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Full text of "An Account of the Proceedings at the Dinner Given by Mr. George Peabody to the Americans ..."

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/7. ^ • /^ 



I 










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■Ja^.1.T. /frz. 




MR. PEABODY'S 



PARTING DINNER TO THE AMERICANS 



CONNECTED WITH THE GREAT 



EXHIBITION. 




AN ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT 
THE DINNER GIVEN BY 

iEr. <j|eorge ^eatobp 

TO THE AMERICANS CONNECTED WITH 

THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

AT THE LONDON COFFEE HOUSE 

LUDGATE HILL 

ON THE 27Tn OCTOBER 1861 




LONDON 

WILLIAM PICKERING 

M DCCC LI 



PRINTED FOR PRIVATE DISTRIBUTION. 




^tisi Watk ifi inmittn 



TO 



THE NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN 



PRESENT AT 



MR. PEABODY'S DINNER, 



AND TO ALL OTHER PROMOTERS OF INTERNATIONAL 



COURTESY AND GOOD WILL 



BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 



GREAT BRITAIN. 




''HE Dinner reported in the follow- 
ing pages was given by Mr. Pea- 
body with the double purpose of 
manifesting his respect for the Gentlemen who 
were his guests, and of fostering brotherly 
love, and cementing yet closer the re-union, 
between England and America. With this 
view he selected, as the spot where it should 
take place, the London Coffee House, Lud- 
gate Hill, where more than three quarters of 
a century ago Franklin and his friend 
Str AH AN used to meet and discuss ina friend- 
ly way, over a chop, the affairs of the Colonies, 
and devise means for reconciliation and friend- 
ship between them and the Mother Country. 
The Gentlemen, both Englishmen and 
Americans who sat down to this Dinner, 
among whom was one of the descendants of 
Franklin himself, all participated in the 
feelings of Mr. Peabody, if we may judge by 
the friendly sentiments expressed by all the 



8 

speakers of that evening. The proceedings of 
this international entertainment, though but 
very imperfectly reported, were noticed and 
favourably commented upon, by many of the 
leading journals of the Metropolis. Consider- 
ing therefore the importance which has thus 
justly been given to the affair, many Gentle- 
men, both of this Country and my own, have 
thought it deserved a more permanent form 
than the columns of a daily paper. I have 
accordingly at their suggestion, and with the 
permission of Mr. Peabody, undertaken to 
prepare a full and corrected account of it ; 
and in doing so have been kindly assisted 
by the several Gentlemen who spoke at the 
Dinner, and have been favoured with the 
advice of others interested in it. 

I venture to hope that this little book will, 
in some degree, be instrumental in strength- 
ening that bond of moral and friendly union 
between England and America which it was 
the wish of Franklin's heart to establish, 
and is and ever will be Mr. Peabody's aim 

to perpetuate. 

Henry Stevens, 

of Vermont. 
Morley^s Hotely LondoUy 

Nov. 20, 1851. 



NAMES OF THE PERSONS INVITED TO 
MR. PEABODY'S DINNER. 

THE RIGHT HONORABLE EARL GRANVILLE, Chairman of 
THE Royal Commission. 

HIS EXCELLENCY ABBOTT LAWRENCE, Ministek op the 
United States at London. 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR HENRY LYTTON BULWER, Hbb 
Majesty's Minister at Washington. 

HON. ROBERT J. WALKER, late Secretary op the Treasury 
OP THE United States. 

MR. THOMSON HANKEY, Jun. Governor op the Bank of 

England. 
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON, Chatsworth. 
SIR CHARLES FOX, London. 
MR. JOSHUA BATES, London. 

COL. THOMAS ASPINWALL, United States Consul, London. 
MR. E. ASHCROFT, Massachusetts. 
MR. GEORGE ATKINSON, London. 
MR. W. C. BAKER, Philadelphia. 
MR. THOMAS BARING, M.P. Royal Commmsionbr. 
MR. BATEMAN, Baltimore. 
MR. EDWARD B. BIGELOW, Massachusetts. 
MR. E. IRVING BIGELOW, Boston. 
MR. GEORGE W. BILLINGS, Illinois. 
DR. J. R. BLACK, Kentucky. 
DR. FRANCIS BOOTT, London. 
MR. PETER BORTHWICK, London. 
MR. EDMUND T. BRIDGE, New York. 
DR. C. S. BREWSTER, Paris. 
MR. H. POMEROY BREWSTER, Massachusetts. 
•MR. JOHN CARTER BROWN, Providence, Rhode Island. 
MR. NICHOLAS BROWN, New York. 
MR. SAMUEL CABOT, Boston. 



10 

MR. WILLIAM H. CAMPBELL, U. S. Consul, Rotterdam. 

MR. J. CHICKERING, Boston. 

MR. C. F. CfflCKERING, Boston. 

COL. SAMUEL COLT, Connecticut. 

MR, FRANCIS P. CORBIN, Virginia. 

MR. T. B. COSTER, Alabama. 

MR. ELIOT CRESSON, Philadelphlv. 

MR. J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS, of Massachusetts, Secretary 

OF THE Legation of the United States, London. 
MR. CHARLES F. DENNET, Boston. 
MR. DAVID DICK, New York. 
MR. R. DICKINSON. 
MR. N. S. DODGE, Massachusetts, Secretary to the American 

Commission. 
MR. J. B. DUFF. 
MR. E. DUNN. 
MR. JAMES FIVES, London. 
SIR HENRY ELLIS, London. 
MR. G. B. FARIBAULT, Quebec. 
MR. OSGOOD FIELD, New York. 
MR. THOMAS FISHER, Philadelphia. 
MAJOR GENERAL C. R. FOX, London. 
MR. C. E. FULLER, London. 
DON PASCUAL DE GAYANGOS, Madrid. 
MR. WILLIAM GILES, New York. 
MR. L. GODDARD, London. 
MR. ROBERT HOWE GOULD, Connecticut. 
MAJOR JOSEPH GRAFTON, Boston. 
MR. J. STUART GWYNNE, New York. 
MR. SAMUEL CARTER HALL, Addlbstone, Surrey. 
MR. WILLIAM HANCE. 
MR. ALFRED C. HOBBS, Boston. 
MR. DAVID HOFFMAN, Baltimore. 
MR. FRANK HOLLINS, Baltimore. 
MR. HOLLOWAY. 
MR. G. W. HOPKINS. 
CAPT. HOVEY, Ship Devonshire. 
MR. O. HUSSEY, Baltimore. 
MR. HENRY INSKIPP, London. 
MR. W. A. JACKSON, Virginia. 
MR. JENNINGS. 



11 

MR. JOSHUA W. JONES, Nbw York. 

MR. JOHN LAMSON, Boston. 

MR. CURTIS M. LAMPSON, London. 

MR. GEORGE C. LAMPSON, London. 

COL. T. BIGELOW LAWRENCE, Boston, attached to the 

Legation of the United States, London, 
MR. CHARLES A. LESLIE, London. 
COL. J. A. LLOYD, London. 
MR. LLOYD, London. 
REV. SAMUEL K. LOTHROP, Boston. 
MR. S. E. LOW, London. 
MR. A. MACNAMARA, London. 
MR. MCCARTY. 

MR. O. M'DANIEL, New Jersey. 
MR. M^DERMOT, London. 
MR. MCDONALD. 
MR. J. M^FARLANE, New York. 
GEN. W. GIBBS M'NEILL, Rhode Island. 
MR. H. W. T. MALI. 
MR. MALLALIEU, London. 
MR. RALPH MARSH. 
MR. JONATHAN MASON, Boston. 
MR. ARTHUR MASON, Boston. 
MR. PLINY MILES, New York. 
MR. ARTHUR MOORE. 
MR. CHARLES MOREY, Boston. 
CAPT. J. T. NEWTON, United States Navy. 
MR. DAVID A. NEAL, Massachusetts. 
MR. E. G. OELRICKS. 
MR. J. J. OSBORN. 
MR. W. GORE OUSLEY, London. 
MR. E. G. OUSLEY, London. 
MR. B. F. PALMER, Philadelphia. 
MR. JOHN W. PARKER, Jun. London. 
MR. HENRY H. PAUL, London. 
MR. ARTHUR L. PAYSON, Boston. 
MR. CHARLES H. PEABODY, Massachusetts. 
REV. EDWARD W. PEET, New Jersey. 
MR. JOHN C. PICKERSGILL, London. 
DR. LYON PLAYFAIR, London. 
MR. ROBERTS. 



12 

MR. EDWARD RIDDLE, Boston, United States Commissioner. 

COL. BENJAMIN S. ROTCH, Boston. 

MR. JOHN RUTHERFORD, New Jersey. 

MR. M. B. SAMPSON, London. 

MR. W. F. SHATTUCK, Vermont. 

MR. LE GRAND SMITH, New York. 

MR. E. R. SMITH, Virginia. 

MR. HORATIO G. SOMERBY, Boston. 

MR. JAMES T. SOUTTER, New York. 

MR. CHARLES F. STANSBURY, Washington. United States 

Commissioner. 
MR. J. STANSBURY, London. 
MR. HENRY STEVENS, Vermont. 
MR. JOHN R. ST. JOHN, Buffalo. 
MR. RUSSELL STURGIS, London. 
MR. JAMES STURGIS, Boston. 
MR. GEORGE SUMNER, Boston. 
GENERAL JOSEPH G. SWIFT, New York. 
MR. W. M*REE SWIFT. 
MR. EDWARD H. THOMSON, Michigan. 
MR. PISHEY THOMPSON, London. 
MR. EDWARD G. TUCKERMAN, New York. 
MR. W. J. VALENTINE. 
MR. PETTY VAUGHAN, London. 
BARON DE VIDEL, Paris. 
GEN. HIRAM WALBRIDGE, New York. 
MR. MARCUS WALKER, Boston. 
MR. HORATIO WARD, London. 
MR. J. WATSON. 

MR. DANIEL WELLS, Jdn. Wisconsin. 
MR. ARTHUR WESTMACOTT, London. 
MR. WETHERED, Baltimore. 
MR. MARSHALL WOODS, Providence. 
MR. EDWARD J. WOOLSEY, New York. 
MR. HENRY WIKOFF, New York. 
MR. G. W. YAPP, London. 



ACCOUNT. 



I N the twenty-seventh of October, 
. 1851, Mb. George Peabody of 
London gave a parting dinner at 
r the London Coffee House to the 
American Gentlemen connect- 
ed with the Exhibition. The 
Guests, whose names have been already given In 
these pages, consisted of the Americans known to 
be in London, and also of many English gentle- 




The Hall was appropriately and beautifully 
decorated under the direction of Mr. Stevens 
and Mr. Someebt. Behind the chair was placed 
Hayter's full length portrait of Her Majesty: 
on the one side of which was Stuart's Washing- 
To^f, and on the other Patten's portrait of H. R. 
H. Prince Albert, each the size of life. The 
National Ensigns of Great Britain and the United 
States, appropriately united by a wreath of laurel, 
were draped about these paintings, and pennants, 



14 

kindly furnished by the Admiralty for the occa- 
sion, completed the effect. 

The chair was taken by Mr. Peabody at seven 
o'clock. Mr. Davis officiated as first Vice Chair- 
man ; and the side tables were presided over by 
Mr. Stevens and Col. Lawrence respectively 
as second and third Vice Chairmen. 

The elegant and sumptuous dinner fully sus- 
tained the high reputation of Mr. Lovegrove's 
house. 

After the cloth was removed, and grace said, 
Mr. Harker, the toast master, announced the 
Loving Cup * in the following words : — 

* The Loving Ct^p which went round the tables was one which 
Mr. Peabody had just received from America. Its shape may 
be seen in the wood-cut fronting the title. It is made of oak 
from the homestead of Mr. Peabody's ancestors, who on emi- 
grating from England, settled at Danvers, near Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. It is richly inlaid with silver, and bears the Family 
arms, and the following inscription: Francis Peabody of 
Salem to George Peabody of London, 1851. 

The origin and use of the loving cup is explained in the fol- 
lowing note : 

My Dear Stevens, — The old English drinking customs 
about which you inquire, and of which " the Loving Cup " is 
one, are of much interest and antiquity. The custom of pledg- 
ing your neighbour at table, and inscribing festive legends on 
capacious drinking vessels, may be traced to the time when the 
Romans were lords of Britain. Of such a kind was the Roman 
Cup found at the Station at Chesterfield, Essex, inscribed. Ex 
Hoc Amici Sibunt, while the well-known tale of Vortigern and 
Rowena testifies to the custom of health-drinking among the 
Saxons. On public occasions in the middle ages, particularly 
in communities whether clerical or lay, a capacious cup was filled 
for circulation among the guests at table. This Poculum Cha- 



15 

" The Right Honorable Earl Granville, His 
" Excellency The American Minister, His Ex- 
" cellency Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, The Hon. 
^* Robert J. Walker, The Governor of the Bank 
" of England, Sir Joseph Paxton, Sir Charles 

ritatis was always placed on the Abbot's table in the Refectory. 
At the Colleges it did active duty under the name of the Grace 
Cup. In the Guilds or trading fraternities it was passed from 
hand to hand as the Loving Cup, Oxford and Cambridge can 
both show interesting examples of Antique Cups bequeathed for 
their use; and so can many of our London City Companies, 
rich members of these bodies delighting in bequeathing to their 
fellows such jovial mementoes of their good fellowship. The 
example was followed by Royalty, and the Barber-Surgeons still 
possess a Loving Cup presented to them by Charles the Second, 
the entire cup being a model of the '^ Royal Oak'' in which he 
was concealed at Boscobel, the roots forming the stand, the trunk 
the stem, the leaves and branches the cup, from which hang 
little bells formed like acorns that ring as the cup passes. 

The Chairman having pledged the Company assembled, 
drinks, and passes the Cup, of which all present partake. It is 
the custom for the person who pledges with the Loving Cup to 
stand up and bow to his neighbour, who also standing, removes 
the cover with his right hand, and holds it while the other 
drinks, a custom said to have originated in the precaution to 
keep the right or " dagger-hand" employed, that the person 
who drinks may be assured of no treachery like that practised 
by Elfrida on the unsuspecting King Edward the Martyr at 
Corfe Castle, who was slain while drinking. Thus you see why 
hitherto the Loving Cup has possessed a cover, but as there is 
now happily no longer a " dagger-hand " between the United 
States and England, the cover on Mr. Peabod'jfs new Ameri' 
can Loving Cup seems to be appropriately dispensed with. I 
believe the present to be the first instance of an international 
Loving Cup. May the cover never be missed by you or 

Yours, &c. F. W. Fairholt. 
Nov. 18, 1851. 






16 

" Fox, and Gentlemen all, — Mr. Peabody drinks 
to you in a loving cup and bids you all a 
hearty welcome ! " 
The loving cup was then passed round in the 

usual manner, and due honor done to this ancient 

custom. 

The dessert having been served. Ma. Pea- 
BODY rose and said. 
My Lord, your Excellencies, and Gentlemen, The 
toast that I am about to propose to you, and 
which I feel peculiar satisfaction in proposing on 
such an occasion and before such an assembly, is 
one, the purport of which you will already have 
anticipated as it rightfully takes precedence of all 
others, in all assemblages of British subjects ; and 
although a large proportion of my guests are not 
British subjects, I am persuaded that they vie 
with those who are so, in respect and affection for 
the Queen of these Bealms. I am sure, that all 
my American friends who are here, will join most 
cordially in this toast, for I have never known an 
American who did not participate in the Eng- 
lishman's love for his Sovereign ; and I am con- 
fident that I never shall, so long as the Queen of 
Great Britain continues to reign, as she now reigns, 
in the hearts of all who desire the welfare of the 
whole human family. I give you, " The Queen, 
God bless her.'' 

The toast was received with the utmost enthu- 
siasm, and greeted with more than the usual 



17 

honors ; the band playing God save the Queen, 
while the company remained standing. 

Mr. Peabody then said, 
Gentlemen, I am sure that I have obeyed no less 
the dictates of an unanimous feeling, than the 
rules of courtesy and propriety, in giving prece- 
dence, on this occasion, to the head of the nation, 
upon whose soil we are now assembled, and whose 
hospitalities have been so freely extended to us. 
While, therefore, I do not ask you to respond 
with greater warmth to the toast that I am about 
to give, than to that which has already been 
given, I do ask you to give it an equal warmth 
of welcome. 

The illustrious personage who now fills the 
highest oflSce within the gift of the people of 
the United States, has, in his oflScial capacity, 
been recently placed in a most painful and em- 
barrassing position toward some of our citizens, 
as well as towards a foreign Power ; but a strict 
adherence to the principles of the Constitution, and 
the precepts and example of Washington, has 
enabled The President to surmount the obstacles 
which impeded his path, and sustain both his 
own position and the honour and integrity of his 
country. So fully has this been the case, that 
his conduct has received the unanimous approval 
of the whole people of the United States ; a great 
and remarkable compliment, in a country so di- 
vided in feeling on certain questions, and so replete 
with local and conflicting interests ; but so entire 

B 



18 

and general was this approval and concurrence, 
that his reception, on a recent tour through vari- 
ous parts of the Union, loses nothing by compa- 
rison with the warm and enthusiastic welcome, 
which greeted the recent northern tour of Her 
Majesty the Queen. I give you. Gentlemen, 
" The President of the United States, Qod 
bless him." 

This toast was received with similar honors to 
the preceding ; the whole company standing while 
the band played Hail Columbia. 

Silence having been restored, 

Mr. Pea body again rose, and said, 
The next toast which I have to propose, although 
always familiar and welcome in this country, 
has been rendered peculiarly so to citizens of 
every country, by the great event which is to 
render the year 1851 remarkable in the history 
of the World. I have to offer you the health of a 
Prince, who has extended his efforts and sympa- 
thies beyond the mere routine of his exalted 
station, and given the first impulse to that great 
undertaking, in consequence of which, and in 
commemoration of which, we are here assem- 
bled. While cheerfully according the respect 
which belongs to his high rank and pre-eminent 
social position, it is no disparagement to Prince 
Albert, to say, that his personal virtues and en- 
larged views command for the man, an even greater 
and more enduring respect than we should have 
for the Prince merely. He may have the proud 



19 

satisfaction, of knowing, that to the remotest dis- 
tricts of the world, and to the most distant period 
of Time, his fame will extend, and his name be 
everywhere inseparably identified with the gran- 
deur and the originality of the Great Exhibition 
of 1851. I give you, " The health of his Royal 
Highness Prince Albert, Albert Prince of 
Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family." 

This toast was also greeted with the greatest 
cordiality, and with the customary honors. 

Mr. F. p. Coebin, of Virginia, then rose, 
and said. 
Gentlemen, at the flattering request of my excel- 
lent friend, your hospitable Amphitryon, I will now 
avail myself of the privilege, which his too partial 
favour has conferred upon me ; that of proposing 
the health of one of his distinguished guests. But 
while it is most grateful to my feelings to profit 
by that honour, I cannot choose but confess, that 
among his American friends here this evening, at 
his festive board, there are many, upon whom it 
might have been more fitly bestowed, because of 
their greater practice, tact, and ability, in express- 
ing themselves on such occasions. I have said, 
however, that the oflSce assigned me is an agree- 
able one, and I will, in as few words as possible, 
endeavour to acquit myself of it. The last few 
months have been signalised, in this great capital, 
which is, in so many senses, the centre and the 
eye of the world, by an enterprise, as grand in 



20 

its conceptioiiy as it has been successful in its ex* 
ecution and results. I refer, of course, to the 
brilliant international " encounter of wits," that 
all of us have witnessed, and which has just been 
terminated. If, gentlemen, that encounter has 
been somewhat keen in its conduct, it has been 
productive of none but honourable and reciprocal 
triumphs — triumphs which, it is devoutly to be 
hoped, have left no disappointments, or heart- 
burnings, in any American bosom ; but which, let 
us fervently trust, will tend powerfully to secure 
the paramount object aimed at— that of promoting 
good-will among men, and a more enlarged and 
peaceful intercourse among nations. In aid of 
this goodly work, and prompted by an elevated 
pride of country, our liberal and sagacious Repre- 
sentative at this Court laboured from its outset, 
most earnestly, ardently, and eflSciently. He early 
saw, that in such a tourney of intellect, of talent, 
and of experience, young America would necessa- 
rily enter the lists with immense odds against her : 
— That to " try conclusions " with the Old World, 
upon ground which it had so long occupied, as to 
all the branches of Art, Science, and Industry, was 
a tempting but bold experiment ; and that she 
must " put on manly readiness." He appealed 
to her patriotism ; and despite of manifold diffi- 
culties, without any specific national appropri- 
ation of means for the end in view, his efforts 
were generously seconded by his countrymen, 
many of whom I have the pleasure to see here as 



21 

recent competitors for the honours of the occasion. 

As, gentlemen, our holiday rhetoric at home is 
sometimes, and perhaps justly, accused of being 
a little too boastful and flashy, I will not commit 
the sin here, of indulging in any unbecoming 
felicitations, upon our achievements in and out of 
the magnificent arena, erected with such magical 
promptitude, for the World's conquests in this 
peaceful rivalry. But I may be permitted to say, 
that most of them have been useful, many of them 
unrivalled for their ingenious simplicity ; and all 
of them calculated to produce beneficial results 
more or less immediate. 

But I am rambling very far from my purpose ; 
and perhaps disregarding that pithy Irish proverb, 
which insinuates that " talking spoils conversa- 
tion." My special object in calling your attention 
to myself, was to ask you to unite with me in thank- 
ing our patriotic Envoy here, most gratefully, for 
the untiring eflforts he has made during his resi- 
dence in this country, to remove the prejudices, 
and to overcome the repugnance, which certain 
self-seeking 'party tacticians on both sides of the 
Atlantic, have so long and so unwisely sought to 
keep alive and embitter, between the British isles 
and our beloved country. Why, gentlemen, time 
was, within my own recollection, when in our 
streets, honest John Bull (for such I must call 
him), was looked upon, not only as an arrogant 
and encroaching, but, in Gallic phrase, a " per- 
fidious" animal. And I remember, too, that 



22 

some of our pseudo-patriots and political pre- 
ceptors taught us to turn away from him; in- 
sinuating, in no bated breath, " ilk habet fcBnum 
in cornu huncy tu cavetOj Romane.'' Even the 
old women were afraid of his intrusive horns, and 
thought it a burning shame that he should be 
suffered to go abroad. Such was some of the hot 
wrath, the fiery hatred, of a not very distant epoch 
in our relations with him. But we have changed 
all that ; and if we cannot tread out every scat- 
tered ember of ancient animosities, let us endea- 
vour to " pale their ineffectual fire," and kindle 
a brighter and a purer flame upon the altar of 
Peace. Thanks to the sagacity and sound affec- 
tions of the great body of the American People, 
the mystifications of the demagogue cannot long 
delude them. Thanks, too, to the purified un- 
derstandings of the most able and distinguished 
representatives of both parties in the councils of 
the country, backed by the manly sentiments and 
captivating eloquence of Her Majesty's able and 
experienced Envoy at Washington, (whom I have 
now the pleasure to see here,) all outstanding dif- 
ferences of a political kind, have been, I believe, 
fully, fairly, and finally adjusted. In bringing 
about this happy consummation, that distinguished 
diplomatist has used no arts after the old fashion 
of his craft ; he has devised no subtle traps, spread 
no lurking snares for our astute people ; but he 
has addressed himself to their understandings and 
to their hearts. " Hce tibi erunt artes^'' &c. 



23 

But while I am uttering these just congratula- 
tions, a compatriot near me, whispers in my ear, 
that there ar6 some " balances" of another nature, 
remaining unsettled, by two or three of the younger 
States of the confederacy. All these, however, 
whether resting upon the point of honour, or upon 
legal enactment, will, if I do not grievously mis- 
take the lofty spirit of my countrymen, be fully dis- 
charged ; and, I trust, at no distant day. Coming 
from one of the oldest States of the American 
Union, whose good faith has always been intact, 
and, like Caesar's wife, above suspicion, I may, 
peradventure, be pardoned, for this passing refer- 
ence to the temporary lapses of those inexperi- 
enced members of the federal sisterhood. Let 
us, then, for the present, — 

*' Be to their faults a little blind, 
And to their virtues very kind." 

In conclusion, and in making the proposal to you 
with which I am charged, let me remind you, 
that, since my friend Mr. Lawrence has held his 
post here, an unusual number of his fellow-citizens 
have visited this capital — that they have come 
from all parts of our vast territory — from Cali- 
fornia to Cape Charles ; and from the St. Law- 
rence to our " farthest Thule" in the South ; — 
that though some of them differ widely from him 
upon one or two capital questions of domestic po- 
licy, he has received them all, without regard to 
party aims and interests; — that he has eagerly 



24 

tendered them his official aid and influence, when- 
ever he could do so with propriety and effect ; and, 
if I may venture to intrude upon such delicate 
ground, that he has offered them, in private, that 
prompt and genial hospitality, for which he was 
so much famed at home. I, therefore, confidently 
predict, that although he is not unaccustomed to 
warm receptions on this side of the Atlantic, yet, 
return when he may to his father- land, he will be 
still more kindly greeted there, by " troops of 
friends," with extended hands and expanded 
hearts. I give you, gentlemen, " The health of 
The American Minister, and all the members of 
his amiable and accomplished family '' 

This speech was received most cordially, and 
frequently interrupted by cheers during its pro- 
gress. At its close, the band struck-up " Yan- 
kee-Doodle," — which was hailed with trans- At- 
lantic enthusiasm. 

His Excellency Mr. Lawrence, on rising to 
reply, was welcomed with unbounded en- 
thusiasm. He said, 
I feel, as you may well suppose, with deep sensi- 
bility, the flattering testimony just extended tome. 
I am not able, for I have not words, to express 
the obligations I feel, not only to my friend on 
my right, but to you, my countrymen, whom I see 
around me. 

The invitation I received, was to attend " a 
parting dinner, to the American gentlemen who 



25 

have been connected with the Exhibition.'* I 
am happy to find, that our hospitable host, cha- 
racterised with his usual good taste, has not con- 
fined this invitation to those of us who are native- 
born Americans, but that he has brought to us 
those, who, although not of our nation are of our 
kindred. We are all of the same origin, and 
speak the same language ; we have the same lite- 
rature, the same religion, and the same of every- 
thing that makes the man. (Loud applause.) 

Besides, there was a peculiar propriety in 
bringing to us the Alpha and the Omega of the 
Great Exhibition. We have here with us to- 
night, the man, who had the genius to plan a 
building, such as the World never saw before, 
and such perhaps as we may never see again. 
(Hear, hear.) We have also here to-night the 
man who had the courage to undertake and the 
skill and enterprise to execute that plan. (Cheers.) 

Our munificent host has also brought to us 
that illustrious Nobleman, whose high position 
indeed claims our respect, but whose many virtues 
command our admiration and our love ; — a Noble- 
man whose executive talent and power of com- 
bination, enabled him, with his colleagues, to 
unfold before us, in perfect order, the products 
of the labour of all the World. I allude, gentle- 
men, to the Right Honourable The Earl Gran- 
ville. (Loud cheers.) 

And here, my Countrymen, I must make my 
acknowledgments, and present my thanks, as your 



26 

Minister in England, to the Royal Commissioners, 
for the ability, urbanity, skill and judgment, with 
which they executed their trust. (Hear, hear.) 
I know something of the history of this Exhibi- 
tion. I remember the day it was opened. I was 
present when it was closed. I watched it from 
its inception to its completion, from its completion 
to its dissolution ; and I must be permitted to say, 
that the order, the exactness, and the perfection, 
with which every department was managed, has 
never been excelled, and perhaps rarely equalled, 
whether in the marshalling of armies or fleets, 
the construction of buildings, or the arrangement 
of men. More than six millions of human beings 
entered and came out of the Crystal Palace, 
without the occurrence of any serious accident ; 
and I am sure you will agree with me, when I say, 
that, from the Prince himself down to the police- 
man, no one received aught but civility and 
kindness. 

I cannot omit to congratulate you,Mu. Peabody, 
and our countrymen present, upon the gratification 
we experience, in having here, to-night, our ex- 
cellent friend. Her Majesty's Envoy to the United 
States, Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer ; whose Mis- 
sion has tended so much to produce harmony 
and concord between the two Nations. (Hear 
hear.) Long may he continue to represent this 
great Country in the United States, long may he 
continue to promote those feelings of amity and 
good will, which he has been so successful in en- 
couraging. (Loud applause.) 



27 

And now, I hope I may be pardoned, if I allude 
to the peculiar circumstances under which we 
entered the Exhibition. Invitations were sent to 
the world at large. The Nations of Europe 
made provisions for defraying the expenses of 
their contributors. They sent here, also, those 
men, who, in their respective countries, were 
eminent in science and skill, that they might 
observe and learn whatever might be beneficial 
to their countrymen : and the expenses of these 
men were defrayed by their respective govern- 
ments. 

But, gentlemen, every man from America, came 
here on his individual account and risk ; he paid 
his own expenses, and often paid for the trans- 
portation of his contributions; and then freely 
gave his time, in attending to the exhibition of 
his products. It is due to you, that the world 
should know under what circumstances you were 
here. 

And yet gentlemen, while I think we have 
come out of the Exhibition vastly better than we 
went into it, I cannot but have, after all, a feeling 
of regret at what we have done — or rather at 
what we have left undone. I cannot but feel a 
regret, when I think, that, having accomplished 
so much with the small means employed, what 
could we not have done, if the People of the 
United States, in the majesty of their strength, 
had put forth all their power ! (Hear, Hear.) I 
have said that we came out of the Exhibition 
better than was at first anticipated. At the same 



28 

time, I cannot but state, for the information of 
those who never were in the United States, that 
our contributions to the Exhibition gave but an 
imperfect idea of the progress that has been made 
in the arts, and in the application of the sciences 
to the useful arts, in the United States. I have 
often attended the State Exhibitions at Philadel- 
phia, New York and Boston ; and I hesitate not to 
say, that I have seen, at those places, contributions, 
far superior to those which we have had here from 
the United States. But after all, I am convinced 
that the Exhibition will be productive of great 
good to our country. The social intercourse which 
you have had with the world generally, and with 
the people of the United Kingdom particularly; 
the opportunities you have enjoyed of a widely ex- 
tended observation of the actual condition of the 
sciences and mechanical arts of the whole world — 
these advantages are worth ten-fold the trouble 
and expense and time, which you have so freely 
bestowed upon this Great Exhibition. 

If some are, perchance, disappointed in the dis- 
tribution of medals, and are disposed, for the 
moment, to forget how arduous were the labors 
of the Jury, to such, if any there be, I would 
say ; Gentlemen, you and many others can well 
afford to be without the Council-medals, since you 
are left in possession of your invaluable inven- 
tions. Of what consequence is it to Mr. Hobbs, 
that he should have a Council-medal for a lock, 
which after a thorough trial was returned to him 



29 

unpicked, while it is well known that every other 
lock that has been ofiered to him has yielded to 
his instruments ? Is it of material consequence 
to Colonel Colt, that he should have a Council- 
medal for a firearm, whose name and fame have 
already reached the uttermost parts of the earth, 
and which is acknowledged, I believe, to be the 
best peace maker yet presented to mankind ? 
Would Mr. St. John's regulator of the compass 
come more surely into notice or general use, if a 
Council-medal had been awarded to it ? or would 
Mr. Thompson's soap, which washes as well in 
salt as in fresh water — which will wash out tar 
and all other stains except moral stains — would 
this soap be more valuable, if it had received a 
first medal ? Nor do I deem it of material conse- 
quence to Mr. Erickson, and to others whom I 
might mention if time permitted, whether he or 
they obtained the Council's medal for their con- 
tributions to science. The world will adopt every 
thing that is of real value. 

I am sure, Gentlemen, that you will take leave 
of this country — you, who are to depart to-mor- 
row, as well as those, who are soon to follow, — 
impressed with the high value of the Exhibition 
to our country, and in the full belief that you 
have received every consideration that could 
have been expected, under the circumstances in 
which we have been placed. I must say, that 1 
think we should all feel under the deepest obliga- 
tion to His Royal Highness Prince Albert, and 



30 

to all who promoted the objects of the Exhibition, 
as well as to the great body of the British people, 
for their uniform courtesy and kindness, during 
our sojourn in their land. 

Another great advantage arising from the Ex- 
hibition, to which I must allude, is, that it has 
exhibited to the world the encouraging prospect, 
that the time has come when labor, dignified 
labor, must be respected ; that the time has come, 
when there must be a just appreciation of those, 
who are the creators of wealth; and that it is to 
the efforts of the labourer, that every country 
must be mainly indebted for its glory and its 
power. 

But, gentlemen, there are two kinds of labor, 
intelligent and unintelligent labor ; the former, is 
that which gives character to a nation, and in 
giving character gives wealth and power also. 
Hence, I say, encourage the education of all the 
people ; for, by so doing, you will promote the ele- 
vation of the character, and give that dignity to 
the founders of wealth, which is so justly their 
due. (Loud applause.) 

And now, gentlemen, I come to the very agree- 
able duty assigned to me ; and that is, to propose 
the health of a Nobleman, who has devoted his 
time, for many months, to the promotion of the 
objects of the Great Exhibition. I know of no one 
who has done more, and few who have done so 
much. I believe, in a word, that Lord Gran- 
ville has done his whole duty. (Cheers and ap- 



31 

plause.) He has occupied a most difficult position ; 
but his patience, his perseverance, and his uniform 
courtesy, have enabled him to reconcile diflfering 
interests ; and, in pursuing his straight-forward, 
manly course, my Right Honorable friend has 
generally been able to have his own way ; and 
that way, I am happy to say, is always the right 
way. I give you, gentlemen, with all my heart, 
"The Royal Commissioners," connecting with 
the toast the name of " The Right Honorable 
The Earl Granville." 

Earl Granville in rising was received with 
loud cheers. When quiet was restored 
he said, 
Mr. Peabody, I trust that the company will not 
consider me as having been blinded by the com- 
pliments paid to me, when I state that I have 
listened with the greatest possible pleasure to the 
eloquent address of his Excellency the American 
Minister. Although I feel it a great honour, to 
be present as the guest of Mr. Peabody, at a 
parting dinner given by an American to his fel- 
low-countrymen, yet I feel that I should entirely 
misunderstand my position, and also what is due 
to the character of the meeting, if I were to 
endeavour to make a formal speech on this occa- 
sion. I consider that the Commissioners were as 
much indebted to the Americans for sending over 
their goods, as the Americans were to the Com- 
missioners for finding a place for their reception. 
(Hear.) 



32 

It is exceedingly gratifying, to see sitting by 
the side of each other the Minister of the United 
States to this country, and the Minister for this 
country to the United States. (Cheers.) In the 
case of both these gentlemen, I believe they have 
made it their business to become acquainted not 
only with the respective countries to which they 
are accredited, but also with all classes of the 
inhabitants of the country ; and in making that 
acquaintance, I believe that they have gained 
for themselves the esteem and respect of all whom 
they have met. (Cheers.) 

With reference to the Exhibition itself, I was 
almost inclined to suppose, from the speech of 
Mu. CoRBiN, that the inhabitants of the United 
States had something to be ashamed of. I am 
not, however, of that opinion. In the first place, 
a considerable portion of the Exhibition was 
occupied with the American goods. I believe 
that collection might have been still further in- 
creased, by the addition of many useful articles in 
common use in the United States, were it not that 
they were considered by their owners too common 
to send over to the Exhibition. (Cheers.) 

To remove any doubt upon the subject of what 
the Americans might have done, Mr. Brown, of 
Liverpool, who may be considered as one of the 
living links between the two countries, took a 
large party to look over that magnificent steam- 
ship the Atlantic, which was built and completed 
in all its details in the United States. (Cheers.) 



33 

Mr. Hobbs has also succeeded in picking our best 
locks ; and two other American gentlemen are at 
this moment teaching us how to cut our corn, an 
art which we have been practising for some hun- 
dreds of years in this Island, but of which it ap- 
pears we are ignorant of the first principles ; and 
last of all, they have sent us a specimen of their 
shipping to Cowes, the centre of our yachting 
glories, and they have given us the most unde- 
niable beating that we have had for years. (Cheers 
and laughter.) 

Now what are the results of all this ? I have 
within the last few days read in the newspapers 
one of the most graceful and touching tributes, 
paid by Commodore Stevens, to the manner in 
which the people of this country, who had been so 
utterly defeated, had received and treated him. 
(Cheers.) The results of the Exhibition are such 
as it is highly pleasing to contemplate. God for- 
bid that we should ever see feelings of rivalry — 
generous rivalry — ceasing to exist between the 
two nations. (Cheers.) I do not think that the 
result of the Exhibition will be entirely to prevent 
some of our tourists making disagreeable remarks 
upon American matters, or some of the Ameri- 
can journalists perpetrating some rather severe 
jokes upon us. (Laughter.) But neither country 
will suflfer much from this. What, however, I do 
think the Exhibition will accomplish, will be the 
production of feelings, never to be effaced, of re- 
spect and regard for one another ; to induce the 

c 



34 

feeling that we all belong to the same blood, all 
speak the same language^ and, though differing 
in some minor details, still that we both fully and 
equally prize and value the love of liberty and 
the progress of the human kind. 

The noble Earl resumed his seat amid loud 
cheers. 

The Honorable Robert J. Walker, late 
Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States, then spoke as follows : — 
The agreeable office is assigned to me, by our ex- 
cellent host, of offering a toast in honour of Her 
Majesty's Envoy to the United States, Sir Henry 
Lytton BiTLWKR. This is a pleasing duty ; know- 
ing, as I do so well, this most worthy and distin- 
guished gentleman, appreciating his eminent ta- 
lents and high character, and fully conscious how 
much he has contributed to promote the friendly 
feelings of the Governments and People of Eng- 
land and America. Whilst, in his diplomatic ca- 
reer, he has performed his duty to his Sovereign, 
with talent and fidelity, his mission to America 
has furnished a bright example of noble and suc- 
cessful efforts to reach the hearts of the people, 
to whose government he was accredited. (Cheers.) 
I know of none of the many occasions, at our 
social board, or elsewhere, when he has been called 
upon to make public addresses, that he has failed 
to appeal to our pride and affection, and the many 
remembrances of kindred glory which unite our 



35 

countries. In his bright and graphic sketches of 
the character, mission, and destiny of my Country, 
he touched a chord, which vibrated throughout 
the heart of the Nation, and called forth from it a 
warm response of gratitude and praise. And here, 
permit me to say, in this period of friendly rivalry 
between the two countries, that there is one point, 
in which we of America must yield the palm to 
Sir Henry. It is in our addresses at the social 
board. In this field, we were vain enough to sup- 
pose, that some of our Statesmen and Orators were 
unsurpassed ; but here Sir Henry has fairly taken 
the wind out of our sails, and beaten us upon our 
own soil, at our own board, and in one of our 
own favourite vocations. Who will deny that this 
was a great and noble achievement, in which the 
victor in oratory crowned with his own laurels 
the brows of the vanquished, and filled their hearts 
with friendship and afiection for himself and for 
his country. (Cheers). It is a fact, which I am 
sure will be acknowledged by all my country- 
men, that the published addresses of Sir Henry 
at our public festivities, and on all other fitting 
occasions, were as much admired in America for 
their artistic skill and eloquence, and their valua- 
ble facts and deductions, as they were applauded 
for those still higher qualities, which made them 
so potent in warming our hearts for his country. 
I might here allude to the able efibrts of Sir Henry 
to augment the reciprocal trade and intercourse 
of the two nations ; but tempus fugit^ and I shall 



36 

therefore conclude by oflFering the following sen- 
timent, " Her Majesty^ s eloquent and distinguish- 
ed Envoy to the United States^ Sir Henry 
Lytton Bulm'er; may he long live to witness 
the results of his noble efforts, in re-uniting the 
hearts and hands q/* England and America." 

The toast was received with much cheering, 
which was renewed when Sir H. L. Bulwer rose 
to reply, and continued for some time. 

Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer said, 
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, I quite agree with 
my noble friend. Lord Granville, who lately ad- 
dressed you, that this is not an occasion on which 
it is necessary to make you a long and formal 
speech ; and indeed, if I had been that way in- 
clined, after all that has been said by my honour- 
able friend (Mr. Walker) who has just sat down, 
I should be afraid to utter more than a very few 
words, lest I should endanger his character for 
veracity, and lose altogether that which he has 
given me for eloquence. (Cheers.) But this I 
must say, that I could not help being struck— 
first, as the turtle soup went round, then as the 
champagne was circulated, then as the loving cup 
passed from mouth to mouth, and finally as I lis- 
tened to the excellent and eloquent speeches that 
were subsequently delivered — at the singular 
practical ignorance that was displayed by an ho- 
nourable friend of mine, when, during the sitting 
of the diplomatic committee last session, he asked 



37 

my noble friend the Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, whether he saw any possible connexion 
between diplomacy and dining. (Laughter, and 
cheers.) I cannot help thinking that, if my ho- 
nourable friend were now here, we should be able 
to give him what the Yankees would call correct 
notions as to this matter. (Laughter, and cheers.) 
But since he is not here, I will myself undertake 
to assure you, Mr. Chairman, that by this and 
similar acts of hospitality, you have in no slight 
degree macadamised the road, which my honour- 
able friend Mr. Lawrence is going a-head upon, 
so much to his own credit, and also so much to 
the advantage of his country. For myself, sir, I 
am particularly indebted to you; for you have 
given me this evening the opportunity of greeting 
your countrymen on this side of the Atlantic, with 
the same heart-felt cordiality, the same never-to- 
be-forgotten kindness, with which they received 
me on the other. Welcome, then, gentlemen, to 
this land, which is dear to me as my home, and 
which possesses a sort of kindred right to your 
affection as the home of your fathers. Here, 
you will have found those ancient edifices, which, 
whether as monuments of power or as works of 
art, are noble records of our common race ; here 
repose the ashes of those great writers of the past, 
in whose fame we have a joint inheritance ; here 
grew up, in wisdom and renown, those learned 
and just legislators, those profound statesmen, 
from whom we have derived our common notions 



38 

of polity and law ; here ruled and dazzled those 
mighty and valiant princes, beneath whose victo- 
rious banners your ancestors, side by side with 
mine, rushed from the heights of Cressy, or 
charged on the plains of Agincourt. (Great cheer- 
ing.) But well I know, gentlemen, it is not merely 
the solemn cathedral, or the stately tower, nor 
even the venerated tomb of the noble and the 
great, which, as you wander through this island, 
will stay your steps. I see you there, in the quiet 
village, the country churchyard, pondering over 
some half effaced epitaph, tracing on some moss- 
covered monument, the names and lineage of your 
English forefathers, whose dust co-mingling with 
old England's soil, gives me, my dear sir, (turning 
to Mr. Lawrence and taking his hand) the right, 
whilst I clasp your hand as that of a friend, to 
claim it as that of a brother, (Great cheering.) 
Welcome, I say, gentlemen, to this land; and 
when you depart from it, may you carry away 
with you as kindly impressions as those which you 
will leave behind you. At this time, we are es- 
pecially indebted for your visit to that great spec- 
tacle, of which I can say no more and no less, than 
that it surpassed the expectations of those who 
were most sanguine as to its success. (Cheers.) 
The idea of this Great Exhibition, — an idea for 
which we are indebted to that eminent and illus- 
trious Prince, who adds to his many other merits 
that of understanding the epoch in which he lives 
and the country with which he is connected : — 



39 

the idea of this Great Exhibition, I say, was not, 
if I understand it rightly, merely that of bringing 
together the chairs and tables, the tapestry and 
jewellery, the works of art, and the machinery ; — 
but to collect, as it were, in one focus, the mind 
of the whole world, so that each nation might learn 
and appreciate the character and intelligence of 
the other ; and, if this be so, what is the place that 
men will assign, after inspecting your productions, 
to the character and intelligence — that is to say, 
to the mind — of America ? Why, gentlemen, they 
will say, that for all manly and practical purposes^ 
its place is about the head of the poll ! (Cheers.) 
Where, out of America, shall we get a pistol like 
Mr. Colt's, to kill our eight enemies in a second ? 
or a reaping machine like Mr. M'Cormick's, to 
clear our twenty acres of wheat in a day ? or locks, 
like those of Mr. Hobbs, which appear, after all, 
the only ones to which we can safely confide our 
secrets or our treasures ? Nor is this all, gen- 
tlemen. Go a little farther, and we shall find a 
graceful and melancholy figure, which, while it 
fitly represents the charms and misfortunes of 
ancient Greece, exhibits at the same time the 
pre-eminent powers of sculpture and the pre- 
eminent genius of Powers. (Great cheering.) 
And, gentlemen, whilst we are thus passing in re- 
view the evidences of your genius which are to be 
found in Hyde Park, what is that small bark which 
I see lightly skimming along the sea ? I think I 
recognise an old acquaintance ; and sure enough, 



40 

on the very day that I land at Liverpool, I learn 
that that little vessel, which I had seen but lately 
sleeping quietly in the waters of New York, has, 
after gallantly crossing the great Atlantic, given 
the go-by to the whole of our yacht squadron ; 
and this, too, before the very eyes of the Sovereign, 
whom we are sometimes proud enough to call the 
Queen of the Ocean. (Loud cheers.) However, 
gentlemen, you know I always speak my mind ; 
and therefore I tell you, that here, if you gave us 
one lesson we also gave you another. I remember 
a story of Mr. Fox, who, when asked, it is said, one 
day, what he thought of a young man who had just 
made a capital first speech, replied, " I don't like 
to judge any one after a success, I like to see 
what a man is after a failure." Now I say, gen- 
tlemen, that, on the occasion to which I am allud* 
ing, we should decidedly have satisfied Mr. Fox ; 
and I beg you to remember, that if you then showed 
us how to win a race, we showed you how to bear 
the loss of one. (Laughter, and cheers.) 

But I should be very ungrateful, if I further de- 
layed returning my thanks, to my honorable friend 
who so handsomely proposed my health ; and who 
passed so many more compliments on me than I 
can possibly deserve. Gentlemen, I value those 
compliments, because I value the person from whom 
they come, and who, as you know, enjoys so high 
a reputation, both as a gentleman and a statesman^ 
in his native land : and if anything could render 
such compliments more precious to me, it is that 



41 

they should have received the sanction of the No- 
ble Lord (Lord Granville) who is sitting by the 
side of our Chairman ; and who, whilst he bears a 
name which must ever be entitled to my most aflfec- 
tionate respect, has, if possible, given to that name 
an additional lustre, by his own worth, ability, and 
acquirements. But if it be true, that I have been 
so fortunate, as to contribute in any way to the 
friendly relations which at present exist between 
the two countries, it is simply because I have 
taken a plain downright course, for eflfecting this 
object. (Hear, hear.) The fact of it is, gentlemen, 
that, according to old customs, when any causes 
for difference, however slight, existed between our 
two governments, down sat Her Majesty's Repre- 
sentative at his desk, and down sat the United 
States Secretary of State at his desk, and each 
penned to the other very pithy and pertinent de- 
spatches, showing the great motives for grievance 
there were on both sides, and then those de- 
spatches were carefully circulated throughout 
both countries ; but when there were only causes 
for mutual good-will and satisfaction, no one 
thought it worth while to take notice of so simple 
a fact, nor to state to the English and American 
public, what strong reasons, both in sentiment 
and interest, there existed, for their maintaining 
the closest and most friendly relations with each 
other. (Hear, hear). This was the old school of 
diplomacy, gentlemen ; but I am of the new 
school — (laughter and cheers) — and my theory 



42 

and practice are just the reverse of what I have 
been describing. I am for keeping as quiet as 
possible, all those small differences, which must 
occasionally take place between any two great 
States, having vast and complicated interests ; but 
which differences are always easy of adjustment, 
when they are not aggravated by unfriendly and 
untimely discussion. (Hear, hear.) And I am for 
making as public as possible, on all occasions, those 
great points of union, that must connect two na- 
tions, which not only, as my Honorable friend Mr. 
Lawrence has said, have one origin, and speak 
one language, but which also transact their great- 
est amount of business with each other. (Cheers.) 
Why, gentlemen, in what possible manner, can 
difficulties of a serious character arise, between 
two nations thus situated, except through mutual 
prejudices, which, having been suffered to grow 
up, will be apt, until eradicated, to create a wrong 
impression as to the real policy and feelings of 
the one and the other ? (Hear, hear.) My en- 
deavours, then, gentlemen, have been to remove 
all such prejudices ; ay, and to replace them by 
sympathies. (Cheers.) For this purpose, as my 
friend Mr. Walker justly said, I have addressed 
myself not merely to the American mind, but to 
the American heart. (Hear, hear.) For this 
purpose, I have thought it essential, not merely to 
correspond formally with your State department, 
but also to have frank and free communication 
with your noble and intelligent people. (Loud 



43 

cheers.) For this purpose, I have mixed with 
your public men, studied your institutions, taken 
an interest in your affairs, partaken of your fes- 
tivities, conformed to your habits, and always 
been willing, not only to eat a good dinner with 
you, but to make you a bad speech after one. 
(Great laughter, and cheers.) Gentlemen, I 
should be quite satisfied, to take, as my reward for 
these efforts, the eloquent and far more than de- 
served encomium, which has been passed upon me, 
by the distinguished gentleman who proposed the 
toast I am responding to. But my mission had 
also another reward — another result — which, if I 
am not wearying you — (no, no,) — I will state ; as 
being not only interesting to our two communi- 
ties, but to the World at large ; I mean a treaty 
by which Great Britain and the United States, 
without infringing on the rights of the humblest 
individual or the smallest State, have agreed, on 
one condition, to protect the construction, and 
guarantee the security when constructed, of any 
canal or railway, which may open a passage across 
Central America, between the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Oceans. (Great cheers.) And what was 
that one condition, on which our two governments 
thus insisted ? Why, that they should not, either 
separately or conjointly, possess one single privi- 
lege or advantage, with respect to such canal or 
railway, which should not be offered, on equal 
terms, to every other nation on the face of the 
globe. (Great cheering.) Gentlemen, I do con- 



44 

fesSy that I am proud, that such a treaty as this 
should have been entered into by the United 
States and Great Britain ; and I will also add, 
that I have a humble pride, in stating that one 
of the signatures attached to that convention, is 
the name of the individual who has now the 
honour of addressing you. (Loud and prolonged 
cheering.) Gentlemen, I lay a great stress upon 
this fact, because I felt when I signed that instru- 
ment to which I am referring, that I laid the 
foundation stone of a great and equitable alliance 
between our two countries; — (hear, hear) — an al- 
liance which should not have for its object the 
wronging or despoiling, but the benefitting and 
protecting the rest of mankind ; and surely, gen- 
tlemen, if such an union were ever required, it is 
at this moment; — for at this moment, the world is, 
as it were, violently vibrating between two ex- 
tremes, and appears of necessity to demand some 
regulating influence, to moderate and steady its 
oscillations ; — (hear, hear) — and where, gentle- 
men, can such an influence be better foimd, than 
in the cordial union of Great Britain and the 
United States ? (Great cheering.) It is true that 
you live under a Republic, and we under a Mo- 
narchy ; but what of that ? (Cheers.) The foun- 
dations of both societies are law and religion : — 
The purpose of both governments is liberty and 
order. (Cheers.) The more you love your Re- 
public, gentlemen, the more you detest those 
principles of confusion and division, which would 



45 

destroy it. The more we love our Monarchy, the 
more we cherish and cling to those principles of 
equity and freedom which preserve it. (Hear, 
hear, hear.) In this, indeed, lies the great moral 
strength of our close connexion. Hand in hand, 
we can stand together, alike opposed to the anar- 
chist, who calls himself the friend of the People, 
and to the absolutist, who calls himself the friend 
of the Throne. (Loud cheers.) Long then, gen- 
tlemen, let us thus stand together, the champions 
of peace between nations, of conciliation between 
opinions— (cheers) ;— and if, notwithstanding our 
example and our eflPbrts, the trumpet of war should 
sound, and that war to which it calls us should be 
a w^ar of opinion, why, still let us stand together. 
(Loud and long cheering.) Our friends, in that 
day of conflict, shall be chosen from the most 
wise, the most moderate, and the most just ; nor, 
whilst we plant the red-Cross of England by the 
side of the stars and stripes of America, do I for 
one instant doubt, but that we shall leave recol- 
lections to our posterity, worthy of those which 
we have inherited from our ancestors. 

At the close of the Right Honorable Gentle- 
man's speech, the assembly rose en masses and 
indulged in the most vociferous cheering and 
applause, which continued for several minutes. 

Mr. Davis then rose and said, 
Mr. Peabody, you have kindly requested me as 
the first Vice Chairman, to-night, to propose. 



46 

what may perhaps be called the toast of the 
evening ; the health of the American gentlemen 
connected with the Exhibition. (Cheers.) I do this 
with pride, for they are my countrymen, and 
with pleasure, for I number among them many 
personal friends. If a sincere consciousness of 
inability, increased by listening to the brilliant 
speeches which have so delighted us, shall at all 
diminish the pleasure that I should otherwise feel 
in the performance of this duty, I rely on you to 
make up the deficiency, by the heartiness with 
which you will drink the toast. (Hear.) 

I am spared the necessity of detaining you 
long, by the fact that the reapers who have gone 
before have gathered in all the grain, and have 
not even " let fall some of the handfuls " for the 
gleaners in their path. Perhaps, after all, it is no 
subject for regret; for I need only ask you to 
transfer yourselves in imagination to the eastern 
end of the Crystal Palace, as it appeared a fort- 
night since, and the story is told better than I 
can tell it. (Hear.) If our show in the building 
caused disappointment at first, — a feeling in which 
I confess I shared a little — and if that disappoint- 
ment found an exaggerated expression in unkind 
and unjust censures, time and a better knowledge 
of what there was in our department has quite 
removed it ; — and we are now rather in danger, 
my friends, of being killed by kindness. 

Let us never forget, gentlemen, that when the 
most was said against us, our generous host came 



47 

forward, and placed us in a position to appear 
properly before the world. (Loud cheers.) For 
this, as well as the position he justly occupies in 
London, I name him first of "the Americans 
connected with the Exhibition." 

If I were free to do so, I should bear testimony, 
also, to the great labors of Mr. Lawrence, in 
behalf of the Exhibition ; with which no man is 
better acquainted than myself. Happily, I am 
not restrained from speaking of the constant in- 
terest which my friend Col. Bigelow Lawrence 
has felt in the success of our Exhibitors, and 
the steadiness with which he has worked to that 
end since he first landed in England. He will 
be gratefully remembered by all Americans who 
have visited London this year. 

Neither should we forget the persevering indus- 
try of Mr. Riddle ; — how when others faltered 
he stood fiirm, and how constantly his time and 
energies have been devoted to the development 
and proper understanding of the American depart- 
ment, even to the extent of a journey to America 
to secure new contributions. 

To Mr. Stansbury, also, we are greatly in- 
debted, for his early and very efficient interest 
in this matter; and I believe he will lay us 
under still deeper obligations, when the Govern- 
ment makes public the result of his summer s 
labours. I am permitted also, to speak of the 
fact, that he wrote the able and temperate article, 
in the August number of the Art Journal, at the 



48 

request of the accomplished Editor, Mr. Hall, 
whom I am proud to see here to-night (turning 
to Mr. Hall, who sat at his right), and to thank, 
for his constant interest in American science and 
art. (Hear.) And I believe that an examination 
of the Art Journal, for some years past, will 
show that we owe the fact of the Exhibition itself, 
quite as much to him as to any man. 

The exertions also of Mr. Dodge, of Mr. 
Thomson, of Mr. St. John, of Mr. Tuckerman, 
— and many other exhibitors, whom I should be 
glad to name if it were not so late in the even- 
ing, — and of Dr. Black, and Mr. Lampson, 
and Mr. Stevens, and the other Jurors deserve 
all praise. (Applause.) We may fairly claim, too, 
to number the laurels of Commodore Stevens 
and Mr. Collins (cheers) among our own ; and 
we owe it to the united efforts of these gentle- 
men, that, instead of leaving behind us the re- 
putation of being a nation of braggadocios, we 
take our full share in the triumphs of the year. 
I will not detain you, however, by boasting. The 
American Exhibition will speak for itself; and, 
depend upon it, if there be any good in it, common 
sense John Bull will find it out. 

I had intended to say a word in addition^ 
upon the benefits we are to derive, in America, 
from the Exhibition, but find myself entirely 
forestalled. Numerous as they are, not the least 
will be the influence on the two countries of 
what has been said and done here to-night. I 



49 

can say to you nothing, that has not been already 
and better said, upon the knowledge of the Fine 
Arts and the Beautiful, which the Exhibition has 
given and is destined to give to America; no- 
thing of the varied and valued information with 
reference to the industrial arts, which it brought 
together ; nothing of the many new means for the 
employment of labour and capital, which it ex- 
posed ; nothing of the many new markets for 
produce and production which it developed. I 
can say to you nothing new, of the advantages to 
the world, of having thus practically exemplified 
the common interests of all mankind, and the 
necessity of peace and good understanding here- 
after; nothing either of the benefit to our two 
nations from the more intimate acquaintance of 
each with the people, the laws, the customs, the 
productions, the interests, and the tendencies of 
the other, which this year's mingling has efiected. 
I therefore pass by all these topics, to say a single 
word upon the fact that so many Americans have 
this year visited Europe, which is destined to 
effect important results at home. 

I believe it to be a great misfortune to a na- 
tion to be isolated from the world. The Eng- 
lishman of 1815, pardon me for the illustration, 
was a different man from the Englishman of to- 
day, in the breadth of his ideas. It is only 
by measuring ourselves with other nations, that 
we learn our real strength, and learn, too, our 
weak points, and how to correct them. The 

D 



50 

United- States has been hitherto too much cut 
off from the world ; and the vast majority of its 
inhabitants have measured its power, its social 
condition, and its moral elements by the petty 
States at its side. We have nothing to fear, 
my friends, from a wider comparison. (Ap- 
plause.) With land enough to make almshouses 
unnecessary, except for European emigrants ; 
with free schools for every child in the land 
(hear) ; with a very general diffusion of Christian 
teaching (hear) ; and with an equal administra- 
tion of justice, founded, by the provisions of our 
Constitution, on the English Common Law, we 
may invite a rigid scrutiny without fear. (Ap- 
plause.) But to estimate this properly, and 
understand what is going on elsewhere in the 
world, we should be acquainted with other social 
organizations, and with other political institu- 
tions. This year has done that for us. 

Thousands of Americans have crossed the At- 
lantic ; a majority, I should say, from the west of 
the Alleghanies. They have been kindly and hos- 
pitably received, in this country — (the eloquent 
welcome of Sir Henry Bulwer is not the first 
language of kindness to which they have listened) 
— they have seen here property safe, liberty jea- 
lously guarded by law, justice evenly adminis- 
tered, labour employed, and all classes moving on 
harmoniously together. (Applause.) They have 
most of them visited the Continent, and each one 
gathered his own ideas of the state of things 



51 

there ; and they have returned, or are ahout to 
return, to their homes, in the various parts of the 
Union, to scatter about them the influence of 
their experience : — as Bacon says, " not to change 
their country manners for those of foreign parts, 
but to prick in some flowers of that they have 
learned abroad, into the customs of their own 
country." 

But, Gentlemen, I must beg your pardon for 
detaining you so long, against my promise and 
intention when I rose. Of all the appetites, the 
appetite for talking grows the most with that it 
feeds on. I ask you to drink the health of the 
gentlemen, who have been the most instrumental 
in securing to our country the advantages at 
which I have glanced, and the many more, which 
I have left unnoticed : — " The health of the 
American gentlemen connected with the Exhi- 
bition j^ and I am instructed to join with this 
toast the names of " Mr. Riddle and Mr. 
Stansbury." 

Mr. Riddle, on rising to reply, was greeted 
most cordially, and spoke as follows: — 
Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, Were I to say 
that I did not anticipate making a few remarks 
this evening, I should speak an untruth. But I 
have been so far carried away by the eloquence 
of the distinguished gentlemen who have ad- 
dressed us, that what little I had prepared in my 
mind has vanished ; and for speech I am left de- 



52 

fenceless. I cannot find words, which would con- 
vey an adequate response to the very complimen- 
tary toast just given ; and not being blessed with 
that fluency of language which many have the 
privilege of enjoying, I should but in a very un- 
satisfactory manner express my sentiments, did I 
allow myself to proceed. For me, the eloquence 
of the heart must'speak louder than the eloquence 
of the mind ; and could you see my heart, Gentle- 
men, at this moment, you would there read the 
words to which I would now wish to give utter- 
ance. 

Whatever credit may be attached to the part 
I have taken in the Great Exhibition, it may 
be attributed to the valuable assistance I have 
received from those who have been immediately 
connected with me in the discharge of my official 
duties, and to the advice of inestimable friends. 
Our distinguished Minister has forestalled any 
remarks I might have wished to make on our 
Exhibition. But this much I will say ; if our dis- 
play has been fraught with no othqr good, it has 
been the welcome m^ans of developing to Ame- 
ricans the true character of George Peabody. 
The peaceful battles of 1851 have been fought, 
and the illustrious leader may well congratulate 
himself upon the victories he has achieved. The 
great scene has closed upon us ; and with it, in 
my humble opinion, should close all disappoint- 
ment and lacerated feelings. 

Before the lapse of many days a number of us 



53 

will be on the broad ocean, bound for our happy 
homes. For one, I shall always look back with 
heartfelt gratification, upon the kindness, courtesy, 
and honorable treatment which I have received 
from our English friends. 

Mr. Stansbury's Remarks. 
Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, I beg to return ' 
my sincere acknowledgments, for the kind way in 
which Mr. Davis has associated my name with 
the toast that has just been given, and for the cor- 
diality with which the company has been pleased 
to receive it. My own connexion with the Exhi- 
bition has been, since its opening, so humble and 
unobtrusive ; so much more a connexion of obser- 
vation and study than of active participation ; that 
I scarcely had a right to expect to be noticed in 
this very gratifying manner. I assure you that 
I attribute it to the noble sentiment which ani- 
mates this assembly, (and in which indeed it had 
its origin), a desire that we should dissolve the 
association of the past few months with feelings 
of mutual and universal good will, rather than 
to any services or merits of my own. 

If the Great Exhibition, which has drawn so 
many of us across the Atlantic, had been the 
occasion of teaching us nothing more, it would be 
much that we had learned, by our own agreeable 
experience, that we have on these shores one Re- 
presentative, in a high diplomatic position, whose 
pride and pleasiure it is to contribute to the en- 



64 

joyment, as well as to protect the rights and pro- 
mote the best interests of his countrymen ; and 
another, in a mercantile capacity, whose unwea- 
ried and graceful hospitalities constitute the least 
part of his claim to our respect and gratitude ; — 
whose operations in another quarter, (I might say 
at another board\ have done so much to sustain 
American credit, and to elevate our commercial 
character in the eyes of this community. 

But it has taught us other lessons. It has 
shown us how thoroughly popular rights are un- 
derstood and respected, and popular power ap- 
preciated, on this side the water. It is enough to 
say, that that gigantic enterprize, whose trium- 
phant success we now celebrate, originated with, 
and was carried out by, the unaided eflfbrts of the 
people of this country, to prove to what an un- 
limited extent the combination of individuals is 
permitted and sanctioned in this land ; the only 
land, beside our own, where such an undertaking 
could have been accomplished by such means. 
The Government of Great Britain has shown, 
that it is not afraid to allow the people to put their 
heads and their purses together, for the accom- 
plishment of important public designs, lest " se- 
dition, privy conspiracy and rebellion," should 
result from their combination. Safe in the con- 
sciousness of the solid principles of constitutional 
liberty on which it is based, it has no fears for 
itself, and is willing to leave such great public en- 
terprizes for the public good where they are ever 
best left — in the hands of the people. 



55 

I feel, that the experience of the Exhibition 
season has taught us, that there is among the 
people of England an under current of substantial 
respect and good feeling towards their American 
brethren. I am glad to have a public opportunity 
of acknowledging my own obligations, for the 
liberality with which they have aided me in the 
discharge of my duties. I have had occasion to 
address thousands of individuals, in all grades and 
conditions of life ; and I can truly say, and with 
unfeigned gratification, that I have yet to receive 
the first unkind or discourteous reply. Whatever 
reason we may have had, in the beginning, to 
complain of the somewhat inhospitable reception 
of the press, I am sure that we shall all personally 
carry back a warm remembrance of English hos- 
pitality, and an unalterable conviction that two 
people so entirely harmonious in sentiment, were 
never meant to occupy a position of antagonism 
to each other. United, their influence upon the 
progress of mankind must be irresistible : their 
division would prove a calamity to the human 
family. God wither the hand that would inter- 
pose an obstacle to the complete moral union of 
the two people ! God palsy the tongue that would 
give articulation to a single word, intended to 
produce irritation or estrangement ! My humble 
prayer is, that Heaven may bless both countries. 
Long may they continue to march on together, 
in the van of nations ; accomplishing the noble 
career that is before them ; shoulder to shoulder 
in the great work of human progress ; scattering 



6G 

around their path the blessings of peace, civiliza- 
tion, Christianity and sound constitutional liberty, 
until those priceless treasures have become the 
common property of all mankind. 

If the Exhibition should have taught us these 
lessons, and imbued us with this spirit, we may 
well afford to forget any petty personal disap- 
pointment, which we may have experienced ; or 
even those larger mortifications, which may have 
touched us as a people. Nay, as associated with 
such results, we may even cherish them among 
our pleasures of memory ; — 

Et haec olim meminisse juvabit. 

For myself, Gentlemen, I beg to say, in thank- 
ing you again for your kind reception, that I 
shall ever reckon it among the most pleasing re- 
collections of my life, that I was permitted to lend 
my humble efforts, however feebly, to aid in the 
accomplishment of a design, which has resulted so 
usefully for our race, so gloriously for its illus- 
trious Patron, and which has given this great 
people a new title to the respect, the gratitude, 
and the admiration of the world. 

During the delivery of this speech, Mr. Stans- 
BURY was frequently interrupted by expressions 
of applause. 

Mr. Bates then said, 
Mr. Pea body and Gentlemen. After the bril- 
liant Speeches which have been delivered, I feel 



57 

perfectly certain that nothing that I can say will 
be worth your listening to. 

Fortunately for me, the Gentleman whose 
health I have to propose, and which I propose 
with the greatest pleasure, requires no recom- 
mendation, whether as a most amiable man or as 
Governor of the Bank of England, an Institution 
over which he presides with great honor to him- 
self, and benefit to that vast commerce which 
is now carried on between our two Countries. 
Moreover, he is married to an American Lady. 
I give you, Gentlemen, " Mr. Thomson Hankey, 
JuN. Governor of the Bank of England'' 

The Governor on rising to reply was loudly 
cheered, and spoke as follows : — 
I trust that I may not be misunderstood, if, in 
rising to thank you. Sir, and your friends whom 
you have assembled together in this very hospita- 
ble manner, I venture to say, that I am not sur- 
prised that one of your guests should have pro- 
posed to you a toast connected with that Institu- 
tion of which, at the present moment, I have 
the honour to be the representative. I am sa- 
tisfied that there is no American present, who 
does not feel a deep interest in the prosperity of 
every institution in Great Britain which has 
for its object the promotion of the mercantile 
and banking interests of this Country ; and which 
may have been successful in affording those bank- 
ing aids which are so eminently serviceable in fa- 



58 

cilitating the mutual interchange of the com- 
merce of Great Britain with every other com- 
munity throughout the world. 

When I remember that the commercial inter- 
change of commodities between the United States 
and this country, exceeds annually an amount of 
sixty million Pounds sterling ; and when I re- 
member that each country exports to the other 
more than either country exports to all the rest 
of the world besides, I cannot but feel convinced 
that we must have a mutual interest in the 
prosperity of each other, to a degree that can 
hardly indeed be exceeded by the interest we may 
each feel in the prosperity of our respective father- 
land. How indeed can it be otherwise ? 

Whatever changes may have been effected in 
freeing this country from any of the shackles which 
have been imposed on it by our ancestors, for the 
supposed protection of our manufactures, and by 
which our people may now be enabled to buy to 
greater advantage the raw materials, which were 
absolutely essential to their very existence, or by 
cheapening the article of food, thereby enabling 
our manufacturing population to turn their labour 
to more profitable account, and at the same time 
enabling them to enjoy more both of the necessa- 
ries and even luxuries of life ; I say, to whatever 
extent this has been done in this country, by 
which our manufacturers have extended their 
operations and thereby have exported more, with- 
out consuming less, they must have been ena- 



69 

bled to buy more of the manufactures of other 
countries. This I am satisfied has been the case, 
and will be the case to a still greater degree when 
the principles are still better understood that the 
greater freedom from commercial tariffs we can 
give in our own country, the greater will, and must 
be the benefit which we confer, not only on our- 
selves but on every other country with whom we 
interchange such commodities as one country may 
be able, from its local or other advantages, to grow, 
or to manufacture cheaper than the other. Fol- 
lowing up these views, is it unnatural that /should 
feel a strong desire to see a sort of " Zolverein" 
established between the United States and my 
own country ? by which either of us may feel that 
we have but one common interest in promoting 
the success of trade and commerce between its 
former self and its present rival : but I will not 
weary you by pursuing this subject further. 

Allusion has been made to rival feelings, and 
may I not give a strong proof that none such exist 
in this city, excepting in that generous rivalry, 
which is the truest stimulus to exertion, when I 
remind you that the Gentleman who has done me 
the honor to propose my health, and who, I am 
sure, will allow me to call him my friend, is an 
American, — though standing at the head of one of 
the largest and most widely known English firms ? 
The House of Baring is known not only in Europe 
and America, but in every part of the globe, and 
Mr. Bat£s, the present acting head of that well 



60 

known and respected House, is, as I have before 
said, an American. He has alluded to my con- 
nexion with America, a connexion which I ever 
regard with feelings of the greatest satisfaction ; 
for I have been thereby frequently thrown into 
communication with Americans, and I have never 
received from them any thing but friendship and 
kindness. 

I have twice visited, and travelled in, the United 
States. On the last occasion, in 1834, I met a 
Gentleman on board the sailing packet, with whom 
I made acquaintance, and whose acquaintance I 
have kept up to this day : that Gentleman was 
Mr. Peabody, who has been kind enough to invite 
me to witness his reception of his countrymen in 
this very interesting and in this truly hospitable 
manner. I am proud to consider him as a Col- 
league and Brother Merchant of London : and I 
am not the less proud of it when I hear from the 
lips of so many of his own countrymen, as I have 
done on this day, that they consider his high and 
unimpeachable character, his abilities, his integ- 
rity and his industry, as great an ornament to 
their country, as we are glad to consider him to 
ours. Long may he enjoy the fruits of his well 
earned independence, and long may he continue 
equally respected on both sides of the Atlantic. 

The Speaker sat down amid prolonged cheer- 
ing. 

Lord Granville then rose again, and stated 



61 

that he had obtained permission to say a few 
words more, and that he should make the oppor- 
tunity available for proposing a toast, the pro- 
priety of which all would recognise, and which 
he was assured would be welcomed with un- 
equalled enthusiasm. His lordship concluded a 
very truthful and graceful tribute to Mr. Pea- 
body, by alluding to the prominent and disin- 
terested part which that gentleman had taken 
in advancing the interests of the Exhibition, and 
to the still more prominent position which he 
had achieved for himself by his unwearied efforts 
to promote the happiness of Americans in this 
country, and to foster kind and brotherly feeling 
between Englishmen and Americans. His lord- 
ship also alluded particularly to the regret which 
he had experienced at having been unable to 
attend the superb ^8^^ given by Mr. Peabody on 
the last anniversary of American Independence, 
and characterised thatJSte as marking an auspi- 
cious epoch in the history of international feeling 
as between England and America. In conclu- 
sion, he proposed " The health of Mr. Pea- 
body." 

After the prolonged and reiterated cheering 
with which this sentiment was received had sub- 
sided, 

Mr. Peabody rose and said. 
My Lord and Gentlemen, I may most sincerely 
assure you, that my feeling, at the present moment 



62 

is one of profound humility. Gratifying as is 
this spontaneous expression of your approbation 
and regard) and grateful as I am to the Noble 
Lord, and to you all, for your undeserved kind- 
ness, I feel sensible of my entire inability to 
convey to you, in suitable language, the acknow- 
ledgments which I would wish to make ; and I feel 
this humility and my inability the more strongly, 
after listening to the eloquent speeches which 
have been made this evening. 

Gentlemen, I have lived a great many years in 
this country without weakening my attachment to 
my own land, but at the same time too long not to 
respect and honour the institutions and the people 
of Great Britain ; it has, therefore, been my con- 
stant desire, while showing^ such attentions as 
were in .y power .o my 'own oonntryn,en, U. 
promote to the very utmost, kind and brotherly 
feelings between Englishmen and Americans. 
(Cheers.) 

The origin of this meeting was my desire to pay 
respect to those of my countrymen who have been 
connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
and to pay a parting tribute to their skill, inge- 
nuity, and originality, before their departure for 
the United States ; and I cannot but feel that I 
have been extremely fortunate in bringing toge- 
ther so large a number of our countrymen on the 
occasion. You will understand also, that I feel 
extreme gratification at the presence of our kind 
hearted Minister, and of those English gentlemen, 



63 

whose social and official rank, no less than their 
connexion either with our country, or with the 
Exhibition, renders them fitting representatives 
of national feeling, and entitles them to our re- 
spect, and to my most grateful acknowledgments. 
(Hear.) 

The importance of maintaining kindly feelings 
between the people of our respective countries, 
has been the principal theme of the eloquent 
speeches which we have heard this evening, and 
particularly that of Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer ; 
but, although in some measure a repetition of 
what has been so much better said by him, I can- 
not forbear making a few remarks on the same 
subject. There has recently been much ex- 
citement in America, in reference to the main- 
tenance of the Union of the States ; an excitement 
that has placed the Union on a firmer basis than 
ever. I have felt, that, important to us as is 
that bond of union, there is another, which is no 
less important to the whole civilised world; — I 
refer to the moral and friendly union between 
Great Britain and the United States. (Loud 
cheers.) May both these unions still continue, 
and gather strength with their gathering years. 

Gentlemen, many of you whom I see here to- 
night will soon be on the Ocean, homeward- 
bound, and there are many whom I may not 
again have the pleasure of meeting before their 
departure ; but if I do not meet you all again 
on this side the Atlantic, I trust that I may do 



64 

so at some future day on the other side. After 
such gratifying proofs of your friendly feeling 
towards me, I am persuaded that your kindness 
will induce you to give me, in my native land, a 
warmer, but not more sincere, welcome, than it 
has been in my power to give to you here. I 
conclude by again offering you my warmest 
thanks. 

This speech was received with inexpressible 
cordiality; and at its close, the company rose 
and greeted Mr. Pea body with " three times 
three'* cheers, and " one more," with a heartiness 
not to be surpassed. 

Mr. E. H. Thomson being called upon, 
arose and said. 
My Lord and Gentlemen, I feel wholly inade- 
quate to the task of addressing you at any great 
length, since the hours of the evening are so far 
advanced ; and I oiily rise for the purpose of pro- 
posing the health of a distinguished gentleman, 
who contributes to this night's good-fellowship, 
by being personally among us, that pleasing duty 
having been entrusted to me by the kindness of 
our honoured host. 

His name is ** as familiar in our mouths as house- 
hold words ;" and in our own country, from the 
granite-hills of New Hampshire to the ever-glades 
of Florida; from the shores of the Atlantic to 
those of the Pacific, it is known and appreciated ; 
while in Europe, from the headlands of the 



65 

North Cape, to sunny Italy and the Isles of 
Greece ; from the land of Charlemagne and the 
Alhamhra, to that of Russian sway on the distant 
banks of the Don and the Volga, the " Indus- 
trial Exhibition of all Nations" has given it 
a character to be remembered while any thing 
connected with the great enterprise which has so 
much engrossed our undivided attention, for the 
last six months, remains upon the page of his- 
tory. 

Need I say, gentlemen, that I refer to the Ar- 
chitect of the Crystal Palace ? — who has by 
his genius given to the world an edifice which 
has none like it, and is like none other. It has 
been in truth " the glass of fashion," the resort 
of men of genius, and the observed of more than 
six millions of the human family. He has given 
to mankind an edifice so simple in its detail, that 
a single section of its parts represents the whole ; 
and it is only by a multiplication of these parts, 
that the vast building has been constructed, and 
if required could have been extended " from the 
Land's End to John o'Groat's." 

Within its magic walls the nations of the earth 
have been gathered together for the first time ; 
both hemispheres have pronounced its excellence ; 
and it has shown that 

" ■ Peace hath her victories 

Not less renowned than War.*' 

In this bee-hive, have been represented the in- 

E 



66 

ventive genius of man, his rise and progress in 
the industrial pursuits, and all that makes him 
and ennobles him. Nations have made their en- 
trances and their exits ; individually they have 
been present, from the infant, in its mother's arms, 
to the whining school-boy, the lover, the soldier, 
the justice, old age, in the slippered pantaloon ; 
nay, second childishness, and worse than mere 
oblivion, 

*^ Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every thing.** 

I propose, Gentlemen, with your kind permis- 
sion, " The health of Sir Joseph Paxton the 
designer and architect of the Crystal Pa- 
lace." 

Sir Joseph Paxton, amid loud and pro- 
longed cheers, then rose and said, 
Gentlemen, At this late hour of the night, I will 
not attempt to detain you, with the delivery of 
a speech, but will at once proceed to thank you 
as I do most heartily and sincerely, for the very 
kind reception you have given me on the present 
occasion. I appreciate highly the thanks of those 
who are present from America. I hope you will 
excuse me from going into any detailed account 
of the Crystal Palace. That has been often 
given * by me, and I have received honors from 

* Sir Joseph Paxton probably refers to his speech at Derby 
on the sixth of August, 1851, which will be found at length in 
the Appendix, page 101. 



67 

ray Queen and country in connexion therewith. 
I cannot, however, omit frankly to confess how 
proud I am of my connexion with the Crystal 
Palace, since it has been the means of bringing 
together so often during the Summer that has 
gone, the distinguished of different nations, who 
I am sure have learned to know each other better, 
and love each other more. But I have no hesi- 
tation in saying, that without the assistance of 
Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and Co. you would 
never have had the Crystal Palace opened, in 
time for the Exhibition in May. (Hear, Hear.) 

I am sure, that the sentiments expressed by this 
country, and by the noble Lord (Lord Gran- 
ville), who represents the Royal Commission, 
and by the citizens of the United States, are the 
sentiments entertained by the various nations of 
the earth, in reference to the Exhibition. Im- 
pressed with that belief, and with the kind friend- 
ship towards myself, which you have been pleased 
to express, I again thank you most heartily for 
the kindness done me in drinking my health. 
(Cheers.) 

Mr. Davis then said, 
Mr. Peabody, We have just given expression to 
our sincere respect and hearty good wishes for 
him, whose genius conceived that beautiful struc- 
ture which was perhaps the most wonderful of 
the many wonders of the Exhibition. I now ask 
you to drink to him, without whose executive skill 



68 

and pecuniary strength, the genius of a Paxton 
would have been of no avail. Jointly, they have 
realized the dream of Chaucer, in creating 

*' a temple ymade of glas, 
In which there were mo images 
Of gold, standing in sundry stages, 
In mo rich tabernacles, 
And with perrie mo pinnacles, 
And mo curious portraitures. 
And queint manner of figures 
Of gold worke, than I saw euer.*' 

It will prove for them a real " House of Fame," 
wherein their names will be preserved with 



'^ names 



Of folke that had afore great fames 
Of old time." 

I give you as a toast " The health of Sir Charles 
Pox." 

This toast was drunk with enthusiasm. 

Sir Charles Fox then rose and said, 
Mr. Peabody and Gentlemen, It is diflScult to 
find words which fully express my feelings on this 
interesting occasion, or adequately to thank you 
for your hospitality, and for the very kind and 
flattering manner in which you have done me the 
honour to drink my health, as proposed by my 
friend Mr. Davis. 

I assure you. Sir, that I consider it a great privi- 
lege to be present this evening ; and I embrace the 
opportunity of expressing to my American friends 



69 

the high estimate I have formed of them, as a great 
people, well versed in intellectual attainments as 
well as in those of a more commercial character ; 
and of expressing a confident hope, that, having 
formed a more intimate acquaintance during the 
Exhibition of 1851, a permanent sense of respect 
and good feeling will arise between us, leading to a 
national interchange of confidence in, and mutual 
support of, one another, which will be alike bene- 
ficial to both, and will go a long way, by our 
combined power and good example, to establish 
peacd among the civilized nations of the world. 

In early life, I was led to consider Americans 
as enemies of England, and therefore to dislike 
them ; and I regret that much has been said, from 
time to time, to keep alive that feeling ; but since 
I have enjoyed the privilege of personal acquaint- 
ance, my feelings have changed into those of re- 
spect and admiration ; and gratified as I am, by 
what has been so warmly expressed by my Ameri- 
can friends, this evening, in praise of Englishmen, 
I am sure there is not one here, who is not proud 
of the relationship which exists between us. 

Educated to feel jealous of one another, we have 
avoided the expression of that natural affection, 
which, as descendants of the same parents, we 
silently cherish in our hearts, but which would 
audibly manifest itself the moment a third party 
should attempt to call in question the character 
of either. 

Be this as it may, I am sure, Sir, that we ought 



70 

to love one another ; and if strife must exist be- 
tween us, let it be a strife in which we shall vie 
with one another in the attainment of commercial 
excellence, and what is still more estimable, of 
moral worth. 

This speech was received with great applause, 
both during the delivery and at the close. 

His Excellency Mr. Lawrence then, in a few 
eloquent remarks, expressed his gratification at 
the cordial good feeling that had marked the 
proceedings of the evening, and proposed, as the 
night was far advanced, that they should adjourn 
to the drawing room. Before complying with this 
suggestion however, Mr. Pea body proposed as a 
toast " The Ladies of the old World and 
THE new;'* which was drunk with due honors. 
About one o'clock the company separated; and 
thus terminated a meeting, characterized by un- 
disturbed good feeling and kindness. 







APPENDIX 




APPENDIX. 



No. 1. 
From the Morning Post, Nov. 1. 



2M0NGST the many festivities, which, 
as directly resulting from its exist- 
' ence, have accompanied or followed 
the Great Exlubition, there has been 
none avowing a nobler object, and none more 
likely to accomplish the object which it avows, 
than the banquet, given on Monday last, by Mr. 
Peabody, to his countrymen, who had contributed 
to the vast collection of the world's wonders of 
industry and art. Ma. Peabodt is well known 
in the commercial world, as an American mer- 
chant and banker of great eminence. He is not 
less distinguished in political society, for the un- 
ostentatious but successful zeal, with which he has 
laboured to establish and extend a cordial inter- 
course between the citizens of America and those 
of Great Britain. In carrying out this great 



74 

purpose, Mr. Peabody has not omitted the col- 
lateral and important endeavour, of impressing on 
those States of the Union which stood in need of 
such counsel, the necessity of discovering, and of 
employing, the means best calculated to raise 
their commercial credit to that high standard, 
which so justly characterises America as a mem- 
ber of the great family of civilised nations. The 
views which he has brought to bear upon this 
subject, have recommended themselves to the cor- 
dial approbation of all parties interested, on both 
sides of the Atlantic — and have proved how much 
more potent an instrument of conviction, is friend- 
ly and sensible advice, than bitter and ignorant 
invective. The political and the commercial 
worlds are both, therefore, largely indebted to the 
disinterested, and, we believe we may add, the 
self-sacrificing, patriotism and philanthropy, by 
which this gentleman has so honorably laboured, 
not to build up a name for himself, but to achieve 
a benefit for his race. 

At the banquet of Monday, the proceedings at 
which were fully reported in our number of Wed- 
nesday last, Mr. Peabody thus spoke : — 

" There has recently been a great excitement 
" in America in reference to the maintenance of 
^^ the union of the States, an excitement that has 
" placed the union on a firmer basis than ever. 
" And I have felt that, important to us as is that 
" bond of union, there is another which is no less 



75 

" important to the whole civilized world — I refer 
" to the moral and friendly union between Great 
" Britain and the United States ; and, with the full 
" reliance that both these unions will continue, and 
" will gather strength with their gathering years, 
" I conclude, by again oflfering you my warmest 
" thanks." 

The thanks, refer to the eloquent proposal of 
Mr. Peabody's health, by Lord Granville, and 
the enthusiastic fervour with which the toast had 
been received by the company. But the theme 
of that eloquence, and the cause of that enthusi- 
asm, were not limited even to the high merits and 
acknowledged excellence of the generous host as a 
private gentleman : they embraced, besides these, 
the large and lofty purpose, to which he has de- 
voted so much of his ample means and of his great 
ability. Nor was it merely as having promoted 
so liberally and efficiently the interests of the 
Great Exhibition, that Lord Granville urged 
Mr. Peabody's claims on our gratitude. This was 
but the well-chosen means to a still more impor- 
tant end. The cementing more closely the union 
between England and America, the fostering 
kindly and brotherly feelings between Englishmen 
and Americans, are objects which tend to promote 
human advancement, and to secure universal 
peace. 

And, if the meeting under our consideration 
had done no more than elicit the speeches of his 



76 

Excellency the American Minister, of Earl 
Granville, and of Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, 
it would not fail to be regarded as an event of vast 
and lasting importance. Mr. Lawrence showed, 
with an ability which was enhanced by the kindly 
humour that accompanied and illustrated it, how 
much of the world's best fortunes depended on 
the maintenance and consolidation of friendly re- 
lations between this country and her mighty child 
on the other side of the Atlantic. And it is im- 
possible to mark the tone of his observations, with- 
out feeling that he was speaking with a full con- 
sciousness of the support of the great people whom 
he so worthily represents. 

Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer nobly responded 
to the sentiments expressed by the American 
Minister. In a speech which bore the highest 
characteristics of oratory, His Excellency defined 
the nature of our relations with America, and the 
character of the diplomacy which is best calcu- 
lated to ensure their continuance. He reminded 
his American auditory of their English origin, in 
terms of equal feeling and taste. 

" Welcome," he said, " again to this land, which 
^^ is dear to me as my home, and which possesses 
" a sort of kindred right to your affection as the 
" home of your fathers. Here you will have found 
** those ancient edifices, which, whether as monu- 
" ments of power or as works of art, are noble re- 
*' cords of our common race ; here repose the 
** ashes of those great writers of the past, in whose 



77 

« fame we have a joint inheritance ; here grew 
" up, in wisdom and renown, those learned and 
" just legislators, those profound statesmen, from 
" whom we have derived our common notions of 
" polity and law ; here ruled and dazzled those 
" mighty and valiant princes, beneath whose vie- 
« torious banners your ancestors, side by side with 
" mine, rushed from the heights of Cressy, or 
" charged on the plains of Agincourt. But well 
" I know, gentlemen, it is not merely the solemn 
" cathedral, or the stately tower, nor even the ven- 
" erated tomb of the noble and the great, which, as 
" you wander through this island, will stay your 
" steps. I see you there, in the quiet village, the 
" country churchyard, pondering over some half- 
" effaced epitaph, tracing on some moss-covered 
^* monument the names and lineage of your Eng- 
^* lish forefathers, whose dust, co-mingling with 
" old England's soil, gives me, my dear sir, (turn- 
" ing to Mr. Lawrence and taking his hand) 
" the right whilst I clasp your hand as that of a 
" friend, to claim it as that of a brother." 

What follows, is of still greater importance; and 
is well worthy of the consideration as well of Eng- 
lish as of American citizens. The new school of 
diplomacy, to which Sir H. Bulwer refers, and 
which he as truly as humorously contrasts with 
the old, is one, the doctrines of which have secured 
for the Eoreign-office, under the guidance of its 
present distinguished Chief, the affectionate re- 
spect and sincere admiration, of all who prefer 






78 

the dignity of truth to the sophistries of equivo- 
cation : — 

" But, if it be true that I have been so fortu- 
" nate as to contribute in any way to the friendly 
" relations which at present exist between the 
" two countries, it is simply because I have taken 
" a plain, downright course, for effecting this ob- 
" ject. The fact of it is, gentlemen, that, accord- 
" ing to old customs, when any causes for differ- 
" ence, however slight, existed between our two 
" governments, down sat Her Majesty's Represen- 
" tative at his desk, and down sat the United 
States Secretary of State at his. desk, and each 
penned to the other very pithy and pertinent 
" despatches, showing the great motives for griev- 
" ance there were on both sides ; and then those 
" despatches were carefully circulated throughout 
" both countries ; but when there were only causes 
" for mutual good- will and satisfaction, no one 
" thought it worth while to take notice of so sim- 
ple a fact, nor to state to the English and Ame- 
rican public, what strong reasons, both in senti- 
ment and interest, there existed, for their main- 
" taining the closest and most friendly relations 
" with each other. This was the old school of 
*' diplomacy, gentlemen ; but I am of the new 
" school, and my theory and practice were and 
" are just the reverse of what I have been describ- 
^^ ing. I am for keeping as quiet as possible, all 
" those small differences, which must occasionally 
'^ take place between any two great states, having 






79 

" vast and complicated interests ; but which dif- 
" ferences are always easy of adjustment, when 
" they are not aggravated by unfriendly and un- 
« timely discussion. And I am for making as 
^^ public as possible, on all occasions, those great 
" points of union, that must connect those two na- 
" tions, which not only, as my Honorable friend 
" Mr. Lawrence has said, have one origin, and 
" speak one language, but which also transact their 
" greatest amount of business with each other. 
" Why, gentlemen, in what possible manner can 
** difficulties of a serious character arise, between 
" two nations thus situated, except through mu- 
" tual prejudices, which, having been suffered to 
" grow up, will be apt, until eradicated, to create 
" a wrong impression as to the real policy and 
** feelings of the one and the other ? My endea- 
" vours, then, gentlemen, have been to remove 
" all such prejudices ; ay, and to replace them 
" by sjrmpathies. For this purpose, as my friend 
" Mr. Walker justly said, I have addressed my- 
" self not merely to the American mind, but to 
" the American heart. For this purpose I have 
" thought it essential, not merely to correspond 
^* formally with your State Department, but also 
** to have frank and free communication with 
" your noble and intelligent people." 

Honest and honorable intentions need only be 
frankly stated, to be duly appreciated, between 
honest and honorable States. And where mis* 
understandings do arise, this diplomacy cannot 



80 



fail, either to dispel them, or to show clearly to 
the world which party is in the wrong. It were 
well, that it could be understood and reciprocated 
everywhere, as fully as it happily now is between 
England and the United States. 



No. II. 
From The Sun. Oct. 28. 

To none more than to City men, have the advan- 
tages of the Great Exhibition been perceptible. 
The extraordinary increase in the number of 
private and business friends, who have visited 
England, is, of itself, calculated to foster inven- 
tion, promote improvements, and extend inter- 
national trade. Whatever might have been the* 
misgivings entertained in the outset, and fully 
participated in by the Americans themselves, it 
is certain that they are precisely the persons from 
whom we have learnt, and to whom we have 
taught most. An opportunity, if any were needed, 
of amply testing this feeling, was afforded, appa- 
rently, by the proceedings last evening, at a fare- 
well entertainment to the American exhibitors, 
by their estimable, liberal, and wealthy country- 
man, Mr. George Peabody. Nor is this the first 
occasion, embraced by that gentleman, in endea- 
vouring to promote kindly feelings between the 
citizens of the great nations on either side of the 
Atlantic. Gratifying it must be, amidst the 



81. 

expressions of dissatisfaction inseparable from the 
adjudication of awards, to have heard from the 
lips of the American Minister on this occasion, 
that whatever others might feel, whatever others 
might state, he, on behalf of his countrymen, 
had nothing but gratitude to express, nothing but 
kindness to acknowledge. His Excellency drew 
attention to the fact, that the American exhibitors 
had done every thing at their own cost, and that 
at local fairs, Baltimore for instance, he had wit- 
nessed a display of products that would more 
fully have represented the industry of the United 
States. Sir Henry Bulwer seemed to confirm 
this view ; and while giving his opinion that the 
subsequent exertions made, and the success of the 
grain-cutting machine, the lock-picking, and the 
yacht-sailing, left no cause for regret, he de- 
clared also, of his own knowledge, that a vast 
number of articles, new to Europe, were not sent, 
simply because they were so commonly used in 
America as to be considered no novelty. Lord 
Granville avowed, that the Royal Commissioners 
owed a debt of gratitude to the American exhi- 
bitors, for coming so far ; and the American gen- 
tlemen present, as we understand, admitted that 
their views of the English character were greatly 
and favourably changed by their visit. It has 
come to pass now, as Mr. Thomson Hankey 
stated, that even the policy and right working of 
the Bank of England, is an object of great im- 
portance to the merchants of America ; and that 



82 

free trade, a trade represented by sixty millions 
sterling annually, between that country and Eng- 
land, is knitting firmer and firmer their social, 
and political, and industrial interests. 



No. III. 
From The Globe. Oct. 29. 

The speeches of the representative of the United 
States in England, and of the representative of 
England in the United States, at Mr. PEABODt^'s 
parting dinner on Monday to the American con- 
tributors to our Great Exhibition, inaugurate a 
new era, in the relations between the two great 
constitutional and commercial communities. But, 
if we may be pardoned something like a bull, 
those new relations are old ones — the natural 
relations between parent and progeny. We find, 
in ancient history, Italian daughter-states going 
into public and solemn moiuning for the fall of 
Ionian mother-states ; and we trust we shall find 
(should occasion arise) fulfilled in modern times 
Sir Henry Bulwer's anticipation, which was wel- 
comed with the enthusiastic applauses of an Ame- 
rican audience : — 

" Hand in hand we can stand together, alike 
" opposed to the anarchist, who calls himself the 
" friend of the people, and to the absolutist, who 
" calls himself the friend of the throne. (Loud 
" cheers.) Long, then, gentlemen, let us thus 



83 

" stand together, the champions of peace be- 
" tween nations, of conciliation between opinions 
" (cheers) ; and if, notwithstanding our example 
" and our eflRorts, the trumpet of war should sound, 
" and that war to which it calls us should be a war 
" of opinion, why, still let us stand together. (Loud 
" and long continued cheering.) Our friends, in 
" that day of conflict, shall be chosen from the 
" most wise, the most moderate, and the most just ; 
" nor whilst we plant the red cross of England 
" by the side of the stars and stripes of America, 
" do I for one instant doubt, but that we shall 
" leave recollections to our posterity, worthy of 
" those which we have inherited from our ances- 
" tors." 

Mr. Abbot Lawrence's testimony to the whole 
conduct of this last six months' spectacle — colos- 
sal in itself, in all its accessaries, aiid in the 
universal concourse to it — deserves placing upon 
prominent record, as the unbiassed verdict of 
" contemporary posterity." 

" I know something of the history of this Ex- 
" hibition. I remember the day it was opened, 
" I watched it from its inception to its completion, 
" and from its completion to its close ; and I beg 
" to say, that the order, the exactness, and the 
" perfection with which everything has been done, 
" has never, in my judgment, been equalled, 
" whether in the marshalling of armies or fleets, 
" the construction of buildings, or the arrange- 
" i;nent of men. Six millions of men — of 



84 

* HUMAN BEINGS — HAVE ENTERED AND COME OUT 
' OF IT, WITHOUT ANY SERIOUS ACCIDENT HAVING 

* OCCURRED ; and in the carrying out of the plans, 

* you will all agree with me, when I say, that 

* from the Prince himself down to the lowest 

* class of policeman, nothing was received by any 
^ individual, but kindness and urbanity." 

Mr. Lawrence assigned, as a reason for the 
comparatively scanty contributions of his country 
to the Exhibition, the fact, that " every man from 
" America came here on his own account, paid 
" his own expenses, and paid the freight for his 
" own products." But the truth is, no apology 
was necessary. The United States are neither 
Asiatic, nor old-European, in their stage of na- 
tional culture. Nobody expected an Indian Tent 
at their hands, nor a Medieval Room, nor a 
Sevres Court. Nor, we may add, did the Old 
World either expect or wish them to rival Lyons, 
Manchester, or Sheffield in the finer and costlier 
branches of their staple products. The great 
staples of a mighty and half-subdued Nature, 
like that of the American continent, are naturally 
agricultural, connected with agriculture and ma- 
ritime intercourse. Hcec tibi erunt artes, till 
your people are closer packed together, and com- 
bination of skilled labour in all departments be- 
comes a growth more natural, of an age more 
advanced. Meanwhile, the representative pro- 
ducts of the United States are, — the best imple- 
ment of economical agriculture, the best weapon of 



85 

individual self-defence, and the fastest yacht the 
Solent has seen on her waters. America and 
The America have, after all, taken their true 
place in the industrial tourney of 1851. 

Sir Henry Bulwer's account of his own system 
of diplomacy, conveys an admirable lesson to all 
official representatives of free countries m free 
countries. Sir William Temple, long ago, had 
discovered, that the way to get the better of courts 
and councils conversant with nothing but lies, 
was to tell the truth. Sir Henry Bulwer may be 
congratulated on the farther discovery, of the sort 
of truths that should be kept in the foreground, 
between the representatives of nations governed 
by opinion, and connected by interest — viz., those 
truths which may be termed positive— the posi- 
tive^ perpetual, and substantial reciprocal reasons 
why brethren should remain at amity — rather 
than those truths which may be termed negative 
— viz., the formal negations, which must, of 
course, necessarily pass, from time to time, be- 
tween the representatives of one Power and the 
other — of one or another claim or pretension on 
either part of probably little real importance, but 
which Secretaries and Ambassadors would not 
think they earned their salaries if they failed duly 
to protocolise. Sir Henry Bulwer said — 

" If it be true, that I have been so fortunate, as 
" to contribute in any way to the friendly rela- 
" tions which at present exist between the two 
" countries, it is simply because I have taken a 



86 

" plain downright course, for eflfecting this object. 
" (Hear, hear.) The fact of it is, gentlemen, 
" that, according to old customs, when any causes 
" for difference, however slight, existed, between 
" our two governments, down sat Her Majesty's 
" Representative at his desk, and down sat the 
" United States Secretary of State at his desk, 
" and each penned to the other very pithy and 
" pertinent despatches, showing the great motives 
" for grievance there were on both sides, and 
" then those despatches were carefully circulated 
" throughout both countries ; but when there were 
" only causes for mutual good- will and satisfac- 
" tion, no one thought it worth while to take 
" notice of so simple a fact, nor to state to the 
" English and American public what strong rea- 
^* sons, both in sentiment and interest, there ex- 
** isted, for their maintaining the closest and most 
" friendly relations with each other (hear, hear). 
" This was the old school of diplomacy, gentle- 
" men ; but I am of the new school (laughter 
" and cheers) — and my theory and practice were 
" and are just the reverse of what I have been 
" describing. I am for keeping as quiet as pos- 
" sible, all those small differences, which must oc- 
" casionally take place, between any two great 
*' states, having vast and complicated interests; 
" but which differences are always easy of adjust- 
" ment, when they are not aggravated by un- 
" friendly and untimely discussion (hear, hear). 
" And I am for making as public as possible, on 



87 

" all occasions^ those great points of union that 
" must connect those two nations, which, not only, 
" as my honorable friend Mr. Lawrence has 
" said, have one origin, and speak one language, 
" but which also transact their greatest amount of 
" business with each other (cheers)." 

Every one's recollection supplies pregnant illus- 
trations, of the great wisdom of the course above 
indicated, and the great folly of confining diplo- 
matic activity to sterile controversy on contested 
punctilios. The diflferences between England 
and America, these thirty-six years, have resem- 
bled nothing so much as the lawsuit between 
Dandie Dinmont and Jock O'Dawston in Guy 
Mannering. They have been on points of no 
more real and vital international import than that 
celebrated suit, concerning a strip of land which 
" might feed ane sheep in the year, or aiblins 

No. IV. 
From The Leader y Nov. 1. 

INTERNATIONAL DINNERS.— ENGLAND 
AND « THE STATES." 

Mr. Peabody, the gentleman who so magnifi- 
cently kept the 4th of July, 1851, gave a farewell 
entertainment to the American Exhibitors, at the 
London Coffee-house, on Monday. Lord Gran- 
ville, Mr. Abbott Lawrence, Sir Henry Bulwer, 



88 

Sir Charles Fox, and Sir Joseph Paxton, were 
the " notables '* of the evening. But of all these 
Sir Henry Bulwer occupied the floor to the great- 
est advantage. He was warm and generous in his 
praises of America. As to the part she played in 
the Exhibition, all he had to ask was, What im- 
pression had been made upon them with respect 
to the mind and character of America ? 

" In reply to such interrogatory he would state 
that, in all that pertains to the practical pur- 
poses of life — and he might say of death too — 
the United States certainly stood at the head 
of the poll. (Cheers.) Where should they find 
such pistols as Colt's, which would kill, he be- 
lieved, eight enemies in a second ? — a reaping 
machine, which would clear twenty acres of 
land in a day ? — or where could they find locks 
superior to those of Mr. Hobbs ? To proceed 
a little further, there was that graceful and 
melancholy statue which well fitted the chains 
and misfortunes of ancient Greece, which also 
recalled the preeminent powers of sculpture, 
and, he might add, the preeminent genius of 
Powers. (Loud cheers.) But again, what was 
the small speck which they saw casting its 
shadow over the broad Atlantic? That little 
vessel had given the * go by * to all the yachts 
in our own waters, and that too under the very 
eyes of a Sovereign whom we are proud to call 
the ' Mistress of the Seas.' (Loud cheers.) But 
he always spoke his mind, and he thought that 



89 

" if the Americans had given us a lesson in one 
" way, we had also given them another. He had 
" heard of a story of Fox, who, when asked one 
" day what he thought of a young man who had 
" made a capital first speech, replied that he did 
" not like to judge a man after a success, he would 
" like to see him after a failure. Now, they (the 
** Americans) had taught us how to win the race, 
" and we had taught them how to bear the loss 
" of one. (Laughter and cheers.) 

He described the modern principles which con- 
trolled the diplomatic relations of the two states, 
as consisting in a smoothing away of small and 
irritating diflferences ; " whereas, all those great 
" points of honour, sympathy, and ties which 
" must ever connect two great nations which 
" speak the same language, have the same origin, 
" and which do the greatest amount of business 
" with one another — those great points of opinions 
" and sympathies he was for making as much and 
" as widely known as possible." (Cheers.) 

The concluding passages of his speech are of 
some importance to us. We must remember, 
however, that they are uttered by a diplomatist. 

When, the other day, he was signing the treaty 
by which England and America reciprocally gua- 
rantee the security of the means of transit, whether 
railway or canal, which unites the Atlantic with 
the Pacific, he felt that he was " assisting in lay- 
" ing the foimdation of an enduring alliance be- 
" tween the two countries — an alliance which. 



90 

unlike those of old, was formed, not for the 
purpose of securing advantage to one or other 
of the parties, but calculated to promote the in- 
terests of mankind. 

" Feeling, as he did, such a deep interest in 
this alliance between the two countries, he could 
not help thinking that if ever there was a time 
when such a step was required, it was at the 
present time. Did they not see that the nations 
of the world were vibrating between two ex- 
tremes? and was not some influence required 
which would moderate and regulate these mo- 
tions ? Where could such influences be found 
so safely and so securely, as in a heartfelt good 
understanding and cordial union between Great 
Britain and the United States. (Cheers.) He 
knew that the Americans were Republicans, 
but what of that ? (Cheers and laughter.) He 
had but small respect for names, and still less 
respect for that ' mock-turtle ' constitutional kind 
of liberty which he saw elsewhere. (Cheers and 
laughter.) He did not care what name it might 
be called, but it was evidently made by bad 
cooks from calves' heads. (Renewed laughter.) 
The foundations of our society, in the United 
States and Great Britain, were religion and law ; 
— the purpose of both governments was liberty 
and order. (Cheers.) Inasmuch as the Ame- 
ricans loved their Republicanism, let them de- 
test all those principles of division and confu- 
sion which would destroy it ; and inasmuch as 



91 

" Englishmen loved their Monarchy, let them 
" prize and cherish all those principles which 
" they know will preserve it from destruction. 
" (Cheers.) A Socialist in the American Re- 
" public, would be as popular as a favourer of the 
** Divine right of kings in our own island. Hence 
" it was, that he was happy to see standing toge- 
" ther side by side the President of the United 
" States Republic and his Queen, Sovereign of 
" these realms. (Cheers.) Standing, then, side 
" by side, they also stood opposed to the anarchist 
" who spoke as the * friend of the People,' and 
" the absolutist who spoke as the friend of the 
" Crown. (Cheers.) Long, then, let us stand to- 
" gether as the champions of peace, moderation, 
" and patriotism, among the nations of the world. 
" (Cheers.) And if it should unfortunately hap- 
^* pen that war ever should occur, and that war 
" should he a war of opinion, let us still stand 
" together — the red cross of England and the 
** stars and stripes of America side by side, and 
** he had no doubt that they would be able to 
" leave recollections to their posterity which 
" would be worthy of those they had received 
** from their ancestors. (Loud Cheers.) 



92 



No. V. 
From The Examiner j Nov. 1. 

FRATERNIZATION WITH AMERICA. 

A MORE graceful fraternization between the men 
of two great nations, could not well be imagined, 
than that which occurred on Monday last, when 
Mr. Peabody, the wealthy American, gave a 
" parting dinner to the American exhibitors." 
And first of all let us remark, how gratifying it is 
to observe the good humour and complacency 
with which the Americans talk of the great Ex- 
hibition. The French, who carried off from one- 
third to one-half of the prizes, are grumbling, some 
of them, at not having had all, and are thus liter- 
ally spoiling a success. The Americans, on the 
contrary, know how to improve a failure into a 
triumph. And we English help them. We must 
confess to have observed, with regret, that the 
American samples of cotton prints, and other ar- 
ticles of manufacture for the masses, were very 
inferior, even to their reputation in such things. 
Mr. Abbot Lawrence, however, declares that his 
countrymen sent the worst samples, not the best, 
and that the State Shows on the other side of the 
Atlantic display better specimens. Be it so. Lord 
Granville eked out the excuse more happily, by 
saying that the American compartment would 
" have been better filled, if the American people 



93 

" did not think that some of the small things they 
" produced were not of sufficient importance to 
" be shown here." 

Be this as it may, the American exhibitors go 
as they came, contented; and no result of the 
Great Exhibition appears more evident, than that 
of its having improved friendly feelings between 
English and American. There is more than after- 
dinner compliment, in the warmly expressed sen- 
timents which burst from Mr. Lawrence, from 
Mr. Peabody, and from the Hon. Mr. Walker ; 
sentiments which the latter had already expressed 
in even warmer fashion at the great dinner given 
to Kossuth at Southampton. 

It was Sir Henry Bulwer, however, who was 
enabled to adduce some of the strongest and most 
practical proofs, of the good understanding be- 
tween the countries. The greatest fact he brought 
forward, was his own successful negotiation of a 
treaty, to " protect the construction, and guaran- 
" tee the security when constructed, of any canal 
" or railway opening a passage across Central 
" America between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. It being stipulated that neither coun- 
try should, separately or conjointly, possess one 
** single privilege or advantage with respect to 
" such canal or railway, which should not be of- 
" fered on equal terms to any other nation on the 
" face of the globe." Perhaps, of all England's 
objections to Anglo American progress or con- 
quest Southward, the greatest has been, that by 






94 

such conquests they might secure a monopoly of 
whatever passage may be effected across the Isth- 
mus. This treaty comes seasonably to allay such 
apprehension ; and if a clause were inserted that 
the guarantee and the security should be as valid 
in war as in peace, thus rendering the passage 
between the seas and the ports at either extremity 
neutral, it would prove not only the completion 
of a great work, but the establishment of a new 
and a noble principle. 

Sir Henry also struck the great chord, that in 
the present oscillations of the political world be- 
tween two extremes, nothing could have so great 
a tendency to steady the movement as a cordial 
union between Great Britain and the United 
States. 

" Gentlemen, I lay a great stress upon this 
fact, because I felt when I signed that instru- 
ment to which I have been alluding, that I laid 
the foundation stone of a great and equitable 
alliance between our two countries — (hear, hear) 
— an alliance which should not have for its ob- 
ject the wronging or despoiling, but the bene- 
fiting and protecting the rest of mankind ; and 
surely, gentlemen, if such an union were ever 
required, it is at this moment — for at this mo- 
ment the world is, as it were, violently vibrating 
between two extremes, and appears of necessity 
to demand some regulating influence to mode- 
rate and steady its oscillations — (hear, hear) — 
and where, gentlemen, can such an influence be 



95 

" better found than in the cordial union of Great 
" Britain and the United States. (Great cheer- 
" ing.) It is true that you live under a republic, 
" and we under a monarchy, but what of that ? 
" (Cheers.) The foundations of both societies are 
" law and religion. The purpose of both go- 
" vemments is liberty and order. (Cheers.) The 
" more you love your republic, gentlemen, the 
" more you detest those principles of confusion 
" and division, which would destroy it. The 
" more we love our monarchy the more we cherish 
" and cling to those principles of equity and free- 
" dom which preserve it. (Hear, hear, hear.) In 
" this, indeed, lies the great jaoral strength of 
" our close connexion. Hand in hand we can 
" stand together, alike opposed to the anarchist, 
" who calls himself the friend of the people, and 
" to the absolutist, who calls himself the friend of 
" the throne. (Loud cheers.) Long then, gen- 
" tlemen, let us thus stand together, the cham- 
" pions of peace between nations, of conciliation 
" between opinions — (cheers) ; — and if, notwith- 
" standing our example and our eflPbrts, the 
" trumpet of war should sound, and that war to 
" which it calls us should be a war of opinion, 
" why, still let us stand together. (Loud and 
" long cheering.) Our friends, in that day of 
" conflict, shall be chosen from the most wise, the 
" most moderate, and the most just; nor whilst 
" we plant the red cross of England by the side 
" of the stars and stripes of America, do I for one 



96 

" instant doubt, but that we shall leave recollec- 
" tions to our posterity worthy of those which we 
" have inherited from our ancestors." 

Sir Henry Bulwer is fortunate, in the circum- 
stance of this good understanding between Eng- 
land and America having sprung up during the 
period of his diplomatic service at Washington ; 
many unpleasant causes of dispute, both with re- 
spect to Canada and Cuba, having arisen during 
that time. His exertions and tact succeeded in 
overcoming all ; and he could not more effectually 
have answered the whole of the attacks and ca- 
lumnies heaped upon him, for his previous breach 
with the Spanish Government. 

It will be recollected, that that breach arose 
from his having, when envoy at Madrid, by order 
of his Government, recommended to the Spanish 
Ministers, after the events of the Spring of 1848, 
a policy of conciliation rather than of rigour, and 
of liberal constitutionalism rather than of mili- 
tary and arbitrary rule. Narvaez despised that 
advice, and picked an invidious quarrel with Sir 
Henry Bulwer because of it. Yet Narvaez has 
had to regret his own reactionary tendencies. 
Having depended on the Court and on the army, 
rather than on a constitutional party in the 
Cortes, he has been tripped up by the Court and 
forgotten by the army, whilst the liberal party 
have risen rapidly in power, and form already 
the only solid basis on which a minister can build 
a policy. The exile Narvaez has accordingly 



97 

shaken hands with the British envoy, who at the 
critical moment gave him good but unwelcome 
counsel ; a counsel now admitted to be the only 
sage one. 

We stated some weeks past, the fact of Narvaez 
having given a dinner in Paris to Sir Henry, at 
which the Spanish minister and a large number 
of Spanish generals were present, when the Ml 
and perfect reconcilement was sealed. The event 
forms the fitting ^wafe to our long and causeless 
diplomatic quarrel with Spain. 



No. VL 

From Belts Life in London. Nov. 2, 1851. 

ENGLAND AND THE UNITED 

STATES. 

It is one of the pleasantest of our duties, to record 
the increase of a good understanding between 
other nations and ourselves ; and it has been with 
no little sorrow, that we have observed the journals 
of some countries finding fault with the final re- 
sults of our Great Exhibition, and attributing to 
its English conductors motives which, we are 
sure, never actuated them. On the part of our 
neighbours on the other side of the Channel, this 
was not so much to be wondered at. There is a 
party in France which maintains the traditionary 
policy (?) of abusing the English. This is a mere 

G 



98 

matter of party tactics, and simply implies that, 
at the particular moment, the abuse was deemed 
capable of being turned to a party purpose. With 
our brethren on the other side of the Atlantic, 
we believe the case both is and will be different. 
Fault may, indeed, be found with the adjudica- 
tions of prizes, but bad national motives will not 
be attributed to the adjudicators. The Ameri- 
cans, at least, can appreciate that true English 
love of fairness, which was so honourably dis- 
played at Cowes, and which has been so honour- 
ably and gracefully acknowledged at New York. 
If the Great Exhibition year had done nothing 
else that was good, it would have deserved honour- 
able historic mention, for the fiiendly feelings 
which it encouraged and increased, between the 
two greatest and most free nations of the earth. 

These friendly feelings were pleasantly mani- 
fested, the other day, at a dinner, given by Mr. 
Pea BOD V to the American exhibitors. There the 
American Minister, Mr. Abbott Lawrence, and 
the late Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States, Mr. Walker, expressed in the kindest 
manner the friendly feelings of their countrymen 
towards England ; and with equal kindness of feel- 
ing towards their country were they answered, by 
Lord Granville and Sir Henry Bulwer ; the 
former a Cabinet Minister, the latter the British 
Minister accredited to the United States. 

It is curious enough, and not a little indicative 
of the good habits of the two nations, that their 



99 

accredited ministers should travel about the coun- 
tries to which they are sent, learning the popular 
thoughts, mixing in popular societies, and mak- 
ing popular speeches. Sir H. Bulwer did so in 
the United States, and Mr. Abbott Lawrence 
has done so here. And the happy result is, that 
both more completely respect and esteem the 
countries to which they have been respectively 
accredited; while, as Lord Granville gracefully 
said, they, in their respective progresses, " had 
gained for themselves the esteem and respect of 
all whom they had met." Sir H. Bulwer took 
advantage of the opportunity aflEbrded by his 
health being drunk, to tell the world how much 
these two great nations are united, and how 
they had employed this unity of feeling, not in 
securing to themselves any petty advantage, but 
in binding themselves to afford to the rest of the 
world all the benefits, which, in one great matter, 
the ship passage between the Atlantic and the 
Pacific, each might obtain for itself. Sir H. Bul- 
wer justly prided himself, on being the Minister 
who had signed the treaty, which not only ren- 
dered England and the United States the pro- 
tectors of this passage, but which assured, through 
their protection, all the rest of the world the full- 
est enjoyment of its advantages. In spite of the 
party cavillings and petty-minded abuse of cer- 
tain foreign journals, the greatness of England is 
shown in her repudiation of exclusiveness ; so 
that in the Eastern hemisphere, she first sets the 



100 

example of binding a vanquished enemy to allow 
free trade with all other nations as well as with 
herself ; and then, in the Western World, joins 
her great commercial rival in securing to all other 
nations, all the commercial privileges, which they 
propose to obtain for themselves. False, indeed, 
was Goldsmith s poetic fancy, that 

" Honour sinks where Commerce long prevails." 

r 

In truth, Commerce, to be great and successful, 
must have honour for its basis ; and increasing ex- 
perience has taught us, that it ought to have libe- 
rality too. It is in military and priestly governed 
countries, not in commercial nations, that " ho- 
nour sinks," and that liberality and fairness are 
unknown. 

In truth, the honest spirit of the present English 
diplomacy, where the Secretary for Foreign affairs 
is •* the servant of the English, not of a foreign 
Crown," makes itself acknowledged at last, even 
by those who have most abused it. Thus we find, 
that in Greece itself, there is so strong an English, 
that is a constitutional party, (notwithstanding 
the Pacifico afi&ir), that all sorts of intimidations 
are necessary, to prevent its being triumphant in 
the chambers ; while that, as to Spain, the Go- 
vernment of that country has not only expressed 
its regret for its treatment of Sir H. Bulwer, but 
Narvaez himself has personally done justice to 
the character and conduct of that gentleman, 
whom, under very sinister influence, he had ca- 



101 

lumniated and ill-treated. Sir H. Bulwer has 
reason to be proud of this result ; and the attack 
made through him on the character of English 
diplomacy, is now confessed to have been in every 
way unwarranted. 

No. VII. 

Speech of Mr. Paxton, at Derby ^ Aug. 6, 1851, 
at a Dinner given to himself. 

" Mr. Chairman, my Lord Duke, and Gentle- 
men, If ever I laboured under a difficulty in my 
life, or required of my friends more than an or- 
dinary share of their kind indulgence, it is on the 
present occasion. 

" Overpowered by your kind response to the 
too flattering account of me by my friend Mr. 
Gisbome, I ask you to forgive me if I fail to ex- 
press to you as I ought, my most heartfelt grati- 
tude and thanks for this most distinguished mark 
of your public approbation. I am not so vain but 
I know how much of the praise you are good 
enough to award me is due to your own kindness ; 
but it would be affectation ^ore offensive than 
vanity, if I did not frankly acknowledge that I am 
proud of being connected with anything that has 
this day brought together so large a number of 
my friends. Were I to consult my own feelings, 
I should, after offering my fervent thanks in, I 
fear, most feeble words, resume my seat, and thus 



102 

relieve myself of a rather onerous duty. But, 
gentlemen, I feel that this is no ordinary occasion, 
but one on which I shall be expected to do more 
than to return you my thanks. When the Exhibi- 
tion, the great event of our times, was first pro- 
pounded, I hailed it with unmixed pleasure ; it 
appeared to me like a beam of light of vast mag- 
nitude, embracing a field of operation, the true 
advantages of which could only be felt in after 
times, when the great eflfbrts made would unfold 
themselves in a thousand diflferent and unlooked- 
for channels. This is the seed-time, the harvest 
will assuredly follow. Not only will the mecha- 
nical ingenuity of man find means for extended 
improvement, but the Social nature of man will 
receive its rewards in the sweeping away of na- 
tional prejudice, and establishing between nation 
and nation, and man and man, a kinder appreci- 
ation of each others' worth, and a more charitable 
view of each others' frailties. The first great fruits 
which the Exhibition ha? produced are now taking 
place at Paris. Nothing could be more hearty 
than the reception given to us everywhere from 
Boulogne to Paris. All appeared to vie with 
each other in giving us a cordial and hearty wel- 
come. The magnincent reception given at the 
Hotel de Ville might almost have shaken the pre- 
judices even of Colonel Sibthorpe. We have no 
place in England where such a dinner could be 
given as that of the Hotel de ViUe, and no place 
where there could have been so magnificent a re- 



103 

ception. What has long been desired among 
nations, has been a more free and unrestrained 
communion of their inhabitants with each other. 
When this shall fully take place, it will not re- 
quire the abstruse study which is now requisite 
for a Foreign Secretary or Minister to conduct 
the affairs of nations with satisfaction to all par- 
ties. I believe England has added another wreath 
to her Crown, in the glorious part she has taken in 
first establishing an Exhibition of all Nations. It 
is a rather curious fact that there never has been 
a National Exhibition similar to that of many 
other countries, and that we should then at once 
enter upon so gigantic a task as an Exhibition of 
All Nations before we had an Exhibition of our 
own. To his Royal Highness Prince Albert the 
world is mainly indebted for carrying out this 
most wonderful undertaking; and to his Royal 
Highness belongs the credit of having persevered 
through most difficult and harassing circum- 
stances to so happy a result. 

" It was while this magnificent scheme was 
passing over the shoals and quicksands that always 
beset great undertakings, that my humble efforts 
were called into request, and, at the risk of being 
thought tedious, I will venture to give you a short 
history of my connexion with it, and the reasons 
which induced me to furnish a plan. 

^^ You are aware that as soon as the Royal 
Commission was formed, gentlemen were selected 
as a Building Committee ; to this committee was 



104 

deputed the onerous duty of devising a proper 
building for the Exhibition. Their first public 
act was to send out invitations for designs for a 
suitable structure. About 240 designs were sent 
in, but the committee not finding any of these 
exactly in accordance with their views, set about 
devising a plan of their own ; and, on this being 
completed, they prepared detailed drawings and 
specifications for the purpose of obtaining tenders. 
The structure they proposed to erect was severely 
commented upon in the public journals, on ac- 
count of the vast amount of bricks that would be 
used in its construction, and the permanent cha- 
racter of the work. It was not until this war of 
words was raging with great fierceness, that the 
thought occurred to me of making a design which 
would obviate all objections. Fortunately, at that 
time I was erecting a house of peculiar construc- 
tion, which I had designed for the growth of that 
most remarkable plant, the Victoria Regia ; and 
it is to this plant, and this circumstance, that the 
Crystal Palace owes its direct origin. 

" Being in London, apd having to see Mr. 
Ellis, the member for Leicester, on business con- 
nected with the Midland Railway, I sought him 
at the Houses of Parliament, and found him at a 
morning sitting in the new House of Commons, 
which was held there on that day, for the purpose 
of testing its fitness for use. Sir Charles Wood was 
addressing the House ; but not a word of what he 
said could be distinctly heard in the Speaker's 



105 

gallery ; upon which I observed to Mr. Ellis, that 
I feared they would make a mistake in construct- 
ing the Great Exhibition Building, and that I 
had some thoughts of sending in a design that 
would obviate the diflSiculties complained of. After 
a little further conversation, Mr. Ellis went with 
me to the Board of Trade to see Lord Granville. 
We did not find his Lordship within; but Mr. 
Henry Cole, one of the Executive Committee, 
happened to be there. I went to No. 1, Old 
Palace-yard, and after conversing for some time 
with Mr. Cole, I found that the Building Com- 
mittee had advertised that the plans and specifi- 
cations for contractors to tender would be ready 
in about a fortnight ; and I also heard that the 
specifications would contain a clause by which 
those who tendered might also tender for designs 
difiering from the plan of the Building Committee. 
From this moment I decided that I would pre- 
pare plans for a glass structure ; and the first 
thing I actually did was to go to Hyde Park, and 
step over the ground, to ascertain the extent in 
length and breadth on which the Building was 
to stand. 

" Having made an engagement to be at the 
floating of the third tube of the Britannia Bridge, 
I could not commence the plans until after my 
return; and it was at the Midland Station, in 
this town, in one of the committee-rooms, that 
the first mark on paper was made of the Crystal 
Palace ; and the most remlirkable fact connected 



106 

with the Crystal Palace is, that the blotting-paper 
sketch indicates the principal features of the build- 
ing as it now stands, as much as the most finished 
drawings that have been made since. In nine 
days from the time of making the blotting-paper 
sketch, I found myself again at Derby, with a 
roll of plans under my arm, on my way to Lon- 
don. These plans, five in number, had, with the 
exception of one, been prepared by me at Chats- 
worth ; the one not prepared there had been made 
for me by Mr. Barlow, the eminent engineer of 
the Midland Railway, who kindly gave me his 
valuable assistance in calculating the strength of 
the columns and girders. At the Midland Sta- 
tion I had the good fortune to accidentally meet 
with Mr. Robert Stephenson, who had come from 
Newcastle by the same train in which I was going 
to London. On our journey I showed the plans 
to Mr. Stephenson, and got him to read the spe- 
cification. He expressed his unbounded admira- 
tion of the design, and promised to lay the plans 
before the Royal Commission on the following 
day, which promise he fulfilled. As Lord Broug- 
ham had said so much in the House of Lords 
against a brick building being erected in Hyde- 
Park, I waited upon his Lordship and explained 
to him the nature of my plans : from that day 
Lord Brougham has never uttered a word against 
the Exhibition building, but, on the contrary, his 
Lordship became my warmest supporter. I also 
showed the plans to Lord Granville before they 
went before the Royal Commissioners ; and here 



107 

I must remark, that to Lord Granville the country 
owes much in respect to the success of the Exhi- 
bition, The easy access and courtesy of manner 
displayed by his Lordship to all who approach 
him, added to most excellent business habits, have 
removed many difficulties that would not other- 
wise have been eflfected. 

" After my design had been laid before the 
Royal Commissioners, and had been investigated 
by the Building Committee, and seen at Bucking- 
ham Palace by her Majesty and Prince Albert, 
I took the plans to New-street, Spring-gardens, 
and had the good fortune to find Mr. Fox at his 
office. Mr. Fox was much pleased with the de- 
sign, and at once agreed to go heartily into it. 
Mr. Henderson (Mr. Fox's partner) and Mr. 
Robert Lucas Chance, the great glass-maker at 
Birmingham, were telegraphed to be in London 
early on Monday ; and after a long consultation, 
my plans were sent to Birmingham for the pur- 
pose of having detailed estimates and drawings 
prepared. The Royal Commissioners were made 
aware of the fact of Messrs. Fox and Henderson's 
intention to tender for my design, and Mr. Cole 
went to Birmingham to counsel Messrs. Fox and 
Henderson to tender for covering the ground in 
the exact roof as marked out by the ground-plan 
prepared by the Building Committee. Mr. Bru- 
nei also suggested that the interior columns should 
be placed 24 feet apart, instead of 20, in order 
to suit the Exhibition. 

" During the preparation of these plans and 



108 

estimates, Messrs. Fox and Henderson came to 
Chatsworth to settle with me some of the more 
important details, and I went twice to Birming- 
ham to see the progress of the plans and estimates. 
During the preparation of these plans, Mr. Hen- 
derson suggested the Transept. To this I at first 
objected. I did so on these grounds ; namely, 
that, as the Exhibition was to be a fair competi- 
tion of skill for all nations, I held it to be fair 
and right that each exhibitor should have an 
equal advantage as regards position, which they 
could not have with the introduction of the Tran- 
sept : another objection I entertained was, that it 
could not stand in the centre of the Building, as 
the ground-plan was then arranged; but the 
moment Mr. Henderson said it would impart 
strength and solidity to the Building, I assented 
to its introduction. 

" At length the day for sending in the tender 
came, but considerable delay took place before it 
was finally accepted. I have before stated, that, 
in order to get the tender in, it was necessary 
the Building should cover the exact space marked 
out by the Building Committee; but, in con- 
forming to this plan, the Transept was obliged 
to be put into one side of the Building, for the 
purpose of avoiding the great trees which now 
stand within it, but which, according to the 
tender sent in, were to be in an open court. At 
one of the meetings with the Building Committee, 
it was suggested by them that the Transept should 



109 

include the great trees; but there appeared at 
first sight a good deal of difficulty in accomplish- 
ing this, as at that time all the roofing was de- 
signed to be flat. We promised to see what could 
be done before the next meeting of the committee. 
I went direct with Mr. Fox to his office; and 
while he arranged the ground-plan so as to bring 
the trees into the centre of the Building, I was 
contriving how they were to be covered. At 
length I hit upon the plan of covering the Tran- 
sept with a circular roof similar to that on the 
great conservatory at Chatsworth, and made a 
sketch of it, which was copied that night by one 
of the draughtsmen, in order that I might have it 
to show to Mr. Brunei, whom I had agreed to 
meet on the ground the next day. Before nine 
the next morning Mr. Brunei called at Devon- 
shire House, and brought me the heights of all 
of the great trees; in the note containing the 
measurements Mr. Brunei wrote thus : — * I mean 
to try and win with our plan ; but I have thought 
it right to give your beautiful plan all the advan- 
tages it is susceptible of.' I then showed Mr. 
Brunei the plan I had made the night before, for 
covering in the trees, with which he was much 
pleased. I have been led into these minute de- 
tails, first J to show that the circular roof of the 
Transept was designed by myself, and not by 
Mr. Barry, as currently reported; secondly^ to 
show the kindness and liberality of Mr. Brunei. 
At the time of the tender being accepted, the 



110 

Building Committee asked me if I had any ob- 
jection to my design being improved in some of 
its details ; my reply was to the eflfect that I 
should have great pleasure in agreeing to any- 
thing that could be shown to be an improvement. 

^^ I must here tell you how some alterations 
had become necessary. When the gallery co- 
lumns inside were changed from 20 to 24 feet 
aparty it put the outer columns and outer sashes 
quite out of proportion as to distance ; instead of 
there being one intermediate column and sash 
between the 20 feet opening, there were two in- 
termediate columns and two sashes in the 24 
feet : and the plan Mr. Barry made for improv- 
ing this had my entire approval, because it 
brought back the design to its original proper- 
tions. 

" As soon as my design had been accepted, it 
was decided by the Royal Commissioners to en- 
trust the superintendence of its erection to Mr. 
Wm. Cubitt, the President of the Civil Engineers' 
Institute ; and Messrs. Fox and Henderson had, 
as contractors, to submit the detail drawings re- 
specting the strength of the Building for his ap- 
proval. 

^^ Just after the contract had been accepted, I 
was obliged to leave England for a month ; and, 
at the last interview I had with Mr. Fox before 
my departure, in the presence of Mr. Leech, he 
promised that all should be carried out in accord- 
ance with the design, and that no alteration should 



Ill 

be made without my approval. When I first 
thought of sending in a design, I had to consider, 
not only what I knew well myself, but what would 
be thought practicable by others ; besides, I had 
to keep in view not only the probability of the 
mechanical realisation of my design, but also the 
possibility of its realisation within a given time. 
That I did not err in this last respect, I owe to 
the ability, energy, and transcendent skill of 
Messrs. Fox and Henderson ; and if I had one 
word more than another that would express my 
approbation of their exertions, I should have in- 
finite pleasure in using it. Not only did they 
arrange all the details for carrying on the works 
with great precision and speed, but they entered 
into the project with hearty good will ; and there 
is a great deal of credit due to them for having 
taken up my design in the manner they did. 
The structure was an entirely novel and new one 
to them ; previously they had no experience in 
the peculiar plan of roofing and drainage, which 
was for the first time brought before them in my 
plans for the roofing, and therefore they had to 
rely entirely upon my experience in all these 
matters. They ventured, however, to embark 
their money and reputation upon plans and infor- 
mation which no one had experience in except 
myself. They fully relied upon me, and I must 
say, they deserve immense credit for having thus 
ventured their fortunes and reputation on the 
faith of one man. 



112 

" If there had been sufficient time given, there 
would have been no difficulty in putting up the 
Crystal Palace — if a year had been afforded, in- 
stead of a few months, the accomplishment would 
have been comparatively easy, because the Build- 
ing is composed of simple parts, and it only re- 
quires favourable weather and a multiplicity of 
hands to erect a building to any extent. 

" Now, gentlemen, I wish, to disclaim all part 
in the Building that does not belong to me. It 
has been said that ^ it was a fortunate idea ; ' but 
the idea, though fortunate, was not a fortuitous 
one. It was the result of long study and long 
labour, without which no really practical idea 
can be worked out into a distinct and palpable 
design. The great experience I had in the erec- 
tion of glass structures and the invariable success 
which had attended my exertions, emboldened me 
to produce that design, because I had not a doubt 
of its practicability, if properly carried out. I 
had two objects in view in offering a design : the 
first was, that my proposal would be exactly suit- 
able for the exhibition ; and, next, it would meet 
a long-cherished idea of mine for a National 
Winter Garden ; so that, like Goldsmith's piece 
of furniture, it was contrived 

A double debt to pay 

By nature dressed to-morrow, 

As by art to-day. 

" I have stated to you that the Victoria regia 



113 

was the immediate cause of my sending in a de- 
sign for the Crystal Palace ; but the Crystal Pa* 
lace does not derive its origin from the existence 
of that noble plant. No ! It owes its erection to 
a nobler work of nature — the noble Duke whom 
I have had the honour and the pleasure to serve 
for more than a quarter of a century. It is to 
his fostering hand I owe all I possess ; he took 
me when quite a youth, and moulded me accord- 
ing to his wants and wishes ; he has given me all 
the advantages of extended travel with himself, 
which could not fail to produce fruit in due sea- 
son ; by his confidence and liberality I have had 
placed before me ample means for various expe- 
riments, and without which, depend upon it, there 
never would have been a Crystal Palace ; and if 
there is one thing more than another that would 
enhance the pleasures of this day, it is that his 
Grace has done me the honour to be present to 
see the flattering tribute you have paid me. 

" Gentlemen, one word more, and I have done. 
You can readily believe how great the anxiety 
and responsibility I imposed on myself when I 
undertook the design for the Crystal Palace ; but 
believing that I could remove the many serious 
objections urged against the erection of a build- 
ing composed of bricks and mortar, I considered 
it a duty I owed to my Sovereign and my country 
to waive all personal considerations, and do my 
utmost to save so grand a project from failure. 
From the day I sent in my design, to the time of 

H 



114 

the successful accomplishment of the Exhibition, 
my anxieties have been almost overpowering. I 
felt what must be my fate if by any accident my 
design should not be successfully carried out, and 
any failure would have reflected back upon me ; 
but great as that anxiety has been, and laborious 
as have been my duties even up to the present 
time, this day's proceedings amply reward me, 
and give a triumphant finish to the whole. 

" It is now twenty-five years since I came into 
this country a comparative stranger: you then 
received me kindly — that kindness has since 
ripened into friendship, and it has, I am thankful 
to say, been my happy lot to make * troops of 
friends.' My public duties have been many and 
onerous, but in the performance of them it is my 
happiness to know that I have never lost a friend. 
The marks of respect you have shown me to-day 
will sink deep into my heart, and the recollection 
of it will afford me delight for the remainder of 
my days."