, and known to us 
as the Cape sheep ; but these flocks I am told are pe- 
culiar in having lambs twice during the year, and fre- 
quently two lambs at a time. This profitable quality of 
course increases the price of the sheep. 

March 1 5th. — ^We are at a little village consisting of 
but a few well-built stone houses in a plain ; it is called 


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52 CARIA. 

Zhumarlee-cooe. In the yard of the Konak is a pedestal 
with this inscription : 


I also observed many fragments of ancient art, evidently 
from some old site not far distant. We are told that 
they are brought from Arab Hissa, a village eight miles 
south of this place, the object which has caused me 
to seek this route. From Yennibazaar we have had a 
beautiful ride of six hours, travelling for the first eight 
miles down the valley of the Maeander, towards the 
west, passing continually little villages on the sides of 
the hills : these have all names signifying some rustic 
fare they afibrd. I put down these in the order we 
passed them, but they none of them deserved a remark 
for preference, although they may serve as guides for 
future travellers. The situation of each was fine and 
healthy, overlooking the broad and rich valley to the 
north : Alkhan Kuilee Khan, (or ' ass's stable ') ; Chal- 
gar, Yodurennee, Allahnee, Dalamon, Tepecooe, Youg- 
hoortcooe, and on the right Yostootsh. We here turned 
to the south through the mountains by an ascending 
valley, with its Utile rill called Hass^bohas. The 
scenery was beautiful ; winding up rocks well clothed 
with underwood, while beneath the branches the spring 

♦ " [The statue ?] of Apollo, the Liberator, the August." These 
epithets, applied to Apollo, are unusual. 

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flowers were bursting into bloom. The soil was of 
sand, and its red and yellow hues added to the rich 
efiect of the vegetation. In an hour and a half we 
reached the summit of this range of hills, and looked 
down upon a valley, with a large river running from the 
north-east through a fine rich-looking mountain country. 
Descending to its banks, we had to cross and recross its 
broad but shallow bed a dozen times. I never saw a 
better-looking stream for fish, and in its crystal waters 
I saw shoals of the finny tribe enjoying life. They ap- 
peared like our trout of about three-quarters of a pound 
weight. The river took a westward course, and through 
a narrow ravine led us to this large valley, watered by 
the river Cheena, the ancient Marsyas, to which, still 
further to the west, it became a tributary. 

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Arab Hiasd, ancient Alabanda — Ruins — ^Demmeerge-derasy, ancient 
Alinda — ^Tombs — Ruins — Passage of the Mountains — Unknown 
Ruins — Mylasa — Temple of Labranda [?] — Ancient Remains — 

March \6th, Capeedas. — Arab Hiss^ had not a shelter 
for us, consisting of but a few huts amidst the ruins of 
the ancient city, whose temple walls now serve as folds 
for calves, which are bred abundantly in this neigh- 
bourhood. This village, which is of the lowest grade to 
deserve the title, is a mile to the south of Arab Hisstf. 
Depositing our baggage, we lost no time in returning to 
examine the ruins of the ancient city, whose name has 
not yet been satisfactorily fixed : it is supposed by many 
to be the ruins of Alabanda. Climbing up the back of 
a steep hill which overlooked the city, and whose top 
was covered with old walls, we had a commanding view 
of the whole country, the position of which differs much 
from that laid down in the maps. The large river, 
which, escorted by guides, we had with great difficulty 
crossed four miles to the south of Zhumarleecooe, soon 
afterwards divided into two branches ; one coming from 

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Cheena on the south, which gives its name to the river, 
the other from the west-south-west. Crossing the latter, 
we arrived at the ruins before us, which are at the fork 
or angle of the two rivers. The whole country is moun* 
tainous, but the valleys highly productive and extensive. 
Scattered about are the tents of the Yourooks, who 
watch the numerous flocks of sheep, and herds of cows 
and buffalos. The plains are in large tracks of mo- 
notonous colours, with the young wheat and barley, 
and here and there the rich-looking red soil is being 
ploughed to receive the seeds of the cotton-plant. 
Rising from this plain are green slopes, covered with 
flocks, and the fig, olive, and vine show that a fine cli- 
mate favours this region. The ruins of the city below 
are mysterious ; there is a boldness and simple massive- 
ness in the construction of the walls and theatre, which 
IS anterior to the age of the cities I have seen during the 
past week, but an almost total absence of inscriptions 
leaves much in obscurity. The whole of the materials 
used in its construction are of igneous rock, and gene- 
rally of a coarse granite, whose perishing surface has 
been further injured by the lichens growing upon it. 
The few inscriptions which I traced with difficulty upon 
the sarcophagi, were too imperfect to throw much light 
upon the name or history of the city. The theatre, 
which faced the north-west, was as usual built in the 
side of a hill, and its massive stone-work is of the 
beautiful and regular Greek style, the joints between 
the large stones being rendered more conspicuous by 

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56 CARIA. 

the bulging or cushioned form of each stone; the 
walls are built with two wide and one narrow course 
successively ; the proscenium has been destroyed, and 
the seats have disappeared, but the outward form re- 
mains, as well as the three arches for the vomitaries. 
The shape is of a kind of which I had not seen many, 
and I believe is almost peculiar to eastern Greece, the 
ends or horns of its crescent having their walls cutting 
inwards towards the proscenium. 

Near the theatre has stood a building of considerable 
importance, and upon a site most imposing, but its 
basement, or stoa, alone remains. Down below, on 
what appeared from above the flat valley, but which 
we found was still elevated ground, stands a finely-built 
structure of an oblong form, which now is perfect as 
high as a cornice, probably thirty feet from the ground ; 
above this are the bases of pilasters and openings for 
doors ; the interior is a mass of ruin, and afibrds no 
clue to the former use of this building. Foundations 
are seen in every direction for the distance of a mile in 
length, and nearly half a mile in breadth. Even more 
than this extent has been included within walls, for 

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their ruins are traced over the ridges of the hills at 
the back of the city. The position of four important 
gates are now marked by lines of sarcophagi on either 
side of the road, from the walls into the plains ; those 
to the east and west extend for more than a mile. The 
form of the sarcophagus is generally of an uniform plain 
squared oblong, and the lids of a rude shape, scarcely 
rising to a pediment at the ends. The inscriptions 
upon them consist of but few letters, all of the Greek 
character: they are generally above six inches in 
length, but so imperfect from decay, that I fear the 
few I have copied will be almost useless. 






♦ Translation. — " [The tomb ?] of the Aurelii, Alcibiades, and Cal- 
liope, his wife." Both husband and wife seem to have belonged to the 
Aurelian family. 

t Each of these inscriptions seems to begin with the words TO 
ANFEION, usually now written ^yyelov, a vessel, here the um for 
the ashes, which meaning is borne out by other funeral inscriptions. 

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58 CARIA. 

Scarcely a block of marble is to be found in the ruins 
of the city ; the pedestal which we yesterday saw at 
Zhumarleecooe was perhaps the last remaining legible 
inscription. The order of architecture seems to have 
been wholly Ionic ; some columns are fluted, but gene- 
rally plain, and not any of great dimensions. I obtained 
a few coins, among which were some of the ancient city, 
with the name of Alabanda upon them ; also coins of 
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, which was opposite to the end 
of this valley, and of Miletus also not far distant. I 
made some observations for ascertaining localities, but 
the cloudy weather rendered this difficult. 

Demmeerge-derasyy March 17 th. — After a ride of five 
hours, perhaps not more than sixteen miles, generally 
bearing to the west-south-west, we are again amidst 
ruins, but of a far more interesting and picturesque 
appearance than those which we have left at Alabanda ; 
we therefore tarry here for a day to examine them. 
The road we have traversed since leaving Arab Hissa 
lay in the valley of the branch of the Cheena, which 
river takes the name of Karpuslee-chi, from a village of 
that name about two miles higher up the valley. Pass- 
ing several groups of huts, each boasting the name of 
a village, and then turning up to the south-west, we 
crossed a series of small mountains, covered with rich 
underwood and wild olives. In each valley we saw the 
tents of the Yourooks, depasturing their cattle around 
them, while their few camels raised their stately heads 
above the trees on the hill sides, upon which they were 

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brousing. Scarcely any cultivation is here attempted. 
Turning again through a ravine to the west, we came 
upon the declivity of a hill covered with olive-trees ; and 
as we entered a little valley, encircled by hills, which 
puzzled us to ascertain how the river entered, and again 
left it, we arrived at a few houses, forming the village of 
Hoomarleh. A heavy shower of rain drove us to take 
shelter for half an hour in a stable ; a bowl of oUves, in 
oil, and a quantity of bread of the country, was brought 
to the servants. 

When the shower abated, we peeped out of our re- 
treat^ and saw some females separating the oil from the 
olive, a process which I had not before had an oppor- 
tunity of observing. The group was picturesque : bags 
filled with olives, which had been crushed in the miU, 
and for some weeks lying in salt, were piled upon a rock ; 
near these was a large pot or copper of boiling water, 
into which each bag was put in turn, and then placed 
upon a flat floor, or stone, with channels cut across it ; 
upon these hot bags women were treading with their legs 
bare, visible at least to the knee, while their heads were 
closely shrouded with the white veil, covering the upper 
part of the body ; from under this came an arm,' grasp- 
ing a long stick, which served to steady the body during 
the violent exercise of trampling the apparently scalding 
bags ; the hot liquor ran off into wooden vessels, on the 
top of which floated the oil ; a plug near the bottom 
was occasionally withdrawn, to let out the dark choco- 
late-coloured liquid which stained the channels from 

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60 CARIA. 

every part of the village, the pressing of the oil being at 
this season the occupation of most of the women of the 
place. The spring is here beginning to open rapidly ; 
each day's rain seems to shower down flowers; hya- 
cinths, anemonies,*and some beautiful yellow blossoms, 
seem to exhaust every variety of colour ; the narcissus, 
springing up from among the tufts of thorns, adds a 
sparkUng white to the gay picture. This latter flower 
is a favourite with the Turks, and soon finds a place 
in the folds of his turban ; it is the flower commonly 
gathered and offered to us by the peasantry. The Turks 
value sweetness more than beauty in flowers ; I am re- 
minded of this by seeing the grape-hyacinth in bloom, 
whose apparently dead and dull flower was frequently 
presented to me on my former tour later in the season, 
the honey-like smell giving it a great charm with this 
people. Crossing the Karpuslee-chi, we traversed the 
valley, and arrived at this place — and what has it been? 
The direction is west-south-west of Arab Hissrf, although 
the same place is laid down in the maps to the north, 
and there only supposed to have been the ancient Or- 
thosia ; I hope to fix its locality by a set of observations, 
but its' name must remain unknown, unless the nume- 
rous coins I have collected may tell the tale. I have 
not discovered a single inscription. Many of the sar- 
cophagi have had tablets let into their rough stone, 
probably of metal or marble, but the holes made by the 
ties alone remain. 

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■ ■- 

j2 S^^^ 

'!:i V—.. 





-; ,..>iii»- 

^iM***^-*-^ — J- - -• 

' -ui" ^-^^ t^Cti 

The situation of this highly picturesque city is per- 
fectly Greek, and I have seen none built up so steep a 
crag, formed of the boldest blocks of granite-rock, 
which have in many places been cut into long flights of 
wide steps, leading up to the city. One of three or four 
of the lines of tombs, showing the various approaches, 
is very characteristic, and must have had a grand and 
melancholy appearance — a " Via Sacra''; it was a paved 
way, of steep ascent from the valley, extending nearly a 
mile up into the crag of the acropolis, winding the whole 
length between tombs, of all the forms of heavy melan- 
choly grandeur, which effect was heightened by the grey 
colour of the granite, out of which, or rather in which, 
they were formed; for some, the most novel to me, had 
a cavity for the body cut into the mass of the rock, and 
a heavy cover placed over it ; the weight of some of 

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62 CARIA. 

these has secured the sanctity of the dead. I sketched 
many of various forms, but the effect of the whole I can- 
not express with pencil or pen. This street of tombs 
retains its pavement of large oblong stones, eight 
or nine feet in length ; the width of the way was seven- 
teen feet, formed by two stones. As an admirer of 
works of art, I am of course delighted to find highly 
prnamented and sculptured tombs, as I have done in 
Lycia ; but as monuments for the dead, these massive 
tombs are more fit emblems, and are another instance of 
the perfection of taste among tl^e early Greeks. Hie 
designs of many of our modem tombs carry the ideas 
away from the dead, and are looked at often as works of 
art alone. 

Near the upper termination of this Via Sacra is a 
very conspicuous building of beautiful masonry; it 
has a bold front, running along the face of the steep 
rock, and apparently serves to hold up a terrace, of the 
width of about a hundred feet ; the rock then becomes 
its opposite support. Within the front of this oblong 
building, which is nearly 330 feet in length, are a series 
of square rooms, or store-houses, and above them a co- 
lonnade of square pillars, with a half-column of the Doric 
order on either side. These and the lower rooms have 
been lighted by small apertures near the ceiling of each« 
On the terrace above all was another colonnade of 
single Doric pillars, many of which are still standing ; 
but these terraces occupied only forty feet of the front ; 
the remaining depth is now a mere level field, and its 

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former use is perfectly uncertain. It may have been an 
agora, but its position is too important, and not very 
convenient for the citizens living so high above. This 
building much resembles the oblong basement at Ala- 
banda, which could not have been an agora, from its 
height, and was most probably the stoa of a temple or 
place of amusement; the length is not sufficient for 
a stadium, nor have there been raised seats for spec- 
tators. Almost perpendicularly above this building 
stands the theatre, facing nearly the south ; most of the 
seats remain, and the outer walls are entire, excepting 
those of the proscenium, which have fallen down the 
cliff in front. Winding round the rocks above, amidst 
walls of massive and uniform masonry, covered with 
ruins of ornamental buildings, and columns, both fluted 
and plain, but of small dimensions, we climbed upon the 
top of the acropolis or citadel. On the northern side 
stands a fine square tower, with windows and doors on 
its upper floor; this is formed of excellent massive 
Greek masonry, some of the stones measuring twelve 
to fourteen feet in length. The crown of this hill seems 
to have had little more than walls surrounding it ; no 
foundations are visible upon its small field at the top, 
but beneath its surface are large cisterns, lined with 
cement, and similar to those I have often seen made by 
the early inhabitants of the coast of this country for 
storing their grain ; these vaults were partly arched 
over, and were then covered up with stones above thir- 
teen feet in length. 

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64 CARIA. 

The buildings of the city viewed from this elevation 
were almost lost among the rocks with which they were 
mingled : the huts of the people of the present town did 
not disturb the effect of ruin, and their green flat tops 
distinguished them among the rocks below. 

I find out of twenty copper coins obtained here, five 
bearing the name of Alinda, which city stood in this 
region of Caria. In the absence of better authority, I 
should consider this as sufficient to mark these ruins as 
the site of the ancient Alinda. 

March \9th. — We are in one of the most beautiful 
situations I ever saw, in the little scattered village of 
Toorbeh, high up in the mountains, and raised on a 
rocky eminence amidst a forest of stone-pines. The di- 
rection we have taken from Demmeerge-derasy is south- 
west, the distance five hours. About a mile and a half 
on the way we left the village of Karpuslee on the right, 
crossing its river twice, and then gradually ascending 
the mountains, whose circle appeared to contract around 
us, until their various rills, like radii directed towards 
the valley, united in a considerable brook, which is the 
source of the river forming the main branch of the an- 
cient Marsyas. The mountains consist entirely of blocks 
and crags of coarse granite, which is rapidly decom- 
posing, and its sand nourishes luxuriantly the oak and 
the stone-pine, whose rich deep colour contrasts beau- 
tifully with the brilliant green of the mossy rocks. The 
peculiar effect of a forest of this description of fir-trees 
must be seen in order to be properly appreciated, and I 

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have seen none but in this country ; these firs cultivated 
in Italy give but a faint idea of the peculiar beauty of 
their natural growth. The forest extends nearly thirty 
miles over the range of mountains separating this val-> 
ley from that of the country of Mylasa. The distant 
ranges of granite crags rising above the wood, and the 
green valleys cultivated at their feet, even in this high 
district, formed a view from the door of our cottage 
that exceeded in beauty anything I had ever seen in 
European scenery, although of so different a kind that 
each has its peculiar claim to admiration. 

March 20th. — For nearly two hours this morning we 
continued our ascent of the wooded mountain-range 
towards the west-south-west, craggy and highly pictu- 
resque, but not very steep. Along the ridge of the 
mountain the trees became less thick, and allowed us to 
look down the ravines of hills upon the extended view 
that opened before us to the westward, over the plains 
of Mellassa, bounded by the bold mountains skirting 
the Cerambic gulph ; the sea formed, as it were, a placid 
lake, and the island of Cos, with the promontories of 
Halicamassus and Cnidus, were gray in the distance. 

The vegetation during our morning's ride had changed 
from the unvaried underwood of the dwarf oak to the 
heath, cistus, and lavender ; flowers were sparkling be- 
tween the bushes, and the blossom already covered the 
yellow broom. The geological features, as we passed the 
summit, also changed ; the coarse granite seemed gradu- 
ally to cease, appearing only in rolled blocks, over the 


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66 CARIA. 

shivered slaty rocks which abound so much throughout 
the whole of Anatolia : thick veins of quartz protruded 
in ridges, and the blocks of granite were veined with 
lines of a black quartz. The rocks, as we descended, 
became more and more schisty, until at every step 
they crumbled into a silvery dust of mica ; the beaten 
track of the road consisting almost wholly of blocks of 
quartz, the only durable remnant of the decomposing 
rocks. This increase and change of soil carried us at 
once, as we descended, into a spring of flowers. I never 
saw anemonies so numerous and varied : on the mea- 
dow at our feet I can compare them to nothing but 
a rich Turkey carpet, in which the green grass did not 
form a prominent colour amidst the crimson, lilac, blue, 
scarlet, white, and yellow flowers. The black iris and 
a hyacinth were the only additions I made to my col- 
lection of plants. 

At about twelve miles before we reached Mellassa, 
and to the north-east of that city, we passed, amidst the 
woods, some important ruins, of good masonry and of an 
ornamental character ; one fine building, with a door 
twelve feet wide within a windowed portico, and the 
square interior or cella having windows on either side, 
seemed among the most prominent. The portico, 
formed by the extension of the side walls of the cella, 
is of the kind known as a portico in antis : two fluted 
columns lay near it. The whole of the buildings of the 
place, seemed compact, and may probably have been 
enclosed by a long wall running in front. Three or four 

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tombs, partly cut in the rock, attracted our attention 
to the place, a few hundred yards before we arrived at 
the ruins. 

In descending the mountain toward Mellassa, we fol- 
lowed and continually crossed and re-crossed an ancient 
paved road, the large stones differing from those of later 
days by being wrought and fitted together with the pro- 
truding natural rock : the road, in passing ravines, was 
also built up with solid Greek masonry. This way 
doubtless continued to the ancient city of Mylasa. 
Colonel Leake says, that about this spot he thinks it 
probable may be discovered the remains of Labranda, 
which name is at present given to the ruins and temple 
to the north-west; to those he proposes the name of 

March 23rdy Mellassa {tlie ancient Mylasa). — ^We ar- 
rived here in a violent storm early in the afternoon of 
the 20th, and have been detained by the continued 
rains, which have almost kept us prisoners in our khan, 
or allowed us but short walks about the town. The 
rivers in the neighbourhood are much swollen, and the 
whole country flooded. We have made one excursion 
to see the temple, on the spot called the ancient La-i 
branda, but the rain fell in such torrents, that the few 
inscriptions we copied with difficulty, while sheltering 
the paper within our caps, were afterwards almost ob- 
literated, our portfolios and pockets being completely 
saturated by the rain. I was anxious to visit this temple 
again, as my observations on my former tour, of the 


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68 CARIA. 

differences in its columns, had been explained to me in 
so interesting a manner by the interpretation of the in- 
scription upon the tablet of a column, stating that its 
shaft, base, and capital had been contributed by an in- 
dividual in honour of his daughter. I have now copied 
eleven of these inscriptions ; some are too much oblite- 
rated to be deciphered, from lying on the ground. The 
following is repeated upon all the tablets on the columns 
in front of the temple : 











* A similar inscription to this, which may be read more or less 
distinctly on five separate columns, I have published in my former 
Journal, pp. 262 and 331. The one here given is more correct, having 
been collated with the others. 

TVanslation. — "Menecrates, the son of Menecrates, the Archiater 
[principal physician] of the town, [gave] whilst Stephanephoros, this 
column, with the base and capital, his daughter Tryphaena, herself also 
a Stephanephoros and G3rmnasiarchos superintending [the work].'* 

The office of Stephanephoros (i. e. one who wears a wreath) is occa- 
sionally mentioned both on the monuments and coins of Asia Minor. It 
certainly was a place of great honour, but scarcely one of trust. A 

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The subjoined inscription is found upon all the co- 
lumns of the north side : 


My opinions as to the architecture and situation of 
the temple are unchanged. Among the walls I men- 
tioned as being on the rising ground to the north, 
we found the excavation of a theatre, with many of 
its seats remaining: its aspect is toward the south- 
west. The weather was too unfavourable for botanical 
or geological researches, for the thick branches of a 
group of evergreen oaks did not even afford shelter 
from the deluging rain. These oaks have the small 

kind of superintendence or patronage over the afiairs of the temple 
and public festivals, seems to have been the chief care of this honorary 
office, with which scarcely any functions may have been connected, 
beyond bearing expenses for the common good. Sometimes we see 
it conferred on the chief priest ; — ^here, on the chief physician and his 
daughter. The office of Gymnasiarchos, also a very high one, as is 
indicated by other inscriptions, scarcely imposed any duties beyond 
those of a munificent patron of the gymnastic exercises and g^ames. 
The title of ArchJater, still in use in some continental courts, was first 
given by Nero. This, as observed in the Appendix of my former 
work, fixes the date of the inscription as later than the first half of 
the first century. 

* Tratulation. — " Leo, the son of Leo, whilst Stephanephoros, [gave] 
the column, with the base and the capital, according to his promise." 

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70 CARIA. 

holly-like leaf of the dwarf shrub universal in this 
country ; but the size of the trees was immense, their 
stems being above twenty feet in girth, and the branches 
must have shaded a circle of seventy feet from the 
midday sun. 

The site of Mylasa has been covered with public 
buildings, and many of the stones remaining show them 
to have fatten highly ornamented. The Corinthian order 
seems to have prevailed; but Ionic capitals are also 
seen built into the walls. 

The following fragment of an inscription I copied from 
the tablet upon a solitary Corinthian column standing 
conspicuously in the town. The letters have been 
chipped off by the present occupier of the house, through 
the top of which the column rises. This has been done 
in order to prevent the intrusion of strangers to see this 



/^jrOTOrA * 

♦ Translation, — •* The People [honoured] Menander, the son of UK- 
ades, the son of Euthydemus, a henefactor of his native town, and bom 
of benefactors." 

Published by Boeckh (2698), from Chandler, ivho copied it when in 
a more perfect state. 

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The following inscriptions I have also copied from 
various walls and sarcophagi in the town : 








ZH § 

* " The Soros of Claudiua Maiilianus Codrus." 

t " Of ihe benevolent spirits." — ^These words, corresponding to the 
Latin " Diis Manibus/' are very common in funeral inscriptions. 

I Supposing that at the right-hand side each line has lost two or 

three letters, we may translate this inscription thus : " Tlneius, 

the son of Bion [?], has consecrated [this] lion to Hercules and to 
the " 

$ " Of the benevolent spirits. [The property] of Tiberius Claudius 
Theodotus, [now] alive." 

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72 CARIA. 













* Published by Boeckh, 2695, b. All the words of this inscrip- 
tion may be read distinctly, but are without connection, as a great 
part of it has not been preserved. It contained a Roman decree, 
by which the inhabitants of Mylasa obtained a release from some 
pa3rments and the vexations of the tax-gatherers. The name of 
Labienus in the ninth line, and that of Caesar in the last, give the 
inscription an historical interest. The latter is probably that of C. 
Julius Caesar, and Labienus, the same who, as Plutarch (Vit. Anton, 
c. 28. 30. 33.) and others relate, was proclaimed Imperator by the 
Parthic army, and overran with his forces Asia Minor as far as Lydia 
and Ionia (Appian. B.C. 1. 5. c. 65). The inhabitants of Mylasa, at 
the instigation of Hybreas, bravely resisted the invader, but had 
greatly to suffer for it (Strabo, xiv., p. 660). Marcus Antonius, 
the Triumvir, sent his legate Ventidius against Labienus, and seems, 
by the decree contained in our inscription, to have made some grants 
to the Mylaseans, in consideration of their losses. A similar letter 
of Marc Antony to the Senate of Aphrodisias, in which also re- 
ference is made to Julius Caesar, has been preserved entire. (Chandler, 
p. 61, and Boeckh. 2744.) 

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74 CARIA. 

* Translation of inscription on pagt 73. 

The first line, which is wanting, seems to have contained the 
name of the Stephanephoros for the year in whidi the decree was 
resolved on ; the letters which now stand first belong, as Boeckh con- 
cludes from similar inscriptions, to the word OTflPKONAEAN^ 
''the members of the Phyle Otorcondea," which was one of the sub- 
ordinate corporations of Mylasa. Were it not for the entire dif- 
ference of Pagan and Christian institutions, we might be tempted to 
translate " Phyle " by parish. As at the right-hand side each line 
has lost some letters, the following translation is partly founded on 

•* It was decreed by the Phyle of the Otorcon- 

deans, [through] their magistrates. Whereas Amyntas, the son of 
Agis, most distinguished by public spirit, has heretofore ministered to 
the wants of the Phyle, and being in several ofiices has served well 
and praiseworthily ; and behaving to the members of the Phyle and the 
other citizens righteously and honourably, and being among all with- 
out blame and quarrel, and never bribed ; and, when money was wanted, 
and he was rated by the Phyle, having given more [than was required] 
to the native town ; whence it happened that the Phyle gained much 
more renown, and gave to the town what there was occasion for ; 
wherefore the Phyle has also gratefully honoured him with the be- 
coming honours ; being by his Phyle, according to law, declared free of 
the liturgiee [expensive charges ordinarily imposed on the rich citizens], 
he still remained GymnasiarchoB [patron of the g^ymnastic games], 
and superintended the holy affairs [or, according to Boeckh's reading, 
the revenue ofiicers,] in a manner worthy of the People : behaving 
to all men equably and honestly, and in obedience to the laws ; and em- 
bellishing besides, at his own expense, the Palaestra with ornaments ; 
and striving not only in the things that are mentioned, but generally [?], 
to excel all the former good deeds. That, therefore, the Phyle may 
appear to render thanks unto men of merit and the benefactors of the 
Phyle and the People [it was resolved]/ 

" May it be fortunate ! That Amyntas be praised and crowned with 

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I mentioned in my former Journal a fine arched 
gateway, which was still remaining ; an aqueduct has 
passed over it. I have sketched the outer side, show- 
ing on the keystone the sacrificial axe of Jupiter, 
which has been deemed an argument favouring the 
idea that this gateway led to the temple of Jupiter 

Labrandenus. This emblem I have seen on four dif- 
ferent keystones, built into various walls in the town^ 
showing that it must have been very commonly used 
in the architecture of the city, and not improbably 
placed over each of its gates. I have obtained coins 
of the ancient city, with the same emblem upon them, 
and also one representing Jupiter, with a similar axe 
in his hand*. 

Another of the monuments still existing at Mylasa 
is shown in the annexed Plate : it is a tomb of a very 

a wreath, for his merits towards the Phyle and his native town, in 
order that the choice of the members of the Phyle may be the more 
manifest, and the zeal which they have." 

Published from ChishuU by Boeckh, 2693, d. 

* These are given in Plate XXXV. Nos. 4 and 5, at the end of this 

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76 CARIA. 

imposing form, and may, from its high state of pre* 
servation, explain the former use of some I have no- 
ticed at Alinda, which now appear as mere pedestals or 
stoas. A hole in the floor of this upper apartment or 
temple is said by one writer to have been for the pour- 
ing down libations to the manes in the vault beneath. 
There being no visible means for the friends of the 
deceased to reach the platform for this holy purpose, 
I listened to the explanation of the Turk who acted as 
cicerone : he says the building was a treasury, and that 
the lower room was filled with gold, which had been 
dropped down the hole above, and that many such 
buildings had existed. 

I have never heard a Turk relate any anecdote of 
** old castles," as he calls them, without some reference 
to hidden treasure ; he believes that every inscription 
tells of treasure, if he could understand it, and every 
cavern leads to some ancient store of accumulated gold ; 
but these stories, like the tales of children, have each 
their characteristic moral ; they tell you that whoever 
enters wishing to carry away wealth, finds himself a 
prisoner, lost in the dark vaults, until he lays down that 
which he was about to steal: he may then return, 
empty-handed, by the open door. A Jew is said to 
have once entered a cavern, and was thus served, but 
the lesson has prevented the Turk from repeating the 
like attempt. Many of the hot springs and volcanic 
gaseous flames in the country serve to dress the meat of 
the honest shepherd, but that which has been stolen 

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! /v. '/<•>>* t ■'■'if'" 

■r o A h i'N K A K M V I. A S K 

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can never be cooked at these places. I should almost 
regret the loss of this trait of credulous simplicity, how- 
ever childish it may appear. 

In closing my last Journal I gave my general impres- 
sion of the character of the Turk, formed in spite of 
prejudice against them, and entirely drawn from their 
own conduct. Perhaps I may be suspected, like many 
converts, to have become too warmly the advocate of 
their character; but I cannot accuse myself of this 
feeling, and have now reason to repeat my opinion, 
from a longer experience. What I am about to say 
will show that their faults are not overlooked by me, 
although in citing an exception it may be thought to 
prove my rule. At Naslee the master of the post sat 
with us, talking much nonsense, accompanied with ex- 
treme politeness, and holding in his hand an empty 
bottle, which he hoped we should refill with arrac ; he 
had evidently drunk the whole of its former contents. 
I know not if his profession has caused this neglect of 
the Prophet's laws, but our Cavass is a determined 
drunkard ; he will empty two or three bottles a day of 
pure arrac, a spirit extracted from the refuse of grapes, 
used as spirits-of-wine by us, and in strength far above 
proof. This man is a wretched example of the effects 
of intemperance ; at times he is like a perfect madman ; 
when the fit subsides he weeps like a child, and pro- 
mises better conduct, but only practises it when beyond 
the reach of obtaining a supply of spirits, for which he 
is willing to pay any price or make any sacrifice. 

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78 CARIA. 

But to revert to the tomb I was describing. Those 
vast stoas I have mentioned as existing at Alinda have 
evidently also been mausoleums, and probably sur- 
mounted with columns and a superstructure resembling 
this, the scale alone differing, some of them being of 
double the dimension of the one shown in the preceding 
Plate. It is curious that such are not to be seen out of 
Caria, and that in its construction this tomb precisely 
answers to the description of the celebrated monument 
erected to Mausolus in this country, which was one of 
the wonders of the world, and from which we derive the 
term Mausoleum. 

We are to start from Meliassa tomorrow morning ; 
this has been a lovely day, the sun and wind drying 
the deluged earth ; the streams are again finding their 
accustomed beds, and we anticipate no further delay. 
What a change does a sunny day, after rains, make 
in a warm climate, at this season ! the flowers may 
almost be seen to expand. This morning I wandered 
over the hill on the south of the town, and saw the 
flowers recovering from the beating rains ; the people 
were ail busy cutting the grass from their house-tops, 
and every hut had its little roller at work to press down 
the wet earth of its roof. In the evening I visited the 
same hill, to seek the site of the ancient theatre, the im- 
pression of which alone seems to remain on the south- 
east side: the whole hill had burst into a garden of 
flowers. Women and children were decking themselves 
most tastefully, plaiting the blue hyacinth into their 

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long hanging locks, and placing a crest of anemonies or 
marigolds on their foreheads ; the folds of the turbans 
of the boys were rolled in flowers ; the whole scene was 
beautiful. Along the valley, for several miles to the 
south-east, we traced the ruins of a fine aqueduct, which 
formerly conveyed the water from the mountains. The 
distant hills were now gray, and tinged with the setting 
sun. To the south, at a distance of about six miles, on 
the verge of a precipice, stands the town of Paichin, 
supposed to occupy the site of one of the celebrated 
temples of Jupiter ; its situation is worthy of a Greek 
temple, which, from the valley, would appear relieved 
against the sky, the country beyond being a flat table- 

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Stratoniceia, its Ruins. — Route to Moolah. — ^Ancient Tombs. — ^The 
Pasha. — Longevity. — Change in the Laws. — Detention among the 
Peasants. — Music. — Dancing. — Customs. — Passage of the River. — 

March 24th, Esky Hissd. — ^This morning we left Mel- 
lassa for this place, the ancient Stratoniceia ; the di- 
stance is six hours, hut from the had state of the road 
it has taken us seven. For four miles we traversed the 
plain, and then for three hours more clamhered up the 
rocky mountainous road to the south-east. This country 
is highly picturesque, and it has received additional 
grandeur of effect from the frequent thunder-storms and 
partial gleams of light amidst the pelting hail-storms. 

I have before spoken of the geology of this district ; 
and its changes, although constant, are in two years im- 
perceptible. I again noticed the singular crumbling 
sands, white, red, and blue, similar to those of Alum 
Bay in the Isle of Wight ; and the ironstone, in 
almost pure ore, scattered over the surface of the 
country. In the people I observed the primitive mode 

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of obtaining turpentine-wood for light ; and the felling 
of the trees is in the last two years as little changed 
as it has been for three thousand years past, which I 
noticed in the Appendix to my last Journal. 

I this afternoon continued my research amongst the 
broken fragments of this once large town ; from the cella 
of the great building resembling a temple, in the centre 
of the city, I copied the remaining inscriptions. The 
following is taken from the front wall within the portico: 


* Boeckh, 2717, from Chandler, who has given also the first line, 
which is wanting in the transcript. 

Translation. — " [The town, as was likewise ordered by Serapis,] asks 
through Philocalus twice [i. e. the grand-son of Philocalus], the CEco- 
nomus [steward] whether the wicked barbarians shall in the ensuing 
year infest the town and country. The god answered, ' Seeing what 
you do, I have no reason why this should come to pass ; for I did not 
set out either in order to lay waste your town, or of making it a slave 
from being free, or to take away anything else of your goods.' " 

This oracle, of course, is not very clear ; it was probably delivered in 
the temple of Jupiter, at Stratoniceia, connected, as Boeckh supposes, 
with that of Serapis ; so also appear to have been their priesthoods, 
as the one referred the good citizens to the other. Prof. Boeckh thinks 
that this happened under the reign of Valerian or Gallien, when the 
barbarians, especially the Scythians, burned the temple at Ephesus. 



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82 CARIA. 

The following is inscribed upon the wall within the 
north side of the same building, which I find, from other 
inscriptions inserted in the Appendix to this volume, is 
the council-hall of the ancient city. 











I have impressed upon paper the inscription I copied 
on my last visit to this spot, as a specimen of the most 
beautifully formed Greek letters I have ever seen. On 
the outer side of the wall of this cella, towards the 

* Translation. — " To Jupiter Panemerius and Helios Jupiter Serapia. 
Being saved out of great wars and strange seas, four men have, in con- 
sequence of a vow, together put up this inscription, Zoticus, Epictetus, 
and Antiochus, [and] also Nilus." 

The four men, it seems, intended this to be metrical, and succeeded 
in making the second line a hexameter, but at the expense both of 
sense and grammar. The epithet strange (rtiXeianros), which, inap- 
propriate though it be, can be joined to. no other noun but ' seas/ 
does in the original agree with this neither in gender nor number. 
Stratoniceia had a for-famed temple of Jove, who, as we may also see 
in other inscriptions, was worshiped under the names of Panemerius, 
Rhembenodus, etc., the distinguishing attributes of which we do not 

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norths is the long and celebrated edict of Dioclesian, 
both in Gfeek and Latin ; its transcription, a laborious 
undertaking, was accomplished above a century ago by 
Sherard, and is among the manuscripts in the British 
Museum. Colonel Leake has presented me with a copy 
of it published in the form of a pamphlet, which is an 
important supplementary document to his valuable work 
on Asia Minor. It is curious that many of the articles 
of food mentioned in this edict still retain the same 
names amongst the peasantry of the country. 

The theatre, which I did not examine on my former 
visit, is on the west side of the town ; the whole of the 
seats remain, but the proscenium is a heap of ruins. 
The vomitaries must have been on the sides of the pro- 
scenium, for there are no arched ways visible leading 
into the diazoma or lobby. Among the tombs on the 
east side of the city I copied the following inscriptions, 
but the heavy rains prevented further research. 



* Translation. — " Quintus Myriacus and Artemin [Artemion] to 
CarpuB, their child, for the sake of remembrance." 

t Translation. — " [The tomb?] of Tiberius Claudius Philocalus 
[and] Claudia, a woman of Labrainda [Labranda ?] [now] alive. Phi- 
localus, thou good one, farewell." 


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84 CARIA. 





March 2bth. — This morning we delayed our departure 
until eleven o'clock, hoping that the rains would cease ; 
and taking advantage of a fair hour, we travelled slowly 
over the rocky road towards Moolah. On reaching the 
plain the rain again fell in torrents, and we were com- 
pelled to take refuge at the village of Bozuke, not two 
hours' ride from Esky Hissci : we have heard the thun- 
der rolling among the mountains around us all the 
afternoon. The general elevation of this country is 
1 500 feet above the sea. 

Moolah, March 27th. — ^This large Turkish town, the 
residence of a pasha, has no doubt, from its overhang- 
ing rock and fine commanding situation, been the site 
of an ancient Greek city; this must be the first im- 
pression of all travellers who approach it from its flat 
plain to the north, west, and south. With this idea, I 

♦ Translation. — " The people has buried Philinnon, the daughter of 
Sosander, a woman of Corasa, the wife of Andro, the son of Diony- 
sius, a citizen of Corasa, who [i. e. the woman] had lived righteously, 
and been among all worthy of the highest praise." 

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looked for old materials in every wall, but scarcely saw 
a stone of that character. In rambling up one of the 
craggy ravines at the back of the town, we were attracted 
by some square holes high up in the cliffs, and spent 
several hours in exploring what we found to be ancient 
tombs, cut within the rocks. From their form and con- 
struction, they must have been the work of the early 
Greeks, and the repositories of the dead of a consider- 
able city ; I think we examined above a hundred. The 
name of the ancient city, I believe, has never been 
found on inscriptions, but it is supposed to have been 
Alinda. My inquiry here for coins was answered most 
liberally, and I have added above thirty to my col- 
lection ; but among these I find none of the town of 
Alinda, some of them belonging to the cities on the 
coast, and one to Samos, together with many Roman 
and Byzantine. All coins from the neighbourhood 
naturally find their way to the chief commercial towns. 
At M ellassa they are quite an article of merchandize 
with the Jews, and for coins which I bought for a 
piastre at other places, I was there asked from fifty to 
one hundred piastres. At present the coins have not 
been carried far from the places in which they were 
found, and, like fossils in geology, they may perhaps 
be useful in indicating a date and name to their differ- 
ent locaUties. 

We yesterday travelled about twenty miles, gradually 
ascending the valley which gives source to the river 
Cheena ; in its course towards the town of that name 

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86 CARIA. 

it passes the ancient site of Lekena, on the opposite 
side of the valley to Bozuke, and a little to the north- 
east of Acruicooe, the village I passed on my former 
tour. At a few miles before arriving at Moolah, we left 
the valley in which the Cheena takes its rise, and, 
crossing a small range of mountains, reached the large 
but swampy plain before this town. Today we start 
for Hoolah, but, as the distance is only twelve miles, 
we spend the forenoon here, and shall ride over the 
mountains after an early dinner. 

Our room has this morning been quite a busy scene, 
with Turks bringing in coins and fancied treasures, 
some of the most ridiculous kind — Russian and Greek 
modern coins, buttons, pieces of tin, part of a spoon — 
all considered by these men as of value, from their 
ignorance of their use. I was amused by the conscien- 
tious conduct of one Turk: he possessed, he said, the 
head of a marble figure, which he promised I should see ; 
considerable delay occurred, and a Russian tailor, who 
was on his professional tour for the clothing of some 
young recruits, which we saw on entering the town, 
brought the little mutilated head to my room, and said 
that I might have it at my own price. On inquiry, I 
found that the Prophet has strongly forbidden the deal- 
ing in idols, and any representation of man is looked 
upon as such by the Mussulman ; the owner, therefore, 
did not choose to oiFer it to me himself. The strict 
observance of this law must be a constant obstacle to 
the progress of art ; but the same law given to the Jews 

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did not prevent their following this craft, and the sem- 
bance of idolatry continued even in the early Christian 
church ; the Prophet alone has cleared places of public 
worship of all appearances of idolatry and form. 

A general stir among the Greeks in the khan in- 
duced me to look out, and I found that among the 
crowds of turbaned people leaving the mosque^ was the 
Pasha ; a few soldiers escorted him from the door to 
his richly caparisoned horse ; his own dress was the 
modem European, and over it a common blue cloth 
cloak : the red fez and a diamond locket were the only 
features unlike an European gentleman. A little east- 
em form still lingered about his suite ; a white horse, 
saddled and covered with scarlet velvet and trappings 
of gold, was led in front to prance and display its atti- 
tudes, which were beautiful, as it reared and curveted 
almost upon the same spot ; at a suitable distance fol- 
lowed the Pasha, on a black horse, led by grooms on 
either side^ with a number of attendants around. In 
the rear followed a still more popular personage, with 
the crowds of children and women who had assembled 
at a respectful distance ; this officer threw into the air 
handfuls of small coin, which were scrambled for in 
an amusing manner by the children, rolling over each 
other on the road. 

March 28th, Cagiolasolhucooe. — ^After copying the fol- 
lowing fragment of an inscription, we left Hoolah this 
morning at half-past nine o'clock, and in five hours ar- 
rived here. The change of climate, season, and conse- 

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88 ^ CARIA. 

quent appearance of the country, is most striking. I 
was prepared for this by my previous travels, but at 
that time I was carried from spring back to winter ; the 
spring is now opening before me, and this change has 
taken place within a few hours. Moolah and Hoolah 
are situated about 2500 feet above the sea. We have 
already descended considerably to this place, which is 
still in the mountains, but they are clothed with rich 



* Translation.'^** of Dionysius, aon of Antagoras [?], a 

native of Rhodus ; Menestrate, the daughter of Dionysius, a native of 
Rhodus, [to the memory] of her father; and Artemis and Hediste, 
the daughters of Dionysius, natives of Rhodus, [to th^ memory] of 
their grandfather, and Dionysius, the son of Menecrates, a native of 
Rhodus, to the memory of his wife's father." 

The daughter of Dionysius, Menestrate, married another Dionysius, 
the son of Menecrates, of whom she had two daughters, Artemis and 
Hediste. It is remarkable, that all these persons, who joined in 
erecting the monument to the memory (the Ghreek for these words 
seems to be contained in the last letters of the inscription) of Dionysius 
the elder, called themselves Rhodians. As this district of Caria was 
for some time subjected to the Rhodians, it may have been of some 
importance to the latter not to be placed in the same rank as the 
natives among whom they lived. The name of Antagoras is connected 
with the literature of Rhodes. 

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PERifiA. 89 

soil, fostering a luxuriant vegetation under the genial 
aspect of the south. I repeat the opinion I have before 
expressed, that the most perfectly beautiful scenery I 
have ever seen is displayed in this portion of Caria, the 
ancient Peraea, and Lycia ; and how little is it known 
to the lovers of the beautiful in Europe, and how little 
appreciated by its present pastoral inhabitants ! They 
are, however, apparently a happy people, and seem to 
enjoy long lives. 

We are now sitting in a kind of strangers* house, the 
only one of stone or deserving the name of a hut in 
this village, for the walls of the others are all of wicker- 
work, with a roof formed of shivers of the fir-tree. This 
house is the property of an old man, who sits before 
me, and expresses great anxiety that I should give him 
something to ** cure his eyes"; he says they are of no 
use to him, and that he might as well have them poi- 
soned at once: I observe nevertheless that he walks 
about, and prys into everything around him. He is 
more than one hundred years of age, and has been here 
all his life, excepting a visit to Stambool, seventy yearsr 
ago. He sees well enough to point out, at a distance of 
a hundred and fifty yards, a woman carrying two large 
pitchers of water from the river up the hill to his 
private house ; she is his wife, and is one hundred and 
two years of age ; a little turbaned boy is running by 
her side, apparently more of a companion than a guide, 
for she walks with a firm step, and has her sight and 
hearing still perfect. 

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90 CARIA. 

Dollomony March 3] st. — ^It is unnecessary for me to 
remark the geological and botanical features of this 
country^ which I noticed in my last Journal. The re- 
cent changes in the people of this country strike me 
most forcibly. The time was, when the Turk was re- 
garded as unchangeable ; but the two years since my 
last visit, and even almost the last month, have wit- 
nessed a total change in the country. The Aga, in com- 
mon with all the governors above him in rank, farmed 
the district of the Sultan, and was for his year of oflSce 
a little king, generally acting with liberal hospitality to 
all around, and particularly to the stranger ; of course 
eventually the cost of this fell upon the people of the 
district, and the ostentatious establishment of the go- 
vernor must have been a heavy tax. The case is now 
altered ; each governor is a mere agent, sent generally 
from Constantinople, to collect all taxes for his master 
the Sultan : he has a fixed salary. 

When I was here last, the large court-yard and sur- 
rounding galleries of the establishment or konak in 
which I am now sitting, were all animation, and full 
fifty people were assembled to stare at my little train 
departing. I now arrived with a much larger suite, and 
not a person was to be seen ; at last appeared a servant 
and the son of the Aga, who welcomed me and offered 
me an excellent room in his konak ; he inquired if we 
wanted anything, and directed his servant to buy for 
us firewood and bread, for which a charge was made. 
After us arrived a Turk of rank, with his accustomed 

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PERifiA. 91 

state ; but on entering, to claim his usual entertain- 
ment, he was informed that all he required would be 
obtained for him, and a room was at his service, but that 
no table was now kept by the Aga. All are treated 
alike, and no popularity will now serve the agent ap- 
pointed from Constantinople ; he therefore only acts 
on the directions from that court, and like agents from 
other nations, he will become the paid representative 
of his sovereign, and will live according to his salary. 
The people do not yet understand how the change can 
take place ; and when told of the equality of the Greek 
as a subject, they almost doubt the Sultan's faith in the 
laws of the Prophet. The manners of the people are 
not so soon changed ; of this I have during the last 
two days had several instances, showing their hospita- 
lity and simplicity, and have remarked also the cus- 
toms, which have probably descended from the early 
inhabitants of this country. 

Continuing our route through the beautiful district 
between Hoolah and Koogez, we reached the latter 
place early in the afternoon, and enjoyed the lovely 
view of the bay from a small island close to the town, 
occupied by a few Greek families. The governor's 
large house, in which I had before lodged, was now 
filled with people. A Bey had arrived, and had with 
him a number of half-drilled soldiers, and every ruined 
portion of the old Derebbe barracks was occupied ; we 
were therefore lodged in a miserable apartment in one 

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92 CARIA. 

of the very few houses in the village. The poor accom- 
modation soon made us wish to leave it, and we started 
early on our way hither, crossing the river Ooalah-chi, 
which empties itself into the eastern side of the hay. 
Every person we met during the first three hours of our 
journey told the same tale, of the impossihility of pass- 
ing the great river, called Dollomon-chi, which would 
cross our road at four hours' distance from Koogez; 
with this assurance, we left the track, and travelled 
northward for an hour, to a few huts, of which the farm- 
ing establishment of the chief proprietor of the flocks 
in that district consists. A large shed was allotted to 
us by one of the brothers of our host, whilst another 
undertook to be our guide to some ruins about two 
miles distant, in the hills to the south-west. 

The excursion was a pleasant one, but like many 
others I have made, our guides being people who can- 
not conceive our motive for seeking old walls, it failed 
to satisfy the pursuit of an antiquarian. We found a 
rocky hill beautifully situated in the midst of its little 
valley : the summit was covered with ruined walls, but 
their construction indicates the age of the Derebbe, or 
the defended position of some lawless chief of a few 
centuries ago. The walls were of the worst style of 
art, without buttress, window, or break, except for the 
protruding natural rock on which it rested. On ar- 
riving at this spot, we at once perceived from its com- 
manding situation, that we were only separated from 

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PERiEA. 93 

the bay of Koogez by a narrow range of mountains, and 
that our course had been more parallel with the coast 
than the maps indicate. 

On our return to our hut, we found that Mania had 
killed a sheep, and with supplies of kymac and milk 
had provided against our future wants, for our party 
is too large to move with the independence and speed 
that I enjoyed on my last tour. We have for a few 
days the addition of a Greek, who acts as a local guide 
amidst the swamps which are so prevalent in valleys 
at this season. 

The evening afforded us much amusement: our apart- 
ment was large, and walled for about five feet high, 
nearly to the eves of the roof, with wattled or wicker- 
worked fencings and this had been partially plastered 
with mud ; the gable ends to the east and west were 
open to the stars of a brilUant but exceedingly cold 
night. A large fire, lighted at one end of this enclo- 
sure, was the point of attraction in the room, but its 
smoke, driven in all directions by the wind, was not 
quite agreeable to eyes unaccustomed to its pungency : 
our hut had no door, and our cheerful fire was a beacon 
to all the peasants of this little place, and it would be 
difficult to describe either by pen or pencil the singular 
and highly picturesque effect of the assembled groups. 

There is something peculiarly elegant in the attitudes 
and manners of these people, be their rank high or low : 
by all classes the etiquette of rank is observed, for our 
Zoorigees, with one or two servants of the farm, formed 

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94 CARIA. 

the background of the scene, and scarcely appeared ex- 
cept when the blaze of the fire was replenished with 
fresh logs of wood. Twelve or fourteen Turks, all vary- 
ing in dress, yet each rich and costly, sat around the 
fire, while we reclined at our table. Mania was cook- 
ing, and as usual had to answer the many inquiries of 
the wondering peasants respecting the strangers. 

A lute or guitar, which is found in almost every hut 
in this country, was soon sounded, and a youth, one of 
our hosts, played several airs, all extremely singular, but 
simple, wild, and some very harmonious. One slow me- 
lody we admired, and were told that it was a dance ; the 
circle was enlarged, and our Cavass stood in the midst, 
and danced in a most singular manner the dance, as he 
called it, of the Yourooks or shepherds ; it was accom- 
panied with much grimace, was in slow time, and fur- 
nished a good study for attitudes. He was succeeded 
by a Greek, and I never was more struck than by the 
accurate representation of the attitudes displayed in 
the faims and bacchanal figures of the antique. Mr. 
Scharf had, unknown to me, sketched some of them ; 
the uplifted and curved arm^ the bending head, the 
raised heel, and the displayed muscles — ^for all the 
party had bare legs and feet — exactly resembled the 
figures of ancient Greek sculpture. The snapping 
the finger, in imitation of castanets, was in admirable 
time to the lute accompaniment. This is not a dance 
for exercise or sociability, as our modern northern 
dances appear; it is a pas-seul, slow in movement. 

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and apparently more studied than even the performance 
of Taglioni : and whence do these tented peasants learn 
it ? they have no schools for such accomplishments, no 
opera, nor any theatrical representation ; but the tra- 
dition, if it may be so called, is handed down by the 
boys dancing for the amusement of the people at their 

weddings and galas. The attention and apparent quiet 
gratification of the whole party also formed a feature 
unknown to this class of people in any other nation. 
The musician appeared the least interested of the party, 
and continued his monotonous tune with mechanical 
precision. Each guest, whose sole attraction was a 
feeling of sociability, for there was no repast, nor did 
he expect it, lighted his torch of tuipentine-wood, and 
retired to his tent or shed. 

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In the morning we started to attempt to cross the 
river, which was gradually subsiding ; and we heard, 
among a variety of reports, that its passage was now 
practicable. Riding for an hour and a half, and regain- 
ing our track of the previous day, we arrived on the 
banks of the ancient river Calbis, now called Dollomon- 
chi. Arrangements were made among the peasants for 
getting us across ; the depth of the water, whose stream 
was very rapid, was found to be just the height of a 
man's shoulder, and thirteen men undertook to trans- 
port us, with all our horses and baggage, safely over. 
They all stripped naked, except their turbaned head 
and girded loins, and as each seized an article of the 
baggage, and shouldered it, they formed a fine group of 
figures for the study of an Academy. They soon were 
in the deep waters ; one bearing a package on his head, 
while two others accompanied him, in order to steady 

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PERiEA. 97 

it, and assist him in stemming the stream. We each 
followed on our horses, which were led by one man, 
and guided against the stream by another, and were all 
safely landed on the eastern banks of this very con- 
siderable river. 

Hearing a shout from our shivering naked attend- 
ants, I asked its meaning, and found that they had 
received their pay, and with one accord uttered a cry 
expressive of their satisfaction, and hoping Gk)d would 
bless us, for he was good. Hiey all hastened into the 
river, swimming and dancing, to show that eight or ten 
passages of its waters had not tired them. 

I must mention one feature, which, I regret to say, 
seems to be almost peculiar to these people. We were 
Franks — supposed, as usual, to be rich, mylordos : we 
must cross the river, and had no alternative ; we called 
the people from their homes and work as we passed 
their tents ; no one else had before passed this river, 
and these men did not wish to attempt it, nor did they 
approve our plan; notwithstanding this, no bargain 
was made, no advantage taken of us ; and when all 
were over, they left us to fix the backsish, or present- 
money*; although they received a trifling diflference 
of amount, each man being paid in proportion to his 
exertions, they all cried out that they were satisfied, 
and blessed us. 

April 1st. — An unfortunate date ! We delayed pro- 

* The pay averaged six piastres (l«. 2d,) each. 

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98 CARIA, 

ceeding towards Macry, in order to see some ruins, said 
to be those of an ancient Greek city, whence many 
coins had been brought : it was situated upon an iso- 
lated rocky hill, in the midst of the extensive plains 
of DoUomon. 

Our search has been fruitless ; the day is spent, and 
we have found only a few rude stones, which may pro- 
bably have been the waUs of some hold of a robber 
a few centuries ago ; nevertheless in this, as in many 
other instances, I felt a certain satisfaction in knowing 
that we have left nothing unseen. I am speaking of 
sight-seeing ; the mere act of travelling in this country 
is itself pleasurable ; everything is beautiful, and much 
new to an European eye. 

This valley of DoUomon is perhaps fifteen miles 
wide, and bounded on the north by a range of moun- 
tains thirty miles distant. Its southern end is the sea- 
coast ; every variety of scenery is displayed, from the 
misty horizon, broken by the mountainous island of 
Rhodes in the south-west, to the towering snow-topped 
heights peering above the richly-wooded crags of the 
mountains to the north-east ; still richer hills surround 
the valley, which is too much overgrown with trees 
and thickets for cultivation. Amidst the rich swampy 
soil, the elm, plane, and peach are almost borne down 
by the vines, clematis, and creepers ; and the myrtle, 
oleander, and the pomegranate cover the banks of every 
stream. The plains, which need much the capital and 
skill of the Lincolnshire farmer, are alive with the 

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PERiEA. 99 

camels, buffalos, and breeding horses ; while the large 
tortoise creeps along amidst the numerous plovers, 
quails, and snipes. The flowers are less varied than on 
the hills, and the swampy ground makes it impossible 
for us to dismount and gather additions to our bota- 
nical collection. 


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Inconvenience for want of Com — ^Ancient Tombs — Cufltoma of tlie 
People — Peculiar Architecture — ^Discoyery of Calynda— Natural 
History — ^Telmeasus — ^Tombs, Works* of Art — ^Peculiar Climate — 
Hoozumlee — Its Inhabitants — State of the Arts among the ancient 
Lycians — ^Discovery of Cadyanda — ^Its Ruins — ^Valley of the Xan- 
thus — ^Hoorahn — Ancient Tombs and Ruins, probably of the an- 
cient Massicytus. 

April 2nd. — ^But little barley is grown in this district ; 
and none is now to be obtained at any price for our 
cavalcade of horses; they have obstinately rejected 
maize, which is the only com for man or horse here- 
abouts, and the grass is not sufficiently grown for the 
cattle to graze. The consequence is, that we are able 
only to move forward on our fainting nags three or four 
hours a day: even at this slow pace they fall occa- 
sionally, injuring the baggage and causing delay ; this 
inconvenience has just afforded me some amusement, 
from witnessing the simple habits of the people. After 
ascending a range of mountains, and descending by 
a steep track through a highly picturesque pass, we 

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arrived, in four hours from Dollomon, at a beautiful 
ravine in the mountains, where we found a few wicker 
huts, and near them for the first time we pitched our 
tent, in order to depasture the horses on the scanty 
herbage around us. The huts were searched for bar- 
ley, as had been every tent on the way ; here, in one 
alone, we found some, which the owner did not wish to 
part with, it being his last store. Money was refused, 
but the little stock was at last given to us, as well as 
some bread newly baked, and in return we gave a joint 
and the head of a kid, which we had bought and killed 
on the road ; a Uttle gunpowder and a present to the 
boy completed this friendly barter, and I just arrived in 
time to witness the excitement amongst the half-starved 
horses, whose impatience at seeing each nose-bag re- 
ceiving its portion of corn was most amusing. 

At this little place of Beenajah-cooe we found ample 
occupation, until it was too late to ramble among the 
overhanging rocks. We had seen around us for two 
miles tombs excavated in the cliffs, and one which we 
passed near the road was highly ornamented as a tem- 
ple, cut out of the rock, similar to the many I had seen 
in Lycia, and described at Telmessus. This specimen 
had triglyphs, and in its pediment were two shields : I 
regret that we did not make careful drawings of it, but 
our guide assured us that thousands of better ones 
were around the village a mile or two in advance. 
Thousands is in the East used as an indefinite number, 
but in this instance it was probably no exaggeration. 

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102 LYCIA. 

for tombs appeared on every cliff as we travelled east- 
ward up this beautiM valley. 

Geological causes have generally given the first fea- 
tures to the country; and here the division between the 
changing rocks was marked by a valley, formed pro- 
bably in some degree by a river, which almost always 
finds its course at these transition points. On our 
left, the comparatively round mountains of a schisty 
serpentine were stained with an ochrey red earth, and 
wooded with pines ; while those on our left were gray, 
with the silvery crags of the marble range enriched 
by their peculiar stains of orange, red, and yellow ; on 
every ledge were varieties of luxuriant vegetation. Be- 
hind us was the Gulph of Macry, with its numerous 
gray islands scattered on the blue sea, and the whole 
scene was backed by the distant mountains of the south 
coast of Caria, raising their snowy peaks into the sky. 

Our guide in these mountain excursions is generally 
any peasant whom we meet by chance in the woods. 
The man now attending us has his gun, and seems to 
live by it, or rather it appears his only occupation ; he 
professes to know every hole in the mountains, having 
long pursued his sportsman's life in the neighbourhood, 
and offers to accompany us as far as Macry ; his pay 
is a present of about sixpence a day, and he eats with 
the men. I have observed a striking feature in the 
character of these men : on being hired, they always 
say, by way of showing their independence, " I have no 
mother ; I can go anywhere with you ; no one depends 

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upon me." These anecdotes serve to mark the devo- 
tional respect to parents, which I noticed so often on my 
former visit. Our present guide, who wears sandals 
exactly like those seen rn the antique figures, led us 

high into the crags which we had seen above us, where 
we found the greatest collected number of cave-tombs. 
Here, between two ridges of rocks, was the command- 
ing site of an ancient city. Many large squared stones 
lie in heaps down the slope facing the east, and the 

valley is guarded by walls of a very early date of Greek 
w^orkmanship. Huge irregular masses of rocks form 

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104 LYCIA. 

the lower parts of these early Cyclopean fahrics, and 
are piled into the face of the protruding rocks below ; 
while the upper part, of smaller unwrought stones, is 
packed in with still smaller. This mode of construc- 
tion is doubtless of earlier date than the Pelasgic walls, 
so generally seen in the cities of this district. The 
crown of the high moimtain peaks on the south had 
been also surrounded by waUs of the same kind, and 
in some instances the gothic-formed sarcophagi were 
carved out of the protruding peaks of the rock ; the 
heavy top alone added to form the sepulchre. 

In my former rambles in Asia Minor I observed that 
each district had a peculiarity in the architecture of 
its tombs, and that none was more distinctly marked 
than that of the ancient Lycia. The four kinds of 
tombs represented in the annexed Plate, I have found, 
are peculiar to Lycia, and may serve in part as tests of 
the extent of that country. I shall call these the Obe- 
lisk, the Gothic, and the Elizabethan forms ; the first 
from its appearance, and the latter as strongly resem- 
bling the architectural styles so named. With these 
forms I have generally found the Lycian language 
connected, and two or more of them appear in every 
ancient city found in that district*. Applying this 
architectural test, I at once determined this to be a 
city within the confines of Lycia, and as such could be 

* The tombs selected for this Plate are from Antiphellus, Tlos, and 

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none else but the ancient Calynda, which, according to 
Herodotus*, was beyond the boundaries of Caria, the 
early inhabitants of which district are represented as 
pursuing and expelling the foreign gods from their 
country, and ** stopping not until they came to the 
mountains of Calynda." This range must have been 
the one down whose beautiful valleys we had for some 
hours been travelling. Calynda, if this was the site of 
the city, was high up in the mountains, but not far from 
the sea, where it probably had its port, &s we know 
that it supplied ships to the fleet of Xerxes. From 
the situation and remains of the city, I conclude that 
it cannot have been very large, but, from its remaining 
tombs, it may have existed for many generations, and 
probably at an early period. 

To feel surprise at the ordinary occurrences in na- 
ture may often bespeak my ignorance, but for the in- 
formation of those who do not study natural history, I 
shall nevertheless mention as I proceed whatever may 
strike me as unusual or curious. Some weeks ago, at 
Naslee, I mentioned having seen a small green frogf 
sitting on a sunny bank of sand, and apparently desert- 
ing the water ; I here saw another of the same kind, 
some feet above the ground, sitting against the stem of 
a dead shrub, as thick as my little finger. I called to 
my companions to come and see a frog in a tree, as 
a fish out of water. On being noticed, the little fel- 

* Clio, 17^. t Rami arborea. 

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106 LYCIA. 

low, to our suiprise, leaped upon a thinner and higher 
branch, and again upon the point of a twig not thicker 
than a crow-quill, and sat there swinging, with all his 
legs together, like the goats on the pointed rocks above 
us, or as the bears sit upon their pole at the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens in London. On inquiry I find that this 
description of frog always frequents the trees ; it is sel- 
dom in the water, and enjoys basking in the hottest 
places. Some fine moths and butterflies are coming 
out, and I i^gret the impossibility of collecting insects 
on an equestrian tour in so rough a country ; it affords 
a fine field for the study of this and every other branch 
of natural history. 

Afacry, April 6th. — ^This little port, which stands 
amidst the ruins of the ancient Telmessus, is more in- 
teresting, on examination, than I fancied it could be 
from my hasty survey two years ago ; but its strongest 
feature of interest is its tombs. I have now been 
tempted to sketch many more, by their picturesque 
position and form ; but I find most of them are covered 
with inscriptions, many of which have become illegible 
from the decomposition of the stone, as well as from 
the nature of the rocks themselves, which when first 
wrought must have had an irregular surface from its 
conglomerate formation. I observe that, to remedy 
this, it has been in many places plastered over before 
it was inscribed. The inscriptions on the tombs cut 
in the rocks are again rendered more imperfect by the 
filtering waters from above, which depositing their sta- 

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lactitic matter encrust the whole surface. I have, how- 
ever, deciphered many upon the different tombs, and 
some on pedestals built into the mysterious walls which 
stand along the coast. The following is from the side 
of the door of a built tomb, not far from the sea. 





















* TrmtUition " Helene, who is also [called] Apphion (Appia), 

the daughter of Nason, the son of Diogenes, a woman of Telmessus, 
has erected this monument for herself and for those whom [?] she 
has [already] buried there, Apollonides her son, and Helene, also 
called Apphion. her grand-daughter. But it shall not be lawful 

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108 LYCIA. 

I subjoin another, which was built into one of the 
walls referred to above. 



From the circumstance of the fragments of Greek 
workmanship being used as rough material, and the 
quantity and nature of the cement, these walls were 
probably of Roman, or possibly of Venetian date. To 

for anybody to put [another] into the turret, after I am myself 
buried there, as he who puts in another shall be impious unto the 
gods of hell, and besides pay to the people of the Telmesseans 5000 

* Translation. — " Marcus Aurelius Hermagoras, also [called] Zosimus, 
son of Marcus Aurelius Hermagoras, twice [t. e, grandson] of Maro 
[?], the son of Diophanes, a citizen of Telmessus, having won in the 
pancration, the fourth prize, which he contested with the youths who 
had challenged him [?] ; there being Agonothetes, [patron of public 
games] for his lifetime, the most excellent Lyciarches, Marcus Domi- 
tius Philippus [?], a citizen of Telmessus." 

In this inscription I must remark that the O, O^ ^, are diamond- 

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me the inscriptions acquired increased interest from 
finding several in the Lycian characters, which I had 
seen so generally used in the city of Xanthus''^. In 
the frontier towns of Lycia I had hoped to have found 
some bilingual inscriptions, but have not yet succeeded 
in this pursuit. Among the coins found here, I have 
many belonging to this country, and to the neighbour- 
ing Rhodian colonies on the coast of the Peraea. These 
may assist in throwing some light upon the history of 
this interesting portion of Asia Minor. 

The peculiarities in the architectural detail are very 
remarkable in these early specimens of represented 
buildings in the rocks. They show distinctly the imi- 
tation of wooden structures, and, by the nature of the 
joints, ties and mouldings, give a perfect insight into 
the knowledge of the construction of ancient Greek 
buildings. The panelled doors, with bossed nails on 
the styles, knockers suspended from lions' mouths, and 
other ornaments in the panels, also show much taste 
and accuracy of execution. Those tombs here which 
would rank among the great divisions or orders of ar- 
chitecture, are of the Ionic, and evidently in its earliest 
or simplest form ; I have seen none of the Doric. It is 
remarkable that this district, which is part of the an- 
cient Doris, exhibits several peculiar features in its ar- 
chitecture, but none of the so-called Doric. I remember 
being struck by a similar coincidence at Corinth ; not a 

* These ai^ shown on Plate XXXVI. at the end of this volume. 

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fragment of the Corinthian style was to be found, and 
a ruined temple of the plain Doric stands conspicuously 
on the site of the ancient city. In some instances bas- 
reliefs remain on the sarcophagi, and these are always 
of an early, simple, and good age ; I have seen no trace 
of the inferior art of the Romans, or of later times ; the 
coins also show the purest style of Greek art. 



Macrjfy April 7th. — ^Yesterday we were weather-bound ; 
the rain fell heavily the whole day, and gave us an op- 
portunity of pursuing our occupations within our little 
lodging. I am sorry to find my collection of plants is 
badly preserved; they increase so rapidly, that from 

* In the third line we may decipher the words, " he superintended 
the games." 

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the constant moisture of the paper they soon discolour 
and decay. We occupied our time also in arranging 
sketches and obtaining information as to ruins in the 
neighbourhood from the Greeks, who each had coins 
for sale, all found in cities at present unmapped and 
unknown by us. I fear my time will allow me but 
imperfectly to visit Lycia alone, for this small district 
abounds in the works of its former highly civilized 

Hoozumlee, April 7th. — ^We have just arrived at six 
o'clock this evening, and escaped a tremendous storm, 
which is now thundering as it wraps its clouds, around 
the mountains above us. I despaired of fine weather 
at Macry, knowing its peculiar situation, and, contrary 
to the opinion of my servant, I persisted in quitting 
the place, although the rain was falling in large drops. 
I had noticed the effects caused in the atmosphere at 
Macry when last there, and during the three days at 
this season the same causes produce their effects. The 
warm westerly wind has each morning brought with it 
showers from over the sea ; and no sooner do they pass 
the bay, than the colder current of air coming down 
from the central country about noon drives back the 
clouds, and the showers are repeated. The eddying of 
the atmosphere during the hot weather, only produced 
partial condensation of clouds, and the heated winds 
were driven back towards the sea. The wind, although 
varying during the morning and night, has always for 
two or three hours at noon changed to the north-east, 

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and the prediction of a stranger respecting the weather 
would probably be little worthy the character of the 
ancient soothsayers of Telmessus. The peculiar situa- 
tion of the bay of Macry may also account for the 
changes in the elevation of its waters ; but from inquiry, 
and from observing the equal and permanent marks 
upon the stones and rocks caused by the sea, I ascer- 
tained that there is here felt a change which may al- 
most be mistaken for a tide, probably occasioned by the 
regular winds. In many places I have visited in the 
Mediterranean, there is certainly no tide perceptible. 
I was noticing a curious gage for the waters on the 
fine sarcophagus seen standing in the sea, which is on 

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many accounts an interesting monument for contem- 
plation; the subjoined sketch will show the present 
level of the sea, by the high- and low-water marks, 
which vary about two feet, as well as that of the sur- 
face of the ground. 

From many other tombs precisely similar in form, 
and which I have seen an^i sketched in various cities 
in Lycia, I venture to supply the base, which I doubt 
not lies buried in the earth ; thus making this tomb 
a register of a great change in the level of the ground, 
while its massive top, shaken from its original position, 
indicates an earthquake to have been the cause of such 
change. As a work of art amongst an early and re- 
fined people, it also stands a valuable monument ; but 
time has partially veiled its history, for the bas-reliefs 
only suggest an outline of more simple beauty than is 
found in any age but that of the purest of Greek art. 

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The fragmental sketches of the bas-reliefs also may 
show this. 

On leaving Macry, we crossed the valley towards the 
north-east, and continued in that direction ascending 
for three hours and a half through a beautiful pass 
along the side of a torrent, which leaped continually 
from rock to rock in its rapid course ; but our ascent 
was still steeper, for the river was often rolling in a 
ravine many hundred feet below us. The waters of the 
stream diminished as we proceeded, and on our reach- 
ing the little plain of this village, they appeared to 
claim it as their birth-place. 

The well-cultivated valley of Hoozumlee was as un- 
expected to us at such an elevation, which by the ther- 
mometer exceeds two thousand feet, as was the popu- 
lation and well-built village. The latter has three or 
four mosques, and is wholly inhabited by Turks ; one 
Greek alone is here, who is employed in keeping in 
repair the various water-courses for the supply of the 
fountains from the lofty and craggy mountains which 
rise immediately at the back of the village. We are 

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at the house of the Aga, and have witnessed a curious 
scene each evening. It is seldom that thirty men so 
handsome in form, feature and dress, assemble in the 
same room ; they are probably the principal people of 
the place. Not a , taint of European, costume is yet 
seen here ; scarcely a man has ever left his mountain 
district, and everything about us was novel to them. 
I doubt whether in any other part of the world such a 
spirit of inquiry and quickness of comprehension would 
be met with in a similar village group. Our knives, 
instruments, pencils, Indian rubber and paints, were 
examined, and tolerably well understood by most of the 
party. The pencil I gave to one was soon employed 
in writing a sentence in the Turkish language, which I 
found was the date of our arrival, and the name of the 
writer of the memorandum. We then wrote something 
in English, which was copied in facsimile, well and 
quickly executed. The remarks were i^atural expres- 
sions of wonder, but all showing reflection. The washing, 
the prayer, the dinner, and the reading aloud the firman, 
were each subjects for an artist. Our sketch-books 
were a great source of astonishment to all; somfe 
looked at them the wrong way upwards, but all said 
" Allah, Allah ! " They recognized in the sketches 
the mosques, camels, birds, and a frog, with the greatest 
expressions of delight. 

April 8th. — Our attraction to this place was the re- 
port that ruins existed in the neighbourhood. We 
therefore started at eight o'clock this morning to as- 


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116 LYCIA. 

cend the mountain to the south. Scarcely beyond the 
south-east end of the village, and in less than ten mi- 
nutes, we found among the bushes a tomb of the most 
usual kind cut in the rocks, resembling our Eliza- 
bethan domestic architecture. This tomb has been 
much shaken to pieces, apparently by an earthquake, 
but the detail of its execution we found to be of the 
highest interest. I do not hesitate in placing this frag- 
ment in the finest age of Greek work ; it shows by the 
simplest effects the full expression of the history and 
ideas of the sculptured figures. Had they been all per- 
fect, its value in a museum, either for the philologist, 
antiquarian or artist, would be inestimable. We made 
drawings of a portion*, and sketches in outline of the 
whole, which I think will bear out this opinion of them 
as works of art, and may afford an idea of some of its 

Great additional interest is given to these groups 
by the circumstance of several of the figures having 
over them their names, after the manner of the Etrus- 
can ; these inscriptions are in the Lycian language, 
and some bilingual with the Greek ; this I trust will 
materially assist in throwing light upon our ignorance 
as to the Lycian language, and these sculptures may 
also be important illustrations. The bas-reliefs shown 
in the annexed Plate formed the upper part or panels of 
the sides of the tomb, beneath which were groups of 

♦ See Plate I. opposite the Title-page, 

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larger figures engaged in combat, with arms of the 
simplest age of the Greeks. These figures were too 
much buried in the earth for us to attempt to sketch 
them. The name of EKTXIP was written over one with 
a helmet, round shield, and spear. Above the side- 
panels, and probably on what once formed the roof, 
were also the remains of five sculptured figures, of a 
similar size to the combatants below. The panel of 
the door in front shows, a figure about five feet six 
inches in height. 


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118 LYCIA. 

The costumes, arms, vases and utensils, displayed in 
these bas-reliefs, are a study for the man of refined 
taste : the height of some of the figures in the back- 
ground is xinaccountable. 

Continuing for about a mile a steep ascent, we saw 
around us immense masses of rock rolled from their 
original position, and some containing excavated tombs, 
now thrown on their sides or leaning at angles, which 
must have caused the disentombment of their dead. 
The sculptured architecture of many had been split 
across, and but few remained uninjured in the clifis. 
I sought in vain for inscriptions on any of the tombs 
around, probably twenty in number ; their architecture 
was purely Lycian, and evidently of the same date as 
the one just described as found in the valley below. A 
splendid sarcophagus cut from the rock was tottering 
over the brow of a precipice before me : the position at 
which this, tomb now stands appears so unnatural, that 
I have accurately sketched it. The outlines of its bas- 
reliefs, which are shown in the annexed Plate, as well 

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Dr«t»fi * l.r-h»<l Ivy C *t**FH' «T* . 

-^U)^^'^ f^r CAI^'l^'A :5T^;^. 

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I.'U'T U, .. .ui 


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as its form, indicate its age to be that of the Lycians, 
and, in the absence of inscriptions, must suffice to tell 
its history: the figures are nearly the size of life. If 
inscriptions had ever existed upon these tombs, the 
surface has so much perished by the atmosphere, that 
they would have probably been lost or illegible ; for I 
observe that all inscriptions of this age are slightly cut, 
and never form a part of, or interfere with, the effect of 
the groups or architecture. All the indications in the 
approach to this unknown city were Lycian, not omit* 
ting the remains of ingeniously built Cyclopean walls. 

Ascending for half an hour a steep scarcely access- 
ible on horses, we arrived at an elevation of about 
three thousand five hundred feet above the sea, which 
lay before us. The view was overwhelmingly beauti« 
ful. To the south-west lay the Bay of Ma€ry, with its 
islands and the coast of the south of Caria, while be- 
yond lay the long and mountainous island of Rhodes, 
Cragus, with its snowy tops, broke the view towards 
the south, and the coast and sea off Patara measured 
its elevation by carrying the eye down to the valley of 
the Xanthus, whose glittering waters were visible for 
probably seventy miles, until lost in the range of high 
mountains, upon a part of which we were standing ; in 
this chain it has its rise in the north. The crags of 
limestone around us were almost concealed by a forest 
of fir-trees and green underwood. Before us was the 
city, surrounded by beautiful Cyclopean walls. 

The scattered stones of a fallen temple next inter- 

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120 LYCIA. 

rupted our path, on the way to the stadium : neither 
of its ends remained, and I feel sure that they have 
never been built up with seats, as seen in some of 
probably a later date. To the right of this stadium 
was the agora ; eight squared pillars or piers stand on 
either side. For nearly a quarter of a mile the ground 
was covered like a mason's yard with stones well 
squared, parts of columns, cornices, triglyphs and pe- 
destals, and here and there stood still erect the jambs 
of the doors of buildings whose foundations alone are 
to be traced. Near the stadium some large walls with 
windows are still standing, and enclose some places, 
which have probably been for public amusements. The 
city is in many parts undermined by chambers cut in 
the rocks, and arched over with fine masonry : these 
no doubt ^ere the basements or vaults of the large 
buildings of the town, or may have served for its stores 
of provisions ; at present they are the wonder and terror 
of the peasants, who relate, that in one great vault into 
which they had entered there were seven doors, all lead- 
ing in different directions. This report has given the 
name of Yeddy Cappolee, meaning * seven doors,' to the 
ruins, as well as to the mountain on which they stand. 
We descended towards the west, and came to the upper 
seats of a beautiful little theatre, in high preservation, 
a few large fir-trees alone interrupting the effect of the 
semicircle of seats. The proscenium was a heap of 
ruins, only one or two of its door-ways being left stand- 
ing. The form of the theatre was like those in the east 

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of Caria : in front were the Cyclopean walls^of the city, 
blended with the more regular Greek, and evidently 




constracted at the same period. From this spot, for a 
quarter of a mile, were tombs, neither cut in the rocks, 
nor sarcophagi, nor of the usual architecture of Lycia, 
but of a heavy, peculiar, and massive style of building, 
not generally associated with our ideas of the Greek : 
there was no trace of bas-reliefs or ornaments, and not 
a letter of the Lycian character among the numerous 
inscriptions, which were Greek, and much injured by 
time. I copied the following among others*, which 
are of interest, as in them I discovered the name of 
the city to be Cadyanda (KAZkYANZkEXlN). 

* The inscriptions here referred to are inserted in the Appendix to 
this volume. 

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122 LYCIA. 




The total difference of these tombs in style from the 
elegant and highly- wrought specimens nearly two miles 
down the side of the mountain, and the difference of 
language in the inscriptions, made me inquire whether 
any other ruins existed lower down, but I could hear 
of none. 

Returning to the village, we found the principal peo- 
ple again assembled to see us, and all we had to show 
them. We learned that no European had before been 
up to see the ruins, but that some Franks had last 
year been as far as their village, and had bought some 
coins ; eight or nine I found in the possession of a man 
who had picked them up in the ruins. Hoping to learn 
from them something of the ancient city, I told my ser- 
vant to buy them, and he was in a violent rage at the 
exorbitant price demanded ; in his passion he forgot his 
nation, and said a Turk would never think of asking 
such a price, and that the owner of them was an im- 
posing rogue. I found this man was the solitary Greek, 
whose occupation of digging drains had led him to dis- 

* Translation, — " This monument erected for herself and her 

daughter, and grand- children and those who shall he horn of them. 

But if any one shall violate [the tomb], he shall pay to the 

People of the Cadyandeans five hundred denarii." 

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cover the coins : he was anxious to get all he could, 
hut like a Greek, he took less than half he had at first 

April 9th. — After a lovely ride for about fifteen miles 
to the south-east, over a woody range of mountains, 
and descending into the valley of the Xanthus, we 
arrived at the village of Hoorahn. For three or four 
miles before we crossed the main branch of the river, 
we traversed the well-cultivated and productive district 
called Sarzarkee, passing a tomb cut in the rock on 
the road-side, and bearing a fragment of a Lycian in- 
scription. Crossing the muddy stream which gives the 
colour and name to the Xanthus river, and riding for 
nearly a mile through a bushy swamp, we came to a 
rock rising fifteen or twenty feet above the plain, and 
about a mile from the village of Hoorahn. This rock 
was cut in all directions with, tombs, many of them 
being of a style of architecture difiering from those we 
had before seen. Several I have sketched, and from 
one have copied a few Greek letters, which are upon 
the panels of a door cut in the rock. 


OA OAro 

r o POY* 

The following small fragment I hope will assist in 
giving a name to these ruins. 

* " [The tomb] of Orthagoras/* 

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124 LYCIA. 




Immediately before arriving at the village, we passed 
another burial-ground of the ancient city, but the na- 
tural rock was not here so favourable for architectural 
excavation, and hundreds of broken sarcophagi lay half 
buried in the ground ; in fact, many of them had the 
grave within the rock, scarcely above the surface, and 
the cavity had been covered with a lid of a peculiar 
form, having a tablet for inscription raised on its roof, 
which could not be placed in the usual position, upon 
the side of the sarcophagus itself ; the Greek characters 
could be traced upon them, but they were too much 
injured by time to be deciphered. The ancient city, 
whose site is now occupied by the village and its sur- 
rounding fields, had a fine and singular situation ; it 
was slightly raised above the valley of the Xanthus, 
and appears to have commanded a ravine or gorge in 
the mountains at its back, down which gushes a large 
and extremely rapid river of clear water, and, running 
towards the south-west, soon joins, or almost forms, the 
river Xanthus : the small muddy stream which waters 
the valley from its commencement towards the north, 
and from the sandy colour of which it derives its name, 

* This seems to be a fragment of a public decree in honour of a 
public-spirited citizen of Maseicytus. 

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forms but a diminutive portion, as compared with the 
river now roaring under our hut. 

Of the ancient city but little remains ; the higher part 
has been surrounded by a fine Cyclopean wall, although 
the large irregular stones composing it were chiselled 
round their edges, forming the cushion-shaped fronts 
used in many of the early Greek buildings, and since 
adopted by the Italians ; this mode is termed, I believe, 
rusticated. The basement and walls of several other 
buildings are also still standing, and a number of broken 
columns and pedestals show the remains of an orna- 
mented city. From one of them I copied an inscription, 
but I fear that it will throw no light upon the name 
of the ancient city. 










* JVanslation. — " Aurelius Stephanus to the spirit of his father. 
Aurelius Stephanas, the son of Hermolycus, has huilt and inscrihed it 
After burying me in the urn " 

Contrary to custom, this inscription seems to have been written in 

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126 LYCIA. 

In the yard of one house we were taken to see some 
beautiful pavements, formed in elegant patterns, with 
small different-coloured slabs of marble. These pave- 
ments had formed the floors of three different apart- 
ments, each probably not more than eight feet square, 
and all very near together ; one was of small stones, 
of the size, and quite similar in arrangement to, the 
Roman mosaic : these buildings, from their dimensions, 
can have been only baths. 

I have obtained but few coins here, for the people 
only preserve silver or gold ones, which may serve as 
ornaments; they have never before had visitors to see 
their ruins, and cannot understand our motives for 
seeking copper coins, or for travelling. They tell us 
that their country is filled with ruins ; and we have this 
morning been a ride and laborious walk up a mountain, 
nearly at the upper extremity of the valley, in search of 
old cities : there are, however, only the traces of some 
rude Cyclopean walls around the craggy summit of the 
hill ; the absence of other buildings and tombs leads 
me to suppose it to have been only a fortified castle 
on the eastern side of the valley : directly opposite to 
this, on the west side, was a point covered with similar 

Our excursion today of six miles has given us a 
more perfect idea of the valley ; we have at least 

two culumns, of which that on the right probably contained the usual 
provisions against any one else besides the proprietor's family being 
buried in the tomb. 

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ascertained that nothing more is to be found in this 
direction, and are now satisfied that our research 
commenced at its northern extremity: tomorrow we 
intend to pursue our route down its course to the ; 

south-west. J 


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Architecture ; Rocks^ Buildings, Cottages, Granaries — Tlos — Rock- 
tombs — Ancient Sculpture — Minara, the ancient Pinara — Ruins — 
Bas-reliefs- in Tombs — Habits of the People. 

April 11th. — I AM again much struck on entering this 
undisturbed district of Asia Minor, at witnessing the 
unchanged customs of the people ; everything tells of 
the ancient inhabitants of two or three thousand years 
ago, whose mode of life probably differed but little from 
that of the present pastoral people. 

The annexed sketch (Plate IX.*) will show the varie- 
ties of rock-architecture t, and the one following, those 
in the built tombs seen in Lycia. I have selected these 
from my sketches made in the various cities, but plac- 
ing them less thickly in the rock than they are often 
seen in this country, and have added figures referring to 
their sieyeral localities. The cottage or hut is precisely 

* No8. 1 and 6 at Massicytus ; 2, 3 and 4 at Telmessus ; 5 and 8 
at Tlos; 7, 9 and 12 at Pmara; 10 between limyra and Arycanda; 
and 1 1 at limyra. 

t Plate X. Nos. 1 and 8 at Telmessus ; 2 and 5 at Cadyanda ; 3 at 
Xanthus ; 4 and 6 at Sidyma ; 7 at Calynda ; and 9 at Massicytus. 

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a model for a temple; and the various kinds (for all have 
the same character) suggest each some form or order, 
whose peculiarity has become classic and scientific : it is 
here only perpetuated, anti not adopted, by the present 

The storehouses, large box-like barns, in which the 
grain and . property is preserved, are throughout this 
district seen, and recognized by me, as precisely similar, 
in form and detail of apparent construction of ties and 
bolts, to the Elizabethan description of tombs so com- 
monly cut in the rocks around them. These modem 
barns are generally slightly roofed ; the gable or pedi- 
ment supports a pole at each of its angles, the ends 
commonly protruding beyond the roof, which is of thin 
planks, laid one over the other, and giving at the end 
the effect of a cornice to the pediment, the whole of 
which is never so well finished as the barns beneath, 
and appears as a temporary covering: a slight pediment 
is likewise often seen accompany ing this form of tomb, 
sculptured in the rocks. The similarity of the store- 
house represented in the annexed sketch to the ancient 
tomb is strikingly obvious; even the beam-ends may 
form the ornaments protruding from the angles of the 

In the various cottages, tlie roof, which is always of 
earth, is held in its form by an attic of stones; upon 
this roof, as I have often before mentioned, the Turks 
keep a roller for levelling and rendering the earth water- 
tight ; but at the edges and on the corners, where the 


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130 LYCIA. 

roller cannot press, weeds often grow luxuriantly, and 
this suggests the tuft-like leaf ornament so oft;en seen 
in the Greek buildings rising from the edge of the roofs. 
The Greek generally lives in a hut built with more art 
and neatness, but still of a temple-like form, as may be 
suggested by the sketch ; his hut is usually whitened, 
while that of the Turk is of mud, imbedding stones, 
sticks, or straw, as circumstances offer the material. 
The walls never form the strength of the house, which 
derives its support entirely from the framework of tim- 
bers resting upon the columns or upright stems of trees 
on the outside ; stones placed under these, to prevent 
their sinking into the ground, form bases, while the 
beams resting upon their tops appear as capitals ; in 
front, a stone or piece of wood is placed upon these 
posts, to support the ends of the beams, which are the 
dentils in the frieze of this simple little building. 

In this portion of Asia Minor all the remains of the 
temples show a square chamber or ceUa, entered by an 
ornamented door of noble proportions ; this is always 
within a portico in antiSy sometimes having two co- 
lumns in front. I have nowhere in Lycia seen any 
trace of temples that I could say with certainty were of 
other construction. This form is evidently seen in the 
huts here represented. Is it tot highly probable, that 
these sketches may represent the huts and storehouses 
of the people of three thousand years ago, which at an 
after period were imitated in stone, and their forms cut 
in the rocks, making the temple a large house, and 

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the tomb a durable receptacle for the dead ? Time has 
witnessed these changes ; but the simple hut, which has 
served as the abode of the peasants through successive 
generations to the present day, has remained unaltered. 
This may at once explain the total absence of even the 
trace of the residence of the people in the ancient Greek 
cities, as the materials would not endure for half a cen- 
tury : the pubUc buildings alone remain to point out the 
extent of the cities. I think this idea is borne out 
by the incidental testimony of history. Herodotus 
speaks of the houses of the people of Sardis as being of 
reeds and mud, and in still earlier days we know that 
the whole of Athens was built of wood. 

Our ride of about twenty-four miles from Hoorahn to 
Dooveer was nearly due south ; we crossed the smaller 
muddy river, where it is divided into several streams, 
and skirted the western side of the upper bay or en- 
largement of the valley, until it became narrowed into 
a mere strait by the green- wooded hills flanking either 
range of mountains. Near this point is the village of 
Satala Hissd or Satala-cooe^ six hours to the east of 
Macry. Continuing our route, in half an hour we ar- 
rived at a well-built bridge of five arches, crossing the 
bold river, which had received the important addition 
from Hoorahn, as well as many other tributaries : from 
this point we csossed diagonally the again widening 
valley, and in half an hour passed a very considerable 
stream, on its course to the river, issuing from a ravine 
in the mountains towards the east, at the village of 


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132 LYCIA. 

KooDgelar. At a didtance of three miles from Dooreer^ 
in passing near a rock which protruded from the moun* 
tains, we were struck by a strong sulphury smell, and 
saw a rapid stream of clear water running near us, 
whose course was encrusted with a greenish- white de^ 
posit ; this hot spring issues from the rock, and I hear 
that the people use its waters medicinally ; on first gush- 
ing from its source they have not this smell, which 
exudes upon exposure to the atmosphere. The whole 
ride down this upper valley is beautiful, and varies 
continually; its scenery, on approaching the bold and 
Greek-like situation of the ancient city of Tlos, is stri- 
kingly picturesque. Leaving our baggage at the lower 
village, we at once rode up to the ancient city, on the 
acropolis of which many families now reside ; although 
an hour's ride distant, it also bears the name of Doo- 
veer, the few houses in the valley consisting only of the 
Aga's residence and four or five water-mills. 

April ISth. — I have had more opportunity for exa- 
mining the ruins of this city than on my former visit, 
when from inscriptions I discovered it to be the an- 
cient Tlos. My general impressions remain the same, 
and further research has only confirmed my opinion 
as to the taste and luxurious ornament of the ancient 
city. I have copied many more inscriptions, prin- 
cipally from the tombs, which have been most costly 
and curious constructions. The greater number not 
only have their fronts architecturally ornamented, but, 
on entering, we found them to have a kind of lobby, 

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TLOS. 133 

the panelled framework being repeated within, and 
often ornamented in a richer style ; some of these are 
still beautiful, but what must they have been when first 
executed, perhaps twenty-five centuries ago ! Many 
of the letters of the inscriptions retain their varied 
colouring, and over the doors remnants of painted 
flowers and wreaths, red, green, and white, are still to 
be traced ; but the most perfect historical information 
which is preserved to us respecting the ornaments of 
these tombs, is derived from the sculpture, which shows 
all the beauty of simple line and exquisite proportion of 
figure, and is sufficiently legible to be of the highest 
interest to the antiquarian and student of ancient my- 
thology and history. I hope the sketches I have made 
may throw some light upon the subject. 

From one of the tombs in the rock I copied the fol- 
lowing inscription : 


* Translation. — " In his life-time. Zosimus, the grandson of Nice- 
ticus, the son of Lysanias, a citizen of Tlos, has built the Heroum, for 

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134 LYCIA. 

The figures sculptured on the rock, are, I have no 
doubts of the same age as those accompanied by the 
Lycian characters, but I have again sought in vain for 
a single letter of that language in this city. I ob- 
tained three or four coins from the children, who gladly 
exchanged them for half a piastre each ; but the ab- 
sence of travellers makes them careless of looking for 
them, and many hidden treasures may still remain 
amidst the ruins which form hills of broken fragments 
of stone, and pieces of pottery and glass. Among the 
coins I find several silver and copper ones of the an- 
cient city. 

On the side of one of the tombs cut in the rock I 
observed a bas-relief representing combatants engaged, 
apparently without swords, and pulling at each other's 
shields. This, which I have observed in other places, 
may probably represent some of the popular games. 
From the front of the tomb I copied the annexed in- 
scription : 

himself and his wife and his children, and their descendants, and to 
whomsoever he shall make a grant in writing. But if any one, without 
the builder Zosimus making him a grant, shall bury any one [in this 
tomb], he shall owe to the most holy treasury a fine of 1500 denarii. 
But if the builder Zosimus make a grant to any one, he that receives 
the grant shall have leave to bury whomsoever he likes." 

In all the funeral inscriptions of Tlos, the tomb is called Heroum ; 
and in one, that will be given hereafter, the deceased is called a Hero. 
The word in our inscription which is translated bury, means in Greek 
to sacrifice. 

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* Translation, — " [High-priestess ?] of Asia, the daughter of Alex- 
ander, the grandson of Dionysius the cession of the property 

heing made under the high -priest Caesianus of 

Irenseus .... There has heen huried Alexander, the grandson of Dio- 
nysius, her father, and her son Alexander, the son of Irenseus, and 
there shall he huried herself also, and her hushand Irenseus, the son 

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136 LYCIA. 

The tomb, sculptured high up in the rock^ in the 
fonn of an Ionic temple, we found to be of great inter- 
est, and I doubt not, from the sketch in the annexed 
Plate, it will be appreciated by the antiquarian and 
lover of ancient history and poetry : the sketch repre- 
sents the inner front within the Ionic portico, in the 
pediment of which were sculptured animals resembling 
panthers, but too much mutilated to be copied. On 
the left side, on entering the portico, was a spirited 
bas-relief of Bellerophon, and beneath his horse Pega- 
sus the vanquished Chimera. To find this in a city in 
the valley of the Xanthus, . cut in the rock, at once 
gives reality and. place to the poetic description of the 
services of this classic hero. It will be remembered 
that Bellerophon is represented as a royal; exile, seat 
to Jobates king of Lycia, and favoured by Neptune and 
Minerva ; from them he received the horse Pegasus, 
and with it conquered both man and beast in various 
combats in Lycia, over which country he afterwards be- 
came king, before the time of the Trojan war. Among 

of Sosibios [?]. To no one else it shall be allowed to buiy another 
[here], or he shall give to the Gerusia of Tlos 1500 denarii [?], of 
which he that proves the trespass shall receive one-third." 

It is the more to be regretted that part'of this inscription has disap- 
peared^ and that thus several words still remaining are without con- 
nexion, as these may have explained the curious iact of bas-reliefs re- 
presenting gymnastic games heing found on the tomb of a woman. 
Probably this Priestess of Asia was a G^mnasiarches (a munificent pa- 
troness of gvranastic games), a title which is given to another woman 
in an inscription at Mylasa (page 68).^ 

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PINARA. 137 

his other conquests, in this very valley, he slew a wild 
hoar which had destroyed the fruits and cattle of the 
Xanthians, hut for his services he received no reward. 
He therefore prayed to Neptune that the fields of the 
Xanthians should exhale a salt dew, and be universally 
corrupted. This continued until Bellerophon, at the 
intercession of the women, again prayed to Neptune to 
remove the effect of his indignation. It was on this 
account that the women of the Xanthians were held in 
such high esteem, that their children ever after were 
named from their mothers, rather than their fathers 
— a custom which afterwards prevailed generally over 
the whole of Lycia. 

April I4th, — We yesterday left Dooveer, and, return- 
ing across the valley for about four miles, we came to 
the river, which was here fordable, owing to its stream 
being divided by a small island. The water was four 
or five feet deep. After having crossed, we turned to 
the southward, and gradually bore into the range of 
the Cragus mountains, in a south-westerly direction, 
for about nine miles, when we arrived at the little vil- 
lage called Minara. Near this place we had heard of 
the existence of ruins, and the similarity of name to 
the ancient Pinara, a large city of Lycia, made us seek 
here its site ; knowing also that in many instances in 
Greece the n has been changed into an M in after 
times. The ride had been beautiful, amidst well-grown 
fir-trees, and enriched with underwood now in bloom ; 
the white and the lilac cistus ecUpse many of the more 

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138 LYCIA. 

beautiful flowers of the vetch tribe, which are blossom- 
ing beneath their bushes. 

The village of Minara is very small, but beautifully 
situated on the declivity of a hill of almost bare rock ; 
little shelves or terraces of ground are therefore of 
value, and are generally covered with trees. On one of 
these terraces my tent is pitched ; the view before it 
extends over bushes of pomegranate, and the middle 
distance of wooded hills adds richness and beauty to 
the more distant view of the valley of the Xanthus, 
with its lofty barrier of mountains rising to the height 
of the ancient Massicytus, which is perpetually capped 
with snow. A fine olive-tree overhangs one side of our 
tent, and a lemon-tree shades the door ; beyond are se- 
veral orange-trees, and on the terrace above, at the 
back, are fig-trees and some magnificent quinces, now 
in full bloom — ^I had almost said in blossom like roses, 
but amidst them is a large tree of the cabbage-rose, 
twelve or fourteen feet high, whose sweet flowers have 
a prior claim to beauty. A rose has just been pre- 
sented to me by a young Turk boy, which scents the 
tent delightfully. Our stores of lemons and figs have 
here been replenished, and we now find a plentiful 
supply of corn for the horses, with butter, kymac, 
youghoort, eggs and fowls for ourselves, none of which 
could we obtain at any price on the other side of the 

April \5th. — My search for the ancient Pinara has not 
been in vain, and I am amply repaid by the discovery of 

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its most interesting ruins about a mile further up the 
mountain. From amidst the ancient city rises a singu- 

— ^K>. 


lar round rocky cliflf*, literally speckled all over with 
tombs. There must be some thousands, and most of 
them are merely oblong holes cut in the perpendicular 
front of the rock, which is apparently inaccessible. Be- 
neath this cliff lay the principal part of the extensive 
and splendid city of Pinara. Two other places, at dif- 
ferent elevations, were also covered with massive build- 
ings, and on either side of these were tombs scattered 
for a considerable distance, many of them of the gothic- 
form sarcophagus, and some surrounded by columns ; 
but the most perfect and the most highly interesting 

* The Lycian word Pinara is said by Stephanas Byzantinus to mean 
something round; this is here singularly illustrated. 

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were those below the city cut in the rocks. The the- 
atre is in a very perfect state ; all the seats are remain-^ 
ing, with the slaating sides towards the proscenium, as 
well as several of its doorways. The ingenious mode of 
the tying form of these stones is coeval with the walls 
of Cyclopean construction. 

The walls, and several buildings of the city, were of 
the Cyclopean style, with massive gateways formed of 

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PINARA- 141 

three immense stones. I measured one over the portal, 
which was fourteen feet in length : the buttresses of the 
same walls were of regularly squared stones. 

These modes of building were both used in the same 
works, and certainly at the same time ; the Cyclopean, 
which is generally supposed to be the older mode, I 
have often seen surmounting the regular Greek squared 
stone walls. The whole city appears to be of one 
date and people, and, from its innumerable tombs, 
must have existed for a long series of generations and 
from a very early period. The inscriptions are gene- 
rally in the Lycian character, but the Greek occurs 
on the same tombs with the Lycian, which will pro- 
bably add to our knowledge of the latter ; and these 
again may be explained by bas-reliefs, which are here 
of exciting interest. 

I have endeavoured to explain, that in some of the 
tombs at Tlos occurs a portico, within which are pre- 
served highly interesting historical bas-reliefs. One 
fine tomb before me, shown in the annexed Plate, is of 
similar construction, and is a finished specimen of the 
Elizabethan order, with a pediment ornamented with 
groups of figures, one representing the instruction of 
a child; on the frieze, which is under dentils, each 
finished with a sculptured head, is another spirited 
group, apparently rejoicing; but within the portico, on 
either side, are views of the ancient city cut in relief 
on four different panels. I know no instance of a si- 
milar insight into the appearance of the ancient cities. 

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These views exhibit the forms of the tops of the walls, 
which are embattled, the gateways, and even the sen- 
tinels before them. The upper portions of the walls 
are rarely found remaining at the present day, and I 
have too often perhaps attributed those I have seen 
to the Venetian age. The form of the battlements is 
very singular ; none now are left upon the ruined walls 
of this city, but the tombs and towers might be still 
selected, probably from the same point of view as re- 
presented in these bas-reliefs. 

Another tomb cut in the rock also interested me. 
On my former visit, from seeing the numerous sarco- 
phagi with the gothic-formed roofs, and the hog's- 
mane along their top, I suggested that they had each 
had a crest or ornament at either end, which, being 
exposed and prominent parts, had been broken off. I 
here find cut in the rock an imitation of this form of 

J v 

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p— 1> — i"" 








U-, A 





5— ^r 



>, ? ^_.:.^ 








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^ r 




N 1 


1 / 


r 1 c 


1 ^ 








i 1 

1 ^ ~ 


? ' ^ 

^,3 1 


'--^.. ■ 





. _ _ _ — 

\ .r- 



3 B 

c < 


eS nc; ^ 



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Digitized by GOOOS^'^ 

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PINARA. 143 

sarcophagus, and its end surmounted by a crest. This, 
being cut in relief, has remained unbroken. The crest 
itself is also of historical interest. Herodotus, in descri- 
bing the different nations joining the army of Xerxes, 
relates that the people of Bithynia carried two Lycian 
spears, and had helmets of brass, on the summits of 
which were the '* ears and horns of an ox." 

The expense of constructing the innumerable tombs 
has hitherto been to me perfectly unaccountable. I 
have just measured one; the form is of the most frequent 
style, and has its inner front ; but the whole appeared so 
much in relief from the rock, that I climbed up, and 
found that I could walk by the side, which was orna- 
mented and as highly finished as the front ; this pasr 
sage continued again along the back, making a perfectly 
independent building or sculptured mausoleum, eighteen 
feet six inches deep ; the cutting from the face of the 
rock was twenty-six feet deep, directly into its hard 
mass. I have in one instance found an interesting in- 
sight into the probably usual mode of constructing these 
tombs. Seeing the face of a rock, as it were, only 
designed for a tomb — ^the columns being merely square 
props, with lumps at their tops and thick at the bot- 
tom, and with the pediment only a protruding mass — I 
entered, and found the portico formed square, but not 
smoothened or shaped for ornament ; but the door of 
the tomb, which was small, was highly finished, repre- 
senting frame and nails, and on the panels handsome 
ring-knockers, all cut in the marble rock. For the 

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purpose of pillaging the tomb, this door had not been 
moved side-ways in its groove (the usual manner of 
opening them), but a small hole had been broken in the 
rock at the side. Putting my head into this, I found 
the tomb had been finished within, and that the bones 
of at least two ancient Greeks lay scattered on the 
floor. This specimen shows that some of the tombs 
were formed for the reception of the dead, and after- 
wards finished, probably at a later period. I have 
copied the following inscription from a pedestal. 













* TVanslation. 

'' Dionysius, the grandson of Diogenes. 

Dionysius, But Jason and 

the son of Diogenes Arsasis, the 

and Arsasis, the children of 

daughter of Jason Dionysius 

their son. their brother, 
the Hero." 

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PINARA. 145 

Upon the muUion of a rock-tomb is the following : 






AfiOBinri EATON 






















^ * 

* TVoMfattoA.— "The monument of Antipater, the grandson of Pise- 

darus [?], in which he has determined after to he buried 


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146 LYCIA. 

The letters of the Lycian inscriptions in this city, 
cut into the rock, I jSnd have generally been coloured 
— red, yellow, green, or light blue ; the letters varying 
alternately with two colours*. 

tBf3EA/^:tBYlA/Y: tBYlAA': 

How little is known even of the names of the ancient 
Greek buildings I I iSnd the usual vocabulary sadly 
deficient in supplying appellations for many edifices 
crowded together in this very ancient city; several 
have long parallel walls, built of massive and good 
masonry, with numerous doorways, and simple but 

himself, and his wife Mala, the daughter of Bito. But if any one shall 
attempt to bury another [in the tomb], he shall owe to the People of 
the Pinareans 500 denarii, of which the party that convicts him shall 
receive one-third. This has likewise been declared in the archives. 
But he who shall do anything against diese regulations, shall be a sa- 
crilegious person unto the gods of heaven and of hell, and shall besides 
pay the fine. [This] has been declared under [?] the high-priest 
Artemidorus [?] on die thirtieth day of Hyperberetaeus." 

The month of Hyperberetseus was the last in the Ephesian and the 
Syro -Macedonian almanacks, and in the former extended from the 
24th of August to the 24th of September. 

* I have selected a repetition of the same word, which almost always 
commences the sepulchral inscriptions in the Lycian language, in order 
to show the variety of form used in the third and sixth letters, but 
which are evidently the same character. 

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PINARA. 147 

bold cornices. Others are more square in form, with 
a fine sweeping circular recess at one end ; they have 
often four doorways, and columns lying about within 
the buildings. Near and within one of the entrances 
to the upper part of the city, are the remains of a very 
small theatre, or probably an Odeum ; I have not be- 
fore seen one so small; it would serve as a lecture- 
room of the present day, where all the powers of the 
orator might have full effect. Beneath the surface of 
the highest part of the city are large square chambers, 
cut in the rock and arched over with masonry; the 
whole of the inside is beautifully plaistered with a 
white stucco, having a polished surface like marble. 
These have no doubt been stores for com and other 
provisions for the city. 

While rambling among the ruins, a peasant brought 
me ten copper coins, all extremely small, but all Greek, 
found by himself in a few yards of soil which he had 
cultivated around his hut. I gave him five piastres, 
and was soon the possessor of above fifty on the same 
terms : many of them are probably valueless, but their 
being all from this place gives to them an interest; 
for this city is yet unknown to Europeans^ and no 
coins are possessed by any of the museums. Among 
the coins I notice many with the head of a ram, and 
inscribed with the name of the city*; some also of 
Tlos, and one or two of Eastern nations of the age of 

* Sec Plate XXXIV. Nos. 13 and 14. 

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148 LYCIA. 

Antiochus, about three centuries before Christ, but none 
of a later date. 

The people had never before seen a Frank ; an old 
man told me that none had ever been up to his vil- 
lage: their manners were naturally the more simple, 
and of this I must give an instance. Three or four 
men, one of them very old, were the most attentive 
and curious in watching and assisting us to move 
stones and leading the way through bushes ; of course 
we returned this civiUty by signs of obligation. We 
soon became more intimate, and they ventured to 
make remarks, noticing the spectacles worn by one of 
my companions, and placing them before their own 
eyes ; these and a magnifying-glass astonished them ex- 
ceedingly. Our pencils and books were equally novel 
to them. Soon afterwards a pretty little girl joined 
our group, with a red skull-cap much faded by the 
sun, and from which were suspended chains of glitter- 
ing coins, confining her hair, that hung in many long 
plaits down her back, in the manner of the ancient 
Egyptians: rows of coloured beads hung around her 
brown open breast. This child was pushed forward 
to present to me an egg, which I exchanged for half 
a piastre, and all fear of the Frank at once ceased. 
Other eggs were brought, my plant-box and hands were 
soon filled, and I was reminded of my former servant's 
instruction, that presents are very dear things in this 
country — ^the price of eggs being twenty or thirty for a 

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PINARA. 149 

We made signs to our officious cicerones that we 
wished to climb to the upper part of the city, but they 
opposed this, and we were compelled to understand 
that we must follow them to their huts close by. We 
did so, and were received by three women, the wives 
of our guides, at the doors of their huts, and a carpet 
was soon spread on the ground in front, on which we 
reclined, while each woman brought out her present; 
one, a large bowl of kymac, another, one of youghoort, 
and the third a supply of fresh-baked bread of the 
country ; two wooden spoons were placed for our use, 
and the eyes of a dozen peasants assembled around 
were riveted upon us. The dogs, which always assail 
the stranger most fiercely with their barking, lay asleep 
by our side, acknowledging us as the guests of their 
kind masters. The cow, which is here but little larger 
than the dogs, was being milked ; and on the broken 
columns and stones piled around sat our hostesses, 
while their husbands were on the ground still nearer. 
Among them were five or six children, each most pic- 

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150 LYCIA. 

turesquely and classically dressed. I cannot help again 
noticing the close resemblance of the costume of the 
women to the ancient statues : the hair is worn long 
and braided round the head; one old woman of the 
party had it tied in a knot at the top of the fore- 
head, exactly as I have seen represented in the antique. 
Their arms had each the simple armlet or bracelet of 
gold ; sometimes two or three on one wrist, and always 
a fibula of silver or gold to hold together the loose 
tunic or shirt ; the upper jacket is embroidered most 
richly ; the trdwsers, extremely loose, and confined at 
the ankle, are generally red, blue, or white, and often 
ornamented with silver embroidery or spangles ; those 
before us were only worked with coloured silks. 

The people here are Chinganees, or gipsies, as I no-* 
ticed when in this district before ; they therefore show 
their faces, and are not so secluded as the Turkish 
women generally. A child presenting me with a flower, 
gave me an opportunity of substantially acknowledging 
my obligation for this true hospitality : the whole scene 
to me was most pleasing. It is delightful to meet with 
so simple and naturally kind a people, and apparently 
devoid of any prejudice against those thought to be so 
opposed to themselves in every opinion. 

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Discovery of Sidjrma — its Tombs — ^Temples — Natural History — Lions 
— Ancient Fort — Xanthus — Sarcophagus-tomb — Lycian Inscrip- 
tion upon Obelisk — ^Ancient Sculptures — Harpies — Chariots — Ani- 
mals — Processions — ^Tomb — Customs of the Peasants. 

April I5th, — Leaving Minara, we travelled towards 
the south-west, over a range of wooded hills separating 
our little valley from another as beautiful. These 
recesses or bays from the valley of the Xanthus are 
particularly rich, and might be productive ; they are 
in a better state of cultivation than most parts of this 
country. The lands have a gradual inclination down 
to the valley, and are screened on either side by the 
wooded hills protruding from the range of the Cragus. 
As a type of the general character of the vegetation we 
passed, I will describe the first of these bays after our 
leaving Minara. The whole valley has probably been, 
like the hills above, covered with underwood, and a 
track through them has been the road we have fol- 
lowed. In order to cultivate the land, the underwood 
has all been burnt or grubbed up, leaving on either 

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152 LYCIA. 

side of the way a belt of vegetation to form fences to 
the fields. These hedges are therefore not of one 
description, but vary at every bush, and mingle wildly 
together, producing at this season a beauty and luxu- 
riance which regales all the senses. The predominant 
shrub is the myrtle, and next, the small prickly oak ; 
with these are mingled the pomegranate, the orange, 
wild olive, oleander, and the elegant gum-storax ; these 
are matted together by the vine, clematis, and aspara- 
gus : in the fields are left standing, for their shade as 
well as their fruit, the carob, the fig, and the oak. Bar- 
ley is the principal produce of the fields at this season, 
but the old stems of the maize show the second crop of 
the last year. A few huts in the centre of this valley 
give the name of Yakabalyer to the plain also. 

Another valley further on our way, in which stands 
Kest^p, is more wooded, appearing, as we ascended 
through a forest of fir-trees on the hill of separation, 
one wood of splendidly-grown oaks ; they are the 
Qiuercus agylops, which is here a considerable source 
of wealth from its acorns, called by the Smyrna mer- 
chants Velan/a ; the timber would, if wanted for the 
market, be of high value. 

On entering a third of these valleys, called, from its 
village, Guilemet, we turned up a ravine to the west, 
leading directly into the midst of the Cragus range ; 
this was about ten miles from Minara. Gradually 
ascending for nearly two hours, we arrived at the vil- 
lage of Tortoorcar, where we sought the remains of an 

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SIDYMA. 153 

ancient city, but were told that high in the mountains 
above us were the ruins, and within them was the vil- 
lage of Tortoorcar Hissd. We climbed for more than 
an hour up a steep, quite unfit for horses, when we 
found ourselves amidst the splendidly-built tombs of 
an unknown city of the ancient Greeks. The following 
inscription I copied from one of them, which was two 
stories high and had a portico. 





* TVoHslation. — " Epagathus twice [t. e. the grandson of another I 

Epagathiu], a citizen of Sidyma, has built the monument for himself I 

and his wife Arsis, also called Mion, the daughter of Callimedes and 
his children : Epagathus thrice [i. e. great-grandson of another ^Mga- 
thus] and Arsis, also called Agathe Tyche [*. e. Qood luck], and his 

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154 LYCIA. 

These fragments were inscribed under the pediment 
and within the portico of the same tomb. 










The inscriptions soon told the name of this city to 
have been Sidyma, and the style of its architecture led 
me to assign to it a date purely Greek, but by no means 

grandchildren^ Epagathus, also called Dius and Epagathus. But 
upon the above-mentioned persons being buried in the upper tombs, 
it shall be lawful for nobody else to be buried in the upper tombs ; but 
in the lower tombs there are to be buried his mother Malabathrine, 
and Epaphrodeitos and Zosime, the children of Epagathus, and Ste- 
phanos, the son of Hermus [?], grandson of Ptolemeeus and Caloty- 
chus, the son of Publius, and his son Calotychus. But to nobody else 
it shall be permitted to bury another in the monument; but if any- 
body do bury, he shall owe to the People of the Sidymeans 1500 [?^ 
denarii, of which he who proves [the trespass] shall have [?] one-third. 
The inscription given above is likewise [recorded] in the archives 

under the high-priest on the day of Apellacus" — [t. e. 

second month of the Syro-Macedonians, from the 24th of October to 
the 24th of November]." 

* These fragments probably belonged to some abstracts of the pre- 
ceding inscription, which were written on different parts of the toml). 

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SIDYMA. 155 

SO early as that of Pinara or any of the cities more 
marked by the Lycian peculiarities. In this city we 
saw no Cyclopean walls, and none of that other ex- 
treme of art, differing in all points but its simplicity, 
the sculpture accompanying the Lycian inscriptions. 
I saw only one ornamented tomb in the rocks, and 
but two or three of the gothic-formed sarcophagi : one 
of these was inscribed with the following Greek cha- 
racters : 






I obtained but few inscriptions out of the very many 
on the tombs, on account of the perished state of the 
surface of the marble in this elevated situation. The 
annexed Plate will show one of the tombs of white 
marble ; the slab forming the ceiling I have drawn 
separately, to show the high finish of its sofits. The 
extreme cost of ornament, and the great size of the 
tombs standing on stoas fitted for temples, surprised 
me much ; they were like the tombs of a large city 
which had disappeared ; but the city remained to show 
its original extent, which was very small ; its agora, 

* Translation, — " Agathocles and Pliarnacee, the son of Pharnaces, 
have huilt the monument." 

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theatre, and other buildings were indeed almost too 
small to be recognized as suitable to the purposes of 
the public meetings of the people of a city. 

Several square buildings, not larger than many of 
the tombs, have evidently been temples ; the scale and 
beauty of their doorways cannot have suited any other 
edifice : I sought in vain for inscriptions near them. 

We here saw a building rather apart from the town, 
similar to others which I have noticed elsewhere, 
having a square room, with a circular end, and side 
buildings forming little covered saloons with many 

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SIDYMA. ^ 157 

doors : these ruins retain much of their stucco, which 
has been painted with borders and wreaths of flowers, 
and part of a female figure, in red, blue, green, yellow, 
and white colours. 

The present state of this district is extremely wild ; 
only three or four huts are amidst these ruins on the 
mountain, and their occupants have always their gun 
slung over their shoulder, even within the limits of 
their own cultivated fields. On inquiry as to why this 
custom prevailed, we were told that the country was 
full of wild animals, and of the fiercest kind. I was 
extremely cautious and particular in my inquiries as 
to their nature, and have no doubt of the truth of the 
account which I heard from many of the people of the 
surrounding district, and each unknown to the other. 
In this village alone, four or five lions, called Asian by 
the Turks, and other animals called Caplan (the leo- 
pard) are killed every year. The man who first told me, 
liad himself taken the skins to the Aga, to present to 
different Pashas, and these presentations had been re- 
warded by sums of one to two hundred piastres, which 
he had himself received. The lions, he said, are timid 
unless surprised or attacked, and I could not hear that 
they did much injury to the flocks. Wolves — ^and, if I 
understand rightly, the hyaena also — are found here; 
and the latter are described as gnashing their teeth 
together; my Greek servant adds, that such animals 
strike fire from their mouths, but this occurs in his 
travels in Persia. I have heard the same from show- 

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158 LYCIA. 

men at our country fairs, among other exaggerated 
wonders. Bears are certainly found here in great num- 
hers. I observe the most costly buildings in this district 
are the apiaries, which are formed of a square of high 
walls, open at the top only ; within this the hives are 
placed, and a ladder is used, if entry is required — a pre- 
caution which is essential to keep away the bears from 
the honey. This, which reminded me of the illustra- 
tions of ^sop's fables, was the more interesting from 
its being his native country. The moral of the fable 
is preserved ; but the hives that I have seen pictured 
would not be known by the bees of this country, as 
their house is here more simple, being universally the 
hollowed section of a fir-tree. Snakes are also abun- 
dant in this district, but they are most numerous in the 
lower valleys. An island opposite to Macry, at the 
foot of the Cragus range, is wholly given up to them ; 
and the ruins of an earlier village, called Macry-vec- 
cbia, probably of a late Roman age, are shown as the 
remains of a town deserted on account of the number 
of snakes. The people object even to approach the 
island, and I doubt not that their fears greatly exag- 
gerate the number and size of these animals. My 
servant saw one, which he considered small, among 
the ruins of Cadyanda ; it measured six feet, and was 
as thick as his arm* 

Uslanuy April \6th. — I have seldom passed a more 
rugged, and never a worse road with baggage-horses, 
than today ; the distance on the map is not great, but 

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we have been five hours on the way. For the first hour, 
after leaving Tortoorcar Hissd, we ascended a craggy 
mountain covered with fir-trees, and then arrived at a 
little cultivated plain. Around this were barren crags, 
scarcely affording pasture to the flocks of large black 
goats on their rocky sides : the height to which they 
had climbed made me giddy as I looked up to seek 
whence came their bleating. 

From this elevated mountain pass, we obtained oc- 
casionally splendid views of the sea, whose immense 
expanse was unbroken by a vessel of any kind. Turn- 
ing down a steep ravine towards the south-east, we* 
came to a few huts, and continuing our course at last 
saw before us the Delta of the Xanthus ; Patara being 
at one angle, and this place occupying the other toward 
the sea. Uslann has but three sheds, and serves as the 
port, or scala, for shipping fire-wood and salt-fish to 
Rhodes. Two Greeks carry on this trade, and are the 
whole population. A village, consisting of a few huts, 
lies about. a mile inland from this place, which is pro- 
bably another mile from the sea-coast. We were sup- 
plied here with eight fowls for fifteen piastres, scarcely 
five-pence each ; but this is not so cheap in proportion 
as the produce of the interior towards the south. The 
prices of our provisions I find are higher than they 
were two years ago. 

We were attracted hither by the report of the ex- 
istence of ruins in this quarter, and also by the ad- 
mirable chart of Captain Beaufort, who lays them down 

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as ruins not yet visited. Colonel Leake had also di- 
rected me hither as the probable site of the ancient 
Cydna, or Pydna ; but of this discovery I am not sa- 

About a mile distant, near to the sea, we found a 
rocky hill, fortified with a beautifully built Cyclopean 
wall, with towers and loop-holes, and showing a fine 
specimen of an ancient Greek fortification : the walls 

had a terrace for the passage of a guard within the 
battlements, and this course passed by doors through 
the towers ; and as the wall rose up the steep side of 
the hill, the terrace was formed of a flight of steps ; 
several of the towers had only been breastwork, having 
but three walls, the inner side being left open. 

This place does not appear to me ever to have been 
a city, for the walls contain but one building, and this 
at the lower comer. No loose stones, or cuttings of the 
bare rocky ground for foundations, show that any other 
buildings ever existed. What this one structure has 

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been, must remain a mystery; its form, painted walls 
and arched domes are precisely the same as those of 
the ruin I have described at Sidyma. Within this build- 
ing lay a broken pedestal, with this inscription : 



In turning over the stone we killed a scorpion, which 
lay concealed beneath it. On the. outside of the wall 
were the remains of a small ruined building, again of 
the same construction, but still less perfect ; it had its 
three chambers, with dome tops and painted walls. 
Only two tombs were to be found in the neighbourhood, 
and they were near the outside of the south gate. The 
following inscription was upon a stone which had been 
over the doorway of one of them, and I think may assist 
to strengthen my opinion that this place was a strong- 
hold or fort of the Xanthians, and that the soldiers of 

* Translation. — " To Poseidon ; the vow of Mausolus, the Ala- 

The name of Mausolin was hereditary in a fieunily that gave to Caria 
several kings, or rather satraps, to one of whom his queen Artemisia 
constructed the celebrated tomb. The o£Sice of Alabarches, mentioned 
in several other inscriptions, and noticed by Josephus and other an- 
cient authors, especially at Alexandria, seems, according to the most 
approved etymology, to have corresponded to that of a Commissioner 
of Customs. 


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the fort may hietye lived in tents or buildings of perish- 
able materials, no trace of which are left within the 
walls. Three lines of this inscription are cut upon the 
ornamental moulding, and have apparently been added 
at a subsequent period. There are no signs of other 
tombs, and no theatre or public buildings. 

Close to the scala and near to our tent, is an isolated 

rock, the whole of which is crowned with a weU-built 

Greek wall, which appears to have been the basement 

, of a temple or some single building ; its situation, rising 

out of the plain, is imposing. 

Jpril ]7th^ Xanthus. — I am once more at my fa- 
vourite city — the first in which I became acquainted 
with the remains of art of the ancient Lycians, and in 
which I hope to find still more, embodying their lan- 
guage, history, and poetic sculpture. How might the 
classic enthusiast revel in the charms of this city and 
its neighbourhood ! With Mount Cragus before him, he 
might conjure up all the chimaeras of its fabulous history. 

This morning, on leaving Uslann, which is very 
nearly the Turkish name for the lion, we crossed the 
little river which rises suddenly from the rocks within 
two miles of the sea, but meanders in a brilliantly clear 
stream for at least three miles before it reaches the 
beach; it is navigable for small boats to the scala; 
Continuing across the plain for four miles, with drifted 
sand-banks on our right, we came near to what is not 
improperly called the Island, being a rocky hill rising 
amidst the perfectly level plain. On the larger portion 

M 2 

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164 LYCIA, 

of this hill there are no ruins of ancient buildings to be 
found, but some are visible on the summit of the smaller. 
We were unable to cross the swamp by which it is sur- 
rounded at this season, in order to examine them ; but 
an intelligent old Greek, who was our guide, said that 
the stones were only the lower part of a building, which 
was round, but not a theatre, for it had no seats. No 
columns were to be seen there, nor any other remains 
of a city : neither tombs nor walls were upon the hill. 
Possibly this may have been the Letoum and temple of 
Apollo, which Colonel Leake expected would there be 
found; the easy transport of columns by sea would 
fully account for their absence. In half an hour more 
we crossed the livid waters of the Xanthus, which there 
divided into two streams, but both were too deep for us 
to pass with comfort. The horses were several inches 
above their girths in the water, and the baggage was 
partly bathed. Three men stripped, and guided us 
acri)ss the rapid streams. Another hour brought us 
here, where we intend to halt for several days, to ex- 
amine further into the remains of this chief of the 
Lycian cities, and to make accurate drawings^ of its 
interesting sculpture. 

April 2\$t. — This is my fourth day among the ruins 
of Xanthus, and how little do I know of this ancient 
city! its date still puzzles me. It certainly possesses 
some of the earliest Archaic sculpture in Asia Minor, and 
this connected with the most beautiful of its monu- 
ments, and illustrated by the language of Lycia. These 

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sculptures to which I refer must be the work of the 
sixth or seventh centuries before the Christian sera, but 
I have not seen an instance of these remains having 
been despoiled for the rebuilding of walls ; and yet the 
decidedly more modern works of a later people are 
used as materials in repairing the walls around the 
back of the city and upon the Acropolis ; many of 
these have Greek inscriptions, with names common 
among the Romans. The whole of the sculpture is 
Greek, fine, bold, and simple, bespeaking an early age 
of that people. No sign whatever is seen of the works 
of the Byzantines or Christians. 

To lay down a plan of the town is impossible, the 
whole being concealed by trees ; but walls of the finest 
kind, Cyclopean blended with the Greek, as well as the 
beautifully squared stones of a lighter kind, are seen 
in every direction; several gateways also, with their 
paved roads, still exist. I observed on my first visit 
that the temples have been very numerous, and, from 
their position along the brow of the cliff, must have 
combined with nature to form one of the most beau- 
tiful of cities. The extent I now find is much greater 
than I had imagined, and its tombs extend over miles 
of country I had not before seen. 

The beautiful gothic-formed sarcophagus-tomb, with 
chariots and horses upon its roof, of which I gave 
several views in my former Journal, as well as a sketch 
of a battle-scene upon the side, accompanied with a 
Lycian inscription, is again a chief object of my admi- 

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166 . LYCIA, 

ration amidst the ruins of this city. Of the ends of 
this monument I did not before show drawings,, but 
gave a fuU description. I have now succeeded in copy- 
ing the inscription which I mentioned as being illegible, 
to which I add views of the ends, and, by the aid of Mr. 
Scharf, am able to do more justice to these fine works 
of the ancients. 

Beneath the rocks, at the back of the city, is a sarco- 
phagus of the same kind, and almost as beautifully 
sculptured, but this has been thrown down, and the lid 
now lies half buried in the earth. Its hog's-mane is 
sculptured with a spirited battle-scene. 

Many Greek inscriptions upon pedestals are built 
into the walls, which may throw some light upon the 
history of the city ; they are mostly funereal, and be- 
long to an age and people quite distinct frdm those of 
the many fine Lycian remains. I copied the following : 








* Translation.^" The city of Xanthus, the metropolis of the Lycian 

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The following inscription is interesting from the in- 
sight which it gives as to the regulation of the games. 




nation, [honoured] UlpiaFhila, who had become the wife of the excel- 
lent Auielius Larichus." 

The honorary name of Metropolis, i. e. mother-city, whence colonies 
have sprung, waB often assumed by Greek cities of very little import- 
ance ; XanthuB, however, seems fully to have been entitled to it, stand- 
ing prominent in whatever we know of Lycian history, and being 
called by Strabo (1. xiv. p. 666) the greatest city of Lycia. 

* IVanslation. — " Having been of the god Xanthus and gjrm- 

nasiarches of the most worshipful Gerusia, and discharged also several 
other public offices in my native city» I have, according to the decree, 
erected the statue at my own expense." 

The god Xanthus, mentioned in this inscription only, is probably the 
deified personigcation of the river Xanthus, which is intimately con- 
nected with the celebrated worship df Apollo in Lycia. 

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168 LYCIA- 














Two of my days have been spent in the tedious, 
but, I trust, useful occupation, of copying the Lycian 

* Translation, — " Quintus, the son of ApoUonius, grandson of Sos- 
tratus [?] , a citizen of Xanthus, his father and ancestors being coun- 
cihnen, having contested in the wrestling-match of the men in the 
games celebrated besides [those performed ordinarily at the public 
expense ?] for the third prize [given] from the legacy of Tiberius 
Claudius Cseaianus Agrippa, having won and outrun four lots ; this 
prize being for his lifetime in the gift of the most distinguished Ly- 
ciarches, the friend of his country, Tib. CI. Telemachus ; the city of 
Xanthus, the metropolis of the Lycian nation, [honours him, i,e, 
Quintus, probably by erecting a statue,] as he who left the legacy has 

This inscription, like that given at p. 108, may throw light on some 
particulars of the gymnastic festivals. Having no precedent, the 
translation is in some parts conjectural. The Lyciarches, according to 
Strabo (1. xiv. p. 665), was chosen by the delegates from the twenty- 
three Lycian cities ; whilst they were free, he presided over the manage- 
ment of political affairs, and in Roman times over the public games and 
festivals of the confederation. 

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inscription from the obelisk I mentioned in my former 
volume that I had seen : this will be of service to the 
philologist. As the letters are beautifully cut, I have 
taken several impressions from them, to obtain fac- 
similes. By this inscription I hope to fix the type of 
an alphabet, which will be much simplified, as I find 
upon the various tombs about the town great varieties, 
though of a trifling nature, in the forms of each letter ; 
these varieties have hitherto been considered as differ- 
ent characters. This long public inscription will esta- 
blish the form of all the letters of an alphabet, one 

form only being used throughout for each letter : if this j 

should be deciphered, it may be the means of adding in- 
formation to history. The inscription exceeds 250 lines. 
It is to be regretted that the obelisk is not perfect ; 
time or an earthquake has split off the upper part, 
which lies at its foot. Two sides of this portion only 
remain with inscriptions which I could copy; the upper 
surface being without any, and the lower facing the 
ground, its weight of many tons rendered it immove- 
able. I had the earth excavated from the obelisk itself, ) 
and came to the base, or probably the upper part of a 

flight of steps, as in the other obelisk-monuments of a * j 

similar construction. The characters upon the north- ^ 

west side, types of which are shown on the left of the ' 

annexed Plate, are cut in a fiiner and bolder style, and 
appear to be the most ancient. Should any difference of 

date occur on this monument, I should decide that this '] 

is the commencement or original inscription upon it. ] 

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170 LYCIA. 

This, which I must consider as a very important mo- 
numenty appears to have on the north-east side a por- 
tipn of its inscription in the early Greek language ; the 
letters are comparatively ill cut, and extremely difficult 
at such an elevation to decipher; seizing favourable 
opportunities for the light, I have done my best to copy 
it faithfully, and glean from it that the subject is fu- 
nereal, and that it relates to a king of Lycia ; the mode 
of inscription makes the monument itself speak, being 
written in the first person*. Very near to this stands 
the monument, similar in form, which I described in 
my last Journal as being near the theatre, and upon 
which remained the singular bas-reliefs of which I 
gave sketches. On closer examination I find these to 
be far more interesting and ancient than I had before 
deemed them. They are in very low relief, resembling 
in that respect the Persepolitan or Egyptian bas-reliefs. 
I have now had detailed drawings made for the an- 
nexed Plate, which will better explain their age and 
meaning. This monument, I trust, may ere long be 
deposited in our national Museum f. 

I have received from Mr. Benjamin Gibson of Rome 
a letter in reference to these bas-reliefs, as seen in the 

* This was suggested to me by the learned Professor Muller. 

t On my return to England, through Athens, I was much struck by 
the great similarity in style, age, art and mode of arranging the hair, 
of the fragment here shown, to the bas-reliefia on the obelisk-tomb at 
Xanthus. This fragment is known, from the position in which it was 
found upon the Acropolis, to have been of an earlier date than the Par- 

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Plate of my former book, and again shown here : hig 
interpretation of this mysterious subject appears far 
the best that I have yet heard ; and from finding the 
district to have been in all probability the burial-place 
of the kings, it becomes the more interesting. Mr. 
Gibson writes — *' The winged figures on the corners 
of the tomb you have discovered in Lycia, represented 
flying away with children, may with every probability 

thenon of Pericles, and is attributed to the seventh century before the 
Christian era. It is called ** Venus stepping into her car," and is 
amongst the recent Athenian discoveries. 


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172 LYCIA. 

be well supposed to have a refereface to the story of 
the Harpies flying away with the daughters of king 
Pandarus. This fable we find related by Homer in 
the Odyssey, lib. xx., where they are stated to be left 
orphans, and the gods as endowing them with various 
gifts. Juno gives them prudence, Minerva instructs 
them in the art of the loom, Diana confers on them 
tallness of person, and lastly Venus flies up to Jupiter 
to provide becoming husbands for them ; in the mean 
time, the orphans thus being left unprotected, the Har- 
pies come and 'snatch the unguarded chaise away.' 
Strabo tells us that Pandarus was king of Lycia, and 
was worshiped particularly at Pinara. This tomb be- 
comes thus very interesting; which, if it be not the 
tomb of Pandarus, shows that the story was prevalent 
in Lycia, and that the great author of the Iliad derived 
it from that source." 

With this clue, we have no difficulty in recognizing 
Juno on the peculiar chair assigned to that goddess, 
and on the same side is Venus and her attendants; 
upon another is probably represented Diana, recognized 
by the hound. The seated gods are less easily di- 
stinguished. In the Harpies, at the four comers of the 
tomb, we have the illustration of those beings as de- 
scribed by the classic writers. 

Every excursion we have made has adde^ tales of 
fresh discoveries of pieces of sculpture, many of which 
I have had sketched. They are of a pure Greek date, 
and the subjects may be of interest to the mythologist 

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Urmwn & ttch«d by CSchjrf Jun*" 

FRk:"! S-! '"^ '<:. T ^ >f.^ K i^. ?^ T [HI T v 

John Wurrav. Icr-don. 184-1 

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and student of the Greek games ; were it possible to 
remove the trees and bushes, the examination of the 
piles of ruins would afford occupation for many weeks. 
In my previous Journal I mentioned that various pieces 
of sculpture of early date are built into the walls of the 
Acropolis : of these I now give drawings, which may 
assist, from the subject and style of art, to afford in- 
formation about this interesting place. The construc- 
tion of the chariots and the costume of the figures are 
of an early age : I also observe a marked peculiarity in 
the arrangement of the forelocks of the horses*. The ani- 
mals have also their interest ; some strongly resemble 
the subjects often seen upon antique gems. The lion 

* On examining the various works of the ancient Greeks in the 
British Museum, I find no instance either in the horses of the Greek 
marbles, or on the numerous Etruscan vases, of the forelock being tied 
in this peculiar form ; but in the bas-reliefs from Persepolis, I find 

each horse has its hair exactly so arranged, as will be seen in this sketch 
. from one of them. The whip of the driver of the chariot, as well as his 
costume, is also the same as in the Xanthian spe<nmen. 

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174 LYCIA. 

and the bull are always prominent objects in Lycian 

I have been surprised at not obtaining any coins 
from the peasants, for they cultivate every bare spot 
amidst the ruins, and the whole surrounding district is 
under the plough ; but the few people we have seen say 
they very rarely find any. The peasantry here are far 
more industrious than in most districts I have visited ; 
at this season every field has its yoke of oxen at work, 

tilling the ground in the same manner as in the time 
of the early inhabitants, and the tents of the husband- 
men are being pitched where the swamps have suffici- 
ently dried ; this tillage is for the later crops of maize, 
the barley being now in ear, and the wheat nearly full 
grown. The beans and vetches are in bloom. 

The industry and independence of the peasantry here 
has caused us much trouble to obtain our requisite 
supplies. We have had to send several miles before we 

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could persuade the shepherds at this season to part with 
their sheep ; at last a lad has brought us one, for which 
we have to make him a present, in addition to the price 
of the sheep. 

The water for our use is also brought from the river, 
which is half a mile from our tent, and is of a colour 
that would forbid its being used for drinking, were it 
possible to obtain better. 

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In the theatre, which- 1 mentioned in my fonner 
Journal, I have sketched a marble chair, probably a 
place of honour for some distinguished patron of the 
games of the ancients. 

The seats of the people in most of the Greek theatres 
were so formed as to throw off the rain-water, and at 
the same time in some degree to prevent the inconve- 
nience from the feet of the spectators seated above. 


Upon a portion of a frieze shown in Plate XXII. 
will be seen a curious and interesting similarity to the 
various sketches of the present costume, utensils, and 
habits of the peasants already given in this Journal. 
The thick tail of the sheep also shows the unchanged 
breed of the cattle. The tomb, three sides of which are 
represented in the same Plate, must rank among the 

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Or«wr> % C-»«h«d by C.Scharf Jun! 

^^k€>^\^.w^i^^ ®'i- ^cl'KPt::;?.! at x^p^tc-jl-s. 

John Murray London 1841 

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most ancient in its style of sculpture of any in this cityV 
and is strikingly similar to the wx)rks of the Persepo- 
litanft. In Plate XVIII. , the striped clothes of what 
are probably the attendants on so'me Bacchanalian pro^ 
cession, are seen in the boy with his torch, at our en- 
campment near Dollomon ; the striped cotton dress is 
very general in this district of Asia Minor. 

We cannot have every enjoyment at the same time : 
to enjoy light we must have shadow. When travelling 
before in this country, I was amused and instructed by 
the curiosity and proffered hospitality of the people ; 
but they intruded far too much upon my privacy, and 
I often wished them away, that I might be alone. In 
travelling with a Gavass or Tartar, the case is altered. 
I cannot say upon the whole that I prefer it, always en- 
joying the attention and kindness natural to humanity, 
rather than the respect commanded by authority, and I 
fear I am represented as a very different character with 
regard to my feelings towards the people, to what I really 
am. They wish to offer flowers and presents of all 
kinds, but the Gavass perhaps properly keeps them aloof, 
and when anything is purchased by me, they name no 
price, but expect a present : this the Gavass discoun- 
tenances, and fixes a price upon everything, probably 
lower than I should be induced to give. He demands 
hospitality where I before received it voluntarily, and 
our room is always kept free from the people. 

I fancy that the peasants here keep more aloof than 
usual, from a display of authority on our arrival, which 


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178 LYCIA. 

I much disapproved, but it is, I fear, too common with 
travellers. The first Zoorigee told some men to move 
from the path on which they were lying, to let our 
cavalcade pass, instead of our turning a few steps out 
of the way. The men said there was plenty of room 
to pass, upon which the Cavass galloped up to them, 
as if to trample them down with his horse, and struck 
them repeatedly upon the head in the most savage 
manner with his stick, and with these unresisted blows 
dispersed the party of peasants, who were basking a 
few hours of their Sunday (Friday) in their own fields, 
over which probably we were unlawful trespassers. Our 
train followed, but without the usual welcome to the 
stranger. The gay clothes, arms, and the power en- 
joyed by these couriers bearing my firman, is more 
feared than I like, for I know that all the traveller can 
want is freely afforded by the people. 

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Patara — Coins — Passage of Mountains — ^Discovery of the ancient 
PheUus — ^Antiphellos — its Tombs — Kastelorizo, the ancient Me- 
giste — Jewels and Costume of the Peasantry — Cassabar — Ancient 
Trabala? — Singular gorge in the Mountains — Myra — ^Tombs — 
Sculptures — Difficult Passage of Mountain — Ancient Isium? — Li- 
myra — Ruins, Tombs, and Sculptures. 

April 2\st. — ^This morning we rode down the plain to 
Patara, which place I have hefore visited. I again 
sought the points of the greatest interest — its very per- 
fect theatre, the arched entrance to the city, and clus- 
ters of palm-trees ; and, owing to the dryer state of the 
swamp, I was enahled to visit a beautiful small temple 
about the centre of the ruined city : its doorway, within 
a portico in antis, is in high preservation, as well as its 
walls ; the doorway is of beautiful Greek workmanship, 
ornamented in the Corinthian style, and in fine pro- 
portion and scale ; the height is about twenty-four feet. 
I have sought in vain among the numerous funeral in- 
scriptions for any trace of Lycian characters. I copied 
the inscription in the Greek language from the wall of 


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180 LYCIA. 

the theatre, which is cut in large well-formed letters, 
over the eastern entrance of the proscenium*. 

In a wood to the east of the city is a solitary instance 
of a Lycian architectural tomb cut in the rock in the 
Elizabethan form ; but upon the panel of the door are 
three ill-cut figures, representing a man, his wife, and 
a child ; they are but a few inches high, and have under 
them the following Greek inscription : 








Upon one of the side mullions are two open hands, 
with a few Greek letters beneath them. I have seen 
this device brfore, but do not think it of a very early 
age. The following I copied from a pedestal : 









' * This will be found in the Appendix. 

t TVoM/a/tM. — " Eutfchion to his child Epaphroditna, for the sake 
of remembrance " 

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PATARA, 181 


The number of coins and common gems of rude 
cutting that are found here is quite unaccountable. I 
obtained above thirty coins from a man who said he often 
brought home a hundred in a day when he was plough- 
ing, and that, if I liked, he would go and find some. 
One of our men picked up two in crossing a field as he 
drove in the horses ; they appear to be of all dates, but 
I hope some may be curious, having the Lycian charac- 
ters upon them. I am delighted to recognize again in 
one the figure of Bellerophon, similar to the bas-relief 
in the tomb at Tlos : this is highly interesting, as being 
found in the valley of the Xanthus. The copper coins 
of early date found in Lycia are generally extremely 
small ; the Roman and Byzantine are much larger, and 
consequently more easily seen in the fields. I have 
obtained several very curious coins, found in the val- 
ley of the Xanthus, all having a singular device, a tri- 
quetra intermixed with the Lycian characters ; on the 
reverse is generally a lion, in various attitudes: the 

* 7VaiMiSa/t<m.— " the son of Plato» a Patarean and Xanthian, 

but haying also [?] the rights of citizen in all the cities of Lycia. 
The cinerary nm, Jason, the son of Antigonus, of Patara, [has pro- 
vided]. But to another it shall not be permitted to bury anybody else ; 
but if any one bury another, he shall owe two hundred [?] drachmae, to 
be oonsecrated to ApoUo ; the levying of the fine and the information 
belongs to any one who chooses, for half the sum." 

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182 LYClA. 

finest silver ones have the skin of a lion^s head only. 
These coins, although not obtained from Xanthus it- 
self, I am inclined to believe were of that chief city, or 
perhaps of the country generally at a very early period. 
I have the coins of most of the other cities, bearing the 
name of Lycia and the emblems of Apollo, the lyre, or 
bow and quiver, together with the initials of the par- 
ticular city to which they respectively belong: their re- 
verse has a beautiful head of the god. 

Before leaving the valley of the Xanthus, I must re- 
fer to the remaining marked illustrations of its early 
legends. History tells us that this country was on- 
ginally peopled from Crete, by a colony which settled 
here under Sarpedon the son of Europa. Lycus, being 
afterwards driven from Athens, joined Sarpedon, and 
from him this portion of the country was called Lycia. 
The customs of the mother-country are said to have 
been retained by the colonists. I find in the coins of 
Crete alone a parallel in size and workmanship to 
those of Lycia : on seeing coins from Candia, I at first 
sight claimed them as Lycian. The bull's horns are 
found as the crest of the ancient inhabitants, and the 
bull contending with lions is the most common subject 
of the bas-reliefs. May this not have reference to the 
family of Europa contending with the wild animals of 
this country? The lion is seen everywhere through- 
out the valley of the Xanthus ; every bas-relief, tomb, 
seat or coin, shows the figure or limbs of this animal. 
Lions still live in its mountains, the goat is found at the 

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PATARA. 183 

lop, while the serpent infests the base of the Cragus, 
illustrating the imaginary monster of its early fables*. 
The name of Sarpedon is found upon the monuments, 
and the conquests of Bellerophon remain stamped upon 
the rocks and coins. Patara, whose name implies the 
seat of an oracle, stands at the entrance of a valley : 
the inscriptions and emblems here are all in honour 
of Apollo, and the coins of the whole district show his 
ascendency. I doubt not that many other points of 
high interest would occur to the classic scholar, but 
these must be observed by all travellers. 

April 22nd, Bazeeryiancooe. — ^This bay was by the an- 
cient Greeks called Phoenicus, probably from its palm- 
trees — by the modem Greeks Kalamaki, which means 
* reed bay' ; but from the precipitous and arid rocks, 
rising from a sea far too deep even for anchorage, reeds 
never could have grown here. On the coast of Pa- 
tara, which is round the point to the westward, and is 
distinctly divided from this bay by a bold promontory, , 
both reeds and palm-trees are found in abundance. 
Travelling for nearly four hours through Fornas, and 
leaving the Scala or little village of Kalamaki below us 
in the bay, we kept our elevated route to Bazeeryian- 

* The vignette on the title-page is drawn from an ancient Ghreek 
terra-cotta, representing a chimasra. This extremely interesting relic 
is the property of Thomas Burgon, Esq., who has kindly allowed me 
to copy it as an illustration. 

'' A lion she before in mane and throat, 
Behind a dragon, in the midst a goat." — Hesiod. 

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184 LYCIA. 

cooe, or merchants' village, which is situated upon a 
point of rock commanding a fine view, and is an excel- 
lent site from which to make a map of this varied coast. 
The small islands of Xenagorae near the coast break the 
monotony of a boundless expanse of sea. The huts are 
here all built of stones, piled up and lined with mud. 
The situation is so much exposed to the frequent eddies 
of wind from the mountains, that it would render the 
common hut, characteristic of the more sheltered coun- 
try, unsafe. 

April 24th, — From this village we continued our as- 
cent of the mountain for two hours through bold craggy 
ravines, until we arrived at the village of Kedekleh, 
which would have been a far better division of our 
journey than halting so soon as Bazeeryiancooe. Con- 
tinning still occasional ascents, we traversed the pictu- 
resque heights of this mountain-range, cultivated with 
small patches of com, which, as well as the whole vege- 
tation, was fully a month later than in the district we 
had left in the morning, and the country again assumed 
the appearance almost of winter. Arriving at the vil- 
lage of Saaret, where our horses required rest, we occu- 
pied an hour or two in ascending the mountain which 
forms the opposite or northern side of this narrow 
valley, appearing to divide the country from east to 
west. Our inducement for making this excursion was 
the number of tombs cut in its rocks, and the Cyclo- 
pean walls blended with its craggy top. We were not 
disappointed : a city has once stood upon its summit. 

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and walls, gateways and tombs all bespeak the work of 
the early Greeks ; this is borne out also by the form 
of the letters in the numerous Greek inscriptions, too 
much effaced by the exposed situation to be deciphered. 
I have no doubt that this was the ancient Phellus. In 
four more hours we had passed the high and wild range 
of mountains forming the southern coast at the back 
of the ancient Antiphellus : on its summit we encoun- 
tered a most violent hailstorm, and I never experi- 
enced more bitter cold in the depth of winter : large 
hailstones covered the ground some inches in depth. 
The awfully grand effect of these storms can scarcely 
be imagined : the cracking thunder was echoed instantly 
by the surrounding crags, and then rolled into distant 
ranges with almost a continuous murmur ; the light- 
ning played upon the clouds, which appeared to hover 
capriciously over fated islands in the expanse of ocean 
before us, while the sun shone brilliantly on others. 
The grandeur of such storms is seldom witnessed in 
the calmer climates of the continent of Europe. 

April 25th. — I have been now two days at Antiphel- 
lus, and have had more time to devote to the exami- 
nation of its remains than on my last rapid journey. 
The inscriptions upon the tombs are so much corroded 
by time and sea air that many of them are illegible. 


♦ Translation. — *' Of Nicolaus, the son of Theodorus." 

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186 LYCIA. 

One or two I admired for their simplicity, and from 
others gathered the name of the place. I find no bi- 
lingual inscriptions with the Lycian ; all are Greek that 













I have seen, excepting one upon the sarcophagus, which 
was so distinguished by its beauty of proportion and 
form, as well as situation, that I sketched it on my last 

* Translation, — "Eutychon, keeper of accounts [?], to the most 
distinguished Marcus Aurelius Ptolemseus, coming [to discharge an- 
nual functions ?] for the fourth time [?], a citizen of Antiphellus, has 
huilt the monument for himself and his wife Eupolis, and their children, 
and to vhomsoever he may in his lifetime give permission. But in 
the under compartment [?] there will be buried his [?] foster-children. 
To another it shall not be allowed to bury anybody [here] , since he 
who acts against this shall be a criminal to the gods of hell, and shall 
pay as a fine into the most holy treasury one thousand ^ve hundred 
denarii, of which he who proves [the trespass] shall receive one- 

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ooooo o eooooo 




o o 

o o 


9 O 


O O O 

o o o 


O O O 3 

O O o 



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journey. This stately monument has a long Lycian 
inscription ; I was prevented copying the whole by the 
fractures in many of the deeply-cut letters, but have 
selected from it many perfect words, separated by the 
usual stops, and these may assist in restoring the 
knowledge of the language. 

I have put together upon the annexed Plate several 
designs which I have seen upon the ends of sarcophagi, 
and also some panelled doors, formed of stone; the imi- 
tated knocker is like many of ours of the present day. 
The sphinx represented throughout this country is the 
eastern, and not that seen in the Egyptian sculptures. 
The little theatre here is quite perfect, with the excep- 
tion of its proscenium, which has entirely disappeared : 
the seats are preserved, and clear to the bottom. The 
absence of shrubs, which usually obscure so much the 
interior of the theatres, has tended much to the pre- 
servation of this. 

Yesterday we went to the island of Kastelorizo, to 
lay in stores and to refit ourselves with supplies ; the 
distance may be five or six miles from the shore. The 
town — for it really deserves the name — consists proba- 
bly of six or eight hundred houses, all built upon one 
model, being formed like cubes, with two or three open 
square windows in the front of each, and a door at the 
back. These are built up the side of a steep rock, and, 
viewed together, are more singular-looking than pic- 
turesque. An old castle of the middle ages crowns the 
rock, and gives a character to the city. 

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188 LYCIA. 


On landing in this island, the effect was that of 
visiting a new country : hundreds of Greeks were 
crowding about the little quay and coffee-houses ; wine 
was being retaileil from the cask in the dirty narrow 
streets ; scarcely a dog was to be seen, and pigs sup- 
plied their place. We were told that there were five 
Turks only in the town, the whole population being 
Greek. A number of small vessels filled the harbour ; 
boats were building, houses rising rapidly, and the whole 
population seemed active and enterprising : it is quite 
delightful to see such an intelligent-looking assemblage 
of people, both male and female, in this busy scene ; 
but a host of pure and simple feelings pass from the 
mind, and are succeeded by caution and worldliness, 
which are seldom sufficient to compete with the cunning 
of the Greek. 

This is a metropolis of trade for the whole of the 
south-western coast : al] provisions, and even coins and 
treasures of every kind discovered by the peasants, find 

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a ready market here. I have obtained several ooins^ J 

JQst brought from the valley of the Xanthus, and also j 

saw some singular gems, but the devices were probably 1 

more illustrative of the whims of their former owners | 

than of history. j 

The island of Kastelorizo, which was the ancient J 

Megiste, is perfectly barren of natural supplies ; even | 

the water for the use of the town is collected in large j 

tanks, about a mile up the mountain, whence it is car- i 

ried by the women, who are continually passing and 
repassing in most classic groups, with pitchers slung 
over their shoulders. The jewelry of these people is 
particularly interesting, being precisely the same as 
that seen upon the statues of the ancients. I wished 
much to purchase a bracelet or armlet, but could not 
obtain any ; they are handed down as heir-looms, and, 
should an additional one be required, it is made ex- 
pressly from these models, but they are never kept for 
sale: by this mode the pattern is perpetuated, and I 
feel certain that we here see the models of the orna- 
ments of the ancient Greeks : several of these are often 
seen worn on the same arm, serving as the quartering 
in an heraldic shield, to register the families centered 
in the living heiress. The jewels, or rather gold or- 
naments, are often thus accumulated to a great value ; 
some of the people we saw with their savings'-bank, if 
I may use the expression, around their necks, in twenty 
or forty piastre-pieces of modem Turkish gold — some 
chains containing the current value of above a hundred 

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190 LYCIA. 

pounds. But the characteristic ornament of the pea* 
santry of this island is a row of large fibulae or broaches, 
of chased silver, three inches in diameter, placed one 
below the other, from the throat to the waist, which is 
very low ; the rest of the dress is, as I have befoye de^ 
scribed, purely classic in all its forms. 

Leaving the path which leads to the fountains, we 
ascended the heights above the town, to seek the ruins 
of the city of the early inhabitants of Megiste : some 
fine Cyclopean walls scattered about the top point out 
the site, but no further remains are to be traced. 

A brisk gale carried us back in less than an hour to 
our abode at Antiphellus, or, as the little Scala is now 
called by the Turks, Andiffelo. It consists of only three 
or four houses and a custom-house: the building in 
which we have taken up our abode is appointed for the 
use of strangers, and stands out on a rock into the sea 

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like a bathing-machine. In our room we are here sup- 
plied with, or rather we have found, a mat spread over 
the fioor : this has its disadvantages in a warm climate, 
for as I reclined upon my mattress, I saw creeping from 
behind my head up the wall a large scorpion; I had 
scarcely time to examine its lobster-like appearance 
before my servant killed it in great haste, wishing, for 
some superstitious reason, to put it into the fire ; its 
body was about five inches long, the tail and the claws 
about three, appearing thick and large for its body. 
Having landed our provisions, and killed a sheep, we 
were again prepared for a return into the mountains, 
towards the east, in search of other Lycian cities hi- 
therto unvisited by Europeans. 

April 26f A, Cassabar, — ^This place is situated in a large 
valley, extensively cultivated and watered by a consi- 
derable river, formed by three united streams from the 
south-west, west, and north. The town, or rather large 
scattered village, is at the south-western end, and has a 
walled konak, which has probably been the strong-hold 
of some Derebbe, a bazaar, and a minaretted mosque, 
the only one I have seen in Lycia. The surrounding 
soil is deep, rich, and generally arable. 

On leaving Antiphellus we ascended the steep moun- 
tain-chain towards the north-east for about seven miles, 
when we came to the little village of Awalah, with its 
small cultivated plain. Traversing this, we saw at its 
southern extremity a sarcophagus and the remains of 
walls upon the rock above, but of so trifling an extent 

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192 LYCIA. 

that we did not leave our track to examine them. In 
another hour we gained the summit of this elevated 
chain of mountains^ leaving behind us one of, perhaps, 
the most beautifully varied coasts in the world. Before 
us lay a deep ravine, in the chain of richly-wooded 
mountains, carrying the eye down to this extensive 
valley, with its winding streams ; the whole was bound- 
ed by ranges of snowy mountains, while others peered 
above them, forming the eastern coast of Lycia, extend- 
ing from Mount Phoenix in the south to Mount Climax 
in the north. 

The hills within the valley, and through which we de- 
scended, are of limestone, in thin layers, distorted into 
most fantastic forms by volcanic heavings ; the strata 
are pften shivered into regular squares, some appearing 
like paving-tiles, and others as small as the pavements 
of Roman mosaic. This crumbling material is being 
washed down into the valleys, cutting the hills into deep 
ravines, which continually crossed the path as we de- 
scended their sides. The weather is at this season ex- 
tremely changeable: we have had storms almost daily; 
and today, the Easter Sunday of the Greeks, the rain 
has not yet ceased, and noon is past. On my former 
travels, during the same season, I was scarcely detained 
a single day by the bad weather. I hear that it was as 
remarkably dry as this is a rainy season. 

April 27th. — ^We are now at Myra, the ancient name 
perpetuated by the Greeks, but called by the Turks 
Dembre. Yesterday the rain came down in torrents 

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MYRA. 193 

incessantly, and we remained busily employed in sketch- 
ing and writing in our little hut, which was scarcely proof 
against the heavy rain. The night was fair, and as the 
waters in this region rapidly subside, we started at ten 
o'clock in the morning for this place, a distance of 
seven hours, about twenty-five miles. 

For the first eight miles we traversed the valley of 
Cassabar; after crossing three tributary streams from 
the north, we arrived at a village, where another small 
river met us from the east. I saw the course of this 
with surprise, thinking it the stream which we had 
followed on our right ; but the latter had suddenly 
disappeared, and this new one entered with us a narrow 
cleft in the rocks to the south : the road and river to- 
gether did not occupy ten yards of space between the 
perpendicular rocks, whose sides were here excavated 
with Lycian tombs. On our right was a rocky moun- 
tain, crowned with a towered wall of early Greek con- 
struction. This fortified mountain was singularly iso- 
lated ; it arose almost perpendicularly from our valley, 
with the rest of the range, and I have said that on the 
east side it was cut through by a river and our road. 
On the west, the great river of our valley had disap- 
peared into a still narrower chasm, about a quarter of a 
mile before we came to this mountain. These streams 
meet in a deep ravine, half a mile southward, making 
the rock of this city almost an island. Tliese ruins, 
from their position, may probably be the site of the city 
of Trabala. 

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194 LYCIA. 

It is common for people to extol the objects of pre- 
sent excitement above any they have ever seen, but, as 
I rode for five hours through a pass of the mountains, 
calling to recollection the scenery of Britain, Germany, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Greece, I must say that I have 
never before met with any of this description so mag* 
nificently beautiful and so lengthened. It is a gorge 
unaccountably formed through a range of mountains 
many thousand feet in height, and so narrow that the 
river alone occupies the ravine. Our track was down 
its bed, and we crossed and recrossed its waters, as they 
rushed from side to side, above thirty times: the stream 
was generally about four feet deep. 

This narrow valley, generally bearing to the south- 
east, wound about continually, leaving us for the first 
ten miles apparently locked in by the grandest clifis 
of limestone, every ledge nurturing a tree : the extent 
of our view never exceeded half a mile. The valley 
then slightly widened, allowing a few luxuriant trees to 
grow upon the banks of the river: and the goatherd's 
pipe and the bleating of his flock broke the monotonous 
grandeur of the sound of rushing waters, which was 
echoed by the clifis on either side. For another hour 
the valley continued narrow, but the cliffs fell back into 
more wooded mountains, and in an hour more our road 
suddenly opened upon the plain of Myra: the river, 
after running four or five miles through these well-cul- 
tivated districts, finds its course to the sea. 
The fatigue of excitement, from the beauty and sin- 

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MYRA. 195 

gularity of the scenery, made me rejoice at reaching 
this ancient city; and the hodily fatigue to the haggage- 
horses, of wading so often through the rapid water, 
scarcely left them strength to reach the end of the 
journey. A few miles before we arrived at the termi- 
nation of the ravine, several remains of Greek-built 
towers rose from amidst the trees, on the points of 
rocks, apparently inaccessible ; and at the opening of 
the ravine commenced the cutting of an aqueduct in 
the face of the perpendicular cliff, which we traced on 
our right hand to the ancient city. In following its 
now broken course, numbers of highly ornamented 
tombs caught my eye, and promised full occupation for 
a day or two's sojourn amongst them. 


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Ruins of Mjn — ^Tombs — Coloured Bas-reliefs — Ruins — Passage of 
Mountain to Phineka — ^Ancient Isium P-^Iimyra — Sculptures and 
Inscription — Ancient Bridge — Gagse — Excursion by the Promon- 
tarium Sacrum to Olympus — A deserted Village — ^Valley of the 
Arycandus — Tombs — Ruins — ^Discovery of Arycanda — ^its Ruins. 

April 28th. — Myra was among the most important of 
the Lycian cities, and its ruins appear to be little in- 
jured by age. The city must have extended far over 
the plains, in front of the rock, which has now the 
theatre at its foot, and a multitude of beautiful tombs 
cut in its cliiF; I say this, judging from the very rea- 
sonable arguments advanced by Mr. Cockerell, that 
the size of the theatre is a good indication of the popu- 
lation of a city. The theatre at Myra is among the 
largest and the best built in Asia Minor: much of its 
fine corridor and corniced proscenium remains; the 
upper seats have disappeared, but the present crop of 
wheat occupies little more than the area; probably 
about six feet of earth may have accumulated upon 
its surface. As an argument against the former great 
size of the city, I should bring the proportionate small 

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MYRA. 197 

number of tombs now existing in the rocks ; although » 
as at Telmessus, many of the inhabitants may have 
been entombed in sarcophagi on the plain, which have 
perhaps disappeared; certainly the tombs that remain 
could not have contained a single generation of the 
people. The tombs are generally very large, and all 
appear to have been for families ; some having small 
chambers, one leading to the other, and some highly 
interesting from their interior peculiarities of arrange- 
ment. The external ornaments are here enriched by 
sculptured statues in the rocks around, and these in the 
chaste style of the Lycians, whose language, with one 
exception, is universal in the inscriptions here; but 
the tombs are mostly without any inscription whatever. 
The annexed Plate shows a pediment over the entrance 
to a handsome Ionic tomb cut in the rock ; the orna- 
ments below it are within the portico, and are repeated 
on each side of the door of the tomb, over which is the 
small bas-relief. The pilaster, surmounted by a lion's 
head, has a singular eifect, and the ornaments retain the 
marks of having been tinted with various colours. The 
base of this pilaster is also drawn upon the same Plate. 
Within the porticos of several of the tombs (for 
many of these, like those at Tlos and Pinara, have a 
lobby or porch) are bas-reliefs in better preservation 
than those in other cities. Some of these have addi- 
tional interest from retaining the colours with which 
they were painted, and removing another of the few 
doubts I still entertain of these people having been con- 
nected with the ancient inhabitants of Etruria. The cus- 

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torn of colouring their statues, as well aa the mode of 
doing it, and the similarity of the action of the figures, 
will strike every one. The letters of the inscription 
were painted alternately hlue and red. I must trust to 
my sketches to represent the sculpture upon the tc^nbs, 
which is of the finest age for ease, simplicity, and 
beauty of proportion. The drawing shows a double- 
fronted Elizabethan tomb, cut in the rock, on the side 
of the town towards the river ; the sculpture is here 
near to the eye, and does not suffer by a close exami- 
nation. On the north side of the tomb is sculptured 
on the rock this fine commanding figure, and in the 

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MYRA. 199 

Plate is shown the outer sculpture upon the south side. 
The bas-reliefs within the portico are represented in the 
coloured Plate, the tints of which are exactly those on 
almost every part of the marble. The youth near 
the female figure holds in his hand the strigil and oil- 
bottle, which were used in the gymnasium ; the naked 
boy is upon the muUion of the inner front, and the 
figure upon the couch faces the grouped subject : the 
sketches of the bas-reliefs must tell their history, for 
there are no inscriptions upon the tomb*. ' 

On the plains of Myra are scattered many ruins, but 
at great distances from each other ; and wherever the 
fine standing corn does not surround them, a swamp is 
the cause of the want of cultivation, and either of these 
prevents our close examination. One pile nearer to 

* The satisfaction which I derived on my return to Athens, in re- 
newing my acquaintance with the justly celebrated Plrofessor Muller, 
has made me the more aware of the immense loss which Europe has 
sustained by the death of one of her greatest scholars in all the vigour 
of life. I wish that I could remember the many valuable remarks he 
made upon the subject of my discoveries, in which he took a most 
lively interest. On seeing the coloured drawing of this tomb, he ex- 
pressed the following opinion as to the mode of colouring adopted by 
the Greeks in their works of art : — " The ancients painted their bas- 
reliefis : they only tinged their statues ; tinging the drapery, leaving the 
flesh part uncoloured ; the wounds and blood were stained, and the ear- 
rings and ornaments gilded. Their temples were left white, but parts of 
the frieze and architectural ornaments were coloured, but very minutely. 
Their temples of coarser materials were plastered, and entirely coloured. 
The Parthenon frieze was coloured, all the backgrounds of their bas- 
reliefs were painted." — ^This was his opinion at Athens, June 26th, 1840. 

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200 LYCIA. 

the sea is known, from inscriptions found, to have been 
a granary built in the time of Adrian. Another clump 
at a short distance from us is of the middle ages, and 
until lately boasted the possession of the bones of St. 
Nicholas ; but these have been transported to Russia, 
and a Greek priest alone remains within the holy walls, 
which were formerly the object of pilgrimages to the 
tomb of this favourite saint of the Greek church, whose 
birth-place is still holy ground at Patara. This saint 
appears to be more venerated here than St. Paul, who 
visited Myra on his voyage to Rome*. 

The old priest tells us that he alone is left upon the 
plain after the middle of May, as every hut in this vil- 
lage and on the plain is then deserted for the moun- 
tains, on account of the heat and the appearance of an 
overwhelming number of mosquitos or gnats. A large 
black fly also appears at that season, which stings the 
cattle ; at its approach they are described running as if 
mad into the mountains. 

Another sketch represents a mass of tombs cut in the 
rock, near to the theatre ; one of these is pointed out by 
two small figures, and is again drawn upon the follow- 
ing Plate : the Turkish figure below may serve as a scale 
for the sculpture above, which is colossal. 

The following fragment in the Greek language I co- 
pied from a rock-tomb, above which were several lines 
illegible from the filtering of the waters over the rock : 

* Acts xxvii. 5. 

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Cr.wri by Cha' rellowi t.^q 

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Etched by G Scharf Jun' 

lr:;^i)i'-*'v' TOJ^'lB^:? ^dttm BAC: KE l; if:^ ^^ '^^a?'X. 

John Murray. I ondon , 1841 

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MYRA. 201 















* The greater part of this inscription, which is funereal, ia illegible, 
or left without connection. In the seventh and eighth lines are men- 
tioned sacrifices (or burials, see page 134,) made by the dty. Ilien 
are entibierated (not named) the persons entitled to be buried in the 
tomb, viz. the children and sons-in-law of the proprietress. The last 
lines seem to have contained a curse against him who should attempt 
to open the tomb, similar to a curse with which the like offence is 
threatened by Demetrius Phalereus on a tomb-stone now to be seen 
at Oxford (see Chandler's Mann. Oxon. 11. 60) : " The earth shall 
bear no fruit unto him, and he shall be an enemy to the gods." 

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202 LYCIA. 

The following was written within the door of a tomb: 


The peasants here are very attentive in keeping back 
their fierce dogs, and rendering any assistance in their 
power, but they are not antiquarians: they know no 
distinction between tombs, towers, and theatres, and 
cannot recognize in the statues the likeness of man. 
In reply to our inquiries after coins, the people told us 
that they had collected none, adding that these were 
the money of Ghiaours, which they would not touch ; 
they went however to inquire if the children had, in 
ignorance, picked up any, but I regret that the search 
was unsuccessful. The people say that many Franks 
have been to see the ''old castles" here, but that there 
are more high up in the mountains to the north, now 
covered with snow, about three hours' climbing from 
this place. The improbability of a city of importance 
having existed in a region where the snows remain so 
late in the season, and the inconvenience and delay 
of visiting probably merely some strong-hold of former 
times, made us resolve to proceed on our route towards 
Phineka, a distance of nine hours. The Greek priest 
says that we ought to remain here three years, to see 
all the ruins in this country. 

April 29<A, Phineka. — This is a little village, about 

* TVanslation-^** Of Arsaaia the daughter of Myndus." 

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MYRA. 203 

two miles up a navigable river from the sea ; its name 
resembles that of the ancient appellation of this district 
— Phcenicus : the indigenous palm-trees reminded me 
of the origin of the name, unless perhaps the generic 
name of the plant may have had its derivation from 
this district. 

On leaving Myra this morning, we traversed the 
plain towards the east, and crossing the river, which 
was carrying down hundreds of sticks of timber, we 
ascended a wooded hill to the little village of Vourtar- 
pessa. From this slight elevation we had a fine view 
of the whole plain, and could study its geography. In 
the vegetable world I have observed several additions to 
my already numerous list of luxuriant trees and shrubs: 
these are the barbery, which is here a large tree, and 
now in bloom ; the castor-oil, the stems of which are 
as thick as a man's body, and are now in blossom, with 
formed fruit, and the seed of last year, all clustered 
beneath the large rich leaf; and the pistacia, called 
here by the Greeks the chickurea, which has a richer 
appearance than our dark ash, but not so much so as 
the carob, which is here the principal tree of the hills, 
affording a welcome shade at all seasons. At Myra, 
among the rocks, flourishes a beautiful kind of aloe; the 
flowers seldom exceed three or four feet in height, and 
two or three branches spring from its stem ; the colour 
is a rich yellow, and the leaf is like that of a small Ame- 
rican aloe*. I observed numerous varieties of the onion 

* Alot vulgaris. 

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204 LYCIA. 

tribe, and added greatly to my collection of plants^ but 
travelling is not favourable to their preservation. 

On leaving the plains of Myra, we had a fine view of 
the lake, or rather inlet from the sea, from which it is 
separated only by a low bank of sand ; at the eastern 
end it is connected with the sea by a channel, and 
this, being a favourable position for a fishery, is much 
valued by the Greeks, who have here an establishment 
for salting the fish. The waters on the coast of this 
country are generally so deep that fish is by no means 
plentiful, and is sought to advantage only at the mouth 
or in the shallows formed by the rivers. 

In and upon the swampy sides of this lake is said 
to have stood a city, and the little streams which occa- 
sionally run from the mountains on the east have been 
supposed to be the ancient Limyrus. Buildings are 
seen beneath the waters by the fishermen ; but the in- 
significance of the stream, and the low situation for a 
city, seem to me opposed to the idea of its having 
been a Greek site. On the hill to the north, about a 
mile from the lake, we passed a castle or building con- 
sisting of two square towers, walled round, all of an- 
cient Greek and good masonry; but we observed no 
other indication of a former people. 

From our road for the next six hours I warn other 
travellers who attempt to transport their baggage. It 
is totally unfit for horses, more from the extreme la- 
bour of the rapid and unceasing ascent, than from the 
craggy or dangerous road. For three hours we did not , 

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ISIUM. 205" 

find a level large enough for a horse to stand upon, 
and at the end of that time we were among numerous 
sarcophagi upon the ridge of a mountain about five 
thousand feet above the undisturbed blue mirror of the 
sea at its base. Above these tombs was a walled city, 
accessible only from this northern ridge on which we 
stood ; for it crowned the end of a fine range of moun- 
tains, whose summit of snow we now traced, and whose 
base we had traversed from the north-west towards 
Cassabar. This was probably the ancient Isium. 

What a wonderful people the ancient Greeks were 1 
This mountain country was literally strewed with cities 
and stately towers, which stand uninjured and un- 
occupied two thousand years after their builders are 
removed! Descending from this elevation, we again 
crossed a lower chain of mountains towards the east, 
and then rapidly descended to the plain of Phineka. 
We passed several Greek-built towers, each command- 
ing splendid and extensive views down their several 
ravines. Near the sea the palm-trees grow as shrubs, 
and seem indigenous to this part. 

April 30th. — ^To give the horses rest after the fatigue 
and strain of yesterday, we have this morning walked 
to examine the remains of the ancient Limyra. Had 
we been able to cross the portion of the valley opposite 
— due east of this place — the distance could not have 
exceeded three miles; but to avoid the swamp, and 
the tortuous and deep clear streams of various rivers, 
we had to skirt the plains for more than 6ix miles. We 

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206 LYCIA. 

passed the scattered village of Demergeecooe, inhabited 
chiefly by Chinganees, who are employed in rearing 
cattle : we had to send for them to this village to shoe 
our horses. These gipsies are generally a people pos- 
sessing considerable property in stock, and are probably 
induced to form here a larger colony than usual by the 
extreme luxuriance of the climate : their huts are almost 
buried amid fruit-trees. 

Near this village we crossed most of the streams by 
bridges, or, when sufficiently shallow, we forded them, 
and in half an hour reached the ruins of the ancient 
city of Limyra. A fine stately sarcophagus was the 
first indication of our approach, and this monument I 
found to be of high interest, from having upon its front, 
by the side of the door (which has had a portico), a bilin- 
gual inscription, Lycian and Greek. I think this is the 
one copied by Mr. Cockerell, and published in Walpole's 
Travels ; but I have taken a faithful copy, and hope 
that it may prove a different one, affording additional 
assistance in deciphering the language. Hundreds of 
tombs cut in the rocks, and quite excavating the long 
ribs of its protruding strata, as they curved down the 
sides of the mountain, soon came in view, and their ex- 
amination occupied some hours. The inscriptions were 
almost all Lycian, — ^some few Greek, but these were al- 
ways inferior in execution, some being merely scratched 
upon the surface, while the Lycian were cut deeply in the 
stone, and many richly coloured; the letters being alter- 
nately red and blue, or in others green, yellow, or red. 

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LIMYRA. 207 

I have copied the two following Greek inscriptions 
from the rock-tombs ; those in the Lycian language will 
be found in Plate XXXVI. 




KAiTOYZErtirrerENOYz t 

Connected with some of these inscribed tombs were 
beautiful bas-reliefs, mythological decorations, and bat- 
tle-scenes — all illustrating the history of the earliest 
times, perhaps the age of Homer. Some retain their 
colours, others scarcely their form, as the weather, 
from their several aspects, has affected them. A spi- 
rited battle-scene, shown in the annexed Plate, had va- 
rious Lycian names Written beneath each group, which 
may serve to illustrate and give increased interest to 
one another. 

Beyond these tombs lay the city, marked by many 
foundations, and by a long wall with towers. Further 

* IVanalaiion. — " Hermeias [?] has built this tomb for himself and 
his wife and his fEunUy." 

t This seems to be a funereal inscription in memory of " a woman, 
Oormatis [?], her sister Semiramis, the wife [?] of Xenocritus, and their 

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on is a very pretty theatre, in front of which winds a 
river, which suddenly appears in the neighbourhood. 
Beyond this, stood another fine sarcophagus, sculptured 
with beautiful bas-reliefs, but in a very mutilated state. 

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W // 

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LIMYRA. 209 

This attracted our attention to many more tombs cut 
in the rocks, in various styles of architecture ; some, of 
the Ionic order, are in high preservation. At the en- 
trance of one of the rock-tombs were sculptured two 
fine figures, probably mythological, which are shown in 
the annexed Plate. Xhe tombs here are far more nu- 
merous than at Myra, but the size of the theatre be- 
speaks a smaller population. 

May \st. — ^Another month has commenced, and how 
little do I know of Lycia ! I shall be obliged to leave 
much gleaning in this district alone, and still more is 
undiscovered in Famphylia : but the province of Lycia, 
which has never been corrupted by the Roman or Chris- 
tian styles, and retains the simple beauty of the early 
Greek, has for me the greatest attractions. 

This morning we left Phineka for this village, called 
Haggevalleh. The distance is five hours, reckoning by 
time, for we have had again to ^skirt the plain and re- 
pass Limyra. Continuing at the foot of the mountain 
for two miles beyond that city, we found, quite sepa- 
rated from it, a large collection of ornamented tombs 
in the rocks, but no walls or indications of another 
city ; these therefore must probably be added to the 
cemeteries of Limyra. The inscriptions, with a single 
exception, were all Lycian, and this hacl Greek letters 
over one panel, and over the other an Eastern charac- 
ter unknown to me, much resembling the letters upon 
the coins of Phoenicia*. Still skirting the plains, we 

* This Phoeaician inscription is given in Plate XXXVI. No. 1. 


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210 LYCIA. 

soon arrived at an ancient Greek bridge, over a very 
wide but shallow river, having twenty-five arches, all 
beautifully formed with large tiles. The top of the 
bridge is quite flat, and paved with the original Greek 
squared stones, which are of immense size : it is about 
twelve feet wide, and does not appear to have had any 
parapets. Near the foot of this bridge is the village 
of Armootlee, with a substantially-built mosque and 
towers, apparently of the middle ages, now forming the 
ruined establishment of the Aga. Another small village 
near is called Hascooe. 

What would be the produce of this plain of Phineka 
under the management of an active and industrious 
people ! The extreme luxuriance of the soil can alone 
account for the multitude of cities of the ancient in- 
habitants, who, if I remember rightly, looked for little 
produce from foreign nations, and themselves supplied 
armies larger than ever assembled from other parts of 
the earth ; this mountainous district of Lycia was not 
wanting in her musters at Troy and Marathon : 

" The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields. 
Where gulphy Xanthus foams along the fields *," 

The ruins of this village, I fancy, must be those of 
Gagse. They stand upon, and between, two isolated 
rocks, now literally covered with walls. Under these 
hills runs a considerable river from the north-east, over 
which are the remains of an aqueduct that formerly 
brought water from the opposite mountain for the use 

* Iliad, book 2. 

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GAG^. 211 

of the city. A small theatre also remains, in good 
preservation. Inscriptions there are none, and, what 
is more singular, we could only discover one tomb in 
the rocks. I account for this from the nature of the 
stone, which is here, as in many similar mounds in 
the immediate neighbourhood, protruded by volcanic 
powers, and is so hardened and cracked that to work 
it is impossible. This may also explain the very in- 
ferior workmanship of almost all the walls, which are 
composed of chips of stone, and even boulders, held 
together with cement : the theatre and one or two walls 
are exceptions. The singular protruding hills around 
are described by Captain Beaufort in his Survey, as 
appearing from the sea like tumuli. I do not see in 
the general appearance of the ruins of this place any 
traces of an after people — no old material built into the 
walls; but there are several indications of the former 
existence of a Christian church, perhaps of a late date. 
Probably these ruins may not be many centuries old. 
At the present time the Greek Church holds several 
spots along this coast, sacred to the memory of St. 
Nicholas, St. John, and St. Paul. 

May 2nd. — Leaving Haggevalleh, we passed in half an 
hour the somewhat large village of Eetheree. The old 
konak here appeared going to ruin : the new Agas do 
not take possession of these establishments, but leave 
them open for any stranger to occupy ; should firewood 
be scarce, a rafter from the roof or planks from the 
floor are torn up for the purpose. 


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212 LYCIA. 

We skirted the plain of the bay of Fhineka, along 
the richly- wooded slopes of the mountains curving to- 
wards the south-east, and afterwards to the south, and 
arrived in three hours at a village called Phineka-cooe. 
From this point we ascended a wooded mountain, and 
descended upon the beautiful little bay formed by Cape 
Chelidonia, the ancient Promontarium Sacrum, which is 
carried onwards into the sea by the rocky islands be- 
yond its point. I observed a few tombs cut in the clifis 
in this wild neighbourhood. Colonel Leake, in his map, 
suggests that Melanippe is likely to be found here. 

Turning to the north, we followed a ravine which led 
to a pastoral district inhabited by yourooks, tending 
their flocks of sheep; and after traversing for three 
hours this bold but rich scenery, we took an easterly 
direction, and descended rapidly the deep ravine lead- 
ing to the bay of Atrasamy. We soon after passed 
some high peaks of rocks, which appeared as if the 
mountain had been built up by a Cyclopean people and 
an earthquake had shaken down their gigantic struc- 
tures. After a ride of seven hours we arrived at the 
village of Atrasarny, ©very hut of which was com- 
pletely concealed in an orchard or labyrinth of fruit- 
trees. I amused myself by noticing the various kinds*, 
all probably scattered here by nature, for I find several 

* Pomegranate, vine, orange, apricot, peach, walnut, carob, almond, 
mulberry, pistacia, pear, gegefer and fig ; above and amidst the rocks 
were the olive, plane, oak, stone-pine and cypress. 

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of the Turkish names of the villages imply their natural 
productions of fruit. 

The scenery of this promontory is unique, in its com- 
bination of sublime grandeur with the most luxuriant 
richness of vegetation. The stems of many myrtles, 
through extensive woods of which we rode yesterday, 
were a foot in diameter, and generally six or eight 
inches; the strawberry-arbutus and the daphne-laurel 
are here large trees. In the animal world nature exhi- 
bits less variety. How I envy its universal tongue! 
the birds sing the same song, and all the various flocks 
have the same voice — their instincts are universal. 
This morning flies bit the horses, swallows skimmed 
over the ground, and rain followed in torrents; the 
cattle all turned their backs to the beating storm, and 
the sea-birds flew to the shore. I was amused by 
watching a chameleon which crossed my path, about 
eighteen inches long, and with its tail curved upwards, 
walking exactly as we should do on all fours ; its fore- 
legs had the same motion as our hands would have, at 
each step contracting the palms and lifting the feet un- 
necessarily high from the ground. The motion of this 
singular but beautiful little animal is very slow, its 
rolling eyeballs and quick tongue moving almost too 
rapidly to be perceptible ; I observed that its colour 
varied, without the animal being in any way alarmed, 
as it passed the several shades of the earth, the grass, 
and the rocks. We have shot a few of the birds of gay 
plumage, the Bee-eater and the Roller, for their skins ; 

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214 LYCIA. 

but the trouble of preparing the ^hole myself is greater 
than I can undertake, knowing from my collection on 
the last journey that few of these birds differ from those 
which annually visit England. Among the flowers, the 
most striking now in bloom is the splendid snake- 
grass {Arum dracunculus). The beauty of this is quite 
overlooked by the flower-admiring Turk, who holds it 
in disgust entirely on account of its fetid smell ; while 
the most minute flower, and even the budding leaves of 
the walnut and other trees, are continually presented 
from one to another on account of their sweetness. 

May 3rd. — ^We have hitherto had but few disappoint- 
ments arising from the accounts of ruins given by the 
people, but we have now lost several days, owing to the 
variety of names for the same village, and to the mis- 
representation of the ruins by a Greek priest, who told 
us of a beautiful temple and columns, and other re- 
mains, in the mountain : the name of the place was Che- 
ralee. In our search for this, we have merely come 
to the Genoese town of Deliktash, upon the coast, 
which I have before visited and described as the an- 
cient Olympus. It certainly does contain the basement 
* of the walls of a temple, but there is no appearance of 
its ever having had columns ; nor is it at all seen 
above the wilderness of bushes and Genoese walls by 
which it is surrounded. I find that the name given to 
the coast generally is Cheralee. Probably from the cir- 
cumstance of the Greeks visiting this place from the 
sea only (on their trading expeditions for firewood, with 

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which this coast abounds); the description of the ruins 
given by them diflFers much from the accounts of per- 
sons who could compare them with the ruined cities 
of the interior. A ride of two hours from Atrasarny, 
through a deep ravine between high cliflFs and peaks of 
rock standing out boldly from the pine forests beneath, 
brought us to the sea at Deliktash. Disappointed at 
finding myself in a place I cared little to see again, we 
turned our horses' heads and retraced our steps up the 
ravine ; and keeping ^ong its rapid little river, in less 
than two hours we arrived at a few houses called, from 
the river, Chicooe. 

On entering the village, we had difficulty in finding 
any inhabitants, which was afterwards thus accounted 
for : during the old system of governing this country, 
every facility was given by the Pashas, and all grades 
of officials under them, for cultivating the ground and 
increasing and maintaining their own influence: this 
individual exertion, and the capital lent by these go- 
vernors for the purchase of seed, together with pecu- 
niary assistance to increase the stock, are now with- 
drawn, and the various Pashas have sent to seize upon 
all the stock and crops of last year for the full pay- 
ment of their loans. The distress is consequently very 
great: the barley, which is in Asia Minor the food of 
horses only, has been all consumed by the people, and ^ 
until the com ripens they are living almost wholly upon 
herbs. In other cases^ as in this village, where the 
crops were derived from different sources, such as fruit, 


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216 LYCIA. 

silky or tobacco, the people, on being deprived of all 
their harvest, have left the place : only two families re- 
main to represent Chicooe, which is described as having 
had within these two years a large and wealthy popula- 
tion : the fences, fountains, sheds^^ and cultivated mul- 
berry-trees confirm this account. This is the natural 
consequence of so great and sudden a change of sy- 
stem ; in a few years it may perhaps work better, but 
the Turk still has the same manners, and as yet — ^but 
his days are numbered — commands the peasantry. 

Our cavalcade was shunned by the few remaining vil- 
lagers, under the idea that we were Turks, who, when 
they pass through, consume the Uttle store of the half- 
ruined people; and, if not supplied, the whip is ap- 
plied to make them seek it from the flocks. When the 
villagers were told that we were willing to pay for what 
we required, and a few eggs were purchased at the rate 
of six for a penny, supplies were brought from all quar- 
ters — fowls, milk, butter, youghoort and honey. 

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May Atk. — ^We are again at Armootlee. Leaving our 
fruitful little village on the river of Olympus, we con- 
tinued a steep ascent towards the west for nearly three 
hours, passing from the mountain-limestone of the high 
crags encircling us, over an isolated mound (ahout half 
a mile in extent) of granite and other volcanic produc- 
tions, accompanied of course by a zone of slaty, hard- 
baked and shivered limestone. Within a few miles of 
this spot, toward the north-east, is the Yanah Dah, or 
Burning Mountain, which I regret being unable to visit; 
there is a small aperture in- the rock, through which a 
stream of inflanunable gas has issued continually, and 
unvarying, from time beyond the reach of history; it 
is mentioned by Pliny, and is now, as formerly, con- 
nected with many tales of superstition. Some writers 
have supposed this phenomenon to have identified these 
mountains as the scene of the Chimaera. Their tops 
are much frequented by eagles and vultures, and the di- 
strict is that of Mount Phoenix. Whence had we the 
emblem of the Phoenix rising from the flames ? 

On the summit of the mountain we were ascending 
stood the village of Ballintayer, which commanded a 
splendid panoramic view, including the range of high 
mountains on the eastern coast — broken by the deep 
gorges in which stand the ancient cities of Olympus 
and Phaselis. The beauty of the natural scenery is un- 
altered, and the blue sea stretches across the openings 
in the mountains, carrying the eye on to the extended 
and snow-capped range of the Taurus until it is lost 

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218 LYCIA. 

in the horizon. Traversing the wooded summit of this 
mountain, we kept on a westward course, until a rapid 
descent brought us down upon the valley at Eetheree : 
a ride of two more hours along the plain completed 
our journey. 

Not having in this excursion found the ancient city 
of Corydalla, I feel sure that it must lie up the valley 
at the north of Gagse; but being unable to hear of 
any ruins there, and having wasted several days, I shall 
leave this city for others to explore, and tomorrow pro- 
ceed on my way toward the interior of the country. 

May 5th. — ^My tent is pitched about twenty miles up 
the valley of the ancient Arycandus, to the north of 
Limyra. A journal, after all, is only a register of the 
state of the mind as impressed by the objects of the 
day; I shall therefore not hesitate to describe my own 
feeeUngs, and confess that I never felt less inclined or 
less able to put to paper any remarks than the impres- 
sions produced by my ride during the last five hours. I 
have heard others speak of a melancholy being caused 
by the overwhelming e£fect of the sublime ; but it is 
not melancholy when better analysed ; it is a thought- 
fulness and feeling of gratified pleasure which affects 
me, and I long to express what perhaps is better indi- 
cated by the prostration of the Oriental worshiper than 
by any verbal description ; I feel as if I had come into 
the world and seen the perfection of its loveliness, and 
was satisfied. I know no scenery equal in sublimity 
and beauty to this part of Lycia. 

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The mere mention of mountain scenery cannot give 
any idea of the mountains here, which are broken into 
sections forming cliffs, whose upheaved strata stand 
erect in peaks many thousand feet high, uniting to 
form a wild chaos, but each part harmonized by the 
other ; for all is grand, yet lovely. Deep in the ra- 
vines dash torrents of the purest water, and over these 
grow the most luxuriant trees ; above, are the graver 
forests of pines upon the grey cliffs, and higher than 
these are ranges of mountains capped with snow, con- 
trasting with the deep blue of the cloudless sky. But 
to the details of the road. 

Recrossing the ancient Greek bridge, which I find to 
be four hundred and sixty-two yards in length, we again 
passed the ruins of Limyra and its extended district of 
tombs, to the village of Demergee, at which place we 
took a northerly direction up the narrow valley of the 
river, probably the ancient Arycandus. About six miles 
from Limyra, we saw on the brow of a cliff above us 
some beautiful tombs, in such good preservation that 
they appeared but the work of yesterday. On exami- 
nation I found that this was effected in the following 
manner : the overhanging rock was carefully sloped into 
a roof, and a regular gutter cut in this, carrying off 
all the dripping water from the sculptured tomb, which 
thus remains unstained as on the day of its forma- 
tion, above two thousand years ago. My disappoint- 
ment as well as surprise was great, that such beautiful 
and important tombs should not have been inscribed 

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220 LYCIA. 

or painted ; there were about twenty, in the same rock, 
one representing novelties in architecture somewhat 
Persian*, and more perfect than we had before seen. 
These tombs are now closed with wooden doors, and 
serve as the locked granaries of the peasantry in the 
neighbourhood. I have carefully sketched one of 
themf, which stands upon the top of the cliflF ; the rock 
has been cut away, leaving it a solid piece with the 
cliflF. I have selected this tomb, as showing perhaps 
more distinctly than usual that these monuments are 
close imitations of wooden buildings. This is percept- 
ible in most of the tombs in Lycia ; but here are seen 
imitations of the ties, bolts, joints, and mouldings so 
peculiar to the art of carpentry. No trace whatever 
of a town is visible, but the situation led us to seek 
Arycanda. Two miles fiirther up the valley, many 
broken sarcophagi of a heavy form lay on the side of 
the mountains, and by the road several walls were built 
into the rocks; three piles of buildings, with arched 
windows and small apartments, stood within a few 
hundred yards of each other. This must have been an 
ancient town, but not of much importance, judging 
from the rude materials employed. 

Proceeding onwards for an hour more, walls and sar- 
cophagi were scattered around us, but on none of these 
were any inscriptions legible: they all occupied sites 
worthy of the ancients, indeed in this valley it would 

♦ See Plate IX. No. 10. f See Plate XII. 

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be difficult to find any otherwise. The Turks generally 
select the low swampy plain, and we have consequently 
not yet seen in this valley any village. We are in our 
tent, on a knoll or promontory standing over the river, 
which dashes round three sides of our encampment, 
some hundred feet beneath. The fir-trees around are a 
study for an artist, and the high mountains above us 
vary in beauty according to their aspect. I have just 
discovered that we are not entirely shut out of the 
world ; the crowing of a cock attracted my attention to 
the beautiful over-shot wheel of a water-mill, and the 
owner is wading across the stream with eggs and pro- 
visions for our meal. 

May 6th. — ^We have reached Avelan, about twenty- 
five miles north-west of our last night's encampment. 
For ten miles the road continued up the river, occa- 
sionally crossing and recrossing it by bridges of the 
simplest construction, the lofty trees reaching from 
the rocks on either side, and a number of smaller ones 
being laid transversely. The scenery only changed its 
beauties : the richer fruit-trees disappeared as we gra- 
dually ascended, and the pines and walnuts succeeded ; 
the plane still shadowed the course of the river, its 
branches stretching over the roaring stream. The rocks 
became less craggy and wooded, and gradually assumed 
the wilder grandeur of mountains, the fir-trees clothing 
their sides up to the snowy tops. The river, I may 
now say with certainty, is the Arycandus ; for at about 
thirty.five miles from the sea, and ten on our journey 

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222 LYCIA. 

of today, we found the extensive ruins of a city, and in 
one inscription the name of Arycamda. There is great 
excitement and pleasure in discovering these cities^ once 
so splendid, and whose sites even have been for twenty 
centuries unknown. 

Close to the road on our left, and standing upon 
a precipitous promontory, at the foot of which wound 
the river, were the ruins of a city, but apparently one 
of those I should class as Venetian or Genoese. Some 
hewn stones around the doors, and a few columns, as 
well as the corner-stones of the walls, showed the power 
of execution ; but the rest of the numerous buildings 
were formed of small stones, unhewn and held together 
chiefly by cement, which I have never found to be the 
case in those of the early Greeks. No theatre or other 
public building was visible; and seeking elsewhere for 
more remains, I saw at the distance of a mile and a 
half, up the side of the mountain on our right, massive 
Greek walls of considerable extent. Leaving our horses, 
we went to explore them, and soon found an inscrip- 
tion, but too imperfect for me to copy the whole with- 
out much trouble, and awaiting the change of light. 
The name of Arycamda, however, caught my eye, and 


* Translation. — " To Themistocles, a citizen of Arycamda, the son 
of Lytus [?], from Attica." 

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we copied the line containing it, without reference to 
any other part of the inscription, and then proceeded 
through the numerous tombs around, hoping to find 
others more perfect. The absence of other inscriptions, 
and the interesting names of Themistocles and Attica 
occurring in this fragment, which I did not notice until 
I was many miles distant, make me regret my want of 
perseverance in not endeavouring to copy the whole : 
there were four preceding lines and one following. 

Passing the tombs, we saw that this highly-orna- 
mented city had been built on the side of a steep moun- 
tain, and that the buildings had formed terraces one 
above the other. To one series of these I cannot give 
a name; they were generally rooms twenty to thirty 
feet square, covered by one fine arch, the walls Cyclo- 
pean — ^built into, and with, the rock behind : the front 
alone was visible, the roof often serving as a terrace for 
buildings above. The beautiful execution of the door- 
ways in front, which were coeval with the Cyclopean 
walls, may be seen from the accompanying sketch. 

The large doorway represented in the subjoined wood- 
cut is in the centre ; within, the arched roof was gene- 
rally plastered, and had been painted ; along the back, 
and half way down each side, was a raised bench, five 
feet wide, the height suitable for a seat, but far too 
deep ; there was no appearance of recesses for lamps 
or other purposes, usually found in the mausoleums of 
the ancient Greeks. 

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These buildings appear too large for tombs, and they 
must have been, I think, small for temples. The orna- 
ments were not funereal, and no inscription occurred 
but the following. 



* "It conquers*'? 

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The above inscription was cut upon the wall of one 
of these buildings, of the Corinthian style of ornament, 
and is a strong argument for their having been tem- 
ples ; it may also be of interest to the moralist, pro- 
bably describing the exultation of the Christians of the 
Byzantine age over the vanquished Pagans ; how soon 
did the Christians disappear before the Moslems, and 
how has time robbed both of this now ruined and 
deserted district ! I should attribute the style of these 
buildings to the time of the Roman emperors; they 
are not sufficiently simple in their ornaments for an 
earlier age. A coin found amidst the ruins, and copied 
in Plate XXXV. No. 3, bears the name of the city 
Arycanda, and the head of the emperor Gordian. 

At the back of the theatre, which stood still higher 
up the mountain, was a wall, with buttresses to oppose 
the avalanches of stones rolling down a slight ravine in 
the rocks ; but this has given way before the masses 
which have fallen during so many centuries, and have 
buried the back or centre seats of the theatre ; the rest 
were quite perfect, and the proscenium could be traced 
by its bold Cyclopean walls. Below the theatre was 
a platform, which had seats on the rising side of the 
rock and at the ends : this I imagined to be a stadium, 
but the length of the course was only eighty yards. 
The most conspicuous, building in the city had several 
haUs, and two tiers of windows at the end ; some of 
these halls terminated (like several others I have seen 
in Greek cities) with a fine arch and a circular end; 


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226 LYCIA. 

within this recess were windows, the whole being on a 
large scale. There were numerous other piles of ruins, 
to which I can give no name, as well as several de- 
tached kind of towers, of fine massive Greek structure : 
these are scattered at some distance from the ruins of 
the city. 

Leaving Arycanda, we in half an hour crossed a 
river, which appeared suddenly from the mountains to 
the east, forming a main tributary to the Arycandus; 
the city might therefore be said to be at the head of 
the river as soon as it became worthy of a name. This 
valley, as we continued its ascent, became more wild, 
and fir-trees and cedars alone remained to clothe the 
rocks; the few patches of cultivation indicated a change 
of season, caused by our increased elevation. The com, 
which we had the day before seen changing colour for 
the harvest, was here not an inch above the ground, 
and the buds of the bushes were not yet bursting. 

Having left the course of the river for about three 
hundred yards, we found on our return that its bed was 
dry. Riding up the stony ravine until we reached a 
ridge, we descended slightly for about a mile and a 
half to Avelan, which consists of only three houses : 
although in a comparatively cold region, we have pre- 
ferred the tent to the stable-like accommodation these 
huts afibrded. 

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Avelan — ^its Lake — ^Extensive Plains — Disappearance of a River — Al- 
malee — ^its Population — Mosques — TVade — Site of ancient city, pro- 
bably Podalia — Source of Rivers — ^Passage of Mountain — Higb Plains 
— ^The Yeeilassies— Annual Migration of the Tribes — ^Valley of the 
Xanthus— Macry — Rhodes — City of Rhodes — Sailors — Lavisse — 
Carmylessus— Return to the Yeeilassies — Review of Lycia. 

May 8<A, Almalee. — ^This district is entirely unknown' 
to Europeans, and has quite a distinct character from 
that of the country through which we have before 
passed : no maps of course exist. The disadvantages 
of this are very great, as we know not where to steer or 
what places to ask for ; but there are also advantages, 
and the surprise on arriving last evening at Avelan 
was one, for at this elevation (above three thousand 
feet above the sea) we found a large lake, three or four 
miles wide and ten long, and a plain of three times 
that size covered with com just springing above the 
ground, without a tree to break the perfect monotony of 
the level. At the north-east end of this plain stands 
the largest town in Lycia — almost the largest in Asia 
Minor ; it far exceeds the size of Idin, and probably 



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228 LYCIA. 

contains twenty-five thousand inhabitants. We were in 
some degree prepared to expect this, by the hundreds 
of people we yesterday met on the road, at the distance 
of twenty miles, returning from the market held in this 
town. Our road today for the first six miles skirted 
the lake to the north and north-west, and at the foot 
of mountains covered with cedars and large trees of 
the arbor vita. The shrubs are the rose, the barbary, 
and wild almond, but all are at present fully six weeks 
later than those in the country we have lately passed. 
I observed on the lake (called by the people Avelan- 
gouluh) many stately wild swans, and several large red- 
ducks ; smaller waterfowl were numerous. 

This plain is the largest tract of corn-land, and the 
best cultivated, that I have seen in Asia Minor. The 
season is late before the state of the ground allows the 
use of the plough, as for several weeks after the snow 
disappears this dead level remains too swampy for cul- 
ture. The extensive lake has apparently no river run- 
ning from it, but the singular disappearance of a rapid 
and large stream. of water, probably thirty feet wide and 
six deep, which crossed our track over the plain about 
three miles from this place, may suggest other modes 
of dispersing the water besides evaporation. The river 
of which I speak rushes into a large cave in the moun- 
tain with a tremendous roar, and is lost amidst the 
masses of rocks deep in its dark recesses. The cavern- 
ous limestone of this district fully accounts for the 
sudden appearance of several rivers in the plains of 

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Phineka; among these I may mention the one at Li* 
myra, and probably the Arycandus, which we lost sight 
of so abruptly near the top of the mountain, as well 
as its great tributary near the ancient city. 

A few hundred feet above the plain of Almalee, to 
the eastward^ is another, many miles in extent and co- 
vered with com ; each of these has its villages on the 
rise of the surrounding mountains. Upon my remark- 
ing the very few minarets of mosques seen on entering 
this town, I heard that most of the inhabitants were 
Armenians and Greeks. The houses of the town are 
good, but entirely built of mud and timber ; conse- 
quently even the garden-walls, chimneys, and gateways 
have a wide roof of thin warped boards, giving an 
unsightly appearance to the whole town. The prin- 
cipal mosque is the handsomest I have seen out of 
Constantinople. The ornaments of the minaret, cut 
in stone, are a beautiful specimen of the best ara- 
besque. The minarets of some of the other mosques 
are entirely formed of wood. Water, the indispensable 
element to the Turk, runs through each street, and 
several mills are turned by the streams. Around the 
town, and up the ravines in the steep mountains at 
the back, are excellent gardens, well cultivated with 
the vine and other fruit-trees, but the almond alone is 
yet in bloom. The surrounding mountains have not 
even a bush upon them, and the fire- wood for this 
town is brought from the forests of cedars which we 
had passed on the mountains. For a few pence, a load 

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230 LYCIA. 

of excellent cedar was placed at our door, showing in 
its fracture the rich colour of the wood of our pencils ; 
and as we walked upon the house-top in the evening, 
the smoke from the various chimneys quite scented 
the air with the perfume of cedar-wood. The evening 
view from the roof of our khan was very picturesque ; 
the cry of the Iman from the mosques, the bells of the 
camels, and rattling bills of the cranes upon the sur- 
rounding roofs, the varied costumes of the people in 
the streets, with jewels and coins on the heads of the 
females, into whose harems* our exalted situation com- 
manded a view, added a peculiar interest and beauty to 
the scene. 

A variety of trades are here carried on by this active 
people. Tanning is among the chief, but this is un- 
accompanied by the disagreeable odours of an English 
tan-yard ; the tan is here of the Velanea, and gives 
the well-known scent to Turkey leather : the scent of 
the Russian leather is still more agreeable. I observe 
camels loaded with roots, resembling very fine horse- 
radish! : this is found plentifully here, and used in 
making a sweetmeat ; but it is principally obtained as 
a substitute for soap, and used in the raw state. Se- 
veral woods and roots used in dyeing are also articles 
of merchandize in this town, and there is a consider- 
able trade in the skins of hares. 

♦ The harem is the portion of the house of the Turk set apart for 
the use of his family. f The Silene, 

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I was somewhat surprised to learn from my servant 
that the people are so well informed as to the nature of 
the disappearance of the waters into the earth, which 
I have already noticed; such phsenomena being here, 
and even in parts of our own country, accompanied by 
traditionary superstitions ; a person in our khan told 
my servant the following tale. Seven years ago there 
was very little snow during the winter, and the follow- 
ing summer was unusually dry; the consequence was 
the perfect exhaustion of the supplies of this stream, 
and the cave ceased for above a month to receive any 
waters. The Pasha by rewards induced five men to 
explore the cave with torches ; the relator of this ac- 
count said that he was among the number, and that 
they walked for three hours along a level sandy plain 
within the mountain. The following year the season 
brought as great a deluge, as the former did a drought ; 
the whole plain of Almalee was a flood, like the sea, 
and many of the mud houses were wash d away. The 
consequences of the cessation, and again the rush of 
turbid water, were successively felt in the rivers which 
rise in the plains of Phineka around Limyra. The lake 
here is permanent, and seldom less than at present; 
but the annual floods, on the melting of the snows, ren- 
der a great portion of the plain a morass until about 
the end of April. 

I have observed that here, at Kastelorizo and other 
places where the Greek population is considerable, the 
governor of the town always sends a guard or police- 

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232 LYCIA. 

man to wait on the outside of the door of our room. I 
have frequently declined this honour as unnecessary, 
but the reply has always intimated that we and our 
property are, while in the town, under the protection 
of the governor, and that he cannot answer for the 
honesty of all the people. This has never occurred in 
the towns where the number of the Greeks was small. 

May 2th. — On leaving Almalee this morning, our 
road lay towards the north-west, rising considerably 
as we wound round the girth of the mountain, at the 
foot of which the town is built. From the elevation 
we attained, the extensive valleys, all green with the 
springing com, were traced to an immense distance. A 
branch of the great plain wound beneath our hill, and 
at the end of this we descended through the village 
of Esky-Hissa, which was said to be fiill of ruins ; its 
name impUes an ancient city. Two or three tombs in 
the rock, without inscriptions, and a rude Cyclopean 
wall, are all the works of art that remain on its site, 
well formed by nature for a fine city: this may probably 
have been the ancient Podalia. At the pointed end of 
this plain a river enters it from the mountains, which 
we found was formed by the united waters of two con* 
siderable streams from the north-east and north-west, 
which joined a few yards above. Up the ravine of the 
latter, from the north-west, we followed a good track by 
the side of the rapid and picturesquely-broken torrent : 
the high rocks rose abruptly on either side, and the 
space for the road and river was so narrow, that the 

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asses loaded with wood had to wait in recesses of the 
rocks while we passed. At the distance of a few miles 
up this ravine, on the face of the rock, which stood 
out and caused the waters to change their course, was 
cut in a somewhat rude style this monument : if it was 






fanereal, the tomb had not been opened, nor did there 
appear to be any chamber in the rock. We found no 
tombs, nor any traces of an ancient site in the neigh- 
bourhood, but all was wild and rocky. From the natu- 
ral portal formed by the rocks, I should have fancied 
this a barrier between two districts, and the inscription 
may record it*. 

* Milyas was the ancient name of the whole of this elevated district 
of Lycia. 

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234 LYCIA. 

We continued our ascent through the same ravine, 
and, at the distance of nearly twenty miles from Al- 
malee, reached the abrupt source of the river, gushing 
out of the mountain-side in a picturesque cascade, and 
falling into the bed of the rippling stream, along which 
our course still continued towards the snow mountains 
to the north-west. This stream is one of the sources 
of the river, which disappears in the plains of Almalee. 
Ascending through a winterly climate, with snow by 
the side of our path, and only the crocus and anemones 
in bloom, we soon stood upon the summit of this barren 
part of the range, at a height exceeding five thousand 
feet. From hence we beheld a new series of cultivated 
plains to the west, being in fact table-lands, nearly upon 
a level with the tops of the mountains which form the 
eastern boundary of the valley of the Xanthus. Still 
far above us, to the south-west, stood Massicytus, a stu* 
pendens snow-mountain, by far the highest in Lycia. 
To the north-west was the lofty range giving source to 
the river Xanthus, and forming a high snow-capped 
wall of partition to the elevated country of Phrygia, 
whose table-lands lie but a little below the summit of 
the range. Descending to the plain, probably a thou- 
sand feet, we pitched our tent, after a ride of seven 
hours and a half. Upon boiling the thermometer, I 
found that we were more than four thousand feet above 
the sea, and, cutting down some dead trees, we pro- 
vided against the coming cold of the evening by light- 
ing three large fires around our encampment. The 

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effect of both the light and heat of the sun is ex- 
tremely powerful, and the night-air in this climate keen 
and frosty. The moon and stars in this atmosphere, 
lighting the snowy mountain-tops, had an effect singu- 
larly calm and sublime, and their cold white light con- 
trasted strongly with that of the blazing branches of 
the arbor-vit^s upon the piles of burning embers, around 
which, in their richly-coloured costumes, lay our sleep- 
ing attendants. This tree grows on these mountains to 
a large size, its height being generally above forty feet, 
and the diameter of its stem above three : it is probably 
a Cyprus, but of a species differing from any I have 
before seen. The trees here must be many centuries 

All the names of the villages in these high districts 
terminate in -yeeilassy, which means a cool place, a sum- 
mer place ; and most of them have their corresponding 
village in the valleys. This plain, called Satala-yeei- 
lassy, is occupied by a people who in the winter months 
live at Satala-cooe, our next stage on the way to Macry. 
Another adjoining plain is called Garachewfathers-yeei- 
lassy, in which place we had been told that extensive 
ruins existed, but on approaching it we could hear 
nothing of them ; nor were any ruins known to exist in 
this elevated valley or plain, which is probably ten or 
twelve miles in length. Several fragments of sarcophagi 
and pedestals were scattered over the plain, from one 
of which I copied the following inscription, but I could 
discover no site of any ancient city. 

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236 LYCIA- 





We descended a few hundred feet towards the west, 
to another plain of equal extent, watered by a stream, 
which, by the addition of the waters from the plain 
above, and also of others on the north, had assumed 
the character of a considerable river. 

For six hours we travelled over this highly-cultivated 
but late-seasoned district, when we turned towards the 
south-west, and passed over a sUght barrier of wooded 
hills. At the point where we quitted the plains, we 
observed considerable remains of old materials lying 
about the rocks, and also several ornamented sarco- 
phagi in the burial-grounds of the Yourooks, but could 
observe no satisfactory site for a city^ nor any founda- 
tions of walls. 

In three hours we halted in a forest upon a high 
ridge, but some way down the gradual descent which 
led us again into the valley of the Xanthus. The river 
had kept a more northerly course, and was hurried 
down a precipitous ravine to the gorge at the back of 
Hoorahn, which, I have before said, supplied almost the 
whole of the waters to the Xanthus. I had difficulty in 
imagining how so great a volume of water could find 

* The first lines of this fragmentary inscription contained the names 
of some brothers, each having the cognomen of Diogenes, who erected 
this " to the memory of their father Diogenes, the son of Moletub." 

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its way through an apparently unbroken snow-capped 
range of mountains, but the occurrence of the high 
plains almost upon the level of their summits explains 
all the phsenomena of this singular country. Having 
sought in vain around the whole range of Mount Mas- 
sicytus for the ruins of the city of that name, which was 
known to lie at its foot, I now feel sure that the ruins 
at Hoorahn are those of the ancient city. I have two 
coins found in the neighbourhood belonging to Mas- 
sicytus ; and their form, emblems, and reverses are the 
same as those of the other cities in the valley of the 
Xanthus, each being distinguished only by the initials 
of their respective towns. This, together with the frag- 
ment of an inscription found there, and the situation 
and relative importance of the ruins, makes me feel 
confident that this was the ancient Massicytus. 

May \Oth. — ^No place is without its interest: before 
pitching our tent, we found two natural springs gushing 
from the rocks close by, and trees already burning* 
afforded us an ample supply of fire. Some old walls, 
the ruins of a Turkish khan, attracted our attention, 
being composed of portions of old sarcophagi, from 
which I copied the following fragment of an inscrip- 
tion ; but I fear it will not afford information as to the 
former inhabitants of this most beautiful spot ; no ap- 
pearance of a town could be traced amidst the thicket 
upon the precipitous cliff before us. 

* See Journal of 1838, p. 257» — mode of felling trees. 

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238 LYCIA. 














The interest of our halt was greatly increased by our 
observing an almost uninterrupted train of cattle and 
people moving from the valleys to the cool places for 
the summer season — the yeeilassies. I was much struck 
by the simplicity and patriarchal appearance of the 
several families, which brought forcibly to mind the 
descriptions of pastoral life in Bible history. What 
a picture would Liandseer make of such a pilgrimage 1 
The snowy tops of the mountains were seen through the 
lofty and dark green fir-trees, terminating in abrupt 
cliffs many thousand feet of perpendicular height. 
From clefts in these gushed out cascades, falling in 
torrents, the sound of which, from their great distance, 
was heard only in the stillness of the evening, and the 

* Fragment of a funereal inscription. In the last line but three, 
fhe fine (more than 1000 denarii) is named, which is to be paid to the 
people of a town, the name of which has disappeared. 

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waters were carried away by the wind in spray over the 
green woods, before they could reach their deep bed in 
the rocky ravines beneath. In a zigzag course up the 
wood lay the track leading to the cool places. 

In advance of the pastoral groups were the straggling 
goats, browsing on the fresh blossoms of the wild al- 
mond as they passed. In more steady courses followed 
the small black cattle, with their calves, and among 
them several asses, carrying in saddle-bags those calves 
that were too young to follow their watchful mothers. 
Then came the flocks of sheep and the camels each 
with their young; two or three fine-grown camels bear- 
ing piled loads of ploughs, tent-poles, kettles, pans, 
presses, and all the utensils for the dairy; and amidst 
this rustic load was always seen the rich Turkey carpet 
and damask cushions, the pride even of the tented 
Turk. Behind these portions of the train I must 
place, with more finish, the family — ^the foreground of 
my picture. 

An old man, and generally his wife, head the clan, 
which consists of several generations ; many of them 
must have seen near five score summers on the moun- 
tains: the old man, grasping a long stick, leads his 
children with a firm step. His son, the master of the 
flocks, follows with his wife ; she is often seated on a 
horse, with a child in her arms, and other horses are 
led, all clothed with the gay trappings of a Turkish 
steed. Asses are allotted to the younger children, who 
are placed amidst the domestic stores, and never with- 

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240 LYCIA. 

out a pet cat in their arms : long tresses of hair hang 
down their necks, and are kept closely to the head by a 
circlet of coins. By their side walks the eldest son, 
with all the air and alacrity of a young sportsman; 
over his shoulder hangs a long-barrelled gun, in his 
hand is the cage of a decoy partridge, and a classic- 
looking hound follows at his heels : a number of shep- 
herd boys mingle with the flocks and bring up the rear. 
The gay costume, the varied noises of the cattle, and 
the high glee attending the party on this annual expe- 
dition, must be supplied by the imagination. 

I should think that twenty families passed in succes- 
sion during our halt, few of them having less than one 
hundred head of stock, and many had more. In some 
families, attendants, servants or farming-labourers, were 
among the cattle, generally with their aprons tied around 
them, in which they carried two or three young kids ; 
they had often over their shoulders a small calf, with 
all its legs held together on the breast, exactly as seen 
in the ofierings on the bas-reliefs at Xanthus and else- 

The longevity of the people in this pastoral country 
is very remarkable. I am sure that we have seen at 
least twenty peasants within the last two days above a 
hundred years of age, and apparently still enjoying 
health and activity of body ; in some instances the mind 
appeared wandering. An old-looking hag, screaming 
violently, seized my servant Mania, and asked if he was 
come to take away her other child for a soldier, for if 

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he were gone she should have none left to take care of 
her. The temperate habits of the Turks, as well as 
some of their customs, may in part account for the 
prolongation of life in this country. One custom I may 
mention as tending to diminish the cares of age> and 
to show the excellence of these simple people. When 
sons grow up and marry, the father gives over to them 
his flocks and property, and trusts to the known and 
natural affection of his children to take care of him in 
his declining years: to a son his parents are always his 
first charge. 

Descending the mountain, we traversed the ridge of 
one of those long promontories which cut the valley of 
the Xanthus into bays, and leave scarcely a bed for the 
winding river. Our descent brought us immediately 
upon the bridge which we had crossed on our way to 
visit Tlos. Baiting our horses for two hours at noon, 
we continued b westerly direction for three hours over 
the undulating and wooded hills leading to the head 
of the valley of the Glaucus. On these hills a small 
stream takes its rise, and runs toward the centre of 
the plain, but is so nearly lost in the swampy lands 
that it can scarcely be recognized as a river — the 
ancient Glaucus. It took us nearly three hours to 
traverse the plain on our return to Macry, where my 
first inquiry was respecting the arrival of the Beacon 
ship, which, in accordance with instructions sent from 
the Admiralty, I had arranged to meet here on this 
day, the 12th of May, to endeavour to transport the 

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242 LYCIA. 

marbles from Xanthus to England, for the British 
Museum. I was disappointed ; the vessel had not been 
heard of on the coast, and I therefore at once took a 
boat for Rhodes, to gain what information I could upon 
the subject from our Vice-consul stationed there. 

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Rhodes— • City of Rhodes — Sailors — Lavisse — Garmylessus — Return 
to the Yeeilassies — ^Review of Lycia. 

May 13tA. — ^Thirty hours' endurance of the sea, mostly 
in a scorching sun, brought us at two o'clock in the 
morning to the quay within the stately harbour of 
Rhodes. The beautiful tower, which is the striking 
feature of the city, commands the entrance. The pass- 
word being called, we landed, and by the light of a full 
moon spread our carpet upon the quay, and enjoyed 
an English breakfast of tea and toast, long before the 
inhabitants of the town opened their gates. 

I was surprised to find that the city retains so much 
of the buildings and fortifications of the Knights of 
Rhodes. Probably the only change in the view of the 
town from the harbour, during the last eight centu- 
ries, is the elegant minarets of the Turkish mosques 
here and there peering above the walls. Armorial 
bearings and architectural ornaments, of what we call 
the Tudor age, are seen on the fronts of almost every 
house ; and to those who take an interest in the hi*- 


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244 LYCIA. 

story of the middle ages, the castle where the last re- 
sistance and surrender was made, and the tower under 
which sixteen thousand Turks fell before it yielded to 
their sway, illustrate perfectly the scenes and events 
recorded. Many dates are on the walls, blended with 
gothic ornaments generally of about the tenth century. 
The rocks alone point out the site of the famed Colossus 
at the entrance of the smaller harbour. I found oi\e or 
two pedestals worked up in modern buildings, which 
show marks of Greek art in their heads and festoons, 
and in the well-cut inscriptions, but no other trace of 
the ancient Greeks was discoverable. 



The present town within the walls is thickly inha- 
bited, but the mass of the Frank population reside in its 

* Translation. — " [The tomb ?] of Lysander, the son of hjwader, 
a citizen of Chalce, and of his wife Glesnis, the daughter of Callicra- 
sides, a citizen of Cryassa." 

Published by Boeckh (No. 2553)» who remarks, that both the little 
island of Chalce, or Chalcia» and the town Cryassa in Caria» were under 
the dominion of the Rhodians. 

t Translation " The tower [tomb ?] of Dorco." 

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RHODES. 245 

environs^ each having his house within a high-walled 
garden. The Greek inhabitants far outnumber all the 
rest. There are also many Jews, who are each night 
locked within their own quarters of the town. . Con- 
siderable excitement prevails at present against this 
people, owing to a story of a Greek boy having been 
killed as a sacrifice to satisfy some of their superstitions. 
The case is now pending, but no Jew passes without the 
hoot or howl of the Greeks : the justice of the Porte was 
shown on the first hearing of this afiair, by its ordering 
three of each party, Jew and Greek, to repair to Con- 
stantinople and give all the information they could,- 
promising at the same time that the most impartial and 
strict inquiry should be made into the case. 

The Turks have a strong garrison here, and perhaps 
it may be more required than in other parts I have 
visited. Rhodes has seen many changes, and the great 
bulk of its inhabitants being aliens, it may not impro- 
bably experience many more. The island has forty 
villages, and produces much fruit of all kinds; the 
peasantry are Greek, and if allowed the privileges prof- 
fered by the new Firman, they may cultivate the soil 
most profitably : the produce has hitherto been seized 
sd capriciously, that the ground was only tilled for a 
sufficiency to supply the inhabitants. A steampacket 
now touches at this island more than once in the month, 
on its way from Smyrna to Beyrout. Our hospitable but 
unpaid Vice-consul, Mr. Wilkinson, rendered me every 
information in his power, but could give no tidings of 

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246 LYCIA. 

the Beacon ship. At noon, on the day of our arrival 
(the 13th of May), we were again in our boat to re- 
turn, and in four hours were nearly within the bay of 
Macry. The breeze, which drove us on so quickly, was 
too fresh, and with a crash the foremast snapped off 
just above the deck. With on^ sail only we made but 
little way, and the land-breeze sprung up before we 
could reach our point. For nearly twenty hours we 
made scarcely any way, suffering much from the broil- 
ing sun, and paddling along with the feeble oars of 
the idle Greek sailors. At two o'clock, on the 14th of 
May, we were again on terra firma^ and experiencing 
the insufferably oppressive and stagnant air of the bay 
of Macry. 

A striking contrast in character between the Greek 
and Turk is seen in the sailors. The Greek will put 
out to sea even in a brisk breeze, and work his boat 
with activity ; but should the gale increase to a storm, 
he will quit the helm and leave the vessel adrift, to 
repeat his prayers and cries of despair. The Turk, on 
the contrary, shows his fear in the first instance : he 
will never put to sea unless under the most favourable 
circumstances; but should an unforseeen stonn arise, 
he is as unmoved as in the calm, apparently ready to 
meet his fate at his post, displaying a moral courage 
unknown to the Greek. 

May 1 5th. — We have today ridden for two hours 
southward, to the village called by the Greeks Lavisse, 
and by the Turks Tuslee, a name which signifies ' stone 

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village/ The first hour's ride was along a zigzag 
path up the steep mountain side at the back of Tel- 
messus, and then down a considerable descent into a 
hi^ly-cultivated plain : the latter is divided into gar- 
dens, most of which have summerhouses or shelter 
from the sim, and each with walled fences. The town 
of Lavisse consists of about three or four hundred 
hpnses, well built, and entirely occupied by Greeks: 
ftom its commanding situation and the remains of a 
few tombs, I judge that it may probably be the site of 
a small ancient town, perhaps Cissidae. Rising from 
this plain in all directions, on the bare rocks, are seen 
scattered huts, mostly belonging to the Turks ; one of 
these groups is formed by the establishment of the Aga 
and a small mosque. Macry is the port or scala of this 
place, and it is here that the post is conducted, and all 
official business. Skirting the plain we passed through 
Lavisse, and over a hill to the sea-coast, in order to 
examine the ruins of an ancient city, supposed to be 
Carmylessus, situated principally upon an island and 
partly along .the coast. After an hour's walk however, 
in the burning sun, we were disappointed at finding 
that the only boat which the coast supplies had just 
put to sea for Kastelorizo. Delighted with the wild 
grandeur of the rugged scenery, we walked back to La- 
visse, and for two hours sat under the welcome shade of 
its luxuriant trees, surrounded by a number of Greeks, 
all apparently wealthy, and with talent to increase their 
riches. I purchased several coins of the country, and 

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248 LYCIA. 

have no doubt that these people possess many which 
would be valued for their rarity in Europe. The in- 
trinsic value of the metal seemed the price expected for 
the silver coins. I hope that some which I have col- 
lected in Lycia may prove useful in illustrating the lost 
histdrj^ of the country. 

May 16<A. — ^We have once more escaped from the 
suffocating air of Macry, and are now at the bridge of 
the Xanthus. The season is getting too hot to travel 
for pleasure; we are therefore, like the inhabitants of 
the deserted village of Satalacooe on the opposite side 
of the river, upon our way to the Yeeilassy. Our route 
is the same as that by which we descended a few days 
ago, and we intend afterwards to proceed as far as we 
can toward Smyrna by the high lands, passing over 
the country between Lycia and Mount Cadmus ; at all 
events it will be cool travelling, and the route is novel 
to Europeans. Enjoying the independence of a tent 
and horses, our wants are limited to firewood, water 
and grass for the horses ; the latter, I fear, will be the 
most difficult to procure in the yet wintry region of the 
high lands. I have long wished for this excursion, but 
could gain no information as to its practicability: hav- 
ing, however, when on the Yeeilassies, noticed the di- 
rection of the several ranges of mountains, I resolved 
to explore the country further, and expect to be able to 
lay down a map for future travellers. 

May 18tA. — ^We travelled yesterday nearly thirty 
miles, for most of the way ascending from the valley 

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of the Xanthus ; today we have proceeded thirty-four 
miles toward the N.N.E., over a district elevated more 
than four thousand feet ahove the sea, and contain- 
ing a large population, industriously employed in cul- 
tivating an excellent corn country : immense plains 
of young wheat look most promising. There are very 
few villages, the peasants living during their short 
season here in tents. This district loses much of the 
beauty we have so long seen, from having but few trees, 
and from the want of variety in the kinds. The arbor 
vit(By or spreading Cyprus, alone grows on the hills; 
and here and there on the plain a wild pear-tree, at 
this season scarcely showing its leaf, only reminds us 
of the absence of more beautiful trees. 

Our tent is pitched on the north of the range of 
high mountains which separates Lycia from Caria and 
Phrygia, and is described by Pliny as a part of the 
Taurus, ending in the west at Dsedala. Last night we 
pitched our tent on the north side of the plain of Satala- 
yeeilassy, the village lying to the eastward. In crossing 
the plain, and on the banks of the great tributary stream 
to the Xanthus which I mentioned before, we observed 
several columns and ornamented stones, of the Corin- 
thian order, and evidently on their original site. These 
have probably belonged to a temple, but not of a very 
early Greek date. A little further on was another pile 
of squared stones — some carved into cornices and den- 
tiled ; and in the Turkish burial-grounds, which were 
scattered over the valley, many remains of sculptured 

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250 LYCIA. 

white marble showed that the rains of some ancient 
city were not far distant. An imperfect inscription, 
ill-cut upon a column, indicated by the form of the 
characters a late date, probably Christian. 





Several pedestals, with figures in bas-relief, also 
showed a state of art more of the Byzantine than of 
an early Greek age — how different to the simplicity 
and beauty of the works we have generally found in 
Lycia I 

I am inclined to draw a line of separation between 
the ancient Lycians and the Greeks who succeeded 
them, by the peculiarity shown in their architecture, 
sculpture and language: these indications of the Ly- 
cians we have entirely lost. The nature of the country 
also marks a strong line of demarcation. I have found 
DO trace of the Lycians on the high plains, and none 
more northerly than Arycanda on the eastern side of 
the promontory formed by Lycia; nor have I discovered 
any on the east of the valley of the Xanthus, or to 
the north of Mount Massicytus, the whole country 

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containing traces of them being confined to the south- 
west of the range of Massicytus, and to the south of 
the northern chain from Dsedala. I find no rock-tombs 
or gothic-formed sarcophagi , no Cyclopean walls or 
Lycian characters, in the cities on the eastern coast, or 
east of limyra and Arycanda; an ill-designed tablet 
which I observed upon a rock on leaving Almalee was 
unworthy of the Lycians, and, from its inscription, may 
be attributed to the Mylians, whose country extended 
over that region. I also passed, between these plains 
and the district in which we are now travelling, a na- 
tural barrier of mountains, from which we had an ex- 
tensive view over the whole of the west of Lycia; this 
probably divided the country of the Mylians from that 
of the Cibyrates, who were to the north of Mount 
Massicytus — a conjecture which is in part borne out by 
Strabo, who says that Tlos was situated on the passage 
toward the country of the Cibyrates. 

On leaving Lycia, I must note down a few reflec- 
tions which arise from considering the many remains 
we have found in this highly interesting province. 
History assists us little in our investigation of the re- 
mains of the middle ages, in connection with the inha- 
bitants of Lycia. Of its eailiest people we have more 
correct information from the poems of Homer and the 
works of Herodotus ; each author almost claims this 
district as his native country, and both seem to have 
been well acquainted with the poetic legends of its first 
inhabitants. They tell of Europa's visit, and of her 

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252 . LYCIA. 

sons possessing the country; and some of the most 
beautiful parts of the Iliad recount the history of the 
Lycian heroes, Sarpedon and Glaucus. The exploits 
of Bellerophon/ and the tale of the children of king 
Pandarus, are related at length ; whilst the Chimsera, 
the natural peculiarities and beauty and fertility of the 
country are frequently extolled. 

I am inclined to consider almost all the works I 
have termed Lycian as belonging to this age and that 
immediately subsequent; many of the peculiar sarco- 
phagi and obelisk-monuments, and much of the rock- 
architecture, the sculptures, and the language, as also 
the coins, of which I give a Plate among my inscrip- 
tions, belong to this period. None of these represent any 
subject which can be called Byzantine, Roman, or even 
connected with the known history of Greece ; the sub- 
jects are mythological, historical, or domestic scenes ; 
the history representing the earliest legends and the 
renowned feats of the time of the Trojan war. The 
nearest parallel to the domestic scenes appears to be in 
the Etruscan paintings. The coins to which I refer have 
upon them Bellerophon, Pegasus, the Sphinx, Pan, and 
the wild beasts of the country ; and on their reverse a 
triquetra, an unexplained but very ancient symbol, in- 
termixed with the early language of the country. 

Herodotus mentions the destruction of the Lycians 
about the year 550 b.c*. Probably about that period, 

* Croesus, whose reign commenced 562 b.c, succeeded in conquer- 
ing the whole of the province of Asia Minor, excepting Lycia and 

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and afterwards, the Graeco-Lycian coins appeared, with 
the head and emblems of Apollo, names of the country, 
and the initials of the several cities to which they be- 
longed, in Greek characters; these are known for almost 
all the cities from Massicytus to Ol3rmpus. Patara, 
the seat of the oracle of Apollo, Sidyma, and many 
other cities, appear to have arisen at this period, and I 
should attribute also to this age many of the fragments 
of sculpture found at Xanthus. History tells us that 
the Lycians were a brave and warlike people, famed 
for the use of the javelin and their skill in archery: 
Xenophon says that they were sought to join the army 
of Cyrus in his march to the East ; and they afforded 
great assistance in the expedition of Xerxes. 

After this period the country became a colony of 

Cilida, which never became subject to him. In the reign of his suc- 
cessor, Cyrus, we find the following account of their extinction as a 
nation : " When Harpagus led his army toward Xanthus, the Lycians 
boldly advanced to meet him, and, though inferior in number, behaved 
with the greatest bravery. Being defeated, and pursued into their city, 
they collected their wives, children, and valuable effects into the cita- 
del, and then consumed the whole in one immense fire. They after- 
wards, uniting themselves under the most solemn curses, made a pri- 
vate sally upon the enemy, and were every man put to death. Of 
those who now inhabit Lycia, calling themselves Xanthians, the whole 
are foreigners, eighty ^Eunilies excepted ; these survived the calamity 
of their country, being at that time absent on some foreign expedition. 
Thus Xanthus fell into the hands of Harpagus ; as also did Caunus, 
whose people imitated, almost in every respect, the example of the 
LydxuB.'*— Herodotus, Book I. c. 176. 

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254 LYCIA. 

Greece, and was soon subjected to Rome ; its history 
is thenceforth blended with that of the rest of Asia 
Minor, which was more or less over-nm by a Byzan- 
tine and Christian people. The very little that has 
hitherto been known, or rather surmised, of the Lycian 
language, appears to bear out this idea of the early 
history of the inhabitants of Lycia. The character 
are not of Greek, but probably of Phoenician ori^n, 
and the root of the language, judging from many of the 
names of the cities, may have been derived also from 
the same nation, or from the Hebrew, which appears a 
natural geographical progression. In this point of view, 
Lycia is to me of the highest interest, more particularly 
from the extremely early works of a people whom, for 
the sake of distinction, I should call the ancient Ly- 
cians^ preceding a people who appeared to embrace the 
language and the mythology of the Greeks, and became 

In Plate XXXVII. I have added to the coins which 
I brought from the valley of the Xanthus, all bearing 
the Lycian characters that are known; these latter 
have hitherto been left in the uncertain lists of coins, 
and attributed to Cilicia. This I have done, in order to 
make my collections of Lycian inscriptions more per- 
fect, and the present volume, with my Journal of 1838, 
will, I believe, now include all that have been brought 
to Europe. These coins, which are probably of the 
cities in the valley of the Xanthus, but certainly Lycian, 
bear marks of high antiquity, both in their manufac- 

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tvire and devices. Of the twenty-two reverses, I observe 
that one represents Pan, one of the oldest of the gods, 
and supposed to be first introduced from Egypt : one 
has upon it a sphinx ; six have figures of lions and 
bulls, which may refer to Europa ; four represent Pega- 
sus ; one, a horse (which may relate to the exploits of 
Bellerophon), and one a naked man: the remaining 
eight have each the skin of a lion's head. Other coins 
which I have found in the country, representing wild 
boars (Plate XXXIV. Nos. 3 and 4), may probably be 
also of this date. In these coins we find no trace of 
Apollo, Diana, Jupiter, Hercules, or Ceres, so univer- 
sally honoured in this country at a later period, about 
the fifth century b.c, nor any trace of a head indi- 
cating the coins of the Roman ages. This I think is 
strong evidence of the antiquity of the early inhabi- 
tants, derived from their coins ; the bas-reliefs afibrd a 
similar evidence. 

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Ghile-Hissd Ovassy — ^A large Lake — Ancient River Calbis — ^Extensive 
Plains — Carreeuke — Its Bazaar — Price of Cattle — Customs of the 
People — ^Denizlee— ^Its Inhabitants — Change of Law — Laodiceia — 
Hierapolis^Retum to Sm3nma. 

May 19<A. — ^After winding through a series of moun- 
tain-tops, slightly raised above the plain we had tra- 
versed, we suddenly arrived at an extensive and culti- 
vated country, bounded by Mount Cadmus or Baba- 
dah on the north. This large and highly productive 
district is called 6ule-hiss<f Ovassy, or ^ Rose-castle 
Valley,' which is left entirely blank on all our maps. 
I already observe much cultivation, several rivers, and 
many villages dotted over the wide extent of country 
before us. 

Hoomarhoosharry. — ^We have moved twenty-five miles 
northward, and have made but little apparent progress 
over this extensive valley, which all bears the same 
name. Immediately over the brow of a little hill, on 
leaving our tent, we were surprised at finding a vil- 
lage, and before it a highly picturesque and extensive 

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lake, into which ran out a promontory, terminated by 
a craggy rock, upon which appeared to be some ruins 
of a castle ; this may have given the name to the whole 
district ; the lake is called Gule-hissa Gouluh. A few 
huts at the foot of the castle-rock are called Oloo- 
boonar-cooe, meaning ^ Dead-water Village.' Skirting 
the lake, close under the cliff of the mountains, we found 
large covered sheds, in which is held the great market 
or bazaar ; this spot was called Bazaar-cooe. In the 
burial-grounds around were many remains of columns, 
pedestals, and sculptured white marble, but all in a late 
and not pure style. 

I copied the following inscription from a pedestal 

MHC€N€K€N * 

* Transktian. — " Lycia, [the daughter ?] of Socrates, to her 

own dear child, for the sake of remembrance." 

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In about an hour we crossed a considerable river, 
running toward the north from the range of moun- 
tains to the south-east, and continued our way over a 
plain of rich soil, entirely cultivated with com, which 
was just springing out of the ground. About fifteen 
miles on our way the soil became lighter, and was filled 
with stones of igneous rocks. For the next ten miles 
we entered quite a different region ; barren hills, which 
we crossed, protruded into this part of the valley, while 
the river wound around their bases. The whole of these 
were quite distinct from the high mountains of lime- 
stone rising above them, and had all been deposited at 
their feet amidst running waters; the same power is 
now again washing them away, although they consist of 
rolled fragments of volcanic stones, cemented strongly 
together with a deposit of lime. This pudding-stone 
rock stands out in most grotesque forms, and often 
in thin shelves from the face of the rocks; upon which 
our road ran. Beyond these rocks were a series of 
barren hills, the arid soil not even producing a tree. 
A few bushes of the little oak-shrub are all that find 
root on this sandy district, but on our left beyond 
the river, whose course we still followed toward the 
north, the soil was apparently good, and green with 

A considerable and permanent stream crossed our 
road on its way to the river in the plain. This great 
river, which rises in the south-east, is, I find, the ancient 
Calbis, the modern DoUomon-chi, which we had crossed 

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with Buch difficulty above a hundred miles below, and 
within ten miles of its mouth. 

This village of Hoomarhoosharry stands upon the 
plain, or rather on a bay out of the great plain, and has 
the peculiarities of such agricultural places. The moun- 
tainous character of the houses has changed, and mud 
walls and ditches have supplanted the fences of trees 
and thorns. Plat-topped mud houses, and a number of 
poles for drawing water from the deep wells, were the 
features of this little village, in which all our wants 
were soon supplied with fowls, eggs, and milk. I was 
amused at seeing here, as I had formerly done in the 
northern parts of Anatoha, agricultural implements of 
the most ancient forms retained in use — ** the threshing 
instrument having teeth," mentioned by Isaiah'**', and the 
plough and carts described by the earliest classic writers. 
Rising from the plain, at the foot of the surrounding 
hills, was the village of Tourtakar, and about half way 
up the craggy mountain were some ruins of an ancient 
city. We were told that several marble sarcophagi and 
columns, used now at the mouth of the wells, had been I 

brought from the '* old castles," but that all the build- 
ings had fallen down. We could see the ruins of a 
city, with extensive walls, high up in the mountain, but 
the intense heat of the weather and the fatigue of 
travelling made us satisfied with this information, and 
we arranged to proceed on our route at two o'clock in 
the morning. 

* See Appendix to my .Journal of 1838. 


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May 20th. — Although we have travelled all day, we 
have only reached this place, a distance of thirty-five 
miles, and have just light left to enahle us to review 
the whole line of our route. The tent is pitched at the 
northern end of this wonderful valley, or rather ele- 
vated plain; for I find we are still higher than the 
Yeeilassy of Satala-cooe : the thermometer indicates an 
altitude of ahove five thousand feet. Looking toward 
the south, the plain is hounded hy the range of snow 
mountains which forms the harrier of Lycia, running 
from Daedala to the Taurus range in Pamphylia. On 
the right is another fine snow-capped range, from Cad- 
mus at our hack, and extending as far as Moolah in 
the south-west*- On the left are the high craggy cliffs 
among which the Calbis takes its rise, and behind 
which lies Pamphylia. The high lands within these 
mountain-chains form a part of Phrygia. 

Soon after leaving Hoomarhoosharry, which we did 
by moonlight this morning, we passed the village of Yoo- 
mahoodas, situated at the foot of some stupendous cliffs, 
under which our road lay for two or three hours. The 
eagles were soaring around their nests, and the singular 

* In my map, the coast of which is made from the chart just re- 
ceived by the Admiralty, a great change will be observed near the 
ancient Cnidus. By the ancient survey the gulf is found to extend 
above twenty miles further eastward than hitherto known, and the 
isthmus was equally erroneous in its form. In consequence of this 
discovery. Moolah is found to be near to the sea, and I should suggest 
that it is the site of the ancient Pedassis. 

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cackling of the red-ducks, which also huild in the lof- 
tiest peaks of the rocks, often attracted our attention to 
these giddy heights ; the call of the partridge was fre- 
quent in the little tufts around us. Long before daylight 
the plain on our left was alive with the yokes of oxen 
dragging the plough, and a kind of rake, which seems 
to be used here instead of the bunch of thorns more 
general in the country; this probably arises from the 
scarcity of trees, for the whole plain produces nothing 
but the wild pear, which is dotted over the land, afford- 
ing little shade, but forming a good post for the cattle. 
In every direction along this extensive flat, we saw 
lines of people travelling in the cool of the morning, 
mostly upon asses, toward one point, which was also 
our destination, — the village of Carreeuke. At this 
place is held a great bazaar : thousands of gaily dressed 
people were assembled under and around two immense 
covered sheds ; all seemed busied with their sales and 
purchases. The gay-coloured shoe-mart and the beau- 
tiful carpets and loigs were the most striking features. 
The women in this valley, although Turks, do not veil 
themselves; a number were assembled under some 
trees, away from the bustle of the fair, and in the only 
shade that we saw ; under this we proposed to bait and 
have our breakfast. I feared that a command from our 
Cavass was the cause of the women quitting the sliade, 
for our convenience, but on inquiry I found that a 
woman who lived in an adjoining hut or shed claimed 
this shade for her customers, for whom she made coffee. 


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and took charge of their horses. We therefore pur* 
chased from her some firewood and eggs, and with a 
present amply repaid her for the use of the scanty 
shade of a few wild pear-trees. 

The authority of the Cavass kept the wondering 
people at a distance, otherwise we should have been 
surrounded by the hundreds who passed us on their way 
from the market. We spoke with some few of these, 
asking ordinary questions connected with their voca- 
tions, and I was surprised to find that the beautiful little 
cattle used for ploughing were sold at so low a price ; 
four-year-old oxen, fat enough to kill, were purchased 
for eighty, ninety, or a hundred piastres ; the latter 
price being less than a pound of our money. A cow 
and calf were sold for one hundred and fifty piastres, 
and excellent horses for two hundred and fifty. The 
Turks often dispose of their things by auction, and this 
sale has a peculiarity unknown to us : the lot is put 
up, and competition ensues, the last bidder being the 
purchaser : but he gives only the price ofiered by the 
preceding bidder, his further advance merely indicating 
his anxiety to possess the lot. The tenure on which 
the land is held by the cultivator is by no means op- 
pressive ; one-seventh of the produce is claimed by the 
governor of the district, as satisfaction for the rent, tax, 
and all charges whatsoever. 

Our European costume was not here the novelty I 
expected ; in the fair were two or three Greeks similarly 
attired ; they were dealers iu leeches, and the singular- 

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ity of their trade deserves notice. The introduction of 
strangers, and especially of intelligent Greeks, may 
hereafter add to our knowledge of these hitherto un- 
visited parts. Three or four years ago the trade in 
leeches was scarcely known, except for the use of the 
village ; this inhabitant of the swamp has now become 
an important contributor to the revenue of the Sultan. 
Two years ago I met an Italian collecting and shipping 
them from Adalia, undisturbed by any law : from that 
time the privilege of buying them from the peasants 
has been farmed out by the Sultan, and several com- 
panies of merchants in Constantinople purchase certain 
districts for the year, and send agents round to buy up 
the collections at such prices as he may agree upon with 
the people. The agent here said that his employers 
had given a sum equal to fifteen thousand pounds for 
this district, which I found extended over almost the 
whole track we had traversed. How strange that two 
such important trades as that in leeches and gall-nuts 
should have their origin in such minute productions 
of the animal world ! Many vessels are freighted to 
America and all parts of Europe with leeches only, and 
in almost every steamboat I have observed that a great 
part of its cargo consisted of these animals, which are 
the constant care of the merchants accompanying them, 
as they frequently require ventilation in the hold of 
the vessel. The trade is a great speculation, and the 
calculation is made upon the loss of an immense pro- 
portion of the stock. The capture, transport, and cal- 

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culated mortality bring to my mind the treatment of 
the Negroes. 

In my former Journal I attempted to describe the 
peculiarities of a Turkish market ; the animation and 
gaiety of the scene can scarcely be over-drawn. The 
present one had the additional effect of animals grazing 
for a mile around in every direction — camels, horses, 
and asses. I should estimate the number of the latter 
useful animals (for almost every man had his ass) at 
not less than two thousand; the camels generally bore 
merchandize for sale. At noon a crier proclaimed the 
market to be ended, and all the people gradually de- 
parted ; some to very distant places, but most to the 
various villages skirting this extensive plain. 

For some distance round the village of Carreeuke, as 
well as built into the walls of its mosques, were many 
sculptured remains and fragments of inscriptions, but 
all appeared to be of a late Greek date ; some had 
patterns showing a fanciful taste, but not of a simple 
or pure age. I copied the two following from the wall 
of the mosque : 


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The soil of the plain as we approached Carreeuke be- 
came very light and arid, and the crops consequently 
less promising ; not a stone was to be seen, the wide 
dusty track of the road showed a white sandy soil, and 
the earth sounded hollow beneath the horses' feet : no 
riyers or streams are seen near this end of the valley. 
The whole was explained by a deep ditch cut across our 

* DroHslatioM. — "M. Ulpiua Trypho, the son of Zeno, of the tribtu 
Quirina, the great Antooinian [?], high-priest of Asia [?], who had 
been a military tribune and comnutnder of the first cohort of Oalatians, 
the Ulpian, who is the first of all men in the town and the province, 
and a benefoctor of his native country ; [him] the Council and the 
People [have honoured]. Antonia Ariste Ladilla [?]. his grand- 
daughter, having erected [the statue] at her own txpeaae." 

t This appears to be a firagment of a funereal inseription. 

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path : the soil was precisely similar to that of the greater 
part of the plains on the tahle-lands of Phrygia forming 
the centre of Asia Minor — fragments of pumice and 
other volcanic dust, united by the deposits of lime, 
making a spongy porous earth totally unfit for vege- 
tation: time and exposure to the air had coated the 
surface with more mixed soil, and upon this a scanty 
crop is produced. On approaching the hills, the soil is 
far better, and during a short season in the year (for 
the snows have only disappeared within the last three 
weeks) this district must contribute an important part 
to the produce of the country. 

Leaving Carreeuke, and proceeding toward the north, 
we passed on our right, successively, Yarseer, Gew- 
moos-cooe, Ghiassar, and Seechalik; and on our left, 
the large village of Koosil Hissar, nearly at the north 
end of the valley. 

May 22n(2, Denizlee. — ^We have proceeded about 
twenty-five miles north of our encampment last night, 
on leaving which spot we ascended a ridge of hills for 
half an hour. A perfectly new and splendid view then 
burst upon us, and showed me at once that I had com- 
pleted a circuit in my travels, as I now recognized be- 
fore me the peculiar features of the hills of Hierapolis 
and the valleys of the Lycus and M seander. On the 
left, and close to us, rose Mount Cadmus, with its 
snows ; on the right, a mountain almost as high, and of 
the same range, called by the Turks Honas-dah ; before 
us was a rich-looking valley, rapidly descending to the 

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extended plain of the bed of the Lycus ; beyond this 
rose the dark mountains of the Catacecanmene, from 
which the Mseander flows to the valley of the Lycus. 

Viewed even at a distance, the peculiar geological 
features of this district are apparent: afar off we di- 
stinctly saw the white patches deposited by the waters 
of Hierapolis, and giving origin to the Turkish names 
Pambook or Tambook Kallasy — signifying Cotton or 
Pall Castle ; and beneath us extended the bare range 
of sand-hills flanking the mountain on the southern 
side of the valley, and in which Laodicea is situated. 
The wasting hills down which our course lay were very 
similar to those in the parallel but wider valley of the 
Mosynus, the mass being generally composed of frag- 
ments, principally volcanic, united by aqueous deposits. 
Some of these deposits give a singular and beautiful 
appearance to the soil, changing as abruptly as the 
strata at Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight, and varying 
in colour sometimes from the deepest crimson to a 
delicate pink, at others deepening from the pale yellow 
of sulphur to the rich brown of umber. Small streams 
cut deep into these sandy soils ; and we often saw by 
our path rippling waters in a bed scarcely ten feet 
wide, and at a depth of fifty or sixty feet. These 
streams all flow to the richly-wooded plain in which 
stands the large town of Denizlee. 

The inhabitants of this place, which ranks among 
the largest towns in Turkey, we saw under peculiar 
circumstances ; the usually peaceable and industrious 

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people had almost all deserted the town, and the few 
who were left had shut themselves within their walls, 
and with closed gates were waiting the attack of an 
enemy. In the town there appeared hut little power of 
resistance ; hut all the hazaars were shut, and the peo- 
ple seemed watchful and uneasy. 

We soon learned that the governor, who was of the 
old school, did not approve the new system of govern- 
ment, and had levied taxes upon the district contrary 
to the powers of his Firman, which law is always ac- 
cessible to the eye of the people, and is periodically 
read to them in public. The sum demanded of the 
people by the governor was double the amount assigned 
by the Sultan : they had remonstrated in vain, and at 
last sent a statement of their grievances to Constanti- 
nople, declaring their willingness to pay any sum the 
Sultan required. The deputation was, however, way- 
laid by the servants of the governor, and the petition 
torn to pieces before their faces. This illegal conduct 
made the Turks more determined to be heard: the 
petition was again written, and sent guarded by a thou- 
sand of the inhabitants. The governor, anticipating his 
certain fate, had fled, saying that he was going to the 
Pasha for soldiers, and would return and punish them. 
The people, from the justice which is shown to all ap- 
peals to the Sultan, appeared to me to have less cause 
to fear the threats of their oppressor, than he had to 
dread the consequences of his venturing to return. 
While here, we have heard of a striking instance of the 

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promptness and severity of the punishment inflicted 
upon men in authority for acts of oppression. Tahir 
Pasha, the generalissimo of all the Pashas of Anatolia, 
and the active-minded king of Idin, whom we saw but 
two months ago in all his power, has oppressed the 
people of some villages in his district, probably, among 
others, the village of Chi-cooe, which we had visited ; he 
is in consequence removed, and deprived of all power 
and honour, thankful to have his life and liberty spared 
and live as a private man. I have no doubt this is good 
policy; by a bold stroke the Sultan has removed a too- 
powerful subject, and given confidence to the people of 
his sincerity in carrying out his new system, a principal 
feature in which is that the government emanates solely 
from himself. 

Denizlee has few early ruins, although many walls 
built of a rough conglomerate of stones and vegetable 
matter, massed together by lime, are scattered about 
the neighbourhood ; portions of the walls of the town 
are also of an early date, but these are all much later 
than the numerous blocks, columns, and fragments of 
white marble seen in the burial-grounds and in every 
street, which, I find, are all brought from Laodicea, 
scarcely an hour's distance to the north : we propose to 
proceed thither tomorrow. 

May 23r£2. — ^We have here parted with our Cavass, 
as he is near his home, and his horses are too much 
jaded, by the heat of the weather and long travel, to 
proceed further. We have agreed with two Turks and 

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a Greek to accompany us hence to Smyrna in five days: 
the price we pay is a fixed sum, and I observe in our 
suite an extra mule loaded with packsaddles, that the 
whole stud may return with merchandize from Smyrna. 

I have spoken of the ruins of Laodicea in my former 
Journal. Two years ago, as I approached this spot, 
nothing was seen but vultures and the wild and soli- 
tary bustard ; the only trace of man was a few chips of 
marble broken from the ancient columns to form the 
gravestone of a Turk. How changed is the scene now! 
Hundreds of peasants, and thousands of cattle, sheep, 
goats, oxen and camels, cover the ancient city, and 
continue to arrive in long trains : the people are ac« 
tively employed in pitching their tents, while the cattle 
are grazing over their new pastures. These pastoral 
people migrate from the valley ; when the herbage be- 
comes scanty there, the whole village moves into the 
hills, keeping together, the better to protect their flocks 
from the wolves and other animals. 

Crossing the valley of the Lycus, I again visited 
Hierapolis, and rambled far among its varied and 
splendid tombs ; the ruins are more extensive than I 
had fancied on my previous visit, but my opinion of 
them remains the same. I copied the two following 



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SMYRNA. 271 


M^rrAZEKnxiN i aixin i 



May 28<A, Smyrna. — I have neglected my Journal 
during the last five days, for my route has been pre- 
cisely that of my former journey, passing down the 
valley of the Cogamus to Philadelphia, Sardis, and on 
to Cassabar. The season, although somewhat later, 
afforded the same display of fruit and flowers ; the 
com was falling to the sickle, and the flowers fading to 
seed. The caravans were again travelling by night to 
avoid the heat-of the day, a mode which we are in some 
degree compelled to adopt, by starting at two o'clock 
each morning. Passing over a country by night de« 
prives the traveller of the pleasure of observation, and 
substitutes fatigue ; on this account alone I was rejoiced 
at the termination of a journey so pleasurable in itself, 
and promising to afibrd me subjects of high interest for 
research and reflection to the end of my life. 

* The inscription records a donation made to the GKkIs and the 
People by Zeuxis, son of Zenxis. 
t " The trade of the Dyers crowns this Heroum." 

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Discoveries derived from the elucidation of the Lycian Iiucriptionfi — 
Instractions for future Travellers — ^Lists and Examination of Coins — 
List of Plants collected during the Journey. 

During the progress of the former part of this volume 
through the press, my friend Mr. Daniel Sharpe has 
famished me with some interesting results arising from 
his examination of my Lycian inscriptions. The short 
time that has elapsed since these have been in his 
hands would not allow of a more perfect elucidation ; 
but the discoveries are of so interesting a nature, as 
connected with the subject of this work, that I shall 
enumerate some of the leading features bearing upon 
history and geography, although I well know that still 
more will ere long be revealed. I must refer the reader 
to the interesting communication from Mr. Sharpe, 
forming Appendix B. 
The Lycian characters appear at present to be pe- 

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culiar to the province*: they inclade nearly all those 
letters which are considered to have formed the original 
Greek alphabet ; these may have been borrowed from 
the early Greeks, or both nations may have derived 
them from a common source* The later additions to 
the Greek alphabet are not found in the Lycian, but 
that alphabet has several peculiar characters, com- 
pleting the series of long and short vowels which are 
found in most of the Eastern languages. 

The language of the inscriptions resembles the Zend, 
or ancient Persian, more nearly than any other with 
which we have the means of comparing it ; but it also 
contains words of Semitic origin; these have not af- 
fected the structure of the language, which is thoroughly 
Indo-Germanic : the vicinity of the country of Syria 
readily accounts for some mixture of the language of 
that people in the Lycian. 

It may be remembered, that in my Journal I have 
frequently noticed peculiarities in the arts of the early 
inhabitants, and pointed out parallels in the Persepo- 

* In the Supplement to Walpole's Travels, are publiflhed some in- 
scriptions copied by Mr. Cockerell on the Coast of Lycia, in the cha- 
racters of that country, and one said to have been copied by Captain 
Beaufort in Caria. This has been used by some continental philolo- 
gists as an evidence of the language having extended over that district 
also. I have received a letter from Captain Beaufort since my return 
to England, in which he says, " I have at length discovered in my old 
journals the place of the inscription printed in Mr. Walpole's book, 
and I am happy to tell you that it was at Telmessus, and therefore 
really in Lycia." 


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litan sculptures: this connection is farther home out 
hy history. Herodotus says, in speaking of the time of 
the Trojan war (book i. c. 4), "It is to be observed, 
that the Persians esteem Asia, with all its various and 
barbarous inhabitants, as their own peculiar possession, 
considering Europe and Greece as totally distinct and 
unconnected." Again, in book iv. c. 12, we find about 
the same period (during the reign of Ardyis), that " the 
Greeks had no settlement in Asia Minor." 

The Greek writers called the country ixi question by 
the general name of Lycia, which, although found seve- 
ral times in the Greek part of the inscription on the 
obelisk at Xanthus, does not occur in the Lycian part 
of the same inscription, where the people are called 
Tramilse ; for this we might be in some degree prepared 
by Herodotus, who says that they were formerly called 
Termelse. Stephanus Byzantinus calls them Termilae 
and Tremilae. 

Being enabled to read the characters, we find that 
the country consisted of two states or people, the Tra- 
melse and the Trooes; and many coins bearing the 
name of the city of the latter people are given in the 
Plates to this work. I feel quite certain, from the geo- 
graphical position and importance of the city called by 
the Greeks Tlos, that this was the ancient city of the 
Trooes : the frequent change of the P to a A is known 
to all conversant with the Greek language. We thus 
have the capital of the northern portion of Lycia named 
after the Trooes, while the city called by the Greeks 

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Xanthus was the metropolis of the Tramelae in the 

Reviewing the country with these new ideas, I might 
almost separate the cities of these former people from 
those huilt hy the colonists from Greece at an after 
period, probably not earlier than a century before the 
time of Herodotus. To do this I should select only 
those places in which I have observed features in art 
peculiar to the earliest inhabitants, for in many the 
whole design of the city is purely Greek, although the 
surrounding rocks afforded natural facilities for excava- 
tions, of which the Lycians always availed themselves. 
I find either coins or mention in the inscriptions, of 
almost the whole of this diminished number of the 
ancient cities, as well as of several others, whose total 
destruction or great change of name by the after inha- 
bitants, prevent their recognition. We find the names 
of Troouneme (Tlos), Pinara, M^r^ (Myra), Ga^aga 
(Gagae), and Trabala: also the names of Erecl^, Pe- 
dassis, perhaps of Xenagora and Kopalle. To the 
latter city belong two-thirds of the coins collected, and 
many of them were obtained in the neighbourhood of 
the city called by the Greeks Xanthus. I should cool- 
jecture that Kopalle may have been the ancient name 
of this city, but I know no grounds for the supposition 
beyond this circumstantial evidence. Stephanus Byzan- 
tinus states in his Geography that the former name of 
Xanthus was Arna. I see also traces of these early 
people in the cities called by the Greeks Calynda, Tel- 


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messus, Massicytus, Antiphellus, and limyra, and in 
the tombs near Cadyanda. 

In the funereal inscriptions copied from the monu- 
ments in these cities, all the pedigrees of the deceased » 
with one exception, are derived from the mothers : the 
exception is on the tomb of the Greek copied at Li- 
myra, and he was evidently a foreigner, from having his 
monument inscribed in both languages. This beauti- 
fully confirms the relation of the custom in the follow- 
ing passage by Herodotus (book i. ch. 73). '* They 
have one distinction from which they never deviate, 
which is peculiar to themselves : they take their names 
from their mothers, and not from their fathers. If any 
one is asked concerning his family, he proceeds imme- 
diately to give an account of his descent, mentioning 
the female branches only." 

From the inscription upon the obelisk-monument at 
Xanthus we obtain the date of a period at which the 
language was still used ; it records a decree of the king 
of Persia, therein styled by his title the Great King of 
Kings ; and it also alludes to Harpagus, the general of 
Cyrus the Great. It will be remembered, that Har- 
pagus was a person entrusted with the confidence of 
Astyages, the grandfather of Cyrus, which is recorded 
in the interesting account of his being employed by As- 
tyages to destroy the infant Cyrus, and the horrible cru- 
elty of his being made to feast upon his own butchered 
son, ten years after the birth of Cyrus. Stifling his 
revenge for a long period, he at last betrayed Astyages 

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and his country into the hands of Cyrus, who was then 
king of Persia. We afterwards read in Herodotus 
(book i. ch. 177) that, *' whilst Harpagus was engaged 
in the conquest of the Lower Asia, Cyrus himself con- 
ducted an army against the upper regions, of every 
part of which he became master." I have in a former 
part of this work quoted the account given by Hero- 
dotus of the conquest of Xanthus by Harpagus. At the 
time of writing his history (about 450 b.c), he says, 
" of those who now inhabit Lycia, calling themselves 
Xanthians, the whole are foreigners, eighty families ex- 
cepted.'* These foreigners I suppose to have been the 
Greeks, whose works show their occupation of the 
country for many centuries afterwards. 

Amongst the most gratifying results arising from the 
examination of these inscriptions, is the assistance they 
give in rendering the poems of Homer more intelligible. 
In the Iliad we read of Pandarus being a chief coming 
from Lycia, and of his being " the best bow in Lycia,'* 
thus connecting him with that country. In the second 
book he is named among the allies of Troy, as leading 
Troes into the field from Zeleia, at the foot of Mount 
Ida. Hitherto this has appeared inconsistent, and 
Strabo tells us that before his time a certain Demetrius 
had written thirty books upon this supposed error in 
Homer, and Strabo concludes by allotting a part of the 
Troad near Mount Ida to the kingdom of Pandarus. 

How clearly the whole of this is now explained, by 
continuing to style Pandarus a chief of Lycia, whose 

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country was Troas, while Sarpedon was also chief of 
Lycia, from Xanthus I Probably the evident difficulty, 
and consequent confusion, in the geography of Homer, 
arising from two people of the same name of Trooes, 
occasioned his calling the river in the plains of Troy 
the Xanthus, and explaining that the people called it 
Scamander, but the gods Xanthus. At present but one 
river flows through each of these districts. In Lycia 
the colour of the waters alone would testify to the cor- 
rectness of the name *, but inscriptions found in the 
city, upon its banks, confirm it. The ancient name of 
this river was Sirbe, which is a Persian word meaning 
' sand-colour,' or Xanthus f. 

I shall conclude this volume^ which I trust may be 
instrumental in inducing other travellers to pursue the 
researches into the history of this interesting portion 
of the world, with mentioning a few objects deserving 
their attention. I should point out the valley imme- 
diately beyond Hoozumlee as likely to contain mo- 
numents hitherto unvisited. I saw at a distance an 
obelisk, which may be inscribed; it probably stood 

* My servant, who had not the most distant idea of the ancient 
name of the river, in speaking to one of his Greek companions while 
crossing the stteam, used the word Xanthus. I asked of what he was 
speaking; he replied, that he was speaking of the colour of the water. 

t Bochart's Geography, vol. i. chap. 6. 

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near the frontier of the country. The cities of Cragus 
and Corydalla may no doubt be discovered where I 
suggest them in the map ; I have ascertained that they 
are not to be found in other districts where I sought 
them. The city supposed to be Trabala should by all 
means be examined, as it was one built by the earliest 
people. The north-east end of the valley of Cassabar 
may probably contain another city. The long inscrip- 
tion upon the obelisk at Xanthus should be recopied, 
paying particular attention to the portion written in the 
Greek language, for copying which a scaffold or ladder 
will be required ; and, if power could be obtained, the 
fragment upon the ground should be turned over, as the 
commencement of the inscription is to be expected upon 
the side now facing the earth : this is of particular im- 
portance, as if it should prove to be identical with the 
decree which follows inmiediately in Greek, there would 
be materials for a good understanding of the Lycian 
language. The inscription in the Lycian language, 
which I have partly copied at Antiphellus, is well worth 
recopying, as the subject is not funereal but historical. 

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In each place where I ohtained coins during my travels, 
I wrapped them in separate packets. The examination 
of the contents of these may not only afford information 
as to the names of the ancient sites of cities, hut may be 
of historical use in showing by the coinage the con- 
nection of various cities and nations at different ages by 
commerce or conquest. 


By far the greatest number are of the Byzantine and 
Christian ages ; many Roman, and Greek coins of the 
age of Alexander. I obtained one of Alexandria Troas, 
and a denarius of Julius Caesar. 


Byzantine, Roman, and a few earlier Greek coins of 
Pergamus and Aphrodisias. 

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The great bulk are of the Byzantine age ; I have also 
the coins of Aphrodisias (Gallienus) — ^two of Plarasa 
— Attuda in Phrygia (Commodus) — Laodiceia — Pixo- 
darus, king of Caria — and Syrian coins of Antiochus. 

Byzantine, and the coins of Philadelphia, Alabanda, 
and of Magnesia-ad-Maeandrum. 


Amongst many Byzantine coins are those of Maxi- 
minus — Tripolis in Caria — ^Antiocheia in Caria — two of 
Miletus — ^Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedon — Ala- 
banda (Caracalla) — and five of Alinda. (Plate XXXV. 
Nos. 8 and 9.) 

Many Greek coins of Caria — some of Mylasa, in the 
time of Severus. (Plate XXXV. Nos. 4 and 5.) 


Greek coins of Rhodes, and two of Stratoniceia. 
(Plate XXXV. No. 11.) 

Many Byzantine — some Roman — ^Hadrian, of Eume- 
nia in Phrygia. (Plate XXXV. No. 12.) Otacilia Severa, 

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of Perge in Pamphylia — Antiochus of Syria — Cyzicus — 
Pergamus in Mysia — Cassander, king of Macedon — 
Rhodes — Halicamassus — ^two of Stratoniceia — and nu- 
merous uncertain Lycian coins. 


Many Rhodian coins, found along the south coast of 
Caria, the ancient Peraea, nine silver and four copper 
— Side in Pamphylia — several Ptolemies — ^two of Apa- 
mea in Phrygia — three of Massicytus — two of Cragus — 
Limyra — two uncertain (Plate XXXIV. Nos. 3 and 4) 
— ^Coressus in Ceos (Plate XXXIV. No. 1) — and many 
uncertain Lycian coins. 

Uncertain Lycian coins. 


Tlos (Plate XXXIV. No. 12) and Massicytus (Plate 
XXXIV. No. 17). 

Numerous Lycian coins — ^four of Pinara (Plate XXXIV. 
Nos. 13 and 14)— Cragus (Plate XXXIV. No. 10)— 
three of Rhodes — three of Antiochus — and two of 


Ancient coins with Lycian characters (Plate XXXIV. 

Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8), 

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Coins very numerous ; many Roman and uncertain 
Lycian, among them those of Tlos — Myra (Plate 
XXXIV. No. 9)— Trabala (No. 11)— Antoninus Pius, 
of Corinth — ^Augustus (Egypt) — Ptolemies — two of An- 
tiochus (Syria) — and one of Cos. 

Many coins of the time of the Roman emperors. 

Many Byzantine — Aphrodisias — Attuda (Domitia) 
— Eumenia (Hadrian) (Plate XXXV. Nos, 10, 11 and 
12) — Laodiceia — and some of the age of Alexander. 

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No. Places to which the Coins belong. Where found. 

1. Coressus in Ceos Telmessus. 

2. Uncertain Smyrna. 

3. Presumed Lycian Telmessus. 

4. Presumed Lycian Telmessus. 

5. Kopalle^ Lycian Valley of Xanthus. 

6. Uncertain Fomas. 

7. Troouneme (Tlos) Valley of Xanthus. 

8. Erecl^ (Heracleia) Valley of Xanthus. 

9. Myra Patanu 

10. Cragus Pinara. 

11. Trabala Patara. 

12. Tlos Tlos. 

13. Pinara Pinara. 

14. Pinara Pinara. 

15. Presumed Lycian Telmessus. 

16. Massicytus Telmessus. 

17* Massicytus Tlos. 

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180 ii 



20 -fc 







■•■• &i 




D-o*" <r to^ravcd 

b/ H«nry * • O^ 

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John Murra/ London, 184-1. 


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Dra^n * Engravad 

by M«nrv A. Oyy. 


John Murray. London, i84l. 

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No. Placet to which the Coini belong. Where found. 

1. Cragus Telmessus. 

2. Limyra • • Telmessus. 

3. Arycanda^ Gordian Ajycanda. 

4. Mylasa • • Mellassa. 

5. Severus Mellassa. 

6. Uncertain Mellassa. 

7« Stratoniceia Stratoniceia. 

8. Alinda Demmeerge-derasy. 

9. Alinda Demmeerge-derasy. 

10. Uncertain — Aphrodisias ? . • Country S.E. of M. Cadmus. 

11. Attuda (Domitia) Ditto. 

12. Eumenia (Hadrian) Ditto. 

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N.B. — Those to which an asterUk is qffuced are new species, and will be found 
described at the end. 


Clematis cirrhosa, L. 
Anemone coronaria, L. 

apennina, L. 

Adonis aestivalis, L. 
Ficaria verna, Huda. 


Bongardia Rauwolfii, C. A. 


Papaver somniferum, L. 

orientale, L. 

Argemone, L, 

Glaucium flavum, Crantz. 
Roemeria hybrida, DeCand. 
Hypecoum procumbens, L. 


Corydalis tuberosa, DeCand. 
Fumaria capreolata, L. 

Fumaria parviflora, Lam, 

Erophila vulgaris, DeCand. 
Alyssum fiilvescens, Sm. 
Fibigia clypeata, Med. 
Aubrietia deltoidea, DeCand. 
Arabis vema, Br. 
Cardamine hirsuta, L. 
Diplotaxis tenuifolia, DeCand. 
Brassica Rapa, L. 


Cistus cymosuB, Dun. 

salvifolius, L. 

Helianthemum arabicum, Pers. 


Viola tricolor o, DeCand. 

Silene Behen, L. 
vespertina, L. 

Digitized by 




Silene orchidea, L. 

linoides^ Otth. 

Dianthus prolifer, L. 
Holosteum umbellatum^ L. 


Linum angustifolium, Sm. 
hirsutum^ L. 

Erodium cicutarium, 8m. 

ciconium^ Willd. 

gruiniim^ Willd. 

Geranium tuberosum^ L. 

moUe^ L. 

lucidum^ L. 


Ruta bracteosa^ DeCand. 

Rhamnus oleoides^ L. 
Paliurus aculeatus. Lam. 


Euphorbia dulcis^ L. 

rigida, Bieb. 

Mercurialis annua^ L. 
Ridnus communis^ L. 


Pistacia Lentiscus, L. 


Anagyris foetida, L, 
Calycotome villosa. Link. 
Anthyllis tetxaphylla^ X. 
Lotus creticus, X. 
Melilotus sulcata^ Detf. 
Trifolium fragiferum^ L. 

Trifolium spumosum^ L. 

Bubterraneum, L. 

prociuubens^ L, 

Hymenocarpus circinatus^ Savi, 
Medicago orbicularis, AIL 

uncinata, WUld. 

minima, Lam* 

manna, L* 

Psoralea bituminosa, L. 
Colutea arborescens, L» 
Coronilla iberica, Bieb. 

minima, L. 

Faba vulgaris, Mcench. 
Vicia onobrychoides, L. 

polyphylla, Desf. 

hybrida, L. 

LathyruB Cicera, L, 
— angulatus, L. 
Pisum fulvum, Sm. 
Lupinus hirsutus, L. 
Cercis Siliquastrum, L. 


Poterium spinosum, L. 


Tamarix gallica, L. 


Bryonia dioica, L. 

Paronychia argentea. Lam. 

Umbilicus pendulinus,D«Cani/. 


Scandix australis, L. 

Digitized by 




Caucalis daucoides^ L. 
Tordylium officmale^ L. 
Smymium peifoliatum, L. 


Asperula arvensia^ L. 
Gralium brevifolium^ £fm. 


Valeriana Dioscoridis^ Sm. 

TuBailago Farfara, L. 
Inula Candida^ DeCand. 

limoniifolia^ LindL , 

Asteriscus aquaticus^ Mcench. 
Anthemis arvensis^ L. 

rosea, Sm. 

Achillea cretica^ DeCand. 
Chrysanthemum segetum^ L, 

coronarium, L, 

Senedo squalidus, L. 
Gnaphalium luteo-album, L. 
Helichrysum angustifolium, 

Calendula arvensis, L. 
Carduus crispus, L. 
Centaurea montana, L. 

Jacea, L. 

Tragopogon porrifolius, L. 


Campanula drabifolia, Sm, 


Styrax officinale^ L. 


Phillyrea latifolia^ L, 


Jasminum fruticans, L, 

Vinca minor, L. 


Cuscuta epithymum, L. 


Myosotis sylvatica, Hoffm. 
Lithospermum orientale, WiUd, 
Anchusa italica, Retz. 

tinctoria, L. 

undulata, L. 

Cynoglossum officinale, L. 
Mattia staminea, RoBm. et 

Onosma echioides, L, 
Echimn plantagineum, L, 
creticum, Sm. 


Mandragora officinarum, Ber-- 

Hyoscyamus niger, !/• 

agrestis. Kit. 

aureus, L. 


Verbascum Thapsus, L. 


Veronica cuneifolia*. 

triphyllos, L. 

grandiflora *. 

Cymbalaria, VahL 

Linaria pelisseriana, DeCand. 
Anarrhinum bellidifoIium,2)e{/*. 

Digitized by 




Scrophularia peregrina^ L. 
■ — ^ canina^ i. 

Orobanche carjophyllacea^ 8m. 


Teuciium regium^ Schreb. 
Lavandula Sta&chas^ L. 
Lamium moschatum. Mill. 

purpureum^ L. 

Phlomis lycia *. 
Salvia triloba^ L. 
Horminum, L. 


Anagallis arvensis a et fi, L. 
Cyclamen persicum^ L. 

Plantago cretica, L. 


Salicomia fruticosa, L. 


Rumex bucephalophorus, L. 
Acetosa^ L. 


Elaeagnus angustifolia, L. 


Daphne coUina, L. 

argentea, Sm. 

Passerina hirsuta, L. 


Laurus nobilis^ L. 
Platanus orientalis, L. 


Liquidambar orientale^ Mill. 


Querent Ballota, De»/. 

coccifera, L. 

iEgilops^ L. 


Pinus Pinea^ L. 


Laridoj Lam. 

Cupressus sempervirens a et 

Juniperus communis^ L. 



Briza maxima^ L. 
Stipa tortilis, Desf. 
iEgilops ovata^ L. 

Merendera Bulbocodium^ Ram. 


Fritillaria Meleagris, L. 
Lloydia graeca, Endl. 
Gagea spathacea, Roem. & 

Hyacinthus orientalis, L. 
Muscari moschatum, Willd. 

Digitized by 




Muscari comosum, fVilld. 

botryoides, Willd, 

Bellevalia romana^ Lapeyr. 
Scilla bifolia^ L, 
Allium nigrum, L. 

neapolitanum, Cyr. 

triquetrum, L. 

junceum, Sm, 

Aloe vulgaris, Sm* 
Omithogalum umbellatum, L, 

nanum, Sm^. 

Myogalum nutans, Link, 
Asphodelus ramosus, L, 
Asparagus acutifolius, L, 


Smilax aspera, L. 
Ruscus aculeatus, L. 


Tamus cretica, L, 


Narcissus Tazetta, L, 


Iris florentina, L. 

Sisyrinchium, L. 

tuberosa, L, 

Trichonema Columnae, Rei- 

Gladiolus communis, L. 
segetum. Kit, 

Orcbis papilionacea, L, 

provincialis, Balb, 

longibracteata, Biv. 

longicomis, Desf. 

Ophrys fusca. Link, 

Tenoreana, Lmdl, 

mammosa, Desf, 

Ferrum-equinum, Desf. 

Serapias Lingua, L, 
cordigera, L, 

Arum Dracunculus, L, 
Arisarum vulgare, Sckott, 



Lycopodium denticulatiun, L, 


Polypodium vulgare, L, 
Ceterach officinarum, WiUd, 

Cheilanthes odora, Sw, 
Adiaixtum Capillus Veneris, L, 


Evemia prunastri, Ach. 

Digitized by 



Veronica cuneifoUa, 

V. glanduloBO-pubescens ; racemis axillaribus^ segmentis caly- 
cinis oblongis obtusis corolla brevioribus^ ovario suborbiculato 
scabro^ foliis subsessilibus cuneatis inciso-crenatis^ caule suf- 
fruticoso procumbente; 

Habitat in Lyciae rupibus ad Arycandum fluvium. 

Fraticulus procumbens^ ramosissimus, V, saxatili parum major. 
Rami filifonnes, purpurascentes^ foliosi^ fragiles^ pube brevis- 
sim& g1andulos& vestiti. Folia opposita^ brevissime petiolata^ 
cuneata, inciso-crenata^ coriacea, avenia^ utrinque pubescentia, 
scabriuscula^ subtus costft prominente subcarinata^ 2-3 lineas 
longa^ sesqui v. 2 lineas lata. Petioli pubescentes, vix lineam 
longi^ latiusculi^ suprk canaliculati^ subtus obtuse carinati^ 
im& basi subconnati. Racemi in ramis solitarii, axillares, 
multiflori^ pedunculati. Pedunculus folio longior^ filiformis^ 
glanduloso-pubescens; purpurascens. Bractea pedicellis ca- 
pillaribus longiores; inferior es inciso-crenatae^ foliis consimiles; 
mperiores subspathulatae^ integerrimse. Calyx copiosius glan- 
duloso-pubescenSj 4-partitus: segmentis oblongis^ obtusis; 
2 anterioribus majoribus. Corolla V.saxatiliSy cyanea? calyce 

. major: /u&o brevissimo,\dolaceo: /im&o 4-partito : laciniisro^ 
tundatis; integris, venulosis ; infimd duplo aiigustiore. Sta- 
mina corollft breviora : filamenta filiformia^ glabra, violacea : 
anthertB subrotundae^ biloculares, flavae. Ovarium compressum, 
orbiculare^ aspere pubescens^ integrum. Stylus capillaris^ gla- 
ber, coroUam superans. Stigma capitatum^ exiguum. 

This is a very distinct and well-marked species^ with the 
habit of V. sawatilisyhui there is none with which it can be con- 
founded, and if introduced to our gardens it would prove an 
interesting addition to the rock-work. Its cuneiform, deeply 
crenate leaves, and rough pubescent fruit will serve to distin- 
guish it from saxatiliSf as well as from every other shrubby 


Digitized by 



Veronica grandiflora. 

V. annua, erecta, glanduloso-pubescens ; floribus solitaiiis, seg- 
mentis calycinis linearibus obtusijB, CQrollA. calyce triplo lon- 
giore: laciniis rhombeo-ovatis subunguiculatis^ foliis infe- 
rioribus petiolatiB ovatis crenatis; superioribus aessilibus 
pinnatifidis tripartitisve. 

Habitat in Carift ad Mceandrum fluvium, et prope Mjlasam. 
Floret Martio. 

Radix fibrosa, annua. Cautts erectus, filiforous, simplex v. 
ramosus, copios^ glanduloso-pubescens, purpurascens, bipolli- 
caris. Cotyledanes adhuc persistentes^ subreniformes, inte- 
gerrimae, petiolatse. Folia inferiora brevissime petiolata, 
ovata, obtusa, crenata, 3-5 lineas longa, utrinque pilis bre- 
vissimis articulatis, at raro glanduliferis, copiose vestita ; su- 
periora sessilia, pinnatifida v. tripartita: segmentis linearibus, 
obtusis, integerrimis; terminali majori, subspathulato. Flares 
in apice caulis axillares, solitarii, pedunculati. PeduncuH 
capillares, copiose glanduloso-pubescentes, foliis tripartitis ter 
longiores. Calyx copiosfe glanduloso-pubescens, 4-partitus: 
segmentis linearibus, obtusis; 2 anterioribus majoribus. Co- 
roUa omnium maxima, diametro semuncialis et ultra, cyanea : 
tubo brevissimo, luteo: /tm£o profundi 4-partito: ladnm 
rhombeo-ovatis, obtusis, basi angustat& lute& subunguicu- 
latis; anticd minore. Stamina coroll& multoties breviora: 
filamenta gracilia, glabra, lutescentia: anther€B cordato-ob- 
longse, obtusse, violacese. Ovarium subrotundum, glabrum, 
integrum. Stylus corollft longipr, capillaris, glaber, supem^ 
incrassatus, subclavatus. £>/t$vna parvum, subcapitatum. Cap- 
sulam nondito vidi. 

A truly elegant litde plant, well deserving of being added to 
tbe catalogue of ornamental annuals, from the sIec and beauty 
of its flowers. Its deeply pinnatifid and tripartite leaves, with 
entire linear or spathulate s^;ments, will readily distinguish it 

Digitized by 



from the V. amcma of Steven^ and from V. pumila, from Mount 
HaemuB^ described and figured in the second volume of Dr. 
Clarke's Travels^ at page 559. 

Phlamis lycia. 

P. fruticoaa, ferrugineo-tomentosa; foliis cordato-oblongis obtu- 
sis, verticillastris plurifloris^ bracteis lanceolatis calycibusque 
mucronato-spinosis dense albo-knatis^ dentibus calycinis unci- 
natisj filamentis inappendiculatis. 

Habitat in Lyciae septentrionalis sylvis montosis. 

SuffnUex erectus^ ramosus, pedalis^ pube stellat& rubiginos& un- 
dique dens^ tomentosus. Rami 4-anguli. FoUa petiolata, 
cordato-oblonga, obtusa, crenata, rugoso-venosa, utrinque to- 
mento steUato copios^ vestita, pollicem longa, semundam 
lata ; floraUa vix cordata. PetipU angusti^ 3 lineas longi, 
supra canaliculati* VerticiUastri terminales^ pluri-(6'8)flori. 
Bracte€B adpressse^ lanceolatae^ mucronato-spinosae^ lan& lon- 
gissim^ molli alb& dens^ vestitae. Calyces bracteis vix lon- 
giores^ extus albo-lanati : fauce pilosissimft : dentibus brevi- 
bus, subulatis, mucronatoHspinosis, apice nudis, uncinatis. Co- 
rolla subuncialis, calyce vix duplo longior: tubo glabriusculo, 
infeme angustato, supem^ parum dilatato, intus fasdculis 
5 pilorum aucto : fauce intus glabr& : Umbo extus tomento 
fasciculato-ramoao flavicanti subadpresso vestito; labio supe- 
rior e galeatoy maigine tnmcato, emarginato ; inferiors longiore, 
trilobo; lackiiis lateraUbus ovatis> obtusis, couduplicatis, 
supra glabris; intermedid orbiculat&, integrft, supr& glabrft, 
mai^e parum undulati. FUamenta compressa, inappendi- 
culata, pubemla. Anthene glabrae. Stylus glaber. Stigma 
bifidum ; lobo siuptrtore latiore, obtoso ; inferioTe acutiusculo, 
parum longiore. 

This plant, Mr. Fellows informs me, is common in moun- 
tainous woods in the northern parts of Lycia. It is evidently 
nearly allied to the P^ferruginea of Tenore, but its lanceolate. 

Digitized by 



spinously mucronate^ woolly bractes^ siinple filaments^ and sub- 
ulate^ spinous^ uncinate calycine teeth^ essentially distinguish it 
from that species as well as from P. armeniaca. 

Pinus carica, 

P. foliis binis prselongis tenuissimis rectis margine denticulato- 
scabris: vaginis abbreviatis subintegris^ strobilis ovato-ob- 
longis rectis Isevigatis : squamis apice rhomboideis depressis 
truncatis rimulisque radiatis. 

Habitat in Cari^^ montibus. 

Arbor magna. Ramuli scabriusculi^ fusci. Fotta bina, erecta, 
recta, tenuissima, mucronata, nunc leviter tortilia, laet^ viridia, 
subtus convexa, Isevia, nitida^ supHi canaliculata, margine den- 
ticulato-scabra, &-7-pollicaria : va^nm 2-3 lineas longae^ cy- 
lindracese, fuscescentes, annulatim rugosa:, ore subintegro 
nudiusculo. SquanuB stipulares (folia primaria) lanceolatae, 
acuminatse^ coriaceae^ spadiceae, margine filamentoso-ciliatae, 
basi diu persistenti. Strobili ovato-oblongi^ obtusi, recti, Isevi- 
gati, nitidi, spadicei, 3-4 pollices longi, diametro 2-unciales : 
aquamis apice depressis, rhomboideis, planiusculis, transverse 
subcarinatis, rimulis radiatim notatie, medio truncatis, areolft 
transversa elliptic^ cinerascenti umbilicatis. 

I have ventured to propose this as a distinct species, although, 
from its near relationship to halepetmSy I think it not unlikely 
that it may prove to be only a remarkable local form of that 
species. It is chiefly distinguished from halepenria by its much 
longer leaves, and larger cones, the apex of whose scales are 
broader, and marked with numerous radiating fissures. The 
leaves are double the length of those of the maritima of Lam- 
.bert, and the cones are larger and more oblong. 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 


, Digitized by 




The following inscriptions in themselves afford mate- 
rials for a separate work. They derive a peculiar inter- 
est from elucidating the customs, character, games, 
government, and language of the Ancients. For the 
translation and explanation of these inscriptions, the 
reader is indebted to the indefatigable research of Mr. 
Hermann Wiener. 

No. 1. — Page 8, — In the Valley of Caystrus. 

The names of Marcus Antonius joined to Greek cognomens 
are" not unfrequent in inscriptions in this country. — Boeckh, 
2767, 2785, 2811.* 

The name of Nicephorus is also common. — Boeckh, 2835. 

No. 2.— Page 17. 

We know too little of the particulars in the administration of 
government and municipal afiairs in Roman provinces to define 
the functions of Marcus Aurelius Arestus (?) with certainty. To 

Digitized by 



the office of Eirenarchos (line 4)^ according to the SchoL ad 
Aristaph, Ran. 1103^ there belonged part of the guardianship of 
public peace and morals; it would then, along with that of 
Agoranomos (line 3)^ have been included in the functions of a 
Roman iEdilis; those of the Architamias (line 6) would corre- 
spond to the functions of the Quaestor ; the title of Strategos 
(lines 4 and 5) was given to municipal as well as to Roman 
officers (J. Eckhel Doctr. Num. t. iv. p. 215). Arestus was also 
Bularchos (line 2\ t. e. President of the municipal Council (the 
HovKfj or Decuriones)^ and Decaprotos (line 5 — see another in- 
scription published by Walpole, Travels,ii. p. 541^ Boeckh, 2639). 
The ^e/cairpcoToty or^ as Cicero (pro Roscio^ c. 12) calls them^ 
Decemprimi^ are generally stated to have had no particular func- 
tions^ but only enjoyed a superior rank in the municipal Council, 
of which they were a principal part, but no committee. The 
Gerusia, on the contrary (last line), Boeckh (2811) supposes 
to have been a committee chosen from the Council, as the Pry- 
tanis was at Athens. The names of BovKrf, A17/X09, Tepovaui, to 
which we must take care not to attach the notions familiar to us 
from the Greek classics, are very often placed together on the 
monuments of Asia Minor ; and these corporations must have 
been very closely connected, as our inscription shows that they 
had but one secretary in common. To the BovXt) there seems 
to be ascribed in line 8 its common epithet Kparurrr). In the 
following line the date of the above honorary decree may have 
been indicated ; for nepeiri^ is the fourth month in the Syro- 
Macedonian calendar : Pereitas, however, is also the name of a 
person (Boeckh, 2770, 2771); that of Soterichus is not unfre- 
quent (Boeckh, vol. i. p. 725). 

Nos. 3 and 4. — Pages 18 and 19. 

The last two lines of the first : JlaXafiauriv cfiev vckvv €v0a 
Ta<l>7)vau In the third line the name TlpoToyopov appears. In 

Digitized by 



the second: m#«/9 aa/ieviovQ) Se Moipa Kparat^ri 

Vy€UY€(jii})v fcai wy.^...vpoK€ifiaiy ei^ore (?) /Siorov x^^po-^v 
^V£at9 afiapavTo, 

No. 5.— Page 19. 

No 6. — Upon a pedestal. 


This appears to have been surmounted by a statue of " Ti- 
berius Claudius Caesar Oermanicus (the Emperor Claudius)^ 
consecrated by the People under the superintendence of Ti- 
berius Claudius Diogenes, son of Artemidorus, of the Roman 
tribus Quirina, who erected it at his own expense whilst he was 
Gymnasiarchos/^ Published by Boeckh, 2922, from Sherard, 
who must have seen the inscription in a more perfect state. 

No. 7. — Built into a wall. 




Digitized by 



'^ Timarchus, a dealer, and Hegesippe his wife, 

.... thou and good one, farewell/ 

I w 

No. 8.— Page 21.— At Keosk. 

No. 9.— Page 23.— At Sultan Hisscf. 
The final word of the third line is to be read CYrfevrf akin. 

No. 10.— Page 25.— At Naslee. 

( T€Tpa) «t9 AeiKia, Tairn79 emrfptufyrj^; avTir]fpa<f)ov aireredri 

€9 ra apj(€Ui eiri aT€(f}ayr)<j>opov KX. AKe^avSpov^ firivo^ Ila- 

No. 11.— Page 27. 

No. 12. — At Karasoo. 




Digitized by 



No. 13.— Page 34. 

No. 14. — In the theatre. 








'^ To Aphrodite^ the august Gods. The and the sub- 
structions (has consecrated)^ Aristocles Molossus^ the son of 
ArtemidoruSj a lover of glory and a lover of his native town ; 
Hermes^ son of Aristocles, the son of Artemidorus, superin- 
tending the work in pursuance of the will of Molossus, who 
had brought him up/^ 

Published by Boeckh (n. 274 7)^ from Sherard's MS., who reads 
in the fifth line APIZTOKAEIOYZ, whilst in our copy there 
appears the common form AptaroKXeov^. The word which ter- 
minates the fourth and begins the fifth line, has certainly the 
sense of efrferrLOTaTqaavro^, but we give it unchanged from the 
original transcript, as well as the letters at the end of the first 
and commencement of the second lines. 

No. 15. — Built into the south-east wall. 


Digitized by 



"Hennogenes, the son of Hennogenesj [gives] the architrave, 
and the ornament upon it to the People." 


Fragment of an inscription of similar contents. 

No. 16. — In the south-east wall. 





" Emperor Caesar [names erased], the Pious and . 

Happy, Augustus, in the third year of his trihunitial power and 
in his second Considship, Consul EUect for the third time, the 

Father of his country. Proconsul, and [name erased] 

Supreme Pontiff, in the first year of his tribunitial power. Con- 
sul Elect : 

Digitized by 



^^ To the Magistrates and the Senate^ and the People of the 
Aphrodisians^ greeting. 

^^ It was meet for you^ on account as well of the Goddess 
that gave your city its name^ as your relations with the Romans 
and your good faith, to rejoice at the establishment of our reign, 
and to offer the due sacrifices and prayers. And likewise we 
protect your liberty, which now is, and all other things [that 
are] right, which you have obtained of the Emperors before us, 
being willing to unite with you in advancing your hopes for the 
future abo. Ambassadors were Aurelius [?], Theodorus and 
Onesimus. Farewell.^' 

Published and explained by Boeckh, Corp. Inscr., n. 2743. 

The erased names of the two princes, who held together the 
reign of the Roman empire, can be no other than those of Dio- 
cletian and Maximian ; and the date of the above letter which 
contains the answer of the princes to the congratulatory address 
sent from the Aphrodisians by Onesimus and Theodorus, is 286 
after Christ. In this year the Princes, as the coins show us, 
had the titles above mentioned, viz. DIOCLetianus AYGustus 
TRibunitiffi Potestatis III. COnSul II., DESignatus III., Ponti* 
fex Maximus (which seems not to have been in our inscription). 
Pater Patriae, and MAXIMianus AVG. TR. P. COS. DES. 
P.M. P.P. The fact of the names being erased, is easily ex- 
plained by the hatred which the persecuted Christians bore to 
these emperors ; the next inscription will show that the Chris- 
tians had not long afterwards a strong influence in the manage- 
ment of public afiairs at Aphrodisias. 

^ No. 17.— Page 35. 

The barbarous form of avcuveoodTj instead of aveyemdrjj may 
be partly accounted for by the fact, that the diphthong ai was 
even by the Greeks sometimes pronounced like e. Vide Osann. 
Sylloge Inscript. p. 441. 

Digitized by 



No. 18.— Over the west gateway. 





" May fortune be favourable ! 

'^ For the good healthy and the safety^ and the honours^ and 
the victory, and perpetual welfare of our lords : Flavins Julius 
Constantius, the Pious^ the Never-Vanquished^ Augustus and 
[name erased] the most excellent and noble Ccesar^ Fl. Quintius 
Eros Monaxius [?]^ the most distinguished Governor^.and one 

of the Cretarchae, has erected it on his own expense for 

the splendid Metropolis of the Tauropolitans^ the relations of 
the Cretans.*' 

This inscription is published and explained by Bdeckh (n. 
2744)^ from Sherard's^ Spanheim's, and Richter's manuscripts. 
The name erased is either that of Gallus^ who fell a victim to 
Constantius, and was even after his death maltreated by him, 
or that of the famous emperor Julianus, whose name after his 
death was erased by the Christians. We are inclined to adopt 
the latter opinion, seeing that mention is made in the inscrip- 
tion of a relationship existing between the Cretans and the peo- 
ple of Aphrodisias. This was certainly the case in times long 
passed by, when this inscription was written (Herod. I. 17^), 
and a revival like this was in the spirit of the age of Julianus. 

Digitized by 




No. 19. — In the south-east wall. 





To judge from their position, these two fragments formed 
part of one inscription, which probably recorded some gift made 
toward building or ornamenting the theatre, the diazama of 
which is mentioned in the last line. There seems to appear in 
it the same Hermes, son of Aristodes, whom our inscription 14. 
showsois concerned in a liberal donation to the Gods and the 
People of Aphrodisias. 

No. 20. — On the north side of the city. 



^^ The troop of gladiators, convicts, and bull-baiters belonging 
to Zeno, the high-priest, son of Hypsicles, the son of Hypsicles, 
the son of Hypsicles, who was by birth the son of Zeno.'* 

Troops, or, to preserve the Roman appellation, which is pre- 
served in the Oreek inscriptions, yamt/te« of gladiators, are men- 
tioned in two other inscriptions of Asia Minor (Boeckh, 1511), 
as being kept by the Asiarchae, on whom it was incumbent, as 


Digitized by 



well as on the High-priests, to amuse the public with games. 
Ours, it seems, is the only Grreek inscription, bearing witness to 
the commonly known fact of convicts being employed as gla- 
diators. The buU-baitings {ravpoKoBa'^uuy vide ChishuU Antt. 
As. p. 95), mentioned in the last line, were originally a Thessa- 
lian game, in Rome first exhibited by the Emperor Claudius 
(Sueton. vit. Claud., c. 21, Plin. H. N. viii. 45), and much 
liked at Ephesus and Smyrna. A very good representation of 
them we see in a bas-relief, brought from the latter city to 
Oxford (Marmora Oxon. ed. Chandler, p. 105. Iviii.): unarmed 
horsemen, coming up at full speed with bulls, whom they try to 
hold down by the horns, not always of course successfully. The 
abbreviation TAYPOKA, which closes the inscription, may be 
interpreted into ravpoKoOairrmVy or ravpoKda^iAnVy the latter 
indeed less grammatical, but in keeping with the Kuvr/yeauov in 
Boeckh, Inscr. 1511. The gladiators were no adepts in the 
writing of Greek; and we may, therefore, without scruple 
translate Ztjvav in the first line as if it were Ztfvavix; ; the more 
so as the genitive apxiepeto^ belongs to it as apposition. The 
families of Zeno and of Hypsicles being frequently mentioned 
on the monuments and coins (Eckhel D.N. II. 575) of Aphro- 
disias, must have been among the first of the city. Their names 
were nearly hereditary ; hence our inscription, to explain the 
fact, why the descendant of so many called Hypsicles, should 
himself have the name of Zeno, carries his lineage up to his 
great-grandfather, who had been adopted into the Hypsicles' 
family, belonging by birth to that of the Zenos. 

No. 21.— Outside of the west wall. 

The pedestal upon which the following was written was so 
completely covered with inscriptions, that the commencement^ as 
well as the first and final letters of each Une which were cut in 

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the cornice and mouldings^ have been imperfectly transcribed ; 
the rest was copied by impressing paper upon the stone. 


































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'^ the extraordinaiy^ and for hia lifetime Xystarches of 

the games [celebrated] in the colony of Antiocheia* Being a 
glorious and diligent Athlete, he advanced so far in gloiy as to 
be the first who fortunately carried off so great prizes, and so as 
to glorify along with each prize his most splendid native dty, by 
proclamations and crowns; but chiefly under •••••• Antoni- 
nus, so as to be not only crowned by his [the Emperor's] hands, 
but honoured also by extraordinary [gifts]. Having afterwards 
become Xystarches, he with the greatest benevolence and dili- 
gence, and all [possible] zeal^ takes care of our interests, con- 
ducting himself as a veiy good and honourable citizen amongst 
us. And in regard to these and other things, we, praising the 
man and bearing him testimony, have often and at present sent 
decrees to our masters, the Emperors ; being of opinion that 
there should be made to him very great [?] and corresponding 
returns for his benevolence towards us, and because he put 
himself to considerable expense and much trouble, and efGscted 

• It was therefore decreed — May 

it be fortunate I to render thanks unto Menander on the part 
both of the most worshipful Council and the most splendid 

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People of the Aphrodisians, in consideration of the aforesaid 
points^ and to honour him by erecting statues and putting up 
images in the most conspicuous place of the city^ his honours 
being recorded in the preamble of this decree^ to the end that 
his honours amongst us may be perpetuated. 

'^ He is also a citizen of the under-mentioned cities^ [that of 
the] Pergamenes, Antiocheians^ Csesarean Colonists; and a 
Councilman of the Therseans^ and a Councilman of the Apollo- 
niatae in Lycia [and in] Thracia, and a Councilman of the 
Milesians^ PessinuntiaHS and Claudiopolitans. 

^' There acted as superintendent in [conferring] these honours^ 
his brother Zeno^ son of ApoUonius^ the son of Menander.^' 

It is seldom that inscriptions copied from pedestals are trans- 
mitted to us entire^ the upper lines being commonly written on 
the projecting part of the stone^ where they were less secure. 
Thus we do not know in what office or offices Menander, pro- 
bably at Aphrodisias^ proved himself '^ extraordinary/' The 
office of Xystarches^ which he held at Antiochia, is mentioned 
in a few other Oreek inscriptions (Oruter^ p. 314^ 1 ; Mu- 
rator, p. 650, 1 ; Boeckh^ 175B, at Aphrodisias). The Xystus, 
t. e* a walk or arcade, being so essential a part of the Gymna- 
sium, the terms Xystarches and Oymnasiarches might be taken 
as synonymous ; it seems, however, that whilst the latter title 
conferred only the honour of a munificent patronage, the Xy- 
starches exercised a certain professional superintendence in the 
affiiirs of the gymnasium. The gymnasiarchia, being one of the 
municipal Uturgue, was commonly held for a limited period (n. 6, 
but ▼• Boeckh, 2777)> and sometimes also by women (inscrip- 
tion from Mylasa, p. 68). The dignity of Xystarches, as we see 
from the inscriptions, was conferred by the Emperors on men 
who had distinguished themselves in the athletic profession, and 
was held for life. Among the honours which Menander earned 
for himself and his native city, whose name, as we may conclude 
fix)m Pindar's beautiful odes, was as much glorified by the pro- 
clamation as the winner's own, the most distinguished was, to 

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be crowned by the hands of Antoninus. This is the Emperor 
L. Antoninus Pius ; the two Emperors, to whom the Council of 
Aphrodisias sent their decrees on behalf of Menander, are his 
two adopted sons and successors, M. Aurelius Antoninus Phi- 
losophus and L. iEHus Verus, who reigned jointly from 161 to 
170 of our aera. Antoninus Pius having, whilst Emperor, never 
set foot out of Italy, the glory of Menander, or he in search of 
it, must have gone far beyond his native land. 

In the two lines before which the translation breaks off, we 
may distinctly read the following words : — ^Bieirpa^aro aj(drfv(u 

ar/mva (or cu^va) wapa Tot9 AvTuy)(€V<nv a>9 

aciv fffia^ oifcoOey irtip avrov '' showing that Menander, 

although his avocations called him to Antiocheia, did not care 
the less for his native city* For this the citizens of Aphrodisias 
felt the more grateful, as Menander, probably in consequence 
of the honours he won and afterwards distributed at the gym- 
nastic festivals, enjoyed the rights of citizen and the raink of a 
Councilman in several other cities of the greatest celebrity in 
Asia Minor. From Thera, built on a small island near Crete, 
sprung the famous city of Cyrene in Africa. We find in an- 
other inscription (Boeckh, 2761) a city of Apollonia take part in 
the ^rmnastic festivals at Aphrodisias ; but, lying in Caria, it is 
neither of the ApoUonias mentioned in our inscription. Apol- 
lonia, says Stephanus Byzantinus, is a small island near Lycia ; 
and there are coins with the inscription AFIOAAUNIA AY 
(Eckhel, iii. 2), and likewise of ATroKKoavut 11 [ovrov], which was 
inhabited by Thracians (Eckhel, ii. 24). There were in Asia, 
to judge from the coins, five cities bearing the name of Antio- 
cheia, three called Claudiopolis, and as many called Caesarea. It 
ia doubtful, however, whether the name of Caesarea is to be in- 
cluded in our list ; or the words Avrioxeoov Kcuaapetov KoXq>- 
vcDv are to be taken jointly for the city of Antiocheia ; its full 
name being Colonia Caesarea Antiochiae (vide Boeckh, 1586)« 

The name of ApoUonius, borne by Menander's father, is 
found on several monuments, and on the coiiis of Aphrodisias. 

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An Apollonius of Aphrodisias is also mentioned by Stepbanus 
Byzantinua (s. v. xpuo-oopt?) as tbe author of a work on Caria. 

No. 22. 


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Taken with impress paper frcnn the stone. The points be* 
tween the letters, although in several instances without import- 
ance, are all seen in the impression. 

The inscription may in the following waj be restored. 

['H fiovKfj Kcu o Sfffjbo^ KOA 17 yepovaial 

eretfjuTfaay t[cm9 icaXKurraisi] 

MU fieyurrai^ r[6t/Luu9 ] 

AiXmv Avfyrf\M>y 

5 a0\fj<rarra €i/&>fa>9 . . • [wXct] 

<rnjv€ucfiVj 7rayKpa{ruumfy Trapa] 

So{6v, (wrrapxqy 

rov KOA eySo^Vf wfMo[Toy luu fio] 

voy Twy OTT auoyo^ arylpDymyf ayeXofie] 
10 yoy rpieruf ras rpei^ Kp«r[wov Oe/JuBof;^ 

aryeyeioy, aySpa xai yeiKlricavni] 

lepov^ K(u raXayruuov[^ icai TrXeur] 

Tov^ dKKov^ arffxnya^. 

Neav TToXtv, Xeficurroy TrcuStoy K>ia[y] 
15 Biaytay waytcpariy* Ncftcia, w€uBc»y 

Trayfcpartv* ladfua, arfeyeuay irayKpa 

travKpari^y Upay Tlepyafjboy, xoiyoy 

Aauvff ayBpmy irayKpariV "Ei^croyj 
20 HdKfiCKKfiay [ai^peay vay/cpariy]" ^X/wlp] 

yay, /coiyoy A<r»a9, aySptoy 7r[ayKpaTiyy 

ifiSofilja] YlayadrfyMOy 

aySpmy TrayKpariy, irporroy [A^/ooSet] 

<r^a)v* N6/i6Ux, ai^pwy iray\KpaTvy] 
25 Kai ra i^ tiefieia aySptoy TraylKpa] 

riy Upay OXvfi'jreM €v Aftywwy a[v] 

hpmy irayicpaTiyy irpcrroy A(f>po8€L[(n'] 

emy TlvOuiy aySptay iray/cpartiy 

Pco/^v, KawenaiKeia' OXvp^Trta^ ayS[p] 
30 (ay irayKpariyj trpfaroy A<^po8€t<r[t] 
e [a>] V, 

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^' [The Senate and the People and the Gerusia ?] honoured 

with the [ftirest] and greatest honours iElius Aurelius 

who was a glorious Athlete^ a victor in many games^ an 

extraordinary Pancratiastes^ Xystarches of 

and who won sacred games^ and games in which the prize was 
a talent^ and a great many other games* 

^^ At Neapolis in the Augustean games, the pancration of Clau^- 
dian boys ; in the Nemean games^ the pancration of the boys ; 
in the Isthmian^ the young man's pancration; at Ephesus in the 
BalbUlean games, the sacred pancration of the .young men ; at 
Pergamus in the [games celebrated by] the corporation of Asia, 
the pancration of the men; at Ephesus in the Balbillean games, 
the pancration of the men [?] ; at Smyrna [in the games cele<- 
brated by the] corporation of Asia, the pancration of the men ; 

seventhly, in the Panathemeans the pancration of the 

men, being the first of the citizens of Aphrodisias; in the Ne* 
mean games, the pancration of the men^ and in the Nemean 
immediately following, the sacred pancration of the men ; in the 
Olympian games at Athens, the pancration of the men, being 
the first of the citizens of Aphrodisias ; in the Pythian, the pan- 
cration of the men; at Rome, in the Capitolian games ; in the 
Olympian, the pancration of the men, being the first of the 
citizens of Aphrodisias.'' 

Inscriptions in which athletes or musicians enumerate their 
victories, written on the bases of the statues that were erected 
either by their fellow-citizens or themselves, are not unfrequent 
(Gruter,314, 1; Murator, 647, 1; Boeckh, 24?, 1585, 1720, 2810, 
2811.) Most of them are of later date than the middle of the 
second century of our aera. From this epoch the public games 
and festivals constantly appear on the coins of the Roman em- 
pire (Eckhel D. N. lY. p. 430) ; the general passion for them, 
and the patronage which they enjoyed firom the Emperors, in- 
creasing exactly in the same ratio as the remnant of public 
spirit and prosperity were decreasing. 

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The supplements insierted in our inscription are taken from 
those quoted above. In line 6, the name of the games or place, 
o£ which Aurelius was a Xystarches, has disappeared. In line 
8,. we. should rather expect ayo>vurTo>y than ar/wymv, but the 
former W(Hrd, besides being too long for the space left by the 
breaking of the stone, is scarcely ever used in inscriptions of 
this kind ; and ours, as we shall see, is not quite correct gram- 
matically. In line 9, I take Kpi^s for Kpunro<:, who is men-* 
tioned as Asiarches (Boeckh, n. 2912). The word $€fuSa^, 
which I should prefer to yeiKo^y we find in an inscription at 
Xanthus, given on page 168. We might suppose that, like 
the person named there, Crispus had left a legacy from which 
prizes were to be given ; it seems more Ukely, however, that 
the three prizes which Aurelius in three succeeding years ob« 
tained from Crispus, were won at the games enumerated in 
lines 16-19 or 20. Ephesus and Pergamus, as well as Smyrna, 
were all cities of the Roman province Asia, at the games of 
which the Asiarches presided. 

Line 11. There are, says Jul. Pollux, III. 30, two kinds of 
games : the aryayc^ i€poi, called (TT€<f>ayircu, because the prize 
given was a crown ; and the aycdy&i OefiariKoiy called apyvpvrcuj 
from the pecuniary rewards distributed in them. Of the latter, 
the TCkKayruuo^y ^fiiraXavruuoi etc. were species. 

Line 13. The Sebiasta, celebrated at Neapolis (the city still 
beluing that name), in Campania, are often mentioned. It is 
dot certain, since all the Emperors had the name of Augustus, 
in whose honour they were instituted; nor can we tell what 
connexion the 7ra^9 KXavScayoi, mentioned in our inscription 
only, had with Claudius, or an institution bearing his name. 
. There can be no doubt that the Nemean games (lines 14 and 
23), the Isthmian (line 15), the Pythian (line 27), and the Olym- 
pian (line 28), in which Aurelius successfully contested with 
the boys, the young men {cuyeyeioi, originally '^ beardless,*' vide 
Pausan. vi. 14, 1; Boeckh, n. 232^ 246), and the men, are those 

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which are known to us from the classic authors. It has been 
proved^ indeed^ that games bearing these celebrated names were 
also performed at other cities^ a fact to which our inscription 
also bears testimony in line 25^ where the Olympian games at 
Athens are mentioned^ but no localities are named in the above 

The Balbillean games (line 16^ 19)^ celebrated at the joyous 
Ephesus^ are called Barbillean in another inscription (Boeckh^ 
2810). That the letters / and r are frequently interchanged, is 
adverted to in other parts of this work : the Latin Ulium, from 
Xeipiov; the English purple, from piupura; the modem Greek 
aXerpiy fit>m aporpov; the Italian albero and albergo, from arbor 
and herberge, show the generality of the fact. 

The letters I fl A behind Havaffrjvcua (line 21), which I must 
leave unexplsdned, appear distinctly on the impression. It is 
curious, that Aurelius mentions the number of his preceding 
victories only in this instance. 

Aurelius won in the Capitolia at Rome (line 28), which is 
distinctly mentioned ; games of this name being also celebrated 
at Aphrodisias (Boeckh, 2801; Eckhel, ii. 575). At Rome they 
were instituted by Furius Camillus, in memory of the deliver- 
ance of the capitol from the Gauls; they were splendidly re- 
newed by Domitianus. Not only the names of the festivals, 
but also those of the localities in which they were celebrated, 
are constantly in our inscription, and in similar ones put into 
the accusative. The word iravKpariv appears so distinctly, 
that although it be not found anywhere else, we must add 
nravKparv; or iratficpaTi^ to our vocabularies ; it is originally ad- 
jective, and in the same way used as a substantive feminine, as 

is TTVKTltCrf, 

No. 23. — Page 39. — In the south wall. 

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No. 24. — In the south walL 


'^ [When it was reported that Callias^ who was a. good and 
honourable man?] and had unceasingly done great service to 
his native city, bore humanely the accident that had befallen 

his child^ it was decreed by the Council and the People^ 

that Zeno, son of Callias, the son of Zeno, the son of Eudamus^ 
be honoured even after he departed^ and that there be put up 
his statues^ and sculptures, and images in the temples and 
public places by Callias his father; and that there be also 
consoled Appia, daughter of Eudamus^ the son of Metrodorus, 
the mother of Zeno/' 

The wprd fieniXXaxxora appears so distinctly in this and 
other inscriptions copied at Aphrodisias, that we must acknow- 
ledge it to be a dialectic form instead of the common /i€Ti;X\a- 
X<ya» It may be added then to the two words given in Greek 
grammars as having doubled aspiratae (the first being naturally 
changed into the tenuis), the Pindaric oxxo^^o^o^;, and the 
Hesiodic aiannfxi^^aKv^x)^ i loic^o? may in the same way be 
derived from wxpa* 

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No 25. 
















No. 26. 
(Continuation of the foregoing.) 

toyzron eizaytoykai eyaamon kaaai 


" that Callias [twice, i. e. grandson] of Zeno, the son 

of Eudamus, an honourable and good youth, whose conduct was 
virtuous and worthy of all praise, [be honoured] with the greatest 
and fairest honours, and that there be put up his statues and 
sculptures and images painted on gold-grounded shields in the 

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temples and public places, whereon there are also to be in- 
scribed his honours, fair and beseeming and becoming his 
family and the conduct of his life ; and that these worthy in- 
scriptions be likewise inscribed on his tomb, in which his bro- 
ther Zeno also is buried; and that there be consoled Callias, son 
of Zeno, the son of Eudamus, and Appia daughter of Eudamus, 
the son of Metrodorus, (26) his parents ; and Eudamus, son of 
Callias, the son of Zeno, his brother, that they may bear hu- 
manely the misfortune which has befallen them.'' 

The inscriptions 24 to 27 relate to the same family, whose 
lineage stands thus : 

Eudamus Metrodorus 

Zeno Eudamus 

Callias Appia 

Zeno (24, 26) Callias (25) Eudamus (26, 27). 

The four letters AOAZ, in the tenth line, stand either for 
KAAAZ or for APAOAX^ the stone-cutter or the copyist 
having left out the two first letters, because they are so similar 
to the two last of the preceding TAZ. 

It is not easy exactly to define the works of art which the 
Town-Council of Aphrodisias caused " to be put up.'* The 
eifcove^ ypaTrrai especially have given rise to many discussions 
among the first philologists of the continent, proceeding from 
an inscription first published by Maittaire in the Appendix of 
the Marmora Oxoniensia, and afterwards commented on in the 
Mus. Crit. Cantab., tom. vii. p. 477; vide Raoul Rochette, Jour- 
nal des Sav., June 1833, Boeckh, n. 3068, Osann Sylloge, p. 244, 
576. Generally speaking, both avBpuL^ and arfcuK^ia may be 
translated by ^^ statue,'' and euco>v signifies any graphic repre- 
sentation, full size or small, sculptured or painted. Our in<- 
scription, however, and several others, show, that in Asia Minor 
especially, these general terms had, by common parlance, each 

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a particular meaning. In another inscription of Aphrodisias^ 
being of the same kind as ours, Boeckh, n. 2 77 19 thinks avSpiav^ 

Ta<! to be statues of the man himself, and a/yoKfiaTa statues of ' 

gods to be erected on his behalf. This is scarcely applicable to 
our inscriptions, in which ainov constantly precedes the three 

words ; arfcCKfiara in n. 25, standing between avhpiavras and I 

eiKovas ^pairra^y which both undoubtedly mean representations | 

of the man himself. Both arfcCKfiaTa and avhpuLvre^ being 1 

sculptures ; we are allowed to take, as Boeckh does in a similar ' 

inscription (3068 A, 3067), the former for statues, and avhpi^ 
avT69 for busts standing on Hermae, a kind of monument by no 

means uncommon, as the British Museum shows ; or we may I 

leave to avipiavre; its common meaning, and by aycCKfjMra, as 

Pausanias does in several places, (Siebelis Pnef. ad Pausan. I 

vol. i. p. xlii.) understand bas-reliefs. By iiKiov on the monu- 
ments of Asia Minor and of Qumse, is meant a bust ; by eiKmv | 
ypaTTTf) a picture extending no further than does a bust {pro- 

tome, or as now painters call it, kit-cai). Et^cov ypairnf ev | 

oTrXot?, eirixpva-oi^y or eiKwv ypaimj cvowXo9, is a portrait pamted , 1 

on a shield, i.e. a circular or oval piece of wood, on gold ground, | 

as were the earliest pictures of Christian art. It is true that the 
ancients had also medallion-portraits sculptured on marble, or 
metal shields, of which many are yet to be seen in museums ; 
but the Greek term for these works of art would rather be €lk(ov 
yXwrrr), avarfKv^o^ eTretpyaafieyrfj or such like ; ypawrq meaning 
^^ painted.'' Some thought ei/caavypawrr) to be a painted statue. 
Thence, according to our inscriptions, the public places of 
Aphrodisias would have been decorated with statues painted in- 
(perhaps real) gilt armour. We should prefer, however, the 
above explanation, being more consistent with that of other. in- 
scriptions, and also with a passage in Macrob., Sat. ii» 3, which 
describes a portrait of Cicero's brother, painted and preserved in 
his former province, Asia, as "clypeata imago (viz. eiKtoy evcwrXo?) 
ingentibus lineamentis usque ad pectus ex more picta.*^ ' 


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No. 27. 






















" it was decreed by and the People that there 

be honoured even after he departed, Eudamua son of Callias, 
the son of Zeno, the son of Eudamus, an honourable and good 
youth, who lived decently and wisely, and like a pattern of 
virtue, with the greatest, fairest and worthy honours, and that 
there be put up his images, painted on gold-grounded shields, 
and statues and sculptures in the temples and public places, 
whereon there are to be inscribed the honours worthy and be- 
fitting his family ; and that there be inscribed his honours also 

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on the monimient in i/vhich he is buried; and that there be con- 
soled Callias, son of Zeno^ the son of Eudamus and Appia, 

daughter of Eudamus^ the son of Metrodorus, his parents 

to bear humanely the accidents that have befallen them. The 

decree '' 

Thus Callias and Appia lost their last son^ who had in life 
been virtuous, like his brothers^ and been equally honoured in 
death. To his parents the same request is made, which he had 
heard twice before, to bear their misfortunes humanely. What 
Greek genius meant by this, its first-born, Homer, has put before 
us in the finishing canto of the Iliad. 

No. 28. — In the west wall. 











This inscription forms one half of an honorary decree similar 
to the foregoing, but without mentioning statues and images. 
Boeckh, n. 2776» reads thus : 


ffOci tcai a-e/AVOTfjTi fiiov \nre\pfie^'qKw] 
T€T€\€im]tC€V 7rpo<nfK€i Se 

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• • [T€T€]\evr7jKOTa>v wapafiv0€i<r0at 

^iXrarov arro )8o[i;]X^' hia Tau[Ta] 

• * xXea ApurroKkeoi;^ rov Zrjvfavo^ 

[TrapafivjOrfaaaOat Se rov irarepa avT[ov] 

• 7^79 Tuyri^ avfi^pai^ rai^ re 

....... •Yoyev^ MffrpoSniypov rov ro[v€a)9] 

' • • MiOvKu)^ TIvppov ypafifialrev^"]* 

In the first five lines we have the customary preamble of a 
decree^ stating its motives^ which in the present case may have 
been stated by the secretary Mithylios^ the son of Pyrrhus. 
Another inscription written on the same stone^ and relating to 
the family of Aristocles, son of Aristocles, the person honoured 
by this decree^ will be given under No. 52. 

No. 29. — On a pedestal at the east gate. 










"The city [honours, probably by erecting a statue,] Tiberius 
Aurelius Ctesias, the Rhetor, son of Tiberius Claudius Capito- 

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No. 30. — Near the east gate. 









'^ The Council and People honoured^ even after he departed^ 
Metrodorus Demetrius^ son of Metrodorus^ living decently^ a 
man of honourable ambition in public affairs, and showing zeal 
in offices, and promises, and the superintending of works, and 
other services to the commonwealth.*' 

AHMHTPION appearing distinctly in both Sherard's tran- 
script (Boeckh, 27/9) and ours, we must take it as a second name 
of Metrodorus, instead of reading AHMHTPIOY, and making 
Demetrius the grandfather of the younger Metrodorus. The 
form /ienyXXap^ora is very remarkable. See No. 24. 


No. 31. — At the east gate. 


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<f decreed to honour, even after her death [?] with 

worthy and becoming honours, Nesera Ammias, daughter of 
Menecles, who had been the wife of Metrodorus Demetrius, son 
of Metrodorus, and lived decently and soberly." 

No. 32. — In the east wall. 












*^ The Council and the People and the Elders [Gerusia] and 
the young men honoured Attains, son of Macedo, the son of 
Aristeas, the son of Alexander ApoUonides, both for his own 
virtue and that of his ancestors, and for his benevolence to the 
People, [manifested in] love of fame and splendid offerings.'' 

The Bov\7fy A77fu>9, Tepova-ia and Neot, although these bodies 
were not co-ordinate in political importance (see No. 2.), some- 
times made decrees in common, which were then called those 
of the 2i/va/»xta, or of the KoivofiovXiov (Eckhel, D.N. II. p. 575). 
Perhaps the decree in honour of Attains originated with the 
young men, among whom he distinguished himself, and who 
especially owed him gratitude for his splendid offerings ; it was 
then referred to the examination of the Gerusia, a kind of court 
of honour, and finally sanctioned by the highest municipal 

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Aristeas (as Boeckh remarks, 2775) and Papias are the 
names of distiDguished sculptors, both natives of Aphrodisias, 
mentioned in a Greek inscription at Rome, Still more distin- 
guished is another name read on our monument, Alexander 
Aphrodisiensb, being one of the best interpreters of Aristotle. 
Instead of ♦lAOAOZUlN, Boeckh, 2781, would propose to 
read ^lAOAOZIAN, t. e. liberality ; but the former word ap- 
pears quite distinct in our transcript, as it does in Sherard's. 

No. 33. — In the east wall. 





" . . . . honoured with the fairest [?] honours Dionysius, son 
of Artemidorus, the son of Menippus, the son of Dionysius, the 
son of Demetrius, living decently and as a pattern of virtue/^ 

The name of Menippus appears on the coins of Aphrodisias. 

No. 34. — In the east wall. 



''The People [honoured] Myo Menander,the son of Agelaus, 
but by birth the son of Eusebes/^ 


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Sherard's transcript^ firom which Boeckh^ 2772> printed the 
inscription^ has in the first line OAHMOZ; to judge from 
our transcript^ it was rather OAAMOZ* The inscriptions of 
Aphrodisias give no other instance of this Doric form. The 
fact of Myo having two names^ may be explained by his being 
adopted into another family. 

No. 35. — In the west wall. 




'^ The Senate and the People honoured Socrates^ the son of 
Theophrastus^ who had been an honourable and good man.'^ 

The translation takes the word at the beginning of the last 
line for TENOMENON. 

No. 36. — In the south-east wall. 


The inscription at the right is published by Boeckh^ 2820^ 
as a sequel to a larger decree^ also '^ made by the Council and 
People in honour of the wife of Attains/' a priestess of Here. 
The last line of our inscription^ Prof. Boeckh explains by KOi 
€^ ^HfHitovy signifying that a statue of the priestess was also 
placed in the Herseum, t. e. the temple of Juno. The name of 
the priestess Boeckh^ partly from another inscription^ supposes 

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to have been Caja« The letters TEIN^ from which this is to be 
inferred, are in Sherard^s transcript the same as in ours. The 
little column on the left is part of another inscription, which 
may have had contents similar to those of the inscription on the 

No. 37* — In the east wall. 










^' Tiberius Claudius Attains, son of Lucius Antonius Clau- 
dius Dometinus [?] Diogenes, the High-priest of Asia and 
Nomothetes, a Senator, the benefactor of his native city.'' 

The name of Dometinus, or rather Domitinus, although de- 
rived in the same way from Domitius, as Antoninus is from 
Antonius, is by far less used than Domitianus. [Ao/it]r€£vov, 
however, appears in another inscription (Boeckh, 2777)> relating 
to the same Diogenes, the High-priest of Asia and Nomothetes. 
The office of High-priest of Asia, perhaps identical with that of 
Asiarcha (Eckhel, iv. p. 205), was among the highest distinc- 
tions conferred on natives of Asia Minor. It was intimately 
connected with the great games celebrated in the principal 
cities of the province by the Kotvov Ao-uk, and was attended with 
considerable expense {vide our No« 20.); whence Strabo, in proof 
of the opulence of Tralles, appeals to the fact, that three of its 

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fiunilies had the office of High-priests of Asia omferred on them 
nearly hereditarily. The office, although the title seems by cour- 
tesy to have been continued through life, was not perpetual. 
The title of Nomothetes, implying legislatorial functions, is not 
common on the coins and monuments of Asia Minor. 

No. 38. — In the east waU, upon a pedestal. 

















TloKAn KA 

« Claudia Antonia Tatiana, the excellent cousin of Claudius 
Diogenes and Attalus, the Senators [?], being a distinguished 
benefactress to the city, as were her ancestors. 

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'' Ti» CI. Attalus, the son of Diogenes [?], superintended the 
erection of the statue/' 

The three last names are restored from No. 37^ which evi- 
dently relates to the same family. The translation takes the 
words in the tenth line for awicK'tfrucwvi the adjective ovyKXif- 
rueo^ being generally of three terminations^ and there being no 
instance of the term ovyKXajritco^f which means a senator, being 
applied to a wife or daughter of a senator. 

No. 39. — In the west wall, upon a pedestal. 


^' Attains [erects a statue of] Diogenes, his brother.'^ 

Published by Boeckh, 2805, together with a corresponding 
inscription written by Diogenes under a statue of his brother 

No. 40. — In the west wall, upon a pedestaL 









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'' Publius iEliufl Hilarianus^ of equestrian rank^ son of the 
[Centurio] Primipilarius Publius iElius ApoUonianus^ grandson 
of the Consularis Publius JBlius Hilarianus^ kinsman of many 
a Consularis and Senator. 

'^ Tiberia Julia Antonia Letob^ a mother and aunt of Senators, 
[erects this in honour of the above P. iEl. Hilarianus], her 
sweetest son/* 

Published by Boeckh, 2793. 

The word after the names Antonia Letois may be taken for 
MHTPOZ instead of MHTHP, but the following, MAMMH, 
is evidently a nominative; and the reading which the translation 
follows, supposing that some of Tiberia's elder sons and her 
nephews were Senators, seems preferable to that, which would 
give her mother and her aunt the rank of Senators. 

The terms ^vyKXfjriKo^ and J,vyK\ffTo^ belong almost exclu* 
sively to the Roman Senate, BovXeimf^ and BovXtf to the Mu- 
nicipal Councils (Eckhel, /. c. 190; Su7«Xi;tos MeXirawv, 
Gruter, 400, 8 ; Itvpcucoauov, ibid, 401, 1 ; TpaXKutvmv, Boeckh, 
2926). Not one of the many Consulares in iElius' family is 

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named in the lists of the Roman Consuls ; but by the Emperors 
the title of Consixlaris was bestowed on the governors of the 
more important provinces^ especially on those of Asia (Eckhel^ 
/• c* 281), without their having been Consuls before. 

No. 41. Page 40. — On a sarcophagus, showing the medallion- 
portraits of a man and a woman. See woodcut, page 39. 

The words 'n-Xaraii and [ejuroKm;, as seen in the following 
inscription, constantly recur on monuments of this kind at 
Aphrodisias, but are not met with in other Qreek inscriptions 
and authors. Of the former word there appears twice in our 
inscription, both after Sherard^s and our transcript, the hete- 
rocUte accusative wXxtroy. Instead of Sherard's NEXlllOIOI, 
our transcript has NEXlllYOI, another instance of t; being sub- 
stituted for oi ; Xi/Tra (1. 4) instead of \017ra appears in other 
inscriptions of Aphrodisias, where aw^eu is always written 
instead of arot^cu. It has been pointed out as a peculiarity of 
the iEolic, especially the Bceotic (Boeckh, vol. i. p. 723) dialect, 
to use t; and i instead of the diphthongs 01 and ei. Of the latter 
change^ the form uj-foanj — instead of which in other inscriptions 
we have eMroMm;, and t9, which, as we shall see, is frequently 
used instead of ei^ at Aphrodisias — ^is an example ; whilst in a 
great many other words, AffipoSeirrj (line 9), A^poBeiaieeaiVf revfi/qj 
yeuct) etc., the Carians substituted the diphthong where the 
classic Greek has i. In line 10 both Sherard^s and our tran- 
script have YnEYeiNOI instead of YnEYGYNOI. In Ime 9 
the Oi after vecmoioi has fallen out. The letters MA at the right 
comer of line 1 are without connection, nay^ separated from the 
foregoing words by two points. Perhaps they served to indicate 
the name of the stone-cutter, or a mark made on the tomb, 
besides the proprietor's declaration ; there is nothing similar to 
this in other inscriptions of this kind. 

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Published by Boeckh, n. 2829, from Sherard, who saw the 
fragment at the left in a more perfect state. With the neces- 
sary restorations the inscription reads thus : — 

*H aopo^; kol o fitofio^ kcll [at eeo'ctxTTOA] 9Ciu ra [yre']pt avra iravra 
KaTeaKevcurffrfa-av /ecu euri^y T[()9. Iov']\u>v TXvtemyo^f koBw^ tccu 8$a 
n;9 yeyofianj^ exBoacm^ Sui [rov j(p€]oil>uXeuuov StjfKovreu, Ev ^ co^ 
pw tcqieudfitrerai avro^ re o TXutctoy tj [p]v^ av avro^ fiovKrfdrj 17 ButTCL- 
^Tfrav €¥ Se ram urwrrcu^ tci]S€t/0rj[(T]oyT€u ou9 av evOay^ fiovXo)- 
6fl o rXtMCvv, 17 evypcufxo^ rivi, o-uy^topriaT), rj Scara^t^cu, irepo^ Se 
ovSeni e^ovauiv i^ei evOay^ui riva oure €(9 rriv tropov ovre €49 ra^ 
eta-wcra^y tj ov9 av TKukcov outo^ ^o>v fiov\rj07j evOa^^ui' ovSei^ Se 
i^€i e^ovaiav evOa'^ai nva erepo^ tj €K0a^^a4 atofjuireiov roiv ei^ 
Ta^>€vrmv T17 rov rXt;4Muvo9 fiovXaiaeli^, ovre Bia '^ytf^urfiaro^, owe 
Sc €KTevf€6>9 fjyefiovixfy;, ovre aX[X]6> Tpo7ra> ovBevr ovSe aTToX- 
XorpuoaoA ovre fieroKei^vr^cu Tqv [a]opov eirei 6 tovt^v ri roKfirf- 
aa^ rj awxfopfja'a^ airoreureL ro> Up\p'\rare^ rafieuo M irevraia/^ 
')(eCKmi &v ro rpirov yevfja-erai rov &chuer}aavTO^. Tavrrf^ 
Ti;9 eiruypa^)^ airereOri avrirfpa^lyl xai 6t9 to ;^€04^i;\a/CM)y evi 
<rT€(f>avrj<f>opov to rpi^ icai 8e«aTo[v] hrrciKiZo^ rr)^ MevcKparov^ 
fJLf}VO^ SavS[L]Kov. 

'^ The sarcophagus^ and the monument^ and the Isostae, and 
all that belongs thereto, have been built by, and are the pro- 
perty of, Tiberius Julius Glyco, as is also declared by the deed 
of tradition in the Archives. In this sarcophagus there are to 
be buried both Glyco himself, and those whom he wishes or 
ordains ; but in the Isostse there are to be buried those whom 
Glyco wishes or permits by writ, or ordains to be buried. But 
another shall not have leave to buiy any one, either in the sar- 
cophagus or in the Isostas, except those whom Glyoo tn bis 
lifetime wishes to bury [their dead there]. But no other per- 
son shall have leave to bury, or to take out any corpse of those 
buried by Glyco's desire; neither by [availing himself of] a 
decree, nor an injunction from the governor, nor in any other 

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way ; neither shall he alienate nor move the sarcophagus ; since 
he who attempts any of these acts^ or gives leave to another, 
shall pay to the most sacred treasury 5000 denaria^ of which 
one-third shall be his who institutes proceedings. A copy of 
this inscription was also deposited in the archives, there being 
Stephanephorus for the thirteenth time Attalis, the daughter of 
Menecrates, in the month Xandicus/' 

The month Xandicus, or rather Xanthicus, was the sixth in 
the Ephesian almanac, and extended from January 25 to Fe- 
bruary 22. 

The ypeo^vKouciov or ypetoifwlsjoucioyj fi^uently mentioned in 
Greek inscriptions, is the municipal archive, in which all deeds 
relating to ground-hold property were deposited or registered, 
with a view, it seems, especially to secure the mortgages (xP^o^)? 
made by the proprietors. In an inscription copied by Sherard 
(p. 68) in Asia Minor, we see a secretary of the Gerusia also 
entrusted with the superintendence of the Chreophylacium. 
This may often have been the case. In the inscriptions of 
Aphrodisias, the Chreophylacium always appears intimately 
connected with the Stephanephorus. We have adverted to this 
title in an inscription of Mylasa (p. 68), where, the same as in 
ours, we see a woman bear the titie of Stephanephorus. At 
Aphrodisias, to judge frx>m the monuments and coins, this office 
was not the highest of the corporation ; nor were the years, as 
they may have been in other cities, registered after the names 
of the Stephanephori for the time being. The latter might be 
inferred, indeed, from the expression in the inscriptions, eirt 

<rr€(f>avff<l>opov followed by the name of the month, because 

in this way the fnagistraiua epanymi are commonly in^cated ; 
the learned Eckhel however (D. N. t. iv. p. 259) has placed 
beyond doubt the fallacy of such a conclusion. In our inscrip- 
tion some of the legal modes are mentioned by which property 
in tombs was transferred or given on lease : the exBoai^ (line 3) 
and the ovy^piTo-i? (line 6), which was the usual way, and was 
made either in the lifetime of the proprietor by writ, or in his 

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will. Besides these^ the wapax^pv^t^ is mentioned in Inscrip- 
tion 44. and Boeckh^ 2839. AircCSXarpuoavi (line 12) is the 
general term for the illegal modes of transferring. Lines 10 
and 11 show that the sanctity of the tombs was sometimes vio- 
lated by powers who could be awed only by religious fears. 
Certainly^ as Inscription 41. shows^ the preservation of the splen- 
did tombs was intimately connected with the interests of the 
priesthood^ of which the Stephanephori also were members. 
The Up<0Tarov ra/jisujv (line 13) may be the treasury of the tern-* 
pie, or that of the BovXi;, to which, in Inscription 21, the title 
Uptanarrf is given. 

No. 44. — In the south-east wall. 

In the first eight lines of the following inscription the various 
members of the family are enumerated entitled to a burial in 
the proprietor's tomb, who, from line 7> appears to be called 
Eumachus. This name Boeckh substitutes at the end of line 1 
for EYAAMOZ, which, being distinctly read in our as well as 
Sherard's transcript, is certainly on the stone, in consequence, 
perhaps, of an oversight of the stone-cutter, who was deceived 
by the immediately preceding EYAAMOY. From the middle 
of hue 8 the inscription contains one of tlie most complete de- 
clarations against the violation of tombs : — '^ But nobody else 
[shall have leave to bury any one] in the sarcophagus, nor 
move it, nor allow to any one the separate use of the sarcopha- 
gus or the altar, or an Isosta ; nor find a mode in which they 
might [be alienated] under any pretence. But after the [afore- 
said persons] being buried, the monument is to be made a He- 
roum. But if anybody attempts to bury [any one in the sar- 
cophagus] or the Isostse, or move the sarcophagus, or to do 
anything contrary [to the prescriptions], both he who does so 
and he who receives [the grant] shall be a grave-robber, [and 
impious and] accursed; and they shall pay besides, both he 

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who does so [and he who receives], to the treasury 10,000 de- 
naria of the silver coin of the Roman nation, and no less. The 
Heroum shall be consecrated after all the aforesaid persons be- 
ing put into it A copy of this inscription was deposited in the 

archives under the [Stephanephorus ] descending in the 

sixth generation from Archimedes of the month Tra- 

janus Augustus/' 

Line 3, our transcript has llAniOY instead of Sherard's 
riAnnOY; llne 15, XAI instead of KAI; and line 17, EN- 
TEeHINAI instead of ENTEeHNAI ; line 19, OEAZT. 
None of the almanacs known to us, has among the names of 

the months that of Trajanus Augustus, which was, like many I 

others, only transitorily introduced into chronology. The terms i 

cL^ptoiadai, (line 12) and a^iep&fievov fiptoov (lines 16 and 17) ! 

are found on other monuments of Aphrodisias; In later times 

the Greeks dignified every defiinct by the name of Hero (see • 

inscription on p. 144) ; it is but natural thence, that a tomb | 

should be called a Heroum. Our inscription shows, however, ! 

that this was done in consequence of a distinct act called a^- 

pG>ur0cUf a term synonymous to the airodeiioa-i^ (Inscr. 48. 51, and j 

Boeckh, 2831). This consecration did not take place before the 
tomb was filled ; and, in consequence of this act, the tomb was, 
no doubt, firmly shut up ; the half-filled tombs were secured by 
bolts, which, to judge firom Inscription 41 , were exposed to many 

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£ '-^ 


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^ 2 ^ 

^ ^ h 

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'^ Aurelia Papiana, daughter of Onesimos, the son of Papias, 
bought the sarcophagus according to the will which Marcus 
Aurelius Cla[u]dius^ son of Philetes, the son of Hermes, made. 

'^ In this sarcophagus there has been buried Cla[u]dius, who 
had been the husband of Papiana, according to his last will ; 
and there shall be buried in it also Aurelia Glypte, who had 
brought him up, and Papianii the aforesaid, and Olypte and 
Onesime, their daughters. But nobody shall have leave to bury 
another in the sarcophagus; since he shall pay to the most 
sacred treasury 3000 silver denaria, of which one-third is to be 
his who institutes proceedings. But in the Isoste, which is in 
the frieze under the sarcophagus, and those in the altar, there 
shall be buried those to whom the aforesaid Papiana may grant 
it, her children and heirs. A copy of this inscription has been 
deposited in the archives under the Stephanephorus PubUa 
iElia Attalis Sabina, on the third day of the month Gorpieus.'' 

AIAZ, line 10, may be a mistake of the stone-cutter instead 
of AIAIAZ; but KAAAIOZ, which appears distinctly (lines 2 
and 3) in our transcript, seems to be as distinct a variation of 
the name Claudius, as is Clodius. Line T, instead of our F, 
Boeckh has ^, the sign of the nimiber 6. The €iB<Hf>opo^ (line 8) 
of a tomb is mentioned in this inscription, and the fragments 
of two others from Aphrodisias (Boeckh, 2849, 2850) ; the word 
is a synonym of the common architectural term ^a>^po9. Not 
one of the tombs observed by Mr. Fellows in Caria has, like 
those of Lycia, the appearance of a house ; they generally con- 
sist of three parts ; the substructure, TrXaro?, the body of the 
tomb, called )9o>/lm)9 and fivrffieiov (by this word sometimes the 
whole tomb is meant), and the sarcophagus (or cinerary urn), 
o-opo9. The two former contained several compartments, eurc^ 
araiy which were for burying the less-honoured members of the 
family, the sarcophagus being reserved for the remains of the 
most respected persons. Some tombs, as we see from our in- 
scription, had an additional room between the soros and the 
body of the tomb, the eidophoros. Whether the woodcuts on 

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pages 39, 40, represent specimens of the soros or the eidophoros^ 
cannot be decided with certainty, since we do not know what 
shape or materials were essential in either ; it is unUkely, how- 
ever, that an eidophoros which was used after the soros upon it 
had been filled (line 8), should have had no other opening but 
at the top, which is the case in the sarcophagi represented. 

The month of Gorpieus (Une 11) is the eleventh both in the 
Syro-Macedonian and the Ephesian almanac, and in the latter 
extended from July 25th to August 25th. 

No. 47. — On a slab. 

Published by Boeckh, 2845. 

The first line of the following inscription, owing to the se- 
veral genitives contained in it, admits of more than one inter- 
pretation ; that followed in the translation is founded on line 8. 
Here the names of the proprietor, Julius Aurelius Charidemus, 
reappear, without however the cognomen Julianus, just in the 
same way as the pnenomen of his mother is left out, from which 
it may have been derived. To have many names, several Ro- 
man and one Greek, was quite the fashion at Aphrodisias. See 
Boeckh, 2821. 

The words at the end of the inscription are restored by 
Boeckh, TON 'Airavra ^xpovov ; the verb at the beginning of 
the last line is A[*H]PX1IZ[©]HZETAI. 

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— UJ 

h <1 O 



2 *• _§ 2 -O 


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No. 50. — In the south wall. 


Published by Boeckh, 2830. 

" according to the cession ^ven to him hy Menan- 

der, son of Menander, the son of Telesphorus, the son of Po- 
lemo [?], through the archives. In this sarcophagus there is 
buried Julia Antonia Abascantina,who had been his wife; there 
shall also be buried Apollonius himself. But another shall not 
have leave to open, or bury anybody else, except Apollonius, the 
aforesaid. Since he who acts against this, or attempts it, shall 
be impious, and cursed, and a grave-robber, and pay besides 
into the most sacred treasury of our master, the Emperor Csesar, 
6000 silver denaria, of which one-third part is to be his who 
institutes proceedings pursuant to this inscription." 

Line 1 1, our transcript has ZHEZ, which is doubtless in- 

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348 ^ APPENDIX A. 

correct, instead of XXIPIZ given by Sherard. If it were ZXIOZ, 
one might be tempted to suppose, that just as in the Latin and 
in the languages derived from it, salvus, sqfe, etc., the Greek 
word 0-019 was used to signify except ; of wliich signification 
there is no trace to be found. The numeral sign C is wanting 
in Sherard's transcript. The word which begins both this and 
the preceding inscription, Buvra^fjrai, shows that they have lost 
several lines. 

No. 51. — In the west wall. 



In line 4-7^ this declaration differs from those commonly 
inscribed on the tombs of Aphrodisias. The restorations adapt 
themselves to the words, which may be read distinctly in our 
transcript : they are without precedent. Prof. Boeckh reads : 
eseyova avrtov irepov he ovk e^eara* eyOaylnu ovBeva' ov;^ e^ei 
ovSet^ e^ovauLV evOaypxu ovre eKdw^^xu ovBe a\Xa> rivi x^opi^ nav 
eyyoy&y rcov Taruiyov [i^€i] e^ovauiy ovyxaptja-ad,, etc. Line 5, 
the double negation is remarkable. Lines 4 and 6, eyyoya in* 
stead of exyova. Line 5, Sherard reads OYAEN A OYX EZAI ; 
line 4, the owner's name, TATIANOY, but line 2, KAI A0H- 
ANOZ. Our line 11 is wanting in Sherard's MS. KovpiBtf^ 
may have been one of Tatianus' grandchildren. 

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No. 52. — On the same stone as No. 28. 













Published by Boeckh^ 2836, from Sherard's MS., who saw 
the stone in a more perfect state. With his additions, and 
some restorations, the inscription reads thus : — 

Kara to? hoOeura^: 

[avTfo VTTO T*. KXavStov [?] rerpa] ki tov ^Ty^tKKeov^ rtav roirmv cn/v^w- 
[pfja-iv BuL TOV ;^€a>^i;Xa#c£]oi;. ^£lv ey fiey rrj <ropo> TeOairrat Kpur^ 
{tokKi^ KpurroKXeov^ tov KaC\ 2^v<ovoi tov SeairtfroVf 6 vio^ av- 
[tov Tcuf^vja-erat Be Kat avTo^ Apt] aroxKrf^ 6 koi Zfjvtov kcu Ktt^iov . . . 
^H^cdSoi; 17 r^WT) avTov ev Be Tai^ 


[vQ>V09 fcai J Kcu 0V9 ay T^vwv o kcu Apurroick'q^ 

[/cat Mev4W7ro9 6 TrpoB^TjXovfJLevo^ ^ov\7)0a)<nv 
[ravTTj^ T179 ein/ypa<f>]r)^ airereO'q avTirypcuf>ov €i<i to 
[j(p€<o^v\aKiov evi aT€]<l>avr)<l>opov to B T*. KX. 'Ty^ucKe- 
[ov^. fi]r}vo^ lov\tr)ov. 

The person mentioned Hne 2, is probably the Hypsicles of 
line 11 ; Boeckh therefore reads the first word of line 2 as 
KAAYAIOY. The TerpcucL [?], which adapts itself to the 

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letters appearing in our transcript, must not be taken as syno- 
nymous with /a in line 1 1 ; the latter informs us that Hypsi- 
cles was Stephanephorus for the fourth time, 'ilv, line 3, which 
is not in Sherard's transcript^ may be taken as a partitive geni- 
tive relating to the various parts of the tomb, which were 
probably enumerated in the lines at the top. The month of 
Julieus does not appear in the almanacs of Asia Minor known 
to us. 

Line 7, APirTOKAEOYZ TOY ZHvoivo^ seems to stand 
for ApurroKXeov^ rov iccu Zr)V(ovo^, but the particle xat does not 
appear in either transcript. 

No. 53. — On a slab. 




The first four lines inform us that '^Zeno, son of Apollonius, 
the son of Gamus, built the monument and the sarcophagus 
upon it, and the Isostae.'' Those which follow have lost a con- 
siderable part at the left. ' We see from line 5 that there had 

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been buried in the sarcophagus the aforesaid Zeno, whose line- 
age may be contained in lin^ 6 ; there was buried also a son 
of his brother (line 7)- In line 8 the trustees of the temple, 
the Neopoei (NEOFIYOI, as in No, 41), and perhaps the Ste- 
phanephori are mentioned ; from this and from the beginning of 
line 8, we may infer that Chresimus (line 13), who afterwards 
became the proprietor of the tomb, had made arrangements 
with the public authorities to obtain for himself a burial in the 
sarcophagus. He alone is entitled to this (line 9) ; '^ nobody else 
shall have leave to buiy another in the sarcophagus, or to open 
it ; he who acts against it shall pay into the Emperor's fisc 3000 
silver denaria, of which one-third is to be his who [institutes 
proceedings. But in the Isostce] there shall be buried those 
whom Chresimus [may wish. A copy of the inscription] was 
deposited in the archives under the Stephanephorus '' 

No. 54. — In the west wall. 















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^^The monument and the sarcophagus upon it are the pro- 
perty of Chares iEneas^ descending in the fourth generation from 
Zeno, the son of Artemo. In the sarcophagus there has been 
buried Chares^ the father of iGneas^ and Chares and Appia, his 
grandfather and grandmother^ and Glyco^ his uncle^ there being 
yet to be buried only Appia, iGneas' mother^ and his wife^ 
and the children begotten of his body^ nobody having leave 
to bury another, neither in the monument nor in the sarcopha- 
gus, since he who buries [another there] shall pay into the 
most sacred treasuiy 2500 denaria» A copy of this inscription 
was deposited in the archives, there being Stephanephorus for 
the ninth time Attalis, the daughter of Menecrates, in the 
month Gorpieus/^ 

In a manner similar to that, in which the grandfather's father 
and grandfather are in French called bis-ateul and tris-dtetd, it 
is common for persons of Aphrodisias to call themselves &9 up 
to i^aKt^y the descendants of their ancestors. 

Not always (Boeckh, 2835, 2774), but commonly in these 
cases, all the ancestors, up to him who is named, have the same 
name as the first-mentioned person. Thus in our inscription 
the proprietor has the name borne by his father and grand- 
father. Chares, together with that of iEneas. By this he is 
called where ambiguities are to be avoided ; and indeed it seems 
to be the usual name of the individual, that of Chares approach- 
ing somewhat towards a family name. It is curious that the 
women also, who married into that family, had a common name, 
that oi Appia. In a great many inscriptions we have found a 
woman called by two names, which have not the respective re- 
lations of prsenomen and cognomen. Sometimes women on ^ 
marrying may have adopted the names of their mothers-in-law. « 

The month of Gorpieus has occurred in No. 46. 

2 A 

Digitized by 



No* 55.— In the west wall. 



Published by Boeckh, 2846, firom Sherard, and the upper part 
also from Walpole's Travels, p. 462, n. 12. 
*' In his lifetime. 

'^The monument and the sarcophagus is [the property] of 
Ulpius Charito the physician. Into the sarcophagus there 
shall be put himself and Flavia Thasia [?], his wife, and Ulpius 
Apellas, their son ; but nobody else shall be put into it, since he 
who buries another [there] shall pay as a fine to the august 
[f. c. Emperors] [600Q] denaria. 

'^ In the same way, the three Isostae made of slabs, lying at 
the side of the monument and the sarcophagus, are to be the 
property of Ulpius Charito, of which one is to be the property 
of Comelianus, his son ; one that of Dionysius, son of Diony- 
sius [and] of Tatia, who had been Charito's wife ; and the third 
to be the property of Ulpius Apellas, his son.'* 

Digitized by 




Line 4, instead of OAAZIA^ the other transcripts have OA- 
ZIA. Line 9^ Sherard has the numeral sign of C after )(; line 
11, riAAAIMOYZ, which Prof. Boeckh corrects into flAAKI- 
NOYZ. ^uraxTToi TrXaKivot, lying at the side of the monument, 
are mentioned in no other inscription at Aphrodisias; so are 
the expressions ZHa-avri (line 6) and 6^ rei/uv; twv Xe^currmy 
(lines 7 and 8). A physician of the name of Charito, a citizen 
of Aphrodisias, was known to Gkilen ; Charito, the author of the 
novel edited by the learned IVOrville, was also a citizen of a 
city called Aphrodisias. D'Orville has made it probable that 
the Aphrodisias meant is the city of Caria ; and our inscription, 
showing that in this city the name of Charito was not unusual 
(that of Athenagoras, his father, is also found there, Boeckh, 
2748, 2782, 2783), throws some more weight into the balance. 

No. 56. — In the south wall, partly in the earth. 


This is probably part of the following inscription published 
by Boeckh, 2847^ from Sherard's MS., stating that the tomb is 
the property of the Archiater, M. Aur. Messulejus Chrysaoreus, 
and of his wife, Socratis, and '^ of their heirs and successors, and 
those whom they themselves may wish [or order by will]." 

MapKov AvfyqXiov Mea-a-ovXtjiov Ti^pwrcLope- 
0^, ap^uLTpov Kai AvpTfXia^ Soi/icpar^- 
&>9, ny? a^ioKoyanaTTf^ ywaiKO^ airrov, 
KKqpQVOiuov Bui Soj(mv re avrwv 
KOI &v av avTOi ^ovXrjdaxny rf 
itaTO^iavTai to fiyrjficiov, 
2 A 2 

Digitized by 



No. 57. — ^In the south wall. 



This fragment, containing the usual declarations about a sar- 
cophagus^ and Isostae which belong to [Titus] Flavius^may thus 
be partly restored : — 

TO fivfffieio [v /cat. rtfy 67r*-] 
K€ifi€vrfv a[vTco aopov icai] 

TO? €V T» fJLv[f)fl€UO etO-CO-] 

OTa^ Karea-l^Kevaa-ev T4-] 
ro^ ^Xafiio[<; .... 09 I-] 
avT(o Kai ot[9 ay ai;]T09 
/3ov\ff07f [l] StaTofji/To*. 

No. 58. — In a house. 






May be read thus : 

*0 TrXara^ eariv A [pumir''] 
irov rov ASpatrrov [/ecu T-] 
aria^ ytn^auco^ avTo[y /c-] 
at, Mevea-ffeo^ vov [#«m 7-] 
6VOU9 atrrcDV. 

Digitized by 



'^ The platas is the property of A[ri8tip]pu8^ son of Adras- 
tus and of Tatia his wife, and Menestheus their son^ and their 

'To9 instead of vio^ is not unfrequent. See Boeekh^ 2193. 
The peculiar shape of the cd in the last line is remarkable. 

No. 59. — Built into a wall. 









This fragment was originally written on the tomb which a 
certain Tiberius built for himself and his family, probably in his 
lifetime (line 7 there seems to be ey/erjBevOrfO'ofieyay). The B of 
this inscription is of a peculiar shape, similar to the Roman R. 

Nos. 60 and 61. 

Two other inscriptions were copied by impressing paper on 
the stones, but are too much obliterated to be deciphered with 
any certainty. The first has eighteen lines, containing twenty- 
five to thirty letters each. The form of the <r is always C. In 
line 11 we read €#c tcdv Trpoa-oStov; line 13, ^^XoSofo9; line 14, 
[7rcipaa'K]€va^ofjL€vo}v €k rov ^lov av\Tov]\ line 15, [av\aOr}iiarfov 
aei fivr)fioy€UTo[si]^ The other contains seventeen lines, firag- 
mentary, it seems, of seven to twelve letters each. Line 7, 
we read iui0r)Ka[si] ; line 8, TrarpiSa; line 12, [(l>i]\oSo^o^ ; 
line iSy KaraaKclva^ofieyo^}]. The form of the o* is C. 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 


No. 62. 






The rest of the inscription is puiposely erased. Boeckh^ n. 
2761-65^ gives from Sherard's MS. four inscriptions^ beg^- 
ning like ours: 6 £i7/lu>9 Ttfi Xaixirporarri^ K^pc&€un€»v iroK&a^ 
Tov XaLiiirpcfTarov Sfffioy; then follow respectively the names of 
the cities of ApoUonia, Heraclea, HierapoUs^ Cibyra and Tabe^ 
which had joined with Aphrodisias in celebrating gymnastic 
festivals^ and are honoured by ^^ the most splendid city of the 
Aphrodisieans by [erecting the statue of] their most splendid 

No. 63. — On a round pedestal. 



" eternal remembrance. Albinus Philoctistes [fare* 


No. 64.-^On a seat in the stadium. 


" The native city.^* 

Digitized by 



No. 65. — Fragment on a wall. 

ONV/ \€ 


No. 66. — Reversed stone^ built into the wall at the west gate. 


We may take this as a fragment of an honorary decree in 
favour of Antonius Ammianus^ (?), son of Tiberius Claudius^ 
and grandson of Antonius Domitinus^ two persons mentioned 
in No. 37 ; reading the fragment thus :— 

ereifjurftrey. A[ovki,ov] 
[A]vToivtov A[/A-] 

fJLULVOVf v\_lov] 

Ti^epiov K\a[ySLovi\ 

[AjKTCDViOV Ao[/i*T€-] 

Digitized by 



No. 67* — On a sarcophagus. 



In line 1 of this funeral inscription we may decipher: — 
•fl tropoi . . T6 Kcu 6 Toirof . . . aZeXifKK 'WptueKeo^. 

In line 2 : — 
KXtfpovoftoi, and perhaps <rre^vrf^pov, besides traTpof. 

No. 68. — On the lid of a sarcophagus. 


The name of Mapa>v we have had in an inscription from 
Tebnessus, page 108. 

No. 69. — On the lid of a sarcophagus. 

No. 70. — On the lower part of a column. 


the place of Lucas Philoponus." 

Digitized by 



No. 71- — ^Written around a cross on the door-post, probably of 
a Christian church* 


AyaXrr^li]^ T![ov] Kv[piov]. 
" The ascension of the Lord.*^ 

AyaXrpp^^ for avaXr/y^i^ — ^if we are allowed to substitute this — 
is very remarkable : similarly, we have had vrj/ca instead of vc/ca, 
page 224, owing doubtless to the lotcunsmus prevailing in Asia 
Minor when these Christian inscriptions were written. 

There are other traces of this kind of pronunciation prevail- 
ing, even before that time, in Caria : OpjSrfXiov instead of Op/Sir- 
Xtov at Mylasa, Boeckh, 2700B. : the promiscuous use of i and 
I in several inscriptions of Aphrodisias, and avaivcf&Qri instead 
of avevewOri^ No. 17 : PaaCKeovn^ instead of /Soa-^Xcvovro?, which 
appears in some decrees of Mylasa and of Tralles, Boeckh (2919) 
also derives from the faulty pronunciation of the Greek in Caria. 

No. 72. — On the door-post of a building, probably a Christian 


MVSA^PH ii< 

Nos. 73 and ^A. Page 45.— On the same. 

Digitized by 



No. 75. Page 52.— On a pedestal. 
AttoWwvo^ EXevOepcov Xe^aarov. 


Nos. 76 to 79. Page 57- 


No. 80. Page 68. — On the six front columns. 

About the office of Stephanephorus, see Selden ad Mann. 
Arund.^ ii. p. 165, and Eckhel D. N. IV. p. 212. At Smyrna 
and at Mylasa the year was named after the Stephanephorus^ 
as it was in Rome aftier the Consuls. Boeckh, 2694, 2714. La- 
branda, according to Strabo, xiv. p. 659, was a K<ofj/rf of Mylasa. 

No. 81. Page 69.— On the eleven side columns. 

By a change very common in transcripts of Greek inscrip- 
tions, we have at the beginning AEON instead of AEIIN, 
which, indeed, appears on two of the tablets from which the 
inscriptions are copied. To KE^AAH on two tablets the cha- 
racteristic iota of the dative is added, KE^AAHI^ whilst in 
ZnEIPH it is left out, according to the general use of these 
inscriptions. The same discrepancy has been observed in an 

Digitized by 


MYLASA. 363 

inscription from Mylasa (Boeckh^ 2696) ; and in general the 
inscriptions show that Carian orthography is anything but con- 


No. 82. Page 70. — On the single column. 

'O 8i^/jLo^ 
MevaySpoy OvXut 
SoV TOV ^v0v[Bijfiov,'] 
Toy €[v€fyY]enfy [t] 
tf^ 7r[o\€](»9 /cat 

€f €V€py€TCi>y 


An Euthydemus exercised great influence in Mylasa and the 
adjacent parts of Asia in the times of Julius Csesar and Augustus. 
See Strabo, xiv. p. 659. 

No. 83. Page 71* — On a sarcophagus. 

The last letter of line 1 appears like an II in the transcript. 
Tm instead of rov^ especially when the three following genitives 
have the right termination ov, is indeed against all rules of 
grammar. In an inscription from Mylasa^ Boeckh, 2691^ we 
have indeed genitives promiscuously terminating in co and ovy 
but only in proper names; avrco instead of avrov we have^ 
Boeckh, 2709. 

No. 84. Page 71. — On a pedestal. 

Digitized by 



No. 85. Page 71-— In a walL 

This inscription may be partly restored thus : — 

Tivijw [Bm*-] 
V09 \eoy[Ta a-] 

The name of Tineius we read in an inscription at Athens* 
Chandler, Inscr. Ant. 62. line 5. 

No. 86. Page 7l«— On an altar. 

No. 87- Page 72. — In the wall of an old mosque. 
The inscription may be partly restored thus : — 

Kn/O'Ct^ €t9 T€ TOV KOIVOV 

9 €*9 vrroyoOeva-iv o& &? tear eir , , , .[Mv-] 
Xa^€(k>v woXiy 6A9 SovKuerfv 7r€pt[(rra-] 
acv aur)(pa kcu ^fuov ava^C oaa 

5 0£9 yevoiTo irpaJ^vcn Si^/ioaui [a^] 

re yfyqiiarmVy fi/ffre irpoac^y 
Ti (Ji/rf Kara reXwv €7r*[\]€i^tv X07- 
iOTo? T€ jC6^Xa9 €7n reKcovei 
€7rayop0a><nv rtov €k T179 AajSi/qylov] 
10 a^povGTi^* o St) tcai axnoi wpoiSofiey 
XP^^ Siy/AOo-ta rrfy 'ttoXiv tmrfyayov 
Ofiarov rrfy xaurapo^ vrrep MvX/urewv* 

The words afler inrovoOeuavy, line 2, are wanting in Anthimus' 
transcript, from which Prof. Boeckh printed the inscription. 

Digitized by 









Digitized by 



Line 11^ in the beginnings Chishull has NMRQN^ which 
Boeckh changes into [TjAMIIlN. An eTturraTrj^ rmv Up^ov 
appears in another Mylasean inscription^ Boeckh, 2693 C. 
From iSNOEAN of our transcript, we might easily adopt the 
reading of dewv, if we could only restore the preceding word. 

Line 13, ^lAOAOZ, which appears distinctly in our tran- 
script, is left out in that followed by Prof. Boeckh, who suppUed 
the final words of the line from the general context. 

(line 17)^ are frequently mis-spelt in transcripts of Greek in- 
scriptions ; see, for instance, Sherard's MS. and Boeckh, 3065. 
Hence it may have happened, that the KAI, which is distmctly 
in our transcript, is not in Boeckh's copy, who consequently 
restores the end of line 17 thus : TrarpiSa* iva he /ttoXXov. 

Instead of EK^ANHZ (line 18), which appears distinctly in 
our transcript, Boeckh has EIII^ANHZ. 


No. 89. Page 81. — On the firont of the portico of Council-halL 

f H 7roX*9, &^ €K€Keva€ kcu ^epaini} 
epcrra Sia 9iKoKaXo[v]l3y oucovofiovy [ec] 
[ejirumfO-ovTiu oi aXiTfjpiot jSapficLpoi 
[rq 7ro]\ei 17 T17 %o>/9a t© €V60To>t* €T€A. 'O deo^ €j(prfcr€' 
[7rpa7]T0VTa9 v/Aa9 opmv auK cj^w tj;v (utuiv tovtov 
[ajwfiaXvv* ovre yap eya wopffTjcmy rqy woXiv vfuov earaXrfy, 
[ovt]€ SovXrjy cf eXevOepay irovqatoy ovre aiXKo rwy 
arfaOiay ovSey a4l>acpfjaofA€yo^, 

No. 90. Page 82.— Within the Council-hall. 

The four intended verses read thus : — 

Z17V6 HayTj/iepcw xai *H\uio Au Xepairei atoOeyre^ 
€K iroKefiMy fieycCKwy Kat aXKohawoLO OcLKaa-atov 

Digitized by 



No8. 91 and 92. — On the north side of the portico of the Coun- 
cil-hall, are the inscriptions^ of which the following is the 
translation. The portions supplied in brackets are taken from 
Sherard's MS. (Cod. Harleian^ 7^09^ at the British Museum). 
Published by Boeckh, 2715 *. 

^^ Under the Stephanephorus Ptolemeeus Whereas 

Sosander^ the son of Diomedes, the Secretary to the Council, 
represented that the town fit>m the days of old had, by the 
power of the protecting Gods, the most mighty Jupiter Pane* 
menus and Hecate, been saved out of many great and con- 
tinuous dangers; whereof the holy asylums, and those who 
sought refuge, as weU as the holy Senate, by a decree of Caesar 
Augustus and the perpetual dominion of our masters, the Ro- 
mans, have given dear proof; it behoves us to apply with all 
zeal to their worship, and to let pass no time for being pious 
and offering prayers ; and there are placed in the august Coun- 
cil-hall the statues of the before-mentioned Gods, showing the 
most conspicuous virtues of the divine power ; for the sake of 
which also the whole of the people offer sacrifices and incense 
and prayers and thanksgivings to the Gods, so very conspi- 
cuous, and wish to worship them also by a procession, with 
hymns and a service : it was decreed by the Council, to select 
now, fix>m those of good birth, thirty boys, whom the Paedo- 
nomus, together with the public Psedophylaces, shall conduct 
every day into the Council-hall, clad in white garments and 
crowned with leafy branches, and having leafy branches in their 
hands also ; who, with the assistance of the Citharistes and the 
herald, shall sing a hymn, which Sosander, the son of Dio- 
medes, shall compose. But if some of the boys be elected into 
the Ephebi, or, the which may none of the Gods bring to pass, 
shall die without being elected into the Ephebi, others are to 

Digitized by 



be elected in their places, for the [performance of the] same 
hymn, the Paedonomus and the Psedophylaces laying it clearly 
down in writing, in order that for ever there may remain the 
same order of supplementary election, and service and worship 
of the Gods. Leave [of absence] may be given to the boys if 
any of them be in bad health, or prevented by fitmily mourning. 
But if any of these things be not done, the magistrates and the 
Peedonomus shall be guilty of irreligion, and the public Paedo- 
phylaces be imprisoned. Besides, the priest of Hecate for the 
current year shall, from the precincts [of the temple] of the 
goddess and the neighbourhood, select annually some boys, 
who shall likewise sing the usual hymn to the Goddess, as was 
done before, he having permission, both as regards the fathers 
and the boys themselves, if the fathers should not offer them 
for the musical performance, or the boys not come forward, 
to prosecute them under the plea of Eisangelia, or whichsoever 
he chooses ; the priest and the Eunuchua of the temple giving 
in their names in writing to the Peedonomus through the Coun* 
cil, as has likewise been mentioned concerning boys from the 
town. But if the Priest and the Eunuchus shall not do this, 
they shall be liable to the same penalties as the boys themselves. 
But if the boy who takes part in the musical performance is 

elected by the city into the Ephebi P 

This inscription is frequently referred to, being one of the 
most explicit documents, which show the care bestowed by the 
ancients on musical performances and processions in connec- 
tion with their worship. In hne 10, where the secretary of the 
Council is ordered to compose a hymn, or rather to see that such 
a hymn be composed, Chishull (Antiq. As., p. 155.) very appro- 
priately calls to mind the celebrated Carmen Seculare of Horace, 
written under similar circumstances. Boeckh is of opinion that 
our document is written a little before or after the year 22 of 
our eera. In this year the Roman Senate confirmed the rights of 
the asylum established at Stratoniceia. This asylum is spoken 
of (line 3), and it is not unlikely that the document was occa- 
sioned by that very decree of the Roman Senate. 

Digitized by 


EnirrE^ANH^opoYf \ 
I noNTorrHNnoAiN i 























T0V KvpiMV 'Pm/iauttv auavtov €ipx'l^ 
atpoy •jrapdKMnv rov ewTefie\}\v 
Topeyorra nyi detof 8uya- 
'MveiTTaroK OeoK kcuc Tifi 
}v vatSof rpuueov- 
ovowroi KM €<rre- 

VflVOV, 6v 

fuilSeK dear 




N.B.— Each of tlf difference of the type from the letters of the oripn^.uwmj 


Digitized by 



No. 93, — By the side of the foregoing. 












Published by Boeckh^ 2715 B, who reads thus :— 

LKOva [ypa7r]Tr)y e^ovaay to [oyjofut e- 
auTOVf /ecu roy fiey vfuSovofAoy aya[yp]aly^ac] 
TO '^(fiUTfia ey to> irpoycuo tov ^epairiov, 
iraiBiid], Toy §€ icfyrfa tj;? 0€ov ayaanjo'cu <r['n;Xi;v] 
5 \i0iyrjy e^pva-ay ayarye^pafifieya ra Suufilepoy-'] 
ra TOV y^<t>urfiaTo^ ey tcd Upto njl^] deov aya- 
ypcufyrjyod, Se to y^^icfui €[v] ny €^e8pa tov Povkev- 
TTfpiov ey Be^ia irpo^ Tqy auoyioy Siap^yrjy Tqs 
evaejSicui twv 0€i»y to & aya\[<ofi]a [rrf]^ eTriypa-- 
10 ^179 e^oSiaaffrfycu inro Ttoy emaraTtoy tov fiovXev- 


^^ a painted image^ bearing his name^ and the Paedo- 

nomus is to write the decree on [the wall of] the Pronaos^ that 
for the use of the boys in the temple of Serapis ; but the priest 
is to erect in the temple of the Goddess a stone column, having 
written on it the conceming.passages of the decree. But the 
decree is to be written on [the walls of] the porch of the council- 
hally on the right side, to the perpetual existence [remembrance?] 


Digitized by 



of the piety towards the gods. The expenses of the inscrip- 
tion to be borne by the Committee of tlie council-hall/' 

This inscription forms a sequel to the foregoing decree, which, 
we are informed, is to be written both on the walls of the por- 
tico of the temple of Serapis, and in the porch of the council- 
hall, — ^the locality in which the stones still are. In the temple 
of Hecate there is to be placed a column, having written on it 
not the whole decree, but only ra itaj^epovra (see ra fi^iv Sia- 
<f>€poyTa, Inscription 21), »• e. such passages of it as concern the 
temple (from line 15 of the preceding inscription). 

No. 94. — Built into a wall, 













This fragment may be read thus : — 

Ka[i] Ta9 inrep rmy S^jfiacruav 
iroXea>^ Kap^urfjMV rivtov ava 
TTCD p,€v <f>opci\oy€vy rqv a 
ctv ^fi€iv fiev aviaci)^ rj 60 
5 \ji] oTo^ Be ayofiMs fcaxei 

Digitized by 



Sfffiocuoy inroKCLfjiev 
€Lv rov^ lvo9 eKaoTov 
OeXoiey T179 vdKeto^ ov \ 
10 \ff<rr[€ija^ epenruov eroifio^ 
irpoSaveiafioi^ iZtmv rtov le 

No. 95. F^ 84. — On a stone like an altar. 

Published by Boeckh^ 2716, firom Sherard's transcript, which, 
line 2, has ZIAINON, changed by Boeckh into Xv^yiov; and 
both KHPAZIAA and KHPAIEAZ, like ours. The correct 
form of the ethnicum of Corasa would be KoDpaai^ and Ktopa- 
cev^ ; but in two other inscriptions (Boeckh, 2725, 2728), there 
seem rather to be confirmed the above irregular forms. The 
names of several localities in Caria terminate in sa : Mylasa, 
Bargasa, Pedasa, Corasa, Plarasa, Harpasa, besides Corbasa 
(townof Pisidia). 

No. 96. Page 83. — On a square pedestal. 

There are other instances of the termination loy in the names 
of females being contracted into iv : ^XevOepiv, Boeckh, 506, 
704. Maprvpiy, 'Epaniy, Osann. Sylloge, p. 437* 

No. 97* Page 83. — In the wall, on a stone like an altar. 

The name of Labranda is derived firom Labrys, the Lydiaii 
word for the sacrificial axe of Jupiter (see woodcut on page 75, 


Digitized by 



and Mus. Phil. Cantab., h p. 114). The umplest form of the 
ethnicum is AAPANAEAN (Osann. Sylloge, p. 463), showing 
that the /3 of the common AaffpaySemv had originally a soft 
sound, like the digamma (we may compart the iEolic fipoSov 
instead of poSoy, and the digammated parpa of the Elean in- 
scription). Further insertions appear in AAMBPAYNAHZ 
(Boeckh, 2691, 2780), AABPAYNAHZ (2750), and the pre- 
sent AABPAINAIZ, unless the transcript is wrong in writing 
AINAIZ instead of the above more common form. 

No. 98. — On part of a frieze. 



No. 99. Page 88. — On a marble block. 

The inscription may be read thus : — 

/iioyva-uw Avrarfopa FoSiov, Meyearpami, 
^tovvcruw, VoBia^ rov fra/rpo^ Mu Apre^ufrut tca[i] 
'HSumjf ^vowaiovy PoStat, rov iramwov k(u A[*]ow;- 
cr«)9 M€V€#c/MiToi;9 PoS. Tov irarpo^ T179 7i;v[at#co9] 

Digitized by 




No. 100. Page 108. — On a pedestal^ built into a wall near the 
sea^ and partly under ground. 

The inficription may be read thus : — 

Map«09 Avfyrj. '^pfiar/opa^ 6 
icai ZaxTifio^, 6 vio^ Map/c. Avp. 
'Epfuvfopa, Si^ Mapa>vo9 rov At- 
o^vov^y TeXyLti7<T<T€i/9. 
5 tieuctfaa^ to Sia iravTwv 
irpoKkffO'ap^ycoy aryevcKov 
iravKpariov, rrfv Teraprrfv Oe- 
fiiv, arfwvoOerowTO^ iui l3iov 
Tov a^toXoyorrarov AvKuip)(pv 
10 Mop. Ao/A. ^iktTnrov [?] TeX/wyo-- 


Line 5 is restored from other agonistic inscriptions, Boeckh, 
232, 1585, 1586, 1719, etc., in which veitcffo-cu Sui Travrov, or 
Kara iravrtov, or €k iravTmy, probably means, that a person was 
victorious in the contest with all those who had previously won 
victories. This is also implied by a gloesa in the Lex. Seg., 
p. 91, Sui iravrmv arpa¥ \«7€to* h etryofro^. The irpoKKfiaap^evmy 
of line 6 I can find in no other inscription : we have a 7rpo9 
hiaicov irpoKkfjai^ in Maocab. II. 4, 14, and etcKaKeaaaOfu^ 
which can scarcely have had a different meaning, we find in 
several agonistic inscriptions, for instance in the following 
passage from Gruter, page 31 7^ 1> M^e eKKdKeaafJLeyo^, pnfr 
irepov tear e/wv roKp/qaavro^ eiCKoKeacurdai, Scfii^, lines 7 
and 8, seems to stand for the usual defjui, whence aryfove^ Oefia- 
rueoi. We read it in an inscription copied by Captain Beau- 
mont, at Sida in Pamphylia, xai eTrireXovvTo^ Oefiiv Tla^ 

^vkuudV^. See Wa^le's Travels^ p. 552, where a coin of 

Digitized by 



Aspendus in Pamphylia is quoted (Mionnet. Descr. d. Med* 
III. p. 449), with the inscription, Se^uSo^ to E. This serves to 
explain the rerapTTf Oefu^ of line 7* 

To have a clearer idea of the various particulars connected 
with the honorary distinctions which were conferred at the an- 
cient gymnastic festivals, we may call to mind the regulations 
and foundations made for a similar purpose at our coU^es and 
literary institutions. 

No. 101. Page 107.— Side of door of Roman-like tomb. 

May be read thus : — 

'Ekeytf 17 KOI 

Aifxfnoyy Na<ro- 

V09 rot; Am>- 

yeyov^, TcX- 
5 fAVfcai^, TO /tAVi;- 

fieioy KaT€aic€V€ur€¥ 

iavrrf tccu ok au- 

Tv) eyeOa'^ev, AttoX- 

\i»yiSfj 8, vim avrtf^ 
10 Kiu 'TStXeytfy n; tcai Aifx^- 

a>, eyyoyff €am^' dXXn he 

^i/rfieyi e^iyai, ey ra> 

irvpyur/cio reft^voi, fie- 

Ta TO eyTwInfyai avrrfy* 
15 errei o Oei^ Tiya aae- 

fffj^ eoTw Oeoi^ fcuTalx"! 

6oyU>l9 KOI €KTO^ 

oif>€iKpm no TeX- 
puifiarewy &;- 
20 fjLw H ^E. 

Published by Dr. Clarke, Travels, vol, iii. p. 306, with trans- 

Digitized by 




lation and notes by the late eminent Prof. Porson^ who main- 
tained that the inscription was older than OL 100 (381-377 be- 
fore our sera). This is doubted by Prof. H. J. Rose, Inscrip. 
Graec. y etust., p. 318^ especially on the ground that the charac- 
teristic iota of the dative, which is nowhere to be seen in the 
inscription, was scarcely ever missed before the above period. 
There are, besides, other reasons justifying the opinion that the 
inscription was written in Roman times. 

Line 2, Dr. Clarke's transcript has lACONOC. On the 
stone, the letter which begins this word and the one at the end 
of the preceding are joined into a monogram, which presents 
two N's. Line 7? Porson reads luu o^ avnjv eveffay^; but the 
reading given above, km ok avrq eveday^ey, appears distinctly in 
our transcript. Ok, which by the usual attraction stands instead 
of roirroi9 ou9, is quite in accordance with the dative AiroXX^viStf, 
and the reading is altogether more simple than the other. The 
S after AirciXXayiSff being distinct in both transcripts, may be 
taken as signifying rerpaKi^ (see AvfyrjXui Afifjua^ Zrjvcovo^ £, 
Boeckh, 2774); the genitive which usually follows these adverbs 
being left out, since Apollonides' four ancestors had the same 
name (see Inscription 89). Line 20, Dr. Clarke, instead of our 
.E, i. e. 5000, according to the general rules of Greek nume- 
ration, has IE, which would make the fine only 15 denaria. 

No. 102. — On the side of a door of a Roman-Uke tomb, 








Digitized by 






'^ Onesphorus . . .^ grandBon of Alexander, has built this turret 
[f. e. tomb] for himself and his wife Ammias, the daughter of 
Agathonymus, and his children, and the kinsfolk of Ones* 

The translation takes the last two lines as KAI TOIZ ZYP-* 

No. 103. — On a rock-tomb. 


ApiirretSov, rov Avcuera^ 

K<u Tcdv KKr^pov]oiJMV [?] aVTOV* 

Published by Dr. Clarke, Travels, vol. iii. p. 317, with line 2 
less perfect. 

Ava#n-o9, unless it be a proper name, may give rise to some 
speculations, ascribed as it is to a name borne by the illustrious 
Athenian, and also by a celebrated orator who lived in the times 
of the Antonines, iElius Aristides. The Greeks, after Homer> 
called a long /ScuxiXev^, never ava(. See Biagi Mus. Nanian, 
p. 186. We learn from a fragment of Aristotle's Politise pre- 
served by Harpocration (see Casaub. ad Athenae. VI. p. 257), 
that in Cyprus the sons and brothers of the fiaciXev^ were called 
ava/CTC^. Eurip. HippoL, 966, Or|^eus is called ava( of the 
philosophers, and generally this word may have been used to 
signify something princetg. 

No. 104. 


^^ This monument is '^ S«7Ata occurs in no other of 

our inscriptions. 

Digitized by 



No. 105.-^On a rock-^tomb. 







May be read thus : — 

To fivTffia laaovo^ ®[€]o8otov [«afc?] noy karov. 

*'The monument of laso, son [?] of Theodotus, and his fa- 

EATOY, instead of EAYTOY^ appears in another inscription 
copied by CoL Leake in the rains of Ascsephia. Mus. Crit. 
Cantab., v. ii. f. 8. p. 586. Boeckh, 1625. 

No. 106. — On the door of a Roman-like tomb. 


May be read thus : — 

.... xareaKevaaeif to [jivrjf]fieioy tovto ^v^po<r[yyo^'] 
.... ivov [€av]T{o T€ /ca4 {Tj^toaifjuo kcu <E>iXap7€[Ti7?] 

KOi AiXui Kcu TI peifiaiT) koa E[tp]i7VMi, rov; Et/^jjx)-] 

trwcv Ka[i\ [t]o49 ef oirrow. 

^ Euphrosynus, son of , has built this monument for 

himself and Zosimus^ and Philargetes, and iGlia^ and Primsea, 
and Irenia, the children of Euphrosynus, and their ofispring.'* 

A.VTOW, instead of (umbv^ if I am right In reading the last line^ 
is very remarkable* 

Digitized by 



No. 107. — On the mulIioD of a rock-tomb. 


















In the last line but four we may read iet)8ev$ti, which shows 
that this inscription, probably a fragment, is funereal. 

No. 108. — On the side of the portico of an Ionic rock-tomb. 

^POlMAAlo^ /p\A 

Digitized by 




In the last line there seems to be fiytj(Mj<i x^''^^ " ^o^* ^^ 
sake of remembrance." 

No. 109. — Built into the wall of the castle, near the door. 


















The inscription can be read but imperfectly. At the begin- 
ning, Eira(f>poS€iro^, AyaSviroSoi, Te>/M7«r<rews ; line 7 — 12, 

Digitized by 



[jivti]fi€ioVy fcai irapascaXuf ra rexva fjLOV Oeivai, e^ ^lera Be n/v 
efj/rjy reXetmjv civai rffy efbiMruiK twv TeKvmy fiov; lines 17 and 
18, [awx\o>fyrj<Trf einrpe^^ at the end, n; iroXei Sffvapaia v. 
This shows the inscription to be funereal ; in line 3, however, 
we cannot but read eXouov awx^ofyqatoy which, unless we take 
eKouov {(AT) for a dialectic form of €K(iuov {olive-grove), is totally 
unintelligible. The letters OAPO (line 4) are the only ones 
which have on the stone their common round shape, all the 
other O and O being square. 

No. 110. — On a pedestal in the wall. 



The stone being cemented in several places, the inscription 
was copied with great difficulty. In the last line but three we 
have Tov iaurq^ avSpa", in the following there seems to be 

"^urrov ainfjStory which sfaows the inscription to be 


No. 111. — On a rock-tomb. 


Digitized by 



^^ The monument of Antiphiehus [Antiochus ?], twice [i. e, 
grandson] of Phamaces/* 
The letter beginning line 3^ is taken as A« 

No. 11 2. — On a rock-tomb. 


^ The hereditary tomb of Diotimus, son of Tlepolemus^ and 
of Diotimus, grandson of Tlepolemas/' 

Published by Dr. Clarke, Travels, III. p. 316, who refers to 
Mafiei Mus. Veron. 59, for an explanation of the [^/moov] 

No. lis. — On a rock-tomb. 


May be partly read thus : tovto f/^fAetov vpoyonteov €<m .... 
icoi AiMMu[o] V. ^^ The family-tomb of • • . . and Lyceus.'* 

No. 114. — On a rock-tomb. 


Published by Dr. Clarke, 1. c, who has an O at the beginning 
of line 2. 

^' [The tomb] of Tiberius Claudius Pergamus.'' 

Digitized by 



No. 115. — On a rock-tomb 



May perhaps be read thus : — 

^' In the year 60, on the tenth of the month Lous, has the 
dty given this/' 

The name of Lous is to be found in several almanacs of Asia, 
and also in that of the Macedonians, in which it is given to the 
tenth month, of thirty-one days, beginning on June 24. The 
sera of this date cannot be ascertained. It seems not to be the 
JStOL Seleuddarum, which was the principal one in Syria, begin- 
ning 313 before Christ. Beside this, and the JBra Pompejana 
(from 63 or 62 B.C.), Csesariana (47 or 46 B.C.), Actiaca(30 B.C.), 
there were in the different cities of Syria, and no doubt of 
Roman Asia generally, different JBras of minor repute, beginning 
from the years in which the cities had severally been declared 
fi^ by the Romans. (See Eckhel, D.N. lY. 399. Ideler 
Handb. d. Chronolog., I. p. 4570 ^^ ^^7 ^^^ begin the 
Lycian ssra with the year 169 b.g., when the country was, by a 
decree of the Roman Senate, emancipated from the dominion of 
the Rhodians (Liv. XLJV. 16. Appian. Syr. 44.), or with the 
year 83 B.C., when Lycia was again declared Gcee and an ally 
of the Roman nation by Sylla (Appian. Mithridat. 61.). 

No. 116. — On a sarcophagus, by the side of a bas-relief. 

Published by Dr. Clarke, Travels, III. p. 306, who reads 
AHMHTPIO in line 2. The only words which we may de- 
cipher with any certainty, both from his and our transcript, are 
in line 3 [wpjaecm; a[7]a)v[a)v] ; in line 4 there may be ra 

Digitized by 



No. 117. Page 122.— On a tomb. 
This funereal inscription may partly be read thus : — 

TO fivi^fieioy KOTeo'icevaa'ley ] 

eavrtf /eai Ovyarpi /eai ey\yoyoi9 kcu toi^ ef ^770-] 
ytov fjLOV yeyyrfBffarofieyoir kcCKod • . • • 
eav Be ri^ ei^fiuuTryriU • . . airoreiaei K[a£]uav36a>v 
5 TOO S97/MO ^ <l>. 

The KAAfloflineS seems to be similar to the riAPAKAAH 
of inscription 109 ; in which we have also the pronoun of the 
first person. 

No. 118.— On a tomb. 


^^ Artemo^ son of Artimus^ the son of Demetrius^ has built it.'' 

No. 119.^ On the same. 

May partly be read thus : — 

To[/Ayvjfi€i]oy /ic[aT]€<r/c€uao-6v 

. . . «09 avrw KOi retcvoi^ [?] koi ywaiKL avrov /ecu . . . 

^tX[a)] KOi yuvauci avrov kcu tckvol^ .... 

.... Ktu ra> eyyovco avrov 6/LU>Mk>[9] Kai 

To[i]9 ef avrov aWa> [?] Se ovSevi, 

Digitized by 



In line 2, if the conjecture be right, the children are men- 
tioned before the wife, which ia extraordinary; then another 
person, who shared in the property of the tomb, may have been 
mentioned, whose ofispring is spoken of in the last lines. 

No. 120.^ — ^On a tomb. 








May partly be read thus : — 



Kwreaicevaaey to ft[vi;-] 

ti€iov kavrri #c[a]i rwf? reKvov; ay-] 

5 T[i;fl fCtU TOiS 

^CSarr<» Kcu ^loytj luu roi^ [e^ eicytmn^}] 

flOV • . • • 

fiov Kcu Zfjywvi • • • {xiu otV av eiri/rpe^^ ?] 
10 Eav Se tl^ Trapa 

TCCUTCt ir0l7)<Ttf 

€<rra> Oeoi^ ovpaviot^ [?] icav Oeoi^ KarayOovf^f'^ aaefir)^. 

The monument is built by a woman, a relation of Hermo- 
lycus, <^ in her lifetime, for herself and her children and . . . 

Digitized by 



Philetus and Dione/^ In line 8, after the name of Zeno [?], 
there may be the same name as at the beginning of line 2 ; the 
inscription seems to close with the usual declarations (see^ for 
instance, Nos. 109 and 121, and inscription on page 143) : '^and 
those to whom I may give leave myself; but if any one acts 
against this, be he impious unto the heavenly gods and unto 
the gods of hell/' The inscription, which was copied with 
great difficulty, is written on the projecting parts of the door- 
frame : thus the explanation may be justified for taking lines 
10 and 11 in an order different from that appearing in the 

No. 121.— On a tomb. 


^^ Epagathus, son of Craterus, has built this monument for 
himself and his wife and his children, and the children bom of 
them ; but nobody shall be allowed to bury or put [another] 
into this monument, except when I shall permit it myself. But 
if any one shall use violence against this, he shall pay to the 
People of the Cadyandeans a thousand denaria.^' 

The phrase exro^ eav firf (lines 4 and 5) is remarkable. See 
efCTo^: et finj, Boeckh, 2825. 


Digitized by 



No. 122. Page 123. 

No. 123. — In a wall. 





No. 124. Page 125. — On a round pedestal, dug out of the road 
near Hoorahn. 

The inscription may be read thus : — 

Avfytfluoii 2[t€-] 

^V09 T0t9 TO [if] 

irarpo^ avrov 8at- 

5 At/p. ^T€<f>ayo<; ei ri^ 

'Epfju}\vKov ..... Tiva 

KareaKeva- [aTrore*] aei 

cev K(u eire- 

ypay^. Mera 
10 TO evTOifnfye [?] 

€ft€ €49 TffV O- 
OToftywyv [?] . 

The word wrroOritcq (line 12) occurs in an inscription from 
Stratoniceia, Boeckh, 2731 ; another inscription, written in two 
columns, from Aphrodisias, ibid. 2838. 

No. 125. Page 124. 

Digitized by 


TLOS. 387 


No. 126. — On a small pedestal. 




May be read thus : — 

T\(0€<oy ol v€oi KOI fj yepoiHTui Kcuaa[pa] 
Oeov aeficLOTOVj rov [/c]Tt<r[Ti7v] fjueyiaroy [?] 

^^The young men and the Elders [Gerusia] of Tlos [honour, 
probably by erecting a statuej Caesar Augustus, the God, the 
great patron of the People [?].'* 

Krumr:, which properly means a founder, is not usually 
joined to Srf/iov ; if the above reading is right, we must take the 
word in the sense indicated by the translation. 

No. 127. — Over a gateway. 


May be read thus : 

.... ^1; em TOV XafiTTpolrarov] tuu 0avfi[aaTov] '^€fi[oyos!] 
^X. Kaaaiov A[6#cu)t;?] MapKeuivov. 

^^ [The gate ? ^^as erected] under the most splendid and ad* 
mirable governor. Flavins Cassius Decius [?] Marcianus.*' 

Published in Mr. Fellows' Journal, p. 239, where in line 2 
we have KA instead of KA**. 


Digitized by 



No. 128. — BuUt into a wall, the stone broken. 




The inscription may partly be read thus :-7- 

€v irpfjTaveuo avSpa a/yaOov t€ 
eovra \_fc']ai Sia irpoyovfov evepye- 
TTfy rov Sfjfiov, xai iroKKa to>v 
[<r] vfjL<f>€f}ovT<oy /cat ra fieyiara 
5 [7r]po9 Bo^av Korefyyeurfieyoy 
[t]© Si7/ut> Kcu TCD AvKuoy eOyeir 
[ev] /itev rov; iroKefioi^ eirayhpm^ 
[a]7(ovi<ra/t€vov icaf, apurrewray^ 
ra K€u SuiTrfpffirayra roi;^ re vo- 

10 fwv^ KOI Tqy • . • • h\r)fi\oKparir- 
ay 4>ay€pa .... huu fiiov .... 

[^(]Xo&>^ci>9 fcai /it€- 

yaXofiepw^ kcu ey ircurq vq iroKei- 
T€ui • • • KoKoKarfoBad^ icai einrvjdo^^ 

15 teai St4cauk>9 aya^rrpe^fuvoy. 

Digitized by 


TLOS. 389 

" [It was resolved to honour] in the Prytaneum ...... being 

B good man^ and^ like his ancestors^ a benefactor of the People ; 
having done us considerable services^ and the greatest things 
towards his honour among the People and the Lycian nation ; 
having in the wars contested manfully, and excelled, and ob- 
served the laws and democracy , and [functioned] 

gloriously and liberally, and conducted himself in the common- 
wealth honourably and fortunately and righteously/* 

Hpfiraveiov instead of irpuraveiov is not found elsewhere : to 
substitute 17 for v is enumerated by Sturz (De Dial. Maced., p. 
121) among the peculiarities of the Alexandrian dialect, and the 
Etym. M. p. 608, declares K9709 instead of vvo9 to be iEolic. 

No. 129.— In a wall. 


The inscription may partly be read thus : — 


Xijrrjv oScoVj rffcfiova \e[7ea)V09] 

etc n;? 2^pa9, €7ra[pxoy] evffffvlia^l 
5 OTpaTuoTtKoly] irpeafieirrrily], 
arparTjyov Avro/cparopo^ AvKialsi] 
Kai Tlafi<l>v\uL^, ^Ajyvo) StKOioSorrf 
Tk(D€(oy fj fiovki) Kai 17 yepovaia 
Kai 6 Sff/Mo^i, 

Digitized by 



'' a Commissioner of roads, Conmiander of the six- 
teenth legion, Flavia Firma, and the sixth, Ferrata, Inspector 
of the supply of com, Military Legate, Imperial Governor of 
Lycia and Pamphylia. To the upright administrator of justice, 
the Coundl and the Elders and the People of the Tloeans/' 

The Roman governor, to whom the corporation of Tlos paid 
their gratitude, had formerly heen Curator Viarum (line 2) and 
Prtrfectus Annona (line 4), The former office, to judge from 
many Roman and some Greek (for instance. Chandler, p. 92, vii.) 
inscriptions, was conferred on young men of good family ; the 
latter, which was certainly one of great trust, is less frequently 
mentioned. There was an eirapxo^ evOijyeui^ in Egypt, the 
great granary of Rome ; and the word o/ft/vMi, which properly 
means abundance, is seen on several coins of that country: 
an €7nfi€\ffn]<: evOrfvia^ we have in an inscription published 
by Chandler, p. 81 (see Osann Sylloge Inscr., p. 430). The 
sixteenth legion, named (probably by Vespasian or Domitian) 
Flavia Firma, had at the time of the death of Augustus, and 
long afterwards, their quarters in Germany. A sixth legion 
was for a long time stationed in Britain ; but it was the Leg. 
VL Victrix ; whilst the one mentioned in our inscription, the 
Leg. VI. Ferrata, was chiefly occupied in the Orient, (See 
Brotier ad Tacit., H. II. 6.) 

When the Emperor Claudius took from the cities of Lycia 
their autonomy, the country was made a province, together with 
Pamphylia, to be governed, as the Emperor's own, by a Legatus 
Augu8talx8 (Dio Cassius, LX. p. 676 ; Sueton. Claud., c. 25). 
Governors of Lycia and Pamphylia are mentioned, Murator, 
317, I5 Gruter, p. 458, 6; 491, 12. The office of St/oiAoSon;?, 
Juridicus (line 7)^ is mentioned chiefly at Alexandria; two other 
inscriptions, copied by Mr. Fellows at Tlos (Journal, pp. 238, 
239), give the names of two persons entrusted with it in this town, 
Julius Marinus and Domitius Apollinarius ; the son of the latter 
seems to have served in the Legio XVI. Flavia Firma, just as 
the unknown person spoken of in the present inscription. 

Digitized by 


TLOS. 391 

No. 130. Page 133. — On a rock-tomb. 

Zr)[o'avTt,'\ To fipmov Kareo-Kevacev Ztotrifio^ 
NeuetfTueoVf fi rov Ava-aviov, Tkeoev^^ kavrta tcai 

retcvoi^ K(u ywaucb /au toi^ e^ avrov lau & av ev- 
jpoifHo^ avvxoi>pV^* ^^ ^ '''^ ^^X^ '^^ <n/v%aH 
5 (yqacu rov KareaKevcucora Zoxr^/iov Ovtf 

Tiva^ o^CKqaei rto Upeyrarfo rafieir- 
CD €7nT€ifuov ^ ^A<^. Eav Se awyto^ 
fyq<rq riyi 6 /careo-fcevoKm^; Zfoaifio^ i- 
(ei e^vauLv 6 Xafinoy to awx^opff^ 
10 o[y']s av fiovKrfToi Oairreiv, 

No. 131. Page 135.— On a rock-tomb. 

The inscription may partly be read thus : — 

[apX(^p€Ui^}^ Aai/ij^, [AXje^avSpov fi rov ^Ufywriov, 

SeSofievov [<rt;]v%a>/3i;/tiaro9 /cvpeia^ 

en-i apxi£p€o^ Kaiatayov 

.... VTTO TToXKtov, SvTOv Kai 'Ei[p']vycuov 
5 . - . . reOaimu [AX] e^avSpo^, fi rov ^lowa-iov, 6 irwrqp 
Kcu vlo^ AX6^avSpo<i, ^Lprfvaioxr rMfyrjaertu Se /ceu avrtf Kai 

6 avrip axrrq^y 
\JSiv\privcLios ^to\jjL\fiiovr aXXft) he ovSevt e^earr) 
0aylr[cu riva] r) Sa)a-€i TXtoecoy vq yepovtrta 
)^ A[^ ?] wv 6 e\[€vfa]9 to [t/)*t]ov Xrffiy^cu* 

Line 1 is restored from line 5. The phrase SeSofievov avyym" 
pvifjLaros Kvpeiax; (line 2) occurs in no other inscription ; com- 
monly we have only awycopr^fia (see No. 43.), or avvxofpff<f^* 
Line 7 9 e^earq instead of e^earcu. The substitution of 17 for (u 
is less frequent, see Sturz, De Dial. Maced. p. 119. The 
term XrjfiylreTcuy line 9, we see constantly on the tombs of this 

Digitized by 






^ ?^ Z Cf 


^3: .- 
5 ^ t b u 





u* *: r« ^ 
^^ t < 

Z I < u > 
C! $ 5 QQ 

y o © s o 

_ ^ ■•■ S r— 1 

5— — > ■» rr: Ts 






Digitized by 


TLOS. 393 

*^ In their lifetime. 

'^ lason and Menelaus^ the sons of Menelaus^ and Aristippus^ 
son of CrateruS; have constructed the Heromn, in which there 
are four couches^ to belong together [?] to themselves and their 
wives and their descendants^ as the Council has ordered ; and 
there [belongs] to lason Lit. A. on the left^ and to Menelaus 
Lit. A. on the right, and to Aristippus Lit. B. on the left. But 
the fourth couch^ Lit. B. on the right, [belongs] to lason and 
Menelaus, to bury those whom they have brought up, and their 
offspring. It shall be lawful to none of us to give leave to 
another, or he who gives leave shall owe to the People of the 
Tloeans 500 denaria ; nor shall a stranger bury one [here,] or 
he shall owe to the People of the Tloeans 500 denaria. But 
Menelaus will give leave to Philumenus, son of Arsases, [to 
bury his dead] on the couch which falls to his [Menelaus'] 
share. Lit. A. on the right.^* 

In most of the rock-tombs examined by Mr. Fellows, there 
were compartments like bins scooped out in the rock, either on 
three, or only on two sides of the quadrangle ; sometimes there 
were two tiers of them, one over the other. Our inscription 
shows that these " couches,'* which were for burying several 
persons, were sometimes lettered, and each the property of a 
separate family. The regulations of partnership between the 
persons who joined in constructing the tomb were confirmed 
by the municipal authorities (line 4) ; and the property and care 
of the building as. a whole, if I am right in construing the second 
EN of line 3, was their joint concern. 

lason and Menelaus (lines 2 and 6) were probably brothers. 
The relative length of the lines of this inscription, which is 
written on the projecting parts of the lintel, seems to warrant 
the insertion of the restorations suggested by the general con- 
text between lines 5 and 6. Ke instead of icai (line 2) appears 
distinctly in this and other inscriptions, and is explained as 
much by the general substitution of e for at, which prevailed in 
these countries, as by the Latin que. 

Digitized by 



No. 133. — Built into a wall. 


" [The following] have built the Heroum : Ulpius Epaphro- 

ditus , son of Antiochus ; Menecles, son of Me- 

necles ; Epithymetus^ son of Irenaeus^ citizens of Tlos ; Eufy- 
ches^ son of lason, foster-child of Nigrinianus Stasithemis; 
Auxeticus^ son of Agrippinus^ also called Stasithemis ; Ti. Fla^ 
vius Thalamus, citizens of Tlos ; Nico, son of Daedalus, citizen 
of , for themselves and their wives and ** 

The translation leaves out the words APMAIZ B and AP- 
MAIZ r of lines 3 and 4 ; they do not belong to the general 
context. In the list of barbarous words prefixed to the Thes. 
Ling. Grsec. of Stephanus, we find apfxaptov or apfiapiov, ipfu^ 
piovy derived probably from the Latin armarium, which we 
might take here in the general signification of compartment, 
thinking that, like the preceding, this inscription belonged to a 
tomb in which the compartments were lettered. This explana- 
tion is indeed not free from objections. APMAIZ occurs in no 
other inscription copied in this neighbourhood. 

Digitized by 


TLOS. 395 

No. 134. — Over the door of a rock-tomb. 









The inscription may partly be read thus : — 

ov AvSpoaiovy AXe^aySpo) k(u ^iKovXeiya 

[AX€{a]vSpo> /3 Tov 

XT€<l>avoVf AotSaWo) rto /au E[t;]<^[t;]ra)^ KaXoKcupm Ayptmreivov 
TOV Kcu XraaiOefJuSo^, Apretfia Apret^Vy Eutu^mm^ 
5 ^vTvj(€ov^ KXav. OveiXia^ UpoKXrf^j Euruxc* KXat;. Ou€iK[L]a^ 
IlpoKKff^* d> [?] ^VTVX^i awextopnfiOriy Sovytu e^ayrucois avyj((UH 
ptffiay fjLovoi^ ovofiaa'iyf if, ok ay PovKrjraiy fji/q hrofieytf^: 
p/qre avrm p/qre oh (Twxtopet yeveti^ fji/qtev . . . Sc ep^e^y* 

The first five lines^ which are read but imperfectly^ contain 
the names of the great number of persons entitled to a burial in 
the tomb. Among them we find (lines 3 and 4) Agrippinus^ 
also called Stasithemis, who is mentioned in the preceding in- 
scription ; and (line 5) the family of Claudia Velia Procla, pro- 
bably the same whose splendid donation to the theatre of Patara 
is recorded in inscription 169. Her husband's name seems to 
be Eutyches : to Eim/^e^, at the end of line 5^ however^ I should 
rather supply vm than ayipt ; son and father having the same 
name^ and the latter been mentioned already after Eutychiane, 
his and Procla's daughter^ it was not thought necessary to men*^ 
tion him again. That the mother is named twice in this inscrip- 
tion, whilst generally she is not mentioned at all with the chil- 
dren's names^ may be accounted for, either by tlic old Lycian 


Digitized by 




custom, spoken of by Herodotus, I. 173, to call persons after 
the mother, not after the father, or, as there is scarcely a trace 
of this custom to be found in other Greek inscriptions of Lycia, 
by the fact of Velia Procla being probably of a very conspicuous 
family (in No. 131 also the husband is inferior in dignity to 
his lady). From line 6 our inscription contains the following 
declaration, the only one of the kind in our funereal inscriptions: 
*' Leave was given to Eutyches, to give leave to strangers, for 
themselves alone (? novom ovofuunv), to any six persons he 
chooses ; but neither his descendants, nor those of the persons 
to whom he gives leave, may succeed [in that right]. But no- 
body is to have " 

No. 135. — On the two sides of the door-frame of a rock-tomb. 





































Digitized by 




'H Se €7rt- 

25 TTj KOi 17 aa^ 
i^HiKeui ava" 

auov ypa/JUfiO' 

p€09 T€OV 

Talov IovXl" 
35 ov 'H\toSa>- 
pov, Tov tcai 

May be read thus : — 
fip^v e[foi;-] 

aULV €^€l [?] 
e^CDTlKtO It- 

5 vi avyjffDpT)' 
aai, awev' 
Tcujyirjlycu] f) da- 
'^€U Tiva ire- 
pov, ri o<f>€i 
10 [X]€*v T17 7ro\[€]t 

ovBe €Tepo9 

15 av €^€i 0a- 
y^ai nva, 1; o- 
(l>€i\r)a'€t TTJ 
TXroewv iro- 

20 6 eXevfa? 


^'None of us shall have leave of giving permission to a 
stranger to be buried with [us], or burying there another; or 
he shall owe to the city 500 denaria. Likewise, no stranger 
shall have leave to bury [there another], or he shall owe to the 
city of the Tloeans 1500 denaria, of which he that proves [the 
trespass] shall receive one-third. This declaration and the con- 
firmation he in the pubUc archives, written under the High- 
priest of the Augusti, Cajus Julius Heliodorus, also called Dio- 

We observe that most of the tombs of this city have been 
constructed for the use of the dead of several families, which 
may account for their more than usual magnificence. 

Digitized by 



No. 136. — Over the inner door of a rock-tomb. 


"The middle couch [to be the property] of Claudius, and 
that on the right " 

No. 137. — On the side of the door of a rock-tomb. 




Lane 2 seems to have contained the name of the -mfe, and 
those after the third the names of the children of the proprietor. 

No. 138. 


No. 139. 



Digitized by 


TLOS. 399 

No. 140. — In a wall. 





In line 2 we see the name of the Romans^ which we may read 
also in the preceding inscription. 

No. 141. — On a lai^e rock-tomb. 

^^The monument of Eperastus^ son of Philocles^ a citizen of 
TIos^ and of his wife Nannis^ and of his heir Soteris, daughter 
of Eperastus^ and of her descendants in succession, and of those 
to whom she may give leave herself, as [she did] also to her 
husband Zeno [?], and her foster-sister. But for nobody else 
it shall be lawful to be buried with [us], besides myself and my 
heir Soteris permitting it, since he who gives leave shall owe to 
the People of the Tloeans 1000 denaria, of which he that proves 
[the trespass] shall receive one-half/' 

The female name of Navi;, from which tJawi^ (line 1) may be 
derived, occurs in an inscription published by Walpole, Travels, 
p. 557* The change from the genitive into the dative (line 1) 
is remarkable. 

Digitized by 









I ^ 



Digitized by 


Cf < 









s^ <: 



tu C! 





N S- § 



TT «c 

f h 

Digitized by 



^'This inonimieDt was added hy Claudius Hennas, foster-father 
of Claudia Platonis, a woman of Pinara • • • . according to the 
cession made to him by Cajus Licinius Hermacopus, a citizen 
of Pinara, which was written down under the high-priest Pati- 
braeus on the 7th of the month Daesius. Only Claudius Hennas 
himself and his wife Synesis shall have leave to be buried in 
the monument; to another it shall not be permitted to bury 

[one there] in any way. But he who buries , be he a 

criminal unto the Gods of Hell, and let him owe to the People 
of the Pinareans a thousand denaria, of which he that proves 
[the trespass] shall receive one-third." 

The month Daesius was the eighth both in the Syro-Mace- 
donian and Ephesian almanacs, and in the latter had thirty days, 
beginning on April 14th. 

No. 143. Page 144.— On a pedestal. 

No. 144. Page 145. — On the mullion of a rock^tomb. 
The inscription may be read thus : — 

To ^Wffl€U)V 

Avrnrarpovy Si^ 
Tov UureSapoVy 
€v & PePovkqrat 
5 ra^voL fiera to 

airofiuacail}'] €a[y]Tov 
re KUi Tf)y ywauca 
MaXav B^r- 
G>vo9. Eai' Se ri^ e- 
10 7rij(€irfyr}{rr) irepov 

Oay^cUy o<f>€tXe<rfi 
TG> UivapetDV S17- 
fMo S^fvapia irev- 

Digitized by 


PINARA. 403 

raKoaia, o^' &v to 
15 TpiTov 6 eX£vfa9 Xij^'^^^ercu, Tovto koi, hia nov 
ap^euov SeSffXtprai, 

*0 Se irapa ra 

yeypafA^i^va n 

iroi/qaas earm 
20 iepoavKo<i .... 

deoi^ ovpavioL^ 

/cat .... Kara/xjSo' 

vtois; /cat TO 7rpo<;- 

reifioy aTrore*- 
25 craro). AeSi;- 

Xayrcu [eTTt?] apX' 

t€p€6>9 Apre- 

p.iZmpov [?] 

30 ratov 


The name Piaedarus (line 3) bears a close resemblance to that 
of the Carian king, called Pixodanis by Herod., v. 118, and on 
the coins. BefiovXrirai (line 4), airofiuocrcu (line 6), SeSvfXjorrcu 
(line 16), irpoareifiov (line 24), are read in no other of our in- 
scriptions ; so is o^' d>v (line 14), instead of the common cov ; 
€f &v occurs in No. 142. 

No. 145. — ^Within the portico of a rock-tomb. The rock was 
originally so full of holes, that I think many of the blanks are 
not omissions of letters. 





Digitized by 




EzrneEnNnANTnNKAiAH toyz 



The inscription may partly be read thus : — 

TeXeauK yevov^ 

TO fiptpOV [lc\aT€<TK€VaK€V aVTtjp Kai TtJ 

yuvaiKL Kcu to*9 T€fcyoi<: kcu €yyovoi<; 
avTOV aXKq) Se /irfOevi e^earo) 
5 erravoi^ai to rfptpov /jLtjBe '7rpo[(JT]a^ai ereptp, 
Eav Se rt? irapa Tavra irot/rfOTj^ [a]fiapTOi>\of: 
eoTO) deoDV iravTODV xai, Aryrov^ 
xai Tmv T€fcy<ov [/ca] i . . . irpo^- 
airoreifTaTco tcCKolvt\o']v ap\y'\vpiov 
10 Kai, e^eoTto r^ ^ovKofievtp 

e/cSiKffa-aa-Oai [?] irepi tovtcov, 

^^ Telesias ........ has built the Heroum for himself^ and 

his wife, and his children^ and grand-children ; but to another 
it shall not be lawful to open the Heroum^ or command another 
[to do so]. But if anybody acts against this, let him be a 
criminal unto all the gods^ and Leto and her children, and let 
him pay besides a talent of silver ; and any one who chooses 
may institute proceedings about this/' 

The worship of Leto, and Apollo and Artemis, [DianaJ her 
children, was, as we learn from the classics and from coins, of 
the greatest importance throughout Lycia ; it is mentioned in no 
other inscription known to us besides this. Nor is it usual to 
ascribe their characteristic iota to several grammatical forms, as 
is done in the present inscription ; being also the only one in 
which the talent is mentioned, it seems to belong to an earlier 
date than the greater number of those published in this work. 

Digitized by 


PINARA. 405 

The form fji/rfOei^ (line 4) instead of /jbrjBetf:, is however attributed 
to the later periods of the Greek language. See Lobeck ad 
Phrynich., p. 182, Osann Syll. Inscr., pp. 240, 576. 

No. 146. — On a rock-tomb, 


May partly be read thus : — 


[o]iKoyofiov KXavSia<; n\aT©vt8[o9]. 

^' This monument of the Steward of Claudia Pla- 

tonis/^ The last-named person is mentioned in No. 142. 

No. 147. — On the side of the door of a tomb. 


" Of Eutychos, son of Hermapios.*^ 

No. 148. — Over a tomb. 


" Of Craemius, the son of Craemius." The B seems to stand 
for P. See No. 59. 

Digitized by 



No. 149. — On a rock-tomb, over a Lydan inscription. — See 
Plate XXXVI. No. 10. 








" Of Epi^chanon, son of Omimythus." The name of Epi- 
tynchanon occurs in an inscription copied at Athens by Dod- 
well. Classical Tour, t. i. p. 420, and in the Marm. Oxon. ed. 
Chandler, Ivi. 

No. 150. — Over a rock-tomb. 


No. 151. — Upon a pedestal. 


' To Zeus Helios Serapis, Claudius Agrippa.'' 

No. 152. — On a tomb with triglyphs. 


Digitized by 


SIDYMA. 407 











The inscription may be read thus : — 

T17V Ovyarepa 
ap'XjLeparevaaaav [?] 
5 [Ta)]v %€^aaTa>v 

Kai T€CfJ/ff0€UTaV 
TCW9 WptOTiU^ Tet/LMU9 

vjfTO TOW eft'oi/9 «a* Tiy? 
7roX€a>9 4M»t .... 
10 KOI ra^^Se • . . 

#ca£ €v£o^o>9. 

« Flavius Pharnaces [honours?] FlaviaNanne [?], his daugh- 
ter, who was an High-priestess of the Augusti, and was honoured 

with the first honours by the nation and the city and , 

and lived temperately [?] and gloriously.'^ 

No. 153. Page 15.3. 

Digitized by 



Nos. 154 and 155. Page 154. 

No. 156. Page 155. 

No. 157. Page 161. 

No. 158. Page 162. 
The inscription may partly be read thus : — 

[To fivrf/jL€U)v] KareaKCvaaev • ... 09 ^ira^poSeirov BavOio^ 
€avTa> Kai re/cvoi^ Kai evyovoi^ kol aw^eveiair irepo) Se ov[8]€v[a] 
TOVTOV TO i£iov fiepo^ ^i^^pV^V ^^ TW apj(€uoy Avpr/XdM 
Zwaifio) € . . T17 i^Bofi/ff Tov AireXKcLLov fi/rjyo^ apyiepei, [?] Tavpeivov ei fMj 
5 firj fiovov avT09 6 Zaxn^io^ ov^ av ^ovKrjdrf 

rf 6 irapa ravra iroi/qtra^ airoreiaei SavOuov 
T17 7ro\€* , . ay. 

Lines 1, 2, 6 and 7 formed the inscription originally written 
on the tomb by the first proprietor^ the son of Epaphroditus; 
lines 3, 4^ and probably 5 also^ were added by Aurelius Zosimus^ 
probably one of the descendants of the former. The son of Epa- 
phroditus did not intend to give leave of burying to strangers^ 
thence line 6 is the exact continuation of line 2 ; Zosimus records 
his different opinion rather incoherently as to grammar. The 
double fjurj is remarkable; so is ENTONOIZ (line 2) instead of 
the usual ErrONOIZ. 

Digitized by 


X\NTHUS. 409 


No. 159. — On a stone near the arch of the gateway* 







The inscription may partly be read thus : — 

AirroKparopa Kaurapa [?] Ov- 
€<nra<Tiavov, ^efiaarovy rov <rfli- 
Tqpa tcai evepyerrfv rov Koafiov 
BavOuov Tj fiovKf} Kcu o StffJbo^ 
5 Bia [?] Sef^TTov MapKiov {TlpeijcKov 
irpea-^evTov avrov^ avTurrparTiyov, 

^^ The Emperor Caesar Yespasianus^ Augustus^ the protector 
and benefactor of the world ; the Council and the People of the 
Xanthians [honour him] through Sextus Marcius Priscus^ his 
Legate and Propraetor.** 

The words of line 5 are restored from the following inscrip- 
tion. The form lie^aro^, which appears clearly in both^ instead 
of 26^09^ has also been observed in some Codices. See Ste- 
phanus Thes. Graec. ed. Valpy, page cccdiii. 

No. 160. — Over a gateway. No. 161. 



Digitized by 



Taking these two slabs to have been contiguous^ the inscrip- 
tion may, in connection with the foregoing, be read thus : — 

6 Sfjfio^ Bia %€^aTovM.apKiov UpeurKOv 7r[/>€9]/3etfrov at; [rot;] 
emfAe\r}0evro^ [?] to epyov. 

'^ the People, through Sextus Mandus Priscus, his 

Legate, who superintended the work.'- 

. jj 

No. 162.— On a pedestal built into a wall. 










^' CajuB Julius Satuminus, the Consularis and Governor, who 
excelled in our province in every virtue ; the Council and the 
People of the Xanthians of the metropolis of the Lycian nation 
[honour him, probably by erecting a statue].'' 

In this inscription, and several others, the difference of 5i7/xo9, 
people, and e^09, nation^ is constantly observed; the former 
word signifying a political body within the corporation, the lat- 
ter the union of several cities, that were bound together by 
historical recollections and partly by sameness of descent, and 
united in celebrating public sacrifices and games. The Xvarrffia 
Av/cuucoy described by Strabo, the Kjotvov Avkuk:, Commune £y- 
ciorumy of the memorable Grssco-Latin inscription at Rome 

Digitized by 



(Gniter^ 1009^ 5)^ and the eOvo^ AvKut^, are synonymous tenns. 
An athlete who had won prizes at the games celebrated by 
the different Koiyay says of himself in an inscription (Gruter, 
p, 3l7j !•)> o^tovLaafievo^ ey cOyeac rpia-i, IraKia, ^EXXoSt^ 
Aaia : at these games^ as we have seen^ the Reges sacrificuU, 
the Asiarchae^ Galatarchae^ Lyciarchse^ etc. — Ethnarchae^ the 
general term — presided* TlaTpt^, to judge from our inscrip- 
tions, seems to relate to woXi^ rather than to effyo^, and to be 
the native cityj not the country. 

No. 163. P&ge 166. — On a pedestal. 

No. 164. — In a wall. 


This fragment may partly be read thus : — 

Se/9aaTQ>v .... [p/ryrpoir"'] 
oXeo9 rov AvKUoy €0[yov^, r^ wo-] 
X609 '/jfuoy. KXavSia Tt • • . [icara] 
SuiOfitcrpf airoXeuf^Oel^LO'ay inro • • . ] 
5 vXiayov rov €i;e/yye[Tov]. 

It records a donation made to the gods or the people by 
Claudia, according to a will left by a citizen^^ whom the Xan- 
thians call their benefiu^tor. 

Digitized by 



No. 165. Page 167. — On a pedestal. 
The inscription may be read thus : — 

\^l€paT€v]<Tafi€[yof; t-] 
ov 0€ov SavOoVy 7v- 
livaaiapyria'a^ T179 
(T€fiyoTarrf^ ycpov- 
5 aut^y TcKea-a^ Se kcu 

X€ATA[#c]a9 CLfyxfv; rrj 
irarpiZiy toy avSp^- 
avra Kara ra e^- 
10 il>ia'fu€va €K Ta>v iSt» 
ay avearriaa. 

That the Gerusia had sometimes their own gymnasium (lines 
3 and 4)^ may also be inferred from an inscription at Smyrna 
(Reines. Inscr.^ CI. 11. 68.), in which an aKjeiirrqpiov rrj^ yepov^ 
<Fuv; is spoken of. Strabo, XIV. p. 649, enumerates among the 
public buildings of Nysa yviivaatov vemv K€u to yepovri/cov, which 
seems to be explained by our inscriptions. 

No. 166. Page 167. — On a pedestal, built into a wall. 

The inscription may be read thus :-*- 

KovTov, AttoXXmviov, 
St9 rov XoxTTpoTOV [?], Bav- 
Olov, irarpo^ kcu irpoyo* 
Y0y fiovXevTODv, arytoyi- 
5 aafievoy aySpwy irdKrfy 
ey TO) en-iTeXeaOeyri 07©- 

Digitized by 



Tifi, KX. Kaa-uiyov AypiirrrOj 

yei/CTfcavra kcu etcfii^aaav^ 
10 ra KKripoxri A, arffovoOe" 

T0WT09 7179 0€fiiBo^ Sia 

fiiov Tov a^toXoyoDTarov 

^CKxyrrarpiZo^ AvKULfyxpv 

Ti)8. KX, Tv>^fiaxov. Bav- 
15 diwy 17 TOV AvKUov e6vo\ysi] 

fMjrpaTrdki^, Ka0a>^ Bv- 

oBefievo^ BtetrreiKaro. 

The word ewireXeco, to perform, in connection with a^my 
(line 6), occurs in two other inscriptions^ both from Aphro- 
disias, Boeckh^ ^7^h ^^^^ 9 ^^^ latter in several respects similar 
to ours^ the former containing a letter of the Asiarch Eurycles^ 
under the Emperor Commodus, concerning a fund left by will, 
from which the Lysimachian 07011^69 emreXea-deyre^ were to be 
rewarded. The term seems to signify a game, or rather an ex- 
hibition forming part of a public game, in which the prize was 
given from a private foundation, frequently left by wiU, in which 
case the testator's descendants were mostly the distributors (Ti- 
berius Claudius, lines 8 and 14). Exfiifia^w Kkfjpov^ (lines 9 and 
10) was, as we learn from Euseb. Hist. EccL,y. 1, a technical 
term of the Athletse (see also Faber Agonisticon, 1. 24). Eusebius 
says of two Christian martyrs, #cat 6 fiey MaTovpo^ kcu o £07- 
icro9 avOi^ Bi/r}€<ray ey Tq> afufycOearp^ But waai)^ tcoXaa-eoD^:, <09 
fjuqBey oXo>9 irponeiroyOore^y fiaXKoy 8*0)9 But rrXeoytoy 17&7 Kkffpmy 
eKfiefiificucore^ roy ayrt/ircCKoy ; and of the martyr Blandina, roy 
arfodarffoyioToy aSKifniy Xpurroy eySeBvfieyr), Bia ttoXXi^v kXffptoy 
eKficfiaa-cLa-a. Valesius remarks, from Lucian Hermot., and 
Gruter 317^ 1^ that after the first matches had been contested 
by the several pairs of wrestlers, the victors were again paired 
by lot among themselves; one contest at last deciding who 
was the victor of all. Our Quintus greatly distinguished him- 

Digitized by 



9elf, haying been victorious in four matcheB, but afterwards it 
seems he was vanquished himself^ or else he would have called 
himself V€ucfi<rct*: xarra wayrmvy as in No* 100. 

No. 167.— On ^ tomb, with a lion on the top. See Plate XIX. 









The inscription may be read thus i — 

KXavStoi; 'Emfi[p\mTov rov €Lpxi,\ar^ 
rpov Mu KKavSut^ A^. 'EXe[i^] 
179 «^* t[o»] fjifffieva ire" 

5 dvyarepa avrmv A.[e\aivaif* 
EW he T^ erepov Oay^, 
afjroBom^ai ai;[T]ov t© fcp©- 
raroi rofietof K, fi^ [?]• 

^S • • • t • • • • of Claudius Eperotus^ the Archiater^ and Claudia 
Appia Helena, with the intention that no other be put there^ 
except their daughter Leaena. But if one bury another [there^ 
he is] to give to the most sacred treasury 2500 [?] denaria.'^ 

The office of Archiater is mentioned in Nos. 56 and 80. £>ir« 
Toi (line 3) serves to explain €<l> a> of No. 46. 

Digitized by 






















Digitized by 




No. 169.— In the theatre. 










" To the Emperor Csesar, the son of the god Hadrianus, 
the grandson of the god Trajanus, the Parthic, the great grand- 
son of the god Nerva, Titus ^lius Hadrianus Antonius Pius, 
Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, in the tenth year of his tribunitial 
power, having been Consul four times, the father of the father- 
land, and to the Gods, the Augusti and the Penates, and to her 
dearest native city, Patara, the metropolis of the Lycian nation, 
Velia Procula, daughter of Q. Velius Titianus, a woman of Pa- 
tara, has given this, and has consecrated the proscenium, which 
her father, Qi. Velius Titianus, built from the foundations, and 
the ornament upon it and the things belonging to it, and the 

Digitized by 


PATARA. 417 

erection of statues and sculptures^ and the building .of the 
Logeion and the incrustation of it [f.e« with marble], which 
things she pro^dded herself; but the eleventh step of the second 
diazoma, and the awnings of the theatre, which were provided 
by her father and herself, were already dedicated and delivered 
over according to the decree of the excellent CJoundl.*^ 

Copied by Mr. Cockerell, and published by Walpole, Travels, 
p. 535, who makes the foQowing remarks : ^^ By the deot irarptooi 
(line 5) are meant the Roman Penates, according to Cic. pro 
Sulla: Dii Patrii et Penates. See Perizon. ad iElian., I. p. 264. 
The Roman ptdpitum was larger than the Greek Logeion (line 
13). This served as a stage to the actors only, whilst in the 
pulpitum musica] performances and dancing also took place. 
The nXoKo^i^f incnutation with marble (line 14), is explained 
by Vales, ad Euseb. 205 : " Marmoreas crustas vXaxa^ vocabant.*' 
The pieces of marble were fixed to the walls by metal hooks and 

The diazoma (line 15) is mentioned in our No. 19. This 
name, corresponding to the pradnctio of the Roman theatres, is 
given to the large open lobbies, by which the seats of the 
spectators were divided into several tiers. BijXa (line 15), i. e. 
Latin vela^ occurs in an inscription of Aphrodisias, Boeckh, 

No. 170. — Upon a bracket on the archway. 



The inscription may partly be read thus : — 


Digitized by 



. • • TToy Vowpov 
Trarepa iAefifir- 
[tov?] MoSeoTov ffyer 


^' ....••. • RufuB^ father of Memmius [?] Modestus ; the 
Governor, the nation of the Lycians [honours him]/' 

No. 171. Page 180. — Upon the door of a Lycian tomb. 

No. 172. Page 180. — ^On a large round pedestal. 

The inscription may be read thus : — 

Te/i • • • [IT] XarQ>yo9 Tlarapei 
KOI BavOuo, mXeirevtrafie^ 
va Se tca[^L] ev rcu9 Kara Av/ciav 
iroXea-i iraaai^y rrjv ooro^i/- 
5 /ctfv laamy Avrvyovov 

Tiampev^. AXXa> Se fji/q ef €<r- 
TO) redriytu. Eav St t*9 riva Off, 
o^CKerto lepa^ AirdXXioy^ 
Spaxfjuv: C, T179 trpa^em^ kcu Trpocayje^ 
10 Xmi9 ov(n79 wayri rto tSovXo- 

Copied first by Mr. Cockerell; published by Walpole, Travels, 
p. 541, who (line 3) reads Seiea, which, joined to the preceding 
iroXeirevaafieya), he translates by ^^ was Decurio for the tenth 

The reading followed in the translation I find confirmed by 
Prof. Rose, Inscr. Ant., p. 320. AEKA, being distinct in the 

Digitized by 


PATARA. 419 

two transcripts^ seems indeed to be on the stone ; but a great 
many inscriptions, for instance No* 169, line 5, have KA f(M* 
KAI, either a mistake made in copying or anciently by the 
stonecutter, or else a distinct dialectic form, as is KE. The Z 
(line 9) may be taken either for Z or for ^, i. e. 6000* ^pa^fia^ 
is read in no other of our inscriptions. See Boeckh, 2782. 

No* l73.r— Upon a sarcophagus. 








^^ The monument of Ptolemseus, son of Nicolaus, the son of 
Polycrates, a citizen of Patara, and of his wife Sarpedonis, also 
called Lyda, daughter of Ptolemseus twice, who is also called 
Thorax, a woman of Patara.^^ 

The name of Sarpedonis calls to mind the Lycian hero cele- 
brated by Homer ; a citizen of Tlos, called Sarpedon, is men- 
tioned in an inscription in Mr. Fellows's Journal, p. 239. In 
the last line but one TO^ stands undoubtedly for TOY. 
Thorax seems to be the second name of Lycia's father, not that 
of her grandfather or great-grandfather. 

Nos. 174 to 180. — On seven stones of the same size. 

AZZMz errAi oy kay 





Digitized by 



To judge from line 2, [jAvrffi€i]oy Kar€[<rK€]vaa€f etc., these 
scraps belonged to a funereal inscription. 

No. 181. Page 185.— On a tomb. 

No. 182. Page 186.--On»a tomb. 

The inscription may be read thus : — 

To fivrffieiov tcarea-Kevaaaro Eirv^^oK- 
V, Xoyurr€VTff^[}'\ rov a^iolsxrpjOTarov 
Map^ Avp, IlToX6/Lui[t]oi; eXOovn^ A, Av- 
Tt(l>€XK€iTov, ea[i;]Ta» tccu yvvauci avrov [?J 
5 F,wro\e$ kcu re/cvoi^ avT<av [/e]ai ok €lv 
[^0)9 (ov eirirpe^pw. I9 Se ro inroaopioy 
evKrjBex/Offaoyrai ra Operrra avrov [?] . 
AXXo) Sc fiTf [?] e^eara evterfheva-ai ri" 
va^. ['O Be 7r]apa ravra iroLriaa^ a/ia/0T[o)]Xo9 
10 [€]<7[ra> 0\€oi^ icaTa)(j9oviOL^ Kai uroicei 
eviTeifjuov ra> i€p<oTar(o rafieMo H A^, 
6 Be ekev^a^ Xtfp^^'ercu to rpirov. 

The word XoyurrevTTy;, which I propose instead of the unin-^ 
telligible PAriNTEYTHZ of the transcript, we read in an 
inscription at Smyrna, published by Reines. CI. III. S6« The 
office- of \o7krn;9, from which that of Xoyurrevrij^: can scarcely 
have differed, a keeper of accounts, is often mentioned in con- 
nection with the Asiarchae, who had to regulate the expenditure 
of the public games (Boeckh, 2741, 2791, 2912), and was, it 
seems, one of great honour. The translation of EAGONTOZ 
A (line 3), coming (i. e. to discharge annual functions) for the 
fourth time, is only conjectural ; we might be induced to take 
E\dovT09 as a proper name, and A, as we found elsewhere, as 
signifying in the fourth generation ; but, according to general 

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custom^ a A with the article ought in that case to precede the 
name ; besides^ nobody expects the lineage of Ptolemaeus on the 
tomb of another person. Both inroaopioy (line 6, and No. 193,) 
and aopioy (No. 55.), from which it is derived, are wanting in 
our dictionaries. laourei (line 10) is to be found in no other of 
our inscriptions. 

No. 183.— On a tomb. 




The inscription may be read thus : — 

Toy T€tff>oy KaretTKevcucay hMveia^ [?], Avrioj^ov, Avri^eKKetTri^ [/t-] 
cu loo-fiDV )8, /MiTpoq Aprefiiov [?], Ai^rt^XXciTiy? avrot^ koi 
yvyai^iy avro^y kcu reicyoi^ Kiu ywcu^iy [t]i»v T€/cy<oy 
rjfici>[y K€u o/]9 ay tcara yofioy [ow%o>/o]i7cro[/i€]v. AX\o9 Be ovSeis 
5 eyKTjBevdrjirerai, ei fioyoy \oi 7rpoy€]ypafifi€yoi, Eav Be re? 
roXfi/rfaei eyKfjBeva-ac T[tva], evOwo^ earai roi^ But 
TG>[i'] 0eu»yf Bt a[px€i]o>y [Bi]o>purfi€yoi^, 

^^ iEneas [?], son of Antiochus, a citizen of Antiphellus, and 
lason twice (t. e. son or grandson of another lason), his mother 
being Artemion [?], a citizen of Antiphellus; for ourselves 
and our wives and children, and our children's wives, and to 
whom we may legally give leave. But nobody else shall be 
buried [here] except the aforesaid. But he who shall attempt 
to bury another shall be liable to the [penalties] set down in 
the archives, according to divine [laws].'' 

In the original transcript the TN and TH are joined into 
monograms ; hence the translation takes the word at the end of 


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line 1, as An-t^eXXcin;? ; line S Bhows that Ayru^70i£iTi^, a 
woman of Antiphellua, cannot be placed there. The restora- 
tions^ o«9 ay Kara vofioy avy^mpffaofiev (line 4), and But rtov 

$€u»y Buopio-fAeyoi^ (line 7)^ are without precedent* The 

change from the third person (lines 1 to 3) into the first (lines 
4y 5) is not unusiud in inscriptions (see our No. 109^ and Osann* 
Sylloge Inscrp.^ 436, Ixxxxv.)* E^ fAoyoy of line 5, signifying 
except, just as eifitf fioyoy of Inscr. 158. 167^ is remarkable. 


No. 184. Page 201. — On the mullion of a rock-tomb. 

At the beginning we may read rovro ro iu\yqfAei\oy icare^ 
o-#c[€wa<r€v] ; lines 7 to 10, Ovaimy . . . iroKui 0v€i .... [r€]/cyoi^ 
atrrq^ • • . ya^ifipoi^ ; from line 13, koi ra reicya tcai oi ya^fipoi 
auTi79. Eav Be t*9 fiuunfrcu ayoi^ai ro fivrffieioy rovro trap* 
wpeaiy (see No. 44. line 11) ; then perhaps [/M/re] 17 yq eyeyxff 
[avr<o] tcapiroy p/fire \0aKaa<ra irkami fj, etc.] : the concluding 
lines, probably inferior in dreadth to those preceding, contain 
something of apMpr[€aiKo^ €<rro>?] . • . . €t9 rov9 Oeov^^ 

No. 185. Page 202. — ^Within the door-frame of a tomb. 

Nos. 186 and 187* Page 207*— On tombs. 

No. 188. Page 222. 

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RHODES. 423 

No. 189. Page 224. 

No. 190.— On a tomb. 

No. 191. Page 233. — Cut into the rock. 

No. 192. Page 236.— On a pedestal. 

No. 193. Page 238. — On a fragment^ among sarcophagi. 
Line 2 we read inroaopiov, as in No. 182. 

No. 194. Page 244.— On a pedestal. 

Published by Boeckh, 2552^ who reads thus: — 

Kvaavhpcv Xwravhpov 
X.dKicrfra koa ra^ ywauco^ 
KXeaivt^^y KaXKiKpariBa, 

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No. 195. Page 244. 

No. 196. Page 250.— On a column. 

No. 197. Page 257. 

No. 198. Page 264.— On a pedestal. 

The inscription may be read thus : — 

M. OvXiTiovy Z[i7-] 
vwvo^ vlovj Kvp€$va, 
TpiHfwva^ fi€yav Ayrw[yir^} 
viavov apjo^pea T179 A- 
5 <TULSy xeOuapyr^iravTa 
Kcu yevofievoy en-a[p-'\ 
ypv aireipff^ irpernyi 
OvKirta^ TaTuvTwvy €k 
ircurw wpcrroy T179 ^o- 

a9, Tov evepyerrfv T179 
varpiSo^ ^ fiovXff teat 6 
itffio^' TVfv avcurrar- 

15 Avravia^ Apiarrf^ Ao* 

BtWrj^s P], Tiy? eyyovT)^ avrov 

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ANTIINIANON (lines 3 and 4) stands undoubtedly, as it 
does in a great many inscriptions^ instead of ANTIININI- 
ANONj owing either to an oversight of the stonecutter^ or to 
an euphonic change. On the coins of Byzantium the games 
Avrmveia Xefiaara are mentioned in the time of Alexander 
Severus (flckhel D. N. IV. p. 436). The coins of several im- 
portant cities of Asia, and an interesting inscription at Laodicea, 
published by Chandler, page 92, show that throughout Asia the 
greatest honours were paid, by the institution of public exhibi- 
tions, to the name of Antoninus. This was borne by eight Roman 
emperors ; those known to us under the names of Antoninus 
Pius, M. Aurelius, Commodus, Caracalla, Diadumenianus, Ela- 
gabalus, Alexander Severus, and Annius Ghderius. Antoninus 
Pius was in his youth Pro-consul of Asia, and won there general 
esteem and affection (Capitolin. Vit. Ant. c. 7 ; Murator. Corp. 
Inscr., p. 232, 3) ; but probable as it is that Grecian flattery 
offered to him the highest honours it could bestow, it is im- 
probable that he accepted them. The same may be said of 
his successor, M. Aureliiis ; but of course not of those who 
followed. Commodus had games celebrated to his honour, but 
they were called Commodea. It is to Caracalla or Elagabalus 
that Eckhel, /. c, refers the games Antomniana; and the name 
Antoniniana, which several legions assumed, is most probably 
derived from the former of these worthless Antonines. These 
fiEicts make it probable that the ^' Antoninian High-priest of Asia ^' 
presided at the worship of Caracalla. 

No. 199. Page 265. 


No. 200. — In the cornice of the theatre. 


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This line may perhaps be read thus : — 

[AuToicpaTopa?] 'Ewrefifj. . . • 'EvrvxV ""** MoKopuiv *T7raTi[Krfv], 

^' [•• . the Emperor?]^ the Ptous^ the Happy, and Macaria, 
a lady of consular family/' 

No. 201, Page 271. 

No. 202. Page 270. 

The word EYROZIAN (lines 2 and 3) is not to be found 
in any of our dictionaries^ but it is borne out in some respects 
by CYnOCIAPXHQ read in the following sepulchral inscrip- 
tion, a transcript of which I owe to the kindness of J. Tates, 
Esq. It is written on a tablet of white marble, brought from 
Smyrna, and now to be seen at Ince-filundell, the seat of Weld 
Blundell, Esq., in Lancashire. 











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Adelphi Terrace, February 24, 1841. 

My dbab Sib, 
Aftbb spending some time in endeavouring to translate the 
inscriptions which you have brought home from Lycia, I have 
only succeeded in obtaining a very slight idea of the language 
in which they are written ; yet as what I have done wiU relieve 
from some preliminary labour those who may wish to take up 
the same study, I send you all the information which I can give 
relating to them, coupled with a variety of remarks which have 
suggested themselves in the course of the inquiry. 

The inscriptions copied by Mr. Cockerell, and published in 
the Appendix to Mr. Walpole's Travels, were the first inscrip- 
tions in the Lycian language made known in Europe. They 
do not contain enough to allow of a complete alphabet being 
deduced from them, and are so imperfect that no correct value 
could be assigned to the characters used in them. Neverthe- 
less they attracted much attention, and several attempts were 
made to discover the language in which they are written. 

M. Saint Martin published a memoir in the Journal des Sa- 
vans for April 1821, entitled Observations sur les Inscriptions 
Lyciennes d^couvertes par Af. Cockerell, in which he conjee- 

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tured that in the bilingual inscription from Limyra^ of which 
you have since brought us another copy (Plate XXXYL No. 3), 
the Greek was nearly a literal translation of the Lydan ; and 
he attempted to explain several of the Lycian words by com- 
paring them to Syriac and Phoenician. 

In 1831 a paper on the same subject by Dr. F. A* Grotefend 
was read to the Royal Asiatic Society, which is published in the 
third volume of their Transactions. Dr. Grotefend compared 
together the five Lycian inscriptions then known^ and concluded 
from the declension of the only verb occurring in them^ liiat 
Lycian belongs to the family of Indo-Germanic languages^ and 
that like Persian it has both long and short vowels. 

The materials which you have since brought home so entirely 
alter the spelling of most of the words contained in these in- 
scriptions^ that it is unnecessary to analyse the contents of 
these two memoirs ; but I cannot refrain from expressing my 
admiration at the sagacity with which Dr. Grotefend drew such 
correct conclusions from the slight materials which he had be- 
fore him. 

The inscriptions which you copied in your first tour in 1838^ 
and published on your return in 1839, of which three are in 
excellent preservation, might have given a better clue to the 
language: yet these, in addition to what were before known, 
hardly afibrd sufficient materials for forming an alphabet with 
certainty. Several of the letters must have remained altogether 
undetermined, and the value of some others imcertain: the 
very peculiar use of the letter B could not have been found out, 
and, until this was done, the analogies between many of the 
words could not be discovered. 

At this stage of the subject, Mr. James Yates read Memoirs 
upon the Lycian Inscriptions to the Royal Society of Literature 
and the Philological Society of London, which have not yet 
been published, but which are noticed in the Athenaeum of 
March 9, 1839. 

When you had the kindness to furnish me with copies of all 

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the inscriptions which you had met with in your second visit to 
Lycia^ I felt persuaded that sufficient materials were collected 
for investigating the subject satisfactorily. The number^ va- 
riety and length of the inscriptions is very considerable^ the 
characters are distinct, and the care with which you have copied 
them is beyond all praise. In addition to the bilingual inscrip- 
tion at Limyra, we have the assistance of the bas-reUef engraved 
in Plate YIL, in which several names occur both in Greek and 
Lycian characters^ determining the sound of several of the letters 
with certdnty ; and the Lycian coins afford further help of the 
same kind. 

The first step was to frame an alphabet : several of the letters 
were determined by their use on the bas-relief just mentioned ; 
others by comparing the names of the towns given us by the 
Greek geographers with those on the Lycian coins and on 
the inscriptions on the obelisk at Xanthus (Plate XX.) ; on the 
same monument two names occur both in Greek and Lycian. 
The remaining letters were determined either by their resem- 
blance to the Greek or by the usual process of deciphering. 

The search after the alphabet led to a complete examination 
of the Lycian coins, the results of which are given below, ac- 
companied with some observations upon several geographical 
names which occur in the inscriptions. 

I then commenced, as my predecessors had done, upon the 
bilingual inscription from Limyra, but with the advantage of 
being able to correct its imperfections firom other inscriptions of 
similar import, of which you had brought perfect copies ; these 
furnished the correct spelling of the words translated into Greek 
in this inscription. My interpretations agree in a great de- 
gree with those previously given ; the differences will be stated 

I began with the impression that the language was derived 
from Phoenician, but was soon staggered in this opinion by the 
abundance of vowels in Lycian, of which there are ten, nearly 
corresponding to the long and short vowels of the Persian and 

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Indian languages. The manner of declension of the pronouns 
and nouns^ and of the conjugation of the verbs^ soon convinced 
me, i^hile working upon the forms of words of which the meaning 
was quite unknown, that Lycian was one of that large fiunily of 
languages to which the German philologists have given the 
name of Ifido-Germanic. 

The abundance of vowels then suggested a comparison with 
the Zend language : the result was the conviction that Lycian 
has a greater resemblance to Zend than to any other known 
language, but that it differs too much to be considered as a dia- 
lect of Zend, and must rank as a separate language. 

Of the few words which are determined with some approach 
to certainty, several resemble Sanscrit more nearly than Zend, 
and others are certainly of a Semitic origin^; yet these last are 
completely adopted into the language, and are declined in the 
same manner as the words of a Persian or Indian origin, without 
altering the structure of the language, which is thoroughly Indo- 
Germanic. The close neighbouihood of Syria readily accounts 
for the introduction of Semitic words into the language of any 
part of Asia Minor. 

Mr. Walpole has brought together in the Appendix to his 
Travels all the quotations firom the ancient authors which bear 
upon the origin and language of the Lycians ; we should infer 
frdm them, that the people were a mixture of Greeks, Phoeni- 
cians and Persians ; but the two first races are mentioned more 
frequently than the Persian. The Greeks were a maritime peo- 
ple, they settled along the coast of Asia Minor, and penetrated 
but little into the country ; the Phoenicians also spread them- 
selves along the same coast, and thus these two people were 
constantly in contact, while the Greeks had less communication 
with the people of Persian race in the interior, and have left 
little mention of their acquaintance with them. 

As I shall frequently have occasion to refer to the Zend lan- 
guage, which is probably unknown to most of your readers, it 
will not be amiss to state what is known of it, and what means 

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we have of applying it towards the explanation of the Lycian 

The only works extant in Zend are some portions of the 
books attributed to Zoroaster^ which were brought from Surat 
by Anquetil du Perron, about eighty years ago, and placed in 
the Royal Library at Paris. In 1771 he published a translation, 
of these and of some other religious books of the Parsees under 
the title of ^* Zend-Avesta," the name by which the principal 
work is known to the Parsees : from the title of this book the 
language has taken its modem name. Some of these works 
were perhaps written by Zoroaster, others are more modem ; 
but there is great uncertainty about the period when their 
author lived. The account most generally received, is that he 
lived in the sixth century before our sera. The works them- 
selves afford internal evidence that he was a native of Media, 
and therefore it may be presumed that his writings are in the 
ancient language of that country. 

Zend became in process of time a dead language, and the 
books of Zoroaster were translated into Pehlvi, in which they 
still exist, as well as in the original. This language is also a 
subject of great uncertainty ; it is thought to have been spoken 
in the southern provinces of the Persian empire two or three 
centuries after our sera, and to have become a dead language 
about the time of the Mahometan conquest of Persia. Pehlvi 
differs very materially from Zend, being principally of Semitic 
origin, of which Zend has no trace ; yet many Zend words have 
passed into it, and modem Persian contains much that is derived 
from both. 

The Parsees, who fled to India to preserve their religion, 
which was prohibited by the Mahometan conquerors of Persia, 
brought their sacred books with them, and continued to study 
Pehlvi, but they lost nearly all knowledge of Zend, and only 
kept up a traditional translation of the Zend-Avesta. Anque- 
til's whole knowledge of both languages was derived from 
the Parsee priests, and he only learned what they could teach ; 

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he has given as a translation^ and^ as a vocabulaiy of both Ian- 
guagesj a strange mixture of information and absurdity^ care* 
lessly put together without the slightest attention to the rules 
of grammar ; to this we are obliged to refer for assistance until 
we have some better guide to the subject^ but it is never safe to 
rely upon him. The manner in which he produced his disco- 
veries inspired so little confidence at the time, that Sir W. Jones 
declared that the books were forgeries which had been palmed 
upon his credulity by the Parsees. 

M. Bumouf has lately undertaken a complete study of the 
Zend language, and has published the first volume of his Com- 
mentaire sur le Yaqna, in which he has analysed every word 
of the original in the most learned manner, showing the near 
relation between Zend and Sanscrit, and removing all doubts as 
to the authenticity and antiquity of the Zend-Avesta. If this 
excellent work were finished, there would be no reason to com- 
plain of the want of materials for the study of the Zend lan- 
guage; but as the portion yet commented upon is very small, we 
have still no guide to much of the remainder, except the work 
of Anquetil du Perron. Much information on the declension of 
the Zend nouns is contained in F. Bopp's Vergletchende Gram-- 
tnatik des Sanscrit, Zend, Griechischen, &c.,and when this work 
is finished, the student will be in a better position than he is 
in at present. 

For the study of Pehlvi, there is, as far as I am aware, no 
other assistance than that afforded by Anquetil. 

The celebrated inscriptions in arrow-headed or cuneiform 
characters, found at Persepolis and elsewhere, are written in 
three languages : Dr. Orotefend, Professor Lassen, and M. Bur- 
nouf have made great progress in translating one of these, which 
approaches very nearly to Zend, M. Bumouf 's MSmaire sur 
quelques Inscriptions Cun^ifarmes gives a masterly analysis of 
some of these inscriptions, and contains the best information 
concerning their language, which has been called PersepoUtan. 
The principal inscriptions which have as yet been translated^ 

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are of the reigns of Darius Hystaspes^ and Xerxes. As these 
are nearly of the period to which I refer the monuments which 
you have copied in Lycia^ their comparison is of great interest ; 
but there are only a few sentences yet translated from the Per- 
sepolitan upon which much reliance can be placed^ and these 
are still open to correction. As far as I can judge^ Lycian ap- 
pears to have more resemblance to Zend than to Persepolitan : 
the relative position of the countries in which the three tongues 
were spoken^ coincides with this ; Media^ the country of the. 
Zend language^ separating Persia proper from Asia Minor : yet 
all three are of the same family, which we may call Persian. 
There are some peculiarities, which will be mentioned hereafter, 
in the munner in which the Persepolitan nouns are declined, 
very analog6us to what we find in Lycian, and which show that 
the two languages were at the same stage of grammatical 

Having thus pointed out what assistance is to be found to- 
wards the study of the Lycian language, I return to the de- 
scription of the inscriptions, and to a statement of such of their 
contents as I am able to understand. 

The inscriptions published in your Journal of 1858, and those 
given at Plate XXXVI. of the present volume, are mostly fune- 
real ; they contain little information in themselves, yet are of 
great value ; for being in short sentences, of which the subject is 
partially known, they are of the greatest assistance in studying 
the language; they also prove that the language in question 
was that of the people of Lycia, and not merely of their Persian 
conquerors. The inscription numbered 23 is an exception, 
being either a decree or some other public document ; but it is 
too imperfect to be at aU understood. 

The inscriptions which are of the greatest interest of the 
whole collection, are those given in Plate XX., covering the four 
sides of a square monument which you have called the Obelisk 
at Xanthus. It is not improbable that this may have been one 
of the fire altai-s of the Persian religion, and the hatred of the 

2 V 

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people against their conquerors may have induced them to 
throw it down when they recovered their independence^ leaving 
it in its present broken state. 

I can make out just enough of the inscriptions on this mo- 
nument to see how much historical information will ^ derived 
from them whenever they are fully translated, yet not enough 
to form any complete ideas of their contents. The writing on 
the diflFerent sides of the monument refers to very various sub- 
jects ; there is sufficient difference in the form of the letters to 
show that they were done by several artists : there is also a 
change in the use of some of the letters, which makes it pro^ 
bable that a considerable period elapsed between the cutting 
of the four inscriptions, during which time a change of pro- 
nunciation was going on in the language. This is a source of 
great difficulty, but has the advantage of giving a clue to the 
relative ages of the inscriptions, as shall shortly be explained 
more at length. 

The inscription on the north-east side is not complete at the 
top : the first four lines which remain are in Lycian characters, 
the next eleven lines are in Greek, the rest is all Lycian, but 
this does not contain a translation of the Greek part of the in- 
scription. It seems probable, from this arrangement, that the 
upper part of the inscription, which is lost, contained in Lycian 
the translation of what follows in Greek ; but the few broken 
lines of this part remaining are too imperfect to be of any 
assistance ; indeed in the last of these lines the Greek and 
Lycian characters are mixed up together in strange confusion. 

The Greek inscription is not legible ; we can just collect from 
it that it is an order addressed to the Lycians, in the first per- 
son, by some sovereign : the only person mentioned is a son of 
Arpagus, whose name is lost, and who is spoken of as a prince 
or governor, and to whom, perhaps, a portion of the kingdom 
was given in charge by a preceding sovereign. It is much to 
be hoped that some future traveller will bring home as accurate 
a copy as possible of this inscription, and will endeavour to turn 

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over the broken top of the monument, in hopes of finding on 
its under surface the upper part of the Lycian inscription^ for 
no ancient inscription with which we are acquainted contains 
information of greater historical value than may be expected 
here ; and when we see how mnch progress has been made in 
the language from the bilingual inscription of three lines long 
which we have already, we may expect that a document of this 
lengthy accompanied by a Greek translation, would enable us to 
understand nearly all the remaining inscriptions. The line in 
Lycian which follows immediately after the Greek, is to this 
effect : " Transcripts of the greatest decree of the King of kings;" 
showing that the decrees on the upper part of the monument 
emanate from the king of Persia; what follows being probably 
issued by the local governor. We have so little direct in- 
formation relating to the Persian history or government, that it 
is unnecessary to say more to show the interest which attaches 
to this monument. The name of Arppagos occurs divided be-r 
tween the 26th and 27th line of the same side of the obelisk, 
and the words son of Arppagos are found in the 24th line 
of the south-west side, where also the son's name is wanting, 
owing to the imperfection of the stone. The words Kin^ of 
kings occur frequently on the north-east and north-west sides 
of the monument, and on the same sides we find frequently re- 
peated the name of Aoura, or Aoiiremez, the chief divinity of 
the Persian fire-worshipers, whose name was gradually con« 
tracted from Ahora Mazda to Ormuzd. 

Arinay the ancient name of Xanthus [Ama of Stephanus 
Byzantinus), where this monument stands, occurs both in the 
Greek and Lycian parts of the inscription ; and many of the 
neighbouring towns are frequently mentioned, but instead of 
the term Lycia or Lycians, the Tramelae and the Troes are 
mentioned ; these two people appearing to divide between them 
the country called by the Greeks Lycia ; a divisioit correspond- 
ing to that which we find in Homer between the Lycians com- 
manded by Sarpedon and Glaucus, and .those commanded by 

2 f2 

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Pandarus^ the son of Lycaon. .These names will be considered 
more fully when we come to that part of the subject which 
relates to the geography of the country. 

In the first book of Herodotus^ cap. 171 to 177^ is an 
account of the conquest of Lycia^ and of all the southern parts 
of Asia Minor by Harpagus^ a Mede commanding under Cyrus 
the Great^ with a long and romantic description of his taking 
Xanthus; where this monument stands. It seems probable 
that Cyrus would appoint Harpagus governor of the countries 
which he had conquered for him; if I read correctly in the 
seventh line of the Greek the words B<ok€ fiepo^ fiaaiXea^, and 
couple this expression with the statement of Herodotus^ and in 
particular with his statement at c. 177^ that ^^ Harpagus over* 
ran Lower Asia, while Cyrus himself conquered all the nations 
of Upper Asia/* it will not be too bold a conjecture to suppose 
that in this decree one of Cyrus's successors alludes to Cyrus 
having conferred upon Harpagus the government of a portion 
of his kingdom, and appoints the son of Harpagus to the same 
oflSce. The few words which I make out here and there in 
these two sides of the monument, lead me to suppose that it 
contains a series of decrees relating to the settlement of the 
country after the conquest by the Persians, and to the manner 
in which the people of the two races and religions are to live 
together. The Medes and Lycians are frequently used in oppo- 
sition to one another ; and in one passage a distinction is drawn 
between the worshipers and the opponents of Ormuzd ; but I 
have not made out whether they are enjoined to live peaceably 
together, or whether the worship of Ormuzd is to be enforced 
upon the conquered Lycians. 

The inscriptions on the south-west and south-east sides of 
the monument relate to very different matters ; there is no men- 
tion of Ormuzd, nor of the King of kings, in those parts of the 
inscriptions which remain, but no very certain conclusions can 
be drawn from these omissions, as the upper part of both those 
sides is wanting. It can hardly be doubted that they were in- 

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scribed while the country was still under the same government, 
as it is on the south-west that we meet with the "«on of Arppa- 
go8f* and the word S?Mh, King, or Governor, occurs several 
times on the south-east ; on this latter side a word occurs twice 
which has a great resemblance to Xerxes, but being unaccom- 
panied by any titles, I hesitate adopting it as that king's name. 
The lower part of the south-west inscription contains a number 
of names of towns and people, accompanied by locative prepo- 
sitions, from which it may be inferred that it is a decree settling 
the boundaries of the townships. 

According to the chronology usually received, Cyrus the 
Great ascended the throne of Persia in the year 559 B.C., and 
died 530 B.C. Harpagus was not a young man when the former 
event took place : supposing this monument to have been 
erected in the lifetime of the son of Harpagus, and after the 
death of Cyrus, its date will be fixed approximately between 
530 and 500 B.C.; it cannot be put much later without allowing 
to Harpagus or to his son a life beyond the usual average. 

You must bear in mind, that until the inscriptions are fully 
translated, it will remain uncertain whether the Arpagus men- 
tioned in them is really the same person as Cyruses general. 
Herodotus mentions another Persian general of the same name, 
who commanded in Ionia under the orders of Artaphernes, the 
governor of Sardis in the time of Darius Hystaspes (Book YI. 
c. 28 and 30), and there are many instances of names being here- 
ditary in the Persian families, and descending to the grandson 
in alternate generations. Nevertheless it is extremely probable, 
from what has been already advanced, that the Arpagus named 
in the inscription is the general whose conquest of Lycia under 
Cyruses orders is related by Herodotus. 

We have thus obtained an approximate date to one of the 
Lycian monuments, but before attempting to fix the age of the 
others, it is necessary to examine the coins, and to class them 
in chronological order, as they will throw some light upon the 

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438 * APPENDIX B. 

relative dates of the inscriptions. For this purpose we must 
take a slight review of the history of the country. 

In the time of Homer the religion of Lycia was similar to 
that of the Greeks^ and we know of nothing likely to produce 
any change in it until the conquest of Lycia by the Persians in 
the reign of Cyrus^ about 550 B.C. This event must have had 
a great effect upon the condition of the country^ which could 
only recover its flourishing condition after some time. We see 
also by the inscriptions that the Persians introduced the wor- 
ship of Ormuzd. The account of the conquest given by He- 
rodotus does not show that the Lydans were lefl to govern 
themselves as tributaries^ but rather implies that they were en- 
tirely put down ; so that it is probable that the towns then 
ceased to coin money in their own names^ which they could 
only do while they governed themselves under their own laws. 
Thus we know that the cities of Ionia, which, although tribu- 
taries to Persia, coined their own money, were governed by their 
native princes or magistrates. The time is not mentioned at 
which the Lycians regained the power of governing themselves, 
but as they did not become independent of Persia, we can only 
suppose that their condition improved with the weakness of the 
Persian empire, afler the defeat of the expedition of Xerxes 
against Greece, and that they gradually recovered their liber- 
ties sufficiently to become tributaries instead of subjects, in 
which state they must have continued until the time of Alex- 
ander, when the free cities of Asia Minor lost their liberties 
in the general fall of Greece and of Persia. At the division 
of territory which took place on the death of Alexander, 323 
B.C., Lycia became part of the portion of Antigonus (Diodorus 
Sicidus, book xviii. c. 3 and 5). It changed masters several 
times in the. wars between Alexander's successors, but as these 
changes hardly bear upon our subject it is not necessary to 
trace them. Afler the victory of Cn. Manlius over Antiochus 
the Great, the Romans gave the greater part of Lycia to the 

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Rhodians, in return for their good services (Livy, book xxxviii. 
c. 39); but the Rhodians having offended the Romans during 
their war with Perseus of Macedon, the Senate passed a decree 
declaring Lycia and Caria free (Livy, book xliv. c. 15), either in 
168 B.C. or the following year. Strabo, book xiv., describes 
the form of government adopted by the Lycians : twenty-three 
cities, of which the principal were Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, 
Olympus, Myra and Tlos, were united in a league and go- 
verned by a congress, which elected a Lysiarch or President 
and other magistrates : formerly, adds Strabo, the congress de- 
cided upon peace and war, but now they cannot do so without 
permission from the Romans. In this state of semi-independ- 
ence Lycia continued until its liberties were taken away by 
the Emperor Claudius (Suetonius in Claudius, c. 25). 

There are thus three periods marked out by history during 
which the Lycians were sufficiently independent to manage 
their internal affidrs and coin their own money; and their coins 
may be easily classed accordingly. The first ends with the 
Persian conquest, about 550 b.g. ; to this period may be re- 
ferred the coins of a very early style of workmanship, struck in 
the names of the cities, with Lycian characters ; they have all 
on one side a three-armed instrument of unknown use, which 
has been named by antiquarians a triqtAetra, and the emblems 
on the reverse are suitable to the early religion of the country. 
On these coins the letter B is frequently used as a vowel, and 
the letter + does not occur. To this class belong all the coins 
figured in Plate XXXVII. 

The second period is from their rise after the Persian conquest 
to the time of Alexander. To this belong the coins Nos. 26 and 
27* They bear the names of cities in Lycian characters, but the 
letter + is already in use, and B has ceased to be used as a 
vowel. The triquetra has gone out of fashion, and different 
divinities occur on the reverses : but neither on these nor the 
former series do we find any emblems of Apollo. The work- 
manship is very good, and so fully distinguishes them from 

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those of the first period^ that a long interval mutt have passed 
between their manufacture. 

The third period is that of the Lycian league, which lasted 
two centuries, from about 168 B.C. to 50 a.d. To this belong 
all the coins with Greek characters, having the word Avki^v in 
addition to the name of the city : none have the triquetra, and 
their symbols are all referable to the worship of Apollo : their 
workmanship is good. These coins are found of most of the 
Lycian cities, as may be seen in Mionnet^s Description des Me- 
dailies antiques. The use of the Greek characters would nearly 
suffice to prove these coins posterior to the Macedonian con- 
quest ; but the word Avkuov in addition to the town leaves no 
doubt of their age, since it shows the money to have been 
struck by a republican government which extended over the 
whole country ; a state of things which only existed under the 
Lycian league at the period referred to. The cities which be- 
longed to the Achaean league used a similar form on their cop- 
per money, which bears the word A;^ato)v besides the name of 
the town issuing it. 

The worship of Ormuzd seems to have had no hold of the 
feelings of the Lycians, as the coins of the second period bear 
evidence that in recovering their independence the people re- 
turned to their former religion. Apollo is mentioned by Homer 
in connexion with Lycia, but his worship became more general 
in the country after it was conquered by the Macedonians, who 
were noted for their attachment to that divinity. 

Great difference prevails in the different inscriptions in the 
use of the letters B and +, arising apparently from some altera- 
tion in the language or its pronunciation ; a similar difference 
Exists on the coins, where the style of workmanship affords the 
means of arranging them according to their relative dates; so 
that we are enabled to judge of the relative ages of the in- 
scriptfons by adopting the use of those letters as a test. Had 
the Lycian inscriptions all been accompanied by sculpture, the 
style of the art would have answered the same purpose ; but as 

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the only inscription to which a date can be assigned from hi- 
storical evidence has no sculpture connected with it^ the let- 
ters must form our guide to the relative age of the others^ 
which may be checked by comparing the bas-reliefs with Gre- 
cian works of which the age is known. Judging from these 
grounds, it will follow that the most ancient of the inscrip- 
tions which you have copied are those on the north-east and 
north-west sides of the obeUsk at Xanthus, of ^hich I sup- 
pose the date to be about 500 B.C. The inscription which 
comes nearest to them is below the battle-scene, Plate XXXL, 
then follow the south-west and south-east sides of the obelisk 
at Xanthus. I can trace no difference between these last and 
the short inscriptions on the tomb of Payara, on which the 
sculpture is of great beauty, as may be seen in the frontispiece 
of your former Tour and Plate XXIIL of the present volume. 
The funereal inscriptions at Plate XXXVI. are mostly still 
more modern. 

It is obvious that these .opinions, drawn from half-understood 
inscriptions, are Uttle to be relied on ; but the interest attached 
to the sculpture is so great that I feel myself called upon to 
state them. Those who have studied Grecian art must decide 
whether the workmanship of the Lycian bas-reliefs coincides 
with the dates deduced from the study of the inscriptions. 

The use of stops to separate the words, and of the letters A 
and H in the accompanying Greek, have been thought incon- 
sistent with the date of 500 B.C. here assigned to one of the 
Lycian inscriptions. Either of these peculiarities occurring on 
a monument found in Greece would be sufficient to fix its date 
as much more modem. The first objection is easily answered ; 
although the Greeks used points between the words only at a 
very late period, the Persians made use of them as early as the 
reign of Darius Hystaspes, and perhaps much earlier, for they 
are found in all the arrow-headed inscriptions; the practice 
continued in Persia till more modern times, as all the manu- 
scripts of the Zend-Avesta are stopped in a similar manner. 

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Therefore these stops prove^ not the modem date, but the 
Asiatic character of the Lycian inscriptions. 

The objection derived from the letters XI and H is not so 
easily got rid of: there is good reason to beUeve that those 
letters were not used in Greece till after 400 B.C., but it is not 
known when they were introduced into Asia Minor. It is pro- 
bable that the Asiatic Ghreeks, who lived among nations whose 
languages abounded with long and short vowels, would be the 
first to make use of them in their own language, and that from 
them the XI and H spread into Greece. Until more is known 
upon the subject, the use of these letters in an Asiatic inscrip- 
tion cannot determine its date, especially in contradiction to 
other evidence. 

That I may not exhaust your patience by the length of this 
letter, I have omitted all matters of detail, which will be found 
arranged separately, as follows : — 

1. The Lycian Alphabet. 

2. The Coins of Lycia, and the names of the people and 

3. The Inscriptions, which I have pven in Roman characters 
with translations of such parts as I can make out. 

In considering the alphabet, I have been much struck by the 
great resemblance between the Lycian and the Etruscan letters ; 
if this resemblance were only found in those characters which 
both people have copied firom the Greeks, it would be of littie 
moment ; but it extends also to several characters which are not 
in the Greek alphabet. The letters on various coins attributed 
to Cilicia, have a still greater identity with those of Etruria. 
It may be proved from a comparison of the alphabets, that the 
Etruscans derived their diaracters from Asia Minor and not 
fi^m Greece. This goes far towards confirming the account 
given by Herodotus of the Lydian origin of the Etruscans, but 
the doubts respecting it can only be removed when the Etrus- 
can language is sufficiently understood for us to trace its origin. 

I now take leave of the subject, tantalized with the faint 

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Digitized by 





Lyrian letters 



B . b 



y ^I'.Y .Y. Y . Y ; « pmbMy short 

Supposed lorcc 

a Lfiiif 
/I short 

(' shott 

T. l^f^ *^f y 

i short 

cni. w 

OtL. W S: perhaps ll 

n short 

Le tters related to fliem in 
Greek I Zend 



t ' 

i I 




I eu 






















r. h. p 










S pml/. pronLnmcpd 













or k 



V . 

w.h.o .ah 








z . 












t th d 





The toUomnif It^iUrs are rwt ineAuied m the tahle Cr«6k^.'t|r Zend a . <f . nq . n . dt . 

The characier 3 is used in the Lycian intcnfyt»*.m.t as a str>p J to separate the words. 

The characim ^ . K. h seem A» he unfMrthrt/tf oyHeiif inrhttd in^ ^ .^ or F. 

A> P.B I.+.E I.I E.F Z'^.A' ^.^A y.Nf 

are Uitei^it liable, to be misiakeii in ooi>\-inq. 


John Mijfray. London 

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.*>«» ^>- JJ' j&*«.V 



glimpse which I have obtained of it^ and in hopes that it may 
be taken up by some good Oriental scholar whose previous 
knowledge of the languages related to Lycian may be sufficient 
to carry him over all those difficulties which I cannot surmount. 

I semain^ My dear Sir, 

Very truly yours, 
To Charles FeUaws, Esq. DANIEL SHARPE. 


Many of the characters used by the Lycians resemble those 
of the early Greek inscriptions ; others vary slightly from the 
Greek letters in form, but several have no resemblance to them, 
and must have expressed sounds for which their Greek contem- 
poraries had no occasion. 

The vowels and semivowels are as follows : — 

A or F, answering to the Greek alpha, the Persian alif and 
the long A in Zend. The first form is evidently derived from 
the Greek, the second is used in its place on two tombs at Li* 
myra (Plate XXXVI. Nos. 7 and 8), perhaps only by a whim 
of the artist. 

X, a short or soft A; its ibrm has a resemblance to the A 
in some Phoenician inscriptions ; its sound is determined by its 
occurrence in the words XXRVK and TPXMEA^; the first, 
AOURU*, is part of the name of Ormuzd, in Zend Akura, 
which begins with a short A ; the other, written by the Greeks 
TpefiiXcu, is the Asiatic name of a portiot^ of the people of Lycia 

* When OU occors in this paper it should be expresaed OU. 

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here this letter is rendered in Greek by epsilon^ there being no 
nearer sound to it^in that language. The Lycian alphabet has 
E to express epsilouy so that X can only be a short A. 

^ a long E^ closely allied to the Greek H^ and probably 
aspirated when at the beginning of a word. The name of Hera- 
clea on the coins (Nos. 3 and 9, Plate XXXVII.) is written 
"f^PEKA^^ which can leave no doubt as to the force of the 
letter. On the bas-relief, page 116, the name of EKATOM- 
NAZ, when transcribed in Lycian, begins with this letter, 
which thus is made to answer to an aspirated E in Greek. 
This character is found on a few of the early Etruscan monu- 
ments, where Lanzi thought it a numeral {Saffffio di Linffiia 
Etrascay vol. i. p. 167). It is also found united with letters 
strongly resembling Phoenician, on several coins of unknown 
towns, supposed to have been Cilician. 

E, taken from the Greek epsilon, and answering to the short 
E of the Eastern languages. 

I, a long I; it is generally, and perhaps always, followed by a 
vowel, as the instances to the contrary may arise from mis- 
takes, to which this letter is particularly subject from its simple 
form ; it occurs very frequently between two vowels, where its 
force must have been nearly that of our Y. To distinguish it 
from the short I, it has been uniformly rendered Y. 

i, a short I ^ its exact value was first determined in APiN A, 
the ancient name of Xanthus, which occurs both in the Greek 
and Lycian parts of the obelisk at that place, and also on a coin 
of the same town; Stephanus Byzantinus calls this name Apva, 
which proves that the vowel dropped in his time must have been 
a short one. Both the preceding letters seem to have been de- 
rived from the Greek iota^ with shght modifications in form, to 
create a distinction between them. 

O or 0; the Greek omicron and short O of the Zend alpha- 
bet ; the second form, which occurs rarely in our inscriptions, 
is found both on early Greek and Etruscan monuments. 

B or by +y and X, X or £, are letters which, without being 

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exactly identical^ are very much interchanged ; they are the 
cause of great difficulty in deciphering the Lycian inscriptions^ 
which is much increased by their being used in a different 
manner on different monuments. Although there are here six 
fbrms^ they are in reality only three letters^ the first and second 
being identical, and the three last mere variations of one letter ; 
we will therefore only take into consideration the commonest 
form of each. 

B is evidently copied from the Greek betUy and it would na- 
turally be supposed identical with that letter 3 but it frequently 
occurs as a vowel, as, for instance, in the name of the town 
TPBBWNEME, of which the coins are not uncommon (Plate 
XXXVIL, Nos. 1, 5, 19 and 20), and which is also named on 
the obelisk at Xanthus. I shall shortly show that this can be 
no other than the town afterwards called by the Greeks TAQZ, 
and that its inhabitants were either called Tp(k>6)69 or Tpeoe?. 
As it will be necessary to enter into this subject at some length 
when I come to the examination of the Lycian coins, I will, to 
avoid repetition, refer you to what is there stated. Besides this 
vowel sound of B answering nearly to the Greek omegay it is 
also very frequently a consonant. This double employment of 
B is sufficiently puzzling, but the pecuUar use of beta in cer- 
tain Greek dialects throws some light upon it. In Miiller's 
History of the Doric Race, vol. ii. p. 431, it is stated, that 
among the Dorians the digamma generally assumed the form of 
B, and a number of instances are there given from the Laco- 
nian, Cretan, Pamphylian and other dialects. In the Greek 
coins of the Emperors Severus and Verus, the sound of V is 
produced either by B or OY, the former name being written 
either ZEOYHPOZ or ZEBHPOZ, showing that in some 
parts the sounds of B and OY were identical. 

It seems, therefore, that B was used in Lycia to represent a 
letter, the force of which must have been nearly that of our W 
when used as a consonant, and of the Greek A or OY when as 
a vo^'el. Such a letter is found in several Asiatic languages. 

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In Persian the letter JVaw is used both as consonant and 
vowel ; in the former case it is a W^ in the latter a broad or 
long U. 

In Zend, according to Anquetil du Perron, the letter > is a 
short O, and its duplication ^ is OU, or in some districts W. 
This explains exactly the uses of B in Lycian, both as a double 

and as a W ; in other words, that peculiar sound which we 
consider as a doubling of U is formed both in Zend and Lycian 
by doubling the O, which letter must have had in those lan- 
guages a sound somewhat intervening between our O and U. 
M. Burnouf has corrected Anquetil on the subject of these two 
letters, alleging that if the double letter is equal to W, its half 
must be U ; and thinking that > is always used as a conso- 
nant, he employs V to represent it, and U to represent its half 
>. The difficulty of deciding this notatter is increased by the 
number of letters in Zend, as besides the two just mentioned, 
there are other forms for V, W, U long and O long and short. 
M, Bumouf's remarks on these letters will be found in the In- 
troduction to his Commentaire $ur le Yaqna. I am very fearful 
of going wrong when I quit the guidance of M, Burnouf, but in 
this instance I cannot help following the reading of the letters 
given by Anquetil, because it explains the use of the B in the 
Lycian inscriptions, and is itself confirmed thereby. 

In the Pehlvi alphabet, according to Anquetil, who is here 
the only guide, one character serves for B, V, O and OU, which 
last he uses nearly as we use W. This may be seen in his 
Pehlvi alphabet in the third volume of the Zend-Avesta, apd is 
also mentioned in his Recherches sur Us Ancietmes Langues de 
la Perse, published in the Mimoires de PAcad6mie des In- 
scriptions et Belles Leitres, vol. xxxi., 1768, p. 400, where, after 
mentioning that there are two characters for B, he adds ^' le Pehlvi 
forme peutfitre TO, POU et le V de la deuxieme figure B.*' This 
is very analogous to the manner in which B is used in Lycian. 

In writing out the Lycian inscriptions in Roman characters, 

1 have endeavoured as far as possible to use a different single 

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letter for each Lycian character, but I have found it impossible 
to do so with the letters now under consideration^ since we have 
no letter which answers to the different uses of the B ; the 
nearest to it is undoubtedly W^ but this will not do in idl in* 
stances; I have therefore rendered the B by W where it appears 
to be a consonant, and by OU where it is a vowel. I preferred 
the latter to O, as having more aodogy to W. 

(t performs the same double part of vowel and consonant as 
B, and appears to have the same force of W and O long. It 
is frequently interchanged with B ; thus we find the town of 
TPBBVkNEME, and the people TPXXAS; also 8tB^ and 
S^X^, etc. In both these cases the two letters seem iden- 
tical, yet they are always distinguished in some words in the 
same inscriptions, for the word XX PW is invariably thus written, 
the second letter being never changed ; this word is the first 
piurt of the Zend name of Ormuzd, it is written by Anquetil 
EhorUf by M. Bumouf Ahura, therefore in this word the letter 
X seems to be an O or U lengthened by aspiration. It is usually 
a vowel^ and very rarely a consonant* In copying out the in- 
scriptions I have adopted the same letters to represent this as 
are employed for B, namely, W when a consonant and OU 
when a vowel. 

-|- is also both vowel and consonant, and closely allied to the 
two preceding, being interchanged with both ; thus we have 
BOFf APE and +OF4^APE, i^£BE and "M-BE, etc., yet the 
letters are not identical; for we find many words in which 
two of them occur together, as on one of the coins, probably be- 
longing to T7fKe<f>u}^, we find T^A^Bt^+E+4^, where B and + 
represent different consonants ; many others, which will be seen 
by reference to the inscriptions. There are many words, 
particularly in the later inscriptions, where -f* might be ren- 
dered by H, as in the name just quoted, which, if written 
TELEWEHEHE, gives a word with a termination analogous 
to that of some of the genitives in Zend ; yet H will not do to 
express the letter when it is a long vowel. 

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Thus, although feeling convinced that there are differences 
between the three letters B> + and CT^ I find them so nearly al- 
lied and so frequently interchanged^ that I am quite at a loss to 
express a distinction between them in our letters, and I have 
written them all three in the same manner, W when they appear 
to be consonants, and OU when they are vowels. 

I have not been able to reduce to any rule the differences be- 
tween these three letters, because the manner in which they 
are respectively used varies in the different inscriptions, and 
also in different parts of the same monument. I thought at 
first that in the mixed population of Lycia these variations 
might depend upon the writing being the work of a Greek or of 
an Asiatic sculptor ; for we can easily understand that a Greek 
could not reconcile himself to use B for a vowel while he had 
another character to use instead of it ; to an Asiatic this would 
be a matter of indifference. But further examination has con- 
vinced me that there must have been an alteration going on in 
the pronunciation during the period over which the monuments 
extend, which caused a corresponding alteration in the use of 
the letters. This seems to have consisted in the gradual change 
in many words from W to H, sounds which have a great 
analogy to one another, especially if both are pronounced firom 
the throat, as must have been the case in Lycia, where the same 
character represented an aspiration and the long vowel O or OU'^. 
At one period there were only the characters B and 3B to ex- 
press this class of sounds, at another B and J^ represent two 
sounds, the former W, the latter perhaps H, while CC remains 
intermediate between them. I infer that the use of the single 
character is more ancient than its subdivision, from the gene- 
ral tendency of languages to become more complicated, and 
from the internal evidence afforded by the monuments and 
coins. Of the latter very few contain these letters ; the coin 

* A Bimilar change from F to H took place in Spanish; fidalgo being 
turned into hidalgo. 

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referred to Ti/Xe^to?' appears from its workmanship to be one 
of the most modem of those with Lycian characters, and the 
letters B and + occur as distinct consonants in a manner not 
found on any of the earlier coins ; and the coins of TROOU- 
NEME; on which B is always used as a vowel, are among the 
earliest from Lycia* The examination of the monuments leads 
to the same conclusion : on the north-east and north-west sides 
of the obelisk at Xanthus, B is either vowel or consonant in- 
differently, and + only occurs three times, while in most of the 
other inscriptions this is one of the letters of most common 
occurrence : on no other monuments are these peculiarities so 
strongly marked; consequently the inscriptions on these two 
sides of the obelisk, the date of which is about 500 b.c«, must 
either be the most ancient or the most modem of the whole 
series ; with such an alternative there can be no hesitation in 
considering them as the most ancient, as we should otherwise 
have to assign to the other moniunents an antiquity which 
would be qiiite incredible. This change in the language was 
gradual, as there arc inscriptions in which the letters B and + 
seem nearly identical, which must be considered as of an age 
intermediate between those where the B only occurs, and the 
others in which the difference between the two letters is strongly 

In Zend, besides the character already mentioned, there is 
another letter, which M. Bumouf considers a W, which is a very 
slight deviation in form from the H of that alphabet : probably 
these were originally the same letter, and the stroke distin- 
guishing them added at a later period, which would be analo- 
gous to the change we find in Lycian : at any rate there seems 
nearly the same difficulty about the sounds W and H in Zend 
as there is in Lycian, 

The letter -|- occurs in an Etmscan inscription mentioned by 
Lanzi, vol. i. p. 168, the sound of which he leaves in doubt: 
there is also an Etruscan letter of frequent use which seems a 
variation in form from B, and which is without doubt derived 


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from the same source as that letter : it is 8^ showing a great 
analogy to a double O ; itis considered by Lanzi to be equivalent 
to Ph; a letter which might have been used to express the sound 
of W, as the Latin F took the place of the digamma : the same 
character occurs on several undetermined coins attributed to 
Cilicia. The Greeks sometimes used <£> to express the Lycian 
B> as in the name of Trfkafiio^, mentioned above^ page 447^ 

The vowel U has also two characters in Lycian^ but the dif- 
ference between them appears to be very slight, as they are fre- 
quently interchanged; yet as the Lycians had a long and a short 
sound to each of the other vowels, it seems natural to suppose 
the two characters for U to have the same difference between 

T, with the variations in the form of the letter seen in the 
Alphabet, I consider to be a long U. 

W, and the varieties of form of the short U given in the 
Alphabet, are evidently derived from the Greek upsilon ; and 
in the Greek inscription pubUshed in your Journal of 1838, 
page 222, the upsilon is made in the same fashion, X. Both 
these letters vary more than any others in the Lycian alphabet, 
and it is difficult to know to which some of the more fanciful 
forms apply ; but there is no doubt that all of them are U, 
either long or short. 


B has been already given among the semi-vowels ; the Lycians 
appear not to have had the sound which we attach to this letter; 
their P answering in all probability the purpose of both our P 

y , with the varieties seen in the Alphabet, answers to the Greek 
gamma, a G hard: the first is the character commonly used, 
from which the second and third are variations arising fi*om mis- 
takes; their value was first determined in the name of Arppagos, 
which occurs both in the Greek and the Lycian on the obelisk at 
Xanthus : the two last, which are mere variations of T, are used 

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in the inscriptions from Pinara^ Plate XXX. No. 20 of this, and 
from Xanthus, page 225 of the former Journal, in words else- 
where written with V. A letter nearly similar to the first is 
used for 6 on the Indo-Bactrian coins (see Prof. Lassen's Alpha- 
bet in the Proceedings of the Numismatic Society for 1838-39). 
The Etruscans also have a character very similar to ^ ^ which is 
read Ch by Lanzi, vol. i. p. 167 ; it occurs as the second letter 
in the names of Achilles and Agamemnon, so that it must have 
had nearly the force of 6 attributed to the Lycian letter. 

A, exactly the Oreek delta, and doubtless of the same sound. 
It is a letter of less frequent occurrence in Lycian than might 
have been expected, its place being supplied by T in many 
words which are written with D in other Eastern languages. 

X ; the Oreek zeta is made in this form on some early monu- 
ments. On the bas-relief at Cadyanda, page 116, on which the 
names are written both in Grreek and Lycian characters, the 
Lycian X is expressed in Oreek by Z ; it may be inferred from 
that circumstance, that the letter X had a purely sibilant sound, 
and that the Lycian S was pronounced like Sh. 

K corresponds both in form and use to the Oreek kappa. 

A is the exact equivalent of the Oreek lambda. There is no 
L in the Zend alphabet, R being always used instead of it ; in 
Pehlvi there are both L and R. 

t^ ,/^, m, answer to the Greek mu: the second, which is 
found in early Greek inscriptions, is the commonest form of M 
in the Lycian monuments ; the third occurs on a coin figured 
below. No. 28, which appears firom its type to belong to some 
city of Lycia; it nearly resembles the usual Etruscan M. 

N, M, N, ^, different forms of N, none of which can be 

PyCt", different forms of the Oreek 11, all of which are 
found on Oreek monuments. Occasionally F occurs in your 
copies of the inscriptions, but it appears, from a comparison of 
all the words in which it is found, that it is not a gamma, but 
a pi, which should have been copied P ; the difference between 


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the two is so slight, that it is surprising that this error has not 
been made oftener. At the time when the letter pi was formed 
P, the character F could not have existed as a different letter, 
without leading to endless mistakes ; this may account for our 
finding the O of a form so different from the usual Greek gamma. 
P is exactly the Greek rho, both in form and use. 
^9 'Sy iy different forms of S. It has been mentioned above 
that the Lycian Z or Z appears to answer in sound to the 
Greek Z : on the other hand, the Lycian word SA corresponds 
to the Persian S/iahy so that the S must have been pronounced 
as Sh I but as this distinction cannot be traced in all the Lycian 
words in which the letters Z and S occur, it may be presumed 
that the two letters were very nearly allied to one another. 
T cannot be mistaken. 

F; although agreeing in form with the digamma, this letter 
does not appear to have had the sound of W, but rather that of 
our F, or perhaps of the German Pf ; this pronunciation is de- 
termined by finding it as the initial letter of the town, which 
the Greeks called neBaaaa : it answers to the Persian Fa. 

X resembles in form the Greek chi : it is of very rare occur* 
rence, only appearing on the coins of two cities, and in the in- 
scriptions on the south-east and south-west sides of the Obelisk 
at Xanthus. In some words this letter seems to be equivalent 
to K, which added to its form may justify us in considering it 
to be Ch. 

The comparison of the Lycian with the Greek letters shows 
that the forms of all the Lycian consonants, except perhaps of G, 
and of five of the vowels, were derived from the Greek, and that 
the Lycians added to these five vowels to make up a double set 
of long and short vowels ; and although two of these additional 
vowels nearly correspond in force to H and fl, they do tiot re- 
semble them in form, therefore the Lycians must have copied 
the Greek alphabet before it contained the long vowels H and 
ft, or the consonants O, B, *, % which have no Lycian repre- 

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There is great difficulty in comparing the Lycian letters with 
those of the Persian and Indian languages^ as their origin is 
entirely different, yet it is impossible to proceed without exa- 
mining their relations to the Zend alphabet, as that is the lan- 
guage nearest to it This alphabet has been fully analysed by 
M.Bumouf in the Introduction to his Commentaire sur le Ya^na; 
it contains thirteen vowels and thirty consonants : in Sanscrit 
the number is still greater; against these Lycian has only 
twenty-five letters in all. It is obvious that this difference must 
cause great difficulty in studying Lycian by the help of those 
languages, as each letter may answer to several letters in Zend 
or Sanscrit, and it is quite impossible to guess, i priori, bow the 
analogue of a Lycian word will be spelled. It is probable also 
that an alphabet of Semitic origin, and of such limited extent, 
must have been an imperfect organ of expressing a language 
related to Zend, so that many peculiarities of the language must 
be lost in it, and the principles of orthography in the language 
may be altered in consequence. It will be impossible to resolve 
these doubts until the language is thoroughly understood; in 
the mean time I dwell particularly upon them, because in this 
difference between the Lycian alphabet and the alphabets of 
the languages to which it is most nearly related, will be found 
the principal obstacle to the study of Lycian. 

The difference between the vowels in Lycian and Zend is not 
of much importance. The Zend has a nasal A which is not 
found in Lycian, and a diphthong AO, which is probably in- 
cluded in the Lycian letter -h- Between the consonants of the 
two languages the difference is very great : the Zend alphabet 
has the aspirates Kh, Gh, Th, Dh, Teh, Ch, which are wanting in 
Lycian, where the corresponding unaspirated letters answered 
apparently to the aspirated and unaspirated letters in Zend : 
thus ITATA in Lycian is derived from a verb answering to 
the Greek rt^ftt, and to the Zend DADHAMI. The nasals 
G, Ng, and N are wanting in Lycian ; as also Dj, J, and Q ; all 

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of which occur in Zend. L is the only Lycian letter not used 
in Zend; where its place is filled by R. 

The following Table represents the Lycian letters with all their 
variations of form ; against each are placed the Greek and Zend 
letters supposed to be related to it, for the purpose of making 
the preceding explanations intelligible at one view. It must be 
borne in mind that many of the comparisons therein estabUshed 
cannot be relied upon, as the relation of many of the letters are 
still to be ascertained. 

Before quitting the alphabet, it is worth considering which 
letters are most in danger of being confounded together in copy- 
ing the Lycian inscriptions : I have placed together, at the foot 
of the alphabet, the letters which are the most likely to be 
copied one for another ; and it is by these resemblances that I 
have been guided in the corrections required to be made in 
your copies of the inscriptions. 

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5 if^pV 


^ i^^: 










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Id the 

ion of 

Cities to which they belong. 

Obverse of Coins. 









C. Pellowa .... 




Hunterian Collection . 

rroooneme (Tros or Tlos) . . . 

KopaUe j 

Erecl^ (Heraclea) 

IMtto Ditto . . . (copper)/ 
Troouneme (Tros or Tlos) . 





Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

British Museum . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . , 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto • . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ga6aga (Gagae) 
BrecU (Heraclea) 
M6r6 (Myra) . 


F^gas^rdeme (Pegasa or Pedasa) 
Ditto Ditto . . 


F^gss^rderae (Pedasa or Pegasa) 

Troouneme (Tros or Tlos) . . 
Ditto Ditto .... 

Ditto ... 


Bank of England . . 
Bibliothdque Royale, Paris 
Banic of England . . 







Ptterazu (Patara) . . . 
Telewehebe (Telephios?) 


Bank of England 

Ditto . . . 
Paris .... 

Perecl^ ? 

Skin of lion's head. 
Lion passing with head turn- 
ed back. 
Skin of lion's head. 
Head of Pan, with wreath 

and horns. 
See Plate. 
The forequarters of two bulls 

joined, the heads looking 

different ways ; over them 

the triquetra. 
Bull with human £ace, with 

hump upon his back. 
Sphinx, standing. 
Skin of lion's head. 
Forequarters of a bull. 
Skin of lion's head. 
Horse biting his hind leg. 

Naked man running. 
Three quarters of Pegasus. 
Lion upon the back of a bull. 
Skin of lion's head. 



The forequarters of two bulls 

joined, the heads looking 

different ways; over them 

the triquetra. 
Three quarters of Pegasus. 
Two dolphins. 
A gi-iffin. 
Human head. 
Head of Minerva. 
A griffin sitting with letter 

as on reverse. 
A sphinx with horns. 
Head of lion. 

[* By the kindness of M. Lenorman, I have been furnished with copies of all the ancient 
Lycian Coins in the Paris Collection, four of which are in the Bibliothdque, and three in the 
Cabinet of M. le due de Luynes : three not here drawn are of Kopalle, having for their ob- 
verses a Pegasus, a goat, and the head of Jupiter Ammon i and two of Erecl6, one with the head 
of a lion, and the other described as a human head crowned and radiated, the coin copper ; pro- 
bably this may be similar to No. 4. The nails represented in the triquetra in No. 25 are re- 
markable, and may assist conjecture as to the symbol which is seen in No. 30, with four arms. — 
C. F.] 

[t From Vienna I have received, in the most liberal manner, from M. Ameth casts of all the 
uncertain coins in the Imperial Cabinet. Two only are of ancient Lycia ; the one not represented 
is so imperfect that the inscription is illegible, the reverse appears to be the half of a Pe^sus. — 
C. P.] 

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The only coins hitherto attributed to Lycia, are a well-marked 
series with Greek legends, bearing the initial letters of the city 
at which each was struck, and the word Avku»v; these are 
common in good collections, and a copious list of them will be 
found in Mionnet. I have stated above, page 440, my reasons 
for thinking that they were struck during the existence of the 
Lycian league, and have nothing to add respecting them, as 
they are too well known to require illustration. Besides these 
there exist a variety of coins with legends in Lycian characters, 
which have hitherto been classed for the most part as uncertdn 
coins of Cilicia; the following remarks will be devoted to their 
examination, which requires some inquiry into the ancient geo- 
graphy of the country. 

Xanthus. — ^This having been the capital of the country 
might be expected to furnish the greatest number of coins, but 
that is far from the case, and great obscurity hangs over the 
few which are attributed to this town. The name of Xan- 
thus applies both to the city and the river on which it stands, 
which was anciently called Sirbe. Stephanus Byzantinus tells 
us that Ama was the ancient name of the town of Xanthus, 
and though this is not confirmed by any other author, there is 
no reason to doubt his assertion, for it is obvious that Xanthus, 
being a Greek translation of Sirbe, must have been first applied 
to the river, and cannot have been the original name of the town. 
Homer speaks of the river Xanthus frequently, but does not name 
the town, which is first mentioned by Herodotus. We could 
hardly expect to find the name of Xanthus in the Lycian inscrip- 

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tions^^chich would of course call that town by its Asiatic name ; 
neither* does the exact word^ma occur in them^but on the obelisk 
at Xanthus APiNA^ or Arina occurs, once in the Greek, and 
several times in the Lycian parts of the inscription. The dif- 
ference between this and the name as given by Stephanus, con- 
sists merely in the insertion of a short vowel between the two 
consonants, which rendered the word more easy of pronuncia- 
tion to the Lydans, whose language abounds in vowels, but 
which would easily be dropped by the Greeks. If this word 
had on]y been found in the inscriptions, it might be doubted 
whether it was the name of a town, but this is proved by a coin 
figured by Pellerin, vol. ii. Plate LXXXV. Fig. 28. with the 
name APiNA, and another name in Lycian characters, which 
is not quite legible. Pellerin, reading the third letter X, re- 
ferred the coin to Araxa in Armenia; but Mionnet has placed it 
among the Cilician coins, on account of its general character and 
its legend: it is his No. 681, vol.iii. p. 668. On the front is a 
head of Pallas, and on the reverse the legend, and a sitting figure 
of Pallas armed with spear and shield, etc. I feel no hesita- 
tion in referring this coin to the city of Xanthus under its 
ancient name of Arina or Ama. Having only seen the engra- 
ving of the coin, it is impossible to give a decided opinion as to 
its date ; but from its appearance, and its not having the tri- 
quetra, which occurs on all the earUest Lycian coins, I am 
inclined to think it of the second period, and not much earlier 
than the time of Alexander. It would be inconsistent with this 
opinion to find any coins of so early a date with the Greek name 
of Xanthus. 

In the catalogue of Graeco-Lycian coins, in the third volume 
of Mionnet, there are two attributed to Xanthus, No. 78, with 
the legend ZA ATKIAN, and No. 79, with AHMO Z AN ; it 
will be observed that in both these the name is written with Z in- 
stead of X. Among the Lycian coins figured in Plate XXXVII., 
No. 11 appears to be of the same town as the two just referred 
to ; disregarding a stroke, which may be attributed to an acci- 
dental defect, the most probable reading of the legend is 

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IAN , or Zan ; but the third letter is not certain^ as it is partially 
lost at the edge of the die. This coin is in the collection of the 
British Museum ; it is one of the earliest of the Lycian coins 
known^ and must be more ancient than the Persian conquest of 
Lycia ; it bears the usual triquetral accompanied by a grain of 
barley^ and on the reverse a lion's head. As there is eveiy 
reason to suppose that when it was struck there was no town 
yet called Xanthus^ I cannot refer it to that city^ although I 
can find no other in Lycia which will suit it ; it must therefore 
remain for the present unlocated^ in company with the two 
Grseco-Lycian coins^ Nos. 78 and 79 of Mionnet, which cannot 
be separated firom this. We have not the names of all the 
seventy towns of Lycia alluded to by Pliny, and it is probable 
that many which have come down under a Greek name in the 
ancient geographers, may have been formerly known by another 
name now lost ; so that we need not be surprised at meeting 
with coins which we cannot refer to any known town. 

Tlos. — I propose to refer to this city the coins Nos. 1, 5, 19 
and 20, of Plate XXXVIL, bearing the legend TPBBWNEME, 
either at length or abbreviated. In Greek characters this word 
would he Tp(o<ow€fjb€, As EME occurs as the termination of 
another Lycian town, it may perhaps be a contraction for some 
word signifying toum ; the rest has so much the form of a geni- 
tive plural, that we may translate the whole name conjecturally, 
Toum of- the Trooes, On the obelisk at Xanthus this name occurs 
twice, and also several other words, which are either the names 
of the people to whom the town belonged, or derivatives relating 
to them ; these in Greek characters would be TptaxoBcy Tpaxoe, 
Tpaxoa^f TpcDtovaa, TpaHoire, TpaxDira, and Tp<o{ocTv, Stepha- 
nus states the derivatives from TXo)? to be T\ci)6V9, TXxolttj^, 
TXa>o9> and TXcoto? : allowing for the common change between 
L and R, which is found in most languages, and the greater 
lengthening of the first vowel in the Lycian names, the two lists 
have a strong resemblance, and leave no doubt of the identity of 
the town. 

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The coins of Troouneme are not uncommon; among the 
uncertain Cilician coins in Mionnet^ Supp. vol. vii. No. 591. 
belongs to it. All have a triquetra, and are of very early date ; 
their usual reverse is a lion's head. No. 5 has a triquetra on 
each side^ and the name ZYMOAO on the reverse, which is 
perhaps the name of a magistrate. 

Myra.— The legend on No. 10. Plate XXXVII. is MtP^ 
or Mere; the M is partially defaced on the coin, but may still 
be read : the same name occurs on the Obelisk at Xanthus. 

Mionnet, Supp. vol. vii., gives a coin of the same town. 
No. 592 of his uncertain CiUcian coins : it has a triquetra and 
the letters M^PE . . . with a head of Pan on the reverse. 

Gao^e.— The legend on No. 8. Plate XXXVII. is not very 
clear, but may perhaps be read >KA4^EVA, or Gaeeffa, which is 
probably the GagiS of the Oreeks : the reverse is a sphinx. 

On the obelisk at Xanthus is the name of Geaega^ which 
differs slightly, but probably refers to the same town. 

Heraclba.— The coin No. 3. Plate XXXVII. bears the 
name of ^PEKA^, ereclc or herecle, if the vowel was aspirated 
when at the beginning of a word. No. 9 belongs to the same 
town: its legend is ^PEK. The same name occurs on the 
obelisk at Xanthus. No town of this name in Lycia is men- 
tioned by the ancient geographers, but there is Heraclea in 
Caria, to which place this coin probably belongs. 

Pedasa or Pegasa, a city of Caria. We have the authority 
of Stephanus Byzantinus for the variation in spelling the name 
with D or 6. Among the coins with Lycian characters, are 
several which I propose to refer to this town with some hesi- 
tation: they are No. 15. Plate XXXVII., with the legend 
F^VSS>^PA, Fegsserd (the last letter is very doubtfiil); No. 16 
with Fcg^ and a Pegasus on the reverse ; and No. 18 with Fed. 

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The Lycian name of the town to which these apply^ was pro- 
bably Fagsserdeme, that name being found on the obelisk at 
Xanthus. Changing the initial letters^ which are nearly related 
to one another, F and P, and dropping the terminations in each 
case, there is a great resemblance between the names ; and their 
identity is rendered more probable by the Pegasus on one of the 
coins, and by the name in each language being written with 
either D or 6* One of the horses of AchiUes mentioned in 
Homer is named Pedasus ; it seems therefore that both Peda- 
sus and Pegasus must have been derived from a word signifying 
horse in Lycian, or in one of the languages of Asia Minor. If 
the names Pegasa and Fegsserdeme are rightly identified, they 
must be of Asiatic origin ; for the Lycians would not change P 
into F in adopting a Oreek name, although the Greeks could 
not avoid the converse change in naturalizing a Lycian name 
beginning with F. By attending to the nature of a change of 
this kind, the language to which a word originally belonged 
can generally be detected. 

Cabalia, according to Pliny and Ptolemy, or Caballis, 
according to Strabo, was an inland district of Lycia, containing 
the three cities Oenoanda, Balbura, and Bubon. Strabo, Book 
XIIL p. 629 and 631, enters into some details respecting the 
inhabitants, who were said to be Solymi. 

The most common of the Lycian coins appear to belong to 
this district; No. 12. Plate XXXYII. has the name KOPAAAE, 
Kopalle, which is also found on the obelisk at Xanthus ; on the 
rest the name is abbreviated ; No. 17 having KopaU, and Nos. 
2, 6, 7j and 22, only Kop. 

Mionnet, Supplement, vol. vii., has published a coin of the 
same district, with the legend Kopj which he has classed among 
the imcertain coins of Cilicia as No. 589. The identity of the 
names is not complete, but there is no other name in Lycia 
nor the surrounding countries to which these coins can be re- 

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No. 24. 


This coin probably belongs to the same district; it is of 
very ancient date, with the legend n\X, which must be read 
Chap or Kap. The change of the vowel from O to A brings 
the name nearer to the Greek form CabaHa^ and there are other 
proofs that the Lycian letters X and K were nearly identical. 
The reverse has two fish, which seems an extraordinary bearing 
for an inland district, and increases the doubt on the subject. 

No, 25. 

This coin admits of no such doubt^ as its legend is certainly 

No. 26. 

Patara. — riTTAPAlW, Pttarazu: it is impossible to 
pronounce this word without inserting a vowel, which brings 
the beginning of the name to an identity with the Greek Patara. 
In the lists of towns in Lycia, Caria, and the neighbouring 

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countries given by the Greek geographers^ a large proportion 
end in a8808 or essos^ such as HalicamassuSj EdebesBUSf &c. The 
azu on this coin shows the manner in which the Lycians ex- 
pressed this termination, which the Greeks have dropped in 
Patara: the Lycian Z is here equivalent to SS in Greek. 
No. 26 is one of the latest coins with Lycian characters, pro- 
bably struck shortly before the invasion of Asia by Alexander ; 
it has no triquetra, but a head of Mercury on one side, and the 
head of a hero or demigod on the reverse. 

No. 27. 

Telephios is mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus as &7/to9 
AvKuvsy a tribe or people of Lycia. The legend is T^A4^- 
B^+E+'^, which is either Telewewewe, or, considering the + to 
be here equivalent to H, Telewehehe. In either case the word is 
the genitive plural of a noun commencing with Telewe ; a name 
only differing from Telephios in the termination and the use of 
^ to express the sound of the Lycian B. The only difficulty 
connected with this identification is in the term &7/i09, which 
does not apply to a town. 

Lycian coins of unknoum towns. — ^The few coins which still 
remain to be mentioned, must remain unarranged until it is 
ascertained to what towns they belong. 

No. 4. Plate XXXVIL— The only letters remaining are 4^BF, 
which do not occur together on any of the coins yet mentioned, 
and are not enough to show the name of the town. Perhaps 
they should be read ^PE, ercy the beginning of Heraclea. 

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Nos. 13 and 14. Plate XXXVIL have no legend, but as both 
have Pegasus on the reverse, they may belong to Pedasa. 

No. 21. Plate XXXVIL has the letters ME, which afford little 

No. 23. Plate XXXVIL is so much worn that the legend 
cannot be made out. 

No. 28. 

This coin has the letters MA or AM, and a stroke, which may 
have been an instrument similar to that on No. 21. The form 
of the M on this coin is very peculiar, and has a great resem- 
blance to the Etruscan M. The Grseco-Lycian coins with 
the letters MA are usually referred to the town of Massicytus. 

No. 29. 

I can attempt no explanation of the character on this coin, 
which is repeated on the reverse at the top of the head of a 
griffin. The triquetra shows that the coin was Lycian ; but 
there is no such character in any of the inscriptions, so that 
it is uncertain whether it should be considered as a monogram 
or as some religious emblem. 

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No. 30. 

This is peculiar in having a four-armed instrument instead of 
the usual Lycian triquetra. If the coin is perfect, the most 
probable manner of reading the legend is F^XXEBI^; but 
there may have been another letter after the F, as that comer 
of the die is incomplete. The reverse has a griffin. 

In Sestini's Letters, vol. vi. tab. 13, no. I, a coin is figured 
which must have belonged to the same tovm : it has a four- 
armed triquetra, and on the reverse part of a boar. It is re- 
ferred by Sestini to the town of Aspendus in Pamphylia, which 
is a place of refuge for many stray coins. In the text the l^nd 
is given BE Tf XXB^E> but the engraver has represented 
it in the Plate in a different manner, BE^XXB V^B; at the 
stop where the asterisk is placed is a character which is not in- 
telligible. There are so many letters the same on the two coins, 
that there can be little doubt of their relationship. The letter 
X is of very rare occurrence in the Lycian inscriptions ; it only 
appears on the south-west and south-east sides of the obelisk at 
Xanthus, and its place must be occupied by K in the other in- 
scriptions; but I observe that X is frequently and K never 
doubled. The only words on the obelisk which have any re- 
semblance to the legend on the two coins are T43BXE and 
A^XXFE^ and a word which is partially lost in the imperfec- 
tion of the stone at the end of the 59th and beginning of the 
60th lines on the south-east, T XBPf EBB; if we in- 
sert the letters ^01 in the gap^ we obtain T^ XX E F ^EBB^ 
which corresponds with Sestini's coin if we retain the T given 
in his text, and read F for the character left doubtful by his en- 
graver. To bring the coin No. 30 to the same name, we must 

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insert T at the part which is imperfect, and read T^ DC X E B^ F, 
which can only be reconciled with the above on the supposition 
that B and F are convertible letters, for which there is no other 

No. 31. 

The legend upon this coin appears to be P^PEKA^ or 
Pereklej but I cannot find any town of that name mentioned 
in the ancient geographers : not having seen the coin itself, nor 
a cast from it, I suspect that the drawing from which this cut 
is taken may be inaccurate. If the first letter were omitted 
the name would be Erecle, or Heraclea, the same as Nos. 3 
and 9, 

Tbbmiljs and TBOES.—In the Oreek part of the inscription 
on the obelisk at Xanthus, Lycia is mentioned several times ; 
but that name does not occur in the other part of that inscrip- 
tion, nor in any of the inscriptions in the Lycian language. 
Herodotus (1. i. c. 73) states that the inhabitants of Lycia were 
called at different periods Milyans, Solymi and Termilse, which 
last name ihej had at the time they were governed by Sarpedon, 
and by which their neighbours still called them. So that in 
the time of Herodotus, the people whom the Greeks called 
Lycians, were called Termilae by the neighbouring Asiatics. 
Stephanus Byzantinus gives Tremile as the ancient name of 
Lycia. The word TPXMEA^, TVawe/c, occurs repeatedly on 
the obelisk at Xanthus, in which we cannot mistake the TVtf- 
mike of Stephanus ; and in connexion with it on the obelisk, and 
on the tomb No. 18, the Troiioiies or Trooes are mentioned 
in a manner which shows them to have been not merely inha- 


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bitants of the town of Tlos^ but the people of a separate nation 
or district, in which character we do not find them mentioned 
by the ancient geographers. 

There is a passage in Homer which has given infinite trouble 
to all the commentators, ancient and modern, and especially to 
the Greek geographers, which is connected with the present 
subject, and may be partially explained by the facts now 
brought to light for the first time. In the enumeration of the 
Trojan army (Iliad ii. 1. 824 to 827), Pandarus, the son of Ly- 
caon, leads the Troes who inhabit Zeleia at the foot of Mount 
Ida and drink the waters of the Aisepus. In the fifth book, 
where his contest with Diomede is related, Pandarus is repre- 
sented as coming from Lycia ; and the name of his father, his 
worship of Apollo Lycegenes^ and his skill in the bow, all mark 
him as a Lycian. 

Strabo, whose veneration for Homer knew no boimds, is 
quite staggered by the apparent contradiction of these passages, 
and he expresses his surprise more than once (b. xiii. p. 845 
and 846, and b. xiv. p. 950), that Homer should call the same 
troops both Troes and Lycians, and should place Lycia, the 
kingdom of Pandarus, north of Troy. Strabo refers for the 
position of Zeleia, the Aisepus and surrounding country, to De- 
metrius, a native of those parts, who wrote thirty books upon 
the sixty lines of Homer which enumerate the Trojans, and 
afler remarking at some length upon the difiiculty of explaining 
it, leaves the subject in doubt. The later Greek writers were 
less cautious. Stephanus Byzantinus distinguishes two Lycias ; 
one named after Lycus, the son of Pandion, the other near Ci- 
licia, which Sarpedon governed. The Scholiast explains the 
matter in a different manner (II. iv. line 103, and v. line 105) ; 
with him Lycia is both a name for the town of Zeleia, and 
also the country usually so called. Eustathius, commenting 
upon the same passages, makes out two countries of the same 
name ; the Lesser Lycia, also called the Lesser Troy, the coun- 
try of Pandarus, and the Greater Lycia, the kingdom of Sarpe- 

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don. Throughout all these authors the constant mention of 
Pandarus and Sarpedon pomts out the source of the confusion. 

The Latin authors derived their geography from observation^ 
and not from the study of Homer : neither in Pliny nor Pom- 
ponius Mela is there any' mention of the second kingdom or 
town of Lycia. 

We are now able to explain the origin of these errors. The 
country included by the Greeks under the general name of 
Lycia contained two nations^ the Tremite and the Troes; both 
sent troops to the assistance of Troy, the former under Sarpe- 
don and Glaucus, the latter under Pandarus, the son of Lycaon. 
The name of Troes, applied both to the people of Troouneme 
or Tlos and of Troy, led to the confusion ; and either Homer 
himself, or the compilers of the Iliad in its present form, fell 
into the error of bringing the troops of Pandarus from Zeleia, 
at the foot of Mount Ida, a town whose position was well known 
to all the ancient geographers. The author of the Iliad has en- 
tered so fully into the mythology of Lycia, that we can hardly 
suppose him unacquainted with that country, and the mistake 
was probably made when the detached poems were put together 
at a later period ; it is at least certain that it has not arisen from 
the transcribers of the poems since the time of Strabo, as all 
his remarks show that his version of these passages of Homer 
was the same as ours. 

There are two rivers of the name of Xanthus mentioned in 
the Iliad ; the one flowing through Lycia, to which the name is 
very applicable, the other through the Troad, where there is no 
stream to which that name can properly be applied. Perhaps 
the latter may have owed its existence to the same confusion 
between Lycia and the Troad, and the line 

'Ov Savffov KoKeovcTL Oeot, avSpe^ Se XfcafiavSpov, 

may have been added at a later period, when it was observed 
that two rivers were mentioned in the poem in a district where 
only one was found to exist. 

2 h2 

Digitized by 




To enable your readers to judge of the Lycian language with- 
out the trouble of learning a new alphabet, I have copied out 
all the inscriptions in Roman characters^ and have taken the 
opportunity to correct all the errors in your copies of them 
which I can detect, and in some instances to fill up small 
blanks. In altering words to make the orthography consist- 
ent^ I have always been guided by the resemblances between 
the letters already pointed out; but that the alterations and 

[* Rbfbrxncb to lN8caiPTioN8 ON Platb XXXVI. 

No. 1. On an Elizabethan rock-tomb, the Phcenician characters coloured 

blue and the Greek red. 
No. 2. On a rock-tomb, under bas-reliefs, the letters coloured alternately blue 

and red. 
No. 3. On the side of the door of a handsome built tomb, with portico. 
No. 4. A rock-tomb, the letters alternately green and red. 
No. 5. Over a tomb, the Greek characters over one of the pannek. 
Nos. 7, 8, and 30. On rock«tombs. 

At TVImeMiif . 
Nos. 6, 9, and 12. On rock-tombs. 

At Pinara. 
Nos. 10, 17, and 21. On rock-tombs. 
No. 11. A saroophagus-tomb. 

At Mp-a, 
No. 13. A rock-tomb, letters coloured blue and red. 
Nos. 15, 18, 19, and 22. On rock-tombs. 

At Xanthus. 
No. 14. On a rock-tomb. 
No. 16. On a slab. 

At Ant^heUiu. 
No. 23. Upon a handsome sarcophagus : there have been eight lines, but they 
are now so imperfect, Uiat I have only attempted to copy the first 
two, and have selected a few perfect words from the others. — C. F.] 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


|t3ri>vr: V^orSK:M^TE:PP3Ev P-FP-TY/vvtAtAVOAE 
P '/t AP-AE.t+PE. ^'M + t rEP>yTE: KX/^^EI:/t El t/vt:+^rrETPAE 

ITEK^ * /f' •> tE: TEAE:/v\^TE(tTE/t: r FiAPFF.TE.^AP'/^El^l^/voFtTE 





t t^rsENT: >j<or>y:^>yTE:rpjN^F^Ty:/vvAT"tAt E i l|t B^V E:^t-h:TE 

C! tPraEV^lM^or^/^I^TErPaErP'FPIT TtPXMt/v/*NE/tA^A^f +bex 


O+PK.t: IAOK^+P+t4EbAEi^0; H-PPPEAPAE: t+aEtOFE^-r 

I^ E5T E.h^^: II- 



'^iKYyorAM t NtKPiP^IPTY AP-AE4^ + 5E<|t:TEAtE/^ 

^ OAr^lElO-f^+ ^^ 

^"* I t-j- T^ r-T- 6niTY '' 

J5- TEAtEME+ NX A ^^^^^"^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ '-'"^'^'^^^Pit^ 

C Mr^IPEMt+ /MOA/ +Pf'''ErraEAtaEE:t -l-aEioPiaEAA 

^ ON O P 

jj ooy 1 "VE^tT 

^ : ^Ei^ 

■^ >t^\OTt+:TEAtEME: +PrrE:^TAE. f+BE:/ + lVAE: t + »E ''^EtJ 

K , 

X t»yi/vv:y:oh>y:MtTE tRYivv: pp£/,/f.p "»»rj/ 

K ►PI/v ^F^TV: ^hi/v^T^M^ ToPAAt+:TEAtE 7'''^A1 

1 +PhrE:A^AE:i'+BE:/tTEAt itj^Ati/vtPF. y 

4 EMA.MtE^£.•^OAY:TE£Tt ^L^^' VA^JT '''' '" ^.,^ * 

$. y^+pp^E:E^x^Elt:KaMP^ J^irTPt^AMii. fty^, 

i|5. TEAtE/^E:+PrE:vKBAEt+BEitTEAtE'^t/^YJ|ttA^TIfAE^*M|^ 

JL '^il^tE"r^^E"ryTErrEr^^TtIEitAPA>yt+BE*PFrEPtA\t£/VErt3EFtPET>y 



X /tTP♦♦^AJtA^AT-H>FtAPE WPt^ t 

% tBTi^'T:yopv:'^tT^rPi^'^FKTy'^/'^At^^Y/^AE: T£:li:'^:^^ 

^ -|-prrEA^AE:t + BE:itTEAti^E'^:t:t+BEIt:+OAAtAEIt ^tiTPx. p 

PPir^^PtTTPAAS^^ITfclf?^ - r^TVT£:+/^£:VX/vv^.] 

jijt VxioBt3:t+:TEAt£'^E JSL tMor^^TET+Prp^^ 

+ Prp E^i AE: rhPE5 tT EA^It r-L^^^^ii^^^r^^-^ t 



f^T I O M 

Digitized by 
I N S C R I 

/'/ Hi 



r Pi/v ► F^T^: / EAi^ P El p: rtAj 
/V t: T EAt EM E: PPP EtTA E'T * B1 
A*^A Ef -f-P E I tT EAt EM E*>|c Et 

Atit tx>mivh:matoai 



>FEETt: VoA\tTEIt-h:IIE'^P'IE:/t:TEAtE^t:t+BEI t 

•P^Tt: AAt n/^tFt + .TEA^E/^E.+PrrE 

ii»'PiK^TTAA^r//X'AP: rPAPA'^P+.TEA*^;^.: 
PEAA^-hP: FPX'^E/iyiTtEtTtTi^P 

Ti nUM^otVav^te r Pir A FM^Ti^ 

TE^t E/^E'^+ProE:M AE t : EA ^^ 





fBriW:yohV:A\tTEPPI/vPFP=FV:TOFP >^A:+/^ hr£A PAE 


Y,*fA/ Y: VOAV ^Mt r K I 

VX/NA • E'M PlA^oTt- TEAtEMh holt 


: tBTi^T./A^TT^PA^ 



rx. ^^BAVT£-riFl>y, 

y^A^I^ t P F£/vp FPT.T.+.piY)# 

rPrr£'i<AoiT£iir£. iTtr^— 

/v4^ ItT£PA£:_/ATiTll£_ 
[t-fE >K ViT£^.TPXM£A 

■j-;^lt AT£Kt£Tr>A^'^t I V. 
l^|7Vt+ £:: * NK T£: T P x /^£-A £•: 

1' ^ 


L Y C 1 A . 

fnvUtd mf CJiulUiMUM4. 

Digitized by 



additions may be readily seen^ they are printed in italics. I 
have also endeavoured to separate all the words^ the points 
which originally marked them out having been frequently 
omitted ; here also care has been taken to distinguish between 
that which is found in the originals and that which has been 
added, the points being placed only where they occur in your 
copies of the inscriptions, and the divisions made by me being 
marked by the separation into words, without stops between 
them. Still there are a few alterations which could not be 
easily shown in the printing, as when a stop which appears to 
be erroneous is omitted, and when a stop is substituted for a 
letter; these cases are of rare occurrence, and the latter only 
takes place where the letter I appears to have been copied in- 
stead of the stops, which if the stone is a little chipped might 
easily be mistaken for that letter. These alterations are of 
little importance, as the engravings of the inscriptions being at 
hand, every one who wishes to study the language will naturally 
recur to them, and not rely upon my transcripts. 

The inscriptions are placed in the order in which they can 
be most easily studied, beginning with the bilingual inscription 
from Limyra, which is followed by the other funereal inscrip- 
tions, the shorter and simpler preceding those of which the con- 
struction is more complicated. The decrees on the obelisk at 
Xanthus are left for the last. In this manner the simple sen^ 
tences lead on to the understanding of those which are more 
difficult, and much repetition in the explanations is avoided. 

A literal translation is placed under the line wherever this 
can be done. It will thus be seen at a glance how much is still 

Inscription No. S. Plate XXXVI. 


To fivfjfia ToSe efrovqaaro ai^apio^ 

This tomb made Sidarios 

Digitized by 



7ra£Wto9 vios eavreoi fcat ttj yuvavKi 

Painnifi's son for self his, wife 

/cat vltoi 'nvfiuiKr) 

his, and son his Pubiale. 

Every one who attempted to study the Lycian inscriptions 
naturally began with this, as it is the only one which is accom- 
panied by a translation, and is thus the foundation of all our 
knowledge of the language. The translations made by M. Saint 
Martin and Dr. Grotefend have been already referred to ; they 
were made from the copy taken by Mr. Cockerell, which is very 
imperfect ; your copy is far from complete, but the comparison 
of the two brings us nearer to the truth ; and some of the other 
inscriptions on Plate XXXVI. run so nearly in the same words, 
that there is no difficulty in reducing this to a form very nearly 
correct : in the version given above both copies have been made 
use of, and some words have been corrected from the other in- 

The Greek has been published in a corrected form by M. 
Letronne in the Journal des Savans for February 1821, by 
M. Saint Martin, and by Dr. Grotefend ; the differences be- 
tween their readings are not great; the only alteration of im- 
portance now made from your copy is the substitution of vltoe 
for viBi in the last line : this change relieves us from a Greek word 
of very rare occurrence, and gives a more definite meaning to 
tedeemey which in the singular always appears to mean sotij 
although in the plural, which we shall soon meet with, it pro- 
bably has the more general signification of children. Even 
with the assistance of both copies the names of the father and 
son of Sidarios remain unintelligible. 

The Lycian words are so completely altered in their spelling 
by the additional materials now brought home, that it is unne- 

Digitized by 



cessary to criticise the explanations attempted of them in their 
former incorrect forms^ so that I will proceed at once to explain 
the manner in which the translation placed below each word 
has been arrived at : eo4we occurring three times^ first as part 
of the phrase corresponding to iairrcoj and then after the words 
un/e and soriy can only be the pronoun Aw, or an article. In 
the longer inscriptions this word does not occur so often as an 
article must do if there were one in the language ; excepting on 
the tombs^ where the possessive pronoun is constantly to be 
expected^ it is rarely found* It must therefore be the possessive 
pronoun his, a meaning which will be found suitable to every 
situation in which eodwe occurs, and which shall presently be 
justified etymologically. As soon as the near relationship of 
the letters +, X, and B was observed, I saw that eweeya, of 
which we find the neuter form ewuinu on the other tombs, must 
belong to the same family; its form, coupled with its being 
translated ro in the Greek, marked it for the demonstrative 
pronoun this. M. Saint Martin conjectured that the first three 
words should be translated ce tambeatt-ci ; but having only the 
last letters of the first word, he could not connect it with the 
corresponding word in the other inscriptions, which he translated 
tomb. Dr. Grotefend^s explanation came much nearer the truth, 
as he saw that the second word in each inscription was the noun 
tomb, and he translated iy'oe (as he read the first word here) 
/wc ; but he took the corresponding word in the other inscrip- 
tions, which he read ibyeny, for an adjective, sepulchral. 

The declension of the Zend pronouns has not yet been tho- 
roughly made out; there are some remarks upon them scat- 
tered through M. BurnouTs Commentaire sur le Ya<;;naj but 
they are not sufiicient for the present purpose, and we are driven 
to recur to AnquetiFs vocabulary, in which many of the pro- 
nouns are scattered about without reference to either number, 
case, or gender. The following words have been picked out of 
his lists, and arranged in a manner which renders them intel- 
ligible : — 

Digitized by 



Relative^ who : Nominative, I^, \iy 16 ; Genitive and Dative^ 

Ide and Heo(i^. 
Interrogative, whoi Nominative, K&4 Kd; Genitive and 

Dative, Keoiie. 
Demonstrative, lui : Nominative singular, Eet^ ; 
eux : Nominative plural, E^t^. 

It may be deduced from the above, that in the singular the 
three genders of the nominative end in ^, a, o ; that in the geni- 
tive and dative these are changed to 66y or oHe ; and that in the 
plural the vowels are lengthened. 

In accordance with this principle we shall find that the Ly- 
cian pronoun he may be declined 

Nominative singular e, A^; Genitive and Dative, ewe or 
eo(ie, him ; 

which resembles the declension of the pronouns in many of the 
Indo-Germanic languages, as $€, 9U% ; me, moi ; le, ltd, &c. From 
the oblique case ewe or eoile, the possessive eodwe, kis, is formed 
in a manner similar to suus from «tft, by doubling the u ; and 
from the same word is derived the demonstrative pronoun, of 
which the feminine eweeya begins the inscription before us, 
and the neuter ewuinu is found in several others : the masculine 
of this word does not occur, it was probably eweiye or eweye, 
agreeing in form with Anquetil's pronouns iS, kiU, enU. It 
seems probable that the Lycian words beginning with the long 
vowel ^ were all aspirated in pronunciation ; the addition of an 
aspirate would make the Lycian pronouns equivalent to he, him, 
and his, he, hewe, or heode and heoiboe. In the pronouns I can 
never distinguish between the genitive and dative cases ; and I 
am not sure that they can be distinguished in the Lycian nouns 
and adjectives, although there are some words in which it is 
possible that they may be different. There is a curious pecu- 
liarity in the change from the feminine eweeya to ewuinu in the 
neuter : as we go on we shall find many instances of the de- 
clension affecting the vowels of the penult and antepenult syl- 

Digitized by 



tables, as in this case ; but I cannot account for the insertion of 
the n in the last syllable. 

In the preceding remarks on the pronouns which occur in 
this inscription, several words have been mentioned which we 
have not yet come to ; but this anticipation has brought into 
one view the pronouns which are connected with one another, 
and will save the i^ecessity of much repetition. I was anxious 
also to bring forward these pronouns at the commencement of 
the inquiry, as their great resemblance to the corresponding 
words in the European languages is a strong evidence of the fa- 
mily to which the Lycian language belongs ; this we shall soon 
find strengthened by the forms of conjugation of the verbs. 

The first two words are in the accusative feminine singular ; 
they exhibit a peculiarity which we shall find running through 
the whole language, in wanting the terminal consonant which is 
found in so many languages of the same family ; Sanscrit, Zend, 
Greek, and Latin add n, m, or 8 to the accusative, but that case 
ends in a vowel in Lycian, both in the singular and the plural ; 
yet its affinity to them is shown in the change of the terminal 
vowels, which vary in declension in a manner closely analogous 
to the last vowels in these languages, firom which we also see 
that the Lycians do not add a vowel, but drop a consonant from 
the end of each word, as compared with its analogous word in 
another language. On the same principle the owner of this tomb 
is named in Oreek Sc£apu>9, and in Lycian Sedereya : he was in 
all probability a Greek, and the final 8 was dropped in the Lycian 
pronunciation of his name. It will be seen as we advance, that 
every name on the Lycian tombs ends in a vowel. 

The second word is translated fjytffiat in your copy the sixth 
letter is wanting ; Mr. CockereU has given it as 1, which seem- 
ing to bring too many vowels together, I have replaced it by 
X^ a letter closely resembling the former : for a similar reason 
I have preferred his copy of the beginning of the word to yours, 
era being preferable to ear/i the word thus corrected occurs 
again on the tomb of Payara. 

Digitized by 



The third word mete is declinable : at the corresponding place 
in the sentence on other tombs we find muiey muH, muney and 
muna; of these, muti and muna only occur once, and are per- 
haps incorrectly copied instead of mute and mune, so that they 
need not be taken into consideration. M. Saint Martin con- 
jectured that mete '^ repondrait a roBe, ou serait un adverbe qui 
signifierait ict/' The first explanation seems correct, as the suffix 
te appears identical with the Greek Be, the declension only af- 
fecting the first syllable ; and te will be found added in a similar 
manner in other inscriptions to many other words. M. Burnouf 
{Commentaire, p. 139) supposes man in Zend to be a declinable 
demonstrative particle, which is not required in our language : 
this is exactly the use of roSe, and explains the words under con- 
sideration ; the only difficulty connected with them is, that they 
are used indiscriminately with words in the neuter and feminine. 

The next word begins in some inscriptions with a, huip is 
the most common spelling, and is doubtless correct, making 
ptinqfatu: its meaning is given very clearly in the Greek 
eirovqaaro : it will be necessary to speak of this verb at some 
length when we come to its participle, so it may be passed over 
at present. 

The sixth word is the name of the parent of Sidarios, which 
cannot be restored with any certainty; it is obviously in the 
genitive case, but its termination difiers from that of every name 
which occurs in the genitive on the other tombs, which uni- 
formly end with the letter +, ot<: as a native could have no 
motive to put up a funereal inscription in two languages, it is 
to be inferred that Sidarios was a Greek. Herodotus tells us 
(b. i. c. 173) that the Lycians traced their genealogies, not by 
the fathers, like the Greeks, but through their mothers and 
grandmothers ; therefore the reason of the difference of termi- 
nation between this and the other names is, that this is the 
name of a m^n, and those on the other tombs of the mothers of 
the owners; and + is consequently the termination of the geni- 
tive of feminine names. 

Digitized by 



The next word tedeeme occurs twice ; from the Greek it is 
evident that it means «on^ but the Orientalists who have studied 
this inscription have not been able to find an analogous word to 
it in any other language, which is very remarkable, as the terms 
of relationship have a great resemblance in all the languages of 
the same family. The nominative and dative of this word are 
the same ; the dative plural tedeeme occurs on several of the 
other tombs, being formed by lengthening the final vowel of the 

The three succeeding words, oilrppe etle eoHlwe, answer to- 
gether to the Greek iavro) ; the corrected spelling of the first, 
and their separation into three words, is learned firom the other 
tombs. The reasons for translating eoilwe, hiSy have been already 
given ; etle is often written atle^ and seems related to the San- 
scrit atman, signifying self; the meaning of oilrppe has only 
been derived from the context, which admits of nothing but the 
preposition for, a sense which the word vrill bear in every sen- 
tence in which it occurs. 

The exact spelling of the word lade is supplied from the other 
inscriptions ; it is translated by yuvaiKiy vnfe^ and is in the dative 
case ; the nominative lada occurs in the inscription No. 5 of the 
same Plate : on No. 22 there is another form of the same word, 
laduy upon which no reliance can be placed, as that inscription 
is very imperfect and incorrect. Mr. Yates connected this with 
the English words lady and lad, and the comparison is a very 
just one. 

The word se is the conjunction and, which, like the Greek 
Kaiy preceded the word to which it refers : .when the copulative 
follows the noun it is united to it, and written with a short 
vowel se. The change in the length of the vowel is natural, 
depending upon the difierent stress laid upon the word accord- 
ing to its position in the sentence, and illustrates the similar 
difference between kq^, and the Latin qtbe. In Zend and Sanscrit 
the conjunction clia or tcha follows the word, and is united to 
it. These different forms are an illustration of the change of 

Digitized by 



letters in the respective languages to which they belong : the 
Lycian conjunction was probably pronounced she, and it is in 
that language that the consonant is the most softened. 

The only remaining word is the name of the son of Sidarios, 
which is not distinct ; it was perhaps Pubiale^ forming in the 
dative in Lycian Pubialeye. 

This sentence is too simple to throw much light upon the 
construction; it corresponds very closely to the Greek transla- 
tion^ the principal difference being the want of the article, which 
is supplied by a more frequent use of pronouns. 

Insgription No. 20. Plate XXXVI. 

ewuinu : goru : mute prinafatu esedeplume : o&rppe lade : 
thU tomb made Esedeplume for wife 

eoiiwe : se tedesaeme : eoAweye : womeleye. 
hia and children hia illegitimate. 

Gcru may safely be translated tomby from its occupying the 
same position in the sentence as the word so translated in the 
last inscription. The Persian gur^ a tomby seems to be derived 
from the same root. In many of the inscriptions this word is 
spelled gopuy and indeed this is the m<Mre common spelling; 
yet it is goru in some of those which appear most accurate, 
especially in that at page 226 of your former Journal — ^a short 
inscription, upon which I place great reliance ; and this form is 
confirmed by the Persian word gur. However, as there is some 
uncertainty about it, the original spelling is left uncorrected as 
it is found in each inscription. 

Tedesaeme is evidently derived from the same root as tedeeme, 
and must mean children* 

Eodweye is the dative plural of eoihoe : in the singular there 
is no difference between the nominative and the dative. 

The last word womeleye appears to be related to the Arabic 
humeel, an illegitimale child : there is a great difficulty in fixing 

Digitized by 



an exact value to the letter + which begins this word, and which 
seems to be intermediate between w and h : the present instance 
would make us incline to the latter^ but in other words the 
former is the preferable version of the letter. The remaining 
words have been already explained. 

Inscription No. 7. Plate XXXVI. 

ewuinti : gopu : mete : prinafatu : pomasa : erteleyeseod : 
thia tanUf made Pomaaa Erteleyeee's 

tedeeme oiirppe lade: eoiiwe ofelte: gometeyeoii: zzemaze: 
80H for w\fe his Cfeit9 G(meteye*% daughter 

se: tedeeme: ^o^weyl. 
and children hi». 

The first four words were considered when the former inscrip- 
tion was explained ; the next is the name of the owner of the 
tomb^ followed by that of his mother: according to Bopp's 
grammar, feminine nouns in 2jend which end in a vowel, form 
their genitives in ao, a sound for which that alphabet has a se- 
parate character ; the letter «V corresponds to several letters in 
Zend, which is the cause of the difficulty in fixing its exact 
value ; and it appears fix>m its use as the termination of the 
genitives of female names, that it includes the Zend aS as well 
as auy between the sounds of which there can be but little dif- 

The context points out that o/elte is the name of the wife of 
Pomasa, and the next word that of her mother ; and that the 
word zzemaze must signify daughter. I have met with no direct 
confirmation of the translation of this last word, but in Bopp, 
p. 126, the Zend verb zezami is translated to beget or produce; 
zzemazay the nominative of the word in question, may be derived 
from the same root. 

Digitized by 



Inscription No. 8. Plate XXXVI. 

rezzete prinafate : ddepinSf eou : tedeeme : ourppe lade eouwe 
Rezseie made Ddepinefes ton for fotfe hU 

sc: tedSeme. 
and children. 

Except an alteration in the construction of the sentence^ there 

is nothing here which requires mention. 

Inscription No. 5. Plate XXXVI. 

ewuinu : gopu mSte prinafantu erameno&ne se lada eouwe 
this tomb made Eramenoune and w{fe his 

&raertlae ptt5 se eren yaae. 


This inscription is so imperfect, that I cannot venture to fill 
up the blank at the end ; yet it contains two words which are 
of great help towards the grammar of the language : the nomi- 
native lada^ of which only the dative lade is found elsewhere 3 
and the plural of the verb which is formed from the singular, by 
inserting a letter before the last syllable : this letter stands in 
the copy I or y, which would give prinafaytu ; but one of the 
commonest errors consists in copying I for N^ ; by making 
this change we obtain prinqfanlu, which corresponds so closely 
to the plural in Zend and Greek, that I have adopted it in the 
version given above. 

At the foot of the inscription are two words in Greek charac- 
ters, T-a)uo<: . vixapxovy which probably are the names of the 
artist, as they seem to have no reference to the rest of the in- 

Inscription at page 226 of your former Journal. 

ewuinu : goru : mune prinafatu : mede : epinume eoiiwe 
this tomb made Mede (for) ? his 

wXpruna: se: atle. 
successor and himself. 

Digitized by 



This is perhaps the most accurate of all the inscriptions which 
you copied ; the only alteration which I have made in it is the 
substitution of a stop for the I in the last line. Most of the 
words have been already explained^ but there are two which are 
new to us. 

Epinume appears to be a term of relationship, but I must leave 
its exact meaning doubtful : considering it as a compound word 
formed of epin and umCy the former seems related to the Arabic 
iben, a son, and the latter to the Arabic um, signifying mother ; 
but even with this assistance, it is difficult to determine the 
meaning of the whole word. This and the following words are 
in the dative, the preposition for, which is usually expressed, 
being here understood. 

Wdpruna seems to be derived from wdpru, which occurs in 
the lower inscription of the page preceding this ; the termina- 
tion in na has more resemblance to the instrumental case of the 
Zend than to the usual form of the dative. fFapru perhaps 
means heir or successor , and may then be connected with the 
Persian preposition wapes, which signifies after ; this meaning 
is very suitable to the other sentence in which the word occurs; 
otherwise it must be a term of relationship. 

Inscription No. 18. Plate XXXVI. 

ebuinu : ^rinafu : mene : ^rinafatu ddaoua : srzzyoleoiiod 
this wwk made DdaoHa N*b 

tedeeme : oiirpe : /ode eoflwe se tedeeme se uwelatedecwa — a 
son for wife his and children and posterity 

me . e eteae tute ite — pa teze se ladu eoAwe oAwflereme inepe 

herein and wife his 

ife retuto tewee : ene : oul&me : tofeto o(ili(me mee tofete teke 

tewee it€«e : tade teke mene se tlewe toweete trSmele : wofcdre 

se trououa 1 se m— oult wofedre. 
and Troitan 

Digitized by 



In the above inscription the greater part remains to be explain- 
ed hereafter; some parts are very imperfect ; and at the end of 
the third line I have left a number of letters in confusion, as the 
inaccuracy of the copy does not enable me to divide the words 
with any probability of success. We have here another word 
signifying the tomb, pTtnaJki, which is obviously the passive par- 
ticiple of the verb to which prinqfatu belongs, and which may 
safely be translated work. It was from the comparison of these 
two words, that Dr. Grotefend first concluded that Lycian be- 
longed to the family of the Indo-Germanic languages, since the 
verbs were conjugated in a manner analogous to those languages. 
The resemblance of prina/atu to the Greek errot^aaro is so great, 
that we may suppose it to be the same tense, the middle aorist ; 
the form of the participle is more near to the Latin ; if we add 
M to the word before us, making it prinqfunig it might almost 
pass for the passive participle of a Latin verb. The only other 
forms in which we find this verb, are prinafate^ which may be the 
aorist of the active, and prinapo, which is perhaps a noun derived 
from the same root ; the verb is probably prinapame or prina- 
fame. No verb resembling this has been found in any of the 
Indo-Germanic languages, and it has been thought connected 
with the Arabic bera, creating , a verb which occurs in all the 
Semitic languages: it seems probable that the Lycians, who 
were close neighbours to the Syrians, should have some mixture 
of Semitic roots, and this derivation is probably correct. It 
must be remarked, that this verb, even if of Semitic origin, is 
nevertheless declined in the manner peculiar to the Indo-Ger- 
manic languages, having been completely adopted by the Ly- 
cians ; yet it has neither augment nor reduplication, of both of 
which we shall meet with many instances further on in the 
Lycian verbs. The next word which requires notice occurs in 
the second line ; it begins with uwela, compounded with a word 
which may be tedeeme badly copied, but which is certainly con- 
nected with that word ; here again the Semitic languages will 
help us : weled in Arabic is son ; welad, child-birih, bearing 

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children, or being bam ; putting these words together^ we have 
for the compound^ children's children, grandchildren, or de- 

In the next line we find ladu, a case of the noun bida, which 
I must leave in doubt, though I conjecture it to be the accusa- 
tive or dative plural, as it is not improbable that the owner here 
gives permission to his descendants to burjr their wives also in the 
same tomb ; edAwe in that case would mean their as well as his. 

In the last two lines we find the two people mentioned, who 
together seem to have made up what was called by the Greeks 
Lyda, the TVamehe and the TVoes, 

The use of the characters B, X^ and +, is difierent in this in- 
scription firom what we find in many others ; they are more 
distinct fix>m each other than usual^ and yet it is difficult to fix 
their exact value : the B is always a consonant, and may be fairly 
rendered W ; but both the other letters seem to act the part of 
vowel and consonant. The last word of the inscription is no 
doubt the same as that which terminates the preceding line, 
where P has been substituted for O; this occurs in another 
inscription written BOF^APE; thus the + is here a consonant, 
while in the words oArpe and eoAwe it is clearly a vowel; X 
occurs as a consonant in uwela, and as a vowel in TVodoAa ; the 
L which ends this word must be incorrect, but I am at a loss 
what letter to substitute in its place. 

Teze in the third line seems identical with tese, which we 
shall soon come to, meaning herein ; the letters S and Z appear 
to be frequently interchanged by the sculptors. 

The first part of this inscription is similar to the usual style 
of the others, but all the latter part is for the present quite un- 

Inscription No. 14. Plate XXXVI. 

The artist seems to have made a mistake when he commenced 
this inscription, and on discovering his error, to have begun 


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again lower down : we may disregard altogether the unfinished 
words in the upper part^ and begin where it is corrected. 

ewuinu : gopu : mete prinsftitn : tofa • . aa : o&rppe bde se 
thtB tomb made N, for wife and 

iedeeme: seeyeitadu: tese: mette: adadawele: ada: II 

children Whoever huries herein lei him pa^ a fine adoM 2. 

The first sentence contains the usual statement of the person 
for whom the tomb was intended, and all the words in it have 
been already met with : the second part denounces any tres- 
passer who makes use of the tomb as liable to a fine. Several 
of the Greek inscriptions which you have copied in Asia Minor 
contain a similar clause, and we shall find it again on other Lycian 
monuments : this has been placed first, because it is the sim- 
plest sentence in which a fine is mentioned, and consequently 
the most easily analysed. 

The form of the word seeycy points out that it is a pronoun^ 
its termination being similar to the Zend pronouns already 
mentioned ; its meaning must be gathered from the context^ 
where who or whoever seems required. 

Itadu belongs to a verb which we shall meet with in a variety 
of tenses, iiatUy itaia, itatatu, and itatadu ; the verb is probably 
tatame or tadame, equivalent to the Sanscrit dadhanU, and to the 
Greek riOijfii, which latter word occurs on tombs in the sense of 
Imry, which is the meaning required for the word before us. 
The short i at the beginning of itadu is the augment, which 
difiers little firom the e added to the Greek verbs. The resem- 
blance of the Lycian to the Greek verbs is so great, that we 
may refer to the Greek grammar for comparison ; thus itadu 
and itata seem to be in the active voice, the latter answering to 
the imperfect erifftf ; itatatu and itatadu in the imperfect of the 
middle, as endero. 

The translation of the two following words is conjectural ; the 
sentence requires herein^ or something to that efiect, and the 
form^ of the words renders it probable that they are adverbs ; 

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tese being perhaps here, and meite the adverbial form of the de- 
monstrative participle already mentioned, of which the adjective 
forms mete and mute occur so often. 

Ada in Arabic signifies payment ; in our inscriptions it is al- 
ways followed by a numeral^ and must be a definite sum or 
piece of money : tawan in Arabic is a fine or penalty : the word 
adadaweky or as it is elsewhere spelt, adadawale, is a verb in 
the imperative, compounded of ada and tawan, which together 
give the meaning to pay a fine. The only word in the inscrip- 
tion about which there is any doubt, is the name of the owner of 
the tomb, which is not perfectly copied. 

Second Inscription at page 225 of your former Journal. 

ewuinu : prinafu : mSne prinofatu ao%kwade : pezewedeoii : 
this work made Aougkwade Peeewede's 

tedeeme yse : wapru meoii : towes : seeye itatadu : meite acfe- 
son Jf successor of me herein any one aUows to bury let 

dewale : ada : O — se yutre : itata ada : III — se peyetuou : 
him pay a fine ados 30 And other buries ados 13 And 

rzzeitaO : I ade : eouw : s€ mineue edewe 

sum that and 

esedu inefe 3 se peytu : utre : itatu prineze : atlawe. 

and no one other may bury beloved by themselves, 

I cannot translate the whole of what precedes, even with the 
help of guessing at the meaning of one or two of the words ; yet 
the subject can be made out sufficiently to obtain an insight into 
the construction of the sentences, which throw more light upon 
the structure of the language than any other inscription yet 

The first paragraph, down to the word son, admits of no 
doubt; the only words to be remarked in it are poinqfu and 
prinfatUy instead of prinafu and prinqfatu, as we find them 


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written elsewhere ; as these are probably errors in making the 
copy, they have been corrected above. 

The general meaning of the second paragraph cannot be mis- 
taken, but it is not easy to explain the use of each separate word 
in it« I have some doubt whether the first word should be yse 
or se ; the first character I is often copied in the place of the 
stop, which is here omitted ; and it is so rarely found preceding 
a consonant^ that I never find it in such a position without sus- 
pecting that a mistake has been made. On the other hand, in 
Anqiietil's vocabulary of Zend, ieze is translated ify which is so 
appropriate in this sentence that it has been adopted. The fourth 
letter of the next word is imperfect ; by reading it r we get 
tvapru, the nominative of wdpruna, which occurs in the inscrip- 
tion at page 226 of the same volume : it has already been pro- 
posed to translate this word successor or heir^ from the context 
in thes^ two passages : it occurs nowhere else, so there is no 
other clue to it. MeoA will be readily admitted as the genitive 
of me ; yet it must be observed, that this translation, although 
not improbable in itself, does not make a correctly grammatical 
sentence, as the inscription begins in the third person. Towes 
takes the place of tese in the inscription No. 14, and requires 
the same translation of herein or therein : the remaining words, 
down to the amount of the fine, have been explained before ; 
but seeye requires a slightly different translation from that pre- 
viously given, any one being here preferable to whoever. 

The next short paragraph is clear; the only doubt is, whether 
to write yutre as we find it, or to consider I as the representative 
of the stops, and to spell the word utre. The latter seems the 
most probable, as that word occurs lower down in the inscrip- 
tion, but the former spelling is found in the fragment No. 16, 
so it must be left uncertain : in either case there is no doubt 
that it means oMer, as it is very close to the Liatin uter^ and to 
the cognate words in most languages of the same family, all of 
which favour the spelling utre rather than yutre. 

It has been already pointed out that itata is an active, and 

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itaiadu a middle tense of the verb bury ; the whole sentence 
turns upon the different meaning of the verb in the two voices : 
if the person who holds the property in the tomb 'allows a 
stranger to be buried in it^ he is to be fined 30 adas^ and if an- 
other buries in it, he is to pay IS adas. At first sight the fines 
appear out of proportion^ as a trespass upon the property of 
another is a greater offence than a breach of trust ; but this ap- 
parent anomaly disappears if we take the two paragraphs as 
relating to the same act^ and translate^ if my successor allows 
any one to bury herein let him pay a fine qf 30 aiUis ; and if 
another person [havinff such permissum] buries [herein^ let him 
pay"] 13 adas ; putting it thus^ the holder of the property is 
guilty of a greater offence in committing a breach of trusty than 
the stranger who acts upon his orders or permission. 

The numerals are exactly identical with those used by the 
Phoenicians, which are explained in Gesenius^s work on the 
Phoenician Monuments, chap. vi. ; the upright lines are units, 
the horizontal lines tens, and O twenty. 

The sentence which follows the second set of numerals, pro- 
bably directs the manner in which the amount of the fine is to be 
applied, which is apparently to be in two parts ; the analogy of 
the Greek inscriptions found in the country, would lead us to 
suppose that half was to go to the public treasury, and half to 
the informs. The copy of this part of the inscription must not 
be altogether relied on ; the third word cannot be correct, and 
the / which follows is apparently the beginning of a word of 
which all the rest is lost : 4^+B occurs nowhere else, and has 
probably lost a vowel at the end. 1 mention these apparent 
errors, in the hope that they may be examined by some other 
traveller who may visit Lycia. 

The detached sentence at the end points out the parties who 
are allowed to make use of the tomb, which is not stated in the 
usual manner in the beginning of the inscription : the first two 
words,esddu mfTi?, describe the persons intended: the same words 
occur among the relations in the upper inscription of the same 

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page^ so that we may be sure that they are terms of relation- 
ship, but I have not made out what degree they describe : they 
are followed by the character 3, which Mr. Tates pointed out 
to be a stop ; in the long inscription on the obelisk at Xanthus 
it marks the end of a sentence ; here its force is slighter, hardly 
exceeding that of a comma. I conjecture that peytu may mean 
no onCy as that is the only translation which makes the sentence 
intelligible : itatu is another form of the verb bury ; prineze is 
the participle of a verb, which in Sanscrit is prinamiy to lave ; 
compared with the Greek it would be the passive aorist partici- 
pie; it occurs in two other inscriptions, No. 9 and No. 11, 
Plate XXXVI. ; the former is a fragment, but in the latter it is 
applied to a name taking the place of the word wife thus,ybr hia 
beloved, &c. : atlawe is the dative of atle, himself, a word of 
constant occurrence. The sentence put together runs thus : so 
and so, and no other, may bury those beloved by them^ 

The form of several of the letters in this inscription is pecu- 
liar, and their slope and position are very irregular. 

Upper inscription at page 225 of your former Journal. 

ewuinu : prinaro : mete prinafatu mumrofe : gitenoweoii : 
this work made Mumrofe Giienowe'e 

tedeeme o&rppe esede inefe : ginawe eoAwe eoAe : se chorttye 
eon for w\fe hie him and 

lada seine samate teyge : kweyewes : meine neyeso esede inefe : 

eptewe : itepata seeye : itatutu : tese meite aifodawale : ada: III. 
whoever let hury herein paye a fine ados 3. 

Veiy little of this inscription has yet been made out. The 
second word prinaro is probably mis-copied, and should per- 
haps be prinqfoy a noun derived from the verb prina/ami, or 
another form of its participle. Esede inefe occur in the last in- 
scription commented upon ; their position here shows that these 

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words apply to some part of the family^ but I have not been able 
to trace their meaning: the following word ginawe is either 
the genitive or dative of gina^ another term for wifey in Zend 
ghXnd has this meaning (Bumouf, Comm* p. 272) ; and the Greek 
7V17/ is also related to it. Some of the following words are al- 
ready known to us^ but not enough to give any clue to the 
meaning of the middle part of the inscription ; the conclusion 
is similar to that of No. 14^ imposing a fine upon trespassers. 

Inscription No. 13. Plate XXXVI. 

ewuinu ; />nnafu : mute prina/%tu : e . • • emino . . a semoteoOi : 

this work made N. Semote'a 

tedeeme : oArppe : atle : eoiiwe se : une : eodwe. 
WH for ae\f his and mother hia. 

In the original copy the last word but one is yune ; I have 
substituted a stop : for the 1^ which leaves vne, a word which 
occurs elsewhere^ and which has been already compared with 
the Arabic um, signifying mother. The rest of the inscription 
requires no remark, all the words having been already met 

Inscription No. 15. Page 36. 

ewuinu : gopii : mete prinafatu : apinutama ourppe : lade : 
thiu tomb made Apinutama for w\fe 

eoiiwe : se : tedeemS : mSepi : podu : teite gawra .... we : 
Ms amd children. 

eazzeye : kwayra. 

The beginning of this inscription requires no explanation, 
being similar to several already considered ; I have not been able 
to make anything out of the latter part, in which every word 
is unknown, and several of the letters are probably incorrect. 

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It is useless to write out all the imperfect inscriptions, so I 
will merely run through those which remain on Plate XXXVI., 
making such remarks as suggest themselves upon each. 

No. 1 is in Phoenician, accompanied with a Greek transla- 
tion ; both are veiy imperfect. 

No. 2, the tomb of Medemode : several words are wanting at 
the end of the first line, and the whole is veiy imperfect. 

No. 4 is a short funereal inscription very imperfectly copied, 
which contains nothing of interest. 

No. 6 contains only the end of what appears to have been a 
long funereal inscription ; it ends with the mention of a fine of 
twelve adas. 

No. 9 is a funereal inscription, of which only the first part of 
each line is copied, so that we have not more than a third part 
of the whole. 

No. 10. The Lycian words are Lezue^ the son of Sodkaza ; the 
Greek are CTriTwxavovro? rov ov^fivOov, between which I can 
discover no connection : eTnrwxavtov occurs as a man's name 
on one of the Greek inscriptions which you have brought 
home, and may be so here ; in which case he may be the artist, 
and Lezue the owner of the tomb. 

No. 11, a monument erected by Ddapssana; the lines are in- 
complete at the end, and a great part of the inscription is very 
incorrect and unintelligible. The second line begins ourppe 
prineze eoiitve orewellawa, for his beloved Orewella ; the last 
word being apparently the name of the wife of the owner of the 

. No. 12 seems to M^ant the termination of each line, and the 
whole is full of errors : it is a funereal inscription beginning in 
the usual manner, but too imperfect to be understood. 

No. 16 contains only the beginning of each line of a long 
funereal inscription in the usual style, ending with the infliction 
of a fine. More than half of each line is lost, but what we 
have is tolerably correct. 

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No. 17 is very incorrect, and in the same manner has only 
the commencement of each line. 

No. 19 is part of a long funereal inscription in a very imper- 
fect state : two or three words can be made out here and there, 
but the rest is quite hopeless. 

No. 22 is a similar inscription in rather better condition than 
the last, yet too imperfect to be made out. 

No. 23 is an inscription of a different class, and which 
promises more interest than any of the others ; but it is so im- 
^ perfect that I can make nothing of it. Comparing it with the 
drawing of the monument on which it occurs, at p. 219 of your 
former Journal, the first part appears very nearly complete, but 
only a few detached words have been copied of the lower part. 
The inscription does not begin in the manner of any of those 
we have yet met with, nor does it contain any words of a 
funereal character ; and I should rather think that it is a royal 
decree in the style of those on the obelisk at Xanthus. In the 
second line are the words 8^B'^ 1 P^SBy^, the second of 
which requires some correction, and should probably be PA SAT, 
leaving the e as part of the next word, and making sewe pasau, 
of the king o/kinffs, an expression which occurs on the obelisk, 
and which will be fiilly discussed hereafter. Zersse, in the 
first line, has a strong resemblance to Xerxes ; but it would 
be rash to assert it to be that name fi*om such imperfect 
evidence, and without understanding the context. From the 
manner in which the letter B is used as a vowel, I am in- 
clined to think this one of the oldest of the inscriptions you 
have copied, but not quite so ancient as those on the first two 
sides of the obelisk at Xanthus. 

In the present imperfect state of this inscription I cannot 
even divide it into words. It is to be hoped that fiiture travel- 
lers in Lycia will endeavour to make a better copy of this 
document, the contents of which may be of great historical 

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Inscriptions on thb Tomb of Patara. 

The three following inscriptions occur upon different sides of 
the same monument, and have therefore, in all probability, some 
reference to one another : for this reason they are here brought 
together, although I can throw very little light upon them. 
The monument itself is represented at the frontispiece, and 
again at p. 228 of your former Journal, where one of the in- 
scriptions may be seen: at p. 230 of that volume is a repre- 
sentation of the bas-relief on the other side of the tomb, with 
an inscription over it, and Plate XXIII. of the present volume 
represents the figures and inscription at the end of the tomb. 
The monument is very beautiful, and the sculpture upon it of 
the highest style of art. 

At the end of the tomb are two armed figures, with the fol- 
lowing inscription : — 

payara : ed 


raoii : teluze 

peaty gSe 

of et8t€re g 


er%/azeya : er 

amS prifagQ 
owawe : te : r 

gmzdeayi • • de 
This is obviously incomplete ; and I suspect that you have not 
allowed space enough in the drawing for the words lost at the 
end of each line : several of the letters must be corrected before 
the words can be pronounced. 

Payara is the name of the owner of the tomb, and is pro- 
bably one of the heroes represented in the accompanying bas- 
relief : the next word has been the name of his mother, followed 
by tedeeme^ son : teluze is the aorist or participle of a verb, of 
which I cannot determine the meaning : by a very slight cor- 

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rection we obtain in the seventh line erafazeyay which occurs in 
the bilingual inscription No. 3^ translated ^vTifjMy a tonA : all the 
rest is quite unintelligible. 

The inscription over the battle-scene on one side of the tomb 
is not very perfect : with some slight corrections we may read 

payara manage se prinafantu prinaf u ewuinu^ 

Payara and Manage caused this work to be made. The name 
of Payara is obtained by merely changing /into r ; the second 
word is more doubtful ; nor is it clear whether the verb is as 
given above, in the plural, or prinaf atUy in the singular. 

Over the group of figures on the other side of the tomb is an 
inscription, of which I can make nothing. 

Sweeya grofata meeye peyetu : rat . . at . . a : gssadrapapr 
a : pdu : teluze : epatte : trSmefes ema 

The only words which I can recognise here are eweeya, the 
feminine of tkis, and trdmele, Lycian. 

The inscription under the battle-scene, represented at Plate 
XXXI, is also a complete puzzle to me, as I cannot make out 
whether it is to be read continuously or in short detached sen- 
tences, applying to the different groups of figures : as I can 
give no explanation of any part of It, I have not repeated it 
here, and merely refer to the Plate containing it. 

Inscriptions on the Obelisk at Xanthus. 

Having gone through all the shorter inscriptions, we now 
come to the most important, which cover the four sides of the 
Obelisk at Xanthus, represented at Plate XX. 

In these I am able to translate very little. In the short 
funereal inscriptions, which differ very little fi*om one another, 
the context points out the meaning of many of the words, which 
may be considered as certain, if it is confirmed by finding an 
analogous word in any of the languages to which Lycian is 

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related ; but in a long inscription, such as we are now going to 
examine, of which the subject is quite unknown, this resource 
is of no avail, unless a sufficient number of words in the same 
sentence can be determined, to form a connected sense : in the 
present state of the study this is very rarely the case. 

On the north-east side of the monument, about twenty lines 
are wanting at the top to make up the same height as on the 
north-west. The first four lines which follow this blank are in 
Lycian, but so imperfectly copied as to defy all attempts at ex- 
planation ; and in the last line of the four there is a mixture of 
Greek and Lycian characters, which causes complete confusion. 

The next eleven lines are in Greek : it would be of great 
assistance towards understanding the Lycian inscriptions on 
this monument if we could read this part, and*om it a 
general idea of the subject ; but it is unfortunately the most 
imperfectly copied, and only a few words can be made out here 
and there. 

Lycia and Lycians occur several times, but with an inaccuracy 
of spelling, being written Xt^ta and \ij(ia : this circumstance is 
in itself very slight, but shows us that we must not expect very 
good orthography in the rest. In the third line we may read 
xod, TO ae fjtov fiinjfia {ae being used for etei), or teai roBe fjLov 
fiyrjfia; in either case this is enough to show that it is a decree 
running in the first person. In the next line, ofyn-arfo vm 
apurreu^y or apurrevaa^ : probably v has been omitted in copy- 
ing the first of these words, and we ought to read it apTrofyov 
vw ; or the o may be used instead of the diphthong ou, as a€ in 
the preceding line instead of a€i : the word which precedes these 
must be the name of the son of Harpagus, but it is imperfect : 
apurrev^ seems to be used for yovemor, which is not its usual 
meaning, but it is probably the translation of some Persian 
title. The name of Harpagus occurs twice in the Lycian part 
of the inscription ; at the end of the twenty-sixth and beginning 
of the twenty-seventh line on this side, arppagos in the nomi- 
native; and in the thirty-fourth line of the south-west side. 

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arppaffooH tedeeme, or »an qf Harpagus : in this passage also tlie 
son's name is lost. The only difierence in the Greek and 
Lycian manner of writing this name is the doubling of the p 
in the latter. In the seventh line, by altering one letter, we get 
hfOK€ fiepo^ fiaa-iXea^; and in the following apiva, which has 
been shown to be the ancient name of the city of Xanthus, 
where this monument stands, and which occurs several times 
in the Lydan part of the inscription. 

It is dangerous to draw conclusions from such slight pre- 
mises, yet as these few words are all that can be made out, we 
must make the most of them. Harpagus, as we learn from 
Herodotus, book i. c. 142 to 177> was a Mede, who commanded 
in Asia Minor for Cyrus the Great, and conquered Ionia, Caria, 
Lycia, and the whole qf Lower Asia. He would naturally be 
appointed governor over the countries he had conquered, and 
the words of the inscription, gave a part of the kinffdom, may 
allude to this appointment : as these are in the third, while the 
beginning of the decree is in the first person, they seem to apply 
to a donation or appointment by one of the predecessors of the 
king issuing the decree. The son of Harpagus previously 
spoken of must be supposed to have succeeded his father in 
the government, and to have been in the command at the time 
the decree was made. 

The account given by Xenophon (Cjrrop., book viii. c. 7-) of 
the distribution of his estates made by Cyrus the Great on his 
death-bed, confirms the preceding supposition : he named Cam- 
byses king, and his younger son, Tanoaxares (called Smerdis by 
Herodotus) satrap of the Medes, Armenians, and Cadusii. The 
exclusion of Asia Minor from the satrapy of Tanoaxares, to 
which it would geographically be a natural addition, seems to 
show that it was not at that time in the. king's gift, which it 
could not be if previously granted to Harpagus and his son. 

The Greek part of the inscription is followed by thirty-four 
lines in Lycian, which are for the most part complete, and fairly 
copied, yet containing occasional errors, of which I have ven- 

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tured to correct a few which are obvious : these corrections are 
distinguished as before by italics. The words which I have 
succeeded in translating are so few^ that they are not worth 
printing in separate lines. The sentences being separated by 
a stop 3^ the most convenient method is to go through the 
whole^ sentence by sentence, pointing out such words in each 
as can be translated. 

The Lycian, which follows the Greek part of the inscription, 
is not a translation of it; it is therefore probable that the upper 
part of the stone contained, in Lycian, the decree of which the 
Greek is a translation ; but this can only be known when some 
future traveller shall bring home an accurate copy of the Greek 
and of the uppermost portion of the inscription. The rest is 
as follows : — 

North-east ride^ commencing below the Greek, 

1. swerte : mezeweema : sawasemou rueepe : sewe : pasau 

2. natre : slate : gosztte : deslee getawo sewS itela 

3. mratroyele : zazate : noik)i!l : | : trotloiie * * k*epe : medez p 

4. pie : gegwatotl : wetwe/eemessekStese : ofe ^ * r. 

5. € ruplez sewe lule : ren^pe : ma^ase toleyee 

6. eanrp : trotloiide : geae^a : me gwadejzr : kode : mr****** 

7. kssf : tr&mele : ya : ofe teralmrofasa : kopU 

8. sew6 gwadase esunumla : | ewe nowe kere : ses 

9. ode slumate : /rotloMt/ : aotiru : more : topleleeme 

10. az : s€we swertu pzzoiite : lelewede : gitawase 

11. re : neke : fa^se : pewe : krese : r*Srale : prede : gapa*e : y* 

12. rde : mpn*rsofute : sewe lulamre : gitawaeme slume 

13. ArotloiiSu : | me ofe kemeyede : rgsade : Aroiiouetez ereem 

14. e mede : gwadasade kode mafate : klleema : feyedre : it 

15. ofetune : pdorade : sewe : pasau : | itene rokete : gwede 

16. fine : olagade zrutune : se runare^^oprete : toragss 

17. aee : na : tretemlona&te : fo%sade : fezttasrpazi : | 

18. ukewee goste tlomp**azi oiUlee mede : swertu : gwad 

19. ez : tofe penera dreta : geae^ : froksa : noree : sewe zri 

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20. ^e : neetae**se : dekere sreso : -winu tweso : pr€te 

21. lagade : zrutune : sewewe ^erzu : otakeya tramelez 

22. tweplu traplu toworez pdorade : gozroAitez : | 

23. uzwe tbmenese rwitafu : kredese : sewede : werzu zef 

24. edefasasa : mofafi^ zrutunez : ade : nofe ladg : epetade 

25. sewe pasowO ; | nepe weeeseooteto iteleya : pedretu 

26. nererle : moaulede : toworez : o'^lezez : sefiS tese : arpp 
27* agos ute : t&pefute : | kewe ofe neo : tsseye : wedrede : er 

28. gadeze ruple mede ruple : grade : fagsa : tpreyele : mu 

29. me : mafele kllee mede : ahnunalafl : | keze : oiQepulitas 

30. ededewe kode : powrate : pere : raedeye teke : gozritas 

31. es eg roiio61atu : troiioiiitase tale ermedel€le : toleyele 

32. feg sawa lawame tame gwale : luape : tonepine ; sewe ru 

33. p/e sawa k* : wetweleena troiioiiez : tweso : slreye kawo 

34. ou se aemasa. 

First sentence : swerte may be compared to the Arabic surety 
an imagey copy or transcript ; the last is the meaning^most suit- 
able to the context; it is in the plural— the singular swertu 
occurs below in line 10. I derive the next word^ mezetaeema, 
from the Zend, but with some doubt as to the explfmation 
which follows : tema in that language is the sign of the super* 
lative (Bumouf Comment, p. 265) ; if we regard etna as having 
. the same use in Lycian, there will remain mezewey we shall find 
as we advance that the Lycian genitives are formed ewe, we, 
ewe, awa, or by the addition of u, so that this may be regarded 
as the genitive of meze, in which we recognise the Zend root 
maz, great (Bum. Introd., p. 81). The principal difficulty arises 
from the manner in which the superlative suffix ema is added to 
the termination of the genitive case, a formation so difierent 
from all that we are accustomed to, that it requires confirma« 
tion : in the passage of the Zend-Avesta to which M. BumouPs 
Commentary above quoted applies, the superlative sign tema is 
added to the genitive case of the name of Zoroaster thus, Za-s 
rathrusthrd'temdi, the whole forming a compound adjective; 

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this construction^ though not identical with that under con- 
sideration^ is very analogous to it. 

The words sawasemau, sewe and paaau are all derived from 
the same root as the Persian shah, a king. This root appears in 
Lycian to be «a: it is doubtful whether this occinrs in the 
nominative in the inscriptions before us, but it is the only form 
to which all the derivatives can be reduced : if, as I have no 
doubt, the 8 was pronounced as sh, it would become sha, which 
is very close to the modem Persian shcth : this word seems to 
have formed its genitive in two manners, sau and sawa ; the 
latter occurs repeatedly on this monument, and from it is formed 
the genitive plural sewe, of kings. Pasau is the genitive of 
pasa, or, altering the pronunciation of the s, pasha, to which we 
must not attach the inferior meaning given to it by the Turks, 
but that of the Persian padshah, emperor, a title superior to 
that of shah, and of which the kings of Persia are veiy jealous : 
see d'Herbelot, Diet. Orient, v. padischah ; it is formed of pad, 
chief imd sJiah. The two words sewepasa form together the well- 
known title of the kings of Persia, the king of kings, or, as it 
would be more literally translated in the present instance, the 
emperor of kings, corresponding to the Persian shahin padshah. 
Sawasemau is the genitive of sasema or sawasema ; if of the 
former, the first syllable of the word, as well as the last, changes 
its form in the genitive case ; of this we shall find many in- 
stances, and this change of the plural sewe from the singular 
sawa is analogous to it: if the nominative is sawasema, the 
compound word has been formed from the oblique case sawa, 
instead of the nominative : the Sanscrit s^asena, a decree, sup- 
plies the meaning of this word. The next word appears to be 
rueepe, but it is imperfectly copied and I cannot find its mean* 
ing ; from its position it seems to qualify the decree : omitting 
this word, the line may be translated transcripts of the greatest 
decree of the king of kings, referring to the two copies of the 
royal decree in Lycian and Greek engraved on the upper part 
of the stone. The name of the king might be expected to ac- 

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company his title, but I cannot detect it in the sentence, nor 
does the Greek decree commence with it : probably the Lycian 
decree, which stood first on the monument, began with the 
name and titles of the king, and it was not thought necessary 
to repeat them again. 

The Zend form of the word shah is khchaya, the Persepolitan 
is khchahyohy according to M. Bumoufs reading of the cunei- 
form inscriptions {M6moire stir deux Inscriptions cunitformes, 
etc., p. 76) ; therefore in this word the Lycian form has more 
resemblance to the Sanscrit and modem Persian than to the 
Zend or Persepolitan. The contrary is far more common. 

The title of king ofhings was borne by the kings of Persia until 
Alexander's conquest : from that period the title was not used un- 
til it was revived by the Mahometan sultans in the tenth century. 
But as the Arabic conquest put down the fire-religion and the 
worship of Ormuzd, this title, coupled with the mention of Or- 
muzd, whose name we shall find repeatedly on this monument, 
would prove, even if we had no other evidence, that the inscrip- 
tion was more ancient than the time of Alexander. I cannot 
trace the original use oipadshah, in distinction to shah ; it does 
not appear to be of pure Persian origin, although it is given as 
such in the Persian dictionaries, for there is no analogous word 
in Zend; nor does it occur in the Persepolitan inscriptions, where 
the royal title is khchahyoh khchahyohanam ; and the usual 
Greek translation fiaaiXev^ fiaaiKefov, agrees better with shah 
of shahs than with the Lycian phrase pashah of shahs. The 
earliest mention of it which I can find, is among the Pehlvi words 
in Anquetil's vocabulary, where the Zend word khscheed, king, 
is rendered in Pehlvi by padescha : it would seem, therefore, that 
pad was an addition of Semitic origin, which came into use 
when Pehlvi was the language of the Persian court. 

If this view is correct, it explains our finding the word pasa 
in the Lycian language,, which has evidently a mixture of Semi- 
tic words, although not to the same extent as Pehlvi. If we 
could find pasa in the Persian language at the time of Cyrus 


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the Great, it would explain the derivation of the name of Pasar- 
gada, which has g^ven much trouble : that city was built by 
Cyrus, and the name is translated by Stephanus Byzantinus, 
camp of the Persians ', but to sustain this etymology, it should 
be written Parsagada : the viordpasa suggests the derivation of 
posers castle. 

Of the rest of this sentence I can say but very little : I have 
altered the division of the words in the latter part of the second 
line, and suspect that several letters require correction, but I 
cannot attempt a translation : getaivo should probably be gUawo, 
an order, related to the verb gitawaeme, to order, of which we 
shall meet with many tenses, and whose meaning is deduced 
from the Arabic kitab, a book, writing, or order: sewe must 
here be in the dative plural, that case and the genitive being 
usually, if not always, the same ; when not accompanied by 
pasa, this word can hardly be translated kings, but must de- 
scribe the governors or satraps to whom the king's decree is 
directed : zazate has a strong resemblance to the Sanscrit t^asa, 
to command or govern, a word derived from the same root as 
shah ; yet in that case it should rather be written sazate, unless 
the Lycians confused together the letters z and s, of which we 
shall perhaps meet with other instances. There is a Zend verb 
zaza, which M. Bumouf translates laisser alter, /aire cottier 
(Comm., p. 41 1, note); this exactly answers to our word in form, 
but that meaning can hardly apply to the passage before us, 
and I am rather disposed to translate it commands ; it is ob- 
viously the third person singular of the present tense of a verb* 
The word no^ii is so near to novus, that it should probably be 
rendered new; but without knowing the general bearing of the 
sentence, such resemblances cannot be relied upon. 

It is evident, from the commencement of this sentence, that 
this part of the inscription is not a royal decree, but is issued 
by some subordinate authority, probably by the son of Harpa- 
gus, as satrap or governor. 

Of the second sentence beginning in the middle of line 3, 

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I can explain but few words, and those are only geographical 
names. The first word is imperfect ; it should probably be 
trodoHeSy the Troes or people of Tlos, whose history has been 
already considered at some length ; troHoAde in the sixth line 
refers to the same people : this name occurs with many different 
terminations, perhaps designating the town of Tlos, the district 
or province of which that city was the capital, and their inhabit- 
ants, but I have no clue by which to apportion the names to 
each. In line 7 we have tramele, the TermUte or TremUte 
of the Greek geographers and of Herodotus, whose capital was 
Xanthus, and between whom and the Troes the whole of Lycia 
seems divided. Medeor medez, (for the division of the words is 
here lost) which occurs at the end of the third Une, admits of no 
doubt ; frequent mention of the Medes is to be expected in con- 
nection with the name of Harpagus, who was of that nation : 
the nominative singular of this word is apparently m^dfe, the no- 
minative plural mede, and medez may be the accusative plural ; 
but there is some doubt about these terminations in z, which are 
not uncommon. GegwatoH, ffwadez and gwadase are different 
tenses of one verb, of which the meaning is still unknown; the 
syllable ge in the first is a redupUcation, as is common in Greek 
and Sanscrit. Sewe, the schaha or ffovemors, occurs twice in 
this sentence. Ya at line 7 is the relative pronoun which or 
that; in Sanscrit ya is the feminine, yat the neuter pronoun; 
but from the constant omission of the terminal consonant in 
Lydan, this word may be in the neuter. In the sixth line I 
have restored geaega^ the town of Gaga^ of which the coins have 
been already described ; and at the end of line 7^ kopU should 
probably be restored to kapalle, of which there are several coins, 
and which I propose to identify with the district of Cabalia or 
Caballis. The rest of this sentence must be left for the present 
in complete obscurity; many of the words are still undivided, 
and others imperfect. 
The next isentence begins in line 8; the first word ewe 


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is the dative of the pronoun kei in line 9 I have restored 
troAoAluy supposing that word to apply to the TVoea ; troiioAeu 
in line 13^ is probably the same word. The next word is 
aoArUy the Persian divinity Ormuzd, the principal deity of the 
fire-worshipers: in the Zend-Avesta this name is written 
Ahura Mazda, upon which M. Bumouf has written at some 
length (Comm.^ p. 70), and each of these words is used sepa-* 
rately to designate the same being ; the term Ahura Mazda has 
been gradually altered until it has been contracted into, the 
Parsee name Ormuzdi in the inscription on the south-east side 
of this monument we shall find AoHremez, which is a close ap- 
proach to the original name. Anquetil writes this word EhorOy 
which is nearer to the Lycian spelling than the orthography 
adopted by M. Bumouf; in the Lycian word the second syllable 
is formed by the letter X, which must therefore have been .aspi- 
rated where used as a vowel. Our finding Ormuzd fi>equently 
mentioned in this inscription is of great importance, as it con- 
nects the monument with the Persians at the time when they 
followed the religion of Zoroaster. The Persepolitan inscriptions 
of the reigns of Darius Hystaspes and Xerxes are also in the 
name of Ormuzd. Sewe^ the shahs, occurs again in the tenth 
and twelfth lines ; in the former accompanied by swertu, a 
transcript y which we met with above. Gitawaeme, in the twelfth 
line, is the first person of the present tense of the verb to order 
already mentioned, to which gitawase in line 10 also belongs. 

TroAoHetez in line 13, refers to the TVoes; and this sentence 
finishes with the words setae pasau, king of kings. 

In tlie next sentence, from the middle of Une 15 to the 
end of line 17 f I cannot make out a single word. In that 
which follows there are several words which we have met with 
already: in line 18, medey Median, and swertu, a transcript; 
in line 19 sewe, the shahs, in 21, sewewe, which is perhaps an 
incorrect copy of the same word, and trdmelez, the TremikB ; 
in line 19, penera is probably the town of Pinara, and geaega 

Digitized by 



GagtB ; and the two words which accompany these^ dreta and 
froksay are probably also the names of towns ; the latter may 
be PhrixoSy mentioned by Stephanus as a town of Lycia. 

In line 23 we have tomenese; of this the last syllable is 
the enclitic se, equivalent to the Latin qt^; the remainder^ 
iomency is a word which we shall meet with frequently further 
on ; it may perhaps be translated inhabitants, or dwelling in, and 
be connected with the Latin domusy and the Zend ddman, which 
M. Bumouf translates crSationy peuple, place^ &c. (Comm.^ p. 
358). The next word is tiTAF^, or witi\fu\ this is the 
only instance where the letter 4 occurs on this side of the mo- 
nument ; and it appears superfluouis^ as itafu frequently occurs 
without it; it therefore appears that in this instance it can 
hardly be more than an aspirate. Sewede, in the same line^ is 
the word sewe united to the particle de^ In line 25 we again 
find the phrase king of kinffs, but the last word is written 
PASBBNT} which can hardly be correct; if we read pasawu 
we must suppose that pasa is declined either pasau or pasawuy 
the latter form being nearly analogous to sawa, from sa. 

In the next sentence the only word recognized is the name of 
Haipagus, written arppagos, which is divided between the line* 
26 and 27* 

In the twenty-seventh line a new paragraph begins with the 
word kewei in the fiftieth line of the north-west side are the 
words kewe pasao, which appear synonymous with sewe pasau, 
king of kings : this word is also written kewe in the sixth line of 
that side of the monument. We have here the Lycian word 
which is analogous to the Zend kava, king, or^ as it is also written 
in that language, kdva, the first vowel being either long or short 
in Zend, as it is in Lycian. The earliest dynasty of Persian 
kings, whose history can be relied upon, was called the Caianian, 
a name derived firom the title kS, or king, prefixed to their names, 
and which having afterwards dropped out of the Persian lan- 
guage, became regarded as especially applicable to them. The 
title kava is fully explained in M. Bumouf 's Commentary, 

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p.4239 and the difficulties attending it are thoroughly considered; 
but instead of adopting the derivation which that author has 
given of the term Caianian^ as descendants of the sun^ p. 454, it 
would be more simple to consider sa or shah, and ha, kai, or k£ 
(for there is a doubt as to the form of the nominative), as modi- 
fications of the Zend form khchaya, which have adapted them- 
selves to the different powers of pronunciation of the neighbour- 
ing people. 

From this point to the bottom of the inscription are two 
sentences about which little can be said ; the Medes are men- 
tioned several times, and also the Troes. In lines 32 and S3 
the word sawa occurs twice; this is the singular of shah, 
either in the genitive or dative case; and in line 32 is the 
plural sewe. 

You see that as yet but little progress has been made in trans- 
lating this interesting inscription, as the few words which have 
been picked out here and there are not sufficient to show even 
the general bearing of the dociunent. I could have increased 
the number very much, by adding all those which have a re- 
semblance to any words in the neighbouring languages, but that 
would not have added anything to the knowledge of the subject, 
but would rather have confused it, by overwhelming the Uttle 
that is known with a mass of conjecture. 

In this and the inscriptions on the other sides of the same 
monument the Medes are frequently spoken of, but we find no 
mention of the Persians^ unless the word^o^^a, which, as well as 
its derivatives, is of frequent occurrence, be considered to repre- 
sent Persia ; the name of that country may be written with 
either/? or^ and the letter r is in some eastern dialects changed 
into a guttural ; yet the change from Persia, or Farsa, to fa^say is 
too great to be admitted without corroborative evidence, and I 
only allude to it because we might expect some mention of the 
Persians in connection with the Medes, and foffsa is the only 
word in the inscription which has the slightest resemblance to 
Persia. Herodotus was well acquainted with the history of 

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both Medes and Persians, but the name which he uses in pre- 
ference is Mede ; he speaks of the " army of the Medes/' and of 
^^ Darius, the king of the Medes." As Harpagus was a Mede, it 
is probable that the troops with which he conquered Lycia were 
principally of that nation, so that we need not be surprised at 
finding the Medes constantly spoken of here. 

The only remaining remarks which I have to make upon this 
inscription, relate to the orthography : the letter B occurs single 
fifty-two times, in many of which it must be considered as a 
mere vowel, although in the majority of cases it is either a con- 
sonant or a semi-vowel ; B B occurs six times, in all of which 
they must both be vowels ; + only occurs once ; (]» single occurs 
ten times, being sometimes vowel and sometimes consonant ; 
and the same double four times, all of which are vowels exactly 
equivalent to B B. It will be seen that their proportions are very 
different on the south-west and south-east sides of the monu- 
ment, on which 4^ is a character far oftener used than B. 

North-west side of the Obelisk at Xanthus. 

1. koft : edaoiiru etr etofiry 

2. eree mede sewe l*u : ylut 

3. lede : aeekemlume ek^ml 

4. fesede profyr | aloiirQ nakem 

5. rsaoiiretu petols . . • . Sleye 

6. zroApedone kewe tamere r 

7. roftu ofete sokru: | rloiimowu 

8. ezete winu : twa : gozritru — * 

9. ala : ralaraema : sapale f^ 

10. eumu : tefe sS arapu : | atle 

11. elole se : tri(mel§ : kopr — 

12. wede ortoma ssgu : 

13. wS seke : lostroAge 

14. kwez se wofeefre . . . ap 

Digitized by 



15. — ne otene lelepwedep€ — — 

16. gnu : kopre eptoete s ot 

17. ade : ere flewe tro&oiiite t 

18. as 1 deteo itada giney -^— 

] 9. pfere : geregri uzo ssddgo '■ 

20. e se keto efu uezo se tara et — 

21. — tw*8oto8tte : arSare mede oiig 

22. — otdadeite : teru eketeyu atone ei — 

23. e eyepi teru kere tugaeya koterssa 

24. zayaen mete nema ssgatyortof uz mar 

25. tramelewe tekere : treegale pe se gor — — 

26. oiiroiioiile : meeye lo&uma : pssese : slana ker — 
27« upreya zuga : mone trotlotlde tasi towade 

28. mum^ezi : trapale : metone opreye eeyed 

29. kewe merede uek&oiiremez : itofetune or 

30. desez fagssade : kewe merede : snekftoiire 

31. mez : itofetune : orde^z fagssade tow 

32. orez ukedepi : prede : eazate : zrewaee : 

33. nekedeze : motaia : apitade : tetwete : 

34. laura : | memone trotlo^ide tofe : ofadra met 

35. openg tenune ; wiza : preyeleya : Uedepo : 

36. gez& : gwadasa : i^dse dadope : sewe pasw 
37* ese : esunumki : | pesyepu : reyete : elune : 

38. wezame mekedewe : weledele : alwupe : 

39. kopttle : mogssa : peyelomlez : iteml 

40. ♦e : meae : ledewe : Iweyu etrenefine : | 

41. gitawope : kitre : eofepe : wosaffin 

42. ea traliye : feyedpere : alwagu aodru 

43. eeme : molune puzpple : utrewe : asg 

44. ey . . . ralamo eagzzutupe : trotLoiiez r 

45. trdmele : ^apde esete gere^azi : epeotlze 

46. tropalao : repssede prllele : kedepe : it^ 

47. nu : epreke : zete : kalo : | *esutineo : wipwu 

48. o*faga mlatefzzaeyese : mefelrome : mrm 

49. € ertte leke gostte kewe drala : k^pe n ^^^• 

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50. zeoso krede : kewe : pasao : | ortto : welede 

51. le kewe emeepe reri : nestte : mlate : gwa^a 

52. sez tofe mede : leyendfez : nofagii : ppu 

53. ze : kewe : rrogsse : rotloiie nezes : | megere 

54. zi : &oiinx : sewa : reka'^'sa : se wofedre : oras* 

55. mene ofelute : repsse umome ofeuie : sse 

56. gozrofutai eea : fagsse : atlase : ne worune : 
57« tramefe : ute repssu tapefute : Bewe ete 

58. sukune : mumrekerore medoto : losaleya : 

59. zunanomte : urofasaz | meotdeyo : gopeleyo : 

60. eweleyeez : ddelopefez : neofe : lo^uto : sS 

61. mute : keleeme witele oftpUofe : mloiigut 

62. e : tonefini : | mefunu trameleya : kSmasade 

63. sladepe weleleya onetupe : orto tmarnz 

64. troCioiiul'^etene kSmute ponu madede ^sunuin 

65. la : ] gomae ade nuneyetema siZgateye otzze 

66. meruing genase kesese aoAre k€wora sewu 
67* nese ketedese kegojrase gita/aza meae t 

68. edeye witra elunede : etaoiire sitema suga 

69. gopdedo we oCdune aede treegale ketssel 

70. 'f'apre sofaraseye zu edrasade : | neez wetofez 

71. tr&mele sokre gi/awato tdtoae : trodotdte. 

The subject of the present inscription must be left in still 
greater obscurity than the last^ as there arc very few words in 
it which I can venture to translate. The stone has been so 
much defaced at the upper part that the first twenty-two lines 
are more or less imperfect^ and it is impossible to know where 
many of the sentences are to be divided. I can therefore do no 
more than go through the whole^ line by line, pointing out those 
words which can be translated. 

In line 1^ edaoHru ; the latter part, aoHru, is the name of Or-^ 
muzd'y the first syllable ed seems to be connected with the San- 
scrit verb eduy to praise ; the whole forms a compound word, of 
which perhaps the end is lost in a decayed part of the stone. 

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The Persepolitan inscriptions^ translated by M. Bumouf^ begin 
with Ormuzd is God^ and the inscription before us probably 
commenced with some similar declaration of religious belief. 

Line 2, mide is perhaps Mede^ unless it is the conclusion of 
the preceding word ; sewe, the shahs. Line 6^ kewe, the kings. 
Line 10, atle^ self^ a word met with in many of the funereal 
inscriptions of Plate XXXVL Line 11, st tramele, and the 
IVemikB. line 17^ troAodite^ the Troes. Line 18, itadax when 
this word occurred on the tombs it was translated should bury ; 
here it would be more proper to interpret it should place, as 
there is nothing to connect it with a tomb, and the verb admits 
of either meaning. Line 21, mede. The word teru occurs both 
in lines 22 and 23 ; this is very close to the Zend preposition 
taroy which M. Bumouf (Comm., p. 85) translates trans, beyond, 
or across. Line 24, metey the demonstrative particle explained 
already. Line 25, trdmelewe^ the dative plural of tramele'; 
and line 27^ troAo4de, the Troes : these two names continually 
occur near together, the one being rarely mentioned without 
the other following a line or two below. Line 28, trapale seems 
to be the town of Trabala, the Lydans using p where the 
Greeks wrote b. 

At line 29 we have kewe mirede uekaoHremez ito/etune ordesez 
fagssadcy and this paragraph is immediately repeated again, 
merely substituting snekaoHremez for uekaoHremez : therefore 
the opposition of the two sentences tiuns upon those two words. 
Aodremez is the name of Ormuzd; it approaches very near to 
the original Zend name of Ahora mazda, yet has been slightly 
contracted; from which circumstance we may conclude that 
this inscription is more modem than the Zend-Avesta. The 
prefix vi is used in Zend to signify opposition to; thus vidaevd 
in the Zend-Avesta is opposed to the Dews or evil genii (Bumouf^ 
Comm., p. 8) ; this explains uekdoilremez to be opposed to or 
hostile to Ormuzd. The other prefix snek may naturally be 
supposed to have the contrary meaning of friendly to or fol- 
lower of I in the note to p. 518 of his Commentary, M. Bur- 

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nouf translates the Zend radical ^AcAnti^ aborder quelqt^un en lui 
affront des priires, which supplies the exact translation we re- 
quire of mekdoHremez, toorsMper of Ormuzd: the change from 
khch in Zend to « in Lycian is the same which we have already 
met with in the word shah^ which in Zend is khchaya, in Lycian 
sa. Thus in this sentence a distinction is established between 
the worshipers of Ormuzd and those of a contrary religion^ 
but to what effect is still unknown : some of the remaining words 
have occurred before ; kewe, the genitive plural of kings ; tnerede, 
which may be divided into the particle de, and mcriy which has 
been considered the town of Myra, of which we have a coin. 
No. 10, with the legend mere : separating from fagssade the 
same particle de^ we have/a^««a, a word of frequent occurrence 
on this monument, and which I have sometimes thought might 
be Persia. I am quite at a loss with the remainder of the 

In line 34 is troiiailde, which we have met so often before, 
one of the derivatives from the TVoes : in lines 36 and 37^ ^ewe 
paswtse, which applies to the king of kings ; the second word 
differs in termination fit>m what we met with before ; the final 
se is only the enclitic and; but I have some hesitation about 
relying on the copy in this instance, as paswe is a form not met 
with again, and is here broken between the two lines, where 
mistakes are most likely to occur. If the version is correct I 
should suppose it to be the dative. 

Mogssa, in line 39, resembles mogissa^ which Stephanus By- 
zantinus (see Monogissa) states to mean a stone in the Carian 
language : this is the only one of the Carian words mentioned 
by the Greek authors which has a resemblance to any word in 
the Lycian inscriptions, yet the Carian and Lydan languages 
were probably closely related to each other. 

line 41, gitawope is connected with the verb gitawaeme, to 
order, which has occurred in several forms. Line 42, aodr is 
doubtless imperfect for aoilru, Ormuzd, one letter being lost at 
the end of the line. Line 43, tUretoe, the genitive or dative 

Digitized by 



plural of uire, other. For several lines the inscription is here 
very imperfect ; in line 44 we may restore iroSadeZy and at the 
beginning of line 45 irameUy the Troes and the Tremikty con- 
stantly mentioned together. In the same line geregazi is per- 
haps incorrectly copied for geaega, the town of Gag^By and in 
the next line trapalao is the genitive of Trabaia. 

In line 49 we find kewe^ of the kings ; and in the next kewc 
pMoOy of the king of kings. In the same line wiled, a son, con- 
nected with the Arabic wuled, which has that meaning; or, 
judging from line 38, this should be joined to the letters at the 
beginning of the next line, forming weledile, which must be 
derived from the same root. Kewe occurs again both in lines 
51 and 53, and at 52 mede, the Mede. 

Line 54, aoHru, Ormuzd; sewa, shah or goverw^r; 57> trU- 
mele, the TermiUe*, sewe, the shahs; 62, trameleya, another case 
of iramele, resembling the locative of Zend, which frequently 
ends in ya ; and in line 64 troHoM etc., the Troes. In line 66 
aoitre, perhaps the dative of aoAru, Ormuzd ; which occurs again 
in line 68 preceded by it, forming apparently a compound word 
similar to edaoHra, which are found in the first line of this in- 
scription ; but as many of the stops are here lost, we cannot be 
sure of the separation of these words. In the last line we find 
again the Troes and the Tremilse mentioned together in the 
words iramele and TroHoHite. 

From the little which has been made out on this side, we can 
just see that the inscription is in the name of Ormuzd, and 
therefore erected by the Persians : the frequent mention of the 
Medes and of the Tremilae and Troes, and the distinction be- 
tween the worshipers and opponents of Ormuzd, suits the sup- 
position that we have before us a series of proclamations of the 
Persian governor addressed to the conquered Lycians, and 
pointing out the respective rights of the two people of difiei*ent 

The orthography of this inscription is exactly similar to that 
on the north-east side: the letter 4* only occurs twice; X 

Digitized by 



occurs single thirty-one times, being either vowel or consonant, 
and the same double three times, both being vowels ; B is met 
with single forty-one times, sometimes as vowel and sometimes 
as consonant; and B B five times, both being vowels. From the 
use of these letters, I have judged this and the preceding in- 
scription to be the most ancient of which we have copies. 

South-west side of the Obelisk at Xanthus.. 

1. e : sewe : to 

2. — ewe : mere : e 

3. feze : ewed 

4. eS : gereaawe : 

5. galal : meete : wa 

6. gnawatosi tete 

7. — ima : se eitunu : po 

8. e prinaf u ameet 

9. eri : se eteletele 

10. e kewora : sefe : magu : e 

11. mere we : sonemanadi 

12. eseyu chortta ewuwu : ger 

13. *ofete*e ewuinu neled 

14. tokedre tofetere chukor 

15. eeme arafazeye dekoprd 

16. eazeya prenara tetom 

17* troftoftus atlawe eouweyg 

18. te itepe : pofeyewe : chor 

19. itefu : eroftofte naweyeze : g 

20. we s€ itefu techche : eroftey 

21. se itgfu mawuna : neleze 

22. eyete : merazzu kom* : ek 

23. tegestte : unewe : se ginowe 

24. we : arppagooii : tedeeme : gere 

25. prlleoA : guwoft : gezeyaou : towes 1 

26. azeygde : uine gestte faradra 

27* muzwe tume ofadrage : ese : sazzo 

Digitized by 



28. etewe : aguara : nelede arina : metep 

29. aga : trSmele ezrede : redede : iterez 

30. wase : topa : esrede : wnmSnede : tramele 

31. de : se medezede : radrii tawede : wododdae 

32. *e : se mootioilLunede : topeleyu : trameles 

33. maeoneme : rofewewi : topeleyu : se 

34. *wa maeoneme : rof ete^ewi se ereyu am 

35. oleya erede : ezrede : zu&teya : eo&wey 

36. de : ta^wa : nelede : wutawe : utae : tomene 
37* we : nelede : t(7utawe : sttare : maleyewe : wut 

38. owe : gwane : ese : tro&oiluneine : tewete : peri se 

39. melasu itau : pddu neke : gwuseye : ezrede 

40. eo&weyede : wu/owe : tlui mede : nele : tarwe 

41. de : ^erue : wastte ueri : tlawi : ero&o&ede : fmi 

42. tawe : medweyawe : ese gerue : tewet€ : pen 

43. se fagsserdeme : ute : zewe : o&wute : | o*'*^ 

44. itere : gmna teri : wutawe uka : Srekle 

45. se waglasa : parraste : uwede : oiire gitafa 

46. tawe : ese : tawuna : teri : eygnu : eyae osrs 
47* kue igna se : wQtawe : mokale : tefuze : suma 

48. te : troiio&etu : toragsse : zuguna teri : es 

49. e : womrugu tewuna teri : wu/awe. 

So much of the upper part of this inscription is lost^ and the 
first thirty lines which remain are so imperfect^ that we cannot 
hope to find out much of its contents^ but must be satisfied 
with translating insulated words. 

Line 2, mere, the town of Myra, which we have met with 
already^ and shall find mentioned again lower down. Line 5, 
meete; in Anquetil's Zend vocabulary this word is translated 
measure. line 8^ prinqfii ; on several of the tombs this signified 
a taork or buildinff. Line 10, magu seems to be the singular of 
Magif the well-known name of the Persian priests. Line 11, 
merewe, the genitive or dative of merCy which occurred above, 
line 13, euminu^ the neuter of the preposition this, a word of 

Digitized by 



firequent occurrence on the tombs. Line 14^ tokedre seeins to 
be related to the Arabic tekadir or tekdir, ih& fates or divine de- 
eree. Line 15^ arafazeye must be translated tombs i in the 
bilingual inscription. No. 3, erafazeya is rendered in Greek by 
fivVM^l the word occurs again on the tomb of Payara; the first 
letter should probably be altered in this place into e. Line 17> 
troHodus, the Throes : atlawe eoibaeye, the dative for themselves^ 
the plural of atle eoittpe, which occurs in many of the funereal 
inscriptions of Plate XXXVI. 

Line 19, itefu is a verb of such constant occurrence, that it 
is very desirable that we should ascertain its meaning ; besides 
this form, we have at line 47 tefaze, and at 18 itepe, which be* 
long to the same verb, unless the latter is incorrectly copied for 
iterey which occurs elsewhere : the form of itefu indicates that 
it is the third person of the imperfect of a verb taking an aug- 
ment. The nearest word to it which I can find is the Sanscrit 
depuy to shine, a meaning which does not at all suit our inscrip- 
tion : in the same language there are the verbs tepa, dipa, and 
ifebha, all signifying to direct or order: this is a probable mean- 
ing to a word frequently repeated in a decree, and the different 
length of the first vowel is not a fatal obstacle to it. 

At line 23, unewe se ginawe, the last of which words has re- 
quired a little restoration ; these are oblique cases of une and 
ginay both of which were before found in the funereal inscrip- 
tions, where they were translated mother and wife* In the next 
line we find arppagooH tedeeme, the son o/Harpagus* Line 25, 
totaes; this occurred on some of the tombs, where it was trans- 
lated Aerein or therein. The stops which should divide the 
sentences are all lost in the early part of this inscription, from 
the lines being incomplete ; and we change from one subject to 
another without seeing that we have got into a fresh sentence, 
which was perhaps a decree issued at a different period from the 
preceding one* 

From the number of names of towns and people which occur 
in the rest of the inscription, we seem to have changed into a 

Digitized by 



new decree about line 26 or 2j, which continues to the stop iii 
line 43. Faradra, at line 26^ seems related to the Zend adverb 
Jrataroy which is translated by M. Bumouf^ p. 284^ anterior. 
Line 27$ ese has already been translated (/l Line 28^ nelede 
arinai in treating of the Lycian coins, arina was identified with 
Amay which Stephanus Byzantinus states to have been the 
ancient name of the city of Xanthus ; the same name occurs in 
the eighth line of the Greek inscription on this monument : 
nelede may be translated people ; in Zend, heresck is a man ; 
that language has no I, the liquid r taking the place of both / 
and r in other languages. Consequently nelede arina may be 
translated the people of Xanthus, The TremiiiB are named in 
the two following lines ; in the latter in connection with the 
Medes, tramelede se medezedey and again in line 32. EoHweye, 
at line 35, is the dative plural of his or theity a word which has 
occurred frequently. Line 36, tagawa may perhaps be con- 
nected with dagyuy the Zend for province (Bumouf, p. 374) ; 
the next word, nelede, has just been translated people : this is 
repeated again in line 37> preceded by tomenewe, the dative 
plural of inhabitant. 

In line 38 we have ese troAoHuneme tewete peri se melasu ; 
and below, at line 42, ese gerue tewete peri se fagsserdeme : there 
are many instances of this sort of repetition which marks an 
opposition of subject, which is striking, even though we do not 
understand to what it relates, and which will prove of great 
help when the study is further advanced. Of these words we 
know from the coins that troih&uneme and fagsserdeme are the 
names of towns, and they have been identified with Tlos and 
Pedassa. The construction points out that melasu and gerue 
must also be towns : I cannot find the former mentioned by 
the geographers, but its termination in asu answers to the clssos, 
in which the Greek names of the Lycian and Carian towns con- 
stantly end, and of which the coin No. 26, gave us an example 
in pttarazu for Patara : the other, gerue, occurs in Ptolemy^s list 
of Lycian towns, as Kapva or Carya. Of the other words, ese 

Digitized by 



has hitherto been translated (/J which is hardly applicable here ; 
teioete is probably a pronominal adverb; peri^ which I have 
restored from peat in the original copy^ is a preposition of place, 
in opposition with ieri in the following sentence. The Zend 
prepositions answering to these will be found in M. BumouPs 
Commentary^ p. 85 : peri signifies btfore^ or on this side of\ 
and teri^ beyond. This p^ of the inscription seems, from the 
abundance of names of towns accompanied by locative prepo- 
sitions, to refer to the boundaries of the townships, or some such 
local matters. Of the remaining words we know eoihveyede, the 
plural of their; nied^y the Medes; and hcle, a man, or men* 
Ueri, in line 41^ seems related to the Zend vira^ and the Latin 
vtr, a man ; and in ute we have to choose between the Zend uiCj 
or, and aiti, voila (Comm., p. 65 of the Introduction). 

In the last sentence the construction depends upon teri, be- 
yond, which is repeated four times ; and several towns may be 
expected to be named : in line 44 erekH is Heraclea ; in the 
next line waglaza may be Bargasa^ a town in Caria mentioned 
by Stephanus Byzantinus. The only name I can detect besides 
these two is troAodetu, which relates to the Troes ; but as the 
last lines are very imperfectly copied, there may be others 

The few words thus translated are not sufficient to show the 
subject of this inscription : in the upper part are some expres- 
sions which suit a tomb, but they are not confirmed by the latter 
part of the inscription, nor by those on the other sides of the 
stone. It is remarkable that Ormuzd is not once named, nor 
have we met with the phrase king of kings ; yet the mention of 
the Medes, and of the son of Harpagus, show that this was in- 
scribed while Lycia was still under the Persian government. 

There is a great difierence between this inscription and the 
last two which have been examined, in the less frequent use of 
the letter B and the constant repetition of ^, which has par- 
tially taken the place of B. The 4-, which was only used once 
or twice on the north-east and north-west sides of the monu- 


Digitized by 



ment, is here used fifty-six times^ and the B only occurs singly 
twenty-two times, being less than half of the number there met 
with ; yet the former letter never occurs doubled, while B B is 
found here as often as before, and when thus doubled is used as 
a vowel, while the single B may here be always rendered by our 
w. It seems, therefore, that it is only for some particular piu-- 
poses that the B has been changed for another letter ; not that 
the two characters are equivalent to one another. The cha- 
racter (t is used nearly the same as elsewhere. The letter X, 
which we did not meet with before, is found here four times ; 
none of the words in which it occurs enable us to fix its value, 
which we shall find better determined in the next inscription, 
where it is more common. 

South-east side of the Obelisk at Xanthus. 
1. — ya : proleya : ute pddu 

2. ya : seye sttSwelerona 

3. e ! tQmade : ttigazeye me it 

4. — ^ u : se ueuere se rezuna : tey 

5. em rofto6ul*de gwewi : wi 

6. ___ amede : arosi : kwewo : to — 
7- z 8e*rewo gukwe : kwewo 

8. — ^— i/ere fetewe komezeya 

9. ede pzzfdeze*alamawe : to 

10. ottwades erot^ot^e : s€t : efe — 

11. ee ezteo<ir*awa« troftoftttneme — 

12. e teri watu **ewtuaue ow 

13. luzea eoAe : oMau ese tm 

14. regwawi : sena^orawe p — — 

15. oiio&e : trosi : se toworewe : st 

16. d : troiiode : uinee : mechrapata : e 

17« ri : gafales : ddereye meye : s 

18. ate arofuteyese : sttrat 

19. eyete : men eroilloiiede towee 

20. reyunu : seeye mone etrpo 

Digitized by 



21. eye seoft : se teloma : wutrewer 

22. yuna : treye rukeye zuna^o 

23. tetreye rugeruwe : wite : t 

24. erewe : weyunagu : f eledeye - 

25. a : mere : etewe se tefune : peye — 

26. esi : eyunesi : spoartaze : atuna — 

27. uchortu : seina : weyu : se towede 

28. ade : seina weyede ddeuramesz : po 

29. ri*a : penane : tlafa : fedre peswa 

30. tadde : plamadde : seou : ewinede pd — — 

31. gde : sersse ** zeyede : se okeweze 

32. epartae se **e : trofepe eyade : uep 

33. se orowle*€de : pre : tro&oiias : weges 

34. lezeze : eroiioiie : sttute : tele : wewi 

35. leye se : teri ponerewe : sewe pewe re 

36. uasppea sete : gitafatu tofe : sewe 

37. u arafazeya : itefu nemo : segchchu | 

38. redefu emo : komezeetete : merafaz 

39. ede : tomenewe mlatraza : tegzzede 

40. awamute : warazotate : teze arofiit 

41. tokedre : se : etepoeue : se : orowle 

42. de : goaze*e : se tokedre atru tewlo 

43. e echramu : pewe kete : gorzazu komez 

44. sne : owazata : faeu : tresine : se itepd 

45. zoppodeene arafazeye : eouweye : kwe 

46. neemu adrode : mawue : sedde : awatawa 

47. nuoAlawe : ewetewe : se mawuna : ewete 

48. anna tomenete : kerchw^e : gukwe : eree 

49. temluse tuma : se fenepe : astte tra 

50. e**sedde tofetu : kome^eya : uere uere 

51. tro&oiiite : pddu tawe : winu kwa : firssune : eoii 

52. we : tawawaza : komezezeya : padretawe : ari 

53. na tomeneweya : komezeya gukweya kome 

54. ze^a se tokedre : kerchche : ade orowle iu 

55. wOe awe towewe : prineze : se leouweze eoiiw 

2 l2 

Digitized by 



56. eye : se deeuzggaza : se itoferewa : ode se 
57* gchkuna : uo/awa : se ginawa se gitafate 

58. azzalue itareyeo sewe : se : ertagsse 

59. rzawe : chrede s wrewa : tramele sesete : t 

60. che feewe : ademu : lechchfe o&lume setune : ew 

61. eya^arue zeose itefu : ] gitafate swer 

62. ede : gitafate : topedezeye se it€fu sog 

63. enay ntredeyee : gitafate : espprowt. 

The inscription on the south-east side of the obelisk is much 
more imperfect than any of the three others : besides wanting 
the upper part^ and having been worn off the stone at both ends 
of many of the lines, the part which remains is full of inac- 
curacies. There are fewer known words than usual, and also 
there are many combinations of letters which have not been met 
with before ; but it is uncertain whether we must attribute these 
to the errors of the copy or to further changes in the language : 
the frequent repetition of the character i must arise from the 
former cause ; but it is not oflen that these errors can be cor- 
rected, owing to the number of inaccuracies, which prevent 
many words from being recognized. The consequence is, that 
we cannot yet obtain any insight into the subject of the in- 
scription, but must be content with translating a few detached 

The first word of any importance which we have met before 
is in line 11, troHouunemey the town of Tlos: the fragment at 
the top of the inscription was joined to the rest, judging from 
the form of the fracture, before any attempts were made to de- 
cipher the letters ; and this word proves that on this side the 
union has been made correctly. Line 12, /ert, beyond. In line 
14, the word senagarawe has a strong resemblance to the Xena- 
gorte, small islands on the coast of Lycia ; yet in the state in 
which we have the inscription at present we can only rely upon 
such words as are well known from other sources. At line 16, 
trouoUe refers in some way to the Troes* 

Digitized by 



For many lines together there is hardly a word which has yet 
been made out : at line 20 is seeye, which was translated who- 
ever or any one in several of the funereal inscriptions. Line 25^ 
mere^ the town of Myra. Line 25^ pre iroHoiias; the latter 
word is the name of the Troes, the former may be the preposi- 
tion be/are. Here we again meet some words with which we 
are already acquainted; in line 35^ teriy the preposition beyondy 
followed by ponerewe, which the alteration of a single letter 
would change into penerewCy from peneray which has been sup- 
posed to be the town of Pinara : sewe, the dative plural of shahy 
which is repeated in the next line: gitafatUy the middle aorist of 
the verb gitawaemey to order or torite. Line 37> arafazeyay 
which has been translated tomb or monument : itejuy probably 
he ordered: nemo seems the same as the Zend nemoy meaning 
adoration (Bumouf^ Comm.^ p. 446). These words can hardly 
be all correctly translated^ since they seem to have no bearing 
upon one another. 

The next sentence begins at the thirty-eighth line ; it is not 
more intelligible than the preceding. In line 39^ tomenewe is 
the dative plural of tomene^ dwelling in, or inhabitant. Line 41 
and 42^ tokedre, which occurred before^ was conjectured to be a 
decree. Line 45^ arafazeye eotlweye is their tombs. Line 46, 
awatawa, and in the next line ewetewey are two words related to 
one another, and probably pronouns connected with the Zend 
ahy ahay thaty from which is formed aStahSy •/ that (Bum. 
Comm., p. 496 note) : the character which I have rendered w is 
also connected with the Zend hy and the words before us might 
perhaps be written ahatdha and ehetehey which would bring 
them close to the Zend pronoun : this is another instance of 
the manner in which the declension affects every syllable of the 
Lycian pronouns, to which some curious analogies might be 
shown in the pronouns of the other Indo-Germanic languages. 

In line 48 we find again arina tomenctey the inhabitants of 
Xanthus : in line 50, uere uercy a repetition of the word men, 
probably to express a great number : repetitions of this kind 

Digitized by 




are common in Zend when great emphasis is required, line 
51, troHoHite, the Troes : the word ending line 49, and partially 
lost at the beginning of line 50, was apparently the TVemtto. 
Line 51, eodwe, his or their. Lines 52 and 53, arina tome^ 
neweyay the inhabitants of Xantkus, who were mentioned just 
before ; but in the declension of the word tameneweya is the 
peculiarity, that ya^ the termination peculiar to another case, is 
added to a word already in the genitive or dative. M. Bumouf 
has pointed out a somewhat similar construction in the dialect 
of the arrow-headed inscriptions at Persepolis (M^oire, p. 61), 
'^ a peu pres comme si on disoit en latin domtMrnan au lieu de 
dominum!^ Line 54, tokedre, a decree, is followed by kerchchey 
a word which has so much resemblance to the Persepolitan 
form of Xerxes, khchdrchd, that if it were accompanied in this 
passage by any royal titles, it might be taken for that monarch $ 
but as that is not the case, the resemblance may be accidental. 
Line 55, prinex€y the participle hved, a word found on several 
of the tombs. 

The word deettsggaza, in line 56, connects the inscription with 
the religious opinions of the early Persians. The Zend-Avesta 
is fuU of threatenings against those who worship the Dews or 
Devas, evil spirits created by Ahriman to lead mankind astray. 
The word designating these worshipers is daivaydzo (Bum. 
Comm., p. 401, note) ; the Lycian word requires correction in 
the sixth or seventh letter, but as it does not occur again it 
must be left as it is for the present. 

In the rest of the inscription there are some, words which 
have already been explained : in line 57^ ginawa, from ffina, a 
wi/ey and gitafate, he orders, which is repeated several times 
lower down : line 58, sewe, the shahs \ 59, the TermiUsi 61 and 
62, itefu, supposed to be he ordered. The last line is very im- 

The orthography of this inscription is nearly the same as that 
of the south-west side of the monument, the letter ♦ having 
very much taken the place of B ; which latter character may 

Digitized by 



always be read like our Wj except where it is doubled^ when it 
is clearly a long vowel. There are here very few words in which 
<4- might not be rendered A, as it usually stands between two 
vowels^ in which this inscription differs from many of the others. 
These changes in the use of the letters add very much to the 
difficulty of the present inquiry. The letter "C is of more com- 
mon occurrence here than in any other inscription ; it is once 
confounded with X^ which arises, without doubt, from the re- 
semblance of the two letters ; but there are words in which it 
takes the place of K, so that it may safely be considered as 
equivalent to the Greek chi : to mark its occurrence it has been 
always printed chy although k might have been adopted for it 
without much impropriety. 

P.S. While the preceding remarks were in the press, it has 
occurred to me, that some of the difficulties connected with the 
Lycian alphabet might be got rid of by considering both .^T 
and W, and all their varieties of form, as the short k ; B as a 
long or double o ; "t as o«; and X and its varieties as a long or 
double u : each of the last three being also used as a consonant 
or semivowel nearly similar to our w. This change would still 
leave many anomalies, which can only be explained by supposing 
the language to have altered during the period of the inscrip- 
tions before us ; but it has the advantage of establishing a di- 
stinction between the three letters, which are very nearly allied 
without being exactly identical. 

Digitized by 


-■■J I il^ M 

Digitized by 



Alabanda, page 54. 

Alinda, 59. 

Alkhan, 52. 

Allahnee, 52. 

Almalee, 227. 

Andaluh, 28. 

Andiffelo, 190. 

Antiocheia, 27. 

Antiphellus, 185. 

Aphrodisias, 32. 

Appendix, 295. 

Appendix A, 297. 

Appendix B, 427. 

Arab Hise^l, 54. 

Architecture, 41, 104, 109, 128, 

140, 156, 219, 223. 
Arepas, 51. 
Armootlee, 210. 
Arr^chiflee, 28. 
Arycanda, 222. 
Aiycandus, river, 221. 
Atraflamy, 212. 
Avelan, 221. 
Awalah, 191. 
Axe, 75. 

Baba-dah, 256. 
BaU, 6. 

Ballintayer, 217. 

Bazaar, 3, 10. 

Bazaar-cooe, 257. 

Bazeeryiancooe, 183. 

Beacon ship, 241. 

Beenajahcooe, 101. 

Bellerophon, 136. 

Biendeer, 9. 

Birlehbay, 28. 

Birrejah, 51. 

Boojah, 6. 

Botany, 7, 11, 26, 43, 60, 64, 65, 
QQ, 70, 98, 138, 151, 152, 203, 
212, 214, 221. 228, 230, 235, 
249, 286—294. 

Bozuke, 84. 

Bridge (Ghreek), 210, 219. 

Cadmufi, mount, 32. 
Cadyanda, 115, 
Cagiolasolhucooe, 87. 
Calbis, river, 96, 258. 
Calynda, 102. 
Capeedas, 54. 

Carachew&lkers-yeeilassy, 235. 
Carmylessufi, 247. 
Carreeuke, 261. 
Cassabar, 191. 

Digitized by 




Catacecaumene^ 267. 

Cattle, 262. 

Cavass, 49, 177. 

Ca3rstru8, river, 9. 

CajTBtnu, 10. 

Chalgar, 52. 

Chariot8» 173. 

Cheena, 53. 

Chelidonia, cape, 212. 

Chenlee, 214. 

Chicooe, 215. 

Chimsera, 183. 

Cbinganees, 150. 

Cibyratefl, 251. 

Cisside, 247. 

Cnidus, 260. 

Coins, 38, 58, 64, 85, 134. 147, 

181, 225, 248, 275, 280—285, 

Colophon, 8. 
Cooklajah, 6. 
CorydaUa, 218. 
Costume, 6, 149, 189. 
Crest, 142. 
Customs, 21, 48. 76, 81, 86, 93~ 

97, 101, 115, 129, 148, 214, 

232, 238, 241, 246, 262. 
Cydna, 160. 
Cyrus, 276. 

Daedala, 249. 
Dalamon, 52. 
Darreing, 94. 
Deliktash, 214. 
Delta of Xantlius, 161. 
Dembre, 192. 
Demergeecooe. 206. 

Demmeerge-derasy, 58. 
Denizlee, 267. 
DoUomon, 90. 
DoUomonchi, 97, 258. 
Dondoorahn, 51. 
Dooyeer, 131. 

Eetheree, 211. 

Elevation, 32, 50, SB, 234, 260. 

Ephesus, 14. 

Esky HisscT, 80. 

Esky HisscT, 232. 

Euromus, 68. 

OagBe, 210. 

Geography, 250. 

Oeology: Lydia, 11, 15; Caria, 

29, 44, 49, 64, 66, 80, 192; 

Phrygia, 258, 266, 267. 
Gtewmooscooe, 266. 
Ghiassar, 266. 
Gibson, Mr. B., 170. 
Glaucus, 241. 
Goojak, 28. 
Gh-apes, 10. 
Guilemet, 152. 
Gule-Hissd-Ovassy, 256. 
Gouluh, 257. 

Haggeralleh, 209. 
Harpagus, 276. 
Haipasa, 51. 
Harpasus, river, 51. 
Harpies, 169. 
Hasoooe, 210. 
Has8(£-bohas, 52. 
Heliopolis, 23. 

Digitized by 




Hierapolis, 270. 
Hints to travellers, 278. 
History, 252. 
Honas-dah, 266. 
Hoolah, 87. 
Hoomarhoosharry, 259. 
Hoomarleh, 59. 
Hoorahn, 123. 
Hoozumlee, HI. 
Horses to hire, 4, 48. 

Idin. 16. 

Jewels, 189. 

Jews, 245. 

Implements, 9, 174, 259, 261. 

Index of Greek words, 534. 

Index of proper names, 526. 

Inscriptions : — ^Biendeer, 8, 297 ; 
Tralles, 17—19, 297—300; 
Nysa, 23, 300; Naslee, 25, 27, 
300 ; Aphrodisias, 34 — 41, 301 
— 361; Zhiimarleecooe,52,362; 
Alabanda, 57 ; Buromus, 68, 
362; Mylasa, 70 — 73, 363 — 
366 ; Stratoniceia, 81 — 84, 366 
—372 ; Hoolah, 88, 372 ; Tel- 
messus, 107—109, 373—382; 
Cad3randa, Lycian, 116; (}reek, 
122, 383— 385; Hoorahn, 123 
-^125, 386; Tlos, 133—136, 
387—400 ; Pinara, 144, 401— 
406; Lycian,146; Sidyina,153 
—155,406—408; Cydna, 161, 
408; Xanthus, 166—168, 409 
— 416; Lycian, 166, 169; Pa- 
tara, 180,416—420; Antiphel- 
lus, 185,420—422; Myra,20I, 

422 ; limyra, 207, 422 ; Lycian, 
207 ; Phoenicia, 209 ; Arycanda, 
222,224,423; MyHas,233,423; 
Yeeilassies, 235, 238, 250, 424 ; 
Rhodes, 244, 423; GhilcHisMf- 
Ovassy, 257, 264,424; Hiera- 
polis, 270, 426 ; Index of in- 
scriptions, 526. 

KalamakiBay, 183. 
Karasoo, 29. 
Kaipuslee, 58. 
Kastelorizo, 187. 
Kedekleh, 184. 
Keosk, 21. 
Kestep, 152. 
Kezann, 12. 
Konak, 49. 
Koogez, 91. 
Koongelar, 132. 
Koosil Hissar, 266. 
Kuilee Khan, 52. 

Lahranda? 66. 

Labranda } 68. 

Laodiceia, 270. 

Lavisse, 246. 

Laws, 45, 47, 90, 215, 268. 

Leeches, 263. 

Lekena, 86. 

Limyra, 205. 

Longevity, 89, 240. 

Lycian language, 272, 427. 

alphabet, 443. 

coins, 456. 

inscriptions, 468. 

Digitized by 




Maciy, 106. 
Market, 262, 264. 
Manyas, river, 53. 
Massicytus, 125, 237. 
MauBolus, 78. 
Megiste, 188. 
Melanippe, 212. 
Mellassa, 67. 
Menzilkhanner, 48. 
Messogia, mount, 8. 
Milyas, 233, 251. 
Minara, 137. 
Mohalahbee, 4. 
Moolah, 84. 
Mosynus, river, 27. 
MuUer, Professor, 199. 
Mylajsa, 67. 
Myra, 192. 

Naslee, 24. 
Nicholas, Samt, 200. 
Nysa, 22. 

Obelisk, 169. 
Olives, 59. 
Oloohoonaicooe, 257. 
Olympus, 214. 
Ooalah-chi, 92. 

Paichin, 79. 
Paintiiig, 133, 199. 
Pambook Kallasy, 267. 
Pandarus, 170, 277, 
Parental affection, 102. 
Pasha, 87. 
Patara, 179. 
Paul, Saint, 200. 

Pedassis, 260. 
Persea, 89. 
Phaselis, 217. 
Phellus, 184. 
Phineka, 202. 
Phiitekacooe, 212. 
Phcenix, mount, 217. 
Phoenicus Bay, 183. 
Pinara, 138. 
Priene, 13. 

Promontorium Sacrum, 212. 
Plants, new, 291. 
Podalia, 232. 

Raisins, 10. 

Rhodes, 243. 

River disappears, 228, 231. 

Ruins: — ^Tralles, 16; Nysa, 22 
Antiocheia, 27 ; Aphrodisias, 32 
Alabanda, 54; Labranda? 66 
£uromus,68; Mylasa, 75 ; Stra- 
toniceia, 80; Moolah, 85; Ga- 
lynda, 102; Telmessus, 106; 
Gadyanda, 119; Hoorahn, 123; 
Tlos, 132; Pinara, 139; Sidy- 
ma, 155 ; Gydna, 161 ; Xanthus, 
163 ; Patara, 179 ; Phellus, 185 ; 
Antiphellus, 186 ; Trabala, 193 ; 
Myra, 196 ; limyra, 206 ; Gage, 
210; Arycanda, 223; Yeeilas- 
sies, 249 ; Laodiceia, 270 ; Hie- 
rapolis, 271. 

Saaret, 184. 

Sailors: English and French, 5; 

Greek and Turk, 246. 
Samos, 8. 

Digitized by 




Sarzarkee, 123. 
Satala-Hissi-cooe, 181, 248. 
Satala-Yeeilassy, 235. 
Seechalik, 266. 
Sideecooe, 7. 
Sidyma, 154. 
Sipylus, 14. 
Smyrna, 1. 
Soldiers, 24, 46. 
Sphinx, 187. 
Storm, 185. 
Stratonioeia, 80. 
Sultan Hissi, 22. 

Tahir Pasha, 17, 269. 
Tambook Kallasy, 267. 
Taurus, mount, 249. 
Telmessus, 106. 
Teos, 8. 
Tepe-cooe, 52. 
Thera, 9. 
Tide, 112. 
Tlos, 132. 
Tmolus, mount, 8. 
Toorbeh, 64. 
Tortooiv»r, 152. 
Tourtakar, 259. 
Trabala, 193. 
Trade, 230. 
Tralles, 16. 
Tramila, 274. 
Travelling, 12. 

Triandeer, 7. 
Trogilium, Prom., 8. 
Trooes, 274. 
Tuslee, 246. 

Uslann, 158. 
Vourtarpessa, 203. 

Xanthus, 163. 
Xanthus, river, 278. 
Xenagorse Islands, 184. 

Yakabalyer, 152. 
Yanah-dah, 217. 
Yarseer, 266. 
Yeddy-Gappolee, 120. 
Yeeilassies, 235. 
Yeerah, 30. 
Yehnejah, 27. 
Yennibazaar, 51. 
Yodurennee, 52. 
Yoomahoodas, 260. 
Yostootsh, 52. 
Youghoortcooe, 52. 
Yourooks, 8. 

Zoology: Birds, 16, 27, 213, 261 ; 

Reptiles, 26, 105, 190, 213; 

Insects, 27 ; Beasts, 51, 157. 
Zoomarleecooe, 52. 
Zooregee, 11. 

Digitized by 




[/» ihi$ Index the r^ferenee$ m koman nnnmereU bekmg to the msmber fjfthe Imer^ 
iiotu publUhed m the Juthor'e former JoumaL Where an aeteriei it prefixed, it 
expreeeee donbt me to the correctnete qfthe name."] 

Jul. Ant. Abascantina, No. 50. 

T. CI. AchiUes, 44. 

Adraatas, 13, 41, 48, 58. 

Adrisus, 48. 

i£lia. 106 (?) 

P. iElia Antonia Letois, 40. 

P. iElia Attalis Sabina, 46. 

P. JEHuR ApoUonianus, 40. 

iElius Aurelius, 22. 

Tl. ^Ilu8 Hadrianufi AntoninuB, 

P. iElius HilarianuB, 40. 
JE^ua Fl. Egnatius Capitolinus, 9. 
Adius Jul. Eubulianus, 9. 
JEneas, 54, 183 (?) 
^zani, dty, xix. xx. : AIZANEI- 

Agathe Tyche, 153. 
Agathodes, 156. 
Agathonymus, 102. 
Agathopus, 109. 
Agelaus, 34. 
Agis, 88. 
CI. Agrippa, 151, 166. 

Agiippinus, 133, 134. 

Albinus Philoctistes, 63. 

Aldbiades, 76. 

Alexander, 32, 102, 131, 134. 

CI. Alexander, 10. 

Alexon, vi. 

Ar. Ammianus, xv. 

Ammias, 102. 

Nesera Ammias, 31. 

Ammias Olympias, 13. 

Fl. Ampelius, 17. 

Amyntas, 88. 

*Andro8ius, 134. 

'*'Angoercadus, vii. 

Antagoras, 99. 

Antigonus, 172. 

Antiochia, dty, 21 : ANTIOXEON 

Antiochus, 90, 133, 183. 
Antipater, 144. 
Antiphellus, dty, 182, 183: AN- 

'*'Antiphichus, 111. 
Antonia Ariste *Ladilla, 198. 

Digitized by 




P. JR. Antonia Letois, 40. 

Cl. Antonia Tatiana, 38. 

Antoninus, 21, 169, 198. 

L. Antonius Gl. Domitinus Dio- 
genes, 37. 

M. Antonius Nicephorus, 1 . 

Apellseus, month, 153, 158. 

Apellas, 44, 55. 

Apellicon, zi. 

Aphrodite, goddess Venus, 13 : 
MO; 14: A^POAEITH 6E0I2 

Aphrodisias, city, 16, 21, 22, 62: 

ApoUinarius, xzxiii. 

ApoUo, the god, 75 : AnOAAONI 

Apollonia, city, 21: AIIOAAO- 

P. ^1. ApoUonianus, 40. 

ApoUonides, 32. 

ApoHonius, 21, 48, 50, 53, 166. 

Cl. ApoUonius, 23. 

Appia, Air^ca, 24, 25, 27, 54. 

AT^iOK, 52, 101 (A^.)» 3txxi. 

Apri, city, xiii. : COL. CL. 

M. Ulp. Apulejus Eurycles, xx. 

L. Archelaus, xvi. 

Archimedes, 44. 

Aristaenetianus Ammianus, xv. 

Aristeas, 32. 

Aristides, 103. 

Aristippus, 132. 

Aristocles, 19, 28, 52. 

1 Molossus, 14. 

Aristomenes, v. 

Arsases, 132. 

Arsaeis, 143, 185. 

Arsis, 153. 

Artemidorus, 14, 33, 144. <?) 

Artemin, 96. 

Artemion, 183. (?) 

Artemis,goddessDiana,vi.: APTE* 
MIAOS THS ADXIAS ; xxiii. : 

Artemisia, 99. 

Artemon, 54, 118. 

Artima, 134. 

Artimus, 118, 134. 

Arycanda, city, 188 : APYKAM- 

* Asdepes, xviii. 

Asia, Roman province, 22 : KOI- 
NON A2IA2; 37, 198. 

* Asilas, xviiL 
Athenagoras, 13. 
Attalis, 43, 54. 

P. iElia Attalis Sahina, 46. 
Attains, 32, 36, 38, 39. 
Ti. Cl. Attains, 37. 
Aurelia Glypte, 45. 
Aurelia Papiana, 45. 

Parthena Zosime, 168. 

Tatia, 44. 

The Aurelii, 16, 76. 
Aurelius, 29. 

M. Aurel. Antoninus, xxvi. xxix. 
M. Aurel. * Arestus, 2. 
Aurel. Charidemus, 47. 
M. Aurel. Claudius, 46. 
Aurel. Dionysius, 44. 
Aurel. Eumachus, 108. 

Digitized by 




M. Aurel. Hennagoras, 100. 

M. Aurel. lason, xxzi. 

Aurel. Larichus, 163. 

M. Aurel. Ptolemseus, 182. 

M. Aurel. Soterichus, 2. 

Aurel. StephanuB, 124. 

CI. Aurel. Zelus, 47. 

Aurel. Zosimus, 158. 

Auxeticus, 133. 

Avius (AvcoO Lucianus, xii. 

Avidius (Aovi^cos) Quintus, xix. 

Balbillea, games, 22. 
^Barilla, 41. 
Biton, 144. 

Cadyanda, city, 117, 121: KA- 

Caesar, 87. 

Caesar Augustus, ix., 126. 
Ciesianus, 131. 
Caja, 36. (?) 
Cajus Jul. Heliodorus, 131. 

Licimus*Hennacopu8, 142. 

Jul. Satuminus, 162. 

Callias, 24, 25, 27. 

Callicrates, 41, 44. 

Callicratides, 194. 

Callimedes, 153. 

Calliope, 76. 

Callippus, 49. 

Calocserus, 134. 

Calotychus, 153. 

Capitolia, games, 22. 

Capitolinus, 29. 

T.Cl. *Ca8ianus Agrippa, 166. 

Fl. Cassius D. Marcianus, xxxvi., 


Chalce, island, 194: XAAKHTA. 

Chares, 54. 

Charidemus, 47. 

Chariton, 55. 

Chresimus, 53. 

Chrysogonus, 44. 

Cladius, 45. 

Claudia, 164. 

Claudia Ap. Helena, 167. 

Claudia Antonia Tatiana, 38. 

Claudia Juliana, 51. 

Claudia Platonis, 142, 146. 

Claudia Tryphosa Paulina, 23. 

Claudia Velia Procula, 134. 

Claudiopolis, city, 21 : KAAY- 

Claudius, xvii. 
T. Claudius Achilles, 44. 
Claudius Agrippa, 151. 
Claudius Alexander, 10. 
Claudius Apollonius, 23. 
Ti. Claudius Attains, 37. 
Claudius Aurelius Zelus, 47. 
H. Claudius Caesar, 6. 
Ti. Claudius Capitolinus, 29. 
Ti. Claudius Diogenes, 37. 
Claudius Eperotus, 167. 
Claudius Hermes, 142. 
Ti. Claudius Hierocles, 8. 
Ti. Claudius Hypergamus, 114. 
Ti. Claudius Hypsicles, 52. 
Claudius Marilianus Codrus, 83. 
Ti. Claudius Nero, 8. 
Ti. Claudius Philocalus, 97. 
Claudius Tatianus, 51. 
Ti. Claudius Telemachus, 166. 
Ti. Claudius Theodotus, 86. 

Digitized by 




GleaeniB, 194. 

Cleostratus, xi. 

CI. M. Codrua, 83. 

n. Co(n)8tantiu8, 17. 

Jul. Constantius, 18. 

Corasa, hamlet, 95. KOFAZIAA; 

Cornelianus, 55. 
* Craemius, 148. 
Craterus, 121, 132. 
Crateuas, v, 
Cretarchae, 18. 
Crispus, 22. (}) 
Criton, xxi. 
Gryassa, hamlet, 194: KPYAS- 

Ti. Aur. Ctesias, 29. 
Curides, 51. 

Daedalus, 133, 134. 

DaesiuB, month, 142. 

Deius, 153. 

Demetrius, 30, 33, 118. 

Diogenes, 13, 38, 101, 143, 192. 

Gl. Diogenes, 6, 38. 

Diogenes Orthius, 5. 

L. Ant. Gl. Domitinu8,Diogenes, 37 . 

Diomedes, 91. 

Dione, 120. 

Dionysius, 13, 33, 55, 92, 99, 131, 

Aurel. Dionysius, 44. 
Diophanes, 100. 
Diophantus, 135. 
L. A. Gl. Domitinus (Diogenes), 

37, 66. 
M. Domitius Philippus, 100. 


Dorco, 195. 

Epagathus, 121, 153, 154. 

Epaphroditus, 109, 153, 158. 

Ulp. Epaphroditus, 133. 

Eperastus, 141. 

Gl. Eperotus, 167. 

Ephesus, city, 22. 

Paulus Epicadius, xxy. 

Epictetus, 90. 

Epithymetus, 133. 

Epitynchanon, 149. 
Fl. Q. Eros Monaxius, 18. 
Eudamus, 24, 25, 27. 
Eumachiana, 44. 
Eumachus, 13, 44, 168. 
Euphrosynus, 106. (?) 
M. Ulp. Apul. Eurycles, xx. 
Eusebes, 34. 
Euthydemus, 82. 
Eutyches, 133, 134, 147. 
*Eitychion, 171. 
*Eitychon. 182. 

Flavia Antonia Abascantina, 50. 

Flayia Firma, xxxiii., 129 (Leg. 

xvi. Flavia Firma). 
Flavia Nanne. 152. (*AAYIA.) 
m. * Thasia. 55. 
Flavius, 57. 

Flav. Gass. D. Marcianus, 127. 
Flavius Phamaces, 152. 
Ti. Flav. Thalamus, 152. 

Ghuoabrium, town, vi. : TAM- 

Digitized by 




Oamus, 53. 

Glaucus, 168. 

Glyco, 41, 42, 54. 

Ti. Jul. Glyco, 43. 

Glypte, 45. 


GoneuB, 28. 

Gorpi^us, month, 46, 54. 

Hadrianus, 169. 

Hecate, goddess, 92, 93. 

Hecatonmon, 41. 

Hediste, 99. 

Hegesippe, 7. 

Helena, 101. 

CL Ap. Helena, 167. 

Helios, god Sol, 90, 151: IIAIO 

G. J. Heliodorus, 135. 

Helladius, xii. 

Heracles, demi-god Hercules, 85 ; 
name of a man, 67. 

Heraeum, temple of Here, i. e, god- 
dess Juno, 36. 

Hermagoras, 100. 

C. L. *Hermacopu8, 142. 

Hermapius, 147. 

Hermes, 14, 19, 46, 142. 

Hermias. 186. (?) 

Hermogenes, 15. 

Hermolycus, 120 (?), 121. 

Herophilus, xviii. 

Hierocles, 8. 

P. M\, Hilarianus, 40. 

Hyperberetttus, month, 144. 

Ti. CI. Hypsicles, 20, 52, 

Ti. CI. Hypergamus, 114. 

lason, XX., xxxi., 105, 132, 133, 

143, 172. 
Iphitus, 134 (Ei^cros). 
Irenia, 106. (?) (Eiprivia). 
Irenaeus, 131, 183. 
Isagoras, v. 
Isthmia, games, 22. 
Ti. Julia Antonia Letois, 40. 
Julia Paula, 47. 
Julia Tertulla, xxxiv. 
Juliana, 49. 
CL Juliana, 51. 
Julians, month, 52. 
Julius Aurelius Charidemus Ju- 

lianus, 47. 
C. Julius Heliodorus, 135. 
Julius Lucianus, xxi. 
Julius Marinus, xxxiv. 
C. Jul. Satuminus, 162. 

LabienuB, 87. 

Labranda, hamlet, 97 : AA- 

Ant. Ar. *Ladilla, 198. 
Aur. Laiichus, 163. 
Leaena, 167. 
Leon, 41, 81. 

Leto, goddess Latona, 145. 
TI. Jul. Antonia Letois, 40. 
LiciniuB, xxxii. 

C. Licinius '^'Hermacopus, 142. 
Lous, month, 115. 
Lucanus Archelaus, xvi. 
Lucas Philoponus, 70. 
Lucianus, vii, xii, xxi. 
Lycssus, 113. 
Lycia, 173, 197. 

Digitized by 




Lycia, country, 129, 172. 
Lydan nation, 128, 162, 163, 164, 

166, 169. 
LyBander, 194. 
LjTsanias, 130. 

Macaiia, 200. (?) 

Macedo, vii., 32. 

*Mala, 144. 

^Malabathrine, 153. 

Fl. C. D. Marcianus, 127. 

S. Marcios Priscus, 159, 160. 

CI. "^Marcilianus Codrus, 83. 

Marcus, 49. 

Marcus Aurel., vide under Aurel. 

Maro, 68, 100. 

Marsyas, xxii. 

Massicytus, city, 122. (?) 

Mausolus, 157. 

Menalcas, ii. 

Menander, 21, 50, 82. 

Myo Menander, 34. 

Menecles, 31, 133. 

Menecrates, xlii., 45, 54, 80,' 99. 

Menelaus, 132. 

Menestheus, 58. 

Menestrate, 99. 

Menestratus, 202. 

Menippus, 33, 52. (}) 

Metrodorus, 24, 25, 28. 

Metrodorus Demetrius, 30, 31. 

Michael, xiv. 

Miletus, city, 21 : MEIAIISION. 

Milyas, country, 191. 

Mion, 153. 

* Mithylius, 28. 

Modestus, 170. 

♦Moletus, 192. 

Molon, 13. 

Molossus, 14. 

Fl. Q. Eros Monaxius, 18. (Mu- 

natius }) 
Mylasa, city, 87 : MYAASEON. 
Myndus, 185. 
Myo Menander, 34. 
M3rriacus, 96. 

Nanne, 152. 

Nannis, 141. 

Naso, 101. 

Nesera Ammias, 31. 

Neapolis, city, 22. 

Nemea, games, 22. 

Nero Claudius Augustus, 8. 

Nerva, 169 (NEPOYA). 

M. Anton. Nicephorus, 1. 

Niceticus, 130. 

Nico. 133. 

Nicolaus, 173, 181. 

Nigrinianus Stasithemis, 133. 

Nilus, 90. 

Olympia, games, 22. 
Ammias Olympias, 13. 
♦Omias, xxii. 
♦Oneses, xxiv. 
Onesima, 46. 
Onesimus, i. xv. 16, 46. 
Onesphorus, 102. 
Omimythus, 149. 
Orthagoras, 122. 
Diogenes Orthius, 5. 
Otorconda, hamlet, 88 [OTOPK]- 

M 2 

Digitized by 




Panathensea, games, 22. 

Pancrates, 44. 

P&nemeriu8, s. e. Jove, 90 : ZHNI 

P&nemus, month, 10. 
Pbpius, 44, 46. 
Aurel. Pbpiana, 45. 
Parium, city, xiii. : COL. IVL. PA- 

Parthena, 168. 
P&tara, city, 169, 173: HATAPIS; 

172: nATAPEY2. 
*P&tibr8BU8, 142. 
Jul. Paula, 47. 
CI. Tryph. Paulina, 23. 
Paulinianus Trypho, xv. 
PauluB *£picadiuB, xxv. 
Pereitas, 2 (?), 44. 
PergamuB, city, 21: nEPPAMH- 

Peritius, month, 2. (?) 
Pessinus, city, 21: nESSINGYN- 

Phamaces, 156. 
Phaselus, city, xxviii. : 4»A2HA- 

Ulp. Phila, 163. 
•Philargetes, 106. 
Philetus, 46, 120. 
Philinnon, 95. 
Philippi, city, xiii.: COL. IVL. 

Philippus, 100. 
Philocalus, 89. 
•n. CI. Philocalus, 97. 
Philocles, 141. 
Philoctistes, 63. 

' Philoponus, 70. 
Philumenus, 132. 
Pinara, city, 142, 144: HINA- 

Pisedarus, 144. 
Pisithea, xxx. 
Platon, 172. 

Claud. Platonis, 142, 146. 
Polemo, 50 (?). 
Polychronia, 41. 
Polychronius, i. 41. 
Polycrates, 173. 
Pompejus, iv. 
Poseidon, god Neptune, 157 : nO- 

♦Primaea, 106. 

S. MarciuB Priscus^ 159, 160. 
CI. VeL Proc[u]la, 134, 169. 
Protogoras, 3 (?). 
Ptolemseus, 91, 173. 
M. Aur. Ptolemaeus, 182. 
Publius, 153. 
Pyrrhus, 28. 
Pythia, games, 22. 

Quartus, xxiv. 

Fl. Qiiintius Eros Monaxius, 18. 

Quintus, 166 : K0NT02 ; viii. 

xxxii. 81: K0INT02 ; xix. : 

Quintus Licinius, xxxii. 
Leo Quintus, 81. 
Q. Velius Titianus, 169. 
Quirina, tiibus, 8, 198. KYPEINA. 

Rhodus, island, 99. 

Digitized by 




Rome, city, 22. 
Romans, 16, 44, 92, 140. 
Rufus, 170. 

P. iE. Att. Sabina, 46. 

Sarpedon, xxxvii. 

Sarpedonis, 173. 

Saturninus, xxiv. 

C. Jul. SatuminuB, 162. 

Sebasta, games, 22. 

Serapis, god (89), 90: All HAIO 


Sextus, X. 
Sextos (ScXSro*), Marcius Pris- 

cus, 159, 160. 
Siculinus, 134. 

Sidyma, city, 153 : 2IAYMEYS. 
Smyrna, city, 22. 
Socrates, 35, 197. 
Sosander, 91, 95. 
Sosibius, 131 (?). 
Sostratus, 166 (?). 
M. Aur. Soterichus, 2 (?). 
Soteris, 141. 
Nigr. Stasithemis, 133. 
Stephanus, 134, 155. 
Aurel. Stephanus, xv. 124. 
Aur. Sympborus, xv. 
Synesis, 142. 

Tatia, 55, 58. 
Aurel. Tatia, 44. 
Gl. Ant. Tatiana, 38. 
Tatianus, 41. 
CI. Tatianus, 51. 
Taurinus, 158. 

Tauropolis, city, i.e. Apbrodisias, 

Ti. CI. Tdemachus, 166. 
•Telesias, 145. 
Telesphorus, 50. 
Telmessus, city, 100, 101, 109: 


Jul. Tertulla, xxxiv. 
Ti. Fl. Thalamus, 133. 
Thargelion, month, vi. 
Fl. •Thasia, 55. 
Theaetetu?, 52. 
Themistodes, 188. 
Theodoras, 16, 181. 
Theodotus, 86, 105 (?). 
Theophrastus, 35. 
Thera, city, 21 : GHPAION. 
Thesmophoria, festival, vi. 
Theudas, ii. 

Tib. Claud., see under Claudius. 
Tib. Jul., see under Julius. 
Timarchus, xxxvii. 7. 
Tine'ius, 85. 
Q. Vel. Titianus, 169. 
Tlepolemus, 112. 
Tlos, city, 126, 129, 130, 131, 132, 

133, 135, 141 : TAOEYS. 
Tohnidas, 44. 
Trajanus Divus, 169. 
Trajanus Augustus, month, 44. 
Tryphsena, xlii. 80. 
Trypho, xv. 
M. Ulp. Trypho, 198. 
CI. Tryphosa Paulina, 23. 

Uliades, 82. 

Digitized by 




Ulpia Phila, 163. 
Ulpius Apellaa, 55. 
Ulpius Charito, 55. 
Ulpius Epaphroditus, 133. 
M. Ulpius Trypho, 198. 
CI. Velia Procula. 134, 169. 
Q. Velius Titianus, 169. 
Vespasianus, 11, 159. 

Xanthicus, month, 42, 49. 
Xanthus, god (of the river?), 165. 
Xanthus, city, 158, 162, 163, 164, 

166, 177: :a:ANeios. 

Xenocritus, 187. 

CI. Aurel. Zelus, 47. 

Zeno, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 

44, 52, 53, 54, 120, 141, 198. 
Zeus, i.e. god Jove, 5; Panemerius, 

90; Helios Serapis, 90, 151. 
Zeuxis, 202. 
Zosime, 153. 

Aur. Parthena Zosime, 168. 
Zosimus, xxxii. 51, 100, 106, 

Aur. Zosimus, 158. 
Zoticus, 90. 




[Such word* as are not found in the London edition of Stephanut, Thet, Lifig. Grac, 
are printed in capital letters,^ 

A instead of AI : 
Ka[I], 24, 169. 172. 

A instead of AY: 

KXAdios, 45 ; cArov, 105. 

AI instead of £ : 
avAlveutdfl, 17. 

A a, 73. 

ayaXfjiara, 24, 25, 169. 

ayereios iravKpanSj 22. 

ayepem, 22, 100. 

hyyos diicaio^OTriSt 129. 

— vios iroXciMfs, 8. 

aytavii^eaQai, 128, 166. 

ayuii'oOereiif, 100, 168. 

aBwpoBoKTiToSt 88. 

aeros, 5. 

ariTTTiTos, 18. 

adXritras evho^ws, 21 ; — Kai en-i/xe- 

Xwr, 22. 
aiwv, 22, 92. 
atotvios, 21, 63, 92, 93. 
aXafiapxris, 157. 
aXeiTovpyriTOs, 88. 
aXiTTipios, 89. 

Digitized by 




aWodatros, 90. 

afiapayros, 4 Q). 

A/iaprwXos, with dative, 142, 182; 

genitive, 145. 
afiefiiTTOs, 88. 
afioifirf, 21. 
ayaBrifjtaTa, 32, 88. 
avadp€\(/afi€yfi, 46. 
ayAlveutdri, 17. 
ayaXrifjLftaTa, 14. 
aya\fi\l/Hs, 71. 
avai 103. 
ayaarpei^fiai, 128. 
ayacnrpw^rif 24, 25. 
ayiffTtifii, 17. 
avyeioi/, 77, 78, 79. 
ai^Spias, 2, 21, 24, 25, 38, 165, 169. 
ayeyo^riTOi, 59. 
ayepiBevTos, 88. 

ayetj/ia, 38. 

av^p«i;^iKCi»s, 25, 27. 

avoc£ai, 184. 

avY^ai, 63. 

avTiarparrfyos, 159. 

amypa^ov, 10, 42, 44, 45, 51, 54. 

avuidev, 91. 

a^ioXoyun-aTos, 9, 100, 166, 182. 

avaXKoTpioft}, 42. 

avofitwaai, 144. 

airoOeiiffievof, 48. 

a7roOefi»«ra, 51. 

oiror€i<Torw, 54, 144. 

airorei^ct. 42, 45. 46, 55, 117, 158. 

awo Tov PeyTiOTov, 88. 

apyvpioy, 48, 50, 51, 53, 145. 

^rifiov Pw/ioiwy, 44. 

APMAIS, 133. 

ap\aip€tna, 88. 

ra opxeia, 10, 88, 144, 153, 158, 

apyiarpoB, (56), 167. 

Ttis 7ro\eia$, 80. 

apxiepeia, 13, 23, 47 ; Atrias, 

131 (?). 
apxiepevs, 20, 23, 47, 131, 142, 

144, 153, 158. 
ap')(i€p€vs Aaias, 37. 
fieyas AyTiayi[yi']ayos apxiepevs rris 

Aatas, 198. 
apxiepevs fAcyiffros, 16, 169. 
apxicpevs ruty Se/3aaro;v, 135. 
apxieparevtratra T»y ^paariay, 

apxirafiievffas, 2 (?). 
apxoyres A<ppoh€nn€aiy, /3ovXjy, ^ly- 

/X0€, 16. 
aaefieia, 91. 
atrePris, 50. 

o<T€/3fj*, with dative, 101, 120. 
ra aen/Xa, 91. 
a(T<l>a\€ta, 135. 
ao'^aXcfo), 41. 
Avrok-parwp, 8, 11, 16, 21, 48, 50, 

51, 53, 159, 169. 
avToyojiia, 47. 
afripwil^ia, 44, 47. 
af* wy, 144. 

/JaOpov, 169. 
PapfiapoSf 89. 
/3a(r(Xeia, 16. 
/3a0€vs, 201. 
pePovXnrat, 144. 
/3ijXa, 169. 

Digitized by 




^laofiai, 121. 

(iovXevTfipioy, 91, 93. 

(hvXevTTis, 21, 166. 

/3ovXij, 28 (fioXfi), 91, 92, 169 

4 /3ovXi7 icai 6 hrifios, 17, 23, 24, 

30, 35, 36, 159, 162, 198. 
>/ j3ovXi} t€fNi>ra77} icac o Xa^Tpora- 

ro« irjfws, 21. 
fiovXri ^rifws yepovtria, 2, 129. 
/3ovXi7 di7/ios yepovtria veoi, 32. 
/3«;xo$, 43, 51, 54, 55, 59. 

ycvca, 134. 

ycyoff, 58 (?), 132, 186, 187. 
yevyaioTUTOs Kaiaap, 18. 
yepot/ffia, 2, 32, 126, 131, 165 
(trefiyoTaTti) . See under /3ovXi;. 
ypafifiarevs, 2, 28, 92. 
ypafifiarw^vXaKia, 135. 
yvfiyatnafy)(ris, 80, 88. 
yv/ivao'capxiytras r»/« yepovtrias, 1 65. 
yvi^aif}, 142. 

A instead of 9 : 
tSCay^tKOs, 42. 
^aifioyes, 84, 86, 124. 
^eicaTpwrevw, 2. 
ae£ios, 93, 132, 136. 
Beffwonis, 18. 
ai)Xow, 43, 144. 
IrifiapyiKfi eiovffia, 16, 169. 

^TffUOSt 91. 

ZfiiiOKpana, 128. 

^17/109, 15, 160. 

^ly/ios A<l>po^€iai€iay, 16, 62. 

?i}/iOf Ka2vay^€<tfv, 117, 121. 

XavOiwv, 162. 

IlivapeAiy, 142, 144. 

— T€Xfliy<TO'€«V, 101. 

TX«e«i/,132, 141. 

Srifioffi^, 87, 94. 

^i)V(V>m, 44, 121, 144. 

^SijyofKua, 109. 

, 41, 43, 45, 48, 50, 53, 54, 
101, 117, 130, 131, 132, 135, 
141, 142, 153, 158, 167. 182. 

3ia^o%oi, 45, 56. 

jcaro dca^oxf^v, 141. 

hiait^fia, 19, 169. 

haOriKJi, 14, 45, 164, 166. 

Biafioyri, 18, 93. 

diaffif^raros iiycfi^y, 18. 

d«ari7pew, 128. 

^ca^epovra, 21, 93. 

^iKaio^orrjs, 129. 

hs after a proper name, with a 
genitive following : 25, 100, 102, 
111, 112, 130 03), 143 03), 144, 
153, 166; without a genitive 
foUowing: 89, 153, 173, 183 

3<xa, 130. 
BpaxfjM, 172. 

E instead of Al : 

cKTa^i^E, 124; icE, 132. 
E instead of EI (?): 

€7re[I] 50, 51. 

of^eiXeeelt], 153. 

ocice[I]ori;ra, 16. 
EI instead of E : 

cyelvcro, yclyo/ievos, 91. 

Digitized by 




£1 instead of I : 
*/iEIv, 21. 
OXv/ivEIa, 22, 1. 26 ; (OXvfiirla, 

KaireToXEla, 22 ; ipiXoreifiEla, 

Ao/iirEIvof, 37. 
A^po^EIn}, 13. 
Aiftpo^Elffieioy, 16, 22. 
r£I/ii7, rEIfxaitf, 21, 22, 23, 25, 

27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 55, 152. 
^cXorEIfios, 30. 
fieraKElyeta, 42, etc. 
iroXElnys and ?roX£Irevo/Lcac, 21, 

groXElriJCOS, 165. 
icXElyri, 132, 136. 
vElici?, vElraw, 22, 100; and all 
proper names compounded 
with Nijfiy. 
agrorElflu, 158, etc. 
TTpodayElsfMOSy 94. 
eyyovof, 51, 101, 117, 119, 143, 

153, 169. 198. 
eOyos Avjciwv, 128, 162, 163, 164, 

166, 169. 
eOyos Kai iroXts, 152. 
eiBoi^opos, 45. 

€lKOy€S, 21. 

eiKoyes ypairrac, 24, 93. 

ey oirXois eiri'xpvaois, 25. 

€( fifi fioyoy, 158, 167. 
ci fioyoy, 183. 

€ipriyapxn^> 2. 
* eipvrai, 48, 
caai'yeXca, 91. 
ea/3iao/Aai, 117. 

[eJiswoTjy, 41, 48, 51. — irXajc£)/os, 

eisufffrri, 42, 44, 53, 57. 
cKyovos, 40, 44, 47, 66, 
€K^iKri<raffeai, 41, 43, 45, 48, 49 

(ey^t/c), 50, 145. 
€K^o<rut 42. 
eicros, 101. 
€Kros eay fiti, 121. 
€jc^ai^€, 88. 

EAAION, 109. 

cXeyJas, 131, 135, 141, 142, 144, 

eXevdepia, 16. 
eXXoyifiwaroSf 17. 
efifiatyerw, 190. 
^1/ (?), 132. 
ey yoyos, 158. 
eyypa^fiff, 42, 91, 130. 
cveyicp, 184. 
evoxos, 51. 

€i^€v£t« fiyefwrtKfit 42. 
^oici, after a proper name, 44. 
e^edpa, 93. 
Het, 153, 167. 
e$o^m^ii», 95. 
e^uSey, 132. 
€? <iv, 142. 
e^wTiKos, 134, 135. 
e^av^fNiis, 128. 
ewayoiyyvfjLi, 144. 
e^ai'OpOiii^i;, 87. 
ciroparos, 41, 48, 49, 50. 
€v(ipx€ta, 162, 198. 

Digitized by 




evofxos evdrivMs, 129. 
ewafyxps aireifnfs, 198. 
eirtl^dXXovaa, 132. 
eTrifjLeXtideyros, 8, 21, 38, 160 (?). 
eTTtjieXfiTtis o^uy, 129. 
ewi<rraTfi$, 93. 
€TiaTv\iOv, 15. 
eTTireifitoy, 130, 182. 
eiriTeXeadeis aytay, 166. 
arirpeirw, 109, 121, 132, 141, 182. 
ewiTbf, 153, 168; €<(>&, 44. 
eiri rii> ^fiKrei, 172. 
€^i0avc9raroi Oeoi, 91. 
EWitpayetrraTOS Kaitrap, 18. 
eirwyvfios Oeos, 16. 
tpyaffia ruty fiaf^etity, 201. 
epycR-KTratTca, 30. 
cpycTTiirrarcw, 14. 
epeiiriov, 94. 

€v yeyoyores (iraiJef), 92. 
€vepy€Tfis, 37, 82, 128, 169, 164, 

198; €V€py€ris, 38. 
evOvvos, 183. 
evyoia, 21, 32. 
€vyov\o$, 91. 
EYnOSIA, 202. 
evpetris, 184. 
evaepeia, 91, 92. 
cwrvx^trc, 16. 

€vrvx*"» 17. 
cvxafx^reoi, 6, 88, 91. 
€vxfj, 157. 
evwyvjios, 132. 
e^evpetv, 44, 142. 
c^ij/Joi, 92. 

Zi?[eyaO, 55, 130, 132. 

(ifffas KOfffAiias, 30 ; — jcai irpos hwo- 

Beiyfia aperris, 27, 33. 
(tfffatra KotTfJuui icai vw^povms, 31 ; 

— auMppoyws Kai eyio^taSf 152. 
^«/i€v[os], 120. 
Cwv, 43. 
(ias lay, 182. 

H instead of AI : 

€{6<rrH, 131. 
H instead of I: 

ava\n^B.$, 71. 

vH«:a, 189. 
H instead of Y : 

vpHraveiiif, 128. 
4 jcac, between two names, 13 (?), 

54, 80, 101, 153, 173. 
jiyeyLQViKos, 42. 
hyeiim', 162, 170. 

XafivporaTOs, 17. 

Xa/nrporaros Kai davfiaoros, 

■ iiatrrifioTaros, 18. 
fiyefjuay Xeyeotyos, 129. 
ftpoetovt 168. 
iip^y, 145. 

^poroy, 51, 130, 132, 133, 201. 
^pois, 143. 

9 instead of A : fxriOets, 145. 

OoXXo^, 91. 

6agrrui, 25, 41, 44, 48, 51, 52. 95, 

102; (cvOaTrrw), 130, 131, 135, 

142, 153, 167. 
Bearpoy, 19, 169. 
dewy, 54. 
Ta 0eio, 183. 

Digitized by 




Oe/xeXiov, 169. 

eejiis, 100/166. 

Ocoi KaraxBoyu>if 101, 142. 

deoi ovpavioi mu KurtixBonoi, 120, 

deoi irayres icai Aiyrw kcu reKva, 145. 
Oeoi aefiaoTOi Kai waTpiaoi, 169. 
dpeirros, 132, 133, 182. 
Opeyj/as, 14. 
dpriaKtia, 91. 
0i;», 130, 184. 

I (subscriptum) after a long vowel, 

145. See under, 81. 
I instead of £1 : 

Is, 92,132; Jsoiaei, 182; Iswtr- 
rti, 41. 

I«^€p€(Tdai,91; €irl,49; ^{1, 153. 

ipval, 13; ireyOI, 92; (rvi'/JaXIv, 

irapaXI^Iv, 92 ; xlpas, 92. 
IN instead of ION: 

Apre/ily, 96. 
tarpos, 55. 
icpa aovXa, 91. 

(fvj'KXiyrof, 91. 

(cpai ATToXXuivi ^pax/iae, 172. 

icpevs, (48), 91, 92, 93. 

cepoc aywveff, 22. 

lepoavXos, with a dative, 144. 

UptoraTri /BovXij, 21. 

(epo/rarov rafAeioy, see under ra- 

Kx instead of X : 

^eriyXXaKXora, 24, 27 ; (/xcniX- 
XaXXora, 28, 30.) 

Kudiepouf, 11, 169. 
KoXoKayaBia, 88. 
i:aXoicaya6iii(, 128. 
KoXor Kai ay ados, 25, 35. 

Kap^ltTfJLOS, 94. 

jcaraSiicor, 20. 

i:ara(Tro(nff, 16. 

jce^aXiy, 80, 81. 

jci7devw,45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52,54, 

107 ; eyicri^evia, 59, 182, 183. 
oypvj, 91, 92. 
KidapiorriSt 91, 92. 
jctftfv, 13, 80, 81. 
Kktivrj, 132, 136. 
KXnpoyofios, 41, 56, 67, 103^ 

Toivov Afftas, 22. 
— Aviccwr, 170. 
KOfffuoTrjSt 23. 
iTOff/ior, 15, 159, 169. 
Kparitrros, 38, 163, 169. 
KpriTapxai, 18. 
KTioTfis, 47, 126. 
Kvp€ia, 131. 
k-vpios, 21, 50, 51, 71, 92, 94. 

Xafjurporaros, 21, 127. 
Aeyeuiv ^icicaiSeicari) ^XovVa ^cp/ia ; 
^icriy 2i2i|pa, 129. 

Xcvx^f^^^^*^* ^^* 

Xoyeiov, 169. 

^XflfjLXJMtTai, 131, 135, 141, 142, 

143, 144, 182. 
AvKiapxfis, 100, 166. 
XYira, 41. 

Digitized by 




[jLafifiri, 40. 
fieydXoiieptiis, 128. 
fierwciyew, 42, 44, 109. 
fieraWaetria, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30. 
fATiOets, 145. 

fjLtiros AireXXaiov, 153, 158. 
' Topwirfov, 46, 64. 

Aaco'iov, 142. 

lovXirfov, 52. 

— Autov, 115. 
»a>^4Jcov, 43, 49. 

— Uavefiov, 10. 
UepeiTiov, 2 (?). 

■ Tpaiatfov 2e/3a9rov, 44. 

— 'Xvepfieperatov, 144. 
fitiTpowoXis, 17, 162, 163, 164, 166, 

fAiffowoyffpws, 88. 
/Avrj/ia, 105. 
fxyrifieioy, 25, 27, 41, 51, 52, 54, 

57. 101, 106, 109, 111, 117, 

119, 120, 121, 142, 146, 153, 

173, 174, 182. 
Moipa, 4. 

fioyofiaxoi, 20. 

ycKvs, 4. 
yeowtoh 41, 53. 
yiKay, 100, 166. 
vofwderris, 37. 

A^S instead of X : 

2:€^2ror, 159, 160. 
(v9rapx>7'# 21, 22. 

OY instead of O: 

avrOYy, 106; (avrlJv, 58.) 
o icai between two names, 52, 100, 

133, 134, 135, 152. 173. 
oiKelQarifs, 16. 
oucoyofMos, 89, 146. 
ofwws, 119, 155. 
otrroGnKTi, 124, 172. 
o^iXctrei, 142, 144, 153. 
o^cXcrw, 101, 142, 172. 
oiffiiXflirei, 130, 132, 135, 141. 

TaiiucTi, 93. 

Tac^c^jciy, 197. 

waiBorofAos, 91, 92. 

wac&i^vXaices, 91, 92. 

iraXai^rpa, 88. 

iraXa/ii}, 3. 

TToKri, 166. 

HANKPATIN icpav, 22. 

TrayKpartatmis, 21. 

^oyjcpareo)', 100. 

fl-aTiroc, 54. 

vawTTos, 99. 

ff-opoicaXw, 109. 

grttpa/ivOcKrOai, 25, 27, 28. 

trapa^t^eki, 44. 

irci/Dcvpeo'Cf, 44. 

frarrip TrarpiZos, 16, 169. 

flrorpu, 21, 23, 24, 29, 37, 64, 88, 

165, 198. 
weyraKt after a proper name, 44. 
TcptiroXioy, 91. 
irkaKkKris, 169. 
HAATAS, 41. 48, 58. 
DA AXON, 41. 

Digitized by 




iroXu ISayOnav, 158, 163. 
voXirevetrdai, SB, 172. 
TTpa^is, 172. 
frpeifiiinXcipios, 40. 
irpeafievrris aTparnariKOs, 129. 

AvTOKpaTopo$, 159, 160. 

irpoyoviKoy, 112, 113. 
vpoyoyoi, 23, 32, 38, 166. 
wpo^ayei^fios, 94. 
vpoearri aytaywy (?), 116. 
vpoxXiiaafAeyos, 100. 
'^poyao$, 93. 
TTpoyoTitrafjLeyos, 2, 80. 
TTpomi^yeXta, 172. 
^poro7oreiffarw,41,44, 49, 50, 145. 
irpose^pevia, 92. 
irpos€wt<rK€va(w, 142. 
trpovKfiyioy, 169. 
frposv€pi^€peadat, 88. 
wposTaaaw, 145. 
irposretfioy, 144. 
irvXiy, 17. 

irvpyitricos, 101, 102. 
TTvpyos, 195. 

^irwp, 29. 

aefiaoTos, 8, 13,55, 91, 126, 135, 

152, 159, 164, 202. 
eefiyoTtis /3iov, 28. 
^KOff, 153, 155. 
^/xa, 104. 
SOPION, 55. 
(Fopos, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 

51, 52. 53, 54, 55, 59, 67, 83, 

134, 141, 183. 
aa^itrrns, 47. 

oTretpti, 80, 81. 

(nreipi) irptarri OvXff-ia FaXaroiv, 

ore^oi^opew, 80, 81. 
oTc^oKiy^opos, 10, 43, 46, 47, 48, 

52, 54, 80. 
ffrparriyos, 2. 

AvTOKparopos, 129. 

<nfy(kfiriKias, 24. 26, 27. 
trvyjrepu^epetrdai, 88. 
trvvi^opai rvxn^f 28. 
(rvvjitos, 9, 110. 

<n/i/yevijs, (9), 18, 40, 103, 158. 
trvyicXririKos, 9, 37, 40. 
(Tvyrpo^ a^eX^tl, 141. 
<rwi^«p€fcr, 42, 43, 45, 51, 109, 

130, 132, 134, 135, 141, 183. 
in/yx»[pfiffeis], 52. 
ffxCoXaororo*], 17. 
awfiareioy, 43. 
(Titfnip icai cv€f>yeri}« rov KOfffiov, 

aurripia, 18. 

raXa>T£aco< ayttyeg, 22. 
raXai/rov cipyvpiov, 145. 
rafxeioy icpwraroy, 41, 43, 45, 46, 

54, 130, 167, 182. 
rov icvpcov Avrorparopos Kac- 

aapos, 50. 
rav/)o«:a[Oaff-rai], 20. 
ra^s, 183, 186. 
rec/ii}, see under £1. 
€is reifias roty ^tfiafrr^y, 5b, 
T€ixos, 17. 
rerpajci after a proper name, 52 (?), 

54, 101. 

Digitized by 




Towos etriffrifioraTOS, 21. 

Towot ItiyLovioi, 24, 25, 27. 

rpi€Tia, 22. 

Tpi% after a proper name, 153. 

Tpapevi, 142. 

TVfAfittpvxos, 44, 49, 50. 

Y instead of 01 : 

veowYoi, 41,53 ; XYtto, 41 ; orv- 
£oi, 53. 

Y instead of YI : Yo*, 29, 58, 108, 

iyitia, 18. 
vios iroXews, 8. 
viuivos, 169. 

ifjraUKOi, 9, 40, 162, 200. 
vwaros, 16, 169. 
hirepriBeffBai, 88. 
vwevBvyos, 41, 92. 
vimpe^ia, 30. 
inroietyfia apeniSt 27, 33. 
hwofAvriffis, 63. 
vTovoOevo'cs, 87. 
•YnOSOPION, 182, 193. 
viroirx€<TU, 30, 81. 
vtnrXifyif 41. 

^a/iiXia, 20. 

^iXo^o^ia, 32. 

^iXo^o^c, 14. 

^Xoao^APS, 88, 128. 

(^iKoKaiffap, 13. 

0iXoirarpa, 166. 

^iXoiroXcs, 14. 

^iXopw^ocos, 8. 

f^iXotrropyus, 88. 

0iXorei/iO(, (23), 30. 

^iffxoc AvroKpaTopos Ka tvapos, 48, 

51, 63. 
^vXi), 88. 

0V(Tee (vios), 15, 34. 
^vaiKa T€Kva, 54. 

XOipecv, 16. 
\€CKiap\fi(ra$, 198. 
Xpeo^vXaifcov, 43, 45, 48, 49, 50, 
51, 52, 63, 54. 

^i70ifitf, 165, 169. 
i//i9^c(T/xa, 21, 27, 43, 93. 

a instead of OY, 83. . 
A a, 73. 


Digitized by 



Poffe 87, Une 2, for sembance read semblance. 

Poffe 212, Ime 1,fvr Promontarium read Promontorium, 

Page 235, line 12, for Cyprus read Cypres. 

Page 347, Ixm h,fbr Julia read FlaTia« 

Page 350, line 3, for ptiaiv readpriaeis. 

Page 355, No. 56, line 4,fbr Sia ^oxwy read diaSox^V' 

Page 361, Une la8t,ybr Page 45 read Page 37. 

Page 364, No. 87, Hue 12, for Kaioapov read Kaioapos. 

Page 389, No. 129, Une 4,ybr ck riys read mrif^. 

In the heading to the Inscriptions, facing j7d^ 368,^ temple read counciUhall. 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


;■<■ p^ff"^ 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


II II HUI IM Ml in IH IH BH Ml li Mi M M Mi 

' 3 9015 02012 5921 


Digitized by 




f \