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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http: //books .google .com/I /7. ^ • /^ I ^^Uc ■Ja^.1.T. /frz. MR. PEABODY'S PARTING DINNER TO THE AMERICANS CONNECTED WITH THE GREAT EXHIBITION. AN ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE DINNER GIVEN BY iEr. <j|eorge ^eatobp TO THE AMERICANS CONNECTED WITH THE GREAT EXHIBITION AT THE LONDON COFFEE HOUSE LUDGATE HILL ON THE 27Tn OCTOBER 1861 LONDON WILLIAM PICKERING M DCCC LI PRINTED FOR PRIVATE DISTRIBUTION. ^tisi Watk ifi inmittn TO THE NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN PRESENT AT MR. PEABODY'S DINNER, AND TO ALL OTHER PROMOTERS OF INTERNATIONAL COURTESY AND GOOD WILL BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN. ''HE Dinner reported in the follow- ing pages was given by Mr. Pea- body with the double purpose of manifesting his respect for the Gentlemen who were his guests, and of fostering brotherly love, and cementing yet closer the re-union, between England and America. With this view he selected, as the spot where it should take place, the London Coffee House, Lud- gate Hill, where more than three quarters of a century ago Franklin and his friend Str AH AN used to meet and discuss ina friend- ly way, over a chop, the affairs of the Colonies, and devise means for reconciliation and friend- ship between them and the Mother Country. The Gentlemen, both Englishmen and Americans who sat down to this Dinner, among whom was one of the descendants of Franklin himself, all participated in the feelings of Mr. Peabody, if we may judge by the friendly sentiments expressed by all the 8 speakers of that evening. The proceedings of this international entertainment, though but very imperfectly reported, were noticed and favourably commented upon, by many of the leading journals of the Metropolis. Consider- ing therefore the importance which has thus justly been given to the affair, many Gentle- men, both of this Country and my own, have thought it deserved a more permanent form than the columns of a daily paper. I have accordingly at their suggestion, and with the permission of Mr. Peabody, undertaken to prepare a full and corrected account of it ; and in doing so have been kindly assisted by the several Gentlemen who spoke at the Dinner, and have been favoured with the advice of others interested in it. I venture to hope that this little book will, in some degree, be instrumental in strength- ening that bond of moral and friendly union between England and America which it was the wish of Franklin's heart to establish, and is and ever will be Mr. Peabody's aim to perpetuate. Henry Stevens, of Vermont. Morley^s Hotely LondoUy Nov. 20, 1851. NAMES OF THE PERSONS INVITED TO MR. PEABODY'S DINNER. THE RIGHT HONORABLE EARL GRANVILLE, Chairman of THE Royal Commission. HIS EXCELLENCY ABBOTT LAWRENCE, Ministek op the United States at London. HIS EXCELLENCY SIR HENRY LYTTON BULWER, Hbb Majesty's Minister at Washington. HON. ROBERT J. WALKER, late Secretary op the Treasury OP THE United States. MR. THOMSON HANKEY, Jun. Governor op the Bank of England. SIR JOSEPH PAXTON, Chatsworth. SIR CHARLES FOX, London. MR. JOSHUA BATES, London. COL. THOMAS ASPINWALL, United States Consul, London. MR. E. ASHCROFT, Massachusetts. MR. GEORGE ATKINSON, London. MR. W. C. BAKER, Philadelphia. MR. THOMAS BARING, M.P. Royal Commmsionbr. MR. BATEMAN, Baltimore. MR. EDWARD B. BIGELOW, Massachusetts. MR. E. IRVING BIGELOW, Boston. MR. GEORGE W. BILLINGS, Illinois. DR. J. R. BLACK, Kentucky. DR. FRANCIS BOOTT, London. MR. PETER BORTHWICK, London. MR. EDMUND T. BRIDGE, New York. DR. C. S. BREWSTER, Paris. MR. H. POMEROY BREWSTER, Massachusetts. •MR. JOHN CARTER BROWN, Providence, Rhode Island. MR. NICHOLAS BROWN, New York. MR. SAMUEL CABOT, Boston. 10 MR. WILLIAM H. CAMPBELL, U. S. Consul, Rotterdam. MR. J. CHICKERING, Boston. MR. C. F. CfflCKERING, Boston. COL. SAMUEL COLT, Connecticut. MR, FRANCIS P. CORBIN, Virginia. MR. T. B. COSTER, Alabama. MR. ELIOT CRESSON, Philadelphlv. MR. J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS, of Massachusetts, Secretary OF THE Legation of the United States, London. MR. CHARLES F. DENNET, Boston. MR. DAVID DICK, New York. MR. R. DICKINSON. MR. N. S. DODGE, Massachusetts, Secretary to the American Commission. MR. J. B. DUFF. MR. E. DUNN. MR. JAMES FIVES, London. SIR HENRY ELLIS, London. MR. G. B. FARIBAULT, Quebec. MR. OSGOOD FIELD, New York. MR. THOMAS FISHER, Philadelphia. MAJOR GENERAL C. R. FOX, London. MR. C. E. FULLER, London. DON PASCUAL DE GAYANGOS, Madrid. MR. WILLIAM GILES, New York. MR. L. GODDARD, London. MR. ROBERT HOWE GOULD, Connecticut. MAJOR JOSEPH GRAFTON, Boston. MR. J. STUART GWYNNE, New York. MR. SAMUEL CARTER HALL, Addlbstone, Surrey. MR. WILLIAM HANCE. MR. ALFRED C. HOBBS, Boston. MR. DAVID HOFFMAN, Baltimore. MR. FRANK HOLLINS, Baltimore. MR. HOLLOWAY. MR. G. W. HOPKINS. CAPT. HOVEY, Ship Devonshire. MR. O. HUSSEY, Baltimore. MR. HENRY INSKIPP, London. MR. W. A. JACKSON, Virginia. MR. JENNINGS. 11 MR. JOSHUA W. JONES, Nbw York. MR. JOHN LAMSON, Boston. MR. CURTIS M. LAMPSON, London. MR. GEORGE C. LAMPSON, London. COL. T. BIGELOW LAWRENCE, Boston, attached to the Legation of the United States, London, MR. CHARLES A. LESLIE, London. COL. J. A. LLOYD, London. MR. LLOYD, London. REV. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, Boston. MR. S. E. LOW, London. MR. A. MACNAMARA, London. MR. MCCARTY. MR. O. M'DANIEL, New Jersey. MR. M^DERMOT, London. MR. MCDONALD. MR. J. M^FARLANE, New York. GEN. W. GIBBS M'NEILL, Rhode Island. MR. H. W. T. MALI. MR. MALLALIEU, London. MR. RALPH MARSH. MR. JONATHAN MASON, Boston. MR. ARTHUR MASON, Boston. MR. PLINY MILES, New York. MR. ARTHUR MOORE. MR. CHARLES MOREY, Boston. CAPT. J. T. NEWTON, United States Navy. MR. DAVID A. NEAL, Massachusetts. MR. E. G. OELRICKS. MR. J. J. OSBORN. MR. W. GORE OUSLEY, London. MR. E. G. OUSLEY, London. MR. B. F. PALMER, Philadelphia. MR. JOHN W. PARKER, Jun. London. MR. HENRY H. PAUL, London. MR. ARTHUR L. PAYSON, Boston. MR. CHARLES H. PEABODY, Massachusetts. REV. EDWARD W. PEET, New Jersey. MR. JOHN C. PICKERSGILL, London. DR. LYON PLAYFAIR, London. MR. ROBERTS. 12 MR. EDWARD RIDDLE, Boston, United States Commissioner. COL. BENJAMIN S. ROTCH, Boston. MR. JOHN RUTHERFORD, New Jersey. MR. M. B. SAMPSON, London. MR. W. F. SHATTUCK, Vermont. MR. LE GRAND SMITH, New York. MR. E. R. SMITH, Virginia. MR. HORATIO G. SOMERBY, Boston. MR. JAMES T. SOUTTER, New York. MR. CHARLES F. STANSBURY, Washington. United States Commissioner. MR. J. STANSBURY, London. MR. HENRY STEVENS, Vermont. MR. JOHN R. ST. JOHN, Buffalo. MR. RUSSELL STURGIS, London. MR. JAMES STURGIS, Boston. MR. GEORGE SUMNER, Boston. GENERAL JOSEPH G. SWIFT, New York. MR. W. M*REE SWIFT. MR. EDWARD H. THOMSON, Michigan. MR. PISHEY THOMPSON, London. MR. EDWARD G. TUCKERMAN, New York. MR. W. J. VALENTINE. MR. PETTY VAUGHAN, London. BARON DE VIDEL, Paris. GEN. HIRAM WALBRIDGE, New York. MR. MARCUS WALKER, Boston. MR. HORATIO WARD, London. MR. J. WATSON. MR. DANIEL WELLS, Jdn. Wisconsin. MR. ARTHUR WESTMACOTT, London. MR. WETHERED, Baltimore. MR. MARSHALL WOODS, Providence. MR. EDWARD J. WOOLSEY, New York. MR. HENRY WIKOFF, New York. MR. G. W. YAPP, London. ACCOUNT. I N the twenty-seventh of October, . 1851, Mb. George Peabody of London gave a parting dinner at r the London Coffee House to the American Gentlemen connect- ed with the Exhibition. The Guests, whose names have been already given In these pages, consisted of the Americans known to be in London, and also of many English gentle- The Hall was appropriately and beautifully decorated under the direction of Mr. Stevens and Mr. Someebt. Behind the chair was placed Hayter's full length portrait of Her Majesty: on the one side of which was Stuart's Washing- To^f, and on the other Patten's portrait of H. R. H. Prince Albert, each the size of life. The National Ensigns of Great Britain and the United States, appropriately united by a wreath of laurel, were draped about these paintings, and pennants, 14 kindly furnished by the Admiralty for the occa- sion, completed the effect. The chair was taken by Mr. Peabody at seven o'clock. Mr. Davis officiated as first Vice Chair- man ; and the side tables were presided over by Mr. Stevens and Col. Lawrence respectively as second and third Vice Chairmen. The elegant and sumptuous dinner fully sus- tained the high reputation of Mr. Lovegrove's house. After the cloth was removed, and grace said, Mr. Harker, the toast master, announced the Loving Cup * in the following words : — * The Loving Ct^p which went round the tables was one which Mr. Peabody had just received from America. Its shape may be seen in the wood-cut fronting the title. It is made of oak from the homestead of Mr. Peabody's ancestors, who on emi- grating from England, settled at Danvers, near Salem, Massa- chusetts. It is richly inlaid with silver, and bears the Family arms, and the following inscription: Francis Peabody of Salem to George Peabody of London, 1851. The origin and use of the loving cup is explained in the fol- lowing note : My Dear Stevens, — The old English drinking customs about which you inquire, and of which " the Loving Cup " is one, are of much interest and antiquity. The custom of pledg- ing your neighbour at table, and inscribing festive legends on capacious drinking vessels, may be traced to the time when the Romans were lords of Britain. Of such a kind was the Roman Cup found at the Station at Chesterfield, Essex, inscribed. Ex Hoc Amici Sibunt, while the well-known tale of Vortigern and Rowena testifies to the custom of health-drinking among the Saxons. On public occasions in the middle ages, particularly in communities whether clerical or lay, a capacious cup was filled for circulation among the guests at table. This Poculum Cha- 15 " The Right Honorable Earl Granville, His " Excellency The American Minister, His Ex- " cellency Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, The Hon. ^* Robert J. Walker, The Governor of the Bank " of England, Sir Joseph Paxton, Sir Charles ritatis was always placed on the Abbot's table in the Refectory. At the Colleges it did active duty under the name of the Grace Cup. In the Guilds or trading fraternities it was passed from hand to hand as the Loving Cup, Oxford and Cambridge can both show interesting examples of Antique Cups bequeathed for their use; and so can many of our London City Companies, rich members of these bodies delighting in bequeathing to their fellows such jovial mementoes of their good fellowship. The example was followed by Royalty, and the Barber-Surgeons still possess a Loving Cup presented to them by Charles the Second, the entire cup being a model of the '^ Royal Oak'' in which he was concealed at Boscobel, the roots forming the stand, the trunk the stem, the leaves and branches the cup, from which hang little bells formed like acorns that ring as the cup passes. The Chairman having pledged the Company assembled, drinks, and passes the Cup, of which all present partake. It is the custom for the person who pledges with the Loving Cup to stand up and bow to his neighbour, who also standing, removes the cover with his right hand, and holds it while the other drinks, a custom said to have originated in the precaution to keep the right or " dagger-hand" employed, that the person who drinks may be assured of no treachery like that practised by Elfrida on the unsuspecting King Edward the Martyr at Corfe Castle, who was slain while drinking. Thus you see why hitherto the Loving Cup has possessed a cover, but as there is now happily no longer a " dagger-hand " between the United States and England, the cover on Mr. Peabod'jfs new Ameri' can Loving Cup seems to be appropriately dispensed with. I believe the present to be the first instance of an international Loving Cup. May the cover never be missed by you or Yours, &c. F. W. Fairholt. Nov. 18, 1851. 16 " Fox, and Gentlemen all, — Mr. Peabody drinks to you in a loving cup and bids you all a hearty welcome ! " The loving cup was then passed round in the usual manner, and due honor done to this ancient custom. The dessert having been served. Ma. Pea- BODY rose and said. My Lord, your Excellencies, and Gentlemen, The toast that I am about to propose to you, and which I feel peculiar satisfaction in proposing on such an occasion and before such an assembly, is one, the purport of which you will already have anticipated as it rightfully takes precedence of all others, in all assemblages of British subjects ; and although a large proportion of my guests are not British subjects, I am persuaded that they vie with those who are so, in respect and affection for the Queen of these Bealms. I am sure, that all my American friends who are here, will join most cordially in this toast, for I have never known an American who did not participate in the Eng- lishman's love for his Sovereign ; and I am con- fident that I never shall, so long as the Queen of Great Britain continues to reign, as she now reigns, in the hearts of all who desire the welfare of the whole human family. I give you, " The Queen, God bless her.'' The toast was received with the utmost enthu- siasm, and greeted with more than the usual 17 honors ; the band playing God save the Queen, while the company remained standing. Mr. Peabody then said, Gentlemen, I am sure that I have obeyed no less the dictates of an unanimous feeling, than the rules of courtesy and propriety, in giving prece- dence, on this occasion, to the head of the nation, upon whose soil we are now assembled, and whose hospitalities have been so freely extended to us. While, therefore, I do not ask you to respond with greater warmth to the toast that I am about to give, than to that which has already been given, I do ask you to give it an equal warmth of welcome. The illustrious personage who now fills the highest oflSce within the gift of the people of the United States, has, in his oflScial capacity, been recently placed in a most painful and em- barrassing position toward some of our citizens, as well as towards a foreign Power ; but a strict adherence to the principles of the Constitution, and the precepts and example of Washington, has enabled The President to surmount the obstacles which impeded his path, and sustain both his own position and the honour and integrity of his country. So fully has this been the case, that his conduct has received the unanimous approval of the whole people of the United States ; a great and remarkable compliment, in a country so di- vided in feeling on certain questions, and so replete with local and conflicting interests ; but so entire B 18 and general was this approval and concurrence, that his reception, on a recent tour through vari- ous parts of the Union, loses nothing by compa- rison with the warm and enthusiastic welcome, which greeted the recent northern tour of Her Majesty the Queen. I give you. Gentlemen, " The President of the United States, Qod bless him." This toast was received with similar honors to the preceding ; the whole company standing while the band played Hail Columbia. Silence having been restored, Mr. Pea body again rose, and said, The next toast which I have to propose, although always familiar and welcome in this country, has been rendered peculiarly so to citizens of every country, by the great event which is to render the year 1851 remarkable in the history of the World. I have to offer you the health of a Prince, who has extended his efforts and sympa- thies beyond the mere routine of his exalted station, and given the first impulse to that great undertaking, in consequence of which, and in commemoration of which, we are here assem- bled. While cheerfully according the respect which belongs to his high rank and pre-eminent social position, it is no disparagement to Prince Albert, to say, that his personal virtues and en- larged views command for the man, an even greater and more enduring respect than we should have for the Prince merely. He may have the proud 19 satisfaction, of knowing, that to the remotest dis- tricts of the world, and to the most distant period of Time, his fame will extend, and his name be everywhere inseparably identified with the gran- deur and the originality of the Great Exhibition of 1851. I give you, " The health of his Royal Highness Prince Albert, Albert Prince of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family." This toast was also greeted with the greatest cordiality, and with the customary honors. Mr. F. p. Coebin, of Virginia, then rose, and said. Gentlemen, at the flattering request of my excel- lent friend, your hospitable Amphitryon, I will now avail myself of the privilege, which his too partial favour has conferred upon me ; that of proposing the health of one of his distinguished guests. But while it is most grateful to my feelings to profit by that honour, I cannot choose but confess, that among his American friends here this evening, at his festive board, there are many, upon whom it might have been more fitly bestowed, because of their greater practice, tact, and ability, in express- ing themselves on such occasions. I have said, however, that the oflSce assigned me is an agree- able one, and I will, in as few words as possible, endeavour to acquit myself of it. The last few months have been signalised, in this great capital, which is, in so many senses, the centre and the eye of the world, by an enterprise, as grand in 20 its conceptioiiy as it has been successful in its ex* ecution and results. I refer, of course, to the brilliant international " encounter of wits," that all of us have witnessed, and which has just been terminated. If, gentlemen, that encounter has been somewhat keen in its conduct, it has been productive of none but honourable and reciprocal triumphs — triumphs which, it is devoutly to be hoped, have left no disappointments, or heart- burnings, in any American bosom ; but which, let us fervently trust, will tend powerfully to secure the paramount object aimed at— that of promoting good-will among men, and a more enlarged and peaceful intercourse among nations. In aid of this goodly work, and prompted by an elevated pride of country, our liberal and sagacious Repre- sentative at this Court laboured from its outset, most earnestly, ardently, and eflSciently. He early saw, that in such a tourney of intellect, of talent, and of experience, young America would necessa- rily enter the lists with immense odds against her : — That to " try conclusions " with the Old World, upon ground which it had so long occupied, as to all the branches of Art, Science, and Industry, was a tempting but bold experiment ; and that she must " put on manly readiness." He appealed to her patriotism ; and despite of manifold diffi- culties, without any specific national appropri- ation of means for the end in view, his efforts were generously seconded by his countrymen, many of whom I have the pleasure to see here as 21 recent competitors for the honours of the occasion. As, gentlemen, our holiday rhetoric at home is sometimes, and perhaps justly, accused of being a little too boastful and flashy, I will not commit the sin here, of indulging in any unbecoming felicitations, upon our achievements in and out of the magnificent arena, erected with such magical promptitude, for the World's conquests in this peaceful rivalry. But I may be permitted to say, that most of them have been useful, many of them unrivalled for their ingenious simplicity ; and all of them calculated to produce beneficial results more or less immediate. But I am rambling very far from my purpose ; and perhaps disregarding that pithy Irish proverb, which insinuates that " talking spoils conversa- tion." My special object in calling your attention to myself, was to ask you to unite with me in thank- ing our patriotic Envoy here, most gratefully, for the untiring eflforts he has made during his resi- dence in this country, to remove the prejudices, and to overcome the repugnance, which certain self-seeking 'party tacticians on both sides of the Atlantic, have so long and so unwisely sought to keep alive and embitter, between the British isles and our beloved country. Why, gentlemen, time was, within my own recollection, when in our streets, honest John Bull (for such I must call him), was looked upon, not only as an arrogant and encroaching, but, in Gallic phrase, a " per- fidious" animal. And I remember, too, that 22 some of our pseudo-patriots and political pre- ceptors taught us to turn away from him; in- sinuating, in no bated breath, " ilk habet fcBnum in cornu huncy tu cavetOj Romane.'' Even the old women were afraid of his intrusive horns, and thought it a burning shame that he should be suffered to go abroad. Such was some of the hot wrath, the fiery hatred, of a not very distant epoch in our relations with him. But we have changed all that ; and if we cannot tread out every scat- tered ember of ancient animosities, let us endea- vour to " pale their ineffectual fire," and kindle a brighter and a purer flame upon the altar of Peace. Thanks to the sagacity and sound affec- tions of the great body of the American People, the mystifications of the demagogue cannot long delude them. Thanks, too, to the purified un- derstandings of the most able and distinguished representatives of both parties in the councils of the country, backed by the manly sentiments and captivating eloquence of Her Majesty's able and experienced Envoy at Washington, (whom I have now the pleasure to see here,) all outstanding dif- ferences of a political kind, have been, I believe, fully, fairly, and finally adjusted. In bringing about this happy consummation, that distinguished diplomatist has used no arts after the old fashion of his craft ; he has devised no subtle traps, spread no lurking snares for our astute people ; but he has addressed himself to their understandings and to their hearts. " Hce tibi erunt artes^'' &c. 23 But while I am uttering these just congratula- tions, a compatriot near me, whispers in my ear, that there ar6 some " balances" of another nature, remaining unsettled, by two or three of the younger States of the confederacy. All these, however, whether resting upon the point of honour, or upon legal enactment, will, if I do not grievously mis- take the lofty spirit of my countrymen, be fully dis- charged ; and, I trust, at no distant day. Coming from one of the oldest States of the American Union, whose good faith has always been intact, and, like Caesar's wife, above suspicion, I may, peradventure, be pardoned, for this passing refer- ence to the temporary lapses of those inexperi- enced members of the federal sisterhood. Let us, then, for the present, — *' Be to their faults a little blind, And to their virtues very kind." In conclusion, and in making the proposal to you with which I am charged, let me remind you, that, since my friend Mr. Lawrence has held his post here, an unusual number of his fellow-citizens have visited this capital — that they have come from all parts of our vast territory — from Cali- fornia to Cape Charles ; and from the St. Law- rence to our " farthest Thule" in the South ; — that though some of them differ widely from him upon one or two capital questions of domestic po- licy, he has received them all, without regard to party aims and interests; — that he has eagerly 24 tendered them his official aid and influence, when- ever he could do so with propriety and effect ; and, if I may venture to intrude upon such delicate ground, that he has offered them, in private, that prompt and genial hospitality, for which he was so much famed at home. I, therefore, confidently predict, that although he is not unaccustomed to warm receptions on this side of the Atlantic, yet, return when he may to his father- land, he will be still more kindly greeted there, by " troops of friends," with extended hands and expanded hearts. I give you, gentlemen, " The health of The American Minister, and all the members of his amiable and accomplished family '' This speech was received most cordially, and frequently interrupted by cheers during its pro- gress. At its close, the band struck-up " Yan- kee-Doodle," — which was hailed with trans- At- lantic enthusiasm. His Excellency Mr. Lawrence, on rising to reply, was welcomed with unbounded en- thusiasm. He said, I feel, as you may well suppose, with deep sensi- bility, the flattering testimony just extended tome. I am not able, for I have not words, to express the obligations I feel, not only to my friend on my right, but to you, my countrymen, whom I see around me. The invitation I received, was to attend " a parting dinner, to the American gentlemen who 25 have been connected with the Exhibition.'* I am happy to find, that our hospitable host, cha- racterised with his usual good taste, has not con- fined this invitation to those of us who are native- born Americans, but that he has brought to us those, who, although not of our nation are of our kindred. We are all of the same origin, and speak the same language ; we have the same lite- rature, the same religion, and the same of every- thing that makes the man. (Loud applause.) Besides, there was a peculiar propriety in bringing to us the Alpha and the Omega of the Great Exhibition. We have here with us to- night, the man, who had the genius to plan a building, such as the World never saw before, and such perhaps as we may never see again. (Hear, hear.) We have also here to-night the man who had the courage to undertake and the skill and enterprise to execute that plan. (Cheers.) Our munificent host has also brought to us that illustrious Nobleman, whose high position indeed claims our respect, but whose many virtues command our admiration and our love ; — a Noble- man whose executive talent and power of com- bination, enabled him, with his colleagues, to unfold before us, in perfect order, the products of the labour of all the World. I allude, gentle- men, to the Right Honourable The Earl Gran- ville. (Loud cheers.) And here, my Countrymen, I must make my acknowledgments, and present my thanks, as your 26 Minister in England, to the Royal Commissioners, for the ability, urbanity, skill and judgment, with which they executed their trust. (Hear, hear.) I know something of the history of this Exhibi- tion. I remember the day it was opened. I was present when it was closed. I watched it from its inception to its completion, from its completion to its dissolution ; and I must be permitted to say, that the order, the exactness, and the perfection, with which every department was managed, has never been excelled, and perhaps rarely equalled, whether in the marshalling of armies or fleets, the construction of buildings, or the arrangement of men. More than six millions of human beings entered and came out of the Crystal Palace, without the occurrence of any serious accident ; and I am sure you will agree with me, when I say, that, from the Prince himself down to the police- man, no one received aught but civility and kindness. I cannot omit to congratulate you,Mu. Peabody, and our countrymen present, upon the gratification we experience, in having here, to-night, our ex- cellent friend. Her Majesty's Envoy to the United States, Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer ; whose Mis- sion has tended so much to produce harmony and concord between the two Nations. (Hear hear.) Long may he continue to represent this great Country in the United States, long may he continue to promote those feelings of amity and good will, which he has been so successful in en- couraging. (Loud applause.) 27 And now, I hope I may be pardoned, if I allude to the peculiar circumstances under which we entered the Exhibition. Invitations were sent to the world at large. The Nations of Europe made provisions for defraying the expenses of their contributors. They sent here, also, those men, who, in their respective countries, were eminent in science and skill, that they might observe and learn whatever might be beneficial to their countrymen : and the expenses of these men were defrayed by their respective govern- ments. But, gentlemen, every man from America, came here on his individual account and risk ; he paid his own expenses, and often paid for the trans- portation of his contributions; and then freely gave his time, in attending to the exhibition of his products. It is due to you, that the world should know under what circumstances you were here. And yet gentlemen, while I think we have come out of the Exhibition vastly better than we went into it, I cannot but have, after all, a feeling of regret at what we have done — or rather at what we have left undone. I cannot but feel a regret, when I think, that, having accomplished so much with the small means employed, what could we not have done, if the People of the United States, in the majesty of their strength, had put forth all their power ! (Hear, Hear.) I have said that we came out of the Exhibition better than was at first anticipated. At the same 28 time, I cannot but state, for the information of those who never were in the United States, that our contributions to the Exhibition gave but an imperfect idea of the progress that has been made in the arts, and in the application of the sciences to the useful arts, in the United States. I have often attended the State Exhibitions at Philadel- phia, New York and Boston ; and I hesitate not to say, that I have seen, at those places, contributions, far superior to those which we have had here from the United States. But after all, I am convinced that the Exhibition will be productive of great good to our country. The social intercourse which you have had with the world generally, and with the people of the United Kingdom particularly; the opportunities you have enjoyed of a widely ex- tended observation of the actual condition of the sciences and mechanical arts of the whole world — these advantages are worth ten-fold the trouble and expense and time, which you have so freely bestowed upon this Great Exhibition. If some are, perchance, disappointed in the dis- tribution of medals, and are disposed, for the moment, to forget how arduous were the labors of the Jury, to such, if any there be, I would say ; Gentlemen, you and many others can well afford to be without the Council-medals, since you are left in possession of your invaluable inven- tions. Of what consequence is it to Mr. Hobbs, that he should have a Council-medal for a lock, which after a thorough trial was returned to him 29 unpicked, while it is well known that every other lock that has been ofiered to him has yielded to his instruments ? Is it of material consequence to Colonel Colt, that he should have a Council- medal for a firearm, whose name and fame have already reached the uttermost parts of the earth, and which is acknowledged, I believe, to be the best peace maker yet presented to mankind ? Would Mr. St. John's regulator of the compass come more surely into notice or general use, if a Council-medal had been awarded to it ? or would Mr. Thompson's soap, which washes as well in salt as in fresh water — which will wash out tar and all other stains except moral stains — would this soap be more valuable, if it had received a first medal ? Nor do I deem it of material conse- quence to Mr. Erickson, and to others whom I might mention if time permitted, whether he or they obtained the Council's medal for their con- tributions to science. The world will adopt every thing that is of real value. I am sure, Gentlemen, that you will take leave of this country — you, who are to depart to-mor- row, as well as those, who are soon to follow, — impressed with the high value of the Exhibition to our country, and in the full belief that you have received every consideration that could have been expected, under the circumstances in which we have been placed. I must say, that 1 think we should all feel under the deepest obliga- tion to His Royal Highness Prince Albert, and 30 to all who promoted the objects of the Exhibition, as well as to the great body of the British people, for their uniform courtesy and kindness, during our sojourn in their land. Another great advantage arising from the Ex- hibition, to which I must allude, is, that it has exhibited to the world the encouraging prospect, that the time has come when labor, dignified labor, must be respected ; that the time has come, when there must be a just appreciation of those, who are the creators of wealth; and that it is to the efforts of the labourer, that every country must be mainly indebted for its glory and its power. But, gentlemen, there are two kinds of labor, intelligent and unintelligent labor ; the former, is that which gives character to a nation, and in giving character gives wealth and power also. Hence, I say, encourage the education of all the people ; for, by so doing, you will promote the ele- vation of the character, and give that dignity to the founders of wealth, which is so justly their due. (Loud applause.) And now, gentlemen, I come to the very agree- able duty assigned to me ; and that is, to propose the health of a Nobleman, who has devoted his time, for many months, to the promotion of the objects of the Great Exhibition. I know of no one who has done more, and few who have done so much. I believe, in a word, that Lord Gran- ville has done his whole duty. (Cheers and ap- 31 plause.) He has occupied a most difficult position ; but his patience, his perseverance, and his uniform courtesy, have enabled him to reconcile diflfering interests ; and, in pursuing his straight-forward, manly course, my Right Honorable friend has generally been able to have his own way ; and that way, I am happy to say, is always the right way. I give you, gentlemen, with all my heart, "The Royal Commissioners," connecting with the toast the name of " The Right Honorable The Earl Granville." Earl Granville in rising was received with loud cheers. When quiet was restored he said, Mr. Peabody, I trust that the company will not consider me as having been blinded by the com- pliments paid to me, when I state that I have listened with the greatest possible pleasure to the eloquent address of his Excellency the American Minister. Although I feel it a great honour, to be present as the guest of Mr. Peabody, at a parting dinner given by an American to his fel- low-countrymen, yet I feel that I should entirely misunderstand my position, and also what is due to the character of the meeting, if I were to endeavour to make a formal speech on this occa- sion. I consider that the Commissioners were as much indebted to the Americans for sending over their goods, as the Americans were to the Com- missioners for finding a place for their reception. (Hear.) 32 It is exceedingly gratifying, to see sitting by the side of each other the Minister of the United States to this country, and the Minister for this country to the United States. (Cheers.) In the case of both these gentlemen, I believe they have made it their business to become acquainted not only with the respective countries to which they are accredited, but also with all classes of the inhabitants of the country ; and in making that acquaintance, I believe that they have gained for themselves the esteem and respect of all whom they have met. (Cheers.) With reference to the Exhibition itself, I was almost inclined to suppose, from the speech of Mu. CoRBiN, that the inhabitants of the United States had something to be ashamed of. I am not, however, of that opinion. In the first place, a considerable portion of the Exhibition was occupied with the American goods. I believe that collection might have been still further in- creased, by the addition of many useful articles in common use in the United States, were it not that they were considered by their owners too common to send over to the Exhibition. (Cheers.) To remove any doubt upon the subject of what the Americans might have done, Mr. Brown, of Liverpool, who may be considered as one of the living links between the two countries, took a large party to look over that magnificent steam- ship the Atlantic, which was built and completed in all its details in the United States. (Cheers.) 33 Mr. Hobbs has also succeeded in picking our best locks ; and two other American gentlemen are at this moment teaching us how to cut our corn, an art which we have been practising for some hun- dreds of years in this Island, but of which it ap- pears we are ignorant of the first principles ; and last of all, they have sent us a specimen of their shipping to Cowes, the centre of our yachting glories, and they have given us the most unde- niable beating that we have had for years. (Cheers and laughter.) Now what are the results of all this ? I have within the last few days read in the newspapers one of the most graceful and touching tributes, paid by Commodore Stevens, to the manner in which the people of this country, who had been so utterly defeated, had received and treated him. (Cheers.) The results of the Exhibition are such as it is highly pleasing to contemplate. God for- bid that we should ever see feelings of rivalry — generous rivalry — ceasing to exist between the two nations. (Cheers.) I do not think that the result of the Exhibition will be entirely to prevent some of our tourists making disagreeable remarks upon American matters, or some of the Ameri- can journalists perpetrating some rather severe jokes upon us. (Laughter.) But neither country will suflfer much from this. What, however, I do think the Exhibition will accomplish, will be the production of feelings, never to be effaced, of re- spect and regard for one another ; to induce the c 34 feeling that we all belong to the same blood, all speak the same language^ and, though differing in some minor details, still that we both fully and equally prize and value the love of liberty and the progress of the human kind. The noble Earl resumed his seat amid loud cheers. The Honorable Robert J. Walker, late Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, then spoke as follows : — The agreeable office is assigned to me, by our ex- cellent host, of offering a toast in honour of Her Majesty's Envoy to the United States, Sir Henry Lytton BiTLWKR. This is a pleasing duty ; know- ing, as I do so well, this most worthy and distin- guished gentleman, appreciating his eminent ta- lents and high character, and fully conscious how much he has contributed to promote the friendly feelings of the Governments and People of Eng- land and America. Whilst, in his diplomatic ca- reer, he has performed his duty to his Sovereign, with talent and fidelity, his mission to America has furnished a bright example of noble and suc- cessful efforts to reach the hearts of the people, to whose government he was accredited. (Cheers.) I know of none of the many occasions, at our social board, or elsewhere, when he has been called upon to make public addresses, that he has failed to appeal to our pride and affection, and the many remembrances of kindred glory which unite our 35 countries. In his bright and graphic sketches of the character, mission, and destiny of my Country, he touched a chord, which vibrated throughout the heart of the Nation, and called forth from it a warm response of gratitude and praise. And here, permit me to say, in this period of friendly rivalry between the two countries, that there is one point, in which we of America must yield the palm to Sir Henry. It is in our addresses at the social board. In this field, we were vain enough to sup- pose, that some of our Statesmen and Orators were unsurpassed ; but here Sir Henry has fairly taken the wind out of our sails, and beaten us upon our own soil, at our own board, and in one of our own favourite vocations. Who will deny that this was a great and noble achievement, in which the victor in oratory crowned with his own laurels the brows of the vanquished, and filled their hearts with friendship and afiection for himself and for his country. (Cheers). It is a fact, which I am sure will be acknowledged by all my country- men, that the published addresses of Sir Henry at our public festivities, and on all other fitting occasions, were as much admired in America for their artistic skill and eloquence, and their valua- ble facts and deductions, as they were applauded for those still higher qualities, which made them so potent in warming our hearts for his country. I might here allude to the able efibrts of Sir Henry to augment the reciprocal trade and intercourse of the two nations ; but tempus fugit^ and I shall 36 therefore conclude by oflFering the following sen- timent, " Her Majesty^ s eloquent and distinguish- ed Envoy to the United States^ Sir Henry Lytton Bulm'er; may he long live to witness the results of his noble efforts, in re-uniting the hearts and hands q/* England and America." The toast was received with much cheering, which was renewed when Sir H. L. Bulwer rose to reply, and continued for some time. Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer said, Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, I quite agree with my noble friend. Lord Granville, who lately ad- dressed you, that this is not an occasion on which it is necessary to make you a long and formal speech ; and indeed, if I had been that way in- clined, after all that has been said by my honour- able friend (Mr. Walker) who has just sat down, I should be afraid to utter more than a very few words, lest I should endanger his character for veracity, and lose altogether that which he has given me for eloquence. (Cheers.) But this I must say, that I could not help being struck— first, as the turtle soup went round, then as the champagne was circulated, then as the loving cup passed from mouth to mouth, and finally as I lis- tened to the excellent and eloquent speeches that were subsequently delivered — at the singular practical ignorance that was displayed by an ho- nourable friend of mine, when, during the sitting of the diplomatic committee last session, he asked 37 my noble friend the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, whether he saw any possible connexion between diplomacy and dining. (Laughter, and cheers.) I cannot help thinking that, if my ho- nourable friend were now here, we should be able to give him what the Yankees would call correct notions as to this matter. (Laughter, and cheers.) But since he is not here, I will myself undertake to assure you, Mr. Chairman, that by this and similar acts of hospitality, you have in no slight degree macadamised the road, which my honour- able friend Mr. Lawrence is going a-head upon, so much to his own credit, and also so much to the advantage of his country. For myself, sir, I am particularly indebted to you; for you have given me this evening the opportunity of greeting your countrymen on this side of the Atlantic, with the same heart-felt cordiality, the same never-to- be-forgotten kindness, with which they received me on the other. Welcome, then, gentlemen, to this land, which is dear to me as my home, and which possesses a sort of kindred right to your affection as the home of your fathers. Here, you will have found those ancient edifices, which, whether as monuments of power or as works of art, are noble records of our common race ; here repose the ashes of those great writers of the past, in whose fame we have a joint inheritance ; here grew up, in wisdom and renown, those learned and just legislators, those profound statesmen, from whom we have derived our common notions 38 of polity and law ; here ruled and dazzled those mighty and valiant princes, beneath whose victo- rious banners your ancestors, side by side with mine, rushed from the heights of Cressy, or charged on the plains of Agincourt. (Great cheer- ing.) But well I know, gentlemen, it is not merely the solemn cathedral, or the stately tower, nor even the venerated tomb of the noble and the great, which, as you wander through this island, will stay your steps. I see you there, in the quiet village, the country churchyard, pondering over some half effaced epitaph, tracing on some moss- covered monument, the names and lineage of your English forefathers, whose dust co-mingling with old England's soil, gives me, my dear sir, (turning to Mr. Lawrence and taking his hand) the right, whilst I clasp your hand as that of a friend, to claim it as that of a brother, (Great cheering.) Welcome, I say, gentlemen, to this land; and when you depart from it, may you carry away with you as kindly impressions as those which you will leave behind you. At this time, we are es- pecially indebted for your visit to that great spec- tacle, of which I can say no more and no less, than that it surpassed the expectations of those who were most sanguine as to its success. (Cheers.) The idea of this Great Exhibition, — an idea for which we are indebted to that eminent and illus- trious Prince, who adds to his many other merits that of understanding the epoch in which he lives and the country with which he is connected : — 39 the idea of this Great Exhibition, I say, was not, if I understand it rightly, merely that of bringing together the chairs and tables, the tapestry and jewellery, the works of art, and the machinery ; — but to collect, as it were, in one focus, the mind of the whole world, so that each nation might learn and appreciate the character and intelligence of the other ; and, if this be so, what is the place that men will assign, after inspecting your productions, to the character and intelligence — that is to say, to the mind — of America ? Why, gentlemen, they will say, that for all manly and practical purposes^ its place is about the head of the poll ! (Cheers.) Where, out of America, shall we get a pistol like Mr. Colt's, to kill our eight enemies in a second ? or a reaping machine like Mr. M'Cormick's, to clear our twenty acres of wheat in a day ? or locks, like those of Mr. Hobbs, which appear, after all, the only ones to which we can safely confide our secrets or our treasures ? Nor is this all, gen- tlemen. Go a little farther, and we shall find a graceful and melancholy figure, which, while it fitly represents the charms and misfortunes of ancient Greece, exhibits at the same time the pre-eminent powers of sculpture and the pre- eminent genius of Powers. (Great cheering.) And, gentlemen, whilst we are thus passing in re- view the evidences of your genius which are to be found in Hyde Park, what is that small bark which I see lightly skimming along the sea ? I think I recognise an old acquaintance ; and sure enough, 40 on the very day that I land at Liverpool, I learn that that little vessel, which I had seen but lately sleeping quietly in the waters of New York, has, after gallantly crossing the great Atlantic, given the go-by to the whole of our yacht squadron ; and this, too, before the very eyes of the Sovereign, whom we are sometimes proud enough to call the Queen of the Ocean. (Loud cheers.) However, gentlemen, you know I always speak my mind ; and therefore I tell you, that here, if you gave us one lesson we also gave you another. I remember a story of Mr. Fox, who, when asked, it is said, one day, what he thought of a young man who had just made a capital first speech, replied, " I don't like to judge any one after a success, I like to see what a man is after a failure." Now I say, gen- tlemen, that, on the occasion to which I am allud* ing, we should decidedly have satisfied Mr. Fox ; and I beg you to remember, that if you then showed us how to win a race, we showed you how to bear the loss of one. (Laughter, and cheers.) But I should be very ungrateful, if I further de- layed returning my thanks, to my honorable friend who so handsomely proposed my health ; and who passed so many more compliments on me than I can possibly deserve. Gentlemen, I value those compliments, because I value the person from whom they come, and who, as you know, enjoys so high a reputation, both as a gentleman and a statesman^ in his native land : and if anything could render such compliments more precious to me, it is that 41 they should have received the sanction of the No- ble Lord (Lord Granville) who is sitting by the side of our Chairman ; and who, whilst he bears a name which must ever be entitled to my most aflfec- tionate respect, has, if possible, given to that name an additional lustre, by his own worth, ability, and acquirements. But if it be true, that I have been so fortunate, as to contribute in any way to the friendly relations which at present exist between the two countries, it is simply because I have taken a plain downright course, for eflfecting this object. (Hear, hear.) The fact of it is, gentlemen, that, according to old customs, when any causes for difference, however slight, existed between our two governments, down sat Her Majesty's Repre- sentative at his desk, and down sat the United States Secretary of State at his desk, and each penned to the other very pithy and pertinent de- spatches, showing the great motives for grievance there were on both sides, and then those de- spatches were carefully circulated throughout both countries ; but when there were only causes for mutual good-will and satisfaction, no one thought it worth while to take notice of so simple a fact, nor to state to the English and American public, what strong reasons, both in sentiment and interest, there existed, for their maintaining the closest and most friendly relations with each other. (Hear, hear). This was the old school of diplomacy, gentlemen ; but I am of the new school — (laughter and cheers) — and my theory 42 and practice are just the reverse of what I have been describing. I am for keeping as quiet as possible, all those small differences, which must occasionally take place between any two great States, having vast and complicated interests ; but which differences are always easy of adjustment, when they are not aggravated by unfriendly and untimely discussion. (Hear, hear.) And I am for making as public as possible, on all occasions, those great points of union, that must connect two na- tions, which not only, as my Honorable friend Mr. Lawrence has said, have one origin, and speak one language, but which also transact their great- est amount of business with each other. (Cheers.) Why, gentlemen, in what possible manner, can difficulties of a serious character arise, between two nations thus situated, except through mutual prejudices, which, having been suffered to grow up, will be apt, until eradicated, to create a wrong impression as to the real policy and feelings of the one and the other ? (Hear, hear.) My en- deavours, then, gentlemen, have been to remove all such prejudices ; ay, and to replace them by sympathies. (Cheers.) For this purpose, as my friend Mr. Walker justly said, I have addressed myself not merely to the American mind, but to the American heart. (Hear, hear.) For this purpose, I have thought it essential, not merely to correspond formally with your State department, but also to have frank and free communication with your noble and intelligent people. (Loud 43 cheers.) For this purpose, I have mixed with your public men, studied your institutions, taken an interest in your affairs, partaken of your fes- tivities, conformed to your habits, and always been willing, not only to eat a good dinner with you, but to make you a bad speech after one. (Great laughter, and cheers.) Gentlemen, I should be quite satisfied, to take, as my reward for these efforts, the eloquent and far more than de- served encomium, which has been passed upon me, by the distinguished gentleman who proposed the toast I am responding to. But my mission had also another reward — another result — which, if I am not wearying you — (no, no,) — I will state ; as being not only interesting to our two communi- ties, but to the World at large ; I mean a treaty by which Great Britain and the United States, without infringing on the rights of the humblest individual or the smallest State, have agreed, on one condition, to protect the construction, and guarantee the security when constructed, of any canal or railway, which may open a passage across Central America, between the Atlantic and Pa- cific Oceans. (Great cheers.) And what was that one condition, on which our two governments thus insisted ? Why, that they should not, either separately or conjointly, possess one single privi- lege or advantage, with respect to such canal or railway, which should not be offered, on equal terms, to every other nation on the face of the globe. (Great cheering.) Gentlemen, I do con- 44 fesSy that I am proud, that such a treaty as this should have been entered into by the United States and Great Britain ; and I will also add, that I have a humble pride, in stating that one of the signatures attached to that convention, is the name of the individual who has now the honour of addressing you. (Loud and prolonged cheering.) Gentlemen, I lay a great stress upon this fact, because I felt when I signed that instru- ment to which I am referring, that I laid the foundation stone of a great and equitable alliance between our two countries; — (hear, hear) — an al- liance which should not have for its object the wronging or despoiling, but the benefitting and protecting the rest of mankind ; and surely, gen- tlemen, if such an union were ever required, it is at this moment; — for at this moment, the world is, as it were, violently vibrating between two ex- tremes, and appears of necessity to demand some regulating influence, to moderate and steady its oscillations ; — (hear, hear) — and where, gentle- men, can such an influence be better foimd, than in the cordial union of Great Britain and the United States ? (Great cheering.) It is true that you live under a Republic, and we under a Mo- narchy ; but what of that ? (Cheers.) The foun- dations of both societies are law and religion : — The purpose of both governments is liberty and order. (Cheers.) The more you love your Re- public, gentlemen, the more you detest those principles of confusion and division, which would 45 destroy it. The more we love our Monarchy, the more we cherish and cling to those principles of equity and freedom which preserve it. (Hear, hear, hear.) In this, indeed, lies the great moral strength of our close connexion. Hand in hand, we can stand together, alike opposed to the anar- chist, who calls himself the friend of the People, and to the absolutist, who calls himself the friend of the Throne. (Loud cheers.) Long then, gen- tlemen, let us thus stand together, the champions of peace between nations, of conciliation between opinions— (cheers) ;— and if, notwithstanding our example and our eflPbrts, the trumpet of war should sound, and that war to which it calls us should be a w^ar of opinion, why, still let us stand together. (Loud and long cheering.) Our friends, in that day of conflict, shall be chosen from the most wise, the most moderate, and the most just ; nor, whilst we plant the red-Cross of England by the side of the stars and stripes of America, do I for one instant doubt, but that we shall leave recol- lections to our posterity, worthy of those which we have inherited from our ancestors. At the close of the Right Honorable Gentle- man's speech, the assembly rose en masses and indulged in the most vociferous cheering and applause, which continued for several minutes. Mr. Davis then rose and said, Mr. Peabody, you have kindly requested me as the first Vice Chairman, to-night, to propose. 46 what may perhaps be called the toast of the evening ; the health of the American gentlemen connected with the Exhibition. (Cheers.) I do this with pride, for they are my countrymen, and with pleasure, for I number among them many personal friends. If a sincere consciousness of inability, increased by listening to the brilliant speeches which have so delighted us, shall at all diminish the pleasure that I should otherwise feel in the performance of this duty, I rely on you to make up the deficiency, by the heartiness with which you will drink the toast. (Hear.) I am spared the necessity of detaining you long, by the fact that the reapers who have gone before have gathered in all the grain, and have not even " let fall some of the handfuls " for the gleaners in their path. Perhaps, after all, it is no subject for regret; for I need only ask you to transfer yourselves in imagination to the eastern end of the Crystal Palace, as it appeared a fort- night since, and the story is told better than I can tell it. (Hear.) If our show in the building caused disappointment at first, — a feeling in which I confess I shared a little — and if that disappoint- ment found an exaggerated expression in unkind and unjust censures, time and a better knowledge of what there was in our department has quite removed it ; — and we are now rather in danger, my friends, of being killed by kindness. Let us never forget, gentlemen, that when the most was said against us, our generous host came 47 forward, and placed us in a position to appear properly before the world. (Loud cheers.) For this, as well as the position he justly occupies in London, I name him first of "the Americans connected with the Exhibition." If I were free to do so, I should bear testimony, also, to the great labors of Mr. Lawrence, in behalf of the Exhibition ; with which no man is better acquainted than myself. Happily, I am not restrained from speaking of the constant in- terest which my friend Col. Bigelow Lawrence has felt in the success of our Exhibitors, and the steadiness with which he has worked to that end since he first landed in England. He will be gratefully remembered by all Americans who have visited London this year. Neither should we forget the persevering indus- try of Mr. Riddle ; — how when others faltered he stood fiirm, and how constantly his time and energies have been devoted to the development and proper understanding of the American depart- ment, even to the extent of a journey to America to secure new contributions. To Mr. Stansbury, also, we are greatly in- debted, for his early and very efficient interest in this matter; and I believe he will lay us under still deeper obligations, when the Govern- ment makes public the result of his summer s labours. I am permitted also, to speak of the fact, that he wrote the able and temperate article, in the August number of the Art Journal, at the 48 request of the accomplished Editor, Mr. Hall, whom I am proud to see here to-night (turning to Mr. Hall, who sat at his right), and to thank, for his constant interest in American science and art. (Hear.) And I believe that an examination of the Art Journal, for some years past, will show that we owe the fact of the Exhibition itself, quite as much to him as to any man. The exertions also of Mr. Dodge, of Mr. Thomson, of Mr. St. John, of Mr. Tuckerman, — and many other exhibitors, whom I should be glad to name if it were not so late in the even- ing, — and of Dr. Black, and Mr. Lampson, and Mr. Stevens, and the other Jurors deserve all praise. (Applause.) We may fairly claim, too, to number the laurels of Commodore Stevens and Mr. Collins (cheers) among our own ; and we owe it to the united efforts of these gentle- men, that, instead of leaving behind us the re- putation of being a nation of braggadocios, we take our full share in the triumphs of the year. I will not detain you, however, by boasting. The American Exhibition will speak for itself; and, depend upon it, if there be any good in it, common sense John Bull will find it out. I had intended to say a word in addition^ upon the benefits we are to derive, in America, from the Exhibition, but find myself entirely forestalled. Numerous as they are, not the least will be the influence on the two countries of what has been said and done here to-night. I 49 can say to you nothing, that has not been already and better said, upon the knowledge of the Fine Arts and the Beautiful, which the Exhibition has given and is destined to give to America; no- thing of the varied and valued information with reference to the industrial arts, which it brought together ; nothing of the many new means for the employment of labour and capital, which it ex- posed ; nothing of the many new markets for produce and production which it developed. I can say to you nothing new, of the advantages to the world, of having thus practically exemplified the common interests of all mankind, and the necessity of peace and good understanding here- after; nothing either of the benefit to our two nations from the more intimate acquaintance of each with the people, the laws, the customs, the productions, the interests, and the tendencies of the other, which this year's mingling has efiected. I therefore pass by all these topics, to say a single word upon the fact that so many Americans have this year visited Europe, which is destined to effect important results at home. I believe it to be a great misfortune to a na- tion to be isolated from the world. The Eng- lishman of 1815, pardon me for the illustration, was a different man from the Englishman of to- day, in the breadth of his ideas. It is only by measuring ourselves with other nations, that we learn our real strength, and learn, too, our weak points, and how to correct them. The D 50 United- States has been hitherto too much cut off from the world ; and the vast majority of its inhabitants have measured its power, its social condition, and its moral elements by the petty States at its side. We have nothing to fear, my friends, from a wider comparison. (Ap- plause.) With land enough to make almshouses unnecessary, except for European emigrants ; with free schools for every child in the land (hear) ; with a very general diffusion of Christian teaching (hear) ; and with an equal administra- tion of justice, founded, by the provisions of our Constitution, on the English Common Law, we may invite a rigid scrutiny without fear. (Ap- plause.) But to estimate this properly, and understand what is going on elsewhere in the world, we should be acquainted with other social organizations, and with other political institu- tions. This year has done that for us. Thousands of Americans have crossed the At- lantic ; a majority, I should say, from the west of the Alleghanies. They have been kindly and hos- pitably received, in this country — (the eloquent welcome of Sir Henry Bulwer is not the first language of kindness to which they have listened) — they have seen here property safe, liberty jea- lously guarded by law, justice evenly adminis- tered, labour employed, and all classes moving on harmoniously together. (Applause.) They have most of them visited the Continent, and each one gathered his own ideas of the state of things 51 there ; and they have returned, or are ahout to return, to their homes, in the various parts of the Union, to scatter about them the influence of their experience : — as Bacon says, " not to change their country manners for those of foreign parts, but to prick in some flowers of that they have learned abroad, into the customs of their own country." But, Gentlemen, I must beg your pardon for detaining you so long, against my promise and intention when I rose. Of all the appetites, the appetite for talking grows the most with that it feeds on. I ask you to drink the health of the gentlemen, who have been the most instrumental in securing to our country the advantages at which I have glanced, and the many more, which I have left unnoticed : — " The health of the American gentlemen connected with the Exhi- bition j^ and I am instructed to join with this toast the names of " Mr. Riddle and Mr. Stansbury." Mr. Riddle, on rising to reply, was greeted most cordially, and spoke as follows: — Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, Were I to say that I did not anticipate making a few remarks this evening, I should speak an untruth. But I have been so far carried away by the eloquence of the distinguished gentlemen who have ad- dressed us, that what little I had prepared in my mind has vanished ; and for speech I am left de- 52 fenceless. I cannot find words, which would con- vey an adequate response to the very complimen- tary toast just given ; and not being blessed with that fluency of language which many have the privilege of enjoying, I should but in a very un- satisfactory manner express my sentiments, did I allow myself to proceed. For me, the eloquence of the heart must'speak louder than the eloquence of the mind ; and could you see my heart, Gentle- men, at this moment, you would there read the words to which I would now wish to give utter- ance. Whatever credit may be attached to the part I have taken in the Great Exhibition, it may be attributed to the valuable assistance I have received from those who have been immediately connected with me in the discharge of my official duties, and to the advice of inestimable friends. Our distinguished Minister has forestalled any remarks I might have wished to make on our Exhibition. But this much I will say ; if our dis- play has been fraught with no othqr good, it has been the welcome m^ans of developing to Ame- ricans the true character of George Peabody. The peaceful battles of 1851 have been fought, and the illustrious leader may well congratulate himself upon the victories he has achieved. The great scene has closed upon us ; and with it, in my humble opinion, should close all disappoint- ment and lacerated feelings. Before the lapse of many days a number of us 53 will be on the broad ocean, bound for our happy homes. For one, I shall always look back with heartfelt gratification, upon the kindness, courtesy, and honorable treatment which I have received from our English friends. Mr. Stansbury's Remarks. Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, I beg to return ' my sincere acknowledgments, for the kind way in which Mr. Davis has associated my name with the toast that has just been given, and for the cor- diality with which the company has been pleased to receive it. My own connexion with the Exhi- bition has been, since its opening, so humble and unobtrusive ; so much more a connexion of obser- vation and study than of active participation ; that I scarcely had a right to expect to be noticed in this very gratifying manner. I assure you that I attribute it to the noble sentiment which ani- mates this assembly, (and in which indeed it had its origin), a desire that we should dissolve the association of the past few months with feelings of mutual and universal good will, rather than to any services or merits of my own. If the Great Exhibition, which has drawn so many of us across the Atlantic, had been the occasion of teaching us nothing more, it would be much that we had learned, by our own agreeable experience, that we have on these shores one Re- presentative, in a high diplomatic position, whose pride and pleasiure it is to contribute to the en- 64 joyment, as well as to protect the rights and pro- mote the best interests of his countrymen ; and another, in a mercantile capacity, whose unwea- ried and graceful hospitalities constitute the least part of his claim to our respect and gratitude ; — whose operations in another quarter, (I might say at another board\ have done so much to sustain American credit, and to elevate our commercial character in the eyes of this community. But it has taught us other lessons. It has shown us how thoroughly popular rights are un- derstood and respected, and popular power ap- preciated, on this side the water. It is enough to say, that that gigantic enterprize, whose trium- phant success we now celebrate, originated with, and was carried out by, the unaided eflfbrts of the people of this country, to prove to what an un- limited extent the combination of individuals is permitted and sanctioned in this land ; the only land, beside our own, where such an undertaking could have been accomplished by such means. The Government of Great Britain has shown, that it is not afraid to allow the people to put their heads and their purses together, for the accom- plishment of important public designs, lest " se- dition, privy conspiracy and rebellion," should result from their combination. Safe in the con- sciousness of the solid principles of constitutional liberty on which it is based, it has no fears for itself, and is willing to leave such great public en- terprizes for the public good where they are ever best left — in the hands of the people. 55 I feel, that the experience of the Exhibition season has taught us, that there is among the people of England an under current of substantial respect and good feeling towards their American brethren. I am glad to have a public opportunity of acknowledging my own obligations, for the liberality with which they have aided me in the discharge of my duties. I have had occasion to address thousands of individuals, in all grades and conditions of life ; and I can truly say, and with unfeigned gratification, that I have yet to receive the first unkind or discourteous reply. Whatever reason we may have had, in the beginning, to complain of the somewhat inhospitable reception of the press, I am sure that we shall all personally carry back a warm remembrance of English hos- pitality, and an unalterable conviction that two people so entirely harmonious in sentiment, were never meant to occupy a position of antagonism to each other. United, their influence upon the progress of mankind must be irresistible : their division would prove a calamity to the human family. God wither the hand that would inter- pose an obstacle to the complete moral union of the two people ! God palsy the tongue that would give articulation to a single word, intended to produce irritation or estrangement ! My humble prayer is, that Heaven may bless both countries. Long may they continue to march on together, in the van of nations ; accomplishing the noble career that is before them ; shoulder to shoulder in the great work of human progress ; scattering 6G around their path the blessings of peace, civiliza- tion, Christianity and sound constitutional liberty, until those priceless treasures have become the common property of all mankind. If the Exhibition should have taught us these lessons, and imbued us with this spirit, we may well afford to forget any petty personal disap- pointment, which we may have experienced ; or even those larger mortifications, which may have touched us as a people. Nay, as associated with such results, we may even cherish them among our pleasures of memory ; — Et haec olim meminisse juvabit. For myself, Gentlemen, I beg to say, in thank- ing you again for your kind reception, that I shall ever reckon it among the most pleasing re- collections of my life, that I was permitted to lend my humble efforts, however feebly, to aid in the accomplishment of a design, which has resulted so usefully for our race, so gloriously for its illus- trious Patron, and which has given this great people a new title to the respect, the gratitude, and the admiration of the world. During the delivery of this speech, Mr. Stans- BURY was frequently interrupted by expressions of applause. Mr. Bates then said, Mr. Pea body and Gentlemen. After the bril- liant Speeches which have been delivered, I feel 57 perfectly certain that nothing that I can say will be worth your listening to. Fortunately for me, the Gentleman whose health I have to propose, and which I propose with the greatest pleasure, requires no recom- mendation, whether as a most amiable man or as Governor of the Bank of England, an Institution over which he presides with great honor to him- self, and benefit to that vast commerce which is now carried on between our two Countries. Moreover, he is married to an American Lady. I give you, Gentlemen, " Mr. Thomson Hankey, JuN. Governor of the Bank of England'' The Governor on rising to reply was loudly cheered, and spoke as follows : — I trust that I may not be misunderstood, if, in rising to thank you. Sir, and your friends whom you have assembled together in this very hospita- ble manner, I venture to say, that I am not sur- prised that one of your guests should have pro- posed to you a toast connected with that Institu- tion of which, at the present moment, I have the honour to be the representative. I am sa- tisfied that there is no American present, who does not feel a deep interest in the prosperity of every institution in Great Britain which has for its object the promotion of the mercantile and banking interests of this Country ; and which may have been successful in affording those bank- ing aids which are so eminently serviceable in fa- 58 cilitating the mutual interchange of the com- merce of Great Britain with every other com- munity throughout the world. When I remember that the commercial inter- change of commodities between the United States and this country, exceeds annually an amount of sixty million Pounds sterling ; and when I re- member that each country exports to the other more than either country exports to all the rest of the world besides, I cannot but feel convinced that we must have a mutual interest in the prosperity of each other, to a degree that can hardly indeed be exceeded by the interest we may each feel in the prosperity of our respective father- land. How indeed can it be otherwise ? Whatever changes may have been effected in freeing this country from any of the shackles which have been imposed on it by our ancestors, for the supposed protection of our manufactures, and by which our people may now be enabled to buy to greater advantage the raw materials, which were absolutely essential to their very existence, or by cheapening the article of food, thereby enabling our manufacturing population to turn their labour to more profitable account, and at the same time enabling them to enjoy more both of the necessa- ries and even luxuries of life ; I say, to whatever extent this has been done in this country, by which our manufacturers have extended their operations and thereby have exported more, with- out consuming less, they must have been ena- 69 bled to buy more of the manufactures of other countries. This I am satisfied has been the case, and will be the case to a still greater degree when the principles are still better understood that the greater freedom from commercial tariffs we can give in our own country, the greater will, and must be the benefit which we confer, not only on our- selves but on every other country with whom we interchange such commodities as one country may be able, from its local or other advantages, to grow, or to manufacture cheaper than the other. Fol- lowing up these views, is it unnatural that /should feel a strong desire to see a sort of " Zolverein" established between the United States and my own country ? by which either of us may feel that we have but one common interest in promoting the success of trade and commerce between its former self and its present rival : but I will not weary you by pursuing this subject further. Allusion has been made to rival feelings, and may I not give a strong proof that none such exist in this city, excepting in that generous rivalry, which is the truest stimulus to exertion, when I remind you that the Gentleman who has done me the honor to propose my health, and who, I am sure, will allow me to call him my friend, is an American, — though standing at the head of one of the largest and most widely known English firms ? The House of Baring is known not only in Europe and America, but in every part of the globe, and Mr. Bat£s, the present acting head of that well 60 known and respected House, is, as I have before said, an American. He has alluded to my con- nexion with America, a connexion which I ever regard with feelings of the greatest satisfaction ; for I have been thereby frequently thrown into communication with Americans, and I have never received from them any thing but friendship and kindness. I have twice visited, and travelled in, the United States. On the last occasion, in 1834, I met a Gentleman on board the sailing packet, with whom I made acquaintance, and whose acquaintance I have kept up to this day : that Gentleman was Mr. Peabody, who has been kind enough to invite me to witness his reception of his countrymen in this very interesting and in this truly hospitable manner. I am proud to consider him as a Col- league and Brother Merchant of London : and I am not the less proud of it when I hear from the lips of so many of his own countrymen, as I have done on this day, that they consider his high and unimpeachable character, his abilities, his integ- rity and his industry, as great an ornament to their country, as we are glad to consider him to ours. Long may he enjoy the fruits of his well earned independence, and long may he continue equally respected on both sides of the Atlantic. The Speaker sat down amid prolonged cheer- ing. Lord Granville then rose again, and stated 61 that he had obtained permission to say a few words more, and that he should make the oppor- tunity available for proposing a toast, the pro- priety of which all would recognise, and which he was assured would be welcomed with un- equalled enthusiasm. His lordship concluded a very truthful and graceful tribute to Mr. Pea- body, by alluding to the prominent and disin- terested part which that gentleman had taken in advancing the interests of the Exhibition, and to the still more prominent position which he had achieved for himself by his unwearied efforts to promote the happiness of Americans in this country, and to foster kind and brotherly feeling between Englishmen and Americans. His lord- ship also alluded particularly to the regret which he had experienced at having been unable to attend the superb ^8^^ given by Mr. Peabody on the last anniversary of American Independence, and characterised thatJSte as marking an auspi- cious epoch in the history of international feeling as between England and America. In conclu- sion, he proposed " The health of Mr. Pea- body." After the prolonged and reiterated cheering with which this sentiment was received had sub- sided, Mr. Peabody rose and said. My Lord and Gentlemen, I may most sincerely assure you, that my feeling, at the present moment 62 is one of profound humility. Gratifying as is this spontaneous expression of your approbation and regard) and grateful as I am to the Noble Lord, and to you all, for your undeserved kind- ness, I feel sensible of my entire inability to convey to you, in suitable language, the acknow- ledgments which I would wish to make ; and I feel this humility and my inability the more strongly, after listening to the eloquent speeches which have been made this evening. Gentlemen, I have lived a great many years in this country without weakening my attachment to my own land, but at the same time too long not to respect and honour the institutions and the people of Great Britain ; it has, therefore, been my con- stant desire, while showing^ such attentions as were in .y power .o my 'own oonntryn,en, U. promote to the very utmost, kind and brotherly feelings between Englishmen and Americans. (Cheers.) The origin of this meeting was my desire to pay respect to those of my countrymen who have been connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, and to pay a parting tribute to their skill, inge- nuity, and originality, before their departure for the United States ; and I cannot but feel that I have been extremely fortunate in bringing toge- ther so large a number of our countrymen on the occasion. You will understand also, that I feel extreme gratification at the presence of our kind hearted Minister, and of those English gentlemen, 63 whose social and official rank, no less than their connexion either with our country, or with the Exhibition, renders them fitting representatives of national feeling, and entitles them to our re- spect, and to my most grateful acknowledgments. (Hear.) The importance of maintaining kindly feelings between the people of our respective countries, has been the principal theme of the eloquent speeches which we have heard this evening, and particularly that of Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer ; but, although in some measure a repetition of what has been so much better said by him, I can- not forbear making a few remarks on the same subject. There has recently been much ex- citement in America, in reference to the main- tenance of the Union of the States ; an excitement that has placed the Union on a firmer basis than ever. I have felt, that, important to us as is that bond of union, there is another, which is no less important to the whole civilised world; — I refer to the moral and friendly union between Great Britain and the United States. (Loud cheers.) May both these unions still continue, and gather strength with their gathering years. Gentlemen, many of you whom I see here to- night will soon be on the Ocean, homeward- bound, and there are many whom I may not again have the pleasure of meeting before their departure ; but if I do not meet you all again on this side the Atlantic, I trust that I may do 64 so at some future day on the other side. After such gratifying proofs of your friendly feeling towards me, I am persuaded that your kindness will induce you to give me, in my native land, a warmer, but not more sincere, welcome, than it has been in my power to give to you here. I conclude by again offering you my warmest thanks. This speech was received with inexpressible cordiality; and at its close, the company rose and greeted Mr. Pea body with " three times three'* cheers, and " one more," with a heartiness not to be surpassed. Mr. E. H. Thomson being called upon, arose and said. My Lord and Gentlemen, I feel wholly inade- quate to the task of addressing you at any great length, since the hours of the evening are so far advanced ; and I oiily rise for the purpose of pro- posing the health of a distinguished gentleman, who contributes to this night's good-fellowship, by being personally among us, that pleasing duty having been entrusted to me by the kindness of our honoured host. His name is ** as familiar in our mouths as house- hold words ;" and in our own country, from the granite-hills of New Hampshire to the ever-glades of Florida; from the shores of the Atlantic to those of the Pacific, it is known and appreciated ; while in Europe, from the headlands of the 65 North Cape, to sunny Italy and the Isles of Greece ; from the land of Charlemagne and the Alhamhra, to that of Russian sway on the distant banks of the Don and the Volga, the " Indus- trial Exhibition of all Nations" has given it a character to be remembered while any thing connected with the great enterprise which has so much engrossed our undivided attention, for the last six months, remains upon the page of his- tory. Need I say, gentlemen, that I refer to the Ar- chitect of the Crystal Palace ? — who has by his genius given to the world an edifice which has none like it, and is like none other. It has been in truth " the glass of fashion," the resort of men of genius, and the observed of more than six millions of the human family. He has given to mankind an edifice so simple in its detail, that a single section of its parts represents the whole ; and it is only by a multiplication of these parts, that the vast building has been constructed, and if required could have been extended " from the Land's End to John o'Groat's." Within its magic walls the nations of the earth have been gathered together for the first time ; both hemispheres have pronounced its excellence ; and it has shown that " ■ Peace hath her victories Not less renowned than War.*' In this bee-hive, have been represented the in- E 66 ventive genius of man, his rise and progress in the industrial pursuits, and all that makes him and ennobles him. Nations have made their en- trances and their exits ; individually they have been present, from the infant, in its mother's arms, to the whining school-boy, the lover, the soldier, the justice, old age, in the slippered pantaloon ; nay, second childishness, and worse than mere oblivion, *^ Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every thing.** I propose, Gentlemen, with your kind permis- sion, " The health of Sir Joseph Paxton the designer and architect of the Crystal Pa- lace." Sir Joseph Paxton, amid loud and pro- longed cheers, then rose and said, Gentlemen, At this late hour of the night, I will not attempt to detain you, with the delivery of a speech, but will at once proceed to thank you as I do most heartily and sincerely, for the very kind reception you have given me on the present occasion. I appreciate highly the thanks of those who are present from America. I hope you will excuse me from going into any detailed account of the Crystal Palace. That has been often given * by me, and I have received honors from * Sir Joseph Paxton probably refers to his speech at Derby on the sixth of August, 1851, which will be found at length in the Appendix, page 101. 67 ray Queen and country in connexion therewith. I cannot, however, omit frankly to confess how proud I am of my connexion with the Crystal Palace, since it has been the means of bringing together so often during the Summer that has gone, the distinguished of different nations, who I am sure have learned to know each other better, and love each other more. But I have no hesi- tation in saying, that without the assistance of Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and Co. you would never have had the Crystal Palace opened, in time for the Exhibition in May. (Hear, Hear.) I am sure, that the sentiments expressed by this country, and by the noble Lord (Lord Gran- ville), who represents the Royal Commission, and by the citizens of the United States, are the sentiments entertained by the various nations of the earth, in reference to the Exhibition. Im- pressed with that belief, and with the kind friend- ship towards myself, which you have been pleased to express, I again thank you most heartily for the kindness done me in drinking my health. (Cheers.) Mr. Davis then said, Mr. Peabody, We have just given expression to our sincere respect and hearty good wishes for him, whose genius conceived that beautiful struc- ture which was perhaps the most wonderful of the many wonders of the Exhibition. I now ask you to drink to him, without whose executive skill 68 and pecuniary strength, the genius of a Paxton would have been of no avail. Jointly, they have realized the dream of Chaucer, in creating *' a temple ymade of glas, In which there were mo images Of gold, standing in sundry stages, In mo rich tabernacles, And with perrie mo pinnacles, And mo curious portraitures. And queint manner of figures Of gold worke, than I saw euer.*' It will prove for them a real " House of Fame," wherein their names will be preserved with '^ names Of folke that had afore great fames Of old time." I give you as a toast " The health of Sir Charles Pox." This toast was drunk with enthusiasm. Sir Charles Fox then rose and said, Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, It is diflScult to find words which fully express my feelings on this interesting occasion, or adequately to thank you for your hospitality, and for the very kind and flattering manner in which you have done me the honour to drink my health, as proposed by my friend Mr. Davis. I assure you. Sir, that I consider it a great privi- lege to be present this evening ; and I embrace the opportunity of expressing to my American friends 69 the high estimate I have formed of them, as a great people, well versed in intellectual attainments as well as in those of a more commercial character ; and of expressing a confident hope, that, having formed a more intimate acquaintance during the Exhibition of 1851, a permanent sense of respect and good feeling will arise between us, leading to a national interchange of confidence in, and mutual support of, one another, which will be alike bene- ficial to both, and will go a long way, by our combined power and good example, to establish peacd among the civilized nations of the world. In early life, I was led to consider Americans as enemies of England, and therefore to dislike them ; and I regret that much has been said, from time to time, to keep alive that feeling ; but since I have enjoyed the privilege of personal acquaint- ance, my feelings have changed into those of re- spect and admiration ; and gratified as I am, by what has been so warmly expressed by my Ameri- can friends, this evening, in praise of Englishmen, I am sure there is not one here, who is not proud of the relationship which exists between us. Educated to feel jealous of one another, we have avoided the expression of that natural affection, which, as descendants of the same parents, we silently cherish in our hearts, but which would audibly manifest itself the moment a third party should attempt to call in question the character of either. Be this as it may, I am sure, Sir, that we ought 70 to love one another ; and if strife must exist be- tween us, let it be a strife in which we shall vie with one another in the attainment of commercial excellence, and what is still more estimable, of moral worth. This speech was received with great applause, both during the delivery and at the close. His Excellency Mr. Lawrence then, in a few eloquent remarks, expressed his gratification at the cordial good feeling that had marked the proceedings of the evening, and proposed, as the night was far advanced, that they should adjourn to the drawing room. Before complying with this suggestion however, Mr. Pea body proposed as a toast " The Ladies of the old World and THE new;'* which was drunk with due honors. About one o'clock the company separated; and thus terminated a meeting, characterized by un- disturbed good feeling and kindness. APPENDIX APPENDIX. No. 1. From the Morning Post, Nov. 1. 2M0NGST the many festivities, which, as directly resulting from its exist- ' ence, have accompanied or followed the Great Exlubition, there has been none avowing a nobler object, and none more likely to accomplish the object which it avows, than the banquet, given on Monday last, by Mr. Peabody, to his countrymen, who had contributed to the vast collection of the world's wonders of industry and art. Ma. Peabodt is well known in the commercial world, as an American mer- chant and banker of great eminence. He is not less distinguished in political society, for the un- ostentatious but successful zeal, with which he has laboured to establish and extend a cordial inter- course between the citizens of America and those of Great Britain. In carrying out this great 74 purpose, Mr. Peabody has not omitted the col- lateral and important endeavour, of impressing on those States of the Union which stood in need of such counsel, the necessity of discovering, and of employing, the means best calculated to raise their commercial credit to that high standard, which so justly characterises America as a mem- ber of the great family of civilised nations. The views which he has brought to bear upon this subject, have recommended themselves to the cor- dial approbation of all parties interested, on both sides of the Atlantic — and have proved how much more potent an instrument of conviction, is friend- ly and sensible advice, than bitter and ignorant invective. The political and the commercial worlds are both, therefore, largely indebted to the disinterested, and, we believe we may add, the self-sacrificing, patriotism and philanthropy, by which this gentleman has so honorably laboured, not to build up a name for himself, but to achieve a benefit for his race. At the banquet of Monday, the proceedings at which were fully reported in our number of Wed- nesday last, Mr. Peabody thus spoke : — " There has recently been a great excitement " in America in reference to the maintenance of ^^ the union of the States, an excitement that has " placed the union on a firmer basis than ever. " And I have felt that, important to us as is that " bond of union, there is another which is no less 75 " important to the whole civilized world — I refer " to the moral and friendly union between Great " Britain and the United States ; and, with the full " reliance that both these unions will continue, and " will gather strength with their gathering years, " I conclude, by again oflfering you my warmest " thanks." The thanks, refer to the eloquent proposal of Mr. Peabody's health, by Lord Granville, and the enthusiastic fervour with which the toast had been received by the company. But the theme of that eloquence, and the cause of that enthusi- asm, were not limited even to the high merits and acknowledged excellence of the generous host as a private gentleman : they embraced, besides these, the large and lofty purpose, to which he has de- voted so much of his ample means and of his great ability. Nor was it merely as having promoted so liberally and efficiently the interests of the Great Exhibition, that Lord Granville urged Mr. Peabody's claims on our gratitude. This was but the well-chosen means to a still more impor- tant end. The cementing more closely the union between England and America, the fostering kindly and brotherly feelings between Englishmen and Americans, are objects which tend to promote human advancement, and to secure universal peace. And, if the meeting under our consideration had done no more than elicit the speeches of his 76 Excellency the American Minister, of Earl Granville, and of Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, it would not fail to be regarded as an event of vast and lasting importance. Mr. Lawrence showed, with an ability which was enhanced by the kindly humour that accompanied and illustrated it, how much of the world's best fortunes depended on the maintenance and consolidation of friendly re- lations between this country and her mighty child on the other side of the Atlantic. And it is im- possible to mark the tone of his observations, with- out feeling that he was speaking with a full con- sciousness of the support of the great people whom he so worthily represents. Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer nobly responded to the sentiments expressed by the American Minister. In a speech which bore the highest characteristics of oratory, His Excellency defined the nature of our relations with America, and the character of the diplomacy which is best calcu- lated to ensure their continuance. He reminded his American auditory of their English origin, in terms of equal feeling and taste. " Welcome," he said, " again to this land, which ^^ is dear to me as my home, and which possesses " a sort of kindred right to your affection as the " home of your fathers. Here you will have found ** those ancient edifices, which, whether as monu- " ments of power or as works of art, are noble re- *' cords of our common race ; here repose the ** ashes of those great writers of the past, in whose 77 « fame we have a joint inheritance ; here grew " up, in wisdom and renown, those learned and " just legislators, those profound statesmen, from " whom we have derived our common notions of " polity and law ; here ruled and dazzled those " mighty and valiant princes, beneath whose vie- « torious banners your ancestors, side by side with " mine, rushed from the heights of Cressy, or " charged on the plains of Agincourt. But well " I know, gentlemen, it is not merely the solemn " cathedral, or the stately tower, nor even the ven- " erated tomb of the noble and the great, which, as " you wander through this island, will stay your " steps. I see you there, in the quiet village, the " country churchyard, pondering over some half- " effaced epitaph, tracing on some moss-covered ^* monument the names and lineage of your Eng- ^* lish forefathers, whose dust, co-mingling with " old England's soil, gives me, my dear sir, (turn- " ing to Mr. Lawrence and taking his hand) " the right whilst I clasp your hand as that of a " friend, to claim it as that of a brother." What follows, is of still greater importance; and is well worthy of the consideration as well of Eng- lish as of American citizens. The new school of diplomacy, to which Sir H. Bulwer refers, and which he as truly as humorously contrasts with the old, is one, the doctrines of which have secured for the Eoreign-office, under the guidance of its present distinguished Chief, the affectionate re- spect and sincere admiration, of all who prefer 78 the dignity of truth to the sophistries of equivo- cation : — " But, if it be true that I have been so fortu- " nate as to contribute in any way to the friendly " relations which at present exist between the " two countries, it is simply because I have taken " a plain, downright course, for effecting this ob- " ject. The fact of it is, gentlemen, that, accord- " ing to old customs, when any causes for differ- " ence, however slight, existed between our two " governments, down sat Her Majesty's Represen- " tative at his desk, and down sat the United States Secretary of State at his. desk, and each penned to the other very pithy and pertinent " despatches, showing the great motives for griev- " ance there were on both sides ; and then those " despatches were carefully circulated throughout " both countries ; but when there were only causes " for mutual good- will and satisfaction, no one " thought it worth while to take notice of so sim- ple a fact, nor to state to the English and Ame- rican public, what strong reasons, both in senti- ment and interest, there existed, for their main- " taining the closest and most friendly relations " with each other. This was the old school of *' diplomacy, gentlemen ; but I am of the new " school, and my theory and practice were and " are just the reverse of what I have been describ- ^^ ing. I am for keeping as quiet as possible, all " those small differences, which must occasionally '^ take place between any two great states, having 79 " vast and complicated interests ; but which dif- " ferences are always easy of adjustment, when " they are not aggravated by unfriendly and un- « timely discussion. And I am for making as ^^ public as possible, on all occasions, those great " points of union, that must connect those two na- " tions, which not only, as my Honorable friend " Mr. Lawrence has said, have one origin, and " speak one language, but which also transact their " greatest amount of business with each other. " Why, gentlemen, in what possible manner can ** difficulties of a serious character arise, between " two nations thus situated, except through mu- " tual prejudices, which, having been suffered to " grow up, will be apt, until eradicated, to create " a wrong impression as to the real policy and ** feelings of the one and the other ? My endea- " vours, then, gentlemen, have been to remove " all such prejudices ; ay, and to replace them " by sjrmpathies. For this purpose, as my friend " Mr. Walker justly said, I have addressed my- " self not merely to the American mind, but to " the American heart. For this purpose I have " thought it essential, not merely to correspond ^* formally with your State Department, but also ** to have frank and free communication with " your noble and intelligent people." Honest and honorable intentions need only be frankly stated, to be duly appreciated, between honest and honorable States. And where mis* understandings do arise, this diplomacy cannot 80 fail, either to dispel them, or to show clearly to the world which party is in the wrong. It were well, that it could be understood and reciprocated everywhere, as fully as it happily now is between England and the United States. No. II. From The Sun. Oct. 28. To none more than to City men, have the advan- tages of the Great Exhibition been perceptible. The extraordinary increase in the number of private and business friends, who have visited England, is, of itself, calculated to foster inven- tion, promote improvements, and extend inter- national trade. Whatever might have been the* misgivings entertained in the outset, and fully participated in by the Americans themselves, it is certain that they are precisely the persons from whom we have learnt, and to whom we have taught most. An opportunity, if any were needed, of amply testing this feeling, was afforded, appa- rently, by the proceedings last evening, at a fare- well entertainment to the American exhibitors, by their estimable, liberal, and wealthy country- man, Mr. George Peabody. Nor is this the first occasion, embraced by that gentleman, in endea- vouring to promote kindly feelings between the citizens of the great nations on either side of the Atlantic. Gratifying it must be, amidst the 81. expressions of dissatisfaction inseparable from the adjudication of awards, to have heard from the lips of the American Minister on this occasion, that whatever others might feel, whatever others might state, he, on behalf of his countrymen, had nothing but gratitude to express, nothing but kindness to acknowledge. His Excellency drew attention to the fact, that the American exhibitors had done every thing at their own cost, and that at local fairs, Baltimore for instance, he had wit- nessed a display of products that would more fully have represented the industry of the United States. Sir Henry Bulwer seemed to confirm this view ; and while giving his opinion that the subsequent exertions made, and the success of the grain-cutting machine, the lock-picking, and the yacht-sailing, left no cause for regret, he de- clared also, of his own knowledge, that a vast number of articles, new to Europe, were not sent, simply because they were so commonly used in America as to be considered no novelty. Lord Granville avowed, that the Royal Commissioners owed a debt of gratitude to the American exhi- bitors, for coming so far ; and the American gen- tlemen present, as we understand, admitted that their views of the English character were greatly and favourably changed by their visit. It has come to pass now, as Mr. Thomson Hankey stated, that even the policy and right working of the Bank of England, is an object of great im- portance to the merchants of America ; and that 82 free trade, a trade represented by sixty millions sterling annually, between that country and Eng- land, is knitting firmer and firmer their social, and political, and industrial interests. No. III. From The Globe. Oct. 29. The speeches of the representative of the United States in England, and of the representative of England in the United States, at Mr. PEABODt^'s parting dinner on Monday to the American con- tributors to our Great Exhibition, inaugurate a new era, in the relations between the two great constitutional and commercial communities. But, if we may be pardoned something like a bull, those new relations are old ones — the natural relations between parent and progeny. We find, in ancient history, Italian daughter-states going into public and solemn moiuning for the fall of Ionian mother-states ; and we trust we shall find (should occasion arise) fulfilled in modern times Sir Henry Bulwer's anticipation, which was wel- comed with the enthusiastic applauses of an Ame- rican audience : — " Hand in hand we can stand together, alike " opposed to the anarchist, who calls himself the " friend of the people, and to the absolutist, who " calls himself the friend of the throne. (Loud " cheers.) Long, then, gentlemen, let us thus 83 " stand together, the champions of peace be- " tween nations, of conciliation between opinions " (cheers) ; and if, notwithstanding our example " and our eflRorts, the trumpet of war should sound, " and that war to which it calls us should be a war " of opinion, why, still let us stand together. (Loud " and long continued cheering.) Our friends, in " that day of conflict, shall be chosen from the " most wise, the most moderate, and the most just ; " nor whilst we plant the red cross of England " by the side of the stars and stripes of America, " do I for one instant doubt, but that we shall " leave recollections to our posterity, worthy of " those which we have inherited from our ances- " tors." Mr. Abbot Lawrence's testimony to the whole conduct of this last six months' spectacle — colos- sal in itself, in all its accessaries, aiid in the universal concourse to it — deserves placing upon prominent record, as the unbiassed verdict of " contemporary posterity." " I know something of the history of this Ex- " hibition. I remember the day it was opened, " I watched it from its inception to its completion, " and from its completion to its close ; and I beg " to say, that the order, the exactness, and the " perfection with which everything has been done, " has never, in my judgment, been equalled, " whether in the marshalling of armies or fleets, " the construction of buildings, or the arrange- " i;nent of men. Six millions of men — of 84 * HUMAN BEINGS — HAVE ENTERED AND COME OUT ' OF IT, WITHOUT ANY SERIOUS ACCIDENT HAVING * OCCURRED ; and in the carrying out of the plans, * you will all agree with me, when I say, that * from the Prince himself down to the lowest * class of policeman, nothing was received by any ^ individual, but kindness and urbanity." Mr. Lawrence assigned, as a reason for the comparatively scanty contributions of his country to the Exhibition, the fact, that " every man from " America came here on his own account, paid " his own expenses, and paid the freight for his " own products." But the truth is, no apology was necessary. The United States are neither Asiatic, nor old-European, in their stage of na- tional culture. Nobody expected an Indian Tent at their hands, nor a Medieval Room, nor a Sevres Court. Nor, we may add, did the Old World either expect or wish them to rival Lyons, Manchester, or Sheffield in the finer and costlier branches of their staple products. The great staples of a mighty and half-subdued Nature, like that of the American continent, are naturally agricultural, connected with agriculture and ma- ritime intercourse. Hcec tibi erunt artes, till your people are closer packed together, and com- bination of skilled labour in all departments be- comes a growth more natural, of an age more advanced. Meanwhile, the representative pro- ducts of the United States are, — the best imple- ment of economical agriculture, the best weapon of 85 individual self-defence, and the fastest yacht the Solent has seen on her waters. America and The America have, after all, taken their true place in the industrial tourney of 1851. Sir Henry Bulwer's account of his own system of diplomacy, conveys an admirable lesson to all official representatives of free countries m free countries. Sir William Temple, long ago, had discovered, that the way to get the better of courts and councils conversant with nothing but lies, was to tell the truth. Sir Henry Bulwer may be congratulated on the farther discovery, of the sort of truths that should be kept in the foreground, between the representatives of nations governed by opinion, and connected by interest — viz., those truths which may be termed positive— the posi- tive^ perpetual, and substantial reciprocal reasons why brethren should remain at amity — rather than those truths which may be termed negative — viz., the formal negations, which must, of course, necessarily pass, from time to time, be- tween the representatives of one Power and the other — of one or another claim or pretension on either part of probably little real importance, but which Secretaries and Ambassadors would not think they earned their salaries if they failed duly to protocolise. Sir Henry Bulwer said — " If it be true, that I have been so fortunate, as " to contribute in any way to the friendly rela- " tions which at present exist between the two " countries, it is simply because I have taken a 86 " plain downright course, for eflfecting this object. " (Hear, hear.) The fact of it is, gentlemen, " that, according to old customs, when any causes " for difference, however slight, existed, between " our two governments, down sat Her Majesty's " Representative at his desk, and down sat the " United States Secretary of State at his desk, " and each penned to the other very pithy and " pertinent despatches, showing the great motives " for grievance there were on both sides, and " then those despatches were carefully circulated " throughout both countries ; but when there were " only causes for mutual good- will and satisfac- " tion, no one thought it worth while to take " notice of so simple a fact, nor to state to the " English and American public what strong rea- ^* sons, both in sentiment and interest, there ex- ** isted, for their maintaining the closest and most " friendly relations with each other (hear, hear). " This was the old school of diplomacy, gentle- " men ; but I am of the new school (laughter " and cheers) — and my theory and practice were " and are just the reverse of what I have been " describing. I am for keeping as quiet as pos- " sible, all those small differences, which must oc- " casionally take place, between any two great *' states, having vast and complicated interests; " but which differences are always easy of adjust- " ment, when they are not aggravated by un- " friendly and untimely discussion (hear, hear). " And I am for making as public as possible, on 87 " all occasions^ those great points of union that " must connect those two nations, which, not only, " as my honorable friend Mr. Lawrence has " said, have one origin, and speak one language, " but which also transact their greatest amount of " business with each other (cheers)." Every one's recollection supplies pregnant illus- trations, of the great wisdom of the course above indicated, and the great folly of confining diplo- matic activity to sterile controversy on contested punctilios. The diflferences between England and America, these thirty-six years, have resem- bled nothing so much as the lawsuit between Dandie Dinmont and Jock O'Dawston in Guy Mannering. They have been on points of no more real and vital international import than that celebrated suit, concerning a strip of land which " might feed ane sheep in the year, or aiblins No. IV. From The Leader y Nov. 1. INTERNATIONAL DINNERS.— ENGLAND AND « THE STATES." Mr. Peabody, the gentleman who so magnifi- cently kept the 4th of July, 1851, gave a farewell entertainment to the American Exhibitors, at the London Coffee-house, on Monday. Lord Gran- ville, Mr. Abbott Lawrence, Sir Henry Bulwer, 88 Sir Charles Fox, and Sir Joseph Paxton, were the " notables '* of the evening. But of all these Sir Henry Bulwer occupied the floor to the great- est advantage. He was warm and generous in his praises of America. As to the part she played in the Exhibition, all he had to ask was, What im- pression had been made upon them with respect to the mind and character of America ? " In reply to such interrogatory he would state that, in all that pertains to the practical pur- poses of life — and he might say of death too — the United States certainly stood at the head of the poll. (Cheers.) Where should they find such pistols as Colt's, which would kill, he be- lieved, eight enemies in a second ? — a reaping machine, which would clear twenty acres of land in a day ? — or where could they find locks superior to those of Mr. Hobbs ? To proceed a little further, there was that graceful and melancholy statue which well fitted the chains and misfortunes of ancient Greece, which also recalled the preeminent powers of sculpture, and, he might add, the preeminent genius of Powers. (Loud cheers.) But again, what was the small speck which they saw casting its shadow over the broad Atlantic? That little vessel had given the * go by * to all the yachts in our own waters, and that too under the very eyes of a Sovereign whom we are proud to call the ' Mistress of the Seas.' (Loud cheers.) But he always spoke his mind, and he thought that 89 " if the Americans had given us a lesson in one " way, we had also given them another. He had " heard of a story of Fox, who, when asked one " day what he thought of a young man who had " made a capital first speech, replied that he did " not like to judge a man after a success, he would " like to see him after a failure. Now, they (the ** Americans) had taught us how to win the race, " and we had taught them how to bear the loss " of one. (Laughter and cheers.) He described the modern principles which con- trolled the diplomatic relations of the two states, as consisting in a smoothing away of small and irritating diflferences ; " whereas, all those great " points of honour, sympathy, and ties which " must ever connect two great nations which " speak the same language, have the same origin, " and which do the greatest amount of business " with one another — those great points of opinions " and sympathies he was for making as much and " as widely known as possible." (Cheers.) The concluding passages of his speech are of some importance to us. We must remember, however, that they are uttered by a diplomatist. When, the other day, he was signing the treaty by which England and America reciprocally gua- rantee the security of the means of transit, whether railway or canal, which unites the Atlantic with the Pacific, he felt that he was " assisting in lay- " ing the foimdation of an enduring alliance be- " tween the two countries — an alliance which. 90 unlike those of old, was formed, not for the purpose of securing advantage to one or other of the parties, but calculated to promote the in- terests of mankind. " Feeling, as he did, such a deep interest in this alliance between the two countries, he could not help thinking that if ever there was a time when such a step was required, it was at the present time. Did they not see that the nations of the world were vibrating between two ex- tremes? and was not some influence required which would moderate and regulate these mo- tions ? Where could such influences be found so safely and so securely, as in a heartfelt good understanding and cordial union between Great Britain and the United States. (Cheers.) He knew that the Americans were Republicans, but what of that ? (Cheers and laughter.) He had but small respect for names, and still less respect for that ' mock-turtle ' constitutional kind of liberty which he saw elsewhere. (Cheers and laughter.) He did not care what name it might be called, but it was evidently made by bad cooks from calves' heads. (Renewed laughter.) The foundations of our society, in the United States and Great Britain, were religion and law ; — the purpose of both governments was liberty and order. (Cheers.) Inasmuch as the Ame- ricans loved their Republicanism, let them de- test all those principles of division and confu- sion which would destroy it ; and inasmuch as 91 " Englishmen loved their Monarchy, let them " prize and cherish all those principles which " they know will preserve it from destruction. " (Cheers.) A Socialist in the American Re- " public, would be as popular as a favourer of the ** Divine right of kings in our own island. Hence " it was, that he was happy to see standing toge- " ther side by side the President of the United " States Republic and his Queen, Sovereign of " these realms. (Cheers.) Standing, then, side " by side, they also stood opposed to the anarchist " who spoke as the * friend of the People,' and " the absolutist who spoke as the friend of the " Crown. (Cheers.) Long, then, let us stand to- " gether as the champions of peace, moderation, " and patriotism, among the nations of the world. " (Cheers.) And if it should unfortunately hap- ^* pen that war ever should occur, and that war " should he a war of opinion, let us still stand " together — the red cross of England and the ** stars and stripes of America side by side, and ** he had no doubt that they would be able to " leave recollections to their posterity which " would be worthy of those they had received ** from their ancestors. (Loud Cheers.) 92 No. V. From The Examiner j Nov. 1. FRATERNIZATION WITH AMERICA. A MORE graceful fraternization between the men of two great nations, could not well be imagined, than that which occurred on Monday last, when Mr. Peabody, the wealthy American, gave a " parting dinner to the American exhibitors." And first of all let us remark, how gratifying it is to observe the good humour and complacency with which the Americans talk of the great Ex- hibition. The French, who carried off from one- third to one-half of the prizes, are grumbling, some of them, at not having had all, and are thus liter- ally spoiling a success. The Americans, on the contrary, know how to improve a failure into a triumph. And we English help them. We must confess to have observed, with regret, that the American samples of cotton prints, and other ar- ticles of manufacture for the masses, were very inferior, even to their reputation in such things. Mr. Abbot Lawrence, however, declares that his countrymen sent the worst samples, not the best, and that the State Shows on the other side of the Atlantic display better specimens. Be it so. Lord Granville eked out the excuse more happily, by saying that the American compartment would " have been better filled, if the American people 93 " did not think that some of the small things they " produced were not of sufficient importance to " be shown here." Be this as it may, the American exhibitors go as they came, contented; and no result of the Great Exhibition appears more evident, than that of its having improved friendly feelings between English and American. There is more than after- dinner compliment, in the warmly expressed sen- timents which burst from Mr. Lawrence, from Mr. Peabody, and from the Hon. Mr. Walker ; sentiments which the latter had already expressed in even warmer fashion at the great dinner given to Kossuth at Southampton. It was Sir Henry Bulwer, however, who was enabled to adduce some of the strongest and most practical proofs, of the good understanding be- tween the countries. The greatest fact he brought forward, was his own successful negotiation of a treaty, to " protect the construction, and guaran- " tee the security when constructed, of any canal " or railway opening a passage across Central " America between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It being stipulated that neither coun- try should, separately or conjointly, possess one ** single privilege or advantage with respect to " such canal or railway, which should not be of- " fered on equal terms to any other nation on the " face of the globe." Perhaps, of all England's objections to Anglo American progress or con- quest Southward, the greatest has been, that by 94 such conquests they might secure a monopoly of whatever passage may be effected across the Isth- mus. This treaty comes seasonably to allay such apprehension ; and if a clause were inserted that the guarantee and the security should be as valid in war as in peace, thus rendering the passage between the seas and the ports at either extremity neutral, it would prove not only the completion of a great work, but the establishment of a new and a noble principle. Sir Henry also struck the great chord, that in the present oscillations of the political world be- tween two extremes, nothing could have so great a tendency to steady the movement as a cordial union between Great Britain and the United States. " Gentlemen, I lay a great stress upon this fact, because I felt when I signed that instru- ment to which I have been alluding, that I laid the foundation stone of a great and equitable alliance between our two countries — (hear, hear) — an alliance which should not have for its ob- ject the wronging or despoiling, but the bene- fiting and protecting the rest of mankind ; and surely, gentlemen, if such an union were ever required, it is at this moment — for at this mo- ment the world is, as it were, violently vibrating between two extremes, and appears of necessity to demand some regulating influence to mode- rate and steady its oscillations — (hear, hear) — and where, gentlemen, can such an influence be 95 " better found than in the cordial union of Great " Britain and the United States. (Great cheer- " ing.) It is true that you live under a republic, " and we under a monarchy, but what of that ? " (Cheers.) The foundations of both societies are " law and religion. The purpose of both go- " vemments is liberty and order. (Cheers.) The " more you love your republic, gentlemen, the " more you detest those principles of confusion " and division, which would destroy it. The " more we love our monarchy the more we cherish " and cling to those principles of equity and free- " dom which preserve it. (Hear, hear, hear.) In " this, indeed, lies the great jaoral strength of " our close connexion. Hand in hand we can " stand together, alike opposed to the anarchist, " who calls himself the friend of the people, and " to the absolutist, who calls himself the friend of " the throne. (Loud cheers.) Long then, gen- " tlemen, let us thus stand together, the cham- " pions of peace between nations, of conciliation " between opinions — (cheers) ; — and if, notwith- " standing our example and our eflPbrts, the " trumpet of war should sound, and that war to " which it calls us should be a war of opinion, " why, still let us stand together. (Loud and " long cheering.) Our friends, in that day of " conflict, shall be chosen from the most wise, the " most moderate, and the most just; nor whilst " we plant the red cross of England by the side " of the stars and stripes of America, do I for one 96 " instant doubt, but that we shall leave recollec- " tions to our posterity worthy of those which we " have inherited from our ancestors." Sir Henry Bulwer is fortunate, in the circum- stance of this good understanding between Eng- land and America having sprung up during the period of his diplomatic service at Washington ; many unpleasant causes of dispute, both with re- spect to Canada and Cuba, having arisen during that time. His exertions and tact succeeded in overcoming all ; and he could not more effectually have answered the whole of the attacks and ca- lumnies heaped upon him, for his previous breach with the Spanish Government. It will be recollected, that that breach arose from his having, when envoy at Madrid, by order of his Government, recommended to the Spanish Ministers, after the events of the Spring of 1848, a policy of conciliation rather than of rigour, and of liberal constitutionalism rather than of mili- tary and arbitrary rule. Narvaez despised that advice, and picked an invidious quarrel with Sir Henry Bulwer because of it. Yet Narvaez has had to regret his own reactionary tendencies. Having depended on the Court and on the army, rather than on a constitutional party in the Cortes, he has been tripped up by the Court and forgotten by the army, whilst the liberal party have risen rapidly in power, and form already the only solid basis on which a minister can build a policy. The exile Narvaez has accordingly 97 shaken hands with the British envoy, who at the critical moment gave him good but unwelcome counsel ; a counsel now admitted to be the only sage one. We stated some weeks past, the fact of Narvaez having given a dinner in Paris to Sir Henry, at which the Spanish minister and a large number of Spanish generals were present, when the Ml and perfect reconcilement was sealed. The event forms the fitting ^wafe to our long and causeless diplomatic quarrel with Spain. No. VL From Belts Life in London. Nov. 2, 1851. ENGLAND AND THE UNITED STATES. It is one of the pleasantest of our duties, to record the increase of a good understanding between other nations and ourselves ; and it has been with no little sorrow, that we have observed the journals of some countries finding fault with the final re- sults of our Great Exhibition, and attributing to its English conductors motives which, we are sure, never actuated them. On the part of our neighbours on the other side of the Channel, this was not so much to be wondered at. There is a party in France which maintains the traditionary policy (?) of abusing the English. This is a mere G 98 matter of party tactics, and simply implies that, at the particular moment, the abuse was deemed capable of being turned to a party purpose. With our brethren on the other side of the Atlantic, we believe the case both is and will be different. Fault may, indeed, be found with the adjudica- tions of prizes, but bad national motives will not be attributed to the adjudicators. The Ameri- cans, at least, can appreciate that true English love of fairness, which was so honourably dis- played at Cowes, and which has been so honour- ably and gracefully acknowledged at New York. If the Great Exhibition year had done nothing else that was good, it would have deserved honour- able historic mention, for the fiiendly feelings which it encouraged and increased, between the two greatest and most free nations of the earth. These friendly feelings were pleasantly mani- fested, the other day, at a dinner, given by Mr. Pea BOD V to the American exhibitors. There the American Minister, Mr. Abbott Lawrence, and the late Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, Mr. Walker, expressed in the kindest manner the friendly feelings of their countrymen towards England ; and with equal kindness of feel- ing towards their country were they answered, by Lord Granville and Sir Henry Bulwer ; the former a Cabinet Minister, the latter the British Minister accredited to the United States. It is curious enough, and not a little indicative of the good habits of the two nations, that their 99 accredited ministers should travel about the coun- tries to which they are sent, learning the popular thoughts, mixing in popular societies, and mak- ing popular speeches. Sir H. Bulwer did so in the United States, and Mr. Abbott Lawrence has done so here. And the happy result is, that both more completely respect and esteem the countries to which they have been respectively accredited; while, as Lord Granville gracefully said, they, in their respective progresses, " had gained for themselves the esteem and respect of all whom they had met." Sir H. Bulwer took advantage of the opportunity aflEbrded by his health being drunk, to tell the world how much these two great nations are united, and how they had employed this unity of feeling, not in securing to themselves any petty advantage, but in binding themselves to afford to the rest of the world all the benefits, which, in one great matter, the ship passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific, each might obtain for itself. Sir H. Bul- wer justly prided himself, on being the Minister who had signed the treaty, which not only ren- dered England and the United States the pro- tectors of this passage, but which assured, through their protection, all the rest of the world the full- est enjoyment of its advantages. In spite of the party cavillings and petty-minded abuse of cer- tain foreign journals, the greatness of England is shown in her repudiation of exclusiveness ; so that in the Eastern hemisphere, she first sets the 100 example of binding a vanquished enemy to allow free trade with all other nations as well as with herself ; and then, in the Western World, joins her great commercial rival in securing to all other nations, all the commercial privileges, which they propose to obtain for themselves. False, indeed, was Goldsmith s poetic fancy, that " Honour sinks where Commerce long prevails." r In truth, Commerce, to be great and successful, must have honour for its basis ; and increasing ex- perience has taught us, that it ought to have libe- rality too. It is in military and priestly governed countries, not in commercial nations, that " ho- nour sinks," and that liberality and fairness are unknown. In truth, the honest spirit of the present English diplomacy, where the Secretary for Foreign affairs is •* the servant of the English, not of a foreign Crown," makes itself acknowledged at last, even by those who have most abused it. Thus we find, that in Greece itself, there is so strong an English, that is a constitutional party, (notwithstanding the Pacifico afi&ir), that all sorts of intimidations are necessary, to prevent its being triumphant in the chambers ; while that, as to Spain, the Go- vernment of that country has not only expressed its regret for its treatment of Sir H. Bulwer, but Narvaez himself has personally done justice to the character and conduct of that gentleman, whom, under very sinister influence, he had ca- 101 lumniated and ill-treated. Sir H. Bulwer has reason to be proud of this result ; and the attack made through him on the character of English diplomacy, is now confessed to have been in every way unwarranted. No. VII. Speech of Mr. Paxton, at Derby ^ Aug. 6, 1851, at a Dinner given to himself. " Mr. Chairman, my Lord Duke, and Gentle- men, If ever I laboured under a difficulty in my life, or required of my friends more than an or- dinary share of their kind indulgence, it is on the present occasion. " Overpowered by your kind response to the too flattering account of me by my friend Mr. Gisbome, I ask you to forgive me if I fail to ex- press to you as I ought, my most heartfelt grati- tude and thanks for this most distinguished mark of your public approbation. I am not so vain but I know how much of the praise you are good enough to award me is due to your own kindness ; but it would be affectation ^ore offensive than vanity, if I did not frankly acknowledge that I am proud of being connected with anything that has this day brought together so large a number of my friends. Were I to consult my own feelings, I should, after offering my fervent thanks in, I fear, most feeble words, resume my seat, and thus 102 relieve myself of a rather onerous duty. But, gentlemen, I feel that this is no ordinary occasion, but one on which I shall be expected to do more than to return you my thanks. When the Exhibi- tion, the great event of our times, was first pro- pounded, I hailed it with unmixed pleasure ; it appeared to me like a beam of light of vast mag- nitude, embracing a field of operation, the true advantages of which could only be felt in after times, when the great eflfbrts made would unfold themselves in a thousand diflferent and unlooked- for channels. This is the seed-time, the harvest will assuredly follow. Not only will the mecha- nical ingenuity of man find means for extended improvement, but the Social nature of man will receive its rewards in the sweeping away of na- tional prejudice, and establishing between nation and nation, and man and man, a kinder appreci- ation of each others' worth, and a more charitable view of each others' frailties. The first great fruits which the Exhibition ha? produced are now taking place at Paris. Nothing could be more hearty than the reception given to us everywhere from Boulogne to Paris. All appeared to vie with each other in giving us a cordial and hearty wel- come. The magnincent reception given at the Hotel de Ville might almost have shaken the pre- judices even of Colonel Sibthorpe. We have no place in England where such a dinner could be given as that of the Hotel de ViUe, and no place where there could have been so magnificent a re- 103 ception. What has long been desired among nations, has been a more free and unrestrained communion of their inhabitants with each other. When this shall fully take place, it will not re- quire the abstruse study which is now requisite for a Foreign Secretary or Minister to conduct the affairs of nations with satisfaction to all par- ties. I believe England has added another wreath to her Crown, in the glorious part she has taken in first establishing an Exhibition of all Nations. It is a rather curious fact that there never has been a National Exhibition similar to that of many other countries, and that we should then at once enter upon so gigantic a task as an Exhibition of All Nations before we had an Exhibition of our own. To his Royal Highness Prince Albert the world is mainly indebted for carrying out this most wonderful undertaking; and to his Royal Highness belongs the credit of having persevered through most difficult and harassing circum- stances to so happy a result. " It was while this magnificent scheme was passing over the shoals and quicksands that always beset great undertakings, that my humble efforts were called into request, and, at the risk of being thought tedious, I will venture to give you a short history of my connexion with it, and the reasons which induced me to furnish a plan. ^^ You are aware that as soon as the Royal Commission was formed, gentlemen were selected as a Building Committee ; to this committee was 104 deputed the onerous duty of devising a proper building for the Exhibition. Their first public act was to send out invitations for designs for a suitable structure. About 240 designs were sent in, but the committee not finding any of these exactly in accordance with their views, set about devising a plan of their own ; and, on this being completed, they prepared detailed drawings and specifications for the purpose of obtaining tenders. The structure they proposed to erect was severely commented upon in the public journals, on ac- count of the vast amount of bricks that would be used in its construction, and the permanent cha- racter of the work. It was not until this war of words was raging with great fierceness, that the thought occurred to me of making a design which would obviate all objections. Fortunately, at that time I was erecting a house of peculiar construc- tion, which I had designed for the growth of that most remarkable plant, the Victoria Regia ; and it is to this plant, and this circumstance, that the Crystal Palace owes its direct origin. " Being in London, apd having to see Mr. Ellis, the member for Leicester, on business con- nected with the Midland Railway, I sought him at the Houses of Parliament, and found him at a morning sitting in the new House of Commons, which was held there on that day, for the purpose of testing its fitness for use. Sir Charles Wood was addressing the House ; but not a word of what he said could be distinctly heard in the Speaker's 105 gallery ; upon which I observed to Mr. Ellis, that I feared they would make a mistake in construct- ing the Great Exhibition Building, and that I had some thoughts of sending in a design that would obviate the diflSiculties complained of. After a little further conversation, Mr. Ellis went with me to the Board of Trade to see Lord Granville. We did not find his Lordship within; but Mr. Henry Cole, one of the Executive Committee, happened to be there. I went to No. 1, Old Palace-yard, and after conversing for some time with Mr. Cole, I found that the Building Com- mittee had advertised that the plans and specifi- cations for contractors to tender would be ready in about a fortnight ; and I also heard that the specifications would contain a clause by which those who tendered might also tender for designs difiering from the plan of the Building Committee. From this moment I decided that I would pre- pare plans for a glass structure ; and the first thing I actually did was to go to Hyde Park, and step over the ground, to ascertain the extent in length and breadth on which the Building was to stand. " Having made an engagement to be at the floating of the third tube of the Britannia Bridge, I could not commence the plans until after my return; and it was at the Midland Station, in this town, in one of the committee-rooms, that the first mark on paper was made of the Crystal Palace ; and the most remlirkable fact connected 106 with the Crystal Palace is, that the blotting-paper sketch indicates the principal features of the build- ing as it now stands, as much as the most finished drawings that have been made since. In nine days from the time of making the blotting-paper sketch, I found myself again at Derby, with a roll of plans under my arm, on my way to Lon- don. These plans, five in number, had, with the exception of one, been prepared by me at Chats- worth ; the one not prepared there had been made for me by Mr. Barlow, the eminent engineer of the Midland Railway, who kindly gave me his valuable assistance in calculating the strength of the columns and girders. At the Midland Sta- tion I had the good fortune to accidentally meet with Mr. Robert Stephenson, who had come from Newcastle by the same train in which I was going to London. On our journey I showed the plans to Mr. Stephenson, and got him to read the spe- cification. He expressed his unbounded admira- tion of the design, and promised to lay the plans before the Royal Commission on the following day, which promise he fulfilled. As Lord Broug- ham had said so much in the House of Lords against a brick building being erected in Hyde- Park, I waited upon his Lordship and explained to him the nature of my plans : from that day Lord Brougham has never uttered a word against the Exhibition building, but, on the contrary, his Lordship became my warmest supporter. I also showed the plans to Lord Granville before they went before the Royal Commissioners ; and here 107 I must remark, that to Lord Granville the country owes much in respect to the success of the Exhi- bition, The easy access and courtesy of manner displayed by his Lordship to all who approach him, added to most excellent business habits, have removed many difficulties that would not other- wise have been eflfected. " After my design had been laid before the Royal Commissioners, and had been investigated by the Building Committee, and seen at Bucking- ham Palace by her Majesty and Prince Albert, I took the plans to New-street, Spring-gardens, and had the good fortune to find Mr. Fox at his office. Mr. Fox was much pleased with the de- sign, and at once agreed to go heartily into it. Mr. Henderson (Mr. Fox's partner) and Mr. Robert Lucas Chance, the great glass-maker at Birmingham, were telegraphed to be in London early on Monday ; and after a long consultation, my plans were sent to Birmingham for the pur- pose of having detailed estimates and drawings prepared. The Royal Commissioners were made aware of the fact of Messrs. Fox and Henderson's intention to tender for my design, and Mr. Cole went to Birmingham to counsel Messrs. Fox and Henderson to tender for covering the ground in the exact roof as marked out by the ground-plan prepared by the Building Committee. Mr. Bru- nei also suggested that the interior columns should be placed 24 feet apart, instead of 20, in order to suit the Exhibition. " During the preparation of these plans and 108 estimates, Messrs. Fox and Henderson came to Chatsworth to settle with me some of the more important details, and I went twice to Birming- ham to see the progress of the plans and estimates. During the preparation of these plans, Mr. Hen- derson suggested the Transept. To this I at first objected. I did so on these grounds ; namely, that, as the Exhibition was to be a fair competi- tion of skill for all nations, I held it to be fair and right that each exhibitor should have an equal advantage as regards position, which they could not have with the introduction of the Tran- sept : another objection I entertained was, that it could not stand in the centre of the Building, as the ground-plan was then arranged; but the moment Mr. Henderson said it would impart strength and solidity to the Building, I assented to its introduction. " At length the day for sending in the tender came, but considerable delay took place before it was finally accepted. I have before stated, that, in order to get the tender in, it was necessary the Building should cover the exact space marked out by the Building Committee; but, in con- forming to this plan, the Transept was obliged to be put into one side of the Building, for the purpose of avoiding the great trees which now stand within it, but which, according to the tender sent in, were to be in an open court. At one of the meetings with the Building Committee, it was suggested by them that the Transept should 109 include the great trees; but there appeared at first sight a good deal of difficulty in accomplish- ing this, as at that time all the roofing was de- signed to be flat. We promised to see what could be done before the next meeting of the committee. I went direct with Mr. Fox to his office; and while he arranged the ground-plan so as to bring the trees into the centre of the Building, I was contriving how they were to be covered. At length I hit upon the plan of covering the Tran- sept with a circular roof similar to that on the great conservatory at Chatsworth, and made a sketch of it, which was copied that night by one of the draughtsmen, in order that I might have it to show to Mr. Brunei, whom I had agreed to meet on the ground the next day. Before nine the next morning Mr. Brunei called at Devon- shire House, and brought me the heights of all of the great trees; in the note containing the measurements Mr. Brunei wrote thus : — * I mean to try and win with our plan ; but I have thought it right to give your beautiful plan all the advan- tages it is susceptible of.' I then showed Mr. Brunei the plan I had made the night before, for covering in the trees, with which he was much pleased. I have been led into these minute de- tails, first J to show that the circular roof of the Transept was designed by myself, and not by Mr. Barry, as currently reported; secondly^ to show the kindness and liberality of Mr. Brunei. At the time of the tender being accepted, the 110 Building Committee asked me if I had any ob- jection to my design being improved in some of its details ; my reply was to the eflfect that I should have great pleasure in agreeing to any- thing that could be shown to be an improvement. ^^ I must here tell you how some alterations had become necessary. When the gallery co- lumns inside were changed from 20 to 24 feet aparty it put the outer columns and outer sashes quite out of proportion as to distance ; instead of there being one intermediate column and sash between the 20 feet opening, there were two in- termediate columns and two sashes in the 24 feet : and the plan Mr. Barry made for improv- ing this had my entire approval, because it brought back the design to its original proper- tions. " As soon as my design had been accepted, it was decided by the Royal Commissioners to en- trust the superintendence of its erection to Mr. Wm. Cubitt, the President of the Civil Engineers' Institute ; and Messrs. Fox and Henderson had, as contractors, to submit the detail drawings re- specting the strength of the Building for his ap- proval. ^^ Just after the contract had been accepted, I was obliged to leave England for a month ; and, at the last interview I had with Mr. Fox before my departure, in the presence of Mr. Leech, he promised that all should be carried out in accord- ance with the design, and that no alteration should Ill be made without my approval. When I first thought of sending in a design, I had to consider, not only what I knew well myself, but what would be thought practicable by others ; besides, I had to keep in view not only the probability of the mechanical realisation of my design, but also the possibility of its realisation within a given time. That I did not err in this last respect, I owe to the ability, energy, and transcendent skill of Messrs. Fox and Henderson ; and if I had one word more than another that would express my approbation of their exertions, I should have in- finite pleasure in using it. Not only did they arrange all the details for carrying on the works with great precision and speed, but they entered into the project with hearty good will ; and there is a great deal of credit due to them for having taken up my design in the manner they did. The structure was an entirely novel and new one to them ; previously they had no experience in the peculiar plan of roofing and drainage, which was for the first time brought before them in my plans for the roofing, and therefore they had to rely entirely upon my experience in all these matters. They ventured, however, to embark their money and reputation upon plans and infor- mation which no one had experience in except myself. They fully relied upon me, and I must say, they deserve immense credit for having thus ventured their fortunes and reputation on the faith of one man. 112 " If there had been sufficient time given, there would have been no difficulty in putting up the Crystal Palace — if a year had been afforded, in- stead of a few months, the accomplishment would have been comparatively easy, because the Build- ing is composed of simple parts, and it only re- quires favourable weather and a multiplicity of hands to erect a building to any extent. " Now, gentlemen, I wish, to disclaim all part in the Building that does not belong to me. It has been said that ^ it was a fortunate idea ; ' but the idea, though fortunate, was not a fortuitous one. It was the result of long study and long labour, without which no really practical idea can be worked out into a distinct and palpable design. The great experience I had in the erec- tion of glass structures and the invariable success which had attended my exertions, emboldened me to produce that design, because I had not a doubt of its practicability, if properly carried out. I had two objects in view in offering a design : the first was, that my proposal would be exactly suit- able for the exhibition ; and, next, it would meet a long-cherished idea of mine for a National Winter Garden ; so that, like Goldsmith's piece of furniture, it was contrived A double debt to pay By nature dressed to-morrow, As by art to-day. " I have stated to you that the Victoria regia 113 was the immediate cause of my sending in a de- sign for the Crystal Palace ; but the Crystal Pa* lace does not derive its origin from the existence of that noble plant. No ! It owes its erection to a nobler work of nature — the noble Duke whom I have had the honour and the pleasure to serve for more than a quarter of a century. It is to his fostering hand I owe all I possess ; he took me when quite a youth, and moulded me accord- ing to his wants and wishes ; he has given me all the advantages of extended travel with himself, which could not fail to produce fruit in due sea- son ; by his confidence and liberality I have had placed before me ample means for various expe- riments, and without which, depend upon it, there never would have been a Crystal Palace ; and if there is one thing more than another that would enhance the pleasures of this day, it is that his Grace has done me the honour to be present to see the flattering tribute you have paid me. " Gentlemen, one word more, and I have done. You can readily believe how great the anxiety and responsibility I imposed on myself when I undertook the design for the Crystal Palace ; but believing that I could remove the many serious objections urged against the erection of a build- ing composed of bricks and mortar, I considered it a duty I owed to my Sovereign and my country to waive all personal considerations, and do my utmost to save so grand a project from failure. From the day I sent in my design, to the time of H 114 the successful accomplishment of the Exhibition, my anxieties have been almost overpowering. I felt what must be my fate if by any accident my design should not be successfully carried out, and any failure would have reflected back upon me ; but great as that anxiety has been, and laborious as have been my duties even up to the present time, this day's proceedings amply reward me, and give a triumphant finish to the whole. " It is now twenty-five years since I came into this country a comparative stranger: you then received me kindly — that kindness has since ripened into friendship, and it has, I am thankful to say, been my happy lot to make * troops of friends.' My public duties have been many and onerous, but in the performance of them it is my happiness to know that I have never lost a friend. The marks of respect you have shown me to-day will sink deep into my heart, and the recollection of it will afford me delight for the remainder of my days."