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THE 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN 
PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY. 

EXTRA SERIES. 
VOLUME VII. 



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AN ACCOUNT 

THE POLYNESIAN fiACE 

ITS ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS 



ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE 
TO THE TIMES OF KAMEHAMEHA I. 

VOL. III. ' • 

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 

POLYNESIAN AND INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

by ' .- V2?j;t"; 

ABRAHAM JORNANDER, " , ...£ 



WITH A PREFACE BY 

PROFESSOR W. D. ALEXANDER, 



LONDON: -\V, 

TKUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. .% 

1885. ,., 'js 

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PREFACE. 



Having been invited by Hon. A. Fornander to contribute 
a few introductory remarks to this third volume of his 
work on the Polynesian race, although feeling myself 
unworthy of such a compliment, I can at least bespeak 
for his work a fair hearing and an impartial verdict. It 
is a truly monumental work, and gives ample proof of the 
indefatigable industry and critical acumen of the author. 

Probably there is no race upon earth which, in propor- 
tion to its numbers, has been the subject of so much inte- 
rest and of such minute investigation as the Polynesian. 
This is owing not only to the interesting character of the 
race, but also to the mystery, as yet unsolved, which 
shrouds their origin, and to their extreme isolation. The 
evidence both of language and tradition points unmis- 
takably to the East Indian Archipelago as at least a stage 
in their eastward migration. Few, if any, will accept 
Dr. Lesson's theory that they are autochthons of New 
Zealand. 

And yet the intervening region of Melanesia is occu- 
pied by races entirely dissimilar, which separate them by 
thousands of miles from their nearest congeners, the brown 
tribes of the Moluccas. 



'" 



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vi PREFACE. 

It is, however, generally admitted that the great work 
of Wilhelm von Humboldt, " Ueber die Kawi Sprache," 
has established on an impregnable basis the fundamen- 
tal relationship between the Malagasy, East Indian, and 
Polynesian groups of languages, to which we can now add 
the Micronesian. 

Still it was certainly an unfortunate mistake to apply 
the term "Malayan" to this vast family of languages, in 
view of the fact that the West Malayan tribes are eom- 
_ paratively late invaders of the Archipelago, having been 
previously largely Mongolised by mixture with the Indo-, 
Chinese races, to a greater degree than their language 
alone would indicate. The Malagasy in like manner has 
acquired many African and some Arabian elements in its 
distant home. 

Undoubtedly the Polynesian, as it is the most remote, 
is the purest and most typical representative of the 
family. 

Many considerations combine to prove the great anti- 
quity of the epoch when the Polynesians left the East 
Indian Archipelago. 

Humboldt observed a large class of Sanskrit words ex- 

■ : isting in the Malay proper, the Javanese, and the Bughis, 

but wanting in the other languages of this stock. Hence 

' it is evident that such words must have been introduced 

after the separation of the Malagasy and the Polynesian 

group from the other branches of the Oceanic family. 

' But this period must have been very remote, since these . 

Sanskrit words are pure and genuine in form, and free 

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PREFACE. vii 

from the corruptions which the modern Indian languages 
present. Now the Sanskrit was a dead language 300 B.C. 
The Javanese mythology, and the style and decorations of 
the magnificent ruins of the Javanese temples, all prove 
the great antiquity of the Indian civilisation of Java, of 
which the Polynesians show little if any trace. 

But besides the comparatively late infusion of Sanskrit 
words just mentioned, Humboldt held that there was a 
second-class of Sanskrit words extending to remote dia- 
lects, such as the Tagala, Polynesian, and Malagasy. The 
wide diffusion of these words he attributed to an older 
form of the Sanskrit, or a "pre-Sanskrit" language. 

This idea was taken up by the illustrious Professor 
Eopp, who published his views on the subject in 1841, 
His hypothesis was that the Polynesian is but the de- 
graded remains of a once highly organised language like 
the Sanskrit. 

As the modern languages of the South of Europe grew 
up out of the ruins of the Latin language, whose gram- 
matical structure had crumbled to pieces, so he imagined 
that this great family of languages had arisen out of the 
wreck of the Sanskrit. But the dissolution of the gram- 
matical structure of the Sanskrit in the Oceanic languages 
had been much more thorough than that of the Latin in 
its daughters, which preserve much of the old system of 
conjugation, and have wholly abandoned it only in their 
treatment of the nouns. These Oceanic dialects, he said, 
"have entirely forsaken the path in which their Sanskrit 
mother moved; they have taken off the bid garment and 



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viii PREFACE. 

put on a oew one, or appear, as in the islands of the 

Pacific, in complete nudity." 

On the other hand, M. Gaussin has clearly shown from 
internal evidence the extremely primitive character of 
the Polynesian language. He has shown that most of 
its words express sensations or images, while most ab- 
stract terms are wanting. He demonstrates the primitive 
character of its grammar, and proves that some of the 
formative particles have even yet hardly ceased to be in- 
dependent words. Everything about this language shows 
that it is in its childhood, so to speak, and that instead of 
having lost its inflections, it has never had any to lose. 
Having been at a very early period separated from the 
rest of the human race, destitute of metals or beasts of 
burden, and deprived of nearly all the materials and 
incentives which develop civilisation, the Polynesians 
seem to have remained nearly stationary, and their lan- 
guage to be still in its infancy as regards its degree of 
development. 

Judge Fornander has taken up the question again from 
a different point of view. Assuming that the monosyllabic, 
agglutinative, and inflected systems of grammar are three 
successive stages of development, through which all in- 
flected languages have passed, he concludes, with Professor 
Sayce, that there must have been once a time when the 
supposed ancestor of the Aryan languages was in the 
aame stage of grammatical development as the Polynesian 
of to-day. It was at that distant period "in the night of 



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PREFACE. \x 

time " that the ancestors of the Oceanic race separated 
from the Aryan stock somewhere in Central Asia, 

As in Iceland the old Norse tongue has been preserved 
with little change, so, according to his view, the Oceanic 
languages have remained in a state of arrested development 
aa a survival of the primeval language of the Aryans; 
as, in fact, a " living specimen " of that ancient form of 
speech. , 

His extensive knowledge of Polynesian languages has 
given him a great advantage over Professor Bopp in the 
treatment of this subject. 

It must be admitted by his opponents that he has fairly 
stated the objections made by leading philologists to his 
method of comparing languages of widely differing morpho- 
logical structure by means of their roots. 

It must also be admitted that he has made out a strong 
case for the existence of an Aryan element in Polynesian, 
whether inherited or obtained by mutual intercourse. 

Among the more striking coincidences may be mentioned 
the first four numerals, the pronouns, and a number of 
common nouns, such as ra, the sun = Sanskrit rami, and 
the Assyrian and Egyptian god Ra ; kuri, a dog = Kuri, an 
Aryan dialect of the Hindu Kush; vat, water "= Sanskrit 
vari ; qfi, fire = Sanskrit agni, &c. 

It may be supposed that, at that immensely remote 
epoch to which our author refers, the distinctions between 
the principal races were just beginning to be formed, and 
the Aryan tribes just assuming a distinct character from 
the other Turanian communities. 



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If we believe, with Quatrefages, in the original unity of 
the human species, then all distinctions of race are simply 
comparative, and merely signify a greater or less degree of 
consanguinity. 

This much will probably be conceded by most ethno- 
logists, that the Oceanic family, and its Polynesian branch 
in particular, stands in a much nearer relation to the 
Aryan family, both in respect to language and physical 
traits, than any of the Mongoloid races, or even the 
Dravidians. 

At the same time we find all South-Eastern Asia occu- 
pied at present by Mongoloid races, speaking monosyllabic, 
tonic languages, and all traces of preceding populations 
are well-nigh obliterated. 

It is certain, however, even from historical recprds, 
that the present occupants of Farther India are not the 
first Bettlers of those countries, but have for many cen- 
turies been moving southward, absorbing or driving out 
the aborigines. In like manner the Aryans or Sanskrit- 
speaking race had previously descended into Hindostan 
from the north-west, and subdued the original inhabi- 
tants. 

According to Mr. Hodgson and the late Mr. Logan of 
Singapore, South-Eastern Asia was originally occupied by 
brown races allied to the Ehotiya tribes of Northern India 
and the Karens of Eurmah. Displaced by the pressure of 
the Mongoloid tribes from the north, they emigrated into 
the Malaysian Archipelago, where in their turn they drove 
the black aborigines into the interior of some of the 



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PREFACE. xi 

islands and peninsulas, and entirely expelled them from 
others. 

The foremost wave of this migration of the brown race 
was probably composed of Polynesians, who in the opinion 
of our author were to a certain extent allied to the Aryan 
races both in blood and language. 

Mr. A. H. Keane imagined that he had found a rem- 
nant of the Polynesian race in the Khmers of Central 
Cambodia ; but, as Judge Fornander has ascertained, 
there is not the slightest resemblance between their Ian- 



He has examined the Dravidian languages of Southern 
India with no better success. 

Messrs. Logan and Hodgson discovered remarkable, and, 
as they believe, conclusive analogies between the languages 
and customs of the Ehotiya races and those of South- 
Eastern Malaysia and Polynesia. 

The researches of our author, however, as he believes, 
have tracked the footsteps of the first Polynesian emigrants 
still farther to the highlands of South- Western Asia, and 
revealed the impress of the ancient Cushite civilisation in 
their religion and customs. 

To conclude, it is to be hoped that the discussion of this 
subject may serve to throw new light on certain disputed 
questions relating to the history of language, viz., whether 
languages in their historical development proceed from 
the simple to the complex, from monosyllables to poly- 
syllables, and from an analytical to a synthetic gram- 
matical structure, or the contrary; and whether, beginning 



iOO 



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xii PREFACE. 

with few and simple sounds, they tend to acquire new 
consonants, to enlarge their alphabet, and become harsher 
as they grow older; and finally, whether languages of 
radically different types necessarily pass through the same 
order of development or not. 

W. D. ALEXANDER 
Honolulu, Sept. 8, 1884. 



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ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS 
THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF THE POLYNESIAN 
AND INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. . 

INTRODUCTION. 

In the first volume of my work, " An Account of the Poly- 
nesian Eaee, its Origin and Migrations," I have, among 
other suggestions, referring to an Aryan origin of the 
Polynesian family, advanced the proposition that the 
Polynesian language was fundamentally a branch of the 
great Aryan family of languages, and, so far as yet is 
known, probahly the oldest still surviving, That pro- 
position has been denied, ridiculed, and scoffed at by some, 
and treated with, I venture to say, unmerited silence by 
others, whose good opinion and co-operation in elucidat- 
ing this subject it would have been my highest ambition 
to obtain. But, bearing in mind what Professor A. H. 
Sayce so wisely says, that l " all new things are sure to 
be objected to by those who have to unlearn the old," 
I have endeavoured to work out my problem alone, with 
the satisfaction, however, of knowing that, if it fails, no 
one else is inculpated in its failure. 

1 Introduction to the Science of Language," ■!. 267. 
VOL. ni. A 



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I THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

To Franz Bopp, of world-wide philological fame, I 
am indebted for the first idea of comparing the Poly- 
nesian and Aryan languages with a view of establishing 
their common origin. In his " Ueber die "Verwandtschaft 
der Malayisch-Polynesischen Sprachen mit den Indisch- 
Europaischen " (Berlin, 1841), he endeavoured to estab- 
lish the proposition which I have now resumed. With 
that marvellous intuition which characterised Bopp's 
genius, he perceived that there was a connection between 
the Polynesian and the Indo-European, but he failed to 
demonstrate it ; not so much from disregard of his own 
method of proceeding with other languages, as some 
writers advance (A. H. Sayce, B. Delbriick), a3 from the 
fact, as I believe, that he started from incorrect premises. 
Bopp assumed, what almost all literary men of his day 
admitted as a fact, and which John Crawford alone 
denied — and was treated as an ethnological heretic — viz., 
that the Polynesians were the descendants, the degene- 
rate and brutalised rejetons, of the Malay race or family. 
Having found a large number of Sanskrit words, in a 
more or less well-preserved condition, in the Malay and 
Javanese, and having found the same and other Sanskrit 
words in the Polynesian, in, as he thought, a less well- 
preserved condition, Bopp argued that the Malay was a 
corrupted daughter of the Sanskrit, and the Polynesian a 
still worse corrupted grand-daughter. Bopp intuitively re- 
cognised the true ring of the Aryan metal in both Malay and 
Polynesian, but he failed to discriminate between younger 
and older, and failed to detect, what in the course of this 
work I hope to establish, that the Aryan element in the 
latter — the Polynesian — was genuine and inborn, and in 
the former — the Malay — was adventitious and imported. 
Let us glance for a moment at the appreciation which 
Bopp has received from those who now lead the van in 
philological and ethnological studies. 

Professor A. H. Sayce, in his " Introduction to the 
Science of Language," vol i. p. 49 (London, 1880), says: 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 3 

" But even Homer nods at times ; and, as if to warn us 
against following too implicitly any leader, however illus- 
trious, Bopp sought to include the Polynesian dialects in 
his Indo-European family, and thereby violated the very 
method that he had himself inaugurated." 

B. Delbriick in his " Einleitung in das Sprach-Studiurn," 
p. 23 (Leipzig, 1880), speaking of Bopp's attempt to 
compare the Malayo-Polynesian with the Indo-European, 
says : " Es wird jetzt, so viel ich weiss, von den Kennern 
durchweg angenommen, dass diese Sprachen mit den 
Sanskritischen Sprachen nichts zu thun haben. Bopp 
aber empfing den Eindruck, dass sie zum Sanskrit in 
einem tochterlicheu Yerhaltuiss stiinden, und suehte die 
Verwandtschaft in derselben Weise zu erharten, wie die 
der indo-germanischen Sprachen in seiner Vgl. Gr., so weit 
der Charakter dieser Sprachen, welche eine totale Auf- 
losung ihres Urbaues erfabren haben, es gestattet." 

Professor W. D. Whitney, in his " Language and the 
Study of Language "(3d ed., 1870), p. 245,'says: "Even 
those who are most familiar with its " (Comp. Philol.) 
" methods may make lamentable failures when they come 
to apply them to a language of which they have only 
superficial knowledge, or which they compare directly 
with some distant tongue, regardless of, its relations in 
its own family, and of its history as determined by com- 
parison with these." And in a note to this the Professor 
says : " Thus, as a striking example and warning, hardly 
a more utter caricature of the comparative method is 
to be met with than that given by Bopp, the great . 
founder and author of the method himself, in the papers 
in which he attempts to prove the Malay-Polynesian 
and the Caucasian languages entitled to a place in' the 
Indo-European family." On the next page the Profes- 
sor says : " No man is qualified to compare fruitfully two 
languages or groups who is not deeply grounded in the 
knowledge of both ; " and that " no language can be fruit- 
fully compared with others which stand, or are presumed 



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4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

to stand, in a more distant relationship with it, until it 
has been first compared with its own next of kin." 

Thus the leaders, while souls of lesser note have taken 
up the slogan. But without arrogating to myself either 
deeper knowledge or clearer ideas of the requirements of 
comparative philology, I may be permitted to add to 
Professor Whitney's maxim above quoted, that " no man 
is qualified to criticise fruitfully" a comparison of two 
languages or groups "who is not deeply grounded iu 
the knowledge of both." 

Granted that Bopp's knowledge of the Malayo-Poly- 
nesian was greatly inferior to his knowledge of the Indo- 
European ; that it was " lamentably," though perhaps 
excusably, insufficient to establish what he proposed ; 
and that, however correct his perception -of a relation 
between the two groups, yet his performance was a 
failure; — granted all this, are his critics who condemn 
him better qualified than he was, by being "deeply 
grounded in the knowledge " of both groups of languages ? 
I think that few Polynesian scholars will hesitate to say 
that they are not, and thus, by Professor Whitney's own 
formula, are disqualified to pass judgment on Bopp, or 
rather the cause he advocated. 

As between Bopp and his critics, the " tu quoque " 
retort might suffice, if not to justify himself, at least to 
silence their strictures until the last word has been spoken. 
But for my part, I am too conscious of my own short- 
comings, defects, and possible mistakes to seek to avoid 
my responsibility by impeaching the jurisdiction of the 
tribunal. The judges are too much my masters in other 
things, if not in Polynesian lore, and I have too much 
need of their evidence in numerous details, that I could 
forego their good opinion ; for my effort shall be to 
induce them eventually to acknowledge that Bopp was 
right in the main point, though his method of showing it 
might have been better. 

Ethnologists of all shades of opinion are now beginning 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 5 

to agree, with better data in their hands and after a 
more thorough study of the subject, that the Polynesians 
are not descendants of the Malays ; and not a few, 
among whom I notice such men as De Quatrefages, A. H. 
Keane, A. E. Wallace, Dr. A. Lesson — however widely 
differing on other points — positively deny any relation- 
ship, either proximate or ultimate, between the Malay 
and the Eastern Polynesians. There are a few who still 
maintain a sort of middle-ground of thought, and hold that 
if the Polynesians are not the descendants of the Malays, 
they are at least descended from the same proximate 
ancestor, and are, in fact, either brothers or cousins to the 
Malays. I differ from these, and think that, tested by 
every ethnological, and even linguistic method, the Poly- 
nesians have no inheritance and no kindred in the 
Mai ay o- Javanese race or culture. 

That a very large number of Polynesian vocables may 
be found in the Malay language I believe no one now 
will deny. But, so far from proving the derivation of 
the former from the latter, the very reverse is now con- 
sidered to be the fact ; and to any one conversant with 
both languages, it is evident that almost all such words, 
iu their process of adoption by the Malays, have been 
loaded with terminations and modes of pronunciation 
entirely foreign to the idiom and genius of the Polynesian 
language. Mr. A. H. Keane, in his excellent little trea- 
tise " On the Relations of the Indo-Chinese and Inter- 
Oceanic Baces and Languages," * has shown how in all 
probability this adoption and adaptation of Polynesian 
words by the Malays came about ; and the absence of 
Malay words in the Polynesian is a proof that the latter 
had left the Indian Archipelago before the former had 
invaded it, or before they had become so far the dominant 
race as to affect the language of those Polynesian tribe3 
who still remained in the Archipelago, whether in a free 
or a subject condition, and from whom, through mutual 

1 "Journal of Anthrop. Instil. Great Britain and Ireland," Feb. 1S80. 



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6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

intercourse, hostile or peaceful, the Malays obtained the 
Polynesian vocables which for so long have misled philo- 
logists and ethnologists. 

As to the words in both languages referring themselves 
to an Aryan origin, I think the critical and candid in- 
quirer will find that the Malay o- Javanese words of that 
character refer themselves almost exclusively to Sanskrit 
and Sanskritoid sources, whereas the Polynesian words 
of similar character refer themselves to a pre-Vedic period 
of Aryan speech, before the terminations and casus-end- 
ings of nouns or the inflections of verbs had been yet 
fully developed or finally established. 

That the Polynesian is an agglutinative, and the Indo- 
European an inflectional language, is admitted ; and that, 
for that very reason, there is apparently a great gulf 
between them, which no philological (our de main can 
bridge over, is also admitted. The Indo-European stands 
on the hither side of that gulf, in all the conscious, even 
if at times arrogant, pride of its flowers and fruits, its 
development and its flections. 1 The Polynesian still 
remains on the other side of that gulf, in a semi-nude 
condition, and with progress and development arrested by 



1 How some philologists of deep 
research and of growing fame look 
upon the bo much boasted -of in- 
flections in speech may be gathered 
from "Sprakels makt iifver tali- 
ken " (■■ The Power of Language 
over Thought"), by Professor Esaiaa 
Tt-ijru-T, block-holm, <%So, who says, 
p 49, " In the inflectional languages, 
in so far as they are inflectional, in 
the fusion of the elements of flection 
and the stem complete, bo that they 
cannot be separated from each 
other. But in place of calling the 
fusion 'organic'— an expression to 
which we are wont to attach the 
idea of something of higher stand- 
ing — it may just as well be called 
'amalgamation,' a muddle, or such 
lilte. We might then see the con. 
ditions from another point of view, 
and the flections would then appear 



to us as a decay and a falling down 
from a purer anr! iimn- j>!-r:'i.-ct form 
df -pcecii. . . . The Danish vindue, 
ths Kngliih u-indim; do r.ot give ua 
tin: impression of something more 
'organic.' than our old Northern 
riud '-fiy.i-, but rather the contrary. 
Why then, for instanco, should the 
obscuration of suffixed pronouns, 
through which the Indo - 1-:m:-i>:k : ;i.ti 
verbal flections are thought to have 
arisen, be aet forth aa being ck|k:- 
cially praiseworthy ? . . . And if 
flections, aa a higher form of speech, 
stand in any connection with a 
higher civilisation, how explain the 
case that all the principal cul- 
tivated languages at present show a 
decided tendency to replace flections 
with turns of expressions which 
rather belong to the class of isolated 
or agglutinated languages? " 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. <j 

separation and isolation. Yet both these languages once 
stood together on that farther Aryan plateau, and well- 
known calls from the Indo-European camp received well- 
known answers from the Polynesian. 

But although it seems the fashion for Indo-European 
savants to look upon the Polynesian, not as a chip of 
the same block, as a member of the same family left 
behind in the race, but as an alien and a stranger, whom, 
for the convenience of classification, it has been the 
custom these last hundred years to stick into the Malay 
pocket, yet, for all that, to use a familiar saying, " blood 
wiil tell," and the day will come when the kindred will 
be recognised. 

To aid in the accomplishment of that event, to assist 
in clearing the jungle which hides the stepping-stones by 
which the Indo-European Aryans passed from yonder 
side the gulf to this, will be the object of this work. 
I offer no excuse for the boldness of my undertaking. 
The consciousness that I am right will be my answer 
and my apology. But though it is in vain, and alas ! too 
late, yet it is human to wish that to my acquaintance 
with Polynesian subjects could have been added the ad- 
vice and co-operation of those master-minds in Europe and 
America who are the ornaments of this age, and will be 
the rulers and guides of future ages in scientific research. 

In retracing the steps of the Indo-European languages, 
the first question arises, have they always been inflectional, 
in contradistinction from the so-called agglutinative ? 
From the days of Franz Bopp and W. von Schlegel, I be- 
lieve that question, though not without certain demurrers, 
has been answered in the negative, and the majority of 
distinguished philologists now concede that there was, 
and must have been, a time when the Indo-European 
branches of the Aryan were stiU in an agglutinative con- 
dition, when the casus- and verbum-en dings, and other 
now fossilised forms of accretion to roots and stems, were 
still independent, living, sense-bearing words, agglutinated 



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8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

to others for the purpose of greater emphasis and precision, 
and to distinguish the relation of the various members of 
a sentence. That such is the resume in fewest words, 
and the final decision of modern research, I gather from 
the " Introduction to the Science of Language," by A. H. 
Sayce, passim, and more especially in vol. ii. p. 149, and 
from "Einleitung in das Sprach-Studium," by B. Delbriick. 1 
With the history of the fiectional developments within 
the Indo-European branches, I, of course, have no concern 
in this treatise. But it is to the period of Aryan speech, 
when, as Professor Sayce informs us, " the cases were 
not as yet sharply defined," and " when as yet an Aryan 
verb did not exist," when the relations of nouns were 
indifferently expressed by prefixes or suffixes, when 
people said "Iove-I," instead of I love, ama-yo, contracted 
amo, <pi-fn, " speak-I," &c, as the Polynesians express 
themselves to this day : lofa-du, " Iove-I," fai-du, " say- 
I," fai-ma, "say-we," &c.,that I wish to call the reader's 
constant attention in the following pages. 

As I have referred to Professor Sayce's " Introduction 
to the Science of Language," and every well-informed 
student has probably read the work, I feel in candour 
bound to state the explicit condemnation which Professor 
Sayce puts upon just such an attempt at comparison as 
I am now undertaking. The Professor say3 (voL L p. 
136, &c.):— 

" Unless inscribed monuments are hereafter brought to 
light, or comparison with the Malayan dialects results in 

1 P. 75 : "In unendlioher Feme »ir in der Gesehichte dea indo- 

hinter aller TJeberlieferung liegt die germaniachen zwei Perioden zu un- 

Zeit, in welcherdie indo-germanische teracheiden haben, namlich : die 

Fleiion noch ideht eiistierte, in Torflesiviache Oder die Wurzel- 

welcher man, aagen wir, da ge- periode und die flexiviache. . . . 

brauchte, um geben, Qebec, u. a. w. Aber anch die Flexion kann sich 

auszudruclien. Ala dann etwa dami nicht auf einen Schlag vollzogen 

ioh gebe, ttatar der Geber, n. a. w. haben, sondern muaa in veruchie- 

entstand, war damit die Wurzel da, denen Alcten Tor aich gegangen 

ala aolche ana der Spracbe ent- sein, ao dass die flciiTkche Periode 

echwnnden." And on p. 98 : " Schon wieder in Unterabtheilungen zer- 

bei der Erortenrag dea Begriffes fallen muaa." 
Wurzel bat aich bentuagestellt, dnaa 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 9 

the recovery of a common parent-speech, the condition of 
the Polynesian languages a thousand years ago must re- 
main unknown. Much, no doubt, may be effected bycom- 
paring the scattered relics of these languages together, by 
; that a sibilant, for instance, has been preserved 
1 which has become a simple aspirate elsewhere, 
or that a guttural is retained between two vowels in 
Maori which has been dropped in most of the other 
Polynesian settlements ; but to assert that some thousand 
years back they resembled another language to which 
they bear little similarity at present, would be to argue 
without data, and to violate the fundamental principles 
of comparative philology." And again, vol. ii. pp. 31-32, 
the Professor says : " The genealogical classification of 
languages, that which divides them into families and sub- 
families, each mounting up, as it were, to a single parent- 
speech, is based on the evidence of grammar and roots. 
Unless the grammar agrees, no amount of similarity 
between the roots of two languages could warrant us in 
comparing them together and referring them to the same 
stock." 

Unfortunately no " inscribed monuments," in Polynesia 
or elsewhere, have been discovered to attest the condition 
of the Polynesian language a thousand years ago ; and " a 
comparison with the Malayan dialects " would be worse 
than useless, seeing that the latter, in so far as they 
resemble the Polynesian, are of comparatively younger 
date, and would thus only mislead, as they misled Bopp. 
Failing these aids, however, some traces of a former con- 
dition of Polynesian speech may be recovered by compar- 
ing the various dialects of the Polynesian itself, and by 
critically examining its ancient chants and prayers, which 
have been handed down — orally, it is true, hut with 
wonderful correctness — and which are now historically, 
though approximately, estimated to be some six to seven 
hundred years old — many doubtless much older. We thus 
find that, substantially, the Polynesian language wa3 at 



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io THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

that time the same as it is now, that its structure and 
grammar, its stunted development and half- accomplished 
flections, were the same then as now ; and there is no 
reason to believe, no evidence to show, that such as it 
was seven hundred years ago, it may not have been three, 
five, or seven times seven hundred years ago. 

This comparison, in the line that Professor Sayce inti- 
mates — the dropping of the gutturals in some and the 
changing of sibilants in others of the Polynesian dialects — 
I am constrained to say does not bear on the question of 
age at all. That the Hawaiians, Tahitians, Tongans, and 
others employ the aspirate h instead of the Samoan s, is no 
proof that the Samoan is the older form of a word. On 
the other hand, that the Samoans, Hawaiians, Tahitians, 
and others frequently drop the guttural, which is retained 
in the New Zealand and other dialects, is no proof 
that the latter i3 older than the former. In fact, these 
and some other differences of pronunciation must be 
referred back to a period immeasurably anterior to the 
arrival of the Polynesians in the Pacific, probably to the 
time before their separation from the other members of 
the Aryan stock, with whom these differences were 
apparently as much en regie at that time as they are 
this day in Polynesia, and with remarkable resemblance 
in detail. For instance, the Polynesian dialectical use of h 
in some and s in others, has its parallel in the conversion 
of the Sanskrit, Latin, Gothic s into the Iranian, Greek, 
and Old Welsh aspirate. The conversion of k and p 
within the Polynesian area has its parallel in the Greek 
and Latin, the Zend and Sanskrit. The interchange of 
I with r and sometimes n, so common within the Poly- 
nesian circle, finds its counterpart in the Sanskrit, Greek, . 
and Latin. The conversion of Greek and Latin gutturals 
into Gothic aspirate and Slavonic sibilant is not unknown 
to, and finds examples within, the Polynesian dialects. 
The conversion of the Sanskrit, Zend, Latin, and other 
nasal ng into the Slave n has its counterpart in the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. u 

Samoan, New Zealand, and other ng, and the Hawaiian, 
Tahitian, and other n. Even the hardening of this ruj 
into the guttural Greek y shows itself in the Marquesan 
conversion of ng into k. The change of the Sanskrit 
and Zend v into the Greek F, and the Old Irish / has 
its parallel in the Hawaiian w, the New Zealand wk 
becoming in the Samoan, Tongan, Tahitian, and others / 
No one now claims that the Indo-European languages 
are descended from the Sanskrit ; and I hope that here- 
after none will claim that the principal Polynesian dia- 
lects are descended one from the other. If, according 
to Professor Sayce, the retention of the sibilant in the 
Samoan would indicate that it is the older branch of the 
Polynesian, the dropping of the guttural would indicate 
that it is the younger. It cannot be both at the same 
time ; and thus the Professor's criterion for determining 
the relative age of Polynesian dialects cannot be the 
correct one. Professor Sayce would hardly advance that 
the conversion of the Sanskrit, Latin, Gothic s into Zend, 
Greek, Old Welsh aspirates, is an evidence that the former 
were the older, more genuine, modes of utterance, and 
the latter were younger corruptions. So far as the 
alphabets of the Indo-European and Polynesian dialects 
will admit of a comparison, the phonetic changes in both 
are remarkably similar, and would seem to indicate a 
common starting-point. 

If we now pass from sound to sense, it will be seen 
that in the majority of the Indo-European and Polynesian 
words which I have compared together the primary 
archaic sense has been better preserved in the latter than 
in the former, the material, underlying, sense retained in 
the one, and frequently lost in the other. 1 

1 Professor W. D. Whitney, in This method of change is one of 
his " Jjanguage and the Study of such prominent importance in the 
IiHriaiiH!,'!'.," p. in, says on this development of language, that it 
subject: " Among the examples ai- requires at our hands a more apeaial 
ready given, not a few have illus- treatment. By it has been gene- 
rated the transfer of a word from rated the whole body of our intel- 
a physical to a spiritual significance, lectual, moral, and abstract Yocabu- 



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12 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

But we are told by Professor Sayee, and doubtless 
correctly, that "no amount of similarity between the 
roots of two languages " (in sound and sense) " could 
warrant us in comparing them together — unless the 
grammar agrees." l Where, then, is the grammar of the 
ancient pre-Vedic Aryan language to be found ? the 
grammar of the period, " when the flections had not yet 
been evolved, and when the relations of grammar were 
expressed by the close amalgamation of flectionless stems 
in a single sentence-word ; " 2 when " there was as yet 
no distinction between noun and verb," and " the accusa- 
tive and genitive relations of after-days did not yet exist ;" 3 
when " the cases were not as yet sharply defined, when 
the stem could be furnished with a number of unmeaning 
suffixes, and when these suffixes could be used indifferently 
to express the various relations of the sentence ; " * " when 
as yet an Aryan verb did not exist, when, in fact, the 
primitive Aryan conception of the sentence was much 
the same as that of the modern Dyak ; " 5 when, " apart 
from the imperative, the verb of the undivided Aryan 
community possessed no other tenses or moods ; " s when 
" the Aryan language, or rather the ancestor of that 
hypothetical speech which we term the Parent-Aryan, 
was once itself without any signs of gender ; " 7 when, in 
short, the ancestor of the Indo-European languages stood 
in the same" semi-nude, undeveloped condition as the 
Polynesian of to-day still stands. 

There wa3 then, apparently, a time when the Indo- 
European languages, — or the dialects of a common parent- 
speech from which they developed themselves, — were 

lary ; every word and phrase of tween a physical and mental act or 

which this ifl composed, if we are product." 

able to trace its history back to the ' Loc. cU. vol. ii. p. 31. | 

beginning, can be shown to have * Loc. eii. vol i. p. 301. 

signified originally aomethiog con* * Loc. tit. vol. L p. 431. 

Crete and apprehensible by the * Loc tit. voL ii. p. 150. 

senses : its present use is the result ■ Ibid. 

of a figurative transfer, founded on * Loc. tit voL ii. p. 156, 

the recognition of an analogy be- 7 Vol. i. p. 405. _ 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 13 

a system of inflections, and when their 
grammatical relations were expressed by separate parti- 
cles and "the close amalgamation of flectionless stems," 
or, in other words, they were an agglutinative language 
making its first steps towards becoming inflectional. It 
is to that period of the Indo-European languages, it is 
with the Aryan speech of that time, that I wish to refer 
and compare the Polynesian, 

August Schleicher thought that that primitive Aryan 
speech (" Indo-G-ermanische Ursprache ") might be reco- 
vered by comparison and analysis. The procedure was 
probably correct, but the result failed to be demonstrated, 
because there were no ancient historical remains, no 
accessible living specimen — that philologists then were 
aware of — of that ancient Aryan speech, wherewith to 
compare it. His efforts, therefore, became simply tenta- 
tive and the result hypothetical, and has been treated as 
such by later philologists. 

With reverent hands I now take up the thread which 
slipped from the hands of Bopp and eluded the grasp of 
Schleicher, and propose the Polynesian as a living speci- 
men of that ancient Aryan speech, that " Indo-German- 
ische Ursprache," as one of the doubtless many dialects 
into which Aryan speech had already began to diverge 
ere the flections had been definitely developed or generally 
adopted, and while that speech was still substantially 
agglutinative. 

Professor Sayce tell us * that " we may catch glimpses, 
indeed, of a time when the cases were not as yet sharply 
defined," &c. Let us follow those glimpses, and see how 
the probable Aryan of that period and the Polynesian 
would agree. 

What was the alphabet of that early Aryan speech ? 

What letters, and how many, served them to express 

those colloquial words which were common to all their 

branches before their adoption of inflections, and before 

1 See p. 12 supra. 



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14 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

their still later separation ? What was the nature and 
extent of their alphabet while yet they were agglutinative 
and stood on a par with the Polynesians ? No " inscribed 
monuments" remain to tell. But it is well known that 
most, if not all, the Indo-European languages, when first 
reduced to writing, had fewer letters in their alphabets 
than they have at present. How many or how few 
letters served their purpose at that time may perhaps 
never be known. Professor Whitney tells us that the 
" earliest Indo-European language " contained only three 
vowels and twelve consonants : a, i, u, vowels ; I, r, semi- 
vowels ; n, m, nasals ; h, aspirate ; s, sibilant ; g, d, b, k, 
t, p, mutes ; " all others are of later origin." 1 Prom the 
inter-convertibility of several of those consonants it may 
reasonably be inferred that at a still earlier period than 
that referred to by Professor Whitney even fewer con- 
sonants served the purposes of colloquial intercourse. 
The best developed Polynesian alphabet, the Samoan, 
contains fifteen letters, ten consonants, and five vowels ; 
the New Zealand and Easter Island, fourteen letters ; 
the Tahitian and Marquesan, thirteen letters ; the 
Hawaiian, twelve letters. To the peculiar converti- 
bility of different letters common to the Indo-European 
and the Polynesian dialects I have already referred on 
page 10. 

In regard to the Polynesian vowels, — not feeling com- 
petent to solve the question which occupied the atten- 
tion of men like Eopp, Grimm, Schleicher, Pott, and 
others, who, arguing from Sanskrit and Gothic, held that 
the primitive Aryan had only three vowel sounds, a, i, u, 
or whether, conformably to Greek, Latin, and others, it 
contained five vowels, a, e, i, o, it,— it is sufficient to state 
that the Polynesian, like the latter, possessed the same 
five vowels. The latter may be a development of the 
primitive three, but if so, it must be very ancient indeed, 
and with the Polynesians they are of the very substance 

i " Language and the Study of Language," p. 265. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 15 

of the language. Consonants, through dialectical pecu- 
liarities above referred to, may change or be elided, but, 
except iu very rare and comparatively modern instances, 
the vowels are permanent. The a of immemorial time 
is the a of the present day, in whatever stem or root 
occurring, throughout the purely Polynesian dialects. 
And so with e, i, 0, u. Hence I think it will be found, 
on future inquiry and comparison, that the Polynesian 
pronunciation of a word that can be fairly assumed to .be 
of Aryan origin will be a valuable guide in determining 
the earlier, if not original, pronunciation of that word 
within the unbroken Aryan circle, before the flections 
began to affect the vowel sounds, the modulation of the 
voice. 

In regard to the morphology of the Polynesian and 
Indo-European languages, their construction of sentences, 
there are several points of contact and comparison which 
invite the attention of the philologist. 

The article, whether definite or indefinite, invariably 
precedes the noun : he hale, ka hah, " a house, the 
house," une maison, la maison, etg Sopos, 6 So/xo^. 

In Polynesian the attributive adjective follows the 
noun, the predicative precedes it; he hale via, "a red 
house ; " ula ka hale, " red (is) the house*; " he waa loloa, 
" a long boat or vessel ; " loloa ha waa, " long (is) the 
boat ; " he mahua alii, " a noble parent ; " alii ka makua, 
" noble (is) the parent," &e. Professor Sayce, in his 
valuable work so often referred to, calls attention to the 
fact that the Aryan (Indo-Europ.) languages, with the 
exception of the llomance branches of the Latin, placed 
the adjective before the noun " unless it implied a sentence 
of predication." 1 But as it is admitted that there was 
a period of Aryan speech when the inflections were not 
yet formed and exercised their influence on the current 
of thought and the position of words in a sentence ; when 
the nude words which gave expression to the speaker's 
. ' Loc. tit. vol. i. pp. 434-435. 



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16 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

thoughts must have stood side by side in the same order 
that those thoughts arose in the speaker's mind, — at which 
period, perhaps little later, the Polynesians separated 
from the Aryan stock, — it is possible, nay, probable, that 
the thoughts of the Aryan, par excellence the Indo-Euro- 
pean of that time, followed the same order as that of his 
disowned Polynesian brother, as that of his immediate 
neighbours the Aceadian — an agglutinative language — 
and the Semitic — an inflectional language. Professor 
Sayce ' justly remarks that " in the primitive "sentence 
the object would have come first, then the attribute and 
verb, and lastly the subject." To that natural and 
" primitive " order of thought in the Aryan's mind and 
manner of expressing it the Polynesian bears witness. 
The hale, the waa, the makua (house, ship, parent), in 
the examples quoted above, were the objects of the 
speaker's thoughts ; the via, loloa, alii (red, long, noble), 
were the attributes, the adjectives that described and 
qualified the object. And the same order of thought 
and expression held good in compound words. 

I would not venture to contradict so eminent a philo- 
logist as Professor Sayce when he states, as a rule, that 
the earlier Aryan, through all its branches, placed the 
adjective, the qualifying word, the attribute, before the 
noun. But the question may innocently be asked, how 
early, or when, did the ATyan depart from that " primi- 
tive order of thought and expression in the primitive 
sentence" to which I have just referred on Professor 
Sayce's own authority ? If such was the order of the 
Aryan "primitive sentence" — and that it was such the 
Polynesian attests, from my point of view — then the 
placing the adjective before the noun, the object, must 
have been a subsequent, a later change, in which the 
Polynesians did not participate, as they did not in the 
inflectional development. The "altered position of the 
adjective in the Eomance languages " would then be 
1 Lot. tit. vol. 1. p. 436. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 17 

simply a return to the " primitive " order of a sentence, 
brought about under peculiar conditions — the loss or 
corruption, perhaps, of some of the inflections. 

As regards compound words, Professor Sayce refers to 
the Latin credo, " I believe," wbich has the same origin 
as the Sanskrit srad-dadh&mi, " heait-placing-I." The 
Polynesian offers numerous instances of similar com- 
pounds : ke-manao-lana-nei 1 a'ti, " I hope," literally, ke, 
article, indicating pres. ind.; manao, " mind ; " lana, " float- 
ing, buoying up ; " a'u, " I ; " lihi-launa, " arriving at," 
lit. " edge-reaching ; " waha-hee, " to lie, to falsify," lit. 
" mouth-slipping," &c. 

Again, Professor Sayee remarks, that " at the time 
when an Aryan syntax was first forming itself, there was 
as yet no distinction between noun and verb " 2 As the 
Aryan was then, so has the Polynesian remained up 
till now. Nbko, s. is " a seat ; " noho, v. " to sit ; " nono, 
s. " a red purple colour ; " nono, v. " to be red in the 
face from exertion ; " kilo, v. " to gaze earnestly ; " kilo, 
s. " a star-gazer ; " opu, v. " to expand ; " opu, s. " a 
protuberance, belly;" hewa, s. "error;" hewa, v. "to be 
wrong ; " and numerous others. The prefixed article alone 
distinguishes the one from the other, as it probably did 
with Aryan woids at that early time when " the Aryan 
syntax was first forming itself." 

In the forthcoming work I have endeavoured to heed 
Professor Sayce's warning, that " in comparing languages 3 
we have first to compare their grammars, not their voca- 
bularies. It is in the sentence, not in the isolated word, 
that languages agree or differ, and grammar deals with 
the relations that the several parts of the sentence bear 
to one another. Single words may accidentally resemble 
each other in both sound and sense, and yet belong to 
languages which have nothing in common." But in 

1 Nei is an article, expressing " here, now, at present." 
5 Loc. cit. voL i. p. 431. ' Lac cit. voL i. p. 148. 

VOL. III. B 



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18 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

order to institute a just comparison, the two things to be 
compared must stand on an equal footing. One does 
not compare a full-grown man with a child, uor the 
grammar of a highly inflectional language with a grammar 
that is " first forming itself." I have endeavoured to 
show that the Polynesians must have separated from 
their Aryan congeners during some pre-Vedic period when 
the syntax of the latter was still in its infancy. It is, 
therefore, with Aryan speech as it was then, with the 
order of words in a sentence that then obtained, that the 
Polynesian must be compared. It is to be regretted that 
so little of that ancient Aryan speech and mode of ex- 
pression has been preserved. But Professor Sayce has 
kindly furnished not a few illustrations, which I have 
sought to utilise and combine. It is true that " single 
words may accidentally resemble each other both in 
sound and sense, and yet not belong to a common 
language." But when, in addition to similarity of gram- 
mar, so far as such can be pointed out and identified, not 
a few " isolated " words, but a host of words, including 
articles and numerals, as well as words of primary 
necessity to express thought, are found in two languages, 
however far separate their geographical position, — their 
resemblance in sound and sense must be something more 
than " accidental," and I think we are justified in seeking 
a common origin for both. And as ethnologists now are 
beginning to discern and acknowledge that the Polynesians 
owe nothing to the Malays ethnically, it may not perhaps 
be too great a heresy to seek the origin of their language 
outside of the Malays. 

But " language," we are told by Professor Sayce, 1 " is 
no test of race, merely of social contact, and so, too, the 
possession of a common stock of myths proves nothing 
more than neighbourly intercourse." And in another 
place he says : " Language belongs to the community, 
not to the race ; it can therefore testify only to social 
1 Zee. cU. vol. ii p. 167. 

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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 19 

contact, never to racial kinsmansbip. Tribes and races 
lose their own tongues and adopt those of others. . . . 
Language is an aid to the historian, not to the ethnologist. 
So far as ethnology is concerned, identity or relationship 
of language can do no more than raise a presumption in 
favour of a common racial origin. ... If ethnology 
demonstrates kinship of race, kinship of speech may be 
used to support the argument ; but we cannot reverse 
the process, and argue from language to race. To do so 
is to repeat the error of third-hand writers on language, 
who claim the black-skinned Hindu as a brother,, on the 
ground of linguistic relationship, or identify the whole 
race with the speakers of Aryan tongues." l 

There is undoubtedly much sound wisdom in the 
above utterances. The English or Spanish speaking 
Negro in North or South America has no ethnic kinship 
with the Goth or the Latin or their Aryan forefathers. 
There is in that case a palpable ethnic dissimilarity which 
no appropriation of a foreign language can hide or explain 
away. But when not only language — not merely a 
number of vocables, but the grammar and the foundation 
of grammar— but also the ethnic and physical charac- 
teristics point in the same direction, then they mutually 
support each other, and what at first may have appeared 
dark and dubious in one receives light and confirmation 
from the other. Professor Sayce admits that identity or 
relationship of language " raises a presumption in favour 
of a common racial origin," but no more. It was this 
identity or relationship that raised a presumption in 
Bopp's mind, and which presumption subsequent inquirers 
have strengthened by ethnological and historical data. It 
was probably this "presumption" which caused Professor 
Max Midler to write : " No authority could have been 
strong enough to persuade the Grecian army that their 
gods and their hero -ancestors were the same as those of 
King Porus, or to convince the English soldier that the 
1 Loc. at. vol. ii. pp. 315-317. 



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ao THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

same blood was running in his veins as in the veins of 
the dark Bengalee. And yet there is not an English jury 
now-a-days which, after examining the hoary documents 
of language, would reject the claim of a common descent 
and a legitimate relationship between Hindu, Greek, and 
Teuton. . . . Though the historian may shake his head, 
though the physiologist may doubt, and the poet scorn 
the idea, all must yield before the facts furnished by 
language. " l Even so cautious and reliable a writer on 
this subject as Professor W. D. Whitney, after indicating 
the various objections to language as a racial or ethnic 
test, sums up by saying that " it still remains true that, 
upon the whole, language is a tolerably sure indication 
of race." And in another place he says that " language 
shows ethnic descent, not as men have chosen to preserve 
such evidence of their kindred with other communities 
and races, but as it cannot be effaced without special 
effort directed to that end." 2 It is not usual, I believe, 
to class Professor Mas Midler or Professor Whitney 
among ".third-hand writers on language," and yet the 
positivism on the one side is perhaps as instructive as 
the positivism of the other, and I and others may be 
excused for seeking a via media between the two. 

Let us now more closely, and so far as it can be done, 
compare the grammars, the component parts of a sentence, 
of the Polynesians and Indo- Europeans, such as it pre- 
sumably was when the former separated from the latter. 
I have shown by the testimony of the ablest Indo- 
European savants of the present day that there was a 
time when the Indo-European languages were in a 
transition state from being agglutinative to becoming 
inflectional, and that their grammar must have corre- 
sponded to the linguistic requirements and intellectual 

1 " The Languages of the Sea 
Wat in the East," p. 29. See 1 
" India : What can it Teach m 
by iame author, p. 36. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 21 

status of that period. What cause3, what motives, what 
pressure, induce a people whom an agglutinative form of 
speech has satisfied for unnumbered ages, to change that 
form — however gradual that change may come about — 
for an inflectional, is beyond my power to state. It is 
enough for my purpose that that fact is acknowledged. 
Nor yet is it relevant to my object whether that change 
be an improvement, a development for the better, indicat- 
ing higher culture, a certain mental superiority, as some 
assert and others doubt. It is enough for my purpose 
that, whether for better or worse, such a change was in 
operation within the Aryan family of speech at or about 
the time that the Polynesian branch broke off from the 
parent stock. No " inscribed monuments," no surviving 
specimen among the Indo-European branches, exists to 
attest the condition and appearance of the Aryan tongue 
previous to or during that transition period. When first 
historically known to us, their transition period was 
passed, and we only know them as emerging from the 
profoundest obscurity with a most wonderful wealth and 
symmetric arrangement of inflections, from which, they, 
each and all, have in subsequent ages been receding, and, 
as it were, returning to a less complicated mode of ex- 
pressing men's thoughts. Professor Tegn^r in the essay 
quoted on p. 6 says : " Flections have their real source, 
not in the thought of man, but in his tongue ; they rise, 
not from thinking quicker, but from speaking quicker; 
not from thinking more correctly, but from speaking 
more incorrectly." 1 But whatever the origin of flections, 
whether from decay or from growth, they were not the 
primary mode of expression of the ancient Aryan race. 
Of that primary mode we can only " catch glimpses " by 
analyses which reveal to us that there was a time, as 
Professor Sayce has told us, when there was no distinc- 
tion between au Aryan verb and an Aryan noun, when 
the casus-endings had not yet been developed, when even 
1 Loc. eit. p. 54. 



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Z2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

genders were unknown, and, apart frorh the imperative, 
the Aryan verb had no moods nor tenses. We have 
here a tolerably good outline of the condition of the 
Polynesian of this day, with this addition, that a few 
flections had already crept into the latter before separation 
and isolation arrested their further development 

Bearing in mind what Professor Whitney says, that 
" the boundaries of every great family, again, are likely to 
be somewhat dubious, there can hardly fail to be branches 
which either parted so early from the general stock, or 
have, owing to peculiar circumstances in their history, 
varied so rapidly and fundamentally since they left it, 
that the tokens of their origin have become effaced almost 
or quite beyond recognition ; " l bearing this in mind, let 
us now compare the different parts of speech which pre- 
sent themselves for comparison within the Polynesian and 
Indo-European branches. 



Ahtici.es. 

It is said by Professor Whitney 2 that the articles in 
the Indo-European branches of the Aryan are of "a 
decidedly modern date ; the definite article always growing 
out of a demonstrative pronoun, the indefinite out of the 
numeral one." Such order of genesis in the evolution of 
speech is probably correct ; but if " modern " in relation 
to the growth of language, it is still old enough to have 
been shared in by the Polynesian branch of the Aryan 
stock before its separation. 

Within the Polynesian area the indefinite article is 
expressed by : Samoa, Pakaafo, se ; Tonga, New Zealand, 
' Hawaiian, he; Tahiti, Rarotonga, Man garewa, Marquesas, 
e ; ex. gr. se mata, " an eye ; " he ilio, " a dog ; " e wahine, 
" a woman." This refers to Sanskrit sa, " originally one " 
(Benfey), and probably reappears in the Greek e-ci?, the 

1 Loc. cit. p. 290. toe. eit. p. 276. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 23 

Epir. for e«, "one;" in the Greek 6, %, 01, at; in the 
Gothic sa, se ; A. Sax. se, seo ; Latin hi-c, hce-c, ko-c. 

The definite articles in Polynesian are : Hawaii, ha and 
ke ; in South Polynesia generally te : ka hale, " the house ; " 
ke kumu, "the reason;" te tapa, "the cloth." The 
Samoan definite article le must have been of very recent 
adoption,- for it is not found or used in groups that 
were professedly, and known to be, peopled from the 
Samoas. To this article corresponds the Sanskrit ta-d, 
the Greek 69, >i, to (Liddell and Scott infer an original 
to?, Ttj, to, from the Homeric gen. Toiof), the Latin -te, 
-ta, -tud, in iste, ista, istud ; Goth, thata, thai; Sax. the, 
that. 

Nouxs. 

The nouns in Polynesia are not distinguishable in 
appearance from the verbs. Numbers are marked by 
prefixes or duplications. Genders, as an inflection, are 
unknown, but marked by suffixing " male " or " female " 
terms. Casus-endings are also unknown. In short, the 
Polynesian noun is as nude as was the Aryan noun at 
the time referred to on pp. 11, 12. 



Pronouns. 

Among the Polynesian pronouns there are some that 
force themselves on our attention by their apparent, and, 
I venture to say, undoubted connection with Indo-Euro- 
pean words of the same character. The principal pro- 
nouns in Polynesia are : — 

1st pers. sing., Samoa, Hawaii, Marquesas, Tahiti, 
Hervey Group, Easter Island, a'u, emphatically, o-a'u, 
oiva'u, wa'u; New Zealand, ahau, but in the possessive, 
n'aku ; Javanese and Malay, aku, Mentawei Islands, 
aku; Tagal, aco ; Celebes (Garontalo), watt; Malgasse, 
a/io, zaho. 



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24 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

2nd pers. sing., Polynesia (uhique), hoe, 'oe ; Java and 
Malay, a-ng-kav, kau, kweh, " thou." 

3rd pers. sing., Polynesia (uHque), ia, " he, she, it ; " 
Malay, dia or iya ; Sumatra (Singkel), ieja ; Pulo Nias, 
iaija. The Polynesian la or ra and na, now only occur- 
ring in compounds forming demonstratives and possessives, 
were doubtless at some previous period independent pro- 
nouns of the 3rd pers. They now occur as te-ra, ke-la, 
te-na, ke-na, lo-na, o-na, ko-na, ka-na, a-na, " that, its, his, 
her." 

No trace can be found in the Polynesian of a form of 
1st pers. sing, in ma, yet ma is the base of the 1st pers. 
dual and plural, and as such retained pure in the Samoan 
and Tongan. In all other dialects coupled with lua in 
the dual and with tolu in the plural. 1st pers. dual, 
ma'ua, "we two;" 1st pers. plur. ina-to'u, or in Tonga 
ma-tolu, " we three, we all ; " 2nd pers. dual, ou-faa, 
Jco-lua, o-lua, " you two ; " 2nd pers. plur. kou-to'u, ou- 
to'u, ou-ko'u, " you three, you all ; " 3rd pers. dual, la-'tta, 
ra-'ua, na and na-'ua (Tong.), "they two;" 3rd pers, 
plur. la-ko'u, ra-to'n, nau and nav^tolv, (Tong.), " they 
three, they all." 

01' the two forms, aku and ma, which the Polynesian 
retains, one in the 1st pers. sing, and the other in the 
1st pers. dual and plural, the West Aryan dialects offer 
the following relatives : Gothic, ik, mis, mik ; A. Saxon, 
ie, me ; Greek, eyie, fte, fiou ij-jueis ; CEol. aft-fie? ; Latin, 
ego, me, mihi ; Sanskrit, as-ma, md, mat, different cases 
of aham. 

The New Zealand ahau stands alone among the 
Polynesian dialects, but its relation to the Malgasse 
oho cannot well be doubted. How far both refer to, and 
retain an older form of, the Sanskrit aham, I leave to 
those more conversant with Sanskrit than myself to 
determine, though I strongly believe in the relation until 
disproven. 

As the Gothic 1st pers. plural and dual, mis, wit, with 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 25 

an apparent base of wi, have no kindred, so far as T 
know, within the Indo-European dialects, it may be 
possible that a similar permutation of w for m, as is not 
unknown in Polynesian as well as in the Indo-European 
branches, 1 may have taken place here, and thus wi 
represents an older mi, akin to the Polynesian ma, 
Sanskrit via, Greek /xe, &c. 

Of the Polynesian 2nd pers. sing, and plur. I find no 
well-preserved relative or analogue within the Indo-Euro- 
pean branches, unless the Sanskrit yu, tu, tva, pronominal 
bases of 2nd pers. and preserved in Latin tu, Greek to, <tv, 
v-fiets, Gothic tu, pus, A. Saxon eoio, eventually refer 
themselves to what Mr. Gaussin (" Dn Dialecte de 
Tahiti," 1853, p. 157) calls the second form of the 2nd 
pers. sing, of Polynesian personal pronouns, viz., u, and 
which now never appears except in the possessive prou. 
ia-n, to-u, na-u, no-u, "thine, your." 

To the Polynesian 3rd pers. sing. I find related the 
Gothic ija, " she, they," tains, " yon, that," Germ. iener. 
If the Latin is, ea, id, is connected with the Polynesian 
ia, the primary base of both must have been i, which 
Benfey offers as a pronominal base of the Latin and 
Gothic, as well as the Sanskrit i-d and i-dam. 

Indo-European relatives of the Polynesian 3rd pers., 
la, ra, na, "he, they," I find none, unless the Sanskrit 
na in a-na, e-na, " this," be one. 

Among the interrogative Polynesian pronouns are 
found the forms of wai, kai, ai, " who," aha, ha, a, 
" what," fe, fea, hea, " how, which, where," the two 
latter frequently accompanied with a prefix, fe, whose 
original meaning is now iost. To these forms probably 
ally themselves the Greek ttov, Ionic kov, "where," trot, 
" whither," TriJ, Ionic k!}, Doric *ca, " how," Latin quis, qua, 
quod, qualis, &c ; Gothic hwas, hwo, hwa, " who," hwan, 

1 In New Zealand, ktimara, Greek d-/ia£a, "vehicle, cart;" 

"potatoes;" Hawaii, moala, id. Sanskrit, vaha, vahja, id. Greek, 

Samoan, male, " to hawk and jia\Xot; lAkmveUut. Greek, jiwri s ; 

spit ; " Hawaii, wale, "apittle." Latin rafts. 



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26 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

" when," hwaiwa, " how," &c. ; Sanskrit ka, has, 
kva, " where," &c. 



COPULATIVES and Conjunctions. 

In this category may be noticed oka, ata, 'a (Haw., 
Marqu., Samoa), " but, as, if." I would refer them to the 
Gothic ath-than, ok, akei, " but, however;" to the Latin 
at, " but," perhaps aiso ac ; to Sanskrit atha, " but, if." 



Adverbs. 

Among the Polynesian negative adverbs we meet with 
the Tahitian ai-ta, ai-ma, ai-na, ai-pa, " not, no," used 
with the past only, and ei-rna, e-i-na, e-i-la, used with the 
future ; Marquesas, ai-e, " no, not ;" Tonga, i-kai and tai, 
" no, not ; " Fakaafo, ai with suffix ala, e.g., ai-ala, tai-ala, 
" no, not ; " Eotumah, inke, indi, " no ; " Malay, ti, tia, 
tiada, " no, not ; " Sunda, ente, id. ; Malgasse, tsi, id. I 
would consider all these different forms as merely 
dialectical variations of a common and original negative, 
whose form was probably i. By analysing the Tahitian 
forms I arrive at that conclusion. The last syllables, ~ta, 
■ma, -na, are suffixes, making the negative more or less 
emphatic, but whose original meaning I am unable to 
state. The -pa in -ai-pa, however, is known to imply a 
qualification, and to "include an idea of doubt or con- 
tingency," and is probably a contraction of the general 
adverb paha, " perhap3." Remains therefore the ai, which 
we find alone in the Fakaafo dialect, and nearly so in 
the Marquesan ai-e, some of the other dialects having 
prefixed a t or k, as the Tonga. But the a in ai is as 
much euphonic as the a in a-ole, that other Polynesian 
negative current in the Hawaiian and other groups ; and 
its euphonic prefixual character is moreover evidenced by 
its being changed into e when the negative is applied to 
the future, ai-ta becoming ei~ta, &c. There remains, then, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 17 

only the original i as an expression of negation, which 
we find reproduced in the Tonga i-kai and the Rotumab 
i-nJce, and which probably meets us with prefixed ( or fa 
in the Malay ti and the Malgasse fat, " no, not" 

Among the Indo-European languages it is often diffi- 
cult to ascertain which vowel-sound in a common root or 
stem was the primary or original one. Hence, though 
the Sanskrit and Greek have their a privativum, expressing 
iin idea of negation, which in the former heeomes an 
before vowels, yet the Latin and Gothic express the same 
idea with in and mm, the Scandinavian with 0; the 
absolute negative particle in Greek is ov. In all these 
the simple vowel was the original sign and expression of 
negation ; but was that vowel a, i, u, or ? If I am 
sustained in considering the Polynesian as an older 
branch than either of the above, I should hold that the 
Polynesian i was the primary form, from which itself as 
well as the others have deviated ; for not only do traces 
remain of this original i in the Latin in, but also in the 
Scandinavian cj, inle, ic!:e, adverbs of negation, and ingen, 
" none." 

Another Polynesian negative deserves consideration. 
It is mai (Haw.), u-moi (Marqu.), with a prohibitive sense 
used imperatively, " do not;" mai hele oe, " do not go you;" 
mai hana, "don't do it." It corresponds in sense and 
use as well as sound to the Greek w, the Sanskrit md, 
the Latin ne, "do not, no." 

Some of the Polynesian affirmatives also proclaim their 
affinity to the West Aryan branches, Thus in Tonga, 
Samoa, Fakaafo, io, " yes," Hawaii, io, " truly, verily ; " 
Fiji, io and ia, " yes ; " Malgasse, it, Malay, ija, Sunda, 
nja ; all which show a remarkable family likeness to the 
Gothic ja, jai, " yes, yea," the Scandinavian ia, jo, ju, id. ; 
perhaps the Greek eta, Latin tia, eia vero, " very well." 
The other Polynesian affirmative, e, o-e, io-e, Pulo Nias, 
eh, " yes," probably refers itself to the Greek ?, " in 
truth, verily." 



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z 8 the polynesian race. 

Verbs. 

The Polynesian present participial ending, verb active, 
Hawaiian -ana, New Zealand -ana, -enga, is by some philo- 
logists classed as a verbal particle, but is none the less a 
pure inflection, whose original meaning when standing 
alone or merely agglutinated can no longer be explained. 
It corresponds to the Indo-European participial endings in : 
Latin -ans, -ens, Greek -<ov, Gothic -ands, -onds, Sanskrit 
-ana, and others. And I find that the manner of con- 
verting a verbal participle into a noun substantive, by 
help of this flection or particle, is the same in the 
Polynesian and the Sanskrit and other Indo-European 
branches. Thus in Polynesian, hanau, "to bring forth ;" 
lianau-ana, " birth ; " moe, " to sleep ; " mo'-ena, moe'-nga, 
contracted from mot-ana, " a sleeping place, mat, or 
mattress ; " and numerous others. Compare Sanskrit 
h&nch-ana, "gold," from kancfi, "to shine;" krodfidna, 
" anger," from hrvdh, " be wroth ; " gam-ana, " gait," from 
gam, "to go ; " budh-dna, " teacher," from budh, " to 
understand ; " yudh-ana, " enemy," from yudh, " to fight ; " 
and so throughout the Indo-European branches down to 
the English hear-ing, see-ing, fight-ing, Ueed-ing, &c, used 
substantively. 

The sign of the passive voice of the verb throughout 
Polynesia is -wt. It is frequently for euphony's sake 
preceded by a consonant, such as t, h, I, m, s, ng, f, and 
sometimes contracted to a alone. Whatever its meaning 
as an independent word might have been has been lost ; 
but though generally suffixed to the verb and incorporated 
■with it as a flection, either by the additional consonant 
or by the loss of its own first vowel, or pure and simple, 
its place is not yet so fixed but that it admits frequently 
a qualifying adverb between the verb and itself, and thus 
shows a transition period from an independent verbal 
particle, bearing a sense and form of its own, to a fixed 
meaningless flection. Ex. gr., hana-ia na mea a pan, 

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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 29 

" done were all things ; " ike~a no. olelo a Ku, " understood 
were the words of Ku;" auhuti.-ii.iji. It, o.upuni o Zona, 
" overturned is the government of Lono ; " kau-lia ka paku, 
" hung up is the curtain ; " kini-tia, " pinched ; " sii-tea, 
" lifted up ; " fau-sia, " hound together ; " tm-fia, " held ; " 
tanu-mia, " buried ; " hana-ole-ia, " not done ; " holo-m.ua- 
ia, " gone before," &c. 

This verbal particle, if such it he, this sign of the 
passive Polynesian verb, just hovering on the verge of , 
becoming a pure inflection, seems to me to belong to that 
class of words from which the Indo-European branches 
in after-times developed some of their passive inflections 
and signs of different stages of their passive verbs. I 
find the participle of the future passive in Sanskrit 
formed of a verbal ending or inflection in -ya, in cku&h-ya, 
" to be sucked ; " abhi-nand-ya, " to be rejoiced ; " a-pur- 
ya, " not to be satisfied ; " yaj-ya, " to be offered," &c. I 
find the Greek pass. aor. ending in -«? and -6eis, the 
Gothic past part. pass, ending in -iths and -aiths, the ■ 
Sanskrit ending in -ita, the Latin in -tus. Now all these 
verbal endings are merely agglutinated words, like the 
Polynesian -ana,, -enga, -ia, -hia, -tia, &c, whose original 
meaning has been lost, and whose original form it would 
be difficult to say where best preserved. The similarity 
of form and the similarity of purpose indicated in these 
Indo-European and Polynesian agglutinated verbal end- 
ings, particles, or flections, active and passive, seem to me 
to proclaim a common origin, and that, at the time of 
the Polynesian separation, the Aryan language had 
reached that stage of development. 

" Apart from the imperative," says Professor A, H. 
Sayce in his " Introduction to the Science of Language," 
voL ii. p. 15 6, " whose second personal singular some- 
times ended in -dhi {Si), sometimes in -si {80s, Vedic 
md-si), sometimes had no termination at all, the verb of 
the undivided Aryan community possessed no other tenses 
or moods. It was left to the separate branches of the 



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3° 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



k. 



family each to work out its verbal system in its new 
home and in its own way, adding new forms, forgetting 
others, now amalgamating, now dissociating." With due 
respect for so great authority, yet, from the foregoing 
comparison, I think it passably evident that " the un- 
divided Aryan community," at the time when the Poly- 
nesians separated from it, already had a part. pres. act. 
and a pret. pass, in common throughout its various 
branches, and had arrived so far together in the develop- 
ment of their verbs. If the termination indicating the 
imperative was developed and common property of the 
undivided Aryan, it has been lost in the Polynesian, as 
it has been lost in some members of the Gothic branch 
and in some of the Romance descendants of the Latin; 
or else it was developed subsequent to the pres. part, act, 
and pret. pass, terminations above referred to, and after 
the separation of the Polynesians. 

Again, speaking of the formations of case-endings of 
nouns, the same author says r 1 " We can trace the history 
of the verb with far greater completeness and certainty 
than we can the history of the noun. The history of 
the noun is one of continuous decay. We may catch 
glimpses, indeed, of a time when the case3 were not as 
yet sharply defined, when the stem could be furnished 
with a number of unmeaning suffixes, and when these 
suffixes could he used indifferently to express the various 
relations of the sentence. But long before the age of 
Aryan separation, the several relations in which a word 
might stand within a sentence had been clearly evolved, 
and certain terminations had been adapted and set apart 
to denote these relations. The creative epoch had passed, 
and the cases and numbers of the noun had entered on 
their period of decay. But with the verb it was quite 
otherwise. Here we can ascend to a time when as yet 
an Aryan verb did not exist, when, in fact, the primitive 
Aryan conception of the seutence was much the same as 
1 Loc. cit. ii. pp. 145-150. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 31 

that of the modern Dyak. Most verbs presuppose a 
noun, that is to say, their steins are identical with those 
of nouns. The Greek fif\atvco for ftc\av-yw presupposes 
the nominal /*.e\av, just as much as the Latin amo for 
ama-yo presupposes ama." If " glimpses " can be caught 
of a time when the cases were not as yet sharply defined, 
&c, that time must have been synchronous with or 
posterior to the separation of the Polynesians ; for in 
their language no glimpses can be caught of either mean- 
ing or unmeaning suffixes wherewith to express the cases 
and numbers of nouns. Their relations of a sentence 
were invariably expressed by prefixes, a mode of expres- 
sion not devoid of precedent within the Indo-European 
branches. 

Prepositions. 

Some of the Polynesian forms of prepositions are pro- 
bably the older. The Polynesian a and 0, " of," seem to 
me the primary, because the simpler, forms of the Latin a, 
ab, the Greek a-n-o, Sanskrit apa, Gothic of, English of. 

The Polynesian e, "by, from, through means of," calls 
up the Latin e, ex, Greek es, e£. 

The Polynesian i, " in, at, to," calls up the Latin in, 
the Greek ev, the Gothic in, Celtic en, yn, Old Norse, 
Swedish, and Danish i, all with same or similar meanings, 
and governing the same cases of a noun. The fact that 
the Old Norse of the Eddas and Runes, which cannot well 
be called a deteriorated scion of the Gothic, has retained 
the form of this proposition in i, seems to favour the 
view that the final n in the other Indo-European branches 
was a dialectical variation of a primary form in i, of which 
the Polynesian and the Old Norse alone retained the 



Interjections. 

These, being mostly onomatopeian in all languages, may 
not afford the best means of comparison; yet I would 



1OO 



lie 



32 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

offer one interjection not commonly current in other 
families of language. The Polynesian ue and au-we, I 
think, claims kindred with the Latin vae, the Saxon wa, 
the Gothic wai, the Greek ovai. In the Malay it has 
been preserved under the forms of wah and wayi, 
" alas." 

Numerals. 

In the first volume of " The Polynesian Pace," &c, pp. 
1 44 et seq., I have shown that the first four numerals 
of the Polynesian, I, 2, 3, 4, are of undoubted Aryan 
origin, and that the undivided Aryan family had arrived 
so far in its numeral system when the Polynesian branch 
broke off and developed the rest of its numeral system 
under different, and, so to say, foreign associations. I 
there express the opinion that, when adopting the qui- 
nary system of computation, the Polynesians were already 
beyond the influence of the parent stock, inasmuch as 
their term for five (lima), though an Aryan word, was 
not the term which the other still united Aryan tribes 
gave to that number. I have there, also, intimated that 
the higher Polynesian numerals, from five to ten, were 
drawn from probable Dravidian, possibly Cushite or 
Accadian sources, or perhaps both. 



I have thus in a measure endeavoured to justify my 
boldness in instituting a comparison between the Poly- 
nesian and Indo-European languages, in order to show 
their linguistic relationship. It was a link in the chain 
of reasoning which made me conclude that the Poly- 
nesians were originally a branch of the Aryan stock — 
whatever incidents might have befallen that branch in 
after-life through admixture with others, and through 
isolation — and that link had to be taken up to the best 
of my ability. 

Since publishing the first volume of my work on 
"The Polynesian Race, its Origin and Migrations" (1 878), 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 33 

I have come into possession of three works which, had I 
known them sooner, would have been of great assistance 
to me in filling certain gaps in the mythological references 
made by me, and in giving me greater assurance in 
asserting the non-Malay origin of the Polynesian family. 

I refer to " Myths and Songs of the South Pacific," by 
Rev. W. "W. Gill (London, 1876), a work on which too 
much praise cannot be bestowed for its many merits as a 
most valuable contribution to the knowledge of ancient 
Polynesian thought and life. 

I refer to " Les Polynesiens," by Dr. A. Lesson (Paris, 
1880—82), which, however much I may differ from the 
conclusions arrived at, is a most unrivalled work of 
reference on nearly every one of the Indonesian and 
Polynesian groups. 

And I refer to Mr. A. H. Keane's treatise " On the 
Relations of the Indo-Chinese and Inter-Oceanic Races 
and Languages," in the Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britaiu and Ireland (February 1880), 
which is a clear, outspoken protest against the r 
habit of representing the Polynesians 
even kindred, of the Malays. Mr. Keane, moreover, 
seeks the origin of the Eastern Polynesians in a " white 
Caucasian " race, of which remnants are still to be found 
in the Khmers of Cambodja, from which direction he 
thinks they arrived in the Indian Archipelago anterior to 
the appearance there of the Mongoloid Malays. I go 
entirely with Mr. Keane in deriving the Polynesians 
from a " white, Caucasian, Indo-European " Aryan race, 
and their priority in the Indian Archipelago ; but I differ 
somewhat as to the locality whence they entered the 
Archipelago. 

The perfect physical resemblance of those Cambodian 
KhmSrs to the Polynesians is admitted ; that the speech 
of both is polysyllabic and recto tono is also admitted, 
but that the Khmer language, as represented in E. 
Aymonier's "Dictionnaire Khme'r - Francais" (Saigon, 

vol. in. c 



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34 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

1878) — the only exponent of said language in my posses- 
sion — has any appreciable resemblance in its vocabulary 
to any of the dialects of the Eastern Pacific Polynesians, I 
think admits of considerable doubt. And the " peculiarly 
distinctive feature," which Mr. Keane lays great stress 
upon as marking the linguistic connection between " the 
Khmer and Malaysian tongues," viz., " the use of identical 
infixes," is entirely unknown to the Eastern Polynesians, 
whom Mr. Keane classifies as as pure Caucasians as the 
original Khmer s. 1 

If life is spared, I may review more fully Mr. Keane's 
opinion as set forth in the said treatise. It is sufficient 
for my present purpose that he emphatically supports 
me in maintaining the independence and non-relation of 
the Eastern Polynesians to the Malays, as well as assert- 
ing their descent from "a fair, a Caucasian, an Indo- 
European," or Aryan race. As to the divergence of 
opinions between Mr. Keane and me regarding the 
Asiatic home of the Polynesians, I would be willing to 
make the following compromise : — If, what I believe the 
majority of European savants still uphold, 2 the valleys 
abutting on the plateau of Pamir in Central Asia were 
the " Berceau des Aryas," it is not improbable that two 
streams of migration may have left for lower latitudes ; 
one going to the south-west, crossing the Hindu-Kush, 
and, following the affluents of the Indus, landing in 

1 Mr. Keane refers to the Men- only recognise three as having any 
tawey Islanders, off the coast of claWtoPdyned»nkindn;i.!,a]^i<'iii;li 
Sumatra, as tbe purest specimen of out of the whole list of eighty-tim 
Khm#r immigrants still remaining words put downbyHerr von Rosen- 
in Malaysia, and he looks upon berg nearly one-fifth — l6to82 — are 
them as the clearest link connecting good Polynesian, either simply or as 
the Polynesians with the Khmers. compounds. Are the other four- 
Ik' refers to their dialect as being fifths Khmer or Mongol? 
decidedly Polynesian. So it is, to a ' lam aware that from the days 
great extent 1 but the question here, of Eiattuun levers! honoured names, 
it seems to me, is: are the Men- likeGHgcr, Wpi'.^fl, lii-iifey, Pocjchr.', 
tawey words which Mr. Keane and latterly Fenka and Schroder, 
quotes also Khmer words ? Of the are committed in defending an Euro- 
ten Mentawey words, taken from pean, in opposition to an Asiatic, 
H.von Rosenberg V Der Malayische origin of the In da-Europeans. But 
Archipel-Luud und Leute," I can I am no convert to their theory. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 35 

Deccan ; the other going in a south-easterly direction, 
descending the river systems of the Irawaddy, Salwen, and 
Mekong, landing in Laos, Yunnan, and Cambodja, both 
streams of migration eventually meeting in the Indian 
Archipelago ages before the arrival there of the Mongol 
or Mongoloid Malays. 

There is no more historic evidence for the Polynesians 
debouching in the Archipelago from trans-GaDgetic India 
than from cis-Gangetic, and they may certainly have 
come from both directions. But until it is shown that 
the Khmer and Polynesian languages are closely related, 
and that the creeds, legends, and customs — the peculiarly 
Polynesian folk-lore — which the Polynesians either picked 
up en route or developed in the Archipelago, and brought 
with them as a prehistoric heritage into the Pacific, are 
shared in by, or at least not unknown to, the Khmers, 
I think myself justified in believing that the immigrants 
coming from the north-west, from Deccan, were the pre- 
ponderating majority, and absorbed into themselves those 
who came from the north and north-east, from Further 
India. En attendant, I am grateful to Mr. Keane for 
the destructive portion of his treatise, unsparingly destruc- 
tive of the long-cherished " Malayo-Polynesian " error. 



dbydoogle 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



POLYNESIAN AN)) INDO-EUKOPEAN LAXIJIAGES. 



A'e, v. Haw., to pass over, morally or physically, from one 
condition or place to another ; ■ to assent, to permit ;j to 
embark, as on board a ship ; to mount, as on a horse ;/ to 
raise or lift up, as the head with joy to vomit, as in 
sea-sickness. A'e, adv. yes. Tah., a'e, to ascend, to 
mount Mangar., ake, up, upward, over. New Zeal., 
Rarot, hake, to ascend, to mount Tong., hake, up, up- 
ward; hahake, eastward, windward (i.e., up). Sam., a'e, 
to go up, ascend ; sasa'e, the east. Fiji., cake, upward. 
Malgass., ma-kaie, to get up, to mount. Mai., atas, up, 
upward. 

Sanskr., ah, to wind or move tortuously ; akhu, a rat, 
a mouse; akheta, hunting. 

Ai, v. Haw., to eat ; s. food, vegetable food, in distinc- 
tion from ia, meat ; ai-na, for ai-ana, eating, means of 
eating, fruits of the land ; hence land, field, country. New 
ZeaL, kai, to eat ; kainga, food, meal, home, residence, 
country. Tong., kai, to eat. Sam., 'ai, to eat ; ainga, 
family, kindred. Marqu., kaika, kainga, food, meal. 
Tagal., eain, to eat. 

Zend., gaya, life; gaetha, the world; gava, land, 
country. Vedic, gaya, house, family {A. Pictet). Sanskr., 
ghdsa, food ; ghas, devour. 

Greek, ala, yaia, ytj t different forms occurring in 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 37 

Homer, land, country, cultivated laud; yeto$, iudigenous ; 
yetrtov,, a neighbour ; qta, provisions for a journey. 

Goth., gawi, gavja, country, region. 

Germ., gau. 

Lat, ganea, eating-house ; ganeo, glutton. 

Lith., goyas ; Ant. Slav, and liuss., gai, "past-rage," 
nemus. 

Polish, gay, id. 

Mr. A. Pictet, in his "Les Origines Indo-Europ.," vol. 
ii. p. 15, says that the Vedie and Zend gaya "n'ont 
surenient aucun rapport avec le grec yaia." This asser- 
tion evokes a doubt, inasmuch as, as late as in Homer's 
time, two other dialectical variations of this word existed 
in the Greek, viz., aia and Sa or Si, in Sq-nimp, con- 
tracted from some ancient form iu Saia, as yi and ya, 
from yata. As neither of these can he supposed to be 
derived from, or be a phonetic corruption of, the other, 
it seems to me that they must have come down abreast 
from primeval times, thus indicating that the original 
root was differently pronounced by various sections of 
the still united Aryan stock ; and I believe that this 
root, in its archaic forms, still survives in the Polynesian 
ai and kai, to eat The Sanskrit go, land, the earth, 
from which Benfey derives a hypothetical gavyd and a 
Greek yafia— by elimination yata— is probably itself a 
contraction from ttfie Vedic and Zend gaya, as the Greek 
yr\ and ya, as the ancient Saxon gd and go, pagus, regio, 
and the ancient Slav, gai, nemus, are contractions from 
derivations of that ancient root still found in Polynesia. 
The above derivatives in sound and sense certainly refer 
themselves better to some ancient ai or kai, food, the 
fruits of the forest or the roots of the field, than to the 
Sanskrit go, bull, cow, cattle ; for the Aryan family un- 
doubtedly had one or more names for eating and for food 
before its various divisions applied themselves to the 
herding of cattle. The Sanskrit ghas, gkdsa, the Latin 



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3 8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ganea, ganeo, point strongly to the underlying original 
sense of eating and food. 

According to Professor A. H. Sayce, in "Introduction 
to the Science of Language," vol. ii. p. 19, it is probable 
that the Latin edere, to eat, is a compound word = e-dere, 
like ab-dere, con-dere, cre-dere, and others, thus leaving e 
as the root. 

How far that e may have been a dialectical variant or 
a phonetic decay of an older form more nearly allied to 
the Polynesian ai, kai, I leave to abler philologists to 
determine. 

Ao, s. Haw., light, day, metaph. the world. Sam., 
asd, day. Tong., aho, id. Tah., ao, light, day. Eotuma, 
aso, as, day, sun ; asoa, white men. Marqu., ao-mati, the 
sun. Bugui, oso, day. Gilolo (Galela), osa, moon. 
Malg., azo-horo, the moon; azo-hali, Jupiter (planet); 
azan, clearness, brightness. 

Sanskr., aha, ahan, a day. Ved., ahd, id. ; aho-rdtra, 
lit. day and night, a day of twenty-four hours. In the 
Hindu-Kush dialects, Gilgit (Shina), dcho, to-day ; dazo, 
mid -day. 

'Au\ v. Haw., to swim, to float, convey as on a raft, 
primarily to stretch out, reach after ; aw, v. to long after, 
be wholly bent on ; s. current in the ocean, the action of 
the mind ; ex. gr., ke au nei ko'u manao, my mind is ex- 
ercising, Sam., a'au, to swim ; au, a fcurrent at sea ; v. 
to reach to. Tong., hau, to swim ; kakau, id. New 
Zeal., kau-kau, id. Deriv., Haw., au-a, to think so much 
of a thing as not to part with it ; to be stingy, keep 
back, refuse, forbid. New Zeal, kau-a ; Sam., au-a ; 
Tong., ou-a ; Tah., au-aa, desist, forbear. Fiji., katu, to 
stretch, as the arms ; a fathom. 

Sanskr., ao, to be pleased, desire, take care, excite affec- 
tion, obtain, embrace. 

Greek, aia (comp. Liddell and Scott), to satiate. 

Lat., aveo, desire earnestly, to long for, to crave ; avi- 
dus, desirous, eager, covetous. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. _ 39 

It is possible, until a better etymon is found, that avis, 
bird, refers itaelf to a primary, material sense of aveo, as 
stretching out, reaching after, akin to the Polynesian au. 
If so, the compounds au-gur, au-ger, au-ceps, au-cupium, 
recall the ancient form of avis. 

Ao E , s. Haw., handle of an axe, staff, or spear, f: 
'au, handle, stalk of a plant; 'au-'au, the ridge-pole of a 
house. 

Greek, av? (Lacon. and Cret.), an ear, a handle ; ov< 
Att, id. ; Mod. Greek, avnov, id. ; Dor., m, id. 

Lat., auris, the ear ; audio, to hear ; aus-culto, to listen, 
hear. 

Goth., auso, ear ; hausjan, to hear. Sax., ear. Germ. 
ohr, ear. Lith., ausis, ear. 

The application of this word to designate ear occur; 
also in the Polynesian : Tah., p&pe-i-au, the ear ; Haw. 
pepe-i-ao, composed of an, ao, whose primary meaning 
seems to have been a protuberance of anything, a projec- 
tion, and of pepe, broken, flattened down, bent, pliable. 
Hence, literally, the flattened protuberance or handle, 
scil. of the face or head. The same word occurs in 
another compound, maki-ao or ma'i-ao, nails of fingers or 
toes, hoofs of animals, claws of birds; from maki, to fasten : 
hold on to, and ao = the protuberance that fastens to o 
holds on to a thing. 

Atr 3 , s. Haw., time, period of time, lifetime, season 
au-ae, to spend time idly, be lazy ; au-a-nei, present time, 
now, soon ; au-makua, ancestors ; au-moe, midnight 
Tah., au-hd, an aged person. Sam., au-anga, to continue 
to act, to live on ; au-fua, to begin. Marqa, au-hi, later, 
by-and-bye. 

Sanskr., dyus, life, lifetime ; cata-dyus, a centenarian, 
very old ; avuka, ancestor, parent (Pictet). 

Lat. awum, tetas, age, lifetime, life ; avus, grand- 
parent ; avia, grandmother ; avitus, ancestral. 

Greek, aet, atet, ever, always ; alimv, lifetime, age, space 
of time. 



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4 o ' THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Goth., aiws, time, a long time, age ; aiw, continually, 
ever ; awo, grandmother. Sax., awa, aefre, ever. Ieel., 
ae, ei, ever ; afe, grandfather. 0. H. Germ., ewa, eternity, 
habit, custom, law ; ewig, eternal Dutch, eeuw-io, id- 
Welsh, ewa, uncle. Lith., awynas, uncle (maternal). 
A. Pietet (Or. Ind.-Eur., ii. 349) derives the Sanskr. 
avuka and its West Aryan congeners from the Sanskr. 
av " tueri, juvare," and the Vedic £wa (course of time, 
custom, usage) from the root i, to go (ibid., p. 429). 
Eenfey (Sanskr. -Engl. Diet) refers the Latin cevum, and 
its Gothic relatives to the Sanskr. tiyus, life. I would have 
accepted Pictet's derivation of avuka from av, had not 
the Hawaiian au-makua indicated an application of the 
Polynesian au to family relations, as well as to time 
generally. The Sanskr. av offers a plausible solution, but 
only to one-half of the derivatives referred to, whereas the 
Polynesian au satisfactorily accounts for its derivatives 
in both directions. 

It might be interesting to ascertain, if possible, whether 
the y, i, and e in the Sanskr., Lat, Greek, and Goth., after 
the first a, was an original factor in the root from which 
those words sprang, and then was elided from avu-ka, 
av-us, aw-o, aw-a, aw-ynas, or whether they were com- 
paratively later and dialectical additions, as in the Sanskr. 
v&yus (wind), Goth, wajan (blow), Slav, veja (breathe*), 
which Liddell and Scott and Eenfey refer to a root fa, 
va, or, as Benfey indicates, " originally av-d." Eenfey 
gives no root to dym, and Liddell and Scott give at Fas 
the root of da, dyus, &c; but aif > whose original sense is 
not given, and is simply hypothetical, if it explains eu'a, 
amv, dyus, and aiws, does not explain the form or the 
sense of avuka, awo, aims, &c, unless we assume its 
original form to have been au, as in the Polynesian, with 
a subsequent y, i, or e inserted. 

Aur, v. Haw., to decline, as the sun in the afternoon, 
turn aside, vary ; auina (scil. " ka la " — the sun), after- 
noon. Tah., aui, to the left. Sam., m-aui, to fall down, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 41 

, ebb as the tide; New Zeal., mawi. Marqu., 
moui. Itarot., kaui, left, left hand. Fiji-, yawi, yakawi, 
hajawi, evening ; yawa, far off, distant. Malag., an-kawi, 
to the left; avi-ha, left hand. 

Sanskr., ava, away, olY, down, below: awara, posterior, 
inferior, behind, occidental, western ; avama, low ; avanati, 
setting of the sun. 

Pers., iv;ar, aywar, evening. Kurd., evar, id. 

Irish, iwar, iar, west. 

Aha, s. Haw., a company or assembly of people for 
any purpose ; aha-aka, adv. sitting squarely, uprightly. 
II'liI.i:., mi-alum, to stop; foha, be seated. 

Sanskr., ds, to sit, stay; dsarat, seat. 

Greek, y&ai, to be seated, be still. 

This word, so common in the Hawaiian group, either 
single or in compounds, appears to have become lost or 
obsolete in the other Polynesian groups. In Fiji alone 
I find yasa, signifying a place, a part of a land, a dis- 
trict 

AHI, s. Haw., fire. Sam., Tong., afi, id. Rarot. and 
Mangar., a'i, id. Tah., auaJii, id. New Zeal., ahi, id. 
Mai, api, id. Ceram. (Ahtiago), yaf, id. Matabello, efi, 
id. Sumatra (Sin.^kyl), ayv-, id. l!anj:ik Islands, ahi, id. 
Teor, ahi, id. Goram, ahi, id. Malg., af, id. There 
is another series of words in the Polynesian family, ex- 
pressing the sense of fire and its derivatives, which pro- 
bably is allied to the former class, though uniformly 
distinct in the last vowel. This uniform distinction I 
am inclined to consider aa arising from a very ancient 
dialectical variation of a common root, or else the two * 
classes of words proceed from two nearly similar roots. 
That second class is : Tah., ahu, v. to be burnt or scalded ; 
s. heat, fever. Sam., asu, smoke. Tong., ahu, id. Haw., 
m-ahu, smoke, steam. Tidore, a/u, fire. Tagal, apuy, id. 
Bum, ahu, id. Ceram. (Tetuti), yafo, id. Gilolo (Gani), 
iaso, smoke. 

The former class I would refer to : — 



abyGoogle 



4a THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Sanskr., agni, agira, angate, fire. Bengal, at/in, aag, id. 
Shina (Gilgit), agdr, id. Kurd., agher, ayhri, id. 

Lat., ignis, fire. 

Slav., ogni, fire ; Lith., ugnis, id. 

Cymr., engyl, fire. 

The latter class I would refer to : — 

Sanskr., acira, fire, heat. Ved., dshtri, hearth, cooking- 
place. Belut., ds, fire. Pers., dsh, cooked. 

A. -Sax., ast, fireplace, oven. 

Irish, asaim, to light a fire. 

Lat., asso, to roast ; assus. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Europ.) seeks a common root for 
the first family of words (West Aryan) in the Sanskr. ag, 
angk, to move tortuously, to move, to hasten, "de la 
mobility de cet element," and he thinks the second family 
derives from the Sanskr. ac, " edere, vorare ; " fut. partcp, 
ashtd and agitd. Benfey (Sanskr. -Engl. Diet.) derives 
agni and its congeners " probably from anj in its original 
signification to shine ; " and the same authority makes no 
reference to any derivations from ac, to eat, consume, as 
signifying fire. 

In this uncertainty, and with such unsatisfactory solu- 
tion, it evidently becomes necessary, if possible, to go 
higher than the Sanskrit in search of some form or forms 
around which all these dialectical variants of a once 
common speech may rally themselves as around a common 
ancestor. I believe the Polynesian afi and asu or aku 
offer such ancestral forms. Afi rallying to itself the 
Aryan variants in g, agni, ogni, ignis, &c, and asu, aku, 
those in s and c, ds, acira, asso, asaim. It must be 
admitted, however, that afi, ahi, and asu, ahu, are them- 
selves but variants of some still older, but now forgotten, 
form or forms. They stand abreast in Polynesian speech, 
and the one is not a derivation or corruption of the 
other. 

There are some other words in the West Aryan tongues 
whose relationship to the foregoing family seems to me 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 43 

preferable to that which eminent philologists have hitherto 
assigned them. The Sanskr. asta, "home," the Greek 
aa~rv, "town, city," have been referred, the former by 
A. Pictet (loc cit., ii. 243) to Sanskr. as, " esse, to be ; " the 
latter by Liddell and Scott (Greek-Engl. Diet) and by 
Benfey (Sanskr.-Engl. Diet.) to a root fa?, Sanskr. vas, 
"to dwell." I may be permitted to ask under what 
circumstances the digamma in the supposed faurv has 
been lost without being replaced by an aspirate ' ? That 
ecTTici, like the Lafc. vesta, refers itself to a root in foj 
or vas, is evident enough, but not so with ao-rv. There 
is another Greek word, ea-^dpa, with the sense of " the 
hearth, fireplace," which has no etymon assigned it by 
Liddell and Scott, but which I should consider a relative 
of aurv; for both doubtless go back, like the A.-Sax. 
ast and the Belut. ds, to the same root as the Polynesian 
asu, the Vedic dshtri, the Latin asso, assus. To this 
family may also be referred the Sax. as-ca, the Goth, az-go, 
" ashes, cinders." Benfey refers the Sanskr. asta to as, 
but does not indicate whether to as 1 , " to be," as Pictet 
has it, or to as 3 , " to shine." The first seems rather too 
forced an etymology ; the latter, if such be the inference 
from Benfey, would bring it in harmony with ea-^apa, 
with ast, ds, asu, and aurrv. There is little doubt in my 
mind that, in the early savage or nomadic life of the 
Aryan, wherever lie stopped to dress his fire, by day or 
night, there was his home for the time being. Hence 
asta, " a home, dwelling," where the fire was lighted ; 
hence acrrv, " a town," a congeries of dwellings or homes. 

Aho, s. Haw., breath, met. spirit, courage ; i imi ke aha, 
let the breath be long, i.e., be patient. Tah. and Marqu., 
aho, breath. Earot., ao, id. 

Sanskr., am, the five vital breaths of the body, life ; 
asura, eternal. 

Zend., ahU, a&hu, spirit, life, God, the world. 

Commenting on Dr, Spiegel's derivation of the Persian 
AhuTa, as a name of the Deity, from the root ah, the San- 



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44 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

strit as, " to be," Professor Max Muller, in his " Chips from 
a German Workshop," i. 156 (Seribner's ed.), says: "The 
root as no doubt means to be, but it has that meaning 
because it originally meant to breathe. From it, in its 
original sense of breathing, the Hindus formed asu, breath, 
and Asura, the name of God, whether it meant the breath- 
ing one or the giver of breath." 

Ahtj, v. Haw., to collect, gather together, pile up, cover 
up, to clothe ; s. assembly, collection of things, clothing ; 
ahua, an elevated place, a raised pathway, sandbank 
formed at the mouth of a river. Tab.., ahu, to pile up, 
throw things together; ahu-api, cloth doubled together, a 
quilt; ahu-arii, a raised pavement for the king; ahu- 
mamau, old garment; ahu-tna,, property ; ahu-pare, a fort. 
Sam.,t«/w, a wrapper of cloth (Siapo) ; afu-loto, bed-clothes. 
Tong., kafu, id. New Zeal., kahu, kakahu, clothes. Marqu., 
kahu, id. Fiji., qavu, to clasp with the two arms ; s. pro- 
perty, goods, what can be clasped in the arms. 

Sanskr., aj, to drive, direct; aji, battle; ajman, id. 
ajra, a field ; ajira, a court. 

Greek, d>yto, to bring, bring together, to carry, conduct 
dywv, a gathering, an assembly, struggle, combat; dyvia, 
a street, public place; dyvpis, dyopa, assembly, crowd 
place of assembly, market ; dypa, a catching, hunting, 
booty, prey ; dypot, an estate, a field ; dyos, a leader, chief 
dyupto, to gather, collect, bring together, assemble ; dyeXrj, 
herd, flock, company; 6yfto$, a furrow, a row, a path, 
orbit. 

Lat, ago, to drive, collect, carry away, to lead; agmen, 
multitude, crowd, motion ; ager, land, field. 

Irish, agh, battle ; aighe, valiant. 

Goth., akrs, a field ; akran, fruit ; aigan, to possess, own ; 
aigis, property, possessions. 0. Norse, aka, to drive. Swed., 
oka, increase, augment. 

It may be noticed that the application of this word to 
clothing, so prevalent in the Polynesian branch, is wholly 
wanting in the West Aryan branches. It may have been 
supplanted by the latter with other synonyms, or it may 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 45 

have been adopted by the former after its separation from 
the common stock. 

Aka 1 , & Haw., knuckle-joint, protuberance of the ankle, 
vertebras of the back. Tab.., ata, the tops, buds, or shoots 
of plants. Fiji., gata, sharp, as of a knife or a point, 
sharpness, peakedness; when of a country, hilly; yaka,%o 
sharpen. , 

Sanskr., a$ vel co, to sharpen ; acri, edge, comer ; ac- 
man, a stone; acani, India's thunderbolt. 

Greek, d/ci], point, edge ; dxavffa, thorn, vertebras ; dxa^to, ■ 
to point, sharpen ; dieovti, whetstone ; «««, point, barb of 
a hook ; d/cpos, topmost, highest 

Latin, acus, a needle ; acuo, to point, sharpen ; acumen, 

Goth., ahs, an ear of corn; ahsa or arnsa, shoulder. 
Germ., achsel, shoulder. Sax., ecg, point, edge. 

Lith., akmu, stone. 

Welsh, awe, point, edge. Irish, aicde, needle. 

Aka 2 , adv. Haw., now used only in compounds, "with 
care ; " aka-hele, carefully ; aka-hai, gentle, modest. New 
Zeal., ata-whai, kindly, with pity. Sam., ata-tnai, v. to 
understand, be clever; s. the mind. Tah., ata-ma, wise, 
intelligent. Malg., ata-he, caresses ; ata-hets, to pacify ; 
ata-rien, generosity. 

Greek, axa, rjica, quietly, gently ; a/cako?, peaceful, still; 

0. Norse., akta, to make account of. Swed., akt, care, 
heed ; akta, to consider, take care of. North Engl., ack 
to heed, regard. 

Aka 3 , v. Haw., to laugh, deride. South Polynes., 
ubique, ata, kata, id. Mentawej Isl., gah-gah, to laugh. 

Sanskr., kakh, gaggh, to laugh. 

Greek, Ka-xafo, to laugh aloud. 

Lat., cackinno, id. 

0. H. Germ., hdh, sneer. 

Aka 4 ! oonj. Haw., but, if not ; generally expressing 
strong opposition of idea. Marqu., atia, but Tong., ka, 
but. Sam., 'a, but. 



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46 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Sanskr., atha, atho, conj. but. 

Greek, amp, but. 

Lat., at, but. 

Goth., ok, akei, but. 

Aka 5 , s. Haw., the shadow of a person ; the figure or 
outline of a thing ; likeness ; dawn or light of the moon 
before rising; v, to light up, as the moon before rising; 
to go up and down, as on a hilly road ; akaka, to be plain, 
clear, intelligible ; adj. lucid, bright, as the moon ; JcaJcahi- 
aka, dawn of day, morning, lit. breaking up the shadows, 
scil. of night. Sam., ata, a shadow, reflected image, a 
spirit, the morning dawn ; ata-ata, the red sky after sun- 
set ; ata-e-ao, when it is morning, to-morrow ; atangia,, to 
glisten, become evident; ata-lii, a son, i.e., a little image. 
Tab., ata, cloud, shadow, twilight; a'ahi-ata, dawn of 
day ; ata HUH, the great morning clouds. Marqu., ko-ata ; 
Tonga, tio-ata, a mirror. Mangar., ata-riki, the eldest son. 
Fiji., matata, to clear up, be plain ; mataka, morning ; 
■yata-yata, move about tremulously or as a thing near 
dying. 

Sanskr., at, to go, move continuously; atasa, wind, 
spirit; dtman, breath, soul, intelligence, a person, one's 
self; dtma-ja, a son =z one's own born. 

Greek, ar/tos, arfit}, ot/is?, vapour, exhalation, steam, 
smoke; arteXos, tender, tremulous. 

The Sanskrit dtman seems to have had a variety of 
etymons assigned it. Referring to it iu " Orig. Indo- 
Europ.," ii. 541, Mr. Pictet says: — "Le sanksr, dtman, 
souffle, ame vitale, intelligence, puis la personne, le soi, 
est encore obscur, quant a son origine. Pott (Et. F., i, 
196), presume une contraction de d-vdtman, rac. vd, flare, 
et compare avrp.r\v, souffle. Benfey (Gr. W. L., i. 265), 
part d'une racine hypothetique av — ?&. Bopp (Gl. Scr.) 
pense a la rac. at, ire, d'ou derive atasa, vent et ame ; 
mais ailleurs (Veogl. Gr., i. § 140) il incline vers la racine 
ah, parler et reconnaitre, et compare le goth. ahma, ame, 
Enfin, le Diet, de P^tersbourg recourt a la rac. an, spirare, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 47 

mais sans s'expliquer sur la formation de dtmart, dont le t 
resterait dnigmatique. 

"On voit que les hypotheses ne manquent pas, mais, 
d'apres I' observation de Max Miiller (Anc. Sanskr. Litter., 
p. 21), elles tombent tontes en presence du vSdique tman, 
Zend thman, qui remplace souvent dtman, et ou l'&ision 
de Yd ne saurait i*tre expliquee. Toutefois Miiller ne 
tente aucune conjecture nouvelle." 

As Mr. Pictet adopts none of the foregoing hypotheses, 
it is but just to give his own explanation of this crucial 
word. He says, in continuation of the foregoing : — 

" Je decompo serais le mot en question en d-tman, pour 
le rattacher k la rac. tarn, dtouffer, suffoquer, perdre le 
souffle, d'oii tamaka, to. -in arm., oppression, as th me. Cesens, 
au premier abord, parait le contraire de celui que l'on 
exigerait, mais il passe aisthnentala signification derespirer 
fortement, anhelare, ce que Ton fait quand on etouffe. 
Nous pouvons d'ailleurs nous appuyer d'un rapport tout 
semblable eutre l'anc. slave duchati, spirare, dusha, anima, 
et le russe dushiti, suffoquer, dushenie, suffocation, dushniku, 
soupirail, &c ; ainsi qu'entre le lith. duzzia, ame, dausa, 
air, souffle, et dusti, respirer avec effort, dusas, respiration 
difficile, dvsidys, asthme, &c. La transition de sens est ici 
manifeste. Les autres acceptions de la racine tain, con- 
fici mcerore, languescere, desiderare, cupere (cf. tamata, 
desireux, avide), s'expliquent par le double sens d'Stre 
oppress^, et d'a&pirer a quelque chose, et tama, tamos, 
ddsigne l'obscurite en tant qu'elle produit un sentiment 
d'anxidte\ Ainsi dtman pour d-taman, de d-tam, et le 
vedique tman pour taman, par une contraction analogue 
a celle de dhmd, flare, pour dham peut-etre primitivement 
allie" a tarn, signifierait proprement une respiration forte 
et agitee, puis secondairement 1 ame active et passionnee, 
de m§me que le grec 6v[io<i vient de $va — Sanskr. dk&, 
agitare. 

" La rac. tam et ses ddrivds, surtout ceux qui expriment 
l'obscurit£, ont beaucoup de correlatifs europeens qu'il 
serait hors de propos d'euumerer ici. Je me borne a 



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4 8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

remarquer que le sanskr. dtman trouve son equivalent 
presque complet dan3 l'anc. saxon athom, an g.- sax. 
aedhm, anc. all. ddum, dtum, halitus et spiritus, all mod. 
odem, alhem, souffle, respiration, &c. Je ne sais si Ton 
peut y rattacher l'irlandais adkm, connaissance, seience, 
adkma, peritus, que donuent Lhuyd et O'Reilly, et dout 
le sens semit plus abstrait. Quant au greo avT/j.t)v et 
aTfib?, ctTfi-f], souffle et vapeur, fum^e qui suffoque, ils 
paraissent composed avec le prefixe ava au lieu de d." 

Liddell and Scott (Gr.-Engl. Diet.) refer ar/io?, -tj, -«, 
to aa), to blow, and that to a root, fa = to Sanskrit vd. 

In this conflict of opinions it may not, perhaps, he 
presumptuous in me, in view of the Polynesian ata and 
its various meanings, if I concur with Bopp in referring 
dtman to the Sanskrit at, to go, to move continuously, 
which may possibly be related to ah, to wind, move 
tortuously, and its derivative dkdea, ether, sky, open air, 
and which latter has an unmistakable family likeness 
to the atom, wind, spirit, referred to by Pictet. If I am 
right, this would bring dtman, atasa, dkdea, en rapport 
with the Fiji, yata-yata, the Haw. oka, the Sam. and Tab. 
ata, the Greek aTfio? and dra\o$. The Polynesian voc- 
ables certainly offer a much les3 forced explanation than 
the process of deriving breath, life, soul, from choking, 
darkness, and death. 

Ake 1 , s. Haw., liver ; name of several internal organs, 
according to the qualifying compound. South Polynes., 
ate, id. Malg., ate, aten, atine, heart, liver, pith, marrow or 
middle of a thing. Jav., ati, heart, in the sense of affec- 
tions. Fiji., yate, liver. 

Greek, t/Top, the heart, as a part of the body, as a seat 
of feeling ; rjrpov, the part below the navel, abdomen. 

Liddell and Scott give no etymon to ^rop. By separat- 
ing the substantive termination, however, there remains 
as stem or root frr or ar, which strongly points to the 
same root as the previous, ata, oka*. With that remark- 
able intuition, which so seldom made default, though he 
could not always prove himself right, Bopp refers the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



49 



Polynesian ate to the same root from which the Sanskrit 
atman sprang ; but he looked upon the former as a cor- 
rupted form of the latter. 

Ake 2 , v. Haw., to tattle, blab, slander, lie. Sam., ati, 
speech, oration. Marqu., alia, in truth, certainly. 

Sauskr., ah (" h for gh," Benfey), say, speak, pro- 
nounce, specify. 

Lat., ajo ("for agfo," Benfey), to say, affirm ; ad-ry-ium. 
proverb ; ne'go, deny. 

Greek, fyy ; Dor,, a^a, sound, noise, roar ; ijx ?, vx w ' 
echo, sound. 

A.-Sax„ aqu, jay, magpie. 

Aki, v. Haw., to bite, bite in two ; meton. to revile, 
backbite. Tong., achi, to pierce. Sam., ati; Tab.., ati, to 
bite, bite through. Raiot, kati, to bite. New Zeal., Jcati, 
sufficient, enough, i.e., bitten through. Ceram. (Awaiya), 
aati, a chopper. Malg., fatsi, sting, goad, thorn. 

Sanskr., a$, fco pervade, penetrate, attain to; aksh, id.; 
dci, fang of a serpent 

A. Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., i. 500) refers the Sanskrit ahi, 
a snake, serpent, to a Vedic root, ah, amplecti, pervadere, 
" d'ou ahi eelui qui enserre sa proie, comme fait le serpent,, 
fe constrictor. De la aussi, avec uue nasale interealee 
comme souvent, les derives anhu, etroit, serr4 anhas, 
anxiety, malheur, peche, &c. La forme primitive de cette 
racine a dfi etre agh, angh, a en juger par agha, mauvais, 
dangereux, mal, douleur, peche, angha, anghas, peehe = 
anhas." And he says further, " Ces deux formes, agh et 
angh, se retrouvent d'ailleurs avec une foule de denve's, 
et des transitions du sens materiel au moral, dans toute 
la famille arienne. Elles se maintiennent souvent a cStd 
1'une de 1'autre, et suivent fidelement les variations pho- 
niques du nom du serpent." Benfey, also (Sanskr. -Engl. 
Diet.), refers ahi, snake, to amhas, and amhas to " a lost 
verb, angh = to the Greek ayxto." And both these eminent 
philologists refer, among numerous other derivatives and 
correlatives, the Greek e'vw, viper, snake, serpent, and 
*X lV0< >> hedgehog and sea-urchin, to this Sanskrit ahi 

vol. m. D 



vGooqIc 



So THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and its Zend equivalents azi and aji ; while Pictet (loc. 
cit., i 454), in accounting for the derivation of ejwo? from 
e'x«, says : " On ne s'etonnera pas que le hensson soit 
compart a un reptile, car il rampe plut&t qu'il ne 
raarche." 

With due respect for so eminent authorities, I would 
remark that the snakes, and serpents, and vipers with 
whom the early Aryans came in contact in their primitive 
homes, in Eactria and beyond, were probably not of the 
"constrictor" kind; but that their knowledge of them, 
gained from sad experience, came from being bitten or 
stung by them. Granted that the dialectical forms of ah, 
ac, and its desid. aksk, signify to penetrate, pervade, attain 
to, occupy (vid. Benfey), in "West Aryan tongues, yet the 
Polynesian dialects have retained what was probably the 
oldest meaning of the original word in the sense of biting, 
piercing, stinging. While the Hawaiian retains the foifm of 
ac, ak, in aki, to bite, and, going " from the material to the 
moral sense," to revile, to backbite, the Tahitian has retained 
the form of ah in ahi-ahi, to be wounded, a wound, the 
transition from which to a moral sense is found in the 
Hawaiian ahi-ahi, to complain falsely, to slander, defame, 
synon. with ake. In view, therefore, of the light which 
the Polynesian forms and meanings throw upon this sub- 
ject, it would seem to me preferable to trace the Sanskrit 
ahi, the Zend azi, aji, the Greek i%K, to this 'primal form 
in ah, ac, or ak, with its primal sense of biting, piercing, 
stinging, and thus render ahi as the biter, the stinger, 
rather than the constrictor, the straugler. With such a 
rendering, the derivation and appropriateness of ixtvoi 
from e^ts becomes plain and intelligible. Mr. Picfcet's 
explanation of the derivation of 6%ivos seems to me 
wholly untenable, as neither ah, ac, or ak, nor ah, agh, or 
angh, have been shown to mean to crawl (ramper). Under 
these considerations it seems to me propel to separate the 
former family of words from the latter as represented by 
the Sanskrit a -Agh, the Latin ango, the Greek wyya, and 
their West Aryan relatives and derivatives. We shall 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 51 

find their kindred and equivalents under the Polynesian 
ana, quod vida The remaining relatives of the former 
family I find in — 

led,, egl-ir, snake, adder. A.-Sax., igil, hedgehog. Act. 
Germ., ecala, egala, leech. 

Welsh, asij, a splinter. Gael., asc, a serpent. 

At.* 1 , v. Haw., to anoint ; adj. perfumed, spicy ; a'ala, 
fragrant odour. Tong., kakala, fragrant, a flower wreath, 
K Zeal., Mangar., kakara, fragrant. Marqu., kakaa, id., 
odoriferous. In Tan. the word seems lost, unless retained 
in ara-nua, name of an odoriferous shrub = the fragrant 
"Kua." (In Sam. nua-nua is the name of a shrub.) 

Sanskr., al, adorn. 

Benfey (Sanskr.-Engl. Diet.) gives no derivatives from 
al, unless sutra-dtt, a necklace ; apparently composed of 
siltra, the thread or string, and dli, probably representing 
the ornaments — flowers or other things — which are held 
together by the siltra, and thus form the necklace. An- 
other Sanskrit word for which no etymon is given may 
refer itself to this al or Polynesian ala. It is ara-vinda, 
a lotus. Perhaps alaka, a curl, may also refer itself to al, 
in the sense of an ornament.* 

Ala. 2 , adj. Haw., dim-sighted, as old people, blind ; fair- 
eyed, but staring, as if unable to distinguish. Tah., ara- 
ara, glaring, as the eyes of animals. Sam., alafa, shining, 
phosphorescent, a kind of fungus. 

Greek, aXao^, blind ; a\ato$, ij\eo?, crazy, distraught ; 
referred by Liddell and Scott to a\r), akaofiat, wandering, 
roving, straying. If so, probably akin to the next. 

Ala 3 , s. Haw., smooth round stones worn by water; a 
road, a path. Tah., ara, road, path; ara-poa, the throat, 
the gullet. Sam., ala, stone worn smooth by water, path, 
road, a division of a village. Marqu., aa, road. Tong., 
hala, a road. Fiji., sala, road, path. 

Sanskr., sri, to flow, to blow, to go, extend ; sal, to go = 

1 Possibly the Greek dp w,ua, spice, to Sankarit ghrd, to smell; Mai 

sweet herb, on whose origin philolo- Miiller to apaaj, to plough, the amell 

gists are divided, may connect with of a ploughed field. Vid. Liddell and 

the Polynesian ala. Pott refen it Scott {Gr.-Engl. Diot.) 



1OO 



lie 



5-' 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



sri; sarani, path, road; carani, id.; kshar and kshal, to 
stream, pass away. 

Greek, akam, akij/ii, to wander, rove. Perhaps aaTur/v, 
a channel, gutter. 

Ala-ea, s. Haw., also ala-ula, red earth, from which, 
according to the legends, mankind was made ; ola-alai, 
argillaceous earth, clay ; alaa, to cultivate, dig off the 
greensward. Tali., ara-m, red earth ; maraea, id, ; marari, 
to clear off land, cultivated ; araia, one's own place of 
birth, native soil. Marqu., Itaaea, red ochre. 
Sanskr., ira, ila, ida, earth ; dra, oxide of iron. 
Greek, epa, earth. 

Goth., airtha ; H. Germ., em, earth. Icel., eyri, gravelly. 
A. -Sax., ora, ore, mineral. 

Gfel., ar-gyll, quasi ara-Gcel, the land of Gsel. Irish, 
iris, bronze. 

Pehlwi, arid, land, field. 

A. Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., ii. 75) derives the Greek, San- 
skrit, and Gothic words from a Sanskrit root, r, ri, ir, 
ar, with the general sense of lsedere, and the words apa>, 
aro, arjan, &c, in Greek, Latin, and Gothic, to the same 
root, and explains the derivation of earth, " en tant quo 
labourite, e'est-a-dire blessee, de*chiree," The transition of 
sense from r, ar, ri, and ir, lsedere (sc. terrain), to dpa>, 
arjan, &c, and their derivatives, to dig, plough, cultivate, 
and from these again to land as a cultivation, planta- 
tion, Greek dy-ovpa, Lat. arvum, Lith. arivi-mas, Armor. 
aor, Erse iom-air, im-ir, is intelligible and natural ; but 
that ira, epa, airtha, dra, ora, iris, signifying earth, 
mineral, oxides, and even bronze, should derive from that 
Sanskrit r, ar, ri, or ir, in any of its various senses, is not 
so clear, especially in view of the positive Polynesian ala, 
ara, earth, clay, soil, ochre, and possibly the Samoan eh, 
ele-ele (other Polynes. dial. Me), earth, soil, dirt. And it 
certainly must he supposed that the Aryans had some 
general archaic name for the earth, soil, and dust beneath 
their feet long before they attempted to utilise it by 
cultivation. The Sanskrit f, ar, ri, and ir, in the sense 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 53 

of to rise, to meet, to move, to raise, to deliver, and restore, 
and even to hurt, laedere, have evident relatives in the 
Polynesian ala, ara, to wake, to rise up, and with the 
Caus. koo, to lift up, to raise, to excite, stir up, to deliver, 
to repair. Even the Sanskrit arus, irma, wound, irina, a 
notch, a furrow, have their kindred and analogies in the 
Polynesian ali, a sear ; alina, scarred, badly burned, spotted ; 
s. alina-lina, a mark, a sign, a low servant, a slave. But 
the direct application of this root r, ar, &c, to cultivation 
and planting, which the Sanskrit lacks or has lost, while 
it remains in all the European branches, is found also in 
Polynesian eri, eli, keli, to dig, quod vide, and thus supports 
A. Pictet's argument against those who hold " que l'agri- 
culture ne s'est developpee de part et d'autre que poste"- 
rieurement a l'epoque de l'unitd primitive et de la vie 
pastorale." 

Alala, s. Haw., the cry of young animals, crying, squeal- 
ing, weeping. Tah., arara, hoarse through much calling 
or speaking. Sam,, alanga, to shout; alalanga, a shout. 
Marqu., aaka, to growl, complain, 

Greek, aXaXi}; Dor., dXaXa, a loud cry; aXaXafa, to 
cry aloud, shout; dXaXat, exclamation of joy. 

Liddell and Scott refer this aXdXy to XaXeeo, to talk, 
prop, to chatter, prattle, chirp, opp. to articulate speech, 
and they refer to Lat. lallo, Germ, lallen, as relatives. 
They are probably right, and we shall find another Poly- 
nesian relative under the sect. Lelo, tongue. The identi- 
cal development, however, in both directions, of the Poly- 
nesian alala and the Greek dkaXa, or their retention by 
each from the hoariest antiquity, when either branch 
shouted to the other in intelligible speech, is, to say the 
least, remarkable. 

Alama, s. Haw., a sacrifice, offering, present. Tah., ara, 
to importune the gods with prayers or presents. 

Greek, dpa, a prayer, a curse ; apao/^at, to pray, vow, 
invoke. No reference given in Liddell and Scott. 

Alanga, s. Sam., shoulder or leg of an animal. Tong., 
alanga, a haunch, a limb. Haw., alaea, the fore-part 



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54 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

of the thigh. Sunda., lengen, the arm. Malg., elan, a 
wing. 

Sanskr., ara-tni, the elbow. 

Greek, aKevq, elbow, and arm from elbow down. 

Lat., ulna, elbow. 

Goth., aleina, a cubit. Sax., elne-ioga, elbow. 

Benfey intimates that aratni is composed of ara and a 
verb tan, to draw, spread out, extend. Doubtless correctly ; 
but what was the original sense of ara ? From the Poly- 
nesian suffixes nga and na, I should judge the root or 
stem was ala, ara, whose primary sense was probably a 
limb generally ; for in. Samoaa we find the kind of limb 
designated by a compound; a-langa-lima, the shoulder, 
the fore-quarter of an animal; ala-nga-vae, the leg, the 
hind-quarter. . 

Benfey refers the first compound of aratni to that 
immensely prolific Sanskrit root ri or ar. I am not com- 
petent to decide. I think, however, that the Sanskrit 
aratni and the Polynesian alanga have come down through 
the ages abreast, from the time when ara signified a limb 
generally, a joint, without particular specification. 

Alani, s. Haw., a timber tree used in fitting up canoes. 
The Polynesians of the archaic, pre-Pacific period must 
have had some generic name for wood, trees, forest, like 
ara or ala. We thus find in Hawaiian, besides the fore- 
going, ata-hee, name of a tree, very hard, from which the 
instruments for digging the soil (oo) were made ; ala- 
hii, the bastard sandal-wood ; ala-ala-wai-nui, a large 
tree whose fruit was used in dyeing ; ala-ala-puloa, a 
shrub with yellow blossoms. In SattC, alaa, the name of 
a tree ; in Tab.., ara, branches, twigs ; Malg., ala, wood, 
forest. 

Sanskr., arani, wood used for kindling fire by attrition ; 
aranya, a forest. 

Ale 1 , s. Haw,, wave, billow, crest of the sea, undulation 
of water ; met. the sea- Tah., are, wave, billow. Earot., 
Mangar., hare, id. N. Zeal., kare, reflection of light from 
running water, flashing, glancing. Sam., iia-ale, shower of 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 55 

rain. Malg., mart, a torrent. Ceram. (Gah.), arr-lehu, a 
river; arr, water. 

Sanskr., drdra, wet, moist, fresh. 

Greek, apS<o, to moisten, to water, to irrigate ; opo<;, 
watery part in milk, blood, &e. 

Armen., alik, a wave. 

Liddell and Scott submit patvco, to sprinkle, as related 
to dpBa> and drdra, and propose ard as a root. Benfey 
gives no root to drdra. I leave the question to be settled 
by abler hands than mine ; but Sanskrit scholars may yet 
find that drdra is a compound word, of which dr is the 
subject and dra the attribute, whether the latter may 
connect with drd, to run, or with dhara, bearing, holding. 
The ar thus left falls easily in line with the Polynesian ale, 
the arm, alik, and the Greek opos. 

Ale 8 , v. Haw., to swallow, to drink, to gulp down, ab- 
sorb ; also to well up, as tears in the eyes. Sunda., ngale, 
to drink ; probably allied to the foregoing. 

Lith., alus, a kind of native beer. 

Anc. Slav., olovma, Sicera. 

A.-Sax., eala, alodh, ale, 

Irish, ol, a drink ; olaim, to drink. 

Sanskr., ali, some kind of spirituous liquor, referred to 
by l'ictet (loc, cit., ii. 320), who adds : "la racine primi- 
tive est incertaine." 

Ali, s. Haw., a scar on the face ; ali-ali, to be scarred : 
aali, a small, low place between two larger or higher ones 
pu-ali, a place compressed, a neck of land, an isthmus 
pu-ale, a ravine. S. Zeal., pu-are, a hollow, open place. 
Tah., ari, a great deep or hollow; adj. empty, as the 
stomach; v, to scoop oat, to hollow; ari-ari, thin, worn- 
out. 

Sanskr., arus, a wound ; irma, id.; irina, notch, furrow. 

Swed., arr, scar. 

Alii, s. Haw., a euph., a king, a chief. Earot., Paum., 
ariki, id. Fakaafo, aliki, id. Mangar., akariki, id. Tong., 
eiki, id. Marqu., aiki, hakaiki, id. N. Zeal., ariki, chief 
and high-priest. Tab., arii, chief. Sam,, alii, chief. 



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$6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Sanskr., rij (for primitive Vedic raj, to govern, Benfey), 
to stand or be firm, be strong ; rdj, rdjan, king. 

Goth., reiki, dominion; reiks, king, chief. Sax., rik, noble; 
rid, dominion, state. Icel., rikr, in compounds as ul-rikr, 
e-rikr. Swed., rik, riek ; rike, kingdom. 

Irish, righ, king ; airigh, chief. Welsh, -rix, a frequent 
suffix in the names of nobles. 

Zend, ragi, kingdom (A. Pictet). 

Lat., rex, king ; rego, rectus. 

Alo, v. Haw., to pass from one place to another, to dodge, 
skip ; alo-alo, turn this way and that. Tong., alo, to hunt ; 
kalo, to dodge, parry, elude ; alo-alo, to fan. Sam., alo, to 
fan, to paddle ; rdpl. to avoid, dodge. Tah., aro, wage war, 
to fight. Mai., alih, to shift, change. Malg., mi-valik, 
turn about. 

Sanskr., ctra, rapid (Pictet, loe. cit., i. 456, r, ar, to go, 
to move) ; arna, agitated, impetuous. Ved., arnava, 
ocean. 

Greek, £\am, ekavvto, to drive, urge, beat. 

Lat., aid, wing ; ala-cer, swift. 

Goth., ara, eagle. A.-Sax„ earn, id. Act. Germ., aro, 
id. ; Han, to hasten. 

Lith., eris, eagle. Illyr., ora, id, 

Irish, allaim, ailim, to go, move ; attach, activity. 

Doubtless related to alo, as a phonetic variation, is the 
Haw. alu-alu, to pursue, chase, persecute ; the Sam. alu, 
to go backward and forward; alu-alu, to drive, chase; 
Tah., aru-aru, to hunt, pursue. Perhaps the Greek a\ijs, 
&\k, throng, crowd, connect with the same root as the 
Polynesian alu. 

Ama, s. Haw., the outrigger of a canoe; amana, two 
branches crossing each other, the crotch of a tree ; 
crossing. Tah., ama, outrigger ; amaa, branches of trees, 
division of a subject ; ama-ha, a split, a crack. ! 
ama, outrigger. Rotum., sama, T!oug.,hama. Fiji., canta. 
id. ; amo, v. ubique, to carry ou the shoulder. Sam. 
amonga, a burden, also name of Orion's belt in that con- 
stellation. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 57 

Sanskr., avis, to divide, to break asunder ; amc a, a part, 
share ; amsa, the shoulder. 

Lai, ansa, handle, haft, ear of vessels ; ames, a pole or 
fork for spreading nets with ; humerus, shoulder. 

Greek, ao-iWa, a yoke for the shoulders to carry ■with ; 
a>fio<!, the shoulder; wfita, corner, side. 

Ami-amt, v. Tah,, to be in dread or fear; to wink the 
eyes as if apprehensive of a blow ; to move the lips 
quickly, as if panting for breath. 

Sanskr. (Ved.), am, to be ill; am-iva, pain; am-aya, sick- 
ness. 

Ana 1 , v. Haw., to measure, in any manneror direction, 
to set aside, set back, restrain, be satiated, have enough ; 
5. a measure ; ana-aina, lit. a circle for eating purposes, 
a congregation of people for any purpose, provided a space 
be left in the centre, a congregation; ana-aina, land- 
surveying; ana-hua, kana-hua, bending over, stoop- 
shouldered ; ana-na, a fathom, to measure. Tah., aa, to 
measure ; aa-mau, twenty fathoms in length. Mangar., 
anga, a fathom measure. Sam., anga, a span. Fiji., canga, 
a span, a stretch of the fingers. The Sam. anga, to move 
or turn oneself in this or that direction, to turn towards or 
turn from, probably refers to this family. 

Sanskr., ang, to go, to mark ; anga, a limb, a part, a 
division ; angula, a finger's -breadth, as a linear measure ; 
anguli, finger ; anguliya, a finger-ring ; anga-da, bracelet ; 
anka, a hook, mark, the flank, the arm ; ankuca, a hook ; 
anch, to bend, curve. Perhaps anas, a cart 

Zend., angust, a finger-ring. 

Welsh, angu, embrace, contain ; ang, large, capacious. 

Greek, ay/coX?!, the bent arm ; 07*17, id. ; 07*05, in the 
arms ; ayicwv, the bend or hollow of the arm, the elbow, 
any nook or bend ; 07*09, bend, hollow, glen, valley ; 
07K0?, a hook, barb. 

Lat., utiaus, bent, curved, a hook ; anulits, a ring, a 
Jink. 

Benfey refers angula to a lost base, aiigv>, whose mean- 
. ing is not given, however. A. Pictet {he. cit., i. 501) refera 



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5S THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

the Welsh angu to the Sanskrit agh, angh, " ampleeti, per- 
vadere." I see no reason why the one or the other should 
not refer itself in a nearer degree to this Polynesian ana, 
anga. Pictet's derivation, by contraries, of the Welsh 
angu and ang, " to embrace, contain, large, capacious," 
from the Sanskrit anhu, " etroit, serre," seems to me more 
ingenious than satisfactory in view of the Polynesian word 
with its primitive meaning, " to measure in any direction," 
straight or circular. The original differentiation of mean- 
ing in the kindreds and derivatives of the Sanskrit agh or 
angh I thing best displayed in the Polynesian forms aki 
and ana. 

Though the West Aryan branches generally have lost 
of this ■word the sense of to measure, or supplanted it 
with other synonyms, it is probable that the Persian word 
af/apo?, — a messenger, a courier kept ready at regular 
stages throughout Persia to carry royal despatches, — and 
adopted by the Greeks, may recall the original sense of 
" measuring a distance." 

AHA a , v. Haw., to suffer, be grieved, troubled ; s. grief, 
sadness, sorrow ; ana-ana, to practise witchcraft, procure 
the death of one by sorcery, also to be in a tremor, agitated ; 
s. contraction of the muscles ; ana-anai, to be angry. Tab., 
anas, anxiety ; anau, sorrow, grief, regret. N. Zza\.,~kanga, 
to swear, curse. Sam., ana-ana, to go into danger ; ana- 
gofie, easily perished, perishable. 

Sanskr., agha (fr. a v. angh, Benfey), sin, impurity; 
dgas, crime, fault; amhas, pain, sin. Ved., anhu (Pictet), 
narrow, light; anhas, anxiety, misfortune. 

Lat., ango, press together, choke; angustus, narrow, 
close; angor, angina, sore throat, anguish, vexation, 
trouble; unguis, a snake, serpent; anxietas. 

Greek, ayxa, press tight, strangle, choke; affxi, near, 
close by ; d^o?, S r ' eI > pain, distress; £77115, near, ni;;:i. 

Goth., aggvus, narrow, straight ; agis, fright ; agan, to 
fear. Sax., ange, vexed, troubled ; tnge, narrow strait ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 59 

Irish, agh, fear; ang, ing, peril, danger, Welsh, ing, 
narrow strait. 

Lith., anksztis, narrow; angis, serpent. 

I have followed Benfey and Pictet in these comparisona 
and derivations. It may appear as if the Hawaiian ana- 
ana, contraction of the muscles, to be in a tremor, agitated, 
did not fully correspond to the idea of nearness, close- 
ness, which seems to be the primary and prominent sense 
of the West Aryan vocables. The original material sense 
of ana is no longer to be found in auy of the Polynesian 
dialects, so far as I can ascertain, but some of them have 
preserved two vocables nearly akin to ana, which express 
that idea of nearness, closeness, and compression. The 
one is ane, v. Haw., to be near, to be almost ; adv. nearly, 
scarcely, with difficulty; ane-ane, adv. nearly, almost; s. 
a vacancy, compression of the stomach for want of food or 
from sickness ; adj. be exhausted, faint, feeble ; v. to be 
near doing a thing, be almost at a place. The other is ene, 
Haw., v. to creep along, draw near an object ; Tah„ ene, 
to approach ; ene-ene, to press upon, insist upon. With 
these words supplementing the material sense lost in the 
Polynesian ana, anga, its relation to the Sanskrit Vedic 
anhu, the Greek ay^t, the Saxon enge, the Welsh ing, 
cannot well be called in question. 

Ana 3 , s. Haw., cave, hollow, cleft in the rocks, the 
hollow part of the mouth. Sam., ana, cave, a room, a 
cabin. Tah., ana, cave ; ana-ana, indented ; ana-pape, the 
bed of a river. Quasre, tanga, Sam., a shark's stomach, a 
hag; tanga-ai, the crop of birds. 

Sanskr., ahjali, the cavity formed by putting the hands 
together and hollowing the palms, this cavity as a measure, 
two handfuls (Benfey) ; dnana, i.e. an-ana (Benfey), the 
mouth, face ; dnaka, a dram. 

Beofey refers dnana to an, to blow, breathe, but gives 
no reference for anjali and dnaka. It is possible, but, in 
view of anjali and dnaka, hardly probable. There doubt- 
less was a primary ana, with the sense of cavity, hollow, 
to which dnana and dnaka refer themselves as well as 



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60 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

artjali. There is a composite of Anoka in Sanskrit which 
seems to me inexplicable unless on the assumption that 
the primary sense of Anoka embodied the idea of hollow- 
ness, cavity. That word is cata-dnaka, lit. a hundred 
drums, but conventionally a cemetery. With the primary 
sense of cavity resting in dnaka, one can understand that 
a hundred graves, caves, or holes, might conventionally be 
called a cemetery, but not otherwise. 

The Lat. inguen, the groin, the abdomen, possibly goes 
back to this primitive ana for its root. 

The Greek dvrpov, Lat. antrum, of which Liddell and 
Scott give no etymon, may also be referred to the same 
root. Perhaps also Sanskr. antar, within ; Lat. inter. 

Am, v. Haw., to pass over a surface as with the hand, 
to draw, to wave, beckon, blow softly ; s. a gentle breeze ; 
ani-ani, to cool, refresh, blow gently; ma-bani, wind, 
breeze, air in motion ; ane-ane, blow gently. Earot., 
Mangar., angi, gentle breeze. Sara., Tong., N. Zeal., ma- 
tangi, wind ; angi, to blow. Tah., maiai, wind, Marqu., 
metani. Fiji., cangi, air. Nias, angi, id. Teor., anin, id. 
Malg., anghin, air, wind; angats, spirit, phantom. 

Sanskr., an, to breathe, blow as wind, to live; anila, 
wind; anas, a living being; apdna, the anus; prdna, 
breath, wind. 

Greek, ave/j,os, wind, breath ; rfvefioefi, Dor. ave/ioet<; t 
windy, airy. 

Lat., anvma, air, breath, soul; animus, animal, inanii, 
and anus. 

Goth., anam, to breathe; uz-ana, expire, 0. H. Germ., 
un-st, storm. Swed., ande, breath, spirit ; andas, breathe. 

Gael., anam, breath, soul ; anail, respiration, puff 
Welsh, en, soul, spirit ; en-vil, a being. Armor., ane-val, 
animal. 

Pers., an, intelligence. 

The Greek ei^r, soft, gentle, kind; wpos-Tjitj?, Dor. 
7rpo?-aw7?, and woravr]?, with the same meaning, twnjwjs, 
harsh, rough, unkind, of whose root lexicographers are in 
doubt, probably refer to this family of words, and seem 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 61 

to coincide with the Polynesian sense of a soft, gentle 
breeze. 

Auo, s. Sam., the innermost substance of a thing, the 
kernel. Tong,, kano, id., seeds ; kano-o-he-mata, eye- 
ball. Haw., ano-ano, seeds of fruits, the semen, descend- 
ants, children; onohi, the eye, the pupil of the eye, 
centre of things. N. Zeal., kanohi, the eye. Marqu., 
kakano ; Mangar., Jcanokano, seeds, kernels. Tab., ano- 
ano, id. 

Sanskr., kana, grain, broken rice, a drop, a spark, a 
little bit; kaniha, seed ; iamv/aths, very small. 

This reference is strengthened by several pre-Malay 
terms for "small, little," viz., Amboyna (Battumerali), 
ana; Ceram. (Teluti), anan; Ceram. (Ahtiago), anaanin; 
Salibabo, anion ; Matabello, enena. 

Apo, v. Haw., to catch at, to span, encircle, receive, 
contain, apprehend intellectually ; s. a hoop, a band, a 
ring ; apo-apo, to snatch, seize. Sam., sa-po. Tong., hobo, 
to catch, materially or mentally; 'apo, take care of, 
attend to, to cling to. Tab., apo, to catch ; apu, the shell 
of nuts, seeds; and apu-rima, the hollow of the hand. 
Fiji., kabo-ta, take hold of with something in the hand 
that it may not burn or dirty ; take up food with a leaf ; 
akin to Haw., apu, a cup; Rarot, kapu, id.; Mangar., 
kapu, to enclose, contain, a cup ; Marqu., kapu-kapu, take 
up water with a cup ; Sam., 'apu, a cup or dish made of 
a leaf ; Mai., tang-kap, to catch ; Sund., tjap, a ring. 

Sanskr., dp, to attain, obtain; adj. fit, trusted, near; 
apas, work, diligent, active. Ved., apnas-vant, efficacious. 

Lat., apto, to fit, from obs. apo, aptus, joined, fastened 
to, fit; apiscor, reach, get; opus, copia.. 

Greek, dirrat, fasten to, cling to, touch ; ■n-pen-w for irpo- 
fTrw, be becoming, to suit ; atprj, touch, laying hold, 
grasping. 

Welsh, hap, hah, luck, chance, what comes suddenly; 
liafiaw, snatch ; hapiaw, happen. 

The Latin capio, capto, capax, &c, doubtless refer them- 
selves to this family of apo, as well as capulus and eapsa, 



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62 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

though Benfey refers tliem to the Cans, of Sanskr. cki = 
chapay&mi, to arrange, to heap, collect; and the Sax. 
Jueftan, to seize, hcefi, a handle, haft, claim, also kindred 
to the same. 

Awa 1 , s. Haw., harbour, cove, creek, channel ; awaa, 
to dig as a pit, a ditch ; awawa, a valley, space between 
two prominences, space between the fingers or toes. Tab., 
ava, a harbour, channel. Sam., ava, a boat-passage, open- 
ing in the reef, anchorage; v. be open, as a doorway. 
Marqu., ava, interval, passage. 

The Malgasse ava, a rainbow, may refer to this family, 
in the sense of an arch, a bay, a hollow, curved space on 
the firmament. 

Sanskr., ava(a, a pit ; avata, a well ; avatas, below, in 
the lower regions ; ava-Mca, space, interval ; avama, low, 
opp. to high, probably all referring themselves to ava, 
prep, with the primary sense of " down, below, away, off," 
as its derivatives plainly indicate. 

Awa k , s. Haw., fine rain, mist. Tong., Sam., a/a., storm, 
hurricane ; afu, a waterfall. N. Zeal., awa, a river. Fiji., 
cava, a storm. Mai., awap, mist, dew. Sangvir Islaud, 
sawan, a river. Eotti, Ofa, id. Tagal., abo-abo, rain, Malg., 
sav, mist, fog. 

Sanskr., ap, apas, water. 

Lat., aqua ; Eomain, ava, water, rain-water. 

Goth., ahwa; 0. H. Germ., ouwa, water. Germ., aue, 
au, brook. Swed., a, id. 

Irish, abh, water ; abhan, river. Welsh, aw, fluid. 

Pers., dtv, db, water. 

A. Pictet (loc. cit., i. 137) refers the Celtic and Persian 
forms to a Sanskrit root av, "ire," whence avana, rapidity, 
avani, river; and he refers the Latin and Gothic forms to 
a Sanskrit root ac or ah, " permeare, oecupare," from which 
spring a number of derivatives expressive of "le monve- 
meut rapide, la force peu^trante" (ii. p. 552). In view 
of the Polynesian forms, Haw., Sam., Tagal., and their 
meanings, I prefer to follow Benfey and Bopp in referring 
the West Aryan as well as the Polynesian forms to the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 63 

Sanskrit ap, whether that be the original form itself or a 
contracted modification of it. 

It seems to me to have been in the very nature of lan- 
guage that men in the olden times should have commenced 
by giving distinct and instantaneous names to objects 
around them, and to natural phenomena, before they 
invested those objects with names derived by after-thought 
and reflection from this or that quality characteristic of 
those objects. Many, if not most, of such original names 
were doubtless lost in the course of ages, and supplanted 
by synonyms derived from and expressive of some quality 
or other in the objects named ; but many still survive to 
baffle the analysis of philologists, and to assert their claims 
to priority over synonyms that must necessarily have been 
of later formation. 

Awa s , s. Haw., Sam., Tali., name of a plant of a bitter 
taste, but highly relished throughout Polynesia—" Piper 
Methysticum " — from which an intoxicating drink is made ; 
the name of the liquor itself. Tong., N. Zeal., Earot., 
Marqu., kamt, id. Haw., awa-awa, bitter. Sam., a'awa, id. 
Tong., N. Zeal., kajcawa, sweet. 

Sanskr., av, to please, satisfy, desire (Eenfey) ; ava, 
nourishment (Pictet). 

Pers., dwd, nourishment ; abd, bread. 

Lat., aveo, crave after, long for ; avena, oats. See At! 1 . 

E, adv. and ppr. Haw., from, away, off, by, through, 
means of; also, adverbially, something other, something 
strange, new ; adj. contrary, opposed, adverse, other, foreign. 
Sam., e, ppr. by, of ; ese, other, different, strange. Tah., e, 
ppr. by, through, from; adv. away, off; adj. different, 
strange, distant ; ee, strange. N. Zeal., he, strange, different. 
Malg., ese, of, by, 

Greek, e«, e'£, from out of, from, by, of; iicei, in that 
place, opp. to ivffaSe, in some other place than that of the 
speaker, thither ; heat, afar, afar off. 

Lat., e, ex, out of, from. 

Liddell and Scott (Gr.-Engl. Diet., s. v.) say : " The 



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64 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

root of er-epos is said to be the same as Sanskr. ant-aras, 
Goth, auth-ar, Germ, and-er, Lat. alt-er, aut, French aut- 
rui, our eith-er, oth-er, itara- alius, also in Sanskrit." 
Whatever the root of ant-aras, auth-ar, alter, it seems to 
me that £*«? shows nearer kindred to the Polynesian e, 
ke, ee, ese, eze, than to forms so developed as ant~ar, ani- 
ara, &C. 

Eha, v. Haw., he hurt, sore, painful; s. pain, suffering, 
affliction. Tah., eha-eha, to be spoiled, as of food kept too 
long. Prohahly the Haw. ehe-ehe, to cough, to hack, and 
Tah. ma^ehe, withered, scorched by the sun, are connected 
with this word. 

Sanskr., ej, to stir, tremble, quake. 

Greek, eir-evya>, press upon, urge, drive ; a'tyis, a rush- 
ing wind, a storm ; aicraeo, dart, shoot, force; atrfeipoi, the 
poplar trea 

Lat., oyer, siek, suffering, troubled. 

In the Polynesian form of eha, nothing remains of the 
probably primitive sense of rapid motion, pressure, trem- 
bling, as retained in the Sanskrit ej, the Greek eV-eeyw, 
(wye?, and avyetpot;, though the. forms in ehe-ehe and ehe 
may in a measure recall it. But the Polynesian eke, 
with its variants, which doubtless also goes back to a 
Sanskrit or older ej, has well preserved that original 
sense, as well as the later derivative one of pain or distress. 
We thus have : Haw., e-eke, to start away as in fear, to 
shrink from, the motion of the hand when one has burnt 
his finger, to twinge or writhe with pain ; ehe-ehe, to brush 
off, as a fly or insect ; s, a piercing, stinging pain ; eheke, 
the wing of a bird (from its fluttering rapid motion). 
Tah., ete, to flinch, shrink back ; ete-ete, shocked, ashamed. 

Ele, v. Haw., be dark, black ; adj. dark -coloured, black, 
blue, dark-red, brown ; ele-ele, id. Tah., ere-ere, dark, 
black, blue. Earot., herekere, id. Marqu., kekee, id. ; hee- 
voo, darkness, gloom. 

The application of this word to colour is doubtless deri- 
vative from the Polynes. Haw. kele, mud, mire (quod vide), 
Tong. kele-here, earth soil, dirt, Sam. 'ele and 'ele-ele, red 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 65 

earth, dirt, rust ; elm, Tong., Jcclea, rusty, dirty; probably 
all akin to ala, ara,, in ala-ea, earth, clay (vid. pp. 51, 52). 

Jar., iran, black. N. Celebes (Kema), hirun, id. 

In the following Greek words the first constituent pro- 
claims their affinity to the Polynesian ere, ele: — 

epeffos, darkness of the grave, the dark passage from 
earth to Hades ; epeftevvas, dark, gloomy ; Spef&vos, sync, 
fr. previous word, black, swarthy; epe<f>co, to cover; op<f>w), 
darkness of night; 6ptf>vo$, dark, dusty; opotjnj, roof of 
a house. 

Sanskr., aruna, tawny, dark, red ; s. the dawn, the sun ; 
arun-Ua, made red. 

Eenfey refers the Sanskrit word to arus, a wound. 
Liddell and Scotfc refer the Greek words to epe<po>, to 
cover. They are plausible ; but are they the true roots 
or stems, in, view of the Polynesian ele, ere? Dr. J. 
Pickering, in his Greek Lexicon, derives eps&o? "from 
epa (the earth) or ipstjxa (to cover)." The former seems 
to me the better reference. 

Ele 2 , prefix. Haw., an intensitive added to many words, 
imparting a meaning of "very much, greatly;" ele-u, 
alert, quick; ele-vut-kule, old, aged, helpless; ele-mio, taper- 
ing to a point ; ele-ku, easily broken, very brittle ; ele-kei, 
too short. Tah., ere-kuru, encumbered, too much of a 
thing. 

A. Pietet (loc. tit., ii. 757) says, apropos of the derivation 
of the word Erin: "L'irlandais er comme adjectif magnus, 
nobilis, parait §tre identique a I'er intensitif de l'irlan- 
dais et du eymrique, consider^ comme une particule 
inseparable, et qui serait ainsi proprement un adjectif. 
II est a remarquer en confirmation, que le zend airya = 
sanskr. arya avec 1'acception de bon, juste, est egalement 
devenu ir dans les composes du Parsi, comme er-ma&e&hu 
bon esprit, er-tan, bon corps (Spiegel, Avesta, i. 6). De 
la a un sens intensitif, transition <;tait facile." Why not 
widen the philological horizon by admitting the Poly- 
nesian ere, ele, to consideration as well as the Irish, 
Welsh, or Parsi V And why may not the 0. Norse ar, 

VOL. Ill, " -e 



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66 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

early, first ; aerir, messengers ; the Sax. er, before, in 
time, go up to the same root as those others ? 

Eli, v. Haw., to loosen or break up earth, to dig in the 
ground. Tah., eri, eru, id. Tong., K ZeaL, Fiji., Jceri, 
keli, id. Sunda, kali, ngali, to dig. 

Sanskr., ar, to plough ; Lat., aro ; Greek, apoa ; Irish, 
arain; Goth., arjan, and their numerous derivatives. 

Emu, v. Haw., to cast away, throw away; emi, to 
decrease, subside, retire, despond, to ebb as the tide. 
Mangar., Jcemi, to depart, disappear. The Haw. emo, to 
put off, delay, is probably but a phonetic variation. 

Greek, i/tea, to vomit, throw up. 

ti;ix., iH.mti, ar-uiti.an, to evacuate, be vacant, idle ; aemta, 
ease, leisure. Engl., empty. 

Benfey and Liddell and Scott refer the Greek efj,ew 
to the Sanskr. vara, to vomit, spit out; Lat, vomo, id. It 
may be so ; but why is not the Sanskr, v represented by 
the digamma or the aspirate in Greek ? Benfey further 
refers the Greek efi-em to the Goth., wamm, a spot, ga- 
wamms, spotted, tainted ; but W. W. Skeat, in Mceso- 
Goth. Glossary, derives wamm from wimman, to blemish. 
In this uncertainty I think the Polynesian etymon the 
preferable. 

I 1 , prep. Haw., to, towards, in, at, unto ; iho, a verbal 
direction implying motion downward, succession ; v. to 
descend from a higher to a lower level ; io, v. to flee, has- 
ten away; s. a forerunner, a herald. In the S. Polynes. 
dialects, i and hi, prep, to, towards, at, in, on. Sam., ifo; 
Tah., iho; Tong., foifo; Mangar., Earot., io, down, downward, 
to descend. Sam., ifu, to run away. Tah,, ihu, be lost, go 
astray. Fiji., rivo, downwards. Buru., iko oniiwiko, to go. 
Ceram. (Teluti), itai, id. Amboyna, oi, id. 

Sanskr., i, to go, to go to ; ay, id. ; it, id. ; y&, id. 

Greek, ew, ewu, tq/u, elftt, and their numerous forms 
retaining the original i, denoting motion, to go, to pass ; Itos 
passable ; ISpa, a step, motion. 

Lat., to, ire, to go ; iter, journey, road ; itio, &c. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 67 

Goth., iddja, I went. 

I 2 , v. Haw. and Tah., to speak, to say. Sam., i, to cry. 
Mangar., ki, id. N. Zeal., liarot., M, to say, to answer. 
Tong., ki, to whistle. Fiji., gi, to squeak, shrill voice. 
Haw., ii, rejoice with audible voice. Sam., ii, a prolonged 
scream. 

Sanskr., id, to implore, to praise ; Ma, speech ; Hi, 
calamity. 

Greek, la, a voice, cry ; Ian), shout, clamour ; ta(J», cry 
aloud. 

Ia 1 , pron. Polynes., ubique, he, she, it. Malay., iya, 
id. Malg., isi, id. 

Lat., is, ea, id. 

Goth., is, si (ace. f. ija), ita. (See Introduction.) 

Ia 2 , s. Haw., Tah., Sam., fish. Tong., N. Zeal., Marqu., 
ika, id. Mai., ikan; Pulo Nias, iah, id. Gilolo (Galela), 
ian, id, Saparua, ian, id, Teor., ikan, id. 

Greek, t%8v<i, fish. 

In the earlier pre-historic residence of the Greeks on 
the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean, there must 
have been in the language which then obtained such a 
word for fish as ika, or icha. One of the ancient names of 
Sardinia was 'lyyovaa, evidently a composite word, from 
vovaa — a word which, whatever its original derivation, 
prevailed extensively at one time with the signification of 
" island," from the Pillars of Hercules to the Straits of 
Gilolo, and from theuce was borne into the Pacific — and 
tX- for which Greek lexicographers offer no explanation 
or etymon. Pausanias, Pliny, and Silius Italicus refer the 
name of 'Ijfyovtra to the Greek Ixvoi, vestigium, a track of 
the human foot, from its apparent shape ; but C. Kitter 
("Die Vorhalle Europ. Volker-Geschichten") has, in a 
measure, upset that theory, though his own is hardly more 
probable, and neither the one nor the other will account 
for the termination of -vovaa in the names of numerous 
other islands ; and thus, in the case of 'Iyyovcra, the first 
syllable still remains unexplained. There is another 
Greek word -in which I recognise the existence of this 



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68 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ancient i^a or t^ : it is rapi^o?, " salted or pickled fish," 
"smoked or dried fish or meat," "a mummy." Wo etymon 
is given by Liddell and Scott. The first component of 
this word possibly refers to rapaaaia, or the stem upon 
which rapauam was formed, with the sense of " to stir up, 
to mix, to agitate, to trouble," with a probably conven- 
tional or understood sense of " to prepare pickle (by stir- 
ring, mixing), to pickle, to cure." The second component 
I claim as that ancient t^ or l%a which gave its name to 
Sardinia. The etymology of the name of 'I/capos, an 
island off Samos in the iEgean Sea, has, I believe, not yet 
been satisfactorily settled. According to Authon (Class, 
Diet.), Bochart inclines towards a Phcenician derivation, 
and assigns as the etymology of the name i-caure, i.e., 
"insula piscium," the island of fish. In support of this 
explanation he refers to Athenffius,,Stephanus Byzantinus, 
and others, according to whom one of the early Greek 
names of the island was 'I^Bvoea-rra, i.e., " abounding in 
fish." The reference to " fish " as the foundation of the 
name rather confirms my opinion that uea, lya, was an 
ancient name of that class of animals, but had become 
obsolete before the adoption of the comparatively later 
and composite i%ffv<; ; and, under previous considerations, 
it is fairly probable that the city of 'I-xyn, mentioned by 
Herodotus (vii. 123) as "near the sea," in the neighbour- 
hood of the river Axius, which divided the territories of 
Mygdonia and Bottiseis, is another memento of the original 
long-forgotten name of fish, i^ra, Oca, ia. 

A. Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., i. 509), after rejecting Benfey's 
etymon of the Latin piscis, and the connection of l-^dvi 
thereto, says : " Quant k 'I%6vi, qui est tout-a-fait isole, 
la question est beaucoup plus obscure. C'est \k, peut-gtre, 
un compose 1 pureiuent gree, ou 6vs me paralt se lier a- 
Gvm — sanskr. dku, agitare, commovere, et lj(a, un aneien 
nom de l'eau dont la trace est restee dans l/cp-as, humidite". 
Cf. aqua, Goth, ahva, Anc. All. aha, Cymr. ach, Irlande 
oiche, eau, &c, et les rac. sanskr. ak, volvi, ac, permeare, 
&c. Cet ih hypothetic, identique a sa racine comme 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 69 

beaucoup d'autres noms, se serait change en t^ devattt 
le 8 de dvw, et t^Cw, signifierait ainsi qui agite I'eau, 
^pithete bien adaptee au poisson." There can be little 
doubt of the latter syllable deriving from 8va> or 8vvra, 
but whether the hypothetic Ik of Mr. Pietet ever existed 
in the Greek language with the sense of water — aqua — 
may admit of a doubt, even though the Greek *«/*«?, 
moisture, would seem to favour the conjecture. Its 
association in '1%-vovaa rap-typs, tX' 1 ^' perhaps Aovk- 
i-ypov of Homer (ii. 625), cannot thus be explained, but 
becomes readily intelligible if we admit the Polynesian 
ika to membership in the Aryan family. 

Ia 3 , s. Haw., name of the galaxy or milky way ; iao, s. 
name of the planet Jupiter when morning-star. 

If in former ages this word and its associations with 
the Polynesians were invested with any divine character, 
it has so long been lost or superseded that no trace thereof 
can now be found. Ia. and iao now represent only a par- 
ticular star or a cluster of stars. The stellar worship has 
been obliterated, but the to them now unmeaning name 
still remains to attest their former intimate relation to 
those peoples who, starting with common names for indi- 
vidual stars or cluster of stars, retained the names to 
designate the Author and Maker of " the hosts of heaven." 
The Chaldean, Syro- Phoenician lah, the Greek 'lata, of 
whom the Clarian oTacle said, as reported by Macrobius, 
" &patya> rtov vravTaiv birarrov 8eov e/ifiev 'lam" attest the 
existence of the name in that part of the world. The 
Polynesians, in their development from stellar worship to 
the conception of individual deity, employed other words 
to express that conception, and to them ia and iao con- 
veyed only the primary material sense of a star or cluster 
of stars. The Chaldeans and Greeks (and the latter pro- 
bably borrowed from the foimerj in their development 
retained the name but forgot its original sense, and sought 
for etymons that seem to me more profound than con- 
clusive. 

Ia*, v. Tab., to pitch, to daub; ia~loa,v.'Ka,w., to embalm 



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70 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

by perfuming or otherwise ; s. a dead body embalmed 
and preserved. 

This word probably refers itself to the Greek ttuvw, to 
heat, melt, warm, cheer ; laop.at, to heal, cure ; lavr/p, a 
surgeon, a healer ; la/ia, remedy, medicine. 

Iele, s. Haw., a chief, a king. Tah., ieieere, consternation, 



Greek, Upo$, holy, hallowed, magnificent, vast, awful ; 
lepev$, a priest; Upeia, sacrifice, festival; lepa%, a hawk, 
sacred to Apollo. 

Liddell and Scott after Curtius, and A. Pietet after 
Kuhn, refer lepm to the Sanskr. ishira, strong, lively, 
vigorous, robust, mighty, and hence divine, sacred; and 
Pietet suggests that the suppression of the sh is com- 
pensated by the initial spiritus asper. It may bo so ; 
but then, in view of the parallel Polynesian iele, the 
phonetic decay of ishira must be of an enormously ancient 
date. 

Professor Max Miiller, in " Chips from a German Work- 
shop,"!. i33(Scribner's edition), says : "It is easy again to 
see that Upo? in Greek means something like the English 
sacred. But how, if it did so, the same adjective could 
likewise be applied to a fish or to a chariot, is a question 
which, if it is to be answered at all, can only be answered 
by an etymological analysis of the word. To say that 
sacred may mean marvellous, and therefore big, is saying 
nothing, particularly as Homer does not speak of catching 
big fish, but of catching fish in general." If Homer 
spoke of " fish in general " (Iliad, xvi. 407), why use the 
epithet Upoil Whatever may be the etymology of 
Upos, whether it refers itself to the Sanskrit ishira, or to 
the Polynesian iele, or both, it seems to me, under correc- 
tion, that the sense of the word in Homer's time invariably 
conveyed the idea of something select, something remark- 
able, beyond ordinary things and persons, for its superior 
excellence, grandeur, solemnity, power, beauty, or ele- 
gance, thus reconciling its varying application, from a 
chariot, Upo$ Siippos (Ii. xvii. 464), up to the t 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, . jt 

we^as lepov (II. xi. 194), and to the day, tepov f/p.ap (II. 
viii. 66). And hence I infer that the lepo? tv#fs, to which 
Homer refers, was not " fish in general," but some particu- 
lar kind of fish known in his time by that epithet. Liddell 
and Scott quote Aristotle in explanation that the lepo<; l^Sus 
meant the fish otherwise known as the avOtas. 

The Tahitian ieieere, though somewhat corrupted in form, 
has probably retained the earlier sense of the word, and 
corresponds closely to the Greek senses of {epos, viz., 
wondrous, marvellous, extraordinary. 

Io, adj. Haw., true, real; adv. truly, verily. Sam., io, 
ioe, yes. Tong., Fakaafo, io, yes. Fiji., ia and io, yes. 
Malg., ie, yes. 

Goth., ia, iai, yes, verily. Swed., ia, io, yes, an affirma- 
tive. 

If, adj. Haw., prohibited, sacred ; iuiw, to be afar off, 
high up, to live in some sacred place ; s. a place supposed 
to be afar off or high above the earth, or beneath the ocean, 
sacred to the dwelling-place of God, J£e akua noko ika 
iuin, the God dwells afar off; i ha welau ha makani, 
at the farther end of the wind (Andrew's Diet.); po-iu, 
afar off, at a great distance, very high up, grand, solemn, 
glorious; koiuiu, far off, at a great height; Jco-iu-la ; to 
ascend as smoke, to float in the air as a eloud. Tah., 
ioio, handsome, brilliant. Haw., io-lani, the high, upper 
heaven. 

Sauskr., dyu, dio, heaven, day; deva, god, deity, per- 
haps properly "the heavenly;" dy&vd-pritkivi, heaven 
and earth ; dydus, heaven personified ; dtu-pate, lord of 
heaven. 

Greek, Bios, divine ; evSiot, in the open air ; Zev;, jEo]. 
dewi, gen. Jtos, chief of the Olympian deities; At,a>vi\, 
mother of Aphrodite ; ev-Sta, fair weather. 

Lat., divum, (Hum, the sky ; "sub diu, sub divo," in the 
open air; Jit-fiter~ Sanskr. Dyv-pUnr, gen. Jo-vis, in Osean 
Dio-vei; in the Iguvine tables Juve-pater=" in heaven the 
father" (Pictet); Ju-no, the wife and sister of Jupiter; deus, 
God ; dies, day. 



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73 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Goth., tins, gen. tivis; A.-Sax., tiu; 0. Nors., tyr, gen. 
tys ; A. Germ., ziu or zio, the most ancient of the Teutonic 
gods, and a personification'of heaven (Pictet, loc. cit., ii. 664). 

It will be seen from the above comparison that the Poly- 
nesian iu and its composites have retained what was pro- 
bably the very earliest sense of this word, as well as of 
its subsequent developments of sense. The idea of "high 
up," " far away," is not retained in the West Aryan tongues, 
except impliedly, as diu or dio, the heaven, in dium, the 
sky, in tV-S/05, in the open air. 

I have purposely omitted reference to the Greek &09. 
Philologists seem to differ. Professor Sayce, in "Intro- 
duction to the Science of Language," ii, 136, says: "In spite 
of every effort that has been made to connect the Greek 
deo? with the common Aryan term that we meet wi:h in 
the Latin deus, it still stands obstinately alone, and favours 
the view of Herodotus and Ebdiger, that the Greek looked 
upon the gods as the 'placers' or 'creators' of that divinely 
arranged universe to which he afterwards gave the name 
of Koa-^os, or order." Liddell and Scott (Greek-English 
Dictionary, 5. v.) say : " We cannot admit the Greek deri- 
vation given by Herodotus 1 (2, 52), oti KoTfi.<a9tvre; to. 
rdvra vpqyfiaTa Kai Trdaa? ro/itl? el^ov, Or that of Plato 
(Crat., 397, a), from Qkuy, to run, because the first gods 
were the sun, moon, &c." In his notes to Herodotus, 
touching the passage above quoted, George Rawlinson 
justly remarks: "Both these derivations aTe purely fanci- 
ful, having reference to the Greek language only, whereas 
S(o? is a form of a very ancient word common to a number 
of the Indo-European tongues, and not to be explained from 
any one of them singly." In this dilemma the Polynesian 
tu offers a solvent for the forms in dyu, iu, &c, which we 
recommend to the above philologues. As to the 0eo$, vide 
Polynesian Keo, post. 

Iha, v. Haw., be intent upon, desire strongly, persevere ; 
iha-ilia, strained, firmly drawn as a rope. Tah., iha, dis- 
pleasure, grief, trouble ; iha-iha, to palpitate from heat or 

1 Referred to by Professor Sayce, vide ntpra. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. J3 

exertion. Sam., isa, exclamation of anger, contempt, in- 
dignation, Fiji., isa, interj. expressing disapprobation. 

Sanskr., ish 2 (Benfey), to wish, cherish, approve ; ishti, 
wish; ih, to aim at, desire; n. exertion; ihd, exertion, 
desire. 

Greek, tftepos, desire, longing, and lo-nyi, will, desire, 
interest in, are both referred to Sanskrit ish by Benfey 
and Liddell and Scott. They are probably correct, and the 
Greek shows no other correlatives ; but in the following 
branches the Sanskrit and Polynesian, connection is 
certainly more apparent. 

Zend., ishttd, prayer. 

Anc. Slav., iskalc (pros, is/da), to seek, to ask. 

Goth., a'Mron, to desire, to beg. A.-Sax., aescian. to 
seek, ask, inquire. 

Ihe, s. Haw., a spear, lance. Tah., ihe, id. 

Sanskr., ish 1 (Benfey), to throw, direct, send ; ishu, an 
arrow ; ishikd, a reed. 

Greek, 405 (contr. fr. (V09), arrow, shaft; k, nerve, 
strength, force, and its composites. 

Lidde'.l and Scott refer tV to the Latin vis. 

Ihi, adj. Haw., dignified, majestic, sacred; ft title 
applied to high chiefs. Tah., ihi, skill, wisdom, dex- 
terity. 

Sanskr., ic, to possess, be master, be able ; iqa, pro- 
prietor, master, ruler; lodna, a name of Qiva; iqin, a 
governor. 

Greek, l<f>t, splendidly, mightily, with might; Ifiics, 
excellent ; l<j>ta fieXa, fat sheep. 

Liddell and Scott refer l<pt to the Greek fc, power, 
strength, &c. But in view of the Polnes. ihi, the Sanskr. 
ic, the primary sense of both of which doubtless was that 
of excellence, superiority, I think the particularised Greek 
sense of l<[n, " with might," is rather secondary and con- 
ventional than primary. The uj>ia fteka of Homer in- 
dicate excellence as the underlying sense, and not strength. 
Benfey refers the Goth, aigan, aihan, to own, possess, 
A.-Sax. agan, 0. H. Germ, eigan, to the Sanskr. ic. 



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74 THE POLYNESTAN RACE, 

Ike 1 , v. Haw., to see, perceive, know. Tali., He, id. 
Maogar., Tong., N. Zeal., /cite, id. 

Sanskr., iksh, to look, behold, perceive, mind. Benfey 
calls this a desideratum of a lost verb analogous to afcsha. 
That verb must then have been ik, which brings us near 
to the Polynesian form. 

Ike 2 , v. N. Zeal., to beat, to bruise the bark in making 
tapa. Marqu,, Mangar., ike, name of the club or wooden 
mallet with which the bark is beaten out Haw., Tab.., 
Sam., He, id. 

Lat., ico, strike, beat, hit ; ictus, a blow, a stroka 

Ila, s. Haw., a dark spot on the skin. Sam., ila, a 
mother's mark, a mark in the skin, a defect ; ila-ila, 
marked, spotted. Tab., ira, a mole or mark on the skin. 
N. Zeal., ira, id. Tong., ila, id. 

Greek, iXw, mud, slime, dirt. Liddell and Scott think 
that l\v$ comes " probably from elXvto, tXXo," to roll, fold 
up, to cover. If so, the connection in sense is so very 
distant, that it will perhaps be safer to connect tKv? with 
ila, as " mud " will make " spots " on the skin, whereas it 
is not evident that " rolling " or " folding " 
produces mud. 

In 1 , s. Haw., ili-ili, smooth, water-worn stones or 
pebbles. Tab., iri-iri, id. N. Zeal., kiri-kiri, id. Sam., 
'ili-ili, gravel, pebbles, small stones. Flores (EndeJ, Mi, 
mountain. Mai., Icarang, rock. 

Sanskr., cila, a stone, rock ; cilindhra, hail ; eaila, stony, 
rocky. 

Armen., Ml, slung-stone. 

Lat., silex, flint 

It may be noted as an idiomatic correspondence, that 
as the Sanskrit acinan and aeani, rock, stone, are also 
applied as names for the thunderbolt; and as the Greek 
.K€pawo<s, which Pictet derives from icapv<;, mpvov, the 
nut or stone in fruit, has also become thunder and 
thunderbolt ; so by a similar process the Polynesian Haw. 
he-kili, thunder; Tab., pa-tiri, id.; K Zeal, wka-tetiri, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 75 

id.; Tong., te-kili, lightning; Sam., fatu-tetili, thunder, 
have received their applications. 

The Sanskr. giri, a mountain, may possibly refer itself 
to this Polynesian iri, Hi, kiri. Benfey says, s. v., that 
giri stands " for original gara ; cf. Slav, gora, opo?, from 
gur for gar." But see p. 85, s. v. Olo. 

Ili 2 , s. Haw., skin, bark, surface. Tah., iri, id. Tong. 
Fakaaf., kili, id. N. ZeaL, Earot., kiri, id. Sam., ili-ui, 
dark-skinned ; ili-ola, the outer skin ; ili-ti-tai, the bed of 
the sea (Haw,, ili-kai, the surface of the sea); Hi, a fan. 
Malg., ulitz, skin, bark. Sula Isl., koli, id. Amboyna, 
uliti, id. Teor., holit, id. Matalullo, aliti, id. 

Sanskr., chira, bark, a vesture of bark, a rag, a cloth. 
Benfey considers this word " a syncope perhaps of chivara," 
which he derives from chl, to arrange, collect, to cover. 
Pictet (loc. cit., i. 203) refers this word to a primitive root 
At, kr, " dans le sens de secaru, Uedere." In this dilemma I 
think it safer to refer it to its kindred Polynesian Hi, kiri, 
and to look upon it as one of those ancestral words which 
have been retained by different sections of a common stock, 
but whose analysis it is impossible to determine because of 
our ignorance of the primitive form under which this word 
passed current. And certainly the early Aryans must 
huve possessed some name for the bark of the trees and the 
skin of the animals before they adopted new words from 
the processes of obtaining them ; krittt, hide, from krU, to 
cut off, divide, &c. The following possibly also belonged 
to the same family : — 

0. Norse., gem, skin. 

I>at., ilia, flanks of the body, loins. 

The Haw. hili, general name for barks used in colouring 
and dyeing; hili-koa, koa bark ; hili-kolca, &c„ is probably 
but a dialectical transition from kill to Hi, 

Iuo, s. Haw., dog. 

Greek, X«, lion, (Ep.) gen. Xtos, ace. \tv, Xewv, dat. pi, 
tetovat, lion. 

Lat., Uo; lion. 

Anc. Slav., lim, lisHsa, fox. 



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76 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Pietet (Joe. cit., i. 223) refers the Greek \emv to an ancient 
form, "Kefaw, and that to the Sanskr. Id, to cut off, destroy, 
whence lavya, secandus; and claims a purely Semitic 
origin for \t? in the Hebr. lais, Arab, lays, and Chald. 
faith. To me the Semitic origin of \« seems more phonetic 
than re aL So far as known, \« is as old a name for lion 
in the Greek language as Xewv ; they both occur in Homer's 
Iliad. ' The casus-endings of \(? indicate that X( was its 
root, as well as the root of the Haw. i-li-o, where, as I 
consider, the initial i is euphonic. 

It is somewhat singular, perhaps, that the Hawaiian 
word for dog has not, so far as I can learn, been retained 
in any of the other Polynesian dialects, in all of which the 
word fain or kuli designates dog, except in the Marquosan, 
where niche stands alone as another remnant of former 
synonyms. The application of the word to a lion in one 
direction, and to fox 'and dog in other directions, but 
strengthens the presumption that it was one of the early 
generic names for that class of animals. 

In regard to the root of this word, \ea>v, Ksu, or i-lis, I 
think we must ascend higher than the Sanskrit lavya,, a 
derivative or an inflection of 1-&; for it is almost certain 
that the Aryans were acquainted with and had named 
that class of animals long before the inflections of their 
language had developed themselves. Let us look to that 
earlier stage of the Aryan speech which the Polynesian 
has preserved, and we will find in the Haw. li, v. to be 
afraid, shrink back with dread ; li-o, to fear, start suddenly ; 
adj. fearful, affrighted ; li-o, or lei-o, v. to open the eyes 
wide as a wild or affrighted animal, to act wildly or fero- 
ciously as an untamed animal, to bristle up as a wild hog. 
Hence lio, s. the name given to the horse when first intro- 
duced in the Haw. group. In the Sam. we find lia-lia, be 
afraid of; lei-leia, be frightened. In Tab., riai, be afraid. 

On the fact that the West Aryan names for lion, and, I 
may add, the Polynesian (Haw.) name for dog, have no corre- 
sponding term in Sanskrit, Mr. Pietet very justly observes : 
" L' absence de ee nom de lion en Sanscrit et en persan, ne 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 77 

prouve pas qu'il n'ait jamais existe en Orient. Lea ani- 
maux qui frappent vivement Tim agination de 1'homrne, 
recoivent incessament de nouvelles denominations carac- 
teristiques. Les Aryas de 1'Iride, en contact journalier 
avec le lion, lui ont donne de cinquante a soixante noms 
descriptifs, et au milieu de eette profusion, quelques-uns 
des plus anciens ont pu facilement se perdre." 

Imo, v. Haw., to wink, as the eye, twinkle as a star ; 
imo-imo, v. to wink fast ; adv. very high up, very far off, 
i.e., it makes the eyes wink to look. This word is probably 
akin, and hut another, perhaps the earlier, form of amo, with 
exactly the same meanings, singly or doubled. Tong., 
kame, to wink; kerna,. id. ; kemo, the eyelash; kimoa, a 
rat, mouse. Sam., emo, to wink the eye, to flash as 
lightning ; imoa, a rat. Tah., amo, to wink, twinkle, flash. 
N. Zeal., kahxmo, to wink. Tikopia, kaleamo, flash of 
lightning. Marqn., amo, to twinkle; kamo, to steal. 
Malg., am,bou, ambon, on high, in the air, superior ; tan- 
ambon, a mountain. 

Sanskr., jihma, oblique, squinting; jihma-ga, a snake; 
jim-tita, a cloud, a name of the sun. Benfey, it is true, 
refers jim4ta to jihma, and this to " Jtvri, probably for 
primitive jihvri, i.e. redupl. hvri-a." With due deference, 
it seems to me that the Polynesian forms offer an easier 
solution. 

Greek, ai/ios, snub-nosed, bent upward like the curved 
slope of a hillside ; to vi/ia, epithet applied to mountains, 
"#rdua aeelivia." Liddell and Scott give no etymon for 

Whether the Icelandic Old Norse Mmin and the 
German Himmel, both signifying heaven, and of which the 
latter was anciently a name applied to mountains, are not 
allied to tbe Polynesian imo, I am not prepared to say, 
hut think it probable, in the absence of other or better 
etymology. The German Sims, Ge-sims, a cornice, mantel, 
or shelf, would also seem to ally itself to the Greek 
aimftai, the ends of a lyre, parts of the cornice. 

Inu, v. Haw., to drink. Tah., and all other Polynesian 



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78 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

dialecta, id., except Eotuma, imu, to drink. N. Guinea 
(Motu or Port Moresby), inua, to drink. Tagal. and 
Sunda, mum, nginum, minum, to drink. Malg., minim, 
minon, id. 

Sanskr., ino, init, to please, satisfy ("in the Vedas 
especially " — Benfey). 

Greek, alvv/iat, to take hold of, to enjoy, feed on. 

Probably the earliest craving of human nature was 
thirst, and the earliest satisfaction experienced was that of 
drinking when thirsty. Hence the name given to the act 
of drinking became also the name for the sentiment ex- 
perienced from the act. The transition from the material 
to the moral sense of the word seems perfectly intelligible. 
The Polynesian branch has preserved the former, the 
Sanskrit and Greek the latter, 

INO, v. Haw., to hurt, injure, be worthless ; adj. bad, 
vile, wicked. Sam., ino-ino, bad, hateful. Tah., ino, bad, 
sinful. N. Zeal., Earot., Mangar., MaTou., kino, bad, evil. 
■ Zend., eno, sin. 

Greek, alvos, dread, grim, horrible. Liddell and Scott 
refer this to rat, interj. of affright. It may be, but the 
Zend and Polynesian would indicate otherwise. 

Iwi, s. Haw., bone, midrib of a leaf, cocoa-nut shell, 
rind of sugar-cane, boundary-stones, broken materials, 
remnants; fig. descendants, near kindred; v. to turn 
aside, be curved, crooked. Tah., ivi, bone ; wahim-iwi, a 
widow. Sam., iwi, bone. N. Zeal., Mangar., iwi, hone, 
also a family, a elan. Earot., iwi and iwa, bone. Iji 
compds., Haw. poo-hiwi, N. Zeal, poko-hiwi, the shoulder ; 
Haw. kua-hiwi, Sam. tua-siwi, Tah. o>iwi, backbone, ridge 
of a mountain ; Fiji., siwa, a fish-hook. 

Closely allied to this, if not a mere dialectical variation, 
is the Haw. kiwi, v. to bend, to crook ; adv. side- ways ; s. 
anything crooked, a sickle, a horn, Fiji., tiwi-tiwi, side- 
ways; s. a hatchet; tibica, to bend sharply. 

Sanskr., ibha, elephant. Ved., ibha, family, household ; 
ibliya, wealthy, 

Greek, vftos, crooked. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 79 

Lat., tibia, shin-bone ; gibbus, gibba, a hunch on the 
back. 

Irish, ibh, country, tribe. 

Anc. Germ., eiba. Lombard, aib, used in compounds of 
names of places, as WHar-tim, Wing art -eiba, indicating a 
district or territory. Perhaps the Goth, ib-dali, descent, 
refers also to the Ved. ibha, the Irish ibh, and the Polynes. 
iwi. 

The Sax. iw or eow, the yew tree, from which archers' 
bows were made, the Icel. ivr, yr, a bow to shoot with, and 
the Germ, eibe, the yew tree, as well as the Welsh yw, ywen, 
the yew tree, doubtless ally themselves to the primary 
forms and sense of iwi and kiwi. 

Benfey and Pictet refer the Greek l$i, tfaos, to the 
Sanskr. ibhya. (On p. 73 I have given my opinion.) The 
Sanskr. ibha, elephant, was no doubt so called from its 
prominent tusks, and thus indicates a close and primary 
relation to the Polynesian iwi, as doubtless does also the 
Latin ebur, ivory. 

A. Pictet (loe. cit., i. 230), following Kuhn, refers the 
Saxon and Celtic names for the yew tree to the Sanskr. 
Ved. &wa, "cours (de temps), eours habituel, eoutume," 
analogous to the Anc. Germ. 4wa, eternity, ewin, twig, 
eternal, &c, on account of its remarkable longevity. I 
think the hypothesis untenable in view of the Polynesian 
iwi and its various developments, which seem to offer a 
better solution, of the origin of these terms, either in 
regard to the use made of the yew tree for making bows, 
or in regard to its strength and durability, the former 
connecting it with iwi through its sense of curvature, the 
latter through its sense of hardness and strength ; and in 
the absence of other etymons, I would also refer the Saxon 
ifig, the ivy, to some near, but to me unknown, relation 
of iwi. 

Oaka, v. Haw., owaka, hooka, to open suddenly, as the 
eyes or mouth, to open as a flower, to shine, to glisten ; 
reflection of the sun on a luminous body, glimpse, glance, 



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8o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

brightness, glory, the crescent or hollow of the new moon, 
the lintel or arch over a door. This word is probably 
allied to or derived from oka, to light op as the moon 
before rising, dawn of light (vid. p. 46) ; but in the ancient 
dialect of Kauai (Hawaiian group), aha means eye, and 
aha-lapa-lapa, large brilliant eyes. In Tali., oata is the 
hole or meshes in a net, the hole in a calabash, a central 
hole, the monkey's eyes on a cocoanut; vata, an opening, 
a rent Fiji-, waga, to bum; waqa-waqa, hot, fiery, of 
anger, or of the eyes flashing. 

The existence in a Hawaiian dialect, now obsolete, of 
the word aha, with an undoubted specific meaning of 
eye, with the derivative forms and their significations 
quoted above, will doubtless throw some light upon 
the descent of the Sanskr. aksha, akski, the Greek 6kkos, 
oao-e, the Lat. oculus, the Lith. akis, the Euss. oho, all 
designating eye, and each one coeval with, if not a develop- 
ment from, the Polynesian aha. 

Among the tribes of the Hindu- Kush, the G-ilgit dialect 
of the Shina has achi, eye ; the Chiliss has ache, id. ; Tor- 
walak, ashi, id. ; Bushgali, acken, id. 

A. Pietet (loc. cii., i. 553) rejects in a rather scornful 
manner the proposition of those philologists who claim 
relationship for the Goth, augo, the Sax. asgh, tag, &c, 
eye, with the Sanskr. aksha, and he proposes for them a 
Sanskr. root Hh, animadvertere, intelligere, and says that 
•Ah "semblerait avoir eu dans l'origine la signification 
de voir, puis de faire attention, eonsiderer, &c." Benfey, 
however, refers the Goth, augo to the Sanskr. ahshi, and, 
I think, with greater probability of being correct. 

Oi 1 , v. Haw., to project over, be more in any way, 
exceed, be better ; s. excess, superiority, the sharp edge or 
point of a weapon; adj. first, greater, more excellent, 
sharp pointed; oi-e, an ancient name or epithet of the 
god Kane. Tali., oi, sharp, as the edge of a tool; oioi, 
rapid, swift. 

Sanskr., oj, be strong, to live ; ojas, strength, light, 
splendour. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 81 

Lp.t,, augco, make great, increase, strengthen; augustus. 

Greek, avyr}, bright, light, radiance, any light or gleam ; 
avyai, the two eyes. 

feel, auxa. to increase. Sax., mean, id. Swed., olca, id. 

s. v. avyq, Liddell and Seott hesitate whetheT to refer it 
to "the same root as Lat. oc-ulus. Germ. aug-e, i.e., Sanskr. 
ic, videre, or from the same root as am?, ai>a><;, aurora." 
s. v. oty, the eye, they refer that as well as the Lat. oculus, 
the Goth, augo, the Sanskr. aksham (eye), iksh (to look), 
and several others to a root ott, from which all those 
referred to are but " dialectical forms." 

It ill becomes me to criticise my masters ; but in such 
uncertainty it may be well to acknowledge the Polynesian 
as an elder dialect of Aryan speech, and take the aid it 
offers. 

Oi 2 , v. Haw., to approach, draw near to. Tah., oi, adv. 
nearly, almost, Tong., oft, near, to approach. Sam., oft, to 
enter, to fit in, to cover, of the male animal. N. Zeal., 
awi, to approach, draw near. 

Sanskr., dbhi, towards, to, on, over; abhi-tas, on both 
sides, from every side, round about, near, towards ; ahhi- 
gama, approaching, visit, sexual intercourse, 

Greek, d/itfti, on both sides, on, about, over, at, by, near. 

Lat., amo-, as in ami-ire. 

0. H. Germ., umpi. Goth., hi, at, by, near. 

Ohana, s. Haw., a family, brood of birds, a litter, 
offspring, tribe. Tong., ohana, husband or wife, a spouse ; 
iiena, a person. Sam., ofanga, a nest ; fanganga, a herd. 
K. Zeal., kohanga, a nest. Tah., o/aa, id. ; v. to nestle close, 
to brood. All these are derivatives of a once common 
word, whose primary meaning was " to bear, bring forth 
young, to breed," and the simple form of which no longer 
exists, but appears in compounds like the following r Haw., 
kana-u, to bear, to bring forth, breed ; hanau-na, relations, 
generation ; hana-i, to feed, to nurse. Sam., fana-u, bring 
forth young, be born ; s. offspring, children ; fafanga, to 
feed ; fanga-moa, a hencoop. Tong., fanga, a brood, flock, 
family ; fafanga, to feed, nourish. Tah., fana-u, be born ; 

VOL. III. * " F 



yGoogle 



8a THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

fanau-a, an infant. Buru (Cajeli), anai, child. S. Celebes 
(Bouton), oanana, child. Malay and Jav., anak, child. 
Ma]g., mna, zanck, zanaka, children, offspring. 

Sanskr., jan, to bring forth, produce, be born, to grow, 
to be caused, become ; jana, creature, mankind, a person ; 
jani, a woman; jan-aka, a fatheT, producer; jana-ta, man- 
kind, household servants, subjects; jdte, i.e.,janti, birth, 
life, tribe, kind. 

Zend, zan, to beget ; zantu, tribe. 

Greek, yenta, am born, made, become ; <yev€a, birth, origin, 
race, family ; ywt], a woman ; 701*1;, produce, offspring ; 
yavato, 

Lat., ge.no, gy/no, hear, bring forth ; genus, birth, descent, 
race, family ; gems nascor, i.e., gnascor, be born, begotten ; 
natus, nata, son, daughter, pi. children. 

Irish, genim, geanaim, bring forth ; ginel, cine, family, 
race, Welsh, geni, be born ; gan, genid, birth. 

Goth., keinan, to germinate, spring up, grow ; kuni, kin, 
race, generation, tribe ; kwens, kweins, a woman, a wife ; 
kwino, woman. 

Anc. Slave, jena, woman. 
See further articles " Kanaka," " Kino." 
Oka, s. Marqu. (Nuk.), the rafter of a roof. Haw., o'a, 
rafters of a house, timbers of a boat or ship ; oka-na, a 
district or division of country. Tah., oa, the ribs or 
timbers of a vessel. Sam., o'a-o'a, a stake or pile stuck in 
the ground. 

Sanskr., oka, okas, house, dwelling-place. 
Lith., ukis, a rustic dwelling ; ukininkas, landed pro- 
prietor, paterfamilias. 

Benfey (Sanskr. -EngL. Diet.) and Pictet (loc. tit., \\. 243) 
derive the Sanskr. oka from tech, to like,) be accustomed 
to, suitable. It is at best an hypothesis. 

OKI, v. Haw., to cut, sever, end, finish, cease from 
doing. Tong., oki, to end, complete ; koki, to cut off, as 
hair. N. Zeal., oti-oti, to rest. Fiji., koti, clip, shear; 
otia, to finish ; oti-oti, end, conclusion. Sunda, ukir, to cut, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 83 

Lat., occo, to harrow ; otium, leisure, rest, exemption from 



Greek, d£w, sharp, keen, piercing; w/evs, swift, -quick, 
sharp. 

This word is doubtless a phonetic variation of aid, q. v. 
p. 49. 

Oko, adj. Marqu. (Nuk.), strong, vigorous. Haw., o'o, 
ripe, mature, fuIl-gTown. Sam., o'o, id. Mangar., oko, hard, 
firm. 

Sanskr., okh, be able. 

Ola, v. Haw., be saved from danger, recover from sick- 
ness, to live ; s. means of life, life itself, living, period of 
life. Sam., ola, to live, recover from sickness ; s. life, pros- 
perity ; ola-ola, to flourish, to thrive. Other S. Polynes. 
dialects : ora, id. Fiji., bula, life, to live, recover from sick- 
ness, sound, either of body or mind, healthy, flourishing. 
Malg., velon, life, to live, healthy, sound. 

Greek, ov\os (the older Epir. and Ion. form, used by 
Homer and Hesiod), oXos, whole, entire, sound, safe; 
oukoj, be whole or sound; ov\e, a salutation like the Lat. 
salve. To the later Greek 6X01 refer themselves probably 
the Lat. salus, salvus, solus (?) ; the Goth, hails, hale, sound ; 
Sax., hal, id. ; had, health. 

Ole 1 , v. Haw., to speak through the throat, guttural, or 
through a trumpet ; s. name of a large sea-shell ; ole-ote, 
talk thickly or indistinctly, as one angry or scolding, to 
grin like the idols ; olo, be loud, as a sound, as a voice of 
wailiug ; olo-olo, intens. to roar, rush, as the sound of 
waters. Sam., ole, to ask, beg ; olo, to coo as a dove ; faa- 
olo, to whistle for the wind. Tah., oro-io, to grieve to 
death ; ta-oro-oro, make a noise, rumble at the bowels. 
Toug., hole, to beg. Fiji., kodrau, to squeal ; qolou, to 
shout. Mai., lulong, to shout, howl. 

Lat., os, oris, mouth ; oro, speak, utter, pray ; iilulo, 
howl, yell; ulula, an owl. 

0. Norse, ds, mouth or opening of a river or lake. 
0. EngL, ouse, id. A.-Sax. and 0. H. Germ., 41a, an owL 

Greek, o\o\v£a>, to cry aloud to the gods ; oXoXvyt), any 



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84 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

loud cry ; oXoXvyw, the croaking of frogs ; v\aw, to bark, 
bay, how]. 

Ole 2 , s. Haw., the eye-tooth, name of a fish ; ole-ole, v. 
to make notches in anything, to dovetail two pieces 
together. Tah., ore-ore, the teeth of sharks or of the ono 
fish. 

Greek, opv%, a pickaxe, or any sharp tool for digging ; 
opvaaai, to dig. 'Opvg was also the name of a species^ of 
antelope or gazelle, so called from its "pointed horns" 
(Liddell and Scott) ; also the name of "a great fish, probably 
the narwhal ; Lat. orca" (ibid.) Liddell and Scott, loc. ait., 
refer opvavo) to apaaam, to strike hard, or to pr/a-trta, to 
break. I believe neither etymon is the correct one — 
opvc-ara is evidently a denominative of opff, but opv% has 
three distinct meanings, all converging to one common 
origin, of which the two latter, as given by Liddell and 
Scott, probably suggested the first one. The Polynesian 
ole, ore, eye-tooth, shark's teeth, gives the key to the Greek 
opvlj, narwhal and sharp-horned antelope, and the Latin 
orca, grampus. 

Oli, v. Haw., oli-oli, id. ; to sing, be glad, exult ; s. joy, 
exultation, gladness, a song. Sam., oli, oli-oli, joy, joyful ; 
faa-oli-oli, to rejoice, to quiet a child by walking about 
with it. Tah., ori, to dance, to shake, to ramble about ; 
ori-ori, to gad about; faa-ori, get up a dance. Barot., 
taoriori, to stir up, excite. Sunda, ulin, to play, romp. 

Greek, 6pm, opvv/u, raise, stir up, of bodily movements, 
urge, incite ; dpvva, id., agitare ; opovto, rush violently ; 
opvi?, a bird. 

Lat., orior, rise, get up, appear ; origo. 
Liddell and Scott refer the Greek opca, &&, and Eenfey 
refers the Latin orior to the Sanskr. ri, ri-ndmi, to go, to 
rise, &c, &c. For my part, I should consider that the 
Polynes. ole 1 , oh, and oli refer themselves for their primary 
meaning, as well as the Greek and Latin words quoted 
above, to the Polynes. olo, oro (Haw., Sam., Tah.), to tub, 
grate, saw, vibrate, swing; and I would endorse Judge 
Andrews' remark in his Haw. -Engl. Diet, s. v.: "It is 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 85 

not easy to see the connection between olo-oloolo, to sound, 
as the voice of wailing, and olo-oloolo, to swing, vibrate, 
&c, unless the latter be the radical meaning, and the voice 
of wailing be so expressed on account of the vibratory 
motion of the voice in mourning and wailing." 

Olo.s. Haw., the simple form is obsolete. In compound 
words it serves mostly as a synonym for mountain. We 
thus have Olo-ku-i, name of a mountain on Molokai ; Olo- 
mana and Olo-ku, mountain peaks on the island of Oahu, 
Haw. group ; Oro-hina and Oro-lou, mountains on Tahiti ; 
Oro-singa, one of the Samoan islands. In Sam., olo means 
a place of refuge, a fortress ; in Rarot., koro means a wall, 
enclosure ; in Haw., olo-alu means a safe place where the 
property of the chief was stored ; in Tah., oro-matua 
means lit. the skull of a parent, secondarily the spirits of 
dead relations, analogous to the Haw. au-makua. In the 
Motu dialect of New Guinea (Port Moresby), ororo means 
mountain. A dialectical form in ulu is common in Poly- 
nesia, Sam., ulu, head of man and animal, head of a club, 
the knob of a stick ; ulu-ld, the top edge of a Samoan 
mat-sail ; ulu-poo, the skull ; ulu-tula, bald-headed. Tah., 
ur u, skull. Marqu., %'u, club. Fiji., ulu, head; ulu-mate, 
wig. Throughout Polynesia ulu is also the name of the 
bread-fruit, doubtless from its shape and resemblance 
to a human head. Among the Malay Islands both forms 
prevail. Tagal, olo, head. Buguis, Batta, Banjak Island, 
Engano, Amboyna, Saparua, Ceram, ulu, uru, id. Sunda, 
hum, id. Buru, olu-m, olun, id. 

Greek, 6po$, mountain, hilL height ; Ion. ovpos, id.; 
opo^Koi, mountain tops. 

Liddell and Scott, without giving their own opinion, 
state that " Curtius connects this word with Sanskr. girts, 
Zend, gairis, Slav, gora, all of the same signification." 
Unfortunately I do not possess the works of Mr. Curtius, 
and do not know to what root he refers giris and gora. 
But Mr. A. Pietet (loe. cit., i. 122) refers them to a Sanskrit 
root, " gr {gar), effundere, conspergere, a cause des eaux 
qui descendent des hauta lieux et des montagnes 



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86 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

neigeuses." Mr. Pictet, however, refers the Greek opos 
to the Sanskrit vardha, mountain, epos for Fopo$, and allied 
to vdra, a heap, a pile, a multitude, and quotes the Irish 
fair, /aire, hill, eminence, as analogous. Because vara 
and vardha, fair and faire, indicate the presence of a 
digamma, and giri and gora the presence of an initial 
guttural, I do not see that it necessarily follows that o/ros 
must have lost either a primary digamma or a primary 
guttural. Its two forms, 6po<; and ovpas, have their exact 
counterparts in the Polynesian oro, ulu, with the same 
primary meaning of hill, height, tallness, mountain, &c. I 
have no desire and still less ahility to contend with so 
eminent philologists as Curtius, Pictet, &c, but I simply 
wish to present the claims of the Polynesian to recogni- 
tion by European savants as a primitive member, however 
much " weather-worn and travel-stained," of the great 
Aryan stock, and call their attention to the fact that in 
this language may be found the solution of many an ety- 
mological riddle in the Aryan family of speech. I hold, 
therefore, that not only are olo and 6po$ related, but are 
also far older names for mountain than their synonyms 
vardha or giri, inasmuch as the idea of altitude, pro- 
minence, in relation to mountains, must necessarily have 
struck the beholder before the more complex ideas of 
covering and protection, or the effusion of rain from lofty 
mountains. The Polynesian olo and ulu were no doubt 
only dialectical variations of a primary word conveying 
the idea of tall, high, lofty, prominent, applied to head and 
mountain, like the Celtic pen. 

Ope, s. Haw., bundle ; v. to bundle up ; opi-opi, to tie up 
tightly, to fold up as a cloth. Tah., ope, to collect, to 
bring together ; ope-ope, property, things of all descriptions, 
which in the rage of war had been thrown into the rivers, 
then carried to the sea, and afterwards thrown on shore 
again; opi, oopi, to shut together, to close as the leaves of a 
book. Marqu., kopi, to close, shut up, as the hand. Fiji., 
ovi-ca, to gather the young under her wings, as a heu ; 
oviovi, a nest. I consider these as dialectical variants of 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 87 

another Polynesian form : Haw., api, to gather together, 
as people to one place, to bring into a small compass, as 
baggage. Sam., api, to lodge ; a. residence, lodging. Tong., 
aoi, home, habitation. Tl&Tot.,pv.-api-nyn., property, posses- 
sions. Tab.., api, folds of cloth; v. to join together, to con- 
federate, be filled, as a place ; api-a, closed, as oyster-shells ; 
api-piti, altogether ; api-api, crowded, as a road. 

Lat., ops, opis, means, riches, wealth ; Ops, the goddess of 
earth, as the source of fruitfulness and riches; opimus, 
fruitful. 

Greek, a<f>evos, wealth, abundance. 

Lith., apstas, riches, abundance. 

Eenfey and Pictet refer the Latin ops, opes, to the San- 
skrit dp, to attain to, obtain, to fit, whence the Latin apto, 
to fit ; opus, work, &c. Liddell and Scott, following Cur- 
tius, refer a<p£vo>; to Sanskrit apnas, income, property, and 
allied to Latin ops, opukntus, copier-. With due deference, I 
think that ops, a.<f>evoi, apsta, show a greater affinity to the 
Polynesian opi, api, than to the Sanskrit dp, which, on the 
other hand, certainly connects better with the Polynesian 
apo, q. v., p. 61. 

Whence came the suffix -ops, -opes, which so many 
different peoples, or rather tribes of the same race, in- 
habiting the coasts of the Mediterranean in ancient times, 
shared in common, whatever their patronymic distinction ? 
We read of Pel-opes, Mer-opes, Dry-opes, Dol-opes, Cere-qpes, 
Aithi-opes, Opisci {contracted Osci), and others. It has been 
generally referred to the Greek crty, the voice or manner 
of speech, or to the Greek 01/r, the eye, look, and appearance, 
and in course of time to have become a collective word 
for people, nation, tribe. It seems to me that neither infr, 
the eye, nor ©if-, the voice, fully satisfies the etymological 
demands of this word. If the former may apply to the 
Pel-opes or Aithi-opes, it certainly cannot apply to the 
Mer-opes or Dol-opes, nor can the latter apply with any 
greater appropriateness to the Pelopes and Aithiopes. A 
swarthy or sunburnt voice would be as unintelligible an 
expression as a wooden or articulated eye; and hence the 



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88 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Greek 01^ failing to be equally applicable to all the words 
in which it occurs as meaning a nation, people, or tribe, 
we must look outside the Greek among kindred tongues 
for an etymon that will render an intelligible meaning to 
all the cases where occurring, and will justify its applica- 
tion in expressing the idea of a people or a tribe. Such 
a word I find in the Polynesian ope, api. It may have 
existed in the Greek in far pre-Homeric times, indicating 
a collection, a gathering of men or things, and thus been 
applied to a people or tribe, as the Scandinavian thiod in 
Svithiod or Gauthiod indicated the Svea or Gota people ; 
but no trace of its primary meaning remained in Homer's 
time, except perhaps in afyevos, whose derivative meaning 
has been retained also in the Latin opes, the Lithuanian 
apsta, as well as in the Polynesian ops-ope and pu-apinga. 

U, v. Haw., to protrude, rise up, draw out, to ooze or 
drip, as water, to drizzle, to weep, to be tinctured, impreg- 
nated, soaked ; s. the breast of a female, pap, udder. Tali., 
u, to run against a thing, to touch, to be damp, wet ; s. the 
breast of anything that gives milk. Sam., u, direct 
towards, turn to. Marqu., u, swell up, as boiling water, 
I out, breast of woman, milk; uu, proceed. Fiji., 

, to flow, of the tide, a wave ; deriv. Haw., uka, the 
thigh, the ham of a hog, the lap of a woman, the rectum. 
Sam., ufa, the rectum, posteriors. Tab., ufa, females of 
beasts, the thigb. N. Zeal., uwa, id. Marqu., pufa, the 
thigh. N. Zeal., Tah,, Marqu., uma, breast. Tong., uma, 
the shoulder. Haw., umauma, breast. Paum., kouma, 
heart. Sam., uma, a wide chest. 

As this word is evidently either a primary form or a 
dialectical variation of the Polynesian hu, su, with almost 
identical meanings, I refer the reader to that for further 
remarks. But there are a few West Aryan words which 
seem to me to ally themselves nearer to the form u than 
to that of hu, su, and I here submit them. 

Sanskr., u-dhar, udder, 

Greek, ovffap, udder. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 89 

Lat., uterus, womb; uber, teat, breast, udder; uvid.ua, 
wet; udus, 

A.-Sax., uder, udder. EngL, ooze ? Swed., udde, point, 
projection, cape; udda, odd, not even. 

Benfey (Sanskr. -Engl. Diet.) refers the Sanskrit lidhar 
to an original (so supposed) vad-dhant; but as no such 
word as vad answering to that purpose is found in the 
Sanskrit, I may be permitted to refer the first component 
to its Polynesian kindred «, and the second to the Sanskrit 
verb dhd, to grant, confer. And when that agglutination 
of 11 and dim took place among the West Aryan branches, 
u must still have been a living, independent word, with 
the secondary meaning of milk, moisture, that it still retains 
in the Tahitian. 

U 2 , v. Sam., to emit a hollow sound, to roar, as the 
waves on the reef ; fa.ia.-u, to cry with a loud moaning 
voice. Haw., uo, cry out, to bellow, roar. Tong., uo, to 
crow, as a cock. Tali., ua, to scream. 

Sanskr., u, to sound. 

Ua, s. Haw., rain; v. to rain. Sam,, Tah., N. Zeal., 
Marqu., id. Tong., uha, rain. Eotoma, usa, id. Sunda, 
hua, to rain. Sulu Isl., huya, rain. Ceram. (Camar), 
ulani, id. Gilolo (Gani), ulau, id.; (Galela), hwra, id. 
Mentawej Isl., urat, id. Teor, uran, id. Tagal, olon, id. 
Malg., oran, id. Ceram. (Gah), u'an, id. Timor (Brissi), 
oH, water, Savn., u iloko, id. Rotfci., oe'e, id. Fiji., uca, 
rain. 

Sanskr., udan, water ; und, to wet, moisten ; uksh 
(Ved.), to wet, sprinkle. 

Lat., unda, wave. 

IceL, und, a spring of water, wave. 0. Norse, yda, to 
flow together ; 4r-van, a cloud, from Hr, pluvia (Grimm's 
Teuton. Myth., i. 332). 

Whatever the meaning of the qualifying suffixes -dan, 
-nd, -ksh, -r, to the above West Aryan words, it is evident 
that the common base of those words was an original u, 
as it is in the Polynesian u-a, u-ha, usa, u-ran, u-lan, of 
which we find an almost literal reproduction in that old 



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00 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



and half- forgotten member of the Iranian branch, the 
Ossetic, where ua-ran signifies " to rain." 

I think it very probable that the Sanskrit abkra, a rain- 
cloud, Latin imber, rain, shower, umbra, shade, Greek 
&fi/3pas, thunderstorm, heavy rain, which lexicographers 
point out as closely related, without, however, giving an 
etymon, will, when properly analysed, be found to dissolve 
themselves into this primary Old Aryan w, meaning " water, 
moisture," and some common Aryan form of the San- 
skrit bhri, to bear, to hold. Probably also the Latin u-ber 
refers itself to the same formation. 

I have said nothing of the Greek vBap or the Latin 
sudor. Authorities differ. The initial aspirate and sibi- 
lant indicate their connection with the Polynesian Am, 
su, q. v., and which was probably a later form, though 
with similar meaning, than that in w. 

In regard to the Gothic wato, water, whose huso, walan, 
Benfey says, "represents the organic form of the verb 
und" I fear it will be found to have no relation to u, ud, 
und, whatever. My reasons will be shown s. v. Wai. 

Uila, s. Haw., also uwila, u prefix or euphon., light- 
ning. Sam., u-ila, and in most of the Southern dialects, 
u-ira, lightning. In Tong., u-hila, lightning, we approach 
the original form of the word, which we find in the Sam. 
sila, s. an extremity of the rainbow, v. to be ashamed. 
Haw., Mla-Mla, blushing of the faee, quick suffusion of 
blood, shame. Tah., hira, bashfulness. Fiji., cila, to 
shine, of the heavenly bodies. Malg., helet, lightning. 
Sunda, gdap, lightning; gilap, to shine, glitter; s-irab, 
streak of lightning ; ira, shame. Malay, kilat, lightniug. 
Celebes (Goront), ilata, id. 

Sanskr., hira, Indra's thunderbolt, a diamond ; Mrana, 
gold ; hriniya, be angry, ashamed, bashful. 

Greek, veXa?, flash of lightning, light, brightness ; 
a-eKrjVT], moon ; t\ij, the heat or light of the sun; eXainj, 
a torch ; ijeXtos, q\to?, sun, daylight. Liddell and Scott 
refer the Greek aeipio?, scorching, and the Sanskrit s'dra, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 91 

s&rya, sun, sol, to the same family. It may be so, but it 
may be "faute de mieux." 

Gerjn., kelle, clearness, brightness, brilliancy. 

TJka, s. Haw., the country inland from the sea, up 
towards the mountains. S. Polynes., -uta, id. Motu (N. 
Guinea), uta, forest. Mai., utan, wilderness, forest, jungle ; 
utara, north. Bisayan (Phil. Isl.), yuta, earth, land. 

Sanskr., ud l up, upward, out ; udanch, upper, northern ; 
uchcka, high ; uttara, superior, northern, i.e., upper region. 

Weleh, uc, high, elevated. 

Goth., Sax., ut, uta, out of, from. 

In Polynesian the uta corresponds exactly to the 
Sanskrit ut-tara, the inland, higher country, in contra- 
distinction from the lower, coast land. The Malay utara, 
north, is probably an importation in after-ages of the 
Sanskrit uttara, which itself, doubtless, only became 
indicative of a northern region after the Aryans had 
descended from the Hindu-Kush, and when to go north- 
ward was equivalent to going upward. In no part of 
Polynesia proper does the sense of north connect with 
the word uta. It means simply up from the lowlands, or 
inland from the seaboard, whatever point of the compass 
one starts from. When the Polynesians left the Aryan 
stock, the Vedic Aryans bad apparently not yet descended 
from the mountains which afterwards formed their north- 
ern barrier. 

Ula, adj. Haw., red as a blaze, purple, scarlet, name 
of a lobster. Tab., ura, flame, to blaze, be red; ura-ura, 
red. Sam., ula, red ; ula, lobster. Mangar., ura, blaze, 
flame, Tong., ula, id. ; kula-kula, red. N. Zeal., kura, 
red. Marqu., kua, id. Fiji., kula-kula, red. Sunda, wrung, 
flame. Ceram. (Awauj'a), ama, fire. Pulo JTias, auso, 
yellow. Matabello, ululi, red. Tidore, kur-achi, yellow. 
Gilolo (Galela), kuf~acki, gold, 

Sanskr., ush, to burn, and its numerous derivatives 
ulkd, a firebrand, meteor, fireball ; ulmuka, id. 

Lat., uro, burn, ustus, ustio ; aurum, gold ; aurora, the 
redness of the dawn, dawn. 



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92 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Greek, avat, kindle, light a fire; ?jws, u'eit, aiias, for 
af &>5, the morning red, dawn; avptov, to-morrow; avpov, 
gold ; sua, to singe. 

Irish, ur, fire. Welsh, y&u, burn; awr, gold. Corn., 
eur, id. 

Lith., auksas, gold ; awssra, the dawn. Anc. Prass. 
ausis, gold. 

Zend, ushd, ushd, usd, morning, dawn. 

0. Norse, usli, fire. A. -Sax., ysli, a live coal. Anc. 
Germ., usil, yellow. 

Benfey refers the Sanskrit ulkd to " probably " jval, to 
blaze, burn. Again it is possible ; but is it so in face of 
the Latin, Greek, and Polynesian congeners ? 

In the Dravidian, Canarese, and Tulu occurs the word 
ur-i, signifying to burn. 

The same tendencies to commute r and s are as appa- 
rent in the Polynesian family as in the Indo-European. 

ULI, s. Haw., the blue sky ; adj. blue, cerulean, green ; 
idi-uli, verdure ; adj. green, dark- coloured, black. Sam., 
Tong., Fak, uli; Tah., uri, blue-black, any dark colour. 

I find no application of this word in the West Aryan 
dialects, unless it forms the component part of the Latin 
cmr-ula, cmr-uleus, the blue colour of the sky, dark-blue, 
dark-coloured ; ccer or coer being a contraction of ctelus or 
coelum, r and I commuted. 

Ulb, h. Haw., to hang, to swing, to project; s. the 
genitals of male animals, the tenon for a mortise ; ule-ule, 
pendulous, projecting ; uli, v. to steer a canoe ; hoe-uli, a 
rudder, a steering oar or paddle ; ulili, a ladder, a bamboo 
whistle. Fiji., uli, the steering oar of a canoe. Tah., uri, 
the pilot-fish, the dog. 

Greek, ovpa, the tail of an animal, the rear ; opo?, oppos, 
tail, rump, bottom ; bpva, a sausage ; probably oi/pov, urine, 
oiipeto. 

Lat., urina, urine ; urinor, dive under water ; urinator, 
a diver; possibly so named from the action, if the process 
was diving head foremost; probably akin to ovpta, a water- 
bird. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 93 

Sanskr., 4ru, the thigh; uras, the breast; ura-ga,, a 
snake ; urmi, a wave. Benfey refers the three first to vri, 
to guard, screen, cover, conceal, and the last to kvri ("orig. 
dhvri "J, to bend, be crooked. Under correction, I believe 
that the Polynesian ule, uli, pendulous, swinging, would be 
a safer and more satisfactory etymon, as to original sense 
and subsequent derivatives, than either vri or dhvri, 

Ultj, v. Haw., to grow up as a plant, to increase, be 
strong ; ulu-ulu, grow up thick, collect, assemble. Sam., 
ulu, a grove of trees ; ulu-ulu, foliage, bushy, umbrageous ; 
ulu-ia, be increased, as property. Tah., uru, a thicket of 
wood, also of coral ; uru-M, uru-pa, id., growing rapidly. 
Sanskr., uru, large ; urvi, the earth. 
Zend, uru, urva, grand, large ; urvara, a tree. 
Greek, evpvs, wide, broad, spacious, far- spreading, 
Lat., oleo, to grow : ad-oleo, sub-oles. 

In Dravidian, uru signifies "to be strong;" uru-di, 
strength. Vid. Drav. Gram., Caldwell. 

UmA, v. Haw., to screw, press, grasp; umz, to pull, 
draw out; umi, to press upon, choke, to crowd ; mea-ume, 
something drawing, attractive, the mistress of a lover. K, 
Zeal., Mangar., kumi, to squeeze, press ; kume, to pull, 
draw out Tah., uma, to pinch; time, to pull, draw. 
Tong., uma, a kiss, salutation by pressing noses; omi, 
to draw out ; kumi, to search, explore. Sam., umi, to 
lengthen out. 

Sanskr., ckumh, to kiss; chumb-alca, a loadstone. 
Uhtj 1 , v. Haw., to prop up, help, hold up; s. small 
stones for propping up and sustaining larger ones, prop, 
wedge ; unu-unu, to pile up ; unu, also a place of worship, 
temple, Heiau. Tah., unu, an ornament in the Marae, the 
crest on a cock's head. Mai. and Sxwda, ffimung, mountain ; 
guna, profitable, useful. 

Greek, ovwr)fit, aor. 2, oiwj/i^u, to profit, help, aid, 

support. Liddell and Scott give a root ov, but without 

stating what its primary material meaning may* have 

been. 'Ovetap, what helps or strengthens. 

TJntj 8 , v. Tab., to pass away as a season or an age; 



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94 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

unuM, to draw out as a sword, to withdraw, depart, as the 
soul at death, to swoon, to substract. N. Zeal., unu, to 
take off, draw out, Marqu., unuki, to take away, reduce. 
Sam., unusi, to pick out, select. 

Sanskr., Una, lessened, inferior, wanting. 

Greek, eowt, bereft of, bereaved. 

Goth., wans, waning, lacking, wanting. 0. H. Germ., 
wenag, few. 

Lat., vanus, empty, void ; vanesco, to vanish, disappear ; 
unde (?), whence, from what quarter. 

Benfey (loc. cit., s. v.) refers una to " va-na from van — 
Goth, van, vans," &c. It may be so, but I do not find in 
the Sanskrit van, either 1st or 2nd, as given by Benfey in 
his Sauskr.-Engl. Diet., any sense or meaning that could 
possibly connect it with the sense of loss or privation, 
which apparently underlies, and probably was the original 
sense of the Sanskr. ilna, the Goth, wans, the Polynes. unu. 
Liddell and Scott give no etymon to the Greek evvv$. 

Upena, s. Haw., et ubique, a net, a snare. Tong., 
kobenga; B". Zeai., kupenga ; Sam., upenga, id. Tah., upea, 
id. ; u/ene, to be filled, crammed, to compress, squeeze ; 
ufeu, abundant. In Sam. upeti is the braided frame used 
for printing native cloth. 

The Polynesian words are evidently derivatives of some 
ancient form in upe which no longer exists in the language, 
unless the Fiji, ube, "again, repeatedly," with an under- 
lying sense of going to a place and returning, " to go and 
hurry hack," leads us to the sense of net-making, knitting, 
weaving, in one direction, and to cramming, filling, com- 
pressing, in another. 

Sanskr., vhh, umbk, to fill (Ved.), to compress (properly 
"to incurvate," vid. Benfey, Sanskr.-Engl. Diet., s. v. 
Kuvinda, a weaver). 

Greek, v<f>r}, v<f>o$, a web ; v<j>aa>, vtj>aiva>, to weave. 

Zend, ubdaena, what is woven, a web. 

Liddell and Scott refer vtyq to Sanskr. ve, to weave, 
caus. vdpaya. Benfey says it may be allied to ve, but 
refers it to ubh. A. Pictet, following Aufrecht (Or. Ind.- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 95 

Eur., i. 521, and ii. 168), refers htyq to a lost Sanskr. root, 
'oah'h-vh'h, to which the A.-Sax. we/an, to weave, and its 
congeners ally themselves. It is possible that the Greek 
iify-i), the Zend ub-da, the Sax. wef-an, &c„ are all remini- 
scences of a causative form of an original root in ve or va, 
but of which form no traces now exist in the Sanskrit, for 
the vdpaya referred to is purely hypothetical, according to 
Benfey's own admission. Ifc may he permitted, therefore, 
to suggest that v<f>-, ub-, and we/-, refer themselves to a 
root of which the form and the primary sense have been 
retained in the Sanskr. ubh-vabk, and the Polynes. upe, 
ufe, ube. 

Upu, v. Haw., also upo, "to desire strongly, covet, to 
swear, make a vow; hwpua, sorcerer, wizard. Marqu., 
kupu, to curse. Tah., upu, invocation to the gods, prayer. 
N. Zeal., kupu, word, language. Sam., upu, word, speech, 
language ; upuia, to be reproved, found fault with ; 
uputoina, to be cursed ; upu-tu'u, tradition. 

Sanskr., kup (1), become excited, angry; kup (2), to 
speak, shine (Benfey). 

Lat., cupio, to desire, long for. 

Uwala, s. Haw., sweet potato (Convolvulus batatus). 
N. Zeal., humara; Tah., umara; Sam., umala; Sunda, 
kumeli, id. 

Sanskr., kumard, name of several plants; kuveda, the 
water-lily. 

Lat, cu-mmis, cu-cumeris, a cucumber. The genitive 
seems to indicate an earlier form in cumer. 

Ha 1 , s. Haw., a trough for water, a water-pipe, a ditch, 
Tah., fa-a, valley, in compounds. Tong., ma-ha, a crack, 
rent, fissure. Sam., ina-fa, pudendum nmliebre. Piji., 
ma-ga, id. Haw., ma-ha, to rend, make a hole, tear in two ; 
na-ha, to split, crack open; no-ha, id.; ka-iki, a narrow 
passage, pinched, scant; ha-wale, lying, deceitful, lit. 
"mouth only." Marqu., fa-fa, an opening generally,- mouth; 
ka-ake, to separate, divide. N. Zeal,, wha-iti, a narrow 
passage. Earot., o-iti, id. . Sam., fa-nga, a bay, a fish-trap. 



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96 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Intimately connected with the above, and probably 
originally only a dialectical variation, is the general Poly- 
nesian word vja, " the space between two objects in space 
or in time," the different derivations of which interlaco and 
confound themselves, in sound and sense, with those of 
ha. Vid. s. v. Wa. 

Sanskr. ha 1 (Ved.), to give way ; hanu, the jaw. 

Greek, ^nos, primary meaning, doubtless, space, expanse, 
applied also to time, the nether abyss, any vast gulf or 
chasm, also applied to the gaping jaws of the crocodile; 
j(atpfiat, x aiv<a < X aj7/ca '' to gi ve way, recede, relinquish ; 
j£<xTflw, to open the mouth ; yarrfj,a., a yawning hollow, the 
open mouth, any gulf or wide expanse; yyipa, (Liddell 
and Scott), widow, relict ; yppis, separately, asunder. Lid- 
dell and Scott admit the radical connection of these 
words with the Sanskr. h&. Tevw, the under-jaw ; •yev^tov, 
the upper-jaw, also the chin; yvaBoi, the jaw, mouth; 
referred by Liddell and Scott and by Benfey to the 
Sanskr. hanil, jaw. 

Lat., gena, cheek, perhaps cedo, go away, leave (Liddell 
and Scott). Hio, to open, gape, yawn, is also referred by 
lexicographers to the Sanskr. hd. Fauces, a narrow passage, 
the gullet. 

Goth., kinnus, the cheek. Sax., cinne, chin ; ceoca, 
cheek. 

Ha 3 , v. Haw., to breathe strongly, a forced breath, 
breathe out, breathe upon, puff, blow, expire; ha-u, to 
swallow, gulp down, inhale, snuff up, snort. Tong., /a, 
breathe strongly, strong expiration of the breath. Man gar., 
a, id. Sam., fa, fafa, hoarse, hoarseness. Tah., fa-o, speak 
through the nose, a snuffler. 

From these roots and stems we have the following deri- 
vatives : — Haw., ka-nou and ha-%o, the asthma, a wheez- 
ing breath ; ha-nu, ha-no, to breathe, the natural breath ; 
"na mea hanu," the breathing things, i.e., the people; ha- 
nu-Jtanu, to scent, to smell, as a dog following a track, 
Tong., fa-fango, to 'whisper; fango-fango, to blow the 
nose, play on the nose-flute. Sam. fangu-fangu, a flute ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 97 

fano, to die, perish. Tah.,faa-fano, to go out, as the spirit 
of one possessed, as the spirit or breath of one dying. 
N. Zeal., wkango, to groan. 

Sanskr., van, van, ban, to sound ; vdna, a pipe, a flute ; 
vdni, speed), voice (?). Perhaps bhash, to bark ; bhasha, 
dog ; bhastrd, a bellows, as well as bhash, to speak, refer 
themselves to the same root as the Sanskrit van, van, the 
Polynesian hano.fano. 

As I have found no adequate etymon for the Latin halo, 
to breathe forth, exhale, I refer to it here, n and / com- 
muted, a not uncommon occurrence in several of the 
Aryan branches. 

In regard to the Sanskrit van, Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., ii, 
474) says : " Au sanskr. vdna, flute, pipeau, de van, van, 
sonare (Dhatup), repond peut-e"tre directement, par le 
changement de n en I, comme dans a-XAos, alius = sanskr. 
anya, le gree av\os, flute (cf. Z. S. X., 246 note). II 
faudrait alors le separer de aim, ti<o = sanskr. vd, flare, 
bien que le3 rac. vd, van, van, puis3ent §tre primitive- 
ment alliees. Cf. ausai ven, vcn. organum musicum ca- 
nendi causa sumere, fidibus canere, vSna, musicien, vSnu, 
flute et roseau, et peut-etre vina, le luth indien. La rac. 
van, sonare, se retrouve dans l'irlandais fonnaim, chanter, 
fonn, chant, fonnmhar, nielodieux, et, sous la forme vin, 
dans l'anc. all. weindn, ejulare, flere, ululare, scand. vdna, 
lamentare, angl. whine; cf. anc. all. winisdn, murmurare, 

Haoa, adj. Haw., hot, burning, as the sun or fire, pun- 
gent, bitter, heart-burn; s. the fierce heat of summer. 
Tah.,/a, to appear, come in sight. Celebes (Buton), wha, 
fire. Buru, bd-na, id. Saparua, kao, id. Ceram. (Camar.), 
hao, id. ; (Wahai), aow, id. 

Sanskr., bhd, to shine, be bright, to appear ; bha, a star ; 
bhd, light, the sun ; bhd-tw, bhd-lu, the aun ; bhds, &c. 

Greek, <f>aw, to light, shine ; tf>aoi, light ; ^atini), &c. 

Lat., fax, a torch; focus, hearth, fireplace; fovea, to 
warm, keep warm ; febris, fever. 

Connected with hao-a is doubtless the Hawaiian word 
vol. nr. G 



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9 8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

hao-le, which, so far as I know, does not occur in any 
other Polynesian dialect Its meaning is "white," and 
was generally applied to hogs with white bristles. It 
was also applied to foreigners — " white people "—and 
occurs as such in the celebrated chant of Kualii, which 
was composed and recited long before Captain Cook visited 
the Hawaiian group. 

Haka 1 , v. Haw., to stare, look earnestly at, to contend, 

quarrel ; haka-ka, id., to fight. Marqu., hakata, a mirror. 

Greek, 071;, wonder, awe, envy, malice ; aya/tat, to 

wonder, be astonished, feel envy, be angry ; dyawpat., be 

indignant. 

Haka 2 , s. Haw., a ladder, i,e., a pole with cross sticks., 
the hole or opening between the sticks, a hole generally, 
also an artificial henroost; adj. full of holes or crevices 
haka-haka, be hollow, empty. Sam., Tong., Tab., Marqu. 
fata, shelf, a litter, scaffold, loft, altar. N. Zeal., whata, 
id. Tah., fata-fata, open, not enclosed, empty. Niua, 
fata, the chest, breast. Tong., Sam., fata-fata, id. Marqu. 
fata, to spread out, raise up ; fata-a, staging, shelf, bed 
altar. Fiji., vata, loft, shelf, a bedstead. Malg.,fata, fire- 
place, hearth ; fatan, crowfoot, pan, warming-pan. 

Sanskr., pack (2), palich, make evident, state fully, to 
spread— vid. Benfey ; the latter meaning probably the 
primary one ; vahshas, breast, bosom. 

Lat., pectus, breast ; peden, comb ; pecto, to comb, hackle, 
card. 

Greek, TreicQ), to comb, card. 

It will be seen that the primary underlying sense of 
these references is " to expand, to spread out," and that 
.the sense of hollowness, chest, breast, must be a secondary, 
but still extremely ancient, application of the word, 
occurring as it does in Sanskrit, Latin, and Polynesian. 

For further Polynesian connections to Sauski'it pack (2), 
see s. v. Paka, post. 

Haka 3 , s. Marqu., in compounds, Koka-iki, (fur Hakn.- 
nriki), chief, lord. Sam., 'ata, a hero, a strong man ; sata- 
'alaua, a name of respect given to the Tongaus. Fiji., 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 99 

saka, equivalent to " Sir " in addressing a person, probably 
allied to haku, q. v. 

Snnskn, cak, to endure, be able, powerful ; cakti, strength, 
power; ("akra, name of Indra, a king; cakune, a bird, the 
Indian kite ; edka, power. 

0. Norse, haukr, a hawk, falcon ; hagr, the right hand, 
dexter. 

Haki, v. Haw., also ha'i and ha'e, primary meaning to 
break open, separate, as the lips about to speak, to break, 
as a bone or other brittle tiling, to break off, to stop, tear, 
rend, to speak, tell, bark as a dog ; hahai, to break away, 
follow, pursue, chase ; hai, a broken place, a joint ; hakina, 
a portion, part ; M'ina, a saying ; hae, something torn, as 
a piece of kapa or cloth, a flag, ensign. Sam., fati, to 
break, break off; fa'i, to break off, pluck off, as a leaf, 
wrench off; fai, to say, speak, abuse, deride ; sae, to tear 
off, rend; ma-sae, torn. Tah., fati, to break, break up, 
broken ; fai, confess, reveal, deceive ; faifai, to gather or 
pick fruit; ham, torn, rent; s. deceit, duplicity; Jiae-hae, 
tear anything, break an agreement; hahae, id. Tong., 
fati, break, rend. Marqu., fati, fe-fati, to break, tear, 
rend ; fai, to tell, confess ; fefai, to dispute. The same 
double meaning of " to break" and " to say " is found in 
the New Zealand and other Polynesian dialects. Malg., 
hai, ha/tk, voice, address, call. 

Lat., seeo, cut off, cleave, divide ; securis, hatchet ; siymcn- 
tum, cutting, division, fragment; seculum (sc. temporis), 
sector, follow eagerly, chase, pursue ; sequor, follow ; sica, 
a dagger ; sicilis, id., a knife ; saga, sagus, a fortune- 
teller. 

Greek, ayvvfit, break, snap, shiver, from root f ay (Liddell 
and Scott); ayq, breakage, fragment; exa?, ado. far off, 
far away. 1 



sense of apart, by i-.sulf," and Usv are akin " in the sense of ; 

refer to the analysis of Ourtiua of itself," but that sense ari 

"2- = ds, ir, and -Karros, ka., com- the previous sense of ee; 

pacing Sanskrit leas, M, kat (quia, cutting off, breaking off, t 



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loo THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Saoskr., sack, to follow. Zend, hack, id. (Vid. Haug, 
" Essay on Parsis.") 

I am well aware that most, perhaps all, prominent 
philologists of the present time — " whose shoe-strings I am 
not worthy to unlace " — refer the Latin sequor, seeus, even 
sacer, and the Greek 4?™, eiro/iai, to this Sanskrit sack. 
Benfey even refers the Greek e/cai to this sack, as explana- 
tory of its origin and meaning. But, under correction, and 
even without the Polynesian congeners, I should hold that 
sack, " to follow," in order to be a relative of sacer, doubtless 
originally meaning "set apart," then " devoted, holy," and 
of gkcl$, "far off," doubtless originally meaning something 
" separated " " cut off from, apart from," must also originally 
have had a meaning of " to be separated from, apart from," 
and then derivatively " to come after, to follow." The 
sense of " to follow " implies the sense of " to be apart 
from, to come after," something preceding. The links of 
this connection in sense are lost in the Sanskrit, but still 
survive in the Polynesian kaki, fati, and its contracted 
form hai, fai, kakai, as shown above. I am therefore 
inclined to rank the Latin sequor as a derivative of seco, 
" to cut off, take off." 

Welsh, haciaw, to hack ; hag, a gash, cut ; segur, apart, 
separate ; segru, to put apart ; hoc, a bill-hook ; hied, id. 

A.-Sax., sago,, a saw; seax, knife; haccan, to cut, hack; 
stzgan, to saw ; saga, speech, story ; secan, to seek. Anc 
Germ., seh, sech, a ploughshare. Perhaps the Goth, ha/ad, 
A. -Sax. haeele, a cloak, ultimately refer themselves to the 
Polynes. hat, a piece of cloth, a flag. 

Anc. Slav., sieshti (sieka), to cut ; siekyra, hatchet. 

Judge Andrews in his Hawaiian- English Dictionary 
observes the connection in Hawaiian ideas between "speak- 
ing, declaring," and " breaking." The primary idea, which 
probably underlies both, is found in the Hawaiian " to 
open, to separate, as the lipa in speaking or about to 

more naturally connects itself with with such a forced compound as els 
the Latiu sec-o, lac-er, and that and km. 
family of words and ideas, than 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 101 

speak ; " and it will be observed that the same develop- 
ment in two directions shows itself in all the Polynesian 
dialects, as well as in several of the West Aryan dialects 
also. 

Haku 1 , & Haw., lord, master. Tail., /atu; Parot., atu, 
id. I am not aware that this word, in this, probably the 
full form, occurs in the other Polynesian dialects with 
that meaning. We lind it, however, in Pulo Nias, off 
Sumatra, where balu is an epithet and name of deity. 
The Sumatra, Bali, and T;igal batara, baihaia, as a name 
for God, may possibly refer to the Sanskrit bhat(dra, 
venerable, derived from bkartri and bhri, but I think it 
doubtful. In all the Polynesian dialects, however, occurs 
a contracted form of haku, futu, k or t elided, viz., Sam., 
sau; Tong.,hau; Tah.,/«w, king, chief. Principal, Haw., 
hau, a title of chief, a noble, a descendant of kings ; Rarot., 
Mangar., au, kingdom, government. The verbs follow the 
same forms : Haw., haku, to dispose, arrange, rule, com- 
pose, as a song ; hakau, ha.ua, to whip, chastise. Sam., /atu, 
to make a girdle, to plait, to compose a song ; /atu/atu, 
to fold up, to lay up words, commit to memory ; fatu-pese, 
/atu-siva, a poet ; /au, to tie together, to build ; /au-mau, 
to hold firmly, be obstinate ; sausau, to build up, repair ; 
saua, cruel, despotic. Tah.,/«(w, to braid, plait ; /atu-pehe, 
a composer of songs, poet; /au/aua, to make straight, 
arrange ; /a/au, to tie together. N. Zeal., whatu, to weave 
by hand, to braid, as a mat; whaka-hau, to command. 
Tong., Marqu.,/aiM, to fold, roll up. 

This word is doubtless related to, or another form of, 
the Marqu. haka — vid. p. 198. 

Greek, i^a, etjw, to have in hand, to hold, to rule, keep, 
check, keep on, with a sense of present duration ; e/erap, 
holding fast, epithet of Zeus ; also applied to anchors, a 
prop, a stay, a proper name ; e'^upoj, strong, secure ; 6j(ypoi, 
id.; ij(j*a. 

A. -Sax., secy. Scand., se-ggr, vir fortis, miles, strenuus, 
illustris ; seigr, firmus ; sigi, sege, victory. Goth., sigis, id. 

Irish, xeiyhion, warrior, hero, 



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102 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

The Greek forms are referred by both Benfey and 
Liddell and Scott to the Sanskrit sah, to bear, endure, be 
able, and the Teutonic forms by Benfey and Pictet to the 
same Sanskrit root, and the latter quotes the Vedic 
sahuri, victorious (Or. Ind.-Eur., ii. 197). It seems to me 
quite probable that the Sanskrit sah, sagh, and cak, with 
precisely similar meanings, are but dialectical forms of a 
once common word, whose primitive sense has been best 
retained in the Polynesian and in the Greek. 

To the same primitive sense of holding fast, being 
strong, I think may also, with good reason, be referred : 

Haku 2 , s. Haw., a hard lump of anything, a hard bunch 
in the flesh, the ball of the eye. With po intens. po-haku, 
general name of stones, rocks, pebbles, &c. Sam., fatu, 
seed, the heart of a thing, stone ; adj. hard ; fa(ufalu t 
stony ; fatu-ngao, the kidneys. Tab., fatu, the core of an 
abscess ; fatu-rei, the stones at the bottom of a fish-net. 
Marqu., fatu, stone, teat. Nina, Fakaafo, fatu, stone. 
N. Zeal., watu, hail; ko-watu, stone. Mang., atu, 
seed ; po-atu, stone. Fiji., vatu, stone, rock ; vatu-ni- 
foxlawa, a whale's tooth ; vatu-ni-taha, the shoulder-blade. 
Sunda, batu, stone. Pulo Nias, hatu, id. Engano, paku, 
id. Aru. IsL (Wammer), fatu, id. Amboyna (Liang), 
hatu-aka, the belly. Malg., vatu, stone. Timor. Laut., 
vatu, id. 

Lat,, tiaxum, rock, crag. Probably satum, which has 
been sown, the seed, the grain ; satvs, sator, also refer 
to a form equally akin to saxuw. and the Polynesian 
haku. 

Greek, .tijkos, a weight in the balance ; certainly a very 
distant, if any, relation to otjicos, a pen, a fold. Liddell and 
Scott give no etymon to either. 2t)ico?, weight, no doubt 
represented originally a stone or some hard substance 
conventionally used as a weight ; perhaps mrot, grain, 
corn, wheat. The correspondence of the Greek ano? and 
Sunda siki, seed, kernel, may be accidental ; and yet I 
think it a fair inference that <7tTo? refers itself to c-jjkos 
within the Hellenic group, as siki does to haku within the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 103 

Polynesian group, and that both <ttjko% and haku had a 
common Aryan origin. 

In the valleys of the Hindu-Kush the old form is still 
retained. We find in Gilgit (Shina), but, stone; Chiliss, 
bat, id.; Torwalak, bdd, id.; Gowro., bdt, id.; Narisati, 
vmtt, id. ; Kowar, bdt, id. 

Professor Sayce, in "Introduction to Science of Lan- 
guage," vol. ii, p. 132, speaking of the early Teutonic 
family in Europe, says : " Gold, silver, and bronze were 
the three metals known, though implements of stone still 
continued in use ; and even after their arrival in Europe 
we find the Teutonic Aryans naming the ' dagger ' sea,hs, 
from the stone (Lat. saxuin) of which it was made." 

Hala, v. Haw., to proceed, pass on or over, to miss 
the object aimed at ; s. hala, transgression, trespass, 
offence ; adj. sinful, wicked. Sam., sala, adj. wrong, 
incorrect; s. punishment, fine; v. to lop, cut off; sasala, 
be diffused as a perfume, to spread about ; ma-sala, great, 
in any way; tu-sala, stand in the wrong place. Tali., 
hara, sin, transgression, guilt; adj. unequal, not hitting 
the mark ; v. to deviate, be wrong (the word is also pro- 
nounced hapa in Tahitian) ; hahara, to divide unequally. 
Marqu., haa, offence, aversion, anger. Sunda, sala, fault. 
Malg., hala, hate, to hate; halak, pain, confusion; hala, 
withdraw, retire ; mi-hala, to leave, to let ; halet, punish- 
ment. 

Sanskr., char, to move, to go through, over, or along, to 
behave ; with ati-, to overstep, trespass, offend ; chal, to 
tremble, to move, go away, swerve, be troubled; chhala, 
fraud, deceit ; skhal, to stumble, fall, err, fail ; cal, to 
shake, tremble. Benfey refers chal to char, and char to 
a hypothetical cchar, and chhala to skhal. I am inclined, 
in view of the Sanskrit cal and the Greek aaXot, adKa, 
not to mention the Polynesian affinities, to consider the 
simplest foTm of the word as the oldest. The guttural 
additions may have grown up as dialectical variations on 
an earlier, more simple, and more diffused root or stem. 

Greek, iraXo?, any unsteady tossing motion, the swell 



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104 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

of the sea, restlessness, distemper, perplexity ; craXa, dis- 
tress, anguish ; adkevro, to shake, to rock ; tjaXif, the 
surging of the sea; pi. storms, distresses; dWofiai, 
aXfaffai, inf. to spring, leap, bound ; a\p,a, o\&k, &c. 
Liddell and Scott, s. v., indicate that an old form was 
Fa\Xop.at. That would only show that within the West 
Aryan branches the permutation, in ancient times, of s, h, 
and /was as common an occurrence as within the Poly- 
nesian group. 

Lat., salio, to leap, jump; salt-us, salto, salum, the open 
sea, tossing at sea; scelus, a wicked action, crime, sin, 
disaster. Benfey refers culpa, guilt, fault, blame, to the 
Sanskr. skhal ; Pictet refers it to klrp, kalp. 

Goth., skulan, to owe; skula, debtor; sair, sorrow. 
A. -Sax., sar, pain, grievous ; scyld, debt,, oll'uiiw. 

Lith., skilti, skeleti, to owe ; skola, debt. 

Halau, v. Haw., to extend, stretch out, be long; s. a 
shed for keeping canoes in. The word occurs in the old 
Hawaiian legends with the meaning of a large canoe or 
vessel, but that sense is now obsolete. Tah., fa-rau, a 
long shed generally, canoe-shed. Tong., felau,folau, canoe, 
neet, voyage, navigating. Sam., folau, large vessel, ship ; 
v. go on a voyage. Fiji., bola, war-canoe from another 
land. K Celebes, bolata, boat. Ceram. (Wahai), polutu, id. 
Mai., pro.au, id, Malg., paraho, " embarcation, barque ; " 
alou, a shed. Sunda, parahu, boat. 

Sanskr., pri, to bring over (Ved.) ; para, distant, oppo- 
site, beyond, exceeding ; pdra, the opposite bank of a 
river ; pdra-ga, crossing, passing over ; para-lua, length, 
of distance and of time. 

Zend, pere, to bring over. Pers., paridan, to fly, to 
traverse the air ; parandah, boat, vessel, bird. 

Greek, -jrepav, on the other side, across = trans, irepa, 
beyond, over, farther = ultra ; Trepan, to pass over, to cross 
over ; Trapmv, a light skiff or boat ; nopos, a ford, a ferry. 

A.-Sax., faer. Scand., far, a ship, a vessel. Goth., 
faran, farjan, " ire, vehi (nave, culru) ; " fiord. 

Lith., paramos, a raft 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 105 

Anc. Slav., pariti, to fly. 

Logan, in his "Ethnology of the Indo- Pacific Islands," 
part ii., pp. 146-147, derives the Polynesian falau from 
the Dravidian (Telugu) pada-va, boat. But whatever the 
Polynesians may owe to their contact with the Dravidian, 
it is evident from the varying applications of the word 
falau that it is not a borrowed or imported word, but a 
legitimate development of the verb " to extend, stretch 
out, be long," as much so as the Pers. parandah, the Greek 
irapeav, the A.-Sax. faer, the Lith. paramas. 

I am inclined to consider this word as a derivative of 
the previous hala, " to proceed, pass on or over," and 
should thus be written hala-u. It certainly is not a con- 
traction of the Dravidian pada-va. Had it been a borrowed 
word, it would have been adopted entire, according to the 
phonetic laws which govern Polynesian speech. 

Hale, s. Haw., house, habitation, dwelling-place. Sam., 
Tong., fale, id. Tah., fare, id. Marqu., fae, id. N. 
Zeal., whore. Fiji., vale, id. Salebabo, bard),. Sanguir, 
lali, id. Tidore, fola, id. N. Celebes, bore, id. Aru 
(Wammer), balei, id. 

Sanskr., vri or vri, to conceal, to screen, to cover, sur- 
round; varana, enclosure, raised on a mound of earth, what 
screens or covers ; varanda, a portico ; vdra, a gate ; vala, 
enclosure. 

Zend, ware, enclosure. Pehloi, ware or ouar, fortified 
enclosure. Pers,, wdrah, house, dwelling. Kurd., -war, 
house for winter, 

A.-Sax., war, fence, enclosure. 0. Norse, ver, a home- 
stead. 

Irish, forus, dwelling-place. Erse, okaile or vaile, a 
town. 

I am not aware of the application of this word, or rather 
its root or stem, in Greek or Latin to designate a dwell- 
ing, habitation, house, unless the Greek jjptov, a mound, 
barrow, tomb, refers to it. Thi3 has by some been referred 
to ipa, the earth ; but Liddell and Scott say that it was " a 
raised mound," and that " it has the digainma in Homer." 



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io6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

The Latin fo-ris, gate, like the Sanskrit v&ra, gate, may 
perhaps derive from the same primitive word and concep- 
tion. 

Hali 1 , v. Haw., to bring to and fro, carry, bear, convey. 

Sanskr., hri, to bring, carry to or away, convey, fetch, 
take, seize; kdra, taking, seizing; karana, the hand, the 
arm; hary, to take (Ved.) ; Tiara, a co-heir; hartri, a 
ro"bber. 

Greek, %etp, band, arm; alpea>, to take by the hand, 
grasp, catch. 

Latin, hires, heir, possessor ; Mr, hand. 

Hali 2 , s. Haw,, obj. pu-hali, stinginess, covetousness, 
name of a delicate little sea-shell. Sam., soli, to scrape, 
scoop out, pluck out, take away, rake out, as embers of a 
fire. Fiji., salia, to dig a channel for water ; n. the 
entrance or channel through a reef; sedre, a bowl, large 
or small, Malg., sary, a case, a sheath ; kadi, hole, cave ; 
hadiu, to dig a hole. 

Greek, rrtupco, draw back the lips and show the teeth, 
grin like a dog ; hence to gape like an open wound, to 
sweep off, to clean up ; trr/pary^, a hole, hollow, cleft ; 
o-r/Xta, a flat tray or board with a raised edge ; a sieve, 
the hoop o£ a sieve ; aijKtov, a small vessel used by 
bakers. 

The original word is lost or obsolete in the Hawaiian, 
but its derivative, pu-hali, stingy, covetous, corresponds 
well, in its conception, to the Greek conception of amprn, 
a dog grinning over a bone; while the Samoan soli, to 
scrape, scoop out, probably represents the primitive sense, 
as retained in the Greek aTfpaff^ and o-tj\iov. 

Hamo, v. Haw., to stroke with the hand, to rub, besmear 
with blood or lime, anoint with oil; to bend or crook the 
arm as in doing the foregoing, bend round, be circular ; 
kamole, adj. round, smooth, as the edge of a board; hamo- 
hamo, to rub the hand over a surface, to touch. Sam., 
sama, to rub and colour the body with turmeric ; amo, to 
rub the fibres of a cocoa-nut husk so as to separate them ; 
amo-amo, to repaint black native cloth. Fiji., sama-ka, to 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 107 

rub with the hands, to anoint, rub oil on the body ; uamo-ca, 
to feel for a thing with the hand, to run the hand over. 

Greek, dfir}, dfirj, a shovel, mattock, harrow, sickle, 
bill-hook ; d/iato, to reap, gather, cut off; d/iaXKa, a 
bundle of ears of com, a sheaf. 

Lat., hamus, hook ; hamulus, id. and angle ; kamatus, 
crooked, bent like a hook. 

Hamu, i>. Haw., to eat fragments of food ; s. the refuse 
of food. Sam., samu, to chew, crunch ; samu-samu, to 
eat the remains of food. Tah., amu, to eat ; amu-amu, eat 
a little at a time ; hamu, gluttonous. N, Zeal., Mang., 
amu, eat fragments. Malg., homau, to eat. Mai., djamu-an, 
a feast, a meal. 

Sanskr., jam, to eat, to chew. 

0. H. Germ., gauma, a meal. Germ., gaum, palate. 
A. -Sax., i/ot/ia. the gum. 

Lat., gumia, a glutton. 

Greek, ya/itfuu, the jaws; 70/t^ios, a grinder-tooth, a 
molar. 

Hana 1 , v. Haw., to do, to work, labour, produce; s. 
work, labour, calling, trade ; huna-hana ; v. to be severe, to 
be hard, to afflict, as a famine, to be fatal or deadly, 
as a sickness; adj. disagreeable, offensive, stinking. K. 
Zeal., anga, to work, &c. Sam., sanga, adv. continually, 
without intermission ; s. the dowry or property given by a 
woman's family at her marriage ; v. to face, be opposite ; 
anga, to do, to act; s. conduct. Tong., anga, custom, 
habit. Marqu., hana, to work. Tah., haa, to work, 
operate in any way. Fiji., onga, engaged, employed ; 
yanga, to do, act, use, useful. Malg., angan, to do, to 
make; fanau, fanganon, custom, usage, habitude. 

Sanskr., han, to strike, to peck ("probably from original 
dkan," Benfey) ; dkan 1 , to put in motion, to bear or produce 
grains, &c. ; hanana, multiplication (sc. increase) ; hatnu, 
i.e., han-i-tnu, sickness; hataka, miserable ; compare Tah., 
hana, fatigued, mournful; ghana ("i.e., kan+a," Benfey), 
firm, hard, solid; ghat ("akin partly to han, partly to 
ghatt," Benfey), to endeavour, to work ; dhana, property 



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io8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

of any description, abundance; dhanus, dkanvan ("i.e., 
probably han+vant," Benfey), a bow, a desert. 

Goth., ginrtan, dv-ginnan, perf. gann, to begin, under- 
take. Sax., ginnan, id. 

Greek, I will not refer to Savarov, Qvf\uKm, 0etva>, which 
Benfey refers to Sanskr. han, but to which Liddell and 
Scott give different roots. But the Greek ev-$eveo>, 
eb-dijvia, to flourish, prosper, abundance, may probably 
maintain their relation to the Sanskr. dhana. 

Hana 2 , v. Haw., mostly used in frequ. and compounds ; 
hahana, to be warm ; kanahana, warm, heated ; koe-hana, 
ma-hana, id. ; mehana, heat, generally of the sun or the 
weather, sometimes warmth arising from exercise. Sam., 
long., ma-fana, hot, warm ; faa-fana, warm up food. 
Tah., ma-hana, the sun, day ; ma-hana-hana, hot, warm ; 
hana-hana, bright, glorious. Marqu., fana, warm, ardent, 
materially and mentally. Paum., hana, the sun. Jav., 
panas, warm. Sunda, hanet, id. Tagal., ianas, id. Buru 
(Waiapo), hangat, sun. Ceram. (Gah), mo- fanes, hot. 
Malg.,/«ra, ma-fan, hot, be warm. 

Sanskr., bhd, to shine, appear, the sun, light, splendour ; 
bhdnu, bhdma. Vid. p. gy, s. v. Haoa. 

Greek, ffawot, furnace, forge ; &avav<ro<!, working by 
the fire, mechanical, a mechanic, an artisan. Liddell and 
Scott refer these to aim, to light, to kindle a fire; but 
whence the £ aud the $av ? 

Hawa, v. Haw,, to be daubed, defiled ; hawa-hawa, 
filthy, dirty ; hawawa, rude, ignorant, awkward ; hau-kai, 
filthiness ; haumia, to defile, pollute ; hau-na, strong, 
offensive smell; haunaele, be in confusion, as a mob, 
riotous. Sam., sava, filth, ordure ; v. to be daubed with 
filth ; faua, spittle ; v. to drivel. Tah., haua, scent of any 
kind ; fau-fau, vile, filthy, base; hava, dirty, filthy ; auaua, 
slovenly done. N. Zeal., haunga, bad smell. 

Sanskr., cav, to alter, change, destroy ; cava, a dead body, 
carcass; cdva, dead, deadly; cdvara, low, vile, fault, sin, 
wickedness; cavala, spotted. 

Greek, aav/co*:, o-avx/jav, <ravirapov, easily rubbed to 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 109 

pieces, brittle, dry ; a-avXoi, o-avvos, mincing in gait, con- 
ceited, affected. Liddell and Scott refer the first three to 
a-vto, to kindle, burn. I think the Polynesian hem, sau, 
fau, offers a better etymon, 

Lat., sesvus, excited, raving, cruel ; saucius, wounded, 
weak, hurt, debilitated. 

I am inclined to consider the Polynesian sense of kawa, 
sava, "bedaubed, defiled," as the primary sense of the 
Sanskrit cav, which reappears nearly in cAvara, but more 
plainly in cavala, "spotted, variegated in colour, brown, 
yellow, brindled," as would be the effect of being daubed 
with mud, filth, ordure. Prom cav, to " change, destroy," 
the transition is easy and intelligible to the Greek oavicos, 
&c, and the Latin saurius. 

Benfey considers the Sanskrit atrvari, night, " as akin to 
icepftepos, and derives it from erf, to hurt, wound." Prof. 
Max Muller, in "Chips from a German Workshop," ii. 180, 
considers cavara" as a modified form of carvara, in the 
sense of dark, pale, or nocturnal," and as akin to the Greek 
icepfiepos. It is not for me to gainsay so high authorities, 
but neither of them was probably aware of the existence of 
the Polynesian sava and its kindred to the Sanskrit mv. 

Following the researches of the most eminent philolo- 
gists whose works have come under my notice, and com- 
paring the same with the genius and idiom of the Poly- 
nesian language, it becomes apparent to me that the early 
Aryan in pre-Vedic times designated the left, left hand, 
left side, with words whose primary sense, implied defect 
of |some kind, inferiority, shortcoming, or opposition. 
Proceeding on that assumption, I would include the 
Sanskrit sav-ya, rendered by Benfey as " left, left hand, 1 
southern, south, backward, reverse, contrary," among the 
derivatives of cav, although Benfey gives it no etymon, 

1 Benfey gives tavya as "south, Siever, id. Haying no other works 

southern," as well as "left, left of reference at hand, I am unable to 

hand." A. Pictet in "Orig: Ind.- reconcile the two, and am forced to 

Europ.," ii. 495, plainly status that conclude that the " south " of Ben- 

-'v/ii signified the north, and refers fey is a misprint, 
it to the Slave Sievn-v, Boreas, Illyr. 



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no THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and refers it to the Greek cr/ecuo?, the Latin scwvus, and 
" probably also sinister." Pictet, loc. cit., ii. 493, refers 
oKaios and sccevus to Sanskr. ska, tegere, to cover. Liddell 
and Scott refer crxatos: to savya and sccevus, and the Engl. 
skew. With this difference of opinion between such 
eminent authorities I am not concerned ; scwvus and 
a/caws may refer to Sanskr. sku, tegere, or to sku, " to go 
by leaps," irregular motion, and I am inclined to favour the 
latter ; but savya hardly refers to sku for its origin, nor yet 
to su, " to beset, bring forth, to express as juice," and with 
abhi, " to sprinkle," as Pictet assumes, ibid., p. 490. I have 
no reason to doubt the fact which Pictet refers to in the 
place just cited ; but so far from explaining the meaning 
of savya with " manu* purijlm.nda ublucndo," I think the 
natural and primary meaning was simply "vianus im- 
munda," the unclean, filthy hand. Certes it was the sense 
of deficiency, weakness, impurity which gave the designa- 
tion to the left hand, not vice versa, nor the 1 
cleaning it after the operation it had performed. 

Within the Polynesian area proper, I am not aware of 
any designation of "the left" that can be fairly traced to 
this sava, hawa, or cav, the Tahitian aui, " left," and its 
Malgasse correlative aziha, havia, "left, to the left," pro- 
bably referring themselves to the Polynes. (Haw., Sam.) 
aui, aui-a, to decline as the sun, be slender. Some other 
Polynes, designations for the " left," the N. Zeal, maui, 
the Marqu. moui, and others of that class, refer themselves 
to the Polynes, (Sam.) maui, to diminish, subside, to fall ; 
while still others, like Haw., Tong., Hema., Mang., Ema., 
Fiji., setna, "left," refer themselves to the Tab., hvma, be 
deceived, imposed upon ; Haw., he ma- hema, awkward, des- 
titute, wanting ; Sam., sema, to beg. 

He, s. Haw., a grave, sepulchre ; heana, corpse, carcass. 
Tah., Ilea, name of various diseases ; inahea, be pale, from 
fear; to cease, of rain. Marqu., hcaka, a human victim, 
Sam., senga-senga, to be yellowish from disease ; senga-vale, 
shine dimly, as the sun through a mist, he pale from fear ; 
sengi-sengi, twilight ; se-se, nearly blind. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. m 

Sanskr., sdya, end, evening. Benfey refers this word 
to so, to destroy, to finish. Pictet is in doubt whether to 
refer it to so or sd, as Benfey has done, or to si, to bind, 
whence sim.au, limit, boundary. Both Benfey and Pictet, 
however, refer the Lat. serus, late, and serum, evening, to 
the Sanskr. sdya. 

In the Dravidian (Tamil) sd and (Tulu) sei signify " to 
die." 

Hele 1 , v. Haw., hele-hele, to cut up, divide asunder, as 
with a knife; mahele, v. divide, cut in pieces, separate, 
Sam., sele, to cut, a bamboo-knife ; sele-sele, to cut in 
pieces, to shear. Tong., hele, to cut, a knife ; mahele, to 
cut, gash. Tali., pa-here, to pare the rind of fruit. Fiji., 
sele, bamboo-knife; sek-ta, sword. Malg., fer, a cut, a 
sore, 

Sanskr., cri, to hurt, wound, be broken, split to pieces ; 
cava, caru, an arrow, any weapon ; cari, hurtful ; ciri, a 
sword, a murderer. 

Greek, xKaa, to break, break off, break in pieces ; 
Kkrina, a cutting, a slip ; tcXaSa, id.; ickripos, lot ; Kpivco, to 
pick out, assort, choose, decide. 

Lat., ccrno (orig. to separate), to distinguish, know apart, 
to decide ; certo, to contest, strive together ; certamen, 
light; crihrum, a sieve; crimen (orig. sentence). 

Goth., hairus, sword. A, -Sax., hyrt, hurt, wounded, 
struck. 

The analogy of the Latin cerno, to separate, and the 
Greek Kpivto, to pick out, which lexicographers refer to 
Sanskrit kri, to cast, to scatter, seems to indicate that hri 
and cri were but different forms of an older word, whose 
primitive meaning, as retained in the Polynesian, the 
Latin, and the Greek, was " to sunder, to separate," and 
that the conception of " to hurt, to wound," and the deri- 
vatives based upon that conception, were subsequent and 
secondary to the former meaning, and incident to the act 
of " sundering, separating." 

To this family of words, rather than to the nest, belong 
the Haw. helei, to open, spread open, as the legs, to straddle ; 



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iiz THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

kclelei, to throw away, to scatter, to fall, as seed sown. 
Sam., selei, to cut, slash. 

Hble s , v. Haw., to move in any way, to walk, to go ; 
hade, id. Tah., haere, to go, to come. N. Zeal., haere, id. 
Sam,, saele, to swing the arms in walking. 

Sanskr., sel or eel, to go or move. 

This word seems to have no derivation in the West 
Aryan branches. In Dr. Caldwell's Dravidian Grammar, 
I see that in Tamil §61 is " to go, proceed." Is the word 
Ayran in itself, or did the Hindus as well as the Poly- 
nesians receive it from their intercourse with the Dravi- 
dians after entering India ? 

Hele 3 , v. Haw., a noose, a snare for catching birds ; 
pa-hele, id.; also deceit, treachery. Tong., hele, snare, 
noose ; nau-hele, to snare. N. Zeal., here, to tie, bind ; 
where-where, to hang, suspend. Earot., ere,idi. Sam., §ele, 
a snare, to snare. Tah., here, a snare, cord; v. to entangle. 

Greek, elpm, "fasten together, string, plait ; hppata, 
ear-rings ; opp.o$, cord, chain, necklace ; elpepos, bondage, 
slavery ; elppos, a series, a train ; aeipa, cord, string, rope, 
noose. 

Lat., sero, §erui, to bind, tie, connect, entwine ; series, 
a row, series ; §erta, wreath, garland; servu§, a slave. 

A.-Sax., serian, to set in order. 

Anc. Slav., v.-seregu, u-serezi ; Russ., seriga, ear-ring ; 
sherenga, series, row. 

Armen., sarich, a cord. 

Helu, v. Haw., to scratch the ground as a hen, to dig 
or scratch the ground with the fingers, to paw, to count, 
compute, to tell, relate. Tong., helu, to comb. Sam., selu, 
a comb, to comb ; §eselu, comb the hair with the fingers, 
to praise. H", Zeal., heru, comb. Tah., hem, scratch as a 
hen ; pa-heru, id., search thoroughly ; tu-feru., id. Marqu., 
feu, to rub, scrub. Fiji., seru, a comb. Mai. and Sunda, 
§isir, comb. 

Lat., §ero, sevi, scatter as seed, sow. Eenfey refers this 
word to the Sanskrit sri, to flow, blow, go, in caus. to 
extend. But the Latin sero evidently does not derive 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 113 

from the Sanskrit causative form, and is possibly as old a 
word in its own dialect as the Sanskrit word, with the re- 
tention of the earlier sense "to scatter," apparently lost in 
the Sanskrit sri, if ever it had it. Pictet, following Bopp, 
refers sero to a Sanskrit sd, san, " donner, repandre," in 
order to find a place foT the Gothic saian, A. -Sax. sdwan, 
to sow, and the Greek cram, cri}$o>, " cribler, e'est-a-dire 
repandre." The Latin wins, the Greek enjSw, the Gothic 
setlts, &c, may probably refer to a root in so, sd, or san ; 
but tiie Latin sero, in my opinion, has no more etymologi- 
cal connection with satum than /erg lias with latum. The 
sense of " scattering," though not retained in the Poly- 
nesian in connection with planting or sowing, is yet 
manifest in two other directions, viz., numbering, counting, 
and combing, unravelling the hair. I am therefore in- 
clined to refer the Polynesian hele 1 , Jtelu, the Latin sero, 
and the Sanskrit cri, to a common root, whose primary 
meaning was " to scratch," and, in so doing, in one direc- 
tion " to wound," cri, in another " to scatter," sero. 

Hema, adj. Haw., left, the left hand, south, southern ; 
hema-hema, left-handed, awkward, destitute, needy. Tong., 
hema, left. Mang., ema, id. Tah., hema, to be deceived ; 
faa-hema, a deceiver. Sam., sema, to beg for various things. 
Fiji., sema, the left hand. Malg., simis, be in need, to fail. 

Greek, ifa/iia, loss, damage, penalty ; q/tepo$, tamed, 
quiet, gentle; fjvta, bridle, reins; e<p fjviav, wheeling "to 
the left," the bridle-hand being the left hand. Benfey 
refers these three words to Sanskrit yam, to restrain, to 
tame. Liddell and Scott refer fij/xm to Sanskrit dam, 
damydmi, to tame ; they refer yfiepos to fjpai, to sit down, 
and fjfiai. to Sanskrit as, dsmS, " sedeo," and they give no 
etymon of jJwb, 

In this uncertainty I may be permitted to doubt if tfvut 
belongs to the same family as Jj/*epo<s and fypia. The 
underlying sense of the former is that of strength, power, 
restraining, governing; the underlying sense of the two 
latter is that of loss, deficiency, weakness, want. Hence 
the former may be allied to the Sanskrit yam, as Benfey 

vol. m. H 



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ii4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

suggests, but hardly the two latter. Of these, however, 
r/fiepa<! may doubtless refer through ij/tai to Sanskrit ds, 
although the primary sense of ds is not one of weakness, 
deficiency, but rather of strength and freedom of action : 
'' I sit, I stay, I abide, I perform." Zr/fiia, again, as Liddell 
and Scott intimate, may refer, through the Cretan Zaftia, 
to Sanskrit dam, to tame, " coercere," and dam-a, chastise- 
ment, line; but in this case I think it possible that the 
analogy of sound may have produced an analogy of sense, 
fylfua., Bafita, when the result in both was " loss, damage." 
There is this difference, however, between the two, as I 
think, that in tfafua the sense of loss, &c, seems to be 
inherent in the thing or person referred to, whereas in 
dam-a, Sa/ua, damnum, the sense of loss seems to arise 
from an imposition ah extra, the sense of inherent loss, 
weakness, defect, cropping out in expressions like fyavepa 
fyp-ia, lit. evident loss, good-for-nothing, worthless, &c. 
I would therefore seek the connection of Jiyua, ijMepo?, and 
the Polynesian sema, hema, in the Sanskrit cam, whose 
" original signification," Eenfey says, is " to get tired," then 
to cease, to be quiet, meek, humble. 

I remarked, p. 1 10, that the designation of the left could 
generally be traced to a sense of weakness, inferiority, 
defect ; and to name the left hand " the quiet, the still," 
&c., sc. hand, in contradistinction from the right hand, is 
a correct analogy to sav-ya, whether that be interpreted 
" manus immunda " or " manus purificanda abluendo." 

The Hawaiian is the only Polynesian dialect which has 
retained hema to designate south as well as left, and the 
origin of that designation arises from the fact that the 
Polynesians looked to the west when designating the car- 
dinal points. 

To the Sanskrit cam Benfey refers the Greek Kafivto, to 
work oneself weary, be tired, ill, to suffer; Ka/j.aro<;, toil, 
trouble, distress. 

Liddell and Scott refer to the German sanft in con- 
nection with fi/tepos, as related to ij/tai.. I know not the 
etymology of sanft, but if it is related to ij/wpo?, I think 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 115 

it better to refer it to the Sanskrit cam and its derivative 
eantva = eam-tva, conciliating, mild. 

Hene, v. Haw., hene-hene, to laugh at, to mock, deride, 
despise. (Not found in other Polynesian dialects.) 

Goth., hauns, humble, base, contemptible; haunjan, to 
humiliate. A.-Sax., hynan, to humble. Germ., holm, scorn, 
derision, seoff; hoknen, to deride, to scoff at. Swed., hdn, 
derision, mockery, scorn. 

Lat., hinnio, to neigh. Corap. latter part of cachinnus. 

Hi, v. Haw., to flow away, as evacuations, to blow out 
with force from the mouth, as liquids, droop, be weak ; s. 
purging, dysentery, a hissing sound, as the rapid flow of 
a liquid. Tong., sisi, to hiss; ifi, to blow with the mouth, 
Sam., si, semen emittere ; sisi, to make a hissing sound, as 
green wood burning, to trickle down. Tah., hi, to gush out, 
as water, to flux. Periv., hio, Haw,, eructatio ventris; 
kio-Mo, to draw in the breath, as if eating something hot; 
Mhio, to blow, rush violently. N. Zeal., whio, to whistle, 
Mang., vivio, id. Paum., hiohio, id. Tah., hio, to puff, as 
out of breath, to whistle, 

Sanskr., hi, to go, send, discharge, as an arrow, dispatch, 
jacere, projicere; sick, to sprinkle, discharge, effundere; 
cik or sik, to sprinkle ; cikara, drop of water, thin rain, 
spray. 

Greek, ottyo, to hiss, the sound of frying in a pan ; 
(TtK^oT, squeamish, sickening; ancj(aaia, nausea; oiypos, 
a hissing ; ffifts, id, ; few, to boil, seethe ; tya-ros, boiling 
hot ; J17M7, leaven ; %vdo<;, beer. Liddell and Scott refer 
the four last to Sanskrit yas, to make strenuous exertions, 
to endeavour, and they refer atyi), silence, to trifya. 

A, -Sax., hysian, liUc.nn, to hiss, to whiz, whence Engl. 
hist, a word of attention, commanding silence; sythan, 
seathan, to seethe, boil ; seoc, sick ; sife, syfe, a sieve. 
0. H. Germ., sikan, to strain, sift ; seihjan, mingere. Goth., 
siukan, be sick, be stilL 
Lat., sibilo, hiss, whistle. 
Lith., setas, a sieve ; sijoti, to sift. 
Hia, v. Haw., der. of an obsol. hi, to entangle, to catch, 



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n6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

as in a net ; hiki, duplicate form of the original root, to 
branch, spread out, as vines or limbs of trees, grow thick 
together; adj. spreading, creeping, entwining; kihia, be 
■ perplexed, entangled; s. difficulty, trouble, a thicket of 
forest, a snarl. Tong., fihi, fikijihi, to entangle, entwine- 
N. Zeal., v;iwi, rushes, also entangled; ta-vriwi, to en- 
snare. Mangar., i'i, ensnaring. Marqu., fifi, to envelop. 
Tefo.,fifi, entangled, intricate, a chain ; hi, to fish with book 
and line, angle; hiki, rays of the sun, whiskers of a cat or 
mouse. Fiji., vivi-a, to roll up, to coil. Malg., a-fehai, to 
knot ; a-jiezi, to tie, to make fast ; Jlheho, bound. 

Sanskr., si, to bind ; sita, bound ; stmd, siman, boundary, 
limit, nape of the neck. 

Greek, ifttw, a thong, strap, rope, girdle, latch-string. 

0. Sax., simo, bond. 

Hio, v. Haw., to lean over, to slant, to swing to and fro, 
to lean upon, trust in, to wander about ; hihio, to sleep, 
fall asleep, to dream ; hiohiona, the gait and personal 
appearance of a person. Sam., swa, wearied, exhausted. 
Marqu., /o, to rove about. 

Sanskr., cl, to lie, as od the ground, lie down, repose, 
sleep ; caya, asleep, sleep, a snake, a tiger ; cayyd, a bed. 

Greek, Ketco, xea>, /ceifitu, to lie, be laid, lie asleep, 
repose ; Koifiaa, to lull or hush to sleep, fall asleep, lie 
down, have sexual intercourse, keep watch at night; Kw/ia, 
deep sleep ; tempi/, an tmwalled village ; koitt), bed, couch ; 

Lat., quies, rest, cessation of labour, repose ; do, cieo, to 
put in motion, to move, stir, shake ; civis, a citizen, member 
of a village or tribe. Liddell and Scott refer the Greek 
kvtjto), to bend forward, stoop down, as akin to the Latin 
cubo, to lie, recline ; and they refer cubo to Sanskrit ci. For 
my reasons for differing from such analysis, vid. s. v. KliPA. 

Anc. Slav., po-oiti, quiescere ; po-koi, quiet 

Lith., hiemas, village ; Icaimynas, neighbour. 

Goth., hairm, a village ; haithi, a field, heath ; hethjo, 
a sleeping-place. 

Hiki, v. Haw., to come to, arrive at, to happen, be able ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 117 

hilcina, i.e., hiki-ana (sc. a ha la), the rising of the sun, 
the east. Tah., hiti, id.; hitia, sunrise, east. Nuh., Fak., 
Sam.,JUi, id. N. Zeal, witi; Earot., iti, to rise, as the sun, 
appear, to come. 

Greek, uao, iitava, i/cveo/tai, to come, come to, reach to, 
approach, befall, befit; licavos, befitting, sufficient, able, 
strong. Liddell and Scott give no Indo-European relatives 
of this word. Benfey refers into, &c, to the Sanskrit vie, to 
enter, enter in, begin ; with pra, to appear ; and also in- 
timates the relation of the Gothic vj&ihts, a whit, a thingj 
a slight appearance. 

Hili, v. Haw., to braid, plait, twist, turn over, spin ; 
wili, id. ; wili, s. a ribbon, a roll ; wili-wili, to stir round, 
to mis ; another dialectical variation is kilo, to twist, 
turn, spin. Sam., fili, to plait, as sinnet ; filo, to mix, s. 
twine, thread ; vili, a gimlet, a whirlpool. Marqu., fau- 
fii, twist, braid. W. Zeal., wiri, id. Earot., iro, id. Tali., 
Jiri, id.; hiro, id. Fiji., siri, askew, not nicely in a row, 
wrong, in error. Tagal and Bisaya, hilig, a woof, 

Greek, elXto, to roll up, to press together, pass to and 
fro, to wind, turn round ; ektaaia, turn round or about, 
roll, whirl ; e\tf, adj. twisted, curled ; s. anything of a 
spiral shape, twist, curl, coil ; tXKce, to roll, of the eyes, to 
squint, look askance ; tk\os, squinting ; iKKas, a rope, 
band ; tXtyf, a whirlpool. 

Sanskr., v el, vehl, to shake, tremble ; vellita, crooked ; 
anu-vellita, a bandage. To this Sanskrit vel Benfey refers 
the Greek et\a>, the Latin volvo, and the Gothic walo- 
jan. Liddell and Scott also incline to connect elkto and 
volvo with the same root. To me it would seem as if the 
Sanskrit vrij, whose " original signification," Eenfey says, 
is " to bend," and the Sanskrit vrit, whose " original signi- 
fication," Benfey says, is " to turn," were nearer akin to 
the primary form from which the Greek et\ta, iWa, and 
the Polynesian hlli,u-iri, descend: that primary form being 
vri, now lost to the Sanskrit, with a primary sense of to 
bend, twist, turn over, braid, and of which vel, veil, or vehl, 
is possibly another secondary and attenuated form. With 



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n8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

such a Sanskrit vri, surviving in vrij and vrii, the deriva- 
tion of the Latin filum, thread, as twisted, spun ; of the 
. Latin varus, bent asunder, parting from eacli other, varix, 
crookedness; of the Saxon wile, deceit; of the Swedish 
vnlla, confusion, error, wilse, astray, becomes easy and 
intelligible. 

Hilu, adj. Haw., still, quiet, reserved, dignified, glo- 
rious. 

Sanskr., etl, to meditate, adore, worship. 
Greek, iXaa>, tkaa/cofiai, to appease, propitiate ; ikaos, 
gracious. 

Lat., sileo, be still, silent 

Hina 1 , v. Haw., to lean from an upright position, to 
fall, fall down, tumble over, to fall morally as well as 
materially, to offend. Tong., N. Zeal., hinga, id. Pau- 
motu, Mnga, dead, i.e., fallen. Tah., kia, to fall. Sam., 
s>sina, to drop down. Marqu., Mica, to fall, slide, lean, to 
die ; hina, id. Malg., tsinga, to lean to, incline. Malay., 
Uggelam, to sink. 

Lat., sino, let down, lay down, suffer, permit ; pono — 
po-sino, put down; sinus, a bending, a curving; sinuo, 
sinister. 

Goth., siggkwan, to sink, to set, of the sun. A.-Sax., 
sigan, fall ; sincan, sink. 

Hina 2 , adj. Haw., grey, hoary, as hair or beard ; hina- 
hina, id., withered as fruit; poo -hina, grey-haired, aged; 
po-hina, white, whitish, silvery, grey ; ma-hina, moon. 
Sam., sina, white or grey, of the hair; faa-sinasina, to 
whiten, whitewash ; ma-sina, the moon. Tong., hina, 
grey, white ; ma-hina., moon. Mang., ina, white, grey ; 
ma-ina, moon. Tah., hina-hina, grey hairs. Marqu., hina, 
white ; ma-hina, moon. N. Zeal., hina, grey, white, of 
hair. Fiji., sika, grey-headed ; singa, the sun, day ; singa- 
singau, white. Sunda and Mai., sinar, a ray of light, sun- 
beam. Sulu Isl., fa-sina, the moon. Tagal, quinas, to 
shine ; auinan, a glance. Malg., fassin, grey ; hina, hign, 
an oyster ; hinign, the flash of a gun. 

Lat,, senex, old, aged, hoary-headed ; seneo, senesco. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 119 

Goth., sins, old. 

I have not found any Sanskrit root that may refer to 
the Polynesian sina or hina in its application as white, 
bright, shining, or its further application as a name for 
the moon. Yet I find simhala, tin, brass, cassia-bark ; 
simhana, rust of iron, the mucus of the nose ; cinghdna, 
froth, foam, the mucus of the nose, rust of iron, a glass 
vessel, all which certainly indicate their connection with 
a root conveying the sense of whiteness, brightness, 
&c. 

HiNAI, s. Haw., a braided container, a basket. Sam., 
sina, gourd, calabash. Tong., hina, gourd, bottle. Tali., 
kinai, a sort of basket. Fiji-, ninai, full ; sinai-ta, do up 
the mouth of a basket. Malg., sini, vase, pot. 

Lat., sinum, a large, round drinking vessel. 

Anthon, Lat. Diet., s. v., refers sinu-rn, to sinvs, a bend, a 
curve. If so, it derives from sino, as the Haw. and Tali. 
hinai may derive from hina 1 . 

HlNl, adj. Haw., hini-hini, u-kini, small, thin, feeble, 
speaking in a small, thin voice, whispering. Tali., uine, 
to chirp as chickens. Malg., hinti, to tinkle. 

Sanskr., cinj, to tinkle ; cinja, tinkling, a bowstring. 

HiNU, s. Haw., ointment ; v. to anoint, besmear with 
oil or grease, be smooth, shining. Tah., S. Zeal., hinn, 
oil, grease. Earot., irni, id. Marqu., hinu, ointment, ink, 
tincture from the tutui nut. Tikop., sinii, cocoa-nut oil. 
Fiji, sinusinu, id. Ceram. (Camariau), wai-li-sini, oil 
Sapavua, im-ri-tini, id. 

Sanskr., cydna, cina, thick, viscous, adhesive ; prate-awt; 
melted, fluid. 

Hiwa, adj. Haw., dear, valued, beloved, precious; 
applied mostly to that which was used in sacrifice to 
the gods, in which the black colour was preferred, as a 
black hog, a black kapa, a black cocoa-nut, &c. ; hence 
black, clear black. Sam., Fak., siwa ; Tong., hiwa, song, 
dance, festivity. Tah., hiwa, family, company ; hiwa-hiwa, 
abundance, plenty. 

Sanskr., civa, prosperous, happy, complacent, well-being ; 



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izo THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

name of one of the Sanskrit Triad, distinguished by his 
black or blue-black neck. 

I note, but leave to abler hands to explain, the coinci- 
dence, if such it be, of the Tah. hiwa, family, company, 
clan, and the A. -Sax. hiwa, family ; 0. Germ., hiwa, a 
wife, &c, which latter Benfey refers to the Sanskrit c£, 
to lie down, while he refers civa to a root cm, to swell, 
increase. Benfey also refers the Sanskrit ceva, happiness, 
to ei. Why not civa also, or the Polynesian hiwa 1 

Ho, v. Haw., to cry in a clamorous manner, fco shout, 
cry out for fear or distress, breathe hard ; koho, id., to 
snore ; s, asthma, lowing of cattle. Tah., ho, a war-shout 
of triumph or rejoicing. 

Sanskr., live, Ved., hH, to call, to name, invoke, challenge ; 
hv&na, a cry ; gu, to sound ; guy, to buzz ; ghw, ghur, ghuslt, 
id., to proclaim. 

Greek, #017, loud shout, cry; jSoaw, to roar, howl, call 
aloud; 700?, wailing, lamentation; yoa<a, to wail, groan, 
weep. 

Lat., re-hoo, resound; voveo,to vow, promise; hoi, inlerj. 
oh, alas ! 

Goth., gaunon, mourn, lament. A. -Sax., hveop, to cry, 
call out ; wepan, to weep. 

HOA, v. Haw., to tie, bind, wind round ; s. companion, 
friend, assistant; hoai, mix, unite two things; s. union, 
suture, as of bones ; hoai-manawa, coronal suture, &c. 
Sam., soa, companion, friend. Tikop., soa, id. Tong., nga- 
hoa, a pair. N. Zeal., hoa, to help. Tab., hoa, friend ; 
faa-hoa, make friends. Fiji., so, to assemble; soso, an 
assembly ; sola, to meet, meet accidentally. Malg., soJcke, 
friend, comrade, brother. 

I am induced to believe that the form hoa is a contrac- 
tion of an orignal holca, which occurs in a duplicated form ; 
Haw., hokahokai, to mix, as two ingredients. The Fiji, so 
probably represents the primary root, now obsolete in 
Polynesia, but with the primary sense retained in the 
Hawaiian hoa, v., which probably underlies the formation 
of the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 121 

Lat., sacius, a companion, partner; sodalis, friend, com- 
rade, assistant, 

Ho'o, Ha'A. Haw., a causative prefix to verbs. Tah., 
ha'a,fa'a, id. Marqu., haa,faa, and haka ; Sain.,/aa and 
faka; N. Zeal., wliaka, id., to cause to be or do a thing. 
P&um., faka ; Rarot., aka, id. 

Lat, facio, imp. fac, pret. factum, do, make, cause to 
be; fades, figure, face, shape. Benfey refers facio to 
Sanskrit bhU,, to become, to be ; but I am not aware of any 
West Aryan forms to explain the transitions. 

So far as I know, none of the West Aryan branches 
make use of a causative prefix to verbs, the Zend and 
Vedic alone expressing the causative by suffixes, which 
have already lost their primary sense and become mere 
unmeaning flexions. It would be interesting, therefore, 
to know if any trace of a causative prefix can be found 
within the Indo-European lines. Was the prefix, as found 
in the Polynesian, an older form of expressing the causa- 
tive, which afterwards, for reasons now unknown, became 
obsolete and was replaced by suffixes, or was it a form of 
speech acquired and adopted by the Polynesians from long 
and intimate intercourse with the Cushite- Chaldeans ? 
But if the Polynesian causative prefix has no analogy in 
Sanskrit or Iranian, it has an undoubted Aryan relative 
in the Latin facio, and that facio was certainly used at 
times as a causative, and, though it was not agglutinated to 
the verb which it governed, but stood apart, yet itpreceded 
it, and did not follow it, like the Sanskrit or Zend causa- 
tive suffixes. The Greek, Latin, and Gothic did not use 
causative suffixes, but expressed that sense, as their de- 
scendants do to-day, by what I may call auxiliary verbs, 
independent in form and sense, placed before and not after 
the verb which they affected, and in so far the construc- 
tion of their sentences, their idioms, corresponds to the 
Polynesian. I think, therefore, that I may he permitted 
to infer, from the absence of causative suffixes in such 
prominent branches of the Aryan stock as the Greek, 
Latin, Gothic, and Polynesian, that such suffixes were of 



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122 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

later development and adoption in some of the other 
branches. 

Hoka, v. Haw., to squeeze, press, take hold of, to 
search, examine into, to strike, attack, be destitute, fail, 
be disappointed. Sam., so'a-so'a, soso'a, to spear a thing, 
to husk cocoa-nuts. Tab., hota, to cough. N. Zeal., 
Mangar., hoka, a sharp-pointed instrument. Tong., hoka, 
to stab, thrust. Fiji., voca, to strike against. Malg., 
Iwta, fault, vice, defect; hota-lela, to stutter. Sunda, 
suker, in trouble, difficulty. 

Sanskr., sUch, to point out, indicate, betray, espy ; sHchi, 
piercing, a needle, indication by signs ; sdcha, piercing, 
gesticulation ; siXchana, information, piercing, gesticula- 
tion, wickedness. 

Goth., sokjan, to seek, desire, question with, dispute ; 
sakan, pt. sok, to rebuke, strive, dispute ; sakjis, a brawler, 
astriker. Engl., sake in forsake ; Swed., for-saka; Germ., 
such in versucken ; Swed.,for-sdka. 

Hola, v. Haw., to open, spread out ; hola-hola, id., to 
smooth; holtola, id., unfold; raohola, to open, expand, 
unfold, as leaves of plants or flowers, blooming ; po-hola, 
id. Sam., Tong., fola, fofola ; N. Zeal., Tab., hora, hohora, 
to spread out, unfold ; ma-hora, developed, clear, explicit. 
Related to these as dialectical variations are doubtless 
the Hawaiian mo-halu, clearness, fulness, as the full 
moon ; holt, to commence, the first appearance of a thing. 
Tah., po-hori, new shoots, buds. Tong., foli, to spread, 
expand, as vegetation. Marqu., po-hoe, living things ; and 
the ubiquitous hala, hara, fala, fara, the Polynesian 
name for the pandanus, Fiji., void, to make a mark, to 
mark; vold-bongi, evening or midnight star; vola-niiiya, 
morning star. Ma.]g., fala or fola-tanah, the open band, 
the palm; fohi-tortibu.k, plante fie pied ; felc.n, blossom. 

Sanskr., p/tal, to burst, to produce, to bear fruit ; phulla, 
blown, expanded, as a flower, opened, as the eyes with 
pleasure ; phalin, bearing fruit ; phalya, a flower ; phull, 
to blossom. Benfey considers phal as derived from an 
older form in spar, sphar, and sphur, to tremble, palpitate, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 173 

flash. In view of the Polynesian and of the Latin, Greek, 
and Gothic, quoted below, the s is more likely to be a 
subsequent prosthetic than an original conslitutent of the 
word. 

Lat., folium, leaf; Jlos, flower. 

Greek, <pvXKov, leaf, foliage, flower. 

Gijt'n., bhma; A.-Sax„ Uosm, bloom, blossom. 

Liddell and Scott refer tftvWov and folium, and jlos, &c, 
to a root represented by the Greek 0\ea>, tfjXvm, ft\vo>, to 
gush, swell up, overflow. Benfey, however, refers Jlos and 
hloma to the Sanskrit phot. Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., i. 205 
sq.) refers both <f>v\\ov and tpXeat, with all their derivatives 
and correlatives, as well as folium, Jlos, and bloma, to the 
Sanskrit pkal and phull, which brings us back to the 
Polynesian forms in fola. Kola, fala, and hala, &c. 

It may be interesting to observe with Pictet that the 
various European names for apple refer themselves back to 
either of those two forms in phut or phal; Welsh, afal; 
Irish, abhal, uhhal ; A.-Sax., appel ; Anc. Germ., aphul ; 
Lith., obolys; Anc. Slav., jabulko. 

The name of a festival in Deccan, of very ancient date, 
to celebrate the vernal equinox and the return of spring, 
and called Jwli, does singularly enough associate itself to 
the Hawaiian holi, the first appearance of a thing, to com- 
mence, and to the Tongan foli, to spread, expand, as vegeta- 
tion. 

Holo 1 , v. Haw,, to move swiftly, to run, to flee; hoo- 
Itolo, to stretch out, reach forth, as the hand, to slip, slide ; 
holoi, to wash, to scrape, brush, wipe, blot out, to clean ; 
holoholoi, to rub with pressure and quick motion, rub off 
dirt, rub down, smooth ; holo-ke, to run or rub against some 
opposing object. Sam., solo, to slide, fall down, pass 
along, to wipe, as after bathing ; s. a towel ; adj. swift ; 
soloi, to wipe, to break gradually, as a wave fit to glide on ; 
solo-solo, to slip away, as a landslip ; sola, to run away, to 
flee. Tong., kola, id. ; holoi, to chafe, to wipe ; hohalo, to 
grind, sharpen. N. Zeal., Tah., horo, to ruu ; s. a land- 
slip ; horokoTO, swiftly, quickly ; horoi, to wa 



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124 TH E POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Fiji., solo-la, to rob or grind, to wipe or dry oneself after 
washing. Malg., sura, tsora, a file, a hedgehog. 

Sanskr., kskar, to stream, pass away, to let escape, to 
yield ; kshfd, to purify, make clean, remove ; ksJidlana, 
washing. 

Greek, vapos, broom ; aapoa, a-atpto, to sweep, clean. 

Lat., sarrio, to rake, hoe. 

Russ., soru, sweepings, offal. Pol., szor, szur, detritus, 
alluvium ; szorowach, nettoyer, frotter. Lith., szlota, broom. 

Pers., sharidan, to flow, run, pour out ; sh&r, flood, flux ; 
skdnlf, broom. 

Goth., skiuran, to scour ; skura, a shower. 

To the Sanskrit kshar Benfey refers the Latin scortum, 
a whoTe, and the Gothic hors, a whoremonger. 

Holo 2 , s. Haw., a bundle. Fiji., sole, sole-sole, a bundle, 
package. 

Greek, triMpos, a heap, a pile ; oapaieos, a basket, box ; 
aopo<i, a vessel for holding anything, a container. 

Honua, s. Haw., flat land, in distinction from the 
mountains, the bottom of a deep place. Marqu., Tah., 
fenua, land, country. N. Zeal., whenua, id. Tong.,/orew«. 
Sam., fwn.ua, id. Paum., henna, id. Fiji., vanua, id. 
Malay., henua, id. 

Goth., fani, clay, mud. Sax. and 0. Engl., fen, low- 
land, moor, boggy. 

Hope, s. Haw., the end or beginning of a thing, 
termination, result, consequence; adv. behind, after, last. 
Tah., hope, the tail of a bird, the hair of a man tied behind ; 
v. to be finished, ended ; hopea, the end or extremity of a 
thing. Sam., sope, lock of hair left as an ornament. 
Earot., Mang., ope, end, extremity. Marqu., hope-hope, the 
buttocks, rump. Fiji., sobe-ta, to cleave to, to ascend or 
descend, as by a rope. 

Greek, oV«, the consequence of things, good or bad, 
retribution, vengeance, favour; mrta-Bev, behind, at the 
back, after, in place or time; qttio-co, behind, hereafter. 
Liddell and Scott are in doubt whether to refer 6iri<t to 
o-^rofiai or to erro), eiroftai. But into has been referred by 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 125 

tliem and Benfey to Sanskrit sack, Latin sequor. Why not 
refer ottk and hope to Sanskrit sap, sev, connect, follow ? 

Hopo, v. Haw., to shrink back through fear, he afraid, 
agitated, troubled. Sam., sopo, step over, pass over ; sopo- 
sopo, id., transgress. Tong., hopo, to jump, to caper. 
Marqu., hopo, to fear, tremble. 

Greek, crofiea), to scare or drive away, to shake, beat, 
to walk pompously, strut ; ao^ai, a kind of dance ; <to/3t), 
horse's tail; <to$t]<7k, agitation, excitement. Liddeil and 
Scott consider uofie<t> akin to aeva>, to hunt, chase. I 
think the connection doubtful. They refer, moreover, to 
the Old German sweif (schweif), a tail, a train, which seems 
a more probable connection. 

Sax., koppan, to leap, jump. Icel., skopa, to leap, spring. 
1'higl., skip, hop, hobble. 

Hd, v. Haw., to rise or swell up, effervesce, to rise 
up, as a thought, to overflow, Tun over, to shed or pour 
out, to ooze quietly, to appear, i.e., to heave up in sight, 
as a ship at a distance, to whistle, as the wind (Germ. 
brausen, sauscn) ; hu, s. a rising, swelling, a top ; hu-kani, 
a humming-top ; huhu, be angry, scolding, storming ; hua, 
v. to swell, foam, to sprout, bud, bear fruit, grow, increase ; 
s. fruit, offspring, production, froth, an egg, a kidney, seed, 
as of grain, human testicles ; huai, to open, as a native 
oven, as a windbag, as a grave ; hua-huai, to boil up, as 
water in a spring. Tong., hu, to boil a stew ; hua, general 
name for liquids; kuai, to pour out; huhu, the nipple of 
the breast; fua, fruit. Sam., su, susu, wet; susu, the 
breast, teats of animals; sua, liquids; fua, to begin, to 
start, s. fruit. N. Zeal., hua, to sprout, grow, s. fruit ; ho- 
hua, to boil ; huka, foam. Tab., hu, wind on the stomach ; 
hua, grain, particles ; hu'a, testicles ; huaa, ancestors ; 
kuai, to open an oven ; huh.ua, top of a mountain. Marqu., 
hu, break wind ; huaa, people, family ; huhua, to swell up. 
Itarot., ua, fruit. Mang., uai, to begin. Fiji., su, the 
water in which food has been boiled, soup ; sua-sua, wet, 
moist; susu, be born, bring forth young, to suck, suckle ; 
vu, to cough ; vua, fruit, produce, v, to bear fruit, to over- 



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126 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

flow ; vua, family, tribe ; vusa, tribe genealogy ; vttso, 
froth, foam. Timor Laut., susu, the breast. Sunda and 
Malay., Utah, fruit. Jav., wowoan, id. Buru, fuan, id. 
Amboyna, hua, id. Ceram. (Gah.), voya, id. Malg., viia, 
voa, id.; sosoa, potage, bouillon. Motu. (N. Guinea), 
hujihua, fruit. 

Sanskr., m and sH, to beget, bear, bring forth ; sUna, 
born, produced, blown, as a flower ; s&nu, a son ; sll, s, 
birth, bringing forth, yielding ; sdma, milk, water ; suti, 
birth, offspring, source ; sutin, father ; suma, a flower ; 
sdsh, cdsh, to bring forth, bear ; hu, to sacrifice ; homa (for 
huma), oblation ; home, fire, clarified butter, water. Pictet 
(Or. Ind.-Eur., ii. 702) thinks the Sanskrit hu is wrongly 
compared with the Greek Sva, and that its primitive sense 
might have been " projicere, effundere, et libare." He is 
probably correct, and the sacrifice contemplated consisted 
in the " pouring out" of the clarified butter or the soma juice 
as a libation. If so, it brings the Sanskrit still more en 
rapport with the Polynesian form and primary sense. The 
Sauskr. sunu, son, which is retained in the Goth, sunus, 
Lith. sitnus, Anc. Slav, synu, with almost identical form, 
has its exact counterpart in the Polynes. Haw. hunona, 
child-in-law ; Tah., hunoa; N. Zeal., hunaonga; Rarot, 
wnonga, id. Y\]\.,vungona, son or daughter in law, or father 
or mother in law ; N. Zeal., Marqu., hungoni, a parent-in- 
law. 

Greek, va, to wet, to water, to rain ; wm?, rain; wo?, a 
son ; vap-a, rain ; v&repa, womb ; vSvyv, watery, moist, 
nourishing. Benfey refers vo> to Sanskrit m, but Liddell 
and Scott refer it to ISmp, while they admit that Curtius 
will not connect vSap with vto. At the same time they 
refer vies to Sanskrit su, gcnerare. The primary sense of 
" to rise, swell up, to bear or bring forth," had evidently 
become obsolete in Greek when vu> was reduced to writing, 
though indications of such a form remained in vios, son, 
us or avs, swine, probably in iXij, a wood, forest, vayi), a 
shrub. 

Lat. ( humor, moisture, liquid ; h-umidus, Ji wmectus, sums 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 127 

juice ; sugo, to suck ; sumen, sugmen, udder, teat ; /undo, 
fudi, pour out, shed, spread, bring forth, produce ; fuse, 
copiously. 

Goth., giutan, to pour out; Guth, God; according to 
Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., ij. 660), lie to whom libations are 
poured out = "Ved. huta. 

Zend, zn, to sacrifice. 

Afghan, sui, son. 

Irish, soth, progenitor. 

Alban., sua, race, family. 

Pictet (loc. cit., i. 194) inclines to refer the Greek v\t) 
and the Latin sylva to Sanskrit sdla, tree, through some 
obsolete or hypothetical form, sdlava; but the Sanskrit 
sdla or cdla is fully and correctly represented in the 
Polynesian hala, fala, the Pandanus odorif., and ii\ij and 
t-o-yij doubtless connect themselves with vm in some of its 
primary but forgotten meanings, as much as vuk and u?. 

I have purposely not referred to the Greek yym, x ewo * 
%ew, to pour out, scatter, &c, and its numerous derivatives. 
Beufey and Pictet refer it to Sanskrit hu, but Liddell and 
Scott to em, liffit. The connection of the Polynesian hu 
with the other Aryan branches is sufficiently established 
without it. 

Hu 2 , s. Tong., a royal appellation. 

Welsh, Hu, name of a solar deity, also called Huon and 
Huan. 

Zend, Hu, the sun. 

Sanskr., suvana, s4,ta, sunu, sun, from root su, to beget, 
bring forth — vid. supra. 

Greek, wj«, uei/5, title of Bacchus, as the god of ferti- 
lising moisture — vid. u&>, Liddell and Scoft. 

Goth., sunno and mnna, sun. 

Huali, adj. Haw., bright, clean, pure, white, glittering, 
shining. A synonym of this word, but of the same forma- 
tion, is the Hawaiian huaka, clear, as pure water, bright, 
white, shining. Huali is composed of Aw or hua, froth, 
foam, bubble (obsolete as liquids), and ali or aliali, white, 
as snow, or paper, or salt; Tah., ari-ari, transparent. 



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i 2 8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Muaka, is composed of hu. and oka, to be light, as u 

or morning ; akaka, clear, transparent, as glass or a liquid. 

Greek, v«\os or ueXos, any clear, transparent stone ; in 
later times glass, said by Jablonski to be an Egyptian word, 
but by others to be derived from vw (vid, Liddell and 
Seott,s.».),vaKH'0os, a precious stone, perhaps the amethyst, 
also a flower of that name. The Hawaiian correlatives 
will afford a satisfactory analysis of both £aXo? and 
voKivBiK, without going to Egypt. Another kindred word, 
the Latin vaccinium, a kind of plant, the whortleberry, 
confirms the Aryan home-growth of this branch of deriva- 
tives. The Latin sv.cclnv.rii or siwlnwm, ambeT, and the 
Greek aov-^ov, id., like ■var.cinrtcm, LaXoi, and vaKivStn, pro- 
bably also go back to the same formation as the Polynesian 
hit-all, hu-alca. 

Hui 1 , v. Haw., to unite together, to mix, to add one 
to another, to assemble, meet; e. cluster, collection of 
thiugs ; huihui, a bunch, cluster ; huiuna (for huiana), a 
seam in a garment ; la-hui, collection of people, a nation. 
Sam., sui, to dilute, to add ingredients to a thing ; mi, to 
sew, to thread beads ; sustii, to mend, repair ; susvAa, to 
fasten the ridge-pole of a house. Tong., hui, mingle, mix, 
join; fufui, a flock of birds. N. Zeal., hui, hukui, to 
gather, mix, unite; ra-kui, a company; ha-hui, a herd, a 
flock. Tah., hui, a collection of persons, a company; 
htiihui-manu, flock of birds; hui-tara-wa, Orion's belt. 
Marqu., huhui, a bundle of taro. 

Sanskr., yu, to bind, join, mix ; yuj, to join ; yuga, a 
yoke, a pair, a couple ; yuti, mixing ; yutha, flock of birds 
or beasts. 

Greek, gevyvvpi, to join, put to, yoke up, bind, fasten ; 
tjevym, a yoke of beasts, pair, couple; £vyov t the yoke; 
fwKjj, belt, girdle. 

Lat., jugum, a yoke ; jugo, bind up, tie together ; jungo, 
bind, join, unite. 

Gotb.,/wA, a yoke. A.-Sax., geok, id. Seand., ok, id. 

Armen., zugel, attach together, yoke up ; zoygkh, a couple, 
a pair. Fers., y&gh, a yoke. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 129 

Irish, ughaim, harness. Welsh, jow, yoke. 

Lett., j&gs, yoke. Anc. Slav., jgo, yoke. Bohem., gho, 
id. Lith., jungas, id. 

A singular coincidence of application, if it has no nearer 
connection, by the Polynesian and the Latin of this word 
to similar purposes, occurs in the huhui and hui-tarawa of 
the former and jugulw of the latter. In Hawaiian huhui 
designates a constellation generally, but especially that of 
the Pleiades ; in Tahitian hui-tarawa, lit. the transverse 
or horizontal cluster, designates the stars generally called 
Orion's belt, and in Latin jugulw represents the very same 
stars in the constellation Orion. 

Hui 2 , v. Haw., to ache, be in pain ; s. bodily pain ; 
niho-hui, the toothache ; hui, huihui, cold, chilly, as 
morning air or cold water; hukeki. Imkiki, cold, shivering 
on account of wet. N. ZeaL, huka, cold. Tah., hui, hui- 
hui, to throb as an artery, twitchings in the flesh. 

Sauskr., each 1 , to be afflicted, grieve ; ouch 2 , to be wet, 
fetid ; cuch, s. sorrow, grief; qusere sueima, cold ? To this 
Sanksr. each Benfey refers the Goth, hiufau, to mourn, 
lament, and the O. H. Germ, huvo, an owl, 

Huka, s. Haw., a term used in calling hogs. 

I am not aware that this word ia used for that purpose 
in any of the other Polynesian groups, nor that any of those 
groups have a name for hogs or swine that will ally itself 
to this Hawaiian huka, unless we find it in the Fijian 
vonga, a sow, which has the appearance of a foreign word 
in Fijian speech, and as a remnant from the time when 
the Polynesians sojourned in Fiji. But this Hawaiian 
huka has doubtless a lingual affinity to the following 
Indo-European terms used in calling hogs : — 

Lett., chuka, a hog ; chuck-chuck, a term for calling 
hogs. 

Euss., chushka, pig ; chu-chu, a call to hogs. 

Sax., chuck, a term used in calling hogs, probably in 
more ancient times a name for swine, as we find it still 
retained in the word "wood-chuck." The Welsh hwch, a 
pig, from which we have the English hog, according- to 

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i 3 o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Pictet, makes the relation still plainer, whether chuck, 
hwch, or huka refer themselves to the Sanskrit sw or 
Polynesian hu, or, as Pictet prefers, ate onomatopoetic. 

Huli, v. Haw., to turn generally in any way, to turn 
over, roll over, search, change. Sum., fuli, turn over, roll 
along. Tah., hurt, turn over, roll as a cask ; huri-ea, to 
deliberate, turn a subject over in one's mind. N. Zeal., 
huri, turn. Related to this is the Haw. hula, the Tah. 
hura, to bend over, fall over, move from place to place, 
shake, tremble, dance, dancing, dancing and singing, a 
Polynesian chorus, an expression of joy. Fiji., voli, to go 
round about Sunda, buled, to be round. Malg., mi-holak, 
to turn round ; hv.lik, holak, a turn ; tola, hola, buri, round. 
Malay., gvling, to roll, turn. 

Sanskr., ghiXrn, to reel, move to and fro, roll, as the 
eye; ghlirna, vacillating, shaking, staggering; ghurq., to 
whirl ; guda, gola, a ball ; gulpha, the ankle. 

Pers., guli, g6li, a pill ; garuhah, a ball. 

Greek, yvpos, round, crooked, a ring, a circle ; yvpo<t>, to 
round, to bend. No etymon s, v. by Liddell and Scott. 
Xopoi, the movement of dancers in a ring, a dance, dancing 
with singing ; yoptmos, a crown. 

Lat., curvus, crooked, bent. 

Hum, s. Haw., feathers of birds, hair of other animals. 
Tah., hum-hum, hair, wool, feathers. Tong., Sam., fulu, 
hair, feathers. Marqu., huu, id. In all other Polynesian 
groups, fulu, hum, uru, hair, fur, feathers. Fiji., vulua, 
hair about the privates, a tabu word; vulu-vulu-ka-ni- 
mata, eyelashes. Mai., lulu, feather ; bulu-kambing, wool ; 
burong, a bird. Malg., vulu, hair. Amboyna, huru, feather. 
Buru, fulun, folun, feather; folo, hair. Ceram. (Tobo), 
ulon, hair ; fulin, feather. Amblaw, ol-nati, hair ; boloi, 
feathers. 

The West Aryan connections of this word, as designating 
hair, feathers, . are not many nor very apparent. The 
application to express a quantity, at first indefinite and 
conventionally adopted as ten, within the Polynesian area, 
might lead us to refer it to the Sanskrit (Ved.) ptiru — 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 131 

which Benfey derives from pri — " much, many, exceeding." 
But its limited use as a quantitative expression alongside 
of its synonyms, as well as the total absence of the 
application of this word to other matters conveying a 
sense of quantity, leads me to infer that the quantitative 
sense oifulu, as used singly or in compounds to express 
the numeral ten, is secondary and derivative of the 
original sense of hair, feathers, and has no connection with 
the Sanskrit punt or pri, unless it can be shown that these 
latter are themselves derivative, in sense at least, if not 
in form, from some older word with a primary meaning of 
hair or feathers. I find, however, I think, a relative of 
hulu,fulu, &c in the 

Greek touXos, down, the first growth of beard, the 
down on some plants. Liddell and Scott refer iov\o? to 
oi>\os, iv. (vid. Greek- Engl. Diet., s. v.) It may be so ; 
both words occur in Homer. But I notice that Homer 
always uses ov\os as an adjective, an attribute of 8pt£, 
ko/j,tj, icapnvov, &c, whereas he uses tovKos as a substantive 
having its own well-defined meaning. OuXos, conveying 
the sense of " stout, thick, strong, crisp," may appropri- 
ately apply to hair, beard, wool, and the like, but its 
application to lovXo'; would be destructive of the sense, 
and I therefore consider that there is no connection in 
root or derivation between them. 

Huna, v. Haw., to hide, conceal, protect, defend. N. 
Zeal., Tah.,kuna, id. Rarot., Mang., una, id. Sam.,/w.?ia, 
conceal; funai, id. Fiji., vuni, hid, concealed. Derivs. 
Haw., huna, s. the private parts, pudenda; huna-huna l 
caves in mountains or underground where people took 
refuge in time of war. Fiji., vuni-langi, the horizon. 
Malg., a-vuni, to conceal, secrete. The root of this word is 
doubtless found in the Tong. fu-fu, with same meaning, 
"to conceal," and in the Sam. fu, with a derivative 
meaning, "vagina, pudendum;" perhaps also in the Tab. 
huku, to close the mouth of a bag, to brail up a sail. 

Sanskr., guh, to conceal, bide ; guhya, hidden, a secret, 
pudendum; giiM, a cave, the heart; gudh, to cover, 



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i 3 2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

referred by Benfey to huh, surprise, deceive ; kuh-ala, a 
juggler; kuh-ara, a cavern, cave. 
Greek, icevSto, cover up, hide. 

Sax., hydan, to hide. 0. H. Germ., hulta, a hut; vid. 
Liddell and Scott, s. v. xevdm. Quser. Swed. gynna, to 
favour, befriend, protect ; gunst, favour ? 

Hune, adj. Haw., anciently it signified a collection of 
people, aclass, tribe, or nation, as shown from the compound 
Mene-hune, the people of Mene. When that signification 
became obsolete, its meaning became equivalent to "a 
poor man, destitute, poor," with two derivatives, ma-hune, 
ili-hune, both meaning poor, destitute. Sam., songa, a 
chief's upper servant, exempt from the precautions of the 
tapu. N. Zeal., hunga, the common people, those who 
were not " Ariki " or " Eangatira." Earot., unga, the 
tenants of the chiefs, labourers. Tah., mana-hune, the 
common people. In Haw. occurs also the simple form 
hit, designating a class of the common people, nearly 
synonymous with "Makaainana," the farmers. 

The probable primary meaning of the Haw., Tah., hune 
and Aw, H". Zeal., hunga, as a collection of men, a people 
or class of people, connects this word with the Pulynes. 
hui in its etymon, q. v. p. 128. 

Hupe. s. Haw., mucus from the nose, snot, slime. 
Tah., hupe, mucus, night-dew; hupe-hupe, dirty, despi- 
cable, mean. Sam., sofe-so/e, native dish of yam cooked in 
juice of cocoa-nut. Fiji., sove, ka-sove, soft,muddy, of earth. 
Akin to 

Sanskr., silpa, broth, soup, sauce. 

Goth., supon, suhwon, to season, as with salt. Sax. 
sipan, supan ; O.H. Germ., supan, saufjan, to sup up, drink 
greedily, as beasts. All referable to the Sanskr.-Polynes. 
m, Aw, and its family of derivatives. 
Greek, otto?, juice, vegetable juice. 
Possibly Lat. sapa, thickened must, new wine boiled 
down, connects itself with the foregoing. 

HuPO, adj. Haw., savage, ignorant, barbarous. 
Sanskr., yup. to cenfuse, to trouble. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. r 33 

Ka, v. Haw., to strike, dash, radiate, overthrow, finish, 
to curse, he angry, to doom. Tali., ta, to strike, to tattoo, 
repeat, relate. Sam., Marqu., ta, id., to reprove. Fiji, ta, 
to chop, cut lightly ; ca, evil, had, destroyed, spoiled. This 
word is the root of numerous derivatives, which will be 
referred to as they occur. I am not aware that this root 
has been preserved in any of the West Aryan tongues, 
though its duplicated aud derivative forms are abundant. 

In Hawaiian ka is also an interjection of surprise and 
strong disapprobation. The Fijian caca, plural form of ta, 
is probably the nearest Polynesian correlative of 

Greek, Kaicov, bad, evil. No etymon assigned by Liddell 
and Scott. In "Or. Ind.-Eur.," ii. no, A. Pictet suggests 
that tca/co? is derived from Sanskrit kak, be unstable, vacil- 
late, and that its primary meaning was " lache, tremblant." 
But Sanskrit kak is probably itself a derivative or dupli- 
cated form of the original, and in the Polynesian preserved 
ka, in the sense of radiating, striking; whereas the Hawaiian 
ka, in the sense of to curse, be angry, and the Fijian ca,, caca, 
bad ; ca-ta, to hate, intr. caca, id., certainly correspond 
better with the Greek tca/coi. 

Ka'a, 1 v. Haw., to radiate, as rays of light from the 
sun, as cinders from a red-hot iron, to turn round, roll 
over, as a wheel, to pass off, away, from, to remove. Tong., 
taka, to go round, turn, roll. Sam., ta'a, to go at large, as 
animals and fish. Tah., ta'a, to fall, to remove ; tata, to 
strike, to beat Marqu., tata, to grind, triturate. Mang., 
po-taka, go round and round. Tong., Fak., ST. Zeah, Tah,, 
takai, ta'a/t,, to bind round, to tie up; s. a ball. Sam., 
ta'ai, to wind round, to circle round, as smoke. Haw., 
ka'ai, to bind round, to girdle. In Tah., ta'a is also the 
chin of the face, a circular piece of wood under the rafters 
of a native house, separated, i.e., struck off, cut off. In 
Haw., Ma is a brancli of a vine, a strand of a cord. Fiji., 
qata, surround, enclose. 

Sanskr., kak, be unsteady; kaksha, a spreading creeper, 
the side or flank ; kakshd, armpit, end of the lower garment 
tucked into the waistband, a girdle, enclosure ; kakshya, a 



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134 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

girdle, an enclosed court, the cup of a balauce ; chakra, a 
wheel, a circle, a discus. 

Pers., ckak, a cart. 

Greek, icvickos, a ring, circle, wheel, a circular motion, a 
sphere, globe ; Kip/cos, a falcon or hawk that flies in circles 
or wheels, a circle ; zap/cow, to hoop round, secure with 
rings. Vid. Liddell and Scott, s. v. 

Lat., circus, circle; cirdno, to round. 

Ka'a. 2 , s. Haw., also ka'ao, a tradition, a legend. Tail., 
to, to repeat, relate; ta'a-raa, explication, separation ; ta'o, 
$. a word, speech; v. to speak, address, bid, command. 
Tong., ta'anga, song, poetry. Sam., ta, to strike with a 
stick, beat as a drum, play on an instrument with the 
hands, to reprove, to tattoo ; ta'a-nio, a roundabout way of 
speaking. Marqu., Mang., taJcao, to speak, tell, a word, 
information. Fiji., tata, speak indistinctly; s. an order, 
command. Malg., tata, acknowledgment, profession ; 
takho, echo ; takon, secret, mystery. 

Sanskr., kath, to tell, announce, declare, converse, com- 
mand; kuthd, a tale, a speech, discourse; katth, to boasr,, 
praise, blame. 

Ka'i 1 , v. Haw., to lift up the hand and carry, to lift up 
the foot and walk t to lead, guide, direct, bring, take in 
hand ; ka'i-ka'i, to lift up, as the hands or the eyes, to take 
up, carry off, carry tenderly, as a child ; kaka'i, to go in 
company, travel together, follow; s. a family, including 
servants, dependants, &c. Marqu., taki, to take, seize, re- 
move. Fak., Tong., Mang., taki, to convey, bring along, 
lead, direct. Sam., ta'i, ta'i-lai; Tab., ta'ita'i, id. Earot,, 
ta'i-ta'i, a leader, conductor. Malg., tak, a gift, portion 
settlement ; taten, to bring along, apporter. Fiji., taki-va, 
carry water or food on a tray. 

Sanskr., tak, to start (Ved.) ; taksh, to slice off, cut off, 
prepare, form (Ved.); takshan, a carpenter ; dagh, to attain 
(Ved.) 

Greek, taaam, to airange, put in order, to form ; ra^f? 
comp. Baa-awv, sup. to^io-tos, quick, swift, fleet; tikto>, 
to bring into the world, to beget ; re^cij, art, skill, crafc ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 135 

Toaaaii, Dor. aor. part, of an unknown pres., to happen, 
to be ; re/crcov, a carpenter, craftsman ; Be^o/iai, to take, 
accept, receive. 

Lat., tango, tactum, to touch, take, reach, arrive at; 
lignum, building materials; texo, to put together, make, 
frame, weave. 

Goth., tecan, pt. t. taitok, to touch. Sax., tmcan, to 
take. Swed., taga, id. O. Norse, tegia, touch lightly, to 
tap. Sax. teogan, to pull, draw. Goth., tiuhan, pt. t. 
tauh, to tow, pull, draw, henee to lead, to guide ; mith-ga- 
tiuhan, carry away; bi-tiuhan, to lead about. Swed., lag; 
Germ., %ug, expedition, procession, march, passage. 

For other relatives vid. s. v. Kaha. 

Kai 2 , s. Haw., sea, salt water, brine, pickle, in opp. 
to wai, or fresh water. Tah., ta'i, id. Sam., tai, the sea, 
the tide. Tong., tahi, the sea, sea-water. Marqu., tai, id. 
Fiji., tad, the sea. Malg., taikh, the sea. In the pre- 
Malay dialects of the Indian Archipelago this word is 
applied to both sea and salt, as in Ceram. (Ahtiago), 
tasi, the sea; tai-sin, id. ; U him, salt. Matabello, tahi, the 
sea. Amboyna, tasi, salt. Saparua, tasi, id. Sunda, tjai, 
tjahi, water. 

Sanskr., kde, he visible, to shine; kdr.ita, resplendent; 
kddn, shining ; Msdra, a pond. 

The formation of a word to express sea and salt from a 
root conveying the sense of " shining, resplendent," has 
strong analogies throughout the Aryan family, and is as 
legitimate a process, and perhaps older in conception, as 
the Sanskr. mira, Lat. mare, from mri, to die ; as the 
Lat. vastum, desert ; Sanskr., vasra, death ; vasu, dry, 
sterile ; vasuku and mcira, sea-salt, from Sanskr. vas or 
vast, interficere, occidere, according to Pictet (loc. cit., i. § 
16). The sense of " shining, brightness," as applied to the 
Polynesian tad, tahi, or ta'i, is nearly obsolete, but lingers 
still in some of the composites, as in the Tah. tai-ao, 
dawn (brightness of the day or sky) ; as in the Marqu. 
tai-tai, proper, neat, bright; perhaps also iu^the Haw. 
ai-ai, bright, as moonlight, fair, white. The Sanskr. 



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136 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Icdsdra, pond, from kac, to shine, is doubtless due to a 
similar conception, and confirms the Polynesian relation of 
tai or kai. In the Suuda dialect, alongside of tjahi, water, 
occurs tjahaya, to shine, to blink : there also the Sanskrit 
form and analogy of application are manifest. 

Kao-kao, v. Haw., be red. Koot and primary meaning 
obsolete in Haw. Sam., tao, to bake. Marqu., too, bake, 
roast, sacrifice. Tab., tao, baked, boiled, cooked. 

Greek, tcaita, Old Att. Kaa>, to light, kindle, burn, scorch. 
According to Liddell and Scott, Pott refers tcaim to 
.Sanskrit eush, be dry, but Curtlus rejects this. 

In Dravid. (Tamil), kay, to be hot, burn. 

Kau, i?. Haw., to hang up, suspend, to tie or gird on, 
to put or place a thing, to fall upon, to put on, as a 
burden, to set or fix, as boundaries of a land, or a decree, 
to promulgate, as a law ; in a neuter sense, to light down, 
as a bird, as a spiritual influence ; adj. a setting of the 
sun, a resting, a roost for fowls ; kau-a, to hesitate, be in 
doubt, suspense, to beg off; kau-o, to draw, as a load; 
morally, to endure, to incline to, to pray for some special 
blessing; kau-oha, a dying charge, bequest, covenant, 
commission, command ; kau-kai, to wait for an event, to 
expect; kau-kau, to take counsel, to resolve, to chide, to 
reprove, to explain, make clear ; kau-la, a rope, cord, 
tendon, a prophet, a seer ; kau-la-i, to hang up, put up in 
the sun; kau-lana, fame, report, renown; ma-kau, be 
ready, prepared; akau, the right hand (dexter), to the 
right, to the north, north. In the Southern dialects we 
find ; Tong., tan, to hang, overhang, impend, extend to, fit, 
be suitable; ma-tow, the right hand; ta-tau, equal, like 
(balauced) ; tan-la, a cable ; tau-ranga, an anchoring 
place. Sam., tow, to rest on, light on, fall on ; faa-ta-tau, 
to compare ; taw, what is proper and right ; tau-au, to 
tend towards, either decline or increase ; tau-me, stretch 
up the hand and not reach, to desire and not obtain ; 
tau-i, reward, payment, revenge ; tow-to, an anchor, to 
anchor, the priest of a god ; tau-la-i, to hang up to ; tow- 
langa, a sacred offering, an anchorage ; tau-lalo, let the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 137 

hands drop in fighting, be conquered; tau-tau, to hang, 
hang up; ma-tau, right-hatid side, an axe; faa~tau, 
equally, alike ; v. to buy, barter, sell ; faa-tau-oa, a mer- 
chant. Marqu., tau, to carry on the back; tau-tau, 
suspended, hung up ; ta-tau, to count, reckon ; tau-a, a 
rope, a priest; a-tau, ka-iau, an anchor. N. Zeal., tan, 
besides previous meanings, to meet ; ma-tau, expert, 
dexterous, shrewd, Tah., tau, to hang upon, an anchor; 
tau-ai, to hang up, spread out, as clothes to dry; tau-i, 
price, cost, to exchange, buy; tau-ra, cord, a troop, crowd, 
be inspired, a prophet; tau-e, a swing, see-saw; tau-piri, 
tail for a kite ; lau-mata, a visor, a mask ; tau-mi, a 
breastplate, plastron ; a-tau, right hand, to the right, 
Fiji., tau, to fall, as of rain, to fall upon ; tau-ca, to place 
or put down a thing; tau-nga, a swinging shelf. Malg., 
mang-halau, mana-iao, to place, put. 

Sanskr., kavi, a wise man, a poet ; kdv-ya, coming from 
old sages, a bard, a poem ; kavi-td, poetry, wisdom. Ben- 
fey refers this word to M, to cry, sound. Pictet, on the 
other hand (loc. cit., ii. 480) remarks ; " D'aprc3 le Diet, 
de Pe"tersbourg, l'origine de kavi est probablement la 
meine que celle de aktila ou dktlti, intention, motif, ce 
qui conduirait a une racine kit ou fcu, perdue en Sanskrit, 
mais conserves dans plusieurs langues europ^ennes avec 
le sens de voir, preVoir, eonnaitre, &c. Ici, sans doute, le 
grec Koem, Koam, pour xoFeco, eonnaitre, ainsi que aieovto, 
entendre — ukotj, audition, &c. Ensuifce de latin caveo, 
prendre garde, 6tre prudent, d'ou cautus, cautio, &c ; l'anc. 
slave cute, cognoseere, cutue, cognitio, po-cuvati, custodire, 
&c; et, enfin, avec s prosth^tique, l'ang.-sax. scawian ; 
anc. all. scawdn, mod. schauen, conspicere, considerare, 
intueri, speculari, &c. La vraie signification de kavi, sage, 
prudent, et proprement voyant, explique comment ce nom, 
ainsi que kavd, est devenu en zend celui du roi, dont l'office 
est de prevoir, de surveiller, de diriger avec sagesse et pru- 
dence. De la kdvya, royal, et le persan kay, grand roi, 
hgros, et noble, &c. C'est ce qui empgche de rattacher, 
avec Benfey (Samav. Gl.), kavi a la rac km-, sonare 



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138 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

eanere, qui expliquerait bien le sens de poe"te, mais non 
paa celui de sage et de roi." 

May not that lev, or M, " perdue en sauskrit," be only a 
contracted and dialectical fonn of the still living Poly- 
nesian hau, tau, in its moral and secondary sense, " to be 
in doubt, to deliberate, to endure, to wait, take counsel, 
explain, a prophet, a seer, a priest ? " 

While thus the root, as well as the derivatives of this 
word, in its moral sense, have been retained and diffused 
throughout the Aryan family east and west, the analogies 
to the material and primary sense, so widely adopted in 
the Polynesian branch, seem to be totally wanting, or at 
least very deficient, in the West Aryan branches. I find, 
however, the following words, which may perhaps he 
classed in that category, and whose etymons are as yet 
doubtful or unsatisfactory : — 

Sanskr., kavaka, a mushroom ; kavacha, mail-armour ; 
kavara, a braid of hair; hwem-dha, kaban-dha, a cloud, 
vapour ; kaulika, a weaver. Of the last Benfey says, " i.e., 
probably kula-ilca ; " but hula, a herd, flock, multitude, 
family, conveys no idea from which the name or occupa- 
tion of a weaver can be derived. The other words 
stand in Benfey's Dictionary without any reference what- 

Lat., cautes, a crag, peaked rock, as overhanging ? 

Greek, KavKaXts, an umbelliferous herb ; /cava!;, i&jvtj, a 
gull, a seamew ; KavKaXias, a kind of bird — probably 
both so called from the floating, suspended character of 
their flight. 

Kaha 1 , v. Haw., to cut, hew, as timber, cut open ; 
kahe, cut longitudinally, to slit; kahi, to cut, shave, slit, 
comb, rub gently. These three forms doubtless proeeed 
from the same root. Sam., tafa, to cut, gash, scarify; tafi, 
to brush, sweep, shave. Tan., taha, a side; taha-hu, to 
skim, bale, ladle ; taha-taha, declining, as the sun, wander- 
ing, as the eye ; tahi-tahi, to brush with the hand, weed, 
wipe off, separate. Marqu., kahi-kahi, thin, slender, mince. 
Fiji., tad, a razor; tasi-a, to shave; tava, to cut generally; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 139 

tavi-a, to brush the head with the hand, to slap a thing. 
Malg., katsa, incisions ; /Match, scarification. Timor, taha, 
a cleaver. Ceram. (Ahtiago), tafim, a chopper. 

Sanskr., taksk, to slice wood, cut to pieces, to wound, to 
prepare, form; takshan, a carpenter; tvaksh, to produce, to 
work, to pare. 

Zend, lash, to cut, fashion, to make, smoothe. 

For other relatives sees. v. Ka'i, Taki, p. 135. I there- 
fore only refer to — 

Greek, tv/cos, a hammer or pick ; rv/eam), instrument for 
thrashing. 

A.-Sax., thixl, thisl ; 0. H. Germ., dishila, desha, axe, 
adze. 

Lith., taszyti, to cut with an nxe ; taisyti, arrange, pre- 
pare. Anc. Slav., tesati, to cut. Pol., tasak, cutlass. 

It is very probable that the Polynesian N. Zeal, toki 
toi, koi (Sam. and Haw.), adze, hatchet, refers itself to 
this same family and its kindred forms expressive of the 
instrument of cutting. 

It may be interesting to note in the development of 
language that the original root of this was probably sub- 
ject to a twofold pronunciation, a guttural and a sibilant, 
of which some dialects have retained one, others the other, 
and some both. For instance: — Ved., talc; Zend, tash; 
Sanskr., taksh; Greek, tckto-q), reTay^a; Lat., tago, tec- 
tum; Slav., tesati; Goth., tekan; Polynes., taki, toki, 
/('«', with sub-iii;iltci.s kifi, taki. 

Kaha 2 , s. Haw., the crack, as of a whip ; the report, 
as of a pistol. Tah., tafa, sonorous, loud -sounding. 

Sanskr., kac., to sound ; kaca, kasha, a whip. 

Kahe, v. Haw., to run, as water, to flow, as a stream, 
to spill, pour out, drop, trickle. Sam., Ton g., tafe; Tah., 
take, id. Malg., tazun, run out, leak, flow. 

Sanskr., cac (cos), jump, to move irregularly by leaping. 

Irish, casaini, move about crookedly and rapidly ; caig, a 
stream ; cos, rapid, agile. 

Armor., kas, quickness, speed. 

To the Sanskrit cac, cos, or, as Pictet suggests, a still 



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i40 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

older has, refers the Sanskrit caca, a horse, a rabbit ; the 
0. H. Germ, haso, Mod. Germ. Tuise, Eng. hare, and Germ., 
Scand., Eng., hast, haste, hasten. 

Kahu, v. Haw., to kindle or make fire, to burn, as lime 
in a pit, to cook, bake. Tab., tahu, id., to conjure, act as 
a sorcerer. Marqu., tahu, light fire, to cook. Sam., Tong., 
ta/u, make up the fire ; tafu-la'i, a large fire ; tafu-tafu, an 
oven of lime. Karot., tau, make fire. N. Zeal., tahuna, 
id, Fiji., taou-na, to broil, roast, set on fire; taw,, s. 
charred sticks ; tavu-cawa, a steam-bath ; tavu-lavu, to 
burn down, to clear the ground for planting ; tavu-teke, 
a frying-pan. Perhaps the Midi;. Ise-mliil; smoke, vapour, 
incense, refers itself to this family. 

Sanskr., tap, to warm, to heat, to burn up, consume, 
mortify oneself; tapa, heat, hot season; tapas, fire, pen- 
ance, mortification ; tapana, warming, tormenting, the sun. 

Zend, tap, to become warm ; tafnu, burning. Pers., 
taftan, to burn. 

Greek, $airTa>, perform funeral rites. Those rites in 
early times were performed by burning the body and 
burying the ashes ; hence, doubtless, the original sense of 
the word was to burn. Ta<pos, funeral, place of burial; 
re<ppt], ashes. Liddell and Scott remark that Bama is 
a "strengthened form of a root, ra<j>, which appears in 
the fut. and aor. 2 pass., and in to^xks." They are pro- 
bably correct, and that brings the Greek more in accord 
with the Zend trafnu, the Polyues. tafu, and the A. -Sax. 
tkefian. 

Lat, tepeo, he warm ; tcpidus. 

A. Sax., thejian, testuare. 

Irish, teboih, heat. 

Anc. Slav., teplu, toply, warm. 

Scyth., Tahiti, the fire-goddess. Vid. Rawlinson's "Hero- 
dotus," iii. 160. 

To this Polynesian kaliu, tafu, refer themselves two 
words in a derivative sense, as a reminiscence of the times 
when the making and procuring fire was the greatest art 
discovered. One is Haw. kahu, s. an upper servant, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 141 

guardian, nurse, feeder, keeper. Marqu., tahu, a cook. 
K. Zeal., tahu, a husband. The other is Haw. kahuna, 
a general name of an artificer exercising some trade or 
profession, and in a special sense applied to the priest- 
hood, Tah., tahua, an artificer, a workman; takv.-ta.liu, a 
class of priests, a sorcerer. Sam., tufunga, a carpenter, a 
tattoo-marker. N. Zeal., tohunga, a workman, artificer. 
Marqn., tuhnlca, skilful, a priest. Probably also the Malg. 
rr w i.-l-tahe, a doctor, modicus. 

Kala 1 , v. Haw., only used in dupl. and comp. forms ; 
kalakala, rough, sharp, scraggy, knotty, harsh ; kakala, be 
rough, sharp ; s. the breaking of the surf, the point of 
a needle, the spur of a cock ; hookala, to sharpen, to whet ; 
rig. to sharpen the tongue, to speak injuriously of one. 
Tong., tola, thorn ; tala-tala, thorny, rough, prickly. N. 
Zeal., tara-tara, id.; tara, the upright poles in a fence. 
Tah., tara, thorn, sharp point, cock's spur; to-tara, the 
sea-urchin, echinus. Sam., tala, a thorn, the barb of a 
spear ; tala-tala. prickly, rough. In all the foregoing, tara, 
tala, and kala also mean the gable end of a house. Fiji., 
karo, prickly. Matabello and Teor, gala-gala, a spear. 
Biaju, ti-kala, a post. Malg., tolan, adze, angle, fish-bone, 
bone. 

Sanskr., kara, the tip of the hand or of a ray ; karkata, 
a crab; karkara, hard, firm, harsh, cruel; karj, to pain; 
kdrand, torture; hard, jail, prison; khara, solid, sharp, 
hoarse, s. an ass ; khurj, to creak ; charaka, prison. 
Pers., charas, prison, pain, torture. 
Greek, icapafios, a beetle ; icapKtvos, a crab, a pair of 
tongs ; KapKapov, prison ; KapBof, a thistle ; icapts, lobster ; 
xapxapo?, sharp-pointed, jagged; x a P a %> a pointed stake; 
icapyaptas, a shark ; %apaZpa, a mountain torrent. 

Lat., calx, heel; calcar, spur; career, prison; cancer, 
crab ; homo, stand on end, as hair, bristle, he rough, 
sli:vcr. 

A. -Sax., hearm, damage, injury; harrow, v. and s. 
Itallus, rock, stone. Goth., kara, care, anxiety. Swed., 
kclrf, rough, rude, harsh. 



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i 4 2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Anc Slav., karati, to quarrel. Russ., kara, punishment. 
Lith., kora, id. ; kaline, prison. 

Kala 2 , v. Haw., to loosen, untie, separate from, put 
off, absolve, spare ; kala-i, to hew, cut, pare, divide out, 
apportion. Sam., tola, to loosen, untie ; tatala, id., release 
from contract or obligation ; tala-to, to undo, to let go 
a thing; tala-i, to adze, chip off; tala-ia, be relieved, 
freed. N. Zeal., tara. Tah., tara, tatara, untie, set free ; 
tara-i, to chop or adze, as a piece of timber ; tara-e-tuira, 
expiation, forgiveness of sin. Marqu., taa-i, to cut off, 
chop, chip; taai-taai, to carve. Fiji., tala, to send off, a 
messenger ; tala-voka, a landslip. Sunda, tulun, to loosen, 
unbind. TagaL, tolon, to help. Malg., hala, take off, re- 
move from; mang-hala, to steal, pillage, divest; mang- 
hala-mifant, release from an oatli ( — Sam., tatala), 
mi-hf'b,, to leave, quit. 

Sanskr., kart, to loosen ; kurtrikd, a hunter's knife ; krit, 
to cut down, cut off, extract ; karhtari, scissors. 

Greek, j^nXae), to slack, loosen, rend, let go, be indulgent, 
to pardon ; ^aX-ei/ias, loose-robed, ungirt, of the Bacliantes ; 
Kkaa, break off, break in pieces ; arXao-i?, fracture. Per- 
haps icetpw, cut short, as hair, to shave, shear, cut or hew 
out, to ravage, pillage. This latter word Liddell and Scott 
refer to Sanskrit cri, to hurt, wouud, he broken, while 
they give no etymon for j(aXa(o, nor for K\.aa>. Benfey, 
however, refers k\oo> to cri. I think more probable that 
xXaco is but a contraction of yakace. To kart and krit 
Benfey refers the Lat. culler, Sanskr. karttrikd, but 
Liddell and Scott refer cutter to Sanskr. cri, Greek 
K€ipa>. The Polynesian offers an easier, and, I venture to 
say, an older etymon to all these varying forms, even to 
cri, if wanted. 

Lat., clades, breaking, breakage, damage, loss ; classis, a 
division, a elass ; talea, a cutting, branch, stake, any small 
piece cut off; colo, with perhaps a primary sense of "to 
break," to till, to cultivate ; cutter a ploughshare, a knife 
generally ; cortex, back, rind. 

Irish, tallan, cut off. Welsh, toli, separate. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 143 

Icel., taiga., hew, chip off, smoothe. Swed., ttilja, to cut, 
chip, carve. A.-Sax., scearan, to share, divide. In Norse 
and N. Engl, scar, a cut off, precipitous rock, retained in 
names of places, as " Scar-ho rough," &c. Swed., shir, 
broken, scattered rocks off a coast. 

To this Polynesian kola, tola, in the sense of separating, 
dividing, apportion, I think may justly be referred the 
Sanskrit kald, a small part, a portion, a division of time, 
as well as kdla, time period. Benfey refers kald to kri ; 
but the compounds nish-kala, undivided, and sa-kala, 
whole, as well as kald-pa (vb. 2. pd), a bundle, totality, 
imply a root indicating previous separation, division, &c„ 
rather than "making, doing, performing," the primary 
sense of kri. In the Polynesian (Haw.) kala is also ap- 
plied to time, but always accompanied with a negative, 
as "aole e kala," not lately, some time ago, long ago; and 
from its conventional use it is evident that time was not 
its primary sense, any more than it is of the Sanskrit kald 
or kdla. Probably in the same way that the English tale, 
tally, and score, derived from the same root, were applied 
to numbers, so kala was applied conventionally to time, 
and the Haw. " aole e kala," lit. " not to be scored," while 
preserving the primary sense, came to signify time past 
and long gone. Outside of the Polynesian and Sanskrit 
I am not aware that this word in its application to time 
has any analogues in the other Aryan branches, 

Another derivative, probably, is the Hawaiian kalana, 
to strain, filter, as through a cloth or the fibres of the 
cocoa-nut husk, to separate ; s. a strainer, filter. Its corre- 
lative, I think, is the Latin colum, a strainer, colo-are, to 
strain, purify. Pictet (Or. Ind.-Eur., ii. 286) refers colum 
to the Sanskrit chal, to move, tremble, shake, and chdlani, 
a sieve. Though the result may be the same, yet it seems 
to me that there is a great difference in the underlying 
sense of a " sieve," that must be shaken, and a " strainer " 
or " filter," that must be squeezed or perform their func- 
tion while at rest, in order to separate the good from the 
worthless. The Latins — so far as my reading goes — did 



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144 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



not use the words colum and cribrum. interchangeably. 
One represented one method of separation, the other 
another. I prefer, therefore, to ally the Latin colum to the 
Polynesian kala and kalana. 

Kala 3 , v. Haw., to proclaim, cry, publish, call out, 
invite, send for; ku-kala, id. ; s. a public crier. Tong., 
tola, to speak, tell, bid. Sam., tala, to tell, relate, a narra- 
tive, news ; tala-i, to proclaim ; tala-a-Ulo, to lie ; tala-u, 
to make a noise, as a number of people talking together ; 
tala-tala, converse, relate ; tala-tala-o, to cackle as a hen, 
to scold. Mang., ta?a-u, to call. N. Zeal., karanga, to 
call. Malg., talakh, talak, public, regard, evidence. 

Greek, icaKew, to call, invite, invoke, to name ; *\eo?, 
rumour, report, fame; xaXavSpa, a lark. 

Lat, calo, to call, call out, convoke ; calator, calender., 
clamo. 

I eel., tel, to call, to name. Scand., tala, to speak, say, 
telL Swed., kalla, to call, to name; tolka, to interpret, 
explain. 

Sanskr., lad, to sound, to count; kala-kala, confused 
noise; kala, dumb (Ved.), indistinct, confused, low-voiced; 
kalaha, a quarrel. 

Kali, v. Haw., to wait, to tarry, to stay, expect, hesi- 
tate; s. slowness, hesitancy of speech, the edge of a 
board, leaf, &c. ; kakali, to wait, be detained ; kali-kali, to 
fall behind, be not quite even with something else. Sam., 
tali, to wait for, to answer, to receive, adv. nearly ; iatali, 
to wait for. Tab., talari, to wait, expect, delay. N. Zeal., 
talari, id. 

Lat., tardus, slow, tardy. 

Germ., harren, to stay, wait for, delay, tarry. Swed., 
droja, stay, tarry, stop. 

I know not what Zend or Sanskrit word may be akin 
to Latin tardus, but, until a better one is found, I think 
myself justified in referring it to the Polynesian kali, tari. 
It may be noted that, according to Dr. Caldwell's Comp. 
Gram. Dravid. Lang., in the Tamil tari signifies " to 
remain." Have the Dravidians borrowed it from pre- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



145 



Vedic Aryans, or have the Polynesians borrowed from the 
Dravidians ? 

Kalo, s. Haw., one of the class of gods called " Akua 
iwho," the fixed or stable gods ; kalo-kalo, to pray to the 
gods. Tab.., taro-faro, id. Sam., talo-sanga, talo-talonga, 
a prayer, praying. Fiji., kalo-kalo, a star ; kalo-u, a god, 
also a falling star, which the natives take for a god. Malg., 
terak-afu, feux-follets, meteores ; terak-anru, dawn, day- 
break ; terak-hal, twilight. This word, with the meaning 
of " a staT," perhaps also of " sun," still survives in several 
of the pre-Malay dialects of Asonesia, S. Celebes (Bouton) j 
kati-popo, a star. Burn (Massaralty), tolo-ti, id. Ceram. 
(Tobo), tol, id. Gilolo (Gani), be-tol, id. Matabello, toiu, 
id. Biajau, kuli-ginta, id. Salibabo, alo, the sun. Celebes 
(Salayer), mata-alo, id. 

Sanskr., tdra, a star, the pupil of the eye ; tdrd, a meteor, 
a shooting star, the name of deities. 

Greek, reipea, the heavenly constellations, signs ; -report, 
a sign, wonder, omen, signs in the heaven, star, meteor. 

Benfey refers tdra, a star, to an " original st&ra, cf. 3 stri," 
and refers this 3 stri to "probably 2 as+tri," a shooter, 
from 2 as, to throw. Max Miiller and others refer tdra to 
original stdra, from 1 stri, to spread, expand, to strew. 
Liddell and Scott, after Curtius, refer Sanskr. staras, tdrd, 
Zend aetar, ctar, Greek retpos, Tepas, Lat. astrum, stella, 
&C to a root aarp ; but s. v. ret,poi they seem to doubt 
its connection with oarr/p, staras, tdrd. Without pre- 
suming to decide between such authorities, it seems to 
me that the existence of the cognate Polynesian terms in 
halo, kali, terak, tolo, kuli, as names for stars and meteors, 
would indicate an older and a common formation of tdrd, 
repa?, reipos, and the Polynesian terms from some root 
other than the comparatively later stri or a supposed com- 
pound like as + tri. Whether the Polynesian, Sanskrit, 
and Greek forms connect themselves in preference to 
Sanskrit tri (taritum, inf.), to pass over, to hasten, or to 
tur (Ved.), to hasten, or to tvar, make haste, be swift, I 
leave abler men to decide, though probably all go back to 
VOL. IIL K 



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146 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

some primary form from which they diverged with diffe- 
rent shades of meaning. The employment of the Sanskrit 
tdrd as " a name of deities," and of the compound Turd- 
sdh as a name or epithet of Indra and Vishnu, brings it 
en rapport with the Polynesian halo, kalo-u, a class of gods, 
a god. 

The Fijian, where so much Polynesian archaic lore was 
deposited, seems to be, in this ease, the connecting link 
between the Asonesian (pre-Malay) and Sanskrit primary 
conception of the word as a star, a meteor, now lost in 
Polynesia proper, and the secondary conception of it as a 
deity and a religious performance. 

Kama 1 , s. Haw., first husband of a wife ; kama-i, to 
play the whoremonger for hire; kama-kama, to practise 
prostitution ; hoo-kama-kama, s. a prostitute ; probably 
akin to Marqu., karni-kami, to desire ; Fiji., kami kami-ca, 
sweet, agreeable, pleasant. 

Sanskr., kam, to love, to desire; hlni-ya, agreeable; 
kdma, wish, desire, love, the god of love ; kdma-tva, love 
of pleasure; kdma-rasika, libidinous; kdmdtman, volup- 
tuous, sensual ; kdmin, desiring, having sexual intercourse, 
alover; kdnti — kam+ti, beauty. 

Lat, earns = kam-ra, beautiful, charming ; amo, to love ; 
amanus, agreeable (Benfey). 

Kama 2 , v. Haw., to bind, tie, make fast, tie up, as a 
bundle, to lead, direct ; kama-kama, to bind, tie on. With 
Caus. Aw-, to adopt as a child; " ktiki-hookama," an adopted 
child. Fiji., tama-ta, tame, domesticated. 

Connected with this probably primary sense of " to tie, 
fasten, connect, direct," is the Polynesian word kama, tama, 
as expressing a family relation, mostly that of children, 
sometimes of the father, as in the Sam. and Fiji, tama, and 
Tong. tamai; Malg., tamaha, tamed, a domestic; taman, 
habitude, custom, tamed, a heifer. 

Sanskr., dam, to tame ; dam-ana, subduing ; dam-pati, 
master of a house. Ved., dam, dama, house, dwelling. 
Zend, demdna, house. 

Greek, hapafo, Sapam, to tame, break in, bring under 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 147 

the yoke ; S/j.wi, a slave ; S/itjtij/j, a tamer ; SapaXrji, a 
subduer; Safiakti, a heifer, a girl; So/101, a house; So^ij, 
a building ; Se/iw, to build. 

Lat., domo, to tame, subdue ; domitus, dmainiis, domus. 
dumv.'Uiv /»; 

Irish, du'inh, daimh, house, family; damh, cattle ; domkan, 
a young bull. 

Pers., <fam, any tame beast. 

Armen., do/im, house, family. 

A.-Sax., tam, tame ; tamjan, to tame ; team, family, race. 
Goth., ga-tamjan, to tame ; ga-timan, to suit, agree with. 
0. H. Germ., zamon, to tame. Germ., zaum, bridle. Mod. 
Eng., team, two or more animals harnessed together. 
Swed., torn, reins to a bridle ; lam, tame ; tomt, a house, 
lot. 

I cannot better explain the relation of the words signi- 
fying "house, family," to those signifying "to tame, to 
subdue," than by quoting from A. Pictet (Orig. Ind-Eur., 
ii. 237) : — " La racine en Sanskrit est dam, domitum, mitem 
esse et domare, et le Diet, de P. voit dans dama, non pas 
la maison matenelle, mais le lieu on regne et domine le 
chef de la famille, ee qui result emit d'ailleur3 de l'emploi 
de ce mot dans les Vedas. II y est ajoute que, d'apres 
cela, il faudrait separer le grec So/ios de Se/iat, construire, 
ce qui semble cependant fort difficile. Le grec pourrait 
bien ici, comme le pense Lassen (Anthol. Sans. Gloss.), avoir 
conserve, mieux que le Sanskrit, le sens primitif de la 
racine dam, qui doit avoir et£ celui de lier. Cf. Sew, qui 
serait a hffia, comme le sans. d&, ligare, k dam, et comme 
gd, ire, a gam. On conceit, en effet, que, de la notion de 
Her, soient provenues seeondairement, d'une part celle de 
dompter, de m§me que l'alleinand bandigm, vient de band 
et de binden, et de l'autre celle de construire. La premiere 
est rested attached au Sanskrit dam, en accord avec plu- 
sieurs autres langues ariennes, grec 5a/iao> (auqnel on ne 
saurait rapporter &o/ioi), lat. domo, cymr. dofi, armor, donva, 
goth. tamjan, &c. ; la seconds ne s'est maintenue que dans 
le grec Se/AQ», car le goth. timrjan, asdificare, que Ton a 



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148 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

compare, eat probablenient tout different (Cf. I. i. p. 209). 
Si dama et So/ios d^rivent en realite de dam dans son 
acception la plus ancienne, ces 110ms auraient dtSsigne" la 
inaison en tant que construction dont les parties sont Hies 
entr'elles, ce qui peut s' entendre a la lettre du mode tout 
primitif de conatruire avee des bois et des branches 
eutrelacees. Bans l'etat de la question, une decision 
finale n'est guere possible." But the preservation of the 
primitive sense " to bind, tie on," in the Polynesian Jcama, 
tama, may greatly aid in arriving at that " decision ; " and 
the family relation expressed in the Polynesian kama, 
tama, child, children, lit. qui connexe sunt, as well as the 
Caus. hoo-kama, to adopt as a child, lit. to eause to be 
connected, scil. with another, clearly indicate a very 
ancient mode of transition of sense, which I think may 
be recognised also in the A.-Sax. team, family, progeny, a 
word springing, doubtless, directly from some ancient 
form in tam, with the same sense of binding, connecting, 
as the Polynesian kama, tama. 

Apropos of this A.-Sax. team, it is interesting to note 
how, in the evolution of language, words frequently, after 
centuries of service in secondary and derivative senses, 
return gradually and imperceptibly to the primitive sense, 
the root idea. The English team no longer signifies 
"family, progeny, race," but two or more animals har- 
nessed together, because of their being bound or fastened 
together ; and the Swed. lorn, tommar, the Germ, mum, 
reins, bridle, no longer represent their immediate ances- 
tors, the O. H. Germ, zdmon and the Goth, tamjan, to 
tame, subdue, but the far older and long-disused sense of 
to tie, to fasten, bind, connect. 

The Fijian tama-ta, tame, domesticated, is especially 
valuable as showing the transition from the primitive 
sense of " to tie, to bind," to the West Aryan sense of 
" taming, subduing," in Safiaco, tamjan, domo, &c, 

Kama. 3 , adj. Fiji., burnt, fired; kama-ca, to burn, set 
on fire. Tah., tama-u, tinder on which to catch sparks of 
fire ; tamau-o, keep burning, as a firebrand for the night. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 149 

8am., tamata, to burn dimly, as the fire of an oven. Pro- 
bably the Haw. amau, amaumau, fern, brake, used as 
tinder to catch the fire from the fire-sticks. 

Greek, m/woj, oven, furnace, kiln ; never an open fire. 

Sanskr., tdmra, r: op pen-red colour, copper; t&marasa, 
a lotus. 

Liddell and Scott suggest that tea/twos is derived "per- 
haps from Ktua, icaat" to light, to kindle, to burn, and 
indicate that itaua, icaa>, are altered forms of KaFW. Ben- 
fey refers tdmra to Sanskrit tarn, Ved. to choke, tamas, 
darkness, gloom, night, and gives no etymon to t&marasa. 
I think both those references are not well chosen. Lid- 
dell and Scott themselves seem to doubt the correctness 
of their reference. If icafta is an older form of meat, 
Kaa, would not that indicate a connection with raipos, 
Qairrm, Sanskr. tap, Zend tafnu, Polynes. tafn, kahu, 
q. v. 1 In regard to the reference of tdmra by Benfey 
from tarn and tamas, it is difficult to trace the connection 
and transition of sense from "to choke, to be dark, be 
night," to the "red colour of copper" and "the lotus." 
I hold, therefore, that there must have been, in more 
ancient times, a form in ham, or tarn corresponding in 
sense to the Polynesian " to burn " or " to be of a reddish 
colour," like fire, with which the Sanskrit tdmra and 
t&marasa are connected, lost in Sanskrit but preserved 
in Polynesian. 

Kamaa, *. Haw., shoes, sandals, any covering for the 
feet, made of kapa-cloth, rushes, or other materials, when 
travelling over scoria or other rough ground. Tah., tamaa, 
id. Earot., tamaka, id. 

Illyr., samaa, boots. According to Pictet (Joe, cit, ii. 
303), derived from the Persian sham, shamam, shamal, id. 
But what is the ancient form and the ancient meaning of 
the Persian ; and why should the Illyrians have borrowed 
from the Persians? May not the Siaposh kamis, cloth, 
stuff, Old Irish caimmse, covering, garment, Welsh camse, 
chemise, suggest an older form and an older sense, and 
thus lead back to the Polynesian hama, to tie up, bind on 



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150 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

(vide supra), in the same way that the Sanskrit tipt 
leads back to a similar meaning — "what is tied under," 
scil. the foot ? 

A. Pictet (loc, cit., p. 300), speaking of the Siaposh kamis, 
says : " Ce terme intcressant offre une preuve nouvelle de 
l'origine orientale de l'anc. irl. caimmse, vestis, cymr. 
camse, chemise, corn, kams, surplis, armor, /camps, aube, 
d'oii Zeuss fait provenir le bas-latin camisia, &c. (Gr. Celt. 
749). Of. ags. cemes, du celtiqne ou du latin, et, pour les 
langues neo-latines, Diez, Roman. Spr. V. cit. L'arabe 
gamic, vehement de dessous, qui n'a pas d'etymologie semi- 
tique, parait k Diez importe d'Europe, mais il ponrrait 
I'Stre de la perse, si le mot Siaposh venait a se retrouver 
dans les langues iraniennes. On a compart, non sans 
raison peut-etre, quant a la racine, le goth. hamdn, vetir, 
ags. hama, homa, peau, chemise, seand. hamr, hams, 
peau, anc. all. hemithe, haidd-i, chemise, &c, rnais les 
corr&atifs orientanx manquent jusqu'a present." The 
Polynesian offers those " correlatives." 

Kamala, s. Haw.,' a booth, temporary house or shed ; 
v. to thatch with uhi-leaves for a temporary house ; adj. 
temporary, as such thatching or covering. Perhaps Malg., 
tamanga, tomb. 

Sanskr., kmar, to be crooked. Perhaps also kaviatha, a 
tortoise, whose relation to kam (to love), under which it is 
placed in Benfey's Sansk.-Eng. Diet., is certainly not 
very apparent, but which might be related to kmar on 
account of its " crooked " and vaulted back. 

Zend, kamere, vault. Persian, kamar, id. Armen., 
gamar, id. 

Greek, xap,apa, anything with an arched cover, a 
vaulted chamber, a covered carriage or boat ; KaftapwaK, 
vaulting, arching over ; /caftapo? or Kap./j.apos, a kind of 
crab or lobster. 

Lat., camera, a vault, an arched roof or ceiling. 

Kana, s. Haw., only used in compounds. A prefix to 
numerals indicating a multiplier by ten, as kana-kolu, 
kana-ha, kana-lima, &c, ten tijnes 3, 4, 5, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 151 

&c Ita original meaning was doubtless equivalent to a 
score, a tally, a total, a given conventional amount. In 
view of the Fijian canga, a span, the stretch of the 
fingers, I have no doubt that it is but a dialectical varia- 
tion of kano, the bones of the fore-arm, a cubit measure, 
q. v. If so, a remarkable instance of early idiomatic 
affinity between the West Aryan and the Polynesian pre- 
sents itself in the Haw. kana-lua, doubt, uncertainty, 
hesitation, lit. " two measures, two scores, two hands ; " 
for the Lat. dvMus. dv.bito, the Sax. tweon, tweogan, 
Gotlu tweifls, the Germ, zwifdn, the fewed. Iwifia, bespeak 
the same origin in mode of thought and expression. 

Liddell and Scott, s. v. e/caTov, one hundred, "often 
loosely for very many/' refer it to Sanskrit catas, which 
they say "is a link between eicarov and centum." But 
cata, like daca, must originally have been but a conven- 
tional word to express a more or less definite number, 
having a previous meaning of its own, now perhaps lost, 
or at least doubtful. The presence of the n in the Latin 
centum and the Gothic hund are as likely to indicate the 
earlier form of this word as its absence in e/earov and cata. 
Granted that both are dialectical variants of an older form, 
are there any traces still to be found in the West Aryan 
branches that might lead us to the primary meaning of 
that older form before it settled down into the conven- 
tional signification of one hundred ? Such meaning 
almost certainly was connected with the conception of 
a "hand-full," "an arm-full," a "capacity to hold or 
contain a certain quantity," or with the conception of 
" plenty, abundance," suggested by some natural object. 
Let it be borne in mind that the Sanskrit does not always 
convey the oldest form of a given word. The other West 
Aryan branches contain more or less vocables of older 
date and form than their relatives met with in the 
Sanskrit. Hence it is often difficult to decide whether 
such or such a word has retained its original, or at least 
most ancient, form, or been strengthened by subsequent 
addition or weakened by elision; as in this word now 



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152 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

under consideration. Was n in centum a subsequent 
strengthening of an original or more ancient form, or was 
its absence in catau a weakening of the older form 1 In 
the Gothic and its congeners we find hund, hundred; 
hinthan, pft. hanth, pp. hunthans, to catch with the 
hand ; handus, the hand ; huntks, captivity ; hansa, a com- 
pany, a multitude, perhaps originally "a hand-full." Sax., 
hund, hundred ; hond, hand, hand ; hentan, to seize, take. 
Perhaps the German gam, entire, all, total, full; Welsh, 
cant, a hundred, a complete circle, a hoop, a wheel. In 
Greek, tcovra in TptoKov-ra, -reaoapatcovTa, thirty, forty, &c, 
seems to be a multiplier by ten like the Polynesian kana, 
and was doubtless as old as cata, centum, or hund. In 
"Orig. Ind.-Eur.," ii. 570, this subject is fairly treated, 
though I must differ from Mr, Pictet as to the derivation 
of the different forms — cat, can, /caro, kovto, cem, cent, &c 
— to which he refers. He traces them to Sanskrit "earn, 
de ham, d'oii derive un nom de la main cama, pour kama. 
Au transitif au causatif camay, cette racine signiiie sedare, 
quietare, et cama designe la main qui apaise en caressant. 
. . , Le sens primitif semble avoir 6t6 celui de passer 
doucement la main sur quelque chose." I do not think 
it correct to derive the name of the agent from the act, 
in every instance at least, and especially in this. The 
ancient Aryans undoubtedly had some primary word or 
words wherewith to designate hand, foot, &c, without 
reference to what particular and varying uses these earliest 
objects of man's knowledge and consciousness may be put 
I hold, therefore, that some primary word, common to the 
entire Aryan family in its earlier days, and with a general 
well-defined sense of " the hand," underlies the formation 
of such numerals as the Sanskr. da-can, the Goth, tai- 
hun, te-hund, ti-gus, ti-ouns, the Lat. -ginti, -ginta, in 
vi-ginti, tri-ginia, &c, the Greek -KOvra in Tpta-Kovra, &c, 
the Javan. (Basa Krimal gan-sal (5), the Sunda gan-ap 
(6), the Sulu Isl. gane (6), the Polynes. Haw. kana (10). 
That primary word with its primary sense nearly intact 
I find in the Malg. tang, tangh, hand, arm, claw, paw 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 153 

wing; Iawau. and Malay., tangan, hand; tangkap, to 
grasp, to catch with the hand; MysoL, kanin, hand; 
kanin-paj?, foot ; Fiji., canga, the stretch of the fingers, a 
span ; Sam., tenga, upper part of the arm, also the thigh ; 
tango, to touch, take hold, to feel ; Haw., kano, the two 
bones of the lower arm, a cubit in measure, the handle of 
an axe, shovel, &c ; Marqu., tano, to catch, grasp ; N. 
Zeal., tango, take in the hand; Timor Laut., taim-var, 
fore-arm ; Deriv. Greek, ^acSai-o), to take in, hold, con- 
tain ; Lat., hendo in pre-hendo, to catch, grasp. 

Kana 2 , s. Haw., the outside of the neek ; kani-ai, the 
throat, the windpipe, the Adam's apple. Sam., tanga'ai, 
the crop of a bird, the stomach. Fiji., tanga, a bag, 
pocket ; tanganga, the neck, the head of a mast. 

Sansbr., kdnana, the throat ; kandlmra, the neck. 

Kana s , v. Haw., to see, appear, get sight of. Sam., 
tanga'i, to look-out for; tanga-tangai, to look about, to 
look-out for. Probably related to this is the Polynesian 
Kane, Tane, the name of one of the oldest of their gods, the 
deus deorum, among those tribes who retained his worship. 
From numerous prayers, legends, chants, and astronomical 
applications of the name, it is evident that it primarily 
represented a lingering reminiscence of planet- worship, 
and was a synonym for sunlight, the opposite to darkness 
and its associate ideas. 

Sanskr., kan, to shine ; kanaka,, gold ; chand, to shine ; 
cliandana, sandalwood, saffron, the moon; chandra, the 
moon. 

Lat., canus, bright, clear, white, grey ; candeo, be shin- 
ing white ; caneo, be white or grey ; candela, a wax- 
taper, candle ; accendo, set on fire, light up ; scintilla, a 
spark. 

Greek, %avdo$, golden yellow, bright yellow. Liddell 
and Scott say it is akin to fouttos, tawny, yellowish, and 
derive this from %£<t>, fuw.to plane, smoothe, polish, scrape. 
Scraping, polishing, may produce a " shining " surface, but 
why that sheen should necessarily be of a yellow or golden 
colour, more than of green, blue, or black, I fad to see- 



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154 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Benfey refers both f auflos and fyvdas to ckand, to shine ; 
tnruiffijp, a spark. 

Welsh, can or cain, bright, fair, white. Irish, cann, full 
moon. 

To the same family of words and their etymon doubtless 
refer themselves the Greek Zav, the Latin Janus. Zap 
was the older, the Doric appellation of Zevs, and Italy 
koew no older god than Janus. On Cretan coins Zav was 
written Tap (Liddell and Seott, s. v.) 

Kanaka, s. Haw., man, human, mankind, a common 
man in distinction from chiefs. Sam., N. Zeal., Tong., 
tangata, id. Tali., taaia, id. Marqu., enata, enana, id. 
Malg., zanah, zanaka, children, offspring. Javan., Sunda, 
Malay., S. Celebes, Sanguir, anak, child. Matabello, enena, 
id. Sula Ish, ninana, id. Bonton (Celebes), oanana, id. 

Sanskr., janatd, mankind; janaka, a father, a producer; 
janana, id.; jana, creature, mankind collectively, and 
individually a person ; jantu, a creature, a man, from v. 
jan, to bring forth, produce, be born, to grow. 

Zend, zan, nasci, oriri ; zantu, a tribe. 

Lat., genus, gens, gigno r old form geno, &c. 

Greek, yevos, race, stock, family, offspring ; yvyvofiai, 
•yepeaK, yovv, &c. 

A.-Sax., cyn, race, stock. Goth., kuni, sex. Swert.,/.xm, 
id. 0. H. Germ, kind, child; kv.ning, king. 

To the Sanskrit ja.-nu.ka Benfey refers the Greek duaf, 
in Homer fawtf, lord, master. Liddell and Scott give no 
etymon to ava%. 

Kana-loa. Haw., one of the ancient gods from the 
time of chaos ; in most of the Southern Polynesian groups 
considered and worshipped as the creator of the world, 
and superior to other gods; in Hawaiian mythology 
sometimes, though rarely, considered the equal of Kane, Ku, 
and- Lono, but in the older legends referred to as god of 
the infernal regions, sometimes distinct from, sometimes 
the same as, Milu. Sam., N. Zeal., Tangaloa ; Tong. 
Tanaloa; Marqu., Tanaoa; Tali., Taaroa. It is a com- 
pouud word — Tana and loa, " the great, large Tana." In, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 155 

1 legend of the creation it is said that before 
light (Atm) and sound (Ono) were evolved or stepped forth 
from the primeval night, chaos (Po), Tanaoa, and Mutuhei 
— which are explained to mean " darkness " and " silence " 
— ruled supreme. So far as I know, hut one Polynesian 
word is now current signifying "darkness" or its cor- 
relatives, that may he considered akin to tana, and that 
is the Marquesan tano, tanzo, tako, " shade, shadowy, 
obscure." It was a tabu word, and, as such in many 
other instances, fell out of use and became obsolete for 
common uses in the vernacular. In the West Aryan 
branches this word is not frequent. I find, however, 
Latin tenebrm, darkness, gloom, a composite word like 
June-brie, lugu-hris, &c. Benfey refers tencbrcv to the 
Sanskrit tamas, darkness, gloom, and also the Anglo-Saxon 
dun, thy&tre. I think the Saxon dunn, a dark, black- 
brown colour, the English tan, tivoiuy, the Swedish dunkel, 
gloomy, dark, ddna, to faint, swoon, dan-ogd, dim-eyed, 
ally themselves to the Latin and Polynesian group. 

Kane, s. Haw., a man, a male, a husband; S. Polyn. 
ubique, tane, id. Eefers doubtless to the same root as 
kanaka, viz., the Sanskrit jam, or the Zend zan, vid. p. 154. 
It was held by some of the Hawaiian priesthood that 
man was called kane, after his maker, the god Kane ; but 
that is apparently a priestly gloss in comparatively later 
heathen times, 

Kahi, v. Haw., to make a noise, to hum, sound, cry, 
to strike, as a clock, to rumble, as thunder, to squeak, as 
shoes, to crow, as a cock ; s, a singing, ringing sound, with 
numerous compounds. Tali., ta'i, to cry, to lament, to 
sound as an instrument. N. Zeal., Tong., Sam., tangi, to 
cry, to weep, to chirp, to roar, to sing. Marqu.*, tangi, taki, 
make noise, hum, sound, howl. Fiji., tangi, cry, weep, 
lament, to sing as birds. 

Sanskr., tan 2 (Ved.), to sound ; tdna, a musical tone ; 
tdntra, instrumental music ; stan, to sound, sigh, thunder; 
stanana, groaning, Benfey refers Sanskrit tan to stan, as 
being "akin," and refers the Latin torto and the A.-Sax 



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156 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

thunor to both. Liddell and Scott, following Curtius, 
refer tono and A.-Sax. thunjayi to the Greek reiva and 
Sanskrit tan 1, to draw, to spread. In view of the Poly- 
nesian affinities, I prefer to follow Benfey, and, consider- 
ing s in stan as a prosthetic merely, I would refer tono, 
tonitru, and thunjan, thunor, to tan 2, and to the Poly- 
nesian tangi, Icani. Also, 

Ice!., d-i/vja, to sigh, groan; Germ., stohnen, id., donner, 
thunder. 

Greek, arevw, to groan, lament. 

Lat., eano, to sing, cry, sound; tono, to thunder, and 
their derivatives. 

Welsh, mm, a song; canu, to sing; Armor., mna, cane-in, id. 

Kaku, v. Haw., to cover up in the earth, to plant, to 
bury, as a corpse. Sam., N. Zeal., Tab., S. Polyn. ubique, 
tanu, id. Javan. and Malay., tanam, to bury; tanaman, 
to plant. 

Sanskr,, khan, to dig, pierce, inter.; khani, a mine; khan- 
aka, a digger; khanitra, a spade. 

Pers. ktrndan, to dig; hi a, excavation. Armor., kdn, 
canal, tube, valley. 

Lat., canalis, groove, gutter. 

Kapa 1 , adj. Haw,, rustling, rattling; s. cloth made of 
bark, cloth of any kind. Sam., tapa, to beckon with the 
' hand, to demand ; s. the white border of a siapo ; tapa-au, 
mat made of cocoa-nut leaf. Torig., tapa, id.; kapa-kapu, 
to flap with a noise as wings of birds. Marqu., tapa, bark 
cloth. Tab., tapa-ie, envelop in leaves ; apa, the lining of 
a garment ; apa-a, thick cloth made by men, not by the 
women ; 'apa'apa, to flap as a sail or the wings of a bird. 
Fiji., kava, a roll of sinnet; kaba, to climb. Motu (N. 
Guinea), kava, bark girdle for men. Biaju, tepoh, a mat. 
Salayer (Celebes), twpur, id. Malag., komba, a monkey, 
Kawi, kapala, a horse. 

Sanskr., kamp, to move to and fro, to tremble ; chapala 
("i.e., kamp-ala," Benfey), trembling, unsteady, giddy; 
chdpala, quickness; kapi ("i.e., kamp-i," Benfey), a mon- 
key. Perbap3 kambala, a woollen blanket. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 157 

Greek, icap.nrr\, bemuug, winding, as a river, turn, trick, 
sudden change. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 347-348) derives the Greek 
Ka/3a>d\.ii<;, a as g> an<1 other kindred West Aryan forms 
for horse and its varieties, as well as tcam-pos, a wild boar, 
and caper, a buck, from the Kawi or obsolete Sanskrit 
application of the original sense, " to tremble, rustle, flap," 
found in the Sanskrit lap, karnp, and the Polynesian 
Iv.pa, tapa. 

Kapa 2 , s. Haw., a bank, shore, side, as of a river, lake, 
wood, or the like. Rarot., tapa, id. Tali., apa'apa, one 
side of a thing when divided, the side of a house. Sam., 
tafa, the side of a hill ; v. to turn on one side ; tafa-fa, 
four-sided ; tafatafa, the side ; tafa-tasi, one-sided ; ta/a-to, 
perpendicular, steep as seen from above; tafa-tw, id., as 
seen from below. Marqu., tapa-hai, coral ■ kapa-i, on the 
side of the sea. Fiji., taba, wing, shoulder, branch, one 
side. Malg., taf, tqfo, the roof of a house ; tamion, above. 

Welsh, tab, tav, an extended surface, a spread ; tob, top, 
top, crest ; cop, summir. Irish, capat, head. Armor., kab, id. 

Lad., tabula, board, plank, table ; caput, head, 

Sanskr., kapala, skull, head, either half of an egg ; kapola, 
cheek, the temples of the head. Pers., kabah, elevation, 
eminence; tabruh, tnbnk, table, flat. 

Greek, KMfmkij, head, top, upper end. 

Goth., haubith, head. Sax., heafod, id.; hafala, ha/ula, 
head, casque. Anc. Germ., haupit, head; hufela, the 
temples. Germ., kopf, head. 

A. Pictet (loc cit., ii. 273) refers the Persian tabrak and 
the Latin tabula to Sanskrit sthd, or perhaps stabh, tabula, 
for stabula, and (i. 308) he says, speaking of the Sans- 
krit kapala. and its West Aryan relations : — " J'y trouve 
un compose do pA'o, proteoteur, avec l'interrogatif ka, dans le 
sens laudatif. Quel (bon) protecteur ! on ne sauraitmieux 
caractenser le role naturel du crane. Or kapdt et kapd 
ou kapa auraient la m&me signification ; car pat, pd, pa, 
a la fin des composes, sont synonymes de pdla, et dtSrivent 
egalement de la racine pd, tueri." 



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158 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Under correction, the "quel bon protecteur" of Mr. 
Pictet appears to me a singular and fatal misnomer of the 
most prominent and most exposed part of the body. The 
original meaning of the Polynesian word was probahly 
something raised, spread out, obtruding, projecting, beyond 
or above the common level of things. Hence such com- 
pound words in the Polynesian as kapa-au, Haw., the 
raised place in the Heiau (temple), where the image of the 
god stood and offerings were laid ; 'apa-'au, Sam., a wing ; 
'apa-'apa, the fin of a fish ; apa-ta, to clap the wings. The 
West Aryan forms : Lat, cap-ut, eap-pilus (capHlus) ; the 
Irish cap-at, alongside of ccap and cap ; the double forms 
in the Goth, and Sax., haub-ith, heaf-od, and hafa-la, hofu- 
la, seem to indicate a different composition and root for 
themselves, as well as the Sanskrit and Greek, than what 
Mr. Pictet offers. And the probable primary sense of 
" elevation, eminence," in the root-word has survived in 
the Persian kabah, the Armorican kab, the Welsh tob or 
top. 

Kapu, v. Haw., to set apart, restrict, prohibit, interdict, 
make sacred. S. Polynes., ubique, tapu, id. Fiji., tabu, 
tambu, id. Sumatra (Pessumah), dempu, sacred. Tagal, 
cabunian, cambunian, general name for god, divinity, sacred, 
holy. 

I am not aware of any West Aryan word that can be 
positively classified as akin to the Polynesian kapu or tabu. 
In the Cingalese, however, where so many old and obsolete 
Sanskrit words have been preserved, I find the word kapu 
as the name of a scarlet string tied round the arm or wrist, 
to indicate that the wearer is engaged in a sacred cause 
and will not be interrupted. I note the coincidence, but 
I leave to abler philologists to trace out the relation, if any. 
In so doing, it may be well to bear in mind that one of 
Siva's names is Oambhu, which Eenfey derives from cam 
and bhU (a happy being), but which derivation may admit 
of question in view of the Tagal, Sumatra, and Fijian forms 
of the word, where doubtless the primary sense of the 
word is "to restrict, prohibit, interdict," as it is in the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



Iv) 



Polynesian. In Tahitian the rainbow is called tapu-tea ; 
in Saraoan the evening-star is called tapu-i-tea, 

Kea, adj. Haw., also keo, keo-keo, white, lucid, clear; 
a-km, openly, public; au-akea, at noon, midday. Sam., 
tea-tea-vale, be pale; ao-atea. forenoon; atea-tea, wide, 
spacious. Tab.., tea, white; ko-lc>j, piide, haughtiness ; atea, 
clear, distinct, far off. Marqu., ten,, atea, white, broad day- 
light, also name of -the principal god ; light generally, as 
opposed to darkness. Fiji., cea-cea, pale, deathlike; cecea, 
daybreak, light of morning. Malg., tziok, brilliant, snow- 
white. Ceram. (Mahai), teen, a star. 

Greek, 6eo$, m. 6ea, f. god, goddess, divinity generally. 
In Greek, 6eo<t signified no god in particular, but was 
applied to almost all the gods, though perhaps more often 
to the sun. As the first gods were the sun, moon, &e., 
their brilliancy and whiteness were the underlying sense 
of the names given them. That primary sense was appa- 
rently lost in the Greek and the other West Aryan branches, 
though in the Polynesian both the primary and deriva- 
tive sense has been preserved, as in the Marqu. atea, 
both god and light, in the Tah. tapu-tea, the rainbow, 
and the Sam. tapu-i-tea, the evening star, mentioned in 
previous article. 

Liddell and Scott give no root nor reference to 0eo?. 
Ke'e, v. Haw., to bend, crook, oppose ; keke'e and ke'eke'e, 
id., also to strive, contend, obstruct; hau-keke, shiverin« 
with cold. Sam., tete, to shake, quake, as with fear or 
cold; tete-e, to refuse, reject, oppose ; faa-tdekte, to quaver, 
as the voice; tete-mu, to tremble; nga-tete, tremble, be 
troubled. Haw., na-keke, move back and forth, to rattle, 
shake to and fro. Fiji., keke, be pained in the back, go 
stooping. Malg., tetez, a bridge. 

In Sanskrit two forms present themselves, either or both 
of which I refer to the Polynesian. Benfey gives them 
in his Dictionary, but without root or reference ; (i.) cheta, 
slave, servant; chit, to send off; (2.) cik-ya, the strin" 
suspended from either end of a pole to receive burdens 
the strings of a balance. 



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160 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Lat., catena, chain, fetter. 
Germ., kette, chain. 

Kela, v. Haw., to exceed, go beyond, project, be more ; 
kele, v. to slip, slide, glide, sail out to sea; kele-kele, to 
sail about, to ride the surf in a canoe. Tah., tere, spread 
out, extend, advance, sail, slide. Sam., tele, large, great; 
tele-a'i, run quickly ; tele-tele, to step out, be quick ; fa'a- 
tele, to enlarge, increase. Marqu., tee,, to be off, depart. 
Rarot., tele, a fleet of canoes. Fiji., cere, cecere, high, hight ; 
vaka-cere-a, to lift up, make high. From the Haw. kela 
comes the intensitive kela-kela, to boast, brag, enlarge 
one's desires. From the Sam. tele, the intensitive fa'a- 
teletele-ai, be oppressive, overbearing. Malg., (era, proud, 
haughty = Sam., tela-leln, bad-lompered. 

Lat., cello, obsolete root of ex-cello, to surpass, exceed; 
ce/sws, high, lofty; culmen, summit; celer, swift; celox, a 
light swift vessel ; pro-cello, throw down, cast away ; pro- 
cul, afar off, away from. Probably pro-cerus, long, high, 
tall; 1 pro-cens, nonms, leading men, chiefs. 

Greek, icebXa, to drive on, to urge on, to run a ship 
ashore; AreXo/tat, to urge on, exhort; KeX^, a courser, a 
light vessel. 

Sanskr., Liddell and Scott and Benfey refer the Latin 
cello, celer, celox, and the Greek a*X\w, fceAi;?, to a root kal, 
to impel, to drive ("akin to kri," Beufey), to pour out, to 
cast ; kali, a die. 

0. H. Germ., haldn, holen, to haul, to drag with force 
(Benfey). 

Though the Polynesian forms in tere, tera, kele, kela, 
may be akin to the Sanskrit kal, yet I think them closer 
allied to the Sanskrit tri, to pass over, beyond, to hasten, 
accomplish, conquer, with its numerous and varied kin- 
dred in the West Aryan dialects. 

Dr. Caldwell (Dravid. Gram., p. 480) suggests that the 
Greek iceXKw, iceXvs!, are related to the Sanskrit sel, eel, to 

1 Benfey refers pro-cerua to Sanskrit frt, to pour out, to east, to cover. 
I fail to see the connection in sense ; at least the Polynesian offers a 
better. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 161 

go, to move, and its affinity to the Drav. (Tamil) set, to go, 
to proceed. I note the suggestion, but, in view of the 
formation of the West Aryan comparatives, prefer to con- 
nect kela, kele, tere, with the Sanskrit tri. 

Kele, s. Haw., mud, mire, fat of animals, grease. 
Tong., kele, earth, mould, mud. Fiji., qele, earth, soil. 
(Vid. 'ELE, p. 64.) Sunda and Malay., gala-gala, tar, pitch. 

Greek, teapot, beeswax, mixture, impurity ; icepaa, to 
mix ; Kepafia% potter's earth, clay ; icyp, corruption, decay, 
death, goddess of death or doom ; xijpa fieXatvav, XI. v. 
22 ; rtKfi.a, standing water, pool, pond, the mud of a 
swamp, mud for building, mortar ; reXfiti, mud, slime ; 
Liddell and Scott give no etymon ; #17X19, stain, spot, de- 
filement ; iwXateoe, black, swarthy, 

Sanskr., kdla, dark blue, black ; kalanka, rust, iron rust, 
a spot; kalusha, turbid, impure, dirt; kalmasha, dirt, 
sediment, a spot. 

Lat, caligo, vapour, mist, fog, obscurity; cera, wax; 
squalor, dirtiness, filth (Liddell and Scott after Curtius). 

Sax., held, a spring, fountain, stagnant oily water in still 
places of lakes or rivers ; tare, tyr, tar. 0. Norse, kelda, 
wet, marshy place. Swed., lean, id. ; tjara, tar. 

Kbna, s. Obsolete in Polynesia except in the Paumotu 
group, where we find tena, signifying land, district. The 
two divisions of the island Mature-wa-wao are called 
tena-raro and tena-runga — the leeward and windward 
district. It is possibly akin to the Tongan tonga, planta- 
tion, property, and Samoan tonga, a grove, a plantation. 
K. Zeal., taonga. Tah. , taoa, property, possessions. Malg., 
tan, land, country, district; tane, id.; tana-a, a village; 
tong-tonh, place, residence. Sunda, tanek, land. Mai., 
tanah, id. 

Greek, x® wv < tne earth, the ground, especially the level 
surface of it, gen. ^ovo? ; $k, 0m, Orjv, a heap, beach, sea- 
shore, deposit of sea or rivers. Liddell and Scott refer 
%6n>v to x /* 01 ' w * tn ^ inserted, analogy x0afta\o$, on 
the ground, low, and they refer Qiv, Oyv to the same root as 
the Germ, diinen, Engl, downs. 

VOL. III. t 



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r6z THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Irish, tan, region, country, territory ; tanaiste, a chief 
possessor of land. 

Icel., tuna, a town, village ; tana, a cave, hollow place, 
valley. Sax., tun, garden, enclosure, village ; dun, a sandy, 
barren tract. 

Ki, v. Haw., to squirt water, as with a syringe, to blow 
from the mouth, to sift, strain, make fine by separating the 
coarse. Tong., ki, to throw, toss, cast off, Deriv. Haw., 
ki-i, to go after a thing, to bring, to fetch. TaL, ti-i, id. 
N. Zeal., Rarot, Mang., tiki, to fetch, to go for, to seek. 
Haw., ki-ai, to watch over, to guard. N. Zeal., Karot., 
Marqu., tiaki, id. Tah., ti-ai, wait, keep watch; ti-ahi, 
expel, drive away. Tong., ti-aki. Sam., ti-ai, throw away, 
reject, separate. Haw., ki-ee, ki-ei, look into, scrutinise, 
peep at, to watch. Tah., ti-ei, to reach over and look, to 
turn the head to look ; ti-o-mata, to stare, gaze at ; ti-ao, 
to search, seek out. Tong., ki-o, to stare, look, peep ; H-ata ; 
looking-glass, mirror. Sam., ti-o, sharp-looking, of the 
eyes ; ti-o-ata, a glass. Haw., ki-u, to spy. Sunda, ti- 
angan, to seek. 

The Polynesian root ki or ti alone retains the primary, 
material sense of " sifting, straining, separating," which 
apparently has been lost in the 

Sanskr. (Ved.), ki, to know ; chi 2 (Benfey), to search ; 
chit, to perceive, and their West Aryan kindred, Tt<t>, rtvta, 
Ti/iv, timeo, &c. 

Kia, s. Haw., pillar or inner post of a bouse support- 
ing the roof, any kind of pillar or post, a mast of a vessel ; 
kia-aina, a supporter of the land, a governor of a province, 
Marqu., tia, id. Sam., ti'a, the stick used in tanga-tia, a 
man's bead (abusively) ; tia-pula, taro-tops cut off for 
planting. Sunda, tihang. Mai., Hang, a pillar. 

Greek, kimv, a pillar, support of the roof, the identical 
sense of the Polynesian usage of the word. Liddell and 
Scott give no etymology or connections of kmov. 

Kihei, s. Haw., a loose garment, mantle thrown over 
the shoulders, wrapper, coverlet. Marqu., Ufa, tiha, to 
close together, a covering. Tab., Ufa, to join together, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 163 

dovetail ; tifa-i, a patcb, to patch, mend ; tiki, a sort of 
petticoat, a large quantity of cloth wrapped round the 
waist; tihi-wa, a native shawl with staiued borders. 
Sam., tiji, to adorn, 

Sanskr., chiv, ckib, or chiy, to cover ; chi-vara, the tat- 
tered dress of a mendicant. 

Kiko, ». Haw., to reach after, pluck, peek, break the 
shell as chickens in hatching ; to mark ; s. a dot or point, 
marks made in tattooing ; adj. spotted, speckled, striped 
kiko-kiko, to nibble as fish, Tah., tito, to peck as a fowl, 
to fight as cocks, go softly on tip-toe as a thief. Marqu. 
tito and tito-tito, to dart, fall headlong, peck, nibble. Sam. 
tito, id. Sanskr., tij, be sharp (Ved.) ; caus. to sharpen, 
stir up ; tikshna, sharp, hot, energetic. 

Greek, iaxvf*> '"■x ai ' 0> ' to reacn > hit, or light upon 
Mica, i/ct£a, cause to go away, shake or blow off; kikvs, 
strength, vigour ; Ki/cxo<i, a cock ; tm£a> (s. prosth.), to 
mark with a pointed instrument, to prick ; <tti«to?, pricked, 
punctured ; o-rey/Mj, &c. 

Lat, -stinguo, -sliiict.v.s, -sti(g)muhis, stilus, in-stigo, et 
al. ; perhaps cica-trix, scar, mark of a wound. 

Goth., stiggan, stikan, to sting, stick, prick ; stiks, a 
point, a moment (of time). Probably Engl, tick, to beat, 
as a watch, to beat, pat, tickle. 
Welsh, ys-tigaw, to stick, prick, mark. 
Kila, adj. Haw., strong, stout, able; lana-kila, id., 
victorious ; kila-kila, id., an expression of admiration, 
equivalent to "long may it flourish," "long live the king." 
Tali., lira, the mast of a vessel, a pole stuck up in the 
Marae; tira-tira,' to put up a high house, to invest a 
person with authority ; raa-tira, an inferior chief, a free- 
holder. Sam., tila, sprit of a sail, mast of a vessel ; ma- 
Ula, a fishing-rod. N. ZeaL, ranga-tira, a chief. Fiji., 
kila, wild, as animals. 

Sanskr., kila, a stake, a pillar ; Kila-kila, a name of 
Siwa, a cry expressing joy. Benfey, Sansk-Engl. Diet., 
refers ciras, head, top of mountain or tree, a chief, to an 
original cams; cf. Zend, cam and cirsha. It seems to me 



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164 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

that because cava and cirsha are synonyms in the Zend, it 
does not necessarily follow that eirsha in Zend or ciras in 
Sanskrit are weakened forms of cam or caras. 

Kimd, v. Obsolete in Haw. ; in Sam. ti-mu, rain ; v. to 
rain ; timvmga, great continued rain. Tah., timutimu, also 
timatima, he lost in obscurity, obscured hy distance. 
Marqu., kimi, to pour out, spill, shed. 

Sanskr., Urn, tint, slim, be wet ; timita, stimita, wet, 
benumbed; 5. moisture; tim/ira, dark, darkness. Benfey 
considers the latter as akin to tamos, perhaps for original 
tarn, + ira. I think not, in view of the Polynesian, which 
has so well preserved the connection between rain and 
obscurity, the latter so frequently being a result of the 
former. 

KiNA 1 , s. Haw., blemish, sin, error, any untoward or 
troublesome event. Sam., Fak., tint/a, s. pain, trouble, 
distress ; v. to be in pain or distress. 

Sanskr., ktndca, a poor labourer, a poor man, 

In the Greek I find a number of composite words whose 
first constituent would seem to indicate a relation, from 
early times, with the Polynesian ; e.g., Kwa-fievpa, a knavish 
trick ; Kti/a-f3pa, the rank smell of a he-goat ; Ktpa-8o$, a 
Sicilian word for a fox, generally a beast, a monster ; iava- 
fipevpara, stinking refuse ; kuhuSos, a lewd fellow ; kw- 
Swos, risk, hazard, danger. Benfey intimates a relationship 
of kw&Wqs to Sanskr. khid, khinad, khinna, be afflicted, 
despair, tired. Liddell and Scott merely note the origin 
of «Hv£infof as "uncertain." 

Kina 2 , 1?. Haw., to drive on, to urge, oppress. Sam., 
Una,, to split ; s. a wedge ; titina, to strangle, choke. Tah., 
tVaia, strike the foot against something, to stumble ; faa- 
ti'aia, to touch with hand or foot, to push against. 

Greek, 6etva>, to strike, beat, dash upon or against. 

Lat., fendo in offendo, to strike against, &c. (Liddell and 
Scott, s. v. 0eiva>). 

KlNANA, s. Haw., a hen that has hatched chickens. 
Sam., Una, a mother. Tong., tina-manu, a sow that had a 
litter. Tah., ti'a, the lower part of the stomach, below the 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 165 

navel. Fiji., Una, mother; Una-Una, mother of inferior 
animals. N. Zeal., tinana, the buttocks, trunk, body. 

This 'word, with somewhat varying but not far separate 
meanings, I am inclined to consider as related to the 

Goth., kwens, kwino, a woman ; Jcwina-kunds and kwi- 
neins, female; and possibly Jcwilhus, the womb, the stomach, 
if that is a syncope of an original kwinthus. 

Greek, 'yvvn, woman; according to Professor A. H. 
Sayce, who, in " Introduction to the Science of Language," 
vol. i. p. 298, says that " the primitive Aryan speech must 
have possessed a row of labialised or ' velar gutturals,' kw, 
gw, ghv), of which the Latin qu and our own ew, qu, are 
descendants. ... 80 far back as we can go in the history 
of Indo-European speech, the two classes of gutturals 
exist side by side, and the groups of words containing 
them remain unallied and unmixed. Twn and queen 
[quean) must be separated from yevav, genetrix, kinder, and 
other derivations of the root which we have in the Sanskrit 
jandmi, the Greek yiypo/iai, &c." Professor Sayce may 
probably be correct as regards the relationship of West 
Aryan dialects inter se, but whether the " primitive Aryan 
speech," in its primitive condition, was loaded with those 
velar gutturals I thiuk may admit of a question. From 
the simple to the complex I think was the rule of develop- 
ment in language as well as in other things. " There is 
nothing to show," says Professor Sayce, "that these velar 
gutturals were ever developed out of the simple gutturals." 
But how can that be shown when the history of Indo- 
European speech only goes back some three thousand 
years, and then already presents itself in its full-fledged 
inflectional condition ? Where is the history of its child- 
hood ? I think it right, but on other grounds, to say that 
the Gothic kwino and the Latin quits are not related to 
the Sanskrit jan or the Greek xeifiai. But to say that 
they could not possibly be related on account of the velar 
gutturals in the one set and simple gutturals in the other, 
seems to me to be assuming too much. 

I know not how philologists derive or affiliate the 



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166 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Scandinavian kona, hone, female. If, as I am inclined to 
believe, it is related to the Gothic kwens, hvn.no, it either 
shows the return of a velar guttural to a simple guttural, 
or that both are but dialectical variations of a still older 
word, whose oldest known form may be found in the 
Polynesian kino. 

KiNA, s. Haw., an indefinitely great number ; specifi- 
cally equal to 40,000, or 10 manu; a train of followers ; 
kini-kini, s. a multitude ; na kini akua, innumerable 
spirits. N. Zeal., tini, many, a crowd, 10,000. Tah., tint, 
innumerable, Sam., tino, ten in counting men ; tino-lua, 
twenty. Marqu., tini, much, many times, multiplied. 
Fiji., tini, ten. Ceram. (Camarian), tinein, ten. 

In view of Che permutation of I and n, not uncommon 
in the Greek as well as in other Aryan branches, it is 
possible that this Polynesian word refers itself to -^iKi-as, 
a thousand, generally an indefinite but large number; 
XfXt-oi, a thousand, of which lexicographers give no ety- 
mon, and which seems to stand alone without kindred in 
the West Aryan dialects. 

Kepa, v. Haw., turn aside from a direct path, turn in 
and lodge, turn off, as water in watering a field. Sam,, 
tipa, to glide, move on one side, rebound. Malg., kiban, a 
bed. 

A -Sax., Bcyftan, to diverge, decline, distribute, shift. 
Goth., skiuban, push, shove. Germ., schieben, id., to slide, 
move out of place. Engl., skip, leap, bound. Dan., kipper, 
id. Swell., kippa, slip, slide, bound, rebound ; skifta, 
change, distribute ; skipa, distribute, dispense, administer. 

Ko'b-Ko'e, adj. Haw., wet and cold, cold from being 
wet; s. dampness, chilliness. N. Zeal., ma-take, cold, 
chilly; hau-toke, winter. Rarot., toke-toke, cold, chilling. 
Tah., to'e-to'e, id. 

Sanskr., tue, to sprinkle (Ved.); tuskdra, cold, mist, 
thin rain, dew, frost, snow ; tuhina, mist, dew, snow, 

Goth., twahan, pt.t. thwoh, to wash. A.-Sax., thwean, id. ; 
dcau, dew, 

Koi, v. Haw,, to flow, rush, like water over a dam ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 167 

koi-ei-ei, a rapid current ; koi-ele, to overflow. N. Zeal., 
toi, to dip in water, to duck. law., toya, water. 

Sanskr., toya, water. Apparently there i3 no etymon 
for this word in Sanskrit or VediCj for Benfey suggests 
that it derives " perhaps from tit,." But the primary, at 
least the Vedic, meaning of tu is "to be all-powerful." 
Taking the New Zealand term as the best-preserved among 
the Polynesian dialects, it certainly offers a better etymon 
to the Sanskrit toya than the Vedic tu. 

Kole, v. Haw., be red, raw, skinned, shaved, as the 
head ; adj. red, like raw meat raw, inflamed, sore ; kole- 
kole, s. red earth, reddish ; o-kole, rump, anus. Tali., tore, 
checkered, striped ; v. to grow, as proud flesh in a sore. 
Sam., tole, s. clitoris. Marqu., to'e, id., rump, buttocks. 

Sanskr., kravya, raw flesh; krura, sore (Ved.), cruel, 
harsh; krudh, be wrathful, wrath. Perhaps kruc, to cry 
out, to revile. 

Greek, tcpea<t, raw flesh, flesh, meat, a cadaver; xpavpa, 
a scrofulous disease. 

Zend, khrai, cruel. 

Lith., kraujas, bloody. Illyr., karv, id, 

Irish, cear, blood; cru, bloody; cruadh, harsh, severe; 
cruas, cruelty. 

Goth., kraiw, a carcass. 

Lat., cruor, blood from a wound, blood generally ; caro, 
flesh ; cruentus, blood-stained, blood-red, red ; crudus, raw, 
unripe; crudelis, unmerciful, cruel. 

Liddell and Scott (Gr.-EngL Diet.), by referring the 
Latin cruor to both Kpea? and tepvos (icy-cold, frost), seem 
to indicate that they all spring from the same root. The 
same authorities refer caro to Kpeas and kravya. A. 
Pictet denies the relation, but does not explain why so. 
The Illyriau karv, however, seems to confirm the relation 
of caro to this family of words, of which the Polynesian 
term is but one of many varieties. 

Koli, v. Haw., to pare, shave off, cut, trim, whittle ; 
s. something moving through the air, a meteor ; kolii, to 
dimmish, taper off, grow less. Sam., Tong., toli, to gather 



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i68 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

fruit from high trees ; ioli-u, to burst inwardly, as an 
abscess. Fiji., toro-ya, to shave ; toro-i, a razor ; coronga,a 
grater ; kure, shake the fruit of a tree. Mai., ehukur, a 
razor; kukur, arasp; kurang, to diminish ; churie, to sever, 



Sanskr., khur, to cut, to break ; kshur, to cut, scratch, 
make furrows; kshura, a razor. 

Greek, icokos, docked, stunted ; /coXovat, cut short, curtail, 
clip; Koka^at, curtail, dock, prune. Perhaps okvWw, to 
skin, flay, strip off; a-itvKov, o-icvXa, what has been stripped 
off, as skins of animals, arms of enemies, spoils of war, 
Benfey refers J-vpo<;, razor, to Sanskrit kshur. Liddell and 
Scott refer %vpo$ and £vo>, to scrape, plane, to fe<a with 
similar meaning, and quote Anfrecht as comparing it with 
" the (Vedic) Sanskrit to whet." They cannot both be 
right. In the absence of the Polynesian it might be an 
open question. Liddell and Scott give tco\os as "akin 
to KvXkos, crooked, crippled," and derive kv\\o<; from 
(" prob ,: ) Kveo), to have in the womb, and refer that to 
kvo), to hold, contain, and both to Sanskrit cvi, to swell, 
increase. I may be charged with fanciful compari- 
sons, but, under correction, I fail to see the connection 
between cvi, kvo, to swell, increase, and «o\os, docked, 
stunted. 

Lat., calvus, bald, hairless ; curtus (perhaps), though 
Liddell and Scott refer it to Ketprtt. 

Armen., sur, knife, sword. 

Euss., gol, bald, naked ; goleyu, stripped. In Drav. 
(Tamil.), kuru is short, brief ; kuru-gu, to diminish. 

KOLO 1 , v. Haw., to creep, crawl, shoot sideways, as 
plants, to penetrate downwards, as roots. Sam., tolo, to 
push forwards, as a fish-net with the feet, to keep back, 
to stir round the hot stones in an oven ; totolo, to crawl, 
creep. Marqu., toto'o, humpbacked, crawling, feeling 
around in the dark, commit adultery. Tab,,, toro, to 
creep, stretch out, as roots. N. Zeal., kolo-pupuu, to boil, 
to simmer. Malg., kora-kora, a snail, insect, a screw. 
Fiji., dolo, to creep, move as snakes. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 169 

Sanskr., cliar, to move, to graze, go through, over, along ; 
ckal, to tremble, go away, swerve. 

Greek, xopos, a shoot, sprout, scion of a tree, a boy, lad ; 
-*ro\o? in ffov-KoXas, a herdsman, cowherd, derived from 
ncoXeet), " a word which only occurs in compounds ; cf. Lat. 
colo " (Liddell and Scott). 

Lat., colo, to till, tend, cultivate. 

A further connection may be found in the Latin torqueo, 
to turn, distort, twist ; Sanskrit tarlat, a spindle ; Greek 
<t-TpaKTo?, a spindle ; d-rpeicij'i, true, just, strict, i.e., not 
crooked or warped, Liddell and Scott, after Curtius, refer 
torqueo and arpaKros to Greek rpeTrw, to turn, turn round. 
Benfey refers them to Sanskrit tarh, to suppose, find 
out, reflect. Neither of these " suppositions " seem to me 
plausible with the Polynesian kolo, tolo, before us. 

Kolo 2 , v. Obsolete in all the Polynesian dialects except 
in Sam., tolo, to singe, to kindle a fire by rubbing sticks 
together; tolo-i, smoky to the taste. Fiji., coro-ya, to 
singe, scorch. Malg., horu, a burn, a scald. Mai., ckulor, 
a scald, Celebes (Gerontalo), tulu, fire. 

Saskr., kill, to singe ; cJiHr, to burn. 

Koni, v. Haw., to throb, beat, as the pulse, to try, 
taste ; koni-koni, to nibble, as fish ; ki-koni, to smooth off 
and finish, as a canoe after it is dug out ; hi-koni, a slave 
marked on the forehead. Tong., Sam., tongi, engrave, carve, 
to peck, as a fowl, to throw or cast, as a stone ; totongi, to 
peck, nibble, as a fish, to drive of, as a hen her chickens. 

Greek, xevreto, to prick, goad, urge on ; kovto$, a pole, 
shaft of a pike ; revha, revOw, to gnaw, nibble, eat daintily; 
Tev$evofiat, eat greedily; rev&i)$, a gourmand, a dainty 
eater. No references given to either of these words by 
Liddell and Scott 

K.u, v. Haw., to rise up, stand, let go, let fall, hit, 
strike against, resist ; ku~e, to oppose, resist ; ku-i, to 
pound, beat, knock ; ku'-u, let go, loosen, put down ; ku-ku, 
to strike, beat, stand up, be high, excel ; ku-a, to strike 
horizontally, to cut down, as trees, to fell, throw away. 
N. Zeal., tu, stand ; tuki, beat, knock ; tuku, allow, permit, 



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170 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Sam., tu, stand up, arise, to take place, come to pass ; s. a 
custom, habit ; tu-i, to thump, beat, pound ; s. a blow with 
the fist, a curse ; tu'ia, to strike, as the foot against a 
stone; tu'i-fao, a blacksmith (mod.), lit. a pounder of 
nails ; tu'u, to place, appoint, permit, let go, set free, cut 
down, desist. Tah., tu, stand erect, to fit, agree ; tu-a, to 
cut, to rest or wait ; tu-e, to impel, strike with the foot, 
hit against ; tu'e-tu'e, to oppose ; tu-i, to butt, strike, smite ; 
tutu, to strike, beat; tu'u, let go, dismiss, yield. Fiji., 
tu, to stand ; tuki, beat, knock ; tvku, let go, slack up. 
Sunda, tutut, loose, slack. 

The same dialectical variations in form and sense obtain 
through all the Polynesian groups. Two original concep- 
tions seem to have attached themselves to the Polynesian 
root-word ku, tu, viz., (r.) "To rise, stand, be prominent;" 
(2.) " To strike, put down, let go." The West Aryan rela- 
tives of this Polynesian ku, tu, appear to have confined 
themselves to the second conception of the word, " to strike, 
put down, let go," although the probably oldest of these 
forms, the Vedic tu, bears the general sense "to be powerful." 
To mention but a few of those Aryan correlatives, we find — 

Sanskr., tu (Ved.), be powerful, to increase, to hurt ; tuy 
and tuiij, to strike, push, abide, give or take; tud, to 
strike, sting ; tund, be active ; tup, tump, tumbh, to hurt, 
kill ; khud (Ved.), kshud, to push, to pound. 

Lat,, cudo, strike, beat, sting ; incus, an anvil ; tundo 
(tutudi), to beat, strike, pound ; tussis, a cough ; tueor, 
guard, watch, keep ; tutus, safe ; tuher, tumor, tumulus; 
stupeo, be stunned, benumbed. 

Greek, tutto?, a blow; rvnrto, i-nmov, to beat, strike; 
tvXj], tv\os, a knot or callus, a lump, hump, knob, a 
cushion; rvXiyfta, a wheal, swelling. Liddell and Scott 
refer this latter to Sanskrit tu. 

Goth., stautan, to strike, smite. Germ., stossen. Dutch, 
stooten. 

Benfey (Sansk.-Engl. Diet.) s. v. Tud, considers that 
the Gothic has retained an original s, which the Sanskrit 
and the other dialects have lost. With all due deference 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 171 

to ao great authority, yet, if Professor Max Muller is 
correct, that the oldest forms of Aryan speech consisted 
of open syllables of one consonant and one vowel, or of one 
vowel, and judging from the analogy of the Polynesian, 
I should look upon all prefixes and suffixes to a simple 
root or stem as of later growth, and hence that the s in 
question, like the s in stupeo, indicates a later period than 
that when tu or tup were used to express the sense of 
striking, heating, stunning. 

Anc. Slav., kuti or kowati, a smith. Lith., kujis, a 
hammer ; kauti, to fight. 

To this Vedie and Polynesian root tu, " to he powerful, 
increase, rise up," refers itself, doubtless, a word express- 
ing family relation throughout Polynesia, but which in its 
simple form has become almost obsolete, except in Fiji. 
In the Polynesian groups proper it always occurs in com- 
posites, sometimes with the other family designation, kai, 
prefixed, sometimes with the intensive prefix ma, some- 
times without either. That word is — 

KuA, S. Haw., obsol. Fiji., tuka, a grandfather; tua, 
word used by children to their grandparents ; tucika, an 
elder brother or an elder sister. Sam., tua'a. N. Zeal., 
tuaka-na. Tab., tu-aana. Haw., kai-kua'ana. Marqu., 
tuakana, id. Sam., tuangane, a woman's brother. Haw., 
kai-kunane, id. Tab., tuaane, id. Marqu., tuanane, id. 
Sam., Tong., tuafafine. Haw., kai-ku-wahine. N. Zeal., Tah., 
tuahine ; Marqu., tuehine, the sister of a man, Sam., Tong., 
N. Zeal., Haw., ma-tua, ma-kua, a parent. Karot,, Tah., me- 
tua, id. Maugar., nw-iua, id. It also signifies full-grown, 
old, elderly. In Tah., oro-ma-tua means ancestor. In 
Sam., ulu-ma-tua means the first-born, while tua simply 
means the child next to the oldest. In the Indian Archi- 
pelago thi3 word meets us under analogous circumstances. 
Sula Islands, tua, husband. Malay., tuan, tuhan, master, 
lord. Pulo-Nias, ira-matua, husband. Kei Islands, eb- 
tuan, old. Malg., tump, tumpu, master, the top of a 
thing; tupun, id., chief of an expedition; tu-vuan, seed, 
increase ; tuku-tan, a hill, rising ground. 



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172 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Sanskr., toka, offspring, child. Ved., tuck, offspring. 

Greek, To*a?, she who has just brought forth, a mother ; 
toko?, birth, offspring, child. 

Liddell and Scott refer these words to tiktod, to beget, 
bring forth, and mcrm, after Curtius, to one of three 
roots, tsk, tvk, rtj^, each one equivalent to the Sanskrit 
taJcsh, to prepare, form. Under correction again, it does 
appear to me that if the Greek tikt&> and its derivatives 
and variants refer themselves to the Sanskrit taksh, cer- 
tainly the Vedic tuch does not descend to the same origin, 
but, on the contrary, allies itself with a better reason to 
the Zend tuchm, germ, seed, the Sanskrit toka, the Greek 
roKai, the Polynesian tulca, whose common root would be 
the Vedic and Polynesian tu, prevalere, cresceie, erigere. 
I am well aware of the frequent and often inexplicable 
permutation of vowels, not seldom leading to false ana- 
logy, in words descending from the same root, but, at 
the risk of making false analogy myself, I believe that, in 
the majority of cases, the Sanskrit nouns in o have their 
roots in w, and hence the Sanskrit toka may, with perfect 
propriety and almost absolute certainty, be referred direct 
and primarily to tu. 

In Tahitiau alone among the Polynesian dialects, so 
far as I know, this word, derived from tu, has retained a 
sense which brings it into close relation with some of the 
West Aryan tongues. In Tahitian, tua, s. means also " a 
company of people, a flock, a herd." Its Indo-European 
correlatives will be found in — 

Irish, tuath, tuad, people, 

Welsh, tut, people, nation. 

Umbr., tota, oscau, touto, precinct of a town, primarily 
people or tribe (A. Pictet). 

Lett., tauta, people, country. 

Goth., thiuda; A.-Sax., theod, people. For my remarks 
on the relation of the Polynesian word atua, god, spirit, 
supernatural being, to ku vel tu and tua, see my work, 
" Polynesian Race," &c, vol. ii. p. 365. 

KxiLA, s. Haw., the open country back of the s 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 173 

a field, uncultivated land. Sam., tula, bald, destitute of 
trees, a habitat, locality. Tong., tula, id. 

Sanskr., Mia, a slope (Ved.), a bank. 

Greek, xropa, x a P°^> place, space, region, country, tact 
of land. Liddell and Scott refer these words and ympK 
to x ao> ' %avBapa>, Katyfiai. A more natural relationship, 
it seems to me, is to be found in the Sanskr. and Polynes. 
Mia, kula, which may, but possibly do not, refer them- 
selves to any root in %a or kd. 

Irish, cAl, the back, tergmn, dorsum. 

Kule, adj. Haw., this word, in the simple form, does 
not appear in any of the Polynesian dialects that I am 
aware of, but in compounds we have in Haw. ele-ma-kule, 
adj. old, aged, decaying, in which ele and ma are two 
intensitives, according to L. Andrews (Hawaiian Dic- 
tionary), and correctly so. In Sam. we find tvle-fena, 
tule-moe, to be wearied, to be sleepy, drowsy ; tule-i, to be 
sick, to vomit; tule-sisUa, with the eyes fixed, as in dying; 
tule-soli, to vex, torment, as a conquered party; in all 
which hide, tule, convey a primary sense of old age, 
decrepitude. We also find the duplicate form of Haw., 
kuhule, dumpish, loth to move; Sam., tutule, the end, 
conclusion of a night-dance. In Malg. we find kuru, old, 
when speaking of things, not of persons. 

Sanskr., jdr ; Ved., Jur, be old. According to A. Pictet, 
jur signifies also an old woman. Jujurva, a grandparent. 
Benfey also gives gMr, to become old. 

Zend, zaurva, old age. 

Kuli 1 , s. Haw., the knee; kuJculi, to kneel. Sam., 
tuli, an outside comer, the knee ; tuli-lima, the elbow ; 
too-tuti, to kneel. Tah., turi, knee. N. Zeal., turi, id. 
Fiji., durw, the knee. Sunda., tuur, knee. Timor. Laut., 
lurad, knee. Ke. Isl., ead-tur, id. 

Sanskr., hora, a flexible joint, as of fingers ; Mr-para, 
the elbow. 

Anc. Slav., koliena, knee. 

Kuli 2 , v. Haw., be stunned with noise, be deaf, be 
silent ; adj. and s. deaf, deafness. N. Zeal., turi, deaf. 



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174 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Marqu., tui, id. Tab., turi. Sam., tuli, id. Fiji., tule, 
ear-wax ; adj. deaf ; kuru, to thunder. Malg., tuli, deaf. 
Sunda, torrilc, id. Malg., duru-duru, taciturn; mi^dola, 
noise. 

Sanskr., kur, to sound ; ghur, to sound, be frightful. 

"Welsh, tol, tola, loud noise, din. To this word and its 
primitive meaning of making great noise probably refers 
itself the Polynesian. 

Kuri, s. N. Zeal., Earot., Mang., dog. Sam., uli, id. 
Tah., uri, id. Gilolo (Gani), iyor, dog. 

Sanskr., kurkura, kukura, dog, perhaps also kola, a hog ; 
kold-hala, a great and confused noise, screaming. 

Irish, gyr, dog ; erse cuilean, a young dog, 

Greek, vtevKai;, a young dog. Mod. Gr., kov\ovki, a 
little dog. Comp. A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 378). 

Pers., gholin, small dog. 

A. Pictet, loc. tit, inclines to refer the Irish, Greek, and 
Persian names to the Sanskrit hula, family. Liddell and 
Scott refer atcvXat; to oicvXXea, to rend, to tear, But, in 
view of the Sanskrit and Polynesian analogies, a may be 
prosthetic. 

Goth., gaurs, mourning, grief; probably akin to Sanskr. 
ghur, ghora (Benfey). 

Kulo, v. Haw., to continue doing a thing, persevere, 
wait long. Probably akin to kulu-iki, to endure, be con- 
stant, persevere, and Sam., twlu'i, to endure, lasting. 

Sanskr., lad, to proceed continuously, to accumulate. 

Kulu 1 , s. Haw., a drop of any liquid, a globule ; v. to 
drop, as water, to leak, to flow, fall down, tumble over. 
Sam., tvXui, to drop into, as lotion in the eye; tulu-vao, 
drops from tree3 after rain ; tulu-tulif,, the eaves of a 
house ; tutulu, to leak, as a house, to weep. Tah,, tuturu, 
to drop, as rain from a bouse. N". ZeaL, maturu-turu, 
to drop, as rain. Fiji., turn, drop, as water ; s. eaves of 
a house, a drop of water. Malg., kuala, canal, water- 
course. 

Sanskr., kulyd, a rivulet, a canal ; fcdlini, a river. Per- 
haps guda, gola, a ball. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 175 

In Dravidian (Tamil), tHru, means to drizzle, scatter, 
spread about 

Kulu 2 , v. Haw., sleep little, doze, dream, be in a trance; 
kululculu, id. Jav., turn, sleep. Sunda, kulem, id. Malg., 
mar-turu, id. Tagal, tolog, id. 

Icel., dura, sleep little, doze ; durnin, sleepy. Sax., dot, 
wandering in intellect, stupid ; dwolian, to wander, rava 
Engl., dolt. Gotb., dwals, foolish. Swed., dviala, trance. 

Kulu 3 , v. Haw., obsol ; kukulu, v. to set up, erect, to 
build. Tab., turn, prop, side-post of a bouse; tuturu, 
tauturu, to support, help, assist. Marqu., tutu'u, id. Paum., 
turu,, a prop, post to support the roof. Mang., turu, id. 
Malg., zuru, column, support, Fiji., duru, the shorter posts 
of a house, on which the wall-plate rests. 

Sanskr., tul, to lift, to weigh, ponder, attain ; tul-ana, 
lifting ; tuld, balance ; did, to raise, to swing ; dold, a 
swing. 

Lat., tollo, tuli, to lift, raise, elevate; tolero, to bear, 
endure. 

Greek, r\aa> (rdkaai), to take upon oneself, to bear, 
suffer; ToXfiato, to undertake, hold out, endure; raKavrov, 
a balance; TaXapos, a basket; reXa/iav, a strap, belt; 
'AtKoi, a mountain in Africa, supposed to support the 
heavens ; otXo?, suffering, distress. 

Goth., thulan, to tolerate, suffer ; ga-thlahan, take in the 
arms, caress. 

Kujiu, s. Haw., bottom, foundation of a thing, cause, 
beginning, root, stump, end, stalk. Marqu., tumu, id. 
Sam., tumu, be full ; tumu-tumu, top, summit ; tumua'i, 
crown of the head. Tah., tumu, root, origin, cause, foun- 
dation. N. Zeal., tumu-ake, crown of the head, upper part 
of a tree. Fiji, kumu, to collect, gather together. Ceram. 
(Wahai), tamun, root. Sunda, tumiuk, stump, foundation, 
Malg., tumutch, heel; v. squat down; tombuk, foot. 

Lat., humus, earth, soil ; humi, on the ground. 

Greek, x a P- ai < on tce earth. Liddell and Scott, without 
giving an etymon for x a f ial ' morely remark that the root 
is x a ^-> aQ d that it is akin to humus, humi, &c. Lith., 



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176 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

zeme, earth, Slav., zembja, id. But if humus and ^a/tai 
are akin, which has preserved the primary vocalisation of 
the word ? The first man, or set of men, who expressed 
the underlying conception did not eertainly pronounce 
that word in two ways. That difference must have arisen 
after the first name-givers had parted company and had 
no further opportunity to correct their pronunciation 
by reference to what was once the common mother- 
language. In such cases of dialectical divergence a 
tertius medius would be a welcome solvent of the diffi- 
culty. Such solvent the Polynesian offers ; and although 
the vowel sound within the Malaysian area of the dialects 
of this branch also differs from u to a, yet it is evident 
from the uniformity of the dialects of the Pacific area 
that u was the older sound, which brings the Latin and 
Polynesian nearer in accord. 

Kuni, v. Haw., to kindle, to light, burn, blaze ; hikuni, 
id. N. Zeal., twngi, id. Rarot., tuluni, id. Tab., tutui, 
id. Fiji., timgi, id. Jav., guni, fire. Celebes (Menado), 
pu-twng, id. Sangvir Island, pu-tun, id. 

Welsh, cynnen, to kindle ; sindw, ashes, scoria of a forge. 

Lat., cinis, a3hes, cinders. 

Greek, tow?, /eovta, dust, ashes, sand. 

Goth., twndnan, tindnan, to burn ; tandjan, to kindle, to 
light. Sax., tendan, tynan, to kindle. Germ., zunden. 
Swed., tanda. 

KuNU, v. Haw., blow softly, to cough ; kunu-hwnu, to 
groan, complain. Marqu., tono, sorrow, dislike, pain. 
MaL, htntut, break wind. 

Sanskr., dk&, dhunu, &c, to shake, shake out, off, &c, 
blow, as the wind, remove ; dhiima, smoke, 

Greek, 8va, to rush on or along, of any violent motion, 
to storm, rage ; OveXKa, storm, hurricane ; 0vta$, frantic ; 
0vfio% soul, life, breath (physically), strength ; $vva, to 
rush along, to dart along. 

Lat., fumus, smoke. 

Goth., dawns, odour. 0. H. Germ., twnsl, storm. Germ., 
dwnst, vapour, steam. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 177 

Slav., dunati, to breathe ; dyma, smoke. 

Throughout the Polynesian dialects this word kunv,, lunu. 
has another meaning, which, granted its kindred to the 
Sanskrit dML, makes the transition of sense from the 
Greek 6vw, "to rush, storm," &c, to the Greek 0vo>, "to 
offer, to sacrifice," intelligible and consistent. That mean- 
ing is Haw., " to roast meat on the coals ; " Tong., " to 
singe ; " Tab., " to roast or boil ; " Sam., " to roast, toast, fry, 
or boil ; " Marqu., " to roast, cook ; " N. Zeal., " to roast ; " 
Fiji., tunu-tunu, adj. " warm," v. " to warm up cold food." 
If, as Liddell and Scott intimate, after Curtius, the two 
Bva> in Greek refer themselves to the Sanskrit dhti, the 
latter must have lost the meaning developed in the Greek 
0vo>, " to offer, to sacrifice." They give the earlier sense 
of $vto(a,) as " to offer part of a meal as first-fruits to the 
gods, especially by throwing it on the fire." The Poly- 
nesian kunu, tunu, has retained the probably older and 
more material sense of " roasting," " broiling on the coals 
or embers of the fire." 

I am unable, I confess, to apprehend the connection 
which led our forefathers to invest the conceptions of " to 
storm, rage," and " to offer sacrifice," or those of " to 
blow " and " to roast " in the same word, whether 8vu> or 
tunu. I am therefore inclined to think that 0va>, " to rush 
along as the wind, to storm," and kunu, " to blow softly, 
to cough," are derived from one root and akin to Sanskrit 
dhtib, " to shake, blow as wind," leaving 8vm, " to offer " by 
throwing the offering on the fire, and kunu, to roast on 
the coals, though evidently related inter se, without a 
referee in the Sanskrit or other Indo-European tongues, 
and without a known root so far. 

Kupa, v. Haw., to dig out, hollow out, as a canoe or a 
trench ; kwpa-paku, a place deep down in the ground. 
Tah., tupa, to dig out, hollow out, scoop out. Fiji., cava, to 
stoop, bow down. Mai, kubur, grave, tomb. Sunda , 
tumpuk, a hook, a staple. 

Sanskr., k&pa, a well, a pit; kupa-kara, a well-digger ; 
hib-ja, humpbacked, crooked; kunibha, a pot, jar. 

vol. in. l 



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178 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

(Sansk. Diet.) refers the two latter to a lost verb, kubh, 
with an original signification of " to be crooked." He 
offers no etymon, however, for kUpa, well, pit. The Poly- 
nesian reconciles the two. The Sanskrit k4pa finds its 
kindred in the Hawaiian and Tahitian kupa, and the 
Sanskrit kumbha, Jcub-ja, and Jcubh, with a primary sense 
of " to be crooked," refer themselves to the Fijian cuva, " to 
stoop, low down," a sense now lost within the Polynesian 
dialects proper. 

Pers., kuftan, kaftan, to dig, eleave; kv.fi, kdf, insure. 
Armen., kup, pit, eistern. 

Greek, kutttw, to bend forward, to stoop down ; kv^ov, 
humpbacked ; /cu/t/Sij, a cup, a boat, a wallet ; aicvfos, a 
cup; Kwi/reXij, any hollow vessel. 

Lai., eulu, lie, recline; conewmbo, incumba; ewpa, a vat, 
cask. 

Goth., kumbjan, lie down, recline ; hups, the hips, loins. 
A. -Sax., rap, a hollow vessel, cup. 

Anc. Slav., kdpona, a goblet. Euss., kopati, to dig ; 
kopdni, a cistern. 

Welsh, cwh or cwpan, a hollow place, kennel, or cote. 
Gael., tiibag, tub. 

Kupu, v. Haw., to grow, increase, sprout, as plants. 
Marqu., Tail., twpu, id. Sam., tupu, id. ; s. presiding chief, 
king. Fiji., kubii, to bud, as flowers or leaves; tuba, 
spring up, increase. Mangar., tupua, high-priest, Poly- 
nes. ubique, tupuna, tupuanga, tubuna, ancestors, fore- 
fathers, grandparents. MaL and Jav., tumbu, to grow. 
Bisayu., tubu, id. Malg., tuvu-an, id. 

Benfey in his Sansk. -EngL Diet., s. v. Cvi, mentions a 
" "Vedic ptcple. of the red. pf." in cutuwams, with the 
meaning of "large." Benfey calls it "anomalous." No 
doubt it is anomalous to the verb cvi but it indicates the 
existence at one time of a verb in cuv, older than, or at 
least synonymous with, cvi, with the sense of "to increase, 
grow large." To the Sanskrit cvi Benfey as well as 
Liddell and Scott refer the Greek Kvea, kvg>, KVfia, " to be 
pregnant, be big, swell of the sea," and their derivatives, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 179 

also the Latin cumulus, cuneus, cavus, caulis, cmlum, cilia, 
&o. How far the family connection of all these words 
with the Sanskrit cvi can be proven I do not pretend 
to aay, but I would be inclined to think that before 
Homer's time there may have been a digamma in icvea> 
between v and e, and that more anciently the word was 
icvFeot, placing it en rapport with the Vedic cuv, as made 
manifest in the still remaining participle cucuvams. And 
it is further possible that the Latin cumulus may come 
from an older form in cumhulus, thus establishing for both 
of those words their kindred with not only the Sanskrit 
cuv, but also the Polynesian tuvu, faibu, tupu, tumbu. 
The Sanskrit copha, "a swelling," refers itself better, I 
think, to the Vedic cuv, than to the Sanskrit cvi. 

La, s. Haw., sun, light, day. N. Zeal., «, sun, day. 
Marqu., a, id. Sam., la, id. Deriv. : Haw., lae, be light, 
clear, shining ; lai, shining as the surface of the sea, calm, 
still ; laclae and lailai, intens. Sam., lelei, something very 
good ; lala, to shine ; lalangi, to broil. Fiji., rai, to see, 
appear ; rai-rai, a seer, a prophet. Teor., la, sun. Aru 
Islands, lara, id. ; rarie, bright, shining. Amblaw., laei, 
sun, day. 

Irish, la, lae, day. 

Laghmani (CabulJ, la'e, day. 

Sanskr., laj, In.nj, to 1 appear, shine ; rdj, to shine. Ved., 
to govern ; s. a king. If, as Eenfey intimates, the Sanskrit 
verb bkrdj, to shine, to beam, is " probably abhi-r&j," an 
already Vedic contraction, then the Polynesian root-word 
la and lae will reappear in several of the West Aryan 
dialects. Lat., fiagrare, flamma, fiamen. Greek, <f>\e"/a>, 
$\o£. A.-Sax., blac, bloscan, &c. 

Probably the universal Polynesian lani, lo.mji, ran.ji, 
ra'%, lanits (Malg.), designating the upper air, sky, heaven, 
and an epithet of chiefs, refers itself to the same original 
la, lad, lanj, referred to above, to which may also be 
referred 

Welsh, glan, clean, pure, bright, holy. 



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180 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Sax., cltene, clean, pure. 

Swed., ren, clean, pare ; grann (?}, fine, elegant 

It may be rioted in connection with this word, either as 
a coincidence or as an instance of ancient connection, that 
in the old Chaldean the name of the sun and of the 
Supreme Deity was Ha, and that in Egypt the sun was 
also named Ea. 

La 2 , s. Haw., Sam., Tong„ ra. N. Zeal., the sail of a 
canoe ; abbreviated from, or itself an older form of, the 
Fiji, lacd, a sail, also the mats from which the sails were 
made. Sunda., Mai., layar, sail. Malg., Im, sail, tent, 
flag. 

Sanskr., Idta (Pictet), a cloth ; laid (Denfey), a creeper, a 
plant ; lak-taka, a rag. As mats and clothing in primitive 
times were made of bark or flexible plants, the connection 
between the Sanskrit laid and Polynesian laca, la, becomes 
intelligible. 

Armen., lutig, a mantle. 

Lat., lodix, a blanket. 

Irish, lothar, clothing. 

Lau, s. Haw., to feel for, spread out, expand, be broad, 
numerous ; s. leaf of a tree or plant, expanse, place where 
people dwell, the end, point ; sc. extension of a thing ; the 
number four hundred ; lau-kua, to scrape together, to 
gather up from here and there confusedly; lau-la, broad, 
wide, extension, width ; lau-na, to associate with, be 
friendly ; lau-oho (lit. " leaves of the head "), the hair, 
long., lau, low, spread out, be broad, exfoliate; s. surface, 
area; lau-mata, eyelash; to, a leaf; lo-gnutu, the lips (lit. 
" leaves of the mouth "). N. Zeal, and Mang., rau, spread, 
expand ; raku-raku, to scratch, scrape. Sam., lau, leaf, 
thatch, lip, brim of a cup, breadth, numeral hundred after 
the first hundred ; lau-a, to be in leaf, full- leafed ; laua-ai, 
a town, in opposition to the bush ; lau-ulu, the hair of the 
head ; launga-tasi, even, level ; lau-lau, to lay out, spread 
out food on a table ; lau-tata, a level place on a mountain 
or at its foot ; lau-le-anga, uneven ; lau-talinga, the lobe of 
the ear, a fungus ; lau-tele, large, wide, common, of people. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 181 

Tah., rau, a leaf, a hundred ; when counting hy couples, 
two hundred ; many indefinitely ; rau-rau,'to scratch. Fiji., 
lou, leaves for covering an oven ; longa, a mat, a hed for 
planting; drau,s. leaf; drau-drau, leaves on which food 
is served up, also a hundred. Saparua., laun, leaf. Mai., 
dawn, id. ; luwas, broad, extended. Sunda., Kubab., id., 
Amboyna, ai-low, id. Malg., rav, ravin, leaf ; ravin-tadign, 
lobe of the ear ; lava, long, high, indefinite expression of 
extension; lava-lava, eternal ; lava-tangh, a spider. 

The word lau, in the sense of expanse, and hence " the 
sea, ocean," is not now used in the Polynesian dialects. 
There remain, however, two compound forms to indicate 
its former use in that sense : late-make, Haw., lit. the 
abating or subsiding of water, i.e., drought ; rau-mate, Tah., 
to cease from rain, be fair weather ; rau-mate, N. Zeal., id., 
hence summer. The other word is koo-lau, Haw., 7cena-rau, 
N. Zeal., toe-rait, Tah., on the side of the great ocean, the 
weather side of an island or group ; toe-lau, Sam., the 
north-east trade wind. In Fiji, lau is the name of the 
windward islands generally. In the Malay and pre-Malay 
dialects that word in that sense still remains under various 
forms : laut, lauti, hint an, hmkaha, olat, v.vlat, medi-laut, all 
signifying the sea, on the same principle of derivation as 
the Latin mquor, flat, level, expanse, the sea. 

Welsh, llav, to extend; lied, breadth. 

Armor., blad, flat, broad. 

Lat., latus, broad, wide, spacious, 

Greek, TrXart/?, wide, broad, flat; TrXaiTj, broad surface, 
blade of an oar ; TrXaKos, broad, flat. 

Pers., IdtH, blade of an oar, oar. 

Lith., flatus, flat. 

Sanskr., prath, be extended, to spread. 

Goth., laufs or laubs, a leaf. Icel., laug, bath; lauga, to 
bathe; logr, the sea, water, moisture. 

Bearing in mind I and 11 are convertible in the West 
Aryan as in the Polynesian dialects, we might refer to 
the following as original relatives, of the Polynesian 
lav. : — 



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i8j THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Sanskr., nan, boat, ship ; snd\ and its connections, " to 
bathe." 

Greek, paw, to flow, float ; vaa>, veto, to swim, to spin ; 
vevats, s. swimming ; vav$, ship, &c. 

Lat., no-are, to swim, float; neo, to spin; navis. 

0. H. Germ., nacha, a boat. A.-Sax., nam, id. O. Worse, 
snacka, a shell, sobriquet of boats and vessels. Perhaps 
the Gothic snaga, a garment 

Liddeil and Scott and also Benfey refer the Greek vew 
and Latin neo, " to spin," to the Sanskrit nah, " to bind, tie." 
With due deference, I would suggest that the underlying 
sense of " to bind " and " tie " is " to shorten, contract, to 
knit " — necto, nodus — and that the original conception of 
"to spin" was one of extension, li.'n«thi:nin^ as represented 
in the Polynesian lau. 

Laha, v. Haw., to spread out, extend laterally, to make 
broad. With caus. hoo-laha, to spread intelligence, to 
promulgate ; laha-laha, to open, as the wings of a bird in 
order to fly ; laka-i and laha/ahai, to hover over, fly, light 
upon, as from a flight. Tong., lafa, flat. Sam., lafa, a 
ringworm ; lafa-lafa, level top of a mountain. N. Zeal., 
raka, to show, exhibit. Tab., pa-raha, name of a broad, 
flat fish. Fiji., rava-rava, a spade. Buru (Cajeli), lehai, 
large. Ceram. (Awaya), ilahe, id. Matabello, leleh, id. 
Malg., reff, refi, a fathom, measure of length. 

Sanskr., rack, to arrange, prepare, to string, as flowers; 
rachand, orderly arrangement, dressing the hair, string- 
ing of flowers, suspending garlands, arrangement of troops ; 
perhaps drdgh, to lengthen, extend, stroll. 

Lat., latus, wide, spacious ; brachium, the arm. Benfey 
refers the Latin locare to Sanskrit rack. 

Irish, legadh, to lay. Armor., lacqnat, id. ; raigh or brae, 
an arm. 

Goth., lagjan, to lay, put, place ; perhaps lofa, the palm 
or flat of the hand. Swed., lofwe, wrist. A.-Sax., logo, lak, 
law, statute ; logian, to place. 

Kuss., loju, place, locus. 

Laka, v. Haw., to tame, as a wild animal; adj. tame, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 183 

well fed, gentle ; pa-laka, remiss, neglectful. Sam., lata, 
be near, be tame, be at home; adj. tame, domesticated. 
Tah., rata, tame. £T. Zeal., rata, id. 

Sanskr., rddh, make or be merciful, favourable, gracious, 
to conciliate. 

Greek (according to Ben fey), (XWko/acm, Ix^koj, to 
appease, conciliate ; l\ao$, gracious, kind, gentle. 

Lako, s. Haw., supply, sufficiency, property, house- 
hold stuff; v. to possess, be supplied; adj. rich, prosperous. 
Tah., nato-naio (n for /), to be well provided. Fiji., rako, 
v. to embrace ; s. a grasp of the arms. 

Sanskr., rdhh, lakh, to suffice, adorn. Pictet (Orig. Ind.- 
Eur., ii. 400) refers to Sanskrit rddha, " riches," from rddh, 
" prosperari, perfici," and gives the following West Aryan 
connections :— 

Anc. Germ., "rat, opes, proventus, fructus. A.-Sax., 
raide, phalerse, apparatus. Anc. Sax., rS.de, ge-ra.de, pro- 
pria mobiliere (Grimm, D. R A., 566). Mod. Germ., 
ge-r&the, utensils ; vor-rath, provision, &c." Whether Pic- 
tet be right in referring the above Old German rdt, &c, to 
Sanskrit rddh, I think the 

Greek Xa^ij, \axos, an allotted portion; Aa^eaei, goddess 
of fate ; Xar/xaw, obtain by lot, refer themselves better to 
Sanskrit rdkh, Idkh, than to Sanskrit rddh. Liddell and 
Scott give the root as \ax ; hut when we consider that 
such words as \aj(avov, " garden herbs, vegetables, greens;" 
\a-xyi), "soft, woolly hair,, down, nap;" Xayeta, "well 
tilled, fertile," also claim descent from \a%, it is hardly 
possible that the first or earlier conception expressed by 
\a% was that of drawing lots or obtaining by lot or by 
chance. In this dilemma, it seems to me that the Poly- 
nesian -will give the keynote to the different Western 
Aryan conceptions, and perhaps the Fijian rako, " a grasp 
of the arms, an armful," embodies by far the older con- 
ception, from which the others, as it were, have radiated. 

Lala, s. Haw., the limb or branch of a tree, or of an 
animal ; in Anc. Haw., a rib of men or animals. Sam., 
lala, small branches ; v. to stand out like branches. Tah., 



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i84 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Mang., vara, branch, N. Zeal., vara, a rib. Fiji., rara, a 
board. Malg., raa, branches. Comp. Tah., pu-rara, scat- 
tered, dispersed. 

Sanskr., rad, to split, divide, dig; rada, splitting, a tooth. 

Lat., radius, rod, staff, pole ; rado, to scratch, scrape. 

Welsh, rhail, bar, bolt. 

Lalo, adv. and prep. Haw., below, down, under; adj. 
low, base. Sam., lalo, id. Tah., N. Zeal., raro, id. Marqu., 
a'o, id. Fiji., ra, below, west point of heaven, the leeward 
islands generally. Malg., late, lalen, deep, beneath; tagal, 
lalim, abyss. Mai, darah, dalam, deep, depth. Sunda., 
djero, id. 

Sanskr., a-dhas t underneath, low down ; a-dhara, lower, 
inferior. 

Goth., un-dar, under ; dalath, down ; dot, dale, valley, 
ditch. 

Lama, s. Haw., name of a forest tree of hard wood, 
torch of any material, specially of kukui-nuts, light by 
night ; malama, light from sun or moon, a month ; pu-lama, 
a torch ; au-lama, to give light. Sam., lama, the candle- 
nut tree, a torch made of the nuts; v. to watch for; 
malama, moon, light, lamp ; v. to be light. Tong., mama, 
torchlight, sunlight; fig. the world, society at large. 
Marqu., ama, light, the candle-nut tree (Aleurites) ; maama, 
daylight, light. Tab., rama, torch ; marama, the moon, a 
month; maramarama, light. Fiji., rarama, light; rama, 
to enlighten, cast light upon, as from a blazing fire. 
Stewart Islands, mirima, moon. Ceram. (Ahliago), melim, 
moon; matalima, day. Mai., malam, night. Celebes 
(Bouton), maromo, id. 

Greek, \a/A7ras, a torch, a faggot, the name of a nettle ; 
Ao/iTi-ai, to give light, be bright, shine ; Xa/tirpm, bright, 
brilliant ; papvo?, kind of thorn or prickly shrub. 

Lat, limpidus, clear, transparent ; lamium, dead or 
blind nettle; ramus, a bough, branch. According to 
Professor Mommsen, " Roma " or " Rama " was equivalent 
to Anglice " Bush-town," and its oldest inhabitants were 
the tribe known as Ramnes. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 185 

Goth., lauhmoni, lightning, Sax., leoma, ray of light. 
0. Engl., leme, id. Mod. Engl., gleam, &c. 

Irish, laom, flame. 

The Eev. "W. W. Skeat, in his " Mceso-Gothic Glossary " 
(London, 1868), refers the word lauhmoni to litihan, 
"enlighten." It is possible, but the Saxon and Irish 
parallelisms of leoma and laom would seem to indicate 
the existence of a radical m, although Grimm in his 
"Teut Mythol." {vol. i. p. 178) seems to favour a deriva- 
tion from lauhatjan, " to lighten, to shine as lightning." 

When we are told that the island of Lemnos (Afjfipoi) 
in the jEgean Sea was especially sacred to Hephaistos on 
account of its volcanic fires (LiiHell and Scott, s. v.), and 
that it was there he found rest when kicked out of heaven 
(II. i. 593), and when we are told that its still older 
name was JEtkalia (AWaXn), "the burning or blazing,'' 
it is fair to assume that the two names were synonymous, 
and that \jj/*i>o? iu some measure still retained the sense 
expressed in aidaXij, pointing to the same root from which 
Xa/iirat sprang, and thus strengthens the position I take 
of its connection with the Polynesian lama. 

In tracing this word back to its origin, from light to 
torch, from torch to faggot, we see that the Polynesian. 
Greek, and Latin have retained a reminiscence of a once 
common name for the material of which the faggot was 
composed, though in after-ages applied to special objects. 
The development of the idea of light from torches, night- 
light, and its application to the moon, is peculiar to the 
Polynesian family, and must have taken place after its 
separation from the Aryan stock. 

Lana, v. Haw., to float on the water or in the air, to 
swing, drift about ; in ancient chants, nana, — I and n 
convertible. It formerly had some now obsolete sense of 
extension, place, as shown in the compound lana-nuu, "the 
raised lana, stage or place," where the idols were set in 
the heiau ; also in ku-lana, lit " stopped floating," a place 
where many things were collected, a village, a garden; 
lana and a-lana, light, floating, easily buoyant. Marqu., 



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186 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ana and aJca, light, not heavy. Tah., a-raa, id., to be 
raised or lightened, as a vessel in the water, Sam., langa, 
to raise up, to rise up, to spring up, as troops from ambush. 
Fiji., langa, lifted up. Mai., ringan, light, not heavy. 

Another application of this word, and apparently con- 
nected with its primary sense, is the Haw. lana-lana, also 
nana-nana, the long-legged spider, also a spider's web 
u-lana, to weave, plait, braid. H. Zeal., ranga, id. Tah. 
rara'a, id. Sam., lalanga, to weave, braid, also a fine mat. 

Probably the Polynesian word for the common house' 
fly derives from the same original conception of " floating, 
light, . buoyant, agile." Sam., lango ; Totig., id. ; Tah. 
ra'o; K. Zeal., ngaro ; Haw., nalo ; Marqu., nao ; N. 
Celebes, rango ; Sanguir, lango, fly. 

Sanskr., laiigh, to jump, step over, surpass, ase 
laghu (" Le., larighu," Benfey), light, not heavy, quick, 
young ; laghat, wind. 

Greek, Ao7<i>?, a hare ; ska^y?, small, little, insignificant 
^p a X v V>- a spider. 

Lat., aranea, a spider, cobweb. Perhaps rana, a frog 
with the underlying conception of "jumping." 

Lano, s. Sam., a lake ; lalano, deep, of water. Tong. 
ano, a lake. Tah., ra'o, a fleet at sea. Fiji., dra.no, lake 
or piece of standing water. N. Celebes, rano, water. S. 
Celebes (Bolanghitau), rano, id. ; bo-rango, the sea. Borneo 
(Dayak-Idaan), danau, water. Pulo-Nias, idano, water. 
Mai., danait, lake. Malg., rana, the sea. N. Guinea 
(Motu), rano, water ; (Kirapuno), rana, id. 

Sanskr., dhanv (Ved.), to run, flow. 

I leave to abler hands to determine the possible con- 
nection of the compound in such river-names of the Indo- 
European branches of the Aryan family &3 Eri-danus, Bho- 
danus, Vanubis, (Aavov&is), &c, with the Sanskr. dhanv. 
Whether the Polynesian or the Vedic be the older form, 
they are evidently related. 

Lanu, s. Sam., colour ; v. to wash off salt water, to 
oil the body all over. Fiji., dranu, fresh water ; v. to wash 
off in fresh after bathing in salt water. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 187 

Sanskr., rarij, to dye, to colour. 

Greek, paivw, to sprinkle, be sprinkled ; pavm, a drop, a 
spot; pavTr/pioi, sprinkled, spotted, defiled ; perhaps also 
pa£, a grape, and peyev?, a dyer; \eyvov, the coloured 
edging or border of a garment. 

A.-Sax., ge-regnan, to colour, 

Lapa, v. Haw., to jump, spring about ; s. a ridge between 
two depressions, a protuberance ; lapalapa, v. to rise or 
stand up, as water-bubbles in boiling, to protrude, as a 
name ; s. flame, blaze, an undulating, rolling country ; adj. 
flat or square, where the corners are prominent. Sam., 
lapa, to be flat; lalapa, flat, compressed. Tah., rapa, the 
blade of a paddle or oar ; raparapa, orapa, any square 
piece. Fiji., laba, to strike or smite, as water against a 
canoe, as fish with their tails, to kill treacherously. N. 
Zeal., raparapa, the sole of the foot. Malg., mi-repak, to 
creep (ramper), prostrate oneself; mi-reperip, volatile, 
inconstant ; mi-raverav, to lean over, to totter, vacillate ; 
Utim, fall, to fall, ready to fall ; lapats, squint-eyed. 
Sunda., lumpu, lame, limping ; lumpat, to leap ; lamboe, 

ii P . 

Lat., labo, to totter, be on the point of falling ; labor, to 
slip, glide, fall ; lapsus, any quick motion, slip, fall ; a-lapa, 
a slap in the face ; lamlo, to lap. 

Greek, Xotttw, to lap with the tongue ; \aika*}r, a 
hurricane with clouds and thick darkness, whirlwind 
sweeping upwards ; Xartyqpo?, light, nimble, swift. 

Welsh, llabiaw, to slap ; llab, a stroke ; llepiaw, to lap, 
lick ; rJiamp, to rise, reach over, rising up, vaulting. 

. Sax., lappian, to lap, lick ; rew-pnnil, headlong; loppe, a 
flea ; ge-limpan, to happen, befall. Possibly such English 
words as flap, slap, slope, are connected with this family. 

Sanskr., lamb, to fall, to set as the sun, to hang down- 
ward. Perhaps Idbh, to throw, to direct ; reb, rev, to go by 
leaps, to flow. 

The Sax. lippa, Swed. Idpp, Lat. labium, labrum, and 
the Sunda. lambee, lip, probably refer themselves better 
to the Polynesian lapa, "protuberance," than to Xa/Sw, 



Gooole 



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i88 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Xaftftavia, whether id the sense of " to take " or 
" receive." 

Lapu, s. Haw., ghost, apparition of some one dead, 
night-monster; lapu-lapu, v. to collect together in small 
heaps, to pick up, as sticks for a faggot; lapu-wale, lit. 
"only a ghost," nothing substantial, foolish, worthless; 
alcua-lcvpw, a spectre. N. Zeal., rapu, to seach for. Tah., 
rapu, ta-rapu, to mix together, squeeze, scratch, be in 
confusion. Fiji., ravu, to kill, smash, break. 

Sanskr., rihhu, i.e., rabh-u (Benfey), name of certain 
deities ; according to Pictet, good spirits in the Vedic 
mythology ; rabh, to seize, to take ; rabhas, zeal. 

Lat., rabies, rage, frenzy. 

Welsh, rhaib, fascination ; rhcibus, a sorcerer, a witch. 

Touching the Sanskrit rbhu, Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 
607), says: "Leur nom comme adjectif, siguiiie habile, 
adroit, inventif, et. commc substantif, artisan habile surtout 
k forger et a construire des chaTs. II derive de la rac. 
rabh.temerc, agf-rc, avec 3. [*&:., oidiri, iacipere. Cf. rbhva, 
rbhvan, hardi, entreprenant, adroit. 

" Lassen, le premier, a rapproche' de rbhu le grec 'Optpevs, 
tout en avouaut que les traditions relatives au chantre 
thrace n'offrent aucun rapport avec celles du EigvMa, 
Kuhn adopte ee rapprochement, en cherchant dans les 
Elfes de la Germanie, grands amateurs de musique et de 
chant, un chainou qui relie Orphee aux rbhus de l'lnde. 

" Si Ton part, en effet, d'une forme arbh = rabh, dont le 
derive 1 rbhu serait un affaiblis3ement, il devient facile 
d'y rattacher, avec Kuhn, le scand. alfr, ags. «•//, anc. 
all. alp, &c, nom d'une classe d'esprits qui tiennent 
une grande place dans la mythologie du Word, et les 
superstitions populaires de l'Allemagne et de l'Angle- 
terre. Leurs attributs sont plus varies que ceux de leurs 
confreres de l'lnde, et leur sphere d'action est plus 
itendue. lis se divisent en plusieurs classes, les blancs, 
les noira, les gris, les bruns, suivant leur caractere bon on 
malin ; lea uns beaux et gracieux, les autres laids et dif- 
formea. Ces derniers se confondent plus ou moins avec les 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 189 

nains, dvergar, qui se rapprochent des rbhiis par leur 
Labile te comme artisans et forgerons. D'un autre cote, 
les Alfar lumineux qui habitent l'air, et qui se plaisent 
a la musique et a la danse, ressemblent mieux aux Maruts 
indiens, genies de l'air qui, a leur tour, s'identifient par 
plusieurs points avec les rbhus. On voit ainsi qu'un 
fond commun de croyauces, simple a son origine, s'est 
developpe plus tard dans plusieurs directions ehez les 
Indiens et les Germains." And also with the Poly- 
nesians. 

Latu, s. Sam., head-builder, chief constructor ; word 
not found in the other Polynesian dialects. Fiji., ratii, 
equivalent to Master, Sir. Jav., ratu, chief, noble. Sulu 
Isls., datu, id. Mai., datoh, chief, head-man. 

Zend, ratu, head, chief. See M. Hang's Essay on the 
Parsis, p. 175, n. 1. 

Law A, v. Haw., to work out, even to the edge or boun- 
dary of a land, i.e, leave cone uncultivated, to fill, suffice, 
be enough. Sam., lava, he enough, to complete; adv. 
indeed, very. Tah., rava-i, to suffice. N. Zeal., rava-kore, 
lit. "not full," poor. Fiji., rawa, accomplish, obtain, 
possess. 

Sanskr., labh, lavibh, to obtain, get, acquire, enjoy, 
undergo, perform; Idoha, acquisition, gain; rabh, to seize, 
to take. 

Lith., lota, the work of each day, gain, labour; lobis, 
goods, possessions ; pra-lohti, become rich ; api-lobe, after 
work, i.e., evening. 

A. Pictet refers the Lat. labor, work, to this same family, 
as well as the Irish lobliar and the Welsh llafur. He 
also, with Eopp and Bcufey, refers the Goth, arbaiths, 
labour, work, to the Sanskr. rabh = arl, as well as the 
Anc. Slav., rdbu, a servant. Euss., rabota, labour. Gael, 
airbke, gain, profit, product. 

This Polynesian lawa is doubtless akin to 

Lawe, v. Haw., to carry, bear, take from out of ; lawe- 
lawe, to wait upon, to attend on, serve, to handle, to feel 
of; adj. pertaining to work. Tah., rave, to receive, to 



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too THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

take, seize, lay hold of ; s. work, operation ; rave-rave, a 
servant, attendant. Rarot, Paum., rave, id. Sam., lave, 
to be of service; lave-a, to be removed, of a disease; 
lavea'i, to extricate, to deliver. Fiji., lave, to raise, lift up. 
Malg., ma-la/a, to take, seize ; rava, pillage, destruction. 
Sunda., rampok, theft. Mid., rampas, me-rabut, take 
forcibly. Motu (N. Guinea), law-haia, to take away. 

Sauskr., labh, rdbh, see previous word, " Lawa." 

Greek, Xapftavto, ika/3ov, take hold of, seize, receive, 
obtain ; \j}fi/ia, income, gain ; \afti}, Xa/3t<;, grip, handle. 

Lat., labor, work, activity ; perhaps also Laverna, the 
goddess of gain or profit, the protectress of thieves ; rapio, 
■I'dptw:. 

Goth., raupjan, to reap, pluck ; raubon, to reave, rob. 
Sax., reqftan, take violently. 

Pers., raftan, to sweep, clean up ; robodan, to rob. 

Lith., ruba, pillage ; rUbina, thief, 

Le'a, s. Haw., le'a-le'a, gladness, merriment, pleasure, 
joy ; v. to delight in, be pleased ; as an intensitive, per- 
fectly, thoroughly, very. N. Zeal, reka, be gay, joyful. 
Tah., re'a-re'a, id. Maruu., eka-eka, id. Sam., tau-le'ade'a, 
a young man. Tong., tau-hka-hka, id., handsome, i'iji., 
leca, good, satisfactory ; vaka-leka, to be happy. Malg., 
rria-rda, flattering. Mai., Iczat, pheasant. 

Lat, Icetiis, glad, joyful; dekdo, delicim. 

Goth., laikan, to skip, leap for joy; laiks, sport, dance; 
ija-leikan, to please. Sax., lieian, id. Swed., leka, to play, 
sport. 

Leo, s. Haw., voice, sound; leo-leo, to wail, as for the 
dead ; leo-leo-a, to curse, bawl. Sam., leo, s. voice, sound ; 
v. to watch, to guard ; leo-leo, a watchman ; leo-leo-a, loud 
talking, clamour. Marqu., eo, voice, speech. Tab., reo, id. 
Tong., leo, id. N. Zeal., reo, id. Paum., reko, id., language. 

Greek, pea, epa, to speak, talk ; pr/fia, word, saying, &c. ; 
faros, said, spoken. 

Lat., rear, ratus, to believe, think, judge; prex, entreaty, 
prayer ; preeor. 

Goth., rathjan, to speak, tell; rodjan, id.; redan, to 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 19 

counsel, provide for, think of. Sax., rmd, speech, discourse, 
counsel ; rcord, speech, language. Perhaps Goth, laian, to 
reprove, revile. A. -Sax., lean. 

Lelo, Haw., also a-lelo, e-lelo, the tongue; o-lelo, to 
speak, talk. Probably connected with Me, the name of a 
chattering bird. Sam., a-lelo, tongue. Tah., a-rero. id- 
small slips, pendant parts of a maro or girdle-cloth ; o-re.ro, 
speech, oration, orator, to speak. N. Zeal., ko-rero, speech, 
rumour. long., elelo, tongue. Marqu., 'e'o, id. Fiji., lali, a 
native drum, a hell. Malg., lela, tongue ; ma-lela, orator. 
MaL, lidah, tongue. Sunda. and Jav., Hat, id. Macassar, 
lelah, id. Biajau, delah, id. 

Sanskr., lal, lad, to sport, dally; lalana, lolling the 
tongue. 

Greek, \a\e<t>, to talk, chat, babble, chirp ; \a\ij, XaXaf, 
&c. 

Lat., lallo, sing a lullaby, 
Welsh, lloliaw, to prattle, babble. 
Russ., leleyv,, to dandle, fondle. 

Lemu, v. Haw., be slow, lag behind ; temu-lemu, walk 
hesitatingly, go slowly; lemu, s. the buttocks, underpart 
of a thing. Sam., leviu, adv. quietly, privately, slowly; 
lemu-lemu, v. to draw the finger across the uose, a sign 
of having had illicit intercourse. Tong., Fiji., hmu, the 
buttocks. N. Zeal., remu, the skirt of a garment. Malg., 
lanwts, back, loins. 

Sanskr., ram, to rest, to like to stay, be delighted, 
rrjoici:, have sexual intercourse. 

Greek, tfpe/ia, gently, quietly, slowly ; yra-Xefte?, without 
pause, constantly ; veo for ptj priv. Benfey refers this to 
the Sanskr. ram. 

Goth., rimis, rest, quietness. 

Lena, v. Haw., to bend, strain, as in drawing a bow, 
to aim, as in shooting. To pull or stretch, as clothes for 
drying or ironing, to strain the eyes, squint. Sam., 
lelena, to spread out in the sun, smooth down, straighten 
out, as new siapo (cloth), distend. Marqu., ena, id. Tah., 
re'a, a fathom measure. 



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[ 9 2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

0. Norse, ylenwj-, to u intend, in the sense of opening the 
eyes wide. Swed., giant, half-opened, ajar, as a door. 
Perhaps Sax. grinnian, to grin, show the teeth. 

Lat., ringor, to open the mouth wide, show the teeth. 

Lepa, s. Haw., a fringe, something waving, flowing, 
pendant, a flag ; v. to roll up the eyes, stand up, as a cock's 
comb, to move or cut obliquely ; ki-lepa, Tca-lcpa, to wave 
or flutter, as a flag; fig. to peddle, hawk about goods. 
(In heathen times those who had goods to sell set a flag 
as a signal.) Another form is lepe, a cock's comb ; adj. dia- 
gonally. Tah., repa, the edge of a garment; ta-repa, to 
shake, flap ; repe, the comb of a fowl. Jfarqu., epe-epe, id. 
Fiji., reva, to shake, flap, 

Sanskr., srip, to creep, to move'; sarpa, a sliding motion, 
a snake; drdpi, Ved. (vid. Pictet, Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 229), 
mantle, clo thing. 

Zend, drafsha, banner, flag, turban. 

Lith., dribti, to wave, hang loosely; droH, cloth ; drap- 
anos, under-garmenfc ; virpu, to waver. 

Greek, peira, to incline, sink, fall, shift about, to happen; 
povi), inclination downwards ; pwmpov, the knocker of 
a door ; pafi&os, rod, wand, switch ; epi>o>, to creep, 
crawl; epirerov, a reptile, snake. 

Lat,, repo, to creep, crawl; serpo, id.; serpens, reptile, 
worm. 

Welsh, serju, to vacillate, have the vertigo; sarff, a 
serpent. Tri^k a.arpan, the swan. 

LEPO, s. Haw., dirt, dust, earth, ground ; v. to be dirty, 
defiled, turbid. N, Zeal., repo, mud, swamp. Marqu., epo, 
id. Tah., repo, earth, dirt, filth. Sam., lepa, pond, stag- 
nant water, muddy ; lepu, to be stirred up, as water. 
Tong., lepa, a well. Fiji., lobolobo, soft, muddy; rebu, to 
stir up the water by splashing when fishing. Malg., 
lembuk, gust ; levuh, corruption ; rhomha, balsam. Mai., 
lumpor, mud ; lumbut, soft. 

Sanskr., lip, to anoint, smear, stain; lepa, mortar, 
plaster, stain, spot. 

Greek, \nra, 7a-rra<;, X*.7W, grease, fat, tallow ; Xnrapes, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 193 

fatty, unctuous; Xtvapty;, persistent (sticky); aXettpm, to 
anoint with oil, daub, plaster. 

Lat., lippus, blear-eyed, running, dropping; ligueo, be 
liquid, fluid ; gleba, a lump of earth, clod, a field. 

Welsh, lupan, soft, smooth. 

PoL, Up, glue. Slav., liepiti, to glue. 

Lith., limpu, lipti, to stick. 

Lew A, s. Haw., the upper air, region of clouds ; v. to 
swing, float in the air, move back and forth ; hoo-lewa, to 
vibrate, float in the air, carry between two persons, as a 
corpse, a funeral. Tah., rewa, the firmament, an ahysa ; 
rewa-rewa, to fly about, as a flag. Mangr., rewa, the over- 
hanging firmament, a tent, a flag. N. Zeal., rewa, the 
eyelid. Marqu., ewa, to suspend ; s. the middle. Sam., 
leva (of time), long since; v. be protracted. Fiji., rewa,, 
high, height ; vaka-rewa, to lift up, to hoist, as a sail. 
Malg., Ufa, v. to fan oneself, s. flight ; rafraf, a fan, 

Goth., luftus, the air. S;ix., lyfti, air. arch, vault. 0. 
EngL, lift, air. 

Lat., limbics (?), fringe, flounce. 

Sanskr., dev, div, primarily " jacere, jaculare," according 
to A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 466), subsequently " to 
play at dice," play generally. The permutation of d and 
I may be observed in the Latin levir, brother-in-law (the 
husband's younger brother) = Sanskr. devri, devara, id. 

If dev or div has derived the sense of " throwing dice " 
from an older sense " jacere, jaculare," to throw, to hurl, 
that sense may be a derivative from a still older one, " to 
lift up, swing about, be suspended " = the Polynesian 
lewa, rewa, " to be suspended, to vibrate." And thus we 
can also understand the origin of the Goth, luftus, the 
Sax. lyfte, the 0. Norse loft, Swed. lowe.ro., lofwa, Engl. 
luff. 

Li, v. Haw., to hang by the neck, to strangle, to furl, 
as a sail, to see, observe, fear, shrink back with dread ; 
adj. trembling, shaking, as from an ague fit; li-a, to 
ponder, think, start suddenly, as a dog at a fly, be cold, 
shiver ; li-ki, to gird, tie up tightly, to throng, be troubled, 

vol. in. s 



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194 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

be hustled, as by a crowd, be stiff, as a limb. Sam., li, to 
set firmly together, as the teeth; s. a sinnet fastening; 
li'a, a chief's dream ; li'anga, a giddy height ; li'a-li'a, to 
be afraid of ; tia'i, to whirl round ; lialia'i, to shake the 
head. Tah., ri, to hang, suspend ; ri-a, a vision, phantom; 
rCai, be seized with fear ; ria-rta, horror, disgust ; ri-ta, 
the spasm or convulsions in lockjaw; v. to bite, gnash 
the teeth ; rita-mata, to sparkle, glisten, as the eyes in a 
rage. Tong., li, to toss; li-ti, throw away; lia-lia, dis- 
agreeable, abomiuable. Rarot., ri-ti, to tie on. Fiji., lia- 
lia, foolish, crazy. Malg., man-ri, to strangle, compress. 
Mai., lilit, to coil, curl. 

Greek, evyew, to shudder with fear, to shiver with cold ; 
evyo% cold, frost; <ppta<ra, be rough, to bristle, to shiver 
with cold ; tppt/et), a rippling as of water, a shivering with 
fear or cold, cold, frost; tj>pi%, id. 

Lat., rigeo, be stiff, hard, benumbed, as with cold ; 
rigidus ; frlgeo, he. rigid with cold, benumbed ; frigus, cold, 
frost 

Sanskr., rej, to tremble (Ved.) 

Goth., reiran, to tremble ; reiro, earthquake. 

Ll'l, adj. Haw., obsoL; li'ili'i, small, little. Tah., ri'i, id. 
Mangr., riki, id. N. Zeal., riki-riki, id. Marqu., 'iki'iki, 
id. Sam., li'i, to be small ; li'ili'i, ripples ; also ni'ini'i, 
small, minute Sunda., letik, small. 

Sanskr., lie, be small ; leca, smallness, a little. 

Greek, 6\tyos, small, little, few. 

Goth., leitils, little. Sax., lytel, id. 

To the same root, with the sense of " being small, little," 
refer themselves probably the following : — 

Liha 1 , s. Haw., a nit, the egg of a louse. Tah., riha, 
id. Sam., Tong., lia, id. TagaL, lisa, id. 

Sanskr., likskd, a nit, young louse, a poppy seed; rikshd, 
a nit, a mote in a sunbeam. 

Lat., ricinus, a tick. 

LlHA 2 , v. Haw., be sick at the stomach, nauseate. Sam., 
Ufa, be thin, wasted, as the belly from disease ; malifa-lifa, 
a hollow, sunken place in the ground ; faa-tifa, draw in, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 195 

as the abdomen, be sloping, as a road. Malg., mi-lefa, to 
flee away, to leave a place. 

Sanskr., rich, to evacuate, to leave, ptcpl. pf. pass. ; rikka, 
empty, purged, free from ; rechana, purging, evacuation, 



Lat., littquo, to leave, forsake; re-Hctua, rn-lujuvs. 

Greek, "Kik/mk, \tKvov, a win no wing- fan. 

Ane. Slav., rieslieti, to dissolve, to cause to pass away, 
deliver. 

I do not refer to the Greek \errr<t> or the Gothic laiia 
and af-lifnan, which Benfey refers to the Sanskrit rich 
It may be so ; but there is enough without them. The 
Greek X(*-/ios, Xik-vov, have no etymon assigned them in 
Liddell and Scott. 

Like, adj. Haw., be like, similar, resemble. N. Zeal, 
rite, equal. Earot., ariie, id., like. Malay., litjim, be even, 
like. 

Goth., ga-leiks, like ; ga-leikon, to liken. Sax., lie, like, 
similar. 

Liko, v. Haw., to swell, expand, be fat, shine, glisten; 
s. the shining white in the eyes ; li'o-li'o, bright, shining ; 
ma-lfo, first light of the morning. N. ZeaL, rito, a bud. 
Tah., rito, to swell, as buds of leaves or flowers. Sam., Wo, 
a circle; li'o-jingota,, a halo round the moon; ma-li'o, a 
land-crab. Fiji., liso, to glisten, be fiery, as of the eyes. 
Malg., likouk, eclat, splendour, glare, brightness. 

Sanskr., rich, to shine ; riksha, a star, also a bear. Pah, 
ikka, id. Eeng., rich, id. Marath., risa, id. 

Greek, 'Ap/cros, a bear, the constellation Ursa Major, a 
kind of crab ; dp/crjXos, a young panther. 

Lat., glisco, to swell, grow fat, increase, spread ;■ glesuni, 
amber; ursus, a bear; Ursa, name of a constellation. 
French, lisse, smooth, glossy, 

Goth., glit-munjan, to shine, glitter, glisten. Sax., glite- 
nan, glisnian, to shine, sparkle. 

Lima, s. Haw., arm, hand. Sam., lima, id., fore-leg of 
an animal. Tah., Earot., rima, id. Tonga., nima, id. 
Marqu., ima, id. ; and through all the Polynesian dialects 



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196 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

this word signifies the number "five." Even the New 
Zealanders, while using the form ringa for hand, express 
the number five with rima. Among the Polynesian con- 
geners in the Malay Archipelago, as well as their Malay 
successors, this word is of universal usage, either as an 
expression for hand, arm, or for the number five. Celebes, 
N. and S., lima, rima, hand and five. Sanguir, lima, id. 
Sulu Island, lima, id. Buru (Cajeli), limamo, hand ; lima, 
five. Amblau, lemanatia, hand ; lima, five. Amboyna, 
lima, rimak, hand. Saparua, rimah, hand. Ceram. 
(Ahtiago and Tobo), niman, hand ; lima, five. Ceram. (Gah), 
numo-nina, hand; lim, five. Ceram. (Wahai), mimare, 
hand ; nima, five. Teor., limin, hand. Goram., imak-nin 
hand; liem, five. Malg., dimi, livii, five. Mai. and Jav. 
lima, five. 

Some uses of this word occur in the Polynesian whicli 
may enable us the better to recognise its West Aryan 
relations. Thus in Haw., lima-lima, v. to handle, employ 
the hands ; hoo-lima-lima, to hire, to bargain for work to 
be done; lima-lau, to carry on the hips; lima-iki, to fall 
upon one, as a robber, to assassinate. In Sam., lima-lima, 
v. to do quickly, to be elever at all work ; lima-la'u, a 
boaster ; lima-mulu, slow of hand, stingy ; faa-lima-lima, 
snatch covetously at things being distributed. Tab., rima- 
haa, a greedy, dishonest person, one who snatches at 
everything ; rima-kere, rima-io, a generous, liberal persoD. 

Goth., niman, to take, take away, receive ; anda-neu, 
anda-numts, a receiver. Sax., neman, to take. 0. Engl., 
nimmer, a thief ; nimble, lively, swift, applied chiefly to 
motions of hands or feet. Probably Sax. lim, limb ; Icel. 
limr ; Swed. lem, id. 

Greek, vepa), to deal out, distribute; Mid., to hold, 
manage ; ve/vrjais, distribution ; vefterap, dispenser of rights, 
avenger; vofiew;, a dealer out, distributor; 61 vo/tei?, the 
ribs of a ship, also the rigging ; vo/*ij, division, distribution. 

Lat., nwmerus, number, a part of a whole, a member; 
nwmdlus, rigging of a vessel; numella, fetters, stocks. 
Quaere' mem-bmm, a limb, member of the body ? Benfey 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 197 

( San sk. -Engl. Diet.) refers membrum to Sanskr. marman 
a vital organ or member, a joint of a limb, and derives 
marman from mri, to die. It may be so, but I fail to see 
the application of the idea of death to express, or from 
which to deduce, the idea of a joint or a limb. Whatever 
the derivation of marman, I hardly think that the Lat. 
membrum originally sprang from the same root ; the more 
so in view of the Ceram. (Wahai) variant — "mimare" — 
of the universal Polynesian lima. 

Anc. Slav., su-nimati, to bring together, congregate. 
Rnss., s'nimati, to take away ; vy-nimati, to seize. 

Though apparently one of the ancient forms by which 
the early Aryans expressed the sense of hand, arm, had 
become obsolete and superseded by other synonyms before 
the West Aryans left their primitive abodes, yet traces of 
the once common word are manifest, in sense and form, in 
v$fi.w, vopem, nmneri'.r., mirnelius, jiinian, lira-, nimati. The 
Greek, the Gothic, and the Slavonic pointing to the hand 
as " the taker, the distributor," and the sense of the Latin 
form indicating that the hand was also used as a counter, 
the "numerator," Mr. A. Pictet refers this family of 
words to the Sanskrit nam, to bow, bend, stoop. Eenfey 
seems to favour the same derivation ; but the argument by 
which Pictet supports his proposition (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 
16 and 691) seems to me untenable in view of the direct 
Polynesian lima, rima, nima, of whose existence or appli- 
cation Pictet was apparently ignorant. 

If Sanskrit offers no allied word to the Greek, Gothic, 
Slavonic, Latin, and Polynesian, it may be permissible to 
look to some of the tribes of the Hindu-Kush, if haply 
they may have preserved some reminiscence of this word. 
I find there, in the Gilgit dialect of the Shina, that lam- 
oyM signifies to " take hold ; " oyki being the infin. in- 
flection, leaves the radical lam to express the sense 
Whether a corruption of some lost Sanskrit or Zend 
word, or itself some ancient variation of the primary word 
of the Gothic, Greek, and Polynesian, I am unable to say. 

Limu, s. Haw., sea-weed, sea-grass, moss ; lima, v. to 



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198 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

turn, change, have various appearances ; limu-limu, turn- 
ing, whirling, curling, of the wind, instability of conduct, 
slippery, tricky ; limu-a, a long rain, constant flow of 
water. Sam., limu, seaweed, moss ; limu-a, moss-grown, 
Tab., rimu, seaweed, moss, Marqu., imu, id, Malg., 
lemuk, meadow, bottom-land. Sunda., ha-limun, moist, 
damp. 

Lat„ limus, s. slime, mire ; adj. oblique, slanting. 

Greek, Xtfivi}, salt marsh or firth, pool of standing 
water ; Xi/wje, harbour, baven, creek ; Xet/zwi', moist, grassy 
place, meadow, holm. Perhaps XiyM/?, humour, gum, 
rheum. 

Sax., Urn, a viscous substance; ge-liman, to glue; slim, 
soft, moist earth. 

Pers., limah, mud. 

Liddell and Scott refer the Greek words quoted above 
to \u/3a, to pour, pour out, shed. I think the Polynesian 
offers a better reference. 

LlNA, adj. Haw., soft, yielding, tough ; Una-Una, tough, 
adhesive, mucous ; s. wet, clayey land ; v. to adhere, stick 
to; papa-Una, the cheek. Tong,, linga, male organ of 
generation; talinga, the ear. Sam., talinga, the ear. 
Tab., ta-ria, id. ; papa-ri'a, the cheek. N. Zeal., ringa, 
the arm, hand ; ta-ringa, the ear. Marqu., papa-ilca, the 
cheek; pua-ika, ear. Fiji., linga, hand. Malg., ta-Knh, 
ear. Pulo Nias, Celebes, ta-lingo,, id. Sulu Islands, 
Mai., te-linga, id. Amboyna (Liang), ti-rina, id. Ceram. 
(Wabai), te-nina-re, id. Buguis, un-ka-linai, to hear. 
Sunda., lengen, arm. Through the Indian Archipelago 
generally, wax is called lilin. 

Sanskr., li, be viscous, be solvable, to melt, adhere to, 
cliDg to j ptcpl. pf. pass., Una. As Benfey gives no 
etymon of the Sanskrit linga, a mark, spot, the phallus 
emblem of Civa, I may be permitted, in view of the above 
Polynesian relatives, to class them all as descendants of a 
root, li or li, alone retained in the Sanskrit. The Sanskrit 
karna, an ear, a rudder, one of the names of Civa, deserves 
some attention in this connection. Benfey classes it 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 199 

under a verb, kam, to pierce or bore, but intimates by the 
■+■ that it has no authoritative references. Now, as it is 
probable that the ear had a name before it was bored, I 
would suggest that karna is a contraction of ha-rina, and 
if so, groups itself with the Polynesian Una, ta-rina, and 
the Sanskrit lingo, 

Greek, pivot, the skin of a living person, the hide of a 
beast; pivov, a hide. No etymon or reference given by 
Liddell and Scott. Atvov, anything made of flax, flax 
itself, a flaxen cord, fish-line, linen cloth. 

Lat„ linum, flax ; lens, lentils, pulse; len titia, toughness, 
flexibility ; lentiscus, the mastich tree, the resin or oil from 
it ; lino, to besmear, daub ; linea, a thread, line, string. 

Probably referring to the same family are the Haw. 
lino, v. to twist, as a string or rope, s. a rope ; N. Zeal., 
rino, a rope ; Marqu., Tab., nino, to twist, spin, a rope. 

Lipi, Lipi-lipi, adv. Haw., sharp, edge-like, as a 
mountain ridge or instrument for cutting; s. an axe. 
Sam., lipi, to die suddenly. Malg., Uf, lefo, ref, a pike, an 
assegay. 

Lat., ripa, shore, bank ; rupes, a rock, cliff, crag. 

Sax., rib, a rib. Icel., rif, id. 

Euss., ribro, a rib. 

Lipo, s. Haw., the deep water of the sea, also the south 
and south-west quarter of the heaven ; adj. deep, shady, 
blue, black, or dark, as from the depth of the sea or from 
a cavern or a forest, dark, sombre. Malg., rivut (?), storm 
tempest. 

Greek, Xtyfr, \t/3o9, the south-west wind. Liddell and 
Scott (Greek-Engl. Diet.) refer this word " probably from 
Xeiffw, because it brought wet." It may be so ; but Africa, 
from the Great Syrtes to Egypt, was called Aifivij by the 
Greeks. Now, if Libya was intended by the Greeks to 
mean the land from which the south-west wind blows, the 
word is apparently a misnomer, for the Cyrenaica bore 
from south to south-east of Greece, and not from south to 
south-west. But to the inhabitants of the Phoenician and 
Cilician coasts of Asia Minor Xti/r would have been a 



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200 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

south-west wind, whether it brought wet or dry weather, 
and those inhabitants, at the time when the Greeks 
may be supposed to have become acquainted with the 
Mediterranean, were Phoenicians of the Hamitic, Chaldaso- 
Arabian race, and as they were by all accounts the earliest 
and the foremost navigators of ancient pre-historic times, 
it ia fair to infer that the name for the south-west point 
of the compass may have been adopted from them by the 
early Greeks when they reached the eastern shores of the 
Mediterranean, as well as by the people occupying the 
Indian Archipelago, among whom the Cushite navigators 
introduced so much of their own folk-lore, aits, and 
probably language. It may not be worth much as a philolo- 
gical argument that the word \nf> as a name for the south- 
west wind has no relation among the other Aryan branches, 
and was unknown alike to the Vedic invaders of India, to 
the Iranians, the Celts, the Teutons, and the Slaves; but 
it tends to support the presumption that, with both 
Greeks and Polynesians, it was a foreign word introduced 
by their early masters and teachers in navigation and 
commerce. To the Greeks of the southern and western 
coasts of Asia Minor it pointed across the sea to Libya and 
the frequent wet winds coming from that direction ; to 
the Polynesians of the Indian Archipelago it pointed to 
the south-west monsoon and the d^ep dark-blue unfathom- 
able ocean in that direction. 

Of the other meaning of the word lipo, viz., "deep 
water, shady, dark colour," &c, no trace remains in the 
Greek, if ever any more than the mere technical expres- 
sion for the south-west wind was adopted by them. If 
lipo, in the sense of " deep water, shady, dark," &c, was 
an Aryan word, I have found no relative or descendant 
of it, unless it underlies the sense of the Latin Idbitina, 
the goddess presiding over funerals, and in whose temple 
the mortuary registers were kept. I know not the deri- 
vation of her name, but the sombre associations and 
trappings connected with death and an "iter ad inferos " 
may well suggest a derivation from a subsequently obso- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, aoi 

lete word, whose early form and sense corresponded with 
the Polynesian lipo, dark, sombre, &o. 

Lo 1 , s. Haw., a bug. Tab., ro, an ant. Tong., lo, id. 
Sam., lo-aia, the black ant ; lo-i, an ant, Paum., ro-i, id. 

Sanskr., lH-td, a spider, an ant 

Lo 2 , v. Obsol. ; lo-lo, s. Sam., a flood ; v. to overflow, 
be wet, of clothes ; lo-fia, flooded ; lo-fu, an obscene term ; 
lo-i-mata, tears. Tali., ro-i-mala, tears; ro-tu, a heavy 
long rain ; ro-fai, gust of wind with shower of rain. Fiji., 
lo-lo, a flowing tide. 

Sanskr., ro-ma, water ; lo-la, a tear. 

Loha, s. Haw., also a-loha, love, affection, gratitude, 
kindness, pity, mercy. Marqu., aoka, id. N. ZeaL, Tab., 
aroka, id. Earot, aroa, id. Sam., alofa, id. Tong., 'ofa, 
id. Gilolo (Gablo), ta-loha, good. 

Sanskr., lubh, to court, to desire ; 'lobha, covetousness. 

Greek, e-Xev-Oepot, free, gentle (vid. Benfey and Liddell 
and Scott, i-Xev-0epos). 

Lat., lubet, it pleases, is agreeable ; libel, liber, libido, 

Goth., Hubs, dear, beloved ; ga-laubs, precious, costly ; 
ga-liibs, id. ; lubains, hope ; lubo, love. Sax., lufian, luvian, 
to love ; leaf, love. 0. Norse, lofa, to praise, promise. 

LOHI, v. Obsol. ; alohi, v. Haw., a, euphon. to shine, 
be bright, sparkling ; alohi-lohi, sliine bright, as a light or 
fire. Tong., alojia, a volcano. 

Sanskr., rohit, the sun ; rohila, red, the colour ; rdhini, 
lightning, blood ; lohita, red, blood, saffron ; lohilaka, red, 
a ruby, the planet Mars. Probably connected with the 
verbs ruck, loch, to shine ; rochis, light, flame ; roka, light ; 
ruck, s. light, splendour, beauty. 

Lat., luceo, shine ; lux, light, &c. 

Greek, \v^vo<;, light, lamp, illumination ; XuySo?, white 
marble. 

A.-Sax., leoht, lioht, light. Perhaps also akin to the 
Lat. russus, rosa, ruber, rufus. 

Loko, pr. Haw., in, within, the inner part of persons 
and things ; in compounds, temper, disposition ; also a 
pond, a collection of water; loko-ia, a fish-pond. Tong., 



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zo2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

loto, the centre, middle, what is enclosed, also mind, 
temper, disposition ; lo-lotu, deep, depth. N. Zeal., roto, 
within, a poo). Tah., roto, id., pond, lagoon. Sam., loto, 
in the midst, a deep hole, the interior, the heart, desire, 
will ; loto-a, an enclosure ; loto-i, be in the middle ; loto- 
nu'u, love of country. Marqu., oto, within, bottom, in- 
terior. Fiji., loco, middle joint of the yard of a canoe. 

Goth., ga-lukan, to lock, shut, enclose. Sax., he, hce, 
an enclosed place. Swed., lucka, has the double sense of 
a shutter and of a gap, breach, chasm. 

Lole, v. Haw., also loli, turn over, turn inside out, to 
flay, skin, as an animal, to change, to alter. N. Zeal, 
rori, id. Tah,, rore, to wrench or pinch ; rari, to wash or 
cleanse; ta-roria, twisted about, as branches in a gale of 
wind. Sam., lole, to rub smooth. 

Closely connected, if not a mere variant of the fore- 
going, is the Polynesian Haw., lu e, luli, to shake, vibrate, 
overturn; Tali., rure-rure, the trembling of the voice in 
chanting ; ruri, to change, shift about, pervert. 

Sanskr., lud, lid, to agitate, shake, trouble ; ptcple. of 
pf. pass., lo$ita, troubled, agitated ; lola, shaking, tremu- 
lous ; Ivld, the tongue. 

To this family doubtless refer themselves the English, 
German, and Swedish roll, rollen, rulla, as well as troll, 
trull, stroll; but I know not their Gothic or Saxon an- 
cestors. 

Welsh, rkoliaw, troliaw, to roll, troll, whirl; troll, a 
roller; trtdiaw, to drill. 

It may be interesting to note that in the Hawaiian, not 
only lole, v. signifies " to flay, to skin, as an animal," but 
lole is also a general name for "clothing, garments." As 
hogs and dogs are never flayed when cooked for food, and 
their skins were never employed for the purposes of cloth- 
ing by any Polynesian tribe in the Pacific, the fact that 
the expression for flaying an animal was also used to desig- 
nate clothing, garments, covering of the body, brings us 
back to the time when the Polynesians lived in places where 
the skins of animals were employed for clothing ; beyond 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 203 

the Pacific, beyond the Malay Archipelago, and probably 
in a clime where the skins of animals afforded warmth as 
well as covering for the body. 

Loma, v. Haw., be lazy, slow, awkward. Sam., loma, 
be quiet ; luma, disgrace, reproach. Tah., roma, to shrink, 
become less; ruma, gloom, as of evening, sulienness, sad- 
ness; ruma-ruma, be dark, gloomy, sullen, sad. Fiji., 
luma, ashamed ; druma, foolish, stupid. 

Sanskr., rumra, tawny. 
' Sax., yloming, twilight. Engl., gloom, gloaming, glum. 
Dutch, lommer, shade; loom, dull, heavy, slow. Swed., 
loma, to drag the legs in walking; glamig, wan, languid, 
lead-coloured; bleak ; glomma, to forget. 

Lomi, v. Haw., to rub, press, squeeze ; lumi, lulumi, to 
gather in a small compass, to crowd, come together with a 
rush ; s. a crowd of people. Tong., lolomi, to press down, 
defer, put off. Tah., rumi, to press, rub, wring as a cloth, 
to look away from a person or thing ; romi-romi, to hide 
or conceal. Sam., lomi, to press on, knead gently, to press 
under, to suppress. Marqu., omi, to press, crush. Fiji., 
ronibo, be full, filled. 

Lat, glomus, a ball ; globus, any round mass, lump, ball, 
crowd, as of people ; gloinero. Possibly Iwmbus, loin. 

I know not the Gothic or Saxon forms of the English 
lump, dump, plump, though both sense and sound would 
seem to indicate their connection. Bat the Sax. leoma, 
utensils, Eng. lumber, useless and cumbersome things 
put away, doubtless refer themselves to the Polynesian 
lomi or some ancient equivalent form in mb, like the 
Fijian rombo, and of which the Latin glomus and globus 
are but differentiated expressions. 

Lono, v. Haw., to hear, observe, obey ; pass., it is said, 
reported; s. report, fame, tidings. Sam., longo, to hear, 
report ; s. sound ; longoma, to hear ; longonoa, he deaf ; 
longo-longoa, be famed, renowned. Tah., roa, report, fame, 
notoriety ; pa-roo, famous ; tui-roo, id. Marqu., ono or oko 
(k for ng), sound, to hear. N. ZeaL, rongo, to hear, to sound, 
report, news, Tong., ongo, sound, tidings. Fiji., rongo, 



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204 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

id. law., runu, to hear. By the usual exchange of I and 
n, perhaps the Haw. nana, to bark, growl, and the N. Zeal. 
nganga, noise, uproar, refer themselves to this family. 

Sanskr., ran, to shout, to sound; raiia, noise; rana- 
rana, mosquito. 

1'e.rs., Idnah, cry, noise; Idndan, to cry, to bark; ka-rdnak, 
a raven. 

Irish, lonach, talkative, a babbler; Ion, a blackbird; r'an, 
ranach, a cry, roarings. 

Lat., rana, a frog. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 474) refers the Greek Kopa>if>), 
a crow, a jackdaw, to the Sanskrit ran. Perhaps the 
Swedish rona, to be aware of, to experience, apprendre, 
goes back to the Polynesian lono or the Sanskrit ran. 

Lu, v. Haw., to scatter, throw away, as small things, 
sow, as grain, shake, dive, plunge; luu, id., spill out, flow 
rapidly, rush, overturn ; luai, to vomit ; lulu, to shake, 
scatter; luku, destroy, slay, s. slaughter. Sam., lulu, to 
shake violently ; lu-e, id. ; lutu, to rattle, make a hollow 
sound in the water with the hand ; lu-ai, spit out, vomit ; 
lu-o, be rough, of the sea, be rainy, be in consternation. 
Tah., ru, to he in a hurry ; ru-ai, to vomit ; ruru, to shake, 
tremble; rutu, to beat, as a drum ; Mang., ruku, to dive ; 
rutu, to beat, as a drum. Marqu., uku, to dive ; uiu, to 
beat, strike. N. Zeal., ruhu, to dive. Fiji., lu, to run or 
leak out; lu-a, to vomit; lutu, to fall or drop down. 
Malg., luai, vomit. Mai., lulca, wound. 

Sanskr., l-A, to cut, clip, destroy, wound ; I'&ni, harvest, 
according to Pictet ; rice, according to Benfey ; ru 2, 
ferire, secare. Vid. A. Pictet, who in " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," ii. 
202, refers lota to l&, spoils, booty ; but Benfey makes no 
mention of Idta, and refers lotra, stolen goods, booty, as a 
corruption of loptra, to lup, to break, destroy. The proba- 
bilities are that the derivatives of Id in lup, lush, lumb, &c, 
were formed in analogy with the derivatives of tu and 
similar monosyllabic roots. Thus, in this instance, from 
ru, to hurt, we have r&ksha, rugged, rough; ruth, to strike, 
to fell ; rudh, to obstruct, &c. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



205 



Greek, Xuw, to loosen, unfasten, to dissolve, break up ; 
\vt}, dissolution, separation ; \vrrjp, a deliverer ; \vrpov, 
price paid, ransom ; Xv/mj, outrage, ruin, destruction ; evm, 
kvatov, 6UC05, &c. 

Lat., luctor, to wrestle ; liictamen; lucrum, gain, profit; 
soho, to loosen, separate, so-lulus; ruo, to fall, tumble 
down, niina; ructo, to spit out, belch out; ruga, wrinkle 
— Sanskr. rUfcsha. 

Gotb., laus, empty ; lausjan, loosen ; fra-lusnan, to 
perish. 

Irish, lot, rapine. 

Anc. Slav., loviti, to capture. Pol., low, booty. 

Lua, s. Haw., a pit, hole, cave; v. to dig a hole ; also 
in ancient times a process of killing a man. by breaking 
his back or bones; lua-lua, be flexible, pliant, soft, old 
garments, a road with many small ravines crossing it ; 
lua-u and lua-ni, a parent ; lua-Mne, an old woman. 
Mang., rue-ine, id. Sam., lua, hole, pit ; lua-o, an abyss. 
Tah., rua., hole, pit ; rua-rua, to slander, to backbite ; rufa, 
worn out, as garments ; rua-u, old, stricken in years ; s. old 
man or woman. Tong., luo, hole. N. Zeal., rua, id. Fiji., 
rusa, decayed, perished. Malg., lon.kh, lualca, hole, cave, 
pierced. 

Greek, rpven, rpvyto, to rub down, wear out, waste; 
Tpvo?, toil, labour ; rpwra, rpup,i\, a hole ; -rpimavov, a borer, 
auger ; rpv^m, a tattered garment, rags ; Tpv<pij, softness, 
delicacy ; Opv-nrw, break in pieces. Liddell and Scott refer 
these words to t«/m», to rub, rub away, as derivatives of it, 
wear out, and reipa>, to the Sanskrit tri, to pass oyer, .hasten, 
fulfil, &c. Benfey also concurs in that derivation when 
he refers rpvpa, a hole, and rpuravr], the tongue of a 
balance, to the same tri. With due deference to so great 
authorities, I would suggest that the above group of Greek 
words be referred to the Sanskrit ru, lu, Itedere, secare, 
with the prefix ( ; and they would thus at once fall into 
line with their Polynesian relatives, whose development of 
sense is perfectly analogous to the Greek group, though 
their development of form has been arrested. It may be 



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206 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

noted, moreover, as distinctive of the two roots, tri and ru, 
that while from the former — to pass over frequently, to 
rub, to smoothen — the idea of " young, fresh, a youth " 
(taruna), " soft, delicate " (repyv), " tender, soft, and child- 
hood " (tener), were developed, the root ru, lu, gave birth 
to the idea of "old age, weakness, crumpled, flexible, as an 
old garment ; " lua, lua-u, rpvxoi. 

Lat., trua, trulla, a tray, ladle, basin ; ruo, to tumble 
down, but whose primary sense must have been " to dig," 
as evidenced in the phrase " rui.a it ca-sa,' and in rutrum, 
a spade, mattock. Qujere rus, country, from ruo, to dig, 
cultivate ? 

Goth., riurs, mortal, corruptible. Scand., rye ; Swed., 
rycha, pull up, pluck out. 

Aug. Slav., ryti, to dig ; rurati, to tear away. 

Irish, ruam, a spade ; runihar, a mine ; ruarnhar, labour. 

Lu'l, adj. Haw., obsol.; ko-lu'i-lu'i, indistinct. Tah., rui, 
adj. be dark or blind, & night ; a-rui, id. ; ta-rui, be black, 
as the sky, lowering, Paum., riiki, night 

Greek, Xvyij, darkness, gloom ; rjXvyij, shadow, darkness ; 
jjXvf , adj. id. 

Irish, loch, dark. 

Lum, adj. Haw., tiresome ; v. be fatigued with labour, 
oppressed with grief or a burden ; s. fatigue. Tah., ruhi, 
sleepy, drowsy ; ruki-ruhia, aged ; tu-rvlie, drowsy, 
sleepy. N. Zeal., ruruhi; feeble. Sam., pulupulusi, be 
sick, of a chief. Tong., puluhi, id. 

Sanskr., ruj, to break, to pain, afflict with disease; s. 
pain, sickness; rujd, id. 

Greek, Xt*y/>os, sad, gloomy, dismal ; Xwyos, ruin, mischief, 
death ; XeuyaXeos, wretched, pitiful. 

Lat., hir/eo, to mourn, be afflicted. 

The Polynesian liCi and luhi may be variants, as Xi"yij 
and Xoayo?, of the same root. 

Luka, adj. Haw., obsol. ; luka-luha, the appearance of 
flourishing, thrifty vegetables ; nuka (n for I), full, plump ; 
nuka-nuka, fat, plump, smooth, as young animals or per- 
sons. To this probably refers itself the Haw. and Sam, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 207 

litau, the petals of a plant, the leaves of the taro plant, 
boiled herbs generally. Perhaps also the Tah. rutu, a 
mountain plantain. I refer this word and its underlying 
conception to the 

Sanskr., ruch, to shine, to please, be bright, sweet; 
rochana, splendid, pleasing, the name of several plants ; 
rockdka, an onion, a plantain; lochaka, a plantain. In 
" Orig. Ind.-Eur.," i. 299, A. Pictet says : " Dansles langues 
europeennes, e'est la forme Ink qui doinine, comme on Ie 
voit par Xewras, luceo ; goth., liuhath, lux; irland., laiche ; 
eyuir., lluch, id. ; anc. slav., luc'a, rayon, &e. Je n'hesite 
done pas a rattaeher a la meme racine que ro'cana et 
ro'caka, les noma germaniques et lith. slaves de l'oignon 
et de Tail; ang.-sax., Icac; scand., laukr ; anc. all., lauh 
(avec mutation reguliere du k primitif); lith., lu'kat; 
anc. slav. et russe, luku, ail, et lukovitza, oignon ; 
pol., luk, &e. Le laghmani (dn Caboul) ariXkh, nous 
ram&ne a la forme rue. II est probable que l'oignon a 
ete ainsi nomine" de l'eclat caractenstique de ses pelli- 
cules." 

Ldla, adj. Haw., calm, as the wind, smooth, as the 
sea, lazy, indolent; synon. with, and probably a dia- 
lectical variation of, lulu, a calm place under lee of an 
island or precipice. Mang., ruru; Tah., rurua, shelter 
from the wind ; pa-rum, a veil, curtain, to screen. N. 
Zeal., ruru, close, hidden. Fiji., ruru, calm ; drudru, dull, 
stupid. 

0. Norse, lura, lazy, indolent. Swed,, lur, a nap, light 
sleep. Engl. (Cumberland), lurry, to loiter. 

Lulu, s. Sam., owl Tong., Fiji., lulu, id. Tah., ruru, 
name of albatross, also of a land-bird like the woodpecker. 
Haw., nunu (n for I), pigeon ; referable perhaps to 

Sanskr., uMka, an owl. 

Lat., ulula, id. 

Sax., ula, ule, id. 

Lufe, s. Haw., a kite ; lupe-a-keke, the sea-eagle. Sam., 
Fak., lupe, pigeon. Tah., rupe, id.; rupo-rupo, be giddy, 
to reel, stagger. Fiji., rube, to hang up, suspend. Sunda., 



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2o8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

lumpat, to flee, to fly. Mai., rehah, to fall, to tumble 
down. 

Sanskr., ropa, an arrow ; ropandkd, a bird (Turbus 
salica), Benfey refers these to ruk, to grow. I think 
that doubtful. 

Greek, pep.fiw, turn round and round ; pe/j.0i}, roving ; 
pofi8o$, a spinning, whirling motion. Perhaps Ko-Xvp.0K, 
a sea-bird, a diver, a grebe. Liddell and Scott give no 
etymon of this word. 

Lat, co-lumba, a dove, pigeon ; pa-lumbes, a wood -pigeon, 
a ringdove. 

For a thorough examination, though with different 
result, see " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," by A. Pictet, i. 400. The 
variation in the prefixes co and pa, whatever their original 
meanings, evidently shows them to have been merely 
prefixes. But Pictet, like many others, ignored the Poly- 
nesian branch of the Aryan stock in looking for older 
forms of words. 

Lupa, s. Not used in other dialects. Tali., rupa, a 
thicket of brushwood, also a thicket of branching coral ; 
nupa {n for I), an impenetrable thicket of underwood or 
coral. Fiji-, ruhu, a kind of native basket. Perhaps Haw. 
a-luka, to jumble together, mix confusedly (k torp). 

Greek, pwty, low shrub, brushwood, brushes; pi-ty, wicker- 
work, plaited osiers or rushes ; pnm, a fan for raising fire ; 
quasre, like the Haw. peahi, made of rushes ? Tpupos, a 
fishing-net or basket made of rushes. 

Ma 1 , prefix. Haw., implying a sense of fulness, soli- 
dity, increase. Sam., ma, prefix denoting ability. N, 
Zeal., maha, many, much. In the names of Polynesian 
places this word still remains in full, as Maha-pv,, a district 
in Huahine, Society Group ; Maha-idi-puu, a land in 
Koloa, Kauai, Hawaiian group. Malg., ma, mah, maa, 
maha, power, faculty to do or have, a prefix ; as a verb 
to produce, be able, create. Malay, and Sunda., maha, 
great ; mahi, enough. 

Sanskr., mak, to grow, increase, be powerful. (Accord- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 209 

ing to Benfey, orig. form magh) ; maha, great. In South 
Indian dialects contracted to ma, as Ma-du for Maha-deo 
(Sirwa) ; Ma-vali-pura for Maha-hali-pura, the name of 
a city. 

Lat., magis, magnus, major, &c. 

Greek, peyai, great. 

Sax., ma-ra, more; ma-est, most. Goth., magan, be 
able ; mahts, might, power. 

Irish, raor, great. 

Pers., mik, to grow, increase. 

Ma 2 , Me, prep, and eonj. Haw., at, by, together, with, 
in. Tah., ma, and, with, together. Sam., ma, for, with, 
from, on account of ; mo, on behalf of. Marqu., ma, me, 
mo, id. Tong., ma, and, with, for; mo, id.; be, id. N. 
Zeal, ma, me, mo, and, with, for. Other dialects nearly 
similar. In the Kawi, ma in compound words means 
"with, in possession of," as via-gadha, with a club. Malg., 
a-ma, am, an, with, and, among. 

Sanskr., milk-as, mutually, reciprocally, with one an- 
other ; mitk-una, a couple. 

Greek, /sera, in the middle, among, for, with, by aid of, 
&c. Dor., -ireta. 

Goth., mitk, mid, with, amongst, together. Sax., vit'; 
Germ., mil; Swed., med, with, by, &c. 

Liddell and Scott, s. v. /J.era, intimate that the radical 
sense was "in the middle." Neither the Gothic nor the 
Sanskrit seem to justify that conclusion, although they 
are developed forms of a root now alone preserved in the 
Polynesian. Neither mitk-as nor mith~una give the 
radical sense of " in the middle," but rather the sense of 
one thing placed alongside of another, and these words 
are therefore later forms of an ancient copulative in mi 
or ma. 

Ma 8 , v. Haw., to fade, as a leaf, a flower, or colour from 
cloth, to blush, as one ashamed, to wilt, wear out Sam., 
ma, v. to be ashamed, to be all destroyed; adj. clean, pure, 
bright ; ma-ma, pale, clear ; s. shame. Tab., met, clean ; 
kaa-ma, to be ashamed. N. Zeal., ma, clean ; whaka-ma, 

vol. in. 



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aio THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

bashful. Stewart Isl., ma, white. From this we have the 
following Polynesian derivatives : — Haw., ma-e, to blast, to 
wither ; mae-mae, be pure, be clean, be dried. Tab., ma-e, 
to be abashed, confounded, thin, lean, withered, fermented, 
decaying; ma-e-ma-e, soft, as fruit or fish, over-ripe. 
Sam., ma-e, to be stale, as fish ; ma-mae, to wither, fade. 

Greek, ftacraai, /uma, to handle, touch, knead, squeeze, 
wipe; ftaicrpov, a towel; pay/Mos, a wiping, cleaning; 
airoafj.aia, to wipe clean off. The Greek composite shows 
the primary root in /j.a-o>. 

Sanskr., math, manth, to churn, to agitate, to crush ; 
ptcpL of pf. pass., matMta, churned, stirred, distressed, 
faded, agitated, destroyed ; mathin, a churning-stick. The 
following words, to which Benfey gives no etymon, but 
which appear to be connected inter se, are probably also 
referable to some older or variant form of math, viz., 
masi, ink ; masina, well ground ; masrina, soft, unctuous, 
shining; rnxwrinUa, polishud; mantha, the sun. 

Lat., macula, spot, blot, blemish. 

Lith., minkau, to pound, beat, thrash. 

Slav., maka, flour, as pounded up in ancient mortars or 
ground in ancient querns. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 54) sees in the Latin mane, 
the morning, a contraction of a Sanskrit manthanS, from 
math, manth, to churn, thus indicating to a pastoral people 
the time for making the butter, and he refers the name of 
the goddess Matuta, the goddess of daybreak or morning, 
to the same Sanskrit math. It may be that mane is a con- 
traction from matne, and that the early Latins identified 
the morning with the churning-time and called the former 
by a name derived from, the latter. It is a plausible 
hypothesis until a better is found. To me the Polynesian 
ma and ma-e would seem to answer all the requirements 
of roots to math, macula, [Laova, and the conjectural ftaw 
in aTToofiaa ; and I am inclined to think that even mane 
and matuta derive with better propriety from -ma and mae, 
in the sense of " blushing, bright, pure, clear, clean," than 
from the operation of churning. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 211 

Ma 4 . (Obsolete, only in compounds. An ancient name 
for the moon.) Haw,, ma-uli, the day between the old and 
new moon, in which the moon is not visible; lit. "the 
dark, obscured moon," By the lunar account it was the 
first day of the month or moon ; by the Hawaiian calendar 
of thirty days to the month it was the twenty-ninth day. 
In Sam., ma-uli means simply " the moon," but ma-una 
means " the waning moon," from una, to pinch off, split 
off. Hence probably the ma in ma-lama. Haw., is not 
ma intens., but ma the moon, and thus lit, " moonlight ; " 
and also the other Polynesian name for the moon, ma- 
hina, ma-sina, is a composite of a primary but now 
obsolete ma, and sina, hina, to shine, be white. This 
Polynesian ma, now only occurring in compounds, brings 
us in relation with the 

Sanskr, md, to measure ; mds, mdsa, the moon, a month, 
and its numerous West Aryan congeners. Greek, iwp> ; 
Dor. fiap; Ion. ftets, fivvy (moon). Lat., mensis. Goth. 
mena. A.-Sax, mona. Lith., menesis. Zend, mdo, mahya. 
Pers., mdh, mdhina. Kourd, mah, meh. Eelout, mdhi. 
Afghan, miashta. Osset., mai, md. Arm., amis. Irish, 
mis, mios. Anc. Slav., miesetsi. There appears to have 
been three principal formations in early times upon the 
root md, under which the above examples ranged them- 
selves : that in ma simply, to which the Zend and Osset, 
with suffixes and * belong ; that in mas, to which the 
Sanskr., Pers., Kourd., Belout, Afgh., Armen., Irish, Slav., 
and Greek (/tet?) belong; and that in mdna (i.e., ma + ana, 
see Benfey), to which the Greek (jtyv, /ww), Lat., Goth., 
Lith., A-Sax belong. The contradistinction preserved in 
the Hawaiian and Samoan between the dark and waning 
moon, ma-uli, ma-una, and the bright or shining moon, 
ma-sina, ma-kina, confirms the inference that ma was a 
primary, original name for the moon in Polynesian, and 
nearest kin to the Zend and Osset. formations. This 
aneient form in ma or mba may still be detected in the 
Gilolo (Gani) jia-i, the moon, and the Sulu Island /a-sina, 
id. 



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212 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Ma' A 1 , s. Haw., a sling ; v. to sling, cast, throw away. 
N. Zeal., maka, to throw. Tah., maa, a sling, to sling 
stones, cloven, divided. Tong., maka, a stone ; makata, a 
sling. Sam., ma'a, a stone ; ma'ata, a sling ; ma'a'a, 
hard, strong; ma'a-i, sharp, cutting, applied to tools, lire, 
words; ma'a-u, a hiting stone, a poisonous stone; ma'a- 
ma'a, small stones, stony. Marq, maka, to fight. 

Sanskr., makha, a warrior, sacrifice, oblation ; makhas- 
ydmi, I fight ; maksh, to divide, to cut. 

Greek, /ta^Tj, battle, fight ; fiaxo/^at, to fight, struggle ; 
ftayaipa, a large dirk or knife; fiatcekov, an enclosure. 

Lat., macellum, a place where meat, &c, was sold, 
shambles, provision market ; maceria, a wall, enclosure ; 
macto, to honour by sacrifice, to appease. 

Irish, maehair, combat. 

Goth., meki, a sword. Sax., mdki, id. A.-Sax., me.ce, 
mexe, id. Scand., maekir, id. 

Ane. Slav., wieti, miii, glaive. Illyr., mac, id. Pol., 
miecz, id. 

Pers., mak, muh, lance, javelin. 

Ma'a 2 , v. Haw., to accustom oneself, gain knowledge 
by practice; s. experience, manners gained by practice; 
maka-u, ready, prepared; ma'a-ka, cunning, crafty. Tah., 
mata-u, be accustomed or used to a thing ; mata-i, skilful, 
dexterous. Sam., mata-u, to consider, to mark attentively. 
Fiji., mata-i, a mechanic. 

Greek, (iav9ava>, aor. 2, fiaffeiv, to learn, to acquire a 
habit, be accustomed to ; ftaOos, custom ; /tdTos, search ; 
/Mjrtv, wisdom, cunning, craft. 

Liddell and Scott, after Curtius, refer these Greek 
words to the Sanskrit man; Benfey refers ftav0avu>, 
fiaToi, to Sanskrit math, manth. The way is somewhat 
long in both cases. Either may be correct, but I think 
the Polynesian connection should not be overlooked. 

Ma'a 8 , adj. Haw., going about here and there, loitev- 
ing,loafing. Tah., ma'a-ma'a, foolish, vain, useless. Marqu., 
mama'a, foolish. Fiji., vaka-mamaka, proud, buckish. 

Greek, /tart}, folly, fault ; fiaraco, be idle, loiter, dally ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 213 

{Mtrtuos, foolish, useless, trifling. Liddell and Seott suggest 
that parr) is derived from fj,aa>, to seek without finding. 

Mai, adv. Haw., a word of prohibition, " do not," always 
used imperatively before verbs ; mai-hele, mai-hana, " do 
not go," " do not do it." Marqu., n-tnoi, a similar imper. 
negative, " do not," also simply " not ; " au-ma, not at all, 
by no means. 

Sanskr., md, a prohibitive particle, an imper. " do not," 
a positive " no." 

Greek, fit}, no, not. 

Lat., ne, prohib. particle, related to fit] and md, accord- 
ing to Liddell and Scott and Benfey, permut. of m 
and n. 

Maia, s. Tab., midwife ; maia-a, animal that has given 
birth. 

Greek, fiaia, good mother, nurse, midwife. In Dor., 
a grandmother. Liddell and Scott give no etymon or 
reference. 

The existence of this word in the Tahitian and Greek 
seems to indicate that it was once common to the un- 
divided Aryan stock. No other Polynesian, no other 
Indo-European branch has preserved it, though all have 
numerous variations of the original theme ma, as express- 
ing a parent. 

MAITAi, adj. Haw., good, beautiful, excellent, proper ; 
mai-aw, skill, ingenuity, wisdom ; mai-ele, skill in using 
words. Tah., maiiai, be well in any sense, good, holy, 
happy; maiere, to wonder, ponder, be surprised, delibe- 
rately, wary. Marqu., mei-tai.; Rarot., mei-taki, good, 
handsome, proper. N. Zas,l.,pai, good. Amboyna (Lariki), 
mai, good ; (Eatumerah), a-mai-si, id. Ceram. (Camarian), 
mai, id. Mai., bai, haik, id, Malg., mai-nou, proper, neat, 
pure ; ma-mai, good. 

That the root of all these Polynesian and Indonesian 
forms is mai will probably not be contested, but mai 
with that ancient double-consonantal sound of mb, of 
which some of the tribes of the Aryan family retained 
one, others the other constituent element. Thu3, in 



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2i 4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

course of time, the m sound prevailed with some, the 
b or its variant p with others; and thus the N". Zeal, pai, 
the Mai. bai, the Amboy. mai, retained in the Haw, 
and Tab. mai-tai and the Karot, mei-taki, are originally 
one and the same word. 

I have found no West Aryan relatives of this word 
except the 

Sanskr. (Ved.), may-as, enjoyment ; mayo-bhti, yielding 
enjoyment ; mayukha, light, splendour, beauty ; mayHra, 
a peacock. Benfey gives no etymon. 

Lat., beo, beatus, may probably connect with this. At 
least they seem to have no relations with the Iudo-Euro- 
pean circle. 

Ma'u 1 , Ma'u'u, v. Haw., to moisten, make wet ; s. 
dampness, moisture; also a general name for green herbs, 
grass, shrubbery, &c. Sam., ma'u'u, grass, weeds. Tah., 
mauu, wet, damp; mou, coarse grass. Marqu., moukn, 
bulrushes. N. Zeal., maku, dampness, moisture ; makulai, 
moist, fresh, cool. Malg., muza, wave, billow. Sunda., 
mi-is, damp, moist. Gilolo (Gani), maku-fin, cool, cold. 
Sanguir., matuno, id. 

Sanskr. (Ved.), mad, " originally to be wet " (Benfey), to 
get drunk; madhu, sweet, the season of spring, water; 
madayitnu, a cloud ; madhura, agreeable, tender ; mdd- 
hava, spring, spirituous liquor, a large creeper {Gwrtnera 
racemosa) ; m&dliura, Arab, jasmine. 

Greek, ftaBao), be wet, moist, to run off, as water, fall off, 
as hair; ftdSwvta, the water-lily; fieffit, the drinking of 
strong drink ; /te8v, wine ; /ti/809, dampness ; jivSaeo, be wet, 
damp, clammy. Liddell and Scott refer /ivhoi to Sanskr, 
mid, viscidus fio, be unctuous, to liquefy. Its Vedic sense, 
however, according to Benfey, is " to rejoice," and he con- 
nects Sanskrit mid with the Greek /ieiSooi, to smile. 

Lat., madeo, be wet, moist ; madidus ; madulsa, a 
drunkard ; mustus, young, new, fresh ; matula, a vessel 
to bold liquor. 

A. -Sax., mcedewe, meadow, low, watery, and grass-covered 
land : medu, mead or wine. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 215 

Russ., motzu, to wet; makayu, to dip, soak. 

Illyt., mas, new wine. 

Pers., mast, drunk. 

Welsh, m-wydaw, to wet. 

While nearly all the West Aryan branches in some form 
or other have retained the sense " wet, moisture, damp- 
ness," none, as far as I know, has retained the sense of 
"green herbs, grass, shrubbery," unless the Sax. mm.Ua, 
Lat. matta. Russ., mat, a mat, a texture of sedge, rushes, 
ilags, &c, would indicate a connection. 

Mau 2 , v. Haw., to continue, endure, be firm, remain 
perpetually, everlasting. Sam., mau, be firm, be fast, 
unwavering, to dwell. Marqu., maw, be firm, be assured, 
a law ; mau-ki, to hold fast. Fiji., mau, sit still, be firm. 
In Haw., mau, s. means also the side of a mountain below 
the naked top, where people may live. In Mangar., mou, 
a hill, a mound. Derivs. Haw., mau-na, s. a mountain, 
highland ; adj. large, swelling, extensive. Sam., maunga, 
a hill, a mountain, a dwelling-place; mau-alunga, high, 
tall, elevated ; mau-lalo, low, deep ; mau-tu, stand firm ; 
mau-mau-a'i, be firm, unyielding. Tab., maua, moua, a 
mountain. N. Zeal., maunga, id. 

A. Pictet (Orig, Ind.-Eur., i. 127) refers the Latin mons 
and its West Aryan congeners — Irish, moin, muine, a 
mountain ; Welsh, mynydd, mwnt, id. ; Gael., monadh, id. ; 
Armor., mane, mene, id. ; Pers., man, a heap, a pile ; Lith., 
myni-a, id. — from a root man, whence the verb mdnidan, 
mdndan, to remain in place, to dwell, and the s. man, a 
resting-place, a dwelling, and whence also the Latin maneo 
and the Greek fie^w, to stay, remain, stand fast. But 
Liddell and Scott, after Curtius, refer maneo and /tevra to 
a root /j.aa>, with a development into man or men akin to 
Sanskrit man } to think, that seems to me very bewildering. 
The Latin maneo, the Greek ftevcv, the Persian mdn, and 
Zend n-m&na, demeure, dwelling, cannot possibly, with a 
radical sense of "to stay, remain, be firm," refer them- 
selves to the Sanskrit man, to think, or the Greek futw, 
which Liddell and Scott see beyond it. I think that 



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216 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

there must have been another paa or (iavm, with the sense 
of "firmness, hardness, endurance," to which the Latin, 
Greek, Persian, as well as the Polynesian refer themselves. 

Maha 1 , s. Haw., an obsolete general name for fish, now 
only occurring in compound names of particular kinds of 
fish, as maka-e, maha-ha, maka-mea, maha-'moe, mahct-wela, 
all different species of fish. In Sam. the dolphin is called 
masi-masi ; in Haw. and Tah., maki-mahi. 

Sanskr., matsya, maha, nma-ha, iish. Marath., masa; 
Bengal., mdch ; Singhal., matsa, masa, id. 

Pers., mdlti, fish. Kurd., maha; Afgh., mahai, id. 

Irish, meas, fish. 

Maha 2 , v. Haw., to hide a thing away, to steal ; maka-o, 
the pith of a tree or vegetable, a soft or decayed place in 
the centre or body of a tree, a hole in a tree ; adj. defec- 
tive in the centre, rotten, hollow ; maha-oi, impertinent, 
bold and immodestly forward. Marqu., maha-e, to forget ; 
maha-ti, joy; maho-a, hidden. Sam., masa, be low tide, 
be sour, offensive, as the smell of putrefying things ; 
mase-i, bad conduct, impropriety; mase-pu, id. Fiji., 
masa, asleep, as the feet or hands, to be silent ; masa-la, 
the ebb-tide ; masa-lai, corrupt, putrid, sour. Tah,, tneho, 
be hiding, a hiding-place. 

Sanskr., mach, manah, muck, munch, to cheat, be wicked. 
to boast. 

Pers., mang, fraud, deception, thief, gambling; mugh, n 
priest. 

Greek, /ii^os and ft^ap, means, expedient, remedy; 
fiayyavov, means for charming and bewitching others ; 
fiayyaveta, jugglery, trickery. 

Lat., mango, a tricky merchant. 

Irish, mang, fraud, trickery, ruse. 

Lith., maMote, a deceiver ; manga, a prostitute. 

Sax., mangian, to negotiate. 

Liddell and Scott refer the Greek wxps to the same 
root as fiijSot; and finrii, i.e,, to paw, to strive after, desire ; 
and they refer fiayyavov, &c, to fia<raa>, to handle, touch, 
squeeze, knead. Under correction, I would suggest that 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 317 

the Polynesian maha and tbe Sanskrit mack, munch, offer 
better etymons than ftcuo or fiaatsto. I am aware Benfey 
and A. Pictet refer the Sanskrit m&ya, -wisdom, a juggler, 
asura, fraud, deceit, trickery, magic, illusion, to a com- 
posite man + ya, from man, to think, and defend the deriva- 
tion by referring to ydya, woman, from grtn, gignere, and 
to dyu, living, from an, spirare ; but apparent analogy is 
not always proof, as I have frequently experienced in this 
work, and it is therefore possible thu mdya, wisdom, is 
an ancient form of a Sanskrit machya or a Polynesian 
maha, before the former became a synonym for the per- 
version of wisdom, and while the latter designated wisdom 
as something concealed. Liddell and Scott indicate that 
the Greek p-aya is from the same root as fi&yas = San- 
skrit mah, mahant, great, powerful, honoured, and the 
same is intimated by A. Pictet. But the Persian Magi 
must have been wise before they became great and 
honoured — they certainly did not become, or were called, 
wise on account of their greatness. There were wise men 
in every family and every tribe before there was a college 
of wise men, a priesthood. Hence I think myself justified 
in referring the Greek ^070? to the Sanskrit mdya, with 
the primary sense of wisdom, and to the Polynesian maha, 
with the perhaps still older sense of concealing, and to the 
Sanskrit mack, manch, and their kindred, when wisdom 
had deteriorated into cunning, trickery and fraud. 1 



1 Since writing the above I have tmqa, tandisque, danslegrandnom- 

read M. Francois Lenorman\ : i int.;- bre il't^emples qu'on en possede, 

resting work "La Langue Primi- il est invariahkir.fat eiiyi <>n imyn, 

tive de la Chaldee," where, apropos priSsentant le auffixe dea diSrivtJa 

of the word fiaym, cm p. 367 I find adjectifs en ga de I'accadien. C'est 

the following : "Enfin doit trouver en effect certainemetit unmotdecstte 

ici sa place le tilre ill's dwteurs derniere langue, em-ija, 'gloriem, 

chald&ns, emya or imya, dont la Migrate,' pria tr£a naturellement 

BibloafaitJ'O. . . . C'eat la le nom comme un titre sacerdotal on 

dont lea Grcca ont fait ^070? quand doctoral." Thus then this jia-yot 

lis placent doa Mages en Chaldee. haa neither Sanskrit, Greek, nor 

On a cberchc d'abord k ce titre une Polynesian parentage, but is Acca- 

a la racine pOlf' Mais dans ce caa Sanskrit mach, the Greek nnX '* 

il devrait revgtir le plua souvent, still remain to claim kindred with 

sinon conatamment, la forme des the Polynesian maha, masa, 
iiominatifs assyriens, en emgu pour 



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2i8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Benfey refers the Greek fieyapov, fiayapov, chamber, 
hall, cave, adytus, and the 0. H. Germ, ga-mah, New 
Germ, ge-mach, to the Sanskr. mah, be great, to adore, 
honour. Liddell and Scott seem to doubt whether fteyapov, 
ftayapou, refers itself to peyas, and thence to the Sanskr. 
mah. A. Pictet does not refer at all to it or its probable 
etymon. In this uncertainty, and in the absence of any 
Sanskr. descendant of mah designating " a chamber, hall, 
cave, house," &c, it may be permitted to refer the 0. H. 
Germ, ga-mah and the Greek p-ayapov to the Polynes. 
maha, to hide, conceal. 

Mahi, v. Haw., to dig the ground, till, cultivate; s. 
cultivation, planting ; adj. strong, energetic, as a labourer; 
moa-maki, a fighting cock. N. Zeal., mahi, to work ; kai- 
maki, a servant. Sam., mad, the pounded and fermented 
bread-fruit ; masi-masi, the smart of a wound. Fiji., mad, 
to rub, to scour; mad-mad-a, bread-fruit in a certain 
state. 

Sanskr., masina, adj. well-ground; mas-rina, soft, 
polished. No etymon by Eenfey. 

Greek, ftoyos, po^do';, toil, trouble, hard work, distress ; 
futOTt$, a scourge, plague, whip. Liddell and Scott refer 
this latter to yio?, a leather strap or thong, and that to the 
Sanskrit si, to bind. I fail to see the cause for the elision 
of the aspirated iota, I, and therefore think that ftao-Tt£ 
refers itself better to the same root as the Sanskrit masina 
and the Polynesian mahi, masi. 

Lat., maeer, lean, emaciated, careworn; macero, make 
soft or tender. 

Maka, s. Haw., eye, face, edge, shoot, bud, offspring ; 
maka-maka, friend, intimate, relative; maka and hoo- 
maka, beginning, commencement. Sam., mata, eye, face, 
point, edge, source, spring ; mata-mata, to look at ; Faa., 
mala, to sharpen, have the appearance of ; 'a-mata, to 
commence, begin, Tah., mata, eye, face, beginning, edge ; 
haa^naia, to begin. Tong., mata, eye, face, &c. ; ma-mata, 
to look. In nearly all the Polynesian dialects the com- 
pound Mata-riki, Mata-ri'i, Mata-li'i, is a name for the con- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 219 

stellation Pleiades, lit. " the small eyes," and in Tahiti the 
name of a year was mata-rii, reckoned from the appear- 
ance of those stars above the horizon, Fijian, mata, eye, 
face, presence, origin ; mata-ka, morning, the dawn. New 
Guinea (Matu), mata, eye. 

The different applications of this ancient word in the 
kindred Asonesian dialects may be seen in the following 
table : — 



Celebes 

Sanguir 
A in boy nil 
Ceram . 
Teor . 

Saparua 
Mentawej Island 
Banjak Island 
Singkel . . 
Engano . . 
Malay . . . 
Sunda and Java 
Malgaaae . . 
Tidore . . . 
Gilolo(Gani) 



mata, eye; tati-mata-eten, male appearance, 

man ; tau-mata-babine, woman. 
mata, eye. 

mata, eye ; meka, toii^ui 1 . 
mata, mata-mo, mata-colo, eye. 
matin, eye ; matin-olu, face. 
mata, eye. 

mata, eye ; tu-mata, man. 
mata, eye. 
mata, eye. 
mata, t'.ye. 

bahka, eye. 

mata, eye ; muka, face. 



moda, month, 
su-muf, mouth. 



Corresponding to the Polynesian mata-ri'i and mata-ka, 
we find the Sunda mata-powi, the Malay mata-hari, the 
Celebes mata-alo and mata-rou, the Engano bahka-kaha, the 
Banjak Island mata-bolai, the Amboyna ria-mata, the 
Malgasse- massu-andru, also mas-Ink, all signifying the 
sun. 

Sanskr., mukha, face, mouth, front, commencement, 
beak of a bird, tip, point of a thing ; aftguli-mukha, tip of 
the fingers ; maha-mukha a crocodile (big-mouth). No 
etymon given by Eenfey. 

Lat., maxilla (?), chin. 

Sax., muth, mouth, Goth., munth. id. 

Examples of relationship are few among the Indo- 
European branches, and even mukha, maxilla, and muth 



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220 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

have either had no satisfactory etymons assigned them, 
or have been left standing in the cold awaiting further 
examination. Among the tribes of the Hindu-Kush, 
down whose slopes so many ethnic waves have tumbled 
on the world below, the application of this word in its 
Sanskrit and Gothic form to the "face" may still be 
found. The Shinas of Gilgit, and the Narisati and 
Khowaree of the Chitral Valley use mukh or mook for 
face or cheek ; the Chiliss and the Gaware of the Indus 
Valley use mun for face or cheek; and, following the 
Sanskrit sense of " front, commencement," they present us 
with the further derivatives of pu-muko (Gilgil), first; 
mutoh (Chiliss), id. ; munsh (Torwalak), id. ; pa-muk (Bush- 
gali), before. Even the Malays have adopted this sense 
in kota-muka, " a suburb ; " pangking-muka, " an anti- 
chamber, a verandah." 

Maka'u, v. Haw., compound of ma intens. and ka'u, 
to fear, dread, tremble, hold in reverence. Sam., mata'u, 
to fear. Tah., ma-ta'u, id. N. Zeal., ma-taku, be afraid. 
Fiji., taku-mogemoge, to writhe, to struggle, as in pain; 
takw-tibi-tiM, the vibratory motion of light reflected on 
the water. Marqu., me-ta'u, to fear. Tah., ina-ta'u, fear, 
dread. Jav., Mai., tacut, fear. Tagal., tacot, id. Malg., 
lahots. 

Sanskr. (Ved.), tak, to start; ta&k, tang, to live in dis- 
tress, to stumble, shake. 

Greek, ra^vs, quick, swift, sudden. 

Make, t. Haw., to die, perish, suffer, as a calamity ; s. 
death ; adj. dead, hurt, injured, wounded, Sam., mate, to 
die, be extinct, be benumbed, cramped, to abate, as high 
wind. Tah., mate, to die, be ill, sick, or hurt. Polynes., 
ubique, mate, death. Fiji., mate, to die, be sick ; mate- 
mate, sickly. Mai., Pulo Nias, Celebes, Aru and Key 
Isl., mate, mati, death, dead. Malg., fati, id. Ja,v.,poti, 
id. Motu (N. Guinea), mati, dead. Allied to this is 
probably the Haw., Sam., Tah., et aL ma'i, sickness, 
disease, to be sick, ailing. Marqu., Earot., maki, a sore, 
be wounded. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. szi 

I know not what may be the Sanskrit equivalent of 
this word, unless it be math, in the sense of " to crush, 
hurt, kill, distress ; " for I think it hardly probable that 
the concrete sense of "to churn" could have been the 
original sense of math. 

Pers., mat, confused, astonished ; matlcardan, to make 
check, in chess-playing, 

Goth., ga-maids, bruised, maimed. Sax., ge-maad, akin 
to Engl. mad. Germ, and Swed., matt, weak, feeble, 
languid. Swi:il.,,9!»(U;'r(. to languish ; liiiida, trouble, with 
pain. 

The Malgasse and Javanese variants in fate and pati 
would seem to indicate a possible connection with the 
Greek iraa-xto, iradetv; the Lat. patior, to suffer, undergo^ 
perhaps Sanskr. badk, to hurt, to trouble ; bi-bhatsa, dis- 
gust, abhorrence, cruel; and the Polynes. mate, through 
some ancient and once common form in nib, softened to / 
in the one case, and hardened top in the other. 

Maku, adj. Haw., full-grown, firm, hard, full-sized ; 
maku-a, full-grown, of full age ; v. to be large, to grow, to 
strengthen. Tab., matu-a, strong, vigorous, hard, fixed; 
matua-u'u, aged, time-worn ; matua-tua, he vigorous, as an 
elderly person, settled. Sam., matu-a, full-grown, fit to 
pluck or dig up, elderly ; adv. very, exceedingly ; marks 
the superlative degree. Tong., motu-a, full-grown, ripe ; 
matu-a, an old man. Fiji., matu-a, ripe, fit, mature ; adv. 
strongly, vigorously. Mai., tuwah, old. Balta (Sumatra), 
orang-batuah, an old man. 

Lat., maturus, ripe, right, proper, seasonable, 

Mala 1 , v. Haw., to swell, grow large, puff up; s. a 
swelling, enlargement, cultivated ground, a garden. Sam., 
mala, adj. soft; s. a new plantation; malae, open space 
for public meetings. Tah., marae, adj. cleared of wood, 
weeds, &c, as a garden ; s. place of worship. Tong., malai, 
a cleared ground for public purposes. N. Zeal, mara, a 
garden; marae,a, courtyard. Sunda..,melak,pelak,to plant, 

Sanskr., mala-ya, a garden; mala, a field; m/Ud, a 
garland ; mdlati, a bud ; m&la-kara, a gardener. 



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22 2 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Greek, /wjXov; Dor., puxhov, an apple, generally any 
tree-fruit, a girl's breasts, the cheeks, swellings under the 
eyes ; f-api], the fist ; fi.apvap.ai, to fight, to box, do battle. 
Liddell and Scott as well as Benfey refer p,apva/*.ai to 
Sanskr. mrin, to kill, mri, death, but give no etymon for 
p.api), fist, hand. 

Lat., mala, the puffed-out cheek, the jaw ; malus, an 
apple-tree. 

Mala 2 and Malaia, s. Sam,, calamity ; adj. unfor- 
tunate, miserable. Haw., mala-oa, sad, sorrowful ; malai- 
lena, bitter, acid, unpalatable. Tong., mala, misfortune. 
Tah., mara, an old name for Awa (Piper meth.) ; mara- 
mara, bitter, acid. Malg., mara, marals, bitter, sharp. 
Amboyna, marine, sour. N. Celebes, mansing, id. Fiji., 
malai, withered. 

Greek, ^wXos, toil, struggle ; /noXv^, feeble, sluggish ; 
fita\vofiai, be worn out. Liddell and Scott give no 
etymon or reference to this class of words. Benfey refers 
them to Sanskr. mai. The Greek fiapamw, to quench, as 
fire, die out, waste, wither, would seem as nearly related 
to Sanskr. mlai and Polynes. malaia, as to Sanskr. mri, 
to which Liddell and Seott refer it. In Dravid. (Tamil), 
mdr is to be confused, be lazy; mdl, to die, to perish. 

Sanskr., mlai, grow weary, be faint, languid ; mlani, 
decay, weariness. 

Lat., a-marus, bitter, harsh, sharp ; marceo, to wither, be 
faint, feeble ; mareo, to mourn, be afflicted ; mora, delay, 
hindrance. 

Goth., mournan, to mourn, be troubled. 

Malala, s. Sam,, charcoal ; malala-ola, live coals. Tah., 
mara-ia, black, dark colour, a dark native cloth, a negro 
or black man. Haw., mala-o, obsol. ; malao-lao, twilight, 
between day and night. 

To this word probably refers itself the Polynes. colour- 
expression, viz.. Haw., mele, yellow ; Sam., melo-melo, red ; 
Tong., melo, yellow, brown, tawny ; Amboyna, mala, blue ; 
Ceram., marah, blue, merah, red ; Mai, and Biajon, merak, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 223 

red ; Celebes, merai, red, moro-no, blue, moro-nago, 
yellow, &c. 

Sanskr., mala, dirt, filth, defilement ; sin. malina, dirty, 
black, obscure, bad; mdliih-ya, blackness; mar&la, cloud, 
lamp-black. 

Greek, /ieXas, originally any dark colour, dark-red, 
dark-blue, swarthy, murky ; fioXviw, to stain, sully, defile ; 
fiopov, the black mulberry. 

Lat, malus, bad, &c ; morus, dark-coloured, black, a 
mulberry ; morula, a blackbird. 

Sax., mail, mal; Germ., mahl, spot, mark, staiu. Swed., 
iiuilm, a cloud : raukn, cloudy, dark, sad. 

Mali, v. Haw., also mali-mali, to beseech, beg, flatter, 
soothe ; malie, still, quiet, soft, gentle. Tong., Sam., malie, 
well, agreeable, satisfied. Tab., marie, be silent. Fiji., 
maniari, apologise, excuse, flatter. 

Sauskr., mrij, to rub, stroke, wipe, cleanse ; mdrf, id. 

Greek, afie\ya>, to milk, squeeze, press out ; dfiepyio, to 
pluck, pull out ; QfLopyvvju, to wipe off. 

Lat., mulceo, stroke, touch gently ; mulgeo, to milk ; 
mulier, a woman; lac (for mlac), milk. 

Goth., miluks, milk. Sax., meoluk, id. 

Lith., milszti, to rub with the hands. 

Malo 1 , s. Haw., a strip of kapa or cloth tied around 
the loins of men to hide the sexual organs. Polynesian, 
ubiqne, malo, maro, id., ceinture, girdle-cloth, breech- 
cloth. 

Sanskr., mat, mall, to hold ; malla, a cup ; maltaka, a 
leaf to wrap up something, a cup ; malA-mallaka, a piece 
of cloth worn over the privities. 

Greek, fiypvofiat ; Dor., fiapvofwu, to draw up, furl, wind 
round. No etymon in Liddell and Scott. 

Malo 8 , v. Haw., to dry up, as water in pools or rivers, 
be dry, as land, in opposition to water, to wither, as 
vegetables drying up ; maloo, id., dry, barren. Tab., maro, 
dry, not wet; marohi, dry, withered. A later application 
of this word in a derivative sense is probably the Sam. 
malo, to be hard, be strong ; malosi, strong ; the Marqu. 



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22 4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

mao, firm, solid; N. Zeal., maroke, dry; Rarot, Mang., 
maro, dry and hard, as land. 

Sanskr., mri, to die ; maru, a desert, a mountain ; marut, 
the deities of wind ; marka, a body ; markara, a barren 
woman ; mart-pa, a mortar, the earth ; mira, ocean. 

For the argument by which A. Pictet connects maru 
and mira with mri, see " Orig. Ind.-Eur," i. I io-i I r. It is 
doubtless correct. But in that case " to die " could hardly 
have been the primary sense or conception of mri. To 
the early Aryans the desert, the maru, which approached 
their abodes on the west, must have presented itself 
primarily under the aspect of " dry, arid, sterile, barren," 
a sense still retained in the Polynesian ma.ro. Hence the 
sense of " to wither, to die," is a secondary one. Again, 
those ancient Aryans called the deity of the wind the 
Marut ; and if that word, as it probably does, refers itself 
to the root or stem mri, the primary sense of that word 
was certainly not " to die," for the winds are not necessarily 
" killing," but they are " drying," and that is probably the 
original sense of their name. 

Lat., morior, mors, &c. 

Sax., mor, Eng., moor, equivalent to the Sanskr. maru, 

Malu, s. Haw., a shade, the shadow of anything that 
keeps off the sun ; peace, quiet, secret, unlawfully. Sam., 
matit, shade, shelter; adj. cool, soft, gentle; malu-malu, 
overcast, cloudy. Tah., maru, shade, covert, soft, gentle, 
easy. Marqu., mau, shade, shelter. Mang., moru, secret. 
Fiji., malu-malu, shade; malua, gently. Malg., malu, 
maluts, obscure, in the shade. Amblaw, maloh, soft. 
Amboyua, Saparua, Ceram, malu, maru, soft. 

Greek, fiakr), the armpit ; " vtto /j,a\i}$," under the arm- 
pit, secretly, furtively. Liddell and Scott give no reference; 
its etymon unknown. But it combines in a remarkable 
degree the two principal senses of the Polynesian malu, 
" shade and softness." Probably /J.r)po$, the upper part of 
the thigh, the ham, is akin to fj.aS.Ti, the conditions of that 
portion of the thigh corresponding to those 1 of the 
armpit. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 225 

Lat., ate, armpit, shoulder, wing. According to Lid- 
dell and Scott ~ fiaXn, " the fj. thrown o£E" 

Mamo, s. Haw., children, descendants, posterity. Tah., 
Marqu., mamo, race, linuage. N. Zeal., momo, id. 

Goth,, mammo, flesh. 

Sanskr., mdtasa (?), flesh. No reference in Benfey's 
Sansk. Diet. 

ManaI, v. Haw., chew food for infants ; s. a mouthful. 
Sam., manga, a mouthful of chewed awa ; faa-manga, open 
the mouth, to gape. Tong., Marqu., mana, manga, chewed 
food. Tah., maa (n elided), food, provisions. Pulo Nias, 
manga, to eat. Celebes, monga, id. 

Lat., mando-ere, to chew, masticate. Benfey refers 
mando to Sanskrit mad, originally "to be wet," then "to 
be drunk." It is possible, but is it so ? Does the Sanskrit 
mandura, a stable, the Greek fiav&pa, stable, fold, byre, 
enclosure for animals, and the Latin mandra, id., derive 
from the same root as the Latin mandere, to chew? 

Mana 2 , s. Haw., branch of a tree, limb of a body, the 
cross piece of a cross ; v. to branch out, be divided ; mana- 
mana, branching, projecting, fingers or toes, as coupled 
with lima or vavae; manea, the hoof of a beast, the nail 
of fingers or toes, the claw of beast or bird, the ball of a 
man's foot ; mana-halo, stretch the arms and legs in 
swimming. Marqu., menana, fins of fish. Tong., manga, 
anything forked or straddling, barbed. N. Zeal., manga, a 
branch. Sara., manga, a branch, anything forked or 
curved ; manga-manga, branched, forked. Tah., maa, 
cloven, divided ; nnani-ao, foot or toes. Amblaw, wangan 
(w for m), finger. Eugano, minu-afa, finger (a/a, band). 

Lat., manus, hand. Benfey refers this to Sanskrit md, 
to measure. But as neither the Sanskrit itself nor any 
other West Aryan dialect has retained any application of 
this ancient md to the hand, manus, as " the measurer," it 
may be permitted to seek a relative for the Latin manus in 
the Polynesian mana, 

Mana 3 , s. Haw., power, energy, authority, intelligence ; 
manana, be angry, displeased ; hoo-mana, to worship, 

VOL. III. P 



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226 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

reverence ; hoo-mana-mana, use magical incantations, 
sorcery. Sara., mana, supernatural power; mana-mana, 
bear in mind, remember; mana -tu, to think; mana-mea, 
to love, desire. Tan,, mana, power, might ; mana-a, 
manageable. Tong., mana, thunder, omen. Fiji., mana, 
sign, wonder, miracle. Also used when addressing a 
deity or at the close of a prayer, equivalent to " Amen, 
so be it." Malg., minai, nvhuk, insane. 

To the stem of this word or its root doubtless refers 
itself another series of Polynesian derivatives, viz. : Haw., 
manawa, s. feelings, affection, sympathy ; the soft place in 
the heads of infants. Tong., manawa, breath, feelings, 
disposition. Sam., manawa, v. to breathe, to throb, pulsate ; 
s. the belly, the anterior fontanelle of children ; manawa- 
si, fearful, Tah., manawa, the belly, the interior of man ; 
manawa-fate, be in bitterness of grief of mind ; mana- 
wa-nawa, to think, to ponder; manatea-ril, eager desire. 
Marqu., menawa, belly, breathing, breath. N. Zeal., 
manawa, to breathe. Hangar., manawa, belly, disposition, 
temper. 

Within the Polynesian area proper I have not found 
any derivative of this family used to express the sense of 
"man" or "mankind." The Asonesian, Sunda, Malay, 
Goram, Matabello, Sanguir, Ceram,, manusia, manusa, 
manesh, evidently refer to later Sanskrit or Sanskritoid 
sources. 

Sanskr., man, to think, consider, desire, respect ; manas, 
mind, intellect ; manu, manus, man = " the thinker ; " 
mantri, a wise man ; mdn, to honour, respect ; rndrdr-ika, a. 
scorcerer ; mantra, holy sayings, prayer ; manava, human, 
mankind, a boy; man-in, mimavant, proud; mnd, re- 
member, 

Zend, manthra, magic formula, incantation. 

Greek, ftavn?, a seer, a diviner, one who utters oracles ; 
/*ip>t<i. Dor. ftavii, wrath, divine wrath ; ftaivo/tai. ; /4«<o?, 
might, force, strength, courage, temper; ^v-qu.% memory. 

Lat., mens, mind ; memini, remember ; mentior, to lie ; 
moneo, to remind; monstro, point out, sho 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 227 

unlucky omen, strange, &c. Perhaps vales, a prophet, 
seer (v for m). 

Goth., man, I think; manna, man; minan, munan, 
think, consider ; muns, mind, meaning. A.-Sax., manian, 
munan. 0. H. Germ., minnia,, love ; manen, to put in 
mind ; meina, meaning. Swed., minne, memory, mind ; 
munter, cheerful. 

Irish, manruih, incuntation, divination, omen; menar, to 
think; menone, soul, mind. 

Lith., moniti, to bewitch ; minti, think ; pra-mona, 
invention. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 546) says, "D'apres toutes 
les analogies connues, le sens primitif de ces racines" 
(the abstract idea of thinking, reflection, mind, &c.) "doit 
avoir etc plus ou moins materiel, mais il est souvent 
difficile a reconnaitre." If the primitive material sense 
has been lost in the Sanskrit man and its West Aryan 
congeners (the Latin mantis excepted), may not the Poly- 
nesian mana, limbs of body, claws of birds or beasts, &c, 
supply the missing link, and furnish that primitive 
material sense from which those of power, energy, will, 
feeling, thought, &c, were the facile and secondary deve- 
lopments ? 

Manai, s. Haw,, instrument for stringing flowers for 
wreaths. Sam., manaia, handsome, good-looking; faa- 
manaia, to adorn; manongi, fragrant Karat., manea, 
Marqn., mainai, handsome. Tong,, aka-manea, to adorn. 
Tah., monoi, sweet-scented oil. Celebes (Bouton), minak, 
oil. Biajon, mange, id. Mai. and Sunda., minyak, id. ; 
ka-minian, frankincense. Sula Isl., mina, sweet. Amb- 
law, mina, id. Teor., minek, id. Buru (Waiapo), du-mina, 
id. Mai. and Biajon, manis, id. Engano, monch-moneh, 
id. Singkel Isl., monde, handsome. 

Sanskr., mangh, mank, to adorn; mangala, lucky, pro- 
pitious, burnt- offering, turmeric ; mankura, a mirror ; 
mani, precious stone, a jewel, fleshy processes hanging 
from the neck of a goat; manivaka, a flower; manava, a 
necklace of sixteen strings. 



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228 ' THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Pers., man-gdsh, ear-jewel. 

Anc. Irish, maini, precious. Armor., maneag, necklace. 

Greek, jj.avov and /mwos, a necklace ; fiavuucry;, a brace- 
let. Liddell and Scott refer this to /iavo<;, porous, loose, 
evidently for want of a better etymon. 

Lat., monile, necklace, collar; mon-edula, jackdaw (de- 
vourer of jewels) ; muni:; ami mantis, 0. Lat. for bonus, 
good, gentle. 

A.-Sax., menas, pi. collars; lials-mene, necklace. Anc 
Germ., menni, manili, id. 

Anc. Slav., monisto, necklace. 

In " India, What can it Teach us ? " pp. 135, 136, Prof. 
Max Miiller refutes the assumption that mana was a 
Babylonian word borrowed by the old Vedic bards in 
"Big-Veda," viii. J%, 2. If mana itself does not occur 
again in the "Big-Veda," its derivatives doubtless show 
themselves in the Greek, Latin, Irish, Saxon, and Slave 
above quoted. The Polynesian evidently only retains a 
derivative sense. 

Mano 1 , adj. Haw., numerous, many; s. the number 
four thousand ; mano-mano, many-fold, many, thick to- 
gether, Sam., mano, a myriad, a great number. Tah., 
mano, many, numerous, one thousand. Tong., mano, ten 
thousand. Marqu., id., numerous. 

Goth., manags, many, much; managei, a crowd, multi- 
tude ; managnan, to abound. Sax., mceneg, many. 

Buss., mnogei, many ; mnoju, to multiply. 

Mano 2 , s. Haw., fountain-head of a stream of water ; 
maruMvai, channel of a brook or stream. Tiie material 
heart, whence issues the blood as from a fountain; ku- 
mano, the head of a watercourse, a brook, or stream. N. 
Zeal., manga, a brook, Tah., manu, to float, be afloat, 
be adrift. 

Sanskr., mangh, move swiftly ; mangiri, a boat. 

Lat., mano-are, to flow, to run. 

Mano 3 , s. Haw., a shark. Sam., mango, id. Tah., 
mao, id. Marqu., makd, mango, id. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Sanskr., mdni-h/a, the house-lizard ; tnon<flHHodile. 
Hind. (Malabar), maid, crocodile, alligator. 

Meki, s. Haw., an ancient name for iron ; the modern 
name is hao. Only found in Hawaiian dialect. 

Hi ad. (Khol), medh, iron. 

Slav., miedi, bronze. 

That the Polynesians were acquainted with iron, and 
had names for it, before its introduction among them by 
Europeans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, I 
believe is now admitted by competent Polynesian scholars. 
Among these names the Hawaiian meki calls our attention 
as one of widespread connections and great antiquity. 

I think philologists will not now question the fact 
that, in naming and defining the various phenomena of 
uature, mankind commenced by giving general names to 
substances of the same nature before it distinguished the 
specific differences between those substances by particular 
names. Thus all metals probably received one or more 
generic names before their differences were noted by 
specific individual names. Thus with colours; thus with 
animals ; thus with the body or the most prominent parts 
of the body ; thus with trees and fruits, &c. Thus lan- 
guage grew from vague and general terms to specific 
and more definite, and as mankind dispersed in tribes 
and families, they carried with them these generic terms, 
subject to dialccL-iijiil diilbreucea and phonetic corruption, 
and added to them or dropped from them such concrete 
and definite terms as their mental development and the 
circumstances of their new positions might require. -And 
thus, in course of time, many or most of the originally 
generic and synonymous words became specific appella- 
tions with various tribes. Thus only can I account for 
the singular fact that in different sections or tribes of the 
same race the same word frequently signifies different 
objects or ideas, although, where a close analysis is pos- 
sible, those objects will generally be found to have been, 
or were deemed to be, generically related. 

Applying the foregoing observations to the word now 



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- d BHp° 

I not preSui 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



unde^H^^feration, it seems obvious to me that this 
wordjj^E^Home ancient form, — whose nearest relative I 
will not presume to determine, — originally signified metal 
in general, without any specific reference to iron, gold, 
copper, silver, &c. 

The following list will show its varied application : — 
Hind, (Khol), ■medh, iron. Slav., miedi, bronze. Haw., 
meki,, iron. Jav. and Mai., mas, gold ; besi (for mbesi), iron. 
Amboyna, pisi-putih, silver. Malg., vih, iron; vi-futsi, tin. 
Ceram. masa, gold. Sula Isl., fa-maka, gold. Scand., 
messing (t and s convertible), brass. Germ., messer (the 
metal instrument), knife. 

Similarly we find the various applications of another 
ancient word, whose first and general sense doubtless was 
metal of any kind, then specialised to indicate this or that 
metal. That word is the Sanskrit ayas, metal generally, 
then applied specifically to iron, copper, and gold. Zend., 
ay$, iron, copper. Pers., ayan, iron. Lat., as, copper. 
Goth., aiz, copper. 

No Polynesian relative proper now exists among the 
Pacific groups, but among the Asoncsian groups we still 
find the following : — Celebes (Bouton), ase, iron ; (Menado), 
wassy, iron. Sanguir, wasi, iron. Sunda, wadja, steel. 
Malay, tamhadja, copper; badja, steeh 

I have purposely omitted the Greek peTaXkov and its 
apparent kindred in Latin, Welsh, and Irish, as its etymo- 
logy seems not to be well established. Pott and Liddell 
and Scott refer it to the compound ttera-aXkov ; A. Pictet, 
following Gesenius, thinks it is an Arab word, " matala, 
Hebrew matal, cudit, maxime ferrum," and that it was 
brought by the Phenicians to Greece. The fier-oK\a 
theory is ingenious. It may be correct, but sounds too 
artificial, and does not satisfactorily explain the difference 
in sense between the Latin metallum, metal generally, 
gold and silver principally, and the Greek /MTaXkov, a 
mine, trench, ditch, for any purpose, from a salt-pit to a 
gold-mine, with the specific object generally attached; ttAas 
tteraWov, a salt-pit ; -^pvaea ficraWa, gold-mines ; /tappa- 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

pov fieraXkov, a marble quarry. Mr. A. PicteJ 
Slavic mir.di, bronzes, copper, to be related tol 
madhvka, tin. If so, it only confirms my pre 
whatever may have been the earliest form 
primary sense was that of metal generally, 
don I think still further corroborated from t| 
terms which meet us in the Amboyna % 
lit. " white iron or metal," and the Malgassel 
lit. " white iron." 

Among the Southern Polynesians iron was al^o'.km 
before its introduction by Europeans. The Raratongans 
called it Jcurima, but I am not positive as to its relation- 
ship. It may refer to the Gilolo word htraehi, the name 
for gold as well as for yellow. If, as I think, aehi and 
kur-achi is a dialectical variation of the Celebes term ase, 
then the first syllable, Icura, is a Polynesian and pre-Malay 
word for red, bright, yellow ; and thus the compound word 
kur-achi becomes analogous to the Amboyna pisi-putih, 
and would signify " the red or yellow iron or metal." 

When Bougainville visaed Tahiti in 1768, he found 
the natives acquainted with iron, and says that they 
called it a-ouri. That ouri or uri and the Rarotongan 
huri in kurima are but dialectical variations of the same 
word. 

In the Samoan group u'a-mea, in the Tongan ukit-mea, 
and in the Fijian bi-v.ha-me.a, mean primarily metal of any 
kind, and conventionally iron; for when the Tongans 
speak of copper, they add the adjective Jcvla, red, thus 
calling it "the red metal or iron;" and when they speak 
of silver they add hina-hina, thus making it "the white 
metal or iron." I know not whence this uka, the kernel 
or root o£ the above names for metal or iron, is derived or 
how related. It may refer to the Sanskrit uchh, to shine, 
and to the Pulo Nias a-uso, yellow. 

The same manner of compounding is observable in the 
West Aryan branches. The Greek apyvpot, silver, comes 
from ap-jo<i or its root apy, and the Aryan ira, era, earths 
the white earth, ore, or metal. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

(Haw., song, chant; v. to sing, recite, chant. 

e-mere, this grief (if parents at the loss of a 

I mela, me-mda, sounding, ringing, as metal 

Celebes ((Jan;n;;:!o), mnlmja, to speak. 
K09, song, strain, melody ; /ieX-n-w, to sing and 
(etymon by Liddell and Scott. 

, mal, song, recitation. Swed., mill, speech, 
ian-mdla, announce, mention. Goth., merjan, 
■roclaim; meritha, fame, report. 
Jid Scott and Benfey refer the Greek /tepifiva, 
ftep/iTipa^Tho ught, care, trouble, as well as Gothic merjan 
and Latin mora, to Sanskrit smri, smarati. I think merjan 
and its kindred mal and an-mdhm refer themselves better 
to the Greek fteXa*; and the Polynesian mele, inert', while 
pepi/iva, &c, fall better in line with the Sanskrit mlai and 
the Polynesian mula* (vide p. 222). The Sanskrit smri has 
doubtless its kindred in the Sax. smeortan, Engl, smart, 
Swed. smarta, if, judging from the prosth. $., they do not 
all come under the mlai and mala, just referred to. It 
will be well to bear in mind the peculiar characteristics 
of the Old Norse mal and the Hawaiian mele-inoa. They 
both recited in metric form the power and glory of dead 
ancestors as well as of living heroes. As neither Norse 
nor Polynesian have borrowed from each other, that cus- 
tom, and its name, of chanting the exploits of ancestors, 
must have been a common Aryan trait before even the 
first separation. 

Melu, adj. Haw., soft, as fish long kept, swelling up, 
bad. Fiji., midra, rotten, bad. Sunda and Mal., mwra-ati, 
soft-hearted, mild. 

Greek, a-/ia\o$, soft, weak, feeble ; /taXa/to?, soft, meek ; 
/j.e\t, honey ; paXBa, mixture of wax and pitch ; fj.a\8a/co<i, 
fiXal;, fiXaicos, slack, stupid, lazy. 

Lat., mollis, soft, weak, delicate; mcl, honey. Lidu'll 
and Scott refer mollis and muleo to fiaka/cos, and mulsum 
to /te\t. They were probably one family of words in the 
beginning. 

Welsh, mall, soft, melting, insipid ; s. malady, evil. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 233 

Goth., mitditka, mildness; milith, honey. 

I know nob the etymology of the Latin muli-er, woman, 
but it may possibly refer to this family, and have its 
nearest kindred in the Sundan mura-ati. The Sanskrit 
malld, a woman, the Arabian jasmine, does not certainly 
refer to mal or mall, to hold, but refers itself better to 
the Greek a-fiaXo? and fiaXa/cos. Probably all of these 
are akin to the Polynesian malu, q.v., p. 224. If so, the 
Hawaiian melu, soft, derivatively applied to spoiled fish, 
would indicate an adaptation or borrowing from the Mar- 
quesan or Tonga n dialects, where the original a sound is 
not unfrequently changed to e. 

Menu, v. Haw., to shrink, settle down, pucker up ; adj. 
blunt, dull ; mene-mene } to contract, shrink, to fear, have 
compassion ; adj. fearful of, solicitous for ; menui, con- 
tracted, blunted, shortened; mino, mimino, to wrinkle, 
curl up, fade, wither. Sam., mene-mene, small, of the 
breasts; min-gi, curly; ■mingo-mingoi, to wriggle about. 
Marqu., viene, blunt, dull. Tah., vicrw-nw/ne, round, globu- 
lar ; mimio, wrinkled, furrowed ; mio-mw, id. MaL, 
memindik, to shorten, to lessen. 

Lat., minuo, diminish; minor, less; minimus; quaere 
minister as opposed to magistzr! 

Greek, fuvvdw, to make smaller, to lessen, to curtail ; 
fUvvvOa, little, very little ; fieuav, less. 

Goth., mins, less. Sax., minsian, diminish. 

Welsh, main. Irish, min, mion, small, fine. 

Sanskr., mi, mind, mini, to hurt; a-mi, to scrape off; 
pra-mi, to diminish. 

Mi, Mimi, v. Polynes., ubique, to make water, void 
urine. Haw., mi-a, id. Sam., mianga, urine. Malg., 
■min-min, foggy; maman, urine. 

Sanskr., mik, to sprinkle, to urinate ; meha, urine ; 
megha, a cloud. 

L;it., mingo, meio, to urinate. 

Greek, o-^t^eo), to make water, urinate; o-/i£^\ij, mist, 
fog ; 6-fii^/xa, urine. 

Lith., mgsu, make water ; migla, mist. 



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2 3 4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Goth., maihstus, a dunghill. Sax., miox, meox, dung, 
excrement Germ., mist, id., also fog. EngL, mist. 

Benfey refers fitaivw to staio, defile, and fitapos and 
fiiaajj.a to Sanskrit mih. 

MiO, v. Haw., be pinched up, cramped, tumble about 
in water; sink out of sight, to move softly, noiselessly; 
to leer; s. pass or narrow channel where water passes 
through rapidly; mio-mio, to dive, swim, puff, breathe 
hard, as in swimming. Sam., mio, to wander about; 
mimio, be confused, as a current at sea ; behave coldly to 
another. 

Sanskr., mish 2, to wink, contract the eyelids, look 
angrily, contend, resist, 

Lat, mico, to quiver, beat, palpitate. 

Benfey refers the Latin miser and the Greek fitvos to 
Sanskrit mish. 

Miki, s. Haw., a pinch, what can be taken by the 
fingers ; v. to pinch, snatch, hurry ; milei-miki, to pinch, 
nibble as a fish. Sam., mitt, to suck, sip, sniff; mimiti, to 
suck a wound, draw in, as a current. Tah., miti, to lick, 
lap as a dog. Marqu., miti, id., to touch, fumble. 

Greek, (tucot, /ukkos, and fiLKpot, and cr/iiKpo^ small, 
little, petty. 

Lat., mica, small bit, crumb, morsel. 

Miko, v. Haw., be seasoned, salted, entangled, mixed ; 
adj. seasoned with salt, savory ; miko-miho, tasteful, pun- 
gent, relishable. Tah„ Mangar., miti, the salt water, sea, 
sauce. Amboyna, mit, met, the sea, salt water. Timor 
Laut, meti, sea. 

Sanskr., micra (" i.e., mic -J- ra, perhaps for ruikuk. 
desider. of mih, without red," Benfey, Sansk.-Engl. Diet., 
s. v.), mixed, mixings. 

Greek, /x-eyw/u, pf. (te/tixa, furrow, to mix, mix up, 
mingle ; fitya?, promiscuously ; /uktoi, mixed, compounded. 

Lat., misceo, mix. 

Sax., miscan, mix. 

Benfey, referring the Sanskrit mir.ra to a desider. of mih, 
seems to me rather forced. It is a derivative no doubt, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 235 

but its root or primitive form might be found more readily 
in the Hawaiian miko, did the amour propre of Indo- 
European philologists permit them to seek for lost roots 
outside the orthodox 1 11 do- Eur ope an boundary. 

Mili, v. Haw., to feel of, handle, carry, look at, exa- 
mine ; mili-mili, s. a curiosity, a thing to be looked at ; 
adj. desirable to be looked at, admii-able. Sam., mili, to 
rub, rub in, as an ointment; mili-pa'u, to fondle, caress. 
Tan., miri, to embalm a corpse ; miri-miri, to handle and 
examine a thing. Marqu., mii, to look at, admire. Mang., 
miri-miri, to view, handle, examine. Tong., mili, to rub, 
smoothe, stroke. 

Lat., miror, to wonder, be astonished ; mints, wonderful, 
strange. 

Corn., miras, to look, 

Russ., min/u, to stop, allay, pacify ; za-mirayu, be asto- 
nished. 

Moe, v. Haw., to lie down, fall prostrate, lean forward, 
lie down in sleep, to sleep, to dream. Sam., moe, to sleep, 
be congealed, to roost, to cohabit; adv. uselessly, in vain; 
moenga, sleeping- place, a hen'a nest, cohabiting. Tah., 
moe, to sleep, lie down, to loose, forget. Tong., ■mohe, 
sleep; Eotumah, mose, sleep. Eiji., moce, sleep. Malg., 
moket, tired, weary. 

Sanskr., muh, be faint, lose consciousness, fail, be per- 
plexed, confused, stupid; caus. mohaya, to "perplex, to 
stupefy ; pra-mohita, insensible ; mogha, vain, useless ; 
moha, fainting, loss of consciousness ; mohin, bewildering, 
infatuating. 

Irish, muich, much, stupor, fainting. Amor., much (ob- 
solete or not found, but existing in compounds, as roz- 
mdch, a poppy, lit the rose of sleep or of stupor; vid. A. 
Pictet, " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," i. 293). 

Lith., megote, megmi (pres.), to sleep; mego-zole, the 
poppy, lit. the herb of sleep ; megas, sleep. 

Anc. Ger., mdgo, poppy. Ger., mohn, id. ; qusere muhe, 
pain, trouble ? Swed., wall-mo, poppy. 

In Dravidian, Tamil, mug-ir, to fold up, as a flower its 



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236 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

petals ; Canar., much-ch-u (mug), to cover up, shut in. In 
Tamil and Anc. Canar., mugil, a cloud (Caldwell's Drav. 
Gram.) 

Mo'o, s. Haw., general name for all kinds of lizards. 
Tah., mo'o, lizard. Sam, mo'o, lizard ; v. to be surprised. 

Sanskr,, mush, to steal, rob, plunder; mucali, a house- 
lizard ; musha, rat, mouse ; mosha, robbing. 

Zund, miislea ; Pers. and Bokhara, milsh; Kurd., meshk; 
Afghan, mukhak; Arm., mv.ijn; Osset, misJti, rat, mouse. 

Greek, fivs, a mouse. 

Lat., mus, mouse, rat, marten, sable. 

A.-Sax., O. H. Germ., Scand., mils, mouse. 

Anc. Slav., myshi; Illyr., mi&c, mouse. 

Moko, v. Haw., to pound with the fist, to fight, box. 
Sam., tnoto, strike with the fist. Marqu., moto, to compress, 
squeeze. Fiji., moko, to embrace, clasp round with the 

Greek, fiodoi, battle, turmoil of battle. 

Gotb., motjan, to meet ; Swed., mdta, to meet, fall in 
with ; mot, against, contrary, opposed to ; mola, to stop, 
hinder. 

Liddell and Scott refer the Greek fioOos to the Sanskrit 
math, to agitate, dush, kill, churn ; and A. Pictet is of the 
same opinion. The Scandinavian mot, mota, would seem 
to offer an equally good, if not better, connection for the 
Greek poOo? ; the more so as they evidently refer them- 
selves with better sense to the Polynesian moto, in what 
was probably its primary meaning of " pressing together, 
to clasp, embrace," than they would to the Sanskrit r, 

Mola, v. Haw., to turn, be unstable, spin round. Only 
found in the Hawaiian among the Pacific Polynesians. 
Possibly akin to the Haw., Sam., milo, and N. Zeal. 1 
to twist, as a string or rope, to make twine ; mi-milo, a 
whirlpool. Piji., mulo, to twist. Malg., ma-mule, to spin 
fa-mule, a twisted string, twine. 

Greek, fivXrj, a mill ; fivXka, have sexual intercourse 
fivWai, prostitute. 

Lat., mola, a mill; molo, to grind. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 237 

Goth., inalan, to grind. A.-Sax., mylen, myll, mill. 

Lith., malti, to grind ; malunas, mill, 

Buss., metinitsa, mill. 

Welsh, mm/u, to grind ; melin, mill. 

Irish, meilim, to grind ; muillion, mill. 

A. Pictet refers the Indo-European forms to a lost 
Sanskrit root, mal, " a secondary form of mar, mr, in its 
active sense of destroying, killing, crushing" (Orig. Ind.- 
Eur., ii. 119). But all the Indo-European references 
mentioned by Pictet imply a primary sense of twisting, 
turning round, whirling, as found in the Polynesian viola, 
milo, mulo, and not necessarily an underlying sense of 
destruction, killing, crushing. Until the Sanskrit root 
mal is fouDd, perhaps the Polynesian mola, milo, will 
suffice. 

Mole, s. Haw., tap-root of a tree, bottom of a pit or 
sea, foundation, cause ; fig. offspring, descendants from 
a root. So far as I am aware, only found in the Hawaiian 
dialect. 

Sanskr., mMa, root of a tree, the lowest part, origin, 
cause, commencement, near, proximate ; p&da-mula, sole 
of the foot. 

Lat., motes, a mass, lump, heap, foundation, a dam. 

Benfey refers the Sanskrit mUla to a " vb. mah" whose 
original form again was magh, to be great, powerful, I 
know not the process of such a derivation, but think it 
faulty in view of the Polynesian mole and the Latin 
moles. 

Molia, v. Haw., to devote, to give up to good or bad, 
to bless or to corse, according to the prayer of the priest, 
to pray for, be sanctified, to worship, sacrifice, to curse. _ 
" Molia mai e ola," bless him, let him live ; " Molia mai e 
make," curse him, let him die. Tan., moria, name of a 
religious ceremony after restoration from sickness ; mori- 
■mori, prayer at do. Sam., molia-molia, be disappointed, 
deceived. Marqu., moi; Fiji., moli, thanks. Snnda., 
mulija ; Mal., mulieja, dignified, illustrious. 

Anc. Slav., moliti, to pray; moliva, prayer. 



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238 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Pol., modlie, to pTay ; modla, prayer. 

Lith., malda, prayer. 

Irish, molaim, to praise; moladk, praise. Welsh, mall, 
to adore ; mawl, molud, praise. 

A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 701) refers the above West 
Aryan forms to the " Sanskrit mad, petere, rogare, in 
Vedic (Westerz), prop, exhilare," though Eenfey (Sansk. 
Diet.) says that the original meaning of mad was "to he 
wet," and that in the Vedas it means "to get drunk." 
And Pictet considers the I in the Anc. Slav, and Irish 
and Welsh as an exchange for an original d or dl as 
preserved in the Polish. We have no remains of Ancient 
Polish with which to compare the Ancient Slave or the 
Irish and Welsh ; and I think, therefore, that the Poly- 
nesian offers a simpler and a better reference. 

In Hang's " Essays on the Sacred Songs of the Parsis," 
p. 175, n. 2, he states that "for blessing and cursing one 
and the same word is used " in the Avesta — dfrSndmi — 
which thus corresponded to the old Hebrew word herek, 
" to give a. blessing and to curse." It strengthens the 
West Aryan connections shown above of the Polynesian 
molia to find that the ancient Iranians also used a word 
expressing the same double sense. 

Mu 1 , v. Haw., to shut the lips, hold the mouth full of 
water, make an indistinct sound, to hum, be silent; mu- 
mu, id. ; mumule, be dumb, silent, out of one's head 
to mumble food with the lips ; mua-mua, drinkin; 
and spitting it out again; mui, collect, assemble 
m/u-i, id. ; mu-o, to bud ; mu-o-mu-o, to swell out, as the 
bud of a flower, original sense, to pout with the lips ; mu~u, 
to collect, lay up in store ; mu-ki, apply the lips or mouth 
to a thing, to kiss. After the introduction of tobacco, to 
light a pipe, take a whiff, to squirt water through the 
teeth ; mu, s. a small black bug, a moth. Sam., mu-i, to 
murmur; mu-mu, be in swarms, as flies, small fish, or 
children; mu-su, be unwilling, indolent; musu-mujsu, to 
whisper. Tah., mu, a buzz or confused noise ; v. to buzz, 
make noise or din; mu-hu, noise, din of talking; mu-mu, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 239 

same as mw, wiw-i, to tie up, collect ; muta-muta, to mutter 
without speaking out, generally of discontent. Marqu., 
moto, to compress, to shut; tnulu, dumb, stupid. Rarat., 
mu-teki, mu-rare, silent, dumb. Fiji-, -mu-mu, to swarm, 
as flies or mosquitoes. Malg., mu-a, dumb, foolish ; muk, 
mok, mosquitoes. Ceram. (Wahai), mumun, fly. Mai., 
nya-mok, mosquito. 

Sanskr., m4, to bind, compress; muha, dumb; s. a 
fish ; ma,ukya, dumbness. 

Greek, fiv, a muttering sound made with the lips ; fivaio, 
to compress the lips in sign of displeasure ; fivta, to close 
or shut, of the eyes or mouth ; (ivfyo, to murmur; /tvyfios, 
moaning, muttering; ftveto, iuitiate into mysteries; /ivia, 
house-fly ; /mvvBoi, dumb ; fivSos, /iutto?, id. ; fiu-myjr, blink- 
ing, short-sighted. 

Lat., mu—fiv,v. supra; musca, a fly; musso, to murmur, 
mutter ; mAtssito, be silent, speak softly ; mutio, murmurj 
mumble; mutus, mute, dumb, silent. 

O. H. Germ., mucca; Sax., inyijf., miilge, gnat. 

A. Pictet (I. c, i. 421) refers the Greek, Latin, Old Ger- 
man, and Saxon names for "fly," as well as the corre- 
sponding Slavoid names — Russ., mucha ; Tiahem., maucha; 
Illyr., muha; Lith., vmsse — to the Sanskrit root mac, to 
sound, to be irritated, and its relative maksh, whence the 
Sanskrit forms makshikd, a By ; momka, a gnat, a mosquito. 
Under correction, I would suggest the Polynesian mu as a 
better reference ; or, if everything must be referred to 
the Sanskrit as a test of linguistic kindred, there are the 
Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin mu, with their derivatives of 
(ivX<», musso, &e. 

Mu 8 , v. Sam., to burn, to glow, to redden ; mu-mu, to 
burn brightly, as a fire ; adj. red ; faa-mu, to kindle a fire ; 
■mu-litini, fiercely hot, of the sun. Haw., mn-kole, red, 
sore inflamed of the eyes. Ceram. (Wahai), mulai, hot. 

Greek, fivhpoi, any red-hot mass, especially of iron. No 
etymon given by Liddell and Scott 

Muku, 11. Haw., to cut short, cut off, to cease, to stop, 
as a siekness ; moku, v. nearly identical in sense, to divide 



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Z40 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

in two, cub off, break asunder; s. a part of a country, a 
district, division, an island, a ship supposed to be float- 
ing islands, a piece of anything broken off. long., mutu, 
to break, separate ; motu, small island. N. Zeal., inuku, 
to break off, cease, fail, as a crop. Marqu., motu, to tear, 
break off; s. an island. Tah., motu, to tear, break ; s. a 
low island ; motu-u, to be stranded, as a rope ; fig. mental 
weariness; mutu, bo gone, vanished. Sam., mutu, to cut 
off, be defective ; motu, be broken, severed, snapped asun- 
der; s. an islet, a district. Fiji., mudu, to cut off, cause 
to cease; mum, cut crosswise, break off; mucu, blunt, of 
the. edge. Mai., mukim, district. 

Sanskr., mus, mush, to break to pieces ; mumla, rnucaln, 
a pestle, club. Perhaps much, to let loose, dismiss, to 
leave, abandon, take away. Perhaps also — 

Greek, /two;?, a mushroom, any knobbed, round body, 
the chape or cap of a sword's scabbard, the stump of a 
tree ; ^imXo?, curtailed, maimed. 

Lut, mutilus, maimed, mutilated. 

Muli, prep. Haw., after, behind, in time or place ; s, 
a successor, the last of a series, hindmost, the younger 
child of two ; muli-wai, lit. the last of the water, the 
mouth of a river, a firth. Sam., muli, the end, the hind- 
part, bottom, rump ; adj. the young, of men and trees ; 
muli-muli, to follow after; muli-ai, the last; muli-vae, 
the heel ; muli-vai, mouth of a river. Tah., muri, behind, 
afterwards ; muri-a-pape, the mouth of a river. Marqu., 
imui, after. N. Zeal., muri, behind, after, younger, tip 
end. Tong., muli, behind, abaft, foreign, strange; mui, 
young. Fiji., muri, to follow, go behind ; muri-muri, the 
last Sunda., -mulih, to go behind. Mai., burit, the 
hinder-parts. Jav., buri, the last. 

Liddell and Scott consider the Greek fivpio^, numerous, 
infinite, incessant, &c, and the Latin multus, much, 
numerous, frequent, &c, are related, but give no etymon 
for either. I am induced to think that a still earlier 
sense of pvpto$ and multus was that of frequency, se- 
quence, succession, and thus would bring them within 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 241 

the family lines of the Polynesian muli, muri. Such, 
expressions as ■multo die, late in the day ; mtdta node, late 
in the night ; -multurn, esse, to be prolix, tedious, also to he 
frequent, of common occurrence, seem to be based upon 
an earlier conception, when the word indicated sequence, 
succession, one thing following another, which doubtless 
was the radical sense of the Polynesian muli. 

On p. 223, s. v. Mali, I have followed Benfey in refer- 
ring the Latin mulier to the Sanskrit mrij, and the Latin 
mulgeo, analogous to Sanskrit duhitri. I now think it 
more appropriate to refer muli~er, woman, to the Poly- 
nesian muli, she " who follows, comes after " the man. 

Na 1 , art. Haw., plur. prefix, they; na hale, the houses. 
In some South Polynesian dialects, nga, id. ; nga-lima, the 
hands. Tagal., ma-na, they. 

Sanskr., ndnd, various, different. 

Irish, na, they ; na-lamha, the hands. For an analysis 
of the Sanskrit ndnd, in connection with the Polynesian 
and Irish na, see Fr. Bopp, " Uber die Verwandtschaft der 
Mai. Polynes. Spr. mit d. Ind.-E«r.," p. 98. 

Na 2 , Nana. Fiji., word used by children when address- 
ing their mother; correlative to ta and tata for father; 
a familiar word for mother; ngane, a male's sister or a 
female's brother. Within the Polynesian area proper, 
nana is obsolete, and ngane or nane only remains in com- 
pounds, as tua-ngane, a woman's brother. Sam., kai-ku- 
nane, id. Haw,, within the Indonesian circle of Poly- 
nesian relatives the word is still found. Celebes (Bouton), 
i-nana, mother ; (Menado), i-nany, id. Sumatra (Singkel), 
i-nanga, id. Banjak Isls., nenne, id. Cerarn. (Gah) and 
Matahello, nina, id. Burn., neina, id. Sunda, neenee, 
grandmother. Ke Isls., nen, mother. 

Greek, pewo? or vowm, a mother's or father's brother, 
an uncle ; vavva, aunt ; vivvn, grandmother or mother-in- 
law. " Nand = mother, is cited from the Rig- Veda by 
Aufrecht." — Liddell and Scott, s. v. 

Nae, adv. Haw., truly, indeed; but Tong., nai, per- 
vol. in. Q 



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242 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

haps, may be. N. Zeal., nake, but. Mang., anake. Tah., 
anar. only, merely, together, entirely. 

Greek, vai, yea, verily. 

Lat., nae, truly, indeed. 

Na'o, v. Haw., to thrust in, as the hand or fingers into 
some unknown receptacle, to penetrate, as the mind, to 
think deeply ; nao-na'o, to thrust in the hand, to seize, 
steal, look earnestly at, contemplate; adj. deep down, as 
a pit; ma-na'o, to think, call to mind; s. thought, idea. 
Sam., nga'o, diligent, industrious; na'o-na'o, to feel for, 
as for fishes in holes by introducing the arm ; ma-na'o, 
desire, wish. Tah., nao, to take up little by little, as 
food; nanao, to thrust the hand into a hole or aperture; 
s. the tattooed marks on the skin ; ma-nao, to think, reflect ; 
pu-naonao, take out of a bag or basket, to steal ; ti-nao, 
put the hand in a hole. K. Zeal., Karot., ma-nako, think, 
hope, remember. Sumatra (Singkel), me-nangko, to steal. 
Pulo Nias, me-nago, id. Sunda, Mai, ing-ngat-an,, to re- 
member, memory. 

Probably related to this family of words are the Haw., 
noo, noo-noo, seek, search after, reflect; no-i, to beg, en- 
treat, ask for; no-ii, to glean, gather up, as small things, 
collect one's thoughts ; noi-au, wisdom, knowledge. Sam., 
no, no-no, to borrow; no'o-i, to answer back. N. Zeal., 
Itarot., i-noi, to beg, entreat. Tah., no-u-no-u, to desire, 
covet. 

Sanskr., jid, to know, he intelligent, recognise, search, 
investigate ; jtidta, known, thought ; jna, knowing. Zend, 
jnd, to know. 

Greek, ytyvaHrtca, inf. yvtavai, to perceive, mark, know ; 
yvao-K, investigation, knowledge ; voo$, too?, mind, thought, 
sense ; foew, to perceive, observe, think. 

Lat., nosco, to know ; cognosco ; notus ; gnarus ; gnavus. 

Goth., kunnau, to know. O. H. Germ., knau, to know. 
Sax., cnawan, to know. 

Anc Slav., znati. Lith., zinoti. Kuss., znayu, to know. 

Irish, na, soul, intellect; gno, known, famous; gnas, 
custom, habit* 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 243 

The material and probably original sense seems fco hare 
been retained only by the Polynesian branches. 

Nau, v. Haw., to chew, gnash the teeth, hold in the 
breath ; nau-nau, to bite, as bitter plants ; to chew, mince, 
to move the lips as in chewing, mumbling. N. Zeal., 
ngau, to bite. Tong., ngau-ngau, a talker, a braggart, 
Sam., ngau, to break, chew sugar-cane ; ngau-ngau, to fold 
up. Tab., a-nau, to grieve, as a parent for his child. 
Allied to this is probably the Haw. and Harqu. nahu, to 
bite, snatch at, to gnaw, to bite off, to file, to rasp ; s, pain 
of bitii;;:, colic, inward pains. 

Greek, xvaa, xvauo, to scrape, scratch, tickle, itch ; 
kvtjko 1 ;, a kind of thistle. 

Sax., gnagan, to gnaw, scrape, bite little by little. O. 
Norse, naga, id. ; nagga, a quarrel. Possibly also Sax. 
kncegan, to neigh as a horse, to whinny. 

Irish, cnaoidhim, to gnaw, consume ; cnagk, cnaoi, con- 
sumption ; cnuigk, a maggot. 

Naua, s. Haw., noon; adj. cold, distant, angry, cele- 
brating a chief's birth or residence. " Owai kou naua?" 
was often asked in olden times of unknown or doubtful 
pretenders to nobility, equivalent to " "Where were you 
born ? who were your ancestors ? " So far as I know, 
this word only occurs with these meanings in the Hawai- 
ian. In the Samoan we find na'ua, exceedingly, very ; 
nau-nau, to be very great, to exceed. Tah., nau-anei, to- 
day. The primary sense of this word probably still 
lingers in the expressions " exceedingly," " distant," associ- 
ating it on one side with the conceptions of zenith and 
noon, and on the other side with the birthplace of chiefs, 
who were considered not only as trop^vpo-yevt/riTot, but 
also as itotrBoroi, thus marking the distance (socially) 
between themselves and the commoners. Among the 
West Aryan relatives of this word probably the nearest is — 

Welsh, nawn, noon, properly the summit of a thing, 
from naw, up, ultimate, what limits. 

Sanskr., nabhas, sky, atmosphere, ether; nabhas-vant, 
wind. 



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2 4 4 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

(Jreuk, ue^ot, y«0e\ij, cloud. 

Lat, imbea, a cloud ; nebula, mist, vapour. 

A.-Sax., ge-nip, a cloud. 0. H. Germ., m6«f, mist, fog. 
0. Norse, niflt, id. ; Nijle-lieim, the Scandinavian Tartarus. 

Ane. Slav., Nebo, heaven. 
■ Naka, v. Haw., to tremble, shake, be unsteady, be 
fearful Probably nake-ke, to move back and forth; to 
rattle, Tustle, as paper in tbe wind or as new kapa; to 
shake to and fro. Sam., ngata, a snake ; ngate-to, to shake, 
tremble, be troubled. Marqu., nyiing*,, hika, the large 
house-lizard. Buru (Wayapo), niha, snake. 

Sax., snaca, snake. 0. H. Germ., sneec?t.o, snail. ; srut-chan, 
to crawl. 

Irish, sna'gaim, to crawl. 

Sanskr., ndga, a serpent. Hind., nag, id. Cinghal., 
nayd, id. 

Does the Gothic snaga, a garment, belong to this family 
of words, from the trailing, shaking, fluttering of a garment? 

A. Pictet refers the Sanskrit ndga to a primary com- 
pound, nd +ga, what does not walk, " qui ne marehe pas." 
With due deference, I think the earlier sense of gd, gam, is 
to go, to move, irrespective of the manner of going or 
moving. Hence the compound na-ga, which Benfey in- 
terprets as "immovable, a mountain, a tree." It is pro- 
bable, therefore, that ndga is a word of so old adoption 
that its etymon and origin had been lost within the 
Sanskrit language. The Polynesian naka certainly offers 
a more reasonable explanation than the self-contradictory 
nd-ga of Pictet. 

Nalu, Nahtj (I and n convertible), s. Haw., surf, sea, 
wave, the slimy fluid on a new-born child ; adj. Toaring, 
surging. Sam.,Tong., ngaly,, a wave, a breaker; v, to break 
heavy, of the sea. Tab., nanu, the slimy matter on new- 
born infants ; nanu-miti, flood-tide ; pa-nanu, to flow as 
the tide ; nanu-nanu, make a noise like a pigeon ; Timor 
Laut, noar, river. 

Sanskr., nad, to sound, to roar ; nada, a river ; nard, to 
roar; ndra, nira, water. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 245 

Greek, vapo*;, vvpos, flowing, liquid, wet, damp. 

Welsh, wdu; to cry. Irish, naodhan, spring, fountain. 

Sax., snora, a snoring. 

Tribes of Hindu-Kush (Torwalak), ndd, a river; (Nari- 
sati), neudi, id. ; (Bushgali), nunni, id. 

Liddell and Seott refer vapo$, vi/pos, &c, to the Sanskrit 
snd, to bathe ; and so does Benfey. Such etymon may 
have been plausible while the Polynesian nalu was un- 
known, even were the s in snd not a prosthetic. 

Namit, v. Haw., to speak rapidly and unintelligibly, to 
mock by imitating another, to nibble, as a fish at bait; s. 
unmeaning talk, a person of foreign language, a rapid 
motion of the jaws. N. Zeal., namii, to grumble, murmur. 
Sam., namu, mosquito; nanu, to stammer, pronounce 
wrongly. Mangar., nanu, to curse. Tong., Tah., namu, 
mosquito. Fiji., namu, to chew. 

Sanskr., nam, to sound. 

NANI, s. Haw., glory, beauty, splendour; nanea, plea- 
sant, easy, cheerful, joy, comfort. Tah., nani, rich, having 
great possessions; nani-nani, well furnished, as a house. 
Marqu., nani, biilliant. Sam., nanea, be sufficient for a 



Sanskr., nand, be pleased, rejoice ; nandi, joy ; nandana, 
gladdening. 

Napa, v. Haw., to writhe, to spring, as timber, to bend, 
be tremulous, as the air under a hot sun ; adj. crooked ; 
napai, bent, warped, as a board ; napana, the joints of 
limbs, as wrists, elbows, knees ; napa-napa, to bend, to 
arch, be bright, shining ; nape, nape-nape, to bend, yield, 
be flexible, vibrate rapidly. Sam., ngape, be broken, 
fragile. Tah., anapa, flash of lightning ; nape-nape, active, 
vigilant. 

Sanskr., nabh, to burst, split, injure; n&bke, navel, nave 
for a wheel, centre. 

Zend, nafa, ndfd, navel, nave, centre. 

Greek, ajj,(3tov, a/iffy, (Ion.) aft{3t£, anything rising, pro- 
jecting, as a hill, lip, edge ; o/a<£aXos, navel, button, knob, 
centre. 



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246 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Lat., umbo, the boss of a shield, the elbow, cape, projec- 
tion ; umbilicus, navel ; napus, turnip. 

Sax., nafa, nave, hub of a wheel ; nafela, navel; hnepan, 
to lean, nod. Goth., hnuipan, pf. hnav.p, to knap, break. 
0. H. Germ., naba, nabulo, navel. 0. Norse, nabhi, head; 
knappr, a rocky projection ; snapr, a point, beak ; knefi, 
the fist. Engl., mope, joint of the neck ; nap, short sleep, 
a nodding ; snap, to break short. 

Irish, cnap, a round body ; neip, a turnip. 

Natu, u. Marqu., to mix, to wash clothes. Mangar., 
natu, to dip, soak. Tong., natu, to mix, to knead. Tah., 
natu, to scratch, pinch, press repeatedly, mash, mix, Haw., 
naku, to stir up, as water, to trouble, give pain, to root, as 
a hog, seek, search. N. Zeal., ngatu, to scratch, scrape. 
Sam., ngatu, the stick used in rubbing for fire. 

Greek, va<r<ja, Att. varra), to press, to squeeze close, 
stamp dowu ; vaxm, a fleece ; voreca, be wet, damp, drip ; 
vorot, south wind. 

Goth., natjan, to wet, wash. Germ., netzen, to moisten, 
to soak, steep ; nass, wet, humid, moist. Dutch, nat, id. 

Ne'e, v. Haw., to move along horizontally, hitch along 
by degrees ; ne'e-ne'e, id., draw near, approach, crawl ; nei, 
similar to nee, but with more energy. N. Zeal., neke, to 
move along. Tali,, ne'e, to move, to crawl ; ne'e-ne'e, move 
repeatedly; a-nee, to spread, extend. Marqu., neke-neke, 
approach, draw near. Sam,, ne'e, to bear up, as a boat 
lifted up by the water. 

Samkr., mac 1 , naksh, to approach, to attain, to reach to. 

Lat., nandscor, nactus, to obtain, reach. 

The Greek veto — ,8(Liddell and Scott), to swim, inasmuch 
as it expresses a horizontal motion, would seem to ally it- 
self better to the Polynesian ne'e, neke, than to the Sanskrit 
snu, to flow, distil, pour forth, 

Neo, Nea, adj. Haw., desolate, empty ; v. be desolate, 
still, silent ; v.a. sweep off everything, to destroy ; nea-nea, 
lonely, desolate; neko, filthy, bad- smelling." Earot., nea, 
lonely, desolate. Tab., neo-neo, offensive in smell, putrid. 
Sam., ngao-ngao, deserted, empty, forsaken. Marqu., nee, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 247 

the hiccough. Fiji., nelce, empty, of crabs after spawn- 
ing. 

Sanskr., nac*, be lost, disappear, perish ; naca, loss, de- 
struction, death ; nacin, perishable ; nashti, ruin. 

Zend, nam, corpse, cadavre. 

Greek, pews, vexpas, dead body, corpse ; votros, disease, 



Lat., nex, death, murder ; neeo, to kill, destroy ; noceo, to 
harm, hurt, injure ; noxius; per-nicies. 

Goth., naus, a corpse; nawis, dead; nautks, need, neces- 
sity; nauthjan, to force, compel, constrain. Sax., nead, 
neod, need, want; tie-neadan, to compel. 

In further correlation to the Sanskrit nac we have the 
Sam. ngase, adj. palsied, languid, lifeless; v. be languid, 
wane, as the moon, to die ; Haw., nahe, soft, slow, weak, 
gentle ; na]u:-ruihe, empty, as the bowels from fasting or 
sickness. 

Ni'o, v. Haw., to sleep sitting and nod the head ; nio-lo, 
sleep, drowsiness. Tah., ni-nito, to stretch, as when wak- 
ing from sleep or when feeling weary. 

Lat., nico, wink, make signs with the eyes. The Samoan 
nengo expresses exactly the same sense as the Latin nico ; 
but in the absence of the ordinarily intermediate North 
Marquesan form, I will not venture to connect the Samoan 
with the Hawaiian or Tahitian. 

Liddell and Scott, following Curthis, refer the above 
Latin nico, nicto, as well as nuo, nuto, numen, con-niveo, and 
the Greek vevm, to nod, beckon ; vevfia, nod, sign ; vvo-raty), 
to nod in sleep, to slumber, as relatives to an assumed root, 
vev. There is no possibility of calculating the permuta- 
tions of the "West Aryan vowels, but while a Polynesian ni'o, 
nito, is to be had, it may be as well to separate the Latin nico, 
nicto, con-niveo, -nixi, from whatever root may have given 
birth to nuo, nuto, vevta, &c. To such a root I would refer 
the Polynes. Sam., ngulu, to sleep ; Marqu., nou, to wink 
the eyes ; Fiji., nu, be stunned or asleep, as the head 
or feet ; Sunda, nun-du-tau, to nod, be sleepy ; perhaps 
Engano, pa-nnho, to sleep. 



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248 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

NlHA, adj. Haw., rude, rough, harsh, wild, unsocial. 
Tah., nifa-nifa, spotted, variegated. Sam., Ufa (I for n), 
thin, wasted. Malg., manidz, cold. Ceram. (Wahai), lifie, 
cold. Biadju, jer-nih, cold. 

Sanskr., nw, nica, night; nila, "i.e., nic-la" (Benfey), 
black'or dark-blue ; nihdra, fog, frost, rime. 

Greek, pitpai, to snow ; vwftas, suowflake, snowstorm ; 
w/£ night. 

Lat., niffer ("quasi ni^-ra'' Bi'nfr-v), black, dark, unlucky, 
ominous ; nix, snow. 

/end, <;niz or piij, to snow. 

Lith., snigti, to snow; snegas, snow. Anc. Slav., snici/u; 
Bohem., snih, to snow. 

Goth., snaivjs, snow. Sax., snaw, id. ; niht, night. 0. 
Norse, nitking, a villain, dastard, outlaw ; sniar, to snow. 

In confirmation of the above etymology, a similar forma- 
tion may be observed in some of the pre-Malay dialects 
of the Indian Archipelago. Thus in Teor, night is called 
po-gara-gara, " the rough, rude, harsh night," while in the 
Ceram. (Gah) dialect night is simply called gara-gara, 
" the wild, the rough, unpleasant," sell, night ; while the 
Ceram. (Awaija) pepeta, cold, meets us again in the Sunda, 
petting, night. Following the same analogy, the Sanskrit 
nakta ; Vedic nas or nak, night, and its West Aryan re- 
latives, nafks, nor,, &c, are generally derived from the 
Sanskrit nac, be lost, disappear, destroy. The Old Norse 
nithing, from with, brings back the original sense of this 
word ; and the Sanskrit nihdra seems also to be in accord 
with the Polynesian niha. 

Hi hi, v. Haw., turn sideways, on entering a house; 
nihi-nihi, s. anything standing on the edge, edgewise, 
the sharp ridge of a mountain ; the corner of a table or 
square piece of timber; adj. difficult, strait, narrow, edged. 
Sam., tna-nifi, thin. Tah., ma-nihi, to slip or slide, as 
in climbing smooth, trees. Tong., ma-nifi, thin, narrow. 
Malg., ma-nifi, thin, slender. Mai, nipies, thin. 

Welsh, nig, straight, narrow. 

; from analogy and the idiomatic character of 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 249 

the language, there can be little doubt that the Polynesian 
niho, nifo, tooth — also in Tah. horn, projection, and in 
Haw. nilw-niho, rough, projecting, proturbe ranee, teethed 
like a saw or a shark's mouth — is a dialectical variation of 
niki, peculiar to the Pacific branch of the Polynesian family. 
Among its pre-Malay congeners in the Indian Archipelago 
both forms occur, signifying tooth; ex. gr., Saparua, nio; 
Matabello, nifoa; Ceram. (Teluti), lilico (I for n), (Ahtiago), 
nifau; Celebes (Bolangh), do-gnito ; (Rntori) nichi; (Men- 
ado), ngisi; Sulu lsl.,niki; Burn, nisi; Amboy iia,niki. Teor., 
nifin; Sanguir. Isl., isi; Malg., n-ij, nifi; Timor Laut, nifat. 

I am inclined to believe that the Icelandic w:.f, Saxon 
neb, nib, bill, beak, and perhaps the Greek vvaaw, to prick 
with a sharp point, waaa, the turning-post at a race- 
course, originally refer themselves to the same root-word 
as the Polynesian nihi, nifi, niho, nifo. 

Niki, v., also Naki. Haw., to tie, knot, bind, fasten, 
confine; nikt-niM, a sheath, what confines. Tah., noli, 
to tie, bind ; na-nati, nati-nati, id. ; niti-niti, niggardly, 
close-Bsted. 

Sanskr., nah (" for orig. nadh," Benfey), to tie, bind, 
fasten ; naddhi, cord ; naha, obstruction. 

Lat,, ncdo, knit, bind, join ; nexus, nodus, knot ; mix, nut. 

Cloth., noli, a net; ntihla, a needle. Sax,, cynthan, to knit, 
tie, fasten. 0. H. Germ., net-Jam, uawan, to sew ; net, seam. 

Welsh, noden ; Arm., n&Ad; Irish, snadh, threads; 
cnotadh, a knot ; cnudh, end, a nut. 

Nu, v. Haw., to sound, roar, groan, grunt ; s. nu-nu, a 
dove ; adj. moaning, grunting, cooing, sullen, dumb ; 
nunulu, to chirp, as birds, to grunt, growl. Sam., ngu, to 
growl, murmur ; ngu-ngu, dumb ; nunu, be silent from 
anger. Tong., ta-nguru, to snore. Barot., nguru-nguru, 
to groan, growl; ma-ngu-ngu, thunder. Paum., nguru- 
nguru, to grunt; s. a hog; Marqu., nunu, dumb. 

Sanskr., nu, n-A, to shout. Ved., ndu, voice (Pictet), 

Pers., nuwd, nawd, cry, sound, voice. 

Nuku, s. Haw., the bill of a bird, the snout of an 
animal, mouth, nose of a pitcher or person; nuku-nuhu, v. 



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250 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

to find fault, complain, scold; adv. on end, edgeways. 
Sam., ngutu, the mouth of men, animals, bottles, &c, the 
beak of a bird; ngutu-a, talk impudently; ngutu-ngutu, 
to promise and not perform. Tah., utu, the lip, bill of a 
bird, edge of a thing, the long snout of some fishes ; utu- 
taa, forward, perverse. Marqu., ngutu, kutu, bill, beak, 
mouth. N. Zeal., ngutu, id. Tong., ngutu, face, mouth; 
lo-ngutu, the lips. Gilolo (Gari), us-nut, nose. Kaioa 
Isl., us-nod, id. Ternati, nunu, id. Saparua, nuku, mouth. 
Mentawej Isl., ngungu, mouth. Bum (Cajeli), nuum, id. 
Engano, oku, id. 

This word, so common among the eastern branches, has 
so far as I can learn, only two representatives in the 
west : the Persian n6lc, navik, point, angle, beak, and the 
English snout, the Dutch muite, Swedish snut, snyte. 

Pa, s. Haw., anything with a flat surface, as a board, 
plank, table, smooth rock, a wall, fence, enclosure; «. 
to fence, enclose ; pa-pa, smooth, fiat, a board, plank, a 
row, rank, a company sitting or standing in a row, a 
storey in a building; papa-Una, the cheeks of the face; 
pa-pohaku, a stone fence ; pa-pa, -v. to erect a screen or 
shade to prevent the light or heat of the sun ; fig. to 
prohibit, forbid. Tah., pa, a fence, hedge, enclosed place; 
pa-pa, board, seat, fiat rock, stratum of rocks, shoulder- 
blade ; pa-ti, rank of people standing in a row, range of 
mountains ; pati-a, fence of upright sticks. Sam., pa, a 
wall; pa-pa, a rock, a floor-mat, a board; adj. plain, 
level, flat ; pa-o, to stop, check, forbid, correct. Marqu., 
pa, fence, wall ; po-pa-ki, to command under penalty. Fiji., 
ha, a fence to enclose fish ; oa-i, a garden fence or village 
fence. Malg., fa-fan, a plank ; fahcts, stockade, fence. 

Sanskr., pa?, to guard, preserve, protect, to govern; 
pd-tri, a protector. Eenfey (Sansk. Diet.) says that " the 
link between the signification of pd l , to drink, and pd 2 , to 
protect, is formed by the signification to nourish," and 
he refers to the Greek irao/iai, to get, acquire ; wopa, a 
lid or cover; A.-Sax., foda; Goth., fodjan, to feed ; Lat., 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 251 

pasco, &c. Under correction, it seems to me that the 
Polynesian conception of pa as a wail, fence, enclosure, 
and perhaps the still older conception of hoard, plank, 
flat rock, row, soil, of rocks or stakes as a fence, is as 
good, if not a better, origin of the Sanskrit pd, to guard, 
protect. This primary sense of the Sanskrit pd occurs 
again — and there only, I believe — in its derivative pdli, a 
line, row, bank, dike, boundary, to which I shall refer 
ayntn iib'Jvr lb- l''-i"i-*. iin _,■■( ; 

Pa'a 1 , v. Haw., be fast, make fast, take hold of, hold 
on to, confirm, establish, secure, to finish as a work, to 
fix, hold back, detain, retain in memory, assert ; pa'a-kai, 
salt, lit. hard, solid water ; pa'a-kao, prisoner, lit. iron- 
bound. Marqu., pa'a, ripe, as fruit, mature ; pa'a-kaih.d, 
retain by heat, know ; paka, circle, reunion ; patia, to 
fasten, attach to. N. Zeal., pa'a-tiltu, hatchet, on account 
of its hardness. Tah., pa'a-na, strong, vigorous, healthy ; 
pa'a-wa, a conqueror. 

Sanskr., par,, to bind; pdca, a tie, string, fetter, noose, 
net ; pacu, cattle. 

Lat., pango, to fasten, fix, drive into; paciscor, agree, 
contract ; padm/t, pax, &c. ; eom-pesco, keep in chuck, bridle, 
confine; pctt/vs, village; pecu, perns, cattle; fastis, fascia. 

Goth,, fahan, to catch, apprehend ; faihu, cattle, pro- 
perty; fatha, a hedge ; faxtan, to hold fast, keep, observe; 
faths 2 , a leader, a chief. A.-Sax., feoh, cattle. Dutch, pak, 
a bundle. Engl., pack, to pack. 

Lith., pecku, cattle. 

Greek, miyvvfii, eirar^ov, to make fast, fix, make solid, 
construct, make hard, freeze ; ■mj-yos, firm, strong, solid ; 
■nayw\, hoar-frost; irayy;, thick, large, stout; 77-0709, a 
firm-set rock, a peak, rocky hill; -ttwv, flock of sheep; 
TTotfirjV, a herdsman. 1 

1 As an instance of i liomatio similarity, it may bo interesting to notice 
thai IjiJ-Ji Greeks and Polynesian* ft;r:ni!il their name for crabs or such 
shell -fish upon the root, of this wiiril. The Greeks cajled crabs by the general 
name of nay-eopat, lit. hard-tailed, hard-shelled. The Polynesians, Tah., 
call a email crab pa'a-iea; Sam., pa'a, general name for crabs; Haw., 
papai, crabs. 



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252 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Pa' a 2 , Pa'a-pa'a, v. Haw., to bum, scorch, consume by 
fire; adj. scorched, burnt; s. dryness, thirst. N. Zeal, 
piaka, anything dried in the sun. Rarot., paka-paka, burnt, 
scorched. Tah., pa'a, crust of bread-fruit, scales on the 
skin. Sam., pa'a-a, crisp, dry, as leaves. Marqu., paka, 
thirst. 

Sanskr., pack 1 , to cook, bake, roast, ripen ; pak~tri, cook- 
ing, a cook; pdka, cooking, burning, baking, food. 

Zend, pack, to cook. Pers., pagi-dan, id. ; p&ha, fire ; 
pochton, to cook. Affghan, packaval, to cook. Arm. (A 
for p), khoh, kitcheu. Osset., fichin, to cook. Shina 
(Gilgit), puch-OT/ki, be ripe. Khowaree (in Chitrat Valley), 
pe6M, heat ; petch, hot. 

Anc. Slav., peka, heat; pekari, baker; pectle, to cook. 
Lith,, peczus, oven, fireplace ; kepti, kepa (by inversion), 
to cook, roast. 

Lat., coquo (c for p), to cook ; aulina (for cue -linn), 
kitchen ; papina, restaurant, eating-house. 

Greek, ■n-pjrra), ireTTta, to cook, dress, bake; -Keiraiv, sun- 
ripe, mellow ; irOTvavov, cake for sacrifices ; -Tre/i/ia, pastTy. 

Pa'i, Paki (both forms), v. Haw., to strike with the 
palm of the hand, smite, spatter, dash ; pai-o, to strive, 
contend, scold, strike to and fro. Sam., pai, to touch, 
reach to, arrive at ; pati, to clasp the hands. Tong., pat% 
id. Tab., pai-pai, to drive evil spirits out of one possessed, 
done by clapping of hands and striking around wildly; 
pai-o, to arrange or adjust an affair in dispute ; pati, start 
suddenly, jump, leap. Marqu., pai-o, dispute, quarrel. 

Greek, iraia, to strike, smite, whether with the hand or a 
weapon, drive away, strike upon, correct, as a child; irapa- 
■nauo, strike on one side, strike falsely, fly off from, 
wander. 

Lat, pavio, strike, beat, stamp, pave. 

Paina, v. Haw., to eat, to feed ; to ring, squeak, sound, 
as in tearing or breaking a thing; s. a part separated or 
broken off, a meal, an eating. Tah., paina, a crashing 
noise, like the breaking of a stick. 

Greek, iratto, to eat. Liddell and Scott consider this 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



'S3 



word as a " modification in sense " of iraito, " to strike," 
and I think correctly so. The primary sense of " crashing, 
tearing, breaking," evidently here underlies the conception 
of "eating." The similar " modification in sense" of the 
Polynesian pai-na, from the rout pa-i, strengthens the rela- 
tion of the Greek and Polynesian. 

Pau, v. Haw., be all, entire, complete, finished, ended, 
consumed, past. Sam., pa'u, to fall down, to set, as the 
sun ; pa-pa'w, shallow, as the sea. Tah., pau, consumed, 
expended; pau, a shallow place of water; pau-pau-te-ako, 
be out of breath, short-winded. Marqu., pau, be all, 
ended. 

Greek, travm, to bring to an end, to cease, have done ; 
wav\a, pause, rest, end ; wavpos, little, small, few ; tpav\o<;, 
slight, mean, trivial. 

Lat., paucus, paulus, few, little, small; pauper, poor, 
needy. 

Goth., fans, fawn, few; fawizo-haban, to lack, be short 
of. A.-Sax., feava, few. 

Welsh, pens, place of rest, country. 

Belated to the above Polynesian pau, as root, are the 
following derivations : — 

Hfi.w.,pauku, fraction, portion ; poko, short, small; pokole, 
id. N. Zeal., polo, short. Sam., poto-poto, a small portion, 
Tah., poto, id. Vide s, v. Pohii. 

Pahi, s. Haw., any cutting instrument, as reed, shell, 
knife, or stones ; v. to cut thin, to stand up on edge. N. 
Zeal., ta-pahi, to cut. Tah., ta-pahi, a cleaver with which 
to split bread-fruit; v. to split, divide. Sa,m., fasi, to break, 
kill, split ; s. a piece ; fasi-fasi, split in pieces ; ta-fasi, to 
split open, break off. Fiji., nasi, a shell or knife to scrape 
yams with. Buguis, belli, adze. Celebes (Menado), pahegy, 
knife. Malg., bassi, hatchet. 

Sanskr., bash, vash, to hurt or kill ; vaa (s. Benfey), to 
cut. No Sanskrit derivatives from either form appear to 
exist, at least I find none quoted by Benfey. 

Paka, v. Haw., to strike, as large drops of rain on dry 
leaves, making a noise, to strike, fight, make war, cut, 



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254 T HE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

pare, fend off, slide ; paka-paka, v. to drop, as large rain- 
drops ; s. a heavy rain-shower, a pattering noise. N. Zeal., 
pata, a drop ; pakanga, battle. Tong., pata, rough, coarse. 
Sam., pata, coarse, be lumpy, swollen, as the skin from 
bites of insects; adj. blustering, bullying; papata, any- 
thing done quickly. 

Greek, iraaa-w, irai-Toi (Att.), to sprinkle ; ■nararruw, to 
beat, knock ; -TraTaros, clatter, crashing, sharp loud noise 
made by the collision of two bodies, the plash of waves, 
the rattling of wind. 

Welsh, fat, a blow ; fatiavj, to strike lightly. 

Engl., to pat, to -patter, to spatter, whose Gothic or Saxon 
ancestors are unknown to me. 

Pakau, s. K Zeal., wing of a fowl. Tong., ta-pakau, 
id. Sam., a-pa'au, id. Marqu., pako, a kite; pekehu, wing. 
Karot., peau, id. Haw., peheu, eheu, wing of a bird, fin 
of a shark, flipper of a turtle, brim of a hat. Tab., 
peh.au, fin of a fish. Gilolo (Ganj), ni-fako, wing. Mysal., 
ku-feu, id. Tagal., pac-pac, id. 

Sanskr., paksha, a wing, the feather of an arrow, a flank, 
side; pakshi, a bird; pakniUn, winged, a bird; pakshman, 
an eyelash. 

Pala, adj. Haw., soft, ripe, rotten ; v. to daub, besmear, 
blot out ; pala-a, any dark colour, as brown, purple, &c ; 
pala-i, blush, shamefacedness ; pala-hea, daub, stain, be 
dirty, denied ; pala-kai, to wither, droop, be barren, fade, 
fail ; o-pala, dirt, filth, refuse ; ka-pala, ha-pala, stain, 
spot, mark, print ; pala-pala, to paint, spot, stamp, as in 
painting, or printing the kapa cloth. Tah., para, ripe, 
as fruit, and other vegetables, manure, dung ; para-i, to 
daub, blot, efface. Sam., pala, ripe, rotten, muddy, a black 
mud used for dyeing ; pala-ie, old rotten cloth ; pala-pala, 
mud, blood ; pala-si, drop as ripe fruit, fall down. Mang., 
para-u, worn out. Sunda, oalah, dirfc, foulness. Allied 
to this is probably the Haw. palu-palu, Tah. paru-paru, 
weak, feeble, diseased. 

Sanskr., palala, mire, mud ; pallala, a small pond. 

Greek, trciKat, long ago, of old ; wa'Kaios, old, weak ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 255 

■naXeat, be disabled ; vraXwoi, to strew, sprinkle, besmear ; 
otXo?, dark -co loured, dusky ; Tre\io$, dark, livid ; 7717X0?, 
cIhy, earth, mud, mire. 

Lat., puUus, black, dark- coloured ; fulvus, deep yellow, 
reddish; fidigo, soot; palm, marsh, swamp, bog. 

Goth., fids, foul, stinking. $ax. : f'.dn,fm'o ! pale yellow, 
fawn colour ; pol, pool. 

In Dravid. (Tamil), para means old, become ripe ; 
param, a ripe fruit. 

Palaoa, s. Haw., name of an ivory ornament made of 
the sperm whale's teeth, worn by chiefs ; ivory, a whale. 
N. Zeal, and Man gar., paraoa, id. Marqu., paaoa, id. 
Tah., para-u, the shell of the pearl-oyster ; niho parau, 
white teeth. 

Greek, $a\o<s, white, shining ; tpakLos, ipa\apo<?, (pakapw, 
^>a\a/cpoi, bald-headed; <paXr) or <f>d\Xij, and (fxiXXatva, a 
whale. Liddell and Scott refer <£aXos: to ciao?, light, and 
tpaa>, to shine. It may be so; but, under correction, it 
seems to me like deriving cheese from chalk because both 
are white and shining. Liddell and Scott offer no etymon 
for tpa\\7j or <paX\awa, but consider them akin to Latin 
halena. and Scandinavian heal, whale. To me the Greek 
0aXo5 and (paWy, as well as the Polynesian pala-oa and 
para-u, refer themselves to some common primitive root, 
now lost, of which the Polynesian pala, in some of its 
meanings, the; Hunskrit paHia, grey, grey-haired, the Greek 
woXio?, grey, grisly, the Latin palleo, are the scattered but 
nearly Telated descendants, 

Pale, v. Haw., to refuse, stand in the way, hinder, fend 
off, parry, resist ; s. what defends, a sheath, garment, cur- 
tain, covering; patena, a border, boundary; papale, hat. 
Tah., pare, a fort, place of refuge; pan-pare, to defend, 
guard, entreat the deities for favours ; pare-u, a garment 
worn around the loins. Sam., pale, a head-dress, frontlet; 
faa-pale, to bear patiently, he exempt from work, Marqu., 
pa<\ head-dress, a veil. 

Cognate to this is probably the Haw. pole, pole-pole, to 
ward off, fend off, separate. Fiji., bore, to scrape or wash ■ 



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256 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

the dirt off; to brighten up. Sam., pole-pole-wale, to pal- 
pitate, as the heart, he distressed in mind. 

Greek, (papo?, a laTge cloth, cloak, or mantle, shroud; 
■n-aWa, to sway, swing, poise, toss; iraXfiT), a shield; 
TraX^ios, a quivering motion, vibration, palpitation ; treKTT), 
a small shield ; 7re\e/«£w, shake, make to quiver, drive 
away. 

Lat., pelh, to strike, beat, put in motion, to thrust 
away, push hack, expel ; parma, a shield ; palpo, to tap, 
to stroke gently ; palpito ; pm'-la, pallium, a covering, outer 
garment. 

Armor., pollen, a covering, cloak, 

Vers., par, a turban. Beluch, phall, id, 

Liddell and Scott give no root, but refer <f>apos to palla, 
pallium,, as of probably same root That reference, however, 
brings to light the connection of 0apo? s.nA pollaw/i\l\waK\n) 
and pello, and their derivatives, as well as with Polynesian 
pale sindpole. From these premises I am led to the conclu- 
sion that the Greek <paperpa, a quiver, also belongs to this 
family, and not to <pepw, to hear, as Liddell and Scott inti- 
mate. And though these gentlemen refer pkejiapov, the 
eyelid, and /Uketpapt?, the eyelash, to the verb jUXeira, to see, 
look, I would, in view of the foregoing pale, iraWa, pello, and 
their derivatives, consider these words as composite rather 
than as derivatives of ffXeirra, and formed from /3A,«r» or 
0\efi-iia, and tpapot, originally perhaps 0\ar (or /3X«n)-) 
ipapot — the covering of the eye. 

A. Pietet (Orig. Ind-Eur., ii. 223) mentions that Kuhn 
refers the Sanskrit phala, phalaka, shield, to Sanskrit 
pkal, to hurst, findi, the primitive form having been spat, 
and from this derives the Greek at}>e\a<;, a footstool, and 
the Gothic spilda, a tablet, &c. While admitting the pos- 
sibility of a similar derivation for toX/a?) and ttgXtt], Mr. 
Pietet adds : — " Tout fois, on trouve, en Sanscrit, v^dique 
une rac, spar, sauver, proteger (cf. ang.-sax. spartan, scand. 
spara, anc. all. spardn, favere, pareere), qui donnerait pour 
le bouclier un sens bien approprie\ et a laquelle irapfii) 
pour attappjq se relierait mieux qu'a phal." 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 257 

It would ill become me to argue with so eminent men 
as the foregoing ;ui : lioniius, but I may be permitted to 
suggest that the Polynesian pah comprises both the senses 
of phal or sped, fmdi, and spar, sauver, proteger, and this 
is the older form, from which the others have diverged by 
affixing prosthetic letters, the better to define the particular 
sense intended. 

Pali, s. Haw., a cliff, precipice; adj. precipitous, rugged, 
full of ravines. Tah., pari, perpendicular cliffs by the 
seaside; v. to square or shape a piece of timber. N. Zeal., 
pari, precipice. 

Sansk::, p&li, the tip of the ear, edge of a sword, a line, 
row, raised bank or dike, boundary, margin. 

Pers., barin, lofty, elevated, high in office. 

Welsh, par, what shoots to a point, a spear ; yspar t id. ; 
(xer, a spear, spit. 

Ice\. t JUUl,fell, a mountain. Germ.,/e/s. 

Pana, v. Haw., to shoot, as an arrow, to snap, as with 
the fingers, spread out, open, excite, throw, to give a name 
(nickname) ; s. a bow ; pana-i, v. to put one thing in place 
of another, substitute, redeem, fit, stitch together, graft ; 
s. ransom, price, surety, substitute ; adj. closing up an en- 
trance, filling up a place, wanting ; pani, v. with nearly 
similar meanings to pana-i; .1. a door, shutter, gate, 
stopple. N. Zeal., pana, to push. Sam., /ana, to shoot ; 
fanga, a bag, a fish-trap ; au-fana, a bow ; pa-pani, the 
cross-poles of a scaffolding. Tong.,fana, a bow, the prow 
of a vessel. Tah., fana, a bow ; pani, pa-pani, to close,- 
shut up, hide. Rarot, panaki, to repair, substitute. 
Marqu., pana, to bnoy up, wave, shoot at ; 5. a bow. 
Fiji., vana, to shoot with a bow, to pierce. Sunda, panah, 
a bow ; panto, a door. Malg., fanank, a bow, 

Sanskr., paftch, pack, to spread out, make evident, state 
fully; pwhchd, spreading; panchan, the number five; 
pankti, five, also a line, row, multitude. 

Pers., panghah, the spread-out hand, the spread-out 
talons of a bird, also hook, net, string ; pangh, five. 
Sax., fang, a tusk, talon, claw ; fengan, to catch. 

VOL. in. " b 



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258 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Under the sense of "extending, spreading," may be re- 
ferred the Gothic fana, a cloth, flag. S$,x.,panva, any broad 
and somewhat hollow surface. 0. Norse, panna, forehead ; 
spannan, to span, as a measure from one thing to another ; 
perhaps spinnan, to spin. Lat„ pando-ere, to spread, throw 
open, &c, display ; van wit.% a winnowing machine, a fan ; 
pannus. Greek, Trqvos, ir^wj, the thread on the bobbin in 
the shuttle, the woof ; pi. the web ; mpnfyi/iat, to wind off 
a reel. 

Under the sense of " shooting, throwing, exciting with 
violence," may be referred the Greek 0erw, to slay ; tpovos, 
tf>ovv, murder, slaughter. Goth., banjo,, wound, sore. Sax., 
bana, a murderer, l'ers., ban, ham.i, reaping, harvest. Irish, 
banaim, throw down, carry off, pillage ; beanaim, to reap, 
harvest. 

Under the sense of "replacing, substituting, ransom, 
price," may be referred the Latin vcwus, rennm, sale ; vendo 
(venum-do), to sell. Probably also pando-ere, in the sense 
of unfolding, displaying, scil. the goods for sale. 

Of the sense of " closing, shutting," and, by inference, 
"concealing," I have found no trace or reference in the 
other Aryan branches, unless it be the Panis mentioned 
in Vedic mythology, who were demons of the night, and 
stole the golden-haired cattle of Indra, and drove them 
to a hiding-place near the eastern horizon, and whose 
name may have had an etymological reference to this 
Polynesian pani, though its mythical application may be 
of later origin. If so, its primary sense would be "the 
hiders, the concealers," scil. of lndra's cattle, "those who 
shut out the rays of the sun." 

In " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," ii. 69-70, Mr. A. Pictet seems to 
refer the panis to the Sanskrit word pani, a merchant, for 
derivation and rai&on d'etre. I think the philo- Sanskrit Ism 
of Mr. Pictet has led him into error. If in the Vedic 
myths the Panis were analogues and synonyms of Vrtra, 
their etymology must be traced higher up than the Sanskrit 
pani, a merchant ; and as the older meanings of that word 
seem to be lost in the Sanskrit, the Polynesian fortunately 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 259 

retains them, and enables us to find the correct rendering 
of the Panis as another term of Vrtra. The Greek version 
of the myth, referred to by Pictet, could therefore evi- 
dently only have arisen after the original sense of pani 
had become obsolete and forgotten. 

Pani, v. Tonga,, N. Zeal, to besmear, plaster over. 
Marqu, pani, cocoanut-oil for ointment. Sam., pani, to 
dye the hair with the juice of the pani tree. Haw., pani-o, 
to spot, paint in spots ; pani-ki, colouring matter, a dye. 
Fiji., pani, to anoint the head. 

Sanskr.. p&nka, mud, mire, clay, oiutment. No root in 
Ben fey 'a Sansk. Diet. 

Allied to this is probably the Samoan panu-panu, be 
smeared over, be daubed ; pa-panu, be daubed with mud 
or with colouring matter. Marqu., panii, tarnished, dull, 
blue. Haw., pano, black, dark-coloured, thick, dense ; poni, 
besmear, anoint. Tah., pao-pao, be bespattered with mud ; 
haa-pao-pao, to make brownish or dark. Mangar., pangu, 
black, dark- coloured. N. Zeal., mangu, id. 

Papa, s. Haw., an ancestor some generations back, a 
race, a family. Sam., papa, a general name for titles of 
high chiefs. Tah., pa, term of reverence, used by children 
in addressing their father, and common people their chief ; 
pa-tea, term of respect addressed to a mother or a woman 
of rank. Mang., paum, papa, id, Gilolo, Tidore, Jav., 
Mai., bapa, baba, father, Suls. Isl., ni-baba, id. Amboyna 
(Batumerah), ko-pupa, id. Malg., baba, id. N. Zeal, paapaa, 
father. 

Greek, -rraTnras, father ; TraTnro?, grandfather. 

Lat., pappas, foster-father, tutor, guardian. 

Pawa, s. Haw., the blue sky, expanse of heaven, the 
dawn, breaking of daylight, a watch, period of time ; also 
pewa, the dawn. Fiji., bewa-bewa, scud, light clouds. 
Sunda, powi, day. Gilolo (Gani),/ow«, sun. Pulo Nias, 
Banjak isl., bawa, the moon. Malg., ava, rainbow. 

This word probably refers to Sanskrit bhd, to shine ; s. 
light, splendour, the sun; vi-bhala, daybreak. Greek, 
(fjotfios, pure, bright, radiant; a form approaching the 



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36o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Polynesian pawa, povri,fovje, an epithet of the snn-god. 
Liddell and Scott refer T/0T}, Dot. a@a, youth, and ti/S/w, 
graceful, beauteous, splendid, to the same root, and s. v. 
$oi/?o5 remark that Kaune considers <j>oi0os connected with 
■fifty. If the aspirate indicates a lost digamma, F, the original 
form of d$a would have been Faf3a = Polynesian f.'.vxi. 

Pe, adj. Marqu., bad, impudent, naked. Tah., pe, 
rotten, decayed. Sam., ye, be dead, as trees, extinguished, 
as fire, dried up, as water. Haw., pe, to crush, pound fine ; 
pepe, broken, bruised, pliable, rotten, soft; u-pepe, weak, 
feeble, dry. Fiji., Be, impudent, irreverent 

Eenfey (Sansk, Diet.) refers the Latin pejnr, pessimus, 
pecco, to a Sanskrit word, pdpa, evil, wicked, sinful. The 
Polynesian pe apparently offers a better and more direct 
root for pejor, pecco, &e. Benfey gives no root or etymon 
of pdpa, nor, if derived from pd, to protect, to guard, how 
the transition is made to wickedness, crime, sin. Here, as 
in so many other instances, the Polynesian supplies the 
missing-link in the Hawaiian verb papa, "to prohibit, 
forbid, rebuke, reprove," a derivative or duplicate of pa, 
" to fence, enclose, restrict." And thus the transition from 
the Polynesian papa, prohibited, forbidden, to the Sanskrit 
pdpa, sinful, wicked, becomes easy and intelligible. 

Pela, s. Haw., putrid flesh, burnt bones, offal, filth ; 
v. be unclean, to stink ; pela-pela, id. Tong., pela, corrup- 
tion. Tah., pera, filth, dirt, cadaver. Fiji., vela-vela, filthy, 
disgusting. 

Sanskr., phela, orts, leavings, droppings. 

Pena, v. Marqu., to create, work, make, prepare. Sam., 
pena, to cut up, as a pig, to snare. Tah., pena, penapena, 
to bring up the rear of an army, to cover, protect the 
helpless. 

Greek, ■nevop.at, to work, toil, prepare ; TreveoYr)<;, a 
labourer, workman ; Treves, id., a poor man ; irc-vo?, work, 
toil, drudgery ; irovea, work hard, to toil, suffer. 

It may be for want of better etymology that the Latin 
pcme,pene, near by, almost; penula, a cloak, covering, outer 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 261 

garment, refer themselves to this family of words, in some 
forgotten sense analogous to the Tahitian pena. 

In the West Aryan branches, the derivative sense of 
" pain, suffering, want," was developed from the primary 
idea of " working, working hard," and found expression 
in words like — Greek, irepia, ireiva, f\-jravia, &c. ; Lat., 
penuria, pcena, punio ; S&x.,pine; Slav., pina; but seems 
to have been unknown to the Polynesians. 

Penu, s. Paumotu, head. Tali., penu, a stone pestle. 

Welsh, pen, head, summit. Gael., ben, id., top of moun- 
tains. 

Pi, v. Haw., to sprinkle, as water; to throw water 
with the hand; pi-pi, ka-pi, id. Sam., pi, to splash, 
slap, as fish in a trap ; la-pi, rinse with fresh water; pisi, 
to splash with water. Tab., pirpi, sprinkle with water. 

Sanskr., pi = pd, to drink ; piv, id. ; pinu, to sprinkle ; 
pilha, a drink, water ; pipdsd, thirst. 

Greek, vivm, to drink ; ■jrnrrpa, a drinking trough, 
drink, water; irpirKricco, give to drink; ira>/j,a, drink, 
liquor, &c, 

Lat., bibo, to drink ; hibulus, potus. 

Slav., pi, piti, pivati, to drink. 

The transition from the sense conveyed in the Poly 
nesian to that in the West Aryan tongues will be intelli- 
gible to those who have observed the manner of drinking 
which probably obtained before cups or containers were 
used, and which i3 still very common among the Poly- 
nesians when travelling; it is by "throwing the water 
with the hand " from the spring or river to the mouth. 
That primary sense seems to have survived in the San- 
skrit pinu, to sprinkle. 

Pia-pia, adj. Haw., the thick white liquid from sore 
eyes, dirty, watery, as the eyes ; pie, picpie, slimy, slippery. 
Marqu., pia, blear-eyed. T!ah.,pia-a, fat, fleshy ; pia-pia, the 
sweet gum in the banana blossoms, coagulated blood ; pie-e, 
fat. Sam., pia-pia, the froth of the sea or of a pot boiling, 

Sanskr., pyai (" developed out of Vedic pi," Benfey), pf. 
pass. ; pydna, pina, fat, bulky ; pinald, fatness ; piv&n, 



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Z 62 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

fat, large ; pinasa, cold in the nose, catarrh, cough. 
Benfey thinks the last is " probably apinas." Under cor- 
rection, the Vedic^i with the sense retained in the Polynes. 
Haw. pia-pia, explains the compound pi-nasa, vulg. 
"snotty nose," much better than apinasa, "by, on, or 
with the nose." Benfey refers piekchhila, slimy, lubricous, 
to the Greek -Kujua and the Latin pix — Perhaps. 

Greek, iriav, fat, plump ; -map, any fatty substance, oil, 
thick juice, cream ; TnfteXj}, soft fat, grease, adeps ; irttrtra, 
pitch, pine-gum. 

Lat., pinguis, fat, corpulent ; s. oily fat in the flesh ; pix, 
pitch, tar. 

Pers., pi, pih, pSd, grease. Osset., fi4, id. 

Irish, bith, hioth, resin, gum. 

A.-S&x.,faetk; 0. H. Germ,feist, fat. 

Pi'l, ii. Haw., to strike upon or extend, as the shadow 
on the ground or on a wall ; to ascend, go up. N. Zeal,, 
piH, to ascend. Sam., pi'i, to cling to, to climb. MaTqu., 
pilci, to climb, ascend ; piki-a, steps, acclivity. Tong., piki, 
to adhere to, to climb, ascend. Fiji., Mci-biti, a peculiar 
kind of marking on native cloth. 

Sanskr., pin'j, to dye or colour ; pin'jara, yellow, 
tawny. 

Lat, pingo, to paint, represent, embroider, 

The marking out or tracing a shadow on the ground or 
ou a wall was probably the primary attempt at painting. 
In the Hawaiian alone the sense of an ascent, compared 
to the lengthening of the shadows, has been retained. As 
the sun descended the shadows were thought to ascend or 
creep np the mountain-side. The sense of "marking, 
tracing," seems only to have been retained in the Fijian, 
where so much other archaic Polynesian lore has been 
retained, and thus brings this word in connection with the 
Sanskrit and Latin. 

Pl'o, v. Haw., to bend, to curve, be vanquished, as an 
enemy, extinguished, quenched, as fire ; s. captive, prisoner. 
Sam., pi'o, crooked, wrong, in a moral sense. Tab., pi'o, 
crooked, bent, wrong. Tong., piko, to bend, curve. 



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THE .POLYNESIAN RACE. 263 

Sanskr. (Ved.), piy, to hate, hurt, destroy ; piyu, piyant, 
enemy, rascal; quoted by Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., ii. 201), 
but not found in Benfey's Sansk. Diet. Pictet refers to 
Aufrecht, and connects with this word the 

Goth. fijan, to hate ; fijavd, enemy ; fajan, find fault 
with, blame ; fijathwa, hatred. Sax., Jigan, /eon, to hate ; 
fcv/iA, enemy. 

Irish, ji, bad; fiamh, horrible ; fiamhan, crime. 

To this Sanskrit piy Aufrecht and Pictet refer the Latin 
pejor, pessimus, which Benfey refers to Sanskrit pdpa, and 
which I have referred to the Polynesian pe, vide p. 260, s. v. 

PlKO, s. Haw., end, extremity, top, tip, navel ; piko- 
piko, dotted, spotted, variegated, like calm spots in the 
sea ; probably allied to piki, to cut off, to shorten ; piki- 
piki, be rough, as a chopped sua ; pi,hl.-piki-o, rough, lumpy, 
as the water in a cross-sea. Sam., pito, the end of any- 
thing, only used in compounds ; pito-pito, the anus. Marqu., 
pito, the navel. Tah., pito, id. ; pito-a, spotted ; pito-pito, 
a button. Tong., pito, navel, also full, i.e., filled to the 
top, brimful. Fiji., vieo-vico, the navel. 

Lat., apex, point, top ; a-picatus, mitred as a priest ; 
spica, ear of corn ; picus, woodpecker ; pica, a magpie ; 
pug-nus, fist; pungo, pupugi, to prick; pugio, a short 
sword, dagger ; pugil, a boxer ; pugna, fight. 

Greek, irv^, with the clenched fist ; irvytov, the elbow ; 
■n-vyfii}, a fist ; ■n-uyij, the rump, buttocks ; 7tu«t^«, a boxer ; 
vvyfiaio^, dwarfish. 

Sax., peac, peak, top, point, end of anything ; piic, beak, 
bill, nib, anything ending in a point ; fyst, fist ; feothan, 
to fight. 0. Norse, fikta, fight. 

Pers., payJcdn, lance, pike. 

Sanskr., pika, the Indian cuckoo ; pickchka, a tail, 
feather of a tail, a crest. 

Probably the Greek irt,6o% a large wine-jar; Lat. jidelia, 
id.; 7riTu?, a pine-tree, and -nevieTj, the fir; LaLpicea; also 
iriKpoi, pointed, sharp, are related to this family of words. 

Liddell and Scott (Greek Lex., s. v. Jlevwj) say, " Butt- 
man makes it probable that the radieal notion of irevicr) is 



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264 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

not that of bitterness, but of sharp-pointedness, the fit 
being so called either from its pointed shape or from its 
spines. The same root appears in -nt/cpos, Lat. pungo, 
pupugi, our pike, peak. . . . With Trtv/er/ come irttra-a, 
iriTTa, as the production of the tree, Lat. pix, Germ, peek, 
our pitch." The same authorities say of m-vyy, -K-vyiov, ttvI;, 
that " the root is probably the same as the Sanskr. bhug, 
Germ, beugen, to bow or bend," and to this they refer 
also the Lat. pugnus, pugil, and the 0. H. Germ, fust, fist. 
A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 23 1-233) refers the Lat pieea, 
as a deriv. of prix, from the Sanskr. pit- — pink, conterere, 
grind, pound, and the Greek irevicri, to the Sanskr. pi,, puri- 
ficare, and the Greek tt(tw to the Sanskr. pita, yellow. 

In this uncertainty I may be excused for venturing to 
ally^iic and Trwraa, picea and irevKT], ttitv*; and Trt/coo?, to 
Polynesian words that offer as good, or better, an explana- 
tion of both the probably archaic meanings and forms of 
these words. 

As regards the Greek ■jrvyij, iruy/ii], &c, which Liddell 
and Scott refer to the Sanskrit thug, and the Latin pungo, 
pu.pv.gi, which they refer to the same root as picea, 7rivpo?, 
peak, I think the Polynesian pito, piko-piho, are better re- 
latives to fall back upon for an etymological pedigree, inas- 
much as they satisfactorily explain all the divergences 
of sense and sound which the West Aryan forms present 
for inquiry and solution. I fail to see wherein pungo, 
pupugi, pugio, differ from pugnus, pvgno, pugil; yet the 
former are referred to the same root as pike, picea, irevKTj, 
and the latter to Vhu§. 

Pili, v. Haw., to coincide, agree with, adhere to, belong 
to, be attached to; s. name for the thatching grass, general 
name of the belongings of a person, such as bis property, 
children, family; pUi-alo (lit. attached to the bosom), a 
friend; pili-hua (lit. words that stick, &c, to the mouth), 
wonder, sadness, trouble; pili-hia (lit. crowded posts), 
difficulty, trouble, want of room or want of means ; pili- 
koko, blood-relations ; pili, adj., joining, things adhering 
or coming in contact that ought not; honce, topsy-turvy, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. e 6 5 

helter-skelter, destitute, poor ; ka-pili, to fit different sub- 
stances together, repair what is broken, to plaster, besmear ; 
o-pili, draw up, contract oneself, as with cold or with 
cramp. Tali., piri, adhere, stick to, be squeezed, confined, 
close ; adj. adhesive, glutinous, narrow, confined ; s. a 
wonder, a curiosity, a puzzle; piri-ati, piri-rua, a twin; 
piri-taa, a relation by consanguinity ; pipiri, stingy, close ; 
piri-oi, a cripple, lame; ta-piri,'ym\ things together; o-piri, 
confused, bashful; o-piri-piri, dribbling, as water, drop 
by dvop ; piri-a, the groin. Sam., pili-pili, be near, ap- 
proach to; pili-a, be caught, be entangled, as trees falling 
together ; pipili, a cripple ; piti, a class of lizards ; faa-pili, 
to bring near, to decoy ; ta-pili, to fan the fire ; s. a. fan. 
Doubtless a dialectical variation of this is the Samoan 
and Tong&n. Jili, to choose, select, deliberate, be involved, 
intricate, search, guess, contend ; s. an enemy, the chosen 
opponent in battle or in play. Tong., Jili-hi, overturn 
topsy-turvy. N. Zeal., Jrlarot, Mangar., piri, adhere, stick 
to, close, near. Pakaafo, pili, near, adjoining. Malg., 
fili, choice, selection ; JUi-inpuri, the buttocks ; mi-fili, or 
mi-fidi, to choose, select. Jav., Mai, pilih ; Tagal., pili, 
to choose. 

Greek, tu\cw, to press close, press wool or hair into felt; 
m'h.os, felt, a ball, a globe; TrCkvam, to bring near; -irtXoa, 
to contract, as by cold ; 7reXas, near by, close to ; oi TreAjz? 
(ovrev), neighbours ; 0t\o?, $1X10% friendly, dear, beloved ; 

Lat,, pilvs, hair ; pilcus, a felt hat; pilosus, hairy; pris, 
obsol. pos. of prior, primus, and root of pridem, pristinus, 
&c, former, previous, in time and order, with the sense of 
"next, last," as priore cestate last summer; prius vinum, 
last year's wine or vintage; pristina nox, last night just 
past ; prima node, at the approach of night ; priores, an- 
cestors, forefathers ; prisms, pristinus, old, former ; pridie, 
on the day before. All these varying terms indicate a 
primary sense of closeness, nearness, proximity. To the 
/variety of form refer themselves jilius,Jilia, son, daughter, 
and probably filix, fern. 



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266 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Sax., filian, fylgan, to follow ; freond, friend. Goth., 
friyon, to love ; frijonds, friend ; frithus, peace. O. H. 
Geim.,fth, felt. Swed., pilt, a boy; fiicka, a girl (?). 

Sanskr., pri 3 (Benfey), be pleased with; a-pri, be 
attached to ; pria, beloved, dear ; pri, to please, be satisfied, 
to assent ; prtti, joy, gratification. 

Zend,/ri, to love ; friathva, love. 

Cymric, priawd, a husband, eonjux 

Po'o, s. Haw., name of a place under the sand ; po'o- 
po'o, adj. deep, as a hole dug in the ground, a pit, sunken 
in, as the eyes ; v. be deep, be lower down, sunk in ; Ica- 
po'o, to enter into, as a spirit, to sink, as in water, to set, 
as the sun ; s. the armpit ; na-po'o, to sink, set, as the suu, 
Tah., poo-poo, deep, as a hole, sunken, depressed; popo'o, 
be indented, hollow, sunken ; a-po'o, a pit, hole, grave ; 
a-poo-ihu, the nostrils. Mangar., poko-poko, deep, dug 
out. N. Zeal., ta-poko, to enter into. Fiji., ooto, bottom, 
or under part; boto-ni-kete, the abdomen, belly. Gilolo 
(Galela), poko, belly ; hiaju, butah, id. 

Sanskr., budh, to fathom, to penetrate, to understand, 
know ; budh-na (Ved.), depth, ground ; pota, potaka, the 
site, foundation of a house. (No etymon in Benfey for 
pota.) 

Sax., botm, bytne, bottom. 0. H. Germ., bodcn. 

Greek, -nvB/i^v, the bottom or foundation of a thing, 
bottom, depth of the sea, the bottom, stock, root of a tree ; 
■7rwha%, the bottom of a vessel ; TrvftaTos, the hindmost, 
undermost, last ; /Su#o?, depth, especially of the sea, a 
hole or pit dug in the ground, hole, hollow. 

Lat., puteus, a pit, well, cistern ; fodio, to dig ; fodina, a 
pit ; fossa, ditch ; fundus, the bottom of anything, ground. 

Parsee, bunda, root, bottom. 

Irish, bun, foundation. 

So far as regards the material sense of this word, the 
Polynesian forms of poko, poto, po'o, boto, butah, correspond 
to the "West Aryan forms bot-, but-, budh-, put-,pynd-,fod-, 
fund-, with remarkable precision in farm and sense. But to 
the united Aryan mind the material sense of "fathoming, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 267 

penetrating, digging into a thing," had already suggested 
the moral sense of " experience, knowledge, wisdom," 
which have found expression along the whole line. In 
the Polynesian, the Sam. polo, v. be wise ; s. wisdom, also 
a hard-working man, a man sc. of experience ; poto-poto, 
to assemble, to gather together ; Tong., poto, wise, shrewd, 
cunning; N. Zeal., tu-poto, suspicious; Tah., a-po'o, v. 
to assemble for consultation ; s. a council ; a-poo-raa, a 
council, assembly ; Malg., vokato, be honest, worthy; voto, 
promise, vow ; Mai., budi, wisdom ; — in these we find the 
same development of thought as in the Sanskrit budh, 
to understand, know; budha, wise; budhi, mind, intellect, 
reflection. Greek, TrevOofiat, trvvOavopat, to ask, inquire, 
learn ; -neva-ii, inquiry, information. Lat., /undo, -are, to 
found, consolidate; puto, to count, adjust, judge, consider. 
Goth., bindan, to bid, command, instruct. Sax., beodan, 
command; bod, an order; boda, a messenger. Irish, budh, 
intelligent, wise. Lith., bundu, inf. bvsti, to watch. 

Poha, v. Haw., to burst forth, as sound, to thunder, to 
break, as a boil, to break in upon, as sudden light in a 
dark place, to come in sight, to open, as a bud or a seed- 
pod. Marqu., poha, similar meanings, also to hatch. 
Sam., foa, to chip, as a hole in an egg-shell, to break ; 
fo-foa, to hatch. Mai., puchah, to break. 

Sanskr., push, to nourish, thrive, prosper, unfold ; pushta, 
pel. pass, nourished, eminent, loud ; push-pa, a flower, the 
menses; push-kara, a drum; posha, nourishing, thriving. 

I have followed the order of meanings as indicated in 
Eenfey's Sansk. Diet. ; but, judging from the Polynesian 
relatives poha or foa, I should say that to " unfold " was 
the primary sense in Sanskrit from which " thriving, 
nourishing," &c, were developed. In pushta, " loud," the 
Sanskrit has also preserved one of the primary senses of 
push, " bursting with a noise ; " for " loud " is certainly not 
a developed or derivative sense of " to nourish," but a 
natural and usual accompaniment of the sense of " burst- 
ing, breaking," Moreover, there can be no possible as- 
sociation of ideas between a flower, push-pa, and a drum, 



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268 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

push-kara, unless the former refers to the "bursting, 
breaking, opening " of the flower-pod, and the latter refers 
to the peculiarly " bursting, thundering, loud " noise of 
the drum. The Polynesian word and sense give the key 
to these two different meanings. That a primary sense of 
Sanskr. ptish was " to burst, break open," is evident from 
the Mai. •puehah, which indicates a Sanskrit origin rather 
than a Polynesian. 

Poki'i, s. Haw., the youngest member of a family. N. 
Zeal., potiki, id. Tab.., potii, a girl; potiti, diminutive, 
small. Marqu., poti'i, an infant 

Sanskr., pota, the young of any animals or plants. 

Lat., putus, pusus, a boy, a lad. 

I am inclined to look upon the Polynesian as a com- 
pound word, pot or pok, with whatever may have been its 
final vowel, and iki or iti, snialL Eenfey gives no etymon 
for pota, and it hardly refers itself to putra, a son — pu-tra 
— according to Benfey, Pictet, and others ; while the Latin 
pu-tus can hardly be related to pu-ter, of which puer is a 
contraction, according to Pictet, both of which, pu-tra and 
pu-er, probably refer to Sanskrit pH, to purify. 

On p. 265, I have referred to the Polynesian poko, 
poto, short, small, as a possible corruption of piauku, and 
allied to pau. But poto may be an independent word, 
and in conjunction with iki form the Polynesian N. Zeal. 
pot-iki. 

Poli 1 , s. Haw., lower part of the belly, the lap, bosom, 
space between the breasts, hollow, cavity; poli-vjawae, 
hollow of the foot, instep. Tong., foli, encircling, round 
about. Fiji., voli, go round, about, 

Lat„ vola, hollow of the hand or foot. 

Greek, yvaXov, hollow, the hollow of a vessel, rock, or 
ground, cave, grotto, dale. 

Sax., bolla. Engl., howl, drinking vessel. Sanskr., iholi, 
a camel No reference by Benfey. The original camel 
known to the Aryans was the Bactrian camel, with two 
humps, Sholi might thus signify the hollow between the 
two humps, the animal with such a hollow back. A. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. z6o 

Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 384, &c.) analyses the Anc. Slav. 
veli-badu and the Gothic ul-landus, names for camel, and 
concludes that they derive from the Sanskrit vala or hala, 
" fort, puissant," and the Sanskrit bandha, " corps, 1'animal 
du corps puissant et robuste." "Whatever the value of the 
compounds badu and bandus, it may be just as possible that 
veli and ul refer themselves through the Sanskrit bholi, the 
Latin vola, to the primary sense of "hollow, cavity," as 
found in the Polynesian poli. 

Poli* s. Haw., a soft, porous stone, duplicate form of 
poli-poU, generally used ; v. to soften, as a stone in the 
art of making stone-adzes ; poli-e, a shining substance, a 
bright gleam. 

Lat., polio, to polish, make smooth, furbish ; poll Is, pollen, 
fine flour, meal ; polenta, pearl barley. 

Welsh, ca-boli, to polish. 

Sanskr., bdluka, sand, powder, camphor. No etymon in 
Eenfey. 

Polu, polu-polu, adj. Haw., thick, fat, fleshy, gross. 
Tah. ,pori, s. bulk, size, excessive fatness ; pori-a, fat, fleshy, 
of man or beast; liaa-pori, to fatten. Fiji., vora, grow 
fat, stout ; vore, a pig ; voroka, large, bulky. Ceram. 
(Ahtiago), war, pig. Matabello, boor, id. 

Sanskr., bala, strength, bulkiness, the body ; lalin, adj. 
strong ; s. a bull, a camel, a hog ; vardhu, vardha, a hog. 

Lat, verres, a boar ; porous, a hog, pig. Umbr., purka 
id, 

Greek, 770/5*09, a hog, 

Sax., fearh. 0. H. Germ., farah, hog, pig. Germ., 
ferkel, sucking-pig. EngL, farrow, litter of pigs. 

Lith., parszas, hog. 

Liddell and Scott (Greek Diet.), following Curtius, refer 
the Greek, Latin. German, and Lithuanian forms of this 
word to the Sanskrit prishat, " the porcine deer," from 
prish, " to sprinkle," as etymon. The step from prish to 
pork may not be so difficult materially and mentally, but 
as it is only a hypothesis, I prefer to connect the pork 
family, through the sense of " bulk, strength, fatness," with 



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270 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

the Sanskrit tola, balin, vardha, Latin verres, Polynesian 
pari, vora, vore. 

Mr. A. Pictet (Orig. Ind.-Eur., i. 335) refers the Latin 
verres to the Sanskrit vrish, " to rain, moisten, engender," 
whence vrisha, a bull, a cat, a peacock's tail ; vriskan, a 
bull, a horse ; vrishrti, a ram ; vrishana, the testicles or 
scrotum. Thus verres would stand for verses. It is plau- 
sible, and perhaps is so, though Benfey refers verres to 
vardha. But Mr. Pictet's analysis of vardha (ib. p. 371), 
to which he refers the A.-Sax. beorgh, a hog, 0. Germ. 
barch, parh, Mod. Germ, borg, a gelded hog, Engl, barrow, 
as derived from the Sanskrit rah, "to leave, abandon, 
be deprived of," on the analogy of the French sanglier, 
being derived from the Latin singularis, the characteristic 
of the animal being "loneliness, solitude," seems to me 
more ingenious than correct. 

Poha, s. Haw., joints, as of the spine or of the fingers, 
space between the joints of bones ; joints of sugar-cane or 
bamboo ; v. to divide into joints or pieces, to show spots 
differently variegated. N. Zeal., porta, ankle-joints, knots, 
Tab., porta, joint of finger or toe, a knot, tie ; pona-turi, 
the knee-joint. Sam., porta, knot, joint, a lump, a fault; 
pona-ata, pona-ua, the Adam's apple in the throat ; pona- 
pona-vae, the ankle. Marqu., porta, joints. Fiji., vono, 
joints or pieces ; adj. inlaid with pearl or ivory. Malg., 
vaneh, joints of cane or bamboo. 

Sanskr., venu, a bamboo, reed, flute, pipe ; vamca, id. 

Pu 1 , s. Haw., a shell, the trumpet-shell, a wind-instru- 
ment made by twisting the ti-leaf ; puki, v. to blow, as 
the wind, to puff, breathe hard ; puha, to breathe like a 
turtle, snort, hawk;jra-eo, an owl. Tah,, pu, a conch- 
shell, trumpet ; puo, to blow, as wind ; puha, to blow, as 
the turtle or whale ; puhi-puki, blow, as the wind, to fan, 
aa a. fire ; puki-aru, mist arising from the sea breaking 
over a reef. Sam., pu, trumpet-shell; pu-alii, sonorous, 
deep-sounding voice ; pusa, to send up smoke, spray, dust, 
vapour. Marqu., pu, trumpet-shell ; pu-aina, the ear, to 
be attentive ; pu-aka, pillow, bed ; pua-pua, foam, froth ; 



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4?' 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 271 

puki, blow, smoke, blow on a shell. Fiji., vu, to cough; 
vuso, to foam, froth. Celebes (Meiiado), pupusy, smoke. 
Saparua, poho, smoke. 

Sanskr., phut, pu*?,, imitative sound of blowing ; phut- 
Jcara, blowing, hissing; pupphusa, the lungs; perhaps 
bukk, to sound, to bark. 

Greek, /Si£n>, to hoot ; /3t>as, the owl ; fivicavr], trumpet ; 
@vkti)<;, a wind, hurricane ; <pv<ra, bellows, breath, wind ; 
tyvaaai, to blow, puff; t^vay-Trip, blow-pipe, wind-ins tru- 
rnent, spiracle. 

Lat., bucina, trumpet, bugle ; pustula, blister, bladder ; 
bucca, inflated cheek. 

Welsh, buehiaw, to bellow, low. 

Anc. Slav., boucati, to bellow, roar. Illyr., buciti, be 
sonorous ; bukka, noise. 

Pu 2 , & Sam., a hole, the anus, the vagina ; pui-pui, 
a door, partition; v. to shut, shut off; pui talinga, the 
earhole ; puta, stomach ; pute, navel ; pule pule, the centre 
of the waistcloth. Tah., pu, middle, centre; pu-taria, 
earhole; puta, hole, aperture; v. to be pierced. Marqu., 
pu-ava, a hole in the rocks ; puta, hole, aperture ; v. to 
enter or go out ; putoe, belly ; putuna, bowels, intestines. 
Haw., puka, to enter, pass through, utter, publish ; s. a 
doorway, entrance, hole; pu-ai, the gullet. Fiji., buca, 
space between two mountains, a valley, a gorge. MaL, 
pusat, centre; putus, to pass through. 

Sanskr., bhuka, a hole, head of a fountain, darkness ; 
htkka, the heart ; puta, concavity, cup, vessel, hollow of 
the hand, a funnel ; put, a hell for children. 

Pers., putah, lutah, cavity, vessel. 

Irish, puite, vase, cavity, cunnus. 

Arm., pos. Alban., pus, a pit, a hole. 

Pu 3 , v. Haw., to come forth from, come out of, draw 
out, move off. Tah.,pw, to be obtained, gratified, completed. 
Marqu., pit, come forth, go off, issue. Sam., pu-pu, give 
out heat, as from an aperture, show anger, rinse the mouth 
rinse off a curse. From this derive Haw., pu-a, blossom, 
flower, sheaf of grain or grass, a flock, a herd, descendants, 



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27a THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

children. Tong., Sam., fua, fruit, flowers. Tah., pua, 
blossom. Fiji., vua, fruit, produce, gr. child. Burn., Juan, 
fruit. Ceram. (Ahtiago), vuan, id. Malg., vua, id. Mai., 
iuwah, id. 

Sanskr., bhU, to become, exist, to be, spring up; bla'dl, 
production, birth, wealth. 

Greek, <£vo>, to bring forth, to put forth, shoots, spring 
up, come into being, grow, with its numerous derivatives; 
$i«i9, nature, result of growth ; ^>va<;, shoot, sucker ; 0wj, 
growth, stature ; <f>v\ov, race, tribe ; $v\Xov, a leaf ; <f>v/&a, 
growth, produce; <f>vrov, plant, tree, descendants, pupil, 
child ; <f>vr(op, begetter, father. 

Lat., fui, futurus, futus, spuo, spuma. Benfey as well as 
Liddell and Scott consider the Latin spuo, the Greek wtihm, 
and Gothic speiwan, as related to each other, and to the 
Sanskrit shtkiv, to spit ; and Liddell and Scott give a root 
of tttu or 7TUT. That root is probably correct, in view of 
the other form mmlja, and tttuw must have been a later 
transposition of an older ttvto that goes back to an 
original pu, as we find it in the Polynesian, and as, con- 
sidering s as prosthetic, we find it in the Latin s-puo. The 
transition from pu, -rrtn or tttv, to Sanskrit shthiv seems 
rather violent, and I am not called on to defend it. 

Pt/'u, s. Haw., any round protuberance belonging to a 
larger body, a hill, a peak, a wart, the knuckles, Adam's 
apple in the throat, the throat itself, a heap, the heart ; 
puku-puku, v. to wrinkle the forehead, draw down the eye- 
brows, frown ; puku-i, to sit doubled up, be bent up, fold 
the arms together ; puu-lima, the wrists ; o-pu'u, bud, pro- 
tuberance, bunch, a whale's tooth, spur of a young cock ; 
v. to bend, as trees or plants; adj. swelling high, as the 
surf before breaking ; o-puu-puu, rough, uneven, bulging, 
swelling out, convex. N. Zeal., puku, the stomach ; puku- 
waewae, the ankle. Tong., to-pu-wae, sole of the foot, shoe, 
sandal. Marqu., puku, to swell, puff out the cheeks of the 
face, fruit, bunch, bundle ; pu'ii-na, produce ; puutike, pro- 
tuberance, tumours ; ta-pu-wae, sole of the foot. Mang., 
papa-puku, the buttocks. Sam., pu'u, pu'ti-pu'u, short, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 273 

squat; ta-pu-wae, the ankle, foot from the ankle. Tab., 
pu'u, ball, protuberance ; puupuu, rough, uneven ; putu, 
to clasp the hands. Fiji., IniJm, the peaked end of a thing, 
a tail, a knot; luku-bv.hi-iii-liiii/a, the elbow; hul:it.-huku- 
ni-yawa, the heel ; bukw-ni-fcem, the back of the head, 
occiput. 

Sanskr., bhuj, to bend, make crooked ; bhuja, the arm, 
hand, proboscis of an elephant, bending; bhv.jaga, a snake ; 
bliujardara-, the breast. 

Pers., fatkan, stomach. 

Goth., biwjan, haiuj, lugnm, to bow, to bend. Sax., bipjan, 
to bend ; £o#«, a bow ; eln-boga, elbow ; bi-bugan, to flee 
away. 0. H. Germ., huh, htoc; Mod. Germ., bucht, bucket, 
bucken. bug, beugen; Swed., buh, the belly; bugt, a bend; 
pHi'h.l, a hump, bunch. 

Greek, j>v^, flight ; <f>evym, to flee ; <£u£t?, place of 
refuge. Liddell and Scott also refer ttuJ, -n-vyij, ttvjojv, to 
the Sanskrit Mm;'; but see remarks s. v. Pi/ro, p. 263. 

Lat, fwja, flight ; fugax. 

Slav., Se^a, to flee ; Intgti, to frighten. 

"Webb, i .'.-!/. a swelling ; to/, id.; Jo*;, the cheek; Jc^e/, 
navel. 

PULA 1 , i>. Sam., to shine, be yellow, as fruit ; puba, the 
eyes ; pitla-pula, to shine a little, as the eyes on recovery 
from sickness ; s. the shining appearance at the bottom of 
the sea ; papula, to shine. Tab., pura, to blaze up, as fire, 
to sparkle, be luminous, as the sea ; s. a spark or flash of 
fire ; pura-rea, sallow, sickly, pale. Fiji., vula, the moon ; 
vula-vula, white. N. Celebes (Bolanghitan), puro, fire ; 
■wura, moon ; (Eatahan), ma-wuroh, white. Amblaw, 
purini, white; hilar, moon. Gilolo (Gam), wulan, white. 
Itotti, fula, white. Solor, burang, id. Mentawey Isl., me- 
bulan, white. Malg., vula, moon, month, metal, silver, 
Mai., bulan, moon. Jav., wulan, id. Buru, fhulan, id. 
Matabello, wula.n, id. ; imli-wulan, yellow. 

Greek, mp, fire (funereal, sacrificial, and on the hearth), 
lightning, blaze; Tru/jero^fiery heat, fever; TrvptStor.aspark; 
jrupcros, irvppQs, flame- coloured, yellowish, tawny, red. 

VOL. III. " s 



yGoogle 



274 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



Lat., pruna, live-coal. Umbr., pir, fire. Sax.,fyr, fire, 
Norse, fur, id. ; fudra, to flame. 

Bohem., pyr, embers. 

Liddell and Scott (s. v. IIup) give no root 01 Sanskrit 
reference to the above West Aryan equivalents of the 
Polynesian pura, Benfey refers -rrvp and fyr to the Sans- 
krit p&, to purify, to clean. A. Pictet does not refer to 
irvp in his " Orig. Ind.-Eur." 

PULA 2 , S. Haw., small particles of anything, as dust, 
motes, leaves of the hala tree used in fishing ; pula-pula, 
sugar-cane tops used for planting. N. Zeal., pura-pura, 
seeds. Stewart Isl, Intra, thatching material. Fiji., vwm- 
vura, reeds, shoots, or suckers. 

Lat., pulvis, dust, powder, perhaps far and farina. 

Greek, wvpo?, wheat, grain generally, Liddell and Scott 
say, " Deri v. uncertain ; in Sanskrit pv.ra is some kind of 
grain." Pictet, " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," i. 266, refers this and 
several West Aryan terms for grain of different kinds, as 
well as the Sanskrit pHra, pdrika, a cake, to the Sanskrit 
pri, p&r, to fill, collect, satisfy. The primary sense is pro- 
bably found in the Polynesian pula and the Latin pulvis. 

POLU, v. Haw., be wet, wash, bathe ; pulu-pulu, id., be 
soft, as that which is soaked in water, wet, as clothes. 
Sam., Tong., fufulu, to rub, wash, wipe; pulu, the husk of 
the cocoa-nut. Tah., puru, id, Fiji., vitlu-vulu, to wash 
the hands. 

Sanskr., plu, to swim, navigate ; pluta, bathed, wet ; 
d-plu, to bathe, wash ; d-pluta, wet ; plava, swimming, a 
boat ; plush, he wet, to sprinkle. 

Greek, irKem, irXaxo, to sail, swim, float; -rrXoiov, a 
floating vessel ; tt\wq>, wash clean, as clothes ; ttXvtos, 
washed ; irXviro?. 

Lat., pluo, to rain ; pluvia ; fiuo, to flow ; fluvius, river ; 
fivxus. 

Goth., flodus, flood, river. A.-Sax., fleowan, to flow. 

Sia.v.,plova, ini.plouti, to navigate. XAt\x.,plauii,j:l(iwiti : 
to wash ; pluditi, to float. 

Puna, s. Haw., a source or spring of water, wells, 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. , 275 

cavern, pit ; ma^puna, boiling up, flowing off, as water in 
a spring. N. Zeal., puna, spring of water. Tab., wai- 
puna, spring water, bubbling water ; Sam., puna, spring 
up, boil up, bubble; s. spring of water. Tong., Marqu., 
puna, id. TagaL, ma-punya, liquid. 

Lat., /undo, -ere, to pour out, to spill, of liquids ; fons, 
spring, source, fountain. 

Welsh, fwn, fynnon, source, fountain. 

As a general rule, the letter s is replaced in most of 
the Polynesian dialects by the letter h, or it is omitted ; 
but there are a few words in the Sainoan beginning with 
s which have West Aryan relations, and which are not 
found, or have become obsolete, in the other Polynesian 
dialects. Such as — 

Sa, adj. Sam., sacred, holy, forbidden ; s. sign, portent, 
omen ; faa-sa, to prohibit, to consecrate. Fakaafo, sa, id. 

LaU, sacer, consecrated, sacred, execrated, cursed. 

Greek, 070;, religious awe, curse, pollution ; 071/05, filled 
with awe, hallowed, sacred ; 0710?, devoted to the gods, 
holy, accursed, execrable ; of&>, to be awe-struck, to 
dread. 

Liddell and Scott, as well as Eeufey, refer 07109 to 
Sanskrit yaj, to sacrifice, to worship. A. Pictet also refers 
to yaj, and suggests that the aspirate in 0710? is a substi- 
tute for the Sanskrit y, as in ij/iepo? it is of the Sanskrit y 
in yam, to tame, govern. It may be so ; at any rate, it is 
a substitute for s in the Latin sacer. Benfey refers the 
Latin sacer to Sanskrit sack, to follow, obey ; Greek, i-no/tai. 
Neither yaj nor sack seem to me to answer so fully to the 
requirements of the Greek 07*0?, o£w, and Latin sacer, as 
the Polynesian sa, sa-sa, of whose existence I hardly sup- 
pose that those authors were cognisant. 

Sami, s. Sam., the sea, salt water, a strong, decaying 
cocoa-nut ; adj. brackish, strong tasting. N. Celebes (Bho- 
laugh), simuto, salt, 

Sanskr., samicha, the ocean. Benfey refers this word 
to sarna-whdia, " going with, accompanying, common, uni- 



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U76 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

form." Such analysis seems rather laboured in face of the 
Polynesian sami. 

Perhaps the Greek ■tya/if/.o's, ■tyapaOos, sand, the sand of 
the sea-shore, is connected with sami and samicha, though 
Liddell and Scott give it a far-away root of i^ant, to rub, 
to smoothe. If we bear in mind that in primitive times, 
within the Aryan linguistic lines, as well a3 within those 
of other races, there must have existed an original complex 
sound of mb or mp which in course of time lost its com- 
plex character, and with this or that branch of the family 
assumed the simpler form of either m, b, or p; bearing 
this in mind, it is possible that the Latin sabulum, sabuna= 
sabulum, samJmrra, may connect themselves with the Greek 
i^d/i/tos, the Polynesian sami, and the Sanskrit samicha. 

SOLI, v. Sam., to tread on, to trample on ; soli-soli, 
prostration, putting the soles of a chief's feet against the 
palms of the hands and the cheeks. 

Lat., solum, the lowest part of anything, the bottom, 
ground ; solea, the sole of a shoe or sandal ; solidus. 



W"A, s. Haw., space between two objects, as 1 
two rafters or posts, space between two points of time, a 
definite period of time, private talk or gossip; v. to re- 
flect, to think. Sam., W. Zeal., Tah., Marqu., via, space 
between, with similar applications as above. 

Mang., wa, talk, gossip. Rarot, wa, to wonder. Among 
the derivations of this root we may note— Haw., wa-e, to 
break and separate, to select, assort; s. the knee, side- 
timbers in a boat ; viaena, a space enclosed by boundary- 
lines, a field, a garden ; ad v. in the middle of, between ; 
wa-wae, the leg of a man or beast, the foot ; waa and waha, 
opening generally, mouth, ditch, mouth of a person, mouth 
of a bag, pit, cavern ; wahi, a word, a saying. Sam., viae, 
the leg of an animal, a stool ; v. to divide ; waenga, a divi. 
sion; wae-wae, divide, cut up in parts; ma-wae, to split, 
crack open ; s. a fissure ; wa-i-masina, space of time be- 
tween the old and new moon, the night with no moon; 
" i, the time of the palolo-fishing, the wet season ; 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 277 

wa-nu, valley, ravine, chasm. Tah., wa-e, to share out, 
divide; s. the timbers of a boat, rafters of a small house; 
wae-wae, leg, foot ; a-wae, id., also the moon ; waha, mouth ; 
waha-iti, a whisperer, mischief-maker; waha-pape, a flat- 
terer ; waka-waka, contempt, disregard. Marqu., wa-e, 
foot, leg ; wa-wma, middle, between, centre. Tong., waha, 
space between two objects ; vxihi, divide, separate. Rarot., 
Mangar,, wa-wa, rent, split ; waa, mouth. N. Zeal., waha, 
mouth ; wae-wae, leg, foot ; whaka-wa, to consider, to judge. 
Fiji., wase, to divide ; vosa, to speak, talk ; s, word, speech. 
Malg., vcik, vakt, to split, break ; vaki, crack, fissure, 
Timor Laut., wahad, the face. Kawi, iasa, speech, lan- 
guage. Mai., waktu, time. 

The above are some of the most prominent derivations 
of the root wa, primarily signifying the space between 
two objects. I do not find that the root itself has been 
retained in any of the West Aryan dialects, either in form 
or sense. Some of their derivations, however, seem to 
acknowledge the existence of such a root as the Polynesian 
wa, with such a primary meaning as here given. I find 
thus in the 

Sanskr., vaka, a crane; vakra, crooked, bent; van'k, to 
go tortuously, be crooked; van'ka, the bend of a river; 
van'kri, a rib, the Tibs of a building ; van'kskana, the groin. 
Another series of derivations is found in vajra, cross, forked, 
a thunderbolt ; vdja, a wing, a sound; vaktra, the mouth ; 
vach, to speak, say ; vachas, speech, word ; vodka, a parrot ; 
also vahsa, a year, and the breast. No Sanskrit root will 
act as a solvent, phonetic or otherwise, of all the above 
words. There is apparently nothing in common between 
vdja, sound, and van'kri, a rib, or between vajra, a thunder- 
bolt, and vaktra, mouth, and we look in vain to the San- 
skrit or its West Aryan congeners for an explanation. 
The Polynesian, however, by preserving the root wa, with 
its primary meaning, and a number of derivations running 
parallel to those of the Sanskrit, furnishes a bond of union 
between its apparently discrepant and incongruous de- 
scendants. 



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278 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Lat, vaeo, be empty, void; vacuus, various ; vacillo, to 
bother, waver = Sanskr., vav'k ; vayur-ari, to ramble about 
— Sanskr., vaj ; vox, voice; voco, to call; vagio, to cry, 
squall = Sanskr., vach ; vetus, old. 

Goth., wagjan, to wag, shake ; wegs, wagging, raging, 
tempest ; wegas, pi. waves. Sax., wang, the jaw, jawbone ; 
waeg,waiQ ; waecg, a wedge. 0. H. Germ., waga, cradle; wan- 
Icon, unstable, vacillating ; ga-wahan, to remind, mention. 
(livck, tTToi for fe7ro?, word ; elirov for Fefeirav, vide Ben- 
fey ; oty, voice, word; oaaa, rumour, fame, voice, sound ; 
erm for feros, a year ; /9o£w, to speak, say ; Pa/3a£a>, to 
dance ; /3<x/3a*Ti??, a chatterer, also a dancer, a reveller. 

Here again the Polynesian wa and its derivatives furnish 
the key wherewith to find the connection between such 
words as eras, a year, and e-n-o?, a word, /3a%t», to speak, 
and its duplicate, fiafiafa, to dance ; between the Saxon 
waeg, wave, and the Old High German .ga-wahan, to men- 
tion ; between the Latin vaco, be empty, vagio, to cry, and 
vetus, old. 

Wa'a, s. Haw., canoe, boat, vessel. Sam., wa'a, id. 
Tah., wa'a, id. N. Zeal., Tong., Rarot., Marqu., Mangar., 
tvaka, id., a raft. Fiji., waga, id., also the shrine of a god, 
the case or cover of a thing ; waqa-waga, the region of the 
ribs, the ribs. Malg., vatha, chest, box. Bum and Amblaw, 
v;aa, waga, boat. Ceram. (Tobo), waha, id. Mores (Man- 
garai), wangka, id. Pulo Nias and Banjak Isl., wongie, 
cause. Singket (Sumatra), bxvnghe, id. Am. Isl. (Wammer), 
hokha, id. Amboyna, haka, id. 

Sanskr., vaha, vehicle of any kind ; vaha-na, vehicle, 
raft, boat ; root, vah, to carry, to bear. Zend, vaca, cart. 

Lat., vas, pi. vasa, vessel, a vase ; veho, to carry, to bear; 
vehieulum, carriage, waggon, vessel, ship ; via, road, way. 

Greek, 6y>o<;, a carriage, anything that bears; fyy, prop, 
support ; 6x e &, to sustain, to carry, &c. (Liddell and Scott) ; 
a^Bot, load, burden (Benfey) ; air^v, the neck, throat. 

I am aware that both Liddell and Scott and Benfey 
refer the Greek aftafa, a car, waggon, to the Greek a^iov 
and the Sanskrit akshas, the axle of a wheel, a car ; but 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



379 



neither of these authorities account for the prefix am, if 
so he that this word refers itself to al-av or akshas. It 
cannot well be a syncope of ava, for in that case we would 
have had a/ifiaga and not ajj.a%a. If it is the copulative 
a, answering to an original dfJ,a, that copulative, I believe, 
has never assumed the form of ato or a/*, though A. Pictet, 
in"Orig. Ind.-Eur.," ii. 112, assumes so faute de mieux. 
I am forced to believe, therefore, that apu^a does not 
refer to a£w, but is composed of a euphon and fiaga, and 
that fia^a is another instance of the permutation of v and 
m which we find in the Greek paWo? foT the Latin vellus, 
wool, both from Sanskrit var, to cover, and in the Greek 
ftavrti for the Latin votes, according to Liddcll and Scott's 
own suggestion. This ancient na^a, or perhaps still 
older Fa%o, I think refers itself to the Zend vaco, the 
Sanskr. vaJta, the Lith. wazis, the Anc. Slav, wen, the Sax, 
woegn, ween, the Irish feghum, fe'un, the Welsh gwoin, all 
signifying a waggon, a car, a vehicle. Assuming this to 
be correct, we can explain the otherwise singular circum- 
stance that the constellation Ursa Major has received the 
identical appellation in sound and sense* in so widely dif- 
ferent branches of the Aryan race as are the Northmen 
of Iceland and the Polynesians of New Zealand. The 
Icelanders called it the " wagn" the English Saxons called 
it the "waenes thisla" or the " waen ;" with the Greeks 
in Homer's time afial-a was the ancient and vulgar name 
for the Ursa Major ; in New Zealand it was called waka. 
This correspondence in sense and sound, as regards the 
Polynesians, points to a time when the Polynesian waka, 
bore the larger sense of any vehicle, terrestrial or marine, 
while yet the Polynesians were a continental people, and 
before their oceanic life had narrowed down the sense of 
this word to the only vehicle that remained available to 
them, the canoe. 

Wai, s. Haw., water (fresh, in contradistinction from 
Jcai, salt water, ocean water, brackish water). In the Poly- 
nesian dialects proper, North and South, wai is the special 
name for fresh drinking-water, and for liquids generally, 



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280 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

as wai-w, milk, lit. breast-water ; wai-maka, tears, lit. eye- 
water, la Fiji., wai is water generally ; wai-dranu, fresh 
water; wai-tui, salt water, the sea. In Euru and Amb- 
law, wai, water; Ceram. (Ahtiago), wad, id.: Salibabo, wai, 
id.; Saparua, wai, id.; Solor, wai, id.; Kayoa, woya, id. ; 
GUolo (Gani), waiyr, id. ; Amboyna, weyZ, wehl, and we&r, 
id. ; Arn. Isls., wajar, id. ; Mai. ayer, id. ; Plores (Man- 
garai), wai-tasik, the sea ; Biajan, hoi, water. 

To judge from the formation of this word in some of 
the Indonesian dialects, I am inclined to think that the 
Polynesian form in wai is ati abrasion of an older form in 
waki or wati. We find in the N. Celebes (Eatahan), in 
Sangvir, in Tidore, in Gilolo (Galela), the form of aki, and 
in N. Celebes (Menado and Bantek) the form of akei, 
signifying water; these having lost the initial w, as the 
former have lost the middle k. To an original form of 
wati, waki, corresponds the 

Sanskr., vadhu, Vnd.hu, river. Zend, vaidhi, id. Vide 
Pictet, "Orig. Ind.-Eur.," i. 140. 

Armor., gwaz, watercourse, rivulet 

Goth., wato. Swed., watteii. Germ., wasser, Engl, and 
Dutch, water. 0. H. Germ., wazar. 

Benfey thinks the Gotiiic wato, "han\ walan, represents 
the organic form of the verb und, viz., vad." I am not 
competent to discuss the derivation of und from vad; 
but the existence of a root or stem in vad seems highly 
probable in view of the Sanskrit derivation vadhu and 
the Zend vaidhi; and I think the connection of wato 
may be dismissed as not proven, though perhaps probable, 
there being sufficient evidence to establish the connection 
of the Polynesian wai, waki, aki, with the Sanskrit, Zend, 
and Armorican vadhu, vaidhi, gwaz. As Cnrtius " will not 
connect " vBwp with va> (Liddell and Scott), it may possibly 
stand for a more ancient FvBwp, and thus establish its 
connection with vadhu, &c. 

It is strange, however, to find among the dialects spoken 
by the " tribes of the Hindu-Kush," as related by Major 
Eiddulpb, such terms for " water " as woi, Gilgit dialect 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 281 

of the Shina ; woy, Chiliss dialect of the Indus Valley. 
If these are not corruptions of some Sanskrit word for 
water unknown to me, they may possibly be remnants of 
some pre-Vedic period of Aryan speech still lingering in 
the fastnesses of the Hindu-Kush. Compare with that 
the Kaioa woya, the Biajan boi, and the Polynesian wai. 

Wauke, s. Haw., name of a shrub or bush, from the 
bark of which " kapa" (cloth) is made ; a species of mul- 
berry. Tah., aide; Marqu., vie, id. (Morus papyrifera). 
Sam., aute, Hibiscus, Rosa-sin ensis. 

Zend, vcUti, willow. Vide A. Pictet, " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," 
i. 253 : " Spiegel l'a traduit d'abord par saule, a cause de 
l'analogie du persan be"d; mai3 plus tard il a trouve" dans 
le Mino Khired une forme bit que Nerio sengh rend en San- 
skrit p&vphala, fruit. II ne saurait done ici etre question 
du saule, et Spiegel incline a comparer le latin vitis, tout en 
restant en doute sur l'identite co:npL l ;ti: do signification." 

Greek, 011709, ol&va, an osier ; according to Liddell and 
Scott related to Irea, a willow, to Lat. vitis, a vine, vitex; 
to 0. H. Germ, wida, weida, Sax, withig, Engl, withe, 
withy, "probably from Sanskrit ve," to weave. 

Sanskr., vetas, ratan, reed ; vaitasa, a sort of cane, 
Chlatnus fasciculatus. 

A Pictet, /. c, refers the Greek, German, and Zend words 
to the Sanskrit vat, a form of vrit, to surround, to tie ; 
Tata, a string, a rope, the Indian fig-tree; vatara, a mat; 
vitika, the betel plant, a tie ; vita, a branch, and its shoot. 
I do not assume to decide between these two authorities, 
but simply claim a locus standi for the Polynesian wauke, 
aute, in primary family of speech from which the Zend 
vatti, the Latin vitis, and the Greek foea and otcros derived 
their being. 

Wan A 1 , v. Haw., to carry on the back, to bear. Sam., 
long., fa/a, id. N. ZeaL, wdha, id. 

Sanskr., vah, to carry, conduct, bear. 

Zend, vas, to carry, to lead. 

Oi'uck, o-^eea, to bear, carry. 

Lat., veho, to carry, &c 



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aSa THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Lith., vesti, to cany. 

See p. 278, s. v. Wa'a. Of the two forms, waka, canoe, 
vessel, and waha, to bear, carry, the former is, in my 
opinion, a denominative of the latter, and originally bore 
the same relation to waka as the Latin vec-tabulum to 
veho, as the Sanskrit vaha, vahana, to vah, as the Zend vaca 
to vaz. The Fijian forma and meanings show this plainly. 

Waha. 2 , s. Tonga., the sea. Sam., wasa, the sea, the 
ocean, specially between two distant points. 

Fiji., wasa, sea, ocean. 

Sanskr., rasw, water, kind of salt ; vasuka, sea-salt ; 
vacira, id. 

Wahi 1 , s. Haw., place, spnce, situation; wahi-noho, a 
residence, dwelling-place. Tah., Marqu., wahi, id. Sam., 
fast, a piece, a place. 

Sanskr., vas (1), to dwell; vasati, a dwelling; vasana, id. 

Irish, four a, fois, habitation ; fos.fosadh, repose ; fw.svtn, 
to dwell. Goth., wisan. A.-Sax., wesson, remain. 0. 
Norse, wist, dwelling. 0. H. Germ., heim-vist, domicile. 

Lith., weisle, family, race. 

Greek, earta for Femta, hearth, home. 

Lat., vesta, vesttbulum. 

Wahi", s. Haw. (accent on ult.), a covering, wrapper 
v. to cover, wrap up, surround. Marqu., fafi, to clothe, 
clothing, bundle. 

Sanskr. vas (3), to wear, as clothes, put on ; vast, vasana,, 
covering, clothes. 

Lat., mstis, garment ; vagina, sheath, husk. 

Greek, ia&ifs, dress, clothing ; ewv/ti, to clothe ; eaves, 
fit to wear, e for Fe ; eifia, dress. 

Goth., wasjan, to clothe, to wear; waste, cloth. 

Wahine, s. Haw., female, woman, wife. Marqu., vehitin, 
id. Tah., vahine, id. Sam., faftne, id. Tong., fefine, id. 
Earot., vaine, id. N. Zeal, and Paum., wahine, id. Sale- 
babo, babine, woman, wife. S. Celebes, bawine, baine, id. 
Buru, fine, ge-jine, id. Sapania, pipi-na, id. Gilolo (Gani), 
mapin, id. Amboyna, mahina, id. Teor, niawina, woman ; 
Tnewna, wife. Madura, bahine, woman. Malay, bini, wife. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 283 

Ceram. (Teluti), ihina, woman; nihina, wife. Ceram. 
(Ahtiago), vina, woman ; invina, wife. Savu, Amblaw, 
ina, mother. Rotti, Timor, ena, id. Goram Isl., wawiwia, 
woman, wife. 

From a general survey of the Polynesian and Indonesian 
dialects above quoted, it becomes tolerably certain that 
this is a compound word, the first constituent being an 
ancient form in wa, ha, or ma, with a primary meaning of 
breast, bosom, an attribute and designation of a female, as 
retained in the Molina and Doric forms of fid, which Liddell 
and Scott call a shortened form of fiarv^, but which may 
be the original in fia-^of, one of the breasts, especially of 
women ; in fin-rpa, womb, matrix ; in Lat. mamma, breast 
in Goth, wamba, Germ. v;amme, Scot, wame, womb, belly 
in Sanskr., vdma, udder ; vdmd, a woman ; v&me", a mare 
and in such compounds perhaps as Lat. femina, woman = 
Sanskr. vd-md, femur, thigh ; fetus, fco, fetare, as Sax. wif- 
man, woman. The second constituent, hina, hine, ina, ena, 
ine, must have been a very early term used to express the 
female gender, and which in time became the terminal 
form in several dialects, and, its original sense lost, it 
remained as an indicator of the feminine gender of the 
particular word to which it was attached. In the Gothic 
dialects we find such words as (Germ.) Icoenig, komig-inn, 
held, held-inn, gott, gott-inn, (Swed.) gud, gud-inna, fmste, 
frust-inna, hjdle, hjrM-inn-a, &c. ; in Lat., lea, lecena, rex, 
reg-ina, tutor, tutel-ina; in Greek, r/pm, ^pat-tvt}, et al. Pro- 
bably the Zend ca-ine, a girl, and zen, a woman, refer to 
the same formation and ancient female designation, 

Waho, prepos. Haw., out, outside, outward. S&m.,fafo; 
Karot., Mangar., -woo; Tali., waho; Marqu., waho,- N. 
Zeal., waho, id. 

Sanskr., vakis, outward, outside. Benfey thinks " per- 
haps' from aradhi" i.e., ara-dhd, limit, end. The Polynesian 
offers the better, and probably surer, etymon or reference. 

Wala, v. Haw., to excite ; wala-wala, be excited, make 
a great noise, to shout ; wala-au, to speak in a boisterous 
•, to cry out. Sam., wala-au, to call to, to invite. 



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284 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Earofc., warakau, to cry out. Tab,, waro-wa.ro, a voice heard 
without seeing the person, the vibration of sound on the 
ear or of scents on the organ of smelling. 

Sanskr., varvara, a barbarian, an outcast, the clash of 
weapons.' According to Benfey "probably borrowed from 
ffapjUapos ; " but not so according to Curtius ; vide Liddell 
and Scott, s. v. • 

Pers., barbar, cry, murmur, a madman, a quarreler ; Ixda, 
cry, clamour. 

Lat., halbus, stammering, stuttering ; halo, to bleat, 
speak foolishly. 

Welsh, ballaw, to bark. 

Euss., swara, quarrel. 

Greek, ftap/3apo$, a name for all with whom the Greek 
was not the native speech. No etymon given. The 
Polynesian wala seems to me a satisfactory reference. 

Wali, v. Haw., to grind to powder, mince fine, to 
mix; adj. fine, soft, like paste. Tah., wart, paste, mud, 
dirt. Sam., wali, paint, plaster; v. to paint. 

Sanskr., vol, to move to and fro, to turn, surround ; 
val-ana, turning, agitation. 

Greek, aKew, to grind, braise, pound; akeriis, grinding 
aXevpov, wheaten flour; d\w$ and dXcorj, threshing-floor. 

Lat., volvo, to roll, turn, wind round; volvce, folding 
doors; valgus, bow-legged. 

Goth., walwjan, to roll, wallow ; walugjan, to reel about. 
Sax., wceltan, to welter, roll about. Germ., walzen. 

A. Pictet, " Orig. Ind.-Eur." ii. 119, intimates, after 
Ahrens, that aXea and aXevpov have an initial f*. omitted. 
Liddell and Scott seem to concur in the opinion that 
these, with many other kindred words, were once digam- 
raated ; and if they are akin to volvo and walwjan, they 
certainly must have been. I have on page 1 17 referred the 
words that are of undoubted kindred to itXto to the 
Polynesian hili,fili, and see therefore no object in plac- 
ing walwjan, volvo, and dXeca (for fakeett), in the same 
category as et\a>, tXXca, i\itj, &c, while the Sanskrit val 
and the Polynesian vali staud ready to receive them. 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 385 

Wana, v. Haw. (for wa-ana"), to appear, come in sight, 
approach ; waana-ao, early dawn, first light of day. Tail., 
fa, appear, come in sight. This word I consider related to 

Sanskr., bhd, to shine, appear ; s. light, sun ; bhdna, ap- 
pearance; bhdta, bright, morning. 

Greek, <f>aa>, give light, shine; (fxuva, come to light, 
appear; $av<ns, an appearance, &c. Vide p. 97, s. v. Haoa, 
and p. 107, s. v. Sana*. 

Wanana, v. Haw., to prophesy, foretell future events 
(a probable syncope of wana-ana) ; hawa-na, to whisper, 
speak in a low voice. Tong., fe-fana-j 'ana, to whisper ; fan- 
anga, a fable; wana, curse, malediction. Sam., fangono, a 
tale intermingled with song. Tah., yjanaa, an orator, fluent 
of words, oration, counsel. Marqn., wa-nana, a song, singing. 

Sanskr. van r, to sound ; van 2, to ask, to beg (Benfey) ; 
bhan, to speak, sound ; bhand, to upbraid, reprove, to 
speak. 

Sax., bannan, a-bannan, to proclaim. Swed., banna, to 
rebuke, revile ; for-banna, to curse, damn. Engl., ban, 
banish. Perhaps Goth, wenjan, to hope, expect ; wens, 
expectation, hope. A. Pictet refers these to Sanskr. badh, 
bandh, to punish, orig. to tie, ligare. 

Liddell and Seott assume <f>a ~ Sanskr. bhd, as the root 
of <fn)/Ai}, tfraris, (jjavrj, &c, as well as of Lat. fari, fama, 
fabula, fas, and refer to bhask and bhan as derivative 
forms of bhd. They say that this root tpa "has two main 
branches: 1. Expressing light as seen by the eye; cf>aw, 
tf>aw<o, &e. 2. Expressing light as reaching the mind ; 
tf>il/ii, 4>aiTKa}, &c. Benfey refers $>vfu, &c, to bMsh, and 
thinks that bhdsh is probably related to bhd." Whatever 
eventually may be decided on as to the root or roots of 
these two classes of words, the Polynesian relationship 
cannot well, I think, be ignored. 

Wela, i>. Haw., he on fire, to burn, be warm, hot, 
physically and mentally, hence to rage, be angry ; s. heat 
of fire or of the sun; N. Zeal, Mangar., Tah., wera, id., to 
burn. Sam., wela, id., to be cooked; wewela, be hot. 
Marqu., wea, heat, burning. Tip,, weweli, bright, shining. 



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286 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

San skr., jval, to blaze, shine, burn, be red-hot; jvar, be 
f everish ; jvdla, flame; ulkd, for jvalka. (^Benfey), a fire- 
brand. 

Pars., war, beat ; waragh, flame. 

Anc. Slav., vary., heat. 

Irish, gualaim, I burn ; gual, a eoal. 

Goth., wulan, to well up, boil, be fervent. A.-Sax. 
weltain, id. ; well, spring, fountain. 

Lat., hullo, hullio, to boil, bubble. Bcnfey refers faXy, 
the surging of the sea, surge, spray, to the Sanskrit jval. 
Liddell and Scott suggest a root Jjt, and intimate that 
£a\t) is akin to craXov and the Latin solum. I am inclined 
to Benfey's opinion on the strength of the derivative of JiAaj, 
viz., faXevKos, very white, which strongly calls to mind 
the English expression " a white heat," and thus unites in 
one the sense of hot as well as of shining. 

Connected with the Polynesian branch of this word, and 
derived from the sense of " bright, shining, flaming," are 
Haw., wea and weo, flesh-coloured, reddish, spotted with 
red. N. Zeal., wlie.ro, id. Tab., wea, burning, conflagra- 
tion ; weo, copper or brass (from its colour). Marqu., 
weakiki, of a bright red colour. Mangar., werowero, flame 
of fire. Fiji., veloreloa, yellow. In the Indonesian dialects 
we find biadjon, bea, white. Sangvir, ma-wera, id. Sali- 
babo, ma-wira, id. Celebes (Menado), ma-hida, id. The 
only corresponding word in the West Aryan dialects that 
I know of is the 

Slav., bela, whita 

A. Pictet, " Orig. Ind.-Eur.," ii. 678, derives the Sanskrit 
ulka from valka, and this form vol, " circumdare, tegere, la 
flamnie qui enveloppe." Benfey derives valka irora jval, 
vide supra. Benfey's derivation seems to me the most 
correct, as it accounts better, and in a more natural way, 
for the different derivative meanings in the various Aryan 
branches. 

Weli, v. Haw., to branch out, as roots of a tree, to 
take root ; s. a shoot, a scion, a sucker, the phosphorescent 
light in the sea, the light from sparks of fire; weli or 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 287 

welina and walina, a form of salutation = " Health to you," 
" May you prosper." Tah., weri-weria, abundance of 
food; weri-weri-kiwa, many coloured. Fiji., veli, a curl, 
curled. 

Lat., ver, the spring ; vernus. 

Greek, eap, yp, for feap, Fi/p, spring of the year, young, 
fresh, prime ; iapwos. 

Old Norse, vdr ; Swed. war, spring. To these Latin, 
Greek, and Norse terms Benfey and Liddell and Scott refer 

Slav., Desna, spring. 

Lith., vasatra, summer, 

Sanskr., vasanta, the season of spring ; and they may 
have added vasa, sweet, day, a ray of light, the sun, wealth, 
gold ; vasna, price, wages, wealth, assuming probably that 
these Sanskrit, Slavonic, and Lithuanian terms go back to 
Sanskrit vets 2 (Benfey), to shine, "the original form of 
ust;" vide Benfey. If so, the Latin, Greek, and Norse are 
probably the older formations, inasmuch as, by retaining 
the r, they seem to conform better to that oldest form of 
Aryan speech so frequently found in the Polynesian 
before the r began to change to s. 

Welo, v. Haw., to float or stream in the wind ; to 
nutter or shake in the wind, s. the setting of the sun, or 
the appearance of it floating on the ocean; welo-welo, 
colours or cloth streaming in the wind, a tail, as of a kite, 
light streaming from a brand of fire thrown into the air in 
the dark ; hoku-welo-welo, a comet, a meteor ; ko-welo, to 
drag behind, as the trail of a garment, to stream, as a flag 
or pennant. Sam., Tong., welo, to dart, cast a spear or 
dart Tah., wero, to dart, throw a spear ; s. storm, tempest, 
fig. great rage ; wero-wero, to twinkle, as the Stars. Marqu., 
weo, a tail. Mangar., wero, a lance, spear. 

Greek, &a\\a>, efiaXov, to throw, cast, hurl, of missiles, 
throw out, let fall, push forward; |8e\os, a missile, a dart; 
fiekefivov, id. ; /S0A.97, a throw, a stroke ; ,60X05, anything 
thrown, missile, javelin, a cast of the dice. 

Sanskr., pal, to go, to move. To this Benfey refers 
the L&t.pello, Greek irdKXa, 0. H. Germ, fallctn, A.-Sax. 



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2 88 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

feallan. Liddell and Scott are silent on these connections, 
but see p. 256, s. v. Pale. 

Wi, adj. Haw., destitute, suffering, starving ; s. starva- 
tion, famine; vriwi, lean, ine;ti;ri? : ko<>-wiwi, to lessen, 
diminish. Marqu., wiwi, poor, feeble; wiioi-i, solitude. 
Tab., veve, poor, destitute, bare ; v. to be in want. 

Sanskr., vi, prep. " compounded with verbs and nouns it 
implies: I. separation; 2. privation; 3. wrongness, base- 
ness," &c. (Benfey) ; as vi-deha, without body ; iri-dhard, 
without man, a widow ; vi-dhantd, poverty, without 
wealth. 

Lat., ve or vi, in compound words, as ve-cors, without 
reason, frantic ; ve-grandis, not large, small ; ve-sanus, out 
of the senses, raving unsound; vi-dav.s, vi-dua, without 
husband or wife, widower, widow. Of other things, empty, 
void, without. 

Goth., widuwo, A.-Sax., v-v.duwa, widow. 

Benfey (Sansk. Diet., s. v.) leads one to infer that vi 
is but an aphtersis of dui. It seems to me that the natural 
inference, and the natural turn of men's thoughts, would 
be that dui, two, implied addition rather than diminution. 
It is possible that the Sanskrit dui may have been " worn 
down," as Professor Sayce calls it, to a preposition or 
mere affix, not only in the Sanskrit, but also in the Gothic 
and Latin ; but with a substantial Polynesian wi still alive 
indicating destitution, deprivation, diminution, I incline 
to consider the latter as the base of, and proper relative 
to, the Sanskrit, Gothic, and Latin preposition or affix. 

Wiei, v. Haw., to hasten, be quick ; adv. quickly, in 
haste; a-wilei, a-wiwi, id. 

Zend, vi, rapid; also fish. 

Sanskr., vij, to tremble, to fear ; vega, i.e., vij-a (Benfey), 
speed, flight of an arrow, impetus; vegin, vegita, speed, 
haste, quickly. 

Anc. Slav., viej-di, the eyelids. Benfey refers aia-rrm, 
to move with a quick shooting motion, to shoot, dart, to 
the Sanskrit vij. Liddell and Scott think it " perhaps akin 
to aa>, aijfti." 



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ADDENDA. 



Just as I had finished my own foregoing work, I received 
" Samoa, a Hundred Years Ago, and Long Before, &c, by 
George Turner, LL.D., of the London Missionary Society, 
with a preface by E. B. Tylor, F.R.S., London, 1884." It 
may be late, but not too late, for me to add my mite 
of acknowledgment and honour to Rev. Mr. Turner for 
this seasonable publication of what he has gathered and 
preserved of Samoan folk-lore and of Samoan heathen 
life and customs — a section of Polynesian studies which 
has hitherto been a comparative blank. There can no 
longer be any doubt that the Samoans came to their pre- 
sent group from the Fijis, that last rendezvous of the 
Polynesian tribes after their exodus from the Asiatic 
Archipelago, and before their dispersion in the East 
Pacific. The references to that fact, as gathered from 
their own traditions, are too many and too plain to be 
called in question any longer. The traditions also give 
glimpses of lands beyond the Fijis, in the west, to which 
the spirits of the dead returned to join their ancestors — 
that famous Pulo-tu, the seat of the gods and the ancestors 
of the Tonga Islands, and which the Fijians adopted with 
so much other Polynesian lore. 

The cosmogery of the Samoans is hazy and varied, like 
most of the other southern groups, and shows the mani- 
pulation of older and common materials, and their local 
adaptation by later priests, bards, or island philosophers, 
As in their language, so in their myths the Samoans 
betray the impress of that great inter-migratory wave 



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290 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



which swept the Eastern Pacific groups some seven or 
eight hundred years ago, and to which I have frequently 
referred in the first and second volumes of this work. 
Savea, the first of the Maliatoas, according to the genealogy 
presented by Mr. Turner, falls in twenty-four generations 
before a.d. 1878, or about 1150 a.d. Before him thirteen 
generations are recorded, including Pili, the son of the 
god Tangaloa ; from Pili back to the beginning of things 
are quoted seven more generations, thus making a total of 
forty-four generations, viz., twenty-four purely historical, 
thirteen semi-mythical, and seven mythic, or, at best, 
eponymic But forty-four generations of Samoan existence 
bring us to the middle or beginning of the sixth century 
A.D., at which period the expulsion from, or the abandon- 
ment of, the Fijis must have already commenced ; for, 
by properly sifting the Hawaiian traditions, we find that 
the Hawaiian group was being settled about one or two 
generations later. Thus the one chronology in a measure 
supports the other. 

As to the origin of the name " Samoa," Mr. Turner gives 
three different traditions; but they all indicate that later 
existence of national life when, the true origin of the 
name, either historical or linguistic, having been forgotten, 
men sought in fanciful combinations to give a raison 
d'Stre for what had escaped the memory of themselves 
or their forefathers. 

As in the other Polynesian principal groups, the Samoans 
located the place of departure of the spirits of their dead 
on the west end of the westernmost of their islands, at 
Fale-a-Lupo on Sawaii, from which the spirits started on 
their journey to Pulo-tu, thus confirming that universal 
sentiment of a Western origin which pervaded the mem- 
bers of the other groups. In this ancestral home of Pulo-tu 
the Samoans also located that famous spring, or "life-giving 
water," Wai-ola, which was such a prominent element in 
the ancient creed of all the Polynesians. 

At the close of the book Mr. Turner gives a table 
of "One hundred and thirty-two words in fifty-nine 



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THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 291 

Polynesian dialects," I know not what Mr. Turner's defi- 
nition of " Polynesian " may be, but it seems to me to be 
unwarrantably catholic and expansive when such dialects 
as Bau, Aneitum, Eiomanga, New Caledonian, Moreton 
Bay, Mysol, and Dorey are included as " Polynesian." Of 
the one hundred and thirty-two words referred to in Mr. 
Turner's table, seventy-one are missing in no less than 
thirty-five of the fifty-nine dialects enumerated — an omis- 
sion that rather impairs the value of the table. I regret 
that so many evident misprints of words should have passed 
unnoticed in the table. Of incorrect renderings of the 
meaning of certain words there are not a few. I cannot 
take up all such, but feel in duty bound to quote a small 
number. 

In the Hawaiian dialect, then, " lawaia " is not " fish," 
but means " to fish," i'a being the name of fish, " Manu " 
does not mean " fowl," but birds in general, moa being 
the name of a " fowl." " Laokoa " is not " day," la 
being the name for that, and la-okoa meaning the entire 
day, the whole day. " ffoahanau kane " and " hoahanau 
wahine" are not Hawaiian for "brother" and "sister," 
ffoahanau certainly means " born of same parents, lit. 
fellow-births," but is of a common gender, and never used 
with the suffixes kane or wahine, " ITuku" is never used 
to express "the mouth" of human beings, except in 
derision or in scolding, the proper word being waha. 
There is no such verb as " maka," " to see," although 
as a noun it means "eye." " Vmiumi" is not "a hun- 
dred," but means " beard ; " the Hawaiians did not count 
by " hundreds " until after contact with Europeans, but 
counted by " forties." In the Marquesan, " akau " is 
not a " tree," but kaau ia the word ; " ko " is not an 
" ant," but heoo ; " koniu " is not an " arrow," but taa ; 
"vaiei" is not to "give," but taiona. In the Malay pro- 
per, " tasek " is not the " sea," but laut ; " nior " is not 
" cocoa-nut," but klapa ; " minchit " or " mintjiet " no 
doubt means "rat," but nineteen out of twenty Malays' 
would employ the word tikus in preference. "Buruk" 



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