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THE BEQUEST OF 

EVERT JANSEN WENDELL 

CLASS OF 1882 

OF NEW YORK 



AN 

ACCOUNT 

OF TIIK 



WHICH OCCURRKD 

IN THE CITY OF NEW-YORK, 

IN THE 
TO WHICH IS PREFIXED 

■i brief sketch of the different Pestilential Diseases, 
with which this City was afflicted, 

IN THE 

Years 1798, 1799, 1803 & 1805, 

WITH THE OPINION 

OF SEVKttAL OF OUIl MOST EMLVENT PHYSICIANS, 

RKSPECTING 

THE ORIGIN OF THE DISEASE, 

ITS PREVENTION AND CUP*E. 
TO \7I1TC1I IS ADDEII, 

A CORRECT LIST 

OF ALL THE 

DEATHS BY YELLOW FEVER 

DUmXG THE LATE SEASON, 
TAKEN FROM OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS. 

BY JAMES HARDIE, A. ]M. 
PRINTED BY SAjMUEL MARKS, 

Curner of Crcpciwlcii li Vesey S>irctU'^. 
1 82L\ 



',.\*c?l ^7(.4. 6 



I • I • M 



^ - - "t lalUll/lltf 

THf 3t(,JUE3T OF 

FVrwT li^M(:(l WCmofeLL 

fill 



'^- 



1 



PREFACE. 



I MOST respectfully submit to the perusal of my fel- 
low citizens, this little volume. The subject is peculiar- 
ly interesting and has excited the inquiry of many of the 
most eminent physicians, not only in the United StateSf 
but also in Europe. Many books have been written on 
the subject of Yellow Fever; but there appears to be 
still as great a diversity of opinion respecting its origin, 
amongst medical gentlemen, as there was about one hun- 
dred and twenty years ago, when it first made its appear- 
ance in this country. 

Whether physicians will ever agree upon this subject, 
I know not; but if they cannot unite in opinion respect-, 
ing its origin, it would certainly be of infinite importance, 
if they would consult together and endeavour to devise 
the most efi*ectual mode of its cure. When an evil be- 
fals us, it is an object of little consequence to know from 
whence it came. The main point is to ascertain the 
means of removing it. 

To the account of the Yellow Fever, with which we 
have been lately afflicted, I have prefixed a brief sk|SCdi 
' of those, which occurred in former years, viz. fromJ798 
to the present period. This will shew, that whatever 
malignant aspect the disease may assume, it will not, in 
all probability, be so destructive to the lives of our citi- 
ziens as it has been formerly. 






Iv PREFACE. 

I have selected from the essays written by several emi- 
nent physicians sundry pieces, respecting the nature, 
prevention and cure of the disease. These I trust will 
be perused by my readers with pleasure and profit. For 
the list of the names of the deceased, I am indebted to his 
Honour the Mayor, to whom I thus publicly return my 
thanks, as also to the City Inspector, who obligingly fa- 
voured me with the names of those persons, who died of 
Yellow Fever after the Board had -closed its dally 
sittings. 

JVIy aim in every page has been truth, acciiracy and 
a sinc^e desire to promote the piiblic good, and in 
order to effect these demrable objects, I have spent 
considerable labour. How far I have succeeded, I can* 
not determine; but of this I aw certain, that I meant 
well and have used my best endeavours to render the 
woric as satisfactory to the public as possible. 

JAMES HARDIE. 

NeuhYorky November 12, IS22* 



Alt 

ACCOUNT 

Olf TttB 

YELLOW PEVEK, ^c. 



BEFORE I enter oh the subject^ on which I ^m now 
about to write, viz. The History of the Yellow Fever, 
which prevailed in this city in the autumn of the present 
year, I am induced to believe, that it will be agreeable to 
many of my readers, if I should lay before them a brief 
sketch of the history of this dreadful calamity during some 
preceding years, in which it had made its appearance. 

The Yellow Fever, in opr times, was first observed 
in this city in the year 179I7 when General Malcolm, 
and some other very respectable citizens fell victims 
to its fury. The late respectable Dr. James Tiliary^ 
at a meeting of a number of physicians, explained the 
symptoms of the disease, described its character and gave 
it its t^ue name. To all present, excepting two, tlia 
Doctor spoke in a language which was past tiieir com^* 
prehension, as he had described a disease which they hail 
never seen, and of which they had not the most distant, 
conception. But it was well remembered by the late ven- 
erable Dr. John Carleton and Dr. Samuel Bard, wha 
had seen the same fell destroyer, spreading havoc and 
destnictioh in this city, about forty yean before that pe- 
riod. Since that time, it has repeatedly made its ap- 
pearance amongst us, and every physician in this city 
as well as in most other maritime cities in the United 
States has had repeated opportunities of seeing it and of 
Revising, in his own mind, what he might deem the moat 
dBTectttd meoMi of its prevention a&d cux^ 

B 



2 AN ACCOUNT OF 

As the sickness^ which occurred in the year 179^ f 
was, by far, more fatal than any, which has happened 
since that time, I shall endeavour to give as brief an ac- 
count as possible of its origin, progress and termination. 

Its first victim, in all probability, was Mr. Melancton 
Smith, who died on the 28th cw 29th of July, after an 
illness of a few days. His case was said to have been at- 
tended with the most malignant symptoms ; but such was 
the general opinion of the inhabitants with respect to the 
healthiness of our city, that his death excited little or no 
alarm. It was believed that Mr. Smith had been taken 
sick at his store, in Front-street, near Coenties-slip, and 
a few days after his death, several persons were attack- 
ed with sickness in that vicinity. The symptoms of their 
disorders however, appeared to be similar to that of a 
common cold. They were, therefore, negligent in ob- 
taining medical aid ; hence the disease got the ascendancy 
before they were aware of their danger, and the assist- 
ance of physicians was called for when it was too late. 

Whether any case of pestilential fever existed in the 
earlier part of August, remote from the place where it 
was believed to have originated, was not^ at the time, 
ascertained to a certainty; but of this, there was no 
doubt, viz. that about the 20th of the month, cases of a 
Jiighly malignant nature appeared indifferent parts of the 
city on the same day, and in the course of six or eight 
days in diflferent streets very remote from one another. 
In particular it began to rage with great violence at the 
New-sfip; in Clifi*-street and John-street; but more es- 
pecially in Rider-street and Eden's-alley, where not a 
family escaped it, nor was there a house except two, in 
which it did not terminate fatally to one or more indivi- 
duals. 

The Health Commissioners began to be apprehensive 
respecting the^ appearance of this pestilence, so early as 
the Gth of August, on which day, they addressed a letter 
to the Mayor. It was to the following purport, viz. 
that "the unfinished state of the docks in Front-street, 
between Coenties and the Old Slips, generally, had been, 
hi their opinion, a source of disease, in that neighbour- 
hood, last year} and had occasioned t|ie death of several 



THE YELLOW FEVER. ^ 

valuable citizens. That they cannot sufficiently regict, ^ 
that they had reason to renew their remonstrances on tliis 
subject, and that its present situation was likely to be 
productive of still greater evih than those of last year. 
They added, that several persons had sickened in the 
neighbourhood of these unfinished grounds within a week 
and with symptoms strikingly characteristic of yellow fe- 
ver, and they recommended, that the Common Council 
would appoint two of their members, with whom they 
(the Commissioners) w^uld meet, at an early hour, on 
the ensuing morning, to concert measures adapted to the 
emergency of the case. The board very cheerfully com- 
plied with this recommendation, and such measures were 
immediately adopted as were deemed most likely to check 
the progress of the growing malady ; but it had now tak- 
ing so deep root, that it could neither be eradicated nor 
checked by human means. 

On the same day (6th August) the Commissioners isr 
«ued an advertisement, notifying their determination to 
'put the laws in force against those, who should neglect to 
keep the streets clean before their respective doors, &c. 
adding that the Street Inspectors were directed to report 
all offences of this nature to the Police, and that the pen- 
alty against offenders would be rigidly exact^. 

On the 12th, 13th and 14th of August, there were 
heavy showers of rain; that on the 14th commenced at 
four in the morning, and continued without intermission 
until nine with considerable thunder. The quantity whicli 
fell, during these five hours, was supposed to haVe been 
greater than had, at any time, fallen, during the same 
space of time, for many years. The streets were cov- 
ered with water in many places knee deep, and a vast 
numher of cellars were filled with it. 

It was, at the time, generally, believed, that this ex- 
cessive rain and thunder would have so purified the air, 
that the city would, in a few da3'^s, be totally exempt 
from any cases of this disorder; but, alas ! our expecta- 
tions were dreadfully disappointed. It is well known, 
that stagnant yvater in confined places, during hot wea- 
iier will, in a few days, exhale a pestilential vapour, 
Iticji; if it does not generate, will ceriihinly propaj^te oy 



A« ACCOUNT OF 



;rOU« «p 






iato more extensive cliYiilntion, dangcroua 
which have already made Uieir appearance. Ja 
vent an occurrence of this kind, ihc ciuscns were re- 
latcitly and most earnestly entreated by the Health 
mUsioners to cause the water lo be removed, and 
afterwards lo be liberally scattered in their cellan. 
Itbougb it might have been reasonablj expected, ih^ 
regard to self-pmervBtion trouM have produced a 
impt compliance with this recomnieniiation, it is wdl 
lown, that maily neglected ll, and of those not a few 
ire amon^t the first victinis to llie disease. From ibis 

', the number of deaths almost daily iucreased. 
About the 34th of Auguiit, numbers began to leave tlie 
ity, and many of those, whohad ofiices forlhetniDsac- 
lion of business, toward* the East River, moved ta 
ladwny, which was deemed more healthy. The Cu»- 
I'llouse, in MUl-street, and the Insurance Office ift 
ater-street, were fixed, for llie lime, to the Tontine 
lity Tavern in Broadway. 
During the whole month of August, the niimber of 
deaths aDionnted totliree hundred and tweniy>nine. A« 
jKkTlicular atten^on was not paid by the sextons, during 
this month to distinguish those, who fell victims ro tlie 
fever, from those who had died of other disorders, tl was 
difGcull to ascertain tbeir precise niunbers. It was be- 
lieved, however, that by fixing it at one hundred, it 
voutdDotbe for from the truth. On the I. lib of August, 
deaths were 14, tVom which day the number cotitin- 
lo progress, so that on the 1st of September, they 
mnted to 23. The daily averages during Auguil was 
1 12. 

On the 1 .tth of Septeniber, tiic number of funerals was 
1, oil tlie liTth ihey were no leas than 63, and on each 
ihe two tbllowing days, they were reduced lo 40, trom 
prhich rircumslance hopes were entertained, that our 
waa about to Wve us; but we were again dis- 
for tlie next four davs, it kept fluctuatincbe- 
nd 50, and on the 26ih, rose up to 60. The 
ll number of deaths, during thi» month was eleven bun- 
1 and llDy-twa, of whom nine hundred and fifty-foitt 
of fever. 'J'tM (kUy aterage tiiruueh ih<' tnontb wu' 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 3 

The number of the dead on the 1st of October uras 43, 
and this was the greatest number, during the whole month. 
On the 18th it was reduced to 16, and on the 21st it only 
amounted to 9. After this the number of deaths on anjjr 
one day, during the existence of the calamity, did not 
exceed 15, and it is almost certain, that had our absent 
citizens attended to the advice of the Health Committee, 
dissuading them from a premature return, the death war- 
rant of the disorder might have been dated from that day. 
The whole number of funerals in October was five bun- 
tked and twenty-two, of whom four hundred and thirty- 
one died of fever. The average of the deaths, during 
this month, was about 17« 

On the 10th of November, the deaths were 5, and, on 
€ach of the preceding days, they were only 4. The to- 
tal number, during these ten days were 83, of whom 
thirty-nine died of yellow fever. The following address 
of the Committee to the public now made its appearance. 

" The Health Committee for the relief of the sick and 
indigent in the city of New- York, beg leave to congratu- 
late their fellow citizens, that under Divine Providence, 
this long afflicted city is once more restored to its usual 
state of general health, and, with the most heartfelt plea* 
sure, inform those, who yet remain in exile, that although 
a few cases of the pestilential fever exist, yet that by the 
iate cold weather and frosty the contagion Is so far de- 
stroyed, as to render the return of their families to the 
city perfectly safe, provided they take the necessary pre- 
vious measures of cleansing and ventilating their long un- 
aired dwellings, and purifying the bedding and clothing^ 
which tnay have been left therein during the prevalence 
of the fever." 

" It would have afforded the Committee much satisfac^ 
tion, could they have given this invitation, at an earlier 
period, but they did not conceive tiiemselves warranted 
by the then existing circumstances. Tliere have, until 
the present moment, been several new cases of fever, 
particularly among those citizensy who returned earlier 
than the committee thought prudenty many of whom 
tape falkn victims to the devouring pestilence, Thi?, 

B 2 



AN ACCOUNT OE 



ins olher circumatiiaces, has induceii tbe 

'ilhlinld this invhatiun until the present tin 

The whole number of deaths, during this awlul calanu- 

vai two thiiusand and eighty-six, viz. eleven hmv 

I and (en mm, five hundred and eighly-niue womax, 

eight hundred and eighly-Gve childieii. Of ifaese, i)' 

admit, that one hundred died gf the fever in August, 

victiirts ivoultl amount to one thousand five hundred 

id twcniy-rour. A great mauy of our citizens loo, who 

id, were likewise cut off by it. Hence it is probable, 

the whole number of deaths would be between 2400 

2500 An awful number! indeed; partictilarly if 

consider, tliat more than one third, some suppose, 

one half of the inhabitants bod left the city. 

An opinion generally prcv^led, that tlie progreu of 

a disease varied according to the state of the atnto»- 

phere; but from my observations on tlus subject, in the 

years if 98, 1799, 1800, 1303, 1805, and also, in the 

mesent year, 1 am mut^h inclined lo doubt its accuracy. 

Tlie pe»tilence naiketk in darkneti, and the wisest of 

men, as yet, know very little of the nature of its progress. 

Of (his, however, we may be certain, that cool mornings 

and evenings, accompanied by hot days, contribute great- 

" lo spread infection; that in ease of yellow fever having 

Borne time, existed in a city, it is ejitremely dangerous 

those, who have Bed to return to their liousei, tiil the 

ird trost shall set in, and that & /km black froat has 

uniformly and ahnosi instantaneously put ou end to the 

further progress of the disorder. 

I have l>een frcquimily asked since the commencement 
'the late epidemic, what proportion the number ofdeaths 
to tliai of the cases reported in the year 1798. Of 
1 atn not able to procure any authentic document. 
<I remember right, however, I believe, that, during the 
of August, nearly one inif of tbuae, who werr 
lorted, died, and alier that period the proportion 4ir- 
inished tu about one third. 

With i«spect to the hospital at Bellevoe, to which * 
nsber of sick peraonB were sent from the ciiy, we have 
cartcct report of the number of casca and deaths, ht 
Account of th» Malignant Fever" hi 1798, es* 



THE YELLOW FEVE^L 9 

pressed in the following words. ^^ The whole number of 
persons admitted from August 1st, to 3d November, after 
which none were received, was three hundred and dgh- 
ty-nlne, of whom two hundred and eighty-'nine were from 
die city, and one hundred seamen. Of the former, one 
hundred and 8eventy4wo died, and one hundred and se- 
venteen were discharged. The latter were more fortu- 
nate; for of them only thirty-^hree died; the other sixty- 
seven recovered." ' 

*^ From the above statement, which may be depended 
upon as correct, the following question naturally occurs. 
How came it, that a much greater proportion of seamen 
recovered at this hospital, than of those sent thither from 
the city ? The answer is this. The seamen were, in 
general, sent there in the first stage of the disorder, 
whereas many of our citizens, from the fears, which they 
entertained respecting the hospital, could not be prevail* 
ed on to permit themselves to be removed thither, till 
they w«re past recovery." 

*^ There is one thing very remarkable, with respect to 
the attendants of this hospital, which ought not to be 
omitted. Their situation, to most people, must havCi 
no doubt, appeared peculiarly dangerous, as they were 
literally surrounded by pestilence. It so happened, hoWf*- 
ever, Uiat neither phyucians, nurses, nor washerwomen 
cau^ the infection. The boatmen too belonging to the 
He^th Office, who entered the hospital at all times, and 
were not only engaged in bringmg the sick from the ciQf 
and shipping; but, likewise, in removing them from 
ylace to place, enjoyed a uniform state of good health | 
and of those persons, who accompanied their friends, and 
relations, stayed widi ^m and nursed them, tlwre is not 
a smgle mstance of an individual being infected. Im 
abort, Dr. Douglass, one of the assistant physicians, was 
the only person, residing there, who una seised with is* 
▼er; buthe had been in the habit o^ occasionally visiting 
his friends in the city, and three days previous to his b^* 
jog taken ill, had slept in a house, the vicinity o( whidi 
was hiehly infected; and it b more than proiitble, tiM 
ii/^ prfanis waa oecasione4 by that cwtej^  



AN ACCOUNT Ot* 



'The foUowlng is a comparative itatement cf deailks, 
during the Pestilential Fever of 1793 in PhikuM- 
pkiay 1795 in New-Vorky and 1798 in New-York 
and Philadelphia. 

« 

In Philadelphia, in the year 1793 - - 4041 

New-York, - - - - 1795 - - 732 

New-York, - - - - 1798 - - 2086 

Philadelpliia, in the same year, - - 3506 

I have thus finished my observations, concerning the 
sickness, which prevailed in the year 1798. 1 shall now 
make a few remarks concerning that, which occm'red, in 
the year. 1799. There was, then, a very considerable 
alarm, in consequence of a sickness, which, by some, 
was supposed to have originated from the exhalations 
arising from grounds, lately made, while others maintain- 
ed, that it had been introduced by some vessel or vessels 
from one of the sickly ports in the West Indies. With 
respect to the origin of this disease, a diversity of opinion 
then existed, amongst our most respectable physicians, 
tind though much has been written on the subject, at that 
time and afterwards, the point in dispute still remains 
unsettled. The disease originated towards the end of 
July, in the vicinity of the (Md Slip, and was, in^eneral, 
confined to the streets in the neighbourhood of the East 
River. As, during the sickly period of that year, I was 
at the Marine Hospital on Staten Island, I had not the 
same opportunity of observing its progress, as I had in 
the preceding and subsequent years, in which it made its 
appearance. But of this one fact, I had the most con- 
vincing proof, viz. that the disease was not contagious 
in a pure otr. During the months of Jaly, August and 
October, there were in all about two hundred and fifty 
persons sick of Yellow Fever in the Marine Hospital, a 
^reat part of whom were from the shipping, the rest from 
the city. At that time, there were of physicians, nurses, 
irasherwomen, boatmen, and my family; composed of 
myself, my wife, and three cluldren, thirty-seven persons, 
4K»t OQC of whom, although daily and hourly amongst the 



THE YELLOW FEVER* f 

^ck, experienced the least indisposition. The phjsi- 
eians were the late Richard Bayley,. Health Officer, Jo* 
•eph Bayley, the present Health Officer, and two others. 
They were incessant in the discharge of their duty, and| 
at least, two out of three of their patients recovered* 

Before I conclude this article, it may not be improper 
to state the different opinions, which prevailed amongst 
medical gentleman respecting the origin of this dreadful 
disease. From what I have alreadv mentioned respect* 
ing the letter from the Health Commissioners to the 
Common Council of date 6th August, it is obvioug, that 
JK>t only they, but a number of other respectable physi* 
cians believed in its local origin^ and assigned the cause 
to the made grounds on the East River. 

Such was the opinion of those, who believed that tho 
disease proceeded from local origin. There were many 
very respectable physicians, however, as well as other 
citizens^ who thought that it had been imported. I deem 
it correct to give the opinions on both sides of the subject^ 
<and shall, therefore, lay before my readers an extract 
from a letter, which I received from Mr. Richardsoi^ 
Underbill, a respectable merchant of this city, dated the 
$Oth December., 1798. This gentleman was not ¥i phy^ 
sician; but in the opinion of Doctor Hosack, he contrti* 
buted very much to the recovery of the sicl|. I well re- 
member, that he was incessant in his labours, and that 
they were, in general, crowned with uncommon succesf. 

<^ In a mind void of prejudice," says he, ^^ it is more 
difficult to form an exact opinion of the origin of this dis^ 
order, than most people, upon a transient view of the 
subject would suppose. For my own part, neither my 
education, nor my inclination, will permit me to form 
any theories, concerning the first engendering of pestle 
lence, from combinations of gases, or other causes. The 
dens in which it is bred, and in which it lurks, until it 
issues forth to seize its prey, are more proper objects for 
persons in my sphere of life to explore. To this purpose^ 
I have frequency revolved in my mind, whether it was 
an imported or homebred disorder, seveml circumstances 
eoncurring to produce an opinion of its being the latter^ 
The vqry rapid progress of It, during a vex^ 1^ si^mBBier^ 



tft AN ACCOUNT OP 

just after a very heavy fall of rain, which stagnated la al- 
most an innumerable number of cellars and back 3rards; 
the malignancy of it in the neighbourhood of some of those 
cellars, many of them stowed with large quantities of pu- 
trid beef, in the neighbourhood of filthy sewers, or other 
nuisances, and also from its spreading in Golden Hill 
and Cliff-street, which are in a Nordierly direction, from 
some of those dens of pestilence I have just mentioned, 
and of course liable to be acted upon by the prevailing 
South winds. But however well founded this opinion 
may be, with respect to the agency of those things, in 
producing the disease, yet with all those other facts, 
which I will relate, I am almost induced to believe, 
that all is not to be charged to them. They rendered the 
neighbourhood highly combustible ; but, perhaps, a spark 
of contagion might be necessary to produce so dreadiul a 
conflagration. The first appearance of the disorder was 
in Front-street near Coentles-Slip, where Melancton 
Smith died, about the 2Sih or 29th of July, and on the 
30th, Peter A, Schenck was taken severely sick. The 
ibllowing week, one Wilson M. Smith, Junior, Peter 
Dustan and wife had slight attacks, from which it spread 
to other families m a very short time.* 

^^ The next appearance of the fever was at the house of 
JSenry Mead, at the lower comer of the west side of New- 
Slip. Some time, in July, the ship Fame, said to have 
arrived from one of the West-India Islands, came to the 
wharf next below New-Slip, and lay there for some time. 
About the 3d or 4th of August, some people went to dis- 
charge her ballast and pump her out ; amongst the ballast 
was a quantity of damaged coffee, extremely putrid, 
which, with the water discharged from the pump, was so 
offensive to the smell, that the neighbours were induced 
to shut their windows, especially while eating. About 
tlie 6th of said montli, the following persons spent a con- 
siderable part of the day at Mead^s house, John and Ebe- 

* The people of tbif neigbboarhood laid the hlaqie of their 
Bickness to the schooner FoX) which arrived from Jeremie, be* 
tweea the middle and lattT part of July, and haulnj to a wharf 
a little east of Coenties-Slip, where she unloaded, and upon 
pavplng her out, her bilge WQter wai verT" offensive. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. It 

Bezer Taylor, Sylvanus Seaman, Monmouth Hubbs^ 
Walter Davis, Augtistus Peck, and a young man clerk 
in a store near the Exchange. Most of these dined there, 
and, during their dinner, they were under the necessity 
of shutting up the doors and windows, though the weath« 
er was very warm, so exceedingly were they annoyed, 
by the stench from the ship. Of this company collected 
from several quarters and who dispersed to their respect- 
ive homes, not a single one escaped severe sickness, which 
they were taken with in from four to five days, and of 
which John and Ebenezer Taylor died. Two persons 
belonging to the family were also sick. ► The next Jiouse 
above this, (there being none below it) was^ at the same 
time, visited, and of five persons, three were taken 
dangerously ill and two died. In the second htouse 
above, three more persons were sick at the same time 
and one died, and the family of the house next to thi$ 
shared a similar fate, three were sick, two of whom died 
in a very short time. Many of the boatmen, whose ves- 
sels lay in the Slip, at this period fared no better, a num- 
ber of them being victims to this stench or the contagion 
it produced." After some other observations, he con- 
cludes thus. ^^From these facts, it appears, that the 
sickness in this quarter was caused by the ship ; whether 
it was created in her or brought from another country, I 
rannot undertake to determine ; but be it as it may, the 
fever was undoubtedly there contagious^ and spread to 
distant parts of the town by means of the sick 5 the bodies 
ofthe inhabitants having (as I suppose) been rendered 
ripe for its reception. From here I can trace it to the 
neighbourhood of Golden-Hill, where a man named Har- 
per, died in Gold-street on the 11th of August. One 
Fowler died on the 1 8th of the same month in John-street, 
•and the third victim was Solomon Carl, who died on the 
20th in Gold-street. Harper imputed the origin of his 
sickness to his having crossed the deck of the ship be- 
forementioned three days before he was taken." 

The benevolence of the wealthy inhabitants of our city 
as well as those ofthe state and different parts of New- 
Jersey, reflected the greatest honour on the character of 
.aor countrymefi. Upon this occasion^ up wards of $7000 



^ AN AgCOUNT W 

in cash was sent to the Health Committee for the relkf 0/ 
the afflicted; and beef, pork, sheep, butter, cheese, flour, 
rye and indian meal, buckwheat, potatoes, fowls, turnips, 
wood, &c. &c. were brought into the city, the value of 
which it would be difficult to ascertain ; but which, in 
ftli probability could not amount to less than $40,000. 
During the whole of this calamitous period, such was the 
extraordinary liberality of our fellow-citizens in granting 
donations, and such the unremitting attention of the com- 
mittee in distributing them, that notwithstanding the dis- 
tressed were by far more numerous than at any previoos 
period in this dty^ yet there was no individual at a loss 
for the necessaries of life, for medical aid, or for nurses. 



A brief account of the Yellow Fevers which prevailed 
in the City of New-Yorky in the year 1803. 

From -the year 1798 to the year 1803, there were, in 
every year, in the sickly season, some sporadic cases oi 
Yellow Fever, But except in the years 1799 and 1803, 
they had excited no great alarm. In the year 1803, the 
number of cases reported was l639, and the deaths by 
malignant fever amounted to 606. The hospital at 
Bellevue was, in that year^ opened on the 12th day of 
August and closed on the 7th of November, during which 
period were admitted 

Of Malignant Fever patients, • • - - 170 

Of various other diseases^ . . . .^ . 21 



Total 191 



iThe deaths which occurred were 

Of Malignant Fever, - - - 100 

Phthisis Pulmonalis, • <- 1 

Diarrhoea, * . - . - 2 



JMscharged cared, « . • 86 19 J 




THE YELLOW FEVER. i^ 

Of the Yellow Fever, in the year 1803, we have an 
accurate account,, from the official letter, which was writ- 
ten by the late Dr. Miller, then Resident Physician to his 
Excellency the G6vernor. From this letter I extract the 
following. 

" The commencement of the disease took place, about 
the 20th of July, and from that time, it contirtued to pre- 
vail, in a greater or less degree till the end of October. 
The number of deaths, in this city, amounted to five 
hundred and three ; those at the Hospital of Belle vue, to 
one hundred and three, and those at the Marine Hospital 
on Staten Island, tp sixty-eight, making a total of six 
hundred and seventy-four. To this should be added, an 
indefinite number, about fifty or sixty, who fled from the 
city, and died of this disease, in the neighbouring courk> 
try and villages. 

The first public alarm arose from some fatal cases, at 
the Coffee-House Slip and in that neighbourhood. About 
the same time, the disease was discovered in many other 
parts of the city, without any known intercourse or com-* 
munication between the persons, who fell sick. Al- 
though the number of cases, even at the worst periods of 
the epidemic, could not be pronounced to be great, espe- 
tially, if compared with some preceding seasons, they 
were certainly more generally diffused, and left fewer 
parts of* the city exempt than on any former occaisions* 
Broadway and some of the adjacent parts of the town re- 
tained their healthy character. The streets lying near 
the margins of the two rivers, and some of those in the 
upper part of the city, which are principally inhabited by 
indigent, uncleanly and dissolute classes of the commimi- 
ty, suffered the worst ravages of the disease. The alarm 
of the inhabitants was very suddenly produced, and the 
suspension of business and the desertion of the city far 
exceeded what had been ever experienced in former 
seasons." 

The Doctor, after stating his opinion, concerning the 
5wnrce from whiclji this epidemic was derived, makes the 
following very judicious observations, which I deem ft 
proper to transcribe for the consideration not only of t^e 
present, but also of every future Board of Healthy 

C 



14 AN ACCOUNT OF 

**The diflferent opinions," says he, ' "conccrnilig tlic 
origin of Yellow Fever, would seem on a slight survey ol' 
the subject, to lead to very different means of prevention 
and public safety ; but a more attentive\:onsideration will 
impress the opposite consideration. Both parties insist 
on the necessity of detaining and cleansmg foul and sick- 
ly vessels. The importers of Yellow Fever from abroad, 
for the purpose of excluding contagion, and the advocates 
of domestic generation, for the purpose of removing that 
filth, which, by the operation of heat^ is so readily con- 
veyed into poisonous vapours." 

*' As to the removal of nubances in the city, and ren- 
dering it as clear and pure as possible, all parties, even 
on their own principles, ought to be equally agreed, 
bellow Fever is known to spread and prevail, in certain 
seasons, in this city. But it is also known, that, at ^nich 
times, it cannot spread and prevail in the adjacent coun- 
try and villages. In every season of this ^epidemic at 
New- York, multitudes have fled to the country, to New- 
ark, Elizabethtown, Brunswick, &c. where they liave 
been seized with the disease, and have died, without 
communicating it to any of the inhabitants of those places. 
The difference of. condition and circumstances between 
such towns and this city, which, in the one ease, anni-^ 
hilates the disease, at the death or recovery of the patient, 
and in the other, causes it to spread and become epi- 
demic, must entirely consist in the absence of nuisances 
from the former, and in the accumulation and predomi- 
nance of them in the latter. It seems, therefore, to fol- 
low of course, that the great desideritftn towards ban- ' 
ishing Yellow Fever from New-York, however it may be 
supposed to originate, is suck a legree of cleankneHs 
and purity as may he found in the village* iff the neighr 
hourhoodj or as near an approximation to it as possible. 
Such a system of police as this, vigorously adopted and 
enforced, siided by the reflations of the Healdi Estab- 
lishment on Staten Island, would, in my judgment, com- 
pletely secure this city from the ravages of the Yellow 
Fever." 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 15 



A brief account of the Yellow Fever^ which prevailed in 
the City ofNeuhYorky during the year 11J05. 

Having before jAe a letter from the late Doctor Edward 
Miller, then Resident Physician, to his Excellency Gov- 
jernor Lewis, J*cannot do better than transcribe a part 
pf it, as containing a more accurate account of the Yellow 
Fever of this year than I could otherwise have easily ob- 
tained. It is dated 

New-York f January 12th, 1806. 
'' SIR, 

The malignant disease, which prevailed in this 
city, for a considerable part of last autumn, having ceas- 
ed about the beginning of November, it becomes my duty 
to lay before your Excellency such an account of it, as 
my official situation has enabled me to collect. I under- 
take this task with..the more readiness, and shall examine 
the subject with the more attention, as this disease has 
lately acquired great additional importance from the fre- 
quency of its recurrence, the Extent of its ravages, and 
the new and edarming points of view, in which it is now 
considered by the nations of Europe. The embarass- . 
■nent of our commerce, on thb account, in foreign ports, 
has been increasing for sevaral years; they are already 
become oppressively great; they are likely hereafter to 
become still greater; and nothing but a thorough investi* 
gation of the subject, and the adoption of a wise and ma* , 
ture system of measures, will be sufiicieut to ascertain 
and set in operation any adequate means of relief.'^ 

^^ In former seasons, it has been usual to dbserve spo- 
radic cases of this disease, for several weeks, before the 
commencement of the epidemic. Tliis was remarkably 
verified in the late season; and such cases deserve the 
more attention, as they furnish the best means of calcula- 
ting the probability of approaching pestilence. Accord- 
ingly, one case of a decidedly malignant character was 
observed in the month* of June; several took place in 
July; a still greater niimber in August; and at the be^ 
gvfinm^qf September p they bad becom!^^xo9SssKi^>i^'^a». 



le AN ACCOUNT OF 

lo ascertain the existence of the epidemic. Thrpughoot 
September and October, the disease continued to prevail 
with more or less severity, according to the fluctuating 
state of the weather; but towards the close of the latter 
month, the coldness of the season bad evidently checked 
its progress; and at the beginning of November, the city 
was nearly restored to its usual^.health." * 

" During the early period pf the epidemic, nearly all 
the cases took place 'on the eastern side of the city, in 
Front, Water and Pearl Streets, and principally below 
Burling-Slip. They afterwards became more generally 
diffused. About the 20th of September, they began to 
prevail near the North River.* On the whole, the loto 
grounds pn the margin of the two rivers certainly produ- 
ced a chief part of the cases. The number of deaths ii 
the city, amounted to «about two hundred ; ^ those at the 
Bellevue Hospital to 52, and those in the Marine Hospi- 
tal, sent from the city, to twenty-eight. The number of 
cases of Malignant Fever reported to the Board of Health, 
amounted to six hundred. It is proper/likewise, vbl esti- 
mating the extent of the epidemic, to notice an unascer- 
tained number, probably about forty, who after their 
flight from the city, died in various parts of the country. 

^' The source pf this disease forms a most interesting 
subject of inquiry ; on the success of which must depend 
all rational and adequate means of preventing and eradi- 
cating the eviL After a long and careful mvestigation of 
the subject, I cannot hesitate to conclude, that a perm' 
doits exhalation or vapour Jioating in the atmosphere^ 
is the primary and essential cavse of this disease* 

" No communication of the disease," says the Doctor, 
was ever observed in Yellow Fever Hospitals, situated 
at a small distance from the cities, to which they belong. 

* A similar extension of the disease) in the epidemic of 1803, 
wa^ ascnbed by many, to (be removal of shipping from the East 
to the North River. As no such removal to that part of the city 
took place in the late season, it is necessary to explain the fact 
in some other way. This becomes very easy, when it is recoU 
lectedi that the made ground on the ISorth River is mui'.h less 
extensive, and the materials composing it much less foul and 
corrupt, than that on the East River. The miasmata come to 
maturity oa tiio one sidt two or three weelEs sooner then on Ui« 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 17 

No exception to this has ever occurred in any of the nu- 
merous seasons of this pestilence, at oiir Hospital at 
Belle vue, the Marine Hospital oh Staten Island, that of 
Philadelphia, or any other in the United States, provi- 
ded the malignant air of the city had been avoided. The 
force of this fact seems never to have been duly consider- 
ed or appreciated. The numerous retinue of medical 
attendants, nurse», washerwomen, servants, &c. which 
belong to eur hospitals, must be known to every, body. 
How greatly they are all exposed to contagion, if it could 
be supposed to exist in this case, is equally known. 
The mpst malignant cases of the disease are constantly- 
found in these Institutions. The^ exposure. of physicians 
and their assistants is well understood. The duty of the 
nurses leads to an incessant and unreserved intercourse 
with the sick ; they pass the gipeater part of their time and 
sleep in the apartments of the sick, t{ie dying and the 
dead.^^ 

" The nurses, at Bellevue Hospital, became so entire- 
ly free from all apprehensions of the contagiousness of 
tliis disease, that they oft«i slept on the same bed, with 
the sick, and it happened'feore than once, in the course 
of the season, that a nurse* overcome with fatigue and 
want of sleep, threw herself in the night, for a little re- 
pose, on the bed of a dying-patient, and ccmtinued there 
asleep, till the patient was dead, and it became necessa- 
ry to remove the corpse.^^ 

Of the number of cases, at Bellevue Hospital, which 
was opened on the 9th of September and closed on the 
28th of October, the following is the account of the City 
inspector. 

The number of patients aduihted amounted to IT'S 
Of whom the malignant cases were - - ' - 149 
Other diseases, -•-.------ 26 

Thedeathsj which occurred, wereaafollowa: 

Of Malignant Fever, ------ 52 

Of other diseases, ------- 17 

Discharged cured, ------- iO(i 



Ita J^ ACCOUNT OF 

The ph>':»icians of the Hospital resiarkedy that only 
one person died, who was admitted <ui the first day of 
disease. Of the extreme cases died 

Within 24 houirs after admission^ .... 5 

12 hours, -.---.--6 

6hoiirs9 -----.-.3 

1 hour, •---.-*. ---6 

10 minutes, .----•--2 

22 

* 

iHrhich b nearly one third of the total amount of deaths. 

The ratio of cures from Malignant Fever to deaths by 
the same disorder is very nearly two thirds, a circum- 
stance, which considering, that most of the patients were 
sent there in the last stage of disease, reflects the highest 
credit on the practice of Doctors Walker and Wiii£eldr 
the visiting and resident physician. In the year 180S, 
the number of deaths considerably exceeded one half the 
cases. 

During the season of 1805^ viz. between the 18th of 
July and 28th of October, sixty-four patients were sent 
from the city to the Marine Hospital, of whom 28 died. 
Of these eight died on the day of curival, and seven 09 
the day thereafter. 

The total number of cases reported at the Office of the 
Board of Health, from the 5th of September to the 2dth 
•f October inclusive, amounted to 6OO. 

The total number of deaths which occurred in this city 
And at Bellevue, during that period, amounted to 262. 

Dr. John R. B. Rogers, then Health Offiicer, in an 
•fficial letter to the Board, dated 19th December, 1805, 
makes the following observations. ^ At the quarantine," 
smys he, ^ there have been constantly from the 1st of 
June to the Ist of October, a considerable number of ves- 
sels ; frequently during that time, from forty to fifty, and 
on the last day of September, sixty. All of these vessels 
had lost some one or more of their crews, or had come 
from a sickly port; many of them (24 in number) were 
imder the necessity of coming to the public wfaarfj wber« 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 19 

some of them lay the greater part of the season. Of 
4hese, a considerable number hove down, others tiirew 
out their ballast and cleansed their limbers, some were 
sheathed or graved, and all of them overhauled more or 
less; and of the many officers, seamen and workmen, 
ship-carpenters, caulkers, rigged, coopers, sail-makers, 
blacksmiths, &c. not one was, in the smallest degree, 
indisposed, or took any sickness by connection with 
those vessels ; nor has any of those persons, that I know 
of,^been indisposed, except one carpenter, who took sick^ 
sgme weeks after he left the quarantine ground, and died 
in the latter end of September in Mew- York, having ex- 
posed himself in the poisoned air of the city. Of the pi- 
lots, who have brought these infected vessels into port, 
and had frequently slept on board of them, very often 
one night and sometimes two, before they came to at quar- 
antine, not one of them or any of their families have been 
in the smallest degree indisposed from any connection 
with such vessel. Of those attached to the Health Offi- 
cer's Department, boatmen, orderlies and attendants, 
jiot one has been sick from any infection, or from any 
connection with the sick or infected vessels. Of the 
lighterers employed in carrying goods to the city, or 
bringing cargoes to vessels at quarantine, not one of them 
was, in the smallest degree,, indbposed till the 24th or 
23th of September, when one of them was taken with 
fever, which left him in a few days. Another was seized 
just after the first and died on the 2d of October. Nehh- 
er of these liad any connection with any foul ship, to 
which tliey could attribute their complaint ; but they took 
it from havhig had a daily intercourse with the eastern 
part of the city^ and from being under the necessity of 
going into houses and stores in that quarter, and staying 
longer in them than they had been accustomed to, by 
reason of the want of hands to receive their goods, in con* 
sequence of the deserti(m of that part of the city. 

In this season as well as in every preceding, in which 
we had been visited by Yellow Fever, it was a subject of 
deep regret, that a collision of ojjinion existed not only 
with respect to the origin, but also in relation to the na^ 
ture of the disease. Whilei on the one hand^ \X ^^s^ vAi? 



2G AN ACCOUNT OF 

tended, that it was imported from abroad, it was, on the 
other hand asserted with equal earnestness, . that it origin 
nated at home, or is generated on board of vessds, which 
arrive amongst us, and that it is entirely non-contagious. 
These discordant opii^ions, maintained by medical een- 
tlemen of the first respectability and eminence, and wnidi 
enter deeply into the passions, as well as the interests of 
the community have had a very inauspicious iafluctpce up- 
on most of the leading measures, either of prevention oi 
remedy. 

The advocates of the doctrine of importation, in gei^ 
i*al contended, that it had been introduced by a quantity 
of rags in a vessel from Algesiras, while some attributed 
it to another vessel. With respect to the rags, Dp. Rod- 
gers asserts in his report, that they were clean and per* 
fectly innoxious. They had been prepared in the way 
they always are for the purposes of commerce; that is, 
after being first washed clean, dipped into, or through a 
strong lime water, or an alkaline solution; then dried 
and packed in bags or bales. These rags, thus prepa- 
red, were shipped some time last spring, from Leghorn, 
on board of an English vessel for Liverpool or London« 
The vessel had an health bill from Leghorn, and one also 
from Algesh-as. She arrived here in August, after a 
passage of sixty-six days of mild weather, during which 
the hatches were always off in the day time, and the peo^^ 
pie almost constantiy over the bags. The crew was 
healthy and had been so during the whole voyage^ and 
the rags dry and in good order. When the bags were 
ripped open, they gave out a white unofiensive powder—- 
this powder was lime. These rs^s were landed on the 
13th of August, at the end of Coenties' Slip, were there 
from 8 o'clock in the mornmgtill 12 at noon of the same 
and only for the purpose of being weighed; they 
len taken on board of a vessel bound to the EasN 
A sample bag had been at Mr. Hurtin^s storey 
V previously to landing the rest, and was then 
ray. No person received any injury^ from these 
^T possibly could, for they were clean and as in- 
c aa any article in the city.'' 
I^octor concludes thus, <^I have now ckari;^ 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 2f 

thewn ds far as negative proof can go, that whatever 
might have been the cause of the late epidemic^ it did 
not arise from any neglect of du^y at the Quarantine 
Ground^ nor did it comk through that channel." 

Such was the opinion of Dr. Rodgers, and no one who 
is acquainted with the character of that gentleman will 
doubt his veracity. 

But at that time I think it probable that the greater 
part of ourmost eminent physicians believed in its ha- 
ving been imported. Upon this subject, I shall lay be- 
fore my readers, the two following extracts from ]etter& 
written by Dr. Hosack to the Board of Health. The 
first is dated 5th August, 1805. After giving a particu-' 
lar description of the case of 'a Mr. James Dougherty, 
whom he had visited, in consultation with the late Dr. 
Riddle, he thus expresses himself. ^^ Having never met 
with a case of fever attended with the^bove mentioned 
symptoms, that could not be traced to contagion, I cannot 
but believe, tliat^ in this instance also, the patient liad 
been exposed to the atmosphere of an infected vessel, or 
to persons, that had been sick, or in some way connected 
with the sick of the yellow fever." From the other let- 
ter, which is of date November 15th, 1805, I extract the 
following. " It has been said, that I have departed from 
the opinion 1 had heretofore entertained "of the origin of 
the Yellow Fever, and, that, as in tlie present year, no 
particular vessel has been charged with the introduction 
of it, we were compelled to acknowledge its domestic or- 
igin. Such too appears to be the object and tenor bf the 
last very extraordinary" letter published by the Health 
Officer. In reply to this misrepresentation of my opin- 
ion, I have only to remark, that if I had before entertain* 
ed any doubt of the origin of this calamity, the circum- 
stances attending its appearance in the present seasoni 
woidd alone have satisfied me (as it has some others wh« 
have had opportunities of watching its eaily progress) 
that it is not the product of our own soil or climate, but 
is always introduced from abroad. The intercourse, I 
might, perhaps, say the unlimited intercourse which haft 
existed between the quarantine ground and this city, by 
nicht as well as by day suficicntlff accounts for the ijc«>, 
fiUmce of last season. 



82 AN ACCOUNT OF # 

^^ It is unnecessary for me here to go into details ; tbe 
clue to the investigation of the facts upon this subject, is 
in the possession of the proper authcNrity, and I trust it 
will be pursued witH the attention it merits and the im- 
port of the inquiry -demands; but I will venture to pre- 
dict, that unless our legislature enact; a law, that will 
make it necessary to quarantine the captains ofvesM^ 
the supercargoes^ this seamen^ their beddings clothing'^^Cn 
as well as the vessels themselves, we sha^ never be se- 
cure from danger, and that the now growing commerce of 
our city will be sacrificed to the repetition of this terrible 
calamity. 

" While I thus recommend a more strict and efficient 
quarantine law to prevent the introduction of contagion 
from abroad^ I hope it will not be thought, that I disre- 
gard the attention bestowed by our vigilant police in pre^ 
serving cleanlifin^ at home. On the contrary, it is con- 
ceded, that the Yellow Fever, like other \ontagious di- 
seases, is never so readily propagated ui a pure as hi aq 
impure atmosphere ; perhaps I may go father and say, 
that the Yellow Fever more than any other cont&gioua 
disease, that we know of, requires an impure air as its 
eonductoir. But that the Jilth of our streets^ our docks^ 
neie made grounds^ grave yards or privies have ever ge- 
nerated this species of feveir I cannot believe. 1 should 
as readily ascribe the origin of small pox, measles^ or 
plague to the dirt of our gutters, as to trace the Yellow 
Fever to putrid anin^al or vegetable matti^r ; and that I 
am not alorte in this opinion, a vast body of testimony 
might be adduced." 

In the year 1719, there were some cases of Yellow 
Fever near the Old Slip; but by the vigorous exertions 
of the Board of Health and the blessing of Divine Provi- 
dence, it was suppressed before it had attained an alarm- 
ing height. I now come (o 

An account of the Yellow Fever, which Tubs raged in the 
City of New-York, during the last three months. 

The disease, in this season, made its appearance in a 
^different quarter from that, in which it had CQOuiieaced its 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 23 

depredations in former years. It had formerly uniform- 
ly begun some where on the East River ^ but now it waa 
first seen in Rector-street, towards the North River, a 
part of the city, which had been heretofore deemed pe- 
culiarly healthy. The first notice, which was taken of 
this disease by the Board of Health, was on the 31st of 
July, 1 822, of which the following is an abstract. 

The following statement of facts made to the Board, 
by the President, was ordered to be published. 

On the 17th of July, 1822, Doctor Walters had h:- 
fonned the President^ that three of his patients, children 
of MartiA Reeder, at No. 26 Rector-street, were labour- 
ing under a severe attack of fever; that he did not report 
them as cases of Yellow Fever; but requested, that the 
Resident Physician might visit them. 

On the day following, the Resident Physician reported^ 
that he had seen the said children, that Caroline aged 9 
years h^d sickened on the 10th instajit, Amanda aged 1 1 
years oti the same day, and John aged 15 years on the 
l6th. He pronoupced, that their disease was BiHious 
Fever. Caroline died on the same day, John on the 
22d, and Amanda recovered. 

The Resident Physician also reported, that he was in- 
formed, that Andrew Thomas, a clerk, in a grocery store, 
at the comer of Washington and Rector-streets, immedi- 
ately opposite to Mr. Reedei's, had been taken sick on 
the 12th of July and carried to the New- York Hospital, 
where he died on the l6th following. Mr. Thomas was 
a young gentleman ijif irreproachable morals, and had 
only been in this city, a very few months. From what 
I have heard respecting his case, 1 think, that there iH 
no doubt of his having died of Yellow Fever. 

On the 20th the Resident Physician visited Miss Rose, 
a child of seven years, at the corner of Greenwich and 
Rector Streets, and reported, that she had sickened on 
the 1 6th of July of Billions Fever. She died on the 24th 
following. 

On the 21st he visited John Whailley, a baker, age3 
26 years, at the corner of Cliff and Ferry Streets. He 
had sickened on the 20th mstiint of Billious Fever, and 
on the 26th was convalescent. 



U AN ACCOITKT 6¥ 

On the 25th he visited Mr. Butler and his apprentice 
in Rector-street, between Greenwich and Lumber Streets, 
and reported them as convalescent. 

On the 26th he visited Euphemia Dobson^ aged 38 
years, at No. 10 Beaver-street. She had sickened on 
the 24th and removed from the house of Mrs. Rose, id 
Rector-street, where she had assisted in nursing the child, 
who died there on the 24th instant; Mrs. Edwards, sis* 
ter of Mrs. Rose and Mr. Leonard W. Archer, aged 29 
years, nephew of Mrs. Rose, both of whom was resi- 
dents in the same hous^, and had sickened on the 25th, 
These three he stated as being afflicted with fiiUious 
Fever, 

He also informed the Board, that a Mrs. Waters, aged 
58 years, had sickened in the same hoiise, on the even- 
ing of the 24th, but had been removed to Brooklyn. 
This woman had not been seen by the Resident Ph3rsi- 
cian ; but he understood, that she had been indisposed 
for the Inst three months, and had died on the 29th whh ' 
very malignant symptoms. 

On the 29th he reported, that he had visited another 
child of Mr. Reeder anil also Susan Buck, aged 1 1 years^ 
at No. 24 Rector-street, opposite the house of Mr. Reed- 
er, both of whom he pronounced to be sick of Billiouf 
Fever. 

On the 30th he visited Mr. Jones at No. 115 Wash- 
ington-street, who had sickened on the 27th, and John 
Hamilton, a cartman, who resided at No. 20 Jloward- 
street, but who had his stand in the vicinhy of Rector- 
street and who had sickened on the same day. Both of 
these, he reported to be Billious Fever. 

On the 31st Dr. Neilson reported two cases of Yellow 
Fever, viz. Leonard W. Archer and Mrs. Edwards, both 
at the house of Mrs. Rose. On the 28tii Dr. N. appear- 
ed before the Board of Health and declared thrm both to 
be Billious Fever. On this day the Resident Physician 
again visited them, and pronounced their cases to be Bil- 
lious Fever. TJie Board previous to their adjopmment 
on the 3 1 st July declared, " that " no cases of fever ha<l 
occurred in that vicinity, within the knowledge of thu 
Soord for the last three days. 



TrtE YELLOW FEVER. 25 

bn the 1st of August the Board again met, at 12 
«?clock, tlie hour which had been agreed on to meet on 
levery daA») during the prevalence of fever. " No new 
case of the indispoisition in Rector-street was reported 5 
nor had there been any there for the- last three days." 

" Thus much/' says Mr. Stone the intelhgent editor of 
Ihe Commercial Advertiser, " may be considered as a 
kind of official return, although we did not copy them 
from the mmutes. What we are now about to commence 
was considered injudicious by some of the members, al- 
though his Honour the Mayor said, that it was better for 
editors to publish a full sketch of dieir proceediiigs, and 
let the whole facts, as they exist be known." 

From all that We have been- able to learn, and from the 
decided and unequivocal opiniohs of many of our most 
respectable physicians, we are of the opinion, that the 
vity has been visited with several rases of Yellow Fever. 

Dr. Quackenboss, hotrever, does not believe, that the 
sickness in RectoJr-street is Yelhuf Fever, / He still thinks 
jt hiHous. It is his opinion, that there i^ something nox- 
ious in the atmosphere of this district, where the sickness 
lias originated. All agree, that it is a very bad fever. 
But as an evidence, that it i^ not Yellow Fever, he states, 
that those, who have recovered have been treated by 
emetics ; and that no physician would think of giving an 
emetic to a patient supposed to be ill of Yellow Fever. It 
would be considered as being certain death. Tliis skk,- 
ness is atmospheric. 

'riie board were principally otdapied in suggesting 
and devising such preparatory measures as might be ne- 
f ossary, should the city be afflicted with sickness ; but it 
was universally admitted, that there was tlien, but little 
cause of ^ahii.'^ 

I am very far from censuring the Boarc) of Health or 
any of their officers. I conscientiously bdievie, that eve- 
ry^ntleman connected with that body strove to the ut- 
most of his power to avert the impending calamity ; but 
I have little hesitation in expressing it as my opinion, that, 
if at the commencement of the disease, the infected dis- 
trict, which was then very small, had been sprinkled 
with limoj x^lw or charcoal, and the ii\U'^b\\5MCv\s>KQA -^Ji^x^- 



2u AN ACCOUNT OF 

moved, it might have been checked in the bud. Upont 
this subject, however, I shall have occasion to make some 
observations hereafter. At present, I shall only make 
the following remark, of the correctness of which 1 have 
not the least doubt. About the beginning of August, in 
the year 1798, in consequence of the foul, unfinished state 
of some water lots on the East lliver, between Coenties 
and the Old Slip, upwards of 20 persons were attacked 
nearly about the same time, with wiiat appeared to be 
common colds, some slightly, others more severely ; but 
the general occurrence of the fact in that neighbourhood, 
led to a belief, that it arose from a local cause and that il 
threatened soitfething serious. The foulness of rlie lot* 
mid especially two vacant ones, being receptacles of eve- 
ry kind of filtli wa» considered as that cause, and in pur^ 
buance of official arrfuigcments they were immediately 
covered with ti^holesome sand. I do not saj-, tJiat these 
were cases of Yellow Fever, because I have no document 
before me to warrant the assertion ; but I well know, thai 
tlie disease, by whatever name, it might then have been 
called, proved fatal in several instances and that the ef- 
fect of the remedy prescribed, was a general restoratioD 
of the sick. 

But to returti from my digression, Mr, Stone goes on 
thus ** The Mayw stated, that tiicre had been some fly- 
ing rcporte, of fresh cases this morning 5 but on inquury 
no authority was found for them. Dr. Quackenboss re- 
turned while the Board was in session, from a visit to 
]Mrs. Rutherford, corner of Broad and Pearl-streets, 
where he had been invited by Dr. Stevens. Mrs. R. he 
said, had been taken sick on Wednesday of last week, 
but had kept about till yesterday. Her case was pre- 
cisely the same as those in Rector-street, viz. Bilious 
Fever. 

Dr. Hicks mentioned the case of Mrs. Moran, next 
door to Mrs. Rose's, who had been taken ill, last e\'en- 
lUfX, but was then recovered. 

We have thus stated all that transpired at this meeting, 
which is of interest to the public ; and were it not that 
silence would tend more to awaken suspicion, we should 
not have been so particular, for we really do not think it 



THJP YELLOW FEVER, V 

4iecessary. We have dealt frankly with the public, and 
given our opinion, and by so doing have promptly re- 
deemed a former pledge. We- repeat it we do not tiiink 
there is a cause of alarm out of the infected district." 

The young man. (Archer) mentioned hi the report of 
yesterday, died tlus morning with every symptom ofj* 
;5trong and decided case of Yellow Fever. 

At a meeting of the Board, on the 5th of August, tlie 
Resident Physician reported tliat JVlrs. Naphthali Philips 
at the corner of Broadway and Chamber-streets, had 
been sick of Yellow Fever. The family tad resided at 
Xo. 98 Greenwich-street, irom whence they had moved 
on the 30th ult. where Mrs. P. sickened on the evening 
of the Istinst. and died on the 5th. 

As no doubt now existed respecting the prevalence of 
a malignant di^ase in Rector-street and its vicinity, the 
Board directed, that the following recommendation should 
be published for the observance of their fellow citizens- 
*^ A number of cases of fever having occurred in Rector- 
street and its immediate vieirfity, and it being the opin- 
ion'of the Board, that the atmosphere of that section of 
the city is unfavourable to the health of the inhabitants 
and others, who may be disposed to resort to it, they 
hereby advise and recommend? , that all persons residing 
in or doing iMisincss in Rector-street, between Lumber 
and Washingt.on-streets,orits vicinity, retnove therefrom 
immediately, and that they and all others abstain from re- 
sorting to said district, and it is further recommended, 
that the citizens generally cause lime to be forthwith 
thrown in their privies and also in the gutters in front of 
their respective houses, and use every means in their 
power to remove from their premises every cause of 
nuisance or infection and to keep their cellars and yards 
dry and clean." 

On the 6th August, Dr. Ireland reported, that Mary 
Spraight,at No. 258 Hudson-street, was a case of Yellow 
Fever. This was referred to Jhe Resident Physician. 

The President th$jn read to the Board a letter, which 
he had addressed to tlic Health Officer with his answer. 
The President suggested whether it might not be expe- 
i^ejf)t for the health of t))c city, that furtlwv xv^^-jsJCvsw^ 



I 39 AN ACCOUNT OF 



F 

^^V'Ipc iinposeti on vessels arriving frnni si^speelt^d pavts bct 
^^B, ttccen III? monih<>,or Mrty anr] Octobrr. IK' had a^o 
^^H vciucsied the IleallhO^cer Ici infurni him, whether, 
^^^■.in iiis opinion, the Riirtor-street fever could be aiiribatol 
^^^K to sonic one of the folluwinfr vessels, vis. the Nilo, tbc' 
^^K Shnmrock, or (he Florida, whii-h had been at the whami' 
^^Hltcnrthai street. 

^^H In answer to these inquiricf, the HpnltJi Officer re- 
^^^■plied, tliiit nfler loitgrconsiJcrHlion uml rcflectitui on tin 
^^H|iaiibjccl, he Iiad been led to the painful result, of esprei- 
^^B sing It ns his Dpinjun, iliat vessels ccuniiig ffoiD suspl-' 
^^F fioiis Sireiyn ports, bclween the 2l)lh of May and iQih 
of Uctobei* shutiltl not be permitted lo lie iu the Nurtk 
River South of Spring:*tieel, iior ia the KasI Sirer be- 
low Waltiut-straet, niear Corlaers' llook. 
^^_ Willi respect tp the fever in Rector-street, he c»pre> 
^^^Lscd it as his npinion., that the vessels named by the I'rex- 
^^^■^■1)1 could not be considered as infected ; :m^ he would 
^^H tailier be disposed to attribute it to a quantity of Havan- 
^^^KAah su,^r In old bones, that hud been landed tu that vi- 
^^^p Cinnity during tbe warm ^eatlier in July fron^ ihe ^mt- 
^^^mith So/tfi'er and the Elha Jane, and he dei^iiled st lenglk 
^^^■fhe lucts and reasons, by which he had beui (ed V>. Itum 
^^KjAat conlcusion. 

^^B Dr. Ifivks reported Matilda Hill, as a case of Tellov 
^^B fever. She had sickened on the 4(h instant, in the i^ 
^^Bibcted district, and tiad been removed lo Albany street, 
^^H'jn the suburbs of the cjty. This was referred lo the 
^^H|nesideiit Physician. 

^^H^ A memorial was pjescnted from the inkibitanls, resid- 
^^Kug in the vicinity of Kip's hay, remonslTHiin^ against 
^^Htbe occujiatiun of a house, which had been taken for the 
^^^Mccommodalionof thesick, in case thnt measure should 
^^^he deemed necessary. It was resolved, that the Boar4 
^^^fcould taJte Ibe subject into consideration. 
^^B^ A motion wa« made to fence in the infected district w 
^^VRector-street and its vicinity, and some diseuasion loa^ 
^^^^nlnce on the propriety of lEie measure. Alderman F^r> ' 
^^^Ue wished to obtain tfie opinion of the Renidenl Phyil- 1 
^^Bcian .who ha\-uig said, ilmt he did not think thiit it wUf 
^^Hthcn necessary, the prf)pnstiioQ was r<-jee1Cii. 



THE YELLOW FEVER, 29 

Dr. Hicks reported, that he had visited Mrs. Rose, at 
No. 16 Fletcher-street, from Rector-street, where she 
liad attended in the family of her Son, Mr. 'Rose. Pa- 
trick Price, a passenger from on board the Empress from 
Charleston, at No. 1 1 Roosevelt-street, who b^ing sick of 
Intermittent Fever, was sent to the New York HospitaL 
Christopher Blochber, tin worker, 57 Rutger-street, ill of . 
Bilious Fever and Henry MiUspard comer of Houston and 
Sullivan-streets, a labourer, who had wrought in some 
stores in Washington at the foot of Rector-street. This man 
was a patient of Dr. Blackley, who called his disease Bil- 
ious Fever ; but it was deemed suspicious. Miss Matilda 
Hill, who had been reported yesterday died this morning. 
Alderman Fairlie moved, that, in future, all reports of 
the Resident and other Physicians should be made in 
writing, which was adopted. 

The President read a reply from the Governor in an- 
swer to an application, which had been made for the use 
of the buildings, at Fort Richmond near the narrows for 
tlic use of the sick, in case it should be deemed expedient. ' 
to resort to tliat measure. His Excellency most cheer- 
fully granted the request, under a full conviction, that thf 
public property would be taken care of. 

A communication was received from J. R. Burdett, 
Esq. an authorised agent of the Board of Health at Phil- 
adelphia, novrjai the Mansion House in this city, request- 
ing information as to the nature, extent and origin of the 
lever, which had commenced in Rector-street. TIiin 
was referred to the President of the Board and Health 
Commissioners. 

A paper was read from Dr. John C. Strcebel, commu- 
nicating a recipe for the cure of the Yellow Fever ^ which 
was ordered to be laid on the table. 

Alderman Taylor moved, that the infected district 
be fenced up, on which proposition considerable discus- 
sion took place, particularly as it respected the bounda- 
ries, &c. Aldermen Fairlie and Paulding as well as the . 
Resident Physician, opposed tiie motion, on the ground, 
that for so little cause, the Board would not be justified , 
In striking so heavy-^ blow at th<r commerce of this largr 
4i8tri(t. 

D 3 






» 



30 .4N ACCOUNT Ot 

The Ptesidenl anil Aldermiui Taylor were in fivour \ 
«flhc motion. The funner had proposod ll on the lA^' 
insl.int. tt was observed, that in oliier cities eoddiBl, 
la this city in the year 1819, such a caursc liod b«eDli- 
Irndtd wi^i llie moat salut^try consequcnciK. It wu ' 
teadily ailinittEd, llmt oi>r Physicians liad been then dS 
agreed wiih re^tpccl to tlie nature of the di»eas« ; but ihtl 
now ihoiigh " doctors differed," they all united Hi iWi 
epiniuu, viz. that the ataioejijierc in that district wat ii>i> 
f pure and dangerous. 

[ The raotioD was carried and tlie Tollowing district it- 
dered to be fenced in, via- Recior-street, at iKe intenee- 
tion of Liumbcr-slrcet, Washington-street from I*ierN<i4 
3 and including No. 4 ; and Greenwich^treei, Btlhcio- 
tGraectionof Carlisle and Washingtan-streeta. 

On the Stli August, there was no case reported. Tha 
following occurred on tlie 9th, the Resident PhyMcian 
leponed that Miss Roberts, at No. 38 Lumbcr-slniel) &, \ 
reedy in the rear of Trinity Church was sick of Yellow 
Fever. He also stated, that Doctor Boyd hnd reponeU 
ro him the three following cases, viz. Miss MuchetUal 
the comer of Rector and Lumber'Streets, who had ben 
moved to Newark ; Miss Myers in Lumbernitrcet, third ^ 
door from Rector-street and Mrs. Taylor in Rector-slreei|^ 
neict to the corner of Green wich^trect, who was sent tra 
Harlaem. Dr. Perkins informed the Board, thai Mr.l 
Ward at No. 36 Lumber^street, was sick of Bilious MwJ 
Hgnant or Yellow Fever. Drs. Hosack and Francis r^T 
jwrted the case of Mrs. Van Winkle, at No. 35 Wanen- 
street, whose symptoms had, on that day, become favQUi> 
able. The ^ily had removed from Greenwich neai J 
Rector^treet a few days before, and Dr. Congor report^ I 
cd James Turner, at No. 1 -15 Orango-street, who h«4!l 
hiely been at work at the foot of Reclor-slreet, as beinn 
lick of YitIIow Fever. M 

A motion was made, that some of these caaes should 
be referred lo the Resident Physician. Thai grnllemaa 
ohservei), that this eounie could be no longer necessary. 
-Cl was now agreed on all hnnds, that tbe Yellow Fever 
was in the city, and it wouiti therefore, be pro)>er, thai 
ifce reports of respectable physicians should be rewivrd 
by the Beafdf U aacc. Tbis wa« agreed to. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 3J 

As the diversity of opinion, which had, at first, exists 
ed concerning the character of the disease^ which had 
Commenced its ravages amongst us had now ceased, I 
3hall not deem it necessary to notice the cases as tliey 
inay hereafter occur daily, unless something pecuUar be 
attached to them. It may be proper to observe however^ 
before I prpcced farther, that there must have been some- 
thing peculiarly noxious in the state of the atmosphere iik 
Rector-street and its immediate vicinity, as every case o| 
the disease had eiflier originated in that small spot or 
could be evidently traced to have proceeded from it, and 
that while tlie devouring pestilence was spreading death 
and destructiop in that quarter every other part of the 
city was fully as healthy as usual at this season of the 
year. It is, likewise, repiiarkable that in all places to 
which the infected had been removed^ whether in the 
city or country, although they ipay have died of the dn 
sease, there had not, at that time, been a single ii^tance^ 
of its having been communicated to any one. It was 
farther well known, that a gentlemen from this city had 
in the month of August, gone to Boston, where he took 
his lodgings in one of the most genteel hotels, in which 
there were a great many boarders, tliat he was there ta- 
ken sick of Yellow Fever and died ; but that no one of 
(he ipm^tes had suffered the least inconvenience, ia 
consequence of that circumstance. In the year 1799^ 
when this dreadful disease rfiged so terribly in Philadel- 
phia, so great was the panic, which had seized, npt only 
ihe vicinity of th^t city, but I may say, the whole conti- 
nent, that it was extremely difficult for the unfortunate 
ftigitiyes to find a place of refuge ip any quarter ^ but ex- 
perience has shewn that the fears, which appeared, up- 
on that occasion were entirely groundless, and that in cases 
of the prevalence of an epidemic in a city, the inhabi- 
tants of the country have little or no reason of being 
afraid to receive the sick into their houses. It may^ 
therefore, be presumed, that such iphuman caution and 
barbarous measures as were adopted ip the year 1793 
w ill never again disgrace our couptry. 

With respect to tlie inhabitants, who resided in the ib- 
ftcted district, as it wi^ yery properly called^ there wera 



92 AN AeCOUxVT OF 

many who continued to remain and to prosecute their 
usual business, notwithstanding the earnest and repeated 
admonitions of the Board, that they should provide for 
the safety of themselves and families by an early removal. 
Of these, there were not a few, whose circumstances were 
so easy, that they could have complied with this advice 
without much inconvenience. They were lulled, how- 
ever, into a fatal security, and several paid foir their ob- 
stinacy by the loss of their lives. Thei-e appears to be a 
propriety, in recording this fact, which is, at present, well 
known to oiur fellow-citizens, as it is hoped, that, in case 
of the occurrence of another calamity of the kind, it may 
serve as a solemn admonition to all persons, that it would 
be their duty, as well as for their interest, to comply with 
the friendly admonitions of the guardians of the public 
health, who, it cannot be supposed, will Qvcr make an 
alarm without due cause. I may farther say, with con- 
fidence, that with respect to our late caLamity, by far the 
greatest part of the evil, which ensued, might have been 
averted by a speedy departure of the inhabitants from 
the infected district, as it is a fact, which cannot be con- 
troverted, that ajire, however kindled^ cannot continue 
to hum, without combustible materials. Had this sim- 
le truth been duly attended to, the lives of many valua- 
>le citizens would have been saved, and thaUdreadful 
alarm which ensued, and occasioned the removal of many 
thousands of our inhabitants to the great injury of their 
families, the almost total suspension of trade, commerce 
and manufactures, and a damage to our city, which it will 
f oquire some years to repair, might have been prevented. 
I cannot help censuring the conduct of those, who from 
an ill-timed economy, chose to remain in the infected dis- 
trict and to pursue their usual business to the great dan- 
ger of their own health and that of their families. They 
ought to have recollected, that " self-preservation is the 
first la\» of nature,'' and that the earning of a few hun- 
dred dollars, was an object of trivial importance when 
put in competition with the loss of life. But by continuing 
in this spot, they absolutely manifested something, which 
(icemed to border on insanity. It was almost desert^xl, 
und if money was their object^ how or from what ciwto- 



I 



THE YELLOW FEVER. S.^ 

jpiers could they naake it ^ But^ alas ! i^ toQ qften hap* 
pens, that ^^ men are lost fpr want of thought," 

But whilst I blame thase, who remained i() the infected 
(iistrict, after the sole^in admonitions, wl^iph they had 
received tp leave Jt, there were others, ^hos^ conduct 
was ^till more reprehensible^ and ^ho paid dearly for 
their temerity. Several persons, chiefly young men, 
actuated by an idle curipsity, or, perhaps, led by that 
propensity, which is so incident to h\iman ns^ture, to 
do that, which we are forbidden, entered the interdicted 
district, and soon afterwards paid for their folly by the 
loss of their lives. I do not say, th^t when a man is d\r 
rectcd by public authority to visit an infected spot, he 
ought not to go. Jle is then on duty, epgaged in en- 
deavouring to promote the welfare of his fellow creatures, 
and may reasonably expect the protection of his God 5 
but he, who goes to such a place merely to see it, be- 
cause he has been told, that he ought not to go there, 
or more probably to shew himself as a braggadocio, can 
have no such confidence. 

After these observations, which I trust will not appear 
to be improper, I return to the prqcef dings of the Board 
of Health. 

A letter was read from the Health Commissioners of 
Boston requesting information, respecting the character, 
degree and extent of the feyer in this city, that they might 
be enabled to adopt suitable measures for their own safe« 
ty, without resorting to unnecessary st0ps, which might 
interrupt the intercourse between the two cities. This 
letter was couched in the most friendly terms and ^ suit»^. 
ble answer was read and ordered to be transmitted. 

The Board then directed an extension of the limits of 
the infected district, viz. that they should go so far as to 
include Rector-$treet to Broadway, and Lumber-stree^ 
to Broadway. 

The reason of this extension is easily explained. 
Some cases of, fever had made their appearance, at a 
short distance, to which it had been at first confined, ' 

On the 1 0th of August, Doctor Noilson reported ]M>^ 
Kor, a mulatto woman, as a case of Yellow Fever. Sb» 
l|ad beei) takqi ?rck on the 8ih instant, while nursing Mi^c 



34 AN ACCOUNT OF 

Edwards, at the house of Mrs. Rose at the comw of 
Greenwich and Hector Streets ; and who had since been 
removed to a house in the rear of No. 65 Warren-street. 
This case is mentioned in order to shew, that there must 
have been in this house as well as in that of Mr. Reeder, 
or in the vicii^ity of these houses, some cause of a very 
deleterious nature, or so many persons would not have 
been there taken sick, almost at the same time. What 
that cause was, has not, as yet been ascertained; but as 
it might possibly be the means of preventing the occur- 
tance of a future calamity of the kind, it is a subject, 
which well deserves the most serious investigation. 
Whether it can ever be discovered, I do not pretend to 
say; but it is surely an object of so great importance, 
that it would be highly proper, that the experiment should 
J)e made in real earnest. 

The assistants of the Board reported, that they bad 
visited the infected district, in conformity to the direct 
tions, which they had received, to use their utmost ex- 
eFtions to prevail on the inhabitants to remove, and had 
been very successful, as they, in general, seemed to be 
willing to comply with the recommendation of the Board, 
They farther mentioned, that there were about six poor 
families, whom it would be necessary to assist hi moving 
and to provide for them in other respects. 

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted r 
^' Whereas the Board of Health is now officially inform- 
ed, that the disorder prevailing in Rector-streeet and its 
vicinity is Yellow or %Ialignant Fever ^ and being of tho 
opinion, that the removal of the inhabitants from that 
district of the city is indispcnsiblc. Therefore 

Resolved, that the Mayor be, and he is hereby autho- 
rised to cause the removal of all persons, who shaU be. 
found within the infected district, as now inclosed by tho 
fences erected on the several avenues, leading to the 
same. 

Resolved, that such of the inhabitants of the infected 
district, as are unable to provide for themselves, be 
permitted to occupy either of the Pubh'c Buildings, at the 
Narrows, belonging to the State, or the buildings pro- 
4^od by this Board, at Kipp's Bay. under the direction. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 3i 

of the Committee on that subject^ and that the Commis-' 
sioners of the Alms-House be instructed to furnish what 
may be deemed necessary for their sustenance, foi that 
establishment, should the circumstances of any require 
that assistance." Here was manifested a degree of hu- 
manity, which abundantly speaks for itself. 

Rcsolvedy that in the case of foul gutters and other nui- 
sances, where the owners do not comply with the recora* 
mendation to remove or correct them, the assistants of 
the Board shall enter complaints against them to the At- 
torney of the Corporation. 

A report from Dr. Bayley, our Health Officer at the 
Quarantine Ground, was read and occasioned some 
debate. 

The Recorder moved, that, in consequence of said 
letter, it should be resolved, that no vessel arriving from 
warm chmates, and which had been subjected to all the 
piu'ifj'ing regulations at the Quarantine Ground, should 
be suffered to come up to die wharves of this city, with- 
out permission from the Board of Health, and in case 
that they should do so, that they be directed to move iw- 
niediatdy.^^ 

In opposition to this motion, it was said, that a mea- 
sure of this kind was altogetlier unnecessary, as it had 
been clearly proved in the case of the vessel called the 
Enterprise, that, during the warm weather, it is impos- 
sible to cleanse an infected vessel thoroughl}'. 

That ship had underwent all the usual methods of pu- 
rification; but immediately after the men returned on 
board, a number of them were taken sick and the officers 
were again obliged to send them ashore. 

After some further discussion, the motion was varied 
so as to read thus : *^ that no vessel from foreign ports 
shall be permitted to come to the wharves of this city, 
without permission from the President and Health Com- 
missioners." 

On the 11th of August, little business was done. The 
principal occurrences were as follow. A remonstrance 
was received from sundry of the iniiabitants of Warren- 
street against the removal of sick persons, into that neigh- 
bourboody which was Laid on the ts^blc, 



%6 aK account of 

And the following gentlemen were appointed as a feom-» 
mittee to provide for those removing from the infected 
district, who may be destitute of the means of providing 
for themselves J viz. Aldermen Wyckoff, Williams and 
Taylor, 

On the 12th of AiigUst, k fenionstratice was received 
from sundry of the inhabitants of the Ninth Ward Against 
/ the occupation of the house at Kipp's Bay, which wa» 
laid on the table. 

The Recorder moved, that a committee should be ap- 
pointed to inquire into the expediency of prohibiting any 
further intei'iiients in Trinity Church Yard. The motion 
was adopted, and the Recorder, Alderman HtiU and Dt, 
Dyckman appointed to compose the said committee. 

On August 13th, the following report was read. 
" The Recorder from the committee, to whom was re- 
ferred a resolution of the Board, directing them to inquire 
into the expediency of regulatinjr or preventing the inter- 
ment of the dead in Trinity Church Yard, during the 
Continuance of tlie present epidemic, reported, 

That they had ascertained from the returns of the Sex- 
ton of Trinity Church, that there had been buried in the 
yard thereunto belonging since the first day of May last, 
one hundred and forty-seven persons. 

That they had also ascertained from different sources^ 
6n which they thought, implicit reliance might be placed, 
that the yard of that churcli was, at times, offensive to per- 
sons in its vicinity and that in the evenings especially, 
the exhalations had been such, as, perhaps, to have been 
dangerous to the health of the citizens in its inmiediate 
iipighbourhood. 

They further recommended to the consideration of the 
Board, the following particulars, viz. that as long as bu- 
rials should take place in that church yiird, a crowd of 
persons will be crowded very near to the infected dis- 
trict and in many places, not more than 80 feet from 
the residence of persons, who have sickened with Yellow 
fever. 

The Committee likewise, reported that they had con- 
ferred with several highly respectable gentlemen of that 
church, who gave it as their decided opinion, that toy 



THE Y£LLOW f E\1:R. 8? 



,« 



l^casure, which tht Board might deem essential for the 
preservation of the public health. The committee, 
therefore recommended the following resolutions^ yiz. 

That no grave be petmitted to be opened or dug iri 
Trinity Church yard, until the further order of the Board 
of Health, under the^encr/Zy of one hundred doUar%^ and 
also tl^at any sexton or other persons, who shall permit 
any biirial in the said Church yard, in violation of the 
above r^olution or who shall assist in opening or dig- 
ging any grave there, shall be liable to tlie same pdtialty. 
It was further resolved, tliat, in case any vault should be 
opened in Trinity Chilrch during the warm season, for 
the interment of any person, it be recommended to the 
citizens, not to follow it in the yard. 

The report and resolutions were adopted, as also a r€-> 
quest, that the Common Council would pass an ordi- 
nance, by which the penalties before mentioned, could 
be enforced. Tiiis was complied with at ihc next meet- 
ing of the Board. 

On August 14th, the President after mentiohing a few 
reports, read one of Dr. Neilson^s respecting Mary Woods, 
who was sick at No. 130 Green wicli-street, with symp- 
toms of Yellow Fever. She was sent to the buildings at 
the Narrows, and was, as I believe, the first patient, who 
went to tliat place. Previous attention had been paid, 
however, to get the establishment on a proper footing, 
and she was, no doul)t taken much better care of than 
she would have been, if she had remained in the city. 

The President suggested the propriety of suppi'essing 
the names of persons reported as sick of YelloW Fever. 
He thought it could do no good, and that, if continued, 
it might be the means of distressing the persons' alHicted 
as well as their friends. Alderman Fairlie stated, that 
he highly approved of this course^ dial he had made tlirt 
suggestion on a former occasion and continued of the 
same opinion still. He said, that the papers often pre- 
cede the sick to the places, where they mignt be received, 
and if the names df the afflicted were mentioned, it mi^rht 
do injury instead of good. It was then carried, that the 
jiames of the sick should not hereafter be published. 

The President stated, tliat there had been many com^^ 



3ft AN ACCOUNT OF 

plamts against the physicians, who, it was believed, 6\i 
not report all the cases of Yellow Fever, which came to 
their knowledge. He deemed it an object-of importance^ 
that, in this respect, they should be compelled to dis- 
charge their duty. It was observed, that the law, which 
had been enacted, some years ago, upon that subject, 
was fully sufficient and that there wa» no necessity for 
^ny new regulations. 

The Board met on August 15th, when reports were 
received from two physicians, respecting two persons^ 
whom they stated to be sick of Yellow Fever, the for- 
mer at No. 27 Mulbefry-street, the latter at No. 6 Roose- 
velt-street ; but they had both been in the infected dis- 
trict a few days before. A Mr. Ackerly a clerk in one 
of the public departments in the city of Washingtonj 
about seven days ago, had landed in or near the infected 
district, and lodged in a house near Canal-street, where 
he was taken ^cfc of Yellow Fever on the 4th day after 
his arrival and died on the third day thereafter. 

A young gentleman had been taken sick- in Carlisle- 
street, about three days before. The family physician 
was sent for ; but did not chose to venture into the infect- 
ed district. In order, therefore, that the aid of this res- 
pectable physician might be obtained, the youth was sent 
out of town. On the day thereafter his brother sickened 
at the same place and was, likewise, forthwith sent to the 
country, where, in a short time, they both recovered. 

August l6. Two cases were reported, one of which it 
may be proper to mention, viz. Robert Newell at No. S8S 
Greenwich, who was stated by Dr. Brush to be sick of 
Yellow Fever. TWs man had lately been employed on 
board of the Steam Boat William Penn, and had been 
within a fortnight in the infected district, where he 
went upon no kind of business ; but merely that he mighl 
have it to say, that he had been there. The Resident 
Physician, who had, likewise, visited him, said, that there 
was no doubt of his case being that of Yellow Fever. 
' August I7th, Dr. Neilson reported that a woman was 
sick of Yellow Fever at No. 82 Cedar-street. She had 
been employed jn attending the sick, at the house of Mrs. 
Rose in Rector-street, a house, which appears to have 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 3Q 

been, In a peculiar manner, a den of pestilence. Anotlv> 
er case was reported by Dr. Francis of a person at No. 
39 Chapel-street, who had been frequently in the vicinity 
of the infected district, a few days before. 

A letter was read from Dr. Bailey the Health OiHcer, 
requesting the opimon of the Board respecting tlie car»# 
goes of vessels, which he might deem to contain matter of 
contagion or infection and asking that they woidd be 
pleased to advise him how he should act in such cases. 

Alderman Fairlie was opposed to making any further 
regulations on the subject. His only recommendation 
would be, that the existing health laws be rigorously en- 
forced. The Board of Health he said, was not a profes- 
€ional body, iior could they undertake to decide upon the 
origin, nature or extent of infection or contagion, espe- 
cially as they were questions, which had not been settled 
by tlie faculty, and in which, he believed, that they had 
made no material progress for the last twenty rseven years. 

Dr. Dyckman made a few remarks on the subject and 
then offered the following resolutions 

*^ Resolvedj that it is the opinion of this Board, that no 
part of the cargo -ef any vessel coming within the 6th sec- 
tion of the Health Law be permitted to be brought into 
ihb city, if the Health Officer suspects, thatsuen cargo 
may convey with it infection or contagiea." This was 
adopted. 

A communication was received stadng, tiiat a corpse 
followed only by one man, had, on that morning, at an 
early hour, been brought to Potteraf* Field and left expos- 
ed above ground. The body still remained there and no 
one would go to bury it. The Assistants were directed 
to attend to this case, which was done immediately. It is 
not very easy to account for this circumstance. There 
is in all cases, a note required from the physician or some 
other person stating the disease, of which the patient had 
died, and an order from a magistrate directing the inter- 
ment, but here it appears, that neither of thesjs regul^ 
tions had been attended to. 

August 1 8th, Doctor Hicks reported a man, who had 
been removed from No. 55 Washington-street to Bank- 
«trect; also liijs daught.er Mary aged abgi|t 7 year&, both 



40 AN ACCOUNT OF 

ttf whom bad taken sick on the day precedipg- The 
person allqded to was a grocer and in easv clrcumstan- 
f.tances. He had heen repeatedly urged by the officer; 
of the Board to leave tlie infected district 3 but their ad- 
vice was in vain. In spite of the earnest solicitations of 
itthese gentlemen, as well as some of his warmest friends 
Jfie remained inflexible and continued in his habitation till 
be received a peremptory order /rom the Mayor to quit 
it. He is now numbered among the dead and might have 
very probably been still alive, if he had taken the advice, 
which had been given to him, in time. A report was 
also repoived from Dr. Pprkins of a lady sick at No. 171 
^^reenwicli-street, who had moved on die l6th from No. 
1 11 in the same street, which is within tlie prescribed 
district. 

August lOthi the Resident Physiciaq, to whom had 
been ref<grred the two cases reported by Dr. Hicks, in 
Bank-street, pp yesterday, declared, that they were de- 
cided cases of Yellow Fever. Dr. Donaldson reported 
 > , a member of the same family as above mention- 
ejd sick of ^^ a disease commonly called Yellow Fever J' 
(These were lih words) and also apother of the same 
disease at No. 44 Leonard-street. They were both re- 
ferred to the Resident Physician. Dr. Richard Seamaa 
reported the case of a man at No. 93 Harman-street. He 
is a dock builder and was in the infected district a few 
days before he sickened. 

A person at the corner of Washiiigton jpid Chamber 
Streets, who had been removed from the comer of Ceda^ 
and -jlrecnwich Streets was reported by Dr. Pascalis. 

August 20th, the Resident Physician, to whom the two 
casQs mentioned yesterday by Dr. Donaldson had been 
referred, reported that they had both Yellow Fever. 
He also reported, that one of the cases named by a citi* 
aen yesterday at No. 102 Water-street, was Yellow Fe- 
ver. All the calamity, which befel the persons above re- 
ferred to. Wtis clearly traced to the infected <listrict. 

Dr. Cutler reported a persqn sick of Yellow Fever at 
No. 5 Chape]-street. He had removed from No 32 Lum- 
i)er-street on the 15th and had been in the infected dis- 
fricj, s^ few (Jays before. Dr. Ificks, also^ reported tfte 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 41 

case of a person sick of Yellow Fever, at No. 40 Wash*- 
ington-street, who had been at work, next to Rector- 
street. He was taken sick on the 1 8th. 

August 2 1 St, Dr. Yates reported, that of three persons^ 
who had been removed from Carlisle-street to Amboy, 
about ten days since, one had died on the 19th inst. and 
that the others were convalescent, CCarlislrrstreet is in 
the infected district.) 

Some other cases were reported on this day, but ias 
nothing extraordinary attended them, it is deemed unne- 
cessary to notice them. 

Orders had been given to the Assistants of the Board 
to arrest, such siispicious persons as might be found lurk- 
ing within the limits of the prescribed district. They on 
thb day, laid hold of two of this description, whom the offi- 
cers of the police ord^ed to be confined for sixty days.* 

August 22d. On this day three patients were report- 
ed, one by Doctors Hardy and Hosack, one by Dr. 
Neilson and the thurd by Dr. Bergier. They had all been 
removed from the infected district. 

August 23d. Four cases were reported this day. 
Though they had sickened in different parts of the city, it 
had been ascertained, that they had come from the infect- 
ed district, a few days before they became indisposed. 

August 24th, Dr. John W. Francis, reported the case 
of Mrs. , at the corner of Washington and Liber- 
ty-streets. He suggested the expediency of removing 
her from the infect^ district and observed^ that she was 

* Tbe eonfinemeiK of Ihe persons above mentioned for so 
short a time can scarcely be deemed an adequate pumshinent. 
VThy were they theri^? Was ilfrom motives of idle curiosity ? This 
can scarcely be believed. No. They went for the purpose of mak- 
ing their own the property of the unfortunate absentees, ft 
would have been a happy circumslance, if the attempt to rob had 
rested here, but alas ! such is (he depravity of hu'uan nature, 
thai burglaries in the infected part of the city have been frequent, 
end the villians, who coqumitte^ them, have in several instanceii 
with a wantonness, not easily accounted for, destroyed that prop- 
erty, which Alley could not conveniently take away. A crime of 
this naUine, at a time so calamitous, deserves the most eon,dij(n 
punishment, and it is hoped, that all those, who have bfea cbu*- 
certied in these diabolical depredations will be soon apnrehefid^ 
ed aod meet with the reward due to ihelc vnot^^B. 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

a better situation in be removed llian b 

otlicfUy before. AMeiman WyckofT slated, thai 

fr hiisbnnd pcremplorily refiiaed to bave her removed. 

io order was taken upon the subject. Here dw Bosrd 

 ivilh delicacy and very probably, under all the cir- 

inccs of the case, with pr»[iriety ; but agT(!cal)ly to 

e 3'2d sfr^lon of tlie " Law reUiive to ibe public hnJiii 

'ccilyof I'l-iW-York, piissed 9lh Marcb, 1800"«lie 

It liavd bi;cn removed whether her busbiind was wiU 

g or not. The clause of the seetion to which I nllude 

n the following words, " tlie Mayor, Aldermen and 

^mmonalty shiJl have power in their discretion to re- 

B or Older the removal of ailpersom atul things in- 

l^ted by or tainted with pGStileoiial matter to such place 

V places, as may, in tbcir opinion, most conduce to the 

 m of the public health." Five other caws 

e reported. 

n the snme day Saturday, tlic S4lh Aiigust, wrcity 
esentcd the appearance of a town besieged. Fraus 
y break tilt night, one line of carts, containing Iwxea, 
Krchandize and elTects, were seen inoviRg luwaidt 
h Villageandtlie upper parlsoflhecity. Car- 
sand hacks, waggons and horsemen were scouring 
le'strcets and filling the roads ; persons with anxiety 
rongly marked on their countenances and with hurried 
*I were bustling through the streets, Tenipiir^ 
res and office* were erecting and even on the ensuing 
y t. Sunday) carts were in motion and the saw and hnni* 
r busily at Work. Within a few days thereafter, the 
"□use, the Post Office, ibe Banks, tlie Insnrance 
Mices, and tiie pruiters of Newspapers located them- 
H in the village or in the npper part of Broadway, 
re they were free from the un pending danger, and tbi-se 
;s almost instantaneously became the seat of the im- 
ie busiuess usually carried on, in this great metrapuUs. 
. A coinmunicHtion from Doctor D. W. Kissain was rfr 
iJved rcrnmmending the use of pyroligneous acid, and 
iBling, thftt tlie necessary expense would not eUMil 
[gkl hundred dollars. This was referrct} to the Health 



W ,A coDinmnication was also read from A. 1. W. Bullet, 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 43 

stating, that a cargo of hides had been deposited in a 
store in Rector-street, which had become so putrid an^ji 
nauseous as sufficiently to develope the cause of the pre^ 
vailing pestilence. He asked for an investigation of the 
subject, and suggested the propriety of setting fire to the 
premises, in case that hb information should be found 
correct. 

In confirmation of the above, the Mayor stated, that 
two gentlemen, whom he named, had called upon him 
in the morning, and stated facts and circumstances sub- 
stantially corroborating the above. He observed, how- 
ever, that the Assistants had diligently examined the disr 
trict and could not find the least trace of the supposed 
nuisance. He concluded by proposing, that the follow- 
ing notice should be published, which was unanimously 
agreed to. 

^^BoABQ OF Health, August 24, 1822, 
The Board of Health are desirous, that their Assistants 
should examine and ascertain whether any noxious or 
impure article has been left in any of the store houses or 
premises within the infected district, and in order that 
tills object may be efiected, they request the occupants 
within the said district, either to inform the President of 
the Board, at what place their keys may be found, or to 
leave them at the Mayor's Office properly labelled. 
Care will be taken, that no person shall enter the said 
premises, except the Assistants of the Board, and the 
keys will be returned to the owners.^' 

A communication was read from a citizen now residing 
at West Farms, recommencing, that the stems of tobac- 
co should be burnt in the infected cUstrict for the purpose 
pf purifying the atmosphere. This was referred to the 
Health Committee. 

Alderman Williams proposed, that, in future, the 
names of the sick should be published, as the public feel- 
ing seemed to call for the measure. Alderman Mead was 
in favour of the proposition, except in those cases, where 
the relatives or friends might be averse to the pubKcatioiv. 
The proposition, however, was not acted upon at thai 
meeting. 



A.N ACCOUNT OF 



f 

^^^B Augiisl 2Mh, one penton, wi>o hud passed a I 
^^^1 ml*out 3 week bcfure, at No. a Broadway, was ivpuried 
^^^1 KH being lick of VtillDW fever. Five other persona viw 
^^^H'teported hs being sick of the same disease, sutne of 
^^^H wliom had not been in ihe infected district. The<<e cases 
^^^1 were refeired to the ttesideDt Physician, wliooD the (kqr 
^^^H lollowing staled, that tiiey were ill of Bilious Remit 
^^H tenl Fever. 

^^^K August 26ib, two persona were reported by the Rea- 
^^^K deal Physician as being sick of Yellow Fever, wtio bad 
^^^V Iteen in llie iafecled district. Two other cases were f» 
^^^F porteit, one by Dr. Stevens, in Broadwiiy above Whiiv- 
^^V -street, &oni No. 101 Broiidway, the other by Doctor 
^H Ilieks, at No. 12 Thames-street." 
^^K The Committee of Health, to whom bad been referred 
^^B 4he communication of Doctor D. Kissam recoaunaidillg 
^^^H the use of the pyroligneous acid, to pui'ily the inUKted 
^^^H region, reported, that not being profession^ men, they 
^^^F had referred the subject to Doctor Hosack Ibr his opbilon, 
^^^ which bad been received and was read to tite Board by 
the Mayor. Doctor H. concurred in opinion whli Bf. 
Kissain, respecting the sanative qualities of (be acid, 
gave a learned description of its iiroperties, and recoin* 

P mended it as highly useful in purifymg sewers and shi}M 
Bi Quarantine. He observed, tliat it was an excellenl 
•siiliscptic ; but did not readily assume the constitiwat 
properties of vapour, so that its effects in purifying tha 
air might be very doubtful. Od the whole, he suggeiKd 
the propriety of a timiied experiment. 

 Oa Ibe Sfltb A'lguit, we were libeivisH inforinei] or liw fol- 
lowln; fKOI), in Ihe Evening Pait of thai dnls, vii tliHt two oT 
Mr, Taytor'irsniity, who liad re moved from No. Ill Qracnwigh- 
(Irvtt Ijniween Rrclor and Thamei-al reels, > few day* Hneei tr* 
■i"k Bi Tappan. They remained four or five days ia th- lubic)«4 
Iricl nflerll was fenced up, and did n' -■" "- 



Taylor Wat taken down With fever, who haisii 
Mt E 



,wyMalie, wu foDtid deadiobiilii 
■SlUO'ty removed 10010 Jayi before, a 
'^' 'la lake cnre of hie bcKioew- i 

ibedkid, eaniinl be a«cerlainp<l likc mnoy oiuersi tie bid 

_ nee lo |lie diseaw wbicb prevaiiei! iii iliat neicbooiMo?, 

•ad paid fui his temcriiy with the loii of hii lite. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 45 

The subject was refened back to the same committee 
with powers to confer farther witli D|r. Hosack, and to 
net in the premises as to then^, in their discretion, might 
appear proper. 

Alderman Fairlie moved, that, in future, the names 
of physicians reporting p2][jses of Yellow Fever be omitted, 
He stated it as a possible event, that empjo-ics, who had 
convalescent patients might report them as cases of Yel* 
low Fever, in order to gain a temporary celebrity froni 
the publication of their names in the papers. The mp« 
tion was adopted. 

August 27th. On this day, notliing remarkable oc- 
curred. Four cases of Yellow Fever were reported, one 
of whom from No. 84 Broadway had, on the day before, 
been sent to the Quarantine Ground. 

August 28th. Four cases were reported. Now it 
evidently appeared, that the disease began to spread, as 
one of the sick persons resided at No. 35 Pearl-street, 
^d had not been nearer the infected district tlian Wiley 
and Halstead's store, at the comer of New and Wall 
Streets. 

A communication was received from the Reverend IVf r, 
George Upfold, rector of St. Luke's Church, suggesting 
the expediency of closing St.. Paul's Church, for the p]]&- 
sent. No cH^der, however, was taken on tlie subject, sus 
it was not doubted, that the vestry, who were well knowq 
to be a very intelligent body, would do that which was 
proper on the occasion. Here it may pot be improper to 
observe, that from this time, divine service was discon- 
tinued in all the places of public worship in the lowep 
parts of the city. This was, undoubtedly proper; fop, 
though every christian must consider it as an incumbent 
duty tQ meet with his brethren on the first day of tlie week 
to render thanks to the great Jehovah for the favours he 
lias conferred upon him and to implore his mercy and 
protection in future ; yet in the case of pestilence, the 
assembling of a large Cody of people must be obviously 
improper, and tbe pious man will remain at home and 
adore his Creator in his closet. 

A report was read from the Assistants of the Board, 
stating that they had examined with the utmost care ^Ke 



46 AS ACCOUNT Of 

fitoresin the infected district, and that no damaged Udei 
were to be found within them. 

A long and very interesting comniunication from Dr. 
Alexander H. Stephens was read, expressing it as hit 
opinion, that no practical benefit could arise from the use 
of the muriatic gas, and but little from the use of tlie py- 
roligneous acid in purifying the infected district, lie be* 
lieved, that the only effectual remedy, for that purpose, 
would be the application of some im'permeable coveriog 
upon the surface of the ground. This was referred to 
the Health Committee. 

August 29th. Eight persons were reported as being 
sick of Yellow Fever, all of whose cases were traced to 
the infected district. 

Alderman Mead moved, that the names of all the cases 
reported be published, unless a particular request should 
be made by tlie relatives to the contrary. The Recorder 
tliought that the names of the physicians and patients 
should be published together, as, in his opinion, there 
was no need of concealment. Alderman Hall spoke in 
favour of the motion. He said, that it was the duty of 
the Board, to be guided by the will of their constituents, 
and he was persuaded, that, in the present instance, a 
vast majority of the citizens wished, that the names of the 
sick should be published. The motion was carried. 

It was then moved, (hat the names of the physicians 
should be published; but this motion was lost by the cast- 
ing vote of the President. 

The following resolution was passed, viz. that the phy« 
slcians be requested to communicate to the Hoard the 
names of all their patients, who may die of Yellow Fever, 
in order that they may be published. 

The permission to publish the names of persons repor- 
ted as being sick of Yellow Fever was certainly very ju«- 
dicious. A vast majority of our fellow citizens disappro- 
ved of the vote for suppressing then>. The dissatisfac- 
tion was universal, and the very circumstance that any 
thing was suppressed, ^ave great cause of alarm. In a 
case of this kind, it will ever be found to be the best poif 
Key to disguise nothing, if the object be to prevent un- 
necessarv alurjii. 



THE YELLOW FEVER- 47 

August 31sU Three cases were reported, concerning 
whom it is unnecessary to make any observations. 

The Assistants reported, that they had inspected foui* 
more stores in the infected district, and had been able to 
discover no putrid hides nor any other substance, wliich 
could possibly infect the atmosphere. 

A very interesting communication was received from 
Dr. Samuel Ackerly, expressing a disbelief in the prac- 
tical utility of the pyroligneous acid in purifying the at- 
mosphere of this infected district. He said that he had no 
belief in the doctrine of contagion, and that all the cases, in 
the present season,had tended to confirm him in his opinion « 
He was willing to believe, that the prevailing disorder 
was imported ; but he enumerated sundry causes, which 
have a powerful agency in keeping it alive and spreading 
it after it has been introduced, such as narrow srtreets, 
dirty lanes, filthy sinks, burying grounds, &c. He men- 
tioned particularly the burying ground of Trinity Churchy 
and, in general, the impropriety of allowing cemetries 
to be continued in large cities. By these, he believed^ 
that the watei was rendered bad and that noxious exha- 
lations would arise through the earth from decayed bodies. 

Having proved, as he believed, the uselessness of the 
pyroligneous and muriatic acids, he recommended the 
free use of lime, charcoal, ashes, and tan or oak bark, to 
counteract the noxious exhalations arising from the cau- 
ses above mentioned. The antiseptic qualities of the vc* 
getable alkali contained in ashes, charcoal, and oak bark, 
he said, were too well known to need any comment* 
The streets should be covered with the t)ark, and sinks, 
privies, cellars, &c. should be purified with lime and 
charcoal mixed with ashes, &c. This was referred to 
the Health Committee. 

Dr. Ackerley's mode of arresting the progress of the 
fever was, at the time he suggested it, in general, deem- 
ed to be a visionary project, and excited no great inquiry 
into its utility. To his plan, the Board, however, in a 
great measure resorted, at last, and I believe, that it is 
now the opinion of many, that it was the means of arrest- 
ing the progress of the disease, and rescuing from death 
a number of valuable lives. Of this subject, however, I 
have occasion to speak hercalkr. 



[ 4S 



AN ACCOUNT Of 






From the 2d lo tlie 6ili Septrmber nothing c 

tiary occurred. OntliatJny, a physician reporti^J a Mr. 

[ |. L. Bush, as being sick of Yellow Fever at No "6 MeW 

' itreel, who h.-id been employed in ihe Sugar-Hoow, in 

Llberty-xtrcet, between Nassau and Willtam-sTrests. A> 

this caiv was considered to be somewbiit out vf the in* 

ftcted district, it was, on motion of Alderman Wjtiioff, 

htferrud to the Resident Physician, who, on the ensuing 

\ day, declared il to be a case of Yellow Fever. From 

 ftesialcmentof the patient, it appeared, that he had dm 

 Iteen lower ibiin the place of his em ploy men t for a motdli 
ftpast. Wne other cases were feported, on that day, sev- 
leriO of whom cav\d not hcII be traced to ilie infected di*- 
I tricl. The prosps'-is llierf run, wore a more Threatening 
I Espeaihenatanyfiiriacrp^rii)ri rjf our calamity. 

' On tlie same dny rt cninmimication was received from 
the Mayor and orck-it-d ti) be published. In this he rat- 
ed, that a numbi-r uf stores and oilier premises, which he 
pailicularly specUied, had been cjiamincd by the A^si«< 
b Innts and reported to biin as containing no article itiju- , 
I tiou« 10 tbc health of that part of the city known by OS i 
I Bameofihefu/cr/re/f/Mlrt'cf, and particulni'ly, thai tlierff I 
I were IN) /iirfeg slortdt/iere. He added^ thatasitwwdc- I 
Pttrablc, that every store in ihe district, should beexamin- 
medfinonlcr tliBtthe public might be satisfied whctlwf 
1 tmy putrid or nosioiis articles wcredeposited within them, 
■it H'ns recommended, that the owners of stores who bad 
Ihnrclofore omitted to leave their keys agreeably lo tho 
m notice of the Gourd of Hcaltli, be again rei|iirslcd to com- 

 |>ly with the same. 

r He stated, that several houses had been broken oj^n^ 
itt which although no great property had heen tldlen, 
jnuch wanton devastation had bwn commiitetl. He be- 
lieved, Ihftt the perpetrators of these villainies were boys. 
Up was correct, in his opinion as four yoiing men une «!• 
ready in the Stnte Prison condemned lo hard labour for 
fourteen years for the commlstiiun of this atrocious offence. 



September !)lli, a resoliiT 



B presenl"il by the Re- 



rotder, that a committee bo appointed lo take InlD c 
' lidemtion the applit * * 



leofihemcsns, which 



had been suggested I'j the Board for eradifntinf the dl* 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 49 

iease n<)W prevalent in a part of this city. The motioa 
was not then carried ; but adopted on the 1 1th, ^?hen a 
committee consiisting of the Recorder, Alderman Hall 
and Alderman M'Queen were appointed, and the sum o f 
seven hundred and fifty dollars appropriated to carry in- 
to effect the objects of the resolution* 

From the 9th to the 14th September, nothing occurs 
red worthy of notice^ On the last of these dnys a report, 
of wliich the following is the substance^ was received and 
ordered to be published. 

TO THE PUBLIC. 

The speoial committee appointed by the Board of 
Health for the purpose of adopting such measures, as, 
in their judgment, may, by possibility, arrest the further 
extension of the prevuUng epidemic reported, that they 
had requested those persons^ who had the care of chur- 
ches in the city, to cause the burial grounds attached to 
them to be covered thickly with lime^ or charcoal, or 
both ; that they requested the proprietors of manufacto- 
ries, in which filth or impure air may be engendered, to 
order them to be thoroughly purified with ley, lime or 
pot-ash, and entreated their fellow citizens to cause ashes, 
ley, lime, pot-ash or charcoal to be freely used in their 
yards, privies and gutters. They further recommended, 
that aher they closed their houses at night, they should 
slack in their cellars or kitchens a small quantity of lime, 
which it was believed would tend to purify the air within 
doors. 

They reminded their fellow citizens, whose stores or 
cellars are situated near the margin of either river to an- 
ticipate, at this eason^ a heavy storm and a consequent 
rising of the tides, which might be attended with very 
pernicious effects, if means should not be previously used 
to avert the consequences.* 

After some other observations, they proceed thu?'. 
The fever has greatly exceeded its original limits. The 

* It would be well for tho«e, who reside ni^ar the margin of 
our rivers, to recollect, that towards the end of Sdptcuihrr fhry 
may always eipecf a storm. They should^ thcrefure eudeavour 
10 be prepared for it 

P 



ao 



AN ACCOUXT OF 



, fveallicr, from its estreine heat, is defmed, unprojiii'ioHK 
L4nilicyenr 1793, ihc fever cunlinucd I ill the lOib ofNu- 
'vcnibcr. On the tslof that inonih 11 persons died «( 
ihu disease, 7 on the second and 7 on the Ibnrtb. Illlb- 
kVPiln IK) other agent but frost haa been known to deMro;? 
V'Tcllow Fever. Ifno other agent can be fcunil, \vi? bnvc 
I  no alternative, but in patiently Bubmitling M all the in- 
3venieDces, thai must of neceasiiy aflli(;t mullitudeti ot 
[.I'amiliea driven from their bomea. 

" The committee ar^nat, however, without hope. E«- 
Biperience lias shewn, that one of the most awful diseus«*« 
i>vbifb ever threatened the hfe of man bas yielded (on 
I milU antidote. The nniitl poi is now haniit«$s. The ] 
J rroson why vaccuiation is a preventive, ive aire not pfT- I 
I juiitrd to know. We know the fact. This knowledge fl 
is the result of human labour and it ought to teach an en-- 1 
I lightened and pious coRimuniiy, (bat tbcy liave no right I 
I to give ihenisclves up to despair. I 

" The committee have adopted upon an eslmded phi I 
tie of the methods, which have been recommcndcdto I 
'est the farther process of the i^Kease. Oth(*r n 
I will be used. On their part, nothing sliall be intiltled. 
r They rely with coniideiicc on tbeir fellow-citixcns to M- 
P «ODd their efibrla. 

'* The coramitti^e arc (iHiy sensible of the difliciiltics 
^'tbfy have to encounter. The fever is wid(4y diigisedt 
^theheaiof tlie weather is great; the mcaim liicyempluy 
uncertain. The facidly in the healing art is divided id  
[^ir opbiion. Your Commiilee, however, nsk a proai|]l i 
rapliance wttli llieir recommeudaliou and tbcy tnutf 1 
^Ihai, under the favonr of Providence, lliey wUlbeciM' 1 
ft'bled'ta prevent the disease from reaching the yet bnJlby 
1. parts of our ciiy. 

RICHARD RIKER 
JAMES HALL 

ROBERT nrguEEN." 

Siicli was ibe address of the Select Comniitlee. They 
performed ihe duty assigned to ihrm, with a zeal and in> 
teUtgcncc, which did them tht? highest honour, And had 
the means, which tttcy employed been resorted lo In the J 
Itttlcr end of July, 1 think U highly probable, that lh« | 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 01 

fevcF; wliich commenced in Rector4treet, might have 
been speedily checked. 

In confirmation of this opinion, I shall here insert an ex-* 
tract from a letter written by Dr. Samuel Ackerly to Mr. 
John Griscom professor of chemistiy, which appeared in 
the Statesman on the 18 th October, in consequence of a 
difference between these two gentlemen respecting the 
best mode of purifying the atmosphere.'' Trinity Church 
yard" says the Doctor, "end several other grave yards, 
ivliich emitted septic exhalations have been covered with 
lime iind their putrid stench destroyed. The same hat$ 
been done with the cispool in Rector and Banker Streets, 
and otlicrs in the upper part of the town have not only 
been covered with lime, but the yards and gutters have 
been cleansed and lime strewed in the alleys, sinks and 
other receptacles of foul emanations. The Yellow Fe- 
ver has here been arrested and in a concentrated population 
of rising 2000.* Nuhing but die use of lime has been 
used in that quarter of the city, and in fact, the committee 
principally confined themselves to the use of lime.'' 

The Dr. proceeds ui his address to Mr. Griscom thus. 
^^ In your last communication you observe that the most 
certain mode of changing a poisonous state of the at- 
mosphere would be to throw into such an atmosphere some 
substance, which spreading throughout the whole mass 
of air, would come in contact with the deleterious parti- 
cles and by the effect of chemical attraction, neutralise 
their acrimony and destroy theur virulence." " Now," ^ys 
the Doctor, " lime is this very thing." I went into Broad- 
way one night three or four weeks since as far down as 
Courtlandt-street to observe Dr. Roosas' operations. — 
One or two casks of lime were emptied in a heap and 
water poured on to slack it. AVhen the lime had fallen 

* By a census, which was taken by me of (he inhabitants be* 
tweeii Henry- street and the East-river and l>etween Catharine and 
^ike-streets, by direction of the Special Committee, which wu 
delivered on the 13th October, there were 3000 found in that 
district and of these 9 were sick, of whom two only were afflicted 
niHh diseases, which could be supposed to be, in the, least degree 
dangerous. Amongst 600 people I>etween Barclay and Morrav* 
street?, where lime had beep Ircelj used, I did not find an indi- 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

3 powder, and while hot, ilie labourcrii scnttered B& 

 guiier and over the street and a di^'anbte rnoftM 

Di tiie hot time rose to the huusc lops, penetrated evet; 

ind corner and spread through tlie surrounding hU 

OBpUerc. 

KWhen I cnteitd upon this publication, 1 had delcrmin- 
llo give very little of my own opinion. I resolved to 
e facts and leave it with a judicious jnitilic lo draw 
r own conflusion. litre, however, I may be altowfd 
Blate, lh:it lime was, in the present InHlance, evideitllf 
great utility. Facts are stubborn lliings. And lei 
8 city or any other city, «hiih inny hereafter, have the 
IBisTortflRe to be afllictcd with V'ellow Fever r*5*rl lo 
M an antidote, on the very first appearance of the 
(order, and it is highly probable, that it would be 
Kedily eradicated. At all events llie expense will be 
Kti'ivial, in comparison of (he proposed benefit, that in 
ie, it would be unpardonable to omit maldiig tht 
berinienl. 

J'hc following was adopted gn the 13th] andordeifd 
•^ published. ' 

T/iP Itaard af Heallh to their Fcllote Citizent. 
^he Board have learnt with regret, that great excite* 
It niid alarn) has been inanLl'esl(<d by that portion of 
ir fellow citizens, who have removed or reside in the 
bur paj'ts of the city ; arisini;, as they have been iit* 
Einett, from the opinion, tliat several persona who have 
luved iVom the infected district with the prevailiag 
■rder upon them, and have located themselvt^s in their 
^ibouriiood, may be the means of xpre:ii)ing the tiH 
fi.cii<>u it) that part of the city. 

Tlie Ituiird believe ihnt l!ie pre.ient alarm is unfounded) 
rorn^jet ihcre Is no instance, wiiliin the knowledge of 
the Boiird, among the numcruiu ffmovnU wliich nnve 
oc^urrcil, where any part of the family, or ih» aiicndanU 
of the nick, have rontraeteil ihc di^rder iiut of the infect- 
ed district ; and it is therefore concluded, ibuJ ihe pro- 
sent disease, ^so fur at leant,) is not infections in a heal- 
tliy otraospiiere, The Biiard have nevertheless u*ed 
ew-ry rarains rompadble wltli propriety, lor the remavol 
«£tlK*it;lkt9lli« |tlws» ^vitkd iiM QmI jtur^Kiw a«i of 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 53 

the cky ; and consequently, M persons who could be 
brought to consent to the measure, all transient persons, 
and all those without fJBunilies or friends, have been re* 
moved. The Board feel every disposition to do all acts 
that they may be called upon by duty or propriety to 
perform, which will tend to allay the apprehensions or 
mitigate the afflictions of their fellow-citizens; but they 
cannot consent to exercise an authority, (without the 
most cogent necessity,) that shall tear from their friends 
or relatives a person suffering under disease, when there 
is no proof as yet developed, that there is danger to be 
apprehended by the neighbourhood, or even by the in- 
mates of the houses in which thesicluiess prevails. 

The Board have no- manner of doubt, that on reflection, 
the candor and good sense of that portion of their fellow 
citizens who may differ from them on this subject, will 
induce such to acknowledge that a compulsory removal 
of those whose friends and relatives have provided for 
tiiem an asylum in the healthy parts of our citj^, without 
thcu* consent, would be a measure so repugnant to every 
ieelJng of humanity, under present circumstances, tliat it 
ought not to be resorted to. 

By order of the Board. 

STEPHEN ALLEN, Pres. 
J. MORTON, Secr'y. 

On the 15th and l6th, nothing peculiar occurred, ex- 
cept, that the number of cases appeared to multiply and 
more difficult to be accounted for than tliey had been for- 
merly. On the last of these days, there were eleven casos 
reported and four deaths. 

On the iGth, the Common Council very humanely 
adopted the following resolutions. 

Resolvedy that in case any of the city watch, who may 
be employed by the corporation in the infected district .. 
shall be taken sick, upon application to the Board of 
Health, a physician shall be employed to attend such 
watchman at the expense of the Board. 

Reaohedy that the additional sum of one quarter dollar 
/or eaqh night shall be allowed to all the night watch in 
th^ furst watch districti till the further order of the Boaird. 

F 2 



AN ACCOUNT OP 

e days )jrevious ti> the adoption of ilicse | 
1 v^ry interesting leller addressed to (Jim 
ill til* tbc Guard, was received from Dr. tasca 
Bell he' suggeala some rules a^nd precautions K 
yicd by wmdinien, in ilie infected district. 
T is too long for insertion in this publication, \ 
!ent myself with afew extracts. Alter observiiif 
 act of swallowing certain specific gases, . 

;, that the danger of infection is nwwit J 

X or nut at all to be dreaded during n^ht (t 

s after sunnet, until a few hours aiter sui 

: those vapours are like all other eshalslto 

fth let down or precipitated by the cool ait of the li _ 

^ their disappearance is more particularly drpcnilcii an 

■lliis season of the year. Hence it is, that nan« of ibc 

ptclimen, who have been longer than a month eraployei) 

that district have sufTered the disease ina singU- instance. 

" It wa» owing" says he " to the subsidence of iiifcft- 

h cihalations, during the night and morning, ihnt a tnoxt 

pirable preservation took place in 1804, of all the bs< 

IS, ivho during the raging pestilence of the city tif 9e> 

le,iu Spain, continued lo supply the inhabitants with 

Bad before sun-rise. They all resided in anil came- 

duly from a neighbouring vlUiige, distributed tlieir bread 

lo their customers without esception of hmise, or penons, 

from whom they received paynient. Tliey were e 

|1 to return home before sun-rise and the ^ct isjl 

e than remarkable, that not one of them e 

^ened with the Yellow Fever. Yet," says b 

— -"-ly of Seville, containing about yo,000 ii*  




" Other rules and pr'^caulions may much diminlri 

Inger of infeciion, during the day time, provided ll 

',0 are exposed to it, are always in motion and wnlking 

hv highest pan orihc jtinvement, nvoidin^ to sit down 

rest on the lowest. They may also sliind mun- imfe- 

n high stoops, and if ihey assemble in any bouw for 

Bincss or rest, let them select the u|>pc-rraosl aud most 

wlicre ihey need never upprehenil Rny dan* 

\ good renson for all ihese pri^cautions is the nell 

' aed (mi of pestiferous gases a&J vapours, vh. tli*it 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 58 

heaviness of gravity, owing to which they nurely reach 
the head of an ordinary sized man." 
' After a number of very pertinent observations, on the 

. nature of pestilential gases, the Dr. says, *^ that Watchmen 
and day guards may rest confident, that no real danger 
exists beyond the limits of the infected district, m the 
worst parts of which they have no business to stand, and 

, in other parts they may be protected by standing to wind- 
ward of them." He further recommends to watchmen 
and others employed in the infected district, to benefit 
themselves by letting out water from the wells as often as 
they possibly can. 

" Running water," he observes, " is, at any time, a 
powerful purifier of air, as much as stagnant water must 
soon contaminate it with the substances it alters and de- 
composes in a sultry summer's day, and oppressive at- 
mosphere. Every body can judge and feel how grateful 
it is to walk on a clean pavement, well watered, the 
evaporation of which imparts freshness and elasticity to 
respiration. Such," he said, ^^were the remarks and 
precautions, which he wished to offer to those^ who in 
case of emergency might hesitate to repair to the infected 
district on account of personal danger. He hoped, also^ 
that the same observations, would be useful for all good 
watchmen, who deserved to be well rewarded, and at the 
same time instructed that they were not devoted to abso* 
lute danger. As the facts and principles, which he had 
endeavoured to explain were correct, he concluded by 
expecting, that every man would do his duty with more 
confidence, with fidelity to public authority and honour 
to himself." 

On the 20th September, the President presented the 
ibllowlng address to the citizens, which was adopted. 

Several cases of Yellow Fever having recently occur* 
red in Lombardy and Cheapside Streets, it has been 
deemed necessary by the Board to recommend a: removal 
ef the inhabitants of that vicinity, and it u, therefore, 
earnestly recommended to all persons residing in the vi- 
cinity of No. 4 Lombardy^street, or No. 12 or 1 6 Cheap-» 
side-street, to remove therefrom preparatory to such 
other measures as the Board may deQm ilttf^K«a»r3 v^ 



AN ACCOUNT OP 

lupt, to interdict the imcrcoucse with lliai dbtrict of irf*'' 
ty. Should any of the lamilies residing tn die nei^ 
Uirhnud of the jnieciion bt: so . ciruuniatiuiced as to Ix 
u proviile a pluce of n'ruge (ot iheniselvea, evtay 
.vilhiii the puwtT or the UoiuhI will b.e gireo tbcffl, 



Si:pteiiiber Unb, A report uf the Special Conuiiitiee 
isrtad, if which the fullowin<^ is na cibslmct. ll vm 
a tlie tnble for fiirilier conaideialion by the Uoiifd 
f the purpiKR ofadoptiDg such measures, as in Uuiir 
u'.al, may arresi the' furllicr exicnsian of the pr«- 
i; epidf niic. 

a their rcporl, ihey state, they are If d to belirve, tliat 

le of the meant, which have been employed to cliecL 

Hdvauce of Vcllaw Fever hiire beeii attended with 

eneficial results. The eptdemic was knowu to be in 

ilton-street on the 1 1th instant, aa on that day, Mbiy 

n wits reported to have sick<?ned of tliiU diiCHM cm 

' ea«t side of Broadway, aiid olber circunislaacct con- 

tirred to shew, that it must ihenh^ive been there. 

e materials used by the committee, were aj;plied ia 

U of Deekman, Fulton, Barclay, Dey and (Jouniiuufl 

ects and Broadway, Maiden-lnne and down Recioi- 

fct to the river. The chief agenta employed to arresi 

fi d'lsease were uR:jlacked lime, charcoal and luanpr\ 

Auxiliary measmvs were also resorted to, which 

luld be particularly explained in a future report. 

""le committee are of opinion, thai the experinienl 

d be pursued with nnahated vigour. And they 

1 earnestly urge, that a full and fair iriiil be made tt 

e of tlie acid fumigations, which have been propMed 

fxperionced and scien^lic men. Some of thcM, ihcv 

'it might be of benefit. They had been used will) 

d strongly recommended by gentlemen entitled 

idettce. 

w certain, they observed, thai the fever InJ 
n Lombardy, Clieapside and Baneker Sirevtt. 
is ciaiimliy alTorda an upporiunity to test the efficacy 
be mean* used. The thi<knesa of the population, lh« 
rawocsa of the streets and tlie filth which Is (her««l- 



THE YELLOW f EVER. 57 

lected, leaves us no hopes, if the epidemic be \th to take 
Its course, that any thing but frost will stop it. The 
committee were anxious to assail this infected spot. 
They also wished to make experiments upon many cel- 
lars and houses in different parts of the city, which are 
known to be filled with the poisonous infection. They 
believed, that such trials would be satisfactory to their 
fellow citizens, and might eventually lead to a discovery, 
which will enable us to arrest an evil, which more than 
any other threatens the future greatness and prosperity 
of the city. 

The committee, therefore, recommended, that for a 
purpose- so important, a furdier appropriation o f  j 
dollars. 

Iv. Iv11IvEav« 

ROBERT M'QUEEN. 

On the 25th September, eight cases were reported of 
Yellow Fever, two of whom, viz. Robert Williaips from 
No. 33 Market-steeet, and Frederick Boyce from No. 11 
Dutch-str^^t had been sent to the Marine Hospital. A 
gentleman was reported sick of the fever at No. 6 Lewis- 
street, who had removied from No. 3 63 Pearl-street on 
the 12th, and had not been below Beekman-etreet within 
20 days. Eliza, the wife of Robert Bayley, who sick- 
ened on the 23d mstant at No. 12 Cheapside-street, and 
Eliza the sister of the said Robert, who had sickened on 
the day following, were amongst those reported. -They 
had nursed Catharine Bayley, who had died in that 
house on the 21st, and had been both removed to No. 28 
Orchard-street. 

On the same day, a letter was received from the Health 
Officer stating, that Ann Dixon who had been received 
at the Hospital from Fort Richmond on the 24th, had 
died last night of Yellow Fever. Her husband, who 
had been received from the same place, died on the 27th«^ 

26th September, of nine cases reported, there were 
two somewhat remarkable, the one of Andrew Winslow, 
a coloured man near the African Church in Brooklyn, 
who sickened on the 24th, «nd had been in the habit cf 
passing from the village of Greenwich to No. 79 Pearl-^ 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

; the other vrns tlinl afSutnuel M. Isancx 
sent to llie Muine Hospital by ilie magistr^rK i 
jokiyn. Two cases w*re tefcfred lo th« RcsiJeal 

I Five CBseg of Yellow Fever had now appparel in 
Kfouklyn, four of which were trareil to Nc«.Ywrk. I^te 
Biienil health of the vilUge, honrever, was not, in tlie 
n«t RjTi^cted by that circmuxiancp. 
^ The rullowiiig statement oi'ihe cose of yir. Isaao wu 
pceived Irom the lleultli UQii-er. 

4UjVII.vktins (iroi;m>. 

Staten-hliMi!, S^ptemler 2itA, 183-2. 
B Dear Sir, 

' The niR.gUtraies of the town of Drooklyn »ciil bitl 

Might from that place to the Marine Ho&pitEtl, Sxmuel M. 

Twacs, whoia ill of Yellow Fever. Asyoii hnveiokeu 

hrery opportunily to examine into l!ie alleged cautm «f 

Tellow Fever, snd as it ia of the utmost im|KrrtiiDc«, Ifaot 

rery circmnstattce, which can, in the smallest Aepve, 

^otd any infonnation on the interesting subject of Y«)ltMr 

Fever, would be impliciJy investigated, f take the U- 

vty ofsendin^you the statenieni obtained from theuid 

,r. Isaacs, which 1 conceive to be worth exainiiuiifr inUr. 

His memory is soinewliat impnired by his disease, 

vhirh may cause some inoccuraey in the dales; but the 

Ttcts are probably correctly stated. 

He is a journeyman btucksmitb, nod lived witli Mr 
John Davis the foremnn of Mr. (Juick's shop, (roadi-ui.^- 
kcc in Groadxtrept.) at No. 42 AVasliingnm-siMwl, ami 
iie removed with Deun's family to Brooklyn itbnut ihr 
~12[h of August, to No, 7 Poplai^treet, lu that inwn} 
knt he conlinued to work daily at Mr. Qulck'n, tintil the 
■op was closed about four weeks ago, 
P lie went Willi Davis hi a bosi lo Ws house in Wasliinu- 
, about the 3d initiant, and ni;iiin to New-YorR 
■.street, on the Cth instant, and remulned iher* 
»ut a quarter of an hour ; this was the last time he wM 
the city. 

' U»vis sickened onihe !)lh or Ifth, and died on ihi' 
B9th. Klchclis Dtustey, o^d about 22 yeirs, ptdiitf) 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 6b 

sister Antoinette^ aged about 11 years, Inhabitants of 
Brooklyn, who^occupied with their family the same house 
as Davis, died of Yellow Fever the 22d instant. 

The young man had been often hi the city ; but Mr« 
Isaacs could not say to what part of it he had gone. He 
was inclined to believe, that the sister had not been there. 
The inhabitants were retaioved from the house yesterday^ 
by order of the magistrates. 

If this accoutit be correct, is it not probable, that Da- 
vis has introduced the disease into that dwelling. If the 
sister of Baisley has not been to the city, and her disease 
was Yellow Fever, in what manner did she contract it ? 

I do not think it improbable, that Mr. Isaacs has takert 
his disease from Davis, although 'there are instances of 
13 days having elapsed after exposure to the infected air 
of Yellow Fever; yet they are very rare, as you have 
noticed, this season. 

The most frequent period has been from four to seven 
days after their removal frohi the infected district. Mr. 
Isaacs has assisted Davis' wife in attending him, and he 
was the only person who laid him out, and in six days 
after he sickened (on the 19th instant). 

Although Baisley's family did not visit Davis, when 
he was sick, yet they were exposed to his bedding, which 
was put into the yard immediately after his death, and 
kept there some days. With great respect, &c. 

JOSEPH BAYLEY, 

HON. STEPHEN ALLEN. 

On the 28th September, four cases were reported of 
Yellow Fever, two of whom had been sent to the Qfiar« 
antine Ground, one from the infected iilj^trict, the other 
from 60 Broad-street. On the 29tli no cases were re- 
ported ; but two deaths. On tlie 30th there were six 
cases, one of which was stated to be convalescent, the 
other to be dead. Besides this last, there were four oth- 
er deaths reported. 

On the 30th September, the following was presented to 
the Common Council and ordered to be published. 

" To the Honourable the Mayor, Aldermen and Com- 
monalty of the city of New- York. 




AN ACCOUNT OP 



" The memoriHl of ihe : 

em Jcnomina lions of llii-: • i: .l'^i~»Isw 

iir honuutable body, tliiii ■: ■:■. v do (lie 

ngaml f'rovitknccof thr  . , ' i .: : i ,,. i i.,ir l*til 

I jesu« Chrisi," and tonfessing ns wp mmt, » tuininon 

criiiuuAUty tioil dvmedt in his sight, and visited nssrean 

I AritbonenrUiase ilesulutjiig scout^s, whirJi himstlfci- 

Ipressly chnlli'Dgos In hii word, not only »s a juiigment, 

J^f which he it the righteous disposer ; bin iw one oflA 

c jndgments," upon a community of transgresRon, 

_jj>nd knowing as we may, that his own invisible ngency 

ftppoinis and controls, in sovereign wisdom, all tiic series 

^fiiccondary causei, hoivever, complex aiift Inacrulll^ 

*" man, it becomes us, every way in our coUeelive 

;er as n city, and after tlie example of ancient Nineveh 

" humble ourselves undrrlhe mighty liand of God, lliai 

le may exnll us In diielime." 

" The reasons and propriety of such n geneml immil' 

1 before God arc sutfieiently obviouh, we fondly 

kDpe,to your honourable body. 

"Having thus suggested to your Honourable Soiiya 
b^asure wliicli we ronli>ie in your wisdom to approve, 
^canse it Keemed, :ill things considered, to be e.tp«dieDt 
' 'nciimbeni ; n measwr, which seems to he deoiaad' 
lit more by our present circumstances and ihcfl^ 
)f Divine Providence, than by the coniinon cniMcnt 
Rflho wise and the good and praylnp, that "the ~ ~ 
nhat is from above," may enlighten nil your d«'~ 
Uiii bless your administration, we subscribe 
'" mourable Sirs, your friends and fellow di 



J. p. Rmirt/n 


R. WCartee 


K. WaMurn 


Jaimet O. Ofl 


N. ilaa?* 


S. MartiHitalt 


.iiexandfir M'LrQti 


mSinm Gra 


11. Penfvrffrc 


haat Cftaw 


S. N. Rntem 


Samutl H. O 


S.iTiucl Natl, Jun. 


Wattl SlaSof 
Peter LuMm 


Mvh. S. M',rs,-!ui> 



I The Recorder then movf d the folIowinG rw(Jj 
[Thy Commin Council ronceiving it lo be ib< 
■eomnunity in a <ctuian of peciUtar alHlctiou U 



STHE YELLOW FEVER. «. 

ilieir social capacity in suppticating the favour of the Al- 
inighty to avert his judgment, and viewing the present 
visitation of sickness in our city as one of those events, 
which calls for the attention of the inhabitants, in implor- 
ing the Supreme Ruler of the Universe to stay the di- 
sease now prevailing amongst us. 

Therefore resolved, diat the Common Council ear- 
nestly recommend to the inhabitants of this city, to set 
apart and observe, Friday thellth October y as a day of 
public humiliation and prayer to Almighty God, that he 
would he pleased to interfere in our behalf, and arrest the 
prepress of the malady, and, in his infinite mercy, to re- 
store health to the city. And it is hereby recommended 
fi) all the citizens, to abstain from servile labour and un- 
necessary recreations on the above day ; and to devote 
tJie sn^e to religious worship for the purposes aforesaid. 

The question being taken on adopting the resolution, it 
was unanimously carried, and referred to his Honor the 
Maj^or to fix upon some day for the observance of the 
religious duties proposed. The Mayor, upon conversing 
with the Reverend the Clei^, fixed upon Friday the 11th 
instant, the day, which had been proposed by his Honor 
the Recorder. 

The day appointed for the performance of this solemn 
-duty having arrived, the plaora of worship, in the lower 
parts of the town, were not, as might reasonably have 
been ex])ectcd, opened ; but those in the upper parts and 
out skirts of the city were well filled by very respectable 
people, who were, no doubt, highly gratified in hearing 
the pious, pathetic and truly appropriate discourses which 
were then delivered firom tne sacred desks It is earnest- 
ly to be hoped, that the solemn truths then communicated^ 
^ay have made a deep impression on the minds of the 
auditors and be productive of good fruits in their future 
lives and conversation. . . 

On the 1st of October, tliere were no cases and tw# 
<leatlis. 

On the 2d October, six new cases were reported, of 
whom were John Hull a day and nitfht watchman, and 
ins wife, at No. 50 Pearl-street, and two persons, who 
hud b?cn mdved to the Qnaiantiiic Ground. John Led- 

G 



&2 AN ACCOUNT OF 

dy was reported to have died yesterday of Yellow Fever, 
at No! 28 Lombardy-street, without having had medical 
advice. His wife was taken sick soon after liis death. 
The following was read and ordered to be published. 

New-York f October 22d, 1822. 

THE BOARD OF HEALTH TO THEIR FELLOW CITIZENS. 

The report of Yellow Fever cases for several days hav- 
ing greatly diminished in number, it is to be feared, that 
^me of those, who have removed from the infected part 
of the city may be induced to return, without duly reflect- 
ing on the consequences, that may result to thems^ves 
and families. Years of experience confirm the fact, that 
heretofore, nothing has effectually eradicated the Yellow 
Fever, after it has once commenced its ravages, -except 
the appearance of black frost ; and that those, who have 
l)een so thoughtless and imprudent as to return to the city 
before the occurrence alluded to,, have dearly paid for 
fheir temerity by the sickness, and not unfrequently the 
death of some part of their families. To prevent this ca^ 
tastropho, the Board of Health eamsstly entreat their 
fcll9W citizens, who have retired from that part of the 
city known to have been infected, not to return to their 
<lwel]ing houses or stores^ until officially notified, that 
the danger has entirely ceased, &c.'* This address con- 
tains several other powerful arguments to induce the citi- 
'/ens to a cheerful compliance with the recommendation 
of the Board, 

On the 4th October, two cases and one death were re- 
ported. The two cases were those of Laura Lawler and 
fedwai'd • Kearney, who both sickened at No. 50 Pearl- 
street^ on the evening of the 2d uistant. 

The Recorder moved, that the sum of ^500 be granted 
io the committee for the purchase of lime to be made use 
of for purifying the atmosphere in the infected district. 
The motion wAs lost. The sum of ^-100 wiuj then jm>- 
4X)sed and ai^recd to. 

5th October. Three cases and three deaths were re- 
ported. One of these was announced as a case and death 
nearly at the same time, viz. Mary, the wife of (Jharles 
(^ PaiiO, at No. 12 Ferrv-strect near (> old-street. SIk* 



THE YELLOW FEVER. Of 

had been no nearer the infected district than the place of 
her residence. 

On the 6th there was only one case reported, viz. that 
of Letty Fairley at No. 28 Lomhardy-street. The four 
following cases were referred to the Kesident Physician, 
viz. John and James Yoorhees, comer of John and Nas- 
sau Streets ; William Roberts, Junior, in Maiden4ane, 
and a lady in the same house. 

The following letter from Dr. Osborne to the Resident 
Physician was read and ordered to be published. 

My Dear Sir, 

I am induced to address you, in consequence:of a 
pars^graph, which appeared in the American of last even- 
ing, and which I think calculated to give tlie Board of 
Health unjust impressions, respecting my professional 
conduct. I have never wishea to be very forward in dis- 
seminating alarm, and have ever been ready to rieport 
cases, as soon as they should be characterised by those 
symptoms, which are cognizable by the Board of Healths 
Of five cases of fever, that have occurred, at Mr. Rob- 
erts', three have perfectly recovered, two ^re still seri- 
ously sick; but have not those aggravated symptoms, 
Uiat will justify ah imqualificd dcclanition of malignancy. 
At Voorhees', corner of John and Nassau Streets, Mrs. 
Voorhees and daughter have recovered, after a few days 
illness — ^two lads are there sick, t)ie second day of tlieir 
disease. All those patients, as there may be some mis- 
representation made to the Board, it is my earnest desire, 
that you would visit with me or with any mutual medical 
friend. The two remaining sick at Mr. Roberts' are his 
son, the 8th day of his disease, and the nurse Mrs. H. 
the second day. I am, 

Sir, repectfuUy, &c. 
J SAMUEL OSBQJIN.. 

DR. QUACKENBOSS.'' 
6th October, 1822. 

On tlie 7th October, the following was presented to 
the Board, addressed to tlie president 
^^ Sir, 

^* Pursuant to the request of the t^ow^^ \'^^'sXft\^Ni 



AN AtX'OL'KT OF 



re bMM&l 



pied John and James \'»jorlieeH, at tlie corwr 

B anil John-streets, and fouird itieiu tick o( V( 

Mrs- Voorhees and her daughter are 

tit. I also visited, William Roberts, ju 

Hchins, at No. 39 Maiden-lane. Tlie^' arc 

■ring under Yellow Fever. Mr. and Mra. Jloberti 

^ iheir daughter Plary-Ann, have been sick with fevn ; 

it convalescent. Dr. Osborn, the attending physiciuii] 

^areit it to have been Renritteni Fever, Mr. Coben, at 

t. 51 Maiden-lane informed me, that there wm not, W 

I, nor had any person been siek in his house, e]ic«|il 

wire, who had a slight catarrh about three wrek» rincr. 

On the 8th, Mr. Lyon was reported sick of VcHtn* 

tver, at No, 11 Ann-street. This was far bcyonil 

kal had been deemed the infected district. Tiro 

Rths were reported and i( was stated, ihni scvcnd olh* 

^deaths by fever had taken place, which could not be 

rU traced to the original source ofpesttlence, 

"ii the ytti, five cases were reported, two of whwu 

_ It to be mentioned, viz. Doctor Strtebel, at No. 

i Nassau-street, who sickened immediately on hit re* 

>n from the country, and a person at No. 205 Wil- 

■n-slreel, whose name was suppressed by request. 

' 'oQ had, likewise, just returned from ihe counti7. 

n these two examples, the public onghl to have bees 

med, how extremely dangerous it was to return liasti- 

tfmra ihe pure air of the country, to the infci ' ' *" 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 65. 

lie had been employed, in scattering lime in the ii^ected 
district. 

Alderman Taylor, in consequence of a suspicion that 
some of the cases repcnrtedare not Yellow Fever, moved, 
that hereafter the ph3r8tciafis be instructed to make their 
reports to the Resicknt physician, which motioa was 
adopted. 

October 13th, two cases only were reported. One of 
them was that of Mr. Patrick Phelan, at tlie comer of 
Front and Depeys^er Streets. Ahhough this gentleman 
had removed to the country, he was in the habit of com- 
ing into the city, every Sunday, and spending the inter- 
val between the hours of morning and evening service, in 
the house, where he was then -confined. He died on the 
^d day thereafter. 

October. 14th. There was reported one case and one 
death, and on the day following four cases, concerning 
whom there was nothing extraordinary unless that Thom- 
as Pi^nion and Dennis M^Honey had both sickened at 
No. 105 Williamnstreet, the latter of whom had died with- 
out medical aid. 

On the l6th, two cases and three deaths were reported; 
On the day following, there were nine cases and five 
deaths. Of the cases, Lorens Wenderkin sick at- No. 
267 Mott-street, had been employed, the last sixteen days, 
at the Sugar-House in Liberty-street, and Isabella Blake- 
fy, at the comer of Vesey and Washington Streets. No 
information could be obtained, which could be relied on 
with respect to this kdy, whether she had been in the 
infected (fistnct or not. 

On the 18^, «ix new cases were reported and one 
death. -On the 19th, ten cases and seven deaths, con- 
•ceraing one of whom it is proper to transcribe the fol- 
lowing. 

The Resident Physician reported that Israel Eldrith 
died at one o'clock yesterday morning^ Yellow Fever, 
attended with the .black vomh, near §ie five mile stone 
on the Bloonungdale road, lie had been a considerable 
time, at the house, where he died; but on Tuesday the 
•8th instant <;ame to the city, and retumed home late in 
the evening, «tatiog to his iamily; that he had foolishly 

G 2 



^^ A.N ACCOUNT Ot' 

exposed himself iu the infpcted district, nwi cu 

Rec IOC'S treut, and others ulso infected. He sir.kcneil Oi 
the fdUowing Saturday the I2th instant. The rntc dftho^ 
mun (continues the Resident Physician) ought l< 
suflicient warning to our absent citizens sgnio-ii n 
to theii' houses, before they are officitiUv iDVite 
Board gf Health." 

KThe Board was so sensible ofUie propriety offl 
tt, lliBt it was unanimously resolved, that it bT 
ihwith published in the Evening papers. 
QThe following appeared ut the Commercial J 
• on the 33d October, which it may be w«U tO|a 
as it contains many valuable hints, whieh may b 
at a future period, in case we should be visited VU 
lamily simUar to that, with which we have been U 
- ted. 

wee to the inhabitants ofNeie-York, on t/teim 

to flieir dwdtingg, andpremwet. 

. The houses sliould be effectually aired thro 

lening the windows and cellars for a day; 

ji can be done without dasger at an early liuitr ui 

^ inoming, and, if possible before sunrise. This mvii- 

!, appears the more important, as dweUings rn the m> 

'ed (Jivfi'iVf, must have more or less contaminated tirvf 

It same quality as that, w iiich has proved infeeiioin UkI 

I created a mortal disease; but besides this griMTsI 

se, others more particular may, in every instance have 

d the internal air. Every body knows, that dolbet 

uea, bed-rooms, closets, 8cz. are liable lo ' 

y offensive, if air is not frequently admilted Ii 

Another cause is the death and subsctii 

ionef much vermin; dogs, cats, n 

1 have been leh to starve, have also gener 

tsand abundant matgrials for infectiofl. Jd^ 

IS articles of provisions, all perishable and ci 

glances left in shops, pantries, celtsm, and kitd 

I must unquestionably have contributed W fill t^ 

» with very deleteiious vapours. 

 A dili^it seu-ch must, therefore, be made fix 

' aiticle of the kind, the destruction of which by 

"~ 'li be the most eligible j or else ihey iboidd he 




*rHE YELLOW FEVER. (ff 

Covered with ashes or lime till they can be conveuicntly 
removed. 

3d. A third means for the purification of dwellings, is 
that of kindling fires in the lower rooms and kitchens, 
washing and scrubbing the floors with soap, burning vin- 
egar on hot iron plates and shovels, and finally white* 
washing those cellars or places, where something putrid 
or some dead animals have been found. 

4th. Those inhabitants who have removed into the 
country and remained there long, must be reminded that 
they are more liable to be affected and to sicken by the 
change of pure air, against the atmosphere of a city, 
which, in the autumnal season, is, during the best time, 
always vitiated. Their ruddy and hale appearance, 
when they return, shews, that they have been under «n 
external excitement, which is to be soon counteracted, by 
a more debilitating atmosphere, or by a natural reaction ; 
they frequently must experience some fever or epheme- 
ral disease, which, in some instances, have proved seri- 
ous. To these, I would, therefore, suggest as a precau- 
tion, tst. To come as late as possible, that thev may be 
protected by a bracing cold weather. 2d, To exer- 
cise much, during the first days, and to make use of those 
atimulanis in diet or in the way of medicine, which can 
temporarily replace the excitement which they have lost. 

I would take the liberty of representmg to the Board of 
Health, that as soon as the present warm temperature 
shall Imve subsided, and without waiting for a black 
frosty it would be expedient to invite the citfiens to have 
their houses ventilated and their premises cleansed, and 
as soon as the body reqiures warm bathing to have occa- 
sional fires kindled m their dwellings and to re-enter 
ijirtthout any apprehension of a return of the epidemic.* 

The following are my motives. A large thickly built 

* We diM|^«e with the worthy Doctor at to re-eDtering be- 
fore we have a good biting black fnwt, altbouch it is, bv ell 
■neansi proper, that when the temperature of toe etmospiere 
Bbell become low, all (be deserted houses should be ventilated 
and tborooghly eleaosed, together with the cellars, yards, bedt 
houses, be. 

M4, C^mimmM AifmliHf. 



AN ACCOINT OF 

i3| and cli'cary collection oi 
Kshaiistibk source of impure airi such as sin Ks. pn tics, 
fcrdi, alleys and varitios |ieriahalile materials in heaps or 
Uttered in lols, wlrich succc^ively receiving niglil dews 
d sun sbine, contribute to the formutMn o(n vitiated «• 
DsperCi This penetrates into all cellars and confined 
accH, froiii wbence it may he aJ'ier»ar<ls extricated at  
ff degrees above (reeziag [loiat, and still perpetuate di^ 
ig winter various sorts of typhoid, and monal disestesi 
milar occun-cnces liuve been frequently remarked b 
' es of Europe, the houses of which have beta 
r neglcclej, duriiic the dulressing lime* irf 
»r, pestilence or famine. 

'.t present, any one, who nught visit, as 1 have fre- 

WiUly done, oiir nnrrow and low streets, npceiaJly 

g the li^st side of the town, will be convinced of iIk 

pnce of a deadly air or offensive smell of the cIo«rt> 

e kind. TUia is a seiioua evil, originating lua from <nie 

It from alltousEmd sources of infection, and small or cofl- 

ble tiuimnces. Il is,thercfoTe, conceived, lliat a s'l- 

leauSjHnd timely at ten lion to ventilalion of housi^ ami 

iwingof finriniBCs bylhe citizen.'', or by other ponnni 

er the authority of ilie Board of Heallli, might in a 

It measure, cJTect n perfea system of purilicatitni anil 

ect or remove the causes of future additional calam- 

It must, indeed, appear obvious, thiu the soonPT 

leslic fires shall be kindled in every one of six or se- 

n thousand houses, which are deserted, the sooner iro* 

re aiid sickly vaponrs will be destroyed aiid eon^-eried 

a. healtliy atmosphere. 

It was with a view of such a desirable tuid happy 

^ange, that the Board of Health of a sister ciiy did in- 

'-Ite, in tbe years 17US and 1799, their fellow cititeni^ 

[lio had deserted tlieir habitations, during the orevaiwice 

V Fever, to send aiidtnist the keys oflhelr hot^ 

: uud stores, to olficers and proper persons, whom they 

. appointed, who could each a( them take charge of a 

ajii number of dwellings to see them %-enliliiled, puri- 

I, «sc. pre\-ious to ihe return of their respective occii- 

i The delay of these important measures, until black 
^^ faknplac^ apneen to nw to be i-* — —-- " *■ 

iJ y^-^l 



tHE YEtLOW FEVER. « 

tircumst&nce of the evilsy ivhich I have represented and 
of the occasional increase of the mortality ^ especially if 
the winter should set in as late as it did in the year 18i9« 
The black (roaty besides, does not pn^ent the renewal^ 
or recruiting of the distemper, in those places, where h 
has not penetrated. Hence, experienced physicians fattYV 
witnessed very bad cases of Yellow Fever in November, 
Or long after the ground had been covered with snow, A 
gradual lowering of die temperatnra from 65" to 45'' is a 
more certidn and universal cause of extinction of it, as an 
epidemic, or of the causes, from which it originates. 
There is never any black frost, in the Southern cities of 
Spain, such as Gadlsc, Seville, Malaga, &c. and their 
freezing temperature, if any they experience, is very late; 
yet the Yellow Fever totally disappears by the middle or 
end of October, when their chilly rains begin to set in. 
l^or do the inhabitants of our sister cities of New^>r)eans, 
Charleston and Savannah, although comparatively more 
exposed to a freezing temperature, depend upon its uncer* 
tain periods for the return of health, as much as they 
look for the sufficiently cold weather of the season. 

FELIX PASCALIS. 

On the 20th there had been four cases and five deaths; 
on the 21st one death; on the 22d two cases and one 
death; on the 23d two cases and one death; and on the 
24th two cases and four deaths. On the 26th October 
no case nor death was reported. 

An address, of which the following is an abstract* was 
adopted by the Board of Health and ordered to be pub* 
lished. 

The favourable state of the weather, the advanced sea- 
son of the year and the reduced number of cases reported 
for several days past, together with the consolatory infor- 
mation from the proper sources relative to the general 
health of the city have induced the Board, to believe the 
calamity, with which we have been afflicted has, in a 
great measure, ceased, and therefore, under certain li* 
tnitcUionif invite their fellow citizens to return to their 
homes. 

* I wished to have pablished (be whole of this Taliiable docc* 
nient, but my If mils do not admk of i^. 



70 AN ACCOUNT OF 

The Board are, however, of opinion, that it would be' 
highly improper immediately to re>occupy the houses ana 
stores, in that part of the city, which has been the seat 
of infection or of any of the houses, in which sickness 
6r death, by Yellow Fever has occurred, {n order, how- 
iiowever, that measures ^fiay be adopted to ventilate and 
purify the buildings, &c. and that no obstruction may be 
in the way of those, who shall be employed for that pur* 
pose, in that part of the city enclosed by fences, the 
Board have ordered them to be removed. But it is hf> 
ped, that this measure will not be viewed as an invitation 
to the inhabitants of that district to return, until some fai^ 
ther time shall have elapsed. How long it will be neces- 
sary further to desist must altogether depend on the with- 
er; and the only indubitable proof as yet afforded us, 
that the cause of the disorder is completely eradicated is, 
such a temperature of the weather as will bring black frost, 
or ice in all parts of tlie city. The Board have every reason 
to believe, however, that no danger can exist in those 
parts of the city, not tainted by infection, even if there 
should have been some cases of sickness in the neigh- 
bourhood; which can be traced to one or other of the 
infected districts. They beg leave to recommend, as in- 
dispensible, that all the houses be ventilated previous to 
their being occupied, and as a general measure of precau- 
tion to be observed by all, who return to the city^ the 
following rules are submitted. 

1 . That previous to any of the houses' being oceupied| 
the doors and windows be left open for one or two days. 

2. That all the apartments be cleansed and white- 
washed. 

3. That all filth be removed from the premises, and 
?r any of the cellars contain stagnant water, that it be im- 
mediately removed. 

4. That quick lime be strewed in the cellars, yards 
and ppivies. 

!>, That fires be lighted in each apartment. 

6. In those house, where sickness or death has occur- 
red by fever, the Board recommend, in addition to the 
preceding measures, that acid fumigations be used. The 
materials for this purpose, with the durections fqr using 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 71 

tliem, were to be furnished on application to cither of the 
Assistants. To those unable to bear the expenses of the 
necessary materials for cleansing and purifying, the same 
would be furnished gratis. It was farther added, that PrcH 
fessor Griscom had kindly oflered to inbtnict any one who 
wished it, how to use the materials for fumigation in the 
most effectual manner. 

The Assistants of the Board and those in the Gity In- 
spector's Department were instructed to see, that the 
houses and premises within the infected districts be ven- 
tilated, cleansed and purified, and it was hoped, that the 
direction of those persons would be promptly complied 
with on the part of the citizens. 

Finally the Board deemed it unnecessary to continue 
their daily reports; but that if any deaths should occur 
by Yellow Fever, they would be aimounced in the week- 
ly reports of die City Inspector. 

OF THE CAUSES OP YELLOW FEVER. 

This dreadful calamity has been attributed to various 
causes, amonjrst wliich some eminent physicians, as well 
as other very intelligent citizens have supposed, that it 
might be occasioned by our • 

PUBLIC cemetertt:s. 

On this subject, Doctor Pascjilis, n Jc»arnod and respect- 
able physician, expresses himself tlms. The dangers te 
be ai>prelioiicled to the health of the living from these re- 
roptacles of the dead have always undergone different 
estimates. .Some have considered them as harmless, 
4hougIi in the centre of populous communities, because 
many generations had ))€»ssed away from the time they 
wci*e first emplov<'d, without their having a]?parently 
caused any evil eflecrs. lUit otlujrs airain and with rea- 
son, have supposed that such repo.sitories mijju be far from 
l)einq: prejudicial, at first; and yet must eventually become 
so, when the accumulation of putn'scent exu via?, attaining 
a considerable extent, shouhl be acted upon l)v such con- 
currinjr circumstances as must excite deJetcrious exhala- 



72 AN ACCOUNT OP 

tions. Awful visitations of mortality, vrhich in the last 
half century have awakened the minds of at least one 
people on this point, and have given rise throughout 
France to a rigorous law, at the same time prohibhiof 
the inhumation of bodies within the limits of cities, and 
fixin|[T cemeteries to open and uninhabited situations. 
Ncitlier is the pride or devotion of families allowed to 
crowd the churches, no vaults being permitted in them 
unless eight feet square, and the structure of their coffins 
in En«:lan(l, where among the wealthy, they generally 
use tlieir churches for burial, seems well adapted to pre- 
vent the evils otherwise arising from their impnideot 
ffishion of entombing corpses in the interior of churches. 
(yolTins of lead, soldered, lined, and cased in mahoinin} 
or walnut, and again in ojik, and over all covored witli 
floth or velvet, may be a sufficient security agciinst pestl- 
l'*!rous vapours. 

" But, amongst us," says the Doctor, " let it be mncm- 
l>orcd, that the dangers of cemeteries filled with strata of 
putrefaction, are increased in an alarming degree, by 
our manner of intering the dead. We place them in cof- 
]ins of slender materials, under a few feet of loose oartlh 
on every square foot of which the atmosphere continually 
f»xerts a pressure of 2,300 libs. The doctor, after som<' 
observations rcs})rcting the nature of gases, in which I 
have no doubt of his being correct; but which as many 
of my readers would not understand, I onjit, proceed-? 
thus, 

From analogy, we may conclude, that !)urying grounds 
in populous cities cannot al^i'ays remain innocuous. Pf- 
ruliarly aggravating circumstances call our attention to 
the cemetery of Trinity C'liurcli, now suspected as tlie 
cause of the mortality in its vicinity. The first is that 
the area of about throe acres, althouch on a level with 
IJroadway, yet at its Western extremity is elevated ten 
feet and upwards above the ground plan of Lnmbor-slrHn, 
while Greenwich-street is again ton feet bolow !4nmbor- 
street, and Washington-street, perluips, five fort U-low 
Greenwich. It results, thereforo, ihat tliis bod}- of earth, 
tlic surface of which has no declivity to carry ofl' the niins, 
j^d whidi is held in aud cncompassorl I)y a niu^^y ^oll. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. fj' 

is like a great reservoir o[ contaminating fluids suspended 
above the adjacent streets. .As a proof of this we may 
state, that in a house in Thames-street, springs of water 
poinring in from that ground, occasioned the removal of 
the tenants by their exceeding fcetidness and impurity. 

The second circumstance is the number of bodies in« 
terred^ more than a century ago, this ground, by royal 
charter, having been assigned as a public burial place to 
the inhabitants of New-York. If we only advert to the 
deaths in our city, during the two last years, in 1 820, 
3815 ; and in 1821, 3810, we may easily calculate, what 
a considerable proportion of these must have been depos* 
ited there, since the £pb<iopalians are very numerous, 
and that cemetery is the privileged receptacle of stran- 
gers, or those, who do not belong to any particular reli- 
gion. We know also, that to satisfy the demand for 
room, a charnel house has been found necessary, to clear 
off the remains disinterred for new occupants. 

A third circumstance is the continual digging of graves, 
thus opening to their very sources vents lo the gases, 
that must be produced in an enclosure, where no space 
for a new grave can be fixed upon, until an iron sound is 
forced through the earth to discover an old coffin- decay-, 
ed enough, to allow the removal of its contents to the 
charnel house. This opening of the graves, as might be 
expected, creates an intolerable stench, often complained 
of and at present, testified to before the Board of Health 
by those living in the neighbourhood. 

Let us hope, that the situation of this cemetery, at pre- 
sent, exciting our fears will be speedily redressed, by 
the example of a sister city, wTio some years ago, con- 
verted a like cemetery into a healthy and ornamental 
s quare. 

Towards the end of September, it was observed, that 
several cases of Yellow Fever had been traced to the su- 
gar house in Liberty-street, and no small attention was 
excited thereby. Establishments of tliis kind, it is 
generally supposed, contribute to contaminate the at- 
mbspere and assist in the spread of noxious and deadly 
cifluvia. Part of the materials used in the refinement of 
sugar; it is well known, are obtained at the slaughter hoa- 

11 



iTl AN ACCOUINT 01' ^^H 

' (ITS (inil often before used, panlculnrly in hot wetitbei^aM' ] 

in ti aliite llie most disgusting and ufTensivc. Anil it a do 

Ii.'ss certain, that liie tilood made use of, at a sugnr hwUHf 

is nOen in a state of absolute pulreraccwn tind so abound* 

L ing with worms as to be visible to the naked eye< It awil 

I not, ihen to be womlered al, that, in an esiablisbmenl of 

I Ihis nature, situated on tlie margin of the infecietl iG^ 

K trict, tlie ajrshoidd be contaminated and endanger huimui 

J ■existence. 

I Thus far, the advocates for local origin. Our IastM»- 

 lilence, according to ibem, was occasioned by ihe oSen- 
f-Bive smell proceeding from tlie burying ground of TWo- 
E^y Church, from foul privies, dirty streets, die filthy mo^ 
p'Df laanu&cturing sugar, &c. &c. In what they My, 
Inhere is much plausibility, and 1 Hliall not attempt to Cun- 
W tradlct them } but it is necessary, that I should slat* 
V U'liai is said on llie other side of tlie question, viz. the 
I importation of the disease. 

W It is asserted by the advocates for inipnrlalion Oiat a 
!■ vessel had arrived in our harbour, about tlic end uf Juiw 
f from Florida, which vessel, upon the surrender of that 
|i lerritoiy lo the irnitcd States, liad cari'ied one hun- 
fciired Spanish soldiers to Havonii, where ihc crew wcfe 
Binfected with the Yellow Fever, and llial several of thnn 
^haddied; that upon their arrival at Pensaeola, thryhail 
w communicated the disease to the inhabitants of ihiit city, 
I where it had been productive of the most dreadful co^ 

 nngc, a carnage, which according to the accowti, 
F which we have received, has been unexampled io ihp hiii» 
^loiy of tiiis dreaitfiil disease, ;is it was «CDrccly poM^le tii 
Wind a sitflklent number of healthy persons to nur»c tbi> 
fEiflt and inter the dead, tlwi the said vessel afterwaril* 
1 fame lo ihJs port and laid ai the whnrf bclwrpn Rei' 
Flur and Carlisle Streets, directly opposite to the lioose 

o{ William .S. Castle, block and pump maker. No, 
lOlt Wafihinfflon-strect, where three of hii family |:ot 
»lck of a very serious and alarming fever, from 
which, however, ihcy recovered. This was caited BiK i 
. [s Remittent Ferer. They had sickened ubotii 
(ciiming of July. Mr. Rceder's fiimily and that of tSn- i 
' were (oon after nBlicted, nnd fr*im them the dltw9»e| 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 75 

began to spread. Others believed, that it was imported 
by a vessel from Matanza. The peatilewx walketh in 
darkneg8y and though volumes have been written upon 
the subject of its origin, we now know just as much about 
it as we did thirty yecu-s ago, when the question first be< 
gan to be agitated. When an enemy gets into a garrison, 
the general may very probably hold a consultation with 
his officers. On what ? Will it be on this question, how 
did the enemy get in ? No, but, what will be the most easy 
m^ans in our power to drive him out. I am sorry to say, 
that our physicians have not in general, acted in this man- 
ner. They have written letter after letter and pamphlet 
after pamphlet, expressing their opinions respecting the 
origin of fever. Would they not have been much better 
employed in devoting their time and talents, in a friendly 
manner, to devise the best mode of its prevention and 
cure ? By the plan, which they have heretofore pursued, 
much acrimony has been excited, and no good has been 
done. With respect to the talents of our medical gen* 
tlemen, their honesty and integrity, I entertain the 
highest opinion ; but a man, who is not possessed of 
hsdf the intelligence of any of them, may possibly 
be able to point out to them the propriety of paying 
some attention to the following subject, with respect 
to which, I now with great deference to ihem and to the 
public, submit a few hints* 

On the best mode of preventing the reappearance of 

Yellow Fever, 

Concerning this, as well as the origin and character of 
this formidable disease, there is a considerable diversity 
of opinion, but upon some of the most important points, 
connected with the subject, men of reflection do not 
differ so widely as is generally imagined. It is agreed 
on all hands, that the disease is either imported or 
that it originates from local causes. Both may be 
light. It wen appears to me, that by the adoption of a 
more rigid police than we have heretofore been accustom- 
ed to in this city, we might be able, by the blessing of 
Ciod, to arrive at an effectual mode of guarding against 



7(r AN ACCOUNT OF 

its introduction, from either of these sources. But in 09- 
dcr, that we may attain this truly desirable object, I deem 
it an object of primary importance, that those, who may 
be empowered to make laws for the preservation of the 
public health, should act in such a manner, as if they be- 
lieved, that it might proceed from either, or from both of 
the two causes combined. Herein, in my opinion, rests 
our safety. 

It has fallen to my lot to see as much of the Yellow 
Fever, as, any other individual in the United States, as 
I was constantly employed by the Board of Health in 
one capacity or another, from the year 1798, til! the year 
1814, when I resigned. It will now be the third dme, 
that I have published a book respecting this disease^ and 
as a matter of course, I have endeavoured, as well as I 
could, to investigate the cause of its origin. After mvdi 
.reflection upon the subject, I have, at last, come to this 
conclusion, that it may be, and has been imported, and that 
it also may be, and has originated firom local causes. lo 
some of those years, in which we have been afflicted with 
pestilence, I have found no difficulty in tracing it to some 
vessel or vessels, which had arrived here from a foreign 
port; and in others after the most strict inquiry, I cotud 
• not possibly devise any cause for it, except mat it was ow- 
ing to tiie tilth and dirt of various kinds, which had been 
allowed to accunmlatc in our cellars, yards, privies, &ۥ 

The opinion, which I have adopted, will not, as I am 
persuaded, meet with the approbation of some of our 
most respectable physicians, but much as 1 wish that my 
sentiments should accord with those of the wise and the 
good, I must be allowed to judge for myself. In the 
opinion, which I now hold, I may be wrong ; but my er- 
ror, if I really be in error, cannot possibly be injurious to 
society. It is surely good policy, that when there is a 
probability of great danger, we cannot be too active in 
adopting means to avert it. If we suppose, that the ca- 
lamity, with wliich we have been lately afllicted, was 
brought to us from abroad, let our quarantine laws be 
made much more strict than they are^^ at present. I do 
not know what additions ought to be made to the existing 
Kiw; but surely the subject is of the first impoFtapce aqd re- 



THE YELLOW FEVER. TT 

quires an early attention from those^ to whom tlie preser-.. 
vation of the public health is entrusted. Let them only 
devise the best means for effecting this salutary purpose ; 
9nd the legislature will, undoubtedly, grant them the ne- 
cessary powers. That amendments are wanting is ob« 
vious, as our worthy Hedth Officer has, in some of his 
late communications to the board, requested an explana- 
tion of what they deemed to be the extent of his power 
in certain cases. Difficulties of this kind ou^ht to be 
guarded against. It is obvious, however, that after enact«> 
ing ^ law. upon a subject so intricate as this, it will re- 
quire many amendments, the necessity of which time 
alone can discover, before it can be brought to answer 
effectually the purpose, for which it was intended. But 
let those, to whom this important business is Entrusted 
persevere, and, in time they will most probably, accouK 
plish their object. It may be said that the restrictions on 
our vessels at quarantine are already sufficiently great ; but 
let me ask, whether, if by human wisdom, so dreadful a 
calamity as that, with which our city has been repeatedly 
afflicted can be averted, it would not be adviseable to 
make them still greater ? Owing to the speedy flight of 
our inhabitants, we have, this season, comparatively 
speaking lost few lives ; but our trade and com- 
merce has sustained a shock from which they will not 
speedily recover, and if the return of so great a calamity 
can be averted by subjecting vessels at quarantine to 
greater restrictions than those, to which they are now li- 
able, our merchants will in general, cheerfully submit to 
the sacrifice. 

I have proceeded thus far, upon the supposition that 
the Yellow Fever was imported. Let u» now take* the 
opposite side of the question and believe that it proceeds 
from local origin. And here I should suppose, that it 
would be more easy to devise an effectual preventive than 
in the other case. Physicians, who have espoused opin- 
ions diame^cally opposite to each other respecting the 
causes of pestilence in our city^are perfectly agreed upon 
this one pouit, viz. that Yellow Fever never did spread 
in a pure atmosphere. The history of this drea^dAil di- 
sease ill Europe, the West Indies, and in every city of 

H 2 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

c Uiiiifij States, which lias been afltkieil by it, at 

mnilani proof af lius fad. Wliat llicii is lo be done^ 

roln whatever cause, it may be supposed lo orl^nstc 

degree ofvleaidiwss unit purity an may befomH 

iw vUUiges of the Heighhotirhood, or at near an up- 

ximaiiwi to It a» pmaille, ovghl lo lir nttempled. 

' \g the winter season, the prU-ics, in every putt of 

ty, wliere h is thickly settled, oweht to be i-are(ally 

ixaniinecl by discreet person*, and lh« most pflfcciual 

wlc of remedying every Uiing, which bore the least re- 

' 'ante lo a uuisance, otight promptly to bv tkdt^tpd. 

 iHimber of assistants altucfaed to ilie Board o( 

^i-nl)U be not sufficient for the performance of this high* 

y important duty, let thetn be doubled. No intelli^t 

'sen will grudge the expanse ; because if liw greatest 

inlinesB, which Is practicable in fiwr city will not rf- 

bciually secure us from the return of pestilence, H will 

lajn^ atki greatly to «ur comfort. Jfiiny one htu 

m in the country, for a ftw weeks in the stnniner, is Ik 

eatly annoyed, on his return, by vary offensive 

, whicli proceed fiom almost every quarter aul 

n causes, for wliich lie cannot very easily accumi i 

' spcedyremedy of this evil, therefore, requires ibcim- 

ff Ktediatc attention of the Board of Health. 

<lur streets, for these some years past, liavi! bevnkept 
mcomnionly 61ihy. The plan adopted for cleaning them 
fi radically wrou^, and so long as it is continncii, it vSI 
'n vuin, thnt we look for any radical nmcndmmt. 
:ordlog lo the present system, the Oor|iar«tion re- 
e from the conlraciors about six thousand dulbirs per 
n for the privilege of being permitted lo remove ihe 
nanure. What an absurdity ? These coatrariorK 
s much ofthe dill to be t;iken up, as fh<Ty ibink 
y best suit their purpost*, and leave the rest Whind to 
riiy and rot lo ihe (.-real danger of llie henltb of the 
ibabitaiits. Deadhog8,dog;s,cats,r«ls,&c.areperinitlcd, 
remain in our streets, for s*.-venildBys,during the warmen 
Bather. Surely the se things oughl not so to he. I would 
m ask this ijuestion, whether it would not be much b«ll«r 
I expend even ten tliuasatid dollars per annum, and have 
IT It rccts perfectly clean, tbauloreceivesijKliuusaiiddi^ 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 7^ 

lars and have them kept in their pres(*nt most scandalous 
state. New- York is the most populous as well as the 
most wealthy city in the union. Let it no longer be said, 
with truth, that it is the most filthy. 

I now come to another evil, to which I tJiink that some 
attention ought to be paid, I mean the large cemeteries, 
which exist in the very centre of our city. Upon thi** 
subject, it is necessary to write with great caution, as 
there are many, who deem it proper, that their own 
bones and those of their relations should be deposited in 
consecrated ground. Far, very far be it from me to in*- 
terfere with or to attempt to vilify the religious opinions 
of any one. This is a subject, on which every man 
ought, without censure, to be allowed to judge for him- 
self. I think, however, that a mode might be adopted, 
by which the interment of the dead in the city may be 
discontinued without interfering with the religious scru- 
ples of any one. Let the Corporation appropriate for a 
general burying ground as much of the public land as 
may be necessary for that purpose, at the distance of 
about two miles from what is now the thick settled part 
of the city. Let this be fenced in, in a handsome man- 
ner, laid out in walks and planted with weeping willows 
or some other trees, which have a gloomy appearance. 
Let this general burying ground be laid out in lots appro- 
priated for the use of the different religious societies in 
the city, and if any of these societies should wish that the 
spot allotted to them should be consecrated according to 
the rites of their church, to this there would be no objec- 
tion. Here then every difficulty can be easily obviated. 
Are prayers supposed to be necessary for the dead, if 
the clergyman should find it inconvenient to accompany 
the deceased ,to the burying ground, let the corpse be 
brought to the church to which he belonged and there let 
the solemnities deemed necessary be performed. The 
body might then be conveyed to its long home, accom- 
panied not by such a large retinue of thoughtless folks, as 
now attend ftmerals, and who, during the procession, talk 
of goods, wares and merchandize, as if nothing serious 
had happened ; but by a few weeping friends, who deep- 
ly impressed by the low of the deceased, would^ dui:u\^ 



-»AN ACCOWJT OF 



heubJKb^^ 



bheir moumrul walk be discouraUig upon such eubjtcbi* 
f^'was suitable for the occaiion, In [he centre oi (bis but;- 
ig ground, a place of worship might be erected, whidi 
■;«liould be cominun to aU denominations, and here, upon J 
L.certain days, agreed upon lor the purpose, ihe eki^- I 
T men of every particular S4:ct might deliver to their reipec- I 
I lire congregations, suitable orations on the neccwuly of I 

?ireparing for death and on the iuiniortaJity of the soul.  
Vcre a mode of this kind adopted, it appears to we, ' 
that, in a short time, we would be surprised at the mui- 
Iter, in wliich we now conduct interments. 

Agreeably to the present arrangemeni as euctcd bjr . 
Lthe taw of the State, there arc three Commianionen ap- 
T pointed for the Health Depnrlraent, one of whom b at- 
< nominated the Health Ol&cer, who, during ihs SUimner 
and aulnmnal months, eecessarJIy resides at the Quaran- 
tine Ground; one the Resident Physician, and a third 
commonly called the Health Commissioner. The lait 
f of these gcDtlcnien, Dr. Jacob Dyckman, althoughw 

^^^B I active as any man could be in the discharge of hit dutjr, 
^^^^was obliged in consequence of a bad state of heallJb la 
^^^^Lretire from the chy. Ataveryunportant period, (heieleic, 
^^^^fclhe Board lost his services, whicli from his we)t known 
^^^r industry and talent:), would have, no doubt, been of 
^^^ great importance to the public. The duties aasigned U 
^^■_ ihe Resident Physician have, therefore, during the lau 
^^^L reason, been peculiarly arduous, and too much for one 
^^^H^man to execute. Would it not, therefore be wdl, that 
^^^H hereadcr instead of two Health Commissioners to reside 
^^^H(m the cigr three should be appointed, wltose business it 
^^^»-diou!d be amongst other things, particularly touie&dto 
* the very first alarm of any kind of malignant disease, to 

Consult together on tlie subject, and to givo the most 
early notice of their opinion to the President of the Botird 
of Health. The appointment of this additional offioer 
would cost the Corporation $10(10 per annum; but If It 
can, in the least, conduce to the object, wbicb eveiy 
good citiceo has in view, \iz. the preservation of the pu^ 
pUc health, no one vnll be found lo penurious as to object 

Having now given my owq opinion upon thU intfreM- 



THE YELLOW FEVER. %1 

ing subject, I shall proceed to give a brief statement of 
those of others. The following excellent address appear- 
ed in the Advocate of October 26tl); and is headed thus : 

THX LATE FBVEE. 

*^By this name/' says Mr. Noah, '^ we can now call 
the fever, which, during the summer and fiedl has pre*- 
vailed in this city, and which, under Providence may be 
coniudered nearly, if not totally extinct* Nom," says 
he, ^' that the danger is over, the season of deliberation 
has arrived and deeply should every citizen consider the 
cause and effects of this terrible disease, and unite in the 
best mode of preventing its future recurrence. 

^^ No city in the Union has a more advantageous posi- 
tion for all the purposes of trade and commerce than 
New- York, Within a few hours sail of the ocean, a 
bold and safe harbour, with a great and flourishing back 
country, improved by roads and inland navigation. The 
rapid growth of this city; the mcreased numbers of mer 
chants and traders; the vast amount of importation and 
revenue ; the numerous purchases made by merchants 
from almostevery state of the union; the great amount 
of money operations; the increased and increasing capi- 
tal of money institutions ; the capital also engaged in 
manufactures; the aggregate of tonnage, and the im- 
mense number of coasting and river crafi unite in their 
consequences to make New-York the London of 
America. 

^^The public buildings and institutions," says Mr. 
Noah, ^^ are splendid and numerous and the city affords 
every comfort and convenience, which necessity or luxu- 
ry can require. In this picture there is only one dark 
shade; toe are occasionally visited by YeUow Fever ^ 
which, though not accompanied with a great loss of lives, 
is attended with a great sacrifice of business, comfort and 
convenience. 

It is now incumbent upon all citizens to unite heart and 
hand, in order to devise the best means to keep this city 
healthy; to retain its foreign and inland trade, and to 
fircure that prosperity! which pature and art has desiq,ned 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



inew? 



This mnst and can be done, and it will . . , 
^wer for our inliabilatits to sit by the fireside ami tc 
die post, and enjoy the present without reference to lb 
fiiture. They must recollect that if their lives be ipand, 
rpoBterily has powerful claims upon iheni. 
f Onefactis indisputable; the position of New-York is 
Lundoubtedly as healthy as any in the world; ilitwi- 
I rounded by no marsh or lotr land; it is flunked by two 
!i: noble livers and constantly enjoys the sea ttiul liuul 
[ breeze. The only points of unportance, to wbkll fob- 
[•'tic attention must be fixed are those which relate la Ae 
I vnparlation and origin of YeRaio Fever. Bodi aVc* 
s to disease must be guarded against; Brrangtnnaiti 
I must be made to select a suitable spot in the vicinity vl 
I Ihecity, where ail vesseb coming from unhealthy or >u&- 
l,'|>iciou3 ports may land their cargoes, lake In a nnr 
^'freight, and pursue their voyage without cuauug (d the 
I- whn'ves in the city, and there will all those, whobelteve 
Lin the importation of Jever, be at once satisfied. The 
f Igreat and unremitted exeniqiib however, relate (o llit 
I 'city; and a new, organizei^.teJ amoved systeiQ mtut 
*K adopted. 

Much depends upon the manner in which we begin the 
rorb. of reformatii)n, and upon this step may rest (lie 
Btilire success of the whole project. >Ve would suggest 
['that the Common Council should commence at a very 
L «srly period after the return of the inhabitants, by 
Kpointisg five citizens ofinformation from each ward, i 
F.ritall, gratuitously visit each house, yard, cellar and 
'■ wharf in the ward, attended by a medical friAid, anil 
' make report to the Corptration of Uie situation nf such 
ward as relates to every object connected with public 
health. This will be a great medical map of tiie city 
which will present, at one view, tlie situation and puiiils, 
which requires the itninediale attention ol the public 
authorities. , 

The introduction of water in copious quantities i« 
nnothcr and indispen&ible object connected wiih health 
and comfort, and this project, however expensive, witi 
jtett Bn inimenKe revenue to the Corporation, while it will 
produce tlie greatest benciii to ifae puUIc. On this poinl; 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 83 

there Is no diversity of opinion. A private company will 
undertake to introduce water from the Bronx^ if the Cor- 
poration shall decline to do it. A sufficient number of 
active and respectable Street Inspectors ; the organization 
of a new Board of Health, with extensive powers 5 the 
establishment of a permanent health tax, to be applied 
onlVfJor that object, &c. and finally a close and unre- 
mitting attention to all and every object, which may pro- 
mote public health will be the bounden and paramount 
duty of the public authorities. 

"This subject," says he, "must be treated in the 
most serious and decided manner; it must take the lead 
of every other quf|itlon; it must enlist every pen, com- 
mand every press 5 ifor if the fever should prevail in this 
city, for two or three years in succession, we shall de- 
cline in prosperity as rapidly as we have advanced, &c." 
He ends thus. "If this calamity can be prevented by 
expending a million of dollars^ we shall purchase it 
cheaply."* 

MODE OP TREATING THE YELLOW FEVBR. 

In the year 1819, Dr. Hosack at the request of Mr. 
Colden, who was then Mayor, addressed a letter to the 
Board of Health, containing a mode of treatment for 
those persons, who might be attacked with Yellow Fe- 
ver- after having left the city. The mode recommended, 
though simple, has been productive of the most beneficial 
effects in various instances wliere persons afflicted with 
it, were beyond the reach of medical aid. It was pub- 
lished by the Board, on the day after it had been receiv- 
ed in the following manner. 

Board OF Hkaltii, September 2 1st, 1819. 
The following valuable communication drawn up by 
Doctor Hosack at the request of the Mayor, is published 
by desire of the Board of Health. 

J. MORTON, Sec'ry. 

* 

* I would have cheerfully transcribed every word of (bis ex- 
cellent essay ; hot my limits rendered it necessary, (bat 1 sboultl 
curtail it. 



Si AN ACCOUNT OF 



New-York, September 20th, 1819. 
Dear Sir, 

As many of our citizens are now remoTing from the 
infected parts of the town, to the country, h is probata 
judging from the occurrences of former years, that some 
may take with them the seeds of the prevailing disease. 
In such cases, especially where the sick may not have it 
in their power to command the attention of a physiciao, 
it is important, that they should have some knowledge of 
the treatment proper to be pursued. 

Agreeably to your request, I have put together a few 
hints, pointing out the means, that experience has ahewa 
to be attended with the greatest success. 

When first indisposed by the symptoms announcing 
an attack of this disorder, viz. a sense of coldness, follow- 
ed by severe pains of the head, back and limbs, great red- 
ness and burning of the eyes, with a degree of wei§^ and 
oppression about the region of the stomach, the patient 
should immediately take an ounce of glauber, rochelle or 
epsom salts, drinking frequently a cup of thin gruel, toast- 
wator, or herb tea, during their operation. 

The patient being in bed, and covered with a blanket, 
perspiration is generally promoted at the same time, that 
the cathartic effects of the salts are produced. 

Should the salts be rejected by vomiting, let the stom- 
ach be well supplied by a cup of warm water or camomile 
toa. When the stomach is composed, the salts may be 
again resorted to, or some other cathartic medicine may 
be administered, such as castor oil, rubarb and magnesia^ 
or the common domestic injection may be had recourse to. 

When, by s^rae of those means, the bowels have been 
relieved, the patient should continue the use of warm 
drinks, for the purpose of promoting perspiration, upon 
which, in a great degree, his safety depends. 

Should the skin remain hot and dry, bathing the feet 
and legs in warm water, and drinking freely of warm le- 
monade, vinegar whey, catnip, boneset, snake root, bjilm 
or sage tea, will rarely fail to affect a plentiful discharcje 
by the surface. The spirits of mindererus given in do- 
srf? of a table spoonful, every two hours, and occasionally^ 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 85- 

spunging the body with warm vinegar and water will 
^Iso be very useful in effecting this object. 

The perspiration being thus obtained^ should be con* 
Imued, if possible without intermission until the patient 
is perfectly free from fever, which will generally be the 
case in about 48 hours. 

If the head be oppressed by stupor, a blister between 
the shoulders or two of them applied behind the ears will 
be useful. In an atliletic habit of body, the loss of a few 
ounces of blood by cupping or by the arm, has, in some 
instances, afforded great relief 5 but this remedy is very 
rarely necessary or proper, for in most cases blood letting 
has been attended with fatal consequences. 

If the stomach is disturbed and the drinks are rejected 
by vomiting attended with much anxiety or sighing, a 
blister should be instantly applied over the pit of the sto- 
mach. If this fails to give relief and the vomiting should 
prove obstinate, attended with dark coloured discharges, 
a mixture of equal parts of lime water and milk, given in 
small quantities (say half a wine glass full of each every 
half hour) will frequently arrest it. In some eases, the 
lime water alone, and, in others the milk alone, has 
been found useful, while, in some few cases porter and 
lime water combined has been successful, when every 
thing else has proved ineffectual. 

While these means are made use of, the extremities 
should be kept warm by fomentations of vinegar and wa- 
ter, or spirits and water frequently renewed, and cata- 
plasms composed of meal, mustard and vinegar should 
be applied to the soles of the feet. In some instances, 
blisters applied to the ancles or to the wrists have arrested 
a vomiting that had resisted every other means. 

The diet of the sick, in thb disease, should be simple 
and chiefly composed of vegetable nourishments, such as 
barley water, Indian or oatmeal gruel, arrowroot, sago 
and panada, and, for a few days, during convalescence, 
the patient should altogether avoid ftnunal food, and 
when he returns to the use of it, he should first take it in 
the form of soups, and these prepared with a large pro- 
portion of rice, barley and othier vegetables. 
Emetics and mercucy, which are generally prescribed 



I 86 AN ACCOUNT OF I 

I in the bilious remitieni and ty|jtms fcvMs, »te, Tor 6p 
I mosl part, prejudicial in this rumi if lever, und cniibi 
I veliiom lo lie employed und then only under the direclion 
I of a physician. 

I Allow me l<i add ihig trutli, howevfr liiuniliarlng H 
I jnay bv to the pride of science, and 1 inenUun it in con- 
I .lirinaiion of the good eflccts of thi» coniparaiivdy nrilil 
I trcalmeni, tlial, in ilie Yellow Fever of 17y8, under Ac , 
K direction of Ricnurdsun Undej-hiU, a member of the So- J 
Lficiy of Friends, who like another Howard, voluniteml I 
I hb services to the poor, on thftl memorable uccuioo, a 1 
K,fp:enter proportion of persons ill of that disease, were cur> 
E ed by means of castor oil and catnip than by ihoie mort 
I active prescriptions employed by many of tlic jihjsiciaiis 

I With the hope, that thesp suggestions may lie useTnl, 

^ I am, Dear Sh, &c. 

K DAVID IIOSACK. 

K TnB HON. CADWALLADBR D. COL.DGK. 

t Of Ihc bcs< moifc fif purifying hooget nftur Ike otcur- 

1 rence of Yellme Feva. 

L L'pon ibis subject I have already given the opinlim tif 

I Dr. Pascalis. Propriety requires, ihalIshoulil,likewTMt, 

Lgive that of Doctor Hosack, which was pubtiihed in fbi 

t£vening Post on the 26th of October and anerwanb re- 

^{jitbligbed in several other papers. It furtunniely llBppeni, J 

Kthat neither of Lheir recommendations cHnbcofliMtooar I 

Ffcllow cili7.ens at present ; but as 1 am persnaded, ttmt I 

I some persons will preserve this little voliimt?, I deem It ' 

proper lo insert it, as in case uf the occurrence of a (imi- 

lar calamity cither in this city or in any other in Ihe Vni- 

I t«d State* W a future period, it niay be the meant of pre- 

U serving a iitimhcr of valuable lives. 

 The Doctor, after several pertinent obfterraiiofis put- 

Keceds tints. '' By his fellow cilir.enii it should be ntnmt- 

rfcered, that, in former years, after every such viiiiaikui 

Cwf fever as hits new been experienced, tiumeraia caret 

ecriirrcd, wlterein persons retiiniiiijr fi om the pure «ir 

flf the country, to iheir dwetlings b the ciiy, bcffltc a dut 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 87 

cleansing and ventilation had taken place of the apartments 
that had been occupied by the sick, or which were within 
the sphere of the morbid poison , have become infected, 
and have fallen victims to the disease. To guard against 
similar consequences is the object of the few following di- 
rections to those who may be thus exposed. The public 
being apprised by the Board of Health, when a due de- 
gree of cold shall have occurred, and the citizens may re- 
turn in safety to their Jiomes, I should still advise atten- 
tion to the following directions : — 

First. — ^Upon opening the doors of their dwellings, the 
external air should have a free admission for a short time 
previous to their entrance; for although a severe frost 
may have existed in the outer atmosphere, it does not 
follow that the same degree of cold has produced its full 
effect upon the warm air inclosed within th%dwellin^ 
that have been for many weeks shut up. 

Secondly. — ^Let all the doors and windows of the house 
be thrown open, so as to secure a free passage of air 
throughout all its apartments — this too will be greatly 
promoted by making small fires in the principal rooms of 
the house. 

Thirdly. — Let the floors be cleansed by soap and wa- 
ter, andthewalb of the apartments white-washed. In 
iKmses that have been occupied by the sick, this measure 
and that which follows, are indispensably necessary. 

Fourthly. — Let the air be purified by the following 
process— ^lace an ounce of finely powdered salt-petre in 
a common saucer, and pour upon it an ounce of the oil 
of vitriol. Saucers thus prepared should be distributed 
in different parts of the house, one or two on each floor, 
according to the dimensions of the buildmg. If they are 
placed upon chafing dishes, the decomposition of the ni- 
tre, and the diffusion of the gas that is extricated, will be 
sooner effected. I am aware that the chlorine or oxy^ 
muriatic acid vapour is preferred by many; but as man- 
ganese, which is necessary for its preparation, is not 
readily obtained in sufficient quantity at this time, and as 
the nitric acid vapour is well ascertained to afford a pow- 
erful antidote to infection, I do not think it necessary to 
encumber this advice by formulse, that arc not likely to 
be adopted. 



AM ACCOUNT OF 



3 



In adiTition to the testimony advanced 
itlters uf Mr. Griscom, lately published, I remsrk, 
Ik above processes for disinfecting impure air^ hatt niil 
inly been adopted in the navy, in the militiiry hospitale, 
md the prisons of Great Britain, but they have also bnti 
ftarried into operation witli the greatest success, Tor the 
^iSilppreMion of typhus and other malignant and contagtoui 
Severs, in all the hospitals, fever wards, axd hornet nj 
tfeeovery, belonging to nnd connected with tlie exteiuhv 
■anufacturing eelablishments of Manchester, Birminf- 
lam, Chester, &c. 

The salutary efTects of these chemical agents bareiilta 
'ecu satisfactorily established, not only by the reiterated 
Experience of Cannichacl Smith and Gin'ton de Mot* 
{eau, but their efficacy has also been attested by ihe tnily 
Bspeciabl* names of Fercival, Currie, Ferriar and Hen- 
j/f whose observations may be found by consullliig ibe 
■Alemoirs of tlie Manchester Board ol'Healtli," a work 
Vcently received in this country. 

' With the hopethat these remarks maybe found uccfat, 
I am, dear air, yours, 

DAVID UOSACK. 

e to a subject, which has heretofore nciud 
Wcry little inijuiry in the United Stales ; but which how- 
I ever, is of very great importance, via. 

Cart (Ae Yelloio Ferer be taken a tetond time. 

t On this interesting subject. I have before me b letlrr 
fct FEBftiLK coNTA'iioN. addressed to Dr. Hainck. ty 
Jblm W. Francis, M. D. &c. dated. Lond'in, Kith JiuM^ 
Esiti. Ii contains much valunhli? and truly interesting 
, the whole of whicli 1 would have inwrt'-d with 
IpBSure; but my limits compel me to the seleetiou of « 
fery few exliact*. I would observe, however, ibai ii 
hi published in the New- York Medical nn4 Physical 
Diimal, Vol. 1. Edited by Drs. I rstnrU, Beck, 



, Bodthstitii well worthy of the Derunl of 
;ii(ii.nfr nf medicine, wbi'tcver lii- opinion nwjf 
c witii respect lo Ike cotiiaglauinaiure of YcUar t'emt. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 89 

TheDr. says, that Dr. Pym, in his observationsi has 
attempted to prove that the fever of Gibraltar was the 
sanie as the Bulam fever, so happily described by the 
learned and distinguished Chisholm 5 that it is a disease 
totally distinct from the Billious Remittent Fever of 
warm climates ; that it has no connection with or relation 
to marsh miasmmata ; that it appears in the West-Indies 
only under peculiar circumstances ^ that it is contagions, 
and under a certain degree of temperature may be prop- 
agated from one country to another ; that it attacks, in a 
comparatively mild form, natives of a warm climate, or 
Europeans whose constitutions have been assimilated to a 
wai^i climate ; and that it differs from all other fe>-ers, 
Ui having its contagious powers increased by heat, and 
destroyed by cold, or even by a free circulation of mode- 
rately cool air. 

But I have says he, to solicit your attention to another 
important circumstance made known in the volumes of 
Dr. Pym and Sir James Fellows, and to communicate 
^'hich this letter has been, written. Dr. Pym, who had 
the advantage of seeing the disease not only in £urq>e 
but in the West Indies, contends, that the Bulam fever 
attacks the human frame but once ; and supp^ts this 
position by the strongest proof. 

^^ Two proofs of the Bulam fever not attacking a se- 
cond time, were in the 70th and 55th regiments. The 
first suffered severely from the disease in the West-Indies, 
in the year 1794, and returned to that climate from Eu- 
rope in the-year 1800, filled up with new officers, with 
the exception of six, who had had the fever at a former 
period in the West Indies, and who now escaped it, 
.although the corps buried ten of the newly ajjpointed 
officeis in a very short time." 

^^ Upon a moderate computation, there were one Imn,' 
dred andffty officers (^civil and military) at Gibraltar, 
who had not had the disease before, and twenty-five who 
had passed it in the West-Indies ; and making an allow- 
ance for one or two doubtful cases, where Uie disease 
was so mild as not to confine the patient to the bed ; one 
hundred and forty-five at least out of the one hundred 
and £fAy were attacked by it, while every individual of 

12 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

e twpniy-five who had it before escaped il ; pr6af pg^ 
te, tliat ihe Gibraltar, West-India, or Bukni lever, on' 
t same disease, and thai the human frame is not liable lo 
e attacked by it a second lime, even after a lapse of ten 
ears." Appendix to Dr. Pi/m't Obiervatitins. 
, Al Cadiz, last year, though the fever put oii ibe vtrj 
rorst symptoms, and destroyed the paiieiii frequently in 
nrly-eight hours, the deaths did not exceed, in b pnpiila- 
m o{ upwartb of seventy thousand, My a day ; B»d 
ese wer^ chiefly strangers- Tlie Spaniards ar« so fully 
fcnvinced Ihey cannot reccivG ilie infection a second 
le, thai having passed the disease is matter of great n- 
tncing HmoDg them. Consult the transaetiims at that 
ictive and dlstiogdished association, the Medical and 
fChirurgical Society of London, vol.5, lor more atUjJe 

t The immvnity of the constitution from a second Mtack 

«f Yellow Fever, is a peculiarity so strikingly characlrr< 
lost disorders of an acknowledged >;pecifi« !»■ 

re, and of such great practical interest both in a sofiul 
utd political point of view, that il is extraordinary it 
nould have met with so little notice befurc Profrunr 

rejulamade mention of il in the year 1806. 
In the Facts and Observations of the College of Ky- 
is of Philadelphia, on the nature and origin of the 

eslilenlial fever, after establishing the identity trf the 
pcllow Fever which existed in that city In 1793, 1797 
»8, with liie West-India pestilence, the CoJl^ 

latei that it is a circumstance that deserves particular 01- 
bniion, that " very few, if any, of the Creole French in 
Uiis city, [Philadelphia] suflered from the Contoginui 
malignant fever which prevailed here in 1793, 17Q7 and 
17i>8, though the disease was introduced intolheir fiimV- 
lies; nndchildren bom in ihis country of Creole parents, 
died witli it last autumn, while the parents and the ctiil- 
dreo born in the West-Indies were entirely exempt frgnt 
ll." 

Dr. CitrfLe tells us, that the French West'lndianB, 
particularly those from Si. Domingo, almost la a man, 
otcaped the disorder, though i hey made use of no pn- 
CBOtioD t«r the purpose, *' while those from Frtuice wen; 



THE YELLOyr FEVER. ' fl 

as liable to it as the Philadelphians." Nothing in rela* 
tionto the security from a second attack of the disease Li 
advanced by the late Professor Bayley, in his excellent 
volume on the Epidemic Fever of New- York, in 1795 j 
though in the Collection of Papers published by Mr. 
Webster, this writer on the epidemic of New- York, of 
the same year, alleges that he knew not a decided in- 
stance of an individual labouring under a second sei- 
zure.— But at present f am not duly prepared to en- 
large on this point, by reference to other American au- 
thorities. 

Permit me now to make known to you the important 
results of the recent deliberations of two of the most dis- 
tinguished medical associations of this kingdom. The 
decisions of the Royal College of Physicians of London 
and of the Army Medical Board are at length brought tm 
a close. These two learned bodies, alike distinguished 
for scientific attainment and practical knowledge, have 
been for a considerable time past devoted fo a considera^ 
tion of all the facts connected with the nature and char- 
acter of the Yellow Fever, particularly as it has of late 
years appeared in Spain. The Royal College have pro- 
nounced that the Yellow Fever is a highly contagious 
disease, which decision they have reported to the Lords 
ef the Privy Council. With respect to its attacking the 
human frame but once, they say they think it extremely 
probable J but that upon a point of such importance they 
cannot venture to give a decided opinion. The Army 
Medical Board, at the head of which presides Sir James 
McGregor, have also given it as their opinion, in the 
following words: 

(COPY.) 

ftXTKACT FKOM THE REPORT UPQ^ DR. PTM's PUBLICA* 
7ION BT THE ARMY MEDICAL BOARD. 

Army Medical Board Office^ 6th May ^ I8I6. . 
^ f t is due to Dr. Pym to state, that we consider biii 
fo have been the first English medical man who promul- 
gated the opinion, that the disease in question (the Bulam 
Fever) is capable of attacking the human firame but once; 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

K •ml if-ihat opinion he correct, which we bctkve ittoW 
B III b CGTlaiuly an important fart, and led Dr. Vym ti> en 
I filoy those persons as atleudiuits on ihc sick, who huu 
I undergone the diseaEC, and thmerore were not likdft'' I 
I be aflected by the contagion of it, and thus probably sh I 
I .ved ntiiny lives. Under tliesc impression*, wi- hegieari^ I 
I to recnnimend tlie industry and research displayMl li; 
I t)r. Fyin, In hia book, to Lord Falinorstone't raTOuntili ' 
 CoJisiJt7!iiioi). 

'■Signed, «J. M'GREGOR, 

"W. FfL^MvLIN, 
"W. SOMtUVIl 

DCSITLTOKT OBSEBVATIOBW, 

1 have every reason to believe that the 1 

ieorreet, in llie opinion, whicli he has tidvnnced, 'i 
It a person who hiu once liad tlie Yellow fe- 
r need bc'under no great fesr, that he wBl be ftf- 
SPictcd with it n second lime. Although na phyticiu 
p have seen at least, as much of this disease ta any lAa 
in the United States, and as circiunstRDCes have I«l u 
KitO'lhink fretiuenily upon the subject, Croiti iIk year 170 
to the prcMnt petioci, lean aver, that 1 oi'i 
tnslance, in wiiich a person has been ^hi' 
low Fever a second lime, -and of this cn-i 
Ritely ctTluln, a^lhe second aliack, » < 
It season, terminated fatally tniji" 
on Uilious Rpmittent Fever, h>['t 
1 Fever, though iheiw is a vast diJT'   
skilful and experienced phjsicinn im  : 
)r. Francis does not go bo far as to sny, ilisi (lie 1 L-Jlfi 
annol possibly be taken a secoml tiroo. IVben 
ir chHdren have ^oi over lliP smnll |H)X &i>iI tbe i 
s, inir minds .tie at eam respeciing their (unire vtfety 
in either of these flW'iidcs. Still however, it ha* hap- 
fr-iied, ihut individuals have hern aliiirUed by one at 
ilier of tliem a second tiinr. Dut I speak wiliiiu baiuidi, 
then I nmert, that a cue of thiu kind does not occur 
of firty thotiwind persons, and 1 believe it nfll 
i foiuitl equaily true with rot{iect (u Yellow FevCf. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 9ff 

This subject^ in an eminent d^ree, deserves the consi- 
deration of our physicians, as, if it should be found 
to be true, it might ease the minds of many of our felloe 
citizens from unnecessary fear. 



The disease, with which we have been afflicted, spar- 
ed neither age nor sex. Thus we find the venerable John 
Dover to die with it who was in his 84th year, and also 
children of six or seven years of age. Blacks as well as 
whites fell victims to the dire calamity. A much greater 
proportion of men died than of women. The reason is 
obvious. Women remained at home, while men were 
under the necessity of going abroad in pursuit of the means 
of supporting their families, and very probably led from 
necessity into the infected district. 



It was usual, at first, to speak of the infected district; 
but about the middle of September, we had two, -whicli 
were known by the names of the Lower and the Upper 
infected districts. The limits of the former I have al- 
ready described as being hemmed in by fences. The 
latter might be said to have been comprised from Henry- 
street to the East River, and between Catharine and 
Pike Streets. In Lombardy and Cheapside Streets, with- 
in these bounds, the disease had been peculiarly fatal, 
very few having recovered, who had been attacked by it. 
What cause brought the distemper to this quarter of the 
city, it is impossible for me to say. Here, however, as 
well as in the Rector-street district, while the pestilence 
was raging, the other parts of the city were fully as ex- 
empt from pestilence as on the Allegany mountains. It 
may, therefore, be supposed, that the disease in both 
these districts either originated from, or was promul- 
gated by some local cause. This the Board of Health 
will, no doubt, cause to be investigated with ajl fe^^ 
ble despatch, 



AN ACCOUNT or 

Ll Itavc alrewly meatione^, ihat when it wu d 
Kl a pcslilcntial diwiue eiisted amongst us, Uie fl 
l^ealUiiidviseit the inhabitants in ibe inserted dbiria 
;, anil very humanely provided places of rtiun, 
I irhich the poor might resort and be suppvrleil nt at 
fcblic expense, during the calamity. These were, Uk 
phlic buildings ai I'ort Richmond, and a house lOiinl 
f the Bofti'd 8t Kip's Bay, To the former '■( ■.licsr, ;(S 
Jrsons were sent, wlio were amply 6iJi<|i''. 
pians, under the superintendanceuf iMi 
V, a ijentleinaii well known for his lliun.i:. 
Ifery ihing necessary for iheir comfort ;ii..: . ,i;u.-nrr 
bs lunply supjilieil. At Kip's Buy, tbere wei 
fcis, who were siip|)oricd in the sBnie inaouer. 
Hio went to those places, tlierc were several i 
 Vellow Pever, which they had contracted, J 
B tlieir reiQovaJ iVom the cily. Had ibey ai 
Period, attended to the benevolent adinoi 
loard, their lives might, id all probability, I 



I In iheyear ITDS, when the population ofM 

il more than half as great, as ii is at fircaeni, i 

1- of deaths by Yellow fever was calculiitM 

BDusand five hundred anil twenty-four. Aftea 

ythe pre»enl sickly season, and making as  

a number, who may have died in ihe cow^ 

ning whom we have received no COFreU lnl3 

I is probable, that the whole did not exceMl 1^ 

The disease, I am convinced, was fii|)y3 

IS in the year iTyS; but tlie timely fUdi 

, in a great meesure, averted the A 

rbich ihey might ollicrwise have ej;perien_. 

bve the vanity to tliink, thnl m^bouk may be |i 

pr some, 1 do most earnestly Suggest to my fellow ci 
lots, in, case of another cnlaiolly of the kind, the pm- J 
|iety nf moving immedintfjy, ufier the Board o f JaT " 
IftU have given the alarm. They may be nssUB 
'i!i alarm will never be given, «ilhout due cauti 



THE YELLOW FEVER, 95 

It is remarkable, that though several persons were 
sent to the City Hospital, sick of Yellow Fever, at the 
commencement of the disease, no one there was infected 
by it ; but what is still more remarkable, there was a wo- 
man of the name of Walsh in Bridewell, in the month of 
Septemiber, who soon after had the disease in its worst 
form. The house was, at that time very much crowded ^ 
but neither infection nor contagion ensued. The fact is, 
that neither, during the sickness of the present year or of 
that in any preceding, has there been a single instance in 
the Alms House, BrideweU, Penitentiary, or State 
Prison, in which there has been one solitary case 
of infection or contagion. They enjoy, it is true, in all 
those places a most salubrious air; but their preservation 
from disease may, likewise, be attributed to their plain 
and wholesome diet. A superfluity of food, to which 
those who are in easy circumstances too often accustom 
themselves, occasions crudities on the stomach, which, 
in all probability will occasion disease. A spare diet, 
during the summer months will ever be found to be the 
best preservative of health. 



The death of fourteen persons by Yellow Fever has 
occurred since the 26th October, the names of whom I 
have transcribed from the record kept by the City Inspec- 
tor and inserted in the alphabetical list of deathjs, here- 
unto annexed. 1 have, likewise, ascertained the .names 
of a few other persons, who died of fever, which were 
not in the list, with which his Honour the Mayor was so 
obligingly pleased to furnish nie. These I have, like- 
wise, inserted in the said Alphabetical list. The whole 
number will then be 254, to which may very pro- 
bably be added an indefinite number of, perhaps, thirty 
more, who may have died in various parts of the country, 
concerning whom we have received no particular infor- 
mation. 

Immediately after the address of the Board to their 
fellow citizens on the 26th October, the absentees began 
to return to their respective abodes with a precipitation 



96 AN ACCOUNT OF 

almost unparalleled. Forty or fifty carts and waggons 
could be seen ki a line transporting goods, wari^s, met' 
chandise and household furniture from- the Village of 
Greenwich and places in tlie outskirts of the city, to the 
stores and houses, from which they had been taken, se- 
veral weeks before. On the 5th November, the Custom 
House, Post-Office, Banks, Insurance Offices, Printing 
Offices, Vendue Masters, Merchants, &c. returned to 
their former habitations. About this time, the places of 
worship, which had been so long shut, in the lower part of 
the city, were re-opened, vessels came to our docks 
as usual, and a bustle again became visible at the former 
places of trade and commerce. But alas ! the city ef 
New- York has received a shock, from which it will not 
soon recover. The rich have felt it and the laborious 
poor, who during this sickly season, have had no em* 
ploymcnt, may suffer severely during the approaching 
winter, unless the hand of charity be extended towards 
them. 



What striking instances of the transitory nature of life, 
does such a disease afford ! We see men exuhing in the 
bloom of youth and prime of health and strength, in three 
or four days numbered wit'i the dead. Our gayest cmd- 
panions, our most amiable friends, in less Uian a week, 
are laid in the dust. When we have been daily witnes- 
sing these scenes around us, who can avoid reflect- 
ing, tBat his turn may be next; yet the mind, when ha- 
bituated to the most afflictive and extraordinary events 
becomes hardened and views them with indifference. 
Disease and death the most dreadful accidents, which can 
affect the human frame, when made familiar to the sight, 
cease to inspire dread and are ranked with the most com- 
uiojn occurrences, 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 



97 



The following statement will show the number of cases 
and deaths by Yellow Fever in each street, by which 
the citizens may form some judgment to what extent the 
infection has existed in their particular neighbourhood. 

The cases enumerated in each street, are only those 
who were considered as having their permanent residence 
there ; and those enumerated under the head of frequent' 
ing the infected district^ are only such whose residence 
was in a healthy part of the city, but who contracted the 
disease by frequenting the infected parts. 

It is computed that there are but six cases which have 
not been traced to the West and South of Fulton-street, 
and but two cases that have not been traced to that part 
of the city included within the bounds of Catharine, Ban- 
eker and Pike-streets, and the river. 





• 

CO 


:! 




• 

OB 


^i 


STREETS. 


^ 


<*•» 

8 


STEEETS. 


1 


1 




o 


Q 




o 


Q 


Rector - - - 


19 


11 


Garden - - - 


1 





Washington 


27 


18 


Beaver - - - 


5 


2 


Greenwich - - 


22 


11 


Stone - - - 


3 


1 


Lumber - - - 


11 


7 


Mm . . - 


1 





Broadway - - 


33 


20 


Moore - - - 


2 





Carlisle - - - 


3 


I 


State - - - 


3 


1 


Beaver-lane ^ - 


4 


4 


Pearl - - - 


13 


8 


Albany - - 


2 


2 


Water - - - 


19 


14 


Thames - - 





4 


Front - - - 


5 


4 


Cedar - - - 


8 


7 


Old-Slip -, - ^ 


2 


2 


Wall . - - 


7 


4 


Dutch - -' - 


6 


2 


Broad - - - 


14 


7 


Ann - - - 


1 


1 


New - - - 


3 


2 


Ferry - - - 


1 


1 


Nassau - - - 


10 


5 


Chamber - - 


1 





William . - 


11 


4 


Frequented sick- 






Pine - - - 


2 


1 


' ly district, but 






Liberty - - - 


16 


9 


ireside in tlie 






Courtlandt - - 


12 


8 


upper part of 






Maiden lane 


10 


4 


the city - - 


65 


34 


Dey . - - . 


1 











John - - - 


2 


1 


Total - - 


355 : 


202 


Fulton - - - 


4 


2 









9s 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



STREETS. 



00 



I 



UPPER DISTRICT. 
Cheapside - - 11 6 
Lombardy - - 13 8 
BaDcker - - T 5 
Catharine - - 4 3 
Lewis^ Grand - 2 2 



STREETS. 

Frequented the 
sickly district 
but reside in 
the healthy part 
of the city 

Total - - 



RECAPITULATION. 



Cases in Lower District 
Cases in Upper District 



Total 



I 



5 



9 4 
46 2S 



355 

46 

401 



Deaths in Lower District ------ 202 

Deaths in Upper District ------ 28 



Total 



230 



The foregoing exhibit includes several cases which 
have not been repinrted to the Board of Health, but they 
&re all such,' as warranted a belief in the information re- 
ceived, that they were cases of Yellow Fever. 
i By order of the Board. 

STEPHEN AIJLEN, Pws. 
J. MORTON, Secr'y. 



A LIST 

Of aUthe cases and deaths occasioned by YfsQowFe' 

ver as reported to the Board of Healthy or other" 

mse ascertained from l6th July^ to 2Gth. Oc- 

tober, 1822. 









• 


1 








t 


tg 


DATES. 




1 


DATES. 




Q 


1 


July 16 


• 


m 


1 


1 


24 


m 


. 


6 


4 


17 


- 


m 


4 


3 


25 


• 


• 


5 


4 


20 


• 


• 


1 


1 


26 


 


• 


4 


1 


25 


• 


• 


3 


1 


27 


m 




4 


4 


26 




• 


4 


2 


28 


m 


• 


6 


6 


29 


- 


- 


3 


1 


29 


m 


• 


6 


2 


SO 


- 


• 


2 


1 


SO 


m 


• 


4 


3 


Aug. 3 


• 


- 


1 


1 


31 


m 


• 


4 


3 


4 


- 


- 


1 


1 


S«pt. 1 


■• 


- 


4 


4 


5 


- 


- 


2 





2 


- 


• 


5 


3 


6 


- 


- 


4 


S 


4 


. 


- 


9 


5 





- 


- 


9 


4 


5 


• 


. 


10 


» 


10 


- 


- 


2 


1 


6 


• 


. 


3 


2 


11 


- 


■• 


1 





7 


. 


• 


6 


1 


12 


- 


- 


1 


1 


8 


• 


• 


6 


4 


13 


- 


.- 


4 


1 


9 


• 


• 


6 


4 


14 


- 


- 


3 


1 


10 


• 


. 


6 


2 


15 


• 


- 


1 


1 


11 


• 


• 


10 


4 


16 


- 


- 


3 


2 


12 


• 


- 


7 


3 


17 


- 


- 


3 


2 


13 


• 


• 


5 


2 


18 


- 


m 


1 


1 


14 


. 


m 


5 


2 


19 


- 


- 


6 


5 


15 


• 


m 


11 


6 


20 


- 


m 


4 


4 


16 


• 


m 


9 


4 


21 


- 


- 


7 


4 


17 


• 


m 


3 


2 


22 


- 


- 


4 


2 


18 


• 


m 


5 


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AN ACCOUNT OF 









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THE tELLOW FETEB, IQI 



A LIST 

Of those who Died of Yellow Fever contracted in the 

City of New-Yorky from l6th July to 

November, 1822. 



August 1. — Archer Leonard W. comer of Greenwich 
und Rector Street^. 

28. — Agg Thomas, from 96 Broadway ; Albany. 

26. — AtUnson^ Mary, wife of William^ from 47 
Greenwich-street; Marine Hospital. 

September . — Ackerly Mr. from the city of Wash- 
ington, landed in or near the infected district; in Canal- 
street. 

21. — Adams Mrs. Sterling, from No. 107 Fulton- 
street; Carleton-street. 

24. — Allen Mrs., the wife of Thomas, from Duane- 
street, near Broadway; at Hoboken, N. J. 

28. — Armstrong Henry, l63 Washington-street. 

October 29«— Archad ^san, Henry-street* 

B 

August 19. — ^Beck William, who had bead in the in- 
fected district; 98 Harman-street. 

23. — Brown Thomas, 14 Thames-street. 

28.— Boulinger Edward, from 84 Broadway; Marine 
Hospital. 

28. — ^Buckmaster Mrs., from Beaver-lane; Marine 
Hospital. 

September 29. — Bailey Mrs. Eliza, from 12 Cheap- 
side-street; Marine Hospital. 

30. — Bailey Miss Eliza^ Marine Hospital. 

24.-*-Baisely Nicholas, who had been in the infected 
district; Brookl3m. 

26. — Baisely Antoinette, his daughfer, aged 11 
years; Brooklyn* 

21.— Bayley Catharine, 12 Cheapside-street. 

23. — Beeker Victor, from 68 Bearer-street; Marine 
Hospital 



102 ' AN ACCOUNT OF 

20. — Bennet Mrs.^ from 43 Couftlandt-fitreet; Marioe 
Hospital. 

20. — Benthoyzen Patty, 124 Washington-street. 

15. — Berault Mrs., nexjt to the comer of Wall and 
Broad Streets; Bloomingdale. 

22« — Bityerman John, from the Sugar House in Lib- 
erty-street; 156 Crosby-street. 

28. — Boy ce Frederick, from 11 Dutch-street; Marine 
Hospital. 

30.— Brigbtley Alfred, 80 Water-street. - 

20. — Brown Hannah, 18 Cheapside-street. 

8.-^Buchan Thomas, from the infected district; 221 
Church-street. 

.—Bull Will^m H. from 2 Wall-str^t; at the 
five mile stone. 

24. — Bonn Reuben, shoemaker, ^ William-street. 

8. — Bush Reader, from the Sugar House in Liborty- 
street; 77 Mott-street. 

20. — Byrne Murtagh, from 124 Fly-Market , at Har- 
laem. 

October l6. — Ball Abraham, 67 Water«street. > 

7. — Bals3on Josiah, 1 68 Water-street. 

19. — Beach Agur, 496 Greenwich-stretft. 

18. — Blakely Isabella, comer of Vesey and Wash- 
ington Streets. 

9. — Brisland John, 343 Water-street. 

24. — Burns Christopher, 48 P^arl-street. 

23. — Butler Alexander^ from CadiarmeHrtMet ^ MariQie 
Hospital. 

•— rBoy, (coloured) 42 Broad-street. 

28.-^Bower Thomas, 7 Ferry-street. 

C 

August 12. — Cade Thomas, from 6I Luniber<street$ 
192 Division-street. 

27. — Clayton Thomas, 12 Thames-street 

. — Coates Mrs., from 122 Liberty<*8treet$ at 295' 
-Bowery. 

. — Coates, her son, do. 

3 1 — Constantine Miss, from corner of New and Wall 
Streets; Boweiy. 

30.— Coxen Dinah, from 21 Cedar-street; 34 Q^ 



THE YELLOW FEVER. les 

September 8. — ^Carney John^ from 5 Courtlaadt) at 
81 OranwB-street. 

. — Corwin Mrs. 28 Park. 

13. — Carney Miss, from 5 Courtlandt-streeti at Kip's 
Bay. 

13, — Cary Mrs., from 4 Lombardy-streetj Staten*^ 
Island 

1.— Cato Catharine, from comer of West and Liberty 
Streets; Staten-Island. 

8. — Chace David, who had been in Wall-street near 
Broadway ; 380 Pearl-street. 

10. — Christy Dupeire, 42 Courtlfundtrstrect. 

23. — Cisco William, who had been in the infected* 
district; corner of Charleton and Washington Streets. 

28. — Claar Mrs. Sarah, 75 Cherry-street. 

5. — Coit Mrs., from 92 Chamber-street 5 at Kip's 
Bay. 

22. — Conklin John, 177 Fulton-street. 

10. — Corton Abel, from comer of Nassau and Pine 
Streets; Marine Hospital. 

22.-— <]Iowcn John, foot of Murray-street; Marine 
Hospital. 

October 20. — Chappeau Clarissa, 128 Banker-street.* 

20. — Clark Mary, frwn 31 Lumber-street; at 217 
Chapel-street. 

20.— Crawford Elizabeth, 128 Banker-street. 

19. — Curriel Joseph, 349 Water-street. 

28.-— Carroll Mary, Pike-street. 

August 17. — ^Decker Jeremiah, from Rector-stre^^., 
306 Spring-§tfeet. 

18. — Dennies I. C.from Carlisle-street; City Jersey. 

31.«--Ditchett Samuel, from 82 Broadway; Marines 
Hospital. * i* 

17.— -Doughty David S. from 87 Greep^ch-street; 
6 Roosevelt-street. ' :j 

29. — Dykeman Joseph, from die hufected district; 
Walker-street. ^ 

September . — ^Dally James, from 61 Cedar-street i 
17 Harmaxi-«treet. 

22.~Dady Mn# froak 29 SroaM^street; Newvk^K. I v\ . 






104 AN ACCOUNT OF 

. — ^Davis Thomas, 199 Fulton-street. 

13. — Davis John, from 42 Washington-st. Brook yn» 

13. — Davison George, from Broadway neiMr Cour^ 
landt-street ; 28 Barclay-street. 

24. — Dickson Ann, from Fort Richmond; Marine 
Hospital. 

26. — Dickson Andreir, from Do. at Do. 

1. — Dixon John, fsom 74 Liberty-street 5 59 Thom- 
as-street. 

S. — Dover John; l64 Brpadway. 

October 8. — Dempsey Catharine; 88 Front-«treet 

11. — Dempsey John,, from 88 Front-street; Marine 
Hospital. 

22. — Denn Patrick, who had been at 14 Broadiv^y; 
62 Barclay-street. 

27. — Devoe Samuel; 19 Water-street. 

23. — Dibbeit John, day and night watchman; 51 
Old SUp. 

E 

September 29. — Earl Martin; 99 Vesey-strect. 
. October 10. — Edward Mr., 52 Lombardy-street. 

17* — Eldred Israel, who had been in Rector-etreet) 
Bloomuigdale. 

,— Everson Alfred^ at Springfield, N. J. 

F 

August X 8. — ^Floyd Dr. Samuel, from 130 Greenwich- 
street; City Jersey. 

September 23. — Fraitus Mrs., from comer ofPeari and 
State Streets ; Bloomingdale. 

October 7* — Fairley Sally; 28 Lombardy-stivet 

24. — Ferguson Matthew, 24 Lombardy-street. 

G 

OcfoJer 7,-— Garland John, from 49 Water-«ticet; 
Marine Hospital. 

5. — Gamis Philip, a day watchman in the infected 
district; 1 6 James-street. 

10. — Grant Ebenezer T. 205 William-street. 

80. — Goodrich Henry, 68 Vesey-street. 

H 

August 4. — Hamilton John, who had been in Rector- 
street; 20 Howard-street. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 105 

8. — Hefiernan Thomas^ from 95 Washington-street; 
New- York Hospital. 

. — Hill John, from 6 Albany-alreet; City Jersey. 

7 Hill Polly; 6 Alhany-«trect. 

September 18. — Hamilton George, from comer of 
Whitehall and Stone^treets ; 50 Mercer-street, v 

28. — Haywood John, who had been in the infected 
district ; 138 Water-street. 

. — Hawser Martin, SulHvan-street ; frotn 42 Liber- 
ty-street. 

— Hartman Harman, from Sugar House in Liber- 
ty-street; 118 Forsyth-street. 

30 Hay wood Polly; 138 Water-street. 

1. — Helm U. W. who had been at the comer of New 
and Wall Streets; 35 Pearl-street. 

24. — Hopkins Daniel C. Lewis near Delancey-st. 

6. — Howland Ly4ia, corner of Cedar . and Temple 
Streets. 

13. — Hume Catharine, from 4 Bowling Green ; Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

October Harris EHsha, from 1 Old-Slip; New 

Canaan, fCocmecticut.) 

5. — Hull John, a day and night watchman^ 50 Pearl-^rt. 

5.— Hull Nancy, wife of the above named John, at 
the same place. 

I 

September 25. — ^Isaacs Samuel M. sent from Brook- 
lyn to the Marine Hospital. 

October 12. — Irving Joho^ who Imd been distributing 
lime; 19 Cross-«treet. 

J 

vtftfgi^ 3 1.<— Jackson Elizabeth, 152 Chamber-«treet. 

26. — Jenkinson Jane, who had been through Cedar« 
street; 62 Broadway. 

September 1 l.-^aques D. who had been in the infect* 
ed dbtrict; New-Jersey. 

19 — Jaques Henry Freenwn; 29 Pearlnrtreet. 

19. — Jones Ellis, from 99 Washington-street; 158 
^arman-street, 

October 2A, — Jones Catharine ; 7 Cheapside<«treet« 

30. — Jones Henrietta, T Cheapside-«treet. 



1^15 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



August 15. — Kampmeyer John, from Wi 
near Rector-fltreei; 174 Broadway. 

13. — Kaylor Mrs. from Rector-slreet; Harl 
SI. — Keith Aniell, from 10 Lumber-iit. ; VandOBMb 
—Kemp Mrs,, from 61 Broadway, Brooldjtn, 
— Kerney Robert, dock builder, 40 Washiiigton-st. 
1 5. — Kline Johnj a labourer from Ihe infected district; 
156 Harman-sueet. 

24. — Knoit John, 78 Cedar-slreet. 

I September i 5. — Kewin James, from-Liberly-ttreei; 
Thomas-street, 
4. — Knott Miss, from 78 Cedar-«treet; NewtovB,L.I. 
. — Kerney John, 81 Orange-street. 
. — Kemey Miss, sister of John, from do. 
October 6.— Ketchum Sarah. 29 Gold- 
I8,~Krough Martin, 343 Water-sttreet. 
29.— KeDy Catharine, from 25 Old SUp. 
^ September 30. — Ladda John, 28 tombardy' 

5 — Lamb Cornelius H. 80 Wafer-street. 
22. — I.angors Peter, from 43 Coiirtlandt-slr«et; Msf 
tine Hospjial. 

1. — LawJobn, from New-atreet; Newark, N. J. 
1. — Lawson William, from 45 Cnurllandt-street ; 
_ jVIiddletown Point, N. J. 

'^^^ 2. — Luff John N. had been at 4l Broad-9t.; Grand-tl. 
^^^F October 9. — Lvon Mrs., wife of Samuel, 11 AniMt. 
^^B 31.— Leland Bellamin, 65 Water-street. 
^^^L -^.Lawrence Lathcum, 325 Greenwich-street. 

i 



! August 20. — M'Kenna John, froiri Cedar-street j car- 
ter of Washington and Chamber Streets. 
30. — Mathers Joseph, from 40 Broadway; GfWnwich 

rnioge. 

2S. — Mathers Mrs,, wife of .Toseph; same placi>. 
10. — Moore Elizabeth, from Recioi-slreeE: HaniJliHi 

30, — Morrison Mrs., from 43 Broadway; Sullivmn-st. 
14. — Mtichett Miss, from corner of Lumber and Rec- 
tor Streets; Newark. N.J. 



THE YELLOW FEVER. l^ 

26. — M^Ginnis James^ from 123 Greenwich-street; 
19 Broadway. 

17-— M^Phelan Martuiy from City Hotel; Marine 
Hospital. 

9. — M^Pherson Elizabeth^ from Beaver-lane; Mid- 
dletown Point, N. J. 

9.— Her sister, at the same place. 

18. — Magee Deborah, aged 51, wiffe of Safety Magee; 
46 Pine-street. 

7. — Mathewson Lawrance^ New n^ar Beaver-street. 

14. — Merritt Mary, 69 Courtlandt-street. 

. — Morgan William, from Carlisle-st. ; Amboy, N. J. 
. — Morgan Mrs. do. do 

8. — Morris Mary, from 144 Wasliington-street ; 19 
Desbrosses-street. 

12 — Morse Mrs. £benezer,^from 5 Courtlandt-street; 
Hubert-street. 

« 

19. — Mott George W. from 4 Lombardy-street; Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

. — ^Mason Thomas, from 62 Courtlandt-street; 
Brooklyn. 

. — ^M^Isaacks Samuel, from 42 Washington-street ; 
tit Quarantine. 

22. — Murphy John; 48 Pearl-street. 

24. — ^Murray Alexander, from 35 Maiden-lane; City 
Jersey. 

28. — Murray Andrew; SS Nassau-street. 

October 18.-^M^Cartney Jane, 45 J Nassau-street 

31. — Murray Josiah, 26 Front-street. 

14 — Msdioney Dennis, 105 William-street. 

6. — Morrel Jacob, cartman, had been in the infected 
district; 7 Ludlow-street. 

10. — Morris Michael, hack driver, from 125 Antho- 
ny-street; Marine Hospital. 

November 4. — ^M^Cord John, Suffolk-street. 

N 

August IS. — Newell Robert ; 383 Greenwich-street, 

September l.-^Neal Jude, from 9 Wall-street; 79 
Mulberry-street. 

Ji. — Nott John, from Lumber-street ; ST Augustus-st.^ 
.'—North James, 21 Nassau-street. 



108 AN ACCOUNT OF 

24. — Nelson Joseph, Broad comer of Garden Streets. 

October. 4. — ^Nestel Christian^ from 81 Catharine; 33 
Allen-street. 

O 

August .— Oldham IJugh, comer of Liberty and 
Washington Streets. 

September 3.— Overend WiUiam, comer of Liberty 
and West Streets. 

17. — O'Donald Jane, 38 Lumber-street. 

P 

August 5. — Philips Mrs. Napthali, from 68 Green- 
wich-street ; comer of Chamber-street and Broadway. 

21. — Perkuis Jonathan, who had been m the infected 
district ; Canal near Chapel Streets. 

September 13. — Parks Richard^ from City Hotel; 152 
Leonard street. 

23.— Pike Elizabeth, 9G Water-street. 

October 3. — Philmore John, Front near Walnut-st. 

4. — ^Polhemus John, a day watchman ; Green near 
Brooihe-street. 

5. — Page Mrs. Mary; 12 Ferry-street. 

14.^— Phelan, Patrick who had returned from the coun* 
try ; comer of Front and Depeyster Streets. 

16. — Pearson Thomas ; 105 WilliamHrtreet. 

17-— Phelan Andrew, corner of Front and Depeyster- 
Streets. 

Q 

August 21 . — Quackinboss Abraham, had been in the 
Infected district ; 46 Leonard-street. 

R 

July 17» — Reeder Cardine, aged 9 years; 26 Rector^ 
street. 

17. — Reeder John, aged 15 years ; same house. 

24. — Rose Miss, corner of Greenwich and Rector- 
Streets, aged 7 years. 

August 26. — Roberts Hannah, from 00 Broadway ; 
corner of Duane and Cross Streets. 

September 16. — Rngan Marian, from 13 Broad-street; 
at 2 James' slip. 

17.— Reeves Sarah, from 10 Old Slip; 19 Heni}'- 
street. 



i 



THE YELLOW. FEVeR. I0j9t 

.*— Regan Edward from 52 Lombardy-stireet. 

28. — ^Robinson John, Water-street. 

27. — Rodgers Gilbert H., from 363 Pearlnstreet ; Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

7* — ^Rollinson John, from 23 Washington-street 3 cor- 
ner of Pearl and Collect Streets. 

October 29*— Reed John, who had returned from the 
country on the l6th^ corner of Grand and Forsyth Stsv 

19. — ^Reed Samuel, 115 Cherry-street. 

20. — ^Rankin Alexander, 4S Pearl-street. 

S 

AttguttVf. — Scorgie John, (Scotland), from 55 Wash- 
ington-street ^ Bank-street, between 12tn and 13th Sts. 

22.— dScorgie Mrs., wife of John ; same place. 

September 23. — Scott Richard ; 122 Bancker-street. 

12. — Seamen James, who had been at No. 4 Wall- 
street; 22 Orchard-street. 

24. — Smith Ann, from Liberty-^treet \ Walnut-street. 

19. — Smith Ralph, 22) Nassau-St. 

1 6.-— Smith Thomas, from 6 John-Street ; Grand-st. 

26. — Smith John, carted tan in the infected district «( 
131 Delapcey-street. 

24. — Smith Mrs., wife of Thomas, from 6 John-street ; 
Westchester. 

15. — Snow Fanny, from 4 Lombudy-street ; Marine 
Hospital. 

19. — Spear Paul, from 188 Greenwich-street; 357 
Broadway^ s^ned 35 years. 

14.—- Stewart Nancy, from the infected district ; Ma- 
•rine Hospital. 

14. — Stoutenburgh Isaac, from comer of Liberty an4 
Washington-street ; Marine HoftpitaL 

25.— Suitor William ; 104 Vesey-street, had been in 
the infected district. 

Octoher 7* — Smith Mrs. R.^ from 22) Nassau ; Marine 
Hospital. 

20.— Smith Robert ; 349 Water-street. 

17*— ^Stephens Thmnas ; 69 William-street. 

16.— Stroebel Dr. John ; 44 Nassau.street. 

T 

jyy 16«— Thomas Andrew, from the comer of Wash- 

L . 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



3 



^ n dnd Rector-Streets ; Ciiy Hospital, aged 26, 
tjve of Scotland. -i 

AagiutlR. — Taylor Mrs., from III Green wkli^treet; 
l7l Greenwich-street. 

1. — TaylorMiss, daughter of Joiin, from Jlt Green* 
wicli-strcpt ; Tappan. 

24. — Thompson James M. corner of Wall & New Si*. 
30. — Todd Kichard, from 5 Bcaver-Lone ; Maiinc 
Ilospilol. 
I 21. — Tolb Mrs. Lavtnia, from Lumber-«ireel j 102 
I Water-street, aged 64. 

—Turner James, from on board a lighter; 14J 
LOrange-street. 

* September 9. — Taile William ; cornerof LJbexty and 
I Nassau-Streets, 

3. — Thompson JelTcry ; Washington -st. ncartlie fence. 

3 — Tiffanan Mary ; Ci) Cross^atreet. 

October \0. — Thornburn Ann; 9(3 CathnrtDe-atreet. 

V 
September 10. — Vandjke George, from Reed«lrcct j 
Alarine Hospital. 

October 5. — Victor Ettienne ; 32 WilliaiiMtreet. 

W 
Jult/ 22. — Waters Mrs, cor.ofRector&GrecnHichSu. 
Aagwttl^. — Wade Robert, from comer of GmDwicb 
and Liberty-Streets ; 4 Lewis-street. 

C'J, — Warerman Williiun, aged IS, from 32 Lumlief 
street } 5 Chapei-strcct. 
I 75.— While William, from 38 Lumbor-siTTOt: Marine 
iJlospiial. 

\ SejpteuAer 10. — Walsh Marin Ann, from 46 BnWd- 
way J Bloomfield, New-Jersey. J 

21. — WardN^aniel; 20 ChcHpside-8tie«t. I 

8. — Warren George G, from Broadwoy ; at BmIod. I 
30, — Warren Mrs. wife of Abraham, from 41 B«a*H- 1 
fctrcet ; Woodbridge, New-Jersey. 
' 23. — ^Warren John ; 67 Waier-slreet. 

10. — Washington Kroily, from 4 Thames-surct ; :;4 
nthony-streel. 

7- — Whelan Rebecca ; in a vessel foot of Dclnncey^t. 

8. — White Chtirlofte, from Washiugtua near Be^v«^ 

Mafiae lluspital. 




THE YELLOW FEVER. lU 

20.— WUcox Amelia, daughter of Charles ^ 66 Pine- 
street, from 18 Broadway. 

19.— Wilcox Mrs. wife of Charles, Do. Do. 

8.— Wood Lorindo, from fooadway ; Saugatuck, 
Connecticut. 

29. — ^Woodhull Mrs. Harriet, figg^Sd Maiden-Lane*; 
6 White-street. u^ 

18. — Wyble Joseph, from FIetcnc»4$. ; Herring-st. 

Octobeber 22. — Walker Sally, from 6f Water-street 5 
48 Spring-street. 

3. — Ward Moses 5 corner of Water and Scammel-St. 

15. — Wareham Jane ; 67 Water-street. 

22. — Wendelkar Lorenzo, from sugar house Liberty- 
street ; 263 Mott-street. 

3 1 . — Wendell Henry G. comer of Lombardy & Pike-st. 

21. — Welsh Catharine, had been in Lombardy-street ; 
Marine Hospital. 

17. — Whitby George 5 1 18 Bancker-street. 

1 7. — Whitby James ; 1 1 8 . Bancker-street. 

7'.—^ White James 5 . 13 Dutch-street. 

1.^.— White Henry P. ; 69 Franklin-street. 

16. — ^W^son David: 11 6 Broad-street. 

Z 

August 28. — Zairgable Anthony, from.78 Cedar-street, 
Marine Hospital. ' ' 

The result of the whole number of deaths was in the 
year 1798, during the sickly months, two thousand and 
eighty-six. In the present season, from the 13th July to 
"2d November, the number has been only one thousand 
two hundred and thirt-ysix, s|nd our city most probably,, 
contains twice as many inhabitants, as it did m the year 
above mentioned. 

I have been obligingly furnished with the following 
irom the City Inspiector, the correctness of which cannot , 
be called in question. 

From 13th to 20th July -- 79 

20th to 27th do 92 

27th July to Sd August 70 

Sd to 10th August ....... 80 

10th to 17th do. J02 

17th to 24th do. %V 



jLjl AN ACCOUNT Of 

trgmS-llIitoaistdo. 

I 3lsl August to 7tli Sepu ----- Yi 

I ;(hto l-llliSejitembcr ---._- 7J 

I Miblo^Isldo. ..---... 79 

ft ;;ist [a28lhdo. -.---... 84 

I :JSlh Septjg^.5lh October - - - - . S3 

1 l^^thtOJ^diilo. - ii 

I I9(b to 26th do. 96 

I "(jili October lo 2cl November - ■• » Jl 

I Total 1M6 

Un u Ibrmer paragraph, 1 had Esid, thai it was diflicub 
Mccoum for the origin of Yellow Fever in LomlMtdy 
■d Ch<:fipside Streets, unless we supposed, ihatiipio- 
pded from some local cause. Bui on the itay afl« ih' 
bet, in which said paragraph was inserted, I fell in with 
Er friend Capt. George Mills, an assistanl of the Boani 
uleallh, a very intelligent man, who gave roe ibe fol- 
King informatian, vix. That the ship Superior ,jCaf tain 
Kclyn from New-Oileans bad arrived at the QuaraD- 
fcOrouDd, and after a detention of ais days, two days 
pre tluin usual, had gone to Brooklya and landed col- 

 : that one Carey, who had been sick at New^)!^ 
ppi, catne in the said vessel and went to ibe house of 
P mother in Lombardy-^treei about the t4lh:^«ptem- 
K where Mi. Mott,Mrs Snow and Mrs. Carey aicknwd 
ithe I Cth and all died of Yellow Fever. 

pOnihc 21st September, the first case of Yellow Fever 
fein-etl in Cheapside-stieei, viz. m No. 22. TW waa 
b of Nathaniel Ward, whnm Captain MilU suppose* 
ftuve been infected with the disease, by dirty clotiMtt, 
Ech he had brought with lilm from the &liip. 
Wyhe foUowlDg deserves n place. It is the [WoductluD 
El respectable physician, wldch appeared in the Cven- 

 Post and conveys some ideas rcspcciini: thr doclnne 
KontagioD, which are well worlliy of consideration. 

I To the Editor of the Wew-Forit Evening Po»t. 
■.enrning, that some iincnsinc:-! and misapFirehenMnn 
fc illlV'l •iViirmiml r-'tl'Tol-lhr < w> n>t'Ato ' J> i«jl ) f| j | 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 113 

who is represented to be, at present, extr«nely Ul of 
Yellow Fever, in Westchester County, I beg leave to 
communicate to you the following statement. 

The late Mr. Thomas Smith sickened of Yellow Fe- 
ver, at his residence No. 6 John-street, on Wednesday 
the 11th of September. I was requested to see him pro- 
fessionally, on the evening of Friday and I reported him 
to the Board, at their next meeting on Saturday. At the 
time he was first seized, his wife was in the country. 
She returned on the afternoon of the 14th and continued 
with him, at the house, in which he sickened, until he 
removed on the following day at noon to the comer of 
Grand and Sullivan Streets. Here she also attended on 
her late husband until his death. On the morning of the 
l7th Mrs. Smith was within what is termed the infected 
district, about twenty hours. 

The doctrine of the occasional contagiousness of the 
: Yellow Fever rests upon multiplied experience andnn- 
'Soubted evidence ; but derives no support from the case 
of Mrs. Smith. 1 make this communication, fearful, that 
the public, might be needlessly alarmed, and an opinion 
obtain, that the present infection has diffused itself more 
extensively than is the fact. 

JOHN W. FRANCIS. 



On the 11th November, the last meeting of the Board 
was held, when the following interesting address wat 
adopted and ordereid to be published. 

Board of Health. November 11, 1822. 

The Board of Health have deemed it proper, on the 
termination of the malady with which we have been af- 
flicted, and in accordance with the preced^it established 
^y their predecessors, to address their fellow citizens, and 
to bring before them a brief statement of. the events con- 
nected with the disease, and the means they have resort- 
ed to for the, purpose of preventing the extension of its 
:fiital eilects, as well as to mitigate &e sufierings of those 
who were exposed to its ravages. 

During the winter and spring of the present year, ener- 
setic measures were adopted for the purpose of removine 
' L 2 . . • 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

rery species of Glih from pans of ilic city ni» 

lowkiige cottid be obtained of 

le authority vested in tlie lioard} nutlioristd cotupulMre 

Rasures. The su>eisla&ts lu tbc Board uf Healui were 

ordingly instructed to employ every niomeni of ibeir 

me in examining the lot> «jiU premises wherever ouisaa- 

rere likely to exist, and to report all privies, sunluii 

md cellars containing stagnant nater, and every otli- 

iiuisuice ol whatever description, to the City Inspeo* 

*n order that ordinances might be passed for Uieii 

;ciion. These instniciions ilia believed, were diith- 

i&y coiuplied wnii, and the ordinances passed by llie 

n Ci>uncil,on the report of the assistants, amount 

g to eight hundred andjijii/ fix, were strictly enforciHt 

- Early in June, the Mayor, together with a conmiiUM 

I^JBf the Board of Health, visited Ikncker and other atreets, 

a view of having corrected, befort? the cottuneoce- 

lent of hut wearier, such nuisances as might have btea 

 •verlookcd by the Assistants. A report was occtitduigly 

HfOad^ to the Board of Health, and the necessary measures 

ll^opted for purifying, ns far as practicable, those reccp- 

Bttcles of' rUtli and wretchedness. 

About thin period, the Board received infonaiatiotttliil 
 e Yellow Fever existed in several ports in the W«< 
5 anit other places vilh which this city had fretjuent 
course, particularly the Havana, Saint Jaga d« Cn> 
In, and MalanxM ; and they were 8ubset|uently infunRiI 
that Port-aii-Prinre, New-Chrleans, and Pen»acola, were 
niclcly ports. 7'he vigilance, industry, and peraevnnce 
^ihe Health Officer, Dr. Bayley, in the discharge of h>« 
luiy, left no doubt on the minds of the Board, tlnl vmy 
leasurc, which prudence and a sound discretion ogolJ 
ifctate, would be put in operation to prevent ibe conV^ 
Mon from reaching our city through the mcaos of iafrctcd 
issels ; and the Board were determined, so tar u tbey 
e legally authorised, thai no eOorls ehouU lie wantlm 
n their part to carry into elfeci llie rueanc [wovUed by 
[w, boib internal and external, for guarding afpiiast m 
bitroduction and spread of infectious aiul peslilential dl- 
wa»e among our citizens. 



On the 7lh day of July the V. S. brie Enlvrnrlse >r- 



•«itwrf«i Q mnaHnKk tm * 



THE YELLOW FEVER. liv 

she had stopped for about one week. Tliis vessel hud 
been at the Havana in March last, and had not touched 
at any port except Charleston until her arrival here. 

Lieutenant Cox had died of Yellow Fever during her 
passage from Charleston, and ten of her crew were sick 
on her arrival. The number of her sick continuing dai- 
ly to increase after her arrival, it was deemed proper to 
land her crew, in order that they might be removed from 
the infected air of tlie ship, and a better opportunity af- 
forded to cleanse and ventilate her. The landing was 
effected on the 1 1th of July, and all the usual means were 
immediately put in operation to expel the foul air from 
the hold of the vessel ; but it was found that the men on 
shore conducted with so much disorder, that it became in- 
dispensable again to return them on board. The ship 
having undergone considerable purification, it was hoped 
that the infection was so far destroyed as to insure the (u- 
tiiihe health of the crew, but on the 23d of July there were 
three, and on the 26th two cases of Yellow Fever which 
occurred on board of her, a strong proof of the difficulty 
which exists in disinfecting a sickly vessel. The Health 
Officer remarks " that seven of the crew of the U. States 
ship Enterprize have sickened whh Yellow Fever since 
Tuesday last, about a week after they returned on board 
of the vessel, which was well white-washed, and unslack- 
ed lime put in her limbers after they were cleaned out, 
and the ballast washed and white-washed, and during the 
whole process, several wind sails were constantly kept 
in her hatchways.'^ The men were agaiil brought oq 
shore, -and a guard to keep them in ocder^-trnd prevent 
their escape to the city was obtained from the Navjjr 
Yard. The number of sick was about 30, of whom 14 
died ; the last death was on the -2d day of August. 

Ob the 17th of July, indications of the disorder which 
we so much dreaded, made its appearance at the foot ot 
Rector-street, near the North River. On that, and seve* 
ral succeeding days, information was received of persons 
being sick in that vicinity. They were uniform^ visit* 
ed by the Resident Physician, who reported them as sick 
of bilious fever. In this stage of the disease the Board 
directed a strict examination of the streets and yards in 
thatnei^tboorhaod} in order that theymi^ ascCTtaii^ 



|ai6 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



ltl)<*llim auy local cause existed forlhe sicliness 

Blent, but nothing was discovered except a ciss-pool, 

P alaie of nuisance, which received the wasb water ftom 

o or three lots of );rounri, too low to carry it lo the 

They were immediately tilled Up and tbe am- 

'as abated, but not ikic disorder. 

> The first cases reported to the Soard or Heath as Yth 

,v Fever, were by Dr. Nielsen on tbe 31st day of July, 

' h day the PreEident laid before ihe Bonn) » dt^ 

ccoiiiil of all the cases of sickness which had 

iccurred in Rector-street mid its vicinity froia the lOifi 

iBy of July In the 31st, inclusive, together with (lie opin- 

n of the Resident Physician, as to tlie nature of the dls- 

On [he SIh of August the Resident Phytiician r*- 

ported a person as a ease of Yellow Fever, who had sidl- 

n the first and died on the fifth, the snme day m 

ftich she vita reported. This being considered by tbs 

ird DS the first official information that the Yellow Fe- 

existed in the city, ih-ey immediately issued an Kd- 

is to their fellow citi^eiis, recommending their retno- 

f/A, and at the same time requested thatthey would make 

ree use of lime, by strewing it in their yards, privies, 

id gutters ; and on the 7lh, public notice wa» given, 

It all the avenues leading to the infected district, would 

ft forthwith fenced up. On the 10th dayof August, the 

mrd advised the Mayor to remove ail persons fouod 

iSthin the fences, and a coonuitlee was appointed, wilh 

{Hhurily to provide for the poor who might be onlered 

it, and 10 permit them In onciipy the buildings al ihc 

ir at Kip's Bay, duriitg the prevalence W tfae 



^^l^ was reasonably supposed, that thesemeasurea wunlil 
ilve the desired etfect of slapping the progress ofiJii^dis- 
fcder, and thnt its ravages would have ceased for the 
iwit of subjects ; but the imprudence uf some, the tncre* 
tfityof others, and the tnterestof many, prompted them 
ijiil the proscribed district, and, conseijuently, llie dis- 
Y was taken by seveml, and thus kept alive until its 
Binds could scarcely be traced, and a gcnerftl rem"vn! of 
tbe inhabitants from tbehiwerpartsofihe city was effected. 
At this period the niaht watch, in iliat part of the ehy 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 117 

"wu appointed for the district enclosed by tbe fences^ and 
two vessek, with four barges^ was engaged and stationed 
In the East and North Rivers, with a sufficient number of 
men to guard the city between Fulton-street and the 
Battery on the North, and Fulton-street and the White- 
JHail Slip on the East 

On the 1 1th of September the Board appointed a com- 
mittee, with authority to adopt such mcans^ as might, by 
posfSbility, arrest the further extension of the prevailing 
epidemic. The means adopted by the committee were 
sncfa as are usually applied for the correction of nuisan- 
ces, and recommended by medical men for that purpose ; 
whether the effects were as salutary as those that might 
have been experienced from the use of other measures, 
strongly recommended by gentlemen of high attainments 
in chemical knowledge, the Board are unable to decide, 
bat they have no hesitation in declaring it a^ their opin- 
ion, that the motives of their committee in adopting the 
means they had selected, was of the most pure and (Ssin- 
temted kind, and that the good effects of their labour was 
demonstrated in numerons instances. 

Tiie Committee to whom was referred the general su* 
perintendance of the concerns of the Board during their 
recess, was constantly in session at the old Alms House $ 
by them the destitute were relieved, the poor were remov- 
ed from the seats of infection, the sick were conveyed 
from the contagious atmosphere of their abodes, advice 
and instruction were given to the persons employed by 
the Board, and every duty required of the Committee 
was performed with fidelity to the public interest, and the 
perfect satisfaction of the Board of Health. 

On the l6th of Septeniber, a new infection was disco- 
vered in a part of the city hitherto deemed healthy ; on 
that day the Resident Physician reported to the Board a 
case of Yellow Fever, at No. 4 Lombardy, near Catha- 
rine-street ; and on the 20th there were three cases re* 
ported in Cheapside-street, nearly m the rear of that 
uriiich had occurred in Lombardy-street. The same 
measures adopted at the commencement of the disease in 
Rector-street, were resorted to in this instance, and the 
immediate removal of the inhabitants from the seat of in- 
fectiMi was determined on. AiiQicdet'if^&^^<^5st^vE!is^% 



IftI 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



id for removnl, preparatory to such oilier 
might be deemed uecessary to preveot ifac lurUK* 
read of tbe tlMorder in thai part of the city. 
These repealed removals was the ciutse o( consider^il* 
ipcnse to lite public; tor although none was permUted 
proceed to ihe places of r*fuge, provided by the Board, 
K«pi such as were poor and unable to provide tor ihcm- 
ilves, il was nevertheless found thut llie number of ap- 
plicants was much greater thaii could be accommodued, 
and they were consequently compelled to advanc«(o»CTe- 
ral families small sums in cash, as their necessity reqit}> 
itdil; and others were permitted to abide at ibe Alma 
use until they sliDuld be enabled to return loilieir pla- 
of residence and resume their usual occupations. 
The number of penons accommodated at the tni'iliUi^ 
Ton Richmond amounted to 239) consisting ot 44 
ftuniliei, counting from twa to ten persons each, and ZS 
■ingle persons. There vere 26 men, O'J women, nntl 144 
chi&lren. A portion of these children are IrA orpliaBt 
by the loss of their parents who died with the fever, and 
have accordingly been taken to the Altos lIoii»e, optJI n 
suitable provi^im can be made for them by IbeiT friencU. 
fa addition to these there was twenty-eight persons ao- 
'imodaled at a house rented by the Board at Kip's Bsy, 
I, together wilh those sent lo Stalen Island, were tfr 
larly iiup(died with provisions necessary for their <ub- 
ence, at the public expense; and in some innonet*, 
•n ihdr clothiuET and bedding was provideil for them, 
fro were also several sick families in the cily who wr.re 
itute and to whom the necessary relief was alTonlcd 
ih in food and raiment, together wilh the aid of modi- 
advice and attendance duiihg their sickneu; niid to 
se who were removed to the-JVInrine Hospital, cun- 
;ing of 70 individuals, every etertion was used hy the 
ttendtng physician and nunes, lo promote ihelr comfon 
atid to insure their recovery. 

The reports of cases mode to the Boafl of Health wn 
considerably less in number, than what nrtually took 
~)lace. This may he accounted for by the fart, ihalxevib 
~' persons who contracted the disease in the cily, did 
'c ken until after their removnl to the country; uhl 

■wax agae w bu bw h. ik i VfwA wA -tUwJ- 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 119 

medical attendance. The number of deaths reported was 
still more deficient than the cases, and cannot be account- 
ed for, only on the supposition, that the request of the 
Board, that they should be reported, was unknown to 
the physicians. 

It appears therefore by the daily reports as published 
by the Board, that in July there were 16 cases, in Au« 
gust 79 cases, in September 182 cases, and in October 
87 cases, making a total of 364, and the whole number 
of deaths reported to the Board, was only 1 IQ. 

The cases and deaths however, that actually occurred, 
were as follows: in July, 16 cases and 5 deaths; in Au- 
gust, 90 cases and 58 deaths ; in September, 205 cases 
and 110 deaths, and in October, up to the 26th of that 
month, 90 cases and 57 deaths, making a total of 401 
cases, and 230 deaths; to which may be added 10 deaths 
that occurred between the 26th and 31st of October, and 
were not reported to the Board as cases, making the 
whole number of cases 411, and of deaths 240. The 
mortality tliis year, has been much less, in proportion to 
the sick, than it was in 1819^ when the cases were 63 
and the deaths 43, a difference in favour of this year*, of 
more than ten per cent. The great dissimilarity in the 
number of cases which occurred in the two years may be 
accounted for by the fact, that the disorder made its ap- 
pearance this year nearly two months earlier than it did 

In 1819. 

The Board are bound to acknowledge the countenance 
and assistance they have received in the discharge of 
their duty. They are under great obligations to the Go- 
vernor, for the prompt manner in which he granted them 
the free and sole use of the buildings belonging to the 
state at Fort Richmond, Staten-Island. — They are in- 
debted to the Commissioners of the Alms-House, for the 
assistance they have afforded them, and particularly to 
Mr. John Hunter, the assistant to the Commissioners, 
for the prompt and unceasing attention he has given to the 
cslis of the necessitous, the collecting the necessary su p- 
ply for the persons quartered at Fort Richmond, the i n- 
terment of the deceased poor, and the various acts grow- 
ing out of the peculiar situation in which we were placed. 
T%ey are also much indebted to Doctot CVA&.\^vi^^ 





AK ACCOliNT OF 

risiiin* PfajVtciaD of llic Alms Ht>ii<r-, 
services, aiidkuiifuncutteniUto to ■'. 
tbe builfling nt Kilt's Bay, scvtial . 
:ied lilt! disorder btlure their remir 
iresM^atiunof tlieirlives to Ma skill aiul 
~'ht- Common Council have utiifornil^ 
nut efliciftrtco-i'pf^ntlioii, holhiri sn]'; 
«arj suras required wdeCray the iricni.j,.  
the Donrd, and in dirlogating such po\i'''i4 i<) '.'iui1it>.d 
lliein to carry into effi'ct the iiieaiiures rlei.-iped necessary 
and initlKpensible. — The Resident Physician cnnMnutly 
met wilh the Uniird, and executed the imporlanl dui.nirf 
his oflire with diligence and tirnmexg. The Aasislant* 
of ihe Uoaril, who were of necessity exposed daily laihe 
infrction oftlic niosi sickly parts of the city, tinvp iiirri- 
teil liuih the thanks of the Board, and tlii> ..TM.mtv.ti.... ..f 

their ifllow citizens, for the iseal nnil 

M'hich ihey performed ilie duties in<.'i!i i 

The Board acknowledge wilh gratlludL i 

>Imve received from their fellow citizens g^ .^.-..^I'.j. i „c 
confidence they have placed in the Boaid, and lite clircr^ 
I'lilness with which they have complied witfa thdr nxomm 
tnendaiions, has (ended to lesson the caloniiiy, and tu giv* 
t^lTect to the ineans which were ea^loyed for \u extermi- 
nation. But above all, the Board in atiei^pecial manner' 
are bound to acknowledge the merciful interptnitinn of 
that Almighty Being ahane mercy it over uU hit irorZv, 
K for the signal dcmonMrulion they have rpcived of llfi /a- 
■Tour, in preserving them from the pcstilrncc thut was 
^pread over our land, an<l in returning la ibrir honiet to 
;e a portion of their ftllow citir^ens who bad fleJ for 
1y ; and linslly, for averting the evil we biivc »jp«- 
Kenced,aiidrcstoringioour cityitsUKUiU dejirceofbeahb- 
By order of tile Board, 

STKPilEN ALLEN, Prmrlnt. 
.1. Morton, Sa-rrtarg. 




THE BORROWER WILL BE CHARGED 
AN OVERDUE FEE IFTHIS BOOK IS NOT 
RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON OR 
BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED 
BELOW- NON-RECEIPT OF OVERDUE 
NOTICES DOES NOT EXEMPT THE 
BORROWER FROM OVERDUE FEES 
tMMMf 



.5..-  " J>-'; 



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