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idnaiecta ^nslo^^a;:onica. 













r HE preceding edition of the present work was sent forth 
at a moment when the study of the Anglo-Saxon tongue 
was almost at its lowest ebb in England. It was compiled 
as an experiment, under the belief that a small volume of 
extracts in prose and verse — beginning with pieces couched 
in the simplest language and proceeding gradually to the 
most difficult — accompanied by a compendious glossary, 
would much contribute to the revival of the study of the 
Anglo-Saxon language in the land where it once had its 
home, and had flourished more vigorously than any of its 
kindred dialects on the Continent. The belief above-men- 
tioned, though not fully justified, proved not wholly ground- 
less: the few copies printed were gradually disposed of, 
and the number of students sensibly increased, many of 
whom, it may reasonably be supposed, were indebted for 
their progress to the Analecta Anglo- Saxonica. 



Issued under more favourable circumstances than its 
predecessor, the present edition appears in a cheaper form, 
and with some modifications and changes, it is hoped, for 
the better, it having been the editor's object to compile an 
initiatory book for beginners, which might at the same time 
not be devoid of interest to the lovers of Anglo-Sa^on lore 
in general. 

The editor feels much gratification in mentioning that 
this work is now adopted as a text-book for his lectures by 
the Rawlinsonian Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, whence it may be hoped that the study of 
. our ancient mother-tongue may find its way, as an essential 
branch of English education, into our higher schools, and 
thus tend to the formation of a style more impressive * and 
more truly English than is to be found in many literary 
productions of the present, and very many of the last cen- 
tury. On this subject, the words of a very sensible and 
eloquent writer may with propriety be here quoted : " As 
Englishmen we have to think, to write, to speak in English 
and with Englishmen. Surely, then, it is a matter of con- 
cern to know and understand well our own tongue. How 
much better then would it be, if in our public and private 
schools as much attention at least were given to the teach- 
ing of English, as of Greek and Latin, that our youths 

* That the poetry of England derives its choicest expressions from 
the Anglo-Saxon element of our language, may be proved by number- 
less examples ; among which, as a production familiar to every one who 
reads, may be cited Gray's Elegy. 


might bring home with them a racy idiomatic way of speak- 
ing and writing their own language, instead of a smattering 
of Greek and Latin, which they almost forget, and gene- 
rally neglect in a few years* time I Let our English youth 
of both sexes be taught to drink deeply of the well of En- 
glish undefiled. For this a study of Anglo-Saxon is abso- 
lutely needful ; for after all, it has bequeathed to us by far 
the largest stock of words in our language. About the 
Anglo-Saxon tongue there was the strength of iron, with 
the sparkling and the beauty of burnished steel, which 
made it withstand with success the attacks that the Nor- 
man William and his fawning courtiers directed against it, 
as they tried in vain to thrust their French into the mouths 
of the English people. If the sword of the Normans van- 
quished the Anglo-Saxons, the Anglo-Saxons* tongue in 
its turn overthrew the French of the Normans. The great- 
est harm that was ever inflicted on the English language 
came from Johnson, who in giving English endings to 
long-drawn Latin words, foolishly thought to impart dig- 
nity of style to his writings by words big, not with meaning, 
but with sounding emptiness. Such silliness and childish- 
ness have happily died away ; but still our young men have 
to be taught to follow our best and latest writers, and 
always to choose an Anglo-Saxon word before a Latin one. 
When this shall be done, then may we look forward to a 
bright period in our country's literature. We shall have 
our ears charmed with a flow of sounds as strong as they 
are sweet and beautiful, instead of, as often now happens, 


being wearied with a namby pamby gibberish made up of 
Greek, Latin, and French words with English endings*." 

In the Glossary the student will find numerous synonyms 
from the other Northern tongues, particularly German and 
Danish. These have been inserted solely with the view of 
showing to learners the great affinity that prevails among 
these tongues and our own ancient vernacular speech. To 
the old Germanic and Scandinavian dialects the references 
are few, being deemed needless in a glossary designed for 
beginners, and useless to the proficient. The references to 
the grammar frequently occurring in the Glossary apply to 
the editor's translation of Rask. 

The volume, though of small dimensions, will, neverthe- 
less, be found to contain no inconsiderable number of words, 
the several extracts of which the text is composed having 
been selected from among those which seemed to offer the 
greatest variety, with reference both to the vocabulary and 
the forms of expression. A brief notice of the several ex- 
tracts will best enable the reader to form a judgement of 
the work. 

From the Gospels f, p. 1. 

Colloquium ad Fueros Linguae Latinae Locutione exer- 

cendos, p. 18. 

In this Colloquy (MS. Cott. Tib. A. 3.) the Saxon is only an interlinear 
gloss to the Latin ; the design of its author (iElfric) being, by 

* Dolman's Magazine for October 1845, p. 243. 

t Da Halgan Godspel on Englisc— The Anglo-Saxon Version of the 


means of a Hamiltonian version*, to facilitate to children the ac- 
quirement of the Latin tongue. As presenting a curious picture 
of times and manners and of monastic life at that early period, it 
is both valuable and entertaining. 

Homilies of ^Elfric, p. 36. 

These are from " The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church," in 
course of publication for the iElfric Society. 

I. Dom. I. in Mense Septembri, quando legitur lob, p. 36. 
II. IV. Id. Mart. Sci Gregorii Papse, p. 44. This interesting homily, 
giving an account of the conversion of the English by St. Augustine 
and his brother missionaries, was printed in the year 1 709 with 
an English translation by Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob, which edition has 
been lately reprinted. This learned lady's version is, generally 
speaking, close and faithful, though the Saxon text on which it is 
formed is extremely corrupt. 

III. IV. Kal. April. Depositio S. Cuthberhti Episcopi, p. 52. 

This homily is entirely composed from Beda's two lives of the 
Saint. It is alliterative. 

IV. De Fide Catholica, p. 63. 

V. Dominica Septuagesima, p. 73. 
A very beautiful discourse on the parable of the labourers in the 

From King ^Elfred's Translation of Orosius, p. 81. 

I. The Geography of Europe, and the Voyages of Ohthere and Wulf- 
stan. These voyages have been frequently printed and translated. 
The text now given is from the original manuscript t of Alfred's 
Orosius, to which they are prefixed, and will on collation be found 
in several places to differ from that printed in Daines Barrington's 
edition t, where it is accompanied by a very incorrect translation, 
and a commentary by J. R. Forster, abounding in mistakes. It is 

Holy Gospels, edited from the original manuscripts, by Benjamin 
Thorpe, F.S.A. mdcccxlii. Uniform with the present volume. 

* " There is no new thing under the sun." — Eccles. I. 9. 

t Cott. MS. Tib. B. 1. 

X The Anglo-Saxon Version from the Historian Orosius by Alfred 
the Great, etc. 8vo. Lond. 1773. 

viii PREFACE. 

hoped that with the aid of the Glossary, the student will find no 
difficulty in following on the map the course of the two voyagers. 
11. The Death of Cyrus, p. 88. 
III. Caesar and Pompey, p. 90. 

From King Alfred's Translation of Boethius*, p. 93. 

I. The Story of Orpheus, p. 93. 
II. The Story of Ulysses, p. 96. 

From King vElfred's Translation of Beda's Ecclesiastical 
History, p. 97. 
The Life of St. Hild, with an account of the Poet Csedmon. 

This extract is from a MS. in the Library of C. C. Coll. Oxon., 
collated with Smith's edition. 

From the Story of ApoUonius of Tyre, p. 108. 
This short extract is from the Anglo-Saxon version of a tale in the 
Gesta Romanorum, of which the only known MS. is in the library 
of C. C. Coll. Camb., and that is unfortunately imperfect. The 
version (which has been printed with an English translation f) 
is a model of Anglo-Saxon prose. For an account of the story and 
its versions, see Warton's H. E. P. 

A Dialogue between Saturn and Solomon, p. 110. 
This dialogue is one of a numerous family that flourished under a 
variety of denominations and in great estimation during the mid- 
dle age. The text (from a Cottonian MS.) is in places corrupt, 
apparently from ignorance of the copyist. In the Red Book of 
Derby (MS. Bibl. C. C. C. Cantab.) is a metrical dialogue between 
the same parties, which, together with the above, is now in course 
of publication for the iElfric Society by Mr. KembleJ, to whose 

* A. M. S. Boethii Consol. Philosophise Libri V. Anglo-Saxonice, etc. 
Oxon. 1698. 8vo. 

f The Anglo-Saxon version of the Story of ApoUonius of Tyre, on 
which is founded the Play of Pericles, ascribed to Shakspeare, etc. 
By Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. Lond. 1834, crown 8vo. 

X Anglo-Saxon Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn, by J. M. Kemble» 
M.A. Part I. Printed for the uElfric Society. Lond. 1845, 8vo. 


Introduction the student is referred for an abundance of curious 
information relating to these extraordinary compositions. 

The Mandrake, p. 116. 
At the head of this article in the Cottonian manuscript is an illumi- 
nation, representing a dog in the act of drawing the plant out of 
the earth, according to the method laid down in the text. The piece 
aflfords a striking instance of " the wisdom of our forefathers." 

A Spell to restore Fertility to Land rendered sterile by 
Witchcraft, p. 116. 

The text of this interesting specimen of the simplicity of our fore- 
fathers is from the unique manuscript in the Cottonian Library 
(Calig. A. 7.). 

Homily in Natale S. Eadmundi, p. 119. 
This homily, as we learn from the beginning, is founded on the 
narrative of Eadmund's sword-bearer to king iEthelstan, from 
which it was related by Dunstan to Abbo of Fleury. By Abbo the 
account was committed to writing, of whose narrative the present 
homily is a translation. Manuscripts of the homily are extant in 
pure Anglo-Saxon ; but the present text is given as an interesting 
specimen of the dialect of East Anglia*. It is from MS. Bodl. 
NE. F. 4. 12, and was apparently written at Bury. See p. 125. 
It is alliterative. . 

Wills, p. 126. 

I. The will of iElfric, bishop of Elmham, — a curious specimen of 

barbarous Saxon in the dialect of E. AngUa. 

II. The will of Lufa, an East Anglian lady, even more barbarous 
than the preceding. Both are from the Cott. MS. 

From the Gospels, p. 128. 
This is a chapter from the Northumbrian Gloss of the celebrated 

* Of the E. Anglian dialect the most remarkable deviations are, 
b for/, as ob for of, libgende for Ufigende, hiabenlic for heqfenlic ; e for 
ce, as ]>et for ]>^t ; « for e, as wisl for wd ; m for w and b, as suin for 
8win, uene ualete for bene valete ; i for e and a for o, as sia for seo, 
wiaraJd for weoruld ; / for hi, as laford for hlaford-, i for ge prefix. 


Durham Book (MS. Cott. Nero D. iv.), arranged in the natural 
order, for the sake of comparison with the common text. 

The Battle of Maldon, and Death of the Ealdorman Byrht- 
noth, p. 131. 

The only known manuscript of this valuable fragment perished in 
the fire at the Cottonian Hbrary in 1731. That the poem was not 
wholly lost, is owing to the zeal of Thomas Hearne for publishing 
every curious monument connected with early English history, 
who printed it as prose at the end of his edition of Johannis 
Glastoniensis Chronicon. The chief of the Northmen, though 
not mentioned by name, was undoubtedly the famous king Olaf 
Tryggvason. See Saxon Chron. aa. 993, 994, and Lappenberg's 
' England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings,' ii. pp. 155-159. 

Judith. A Fragment, p. ]4<1. 

This was first printed as prose at the end of Thwaites's Heptateuch. 
The text now given is from the Cottonian MS. Vitell. A. 15. This 
fragment leads us to form a very high idea of the poetic powers of 
our forefathers. The entire poem, of which it probably formed 
but an inconsiderable part, must have been a truly noble produc- 

From a Paraphrase of Job, xxix. xxx., p. 152. 

An extract only is here given from the Codex Exoniensis of this very 
singular composition, where it is printed under the title of ' Riming 
Poem,' under which denomination it first appeared in Conybeare's 
* Illustrations.' The conjectures formed with regard to its subject 
have been manifold ; and it was only recently that the present 
editor, having taken up the poem in the almost hopeless attempt 
at illustration, was struck by its striking resemblance to some parts 
of Job ; when on reading over the latter, he soon felt convinced 
that it was a very free paraphrase from the above chapters. That 
words have been misspelt for the sake of the rime, seems unques- 
tionable ; and all attempts at interpretation by comparison with 
the Vulgate have proved far from satisfactory. The beginning of 
the poem corresponds with Job xxix. 2. 


The Grave. A Fragment, p. 153. 
This singularly impressive and almost appalling fragment is written 
in the margin of the volume of homilies in the E. Anglian dialect, 
in which the homily on St. Eadmund's day is contained. It is also 
printed with translations, Latin and English, in Conybeare's * Illus- 
trations ; ' but the text here given is founded on a careful and re- 
peated collation with the manuscript. 

From Lajamon's Brut, p. 154. 
The History of King Leir and his daughters *. 

From the Ormulum, p. 182. 
This singular work is among the Junian MSS. in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. It consists of a metrical paraphrase of the Gospels, inter- 
spersed with moralizations, by an ecclesiastic named Orm, or Or- 
min, by whom it is addressed to his brother Walter. It is with- 
out rime, in lines of fifteen syllables, which for smoothness of 
rhythmf may vie with many modern productions. The author 
seems to have been a critic in his mother-tongue ; and to his idea 
of doubling the consonant after a short vowel (as in German), we 
are enabled to form some tolerably accurate notions as to the pro- 
nunciation of our forefathers. Thus he writes min with a single 
n only because the i is long or diphthongal, as in our mine. So 
also in kinde (pronounced as our kind), dom, hoc, had, lif (pro- 

* The texts of the two Cottonian manuscripts are here given in 
parallel columns. Of the one (Otho C. xiii.) only a bundle of scorched 
and shrivelled fragments has survived the fire in 1731. It is, however, 
much less valuable than the other (Calig. A. ix.), being of later date, 
and in many instances extremely corrupt. An edition of the entire 
chronicle, containing the two texts and a modern English version, is 
in preparation for the Society of Antiquaries by Sir Frederick Madden, 
who obligingly allowed the editor the use of his printed text for 
collation with the above extract, whereby several inaccuracies in the 
former edition are now corrected. This and the following extracts are 
in Semi-Saxon, in which the vocabulary is still free from foreign terms* 
but the grammatical construction nearly subverted. 

t This rhythmus is preserved, as in the pure Anglo-Saxon and other 
languages, by pronouncing the final e as a syllable, except where it pre- 
cedes a vowel or an aspirate. 


nounced as our life), etc. On the other hand, wherever the con- 
sonant is doubled, the vowel preceding is short and sharp, as in 
jett (pronounced as our yet, not yate, as it would be if written 
with a single /), Godd (pronounced God, not Gode), etc. Thus 
hus is to be pronounced hoos, whereas >uss, with a double s, is 
our thus. Mr. Tyrwhitt, therefore, had done well, even for his 
own sake, to have spared his injudicious remark upon this pecu- 
liarity of the author, for which every critical student of our early 
language is so much indebted to him*. 
Orm's dialect merits, if any, to be called Dano-Saxon : his name also 
betrays a Scandinavian descent f. 

In conclusion, the editor does not hesitate in expressing 
his belief, that every student who has read through and 
well understood the contents of this volume will find no 
difficulty in understanding any Anglo-Saxon writer either 
in prose or verse. 

* " There is a pecuharity in the author's orthography, which con- 
sists in doubling the consonants ; e. g. brother he writes brotherr ; 
after, affterr, etc. He has done this by design, and charges those who 
shall copy his book, to be very careful to write those letters twice 
which he has written so, as otherwise he assures them ' they will not 
write the word right.' Hickes has taken notice of this peculiarity, 
but has not attempted to explain the author's reasons for it ; and in- 
deed, without a more perfect knowledge than we now probably can 
have of the Saxon pronunciation, they seem totally inexplicable. In 
the few lines which I think it necessary to quote here as a specimen 
of the metre, T shall venture (first begging Ormin's pardon for disre- 
garding his injunction) to leave out the superfluous letters ; and I 
shall also, for my ease as well as that of the reader, transcribe them in 
modern characters." — Essay on the Language and Versification of 

t An edition of the Ormulum by the Rev. Dr. White, late Rawlin- 
sonian Professor of Anglo-Saxon, is now in course of printing at the 
University Press, Oxford. The extracts given in this volume have, 
through the kindness of Dr. White, been collated with the sheets of his 


For seofonfealdne read seofonfealde. 
For God read Gode. 
For to brece read tobrece. 
Dele hyphen between aenig and waeta. 
Insert hyphen between wseter and aeddre. 
For accended read acenned. 
For cwenas read Cwenas. 
For *seo read se. 
For *j3aet land read l>am lande. 
For *>aes read >8ere. 
For *so>es read soj^an. 
For *spr3ecan read sprecan. 
For forleort read forleorte. 
Insert hyphen between heafod and ece. 
Insert hyphen between beorht and blowende. 
For *gestylde read gestyrde. 
For *>e read >a. 
For *>ser read }>a. 
For *wegon read wsegon. 
For *fleogan read flugon. 
The hi in this line is very questionable. 
Insert hyphen between stede and faeste. 
The story of the gysel {hostage) was no doubt con- 
tained in the part of the poem now lost. 
For ♦leo'Se read leCSa. 
For mordres read mor'Sres. 
Dele hyphen between tir and gife'Se. 
— 197, voce Anweald,/or I. 2. read II. 2. 

* The asterisk is placed before errors or doubtful readings of the 
original texts, whether printed or manuscript. 


e 37, line 

5 4. 




















































































MATTHEW, Chapter II. 

EORNOSTLICE J^a se Haelend acenned waes on lu- i 
deiscre Bethl^em, on ])3es cyninges dagum Herodes, Jja 
comon J)a tungol-witegan fram east-dsele to Hierusalem, 
and cwsedon : Hwaer ys se ludea cyning ]>e acenned ys ? 2 
soSlice we gesawon hys steorran on east-daele, and we 
comon us him to geeat5medenne. Da Herodes ]>8et ge- 3 
hyrde, ])a weart$ he gedrefed, and eal Hierosolim-waru 
mid him. And J)a gegaderode Herodes ealle ealdras 4 
|>aera sacerda, and ])8es folces writeras, and acsode hwser 
Crist acenned waere. Da saedon hig him : On ludeiscre 5 
Bethleem : witodlice J)us is awriten furh ))one witegan, 
And ]>u Bethleem, ludea-land, witodlice ne eart ]>u laest 6 
on ludea ealdrum : of ])e forS-gseS se here-toga, sej>e rec6 
min folc Israhel. Herodes ])a clypode on sunder-spraece 7 
8a tungel-witegan, and befran hi georne, hwaenne se 
steorra him ateowde. And he asende hig to Bethleem, s 
and |>us cwaeS : Farat^, and acsiaS geornlice be J)am cilde; 
and J>onne ge hyt gemetaS, cypaS eft me, ])aet ic cume, 
and me to him gebidde. Da hi faet gebod gehyrdon, })a 9 

2 MATTH. Chap. II. 

ferdon hig ; and soSlice se steorra, J>e hi on east-dale 
gesawon, him beforan ferde, ot5 he stod ofer faer J^aet 

10 cild wees. SoSlice J>a ^a tungel-witegan J)one steorran 

11 gesawon, hig faegenodon swySe myclum gefean ; and 
gangende in to ]mm huse, hi gemetton ]?8et cild, mid Ma- 
nan hys meder, and hig a))enedon hig, and hi to him ge- 
bsedon ; and hi untyndon hyra gold-hordas, and him lac 

1-2 brohton ; pset webs gold, and recels, and myrre. And 
hi afengon andsware on swefnum, paet hi eft to Herode 
ne hwyrfdon, ac hi on oSerne weg on hyra rice ferdon. 

13 Da hi ])a ferdon, ]m aetywde Drihtnes engel losepe on 
swefnum, and ]nis cwseS : Aris, and nim ])set cild and 
his moder, and fleoh on iEgypta-land, and beo ])ser oS J^aet 
ic ])e secge. Toweard ys J)aet Herodes sec^ |)agt cild to 

14 forspillenne. He aras ]>a, and nam J)8et cild and his mo- 

15 der on niht, and ferde on ^Egyptum ; and waes f>aer o6 
Herodes forSsi^ ; j^set wa^re gefylled peet |?e fram Drihtne 
gecweden waes, purh ]?one witegan : Of ^gyptum ic 

ic minne sunu geclypode. Da waes Herodes swySe gebol- 
gen, for]?am fe he bepaeht waes fram ])am tungel-witegum, 
and he asende ]?a, and ofsloh ealle fa cild ]>e on Bethleem 
waeron, and on eallum hyre gemaerum, fram twy-wintrum 
cilde and binnan Jjam ; aefter ))8ere tfde ])e he geacsode 

ir fram J>am tungel-witegum. Da wees gefylled Jjaet ge- 

18 cweden waes J»urh Hieremfam fone witegan, Stefn waes 
on hehnysse gehyred, wop and mycel poterung ; llachel 
weop hyre beam, and heo nolde beon gefrefrod, forJ>ain 

19 ]>e hi naeron. So^lice |?a Herodes waes forSfaren, wi- 
todlice on swefne Drihtnes engel aetywde losepe, on 

20 /Egyptum, and fus cwaeS : Aris, and nim ))aat cild and 
his moder, and far on Israhela-land : nu synd fort5farene 

•21 Se paes cildes sawle sohton. He aras fa, and onfeng feet 

•n cild and his moder, and com on Israhela-land. Da he 

gehyrde faet Archelaus rixode on ludea peode, for ftene 

MATTH. Chap. III. S 

Herodem, he ondred pyder to faranne : and, on swefnum 
gemyngod, he ferde on Galileisce daelas : and he com Jja, 2.3 
and eardode on Jjeere ceastre ]^e ys genemned Nazareth ; 
Jjaet waere gefylled faet geeweden waes J)urh J)one witegan, 
For]?ara ]>e he Nazarenisc byS genemned. 

Chapter III. 

On ]?am daguni com lohannes se Fulluhtere, and bo- 1 
dode on J^am westene ludeae, and cwaeS : DoS dsedbote : 2 
soSlice genealaeceS heofena rice. Dis ys se be fam }>e 3 
geeweden ys jjurh Esaiam ]?one witegan, Clypiendes stefn 
waes on westene, GegearwiaS Dryhtnes weg, doS his si|)as 
rihte. Se lohannes witodlice haefde reaf of olfenda hse- 4 
rum, and fellenne gyrdel ymbe hys lendenu; and hys 
mete waes gaerstapan and wudu-hunig. Da ferde to him a 
Hierosolim-waru, and eal ludea f>eod, and eal faet rfce 
wiS-geondan lordanen ; and hi waeron gefullode on lor- e 
dane fram hym, and hi andetton heora synna. SoSlice 7 
J>a he geseah manega faera sunder-halgena and |?aera riht- 
wisendra to his fulluhte cumende, he cwaeS to hym : La 
naeddrena cyn, hwa geswutelode eow to fleonne fram 
8am toweardan yrre? Eornostlice, do6 medemne waestm s 
]?aere daedbote ; and ne cwe]>at5 betweox eow, We habbat5 9 
Abraham us to faeder ; so^lice ic secge eow, Daet God 
ys swa mihtig, )>aet he maeg of ])ysum stanum aweccan 
Abrahames beam. Eallunga ys seo sex to paera treowa 10 
wurt-ruman asett; eornustlice aelc treow, ]>e godne waestm 
ne bringt5, byt$ forcorfen, and on fyr aworpen. Witod- u 
lice ic eow fullige on waetere to daedbote : se ]>e aefter me 
toweard ys, he ys strengra Jjonne ic, 'Saes gescy ne eom 
ic wyr])e to beranne : he eow fullaS on Halgum Gaste, 
and on fyre : pass fann ys on his handa, and he afeormatJ vz 
his J)yrscel-flore, and he gegaderaS his hw^te on his bern; 


4 MATTH. Chap. IV. 

13 ]-)ci ceafu he forb^rnS on unadwsescendlicum fyre. Da 
com se Haelend fram Galilea to lordane to lohanne, ]>det 

14 he hine fullode. lohannes })a soSlice forbead him, and 
cwaeS : Ic sceal fram ]>e beon gefuUod, and J)u cymst to 

15 me ? Da andswarode se Haelend hym, and cwset^ : Laet 
nil : ]?us unc gedafhaS ealle rihtwisnisse gefyllan. Da 

16 forlet he hine. SoSlice |)a se Haelend gefullod vvaes, 
hraedlice he astah of J>am waetere ; and him wurdon ]>3eT- 
rihte heofenas ontynede; and he geseah Godes Gast 
nij>er-stigende, swa swa culfran, and wunigende ofer 

17 hyne: and so^lice ])a, com stefn of heofenum, and J)us 
cwaeS : Her ys min se gecorena sunu, on J)am me geli- 

Chapter IV. 

1 Da W8BS se Haelend gelaed fram gaste on westen, ]>8et 

2 he waere fram deofle costnod. And })aSa he faeste feo- 
wertig daga and feowertig nihta, J?a ongan hyne sy^6an 

.1 hingrian. And |>a genealaehte se costnigend, and cwae^: 
Gyf ]?u Godes Sunu sy, cweS )>aet ])as stanas to hlafe 

4 geweorSon. Da andswarode se Haelend : Hit is awriten, 
Ne leofaS se man be hlafe anum, ac be aelcum worde J)e 

5 of Godes mu]>e gseS. Da gebrohte se deofol hine on fa 
halgan ceastre, and asette hine ofer J>aes temples heah- 

6 nesse, and cwaec5 to him : Gif ])u Godes Sunu eart, asend 
]7e ]?onne nyfer : so(51ice hyt ys awriten, Daet he his en • 
glum bebead be '5e, |)aet hig ]>e on hyra handum beron, 

7 py-laes ]>e t5in fot aet stane aetsporne. Da cwaeS se Haelend 
eft to him : Hit ys awriten, Ne costna Su Drihten pinne 

s God. Eft se deofol hine genam, and laedde hine on 

swit5e heahne munt, and aeteowde hym ealle middan- 

geardes ricu, and heora wuldor ; and cwseS to him : 

Ealle fas ic sylle pe, gif fu feallende to me geeadmetst. 

10 Da cwaet5 se Haelend to him : Gang fu, sceocca, on>bsec: 

MATTH. Chap. IV. 5 

soSlice hit ys awriten, To Drihtne finum Gode ]>u Se 
geeadmetst, and him anum j^eowast. Daforletse deofol u 
hine, and englas genealaehton, and him fenodon. SoS- 12 
lice fa se Haelend gehyrde ]>set lohannes belaewed waes, 
fa lerde he to Galileam ; and forleetenre faere ceastre 13 
Nazareth, he com and eardode on Capharnaum, on J?am 
s^-gemserum, on endum Zabulon and Neptalim ; faet 14 
waere gefylled faet ^e gecweden waes furh Esaiam fone 
witegan, Zabulones eorSu and Neptalimes eorfe, sdes 15 
weg ofer lordane, fara feoda Galilea: feoda folc, ]?e on le 
fystrum saet, geseah mycel leoht; and sittendum on 
earde deafes scade ys leoht up-asprungen. SySSan 17 
ongan se Haelend bodian, and cvvefan : DoS daedbote, 
soSlice heofena rfce genealaecS. Da se Haelend code is 
wis Sa Galileiscan s^, he geseh twegen gebroSru, Si- 
monem, se waes genemned Petrus, and Andream his 
broker, sendende heora nett on fa s^ : soSlice hi waeron 
fisceras. And he saede heom : CumaS aefter me, and ic do w 
faet gyt beoS manna fisceras. And hi f aer-rihte forleton 20 
heora net, and him fyligdon. And fa he fanon code, he 21 
geseh twegen o6re gebroSru, lacobum Zebedei and lo- 
hannem his bro'Ser, on scype mid heora faeder Zebedeo, 
remigende heora nett ; and he clypode hig. Hig fa sona 22 
forleton heora nett and heora faeder, and him fyligdon. 
And fa beferde se Haelend ealle Galileam, laerende on 23 
heora gesomnungum ; and he waes bodigende godspel 
faes rfces, and haelende aelce adle and aelce untrumnysse 
on f am folce. And fa ferde hys hlfsa into ealle Syriam, 24 
and hig brohton hym ealle yfel-haebbende missenlicum 
adlum, and on tintregum gegripene, and fa ($e deofol- 
seocnessa haefdon, and monotS-seoce, and laman ; and he 
f^ gehaelde. And him fyligdon mycele maenigeo fram 25 
Galilea, and fram Decapoli, and fram Hierusalem, and 
fram ludea, and fram begeondan lordanen. 

MARK, Chap. V. 

MARK, Chapter V. 

1 Da comon hig ofer Jjsere s^s mu^an, on J)ast nee Ge- 

2 rasenorum. And him of scype gangendum, him sona 
agen arn an man of J)am byrgenum, on unclaenum gaste, 

3 se haefde on byrgenum scraef ; and hine nan man mid 

4 racenteagum ne mihte gebindan ; for])am he oft, mid 
fot-copsum and racenteagum gebunden, toslat J^a racen- 
teaga, and ]?a fot-copsas tobraec ; and hyne nan man 

5 gewyldan ne mihte. And symle, daeges and nihtes, he 
waes on byrgenum, and on muntum, hrymende, and hine 

6 sylfne mid stanum ceorfende. SoSlice, ]>a he ]?one Hae- 

7 lend feorran geseah, he arn, and hyne gebaed, and mycelre 
stemne hrymende, J?us cwseS : Eala maera Haelend, Godes 
Sunu, hwaet ys me and ])e ? Ic halsige J»e, ])urh God, 

8 ]?aet J)u me ne f>reage. Da cwaecS se Haelend : Eala Ipu 

9 uncleena gast, ga of pysum men. Da acsode he hine : 
Hwaet ys J>in nama ? Da cwaeS he : Min nama is Legio ; 

10 forfam we manega synd. And he hine swySe baed, J)aet 

11 he hine of pam rfee ne nydde. Dar waes embe Jjone 

12 munt mycel swyna heord laeswigende. And ];a unclaenan 
gastas hine baedon, and cwaedon : Send us on ]?as swyn, 

13 })aet we on hig gan. And |>alyfde se Haelend sona; and 
J)a eodon ])a unclaenan gastas on ])a swyn ; and on my- 
clum hryre seo heord wearS on s^ bescofen, twa ]>u- 

14 sendo, and wurdon adruncene on J)aere sde. So^lice J)a 
]>e hig heoldon flugon, and cyddon on jjaere ceastre, and 
on lande : and hig ut-eodon paet hig gesawon hwaet J)aer 

15 gedon w^re. And hig comon to fam Haelende, and hig 
gesawon fone pe mid deofle gedreht waes, gescrydne 

16 sittan, and hales modes ; and hig him ondredon. And 
hig rehton him, ])a t5e hit gesawon, hu hit gedon waes be 
l>am fe deofol-seocnesse haefde, and be fani swynum. 

MARK, Chap. V. 7 

And hig baedon ]?aet he of heora gemaerum ferde. Da u 
he on scyp eode, hine ongan biddan, se pe ^r mid deofle is 
gedreht wses, ])3st he mid hym wasre. Him ]?a se Hee- vj 
lend ne getipode ; ac he saede him : Ga to J>inum huse, 
to ]?inum hfwum, and cyS heom, hu mycel Dryhten ge- 
dyde, and he gemiltsode f>e. And he J^a ferde, and ongan '20 
bodian on Decapolim, hu fela se Haelend him dyde : and 
hig ealle wundredon. And pa se Haelend eft on scype 21 
ferde ofer J>one mu]?an, hym com to mycel raaenigeo ; 
and waes embe |)a s^. And ]?a com sum of heah-gesam- 22 
nungum, lairus hatte ; and }>a he hine geseah, he astrehte 
hine to his fotum, and hine swyfe baed, and he cwaeS : 23 
Min dohter ys on ytemestum si|>e ; cum and sete fine 
hand ofer hig, J>aet heo hal sy, and lybbe. Da ferde he 24 
mid him ; and him fyligde mycel masnigeo, and Jjrungon 
hine. And |)a ))aet wff ]?e on blodes ryne twelf winter 25 
waes, and fram manegum laecum fela ]?inga J)olode, and 21; 
daelde eall J)aet heo ahte, and hit naht ne fremede, ac waes 
])e wyrse ; }»a heo be ])am Haelende gehyrde, heo com 27 
wi6-aeftan |>a maenigeo, and his reaf aethran. SoSlice 28 
heo cwaeS : Gif ic furpon his reafes aethrfne, ic beo hal. 
And ))a sona wearS hyre blodes ryne adruwod ; and heo 29 
on hyre gefredde, ])aet heo of pam wfte geh^led waes. 
And J)a se Haelend oncneow on him sylfum, |>aet him 30 
maegen of-eode, he cwaeS, b'ewend to faere maenigeo : 
Hwa aethran mine reaf? Da cwaedon his leorning- ,ii 
cnyhtas : Du gesyhst ])as maenigeo ]>e j^ringende, and ]7u 
cwyst : Hwa aethran me ? And ])Si beseah hine, J>aet he 32 
gesawe fone ]>e J)aet dyde. Daet wff ]?a, ondraedende and 33 
forhtigende, com and astrehte hig beforan him, and saede 
him eall ]>aet riht. Da cwaeS se Haelend : Dohter, ]nn 34 
geleafa ]>e hale gedyde ; gafe on sibbe, and beo of J)ysum 
hal. Him J>a gyt sprecendum, hig comon fram ]?am 3> 
heah-gesamnungum, and cwaedon : Din dohtor ys dead ; 

8 MARK, Chap. XL 

36 hwi drecst ]>\x leng pone lareow ? Da he gehyrde ]?aet 
word, fa cwaeS se Hselend : Ne ondreed ])u ]>e, gelyf for 

37 ^n. And he ne let hym aenig ne fyligean, buton Petrum, 
33 and lacobum, and lohannem lacobes broker. And hig 

comon on ]>ses heah-ealdres hus, and he geseah mycel 

39 gehlyd, wepende and geomrigende. And pa he in-eode 
he cwse^ : Hwi synd ge gedrefede and wepaS ? nis pis 

40 maeden dead, ac heo slaepS. Da tseldon hig hine. He 
pa, eallum ut-adrifenum, nam pais maedenes feeder and 
raoder, and pa pe mid him wseron, and in-eodon suwi- 

41 ende par paet maeden waes. And hyre hand nam, and 
ewaet5 : Thalimtha cumi : paet ys, on ure gepeode gereht : 

42 Maeden, pe ic seege, arfs. And heo sona aras and eode : 
soSlice heo wses twelf wintre. And ealle hig wundredon 

43 mycelre wundrunge. And he hym pearle bebead, paet 
hig hyt nanum men ne s^don : and he het hyre etan 

Chapter XI. 

1 Da he genealaehte Hierusalem, and Bethanfa, to Oli- 

2 uetes dune, he sende hys twegen leorning-cnyhtas, and 
cwaetS to him : Fara^ to pam castelle pe ongean fnc ys, 
and gyt paer sona gemetat5 a&san iblan getigedne, ofer 
paene nan man gyt ne saet ; ungetigeaS hine, and to me 

3 gelaedaS. And gif hwa to fnc hwaet cwy^, secgaS, Daet 
Drihten haef 6 hys neode ; and he hine sona hyder Iset. 

4 And pa hig tit-ferdon, hig gemetton pone folan ute on 
twycinan beforan dura, getigedne : pa untigdon hig hine. 

5 And sume pe par stodon, pus saedon him : Hwaet do gyt 

6 porie folan untigende ? Da cwaedon hig: SwaseHaelend 

7 unc bead. And hi leton hig pa. Da laeddon hig pone 
folan to pam Haelende, and hig heora reaf on-aledon ; 

8 and he on-saet. Manega heora reaf on pone weg strehton ; 
sume pa bogas of pam treowum heowon, and streowedon 

MARK, Chap. XI. 9 

on pone weg. And J^a Se beforan eodon, and fa Se aefter 9 
folgodon, cwaedon ])us : Osanna : Sy gebletsod se ]>e com 
on Dryhtnes naman : Sy gebletsod J>aet rfce fe com ures 10 
feeder Dauides: Osanna, on heahnessura. And he code 11 
pa. on Hierosolima tempi, and ealle J?ing he besceawode : 
Sa aefen tima waes, he ferde to Bethanfam, mid his twelf 
leorning-cnyhtum. And o]?rum deege, J)a hig ferdon fram 12 
Bethanfa, hine hingrode. Da he feorran geseah an fie- 13 
treow J)e leaf haefde, he com, and sohte hw8e]?er he J»ar-on 
aht funde: J)a he him to com, ne funde he }>3er buton 
leaf ane ; soSlice hit waes fees fic-treowes tima. Da 14 
cw8et5 he : Heonon-fort5 on ecnesse ne ete senig man 
waestm of Se. And hys leorning-cnyhtas ]?8et gehyrdon. 
Da comon hig eft to Hierusalem ; and J»a he on feet tempi 15 
code, he ongan drifan of })am temple syllende and bic- 
gende ; and mynetera J>rocu, and heah-setlu ]>e 6a culfran 
cypton he tobraec ; and he ne ge]?afode pset aenig man le 
aenig faet ])urh J>aet tempi baere. And he ]>a. laerende, |)us u 
cwasS to him : Nys hit awriten, paet min hus fram eallum 
feodum biS genemned gebed-hus ? soSlice ge dydon faet 
to sceaf ena scraefe. Da f aera sacerda ealdras and fa 18 
boceras f is gehyrdon, hig f ohton hu hig hyne forspildon ; 
f eh hig him ondredon hine ; forf am call seo maenigeo 
wundrode be his lare. And fa hit aefen waes, he code ij> 
of f asre ceastre. On mergen, fa hig ferdon, hig gesawon 20 
faet fic-treow forscruncen of f am wyrt-ruman. Da cwaeS 21 
Petrus : Lareow, loca hu forscranc faet fic-treow f e f u 
wyrigdest. Da cwaeS se Haelend, him andswarigende : 22 
HabbaS Godes truwan. Ic secge eow to sofe, Swa 23 
hwylc swa cwyS to fisum munte, Sig f u afyrred, and on 
s^ aworpen ; and on his heortan ne tweonat5, ac gelyfS ; 
swa hwaet swa he cwyS, Geweort5e f is, faet gewyrS. For- 24 
fam ic eow secge, Swa hwaet swa ge gyrnende biddaS, 
gelyfaS faet ge hit onfoS, and hit eow becymS. And 25 

10 LUKE, Chap. II. 

fonne ge standaS eow to gebiddanne, forgifa(5, gif ge 
hwBBt agen senige habbaS ; pffit eow eower synna forgife 

26 eower heofenlica Feeder, se ]>e on heofenum ys. Gyf 
ge ne forgyfaS, ne eow eower synna ne forgyfS eower 

27 Feeder, pe on heofonum ys. Da com he eft to Hieru- 
salem ; and |)a he on jjam temple eode, hym to genea- 

2S laehton }>a heah-sacerdas, and boeeras, and ealdras, and 
]jus cweedon : On hwylcum anwealde dest ]m ]?as ping ? 

29 and hwa sealde ]>e J^ysne anweald, paet ])u ]?ys do ? Da 
cwaeS se Haelend : And ic acsige eow anre spreece ; 
andswariaS me, and ic secge eow |)onne on hwylcum an- 

30 wealde ic fys do. Hweej^er wees lohannes fulluht, ]>e of 

31 heofone, fe of mannum? andswariaS me. Da ]?ohton 
hi, and cweedon betweox heom : Gif we secga'6, Of 

32 heofone ; he secgS us : Hwi ne gelyfde ge him ? Gif 
we secga'5. Of mannum ; we ondreeda^ fis folc : ealle 

33 hig heefdon lohannem |;eet he weere so61ice witega. Da 
andswaredon hig)>am Haelende, and cweedon : We nyton. 
Da cweeS se Heelend : Ne ic eow ne secge on hwylcum 
anwealde ic ])as Sing do. 

LUKE, Chapter II. 

1 Sot51ice on j^am dagum wees geworden gebod fram pami 
Casere Augusto, psat eall ymb-hwyrft w^re to-mearcod. 

2 Deos to-mearcodnys wees aerest geworden fram ])am 

3 deman Syrige Cirmo. And ealle hig eodon, and syndrie 

4 ferdon on heora ceastre. Da ferde losep fram Galilea 
of J)aere ceastre Nazareth, on ludeisce ceastre Dauides, 
seo ys genemned Bethleem; for]?am ])e he wees ol' 

5 Dauides htise and hirede : feet he ferde mid Marfan ])e 

6 him beweddod wees, and waes geeacnod. SoSlice wees 
geworden, pa hig peer w^ron, hyre dagas wderon gefyl- 

7 lede paet heo cende. And heo cende hyre frumcennedau 

LUKE, Chap. ir. 11 

Sunu, and hyne raid cild-cla])um bewand, and hyne on 
binne alede ; for]>am J>e hig n^fdon rum on cumena-huse. 
And hyrdas wderon on J>am ylcan rfce waciende, and s 
niht-waeccan healdende ofer heora heorda. Da stod 9 
Dryhtnes engel wiS hig, and Godes beorhtnes hym ymbe 
scan : and hig him myclum ege ondredon. x'Vnd se engel 10 
him to cvveeS : Nelle ge eow ondrdedan. SoSliee nu ic 
eow bodie mycelne gefean, se biS eallum folce. Forpam j i 
to-d^g eow ys Haelend acenned, se ys Dryhten Crist, on 
Dauides ceastre. And ])is tacen eow byS : Ge gemetaS 12 
an cild hraeglura bewunden, and on binne aled. And ]?a 13 
waes f^ringa geworden mid ])am engle mycelnes heofen- 
lices weredes, God heriendra and ]>us cwe])endra : Gode i4 
sy wuldor on heahnysse, and on eorpan sybb, mannum 
godes willan. And hit wses geworden, pa 6a englas to 15 
heofene ferdon, ]>a hyrdas him betwynan spr^con, and 
cwaedon : Uton faran to Bethleem, and geseon ]?aet word 
j)e geworden ys, Joet Dryhten us aetywde. And hig le 
efstende comon, and gemetton Marfan and losep, and peet 
cild on binne aled. Da hig past gesawon, pa oncneowon n 
hig be pam worde pe hym ges^d waes be pam cilde. And is 
ealle Sa pe gehyrdon, wundredon be pam pe him pa 
hyrdas s^don. Marfa geheold ealle pas word, on hyre 19 
heortan smeagende. Da gewendon ham pa hyrdas, God nt 
wuldriende and heriende on eallum pam 6e hig gehyr- 
don and gesawon, swa to him gecweden waes. ^fter 21 
pam 6e ehta dagas gef'yllede waeron, paet paet cild emb- 
snyden w^re, his nama waes Haelend, se waes fram 
engle genemned, ^r he on innoSe geeacnod w^re. And 22 
aefter pam pe hyre claensunge dagas gefyllede wEeron, 
aefter Moyses ^, hig laeddon hyne on Hierusalem, paet hig 
hyne Gode gesetton ; swa swa on Dryhtnes ^ awriten ys: 23 
Daet aelc waepned gecynde-lim ontynende, byS Dryhtne 
halig genemned ; and paet hig offrunge sealdon, aefter -a 

12 LUKE, Chap. II. 

]7am |)e Dryhtnes ^ gecweden ys, Twa turtlan, o|))7e 

25 twegen culfran-briddas. And J)a wses an man on Hie- 
rusalem, ]:>8es nama wees Simeon ; and ])es man waes 
rihtwfs, and o^ Israhela frofer ge-anbidiende : and Halig 

26 Oast him on waes. And he andsware fram ))am Halgan 
Gaste onfeng, paet he deatS ne gesawe, buton he ^r 

27 Dryhten Crist gesawe. And on Gaste he on ))8et tempel 
com. And fa hys magas laeddon ])one Hselend, ]?8et hig 

28 for hym aefter J^sere ^ gewunan dydon, he onfeng hyne 
20 mid hys handum, and God bletsode, and cwseS, Dryhten, 

^ nil ]m Isetst ))inne ]>eo\v, asfter J>inum worde, on sibbe : 

31 forj^am mfne eagan gesawon fine haele, ^a f u geearwo- 

32 dest beforan ansyne ealra folca ; leoht to feoda awrige- 

33 nesse, and to fines folces wuldre Israhel. Da wses hys 
faeder and his moder wundriende be fam fe be hym 

34 ges^de wffiron. And fa bletsode hig Simeon, and cwseS 
to Marfan his meder : Loca nu, f es ys on hryre and on 
£eryst aset manegra on Israhel; and on tacen fam Se 

35 wiS-cweden by^ ; (and hys sweord fine sawle f urh-fderS,) 
30 fast gef ohtas syn awrigene of manegum heortum. And 

Anna waes witegestre, Fanueles dohtor, of Asseres 
maeg(5e: feos wunede maenigne ddeg, and heo lyfede 

37 mid hyre were seofen gear of hyre faemnhade ; and heo 
waes wuduwe oS feower and hund-eahtatig geara, seo of 
fam temple ne gewat, daeges and nihtes feowigende on 

38 fasstenum and on halsungum. And feos fdere tfde be- 
cumende, Dryhtne andette, and be him spraee eallum 

39 fam f e ge-anbidedon Hierusalem alysednesse. And fa 
hig ealle f ing gefyldon, aefter Drihtnes ^, hig gehwurfon 

40 on Galileam, on heora ceastre Nazareth. SotSlice faet 
cild weox, and waes gestrangod wfsdomes full; and Godes 

41 gyfu waes on hym. And his magas ferdon aelce gere to 

42 Hierusalem, on Easter-daeges freols-tfde. And fa he 
waes twelf w intre, hy foron to Hierusalem, to fam Easter- 

JOHN, Chap. Ill, 13 

lican freolse, sefter heora gewunan. And gefylledum 43 
dagum, fa hig ongean-gehvvurfon, belaf se Haelend on 
Hierusalem ; and hys magas pset nyston : wendon ])aet 44 
he on heora gefere w^re. Da comon hig anes dseges 
faer, and hyne sohton betweox his magas and his cu^an. 
Da hig hyne ne fundon, hig gewendon to Hierusalem, 45 
hine secende. Da aefter frim dagum, hig fundon hine on 4f. 
Jjam temple, sittende on middan fam lareowum, hlystende 
and hig acsigende. Da wundredon hig ealle ]?e gehyrdon 47 
be his gleawscype and his andswarum. Da cwseS his 48 
moder to hym : Sunu, hwi dydest ])u unc J>us ? )?in faeder 
and ic sarigende ]>e sohton. Da cwaeS he to hym : HwBSt 4<j 
ys J)8et gyt me sohton ? nyste gyt J^aet me gebyraS to 
beonne on pam ]?ingum pe mines Faeder synd ? Da ne 50 
ongeaton hfg j^set word }»e he to hym spraec. Da ferde 51 
he mid hym, and com to Nazareth, and waes hym under- 
|)eod, and his moder geheold ealle pas word, on hyre 
heortan smeagende. And se Haelend peah. on wfsdome 52 
and on ylde, and mid gyfe Gode and mid mannum. 

JOHN, Chapter HI. 

So^lice sum Phariseisc man waes genemned Nichode- 1 
mus, se waes ludea ealdor. pes com to him on niht, and 2 
cwaeS to him : Rabbf (]>aet is, Lareow), we witon paet ]?u 
come fram Gode : ne maeg nan man pas tacn wyrcan pe 
t5u wyrcst, buton God beo mid him. Se Haelend him 3 
andswarode, and cwaet5 : SotS ic pe secge, Buton hwa beo 
edniwan gecenned, ne maeg he geseon Godes rfce. Da 
cwaeS Nichodemus to hym : Hu maeg man beon ei't 4 
acenned, Jjonne he byS eald ? cwyst fu maeg he eft cuman 
on hys moder innoS, and beon eft acenned ? Se Haelend 5 
hym andswarode, and cwaeS : S06 ic pe secge, Buton hwa 
beo ge-edcenned of waetere and of Halgum Gaste, ne 

14 JOHN, Chap. III. 

6 mgeg he in-faran on Godes rice. Daet fe acenned is of 
flaBsce, I>8et is floesc ; and f set ]>e of Gaste is acenned, ])£et 

7 is gast. Ne wundra pu, for]?am ]?e ic saede ]?e, Eow ge- 
s byraS J)8et ge beon acennede edniwan. Gast oret$a6 

)78er he wile, and ]?u gehyrst his stefne, and ]>u. nast 

hwanon he cymS, ne hwyder he g^6 : swa is selc ])e 

9 acenned is of Gaste. Da andswarode Nichodemus, and 

10 cwee^ : Hu magon J»as J)ing J)us geweorSan ? Se Heelend 
andswarode, and cwae8 to him : Du eart lareow Israhela 

11 folce, and Jju nast pas ]?ing? SoS ic ]?e secge, pset we 
sprecaS J'set we witon, and we cySaS J)8et we gesawon ; 

12 and ge ne underfo^ ure cy^nesse. Gyf ic eow eorSlice 
ping saede, and ge ne gelyfaS, humeta gelyfe ge, gif ic 

13 eow heofenlice Jnng secge ? And nan man ne astihS to 
heofenum, buton se]?e nySer com of heofenum, mannes 

14 Sunu, se])e com of heofenum. And swa Moyses ])a 
nseddran up-ahof of J>ani westene, swa gebyraS J>aet 

15 mannes Sunu beo up-ahitfen; ]>aet nan })aera ne for- 
weorSe ]?e on hyne gelyfS, ac hcebbe ])aet ece Iff. 

jc God lufode middan-eard, swa ]?get he sealde his an-cen- 
nedan Sunu, paet nan ne forweorSe J?e on hine gelyfS, ac 

17 haebbe ]?eEt ece Iff. Ne sende God his Sunu on middan- 
eard, ]?8et he demde middan-earde ; ac faet middan-eard 

18 sy gehaeled ])urh hine. Ne bi6 ]7am gedemed J)e on hine 
gelyfS : se ]>e ne gelyf(5, him biS gedemed ; for]?an J?e 
he ne gelyfde on fone naman ])aes an-cennedan Godes 

19 Suna. Daet is se dom, J^aet leoht com on middan-eard, 
and men lufedon J)ystro swySor ponne ]>set leoht : heora 

20 weorc waeron yfele. ^Ic ])8era J)e yfele deS, hata^ ]?eet 
leoht ; and he ne cymt5 to leohte, faet his weorc ne syn 

21 gerihtlaehte. Witodlice se ])e wyrc(5 soSfsestnysse cymS 
to fam leohte, past his weorc syn geswutelode, forpam ]>e 

22 hig synd on Gode gedone. iEfter pyssum com se Hse- 
lend and his leorning-cnyhtas to Iudea-lande,and wunede 

JOHN, Chap. XV. 15 

]?aer mid hym, and fuUode. And lohannes fuUode on -z-i 
Endn wiS Salfm, for]?am ]?e paer vvaeron manega weetro. 
And hig togaedere comon, and waeron gefullode. Da 24 
gyt naes lohannes gedon on cweartern. Da smeadon 25 
lohannes leorning-cnyhtas and Jja ludeas be |)aere claen- 
sunge ; and comon to lohanne, and cwaedon to him : -m 
Rabbf, se 6e mid J?e wses begeondan lordane, be J»am J>u 
cy^dest gewitnesse, nu he fullaS, and ealle hig cumaS to 
him. lohannes andvvyrde, and cwsbS : Ne maeg man 27 
nan J)ing underfon, buton hit beo him of heofenum ge- 
seald. Ge sylfe me synd to gewitnesse, Jjaet ic s^de, 2s 
Neom ic Crist, ac ic com asend beforan hine. Se Se 20 
bryde haefS, se is bryd-guma : se Se is faes bryd-guman 
freond, and stent and gehyrS hyne, mid gefean he ge- 
blissaS for Jjses bryd-guman stefne : J)es mm gefea is ge- 
fylled. Hit gebyra]) |>3et he weaxe, and |>8et ic wanige. 30 
Se ]?e ufenan com, se ys ofer ealle: se pe of eorpan ys, 31 
se sprycS be eorpan : se ]>e of heofone com, se ys ofer 
ealle. And he cyS ])set he geseah and gehyrde : and 32 
nan man ne underfehS his cySnesse. SoSlice se pe his 33 
cySnesse underfehS, he getacnaS fast God ys soSfaestnes. 
Se ]>e God sende sprycS Godes word : ne sylS God ])one 34 
Gast be gemete. Feeder lufaS |?one Sunu, and sealde 35 
ealle J)ing on his hand. Se ]>e gelyfS on Sunu, se haefS m 
ece lif : se ]>e J)am Suna is ungeleafFull, negesyhS he Iff; 
ac Godes yrre wunaS ofer hine. 

Chapter XV. 

Ic eom soS wfn-eard, and min Faeder ys eorS-tilia. 1 
He deS aelc twig aweg on me Jje blseda ne byrS ; and he 2 
feormaS aelc ])aera f>e blaeda byrS, J)aet hyt bere blaeda |?e 
swijjor. Nu ge synd clsene for })aere spraece J>e ic to eow 3 
spraec. WuniaS on* me, and ic on eow. Swa twig ne 4 

16 JOHN, Chaf. XV. 

maeg blaeda beran him-sylf, buton hit wunige on wiii- 
earde, swa ge ne magon eac, buton ge wunion on me. 

5 Ic eom wm-eard, and ge synd twigu : Se ]>e wunaS on 
me, and ic on him, se byrS mycle blaeda : forpam ge ne 

6 magon nan fing don butan me. Gif hwa ne wuna'S on 
me, he by^ aworpen lit swa twig, and fordruwaS ; and 

7 hig gaderiaS )?a, and do6 on fyr, and hig forbyrna^. Gif 
ge wuniaS on me, and mine word wuniaS on eow, bid- 

8 daS swa hwast swa ge wyllon, and hyt by^ eower. On 
fam ys min Faeder geswutelod, ]>8et ge beron mycle 

9 blaeda, and beon mine leorning-cnyhtas. And ic lufode 

10 eow swa Faeder lufode me : wuniaS on minre lufe. Gif 
ge mine bebodu gehealdaS, ge wuniaS on minre lufe ; 
swa ic geheold mines Faeder bebodu, and ic wunige on 

11 hys lufe. Das J>ing ic eow saede, pset min gefea sy on 

12 eow, and eower gefea sy gefuUod. Dis is min bebod, 

13 faet ge lufion eow gemaenelice, swa ic eow lufode. Naef(5 
nan man maran lufe |)onne ]?eos ys, ]?aet hwa sylle his Iff 

14 for his freondum. Ge synd mine frynd, gif ge doS ]>a 

15 ])ing ]>e ic eow bebeode. Ne telle ic eow to ])eowan ; 
for])am se feowa nat hwaet se hlaford deS : ic tealde eow 
to freondum ; forfam ic cy^de eow ealle fa ]?ing ])e ic 

16 gehyrde aet minum Faeder. Ne gecure ge me, ac ic 
geceas eow, and ic sette eow, J>8et ge gan and blaeda 
beron, and eowre blaeda gelaeston ; faet Faeder sylle eow 

17 swa hwaet swa ge biddaS on minum naman. Das ))ing 

18 ic eow beode, feet ge lufion eow gemaenelice. Gif mid- 
dan-eard eow hataS, wita^ J»apt he hatede me £er eow. 

19 Gif ge of middan-earde waeron, middan-eard lufode J)8Rt 
his waes : forpam J>e ge ne synd of middan-earde, ac ic 
eow geceas of middan-earde, forfig middan-eard eow 

*o hataS. Gemunat5 minre spraece pe ic eow saede, Nis se 
})eowa maerra J>onne his hlaford. Gif hig me ehton, hig 
wyllaS ehtan eower: gif hig mine sprsece heoldon, hig 

JOHN, Chap. XV. 17 

healdaS eac eowre. Ac ealle fas fing hig doS eow for 21 
minum naman ; forfam ]?e hig ne cunnon ])one ]>e me 
sende. Gif ic ne come, and to him ne spraece, naefdon hig 22 
nane synne : nu hig nabbaS nane lade be heora synne. 
Se ])e me hataS hata^ minne Faeder. Gif ic nane weorc 

' ^ 24 

ne worhte on him, ]>e nan oSer ne worhte, naefdon hig 
nane synne : nu hig gesawon, and hig hatedon aegSer 
ge me, ge minne Faeder. Ac J)aet seo spraec sy gefylled 25 
]>e on hyra ^ awriten ys, Daet hig hatedon me buton 
gewyrhtum. ponne se Frefriend cymS, J)e ic eow sende 26 
fram Faeder, soSfaestnysse Gast, J>e cym6 fram Faeder, 
he cyS gewitnesse be me : and ge cyt?aS gewitnesse, 27 
forpam ge waeron fram fruman mid me. 



ad Pueros LingucB Latince Locutione exercendos, ah 
^LFRico prhnum compilatum, et deinde, ah JElfrico 
JBata, ejus Discipulo, auctum ; 


We cildra bidda> >e, eala Lareow, >ait \>\x ta^ce us sprecau 
D. Nos pueri rogamus te, Magister, ut doceas nos loqui 
* [rihte] , for>am ungelarede we syndon, and gewa^mmodlice 

Latialiter recte, quia idiotse sumus, et corrupte 

we spreca>. 

Hwset wille ge sprecan ? 
M. Quid vultis loqui? 

Hwaet rece we hwaet we sprecan, buton hit riht spraec 
D. Quid curamus quid loquamur, nisi * recta locutio 
sy, and behefe, naes idel, o\>]>e fracod? 
sit, et utilis, non anilis, aut turpis ? 

Wille [ge beon] beswungen on leornunge ? 
M. Vultis flagellari in discendo ? 

Leofre ys us beon beswungen for lare, )?8enne hit ne 
D. Carius est nobis flagellari pro doctrina, quam ne- 
cunnan ; ac we witun J>e bilewitne wesan, and nellan onbelsedan 
scire ; sed scimus te mansuetum esse, et nolle inferre 
swincgla us, buton })u bi to-genydd fram us. 
plagas nobis, nisi cogaris a nobis. 

Ic axie ]?e hwaet * sprycst Jju ? Hwset haefst J>u weorkes ? 
M. Interrogo te quid mihi loqueris ? Quid habes operis ? 
Ic eom geanwyrde monuc, and ic sincge selce da?g seofon 
D. Professus sum monachum, et psallo omni die septem 
tida mid gebro>rum, and ic eom bysgod [on rsedinge] and 
synaxes cum fratribus, et occupatus sum lectionibus et 
on sange ; ac, >eah-hwa;>ere, ic wolde betwenan leornian spre- 

cantu ; sed tamen velleni interim discere sermoci- 
can on Leden gereorde. 
nari Latina lingua. 


Hwaet cunnon )>as J^ine geferan ? 
M. Quid sciunt isti tui socii ? 

Sume synt yrj?lincgas, sume scep-hyrdas, sume oxan-hyrdas, 
D. Alii sunt aratores, alii opiliones, quidam bubulci, 

sume eac swylce huntan, sume fisceras, sume fugeleras, 
quidam etiam venatores, alii piscatores, alii aucupes, 

sume cypmenn, sume sceo-wyrhtan, [sume] sealteras, 
quidam mercatores, quidam sutores, quidam salinatores, 

[sume] bseceras. * 
quidam pistores loci. 

Hwaet ssegest >u, YrHingc, hu begaest >u weorc \>va. ? 

M. Quid dicis tu, Arator, quomodo exerces opustuum? 
Eala, leof hlaford, >earle ic deorfe ; ic ga ut on dsegraid, 

A. O, mi domine, nimium laboro ; exeo diluculo, 

J>ywende oxan* to felda, and jugie hi to syl : nys 

minando boves ad campum, et jungo eos ad aratrum: non 
hyt swa stearc winter }?aet ic durre lutian aet ham, for ege 
est tam aspera hyems ut audeam latere domi, prae timore 
hlafordes mines ; ac geiukodan oxan, and gefsestnodon sceare and 
domini mei ; sed junctis bobus, et confirmato vomere et 

cultre mid Jjaere syl, aelce daeg ic sceal erian fulne ajcer'' 

cultro aratro, omni die debeo arare integrum agrum, 
o»e mare, 
aut plus. 

Haefst >u aenigne geferan ? 

M. Habes aliquem sociura ? 

Ic haebbe sumne cnapan Jjywende oxan mid gad- 
A. Habeo quendam puerum minantem boves cum sti- 

isene, >e eac swylce nu has ys, for cylde and 

mulo, qui etiam modo raucus est, prae frigore et 


Hwaet mare dest >u on dseg ? 
M. Quid amplius facis in die ? 

Gewyslice >aenne mare ic do. Ic sceal fyllan binnan 
A. Certe adhuc plus facie. Debeo implere praesepia 

• MS. Oxon. b MS. »>er. 


oxan mid hig, and waeterian hig, and scearn heora beran 
bourn fceno, et adaquare eos, et fimum eorum portare 


Hig, hig, micel gedeorf ys hit I 
M. O, O, magnus labor est ! 

Ge leof, micel gedeorf hit ys, for>am ic neom freoh. 

A. Etiam, magnus labor est, quia non sum liber. 
[Hwaet segst >u,]Sceap-herde? Hsefst ])U senig gedeorf? 

il!f. Quid dicis tu, Opilio? Habestualiquemlaborem? 

Gea, leof, ic hfebbe ; on forewerdne morgen ic drife sceap mine 

O. Etiam, habeo ; in primo mane mino oves meas 

to heora lease, and stande ofer hig, on hsete and on cyle, mid 
ad * pascua, et sto super eas, in aestu et frigore,cum 

hundum, )?e-l8es wulfas forswelgen hig, and ic agen laede hig to heora 
canibus, ne lupi devorent eas, et reduco eas ad * 

loca, and melke hig tweowa on daeg, and loca heora ic haebbe 
caulas, et mulgeo eas bis in die, et caulas earum moveo 

>aerto, and cyse and buteran ic do, and ic eom getrywe hla- 
insuper, et caseum et butyrum facio, et sum fidelis do- 
forde minon. 
mino meo. 

Eala, Oxan-hyrde, hwaet M7rcst >u ? 
M. O, Bubulce, quid operaris tu ? 

Eala, hlaford min, micel ic gedeorfe : ]>aenne se yrHingc 

B. O, domine mi, multum laboro : quando arator 
unscenj> )?a oxan, ic laede hig to laese, and ealle niht 

disjungit boves, ego duco eos ad pascua, et tota nocte 

ic stande ofer hig waciende for ]?eofan, and eft, on seme 
sto super eos vigilando propter fures, et iterum, primo 

mergen, ic betaece hig >am yrHincge, wel gefylde and gewaeterode. 
mane, adsigno eos aratori, bene pastes et adaquatos. 
Ys >es of >inum geferum ? 
M. Est iste ex tuis sociis? 

Gea he ys. 
D, Etiam est. 

Canst )>u aenig )>ing ? 
31. Scis tu aljquid? 


Mnne craeft ic cann. 
V. Unam artem scio. 

Hwylcne ^? 
M. Qualis est ? 

Hunta ic eom. 
V. Venator sum, 

Hwses ? 
M. Cujus? 
V. Regis, 

Hu begscst >u craeft Hnne ? 
M. Quomodo exerces artem tuam ? • " 

Icbrede me max, and sette hig on stowe geligeppre, and 
V. Plecto mihi retia, et pono ea in loco apto, et 

getihte hundas mine, jjset wildeor hig ehton, oJ> ]jaet >e hig cu- 
instigo canes meos, ut feras persequantur, usquequo per- 

man to J?am nettan unforsceawodlice, )>aet hig swa beon begrynode, 
veniant ad retia improvise, et sic inretientur, 

and ic ofsleah hig on >am maxum. 
etegojugulo eos in retibus. 

Ne canst >u huntian buton mid nettum ? 
M. Nescis venari nisi cum retibus? 

Gea, butan nettum huntian ic maeg. 
V. Etiam, sine retibus venari possum. 

M. Quomodo? 

Mid swiftum hundum ic betaece wildeor. 
V. Cum velocibus canibus insequor feras. 

Hwylce wildeor swyjjost gefehst J>u ? 
M. Quales feras maxime capis ? 

Ic gefeo heortas, and haras, and rann, and raegan, and 
V. Capio cervos, et apros, et damas, et capreas, et 
hwilon haran. 
aliquando lepores. 

Waere J>u to daeg On huntnolde^ ? 
M. Fuisti hodie in venatione ? 

» MS. hwylcne ys. '' huntno^e ? 


Icnjes, for>am sunnan-daeg ys, ac gyrstan-daeg ic waes 
V. Non fui, quia dominicus dies est, sed heri fui 

on huntuiige. 
in venatione. 

Hwaet gelaelitest >u ? 
M. Quid eepisti? 

Twegen heortas and aenne bar. 
V. Duos cervos et unum aprum. 

Hu gefencge \)u hig ? 
M. Quomodo eepisti eos? 

Heortas ic gefenge on nettum, and bar ic ofsloh. 
F. Cervos cepi in retibus, et apruin jugulavi. 

Hu wa^re \>u dyrstig ofstikian bar ? 
M. Quomodo fuisti ausus jugulare aprum ? 

Hundas bedrifon hyne to me, and ic ]?a3r, togeanes 
V. Canes perduxerunt eum ad me, et ego * e contra 
standende, fa^rlice ofstikode hyne. 
stans, subito jugulavi eum. 

Swi>e )>ryste J7U wsere >a. 
M. Valde audax fuisti tunc. 

Ne sceal hunta forbtfuU wesan, for>am mislice 

V. Non debet venator formidolosus esse, quia variae 
wildeor wuniaj? on wudum. 
bestias morantur in sylvis. 

Hwset dest >u be Hnre huntunge ? 
M. Quid facis de tua venatione ? 

Ic sylle cync swa hwset swa ic gefo, for)?ani ic eora hunta 
V. Ego do regi quicquid capio, quia sum venator 

Hwaet sylj> he }>e ? 
M. Quid dat ipse tibi ? 

Hescryt me wel and fett, and hwilon he syl> me 
V. Vestit me bene et pascit, et aliquando dat mihi 

hors, o\>\>e beah, J?set >e lustlicor craeft minne ic begancge. 
equum, aut armillam, ut libentius artem meam exerceam. 

Hwylcne craeft canst jju ? 
M, Qualem artem scis tu ? 


Ic eom fiscere. 
P. Ego sura piscator. 

Hwaet begytst J?u of >inum craefte ? 
M. Quid adquiris de tua arte ? 

Bigleofan, and scrud, and feoh. 
P. Victum, et vestitum, et pecuniam. 

Hu gefehst ]>u fixas ? 
M. Quomodo capis pisces? 

Ic astigie min scyp, and wyrpe max mine on ea, and 
P. Conscendo navem, et pono retia mea in amne, et 
angil (aes) ic wyrpe and spyrtan, and swa hwa^t swa hig gehsefta}* 
hamum prqjicio et sportas, et quicquid ceperint 

ic genime. 

Hwaet gif hit unclaene beo)? fixas ? 
M. Quid si immundi fuerint pisces ? 

Ic wyrpe >a unclaenan ut, and genime me clsene 
P. Ego projiciam immundos foras, et sumo mihi mundos 
to mete, 
in escam. 

Hwaer cypst )>u fixas >ine ? 
M. Ubi vendis pisces tuos? 

On ceastre. 
P. In civitate* 

Hwa big]> hi? 
M. Quis emit illos ? 

Ceasterwara. Ic ne maeg swa fela [gefon] swa fela swa 
P. Gives. Non possum tot capere quot 

ic maeg gesyllan. 
possum vendere. 

Hwilce fixas gefehst J^u ? 
M. Quales pisces capis ? 

iElas, and hacodas, mynas, and aeleputan, sceotan, 
P. Anguillas, et lucios, menas, et capitones, tructos, 

and lampredan, and swa hwylce swa on waetere swymmaj? sprote. 
et mursenas, et qualescunque in amne natant salu^ 

* I am unable to explain salu otherwise than by supposing it may 


For hwi ne fixast >u on sse ? 
M, .Cur non piscaris in mari ? 

Hwilon ic do, ac seldon, for]>am micel rewyt 

P. Aliquando facio, sed raro, quia magnum navigium 

me ys to sse. 
mihi est ad mare. 

Hwaet fehst >u on sse? 
M. Quid capis in mari ? 

Hjerincgas and leaxas, mere-swyn and stirian, [ostran] and 

P. Aleces et isicios, delphinos et sturias, ostreas et 

crabban, muslan, pinewinclan, sae-coccas, fagc, and 

cancros, musculos, torniculos, neptigallos, platesias, et 

floe, and lopystran, and fela swylces. 
platissas, et polypodes, et [multa] similia. 
Wilt )>u fon sumne hwael ? 
M, Vis cap'ere aliquem cetum? 

P. Nolo. 

For hwi ? 
M. Quare? 

ForJ^am* plyhtlic Mngc hit ys gefon hwsel. Gebeorhlicre 
P. Quia periculosa res est capere cetum. Tutius 
[ys] me faran to ea, mid scype mynum^, )?8enne faran mid 
est mihi ire ad amnem, cum nave mea quam ire cum 
manegum scypum, on huntunge hranes. 
multis navibus, in venationem balenae. 

For hwi swa ? 
M. Cur sic ^ 

Forjjam leofre ys me gefon fisc l^aene ic maeg 
P. Quia carius est mihi capere piscem quem possim 

ofslean, )je na \><eX an me, ac eac swylce mine geferan, 
occidere, qui non solum me, sed etiam meos socios, 

mid anum siege, he maeg besencean ohhe gecwylman. 
uno ictUj potest mergere aut mortificare. 

be an error for salice. In the St. John's MS. the sentence ends with 

* MS. Forhwan. ^ MS. mynan. 


And >eah, maenige gefo]> hwaelas, and aetbersta> frecnyssa, 
M. Et tamen, multi capiunt cetos, et evadunt pericula, 
and micelne sceat >anon begyta>. 
et magnum pretium inde acquirunt. 

So> \>n segst, ac ic ne ge>ristige, for modes mines 
P. Verum dicis, sed ego non audeo, propter mentis meae 

Hwaet segst >u, Fugelere ? Hu beswicst ]?u fugelas ? 

M. Quid dicis tu, Auceps? Quomodo decipis aves? 

On feala wisan ic beswice fugelas ; hwilon mid netton, 
A. Multis modis decipio aves ; aliquando retibus, 
[hwilon] mid grinum, [hwilon] mid lime, [hwilon] 

aliquando laqueis, aliquando glutino, aliquando 
mid hwistlunge, [hwilon] mid hafoce, [hwilon] mid treppan. 
sibilo, aliquando accipitre, aliquando decipula. 
Hsefst >u hafoc ? 
M. Habes accipitrem ? 

Ic haebbe. 
A. Habeo. 

Canst ]>ii temian hig ? 
M. Scis tu domitare eos ? 

Gea, ic cann. Hwaet sceoldon hig me, buton ic cuj^e 
A. Etiam, scio. Quid deberent mihi, nisi scirem 
temian hig ? 
domitare eos ? 

Syle me aenne hafoc. 
V. Da mihi accipitrem. 

Ic sylle lustlice, gyf >u sylst me aenne swyftne 
A. Dabo libenter, si tu dederis mihi unum velocem 

hund. Hwilcne hafoc wilt Jju habban ; )>one maran, hwae>er >e 
canem. Qualem accipitrem vis habere ; majorem, aut 
J)aene laessan ? 

minorem ? / 

Syle me )>aene maran. 
V, Da mihi majorem. 

Hu afetst* ))u hafocas >ine ? ; 

M, Quomodo pascis accipitres tuos ? I 

• MS. afest. 


Hi fedajj hig sylfe and me on wintra, and on lencgten 
A. Ipsi pascunt se ipsos et me in hieme, et in vere 

ic Isete hig setwindan to wuda, and genyme me briddas on 
dimitto eos avolare ad sylvam, et eapio mihi puUos in 
haerfaeste, and temige hig. 
autunino, et domito eos. 

And for hwi forlsetst >u >a getemedon setwindan fram J>e ? 
31. Et cur permittis tu domitos avolare a te ? 

For>am ic nelle fedan hig on sumera, for>am >e hig 
A. Quia nolo pascere eos in sestate, eo quod * 

>earle etal>. 
nimium comedunt. 

And manige feda)> ha getemedon ofer sumor, j^aet 

M, Et multi pascunt domitos super eestatem, ut 

eft hig habban gearuwe. 
iterum habeant paratos. 

Gea, swa hig do]?, ac ic nelle o]> ^set an deorfan 
A. Etiam sic faciunt, sed ego nolo in tantum laborare 

ofer hig, for]?am ic can o)5re, na J'set senne, ac eac swilce 
super eos, quia scio alios, non solum unum, sed etiam 

manige, gefon. 
plures, capere. 

Hwa^t sffigst ]>u, Mancgere ? 
M. Quid dicis tu, Mercator? 

Ic secge )>8et behefe ic eom ge cingc, and ealdormannum, 
Mer. Ego dico quod utilis sum et regi, et ducibus, 
and weligum, and eallum folce. 
et divitibus, et omni populo. 

And hu ? 
M. Et quomodo ? 

Ic astige min scyp, mid hlajstum minum, and rowe 
Mer. Ego ascendo navem, cum mercibus meis, et navigo 

ofer sselice daelas, and cype mine >ingc, and bicge Hncg dyr- 
ultra marinas partes, et vendo meas res, et emo res pre- 

wyrj>e, >a on )jisum lande ne beo> acennede, and ic hit to-gelaede 
tiosas, quae in hac terra non nascuntur, et adduco 

eow hider, mid micclan plihte, ofer sae, and hwilon 
vobis hue, cum magno periculo, super mare, et aiiquando 



forlidenesse ic >olie, mid lyre ealra Hnga minra, 
naufragium patior, cum jactura omnium rerum mearum, 
uneaj?e cwic aetberstende. 
vix vivus evadens. 

Hwylce >inc gelaedst >u us ? 
M, Quales res adducis nobis ? 

Paellas, and sidan, deorwyr^e gymmas, and gold, 
Mer. Purpuram, et sericum, pretiosas gemmas, et aurum, 

selcu>e reaf, and wyrtgemangc, win and ele, ylpes-ban, and 
varias vestes, et pigmenta, vinum, et oleum, ebur, et 

maestlingc, aer, and tin, swefel, and glaes, and J?ylces 

aurichalcum, aes, et stannum, sulphur, et vitrum, et his 


Wilt >u syllan Hngc Hne her, ealswa >u hi gebohtest hser ? 

M, Vis vendere res tuas hie, sicut emisti illic? 

Ic nelle. Hwaet >aenne me fremode gedeorf min ? -^c 

Mer. Nolo. Quid tunc mihi proticit labor mens ? Sed 

ic wylle heora cypan her luflicor )?onne [ic] gebicge J?aer, j^aet 

volo * vendere hie carius quam emi illic, ut 

sum gestreon me ic begyte, J?anon ic me afede, and 
aliquod lucrum mihi adquiram, unde me pascam, et 
min wif, and minne sunu. 

uxorem, et filium. - - 

pu, Sceowyrhta, hwaet wyrcst >u us nytwyr>nesse ? 
M. Tu, Sutor, quid operaris tu nobis utilitatis ? 

Ys witodlice craeft min behefe dearie eow, and neodjjearf. 
S. Est quidem ars mea utilis valde vobis, et necessaria. 

M. Quomodo? 

Ic bicge hyda, and fell, and gearkie lug mid craefte 

S. Ego emo cutes, et pelles, et praeparo eas arte 

minon, and wyrce of him gescy misthces cynnes ; swyft- 

mea, et facio ex iis calceamenta diversi generis ; sub- 

leras, and sceos, le>er-hosa, and butericas, bridel-twancgas and 

talares, et ficones, caligas, et utres, frenos, et 

geraeda, and flaxan (pinnan) and higdifatu, spur-le>era, and 
phaleras, et flascones, et calidilia, calcaria, et 



hffilftra, pusan, and fsetelsas, and nan eower nele oferwintran 
chamos, peras, et marsupia, et nemo vestrum vult hiemare 

butan minon crsefte. 
sine mea arte. 

[Eala], Sealtere, hwaet us fremat> crseft >in? 
M. O, Salinator, quid nobis proficit ars tua ? 

pearle frenia> crseft min eow eallum : nan 

^S'. Multum prodest ars mea vobis omnibus: nemo 

eower blisse biyc)' on gereorduncge, oJ?>e mete, buton craeft 
vestrum gaudio fruitur in prandio, aut coena, nisi ars 

min gistli^e him beo. 
mea hospita ei fuerit. 

M. Quomodo? 

Hwylc manna werodum >urhbryc}? mettum, buton swaecce 
*S'. Quis hominum dulcibusperfruitur cibis, sine sapore 

sealtes? Hwa gefylj? cleafan his, o»e hedderne, buton 
salis? Quis replet cellaria sua, sive promtuaria, sine 

craafte minon ? Efne, buter-ge>weor a?lc and cys-gerunn losa)> 
arte mea? Ecce, butyrum omne et caseus pereunt 

eow, buton ic hyrde setwese eow, >e ne fur]?on an wyr- 
vobis, nisi ego custos adsim vobis, qui nee saltern oleri- 

tum eowrum, butan me, bruca]>. 
bus vestris, sine me, utimini. 

[Hwaet segst >u,] Baecere ? Hwam frema)> [craeft >>in,] o»e 
iff. Quid dicis tu, Pistor? Cui prodest ars tua, aut 

hwae]?er, butan }>e, we magon lif adreogan ? 
si sine te, possimus vitam ducere ? 

Ge magon [watodlice,] |>urh sum faec, butan [minon 

P. Potestis quidem, per aliquod spatium, sine mea 

craifte, hf adreogan, ac] na lancge, ne to wel; so>lice, 
arte, vitam ducere, sed non diu, nee adeo bene ; nam, 

butan craefte minon, aelc beod aemtig by)> gesewen, and, 
sine arte mea, omnis mensa vacua videtur esse, et, 

butan hlafe, aelc mete to wlaettan byj? gehwyrfed. Ic beortan 
sine pane, omnis cibus in nauseam convertitur. Ego cor 


marines gestrangie ; ic maegen wera [eom] ; and fur>on lit- 
horainis confirmo ; ego robur virorum sum ; et nee par- 

lincgas nella)> forbigean me. 
vuli nolunt praaterire me. 

[Hwset seega)? we be coce ;] hwae>er we be|'m:fon on senigon 
M, Quid dicimus de coquo ; si indigemus in aliquo 

craefte [his ?] 
arte ejus? 

Gif ge me ut-adrifa]? fram eowrum geferscype, 
DtAiit Cocus : Si me expellitis a vestro collegio, 

ge eta]? wyrta eowre grene, and fljesc-mettas eowre 

manducabitis olera vestra viridia, et carnes vestras 

hreawe, and[ne] furj^on faett broj? ge magon, [butan cragfte minon, 
crudas, et nec saltern pingue jus potestis, sine arte mea, 


WenereccaJ) [be craefte Hnon], ne he us neod^earf 
M. Non curamus de arte tua, nec nobis necessaria 

ys, forj^am we sylfe magon seo}>an \>z. ]?ingc >e to seoj'enne 
est, quia nos ipsi possumus coquere quae coquenda 

synd, and braedan >a ]?ingc J^e to bradenne synd. 
sunt, et assare quae assanda sunt. 

Gifgeforjjy me fram-adryfa}?, i>8et ge >us don, 
Dicit Cocus : Si ideo me expellitis, ut sic faciatis, 

bonne beo ge ealle Jraelas, and nan eower ne bi)> hlaford ; 
tunc eritis omnes servi, et nullus vestrum erit dominus ; 

and, }>eah-hwae)>ere, buton [craefte minon] ge ne eta>. 
€t tamen, sine arte mea, non manducatis. 

Eala, [|>u] munuc, J>e me to spycst, efne ic hgebbe 
M, O, monache, qui mihi locutus es, ecce pro- 

afandod J>e habban gode geferan, and }>earle neod)>earfe: 
bavi te habere bonos socios, et valde necessarios; 

and ic ahsie |?a. 
qui sunt illi? 

Ic haebbe smij>as, isene-smijjas, gold-smiJ>, seolfor-smi}), 
D, Habeo fabros, ferrarios, aurifieem, argentarium. 


ar-smi>, treow-wyrhtan, and manega oke mistlicra cr?efta 
gerarium, lignarium, et multos alios variarum artium 


Haifst [>u] senigne wisne ge^eahtan ? ^ 

M. Habes aliquem sapientem consiliarium ? 

Gewislice ic ha;bbe. [Hu ma^g] ure gegaderungc 

D. Certe habeo. Quomodo potest nostra congregatio 

buton ge]7eahtynde beon wissod ? 
sine consiliario regi ? 

[Hwffit segst J)u,] Wisa ? Hwilc craeft >e ge>uht betwux 
M. Quid dicis tu, Sapiens? Quae ars tibi videtur inter 

>as furj>ra wesan? 
istas prior esse ? 

[Ic secge J>e,] me ys ge)?uht Codes ]?eowdom, betweoh 
C. Dico tibi, mihi videtur Dei servitium inter 
>as craeftas ealdorscype healdan, swa swa hit [ys] gerged on 
istas artes primatuin tenere, sicut legitur in 

godspelle, Fyrmest secea)? rice Codes, and rihtwisnesse 
evangelio, Primum queerite regnuni Dei, et justitiam 
hys, and >as >ingc ealle beo)' to-geyhte eow. 
ejus, et hsec omnia adjicientur vobis. 

And hwilce >e ge]>ubt betwux worold-crseftas heoldan 
M. Et quales tibi videtur inter seculares artes retinere 

ealdordom ? 
primatum ? 

Eor'S-tilJj, for^am se yr]>ling us ealle fett. 

C. Agricultura, quia arator nos omnes pascit. 

Se SmiJ) secgb: — Hwanon []?am yrjjlinge] sylan scear ol>J)e 

Ferrarius dicit: Unde aratori vomer aijit 

culter, }pe na gade hffif>, buton of craefteminon? Hwanon 

culter, qui nee stimulum habet, nisi ex arte mea ? Undje 

fiscere ancgel, o]>]>q sceo-wyrhtan ael, o)5>e seamere naedlj? 
piscatori hamus, aut sutori subula, aut sartori acua? 

nis hit of minon geweorce ? i 

nonne ex meo opere ? | 

Se Ce}>eahtend andsweraj?:— So> witodlice saegst [I?u] ; ac 
. Consiliarium respondit : Verum quidem dicis ; sed 


eallum us leofre ys wikian mid Jjam yrHinge >onne 
omnibus nobis carius est hospitari apud aratorem quam 

mid i>e ; for}?am se yr)?ling syl)) us hlaf and drenc : \>u, 
apud te ; quia arator dat nobis panem et potum : tu, 
hwaet sylst [i>u] us, on smij?J>an |>inre, buton isene fyr-spearcan, 
quid das nobis, in officina tua, nisi ferreas scintillas, 
and swegincga beatendra slecgea, and blawendra byliga ? 

et sonitus tundentium malleorum, et flantiuni foUium ? 
Se Treo-wyrhta seg>: — Hwilc eower ne nota}? craefte 
Lignurius dicit: Quis vestrum non utitur arte 

minon, J>onne bus, and mistlice fata, and scypa, eow eal- 
mea, cum domos, et diversa vasa, et naves, vobis om- 

lum ic wyrce ? 

nibus fabrico ? 

Se Smi)> andwyrt: — Eala Tryw-wyrbta, for hwi swa sprycst 
Ferrarius respondit: O Lignarie, cur sic loque- 

Jju, >onne ne fur^on an J?yrl [buton craefte minon] 

ris, cum nee saltern unum foramen, sine arte mea, 
jju ne miht don ? 
vales facere ? 

Se Gejjeahtend sag> : — Eala geferan [and] gode wyrhtan! 
Consiliarius dicit: O socii et boni operarii ! 

Uton towurpan hwaetUcor ]?as geflitu, and sy sibb and 

Dissolvamus citius has contention es, et sit pax et 

ge>waernyss betweoh us, and framige anra gehwylc o>ron on 

Concordia inter nos, et prosit unusquisque alteri in 

craefte hys, and ge]?waerian symble mid )>am yr)>linge, >aer we 

arte sua, et conveniamus semper apud aratorem, ubi * 

bigleofan us, and fodder horsum urum habba>; and J)is 
victum nobis, et pabula equis nostris habemus; et hoc 

get>eaht ic sylle eallum wyrhtum, |>aet anra gehwylc craeft 
consilium do omnibus operariis, ut unusquisque artem 

his geondice begange; forJ>am sej>e craeft bis forlaet, 
suam diligenter exerceat ; quia qui artem suam dimiserit, 
he by> forlaeten fram ham craefte. Swa hwaeher hu sy, swa maesse- 
ipse (limittetur ab arte. Sive sis * sacer- 

preost, swa munuc, swa ceorl, swa kempa, bega (behwyrf) 
dos, sive monachus, seu laicus, seu miles, exerce 


>e sylfne on )>isum : beo ^aet [}>set] \>\x eart, forJ>am micel 
temet ipsum in hoc : esto quod es, quia magnum 
hyn> and sceamu hyt ys men nelle wesan >aet >aet 
damnum et verecundia est homini nolle esse quod 
he ys, and >8et ^e he wesan sceal. 
est, et quod esse debet. 

Eala cild, hu eow lica)? >eos spaec ? 

M. O pueri, quomodo vobis placet ista locutio ? 

Wei * heo Ilea's us, ac >earle deoplice 

D. Bene quidem placet nobis, sed valde profunda 

[hu] sprycst, and ofer msehe ure >u for>tyhst [ha] spraece ; 
loqueris, et ultra aetatem nostram protrahis sermonem ; 

ac spree us sefter urum andgyte, )>aet we magon 
sed loquere nobis juxta nostrum intellectum, ut possimus 

understandan J>a Hng he hu specst. 
intelligere quge loqueris. 

Ic ahsige eow for hwi swa geornlice leornige ge ? 
M. Interrogo vos cur tam diligenter discitis? 

Forham we nellah wesan swa stunte nytenu, ha 
Z>. Quia nolumus esse sicut bruta animalia, quee 
nan hing witah buton gaers and waiter, 
nihil sciunt nisi herbam et aquam. 
And hwaet wille ge ? 
M. Et quid vultis vos ? 

[We] willah wesan wise. 
Z>. Volumus esse sapientes. 

On hwilcon wisdome ? Wille ge wesan praettige, ohhe 

M. Qua sapientia? Vultis esse versipelles, aut 

husendhiwe, on leasungum lytige, on spraecum gleawlice, hinder- 

milleformes, in mendaciis vafri, in loquelis astuti, ver- 

gepe, wel sprecende and yfele hencende, swaesum wordum 

suti, bene loquentes et male cogitantes, dulcibus verbis 

underheodde, facn* wihinnan tyddriende, swa swa bergyls, 

dediti, dolum intus alentes, sicut sepulchrum, 
metton ofergeweorke, wihinnan full stence ? 
deplete mausoleo, intus plenum foetore ? 

^ MS. fan. 

tELFRICI colloquium. 33 

We nella> swa wesan wise, for>am he nys wis 
Z). Nolumus sic esse sapientes, quia non est sapiens 

J'e mid dydrunge hyne sylfne beswic>. 
qui simulatione semet ipsum decipit. 

Ac hu wille ge ? 
M. Sed quomodo vultis ? 

We willat> beon bylewite, butan licetunge, and wise, 
D. Volumus esse simplices, sine hypocrisi, et sapientes, 

jjast we bugon fram yfele, and don goda : gyt, >eah- 

ut deeiinemus a malo, et faciamus bona: adhuc ta~ 

hwae>ere, deoplicor mid us >u smeagst >onne yld ure 
men profundius nobiscuni disputas quam aetas nostra 

anfon maege ; ac spree us aefter uron gewunon, nses swa 
capere possit ; sed loquere nobis nostro more, non tarn 

prol'unde. » 

Ic do ealswa ge bidda}>.f pu, enapa, hwast dydest [>ii] 
M, Ego faciam sicut rogatis. Tu, puer, quid fecisti 

to-daeg ? 
hodie ? 

Manega >ing ic dyde. On )>isse niht, >a)ja cnyll ic ge- 
D. Multas res feci. Hac nocte, quando signum au- 

hyrde, ic aras of minon bedde, and code to cyrcean, and sang 
divi, surrexi de lectulo, et exivi ad ecclesiam, et cantavi 

uht-sang raid gebro>rum ; aefter >a we sungon be eallum 
nocturnam cum fratribus ; deinde cantavimus de omnibus 

halgum, and daegredlice lof-sangas; aefter Jjysum, prim, and 
Sanctis, et matutinales laudes ; post haec, primam, et 

seofon seolmas, mid letanian, and capitol maessan; sy»an 
septem psalmos, cum letaniis, et primam missam ; deinde 

undern-tide, and dydon maessan be daege ; aefter J^isum we sung- 
tertiam, et fecimus missam de die ; post hac cantavi- 

on middaeg, and aeton, and druncon, and slepon, 

mus sextam, et manducavimus, et bibimus, et dormivimus, 

and eft we arisen, and sungon non, and nu 

et iterum surrexinms, et cantavimus nonam, et mode 



we synd her setforan >e, gearuwe gehyran hwaet W us ^ secge. 
sumus hie coram te, parati audire quid * nobis dixeris. 
Hwaenne wylle ge singan aifen, o)>>e niht-sangc ? 

M. Quando vultis cantare vesperum, aut completorium ? 

ponne hyt tima by>. 
D. Quando * tempus erit. 

Wsere >u to-daeg beswuncgen ? 
M. Fuisti hodie verberatus? 

Ic naes, for)?am waerlice ic me heold. 
D. Non fui, quia caute me tenui. 

And hu jjine geferan? 

M. Et quomodo tui socii ? 

Ilwaet me ahsast [hu] be >am ? Ic ne deor yppan 

D. Quid me interrogas de hoc ? Non audeo pandere 

>e digla ure. Arira gebwylc wat gif he beswuncgen waes 

tibi secreta nostra. Unusquisque scit si * flagellatus erat 

oJj]?e na. 
aut non. 

Hwset ytst j?u on dffig ? 
31. Quid manducas in die ? 

Gyt flaesc-mettum ic bruce, forjjam cild ic eom under 
D. Adhuc carnibus vescor, quia puer sum sub 

gyrde drohtniende. 
virga degens. 

Hwaet mare ytst >u ? 
M. Quid plus manducas? 

Wyrta, and segra, fisc, and cyse, buteran, and beana, 
Z). Olera, et ova, pisces, et caseum, butyrum, et fabas, 

and ealle claene Jjingc ic etc, mid micelre )>ancunge. 
et omnia munda manduco, cum * gratiarum actione. 
Swi)>e waxgeorn eart >u, l^onne >u ealle Hnge etst 
M, Valde edax es, cum * omnia manducas 
\>e >e toforan [gesette synd.] ' 

quae tibi apponuntur. 

Ic ne eom swa raicel swelgere, ^a-t ic ealle cynn 
D, Non sum tam vorax, ut * omnia genera 
metta on anre gereordinge etan ma^ge. 
ciborum in una refectione edere possim. 


Ac hu ? 
M, Sed quomodo ? 

Ic bnice hwilon ]?isum mettum, and [hwilon] ojjrum, 
D. Vescor aliquando his cibis, et aliquando aliis, 

mid syfernysse, swa swa dafna> munuce, naes mid oferhropse, 
cum sobrietate, sicut decet monacho, non cum voracitate, 

for>ara ic com nan gluto. 
quia non sum gluto. 

And hwaet drincst \>Vl ? 
M. Et quid bibis? 

Ealu, gif ic hsebbe, o»e wseter, gif ic naibbe 
D. Cerevisiam, si habeo, vel aquam, si non habeo 


Ne drincst >u win ? 
M. Nonne bibis vinum ? 

Ic ne com swa spedig }>aet ic maege bicgean me win ; 
D. Non sum tam dives ut possim emere mihi vinum : 
and win nys drenc cilda, ne dysigra, ac 

et vinum non est potus puerorum, sive stultorum, sed 
ealdra and wisra. 
senum et sapientum. 
Hwaer slaepst [jju] ? 
M. Ubi dormis? 

On slsep-erne mid gebroJ?rura. 
D. In dormitorio cum f'ratribus. 

Hwa awec> >e to uht-sancge ? 
M. Quis excitat te ad nocturnos ? 

Hwilon ic gehyre cnyll, and ic arise ; hwilon 
D. Aliquando audio signum et surgo ; aliquando 
lareow min awec> me stiHice mid gyrde. 
magister mens excitat me duriter cum virga.^^^-"''''^ 

Eala ge [gode] eildra, and wynsume leorneras, eow manah 
M. O * probi pueri, et venusti discipuli, vos hortatur 
eower lareow J?aet ge hyrsumian godcundum larum, and >aet 
vester eruditor ut pareatis divinis disciplinis, et ut 

ge healdan eow sylfe a^nlice on ulcere stowe. Gah 

observetis vosmet elegauter ubique locorum. Incedite 


>eawlice, honne ge gehyran cyricean bellan, and 

morigerate, cum auscultaveritis ecelesise campanas, et 

ga]> into cyrcean, and abugaj> eadmodlice to halgum 

ingredimini in oratorium, et inclinate suppliciter ad almas 

wefodum, and standa> )>eawlice, and singah anmodlice, 

aras, et state disciplinabiliter, et concinite unanimiter, 
and gebidda> for eowrum synnum, and ga>ut,^ ^ butan 

et intervenite pro vestris erratibus, et egredimini, sine 

hygeleaste, to claustre, o»e to leorninge. 
scurrilitate, in claustrum, vel in gymnasium. 

Dominica I. in Mense Septembri, 


Mine gebroSra, we raedaS nu aat Godes Senungum be 
San eadigan were Iob ; nu wille we eow hwaet lytles be 
him gereccan, forSan ]>e seo deopnys Saere race oferstihS 
ure andgit, and eac swiSor paera ungelaeredra. Man sceal 
laewedum mannum secgan be heora andgites maeSe, swa 
))8st hf ne beon t5urh Sa deopnysse aemode, ne purh Sa 
lan^sumnysse geaeSrytte. 

Sum wer waes geseten on ])am lande ]?e ys gehaten Hus, 
his nama was lob. Se wer waes swij^e bilewite and rihtwis 
and ondraedende God and forbugende yfel ; him waeron 
acennede seofan suna and preo dohtra ; he hajfde seofon 
)>usend sceapa and )>reo ]>\isend olfenda, fif hund getymu 
oxena and fif hund assan and ormaete micelne hired. Se 
wer waes swife maere betwux eallum Eastenmm; and his 


suna ferdon and ))enode aelc o|?ruin mid his godum on 
ymbhwyrfte eet his huse, and paer-to heora swustru gelajjo- 
don. lob soSlice aras on J)am eahteo]7an dsege on serne- 
merigen, and ofFrode Gode seofonfealdne lac for his seofon 
sunum, Jjylaes ]>e M wi6 God on heora gefance agylton. 
pus dyde lob eallum dagum for his sunum and hi swa 

Hit gelamp on sumura daege, paSa Godes englas comon, 
and on his gesih])e stodon, J)a waes eac swilce se scucca 
him betwux. To J»am cwaeS Drihten, Hwanon come ]>u ? 
Se sceocca andwyrde, Ic ferde geond fas eorj^an and hf 
beeode. Drihten cwaeS, Ne beheolde J)u la minne feowan 
lob, pset nan man nis his gelica on eorj^an, bilewite man 
and rihtwis, ondrsedende God and yfel forbugende. Swa 
stod se deofol on Godes gesihSe, swa swa decS se blinda 
on sunnan. Seo sunne ymbscinS ]>.one blindan, and se 
blinda ne gesihS |)8ere sunnan leoman. God geseah J>one 
deofol, and se deofol swa-feah waes beddeled Godes gesihSe 
and his wuldres. Eorpe is gecweden Godes fdt-sceamel, 
and seo heofen is his ))rym-setl. Nu stod se sceocca swilce 
aet Godes fot-sceamele up on }?8ere eor])an, ]?aSa se ^Imih- 
tiga hine axode hwanon he come ? Ke cwaeS past he ferde 
geond J)as eorpan, forJ)an |>e he fasrS, swa swa Petrus se 
Apostol cw8et5, Bee's syfre and wacole, forfan J)e se deofol, 
eower wiferwinna, faertS onbutan swa swa grymetende leo, 
secende hwasne he abite ; wij)standat5 fam strange on ge- 
leafan. Micele wasron ])ises mannes geearnunga, ]?a se 
iElmihtiga be him cwaeS, faet his gelica naere on eor]7an. 
Ge magon gehyran sume his feawas, swa swa he be him 
sylfum awrat. 

lob cwaet5 : Ic alysde hrymende fearfan, and fam steop- 
bearne, ])e buton fultume waes, ic geheolp, and wydewan 
heortan ic gefrefrode. Ic waes ymbscryd mid rihtwisnyssei 
Ic waes blindum men eage, and healtum fot, and J^earfena 



feeder. Of flysum minra sceapa waeron gehlywde J^earfena 
sidan, and ic Jjearfum ne forwyrnde fees pe hi* gyrndon ; 
ne ic ne eet ana minne hlaf buton steop-bearne, ne ic ne 
bllssode on minum menigfealdum welum. Ne faegnode 
ic on mines feondes hryre, ne Iseg 8el|>eodig man wi]?utan 
minum hegum, ac min duru geopenode symle wegferen- 
dum. Ne behydde ic mine synna, ne ic on minum 
bosme ne bediglode mine unrihtwisnysse. Ne saede lob 
J)is for gylpe, ac for]>an pe he waes eallum mannum to 
bysne geset. 

pus meerne man wolde se manfulla deofol, Jjurh J?ani 
micclum costnungum J>e he him to dyde, fram Gode gewe- 
man ; and cwasS to Drihtne, Ne ondraet lob on idel God : 
J)u ymbtrymedest hine and ealle his aehta, and his hand- 
geweorc ];u bletsodest, and his aehta weoxon on eorj^an. 
Ac astrece hwon J^ine hand, and getill ealle J>a ymg J)e he 
ah, and he ])e on ansyne wyrig^. Drihten cvvaetJ to J>am 
sceoccan, Efne nu ealle ]m ])ing ]>e he ah sindon on J)inre 
handa, buton ))am anum, J?aet ])u on him syU'um pine hand 
ne astrecce. Ne derode lobe naht ])8es deofles costnung, 
ac fremode, for})an ]>e he waes fulfremedre on ge]7inc]?uni 
and Gode near, aefter J^aes sceoccan ehtnysse. Se deofol 
gewende ]>a. fram Godes gesihpe, and acwealde ealle his 
^hta anes daeges. Sum aerend-raca com to lobe, and cwaeS, 
Dine syll eodon and ])a assan wiS hf laeswodon ; pa. f^rlice 
comon Sabei, and hf ealle us benamon, and ])ine yrj^lingas 
ofslogon, and ic ana aetbaerst, ))aet ic J?e ]?is cydde. Mid 
J>am ]>e se yrj)ling fis saede, fa com sum ofer, and cwaeS, 
Fyr com f^rlice of heofenum, and forbaernde ealle J^ine 
seep and fa hyrdas samod, and ic ana aetwand, pset ic 
]>e fis cydde. Da com se fridda aerend-raca, and cwaeS, 
Da Chaldeiscan comon on frim floccum, and ure olfendas 
ealle gelaehton, and fa hyrdas mid swurde ofslogon ; ic ana 
aetfleah, f aet ic fe fis cydde. Efne f a-gyt com se feorfa 


aerend-raca inn, and cwseS, Dine suna and fine dohtra aeton 
and druncon mid heora yldestan brej)er, and efne |?a fterlice 
swegde swi]?lic wind of J)am westene, and tosloh faet hus 
aet ]?am feower hwemmum, paet hit hreosende J)ine beam 
ol^rihte and acwealde ; ic ana aetbaerst, J>aet ic ]?e J>is cydde. 
Hwaet Jja, lob aras and totaer his tunecan and his loccas 
forcearf, and feol to eor]?an, and cwaeS, Nacod ic com of 
minre modor inno]7e, and nacod ic sceal heonan gewendan. 
Drihten me forgeaf ]>3, aehta, and Drihten hf me eft benam ; 
swa swa him gelicode swa hit is gedon, beo his nama ge- 
bletsod. On eallum )?isum ))ingum ne syngode lob on his 
welerum, ne nan )?ing dyslices ongean God ne spraec. Eal 
J?is dyde se ealda deofol to gremenne J?one godan man, and 
symle he laefde aenne cucenne, him tocy]?enne his aehta lyre, 
paet his mod wurde fram Gode awend, |)a^a he J»a ungelimp 
geaxod haefde. paet fyr com ufan, ]>e ])a seep forbaernde : 
ac hit ne com n£ of heofenum, ]>eah fe hit swa gehfwod 
waere ; forj^an ]>e se deofol naes on heofenum naefre si]>]?an 
he panon ]?urh modignysse afeol mid his geferum. Eall 
swa deS Antecrist, ]?onne he cymS, he asent fyr ufan, swilce 
of heofenum, to bepaecenne ]?aet earme mancynn |?e he on 
biS ; ac wite gehwa J^aet se ne maeg nan fyr of heofenum 
asendan, sefe on heofenum sylf cuman ne mot. On eallum 
J)isum Singum ne syngode lob on his welerum. On twa 
wison men syngia(S on heora welerum ; fast is, gif hf unriht 
sprecaS, op]>e riht forsuwiaS; ac lob ne syngode on his 
welerum, for]?an J)e h^ dyslice ongean God ne spraec, ne 
eac Godes herunge ne forsuwade : he cydde ]?aet he buton 
gytsunge swa micele aehta haefde, J)a])a h^ hf swa eaj>e- 
lice buton unrotnysse forlet. Eft sifj^an, on sumum daege, 
Sa])a Godes englas stodon on his gesihj)e, J>a waes eac se 
scucca him betwynan, and Drihten him cwaeS to, Hwaet 
la, ne beheolde ]>u minne |)eowan lob, J>aet his gelica nis on 
eorJ?an, and gyt he hylt his unscaeSSignysse. pu astyredest 


me togeanes him, faet ic fearflease hine geswencte. Se 
scucca andwyrde, Fel sceal for felle, and swa hwaet swa 
man hsefS, he sylt5 for his life. Astrece nu l?ine hand, and 
hrepa his ban and his flaesc, })onne gesihst J)u paet he pe on 
ansyne wirig^. Drihten cwse6 to J^am scuccan, Efne he is 
nu on finre handa, swa-])eah-hwae]>ere heald his sawle. Ne 
ge}?afode God pis to forwyrde Sam eadigan were, ac ))ast he 
w£ere to bysne eallum geleafFullum mannum, and wurde 
svviJ>or gemaersod furh his miccle gefyid and earfopnyssum. 
Da gewende se deofol of Drihtnes gesih])e, and sloh lob mid 
]?aere wyrstan vvunde fram his hnolle ufewerdan 06 his ilas 
neo]?ewerde. lob saet ]>'d sarlice eal on anre wunde, up on 
his mixene, and ascraep pone wyrms of his lice mid anum 
croc-scearde. His wif him cwaeS to, Gyt ])u purhwunast 
on pinre bilewitnysse ; wyrig God and swelt. lob hire 
andwyrde, Du spraece swa swa an stunt wff. Gif we god 
underfengon of Godes handa, hwf ne sceole we eac yfel 
underfon ? On eallum pisum pingum ne syngode lob on 
his welerum. Se swicola deofol genam paet wif him to 
gefylstan, paet he pone halgan wer purh hf beswice, swa 
swa he ^r Adam purh Euan beswac ; ac se ylca God, pe 
gepafode paet he swa gecostnod waere, heold hine wiS paes 
deofles syrwungum and wiS his sawle lyre. Witodlice, pa 
geaxodon pry cyningas, pe him gesibbe waeron, eal his un- 
gelimp, and comon him to of heora rice, paet hf hine ge- 
neosodon. Heora naman waeron pus gecigde, Elifaz, Bal- 
daS, Sofar. Hf gecwaedon paet hf samod cumende hine 
geneosodon and gefrefrodon. Hi* pa comon and hine ne 
oncneowon for paere ormaetan untrumnysse, and hrymdon 
paerrihte wepende. Hf totaeron heora reaf, and mid duste 
heora heafod bestreowodon, and him mid saeton nianega 
dagas. Hit waes swa gewunelic on ealdum dagum, paet gif 
hwam sum fi^rlic sar become, paet he his reaf totaere swa 
swa lob dyde, and eac pas pry cyningas. Hf comon hine 


to gefrefrigenne : fa awendon hi heora frofer to edwite, and 
hine mid heora wordum tirigdon, swilce he for his synnum 
8wa getucod waere, and cwaedon, Wite com ofer pe, and 
])u ateorodest ; s^rnys ]>e hrepode, and ]>\i eart geunrotsod. 
Hwaer is nu ]>'m Godes ege, and J>in strencS ? Hwaer is 
fin gefyld, and pinra daeda fulfremednys ? And mid raa- 
negum frafungum hine geswencton. lob cwae'S, Eala gif 
minne synna and min yrmt5, J>e ic folige, waeron awegene 
on anre waegan, fonne waeron hf swserran gesewene Sonne 
sand-corn on s^. To freagenne ge logiaS eowere spraece, 
and ge fencaS to awendenne eowerne freond. Mannes lif 
is campdom ofer eorfan, and swa swa medgildan dagas, swa 
sind his dagas. He cwaet5 faet mannes lif waere campdom 
ofer eorfan, forfan fe aelc faera fe God gefihS bi6 on ge- 
winne wiS fone ungesewenlican deofol, and ongean his 
agenum lustum, fa hwile fe he on life biS : and swa swa 
se hyrman his edleanes anbidaS, swa geanbidaS se gastlica 
cempa his edleanes aet fam ^Elmihtigum Gode. Godes 
gecorenan sind on gewinne on fyssere worulde, and fa 
arleasan on hire blissiaS ; ac f aera rihtwisra gewinn awent 
to blisse, and faera arleasra bliss to biterum sarnyssum on 
f aere ecan worulde, f e gewelgaS fa f olmodan. Ealle fas 
costnunga deofol, and faera aehta lyre, his bearna deaS, and 
his agen untrumnys, his wifes witleast, and his freonda 
edwit, ne mihton awecgan lob of his modes anraednysse, 
ne fram his micclan geleafan, fe he to fam iElmihtigan 
Gode symle haefde ; ac se scucca wearS gescynd f e hine 
beswican wolde. lob cwaetS eft: Min flaesc is ymbscrj^d 
mid forrotodnysse and mid dustes horwum, min hyd for- 
searode and is forscruncen. Me habbaS geswencednysse 
dagas, and on niht min ban biS mid sarnysse f urhdyd ; and 
fa fe me etat5 ne slapaS. Ic com lame wifmeten, and 
yslum and axum geanlicod. Eft he cwaeS : Ic wat soflice 
f aet min Alysend leofaS, and ic on fam endenextan daege 


of eorjjan arise, and ic beo eft mid minum felle befangen, 
and ic on minum flagsce God geseo, ic sylf and na oj^er ; J>es 
hiht is on minum bosme geled. 

We saedon eow and gyt secgaS, foet we ne magon ealle 
]7as race eow be endebyrdnysse secgan ; forJ)am ]>e seo boo 
is swiSe micel, and hire digele andgyt is ofer ure mseSe to 
smeagenne. Da ]>ry cyningas Sa haefdon langsume sprdece 
wi6 ]7one gedrehtan lob, and gewendan him ham sijjjjan. Ac 
God hf gespraec |)a, and cwae6, jjaet he him eallum )>rim gram 
waere, forJ)an ]?e hf swa rihtlice aetforan him ne spraecon, swa 
swa lob his |)egen. God cwaeS him to, NymaS eow nu seofon 
fearras and seofon rammas, and faraS eft ongean to minum 
feowan lobe, and geoffriaS J)as lac for eow ; lob so]>lice min 
feowa gebit for eow, and ic his ansyne underfo, })aet eow ne 
beo to dysig geteald, ))a3t ge swa rihtlice to me ne spraicon 
swa swa min j^eowa lob. Hit waes gewunelic on ealdum da- 
gum, ]?aet man Gode ]?yllice lac offrode on cucan orfe, and 
J)a acwealde ; ac seo offrung is nu unalyfedlic aefter Cristas 
prowunge. Elifaz ]?a and Balda^ and Sofar ferdon ongean 
to heora maege lobe, and didon swa swa him God bebead ; 
and Drihten underfeng lobes ansyne, and heora synne J)urh 
his )}ingraedene forgeaf. Deah fe lobes ansyn waere atelice 
toswollen, and his lie eal ma^an weolle, swa-])eah is awri- 
ten, ]78et se iElmihtiga underfeng his ansyne, paSa he for 
his freondum gebaed. Drihten eac ])a gecyrde to lobes 
behreowsunge, ]?a]?a he for his magum gebaed, and hine 
gehaelde fram eallum his untrumnyssum, and his aehta him 
ealle forgeald be twyfealdum. Be ]?isum is to understandenne 
faet se J>e for oSrum gebit, frematS him sylfum micclum, 
swa swa |)aet halige gewrit segS, faet J?at5a lob for his freon- 
dum gebaed, J)a gecyrde God to his behreowsunge, and swa 
eat5elice hine eft gehaelde, swa he hine ^r geuntrumode. 
lob hsefde ^r his untrumnysse seofon j^usend sceapa and 
])reo pusend olfenda, fif hund getyme oxena and fif hand 


assan ; him waeron eft forgoldene feowertyne fusend sceapa 
and six fusend olfenda, Jjusend getyme oxena and J)usend 
assan ; and Drihten hine bletsode swiJ)or on ende J>onne on 
angynne. He haefde seofon suna and J)reo dohtra ^r, and 
si^fean eft eal swa fela. Hwf nolde God him forgyldan his 
beam be twyfealdum, swa swa he dyde his sehta? He 
nolde for]7i ]?e his beam naeron forlorene, swa swa his eehta 
waeron ; his aehta waeron ealle amyrrede, and his tyn beam 
acwealde ; ac pa beam waeron swa-J)eah gehealdene on pam 
digelan life betwux halgum sawlum ; and he forJ)i under- 
feng ]?aera bearna getel be anfealdon, forf>an J?e ]>a, o]jre him 
waeron gehealdene, pe J)urh ]?aes deofles ehtnysse acwealde 
waeron. Hwaet ]>a,, lobes gebrof)ra and geswustru, and 
ealle J)a pe hine ^r cuJ)on, comon him to, and hine gefre- 
frodon, and his micclum wundrodon, and him gife geafon. 
Naeron gemette on ealre eor])an swa wlitige wimmen swa 
swa waeron lobes dohtra. He soSlice leofode, aefter his 
swingle, an hund geara and feowertig geara, and geseah 
his bearna beam, oS })a feor]>an maeg|)e. On eallum his 
life, he leofode twa hund geara and eahta and feowertig 
geara. He waes se fifta man aefter Abrahame j^am heah- 
faedere. On J>am timan waes swiSe langsum Iff on man- 

Gif hwilc gelaered man })as race oferraede o]>]>e raedan 
gehyre, fonne bidde ic paet he f»as scyrtinge ne taele : him 
maeg his agen andgy t secgan fullice be |)isum ; and eow lae- 
wedum mannum is J?is genoh, ])eah Se ge pa deopan digel- 
nysse paeron ne cunnon. Hit gelamp pus soSlice be lobe, 
swa swa he sylf awrat ; ac swa-peah seo gastlice getacnung 
paere gereccednysse belimpS to Cristes menniscnysse, and to 
his gelaSunge, swa swa lareowas trahtnodon. Gif ure aeni- 
gum sum ungelimp becume, ponne sceole we beon gemyn- 
dige pises maeran weres, and gepyldige beon on pam pwyr- 
nyssum pe us se iElmihtiga on besent, and habban maran 


care ure sawle, jjonne Jjaere scortan gesaelSe ]>e we sceolon 

Sy wuldor and wurSmynt |)am welwyllendan Scyppende 
ealra his wundra and his weldaeda, seSe ana is God a on 
ecnysse. Amen. 

IIII. Id. Mart. 

Sci Gregorii PAPiE Urbis Romance Inclyti. 

Gregorius se halga papa, Engliscre ^eode apostol, 
on Sisum andvverdan dsege, aefter menigfealdum gedeorfum, 
and halgum gecnyrdnyssum, Godes rfce gesaeliglice astah. 
He is rihtliee Engliscre 'Seode apostol, forSan Se he, ])urh 
his raed and sande, us IVam deofles biggengum aetbr^d, and 
to Godes geleafan gebigde. Manega halige bee cySaS his 
drohtnunge and his halige Iff, and eac ' Historia Anglorum,' 
Sa Se iElfred cyning of Ledene on Englisc avvende. Seo 
boc sprecS genoh swutelice be Sisum halgan were. Nu 
wylle we sum Sing scortlice eow be him gereccan, forSan 
Se seo foresaede boc nis eow eallum cuS, ]>eah Se heo on 
Englisc awend sy. 

pes eadiga papa Gregorius waes of aeSelborenre maegSe 
and eawfaestre acenned ; Romanisce witan wasron his ma- 
gas ; his faeder hatte Gordianus, and Felix, se eawfgesta 
papa, waes his fifta faeder. He waes, swa swa we cwaedon, 
for worulde aeSelboren, ac he oferstah his aeSelborennysse 
mid halgum Seawum, and mid godum weorcum geglengde. 
Gregorius is Grecisc nama, se sweigS on Ledenum ge- 
reorde, " Uigilantius," Jjaet is on Englisc, " Wacolre." He 
waes swiSe wacol on Godes bebodum, SaSa he sylf heri- 
gendlice leofode, and he wacollice ymbe manegra Seoda 
)?earfe hogode, and him Irfes weig geswutelode. He waes 
fram cildhade on bdclicum larum getyd, and he on Saere 
lare swa gesaeliglice Seah, faet on ealre Romana-byrig naes 
nan his gelica geSuht. He gecneordlaehte aefter wisra la- 


reowa gebisnungum, and naes forgytol, ac gefaestnode his 
l^re on faesthafelum gemynde. He hldd t5a mid purstigum 
breoste 'Sa flowendan lare, Se he eft sefter fyrste mid 
hunig-swettre frotan paesliee bealcette. On geonglicum 
gearum, SaSa his geogoS aefter gecynde woruld-Sing lufian 
sceolde, pa ongann he hine sylfne to Gode get5eodan, and 
to eSele paes upplican lifes mid eallum gewilnungum orSian. 
Witodlice sefter his fasder forSsiSe he araerde six numuc-lff 
on Sicilia-lande, and ]>aet seofoSe binnon Romana-burh 
getimbrode, on ^am he sylf regollice, under abbodes haesum 
drohtnode. pa seofon mynstru he gelende mid his agenum, 
and genihtsumlice to daeghwomlicum bigleofan gegodode. 
pone ofer-eaean his aehtahe aspende on Godes J>earfum, and 
ealle his woruldlican a^elborennysse to heofonlicum wuldre 
awende. He eode ^r his gecyrrednysse geond Romana- 
burh mid paellenum gyrlum, and scinendum gymmum, and 
readum golde gefraetewod ; ac aefter his gecyrrednysse he 
^enode Godes Searfum, he sylf f5earfa, mid wacum w^felse 
be fan gen. 

Swa fulfremedlice he drohtnode on anginne his gecyr- 
rednysse swa Jjaet he mihte Sa gyu beon geteald on fulfre- 
medra halgena getele. He lufode forh^fednysse on met- 
tum, and on drence, and waeccan on syndrigum gebedum ; 
))aer to-eacan h^ Srowade singallice untrumnyssa, and swa 
h^ stiSlicor mid andwerdum untrumnyssum ofsett waes, swa 
he geornfullicor faes ecan lifes gewilnode. 

pa undergeat se papa, )>e on Sam timan J?aet apostolice 
setl gesaet, hu se eadiga Gregorius on halgum maegnum 
Seonde waes, and he Sa hine of Saere munuclican drohtnunge 
genam, and him to gefylstan gesette, on diaconhade geende- 
byrdne. Da gelamp hit, aet sumum saele, swa swa gyt for 
oft deS, J?aet Englisce cypmenn brohton heora ware to Ro- 
mana-byrig, and Gregorius eode be Sasre straet to Sam 
Engliscum mannum, heora Sing sceawigende. pa geseah 


be betwux Sam warum cype-cnihtas gesette, pa waeron 
hwites lichaman and faegeres andvvlitan menn, and seSellice 
gefexode. GregoriusSa beheold J>8era cnapena wlite, and 
befran of hwilcere ]?eode hf gebrohte waeron. pa saede him 
man ]?8et hf of Engla-lande waeron, and peet 6aere Seode 
mennisc swa wlitig waere. Eft Sa Gregorius befran, hwaeSer 
pass landes folc Cristen waere '6e haeSen ? Him man saede, 
paet hf haeSene waeron. Gregorius Sa of innvveardre heortan 
langsume siccetunge teah, and cwaeS, Walawa, paet swa fae- 
geres hfwes menn sindon Sam sweartan deofle underSeodde. 
Eft he axode, hu Saere Seode nama waere, pe hf of-comon ? 
Him wass geandwyrd, paet hf Angle genemnode waeron. 
pa cwaeS he, Rihtlice hf sind Angle gehatene, forSan Se hf 
engla wlite habbaS, and swilcum gedafenaS paet hf on heo- 
fonum engla geferan beon. Gyt Sa Gregorius befran, hu 
Saere scfre nama waere, ]?e Sa cnapan of-alaedde waeron. 
Him man saede, paet Sa scfrmen waeron Dere gehatene. 
Gregorius andwyrde, Wei hf sind Dere gehatene, forSan 
Se hf sind fram graman generode, and to Cristes mildheort- 
nysse gecygede. Gyt Sa he befran, Hu is Saere leode 
cyning gehaten ? Him waes geandswarod, paet se cyning 
^lle gehaten waere. Hwaet Sa, Gregorius gamenode mid 
his wordum to Sam naman, and cwaeS, Hit gedafenaS paet 
Alleluia sy gesungen on Sam lande, to lofe paes ^Imihti- 
gan Scyppendes. Gregorius Sa sona eode to Sam papan 
paes apostolican setles, and hine baed, paet he Angelcynne 
sume lareowas asende, Se hf to Criste gebigdon, and cwaeS, 
paet he sylf gearo waere paet weorc to gefremmenne mid 
Godes fultume, gif hit Sam papan swa gelicode. pa ne 
mihte se papa paet geSafian, J?eah Se he eall wolde ; forSan 
Se Sa Romanisean ceaster-gewaran noldon geSafian paet 
swa getogen mann, and swa geSungen l^reow pa burh 
eallunge forlete, and swa fyrlen wraecsiS gename. 

iEfter Sisum gelanip paet micel mann-cwealm becom 


ofer Saere Romaniscan leode, and ^rest t5one papan Pela- 
gium gestod, and buton yldinge adydde. Witodlice aefter 
Saes papan geendunge, swa micel cwealm wearS fiaes folces, 
faet gehwser stodon aweste hus geond pa burh, buton 
bugigendum. pa ne mihte swa-Seah seo Romana-burh 
buton papan wunian, ac eal folc Sone eadigan Gregorium 
to Saere ge^inc^e anmodlice geceas, ]?eah ^e he mid eallum 
maegne wiSerigende waere. Gregorius Sa asende aenne 
pistol to Sam casere Mauricium, se wees his gefaedera, 
and hine halsode, and micclum baed. faet he nsefre t5am 
folce ne geSafode J>aet he mid J'aes wurSmyntes wuldre 
geuferod wasre, forSan Se he ondred }>aet he Surh Sone 
micclan had on woruldlicum wuldre, J>e he ^r awearp, 
aet sumum saele bepaeht wurde. Ac Saes caseres heah- 
gerefa, Germanus, gelaehte Sone pistol aet Gregories aerend- 
racan, and hine tot^r; and siSSan cydde |?am casere, 
]>aet faet folc Gregorium to papan gecoren haefde. Mauri- 
eius Sa se casere ]?aes Gode Sancode, and hine gehadian 
het. Hwaet Sa, Gregorius fleames cepte, and on dym-hofon 
aetlutode ; ac hine man gelaehte, and teah to Petres cyrcan, 
Jjaet he Saer to papan gehalgod wurde. Gregorius Sa ^r 
his h^dunge )>aet Romanisce folc, for Sam onsigendum 
cwealme, Sisum wordum to bereowsunge tihte. Mine ge- 
broSra ]?a leofostan, us gedafenaS paet we Godes swingle, 
]>e we on ^r towearde ondraedan sceoldon, ])aet we huru nu 
andwerde and afandode ondraedan. Geopenige ure sarnys 
us inf^r soSre gecyrrednysse, and faet wite Se we SrowiaS 
to brece ure heortan heardnysse. Efne nu Sis folc is mid 
swurde J>aes heofonlican graman ofslegen, and gehwilce 
aenlipige sind mid faerlicum slihte aweste. Ne seo adl Sam 
deaSe ne forestsepS, ac ge geseoS faet se sylfa deaS paere 
M\e yldinge forhradaS. Se geslagena biS mid deaSe ge- 
gripen, aerSan Se he to heofungum soSre behreowsunge 
gecyrran maege. HogiaS forSi hwilc se becume aetforan 


gesiht5e ])3es strecan Deman, seSe ne meeg peet yfel bew^pan 
ISe he gefremode. Gehwilce eor^-bugigende sind aetbro- 
dene, and heora hus standat5 aweste. Fsederas and moddru 
bestandat5 heora bearna Ifc, and heora yrfenuman him 
sylfum to forwyrde forestaeppaS. Uton eornostlice fleon 
to heofunge so^re dsedbote, fa hwile 'Se we moton, ^rSan 
])e se fasrlica siege us astrecce. Uton gemunan swa hwaet 
swa we dweligende agylton, and uton mid wope gewitnian 
paet ]78et we manfullice adrugon. Uton forhradian Godes 
ansyne on andetnysse, swa swa se witega us manaS. Uton 
ahebban ure heortan mid handum to Gode, p?et is, paet we 
sceolon 6a gecnyrdnysse ure bene mid geearnunge godes 
weorces up-arseran. He forgifS truwan ure forhtunge, 
seSe ])urh his witegan clypat$, Nylle ic faes synfullan deaS, 
ac ic wille J^aet he gecyrre and lybbe. 

Ne geortruwige nan man hine sylfne for his synna 
micelnysse : witodlice t5a ealdan gyltas Niniueiscre 6eode 
•Sreora daga bereowsung adilegode ; and se gecyrreda 
scea^a on his deaSes cwyde fees ecan lifes mede geearnode. 
Uton awendan ure heortan ; hraedlice biS se Dema to urum 
benum gebfged, gif we f'ram urum ^wyrnyssum beoS ge- 
rihtlaehte. Uton standan mid gemaglicum wopum ongean 
t5am onsigendum svvurde swa miccles domes. Sot^lice ge- 
magnys is pam soSan Deman gecweme, feah 6e heo man- 
num unSancwur^e sy, forSan 6e se arfaesta and se mild- 
heorta God wile paet we mid gemaglicum benum his mild- 
heortnysse ofgan, and he nele swa micclum swa we geear- 
niat5 us geyrsian. Be t5isum h^ cwae'5 J)urh his witegan, 
Clypa me on daege 6inre gedrefednysse, and ic Se ahredde, 
and Su maersast me. God sylf is his gewita ]?aet he miltsian 
wile him to clypigendum, seSe manat5 ]?aet we him to clypian 
sceolon. Fort5i, mine gebroSra })aleofostan, uton gecuman 
on Sam feorSan daege fysre wucan on aerne-merigen, and 
mid estfullum mode and tearum singan seofonfealde lae- 


taiiias, J>aet se streca Dema us gearige, ];onne he gesih^ J>8et 
we sylfe ure gyltas wrecaS. 

Eornostlice Sa^a micel menigu, eegSer ge preosthades ge 
munuchades menn, and J>aet laewede folc, aefter t^aes eadigan 
Gregories haese, on }?one wodnes-daeg to t5am seofonfealdum 
letanium gecomon, to Sam swiSe awedde se foresaeda 
cwealm, J^aet hund-eahtatig manna, on Saere anre tide feal- 
lende, of life gewiton, t5a hwfle pe fset folc 'Sa tetanias 
sungon. Ac se halga sacerd ne geswac Jjaet folc to mani- 
genne J)aet hf Sasre bene ne geswicon, oSj^aet Godes milt- 
sung J)one reSan cwealm gestilde. 

Hwaet '5a Gregorius, siSSan he papanhad underfeng, 
gemunde hwaet h^ gefyrn Angel-cynne gemynte, and 5aer- 
rihte ]?aet luftyme weorc gefremode. He na to Saes hwon 
ne mihte J>one Romaniscan biscop-stol eallunge forlaetan, 
ac he asende oSre bydelas, geSungene Godes Seowan, to 
Sysum fglande, and he sylf micclum mid his benum and 
tihtingum fylste, faet 'Saera bydela bodung forSgenge, and 
Gode waestmbaere wurde. paera bydela naman sind J)us 
gecigede, Augustinus, Mellitus, Laurentius, Pe- 
TRUS, loHANNES, lusTus. Das lareowas asende se eadiga 
papa Gregorius, mid manegum oSrum munecum, to Angel- 
cynne, and hi t5isum wordum to Saere fare tihte, Ne beoge 
afyrhte 5urh geswince J?aes langsuman faereldes, o56e purh 
yfelra manna ymbe-spraece ; ac mid ealre anraednysse and 
wylme ))aere soSan lufe fas ongunnenan Sing |>urh Godes 
fultum gefremmaS. And wite ge ])aet eower med on Sam 
ecan edleane swa miccle mare biS, swa micclum swa ge 
mare for Godes willan swincaS. GehyrsumiaS eadmodlice 
on eallum Singum Augustine, J>one Se we eow to ealdre 
gesetton : hit fremaS eowrum sawlum swa hw^t swa ge be 
his mynegunge gefyllaS. Se iElmihtiga God, J>urh his 
gife, eow gescylde, and geunne me faet ic mote eoweres 
geswinces waestm on Sam ecan eSele geseon, swa faet ic 



beo gemet samod on blisse eoweres edleanes, Seah ^e ic 
mid eow swincan ne maege ; forSon ^e ic wille swincan. 
Augustinus t5a mid his geferum, paet sind gerehte feowertig 
wera, ferde be Gregories h^se, o'Sj)8et hf to Sisum fglande 
gesundfullice becomon. 

On t5am dagum rixode ^jjelbyrht cyning on Cantware- 
byrig nclice, and his rice wses astreht fram ^sere micclan 
ea Humbre o^ sut5 s^. Augustinus haefde genumen wealh- 
stodas of Francena rice, swa swa Gregorius him bebead ; 
and he Surh ^sera wealhstoda mut5 ))am cyninge and his 
leode Godes word bodade : hu se mildheorta Haelend, mid 
his agenre ^rowunge j^ysne scyldigan middaneard alysde, 
and geleafFullum mannum heofonan rfces infger geopenode. 
pa andwyrde se cyning ^Selbriht Augustine, and cwaeS, 
paet he faegere word and behat him cydde ; and cwaeS, J^aet 
he ne mihte swa hrsedlice J)one ealdan gewunan 'Se he mid 
Angel-cyime heold forl^tan ; cwae^ ]>aet he moste freolice '5a 
heofonlican lare his leode bodian, and past he him and his 
geferan bigleofan Fenian wolde, and forgeafhim Sa wununge 
on Cantwarebyrig, seo waes ealles his rfces heafod-burh. 

Ongann Sa Augustinus mid his munecum to geefenlae- 
cenne ]>8era apostola Iff, mid singalum gebedum, and waec- 
can, and faestenum Gode tSeowigende, and Iffes word ])am 
^e hf mihton bodigende, ealle middaneardlice ^ing, swa 
swa aelfremede, forhogigende, Sa ]>ing ana ]?e hf to bigleo- 
fan behofedon underfonde, be Sam t5e hf taehton sylfe lyb- 
bende, and for t5aere soSfaestnysse '5e hf bodedon, gearowe 
waeron ehtnysse to Soligenne, and deaSe sweltan, gif hf 

Hvvaet Sa gelyfdon forwel nienige, and on Godes naman 
gefullode wurdon, wundrigende faere bilewitnysse heora 
unscaeSSigan Iffes, and swetnysse heora heofonlican l^re. 
Da set nextan, gelustfuUode Sara cyninge iESelbrihte heora 
claene Iff and heora wynsume behat, fa soSlice wurdon mid 


manegum tacnum geseSde; and he Sa gelyfende wearS 
gefullod, and micclum Sa cristenan gearwurSode, and swa 
swa heofonlice ceaster-gewaran lufode : nolde svva-^eah 
naenne to cristendome geneadian ; forSan ^e he ofaxode ajt 
tJam lareowum his hcele J^aet Cristes Seowdom ne sceal beon 
geneadod, ac sylfwilles. Ongunnon Sa daeghwomlice forwel 
menige efstan to gehyrenne 6a halgan bodunge, and for- 
leton heora haet5enscipe, and hf sylfe geSeoddon Cristes 
gela^unge, on liine gelyfende. 

Betwux Sisum gewende Augustinus ofer s^ to Sam 
ercebiscope Etherium, and he hine gehadode Angel-cynne 
to ercebiscope, swa swa him Gregorius ^r gewissode. 
Augustinus 8a gehadod cyrde to his biscop-stole, and 
asende aerendracan to Rome, and cydde Sam eadigan Gre- 
gorie p»8et Angel-cynn cristendom underfeng, and he eac 
mid gewritum fela Singa befran, hu him to drohtnigenne 
waere betwux Sam nfg-hworfenum folce. Hwaet Sa Gre- 
gorius micclum Gode Sancodemid blissigenduni mode, f>set 
Angel-cynne swa gelumpen waes, swa swa hesylf geornlice 
gewilnode, and sende eft ongean aerendracan to Sam geleaf- 
fulian cyninge i^J^elbrihte, mid gewritum and raenigfealdum 
lacum, and oSre gewritu to Augustine, mid andswarum 
ealra Saera Singa ]>e he hine befran, and hine eac Sisum 
wordum manode, BroSer min se leofosta, ic wat J^aet se 
^Imihtiga God fela wundra furh Se J)aere Seode Se he 
geceas geswutelaS, ])aes Su miht blissigan, and eac Se on- 
draedan. pu miht blissigan gewisslice paet Saere Seode 
sawla J>urh Sa yttran wundra beoS getogene to Saere incun- 
dan gife. Ondr^d Se swa-Seah J)aet Sin mod ne beo ahafen 
mid dyrstignysse on Sam tacnum fe God Surh Se gefremaS, 
and |>u Sonon on fdelum wuldre befealle wiSinnau, fonon 
Se Su wiSutan on wurSmynte ahafen bist. 

Gregorius asende eac Augustine halige lac on maesse- 
reafum, and on bocum, and Saeia apostola and martyra 



reliquias samod ; and bebead, Jjset his aeftergengan symle 
tJone pallium and ^one ercehad aet Sam apostolican setle 
Romaniscre gelaSunge feccan sceoldon. Augustinus gesette 
aefter Sisum blscopas of his geferum gehwilcum burgum 
on Engla Seode, and hf on Godes geleafan Seonde Surh- 
wunodon oS Sisum daegSerlicum daege. 

Se eadiga Gregorius gedihte manega halige traht-bec, 
and mid micelre gecnyrdnysse Godes folc to t5am ecan life 
gewissode, and fela wundra on his life geworhte, and wul- 
dorfullice ]>aes papan setles geweold Sreottyne gear, and 
six mon'Sas, and tyn dagas, and siSSan on 'Sisum daege 
gewat to Sam ecan setle heofenan rices, on Sam he leofaS 
mid Gode ^Imihtigum a on ecnysse. Amen. 

XIII. Kal. Apr. 
Depositio Sci Cuthberhti Episcopi. 

CuTHBERHTUs, sc halga biscop, scinende on manegum 
geearnungum and healicum geSincSum, on heofonan rfce, 
mid ]7am jS)lmihtigum Scyppende, on ecere blisse rixiende, 

Beda, se snotera Engla ]?eoda lareow, J?ises halgan liT 
endebyrdlice, mid wunderfullum herungum, aegSer ge aefter 
anfealdre gereccednysse, ge aefter leoSlicere gyddunge, 
awrat. Us saede soSlice Beda, J>aet se eadiga CuSberhtus, 
J)aSa he waes eahta wintra cild, arn, swa swa him his ny- 
tenlice yld tihte, plegende mid his efen-ealdum ; ac se 
TElmihtiga God wolde styran faere nytennysse his gecorenan 
CuSberhtes, furh mynegunge gelimplices lareowes, and 
asende him to an Sry-wintre cild, ]?aet hit his dyslican ple- 
gan, mid staeSSigum wordum, wislice freade. SoSlice, })aet 
foresaede J?ry-wintre cild fone gaemnigendan CuSberhtum 


befran, To hwf under]>eodst J)u Se sylfne ]?isum ydelum 
plegan, fu Se eart fram Gode gehalgod mid roderlicum 
wur^mynte ? Ne gedafenaS biscope, feet he beo on daeduni 
folces mannum gelfc. Geswfc, la leof, swa unj^aeslices 
plegan, and get5eod ]?e to Gode, ]>e 8e to biscope his folce 
geceas, fam J>u scealt heofonan rfces infser geopenian. 
Hwaet Sa, CuSberhtus pa-gyt mid his plegan for^arn, o^- 
6a;t his lareow, mid biterum tearum dreoriglice wepende, 
ealra ]?3era cildra plegan fserlice gestilde. Witodlice, eall 
se cildlica heap wolde paes anes cildes dreorignysse gefre- 
frian ; ac hf ealle ne mihton mid heora frofre his dreorig- 
nysse adweescan, ^rSan Se CuSberhtus hit mid arfaestuni 
cossum gegladode. And he sylf sit5San, aefter ]?8es ciWes 
mynegunge, on healicere staeSSignysse symle ])urhwu- 

iEfter pisum wearS J>3es eadigan CuSberhtes cneow mid 
heardum geswelle alefed, swa j^aet he mid criccum his 
feSunge underwreSode. pa gesaet he sume daege under 
sunn-beame ana on sundran, and his sceancan beSode, him 
com pa ridende to sum arwurSe ridda, sittende on snaw- 
hwitum horse, and he sylf mid hwitum gyrlum befangen 
waes ; and he fone halgan mid gesibsumum wordum swaes- 
lice grette, biddende J>8et he him daegwistes gedafenlice 
tiSode. CuSberhtus fa to Sam engle anmodlice cwaeS, Ic 
wolde fine f enunge sylf nu gearcian, gif ic me mid feSunge 
ferian mihte: min adlige cneow is yfele gehaefd, faet ne 
mihte nan laece-wyrt awiht geliSian, f eah f e heo gelorae 
to-geled waere. pa gelihte se cuma, and his cneow gra- 
pode mid his halwendum handum, and het hine niman 
hwastene smedeman, and on meolce awyllan, and swa mid 
f aere h^tan fast tof undene lim gewriSan ; and, aefter fisum 
wordum, his hors bestrad, on f am siSfaete f e he f ider com, 
aweg ferende. Hwaet fa, CuSberhtus, aefter f aes angles 
Mre, his cneow beSode, and he sona gesundfuU his faereldes 


breac. and ongeat )>3et God,])urh his engel, hine geiieosode, 
se'Se giu ^r ]>one blindan Tobfan, ])urh his heah-engel 
Raphahel, mihtelice onlihte. 

Eft se halga CuSberhtus, ])at5a he wacode mid hyrde- 
mannum on felda, on his geogo^e, geseah heofonas opene, 
and englas gelreddon Aidanes biscopes sawle, mid micclum 
wuldre, in to ]78ere heofonlican myrhSe. Hwilon eac Cut5- 
berhtus ferde geond land bcdigende Godes geleafan, J?a for 
unwedere gecyrde he to sumes hyrdes cytan, ]>e stod weste 
on J)am westene ]>e he oferferde, and getfgde his hors faer 
binnon. pa, mid fam ]>e he his gebedu sang, ]>a. taer ])aet 
hors })ast faec of ^aere cytan hrofe, and J^aer feoll adune, 
swilce of ^am hrofe, wearm hlaf mid his syflinge. He fa 
ge^ancode Gode paere sande, and mid ])aere hine sylfne 

Se eadiga CutSberhtus gefter |)isum ealle woruld-]?ing 
eallunge forlet, and mid halgum feawum hine sylfne to 
munuc-life ge^eodde ; and he hraedlice, siSSan he munuc 
wees, wear6 geset ciimena pen, J)£et he cumena buses gymde, 
and mynsterlicum cumum geSensum waere. pa, 8et sumon 
saele, on wintres daege, him com to Godes engel on cuman 
hfwe, and Cu^berhtus hine mid ealre cumliSnysse under- 
feng. pa gecyrde he ut ymbe j^aes cuman J>enunge, ac he 
ne gemette naenne cuman ))aSa he inn com, ac lagon ]?ry 
heofenlice hlafas on lilian beorhtnysse scinende, and on 
rosan braeSe stymende, and on swaecce swettran J?onne 
beona hunig. pa sceawode se halga Cu?5berhtus on Sam 
snawe gehw^r, hwyder se cuma siSigende ferde, ac fatJa 
he nane fot-swat5e on tSam snawe ne geseah, fa ongeat h^, 
faet se cuma waes engel and namann, seSe fone heofenlican 
fodan him brohte, and faes eorSlican ne rohte. 

pes foresaeda halga wer waes gewunod faet he wolde gSn 
on niht to s^, and standan on Sam sealtan brymme oS his 
swyran, singende his gebedu. pa on sumere nihte hlosnode 


sum o3er munuc his faereldos, and mid sleaccre stalcunge 
his fot-swaSum filigde, o^Seet hf begen to s^ becomon. pa 
dyde CuSberhtus swa his gewuna waes, sang his gebedu, 
on s^licere ySe standende 06 Sone swyran, and sySSan his 
cneowa on Sam ceosle gebigde, astrehtum handbredum to 
heofenlicum rodore. Efne J?a comon twegen seolas of s^- 
licura grunde, and hfmid heora flyse his fet drygdon, and 
mid heora blaede his leoma beSedon, and siSSan mid ge- 
beacne his bletsunge b^don, licgende aet his fotum on feal- 
wum ceosle. pa CutSberhtus ]>a s^lican nytenu on sund 
asende, mid soSre bletsunge, and on merigenlicere tide his 
mynster gesohte. WearS ]?a se munuc micclum afyrht, 
and adlig on aerne-raerigen hine ge-eadmette to Saes halgan 
cneowum, biddende faet M his adl eallunge aflfgde, and his 
fyrwitnysse faederlice miltsode. Se halga ]?a sona andwyrde, 
Ic })inum gedwylde dearnunge miltsige, gif fu Sa gesihSe 
mid swigan bediglast, oSSaet min sawul heonon siSige, of 
andwerdum life gelat^od to heofonan. CuSberhtus fa mid 
gebede his sceaweres seocnysse gehaelde, and his fyrvvites 
gauges gylt forgeaf. 

Fela wundra wurdon geworhte j)urh Jjone halgan Cu8- 
berht, ac we wyllaS for sceortnysse sume forsuwian, ])y-l^s 
J>e J)eos racu eow to lang pince, Witodlice Cu'Sberhtus 
ferde, swa swa his gewuna waes, ymbe geleafFulre bodunge, 
|>aBt he ])am ungelaeredum folce lifes weig taehte. pa fleah 
sum earn aetforan him on siSe, and he his geferan befrfnan 
ongann, Hwa hi to Sam dasge afedan sceolde ? pa cwaeS 
his gefera, J)aet he gefyrn smeade hwaer hi bigleofan biddan 
sceoldon, faSa hfSa fare ferdon buton wiste. CuSberhtus 
j?a him togeanes cwaeS, La hwaet se ^Imihtiga God maeg 
for eaSe unc, |)urh pisne earn, aetfore sceawian, seSe giti^r 
Elian afedde purh pone sweartan hremm, ^r he to heofonan 
siSode. Hi Sa ferdon forS-siSigende, and efne se earn on 
Sam ofre gesaet, mid fisce geflogen, })one he paerrihte gefeng. 


pa cwae^ se halga to his geferan, Yrn to t5am earne, and 
him of-anim J)8es fisces dsel pe he gefangen haefS, unc to 
gereorde. Sy lof ])am ^Elmihtigan, Ipe unc furh Iphne 
fugel fedan wolde. Syle swa-J)eah sumne dael fam earne, 
to edleane his geswinces. 

Hi ^a, aefter gereorde, on heora weg ferdon, and CuS- 
herhtus ]?am folce faegere bodade, faet hf waere waeron wiS 
deofles syrwum, l^y-lses ]?e he mid leasunge heora geleafan 
awyrde, and fram ]?aere bodunge heora mod abrude. past 
folc f>a faerlice ongann for'S-araesan betwux J>yssere myne- 
gunge, micelum bepaeht, ))aet hf J>aere lare to lyt gymdon. 
Hwaet se swicola feond hfswiSe bedydrode, swilce J^aer sum 
hus soSlice forburne, brastligende mid brandum, gedwy- 
morlice swa-feah. pa wolde jjast folc ])aet fyr adwaescan, 
gif hit aenig-waeta wanian mihte ; ac ])aes halgan andwerdnys 
ea'Selice acwencte faes deofles dyderunge, ]>e hf dwollice 
filigdon, and faes lifes word lythwon gymdon. past folc 
J)a ofsceamod ongean cyrde to Saere lare ]>e hf ^r forletoh, 
biddende aet Sam lareowe liSe miltsunge, })aet hf his lare ^r 
to lyt gymdon, ]>aSa he Sa fraecednysse him fore saede. 

CuSberhtus swa-)?eah on oSrum timan, eall byrnende 
hus ana ahredde wi(5 fyres dare, mid halgum benum, and 
pone windes bl^d aweg flfgde, seSe ^r for oft pa aettrigan 
flan deoflicere costnunge on him sylfum adwaescte, purh 
gescyldnysse soSes Drihtnes. He wolde gelome leodum 
bodian on fyrlenum lande unforhtigende. Hwaet pa him 
geut5e se TElmihtiga God faegre getingnysse pam folce to 
Mre, and him menu ne mihton heora mod behydan, ac hf 
eadmodlice him geandetton heora digelnyssa, and elles ne 
dorston, and be his dihte digellice gebetton. 

Sum eawfaest man eac swilce haefde micele cyt5Se to t5am 
halgan Cut5berhte, and gelomlice his lare breac : pa geti- 
mode his wffe wyrs ponne he befSorfte, paet heo purh wod- 
nysse micelum waes gedreht, pa com se eawfaesta to t$am 


eadigan CuSberhte, and h^ waes on Sam timan to prafoste 
geset on Sam munuc-life, ]>e is Lindisfarnea geliaten. pa 
ne mihte he for sceame him openlice secgan, ])8et his eaw- 
faeste wff on Saere wodnysse l^g, ac baed paet he asende 
sumne broker )7set hire gerihta gedon mihte, ^rSan ]?e heo 
of Iffe gelaed wurde. pa wiste CuSberhtus eal be Sam wiTe, 
and wolde J)urh hine sylfne sona hf geneosian ; forSan J^e 
heo derSan eawfaest leofode, peah ]>e se unsiS hire svva ge- 
lumpe. pa begann se wer dreorig wepan, anSracigende 
J^aes ungelimpes. CuSberhtus hine ]7a mid wordum gefre- 
frode, cwaeS |)aet se deofol ]>e hire derigan wolde, on his 
geneosunge, hf forlsetan sceolde, and mid micelre fyrhte 
aweg fleon, and ])8et wff mid gewitte wel sprecende him 
togeanes gan, and his bridel onfon. Hit Sa gelamp, be 
Saes lareowes wordum, jjset Jjaet wff gewittig hine mid wor- 
dum gegrette, baed ]?aet heo moste him mete gearcian, and 
cydde hti se deofol hf dearnunge forlet, and swiSe forhti- 
gende fleames cepte, ])aSa se halga ]?ider siSode. 

CuSberhtus se halga siSSan gefremode mihtiglice wundra, 
on Sam mynstre wunigende. Begann ])a on mode micclum 
smeagan, hu he ]?aes folces lof forfleon mihte ; fy-laes pe h^ 
wurde to hlfsful on worulde, and faes heofenlican Idfes 
fremde waere. Wolde pa. anstandende ancer-lff adreogan, 
and on digelnysse eallunge drohtnian : ferde J?a to Fame, 
on flowendre ySe. past igland is eal beworpen mid sealtum 
brymme, on s^ middan, faet wiSinnan eall, ^r Sam fyrste, 
mid sweartum gastum swiSe waes afylled, swa J>aet men ne 
mihton fa moldan bugian, for feowracan sweartra deofla ; 
ac hf ealle pa endemes flugon, and paet igland eallunge 
rymdon J^am aeSelan cempan, and he paer ana wunode, 
orsorh heora andan, ]7urh iElmihtigne God. pa waes ))ae.t 
igland mid ealle bedaeled waeteres wynsumnysse, on Sam 
westum cludum, ac se halga wer )?a sona het J)a heardnesse 
swiSe holian, on middan Jjaere flore b»s fsegeran botles, and 



paer waeter seddre t5a wynsum asprang, werod on svv^cce, 
})am were to brice, se'Se hwilon waeter to winlicum sw^cce 
wundorlice awende, faSa hit wolde God. 

Se halga pa het him bringan s^d, wolde on Sam westene 
waestmes tilian, gif hit swa geu'Se se ^Elmihtiga God, faet 
he raid his fotum hine fedan moste. He seow ))a hwaete 
on beswuncenum lande, ac hit to wsestme aspringan ne 
moste, ne furSon mid g^rse growende naes. pa het he 
him bringan bere to saede, and ofer aelcue timan J)a eor'San 
aseow. Hit weox ]?a mid wynne and wel gerfpode. pa 
woldon hremmas hine bereafian aet his gedeorfum, gif 
hf dorston. pa cwaeS se halga to Sam heard-nebbum, 
Gif se ^Imihtiga eow J)ises geuSe, brucaS ])aera waestma, 
and me ne biddaS ; gif he ])onne eow pises ne getiSode, 
gewftaS aweg, waelhreowe fugelas, to eowrum eSele of 
Sisum iglande. Hwaet, J>a hremmas J>a ricene flugon ealle 
tosomne ofer pone sealtan brym, and se halga pa his ge- 
swinces breac. 

Eft pa siSSan oSre twegen swearte hremmas siSlice co- 
mon, and his hus taeron mid heardum bile, and to neste 
baeron heora briddum to hleowSe. pas eac se eadiga mid 
ealle aflfgde of Sam eSele mid anum worde ; ac an paera 
fugela eft fleogende com, ymbe pry dagas, pearle dreorig, 
fleah to his fotum, friSes biddende, paet he on Sam lande 
lybban moste symle unscaeSSig, and his gefera samod. 
Hwaet pa, se halga him pass geuSe, and hf lustbaere paet 
land gesohton, and brohton pam lareowe lac to medes, 
swines rysl his scon to gedreoge, and hi paer siSSan unscaeS- 
Sige wunedon. 

pa wolde se halga sum hus timbrian to his nedbricum, 
mid his gebroSra fultume : pa baed he hf anre sylle, paet 
he mihte paet htis, on Sa s^ healfe, mid paere underlecgan. 
pa gebroSra him beheton, paet hf woldon paet treow, ponne 
bfeft comon, him gebringan. pa comon hf, swa swa hf 


cwaedon, and wurdon, swa-J>ean, |)8es treowes ungemyndige; 
ac se jElmihtiga God his waes gemyndig, and him J?a 
sylle sylf asende mid J)am s^licum flode, and J)8et flod hf 
awearp paer Jjaer he sylf smeade faRt htis to araerenne, on 
Sam sealtum ofre. pa wunode se halga wer manega 
gear on Sam ancer-life swiSlice stiSe, and hine geneosodon 
gelome eawfaaste menn, and be his lare heora Iff geriht- 

pa com him to sum abbudysse, seo waes ^Iflsed gehaten, 
})aes cyninges sweoster Eegfrides ; wolde, ))urh his myne- 
gungum, hire mod getrymman. pa, betwux heora spraece, 
begann heo to halsigenne J>one halgan wer, ]>8et he sceolde 
hire secgan hu lange hire broSor Ecgfridus moste his rfces 
brucan. pa andwyrde hire se halga, mid twylicere spraece, 
and cwaeS, For nahte biS geteald anes geares lust, ]>8er Sser 
se swearta deaS onsigende biS. pa undergeat heo ))aet se 
broker ne moste his Iffes brucan ofer pam anum geare, and 
paerrihte, dreoriglice vvepende, hine befran, La leof, sege 
me, hwa sceal to his rice ion, ])onne he broSer naefS, ne he 
beam ne belaefS. pa cwaeS se halga wer eft to Sam mae- 
dene, Se ^^Imihtiga Scyppend haefS gehealden sumne ge- 
corenne Jjyssere leode to cyninge, and se biS ]>e swa leof 
swa nu is se oSer. pa gedyrstlaehte ])8et maeden faet heo 
him J?a-gyt to spraec, and cwaeS, Mislice smeagaS manna 
heortan; sume wilniaS geSincSe J)yssere worulde, sume 
gefyllaS heora fracedan lustas, and hf ealle sySSan sorhlice 
waedliaS. pu forsihst pone healican wurSmynt, and ]>e is 
leofre on Sisum wacum scraefum, ]>onne ]>u on healle healic 
biscop sitte. pa cwaeS se witega, paet he wurSe naere swa 
miccles hades, ne Saes heah-setles, ac, swa-feah, nan man 
Codes mihte ne forflihS, on nanum heolstrum heofenan, 
oSSe eorSan, oSSe s^ J>riddan. Ic gelyfe, swa-feah, gif se 
.^Imihtiga me haet faes hades beon, paet ic eft mote ]?is 
fgland gesecan, aefter twegra geara ymbryne, and |)yses 


eSeles brucan. Ic bidde fe, iElflsed, faet J)u uncre spraece 
on minum Iffe nanum ne ameldige. 

^^fter J}isum wordum wear^ gemot gehaafd, and Ecgfridus 
])aer-on ges^t, and peodorus, J)ises fglandes ercebiscop, mid 
manegum oSrum geSungenum witum, and hf ealle anmod- 
lice ]?one eadigan Cut5berhtum to biscope gecuron. pa 
sendon hf sona gewritu mid J)am serende to tJam eadigan 
were ; ac hf ne mihton hine of his mynstre gebringan. pa 
reow se cyning sylf Ecgfridus to Sam fglande, and Trum- 
wine biscop, mid oSrum eawfaestum werum, and hf J)one 
halgan swiSe halsodon, heora cneow bigdon, and mid 
tearum baedon, oSSaet hf hine wepende of 6am westene 
atugon to t5am sino6e samod mid him ; and he jjone had 
be heora hdese underfeng, swa swa hit gefyrn ^r gesaed 
waes, ]7urh faes cildes muS, and faes maeran biscopes Boi- 
siles, fe him mid soSre witegunge his Iffes endebyrdnysse 

On 6am ylcan geare wear6 eac ofslegen Ecgfridus, se 
aeSela cyning, on his unsiSe, }>a'5a he on Peohtum begann 
to feohtenne to dyrstelice, ofer Drihtnes willan ; and his 
cyfes-borena broSor si66an rixode, seSe for wisdome vvende 
to Scottum, ]?aet he selSeodig on lare geSuge. pa waes ge- 
fylled seo foresaede spraec, swa swa se halga wer saede J)am 
maedene be hire gebroSrum, ^r he biscop waere. Hwaet J)a, 
si66an se halga CuSberhtus, Lindisfarnensiscere gelaSunge 
leod-biscop, mid ealre gecneordnysse his folces gymde, to 
geefenlaecunge faera eadigra apostola, and hf mid singalum 
gebedum gescylde wi6 deofol, and mid halwendum myn- 
gungum to heofonan tihte ; and he swa leofode swa swa he 
sylf laerde, and a his bodunga mid gebysnungum astealde, 
and eac mid wundrum wel geglengde, and mid soSre lufe 
symle geswette, and gemetegode mid micclum geSylde, and 
waes swiSe estful on aelcere spraece. He nolde awendan 
his gewunelican bigleofan, ne his gew^da, ]?e he on westene 


haefde, ac t5a stiSnyssa his stearcan bigleofan, betwux Ise- 
wedum folce, on his life geheold. He wees swiSe welig weed- 
lum and Jjearfum, and symle him sylfum swiSe hafenleas. 

pa geworhte he fela ^undra eac binnon fam fyrste ]>e 
he biscop waes. Mid halgum wsetere he gehaelde sura wff, 
anes ealdormannes ^we, fram earmlicere co6e, and heo 
sona gesund him sylfum ])enode. Eft, on tSaere ylcan tide, 
he mid ele gesmyrode an licgende maeden on langsumum 
sare, J)urh hefigtymum heafod-ece, and hire sona waes bet. 
Sum eawfeest wer waes eac yfele geh^fd, and laeg aet fortJ- 
sit5e, his freondum orwene. pa haefde heora sum haligne 
hlaf, ]?one se eadiga wer ^r gebletsode, and he |?one faer- 
rihte on waeter bedypte, and his adligum maege on '8one 
muS begeat, and he paerrihte J^aet adl gestilde. Eac on 
oSrum timan, sura adlig cniht faerlice wearS geferod aetfo- 
ran J>am witan, ]?at5a he mid lare geond land ferde ; fa 
basdon pa barmen his bletsunge georne, and he })aerrihte 
J)one cniht araerde, swa faet he gesundful si'Sode on fotum, 
seSe on b^re |)ider geboren waes. Sura earm moder uneatSe- 
lice baer hire samcuce cild swiSe dreorig, on Sara ylcan wege 
]>e se wita ferde ; f»a besargode he J>aere sorhfullan raeder, 
and geswaeslice Sa hire sunu cyste ; cwaeS J)eet hire cild ge- 
sund beon sceolde, and eal hire hfwisc haelSe brucan ; and 
})aes witegan word wurdon gefyllede. 

iElflaed }?a eft, paet aeSele maeden,^ Jjpne halgan lareow to 
hire gelaSode : fa ges^t he aet mysan micclum onbryrd, 
he beseah to heofonum and his sex awearp. pa axode hine 
seo eadige faerane, hwf h^swa hraedlice his gereord forlete ? 
pa cwaeS se biscop, mid onbryrdura mode, Efne nu ic ge- 
seah englas ferigan gesaelige sawle of Sinura boc-lande, to 
healicre heofenan, mid halgum sange, and his nama ]>e biS 
ardlice gecydd on aerne-merigen, fonne ic offrige Gode fa 
Ifflican lac on geleaffulre cyrcan. Hit wearS fa gewfd- 
raaersod, swa swa se witega cwaeS, f aet hire hyrderaan, f urh 


holdraedene pa, sume ac astah, and his orf laeswode mid 
treowenum helme, and he hearde feoll, gewat of worulde 
mid wuldre to Gode, for tSaere hylde his hirdraedene. Hw^ 
maeg aefre ealle gereccan pa mihtigan tacna pises halgan 
weres, hu oft he eat5elice adlige gehaelde, and pa sweartan 
gastas symle aflfgde, and faegra manna forSsiS fore-gleaw 
saede, wis purh witegunge wisdomes gastes. 

pa wunode sum sacerd swi^e gelyfed on ancer-setle aefter 
his lare, and on gehwilcum geare hine geneosode, Here- 
berhtus gehaten, hohful on mode. CuSberhtus pa sona 
hine on-sundron gespraec, cwaet^ paet he pa sceolde svviSlice 
befrman his nyd-pearfnysse, ^r his nextan daege; cvvaeS 
paet h^ ne moste on menniscum Iffe hine eft geseon, of 
pam andweardan daege. Hereberhtus pa swiSe hohful 
wear^, and feol to his fotum, mid flowendum tearum baed, 
paet he moste him mid siSian to heofenlicum prynime, of 
^isLim gevvinne, swa swa he on Iffe his lare gehyrsumode. 
Hwaet pa, se biseop his cneowa gebigde to pissere bene, 
mid bliSum mode, and sySSan pone sacerd sona gefrefrode ; 
cwa;S paet him geuSe se TElmihtiga Wealdend, paet hf aet- 
somne simian moston of Sisum earfo6nyssum, to ecere 
myrh^e. Hereberhtus pa ham gewende, and, on leger- 
bedde licgende, abad paes o^res geendunge, mid adligum 

Cu^berhtus se halga pa swiSe onette to Sam ancer-setle, 
pe he ^r ges^t, purh halige mynegunge mihtiges Drihtnes ; 
wolde on t5am lande his Iff geendian, paer paer he ^r lange 
lybbende drohtnode. And he on t5am lande pa gelegered 
weart5 on his forSsit^e swiSe ftis to Gode, on t5am priddan 
geare his biscophades, and on pisum daege to Drihtne ge- 
wat, and Hereberhtus samod, se halga sacerd, swa swa hf 
on Iffe ^r geleornodon, purh Godes Gast, mid godum will- 
an. His Ifc weartS bebyrged on Lindisfarneiscre cyrcan, 
paer wurdon geworhte wundra forwel fela, purh geearnun- 


gum his eadigan Iffes. pa gelicode hit fam leod-biscope, 
Eadberhte sylfum, his aeftergengan, faet he his lichaman 
up J)a gelogode, on Sam endlyftan geare his geendunge. 
pa wearS |)aet halige Ifc hal on eorSan gemet, gesundful 
licgende, swilce he slaepende weere, li(5ebige on limum, swa 
swa he geled waes. 

Sy wuldor and lof )?am welegan Drihtne, seSe his geco- 
renan swa cystelice wurt5at5, aefter deadlicum life, mid him 
lybbende a on ecnysse ealra worulda. Amen 

Feria nil. 

De Fide Catholica. 

.^LC cristen man sceal eefter rihte cunnan aegSer ge his 
Pater noster ge his Credan. Mid f am Pater nostre he sceal 
hine gebiddan ; mid J)am Credan he sceal his geleafan 
getrymman. We habbaS gesaed embe ])?et Pater noster, nu 
we wyllaS secgan eow J?one geleafan ]>e on ]>am Credan 
stent, swa swa se wisa Augustinus, be J>Eere Halgan pryn- 
nysse, trahtnode. 

An Scyppend is ealra |>inga, gesewenlicra and ungesewen- 
licra ; and we sceolon on hine gelyfan, forj^on ]>e he is sotS 
God and ana iElmihtig, seSe nsefre ne ongann ne anginn 
naefde, ac he sylf is anginn, and he eallum gesceaftum an- 
ginn and ordfruman forgeaf, ]?8et hf beon mihton, and J)8et 
hf haefdon agen gecynd, swa swa hit |)8ere godcundlican 
fadunge gelicode. Englas he worhte, fa sind gastas, and 
nabbatS naenne lichaman. Menn h^ gesceop mid gaste and 
mid lichaman. Nytenu and deor, fixas and fugelas h^ 
gesceop on flaesce, butan sawle. Mannum he sealde up- 
rihtne gang ; pa nytenu he let gan alotene. Mannum he 
forgeaf hlaf to bigleofan, and fam nytenum g^rs« 


Nu mage ge, gebrot^ru, understandan, gif ge wyllaS, ))aet 
twa ))ing syndon, an is Scyppend, o^er is gesceaft. He is 
Scyppend, set5e gesceop and geworhte ealle fing of nahte. 
paet is gesceaft })aet se soSa Scyppend gesceop ; j^aet sind 
^rest heofona?, and englas ]>e on heofonum wuniaS ; and 
sy^San |)eos eor^e, mid eallum ]?am ]>e hire on eardiaS, and 
s^, mid eallum ]>am ))e hyre on swymmat5. Nu ealle ])as 
jjing synd mid anum naman genemnode gesceaft. Hf 
naeron aefre wunigende, ac God hf gesceop. pa gesceafta 
sind fela, an is se Scyppend, fe hf ealle gesceop, se ana is 
^Imihtig God. He waes aefre, and aefre he bit5 furhwu- 
nigende on him sylfum, and ]?urh hine sylfne. Gif he on- 
gunne and anginn haefde, butan tweon, ne mihte he beon 
i^lmihtig God. So'Slice faet gesceaft, ])e ongann and ge- 
sceapen is, naefS nane godcundnysse ; forSi aelc edwist 
]?agtte God nys, J?aet is gesceaft ; and J>3et ]?e gesceaft nis, 
J>aet is God. 

Se God wunaS on ^rynnysse untodaeledlic, and on an- 
nysse anre Godcundnysse. SoSlice o)>er is se Faeder, oJ>er 
is se Sunu, o^er is se Halga Gast ; ac, J^eah-hwaeSere, jjaera 
|>reora is an Godcundnys, and gelfc wuldor, and efen-ece 
maegen-))rymnys. iElmihtig God is se Faeder, ^Imihtig 
God is se Sunu, i^lraihtig God is se Halga Gast. Ac, feah- 
hwae^ere, ne sind )>ry ^Elmihtige Godas, ac an iElmihtig 
God. pry hf sind on hadum and on naman, and an on 
Godcundnysse. pry, forj^i fe se Faeder biS aefre Faeder, 
and se Sunu bitS aefre Sunu, and se Halga Gast biS aefre 
Halig Gast ; and hyra nan ne awent naefre of fam ]>e he is. 
Nu habbaS ge gehyred })a Halgan prynnysse ; ge sceolon 
eac gehyran J^a soSan Annysse. 

Sot51ice se Faeder and se Sunu and se Halga Gast hab- 
bat5 ^ne Godcundnysse, and an gecynd, and ^n weore. Ne 
worhte se Faeder nan }>ing, ne ne wyrcS, butan fam Suna, 
ot5Se butan J>am Halgan Gaste. Ne heora nan ne wyrcS 


nan J>ing butan o]?rum ; ac him eallum is an weorc, and an 
rded, and ^n willa. JEhe wses se Feeder, and sefre wses se 
Sunu, and aefre waes se Halga Gast, an iElmihtig God. Se 
is Feeder, se^e nis nat5er ne geboren ne gesceapen fram 
nanum ot5rum; se is Feeder geliaten, forJ)an ]>e he haeffS 
Sunu, fone ]>e he of him sylfum gestrynde, butan eelcere 
meder. Se Feeder is God of nanum Gode. Se Sunu is 
God, of ])am Feeder Gode. Se Halga Gast is God, forS- 
staeppende of fam Feeder and of pam Suna. pas word 
sind sceortlice geseede, and eow is neod peet we hi swute- 
licor eow onwreon. 

Hwaet is se Feeder ? iElmihtig Scyppend, na geworht, 
ne aeenned ; ac he syif gestrynde Beam, him sylfum efen- 
ece. Hwast is se Sunu ? He is ]?ees Feeder Wisdom, and 
his Word, and his Miht, |)urh J)one se Feeder gesceop ealle 
ping and gefadode. Nis se Sunu na geworht ne gesceapen, 
ac he is aeenned. Aeenned he is, and, peah-hweepere, he 
is efen-eald and efen-ece his Feeder. Nis na swa on his 
acennednysse, swa swa bit5 on ure acennednysse. ponne se 
mann sunu gestrynS, and his cild aeenned bi^, ponne biS 
se feeder mara, and se sunu leessa. Hwf swa ? Forpi, ponne 
se sunu wyxS, ponne ealda^ se feeder. Ne finst pu na ge- 
lice on mannum feeder and sunu. Ac ic pe sylle bysne, hu 
pu Godes acennednysse py bet understandan miht : fyr 
acenS of him beorhtnysse, and seo beorhtnys is efen-eald 
pam fyre : nis na peet fyr of paere beorhtnysse, ac seo beorht- 
nys is of pam fyre. peet fyr acen^ pa beorhtnysse, ac 
hit ne biS naefre butan peere beorhtnysse. Nu pu gehyrst 
peet seo beorhtnys is ealswa eald swa peet fyr pe heo of- 
cymS ; gepafa nu forpi peet God mihte gestrynan ealswa 
eald beam and ealswa ece swa he sylf is. Se t5e meeg un- 
derstandan peet ure Heelend Crist is on peere Godcundnysse 
ealswa eald swa his Feeder, he pancige pees Gode, and blis- 
sige. Se 6e understandan ne majg, he hit sceal gelyfan, 



past he hit understandan maege ; for]>an J^ses witegan word 
ne maeg beon afdlod, ]>e ]>\is cwaeS, Buton ge hit gelyfari, 
ne mage ge hit understandan. Nu habbe ge gehyred, J^aet 
se Sunu is of })am Feeder, butan aelcum anginne ; forJ)an 
pe he is j^aes Feeder Wisdom, and he woes aefre mid pam 
Faeder, and aefre biS. 

Uton nu gehyran be fam Halgan Gaste, hwaet h^ sy. 
He is se Willaandseo soSe Lufu]?aes Faeder and jjaes Suna, 
purh J)one sind ealle ]>ing gelfffaeste and gehealdene ; be 
})am is J)us gecweden, Godes Gast gefylS ealne ymbhwyrft 
middangeardes, and he hylt ealle J'ing, and he haefS ingehyd 
aelces gereordes. Nis he geworht, ne gesceapen, ne acen- 
ned ; ac he is forSstaeppende, faet is, ofgangende, of ]?am 
Faeder and of pam Suna, J)am he is gelic and efen-ece. Nis 
se Halga Gast na Sunu, for]?an ]>e he nis na acenned ; ac 
he gaeS of ]>ara Faeder and of ])am Suna gelice ; forpan ]?e 
he is heora beigra Willa and Lufu. Crist cwae^ ]?us be him 
on his godspelle : Se Frofor-Gast, f>e ic eow asendan wille, 
Gast faere soSfaestnysse ]>e of minum Faeder gaeS, he cy5 
gecy^nysse be me ; |>aet is, he is min gewita J)ast ic eom 
Godes Sunu. And eac se rihta geleafa us taecS, j^aet we 
sceolon gelyfan on fone Halgan Gast ; he is se Ifffaestenda 
God, se g^6 of J)am Faeder and of ]?am Suna. Hu g^S 
he of him ? Se Sunu is |)aes Faeder Wisdom, aefre of J)ani 
Faeder ; and se Halga Gast is heora beigra Willa, aefre of 
him bam. Is forfi ))onne an Faeder, seSe aefre is Faeder, 
and an Sunu, seSe aefre bi^ Sunu, and an Halig Gast, se^e 
aefre biS Halig Gast. 

lEhe waes se Faeder, butan anginne, and aefre waes se 
Sunu mid J)am Faeder, forfan J^e he is faes Faeder Wisdom. 
iEfre waes se Halga Gast, seSe is heora beigra Willa and 
Lufu. Nis se Faeder of nanum ot5rum, ac he waes aefre. 
Se Sunu is acenned of Sam Faeder, ac he waes aefre on 
J)aes Faeder bosme, forj^an t5e he is his Wisdom, and he is of 


])am Feeder eal ]?aet he is. ^fre waes se Halga Gast, for- 
})an Se he is, swa we der cwaedon, Willa and soS Lufu J»0es 
Feeder and ]>aes Suna. Sot51ice willa and lufu getacniatS an 
fing ; )>aet J?se"t fu wylt, faet J)u lufast, and paet |)£et ]?u nelt, 
j^aet Jju ne lufast. 

Seo sunne, 'pe ofer us scinS, is lichamlic gesceaft, and 
haefS swa-]?eah Jjreo agennyssa on hire ; an is seo lichanrilice 
edwist, faet is J>aere sunnan trendel ; oSer is se leoma, o^^e 
beorhtnys, aefre of |>8ere sunnan, seo])e onlihtealne niiddan- 
geard ; ]?ridde is seo hgetu, ]>e mid ]?ani leoman becymS to 
us. Se leoma is aefre of J^asre sunnan, and aefre mid hire, 
and faes ^Imihtigan Godes Sunu is aefre of }?am Faeder 
acenned, and aefre mid him wunigende. Be ])am cwaeS se 
apostol, J)aet he waere his Faeder wuldres beorhtnys. paere 
sunnan haetu gseS forS of hire and of hire leoman ; and se 
Halga Gast gaeS aefre of }>am Fasder and of pam Suna ge- 
lice. Be pam is })us awriten, Nis nan pe hine behydan 
maege fram his haetan. 

Faeder and Sunu and Halig Gast ne magon beon togae- 
dere genamode, ac hfne beoS swa-J)eah nahwar totwaemede. 
Nis se ^Imihtiga God na J^ryfeald, ac is prynnys. God is 
se Faeder, and se Sunu is God, and se Halga Gast is God. 
Na J7ry Godas, ac hf ealle J)ry an iElmihtig God. Se Fae- 
der is eac Wisdom of nanum oprum wisdome ; se Sunu is 
eac Wisdom of J?am wisan Faeder ; se Halga Gast is Wis- 
dom : ac ))eah-hwaeSere hf sind ealle aetgaedere an Wisdom. 
Eft, se Faeder is soS Lufu, and se Sunu is sot5 Lufu, and se 
Halga Gast is sotS Lufu ; and hf ealle aetgaedere an God, 
and an soS Lufu. Eac swilce is se Faeder Gast and halig, 
and se Sunu is Gast and halig, untwylice : ])eah-hwaetSere, 
se Halga Gast is synderlice gehaten Halig Gast, paet ])aet 
hf ealle ]>ry sind gemaenelice. 

Swa micel gelicnys is on fyssere Halgan prynnysse, past 
se Faeder nis na mare })onne se Sunu on )>aere Godcund- 


nysse, ne se Sunu nis na mare j^onne se Halga Gast, ne nan 
heora an nis na laesse, ]?onne eall seo prynnys. Swa hwaer 
swa heora an bi^, |)8er In beo^ ealle fry, sefre an God un- 
todseledlic. Nis heora n^n mare fonne 0(5er, ne nan laessa 
ponne o^er, ne nan beforan oJ>rum, ne nan baeftan oprum ; 
forfan swa hwaet swa laesse biS )?onne God, fast ne bi6 na 
God ; })aet J^ast lator bi(5, faet haefS anginn ; ac God naef'S 
nan anginn. Nis na se Faeder ana prynnys, o^Se se Sunu 
prynnys, oSSe se Halga Gast prynnys ; ac )>as ]?ry hadas 
sindon an God on anre Godcundnysse. ponne ]>u gehyrst 
nemnan J)one Fasder, J^onne understenst J>u J>aet he hasf^ 
Sunu. Eft, J?onne ])u cwyst Sunu, f>u wast butan tweon 
faet he haefS F^der. Eft, we gelyfaS faet se Halga Gast is 
aeg^er ge ]?aes Faeder ge paes Suna Gast. 

Ne bepaece nan man hine sylfne, swa |>aet he seege oSSe 
gelyfe J)£et j?ry Godas syndon, o6Se asnig had on faere Hal- 
gan prynnysse sy unmihtigra ]>onne o6er. ^Ic ]?aera j^reora 
is God ; ))eah-hwaeSere hf ealle an God ; for)?an ]>e hf ealle 
habbaS an gecynd, and ane Godcundnysse, and ane edwiste, 
and an gej)eaht, and an weorc, and ane maegen-l?rymnysse, 
and gelic wuldor, and efen-ece rice. Is |)eah-hwaet5ere se 
Sunu ana geflaeschamod, and geboren to men of }>am hal- 
gan maedene Marian. Ne wearS se Faeder mid mennisc- 
nysse befangen, ac feah-hwaet^ere he asende his Sunu to 
ure alysednysse, and him aefre mid waes, aeg^er ge on Iffe 
ge on J>rowunge, and on his aeriste, and on his upstige. 
Eac eal Godes gelaSung andet on j^am rihtan geleafan, ]?aet 
Crist is acenned of J)am claenan maedene Marian, and of 
J)am Halgan Gaste. Nis se Halga Gast feah-hwaeSere 
Cristes Faeder, ne nan Cristen man j^aet naefre ne sceal 
gelyfan; ac se Halga Gast is Willa ))aes Faeder and J^aes 
Suna : for)>i ]?onne swi^e rihtlice is awriten on urum ge- 
leafan, faet Cristes menniscnys weartS gefremmed })urh 
Jjone Halgan Willan. 


Beheald pas sunnan mid gleawnysse, on fsere is, swa we 
^r cwaedon, haetu and beorhtnys ; ac seo haetu drygS, and 
seo beorhtnys onlyht. OSer |)ing de^ seo hastu atid oSer 
seo beorhtnys, and J^eah-hwaeSere hf ne magon beon to- 
twaemde; belimpS hw8ej?ere-]>eah seo hoej^ung to l^asre hsetan, 
and seo onlihting belimpS to psere beorhtnysse. Swa eac 
Crist ana underfeng fa menniscnysse, and na se Faeder ne 
se Halga Gast ; feah-hwset^ere hf waeron aefre mid him, on 
eallum his weorcum, and on ealre his fare. 

We sprecat5 ymbe God, deaSliee be undeaSlicum, tyddre 
be aelraihtigum, earmingas be mildheortum ; ac hwa mseg 
weort5fullice sprecan be J^am ]>e is tinasecgendlic. He is 
butan gemete, forfy ])e he is aeghwaer ; he is butan getele, 
forjjon |?e he is aefre ; he is butan hefe, forjwn ]>e he hylt ealle 
gesceafta butan geswince, and he hf ealle gelogode on ]?am 
]>rim J>ingum, ]>8et is on gemete, and on getele, and on hefe. 
Ac wite ge |)aet nan man ne mseg fullice embe God sprecan, 
|)onne we furSon })a gesceafta, ]>e he gesceop, ne magon 
asmeagan ne areccan. Hwa maeg mid wordum ]?aere heofe- 
nan freatewunge asecgan ? OSSe hwa }>aere eorSan waestm- 
baernysse ? 066e hwa heraS genihtsumlice ealra tida ymb- 
hwyrft? 0S6e hwa ealle oSre ping, ])onne we fur]?on ];a 
lichomlican |?ing, ])e we onlociaS, ne magon fullice befon 
mid ure gesihSe ? Efne ]>u gesihst J?one mannan beforan 
J?e ; ac, on ]?8ere tfde )>e J)u his neb gesihst, fu ne gesihst na 
his hricg : ealsvva, gif pu sumne cla^ sceawast, ne miht J)u 
hine ealne togaedere geseon, ac wenst abutan, }?set J)u ealne 
hine geseo. Hwylc wundor is, gif se iElmihtiga God is 
unasecgendlic and unbefangenlic, se^e aeghwaer is eall, and 
nawar todaeled ? 

Nu smeaS sum undeopJ?ancol man, hu God maege beon 
aeghwaer aetgaedere, and nawar todaeled : beheald pas sun- 
nan, hu heage heo astihS, and hu heo asent hyre leoman 
geond ealne raiddangeard> and hu heo onliht ealle pas 


eorSan ]?e mancynn on-earda6. Swa hraSe swa heo up- 
asprincS, on serne-merigen, heo scinS on Hierusalem and 
on Rome-byrig, and on ]?isum earde, and on eallum earduni 
aetgaedere ; and hwaet5ere heo is gesceaft, and gsecS be 
Godes dihte. Hweet wenst ]>u, hu mfccle swiSor is Godes 
anweardnys, and his miht, and his neosung aeghwaer? 
Him ne wiSstent nan ping, naper ne stsenen weall, ne bryden 
wah, swa swa hf wi^standa^ ]>aere sunnan. Him nis nan 
J)ing digle ne uneut5. pu sceawast paes mannes neb, and 
God sceawa^ his heortan. Godes Gast afandat5 ealra manna 
heortan ; and ]?a J^e on hine gelyfaS, and hine lufiaS, fa he 
claensaS and gegladaS mid his neosunge ; and J)a2ra unge- 
leafFulra manna heortan he forbyhS and onscunaS. 

Wite eac gehwa, ])aet aelc man haefS freo Jjing on him 
sylfum untodaeledlice and togaedere wyrcende, swa swa 
God cwaeS, J^a^a he ^rest man gesceop. He cwaeS, Uton 
gewyrcean man to ure gelicnysse. And h€ worhte f»a Adam 
to his anhcnysse. On hwilcum daele haef^ se man Godes 
anlicnysse on him ? On paere sawle, na on J)am lichaman. 
paes mannes sawl haef^ on hire gecynde faere Halgan pryn- 
nysse anlicnysse ; forfan J?e heo haefS on hire freo fing : 
J^aet is gemynd, and andgit, and willa. purh faet gemynd, 
se man gefencS J^a jjing fe he gehyrde, oS^e geseah, otSSe 
geleornode. purh fast andgit he understent ealle fa ping 
pe he gehyr^, oS^e gesih^. Of pam willan cuma^ gefohtas, 
and word, and weorc, aegSer ge yfele ge gode. An sawul 
is, and an Iff, and an edwist, seofe haefS ]?as J?reo ping on 
hire togaedere wyrcende untodaeledlice ; forfi faer faet 
gemynd biS, faer biS paet andgit and se willa ; and aefre hf 
beo'5 togaedere. peah-hwaeSere, nis nan paera freora sec 
sawl, ac seo sawl purh faet gemynd gemanS, purh paet and- 
git heo understent, purh pone willan heo wile swa hwaet 
swa hire lica^, and heo is hwaeSere an sawl and an Iff. Nu 
haeftJ heo forpi Godes anlicnysse on hire, forpan pe heo 


haefS J>reo f'ing on hfre untodaeledlice wyrcende. Is J?eah- 
hwaeSere se man an man and na J)rynnys. God sot^lice, 
Feeder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast, JjurhwunaS on pryn- 
nysse hada, and on annysse anre Godcundnysse. Nis na 
se man on frynnysse wunigende, swa swa God, ac he haef^ 
hweeSere Godes anlicnysse on his sawle, ])urh pa preo ping 
pe we ^r cwsedon. 

Arrius hatte an gedwolman, se flat wi^ aenne bisceop, pe 
W8es generaned Alexander, wfs and riht-gelyfed. pa cwae^ 
se gedwolman, paet Crist, Godes Sunu, ne mihte na beon 
his Faeder gelic, ne swa mihtig swa he ; and cwaeS, pset 
se Faeder waere ^r se Sunu, and nam bysne be mannum, 
hu aelc sunu bit5i gingra ponne se faeder on pisum life, pa 
cwaeS se halga bisceop Alexander him togeanes, God waes 
sefre, and aefre waes his Wisdom of him acenned, and se Wis- 
dom is se Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa se Faeder. pa begeat 
se gedwola paes caseres fultum to his gedwylde, and cwaeS 
gemot ongean pone bisceop, and wolde gebigan eal paet 
folc to his gedwyldum. pa wacode se bisceop ane niht on 
Godes cyrcan, and clypode to his Drihtne, and pus cwaeS, 
pu, ^Imihtiga God, dem rihtne dom betwux me and Ar- 
rium. Hi comon pa paes on mergen to pam gemote, pa 
cwaeS se gedwola to his geferum, paet he wolde gan embe 
his neode forS. paSa he to gange com and he ges^t, pa 
gewand him ut eall his innewearde, aet his setle, and he 
saet paer dead, pa geswutelode God, paet he waes swa 
ge^mtegod on his innot5e, swa swa he waes ^r on his ge- 
leafan. He wolde don Crist laessan ponne he is, and his 
godcundnysse wurt^mynt wanian. pa wearS him swa bys- 
morlic dea^ geseald, swa swa he wel wyrSe waes. 

Oper gedwolman waes, se hatte Sabellius. He cwae^ 
paet se Faeder waere, paSa he wolde, Faeder, and eft, paSa 
he wolde, he waere Sunu, and eft, paSa he wolde, waere 


Halig Gast ; and waere forJ)i an God. pa forweart5 eac )?es 
gedvvola, mid his gedwylde. 

Nu eft ]?ait ludeisce folc, ]>e Crist ofslogon, swa swa he 
sylf wolde and gefafode, secgat5 |)8et hf willat5 gelyfan on 
)>one Feeder, and na on J)one Sunu J>e hyra magas ofslogon. 
Heora geleafa is naht, and hf forpi losiaS. For ure alysed- 
nysse Crist ge])afode ]?aet hf hine ofslogon. Hit ne mihte 
eal mancynn gedon, gif he sylf nolde. Ac se halga Faeder 
gesceop and geworhte mancyn ]>urh his Sunu, and he wolde 
eft, J)urh ))one ylcan, us alysan fram helle wite, J^apa we 
forwyrhte wseron. Butan aelcere }>rowunge he mihte us 
habban, ac him ]?uhte fast unrihtlic. Ac se deofol for- 
wyrhte hine sylfne, paSa he tihte Ipset ludeisce folc to Jjses 
Haelendes siege ; and we wurdon alysede, furh his unscyl- 
digan dea^, fram J>am ecan deaSe. 

We habbaS ]?one geleafan pe Crist sylf taehte his apo- 
stolum, and hf eallum mancynne ; and J?one geleafan God 
haefS mid manegum wundrum getrymmed and gefaestnod. 
iErest Crist, ))urh hine sylfne, dumbe and deafe, healte 
and blinde, wode and hreoflige gehaslde, and )?a deadan to 
Iffe araerde ; sy^San, J>urh his apostolas and o6re halige 
men, fas ylcan wundra geworhte : nu eac, on urum timan, 
gehwaer ]?8er halige men hf restate, aet heora deadum banum 
God wyrcS fela wundra; to ]>i J?aet he wile folces geleafan 
mid J»am wundrum getrymman. Ne wyrcS God na pas 
wundra aet nanes ludeisces mannes byrgene, ne aet nanes 
o])res gedwolan, ac aet riht-gelyfedra manna byrgenum, J)a 
]>e gelyfdon on fa Halgan prynnysse, and on so6e annysse 
anre Godcundnysse. 

Wite gehwa eac, faet nan man ne mot beon tuwa geful- 
lod ; ac gif se man aefter his fuUuhte aslide, we gelyfatJ 
J)aet he maege beon gehealden, gif he his synna mid wope 
behreowsaS, and be lareowa taecunge hfgebet. We sceolon 


gelyfan ])set eelces mannes sawul biS }>urh God gesccapen ; 
ac hw£ej)ere heo ne biS na of Godes agenum gecynde. paes 
mannes lichaman antimber bi^ of J)am faeder and of J»8ere 
meder, ac God gescyp^ ]Jone lichaman of ]?am antimbre, 
and asent on ]?one lichaman sawle. Ne biS seo sawl nahwar 
wunigende ^ror, ac God hf gescypS paerrihte and beset on 
fone lichaman, and last hf habban agenne eyre, swa heo 
syngige, swa heo synna forbuge. peah-hwagt5ere, heo be- 
hofaS aefre Godes fultumes, Ipset heo maege synna forbugan, 
and eft to hyre Scyppende becuman, J)urh gode geearnunga; 
for|7on J)e nan man ne det5 butan Gode nan fing to gode. 

Eac we sceolon gelyfan J)aet aelc lichama, ]>e sawle un- 
derfeng, sceal arisan, on domes daeg, mid J?am ylcjyi licha- 
man ]>e he nu haeft5, and sceal onfon edlean ealra his daeda; 
])onne habba^ pa. godan ece Iff mid Gode, and he syl^ J>a 
mede aelcum be his geearnungum. Da synfullan beoS on 
helle-wite a ^rowigende, and heora wite biS eac gemetegod, 
aslcum be his geearnungum. Uton forJ)i geearnian past 
ece Iff mid Gode, ]>\irh J)isne geleafan, and furh gode ge- 
earnunga, seSe JJurhvvuna'S on prynnysse, an TElraihtig 
God, aa on ecnysse. Amen. 

Dominica Septuagesima. 

Drihten saede J»isbigspel his leorning-cnihtum, fus cwe'S- 
ende : Simile est regnum ccelorum homini patri familias, 
qui exiit primo mane, conducere operarios in vineam suam: 
et reliqua. 

Se Haelend cwaetS ))aet heofenan rice waere gelfc sumum 
hfredes ealdre, sefe ferde on ^rne-merigen, and wolde 
hyrian wyrhtan in to his wfngearde. Da geweartS pam 
hlaforde and J)am hyrig-mannum wi6 anum peninge, and 
hf eodon in to })am wfngearde. Eft, ymbe undern daeges, 
eode faes wfngeardes hlaford tit and gem^tte o]?re hyr- 
men standende ydele on })aere str^te, and he cwaeS him to, 



GaS in to minum vvfngearde, and ic sylle eow ])set riht biS. 
Hf pa eodon to his weorce be }>am behute. Ymbe midne 
daeg and non-tfde, eode se hfredes ealdor ut, and dyde 
hand svva gelfce. ^t nextan twa tfda ofer none, eode se 
hktford, and gemette ma wyrhtan standan, and him to 
cwaeS, Hwf stande ge her ealne daeg aemtige? Hi and- 
wyrdon, Forpan pe us nan mann ne hyrde. Se hlaford 
cwae^, Ga6 in to minum wfngearde. WitodHce on ^fnunge 
cwaeS se hljiford to his wfcnere, Clypa ])as wyrlitan, and 
agyld him heora m^de ; foh on ])am endenextan, 06 |?aet pu 
cume to pam fyrmestan. pa comon ])a endenextan, pe on 
sefnunge waeron gehyrede, and heora aelc underfeng senne 
pening.^ Hwaet, pa fyrmestan, pe on ^rne-merigen comon, 
wendon pa past hi* maran mede onfon sceoldon : pa under- 
fengon hf tenlipige penegas, swa swa pa opre. Da ongunnon 
Kfto ceorigenne ongean pone hfredes ealdor, and cwaedon, 
pas endenextan menn worhton ane tfde, and pu dydest hf 
us gelice aet paere hyre, we pe bieron t5a byrSene pisses 
daeges and h^etan. pa andwyrde se hlaford, and cwaeS to 
heora anum, Dii freond, ne do ic pe naenne teonan. Hula, 
ne gewearS unc to anum peninge ? Nim past pin is, and 
ga ^e forS. Ic wille soSlice syllan pisum latestan swa micel 
swa pe. Hu, ne mot ic don past ic wylle ? OSSe pin eage 
is yfel, forc5an t5e ic eom god? pus waeron pa latestan 
fyrmeste, and pa fyrmestan endenexte. Fela sind gecigede, 
and feawa gecorene. 

Gregorius se Trahtnere cwaeS paet pis godspel hgeftJ 
huigne tfge on his trahtnunge, pa h6 wile mid sceortre race 
befon ; paet hit to hefigtyme ne pince pam heorcnigendum. 

Mine gebroSra, gelome ic eow saede paet heofonan rfce 
getacnaS pas andwerdan gelaSunge ; forpan pe rihtwisra 
manna gegaderung is gecweden heofenan rfce. Se hfredes 
ealdor is ure Scyppend, sepe gewylt pa pe he gesceop, and 
his gecorenan on pisum middanearde geagnaS, swa swa 


hlaford his hfred on his healle. He hsefS ])one wfngeard 
gewislice ealle J)a geleafFuUan gela^unge, swa swa se witega 
cwaeS Isaias, SoSlice Godes wfngeard is Israhela hfwraeden. 
Mid ]>am naman is geswutelod eal Godes folc. Be ^am 
wingearde cvvaetJ Drihten to ludeiscre peode, Ic fecge eow 
)?aet Godes nee biS eow setbroden, and biS forgyfen ])aire 
})eode ]>e his waestmas wyrcaS. pes wfngeard spry tte Godes 
gecorenan fram pam rihtwisan Abel 06 |)am endenextan 
halgan ]>e on J>yssere worulde accenned bi^, swilce he swa 
fela wfn-boga getyddrode. Witodlice pes hfredes ealdor 
gehyrde wyrhtan in to his wfngearde on airne-merigen, eft 
on undern, and on midne daeg, on non-tfde, and on paere 
endlyftan tfde; forj^an ])e he fram frymSe middaneardes 
o^ his geendunge, ne ablinS to asendenne bydelas and lu- 
reowas to l^renne his folc, ]jaet hf symle ])a. misweaxendan 
bogas of-asereadian, J^at ])a toweardan J^eonde beon. Wi- 
todlice, gif se wfngeard naefS J)one ymbhwyrft, and ne bi^ 
on riht gescreadod, ne h\^ he waestmbaere, ac for hraSe 
awildaS. Swa eac Godes folc, buton |?a lareowas screadian 
symle J)a leahtras )?urh heora lare aweg, ne biS ])set l^wede 
folc wasstmbaere on godum weorcum. Eornostlice, se ^r- 
merigen wses fram Adam o^ Noe, se undern fram Noe o^ 
Abraham, se mid-dseg fram Abraham 06 Moysen, se non 
fram Moyse ot5 Drihtnes to-cyme, seo endlyfte tfd fram 
Drihtnes acennednysse 06 ende ]>ises middaneardes. Drihten 
sende his wyrhtan on eallum J»isum foresaedum tfdum to 
beganne his wfngeard ; forj^an ]>e he asende ^rest her.h- 
faederas to Iderenne his folc, and siS];an ^lice lareowas and 
wftegan, and aet nextan his apostolas, and ]mrh ])a his folces 
J)eawas beeode, swilce he purh wyrhtan on wfngeardes bfg- 
gencge swunce. 

^Ic |)8era manna, ])e mid rihtum geleafan god weorc 
beeode, waes untwylice J)ises wfngeardes wyrhta. Se me- 
rigenlica tilia, and paere ])riddan tfde, and J)aere sixtan, and 



Jjyere nigoSan, getacniaS ]?aet ealde Ebrcisce folc, pe fram 
irymSe middaneardes mid rihtum geleafan God wur^ode, 
svvilce In swuncon on wfngeardes biggencge mid gecneord- 
licere teolunge. To faere endlyftan tfde soSlice wurdon |)a 
liag^enan geclypode, and ]>Rm waes gesied, To hwf stande 
ge her ealne daeg ydele ? pa haeSenan stodon ealne daeg 
ydele, for^an f>e hf forgymeleasodon ]>aes ecan liTes teo- 
lunge, on swa langsumere tfde middaneardes. Ac under- 
standaS hu hf andwyrdon |^aes wfngeardes hlaforde. Hi 
cvvaedon, ForJ^an J>e nan man us ne hyrde. Witodlice, naes 
nan lieahfaeder, ne nan witega asend to hae^enum folce, be 
lieora gedvvyld beloge, ^r Drihtnes to-cyme, J?urh his men- 
niscnysse. Hwaet is to cweSenne, paet nan man us to }>am 
wfngearde ne gehyrde, buton J»aet nan man us ne bodade 
liTes weig ? 

Mine gebro^ra, hwylce beladunge mage we habban, gif 
Ave godra weorca geswicaS, we Se fram cild-cradole to 
(xodes geleafan comon ? We magon eac ])as ylcan mislic- 
ijyssa |)aera fores^dra tfda to anum gehwylcum nienn furh 
his ylda tfdum todaelan. Witodlice ures andgites merigen 
is ure cildhad; ure cnihthad swylce undern-tid. on J)am 
MstihS ure geogoS, swa swa seo sunne deS ymbe J?aere J^rid- 
(ian tfde ; ure fulfremeda waestm, swa swa middaeg ; for|>an 
]>e on midne daeg biS seo sunne on J?am ufemestum ryne 
Htigende, swa swa se fulfremeda waestm biS on fulre strenct5e 
]7e6nde ; seo non-tfd bit5 ure yld, for}?an pe on non-tfde 
astihS seo sunne, and J)aes ealdigendan mannes maegen bit5 
wanigende ; seo endlyfte tild biS seo forwerode ealdnys, fam 
deaSe genealaecende, swa swa seo sunne setlunge genealaecS 
on ))aes daeges geendunge. Eornostlice ]?onne sums beot5 
gelaedde on cildhade to godum j^eawum and rihtum Iffe, 
sume on cnihthade, sume on ge])ungenum waestme, sume on 
ylde, sume on forwerodre ealdnysse; J>onne biS hit swylce 
hf beon on mislicura tfdum to |>am wfngearde gelaSode. 


Mine gebrotSra, behealdatS eowere feawas, and, gif ge 
gyt Godes wyrhtan sind, sceawiaS. Smeage gehvvilc hwaet 
he deS, and behealde hwaeSer he on Godes wfngearde 
swince. Se Se on andwerdum Iffe him sylfum teoia^, and 
na Gode, ne com se na gyt binnon Godes wfngearde. pa 
tyliaS soSlice Gode, ]?a ]>e ne secaS heora agen gestreon 
]?urh gytsunge, ac smeagaS ymbe Godes teolunge, hu hf 
magon unriht alecgan and rihtwisnysse fyrSrian, 06 rum 
menn fremigan mid gecneordnysse psere soSan lufe ; and 
J)a ]>e cariaS mid wacehjm mode hu hf o})ra manna sawla 
Gode gestrynan, and mid him to Sam ecan Iffe gelaedan. 
Se Se him sylfum leofaS, and seSeon his flaesclicum lustum 
lis, rihtlice he is ydel gefread, for]?an J)e he ne teolaS nanes 
waestmes ])8es godcundlican weorces. 

pa ])e mid gymeleaste heora dagas aspendaS, and nellaS 
Gode lybban oS heora endenextan ylde, hf standaS ydele 
oS pa endenextan tfde. To swileum sleacum cweS se 
hfredes ealdor, To hwf stande ge her ealne daeg ydele ? 
Swilce he swutellice cwsede, Gif ge noldon Gode lybban 
on cildiiade, ne on geogoSe, gecyrraS nu huru-J)inga on 
ylde to Iffes wege ; nu ge habbaS hwonlice to swincenne. 
And swa-]>eah J)yllice gelaSaS se hfredes hlaford, and for 
wel oft hf onfoS heora edlean hraSor, for]?an pe hf gewitaS 
to heofenan rfce hraedlicor j^onne |?a Se fram cildhade Gode 
J)eowodon. Witodlice se sceaSa ]>e mid Criste ]?rowode, 
and, on hfne gelyfende, his synna geandette, com on ]>aere 
endlyftan tfde, na ))urh ylde, ac ]?urh yfelnesse. Scyldig 
he waes to hellicere susle for his man-daedum, ac he gean- 
dette his synna Drihtne sylfum, on paere rode-hengene, mid 
fuUum geleafan, and Cristes miltsunge, |)isum wordum 
abaed, Drihten beo min gemyndig, fonne ]>vl cymst to 
)>inum rfce. Drihten him andwyrde, SoS ic j^e s-ecge, nu 
to-daeg fu bist mid me on neorxena-wange. 


Witodlice fram ])am endenextan ongann se hfredes ealdor 
to agyldenne fone pening, J)aSa he gelaedde ))one scea^an 
in to heofenan nee, ^rJ»on ])e he laedde Petrum oS6e his 
oSre apostolas, and rihtlice swa ; for])an Se se sceaSa ge- 
lyfde on pam timan on Crist, J)aSa his apostolas on mycelre 
tvvynunge wseron. Eala hti fela heahfaederas ^r Moyses 
tc rihtlice leofodon, and hu fela wftegan, under ])sere ^, 
Gode gecwemlice drohtnodon, and hf, swa-J^eah, naeron 
gelaedde to heofonan rfce, ^rSan ]>e Drihten nit^er astuh, 
se^e neorxena-wanges feesten mid his agenum deaSe geope- 
node, and hfj^a mid langsumere elcunge heora mede lui- 
derfengon, ]?a Se we buton elcunge, faerrihte, swa we of 
urum lichaman gewftaS, underfoS. SoSlice pa. ealdan 
heahfaederas and ge]?ungene wftegan baeron )?a byrSene and 
J>aes daeges h^tan, forpan Se hf fram anginne middan- 
eardes oS Cristes to-cyme on hellicere clysunge andbido- 
don ; l^eah Se hi* on Abrahames wununge, buton pinun- 
guni, for heora godnesse wunedon ; and swilce, aefter ceo- 
runge, ]7one pening underfengon, J)aSa hf, aefter langsumere 
tfde, to heofonan becomon. Witodlice ne underfeS nan 
ceorigende sawul Codes rfce, ne nan ceorian ne masg seSe 
to Sam becymS. Ac |)aera ealdfaedera ceorung is to under- 
standenne heora gnornung, ]?aet hf rihtlice for heofonan rfce 
leofodon, and, swa-]?eah, mid langsumere elcunge hit un- 
derfengon. We soSlice, ]>e to J^aere endlyftan tfde comon, 
aefter urum geswince, nateshwon ne ceoriaS, and we un- 
derfoS pone pening, for]?an Se we cumaS aefter faes Hae- 
lendes menniscnysse ; we beoS gelaedde to his rfce paerrihte 
aefter urum forSsiSe, gif we ^r on Iffe rihtlice leofodon ; 
and we ]?onne, buton yldinge, underfoS J^aet ))aet pa eald- 
faederas, aefter langsumere elcunge, underfengon. Be Sam 
cwaeS se hfredes ealdor, Ic wille syllan pisura endenextan 
eal swa mi eel swa Se. 


And forjjan ]>e seo onfangennys }>ges rfces is of Godes 
godnesse, rihtlice is her baeftan gecwt^den on endebyrdnesse 
Jjaes godspelles, La hti, ne mot ic don faet ic wille ? Dyslic 
biS mannes ceast ongean Godes g6dnesse. Sum ceorung 
mihte beon, gif he his behat ne gelaeste, ac nan ])eah 6e he 
mare ne sealde ; be ])am is gyt gelimplice gecweden, 
066e |?in e%e is yfel, forSan ]>e ic eom god ? Ne onhebbe 
hine nan man on his weorcum, ne on langsumum ]>eowdome, 
J?onne seo Sot5f i stnys clypac^, pus beotS ]?a endenextan fyr- 
meste, and fa fyrmestan endenexte. Efne nu, |>eah we 
witon hu fela god 0(5Se hu micele we gefremedon, nyte we 
J?eah gyt mid hwilcere smea^ancolnysse se upplica Dema 
J>a afandat^ ; and witodlice gehwilcum men is ]?earle to blis- 
sigenne, peah. 6e he endenext on Godes rfee sy geendebyrd. 

pises godspelles geendung is swi^e ondraedendlic : Fela 
sind gelaSode, and feawa gecorene. Drihten cwaeS on 
©■Sre stowe, }?aet fela cuma^ fram east-dcele, and fram west- 
daele, and gerestaS mid J»am heahfasderum, Abrahame, and 
Isaace, and lacobe, on heofenan rfce. Hwaet, eac |?es ylca 
trahtiiere Gregorius, on sumes oSres godspelles trahtnunge, 
cwaeS, J)aet swa micel werod menniscra manna sceal astigan 
})aet heofonlice rfce, swa fela swa J>aera gecorenra engla on 
heofonum belifon, aefter }>aera modigra gasta hryre. peah 
pa gecorenan Godes cempan sind feawa geSuhte on and- 
werdum Iffe betwux flaesclicum mannum, ]>e heora lustum 
gehyrsumia^, ac hf ne beo'5 feawa J)onne hf gegaderode 
beoS. Ne gedafena^ ])am gastlicum past hf J>am flaesclicum 
geefenl^con, ne hf huxlice forseon ; forSan ]>e we geseoS 
hwaet nu to-dae : is, ac we nyton hwaet to merigen biS to- 
weard. Forwel oft cymS se baeftan us, J)e us mid swyft- 
nysse godre drohtnunge fore-staepS, and we earfo^lice him 
filia'8 to-merigen, se^e nu to-daeg is ure folgere gej»uht. 
Witodlice faSa se forma cySere, Stephanus, for Godes 
geleafan gest^ned waes, Saulus heold ealra J)aera st^nendra 


hacelan ; and, swa-];eah, Faulus si^J^an fore-stop Stephanum 
on Godes gela'Sunge, mid msenigfealdum geswincum, ])one 
]>e he ^r ehtende martyr gemacode. 

Twa ))ing sind ]>e we sceolon carfullice scrutnian ; Merest, 
j^aet ure nan be him sylfum to dyrstelice ne truwige ; sy6- 
8an, ])8et ure nan be his nextan ne ortruwige, J»eah Se h^ 
on leahtrum befeallen sy ; forSan ]?e us synd uncuSe J)a 
micclan welan Godes mildheortnysse. pyssere mildheort- 
nysse welan besceawode se sealm-sceop, paSa he to Gode 
])us clypode : Min gefylsta ! pe ic synge ; forSan ^e fu, 
God, eart mm andfenga, mm God, and mm mildheortnyss. 
Efne se sealm-wyrhta understod on hwilcum gedeorfum 
pis mennisce Iff is gelogod, and forSi clypode God his ge- 
fylsta. He gecfgde Drihten his andfenga, forpan pe h^ 
underfehS us in to ecere reste fram pisum andweardum 
geswince. He beheold paet God gesihS ure yfelnyssa, and 
ure gyltas forpyldgaS : and swa-peah he sparaS us arfaest- 
lice, and purh behreowsunge to paere ecan mede gehylt. 
pa nolde he gecigan God mildheortne, ac het hine his 
mildheortnys, pus cweSende : Mm God and mm mild- 
heortnys ! Uton gemunan ure ^rran synna, and uton 
besceawian pa micclan Godes arfaestnysse, hu he urum 
gyltum miltsaS, and paer-to-eacan paet heofenlice rfce beh^t 
soSlice daedbetendum aefter gyltum. Uton forSi ealle cly- 
pian mid inweardre heortan, swa swa se sealm-sceop cly- 
pode : pu eart mfn God and mm mildheortnys. Godes 
mildheortnys us fore-staep'S, and his mildheortnys us fyligt5. 
paSa we wel noldon, pa forhradode Godes mildheortnys us, 
paet we wel woldon : nu we wel willaS, us fyligt5 Godes 
mildheortnys paet ure willa ydel ne sy. He gearcaS urne 
godan willan to fultumigenne, and he fylst pam willan ge- 
gearcodne, se^e leofaS and rixat^ nu and symle on worulde. 



Nu wille we ymb Europa land-gemaere reccan, swa mycel 
swa we hit fyrmest witon, fram J)8ere ea Danais west 08 
Rhm ^a ea, seo wyl6 of paein beorge ]>e man Alpis ha^t, 
and yrn^ |)onne nor^ryhte on Jjaes garseeges earm, pe |)aet 
land utan-ymb li^ pe man Bryttannia haet, and eft suS op 
Donua fa ea, faere ^wylme is neah J)8ere ea Rfnes, and is 
siSSan east yrnende wi6 Crecaland ut on pone Wendel-sde, 
and norS op pone garsecg pe man Cwen-s^ haet, binnan 
paem syndon manegaSeoda ; ac hit man haet eall Germania. 

ponne wyS norSan Donua ^wylme, and be eastan Rme 
syndon East-francan ; and be su^an him syndon Swasfas, 
on o^re healfe paere ea Donua, and be suSan him and be 
eastan syndon Baegt5vvare, se dael pe man Regnesburh haet; 
and rihte be eastan him syndon Beme, and east-nor(5 syndon 
Dyringas, and be nort5an him syndon Eald-Seaxan, and be 
nort5an-westan him syndon Frysan. And be westan Eald- 
Seaxum is ^IfemuSa paere ea, and Frysland, and panon 
west-norS is paet land pe man Angle haet, and Sillende, 
and sum^ dael Dena, and be norSan him is Apdrede, and 
east-norf5 Wylte, pe man ^Efeldan haet, and be eastan him 
is Winedaland, pe man haet Sysyle, and east-su6, ofer 
sumne dael, Maroaro. And hf Maroaro habbaS be westan 
him Dyringas and Behemas and BaegSware^ healfe, and be 
suSan him, on o8re healfe Donua pasre ea, is paet land Ca- 
rendre su6 oS t5a beorgas pe man haet Alpis. To paem 
ilcan beorgum licgaS BaegSwara land-gemaere and Swaefa ; 
and ponne be eastan Carendran lande, begeondan paem 

* MS. Sumne. •> MS. Bae^are. 



westenne, is Pulgaraland, and be eastan Jjsem is Crecaland ; 
and be eastan Meroarolande is Wisleland, and be eastan 
|)9em sind Datia, ]>a. pe iu waeron Gottan ; be eastan-norSan 
Maroara syndon Dalamensan, and be eastan Dalamensam 
sindon Horithi, and be norSan Dalomensam sindon Surpe, 
and be westan him sindon Sysele ; be norSan Horithi is 
MaegSalond, and be nor^an MaegSalande Sermende, ot5 (5a 
beorgas Riffin ; and be westan SuS-Denum is pses gar- 
secges earm ])e liS ymbutan J»8et land Brittannia ; and be 
norSan him is pas s^s earm |)e man haet Ost-s^, and be 
eastan him and be norSan him syndon NorS-Dene, aegpaer 
ge on ])0em maran landum ge on ]?a3m iglandum ; and be 
eastan him syndon Afdrede, and be su^an him is JEUe- 
mu6a ])aere ea, and Eald-Seaxna sum dael. 

Nor^-Dene habbaS him be norSan pone ilcan s^s earm 
j)e man Ost-s:Je hast, and be eastan him sindon OstiSaleode, 
and Afdrede be suSan ; Osti habbat5 be nort5an him {)one 
ilcan s^s earm, and Winedas, and Burgendas ; and be suSan 
him syndon Haefeldan ; Burgendan habbaS ]7one ylcan 
Sees earm be westan him, and Sweon be norSan ; and be 
eastan him sint Sermende, and be suSan him Surfe ; Sweon 
habbaS be suSan him pone s^s earm Osti, and be eastan 
him Sermende, and be nort5an ofer pa westennu is Cwen- 
land ; and be westan-norSan him sindon Scrfde-Finnas, and 
be westan NorSmenn. 

Ohthere's Narrative. 

Ohthere ssede his hlaforde, ^Elfrede kynincge, paet he 
ealra NortSmanna nort5mest bude. He cwaeS pset he bude 
on paem lande nort5weardum wiS pa West-s^ ; he ssede 
peah paet paet land sy swySe lang norS panon, ac hit is eall 
weste, buton on feawum stowum sticcemaelum wiciatS Fin- 
nas on huntat^e on wintra, and on sumera on fiscoSe be 


J7Gere s£e. He saede J)aet he set sumum cyrre wolde fandian, 
hu laiige |)aet land norS-rihte laege, o6Se hwae])er aenig man 
be norSan psem westene bude ; ]?af6r he norS-rihte bepajiu 
lande, let him ealne weg paet weste land on jjaet steorbord, 
and |>a wfd-s^ on bsecbord, fry dagas : pa waes he swa feor 
nortS swa Sa hwael-huntan fyrrest farat5. pa for he pa-gyt 
norS-ryhte swa he mihte on paem oSrum ])rim dagum gese- 
glian ; pa beah past land paer easte-ryhte, oS6e sio s^ in on 
past land, he nyste hwaeper, buton he wiste paet he paer bad 
westan windes, oSSe hwon norSan, and seglede panon east 
be lande, swa swa he mihte on feower dagum geseglian ; 
]>a. sceolde he bfdan ryhte nor^an windes, f'orSan past land 
paer beah suS-rihte, oSt5e seo s^ in on past land, he nyste 
hwaeper.' pa seglede he panon suS-rihte be lande, swa swa 
he mihte on fff dagum geseglian. Da lasg paer an mycel 
ea up in paet land ; pa cyrdon hy up in on Sa ea, for<5aem 
hyne dorston for^ be paere ea seglian for unfriSe, forpaem 
past land waes eall gebtin on oSre healfe paere ea. Ne mette 
he ^r nan gebtin land sySSan he fram his agnum hame for ; 
ac him waes ealne weg weste land on past steorbord, butan 
fisceran and fugeleran and huntan ; and paet waeron ealle 
Finnas, and him waes a wfd-s^ on paet baecbord. 

Da Beormas haefdon swiSe well gebiin hyra land, ac hi 
ne dorston paer-on cuman ; ac Sara Terfinna land waes eall 
weste, butan paer huntan gewicodon, oS6e fisceras, oS"6e 
fugeleras. Fela spella him saedon pa Beormas, seg'Ser ge 
of hyra agenum lande ge of paem landum ^ pe ymb hy utan 
waeron ; ac he nyste hwaet paes soSes waes, forpaem he hit 
sylf ne geseah. pa Finnas, him puhte, and pa Beormas 
spraecon neah an geSeode. 

SwiSost he for Syder, to-eacan paes landes sceawunge, 
for paem hors-hwaelum, forpaem hi habbaS swySe aeSele ban 
on hyra tcSum. pa tet5 hy brohton sume paem cynincge ; 

• MS. lande. 


and hyra hyd bit5 sw'v6e god to scip-rapum. Se hw^l biS 
micle Isesse fonne ot5re hwalas, ne bi^ he lengra ]?onne 
syfan elna lang. Ac on his agnum lande is se betsta 
hw8el-huntat5 ; pa beoS eahta and feowertiges elna lange, 
and fa msestan fiftiges elna lange ; fara he saede ]?8et he 
syxa sum ofsloge syxtig on twam dagum. He waes swiSe 
spedig man on paem aehtum ]?e heora speda on beoS, J)aet is, 
on wildeorum^: he hsefde fa-gyt, ])a he pone cyningsohte, 
tamra deora unbebohtra syx hund. Da deor hi hata'5 
hranas, para waeron syx stgel-hranas ; pa beoS swySe dyre 
mid Finnum, forpsem hy fo^ pa wildan hranas mid. He 
waes mid paem fyrstum mannum on paem lande, naefde he 
peah ma ponne twentig hrySera, and twentig seeapa, and 
twentig swyna ; and pset lytle past he erede he erede mid 
horsan ; ac hyra ar is maest on psem gafole pe Sa Finnas 
him gyldaS, paet gafol bi^ on deora fellum, and on i'ugela 
feSerum, and hwaeles bane, and on paem scip-rapum pe beoS 
of hwaeles hyde geworht, and of seoles. iEghwilc gylt be 
his gebyrdum, se byrdesta sceal gildan fiftyne mearSes fell, 
and fif hranes, and an beran fell, and tyn ambra feSra, and 
berenne kyrtel, ot5^e yterenne, and twegen scip-rapas, aegper 
sy syxtig elna lang, oper sy of hwaeles hyde geworht, oSer 
of sioles. 

He saede paet Nor^manna land waere swy'8e lang and 
swi^e smael. Eall paet his man aper o'66e ettan oSSe erian 
maeg, paet liS witJ pa s^, and paet is peah on sumum stowum 
swyt5e cludig, and licgaS wilde moras wi6 eastan, and wiS 
uppon emnlange paem bynum lande. On paem morum 
cardial Finnas. And paet byne land is easteweard bradost, 
and symle swa norSor swa smaelre : easteweard hit mseg 
bion syxtig mila brad, o^Se hwene braedre, and midde- 
weard pritig ot56e bradre ; and norSeweard, he cwaeS, pser 
hit smalost waere, paet hit mihte beon preora mila brad to 
* MS. wildrum, eo add. m. r. 


|>aem more, and se mor syS])an on sumum stowum swa brad 
swa man maeg on twam wucum oferferan ; and on sumum 
stowum swa brad swa man maeg on syx dagum oferferan. 

Donne is to-emnes |)aeni lande su^eweardum on o6re 
healfe ]>ses mores Sweoland, oJj lpa^i land norSweard, and 
to-emnes j^aem lande norSeweardum, Cwenaland. Da 
cwenas hergia6 hwilum on ])a Nor^men ofer J)one mor, 
hwilum |)a NorSmen on hy. And ]?8er sint swiSe micle 
meras fersce geond |)a moras ; and beraS pa, Cwenas hyra 
scypu ofer land on ]?a meras, and panon hergia^ on J>a 
Northmen. Hy habbaS swySe Ij'tle scipa, and swiSe leohte. 

Ohthere stede J)8et sio scfr hatte Halgoland, ]>e he on 
bude. He cwae^ |)8et nan man ne bude be nortSan him. 
ponne is an port on suSeweardum J>8em lande, pone man 
haet Sciringes-heal, jjyder he cwaeS pset man ne mihte 
geseglian on anum monSe, gyf man on niht wicode, and 
aelce dsege haefde ambyrne wind. And ealle pa. hwile he 
sceal seglian be lande, and on Jjaet steorbord, him biS ^rest 
Isaland% and J>onne |)a igland pe synd betwux Isalande* 
and |)issum lande. ponne is |)is land oS he cymS to Sci- 
ringes-heale, and ealne weg on J)8et bsecbord NorSwege. 
Bi wis su6an pone Sciringes-heal fylS swySe mycel sde up 
in on paet land, seo is bradre ponne senig man oferseon 
maBge ; and is Gotland on oSre healfe ongean, and siS6a 
Sillende. Seo s^ liS maenig hund mila up in on past land. 

And of Sciringes-heale, he cwseS paet he seglode on fff 
dagum^ to paem porte pe mon beet set Haet^um, se stent betuh 
Winedum and Seaxum and Angle, and hyrS in on Dene. 
Da he piderweard seglode fram Sciringes-heale, pa waes him 
on paet baecbord Denamearc, and on paet steorbord wfd-s^ 
pry dagas ; and pa twegen dagas ^r he to Haepum come, 
him waes on paet steorbord Gotland and Sillende and ig- 
landa fela. On paem landum eardodon Engle, ^r hi hider 
* MS. Iraland. *" MS. dagan. 


on land comon. And hym wses "Sa twegen dagas on past 
baecbord J)a igland pe in Denemearce hyraS. 

Wulfstan's Narrative. 

WuLFSTAN saede |?aet he gefore of HaeSum, ])aet he waere 
on Truso on syfan dagum and nihtum, fast J)aet seyp waes 
ealne weg yrnende under segle. Weonodland him waes on 
steorbord, and on baecbord him waes Langaland, and L^- 
land, and Falster, and Sconeg, and J)as land eall hyra'S to 
Denemearcan. And J?onne Burgendaland waes us on baec- 
bord; and ])si habbaS him-sylf cyning. Donne aefter Bur- 
gendalande waeron us Jjas land ]>& synd hatene, ^rest Ble- 
cingeg, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland on baecbord, 
and pas land hyraS to Sweon. And Weonodland waes us 
ealne weg on steorbord 06 Wisle-mu^an. Seo Wisle is 
swySe mycel ea, and heo toliS Witland and Weonodland ; 
and |)aet Witland belimpeS to Estum, and seo Wisle liS t!t 
of Weonodlande, and li(5 in Estmere ; and se Estmere is 
huru fiftene mila brad, ponne cyme(5 Ilfing eastan in Est- 
mere, of f am mere fe Triiso standee in staSe, and cumaS 
ut samod in Estmere Ilfing eastan of Eastlande, and Wisle 
suSan of Winodlande ; and ponne benimS Wisle Ilfing hire 
naman, and lige^ of paem mere west and norS on sj5e ; forSy 
hit man haet Wisle-muSan. 

Daet Eastland is swySe mycel, and paer biS swytJe manig 
burh, and on aelcere byrig biS cyningc, and paer biS swySe 
mycel hunig and fiscat5 ; and se cyning and J>a rfcostan men 
drincaS myran meolc, and pa unspedigan and pa peowan 
drincaS medo. Daer biS swy^e mycel gewinn betweonan 
him, and ne biS t5a?r naenig ealo gebrowen mid Estum, ac 
paer bi'S medo genoh. And paer is mid Estum 5eaw, ponne 
paer bitS man dead, paet he liS inne unforbasrned, mid his 
magum and freondum, mona^, gehwilum twegen : and pa 


kyningas and fa oSre heah^ungene men swa micle lencg 
swa hi maran speda liabbaS, hwilum healf gear pset hi beot5 
unforbaerned, and licgaS bufan eor^an on hyra husum. 
And ealie J»a hwile f»e f»8et lie biS inne, |>8er sceal beon ge- 
drync and plega, o^ Sone daeg pe hi hine forbasmaS. ponne 
])y ylcan daeg hi hine to J)8em ade beran wyllaS, ]7onne to- 
daelaS hi his feoh J^set J?8er to lafe biS, aefter paem gedrynce 
and paem plegan, on fiT o^Se syx, hwilum on ma, swa swa 
])8es feos andefn biS. AlecgaS hit }>onne forhwaega on anre 
mile ])one meestan dael fram J)8em tune, f>onne o6erne, ]?onne 
J>aene J>riddan, op]>e hyt eall aled bi6 on f»aere anre mile ; 
and sceall beon se laesta dsel nyhst ]>aem tune t5e se deada 
man on liS. Donne sceolon beon gesamnode ealle 6a men 
Se swyftoste hors habbaS on faem lande, forhwaega on fff 
milum, oSSe on syx milum fram paem feo. Donne aernat5 
hy ealle toweard faera feo ; Sonne cymeS se man se ))aet 
swifte hors hafaS to faem ^restan dajle and to J^aem maes- 
tan, and swa aelc aefter oSrum, oS hit biS eall genumen ; 
and se nimS Jjone laestan dael se nyhst Saem tune Saet feoh 
geaerneS. And fonne rideS aelc hys weges mid San feoh, 
and hyt motan habban eall ; and forSy J>aer beoS pa. svvyftan 
hors ungefohge dyre. And ponne his gestreon beoS )>us 
eall aspended, fonne byrS man hine ut, and forbaerneS 
mid his waepnum and hraegle, and swiSost ealle his speda 
hy forspendaS mid ])am langan legere |)aes deadan mannes 
inne, and Jjaes pe hy be faem wegum alecgaS, J?eSa fremdan 
to aernaS and nimaS. And })aet is mid Estum J^eaw, J>aet 
faer sceal aelces geSeodes man beon forbaerned ; and gyf 
paer man an ban findeS unforbaerned, hi hit sceolan miclum 
gebetan. And faer is mid Eastum an maegS J?aet hi magon 
cyle gewyrcan, and ]>y faer licgaS fa deadan men swa lange 
and ne fuliaS, faet hy wyrcaS fone cyle hine on ; and feah 
man asette twegen faetels full ealaS oSSe waeteres, hy gedoS 
fast ofer biS ofer-froren, sam hit sy summor sam winter. 


The Death of Cyrus. 
CiRUS Persa cyning, ])e we ^r beforan saedon, J)a hwile |)e 
Sabini and Romane wunnon on jjam west-daele, ])a hwile 
wann he, asgj?er ge on Sci^Sige ge on Indie, o^ he hsefde 
maest eallne paene east-dsel awest ; and aefter ))am, fyrde 
gelaedde to Babilonia, pe ])a vvelegre wa^s ]7onne aenig o^er 
burh, ac hine Gandis seo ea lange gelette J)aes ofer-faereldes, 
for]?ani ])e ]?aer scipa nseron ; paet is eallra ferscra waetera 
maest, butan Eufrate. Da gebeotode an his fegena ]?aet he 
mid sunde ])a ea oferfaran wolde, mid twam tyncenum ; ac 
hine se stream fordraf. Da gebeotode Cirus ]?aet he his 
pegen on hyre swa gewrecan wolde, J>a he swa gram wear^ 
on his mode, and wi^ J>a ea gebolgen, faet hy mihton wff- 
men be heora cneowe ofer-wadan, ])3er heo ^r waes nygan 
mila brad, ]>onne heo flede waes. He ))aet mid daedum ge- 
laeste, and hi up-forlet on feower hund ea, and on syxtig ea ; 
and syS^an mid his fyrde ])aer-ofer for ; and aefter f)am, 
Eufrate ]?a ea, seo is masst eallra ferscra waetera, and is 
yrnende ^urh middewearde Babilonian burh, he hy eac 
mid gedelfe on menige ea upp-forlet, and syS^an, mid eal- 
lum his folce, on paere ea-gang, on ))a burh farende waps, 
and hy geraehte. Swa ungelyfedlic is aenigum men })aet to 
gesecganne, hu aenig man mihte swylce burh gewyrcan, 
swylce seo waes, oSSe eft abrecan. 

NembraS se ent ongan ^rest timbrian Babilonia, and 
Ninus se cyning aefter him, and Sameramis his cwen hi 
geendade aefter him, on middewerdum hyre rfce. Seo burh 
waes getimbrad on fildum lande, and on swiSe emnum, and 
heo waes swi^e faeger on to locianne, and heo is swiSe rihte 
feowerscyte, and ))aes wealles mycelnyss and faestnyss is un- 
gelyfedlic to secgenne, ))aet is, ]?aet he is i, hund elna brad, 
and II. hund elna heah, and his ymbgang is hund-seofantig 
mila, and seofeSan dael anre mile, and he is geworht of 
tigelan and of eorS-tyrewan, and ymbutan J>one weall is 


seo mfBsta dfc, on 'pam. is yrnende se ungefotlicosta stream ; 
and wit5utan J)am dice is geworht twegra elna heah weall, 
and bufan ]>am maran wealle, ofer eallne J>one ymbgong, 
he is mid stdenenuni wig-husum beworht. Seo ylce burh 
Babylonia, seo]?e maest wses and derest ealra burga, seo is 
nu laest and westast. Nu seo burh swylc is, pe ^r waes 
eallra weorea fsestast and wundorlicost and mserast, gelfce 
and heo waere to bysne asteald eallum middanearde, and 
eac swylce heo sylf sprecende sy to eallum mancynne, and 
cweSe, Nu ic pus gehroren eom and aweg-gevviten, hwaet ge 
magon on me ongitan and oncnawan, pset ge nanuht mid 
eow nabbaS faestes ne stranges, J^aette furhwunian maege. 

On pam dagum fe Cirus, Persa cyng. Babylonia abraec, 
pa. waes Croesus, se LiSa cyning, mid fyrde gefaren Babylo- 
nium to fultume ; ac pa he wiste ])aet he him on nanum lul- 
tume beon ne mihte, and J»aet seo burh abrocen waes, he 
him hamweard ferde, to his agenum rfee, and him Cirus 
waes aefter-fyligende, 06 he hine gefeng and ofsloh. Ond 
nu ure Cristene Romana besprycS ]?aet hyre weallas for 
ealdunge brosniaS, nalaes na forpam pe heo mid forhergunge 
swa gebysmerad waere, swa Babylonia waes, ac heo for hyre 
Cristendome nu gyt is gescyld, paet aegper ge heo sylf, ge 
hyre anweald, is ma hreosende for ealddome, J?onne of 
aeniges cyninges niede. 

iEfter )jam Cirus gelaedde fyrde on SciSSie, and him })aer 
an giong cyning mid fyrde ongean for, and his modor mid 
him, Damaris. Da Cirus for ofer paet land-gemaere, ofer 
pa ea pe hatte Araxis, him l)aer se geonga cyning ])aes ofer- 
faereldes forwyrnan myhte, ac he forfam nolde, fy he mid 
his folce getruwade, J>aet he hine beswican mihte, siSt5an he 
binnan paem gemaere waere, and wic-stowe name. Ac ])a 
Cirus geaxsode past hine se geonga cyning faer saecan wolde, 
and eac ]?aet J)am folce seldsyne and uncu|)e waeron wmes 
drencas ; he for|)am of faere wic-stowe afor, on ^ne digle 


stowe, and J^aer beaeftan forlet eall J)aet ])aer liSes wees and 
swetes, J)aet f>a se gionga cyning swi'Sor myccle wenende 
waes ]?set hy |janon fleonde waeron, Jwnne hy eenigne swicdom 
cy]?an dorstan, ]?a hy hit pasr swa aemenne gemetton. Hy 
])a3r |?a, mid mycelre bliSnesse, buton gemetgunge, Jjset wm 
drincende waeron, o'8 hi heora sylfra lytel geweald hsefdon. 
He ])a Cirus hy paer besyrode, and mid ealle ofsloh, and 
sySSan waes farende ])aer J?aes cyninges modor, mid ]7am 
twam daelum J?aes folces, wunigende waes ; ]>a he ]wne ]?rid- 
dan dasl mid pam cyninge beswicen haefde. Heo |?a seo 
cwen Dameris mid mycelre gnornunge ymb J>aes cyninges 
siege hyre suna ])encende waes, hu heo hit gewrecan mihte, 
and ])aet eac mid daedum gelaeste, and hyre folc on twa 
todaelde, aegSer ge w^ffmen ge waepned-men, forSan ]?e J)aer 
wffmen feohta^, swa same swa waepned-men. Hio mid 
J)aem healfan dsele beforan J>am cyninge farende waes, swilce 
heo fleonde waere, oS hio hine gelaedde on an mycel slaed, 
and se healfa dael waes Ciruse aefter-fyligende. paer wearS 
Cirus ofslegen, and twa pusend manna mid him. Seo 
cwen het J)a fam cyninge J>aet heafod of-aceorfan, and be- 
wyrpan on anne cylle, se waes afylled mannes blodes, and 
])us cwaeS, Du f>e ])yrstende waere mannes blodes xxx. 
wintra, drinc nu Sine fylle. 


^FTER ])am ]>e Romeburh getimbred waes VI. hund win- 
trum and LXVII., Romane gesealdon Caiuse lulius seofon 
legion, to J)on Jjast he sceolde fff winter winnan on Gallic, 
^fter J)am fe he hy oferwunnen haefde, he for on Bryttoniae 
J>aet fgland, and wi6 fa Bry ttas gefeaht, and geflymed wear's 
on })am lande ])e man het Cent-land. RaSe ]?aes he gefeaht 
wis ])a Bryttas eft on Cent-lande, and hy wurdon aflymede. 
Heora J^ridde gefeoht waes neah faere ea ])e man haet Te- 


mese, neah J)am forda ]>e man haet Welinga-ford. iEfter 
J>am gefeohte, him eode on hand se cyning, and J?a burhware 
|>e waeron on Cyrnceastre, and sy6t5on ealle fe on pam 
iglande weeron. 

iEfter )>am lulius for to Rome, and baed J>8et him man 
brohte pone triumphan ongean. pa bebudon hy him paet he 
come mid feawum mannum to Rome, and eahie his f'ultum 
beseftan him lete : ac pa he hamweard for, him coman on- 
gean pa pry ealdormenn, pe him on fultume waeron, and 
him saedon, paet hy for his pingum adraefde waeron, and 
eac, paet ealle pa legian waeron Pompeiuse on fultume 
geseald, pe on Romane onwealde waeron, paet he pe faestlicre 
gewin mihte habban wiS hine. Da wende eft lulius to his 
agenum folce, and wepende maende pa unure, pe hy him, 
buton gewyrhton, dyde, and swi^ost para manna pe for his 
pingum forwurdon, and he him aspeon to sippon pa seofon 
legian pe waeron on Silomone pam lande. Da Pompeius, 
and Cato, and ealle pa senatus paet gehyrdon, pa foran hy 
on Greacas, and mycelne fultum gegaderodan, and on 
Thraci paere dune, pa for lulius to Rome, and tobraec 
heora madm-hus, and eall gedaelde paet paer-inne waes, paet is 
unalyfedlic to secganne, cwae6 Orosius, hwaetpaes ealleswaes. 
JEfter pam he for to Samariara paet land, and paer let preo 
legian beaeften him, to pon paet he paet folc to him genyd- 
don, and he sylf, mid pam otSrura daele, for on Ispaniae, paer 
Pompeius legian waeron, mid his prim latteowum, and he 
hi ealle to him genydde. ^fter pam he for on Creacaland, 
paer his Pompeius, on anre dune, onbad, mid xxx. cynin- 
gan, buton his agenum fultume. Da for Pompeius paer 
Marcellus waes, luliuses ladteow, and hine ofsloh mid eal- 
lum his folce. JEher pam lulius besaet Torquatus, Pom- 
peiuses latteow, on anum faestene, and him Pompeius aefter 
for ; paer wearS lulius geflymed, and his folces feala forsla- 
gen, forpam pe him man feaht on twa healfa, on opre healfe 


Pompeius, on o^re healfe se latteow. SitSSan for lulius on 
Thessaliam, and ]?aer his fultum gegaderade. Da Pompeius 
])aet gehyrde, fa for he him sefter mid ungemaetlicum ful- 
tume, he haefde hund-eahtatig coortana, faet we nu truman 
hataS, Jjaet waes on ]?am dagum of hund manna and an m^. 
pis eall he haefde buton his agenum fultume, butan Catone 
his geferan, and buton ];ara senatuses ; and lulius hasfde 
hund-eahtatig coortana. Heora aegSer haefde his folc on 
J)rim heapum, and hi sylfe waeron on J^am midmet^tan, and 
]?a oSre on twam healfa heora. Da lulius haefde aenne ]?8era 
daela geflymed, ]:»a clypode Pompeius him to, ymbe Romane 
ealde gecwydraidene, ])eah j^e hi sylf gelaestan ne J^ohte, 
Gefera, Gefera, gemyne J)ast ]?u ure geferraedenne and cwyd- 
raedenne to lange ne oferbraec. Da andwearde he him and 
cwaeS, On sumere tfde ]m waere mm gefera, and for]7am 
])e J)u nu ne eart, me is eall leofost j^aet ]>e is laSost. Daet 
w£es seo gecwydraeden ])e Romane geset haefdon, ))aet heora 
nan oSerne on ])one andwlitan ne sloge j^aer paer hi hi set 
gefeohtum gemetton. iEfter |)am wordum Pompeius wearS 
geflymed mid eallum his folce, and he sylf si])]7an oSfleah 
on Asiam, mid his wffe and mid his bearnum, and sySSon 
he for on Egyptum, and his fultumes baed aet Ptolomeuse 
])am cyninge, and ra^e ]?aes ])e he to him com, he him het 
|)aet heafud of-aceorfan, and hit sySSon het luliuse onsen- 
dan, and his hring mid ; ac ])a man hit to him brohte, he 
waes maenende pa daede mid miclum wope, for^on he waes 
ealra manna mildheortast on fam dagum. TEher pam 
Ptolomeus gelaedde fyrde wi6 luliuse and eall his folc wearS 
geflymed, and he sylf gefangen, and ealle ])a men lulius het 
ofslean, pe aet ])a3re lare waeran paet man Pompeius ofsloh ; 
and he swa-J>eah eft forlet Ptolomeus to his rfce. JEhev 
pam lulius gefeaht wit5 Ptolomeus ))riwa, and set selcon 
cyrre sige haefde. 

iEfter pam gefeohte ealle Egypti wurdon luliuse under- 


]>eowas, and he him sy'SSon hwearf to Rome, and eft sette 
senatus, and hine sylfne man gesette ])set he waes hyrre 
|>onne consul, paet hi hetan tictator. JEWer psun he for on 
Africe, aefter Catone pam consule. Da he faet geahsode, 
))a laerde he his sunu fast he hi ongean fore, and hine him 
to friSe gesohte, ForSon, cwae^ he, J»e ic wat Jjaet nan swa 
god man ne leofaS swa he is on J>isson hTe, peah ]>e he me 
sy se laSosta; and for^on eac ic ne mseg findan aet me 
svlfum J)ast ic hine sefre geseo. ^Efter J)am worde he eode 
to ]7asre burge weallum, and fleah ut ofer, ])£et he eall to- 
baerst. Ac J»a lulius to ]>aere byrig com, he him waes swy^e 
unease, paet he to him cucon ne com, and J^aet he swylcon 
dea^e swealt. ^Efter pam lulius gefeaht wi6 Pompeiuses 
genefouj and wiS manige his magas, and he hi ealle ofsioh, 
and siSSon to Rome for, and faer waes swa andrysne paet 
him man dyde feower si}>on J>one triumphan, J)a he ham 
com. Si|)J)on he for on Ispanie, and gefeaht wiS Pom- 
peiuses twani sunum, and paer waes his folc swa swi^e for- 
slagen, J>aet he sume hwile wende faet man hine gefon 
sceolde, and he for ]?aere ondraedinge paes J»e swiSor on paet 
werod prang, forpon pe him waes leofre, paet hine man of- 
sloge, ponne hine man gebunde. ^Efter pam he com to 
Rome, and ealle pa gesetnyssa pe paer to strange waeron 
and to hearde, he hy ealle gedyde leohtran and liSran. Hit 
pa, eallum pam senatum ofpincendum and pam consulum, 
paet he heora ealdan gesetnyssa tobrecan wolde, ahleopan 
pa ealle, and hine mid heora met-seaxum ofsticedon, on 
heora gemot-erne : para wunda waes xxvii. 


The Story of Orpheus. 
Gesjelig bits se mon pe maeg geseon pone hluttran aewellm 


J)aes hehstan godes, and of him selfum aweorpan maeg pa. 
J)iostro his modes. We sculon get, of ealdum leasum spel- 
lum, ]?e sum bfspell reecan. Hit gelamp gio jjsette an hear- 
pere waes, on |?a3re J^eode ]?e Thracia hatte, sio waes on Creca 
rfce ; se hearpere wees swi^e ungefraeglice god, ]?8es nama 
wees Orfeus, he hsefde an swi^e ^nlic wiT, sio waes haten 
Eurydice. Da ongann monn secgan be ])am hearpere, faet 
he mihte hearpian ]?aet se wudu wagode, and ]m stanas hi 
styredon for Jjam swege, and wild-deor psdv vvoldan to-irnan 
and standon, svvilce hi tame waeron, swa stille, ])eah hi men 
o6Se hundas wiS eodon, J>8et hi hi na ne onseunedon. Da 
seedon hi ]>2et 6aes hearperes wff sceolde acwelan, and hire 
sawle mon sceolde Isedan to helle. Da sceolde se hearpere 
weor])an swa sarig, pset he ne mihte on gemong o^rum 
mannum bion, ac teah to wuda, and saet on ))am muntum, 
aeg])er ge dasges ge nihtes, weop and hearpode, J^aet ]>a, wu- 
das bifodon, and pa ea stodon, and nan heort ne onscunode 
nasnne leon, ne nan hara naenne hund, ne nan neat nyste 
naenne andan ne naenne ege to oSrum, for ]?aere mirh]?e ])aes 
sones. Da ^tem hearpere J)a fuhte Jjoet hine J?a nanes finges 
ne lyste on fisse worulde, ])a fohte he |)aet he wolde gesecan 
helle gatu, and onginnan him oleccan mid his hearpan, and 
biddan past hi him ageafan eft his wff. Da he Sa J>ider 
com, J?a sceolde cuman |)8ere helle hund ongean hine, paes 
nama waes Ceruerus, se sceolde habban ]7rio heafdu, and 
ongan fasgenian mid his steorte, and plegian wi^ hine for 
his hearpunga. Da waes ])aer eac swi^e egeslic geat-weard, 
]>aes nama sceolde beon Caron, se haefde eac ])rio heafdu, 
and se waes swi^e oreald. Da ongan se hearpere hine bid- 
dan, ])aet he hine gemundbyrde pa hwfle ]>e he J?aer waere, 
and hine gesundne eft panon brohte. pa gehet he him 
paet, forpaem he waes oflyst paes seldcupan sones. Da eode 
he fur^or oS he gemette pa graman gydena ]>e folcisce 
men hata^ Parcas, pa hi secgat5 paet on nanum men nyton 


nane are, ac eelcum menn wrecan be his gewyrhtum ; J>a hi 
Seagate ]>8et wealdan aelces monnes wyrde. pa ongann he 
biddan hiora miltse ; fa ongunnon hi wepan mid him. Da 
eode he furfor, and him urnon ealle hellvvaran ongean, and 
laeddon hine to hiora eyninge, and ongunnon ealle sprecan 
mid him, and biddan J^ass ]?e he baed. And })aet unstille 
hweol ]?e Ixion wses to-gebunden, Laiuta cyning, for his 
scylde, past otSstod for his hearpunga, and Tantalus se cy- 
ning, ]>e on J>isse worulde ungemetlice gifre wees, and him 
)>aer J»aet ilce yfel fyligde |)aes gifernesse, he gestilde. And 
se uultor sceolde forlaetan, paet he ne slat ]?a lifre Tyties 
pass cyninges, fe hine ^r mid fy witnode ; and eall hellwara 
witu gestildon, fa hwile pe he beforan fam eyninge hearp- 
ode. Da he 6a lange and lange hearpode, fa clipode se 
hellwarana cyning, and cwaeS, Uton agifan faem esne his 
wff, forfam he hi haefS geearnod mid his hearpunga. Be- 
head him fa, f aet he geara wiste, faet hine naefre underbaec 
ne besawe, siffan he fononweard waere, and saede, gif he 
hine underbaec besawe, fast he sceolde forlaetan fast wff. 
Ac fa lufe mon maeg swiSe uneaf e forbeodan ; wei la wei ! 
hwaet Orfeus fa laedde his wff mid him, o6Se he com on 
faet gemaere leohtes and f eostro ; fa eode faet wff aefter 
him. Da he forS on faet leoht com, fa beseah he hine 
underbaec wi(5 f aes wffes ; fa losede heo him sona. Das 
leasan spell laera^ gehwilcne man, fara 6e wilnaS helle 
f iostra to flionne, and to fees sofes Godes liohte to cumenne, 
faet he hine ne besio to his ealdum yfelum, swa faet he hi 
eft swa fuUice fullfremme, swa he hi ^r dyde ; forf am swa 
hwa swa, mid fullon willan, his mod went to fam yflum fe 
he ^r forlet, and hi fonne^fulfremeS, and he him fonne 
fullice licia6, and he hi naefre forlaetan ne fenct5, fonne 
forlyst he eall his ^rran god, buton he hit eft gebete. 


The Story of Ulysses. 

Hit gebyrede gio on Troiana gewinne J^aet faer wses an 
cyning ]?aes nama Aulixes, se hsefde twa ])ioda under J)am 
kasere. pa Sioda wseron hatene ISacige and Retie ; and 
pses kaseres nama waes Agamemnon. Da se Aulixes mid ]?ani 
kasere to ))am gefiohte for, pa. hsefde he sume hundred scipa. 
Da wseron hi sume ten gear on f»am gewinne, J>a se cyning 
eft ham cerde from )?am kasere, and hi j^aetland haefdon ge- 
wunnen ; }>a naefde he na ma scipa })onne an, paet wses J)eah 
|)re-re]7re. pa gestod hine heah weder and storm s^, wearS 
])a fordrifen on an iglond ut on J^aere Wendel-sae ; ]?a waes 
J)aer ApoUines dohtor, lobes suna, se lob waes hiora cyning, 
and licette ]?aet he sceolde bion se hehsta god, and }>aet dy- 
sige folc him gelyfde, forfam 6e he wass cyne-cynnes, and 
hi nyston naenne ojjerne god on J?aene timan, buton hiora 
cyningas hi weor]?odon for godas. Da sceolde ]?aes lobes 
faeder bion eac god, ])aRs nama waes Saturnus, and his swa 
ilce ael cine hi haefdon for god ^ pa waes hiora an se Apol- 
linus, ]?e we ^r yrab-spraecon. pass Apollines dohtor sceolde 
bion gydene, J^aere nama waes Kirke ; sio hi saedon sceolde 
bion swiSe drycraeftigu, and sio wunode on ]?am iglande, ]>e 
se cyning on fordrifen wearS, ]?e we ^r ymbe-spraecon. 
Hio haefde ]?aer swit5e micle werode hire pegna, and eac 
ot5erra maedena. Sona swa hio geseah ]?one fordrifenan 
cyning, Se we ^r ymb-spraecon J)aes nama waes Aulixes, J)a 
ongan hio hine lufian, and hiora aegj^er oSerne swiSe unge- 
metlice, swa faette he for hire lufan forlet his rfce eall, and 
his cynren, and wunode mid hire oS ,))one first }>set his 
Segnas him ne mihton leng mid gewunian ; ac for hiora 
eardes lufan, and for paere wrace, tihodon hine to forlse- 
tanne. Da ongunnon lease men wyrcan spell, and saedon 
paet hio sceolde mid hire drycraeft J>a men forbredan, and 
* Leg. forte, and his swilce eal cyn hi haefdon for godas. 

)ipf,m«if-|.jp WW i^«ii|pnif,'i"ijiwjii'i"««wi-wi in-'.iwi'ip".»rw.' 


weorpan hi an wilde deora Ifc, and sit5San slean on pa rac- 
centan and on cospas. Sume hi saedon fast hio sceolde 
forsceoppan to leon, and ]>onne seo sceolde sprecan J)onne 
rynde hio ; sume sceoldan bion eforas, and ))onne hi sceol- 
dan hiora sar siofian fonne grymetodan hi ; sume wurdon 
to wulfan, f»a ^uton fonne hi spraecan sceoldon ; sume 
wurdon to |)am deorcynne ])e mon hat tigris. Swa weor^ 
eall se geferscipe forhwerfed to mistlicum deorcynnum, aelc 
to sumum diore, buton J)am cyninge anum. iElcne mete 
hi onscunedon ]>e men etaS, and wilnodon fara )>e deor 
eta^. NsBfdon hi nane anlicnesse manna ne on lichoman 
ne on stemne, and aelc wisste feah his gewit swa swa he ^r 
wisste. paet gewit was swi^e sorgiende for |)am ermSum 
pe hi drogan. Hwaet pa. menu pe pysum leasungum gelef- 
don, peah wisston paet hio mid pam drycraefte ne mihte 
para manna mod onwendan, peah hio pa lichoman onwende. 
Eala paet hit is micel craeft paes modes for pone lichoman. 
Be swilcum and be swilcum pu miht ongitan paet se craeft 
paes lichoman bi^ on pam mode, and paette aelcum menn ma 
deria^ his modes unpeawas; paes modes tioS eallne pone 
lichoman to him, and paes lichoman mettrumnes ne maeg 
paet mod eallunga to him getion. 


The Life of Saint Hild, 

WITH AN Account of the Poet C^edmon. 

Be life and for'Sfore Hilde >aere Abbudissan. 

W^s ymb syx hund wintra and hund-eahtatig from paere 
Dryhtenlican men niscnesse, paette seo serfeste Cristes peowe. 


Hild, Abbudisse faes mynstres ]>e is cweden Streoneshalh, 
swa swa we beforan ssedon, sefter monigum heofonlicum 
daedum 'Se heo on eor))an dyde, to onfonne J>aes heofonlican 
lifes mede, and heo of eor]7an alsedded, leorde, ])y fifteofan 
daege kalendarum Decembrium, mid py heo haefde syxand 
syxtig wintra, ])aem wintrum todaeldum efenlice daele : ])reo 
and Jjrittig ]?a arestan heo sej^ellice gefylde in weoruldhade 
drohtiende, and efen feolo J>a aefter-fylgendan heo aej^elicor 
in munuc-life Drihtne gehalgade. Wees heo eac swylce 
sefele in weoruld-gebyrdum, ]>sdt heo waes Edvvines fees 
cyninges nefan dohtor, se waes Hereric haten ; mid ])y cy- 
ninge he to bodunge, and to lare paere eadegan gemynde 
Paulinus, faes ^restan biscopes Nor])an-hymbra, Cristes 
geleafan and geryno onfeng, and ))one unwemme geheold, 
ot5]?3et pe he geearnode ]?aet he to his gesihSe becom. 

Da heo ]7a Hild weoruldhad forleort, and Gode anum 
geteohode feowian, 'Sa gewut heo in East-Engla maegfe, 
forJ)on heo waes J)8es cyninges maege ; wilnade J)anon, gif 
heo meahte, J?set heo wolde hire e]?el forlaetan, and eal paet 
heo for weorulde haefde, and wolde cuman in Gallia rfce, 
and in Cale t5am mynstre in elfeodignesse for Dryhtne lifian, 
]?aet heo ]>j eS meahte faet ece e])el in heofonum geearnian ; 
for]?on fe in J»aem ylcan mynstre hire sweoster HereswyS, 
seo waes Aldwulfes modor, East-Engla cyninges, regollicum 
feodscypum underfeoded, in fa tfd bad )}one ecan sige, 
■Ssere bysene heo waes onhyrgende in foresetnesse elj^eodunge, 
and call ger in faere foresprecenan maegj^e East-Engla haefd 
waes, offset heo eft from Aidane ]?aem biscope waes ham 
gelaj)ad and gesponnen. Da onfeng heo anes hiwscipes 
stowe to nort5-daele Wire ]?aere ea, and faer efenlice an gear 
munuc-lff dyde mid feawum hire geferum. ^fter Jjyssum 
heo waes geworden abbudisse in faem mynstre fe is geciged 
Heortea. Daet raynster waes geworden and getimbred noht 
micle ^r fram Hegu paere ^restan Cristes feowe, seo ^rest 


wffa is saegd in Nor]?an-hymbra m8eg|)e J>8et heo munuc- 
hade and halig refte onfenge, })urh halgunge Aidanes |?aes 
biscopes. Ac heo nalses sefter med-micelre tfde j^aes fe ]>set 
mynster getimbred waes, gewat to faere ceastre ]>e in Englisc 
is haten Kalcacester and hire J>aer wic asette, |)3et heo Gode 
inlifde. Da feng to J)3es mynstres gerece Hild, seo Cristes 
feowe, and heo faet sona mid regollice life gesette and 
geendebyrdade, swa swa heo aet geleeredum wsepned-mon- 
num geleornian mihte ; forj^on ]7e Aidan se biscop and mo- 
nige ojjre aefeste weras and gode, fa ]>e hie cu|)on, for hire 
snytro and wfsdorae, and fore lufan pass godcundan })eow- 
domes, hi gelomlice neosodan and sohton, and hie georne 
lufedon, and hie geornlice tydon and laerdon. 

Mid ]?y heo })a feala geara pyssum mynstre in regollices 
lifes lare swiSe geornful fore waes, Sa gelomp faet heo on- 
feng mynster to timbrienne and to endebyrdienne, in stowe 
seo is gecyged Streoneshalh, and heo piaet weorc, J»e hire J>a 
to gefeoded waes, unaswundenlice gefyllde ; forfon Jja sylfan 
fe ^r |?aet mynster heoldon and rihton, heo mid peodscipum 
regollices lifes insette, and trymede: ond hie eac swylce 
J>aer soSfaestnesse and arfaestnesse and claennesse and oJ?era 
gastlicra maegena gehyld, and swi]?ust sibbe and Godes 
lufan geornlice laerde, faette, on bysene paere frym])elican 
cyricean, naenig faer welig waes, ne naenig waedla, ac eallum 
waere eal gemaene, noht agnes aenigum gesewen waes. Waes 
heo swa micelre snytro and wfsdomes, Jjaette nalass faet an 
J^aette jja mettran men ymb heora nedj?earfnesse waeron, ac 
eac swylce cyningas and ealdormen oft from hire gefeaht 
and wfsdom sohton, and hine faer gearone gemetton ; ond 
hie swa swiSe [on]* leornunge godcundra gewrita and 
soSfsestnesse weorcum hire underfeoddan dyde to biggong- 
enne, J>aette paer efelice monige mihton gemette beon, fa 
pe to ciriclicum hade, faet is to wigbedes fenunge, gef ungen 
* The words within brackets are not in the Corp. Chr. MS. 

F 2 


weeron : )>8et is to tacne, faet we gesegon eefter J>an fif 
biscopas fa fe of paem ylcan mynstre comon, and ))8er ge- 
l^rde waeron, ealle mycelre geearnunge and halignesse 
weras : pa waeron pus hatene and nemde, Bosa, i^tla, 0ft- 
for, lohannes and Wilfrid. Big paem ^restan we bufan 
cweedon, paet he waere in Eoforwic-ceastre to biscope ge- 
halgad ; bi ]>sam aeftran is hrasdlice to witanne, paet he waes 
on Dorce-ceastre to biscope gehalgad ; big poem nehstan 
tvvam her is aefter to cwepenne, paet heora se f^rra wees set 
Heagostealdes ea, and se seftra wses in Eoforwic-ceastre, to 
biscope gehalgad. 

Be paem midlestan is nu to secgenne. pa he, in aeghwae- 
perum mynstre, Hilde paere abbudissan geornlice his leorn- 
unge aetfalb, pa wolde he eac swilce Rome gesecan, paet in 
pa tfd waes micles msegenes teald and gelyfed. Da he 
panon eft hwearf, pa gesohte he eft Breotone, ferde Sa in 
Hwiccia maegpe, paer waes pa Osric cyning, and he paer 
Godes word and paes halgan geleafan bodade and laerde, 
and somod aetgaedere lifes bysene on him seolfum gegear- 
wade eallum pam pe hine gesegon and gehyrdon, and he 
micle tfde paer wunade. In pa ylcan tfd, se biscop paere 
maegpe, se waes Bosel haten, waes mid swa micelre untrum- 
nesse his lichoman hefigad, paet he pa bisceop-penungepurh 
hine [sylfne] penian ne mihte ; forpon pa, ealra heora 
dome, se foresprecena w^er for hine in biscophad waes ge- 
coren, and pa, purh ^pelredes haese, Myrcna cyninges, 
paere eadegan gemynde WilfriS biscop hine to biscope ge- 
halgade, se on pa tfd pone bysceophad penade Middel-Engla; 
forSon pe se arcebysceop Theodor waes pa for^fered, and 
naenig oper bysceop pa-gena fore hine gehalgad waes. On 
paere ylcan maegpe, hwene ^r, paet is ^r pam foresprecenan 
Godes men Boosle, waes of paere ylcan abbudissan mynstre 
sum from wer, and wel gelaered, and scearpre gleawnesse, 
to biscope gecoren, paes noma waes TaatfritS, ac ^rpon t$e 


he gehadod beon mihte, he waes mid hraedlice dea^e for- 
gripen. Ond seo foresprecene Cristes ]?eowe Hild abbu- 
disse, ealle ]?a]?e hie cu])on, for arfaestnesse tacne and Godes 
gyfe, gewunadon hi moder cygan and nemnan ; and nalass 
)>aet an, J^aet heo in hire mynstre paem andweardum Iffes 
bysene gestode, ac eac swylce monigum feor-wuniendum, 
to faeni ]>e se gesaeliga hhsa hire geornfulnesse and hire 
maegenes becom, Jjaet him godre rece and haslo intingan 

Waes ]?aet eac gedefen, |)aet ]?8et swefen gefylled waere, 
J)8ette BregoswiS, hire modor, geseah on hire cildhade. Da 
Hereric, hire wer, wracade under Cerdice, Bretta cyninge, 
and fser waes mid atre acweald ; J)a geseah heo, purh 
swefn, svva svva he semninga from hire ahafen and alacded 
waere. Da sohte heo hine mid eallre geornfullnesse, and 
naenige s\va}>e his owern aetywdon. Da heo fa hine bihi- 
dilice and geornlice sohte, fa gemette heo semninga, under 
hyre hraegle, gyldene sigele swiSe deorwyr^e. pa heo fa 
geornlice hi sceawode and beheold, fa waes heo gesawen 
mid swa micle beorhtnesse [fast heo eal Breotene gemaero 
mid hire leohtes sciman] gefyllde. paet swefen waes soSlice 
gefylled on hyre dehter, be faere we nu sprecaS ; forf on 
hyre Iff nalaes hyre anre and hyre underfeoddum waes 
leohtes bysen, ac swiSe monigum wide, fam fe woldan 
Gode wel leofian. 

Mid Sy heo fa monig ger fyssum mynstre, faet ys aet 
Streonesheale, on abbudissan f egnunge fore waes, fa licade 
fam ^rfaestan Foreseonde ure haelo, hyre fa halgan saule 
eac swylce mid longre untrumnesse lichaman ademde and 
asodene beon ; faet aefter faes apostoles bysene hyremaegen 
on untrumnesse gefremed and getrymed waere. Da waes 
heo gestanden mid hefigre untrumnesse lichaman, and f urh 
syx singal ger faere ylcan hefinesse adle unblinnendlice won, 
and on ealre faere tfde heo naefre blan hyre Scyppende 


^Imihtigum Gode )?ancuncge don ; ge eac pa bebodenan 
heorde hyre manian and l^ran : hi ealle gemyndige wseron 
hyre bysene, Jjset hi on J?am gesundlican pingum and on 
paere onfangenan heelo lichaman heo geornlice Drihtne 
peowde and hyrde; and on pam wiSerweardum pingum, 
o'SSe on lichaman untrumnessum, paet heo symle getreow- 
lice Dryhtne pancunge dyde. 

Da wees py seofoSan geare hyre untrumnesse paet seo adl 
and J>aet sar hwyrfde on hyre innopas, and heo becom to 
pam ytemestan dsege, and, ymb hancred utan, heo onfeng 
vvegnyste paere swit5e halgan gemsensumnesse Cristes licha- 
man and his blodes. Da gehet heo pa Godes peowas to 
hyre, pa pe on pam ylcan mynstre waeron, and heo pa-gyt 
hi manode and I^rde, paet hi betweoh him heoldon and 
eallum Godes mannum sibbe and lufan, and betweoh pa 
word hyre trymnesse and lare, heo bliSe deaS geseah ; and 
gen soSre, paet ic Drihtnes wordum sprece, paet heo of deaSe 
ferde to life. 

Da waes on paere sylfan nihte, paet se ^Imihtiga Drihten 
hyre forSfore on oprura mynstre fyr gesettum, paet heo py 
ylcan geare ^r getimbrade, and is nemned Haconos, mid 
sweotolre gesyh^e, waes geeaSmodad to onwrionne. Waes 
on pam sylfan mynstre sum haligu nunne paere nama waes 
BeguswyS, seo waes Dryhtne gehalgad on claenum maegp- 
hade, ma ponne pritig wintra ; and heo paer on munuchade 
Dryhtne peowade. Da waes heo restende on sweostra slaep- 
erne, pa gehyrde heo semninga on paere lyfte uppcundne 
sweg, and hleopor clucggan paere hi gewunedon to gebedum 
gecigde and awehte beon, ponne heora hwylc of worulde 
gefered waes. Da geseah heo, openum eagum, paes pe hyre 
puhte, of paes buses hrofe ufan micel leoht cuman, and call 
paet hus gefyllde. Da heo pa on paet leoht behydilice lo- 
cade, and hit georne beheold, pa geseah heo paere forespre- 
cenan Godes peowe saule, Hilde paere abbudissan, on pam 


sylfan leohte, engla weredum gelaedendum, to heofonum 
up-geborene beon. 

Mid Sy heo pa. pj slaepe tobragd, ]?a geseah heo o|)re sweos- 
tor ymb hi restende, J>a onget heo, ge on ]?am swefne ge on 
hyre modes gesyh^e, hire aetywed beon })aet heo geseah ; 
and heo sona aras, mid micle ege afyrhted, and arn to J>3ere 
faemnan, ]>e pa J^aes niynstres abbudysse waes, Hylde geong- 
ra, Jjcere nama waes FreogyS, and heo mid wope and mid 
tearum waes swiSe geondgoten, and longe sweorettunge waes 
teonde ; and hire saegde, ealra heora moder Hilde abbu- 
dissan fa of weorolde geleoran, and, hyre geseondre, mid 
micele leohte and mid engla freatum, to J?aem ecan leohte 
heofona rfces wuldres, and to gemanan ])ara uplicra ceaster- 
werena astigan. Da heo pa faet gehyrde, pa awehte heo 
ealle pa, sweostor, and het to cyrcan gan, and in gebedum 
and on sealm-songe for heora modor sawle georne fingedon. 
Da hie fset ))a georne dydon pa. lafe faere nihte tfde, J^a co- 
mon, swi^e ^r in dagunge, sume bro^or, ]>a pe hire forSfore 
saegdon from ])aere stowe pe heo for^fered waes ; andswere- 
don hie and cwaedon, J>aet hi ]>aet ilce ^r wiston and ongea- 
ton ; and pj hie ])a furh endebyrdnesse ]?am bro])rum araeh- 
ton, hu hie J»as p'lng and hwaenne hie geleornodon ; and hie 
him saedon in hwylce tfd heo of middangearde leorde. pa 
waes gemeted faette hire geleornes waes in ])a ylcan tfd pe 
hire J)urh ))a gesiht^e aetywed waes ; ond, mid faegerre ge- 
pwaernesse J>ara wisena, waes godeundlice foresewen, paet 
mid fy hie hire utgong gesawon of ]?yssum life, fa fa tip 
hire ingong ongeton in fset ece Iff haligra sawla. Daer 
syndon betweonon fam twam mynstrum freottyne rafla 

Daet on hire mynstre waes sum bro"Sor, J)am godeundlice forgifen waes 
gyfu to singanne. 

On f isse abbudissan mynstre, waes sum bro^or synderlice 


mid godcundre gyfe gem^red, and geweor]?ad ; forfon he 
gewunade gerisenlice leoS wyrcean, ]?a J)e to aefaestnesse 
and to ^rfasstnesse belumpon ; swa ]?aette swa hwaet swa he 
of godcundum stafuni ]7urh boceras geleornade, faet he aefter 
med-miclum faece in scop-gereorde, mid J)a maestan swet- 
nesse and inbryrdnesse geglencde, and in Englisc gereorde 
wel gehwaer forSbrohte ; and for his leoS-songum, monigra 
monna mod oft to worolde forhohnesse, and to gej^eodnesse 
faes heofonlican liTes onbaernde waeron. Ond eac swylce 
monige o^re aefter him in Ongel-J>eode ongunnon sefeste 
leo^ wyrcan, ac naenig hwaepere him faetgelice don meahte; 
for|)on he nalaes from monnum ne furh mon gel^red waes, 
faet he )^one leoScraeft geleornade ; ac he waes godcundlice 
gefultumod, and ]7urh Godes gyfe )>one songcraeft onfeng ; 
ond he for})on naefre noht leasunga, ne ideles leofes wyrcan 
meahte, ac efne J>a an J)a J>e to aefestnesse belumpon, and 
his yd aefestan tungan gedafenode singan. 

Waes he se mon in weoruldhade geseted oS Sa tfde J>e he 
waes gelyfedre yldo, and he naefre aenig leoS geleornade : 
and he for)>on oft in gebeorscipe, ponne ])aer waes blisse 
intingan gedemed, faet hie ealle sceoldon J)urh endebyrd- 
nesse be hearpan singan, Sonne he geseah ])a hearpan him 
nealaecan, Jjonne aras he for scome from J)aem symble, and 
ham eode to his huse. Da he J^aet J)a sumre tfde dyde, faet 
he forlet ))aet htis J)aBS gebeorscipes, and ut waes gongende 
to neata scypene, J)ara heord him waes fsere nihte beboden, 
t5a he fa faer in gelimplicre tfde his limo on reste gesette 
and onslaepte, J)a stod him sum mon aet, J)urh swefn, and 
hine halette and grette, and hine be his naman nemde, 
Caidmon, sing me aethwegu. pa andswarode he, and cw£et5, 
Ne con ic noht singan, and ic forJ»on of J)yssum gebeorscipe 
ut-eode, and hider gewat, forfon ic noht cuSe. Eft he 
cwaeS, seSe mid him sprecende waes, HwaeSere ]>u meaht 
me singan. CwaeS he, Hwaet sceal ic singan. CwsetS he, 


Sing me Frumsceaft. Da he pa J>as andsware onfeng, Sa 
ongan he sona singan, in herenesse Godes Scyppendes, ])a 
f'ers and ]>a. word ]>e he naefre ne gehyrde, J)ara endebyrd- 
nes ]?is is. 

Nu we sceolan herian eort5an bearnum, 

heofon-rices Weard, heofon to hrofe, 

Metodes mihte, halig Scyppend ; 

and his mod-gefone, }>a middangeard, 

wera Wuldor-Faeder ; moncynnes Weard, 

swa he wundra gehwass, ece Dryhten, 

ece Dryhten, sefter teode 

oord onstealde. firum foldan. 

He ^rest geseeop, Frea iElmihtig. 

Da ar^s he from ]}3em slaepe, and eall J>a pe he slsepende 
song faeste in gemynde haefde, and J»aem wordum sona mo- 
nig word in ]?8et ylce gemet, Gode wyr|)es songes, to-ge- 
feodde. Da com he on marne to fam tun-gerefan, sepe his 
ealdormon waes, him saede, hwylce gyfe he onfeng, and he 
hine sona to jjsere abbudyssan gelaedde, and hire jjaet cySde 
and saegde. pa het heo gesomnian ealle |7a gelaerdestan 
men and ]>sl leorneras, and him andweardum het secgan ))aet 
swefn, and ]>aet leo^ singan, ]?aette eallra heora dome gecoren 
waere, hwaet o^t5e hwonon ]?aet cumen waere. Da waes him 
eallum gesegen, swa swa hit waes, past him waere from 
Dryhtne sylfum heofonlic gifu forgifen. Da rehton hie 
him and saegdon sum halig spell, and godcundre lare word : 
bebudon him |)a, gif he mihte, faet he him sum sunge, and 
in swinsunge leot5songes J>aet gehwyrfde. Da he ]?a heefde 
]?a wfsan onfangene, J?a eode he ham to his huse, and com 
eft on morgen, and, ]>y betstan leoSe geglenged, him asong 
and ageaf J^aet him beboden waes. 

Da ongan seo abbudysse clyppan and lufian pa Godes 
gyfe in paem men, and heo hine pa monode and l^rde, paet 



he weoroldhad forlete, and munuchade onfenge ; ond he 
J)8et wel ])afode ; and heo hine in faet mynster onfeng mid 
his godum, and hine gefeodde to gesomnunge ]7ara Godes 
)7eowa, and het hine l^ran J)aet getael faes halgan staeres and 
spelles ; ond he eall paet he in gehernesse geleornian raihte, 
mid hine gemyngade, and, swa claene nyten eodorcende, in 
])8et sweteste leot5 gehwyrfde, and his song and his leoS 
waeron swa wynsiim to gehyrenne, ]>8et ])a sylfan his lareovvas 
aet his nmSe writon and leornodon. Song he ^rest be mid- 
dangeardes gesceape, and be fruman moncynnes, and eall 
])aet steer Genesis, ])8et is seo ^reste Moises boo, and eft be 
titgonge Israela folces of ^'Egypta londe, and be ingonge 
|)aes gehat-londes, and be oSrum monigum spellum paes 
halgan gewrites canones boca, and be Cristes menniscnesse, 
and be his prowunge, and be his up-astignesse on heofonas, 
and big faes Halgan Gastes cyme, and fara apostola lare ; 
and eft bi pam ege J»aes toweardan domes, and be fyrhto 
)jaes tintreglican wites, and be swetnesse faes heofonlican 
noes, he monig leo8 geworhte ; and swylce eac oper monig 
be |?am godcundum fremsumnessum and domum he ge- 
worhte. On eallum pam he geornlice gymde paet he men 
atuge fram synna lufan and man-daeda, and to lufan and to 
geornfullnesse awehte godra dagda ; for|)on he waes se mon 
swiSe aefest, and reogollicum ]?eodseypum eaSmodlice un- 
derjjeoded ; and wiS ]>am pa, ^e on oJ?re wfsan don woldon, 
he waes mid wylme micelre ellenwodnesse onbaerned, and 
he for])on faegere ende his Iff betynde and geendade. 

ForJ>on pa. Saere tide nealecte his gewitenesse and fortS- 
fore, 8a waes he feowertyne dagum ^r, j^aet he waes licum- 
licre untrymnesse ))rycced and hefigad, hwaej)ere to )>on 
gemetlice, )?aet he ealle fa tfd mihte ge sprecan ge gangan. 
Waes ]7aer on neaweste untrumra manna hus, on J)am hyra 
])eaw waes ]?aet hi fa untruman, and pa ]>e aet fortJfore waeron, 
inlaedan sceoldan, and him faer setsomne fenian. Da bsed 


he his ]>en, on aefenne J^aere nihte J»e he of worulde gangende 
waes, J)8et he on ])am huse him stowe gegearwade, J»8et he 
restan mihte. Da wundrade se feng for hwon he faes bsede, 
forfon him Jjuhte past his forSfore swa neh ne waere, dyde 
hwaefere swa swa he cwaeS and bebead : ond mid ]>j he })a 
]?aer on reste eode, and he gefeonde mode sumu ])ing aetgae- 
dere mid him sprecende and gleowiende waes pe ]7aer ser 
inne waeron, J)a waes ofer middeniht ])aet he fraegn, hwaeper 
hi aenig husel J^aer-inne haefdon ? Da andswarodon hie and 
cwtfidon, Hwilc fearf is ]>e busies? Ne Jjfnre for^fore swa 
neh is, nu })u pus rotlice and fus glaedlice to us sprecende 
eart. CwaeS he eft, Berat5 me hwaej^ere husel to. Da he 
hit on handa haefde, pa. fraeng he, hwaefer hi ealle smylte 
mod, and butan eallum incan, bliSe to him haefdon ? Da 
andswarodon hi ealle, and cwaedon, ])aet hi naenigne incan 
to him wistan, ac hi ealle him swiSe bliSe mode waeron, 
and hi wrixendlice hine baedon J>aet he him eallum bliSe 
w£ere. Da andswarode he, and cwaet5, Mfne brojjro ]?a 
leofan, ic eom swiSe blij?m6d to eow and to eallum Godes 
monnum. And he swa waes hine getrymmende mid py 
heofonlican wegneste, and him opres lifes ingang gearwade. 
Da gyt he fraegn, hu neh paere tfd waere, paette pa broSor 
arfsan sceoldon, and Godes folc l^ran and heora uht-sang 
singan ? Andswearodon hi, Nis hit feor to pon. CwaeS 
he, Tela, utan we wel paere tfde bidan ; and pa him gebaed, 
and hine gesenade mid Cristes rode-tacne, and his heafod 
onhylde to pam bolstre, and med-mycel faec onslaepte, and 
swa mid stillnesse his Iff geendade. Ond swa waes geworden, 
paette swa swa he hluttere mode and bylewite and smyltre 
willsumnesse Drihtne peowde, paet he eac swylce swa smylte 
deat5e middangeard waes forlaetende, and to his gesyhSe 
becom. And seo tunge pe swa monig halwende word on 
paes Scyppendes lof gesette, he pa swylce eac pa ytemestan 
word on his herenesse, hine sylfne seniende, and his gast 


in his handa bebeodende, betynde. Eac swylce )?3et is ge- 
segen % |>8et he waere gewis his sylf es tbrSfore, of fam ]>e 
we nu secgan hyrdon. 


Mid pi ^e se cyning J)as word gecweeS, Sa faeringa]?ar eode 
in 'Saes cynges iunge dohtor, and cyste hyre faeder and Sa 
ymbsittendan. Da heo becom to Apollonio, fa gewaende 
heo ongean to hire faeder, and cwaeS, Du goda cyningc, 
and min se leofesta faeder, hwaet is pes iunga man, pe ongean 
Se on swa wurSlicum setle sit, mid sarlicum andwlitan ? 
nat ic hwaet he besorgaS. Da cwaj'5 se cyningc, Leofe 
dohtor, J>es iunga man is forliden, and he gecwemde me 
manna betst on Sam plegan ; forSam ic hine gelaSode to 
Sysum urum gebeorscipe. Nat ic hwaet he is, ne hwanon 
he is ; ac gif Su wilie witan hwaet he sy, axsa hine, forSam 
pe gedafenaS faet fu wite. Da eode J^aet maeden to Apol- 
lonio, and mid forwandigendre spraece cwaeS, Deah Su stille 
sy and unrot, |)eah ic ])ine aeSelborennesse on Se geseo : nu 
]>onne, gif Se to hefig ne |>ince, sege me pinne naman, and 
pin gelymp arece me. Da cwaeS ApoUonius, Gif Su for 
neode axsast aefter minum naman, ic secge pe, ic hine for- 
leas on s^. Gif Su wilt mine aeSelborennesse witan, wite 
Su paet ic hig forlet on Tharsum. Daet maeden cwaeS, Sege 
me gewislicor, })aet ic hit maege understandan. ApoUonius 
fa soSlice hyre arehte ealle his gelymp, and aetfare spraecan 
ende him feoUon tearas of Sam eagum. 

Mid pj Se se cyngc faet geseah, he bewaende hine Sa to 
Sare dohtor, and cwaeS, Leofe dohtor, fu gesingodest mid fy 
pe fu woldest witan his naman and his gelimp : Su hafast 
nu ge-edniwod his ealde sar ; ac ic bidde pe faet fu gife him 
swa hwaet swa J)u wille. DaSa J>«t maeden gehirde 'paet hire 
* MS. gesaegd : the original has videtur. 

'•,Wip"W,'-"»*i'J!WTffl«W- !?J^<»Vi»iW«W»f 


waes alyfed fram hire faeder ]?a3t heo ^r hyre silf gedon 
wolde, t5a cwaeS heo to Apollonio, Apolloni, soSlice Jju eart 
ure; forleet |)ine murcnunge ; and nu ic mines feeder leafe 
haebbe, ic gedo J)e weligne. Apollonius hire faes ])ancode, and 
se cyngc blissode on his debtor welwillendnesse, and hyre 
to cwaeS, Leofe dohtor, hat feccan fine hearpan, and gecig 
Se to J)inum frynd, and afirsa fram J>am iungan his sarnesse. 
Da eode heo ut, and bet feccan hire hearpan ; and sona 
swa heo hearpian ongan, heo mid winsunium sange ge- 
maegnde Jjare hearpan sweg. Da ongunnon ealle ]>a, men 
hi herian on hyre swegcraeft, and Apollonius ana swigode. 
Da cwaeS se cyningc, Apolloni, nu Su dest yfele, forSam J>e 
ealle men heriaS mine dohtor on hyre swegcraefte, and ]>u. 
ana hi swigende taelst. Apollonius cwaeS, Eala |)u gdda 
cyngc, gif Su me gelifst, ic secge j>8et ic ongite J>aet soSlice 
pin dohtor gefeol on swegcraeft ; ac heo naefS bine na wel 
geleornod. Ac hat me nu sillan J)a hearpan, ]?onne wast 
]>u nu |>aet ]7U git nast. Arcestrates se cyning cwaeS, Apol- 
loni, ic oncnawe soSlice paet ]?u eart on eallum pingum wel 
gel^red. Da bet se cyng sillan ApoUonige ]>& hearpan. 
Apollonius pa ut-eode, and bine scridde, and sette aenne 
cyne-helm uppon his beafod, and nam pa hearpan on his 
hand, and in-eode, and swa stod paet se cyngc and ealle pa 
ymbsittendan wendon pset be naere Apollonius, ac paet he 
waere Apollines, Sara baeSenra god. Da wearS stilnes and 
swfge geworden innon Sare bealle, and Apollonius bis 
bearpe-naegl genam, and be pa hearpe-strengas mid crsefte 
astirian ongan, and pare hearpan sweg mid winsumum 
sange gemsegnde ; and se cyngc silf and ealle pe par and- 
wearde waeron, micelre staefne cliopodon, and bine beredon. 
JEfter pisum forlet Apollonius pa hearpan and plegode, and 
fela faegera pinga par forSteah, pe pam folce ungecnawen 
waes and ungewunelic : and beom eallum pearle licode selc 
para pinga Se be forSteah. 



Hek kiS hu Saturnus and Saloman fettode ymbe heora 

pa cwEet5 Saturnus to Salomane, Sage me hwer God 
s^te ])a he geworhte heofonas and eorSan ? Ic ))e secge, he 

ssett ofer fet5erum. Sage me hwilc word ^rust fort5- 

eode of Godes muSe ? Ic ])e secge, Fiat lux et facta lux. 
Saga me for hwilcum ])ingum heofon sy gehaten heofon ? 
Ic ])e secge, for])on he behelaS call paet hym be ufan byt5. 
Saga me hwaet is God ? Ic ]?e secge })aet ys God ]>e eaile 
]3ing on hys gewealdum hafaS. Saga me on hu fela dagum 
God geworhte ealle gesceafta? Ic ])e secge on vi. dagum 
God gesceop ealle gesceafta: on ])am ^rostan daege he 
gesceop leoht; on ])am eefteran daege he gesceop ]?a ge- 
sceapu pe ]?isne heofon healdaS ; on ]?am J^riddan daege he 
gesceop s^ and eorSan ; on |>am feorSan daege he gesceop 
heofonaes tunglon ; and on ^am v. daege he gesceop fixas 
and fugelas ; and on t5am vi. daege he gesceop deor, and 
nytenu, and Adam, ^one ^rostan man. Saga me hwanon 
waes Adames nama gesceapen ? Ic ]>e secge fram iiii. steor- 
rum. Saga me hw^aet hatton fage ? Ic ]>e secge Arthox, 
Dux, Arotholem, Minsymbrie. Saga me faet andworc |)e 
Adam waes of-geworht, se frusta man ? Ic ]>e secge of 
VIII. punda gewihte. Saga me hwaet hatton J)age ? Ic ]>e 
secge fset ^roste waes foldan pund, of Sam him waes flesc 
geworht ; oSer waes fyres pund, fanon him waes Jjaet blod 
read and hat ; pridde waes windes pund, ])anon him waes seo 
ae6ung geseald ; feorSe waes wolcnes pund, J^anon him waes 
his modes unstaSelfaestnes geseald; fifte waes gyfe pund, 
f anon him waes geseald se fat and geSang ; syxste waes blost- 
nena pund, })anon him waes eagena myssenlicnys geseald ; 


seofo'8e wass deavves pund, ])anon him becom swat ; eahto'Se 
waes sealtes pund, fanon him waeron fa tearas sealte. Saga 
me on hwilcere ylde wees Adam, Sa he gesceapen waes? 
Ic ]>e secge he waes on xxx. wintra yldo. Saga me hu lang 
woes Adam on laenge gesceapen ? Ic ]>€ secge he waes vi. 
and ex. ynca lang. Saga me hu fela wintra leofode Adam 
on fissere worulde ? Ic ])e secge he leofode ix. hund win- 
tra, and xxx. wintra, on geswince and on yrmt5e ; and syS- 
San to helle ferde, and |)ar grimme witu J)olode v. })usend 
wintra, and twa hund wintra, and viii. and xx. wintra. Saga 
me hu fela wintra haefede Adam ^r he beam strinde ? Ic 
])e secge an hund wintra, and xxx. wintra, ^r he beam 
strinde; and J^a gestrinde he beam on his cnihthade, se 
hatte Seth, and he f'a leofode ealles nygon hundred wintra, 
and xxx. on fissere worulde. Da lyfde Seth his sunu an 
hund wintra, and v. wintra, der he beam gestrinde, and ])a 
gestrinde he bearn, on his cnihthade, se haette Enos, and 
])a lyfde he hym sylf ealles nygon hund wintra, and xii. 
wintra. Da haefede Enos an hund wintra, pa gestrinde he 
Chanan, and ]>a lyfde he Enos ealles nygon hund wintra, 
and V. wintra. And ]>a. haefede Chanan lxx. wintra, ]>a, 
gestrinde he Malaleh, and Chanan lyfde pa ealles nygon 
hund wintra, and x. wintra. pa haefede Malaleh v. and lx. 
wintra, pa gestrinde he lared ; and Malaleh he lyfde ealles 
nygon hund wintra, and v. wintra. Da haefede lared ii. 
and LX. wintra, and an hund wintra, pa gestrinde he Enoh ; 
and Tared his faeder lyfde ealles eahta hund wintra, and ii. 
and LX. wintra. Da haefede Enoh v. and lx. wintra, pa 
gestrinde he Matusalem ; and Enoh lyfde ealles ccc. wintra, 
and V. and lx. wintra ; pa genara hine God, myd sawle and 
myd lychaman, up in pone heofon. Da haefede Mathusalem 
VII. and lxxx. wintra, and an hund wintra, pa gestrinde he 
Lamec ; and Matusalem his faeder lyfde ealles nygon hund 
wintra, and ix. and lx. wintra. Da haefede Lamec an hund 


wintra, and lxxxii. wintra, fa gestrinde he Noe ; and La- 
mec lyfde ealles vii. hund wintra, and lxxvii. wintra. Da 
haefede Noe d. wintra, }>a gestrinde he beam, Sem, Cham, 
lafet ; and Noe lyfde ealles in fissere worulde dcccc. win- 
tra, and L. wintra. Saga me hu faela J)eoda awoeon of his 
III. bearnum ? Ic ]>e secge, lxxii. feoda sindon ; and of 
Seme his yldestan suna awoeon xxx., and of Cham xxx., 
and of lafeSe xii. Saga me hwaet w8rs seSe acenned naes, 
and aeft bebyrged wses on his moder inno6e, and aefter ])am 
deat5e gefuUod wses ? Ic J»e secge, faet was Adam. Saga 
me hu lange lyfde Adam on neorxena-wange ? Ic fe ssecge 

and on J>am he abyrgde pa forbodenan fic- 

trew^es bioeda, and ])£et on frigdseg, and furh paet he was 
on helle v. ];usend wintra, and ii. c. wintra, and viii. and 
XX. wintra. Saga me of Sea Maria ylde. Ic pe secge, heo 
wees III. and syxtig geara eald, J»a heo be lyfon waes, and 
heo was xiiii. wintra, |>a heo Crist cende, and heo waes 
myd him xxxiii. geara on niyddanearde, and heo waes xvi. 
ger aefter him on worulde. And fram Adame, and of frim^e 
myddaneardes, was on getal gerfmes, oS J)one micelan Noes 
Add, II. ])usend wintra, and ii. c. wintra, and ii. and lx. 
wintra ; and fram )?am flode waes of Abrahames gebyr-tfde 
IX. c. wintra, and ii. and xl. wintra ; and fram Abrahame 
waes ]>a, fort5 o^ Moises tfd, and Israela ofer-far ut of 
Egyptam, v. c. wintra, and viii. wintra ; and fram frimSe 
myddaneardes 06 Cristes J?rowunge waeron vi. ))usend win- 
tra, and hund wintra, and viii. and l. wintra. Saga me 
hu lange worhte men Noes earce? Ic J?e secge, lxxx. 
wintra, of J)am treow-cinne pe is genemned Sem. Saga me 
hwaet hatte Noes wyf? Ic J?e secge, heo haette Dalila. 
And hwaet hatte Chames wyf? laftarecta heo hatte. And 
hwaet hatte lafeSes wyf ? Ic }>e secge, Catafluuia heo hatte ; 
and otJrum naman hyg sindon genemnede, OUa, and OUma, 
and OUibana, swa hyg ))reo hatton. Saga me hu lange 


wees Noes Md ofer eorSan ? Ic J)e secge, xl. daga and 
nihta. Saga me hu laiig was Noes earc on lenge ? Ic ]>e 
secge, heo wses ccc. faeSema lang, and l. fae^ema wfd, and 
XXX. faet5eraa heah. Saga me hwaet suna haefede Adam ? 
Ic ]>e secge, xxx. sunena, and xxx. dohtra. Saga me hwilc 
mann atimbrode ^rust ceastre ? Ic pe secge, Knos hatte, 
and wees Niniuem seo burh, and wseron ])arin gemanna 
hund-tweltig pusenda, and xx. jjusenda; and Hierusalem 
seo burh heo waes ^rost aefter pam Noes flode getymbrod. 
And hwaet haette seo burh })8er sunne up on morgen gaet5 ? 
Ic J?e secge, laiaca hatte seo buruh. Saga me hwar gae^ 
seo sunne on ^fen to saetle ? Ic J>e secge, Garfta hatte seo 
burh. Saga me hwiic wyrt ys betst and selust? Ic ])e 
secge, lilige hatte seo wyrt, forpon ]>e heo getacnaS Crist. 
Saga me hwilc fugel ys selust ? Ic ]>e secge, culfre ys se- 
lust, heo getacnaS Sone Halegan Gast. Saga me hwanon 
cym^ ligetu ? Ic secge, heo kim6 fram winde and fram 
watere. Saga me hwilc water is selust ? Ic pe secge, 
lordanem seo ea ys selust, forpon pe Crist waefs on hyre 
gefuUod. Saga me hwider gewiton pa. engelas pe Gode 
wiSsocon on heofona rfce ? Ic pe secge, hyg todaeldon on 
]?ri daelas ; anne dael he asette on ))aes lyftes gedrif, oj^erne 
dael on paes wateres gedrif, J^riddan dcel on helle neowel- 
nysse. Saga me hu fela is woruld-watra ? Ic pe secge, 
twa syndon sealte s^, and twa fersce. Saga me hwilc man 
erost waere wyt$ hund sprecende ? Ic pe secge, Scs Petrus. 
Saga me hwilc man a]?ohte ^rust myd sul to aeriende ? Ic 
pe secge, faet waes Cham, Noes sunu. Saga me forhwam 
stanas ne synt berende ? Ic pe secge, forJ)on pe Abeles 
blod gefeoll ofer stan, J>a hyne Chain hys broj^er ofsloh myd 
anes esoles cyng-bane. Saga me hwaet ys betst and wyrst 
betwin^n mannon ? Ic pe secge, word ys betst and wyrst 
betwix mannon. Saga me hwaet ys cuJ?ost mannon on 
eorSan to witanne ? Ic j^e secge, ]?aet nys naenygum men 


nanwyht swa cuS swa he sceal deaS frowian. Saga me 
hwaet syndon Jia iii. fing ]>e nan man buton lufian ne maeg ? 
Ic ]?e secge, on ys fyr, oSer ys wseter, pridde ys ysen. Saga 
me hwiic treow ys ealra treovva betst ? Ic ]?e secge, faet 
ys wfn-treow. Saga me hwar restet$ J>aes mannes sawul, 
Jjonne se lychama slepS ? Ic ]>e secge, on frim stowum 
heo byS : on ])am bragene, o]?]>e on ))ere heortan, op]>e 
on |?am blode. Saga me for hwan waes seo s^ sealt ge> 
worden. Ic ])e secge, of ]mm x. wordum ]>e Moises ge- 
somnode in ]>8ere ealdan ^, Godes bebode, and he awearp 
J?a X. word m ]7a sde, and his tearas aget in J>a sde ; forfon 
wear^ seo sealt. Saga me hwaet waeron fa word ? Ic ];e 
secge, ]?8et forme word wees : Non habeas Deos alienos, J)ast 
is, Ne lufa ])u oferne God ofer me. paet oJ»er word waes, 
Non adsumes nomen Dili in vanum, Ne cig J>u Godes naman 

on ydel. paet J)rid HealdaS ]7one haligan resten daeg. 

paet waes, Ara ffnon faeder and ]>\nve meder, 

word waes, Non occides, Ne sleh ]?u man dine, paet 

vr. word waes, Non mechaberis, On unriht ne haemS J)u. 
paet VII. word waes, Ne stala ]?u. paet viii. word waes, Ne 
saege lease gewitnysse. paet ix. word waes, Ne concupiscas 
uxorem proximi tui, Ne gewilna pu o'Sres mannes wyfes on 
unriht. Saga me hwaer is Moyses byrgen, J>8es kininges ? 
Ic ]>e secge, heo ys be J)am huse ]>e Fegor hatte, and nan 
man nys ]>e hyg wite ^r fam miclan dome. Saga me for 
hwilcum Jjingum feos eorSe awyrged waere, oSSe aeft ge- 
bletsod? Ic ]>e secge, J)urh Adam heo waes awirged, and 
Jjurh Abeles blod, and aeft heo waes gebletsod furh Noe, 

and and ]>urh fulluhte. Saga me hw wfngeard 

^rost plantode ? Ic Ipe secge, J>aet se heahfaeder. 

Saga me hwa nemde ^rost Godes naman ? Ic ]>e secge, 
se deoful nemde ^rost Godes naman. Saga me bwaet is 
hefogost to berenne on eortJan ? Ic fe secge, mannes synna, 
and his hlafordes yrre. Saga me hwaet ys faet oSrum Ifcyge, 


and o^rura myslycige ? Ic J?e secge, ])8et is ddm. Saga 
me hwset syndon fa iiii. fing fe naefre fuUe nseron, ne 
naefre ne beo^. Ic ]>e secge, an ys eorSe, oSer ys ffr, fridde 
ys hell, feorj^e ys se gytsyenda man worulde welena. Saga 
me hu fela ys fleogendra fugel-cynna? Ic 'pe secge iiii. l. 
Saga me hu fela ys fisc-cynna on waetere ? Ic fe secge, vi. 
and XX. Saga me hwilc man ^rost mynster getimbrode ? 
Ic fe secge, Elias and Eliseus J^a wftegan, and, sefter ful- 
luhte, Paulus and Antonius, ]?a ^rostan ancran. Saga me 
hwaet syndon ]>a. streamas, and fa . . . .an, ]>e on neorxena- 
wange flotaS ? Ic ]>e secge, hiora syndon iiii., seo ^roste 
hatte Fison, seo ofer hatte Geon, and seo iii. hatte Tygres, 
seo feorfe Eufraten, faet is meolc, and hunig, and aele, and 
win. Saga me forhwan byS seo sunne read on aefen ? Ic 
fe secge, forfon heo locaS on helle. Saga me hwf scyneS 
heo swa reade on morgene? Ic ]>e secge, forfon hyre 
twyna^ hwaefer heo mceg fe ne maeg fisne myddaneard 
eondscynan, swa hyre beboden ys. Saga me fas iiii. wae- 
tera fe fas eorSan I'edaS ? Ic f e secge, f set ys snaw, and 
waeter, and hagol, and deaw. Saga me hwa ^rost bdc- 
stafas sette ? Ic f e secge, Mercurius se gygand. Saga 
me hweet boc-kinna and hu fela syndon? Ic fe secge, 
kanones bee syndon ealra twa and hund-seofontig, call swa 

fela feo syndon on gerfme, and call swa fela leorn- 

yng-cnihta, butan fam xii. aptm. Mamies bana syndon 
on gerfme eallra cc. and xviii., mannes addre .... eallra 
ccc, and v. and lx. ; mannes tof a beoS on eallum his lyfe 

II. and XXX. On xii. mont5um beoS ii wucena and 

ccc. dagena and v. and lx. daga ; on xii. monSum beoS ehta 

fusend tyda and vii hund tyda; on xii. mon^um 

f u scealt syllan ffnon f eowan men vii. hund hlafa, and xx. 
hlafa, buton morge-mettum and non-mettum. 



Deos wyrt J>e man Mandragoram nemnet5 ys mycel and 
m^re on gesihj^e, and heo ys fremf ul. Da J)u scealt ]?yssum 
geraete niman : J)onne ]?u to hyre cymst, J)onne ongist J>u 
hy, be |)am J)e heo on nihte scfne'S, ealswa leoht-faet. ponne 
Su hyre heafod ^rest geseo, ])onne bewrit J>u hy wel hra]?e 
mid iserne, J'y-lags heo ])e aetfleo. Hyre maegen ys swa 
mycel and swa m^re, J^set heo unclsenne man, J»onne he to 
hyre cymeS, wel hra]?e forfleon wyle. For6y ]?u hy bewrit, 
swa we ^r cwsedon, mid iserne. And swa J)u scealt onbutan 
hy delfan, swa ^u hyre mid ])am iserne na aethrine ; ac ]>u 
geornlice scealt mid ylpenbsenenon staefe Sa eorSan delfan, 
and ]7onne fu hyre handa and hyre t'et geseo, ]>onne gewriS 
J)u hy. Nim J^onne ])9ene o])erne ende, and gewriS to anes 
hundes swyran, swa past se hund hungrig sy : wurp him 
sy])J)an mete to-foran, swa J^aet he hyne ahraecan ne maege, 
buton he mid him ]m wyrte up-abrede. Be fysse wyrte ys 
saed ])a9t heo swa mycele raihte haebbe, J)aet swa hvvylc J>incg 
swa hy up-atyh^, faet hyt sona scyle ))am sylfan gemete 
beon beswycen ; for|)y sona swa J)u geseo ))aet heo up-abro- 
den sy, and ]>u hyre geweald haebbe, genim hy sona on hand, 
swa andwealc hi, and gewring }>aet wos of hyre leafon on 
ane glaesene ampullan, and J)onne Se neod becume )?8et J)u 
hwylcon menn jjaermid helpan scyle, fonne help ]?u hira 
t5yssum gemete : WitS heafod ece, etc. 



Her ys seo bot hu fu meaht ])ine aeceras betan, gif hi nel- 
lat5 wel wexan, o66e ]?aer hwilc ungedefe fing ongedon bit5, 
on dry ot5Se on lyblace. 

A SPELL. 117 

Genim Jjonne on niht, ^r hit dagige, feower tyrf on 
feower healfa ))aes landes, and gemearca hu hy ^r stodon. 
Nim Jjonne ele, and hunig, and beorman, and eelces feos 
meolc J>e on j^aem lande sy, and aelces treow-cynnes dsel J>e 
on faem lande sy gewexen, butan heardan beaman, and 
aslcre namcu|)re wyrte dsel, butan glappan anon ; and do 
Jjonne halig-waeter )?aeron, and drype J)onne ]>riwa on |Jone 
staSol para turfa, and cweSe J)onne J>is word : Crescite, wexe ; 
et multiplicaminiy and gemaenigfealde ; et replete, and ge- 
fylle ; terram, |7as eor])an ; in nomine Patris et Filii et Spi- 
ritus Sancti benedicti ; and Pater noster, swa oft svva faet 
oSer, and bere sij?]7an fa turf to circean, and msesse-preost 
asinge feower msessan ofer J>an turfon, and wende man faet 
grene to ])an weofode, and sij)])an gebringe man ]>a turf J)8er 
hi ^r wseron der sunnan setlgange, and haebbe him geworht, 
of cwicbeame, feower Cristes maelo, and awrfte on aelcon 
ende, Mattheus and Marcus, Lucas and lohannes. Lege 
J)aet Cristes mael on fone pyt neopeweardne : cwe}>e J>onne, 
Crux, Mattheus ; Crux, Marcus ; Crux, Lucas ; Crux, lo- 
hannes. Nim J)onne ])a turf, and saete paer-ufon-on, and 
cwepe ponne nigon sipon pas word : Crescite, and swa oft 
Pater noster, and wende pe ponne eastweard, and onlut 
nigon siSon eadmodlice, and cwet5 ponne pas word ; 

Eastweard ic stande, and heah-reced, 

arena ic me bidde, paet ic mote pis gealdor, 

bidde ic pone m^ran Diie mid gife Drihtnes, 

bidde pone miclan Drihten, topum ontynan, 

bidde ic pone haligan purh trumne gepanc, 

heofon-rfces Weard ; aweccan pas waestmas 

eor^an ic bidde, us to woruld-nytte, 

and up-heofon, gefylle pas foldan 

and pa sopan mid faeste geleafan, 

sancta Marian, wlitigian pas wang-turf ; 

and heofones meaht, swa se witega cwaeS, 



f aet se haefde are on eortJ-nce, daelde ddmlice, 
se]?e aelmyssan Drihtnes fances. 

Wende Se ]?onne friwa sunganges, astrece fonne on and- 
lang, and arim fser letanias, and eweS fonne, Sanctus, 
sanctus, sanctuSy oS ende. Sing J>onne, Benedicite, a])enedon 
earmon, and Magnificat, and Pater noster, and bebeod hit 
Criste, and Sancta Marian, and ]?aere halgan rode, to lofe 
and to weorSinga, and fam [to] are ])e ]?aet land age, and 
eallon J?am fe him underpeodde synt. 

ponne faet eall sie gedon, fonne nfme man uncu'S saed 
aet aelmesmannum, and seile him twa swylc swylce man aet 
him nfme, and gegaderie ealle his sulh-geteogo togaedere ; 
borige Jjonne on })an beame stdr and finol and gehalgode 
sapan, and gehalgod sealt ; nim ponne Jjaet saed, sete on J)aes 
sules bodig ; cweS ponne, 

Geunne him 

ece Drihten, 

and his halige 

J)e on heofonum synt, 

paet hys yrS si gefrijjod 

wis ealra feonda gehwaene, 

and heo si geborgen 

wis ealra bealwa gehwylc, 

para lyblaca 

geond land sawen. 

Nu bidde ic pone Waldend, 

sepe Sas woruld gesceop, 

paet ne sy to paes cwidol wiT, 

ne to pses craeftig man, 

paet awendan ne maege 

word pus gecwedene. 

ponne man pa sulh forSdrife, and pa forman furh onsceote ; 
cweS ponne, 

Erce, erce, erce, 
eorSan modor, 
geunne Se se Alwalda, 
ece Drihten, 
aecera wexendra, 
and wriSendra, 
and elniendra ; 
sceafta hen 
se scfre waestma, 
and paere bradan 
bere waestma, 
and paere hwftan 
hwaete waestma, 
and ealra 
eorSan waestma. 


Hgl wes J?u, folde I on Godes fae^me, 

fira modor, fodre gefylled, 

beo tSii growende firum to nytte. 

Nim Jjonne aelces cynnes meio, and abace man innewerdne 
handa bradnae hlaf, and gecned hine mid meolce, and mid 
halig-waetere, and lecge under )?a forman furh ; cweS ]?onne, 

Ful secer fodres and fas eorSan 

fira cinne, ]>e we on lifiaS, 

beorht-blowende, seGodse|?asgrundasgeworhte 

J)U gebletsod weorS, geunne us growende gife, 

))aes haligan noman, feet us corna gehwylc 

pe 6as heofon geseeop, cume to nytte. 

CweS J>onne ]?riwa, Crescite in nomine Patris benedicti, 
Amen ; and Pater noster priwa. 



Sum swy^e ilaered munuc com su]?an ofer s^, from Saeincte 
Benedictes stowe, on ^Ej^elraedes dagum kynges, to Dun- 
stane archeb., ]?reom gearae aerfam fe he forSferde, and 
sum munuc hatte Abbo. pa wurdon heo on spece, o66et 
Dunstan rehte be Sco Eadraundo, swa swa Eadmundes 
swyrd-borae hit raehte ^felstan kynge, J?aSa Dunstan 
geunc mon waes, and J>e sweord-borae waes forealdod mon. 
Da sette Se munuc alle |)as gerecednysse on ane boc, and eft, 
}>aSa 8eo boc com to us, binnon feawum gearum, J?a awende 
■we hit on Englisc, swa swa hit her aefter stont. pe munuc 


J)a Abbo, binnon twani gearum, wende ham to mynstre, 
and wear^ })a to abbode iset on jjam ylcan mynstre. 

Eadmund, pe aeadigae East-Englae kyng, waes snoter and 
wurSful,and wur^ode symle mid sepele Seawum |?one Almih- 
tigae God. He waes eadmod and ij^uncgen, and swa anraede 
purhwunede, faet he nolde bugaen to bisraerfulle leahtra?, 
ne on nane healfe he ne ahydde his ]?eaw8es, ac waes symle 
mundig ])are so]?an lufe. Gyf |)u eart to heofod-men iset, 
ne ahaefe fu t5e, ac beo betweox monnum swa swa an mon 
of him. He waes cystig waedlum and wydewum, swa swa 
faeder, and mid wael-willendnesse wissode his folc simle to 
rihtwisnesse, and })am re'San styrede and isaeligelice leofode. 
Hit ilamp pa aet nyxtan, paet Sa Deniscae leodae ferden mid 
scyphere, hergende and sleande wide geond lond, swa swa 
heorae wune is. On pam floten waeron Sa fyrstan heafod- 
men, Hinguar and Hubba, geanlaehte purh deofel, and heo 
on Nort^hunibrelond gelaendon mid aescum, and waesten 
paet lond and Sa leoden ofslogen. Da wende Hinguar east 
mid his scypum, and Hubba belaf on Nor^humbraelande, 
wunnenum sige mid waelreownesse. Hinguar bicom pa to 
East-Englum ro wende, on pam geare pe Alfred aepeling an 
and twentig geare waes, pe pe Waest Seaxene king sy^San 
wear^ maere. And pe fore-saede Hinguar faerlice, swa swa 
wulf, to londe bistalcode, and pe leodae sloh, weraes and wif, 
and pa nnwittige child, and to bysmere tucode pa bilewite 
cristene. He sende pa syt5t5an sona to pam kynge beotlice 
aerende, paet he bugon sceolde to his monraedene, gif he 
his feores rohte. De aerendracoe com pa to Eadmunde 
kynge, and Hinguares aerende him heardlice ahead : " Hing- 
uar ure kyng, kene and sigefest on sae and on londe, haefS 
felas peodae iwaeld, and com nu mid ferde ferlice her tolande, 
paet he her winter-selt mid his werode habbe. Nu haet he 
pe daelen pine diglan goldhordaes, and pine aeldrynae streon 
haerlice wiS hine, paet pu beo his under-kyng, gif pu cwyc 


beon wult, forJ>an 'Se Su naefst fa mihte, )?£et Su mage him 
wiSstandaen." Hwset ]>&, Eadmund kyng clypede aenne 
biscop, ]>e him ]>a hendest waes, and wiS hine smeade, hu 
he pam re^an Hinguare berstan sceolde. pa forhtede ]?e 
biscop for ]>am faerlice gelimpe, and for J>8es kynges life, 
and cwaeS, ]?aet him rsed puhte, ))aet he to f»am abuge, ]>e 
Hinguar him bead. Da swywode ]>e kyng, and biseah to 
]?are eorSan, and cwaeS J)a set nyhstan kynelice him to : 
" Eala, J)U biscop, to bysmere beo^ itawode J^aes earman 
lond leodae, and me nu leofre were, ]>8et ic on feohte feolle, 
wi^ J>am Se min folc moste heorae eardes bruceen." And 
pe biscop cwae'S : " Eala, pu leofe kyng, ]>in folc lip ofsla- 
gen, and pu naefst ponne fultume, paet '5u feohten mage, and 
pas flotmen cumasS, and 6e cwicne bindaep, buten pu mid 
fleame pine feore burge, oSSe pu Se swa burge paet 6u 
buge to him." Da cwaeS Eadmund kyng, swa swa he ful 
kene waes : " paes ic wilnige and wisce mid mode, paet ic 
ane ne bileafe aefter mine leofum paegnum, pe on heorae 
beddum wurdon, mid bearnum and wifum, ferlice ofslagene 
from pisse flotmonnum. Naes me nsefre iwunelic paet ic 
wrohte fleames, ac ic wolde swit5or swelton, gif ic pyrfte, 
for mine agene earde, and pe Almihtigaj God wat paet ic 
nylle bugan from his bigengum aefre, ne from his soSan 
lufe, swelte ic libbe ic." ^Efter pissum wordum, he wende 
to pam aerendracan Se Hinguar to him sende, and saede him 
unforht : " Witodhce pu waere nu weor^e slaeges, ac ic nelle 
fylaen mine claene handaen on pine fule blode, forpam 6e ic 
folgige Criste, pe us swa bisnode ; ac ic blipelice wylle beon 
ofslagen purh eow, gif hit God foresceawaet5. Fare nu swiSe 
rape, and saege pine raepum laforde, ne buhp nefre Eadmund 
Hinguare on life, haepene heretogaen, buton he to Haelende 
Criste aerest mid geleafan on pisse lond buge." Da wende 
pe erendracae heardlice awaeg, and imette pone waelreowan 
Hinguare mid alle his ferde fuse to Eadmiinde, and saede 


pam arleasum hu him iandswsered wees. Hinguar bead pa. 
mid bealde J)am scyp-here, and paet heo J)3es kynges anes alle 
cepan sceoldon, ]>e his here forseah, and hine sone bindaen. 

Hwaet ])'d, Eadmund kyng, mid ])am Se Hinguar com, 
stod innan his halle, ]?aes Hcelendes imyndig, and awearp his 
wepnae, wolde efenlsecen Cristes gebisnungum, ]>e forbead 
Petrum mid waepnum to feohten wiS J)a wselreowan ludeis- 
can. Hwa^t ]?a, pa arleasan Eadmundum bundon, and by- 
smoreden hyxlice, and beoten mid sahlum, and swa sySSan 
Iceddon ]?onne ileafFulne kyng to ane eor^festum treowe, 
and tegdon hine Saerto, mid hearde bendum, and hine eft 
swuncgon longlice mid swipum, and he symle clypode, 
betweox J»am swincglum, mid soj^an ileafan, to Haelende 
Criste ; and ]?a haej^ene ])a, for his ileafe, wurdon pa swySe 
yrre, for])am 6e he clypode Crist him to fultume : heo 
scytaen ]?a mid gauelocum him togeanes, oSSet he all waes 
biset mid heorae scotungum, swylce yles burstae, swa swa 
Sebastianus waes. Da iseah Hinguar, j^e arlease flotmon, 
paet ])e aeSele kyng nolde Criste wiSsacen, ac mid andraede 
ileafe hine aefre clypode, haet hine pa. bihaefdian, and pa 
hae]?enan swa dyden. Betweox J)am pe he clypode to Criste 
pa-gyt, ]>a tugon J^a hae))ene ]Jone halgan to slaege, and, mid 
ane swencge, slogon him of J»aet haefod, and sawlae siSode 
isaelig to Criste. paer waes sum mon gehende ihealden, 
J)urh Gode behydd pam haefenum, pe Sis iherde all, and hit 
aeft saede, swa swa we saecgaeS hit her. Hwaet ))a, Se flot- 
here ferde pa eft to scipe, and behyddon ]>aet heafod ]78es 
halgan Eadmundes on J^am Siccum bremlum, ]?aet hit bibu- 
riged ne wurSe. pa aefter fyrste, sySSan heo ifarene waeron, 
com ])aet lond-folc to, pe faer to lafe ]>a waes, faer heorae 
lafordes lie buton heafde J>a laeg, and wurdon swit5e sarig 
for his slaegie on mode, and hure ])aet heo naefdon faet hea- 
fod to fam bodige. pa saede t5e sceawere, pe hit aer iseah, 
J)aet J)a flotmen haefdon )7aet heafod mid heom, and waes him 


i])uht, swa swa hit waes ful sot5, j^aet heo hydden p)aet heofod 
on J)am holte. For-hwsega heo eoden ]>a endemes alle to 
]?am wude, saecende gehwser, geond pyfelas and brymelas, 
gif heo raihten imeten J>aet heafod. Waes eac my eel Maunder 
paet an wulf waes isend, J?urh Godes willunge, to biwas- 
rigeune faet heafod, wiS J?a oSre deor, ofer daeg and niht. 
Heo eoden Sa saecende and cleopigende, swa swa hit ivvu- 
nelic is ]?aet Sa Ipe on wude ga]> oft : " Hwaer eart j/u nu, 
gerefa?^" And him andswyrde ]>set heafod : " Her, her, 
her." And swa ilorae clypode andswarigende, oSSet heo 
alle bicomen, })urh 'pa. clypunge, him to. pa laeg ]?e graegae 
wulf pe bewiste ]?aet heafod, ant mid his twam fotum haefde 
J^aet heafod biclypped, gredig and hungrig, and for Gode 
ne dyrste J>aes haefdes onburigen, ac heold hit wi^ deor. 
Da wurdon heo ofwundroden J^aes wulfes hordraedene, and 
J?aet halige heafod ham feroden mid heom, Jjankende }?am 
Almihtigan aire his wundrae. Ac pe wulf fologede forS 
mid J>am heafde, 0(5Set heo on tune comen, swylce he tome 
waere, and wende aeft syj)])an to wude ongean. Da lond- 
leodan pa syt5t5an laegdan ]?aet heafod to ])am halige bodige, 
and burigdon, swa swa heo lihtlucost mihten on swylce 
raedinge, and cyrce araerdon on-uppon him. Eft pa on fyrste, 
aefter felae geare, pa Seo hergung aswac, and sib wearS 
igyfen ]>ara iswaencte folce, ]?a fengon heo togadere, and 
wrohten ane circe wurSlice pam halgan, aet his burigene, 
aet J?am bed-huse ])aer he iburiged waes. Heo wolden ])a 
ferian, mid folclice wurSmente, ])one halgan lichame, and 
laecgen inne ))are circean. pa waes mycel wundor faet he 
waes all hal, swylce he cwic waere, mid claenum lichame, 
and his sweorae waes ihaled, pe aer forslagen waes ; and wass 
swulce an solcene 6red embe his sweoraen, monnum to 
swutelunge hu he ofslagen waes. Eac swylce wundae, pe 
Sa waelreowan haej^enaen, mid ilome scotunge, on his lice 
* gefera? 



makedon, waeron ihealede, ])urh Sone heofonlice God ; and 
he lij> swa ansund o'S pysne andweardne dseg, abidende 
aeristes and }>aes ecen wuldres. His lychame us cyS, |)e lit5 
unforsmolsnod, faet he buton forligre her on worulde leo- 
fode, and mid claene life to Criste siSode. Sum wydewa 
wunede, Oswyn ihaten, on gebedum and faestenum, monige 
gear sy^t5an. peo walde efsiaen selce gear J)one sont, and 
his naegles ceorfgen syferliee mid lufe, and on scryne healdon 
to haligdome on weofode. pa wur^ode J)8et lond-folc mid 
ileafaen ])one sont to wurSmente. Da comen on sumne 
sael unsaelig ])eofass eahta, on ane nihte, to fam arwurtSaBn 
halgan, and wolden stelon fa madmtes ]>e men t5ider brohton, 
and cunnedon mid crsefte hu heo in-cumen mihte. Sum 
sloh mid sisege swySe J)a haepsan, sum heo mid fyle feoledon 
abutaen, sum eac underdealf J>a dure mid spade, sum heo 
mid laeddrse wolden unlucaen paet aeh-J?yrl ; ac heo swuncon 
on ydel, and earmlice ferdon, swa J)aet ]>e halgae waer heom 
wunderlice bont, selcne swa he stod strutigende mid tolae, 
]>8et heora nan ne mihte ])aet morj) gefremman, ne heo peonan 
styriaen ; ac heo stoden swa o^ maregen. Men jja t5aes 
wundredon, hu pa weargas hangedon, sum uppon laeddrae, 
sum leat to daelfe, and aelc on his weorce waes feste ibunden. 
Heo wurdon fa ibrohte to fam biscope alle, and he het 
heom ahon on heagum gealgum alle ; ac he naes na imun- 
dig hu ]?e mildheorte God clypode furh his witegan fas 
word f e her stondaef : Eos qui ducuntur ad mortem eruere 
ne cesses, " Da f e mon laet to deafe alys ut symle." And 
eac fa halgan canones ihadedon forbeodaef , ge biscopum 
ge preostum, to beonne embe ^eofaes, forf an f e hit ne bu- 
raeS fam ^e beo'5 icorene Gode to fenigenne, faet heo 
fwaerlaecen scylon on aeniges monnes deaf e, gif heo beo^ 
drihtines f aegnaes. Eft faSa Deodraed biscop, syt^San he 
his bee sceawode, he reowsode mid geomerunge, faet he 
swa raef ne dom sette fam unsaeligum f eofum, and hit bisa- 


regede aefre, oS his lifes ende, and j^a leode bead georne 
j?8et heo him mid faestaen fullice Sreo dagaes, biddende ])oiie 
Almihtigaen God, |)ait he him ariaen sceolde. 

On J)am londe waes sum mon Leofstan ihaten, rice for vvo- 
rulde, unwittig for Gode, J>e rad to ]?am halgan mid ricetere 
swySe, and het him aeteowan orhh'ce swySe J)one halgae sont, 
hwaeSer he isund waere ; ac swa raSe swa he iseah |)aes sontes 
lichame, 'Sa awedde he sonae, and waelreowlice grymetede, 
and earmlice endode yfelum deape. Dis is J>am ilic |)e 
halga papa Gregorius, on his isetnesse [awrat] be ])am hal- 
gum Laurentium, ]>e liS on Rome-burig, Saet men wolden 
sceawian hu he laege ; ac God heom gestylde, swa J»aet Saer 
swulton on Sare sceawuncge aene seofe men aetgaedere, pa 
swike J>a o6re to sceawenne Sone martyr mid mennisce 
dwylde. Felae wundrae we iherdon on folclice spaece bi 
J)am halgan Eadnmndum, pe we her nyllaeS on write setten, 
ac heom wat gehwa. On pissum halgum is swutel, ant on 
swylcum o'8rum, J>aet God Almihtig maeg pone mon araeran 
aeft on domes daege ansundne of eorSan, pe pe healt Ead- 
mundne halne lichame, 06 ^ene myclan daeg, peah '5e he on 
moldaen come. Weor^e waere Seo stow for pam wurtSfullaen 
halgum, paet hire mon wael wurSode and waelegode mid 
claene Godes peowum to Cristes Seowdome ; forpan Se pe 
halgae is maerrae pone men magon asmean. Nis Angol 
bidaeled Drihtnes halgene, forpam on Englai londe licgaep 
swylce halgan, swylce pes halgae king, and Chutbertus pe 
eadigae, and ^Epeldryp on Elig, and eac hire swuster, an- 
sund on lichame, geleafaen to trumnncge. Beo6 eac fela 
oSrae on Angel-cynne, pe fela wundrae wurcaeS, swa swa 
hit wide is cyp, 'Sam Almihtigan to lofe, pe heo on ilyfden. 
Crist sylf swytelaep monnum, purh his maeren halgan, paet 
he is .Almihtig God, pe makaep swylce wundrae, peah pe 'Sa 
earraan ludeiscaen hine allungae wiSsocon, forpan pe heo 
beot5 awarigede, swa swa heo wiscton heom sylfum. Ne 

126 WILLS. 

beo^ nane wundrae iwrohte set heorae burigene, for))am ]>e 
heo ne gelyfaeS on f one lyfigenden Crist ; ac Crist swutelae]) 
monnum hwaer fe gode ileafae is, ]?enne he swylce wundraB 
wurcseS, ]7urh his halgan, wide geond fas eor'San, pam beo 
wuldor and lof a mid his Heofenlice Feeder. 



f Her swytelaS, on pissum gewrite, hu ^Ifric biseeop 
wille his are beteon, )?e he under Gode geernode, and under 
Cnute kynege, his leofne laforde, and sip]?an haef^ rihtlice 
gehealdan under Haralde cyncge. pet is jjonne aerest ; J>et 
ic gean fet land et Wilrincgawer])a into See Eadmunde 
for minra saule, and for minas lafordas, swa ful and swa 
forS, swa he hit me to handa let. And ic gean j^et land aet 
Hunstanestune be ^^stanbroke, and mid Ipam lande et 
Holme, into See Eadmunde. And ic wille ]>et fa munecas 
on Byrig sellan syxtig punda for fan lande et Ticeswelle 
and et Doccyncge, and f et ferto gehyraS. And ic gean 
Leofstane daecane fet land et Grimastune, swa ful and swa 
for^ swa ic hit ahte. And ic gean mine cyne-laforde Ha- 
ralde II. marc gol. And ic gean minre hlefdigen an marc 

And gelaeste man ^gelrice an pund, minne fat-fylre*; and 
sela man mina cnihtas fa mina stiwardas witan, xxxx. punda, 
and fif pund into Elig, and fif pund into Holm, and fif pund 
Wulfwarde muneke, minne maege, and fif pund iElfraehe 
mine saemestre. And ic wille fet man sella fet land et 
Walsingaham, swa man derast maege, and gelesta man fet 
feoh, swa ic gewissod haebbe. And ic wille fet man sella 
fet land et Fersafeld, swa man derast maege, and recna 
* MS. minre fat sylre. 

WILLS. 127 

man iuncere Brun an marc gol, and mid ])an laue scytta 
man mfne borgas. And ic gean ^Elfwine minan preoste et 
Walsingaham xxx. akera et Eggemaere, and Uui prouast 
habba fone ofaraestan. And ic gean ^dwine muneke ]>a 
mylne et Gaeysaete, ]?e Ringware ahte. And ic gean JE\- 
frig preoste ]>et land et Rygedune, ]>e ic bohte to Leot- 
wenne. And ic gean fast myln J»e WulnoS ahte into See 
Eadmunde. And ic gean Sibriht ]?et land ]>e ic gebohte 
on Mulantune. And ic gean ]?et fen f)e purlac me sealdc; 
into ^Imham, ]?a preostas to foddan. And ic gean into 
Hoxne ]>a, preostas an ]?usend-werS fen. And ic gean pet 
fen J?e ^Ifric me sealde into Holme. And ic gean f>on 
hage binnon NorSwic, for minre saule, and for ealra ]>e hit 
me geuSon, into See Eadmunde. And ic gean |?an hage 
into See Paetre binnon Lunden. And ic gean iungre Brun 
pet healfe pusend fen. 


f Ic Lufa, mid Godes gifa, Ancilla DT, wes soecende and 
smeagende, ymb mine saul-pearfe, mid Ceolno^es aerce- 
biscopes get5eahte, and Sara hioua et Cristes cirican : Willa 
ic gesellan of Sem aerfe Se me God forgef, and mine friond 
to gefultemedan, aelce gere, lx. ambra maltes, and cl. hlafa, 
L. hwite hlafa, S. an hriSer, an suin, iiii. weSras, ii. waega 
spices and ceses, 6em higum to Cristes circean, for mine 
saule, and minra frionda and mega, Se me to Gode geful- 
temedan ; and pet sie simle to Adsumsio Scae Marie, ymb 
XII. monaS end : sue eihwelc mon swe pis lond hebbe, minra 
aerbenumena, t5is agefe, and mittan fulne huniges x. ...oes, 
XX. hen-fuglas. 

f Ic CeolnoS, mid Godes gefe, Ercebisc, mid Cristes rode- 
tacne t5is festne and write 

h cxx. elmes hlafes. 
Beagmund pf . get5afie and midwrite. 

128 MARK, Chap. I. 

Beornfri?5 pf . ge^afie and midwrite. 

Wealhhere pf. SwiSberht dice. 

Osmund pf. Beornheah diac. 

Deimund pf . iESelmund diac. 

i^Selwald diac. Wighelm diac. 

Werbald diac, Lubo. 
Sifred diac. 

f Ec Luba, eaSmod Godes 'Siwen, Sas fore-cwedenan god 
and Sas elmessan gesette and gefestnie ob minem erfelande 
et Mundlingham 'Sem hiiue to Cristes cirican ; and ic bidde, 
and an Godes libgendes naman bebiade, ^aem men '5e Sis 
land and Sis erbe hebbe et Mundlingham, Set he Sas god 
forSleste oS wiaralde ende. Se man se Sis healdan wille, 
and lestan Set ic beboden hebbe an Sisem gewrite, se him 
geseald and gehealden sia hiabenlice bledsung ; se his fer- 
werne oSSe hit agele, se him seald and gehealden helle-wite, 
bute he to fulre bote gecerran wille, Gode and mannum. 
Uene ualete. 


MARK, Chapter I. 
In the Northumbrian Dialect from the DurJiam MS.* 

2 GoDSPELLEs fruma, Haelendes Crist, Godes Suna, suae 
awritten is in Esaia Sone witgo, Heonu ic asetide mm 
engel befora onsione Sfn, seSe foregearwas weg Sm, 

3 Cliopendes stefn in S«m woesten, Gearuas Drihtnes woeg; 

4 doeS [wyrcas] rehta his stigo [geongas]. lohannes 

* In the Northumbrian Gloss, the words between brackets are va- 
rious renderings of the Latin ; those in italics are wanting in the Gloss, 
but are here supplied, in order to complete the sense. 

MARK, Chap. I. 129 

waes in woesten ; «wc?gefulvvadeand bodade hreownisses 
fulwiht, on synna forgefnisse. And to him foerde all 6 
ludaea lond, and alle t5a Hierusolomisco-waras, and weo- 
ron from him gefulwad in lordanes stream, hiora synno 
ondetende. And Johannes waes gegerelad miS camelles 6 
herum, and fellera gyrdils was ymb his sfdo, and lo- 
pestro and wudu-hunig he waes brucende [he gebrec]; 
and Ae bodade, cuoeSende, Strongre cymes [cuomj sefter r 
mec. his [Saes] nam ic wyrSe fore-hlutende undoa his 
scoe-'8uongas. Ic fulwade iwih miS waetre, he uutodlice x 
ivvih gefulwas miS Halig Gast. And hyt waes aworden u 
in Saem dagum "^cet se Haelend cuom from Nazareth 6aer 
byrig, and waes gefulwad in lordanem from lohanne. 
And sona of 'Sam waetre he astag, and gesaeh untynde lo 
heofnas, and Gaast swelce culfre ofstigende and on him 
wunigende: and stefn waes of heofnum geworden, Du ii 
arS nnn leof Sunu, on 6ec ic wel Ifcade. And sona 6e 12 
gast hine on woesten draf. And feoertig daga and 13 
feoertig naehta he waes from ^aem wiSerwearde acunnad, 
and he miS wild-deorum waes, and him englas geherdon. 
Efter Son [Sa] lohannes gesald waes, cuom se Haelend in 14 
Galilea, and Godes rfces godspell bodade, and cuoeSende, t5 
For'Son tfd is gefylled, and Godes rfc to-geneolecde ; 
hreowiges, and gelefes to S«m godspell. And faerende 10 
aet Galilaes s^, he gesaeh 'Sone Simon, and Andreas his 
bro'Sor, hiora hnetta in Sa s^ sendende ; forSon hia we- 
ron fisceras. And him cuoeS se Haelend, CymaS aefter u 
mec, and ic gedo iuih pset ge sie raonna fisceras. And is 
hi hreconlice, forletnum nettum, weron him fylgendo. 
And Sona he lytel huon foerde, and gesaeh lacob Zebe- 19 
dies sunu, and 'Sone lohannem his broker ; and Sa ilco 
[hia] in hiora scip gesetton Sa netto. And he hia sona 20 
geceigde, and miS Sy hia hiora faeder Zebedeum for- 
leorton miS Saem celmert-monnum, and hine [him] fyl- 


]S0 MARK, Chap. I. 

21 gedon, and in-foerdon Capharnaum Sa burug, and sona 

•i2 to somnung ineode [foerde] and l^rde hia. And hia 

swigdon [styldon] ofer his lar ; forSon he wses hia 1^- 

23 rende swaslce he maeht haefde, and ne suae u^uta. And 
in hiora somnung waes sum monn in unclaene gast, and 

24 he of-cliopade, CuoeSende, Huaet us and Se, Su Haelend 
Se Nazare? Cwome Su losige [to losane] usig? Ic 

25 wat Saet Su arS Godes Haligu. And behead hine se Hae- 
20 lend cwoe^ende, Suiga ^u, and gaa of Saem menn. And 

se unclaenae gast hine bidtende, and micla [mi's micle] 
2r stefne of-clioppende, from him of-eode. And alls wun- 
drande weron, ^us Saette hia gefregndon betuih him 
cuoeSende, Huaet is 6is ? Huaelc is Sius nine lar, forSon 
[Saette] he in maeht unclaenum gastum hatas, and hia 

28 eSmodigaS him ? And hraSe foerde [gesprang] his 

29 mersung [merSa] in all Galilea lond. And recone of 
somnunge hia foerdon, and cuomon in Symones and An- 

30 dreae hus, miS laeob and lohanne. Da waes Symones 
swer gelegen febriende, and hia him sona of ^aer cuedon. 

31 And geneolecde, and Sa ilea ahof, and miS c5y hire hond 
gegrippen waes, reconlice forleort hia hal from februm ; 

32 and hio geembehtade him. Uutedlice Sa efern gewarS, 
miS Sy sunna to sett eade, hia geferedon [gebrohton] 

33 to him alle yfel haebbende and diowbla haebbende. And 
alle ^a burgwaras waeron gesomnad to ^aere duru [to 

34 gaet]. And he lecnade [gemde] monigo '5a Se missen- 
licum adlum geswoenced woeron; and menigo dioblas he 
ut-fordraf ; and hia ne lefde to sprecanne, forSon hia 

35 hine wiston. And sui^e on aering aras, g5wc? foerde Sona, 
and eode on woestigum stouo [styd] and 'Ser gebaed. 

36 And him waes fylgend Simon, and Sa t5e miS hine woeron. 

37 And mx6 Sy hia hine onfundon hia cuedon him, ForSon 

38 alle Sec soecaS. And he cuoeS to him, Gae we [wutum 
geonga] in Sa neesto lond, and Sa ceastre, paet ec Ser ic 


bodige, forSon to ^is ic cwom. And he wses bodande so 

in hiora somnungum, and alle Galileae, and diobles wor- 

pend. And to him cwom sum licSrower, and hine baed 4o 

[giornede], and mit5 cnew-beging cuoeS, Gyf Su wilt, 

Su maeht geclaensiga meh. Da wses se Haelend his mil- 41 

sande, and his hond gerahte, and hine hrinande, to him 

cueS, Ic willo Se geclagnsiga. And miS Sy he gecueS, 4-z 

sona t5iu riofol from him foerde, and he waes geclaensod. 

And sona he bebead him, and cuoeS to him, Gesih Su 

Sact 6u hit naenigum menn coeSe, ah gaa adeaw Sec Seem 

sacerda aldor, and gef fore Sin claensunge Sa Se Moises 

heht, him in cySnisse. SoS he foerde and ongann bo- 45 

diga and mersiga Saet word ; Sus Saet uutedlice he ne 

maehte ewunga in Sa ceastre ingeonga, ah he waes uta in 

woestigum stowum ; and hia eghuona to him gesom- 






* * * brocen wurde. ^rest onfunde, 

Het J)a hyssa hwaene past se eorl nolde 

hors forlaetan, yrmSo ge])olian : 

feor afysan, he let him fa of handon 

and forSgangan, leofre fleogan, 

hicgan to handum, hafoc wiS faes holtes, 

and * * * hige godum. and to |)aere hilde stop ; 

* * * 

Jjset Offan maeg be fam man mihte oncnawan 



])8et se cniht nolde 

wacian set pam wige, 

))a he to waepnum feng. 

Eac him wolde Eadric 

his ealdre gelsestan 

frean to gefeohte; 

ongan ))a for^beran 

gar to gupe : 

he haefde God ge])anc, 

])a hwile he mid handum 

heal dan mihte 

bord and brad swurd ; 

beot he gelaeste, 

pa he setforan his frean 

feohtan sceolde. 

Da ]?3er Byrhtno'S ongan 

beornas trymian, 

rad and raedde, 

rincum taehte 

hu hi sceoldon standan, 

and ])one stede healdan, 

and baed paet hyra randan 

rihte heoldon 

faeste mid folmum, 

and ne forhtedon na. 

pa he haefde ]?aet folc 

faegre getrymmed, 

he lihte ]?a mid leodon, 

]?aer him leofost waes, 

J)aer he his heorS-werod 

holdost wiste. 

pa stod on staeSe, 

stiSlice ciypode, 

wicinga ar, 

wordum maelde, 

se on beot ahead 


serende to J^am eorle, 

])aer he on ofre stod : 

Me s^ndon to 'Se 

s^men snelle ; 

heton Se secgan, 

J)aet ])u most sendan rat5e 

beagas wi6 gebeorge ; 

and eow betere is 

]?aet ge J)isne gar-raes 

mid gafole forgyldon, 

jjonne we swa hearde 

hilde daelon. 

Ne ))urfe we us spillan : 

gif ge spedaS to ])am, 

we willa'5 wi'5 ])am golde 

griS faestnian. 

Gyf ]?u faet geraedest, 

]>e her rfeost eart, 

faet J)Li }>me leoda 

lysan wille, 

syllan sde-mannum, 

on hyra sylfra dom, 

feoh wis freode, 

and nfman friS aet us, 

we willaS mid |)am sceattum 

us to scype gangan, 

on flot feran, 

and eow fri)?es healdan. 

ByrhtnoS ma]?elode, 

bord hafenode, 

wand wacne aesc, 



wordum mselde, 

yrre and anrsed, 

ageaf him andsware : 

Gehyrst fu, s^-lida, 

hwaet pis folc sege.S, 

hi willaS eow to gafole 

garas syllan, 

aettrynne ord, 

and ealde swurd, 

pa. heregeatu J>e eow 

set hilde ne deah. 

Brini-manna boda, 

abeod eft ongean, 

sege ]?muni leodum 

miccle la}»re spell, 

faet her stynt unforcut5 

eorl mid his werode, 

]?e wile gealgian 

e]?el ]?ysne, 

iEjjelraedes eard, 

ealdres mmes, 

folc and foldan : 

feallan sceolon 

hsefene set hilde. 

To heanlic me pinceS 

])aet ge mid urum sceattum 

to scype gangon 

unbefohtene ; 

nu ge ])us feor hider 

on urne earde 


ne sceole ge swa softe 

sine gegangan ; 

us sceal ord and ecg 

^r geseman, 

grim gu6-plega, 

der we gofol syllon. 

Het }>a bord beran, 

beornas gangan, 

paet hi on ]>am ea-steSe 

ealle stodon. 

Ne mihte J^aer for waetere 

werod to J)am oSrum, 

J)aer com flowende 

flod aefter ebban, 

lucon lagu-streamas ; 

to lang hit him ]7uhte, 

hwaenne hi togaedere 

garas beron. 

Hi pser Pantan stream 

mid prasse bestodon, 

East-Seaxena ord, 

and se aesc-here ; 

ne mihte hyra aenig 

o}>rum derian, 

buton hwa })urh flanes flyht 

fyl gename. 

Se flod ut gewat ; 

|)a flotan stodon gearowe, 

wicinga fela, 

wiges georne. 

Het J)a haelej^a hleo 

heal dan pa. bricge 

wigan wigheardne, 

se waes haten Wulfstan, 

cafne mid his cynne, 

})3et waes Ceolan sunu, 

fe ))one forman man 



mid his francan ofsceat, 

]?e J?aer baldlicost 

on ])a bricge stop. 

paer stodon mid Wulfstane 

wigan unforhte, 

7?^lfere and Maccus, 

modige twegen ; 

pa noldon set ]?ani forde 

fleam gewyrcan, 

ac hi fsestlice 

wis })a fynd weredon, 

J)e hwfle J>e hi wsepna 

wealdan moston. 

pa hi ]?8et ongeaton, 

and georne gesawon, 

J»aet hi J)aer bricg-weardas 

bitere fundon ; 

ongunnon lytegian |)a 

laSe gystas ; 

baedon ]?3et hi up-gangan 

agan moston, 

ofer ])one ford faran, 

fej>an laedan. 

Da se eorl ongan, 

for his ofermode, 

alyfan landes to fela 

la]7ere Seode. 

Ongean ceallian J>a, 

ofer cald waster, 

Byrhthelmes beam, 

beornas gehlyston : 

Nu eow is gerymed, 

gaS ricene to us, 

guman to gu]?e ; 

God ana wat, 
hwa J)aere wael-stowe 
wealdan mote. 
Wodon pa. wsel-wulfas, 
for waetere ne murnon, 
wicinga werod, 
west ofer Pantan, 
ofer scfr waeter 
scyldas wagon, 
lidmen to lande 
linde baeron. 
paer ongean gramum 
gearowe stodon 
ByrhtnoS mid beornum ; 
he mid bordum het 
wyrcan ]?one wi-hagan, 
and ]?aet werod healdan 
feste wi6 feondum. 
pa waes fohte neh 
tir aet getohte ; 
waes seo tfd curaen 
])aet paer faege men 
feallan sceoldon. 
pa wear's hream ahafen, 
hremmas wundon, 
earn aeses georn, 
waes on eorpan cyrm. 
Hi leton pa of folman 
feol-hearde speru, 
garas fleogan, 
bogan waeron bysige, 
bord ord onfeng, 
biter waes se beadu-raes, 



beornas feollon, 

on gehwagSere hand 

hyssas lagon ; 

wund wearS Wulf'masr, 

wail-reste geceas, 

ByrhtnoSes raaeg, 

he mid billum wearS, 

his svvuster sunu, 

swibe forheawen ; 

J)8er wearS wicingum 

wijjerlean agifen : 

gehyrde ic Saet Eadweard 

anne sloge 

swi)?e mid his swurde, 

swenges ne wyrnde, 

|)3et him set fotum feoll 

fsege cempa ; 

pass him his peoden 

]?anc gesaede, 

]mm byr|)ene% 

pa^ he byre haefde. 

Swa stemnetton 


hysas set hilde, 

hogodon georne 

hwa ])aer mid orde 

^rost mihte 

on faegean men 

feorh gewinnan, 

wigan mid waepnum : 

wael feol on eorSan ; 

stodon st^de faeste, 

stihte hi ByrhtnoS, 

^ bur-hene ? 

baed ]?aet hyssa gehwylc 
hogode to wige, 
]ye on Denum wolde 
dom gefeohtan. 
Wdd ]?a wiges heard, 
waepen up-ahof, 
bord to gebeorge, 
and wi(5 ])ses beornes stop ; 
eode swa anraed 
eorl to J)am ceorle, 
aeg]?er hyra oSrum 
yfles hogode. 
Sende ]?a se s^-rinc 
suferne gar, 
])a gewundod wear6 
wigena hlaford ; 
he sceaf pa mid pam scylde, 
]?aet se sceaft tobaerst, 
and |?aet spere sprengde, 
paet hit sprang ongean ; 
gegremod wearS se gu6-rinc, 
he mid gare stang 
wlancne wicing, 
]>e him J)a wunde forgeaf. 
Frod waes se fyrd-rinc, 
he let his francan wadan 
J)urh J^aes hysses hals ; 
hand wisode 

faet he on ]?am faer-sceaSan 
feorh geraehte ; 
^a he operne 
ofstlice sceat, 
faet seo byrne tobaerst, 
b >8et? 



he waes on breostum wund 

J>urh ]?a hring-locan ; 

him eet heortan stod 

setterne ord. 

Se eorl waes ]?e blipra, 

hloh ])Si modi man, 

saede Metode })anc 

^aes daBg-weorces, 

]>e him Drihten forgeaf. 

Forlet J»a drenga sum 

daro(5 of handa, 

fleogan of folman, 

past se to forS-gewat 

]>urh ])one aej^elan 

^^pelraedes J>egen. 

Him be healfe stod 

hyse unweaxen, 

eniht on gecampe, 

se full caflice 

braed of ^aem beorne 

blodigne gar, 

Wulfstanes beam, 

Wulfmaer se geonga ; 

forlet for-heardne 

faran eft ongean ; 

ord in-gew6d, 

J7aet se on eorpan laeg, 

]?e his J)eoden ^r 

J>earle geraehte. 

Eode |)a gesyrwed 

seeg to ]?am eorle, 

he wolde faes beornes 

beagas gefecgan, 

.reaf and hringas, 

and gerenod swurd. 

Da ByrhtnoS braed 

bill of scet5e, 

brad and brun-ecg, 

and on J^a byrnan sloh : 

rajje hine gelette 

lidmanna sum, 

])a. he )?aes eorles 

earm amyrde ; 

feoll J?a to foldan 

fealo-hilte swurd, 

ne mihte he gehealdan 

heardne mece, 

waepnes wealdan. 

pa-gyt fast word gecwaec^ 

har hilde-rinc, 

hyssas bylde 

baed gangan forS, 

gode geferan : 

ne mihte ]7a on fotum leng 

fasste gestandan ; 

he to heofenum wlat : 

GeJ?ance ]?e t5eoda Waldend, 

ealra faera wynna 

pe ic on worulde gebad : 

nu ic ah, milde Meotod, 

maeste ])earfe, 

past ]>u mmum gaste 

godes geunne, 

Jxfit mm sajvul to ])e 

simian mote, 

on fffn geweald, 

peoden engla, 

mid friSe ferian ; 



ic eom frymdi to ^e, 

J)aet hi hel-sceapan 

hynan ne moton. 

Da hine heowon 

haeSene scealcas, 

and begen ]>a. beornas 

J>e him bigstodon, 

jElfno^ and Wulmaer begen 

lagon 6a on-emn 

hyra frean, 

feorh gesealdon. 

Hi bugon J>a fram beaduwe 

pe |)aBr beon noldon ; 

faer wurdon Oddan beam 

^rest on fleame, 

Godric fram guj^e, 

and pone godan forlet, 

]>e him msenigne oft 

mear gesealde ; 

he gehleop pone eoh, 

pe ahte his hlaford, 

on pam geraedum 

pe hit riht ne wses, 

and his broSru mid him, 

begen aerdon, 

Godrinc and Godrig, 

gu]>e ne gymdon, 

ac wendon fram pam wige, 

and ]>one wudu sohton, 

flugon on J>aet faesten, 

and hyra feore burgon, 

and manna ma 

ponne hit aenig maeS waere, 

gyf hi pa gearnunga 

ealle gemundon, 

pe he him to dugupe 

gedon haefde ; 

swa him OfFa on daeg 

der asaede, 

on pam mepel-stede, 

pa he gemot haefde, 

past paer modlice 

manega spraecon, 

pe eft aet paere [hilde] 

polian noldon. 

Da wearS afeallen 

paes folces ealdor, 

i^pelraedes eorl ; 

ealle gesawon 


paet hyra heorra laeg. 

pa Saer wendon forS 

wlanee pegenas, 

unearge men, 

efston georne, 

hi woldon pa ealle 

o^er twega. 

Iff forlsetan, 

ot5Se leofne gewrecan : 

swa hi bylde fortJ 

beam ^Ifrices, 

wiga wintrum geong, 

wordum maelde : 

^Ifwine, pa cwaeS he, 

on ellen-spraec gemuna 

pa maela pe we oft 

aet meodo spraecon, 

ponne we on bence 



beot ahofon, 

haeleS on healle, 

ymbe heard gewinn ; 

nu maeg cunnian 

hwa cene sy ; 

ic wylle mme asfelo 

eallum gecy})an, 

))aet ic w£es on Myrcon 

miccles cynnes, 

waes mm ealda feeder 

Ealhelm haten, 

wfs ealdorman, 


Ne sceolon me on jjcere J>eode 

J>egenas aetwi'tan, 

)>aet ic of ])isse fyrde 

feran wille, 

eard gesecan, 

nu mm ealdor ligeS 

forheawen aet hilde, 

me is past hearma meest ; 

he w£es aeg^er mm maeg 

and mm hlaford. 

Da he forS-eode, 

faeh^e gemunde, 

J)aet he mid orde 

anne geraehte 

flotan on ]?am folce, 

J>aet se on foldan laeg 

forwegen mid his waepne. 

Ongan ]?a wmas manian, 

frynd and geferan, 

]?3et hi forS-eodon. 

OfFa gemaelde, 

aesc-holt asceoc : 

Hwaet J>u, iElfvvine, hafast 

ealle gemanode, 

]?egenas to J>earfe : 

nu ure ])eoden ViS, 

eorl on eor^an, 

us is eallum J)earf, 

J)aet ure aeghwylc 

o]?erne bylde 

wigan to wige, 

]?a hwile f>e he vvaepen maege 

habban and healdan, 

heardne mece, 

gar and god swurd. 

Us Godric haefS, 

earh Oddan beam, 

ealle beswicene : 

vvende ]?aes for-moni man, 

]?a he on meare rad, 

on wlancan pam vvicge, 

})aet waere hit ure hlaford ; 

for])an wearS her on felda 

folc totwaemed, 

scyld-burh tobrocen. 

AbreoSe his angin, 

paet he her swa manigne 

man aflymde. 

Leofsunu gemaelde, 

and his linde ahof, 

bord to gebeorge, 

he ]>'dm beorne oncwaetS : 

Ic ]?aet gehate, 

]7aet ic heonon nelle 

fleon fotes trym, 



ac wille furSor gan, 

wrecan on gewinne 

mfnne wine-drihten. 

Ne furfon me embe Sturmere 

stede faeste hseleS 

wordum aetwftan, 

nu mfn wfne gecranc, 

feet ic hlafordleas 

ham siSie, 

wende fram wige ; 

ac me sceal waepen nfman, 

ord and fren. 

He ful yrre wod, 

feaht faestlice, 

fleam he forhogode. 

Dunnere pa. cwseS, 

daroS acwehte, 

unorne ceorl, 

ofer eall clypode, 

baed |)9et beorna gehwylc 

ByrhtnoS wraece : 

Ne maeg na wandian 

se Tpe wrecan J^enceS 

frean on folce, 

ne for feore murnan. 

pa hi forS-eodon, 

feores hi ne rohton. 

Ongunnon J)a hired-men 

heardlice feohtan, 

grame gar-berend, 

and God baed on 

Jjaet hi moston gewrecan 

hyra wyne-drihten, 

and on hyra feondum 

fyl gewyrcan. 

Him se gysel ongan 

geornlice fylstan ; 

He waes on NorS-hymbron 

heardes cynnes, 

Ecglafes beam, 

him waes ^EscferS nama ; 

he ne wandode na 

aet ])am wig-plegan, 

ac he fysde forS 

flan genehe ; 

hwilon he on bord sceat, 

hwflon beorn taesde ; 

aefre embe stunde he sealde 

sume wunde, 

p3L hwfle Se he waepna 

wealdan moste. 

Da-gyt on orde stod 

Eadweard se langa, 

gearo and geornful ; 

gylp-wordum spraec, 

]?aet he nolde fleogan 

fot-mael landes, 

ofer-baec bugan, 

pa his betera leg : 

he braec pone bord-weall, 

and wif5 pa beornas feaht, 

oSpaet he his sinc-gyfan 

on pam s^mannum 

wurt5lice wrec, 

^r he on waele laege. 

Swa dyde ^peric, 

aepele gefera, 

fus and for'Sgeorn, 



feaht eornoste, 
Sibyrhtes brot5or, 
and swiSe msenig o]?er, 
clufon cellod bord, 
cene hi weredon, 
baerst bordes Iserig, 
and seo byrne sang 
gryre leoSe sum. 
pa set guSe sloh 
OfFa ))one sde-lidan, 
})8et he on eor])an feoll, 
and peer Gaddes maeg 
grund gesohte ; 
ra^e wearS set hilde 
OfFa forheawen ; 
he haefde peah geforfod 
)J8et he his frean gehet, 
swa he beotode ^r 
wi^ his beah-gifan, 
paet hi seeoldon begen 
on burh ndan, 
hale to hame, 
o^e on here crincgan, 
on wael-stowe 
wundum sweltan. 
He Iseg Segenlice 
8eodne gehende. 
Da weart5 borda gebraec ; 
brim-men wodon, 
guSe gegremode, 
gar oft furh-wod 
faeges feorh-hus. 
ForS Sa eode Wistan, 
purstanes sunu. 

wit5 fas secgas feaht ; 
he wses on gefrang 
hyra freora bana, 
^r him Wigelines beam 
on ]7am waele laege. 
paer waes sti^ gemot ; 
stodon faeste 
wigan on gewinne, 
wigend cruncon, 
wundum vverige ; 
wael feol on eorjmn. 
Oswold and Ealdwold, 
ealle hwile, 
begen gebrojrru, 
beornas trymedon, 
hyra wine-magas 
wordon baedon, 
])set he faer set 'Searfe 
J)olian seeoldon, 
wsepna neotan. 
Byrhtwold mapelode, 
bord hafenode, 
se waes eald geneat, 
aesc acwehte, 
he ful baldliee 
beornas l^rde : 
Hige sceal fe heardra, 
heorte ]>e c^nre, 
mod sceal ]>e mare, 
fe ure maegen lytlat5 : 
her lis ure ealdor 
ealle forheawen, 
god on greote ; 



a maeg gnornian, 

se Se nu fram )>is wig-plegan 

wendan Jjeuce'S. 

Ic eom frod feores, 

fram ic ne wille, 

ac ic me be healfe 

mfnum hlaforde, 

be swa leofan men, 

licgan ]>ence. 

Swa hi ^|)elgares beam 

ealle bylde, 

Godric to gupe, 

oft he gar forlet, 

weel-spere windan, 

on ]>3i wicingas : 

swa he on ]?am folce 

fyrmest code, 

heow and hynde, 

o^]?aet he on hilde gecranc. 

Naes })aBt na se Godric 

])e Sa gu^e forbeah, 



* * * tweode gifena, 
in ^ys ginnan grunde ; 
heo J)aer pa gearwe funde 
mund-byrd set ]?am m^ran 

J)a heo ahte maeste fearfe 
hyldo J)8es hehstan Deman, 
})3et he hie wiS faes hehstan 

gefriSode, frymSa Waldend ; 
hyre ]?aes Faeder on roderum 
torhtmod tiSe gefremede, 
J)e heo ahte trurane geleafan 
a to ))3em iElmihtigan. 
Gefraegen ic J?a Holofernus 

wm hatan wyrcean georne, 
and eallum vvundrum frymlic 
girwan up swaesendo ; 
to ^am het se gumena baldor 
ealle pa yldestan Segnas, 
hie Saet ofstum miclum 
raefndon rond-wiggende ; 
comon to 6am rfcan peodne, 
feran folces rasswan. 
paet waes py feorpan dogore 
Jjaes J)e Iudit5 hyne, 
gleaw on geponce, 
ides aelf-scmu, 
^rest gesohte. 




Hie Sa to ^am symle 

sittan eodon, 

wlance to wm-gedrince, 

ealle his wea-gesiSas, 

bealde byrn-wiggende. 

pser weeron bollan steape 

boren aefter bencum gelome, nealaehte niht seo ]?ystre 

swylce eac bunan and orcas Het Sa ni^a geblonden 

f uUe flet-sittendum : 

hie past feege pegon, 

rofe rond-wiggende, 

peah Sees se rfca ne wende 

egesful eorla dryhten. 

ofer-drencte his duguSe ealle, 
swylce hie wseron dea^e ge- 

agotene goda gehwylces. 
Swa het se gumena aldor 
fylgaii flet-sittendum, 
o6|>8et fira bearnum 

Da wearS Holofernus, 
gold-wine gumena, 
on gyste-salum^; 
hloh and hlydde, 
hlynede and dynede, 
])aet mihten lira beam 
feorran gehyran, 
hu se stiSmoda 
styrmde and gylede ; 
modig and medu-gal 
manode geneahhe 
Jjset hi gebsRrdon wel. 
Swa se inwidda 
ofer ealne daeg, 
dryht-guman sine 
drencte mid wfne, 
swiSmod sinces brytta, 
offset hie on swiman lagon, 

])a eadigan msegS, 
ofstum fetigan 
to his bed-reste, 
beagum gehlaeste, 
hringum gehrodene. 
Hie hra^e fremedon 
swa him heora ealdor be- 
byrn-wigena brego : 
bearhtme stopon 
to ])am gyst-erne, 
fasr hi ludith^e 
fundon ferhS-gleawe, 
and ]?a fromlice 
Isedan ongunnon 
])a torhtan maegS 
to traefe pam hean, 
J)8er se rfca hyne 
reste on symbel 
nihtes inne, 
Nergende la's; 

MS. gyte salum. 



Daer waes eall gylden 

fleoh-net fasger, 

and ymbe }>aes folc-togan 

bed ahongen, 

]?aet se bealofulla 

mihte wlitan 6urh, 

wigena baldor, 

on aeghwylcne, 

))e Saer-inne com, 

haeletSa bearna, 

and on hyne naenig 

monna cynnes, 

nymSe se modiga hwaene 


him ]?e near het, 

rinca to rune gegangan. 

Hie ^a on reste gebrohton 

snude pa snoteran idese ; 

eodon Sa sterced-ferhSe hae- 

heora hearran cySan, 
jjset waes seo halige meowle 
gebroht on his bur-getelde. 
Da wearS se brema on mode 
bliSe, burga ealdor, 
pohte ^a beorhtan idese 
mid widle and mid womme 

besmitan ; 
ne wolde faet wuldres Dema 
ge^afian, ^rymmes Hyrde, 
ac he him J>aes binges ge- 

Dryhten, dugetSa Waldend. 
Gewat ^a se deofulcunda, 

galferhS gumena Create, 
bealofull his beddes neosan, 
Jjser he sceolde his blaed for- 

sedre binnan anre nihte, 
haefde |)a his ende gebidenne, 
on eorSan unswaeslicne, 
swylcne he eer Eefter worhte, 
pearlmod Seoden gumena, 
penden he on Sysse worulde 
wunode under wolcna hrofe. 
Gefeol J>a wme swa druncen 
se rica on his reste middan, 
swa he nyste raeda nanne 
on gewit-locan : 
wiggend stopon 
lit of '5am inne 
ofstum miclum, 
weras wm-sade, 
]?e Sone waerlogan, 
laSne leod-hatan, 
laeddon to bedde, 
nehstan siSe. 
pa waes Nergendes 
peowen J^rymful, 
fearle gemyndig 
hu heo pone atolan 
ea'Sost mihte 
ealdre benaeman, 
^r se unsyfra 
womfull onwoce. 
Genam t5a wunden-locc, 
Scyppendes maeg'S, 
scearpne raece, 



scurum heardne, 

and of sceaSe abraed 

svvi^ran folme : 

ongan "Sa swegles Weard, 

be naman nemnan, 

Nergend ealra 


and ])aet word acwaeS : 

Ic Se, frymSa God, 

and frofre Gaest, 

Beam Alwaldan, 

biddan wille 

miltse J7mre 

me pearfendre, 

Drynesse Drym ; 

pearle ys me nuSa, 

heorte^ onhseted, 

and hige geomor swySe 

mid sorgum gedrefed ; 

forgif me, swegles Ealdor, 

sigor and soSne geleafan, 

})aet ic mid ]?ys sweorde mote fone feond-sceat5an 

geheawan J)ysne mordres fagum mece, 

bryttan ; 
geunne me mfnra gesynta, 
J>earlm6d peoden gumena: 
nahte ic J>fnre neefre 
miltse ]?on maran J>earfe : 
gewrec nu, mihtig Dryhten 
torhtmod tires Brytta, 

J?aet me ys fus tome on mode, sloh Sa eornoste 
hate on hreSre mfnum. ides ellen-rof, 

Hi fa se hehsta D^ma ojjre siSe, 

» In MS. ys is repeated after dearie. 

sedre mid elne onbryrde, 

swa he de^ anra gehwylcne 

her buendra ]?e hyne 

him to helpe seceS 

mid r^de and mid rihte ge- 

pa wearS hyre rume on 

haligre hyht geniwod ; 

genam ])a pone haeSenan 

fasste be feaxe sfnum, 

teah hyne folmum, 

wis hyre weard bysmerlice, 

and J)one bealofullan 

listum alede, 

laSne mannan, 

swa heo Saes unlaedan 

eaSost mihte 

wel gewealdan. 

Sloh Sa wunden-locc 

hete poncolne, 
Ipset heo healfne forcearf 
J)one sweoran him, 
J)aet he on swiman laeg, 
druncen and dolh-wund : 
naes 'Sa dead fa gyt, 
ealles orsawle ; 



})one hseSenan hund, 

J)aet him J^aet heafod wand 

forS on Sa flore. 

Laeg se fula leap, 

gesne beeeftan, 

gaest ellor hwearf, 

under neowelnaes, 

and paer genySerad waes, 

susle gesaeled, 

sySSan aefre, 

wyrmum bewunden, 

wftum gebunden, 

hearde gehaefted, 

in helle bryne, 

aefter hin-siSe ; 

ne 'Searf he hopian no, 

Jjystrum forSylmed, 

past he Sonan mote, 

of 5am wyrm-sele, 

ac 8aer wunian sceal, 

awa to aldre, 

butan ende forS, 

in t5am heolstran ham, 

hyht-wynna leas. 


Haefde 5a gefohten, 
fore-m^rne blaed, 
ludith aet gu'Se, 
swa hyre God u5e, 
swegles Ealdor, 
]?e hyre sigores onleah. 
pa seo snotere maegtJ 

snude gebrohte 

faes herewae^an 

heafod swa blodig, 

on 5am faetelse, 

]>e hyre foregenga, 

blac-hleor ides, 

hyra begea nest 

J)eawum geSungen, 

))yder onlaedde, 

and hit 5a swa heolfrig 

hyre on hond ageaf, 

hige 5oncolre, 

ham to berenne, 

ludith gingran smre. 

Eodou 5a gegnum ]?anonne 

pa idesa ba, 


o5}jaet hie becomon, 


ead-hre5ige ma3g5, 

ut of 5am hedge, 

})aet hie sweotollice 

geseon mihton 

faere wlitegan byrig 

weallas blican, 


Hie 5a beah-hrodene 


for5 onettan, 

o5 hie glaed-mode 

geg^n haefdon 

to 5am weal-gate. 

Wiggend saeton, 

weras waeccende 



wearde heoldon^ 
in Sam faestenne, 
swa 'Sam folce ^r 
ludithe bebead, 
searo-Soncol msegS, 
])a heo on siS gewat, 
ides ellen-rof. 
Waes Sa eft cumen 
leof to leodum, 
and Sa lungre het 
gleaw-hydig wff, 
gumena sumne, 
of Ssere ginnan byrig, 
hyre togeanes gan, 
and hi ofostlice 
Surh Saes wealles geat, 
and paet word acwaeS 
to Sam sige-folce : 
Ic eow secgan mseg 
J)oncwyrSe J)ing, 
]?set ge ne ]?yrfen leng 
murnan on mode : 
eow ys Metod bliSe, 
cyninga Wuldor, 
))3et gecySed wearS, 
geond woruld wfde, 
])3Bt eow ys wuldor-bleed 
torhtlic toweard, 
and tir-gifeSe 
Sara leeSSa 
Se ge lange drugon. 
* MS. heo ildon. 

pa wurdon bliSe 
sySSan hi gehyrdon 
hu seo halige sprsec 
ofer heanne weall. 
Here waes on lustum ; 
wis ))ses faesten-geates 
folc onette, 
weras wff somod, 
wornum and heapum, 
Sreatum and Srymmum, 
J)rungon and urnon 
ongean ]>a peodnes maegS 
ealde ge geonge ; 
aeghwylcum wearS 
men on Saere medo-byrig 
mod areted, 
sySSan hie ongeaton 
faet waes ludith cumen 
eft to eSle, 
and Sa ofostlice 
hie mid eaSmedum 
pa seo gleawe het, 
golde gefraetewod, 
hyre Sinenne, 
]7an col-mode, 
faes here-waeSan 
heafod onwriSan, 
and hyt to behSe 
blodig aetywan 
J)am burh-leodum, 
'' MS. forlaeton. 



hu hyre aet beaduwe gespeow. 

Spraec '8a seo ae^ele 

to eallum fam folce : 

Her ge magon sweotole, 

sige-rofe haeleS, 

leoda rseswan, 

on Saes la^estan 

haeSenes hea:5o-rinces 

heafod starian% 



pe us monna maest 

mort5ra gefremede, 

sarra sorga, 

and swy^or gyt 

yean wolde, 

ac him ne uSe God 

lengran Iffes, 

j7aBt he mid laeSSum 

us eglan moste. 

Ic him ealdor o^|7rong 

]>urh Godes fultum. 

Nu ic gumena gehwaene 

fyssa burg-leoda 

biddan wylle, 


]?aet ge recene eow 

fysan to gefeohte ; 

sySSan frymSa God, 

aerfaest Cyning, 

eastan sende 

leohtne leoman, 

beraS linde fortS, 

» MS. staria'5. 

bord for breostum, 
and byrn-homas, 
scfre helmas, 
in sceaSena gemong, 
fyllan folc-togan 
fagum sweordum, 
fege frumgaras : 
fynd syndon eowere 
gedemed to deaSe, 
and ge doni agon, 
tir aet tohtan, 
swa eow getacnod hafaS 
mihtig Dryhten 
])urh mme hand, 
pa wearS snelra werod 
snude gegearewod, 
cenra to campe ; 
stopon cyne-rofe, 
secgas and gesiSas, 
baeron ))ufas, 
foron to gefeohte 
for^ on gerihte 
haeleS under helmum, 
of |)aere haligran byrig, 
on ]?aet daegred sylf : 
dynedan scildas, 
hlude hlummon. 
paes se hlanca gefeah 
wulf in walde, 
and se wanna hrefn, 
wael-gifre fugel, 
westan^ begen, 
faet him Sa ])eod-guman 

^ westene? 




})ohton tilian 

fylle on faegum ; 

ac him fleah on laste 

earn aetes georn, 

urig fe^era ; 

salowig pada 

sang hilde leo^, 


Stopon heaSo-rincas, 

beornas to beadowe, 

bordum beSeahte, 

hwealfum lindum, 

J)a '5e hwfle ^r 


edwit J>oledon, 

hae^enra hosp. 

Him ))8et hearde wear^, 

aet ^ara sesc-plegan, 

eallum forgolden, 


sy^t5an Ebreas, 

under guS-fanum, 

gegan hsefdon 

to ^am fyrd-wicum. 

Hie '5a fromlice 

leton forS fleogan 

flana sctiras, 

hilde naedran, 

of horn-bogan, 

straelas stede-hearde, 

styrmdon hlude, 

grame guS-frecan, 

garas sendon 

in heardra gemang, 

haeleS waeron yrre, 


lat5um cynne, 

stopon styrn-mode, 


wrehton unsofte 

eald geni^lan, 


mundum brugdon 

scealcas of sceaSum 

scfr maeled swyrd, 

ecgum gecoste, 

slogon eornoste 



ni^ hycgende, 

nanne ne sparedon 

faes here-folces, 

heanne ne rfce, 

cwicera manna, 

pe hie ofercuman mihton. 


Swa 5a mago-})egnas, 

on 5a morgen-tfd, 

ehton el5eoda 

ealle frage, 

oS]/3et ongeaton 

5a 5e grame waeron, 

5aes here-folces 


faet him swyrd-geswing 

swi51ic eowdon 

weras Ebrisce ; 



hie wordum fast 
J>ara yldestan 
cySan eodon, 
wrehton cumbol-wigan, 
and him forhtlice 
f^r spel bodedon, 
niorgen coll an, 
atolne ecg-plegan. 
pa ic aedre gefrsegn 
slege-ftege haeleS 
slaepe tobredon, 
and wis ])aes bealofullan 
weras ferhSe 
hwearfum J)ringan, 
Holofernus ; 
hogedon aninga 
hyra hlaforde 
hyldo bodian, 
aerSon 'Se him se egesa 
on-ufan ssete 
maegen Ebrea. 
Mynton ealle 
pset se beorna brego, 
and seo beorhte msegtS, 
in Sam wlitegan traefe 
waeron setsomne, 
ludith seo aeSele, 
and se galmoda, 
egesfull and afor : 
naes Seah eorla n^n, 

})e Sone wiggend 
aweecan dorste, 
oSSe gecunnian 
hu Sone cumbol-wigan 
wis Sa halgan maegS 
haefde geworden, 
Metodes meowlan. 
Masgen nealaehte, 
folc Ebrea, 
fuhton pearle, 
heardum heoru-waepnum, 
haefte guidon 
hyra fyrn geflitu, 
fagum swyrdum 
ealle afSoncan^. 
Assyria wearS, 
on Sam daege-weorce, 
dom geswiSrod, 
bajlc forbiged. 
Beornas stodon 
ymbe hyra ]?eodnes traef, 
pearle gebylde, 
sweorcend-ferhSe ; 
hi Sa somod ealle 
ongunnon cohhetan, 
cirman hlude, 
and gristbitian, 
gode orfeorme, 
mid toSon torn |?oHgende. 
pa waes hyra tires aet ende, 
eades and elleu-daeda ; 
hogedon Sa eorlas 
aweecan hire wfne-dryhten 
afSoncas ? 



him wiht ne speow. 
pa wearS siS and late 
sum to ^am arod, 
fara beado-rinca, 
])8et he in fast bur-geteld 
ni^heard net5de, 
swa hyne nyd fordraf : 
funde Sa on bedde 
blacne liegan 
his gold-gifan, 
gaestes gesne, 
Iffes belidenne. 
He ]>a lungre gefeoll, 
freorig to foldan% 
ongan his feax teran, 
hreoh on mode, 
and his hraegl somod, 
and J)9et word acwae^ 
to ^am wiggendum, 
pe Saer unrote 
tite waeron : 
Her ys geswutelod 
ure sylfra forwyrd, 
toweard getacnod, 
fset faere tfde 
ys mid ni^ura 
neah ge^rungen, 
Se we sculon losian somod, 
aet saecce forweorSan ; 
her If^ sweorde geheawen, 
beheafdod healdend ure. 
Hi Sa hreowig-mode 
wurpon hyra waepen ofdune, ]?earle gelyste 
• MS. feoldan. 

gewitan him werig-ferhSe 
on fleam sceacan ; 
him mon feaht on last, 
maegen-eacen fole, 
oS se maesta dael 
Saes heriges laeg 
hilde gesaeged, 
on ^am sige-wonge, 
sweordum geheawen, 
wulfum to willan, 
and eac wael-gifrum 
fuglum to frofre ; 
flugon ^a t5e lyfdon 
la^ra lind ; 
him on laste for 
sweot Ebrea, 
sigore geweorSod, 
dome gedyrsod : 
him feng Dryhten God 
faegre on fultum, 
Frea ^Imihtig. 
Hi 'Sa fromlice, 
fagum swyrdum, 
haeleS hige-rofe, 
her-paS worhton, 
^urh la^ra gemong, 
linde heowon, 
seild-burh scaeron, 
sceotend waeran, 
gu^e gegremede, 
guman Ebreisce, 
Jjegnas on t5a tfd 



paer on greot gefeoU 
se hyhsta dael 
laSan cynnes, 
lythwon becom 
cwicera to cySSe ; 
cirdon cyne-rofe, 
wiggend on vviSertrod, 
wael-scel on innan, 
reocende hraew. 
Rum waes to nimanne 
on t5am laSestan 
hyra eald-feonduni 
heolfrig here-reaf, 
hyrsta scyne bord, 
and brad swyrd, 
brtine helmas, 
dyre madmas. 
HaBfdon domlice, 
on 6am folcstede, 
fynd oferwunnen, 
swyrd um aswefede ; 
hie on swa^e reston, 
J)a Se him to Iffe 
latSost waeron 
cwicera cynna. 

Da seo cneoris eall, ' 

maegSa m^rost, 

anes monies fyrst, 

wlanc wunden-loce, 

wagon and laeddon 

to Saere beorhtan byrig, 


helmas and hup-seax, 

here-byrnan % 

guS-sceorp gamena, 

golde gefraetewod, 

m^rra madma 

fonne mon asnig 

asecgan msege 

searo-])oncelra ; 

eal ]?8et tSa Seod-guman 

])rymme geeodon, 

cene under cumblum, 

and comp-wige, 

j)urh ludithe 

gleawe lare, 

maegS modigre. 

Hi to mede hyre, 

of Sam siSfate, 

sylfre brohton 

eorlas aesc-rofe, 


sweord and swatigne helm, 

swylce eac side byrnan 

gerenode readum golde, 

and eal J)3et se rinca baldor 

swiSmod sinces ahte, 

oSSe sundor-yrfes, 

MS. hare byrnan. 



beaga and beorhtra maSma ; 
hi faet ]>sere beorhtan idese 
ageafon, gearo-])oncolre. 
Ealles Sses ludith saegde 
wuldor-weroda Dryhtne, 
]>e hyre vveort5mynde geaf, 
m^r^e on moldan rfce, 
swylce eac mede on heofo- 

sigor-lean in swegles wuldre, 
paes ]>e heo ahte soSne ge- 


to ^am iElmihtigan ; 

huru aet t5am ende ne tvveode 

)>8es leanes ]>e heo lange 

pses sy ^am leofan Dryhtne 
wuldor to wfdan aldre, 
pe gesceop wind and lyfte, 
roderas and rume grundas, 
swylce eac repe streamas, 
and swegles dreamas, 
])urh his sylfes miltse. 




Me lifes onlah, 
se ]ns leoht onwrah, 
and fset torhte geteoh 
tillice onwrah. 
Glaed wses ic gliwum, 
glenged hiwum, 
blissa bleoum 
blostma hiwum. 
Secgas mec segon, 
symbel ne alegon, 
feorh-giefe gefegon, 
wic ofer wongum 

waes on lagu-stream lad, 
J)8er me leoJ>u ne biglad, 


hsefde ic heanne had, 
ne waes me in healle gad 
])set J)aer rof word rad ; 
oft J?aer rinc gebad, 
]?aet he in sele saege 
pegnum gej>yhte, 
J)enden waes ic maegen 
horsce mec heredon, 
hilde generedon, 
faegre feredon, 
feondon biweredon : 
swa mec hyht-giefu heold. 

Scealcas waeron scearpe, 
Scyl waes hearpe ; 



hlude hlynede, 
hleo])or dynede, 
swegl-rad swinsade, 
swiSe ne minsade, 
burg-sele beofode, 
beorht lifade, 
ellen eacnade, 
ead beacnade, 
freaum frodade, 
fromum godade, 
mod maegnade, 
mine faegnade, 
treow telgade, 
tir welgade, 

blaed blissade 

Gold gearwade, 

gim hwearfade, 

sine searwade, 

sib nearwade. 

From ic wses in fraetwum, 

freolic in geatwum ; 

waes min dream dryhtlic, 

drohtaS liyhtlic ; 

foldan ic freoSade, 

folcum ic leojjode, 

lif waes min longe, 



De wes bold gebyld 
er J>u iboren were, 
Ce wes molde imynt 
er Su of moder come ; 
ac hit nes no idiht, 
ne feo deopnes imeten 
nes gyt iloced, 
hu long hit ]>e were. 
Nu me ]>e bringaeS 
}>er t5u beon scealt, 
nu me sceal fe meten, 
and t5a mold seotSSa ; 
ne biS no pin hus 
healice itinbred, 
hit biS unheh and lah, 

J)onne ]>\x list J)er-inne ; 
Se hele-wages beoS lage, 
sid-wages unhege, 
]>e rof bi6 ibyld 
))ire broste ful neh ; 
swa Su scealt on mold 
wunien ful cald, 
dimme and deorcae : 
pet den fulaet on hond. 
Dureleas is paet hus, 
and dearc hit is wiSinnen, 
^aer pu bist feste bidytt, 
and Daet5 hefS pa caege : 
ladlic is past eorS-hus, 
and grim inne to wunien, 



Ser ]>u scealt wunien, 
and wurmes ])e todelet5. 
Dus t?u bist ilegd, 
and ladsest J>ine fronden 
nefst tSu nenne freond, 
]>e ))e wylle faren to, 
Saet efre wule lokien 
hu ]>e fast hus pe likie, 
Saet aefre undon 
^e wule 6a dure, 

and ]>e sefter lihten ; 

for sone ])u bist ladlic, 

and lad to iseonne ; 

for sone bi^ J)in haefet^ 

faxes bireued, 

al bi^ Ses faxes 

feirnes forsceden, 

naele hit nan mit fingres feing 

stracien * * 

* * * * 


The History of King Leir and his Daughters. 

MS. Calig., A. IX. 
Bladud hafde enne sune, 
Leir wes ihaten, 
efter his fader daie, 
he heold ]?is drihliche lond, 
somed an his Hue, 
sixti winter. 

He makede ane riche burh, 
|?urh radfulle his crafte, 
and he heo lette nemnen 
efter him seoluan, 
Kaer Leir hehte ]?e burh ; 
leof heo wes ))an kinge, 
])a we an ure leod-quide 
Leir-chestre clepiat$. 
3eare a J?an holde dawen 
heo wes swiSe at5el burh, 

MS. Otho, C. XIII. 
Bladud hadde one sone, 
Leir was ihote, 
after his fader he held fis lond, 
in his owene hond, 
ilaste his lif-dajes, 
sixti winter. 

He makede on riche borh, 
forh wise menne reade, 
and hine lette nemni 
after him seolue, 
Kair Leir hehte ]?e borh ; 
leof he was fan king, 
]>e we on ure speche 
LeJ)-chestre cleopief. 
In fan eolde daije 
hit was a borh riche, 

^ The last six lines are in a different and almost illegible hand. 



and seoSSen lf>er seh toward 
swiSe muchel seorwe, 
pat heo wes al forfaren, 
J)urh pere leodene uael. 
Sixti winter hefde Leir 
pis lond al towelden. 
pe king hefde preo dohtren 
bi his drihliche quen ; 
nefde he nenne sune, 
perfore he warS sari, 
his manscipe to halden, 
buten pa preo dohtren. 
pa aeldeste dohter haihte 

pa oSer Regau, 
pa pridde Cordoille, 
heo wes pa ^ungeste suster, 
a wliten aire uairest ; 
heo wes hire fader al swa leof 
swa his a3ene lif. 
pa aeldede pe king, 
and wakede on a'Selan, 
an he hine bipohte 
wet he don mahte 
of his kineriche 
aefter his deie. 
He seide to him suluen, 
pat pat vuel wes : 
Ic wile mine riche todon, 
and alien minen dohtren, 
and ^euen hem mine kine- 

and twemen mine bearnen : 
ac aerst ic wille fondien, 

and suppe par soh to 
swipe moche sorvve, 

Sixti winter hadde Leir 

pis lond towelden. 

pe king hadde preo dohtres 

bi his 036 cwene ; 

ac he nadde nanne sone, 

parfore he was sori, 

his kinedom to heolde, 

bote his preo dohtres. 

pe aeldeste hehte Gor- 

pe oper Regau, 
pe pridde Gordoylle, 
3eo was pe 3eongeste, 
of peues aire hendest ; 
3eo was hire fader al so leof 
so his owene lif. 
po holdede pe king, 
and failede his mihte, 
and he hine bipohte 
wat he don mihte 
of his kineriche 
after his dai3e. 
He saide to him seolue, 
pat pe vuel was : 
Ich wolle mine riche 
3iue mine dohtres, 

ac erest ich wolle fondi 



whulchere beo mi beste 

and heo seal habbe J>at beste 

of mine drihlichen Ion. 
pus ])e king fohte, 
and fer-aefter he worhte ; 
he clepede Gornoille, 
his gu^fulle dohter, 
vt of hire bure, 
to hire fader deore ; 
and pens spac ]>e aide king, 
per he on ae'Selen seat : 
Sei me, Gornoille, 
soSere worden : 
swiSe dure ]>eo eart me, 
hu leof a^m ich |)e, 
hu mochel wor^ leste ]>u 

to walden kineriche ? 
Gornoille was swi^e waer, 
swa beoS wifmen wel ihwaer, 
and seide ane lesinge 
heore faedere }>on king : 
Leofe faeder dure, 
swa bide ic Godes are, 
swa helpe me Apollin, 
for min ilaefe is al on him, 
J>at leuere ]?eo aert me aene 
]?ane ])is world al clane ; 
and^et ie))e wile speken wit, 
]?eou aert leouere ])ene mi 

and }?is ich sucge ]>e to seo^e, 

woch me mest louie, 

and 3eo sal habbe pat beste 

of mine kine-londe. 
pus pe king poh, 
and par- after awroh ; 
he cleopede Gornoille, 
his dohter pat was deore, 
ut of hire bure, 
to hire fader deore ; 
and pus spac pe holde king 
to Gornoille his dohter : 
Sci me, Gornoille, 
sopere wordes : 
swipe deore pou art me, 
ou lef ham hich pe, 
hu mochel worp holdist pou 

to welde kineriche ? 
Gornoille was wel war, 
so beop wimmen wel iwar, 
and seide one lesing 
to hire fader pe king : 
Leoue fader deore, 
so bide ich Godes ore. 

leuere pou hart me one 
pan al pis worle clene ; 
and 3et ich pe wolle speke wid, 
pou hart me leouere pan mi 

and pis ich segge pe to sope, 



|>u mith me wel ileue. 

Leir fe king 

ilefde his dohter laeisinge, 

and fas aensware ^ef, 

fat waes ]>e olde king : 

Ich J>e Gornoille seuge, 

leoue dohter dure, 

god seal beon fi meda 

for fira gretinge. 

Ic earn for mire seldde 

swife vnbalded, 

and fou me leuoste swife, 

mare fan is on Hue ; 

ich wilie mi dirhliche lond 

a f roe al todalen : 

fin is fat beste deal, 

fu aert mi dohter deore, 

and scalt habben to lauerd 

min aire beste fein 

f eo ich mai uinden 

in mine kinne-londe. 

Mher spac fe olde king 

wit his dohter : 

Leoue dohter Regau, 

waet seist tu me to raeide ? 

Seie fu bifore mire dujden 

heo dure ich am f e an herten. 

pa answaerde mid ■rsetfulle 

worden : 
Al fat is on liue 
nis nig swa dure 
swa me is fin an luue, 
ne for^e min ah3ene lif. 
Ah heo ne seide na f ing setS, 

f u miht me wel ilefue. 
Leir f e king 
ilefde his dohter lesinge, 
and f us answerede 
f e king to his dohter : 

god sal beo f i mede 

for fine wel dede. 

Ich ham for min heolde 

mochel onbolded, 

and f ou me louest swife, 

more fan alle fat his aliue ; 

ich wole mi drifliche lond 

a f reo al todeale : 

fin sal beo fat beste deal, 

f ou hart me swife deore, 

and f ou salt habbe to louerd 

min aire beste man 

fat ich mawe ifinde 

in mine kine-londe. 

Eft spac f e holde king 

wid his of er dohter : 

Leoue dohter Regau, 

wat fou me to reade? 

Sei bifore mine men 

ou deore ich fe ham. 

po answerede 3eo mid worde, 

and noht mid heorte : 

Al fat his on liue 

nis me alf so deore 

so m. his fin one li.e, 

Ac jeo de noft sof, 



no more ])enne hiire suster. 
Alle hire lesinge 
hire uader ilefede. 
pa answarede ]>e king, 
hiis dorter him icwemde : 
pea ]?ridde del of mine londe 
ich bitake ]?e an honde ; 
}7u scalt nime louerd 
per ]>e is aire leowost. 
pa 3et nolde J>e leod-king 
his sothscipe bilaeuen ; 
he hehte cumen him biforen 
his dohter Cordoille ; 
heo was aire 3ungest, 
of soSe 33er witelest, 
and ]>e king heo louede more 
panne batueie ]>e o^re. 
Cordoille iherde fa lasinge 
fe hire sustren seiden pon 

kinge ; 
nom hire leaffulne huie 
pat heo li^en nolden, 
hire fader heo wolde suge 

were him lef were him laS. 
peo queS pe aide king, 
vnrat5 him fulede : 
Iheren ich wille 
of pe Cordoille, 
sua pe helpe AppoUin, 
hu deore pe beo lif min. 
pa answarede Cordoille, 
lude and nowiht stille, 
mid gomene and mid lehtre, 

na more p 

al hire les.... 


po answ.... king, 

his dohter him icwe... 

pe pridden deal of mine ... 

ich bitake pe an hond 

and p nime louerd 

par pe his a... leuest. 

pe 3et nolde pe king 

his folic blene ; 

he hehte come him bifore 

his dohter Gordoille ; 

3eo was aire ^congest, 

of worde aire sopest, 

and pe king hire louede 

more pan pe tweie oper. 

Gordoille iherde pe lesing 

pat hire sostres seide pan 

kinge ; 
nam hire lapfolne op 
pat 3e le3e nolde, 
hire fader 360 wolde segge 

were him leof were hira lop. 
po cvvap pe holde king, 
onread him folwede : 
Ich woUe ihiren of pe, 
Gordoille mi dohter, 
so pe helpe Appolin, 
ou deore pe his lif min. 
po answerede Gordoille, 
loude and noht stille, 
mid game and mid lilitre, 



to hire fader leue : 

peo art me leof al so mi faeder, 

and ich ]>e al so fi dohter. 

Ich habbe to pesohfaste loue, 

for we buoS swi]?e isibbe, 

and swa ich ibide are, 

ich wille fe suge mare : 

al swa muchel fu bist woruh 

swa ]>u welden aert, 

and al swa muchel swa J)u 

men ]>e wllet luuien ; 
for sone heo bit5 ila3ed, 
]>e mon ])e lutel ah. 
pus seide ]>e maeiden Cor- 

and seoSSen set swij>e stille. 
pa iwarSe ]>e king wser^, 
for he nes J»eo noht iquemed, 
and wende on is Jjonke, 
faht hit weren for unSeawe, 
fat he hire weore swa un- 

fat heo hine nold iwurSi, 
swa hire twa sustren, 
fe ba somed laesinge speken. 
pe king Leir iwerSe swa 

swilch hit a blac clotS weiren 
iwaerS his hude and his 

for he was sufe ihaermed, 
mid J>ere wraeStSe he waes 


to hire fader leoue : 

pou hart me ase min fader, 

and ich ase pin dohter, 

and so ich abide ore, 
ich wolle segge ]>e more : 
al so mochel fou hart wor]) 
ase fou hart weldende, 
and wile ... fou hoft afest, 

men ]>e wollej) louie ; 
for sone hi beof lofe, 
j>e men ]>e lutel o^ej). 
pus seide pat maide Gor- 

and sippe sat stille. 
po iwarj? pe king wrop, 

for he nas nopt icw 

he wende on his pon.. 
..t hit were for onpeue, 
pat he so onworp, 

p.. 3eo hin louie, 

# * * 

His euhe torne and was wrop, 
bicom alse a blac clop : 

* * # 

mid pare wreppe he was igre- 



]?at he feol i swowen ; 

late ]>eo he up fusde ; 

fat maeiden wes afeared, 

pa hit alles up brae, 

hit wes vuel J)at he spac : 

Hserne Cordoille, 

ich ]>e telle wille mine wille ; 

of mine dohtren |)u were me 

nu ]7U eaert me arle laeSes : 

ne scalt ))u naeuer halden 

dale of mine lande ; 

ah mine dohtren ic wille 

delen mine riche, 

andj)u scalt worsen warchen, 

and wonien in wansiSe, 

for nauere ich ne wende 

J)at J)u me woldes )?us scan- 

l^arfore |?u scalt beon deed 
ic wene : 

fli^ ut of min eaeh-sene, 

})ine sustren sculen habben 
mi kinelond, 

and ))is me is iqiieme. 

pe due of Cornwaile 

seal habbe Gornoille, 

and J>e Scottene king 

Regau J>at scone ; 

and ic hem 3eue al fa winne 

J)e ich sem waldinge ouer. 

And al fe aide king dude 

swa he hafuede idemed. 

Of wes fen maeidene wa, 

fat hi fuUe hi swo3e ; 

late f vp fusde ; 

fat maide was afered, 

f o hit alles up brae, 

hit was vuel fat he spac : 

Hercne Gordoille, 

ich woUe segge f e mine wille 

of mine dohtres f ou were me 

nou f ou hart me aire lof est : 
ne salt f ou neuere holde 
deal of mine londe ; 
ac mine two dohtre 
soUe habbe mine riche, 
and fou salt wonie wrecche, 
and wonie ine wowe, 
for neuere ich ne wende 
fat fou me woldest f us 

farfore fou salt dei^e ich 

wene : 
fleo vt of mine eh-scene, 
fine sostres sulle habbe mi 

and fis me his icweme. 
pe duk of Cornwale 
sal habbe Gornoille, 
and f e Scottene king 
Regau f e scene ; 
and ich 3am giue alle f e winne 
fat ich ham ouer waldenne. 
And f e holde king dude 
ase he hadde ideraid. 
Ofte was fane maide wo, 



and naeure wors Jjenne ]>a, 
vva hire wes on mode, 
for hire faeder waerj^e ; 
heo uende into hire boiire, 
])ar heo ofte saette sare ; 
for heo nolde li^en 
hire fader leoue. 
pat maide wes swiSen 

for hire fader heo scunede, 
and dude ]>ene beste red ; 
in hire bure heo abed, 
and ]?olede ]>ene mod-kare, 
and mornede swij)e ; 
and f us ane stonde 
hit stod 36 Son ilka. 
In France wes a king 
riche and swiSe kene, 
Aganippes wes ihaten, 
haeleSen he wes aeldere ; 
he wes a 3enge king, 
ah quene nauede he nane. 
He sende hiis sande 
into fisse lande, 
to Leir ])an kinge, 
and leofliche hine gret ; 
he baed hine don is iwille, 
jeuen him Cordoille, 
and he heo wolde habben 
hse3e to are quene, 
and aefter hire don aerest, 
}>at hire were aire leofust. 
Feor haueden liSende men 
ispeken of J>an maeidene 

and neuere worse J)ane po, 

wo hire was on mode, 

for hire fader wre])J>e ; 

3eo eode in to bure, 

and ofte si]>te sore ; 

for 3eo nolde le^e 

hire fader leue. 

pat maide was swij>e samuast, 

and hire fader sonede, 
and dude ])ane beste read ; 
and in hire bure abod, 
and folede pane mod-care, 
and mornede swi]?e ; 
and ]7us one stunde 
hit stod a J^am ilke. 
In France was a king 
rich and swipe kene, 
Aganippus was ihote, 
folke he was eldere ; 
he was a 3ong king, 
ac cwene nafde he none. 
He sende his sonde 
in to pisse londe, 
to Leir pane king, 
and faire him grette ; 
bad hine don his wille, 
3efe him Gordoille, 
and he hire wolde habbe 
he3e to cwene, 
and don aire erest, 
pat hire were aire fairest. 
For hafde sope men 
ispeke of pam maiden 



fei^ernesse and freoscipe 
atforen ]?an Frensce kinge, 
of hire mucla faeira wlita, 
of hire muchela monschipe, 
hu heo was folemod, 
of fseire hire j^eaewen, 
|?at lies on Leir kinges lond 
nan wifman al swa hende. 
And fe king Aganippus 
igrette Leir kin ])us. 
Leir kin hine biJ>ohte, 
wat he don mohte ; 
he letten writen a writ, 
and wel hit lette dihten, 
and sende hit bi his sonde 
in Frauncene londe : 
J)us spec pes kinges writ, 
hit wes widen icuS : 
pe king of Bruttaine, 
)>e Leir is haten, 
grete'S Aganippus, 
J)ene aldere of Fraunce : 
Wor'Sschepe haue J?u 
]?ire wel-deda, 
and ])ire feire sonde, 
fat grete ))u me woldest: 
ac ic do J)e wel to witene, 
haer bi mine writ rich, 
fat mi drihlice lond 
a twa ich habbe ideled, 
ijeuen hit mine twam doh- 

fe me beoh swi^e deore. 
Dohter ich habbe fa f ridda, 

bifore fan Frence king, 

of hire f e 

of hire mochele fairsipe, 

of hire mochele mansipe, 

ou 3eo was folemod, 

of faire hire f eues, 

fat nas in Leir kinges lond, 

womman half so hende. 

And king Aganippus 

igrette Leir f e king f us. 

Leir king hine bif oht, 

wat he don mihte ; 

he lette writen a writ, 

wel mid fan beste, 

an sende bi his sonde 

into France londe : 

f us spac feos kinges writ, 

hit was wide cuf : 

pe king of Britaine 

fat Leir his 

gretef Aganippus, 

king of France: 

Worsipe haue f ou 
for fine wilninge, 
and fine faire sonde, 
fat grete f ou me woldest : 
ac ich do f e wel to wite, 
her rift bi mine write, 
fat mi drihtlice lond 
a two ich habbe idealed, 
i3euet mine two dof tren, 

fat beof me swif e deore. 
Dohter ich habbe f e f ridde. 



ac ne raecche ich waer heo 

libbe ; 
for heo me forhuste, 
and heo hold me for haene, 
and for mire halde, 
heo me unaleledae 
heo make me swa swife wraS, 
]>e worse hire seal iwur^en ; 
of alle mine londe, 
ne of alle mine leode, 
]?e ich auere bi^eat, 
oSer bi^ete maeie, 
ich ]>e sucge soS riht, 
na seal heo habbe nawiht : 
ac 3ef ]?u heo wult habben, 
for maeide heo is hende, 
ich heo wuUe ]>e biwiten, 
and senden ha ]?e in anescipe, 
mid seoluen hire claSen, 
of me nafS heo na more ; 
3if ]?u heo wult underfon, 
al ]?is ilka ich wuUe don ; 
iseid ich habbe pene grund, 
and J)u seolf wurt5 al hisund. 

pis writ com to Fraunce 

to pan freo kinge ; 

he hit lette raden, 

leof him weren ])a runen. 

pa wende fe king 

pat hit were for vuele, 

J>at Leir king hire feeder 

heo him wold' atleden 

and he mochula J>a wodeloker 

ac ne rech ic ware ^e libbe 

for 3eo me forho3ede, 
and held me for wrecche, 

and wrappede me swipe, 
pe worse hire sal worpe; 
pat of alle mine londe, 
ne of alle mine leode, 
pat ich euere bi3et, 
oper bi3ete mawe, 
ich pe segge sop riht, 
ne sal 3eo habbe nowipt : 
ac 3if pou hire wold habbe, 
maide 3eo his hende, 
ich pe wole hire biwete, 
and sende hire in one sipe, 
mid seolue hire eloping, 
of me 3eo nafep na more ; 
3if pou hire wolt vnderfon, 
al pis ich wolle don ; 
iseid ic habbe pane grund, 
and pou pi seolf far hoi and 

pis writ com to France 
to p.. ..eo kinge ; 
he hit lette rede, 
leof him were pe roune. 
po wende pe welde king 
pat hit were for gyle, 
pat Leir king hire fader 
nolde hire him lene, 
and he moche pe wodlokere 



wilnede ])eos mseidenes, 
and seide to is bornen, 
))at wes pe bisie king : 
Ich earn riche mon inoh, 
)>at na mare ich ne recche ; 
ne seal neuere Leir king 
]7at maeiden me attlede, 
ac ich heo wulle habben 
to haen3enne are quene. 
Habben heore fader al is lond, 
al hiis seoluer and is gold, 
ne bidde ich nanne maSmes, 
me seolf ich habben ino^e, 
bute })at mseiden Cordoille ; 
]>enne habbe ich mine wille. 
Mid writ and mid worde 
he sende eft to ]?isse londe, 
and bad Leir king him 

his dohter ]>e waes hende, 
and he wolde wel don, 
mid muchele worSescipe heo 

pa nom ])a olde king 
aeSele his meiden, 
mid seoluen hire elates, 
and lette heo for^e liSen 
ofer pa. stremes ; 
hire fader hire wes sturne. 
Aganippus j^e Frennsce king 
vnderfeng ]?is meiden child, 
al hiis folc hit wes iqueme, 
and makeden heo to quene, 
and ]>U9 heo far bilefde. 

wilnede ..t mayde, 
and seide to his fol.. 
.ing Aganippus : 
Ich ha. ... he .an inoj), 

of ich ne recche; 

ne sal Leir fe king 

]?at maiden me atlede, 
ac ich hire wolle habbe 
to e^e cwene. 

Habbe hire fader al his lond, 
and his seoluer and his gold, 
ne bid ich no ]>\ng of his, 
inoh ich habbe mi seolue, 
bote fat maide Gordoille ; 
pan ich habbe mine wille. 
Mid writ and mit worde 
he send eft to ])isse londe, 
and bad Leir king him sende 

his dohter fat was hende, 
and he hire wolde vnderfon, 
and moche mansipe hire don. 

po nam fe holde king 
Gordoille fat maide, 
raid seolue hire clof ing, 
and lette hire forf wende 
ouer see stremes ; 
hire fader was sterne. 
Aganippus fe Frence king 
fis maide faire vnderfeng, 
and al his folk hit was icweme, 
fat 3eo were cwene, 
and f us ^eo fare bileofde, 



leof heo wes ))on leoden. 
And Leir king hire feeder 
luuede i Sisse londe, 
and hadde i3euen is twain 

al his drihliche leand ; 
He 3ef Gornoille 
Scotlondes kinge, 
he haehte Maglaunus, 
his mashte weren store ; 
Cornwailies duke 
Regau is dohter. 
pa ilomp hit seoSSe, 
sone par-aefter, 
pat ]>e Scottene king and ]>e 

speken toga'Sere, 
mid heore stil rune, 
nomm hem to reda, 
J>at heo wolden al fis lend 
habben on heora hond, 
and feden Leir J>ane king 
]>e while ]>e he leouede, 
daeies and nihtes, 
mid feowerti hired-cnihtes ; 
and heo him wolden finden 
hauekes and hundes, 
fat he mihte riden 
3eond alle fanne J^eoden, 
and libben on lisse, 
J?e while ]>e he leouede. 
pus heo fa ispeken, 
and eft hit tobreken, 
and Leir king hit iherde, 

leof 3eo was fan folke. 
And Leir king hire fader 
liuede in fisse londe, ^ 

and hadde his two d 

al his kinedome ; 

He 3af Gornoille 

To Scottene king, 

he hehte Maglandus, 

his mihtes weren store. 

And to Cornwales duke 

Regau his dohter. 

pa bifulle ... .effe, 

sone far-h after, 

fat f e Scottene king and fe 

speken togadere, 
mid hire stille rouning, 
nemen heom to reade, 
fat hii wolde al f is lond 
habbe to hire owene hond, 
and feode Leir fane king 
wile fat he leofede, 
dai3es and nif tes, 
mid fourti cniftes. 
And we him wollef finde 
hauekes and hundes, 
fat he mai ride 
ouer al f e feode, 
and libbe ine blisse, 
f e wile fat he libbef . 
pus i f o speken, 
and eft hit tobreken, 
and Leir king was wel ipaid. 



and eft him wes ]>e worsse : 
and Leir king liSde 
to Scottenae leoda, 
mid Maglaune his at5ume, 
and mid fere eldre dohtre. 
Me vnderfeng J)ene king 
mid mochele feirnusse, 
and wel me him dihte 
mid feowerti hire cnihdtes, 
mid horsen and mid hundes, 
mid al J>at him biheovede. 
pa hilomp hit seo66en, 
seone ])er-after, 
]?e Gornoille bi]7ohte 
whet heo don mihte : 
heore ])uhto swij>e eille 
of ae^elene hire faedere, 
and heo hit bigan to mainen 
to Maglaune hire louerde, 
and seide him i bedde, 
fer heo leiin iueore: 
Seie me, mi lauerd, 
monne ])u ert me leouest ; 
me J>uncheS J)at mi faeder 
nis nowhit felle ; 
no he wurhscipe ne can, 
his wit he hauet bileued ; 
me J?unche^ ]>e aide mon 
wole dotie nou nan. 
He halt here fauwerticnihtes, 
dales and nihtes, 
he haueht her ]>as Jjeines, 
and alle heore swaines, 
hundes and hauekes ; 

and eft onlikede : 

and Leir king wende 

to Scottene kinge, 

to Maglande his oJ)om, 

and to his heldeste dohter. 

Me vnderfeng pane [king] 

mid his fourti eniptes, 

and hire hors and hire atyr, 

and al J)at ham bihouede. 

po bifullet sej)]>e, 

sone ])ar-after, 

])at Gornoille bi])ohte 

wat 3eo don mihte : 

hire jjohte swi])e eil 

of hire fader cnihtes, 

and 3eo began to mene 

to Maglande hire louerd, 

and seide hit in bedde, 

J?ar ]?at leien : 

Sei me mi louerd 

manne me leofust 

me ])onche]? pat mi fader 

nis noJ)t fele ; 

no worsipe he ne can, 

his wit he hauep bileued ; 

He halt here fourti cniptes, 

daises and niptes, 

he halt here his sweynes, 



feruore we habbet harmes, 
andd nowher heo ne spedet, 
and auere heo speneS, 
and al fat goud fat we hem 

heo hit bluSeliche vnderfot5, 
and cunnen us vndonc, 
for ure wel-dede. 
Heo doS muchel bisemaere, 
ure men hi tobetet : 
mi fader hauet to monie 
of idele manne ; 
ale fa feort5e dale 
lete we for fuse ; 
inoh he hauet on firti, 
to f irngen to borde ; 
vs selve we habbet cokes 
to quecchen to cuchene, 
vs sulue we habbet bermen 
and birles inowe. 
Lete we sum fis mochele folc 
fare wher ha wullet5 ; 
swa ich aeuere ibiden are, 
iSolien nulle ich hit mare. 
pis iherde Maglaunus 
fat is quene spilede f us ; 
and he hire andswarede 
mid at5elere spiche : 
Leiuedi fu haues mochel 

nauest f u richedom inoh ? 
Ah hald fine faeder on lisse, 
ne luueSe he nowiht longe ; 
for gef ferrene kinges 

farfore we habbef harmes, 

al fat god f e we heom dof , 

hii hit blof cliche vnderfof, 

and ne come vs bote vnfong, 

for hure wel-deade. 

Hii dof hus mochel bismare, 

hure men hi tobetef : 

mi fader hauef to manie 

of idele men ; 

al fat feorf e deal 

lete we forf fuse ; 

hus seolf we habbef cocus 
to cwecche to kichene, 
hus seolf we habbef bermen 
and borles inowe. 
Lete we som f is mochele folk 
fare woder i wollef ; 
so ich euere ibide ore, 
ich hit nele folic more, 
pis iherde Maglandus 
fat f e cwene spak f us ; 
and hire answerede 
mid his gode speche : 
Leafdi f ou hauest wof , 

nauest f ou richedom inof ? 
Ac hold fin fader in blisse, 
ne liuef he nof t lange ; 
for gef honcuf e kinges 



hi herde ]>&. tidinde, 
]>e we swa takede him on, 
heo us wolden taelen. 
Ah late we hine welden 
his folc on his willen ; 
and ]?is min 336 rsed is, 
for sone her-sefter he beS 

and ac we habben in ure 

al half is kine-lond. 
pa seide Gornoille : 
Lauerd beo J)eu stille, 
let me al iwur))en, 
and ich ham wulle atwailden. 
Heo sende mid hire ginne 
to ))are enihtene inne; 
heo hahte hem faren hire 

for heo nolden hem no more 

moni of ]>en ))einen, 
monie of fen swennen, 
)>e yider weren icumene 
mid Leir Jeanne kinge. 
pis iherde Leir king, 
parfore he wes swu))e wrah ; 
fai ^edede ]>e king 
mid ^emeliche worden, 
and J)us seide fe kinge, 
sorhful on mode : 
Wa wortSe fan monne 
pe lond hauet5e mid menske, 
and bitachet hit is childe 

hii heref soche finges, 

fat we so take him on, 

hii hus wollej) shende. 

Ac lete we him habbe 

his folk at his wille ; 

and f is his min owene read, 

for sone her-after he worf 

and eke we habbef in hure 

haluen del his kine-lond. 
po seide Gornoille : 
Louerd beo fou stille, 
let me al iwor... 
and ich him wolle awilde. 
3eo sende al mid ginne 
to fare cnif ten hinne ; 
and hehte 3am faren hire wai : 

Na more we noUef 30U feode. 

pis iherde Leir f e king, 
and wraf f ede him swif e, 

and seide f eos wordes, 
sor3fulle on mode : 
Wo worf e fane man 
fat lond hauef to wille, 
and takef hit his child 



J)ewhile])ehemaihitwalden; ]>e wile ]>e hit mai holde 

for ofte hit ilimpS, 
J>at eft hit him ofj)incheS. 
Nu ich wulle hunne faren 
for6 rihte to Cornwalen ; 
3ernen ich wulle rsedes, 
to Regau mire dohter, 
]>e hauede Hemeri ]>e due, 
and mi drihhche lond. 
For^ ^ ]>e king wende 
into fan suS ende, 
to Regau is dochter, 
for raedes him trukeden. 
pa he to Cornwale com, 
he wes feire per vnderfon, 
swa al ]>et halue 3er 
mid al his hirede he wes jjer. 

pa saide Regau, 

to hire due Hemeri : 

Lauerd, heme ]>u me, 

to fulle sope ic sucge hit ]>e : 

We habbet idon unwisdom, 

J>at we mine fader habbet 

mid pirtti^ cnihten ; 
hit nis me noht iqueme. 
Do we awai pane twenti ; 
a tene beoS inohje : 

for hofte hit bifallep, 

pat eft hit him apinchep. 

Nou ich wolle hinne fare 

ript into Cornwale ; 

3ern ich wolle reades, 

of Regau mine dohter, 

pat auep Amari pe duk 

and half min kineriche. 

Forp pe king wende 

into pan sup ende, 

to Regau his dohter, 

for reades him trokede. 

po he to Cornwale com, 

he was faire vnderfon, 

so pat al pat alue ^er 

mid alle his cnihtes he wonede 

pa seide Regau 
to Amari hire louerd : 
Hercne, louerd, to me, 
to folle sope ich segge pe : 
We habbep idon onwisdom, 
pat we mine fader habbep 

mid pus manie eniptes ; 
hit nis me noht icweme. 
Do we iwei alle 
bote ten beop inowe : 
for al heo dringket and eteS, for alle hii dringep and hetep, 
and na god heo ne bi^eteS. and no god hii ne bi3etep. 

pa seide Hemeri pe due, 
pe his aide fader biswake : 
» MS. Forhd. 

po seide Ameri pe duk, 
pat his halde fader ....oc: 
" MS. wirtti. 




Swa ich eaeuere beo on liue, So ich euere beo 

ne seal he habben beote fiue ; ne sal he habbe bote cn..tes 

for J?er he hauet bird hinoh, 
for he nauyt no doS ; 

for paron he habbe]? inoh, 
for he no])ing no do]? ; 

and 3ef he nille^hennefaren, and ^if he nolle ^ hinrie fare, 

fuse we hine sone. 
Al heo ispedden 
ase heo ispeken hafden ; 
binomen hhn is do3eSe, 
and al his drihliche folc ; 
nolden heo him bileafuen 
cnihtes beoton fiue. 
pis iseh ]>e Leir king, 
wa wes him on liue, 
his mod him gon mengen, 
he mor3nede swiSe, 
and ])as worde seide 
mid seorhfulle laichen : 
Wela weolla wella I 

fuse we hine ... ]?e. 
All hi..ede ind.. 
ase he speke adde ; 
binomen him his cni]?tes 
and al hire sweines 
nolden hi him bilefue 
cni]?tes bote vine, 
pis iseh Leir ]?e king, 
wa was him a liue, 
his mod him gan mengi, 
he mornede swi])e, 
and }?eos word seide 
mid sorfol speche : 
Wele wele wele wele ! 

hu ]m biswikest monine mon: ou ]?ou beswikest mani man : 
])enne he ]>e treoweSe aire wan hii ]>e troue]? aire best, 
best on, 

]>enne biswikes tu heom. 
Nis hit nowit ^are, 
noht fuUe twa ^ere, 
]?at ich was a riche king 
and held mine cnihtes : 
nu ich habben ibiden, 
]?at ich bare sitte, 
wunnen biraeued ; 
wa is me on liue ! 
Ich wes at Gornoille, 

])dn })ou heom biswikest. 

Nis noht ^are, 

noht fuUe two ^ere, 

}>at ich was a riche king 

and welde mine cni])tes : 

nou ich habbe ibede J?ane dai 

]?at ich bar sitte 

of gode bireued ; 

wo his me aliue I 

Ich was mid Gornolle, 

MSS. wille and woUe. 



mire godfulle dohter ; 
wuden" on hire leoden 
mid )>ritti cnihtes : 
]>e 3et ich mihte libben, 
ah ])enne i gonne lit5eii, 

mine leofue dohter ; 
ich wonede on hire londe 
mid ]?rittie cnihtes : 
J>e jet ich mi])te libbe 
a sommere wise ; 
ac ich wende bet habbe idon, 
ich wende swi^e wel to don, and gan Jeanne wende, 
ac wurse ich habbe vnderfon. ac worse ich habbe onderfon. 

Ajen ich wulle to Scotte, 
to scone mire docter, 
jernen hira milcea, 
J)at heo me nele wurdea ; 
bidden heo me vnderfon 
mid mine fif cnihten ; 
J)er ich wulle wunie, 
and folic Jjeos waenen 
ane lutele stunde, 
for ne libbe ich nowiht longe. 
Leir ]?e king wende for^^ 
to is dohter wunede norS. 
FuUe J)re nihtes 

Ajein ich wole to Scotlond, 
and sechen mine dohter, 
and bidde hire milse, 

bid hire me onderfon 
mid mine fif cnihtes ; 
fare ich wolle wonie, 
and folic ... wo we 
ane lutle stu... 
... ne libbe ich noft longe. 
... king verde forf 
to his doh... fat wonede norf . 
Folle f reo nif tes 
heo hserabarewude hine and jeo herborjede him and his 

is cnihtes : cnif tes : 

heo swor a fane ferf e dsei, jeo iswor a fan feorf dai, 
bi al heuenliche main, bi al heuenliche maine 

fat ne sculde he habben mare, fat ne solde he habbe more 

bute enne knicte fere ; 
and 3ef he fet nolde, 
ferde wuder he wolde. 
Wel oft wes Leir wa, 
and neuere wurs fanne 
pa seide f e aide king, 
aeruu he was on herten 
» wunede ? 

bote one cnift fare 
and 3ef he fat nolde, 
fare woder so wolde. 
Wel ofte was Leir wo, 
ac neuere worse fane f o. 
po seide Leir f e king, 
wo him was on heorte : 

b MS. forh. 

I 2 



Wallan dse^, wela deeS, 
|?at ]>VL me nelt fordemen ! 
SeoS seide Cordoille, 
for cuS hit is me nou]?e, 
mi jengestte dohter, 
heo was me wel dure, 
seoSSen heo me wes leadest, 
for heo me seiden aire sohust, 
pat he biS vnwor^ and lah, 
J)e mon ])e litul ah ; 
and ich nas na wurdra, 
l^enne ich nes weldinde. 
Ouersoh seiden ]?at 3unge 

hire folwe^ mochel wisdom, 
pa wile fe ich haeuede mi 

luueden me mine leoden, 
for mine londe and for mine 

feo, [cneo: 

mine eorles fuUe to mine 
nu ich sem a wrecche mon, 
ne leouet me no mon forJ)an ; 
Ah mi dohter me seide seoh, 
for nou ich hire ileue inoh, 
and batwa hire susteren 
lasinge me seiden, 
])at ich ham wes swa leof, 
leuere ]?enne hire a^e lif ; 
and Cordoille mi dohter 
doh^efe me seide, 
fat heo me leouede swa feire 
swa mon his fader scolde : 
Wet wold ich bidde mare 

Wo la deaj), wo la dea]?, 
J)at fou me nelt fordeme ! 
So]> seide Gordoille, 
for cu]? hit his me nou]?e, 
mi ^eongeste dohter, 
]?at was me wile deore, 
seoJ)J>e 3eo was me lo))est, 
for 3eo me seide soj^est, 
pat he his onworj? and lo]>, 
J>e man fat Intel o}e]) ; 
and ich nas no worfere, 
]>an ich was god habben. 
So]? seide fe ^ong wimmon, 

hire folwe]? moche wisdom, 
pe wile ich hadde min kine- 
louede me mi leode, 
for mi lond and mi feo, 

eorles fulle to mi cneo : 
nou ich ham a wrecche man, 
ne louef me no man forfan ; 
Ac mi dohter me seide sof, 
for ich hire ileue inof, 
bofe two hire sostres 
lesing me seide, 
fat ich ham was so leof 
ase hire 03ene lif; 
and mi ^onge dohter 
Gordoille me seide, 
fat 3eo me loue wolde 
so man his fader solde : 
Wat wolde ich bidde more 



of mire dohter dure ? 

Nu ich wullen faren feor^, 

and ouer sae fusen, 

ihiren of Cordoille 

wat beon hire wille ; 

hire seohSe word ich nam 

to grame, 
J>arfore ich habbe nu mu- 

chele scame ; 
for nu ich mot bisecchen 

})at]?ing]?atichaerforhowede; J)at ich her foro^ede. 
Nule heo me do na wurse Nele ^eo me no worse 
Jjanne hire lond forwurnen. 
Leir ferde to ]>ere sae 
mid ane alpie swein, 
into ane schipe he bicom, 
ne icnwo hine no mon : 
ouer sea i comen, 
hauene sone anomen. 
ForS wende ]>e king Leir, 
nauede he bute enne swein ; 
hi axeden |>a queue, 
})at heo comen hire a neweste. fat hii a newest come. 
Tahten heom leode, 
wer wes ]>es londes queue. 

Leir king wende on anne feld, Leir king wende on an feld, 
and reste hine on folden ; and reste his weri bones ; 
and is swien he for6 sende, and his sweyn he for]) sende. 

of mine dohter deore ? 

Nou ich woUe faren for]), 

and ouer see fusi, 

hihire of Gordoille 

wat beo hire wille ; 

hire so]) word ich nam to 

})arfore ich habbe nou mo- 

chel same ; 
for nou ich mot biseche 

])ane hire lond werne. 
Leir ferde to ])are see 
mid on alpi sweine. 
into one sipe he bicom, 
ne icnew hine no man : 
ouer see hii comen, 
and hauene hi nomen. 
For]) wende f»e king Leir, 
nadde he bote one sweine ; 
hii axede after ]>e cwene. 

})e wes iradraon hende, 
to ])ere queue Cordoille, 
and seide hire wel stille : 
Hail wurS ])u, feire queue ; 
ich earn ])ines fader sweine, 

])at was hiredman hende, 
to ])are cwene Gordoille, 
and seide hire wel stille : 
Hayl wor])ou, cwene ; 
})i fader J)e grette. 

and })i uader is hider ikomen, and he his hider to ]>e icome, 



for al is lond is him bino- for al his lond his him bi- 

beot5 ba fine sustren 
touward him forsworene. 
He cumeS for neode 
into J)isse leode ; 
and help him nu for J>u miht, 
he is J)i fader alse hit is riht. 
pe quene Cordoille 
seaet longe swu]>e stille ; 
heo iward reod on hire 

benche, [scenche, 

swilche hit were of wine- 
and ]>e swain saet at hire faeit, 
sone J)er-after him wes J)e bet. 
pa alles uppe abraec, 
hit wes god J)at heo spaec : 
AppoUin mi lauer, ich fankie 

pat mi feeder is icumme to me 
tidinge ich ihire leoue, 
J?at mi fader on Hue is ; 
of me he habben seal goudne 

bute ich beo ]>e ratSer ded. 
Seie me nupe leof * swein, 
and harne mine lare : 
Ich pe wulle bitache 
a male rich, 
penijes per buot5 ansunda, 

beop bope pine sostres 
toward him forsworene. 
He his icome for neode 
into pine peode ; 
help him nou an pou miht, 
he his pi fader and hit his riht. 
pe cwene Gordoille 
long sat stille ; 

po hit halles vpbrac, 
hit was god pat 3eo spac 

tiding ich ihire lefue, 

pat mi fader his aliue ; 

of me he sal habbe godne 

bote ich pe raper be dead. 

Ich pe woUe bitake 

one male riche, 

par beop parine isunde. 

to iwisse an hundrad punda ; to iwisse an hundred pound, 
ich bitaeche pe anne haengest 
godna and strongna, 

• MS. leo. 



tolaeden J)is garisume 

to leuene mine fadere ; 

and seie him ]?at ich hine gret 

godere gretinge, 

and hat ine fare swi])e 

to hare feire bur^e, 

and rumen him herberia, 

i summe riche burie, 

and bugge him aire errust 

Jjat him wes aire leouust, 

metes and drinches 

and hende elates, 

hundes and hauekes 

and durewur^e horses : 

halde in is heose 

feuwerti hired-cnihtes 

heje and riche, 

bihongen mid raeue ; 

makie him god baid, 

and ofte hine baSie, 

and him blod lete 

lutlen and ofte. 

Wenne ]?u wult more suluer, 

saeche hit at me suluen ; 

and ich him wuUe senden 

inoh of fisse ende ; 

swa neuer he ne cuSe 

of his aide cut5t5e 

cnihte ne sweine, 

ne nauer nanne ])eine. 

penne feowerti dawes beoS 

}>enne cu^e he anan 
to leue mine lauerd 

Led J>ou pis garisom 
to lefue mine fader ; 
and sei pat ich hine grette 
godes gretinge, 
and hoten fare swipe 
to somme he3e borwe, 
and nimen him on in, 
riches of alle, 
and bigge him aire erest 
pat him his aire leuest, 
metes and dringes 
and riche elopes, 
hundes and hauekes 
and hors mid pe beste : 
holde in his house 
fourti cnihtes, 

makie hine god bed, 

and oft hine bapie, 

and him blod lete 

lutel and ofte. 

Wan pou wolt mor seoluer, 

feche hit mi seolue ; 

and ich wolle sende 

inoh of pisse hende ; 

so pat neuere he ne cupe 

of his hoi cuppe. 

Are fourti daises beo agon, 

panne cupe he hit anon 
" ^ leofue mine loii^rd 



]>at Leir is an is londe, fat Leir his in londe, 

icume ouer sae-streme icomen ouer see-strem 

to isen is eastresse : to speken wid his dohter : 

and ich hit wulle swa nimen, and ich hit wole so nime, 

alse ich hine nusten, ase ich noht nuste. 

liSen him to3senes 

mid mine lauerde, 

fainen mines lauerdes, 

and is faeirliche cume. 

Nute hit neuere nane gume, Nute hit ..n gome, 

buten he beo neowene icume: bote .... ne icome, 

and ))us hit writen sende and ]7us sende 

to mine lauerd kinge ; 

and pu ])as sehte onfo, 

and loca J)at ]>u wel do ; 

and 3ef ]>u heo J)us dalest, 

to godere ]?ire haele. 

And f»e swein onfeng J>as ahte, pes swein an hi3inge 

to mine lau.... 

... ]?ou J>is seoluer ... 

and lok J)at fou wel do 

wende to his louerd, 
to Leir ])ane king, 
and seide him )?eos tiding, 
]}ar he lai on felde, 
and reste him for wowe. 

po he horde J?eos tiding, 
]>o seide Leir J>e king : 
After vuel come]) god ; 

and to his louer ferde, 

to Leir )>on kinge, 

and seide ])as tidinge, 

]>er he Isei on felde, 

and reste hine on folde. 

Sone wer^ )>e aide king 

wunliche iaeSeled, 

and J7as wuord seide 

mid soSere stefuene : 

After vuele cumet5 god ; 

wel is him J>e hit habbe mot. wel his him ]fe hit bide mot. 

Heoferden to hare serene burh, Hii verde to one borwe, 

ase ])e quene hsehte ; alse )>e cwene hehte ; 

and al heo iduden and al hii duden 

efter hire lare. after hire lore. 

pa forts wuren agan po forj) weren ago j 



feuwerti da^ene, 
J)on nom Leir pe king 
is leouste cnihtes, 
and gret Aganippum, 
]>at was his leue aSum ; 
and seide him bi his sond, 
pet icume he wes to is londe, 
to speken wit his dohter, 
J?e wes him swuSe dure. 
Aganippus wes bli]?e 
pet Leir wes cunien li^en ; 
ferde him to^enes 
mid alle his jjeines 
and J>a quene Cordoille : 
J)a hauede Leir is wille. 
Heo comen togadere, 
and ofte heo custen ; 
heo uenden to bur3e, 
blisse wes an hirede ; 
per wes bemene song 
J)ere peden pipen among ; 
al weren pe hallen 
bihongen mid pallen% 
alle J)ai mete-burdes 
ibrusted mid golde ; 
[ringes of golde] 
aelc mon hafte on honde ; 
mid fi]?elen and mid harpen 
haeleSes fer sungen ; 
lette pe king gan a wal, 
and lijde clepien ouer al, 
and seide fat Leir kin 
icume wes to londen. 
Nu hateS Aganippus, 

fourtie daises, 

pon nam Leir pe king 

his leofest cnihtes, 

and grette Aganippum, 

his leuest o|)om ; 

and sende bi his sonde, 

|?at icome he was to his londe. 

to speken wij> his dohter, 

pat him was svvi]?e deore. 

Aganippus was blife 

p'dt Leir was icomen li]?e ; 

ferde him to3eines 

mid alle his cniptes 

and pe cwene Gordoille : 

|)0 hadde Leir his wille. 

Hii comen togadere, 

and wel ofte custe ; 

hii verde to borvve, 

}>ar blisses were riue ; 

alle were pe halles 
bihonge mid palles, 
alle pe mete-bordes 
ibrustled mid golde ; 
ringes of golde 
ech man hadde an honde ; 
mid fij?ele and mid harpes 

.. pe .... gon on wal, 
and loude, 
pSit Leir king 
to J>isse londe. 

MS. pellen. 




])e is ]>e he3est ouer us, 

))at 3e Leir king 

alle wurSe lit5e, 

and seal beon eouwer lauerd 

inne pissere leoden, 

al swa fele ^ere 

swa he wonien wuUe here ; 

and Aganippus ure king 

seal* beon is vnderling. 

Wha swa wulle libba, 

aide J)as sibba ; 

and ^ef o man hit wille bre- 

on ueste it bi^ iwreken ; 
and wite alle he is mon, 
fat he here haldet on. 
pa answareda ]>a. dujef^a : 
Don we hit wuUet, 
lude and stille, 
al J)es kinges wille. 
pur^out al J)at ulke ^er 
heo duden al Jjus her, 
mid muchelere sibba, 
mid mochelere^ seahte. 
pa feos ^er wes agon, 
))a wold Leir king fare ham, 
to J?isse londe liSen, 
and ^ernde feos kinges leue. 
pe king Aganippus 
answerede him fus : 
Ne scalt J)u neuere fider 

bute mochelere ferde : 
ah ich fe wulle lanen, 
* MS. swal. 

ase wonie he 

and Aganippus hour king 

wole beo his vnderling. 

Wo so wole libbe, 

holde )>us sibbe ; 

and 3if eni man hit wole 

the king him wole wel awreke. 

po answerede J>at folk : 
Don we hit woUeJ), 
lude and stille, 
al fe kinges wille. 
porJ)vt al J>at ilke ^er 
hii dude al J>us ]>er. 

po ]>at ^ier was agon, 

J)0 wolde Leir king faren horn. 

pe king Aganippus 

answerede Leir fus : 

Ne salt })ou neuere ))ider fare 

bute mochel ferde : 
ac ich fe wolle lene, 
'' MS. mochele sere. 



of mine leode-folc, 

fif hundred schipes 

ifulled mid cnihten, 

and al fat heom bihoueS 

to habben on fore ; 

and fine dohter Cordoille, 

fa is fisse londes quene, 

heo scall mid mochelere ferde 

faren mid fe, 

an lifen to fern londen 

fer f u were leode-king : 

and 3ef fu miht aeine finden 

fe f e wuUe ajen stonde, 

binimen f e fine rihte 

and fine kineriche, 

and f u ahliche ueht, 

and fel heo to grunde, 

and irum al fat lond, 

and sete hit Cordoille an 

fat heo hit al habbe 
efter f line daie. 
pas wordes seide Aganippus 
and Leir king dude f us ; 
and al he iworhte 
swa his freond him tahte. 
To f isse londen he com liSen 
mid leoue his dohter ; 
he higreSede mid fane beste 
f e him buwen wolden, 
and alle he ham fulde 
f e him wit feohten ; 
and he al f is kine-lond 
biwon to his ajere hande, 
and 3ef hit Cordoille, 

of mine gode enif tes, 

fif hundred sipes 

ifulled mid fan beste, 

and al fat heom bihouef 

to habbe on vore : 

and fine dohter Gordoille, 

fat his f is londes cwene, 

3eo sal fare mid fee 

mid mochere ferde, 

and wendef to f am lond 

fare f ou king were : 

and gif f ou miht eni finde 

fat fe wole widstonde, 

benime fine rihte 

and fine riche, 

cwikliche anon riht 

leie heom to grunde, 

and jwin al fat lond, 

and sete hit Gordoille an 

fat 3eo hit alle habbe 
after fine daije. 
peos word seide Aganippus 

and Leir fe dude fus ; 

and al he ....fte 
ase his frend him tahte. 
To f isse londe he com 
mid his leofue dohter ; 
he grif ede mid fan beste 
fat bouwe him wolde, 
and alle he grif ede 
fat him widstode ; 
and al f is kine-lond 
biwan to his owe bond, 
and 3ef hit Gordoille, 



J)e wes Francene quene ; 

and hit ane stunde 

stod a pissene ilke. 

Leir king one leoden 

))reo ^er leouede ; 

|)ae com his ende-daei, 

]>at })e king deed laei. 

Inne Leirchestre 

his dohter hine leide, 

inne lanies temple, 

al swa pe bac tellet, 

and Cordoille heold }>is lond, 

mid hae^ere strentSe, 

fuUe fif 3ere, 

quene heo wes here, 

]>a while Francene king 

faeisiSe makede : 

and Cordoille com fat wourd 

]>ai heo was iworSen widewe. 

pa come J)a tidende 

to Scottlondes kinge 

))at Aganippus was dead, 

Leir king idaeied, 

he sende J>urh Brittaine 

into Cornwaille, 

and hehte ]?ane due stronge 

heri^en in sut$ londe, 

and he wolde bi nortSen 

iahnien }>a londa ; 

for hit was swuj^e mouchel 

and ec swi]?e muchel grame, 
]>a.t scholde a quene 
beon king in fisse londe, 
and heora sunen beon buten, 

Frencene cwene ; 

And Leir lifuede 
]?reo 3er ))ar-after ; 
])0 com his lifues hende, 
pat no man ne mai atwende. 
Hine Leycestre 
his dohter hine leide, 
in laines his temple, 
ase pe bock telle]), 
and Gordoille heold fis lond, 
mid godere strengpe, 
fulle fif 3er, 
cwene ^eo was here, 
]>e wile Frencene king 
veisi)) makede : 
and Gordoille com J)at word 
fat 3eo was widewe iworfe. 
Come ]>e tidinge 
to Scotlondes kinge 
fat Aganippus was dead, 
Gordoilles louerd, 
he sende forh Britaine 
into Cornwale, 
and hehte fane duk stronge 
werri in suf londe, 
and he wolde bi norfe 
an fat lond awinne ; 
for hit was swife mochel 
same, [grame, 

and eke hit was mochel 
fat a cwene soldo 
be king in fisse londe, 
and hire sones beo boute, ■ 



j>a weren hire betren, 

of ))an aldre sustren, 

]7a fa seSelen sulden habben : 

Nule we hit na more iJ?olien ; 

al J)at londwe wullet5 habben. 

Heo bigunnen werre, 

))anne com on west : 

and )>ere quene sust*^ sunen 

sumneden ferde : 

pat beo)> hire betere : 

Nolle we na more hit i\>o... 
., wollep habbe pat lond. 
Hii bigonne werri, 
to mochele roupe ; 
and pe twei sostrene sones 
somnede verde, [pus, 

heo nomen weren ihaten pus, hire names weren icleoped 
Morgan and Cunedagius. Morgan and Cunadegius. 

Ofte heo ledden ferde, 

ofte heo fuhten, 

ofte heo weren buuenne, 

and ofte binot5en ; 

pat com at pan laste 

pat heo wes aire leofust ; 

pe Bruttes heo slo3en, 

Cordoille heo nomen ; 

heo duden heo in quarterne, 

in ane quale-huse ; 

heo werSede heore moddri 

mare pene heo sulden, 

Oft hi ladde ferde, 
ofte hii fuhte, 
ofte hii were bofe, 
and ofte hii weren bineope 
po com at pan laste 
pat 3am was leuest ; 
pat Bruttes hii sloven, 
and Gordoille hii nemen ; 

hii wreppede hire moddri, 
more pane hii solde. 

patpeowimmanwasswawrot5, pat pe womman was so wrop, 
pat hire sculuen heo was lat5 ; pat hire seolue ^eo was lop; 

^eo nam anne longe cnif, 
binam hire owene lif. 

heo nom enne longne cnif, 
and binom hire seoluen pat 

pat wes an uuel raed 
pat hire suluen makede dead, 
peo wes al pis kine-lond 
an Morgan and Cunedagies in Morgan and Cunages his" 

heond. hond. 

' r. Cunadegies. 

po was al pis kine-lond 



The Author to his Brother. 

Nu, bro])err Wallterr, bro]?err min 

afFterr ]>e flaeshess kinde ; 
and broferr min i Crisstenndom 

]>urrh fulluhht and furrh troww])e ; 
and broferr min i Godess hus, 

3ett o ]>e J>ridde wise, 
\>\irrh J)att witt hafenn takenn ba 

an re^hell-boc to foll^henn, 
vnnderr kanunnkess had and lif, 

swa summ Sannt Awwstin sette : 
ice hafe don swa summ ))u badd, 

and forfeddte ]?in wille, 
ice hafe wennd inntill Ennglissh 

goddspelless hall^he lare, 
affter fatt little witt tatt me 

min Drihhtin hafe]?]? lenedd. 
pu ]?ohhtesst tatt ice mihhte wel 

till mikell frame turrnenn, 
^ifF Ennglissh follk, forr lufe off Crist, 

itt woUde 3erne lernenn, 
and fol^henn itt and fiUenn itt 

v,'\]>]) Jjohht wilf>p word w\]>]> dede ; 
and forr])i ^errndesst tu ])att ice 

])iss werrc ]>e shoUde wirrkenn ; 
and ice itt hafe forjjeddte, 

ace all furrh Cristess hellpe ; 
and unne birrj> bafe ]?annkenn Crist 

)7att itt iss brohht till ende. 


Ice hafe sammnedd o fiss boc 

]>a goddspelless neh alle, 
Jjatt sinndenn o ])e messeboc; 

inn all fe 3er att messe. 
And a33 afFterr ]>e goddspell stant 

J)att tatt te goddspell mene])}>, 
]>att mann birr]? spellenn to ]>e folic 

off Jje33re sawle nede, 
and 3et teer tekenn mare inoh 

J)U shallt taeronne findenn, 
off J)att tatt Cristess hall^he fed 

birr]) trowweun wel and foU^henn. 

Ic hafe sett her o ))iss boc, 

amang goddspelless wordess, 
all ]?urrh me sellfenn, manig word 

fe rime swa to fillenn ; 
ace ]>\i shallt findenn |)att min word, 

e33whaer ]>aer itt iss ekedd, 
ma33 hellpenn ))a patt redenn itt 

to sen and tunnderrstanndenn 
all fess te bettre hu Jje33m birr]) 

fe goddspell unnderrstanndenn ; 
and forr])i trowwe ice })att te birrf 

wel ]?olenn mine wordess, 
e33whaer J»3er ]>u shallt finndenn hemm 

amang goddspelless wordess ; 
forr whase mot to laewedd folic 

larspell off goddspell tellenn, 
he mot wel ekenn mani3 word 

amang goddspelless wordess. 
And ice ne mihhte nohht min ferrs 

a33 wi})J) goddspelless wordess 


wel fiUenn all, and all forrJ>i 

shollde ice well ofFte nede 
amang goddspelless wordess don 

min word, min ferrs to iillenn. 
And te bitaeche ice oflP )7iss boc 

heh wikenn alls itt seme)))?, 
all to ))urrhsekenn illc an ferrs, 

and to furrhlokenn ofFte, 
))att upponn all ))iss boc ne be 

nan word ^aen Cristess lare, 
nan word tatt swi))e wel ne be 

to trowwenn and to foll^henn. 

Witt shulenn tredenn unnderrfot 

and all ))werrt ut forrwerrpenn 
]>e dom off all ))att \a])e flocc 

))att iss )?urrh m]> forrblendedd, 
))att taele)))) ))att to lofenn iss, 

)?urrh ni)?full modi^nesse. 
pe33 shulenn Isetenn h8e)?eli^ 

off unnkerr swinne, lef bro))err ; 
and all l^e^^ shulenn takenn itt 

onn unnitt and onn idell ; 
ace nohht furrh skill, ace all ))urrh ni)), 

and all ))urrh ]>e^^re sinne. 
And unne birr)) biddenn Godd tatt he 

forr^ife hemm here sinne ; 
and unnc birr)) ba))e lofenn Godd 

off ))att itt wass bigunnenn, 
and ))annkenn Godd tatt itt iss brohht 

till ende, )?urrh hiss hellpe ; 
forr itt ma33 hellpenn alle ))a 

])att blifelike itt herenn, 


and lufenn itt, and foll^henn itt 

wiJ>J> ))ohht wij>]> word wi])]> dede. 
And whase wilenn shall J^iss boc 

efft of err sij)e writenn, 
himm bidde ice fatt het write rihht, 

swa summ ]nss boc himm taeche})]?, 
all pwerrt ut afFterr ]?att itt iss 

uppo |)iss firrste bisne, 
wi]>]> all swillc rime alls her iss sett, 

w'\])]> all se fele wordess ; 
and tatt he loke wel ])att he 

an bokstaff write twi33ess 
e33wh8er J>8er itt uppo Jjiss boc 

iss writen o fatt wise ; 
loke he well f att het write swa, 

forr he ne ma33 nohht elless 
on Ennglissh writenn rihht te word, 

J)att witt he wel to so]?e. 
And 3iiF mann wile witenn whi 

ice hafe don ])iss dede, 
whi ice till Ennglissh hafe wennd 

goddspelless hall3he lare ; 
iec hafe itt don forrfi J)att all 

crisstene follkess berrhless 
iss lang uppo fatt an, patt te33 

goddspelless hall3he lare 
wij)]> fulle raahhte foll3he rihht, 

)>urrh Jjohht purrh word ])urrh dede. 

Ice fatt })iss Ennglissh hafe sett 
Ennglisshemenn to lare, 


ic wass, J>aer })aer i crisstnedd wass, 

Orrmin bi name nemmnedd : 
and ice Orrmin full innwarrdli^, 

wiJ)J) muj) and ec wi)>]> herrte, 
her bidde ))a Crisstene menn 

patt herenn o]>err redenn 
))is hoc, hemm bidde ice her patt te^ 

forr me fiss bede biddenn — 
patt broferr fatt ])iss Ennglissh writt 

allraeresst wrat and wrohhte, 
fatt broferr, forr his swinnc to laen, 

soJ> blisse mote findenn. 


piss boo iss nemmnedd Orrmulum, 
forr])i fatt Orrm itt wrohhte : 

and itt iss wrohht off qua])]?rigan, 
off goddspell-bokes fowwre 

The Song of Simeon. 
LjET nu, Drihhtin, laet nu J?in ])eoww 

vt off ]>iss weorelld wendenn, 
wi))}) grij>}), swa summ Jju me bihet, 

laet me nu newenn swelltenn ; 
forr her i seo full witerrlij 

ym Haelennd Crist onn eorfe, 
fatt ])urrh fin are 3arrkedd iss 

biforenn alle J)eode ; 
till haefenn }?eode lihht and leom 

off eche rihhtwisnesse, 
and till J)iss ludewisshe folic 

wurrj)shipe and eche wuUderr. 


The Marriage of Cana. 

Uppo ])e ))ridde da^^ bilammp, 

swa summ ]>e goddspell kife])]?, 
patt i ]?e land o Galile 

wass an bridale ^arrkedd ; 
and itt wass 3arrkedd inn an tun 

patt wass Cana gehatenn : 
and Cristess moderr Mar3e wass 

and Crist was clepedd till ])att hus 

wij))) hise lerninng-cnihhtess. 
And te3?re win was drunnkenn swa 

}?8ett tser nass J)a na mare ; 
and Cristess moderr comm till Crist, 
and se33de himm ))us wi))]) worde : 
piss win iss drunnkenn to pe grund, 

and niss her nu na mare. 
And ure Laferrd lesu Crist 

puss se33de till hiss moderr : 
What falle}))) piss till me wipp pe, 
wifmann, piss patt tu mselesst? 
Abid, abid, wifmann abid, 

ne comm nohht 3et min time. 
And Sannte Mar3e 3ede anan, 

and se33de to pe birrless : 
Dop patt tatt he shall biddenn 3uw, 
ne be 30 nohht taergaeness. 

pe33 hafFdenn sexe fetless peer, 

att tatt bridaless seete, 
patt wserenn, summ pe goddspell se33p, 

sexe stanene fetless, 


swillke summ }>att ludisskenn folic 

was wunedd, i ])att time, 
to wasshenn offe j^e^^re lie, 

to clennsenn hemm ]?att wise ; 
and twafalld o]7err J)refalld raett 

pa fetless alle tokenn ; 
and Crist badd tatt te^^ shollden gan 

and fillenn ))e33re fetless 
wi}))) waterr, and te^? ^edenn till 

and didenn ]?att he se^^de, 
and filledenn upp till J^e brerd 

wi))}> waterr ]?e33re fetless. 
And Crist ta se^^de J)uss till hemm : 

Ga]? till wi])J> 3ure cuppess, 
and lade]^J) upp, and bere]?]? itt 

till })allderrmann onn hagfedd. 
And te33 ])a didenn J>att he badd, 

and baerenn ]?a to drinnkenn 
|?att haefedd-mann J?att he^hesst wass 

att tatt bridale settledd : 
and he toe sone and dranne fatt win 

]?att wass off waterr wurr])enn, 
and nisste he nohht whaeroffe itt wass ; 

aee wel ]>e birrless wisstenn, 
])att haffdenn rihht ta ladenn upp 

]>e waterr off ]>a, fetless. 
And he badd clepenn jja till himm, 

son summ he drunnkenn haffde, 
fatt mann patt taer bridgume wass 

att tatt bridaless saete ; 
and son se j^att bridgume eomm 

})att allderrmann himm se^^de : 
Illc mann firrst brinngep]) forf god win, 

and si])]?en he biginnepj) 


to brinngenn for]? summ werrse win, 

son summ fe folic iss drunnkenn ; 
and tu J>e gode win till nu 

3233 hafesst hidd and haldenn. 

piss taken wrohhte Jesu Crist 

pe firrste off hise tacness, 
i Galile rihht i patt tun 

))att wass Cana 3ehatenn ; 
and tuss he toe to shaewenn |>8er 

hiss goddcunndnessess mahhte, 
and hise lerrninng-cnihhtess ])8er 

tokenn onn himm to lefenn, 
purrh patt te33 S8e3henn faere inn himm 

Allmahhti3 Godess mahhte. 

Her^nde]?)) nu ]?iss goddspell ]?uss, 

and uss birrp itt purrhsekenn, 
to lokenn whatt itt laere)?]? uss 

off ure sawle nede : ... etc. 



(See Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 28.) 

SIMPLE ORDER, or Declension I. 

A . 

1. Neut. 2. Masc. 3. Fem. 

Singular. Nom. -e -a -e 

Gen. -an -an -an 
Dat. & Abl. -an -an 


Ace. -e -an -an 



Plural. Nom. & Ace. -an 

Gen. -ena 

Dat. & Abl. -urn 

Declension II. Declension III. 

( ^ r ^» 

1. Neut. 2. Masc. 3. Fem. 1. Neut. 2. Masc. 3. Fem. 

Sing. Nom. „ „ (-e) ,, „ (-e) -u -u 

Gen. -es -es -e -es -a -e 

Dat. & Abl. -e -e -e -e -a -e 

Ace. „ „ (-e) -e „ (-e) u -e 

Pkr. Nora. & Ace. ,. -as -a -u -a -a 

Gen -a -a -a -a (-ena) -a (-ena) -ena 

Dat. & Abl. -um -um -um -um -um -urn 

Note. All nouns in -a are of the First Declension Masculine 
Gender (I. 2.). All in -scype (-scipe), -had and -dom,are of the 
Second Declension Masculine (II. 2.). Those in -ung and those 
in -nes (-nis, -oys) are of the Second Declension Feminine 
(II. 3.). 




E. Angl. = East Anglian, Goth. = Gothic, Nor. = Northumhrian, Ohg.= 
Old High German, 01g. = 01d Low German, O.N. = Old Norse or 
Icelandic, O.S. = Old-Saxon. 

N.B- Words with the prefix Ge (or I) are placed in the order of their 
roots. Words to which an obelisk is prefixed are Semi-Saxon, from 
Lajamon and the Ormulum. 

t A, a, one. 

A, aa, ever, always, 

\ A, in. 

Abacan, pret. aboc, to bake. 

Abbod, II. 2. abbot. 

Abbudisse, abbess. 

fAbed (abad), abode. 

Abeodan, pret. abead, 2 

abude, pi. abudon, to an- 
Abfdan, pret. abad, pi. abi- 

don, to abide, await. 
Abiddan,pret. abaed, to pray 

Abftan, pret. abat, to bite, 

Ablinnan, to cease. See 

Abrecan, pret. abraec, pp. 

abrocen, to break, destroy. 
Abredau, pret. abraed, pi. 

abrudon, to draw. See 


Abregdan, pret. abraegde, 
subj. abrugde (abrude), 
to take away, snatch, draw 
(a sword). 

Ahreo^an,to perish: abreoSe 
his angin, may his pro- 
ceeding come to naught. 

Abryrdan, pp. abryrd, to 
touch, affect, move. 

Abudisse. See Abbudisse. 

Abugan, pret. abeah, pi. 
abugon, to bow, yield. Gr. 

Abutan, about. 

Abyrgan, to taste. 

Ac, II. 3. oak. 

Ac, but, for, nam, enim. 

f Ac (eac), eke. 

Acennan, pp. acenned, to 
produce, bring forth, be- 

Acennednys, birth, genera- 



Aceorfan, pret. acearf, to cut, 

cut off. 
Acsian, 1 to ask, inquire, 
A xian , \be informed, hear 
(jeaxian, J say, inquire 

after. Gov. gen. of the 

Acunnian, to tempt, prove. 
Acwecan, pret. acwehte, to 

shake, brandish. 
Acwelan, 3 acwylS, pret. 

acwael, to die, perish. 
Acwellan, pret. acwealde, to 

kill, destroy. 
Ac wen can, to quench, extin- 
guish, destroy. 
AcweSan. See CweSan. 
Ad, II. 2. pile. 
Addre. See ^ddre. 
Adeaw, Nor. for aetyw. 
Ademan, pret. ademede 

(ademde), to judge, try, 

Adilgian, to destroy, oblite- 
rate, eradicate, 
Adl, II. 1 , 3. disease. 
Adlig, diseased, sick, ill. 
Adon, to destroy. See Don. 
Adr^dan, pret. adred, to 

dread, fear. It occurs 

sometimes both with an 

accus. and a dat. of the 

Adraefan, to drive out, expel, 

Adreogan, pret. adreag, pi. 

adrugon, to bear, suffer^ 

lead (Jife^. 
Adrincan, pret. adranc, pi. 

adruncon, to be drowned ; 

adruncen, drowned. Ger. 


Adruwian, pp. adruwod, to 
dry up. 

Adumbian, to be dumb, si- 

Adune, down. 

Adunweard, downward. 

Adwaescan, to quench, extin- 
guish, assuage. 

M, IL 3. law. Gr. 85. 

f i^, at, in. 

^cer, II. 2. field, acre, 

iEddre, I. 3. vein. Ger. 

MdiYe, forthwith, suddenly. 

iEfen, II. 2. eve7i, evening, 
the service for sunset, ves- 
pers. Ger. Abend. Dan. 

Ceaefenlgecan, pret. -laehte, 
to imitate. 

-^fen-song, II. 2. even-song, 

^fen-tfd, II. 3. even-tide. 
Ger. Abendzeit. Dan.Af- 

i^fen-tfma, eventide. 

infest, religious. 

iEfestnes, religion. 

T^fnung, evening. 

iEfre, ever, always. 

iEft, i. q. eft. 

iEfter, next, following, se- 

i^fter, after, according to, 
secundum: aefter rihte, 
according to right, rightly, 
(Dan. ^fter,) — along, 
secundum, per. aefter ben- 
cum, along the benches o?' 
tables, or from bench to 



JEher-fjVigan, to follow, suc- 

^ftergenga, successor. 

JEg. III. 1. egff, pi. aegru. 
Gr. 90. Colloq. Monast. 
aegra, like cildra for cildru. 

iEghwaer, everywhere. 

iEghwaefer, either, both. 

iEghwanon,^om every side. 

iEghwylc, e'very one. 

iEgSer, either, both, used 
with ge — ge, like the Lat. 
turn — cum. 

M\it, II. 3. possession, sub- 
stance. From agan. 

iEh-])yrl,III.l.e^e-Ao/e, win- 

^ker. See Mcqy, 

Ml, awl. 


M\, i. q. eal. 

M\q,, each, every, any. 

■\M\A (yldo), age. 

t^ldede (ealdode), greio 
old; from ealdian. 

fi^ldere (ealdor), prince, 

iEldrynse. E. Angl. for 

IE\e. See Ele. 

iEleputa, eelpout, jolthead, 

-.^Ifemu^a, the Elbe. 

MXiYemedi, foreign. 

iElf-scfnu, elfin-bright. Gr. 

iElic, lawful. 


^Imham, Elmham, in Nor- 
folk ; formerly a bishop's 
see, which was thence 

transferred to Thetford, 

and from the latter place 

to Norwich. 
^Imihtig, almighty. 
iElmysse, I. 3. alms. 
iEl])eodig, foreign, strange, 

abroad, peregre. 
iEmenne, desolate. 
iEmod, downcast, disheart- 

G^eaemtian, to empty. 

i^mtig, empty, void, idle. 

Mne, at once, semel. 

f iEne (ana), alone, only. 

iEnig, any. 

iEnlic, unique, incompa- 

iEnlice, decently. 

jEnlipig, single, indivi- 

Mime, ace. masc. of an. 
Gr. 170. 

^ppelbaer, apple-bearing, 
fruit-bearing, pomifer. 

t^r (ai*), messenger. 

My, 11. 1 . brass. 

Mr, ere, erst, before, former, 

^rbenuma. E. Angl. for 

Mr don, hurried ; apparently 
from a verb cognate with 

MreT\d, II. 3. 1 errand, 

iErende, III. 

i^rend-raca, messenger. 

Mrest, first, erst; from ^r. 

-^rfaest, pious. 

-(Erfaestnes, piety. 






iErfe, erfe, III. 1. succession, 

iErian, erian, to plough; 
aeriende for serigenne. 

Turing, dawn. 

T^rist, aery St, II. 2. rising, 

/Er-merigen, 1 II. 2. early 

yErne-mergen, J morn, 

/Ernan, i. q. yrnan. 

Ceaernan, to get by run- 

JErrsi, foriner. 

f iEruu, timid, downcast, sad. 

uEr]?am, 1 ere that, ante- 

iErjjon, J quam. 

iEs, II. 1 . dead carcass, car- 
rion. Ger. Aas. 

JEs, bait, esca. 

-^sc, II. 2. light swift vessel, 

^sc, II. 2. ash, ashen-spear. 

iEsc-here, II. 2. naval band. 

TEsc-holt, II. 1. ash-wood, 
shaft of a spear. 

jEsc-plega, ash-{\.e. spear-^, 
play, battle. 

^sc-rof, spear-famed. 

^stanbrok, probably the 
stream now called East- 
brook, from being on the 
east side of the town of 
Hunstanton, and which 
now runs into the moat of 
Hunstanton Hall. — R. T. 

^t, II. 2. food. 

Mi, at, by, near, from, of, 
apud, coram. 

^"Etberstan, pret. -bserst, to 

^tbredan, pret. -brsed, pp. 
-broden, to withdraw, take 

iEteowian. See Ateowian. 

iEtfeolan, pret. -fealh, to at- 
tend to, dedicate, apply, 

jJEtfleon, to Jlee from, escape. 
See Fleon. 

^tforan, 1 i j- 

iEtfore, 7*?'^™''=''™'"- 

^tfore-sceawian, to pro- 

iEtgaedere, at the same time. 

^^thrman. See Hrfnan. 

^thwegu, something, some- 

iEtlutian, to lie hidden, lurk. 

^tsomne, together. 

^tspornan, 3 -spyrnS, pret. 
-spearn, pi. -spurnon, to 
spurn, kick. Gr. 242. 

iEtstandan, to stay, remain. 
See Standan. 

^tteFne, ^ envenomed, ve- 

iEttrig, > nomouSy poi- 

iEttryn, J sonous. 

^twesan, to be present, ex- 

^twindan, pret. -wand, pi. 
-wundon, to jiy away, 

iEtwitan, to twit, reproach. 

jEtywan. See Ateowian. 

iEw, II. 3. wife. 

-^wellm, II. 2. 1 spring, 

jEwylm, J fountain. 

iEx, II. 3. axe. 

^felboren, noble-born. 

iE|>elborennys, nobility of 

iE]?ele, noble. 



t/ae^eled (geseSeled), nobly 

treated, honoured"^ 
f ^Selen (ae))elu) : on seSe- 

len, among his nobility. 
\M^e\en, country? dignity? 

p. 181, line 3. 
^Jjeling, II. 2. (from aej)ele, 

noble,) prince. 
iEf>ellice, nobly. 
^felo, asfelu, III. 3. nobility. 
G^eaeSryttan, to weary. 
iESung, atSung, breath. 
Afandian, to prove, try. 
Afaran, to go. See Faran. 
Afdrede. See Apdrede. 
Afeallan. See Feallan. 
t A feared. See Afered. 
Afedan, i. q. fedan. 
Afeng. See Afon. 
Afeorinian,to cleanse, purge. 
Afered, afraid, affrighted. 
t Afest (heefst), hast. 
Afligan, to drive away, put 

to flight. 
Aflyman, to put to flight, to 

Afon, to receive. See Fon, 

and Gr. 234. 
Afor. See Afaran. 
Afor, hateful, loathsome. 
Afyllan, to fill. 
Afyrht, affrighted. 
Afyrhtian, to affright. 
Afyrran, to remove, cut off, 

tahe away. 
Afysan, to hurry, hasten, 

Af«onc?1 . 

Agan, pret. ahte, to possess, 

own, have. Gr. 218. 

Agan, gone. 

Agelan, for agaelan, to hin- 

Agen, own, private. 

A gen, against, towards. 

Agen, again, back. 

Agen-gehweorfan, to return. 

Agen-l^dan, to lead back. 
See L^dan. 

Agennys, property, peculi- 

Ageotan, 3 agyt, pret. ageat 
(aget), pi. aguton, to shed, 
pour, exhaust, drain. 

fAgg (eac), eke, also. 

Agffan, to give, deliver. See 

G^eagnian, to appropriate. 

Agyldan. See Gildan. 

Agyltan, to sin. 

Ah. See Agan. 

fAh (ac), but. 

Ahafen. See Ahebban. 

Ahebban, 3 ahef t5, pret. ahof, 
pp. ahafen, to heave, lift, 

Ahleapan, pret. ahleop, to 
leap, rush on. 

fAhliee (heahlice), nobly? 

t/ahnien (geahnian), to ap- 

Ahon, 3 aheh^, pret. aheng, 
to hang ; act. Gr. 234. 

Ahongen, ahangen. See 

Ahrsecan, pret. ahraehte, to 

Ahreddan, to save, rescue, 

Ahsian, axian. "1 See 

Geahsian,^eaxian. J Acsian. 



Aht, aught. 

Ahte. See Agan. 

Ahydan, to hide. 

Ahyrian, to hire. 

Aidlian, to render vain. 

Aker, E. Angl. for aecer. 

Alaidan, to lead away, lead 


Aldor. See Ealdor. 

Aldor, II. 3. life. See Eal- 

Alecgan, to lay, suppress, 
destroy. See Lecgan. 

Alede. See Alecgan. 

Alefed, lamed, crippled. 

Alegon, for alugon (p. 152, 
1. 25), from aleogan, to 
belie, be wanting in ? 

G^ealgian, to defend. 

f Alhisund, all sound, or 

Alihtan, to alight. 

tAllraeresst (ealra ^rest), 
first of all. 

fAlls, as. 

Allungae, E. Angl. for eall- 

Almihtigae, for aelmihtigan. 

Aloten, bowed, pronus, opp. 
to upriht ; from alutan, to 
bow, etc. 

fAlpie (anlipig), single. 

Alpis, the Alps. 

fAlse (al swa), all as, as. 

Alwalda, All-swaying, Al- 

Alyfan, to allow. 

Alysan, to redeem, free. 

Alysednes, redemption. See 

Alysend, II. 2. Redeemer. 
Gr. 118. 

Amansumian, to excommu- 

Amber, II. 2. a certain vessel 
or measure. 

Amhy me, favourable(wind). 

Ameldian, to inform, an- 
nounce. Ger. melden. 

Ametan, pret. amette, pp. 
amet and ameten, to mete, 

Ampulle, I. 3. bottle, am- 

Amyrran, to hinder, waste, 
destroy, consume, disable. 

An, one, a, only, alone; for 
an, only, tantum, duntaxat. 

Cean. See Geunnan. 

Ana, adv., alone, only. 

fAnan, a?ion. 

Anbfdan, "I pret. -bad, pi. 

Geanbfdan, J -bidon, to 
abide, await, expect. 

Anbfdian, 1 . , ^, 

Geanbfdian, /'• "5- ^"l>^''''°- 

Anbyht-scealc, 11.2. servant, 
attendant. Goth. And- 
bahts, Ger. Amt, Dan. 
Embed, an office, employ- 
ment, and Ger. Schalk. 

An-cenned, only -begotten, 

Ancer-hT, II. 1. anchoretic 

Ancer-setl, III. 1. hermit- 

Ancra, anchorite. 

And, and. 

Anda, envy, jealousy, ran- 
cour, Jiate. 



Andt-^tan, V g^_ ^OS. 

Greandettan, J 

Andbfdan. See Anbfdan. 

Andefn, worth. 

Andetnys, confession. 

Andfenga, receiver. 

Andgyt, II. 1. sense, signifi- 
cation, understanding. 

Andlang, along, through^'^eT. 
On andlang, at length. 

Andlfcnis. See Anlfcnys. 

Andr^d. See Anr^d. 

Andrysne, terrible, formida- 

/andswsered, E. Angl, for 

Andswarian, to answer. 

Andswaru, III. 3. answer. 

Andwealcan, pret. -weolc, 
to roll. 

Andweard, 1 

Andwerd, ]P^'''^^' 

Andweardnys, 1 
A . 1 "^ > presence. 
Andwerdnys, J ^ 

Andweorc, II. \. matter, sub- 

Andwirta,y«ce, countenance. 
Ger. Antlitz. 

Andwyrdan, to answer. 

Andwyrde, III. 1. answer. 

Ane, for ^na. 

fAne, a, an, one. 

Anfeald, one-fold, simple. 

Anfealdlice, simply, singly. 

Anfon, to receive, compre- 
hend. See Fon. 

Anra gehwylc, every. 

Angel-cynn, III. 1. English 

Angel, II. 2. hook. 

Angin, angyn, III. 1. e7iter- 
prise, act, beginning. 

Angle, the country between 
Flensburg and the Schley; 
whence the Angles came 
to Britain. 

Angol, pi. Angle, II. 2. En- 
glishman, England! 

Anfman, to take. See Nf- 

Aninga, alone, only, prorsus. 

G^eanl^can, pret. -laehte, to 

(jeanlfcian, to liken. 

Anlfcnys, likeness. 

Anlipi (anlipig). See .^n- 

Anmodlic, unanimous. 

Anmodlice, unanimously, 

Annys, annis, oneness, unity. 

fAnomen (namon), took. 

Anon, for itnum. 

Anr^d, constant, firm, reso- 
lute ; anraede, constantly, 

Anr^dnys, constancy, firm- 


Ansund, sound, whole. 

Ansyn, II. 3. face, counte- 
nance, external appear- 
ance, mediation. Dan. 

Ant, for and. 

Antimber, II. \. matter, sub- 

Anweald, I. 2. power. 

Anweardnys. See And- 



G^eanwyrde beon, to he pro- 

Ant5racian, to dread, feel 

Apdrede, the Ohotritce, a 
Slavish nation to the north 
of the Old- Saxons, in- 
habiting the western and 
the greater part of Meck- 

Apostol, II. 2. apostle. 

Apostolic, apostolic. 

Ar, II. 2. messenger. 

Ar, II. 3. honour, respect, 
benefit, wealth, mercy, 
pity ; are "wiltari, to have 

Aryecan, pret. areehte, to re- 

Araeran, to rear up, erect, 

Aroesan, to rush. 

Arcebisceop, II. 2. arch- 

Arce-stol, 1 II. 2. archiepi- 

Archi-stol, J scopal see. 

ArdMce, forthwith, soon. 

fAre (ar), mercy. 

fAre (anre),/or, or to a. 

Areccan. See Reccan. 

Arena, gen. pi. of ar, mercy, 

Ar^tan, to gladden, exhila- 

Arewe, I. 3 ? arrow. 

Arfaest, holy, pious. 

Arfaestlice, piously, merci- 

Arfaestnys, arfaestnes, piety, 
clemency, uprightness, ho- 
nesty, reverence. 

Arian, 1 to honour, com- 
G^earian, j passionate, spare. 
Arfman, to count, tell over, 

Arfsan, pret. aras, to arise. 

Gr. 192, 247. 
fArle, for aire (ealra), of 

Arleas, base,wicked,impious. 
Arn. See Yrnan. 
G^earnung, desert, merit. 
A rod, pp. of arian. 
Ar-smit5, II. 2. brazier. 
Arwur^e, venerable, reve- 
(?earwurSian, to honour, re- 
Asawan. See Sawan. 
Asceacan, pret. asceoc, to 

shake, brandish. 
Ascreadian, to prune, lop. 
Ascrepan, pret. ascra3p, to 

scrape off. 
Asctinian, to shun, avoid. 
Asecgan, to express, tell. See 

Asendan, to send. See Send- 

AseoSan, pret. aseat5, pp. 

asoden, to boil, scorch, fret, 

vex. Gr. 251. 
Asettan, to set, place. 
Asingan. See Singan. 
Aslfdan, to slide, slip, err, 
Asmeagan, "1 to contemplate, 
Asmean, J investigate, 

Asoden. See AseotJan. 
Aspanan, pret. aspedn 

(aspon), pp. asponnen, to 

entice. Gr. 87. 



Aspendan, to spend, distri- 
Aspringan, pret. asprang, 

plur. asprungon, to spring 

Assa, ass, 
Asse, she-ass. 
Astellan, pret. astealde, to 

set up, establish, confirm. 
Astfgan, 3 astihS, pret. astah 

(astag), pi. astigon, to go, 

proceed, step, mount. See 

Astfgie, for astfge. 
Astirian, to stir, move, 
Astrecan, 1 pret. astrehte, 
Astreccan, J to stretch, 

stretch out, stretch forth, 

extend, prostrate : astreht- 

um hand-bredum, with 

outstretcht palms. 
As wefian, to put to sleep, slay, 

Aswfcan, to decrease, cease. 

See Swfcan. 
At, for aet. 
Atelice, horribly. 
Ateon, to draw from. See 

Ateorian, to faint, fail. 
Ateowan, "| to appear, re- 
Ateowian, > veal, disclose, 
Atywian, J show, manifest. 
Atimbrian. See Timbrian. 
tAtleden(aetl^dan), to carry 

off, withdraw. 
Atol, foul, horrid, hateful, 

Atter, ater, III. 1 . poison. 
Atuge. See Ateon. 
fAtwa, atwo, in two. 

tAtwailden (wealdan), to 

rule, manage. 
fAtwende, to avert. 
fAtyr, attire. 
Atywian. See Ateowian. 
f Auere (sefre), ever. 
Aulixes, Ulysses. 
Awa, ever ; awa to aldre,ybr 

Awacan, pret. awoc, to 

spring, be born. 
fAwal, on the wall: gan 

awal, to go on the wall. 
Awarian, pp. awariged, to 

curse. E. Angl. for wy- 

Aweccan, aweccean, pret. 

awehte, pp. aweht, to 

awaken, raise up. 
Awpcgan, to move, excite, 

Awedan, pret. awedde, to 

become mad, rage. 
Aweg, away. 
Awegan, to weigh. 
Aw eg-ge.vf\ten, passed away. 

See Gewftan. 

X I / > See Aweccan. 
Awehte. J 

Awendan, to go, turn, avert, 
translate, change. Gr. 208. 

Aweorpan, 3 p. he awyrp'S, 
pret. awearp, pi. awurpon, 
pp. aworpen, to cast, throw, 
cast away. 

Awestan, ^o waste,lay waste; 
awest, deserted, desolate. 

Awiht, aught. 

fAwilde (awyldan), i. q. at- 

Awildian, to grow ivild. 



Aworpen. See Aweorpan. 

Awrfgan, pret. awrah, pi. 
awrigon, to reveal^ disclose. 
Gr. 24-7. 

Awrigenes, revelation, illu- 

Awrftan, to write, record. 
See Wntan. 

Awurpan, to cast away, cast 
down. See Aweorpan. 

Awyllan, pret. weoll, to boil. 

Awyrdan, to corrupt, injure. 

Awyrgian. See Wyrian. 

Axan, ashes, cinders. 

fAxeden (axodon), ashed, 
inquired ; from axian. 

Axian. See Acsian. 

Ceaxian, to hear, learn. 

fAjjele (aej^elo), nobility, 

A^encan, to devise, Jind out. 
See Den can. 

A])enian, to stretch out, pro- 
strate ; afienedon (aj)ene- 
dum) earmon (earmum), 
with outstretcht arms. 

A\ev, either. 

tAj)inchetS. See Ofj>inche^. 

Aj^rowian, to suffer. 

A'6-svverung, oath-swearing. 

Aj)um, II. 2. son-in-law. 


Ba, gen. begra, dat. bam, 
both. Gr. 171. 

fBac (bee), books. 

Baec, back ; oyer-baec, back- 
ward; on-hsac, behind. 

Ba9cbord, II. 1. larboard. 

Baecere. II. 2. baker. 

Baeftan, i. q. beaeftan. 

Bceg^ware, the Bavarians. 

Beelc, pride. 

B^r, bier, bed. 

G^eb^ran, to conduct one-self, 

se gerere. 
Barman, bearer, carrier. 

See Man. 
fBaid (bed), bed. 
Baldlice, boldly. 
Baldor (Bealdor), II. ^.chief. 
Bam. See Ba. 
Ban, II. 1. bone: pi. bana, 

p.ll5, 1. 25. 
Bana, bane, slayer, murderer. 

O.N. bana, to kill. 
Bar, II. 2. boar. 
tBare, bare. 
fBatueie (batwa), both. 
Batwa, both. Dan. begge to. 
tBa])e, both. 

fBa^ie (baj)ian), to bathe. 
Be, by, at, of, concerning, 

according to, de. 
Beacen, III. 1. beacon, sign. 
Beacnian, to beckon, make a 

Bead. See Beodan. 
Beadon, for basdon. 
Beado-rinc, II. 2. warrior^ 
Beadu, III. I. war, battle; 

beadu-r^s, rush of battle, 

onset. Hence the proper 

name Beadownlf contr. 

Beaeftan, behind. 
Beah, beag, II. 2. bracelet, 

armlet, ring, diadem, 
Beah. See Bugan. 
Beah-gffa, bracelet-giver ; 

epithet of a chief. 



Beah-hroden, adorned with 
bracelets. See Cod. Exon. 
p. 33], 1. 26, and note. 

Bealcettan, to belch, give 

Beald, bold, audacious ; mid 
bealde, boldly, audacious- 

Bealoful, baleful, execrable. 

Bealu, III. 1. bale, injury, 

Beam, 11.2. beam, tree, pillar. 

Bean, 11. 3. bean. 

Bearhtm,Il. 2. instant, twink- 

Bearm, II. 2 ? bosom. Dan. 

Beam, II. 1. child. Scot. 
Bairn, Dan. & O, S. Barn. 

Beatan, pret. beot, to beat. 

Bebeodan, to command, com- 
mend, intrust, commit: ]7a 
bebodenan, those intrusted. 
See Forbeodan. 

Bebiade, E. Angl. for be- 

Bebod, III. 1 . commandment, 

Bebugan, i. q. onbugan. 

Bebyrgian, bebyrigan, to 

Bebyt, 3 p. sing. pres. from 

Becuman, to come, happen, 

seize on, befall. See Cu- 

Bed, II. 1. bed. 
(jebed, III. \. prayer. Ger. 

Gebet. Hence our word 

Bed^lan, to deprive. 

Bed^le, partly, but little, 
paullum ? 

fBede (gebed), prayer. 
Ger. Gebet. 

Bed-hus, \ H* !• house of 

Glebed- hus, j prayer, ora- 

Bediglian, to hide, keep se- 

Bed-rest, II. 3. bed, couch. 

Bedrffan, to drive. See 

Bedydrian, to deceive, en- 

Bedypan, to bedip, dip. 

Beeode. See Began. 

Befangen. See Befon. 

Befeallan, to fall. 

Bef'eran, to go over, travel 
over. By the prefix be, 
the neuter verb is render- 
ed active, as in German, 
fahren and befahren. 

Befon, to contain, compre- 
hend, clothe. See Fon and 

Beforan, before. Gr. 409. 

Befrfnan, pret. -fran, pi. 
-frunon, to ask, inquire, 
interrogate. Gr. 242. 

Began, begangan, pret. -eode, 
to exercise, go over, culti- 
vate, till, observe, apply to. 

Begea, for begra. See Ba. 

Begen, both. 

Begeondan, beyond. 

Begeotan, 3 -gyt, pret. -geat, 
pi. -guton, to sprinkle, 
moisten. Gr. 250. 

Beging, for bigung, bowing. 




Beginnan, pret. -gan, pi. 
-gunnon, to begin. 


Begrynian, to ensnare. 

Begytan, pret. -geat, to beget, 

Behat, II. \. promise. 

Behatan, pret. -het, to pro- 

Beheafdian, to behead. 

Behealdan, 3 -hylt, pret. 
-heold, to behold, see, ob- 
serve, mind. 

Behefe, needful, useful. 

Behelan, to cover, hide. 

Behofian, to behove, require. 
Gov. gen. of thing. 

Behreowsian,to berue,repent. 

Behreowsung, repentance. 

Behwyrfan, to apply, exer- 

Behydan, to hide, conceal. 

Behydilice, heedfully, anx- 

Beh'S, token, sign, proof ? 

Beladung, excuse, apology, 

Beldefan, to leave, from belf- 
fan. Gr. 347. 

Belaewan, to betray. 

Beleaf, for belaf. See Belf- 

Bfclean, pret.-loh,subj. -loge, 
to reprehend. 

Belewite, meek, mild. 
G^ebelgan, 3 gebylgt5, pret. 
-bealh, pi. -bulgon, pp. 
-bolgen, to enrage, make 
angry, be indignant. Gr. 

Belfden, deprived. See 
Grimm, And. and El. p. 

Belffan, pret. -laf, pi. -lifon, 
to remain. 

Belimpan, pret. -lamp, pi. 
-lumpon, to happen, be- 
long to, have reference to, 

Belle, I. 3. bell. 

Beloge. See Belean. 

Belucan, pret. beleac, pi. 
-lueon, pp. locen, to lock, 
shut up, i7iclose. 

Beme, the Bohemians. 

fBeme (by me), trumpet. 

Ben, II. 3. prayer. Dan. 

Ben^man, i. q. benfman. 

Bene, II. 3. bench, table. 

Benc-sittende, sitting on 
benches, or at table. Gr. 

Bend, II. 2, II. 3 ? band, 

Benfman, to take away, de- 
prive of See Nfman. 

Beo, I. S.bee; gen. pi. beona. 

Beo, imperative of wesan. 

Beod, II. 2. table. 

Beodan, pret. bead, 2 bude, 
to command, enjoin. Gr. 

Beofian. See Bifian. 

Beon, to be. See Wesan. 
Gr. 233. 

Beorg, II. 2. mountain, 

Beorgan, "1 3 byrgS, pret. 

G^ebeorgan, J bearh, pi. 

burgon, pp. borgen, to 



save^ secure^ protect. Gr. 

6rebeorg, III. 1 ? security, 

Beorht, bright ; beorht-blow- 
ende, brightly blowing. 

Beorhtnys, beorhtnes, bright- 

G^ebeorhlic, safe, secure. 

Beorma, barm, leaven. 

Beormas, the people inhabit- 
ing the country called 
Biarmaland, on the shores 
of the White Sea, east of 
the Dwina. 

Beorn, II. 2. chief, warrior. 

6rebeorscipe, convivial meet- 
ing, feast. 

Beot, threat, promise ; on 
beot, with threatening. 

Beoten, for beoton. See 

Beotian, 1 to promise, 

6?ebeotian, J vow, threaten. 

Beotlic, threatening. 

fBeoton (hwioi[i),save,except. 

Bepaecan, pret. bepaehte, to 
deceive. Gr. 253. 

Beran, 3 p. he byrS, pret. 
baar, pp. boren, to bear, 

Bere, II. 2. barley. 

Bera, bear. 

Bereatian, to bereave, rob. 

Beren, of bear s skin. 

Berende, bearing, fertile; 
from beran. 

Bereowsung, i. q. Behreow- 

Bergyls, II. 2 ? sepulchre. 

fBerman (bserman), bearer. 

Bern, II. 1. i. e. bere-ern, 
(from bere, barley, and 
ern or aern, house, place,) 

fBerrhle (byrle), young man 
who serves wine at table, 
also, a young man in ge- 
neral ; from birlian, hau- 

Berstan, pret. baerst, pi. 
burston, to burst, break, 
split. Gr. 242. 

Berstan, to evade, escape 
from, i. q. aetbaerstan. 

Besargian, to condole with, 

Besceawian, to view, behold, 
contemplate. Ger. Be- 

Bescufan, 3 -scyfS, pret. 
-sceaf, pi. sciifon, pp. 
-scofen, to shove, drive, 

Beseah. See Beseon. 

Besencean, act., to sink. 

Besendan, i. q. sendan. 

Beseon, v. r. to look, look at, 
view. See Seon. 

Besettan, to place, set. 

Besittan, pret. -saet, to beset, 
surround; should gram- 
matically be besettan. 

Besmftan, pret. -smat, pi. 
-smiton, to pollute, defile. 

Besorgian, to sorrow for, 

Besprecan, to bespeak, de- 
clare. See Sprecan. 

Bestandan, to stand on or 
by, occupy. See Standan. 

Bestreowian, to bestrew. 



Bestndan, pret. -strad, pi. 

-stridon, to bestride. 
Beswfcan, pret. -swac, pi. 

'Swicon,to deceive, entrap, 

Beswincan, to labour. See 

Beswingan, pret. -swang, pi. 

-swungon, pp. -swungen, 

to whip. 
Besyrian, to ensnare. 
Bet, better. Gr. p. 51. 
Bet^can,pret.-tashte,to take, 

deliver, intrust, commit. 
tBetake (bet^can), to de- 
liver, assign. 
Betan, 1 to make good, 
(jebetan, J amend, repair, 

compensate, become better. 
Beteon, to bequeath. See 

Betere, better. Gr. p. ,51. 
Betvveoh. See Betweox. 
Betweonan, between, among, 

Betweox, "1 

Betwix, I betwixt, among, 
Betwux, r in the midst. 
Betwyx, J 

Betwman. 1 See Betweo- 
Betwynan. j nan. 

Betynan, to close. See Ttin. 
Beweddian, to wed, betroth. 
Be wend, turned, from wen- 

dan. Gr. 207. 
Beweorcan, to encompass. 
Beweorpan, 3 -wyrpt5, pret. 

-wearp, pi. -wurpon, pp. 

-worpen, to cast, beat. 
Bewepan, to bewail. See 


Bewerian, bew^rian, to de- 

Bewindan, to wind about, 
wrap, entwine. See Win- 

Bewftan, pres. -wat, pret. 
-wiste, to take care of, in- 
struct, act as tutor to. Gr. 

BewrfSan. See GewrfSan. 

Bewyrpan. See Beweor- 

Be))eaht. See Befeecan. 

Bepearfan, pres. ic -Jjearf, 
pi. -]7urfon, pret. -porfte, 
to need. 

Be])eccan, pret. -J7eahte, pp. 
-]?eaht, to bethatch, bedeck, 
cover, protect. 

BeSian, to bathe, wash. 

Be]7orfte. See BeJ^earfan. 

Biburiged. See Bebyrgian. 

Bicgan, "I pret. bohte, to 

Gebiegan, > buy, pay for. 

Bicgean, J Gr. 214. 

Biclyppan, to embrace. 

G^ebicnian, to beckon, shotv, 

Bicuman. See Becuman. 

Bid^lan, to deprive. 

Bfdan, 1 pret. bad, pi. bi- 

G^ebfdan, J don, to abide, 
await, enjoy. 

Biddan, 1 3 bit, pret. baed, 

G^ebiddan, J pp. beden, to 
pray, bid, beg, beseech; 
gov. gen. of thing. With 
refl. ^ pray to, wor- 

Bidytt, shut up ; from dyt- 
tan, to shut up. 



Bifian, to tremble, Ger. be- 

tBiPullet, contr. for befeol 

Big, i. q. be. 

Bigan. See Bicgan. 

Bfgan, 1 to 

G^ebfgan, gebfgean, J bend^ 
bowy incline, convert. Gr. 

f Bigge (bicgan), to buy. 

Bigeng, 'I II. 2. tillage, cul- 

Biggeng, j ture, worship. 

Biggencere, II. 2. cultivator, 

tBi^eteS (begytaS), they be- 

Bigleofa, sustenance. 

Biglfdan, pret. -glad, to glide 

Bigspel. See Bispel. 

Bigstandan, to stand by, as- 
sist. See Standan. 

BigS. See Bicgan. 

tBi3eat (begeat), got ; from 

Bihsefdian, E. Angl. for be- 

tBiheovede (behofode), be- 
hoved, required. 

-fBihett (behet), promised ; 
from behatan. 

Bihidilice. See Behydi- 

fBihongen, clothed. 

Bil, bill, beak. 

fBilaeuen, 1 (belsefan,) to 

tBileafuen, j leave. 

tBilefde, 1 (beleofode,) 

fBileofde, j lived, stayed ; 
from leofian (lybban). 

tBileued, left. 

Bilewit, kind, mild, meek, 

Bilewitnys, meekness. 

Bill, II. 1. bill, faulchion. 

Bin, II. 3. "1,. 


Bindan, 1 pret. band, pi. 

G^ebindan, J bundon, to 
bind, capture. 

Binnan, binnon, within, 

fBinomen (benumen), 

taken away ; from beni*- 

fBinoSen, below, under. 

Bion, i. q. beon. 

Bireued, for bereafod. See 

tBirle, byrle, II. 2. attendant 
at table, pincerna. See 

fBirrf (gebyraS), it be- 
cometh, is fitting, incum- 
bent on ; from gebyrian. 

Bisaregian, to lament, de- 

Biscophad, episcopal office. 
Biscop-setl, III. 1. episcopal 

Biscop-stol, II. 2. episcopal 

Biscop-)?enung, episcopal 

duty or service. 
fBisecchen (besecan), to 

beseech, seek after. 
fBisemaere (bysmor), insult, 

Biseo, i. q. beseo. 



Bisettan, to beset, cover over. 
Gr. 208. 

Bisgian, to busy, occupy. 

fBisie (bysig), busy, active. 

Bismerful, shameful, blas- 

Bismorian, to mock, insult, 

fBisne (bysen), example, 

Bisnian, to give example. 

G^ebisnung, example. 

Bispel, bigspel, II. 1. pro- 
verb, parable, fable. Ger. 

Bistalcian, to stalk, proceed, 

fBiswake (beswac), de- 
ceived ; from beswfcan. 

tBitachet(bet8ec'S), assigns, 

fBitake (betaece), commit, 

Biter, bitter, stern. 

Biw^rian. See Bewerian. 

fBiwiten (bewftan), to hold, 

Blac, black, pale. Ger. 

Blac-hleor, pale faced, fair. 

Blaed, II. 2. glory, pros- 
perity, life, blast, flatus. — 
Tail (of a seal); gend. 

Blaed, II. S. fruit, branch. 

Blawari, 3 blaewt^, pret. 
bleow, pp. blawende, to 

Blecingeg, the province of 
Bleking in Sweden. 

G^eblendan, pret. -bland, pi. 


-blundon, pp. geblonden, 
to blend, tinge, stain. 

■j-Blene (blinnan), to cease. 

Bleo, colour. 

Bletsian, 1 

Cebletsian, j 

Bletsung, blessing. 

Blfcan, pret. blac, pi. blicon, 
to shine, glitter. 

Blind, blind. 

Blinnan, pret. blan, pi. blun- 
non, to cease. 

Blis, II. 3. bliss, joy. 

Blissian, "I to rejoice, 

(xeblissian, j exult. 

Bli^e, blithe, joyful, pro- 
pitious, kind. 

Bli})elice, blithely, gladly, 

BliSmod, kind, well-disposed. 

BliSnes, blitheness, mirth, ex- 

VAGA, II. \. blood. 

Blodig, bloody. 

Blostm, II. 2. blossom. 

Blostnena, p. 110, lin. pen. 
ult. Blostma? 

Bio wan, to blow, blossom. 

f Blofeliche, 1 bashfully, 

fBlu'Seliche, J clownishly ? 
Ger. blode. Ohg. blodi, 
or from bliSelice, gladly, 

Bdc, fern, irreg. book. Gr. 

Bocere, II. 2. scribe, doctor, 

tBock (boc), book. 

Boc-kin, II. 1. kind or sort 
of book. 

Boc-land, II. 1, land held by 



charter (b6c), as opposed 

to folc-land. See Allen 

on the Royal Prerogative, 

p. 143, sq. 
Boclic, bookly, literary. 
Boc-staef, II. 2. alphabetic 

character. Ger, Buchstab, 

Dan. Bogstav. 
f Boc-stafF, i. q. boc-staef. 
Boda, messenger. 
GehoA, III. 1. commandy 

from beodan. 
Bodian, "1 to preachy an- 
Bodigean, j nounce. 
Bodig, II. 2. body. 
Bodung, preaching. 
tBofe, above. 
Bog, II. 2. bough. 
Boga, bow. 

(rebogen. See Bugan. 
Bohte. See Bicgan. 
Bold, II. 1 . house^ dwelling. 
G^ebolgen. See Gebelgan. 
Bolla, bowly cup. O. N. 

Bolster, 11,2? bolster ^ pillow. 
Bont, E. Angl. for band. 

See Bindan. 
Bord, II. 1. boards shield, 

Bord-weall, II. 2. board- 

i^shield-) wall. 

^tren"'} »«« Bgran. 

Borg, borh, II. 2. money bor- 
rowed, loan, foenus. 

Borian, to bore ; pour? 

fBorle. See Birle. 

fBorn (beorn), nobleman, 

Bosm, II. 2. bosom. 

Bot, II. 3. compensation, re- 
paration, atonement, 

Botl, house, dwelling. 

tBour (bur), bower, cham- 

f Boute (buton), without. 

-f Brae (braec), brake. 

Brad, broad. 

Bradnis, broadness, expanse. 

G^ebraec, III. 1. breaking, 

Br^dan, to roast. Ger. 

BraeS, breath, vapour, fra- 
grance, odour. 

Bragen, III. 1 ? brain. 

Brand, II. 2 ? brand, fire- 

Brastlian, to make a crackling 
noise as afire, crepitare. 

Breac. See Brucan. 

Br^can, pret. braec, pp. ge- 
brocen, to break. 

Bredan, 3 brit, pret. braed, 
pi. brudon, pp. broden, to 
braid, twist, plait, draw. 

Bregdan, pret. braegd, pi. 
brugdon, to draw. 

Brego, III. 2. lord, prince, 

Breme, famed, celebrated. 

Bremel, II. 2. bramble. 

Breost, II. 3. breast; often 
used in the plural. 

Breotone, Britain. 

Brerd, II. 2.brim,edge, sum- 

Brice. See Bryce. 

Bricg, II . 3. bridge, 

Bridel, II. 2. bridle. 

Bridd, II. 2. young bird. 


Bridel-))wancg, II. 2. bridle- 
thong, rei7i. 

tBridgume (brydguma), 

Brim, II. 2. & III. 1. ocean, 

Brim-li].ende, 1 ^^^^^^ 

Brim-man, J 

Bringan, ") pret. brohte, 

G^ebringan, / to bring. Gr. 

Brocen, gebrocen. See Bre- 

G^fbrocod, broken, maimed. 

Broga, terror, dread. 

G^ebrohte. See Bringan. 

Brosnian, to decay, perish. 

Brost, for breost. 

G^ebrowen, brewed. 

Brot5, II. 1. broth. 

Brofor, III. 2. brother, friar. 
Gr. 96. Ger. Bruder, 
Dan. Broder. 

G^ebrot5ru,-a, III. ^.brethren. 
Gr. 96. 

Brucan, 3 bryeS, pret. breac, 
pi. brucon, to use, enjoy, 
eat, with genit. Ger. 
brauchen, Dan. bruge. 

Brtin, brown. 

Brtin-ecg, brown-edged; 
epithet of a sword. 

f/brusted, ibrustled,5ns^/ec?, 
set with ; from byrst, bris- 
tle. Ger. Borste. 

+Bruttes, Britons. 

Bryce, II. 2. use, enjoyment. 

BryeS. See Brucan. 

Bryd, II. 3. bride. 

Bryden, solid, firm? 

Brydguma, bridegroom. 

Brym. See Brim. 
Brymel. See Bremel. 
Bryne, II. 2. burning, fire. 
Brytta, dispenser, enjoyer^ 

perpetrator, bestower. 
Brytte, II. 2. Briton. 
Buan, 3 byS, pret. bude, to 

dwell in, cultivate. Gr. 

Bufan, above, from above. 
Bugan, 1 pret. beah, pi. 
G^ebugan, j bugon, pp. 

gebogen, to bow, bend, 

stoop, yield, submit, turn. 
fBugge (bicgan), to buy. 
Bugian, to inhabit; bugi- 

gend, inhabitant. Dan. 

Gehun, cultivated, inhabited. 

See Buan. 
Bune, I. 3. cup. 
/bunden (gebunden). See 

fBuod (beoS), shall be; 

from beon. 
Btir, II. 2. bower, chamber. 
Bur8e6, E. Angl. for gebyra^. 

See Gebyrian. 
fBurd (bord), table. 
Burge,pret. subj.of beorgan. 
Burgenda-land (Borgundar 

holm), Bornholm. 
Burgendas (Burgundiones), 

the Burgundians, who in 

JElfred's time appear to 

have dwelt to the north of 

the Osti. We find them 

at another period on tJie 

east bank of the Oder. 
Btir-geteld, II. 1. bower-tent^ 




Burg-sele, II. 2. castle hall, 
Burh, III. 'd. burgh, city, Gr. 

106. 108. 
Burh-leod, II. 3. towns- 

Burh-sittende, city-dweller. 

Gr. 118. 
Biirhwaru, townspeople. Gr. 

fBuri (burh), bury, burgh, 

Burigan, to bury. 
Burigen. See Byrgen. 
Burst. See Byrst. 
Buruh, i. q. burh. 
Butan. See Buton. 

ll^'^^^^lO^^^^d without. 

Butere, I. 3. butter. 

Buter-gefweor, III. 1. but- 
ter-ointment, butter ; from 
J)wean, to anoint, 

Buterice, II. 2. leather bag 
or bottle, uter. 

+R t ' l^^^' ^(^'^^i except, 
•fR f I unless, without, 

tBuwen (bugan), to bow, 

fBuuen, above. 
G^ebycgan. See Bicgan. 
Bydel, II. 2. beadle, cryer, 

preacher, herald. 

Byldan, to excite, encourage. 
G^eby Man, to imagine, design, 

plan, devise, draw; pp. 

gebyld. Ger. bilden. 
/byldan, for gebyldan. 
Bylewit. See Bilewit. 

Bylig, II. 2? bellows, Ger. 

Byrne, I. 3. trumpet. 

Byn, cultivated : from buan. 

G^ebyrd, II. 3. and Gebyrdu, 
III. 3. birth. 

Byrdest, of highest rank or 

Byre, II. 2. son, child. 

Byrig, Bury in Suffolk, 

Byrgen, II. 3. septdchre, 
grave. Gr. 297. 

(jebyrian, to be fitting, be- 
coming, to beseem, to be 
(one's) duty, happen. 

Byrigen, i. q. Byrgen. 

Byrnan, pret. barn, pi. burn- 
on, to burn, ardere. 

Byrne, I. 3. cuirass, corselet. 
Dan. Brynje. 

Byrn-hom (-homa?), cui- 
rass, corselet. 

Byrn-wfga, 1 mailed 

Bvrn-wfggende, / warrior. 
"Gr. 118. 

Byrst, II. 3. bristle. Ger. 

G^ebyr-tfd, for gebyrd-tfd, 
II. 3. nativity, 

Byrgen, II. 3. burthen. 

Byrfen, p. 135, 1. 20, should 
probably be bur-J)en : 
where supposing Edward 
to be the son of Byrht- 
noth's bur-])egn (chamber- 
lain), and J)a (1. 21) an 
error for Jjaet, the passage, 
fane ges^de J>am btir- 
fene, paet he byre hsefde, 
becomes intelligible, viz. 
he gave thanks to his 



chamberlain that he had 
(such) a son. 

Bysgian. See Bisgian. 

Bysig, busy, 

Bysmer, infamy, insult, blas- 

G^ebysmerian. See Bismo- 

Bysmerlice, disgracefully, 

Bysmorlic, disgraceful. 

Bysn, "1 i. q. gebis- 

G^ebysnung, J nung. 

Caeg, II. 3. hey. 

Caf, prompt, active. 

Caflice, promptly. 

Cald, cold. 

Cale, Chelle (la Celle or 
Celles) "in pago Parisi- 
aco, quasi centum stadiis 
a Lutetia, villa quondam 
regia, ad Matronam flu- 
vium, in quo loco Bathil- 
dis coenobium sanctimo- 
nialium virginum con- 
struxit." — Smithjad Bedse 
H. E. 

Camel, II. 2. camel. 

Camp, 1 II. 1. battle, con- 

G^ecamp, J Jlict. Ger. Ge- 

Campdom, warfare. 

Can. See Cunnau. 

Canon, canon. 

Cantwara-burh, Canterbury. 
Gr. 106. 

Capitol,^r5^ (mass), matuti- 

Carendre, Carinthia. 

Carfullice, carefully. 

Carian, to care, be solicitous. 

Cam (Cearu), III. 3. care. 

Casere, II. 2. Ccesar, em- 
peror. Ger. Kaiser. 

Castell, II. 1. town, village. 

Ceafu, III. 3. chaff. 

Ceallian, to call. 

Gecen^s. See Geceosan. 

Ceast, II. 3 ? strife, murmur- 

Ceaster, II. 3. city, tovm. 
Gr. 81. 

Ceaster-waru, 111."^, citizens, 
3. pi. ceaster- I toivns- 
wara (wera), j men. 
and -gewaran. J Gr.l04. 

Cellod, keeled ; applied to a 
shield, from the form of 
its external surface, re- 
sembling the bottom of a 

Celmert-mon, Nor. for hyr- 
ling, hireling. 

Cempa, champion, soldier. 
Ger. Kampfer, Dan. 

Cene, keen, bold, valiant. 
Ger. kiihn. 

Cennan, "1 pret. cende, pp. 

G^ecennan, J cenned, to 
bear, bring forth. 

Cent-land, II. I. Kent. 

Ceorfan, pret. cearf, pi. curf- 
on, to carve, cut. 

Ceorian, to murmur. 

Ceorl, II. 2. churl, freeman, 
laic. Ger. Kerl. 

Ceorung, murmuring, com- 



Ceosan, 1 3 p. he cyst, 

Geceosan, j pret. ceas, 2 
cure, pi. curon, pp. ge- 
coren, to choose, judge. 

Ceosel, II. 2 ? gravel, sand. 
Ger. Kiesel. 

Cepan, to take, keep, observe, 

hold;, fleames 

cepan, to take to flight. 

Cerran. 1 o r- 

^ > bee Cyrran. 

Crecerran. J ^ 

Cese. See Cyse. 

Child, modern for cild. 

Cfdan, pret. cidde, to chide. 

(~^ ^^ \to call, address. 

Cild,''ll.'l. child. Gr. 68. 
-^Ifr. Coll. has cildra in 

Cild-claS, II. 2. child-cloth, 
sicaddling -cloth. 

Cild-cradol, II. 2. child- 

Cildhad, childhood. 

Cildlic, childish. 

Cincg. See Cyning. 

Gecind. See Gecynd. 

Cinn, cynn. See Cyn. 

Cipan, to sell; ciptun for 

Circe, I. 3. church. 

Ciriclic, churchlike, ecclesi- 

Cirman, to make a noise, cry 

Cirran. See Cyrran. 

CiSan. See CySan. 

Cloene, clean, pure. 

Clsennis, cleanness, purity. 

Claensian, 1 to cleanse, 

G^eclaensian, j purify. 

Claensung, cleansing, purifi- 

telenet} (^^^"^')^^"«^- 

Clauster, III. 1. cloister, in- 

ClaS, II. 2. cloth, garment. 

Cleafa, clyfa, room, cel- 


Cliopian, I ^ „ 

Clipian, > to call, cry. 

Clypian, J 

Clucgge, I. ^. clock, bell. Ger. 

Glocke, Dan. Klokke. 
Clud, II. 2. rock, cliff. 
Cludig, rocky. 
Clufan, 3 clyfS, pret. cleaf, 

pi. clufon, to cleave. Gr. 


^•^S .' > i. q. cleopian. 
Geclypian, J ^ ^ 

Clyppan, to embrace, make 

much of. 
Clypung, calling, crying. 
Clysung, inclosure. 
Cnapa, knave, boy. Ger. 

6^ecnawan, to know. See 

(?ccnedan, to knead. 
G^ecneordlsecan, pret.-laehte, 

to study. 
G^ecneordlic, diligent. 
G^ecneordnys. See Ge- 

Cneoris, generation, race, 

Cneow, III. 1. knee. 
fCnif, knife. 
Cniht, II. 2. knight, youth, 



military follower. Ger. 

Cnihthad, youth. 
fCnift (cniht), retainer^ 

f/cnwo (gecneow), knew: 

from gecnawan. 
Cnyll, II. 2 ? knell, tolling. 

Ger. Knall. 
G^ecnyrdnys, gecneordnys, 

study, care, diligence. 
Cdc, II. 2. cook. 
Cohhetan, to cough ? 
Collan, p. 149,1.9? 
Collen-ferht5, lofty-minded? 
Comp-wig, II. 1 ? strife of 

Con, i. q. can. See Cun- 

Coortan, cohorts. 
Gecorew, chosen, elect, de- 
cided. See Ceosan. 
Corn, II. I. corn, seed, grain. 
Cosp, II. 2. bond, chain. 
Coss, II. 2. kiss. Ger. Kuss. 
Cecostan, "1 
Costian, I 
Costnian, y^^^^i^^'/^^o^^e. 

(xecostnian, J 

Costnigend, XL 2. tempter. 
Gr. 118. 

CoS, n. 3. disease. 
Crabbe, I. 3. crab. Ger. & 

Dan, Krabbe. 
Craeft, II. 2. arty craft, arti- 
fice, power. 
Craeftig, crafty, powerful. 

Ger. kraftig. 
fCraft (craeft), craft. 

Creaca-land, "1 Greece. Ger. 

Creca-land, > Griechen- 

Creca-rfce, J land. 

Creda, creed. 

Creopan, -icrypSjpret.creap, 
pi. crupon, to creep. 

Creopend, 11. 2. creeping 
(thing), reptile. Gr. 118. 

Cric, crutch. 

G^ecrincan, pret. -crane, pi. 
-cruncon, to cringe, fall, 

Cristen, Christian. 

Cristendom, Christendom, 

Croc, II. 2. a pot. 

Croc-sceard, II. 1. pots- 

Cucen, 1 • 7 7- . 

Cucu, / ^^^^^' living, 

Culfre, I. 3. culver, dove. 

Culter, coulter. 

Cuma, comer, guest; cu- 
mena-hus, inn, also, the 
part of a 7nonastery ap- 
propriated to guests. 

Cuman, 3 cymS, pret. com, 
to come. Gr. 237. 

6recuman, to come together. 

Cumbol, II. 1 . banner, stand- 
ard. See Grimm, And. 
and El. p. 92. 

Cumbol-wfga, chief com- 

fCume (cyme), coming, 

CumliSnys, hospitality, 

Cunnan, ic can, pi. cunnon, 
pret. cuSe, to know^ be 
able. Gr. 218. 

Cunnian, to try, tempt, at- 



Gecunn'mn^fo prove, explore. 

Gecure. See Ceosan. 

tCusten (cyston), kissed; 
from cyssan. 

CuS, known, certain, evident. 

CuSa, acquaintance. 

t Cu'Se, maketh known, telleth , 

fCuSSe (cyS(5u), country, 

Cwalu, III. 3. death. 

Cwealm, II. 2. pestilence. 

Cweartern, II. \. prison. 

tCwecchen, to cook ? 

(jrecweman, to please. 

f/cwemde, pleased, satisfied. 
See Gecweman. 

G^ecweme, acceptable, agree- 

Crecwemlice, agreeably, plea- 

Cwen, II. 3. queen. 

Cwenland, the country be- 
tween the Gulf of Bothnia 
and the White Sea, inclu- 
ding Finmark. 

Cwen-s^, the White Sea. 

CweSan, 13 p. he cwy^, 

GecweSan, J pret. cwaeS, 
pi. cwaedon, to say, speak. 
Gr. 232. cwyst pu ? Lat. 
num? an? Gr. 160. 

Cwic, quick, alive. 

Cwicbeam, II. 2. juniper, 

Cwidol, evil-tongued, male- 

C wyde, II. 2. saying, speech, 

Cwydreeden, ^ll.^.agree- 

G^ecwydraeden, j ment, 


G^ecwylman, to kill, de- 

Cyddei} SeeCyJ^an. 

Cyfes-boren, base-born ; 
irom cyfes, II. 8. a concu- 
bine. Ger. Kebs, kept 

^yS""- SeeCfgan. 

Gecygan. J " 


Cyl, II. 2. leathern bottle or 
bag. Lat. uter ? 

Cyme, II. 2. coming. 

Cyn, II. 1. kin, race, family. 

GVcynd, II. 1 . nature, gene- 

G^ecynde-lim, III. 1. womb. 

Cyne, royal, noble, geritle. 
Used as a prefix. 

Cyne-helm, II. 2. crown. 

Cyne-hlaford, II. 2. royal 

Cynelic, kingly, royal. 

Cyne-rof, royal, noble, re- 

Cyng, i. q. cyning. 

Cyng-ban (cin-ban), II. 1. 
chin-bone, jaw-bone, 

Cyning, II. 2. king. 

Cynren, III. 1. kindred, fa- 

Cypan, i. q. cfpan. 

Cypercniht, II. 2. youth for 

Cypman, III. 2. chapman, 
merchant. Ger. Kauf- 
raann, Dan. Kjobmand. 

Cyr, time, occasion. 

Cyrce, I. 3. See Circe. 



Cyre, II. 2. will, choice, elec- 
tion. See Ceosan. 

^y^^^^- 1 See Circe. 
Cyricea. J 

Cyrm, II. 2. cry, scream. 

Cyrnceaster, Cirencester. 

Cyrran, ]to turn, return, 

G^ecyrran, J convert. Cyr- 
ran up is perhaps a nau- 
tical phrase for the simple 

Cyrre, II. 2. time. 

G^ecyrrednys, conversion, 

Cyse, II. 2. cheese. Ger. 

Cys-gerunn, cheese; i. e. 
what is now called a 
cheese, from the same 
root as gerunnen, con- 
cretus, coagulatus. Hence 
our runnet. 

Cyssan, to kiss. Ger. kiissen. 

Cystig, bountiful. 

Cystelice, bountifully. 

Cyte, I. 3. cot. 

CyS, II. 3. knowledge, fami- 

Cyt5, know. See Cy8an. 

CyJ)an, 1 pret. cySde 

G^ecy'San, j (cydde), to 
make known, let know, an- 
nounce, tell, devise. 

Cyfere, II. 2. martyr^ wit- 

CySnes, 1 witness, testi- 

G^ecyJ»nis, J mony, testa- 
ment, compact, fcedus ; 
gecySnisse cyfan, to tes- 

Cy6t5u, III. 3. country. 


Daecan (E. Angl.), deacon. 

Dsed, II. 3. deed, action. 

fDaed, dead. 

D^dbetan, to repent, make 

Dded-bot, II. 3. deed-repara- 
tion, repentance, retribu- 

Dseg, II. 2. day. Dan. Dag, 
Ger. Tag. Gr. 69. daeges, 
by day ; on daeg, one day. 

Dseghwomlic, daily. 

Daegred, II. 1 .day red, dawn. 

Daegredlic, adj. morning, 

Daeg-weorc, II. 1 .day'swork. 

Daeg-wist, II. 3. daily re- 

Daegperlic, present. 

f/daeied, died. 

D^l, II. 2. deal, part. Dan. 
Deel, Ger. Theil. 

D^lan, 1 to deal, divide, 

G^edselan, j bestow, spend. 

Daelf. See Delf. 

DaeS, for deaS. 

G^edafenian, gedafnian, to be 
fitting, decere, oportere, 
convenire ; gov. dat. 

G^edafenlice, properly, de- 

Dafnian, i. q. gedafenian. 

Dagian, to dawn. 

Dagung, dawning. 

Dalamensan, a Slavonic 
people formerly inhabiting 

fDalest, dealest, etc. from 



Danais, the Tanais^ Don. 

Daru, III. 3. destruction^ in- 
jury ; whence Derian. 

DaroS, II. 2. dart. 

Datia, under this denomina- 
tion were comprised the 
modern Red Russia, 
Transylvania, Walachia, 
and part of Moldavia. 

fDaw (daeg), day. 

Dead, dead. 

Deadlic, mortal. 

Deaf, deaf. 

Deah. See Dugan. 

Dear. See Dearran. 

Dearc, i. q. deorc. 

Dearnunge, secretly f pri- 

Dearran, ic dear (deor), we 
durron, pret. dorste 
(dyrste), to c?are. Gr.218. 

Deaw, II. 2. dew. 

DeaS, II. 2. death. 

Deat51ic. See Deadlic. 

G^edefen, opportune^ fitting^ 

fDei^e, to die. 

Deire, the natives of Deira, 
the southern part of the 
kingdom of Northumbrian 
extending from the Hum- 
ber to the Tees. See Lap- 
penberg's ' England under 
the Anglo-Saxon Kings,' 
V. i.p. 117, sq. 

Delf, 1 II. 1. delving, the 

GedeU, J act of digging. 

Delfan, 3 dylft5, pret. dealf, 
pi. dulfon, to delve, dig. 
Or. 242. 

D^ma, Judge, governor ; 

from deman. Hence the 
M'ord dempster. 

Deman, "I to deem, judge, 

Cedeman, j decide, doom, 

Den, for denu. 

Dene, the Danes. 

Denemearce, Denmark. 

Denu, III. 3. den, cave, val- 

Deofol, deofl, II. 2. devil. 

Deofel-seocnes, devil-sick- 
ness, i. e. possession by a 

Deotlic, devilish. 

Deofulcund, devilish, dia- 

Deop, deep, profound. 

Deoplice, deeply, profound- 

Deopnys, deepness, mystery. 

Deor, II. 1. beast, animal. 
Ger. Thier. Dan. Dyr. 

Deor. See Dearran. 

Deorc, dark. 

Deorcae, for deorce, darkly. 

Deor-cyn, II. 1. kind of 

fDeore (deor), dear. 

G^edeorf, III. 1. tribulation, 

Deorfan, "1 pret. dearf, pi. 

G^edeorfan, j durfon, to 
work, toil. 

DeorwyrSe, precious, 

Der, E. Angl. for deor. 

Diaconhad, deaconhood. 
Dfc, II. 2, dyke, ditch. 
Digel, II. 3. secret. 



Digel (digol), 1 dark, secret, 

Digle, J obscure. 

Digellice, secretly, privily. 

Digelnys, secret, secrecy, pri- 

Diht, II. 3. dispensation, 
contrivance, direction, 

/diht, prepared, for gedilit. 
See Gedihtan. 

6^edihtan, to dispose, order, 

fDihten (dihtan), to frame, 
order, indite. 

Dimme, dimly. 

Dior, i. q. deor. 

Doccyng, Docking in Nor- 
folk, near Hunstanton and 
Snettisham, called Dry 

Dogor, 11.2. poet, day ; but 
strictly, the day of 12 
hours. See Grimm, Andr. 
and Elene, p. 154; and 
Kemble's Gloss, to Beo- 

Do3e^ (duguS), men, follow- 
ers, court. 

fDohge]? (duguS), truth, 

Dohte. See Dugan. 

Dohtor, dohter, III. 2. 
daughter. Gr. 96. 

Dolh-wund, sorely wounded, 

Dom, II. 2. doom, judgement, 
sway, power, victory, dis- 

Domlice, powerfully, effec- 
tually, nobly, bountifully. 

Don, 1 3 deS (dot5), pret. 

Oedon, J dyde, pp. gedon, 

to do, make, put, pour. 
Ger. thun. Gr. 212. 

Donua, the Danube. 

Dorceceaster, Dorchester. 

Dorste. See Dearran. 

fDotie, to dote. 

Dot5. See Don. 

Dreum, II. 2. joy, delight, 

Drecan, 1 pret. drehte,pp. 

G^edrecan, J dreht, to vex, 
afflict, torment. 

G^edrefan, to trouble, afflict, 

G^edrefednys, trouble, afflic- 

G^edreht, vexed, afflicted, tor- 
mented ; from gedrecan. 

Drenc, II. 2. drink, pota- 

Drencan,to drench. Gr. 347. 

Dreng, II. 2. soldier, guard, 
satelles. O. N. Dreingr. 

Dreogan (drogan), 3 dryhtJ, 
pret. dreag, pi. drugon, to 
do. It. to suffer. 

G^edreog, drying, anoint- 

Dreorig, dreary, sad ; dreo- 
riglice, sadly. It. gory, 

Dreoriglice, drearily, mourn- 

Dreorignys, dreariness, sad- 
9iess, sorrov). 

G^edrif, III. 1. drift, 

Drffan, pret. draef, 2 drife, 
to drive. 

Drfgnis, dryness. 

tDrihlich (drihtlic), Icyrdly, 

Drihten, II. 2. lord. 



6^edrinc, "I III. 1 drinks 

G^edrync, / drinking. 

Drincan, pret. dranc, pi. 
druncon, to drink. 

Drogan, for drugon. See 

Drohtat^, II. 3. i. q. droht- 

Drohtian, 'I to live, pass 

Drohtnian, J (time), de- 

Drohtnung, life, condttct. 

Druncen, drunken, drunk. 

Dry, II. 2. wizard, magician. 

Drycragft, II. 2. witchcraft, 

Drycraeftig, skilled in witch- 
craft. Gr. 122. 

Drygan, to dry. 

Dryhten, i.q. drihten. 

Dryhtenlic, dominical, di- 

Dryht-guma, follower, sa- 

Drypan, to drip, drop. 

fDude (dyde), did; from 

t/duden (dydon), did. 

Dugan, pres. deah, pi. du- 
gon, pret. dohte, to help, 
be good for. Gr. 218. 

Dugut5, II. 3. good, benefit, 
happiness, followers, nobi - 

fDu^den (dugu'8), nobles, 

Dumb, dumb. 

Dun, II. 3. down, mountain. 

Dune, down. 

fDure (deor), dear. 

Dureleas, doorless. 

fDurewurtJe (deorwyrSe), 
costly, precious. 

Durre. See Dearran. 

Duru, III. 3. door. 

Dust, II. 1 . dust. 

Dwelian, to err, 

Gedwild, III. 1 . error, heresy, 

G^edwola, i. q. gedwolman. 

Dwollice, erroneously. 

G^edwolman, III. 2. heretic ; 
from gedwyld, error, etc. 

G^edw(51som, erroneous, here- 

Syld.} SeeGedwild. 

Credwyraorlice, in a fantastic 
or illusory manner. 

Dyde. See Don. 

Dyderung, illusion, enchant- 
ment, dissembling. 

Dym-hof, II. 2. hiding-place. 

Dynian, to make a din. 

Dyr, dear, precious. 

Dyrste. See Dearran. 

G^edyrsod, made daring, 
from gedyrsian. 

Dyrstelice, daringly, rashly. 

Dyrstig, daring, bold. 

Dyrstignys, boldness, pre- 

G^edyrstldecan, pret. -laehte, 
to dare, presume, ven- 

DyrwyrSe. See Deorwyr^e. 

Dysig, II. \. folly. 

D"^^!^' \ foolish, absurd. 



Ea, II. 3. river, Dan. Aa. 
Gr. 85. 

Eac, eke, also, moreover ; eac 
swylce, also, likewise, in 
like manner. 

Eaca, increase. 

Eacnian, 1 to conceive, 

(reeacnian, J bring forth, 
to increase, quicken, make 

Ead, happiness, prosperity. 

Ead-hre^ig, exulting in pros- 
perity or success. 

Eadig, blessed, happy, afflu- 
ent, felix. 

Eadmed, humility, revere^ice. 

6^eeadmedan, to worship, 
adore, prostrate, humble. 

Eadmedlic, "1 humble, re- 

Eadmod, > spectful ; 

Eadmodlic, J eadmodlice, 

Ceeadmettan, i. q. Geead- 

fEaeh-sen (eage-syn), eye- 
sight, presence. 

Ea-gang, II. 2. course or bed 
of a river. 

Eage, I. l.eye. 

Eahta, 1 . ,^ 

EahteoS, eighth. 
Eahteteone, eighteen, 
Eal. See Eall. 
Eala, Oh! alas! 
Eald, old. 

Ealda- feeder, III. 2, grand 
father, avus. Gr. 97. 

Ealddom, age. 

Ealdfaeder, III. 2. patriarch, 

Eald-hettende,o/o? oppressor, 
Gr. 118. 

Eald i an, to grow old, 

Ealdnys, age. 

Ealdor, II. 2. elder, chief 
prince, ancestor. 

Ealdor, II. 3. life. 

Ealdor-dugu^, II. 3. chief 

Ealdorman, III. 2. senator, 
chief, dux. 

Ealdorscype, supremacy, 
first place, authority, 

Ealdor-])egn, li, 2, chief offi- 

Eald-Seaxan, the Old- Sax- 
ons, inhabiting the country 
from theEyder to the Weser. 

Ealdung, age, 

Eall, all ; mid ealle, totally, 

Ealles, totally, in all, 

Eallunga, "1 totally, quite, 

Eallunge,/ prorsus, om- 

Ealswa, as, like as, 

Ealu, III. 3. ale, 

Earc, II. 3. ark, chest, 

Eard, II. 2. country, habita- 

Eardian, to inhabit, dwelling 
settle in. 

Eare, I. 1. ear, 

'Esly^o^Wqq, difficultly, hardly. 

Earfo^nys, difficulty, trovhle, 

^SLYh, fugitive, cowardly. 

Earm, II. 2. arm. 

Earm, poor, miserable, Ger. 



Earming, II. 2. poor mise- 
rable being. 

Earmlic, miserable. 

Earmlice, miserably. 

Earn, II. 2. eagle. Dan. 

G^eearnian, to earn, gain, at- 
tain, merit. 

(jeearnung, merit, desert, be- 

G^eearvvian, to prepare. 

East, east, eastwards. 

Ea-stae'5, 1 III. 1. rivers 

Ea-ste6, J bank. 

Eastan, from the east. Gr. 

East-dael, II. 2. the east. 

East-Engla, East Angles. 

Easter, pi. Eastra, Easter. 

Easter-daeg, II. 2. Easter- 
day, Passover. 

Easterlic, adj., Easter. 

Eastern, eastern, oriental. 

Easteweard, \ . -, 
T- i. ^7 eastward. 
Eastweard, J 

East Francan, East Franks, 
dwelling north of the source 
of the Danube and east of 
the Rhine. 

Eastland, II. 1. the country 
of the Osti or Estas. See 

East-ryhte, due east. 

fEastres, (O, Fr. estres,) 
being, condition, state, par- 
ticularly internal ; as, 
" connaitre les etres d'un 
batiment," i. e. to know all 
the rooms, passages, stairs, 

Eawfest, pious, religious. 

Ea^e, ^ easily, readily ; 
EaJ?elice, j eatJost, 


Y.Q.'^medi, humble ; mid ea'5- 
medum, humbly. 

G^eeaSmedan, to humble ; 
with ace. of pron. to wor- 
ship. See Geeadmedan. 

G^e-eaSmodan, to vouchsafe. 

G^eaSmodian, to humble, be 

Ebbe, I. 3. ebb. 

Ece, II. 2. ache, pain. 

Ece, eternal. 

Ecg, edge. 

Ecg-plega, edge-play, con- 

fEche (ece), eternal. 

Ecnys (ecnes), eternity. 

G^c-edcennan, tobear or bring 
forth again. 

Edlean, II. 1. reward. 

Edniwan, anew. ** 

G^e-edniwian, to renew. 

Edwist, substance. 

Edwit, reproach, contumely. 

Efen, even. Just ; efen feolo, 
Just as many. Ger. eben 
so viel. 

Efen-eald, coeval, of like age. 

Efen-ece, coeternal. 

Efenldecan, "1 pret. -Isehte, 

G^cefenl^can, j to imitate, 

G^eefenl^cung, imitation. 

Efenlic, even, equal ; efen- 
lice, in like manner, also. 

Efern, evening. Nor. for 

Efne, lo! behold! even. Fr. 
meme, exactly. Just. Ger. 




Efor, efer, II. 2. wild boar. 
Ger. Eber. 

Efsian, to shave. 

Efstan, to hasten. 

Eft, again, after, afterwards. 

Ege, II. 2. awe, fear, dread. 

Egesa,yeo!r, dread. 

Egesful, awful, terrific. 

Egeslic, dreadful, horrible. 

EggemaBre, Egmore in Nor- 
folk, near Holkham. 

Eghuona, Nor. for aeghwa- 
nou, from all sides. 

tEggwhaer(seghvv8er), every- 

Eglan, to afflict, annoy. 

fE^e, oivn. 

fEh-scen, eyesight. 

Ehta, i. q. eahta. 

Eh tan, to follow, persecute ; 
gov. gen. or ace. 

Ehtnys, "1 


Eihwelc, E. Angl. for aeg- 

fEille, evil, ill. 

i Ekenn (ecan), to eke, add, 
increase, enlarge; ekedd, 

Elcung, delay, expectation. 

Ele, II. 2. oil. 

Elig, Ely. 

Ellen, \l.\. valour, fortitude. 

Ellen-daed, II. s! valiant 

EWen-rof, famed for courage, 

Ellen -spr^c, II. 3. bold 

EWenwodnes, fervent zeal. 

Ellen-]?riste, boldly daring. 

Elles, else, otherwise. 

Ellor, elsewhere. 

Elmesse, ^Imesse, I. 3 

EIn, II. 3. ell. 

Elnian, to strengthen, com- 

El]7eod, II. S. foreign nation, 

El|7eodig, foreign, foreigner. 

El|?eodignes, 1 (living) in a 

Elj)eodung, J foreignland; 
in (on) el])eodignesse, 
abroad, peregre. 

Embe, about. Gr. d^u^t, 
Ger. um, Dan. cm ; i. q. 

Ceembehtian, to serve, mi- 

EmbsnfSan, to circumcise; 
from snlSan, to cut. 

Emn, even, level, plain; on 
emn, even with, by the side 


Einnlange, along. 

End e, II. 2. end, extremity. 

tEnde, p. 175, line 26, for 
hende, as in the other text} 

Ceendebyrdan, 1 to order, 

Endebyrdian, J ordain, 
place, arrange. 

Endebyrdlice, in order. 

Endebyrdnys, arrangement, 
order, detail; ]?urh ende- 
byrdnys, in turn. 

Endemes, at length, at last. 

Endenext, ] , ^ , ^ 


6reendian, to end,finish.^ 

Endlyfta, eleventh, 

G^eendung, end. 



Engel, II. 2. angel. 

Engla-land, II. l.landoftJie 
Angles^ England. 

Engle, Angles. 

Englisc, English, Anglo- 

Ent, II. 2. giant. 

G^eodon, for eodon. 

Eodorcan, to ruminate. 

Eode. See Gan. 

Eoforwic-ceaster, II. 3. 

Eoh, II. 2. horse. Old Sax. 

fEon (on), on, in. 

(jeond, through, over, per. 

Eondscynan. See Geond- 

Eorl, II. 2. earl, poet, for 

Eornoste, earnestly, vigo- 

Eornostlice, earnestly, so, 
now, therefore ; igitur, 

EorS-bugigend, inhabitant 
of earth. See Bugian. 

Eor«e, I. 3. eorSu, III. 3. 
earth, land. 

EorSf8est,y«5^ in tJie earth. 

Eor6-hus, II. 1 . earth-house, 

EorSlic, earthly. 

Eort5-nce, III. 1. world. 

EorS-tilia, earth-tiller, hus- 
bandman. See Tilian. 

EofS-tilS, II. 3. earth-tilling, 

EorS-tyrewe, I. 1 ? earth- 
tar, bitumen. Ger. Theer, 
Dan. Tjsere, tar. 

' > to show, manifest. 
n,J -^ 



Eow, you, to you. Gr. 137. 

Eower, your. Gr. 1 37. 

EoM'land, Oeland, lying off 
the east coast of Sweden. 

Erbe, for yrfe. 

Erce, arch. But who is 
eorSan moder {mother of 
earth), to whom this title 
is given ? See Grimm, 
D. M. p. 232. 

Ercebisceop, II. 2. arch- 

Ercehad, archiepiscopal dig^ 

Erendraca. See iErend-raca. 

Erfeland, II. 1. Jiereditary 
land. Ger. Erbland, Dan. 

Erian, to plough. 

Ermt5, i. q. yrmt5. 

Ern, II. 1. house, place,room. 

fErrust (^vesi), first. 

Esne, II. 2. man, young man, 

Esol, II. 2. ass. Ger. Esel. 

Estas. See Osti. 

Estful, devout, kind, be- 

Est mere, the Frische Haff, 
or lake, into which flows 
one of the branches of the 

Et, E. Angl. for aet. 

Etan, "I 3 yt, pret. aet, to 

Ettan, / eat. Gr. 228. 

fEuhe (hiw), hue. 

Ewunga, openly, publicly. 

E6, comp. of ea:S, easy ; J)y 
eS, the more easily. 



E))elice, easily. 
E))el, II. 1, 2. country, home. 
ESel-weard, II. 2. keeper or 
ruler of a country. 

Facg, II. \. plaice ? platesia. 

F^cn, III. I. fraud, guile, 

G^efadian, to dispose, order, 

Fadung, disposition, dispen- 

Fsec, II. 1. space, interval, 
department. Ger. Fach. 

Feeder, III. % father. Gr. 97- 

G^efsedera, godfather, gossip. 

Faederlice, paternally. 

l^spge, fated, moribundus. 

Faegenian. See Faegnian. 

Faeger, fair, good; faegere, 
fairly, beautifully. 

^segevnjs, fairness, beauty, 

Faegnian, to fawn, rejoice. 

FaehS, II. S.feud, hate, hosti- 
lity. Ger. Feide. 

fFaeir (faeger), /mV. 

fFaeirlich (faerlic), sudden, 

fFaeisiS (faege-si^?), depart- 
ure, death. 

fFaeit (fet), feet. 

Faemne, 1. 3. damsel, maiden. 

Faemnh^d, maidenhood, vir- 
ginity. Gr. 302. 

Fser, Journey. 

Faer (in composition), 5?^- 
den, dreadful, dire. 

Faereld, II. 2 ? way, going, 
journ£y, gressus. 

Faeringa, suddenly. 
Faerlic, sudden, dangerous; 
faerlice, suddenly. Ger. 
gefahrlich, Dan. farlig. 

Faer, III. 2. craft, peril. 

Faer-sceafa, crafty, danger- 
ous robber. 

FaerS. See Faran. 

Feestan, to fast. Gr. 208. 


Faesten, III. 1. fast, jeju- 

Faesten, III. \. fastness, for- 
tress, citadel. 

Faesthafel, tenacious, 

Faestlic, strong, firm, irresis- 
tible; faestlice,j^7vw/y, re- 

Faestnian, 1 to fasten, con- 

G^efaestnian, j firm, 

Faestnys, fastness, firmness, 
bulwark, firmament. 

Faestnung, confirmation. 

Faet, III. 1. vessel, fat. Ger. 
Fass, Dan. Fad. Gr. 88. 

Faetels, II. 2. bag, sack, 

Faett, 3id^. fat, 

Faepem, II. 2. fathom, cubit, 
embrace, bosom, protection. 

Fah, variegated, glittering. 

fFainen (f"aegnian),#o rejoice. 

fFairsipe, fairness, 

iF3i\]e]>]>, falleth. 

Falster, one of the Danish 
isles in the Baltic. 

Fandian, to try, prove. 

Fandung, temptation, trial, 
probation, inquiry. 

Gefangen, taken (prisoner). 
See Fon, Ger. gefangen. 



Fann, II. S? fan. 

Far, II. ^.fare, course, jour- 
ney^ way. 

Faran, "1 3 fierS, pret. for, 

G^efaran, J pp. faren, to ^o, 

Fame, Fame Island. 

Fat, II. 2. fat. 

Fat-fylre (fset-fyllere), II. 2. 
vessel-filler y butler"^ abatis, 
i. e., according to Du 
Cange, an officer whose 
duty it was to distribute 

Fax, for feax. 


Gefeaht. See Feohtan. 

Feallau, l3 fylS, pret. 

(refeallan,/ feoll, to fall, 
fail. Gr. 234. 

Feala. See Fela. 

Fealu, fealo, fallow, dun, 
yellow, golden. 

Fealo-hilt, epithet of a sword. 

Fear, II. 2. bullock. 

Feawa, y 

Feax, II. 1. AmV, lock; cae- 

Febriende, in a fever. 
Feccan, \ ^^^^ 

G^efecgan, gefeccan, J ^ 

-fehte, to fetch, carry 

off. ^ 
Fedan, 3 fett, to feed, also to 

bring forth. Dan. fode. 

Gr. 207. 
Fefor, II. % fever. 
fFeing, for fang, ckisp, 

fFeirnes, for faegernys. 

Fel, II. 1 . skin, hide. 

tFel(fyl),/e//; from fyllan. 

Fela, much, many. Ger. viel. 

Feld, II. 2. field. Gr. 76. 

fFele (fela), many, much. 

Fell. See Fel. 

fFelle, sane, of sound intel- 

Fellen, leathern, also a felt, 

Fen, II. l.fen. 

^ r.°' \ took. See Fdn. 
G^efeng, j 

fFeo (feoh), money, wealth. 

fFeode (fedan), to feed. 

Feoh, III. 1. cattle, money. 
Gr. 91. Ger. Vieh. 

(jefeoht. III. I. fight, battle. 

Feohtan, 1 to fight. 3 fyht, 

G^efeohtan, J pret. feaht, 
pi. fuhton, pp. fohten. 2) 
to gain (by fighting). See 
also Geslean. 

Feol, file ; feol-heard, file- 
hard, hard as a file ; an 
epithet given to a spear. 

G^efeol. See Feallan. 

Feolde, for folde. 

Feolian, to file. 

Feolo, i. q. fela. 

G^efeon, pret. -feah, pi. -fe- 
gon, part, -feonde, to re- 

Feond, II. 2. enemy. Ger. 
Feind, Dan. Fjende. 

Feond-scea^a, hostile ruffimi. 

Feor, far. 

tFeor,/or, nam. 

Feorh, III. I. life. Gr.91. 

Feorh-giefu, III. 3. vital gifty 
wine ? 



Feorh-hus, II. 1. life-house, 

Feormiaii, to purge, cleanse. 

Feorran, afar, from afar. 
Gr. 339. 


Yeov^2i, fourth. 

F'eo vverscy te, quadrangular; 
from scyt or sceat, an- 

Feowertyne, fourteen. 

Feovvertig, forty. 

Gefer, III. 1 ? company, so- 

Genera, companion. 

Ge^eraeden, II. 3. society, fel- 

(jeferscype, company, society, 

Feran, pret. -ferde, to go, 
proceed, fare. Gr. 34-7. 
Cuman feran means sim- 
ply to come. 

Ferd, for fyrd, army. 

FerhSe, p." 149, 1. 16, pro- 
bably an error for forS, or 
a word may be wanting, 
as cearige, after ferhSe. 

Ferh(5-gleaw, prudent-mind- 
ed, sagacious. 

Ferian, 1 ^ , 


Ceferod. See Ferian. 

tFerren (feorran),/rom afar, 

Fers, II. 1. verse. 

Fersafeld, Fersfield in Nor- 

Verse, fresh, not salt. 

Ceferscipe, company, so- 

Ferwernan, E. Angl. for for- 

Feste, for faeste, fast. 
Festnian. 1 See Gefaest- 
(jefestnian. j nian. 
Fetigan, to fetch. 
Fett. See Fedan. 
Fettian, to contend. 
tFettel (fagtels), vessel. 
Gefexod, having a head of 

hair, eomatus ; from feax, 

Fe])a, band, body. 
Fet5e-last, on foot; from 

feSe, step, and last, track, 

FeJ)er, III. 1. feather, wing. 
FeSung, footing, walking, 

Fic-treow, III. 1. Jig-tree. 

^Gr. 88. 
Fi heo'Ssi, fifteenth. 
Fihyne, fifteen. 
Fild, plain, champaign, 
Filian. See Fyligan. 
fFillenn, to fill, fulfil, 
G^efiUan, to Jill. 
Fin, II. 2. Pin. 
Findan, 2 finst, 3 fint, pret. 

fand, pi. fundon, to find, 

Gr. 195, 241. 
Finger, II. 2.Jlnger. 
Y\no\, fennel. 
Fir, II. 2. man, vir. 
Firmest. See Fyrniest. 
First. See Fyrst. 
Fisc, II. 2. fish. Gr. 




5, "I II. 2. the occupa- 

dart, arrow. 


FiscoS, J tion of fishing, 

Fisc-cyn, II. \. fish-species. 

Fiscere, II. 2. fisher. 

Fixas, pi. of fisc. Gr. 77. 

Fixian, to fish. 

Fifele, I. ^.fiddle. 

Flassc, II. 1. fiesh. Ger. 

6^eflaeschamian, to clothe 
with fiesh, render incar- 

V\di^Q\\c, fleshly. 

Flaesc-mete, II. 2. 

Fla, I. 3? 1 

Flan, II. 2./ 

Flasc,pl.flaxas,II.2. Gr.77."l 

Flaxe, I. ^. flask, leathern] 
bottle, fiasco. Gr. p. 21. 

Fleah. See Fleogan. 

Fleam, II. 2. flight. 

Flede, flood, at flood-tide. 

Fleogan, fledn, pret. fleah, 
pi. flugon, imperat. fleoh, 
to ike, fly. Gr. 192, 235, 

Fleogende, ^j^m^. 

Fleoh- net, II. \. fly-net. 

Fleon. See Fleogan. 

Flesc. See Flaesc. 

Flett, II. 1 ? house, hall, 
couch, stratum. O. N. flet. 
Flet-sittende, sitting on 
couches, in convivio ac- 

Fligan. See Afligan. 


Flion, i. q. fleon. 

G^eflit, III. 1. contest, dis- 

Flftan, pret. flat, pi. fliton, 
to dispute, contend, fight. 

V\oc, flock, band, body. 

Floe, II. 1. 5o/e? platissa. 

Fldd, II. 1. & II. 2. flood. 
Ger. Fluth, Dan. Flod. 

Fldr, II. 3. floor, pavement, 

Flot, float, on fldt feran, to 
go afloat? 

Vlot'A,, fleet, sailor. 

Flotan , to float, flow. 

Flot-here, II. 2. army of sea- 

Flot-man, III. 2. sailor. 

Flo wan, to flow. 

Flud, i. q. flod. 

Flugon. See Afligan. 

V\^h.t, flight. 

Geflyman, to put to flight, 

Fiys, II. \. fleece, fur. 

Foda, fodda, yboc?, support. 

Foder, fodder, II. \. fodder, 
food. Ger. Futter. 

Fohte, p. 134, line 53, for 
feohte; ]?a waes feohte 
neh, then was the conflict 


Folc, II. I. folk, people. Ger. 

Folcisc, vulgar ; folcisce 
menn, common people. 

Folclic, popular. 

Folc-stede, II. 2. place of 
nations, field of battle. 

Folc-toga, leader of people. 

Folde, I. 3. earth. 

Folgere, II. 2. follower. 

Folgian, i. q. fyligan. 



Folm, II. 3. in sing.? In 
pi. nom. and ace. it has 
folman ; poet. hand. 

Fon, 1 3 feh«, pret. feng, 

(jefon, J to receive^ take, 
begin; to fam rfee fon, 
succeed to the kingdom, 
undertake the government. 
Togaedere fon, to assemble. 

fFondien (fandian),fo jorove, 

For, II. 3. way, journey, voy- 

For. See Faran. 

For, for, by reason of, 

For, before, prae, coram. 

For, /or, notwithstanding. It. 
too, very. Dan. for. For 
ra|>e, too quickly ; for wel 
oft, very often; for an, 

Foran, before ; foran to, pre- 

Forbsernan, to burn, to be 
burned. Ger. verbrennen. 

Forbeodan, pret. -bead, pi. 
-budon, pp. -boden, to 

Forbfgan, 1 3 -big^ (-bi«), 

Forbfgean, j pret. -beah, 
to bow, bend, humble, de- 
cline, avoid. Gr. 34?7. 


Forbredan, 3 -bryt, to pre- 
cipitate, overthrow, pro- 
strate, confringere. 

Forbugan, to eschew, avoid, 
withdraw from. See Bu- 

Forbygan. See Forbfgan. 

Forbyrnan, v. n. pret. -barn, 
pi. -burnon, to burn, ar- 

ForbyS. See Forbfgan. 

Forceorfan, pret. -cearf, pi. 
curfon, pp. -corfen, to cut, 
cut off, praecidere. 

Ford, II. 2./or6?. Gr. 76. 

fFordemen (fordeman), to 

Fordon, to ruin, destroy. 
See Don. 

Fordrffan, to drive, hear 
away. See Drffan. 

Fordruwian, to dry up, wither. 

Fore, for, over, before, per, 
as fore msere, permagnus ; 
fore beon, praeesse. 

Forealdian, to grow old. 

Fore-cweden, aforesaid. 

¥ oregengsi, foregoer, attend- 

Fore-gleaw, foreseeing, pro- 

Fore-lutan, to stoop or how 
before (one). 

Fore-m^re, very great. 

Forenspr^cen, beforemen- 

Fores^d, foresaid. See 

Foresceawian, to foresee, pre- 

Foreseen, to foresee, provide. 
See Geseon. 

Foreseond, Providence. Gr. 

Foresetnes, purpose. 

Forespraec, II. 3. predic- 



Foresprecen, before-men- 

Forestaepan, 1 pret. -stop, 

Forestaeppan, J to step be- 
fore, precede, 

Forewerd, forward, early, 

fForfaren, ruined, destroyed, 

Forfela, very many, 

Forfleon, to flee from, escape. 
See Fleon. 

Forgeldan, 1 3 -gylt, pret. 

Forgyldan, j -geald, pi. 
-guidon, pp. -golden, to 
pay, requite, compensate, 

Forgffan, to forgive, give, 
grant. See Gifan. 

Forgifenis. See Forgyfenes. 

Forgnpan, pret. -grap, pi. 
-gripon, tx) seize, 

Forgyfenes, forgiveness. 

Forgymeleasian, to n£glect, 

Forgy tol, forgetful. 

Forhaefednys, abstinence, 

For-heard, intensely hard, 

Forheawan, pret. -heow, to 
cut down, slay, mangle, 

Forhergian, to harry, plun- 

Forhergung, ravage, devas- 

Forhogian, to despise, 

Forhohnes, forhogednes, 

fForhowede (forhogode), 

Forhradian, to get before, 

Forhtfull, fearful, 
Forhtian, to fear, 
Forhtlice, fearfully, 

tForhuste (forhyste?), de- 
rided} from hysian, to 
hiss, deride ? 

Forhwaega, however, saltern. 

Forhwerfian, to turn, change. 

Forl^tan, pret. -let, to leave, 
let, let go, forsake, leave 
off; in-forl^tan, to let in. 

Forleoran, to leave, 

Forleosan, 3 -lyst, pret. -leas, 
2 -lure, pi. -luron, pp. -16- 
ren, to lose, Gr. 251. 

Forlidenes, shipwreck. 

Forliden, shipwrecked, from 
li^an, to sail, navigate. 

Forlfgere, III. 1. fornica- 

Forloren, lost. See Forleo- 

Forlyst. See Forleosan. 

Forma (se) (seo, |)aet) forme, 

Forrotodnys, rottenness, cor- 

fForrwerrpen (forweorpan), 
to cast away, reject. 

fForrpi, because. Dan. 

Forsacan, pret. -soc, to for- 
sake, refuse, deny. 

Forsceadan, pret. -sceod, pp. 
-sceaden, to scatter, 

Forsceden, for forscfeaden. 
See Forsceadan. 

Forsceoppan, to miscreate, 

Forscrincan, pret. -scranc, 
pi. -scruncon, to shrink, 

Forsearian, to sear, dry, 



Forseon, to despise. See 

Forseon, v. refl., to err, sin. 
Ger. sich versehen. 

Forsetnes, resolution, pur- 
pose, continuation. 

Forslean, 3 -slyt5, pret. -sloh, 
pp. -slegen (-slagen), to 
slay, beat, strike off. 

Forspendan, to spend, con- 

Forspillan, to destroy. Ger. 

Forsuwian, to be silent, re- 
frain fronfi uttering, pass 
in silence. 

Forswelgan, 3 -swylS, pret. 
-swealh, pi. -swulgon, to 
swallow up, devour. 

Forsworen, forsworn, per- 
jured ; from forswEeran. 

Forwandian, to revere, re- 
spect ; part, forwandi- 
gende, respectful. 

Forwegen, prostrate ? for'S- 
wegen ? 

Forwel, very. 

Forweor^an (forwyrSan), to 
perish, be ruined. See 

Forwerod, worn out, old. 

fForwerrpenn, to cast away, 

1 Forwurnen (forwyrnan), to 
refuse, forbid, prohibit 

Forwyrcan, pret. -wyrhte, to 
punish, injure, lose, 

Forwyrd, II. 3. destruction, 

Forwyrnan, to refuse, deny, 

prevent: governs dat. of 
person and gen. of thing. 

For'S, forth, along. 

For]7am, for|)an, because, 
therefore ; for})am fe, be- 
cause that. 

ForS-ar^san, to rush forth. 

ForSarn. See Forwyrnan. 

For^-ateon, 1 pret. -teah, pi. 

ForS-teon, j -tugon, to 
bring forth, produce. 

For^beran, to bear forth. 
See Beran. 

For^-bringan, pret. -brohte, 
to bring forth. 

ForSdrffan, to drive on. 

fForSe (fur|>on), indeed, 
even, quidem. 

tForJ)eddte (forjjod), fur- 
thered, forwarded; from 

FortS-faran, pret. -for, to go 
forth, depart, die; forS- 
faren^ dead. 

ForSferan, to depart, go forth, 
die. It. to bear forth ; 
for^fered, borne forth, 

ForSfor, II. 3. departure, 

FofSgan, 1 to proceed, go 

For'Sgangan, j forth. See 

ForSgenge, successful. 

For^georn, anxious to go 
forth, intrepid, 

For'S-gewftan, to go or pass 

For))i, therefore, on that ac- 
count, for, because. Dan. 



Gefor]>ia.n,to further, execute, 

For^-laestan, to continue,ful- 
Jil, perform, execute. 

For^on, because, therefore. 
In Nor. Gloss, for witod- 

Fort5-si6, II. 2. departure, 

ForS-si^ian, to travel onward. 

For'5-stEeppan, pret. -stop, to 
step forth, proceed, ema- 

ForS-tedn, to carry on, pro- 
trahere, produce. See 

For])y. See For]>i. 

For|)yldian, 1 to bear pa- 

ForSyldgan, j tiently, en- 

Forjjylmed, enveloped, sur- 
rounded. See Cod. Exon. 
p.217, 1. 23. 

For^-yrnan, to run on, con- 

F6t, III, 2, foot. Gr.96. 

Fot-cops, II. 2, fetter, 

Fot-mael, II. i, foot-measure. 

Fot-sceamel, II. 2? foot- 
stool. Dan. Fodskammel. 

Fot-swae^, III. I . foot-trace. 

Fracod, fraeed, shameful, 
vile, indecent. 

FrsBcednys, peril. 

Fraeng. See Fregnan. 

Fraetwian, 1 to fret, 

Gefraetewian, J adorn. 

Fraetewung, decoration, or- 

Fraetu, III. 1. ornament, in 
plur. arms. Gr. 95. 

Yxdxa.,from, by. 

Fram-adriTan, to expel, 

fFrame (freme), profit, be- 

Fram-gewftan, to depart 
from. See Gewftan. 

Framian, to promote, pro- 
fit, prodesse. See Fre- 

Fran ca, javelin. 

Frea, lord, chief. Goth. 
Frauja, Ger. fern. Frau. 

Freatewung. See Fraete- 

Frecnys, danger. 

G^efredan, to feel, perceive. 

Frefrian, 1 to console, com- 

6refrefrian. J fort. 

Frefriend, II. 2. Comforter. 
Gr. 118. 

Fregnan, "1 pret. fraegn 

G^efregnan,/ (fraeng), pi. 
-frugnon, pp. -frunen, to 
ask, inquire. It. to hear, 
learn, understand. In like 
manner, axian signifies 
both to ask and to be in- 
formed {of anything). So 
also the Goth, fraihnan, 
O. Sax. gifraegnan, and 
Dan. sporge, O. N. spyrja, 
investigare, quaerere, 2) 

Fremde, fremed, strange,fo- 
reign, alien. Ger. fremd, 
Dan. fremmed. 

Freniful, efficacious, useful. 

Fremian, "1 to effect, per- 

Cefremian, I feet, perpe- 

Fremigan, f trate, pro- 

G^efremman,J mote, im- 
prove, benefit. 



Fremsumnes, kindness, bene- 

Yyqo, free, liberal, noble. 
Freodu (read freoSu,) III. 3. 

peace, friendship, 
Freoh. See Freo. 
Freolice, /r^e/z/. 
Freols, IL 9,. festival. 
Freols-tfd, II. 2). feast-time, 
Freond, II. 2. friend, part. 

of freon, to love. 
Freorig, friffid, chill?/, shud- 
Freoscipe, ingenuousness, 

Freosan, pret. fror, pp. fro- 

ren, to freeze. 
Freo^ian, i. q. Gefrit^ian. 
Frigdaeg, II. 2. Friday. 
Frimdi, frimdig, suppliant. 
FrimS. See FrymS. 
FriS, II. 2. peace. Ger. 

Friede. FriSes, adv., in 

GefriSian, to protect. Ger. 

Frod, stricken in years, aged, 

confectus,?^?25e, prudent. 
Frodade, p. 153, 1. 9. qu. for 

freo^ode ? 
Frofor, frofer, II. 3. comfort; 

se Frofor-Gast, the Com- 
forting Spirit. 
From, bold, strenuous, pious. 

Ger. from, pious. 
From. See Fram. 
Fromlice, boldly, strenu- 

Fruma, beginning, 

Frum-cenned, first-born ; 
from cennan. 

Frum-gar, II. 2. chieftain. 
See Grimm, And. and El. 

Frumsceaft,II. 2? beginning 
of things, creation. 

Frym^, II. 3. beginning, 

FrymJ)elic, primitive. 

Frynd, i. q. and pi. of freond. 
Gr. 100. 

Frysan, the Frisians, appa- 
rently those on the west 
coast and isles of the Cim- 
bric Chersonesus. 

Frysland, Friesland, 

Fugel-cyn, II. 1. bird-spe- 

Fugelere, II. ^.fowler, 

Fugl, fugel, fugol, II. 2. 
fowl, bird. Ger. Vogel, 
Dan. Fugl. 


tFul£et, for fula«. 

fFulde (fylde), felled, slew ; 
from fyllan. 

fFulede (f y lode), followed ; 
from fylian. 

Fulfremed, perfect. N.B. 
fulfremedre, at p . 38, line 
21 , seems an error of the 
MS. for fulfremedra. 

Fulfremednys, perfection, 

Fulfremman, to execute, ac- 

Fronden, for freondum. 
Frum, a prefix signifying 

Fulian, to foul, rot, putrefy. 
VuW, full, complete, 
fFulle (feoUon), fell ; from 



FuUian, 1 make full, to 
G^efullian, / baptize. 
Fuilice,/w%, entirely. 
FuUuht, II. 2. baptism. Gr. 

Fulluhtere, II. 2. baptizer, 

Fultum, II. 2. help, support, 

Fultumian, 1 to favour, 
G^efulturaian, J support ; 
to gefultumian, to help to. 
Fulwiht, i. q. fulluht. 
Furh, II. ^.furrow. 
FuT^, forth; furlpra, further, 
prior; fyrmest, ^rst. Gr. 
Fur]?on, indeed, only, even, 
moreover, vel, quidem. 
Fr. meme. 
Furt5or, further ; comp. of 

Fus, prompt, impetuous, has- 
fFusde (fysde), started; 

from fysan. 
fFuse, will drive away; 

from fysan. 
Fuse, promptly, rapidly. 
fFusen, 1 (fysan,) to hasten, 
fFusi, J hurry. 
¥f\,file. See Feol. 
Fyl. See Fyll. 
Fylaen. E. Angl. for Ftilian. 
Fylgan ,'tojill, glut, get drunk. 
Fyligan.iylian,-! ^^^^„^^_ 
Fyligean, J -^ 

Fyll, II. S. falling, slaughter; 
from fyllan, to fell. It. 
fill, glut, from fyllan, to 

Fyllan, "1 to fill, feed, fulfil, 

G^efyllan, / occupy. 

Fyllan, to fell, slay. 

Gefyllednis, fullness, fulfil- 
ment, completion. 

G^efylsta, helper, supporter, 

Fylstan, to help, support. 

Fynd, pi. of feond. Gr. 100. 

Fyr, II. l.Jire. 

Fyr. See Feor. 

Fyrd, II. 3. army, march, 
military expedition. 

Fyrd-rinc, II. 2. warrior. 

Fyrd-wic, II. 1 ? tent ; in pi. 

Fyrhto, 1 III. ^. fear, horror, 

Fyrhtu,/ <freac?. Gr. 103. 

Fyrlen,^r, distant. 

Fyrraest, foremost, first, 

Fyrrest, furthest, from Feor. 
Fy r-spearca, fire-spark. 
Fjrst, first, chief. Ger. Furst. 
Fyrst, II. 2. space, period. 

Ger. Frist. 
FyrSrian, to further, promote. 
Fyrwit, 1 curiosity. Ger. 
Fyrvvitnys, j Vorwitz. ' 
Fysan, to drive, send forth 

(arrows), send away. 
Fysan, recipr. to hasten, rush. 


G^d, for gegada, comrade ? 
or lack, want. Goth, 
gaidw? See Grimm, 
And. and El. p. 160. 




Gad, II. S. goad. 

Gaderian, 1 to gather, col- 

Tregaderian, J lect 

Geg3ideruug, gathering, con- 
gregation, society. 

Gad-isen, II. 1. goad-iron. 

Ga^memgende, gaming, play- 

Gaers, II. 1. grass. Gr. 33, 

Gaerstapa, grasshopper, lo- 

Gaest, for gast. 

Gaet. See Geat. 

Gaey-saet, afterwards Geist, 
now Guist, in Norfolk, 
near Fakenham. 

Gafeloc, gaueloc, II. 2. ja- 
velin. O. N. Gaflok, 

Gafol, II. 1. tribute, tax. 

Galferh^, libidinous. 

Galmod , furious, libidinous. 
Dan. gal. 

Gamenian, to game, play. 

Gan, "1 3 gaet5 (gaS), pret. 

Gangan, J eode, to go, 
walk. Gr. 212. 

tGan, began, undertook! 

G^egan, \^to take, capture, 

G^egangan, j gain, get. 

Gandis, Gyndes, a river of 

Gang, II. 2. gait, course, 
walk, house of office. 

Gangan. See Gan. 

Gar, II. 2. weapon, spear, 
javelin. This, like some 
other masculines of the 
same declension, in poetry, 
sometimes loses the pi. ter- 
mination -as. 

Gar-berend, arms-bearing. 

Gar-gewinn, III. 1. war of 
darts or arrows. 

fGarisume (gaersume), trea- 
sure, riches. 

Gar-r^s, II. 2. rush of arms, 
hostile incursion. 

Garsecg, II. 2. ocean. 

Gast, II. % ghost, spirit. Ger. 

Gastlic, ghostly, spiritual. 

Gat. See Geat. 

Gaueloc. See Gafeloc. 

Ge, ye. Gr. 137. 

Ge, ge . . . . ge, both .... 
and, whether . ... or. 

Gea, yea, yes. 

Gealdor, galdor, III. 1. ma- 
gic, enchantment, witchery. 
From galan, to sing. 

Gealga, gallows. N.B. In 
the Index to Caedmon, 
Galge is an oversight for 

Gear, 11. 1. year. 

GediVdi, formerly, of yore. It. 
well, accurately. 

Gearcian, to prepare. 

Geard, II. 2. yard, inclosure, 
region. Goth. Gards, 
Dan. Gaard. 

fGeare, of yore, formerly. 

Gearo-))oncol, ready-witted. 

(jearu, gearo, ready. 

Gearwe, gearuwe, gearwe, 
readily, well, 

Gegearwian, to prepare, ex- 

Geat, III. I. gate. 

Geatu, III. 1. equipments, 
Gr. 95. 



Geatu, III. 1. equipments. 
Gr. 95. 

Geat-weard, II. 2. gate-ward, 

fGede, pi. gedenn (eode), 
went; from gan. 

(?€gangan, to go. It. to take, 

G^egerelad, Nor. for gegy- 
rod, clad. 

Gegnum, directly, forthwith. 

G^egremian, to provoke, irri- 
tate ; gegremod, enraged. 

Gehaep, apt,Jitting. 

Geman, gyman, to take care 
of, curare. Dan. gjemme. 

fGemelich, careful, anxious. 

Gen, gena, yet, still; ]?a- 
gena, as yet. 

GeogO(S, II. 3. youth. 

Geomor, sad. 

Geomor-mod, sad in mind. 

Geomrian, to sigh, groan. 

Geomrung, groaning, lamen- 

Geond, through, over, per. 

Geond-geotan, pret. -geat, 
pp. -goten, to suffuse. 

Geond-scman, to shine over. 

See Scfnan. 

Geong, giong, 1 

o' & &' L young. 
Geonghc, j ^ ^ 

Geongra, disciple, pupil. 

Georne, earnestly, carefully, 

zealously, fervently , well. 
Geornful, fervent, zealous. 
Geornfulnes, diligence, zeal, 

promptness, fervour. 
Geornfullice, f diligently, 
Geornlioe, j fervently, 

zealously. See Georne. 

Ger. See Gear. 

Gesne, lacking, expers. Ohg. 
keisan, sterilis. See Graff, 
iv. 267, and Grimm, And. 
and El. p. 124. 

Get, yet, still. 

Geunc, E.AngL for geong. 

Gif. See Gyf. 

Gifan, pret. geaf, pi. gifon, 
to give. 

Gifernes, rapacity. 

Gife^e, given. 

Gifre, rapacious. 

Gifu. See Gyfu. 

Gild, II. 1 ? tax, tribut€,pay. 

Gildan, pret. geald, pi. gui- 
don, to pay, requite. 

Gilden, golden. 

Giman. See Gyman. 

Gim-stan, II. 2. g£m. 

Gin, wide, ample. 

Ging. See Geong. 

Gmgve, female attendant. 

tGinn, gin, engine, art, con- 

Gio, geo, of yore, formerly . 

Giong. See Geong. 

GivwdiW, to prepare ; girwan 
up, to serve up. 

Gisel, II. 2. hostage. Ger. 
Geifsel, Dan. Gidsel. 

Gislian, to give hostages. 

Gistlifie, for gsestlij^e, hospi- 

Giu. See Gio. 

G^egladian, to gladden. 

Glaed, glad, joyful. 

Glaedlice, gladly, cheerfully. 

Glaed-mod, glad-minded. 

Glass, III. 1 . glass. 

Glaesen, of glass, vitreus. 



Glappe, I. 3 ? bur, lappa. 

Gleaw, clever, skilful, saga- 

Gleaw-liydig, prudent, saga- 

Gleawlic, skilful, cunning, 

Gleawn es,prudence,sagacity, 

Gleawscipe, acuteness, skill, 

Glengan, 1 to adorn, deco- 

G^eglengan, J rate. 

Gleowian, to joke, sing. 

Glivv, II. 2. glee, mirth. 

Gluto, glutton, p. 35, appa- 
rently an error for swel- 

Gnornian, to lament, mur- 
mur, complain. 

Gnornung, grief, sorrow, 
lament, complaint. 

God. II. 2. God. . 

God, II. 1, 3. good, chattel, 

G6d, good. 

Godcund, divine. 

Godcundlice, divinely. 

Godcundnys, divinity. God- 

Godful, full of good, excel- 

Gegodian, to enrich. Ger. 

Gddnes, goodness. 

Godspel, II. 1. Gospel; from 
god, good, and spell, hi- 
story, nuncium, evayye- 

•Gofol, i. q. gafol. 

Gol, for gold. 

Gold, II. l.^o/c?. 

Gold-gffa, gold-giver, pa^ 
tron, lord. 

Gold-hord, II. 2. gold-hoard, 

Gold-smiS, II. 2. goldsmith. 

Gold-wine, II. 2. gold- (i. e. 
munificent^ friend, patron, 

fGomen (gamen), game, 

fGonne, began, undertook ? 

Gotland, II. 1. Jotland, Jut- 
land, i. e. the land of the 
Hre«-Goths. See Formali 
to Snorre's Edda, p. 14, 
etc. ; though Wulfstan ap- 
parently alludes to the isle 
of Gothland. 

Gottan, Goths. 

fGoud, good. 

Graeg, gray. 

Gram, angry, fierce, cruel ; 
to grame nfman, to take 
in dudgeon. 

Gv^me, fiercely. 

fGrame, grief. 

Grapian, to touch with the 
hand, handle. 

Grecisc, Greek. 

Gredig, greedy, ravenous. 

Gremian, 1 to 

(xegremian, j ritate. 

f/gremid (gegremed), pro- 
voked, exasperated ; from 

Gren, green ; paet grene, tJie 
green (side or part). 

Greet, dust, 

Gretan, 1 to greet. Gr, 

Gegretan, J 207. 

Greting, greeting. 



made peace with; from 

Grim, grim, horrible, dire. 

Grimastun, Grimston in 
Norfolk, near Lynn. 

Grimitan. See Gryme- 

Grfn, III. 1. gin, snare. 

Grindan, pret. grand, pi. 
grundon, to grind; pp. 
geg vxxn&en, ground, sharp- 

Grfpan, 1 p^et. grap, pi. 

Crcgrfpan, J gripon, to 

gripe, seize. 

GristbftiaT), to gnash {with 
the teeth). 

Gri^, II. 2. peace, 

Growan, pret. gveovfi, to grow, 
Gr. 234. 

Grund, II. 2. ground, world, 
depth, abyss, cause, rea- 

Grymetian, to roar, cry out, 
grunt, gnash. 

Gryre, horror, terror, 

GrySian, to pacify, make 

Guma, man. 

fGume (guma), man. 

GtiS, II. 3. war, battle. 

Gvi'6-fansi,military standard, 
gowfanon. For the inter- 
change between ]> and n, 
see Gr. p. 22. 

GtiS-frec, eager for battle. 

Gu'5-plega, war-play, battle. 

Gut5-rinc, II. 2. warrior, 

Gu6-sceorp, II. 1. military 

Gyddung, song, parable, 

poetic composition, poetic 

Gyden, II. 3. "I , , 

Gydene,1.3. ]9oddc''. 

Gyf, gif, if 

Gyfe, p. 110, lines, f. b? 

Gyfu, III. 3. gift, grace, fa- 

Gygand, gigant, II. 2. giant. 

fGyl, guile. 

Gyld. See Gild. 

Gyldan. See Gildan. 

Gylden, golden. 

Gylian, to yell, cry. 

Gylp, II. 1 ? vaunt, vain- 
glory, pride. 

Gylp- word, II. 1. bold,vaunt- 
ing word. 

Gylt, II. 2. guilt, sin, debt. 

Gym, II. 2. gem. 

Gyman, to take care, heed, 
have charge of Dan. 

Gymeleast, II. 3. heedless- 
ness, negligence, 

Gyrd, II. 3. yard, rod, switch, 
Ger. Gerte. 

Gyrd el, II. 2. girdle. 

Gyrla, vestment, garment. 

Gyrne. See Georne. 

Gyrnan, "1 to de- 

Gyrnian, geornian, J sire, 

Gy rstan-daeg, 1 1 .2. 7/e5ifer</««/. 

Gysel. See Gisel. 

Gyst, II. 2. guest. 

Gyst-ern, II. \. guest-cham- 

Gyst-sal, III. I. guest-saloon 
or -hall. 

Gyt, yet, still. 




G^^t, ye (two). Gr. 137. 
Gytsian, to desire, covet; 

gytsiend, covetous. 
Gytsung, avarice, covetous- 

Gyu, already. 


[This letter, used in Semi-Saxon 
and early English, had the sound 

t3£er, p. 158, 1. 15? 

t3am (heom), them. 

't'3a.rG 1 

'\^eJey''''9 since, of y 

t3arrkedd (gearcod), pre- 

t3e (heo), she. 

t3ede, pi. gedenn (eode), 
went ; from gan. 

t3edede (geddode), sang; 
from geddian. 

t3ef (geaf), gave. 

t3enielich, heedful, sorrow- 

t3enge (geong), young. 

t3eo (heo), she. 

t3er (ger), year. 

t3ernde (gyrnde), yearned, 
desired ; from gyrnan. 

t3ernen (gyrnan), to yearn, 
desire, solicit. 

t3et, yet. 

t3euen (gifan), to give. 

t3ou, you. 

t3ungest (geongest), young- 

t3ure (eowre), your, pi. 

t3uw (eow), you. 

t3u«full {geo^M^M), youth- 


fHa, her, they, for In. 

Habban, 3 p. he hajfS, pret. 
haefde, to have, account, 
hold, detain. Gr. 216. 

Haeele, I. 3. garment. 

Haeod, II. 2. pike, lucius. 

Haconos, Hackness, on 
Whitby Strand, thirteen 
miles from Whitby and 
three from Scarborough. 

Had, II. 2. order, degree, 
office, state, person. 

/hadedon, for gehadodum, 
ordained, consecrated, i. e. 
priests ; from gehadian. 

Cehadian, to ordain, conse- 

Hadung, ordination, conse- 

Haebban, pret. hof, to lift, 
move. Gr. 237. 

fHaefedd (heafod), head; 
on hsefedd, at the head. 

Haefede, for haefde. 

Haefet, for heafod. 

Hasfod, E. Angl. for heafod. 

Haeft, haft, hilt, sword, per 
synecdochen? p.149, 1.45. 

Haeftan, "I pp. gehaefted, 

G^ehaeftan, / gehaeft, to 
seize, bind, hold, detain; 
gehaefd, afflicted. 

(jehaeftian, to capture, catch. 

fHae^e, high, noble. 

Heelan, 1 ^ , , 


Haelend, II. 2. healer, the 
Saviour, The name Jesus 
is thus translated in the 



A. S. Gospels. O. Sax. 
Heliand, Ger. Heiland. 

HaeleS, II. 2. man^ hero. O. 
Sax. Helith, Ger. Held. 
HaeletJ often occurs in the 
pi. for haeleSas. 

Haglfter, II. 3. halter^ cha- 

Haelu, III. 3. healthy salva- 
tion, safety. Gr. 103. 

HselS, II. 3. health. 

H^man, to associate with, 
have to do with, coire, 
concumbere ; on unriht 
haeman, fornicari, moe- 

fHcen (hean), lov), vile, con- 

f Haengenne, raised, exalt- 

f Haengest (hengest), horse, 
pack-horse. Ger. Hengst, 

(rehaep, apt, fitting. 

Haepse, hasp. 

Haer, II. 1 ? hair. 

f Haerabarewude, harbour- 
ed ; from herebeorgan : 
cognate with Ger. Her- 
berg, an inn, hostel ; Old 
Fr. Herberge. 

Haerfaest, II. 2. harvest. 

Haerincg, II. 2. herring. 

Haerlice, nobly, generously^ 
bravely. Ger. herrlich. 

f/haermed, irritated. 

fHaerne, hercne (heorcne), 
hearken ! 

Haesu, III. 3. behest, com- 

Haet. See IKtan. 

G^ehaetan, pret. -het, to pro- 

tHoe])elic (hetelice), with 

hate, hostilely ? 
HaeJ)en, heathen. 
HaeJ>enscipe, heathenship. 
HaeSum (aet), Sleswig. 
Hae|ning, heating. 
Hafenian, to lift, raise ; de- 

riv. of haebban. 
Hafenleas, sparing, want- 
Hafoc, II. 2. hawk. 
Haga, haw, hedge ; perhaps 

also a place inclosed by a 

Hagol, II. 2. hail. Ger. 

fHahte (het), commanded; 

from hatan. 
fHaihte, hahte, and hehte 

(hatte), was called. 

Hal 1 

^ '^, V hale, whole, sound. 

fHalde (aeldu), age. 

fHalde, holde, hold. Hal- 
det on, adheres to. 

f/haled, E. Angl. for ge- 

Halettan, to hail, salute. 

Halga, saint; ealle halgan, 
allhallows, all saints. 

G^ehalgian, to hallow, conse- 
crate, dedicate. 

Halgoland, II. 1 . an ancient 
division of Norway, near- 
ly corresponding appa- 
rently with the present 



Halgung, hallowing^ conse- 

Halig, holy^ saint. Ger. hei- 
lig, Dan. hellig. Gr. 125. 

Haligdom, sanctuary, relic. 

Halignes, holiness, sanctity. 

Hall. See Heall. 

Hals, II. 2. 7ieck. Ger. Hals. 

Halsian, to supplicate, be- 

Halsung, prayer, supplica- 

Halwende, healing, salutary. 

Ham, II. 2. home. 

fHam, them. Dan. ham. 

Hamweard, homeward. 

Hancred, 11.2. cock-crowing, 
watch of the night. 

Hand, bond, II. 3. hand. 
Gr. 8S. On hand gan, to 
yield. Ger. Hand, Dan. 
Haand. I am unable to 
account for the use of 
' hand ' in the phrase 
(p. 74, 1. 4) ' hand swa 
gelfce.' It occurs in all 
the MSS., though Matt. 
XXV. 5. reads ']?am swa 

Hand-bred, III. 1. palm of 
the hand. 

Hand-geweorc, II. 1 . handi- 

Hangian, neut. to hang. 

Har, hoar. 

Hara, hare. 

fHare (anre), to a; thus 
mire for mfnre. 

fHarpe (hearpe), harp. 

Has, hoarse. Ger. heise. 

Hat, heat, fervour, hate. 

Hat, hot. 

Geh^t, II. 1 . promise, stipu- 
Hatan, 1 3 haet, pret. het, 
G^ehatan, / pp. -haten, to 

command, promise. Gr. 

Hatan, pret. het, to call, to 

be called, pret. hatte, pp. 

haten. Ger. heissen, Dan. 

hede. Hence our word 

hight, ivas called, 
6^ehaten, called. See Hatan. 
f/haten, for gehaten. 
Hatian, to hate. 
Cehat-lond, II. 1. land of 

fHauen (haefen), haven, 

Hauoc, i. q. hafoc. 
Heafde, i. q. haefde ; from 

Heafod, III. 1. head. Ger. 

Heafod-burh, II. ^.chiefcity. 
Heafod-ece, II. 2. head- 
Heafod-gerfm, II. 1. chief 

or greatest number, 
Heafod-man, head-man,cap- 

tain. Ger. Hauptmann. 
Heafod-weard, II. 2. chief 

watch or guard. 
Heage, adv. high. 
Heagosteald, and Heago- 

stealdes-ea, Hexham, 
Heah, high, stormy, 
Heah-ealdor, II. 2. chief 

priest or elder. 
Heah-engel,II. 2. archangel. 
Heah-fseder, II. 2. patriarch. 



Heah-gerefa, chief minister. 
Heah-gesaranung, chief of 

the synagogue. 
Heahnes. See Hehnys. 
Heah-sacerd, II. 2. high- 
Heah-setl, III. 1. high seat, 

Heahpungen, high, of high 

Healdan, ") 3 hylt (healt), 

G^ehealdan, / pret. heold, 

pp. healden, to hold, keep, 

possess, preserve, reserve, 

treat, conduct. 

Healdend, II. 2. guardian, 
chief. Gr. 118. 

Healdon, p. 124, line 8, for 

/healed, for gehaeled. 

Healf, II. 3. half, side, divi- 
sion, part. Be healfe, by 

Healic, high, sublime, exalt- 

Healice, highly, loftily. 

Heall, II. 3. hall, house. 

Healt, halt, lame. 

Heanlic, vile, disgraceful. 

Heap, II. 2. heap, collection, 
body. Ger. Haufe. 

Heard, hard, severe, rugged, 
bold; heard beam, hard 
timber tree ? 

Hearde, hardly, sternly, 

Heardlice, hardly, harshly, 
boldly ; also corruptly for 
ardlice, speedily. 

Heard-neb, hard-nib, or 
-bill: epithet of the raven. 

Heardnys, hardness. 
Hearm,II.2./^«/'w, calamity. 
Hearpe, I. 3. harp. 
Hearpere, II. 2. harper. 
Hearpian, to harp. 
Hearpe-naegl, II. 2. harp- 

7iail, plectrum. 
Hearpe-streng, II. 2. harp- 
Hearpung, harping. Gr. 83. 
Hearra, lord, master. Ger. 

Heawan, 1 pret. heow, pp. 
G^eheawan, / heawen, to 

hew, cut down, slay. 
HeaSo-rinc, II. 2. warrior ; 
from heaSo, an old word 
signifying war. See 
Grimm, D. G. ii. p. 460, 
and Kemble, Beow. i. 
p. 254. 
Heddern, II. \. pantry, store- 
Hefe, II. 2. weight. 
Hefelic, heavy. 
Hefig, heavy, tedious. 
Hefigian, to afflict ; hefigad, 

Hefignes, 1 heaviness, pain, 
Hefines, J affliction. 
Hefigtyme, tedious, trouble- 
Hege, II. 2.hedge, haw. Ger. 

Hage. See Haga. 
tHe3 (heh), high. 
fHe^hesst (hehst), highest. 
Hehnys, height, high, in on 

Hehst, hyhst, highest. Gr. 

p. 51. 
tHehte (hatte), was called. 



tHeh, liigh. 

Hele-wah, II. 2. heel-wall ; 
hele-wages, for -wagas, 
Semi- Sax. 

Helia, Elisha. 

Hell, II. 3. hell. 

Hellic, hellish. 

Hell-scea|?a, hell-miscreant. 

Hell-wara, I. 2. 1 inhabit- 

Hell-waru, III. 3. J ants of 
hell Gr. 104.. 

Helm, II. 2. helmet, crown^ 
crown or head of a tree. 

Help, help. 

(?ehelpan, pret. -heolp 
(-healp), pi. -hulpon, to 

fHemm, them. Dan. ham. 

Hende, 1 

6^ehende, / 

fHende, hendy, clever, cour- 
teous, easily, genteel. 

Hen-fugel, II. 2. hen-fowl. 

Heo, she, they. Gr. 137. 

Heofon, II. 2, 3. 1 heaven. 

Heofone, I. 3. J Gr.71. 

Heofonlic, heavenly. 

Heofon-rfce, III. \. kingdom 
of heaven. 

Heofung, groan. 

fHeold (yldo), age. 

Heolfrig, bloody, gory. 

Heolster, 11, Leave, hiding- 

Heolster, dark, obscure. 

Heonon, hence. 

Heonon-forS, henceforth. 

Heonu, lo, ecce. 

Heorcnian, to hearken, listen. 

Heord, II. 3. herd, custody. 

Heorra. See Hearra. 

Heort, II. 2. hart. 
Heorte, I. 3. heart. 
Heortea, Hartlepool. 
Heoru-waepen, ill. 1. mar- 
tial weapon ; from heoru, 

sword. Goth, hairus, O. 

Sax. heru, O. N. hiorr. 
Heor^-geneat, II. 2. hearth- 

(i. e. household-) retainer, 

HeortS-werod, II. l.hearth- 

(i. e. household-) band, 

fHeos (hus), house. 
Heow. See Heawan. 
tHeowe (hiw), hue, aspect. 
Her, here, hoc tempore v. 

Heran, pret. herde. 
fHerberia, harbour, lodging. 
tHerbor^^ede. See Haera- 

fHercne, hearken. 
/herde, for gehyrde. 
Here, II. 2. army, band. 
Here-byrne, II. 3. corselet, 

coat of mail. 
Here folc, II. l.anny. 
Heregeat, III. 1. heriot, mi- 
litary equipment, weapon. 
Herenes, praise. 
Here-pa^, II. 2. army-path, 

military road. 
Here-reaf, II. 1. military 

Here-toga, general, leader, 

dux ; from teon. Ger. 

Herzog, Dan. Hertug. 
Here-waet^a, leader, general. 
Hergian, to harry, ravage, 




Hergung, harrying^ ravage, 

Herian, to praise. 

Herige, II. 2. i. q. here, 
army. See Warton, H. 
E. P. i. p. lxxiii.ed.1840. 


fHeri^en (hergian), to make 
war, harry, lay waste. 

G^ehernes, hearing. 

G^ehersumnes, obedience. 

Herung, praise. 

Het. See Hatan. 

Hete, II. 2. hate. 

fHett, contr. for he itt. 

Hettan, to hunt, persecute. 
Ger. hetzen. 

Hi, they, them, her. 

Hiabenlic, E. Angl. for heo- 

Hicgan, to strive, meditate, at- 
tempt. Hicgan to handum, 
to strive hand to hand ? 

Hider, hither. 

Hierosolim-waru, inhabit- 
ants of Jerusalem. 

Hig, they, them. See Hi. 

Hig, II. 1. hay. 

Hig, 0/ 

Higdi-fget, III. 1. calidile. 
Gr. 88. 

Hige, II. 2. mind, thought. 

Hige-rof, magnanimous. 

Higo, family, domestics. 

Higum, for hfwum. See 
Hi wan. 

tHi^ing, haste. From higian. 

Hiht, II. 2. hope. 

Hild, II. 3. war, battle. 

fllilomp, for ilomp. See 

Hilt, II. l.hilt. 

Him, to them. Gr. 137. 

Hindergep, wily, subtle, ver- 

Hine, ace. masc. him. Gr. 

fHine, for in. 

Hingrian, i. q. hyngrian. 

Hin-sit5, II. 2. departure, 

Hio, for heo. 

Hioua, for hfwena. 

Gehfran. See Gehyran. 

fHird, for hired. 

Hirdraeden, II. 3. charge, 

fHire, her. 

Hired, II. 2. family, convent. 

Hired-cniht, 1 retainer, vas- 

Hired-man, / sal, domes- 

Hireman. See Hyrigman. 

His, his, its. Gr. 137. 


Hfw, 11.2. hue, species, aspect, 
form, guise. 

Hfwan, jAuT. family , persons 
living together as in a 
monastery, also domestics. 

Gehiwian, to appear, feign, 
have semblance. 

Hfvvise, II. S? family. 

Hfwraeden, II. 3. house, fa- 

Hfwscipe, society, family, 

Hladan, pret. hlod, to draw 
(water), haurire. 

Hlaefdig,II. 3. lady, thequeen 
of the W. Saxons thus 


Gr. 137. 



called. (See Lappenberg's 
England under the An- 
glo-Saxon Kings, i. p.274. 
Engl, transl.) 

Hlffist, II. 2. load, lading. 

Gehlaestan, to load; pp. 

Hlaf, II. 2. loaf, bread. 

Hlaford, II. 2. lord, master. 

Hlafordleas, lordless. 

Hlanc, lank. 

G^ehleapan, 3 -hlypS, pret. 
-hleop, to leap, mount. 

Hlemman, pret. [hlam], pi. 
hlummon, to sound, re- 

Hleo, III. 3 ? 1 shade, shel- 

HleovvS, II, 3. J ter, refuge. 
Gr. 103. 

Hleojjor, III. 1 ? sound, 

G^ehlid, covered ; from ge- 
hlidan, to cover. Hence 
our lid. 

Hlihhan, pret. hloli, pp. hlo- 
gon, to laugh. 

Hlfsa,y«/we, reputation, ru- 

Hlisful, celebrated, famous. 

Hloh. See Hlihhan. 

Hlosnian, to wait for. 

Hlude, loudly. 

¥L\\xiie.v, pure, clear, simple. 
Ger. lauter. 

Gehhd, II. 1. tumult, noise. 

(7ehiyd. See Gehlid. 

Hlydan, to make a noise, 

Hlynian, to make a tumult. 

Hlystan, ^ to hear, heark- 

G^ehlystan, J en, listen. 

G^ehlywan, to cover, shelter. 

Hnet, Nor. for net. 

Hnoll, II. 2. crown of the 

Hogian, to think, care, de- 

Hohful, sad, contemplative. 

fHol (hul), whole, sound. 

Hold, faithful. 

tHold (eald), old. 

fHoldian (ealdian), to grow 

Holdrseden, II. 3. fidelity, 
devotion, kindness. 

H oldscipe, fidelity. 

Holian, to hollow, excavate. 

Holm, Holm in Norfolk, 
near Hunstanton. 

Holt, II. 1. holt, ivood. Ger. 

fHom (ham), home. 

tHoncuJ)(uncuS), unknown:, 

Hopian, to hope. 

Hordr^den, II. 3. custody, 
guardianship, charge. 

Horithi, a people to the east 
of the Dalamensan. 

Horn-boga, horned-bow. 

Hors, II. 1. horse. 

Horse, valiant. 

Hors-hwael, II. 2. horses 
whale, walrus. 

Horn, III. \. filth, sordes. 

Hosp, II. 2. insult, con- 

f/hote (gehaten), called. 

tllojjt (owiht), aught. See 

Hoxen, Hoxne, in Suffolk, 
near Diss, whefi^e Bad- 



mund^ king of the E. An- 
gles, was cruelly slain by 
the Danes. 

Hraeding, hurry, haste. 

Hraedlic, quick, sudden. 

Hraedlice, speedily, soon. 

Hraegl, II. 1 . garment, swad- 
dling band, rail, as in 

Hr^n, II. 2. raindeer. 

Hraevv, II. 2. dead carcase. 
Hraew, for hrsewas, occurs 
in the plur. See HaeleS, 

Hran, II. 2. whale. 

HraSe, quickly, soon. 

Hream, II. 2. scream, cry. 

Hreaw. See Hreow. 

Hreconlice (reconlice), Nor. 
for hraedlice, forthwith. 



Hreofl, II. 2. 1 

Hreofla, J 

Hreoflig, leprous. 

Hreofnys, roughness, lepro- 

Hreoh. See Hreow. 

Hreosan, pret. hreas,2 hrure, 
pi. hruron, pp. gehroren, 
to rush, fall. Gr. 251. 

II. 2. raven. 

Hrepan, to touch. 

Hrel^er, II. 2. mind, breast, 

Hricg, II. 2. back. 
Hrfnan, pret. hran, pi. hri- 

non, to touch ; gov. genit. 


Hring, II. 2. ring. 
Hring-loca, ringed inclosure 

or envelope, coat of mail. 
HriSer, III. L ox. 
Hri^ian, to be sick of fever, 

G^ehroden, adorned. From 

hreodan ? See Cod. Ex- 

on. p. 521. 
Hrof, II. 2. roof, top, sum- 
mit, covering. 
G^ehroren. See Hreosan. 
Hryman, to cry. 
Hryre, II. 2. rush, fall; 

from hreosan. 
HrySer. See HriSer. 
Hti, how. 

fHude (hyd), hide, shin. 
Hugende, for hogende or 

hicgende. See Hogian. 

Sti^-hugende, sternly bent. 
tHuie, p. 158, 1. 21 ? 
Hula, what ! 
Humeta, how. 
Hund, II. 2. hound, dog. 

Ger. Hund. 
Hund, II. 1. hundred. Gr. 

Hund-eahtatlg, eighty. 
Hund-seofantig, seventy. 
Hund-twelftig, hundred and 

Hungrig, hungry. 
Hunig, II. 1. honey. 
Hunig-swet, sweet as honey. 
tHunne, hinna (heona), 

Hunstanes-tun, Hunstanton, 

on the N. W, point of 

Hunta, hunter. 

M 2 



Huntat5, II. 2. the occupation 

of hunting, 
Huntian, to hunt. 
Huntnold, hunting ; pro- 
bably an error for hunt- 

ung or huntna'S. 
Huntung, hunting, chase, 

game, quarry. 
Hup-seax, II. 1. hip-knife, 

short sword; so called 

from being borne on the 

Hure, for huru. 
Huru, moreover, chiefly, at 

least, saltern, quidem. 
Huru-])inga, at least, at all 

Hus, Vz. 
Htis, II. 1. house. 
Husel, husl, II. 1. housel, 

eucharist. Goth. Hunsl, 

Huxlice, shamefully, un- 
worthily, contemptuously. 
Hwa, ivho, any one^ quis- 

G^ehwa, each, every one. 
Hw^l, II. 2. whale. Gr. 

Hwsel-hunta, whale-hunter. 
Hwsene, ace. of hwa, whom, 

each, every, any one. Gr. 

Hwaenne, when. 
Hwaer, where. 
(rehwaer, "1 

f/hwaer, \ everywhere. 
f/war, J 
Hwset, what, why, anything, 

somewhat, quid, lo ! yes! 

hwaet la, well ! so J hwaet 

pa, well, thereupon. Thiy 
use of hwaet is hardly 
translatable. See Grimm, 
D. G. iv. pp. 448-450. 

Hwsete, II. 2. v)heat. 

Hwaeten, wheaten. 

Hwaetlic, quick. 

H\v3eJ>er, if, whether ? num ? 

Hwaejjer ....]>&, whether 
. ... or. 

Hw3e])ere, yet, still, notwith- 
standing. Hwae})ere-)?eah, 

G^ehw8e])er, either, both. 

Hwam, dat. of hwa. Gr. 

Hwanon, whence. 

H weal fa, vault, arch. It. 
adj. vaulted, arched, con- 

Hwearfade (p. 153) for 
wearpade (wearp) ? 

Hwearfum, in turn, one after 

Hwemm, II. 2. corner, 

Hwene, a little. 

Hweol, III. 1. wheel. 

Hweorfan, hwyrfan, pret. 
hwearf, pi. hwurfon, to re- 
turn, turn, convert. 

Hwf, why. 

Hwiccia, the country now 
forming the diocese of 

Hwfl, II. 3. while, time, 

Hwilc. See Hwylc. 

G^ehwilc, each, every, every 

Hwflon, whilom, once, for- 
merly, sometimes, 

Hwistlung, whistling. 



Hwft, white. Dan. Hvid. 
Hwon, for hwam, why, as 

J»on for ]>am. Gr. 147- 
Hwon, a little, somewhat, 

Hwonlice, little. 
Hwonon. See Hwanon. 

Hwfdet }«'*'''*''•■ 

Hwylc, an?/ one, what, which, 

Crehwylc. See Gehwilc. 

Hwyrfan. 1 See Hweor- 

(?ehwyrfan. J fan. 

Hycgan. See Hicgan. 

Hyd, II. 3. hide, ski7i, hide 
of land. 

Hyder. See Hider. 

Hygeleast, II. 3, thoughtless- 
ness, scurrility. 

Hyhst, highest, greatest. Gr. 
p. 51. 

Hyht. See Hiht. 

Hyht-giefu, III. 3. joyful 


Hyht-wyn, II. 3. joy of 

Hyld, II. 3. 1 fidelity, fa- 
(jrehyld, J vour, grace, 

Hyldo, hyldu, III. 3. grace, 

favour, fidelity, homage. 

Gr. 103. 
Hylt. See Healdan. 
Hynan, to insult, spoil, in- 
jure. Ger. hohnen. 
Hyngrian, v. impers. with 

ace. of person, to hunger. 

Ger. sich hungern. 

HynS, II. 3. 1 injury, op- 
HynSu, III. 3. J probrium, 

insult, loss. 
Hyr, II. 3. hire, wages. 
Hjra, their. Gr. 137- 


G^ehyran, to belong. Ger. 

Hyrde, II. 2. shepherd, pas- 
tor, keeper. Ger. Hirt. 

Hyrdeman, 1II.2. herdsman, 

Hyre, her. Gr. 137. 

Hyrian, to hire. 

Hyrigman, III. 2."] hireling, 

Hyrling, II. 2. > labour- 

Hyrman, III. 2. J er. 

Hyrned, horny ; whence 
hyrned-nebba, with horny 
nib or beak, an epithet of 
the eagle. 

Hyrre, higher; comp. of 
heah. Gr. p. 51. 

Hyrst, II. 3. ornament. 

G^ehyrsum, obedient. Ger. 

Hyrsumian, 1 to obey,fol- 

Gehyrsumian, J low. 

Hysse, hyse, II. 2. youth, 

(rehywian. See Gehfwian. 

Hyxlice. See Huxlice. 

fl (hi), they. 
\1, in. Dan. i. 
Ic, /. Gr. 137. 
Idel. SeeYdel. 



Idel, idleness. 

Ides, 11. S. woman. 

Igl, il, yl, II. 2. porcupine. 
Ger. Igel. 

Igland, II. \. island. 

flhwaer (gehwser), every- 

II, II. 2. sole of the foot. 

lie, 5«w2e. See Ylc. 

Ilfing, the river Elbing, on 
which the town of that 
name stands. 

In, inn, inn^ house. 

In-becuman, to come in. See 

inbryrdnes, feeling, com- 

Inc, dual, you two. Gr. 137. 

Inca, cause, sake, ill-will. 

Incund, internal. 

•}-Ine, for hine. 

In-eode, went in. See Gan. 

Infeer, entrance, entry. 

In-faran, to enter. See Fa- 

In-forlsgtan, to admit. 

Ingehyd, ingehygd, III. 1. 
intention, knowledge, con- 
science, signification. 

In-gewadan, to enter, pene- 
trate. See Wadan. 

Ingong, II. 2. entrance. Ger. 

Inl^dan, to lead in, conduct. 

Inlffian, to live in, or for. 

Inn. See In. 

Innan, 1 .^, . 

Inne, j ^^^^^^- 

Inneweard, inside, intestines. 
At p. 119, 1.4, we should 

1. iron. 

perhaps read inneweard- 

InnoS, II. 2. inside, womb, 
pi. intestines. 

flnntill, into. Dan. indtil. 

Insettan, to institute, esta- 

Intinga, cause, sake, fault, 
thing. See Inca. 

Into, into. 

Inweard, i. q. Inneweard. 

Inwid, guileful, treacherous, 

lob, Jove. 

flradmon (hired-man), do- 
mestic, follower. 

Iren, 1 ,. 

Isen, / ^^• 

Isaland, II. 1. Iceland. The 
MS. of Orosius reads Ira- 
land (Ireland), by which 
J. R. Forster, in his geo- 
graphical commentary, 
supposes Scotland to be 

. intended. 

Isen, adj. of iron. 

f/sen (geseon), to see. 

Isene-smiS, II. 2. iron-smith. 

Isern, iron. It. adj. of iron, 

Ispaniae, Spain. 

lu, long ago, of old, of yore. 

ludeisc, Jewish, Jew. 

flueore, together. 


luncer, II. 2. younker ; used 
apparently as the Ger. 
Junker, a young noble- 



lung, i. q. geong. 

flvvar (gehwser), every- 

Iwih, Nor. for eow. 
ISacige, Ithaca. 

Kalcacester, " Calcaria An- 
tonini, hodie Tadcas- 
TER," — Camden. Or 

Newton Kyme, according 
to Dodsworth, Gale, and 
Gibson; or, "juxta MS. 
Ingleby, Aberforth" — 

Kanon, canon. 

fKanunnk, canon. ^ 

Kasere, II. 2. emperor. Ger. 

Kempa, cempa, champion^ 
soldier. Ger. Kampfer, 
Dan. Keemper. 

Kene, i. q. cene. 

Kimc5, for cymt5. 

fKine-lond (cyne-lond), 1 

tKine-rice (cyne-rfce), j 

fKine-feod, kingdom. 

Kining, i. q. cyning. 

Kirke, Circe. 

KiS, for cyt5. See Cy]?an. 

tKi]?e]?J) (cy6), showeth^ ma- 
nifesteth ; from cypan. 

Kynelice, in a kingly man- 

Kyngc, kyng, II. 2. i. q. cy- 

Kyrtel, II. 2. kirtle, coat. 

La, lo! behold! O! La 

livvaet, behold! 
Lac, II. 1 . gift, offering. 
Lad, II. 3. exculpation. 
fLad, for laS. 
Lad, II. 3. way. 
fLadaest, for lat^ost, superl. 

of \m. 

fLade]?]?, to lade, take up 
ivith a ladle; from hladan. 

fLadlic, for laSlic. 
G^elasccan, pret. -lashte, to 
take, seize. 

L^ce, II. 2. leech, physician. 
Dan. Laege. 

Ldece-wyrt, II. 3. medicinal 
plant or herb, medica- 

Laecgen, E. Angl. for lec- 


G'el^dan, / Isedde, to lead, 
bring. Gr. 207. 

Laedder, II. 3. ladder. 

Laefan, to leave. 

filaefe (geleafa), belief, 

Laeg. See Licgan. 

Laegde. See Lecgan. 

fLaei, for laeg, lay. 

Laeland, Laaland, one of the 
Danish isles in the Bal- 

fLaen (lean), reward. 

G^elaendon, E. Angl. for ge- 
landodon ; from gelan- 
dian, to land. 

Laengu. See Lengu. 

"1 3 p. he last, pret. 



L^ran, to leaeh, instruct 
Ger. lehreii, Dan. leere. 

/Idered, learned. Ger. ge- 
lehrt. Other instances of 
the prefix I for Ge in the 
homily 'In Natale S. Ead- 
mundi,' it is superfluous 
to notice. 

Laerig, p. 140, line 6? So 
Caedmon, " ofer linde lae- 
rig," p. ] 92, 1. 29. 

Lass, ]?y-laes, lest. 

Laesing, \ediS\xng, falsehood. 

La;ssa, laesse, comp. of lytel. 
Gr. p. 51. 

Laest, /ms^; superl. of lytel, 
little. Gr. p. 51. 

G^elaestan, to perform, exe- 
cute, give, pay^ last. Ger. 

Laesu, III. 1. leasow, pas- 
ture. Gr. 95. 

Laeswian, to feed on a leasow, 

Last, late, recent, slow. 

Laetan, pret. let, to let, leave, 
dismiss, suffer, cast (a 

f Laetenn (laetan), to think. 

Laewed, laical, ignorant, 

LaeS, hate, harm, ill. 

fLaeSes (laSost), most hate- 

Laf, II. 3. remainder, resi- 

Laford, for hlaford. 

Lagu, III. 2. water, 

Lagu-stream, II. 2. water- 

f/la^ed (gelaSod), loathed, 
hated ; from la^ian. 

Lah, low. 

Lah (laS), hateful. 

fLaichen, laugh? 

Lam, II. 3 ? loam, clay. 

Lam, lame. 

Lamb, II. 1. lamb. 

(jelamp. See Gelimpan. 

Lampred«, lamprey, mu- 

Land, II. 1. land, country. 

Land-buende, land-inhabit- 
ant. Gr. 118. 

Land-folc, II. 1. land-folk, 
country -people. 

Land-gem^re, III. I. fron- 

fLanen (Idenan), to lend. 

Lang, long, tall. Lange, 
adv. long. Ger. lange. 

fLang, (gelang); languppo, 
(to be) long of, incum- 
bent on. 

Langaland, Langeland ; one 
of the Danish isles in the 
Baltic, lying between Fyen 
(Fionia) and Laaland. 

Langsum, long, tedious, slow, 

Langsumnes, length, tedious- 

Lar, II. 3. lore, learning, 
doctrine, counsel. See 

Lareow,II. 2. teacher, doctor, 

Larspell, IL l.&n.3?*cr- 
mon, homily, doctrinal 

Last, II. 2. footstep, track. 



fLast, last. 

f/laste (gelaeste), lasted. 
Late, slow, slowly, at length. 
Lator, corap. of last and late. 
Latteow (ladteow), i. e. lad- 

f eow, II. 2. guide, general^ 

Laue, for lafe. See Laf. 
fLauerd (hlaford), lord. 
LaS, hostile, hateful. 
fLapfol, lawful. 
G^elaSian, to call together, 

invite. Ger. einladen. 
LaSlic, loathly, hateful, 
<rdaj)ting, congregation, 

church. See GelaSian. 
tLeadest (laSost), loathest, 

most hateful. 
Leaf, I. 3. leave. 
Leaf,n. l./e«/. Gr. 67. 
(jeleafa, 56/26/*. Ger.Glaube, 

Ohg. galauba. See Ly- 

LeafFul, 1 believing, faith- 
G^eleafFul,/ ful. 
Leahter, II. 2. crime, sin. 
Leap, II. 2. basket, trunk, 

Leas, lying, fabulous. 
Leas, -less in comp., void, 

Leasu. See Laesu. 
Leasung, leasing, falsehood. 
Leat. See Lutan, 
Leax, II. 2. salmon. Ger. 

Lachs, Dan. Lax. 
Lecgan, pret. lede (laegde), 

pp. geled, to lay, place. 
Lecnian, to heal, 
(reled. See Lecgan. 
Leden, Latin. 

fLef (leof), dear, agreeable, 
G^elefan, i. q. gelyfan. 
fLefenn (gelyfan), to believe. 
/legd, laid, for geled. See 

Lege, lay, imperat. ; from 

lecgan. Gr. 214. 
Leger, II. 2 ? lying. 
Leger-bedd, II. 1. bed, sick- 
G^elegerian, to confine to a 

Legia, legion. 
fLe^e (leogan), to lie. 
tLehter(hleahtor), laughter. 
Leir-chestre, and Lef-ches- 

tre, Leicester. 
fLeiuedi (hlaefdige), lady. 
Lendenu, loins, plur. III. 1. 

Gr. 92. Ger. Lenden. 
G^elendian, gelaendian, to 

endow {with land), land, 

fLene (laenan), to lend, 

grant; from laenan, to 

lend, bestow on. 
Leng, longer ; comp. of lang. 

Lengcten, Lent, spring. 
Lengu, 11. 3. length. 
Leo, gen. leones, II. 2. lion, 

Ger. Lowe, Dan. Love. 
Leod, II. 3. people, province. 
Leod-bisceop, II. 2. svffra^ 

gan bishop- ^ 
Leod-h^ta, commander of 

fLeod-quide (-cwyde), vul- 
gar speech. 
Leof, beloved, dear, pleasing^ 

dilectus, carus. 
M 5 



Leofian, lybban, 1 p. lybbe, 
2 leofast, 3 leofaS, pi. lyb- 
bat5, pret. leofode, etc., to 
live. Gr. 212. 

tLeofliche (leoflice), dearly, 

Leoht, II. 1. light. Ger. 

Leoht, adj. light, easy. Ger. 

Leoht-fast, III. 1. light-vat, 

Leohtlic, light, clear, plain. 

tLeom (leoma), beam, ray. 

Leom. See Lim. 

Leoma, beam, ray. 

Leon, II. 2 & 3 ? lion, lioness. 

Leoran, "I to depart, mi- 

GeleorsLB, j grate. 

Leornere, II. 2. learner, dis- 

G^eleornes, departure, death. 

Leornian, 1 

Geleornian, J 


Leorninff, 1 ; 

y ° > Learmnq. 

Leornung, J ^ 

Leorning-cniht, II. 2. disci- 

Leotan, pret. leat, pi. luton, 
to bow, incline. Gr. 250. 

LeoS, II. 1. song, poem. O. 
N. Lio«, Ger. Lied. 

Leot5-crseft, II. 2. art of 

LeoSian, teasing. 

Leo'51ic, poetic, songlike. 

Leo'S-song, II. 2. song, 

Leo])u, ship. O. N. licS ? 

tLesing (leasung), leasing, 

fLeste, give, ascribe ? from 

laestan ? 
Letania, litany. 
G'elettan, to let, hinder; gov. 

genit. of thing. 
fLeue, leave. 

f/leue (gelyfan), to believe. 
fLeuere, leouere (leofra), 

Lejjer, II. 3 ? leather. 
LeJ)er-hosa, II. 3. leather 

hose, caligae ; probably 

used in the pi. only, like 

the Ger. Hosen, 
Libban. See Leofian. 
Libbende, living. Gr. 118. 
Libgende, E. Angl. for Iffi- 

Lfc, II. 1. corpse, body. 

Ger. Leich, Dan. Liig. 
Ge\\c, like, equal. Ger. 

G^elica, like, equal, 
G^elfce, in like manner. 
Licettan, to feign, pre- 

Licetung, hypocrisy. 
Licgan, 3 lihS (lit5), pret. 

Iseg, to lie, to run, flow 

(as a river), Gr. 229. 
Lichama, body, 
Lichamlic, bodily. 
Lfcian, 1 to like ; also im- 
G^elfcian, j pers. to please, 

be pleased, take pleasure, 
G^elfcnys, likeness, image, 
Licuralic. See Lichamlic. 
Lrc-J>rowere, II. 2. bodily 

sufferer, leper, 




Lif, II. 1. life; be lyfon, 
alive, surviving. 

Lifer, II. 3. liver, 

LiHaestan, 1 to vivify, 

(jelffFaestan, j quicken. Gr. 

Lffian, to live. 

Lifian (hlifian), to tower. 

Lifigende, living ; from li- 

Lfflic, lively, living. 

Ligetu, III. 3. lightning. 

tLi3en (leogan^, to lie. 

Lihtan, \^to alight, de- 

6^elihtan, J scend. 

Lihting, lighting, illumina- 

Lihtlice, lightly, easily ; su- 
perl. lihtlicost(lihtlucost). 

Likie. See Lfcian. 

lAm,lll.l.limb. Gr. 93. 
Lun, II. 2 ? lime, glue. Ger. 

Leim, Dan. Liim. 
Oelirap,II. \. accident, event, 

G^climpan, pret. -lamp, pi. 

-lumpon, to happen. 
(jelimplic, fitting, proper ; 

^Q\\m^\\Q.e, fittingly, etc. 
Lind, II. 3. linden or lime 

tree ; It. buckler made of 

the wood of the linden. 

Gram. pref. p. xliii. note. 
Lindisfarnea, Lindisfarne, 

Holy Island. 
Lind-wiggende, shielded 

warrior. Gr. 118. 
Liss, II. 3. ease, comfort, fa- 

List, liest ; from licgan. 

Listum, craftily, skilfully. 

Litel, little. 

Litlincg, II. 2. little one. 

Liue, i. q. Iffe. 

Lit$. See Licgan. 

IM, soft, pleasant, delicate, 
mild, tender, gentle, kind. 

Lit5an, pret. Iat5, pi. li^on, to 
travel, go, navigate, go in 
a ship; lit^ende men, ma- 

lA^eh\ge., flexible, supple. 

G^eliSian, to relieve, miti- 

Locc, II. 2. lock, capillus. 

/Idced, looked, seen ; for ge- 
loced. See Ldcian. 

Locian, to look, see. 

Locu, III. 2. pen, fold. 

Lof, II. I. praise. Ger. Lob. 

fLofenn (lotian), to praise. 
Ger. loben. 

Lof-sang, II. 2. hymn; in 
pi. laudcs. 

Logian, 1 to frame, com- 

(xelogian, J pose, mend, 
place, dispose. 

Lokien, for locian. 

GeXGme, often, frequently, in 
quick succession. 

G^elomlice, frequently. 

fLomp. 1 

G^elomp. > See Gelimpan. 

t^elomp. J 

Lond-folc, 11. l.^icountry- 

Lond-leod, II. 3. J people. 

Long, long. 

Longlice,ybr a long time. 

Lopystre, lobster, polypus. 
It. locust. 



Lor. See Lar. 

Losian, to lose. It. to be lost, 

fLoue (lufu), love. 
fLouerd (hlaford), lord, 
Lucan, pret. leac, pi. lucon, 

to lock, shut up. 
fLude (hlude), loudly. 
Luf, IL 3. 1 love. Should 
Lufe, L 3. J correctly be 

fLufenn (lufian), to love. 
Lufian, to love; gelufod, 

Luflic, dear, not cheap; lu- 

flice, kindly. 
Luftyme, grateful. 
Lufu, in. 3. love. 
Lunden, London. 
Lu ngre, forthwith. 
Lust, II. 2. lust, desire, joy ; 

on lustum, in joy. 
'Lusthasr, joyful, eager, glad. 

Ger. lustbar. 
(jelustfullian, to delight. 
Lustlic, glad, joyful. 
Lustlice,//-ee/?/, gladly. 
Lutan, pret. leat, pi. luton, 

to stoop, incline. 
f Lutel, little. 
Lutian, to lurk, latere. 
tLuuede (leofode), lived. 
Lybban. See Leofian. 
Lyblac, II. 1 ? sorcery. From 

lyb, Ohg. luppi, maleji- 

cium; luppon, medicare, 

Mhg. liippen, venenare. 

Hence Ger. verluppt, en- 
Lyden, Latin. 
Lyf. SeeLff. 

Lyfan, 1 to allow, believe* 

G^elyfan, J Goth, and Ohg, 
galaubjan. Ger. glauben. 

6relyfed, orthodox, mature 
{of age^, provectior aetate. 

Lyft, II. 3. air, cloud, Ger. 
& Dan. Luft. 

Lyhtan, to shine, light. 

Lyre, II. 2. loss. 

Lysan, to loose, redeem, save, 

Lyst, II. 3? lust, desire, plea- 
sure ; on lyst wesan, to be 

Lystan, 1 to lust, desire, 

G^elystan, j please ; with 
genit. of thing. 

Lytegian, to use craft. 
Lythwon, little, parum, 

small number. 
Lytig, cunning, vafer. 
Lytlian, to grow little, de- 


Ma, more. Gr. p. 51. 
(reraacian, to make. 
Madm, II. 2. horse, gelding 

(See Cod. Exon. p. 522), 

treasure in general. Mhg. 

Madm-hus, II. 1. treasury. 
Maeden, III. 1 . maiden. 
Maeg, II. 2. man, parent, 

kinsman. Gr. 70. 
Maeg. See Magan. 
Maege, I. 3. kinswoman. 
MaBgen, III. 1. mairiy 

strength, efficacy, power, 

virtue, faculty. 



Maegen-eacen, increased in 

M8egen-])rymnys, majesty. 

G^emaegnde, for gemengde. 
See Mengen. 

Maegnian, to strengthen ? 

MaegS, II. 3. generation^ 
tribe, province. 

Maegt5, II. 3. maid, damsel. 
P. 145, 1. 52, maegS in pi. 
for maegt^a, perhaps on ac- 
count of the verse. 

MaegSalond, the Polish pro- 
vince of Mazovia ? 

MaegShad, maidenhood, vir- 

M^l, III. \. picture, image; 
Cristes m^l, crucifix. 

M^l, III. 1. time. Fr. fois, 
Ger. Mai. 


Mdeled, p. M8, line 45? 

M^nan, to moan, bewail, 
complain. It. to mean. 
Ger. meinen. 

G^em^ne, comrrion. Ger. 

Gem^nelice, in common. 

Maenig, many. Gr. 163. 

Maenigeo. See Menigu. 

M^nigfeald, manifold. 

G^em^nigfealdan, to multi- 

G^era^nsumnes, communion. 

G^em^rian, to magnify, ho- 

M^re, great, large, grand, 
renowned. Gr. 384. 

G^em^re, III. 1. boundary, 

Maerigen, for mergen. 

Mdersian, "I to magnify, 

G^em^rsian, j exalt, ho- 


M^r^, II. S. greatness, glory. 

Massse, I. 3. mass. 

Maesse-daeg, II. 2. mass-day. 

Ma;sse-preost, II. 2. mass- 

Maesse-reaf, II. \. mass-vest- 

Maest, almost. 

Masstlingc, II. 1. brass, lat- 
ten, orichalcum. Ger. & 
Dan. Messing. 

Mae6, II. 3. condition, lot, 
dignity, credit, capacity, 

Magan, J?u miht, pret. mihte, 
or meahte, to may, can, be 
able, posse. Gr. 218. 

Magas, pi. of Masg. 

G^emaglic, importunate. 

G^emagnys, importunity. 

Mago-J^egn, II. 2. kindred- 

tMaehht, "1 . ,, 

tMahht, l^^^'^^- 

fMain (maegen), »0M7er. 

fMainen (m^nan), to men- 
tion, complain of. 

tMale, mail, trunk. Fr. 

Malt, mealt, II. 1 ? malt. 

Man. See Mann. 

Man, one, any one. Ger. 
& Dan. man, Fr. on. At 
p. 84, 1. 25, man is the 
pron. ; his refers to land. 

Man, II. 1. wickedness, sin. 



crime. Ger. Mein, O. S. 

men, O. N. mein. 
Ceman. See Gemunan. 
Cemana, society, fellowship. 
Mancgere, II. 2. monger, 

Mancynn, II. I. mankind. 
Man-d^d, II. 3. evil deed. 

G^emang. See Gemong. 

Manian, 1 to exhort. Ger. 

Cemanian, J mahnen. 

Mann, III. 2. 1 man ; ge- 

Manna, J mann also 

occurs, p. 113, 1.7. 

Mann-cwealm, II. 2. pesti- 

fManschipe, "1 manhood, 

fManscipe, J male 'pro- 
geny, humanity, kindness. 

Mare, greater, more ; comp. 
ofmycel. Gr. p. 51. 

Maregen, for mergen. 

Marn, morning. 

Maroaro, the Moravians. 

Max, II. 1. net, snare, 

MaSe, moth, worm. 

from mej»el, speech, concio. 

fMaSmes (magmas), trea- 

fMe, for man. 

Meaht, II. 3. might, pmoer. 

Mear, II. 2. horse. Ohg. ma- 

Gemearcian, to mark, take 

Mear^, II. 2. marten. 

Mece, II. 2. sword, falchion, 

Med, II. 3. meed, reward; 

to medes, in reward. 
Medem, worthy, jit, meet. 
Medgilda, hireling. 
Medmicel, a little, some. 
Medo, medu. III. 2. mead. 

Gr. 96. 
Medo-burh, mead-burgh, 

city of festivity ; thus vvm- 

Medu-gal, mead-drunken. 
Medo-werig, weary with 

mead, drunk. 
Melkan, to milk. 
Melu, melo, l\l.\. meal, flour. 
fMengen (mencgan),tomm- 

gle, be confused. 
Menigfeald. See Maenig- 

Menifealdlice, manifoldly. 
Cemenigfild, multiplied; 

from gemenigfildan. 
Menigu, III. 3. multitude, 

many. Gr. 103. 
Mennisc, human, human 

race. Dan. Menneske, 

human being. 
Menniscnis, humanity, in- 
fMensk (mennisc), man, 

mankind, human. 
Meodo, meodu. See Medo. 
Meolc, II. 3. milk. 
Meore, a place on the west 

coast of Sweden. 
Meowle, I. 3. damsel. 
Mere, 11. 2. mere, lake. 
Mere-swyn, II. 1. porpoise, 

dolphin. Ger. Meer- 

schwein, Dan. Marsvin. 
Mergen (merien, merigen), 



II. 2. morn, morrow ; to 
merigen, to-morrow. Ger. 
& Dan. Morgen. 
Merigenlic, meriendlic, adj. 
morning, matutinus. 

f Met (gemet), measure. 

Met, middling ; J>a mettran 
men, men in the middle 

GemeX, III. \. measure, man- 

Metan, pret. mast, pp. ge- 
raeten, to pleasure. 

Metan, pret. mette, pp. (ge) 
met, to paint. 

Gemetan, pret. gemette, to 
find, meet; pp. gemet (ge- 
meted). Gr. 205. 

Mete, II. 2. meat, food, coena. 

G^emetegan, 1 to measure, 

G^emetegian, J moderate, 

Meten, for metan. 

/meten, measured, for ge- 
meten. See Metan. 

Gemetgung, moderation. 

Gemetlice, moderately. 

Metod, II. 2. Creator. 

Met-seax, II. i, 2, S. dagger. 

Mettrumnes, weakness, in- 

Mepel-stede, II. 2. public- 
place, place of haranguing. 

Micclum, greatly, much. 

Micel. See Mycel. 

Mid, mid. 

Mid, with. Ger. mit, Dan. 
med. Mid ealle, totally, 

Middaeg, II. 2. mid-day, 

Middan, middle; on mid- 
dan, amid. 

Middaneard, middangeard, 
II. 2. earth, world. See 
Grimm, D. M. p. 754. 

Middaneardlic, earthly. 

Middan-winter, II. 2. mid- 
winter, Christmas. 

Middeniht, III. 3. midnight. 
Gr. 106. 

Middeweard, midst, middle- 

Midmest, middlemost. 

Midwrftan, to tvrite loith. 

Mid ]?am }>e, 1 ivhen, while, 

Mid |)y, J tvhat time. 

Miht, II. 3. might, power. 

Mihte. See Magan. 

yi\\i{Q\\ce, might ly, miracu- 
lously. * 

Mihtig, ]^ mighty, extra- 

Mihtiglic, J ordinary. 

Mfl, II. 3. mile. 

fMilcea (milts), mercy, 

Milde, mild, merciful. 

Mildheorte, mild-hearted, 
merciful, tender. 

Mildheortnys, 1 mercy, com- 

Mildhertnes, J passion. 

Milts, II. 3. mercy, pity. 

Miltsian, 1 to pity, com- 

Cemiltsian, j passionate, 
be merciful. 

Miltsung, mercy, compassion, 

Mm, mine. Gr. 137. 
Minsian, to diminish, de- 
fMire, for mfnre. 
Misd^d, II. 3. misdeed. 



Mislfc, "] various, divers, 

Missenlic, > several; mist- 

Mistlic, J \ice,variousli/, 

Mislician, to displease. 

Mislicnys, misliheness, va- 
riety, diversity. 

Misweaxende, miswaxing, 

Mitta, I. 2. 1 certain mea- 

Mitte, I. 3. / sure. 

Mixen, mixen, dunghill. 

fMochul, much. 

Mod, II. 1. mood, mind, 
courage. Goth, mods, 
Ohg. mot, O. N. modr, 
Ger. Muth. 

fModdri (modrie), maternal 

Moder, modor, III. 2. mother. 
Dat. and abl. meder : plur. 
moddru occurs. Gr. 96. 

M6d-ge|)onc, II. 2. mental 
thought, counsel. 

Modi, ") moody, proud, 

Modig, / lofty, contuma- 
cious, stern. 

Modignys, moodiness, pride. 

fMod-kare (-cearu), care of 
mind, anxiety. 

Modlice, proudly. 

Molde, I. 3. mould, earth. 

Mon, i. q. man. 

MonaS-seoc, month-sick, lu- 

Gemong, multitude ; on ge- 
mong, among. 

Moni, 1 . 


Monian. See M^nian. 

Mon, i. q. man. 

Monr^den, II. 3. homage, 
submission, clientela. 

fMonshipe, i. q. manschipe. 

Monuc. See Munuc. 

MonS, II. 2. month. 

Mor, II. 2. mountain. 

Morge-mete, II. 2. morning 
meat, breakfast. 

Morgen, II. 2. morning. See 

fMonnede, 1 , 

tMornede, 7™""™''^- 

MorS, II. 1. ~\ deadly sin, 

MorSer, II. 2. j murder- 
ous deed. 

Moste, might. Gr. p. 79. 

Mot, 3 most, must, may. Gr. 

G^emot, III. \.mote, meeting, 
council, synod ; gemot 
cweSan, indicere consi- 

G^emot-ern, II. 1. moot-hall, 

fMucel (mycel), great, 

fMucheleaere \ (mycelre), 

fMuchelre J with much. 

Mulanttin, afterwards Mule- 
ton, now Moulton in Nor- 
folk, between New Buck- 
enham and Long Strat- 

G^emunan, to remember. Gr. 
218. See Gemynan. 

Mundbyrd, protection, 

G^emundbyrdan, to protect, 

SX} «-^^"'^'^- 

Mundlingham, Mundham in 



Mund, II. 3. hand. O.N. 
mund. This word, out of 
composition, seems to 
occur in the dat. pi. 

Munt, II. 2. mount. 

Munuc (monuc, munec), 
II. 2. monk. 

Munuchad, monkhood. 

Munuclic, monastic. 

Munuc-lff, II. 1. monastic 
life, monaster^/. 

Murcnung, murmuring. 

Murnan, 3 myrnt5, pret. 
mearn, pi. murnon, to 
mourn, reck. 

Musle, muscle. 

Mu«, II. 2. mouth. Gr. 

Mtifa, mouth {of a river). 
Gr. 74. 

Mycel, great, much, loud. 

Mycelnys, greatness, magni- 

Mylen, II. 3? mill; yet p. 
127, 1. 7, faet my In. 

Gemynan, to bear in mind, 
be mindful of, remem- 

Gemynd, II. I. mind, me- 
mory ; eadig gemynd, 
blessed memory. 

Myne, II. 2. mena. 

Mynegung, admonition, ex- 

Mynetere, II. ^. money- 
changer ; from my net, 
money ; hence our mint. 
Ger. Munze, Dan. Mynt. 

G^emyngian, to remember, 
meditate, admonish. 

Mynster, III. 1. minster, mo- 

Mynsterlic, monastic. 

/mynt, appointed; for ge- 
mynt. See Myntan. 

Myntan, to suppose, resolve, 
intend, appoint, decree ; 
pp. gemynt. 

Myrce, Mercian. 

Myre, I. 3. mare. 

MyrhS, II. 3. mirth, joy. 

Myrre, myrrh. 

Myse, I. 3. table. 

Myslycian. See Mishfcian. 


Na, not, none. Gr. 418, 

Nabban, 3 naefS, pret. naefde, 

to have not. 
Nacod, naced, naked. 
f Nadde. See Nauede. 
Naeddre, I. 3. serpent. Hilde 

naeddran, war -serpents, 

arrows. Ger. Natter. 
Need], II. 3. needle. Ger. 

Naedre. See Naeddre. 
Naefdon, for ne haefdon. See 

Nabban. Gr. 216. 
Naefre, never. 
Naegel, II. 2. nail. 
Naenig, not any, none. 
Naeron, for ne waeron. Gr. 

Nees, for ne vvaes. Gr. 233. 
Naes, not. 
Nah, for ne ah. See Agan. 



Naht, naught. 
Nahte, for ne ahte. 

I^ an war, J 

Nalaes, not, not the less; 

nalaes j^aet an, 7iot that 

Nam, Nor. for neom. 
Nama, name. 
Nam-cu6, hnown hy name, 

G^enamian, to name. 
Nan, no, none. 
fNan, anon. 
Nanuht, naught; for nan- 

Nanwyht, naught, nothing. 
Nast, for ne wast. See VVi- 

tan. Gr. 218. 
Nat, for ne wat. 
Nates-hwon, by no means, 

not at all. 
fNauede (naefde), had not. 
fNauyt (nawiht), naught. 
Nawar. See Nahwasr. 
Na^er, neither. 
:Se,not; p. 152, I. 30, for 

G^eneadian, to force. 
Neah, nigh, near, nearly. 
Geneahhe, 1 enough, abun- 
G^enehe, J dantly. Ger. 

Nealaecan, 1 pret. -laehte 
G^enealaecan, J (nealecte), 

to approach, draw near. 

Gr. 208, 253. 
Near, nearer; comp. of 

neah. Gr. p. 51. 
Nearolice, narrowly, closely, 


> nephew. 

Neat, II. 1. neat, ox, beast. 
G^eneat, II. 2. enjoyer, sharer, 

retainer ; from neotan. 

Eald-geneat, aged vassal. 

Ger. Genoss. 
Neawest, neighbourhood. 
Neb, nib, face. 
Nedbrice, II. 2. need, want, 

Ned|>earfnes, iieed, necessity. 
Nefa, ~ 

Neh. See Neah. 
G^enehe. See Geneahhe. 
Nehst, last. See Next. 
Nellan. See Nyllan. 
Nembra^, Nimrod. 
Nemlice, namely, indeed, 


Nemnan, 1 . 7, 

^ . > to name, call. 

Genemnian, J 

fNemni (nemnian), to 

Neod, II. 3. need, necessity, 
violence, opus. For neode, 

Neod]?earf, needful. 

Neom, for ne eom. Gr. 

Neorxena wang, II. 2. para- 

Neosan, 1 to seek, visit ; 

Neosian, > often gov.gen. 

G^eneosian, J of thing. 

Neosung, 1 visit, visita- 

Geneosung, J tion. 

Neotan, pret. neat, to enjoy, 

Neowelnaes, 1 abyss, hell, 

Neowelnys, j bottom, low- 
est part. 



fNeowene (nivvan), newly, 

Neo]}e\veard, 1 netherward, 

Neo)7ewerde, j down, 

downward, below. 

Nergend, II. 2. Saviour, 
Preserver, God. Gr. 118. 

G^enerian, to save, deliver. 

Nes, for ne is. 

Nest, II. 1. nest. 

Nest, II. 3. food, provision. 
O. N. nesti. 

Nett, II. 1. net. 

tNewenn, now, at present? 

fNewest (neawest), proxi- 
mity, vicinity. 

Next, last, nearest, neigh- 

NeSan, to venture, dare. 
Goth. nan]?ian. 

Nic, not I ; contr. for ne ic. 

Nied. See Neod. 

Nfg-hworfen, newly convert- 
ed. See Hweorfan. 

NigoSa, ninth. 

Niht, III. 3. night. Gr. 106. 

Nihtes, by night. Gr. 108. 
Ger. nachts. 

Nilit-sang, II. 2. night-song, 
compline, completorium. 

6renihtsumlice, sufficiently. 
Dan. noksom. 

Niht-waecce, I. 3. night- 

Nfraan, 1 pret. nam, to 

G^enfman, j take, get, meet. 

fNiraan (niimn), to arrange, 

f Nime (nfman), to take. 

Nis, for ne is. Gr. 233. 

Nivv, neiv. 


Niwelnis. See Neowelnaes. 

G^cniwian, to renovate. 

NiS, II. 2. evil, malice, envy, 

NiSe-rof, famed for evil. 

NiSer, down. 

Nifer-stfgan, to descend. 
. See Stfgan. 

NiSfull, malignant, envious. 

NiS-heard, hardened in ini- 

G^eni(51a, enemy. 

No, no, not. 



Noht, naught, not. 

Nolde. See Nyllan. 

Noma. See Nama. 

Non, II. 2. non£s, nona (ho- 
ra), the last canonical hour 
before sunset. 

Non-mete, 11. 2. noon-meat, 

Non-tfd, II. 3. noontide. 

NorS, north, northwards, be 
norSan, to the north of. 

Norman, north, from the 

NorS-dael, II. 2. north part. 

NorS-Dene, the North Jut- 
landers, the inhabitants of 
the Danish islands, and 
probably of Scania. 

NorSeweard, northward. 

^or^hymher, Northumbrian. 

NorSmen, the Norwegians. 

NorSmest, most northerly. 

NorSryhte, directly north. 

NorSweard, northward. 

NorSvvic, Norwich. 




Nds-]7irl, III. 1. nostril. 

Notian, to use, enjoy. 

tNou])e (nu-])a), now. 

Nowiht, not, naught. 

fNopt (nowiht), naught. 

Nu, 1 

XT , > now. 

Nunne, I. 3. nun. 

fNusten (nyste), knew not. 

fNute (nyte), will not know. 

Nyd. See Neod. 

Nydan, ") pret. nydde, to 

G^enydan, / force. 

Nyd})earfnys, need, want. 

Nygan (nigon), 1 

Nygon, / 

Nyllan, contr. for ne willan, 
to will not, (Lat. nolle,) 
pret. nolde. Gr. 217. 

NymSe, unless, except. 

Nys. See Nis. 

Nyste, for ne wiste. [See 

Nyten, III. 1. neat, animal, 
beast. Gr. 93. 

Nytenlic, wild, rude. 

Nytennys, ignorance, stu- 
pidity, rudeness. 

Nyton,forne witon. Gr.218. 

NytwyrSnes, utility. 

Ny8er, down. 

Ny^er-astfgan, 1 to come 

NySer-stfgan, J down. 

NySercuman, to descend. 

G^enySerian, to condemn. 


fO, one, a, any. 

to (on), in. 

Ob, E. Angl./or, of. 

Of, of, from. 

tOf, oft. 

Of-aceorfan, to cut off. See 

Of-aldedan, to lead or bring 

from. See Laedan. 
Of-anfman, to take from. 

See Nrnian. 
Ofaraesta, E. Angl. residue. 

Ger. Ueberrest. 
Of-ascreadian, to shred off, 

prune, cut off. 
Of-axian, to learn, receive 

Of-cuman, to come or spring 

from. See Cuman. 
Ofdune, down. 
Of-eode, iventfrom^ left. See 

Ofer, II. 2. shore, bank. Ger. 

Ofer, over, against, after, by. 
Ofer-baec, backwards. 
Oferbrecan, pret. -braec, to 

break, infringe. 
Ofercuman, to overcome. See 

Oferdrencan, to overdrench. 
Ofer-eaca, overplus. 
Oferfaereld, passage, transit. 
Ofer-far, II. ^. passage over, 

Oferfaran, ") to pass over. 
Oferferan, j See Faran 

and Feran. 
Ofer-fr6ren,/ro2;e/i over. See 

Ofergan, to ravage. See 

Ofer-geweorc, II. 1. upper 

work, tomb, mausoleum. 



Oferhrops, voracity. 

Ofermod, II. 1. pride, pre- 
sumption; also adj. joroMc?. 
Ger. Uebermuth. 

Oferr^dan, to read over. See 

Oferstfgan, to surpass, ex- 
ceed. See Stfgan. 

Ofer-wadan, pret. -wod, to 
wade over. 

Oferwinnan, to conquer, over- 
come. See Wirinan. 

Oferwintran, to pass the 
winter, hiemare. 

OfFrian, 1 to offer, sacri- 

Geoffnan, j Jice. 

OfFrung, offering, sacrifice. 

Ofgangan, to go forth, go 
from, proceed, require. 
See Gan. 

Oflyst, delighted. 

Ofostlice. See Ofstlice. 

Ofsceamian, to shame; of- 
sceamod, ashamed. 

Ofsceotan, pret. -sceat, pi. 
-scuton, to shoot. 

Ofsettan, to oppress, afflict. 

Ofslean, 3 p. he -slyhS, pret. 
-sloh, pp. -slegen (-sla- 
gen), to slay. 

Ofstician, 1 to stick, stab, 

Ofstikian, j slay. 

Ofstlice, "I quickly, with 

Ofstum, J haste. 

Oft, oft, often. 

Ofwundroden, for ofwun- 
drode, astonished; from 

Of}>incan, to think ill, take 
amiss, repent. See Din- 

fOfpincheS (of})incetJ), re- 

Ofjjriccan, pret. of|)rihte, to 
oppress, overwhelm. 

fO^e (agen), own. 

Oleccan, pret. olehte, to flat- 
ter, blandiri. 

Olfend, 1 II. 2. camel; 

Oluend, J though thisword, 
as well as the Goth. Ul- 
bandus, signifies correctly 
not a camel, but an ele- 

On, on, in, with, about, du- 
ring ; cum accus. into, 
by, as, on niht, by night, 
on beot, with threatening. 

On, for an, a, an. 

On-aledon, laid on. See 

Onbsec, behind. 

Onbsernan, to inflame. Gr. 

On-belsedan, to lay on, apply. 

Onb\A?m, to await; gov.gen. 

tOnbolded (unbealdod), en- 
feebled, sunk in vigour. 

Onbryrd, excited. 

Onbryrdan, to instigate, ex- 
cite, encourage, animate. 

Onbtigan, pret. -beah, pi. 
-bugon, bow, bend. 

Onburigan, to taste. 

Onbutan, about, around. 

Oncnawan, 3 -cnaewS, pret. 
-cneow, to know, under- 
stand, recognise. 

Oncwe^an, to address. 

Ond, i. q. and. 

Ondrsedan, pret. ondred, to 
dread, fear, Gr. 234. 



Often used as a reflective 
with a dative. 

Ondrsedendlic, dreadful, ter- 

Ondraeding, II. ^.dread,fear. 

fOiie, for on; also «, an, 
one, only, alone. 

On-eardian, to dwell m, in- 

Onettan, to hasten. 

Onfangennys, reception, par- 

Onfindan, to find out, dis- 
cover. See Fin dan. 

On-flote, afloat. 

Onfon, pret. onfeng, pp. on- 
fangen, to receive, take. 
(This verb often governs 
the dative.) 

Onfonde, taker, receiver. See 
Onfon. Gr. 118. 

Ongean, again, against, to- 
wards, to, over against; 
eft ongean, back again. 

Ongeat. See Ongitan. 

On-gedon, to do on or in. 
See Don. 

Ongel-feod, II. 3, English 

On-gemong, among. 

On-gesittan, to sit in. See 

Onget, for ongeat. See 

Onginnan, pret. -gan, pi. 
-gunnon, to begin, under- 
take. Gr. 242. 

Ongist, for ongytst. 

Ongitan, 1 3 -gyst, pret. 

Ongytan, J ongeat, to un- 
derstand, perceive. 

Onh^tan, act. to Jieat, in- 

Onhebban, pret. -hof, tolift, 

Onhyldan, to bend, incline. 

Onhyrian, to imitate, emu- 
late ; p. pr. onhyrgende. 

On-innan, within, among. 

Onl^dan, to lead in, bring. 

Onligan, pret. -lah (-leah), 
pi. -Wgon, to grant, bestow; 
gov. dat. of the pers. and 
gen. of the thing. 

Onlihtan, pret. -leohte, to il- 
lumine, give sight. 

Onlihting, lighting. 

Onlocian, to look on, beJwld. 

Onlutan, 3 -lyt, pret. -leat, 
pi. -luton, to bow, incline. 

fOnread (unraS), evil coun- 

Onsceotan, pret. -sceat, pi. 
-sen ton, to strike, strike in, 
cut {a furrow). 

Onscunian, to shun, reject, 

Onsendan, to send to. 

Onsfgan, pret. -sah, pi. -si- 
gon, to impend, hover over, 

Onsion, Nor. for ansyn. 

Onsittan, to sit on. See Sit- 

Onslaepan, to fall asleep. 
Ger. einschlafen. See 

Onstellan, i. q. astellan. Ger. 

On-.-und, afloat, swimming. 

On-sundron, asunder, asvde, 



On-svvymman, to swim in. 

See Svvymman. 

Ontynan, to opeyi^ reveal. 

On-ufan, 1 

^ > VTpon. over. 

On-uppon, J ^ 

Onwacan, pret. -woe, to 

Onvveald, i. q. an weald. 
Onwendan, to change. See 

Wen dan. 
Onwreon, pret. -wreah, pi. 

-wrugon, to reveal^ dis- 
OnwiiSan, pret. -wraS, pi. 

-wriSon, to unbind, un- 
wrap. Gr. 24 8. 
Oord, i. q. ord. 
Open, open, plain^ evident. 
G^eopenian, geopnian, act. 

and neut. to open. 
Openlice, openly. 
fOr (ar), mercy. 
Ore, II. 2. pitcher, pot. 

Goth, aurki. 
Ord, II. 2. beginning, edge, 

point, army, band. O.N. 

Ordfruma, origin. 
fOre, are (ar), mercy, pity. 
Oreald, very old. Ger. uralt. 
Oret-msecg, II. 2. champion, 

Grecian. See OrSian. 
Orf, cattle, animal. 
Orfeornie, void, expers. 
Orhlice, orgliee, orgellice, 

proudly, arrogantly. 

From orgel, whence Fr. 

Ormaete, without measure, 

immense, vast, immensely. 

Orsawle, withoutsoul, lifeless. 

Orsorh, without care, secure. 

Ortruwian, 1,7 

^ ^ . > to despair. 

Geortruwian, J ^ 

Orwene, hopeless, desperate. 

OrSian, to breathe, blow, 

Osti, the Estas of Wulfstan, 

and O sterlings of modern 

times. They dwelt on the 

shores of the Baltic, to the 

east of the Vistula. 
Ostre, 1 . 3. oyster. 
Ost-sde, the Baltic and Cat- 

fOuersoh, overtrue, rare. 
fOwen (agen), own. 
Owern, anywhere. 
Ox a, ox. 

Oxan-hyrde, II. 2. ox-herd. 
OS, till, unto, to. As a ver- 
bal prefix, from, away. 

Gr. 269. 
OSer, other, second, one; 

o6er twega, other of two, 

one or the other. 
OSfleon, to flee away, escape. 

See Fleon. 
OSstandan, to stand still, 

cease. See Standan. 
tOj?om1 (a))um), son-in- 
OSum J law. 
OSSaet, till that, until; oS- 

peet an, to that degree, so 

Ot5Se, or, either. Ger. oder. 
06Se, for ot5«8et. 
OS|)ringan, pret. -Jjrang 

(-]?rong), pi. -])rungon, to 

force away. 



Pada, coat, tunic. Goth, 
paida, O. S. peda, both fe- 
minine, but in the expres- 
sion salowig-pada, an epi- 
tJiet of the eagle, the termi- 
nation is purely adjectival. 
See notes on the Battle of 
Brunanburh in Warton, 
H. E. P. i. p. Ixxviii. edit. 

Paell, II. 2. pall, purpura. 

Paellen, purple. 

tPall, pall. 

Pallium, II. 2. pall, pallium. 

Pante, the Blackwater, in 
Essex. The following 
passage from Gough's 
Camden, vol. ii. p. 43. 1st 
edit., may be interesting. 
" The shore, curving a lit- 
tle to the north here, ad- 
mits the sea into two bays, 
one called Crouch, the 
other Blackwater, for- 
merly Pant. In Crouch 
are four pleasant green 
islands, but rendered 
marshy by the tide : the 
principal of these are 
Wallot and Foulness, q. d. 
Bird Cape, which has a 
church, and may be come 
at on horseback, when the 
tide is out. Between 
these is the hundred of 
Dengy, formerly Daun- 
cing, abounding in pastu- 
rage and cattle, but both 
the soil and air unhealthy. 

The chief town of this 
hundred, which takes its 
name from it, is Dengy, 
supposed by the inhabit- 
ants to take its name from 
the Danes." Drayton has 

" When Chelmer scarce arrives in 
her most wished bay, 
But J5/fle^M;a^er comesin through 

many a crooked way, 
Which Pant was call'd of yore, 

but that by Time exil'd, 
She Froshwell after hight, then 
Blackwater instill'd." 
Poly-OWion, 19th Song, p. 4. 
edit. 1622, fol. 

See also Holinshed's * De- 
scription of Britaine,'chap. 

Papa, pope. 

Papanhud, papal dignity. 

Pening, penig, peanig, II. 2. 

Peoht, II. 2. Pict. 

Pinewincle, periwinkle. 

Pinnan,flascones, i. q.flaxan. 

Pinung, pain, torment. 

Pistol, II. 2. epistle. 

Plantian, to plant, 

Plega, play. 

Plegan, "l 

Piegian, \ to play. 

Pleigan, J 

Pleoh, III. \. peril, danger. 

Pleolic, dangerous. 

Pliht, plight, danger. 

Plyhtlic, i. q. pleolig. 

Port, II. I.port. 

Praettig, deceitful, versipellis. 

Prafost, II. ^.provost. 

Prasse, p. 133, line 17? 



Preost, II. 2. priest. 
Preosth^d, priesthood, 
Prfm, prime, the service for 

Prouast. See Prafost 
Pulgaraland, Bulgaria. 
Pund, II. \, pound. 
Pusa, bag, purse, pera. 
Pyt, II. 2. pit, hole. 


tQuale-hus, house of torture, 

tQuartern (cwartern), pri- 

tQua])]?rigan, qumiripartite. 

tQuecchen, to cook ? 

f/queme (gecweme), plea- 
sing, agreeable, 

f/quemed (gecwemed), 

tQuene (cw^n), queen. 

tQueS (cwae^), said. 

Racenta, raccenta, 1 


Racenteag, II. 3. J 
Racu, III. 3. narration, ex- 

Rad. See Rfdan. 

Rad,p. 152,1.47, for rsedde? 

fRaden (r^dan), to read. 

fRadful, wise; from r^d, 

Gcr^can, pret. -rsehte, to 
reach, get, capture, 

fRaecche (recce), reck. 

R^d, II. 2. rede, counsel, de- 
liberation ; rded |?incan, to 
seem advisable; r^d wf- 

tan, to know what one is 

G^ersed, III. \, housing, trap- 
ping, phalerae. 

R^dan, 1 3 raet, pret. 

(jer^dan, J raedde, pp. 
reed, to read. Gr. 205. 

R^dan, 1 to counsel, ad- 

G^er^dan, | vise, com- 

R^dbora, counsellor, ad- 

Riding, reading, lecture. 

Riding. See Hr^ding. 

Raefnian, to execute, obey. 

Raege, I. 1 ? roe, caprea. 
Ger. Reh. 

fRaeid (r^d), advice, coun- 

R^s, II. 2. rush, shock, on- 

Raeswa, leader, chief. 

R^t. See Rdedan. 

fRaetful, crafty. 

fRaev (reaf), vestment^ hang- 

RaeS, quick, rash. 

Ram, II. 2. ram. 

Rand, II. 2. shield. At p. 
132, 1. 22, I suspect that 
for 'randan' we should 
read 'randas.' 

Rann, II. 1. fallow deer, 

Rat5e, quickly; ra'Se })aes, 
soon after this. See 

fRaSer, rather, sooner, ear- 

Read, red. 

Read (r^d), counsel. 



Reade, redly ? 

Reaf, II. I. garment, also 
spoil, plunder. Ger. 


Rec, II. 3. reek, vapour, 
odour, exhalation, reputa- 

Gerec, III. \. government. 

Recan, 1 pret. rohte, to 

Reccan, J reck, care for. 

Recan, pret. rehte, to govern. 
Gr. 214. 

Reccan, 1 pret. rehte 

6^ereccan, J (rsehte), to 

interpret, define, explain, 
reckon, relate. 

Reced, II. 1 & 2, house, 
mansion; heah-reced, lofty 
divelling, palace. 

G^erecednys, history, narra- 

Recels, II. 2. frankincense. 
Gr. 300. 

Recene, recone, instantly. 

Recnan, to reckon, pay out. 

tRed (rded), counsel. 

Gerefa, reeve, prefect, comes. 
Hence scfr-gerefa, sheriff. 
Ger. Graf, Dan. Greve. 

Reft, II. I. veil. 

Regnesburh (Regensburg), 

Regol, II. 2. rule. 

Regollic, regular. 

Rehtun. See Reccan. 

Remian, to mend. 

Gerenian, to adorn, orna- 

Reocan, 3 ryct5, pret. reac, 
pi. rucon, to reek. Ger. 

fReod (read), red. 

Reogol, i. q. regol. 

G^ereord, III. 1. speech, 
tongue, dinner, meal. 

(zereordian, to feed, fill, 

(Vereording, 1 II. 3. meal, 

G^creordung, j refection. 

Reowsian, hreowsian, to rue. 

Rest, II. 3. rest, resting- 
place, bed. 

Restan, '\to rest, remain, 

G^erestan, J generally used 
as a reciprocal when ap- 
plied to persons. Gr. 259. 

Reste-dasg, 1 ll.^.rest-day, 

Resten-da^g, J sabbath. 

Retie, Neritos. The follow- 
ing is the passage in Boe- 
thius of which the Saxon 
is a paraphrase : 

Vela Neritii duels, 
Et vagas pelago rates 
Eurus appullt Insulse, 
Pulcra qua residens dea 
Soils edlta semlne, 
Mlscet hospitlbus novls 
Tacta carmine pocula. 

De Comol. lib. Iv. met. 3. 

In his metres, K. iElfred 
makes Ulysses king of 
Thrace also ; 

He wses Dracia Hoda aldor 
and Retle rices hyrde. 

Edit. Rawl. p. 889. 

Rewyt, navigation, voyage, 

^e^, fierce, savage, raging. 
Rhfn, Rfn, the Rhine. 
Rfc, powerful, rich. 
Rfce, III. 1. kingdom^ em- 



pire, country i reign, Ger. 

Reich, Dan. Rige, Engl. 

-ric in comp., as bishopric. 
Ricene. See Recene. 
Ricetere, II. 2 ? power, vio- 
fRich 1 (ric), rich, right, 
fRiche J powerful. 
Rfclice, powerfully. 
Rfdan, pret. rad, pi. ridon, 

to ride. Gr. 246. 
Ridda, rider, horseman. 

Ger. Ritter, Dan. Ridder. 
Riffin (beorgas), the Ri- 

phcean mountains. 
Riht, 1 III. 1. rite, cere- 
G^eriht, J Tnony, last office, 

Riht, II. 1. justice, truth, 

right ; on riht, rightly. 
Riht, bright, straight ; on 
Greriht, J gerihte, straight 

Rihtan, 1 to correct, 
Gcrihtan, J straighten, 

direct, guide. 
Rihte, rightly, straightly. 
Riht-gelyfed, orthodox. 
6^erihtlaecan, pret. -laehte, to 

rectify, amend. 
Rihtlice, rightly, justly. 
Rihtwfs, righteous. 
Rihtwfsnis, righteousness. 
Gevim, II. 1. number, com- 
fRime, verse, 
Rinc, II. 2. man, warrior. 
Riofol, roughness, leprosy. 
(xerfpian, to ripen. 
Crcrisenlic, fitting, proper, 


fRiue (ryf), rife, frequent. 
Rixian, to govern, rule. 
fRiS, ri]?t (riht), right. 
Rod, II. 3. rood, cross. 
Rdde-hengen, II. 3. cross; 

lit. rood-gibbet. 
Roder, II. 2. firmament, 

Roderlic, heavenly, ethereal. 
Rode-tacn, III. I. sign of the 

Rof, renowned. 
Romana-burh, Rome. 
Romanise, Roman. 
Rome-burh, Rome. 
Rond-wiggende, shielded- 

ivarrior. Gr. 118. See 

Rose, I. 3. rose. 
Rotlice, cheerfully. 
fRouning, whisper, secret 

conversation. Ger. rau- 

nen, to ivhisper. 
tRouS, ruth, pity. 
Rowan, 3 rewtS, pret. reovv, 

to row, navigate. Gr. 234-. 
Rum, II. 2. room, space. 

Rum waes, it was free. 
f/rum (gerym), imperat. 

clear, open; from gery man, 
Rtime, widely, amply, freely. 
fRumen (ryman), to give 

place, get, procure. 
Run, II. 3. rune, counsel, 

mystery, alphabetic cha- 
Rygedun, Roydon, in Nor- 
folk, near Diss. 
Ryht. See Riht. 
Ryman, "1 to yield (space), 
Gerfman, J give up, eva- 
N 2 



cuate; weg geryman, to 
open a way. Ger. rau- 

Rynan, to roar, bellow. 

Ryne, II. 2. course, flux, 

Geryne, III. 1. mystery, sa- 

Rysel, fat. 


Sacerd, II. 2. priest, sacer- 

S^,ll.'2.&ll.3.s€a. Gr.85. 

Saec, II. 3. war, warfare, 
battle i from sacan, to 

Saecan. See Secan. 

S^-coc, II. 2. cockle ? nepti- 

Seed, II. I. seed. 

Seed-berende, seed-bearing. 
Gr. 118. 

S^de. See Secgan. 

Sde-gemdere, III. 1. sea- 
coast. See Gem^re. 

Sajgan, 1 to offer, sacri- 

G^esaegan, j Jice. 

Cesaege, for gesege, from 

tSasghenn (gesegen), saw ; 
from gesedn. 

S^l, II. 2. time, occasion. 

Ges^lan, to bind, tie. 

S^lic, sealike, marine, wa- 

S^-lfda, mariner. 

Ges^Wg, happy, blessed. 
Ger. selig. 

G^es^liglice, happily, etc. 

Ges^l^, II. 3. happiness. 

S^man, III. 2. seaman. 

Saemestre, I. 3. seamstress. 

S^-rinc, II. 2. seaman, sea- 

fSaete, sitting, festival. 

fSaette (siccette?), sighed? 

Sahl, II. 2. club, pole. 

Salowig, sallow, swarthy. 

Sam, ivhether. 

Samaria (so MS. Cott for 
Massilia), Marseilles. 

Samcucu, half-alive. 

fSame (sceamu), shame. 

fSammnedd (gesamnod), 
gathered; from samnian. 

G^esamnung. See Gesom- 

Samod, also, likewise, to- 


S. Benedictes Stow, Fleury, 

Sand, II. 3. sending, mission^ 
messenger, dish, meal. 

Sand-corn, II. 1. grain of 

Sande, II. 2. message, lega- 

Sang, II. 2. song. 

Sape, I. 3. soap. 

Sar, II. 1 . sore, pain. 

Sar, sore, painful. 

fSari (sarig), sorry, sorrow- 

Sarian, to sorrow, grieve, 
Ger. sorgen. 

Sarig, sorrow, sorrowful. 

Sarlic, painful; sarlice, 



Slimy s, soreness, pain. 

Saul. See Sawel. 

Saul-])earf, II. 3. soul's need. 

Sawan, pret.seow,pp. sawen, 
to sow, spread abroad, 

Sawel, '] 

Sawl, V 11, 3.50m/. 

Sawul, J 

Scadu, III. 3. shadow, 

Scamel, II. 2 ? stool. 

fScanden (scendan), to 
shend, disgrace. Ger. 

Sceacan, pret. sceoc, to 
shake, hurry, hasten ; ge- 
witan sceacan, to go in 

Crescead, III. 1. reason, dis- 

Sceaf. See Scufan. 

Sceaft, II. 2. shaft. 

G^esceaft, III. 1. creature. 
Gr. 93. 

G'esceaft, II. 3. creation. 

Sceafta hen p. 118, 1. 24. 
The sense of this and the 
seven following lines is 
extremely uncertain, the 
passage being evidently 

Sceal, pi. sculon, subj. scyle, 
imp. sceolde, shall, must, 
debeo. Gr. 218. This 
verb is also frequently 
used like the Ger. soUen, 
to be said, reported. 

Scealc, II. 2. servant, com- 
mon soldier or sailor. 
Goth. Skalks, Ger.Schalk. 

Sceamu, III. 3. shame. 

Sceanca, shank, leg. 

Sceap, II. 1 . sheep. 

G^esceap, III. I . shape, form, 
creation, formation. 

Sceapan. See Scyppan. 

G^esceapen, pp. of scyppan. 

Sceap-herde, II. 2. shepherd. 

G^^sceapian. See Gescyp- 

G^csceapnis, shaping, form- 
ing, creation. 

Scear, share (of a plough^. 

Sceard, II. 1 . sheard. 

Scearn, II. 1 ? dung. Dan. 

Scearp, sharp, acute. 

Sceat, II. 2. a piece of mo- 
ney, price, treasure, profit. 
Goth. Skatts. 

Sceawere, II. 2. beholder, 

Sceawian, to look, look at. 

Sceawungj spectacle, sight. 

Sceat5, II. 3. sheath. 

Scea]?a, robber, thief, mis- 
creant, wretch. 

Seel, II. 3. shell. See Wael- 

Sc^n, sheen, beautiful. 

fScench (scene), wine 
scench, wine-drinking ; 
from seen can, to skink. 

Sceo, SCO, II. 2. & III. 2. 
shoe, fico. 

Sceocca, Satan, devil. 

Sceona, gen. plur. of sceo, 
shoon, shoes. 

Gesceoip. See Gescyppan. 

Sceorp, II. 1. habit, scarf. 

Sceort, short. 

Sceortlice, shortly, briefly. 

Sceortnys, shortness. 



Sceota, trout, tructus. 

Sceotan, 3 scyt, pret. sceat, 
pi. scuton, to shoot. 

Sceotend, II. 2. shooter, 
archer. Gr. 118. 

Sceo-wyrhta, shoemaker. 

Sceo-j7wang, II. 2. shoe- 
thong, or -tie. 

Seep. See Sceap. 

Scep-hyrde. See Sceap- 

Sceran, to shear, cut away. 

SceS. See SceatS. 

tSchip, ship. 

Scild. See Scyld. 

Scild-burh, shield-fence, scu- 
torum testudo. O. N. 

Scfma, shine, brilliancy. 

Scfnan, pret. scan (scean), 
pi. scinon,to shine, appear. 
Ger. scheinen. 

Scip, III. 1. ship. Ger. 
Schiff, Dan. Skib. 

Scip-rap, II. 2. ship-rope. 

Scfr, II. 3. shire, province. 

Scfr, sheer, bright, clear. 

Sciringes-heal, a port of 
Norway, the exact position 
of which is unknown. 
Judging from the context 
of Ohtheres narrative, it 
seems to lie in the Skager 
Rack, near the Fiord of 
Christiania. To the south, 
he tells us, lies a very broad 
sea, no doubt theCattegat ; 
on one side of which was 
Gotland {Jotland, Jut- 
land), and then Sillende 
( Seeland) . Sailing from 

Sciringes-heal to Sleswig 
{(EtHce^am'), Ohthere had, 
as he tells us, Denmark on 
his left, by which denomi- 
nation he undoubtedly 
means Skaane {Scania), 
and Halland, the early 
seat of the Danes, and 
which constituted a part 
of the modern kingdom of 
Denmark till 1658. Then, 
two days before his arri- 
val at Sleswig, taking a 
westerly course, he had 
Gotland (^Jutland) on his 
right. From the men- 
tion of islands on his left, 
it would seem that he sailed 
between Moen and Seeland. 
Prof.Dahlmann supposes, 
erroneously I think, that 
Ohthere sailed through the 
Great Belt. Forschungen, 
Th. i. Gesch. v. Dann. i. 
p. 65. See Gotland. 

Scfrman, shireman, provin- 

SciSSige, Scythia. 

fScome (sceomu), shame. 

Scomu, i. q. sceamu. 

Scon, shoon ; pi. irr. of sco, 

fScon (seen), sheen, beauti- 
ful. Ger. schon. 

Sconeg, Skaane (^Scania). 

Scop, II. 2. poet, minstrel. 

Scop-gereord, III. 1. poetic 
diction, poetry, 

Scort, i. q. Sceort. 

Scotian, to shoot. 

Scotung, shooting, jaculatio. 



Scraef, II. 1. den^ cave. 

Screadian, 1 to shred, 

G^escreadian, J prune, lop, 

Scride-Finnas, the inhabit- 
ants of that part of Both- 
nia which lies between the 
Angermann and the Tor- 

Scrfn, II. 1. shrine, casket, 
chest. Dan. Skrin, Ger. 

Scrud, II. 1. shroud, vest- 
ment, clothing. 

Scrutnian, to inquire into. 

(jescrydan, 'I 3 scryt, to 

Scrydan, j clothe. Gr. 

Scryn. See Scrfn. 

Scucca. See Sceocca. 

Scufan, 3 scyfS, pret. sceaf, 
pi. scufon, to shove, thrust. 

Scunian, to shun, fear. 

Scur, II. 2. shower. 

Scurum, adv., with scouring 
or grinding. 

Gescy, shoes. Gr. 106, 

Scyl, the name of a harper, 
father or progenitor of 
Scilling mentioned in the 
Scops Talel (Cod. Exon. 
p. 324). Or is it too 
great a poetic license, even 
for an Anglo-Saxon bard, 
to assign to Job, as a 
harper, the forefather of 
the Longobardic king 
Audwins minstrel"^ 

Scyld, IL 3. sin, crime. Ger. 

Scyld, II. 2. shield. Ger. 

(7escyld, indebted. 

G^escyldan, to shield, protect. 

Scyld-burh. See Scild- 

Scyldig, guilty, condemned. 

G^escyldnys, defence, protec- 

Gescyndan, to shend, put to 

S cy n e, beautiful, sheen. Ger. 

Scyp. See Scip. 

Scypen, II. 3. stall, shed. 

Scyp-here, II. 2. fleet, naval 

Scyppan, "1 pret. -scedp, 

G^escyppan, j pp. -sceapen, 
to shape, form, create. 

Scyppend, II. 2. Creator. 
Gr. 118. 

Scyrting, shortening, a- 

Scytan. See Sceotan. 

Scytsen, E. Angl. for scu- 
ton. See Sceotan. 

Scyttan, apparently the same 
as Sceotan, erogare, con- 
ferre (pecuniam), to pay. 

Se, masc, he, the* Gr. 1 46. 

Se, E. Angl. for sy. 

fSe, as ; son se, as soon as. 

fSeaht (sseht), peace, con- 

G^eseald, betrayed. See 

Sealde. See Syllau. 

Sealm, II. 2. psalm. 

Sealra-sceop, II. 2. psalm- 



Sealm-song, II. 2. psalm- 
singing, psalmody, 


Sealt, II. I. salt. 

Sealt, adj., salt. 

Sealtere, II. 2. Salter. 

Seamere, II. 2. seamer, tai- 

Searo-]?oncol, devising stra- 
tagem, cunning. 

Searwade (sine), p. 153 ? 

Seax, II. 1 , 2, 3. knife, sword. 

Seaxan, Saxons. Ohthere 
evidently speaks of the 
Nordalbingian Saxons. 

Secan, 1 ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

f'^''^''^) seek. Gr.214. 
ibecean, J 

Secg, II. 2. soldier, warrior, 

Secgan, "1 pret. s^de, to 
G^esecgan, J say. Gr.214. 
Secrae, for secra, or seocra, 

gen. pi. of seoc. 
Segel, II. 2. sail. 

ri^ ,.' \ to sail. 
Creseghan, J 

Gesegon, pret. pi. of geseon. 

Gr. 231. 
tSeh, soh (sah), fell down, 

descended. From sigan. 
(?eseh, i. q. geseah. See 

Sel, good, excellent. 
Seldcu^, selcouth, wonderful, 

Seldon, seldom. Ger. sel- 

Seldsyn, rare. 
Sele, II. 2. hally saloon. 

Sem, the wood of which 
Noah's ark was made, in 
Genesis called Gopher 

Gesem&n, to determine, judge, 
decide between. 

fSeme])]), seemeth, beseem- 

Semninga, suddenly. 

tSen(se6n) 1 ^^^^ 

■\l&en (geseon), J 

Sendan, 3 sent, sendeS, pret. 
sende. Gr. 207. 

fSende (scendan), shend, 

G^esenian, to sign, mark. 
Seo, fem., she, the. Gr. 146. 
Seoc, sick. 
Seocnys, sickness. 
Seofe, seven. 
Seofeniht, week. 
Seofet5a, seventh. 
Seofon, seofan, seven. 
Seofonfeald, sevenfold. 
fSeoh (soS), true. 

gf^^^' j II. 2. seal, phoca. 

Seolfern, of silver, argenteus. 

Seolfor, II. 1. silver. 

Seolfor-srai6, II. 2. silver- 

Seolra. See Sealm. 

Seon, 13 p. he gesyh^, 

G^cseon, j pret. geseah 
(geseh), pi. gesawon (ge- 
segon). Gr.231. Gesaw- 
en beon, to appear. 

tSeorwe (sorh), sorrow, af- 

Seow. See Sawan. 

tSeo)) (soS), sooth. 



Seo])an, 3 syS, pret. seaS, to 
seethe, boil. Gr. 251. 

Seo6t5a, 1 (siSSan), qfter- 

tSeoSSen, J wards, then. 

Sermende, a country or peo- 
ple to the north of McBg'6a- 
land (Mazovia) and to 
the east of the Burgendas 
{Burgundiones\ extend- 
ing to the Riphcean moun- 
tains, being the modern 
Livonia, Esthonia, and 
part of Lithuania. 

Geseted, seated, placed, qu. 
from setian ? Gr. 202 ? 

Setl, III. \. settle, seat, setting. 

Setl-gang, II. 2. sunnan setl- 
gang, sunset. 

Setlung, setting, 

6resetnys, law, institute, book. 

Settan, 1 to set, place, con- 

G^esettan, J stitute, esta- 
blish, compose, dedicate. 
Gr. 208. 

tSettledd, settled, seated. 

fSeuge (secge), to say. 

Gesevfeii, seen ; gesewen 
beon, to seem, videri. See 

6resewenlic, visible. 

Sex. See Seax. 

fSeS (so^), sooth, true. 

Gese^an, to prove true, con- 

Se})e, masc, he who, who, 

fShaBwenn (sceawian), to 

fShende (scendan), to re- 
proach, contumelia affi- 

in, related. 


gia, E. Angl. for seo. 
Sib, II. S. peace. 
fSib, contract. 

Sibling, II. 2. relation, kins- 
man or kinswoman. 
(rcsibsum, peaceable, friend- 

Siccetung, sigh, sob. 
Sfd, wide, ample. 
Sfde, I. 3. silk. 
Sfde, I. 3. side. 
Sfd-wah, II. 2. side-wall; 

sid-wages, for -wagas ; 

Semi- Sax. 
Sig, for sy. See Wesan. 
Sfgan, pret. sah, pi. sigon, to 

sink, descend, fall down. 
Sige,II.2. victory. Ger.Sieg. 
Sige-folc, II. 1. triumphant 

Sigel, II. 3. collar, necklace, 

Sige-roi', famed for victory. 
Sige-wong, II. 2. plain or 

field of victory. 
Sigor, I1.2.victory. Ger. Sieg. 
Sigor-lean, II. 1. reward of 

Gesih!6, II. 3. sight, vision, 

aspect, presence. 
Sillende, Seeland. 
Silomon, Sulmo. 
Simle, ever, always. 
Sin. See Syn. 
Sfn, his, her. Ger. sein, 

Dan. sin. Gr. 145. 
Sine, II. 1. treasure, silver. 
Sinc-gyfa, treasure-giver ; 

epithet applied to a chief. 




Singal, ^ perpetual^ conti- 
Singallic, j nuous. 
Singan, pret. sang (song), 
pi. sungon, to sing. 

fi"?'^"' I to 

Gesmgian, J 

SinoS, synod. 

Sio, i. q. seo. 

Siofian, to bewail. 

fSip (scip), ship. 

Sittan, t pret. saet, pp. ge- 

(resittan, j seten, to sit, 

sit in. 
Sixtig, sixty. 
Si6, II. 2. way, path, journey, 

extremity, time. O. N. 

Sinn, Dan. Sinde. Gr. 33. 
SiS, late. 

Ge&\'6, II. 2. chieftain, comes. 
Si'Slice, afterwards, subse- 
tSi))te, sighed. 
SiSfet, II. 2. III. 1. way, 

journey, expedition. 
SiSian, to journey. 
SiS]?an, after, after that, then, 

Sla^d, II. \. plain, open tract 

of country. O. N. Sletta, 

Dan. Slette. 
Slaege. See Siege. 
Slaegie, E. Angl. for siege. 
Slffip, II. 2. sleep. 
Slsepan, 3 slaept^, pret. slep, 

pp. slapen. Gr. 234. 
Slsep-ern, II. I. dormitory. 
Slapan. See Slsepan. 
Slat. See Slftan. 
Sleac, slach, slow, remiss. 
Slean, 1 3 slyht5, pret. sloh, 
Geslean, / pi. slogon, pp. 

geslagen, to slay, strihe, 
beat, cast, fight. Ger. 
schlagen. Also, to gain 
(by fighting) ; as, ac fu 
most heonon huSe l^dan, 
|)e ic Jje aet hilde gesloh. 
but thou mayst hence lead 
the spoil, which I for thee 
have won in battle : — 
Ccedm. p. 129, line 24. 
[iE])elstan andEadmund] 
ealdor-langne tyr geslo- 
gon aet secce. [Athel- 
stan and Edmund'] gain- 
ed life-long glory in the 
battle : — Battle of Br. ,1.6. 
See Warton, H. E. P. i. 
p. Ixvii. edit. 1840. 

Slecge, II. 2. sledge, large 
hammer ; from slean. 

Siege, II. 2. slaying, slaught- 
er, stroke, bloiv. 

Slege-faege, doomed to 

Ges[e.gen,struck; pp. of slean. 

Sleh, imperat. of slean. 

Slepan. See Slaepan. 

Sliht, II. 2. stroke, caedes. 

Slftan, pret. slat, to slit, tear. 

Smael, small, narrow. 

Smeagan, pret. smeade, to 
inquire, consider, argue, 
meditate, contemplate, de- 

Smeagung, machination. 

Smean. See Smeagan. 

Smeat, beaten gold, from 
smftan, pret.smat, to smite, 



Smea?!ancolnys, subtlety. 

Smederae, I. ^.Jlour, 

SmiS, II. 2. smith, handi- 

SmiSJ^e, I. 3. smithy, work- 
shop. Ger. Schmiede. 

Smylt, mild, placid, tran- 

Smyrian, to smear, anoint. 
Snaw, II. 2. snow. 
Snaw-hwft, snow-white. 
Snel, bold, quick, active. 

Ger. schnell. 
SnfSan, pret. snaS, pi. sni- 

don, pp. sniden, to cut, 

Ger. schneiden. 
Snoter, wise, prudent. 
Snude, forthwith, quickly. 
Snytro, III. 3. prudence, wit. 

Gr. 103. 
Softe, softly, easily, 
fSoh. See Seh. 
fSohfaest (soSfasst), true. 
Solcen, silken, for seolcen, 

from seolc. 
fSomed (samod), together, 
tSommere (sumre), in some. 
6^esomnian, to assemble, call 

G^esomnung, assembly, syna- 
gogue ; from samnian, to 

gather. Ger. Sammlung. 
Somod. See Samod. 
Son, II. 2. sound, song. 
Son a, soon, straightways, 

Song, i. q. sang. 
Song, i. q. sang, pret. of sin- 

Song-crseft, II. 2. art of song, 


tSon somm, as soon as. 

Sont, E. Angl. for sanct. 

Sorgian, to sorrow, grieve. 

Sorh, II. 3. sorrow, care. 
Ger. Sorg. 

Sorhful, sorrowful. 

Sorhllce, sorrowfully, mise- 

SoS, true, truly, in sooth; 
soJ)e, truly ; to sofe, in 
sooth, forsooth. 

So^fsestnes, 1 .^n^^A, inte- 

So^faestnys, J grity, jus- 
tice; for soSfaestnysseGod, 
p. 79, 1.9. 

SoSlice, soothly, truly, for, 
amen; nam, enim. 

tSo^scipe (sotscipe),5ofcA/p, 

fSpac, for spaec. 

Spad, III. S, spade, 

Spaec, i. q. spraec. 

G^espanan, to persuade, en- 
tice. See Aspanan. 

Sparian, to spare, 

Spearca, spark. 

Spec, i. q. spr^c. 

Specan, i. q. sprecan. 

Sped, II. 3. wealth, prospe- 

Spedan, to speed, succeed, 

f/spedden (gespeddon), ex- 

fSpedet (spedeS). See 

Spedig, rich. 

Spell, II. 1. & II. 3? history, 
tale, message, sermon, spell. 

fSpellenn (spellian), to re- 
late, preach. 



tSpenet5 (spendeS), spends; 

from spendan. 
Spere, III. 1. spear. 
Spic, II. 2? bacon. Ger. 

fSpilede (spellade), spoke; 

from spellian. 
Spillan, to destroy. 
G^esponnen. See Gespanan. 
G^espowan, pret. -speow, to 

succeed, speed. 
Spraic, II. 3. speech, saying. 
Sprecan, 1 3 sprycS, pret. 
(jespreean, J spraec, to 

speak, to speak to, address. 

Ger. sprechen. Gr. 229. 
Sprengan, to hurst, break, 

snap. Ger. springen. 
Springan, pret. sprang, pi. 

sprungon, to spring. 
Sprittan, spryttan, to sprout, 

germinare, pullulare. Gr. 

Sprot, II. 2 ? sprout, rod ? 

See p. 23, note. 
Spur-le])er,II.3. spur-leather. 
Spycan, i. q. Sprecan. 
Spyrta, basket, sporta. 
Stsede, for stede. 
Stasf, II. 2. staff, rod, letter, 

writing. Ger. Stab. 
Stael-hrien, II. 2. decoy rain- 
Gestdenan, to stone. 
St^nen, of stone. 
Staer, III. 1 . history. 
StaeS, III. 1. shore, bank. 
St8et5Sig, steady, firm, se- 
Gcstaet^Signys, steadiness, 


Stalcung, stalking, walking 

slowly, stealthily. 
Stalian, to steal. 
Stan, II. 2. stone. Ger. Stein, 

Dan. Steen. 
Standan, 1 3 stent (sty nt), 
G^estandan, j pret. stod, 

to stand, to be, drive, con- 
tinue. Also, act. to urge, 

vex, attack (as a disease^. 

Gr. 237. 
Starian, to stare, look. 
StaSol, II. 2. foundation, 

site. Se staJ>ol )?ara turfa, 

the place where they grew. 
Steap, steep, deep. 
Stearc, rugged, hard, austere. 

Ger. stark. 
Stede, II. 2. stead, phice ; 

stede faest, steadfast, firm. 
Stede-heard, ^rm in place 

Stefen, II. 3. voice. Gr. 8 1 . 
tStefuen (stefen), voice. 
Stelan, 3 styl^, pret. st^l, 

pp. stolen, to steal. 
Stemn. Gr.81. See Stefen. 
Stemnettan, to meet"^ 
Stenc, II. 2. stench, odour. 
Steop-bearn, II. 1. stepchild. 
Steorbord, II. I. starboard. 
Steorra, star. 
Steort, II. 2. tail. 
Steppan, pret. stop, to step, 

Sterced-ferhS, stern-minded, 

Sticcemaelum, piecemeal, 

here and there. 
Stig, II. 3. path. Nor. stigo 

for stiga. 



Stfgan, pret. stah, pi. stigon, 
pp. stfgen, to go, proceed 
(upwards or downwards), 
according to the prepo- 
sition prefixed. 

Stihtan, to arrange, dispose. 

(jestillan, to still, stay, 

Stille, still. 

Stillnes, stillness, quiet. 

Stingan, pret. stang, pi. stun- 
gon, to sting, stab. 

Stfran. See Styrian. 

Stiria, sturgeon. Ger. and 
Dan. Stdr. 

Stirigendlic, stirring, mo- 

Stiward, II. 2. steward. 

StiS, 1 stern, austere, se- 

StiSlic, J vere. 

Sti^Hce,}"^"''^^^' aw^fere/y. 

StiSmod, stern. 

StiSnys, austerity, severity. 

Stdd. See Standan. 

fStonde (stund), stound, 
while, time. Ger. Stunde. 

Stont,for stent. See Standan. 

Stop. See Steppan. 

Stor, frankincense. 

tStor, great. Dan. stor. 

Storm, II. 2. storm. Ger. 
Sturm, Dan. Storm. 

Storm, stormy. 

Stow, II. S. place; forming 
the termination to many 
names of towns, as, God- 
stow, Felixstow, etc. 

Stracian, to stroke. 

Strael, II. 2. arrow, dart, 

Str^t, II. 3. street. 

Strang, strong, severe, rigid. 

Ger. strenge. Strange, 
strongly, powerfully. 

6restrangian, to strengthen. 

Stream, II. 2. stream. 

Strec, severe, rigid. 

Streccan, pret. strehte, to 
stretch, spread. 

Strengre, -a, stronger. Gr. 
p. 51. 

tStrent5 (strength), strength, 

StrengS, II. 3. "1 , ,, 


Streon, ^ III. \. gain, pro- 

G^estreon, j Jit, treasure. 

Streoneshalh, Whitby. Dan. 
Hvid By. This is one of 
the instances where the 
Saxon name has given 
place to the Danish. 

Streowian, to strew. 

Strman, i. q. Gestrynan. 

Strudan, "I to spoil, rob, de- 

Strutian, j stroy. 

G^estrynan, to beget, get, gain. 

Stund, II. 3. stound, space 
of time; embe stunde, 
from time to time. 

Stunt, foolish, stupid. 

Stur-mere, Sturmer in Es- 
sex, on the river Stour, or 
rather the fen (mere) it- 
self, in the neighbourhood 
of which Leofsunu ap- 
pears to have dwelt. " On 
the south, the river Stour, 
at its rise, stagnates in a 
great fen, called Stour- 
meer, but presently con- 
fining itself within its 
banks, first passes by 
Clare," etc. — Gouglus 



Camden, vol. ii. p. 43. 
1st edit. 

Sty gan,^o go, proceed, mount, 

Stylan, to be amazed, obstu- 

(?estylde,p. 125,1. 12, with- 
out doubt an error for 
gestyrde, punished. See 

Styman, to steam, exhale. 

Stynt. See Standan. 

Styrian, 1 to regulate, stir, 

G^estyrian, j punish, cor- 
rect, rule ; gov. dat. of 
pers. and gen. of thing. 

Styrisen, for styrian. 

Styrman, to storm, assail, 

Styrne, stern, severe. 

Styrn-mod, stern of mind. 

StySnys, severity, austerity. 

Sue, E. Angl. for swa. 

f Suge (secgan), to say. 

Sum. See Swfn. 

Sul, sulh, II. 1. plough, 

Sulh-geteog, III. \. plough- 
ing implements. 

tSuluer (seolfer), silver. 

Sum, so7ne, one, a, quidam. 
He syxa sum, he one of 
six, or with Jive others. 

fSum, as. Dan. som. 

Sumer, III. 2. summer. 

tSumneden (somnodon), 
assembled; from somnian. 

Sun-beam, II. 2. sunbeam. 

Sund, swimming, natatio. 

t^/zsund, sound, safe. 

G^esund. sound, safe. 

/sund, for gesund. 

Sunder-halga, one sundered 

as it were from others 
through extraordinary ho- 
liness, a pharisee. 

G^esundfull, 1 healthy, sound, 

G^esundlic, j prosperous. 

6^esundfullice, safely, etc. 

Sundor-spraec, II. 3. a con- 
versation apart. 

Sundor-yrf, II. 1. separate 

Sundran. Onsundran,apG!7'^. 

Sun-ganges, with the sun. 

Sunnan-daeg, II. 2. Sunday. 

Sunne, 1.3. sun. Ger. Sonne. 

Sunu, III. 2. son. Ger. 
Sohn, Dan. Son. Gr. 

Surpe (Sorabi, Sorbi), a 
Slavonic people inhabiting 
Lusatia, Misnia, part of 
Brandenburg and Silesia. 
Their capital was Sorau. 

Susl, II. 3. torment, punish- 

tSuste (swuster), sister. 

Suwian, to keep silence, si- 

SuSan, south, from the south. 
Gr. 339. 

Su^-Dene, the Danes inha- 
biting the south of Jut- 

Sufern, southern. Suferne 
(suj>ernne) gar means a 
missile that had been sent 
from the English side, 
which was returned by the 
viking. An instance of 
the reverse occurs at p. 
136,1. 22, sqq. 

Su^-rihte, due south. 

SutJweard, southward. 



tSuJ)))e (si66an), afterwards, 

Swa, *o, ihus^ aSy whether. 
Swa hwa swa, whosoever. 
Swa hwaet swa, whatso- 
ever. Swa hwylc swa, 
whosoever. Swa hwaer 
swa, wheresoever, Swa 
ilce, i. q. swylce. Swa 
same, 50. fSwa summ, 
so as ; for swa swa : Dan. 
saasoin. Swa swa, so as. 
S wa-]?eah, S wa-feah-hwae- 
]>ere, yet^ notwithstanding, 

Swaec, II. 3. odour, taste, 
flavour, seasoning, sapor. 

Swaefas, the Swabians, 

Swaer, heavy, Ger. schwer. 

Swaes, sweet, dear, own. 

Swaesend,III. l.?we«^, viand; 
generally used in the plu- 

Swaeslice, 1 sweetly, be- 

G^cswaeslice, j nignantly, 

tSwain. See Sweyn. 

Sw^t, 11.2. sweat, poet, blood. 

Swatig, sweaty, poet, bloody. 

Swat5u, III. 3. trace, vestige, 
way, path. 

Sweart, swart, black. Ger. 
schwarz, Dan. sort. 

Swefel, II. 2. sulphur. Ger. 
Schwefel, Dan. Svovel. 

Swefen, 1 

Swefn, J 

Sweg, II. 2. sound. 

c^ ? 'Wo sound. 
Sweigan, J 

Swegcraeft, 1\,2. sound-craft, 


III. I. dream. 

Swegel, II. 1 ? heaven, fir- 

Swegl-rad, II. 2. plectrum ? 
Ohg. suegilpein, from 
Goth, swiglon, to play 
music ? 

Sweger, II. 3. wifes mother. 

Sweging, sound, noise. 

Ceswel, III. 1 . swelling, tu • 

Swelgere, II. 2. glutton. 
Ger. Schwelger. 

Sweltan, pret. swealt, pi. 
swulton, to die. Gr. 

fSwen. See Sweyn. 

G^eswenc. See Geswinc. 

G^eswencan, "I to vex, afflict, 

(jeswencian, J fatigue. 

G^eswencednys, affliction, 


Sweoland, II. 1. Sweden. 

Sweon, the Swedes. 

Sweora, neck. 

Sweorcende, darkening ; 
from sweorcian, to grow 
dark or gloomy; sweor- 
cend-ferh6, gloomy-mind- 

Sweord, II. 1. sword. 

Sweorettung, sigh. 

Sweoster. See Swuster. 

Sweot, II. 2. band, turma. 

Sweotol, i. q. swutol. 

Swer, Nor. for sweger. 

Sw^t, sweet. 

Gesw^tan, to sweeten. 

Swetnes, sweetness. 

t/sweued (geswefod), ren- 



dered senseless ; from ge- 

svvefian, sopire. 
f Sweyn, swain^ young man. 

Dan. Svend. 
Swfcan, 1 pret. swac, pi. 
(yeswfcan, j swicon, to 

deceive, betray, cheat, de- 
sist from, shrink from. 
Swicdiom, fraud, deceit. 
Swfcol, false, treacherous, 

Swift, swift. 

Swiftnys. See Swyftnys. 
Swige, I. 3. silence. 
Swigian, to hold silence. 
Swike, for swicon. See 

Swilce. See Swylce. 
fSwilch (swylce), as. 
fSwillc (swylc), such. 
Swima, 1. 2 ? giddiness, ver- 
, tigo. 

Swimmende, swimming. 
Swfn. See Swyn. 
G^esAvinc, III. 1. labour ^ toil, 

Swincan, pret. swanc, pi. 

swuncon, to toil. 
Swincgel, II. 3 ? "I stripe, 
Swincgle, I. 3 ? j blow, 

Swingan, pret. swang, pi. 

swungon, to scourge. 
Swingel, II. 3. correction, 

tSwinnc (swine), toil. 
Swinsian, to give forth 

Swinsung, sound, melody. 
Swipe, whip, scourge. 
SwiS, great, strong. 

SwiSe, very, valde, magno 

SwiSlic, violent, strong. 
SwiSlice, i. q. swiSe. 
SwiSmod, violent, haughty. 
Swit5or, more; comp. of 

SwiSost, chiefly, for the most 

SwiSra, compar. of swiS, 

right, dexter. 
G^eswiSrian, to prevail 

against, subdue. 
fSwomefest (sceamfaest), 

tSwowen, swoon. 
Swulce, for swylce. 
Swunce. See Swincan. 
Swuncgon. See Swingan. 
Swura, i, q. sweora. 
Swurd, i. q. sweord. 
Svvuster Kn. 2. «><«.. 
Creswuster, J 

Swutelian, 1 to make ma- 
G^eswutelian, j nifest, show. 
Swutelice, plainly, mani- 
Swutelung, manifestation, 

Swutol, swutel, manifest, evi- 
dent; sweotole, manifestly. 

Swyftlere, II. 2. subtalaris. 

Swyftnys, swiftness, 

Swylc, such. 

Swylce, as if moreover, as it 

Swymman, pret. swamm, pi. 
swummon, to swim. 

Swyn, II. 1. swine. Ger. 
Schwein, Dan. Svin. 

Swyra, i. q. sweora. 



Swyrd-bora, sword-bearer ; 
E. Angl. swyrd-borae. 

Swyrd-geswing, sword-stri- 
kingf, conflict of swords. 

Swytelian, E. Angl. for swu- 

Swywian, i. q. suwian. 

Swyjjost. See SwitJost. 

Sybb. See Sib. 

Syfer, sober, abstinent, pure, 
decent; syferlice, soberly, 
etc. Ger. sauber. 

Syfernys, soberness, modera- 

Syfling, meat, anything eaten 
with bread, opsonium. 

(resyhS. See GesihS. 

Syl, II. 3. sill,post, log, 

Syl. See Syll. 

Sylan-scear, ploughshare. 

Sylf, self, same. 

Sylfor. See Seolfor. 

Sylfwilles, voluntary. 

Syll, II. \.&c U.S. plough. 

Syllan, 1 pret. sealde, to 

Gesyllan, j sell, give, be- 
tray. Gr. 196. 

Syrabel, III. I. feast ; dat. 

Symbel, 1 always ; on sym- 

Symle, j bel, at all times. 

Syn, II. 3. sin. Gr. 82. 

Syn, for synt. 

Synderlice, especially. 

Syndrig, sundry. Syndrie, 
syndrige, separately, re- 

Synful, sinful. 

Syngan. See Singan. 

Syngian. See Singian. 

Cresynto, III. 1. safety, suc- 

cess, benefit; used in pi. 

(jesyrwed, p. 136, 1. 30, ap- 
parently an error for ge- 
syrwende, from gesyr- 
wian, ta lay snares, ma- 
chinate, insidiari. 

Syru,III.l. Gr.95.1 

Syrwung, j ^^-^' 

machination, wile. 

Syxtig, sixty. 

SyStJan. See Si«6an. 

fTa, for pa, after a word 
ending in d or t. 

Tacen, tacn. III. 1. token, 

Getacnian, to betoken, sig- 

G^etacnung, signification, 
sign, type. 

T^can, pret. t^hte, to teach. 

T^cung, teaching. 

T^el, II. 2. tail. 

Get^l, getel, getal, III. 1. 
tale, number, series. 

T^lan, to blame, insult, ca- 

fTaelen (t^lan), to blame. 

fTaer, for pser, after a word 
ending in d or t. 

fTaergaeness, for faergaeness, 

Taesan, to tease, annoy, as- 

fTahten (t^hton), taught, 
showed ; from t^can. 

fTake on, to receive, treat. 



fTaken (tacn), token, mi- 

tTakenn (t^can), to take, 

Tam, tame. 

fTatt, for ]?att, after a word 
ending in d or t. 

G^etawian, to prepare, reduce 
to. It. to beat, misuse. 

fTe, for ]7e, after a word 
ending in d, t, or ss. 

Teah. See Teon. 

G^eteald, told, said; from 

Tear, II. 2. tear. Ger. 
Zalire, Dan. Taar. 

Tegdon, apparently from 
tegan, i. q. tian, to tie, 

iTe33, they. 

tTe33re, their. 

fTeken (tacen), token, ex- 

Geia. See Get^l. 

Tela, well! good! it is well! 

6?eteld, II. 1. tent, tabernacle. 
Ger. Zelt, Dan. Telt. 

Telgian, to branch, flou- 

Tellan, 1 pret. tealde, to 

G^ctellan, j tell, recount, ac- 
count, reckon. 

Temese, Thames, 


to tame. 

G'etemian, J 

Teode. See Teon. 
G^cteoh, III. 1. stuff, matter, 

implement, utensil. Ger. 

Zeug, Dan. Toi. 

G^eteohian, to resolve. 

Teolian. See Tilian. 

Teolung, tilling, culture. 

Teon, 3 tyhS, pret. teah, pi. 
tugon, to draw, go, lead, 
educate, and pret. teode, 
to produce, create; teon 
forS, p.30, 1. 13,for forS- 

Teona, injury, injustice, 

TeoSa, teo))e, tenth. 

Teran, pret. taer, pp. toren, 
to tear. Gr. 229. 

Terfinna land, the country 
between the northern point 
of the Bothnian Gulf and 
the North Cape. 

Te«. See T66. 

Ticeswell, Tichwell in Nor- 
folk, near Hunstanton. 

Tietator, II. 2. dictator. 

Tfd, II. 3. time, hour, tide, 
synaxis. Dan. Tid, Ger. 
Zeit. Gr. 84. 

Cetfgan. See Getfgian. 

Tige, II. 2. tie, nexus. 

Tigel, II. 2. tile, brick. Ger. 
Ziegel, Dan. Tegl. 

Cetigged, tied; from ge- 

G^etigian, to tie. 

Tigris, tiger. 

Tihian, to resolve. 

Tihtan, 1 to persuade,urge, 

G^etihtan, j excite, seduce. 

Tihting, instigation, 

Tilia, tiller, husbandman. 

Tilian, to till, prepare, get ; 
with gen. Gr. 397. 

fTill, to. Dan. til. 




Getillan, to touch. 

Til lice, well, aptly; from 

til, good. 
Tilung, tilling, culture. 
Tfma, time, hour, season. 

Dan. Time. 
Timbrian, ]^ 
G^etimbrian, j 
G^etfmian, to befall, happen. 
Tin, II. 1. tin. 
/tinbred (sic MS.), for ge- 

Getingnys, eloquence. 
Tintreg, torment. 
Tintreglie, infernal ; from 

GeWou, for geteon, i. q. 

TiotS, for teo6. 
Tir, II. 2. glory. 
Tirian, ] to vex, provoke, 
Tirigan, j exasperate. 
TiSe, in possession of, com- 
Tifian, "1 to grant, give, 
G^etipian, J alloiv, prae- 

stare ; gov. gen. 
To, too. Ger. Zu. 
To, to, at, from, in, as, for; 

in comp. with a verb. 

Lat. dis, Ger. zer. 
Toberstan, pret. -bserst, pi. 

-burston, to burst, break, 

be dashed in pieces. 
fTobetet (to-beatet5), beat- 

eth ; from beatan. 
Tobr^dan, pret. -braedde, 

pi. -braed, to spread. 
Tobrecan, pret. -brsec, pp. 

-brocen, to break. Ger. 


Tobr^dan, pret.-br^d, to cast 
off (sleep) ; with dat. 

To- cyme, II. 2. coming, ad- 

To-daeg, to-day. 

Tod^lan, act. and neut., to 
deal, divide, share. 

Todal, division, distinction, 

Todon, to divide. 

Todrefian, to scatter, expel. 

To-eacan, besides, in addi- 
tion to. 

To-emnes, along. 

Toflion, to flee from. See 

Toforan, before. 

Togsedere, together; togae- 
dre fon, to assemble. 

Togeanes, towards, to, 

To-gebindan, to6mc?/o. See 

To-gehyhtan (-geyhtan)5ad- 

To-gel^dan, to bring to. 

To-gelecgan, to lay to, apply. 
See Lecgan. 

Getogen, educated, drawn. 
See Teon. 

To-genydan, to force to. 

To-geyhte. See Yean. 

To-gejieodan, to add, join, 

Toglfdan, pret. -glad, pi. 
-glidon, to glide away. 

Tohte,I.3? U^^^^^ 


To-irnan, to run to. See 

fTokenn, began. 

T61, II. 3. tool, instrument. 



Tolicgan, to lie between^ se- 

tTome, for tam. 

Tomearcian, to mark, num- 
ber, distinguish, tax. 

Tomearcodnys, numbering, 
taxing, census. 

Tomiddes, in the midst, 

Torht, 1 7 • 7 . 


Torhtmod, bright-minded. 

Torn, II. 2. anger. Ger. 

Toslftan, to rend in pieces, 
break. See Slftan. 

Tosloh, struck. See Slean. 

Tosomme, together. 

Toswellan, pret. -sweoll, pp. 
-swollen, to swell. Gr. 

Toteran, 3 -tyrS, pret. -taer, 
pp. -toren, to tear, rend. 

Totwffiman, 1 to divide, se- 

Totw^mian, J parate, di- 

Toweard, towerd,/M^wre, to- 
ward, to come, to be, futu- 
rus, -a, -um. 

Towurpan, -weorpan, 3 
-wyrpt5, pret. -wearp, pi. 
-wurpon, to destroy, cast 
down, put an end to. 

T6S, tooth ; to]?um ontynan, 
dentibus aperire, utter ? 
Gr. 96. 

To ))8es, to that degree, adeo. 

To J)on, so. 

To])unden, swollen. 

To ]?y paet, to the end that, 
eo quod. 

Treef, II. 2. tent, pavilion. 

O. Fr. tref. 
Traht-boc, commentary, ex- 
Trahtnere, II. 2. interpreter, 

Trahtnian, to treat, expound, 

Trahtnung, exposition. 
Trendel, sphere, orb. 
Treow, III. 1. tree. Dan.Tre. 
Treow-cin, II. 1. tree species, 

kind of tree. 
Treowen, of tree, wooden, 

fTreowe^e (treoweS), trust- 

eth; from treowian. 
G^etreowliee, truly, faith- 
Treo w- wy rhta, tree- or wood' 

Wright, carpenter. 
Treppe, 1. 3 ? trap. 
Triumpha, triumph. 
fTrokede. See Trukeden. 
fTrowwen (treowian), to 

trow, trust, confide. 
fTrowwJ) (treowS), troth, 

fTrukeden (trucodon),ya27- 

ed, defecit ; from trucian. 
Truma, cohort of WOO men, 

Trumuncg, confirmation, 

corroboration. E.AngLfor 

Truso, a town on the border 

of the mere or lake from 

which the river llfing {El- 

bing) flows in its course 

towards Elbing. 



Tvwwdi, faith, trust. 

Truwian, 1 totrust,conJide, 

G^etruwian, J rely on. 

Trym, step. Beow. 5047, 

trem. Dan. Trin ? 

Trymian, "| . ^ 

^•i . \ to confirm, 

Getrymian, I -^ 

ry ^ > encourage, 

^ . ^ . ' strengthen. 
6-etrymmian, J ^ 

Trymnes, exhortation. 

Tryw. See Treow. 

(xetrywe, true, faithful. 

fTu, for ]>w, after a word 
ending in d or t. 

Tucian, ^to punish, tor- 

G^etucian, J ment; bys- 
mere tucian, to torment 

Tugon. See Teon. 

Tun, II. 2. totvn, enclosure, 
mansion. Ger. Zaun. 

Tunece, I. 3. tunic, boat, 

Tunge, I. 3. tongue. Ger. 
Zunge, Dan. Tunge. 

Tun-gerefa, town-reeve, vil- 

Tungol, tungel, III. 1. hea- 
venly body, star. P. 110, 
1. 18, tunglon occurs in 
the ace. plur. 

Tungol-wftega, lit. star-pro- 
phet, astrologer ; from 
tungol, star, and witega, 
wise man, prophet. 

Turf, III. 3. turf. Gr. 106, 

fTurnenn (tyrnan), to turn. 

Turtle, I. 3. turtle-dove, 

tTuss, for pus, after a word 
ending in d or t. 

Tuwa, twice. 

Twa, neut. and fern., tv)o. 

Twegen, masc, twain, two. 
Gr. 171. 

Tvvelf, twelve. Ger. zwolf, 
Dan. tolv. 

fTwemen (tw^man), to se- 
parate, divide. 

rp .' > tioenty. 
1 wen tig, J ^ 

Tweogan, 1 pret. tweode, 

Tweonian, J for tweogde, 

to doubt, hesitate. 

rp ' > doubt. 
Iweonung, J 

Tweowa, twice. Gr. 185. 

Twig, III. 1. twig, branch, 
Ger. Zweig. 

-|-Twi33es (twywa), twice. 

Twy, two ; twy-winter, two 
years (old). 

Twycina, a place where two 
ways meet. 

Twyfeald, twofold. 

Twylic, ambiguous, doubt- 

Twyn, doubt. 

Twynian. See Tweogan. 

Twynung. See Tweonung. 

Tyan, to teach; getyd, in- 

Tydder, weak. 

Tyddrian, 1 to produce, 

G^etyddrian, J bring forth, 
cherish, alere. 

Tyhtan. See Tihtan. 

G^etym, III. 1 . plur. getyme, 
team, yoke. 

Tyman, to teamy beget, pro- 



Tyn, ten. 

Tyncenum, p. 88, 1. 10? 
Tyrf. See Turf. 
Tytie, Tityus. 


fUader (fseder),/aMer. 
tUael (wsel), slaughter. 
tUair (faeger),/m>. 
fUeht (feoht), fight, impe- 

rat., irom feohtan. 
fVeisi]?, departure, decease. 

See Fseisi^e. 
fVerd (fyrd), army. 
tUest(f8est),/«5i; on ueste, 

strongly, severely! 

^.o ' > above, from above. 

Geuferian, to exalt. 

Ufeweardan, upward, above. 

Uht-sang, II. 2. nocturns, 
nocturnal lauds ; from 
uht, the latter part of tJie 

tUinden (findan), to find. 

tUlc (ylc), same. 

Unablinnendlice, incessant- 
ly, unceasingly. See 

Unadwaescendlic, unquench- 
able ; from adwaescan, to 

tUnaleledse (onselde?), in- 
flamed, enraged? 

Unalyfedlie, incredible, un- 

Unar, II. 3. dishonour, dis- 

Unasecgendlic, unspeakable^ 

Unaswundenlice, actively, 

fUnbalded (unbealdod), be- 
come less bold, sunk in vi- 

Unbeboht, unsold; from be- 
bycgan, to sell. See Bic- 

Unbefangenlic, incompre- 
hensible ; from befon. 

Unbefohten, unassailed. 

Unbindan, to unbind. See 

Unc, us two. Gr. 137. 

Undone, unclean, impure, 

Uncnyttan, to untie, unknit. 

Uncu6, unknown, belonging 
to another, alienus. 

Undeadlic, 1 


Undeat^lie, J 
UndeopJ)ancol, 7iot deeply 

thinking, superficial. 
Under, under, among. Ger. 

Underbaec, behind, back- 
Underdelfan, 3 -dylf, pret. 

-dealf, pi. -dulfon, to delve 

under, undermine. 
Underfeng. See Underr 

Underfon, to receive, accept. 

See Fon. 
Undergytan, pret. -geat, to 

understand, perceive. 
Under-kyng, II. 2. under- 

king, tributary king. 
Underlecgan, to underlay, 

support, prop. See Lecy 




Undern, II. 2. the third 
houTy terce, i. e. 9 o clock 


Undern-tfd, II. 3. tertia. 
See Undern. 

Understandan, to under- 
stand. See Standan. 

Underwre^ian, to support^ 

UnderJ^eod, addicted, prone, 
deditus, subject, suffra- 

UnderJ^eodan, to resign, ad- 
dict, subject. 

Under])eow, II. 2. subject. 

Undon, to undo. See 


tUndonc (unf»anc), ingrati- 
tude ; unfancunnan, to 
feel ungrateful, owe a 
grudge. Ger. Undank. 

Unearh, intrepid ; from 
esirh, fugitive, cowardly. 

Unease, uneasy, vexed. Also, 
adv. difficultly, vix. 

UneaSelice, with pain, diffi- 

Unforbaerned, unburnt. 

Unforcu'8, honest, open, un- 

Unforht, fearless. 

Unforhtigende, fearless. 


Unforsmolsnod, uncorrupt- 
ed ; probably an error for 
unformolsnod, from for- 
molsnian, to corrupt, 

UnfriS, II. 2. hostility. 

Ungecnawen, unknown. See 

Ungedefe, improper, unfit- 

ting, evil; from gedefe, 
tranquil, convenient, etc. 

Ungefohge, inconceivably. 

Ungefotlic, impassable on 

Ungefraeglice, extraordina- 
rily, in an unheard-of 

Ungehyrsum, disobedient. 
Ger. ungehorsam. 

Ungeleered, unlearned, ig- 

Ungeleafful, unbelieving. 

Ungelimp, II. 1. misfortune, 

Ungelyfedlie, incredible. 

Ungemaetlic, immeasurable, 
vast ; ungemetlice, im- 
measurably, exceedingly. 

Ungemyndig, unmindful. 

Ungesewenlic, invisible. 

Ungewunelic, unwonted. 
Ger. ungewohnt. 

Unhal, unhale, sick. 

Unheh, not high. 

Unlaed, wicked, improbus, 

Unlucan, pret. -leac, pi. -lu- 
con, to unlock, open. 

Unlyfigende, lifeless. 

G^eunnan, 1 pres. ic -£n, pi. 
-unnon, pret. -u^e, to give, 
grant, with gen. Gr. p. 

fUnnitt (unnyt), useless ; 
on unnitt, unprojitably, 

Unorne, vigorous, bold't 

tUnraS (unrded), evil coun- 
sel, imprudence, demen- 



Unriht, II. 1. unrighteous- 
ness, injustice, wrong ; 
on unriht, unjustly, wrong- 

Unrihtwfsnis, unrighteous- 

Unrdt, sad. 

Unrdtnys, sorrow, sadness, 

G^eunrdtsian, to sadden, cast 

Uns^lig, unhappy, unblessed, 
profligate, infelix. 

UnscaetSSig, harmless, inno- 

Unscae^Signys, innocence. 

Unseen]?, unharnesses ; 

should probably be un- 
scer'5, from an unrecorded 
verb, unscerran. Ger. 
ausschirren . ( Suggested 
by Mr. R. Taylor.) 

Unscet5ignys, imiocence. 

Unscrydan, to undress, un- 

Unscyldig, innocent. Ger. 

Unsi^, II. 2. mishap, misfor- 
tune, unfortunate expedi- 

Unsofte, unsoftly, severely, 

Unspedig, less affluent, poor. 

Unsta^elfaestnes, instability, 

Unstille, unstill, restless. 

Unswseslic, unpleasant. 

Unsyfer, unsober, impure. 

Untfgean, to untie. 

Untod^ledlic, indivisible ; 

untod^ledlice, indivisi- 

Untrum, infirm, sick. 
G^eantrumian, to afflict with 

sickness or infirmity. 
Untrumnys, 1 infirmity, sick- 
Untrymnys, j 




Untwylice, untweonlice, 2m- 

Untynan, to open; from 

Unwaclice, boldly. 

Unweaxen, unwaxen, not 

Unweder, III. 1 ? bad wea- 
ther, storm. Ger. Unge- 
witter, Dan. Uveir. 

Unwerame, immaculately. 

Unwittig, witless, ignorant. 

fUnwourS (unweor'S), un- 
worthy, of little value. 

Un|?3eslic, indecent, unfitting, 

Unpancwur^e, disagreeable. 

Unfeaw, II. 2. evil habit, 

fVor. See For. 

Up, up ; pa up, those above. 

Up-abredan, to pull or 
snatch up. See Bredan. 
Gr. 242. 

Up-ahebban, 3 -hefS, pret. 
-hof, pp. -h^fen, to raise, 
lift up. 

Up-ar^ran, to raise up. 

Up-aspringan,pret. -asprang, 
pi. -asprungon, to spring 
up, rise. 

Up-astfgnes, ascension. 



Up-ateon, to draw up. See 

tUpbrac (up-abrsec), brake 

forth ; from brecan. 
Up-forlgetan, to divide, dis- 
tribute (a river into several 

streams or branches^. 
Up-gangan, to go up. At 

p. 134, 1. 20, the context 

seems to require up-gang. 

See Gangan. 
Up-geboren, borne on high. 

See Beran. 
Up-heofon,II.2. high heaven. 
Uplic, upplic, on high, su- 

Uppcund, well-known, no- 

tus. — Lye. 
Uppon, upon, against. 
Upriht, upright, erect. 
Upstfg, II. 3. ascension. 
Up-stfgan, to ascend. See 

Upvveard, upward. 
Ure, our. Gr. 137. 
Urig, dewy, humid. See 

Grimm, And. and El. p. 

Urnon. See Yrnan. 
Ut, out. 
Ut-adrffan, to drive out. See 

Utan-ymb, around. 
Ute, out, without. 
Ut-feran, to go out. See Fe- 

Ut'gan, to go out. See Gan. 
Ut-gong,II.2. exitydeparture. 
Uton, utun, let us. Gr. 415. 
Uton, without, beyond. See 


fVuel (yfel), evil. 

Uultor, II. 2. vulture. 

6rcu8e. See Geunnan. 

USuta, Nor. for ut^vvfta, 
scribe^ philosopher, sa- 


Wa, wo. Wa worfe, wo 

Wac, weak, slender, mean, 

Wacian, to watch, be weak, 
faiiH, flinch. 

Wacol, wacel, ivatchful, vi- 

Wacollice, vigilantly. 

Wadan, pret. vvod, to wade, 

Waecce, I. 3. watch, vigil. 

Waeccende, wsecende, watch- 
ing ; from vvaecan. 

G^ewaed, III. 1. weed, cloth- 
ing. Gr. 93, 94. 

Waedla, jooor. Gr. 121. 

Wsedlian, to become poor. 

Wcefels, II. 2. cloak. 

Wseg, ivey (a weight so call- 

Waeg, III. 1 ? cup. 

W^ge, I. 3. balance. Ger. 

G^ew^ge, iceight. 

W^l, II. 1 ? slaughter, death. 

W^ela. See Wela. 

/waeld, for gewealden. See 

W^legian, to enrich. E. 
Angl. for gewelgian. 



Wiel-gifre, greedy of slaught- 

W^l-hreow, cruel, blood- 

Waelreowlice, cruelly, hor- 

Weel-reovvnes, cruelty, fero- 

Wgel-rest, II. 3. slaughter- 

W^l-scel, II. 3. shell (i. e. 
place) of slaughter. 

\\ ael-spere, III. ]. death- 

Wgel-stow, II. 3. slaughter- 
place, field of battle. 

Wael- (i. e. wel-)willerid- 
ness, benevolence. 

Weel-wulf, II. 2. wolf of 

WaslvvurSian, to highly ve- 

Ctnvaemmodlice, corruptly, 

G^ewcende. See Wendan. 

WfSndon. See Wenan. 

tWeenen, p. 171,1. 15; pro- 
bably an error for wasuen, 
woe (wawa). 

Waepen, III. \. weapon. 

Waepned, Im.g.^^fc. 

Waepned-inan, J 

W^r, wary, cautious, provi- 

fWaer (hwser), where. 

Waere. See Wesan. 

Wderlic, wary. 

W^rlice, warily. 

W^r-loga, belier or breaker 
of his compact, one void 
of faith. 

fWser'S (wraS), wroth. 
Waesten, for vveston, laid 

Waestm, II. 2. fruit, form, 

growth, stature. 
Waestmbaernys, fruitfalness. 
\\?Qi2i, fluid, liquor, water. 
Wseter, III. 1. umter. Gr. 

Waeter-aeddre, I. 3. vein or 

stream of water. 
Wseterian, to water. 
Wugian, to wag, shake, move 

to and fro. 
Wuh, wag, II. 2. wall, paries. 
fWakede (wacode), grew 

weak ; from wucian. 
fWal (weal), wall. G^n 

avval,^o to the wall. 
Wtilawa, alas ! 
Wald, II. 2. iveald, wood, 

Walde, for vvolde. 
fWalden (wealdan), to rule, 

Waldend. See Wealdend. 
tWaldinge, for waldend. 
Walsingaham, Walsingham, 

in Norfolk. 
Wan, won, dark, dusky, 

Wandian, to fear, blench. 
Wang. See Wong. 
Wanian, to ivatie, v. a. to di- 
minish, V. n. to decrease. 
Wann. See Winnan. 
Wansi^, II. 2. misfortune. 
fWarchen (wraecce), exik. 
f/ward. See IwarSe. 
Warnian,to beware,takeheed. 



Waru, III. 3. ware^ mer- 
chandise. Ger. Waare. 

Waru, III. 3. the collective 
body of inhabitants of a 
place (Gr. 104, 295); 
used only in composition. 

f/warSe (gewearS), was, 
became ; from geweorSan. 


Water, for waeter. 

G^ewaterian. See Wsete- 

Waxgeorn, voracious. 

Wea-gesiS, II. 2. associate in 

GewedX^i 11.2. power. Used 
often in plur. 

Wealdan, 1 3 wylt, pret. 

G^ewealdan, > weold, pp. 

6^wyldan, J wealden, to 
wield, govern, sway, have 
in power, 

Wealdend, II. 2. ruler, so- 
vereign. Gr. 118. 

Weal-gat, III. 1. wall- or 

Wealhstdd, II. 2. interpreter. 

Weall, II. 2. wall, murus. 
Ger. Wall, Dan. Void. 

Weallan, pret. weoll, to burn, 
boil, run (as a sore), raa- 
nare, Gr. 234. 

Weard, II. 2. warden, guar- 

Weard, II. 3. ward, guard. 

Weard, towards. 

Wearg, II. 2. wretch, villain. 

Wearm, warm. 

Weaxan, 3 wyx^, pret. weox, 
to wax, grow, Gr. 234. ' 

Weder, II. 1. weather, tem- 
pest. Ger. Wetter. 
Wedewe. See Widevve. 
Wefod, i. q. weofod. 
W^g, II. 2. way. Ger. Weg, 
Wegan, pret. waeg, to bear, 

Wegferend, II. 2.wayfaring. 

Gr. 118. 
Weg-nest, "1 II. 3. viaticum. 
Weg-nyst, J See Nest. 
Wei la wei ! welaivay / 

Weig. See Weg. 
Wei, well, almost ; wel ge- 

hwagr, for the most part, 

pene ubique. 
Wela, weal, prosperity ; in 

plur. riches. 
Welded, II. 3. benefit. 
fWelde (wealdan), to rule, 

fWelden (wealden), govern- 

'*'""' \ to enrich. 

Weler, II. 2. Up. 



Welig, weleg, wealthy, rich, 

flourishing, bountiful. 
Welinga-ford, Wallingford. 
Welwillendnes, benevolence. 
Welwyllende, benevolent. 
G^eweman, to seduce, entice. 
Wenan, pret. wende, to ween, 

think, expect. 
Wendan, 1 3 went, to 
(jewendan, / wend, go, 
turn, return. Gr. 207. 
Hence our went. 
W^nde. See Wenan. 
Wendel-sde, II. 2. & II. 3. the 





Mediterranean ; Black 

fWennd, turned, trans- 

Weofod, III. \. altar. 

Weonodland. See Wineda- 

Weop. See Wepan. 

^'''"'- lii.i. 

Geweorc. J 

Weorcan. 1 c, ,,,. 
^ > bee Wyrci 

Creweorcan. j '' 

Weorpan, 3 wyrp^, pret. 

wearp, pi. wurpon, to 

throw, cast. 
Weoruld-gebyrdu, III. 3. 

loorldly birth. 
Weoruldhad. See Woruld- 

G'evveorj^an, "I 3 p. he wyrt5, 
Weoi'f>an, J pret. wearS, 

pi. wurdon, to become, be, 

happen. Gr. 245. 
G^eweor6an, gewyr^an (v. 

impers. with ace. of pers.), 

to agree, settle, to seem 

good or fitting, to be agreed, 
WeorSe, worthy. 
WeorSfullice, worthily. 
6^eweorJ)iaii, to honour, dig- 
WeortJmynt, II. 2,3. dignity, 

authority, honour. 
Weor]?ung, honour, glory. 

Gr. 83. 
Wepan, pret. weop, to weep. 

Gr. 234. 
Wepnas, E.Angl.forwaepnu. 
Wepnian, to arm. 
Wer, II. 2. mauy husband, 


1, 1 II. 1. host, army ; 

ij p.i 


Werod, / p. 96, 1. 23, we 
rod is feminine. 

Werhad, manhood, male. 

Werian, to defend. 

Werig, weary, accursed. 

Werig-ferhS, depraved, wick- 
ed of soul. 

Werod, sweet. 

fWerri, to war, waste. 

W^erS, weor^, worth. 

fWerSede (wraSode), irri- 
tated, tormented; from 

Wesan, eom, eart, is (ys), 
imperf. waes, etc., subj. 
beo, wfere, to be. Gr. 
233. Ger. wesen. 

West, west. 

tWest. See Uest. 

Westan, to lay waste. 

Westan, from the west. Gr. 

West-dgel, II. 2. the west. 

Weste, waste, desert, desei't- 
ed, barren. 

Westen, III. \. waste, desert, 

Western, western. 

West-norS, north-tcest. 

West-S^ ( Vester Hav), that 
part of the German Ocean 
which washes the western 
shores of Denmark, from 
the Elbe, and Norway, 

Westweard, westward. 

fWet (hwaet), what. 

Wexan. See Weaxan. 

G^ewexen, geweaxen, waxen, 
grown. See Weaxan. 

Wet5er, II. 2. wether. 



f Whase, whoso. 

f Whulchere (hsv^Xc), which. 

Wiarald, E. Angl. for wo- 

Wfc, II. 1. dwelling, con- 

Wicg, II. 1. horse. 

Wfcian, to abide, take up 
quarters, encamp, hospi- 

Wicing, II. 2. viking, pi- 

Wfcnere, II. 2. steward. 

Wic-stow, II. 3. place for a 

f Wid, wit (wit5), against. 

Wfd, wide, broad; wfde, 
widely, far. 

fWit } ("^'^)' ^^*^' 

Widewe, I. 3. widow. 

Widl,^M, pollution. 

Wfdm^rsian, 1 . 

6^ewrdm^rsian, j 
brate, make known. 

Wff, II. 1. wife, vjoman. 

Wffhad, womanhood, fe- 

Wffian, to wive, marry. 

Wffman, III. 2. woman. 

Wig, II. 2. war, warfare, 
battle. O. N. ^H^, caedes. 

Wiga, umrrior. 

Wig-bed, II. I. altar ; from 
wig, temple, and bed, ta- 
ble; whence possibly, by 
contraction, the word we- 

Wiggend, II. 2. warrior. 

Wig-heard, bold in war. 

Wig-hus, II. 1. war 'house, 

Wig-plega, war-play, battle. 

Wi-haga, wig-haga, war or 
battle hay, a compact body 
protected by shields, per- 
haps synon. with wsel- 

Wiht, aught. 

G^ewiht, III. 1. weight. 

Wfkian. See Wician. 

Wild, wild. 

G^ewildan. See Wealdan. 

Wild-deor, II. 1. wild-beast. 

Willa, will. 

Willan. See Wyllan. 

Willsumnes, devotion. 

r^ ., .' \ to will, desire. 
Gewilnian, J 

Willung, ^ 

Crewilnung, >will, desire. 

-j-Wilning, J 

Wilrincgawer^, Worling- 
worth, in Suffolk, between 
Hoxne and Framlingham. 

Wimman, i. q. wffman. 

WTn, IL 1. wine. 

Wfn-bog, II. 2. vine-bough. 

Wind, II. 2. wind. 

Windan, "I pret. wand, pi. 

G^ewindan, j wundon, to 
wind, roll, revolve, whirl, 
brandish, surround, to 
come forth with a wind- 
ing motion. 

Wfne, II. 2. friend, comrade. 
O.N. Vinr, Dan. Ven. 

Winedaland, Weonodland, 
the country of the Venedi 
or Wends. Under the 
name of Vindland was 



at one time comprised the 
ivhole coast-land from the 
Schlei to the mouth of the 

Wfneard, 1 II. 2. vineyard. 

Wmgeard, j Dan. Vin- 

Wfne-drihten, II. 2. beloved 

Wfn-gedrinc, II. 2. wine- 
drinking, symposium. 

Wfnlic, winelike, resembling 

fWinn, ^ possession, win, 

fWinne, J gain? 

Cevvinn, ill. 1. ivar, struggle, 

Winnan, pret. vvann, pi. 
wunnon, to ivin, war, 
struggle icith. 

Wfn-sad, satiated with wine. 

Winter, III. 2. winter. Gr. 
98. N.B. The Anglo- 
Saxons and other North- 
ern nations reckoned by 
winters instead of years. 

Winter-selt, winter -station, 

WTn-treow, III. 1. vine. 

W ircean. See Wyrcan. 

Wire, Wear, 

Wirian. See Wyrian. 

Wfs, wise. 

G^ewis, gevviss, certain, con- 
scious. Ger. gewiss. 

Wfsa, wise man, sapiens. 
Also, witness. 

Wiscan, to wish. 

Wfsdom, wisdom. 

Wfse, I. 3. wise, manner, 
thing, business, negotium. 

f/wise (gewis), to iwise, to 

Wisian, ~] to teach, rule, 

Wissian, > direct, point 

Gewissian, J out. 

Wisle, the Vistula. 

Wisleland, the country for- 
merly called Little Po- 
land, in which the Vistula 
has its source. 

Wisle-mu}>a (Weichsel- 
miinde), mouth of the Vis- 
tula. That branch of the 
Vistula, which, after re- 
ceiving the Elbing, flows 
into the sea at Danzig, 

Wfslice, wisely. 

G^evvislice, 1 surely, certain- 

Txewisslice, J ly. 

Wist, II. 3. meal, repast, 

f Wit (wiS), against, with. 

Cevvit, III. 1. wit, se7ise, iti- 

Wfta, wise man, senator, 

G^ewfta, witness. 

Wftan, ic wat, pi. witon, 
pret. wiste, to know, be 
conscious of. Gr. 218. 

G^ewftan, pret. -wat, pi. -wi- 
ton, to go, depart, retire. 
Generally followed by the 
dative of the subject 

Wite, III. 1. punishment, 
plague, torment. 

Wftega, prophet, wise man. 

Wftegestre, I. S. prophetess. 
Gr. 296. 

Wftegu ng, prophecy, divina- 



fWiteles, irreproachable. 

G^evvitenes, witness, testi- 
mony, departure, death, 

tWitenn (witan), to know. 

tWiterrlig, certain. 

Witland, the country border- 
ing on the east bank of the 

Witleast, II. ^. folly. 

G^ewit-loca, mind, sense. 

(jewitnes, witness. 

G^evvftnian, to punish, tor- 

Witodlice, verily, for, vero, 
autem, profecto. 

fWitt, ive two. 

Gewittig, sensible, rational. 

Wi6, against, towards, with, 
ahng, for, in exchange 
for ; as, beagas wi^ ge- 
beorge, in exchange for 
safety. Gr.4II. 

WiS-ael'tan, behind. 

WiScweSan, to speak 
against. See CweSan. 

Wi^erian, to oppose. 

Wij>erlean, II. \. retribution, 

Wi^ertrod, return. 

WiServveard, adverse. In 
North. Gloss, the adver- 
sary, i. e. the devil. 

Wijjcrwinna, adversary. 


Wi Rinnan, within. 

Wi^metan, to compare, to be 
like, equal. Gr. 205. 

Wi^sacau, pret. wiSsoc, to 
deny, renounce. Gr. 

Wi^standan, to withstand. 

oppose. See Standan. 
Wi|)utan, without. 
Wlaette, nausea. 
Wlanc, proud, lofty, grand. 
Wlftan, pret. wlat, pi. wliton, 

to look, see. 
Wlfte, II. 2. form, aspect, 

fWliten (wlfte), aspect, etc. 
Wlitig,/«2>, beautiful. 
Wlitigian, to form, beautify. 
Wo, woh, curve, bending ; 

to woge bringan, to lead 

fWoeh (hwjdc), which. 
Wod, wood or wode, mad. 

fWodeloker, more woodly 
or fervently ; from wod, 
mad, raging. 

Wodnes-daeg, Wednesday. 

Wodnys, madness, insa- 

Woh. See W^o. 

W^olcen, III. \. welkin, cloud. 
Gr. 89. Ger. Wolken. 

Worn, II. 2. stain, spot. 

WomfuU, sinful, defiled. 

Wong, wang, II. 2. field, 

fWonien (wunian), to dwell. 

Wop, II. 2. whoop, weeping, 
cry. Gr. 298. See We- 

Word, II. 1 . word, command- 

fWor^, worf, worth. 

Worhte, wrought; pret. of 

Worms. See Wyrms. 



Worn, II. 1 ? number^ mul- 
titude^ body, 

fWoruh (weor^e), worth, 

Woruld, II. 3, tvorld. Gr. 

Woruld-buende, world- 

dwelling, inhabitant of 
earth. Gr. 118. 

Woruld-craeft, II. 2. worldly 
craft or calling. 

Woruld-gebyrd, II.3. world- 
ly birth. 

Woruld -gesdelig, rich in 
worldly possessions. 

Woruldhad, secular state or 

Woruldlic, worldly. 

Woruld-nyt, II. 3. worldly 
or temporal use. 

Woruld-fing, II. 1. ivorldly 
thing, matter. 

Wos, II. 1. oose, juice. 

fWouh, wo]? (woh), error, 

fWowe, woe, misery. 

Wracian, to be in exile, 

Wracu, III. 3. vengeance. 

Wrsec, II. 3. exile. 

WraecsitS, II. 2. exile, jour- 

WraeS, II. 3. ivrath. 

G^ewraSian, to anger. 

Wrecan, "1 pret. wraec, pp. 

G^ewrecan, J -wrecen, to 
avenge, punish. Gr. 229. 

Wrecan, pret. wrehte, to 

fWrecche, wretch, exile. 

Wrecend, II. 2. avenger. 
Gr. 118. 

Wregan, to accuse. 

tWre})]?ede (wra'Sode), irri- 
tated, tormented. 
Gewringan, pret. -wrung, 

pi. -wrungon, to wring. 
Writ, 1 III. 1. writ, scrip- 
GewYit, J ture, writing, 

Wrftan, pret. wrat, pi. wri- 

ton, to write. 
Wrftere, II. 2. writer, scribe. 
Wrixendlice, in turn, reci- 
GewrfSan, pret. -wmS, pi. 

-wridon, to bind. Gr. 248. 
Wri^an, to bud, fructify. 
Wuce, I. 3. week. Ger. 

Woehe, Dan. Uge. 
fWuder (hwider), whither. 
Wudu, III. 2. wood, forest. 
Wudu-hunig, II. 1. wild 

Wuduwe, I. 3. widoiv. 
Wulder, wuldor. III. 1. 

Wulder-blaed, II. 3. glorious 

fruit, or reward. 
Wulderful, glorious. 
Wuldor-Faeder, glorious 

Wuldorfullice, gloriously. 
Wuldrian, to glorify. 
Wule, for wile. 
Wulf, II. 2. wolf. 
fWun (wyn),joy. 
Gewuna,, custom, habit, wont. 
Wund, II. 3. wound, sore. 
Wtind, wounded. Ger. 

Wunden-locc, wounden-lock, 

having plaited hair. 
Gewundian, to wound. 



Wundor, III. 1. wonder, mi- 
racle. Gr. 93. 

Wundorful, 'i wonderful., 

Wundorlic, / wondrous ; 
wunderlice, wonderfully. 

Wundrian, to wonder, ad- 
mire ; gov. gen. 

Wundrung, astonishment, 

Wtine, wuna, wont, practice, 

Cewunelic, usual, custo- 

Wunian, "1 to dwell, rest, 

(xewunian, J stay, continue, 
exist, be. 

G^ewunian, to be wont. Ger. 

fWunliche (wynlice), agree- 
ably, delightfidly. 

fWunn iy^^Vi), joy, pleasure. 

Wunung, dwelling. Ger. 

WiircaeS, for wyrcat5. 

Wurmes, for wyrmas, or 

Wurpan, i. q. weorpan. 

Wurtruma. See Wyrtru- 

WurSful, worthy, venerable, 

t/wur])i (geweor)?ian), to 
honour, revere, value. 

Wur^ian, weor^ian, to wor- 
ship, honour, revere. 

Wur^lic, worthy ; wurSlice, 

t/wur])en (geweorSan), to 
be, become, befall. Let 
me al iwurj^en, let all c?e- 
volve on me. 

WurSmynt. See Weort5- 

WurSscipe, wor ship, dignity , 

Wutum, for uton. 

Wydewa, widower ; also 
corruptly for wydewe, 

Wydewe. See Wuduwe. 

G^ewyldan. See Wealdan. 

Wylla. See Willa. 

Wyllan, pret. wolde, to will. 
Lat. velle. Gr. 217. 

Wyllan, pret. weoU, to well, 
flow. See Weallan. 

Wylm, IL 2. heat, fervour. 

Wylsumnes, devotion. 

Wylte (Wilzen), a people 
who settled in Germany in 
the sixth or seventh cen- 
tury. They occupied a 
part of Pomerania, the 
eastern part of Mecklen- 
burg, and the Mark of 
Brandenburg. The river 
Havel was the boundary 
between them and the So- 

Wyn, IF. 3. joy, pleasure, 
delight. Ger. Wonne. 

Wynsum, winsome, agree- 
able, pleasant, sweet. 

Wynsumnys, ivinsomeness, 
pleasantness, sweetness. 

Wyrcan, 1 pret. worhte, 

G^ewyrcan, / to work, make, 
produce, do, construct, 
dare operam. 

Wyrd, II. 3. fate; from 

Gewyrht, III. 1. deed, de- 



sert ; buton gewyrhtum, 

Wyrhta, wright, artificer, 

Wyrian, wyrgan, wyrigan, 

to curse. 
Wyrm, II. 2. tvorm, serpent. 
Wyrms, II. 2. putrefaction^ 

corruption, pus. 
Wyrm-sele, II. 2. hall of 

Wyrnan, to warn, deny, re- 
fuse, parry, guard. 
Wyrpan, weorpan. See 


Wyrse, }«""■*"• ^■"•P-^'" 
Wyrst, worst, sup. of yfel. 

Gr. 51. 
Wyrt, II. 3. wort, herb, plant. 

Dan. Urt. 
Wyrt-gemanc,III.l. mixture 

of herbs, perfume. Gr. 

Wyrtruma, root. 
Wyr^e, i. q. weor^e. 
Gewyslice. See Gewislice. 
Wyxt5. See Weaxan. 

Yean, pret. yhte, to eke, in- 

Ydel, idle, vain, useless ; on 
idel, vainly, frustra. 

Yfel, III. 1. evil. 

Yfel, adj. evil. 

Yfele, evilly, badly. 

Yfel-haebbende, afflicted. 
Gr. 118. 

Yfelnes, evil. 

Yfemest, uppermost, highest. 

Yl. See Igl. 

Ylc, same. 

Yld, i. q. yldo. 

Yldest, eldest, sup. of eald. 

Ylding, II. 3. delay. 

Yldo, yldu, III. 3. age. Gr. 

Yip, II. 2. elephant. 

Ylpen-baenen, of ivory, 

Ylpes-ban, II. 1. ivory. Ger. 

Ymb, ^ about, after, accord- 

Ymbe, / ing to. 

Ymbe-spraec, II. 3. a speak- 
ing about. 

Ynibgang, II. 2. circuit. 

Ymbhvvyrft, II. 2. circum- 
ference, compass, orbit, ro- 
tation, world; on ymb- 
hwyrfte, around. 

Ymbryne, II. 2. circuit, 
course, ember (iveek). 

Ymbscfnan, 1 to shine about 

Ymbscynan, j or around. 
See Scfnan. 

Ymbscrydan, to clothe about, 

Ymbsittan, to sit round. 

Ymbsprecan, to speak about. 
See Sprecan. 

Ymbtrymian, to surround, 

Ymbutan, about, circiter. 
This word is frequently 
divided per tmesin, as, 
ymb hancred utan. 

Ync, II. 2. inch. 



Yppan, to disclose. 

Yrfe, III. 1. inheritance. 
Ger. Erbe. 

Yrfenuma, heir. 

YrmS, III. 3. misery, dis- 

Yrnan, pret. am, pi. urnon, 
to run. Gr. 24*2. 

Yrre, II. 2. ire, anger. 

Yrre, angry. 

(reyrsian, to be angry. 

Yr'5, 11.2). produce, seges. 

YrSling, II. 2. husbandman, 

Ys. See Wesan. 

Ysen, II. 1 . iron. 

Ysle, ash, favilla. 

Ytemest, superl. of tit, last, 
uttermost, utmost. Gr. 51. 

Ytst. See Etan. 

Yttra, outer, comp. of ut. 

Yttren, of otter s skin. 

YS, II. 3. wave, flood. 

pa, when, then, as; ya^ja, 

when, as; f a-gyt, J>a gena, 

yet. Ger. da. 
piaec, II. 1. thatch, covering. 
paen (])eng). See pegen. 
peene, for fone, ace, the, 

that. Gr. 147. 
paenne, i. q. ponne. 
peer, there, where. 
psere, fem., the, that. Gr. 

peerinne, therein. 
paermid, therewith. 
paeron, therein, thereon. 

pae rr i h te,straightways,forth- 
with, instantly, just. 

paerto, thereto, thereof, be- 
sides ; J)aerto-eacan, there- 
to, besides. 

paer-ufon-on, thereupon, 

paes,ybr this, therefore, after; 
J)aBs for, therefore, on that 
account; to ])aes, to that 
degree, so, adeo ; J^aes )?e. 
because that, eo quod, 
propterea quod. 

paeslic, apt, equal. 

past, rieut., the, that. Ger. 
das. Gr. 146. 

past, that, ut, so that. Ger. 

pastte, for p»aBt pe. Gr. 

palian, 1 to consent, ap- 

Ge])'dG.-dn, j prove, allow. 

page, I q. J>a. 

ipaht (poht), thought ; from 

tpan (f»onne), than. 

pane, II. 2. thank. 

Ge])3,nc, II. 2. thought, mind, 

pances,<7m^«>, gratia; Driht- 
nes ))ances, Dei gratia vel 

pancian, ") to thank; with 

Ge])3inc'mu, / dat. of pers. 
and gen. of thing. 

pancol-mod, grateful-mind- 

pancung, thanking, gratia- 
rum actio. 

Gep-dug, gefwang, II. 2. 
thong, sinew. 



t. ' > thence. 
Panonne, J 

par, i. q. ^aer. 

H'^^^"' \ therein, thereon. 
paron, J 

pe, E. Angl. for se. Gr. 
p. 51. Also, thee. 

pe, who, which, that. Gr. 

pe, or. See Hw8e))er . . . pe. 

pe, o!5, in proportion as. 

pe . . . pe, in interrogative 
sentences, is used like the 
Latin an : see p. 10, v. 30. 

pe, py, used before compa- 
ratives, like the Engl. the. 

tpe8e\ves(])eawas), manners. 

peah. See peon. 

peah, though, yet, still, how- 

peah- hw severe, i/et, never- 

Gepeaht, III. 1. council, 
counsel; from ge))en can. 

6re]7eahta, counsellor, ad- 

G^epeahtynd, -tend, IL 2. 
counsellor, adviser. Gr. 

pearf, IL 3. need; to )?earfe, 
in need. 

pearfa, jooor, needy. 

pearfan, pret. |)orfte, to need, 
may. Gr. 218. Ger. 

pearfleas, needless ; ))earf- 
lease, needlessly. 

pearle, very, exceedingly, 
very much, too much. 

pearl mod, hold, strenuous, 

peaw, II. 2. thew, custom, 

rite, in pi. morals, man- 

peawlice, decently, manner- 
ly, obediently. 

tped (y^e^di), people. 

pegen, II. 2. thane, servant, 

pegenlice, thanelihe, in a 
manner hecoining a faith- 
ful follower. 

tpe33, they. 

tpe^^m (|)am), them. 

tpe33re, their. 

pegon. See picgan. 

peh. See feah. 

tpe-3et (|)a-gyt), yet, still. 

pe-laes, lest; pe lajs J^e, lest 

Peng.} S^e pegen. 
pencan, 1 pret. })ohte, to 
G^e]7encan, J thinh, devise. 

Gr. 214. 
pen den, while. 
tpene (j»onne), than. 
penian, to serve, minister. 
penne, i. q. po\me. 
G^eJ>ensum, serviceable, offi- 
penung, service (divine^, 

repast, coena. 
peo, E. Angl. for seo. 
tpeo, ]?o (]?a), then. 
peod, II. 3. people, nation ; 

J>eoda folc, nation. 
GepeoA, II. 1. language, 

tongue, country. 
GepeoAdLU, to join, associate, 

peoden, II. 2. lord, chief, 

hing ; formed from })eod, 



people, analogously with 
drihten, from driht. Goth, 

peod-guma, man of the coun- 
try, man. 

(?eJjeodnes, association, de- 

peodscipe, people, nation, 

peof, II. 2. thief. 

peon, 1 3 ]?yh6, pret. })eah, 

Ge])e6n,j pi. fugon, to 
thrive, grow, flourish. Gr. 

peonan, for ])anon. 

peos, she, this, fem. Gr. 

peostru, i. q. j^ystru. 

peotan, 3 J?yt, pret. feat, pi. 
J)uton, to howl. Gr. 250. 


peowddm, service, worship. 

peowe, I. 3. ^ female ser- 

peowen, II. 3. j vant, an- 

peowian, to serve. 

peowracu, III. 3 ? threat. 

per-inne. See paerinne. 

pes, masc, this. Gr. 146. 

peues (})eawas), manners. 

pic, thick. 

picgan, pret. J)ah, pi. J>egon, 
to take, partake, eat. 

Ge])ih.'6. See peon. 

pi-laes, lest. 

pfn, thy, thine. Gr. 137. 

pincan, 1 pret. J)uhte, to 

G^epinean, j seem. 

Ge]>inc6, II. 3. honour, dig- 
nity, merit, excellence. 

pinen, II. 3. female servant, 

ping, II. 1. thing; for his 

fingum, on his account, 
pingian, to pray, intercede. 
pingraeden, 11.3. intercession. 
piod, i. q. ))eod. 
piostro, for ]>ystru. 
pire, for Jjfnre and ffnra. 

pi wen, II. 3. female servant, 

Ge]>oht, II. 2. thought, coun- 
cil, machination. 
Ge]>oht, pp. of ge))encan. 
polemod, patient. 
tpolenn, for J)6Iian. 
polian, 1 to suffer, endure, 
(jeJ>olian, J tolerare ; Dan. 

taale, O. N. J)ola. 
polmod. See polemod. 
pon, for J>am ; to |>on faet, in 

order that, and similar 

Ge])onc, II. 2. thought. 
pon col, thoughtful, medita- 
ponc-wyrSe, thankworthy. 
pone, ace. masc, him, that. 

Gr. 146. 
ponne, then, than, when, yet, 

but, ponne ponne, 

when then, 

ponon, i. q. panon. 
pononweard, thenceward. 
porfte. See pearfan. 
poterung, wail, lamentation, 

prael, II. 2. thrall, slave, O. 

N. prael, Dan. Trsel. 



prafung, blame, reproof, 

prah, frag, II. 3. time, space 
of time. 

6re]}rang, throng, press. 

preagan, Jjrean, 1 pret. 

G^ejji-eagan, j J>reade, 
to vex, torment, punish, 
blame, reproach, reprove. 

preat, II. 2. company, band. 

pred, thread. 

preo, three. 

preottyne, thirteen. 

pre-rej>re, trireme. 

pri. See preo. 

pridda, third. 

pringan, pret. |)rang, pi. 
))rungon, to throng, press, 

prinnys. See prynnys. 

prio, ))reo, three. 

priste, daring, bold. Ger. 
dreist, Olg. thrist. 

6?e)?ristian, to dare. 

prittig, thirty. 

priwa, thrice. Gr. 185. 

proc, III. 1. table. 

prote, I. 3. throat. 

prowian, to suffer. 

prowung, suffering, passion. 

pry. See preo. 

prycean, to tread on, op- 

pryfeald, threefold, triple. 

prym, II. 2. glory, magnifi- 
cence, grandeur. Also, 
body {of men), turma, 
heap, congeries. 

prymme, i. q. prymraum, 
fortiter7 See Kemble, 
Gl. to Beow. V. jjrym. 

prymful, glorious. 

prymlic, grand, magnificent. 

prym-setl. III. 1. seat of ma- 
jesty, throne. 

Prynes, j ^ 

prynnys,/ ^ 

pryste, daring, bold. 

pry-wintre, three years old. 

pufe, II. 2. standard, tufa. 

G^ejjuge, from ^e])e6n. 

puhte. See pincan. 

/j)uncgen, for ge]?ungen. 

tpuncheS (]?incS), seems. 

G^eJ>ungen, ripe, advanced, 
profectus. Also, illus- 
trious, venerable, upright, 
religious. From ]>ingan. 

purh, through, by. Ger. 

purhbrucan, to enjoy, per- 
frui. See Brucan. 

purhdon, to pierce, penetrate; 
J?urhdyd, penetrated. See 

purhfaran, to pass through, 
pierce. See Faran. 

tpurhlokenn, tolookthrough. 

tpurlisekenn, to seek through. 

purhwadan, pret. -wod, to 
pass through, penetrate. 

purhwunian, to continue, 
persist, permaneo. This, 
like many other A.S. com- 
pounds, is a literal trans- 
lation of the Latin word. 

purstig, thirsty. 

tpurSout, throughout. 

pus, thus. 

pusend, ILL III. \, thousand. 
Gr. 177. Ger. Tausend, 
Dan. Tusind. Gr.l77. 

pusend-hfw, assuming a 



thmisand shapes, millefor- 

pusend-m^lum, by thou- 

puton. See peotan. 

Ge])wgerian, to agree. 

pw^rlaecan, pret. laehte, to 

(7ejjw^rnes, concord, consent. 

pwang, II. 2. thong. 

tpwerrt, thwart. Also, en- 
tirely, quite; as, fwerrt 
ut, quite out. Dan. tvert, 
used in the same sense. 

pwyrnys, cross, affliction, 

Py. See ])e. 

Py? for, because, therefore, 
nam. Dan. thi. 

py-lass. See pe-laes. 

pyder, thither. 

pyfel, II. 2. shrub, thorn. 

Gepyhie, for gejjyhti (ge- 
J?yhtig), doughty ? 

pyle, contr. of J?yllic. 

Gejjyld, II. 3. III. \. patience. 
Ger. Geduld. 

Gepyldig, patient. Ger. Ge- 

pyllic, the like, such. 

Pyrfan. See pearfan. 

Pyrfen. See pearfan. 

Pyringas, the Thuringians. 

\>yv\. III. i. hole. 

Pyrscel-fldr, II. 3. thresh- 
ing floor; from Jjyrscel, 

pyrstan, to thirst. 

pys, this. 

pyslic, such. 

pyster, J>ystre, dark. 

pystru, pystro, plur. III. 1 . 
darkness. Gr. 92. 

pywan, to drive, urge. 




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