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Coale and Maxwell, Baitimore; Van Winkle and Wiley, A. T. Goodrich, W. B. 
Gilley, James Eastbnm and Co., Kirk and Mercien, ^eW'York; R. P. and C. 
Williams, Boffon; H. Whipple, Salem; C. Whipple, J^ewburyport; Abraham 
Shearman, JVas-Bed^bfftl; Tappan and Foster, James F. Shores, 'Portimmith; 
Jo^ah Whitman, Poriland; George A Trumbull, WorcuUr^ Mass.; John 
Johnson, PraMmce^ R. L; James Hammond, ITewpcTt; Sheldon and Good* 
lich, Hartfordy Conn.; Hezekiah Rowe, Jfewhaten; E. F. Backus, AUnmy^ 
N. Y.; W. E. Nonnan, Hui$on; P. Potter, Poughkeepne; D. Fenton, Trefn- 
iofh N. J.; John M. Snowden, PiUtburt^ Pa.; J. Wyeth, Harrisburg; Steu- 
ben Butler, WUkeibarre; W. Hamilton, LancaHer; James Coates, Post-Mas- 
ter, JVeiTtftoiofi; M. R. Lockerman, f^bnimgUm; Joseph MiUigan, OeorgB' 
Umn; J. Kennedy and Son, AUsandna; P. Uottom, lUckmond; W. F. Gray, 
Frederickilmrg; J. W. Campbell, PtAenHmrg; C. Bonsai, JforfoUc; Lawrence 
Tremple, Post-Master, Sluunlofi, Vifg.; J. T. Lewis, PendlOon^ 8. C; John 
Mill, CkarUtlonj S. C; D. Mao Rea, FmfdUmOey N. C; Joseph Gales, it«- 
Idgk; William T. Williams, ScmmnoA, Geo.; Dr. A. Conningltam, AuguiUn 
Joseph Wood, Post-Master, Hartfards WUliam Essex and Son, Lese&giony 
Ky.; John Lisle, Paru, Ky.; Butler and Wood, Frankfwi, Ky.; S. Lowiy, 
(^uidnnaHy Ohio; Jeremiah H. Haliach, SifetAemUh, Ohic^ Benjamin Hanna, 
Jfmo»Orleani; Edward Randolph, Post-Master, PiackneyvUki M. T. 

James Maxwell, Printer. 


' • . • 


BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the Istday of July, in the forty* 
first year of the independence of the United States of America, A. D. 
1817, Moses Tbomas^ of the said district, hath deposited in this office the 
title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words foI<^ 
lowingT) to wit: 


In confiinnity to die Act of Congress of the United States entitled, << An 
act for the enconragement of learning', hy securing the copies of maps, 
charts, and books to the anthors and proprietors of such copies during the 
times thenin mentiooed.** And alio to die act, entitled, <' An act supi^- 
mentary to an aot entitled ^* An act Air the encouragement of learning, 
b^ securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the anthors and pro- 
prietors of such oo(nes daring the times therein mentioned, $M extending 
die benefits thereof to the arts of derigning, engraring, and etching histo- 
rical and other printo.'' 

CUrk of fhA Dulrict cf P^mnm^lwmia, 

? / ' 




AboriginesofNew South Wales, . . . « . 429 

Address, Mr. Kemble's Farewell, . • « - 530 

-Adolphe, a novel, reriew of, ----- •* 236 

Adviser, (he, from Ackerman*s Repository, • - - - 240 

Agriculture, royal society of, at Ghent, - - - - 120 

A^cnhure and Statistics of Italy, ^^ « - * - S69 

, sir John Sinclair's code of, .... • . 350 

Alanns in Eng^land, history of, - - - - - 270 
AUoander, a miser starved to death, .... 437 

Allen, his best pipe hand, . ^ . . 5^3 

AnalysteoftheEdinburg^hReTiew, N0.LIV, - -* - 158 

Quarterly Review, No. XXXI, - • - 161 

— — XXXII, - . - 220 

I I ■ Edinburgh Review, No. LV, - - - - 26S 

' ■ ■ ■ Jonruid of Science and ihe Arts, No. VI, - • 298 
Andre, captors of, vindicated, - - - .... 307 

Anecdote of a French footman, - - ... - 70 

■ 1 young Turk and his Teacher, - - - - 77 

Anecdotes of Gypsies, .... 499,510 

Antiquarian reaearchefr in Africa, . . < - - 437 

Ants, a famous nest of lai^ ones, described by J. D. Striltt, - - 79 

Arnold, conspiracy of, account of, - • - - -< 307 
Astroaomioal calculationB of India, ...... 401 

AuctioUf'saies by, among the ancients, .... 425 

Audley tiie usurer, a lawyer, . . . . « 410 

Bank of England and the public, . ^ • • - 407 

Barclay, the pedestrian, his training, .... - 382 

Barnes, captain John, his Tour through St. Helena, • * 145 

Barton's Vegetoble Materia Medica, .... 176,320 

Bayard, the hon. James A., tribute to, - - - • 121 

Benezet, Anthony, life of, reviewed, ^ . « . . 106 
Bentham's Treatise on the Impolicy of Regulatittg the Inteftst of Money 

by Law, ----.--- 194 

Bic^graphical sketch of Hannah More, ... - - 247 

■ James Hogg, . - - . ib. 

■ James Lackington, - - - - ib. 

sir Richai^ Phillips, . . . ib. 

Mrs. Hester Lynch Pio«gi, .... 248 

Madame de Steel-Holsteip, - - - ib. 

Bloody Skinnishes of the Gypsies, ... 949 

Bottling of Wines, best mode of, • . . .^ 479 

BookmakiDg, the art of, described, - - - * - -115 

Boigia's antiquarian researches, ^ . . . ^8, 437 



Blackstone on the Origin ^fSlaTeiy, 
Bourdeaux Wines, Claret, Itc., 
Biogley's Useful Knowledge, review of 
Birkbeok's Journey in America, reviewed, 
British Refuges permitted to return, 
British Navy, disposition of, 
Buchanan's Notice to British Subjects, 
Buonaparte's Life, by himself, 
Buigimdy Wines, and Wine of Beause, 

Canning, Mr., anecdote of, 
Census of Paris, - - - 

Chevalier St. George,. challenged, 
China, statistical account of, 
Chinese Tea Merchant's Declaration, 
Chimnies, New Method of Constructing, 
Chemistry, Agricultural, by Davy, 
Classification of Human luiowledge, by Bacon, 
Clarification of die Juice of the Sugar Cane, 
Cleigy of Virginia, their suit for tobacco, 
Clergyman, one requested to publish a Sermon, 
Cofiee Simmerer, described by John Carey, 
Colden's Life of Fulton, nqtice of, 
Coleridge's Sybelline Leaves, notice of^ 
College of Jesuits at Stonyhuist, 
St. Mary's, defence (^ 

Congelation, artificial, 
Congo Expedition, return from, 
— -— , expedition to, further account o( 
Constitution of the United States Opposed, 
Contrast, some striking ones exhibited in Paris, 
Conversations on Botany, notice of, 
Cooper's Lectures, notice of, - 
Cowper's Description of some Gypsies, 
Comelison's Oration at Ghent, translation of, 
Curiosities of Literature, by D'Israeli, 
Curiosity, a laughable instance of, - 
Custom-House officers in Boston and in London, 
Cuvier's Theory of the Earth, 

De Foe, author of Robinson Crusoe, 

Death, by the wind of a cannon ball, 

Dihuty of Mr. P. Henry, 

Delaplaine's Repository, Part 11, reviewed, 

Delaware, a Moraing's Walk in the State of. 

Description of Egypt, published in France, 

Destruction of AUmentaiy Substances, 

Despair, sonnet to, by H. T. F., 

Diamond cutting Glass, theory of, 

Diet, many remarks on, ... 

Discoveries, New, made in Egypt, 

Distillation of Sea Water, to make it portable, 

Dongolese Horses, .... 

Dog, worming of a, 

l^T^^ new one, for Searching after the Dead, 

Dry-Rot in Trees and Timber accounted for, 

Dunmore, Lord, his flight, 

Duty on Magazines, &., in France, 

Ban, artificial, for Deaf Persons, 
Earthquakes, several in a short time, 


- 472 

. 488 


. 516 


- 172 


- 361 

- 435 

- 299 


- 448 

- 254 

- 171 


- 342 

- 515 
. 464 


- 416 


- 219 

- 410 

- 483 

. 517 

. 343 

. 168 

. 343 






Econoaj of French Cookeiy, 

EdgewcMTth Family, aooount o4 

Edinbaqi^ Monthly Magaane, aoconnt of, 

Elastic Flaids, specific g:raTitie8 of, 

Elba, BuoDaparte's sitoation in it described, 

Elephant, attacked in Ceylon, 

English Bishoprics, tibe ralue of the, 

Enigma, a poetical one, by Lwd Byron, 

Emignnt's Guide, review o^ . . . 

Emption of Meant JEtna, 

Exports from Great Britain from 1792 to 1816, 

Expedition, Royal Literaiy, 

to C^ongo, further account of, 

Faa, Johnnie, a Gypsey, some account of, 
Fayette, general la, account oiy 
Fitch, his experiments on Steam-boats, 
Flame, sir U. Davy's opinion of it. 
Fogs, charged with the electric fluids, 
-Fnmce, state of educatioD, and of the press in, 
Friendly Islands, some account of, 
Fulton, Colden's life of, reviewed, 

Gases, escape of, through capillaiy tubes. 
Geology, outlines of, by Brando, 
Geological Society, transactions of, 
Genlis, Madame de, account of, 

, her works. 
Ginger, found efficacious in rheumatic affections, 
Grain, musty, how to sweeten it. 
Grave of a Soldier, poetry on, by E, J. . 
Gregson's Patent Furnace, 
Grenfell's Speech, 

Grosvenor, Mrs., sketch of her life, . 
<»eid-Neckit Will, a Gypsey Chief, 
Germany, Royal Literary Expedition from, 
Gypfiiea, Origin of the Scottish, 
Gordon, Old Jean, a Meg Merrilies, 

HaddriU's Point, engraved view of, 

Hare's Blow-pipe, .... 

Hayti, report of national schools in, 

Heat and cold, sensations of, 

Henderson on Negro slaves in the British colonies, reviewed, 

High-pressure steam engines, not safe, 

Horse-power, experiments on> 

Horsley's biblical criticism. 

Hospitals in Paris, report concerning, 

Humboldt's Travels, translated, 

Hypochondriacal affections treated of, 

Henry Patrick, his birth, education, &c.. 

History, Natural, . . v^ 

Hogg's Queen's Wake, - > ► 

Poetry on the Gypsies, 

— Account of some Gypsies, 
Hook, Factitious Story of John, ' 

Ich%oIogy of St Helena, . 
Independence, Declaration of, 
Indians, some in Connecticut, 





25, 39, 348 





. 519 

. 169 


. 264 




. 492 



. 422 




266, 257 


. 259 



441, 470 



Ifulocent Mao, an Account of an, . . 

Inquisition at Lisbon, proceedings of the. 
Insects of North America, descriptions c^ . 
Insunrection in Spain, ..... 
Italy, remarkable Catholic priest in, ... • 

Italy, Antiquities lately discovered in, 
Invention of Steam-boats by Fulton, 
Italy, the climate of, ..... 

James' River, view of, .... 

Je^rson, on the Commencement of the Revolution, 
Johnson's diary of a Journey, reviewed, 
Joliba, or Niger, expedition to, ... 

Josephine, an imaginary Lady, .... 

Joyce, reverend J., on Histoid and Geography, 
Journal of Science and the Arts, No. V., reviewed. 
Jurisprudence, medical dissertation on, 

Kemble's Farewell Address at the Theatre, 
Rjiowledge, Bingley's Useful, reviewed, 

.-Ladies of France, ..... 

LallaRookh, apoem, by Moore, 
Lament of Tasso, a poem, by Lord Byron, 
Languedoc Wines, account of, 
Lancasterian System of Education, 
Lai^e Lie and the LitUe Lie, 
Lee's Draught rejected in C/Ongress, 
Leyden's Description of the Gypsies, 

•Letters on the State of Education, and of the Press, in France, 
Letter to Betsey, from her father, 
Letters from Margaret Bonaparte, 
Life of Omar Bashaw, Dey of Algiers, 
— ^ Patrick Henry, reviewed. 
Line, ceremony of crossing the, described. 
Lithography, or Engraving in Stone, 
Livingston's Right of Steam Navigation, 
Locusts of New South Wales, .... 
Locusts of North America, some account of, 
Lord Lyttie ton's Dream and Death, . . i 

Lynch's Law, and the roasted turkey, 

Macauly, letter from, respecting the African Institution, . S3 

Magnetism, Animal, in repute, ..... 440 

Mahogany Saw-Dust converted into Paste, . 344 

Manfred, a poem, by Lord Byron, . 313 

Martinis account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands, and of their language, 39 
Marshal, Billy, the Gypsey, account of, ... 405 

Melancholy, how to be cured, . • • .65 

Modem Greece, a poem, reviewed, 391 

Motion, Peipetual of M. Maillardet and others, . . 258, 351 

, varieties of Muscular, ..... 209 

Musical Instrument, a Chinese, ..... 490 




. 1§7 



. 18S 



. 452 


. 343 


. 350 




. 491 

. 341 


. 319 






. 25,30 



. 365 

. 441 


. 171 


. 351 




Napoleon Musuem of Statues, re-opened, 
Nervous affections treated of by Reid, . * 

Netherlands, machine for clearing canals, used in, 
Neutrals, some French, relieved by Benezet, 
New South Wales, some account of, 
Notoria, ..... 



. 344 


57, 428 

73, 166. 247, 842,493, 510 


Open, flie Italian, proposals dmcenung, 
tinXoTf in Viiginia, on the Stumps 
—■ ■■ I aided by a Thunder Storm, 
Oi«hestra, <H>mp06^ of ^^v ii^s^i'unMBts, 
Ornithology of St Helena, 

Pantomimical Characters among' the Romans, • 

Patterson, Mrs., wife of Jerome Bonaparte, 

Patriots in South America, 

Pettigprew's Memoirs of Lettsom, reviewed, 

Persian Anthology, .... 

Plants, properties of some ascertained, 

Pocahontas, and other Indian Ladies, 

Poetry of Dr. Symmons, John Scott, and Dr. Wolcot, 

Ponsonby, Mr. , his dea^ and character. 

Poor Laws of Great Britain and America, 

Pope's &yourite beech trees, at Binfield, 

Portraiture of Domestic Slavery, review of, 

Potatoes, Method of Preserving, 

Predictions, two extraordinary ones fulfilled, 

Press, state of the, in France, • , 

Pfint^ Houses at St. Petersburgfa, fourteen, 

Public Houses among the Ancients, 

Quadrupeds and Reptiles of St. Helena described, 
.—— American, history preparing, 
Quaker Preacher, a picture of a. 
Quarterly Theologieal Review, notice of, 

Reid on Insanity, review of, 
-Besideoce in France, merits of a, 
Resolutions of Patrick Henry, adopted. 
Revenues of the Parochial Cleigy in England, 
RUey's Narrative, English edition of, 
Robinson Crusoe, its originality, 
Robinson, Mr., his Scheme of a Loan Office, 
Roman Antiquities lately disclosed, 
Roofing of Houses, a material for the, 
Rutledge, of South Carolina, 

Stagacity of some animals, especiaUy of dogs and horses. 
Say's American Entomology, reviewed. 
Seaman, an American, on a rock, 
'Shepherds of the Landes in the South of France, 
Stttnig below the Salt, explained. 
Sketches of American Customs, &c., by an Englishman, 
Slavery, the Right of, ^pc, considered, 
— Abolished in Ceylon, 
Spencer and Mistress Rosalind, 
Spots on the Sun's Disk, 
SCael, Madame de, anecdote concerning. 
Steam Engines and Steam Boats, how rendered secure. 
Steam Boat of Norwich, accident that befel, 
Stewart's History of Philosophy, reviewed, 
SnUy, the Painter, an allusion to, 
Swiss Tradition, translation of a, ' 
Syria Siddhanta, 





s 146 



V 434 









. 244 

. 233 
. 165 
. 210 
. 168 
84, 85, 346 

r3, 189, 351 


Tales of My Landlord, . S93,350 

Tobacco, stipends to be paid in, ... 447 

Torrey on Domestic Slaver}', . . .1 

Torture, Captain Oliyan put to tbe, in Spain, . 167 

Tradition, sketch of one, by a Monk, • . 397 

Training^ofHorses, Boxers, Pedestrians, &c., . .381 

Turk, a young one eating his god, : . .77 

Usury, Considerations on, . . 1 94 

Universal Suffrage and Annual Parliammits, • 271 

VaticanLibrary, fragments of Cicero found in, . . 260 

Vaux, Robert, his life of Benezet, . . . 108 

Vessels, plan to prevent them from sinking, 256 

Vienna, an Academy at, . . . . 439 

View of Miss Edgeworth's Residence, . . 353 

View-Hunter, Memorandum of a, 163,430 

ViUars, Marshal, his repartee, . . .173 

Virginia, first Republican Governor of, . 461 

Veterinary Practitioners and Medicine, • . • 440 

Volcanic Eruptions, account of some, . . .515 

Von Kotzebue*s Voyage Round the World, • 261 

Washington, Henry's judgment of . 458,469 

Wat Tyler and Mr. Southey, . .271 

Waterloo Literature, humorous account of, . . 423 

Weights and Measures, dissertation on, . . . 345 

Wh^er, anecdote of one, . . 446 

Wheat, a new species of very early, . . . 517 

Whigs, origin of their name, . . 346 

Widow, the burning of a, . . . . 427 

Wine, essay on the different kinds of, . * . 470 

Wirt's Life of Patrick Heniy, reviewed, . • 441 

Woman, Ledyard's remarks on, ... 514 

Wood, the strength of different kinds of, . . 257 

Works of Madame de Genlis, . .519 

Worming a Dog recommended, • . .513 

Xerxes, some anecdotes of, • . * • 349 

Young, Mr. Arthur, on Agriculture, . 350 

Toung John, his sense of honour, 500 

Zany, a buffoon, . . ... 415 




moral Rights 

^*he Posses' 


and on 

I r 

( < 

\* ^. " . ^'•REY 



•• » 

tain nothing but a repetition and see^saw of stale ^ cogitations, 
and which have no other effect, than to rock all one^s faculties to 
>Ieep. This is the sort of book which ha3 been compiled by Dr. 
Jesse Torrey; a very well-intentioned personage, who, most as- 
suredly, has the good of all mankind at heart,---but who, we must 
be permitted to tibink, has no more right to publish books, than 
ve have to administer cathjirticks* The cause of humanity is not 
VOL. X* 1 


Tales of My Landlord, 293,350 

Tobacco, stipends to be paid in, ... 447 

Torrey on Domestic SlaFCTy, • .1 

Torture, Captain Oliyan put to the, in Spain, . .161 

Tradition, sketch of one, by a Monk, • • 397 

TrainingofHorses, Boxers, Pedestrians, &c.y • 381 

Tuik, a young one eating his god, : . . T7 

Usury, Considerations on, . .194 

Uniyersal Suffrage and Annual Parliaments, • 271 

Vatican Libraiy, fra' 
Vaux, Robert, his ' 
Vessels, plan to )» 
Vienna, an Aca^ 
View of Miss £dr 
View-Hunter, ^ 
Villars, Marsh? 
Virginia, first 
Veterinaiy P 
Volcanic F 
Von Kotz' 




<^ " 



JULY, 1817. 

Art. I. — 1. A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery in the United States: 
with Rejections on the Practicability ofr^toring th^^moral Sig-hts 
of the Slave ^ without impairing' ^/le legale Privileges of the Posses^ 
sor; and a Project of a colonial Assy him for free Persons of Co" 
lour: including Memoirs on the interior Trajffic of Slaves^ and on 
Kidnapping. Illustrated with Engravings. By Jesse Torret, 
Jun. Physician, &c. Philadelphia. 1817« 8vo. pp. 94. 

2. A brief ffteto of the actual Condition and Treatment of the Negr^ 
Slaves, in the British Colonies^ in a Letter to a Member of the 
Imperial Parliament. By Captain Henderson, late 2d Batta* 
lion 44th Regiment, and Assistant-Qparter-Master-General. 
London. 1816. 8vo. pp. 56. 

^ 'DIERI potest (says an obscure proser, whom, we suspect. Dr. 
-** Torrey and Captain Henderson have never come across), 

* ut recte quis sentiat, et id, quod sentit, polite eloqui non possit. 
^ Sed mandare quemquam litteris cogitationes suas, qui eas nee dis* 

* ponere, nee illustwe possit, nee dele*ctatione aliqua allicere lec« 
^torem, hominis est intemperanter abutentis et otio, et litteris* 

* Itaque suos libros ipsi legunt cum suis, nee quisquam attinpt, 
^ praeter eos, qui eandem licentiam scribendi sibi permitd volunt.' 
All this mig^t have been true, when Cicero wrote; but, at pre« 
sent, a very sad class of people have * to touch' such books— -be- 
sides those who read them through sympathetic companionship in 
misery. The Reviewers must toil through them, whether they be 
rightly arranged, or happily illustrated, or afford him pleasure of 
any sort: and it is not the least cause of our proverbial fastidious- 
ness, that we are condemned to the perusal of books, which con- 
tain nothing but a repetition and see-saw of stale ^ cogitations,* 
and which have no other effect, than to rock all one^s faculties to 
>leep. This is the sort of book which ha^ been compiled by Dr. 
Jesse Torrey; a very well-intentioned personage, who, most as- 
suredly, has the good of all mankind at heart,---but who, we must 
be permitted to think, has no more right to publish books, than 
we. have to administer cftthaiticks. The cause of humanity, is not 

VOL* X* 1 


9 Negro Slavery. 

to be served, by scraping together a few singular instances of 
abuse, in our system of negro-slavery; nor by stringing, one with 
another, a parcel of quotations, ' in prose, or numerous verse,' 
from books which we have thummed from our youth up. Legis- 
lators must now be shown, that abuse is general, before they can 
be excited to reformation; and the time is gone by, when men 
could be much eifected by Sterne's calling slavery ^a bitter 
draught,'— or by Cowper's asserting, that he ^had rather wear the 
chains himself than fasten them on slaves,'-*or by Dn Torrey's 

< Columbia! Columbia! to glory arise, 

Queen of the world and child of the skies. 

Let thy < heroes heaven-bom band, ' 

Who fought and bled In freedom's cause, 

Who fought and bled in freedom's cause,' 

Cease tofadore rude Guinea's laws.' — P. $9«40. 

Captain Htnderson carries on these things in a very different 
style. He is one of those raw hands at composition, who have an 
idea, that good writing is a deep and mysterious art; and he is, 
moreover, so very much afraid, that the language of an Ex- As* 
sistant-Quarter-Master-General might possibly smell of gun-pow- 
der, that he is fain to seek all manner of unused and circumlocu- 
tory phraseology. Any body can say, for- instance, that, in the 
West Indies, die negroes ordinarily go to work at daylight, and 
leave off at two or three in the afternoon; but it requires a person 
of no common powers and research to tell us, that, ^ on some oc- 
casions, perhaps not a few, amongst the more industrious slaves 
in our Colonies, it may have been observed, that the hour of twa 
or three at noon (we have been accustomed to think, diat ^ the 
hour of two or tlu'ee' was somewhat qfier noon) has been the 
point of time at which their labours for the day have terminated. 
It will be understood that daylight is the ordinary commencement 
of them.' To such lowly writers as we are, also, there appears to 
be no great mystery in expressing one's dissent to a proposition; 
whereas an author like Captain Henderson can never stop short of 
enunciating, with due solemnity, that, ^with regard to this or that 
position, he holds no hesitation in at once offering a negative.' 
Scale and shiare are two great words with our Captain; and he con- 
trives to get them in somewhere in almost every paragraph— whe* 
Iher they be appropriate or not. He says, for example, that tiie 
West Indian planters pay as much attention to the bringing up of 
tlieir negroes, as the English manufacturers do to that of their ap- 
prentices; ^ though,' continueth he, ^ I hold (hold^ by the way, is 
another of his favourite words) I hold both as being entirely with- 
out excuse, for so thorough a share of indifference towards a mat* 
ter of such deep importance.' Again—*' As connected witii the 
above (says he) it may not be altogether apart from my subject, 
siuyuld I say something, in a concise way, before I conclude, of 
die master; a rank, from tlie intimate connexion I have hdd with 


Negro Sb»ery. S 

aaiif of our BetttemfeiitB Abroad that has occasionally caUed for a 
hhare of my regard.' This is the way, in which the Captain mar- 
shals his sentences. Every thing is involved, or evolved, with the 
greatest solemnity; and paragraph after paragraph wheels into his 
pages, with all imaginable pomp and circumstance. Nor i^ this 
the odiy effect of the discipline in ^ die 2d battalion 44di reg^ment.^ 
Every thing must be precise and explanatory; and if, for instance, he 
has occasion to use me word hospttal, he adds the definition, * or 
sick^kouae^ lest, peradventure, his readers should have to consult 
a dictionary. These, and a variety of other pleasant things, which 
we cannot spare room to detail, have amused us in the perusal of 
the Brief View^ The Captain thinks, nevertheless, that his pam- 
phlet is no small achievement; and he is very evidendy afraid, that 
some of his ^ ungracious' pages-— though there is nothing but the 
most impurturba^le good humour throughout the performance-^^ 
should, by some misconstruction, be displeasing to his friends; 
* rather thu give offence to whom, (says he\ I would cheerfully 
csqiunge this or any higher effect of my pen:' — for, as an edifying; 
piece of bibliognq>hy, we learn, in_ divers places, that this pam- 
phlet is, by no means, the only * ejffeci^ which Captain Henders<xi's 
pen has produced. 

In short, we have chosen to place these two tide-pages at the 
head of this artide,-.-not because either of the publications open 
any new views, or disclose many new facts, on the subject to which 
they relate,— but because they are the latest American and £ng^ 
lish treatises, which pretend to develop the system of negro-slave- 
Tfj as it exists in the respective dominions of the only two Powers^ 
who are taking measures for its progressive amelioration and final 
abolishment. There is no end to the number of pamphlets, which 
the discussion has called forth, in Great Britain; where, owing 
chiefly to a corporation of active philanthropists, the question has^ 
oaore constantiy than anywhere else, been kept before the eyes of 
the public. For more than twenty years, it has Alternately em- 
I^oyed the tongues and the pens of her ablest speakers and writers; 
and, on no subject, perhaps, has eloquence and logic together dis- 
played their powers to more advantage, or with greater success* 
We have the presumption to think, nevertheless, that neither these 
speakers, nor these writers, have gone rightiy to work in the dis- 
cussion; and we shall attempt to show, before we get through this 
article, that, unless they strike into a different course, from that 
which they have heretofore pursued, they will not be id>le,. con- 
sistently with the established laws of the land, to go one step 
farther, in the great work of abolishing negro*slavery. It has all 
along been taken for granted, on both sides of the question, that 
negroes can be lawfully held in bondage; and that, in truth, they 
are as much the property of their masters, as horses, oxen, or .any 
other beasts of burthen. Dedaimers abundantiy inform us,, to be 
sure, that Africans are human beings, and must, tiierefere, be in* 
titled to the rights of man; but such vague sort of reasoning seldom 

4 ' Ntgro Slavery. 

produces the requiaite conviction,~aBd i«^ indeed, most effectually 
counteracted, by the constant recurrence of expressions, which in- 
volve an admission of the contrary. We have never seen it plainly 
denied, that a planter has any right, either in reason, or m law^ 
to the beings^ whom he calls his slaves; or, that, in odier words, 
he can legally claim a property of any kind!, either in their per- 
sons, or in their services. This, however, we undertake to deny,* 
and shall undertake to disprove. Nay more— -we will undertake 
to show, that the promulgation of such a doctrine need not be 
attended with the slightest danger to any of the parties, whose in* 
terest it seems so immediately -to jeopardize. ^ 

There is no imagitiable absurdi^, connected with this subject, 
which has not, first or last, been resorted to, by those who advo- 
cate the slavery of negroes. Even the ironical and ludicrous ar- 
Siments, by which Baron Montesquieu said he would vindicate 
e system,->-such as, that ^ these creatures (B. xv. c. 5.) are all 
over black, and with such a flat nose, that uiey can scarcely be 
pitied,' and that ^ it is hardly to be believed that God, who is a 
wise Being, should place a soul, especially a good soul, in such a 
black ugly body'— have, with little mutation, been seriously and 
earnestly alleged, in favour of the practice, by some of his late 
countrymen. We cannot be expected to go through with a refu- 
tation of such abominable nonsense as this. There are certain 
other plausible considerations, however, which have been con- 
stantly repeated, from the time of Justinian; and which, though, in 
our opinion, completely refuted by the President Montesquieu, 
are still brought forward by the anti-abolitionists, and passed by, 
in silence, by their opposers. This latter circumstance has sur- 
prised us the more, because the reasoning of the President, by be- 
ing translated into Judge Dlackstone's Commentaries, (B. I. c. 14»), 
^was furnished to the hand of every Englishman, who pretends to 
have the least knowledge of his boasted Constitution. And this 
circumstance, too, must be our apology for introducing, here, a 
passage from the most elementary and the most common of all 
works upon law. We prefer the Judge's translation, both because 
it is more concise than the original, and because, by being adopted 
in his vigentt annorum humbrationes^ it has become a portion of 
the English law. * The three origins of slavery, assigned by Jus- 

* tinian, (says he), are all of them built upon false foundations* 
^ As, first, slavery is held to arise jure gentium^ from a state of 

* captivity in war; whence slaves are called mancipioy quasi manu 

* capti. The conqueror, say the civilians, had a ri^t to the life 

* of his captive; and, having spared that, has a right to deal with 
^ him as he pleases* But it is an untrue position, when taken 

* generally, that by the law of nature or nations, a man may kill 
*his enemy: he has only a right to kill him, in particular cases; in 

* cases of absolute necessity,* fof self-defence; and it is plain this 


* ' Ail nations (a few Cannibals excepted, a striking fact adduced by Montes- 
uien^ concur in detestinif the mwderiag of priflonera in cold blood.* B. xr. c. 2. 

Negro Slavery. s 

absolute necessity did not subsist, since the victor did not actually 
kill him. War' is justifiable only on principles of self-preserva* 
tion; and therefore it gives no other right over prisoners but 
merely to disable them from doing harm to us, by confining their 
persons; much less can it give a right to kill, torture, abuse, 
plunder, or even to enslave, an enemy, when the war is over. 
Since therefore the right of making slaves by captivity depends 
on a supposed right of slaughter, that foundation failing, the 
consequence drawn from it most fail likewise. But, secondly, it 
is said that slavery may beg^n jure civili; when one man sells 
himself to another. This, if only meant of contracts to serve or 
work for another, is very just: but when applied to strict slavery, 
(in a sense of the laws of old Rome or modem Barbary, or ^ at 
present m our colonies^ adds Montesquieu, ut sup.') is impossible. 
Every sale implies a price, a quid pro quo^ an equivalent given 
to the seller in Ceu of what he transfers to the buyer: but what 
equivalent can he give for life, and liberty, both of which (in ab- 
solute slavery) are held to be in the master's disposal? His pro- 
perty also, the very price he scorns to receive, devolves ipso facto 
to his master, the instant he becomes his slave. In this case 
therefore the buyer gives nothing, and the seller receives nothing: 
of what vaUdity then can a sale be, which destroys the very prin- 
pie upon which sales are founded? Lastly, we are told, that be- 
sides these two ways by which slaves jffun/, or are acquired, they 
may also be hereditary: aervi naacuntur; the children of acquired 
slaves are Jure naturct^ by a negative kind of birthright, slaves 
also. But this, being built on the two former rights, must fall 
together with them. If neither captivity, nor the sale of one's 
self, can by the law of nature and reason reduce the parent of 
slaveiy, much less ean they reduce the oflspring.' "We can add 
nodiing to this unanswerable argument, — except, that these three 
origins of slavery ar^ the very ones, which the antiabolitionists 
have continued to alledge, ever since the discussion commenced, 
and which, we venture to say, a planter would now adduce, if he 
were told there could be no possible foundation of his right to the 
beings, whom he denominates slaves. He might, indeed, be in- 
duced to tell us, that, though he has no right to their persons; 
yet he has to their services;*— but could it escape him, that a right 
to services can only be founded upon a contract — ^upon an exchange 
of equivalents? And that,— 4aying aside the deprivation of liberty, 
which is itself above all price,^-it would be ridiculous to pretend, 
that a negro ever became a slave, by the voluntary barter of his 
own services? In fine, we do not see, that, according to the princi- 
ples of natural law, there is a possibility of one human being's 
making out his right to the person or services of another. 

And there are other considerations, more particularly connect- 
ed with the English law, which led us to precisely the same 
conclusion. Enpand has completely turned the tables upon Af- 
rica. There was a time, when the English, of both sexes, were 

6 Ntgro Slavery * 

not only eiqposed to sale in all the marieets of Europe^-— 4Mit trans* 
ported and sold in Africa**' Between the fifth and eleventh cen- 
turies, indeed, it would have been no abuse of language to call a 
great part of Englishmen beasts of burthen. Our word team^ 
though derived from the original Saxon, which signified childrtn^ 
came nevertheless by its present meaning, from being applied to 
slaves:! — ^slaves were, at the time we speak of, ranked wiA cat- 
tle of sdl kinds, under the general denomination of living moruys% 
and, when Dr. Henry tells us, that, ^ for some time after the set- 

* tlement of the Saxons in England, their slaves were in the same 

* circumstances widi their horses, oxen, cows, and sheep, except 
^ that it was not fashionable to kill and eat them,^$ did he mean 
to insinuate, that, with regard to the latter peculiarity, * their 
slaves' were any better off than * their horses?' Indeed, we sus- 
pect the only distinction, at that period, between a master's vari^ 
ous kinds of stock, was, tha^ his horses and homed catde walked 
on four legs; whereas, we have no sufficient authority for believ- 
ing, that die human catde used any more than two. Nothing is 
clearer, at any rate, than that the laws made no sort of distinction- 
It b expressly stated, in the Leges Wallicae, ^ that a master hath 
*the same right to his slaves as to his catde.' ^ Slaves were not 

* supposed to have any family or relations, who sustained any loss 
< by their deadi; and therefore, when one of diem was killed by 

* his master, no mulct was paid; because the master was supposed 
^ to be the only looser^ when slain by anodier his price or manbote 
^ was paid to his master.'|| 

Let it be remembered, however, that, according to the spirit 
of these gothic laws, every individual in the community was as 
much a beast, as a slave, or a horse; the only distinction between 
different men consistin'lg chiefly in the price put upon their respective 
heads. Life— liberty— -every thing, in short, was considered as 
property, and estimated in pounds and shillings. By the laws of 
the Angles, for instance, you might kill the king for 1300/.; a 
prince, for half as much; a bishop, or an alderman, for 300/»; a 
sheriff, for 150/; a thane, or clergyman, for 75/.; and a ceorl for 
about 10/.^ The .6th law of Ethelbert is, * Let him that killetb 

* a freeman pay fifty shillings to the King ybr his loss of a sttAJectf^ 
the 20th, ^ But if a man be killed, let die murderer compensate 
^ his death with twenty shillings;' the 21st, ^ If a man kill another, 
*' be the ordinary mulct of an hundred shillings imposed upon 
^him;' and the Slst, ^ Let him that kilieth a man make compen- 
^ sation, according to the true valuation, in current money.' Nor 
was life alone considered as so much property. Every limb of 
the body, even to the teeth and nails, had a definite price fixed 
i^n it; and, what we remark more for its singularity, than for 

* Hen. Hist Qto. Ed. VoL li. p. 480. f Id. ib. p. 579. 

i Id. ib. p. 484. ; Id. ib. p. 236. | Id. ib» P. 229. 

^ Hume's Hist Vol. I. p. 1G3. Phil £d. 

Negro Skofertf. 7 

it» direct refer^ice to the subject, there was a sort of tacit com* 
pact between all the European nations, that, if a man was maimed^ 
m travelling abroad, the part injured should go for what it waa 
valued at, in his own countiy. Accordingly, ' die nose of a Span- 

* iard, for example, (we use die words of Dr. Henry) was perfecdy 
'safe in England, because it was valued at 13 marks; but the nose 

* of an Englishman run a great risk in Spain, because it was 
Waluedonly at 12jw An Englishman,' furdiermore, ^ mig^t havo 

* broken a Welchman's head for a mere trifle, but few Welchmen 

* could afford to return the complement.' Even a wife was con« 
9idered as mere property; and every marriage contract was a 
matter of bargain and sale. By Ethelbert's 76th law, ^ if a man 

* bought a maid, ^he stood for bought, if there were no fraud in 

* die bargain; but if there were, she was to be returned and the 
^purchaser's money restored to him;' and the same King's 32d 
law was, that, ^ if a freeman lie widi a freeman's- wife, let him 
' make amends for his crime, by bu3ring another wife for the in- 
*jured party.' Indeed, it was a maxim of jurisprudence, through 
all the middle ages, ^ that there was no crime which might not be 

* expiated with money;' and, as long as evexy thing was thought 
to have been made for this world only, we know not that the 
maxim can be considered as any very great absurdity. But the 
progress of reascm, and, more uian sdl, the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, purified, by ^degrees, the spirit of Gothic jurisprudence. 
The li^t struck first, of course, upon the summit of society; and 
it was a consideraUe period before it reached to the base. The 
King and Barons were first emancipated frpm the slavery of hav- 
ing a price upon their heads; and, by a succession of ameliorating 
enactments, even die lowest order of bondmen were ultimately 
liberated. The leading doctrine of Christianity— -that the soul is 
immortal— did more man any thing else, in placing the life of 
man beyond any estimate of money, or merchandize. It drew a 
broad hne of dbtinction between the soul and the body^ and set 
man at an immeasurable height above the beasts that perish. By 
the progressive melioration of the English law, he has left 
behind mm all the animals, with which he was once ranked; and, 
though it is now felony to kill or to traffic in human beings, our 
poor oxen and horses may still be slaughtered or sold, with the 
greatest impunity. From these considerations it is sufficiendy 
manifest, we think, that, according to the present spirit of English 
law, man is utterly beyond all price,-— and that, consequently, no 
one human being can be the property of another. 

There is one part of the English Constitution, indeed, which, 
at first sight, seems, in a measure, to disprove our conclusion. It 
is not to be denied, we confess, that, to one who looks only at 
die penal code of Great Britain, her laws would seem to hold the 
life of man in no very extravagant estimation. But the fact is by 
no means conclusive against our reasoning; and a slight historical 
review of the subject will abundandy show, we apprehend, that the 


% 'Negro Slavery. 

objection cannot have the least weight, in the minds of thbse, who 
breathe the spirit of the nineteenth century. At first, the whole 
system of the Britons was, without doubt, as sanguinary as that of 
all other savage nations. By some means or other, however, it 
became inordinately lenient about the fifth century; insomuch, 
that crimes of every sort were expiated by pecuniary compensa- 
tion. Every thing, as we have seen above, was subjected to a 
* valuation in- current money;' and, among the rest, a sign of 
equality was established between the lives of men and a certain 
number of pounds and shillings. In the tenth century, it began 
to be discovered, that these laws were most dangerously ineffectual; 
and measures were accordingly taken to make them more severe 
and preventive. Reformation went on; and it was not long be- 
fore the system was completely reversed; so, that, while formerly 
a man might slay his neighbour for 20^., he was now slain hitft- 
self, for purloining a great deal less amount. The same principle, 
however, was still at the bottom of the scheme, — that of consider- 
ing men in the degrading light of things that could have a price. 
The progress of religibn and of reason, as we endeavoured to prove 
before, has completely subverted this barbarous doctrine; — so that, 
in fact, the penal code of England has utterly outgrown the reason 
of its foundation; — just as the depreciation of money has de- 
stroyed the reason for giving the right of sufferage to such ds 
had a freehold of AOs. yeariy value;~a sum which was fixed 
upon, as all know, because no individual could be considered as 
independent,* with a less income, — ^but which, according to the 
present value of money, can no more be the measure of a man's 
independence, than 1^. could, at its original institution. The 
penal code of Great Britain is a part of what we may call the 
Gothic constitutions; and ought to have passed away, with the 
other palrts of that system. If the old mediods of estimating tes- 
timony had been retained,-— if, in other words, the ordeal and the 
corsned were still resorted to, and if the credibility of a person, 
under oath, continued to be rated according to his price or man- 
bote, — ^there would be some shadow of excuse, for preserving the 
ancient measure of punishment. But those other parts have been 
gone, time whereof the memory of man hardly runneth to the 
contrar}^; and we consider it afs a standing reproach to the boasted 
excellence of the British Constitution, that this remnant did not 
go along with them. ' It is directly opposed to what all empha- 
tically consider as the fundamental doctrine of the national religion; 
and, while England is taking every pains to translate the Bible in 
every language, and to place it in every hand, she obstinately 
adheres to a code of jurisprudence, which disavows the most in- 
valuable of all its principles. This principle has pervaded the 
other parts of her constitution; and we hope, ere long, we may- 
be able to say without the slightest qualification, diat no branch 

-J — . -_ . 1 . - — - - ^ ^^^^^^^.^^_ 

* Blk. B. I. c. 3. pp. 170, 173. 

<tf 4ie nrvftrm siippoiies iho life of man »> bf ^lyrfyio of jwjjymyifi 
ja ti^ things of this world-s^or, if hich mounts to the ^aiobe ^^h^ 
|D he capi^le of fi[^^itl^« for ^oy Cirime h^t t^at of its wiUul j^ 

The {Mrinpple we have now l^eea endeaivottring to establish wi9 
chsuigp the whple question of neg^ slavery; though of the mwl* 
$Q(id consequences which foUoyir from it, we can find no room, 
ft pre&c^Qt, ^ par^tici^arise more th^ two or three of the mosf 
important. It is, in the first place, the only thing that coul4 
iQsiable the E^n^ish abolitionists ^ rebutt effectually mt great and 
Reading plea of the Colonists, against every measure for amelioy 
rating the condition of their slaves; n^unely, th^jt it controverts thn 
flfirit oi British jurisprudence, by rendering private property is^ 
secure, and that, what is sitill more tyrannical, it violates the^ 
chartered rights, by taking from their own hands the power of 
tafjAoahyt legislation, foi^ /their internal concerns* They tell th|t 
mother country, that, their slaves h^ve been fairly bought, and are s^ 
much thejr legal property as an ox, or an aas, i^ any thing that jui 
Uiej^: i^nd, as long as they are peruMttedto aUedge this plausible arr 
guma^, Wiilho^t being satis&ctor^ly smswered, we apprehend, that 
ihe ^ustiiess of their i^peal tp tjite British Constitution cannot pci^- 
fibly be gqt jrid of. rjirV^uifient should speak in the spirit of hejr 
law-Sy and tell her Qompla'^ning Colonists— as she may tell them, witj^ 
perfec^t l|ruth,r-that .4bey have no right to their slaves; that shere- 
fcog^ises BO principle, by whioh a^an may be ranked with merchaii^ 
iUf^, V with bri^ anij^^alsi and .that, wherever the English law9 
|p;^wi> the life and liberty pf oum ar-e above all price, and, therq- 
ftm, ia<}apable of ha^-ggin and sale, ifhis apswjer would b.e cc^ 
i4ilf ive .a^sisiBt the f^ea of iiitc^feiing wi^ 9^ man's ri^ to l^s 
propert;)^:— rvid it w<^d.|;>e no les^ so, Ukewise, agaiput thait pf in^ 
^tiwag w^^ ^ iinte W Ic^i^^^on pf the Cokwsts* These Co* 
)pnis|s have no ^ight |o Ip j;islate a^^ay lihe prificiples pf EngMsh 
ym\ m4, indeiBd, tl^e i^, m all il^eiir chartex^, we believe, an ex* 
j^se^ fprovi^ipii, -01^ xK^ing s]^ be ,^ne contrary to that law* 
Wfron Parliament nn^c^rt^y^ therefore, itp make changes in the 
fituajl^on of the hiai;kf^ it .dp^ nplihinff mone ,thw to entbrce JU^wa> 
jphi4;h lire <^qi|aUy cpgei?^,in pvqry pc^ pf jfeur .dp^odrnpfiui; and, inr 
ftend oi (being cpn»i4er€4 §^ 9^. ^^QM^tMcIwwn^ .pn ^ legislative 
^diits of the C^pia^, :9uqh a xpeasiire ought, jn fa^, tp be yiewr 
fS^z^ m%i^\y 4ie assepgkpn q€ its own rrights, agwis^ th/e encroadkp 
nientf of the Qdpiii^ts th^selyes. If JP.arliameiE^ were to pass 
tfi^ whiqhj by jibp^st^fli^ ihe uae of yokes and haipesa, for exr 
amj^ should i^^iinat^ly )^^A ^p the itmam^ipa^on of 4^1 C9Jiom4 
piCQn imd hgcses, w<e ^shov^^ ^^ twith i^ WejBi Indians, that at 
^isd n^fide thei^? fiiFme^ inaec^re, and h^ .iiterfered l^itb tbsir 
iBy(«irq#l ei^iOiioipy. i^ut o^^ j^d .horses, we must repeat it, ttre 
pQ W^y fmalpgo^s :tp hui^SMi ci^t^iKFes. Xh* great criteriim of 
V^vi^j i^<^ '^ n&ay be cboi^gbt ^nd spldi to be f:jBqpaUe of s^le 

VOX..Z. 2 

10 Negro Slaoety* 

as we flatter ourselves to have shown, that, according^ to itit spurit 
and reason, not only of English law,-— but of all law,— no human 
being can be thus estimated, or have a price, in other words— -no 
human being, therefore, can possess that circumstance which alone 
constitutes ' the foundation of property. Every man must here 
judge for himself. Every man thinks his own life and liberty 
above all price; and yet they are the only equivalents, which the 
law will now accept, for the life of his fellow men, whether they 
be black, or white. 

We return to this principle so often, because it is, in our opt* 
nion, the only one by which the English, in particular, can get 
along with the gradual abolition of n^gro slavery. So far, they 
have gone on well. By gradually amending, and finally abolish* 
ing, the slave-trade, f we set them the example), they have not 
only lessened the numoer of African wars, which used to be un* 
dertaken to fill up its market,— but have materially bettered the coq« 
dition of the slaves, who had already been its victims, by exciting 
masters to that comparative leniency and carefulness of treatment^ 
which, since importation is almost out of the question, must, 
through what is called the breeding-system, be now the source of 
their future supply. But abolitionists were now to become eman* 
cipationists'; and measures have, accordingly, been set in train foff 
the additional melioration of West Indian slavery. We cannot 
enter into the detail of the Registry Bill, of which our readers must 
all know something; but, we must observe, that, if the authors of 
it will still consent to have slaves denominated property, they can- 
not execute the measure, without a gross violation of colonial 
rights, and of the British Constitution. The Abolition was con* 
fessedly an act of external regulation;-— the Registry is no less cer* 
tainly a measure of internal amendment. The former related to 
die general subject of trade; which no one disputes the authority 
of Parliament to regulate; — ^the latter, on the contrary, goes into 
the domestic economy of particular dependencies, and aims at the 
control of subjects, which have been expressly placed in diflferent 
hands. One provision of the Registry Bill, indeed, brings into 
discussion again the questions, which separated the United Statea 
from the mother country; andi, on this subject, we think the colo* 
nial legislators and writers have decidedly the victory over their 
imtagonists in England. The expense of registration will cost 
each colony an annual tax of some thousands of pounds; and yet 
this tax is to be levied, by the Parliament, without any represen* 
tation from the Colonies; when it is a proverbial maxim of that 
Parliament, that taxation and representation shall go together,— 
and when die Year Books expressly state, that ^ a tax granted by 

* the parliament of England shall not bind the dominions of Irelandi 
^(it makes no difference what particular country it is), because 
' ihei/ are not summoned to our parliament^* and again, that * Ireland 

* (or Jamaica, we may add) hath a parliament of its own, ami 
>* maketli and altereth Jaws; and our statvtoa do not biadlhem, Jv^ 

' cm0e they do not send imrhts to parliament.*^ These, and a va* 
riety of other objections, which we caDn9t spare room to particu* 
larize, have induced the Parliament to postpone, at any rate, the 
adoption of the Registry measure. It was most ably and strenu- 
ously opposed, by the colonial legislatures, and by their writers in 
England. Frequent allusion was made to the case oi Americj; 
and, though the mother country might, perhaps, be conscious of 
abundant power to get under the rebellion, which was hinted atj 
yet it was clearly seen, we apprehend, that a war with the West 
Indians would be attended widi mcalculable disadvantages,— and 
that the question was not, whether they might not be ultimately 
subduedy— but whether they would be worth the expense oi life 
and treasure, which the subduction must cost« The Colonies saw, 
or thought they saw, that the measure was a death-blow to what 
they considered as their property; and, if they were to tall, they 
had determined, we have no doubt, to fall with harness on their 
backs. They talked language, which was by no means concilia* 
tory:— their number was even ominous, and England must have had 
tome strange reminiscencies, in contemplating a war with another 
Thirteen United Provinces. She will find, in the end, we ima- 
gine, that Colonists must be dealtwith as reasonable beings; and 
not voted this way and that, by a body of men three thousand miles 
off, widiottt listening to their expostulations, or answermg their 
arguments. They are permitted to rest under a full conviction, 
diat their slaves are absolute property; while measures are on foot 
to make that property insecure. We do not think this is the right 
If9y of going to work* The emancipationists should labour, first, 
to convince the planters, that slaves are not, and cannot be, pro- 
per^; and they can, then, proceed in the good work with truth 
and justice on their side. 

We must lighdy touch upon one subject more, to which the 
doctrine we have advocated might be practically applied. We have 
heard loud complaints from all sides, against the practice, which 
aubsists in our Southern States, as well as in the West Indies, of 
apprehending and selling idle and loitering negroes, who cannot 
{Move their freedom, upon the general presumption of their being 
slaves. It is called reducing freemen to bondage; and it seems to 
be more accordant with the spirit qi law, that we should presume 
every person to be innocent of slavery, until he is proved to be 
guilty* Yet, as long as a state of slavery is acknowledged to ex- 
ist, we do not see any impropriety in the practice here alluded to; 
and nothing is, more certain^ than that it is warranted by the ana* 
logies of English law. The last statute on this subject, and the 
first of Edwsutl VI., is very much to the point. * If any person 
^ shall bring to two justices of the peace any runnagate servant, or 

* These passag^es are cited by Judge Blackstone from tbe 20 Heo. VI. 8, and 
the 2 Bic. HI. 13.; and we have preferred to quote him on this occaeioo, because 
he has taken the pains to alledge authorities^ which completely subvert his own 
■dhiOIDeBt veamii^. See Intxo^ n* 101, 10a«9. 

^imt wfaidi Svetft jAe and loitefm^y^ h^ tht %paM tf AMe 
day«, die said justices s^all. cause the said idle and loitering iefw 
▼ant or vagabond, to be marked with a hot iron on the breaat^ 
with the mark V, and adjudge him to be. the slave of the same 

Cirson that brought or presented him, to have him, his execuo 
rs, or assigns, for two years after; so shall he take the said^ 
slave, and nve him bread, water or small drink, and refuse meat^ 
and cause him to work by beating, chaining, or otherwise^ m 
suck work or labour as he shall put him unto, be it never so vile^ 
And if such slave absent himself from the said master within the 
said term of two years, by the space of fourteeA days, then he 
shall be adjudged by the two justices of the peace, to be marked 
on the forehead, or the ball oH the cheek, with a hot iron, witli 
the sign of sm S, and further shall be adjudged to be slave to the 
^aid master for ever*' By this statute, there was a line of dis- 
tinction drawn between those who had V's on their breasts^ and 
Aose who had not. The V waa conclusive and final evifdenee of 
davery; and the reason why it became necessary to inflict suth a> 
mark, was, that nature had not sumped, upon any of the English, 
a characteristic sign, by which one class might be distinguished 
kom the other. Had she, in a. whimsy, concluded to give tbe^e 

* idle and loitering' persons a V on the breast, there would have 
been no occasion to sear it on with a hot iron; but as all men wet« 
alike in almost every particalar, it became necessary, as we juat 
said, to make an artificial characteristic^ to distinguish the free 
ftpm the slave. Now^ it will liot be pretended, that an African 
ever came to the United States^ or to the West Indies, of his owtt 
mere motion and choice. AU who have landed, in either of the two 
countries, were indubitably slaves; and, if sny have obtained their 
freedom, they still form exceptions only to ihe general rule* Hera 
there never was any necessity for a V on the breast, or any other 
artificial distinction; for nature had stahiped negroes all over widk* 
a characteristic mairk, which was unequivocsA and indellible. Oar 
readers, theretot-e^ cannot but sec* we think, bow nearly die t#o 
cases are analogous; and^ when the Reported of the African Insli* 
tution makes such a doleiul plaint, because the Cotoiial 
answer to sQl ai^unents for the freedom of a vagabond neynbf 

* that his ^kin is black'-^— he shpuld have recollected* that, former^ 
\y^ under the same circumstances, the £nglish Courts would have 
^rejoined' — ^^he has a V on his breast.' If our laws will recogt 
nise such a state as that of slavery, there is no help for the necea<i 
sary and ccincomiumt evils; and the only way« it strikes us* ii^ 
which the presumpticm here spoken of can be deitroyed^ is^ by 
denying, at otice^ that aqy human facing is, or has been^ or can be^ 
a slave. 

But, we shall be told, that the consequences of this dottiinc .do 
pel stop here; that, by denying ihe existence Qf slavery at all, we 
mot only iousenr— but absolute^ cut asunder, the tenure by whicli 
a master holda his negroeii attd thaiihtere eioi be.|i6 diflEbmat klk^t 

i m aeu digproriag Aelr bondage, and teHhig fhem to ga about tfanir 
baainesa. Tho&e, in short, who think we have entered precipitately 
upon this question, will accuse us of l^ing at immediate and 
siraultaaeous emancipation-^and of exposing our southern fellow- 
citizens to all the pitiless storms of such a revolution, as suddenly 
emancipated slaves are known to csury on. Now, all these con« 
sequences we utterly disclaim. We have as little disposition, as 
any of our readers, to make a Kakatopia of the Southern States, 
er Gi the West Indies; and we are as Well convinced of the dis-^ 
aatrous effects attending sudden emancipation, as if we had been 
stoned and beaten, along with a cettain Knight of La Mancha, for 
the imprudent hamanity of liberating the galley-slavea. The ge* 
Bcral good must be our guide, in this, as well as in ^11 other cases; 
and, when we speak of the general good, we include the blacks, 
as well as the whites. We believe no philanthropist has die mad- 
ness to pretend, that a simultaneous liberation oi the negroes, in 
any place, where their numbers are equal or superior to those of 
die white men, would not, almost inevitably, induce the mutual 
destruction of both parties. When a man has not reason enough 
to know, what his rights are, or a sufficient sense of duty to exer^. 
cise them, without abuse, the kw tUce^ those rights in keeping,* 
tQl he has; and Coitgress, or Parliament, have just the same 
reason to hold negroes under restraint, as courts of justice 
have, to prevent madmen from going abroad, or to throw crimi- 
nals into prbon. All we ask for the African, is, therefore, that 
he shall no longer be considered as a slave; that, on the contrary, 
he is ^ntided to die same rights as other men; diat he should be 
put in the way of understanding those rights; and that he should 
have posseasion of them, as fast as he understands them. There 
most oe a beginning; and, unless we begin by denying the legal 
existence of slavery, masters will still consider negroes as their 
property, and resbt all attempts to shake the securi^ of their te- 
nure. Oar object is, not to deprive the master of his slave's ser* 
vices; bat to make those services voluntary, which are now com- 

Here, agahi, we shiA be told, that 6ur scheme is altogether 
IBusory; that negroes %re constitutionally indolent; that, even in 
Africa, they make no provision tor die morrow; and that there 
ia abundant experience of their incapability to do any thing, in 
America, unless they have die fear of the cartwhip before dieir 
€fefl. What motive, in the name of all that is logical, have Afri- 
ims ti> undertake voluntary work, either in their own country, or 
in tidsf In dieir own land, the perpetu^d wars between the pet^ 
iribea -keep the whole cotmtry in alarm:-*-tio property is secure for 
two dajrs together; and no man will undertake to sow; for no * 
ami can expect to reap. What, indeed, should be the state ol in* 
dnatry, in a country, where, as Sedi Hamit tells us, (Riley, 327), die 
litde villages must be fenced in from enemies— -and where, on the 
taiealght ef tieangersi iStut ifdnUtants pop into their miserable huts. 

ind bfeek ixp tKe passage after them? The sUve^tradem have t^ 
answer for not a fe^ ol' the wars, which have produced this in* 
security; and it is provoking, beyond measure, that the very men, ^ 
who have borne a part in making the negroes indolent, should 
now adduce the circumstance of that indolence, as a proof of their • 
constitutional laziness. That Africans are not more indolent, by* 
nature, than any other sort of people, is sufficiently apparent from'- 
the example of the Kroomen; a nation, who, by living many hun*- 
dreds of miles in the interior, have probably enjoyed much greater^ 
security, than the tribes nearer the coast; aiid who, as our readerr- 
know, are not only foand to be indefatigable day-labourers, at' 
Sierra Leone, — but to make the best of soldiers, in the British' 
West Indies. Now, the only diiFerence between these soldiers, * 
and the other Africans, in the same islands, is, that the former 
are hired« and the latter compelled, to work; that the Kroomen 
go through the manuel exercise, without' being flogged, because 
their engagement was voluntary, and because, they know they 
reap themselves the fruits of their labour; whereas the slaves per* 
form their agricultural tasks, under the actual application, or per- 

!»etual fear of the lash, because they are conscious of having been 
breed into servitude, and beeause they see that they work only, 
for the good of others. That they would labour, even more than 
diey do now, under a different system of management, the oppo- 
sers of the Registry Bill have unwittingly furnished us with the 
most ample grounds for believing. In order to prevent the adop« 
tion of that Bill, both the Colonial legislators, and the Colonial 
pamphleteers, have vied with each other, in painting the happ3r* 
condition of the slaves; and, if, allowing tor the exaggeration into" 
which they would naturally be led, not more than one half of their 
stories should be set down for truth, we shall yet have facts enough 
to show, that, under similar circumstances, and widi the same 
motives, a negro will be as industrious as a white man. 
' Of all the Colpnial writers on the subject, the authorof a work^ 
called The Edinburgh Review and the We$t Im&ea^ has g^en us 
the most copious and satisfactory exposition of the facts. He is 
himself an old ^ Colonist;' and he has let w into the domestic eco* 
nomy of a plantation, with a forwardness'dfed zeal, which will dp 
no good to the cause he so strenuously endeavours to support; 
We shall use his own words, in describing the situation of West 
Indian slaves; though we wish our readers to take his assertions^ 
with a due allowance for the exaggeration, of which we cannot 
help but suspect him. ^ I assert, (says he, p. 148), that which is 
^ capable of proof, namely, that in point of food, lodging, clothing, 
* labour, and comfort when sick, and support in old age, there is- 
*no slave, unless the contrary arises from nis own conduct, who is 
^ not in a much better state than any of the labouring classes in diis 
^ country,' England. Again — ^ I affirm, (says he), that industrious 

< negroes can afford to wear better clothes and to live on better . 

< food dian ^e white peoptb in subordinate situadons in the coIp«^ 

Megr0 Sknertf. If 

*liies*^ Me goes still fiirdier; and tells us, that^ Aoo|^ mam are 
idle and ragged — yet ' a distincticm' between the * industrious' and 
the lazy * wiU continue to exist among the human race in every 
'country and in every society;' and that the proportion of the foiH 
mer to the latter, is greater among the negroes, in the colonies, 
dian among white men, in the mother country. ^ The quantity of 

* provisions raised (by the slaves, says he, p. 143,) is prodipous, 
*and the quantity sold very great* One quarter of each island 
producing more perfectly than another the different kinds of pro- 

* visions, a very considerable trade is consequently carried on be« 
t'tween them; and the towns, and the shipping, are chiefly supplied 
*with country provisions by the slaves. Many of them gain con* 
^slderable sums by this means. I have given a negro forty dol- 
*^lars in the course of a few weeks, for provisions to supply the 
*new negroes, or the sick and profligate slaves. The number of 
^hogs, goats, and poul^ of all kinds, raised by them, is astonish* 
*ing, and at a litde trouble and no expense. From them the white 

* people purchase such things for their supply: and, I affirm, from 
'persomd knowledge, that no labourers, and but few of the smaller 

* farmers in this country (England) have any thing like the stock 
*of such animals, as are owned by industrious negroes.' * Many 

* tradesmen, (p. 145,) and those more ingenious among them, earn 

* considerable sums of money by making turniture of various kinds^ 

* such as tables, stools, chairs, bedsteads, baskets, &c/ Now, com* 
pare all this abundance with what they receive gratuitously. 

* Their master (id. p.) gives them annually a good English blan- 

* ket; but the industrious daves have just as good sheets as he has. 

* Stools and chairs they get made by the tradesmen on the estate* 

* In their clothes, even at tHeir conimon field labour, they are not 

* only clean but often fine. At work, both men and women ap>- 

* pear in robes equal to any that servants here can afford; and when 
^visiting or receiving their friends, and on Sundays and holidays, 

* 1 must add much better.' Now, ^ the dress annually received 

* frmn their masters consists (only) of a bat, jacket, shirt and trow- 
*sers,to common slaves; but to more confidential persons, doublet^ 
' besides a linen and a check shirt.' They get from their masten 
no greater supply of provisions, than is barely necessary for decent 
subsistence. They have but one day in tne week to work for 
themselves; and yet we are told, that they raise more provisions, and 
produce more of every thing, in this scanty perioo, than day law 
Dourers in any countiy, who have seven times their number of 
working days! A great deal is undoubtedly to be allowed, for the 
extreme productiveness of the vegetables, which they chiefly cul- 
tivate; but, with every allowance, there can be no question that they 
can work, and do work, as much as other men, without the artifr- 
cial stimulant of a cowhide. Indeed, when we thus see them, 
even in their present degraded state, aspiring to * fine clothes,' 

* dean linen,' ^ good sheets,' and decent ^ iiimiture'— what hopes 
mi|^t we not have of their industry, when once, freed from bon- 

46 ^j^fSl^ely. 

dhige, mdpfsmBMA to work, in «U things, $ni «t all dines, bofm 
the tame motives gs other men. Is it the cartwhip that makep 
forae negroes ^ earn oonsi^eraUe sums ^f piQuey,' by making tar 
Ues, chairs, bedsteads,' &c»? Must we still be told, that is neces^ 
sary to flog negroes into industry, when, with oiily one day in tbf 
seven £or work, they not only raise abundance of provisions io|r 
^emselves,'«n-hi)t supply, in a great measure, the shipping, the 
Sowns, and the less productive quarters of the islands.^ And csn 
we anywhere find a more satisfactory confirmation of what Dn 
Smith so long ago proved to be the fact, wiith respect to free iabourw 
crs, and slaves^-xrthat the former wiU produce much more thia 
the latter; and that, on every aiccount, a free servant is cheaper 
than a bond one?* 

But the {danters will tell us, that they are goii^ on, as fast 
as they can, with the work of- amelioration; that they treat ihe 
negroes, now, a great deal better than they did formerly; and 
that, if we will only let them alone, thsy wiU ultimately do as 
much as can be done with the unfortunate beings, wb^m Provi* 
dence has placed under their maatery. We have scarcely evfcr 
conversed with a Southerner ^ who did not express a siscei^ ne^ 
gret, at the necessity of keeping up our system erf* slayery?R-aBd 
who did not heartily wbh, that no negro nad ever been brought 
.into the country, and that every one, who is in it, were weU cmH 
of it. These are honourable regrets and wishes; and ve havse abuii» 
dant reason to think, that they are shared by the geeat body of 
slave-holders in the United States. Nevertheless, we owust de^iair 
sif ever seeing the blacks put in train for enjoying the eov^mm 
tights of men, under the management of no oUier persons besides 
Aeur present lords atd masters* From their very childhood, they 
luive seen themselves separated to an infinite distance feom tbsir 
•ngDo davea; who, instead of enjoying leisure, or opportunity, to 
;ieach their own younff ideas how to shoot, have only beep aUcto 
icnltivate their maatera cotton or tobacco {dants^ and to pedbrm a 
woriety of other work, which belongs to beasts alone* It is one 
lOf die master's earliest and strongest associations, therefore, that 
•n negro is litde superior to an ox; and, mistaking a deficiency of 
education, ibr a want of (mginal abilities, they wall tell yo^ as 
^ane of diose unquestionable facts which grow up with us, that ji 
Mack ia infinitely helow the white, in all those grea( attribuicn, 
which distinguish man from other animals. A negro, say they.*, 
mo mote doidus that the earth is flat, than that his own nose is 
Alt; and, as to the extent of its surface, he has no idea of liss 
-Ming beyond his master's plantation. He is as ignorant of eviei^ 
iming else, as he is of geography; and you cannot persuade hsi 
-master, that the whole of this ignorance may possiUy arise frcysa n 
want of adequate tuition. These are the natural prejudices of n 
master; prejudices, which, there can be little doubt, would fon* 

* Wealth of Nat. p. Lc 8. 

Negro Slavery. 17 

ever prevent the voluntary adoption of any system) that aimed at 
ultimate, though distant, emancipation. We are none of us so 
absurd as to &nk of giving the rights of men to beings, who 
have not the other attributes of men; and, where one class of hu« 
man beings are considered as very little superior to* dumb beasts, 
there is vexy little hope, that measures will ever be taken to give 
them a superiority.— ^There is, also, another cogent reason for be* 
lieving, that masters, when left to diemselves, will not be likely to 
their slaves in the way of gaining eventual liberation. All that 
they can call their own depends upon their slaves; who, it is natu* 
rally concluded, would be sure to put it in jeopardy, if they were 
released from absolute servitude, or permitted to acquire any 
more information. They have the most powerful of all motives, 
therefore, for keeping negroes in a state of utter ignorance and 
brutalism. Their fears are very natural; though, we think, they 
are destitute of good foundation; and we have no doubt ourselves, 
that some system might be devised, which, while it should not at 
all endanger the interests of the master, would nevertheless in- 
sure the ultimate freedom of the slave. 

We must now turn to another part of the discussion, in which, 
we think, the English philanthropists have not taken exacdy the 
right course. They have given their opponents a very needless 
advantage, by comparing our present slaves with the villeins of 
the middle ages; a comparison, which, so far as we can see, holds 
in only this one unimportant particular — that the former, like the 
latter, live together, in villages, on their masters' plantations. By 
admitting the comparison, in its full extent, we cannot help ad- 
mitting, also, the cpnsequences, which follow from it; anH, when 
the Colonial Legislators 'ask us,* ^ What is. the fair deduction 

* from these cases? That time and the regular course of human 
' affairs will accomplish, in the British Colonies, what they brought 
^ about in the Roman Empire, and in modern Europe, without 
' direct legal enactments and litde assistance from any positive in- 

* stitutions* — ^we do not see how their antagonists can possibly 
refute them. They have keen and close reasoners to deal with; 
reasoners, indeed, whom they have been in the habit of treating 
with contempt,-— but who "" have taken advantage of their loose 
comparisons, and shallow arguments, with the skill and ingenu ty 
of masters. Ever since the mother country had. Colonies, she* 
has let them outreasoner her, because she has considered them as 
destitute of all power to reason; and has, therefore, neglected to« 
take sufficient precautions, or to lay out sufficient strength. In- 
deed, it is the grf at characteristic of John Bull, to consider all 
beyond his own island as a night of ignorance; and to answer all 
arguments by doubling up his fist, and uttering Nestor Ironside's 

* pish!' This is the way in which he lost his other American Co- 


. * Art. XVI. pf a Report of the Jamaica Assembly, on the pnpposed Registry 
Bill, agreed to Deo. 30, 1815. . 

VOL. S. 3 

1 8 Iftgro Slavery* 

lonies; and it is the way, in which the present will be lost, unless 
he condescends to treat their inhabitants as reasonable beings. 

It ought to have been asserted and proved, a long time ago, 
that, in no essential particular, can the negroes, in the Colonies, 
be compared with the former villeins of England. There are but 
two sorts of villeins, with whom any body pretends to liken negro 
slaves; namely, villeins in gross, and villeins regardant. The 
former, our readers know, were the personal servants of the mas- 
ter; the servants who performed all the menial offices about his 
house. When these came to be too numerous for such purposes, a 
part were made villeins regardant^ or predial slaves.^ And this leads 
us to describe the only state of slavery, with which our present 
system can be at all compared. Predial slaves, it is admitted on 
w hands, were a sort of tenants at rvilL They lived in the coun- 
try; owned and occupied litde pieces of ground; and, unlike the 
villeins in gross, who could be sold at any time, and to any person, 
they were attached to the soil, and only changed masters, when 
the land changed owners. There was always an implied contract 
between them and their masters. A contract supposes volition; 
volition, liberty; and, though we have to acknowledge, that, at first, 
there was but a very little freedom on the part of the tenant; yet, 
little as the leaven was, it proved sufficient, ultimately, to leaven 
the whole lump. By the conditions of the Feudal System, which 
William, the Conqueror, carried over to England, the baron and 
his vassals were mutually necessary to each other; the baron to 
the vassal, because the vassal needed the protection of his influ- 
ence and head,— 4he vassal to the baron, because the baron need- 
ed the defence of his hands and weapons. In fact, therefore, 
there was about as much liberty on one side, as on the other. As 
civilization advanced, however, the barons quarreled with each 
other less than formerly; of course, required the aid of their 
tenants less frequendy; and thus their rights of mastership be- 
came gradually extinct, for want of exercise. The rights of the 
vassal, in the mean time, took an inverse direction. By being 
attached to the soil, and by occupying a given piece of ground — 
which, in consequence of no interruption, on the part of the lord, 
went, by inheritance, from father to son — the common law at 
length gave them an independent tide to the land; insomuch, that, 
by this, and several other collateral means, the English villeins, 
says Judge Blackstone, ' have long ago sprouted up into copy- 
* holders.' 

We wish to impress it deeply on the minds of our readers, that 
it was by this natural progress of society, and not by the Magna 
Charta, or by a charta of any kind, that the greater part of En- 
glishmen enjoy their present liberties. We have been so often 
told, how wis instrument was obtained, sword in hand; how 
Rimning-Mead became immortalized diereby; and how complete a 


* AfiUar on tlie British Gorenunent, p. 203. 

tfegro Skmefff* 10 

aaf<eguard it is to the freedom of all Englishmen^ (with double 
emphasis, upon the word), that we cannot let go this opportunity 
to give our humble opinion of its merits* It does appear to us^ 
then, that there is no possible foundation for the rhetoric and 
flourish, that have been wasted on the subject; and that, if numbers 
are to be our criterion of judgment, the grant of King John-^if 
it was a magna charta of any thing*-^was a magna charta of sla« 
very. Through all its provisions their is a constant distinction 
between freemen and slaves; and the very first article declares^ 
that it is to the former alone that the subscript liberties are con* 
ceded. ^ Concessimus etiam omnibus liberh regni nostri pro no* 
* bis et heredibus nostris imperpetuum orones libertates subscript 
^ tas*' Again, what a most abominable principle of servitude is 
implied in the following extract from the 4th article! It speaks of 
destroying and laying waste men, as if they were litde superior to 
cabbage-stalks* ^ Gustos terre hujusmodi heredis qui infra etatem 
' fuerit non capiat de terra heredis nisi rationabiles exitus ct rationa* 
^ biles consuetudines et rationabilia servitia^-^et hoc sine distruc^ 
*• tione et vasto hominuk vel rerum.^ Article 15th directs that^ 
^ liber homo non amercietur pro parvo dilecto,' &c.; and that ^ vil^ 
' lanus eodem/ &c. The expression-— NuUi vendemus, nuUi nega- 
bimus, aut diiFeremus rectum vel justiam-^is oftpn quoted by 
itself, as if it applied to every individual in the nation; when, in 
£act,nothingis more evident, from the context, than that it was meant 
exclusively for freemen. The sentence, which immediately pre- 
cedes it, begins with the words, ^Nullus liber homo capiatur' 
etc.; and the words ^ libero homini' were omitted after ^ Nulli' in 
the phrase alluded to, because their expression, just before, suffi* 
ciently indicated the class of persons, to which it had reference. 
It is somewhat singular, that these evident recognitions of slaveiy 
should have escaped the research of all the writers on Engli^ 
law; and that, in particular, so cautious a commentator as Judge 
Blackstone should have told us, among a number of other things, how, 
^ lasdy, (which alone would have merited the title that it bears, of 
'the great charter) it protected every individual in the free enjoy* 
' ment of his life, his liberty^ and his property;'* or that even Dr. 
Miller, whose treatise is, in many respects, so commendable, should 
have committed^ the great mistake of saying, ^ it is probable diat 

* before the time of WilUam the Conqueror, they (the privileges of 

* freedom) were extended to the greater part, it not the whole, 
' of the ancient vassals.'f We certainly can find no warrant for 
these assertions. Vassalage of the most abject kind existed a long 
time after this period; and, we must think, that a great part of 
Englishmen no more owe their liberties to King John's magna 
charta^ than to Koah's leather apron. 

Those liberties, as we said* above, are the gradual result of pro* 

gressive civilization. And it yet remains to inquire, whether our 

II - -^ , ., . _^— ^^.^^^^.^ 

* B. iv.c.33. "* On the Brit^ Gov. p. S03. 

20 Neg€o Slavery* 

present system of negro slavery, which is said to resemble the an- 
cient constitution of villanage, is ever likely to arrive at the same 
result. We have already taken it upon us to assert, that in no im* 
portant particular, is the situation of negro slaves analogous to that 
of ancient villeins. Is there any resemblance of a contract, ex^^ 
press, or implied, between the master and his slaves? Did the lat- 
ter exercise the least volition in becoming bondmen? Will it be 
pretended, that, as in the feudal system, the lord and the vassals 
are mutually necessary to each other? Durst the m^tster tell us, 
that they are tenants at will; attached to the soil; and transferable 
only with the land they occupy and cultivate? On the contrary, 
were they not forced into their situation? Are they not considered 
as things paid for? And may they not be tran8ferred,^--*nay, are 
they not transterred, from one plantation to another, whenever it 
suits the sovereign will and pleasure of the master? What chance, 
in the name of sense, has any negro to become a proprietor of 
land, either by copyhold, or by any other hold? Have they the 
least particle of liberty to begin with? the least spot of ground to 
rest the fulcrum of their lever upon? As an additional disability, 
has it not been found necessary to prevent masters from throwing 
their worthless negroes upon tb«. community, by imposing a tax upon 
manumission, nearly equal, in some places, to the price of a good 
slave? Are not slaves distinguished, we ask, by all these addi- 
tional rivets, from the ancient villeins, with whom it is so much 
the fashion to compare them?— -Nor are these all the distinctions. 
Villanage took its rise in an age, when men of all classes were little 
better dian barbarians. The master was nearly as rude as the 
slave; and, when the former began to advance in civilization, the 
latter followed on with equal pace* In our own system, however, 
the two orders respectively, are almost at the "extremes of barba- 
rism and civilization. The slave looks up to his master as a god; 
the master looks down upon his slave as a beast; and, as long as 
the one is in the complete power of the other, we see no probabili- 
ty that they will ever regard each other as any thing like equals. 
The slave's mere physical peculiarity of having a black skin, has 
grown into a moral distinction, as palpable as that between white 
and black. 

One would think, that these distinctions are more than sufficient 
to disprove the similarity between villeins and negro slaves; and 
to make us give up all hopM for the latter, through, what the Ja- 
maica Committee call, * the progress of Society.' It is in vain to 
think of their making a ^ progress,' till they have some start; and, 
if the masters intend to give them this start, they would have 
made preparation for doing so before this time. The truth is, , 
that the whole current of dieir habits and of their imagined in- 
terests set against a system of liberation. The subject, we are 
persuaded, must be taken into other hands; and the only hands 
adequate to the task are those of Congress and Parliament. But 
there should be no precipitancy in the business. The real in- 

Negro •S'/strry* di 

terests of the planters should not be infrfaiged upon; and they . 
ought to have a full and fair hearing, before die subject be med- 
dled with at all. The object we have in view, is, as we ssud be- 
fore, not to deprive planters of the negro s services; but to make 
those services voluntary— <o commute slaves into tenants, and 
masters into guardians. We wish the negroes to be considered 
as worthy of their hire; and we have no doubt, that« by adopting 
Christophe's plan of giving them a portion of the gross produce, 
they might be influenced to work quite as laboriously as they 
now do. Even if the present generation could not so much change 
their habits, as to labour from any other motive than compukory 
punishment, the one which is to succeed might be prepared to do 
tt. It is hard to teach old ideas how to shoot; but we may give 
almost any direction to young ones. We cannot pretend to give 
a detailed scheme for the undertaking; but we do not see why the 
introduction of Lancaster's System, would not accomplish a great 
part of the good, which we wish to do the negroes. It is cer- 
tainly necessary, that they should understand the rights, which 
we would put into their hands; and it is quite as certain, in our 
own way of thinking, that the object might be accomplished, 
without jeopardizing the interests of* their present masters. We 
are satisfied, at all events, that the first step, in any system, must 
be that of denying, that the negroes are lawfully held in their 
present condiuon. 

Want of room has necessitated us to pursue this subject in too 
general and a desultory manner; and want of time has obliged us to 
throw our remarks together, with more haste than is consistent with 
their fuU and unambiguous expression. Our readers will observe, 
abo, that a great deal of our reasoning has been directed more to 
the negroes in the West Indies, than to those in our own South- 
ern States. Those who have watched the progress of the ques- 
tion will easily account for the fact. It is not to be disputed, 
that our own country set the example, not only in dis- 
cussing the question of the slave-trade*«-*but in putting a stop to 
its prosecution. Here, however, our labours terminated; and, 
though there are in the United States, more than three times as 
many slaves, as in the British West Indies; yet the people of this 
country hatre, inversely, been thrice as neglectful of their lot, 
as the people of England. A coalition of able and influential 
men, in that country, have contrived, by means of extensive 
private correspondence, and by the assiduity, with which they 
have kept the subject in discussion, to draw before the public 
a complete developement of all the facts, relative to the system of 
West Indian slavery. It is to England, therefore, that we look 
for the first adoption of some wise plan to ameliorate that system. 
Little will probably be done, in this country; though even here, 
the subject is by no means entirely neglected. We ought, indeed. 

* See our Number for May, p. 382— and die-Memoirs «C Anthony Benezet 

22 Negro Slceoery. 

to set the example* Our slaves are not only more numerous,-— 
'but more fecund, dian those in the British Colonies; and, if 
measures are not taken betimes to put them in the way of peacea- 
ble emancipation, it cannot be many centuries before they will 
emancipate themselves^-with what sort of moderation, we need 
not describe. In Maryland, for instance, between die times of 
4>ur first and second census, the whites increased about Sii per 
cent.«^the blacks, 14 per cent.; in Virginia, the whiteai 6^ P^'' 
cent.— -the blacks, XSf^^tt cent.; in North Carolina, the whites, 
ll/o per cent.— the blacks, 29 /o percent.; in South Carolina, the 
whites, 9\ per cent.— the blacks, 34^ per cent.;* and, in all these 
states, the increase of the blacks to the whites was as 24j{>!-to-9i\, 
not far from 3 to 1. * Qu& haec spectant'f 

As we have once or twice hinted at the doings of the African 
Institution, perhaps we cannot better conclude this article, than 
by giving a slight sketch of what we consider as. the character 
imd views of that establishment. There is no doubt, that it has 
been the means of stricking out many new lights, and of obtain- 
ing much useful information, upon die subject of negro slavery, 
both in Africa, and in the West Indies: but it is as litde doubt- 
ful, in our own minds, that, unless a part of its system is revolu- 
tionized, it will be the means of extensive mischief in one, if not 
in both, of these countries. Nothing is clearer, than that the 
English Parliament may do her Colonies infinite harm, by legis* 
lating upon an imperfect and partial exposition of their circum- 
stances. By exaggerated, or false, accounts of abuses, or trans- 
gressions, a good measure by being hurried into adoption before 
its time; or may contain provisions for evils which do not exist, 
or which, if they do exist, are much less intolerable than the pro- 
posed remedy. These things had well nigh happened, in the case of 
the Registry Bill. Among other things, it was stated by the Reporter 
of the Institution, that, from 1808 to 1815, not less than 20,000 
negroes had been smuggled into the British West Indies; a num- 
ber, which, considering the bulk of the cargo, could never have 
escaped the vigilance of the navy, or of the custom-house; and 
yet trom neither have we any accounts of even a single ship's load 
being detected! It was, also, one of the prominent topics of de- 
clamation, that an idle or loitering negro was liable to be taken 
up and sold — even, it was said, with his deed of manumission in 
his hand. To this charge the colonial writers have given the lie 
direct; and have challenged the Institution to make it good. We 
have no doubt, in fine, that Parliament was induced to throw out the 
Bill, chiefly because the Reporter was detected in such misrepre- 
sentations and falsehoods. Indeed, we do not see how much con- 
fidence can be placed in these periodical Reports. They consist, 
for the most part, of statements, picked out of a voluminous cor* 

* We hare not incladed Geori^a, because she was permitted to import slaves 
till 1808. 

Negro Slavery. 23 

rcspondence, and mixed up with a Tariety of reasoningii declama- 
tion, and abuse. It is in vain to expect the whole truth from them* 
The Directors publish nothing, of course, which is not confbrma* 
hie to their own views; and, indeed, it has lately been proved, be* 
fore all the world, that they have suppressed letters which were 
written for publication,— but which, unfortunately, did not con- 
tain * the information diey wanted.' The following letter, from 
Mr. Macaulay to Governor Ludlam, at Sierra Leone, will let 
our readers into the plan, which is pursued, relative to this sub- 
ject* It was intended to be confidential; but like many other 
confidential letters, it has foimd its way into publication. It is 
printed as it was written. 

< LondoTiy Ath J^ov. 180r. 
< Mt DEAR Sir, 

< A word in private respecting the African Insti- 
tution. I cannot help regarding it as an imfiortant engine. We have 
many zealous friends in it, high in rank and influence, who, I am per- 
suaded, are anxious to do what can be done, both for the colony and for 
Africa. Mr. Perceval and Mr. Canning are with us decidedly. Lord 
Castlereagh, with whom our business more immediately lies, is good- 
Caret inpeneU. In the humoured and complying, but his Secretary, 

margin t» pencil — and . i. ^ 

Mr. Wilberforce desires ,^ ^* **«^. ^ ., . , 

nie to add, disposed from Mr. Cook is hostile to the whole thing 
a point of honour to do A 

the utmost for the Aboli- may be disposed to 

tionists. and [will cagcrlyj seize any circumstance 

InferHneatiom in the ^hich will put it m his power to do us mis- 

^'^^ chief. 

You will sec how very important it is to be 

Words [will eageriy] aware of this in your communications with 

dtfaced. government. Indeed, in all the oetenaible let- 

terii you write, whether to Lord Castlereagh, 

WordsinitaUeMmder- the African Institution, or myself, it will be 

•cored tnthtoriginai. ^^^it to consider the effect of what you say 

on lukewarm friends, and in the hands of 

secret enemies, for such will unavoidably mix us. In such hands there 


are truths which will be made to produce all the effect of falsehood, 
and instead of being used as they ought to be, as a spur, will be em- 
ployed as checks to all exertion. I cannot mean, of course, that you 
should, in any degree, varnish your representations. I merely mean that 
you should not unnecessarily discourage the exertions of benevolence. 
People who do not know you, will suppose the case to be desperate 
where you seem to doubi; and your testimony, if convertible to an ad- 
verse purpose, would be formidable. Your own mind will suggest to 
^u the guards, limitations, and exceptions, with which what I now say 
should be received. 

94 Negro Slavery, 

' Lhave no i>oubt that government will be disposed to adopt almost 

WardiimmallcanUaU ^ P^^n which we may propose to them 

underscored wUha double ^^^ respect to Africa, firovtded we will but 

lineintheoriginaL save them the trouble qf thinking. This you 

will see to be highly important.* 

So far appears to be in the hand-writing of an amanuensis; the re- 
mainder in the same hand with the signature. 

< I have one remark to make which you will see to apply to much of 
what I have written to you by this conveyance. I am not writing for 
myself, but for others; and am therefore obliged to propose topics of 
consideration to you, which, but for this circumstance, I myself might 
have deemed superfluous, and might have saved you the trouble of 
answering. But if I had time, I could give you several reasons why 
the same truths will do more good coming from you than from me. 

I ever am, my dear sir, 
Your's very truly, 

Zachary Macauly.' 

Our readers may wish to hear a guess at the ^ plan' which was 
to be * proposed with respect to Africa,' and at«die reason of its 
being ^ highly important' that Parliament should be ^ saved the 
* trouble of diinking.' The African Institution rose from the ashes 
of the Sierra Leone Compafty# It got into its hands, therefore, 
t^e management of that Colony; and it has always been ambitious 
of getting hold of the whole coast of Africa, for a thousand or 
two miles* The ultimate object was, we have no doubt, to found 
aa empire like that of East India. We have seen some very un- 
ambiguous hints at the example of that Company: and a very still 
and insidious attempt to shake the West India monopoly, has not 
yet become a subject of English history. Year before last, a bill 
was brought into the House of Commons, under the head of the 
African Goods Bill; a tide which, at first, seemed on all sides to 
have reference only to gold dust, ivory, dyewoods, gums, Ecc; 
nor was it until it had been tead four successive days in the 
House of Commons, and twice in the House of Lords, that it was 
discovered to permit the importation of rum, coffee, cocoa, cotton, 
and every other West Indian commodity-— except sugar. The 
West India Committee took the alarm; immediately convened a 
meeting; drew up, and sent to the Secretary for the Colonial De- 
partment, a protest against the measure; and, on the motion of 
the latter, at the third reading, the Bill was rejected. Whedier 
there was any underhanded design in this business, or not, nothing 
is more evident, than that hardly any active member of the Insti- 
tution has lost money, by becoming a philanthropist. Men who 
have to serve their own interests in an undertaking are not likely 
to adopt the very best measures for its accomplishment; and, 
though we are ready to fight the good fight along with the Afri- 
can Institution, we must be permitted to choose our own ground, 
and to plant our own standard. 

French Education and the French Press. 25 

Art. Ih-^Letters an the State of Education, and of the Pressy irH* 
France. — From the Correspondent, No. II. 

To the Honourable W. L. — • 

JUSTLY observing, that as in the words of one of your philo- 
sophic poets ^ the child is parent of the man/ so Education 
is the root of Politics, you tell me there is nothing in France, 
about which you so much desire to be well infortned, as the state 
of education. I shall feel an equal honour and pleasure in con- 
veying that information to you; but we must begin by defining what ' 
we mean by the term education. 

The meaning of this word, like that of most words relating to 
similar subjects, has various degrees of extension, and some con- 
fusion may arise if we do not state its principal distinctions. In 
the first place, then, taken in its widest import, it comprehends all 
the means used in the development of the human faculties; moral^ 
intellectual, and physical; so that, among us, a good education is 
that, which, in forming the heart, has cultivated the mind, and 
improved the qualities of the body. But we also use the word 
in a more limited sense, to signify merely the culture of the un* 
derstanding; fco: it cannot be denied that the principal object of 
our public schools is mental instruction: to this all the cares of the 
masters and the efforts of the pupils are directed; this is the point, 
toward which all the motives of emulation concur; and on this 
depend all those brilliant rewards which are every year assigned 
to exertion, forming at once the encouragement of the student and 
the glory of the professor. The natural goodness of man is so 
far relied on, as to allow a presumption, diat the mind, well en- 
lightened, will prove a sufficient guide for the heart. It is expect- 
ed that the examples of parents, the indirect lessons of masters, 
the subjects selected for lectures and compositions, the study of 
good authors, regularity of discipline, and religious habits espe- 
cially, wiU be more effectual than courses of moral instuctions, 
which might possibly fail to be interesting. Hence the disregard 
of those physical regulations, which the ancient Greeks and Ro- 
mans deemed necessary in their constitutions, where every citizen, 
being necessarily destined to be a soldier, was formed to become 
robust ere he became intelligent. It seems probable that, among 
the ancients, this bodily training was the only kind of public in- 
struction; and that all the rest was left to the discretion of indi- 
viduals. Rhetoricians opened schools, which were undoubtedly 
sanctioned, but not paid, by die government; and with the excep- 
tion of Xenophon's Cyropadia, and Plato's Republic, it may be 
doubted whether the ancients had any idea of what we call litUic 

The system of education adopted generally, with some few 
modifications, throughout modem Europe, is that which we, after 
some fruitless experiments, have retained. It is founded princi- 
pally on die study of the dead languages. I shall not pause to 

vox* X. 4 

26 French Education and the French Pre^e. 

inquire, n^hether this mode of instruction be attended with incon* 
yeniences, or whether a better might not be substituted. I look 
only on its effects; I see it practised particularly among yourselves, 
where it produces profound reasoners and statesmen of the first 
eminence. We also owe to it the illustrious period of our litera- 
ture, and, as Sallust observes, * imperium JaciU iisdem artibus re- 
tinetur^ qutbus initio partum est.^ I cannot impute blame to our 
predecessors; and without contemptuously rejecting the theories 
of innovators in education, I think they might be applied to the 
improvement of the existing system, but so as not to risk its entire 
subversion. For, doubdess, the rising generation must suffer from 
that fluctuation of plans and ideas, that varying succession of con- 
tradictory schemes, that rage for censuring whatever is, without 
the power of substituting something better. Education, above all 
concerns, requires constancy of method, and an uninterrupted re- 
gularity throughout all the degrees of its progress. You, more 
fortunate than ourselves, have made no changes; and your schools, 
enjoying throughout Europe a well-deserved reputation, have not, 
like OUTS, extensive ruins to repair, and chasms to fill up. Your 
universities still shine with the same splendour; while our re-es- 
tablished institutions have at once their own glory to achieve, and 
the glory of their predecessors to sustain: you are^not, however, 
to suppose that the state of learning in France is so deplorable 
as some gloomy censors represent it, who, shocked by certain 
particular' abuses, attack the general system, and who, indulging 
ancient recollections, imagine that the future ought in all particu- 
lars to resemble the past; like an unskilful physician, who should 
be surprised at finding his patient, on recovering from a violent 
fever and delirium, with less strength of body and mind than he 
had before. Nay further: if learning in some provinces be less 
prosperous than formerly, at Paris on the contrary it is understood 
to flourish more vigorously than ever; ampler means of instruction 
are a£forded to youth, and better use is made of them. If, during 
a season of trouble, morals have been neglected, mind certainly 
has not. The sciences, especially, have been cultivated with 
care, and it would be impossible to find in all Europe, a body of 

Jrofessors constituted like that of the Academy of Paris. It is 
ere that some details will be necessary; and for the sake of order, 
I shall arrange what I have to state to you, under the separate 
heads of primary J secondary ^ and special instruction* 

Primary Instruction. 
This charge, formerly, and even at present intrusted to religious 
Mcietes, namely, the J^norantine Friars^ for boys, and the Charita- 
ble Sisterhood for girls, did not admit of very great extension for the 
labouring classes. Some persons, prone to indiscriminate censure, 
have reflected bitterly on these schods and their founders. Doubt- 
leaa their means of instruction were limited, and the masters some- 
times well deserve their appellation of J^orantmes. But what 
men ooiuld the vUlages and country towns employ in gratuitous 

French EdUeaihn mid the French Press. S7 

iastniction, except those who made the vow of poverty, and were 
always sufficiendy acquunted with it, to falfil uieir modest func« 
tiens^ This was the best resoiirce that then existed. But it is 
oertainly desirable that the method of Bell and Lancaster, intro- 
duced among us, should be more and more encouraged, because 
it will afford a remedy for the inconveniences complained of. Its 
daily progress already seems to promise permanent success. From 
Paris, where it has received some advantageous modifications, it 
is extending into the departments; and is there beginning to be 
{Mactised* In the capitsd there are now twelve schools opened, 
and the number of their pupils is daily augmenting. Besides the 
original school in the street of St. Jean de Beauvais, which re^ 
ceives more than four hundred children, two Protestant schools 
have been established in the street des Billettes* The Duchess of 
Duras has founded a school for girls in the street de Fleurus., 
There are others in different quarters; and each of these establish- 
ments has, on an average, from 1000 to 1200 pupils; so that the 
number of children receiving this species of instruction will soon 
exceed that of the children taught by the old method. Tou see 
that by perseverance this beneficial system has been brought to 
bear among us, and that the obstacles raised against it by preju- 
dice and ignorance are giving way. lie circumstance which 
tended to throw discredit on this system in the eyes of some per- 
sons, already alarmed at the idea of innovation, and perhaps pos- 
sessed with the notion, that there is danger in instructing the com- 
mon people, was the manner, in which it was first introduced. You 
inay remember that it began to take effect in consequence of a 
decree of Buonaparte, during the hundred days. But it is to be 
hoped, that the advantages obviously resulting froin it, will defeat 
the opposition, which indolence and an adherence to routine pre- 
sented to its establishment. Those, indeed, are the only hin- 
dvances, to which this system of teaching is liable, now that the 
cii^l and ecclesiastieal authorities concur in sanctioning it. Such, 
then, is the instruction destined for the common people; it consists 
in reading, writing, and arithmetic. I now proceed to that which 
oflfers itself to the higher classes, and which, as already stated, is 
founded on the study of l^aguages. This is v^hat I term seconda- 
ry msiruction. 

Secondary Instruction* 
Before the Revtdution, this mstruction was derived from differ-' 
ent sourees* Besides the University, several religious bodies 
devoted themselves to the education of youth. Among these 
were distinguished the Oratorians, the Doctrinaries, and some 
Benedictines. I make no mention of the Genorefins, and- the 
Theotins, because they laboured, intri privatos murosy rather for 
thehr young proselytes than for others. Such were those bodies 
now so much spoken of, and the loss of which some persons, at 
tibe present day, regret, without considering, that, all those houses 

29 French Education and the French Fre^s. 

were rich and well endowed, and that consequently thejr wduU 
not now have the same means of doing good* I doubt much 
wheUier men of talent would be at present desirous of belonging 
to those societies, since their existence would become totally pre- 
carious, and dependent on the uncertain success of anew establish- 
ment. Besides, where are now to be found the comer-stones of 
those institutions, when the old members of those societies have 
either fallen victims to the Revolution, or are employed in the 
present University. During an interruption of twenty-six years, 
now many losses, how many changes have occurred! In* 1791 the 
oaths then exacted, occasioned many religious houses to be closed. 
The others scarcely subsisted untU 1793, when anarchy became 
predominant* This interregnum of education lasted Until 1796, 
when the Normal School was founded, which numbered among 
its professors the celebrated Laharpe. This was soon succeeded 
by the institution of central schools; and they, in 1808, gaveplacQ 
to the establishment of the University. In the Central Schools, 
instruction was more diversified, and some further scope was 
^ven to the study of the sciences, which does not now enter into 
the plan of the existing classes. The concerns of instruction were 
superintended by a Director-general, which appointment was re- 
placed by that of Grand- Master of die University, with a nume- 
rous tndn of officers. The jurisdiction of each court of appeal 
formed an academy, whose chief, or rector, corresponded at Pa- 
ris with the Grand-Master. Houses of instruction, called Lyce* 
ums, were established, and inferior ones, denominated Colleges* 
Private institutions were required to frequent the public schools^ 
and attend the lectures of professors, appointed and paid by aa- 
thori^. To obtain admission into them, the pupil must have pre- 
viousfy^ construed Phsedrus and Cornelius Nepos; he then entered 
into what was called the fifth class, and subsequently into the 
fourth, forming together the Grammatical Course; he then passed 
successively into me third and second, called the course of (he 
Humanities, in order to arrive at Rhetoric. Other professors were 
appointed to teach Mathematics, Physics, and Philosophy. Such 
were the object^ of the public studies. The Grand-Master and 
his tndn were superseded in 1815 by a Council of Public Instruc- 
tion, with its President; and afterwards by a Provisional Commit- 
tee, of five members; but no change has been made, either in the 
organizadon of houses of instruction, or in the systems of studies* 
They have merely suppressed the name of Lyceums, and adopted 
that of Royal Colleges; the other establishments are called Com- 
munal Colleges. Such is the present state of things, and we are 
daily expecting a law which is to determine the fate of what we 
call the University. I do not think it will a£fect the mode of in* 
atrUction; but doubtless it may produce some change in the pre- 
sent system of centralization, and, above all, restore to the proies- 
sorships somewhat of that independence which men of science can- 
not di^nse with. It is but a slender recompense for die ardu* 

French Education and the French Press, 29 

608 toil which they undergo in preparing youth for their outset iu 
public life, and providing them with the various means of enteriing 
upon the career that is opened to thenu Education, as yet, ex- 
ists only in outline; and the pupils have been stinted in the suds 
requisite for perfecting those talents which their instructors en- 
deavoured to develop in them. These form the objects of special 

Special Instruction. 

There ftre schools for the Arts, but they are beyond the sphere 
of the University, which has five faculties or branches of special 
instruction; Theology, Jurisprudence, Medicine, Sciences, and 
Letters. In each faculty are opened diiFerent lectureships by emi- 
nent professors, of whom Frs|nce has reason to be proud. Their 
lectures, attended by a multitude of amateurs, are particularly fre- 
quented by the pupils of a normal school, founded for young per- 
sons destined for professorships, and by others desirous of taking 
dieir degrees in the different faculties. These degrees are three 
in number; Bachelor, Licentiate, and Doctor. The Academy of 
Paris, solely, posseses the five faculties; the others have one, two, 
or three, according to their local necessities. I have to observe, 
that die chairs of the College of France, of the King's Garden, of 
orientsd living languages, as also the Pol3rtechnic school, those of 
bridges and roads, and of mines, are not in the jurisdiction of the 

From this succinct and rapid view, you may perceive that the 
means of instruction are not wanting in France, and that educa- 
tion is not in such jeopardy as some persons are inclined to repre- 
sent it. The tempest has raged; our vessel has been shattered; 
but from its wreck we have constructed another, which, with la- 
bour and time, may acquire solidity. Only let no attempt be 
made, while its parts are but slightiy joined and imperfectiy se- 
cured, to disturb it by imprudent shocks and movements, which 
may irrecoverably destroy it. 

In thus opening the subject to you, Sir, (for I have done nothing 
more,) I point the way to further and more detailed research, in 
which, if agreeable to you, my assistance shall not be wanting. You 
will see that there is much curious and even important matter to 
be learnt respecting the ancient religious bodies, who devoted 
their labours (as I have above noticed) to the work of education; 
as well as respecting the ancient University. These subjects, by 
dint of becoming obsolete, if I may so speak, have again become 
new: I doubt not, at least, that thev would be so considered in 
England. We have other points of curious disquisition, which 
having risen up and again disappeared, in the ocean of our unhap- 
py Revcdution, possess a novel^ of a different kind. Such are 
the brief memoirs of the institution of Central Schools; and the 
still more curious znd piquant history of the administration of the 
Univonityy under Buonaparte. Add to this the peculiar organi- 

30 French Education and the French Press* 

zafcion of our different Colleges— the courses of study for llie re« 
spective Faculties^-«the system of distributing prises, and inflict* 
ing censures,. when necessary* in the Universi^— -the Schools on 
the plans of Bell and Lancaster, or, as we* call them. Schools of 
Mutual Instruction''''9nii you will see that the whole may easiljr 
furnish matter for a long continuance of that correspond cpcc, 
which you have done me die honour to solicit. 

I am, Sir, 

with great respect. 
Your very obedient servant, 

To Sir W. L. 


Dear Sir, PariSj 1st Feb* 181Sr. 

OU wish to know die state of the press in France: in other 
words, what degree of freedom our writers enjoy. To an* 
swer this question clearly, it might seem sufficient to send you 
an abstract of our laws on the subject; but we have no laws. Tlien 
you will say what is the usage? Why, we have not yet any usage. 
Indeed, how can usage be established, in a country which has re- 
nounced all experience, in order to venture upon untried systems? 
Besides, a knowledge of the laws on any particular subject, is of 
litde avail without an acquaintance with the manners of the na* 
tion for which those laws were framed. -Thus, you see, youir 
question leads to a far wider discussion, and if you would com- 
prehend the state of the press, you must be made acquainted with 
the manners of the literary class in France. 

The term public opinion is not to be found in any of the French 
historians prior to tne reign of Louis XIII. Until that period^ 
our literature was unformed; no one wrote on the administration 
of government, because the concerns of government were then 
very limited, and politics were a science studiously concealed 
from the vulgar eye. The minister of that King, our famous 
Cardinal de Richelieu, having formed the design of attacking 
the privileges and independence of the nobility, flattered the pas- 
sions of the commonalty, and did all in his power to exalt Utax 
order. He affected to suppose that the French nation in general^ 
entertained an opinion on state affairs, and by means of the support 
derived from this opinion, he endeavoured to render eveiy thiog 
subservient to his o¥m will. There were some grounds for this 
notion; for in fact the French people really felt the want of union, 
steadiness, and congruity in their operations; qsdiuties which had 
not esusted since the death of Henry IV.f not through the defect 
of the institutions, but through the weakness of the government. 

Either from zeal for the advancement of literature, of which 
the Cardinal Richelieu, thou^ totally devoid of taste, was a 
great admirer; or else from pcdicy, and a wish to erect a sort of 
visible tribunal iox that public opinion to which diis minister so 

French Education and the French Press. 31 

frequently appealed, he associated the writers of reputation in his 
days, and founded the French Academy* In fdrmtng this associa- 
tion he took the members of it into regular pay, a proceeding 
apparently simple, but attended with important consequences, be- 
cause our men of letters from that moment concluded that they 
were to depend on the government for' subsistence, and that pen- 
sions ffT^ited by the court, were preferable to any emoluments 
that might arise from the independent exercise of dieir talents. 

The nature of our legislation was comformable with these ideas. 
Our laws did not protect literary property. The dramatic authors 
were under the control and at the mercy of the players; whilst 
other writers were in like manner subjected to the booksellers. 
Our nation, in its chivalrous spirit, though enamoured of the plea- 
siu-es arising from literature, imputed shame to a subsistence de- 
rived from the pen; and to make a trade of the art of writing, was to 
lose aportion of respectability, whatevermight be the writer's talents, 
or however splendid his success. This will serve to explain, why 
the masterly productions of our literature during the age of Louis 
XIV. were utterly profitless to their authors. Thus the legisla- 
ture, the national manners, and the prevailing prejudices, all con- 
tributed to debar them from every prospect of security against 
want, except such as might arise from the bounty of the govern- 
ment. It is not surprising, therefore, that they should become flat- 
terers of power, and yield easily to its insinuations. 

The maintenance of all those doctrines, which were in harmony 
with the form and spirit of the government, was at that time con- 
fided to certain religious societies, who pronounced public censure 
on authors whenever they deviated from the principles essen- 
tial to the safety of the state. Our high courts of magistracy, to 
whom belonged every branch of police, even that which regarded 
opinions, punished the errors of writers; and though there were 
no special laws against the delinquencies of the press, yet, as in 
every civilized country, whatever is considered detrimental to es- 
tablished order, is in some way or other punishable, justice was 
executed on criminal authors, in the same manner as on criminals 
who were not authors. Thus, it may be said that the religious 
bodies denounced, and the parliament punished. 

On attentively considering the history of the whole world, we 
shall every where perceive a distinction between intellectual and 
material power. To govern bodies and to govern minds have 
dmost always been considered as two distinct things; and it would 
not be difficult to prove that nations have been more agitated by 
the pretensions of those who wished to influence the mind, than 
by those who confined their aims to the subjection of the person. 
This idea suggests a thousand cUrious l-eflections. I merely throw 
out for your considerauon, and proceed with my survey. It is now 
generally allowed, that the main spring of representative govern" 
mentSj is public opinion; but public opinion I regard as nothing 
more than the triumi^ of intellect over force. In this point of 

32 French Education and the French Press, 

view, it is not to be ima^ned that the liberty of the press, can 
ever become questionable, in countries where the interests of the 
state are discussed in large assemblies, and where the delibera- 
tions of those assemblies are public* Indeed the very question 
would suppose an alarming inconsistency; but of this inconsisten- 
cy we have just given another example; for in France we do not 
appear to take any interest in the establishment of a principle ex- 
cept for the pleasure of violating it in all its consequences. 

The privilege of directing men's minds may sometimes belong 
to the passions, but never to ignorance, and those, who in the 
present day blame the monastic orders for having possessed them- 
selves of mat privilege, do nothing more than reproach them ifirith 
having had greater talents and acquirements than the rest of their 
contemporaries. Had there been only one monastic order in 
Europe, I think it would have been impossible to take from that 
order what I call the intellectual supremacy; but when several 
such orders arose, there sprung up a rivalry among them; they 
contended for this power, which is certainly the greatest, and 
that which has most charms for exalted minds. What, indeed, 
can be more attractive than the idea of gaining the ascendancy of 
the age by dint of mental power alone? What other end does a 
man of letters propose to himself? Honoured be those writers 
who, on questions of public interest, sacrifice every personal con* 
sideration to the pleasure of meditating on the general welfare! 

The Jesuits in France were in quiet possession of the right of 
directing the public mind, when the Jans^nists attacked them for 
the purpose of wresting from them this high privilege. This was 
the real ground of the quarrel between these two bodies; theolo- 
ncal disputes were merely the mode in which it was carried on. 
The Jesuits preached a lax morality in order to ensure a majority 
in their favqur: the Jansenists, to make a striking impression and 
produce a strong contrast, propagated a system of morals at once 
gloomy and severe; but we may rest assured that if they had 
found the Jesuits maintaining their influence over the public mind 
by means of strict principles, they would have sought popularity 
by propounding milder doctrines. Is not this generally the case, 
at the present day, in deliberative assemblies, when the parties 
opposed to each other, consider contrary doctrines merely in rela- 
tion to the means which they afibrded for obtaining the direction 
of public affairs? 

It is here that we meet with a singular result of the creation of 
the French Academy; a result, certainly, not foreseen by Cardinal 
Richelieu, one of the most despotic of men in principle and dis- 

Whilst the Jesuits and the Jansenists contended for the privilege 
of directing Uie public mind, the men of letters who swayed the 
French Academy, formed an association under the name of PAf- 
losophers. Serving both parties in turn, for the sake of inflaming' 
the quarrel, and alternately satirizing them both, in order to ex- 

French Educatianand the French Press* 83 

pose them to equal ridicule, they at last overthrew them both, and 
occupied their place. ^ We have driven out the foxes,' wrote 
Voltaire confidentially to his disciples, ^ and now we must hunt 
die wolves.' The foxes were the Jesuits, the wolves were the 
Jansenists; and though M. de Voltaire beheld in both of them the 
enemies of that supremacy over the public mind at which he was 
aiming, it is easy to perceive, by the different names which he gave 
them, that he still retained a tender recollection of the Jesuits, 
among whom he had been educated, and whose amiable and lively ^ 
manners he loved, as much as he detested the rudeness and rigour 
of the Jansenists. 

The former being ousted, and the latter overthrown, the men of 
letters in France, and all those whom they had admitted into their 
philosophical fraternity, ruled the nation, the Court, and even a 
great portion of Europe. As it had been necessary for them to 
propagate pew doctrines in order to rouse the public mind, they 
were desirous of developing all the consequences of those doc- 
trines in order to perpetuate their power. These consequences, 
rigorously imiform in their progress, placed the government in 
the hands of the populac^in 1793; and the excesses of the popu- 
lace paved the way for Bonaparte's usurpation. Thus the domi- 
nion of force over the ascendency of intellect was again re-esta- 
blished in two different ways. Such is the circle ip which human 
nature moves; and if there be any means of giving a legal organ 
to public opinion in order to ensure its triumph, those means can 
only consist in the adoption of a representative government^ by 
which we Frenchmen generally mean the form of government so 
long and so happily established in England. 

What the men of letters had received as a boon under Cardinal 
Richelieu and Louis XIV. they imperiously demanded when they 
Imd gained the ascendency toward the close of Louis XV.'s reign; 
always asking, always complaining, and always threatening, it is 
impossible to say what was lavished upon them, and whether 
their cupidity did not even exceed their ambition. Secretaryships 
for military bodies were created for them with considerable sala- 
ries; places were multiplied for them in all the establishments de- 
dicated to literature, science, and the arts; they had apartments 
in the Louvre, the finest of our royal palaces; and as it had be- 
come customary for every writer to be paid by the government, 
the better they were paid, the more their numbers increased. 
They were insolent and £Eu:tious; but not one of them was inde- 
pendent except y. % Rousseau^ who, not being a native of France, 
set some value on nis liberty; and in consequence he was the only 
one among the literati of that time who was really popular. 

Bonaparte, eager to take the lead in every thing, had one mea- 
sure of universal application; it was that of forming men into re 
pments. Thus he made a regiment of men of letters, [savans^ 
and artists; he gave them an imiform, a sword, and other ridicu- 
lous equipments, and this regiment was called the Jkstitute* Dis- 

VOL. z. 5 

34 French £ducaHon and tht Ftench Prns* 

satisfied with being held iii subjection, but cowardly and ever 
ready to side with the victor, the meihbers of the Institute knew 
not whetiier they were to consider themselves as a part of the 
state, or simply as a learned society; for the servants of govern- 
ment among them, who were- strangers tQ literature and science, 
were more numerous than the men of letters; and all the men of 
letters and scientific persons of any merit were made servants of 
- government by Bonaparte. This strange combination is not one 
of the least skilful contrivances of that man, who perfectiy under- 
stood the vices of his age, who would allow no liberty except to 
himself, and who was more ambitious of governing minds than 

If the foundation of tiie French Academy by Cardinal Riche* 
lieu gave birth to a general notion that every writer in France ought 
to simsist on the bounty of the government, the establishment of 
the Institute by Bonaparte in like manner propagated the idea 
now so prevalent, that the cultivation of literature, science, and the 
arts is not to be regarded .as an end, but simply as a means of 
getting into place; and since books, dramas, and articles in the 
joumids are written only witii a view to obtain one or more situa- 
tions under government, when tiiat purpose is answered, nothing 
more is done unless tiie situation be such as to require its holder 
to write in favour of those by whom he is paid. Again, who are 
those that pay? Formerly it was the King. In our way of thinking 
every favour from the King is honourable. Gods and sovereigns 
are tiie only beings, it seems, to whom men may confide their 
wants witiiout blushing. Accordingly, nothing is more noble and 
more decorous than the letters written by Colbert to the men 
of merit in his time, announcing the favours granted to tiiem by 
Louis XIV* Bonaparte, on the contrary, whose aim was to 
degrade human nature, assigned the duty of pensioning the men 
of letters to the police! Thus was established the custom which 
still continues. From tiie sacrifice of independence, we have pro- 
ceeded to the disregard of delicacy. Such is in tiie natural course 
of events; but money compensates for every thing, in cases where it 
does not create an obligation, or even excite gratitude. Posterity 
has become fully acquainted with the pensions granted by Louia 
XIV. to men of letters; the modem police acts with greater mystery; 
fer the most of its pensioners are not even known to the literary 

Having thus seen how the characteristic manners of our writers, 
have been formed, having considered tiieir habits and pretensions, 
and being able to appreciate their expedients for obtaining t>r ex- 
torting money from tiie government, you may compare the existing 
state of these matters in England, with tiiat in France; ypu will then 
easily comprehend the details wltich I have to give you concerning 
the state of the press in the latter country; in what respects it di^ 
fers from the freedom enjoyed by you, and what may be the ob* 
stades to its improvement But there is another observation for 

French JSAieation and tie trench Preee. 35 

me to make, vrhiA is not without inqxntakice in die question be* 
fore us. 

In England, «8 ihe government does not undertake to provide 
for men of letters, philosophers, and artists, the rich and enlight- 
ened classes of your nation consider themselves as not exempted 
from all concern respecting them. For a diiFerent reason, the 
French nation, wluch has the reputation of being devoted to lite- 
rature, sciences, and arts, does nothing for those who cultivate^ 
them; it leaves tiiem to the care of the government. In your coun- 
try, a writer of talent and reputation may open a subscription for a 
work; and it is soon filled up. During the time of the emigra- 
tion, several French authors adopted this expedient, and met with 
the same liberality which is exercised toward your countrjrmen* 
If one of vour political writers join the party either of ministry or 
of opposition, if he remain faithful to the cause he has embracec^ 
and if his writings smpear decisive and convincing, he is sure not 
to be abandoned. This is not the case in France. Opinions are 
there so variable that no value is attached to any except the opi^ 
nion of the day. If a writer enjoying the greatest share of pub- 
lic favour were to sustain a misfortune he would be blamed, and 
if he were reduced to open a subscription for a literary work, as 
a mode in which relief might be honourably aiForded him, he 
would not only be unsuccessful, but I can affirm that the public 
would begin to doubt his talents. Opinions are not sufficiendy 
setded among us, to become a bond of fraternity; and the interests 
of public liberty never elevate men^s mipds above the minor pro- 
prieties of social lifel Your nation is conscious of being charged 
with the compensation of service and merit of all kinds; we are 
not conscious of this, because all our habits have tended to pre- 
vent us from feeling such a duty. Our minds are therefore not 
so independent, and consequendy the government has less difficul- 

37 in establishing the restrictions, which it may require against the 
evelopment and exercise of the intellectual faculties, the fairest 
endowment of man, and die only one, which can successfiilly con<- 
tend against force in favour of liberty. 

If you are convinced diat public liberty is never sufficiendy se^ 
cured by the laws, when it is not guaranteed by the national man- 
ners, you will perceive that nothing in France is more unprotectf 
ed than the present and foture state of the liberty of the press, 
since the manners of our writers are servile; and our politicians 
never find in the past, the measure <^ diose sacrifices that are de- 
manded from them in the name of the general safe^. Ever un- 
der die do^minion of ancient habits, diey give up every thing which 
is demanded in die name of die royal powers because the ro^ 
power formerly left us nothing of our own. Certaudy in a nation 
which had long been accustomed to discuss its own interests, to 
defend its liberties, and which had not wimessed the origin and 
sudden death of more than twen^ constitutions, a minister woul^ 
not dare publicly to say, ^ You are not wise enough to enjoy 4iie 

36 French Education and the French Press. 

^ liberties granted to you by the (undamental laws of the state; I 
^ alone am wise; place therefore the liberty of each individual at 
^ my disposal, and you shall see that I will make a better use of 
^ it for all, than each would for himself. Let the liberty of the 

* press also be at my disposal; let every one be silent; let me alone 

* speak, and you shall be coavinced that I am more in the right 
^ than all of you.' In every coui^ry where such language could 
be held, its success would be certaip; for if the manners of the 
people were not such as to suffer them to listen to such a propo- 
sal without laughter, not even a fool would attempt to make it* 
The moment it was hazarded, the greatest obstacle to its success 
would be surmounted. This has taken place before our own eyea 
ten times in the course of twenty-seven years; we have again wit- 
nessed it veiry recently, and it has succeeded, among those who 
had a right to discuss die question. Beyond the walls of the cham- 
bers indeed I do not think that the same opinion prevails con- 
cerning this very important subject. So long as we are without 
regular and lawful liberty, we shall have liberty by fits and ex- 
plosions which is the worst of all its forms: hence I fear our poli- 
ticians may be compared to engineers who, having charged their 
cannon with powder, should say that they only put in grape-shot 
and wadding to prevent the powder from taking fire; but they for- 
get that it is not at the cannon's mouth that the fire is applied. 
The liberty of the press is an article of our constitution; certain 
temporary laws are used with it, as, wadding (we are told) to pre- 
vent it from enflaming the public mind; but there will still be a 
sufficient opening for the fire to be communicated, and the deto- 
nation will be the more violent in proportion to the force of the 

On the first return of the King a law was made against the li- 
berty of the press, that is to say, against the public journals, and 
against books containing fewer dian twenty printed sheets. This 
law was made in concurrence with the two chambers. The jour- 
nals thus compressed by^e hand of authority, could not defend 
the power which coerced them: on the contrary, one might have 
supposed that the restrictions had been contrived for the sole pur- 
pose of preventing the King and his ministers from obtaining any 
knowledge of the conspiracies then carrying on, for the purpose 
of bringing back Bonaparte or the Republic, for both those 
schemes were in agitation. Restrictive laws are fatal in conse- 
quence of theur tendency to discourage the well disposed, who al- 
ways feel less repugnance in obeying a law than in evading it, 
even when they deem it a bad one; whilst artful men turn and 
twist the law so many ways, that Uiey at length find means to 
elude its provisions. So it happened in the present instance; the 
loyal writere had not time for the composition of publications of 
temporary interest exceedmg twen^ printed sheets; whilst the 

iacobins, formed vdumes of twenty-(Mie sheets; and they would 
ave contrived others of fifty, in order to keep clear of the law. 

French Education and the French Press. 37 

In consequence, the latter became masters of the field almost be- 
fore the battle had begun* This strange legislative combination 
fuUy exposed the futility of the minds which conceived it; and 
was favourable only to the factious. Such was, and- such must 
always be, the event in similar circumstances. 

On the second return of the King, it was unfortunately ima- 
gined that the restrictive law had not been made for the general 
mterest of society, but for the particular interest of the King; for 
the King alone in part reformed what had been done; and could 
not have been done without the concurrence of the chambers. His 
ordinance left the journals under the control of the police; and 
books, of whatever size, were exempted from all ministerial cen- 
sorship provided they wer^ not periodical; thus the Correspondent 
could not be translated into French, nor orders received for supply- 
ing it, without the permission of the police and a previous cen- 
sorship, simply because it is periodical^ that is to say, published 
at stated seasons, fixed upon and notified before hand. The law 
is so inconsistent that it apprehends danger from the circulation 
of a book which appears only every two months, yet foresees no 
danger in the publication of the same book if it appear twelve 
times in the course of a year, at periods not previously determin- 
ed, because in that case it would not be periodical. You will 
begin to doubt whether we are in our senses, when we take these 
precautions against a book, because it is announced on the 1st of 
January for the whole year, wliile we are without any legal pro- 
vision against other works, which may be published without any 
previous annunciation. Let me undeceive you; nothing can be 
wiser; and be assured that when ministers propose laws, they 
have made every arrangement to avoid being annoyed by them. 
This belongs to their station; it will be for the chambers to in- 
qiure wheth^ the nation shall remain as free as the ministers. 
The police, having the control of all the journals, can prevent 
them from announcing works, which it is disposed to restrain 
from circulation; it can assail the authors, expose their books, to 
the laughter of fools, and injure their sde by other means that 
are at its disposal, and this so efiectually, that a printed work 
shall be as litde known as if the author had kept it by him in 
manuscript. On the contrary, a work appearing at fixed periods, 
and having regular subscribers, might circulate in spite of the 
journals, and would meet with striking success IF conducted with 
talent and on sound principles. A periodical work might there- 
'fi^re obtain a greater ascendency over public opinion than the 
works of all die writers in the pay of the police; tiiis is what they 
will not allow* It would disturb the union of the intellectual and 
material power. The whole, then, that we have hitherto gained 
by a representative government, is that the laws guarantee the 
ascendency derived from intellect, to those who have none, against 
those who possess that faculty. Under the ancient order of things 
such a combination could not have been conceived; and if the 


38 French Education and the French Press* 

direction of the public mind was engrossed by the monastic or« 
ders, it was because they were at that time the sole depositaries 
of every science. It was reserved for what has been called an 
enlightened age to show us that the law recognises every science 
to be the privilege of one man when he is minister of police. Do 
not laugh at us, but pity us; for every nation that has been misled 
from her ancient patns is for a long time to be pitied. 

That which was regulated by an ordinance of the King on his 
second return has been confirmed by the present Chamber of De- 
puties and is now before the Chamber of Peers. If the Chamber 
of Peers should also adopt it, which they probably will do, the 
state of our laws regarding the press will be an apparent libertjr 
for books, an avowed control over journals and periodical works* 
Now take our national manners into the account, and you will 
find that this state of things, which would be insupportable in 
England will scarcely be felt in France, where political liber^ is 
a matter of only secondary concern, where every one has his own 
litde private interest to promote, and with which he is exclusively 
occupied. Our writers aim not at independence of feeling; they 
aim at places and money; every thing is arranged with that view, 
and what is not yet so arranged, will be in a short time. As there 
is much less resistance in our manners, than warmth in our minds^ 
recourse is rarely had to violent measures of control. The min« 
isters are but little provoked by an attack; and those who are op- 
posed by the ministers are also good-natured people who feel no 
sort of rancour because they feel as little conviction. And how 
should there be any in a nation where doctrines are all uncertain 
and vacillate between remembrances of the past, and pretensions 
newly asserted. If we really loved public liberty, the case would 
be different; for the sake of a mighty interest the passions would 
take a loftier tone; but that is out of the question. 

Do not conclude, however, that we are in love with despotism; 
our manners are too variable to yield to it; indeed we have no 
faith in it. Having for these twenty-seven years been accustomed 
to dwell on the events of to-morrow, what passes to-day never en- 
gages our thoughts; they are fixed only on what will come or what 
may come* How is it possible for a people, incessantly changing 
their constitutions and laws, living only on exceptions, and in a 
continual succession of ordinances, to attach themselves to any 
thing? The royar charter had given us the liberty of the press: it 
was quite natural for a Frenchman to expect that the laws would 
take it away. In fact, a law has taken it away; it is quite natural 
for a Frenchman to look for some circumstance that will restore 
it to us. The same may be said of personal liberty; if the con- 
stitution had not guaranteed it to us, you would have heard of 
great debates for obtaining it; but as we have it by the constitu* 
tion, great debates have been held to deprive us of it. In short, 
my dear sir, a single reflection will suffice to show the difference 
between your English ideas relative to the press, and the notions 

Thi Friendly Ulands* 39 

which prevul on th6 same subject trith us ifi Prance. You ^ill 
probably admit, that if your ministry were to propose that all the 
public journals should be placed at their disposal, and under .their 
control, the whole English people would deem it an attack on 
one of their most important privileges. Well, sir, let us suppose 
the same proposal made in France, and you would scarcely meet 
a person who would think the question regarded any body but the 
Journalists. With this brief remark, which, I assure you, is not 
mtended for sarcasm^ but for simple, historical truth, 

I remain very truly yours, 

■ - ■ ' ' 

Art. III. — An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands j in 
the South Pacific Ocean; with an original Grammar and Vocahu* 
lary of their Language^ Com/nkd and arranged from the ex* 
tensive Communications of Mr. Wh. Maiiiner, several years 
resident in those Islands; by John Martin, M. D* 2 vols, royd 
8vo. pp. 460^-^12* London, Murray, 1817. — From the Cri- 
tical Review. 

TO no single individual is the science of geography itiore i)l« 
debted than to the late Captain Cook, who fell a sacrifice to 
the ignorance or ferocity of the barbarous regions he explored. lA 
his first voyage the Society Isles were discovered by him; the in«^ 
sularity of New Zealand was ascertained, when the streights Which 
separated the two component parts were distinguished by his name: 
and in the same voyage he ejcplored the coast of New Holland 
through an extent of two thousand miles. In his second voyage ht 
ilras enabled to negative the conjecture with regard to a southern 
dontinent within the reach of navigation; he added New Caledo- 
nia to our charts, the largest island in the South Pacific, New Zea- 
land excepted; and also Georgia, in the latitude of Cape Horn, 
with an unknown coast that he called Sandwich Land, and which 
has been denominated the Ultima Thule of the southern hemis* 

In his third voyage he revisited the Friendly Islands, discover- 
ed several smaller clusters on the tropic of Capricorn, and the 
Sandwich Islands to the north of the equinoctial line; he explored 
Ae western coast of America from 43 to 70 degrees of north lati- 
tude; he determined the proximity of Asia to uiat continent; and 
passing the streights between them, demonstrated the impractica* 
Dility of a northern passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

In consequence of these important discoveries, the hydrography 
of the habitable globe may be sidd to have been (;pmpleted^ wiA 
the exception of the Sea of Amur and the Japanese Archipelago; 
8Q that little remains for future navigators but to furnish us with 
more minute accounts of the situations he had examined, and this 
purpose with respect to the Friendly, or Tonga Islands, is per- 
formed in a very able and interesting manner by the author of the 
account before us^ assisted aa he was by his professional editor. 

40 The Friendly Islands. 

Before we enter oif the narrative here <given, it may^ be conve- 
nient to supply some few dates as to the visitants of these islands^ 
since the last voyage of Captain Cook in 177T, and especially as in 
the geographical illustrations the work before us is very deficient. 

Four years subsequent to 1777y Maurielle, a Spaniard, was en- 
tangled among these islands; and 1789, Lieutenant Bligh, in the 
Bounty, anchored at Anamooka, one of the cluster of die Hapai 
Islands, Captain Perouse having approached them in 1787. Cap- 
tain Edwards twice visited Anamooka in 1791, which was the ap- 
pointed place for rendezvous with the schooner that had attended 
liim from Otaheite, and which had lost company with the Random*^ 
Bligh again in die Providence, and Captain Pollock in the Assist- 
ance, returning with bread fruit from Otaheite, remained during 
the night of August 3d, 1792 off these islands. Tlie whole group is 
in number computed at 150, but only 61 of these have their places 
and proper situations assigned in the chart, and in the sketch of 
the harbour of Tongataboo attached to the Voyages of Captain 

We do not very well understand why confusion should be in- 
troduced into the geographv of the immense tract of the Pacific^ 
by the substitution of^kilame of Tonga for the Friendly Islands, 
merely because the chart of Captidn Cook did not comprehend, ea 
nomine^ Vavaoo; and if the same liberty were taken with this sort 
of nomenclature as to the other places in die like sea which were 
visited by that distinguished victim of useful and daring enterprise^ 
such difficulties would be occasioned to the inquirer, that it might 
be necessary to devote a long life to remove the needless obsta- 
cles which caprice, or some other intrusive motive, would occa- 
sion. In the present instance, we do not entirely attribute the va- 
riation to whim or fancy, but we rather ascribe it to a disposition 
to communicate a novel appearance to the work, in order that it 
may be more attractive to the general class of readers. The 
friendly Islands have been mentioned so frequendy since 17.73, 
that it might be thought, if not by the author or editor, by some 
trading adviser, that an account bf the Tonga Islands would be 
supposed to be the relation of a new discovery, which had hitherto 
eluded the vigilance of all former adventurers, and which decep- 
.don would at least continue until the book itself were procured, 
the first page of which must, however, remove the misapprehen- 

The Tonga Islands comprehend, Tonga, a cluster called the 
Hapsu Islands, and Vavaoo. Those who have consulted the Dutch 
voyagers will know diree of them under the appellations of Am- 
sterdam, Middleburg, and Rotterdam; in the neighbourhood of 
which last are a great number of odier islands of much smaller di- 
mensions. Amsterdam had also the native distinction of Tonc^- 
taboo, or Sacred Tonga; tabu^ or taboo, denoting sacred or prohi- 

The Friendly Islands^ 4 

Dr. Martin explains the circumstances which led him to afford 
his valuable assistance to the present work in the following man- 
ner: — 

< In the year 1811, 1 ^cidentally heard that Mr. William Mariner, 
the bearer olF. a letter from the East Indies to one of my connections in 
London, had been a resident at the Friendly Islands during the space 
of four year^and my curiosity being strongly excited, I solicited his ac<- 
quaintance/ In the course of three or four interviews I discovered, 
with much satis&ction, that the information he was able to communi- 
cate respecting the people with whom he had been so long and so inti- 
mately associated, was very far superior to, and much more extensive 
than any thing that had yet appeared before the public. His answers 
to several inquiries, in regard to their religion, government, and habits 
of life, were given with that kind of unassuming confidence, which be- 
speaks a thorough intimacy with the subject, and carries with it the con- 
viction of truth: — in fact, having been thrown upon those islands at an 
early age, his young and flexible mind had so accorded itself with the 
habits and circumstance of the natives, that he evinced no disposition to 
overrate or to embellish what to him was neither strange nor new. To 
jof inquiries respecting his intentions of publishing, he replied, that 
having necessarily been for several years, out of the habit either of 
writing or reading, or of that turn of thinking requisite for composition 
and arrangement, he was apprehensive his endeavours would fail in 
doing that justice to the work which I seemed to think its importance de- 
manded: he modestly proposed, however, to submit the subject to my 
consideration for a future opportunity. In the mean while circumstances 
called him away to the West Indies: on his return he brought, me 
memoranda of the principal events at the Tonga Islands, in the order 
in which they had happened during his residence there, together with 
a description of the most important religious ceremonies, and a vocabu- 
lary of about four or five hundred words. The inspection of these ma- 
terials served greatly to increase the interest which I had already taken 
in the matter, and I urged the necessity of committing the whole to 
paper while every thing remained fresh in his memory. To facilitate 
this object, I proposed to undertake the composition and arrangement 
of the intended work, whilst Mr. Mariner should direct his view sole- 
ly to noting down all that he had seen and heard in the order in which 
his memory might spontaneously furnish it, that these materials might 
afterwards be made, from time to time, subjects of conversation, strict 
scrutiny, amplification, arrangement and composition; consequently not 
one of the ensuing pages has been written without Mr. Mariner's 
presence, that he might be consulted in regard to every little circum- 
stance or observation that could in the smallest degree affect the truth 
of the subject under consideration; and, in this way, it is presumed 
that a great deal more useful and interesting matter has been elicited, 
than would probably have occurred to him through the medium of his 
own unassisted reflections; for conversation calls te mind many things 
that would otherwise have escaped the memory; it constantly demands 
elucidations; one idea gives birth to another, until the whole subject 
lies completely unfolded to the mind.' (p. vi. — ^ix.) 

The arrangement of the work may be briefly stated. It com- 
mences with the voyage of the ship Port au Prince, in which Mn 

VOL. X. 6 

44 The Friendly Islands. 

corpuleDt, but muscular; his hair of a jet blacki and curly^ yet agreea** 
bly so, without being woolly; his forehead remarkably high; his brow 
bold and intelligent, with a little austerity; his eye large and penetra- 
ting, yet joined to an expression of mildness; his nose aquiline and 
large, his lips well made and expressive; his teeth remarkably largCi 
white, and regular; his lower jaw rather prominent; his cheek-bones 
also rather prominent, compared with those of Europeans.— All his 
features were well developed, and declared a strong and energetic 
mind, with that sort of intellectual expression, which belongs not so 
much to the sage as to the warlike chieftain: ambition sat high on his 
front, and guided all his energies: his deep and penetrating eye, and his 
firm and masculine deportment, while they inspired his adherents 
with confidence, struck awe to the minds of conspirators:— his actions 
were, for the most part, steady and determined, and directed to some 
well-studied purpose: his resolve was fate, and those who obeyed him 
with reluctance trembled, not without reason. He appeared, almost 
constantly, in deep thought, and did not often smile;— when he spoke, 
on matters of some importance, it was not without first holding up the 
balance in his mind, to weigh well what he had to say: persuasion hung 
upon his lip, and the flow of his eloquence was such, that many of his 
enemies were afraid to listen to him, lest they should be led to view the 
subject in a light prejudicial to their interests. 

< Although, in matters of consequence, he always seemed to weigh 
well what he had to say, in subjects of minor importance he was very 
quick in reply: his voice was loud, not harsh but mellow, and his pro- 
nunciation remarkably distinct. When he laughed, which was not on 
trifiing occasions, it was so loud as to be heard at an incredible distance; 
and with a very strange noise preceding it, as if he were hallooing after 
somebody a long way off, and the same kind of noise as he always 
made when in a passion; and this was peculiar to him. When in his 
house, however, giving orders about his domestic arrangements, his 
voice was uncommonly mild, and very low. 

< In regard to his sentiments of religion and policy, they may be 
pretty well gathered from sundry passages in the narradve:-— with res- 
pect to his religion in particular, it is difficult to say whether he had 
any: it is certain that he disbelieved most of the doctrines taught by 
the priests; for although he believed that they were leally inspired, 
when they pretended to be so, yet he thought that frequently a great 
deal of what they declared to be the sentiments of the god, was their 
own invention; and this particularly in regard to what did not suit his 
own sentiments. He never, however, declared his opinion of thesev 
things in public; though he expressed them very decidedly to Mr. 
Mariner, and some of his intimate friends. He used to say, that the 
gods would always &vour that party in war in which there were the 
greatest chiefs and warriors. He did not believe that the gods paid 
much attention in other respects to the affairs of mankind; nor did he 
think they could have any reason for doing soy— no more than man 
could have any reason or interest in attending to the affairs of the gotls. 
He believed in the doctrine of a future state, agreeably to the notions 
entertained by his countrymen; that is, that chiefs and matabooles, hav- 
ing souls, exist hereafter in Bolotoo, according to their rank in this 
world; but that the common people^ haying no souls, or those only 

The Friendly Islands. 45 

that die with their bodieS} are without any hope of a future existence, 
(p. 429—432, vol. i ) 

He was succeeded by his son, a man whose intellect was of a 
very superior kind, and who, unlike his father, was void of politi- 
cal ambition, and sought rather the happiness of his people than 
the extension of his power. He was an admirer of the arts, and 
a philosopher among savages. 

Mr. Mariner now began to be very solicitous to return to his 
native country in a time of peace, when he had nothing on which 
to employ himself but objects of amusement. Sometimes with Fi- 
now the younger, or with the Chiefs, and sometimes alone, by way 
of recreation, he would frequently go, for two or three days to- 
gether, among the neighbouring islands on fishing excursions; as 
he was one evening returning homeward in his canoe, he espied a 
sail in the westw^xl horizon, just as the sun had descended be- 
low it He was then with three servants that worked on his plan- 
tation, and he insisted that they should make for the vessel. They 
admitted that they had seen her before, but that their fear of his 
wishing to go on board prevented them from pointing her out to 
him; as they had often heard their chiefs say that they never 
meant to let him go if they could help it, and these attendants 
were apprehensive that their brams would be knocked out if they 
suffered him to escape. It was not until one of the men was kil- 
led by Mariner that he could succeed in approaching the vessel, 
which he reached about day-light the next morning. The brig 
proved to be the Favourite, Captain Fiske, from Port Jackson, of 
about ISO tons burthen. Mr. Mariner was received, and from on 
board sent an invitation to the King, when Finow, with his sister 
and several of her female attendants, visited him, bringing presents 
of provisions; and so delighted was his Majesty with every thing 
he saw in the ship, and so desirous was he of acquiring those ac- 
complishments which raised Europeans so much above the Tonga 
people, that he was with difficulty dissuaded from accompanying 
Mr. Mariner to Europe. 

< Finow's sister, who Was a very beaudful, lively girl, proposed in 
joke to go to England, and see the white women: shjB asked if they 
would allow her to wear the Tonga dress; < though, perhaps,'' she said, 
< that would not do in such a cold country in the winter season. I 
don't know what I should do at that time: but Togi tells me that you 
have hot-houses for plants from warm climates, so I should like to live 
all winter in a hot-house. Could I bathe there two or three times a 
day without being seen? I wonder whether I should stand a chance of 
getting a husband; but my skin is so brown, I suppose none of the 
young flaflalangi men would have me; and it would be a great pity to 
leave so many handsome young chiefs at Vavaoo, and go to England to 
live a single life.— >If I were to go to England, I would amass a great 
quantity of beads, and then I should like to return to Tonga, because 
in England beads are so common that nobody would admire me for 
wearing them, and I should not have the pleasure of being envied.'—- 
She sud, laughing, that either the white men must make very kind 

4ft The Friendltf Alarub. 

And good-tempered basbands^ or else tbe white women must have verjr 
little spirit) for them to live so long together without parting. She 
thought the custom of having only one wife a very good one, provided 
the husband loved her; if not, it was a very bad one, because he would 
tyrannize over her the more, whereas if his attention was divided be« 
tween five or six, and he did not behave kindly towards them, it would 
be very easy to deceive him.' (p. 32—34, vol. ii.) 

< Before the ship's departure, Mr. Mariner was charged with several 
messages from the chiefe of Vavaoo to those of Hapai. Among others^ 
Finow sent his strong recommendations to Toobo Toa to be contented 
with the Hapai Islands, and not to think of invading Vavaoo; to stay 
and look to the prosperity of his own dominions, for that was the way 
to preserve peace and happiness. — ' Tell him again,' said he, < that the 
best way to make a country powerful and strong against all enemies, is 
to cultivate it well, for then the people have something worth fighting 
for, and will defend it with invincible bravery: I have adopted this plan, 
and his attempts upon Vavaoo will be in vain!' (p. 34, vol. ii.) 

The civil ranksof society in the Tonga Islands maybe divided into 
How, or King, Egl, or Nobles, Matabooles, Mooas and Tooas. 
The King is an arbitrary monarch, and his influence over the peo- 
ple is derived from hereditary right, the supposed protection of 
the gods, his reputation as a warrior, and lastly but principally^ 
from the number and strength of his fig^ng men. The Egi are 
those persons who are related to the divine family of Tooitonga 
and Veachi, or to the royal House, and in point of rank, the for- 
mer are considered to be superior to tbe latter, and even the King 
himself is allowed the priority only in power. The Matabooles 
are a sort of honourable attendants upon the chiefs, and are their 
companions and counsellors. They are more or less regarded ac- 
cording to the rank of the chief to whom they are attached, and 
they have the management of all ceremonies. The Mooas are 
either the brothers, or descendants of Matabooles. This order 
has much to do in assisting at the puUic ceremonies. Like the 
Matabooles they form part of the retinue of chiefs, and most of 
them are professors of some art. The Tooas, who till the ground, 
compose the bulk and the lowest order of the people. Some of 
them are employed occasionally in performing tfie tattow, club* 
carving, shaving, and according to their abilities in other duties, 
for the discharge of which they meet with encouragementjby presents. 
Of the attention paid to age, sex, and infancy, we have the fol- 
lowing particulars. 

< Old persons of both sexes are highly reverenced on account of 
their age and experience, in so much that it constitutes a branch of 
their first moral and religious duty, viz. to reverence the gods, the 
chiefs, and aged persons; and consequently there is hardly any instance 
in these islands of old age being wantonly insulted. 

< Women have considerable respect shown to them on account of their 
sex, independent of the rank they might otherwise hold as nobles. They 
are considered to contribute much to the comforts and domestic hap- 
piness of the other sex, and as they are the weaker of the two, it is 
thought unmanly not to show them attention and kind regard^ they are 

The Frkndbf blonds. 4^7 

therefore not subjected to hard labour or any very menial work. Those 
that are nobles rank like the men according to the superiority of their 
relationship. If a woman not a noble is the wife or daughter of a 
mataboole, she ranks as a mataboole; if she be a noble, she is superior 
,in rank to him, and so are the children male and female; but in domes- 
tic matters she submits entirely to his arrangements; notwithstanding 
this, however, she never loses the respect from her husband due to her 
rank, that is to say, he is obliged to perform the ceremony of m(ic'mo''i 
(touching the feet) before he can feed himself. If the husband and 
wife are both nobles of equal rank, the ceremony of mo''cf is dispen* 
sed with; but where there is any difference the inferior must perform 
this ceremony to be freed from the taboo (the offence of taking what i& 
prohibited.) If a woman marries a man higher in rank than herselfi 
she always derives additional respect on that account; but a man having 
a wife who is a greater noble than himself acquires no additional res- 
pect from this source, but he has the advantage of her larger property. 

< It is a custom in the Tonga islands for women to be what they call 
mothers to children or grown up young persons who are not their own^ 
for the purpose of providing them or seeing that they are provided 
with all the conveniences of life; and this is often done, although their 
own natural mothers be living, ^d residing near the spot^ — no doubt 
for the sake of greater care and attention, or to be afterwards a substi- 
tute for the true parent, in the event of her premature death.' (p. 97— 
98, vol. ii.) 

The religioQ of the Tonga Islands is said to consbt chiefly in 
the following notions. 

That there are Hotooas, or superior beings, who can dispenso 
good and evil to mankind. That the souls of deceased nobles and 
taataboolea, have the same power in an inferior degree. That 
there are Hootoa Pow, (mischievous gods,) who never dispense 
good, but always evil; that all human evil is inflicted by the gods, 
either on account of the neglect of some religious dunr, by the 
person who suffers the infliction, or by the £gi whom ne serves; 
that all £gi have souls which exist hereafter, not on account of 
their moral merit, but of their rank in this world. The Mata- 
booles also go to Bolotoo (Heaven) after death, where they are 
ministers to the gods. Whether the Mooas are admitted to Hea- 
ven is doubtful. But the Tooas have no souls, or such only as pe» 
rish with the body. The human soul, during life, is not supposed 
to be an essence dbtinct from the corporeal frame; the primitive 
gods and deceased nobles, it is assumed, appear sometimes to 
mankind to warn or assist them, sometimes are incorporated with 
lizards and other animals for beneficent purposes; and omens with 
inspirations constitute also part of the creed. 

* The Tonga people do not indeed believe in any future state of re^ 
wards and pumshment, but they believe in that first of all religious ten- 
ets, that there is a power and intelligence superior to ail that is human, 
which is able to control their actions, and which discovers all their 
most secret thoughts; and though they consider this power and intelli- 
gence to be inherent in a number of individual beings, the principle of 
belief is precisely th^ samf ; it U perhaps equally sinqb> tfid as prac* 

48 The Friendh/ hlandt. 

tically useful as if they considered it all concentrated in their chidF 
god. They firmly believe that the gods approve of virtue, and are 
displeased with vice; that every man has lus tutelar deity, who will 
protect him as long as he conducts himself as he ought to do; but, if 
he does not, will leave him to the approaches of misfortune, disease^ 
and death. And here we find some ground on which to establish a 
virtuous line of conduct: but this is not sufficient: there is implanted 
in the human breast, a knowledge or sentiment, which enables us 
sometimes, if not always, to disting^uish between the beauty of disin- 
terestedness and the foul ugliness of what is low, sordid, and selfish; 
and the effect of this sentiment is one of the strongest marks of char- 
acter in the natives of these islands.' (p. 149, vol. ii.) 

With regard to the sex, we cannot here call it the fair sex, we 
have the following curious particulars. 

< The next subject we shall consider is chastity. In respect to this^ 
their notions are widely different from those of most European nations; 
we must, therefore, first examine what are their own ideas respecting 
this matter, and if they are such as are consistent with public decorum 
and due order and regularity in the social state, without tending to en- 
ervate the mind or debase the character of man, we shall take those 
ideas as the standard by which to judge them, and as far as they act 
consistently thereto, we shall call them chaste, and as far as they in* 
fringe upon it we shall deem them offenders. But here it may be ask- 
ed how are we to judge whether their own notions upon this subject 
are consistent with the good order of society, &c. To this we can 
make no other answer than by referring to the actual state of society 
there, and pointing out those evils which may be supposed to arise from 
their wrong notions upon this subject. 

< In the first place, it is universally considered a positive duty in 
every married woman to remain true to her husband. What we mean 
by a married woman is, one who cohabits with a man, and lives under 
his roof and protection, holding an establishment of him. A woman's 
marriage is frequently independent of her consent, she having been be- 
trothed by her parents, at an early age, to some chief, mataboole or 
mooa: perhaps about one*third of the married women have been thu« 
betrothed; the remaining two-thirds have married with their free con- 
sent. Bvery married woman must remain with her husband whether 
she choose it or not, until he please to divorce her. Mr. Mariner thinks 
that about two-thirds of the women are married, and of this number 
fiill half remain with their husbands till death separates them; that is 
to say, full one third of the female population remain married till either 
themselves or their husbands die: the remaining two-thirds are mar« 
Tied and are soon divorced, and are married again perhaps three, four, 
or five times in their lives, with the exception of a few who, from 
whim or some accidental cause, are never married; so that about one 
third of the whole female population, as before stated, are at any given 
point of time unmarried.' (p. 166—168, vol. ii.) 

No man is imderstood to be bound to conjugal fidelity, but not- 
withstanding this admitted liberty of conduct, we are told that 
most of the married men are tolerably true to their wives. If they 
have any other amour, it is kept a secret from the lady, because 
it 18 unnecessavy to excite jealousy^ and cruel to produce unhap« 

The Friendly Aknub. 49 

yinesap With respect to the unmarried men» they range at large 
with more fredom, but they seldom make any deliberate attempts 
upon the continence of the wives of others*. 

We do not know if our European wives will be perfectly satis* 
fied with the causes to which family repose is assigned by the 

< As to domestic quarrelsj they are seldom known; but this must be 
skid to happen rather from liie absolute power which every man holds 
in his own family: for even if his wife be of superior rank, he is never- 
theless ot the highest authority in all domestic matters, and no woman 
entertains the least idea of rebelling against that authority; and if she 
should, even her own relations would not take her part, unless the con- 
duct of her husband were undoubtedly cruel. That the men are also 
capable of much paternal affection, Mr. Mariner has witnessed many 
proofs, some of which have been related^ and we have already men- 
tioned that filial piety is a most important duty, and appears to be uni- 
versally felt. 

< Upon these grounds we would venture to say, that the natives of 
these islands are rather to be considered a chaste than a libertine peo- 
ple; and that, even compared with the most civilized nations, their 
character in this respect is to be rated at nd mean height; and if a free 
intercourse could exist with European so^ety, it is a matter of great 
doubt (whatever might be the change in their sentiments), If their ha- 
bits or dispositions in this respect would be much improved by copying 
the examples of their instructors. If, on the other hand, we compare 
them, to the natives of the Society islands, and the Sandwich islandSf. 
we should add insult to injustice.' (p 179 — 180. vol. ii.) 

Mn Mariner having in the preceding chapters given an account 
of the stat6 of religion and morals in these islands, proceeds to 
develop the progress in useful knowledge. He first treats of the 
healing art, in his notice of which we apprehend he has been ma- 
terially assisted by his learned editor. 

All the remedies resorted to among these people may be ranked 
under three heads: invocation, sacrifice, and external operation]; 
excepting that they sometimes resort to infusions of a few plants 
taken internally^ which produce, however, no sensible effect, either 
upon the system or the disease. 

, No native of Tonga undertakes to practise surgery unless he 
has been at the Fiji Islands, which are about three day's sail, or 
ioo leagues distant from Tonga. The constant wars in that situa- 
tion afford abundant experience to the professors. 

* The three most important operations are faivtoj or parracenthesis 
thoracis; tocolosij or an operation for the cure of tetanus, which con- 
sists in making a seton in the urethra; and boca^ or castration. 
' < Cawao is an operation which is performed to allow of the escape of 
extravasated blood, which has lodged in the cavity of the thorax, in con- 
sequence of wounds, or for the extraction of a broken arrow. There 
are no other instances where they think' of performing it. l*he instru- 
ments they use ar^ a piece of bamboo and a splinter of shell; some- 
times a probe made of the stem of the cocoa-nut leaf. Mr. Mariner 
has seen a number of persons on whom the operatioii had been periisr- 

vox* ai» 7 

50 The friendly Islands. 

med) and who were in perfect health; and two instances of the hc% 
itself he was an eye-witness to.' (p. 346—347. vol. ii.) 

^ The most common siirgical operation among thetoi is what they call 
taffa^ which is topical blood-letting, and is performed by makingi with 
a shell, incisions in the skin to the extent of about halt an inch in va- 
rious parts of the body, particularly in the lumbar region and extremi- 
ties, for the relief of pains, lassitude, &c.; also for inflamed tumours 
they never fail to promote a flow of blood from the part; by the same 
means they open abscesses, and press out the purulent matter: in cases 
of hard indolent tumours, they either apply ignited tapa, or hot bread 
fruit repeatedly, so as to blister the part and ultimately to produce a 
purulent surface. Ill-conditioned ulcers, particularly in those persons 
whose constitution disposes to such things are scarified by shells; those 
that seem disposed to heal are allowed to take their course without any 

* In cases of sprains, the affected part is rubbed with a mixture of (ul 
and water, the friction being always continued in one direction, that ia 
to say, from the smaller towards the larger branches of the vessels. 
Friction, with the dry hand, is also often used in similar and other cases^ 
for the purpose of relieving pain.' (p. 361, vol. ii.) 

As we approach the close of the work we have some general 
observations on the arts and manufactures of these islands; such 
as canoe building, inlaying with ivory, net making, carving clubs, 
and culinary preparations; but we do not observe in this part of 
the work any thing of sufficient novelty and interest to justify ad« 
<iitional extracts, and especially as the ingenuity of the people in 
regard to several of these particulars, is described with the assist- 
ance of plates, and with much minuteness of detail by Cook and 
other navigators. 

We must likewise limit ourselves with regard to a part of the 
work which we*have before described as of great value, and im- 
portance; we mean the grammar and vocabulary of the Tonga lan- 
guage; which is a permanent acquisition that will be had recourse 
to by every person who .visits Tonga and the neighbouring islands* 

To Cook's voyages is also added a very brief vocabuliuy, which 
was collected during a residence of only (wo or three months. in 
these situations, and although so much talent was applied in the 
iew particulars of which it consists, yet in point of accuracy it can 
admit of no competition with that before us, which was the result 
<d iour year's residence with this remote people. 

There are, however, some omissions by Mr. Mariner which we 
cannot easily account for, and some variations which it may be as 
difficult to explain. Bread fruit Maiee, Shaddock Moree, Elbow 
Etoee, although in Cook's vocabulary, are here excluded. Neck- 
lace, in Cook, is attahoa; in Mariner, cahooa or calcala. A mat 
to wear in the former is egreeai, in the latter gnafi-gnafi. To sneeze, 
in the first, is efangos, in the other mafatooa. A rat is epallo in 
Cook, and gooma in Marmer. We might mention fifty ouer ex* 
amples, where there is not the smallest similarity in the two ver-> 

The Friendly htande. 51 

• • • > • , 

We cannot avoid repeating our complaint of the deficiency of 
tlus work with regard to all geographical illustrations, of which 
most writers possessing Mr. Mariner's qualifications are usually 
abundant, even to unnecessary prolixity of detail; and the omis- 
Hion is the more to be regretted, because no map or chart is af- 
forded to the work, so that the reader must be in the greatest ima- 
ginable perplexity, unless he be provided with the charts of Cook's 
voyages, with those of the ship Duff, or others of the like descrip- 
tion. We confess that we should have been satisfied with a deli- 
neation in the simplest form, but without some such aid the lo- 
calities are wholly unintelligible. 

The latitude of Port Refuge, in Vavaoo, is stated with sufficient 
accuracy, being only 14 minutes more south than that assigned to 
it in the voyage of Captain James Wilson. Tasman, who appear- 
ed in the neighbourhood as early as Jan. 1642-3, lays down an 
island about south latitude 19, which is within 10 minutes of that 
ascribed to Port Refuge, and which is probably Vavaoo, now sup- 
posed to be a new discovery. Cook states that it never was visit- 
ed by any European. That navigator was certainly deceived by 
the natives of the Friendly Islands, from some interested motives 
with regard to Vavaoo, and subsequently, when its dimensions 
and importance became known to him, he had no convenient op- 
portunity to explore it Vavaoo, although not comprehended in 
his map eo nomine^ yet is among the sixty-one islands named in 
his catalogue of this cluster, and it is distinguished by italics, as 
being classed with the largest. He ranks it with Hamoa and 
Fidgee (Fiji,) the last of these belonging to a distinct government, 
and a separate Archipelago* 

The Hapai Islands are also noticed by Tasman. The principal 
of them he called Rptterdam, the native appellation being Anna* 
mooka, and they extend, according to Cook, south west by south, 
and north east by north about nmeteen miles. Lefooga is the 
most fertile of these, and it is consequently the most populous. 
The inhabitants of the whole of the Tonga Islands have been com- 
puted at 200,000, distributed over 150 ot these minute prominen-. 
ces in the mighty Pacific. The way in which the distances be- 
ttreen these points of land were ascertained by Cook, was front 
^e time which the natives represented as necessary to complete 
dieir voyages. 'Fhey sail, he says, in their canoes about eight 
miles an hour; the sun is their guide by day, and the stars by 
night. When by the atmospheric vapours the heavenly bodies 
are obscured, attention is paid to the direction from whence the 
winds and waves strike upon the vesseL In the computation of 
distance the night is not mcluded, and a day's sail is somewhat 
within a hundred miles. Mr. Mariner has given an amusing ac- 
count of the use he made of a pocket compass on one occasion, 
and of the difficulty with which he acquired the dominion of the 
vessel, from the incredulity of his companions. By their com- 
pliance fdone he and they were preserved from that destruction tm 

52 The Emigrants Guiik. 

which many of the islanders must be annually consigned, on ac- 
count of their ignorance of such an inestimable discovery* 

The botanical omissions in these volumes are of the less conse- 

2uence, because the Tonga Islands produce the same plants as 
^taheite; and although, according to Forester, some others not 
indigenous in the latter, flourish in the former, yet the inquiry 
with regard to them seems to be rather curious to the naturalist 
than useful to the public. 

There is one part of the history which we read with much un- 
easiness. Cook says of these places, at the time of his visits, 
^ No one wants the common necessaries of life. Joy and content- 
' ment are painted on every face, and an easy freedom prevails in 
^ all ranks of people;' and that worthy navigator, when he quitted 
the situation, alter a stay of between two and three months, con- 
soled himself with the thought, that he had improved the condi- 
tion of this remote quarter. Very different was the state of things 
when Mr. Mariner, after the lapse of about thirty years, arrived: 
there was neither peace at home nor abroad; the island which was 
the seat of government had been divided into petty states, that 
were constantly at war with each other; and ten or twelve years of 
hostility with the neighbouring islands, were terminated only by 
the fatigue and anxiety the elder Finow had endured from inces- 
sant action. It is true that his successor, from his pacific charac- 
ter and enlightened judgment, presents a more tranquil prospect, 
and we shall be happy to learn from succeeding adventurers that 
the condition of repose is regained, which was the theme of eulo- 
gy and admiration with Captain Cook, and which acquired for these 
stations the pleasing appellation of the Friendly Islands. 

Art. IV. — The Emigrants Guide; or^ a Picture of America^ ex'^ 
hibitin^ a View cf the United States^ divested of Democratic 
Colourings taken from the Original^ now in the Possession of 
James Madison^ and his Twenty-One Governments. Also a 
Sketch of the British Provinces delineating their native Beauties^ 
and superior Attractions. By an Old Scene-Painter. 8vo. Lon- 
don. 1816. 

11 Y late advises, it appears, that no less than 2000 Dutch Qua- 
•■^ kers are on the point of embarking for the single State of Penn- 
sylvania; and that more than oOO of the number are already on 
their way to Philadelphia. A redundant population, and the 
mighty changes that have lately taken place in Uie attitude of the 
different powers in Europe, have produced a spirit of emigration 
to these shores unexampled in our former history. The tendency 
of the species to increase beyond the means of subsistence, in 
old countries, is conclusively established by the speculations of 
Malthus and others,*— ^d is now in course of proof, by the un«- 
crring test of experience. The old .world is discharging the su- 
perflux of human kind into the new. The unsetded regions of 
the west— the shores pf the Pacific — the boundless tracts of South 

The Emigrants Guide- SZ 

America attract the emigrating spirit of adventure, and are s\:^* 
ciendy extensive to absorb the surplus population of Europe for 
centuries to come* 

The recent changes in the political state of Great Britain — ^her 
transition from extended warfare to profound peace, — ^by which, 
it is calculated, one third at least of her population is thrown 
wholly out of employ, and the rest more or less seriously af- 
fectea — ^has had the effect of introducing amongst us an impoverr 
bhed class uf persons, many of them well skilled in the useful 
arts, but destitute of pecuniary resources — ^uuused to our country; 
unacquainted with friends; but desirous of employment; which they 
cannot obtain. There are, moreover, amongst them, many who, 
instead of complying with the wishes of their government, that 
they should resort to Canada, prefer our institutions and our laws* 
The intense severity of a Canadian winter is ill adapted to the 
feeble frame; and necessity of health, no less than a desire of 
comforts, drive some to the milder atmosphere experienced in the 
south and in the west beyond the Alleghany mountains. But, a 
deficiency of means, that bar to human advancement, — a want of 
friends to counsel, and associates to encourage, in the important 
undertaking of a western setdement — ^preclude many from avail- 
ing Uiemselves of its advantages. The English and the Swiss, 
ignorandy bigotted in favour of their natala sokiy usually continue 
at home, in the delusive hope of better times, enduring every 
hardship and oppression, until absolute want, dearth of employ- 
ment, and consequent danger of starvation, compel them to seek 
an asylum in foreign lands. The great majori^ of that class of 
emigrants, accordingly, become reduced, before their departure, 
to a sum barely adequate to defray their steerage passage^ and 
probably a mondi's. board in America. The uninformed individual 
considers, that, in this time, something at least may present itself 
for his acceptance, until better can be procured; not adverting to 
the immense competition for employment, arising from the unpre- 
cedented influx of labour not only from his own nation, — ^but from 
every state in Europe. 

Now, we cannot but recommend, that some information, on 
these points, be collected and circulated, in order that emigrants 
may not be deceived in their expectations; and be enabled, in 
good time, to regulate their plans accordingly. On their arrival 
here, where are the selected friends to counsel them? the compa- 
nies to associate them in their ranks? the advisers, employers, 
Eatrons? the instructors to communicate information,— such as can 
e relied upon for its authenticity? the patriots to lend assistance? 
On these points, the unfortunate emigrant is frequendy as desti- 
taite, as he is of the means to command employment He learns, 
indeed, the prodigious advantages of the western country resound- 
ed in every company, where he can gain admittance; but how is 
he to attain any snare of them? How can he move to the scene of 
action? and, when there, what is he to do?— «Here he is com- 

M The Emigrants Guide. 


pletely at a loss without any one to direct him. Some interested 
individuals^ indeed, have offered land oh their own terms, and 
invited the settlement of emigrants, on a credit apparently fa- 
vourable, in the view of the uninstructed; who have been used to 
the high rents of lordly proprietors in Europe. 

But, we will at once dismiss such palliatives a^ these, by ask- 
ing, if it be worth while to take an under lease from men who 
have previously purchased lands? how much more so must it be 
to purchase, at prime cost, on the original terms of Congress, and 
at their extended credits? A case has come to our knowledge-, 
where Congress have granted, to a company of respectable gentle- 
men, between 3 and 400,000 acres of the finest land, situated oti 
the river Tombigbee, above fort St. Stephens—on a credit of 
Jourteen years; when it is to be paid for at the rate of only four 
dollars per acre. The situation is favourable for raising grain of 
all kinds, — cotton, tobacco, sugar, the vine and the olive; die two 
latter of which are the professed objects of the French gendemen 
associated with the expedition, and are to be cultivated by prac- 
tical labourers, from the vineyards of France and Italy. The first 
division, consisung of about twenty-five gentlemen, sailed from 
Philadelphia the beginning of May, for Mobile, in the schooner 
Commodore Macdonough; and we shall await with some impatience 
an account of their proceedings, which we may occasionally in- 
troduce to the notice of our readers. A glance at the map must 
satisfy any one, that, in the latitude and longitude of Mobile, per- 

i>etual spring and summer must reign. The river Tombigbee* 
ies rather to the northward and westward of New Orleans; and, 
if the accounts of it we have heard be correct, it must, as we judge 
from its position, be particularly propitious to delicate constitu- 
tions, and those accustomed to mild climates. 

In New York alone, there are at this moment nearly two thousand 
British emigrants, whom neglect on our p&rt has. driven to the ne- 
cessity of soliciting the commiseration and assistance of their own 
government. The applications were made to the British Consul, 
and by him forwarded to the ministry at home; the result of 
which has been published in the following advertisement:-— 

Notice to British, subjects. 

His Britannic Majesty's Consulate, New York, 98th February, 1817. 

Having laid before my government the distressed state of the nu- 
merous emigrants who arrived at this port during the last year and 
made application at this ofEce for aid to return to Great Britain and 
Ireland, or to his majesty's colonies in Upper Canada, and having' 
promised to give public notice to them of the result, I hereby inform 
such British subjects as can produce satisfiEitory evidence of good con- 
duct and industrious habits^ that I am authorized to place all such in a 

'^ We are happy to leani, as a striking proof of the enterprise and spirit of the 
times, that a steam boat has been eonstmcted to run from Mobile aiftd navigate 
the Tombigbee« * 


The Emigrants Guide* 5S 

situation whereby they may obtain the important privUegea of settle- 
ment in his majesty's provinces of Upper Canada or Nova Scotia. 

N. B. Passports have already been granted at this office to 340 per* 
son^ to proceed to Upper Canada. 

From the above, it is evident, that the policy recommended by 
the author of a late work on North America,* who subscribes 
himself * a British Traveller'^but whom we apprehend to have 
been, in reality, a British spy, is now actually adopted by the go- 
vernment of England. That policy consists in a rigorous system 
•f colonization, by pouring large supplies of population into the 
Canadian territories; so as to endeavour at forming a counter- 
poise to the United States; or at least to raise up the local means 
of future annoyance. We mention it that our rulers may be 
upon their guard, and that our fellow citizens may not hesitate 
to sanction those measures which have for their object the de- 
fence and security of our country. We by no means wish to in- 
terfere with Great Britain, in the policy she may think fit to 
adopt, with regard to the regulation of her own subjects; or to 
rival her in the display of attractions;— but we do think, that, when 
a number of our fellow creatures repair spontaneously to our 
shores, because they are distressed, and anxious, but unable, to 
find employment — it is our duty, as a generous and hospitable 
people, to attend to the hardship of the case, and to seek and of- 
fer a suitable remedy. If Great Britain will undertake to provide 
for these emigrants, it is well; but, finding them among us, fa- 
tiguing our citizens, as they do, with their importunity to be ren- 
dered useful, we think it would be no more than consistent with 
a just character of liberality to afford to these persons an opportu- 
nity of enrollmg themselves in companies for the settlement of our 
western territory. — ^We have heard, as yet, of but a few detached 
societies for this purpose; assunding no regular form, and admit- 
ting none but those who 'can advance the sum of one hundred dol- 
lars at least. Such are the emigrant societies in the eastern states. 
But, no specific plan has been hitherto proposed for embodying 
the individuals destitute of resources, and rendering their services 
valuable in the grand scheme of western colonization. 

We would suggest, then, in the absence of any other, and till 
a better shall be conmiunicated (which we eamesdy wish may be 
the case), that there be an Association of 500 persons, at least; 
whose individual example shall mutually stimulate to exertions, 
which, if isolated, they might be wholly incompetent to render suc- 
cessful. From these a committee of twenty-four persons or more, 
with a chairman, treasurer, and secretary, should be chosen by a 
general assembly of the body, and be entrusted with the conduct 
of their affairs. We would have an agent appointed by the go- 
venmient of the United States, to confer with the representatives 

* The Coloiual Policy of Great Britain. 

56 the Emigranfs Guide. 

of the company, and to reside at the chief seat of their destinMtion. 
Congress, it is presumed, would not refuse grants of land to re- 
sjpectable bodies on the most indulgent and liberal terms; especial- 
ly were the application made through a proper channel^ and sanc- 
tioned By the due authorities. At a suitable spot, adjacent to some 
9ne of the great western rivers, that empty into the Atlantic 
Ocean— -the Mississippi, the Scioto, or the Ohio— it is proposed 
to fix upon an eligible scite, for a town, or city; the ultimate mag- 
nitude of which would be assisted, as well as the joint interests of 
ttie different companies of settlers secured, by the various bodies 
being brought as much as possible near to each other. In this 
view it would be proper, that all the companies should emanate 
from One spot, and look to one rallying point; where the proposed 
agent of Congress should reside. Hence the distribution of lots 
should diverge as radii from a common centre, to every point in 
fhe circumference, describing ah entire circle. Protection and 
assistance might thus with greater facility be extended equally to 
the various quarters, and mutual support, so necessary to incipi- 
tot success, would be the happy residt of compact order in the ar- 

It cannot be doubted, we think, that much good would come of 
aU this; — butthc^ first question naturally is, how is it to be accom- 
plished? Whence the necessary funds? Let it be inquired, what 
would be the expense of transport for 500 persons, and also of ra- 
tions for the whole during one year: omitting entirely the conside- 
ration of the chace, fowling, and fishing, as sources for a supply of 
ftesh food. Will it exceed the probable sum to be expected of 
l!hree or more opulent storekeepers, in return for the exclusive 
privilege of opening stores by themselves or their agents in the 
new district during a limited term of three or five years? In such 
case, it would be necessary to leave open the option of procuring 
articles for private family use from any of the great cities, in order 
to guard against any undue combination or monopoly; but no other 
stores should be licensed excepting those belonging to the con- 
tractors. A more eligible course might be, to obtain a loan on 
prior mortgage of the land; the interest to be defrayed out of the se- 
cond year's crop, and soforth, until the redemption of the principal 
at the expiration of the debt granted by Congress; it being under- 
stood, that the mortgage is to be first ssitisfied, before the payment 
of the purchase money. This point, it is presumed, Congress would 
not object to yield, in order to forward the important interests at 
issue in this question; since, by so doing, they will not have parted 
with any essential right, or in any degree have endangered the 
fulfilment of their just claims. 

Thus far it may seem that the proposed settlement is suited 
more particularly to persons accustomed to agricultural pursuits^ 
and the trades connected with it; but, it is conceived, that, by se- 
lecting a position at the extremity of one of those states, in which 
knowledge is duly estimated, or in such parts of the Missouri, In- 

The Emtgranfa Guide. 57 

diana, Illinois, or upper border of Louisiana territory, as but upon 
countries in some degree civilized — certain establishments might 
be founded, which would afford employment to the various pow- 
ers of mind, as well as of body; and that a college^ or university, 
with academies to supply it, might be instituted with advantage. 
It is not so much the state of a country, as the genius and deter- 
mination of individuals, that gives rise to great undertakings. The 
cheapness of subsistence, when there, and the economy oi educa- 
tion in free schools (which might be brought about, by liberally 
endowing the professorships) would compensate for die distant 
travel of youths even from the New England states; and the at- 
traction of superior qualifications, notwithstanding their remote- 
ness, might prevail in the proportion ot their power, and surmount 
every intermediate obstacle. Such establishments would of course 
raise up printing presses, bookseller's stores, and demand a con- 
siderable quantity of stationary— hence the employment for a pa- 
per-mill^^— besides the consumption of innumerable articles of con- 
venience and luxury; so that for talent, genius, and skill, for la- 
bour of many kinds, for speculation in some instances, and for in- 
dustry in aU, there would be found a brisk, extensive, and increas- 
ing demand. 

We are afrsud to trust ourselves in the indulgence of the con- 
templation, that such a prospect naturally excites,^-so gratifying 
to the true patriot, and so interesting to human nature,— lest we 
should appear too visionary and romantic in the view of some of 
our readers* But in dismissing the subject for the present we 
cannot omit to recal the memorable instance of the town of 
Harmony; which exhibits a conclusive example of what industry, 
perseverence, good sense, and, above all, union^ properly directed, 
are able to accomplish: qualities which, assembled and uniting 
their forces in one direction, will overcome difficulties apparent- 
ly insuperable; will convert the wilderness into smiling plenty, 
and must infallibly produce the happiest results. 

As a matter intimately connected with the general scope of the 
foregoing observations, we shall detain our readers with some 
account of New South Wales; a country, which, as we expect to 
bhow, is destined, one day or another, to have no small weight 
in the interests of the world. England cannot be too narrowly 
watched. All the Colonies that have been settled by her, in 
right of possession, of conquest, or of treaty, are become objects 
of her special care and protection; nor was she willing to give 
up certain Dutch colonies, captured during the war, which were to 
be restored by the treaty of peace-— without retaining for a term 
of years, some share in their advantages. But the v^ue attached 
to colonial possession is more particularly exemplified, in the re- 
fusal of the British Cabinet, to restore the islands of St. Lucie 
and Tobago, formerly belonging to France, as well as the Saintes 
near Guadbedope, in the West Indies, and the Isle of France, in 
the East* We are led to these remarks by recent information 

VOL. X. 8 

58 The Emigrants Guide. 

fnxm England, that a new governor has been appointed for New 
Soudi Wales; which is to be discontinued as a place of punishment, 
and to be converted to *more important purposes. From all 
that we have heard of this colony, we are persuaded, that, sooner 
or later, its consequence as a place of trade and resort,— its vast 
agricultural resources, resembling, in this respect, our Columbia 
herself,— its fisheries, — its position, adjacent to China and Japan, 
and moreover its extent, (taking the whole island, 2000 miles 
long, and, in some places, nearly as broad)-— must raise it into a 
more general and particular nouce; attracting to its shores a host 
of setders, traders, and others, who, multiplying with the pow- 
ers of production in the soil, must speedily acquire for the 
country a new character, and force its way to public atten- 
tion. Perhaps, at no distant day the infant colony, arriving at 
maturer vigor may reject parental control, and assume the inde- 
pendent functions of its manhood. A case, so analagous, in some 
respects, to that of our own country, it is curious to contemplate; 
and, whether the severence take place sooner or later, one thing 
is pretty certain, that it will occur through the mismanagement of 
the mother country. 

We shall now proceed to give some account of the settlement 
itself derived from the information of an eye witness. Botany 
Bay, so called from the quantity of new botanical plants found 
growing on its shores, is situated in 33^ S. long. 170^ £. The 
most considerable district is that of Sidney. There are built ships 
of 500 tons, which sail to China, and to Peru. The East India 
Company is extremely jealous of the trade between New Sooth 
Walesand China; and it is ppssible that, in the true spirit of mono- 
poly, by their influence in the British Parliament, they may succeed 
in crushing it. Such a measure would infallibly produce much oppo- 
aition in New South Wales; and, if persevered in, might be produc- 
tive of a serious rupture. Sidney bias, besides, as its dependencies, 
Paramatta, Newcastle, and Hawksbury, together with two islands, 
adjacent to the main land, termed Norfolk Island and Van Die- 
man's Land. All these setdements are prosperous and thriving. 
As the inhabitants enjoy a pure climate and productive soil, dis- 
eases, with the exception of such as arise from intemperance, or 
accident, are licde known. Fresh fruits and vegetables are pro- 
duced from the beginning^ the end of the year. In the several 
towns, are to be found mechanics, manufacturers, and artists of 
every description; but agricultural labour is the most productive. 
In New South Wales, there are two annual harvests of wheat, of 
maize, and of grass. The increase of maize is astonishing; one 
bushel of its seed producing 600! Wheat is generally eaten by the 
wealthier classes, and supplied to shipping. Maize is consumed 
chiefly by the poor. Rice, millet, and oats, have, as yet, been 
rarely planted; but they thrive uncommonly well. The wild cat- 
tle are almost as numerous as those of South America; and, by 
means of them, and of the tame herds and flocks, an abundance 
of fresh meat is at all Umes to be had in the different markets, and, 



l^nerally, at a i-easonable price. A cross breed of sheep, mia- 
glisg a few English ewes with some Cape and Bengal rams, has 
produced a very superior fleece, which has been much admired, 
and estimated to be worth 6tf« per pound in England. The cli- 
mate is very favourable to sheep, and the mutton perhaps not to 
be surpassed in the world. The excellent quality of the wool has 
induced several public spirited individuals to establish, at Para^ 
matta, a woollen manufactory; which has been attended with every 
success.— -At Sidney, 78 looms are constandy employed in weaving 
sails and sacking, as also a coarse cloth and linen. Some line and 
flax are manufactured; and, if encouragement offered, might be so 
to a much greater extent. 

Bass, by his discovery of the straits that bear his name, obvia* 
ted, to vessels sailing fn>m the Cape of Good Hope to New South 
Wales, the passage to and around a very stormy cape; which new 
track shortened the distance from Africa by one thousand miles* 
The sea that washes the shores of New South Wales and of Peru, 
deserves the name of Pacificf for it has no violent curents, no 
Trade Winds, no Chinese Tuffons. From Sidney the voyage to 
New Zealand is frequently performed in diree days; to China, in 
five weeks; to Peru, in four; to Bengal, in six; and to the Cape of 
Good Hope, in five. The geographical advamages of the position, 
therefore, are evidently great and promising. 

From the south pole herrings visit Botany Bay during Novem- 
ber and following months; and five or six species of the fish com- 
mon to the British channel are daily caught on the coast. Sperm 
iwhales abound in the mouths of die rivers, and in every part of 
die sea to Peru. The oil is brought there in small vessels, and 
thence exported to London. One house in Sidney, consisting of 
Aree partners, who were firmerlu convictSy remitted oil and seal 
akins to London, in one year, to the value of j^^0,000. It is ex- 
pected, that a profitable traffic, will be carried on between Sidney 
and Peru, should the South American provinces establish their in* 
dependence. The exports of the Colony have hitherto principally 
consisted of oil, seal skins, coals, and wooL The trade in skins 
and coals, is the most thriving; though it is much straitened by 
the restrictions in favour of the East India Company. The cul- 
ture of hemp and flax for exportation is ra{»dly increasing. Masts 
and spars^ equal to those of Norway, are exported to Bengal; and 
a profitable trade in sandal wood, procured fix>m the neighbouring 
Feejee islands, is carried on with the South Sea islands and China, 
where, the demand is very great, and, of course, prices very high. 
At present, owing to the absurd monop6lv vested in the East In- 
dia Company, the trade to China is illicit, and carried on under 
numerous disadvantages. The chief arddes of import are, spirita- 
<His liquors, tea, sugar, agricultural implements, manufacturing tools 
and machines, watches, haberdashery, millinery, wrought iron, brass, 
«opper, pewter, steel, g^ass and earthenware, books, leather, cudery. 
atnas, baizes, hats, soaps, drugs, colours, stationary, tin, ji^annod 
and plated ware, top, sadlery, musical and mathematical instru- 

eo The Emigrants Guide. , 

sients, turnery, pins, needles, fish-hooka, painted floor cloths, silk, 
worsted, and European goods of every description* Our own 
countrymen supply a cheap kind of rum (the New England) which 
IS much esteemed by the lower classes. 

Potteries and breweries have been established at Sidney. The 
iron ore, of which there is abundance, and of very fine quality, has 
not yet been worked. This will be another source of wealtn and 
improvements whenever the forward state of the settlement shall 
admit of its being opened. But the chief hope and promise of 
New South Wales consists in the tract of country beyond the 
Blue Mountains, recently explored by the surveyor of the Colony, 
and afterwards visited by the present Governor himself. It ap- 
pears that a great portion of the land is rich nieatdow pasture, in- 
terseicted by rivers abounding with the finest fish, and well adap« 
ted for mills and other machinery. It is probable that here, like 
our extensive and fertile western territory, the future glories of 
this interesting country will fix their seat; and hence, too, is des- 
tined to spring the main impulse of accelerated prosperity to the 
Colony at large. Already it stands in need of no importation of 
the necessaries of life: the people are as remote from calamity, or 
real distress, as any .nation upon earth. The spring there is in 
die month of August. The Chinairuits, loquates, afe then rip«; 
strawberries, in the latter end of September, and beginning of Oc* 
tober; and peaches, apples, peas, oranges, and limes, succeed them. 
These. are planted, of course, in different situations. The grapes, 
ripen in January, and continue to the latter end of February. Po- 
tatoes, as well as peas, abound throu^out the whole year. In 
short, all vegetables thrive remarkably well, and are very plentifuL 
It is in contemplation to try the cultivation of the tea plant. Su- 
gar cane is indigenous to die soil; but has not yet been regularly 
attended to in plantations; owing chiefly to the high price of la- 
bour, which has been exclusively directed, heretofore, to raising 
more absolute necessaries. Melons, figs, and pomegranates are 
at all times abundant. In Norfolk Island a state of cultivation ex- 
ists, equal to that in the West Indies; and there can be no doubt, 
that every article of tropical culture might be raised in like perfec- 
tion, as in the Antilles. , The want of an enlarged market is se- 
verely felt by thjB settlers. Much advantage might result, if the 
Colony were allowed to export grain to Bourbon, and the Mauri- 
tius, or to any other place diat might want it. 

In spite of all the precautions adopted by the British Govern- 
ment to prevent persons from going out as free setders, who do 
not possess certain qualifications, it is probable that the island will 
be rapidly peopled by emigrants from various quarters, whom 
distress, and the many consequences of a superabundant population 
in old countries, may drive from their native homes, to seek assy- 
lums in a foreign land. At present, it is provided, diat none shall 
be allowed to go out unless they can prove themselves to be pos- 
sessed of sufficient property to estaUudi themselves there, without 

Reid on Insanity. 61 

the assistance of Government; and can produce the most satisfac- 
tory testimonials and recommendations Irom persons of known re- 
spectability. The person allowed to go, is then recommended to 
the Governor, at whose discretion it is left to make what grant of 
land he may think expedient. One great bar to the resort of Bri- 
tish subjects, is the great distance, and the great expense, of the 
voyage; two circumstances which, we incline to think, must lead 
to the ultimate separation of the Colony from the mother country; 
especially should a vexatious system of restrictions and monopo- 
lies continue to be practised. Its remoteness and consequent se- 
curity against hostile attacks, which could only be attended with a 
very considerrble expense on the part of the invading enemy, will, 
perhaps, some day or other, furnish an argument for independence, 
which inclination may not be slow to alledge and to act upon. * 

Art. V •-"^Essays on Hypochondriacal and other Nervous Affec- 

tions. By John Reid, M. D. Memb. R. Coll. Phy. Lond. &c. 

London and Philadelphia. 1817. 

A N English book> upon what has been called, jmit' ff«;^N», ^ the 
'^ English malady,' was to have been expected before this time; 
thoufi^h we know not, that any one expected exactly such a book 
as this of Dr. Reid's. It is worth reading on many accounts. 
There are some curious facts and many good practical observa- 
tions in it; but then the quantity of useful information bears no 
proportion to the size of the volume; which, though by no means 
huge, has evidently been blown into a sizeable book, by mere 
dint of rhetorical elaboration. We have seldom read a more 
flowery volume. To speak in the Doctor's own metaphorical 
spirit, the foliage of his language entirely covers up the fruit of 
his matter. He seems not so much intent on giving us abundance 
of new ideas, as upon showing us in how many different ways jie 
can express the same idea. First * it may be said to be' this or that; 
then * we may liken it to' such and such a thing; next ^ it is' one 
thing or another; then ^ it may be compared to' this or that;— and 
thus the series goes on, till, in some instances, we know not what 
the man is talking about. Take, for example, his observations 
upon the stoical doctrine of repressing one's emotions. First, we 
have a confined elastic fluid; then, a pair of stilts; next, a cloke, 
and armour; fourthly, a feather in one's cap; and, lastly, some- 
thing which ^glitters' and has a ^ slight and superficial gilding.' 

< It (stoicism) may forbid pain from betraying itself in the writh- 
higs of the limbs, or in the contortions of the countenance; but feel- 
ing, thus forcibly compressed within the heart, will be in danger of 
bursting it by its elastic force and expansion. A man elevated on the 
stilts of stoicism, stands higher indeed, but less securely. They lift 
him above the ground; but, whilst they deduct from his safety, they 
give no real addidon to his stature. Stoicism is a cloke which merely 
disguises, not an armour which defends and fortifies, our weakness. 
The TaniQr of its lofty pretensions may be compared to the feather that 

62 Reid on Insanity* 

idly floats above the head, not to that solid part of the helmet which 
encircles and protects it. The glitter of affected magnanimity is apt 
to be mistaken fo^ what is sterling and substantial, until the repealed 
rabs of life have worn off the slight and superficial gilding.* 

Dr. Reid makes this parade of metaphors — and thinks he is 
writing like Johnson. Nothing makes an emptier sound in our 
ears; and nothing, it seems to us, can be more inappropriate to 
the subject, which the Doctor has undertaken to handle* It is a 
remark of some of pur best metaphysicians, that no one circumstance 
has so much obstructed the progress of mental philosophy, as the 
practice, which all writers have fallen into, more or less, of at« 
tempting to illustrate the operations of mind, by comparing them 
to the affections of matter. Almost all our intellectual phraseo* 
logy is made up of metaphorical allusions: and yet nothing is 
more certain, we think, ^an that mind is essentially different 
from every thing else. To use, therefore, such a merciless 
profusion of metaphor, in treating of its operations and accidents, 
as Dr. Reid has employed, seems to be going on a system, which 
is the very least of all calculated to give us right notions on the 
subject. If he is a professed materiadist, he has some excuse; 
though, even then, the unconscionable frequency of his * thick com- 
ing fancies' would be considered as horribly out of taste* A half 
a dozen indifferent figures is by no means so illustrative as a sin* 
gle good one; and, very frequendy, even one is worse than none 
at all. A writer much addicted to metaphorical language, also^ 
is sometimes incapable of distinguishing between resemblances 
and realities*— between figures and facts. We shall have occasion 
to point out some of Dr. Reid's mistakes in this particular; and, 
we hope, his example will be a warning to those American writers^ 
who, like him, think there is nothing so pretty as a new metaphor. 

The physican who neglects the mind diseased, and applies all his 
remediable powers to the body alone, is only tying up one artery, 
while his patient is bleeding to death at another. We know not 
how the intellectual and physical parts of our constitution act and 
react upon each other; but we know, that they do thus act and react; 
and we have, consequently, done but the half of our duty, if we 
have only endeavoured to sanify one of the subjects, which are 
eflected by the operation* Many curious instances are recorded 
of the control which our will has over the diseases of the body. 
One Dr. Chjoie gives an accoimt of a person, who counterfeited 
death so much better than Falstaff, that himself and several other 
physicians, after vainly feeling his pulse and holdmg a mirror to 
his mouth, were well convinced that he had carried the joke too 
far, and were about to leave him for dead; when they saw his limbs 
move; felt his pcdse beat; observed his breath return; and, final- 
ly, witnessed his complete resusitation. ^ Celsus speaks of a priest 
^ diat could separate himself from his senses when he list, and lie 
^ like a dead man, void of life and sense, ^tii, fuoHes volebat, 
* mortuo similU jacebatj aufertn^ se a senMmm Cardan brags of 

Reid on Inaamtym 63 

"* himself, that he could do as much, and that when he list.'* To 
these instances, cited by Dr. Reid, we may add that of a person, 
who, under the name of William Newman, has given so much trou« 
ble to the sheriffs and jailors of New Brunswick and of New £n* 
gland. When he was first confined in goal, he so admirably coun- 
terfeited a quick consumption, through all its stages of raising 
blood, and progressive debility, that the doctors in die neighbour- 
hood were completely deceived* He was thrown into jail on the 
Snd of August, 1814; but it was not till the 22nd of September^ 
that his dissolution was threatened. Towards evening of that day, 
the jailor's son entered the prison and found Newman already 
cold to the knees. The dying man asked for a hot brick to warm 
diem; and, while honest John (that was the name of the jailor's 
son) went out to get it for him, he leapt out of bed; escaped from 
the prison, and eluded the vigilance of all his pursuers.f These 
are proofs of the power which the will has over our bodies; and 
Dr. Reid concludes, that, ^ if, by a determinatioh of the mind, 

* it be practicable in some cases to suspend altogether the appear- 
( ance of life, it is reasonable to believe, that, by the same means, 

* we may put at least a temporary stop to the symptoms of disease.' 
It cannot be denied, however, that there is some difference be- 
tween creating, and destroying; and even Dr. Reid does not go so 
far as to say, that the power of the will in preventing disease is 
any thing like that which may be exercised in bringing it on. But, 
whatever may be its efficacy in curing disorders of the body, it 
certainly has very little in counteracting those of the mind. In 
all cases of nervous affection, the very seat of disease is on the 
Will itself; so that to bid one, in hypochondriasis, for examiple, to 
get the better of the complaint by resolving to do so, is about equi- 
valent to telling a person confined by paralysis, to make himself 
well, by walking or running about. This is tha only point, at 
which Dr. Reid arrives, through hia two first Essays. 

He begins the third with telling us, that an undue fear of death 
is the chief symptom of hypocondriasis; and then attempts to ac« 
count for the well known fact, that those persons are the most 
fond of living, who have enjoyed life the least. We have two or 
three pages of metaphor on the subject; but Dr. Reid gives us no 
new explanation of die circumstance. It strikes us, that there are 
two obvious causes of such a paradoxical attachment. In the first 
place, a man whose past life has, been miserable, very naturally 
would live to see the time when hope tells him he shall be happy. 
And, in the second place, death is considered, by all, as the last 
degree of that bodily suffering, of which every pain is, more or 
kss, a modification. A being, therefore, who never has expert- 

* Burton, Anat. Melan. 

t Memoirs of Henry More Smith, oUm William Newman. New York, 1816. 
No man, who has read the book, can ha^e the least doubt, as to the authenticity 
of the manrelkras facts which it contains. It is written by Walter Bates, the 
iheriffywho had die most to do with the prisoner. 

64 Reid on Lisanity* 

cnced pain, can have no idea of what death is, or of what is meant 
by the phrase King of Terrors. A babe cannot be said to fear 
death; and gr&wn persons can only fear it, in proportion to their 
experience of the sort of suffering of which death is the superla- 
tive degree. Fear is the offspring of danger; and every instance 
of suffering puts us more or less in danger of deaths and makes 
us more or less afraid of it. A man who has been in great misery 
all the days of his life— and yet is conscious^ that there is still one 
misery, which is greater than all the rest, will naturally have great- 
er fear of that misery, than he who has suffered very litde of the 
ills which we are heirs to; and who,- consequently, can only look 
upon death as the last degree of what, to hi en, has been, by no 
means, intolerably afflicting. It is all a matter of self-comparison* 
The King of Terrors is no bugbear to the person, who has never 
learned, by experience, what terror is. 

The remainder of this Essay is taken up with an enumeration of 
instances, in which men have died through the fear of death. 
Lord Littleton expired exactly at the stroke of the clock, which, 
he had become possessed of an idea, would be the signal of his 
dissolution. A man who was sentenced to be bled to death, is 
said to have departed this life, by having his eyes blinded, while 
water was made to trickle down his arm. Anodier who had been 
condemned to decapitation, e'n left the world on the block, before 
the first accents of his reprieve could reach his ear. And, in the 
Sandwich Islands, there is said to be religious sect, who have such 
influence over the natives, that, when they send notice to any one, 
who has displeased them, that they are about to pray for his 
death, he frequently dies without further ceremony. We disagree 
with Dr. Reid in considering all these catastrophes as the simple 
and immediate effect of fear. It seems to be a general principle of 
our constitution, that a full, strong, intense, and exclusive concep- 
tion of an object or event, is about equivalent to the actual and 
present sensation of it. A man, who is sick at the stomach, to 
t^e a very familiar example, is as incapable of containing, if he 
thinks of a sumptuous table, as if a sumptuous table were actually 
before his eyes. It seems to be an essential part of this disorder to 
keep the mind fixed upon the very thing, with which the stomach 
is most disgusted; insomuch, that, with the most painful exertion, 
we are incapable of conceiving any thing but a good dinner; — and 
it is this rivetted and excluse conception of the object, which, we 
have no doubt, produces the same effects as its actual presence 
and sensation. The same is the case with fear. It is defined to 
be the effect of apprehended or real danger. Danger cannot, by any 
definition of the thing, be said to contain the elements of death; 
and consequendy, cannot, through the fear it excites, be the cause 
or means of death. Fear operates, by rivetting our minds to the 
thing feared, till we have such a strong and intense conception of 
it, mat the effect, as in the other case, is the same as that of the 
actual sensation. This'we take to be the metaphysics of the thing. 

Reid on twanky* 6$ 

We attach no importance to the question; and, for all the purpo- 
aes of common speech, it is well enou^ to say, a person may be 
scared to death;-— just as it is commonly said, that beer may be 
thundered to vinegar.— In the conclusion of this Essay, the Doc- 
tor very severely reprobates the quackery of attempting to cure 
diseases by working on the imagination* He calls it^ treacherous 
logic/ ^ meanness and atrocity,' ^ robbery and murder,' ^ the basest 
and blackest art of empirical imposture*' Amen* 

Pride often brings on insanity; and Dr. Reid says^ there .is an 
almost inseparable, connexion between ^vanity and vexation of 
spirit*' Proud men always dwell upon themselves, both in thought 
and in conversation; and egotism is, in fact, a species of insanity* 
Egotism, when combined with pride, always makes a man fancy 
himself bigger than he is; when united to humility, it makes us 
think we are less than we are;— and Zimmerman mentions the 
case of a man, who fancied himself a barley-corn, and durst not 
go out of doors, for fear the birds would pick him up* Egotis- 
tical pride should be subject to a system of mortification;— ego* 
tistical humility should be treated with ^ encouraging respect and 
courtier like attention.' Our readers have already seen how the 
Doctor flaggellates stoicism* 

Dr* Johnson has a right to be heard on the subject ^of hypo- 
chondriasis* ^ No disease of the imagination is so difficult to 
^ cure (says he, in Raselas) as that which is complicated with 

* remorse, or the dread of guilt* Fancy and conscience act inter* 

* changeably upon us; and so often shift their place, that the illu- 
^sions of the one are not disunguished from the dictates of the 

* other* When melancholy notions take the form of duty, they 
'la^ hold on the faculties without opposition, because we are 
^afrsdd to exclude or banish them*' Remorse is often felt most 
acutely by those persons- who have the least reason for accusing 
themselves; and we frequenUy condemn ourselves for an action, 
which merely happens to be followed by a disastrous conse- 
quence* A man often charges himself with malice prepense, when 
he must be conscious of no evil intention; and judges himself by 
an ex post facto law, because an innocent transaction has come 
to a guil^ end* How this injustice to ourselves is to be avoid- 
ed, or remedied, we do not find that Dr* Reid has told us* Well 
founded remorse, however, may be worked off, by a course of 
active du^* 

Burton thus concludes his work on Melancholy—-* be not soli- 
tary: be not idle;' and Johnson, in the sage of Rasselaa, most 
admirably illustrates the manner, in which a. mixing with society 
will gradually obliterate the hypochondriacal ideas engendered 
by solitude. But as the disease is cured by coming amongst 
men, so it is caught by retreating into seclusion; and many a man 
who fancies he is retiring from active public life, finds that 
he has only brought himself into the country to be mad* There is 
a medium in the thing. Too much society soon pushes us through 

TOL. z. 9 

66 ttta tf n Jbuankifi. 

Ae rouad of its Aiversioas; and we become so saidftted^ at latt» 
that we are recluaes in a drawing-room* Hypochondriasis, too, 
is a kind of contagious disorder; and one person aiBioted wkh 
it, will often spread it among a hundred. 

Intemperate study is a cause of hypochondriasis; and, thou|^ 
the Doctor satirically remarks, that the youths of the present g€» 
neration are not likely to be made mad by too much learning, he 
thinks it worth while to caution a few excepted persons Against 
immoderate reading, or too intense reflection* He p;ives a case, 
which, we think, is not altogether to the point; thougn it is amus- 
ing* An Oxonian scholar had studied most laboriously and in* 
cessantly to gain the highest honours of his college; when the sud- 
den institution of some new rules about examination, made him 
completely despair of attaining his object. There was no ground 
for despair; ^ but the idea| of possible defeat' (it was not ex* 
acdy intense application, then) so harrassed his mind that he 
became a little insane. He would do nodiing without the utmost 
previous deliberation; and, when he had done it at last, he re- 
pented of the action. ^ I remember calling on him one afternoon, 
^ (says the Doctor) and finding him still in bed, from not having 

* as yet been able to determine whether he should put on his 

* pantaloqns, or his small clothes for the day. He at length fixed 
^ upon the latter; but had not been long risen, before he changed 
^ that for a different dress.' In short, he equally repented of erery 
thing he did, and of every thing he did not.-*-->Change of employ* 
ment is recommended to die studious. But, above all things, 
the Doctor would have us keep out of all metaphysical specu^ 

' Vicissitude is a cause, and characteristic S3^mptom of intellec- 
tual malady. Though madness be always the same mental dis- 
organization; yet it manifests itself outwardly in very different 
ways,— -sometimes in the most obstreperous fuiy, and sometimea 
in the most sullen repose. There is uie same difference sdbo in 
tiiose lighter modifications of the disease, which we rank under the 
general term of hypochondriasis. Sudden fits of jocularity— -and 
sudden turns of seriousness, are indicative of a mind slightly— < 
and very sUghdy insane. The only remedy is to begin early, 
with habits of temperance; meaning by that word, a systematic 
tegulation of our fedings. Disproportimiate mental affections 
may thus be got under; just as bodily deformities are compressed 
mto natural dhape. 

Want of sleep is another cause and accompaniment of insanity. 
The rapid and incongruous association of our ideas in sleep ia 
smd to counteract that steadiness and intensity of thought, which 

Eterally precedes madness. Mr. Stewart, we believe, was the 
t who observed, that die effect of sleep on the mind, like its 
affect on the body, was, to suspend the power of vdiition over ica 
other fiKuItieSk And dbe author before ua thinka the periodical 
l^ose of voUtlan ia necessary to xecmit mid auataia its mfliieacci 

"tht analogy islnr 119 means perfeot. Does the Oodor Baean tha^ 
a refreshineiit ef the will is all the benefit oiir bodies receive 
from sleep? Should we be rested at all, if our corporeal faculties, 
like our mental, were, duripg ^leep, in a state of constant an4 
migovemaUe a|^tation{ We are inclined tp diink, that the mind 
is not at all refreshed by dreams; and that it is only from a state 
^ comparative repose, both bodily and intellectual, that any rer 
ciration is derived* The Doctor's next idea seems to be more 
rationaL Sleep is a sort of armistice to the conflicting passions, 
which, when uninterriqpted, are ^t to lay waste and disorganize 
Ae mhuL Obstinate vigilance, on the other hand, keeps the pasr 
sions in perpetual hostility. It becomes a war of extermination; 
and some master-feeling, or favourite idea, finally gains and keeps 
Ae ascendancy* In these cases the Doctor has found the cold or 
warm bath to be decidedly advantageous* And he quotes the 
authority of Horace— 

< Transnanto Tiberium, sorano quibus est opus alto/ 
Intemperance not only shortens life, by making one ^ live too 
£lS^*-«4Mit embitters it, also, by making him melancholy* We air 
>rays pay (or unusual elevation of spirits, by a proportionate de^ 
pression. There is a considerable difference, however, between the 
Vttrioos kinds of 8timuli,--4)etween what we drmk as bona Jid€ 
fermented liquors, »id the ^ draughts' which (to use Dr. I^eid's 
phrase) some ^ingurgitate, in a pharmaceutical shape' — betwcesir 
brandy and opium, in two words* The difference is principally 
la degree* The elevation produced by ardent spirits is just hi^ 
enough to involve us in the clouds; while that produced by 
opium raises us into the region of perpetual sunshine* The fall is 
proportionate, in both cases, to the elevation. The person who 
IS addicted Co o]^iun, feels much more miserable, than the wine 
bibber, alter the exhilaration is over* Dr* Rcid says, that opium 
operates like oil on water; ^ allaying the agitation of the billowy 
^and inducing an agreeable stillness and tranquillity.* We susr 
pect, however, that the description is drawn from the fancie4 
andogy between the two substances,— and not from the actu^ 
state of what he has observed to be the case* He very sensibly 
rasarks, however, that the common method of attempting to rc^ 
£Nrm drunkards is ^ worst diat can be devised; amd that, instead 
of delineating the prospective misery, to which his life must bring 
Um, we ou^t to show the more^ encouraging picture of what 
comforts await the contrary course. ' Men who take up hard drink^ 
ing to prevent themselves from reflecting on their misfortunes^ 
are already habituated to the most gloomy and dark imaginings* 
As it is impossible, therefore, for another to set before them 11 
worse picture than they themselves call up to their minds, so )$. 
is impossible, by such means, to frighten diem from their GOQrse» 
By painting the c<mseqttences tA different conduct, however, we 
place before them a« prospect, which is a complete contrast to 
what they are accustomed to contemplate; and wUch, tfaerefeic^ 


SB Rcid en Jiuaniitf. 

has a fair chance of giving a beneficial turn to die currant of their 
thoughts. — ^The Essay is concluded by a description of the ebriety 
produced by unexampled good fortune* Dr. Reid cannot pre- 
tend, that this sort of intoxication is like that produced by ardent 
spirits; and he should have taken the pains, we think, to point 
out the difference between them. Instead of this, he oidy tells us, 
that prosperity is, in this particular, more efficacious than adver- 
sity;* as if adversi^ ever made a man drunk! Indeed, the word 
drunkenness is always a metaphor, when applied to a man whose 
head is turned by unexpected good luck;-— and this is one of the 
instances, in which the Doctor has mistaken a figure for a fact, 
because his habitual use of metaphors has disabled him from dis* 
tinguishing between the two. 

oome hypochondriacs are so afraid of starving to death, that 
they deny themselves even the common necessaries of life, and die 
out of mere excess of abstinence.— Morbid affections of the sen- 
ses*— particularly of the eye and ear--4ire sometimes the causes 
and sometimes the consequences of nervous diseases. Dean Swififc 
often complained of deafness: Cowper had such a perpetual din in 
his head, that he could hear nothing aright; and Dr. Johnson says^ 
at one time, that he could not hear the town clock distincdy; and, 
at another, that he heard his mother calling out ^ Sam' — though 
she had been dead many years. Blindness is another effect of the 
malady. In both cases, external applications are ineffectual; and 
there is no help for the patient, except in some regimen, which 
reforms the whole tone of his constitution. Lotions, and the like 
of that, are but sorry specifics. 

Dr. Reid asserts, that mental derangement is no sign of con- 
stitutional vigour of intellect; — and, in order to prove die asser- 
tion, he adduces the fact, that, in those diseases which are accom- 
panied by insanity, the mental change never takes place tiJl the body 
IS excessively debilitated. We do not clearly see the logic of this 
observation; but it corresponds with die thesis of the next Essay- 
that physical malady is the occasion of mental disorder. This we 
do not think is conclusively proved; though we cannot spare room 
to tell our readers why— We can make very littie of what the 
Doctor says on the atmosphere of London.^— In the next Essay, 
on dyspeptic and hepatic diseases, the epicures and gormandizers 
have some good advice. The Doctor laments the dissuetiide into 
which fasts have fallen; and recommends to aU gluttons, that, in 
order to treat their stomachs fwly, they should aUow them * a pe- 
riodical holy-day.' — ^There are some valuable observations upon 
idiocy, palsy, spasmodic, and convulsive affections; which, however, 
we cannot afford to particularise'.— -Essay XVIII is on the heredi- 
tary nature of madness. Dr. Reid says, that it is not so much 
msKlness, strictly speaking, as a tendency to it, which is hereditaiy. 
It often lies hid in one generation^ and breaks out in another. 

Reid on iisaniiy, 69 

The Doctor reprobates, with all his might, the conduct of those 
who marry mider a fuU consciousness of their disposition to insa- 
nity.— -We are obliged to pass by his remarks on old age; which 
are neither new, nor striking.— He speaks sensibly, however, on 
the subject of lunatic asylums. As men are often killed, by being 
interred prematurely; so, says the Doctor, a person may be made 
insane, by being too soon confined as such. Great caution is re- 
quisite in this particular. The Doctor censures the whole of the 
present system; and is particularly indignant at streight-jackets and 
shaving. Lunatics, he says, can only be brought back to reason 
by kind and gende treatment. Our medical prisons, he calls 
^slaughter-houses for the destruction and mutilation of the bu- 
sman mind.' Insanity does not come on like a fit. Its progress 
is gradual; may be accurately marked, and, with due pains, be ef- 
fectually counteracted. As one of its most usual prognostics is a 
constant recurrence ot some favourite idea, every pains Should be 
taken to draw off the mind from the contemplation of that particu- 
lar object. — ^The Doctor^s observations on bleeding, on pharmacy, 
on ablution, and on bodily exercise, must be past over. In Essay 
XXVI we learn, that real evils are sometimes a remedy for those 
which are imaginary. Fancy has often the effect of reality, in 
creating disease; but fancy can never be 'so sth>ng as reality; and, 
accordmgly, when some actual disease takes hold of a hypochon- 
driac, not only the disorder created by the imagination, but the very 
imagination itself, is generally made sound. Sensation calls off 
the mind to another object; and thus destroys the very aliment of 
mental disease. — ^The last Essay is upon occupation. The Doctor 
makes some good observations on the subject; but we find nothing 
worthy of particular remark. 

We have thus given a short sketch of Dr. Reid's performance. 
We were induced to notice it, because, from its very nature, it re- 
quires litde medical learning to examine its contents; and because 
we are desirous of encouraging every attempt to clear up a sub- 
ject, which, in consequence of its subtlety, is almost universally 
neglected. The mysterious conneuon which subsists between the 
mind and the body, has always been a subject of speculation. It 
yet remains undiscovered; and every essay towards it^ therefore, 
desoves to be taken notice of.-- -We shall close the article with a 
letter addressed to us; in which a very curious case of insanity is 

Dear Sir, 

Most people feel interested in tracing the mental history of the 
insane. It affords a melancholy pleasure to become acquainted 
with their strange imaginations; and the thought should not be a 
stranger to us, that the misfortune which we perceive others are 
subject to, may befall ourselves. I have heard of a crazy fellow who 
arose in a church, and said, while the preacher was reminding his 
hearers of their ingratitude, ^ Not one of you ever thought of thank- 

7Q Reid on £taanity% 


ing God for his reason!' Perhaps the fellowing history mqr convey 
reproof and instruction; and induce some to be grateful for weU 
ordered minds, who have hitherto considered themselves entitled 
to uninterrupted sanity. 

A few years since I was personaQy acquainted with a lady of a re« 
putable family, who had an inordinate auachment to splendour and 
equipage; which die circumstances ot her husband would not per* 
mit him to indulge. Her mad love of gaudy, but ideal bliss, to* 
gether with the disappointment of her extravasrant wishes, produce 
ed a chronical distemper of the mind. Her dress became highly 
expensive and fantastic: and she would take possession of any ele- 
gant carriage which she found drawn up at a neighbour's house; 
giving the coachman directions to drive to some spacious abode, 
which she deemed her ovm. In one of these excursions she was 
driven to the Lunatic Asylum; and, rather against her will, de« 
tained there. It was, however, ^ her Palace;' and all the othev 
insane inhabitants of^the place were either her servants, or her 
guests. Among others, who occasionally visited the Asylum, she 
saw the writer. At this time Napoleon Bonaparte enjoyed the 
wealth and dignity of a powerful emperor; and who should be 
the husband of our lady, but the potent monarch of France, and 
temporary creator of the destinies of Europe! She imagined her- 
self Josephine; and, aldiough, in reality, she had never seen him who 
is now die exile of St. Helena; yet she had seen an engraving of his 
£ace; and the profile was like -«— • yes, it was like that of the writer* 
For many months he was the Emperor, and she was his spouse; 
confined by him in a splendid casde, that he might make severe 
trial of the strength of her a£Fection for him. Her husband and 
daughters «he would not so much as recognize, or deign to al^« 
swer, during all this time of her imaginary exaltation to a throne 
and a crown. Any thing which the keeper desired me to request 
of her, she would perform; and any thing which he could per- 
suade her, I had onlered, was a matter of gratification. Her white 
sattins and florentine silks were not abandoned in the place of 
confinement; but she would daily appear in all the stateliness and 
pride of universal domination* The means of writing were not 
always afforded her; but when tiiey were. Napoleon was the sub- 
ject of every line. One Lords-day she solicited pen and ink, 
and was « indulged by the keeper, under this express agreement^ 
tiiat she should write only on a serious subject: and so she filled 
all the blank leaves of a Psalm-book with a rhapsody which be- 
gan thus: ' I am required to write only on a serious subject* What 
subject can be more serious to me, than my present separation 
from my dear Napoleon?' 

That your readers may have some opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with her talents, and her state of mind, I shall sub- 
join the copies of two letters which she addressed to your cor- 


Reid on Jhstmiiy, 71 

Copt ov Lbttbk I. 

Sfiain^ March ^6gkj 1816.* 
Dbak Napolbov, 

How novel the style— how varioiis and impreuiTC the emetionsi—I 
denred greatly this privilege of addressiog yM^-^can scarcely realise 
the indoigeDce— 4tfid yet, how astonishiDg!*-^! certainly address the 
Emperor of the world, as «y own dear husband, and consider the in^ 
plements of conveying a thought, a wbh, the greatest favour! Possess- 
ing tbemr-*what can I say to you? A volume could not contain it««- 
and yet, my pen is mutei nor can my hand, my tremulous hand, retrace 
the great, the vast, the awful ideas that nearly overpower my imagi- 
natifXH nor engage in that converse sweet that is comprised in objects 
more . minute. I certainly have caught the contagion, or mania of 
objects that surround me. I am bewildered. The sublime, the pro- 
Jbund, the infinite; ^ the burlesque and trifling;* the tender and endear- 
ing; the repulsive and forbidden; sham quarrels, and checked recon- 
ciliationsfr— grandeur, magnificence in prospect;— real sufferings, in- 
dtgiuties and respect,«-the sway of the hearts ipd affections of millions 
in submissive subjection to a small single control, 8cc. Sec— are so 
blended and confounded, that I can give no intelligible expression to 
any one of them. 

The present hour, uded by the powerful stimulant of sense, pre* 
dominates, and urges you, in all the language that is persuasive or 
pathetic, by every motive that can affect the heart, towards an object 
beloved;— yes, beloved,-— to put a period to my present probation. Let 
candour prevail, and inform me what depends on myself that may 
abridge the period of my residence at this Palace, that bars me from 
intimate communion with you, and causes all this delirium and rhap- 

]>ear husbend, our union, so firequentiy confirmed by the expression 
of our will, 8o repeatedly solemnized by our affectionate subjects, in the 
various cathedraU and chapels we have attended, cannot now be affect- 
ed by the voice or will of others, be their inclination or influence what 
it may. Hasten then to the relief of your spouse. An army would be 
superfluous: your presence and authori^ would dissolve the charm, and 
unbar the gates that withhold me from your embrace. Mount your 
swiftest, fleetest courser, and speed — fly to the relief of your Margaret. 
Say that this day shall end the perturbatixm of her mind, or turn all the 
energies of her emotions into a new channel, by a transit of situation>-« 
or hush them into peace and sweet tranquillity by the soothings of en- 
dearment and affection—- the kindly office of tender friendship, of conju- 
gal love. I wish to say much: do you imagine all for me; being under 
restraint lest some of the enemy's scouting parties should intercept this, 
and give it publicity, which would be painful to delicacy, and tenderness 
that shrinks from the observation and criticism of others. I will only 
add, hasten to the relief <^ your affectionate wife Margaret— your own 

The Emperor Napoleeik 

P. S. This is conveyed with great risk, by the keeper of the castle* 
I hope it may arrive safe, and my answer be from your own lips. 

* fiheiheuld have written A. P. 1811. 

72 Reid on Huanitt/, 

Copt or Lbttxr II. 

DxAR Napolbom, 

Thank you for this means of address^ wj husband! I am wretched 
at our separation. What can I urge that has not already become tire- 
some by repetition? Does any thing; depend on me? Why not put it 
in my power; and convey intelligence ? I tax not ray husband 

with want of gallantry— -but myself with impropriety or indelicacy.— 
Oh! no— are you not my husband? Does not that title convey to you 
indescribable sensations, immense prospects, endearing, mutual obli- 
gations? Does my Napoleon realize the character he has thus 
assumed; and can he hold at a distance; try with relentless severity 
and perseverance, all the soul of his afflicted Margaret? Does not my 
dear husband see that the severity and durance of these trials have 
really an unfriendly effect on his own heart? I will not again ask, 
* Have you a heart? Is it callous?' Yes, you have one, and it is in your 
Margaret's possession. With all your 9ang froidf and smiling indif- 
ference, it has a language better understood^— perhaps under a well 
acted partr**-by some small tokens, that the manner and language were 
not ^eal, were only the expression of the ^ sovereign austere,' not of the 
tender, sympathisung friend! Again, let me ask--does any thing depend 
on me? 

Nearly six months since we met in the German Chapel! ! ! Oh! my 
dear husband, — I entreat you to exert yourself— -leave nothing to me— 
but fetch me home. Bid me come to you— come without disguise to 
me:— come now! come on receipt of this order. The bar of commu- 
nication removed from between us, need I appoint the manner or means 
that would be acceptable? Oh! spare your Margaret; at least spare 
me— What is the obstacle? There was none to our marriage— it was 
publicly performed. Was it then my local situation? I came here in 
entire obedience, implicit obedience to your commands; and can be 
detained here by no other authority. Has any person dared to make 
use of your name, unauthorized — ^he is amenable to you: .still am I 
solely subject to the mandate in your name that conveyed me here. 

I care not for the carriage, horses, or driver: if yours, they are at 
your command, or any other, set me down again, if you do not chuse to 
come for me yourself. To the slightest communication of your will I 
have endeavoured to conform, so far as known:— >but enough of this 
repetition. Why is my Napoleim separated from his 


N. B. will hand you this. 1 beg you will commission him 

with a message in return, for which he is requested to wait. ' Adieu, 
for a very little time, when I hope we shall meet without restrtdnt, to 
the relief and happiness of your affectionate 


Margaret is her own Christian name; and Josephine, I pre- 
sume, must be her name of empire. A little inconsistency must 
be expected in a crazy person: but may I not be permitted to say, 
that very few ladies, were they reaUy in the situation in which 
she imagined herself to be, would have written with more inge- 
nuity, persuasion, art, and tenderness? She blames Napoleon^ 

mtorku fi 

wh3e the apparency intMids to accuse Otaly herself; and she to- 
treats him with genuine eloquence. 

In the foregoing lines I have stated facts; mad the letter* ana 
copies of genuine epistles which are still in my possession^ Had 
Mrs* — — — contemplated die greatest monarch of the woild, driv* 
en away like an eagle to the top of a sea- beaten rock, as forsaken, 
forlorn, and unable to flutter out of his nest, she would not {Mroba^ 
bly, in her ambition, have imagined him to be her husband, n<ir 
would she have thought that she saw her ' Dear Napoleon^ in th6 

Fhiladeli^ia, June 12, 181 /• 

a L ^ i_j, -•• ---- . ^^ • ^ 

Art. Vl^^^Notoria; or JUiscellaneous Articles of Philoaopfnf^ Lite* 

rature^ and Politics^ 

UNDER tiiis heady we propose, in to the danger that attends thenK Thraa 

future, to insert a collection of ya- or four dajs^ ago, the passengers in a 

rious matter in every department of steam-boat-Iine from Baltimore, were 

knowledge. There are many articles left at Wilmington to shift for them* 

in foreign Magazines, which would selves; owing to some accident or too 

both edify and amuse our readers;— hut much wear and tear of the boiler. The 

which are, in general, too short to de- passengers, who performed their partef 

serve a distinct and separate place in the centxaatat BaltimiMreyby pa^iagthe 

onr pages. Many pieces of intelligence hre demanded, were thus oon^Ued te 

respecting our own country, also, seem undeigo the trouble and expense of tr*- 

to deserve a more permanent repository vellingby land instead of water, from the 

dian our ephemeral newspapers. And sheer ignorance, the carelessness, or 

we design, in short, to present our rea- somethingwor8e,of the managersof that 

ders, eveiT month, with a compendious concern, who ought to have ^sen aif a«e 

view of the most interestiog philoso- of the accident, and apprised the pa9^ 

phieU, Kterary, and political news, sengers of it at Baltimore. It is net 

tram both sides of the Atlantic. For worth the while of an individual pa^ 

this purpose we have chosen the title — senger to seek redress by law;— ^ad 

JV*0forta— which, as our readers know, hence the persons who undertake to 

Was the name given to the periodical convey passengers may practise almoet 

dispatches received at Rome from the any imposition with impunity; but the 

various quarters of her Empire. Such bursting of steam-engine-bdlers, by 

dispatches we should be grateful to re- which the lives of our citizens are 

eeive from our own countrymen, in the destroyed, Uieir Umbs mutilated, or 

wirious parts of the United States. eventheir persons put in jeopardy, ottghft 

SUam-Engineg and Sieam^SoaU. to be made a criminal ciffience, and 

TdDE f^quent accidents of a very punished by heavy fine and impriaov- 

alarming and fatal nature that have ment, as weU as by lialrility to civil 

Occurred, within these two years, from action; for such an acciderU nener dou 

the bursting of steam-engine boilers, occuvy but through culpable oarde$^ 

threaten to bring into discredit, one of nets, 

the most useful inventions of modem Dangerous accidents happen, or m^ 

icnence; inventions, too, in which this happen, from steam-engine-boilem, ow^ 

country claims nosmall share of honour, ing to one or other df the inllewing 

But if passengers cannot set their foot causes: 

into a steam-boat, without apprehen- 1st. From the too frequent useofhigii- 

sion, ^and reasonable apprehension too) pressure engines. 2dly. From loading 

of bemg blown overboard, or scalded the steam valve too high. 3dly. Froih 

to death, we do not see but that these cast-iron boileans in w&>la or in pott, 

useful inventions must be given up; for 4thlv. From permitting the boiUiB te be 

no prudent person wiU expose himself too long in use without renewing. 
VOL. X. 10 

f4 Notoria* 

jp*tne-.Iii BoqUob and Watf s spe- ments either of Mr. Wboife, or dkoso 
cification, as early as 1764, or 1769, I of Mr. Clegg^. Mr. Woolfe's method 
forget which, provision was made for of workiog Uie waste steam under an- 
tfae use of big^h-pressure engines, by other piston is certainly a great and 
which the heated steam might be let real advantage; though not well calcv- 
off into the atmosphere, without con- lated for the small space allowed in a 
densation, if this method should be steam-boat The calculations, as to the 
thought best; but Boulton and Watt power gained by heating steam to va- 
have constantly rejected this plan of a nous degrees of the thermometer, we 
steam-engine, as not being calculated owe to Mr. Dalton, M. Betancour^ 
ultimately to save expense, and as b^- Professor Robinson, and Mr. Woolfe. 
ing unsafe, especially in the hands, to No experiments, on this subject, have 
which the management of boilers and been made, or at least published, by 
fires are usually entrusted. I believe any person whatever in this country, 
it has never been known, that any Mr. Oliver Evans, of this city, whose 
boiler has burst, or any person been in- patent is subsequent to Trevethick's^ 
jured, by an engine on their construe- has adopted the plan of high-pressure 
tion, worked in the usual manner, engines; by which means steam is heat- 
They have certainly enjoyed more ex- ed so as to work with a hundred and 
perience on the subject, than any men fifty pounds or more on the square inch: 
in Europe; and they still make their a rate at which I have been told his 
engines on the original construction, so engine at the Schuylkill Bridge, fre- 
far as the temperature of the steam is quently, if not generaU^, works. It is 
c^oncemed; seldom working, I believe, certain, that expense is saved in the 
with more than from two to five pounds first cost of the machineiy on this plan;— 
upon the square inch. room is saved; and, where water is 

Mr. Fulton, who had an opportunity scarce, less of it is required than on the 
of seeing engines of all descriptions, plan of Boulton and Watt; but then 
never used a high-pressure engine: and danger is increased; the strain on the 
not very long before his death had pro- works is augmented; the wear and tear 
mised to give orders for a small engine, is far greater, the packing is often 
constructed expressly to show that the burnt; and the ultimate expense of fuel 
high-pressure engines were not prefer- is as much— while that of machinery ig 
able in point of economy. He worked probably far more. I do not appr^iend 
on the principle of Boulton and Watt, that fuel is saved; for the expense of 
by using light pressure on the safety fuel employed to produce the same 
ralve. No accident has ever happened, power is not more in a well constructed 
or any injury been done to a passenger, engine of Boulton and Watt's than ia 
by means of his engines, or on board Trevethick's. The engine on Boultoa 
any of the boats built under his direc- and Watts's plan, erected under the 
tion, so far as I know. No doubt, an same roof with Mr. Oliver Evans' at 
igrnorant, or a careless, or a mischievous Schuylkill, may well be found fault 
engineer may occasion danger, by over- with in [mint of construction; so that it 
loading the safety valve of any engine; is impossible to make a fair experiment 
but he must act contrary to his instruc- with it The plan and size of the boiler 
tions, if he does so. We have a right and the fir&-place of that engine are 
to consider FuUon as high authority. liable to great objections; at least I 
In London, a Mr. Trevethick first have heard good judges make these re- 
used the high-'pressure engines; in marks. Mr. Evans' cylindrical boilen 
which, the steam being heated much are certainly well calculated to bear 
higher than in Boulton and Watt's great pressure; and he has shown mudi 
engines, the safety valve was much judgment in the form he has adopted. 
more loaded. Two dreadful explosions But, suppose a careless manager attend- 
brought these engines into disuse. A ing a high-pressure engine, to feed the 
late patent for some improvements has fire, and to work the engine itself:— 
been taken out by Mr. Trevethick; but Does such a case never happen? Sup- 
tbe majority of engines now erected in pose bad sheet-iron« or bad workman- 
Great Britain are on the construction ship in the boiler:— ^oes such a case 
of Bonlton and Watt, with the improve- never happen? Is not all American 

Notoricu ts 

aheet-iron, as jet, very inferior? Sup- late dreadful accident on the Missis^ 

pose an accumulatibn of sediment ad- sippi, was owing to loading the yalve 

hering to the bottom of the boiler: — ^Is beyond reasonable bounds, in order to 

the case unconmion? Suppose an en- overtake another boat. A manager of 

gine a long time worked, and the mate- a steam engine, who thus wantonly 

Hals worn, and thin: — ^wiU not this sports with Uie lives of the passengers^ 

happen of course, if not frequently re- and a stage-coachman, who overturns a 

newed? Suppose the packing burnt carriage by running a race, ought to be 

away by the violent heat of the steam, punished to the extent of the kiw; and 

and no leisure to renew it^ Suppose, I I hope the time will soon come when 

aay, any, or all of these not very im- the law will know no distinction be- 

probable cases, would my reader, under tween stabbing a man with a poignard, 

these circumstances, prefer being in a and breaking his neck in a stage, or 

boat, worked by an engine where the blowing him up with a steam engine, 

tides of the boiler are pressed on by a In England, there is hardly an assize 

ibrce of five pounds to the inch, or in without heavy damages given against 

one of a hundred and fifty or two hun- stage coach proprietors, for injuries to 

dred pounds? Let it be remembered, passengers. 

tiiat whatever the pressure is on the TfUrdly^AccidenU cannot fail to 

lafety valve, the same is the pressure happen in high-pressure engines, when 

on erery part of the inside of the boiler, the valve is too much loaded; and ec<^ 

A man may stand against a stroke in- nomy, as is the case sometimes in Eag- 

flicted with the force of three or four land at least, and probably in our coun- 

ponnds only, — ^but would be killed out- tiy, induces the owners to use cast iron 

right by one of two hundred. Hence for the boiler, or a cast-iron top. Such 

I conclude, that, although high-pres- a material, if the boiler bursts, acts 

ture engines may be rendered capable like the splinters on board a vessel of 

of working safely and unifonnly, they war, it is burst into small pieces, each 

are not, upon the whole, so safe on ofwhich acts like a cannon-shot, to the 

iioaid a steam-boat, as those used by great danger of those exposed to the 

Fulton; and that theoiy and experiment explosion. 

both speak the same language in this l^our<A/y<— Accidents in high-pres- 

respect. The writer of this article is sure engines are sure to happen, if the 

neither directly nor indirectly concern- boilers are not frequently examined 

ed in any steam-boat or steam-engine, and renewed. As I have already re- 

of this, or of that, or of any construe- marked, the sides of a worn-out boiler 

tion. He. is induced to offer these re- may bear a pressure of two pounds, 

marks solely with a view of having the when they will burst with two hundred, 

subject considered; in Order that the But even if a worn boiler should burst 

lives of the good citizens of tiie United with steam, loaded only with the com* 

States may not be put in jeopardy by mon pressure of Bouiton and Watt's 

any kind of ignorance, carelessness, or engines, little harm can be done. What 

peersimony; and that an useful invention happens in the other case we know too 

may not fall into disrepute, from the well, 
fault of those who use it Sir, I hope these remarks will excite 

I repeat it, we want a law to make some reflexion, on a subject of mudi 

every accident of the kind referred to importance, and at present of great 

erwunal; for it is really so. Noacci- alarm. A.B. 

dent need happen, unless, as the law- PkUad. Jtme 5, 1817. 
yers say, through the act of Qod or the — 

king's enemies. If an engineer, want- To the Ediior of the Europum MagU' 
ing to run a race, overloads his steam zine, 

viUve, and knows that by so doing he Sir— Having recently visited the 

puts to hazard die lives of the passen- Island of Elba, I had the curiosity to 

gers, if death ensues, I aver that this is go to the country house of the ci-drntni 

nrarder, in fhe eye of the law. Emperor Napoleon; I found he had 

Secondly— Accidents happen from chosen a very pretty spot, situated in a 

loading the safety valve too hig^ It is valley about two miles to the westward 

said (I do not kmw the fact] that the of Porto Ferrajo; from tfao house was 

76 Jibtari^ 


^ }^9%ifitifvl (ffoapeo^ cQiBm«ildi««r at Freneh CvriotiJby. 
QQc^ 9 Tiev of Porto Ferroyo, the The Badtmb of Pans yield not t» 
'^QrJ^, ^od the Bay* The ground the codbieys of London in staring^, and 
^loor cox^^sted of a 9uit of four rooms, < making a sight' of eyeiy thing. A 
Yf ry amsjl> but x\eat, iA the upper story few days ago the footman of Lady P***^ 
(it qpQsisted only of two) were seren who is in deep mourning, made his ap<* 
^000^9^9 the largest of which appeared pearance in the Palais Royal, little sup- 
to be the saloon; the walls were richly, posing that be himself should be, for 
ornamented with Egyptian figures, the the moment, the greatest curiosity oC 
^oor was of marble, and over the man- the place, the great vulgar and the 
tie piece was a painting representing a small flocked round him, watched evorj. 
Cossack and a Turk in single combat; motion, and wondered who be could be: 
the whole of the apartments must have at least he was a colonel — ^this was evi- 
appeared elegant when furnished com- dent by his ' two epaulettes' (shoulder 
pletely; in one of the rooms on the knots;lbutof what nation? his hat and 
grouud floor was a bath, immediate](y his walk were English; but the French 
oveji^ which, was a painting represent- had never seen an English regiment 
ing a female figure, in a reclining pos« dressed in black: in ^t, John was a 
tmre, loosely arrayed, with a mirror in rata avU in Terrtf— no one couUl 
the leit hand; ajad underneath the figure guess to what army he belonged, and. 
was the following motto, QVL ODIT. none dared put the question to bim^ 
VERITATEM. ODIT. LVCEM . SA- for such impertinence might be deeme^t 
LOM. LiBii. SAP. By giving the above a gross insult to— perhaps a prince! Aa 
insertion in your most valuable Miscel- great curiosity was excited, and ungra- 
lany, I hope to induce some of your tijfied, the appearance of the iUustrioiM 
learned Correspondents to give a defi- stranger was thus announced in the 
nition of the emblematical affinity be- journals of the next day-—* A youR|f 
tween Napoleon, the bath, female man, whom, from his face and hie 
figure, and motto; which will greatly walk, we took fior an Englishman* at- 
oblige tracted, the day before yesterday, at 
Your obedient servant, the Palais Royal, the attention of the 

CURIOSO. multitude by the regularity (singularity) 

Jatu 2Uty 1817- of his costume— dressed in mourning, 

— from head to foot; he wore two ku^ 

FABisiAS AiuscDOTSS. epavUUe$^ of black worsted, which* 

J\iadame de Stad and Jdr, Canning, with the round shape of his hat, fomied 

Ma. C AifNiNG, a few days ago, at the a burlesque contrast. Otherwise, fitt 

house of M. Goltz, met Madame de from having an air of embarrassmenl* 

SitaeL The impertinent manner of the the young man appeared proud of the 

ambassador to Portugal is well known—- curiosity of our idlers, and showed 

he took the liberty to censure the Em- himself to them very oomplaisantly.' 

peror Alexander; Madame de Staelde- [Jo/wmod de Parity SspL 16, 181 6» J 

fended him. — ' Madam you do not like — 

the English?' ' Yes, sir, in their own Striking CorUrattg* 

comitry.' — < Tell me now, madam, — The French display, on numerous oc- 

you wish you were rid of us all?' * Not casions, the most striking contrasts of 

exactly so; but I think it would be well splendour and wretchednessi of pridm 

if you were to stay at Paris, and send and meanness. In London, the open* 

your troops home.'-'— 'Why so?' ' Be- ing of a shop will ruin the charactec of 

cause they may be wanted, and perhaps a whole street in the eye of fashion; ia 

Mr* Canning may not'— Madam, you Paris it h diderent, the most splendid 

are angry because we possess your for- palaces are found in narrow, dark, and 

ti^ed places?' ' I am.' — < Madam, dirty streets, filled with shops ti the 

alter such a revolution, it was necessar lowest order; even in the good street 

ry to pUnish the nation.' ' Punish a of the Faubouig' St. Honore it is the. 

nation, sir! it is to punish a mighty ri- same: for exam^, the address of the 

▼ei't which will sweep the impotent in* British ambassador ia-— * Uia exoellen- 

Bidt^nritbiiii^iU Q<m»e to^ec e ao.* cy the Eoglisb amhawadoTy aextdoar 

J/^ioria, 77 

t04becoiipefinkli,RiieFa«boing, 8L niKric thd Mk&etiMi with whlcfa «ll 

Honore, a Paris!' What would you the erew» those only excepted who hare 

ttink IB England uf a noble marquift not croMed it before, prepaid the para- 

eaUing, in a publio coffBeHnoooiy for a phentalia uaed on the occasion. Can* 

cop of ooffeos of the value of ^Tepence, vass, ropes, and hen-coops, are in lest 

9Bdv«ry coolly emptying the sugar-ba- than a week transformed into masks, 

i^am into his pocket! Yet this is done sea weed, and thrones, and honoured 

0fery day in Paris by all ranks; thear^ by the appearance of the crew; wha 

gnaeat is tliis— >' what the waiter by means of paint of different coloursy 

bfUDgs I have a ri^t to use in my cof- with which they plentifully besmear 

fiw^ and eoosequently I have a right to their bodies, make as £iLr as one can 

put it IB my pocket. '-<^-^ofiift. JUag. guess, pretty correct representations of 

— the watery deities they are meant to 
JUmarkabU Ameedale rtkOmg to a personate. 

Young Turk, As it was night when we passed thia 

Jk fameus geneial in the MusGorite imaginary line, Neptune only then hail- 

aamee haying come to Paris for the ed us; which is to say, that a person, 

xecovery of hu wounds, brought along generally the boatswain, habited to re- 

witk him a young Turk, whoni he had present Neptune, pretends to rise from 

takisn prisoaev* Some of the doctcMrs of the sea, and calling through a trumpet 

the SorbMme (who are always together desires to know what ship it is that 

as pesitiTe as tibe denriaes of Constant- dares intrude on his dominions? The 

lyiple), thinkiag it a pity that the poor officer of titie watch immediately through 

Twk should be dami^ for want of in- another trumpet replies, that it is the 

stmction, solicited Mustapha very hard ship , which having many of his 

ta turn Chffistitta, and promised, for his visitors* on board, entreats a fhvourable 

enoouragemeat, plenty of good wine in voyage. The answer returned is, that he 

tkia world, and raiadiae in the next wUl visit the ship early in the morning. 

These aUureaents were too powerful to Accordingly, he arrives in a triumphal 

be resisted; and th«refoie, having been car, supported by his attendants. It 

well instructed and catechized, he at draws up before the Cuddy door, and 

laat agreed to receive the sacraments having delivered a speech to the ladies, 

of baptism and the Lord's supper. The signifying his will that they should be 

priest, however, to make every thing excused the operation, he retires, and 

vgte and solid, still continued his in- taking his station with his barber, the 

straetions, and began his catechism ceremony commences. There were 

mjfib day with the usual question,— twelve of us on board to be shaved; 

* Bb»w wnaikjf Gods ave there?'---* None and having a list of our names he called 

a^all,' repUed Benedict, for that was us as suited his pleasure. AU Uiose 

hie aew name. ' How! none at all!' who have not crossed^ are compelled to 

cried the pneatf"— * To be sure,' said remain below till called for, when con* 

tbe honest proselyte; * yov have told ducted by two of his attendants (or aa 

me all akmg that Uiere is but one Grod, they are termed, constables), with a 

aiidyeeterfiiy leathim*'— i^ Jlfe^. handkerchief tied across your eyes, 

— you are led by these people to his se- 
Te tike EdUor of tht AnaHc JoumuU. rene majesty; who, after inquiring from 

Sim— *As it may probably be the whence you come, for what reasons 

fi^ta of many of your readers in this you are proceeding to India, and a few 

oeuatTf to travrase the Adantio, a other equally trivial questions, desires 

alight account of the oeMsnony attend* his barber to do his duty. Accoi^ingly, 

aat OB cnwsmg the line, may not prove being seated on a board placed across a 

umutereetiag* I tranamibe it from a large tub full of water, your chin and 

Journal aa expenanoed by myaelf and lips are of a sudden besmeared with tar; 

OMiiy feUow-passengen in an outward of which having put quantum tufficU^ 

bonod Indiamea a few yeara since. he pretends to shave it off' with a piece 

I am, to:. Z. of an iron hoop, notohed as a saw. Thia 

When the decreasing degrees of lai- , , ■ _ ■ 

tttde annonoca tha ship's approach to * Or ia the teehn&eal pkrase * those 
the equator, it is truly ludicroua to le- who are to be sha?ed.' 

TS Notorku 

being done, the board on whicb you sit led by the chase near Corfe Castle^ 

is dexteroosly slipped from under yon, where Elfrida resided, he took the op- 

and you are plunged head and heels portunity of paying her a visit, unat- 

into die tub; from which having emeig- ' tended by any of his retinue; and he 

ed as well as you can, and the handker- thereby presented her with the oppor- 

chief taken from your eyes, you are sa- tunity which she had so long widied 

luted on all sides with tubs of water, by for. After he had mounted his horse^ 

those who have crossed before, and who, he desired some liquor to be brought 

enjoying the fun, are mostly stationed him: while he was holding the cup in 

on the poop for the express purpose, his hand, a servant of Elfndaapproach- 

This is continued until you seize a tub, ed*him, and gfave him a stab behind, 

and pelt again in your own defence. The prince, finding himself wounded^ 

Thus ends this absurd and ridiculous put spurs to his horse; but becoming 

ceremony, which, without the interven- faint by the loss of blood, he fell from 

tion of the captain, no passenger to the saddle, his foot stuck in the slirrap^ 

India, should he not previously have and he was dragged along by his unruly 

crossed the line, can possibly avoid, horse till he expired. Being tracked 

Our captain chose, in tliis instance, to by the blood, his body was found, 4n<l 

sacrifice the comfort of his passengers was privately interred at Wareham by 

to complaisance to his crew; and al- his servants. The youth and innocence 

though money was offered them to of this prince, with his tragical death, 

avoid it, we' were compelled to undergo begat such compassion among the peo- 

the ceremony in all its degradation.* pie, that they believed miracles to be 

^- wrought at his tomb, and g^ve him the 
Mil. Editor, [of ike Jfew Jlon. Jlfog'.) appellation of * Martjrr,'* though his 
The following extracts in answer to murder had no connexion with any ra- 
the * Miscellaneous Inquiries' (voL ligious principle or opinion.' 
vi. p. 33,) may perhaps be acceptable ' This foul and wicked murder of tiie 
to Y. Z. and M. J. H youthful and unsuspecting monarch, 

* Whence came the custom of pledg- struck the whole nation with horror and 
ing one another when men drinl^' dismay. No man considered himself 

< Edward, King of the West Saxons, safe, after so dreadful a vi<dation of 

styled the ' Martyr,' had, according to hospitality; and every means were re* 

some historians, reached tiie fifteenth, sorted to, whereby to testify their de- 

by others, only the twelfth, year of his testation of the deed. Hard drinkiqg^ 

age, when he was crowned at King- the then prevailing vice of the pec^le, 

Bton-upon-Tbames, by the celebrat^ gave way before &e danger attendinsT 

Archbishop Dunstan, who had warmly its indulgence. No man would trust 

espoused his cause, in opposition to El- himself in the unguarded posture of 

frida, his step-mother, whose ambition drinking, without some security finom 

prompted her to strive for the succes- the much dreaded stroke of treachery* 

sion of his half and younger brother Hence, as we learn from William of 

Ethelred. Malmesbuiy, each man required the 

* Edward lived four years after his protection of his neighbour, before he 
accession, and there pasted nothing would venture, in society, to lift to his 
memorable during his reign. His death lips the much-prized * wassail,* or 
alone was memorable and tragical. He ' wish«health-bowl;' and hence arose, 
was hunting one day in Dorsetshire, as we are told by the same authority, 
on the '18th of March, 978, and being the familiar expression of * pledging,* 

• - yet retained in common nssige, when 

m • v^ L a ^1. A one friend passes the compliment to 

.;i \:vt:;^':: :^:r^%:::::. -ther of&ng^ ^^^ deSnng him 

eon.ide«ble damage. f«>m a cpuin, foi ^"^Z^"^^ ^^^^ ^.ni^ 

not pititeettng him against this oMtragc J^^^J *''?^ attribute the angm 

And I know that some have been indebt- of thu term to the Danes, who, when 

ed to the long voyage from the line to thetp ■ 

ultlmaie dettiDatioo that they have not * The 18th of Mareh is consecrated a 

been called on to gite penonal sstisfiM* festival, as may be stiU s^en by lefciuie e 

tion. to the calendar. 

Notoria* 79 

Huty bad subdued England, were in instantly ensued, in whicb tbe one that 

tb^ abominable practice of assassinat- bad made the attack succeeded in get- 

ing the natives, while in the act of ting possession of the dead fly, which it 

dnnking; but the best antiquarians carried triumphantly to the nest, whilst 

lean to the former opinion' — Brady's the other returned in search of some- 

Claoii Caiendaria^ vol. l.,p. 258. , thing else, ashamed to enter the nest 

— ' without contributing to the general 

To the HdUar tf the J^ovUkly Magf^ stock. Upon examining the nest closer, 

xme, I observed several of tlie ants that ap- 

SiHr-I have sent for insertion in your peared to be wandering beyond the 

valuable magazine the following ac- nest, a circumstance which I had not 

' count of a nest of ants, which, perhaps, before noticed. I followed them with 

may be interesting to some of your nu- my eye, and found that there was ano- 

meious readers, who are fond of the ther path, formed by them amongst the 

study of natural histoiy. loose stones and sand of the hill; and. 

During a short stay last month at upon ascending a little higher, I found 
Malvern Wells, in Worcestershire, I it was as much thronged with them as 
observed, in climbing one of the hills, a the path below. I traced them for about 
long'bare place, which ran diagonally 250 or 300 yards, when to my great 
across a smooth grass walk, which had surprise, I discovered an immense 
been made for the accommodation of nest of about fourteen yards in cir- 
those who visited the wells. This bare cumference, in which I beheld such 
place or path was entirely filled with myriads of these little creatures that 
ants, which were running backwards my ^eyes were actually dazzled with 
and forwards, apparently very busy in looking at them. Tbe nest was corn- 
search of food. The path seemed to be posed of small bits of dry g^rass, bark 
between nine and ten feet in length, of trees, fern leaves, &c. all of them 
»nd about two inches in breadth, and cut into little shreds of about one quar- 
terminated at the lower extremity in a ter of an inch in length. The entrances 
bed of nettles and long grass; and none into it were innumerable, and thronged 
of tbe 'ants deviated at sdl from the path with the busy tribe. Wishing to as- 
till they reached this point, when they certain the depth of the nest, I thrust 
separated, and went different ways, my stick into it, and found that, for 
Those which returned with food in their about a foot and a half, it was composed 
mouths deposited it in the nest, which of these dry leaves, &c. and upon turn- 
was at the other end. I observed many ing this up I saw all the young and food 
of them returning from the nest with deposited amongst the small loose 
something in their mouths, which, upon stones of which that part of the hill 
closer inspection, I found to be their was composed. I did not dare to re- 
young, which they were taking out, for main long near the nest, for I found 
the purpose, as 1 concluded, of expos- myself entirely covered from head to 
ing them to the air and sun. When foot in the space of two minutes. The 
they had proceeded about one-third of next morning I found the breach which 
the way down the path, they deposited I had made the night before completely 
their chaige upon the grass, and re- repaired, and also a dead mole, which 
turned to the nest, in all probability to I had thrown into the nest, entirely 
fetch more of their young. I watched consumed. I endeavoured to find if 
several of the ants one by one from the there were any other paths which led 
oest, and found that they went an im- from the nest, but I could not discover 
mense way in search of food. I kept any. There were a great number of 
my eye upon one in particular for some ant hills made by the Fwrnica rubra 
.time, and at length saw it take up a or red ant, all around this nest, some 
dead fly, with which it was returning within ten or twelve feet; but the ants 
to^the nest; but when it had proceeded of both species seemed to keep quite 
about half way up the path it was over- distinct, and never to interfere with 
taken by ai. other ant, which seemed each other. I brought several of the 
also to be returning, but which had ants home with me; and, and upon ex- 
not been so successful as that whose amination, they appear to me to be the 
motioDS I had been observing: a contest Formica heradanea^ or horse ant of 

80 Notoriam 

lionBoi: but I do not conceive thef recent enolosure (and prob^bty tbt 

are peculiar to that part of the coun- chang^e of property consequent there* 

Inr in which I saw them* on) waa likely to bring them to» that I 

J. D. Strvtt. have ventured to trouble you with this 

Derby ^ Augutt 12^ 1816. letter; hoping it may meet some eye 

— able and wiUing to propose a measure 

JUr. Urban^ {EdiUn' xf the GenikmanU of protection and safety for an object 

JIfagazine*) which I confess interests me far be- 

Mat I through the medium of your yond what I have been able to express. 

valuable Miscellany, inform such per- As I walked the wood and pasish, it 

sons as feel an interest in whatever re- was impossible not to recal such few 

mains still exist of those who have been lines of our immortal bard as a feeble 

an honour and ornament to their coun- memory could retrace. Often and 

try, that, having lately been at Bin- often did I repeat (with a mournful ap* 

field, in Berkshm, I there had the sa- plication to himself of what he ha4 

tisfaction of beholding the identical composed tot others:) 

wood to which Pope used to resort as * Here his first lays msjestie Denham 
his favourite lounge, and where many sung, 

lines, perhaps, of the Windsor Forest Here the last nambers flowed from Cow- 
had tiieir birth. It consists entirely of ley'* tongae.' 
beech trees, remarkably tall, large, Denham's thought, also, frequently 

and straight; and Itands on the side ci obtruded itself: 

a hill, sloping on every side but the ' P<m^ *> Courts make not Kiogs* bat 
West, on which it rises. It may be Kings the Court, 

called an open wood, as the trees are 8® where the Moses and their trsia re- 
not very close together, and their side •^'^ 

branches and (I am sorry to add) tope ^™*"°V'* Jf I can be to thee 

have been lopped; neverthelef;s, they •* |^*^'l '**'*J^^r'?' «' **'"' '* '*'\u t 

are stiU handsome trees, and it was . ^^^1 ^^}'^^ Parnassus, then, I 

with the greatest regret I heard that ""P*°,r« ***« ^^^rest of the powerftil. 

there was a great probability of their ^ ^^ compassion of tiie wealthy, 

being all taken down. Periiaps they ^^"^ "J^*^^' »**°!jj^ * subscription be 

are in number about fifty, but I speX opened to case this tree m gold (but 

entirely from guess. One tree more wnously I mcwi,tobuy thegroundand 

hallowed tiian the rest, has been spared ?5f ®, *^* '^^O ^^"""^ «}^^^ "^"^ 

as to its top, and by that it may bi dis- ^bute my mite. On crossing Lodon 

tinguishedV any stranger seeking for ??^ J^f J!^!f^^^^^ 
it, in the centre of the wood. On this ^^^ ^®^ *^^^ ^'"* ^*'^*"t •"«" 
tree, about twelve feet from the ground, erown d. 
(I speak again from guess) are cat with """ 
a knife in very larg^ letters, and evi- To the Editor of the J^tmtkfyMagagme^ 
dently a great while ago, (I imagine by Sir — I was exceedingly amuMdwi^ 
pope himsein these sacred words; the article on Animal Sagacity in your 
Here Pops Sung. What axe would Magazine for December; such instanoer 
not recoil from such a stem? what bar- bring the animal very close to the hu- 
barous unfeeling avarice could lay man species, in reason and good con- 
prostrate so well-authenticated a living duct; it almost traces an affinity to 
monument of Pope^s own confideoce mankind-— much more so, certainly, 
in the regard which posterity would than would be done by any pedigrde 
have for any thing so naturally con- or other effort to demonstrate a genea- 
nected with his feelings, his habits, his logy. They are neariy as surprising 
poems, and his love of fama^ I can con- as that aneodote related (by CroMsmith 
ceive no object more truly worthy of I believe,) of a venerable dog, who' 
the adoration of the antiquary and tiie had been brought up and instructed in 
man of letters. I would prefer this the family of a strict Boman Catholic, 
tree, while it stood, to the noblest menu- and who, at the close of his life, was sent 
ment that sculpture or masonry could across the channel into Wales, to finisfa 
raise. It is to rescue this tree and its his days in the family of a Protestant 
brethren fronn the &te I was told the Socby however, was tke force- of pre- 

Notoricu Ml 

cept and example, (some would call it AnAceou$Ui^iheShq^ierd»^iheLain' 

tionscience, and a sense of duty), that des, in the Souih of France. In a Let- 

nothings, from the moment he entered ter to the Editor {<^ the Journal of 

the Protestant circle, would tempt him Science and the Ari,) from Thomas 

to eat meat, either on Fridays or Satur- Math ard, Eeq, 

^ays. London, J^ov. 12, 1816. 

But I think, Mr. Editor, I can give Mr Deab Sir — The accompanyinf 
jou an instance of sagacity in the ca- fig^are represents a shepherd of the 
nine breed more astonishing far than Landes, or desart in the south oi 
that, oir any other, it ever was my France. This tract oi countiy lies be- 
chance to hear: it was related to me, I tween the mouths of the Adour and the 
assure you, as an undeniable fact, and Gironde, along the seansoast, and, ac- 
names of persons and places attended cording to tradition, was once the bed 
the relation of it; my author was a of the sea itself, which flowed in as far 
Prussian officer, who, a little time back, as Dax.* Through this district the 
▼isited this metropolis, and it was my guards marched from Bayonne, at the 
lot to hand him about, and show him conclusion of the war in June, 1814, to 
the curiosities. A German count had embark at Bourdeaux. This afforded 
a very valuable dog, a laige and noble- us an opportunity of seeing a country 
looking animal; in some description of seldom visited by travellers. It is a bed 
field-sports he was reckoned exceed- of sand, flat, in the strictest sense of 
ingly useful, and a friend of the count's tlie word, and abounding with exten- 
apphed for the loan of the dog for a sive pine woods. These woods afford 
few weeks' excursion in the country: turpentine, resin, and charcoal, for 
it was granted; and, in the course of trade, as well as a sort of candles, used 
the rambles, the dog, by a fall, either by the peasantry, made of yam dipt in 
dislocated or gave a severe fracture to the turpentine. The road is through 
one of his legs. The borrower of ths the sand, unaltered by art, except 
dog was in the greatest alarm, knowing where it is so loose and deep as to re- 
well how greatly the count valued him; quire the trunks of the fir-trees to be 
and, fearing to disclose the fact, brought laid across, to give it firmness. T^e 
him secretly to the count's suigeon, a villages and hamlets stand on spots of 
drilful man, to restore the limb. Afler fertile ground, scattered like islands 
some weeks' application, the surgeon among Uie sands. The appearance of a 
succeeded, the dog was returned, and oorn-field on each side of the road, 
all was well. A month or six weeks fenced by green hedges, a clump of 
after this period, the suigeon was sit- trees at a little distance, and the spire 
ting gravely in his closet, pursuing his of a rustic church tapering from among^ 
studies, when he heard a violent them, gave notice of our approach to 
scratching at the bottom of the doon an inhabited spot On entering the 
he rose, and, on opening it, to his siir- villages, we found neat white oottsgee, 
prise, he saw the dog, his late patient, scattered along a bit of green, sur- 
befi>re him, in company with another rounded by well cultivated gardens and 
dog, who had broken his 1^, and was orchards, and shaded by fine old oaks 
thus brought by his friend to be cured and walnuts. Through the centre of 
in the same manner. the village, a brook of the clearest wa- 

I have heard before now a farmer ter was always seen mooing amongst 

say, that he had a horse in his stable, meadows and hay-fields, and forming a 

who always, on losing his shoe, went of most grateful contrast to the heat and 

his own accord to a farrier's shop, a dust of the sandy road. It was between 

mile off; but I never yet heard of a the villages of Gastel and La Buharre- 

borse tsiking another horse to a farrier that we first saw these shepherds. 

An* the purpose. In the case of the mounted on stilts, and striding, like^ 

dogs, there roust have been a commu- , 

nicadon of ideas; they must have come • This is not the only ohange. The 

to a conclusion before they set out; rf^er Adour also bss sltend itt ewirsc: the 

they must have reasoned together on old bed of the river is marked by ^ ex. 

the way, discussing the merits of the tensive lake and morasi to the north of 

surgeon, and the nature of the wound, the present coarse, and along the high 

Oray'e-Inn, Dec. 1816. T. B. road to Paz. 
VOL. X. 11 

as Notoria, 

storks, along the flat Hieae stills raise Jkn account ^ Out pr uce M ngt -vf U^ 

Ukemfrom Uiree to five feet: the foot CtntrtaflnqumUonailAsbon^againH 

rests on a surface, adapted to its sole, Elizabeth VoBomtUot^ an Emgluk 

oarved out of the solid wood; a flat part, iffovum. 

shaped to the outside of the leg, and Elizabeth Vasconellos, now in the 
and reaching to faelow the bend of the city of Lisbon, doth, on the 10th of De- 
Ipwe, is strapped round the calf and cember, ^tino 1706, in the presence of 
ankler The foot is covered by a piece John Miloer, Esq. her majesty's con* 
of raw sheep's hide. In these stilts they sol-general of Portugal, and Joseph 
move with perfect freedom, and aston- Willcocks, minister of the English fac- 
ishing rapidity; and they have their ba- tory at Lisbon* declare and testify;*— 
lance so completely^ that they run, That she was bNMrn at Arlington, in the 
jump»sto(^ and even dance, with ease county of Devon, and a daugnter of 
and ^eij. We made them run races John Chester, Esq.; bred up in the 
fi>r a piece of money, put on a atone on church of England; and, in the ele- 
tfae ground, to which they pounced venth year of her age, her uncle, I>a« 
down with surpnaiag quickness. They vid Morgan, of Cork, intending to go 
cannot stand quite still, without tbeiud and settle in Jamaica as a ]^ysician, 
of a long staff, which they always caxiy by her &tber's consent, he haying se- 
in their hands. This guaHs them veral children, took her with him to 
against any accidental trip, and when provide for her. 
they wish to be at rest, forms a third In 1685, they went in an English 
leg, that keeps them steady. The habit ship» and near the island they were at- 
of using the stilts is acquired early, tacked by two Turkish ships; in tiie 
and it appeared that the smaller the boy fight her uncle was killed, but the ship 
was, the longer it was necessary to got clear into Madeira^andshe, though 
have his stilts. By means of these odd left destitute, was entertained by Miv 
additions to the natural leg, the feet Bedford; a merchant, with whom, and 
are kept out of the water, which lies other English, she lived as a servant 
deep during winter on the sands, and till 1696; in that year she was married, 
from the heated sand during the sum- by the chaplain of an English man of 
men in addition to which, the sphere war, to Cordoza de Vasconellos, a phjr- 
of vision over so perfect a flat is mate- siciaa of that island, and lived with 
na% increased by the elevation, and him eight years, and never in the least 
the shepherd can see his sheep much confonned to the Bomish church* 
farther en stilts than he could ffom the In 1704, her hnsband, having gone 
gronnd. This depsotment of France on a voyage Ic Brazil, she fell danger- 
is little known, and if what I have here onsly iU, and, being light-headed, a 
related be as new to your readers as it priest gave her the sacrament, as she 
was to me at the time I first saw them, was told afterwards, for she remember- 
tjiia deaoription may possibly affond ed nothing of it. It pleased God she 
them some amusement. recover^ and then Uiey told her she 
^ I remain, dear sir, &g. &e. had changed her religion, and must 
THOS. MAYNAKD. conform to the Romish church, which 
— she denied, and refused to confoim; 
To the EdUor qf the Jdanthfy JUagor and thereupon, by the bishop of that 
. zme» island, she was imprisoned nine months, 
Si»*^>^nie followiBg pathetic nanra* and then sent prisoner to the inquisi- 
tive n extracted froni ' The Histoij tion at Lisbon, where she arrived the 
of the Inquisition, abridged from the 19th of December, 1705. The seore- 
elaborate work of Philip Limhorch;' a tary of the house took her efiects, in all 
work of which the great John Looke above 500L sterling; she was then 
mudf ' that k waa fit to be translated sworn, that that was all she was worth: 
into ihe vulgar language of every nap and then put into a straight dark room, 
tion, that all mi|^ understand the an- abont five fwt square, and there kept 
ti-cnristi^ liracpaea of that execrable nine months and nileen days. 
Ceurti* That the first nine days shehad only 

^/t&ii. and watw, nod a wet straw hed was t)ie merey of that tribunal to en- 
to lie oD. On the ninth day, being ex- deavour to resoue her out of the flames 
amined, ahe owned heiaelf a Prote§t* ^ hell; but, if her resolution were to 
aot, and would so continue; she was bum rafter than profess the Remii^ 
told> she had conformed to the Komish religion, thej would giro her a trial of 
church, and must persist in it or burn; it before hand: accoidingly the officers 
ahe was tiien remanded to her room, were ordered to seat her in a fixed 
and, aher a month's time, brought out chair, and to bind her arms and her 
again; and, persisting in her answer as legs, that ihe oeuld make do resistance 
iff her religion, they bound her hands nor motion, and the physician being 
behind her, stripped her baek naked, placed by her, to direct ihe court how 
and lashed her with a whip of knotted &r they might torture her without ha- 
cords a considerable time; and toM her sard of her life, her left foot was made 
aflerwanSs, that she must kneel down bare, and an iron slipper, red-hot, be- 
to the court, and giye thanks lor their ing immediately brought in, her foot 
merciftd usage of her; which she posi- was fastened into it, which continued 
tiyely refused to do. on, burning her to the bone, till such 

After fifteen days she was agam time as, by extremity of pain, she faiiftt- 
brought forth and examined; and, a ed away; and, the physician declaritig 
crucifix being set before her, she was her life was in danger, they took it of, 
commanded to bow down to it and wor- and ordered her again to prison, 
ship it, which she refused to do; they On the 19th of August she was 
told her that she must expect to be again boought out, and whipped after a 
condemned to the flames, and be burnt cruel manner, and her back was all 
with the Jews at the next aiUo de /e, over torn; and her being threatened 
which was nig^ at hand. Upon &is with more and greater tortures, and, on 
ahe was remanded to her prison again the other hand, being promised to be 
for thirty days; and, beinl^ then brought set at liberty if she would subscribe 
cat, a red-hot iron was got ready, alid such a paper as they should giro her, 
brought to her in a chaffing dish of though she could hare undergone death, 
burning coals; and, her breast being yet not being able to endure a life of 
laid open, the executioner, with one so much misery, she consented to sub- 
end of the red-hot iron, which was scribe as they would have her; and ac- 
about the bigness of a large seal, burnt cordingly, as they directed, wrote at the 
her to the bene in three several places, bottom of a large paper, which con- 
on the right side, one hard by the tained she knew not what; after which 
ether, and then sent her to her prison, they advised her to avoid the company 
without any piaster, or otbertjiplica- cd aU English heretics; and, not restor- 
tion to heal the aores» which were very log to h^ any thing of ail the plate, 
pamful to her. gcxids, or roone^, she brought in with 

A month after this she had another her, and engaging her by oath to keep 
severe whipping, as before; and in the secret all that had been done to her» 
beginning of August she was brought turned her out of doors, destitute of all 
before iSte Table, a great number of relief, but what she received from the 
inquisitors being prosent, and was ques- help and conpassion of charitabl# 
tioned whether she would profess the Christians. 

Bomish religion or bum? ^le replied* The above-said Elizabeth Vaaconel* 
1^ had always been a Protestant, and loa did solemnly affirm and declare the 
was a subject of the Queen of £ng* above written deposition to be tl«% 
land, who was able to protect her, and the day and year above written, 
she doubted not would do it, were her John Miurn^ 

condition known to the English residing Joaavv Wnbooci;^ , 

in Lisbon; but, as she knew nothing of Xi#&of^ Jan. 8, 1707, N. 9. 
that, her resolutioii was to continue a A copy, examhied from the nwiginri 
Pibtestant, thoi^ she were to bum finr by J« Bnisas. 

it. To this they answered, that her bch The above unftoiy trihmial and amd 
ing the Queen of England's subject niece rf legUmacf^ is resteiod, with aU 
sigpufied nothing in the donunions of ttsbofTortandramificatifin%in thedo* 
theKing of Portugal; that the English nunms of oar worthy atty the Kiny 
residing in Lisbon were heretics, and of Spain, b^ a. deowa dated in Jui^ 
wenldoertainiybedamDadi andtiiatit 1814, 

84 Notoricu 

October 10, 1816. ' ' ,not perceptibly diminished, add llteM' 
Mil. Urban-— The spots observable rot«Lpot the heat, as will more erident- 
<m the sun's disk, in conjunction with ly apjp^ar in the course of these obser- 
the wet summer, hare been the subject vatidns. The same Astronomer like- 
of much speculation, and have excited wise observed above 40 spots of diffel^ 
considerable alarm. They have been ent sizes at once, 
dreaded even more than the appearance Of the nature of these spots nothings 
of the most portentous comet, about certain or satisfactory appears to be 
which, as supposed to influence, our yet known; they have been supposed 
globe, only vague and undefined^otions by 6ome to be a kind of nebulous exha- 
catf be formed, while the baleful effects lation in the solar atmosphere. Dr. 
of the spots in question seem more di- Wilson, of Edinburgh, thought they 
rect, and can, it is imagined, be more were caverns; and a French astrono- 
distinctly ascertained; for it is very na- mer fancied they were mountains. The 
tural to infer that any opaque substance writer of these remarks does not pre- 
interposed between us and a luminous tend to determine which hypothesis is 
body must deprive us of a certain por* roost probable; nor, indeed, is this at 
tion of its light and heat. Allow me, all necessary to his purpose, as it would 
therefore, to submit, through the me- make little or no di&rence in the con- 
dium of your miscellany, a few obser- elusion he wishes to draw. If, bow- 
vations, calculated, it is hoped, to dis- ever, he were to gfive his opinion ia 
pel any gloomy apprehensions which so dubious a case, it would, perhaps, be 
may have been indulged on the subject, in favour of those who imagine tfie 
by convincing the reflecting mind that spots to be a kind of excavation of the 
there is no cause for alarm. luminous fluid supposed to envelop the 

In the first place it is worthy of re- opaque and solid body of the sun. Thn 
mark, that similar spots have been ob- hypothesis seems to be countenanced 
served in the sun for upwards of two by the nuclei of the spots, and the dif- 
centuries; and it is not improbable that ferent phases they assume in their ro» 
they may be coeval even with the sun tation. Yet it is difficult to conceive 
himself. For, as they were first disco- how a vacuum should be produced and 
vered by Galileo, soon after the inven- continued so long in the fluid; for all 
tion Vf his telescope, and have been fluids, whether elastic or non-elastic^ 
observed at diflerent periods ever since, have a strong tendency to find ther le- 
itisaUair presumptive argument that vel, and to fill up immediately any 
such roots may have always existed, chasm made in them. It would be dif> 
Who can doubt that the planet Her- ficult to conceive how the atmosphere 
flchell, and the other lately discovered of oul<V]globe could be removed frani 
planets, have existed for ages, though any particular place, and the surround^ 
they were ^unknown prior to our own ing fluid prevented, for some weeks, 
times? It is true these planets have a from rushing in to supply the deficieiicj. 
more definite and permanent character It would be no less a miracle than the 
than the solar maculie; but this is no passage of the Israelites through the Red 
proof that the latter have not always Sea, where * the waters were a wall te 
existed, any more than the variety in them on the right hand and on the left.* 
number and form of the clouds, occa- Thesolarfluid>however,maybeofsuoli 
sionally passing over our earth, is a a volatile and expansive nature, that a 
proof that such exhalations are not co- small force may be sufficient to over- 
eval with the earth itself. come its gravitaticm towards the een- 

Galileo observed a spot, which is tre. 
computed to have been three times the But, leaving the solution of this dif- 
extent of the surface of the earth, tiiat is ficult question to others who are better 
to have obscured about 600,000,000 of qualified for the task, let us proceed to 
•quare miles of the sun's disk: this con- consider, whether these spots, of what 
tinned between two and three months, nature soever they may be, can have 
But Gassendus saw one still laiger, any influence on our globe. 
namely, one^twentieth of the diameter I^ow, whether we regard the sun aa 
of the sun, and vbible to the naked an igneous body, or oxUy the grand ia^ 
ejpe* This spot consequently occupied cus of the light and heat created at the 
aa extent of above 1,600,000,000 of beginning, which appears more proba- 
square n^let; Tet the solar light was btei any partial obstructing milatiukce^ 

Noioria* 85 

thongli of the extent alxnre mentioned, substance jtfi generisy Unlike any heat 

Would not at all diminish the heat upon produced on our ^lobe by chemical 

our globe, supposing' the absolute solar agency; and that a certain quantity of 

heat to xemain the same. For that it was at first created, which has conti- 

obstructing body would not absorb and nued ever since, without either diminu- 

consume the heat it received, but tion or increase. This substance may 

would radiate it in every direction; so concentrate about the sun more than 

that there would be no absolute loss of about any of the other bodies in the 

heat. The only effect would be, an in^ system, not only on account of his supe- 

creaae in its immediate vicinity, by the nor bulk, but by reason of some pecu- 

nnion of its rays with those which did lis^r attraction. 

not fall upon it; and a proportionate dv- Having thus shown, to the satisfac- 

minuHon as far as its shadow extended, tion, it is hoped, of every unprejudiced 

This shadow would be a kind of cone, mind, that the unfavourable season we 

of a certain leng^, according to the have witnessed cannot have been oc- 

diameter of the obstructing body, and casioned by any diminution of solar 

its distance from the luminary. The heat, though we have certainly had 

heat beyond, that is, towards the earth, less heat in this country than usual, let 

would be as great as if there had been us inquire whether this diminution of 

DO impediment, for it would have reco- heat be general on our globe, for, if 

vered its equability. A spot, one-twen- not, that circumstance would of itself 

tieth of the sun^s diameter, or about be sufficient to refute any argument 

44,000 miles diameter, if not rising drawn from the supposed influence of 

higher than the sun's surface, would the spots in the sun. Now the fact ap- 

have no shadow at all. If this spot pears to be, that while we have been 

were in the form of a cube, and wholly complaining in this country of wet and 

above the sun's surface, and resting, as cold, in Russia there has been a drought, 

it were, upon it, the shadow, in this which i» enough to prove that this wet 

case, would only extend about 8000 and cold season has been only partial, 

miles; but, if in the shape of a globe, It is needless to inquire whether in the 

not half so far. This point, however, East Indies or Mexico there has been 

may perhaps be better illustrated by a less heat than usual, or whether thete 

more familiar example. Let us then has been a more severe winter towards 

imagine ourselves in a room where the Antarctic Pole. Even here, this 

there is a fire twenty inches wide, and present month has been hitherto seve- 

as many deep, and let us suppose a ral degrees warmer than the corres- 

cnbic inch of any opaque substance ponding part of the year 1813, a year 

placed close to it, about the centre; not selected as being colder than others 

this would bear nearly the same pro- before or after it, but merely because 

portion to the fire that the spot observ- the writer of these remarks happens to 

ed by Gassendus did to the sun. Now have in his possession a correct diary 

can any one believe that the heat in the of the thermometer during that year 

middle, or farthest part of the room, alone. 

would be diminished after this sub- We must look then for the causes of 

stance was placed in that situation, this wet and cold season, not to the sun, 

especiallyafterit bad ceased to become but to the earth itself. The removal 

hotter, sind was of an equal tempera- of a considerable numbej of icy moun- 

ture with the heat immediately sur- tains, by tempestuous winds, from the 

founding it*^ There would, indeed, be neighbourhood of the Arctic Pole into 

rather less heat on the side of the ob- more southerly latitudes in the Atlantic 

structing substance farthest from the might occasion it. And it may have 

fiio> tiiough not extending the tenth of been observed, that the rain has gene- 

an inch; whilst the rest of the room rally come from the West; and that we 

would not be the least affected by it in have had dr^ and warm weather as 

any part It is apparent tiien that the soon as the wmd has shifted to the east 

spots observed in tiie sun can have no or north-east; that is, when the wind 

influence on the heat of our globe, un- has blown from Russia, where there has;, 

less they could be supposed to diminish been a drought, it has been fine; but 

the absolute heat in mt system. This, when from the Adantic it has been wet 

however, cannot be admitted. It is and cold. And this wet seems to have 

highly nvobable that tt^e w^ heat is a been expended in passing over £og- 

86 Ihtaria* 

IsjmI, Franoe, Gemuuij, Im. sad not to pare!, amd said, * Pwpare to die, jou 
twiTe trviroUed id fur eai t ai Ruaiia. will not exist three i^ys." He was 

Yoiin, kc, alaimed, and called his serrant, who 

MBTseftotosvt. fooDd him orach agitated, and in a pro- 

-^ fuse peispiratioa. This had a risible 

Pi<-olaos, JBpsom, Jtm. 9, 1816. eflect, the next day, on his spirits. Ob 

Ma. Urban—Tout oomspondent» the third day, whUe at bzeak&st with 

T. S. (toI. LXXXV. part II. p. 406.) the abore mentioned persons, he said, 

mentioiis ' the mairellous aocevnt of < I have jookied the ghost, as this is 

Lord Lyttelton's death,' and wishes to the third day.' The whole party set off 

see it * authenticated.' Having bon|fht to Pit Place. They had not long- ar- 

Pit Place, where he died, I can give rived when he was seized with a usual 

the foUowing copy of a documenl in fit; soon recovered; dined at tt^we; to 

writing, left in the house as a heir-loon, bed at eleven. His servant, about to 

which may be depended on. Having give him rhubarb and mint-water, stir- 

leoeived much pleasure and instruction red it with a tooth-piek; which Lord 

from your work for near forty years, I Lyttelton perceiving, called him a 

deem it my duty to assist, in however * riovenly dog,' and bid him bring a 

trifling a degree. spoon. On the servant's return, he was 

^LordLyttdton'sDveam and Death' in a fit. The pillow being high, his 

(see Admiral Wolseley's account.) — chin bore hard on his neck. Instead 

* I was at Pit Place, Epsom, when Lord of relieving him, he ran for help; on 

Lyttelton died: Lord Portcscue, Lady hb return found him dead.' 
Flood, and the two Miv Amphletts, In BosweU's * Life of Dr. Johnson,' 

were also present Lord Lyttelton had (v<^. IV. p. 313.) he said, * It is the 

not been long returned from Ireland, most extiuordinsay occurrence in my 

and frequently had been seised with days. I heard it from Lord Westcole, 

suffocating fits. He was attacked se- his uncle— I am so glad to have evi- 

reral times by them in the course of the dence of the spiritual world, that I am 

preceding month. While in his house willing to believe it' Dr. Adams re^ 

in Hill-street, Berkeleyosquare, he plied, 'Ton have evidence enough 

dreamt, three days before his death, good evidence, which needs no sup- 

' he saw a hird wittering, and after- port' T. J. 

wards a woman appeared' in white ap- 

Domestic Literary ItUelUgmce. 

Thomas Dat, Esq,, of Hartford, woik, to be entitled The WaMngkm 

(Conn.) is preparing for publication, JIf usmim, or Rep&niory of Ut^tU ArU: 

and will shortly put to press, a new devoted te the purpose of diffusing Ihat 

edition ai the third and subsequent vo- kind of knowledge which is calculated 

hunes of Campbell's ATui PriM R&' to promote the arts and manufoctuies 

jporto, with additional notes and refer- of the United States: a lar^e portion of 

ences, upon the plan of his edition oi the wofk being employed m selecting, 

Espinasse's Reports. and displaying in a brief and corapre- 

A Sketoh of tiie Life, Last Sickness, hensive way, the best subjects of the 

and Death of Mrs. Maiy Jane Grosve- Patent OSoe, By a Society of Gen- 

nort left among the papers of the late tlemen.' We think the undertaking 

Hon. Thomas P. Groevenor — ^to be pub* deserves to be patnmiaed. 
Kshed by Coale and Maxwell, Baiti- The Emporium of Arts and Sciences, 

more. lately conducted by Judge Cooper, is 

We have read ' proposals for pnh- to be revived. 
Itshing, hy subscription, a periodical 

Wb have now no hesitation in pub- see, also, that there is hardly a shade 

lishing the letter from St Maiy's Col- of difference between his own account 

lege; though, agreeably to the author's and ours. As to ^ extensive advertis- 

request, we shall not subscribe his ing' and ' rrtiNtaiy despoftism'— it is 

name. Our readers will see, that he merely a difierence about the meaning 

has enumerated six objections to our of the plirases. Great promises, exten- 

sketch of St Mary's; but they must sive^ circulated— anjd miHtaoty cen- 

Noioria, %7 

tinelB Btaiioned ea the nunpftrts of a merous fiM9ds have be^k vnifonnlf « 

odlege— certainly seem to merit the -and still are, perBo&s too respectable to 

names we found it necessaiy to give have been so easily and so successfullj 

them. That there exist religions jeal- influenced by mere inferior means and 

OQsies unfriendly to St Mary's, we arts. If they have so zealously cher- 

do not see denied; that dkis colkge has ished and encouraged the mstitution it 

had liberal donations, is not contradict- is because they have judged its l«al 

ed$ and that the iostitutien has de- services worthy of their perseverant 

clined^ our respected Correspondent patranage. The insinuation has been 

seems to take for granted. — ^Afterall,we strongly reprobated by them and th» 

only say that the reasons we gave have whole artiole consideld as greatly im* 

been assigned as the causes of its de- proper. 

olensioD; amd can the managers of its 2. The account nefitrs to 1806 at tbe 

ooncems undertake to allege, that such epoch of a * declension' of the ooUege 

ittasons have not had a disadvaatsige- which, in the manner it is represented 

ous operation op its interests? and tgflamed^ might rather be ceasidcr" 

We have not said^ that there is, in ed at its doom— ^Whilst the teuth is thai 
St. Mary's, a ^irit of proselytism to the if the college could not &il to ezperi* 
Catholic i^igion; but we know, that ence the same vicissitudes to which the 
Protestants have entertained such an most ancient establishmenti, aAd even 
OfUnion; and we think our Correspond- those supported by their respectivte 
ent rather admits it It has even been states are subject; if during the war, 
thought, that the grand object of this it must have pa^cularly suffered, it 
seminary, is, to promote the Roman has since prospered anew, and it now 
Catholic religion;~-an opimon whioh contains above one hundred stndente. 
we do not say is weU founded. We As for the character of its pupils, St 
have not asserted that there is any Mary's, censideridg its time of beaag* 
literary deficiency in St Mary's; and and its peculiar circumstances, hascer* 
we were as muc^ surprised at Mr. But^ tainly returned to society its due pro- 
himself, to food that we had given his portion of useful and honourable mem- 
place to M. Du Boui^h. With these hers* Literature and sciences, the 
remarks we submit a literal transcript fine arts and the learned progressions 
of our Correspondent's letter. have weksomed a considerable nnmbcr 
TheEdUoTMrfiheAmtMiicJiagaidne. of these pupils. Of the many who have 
Gentlsm Ejv, embraced the profession of physic, two 

In the * brief account of the Ameri- have obtained the gold medal given at 

can Colleges,' inserted in your number each commencement of the faculty of 

for April, you hold yourselves * person- Maryland to the graduate who produces 

ally responsible' for the correctness of the best Latin thesis. The diplomatic 

such stetements as could not be ascer- career has received many others; three 

tained from references *• to well known young men of the ^ye emplojred as 

authors.' A degree, indeed, of respon- secretaries during the negociations at 

sibility must be felt by sensible editors, Ghent, were pupils of St. Mary's; two 

when they introduce or admit in their others have also followed Mr. Finkney 

publications, any foot or observation in his legation. Seven of its graduates, 

which may afiect the character and within tbis year, have travelled to the 

interest of the institutions concerned, universities of France and England, a 

For the better dischaige of that respon- circumstance which at least seems to 

sibility, so properly and candidly ac- evince that zeal for information with 

knowledged in this very case, we offer which they have been inspired, during 

you these few remarks, respecting St. their exercises at St. M^iy's, and which 

Mary's College in Baltimore, to be it is so interesting for this country to 

addc^ to the * brief account, ^c' see extensively promoted. Many of 

1. The ' extensive advertising' or these estimable pupils belong to fami- 

any other effort to render the institution lies so highly respected in these states 

* popular' indecorously attributed to St that their name is, by itself, a kind of 

Mary's College, is, certainly, for those strong presumption in favour of the 

to whom it \& well known, perfectly in institution to which their education was 

contrast with that highly independant intrusted. 

character which has constantly been 3. Of that curious < military despot- 
one of its peculiar foatures. Its nu- ism' of the gentlemen of St Mary's we 

^8 Notoritu 

leave tiieir pupils, now dispersed in bia, chartered by Congress, and more 

every part of the union, to bear the considerable in many refl^)ectB than 

proper witness, or the readers, if they some of those reviewed in the account, 

are the best informed, of the mild regu- yet entirely omitted. Of the liberal 

lations and kindly temper of the insti- contributione in like manner alluded 

tution, to judge for themselves. Few to, scarcely any proof, we think, could 

institutions, we believe, can receive be furnished— -St. Mary's c<dlege may 

more marks of esteem and affection simply rely on the public esteem as 

from their pupils, than have been be- long as it will deserve it Rivalshipa, 

stowed on their alma mater by tliose of it entertains none; no institution Wat 

St. Mary's— -nor ^ave the reverend M. ever more free from intrigues or any 

Dubouiig and his successors MM. Pa- petty arts of that kind— more exact to 

quiet aid Mareshal so far behaved aB confine itself within the proper bounds 

* military despots' as not to obtain an of self-defence, 
uncommon share in the love of their 6. As for ' the religioas jeakmsy' 

youthful friends — ^the present head of with which it is said to be regarded by 

the college will probably, after them a portion of the community, ti^e gratle- 

continue, in its management, to steer inen of St. Maiy's may trust the libe- 

between any excess of that discipline rality of the times for its limited effect 

considered by the institution as so im- besides the reproach would but be 

portant to the welfare of the studentSj ikevra^ for we do not see why a Ute« 

and anv improper relaxation of it that rary institution would not have in Bal- 

might impair its usefulness. timore, its proper degree of respecta- 

4. That the reverend M. Dubouig, bility and usefulness, in the bounds of 
now the Catholic bishop of New Orle • caikoUc deigymen as well as it has it 
ans, is not now the president of St. in those of Arian cleigymen in Har- 
Mary's, is sufficiently implied in the verd, or CaMnMeal clergymen in 
preceding remark; as for the name of Tale, as the brief account will have 
the actual president of the other college, them to be in these most ancient and 
the author of the article betrays Uie celebrated universities. 

same carelesness or want of exact in- We abstain from further remarks- 
formation. The paragraph has been whether the errors of the paragraph 
written exprofesso to give *the pre- concerning St. Maiy's College were 
sent state of the American colh^res, originally miMtiatemenU or mufdbei is 
these errors, particularly for institu- in£fferent, and we ought not tosup- 
tions so near the place where it is pub- pose the former in preference, since 
lished, are more remarkable. We take any ill will to that institution could not 
no notice of those which concern the have gratuitously influenced the impar* 
other colleges mentioned in the < brief tial and uninjured editors; to oflfer the 
account.' proper corrections was the onlyob^ 

5. The respectable patronage allud- jectof, 

ed to, belongs solely to the college of Gentlemen, 

Geoigetown, in the District of C^nm- yours, &c. 

In our last No. 
Page 441, line, 5, after Trigonometry, insert Mensuution, 

16, fort^, read, is. 
20, for principles, read, principle. 
8, for fioio, read, never. 

7, from bottom, for reapect^ read, respects* 

8, for tken, read, these. 
13, for^«inof», read, divisors. 

In our present No. 

P. 20, line 5, for resemblancej read, semblance. 
— 4, from bottom, for sef, read sets. 
' 22, 22, from bottom, for 6^6df^, read, wuty kfi. 



AUGUST, 1817. 

Art. I* — Memoirs of the life and Writings of the late John CoaK" 
LEY Lettsom, M. B. lL D. F. R. S. F. a. S. F. L. S. &f c. &?c. 
fcfc. rmth a selection from his correspondence •^^'&y Thomas Jo» 
seph Pettigrew, F. L« S. Member of, &c. &c. &c. 3 volumes, 
8vo. London. 

WE shquVd hardly have deemed this publication worth the pages 
we have dedicated to it, but from the circumstance of its com- 
prising epistolary correspondence between Dr. Lettsom and many 
persons of eminence of our own country, both dead and living. To 
American readers therefore, this collection will be an object of cu* 
riosity at least, even if it were worth perusing on no other account. 
Indeed if it contained nothing better to recommend it than the Biog- 
raphy of Dr. Lettsom by his friend Mr. Pettigrew, and the letters 
of Dr. Lettsom himself we might safely consign it to the dust of the 
shelf, a portion of the literary lumber that adds merely to the inu^ 
tile pondus. 

When an author, even in this book*>making age, sits down to unite 
the memoirs of the life and writings of his deceased friend, and to 
present the world with a selection from his correspondence, it is 
reasonable to expect, 

1. That the hfe of the person in question should be interesting 
from the great eminence of the deceased— from the remarkable 
character of the events of his life»-or instructive, from the moral 
lessons and conclusions which it affords. 

2. The selection from his correspondence should be interesting, 
dither from the novelty of fact, the mgenuity of remark, the literal 

2 merit of the letters selected, or the high character and station of 
e writers, which renders it a matter of public curiosity to know 
somewhat iA their manners and sentiments. 

3. Moreover, in selecting the correspondence, much delicacy 
should be employed in publishsng letters which the writers meant 
only for the private perusal of the deceased to whom they were ad- 
dressed. Indeed, it behoves every man to be upon his ^;uard in 
writing letters to thope who are accustomed to preserve their epwto^ 

90 Memoirs of Dr. LetU^m. 

lary coirespondence. To such a person, prudence requires that we 
should vrrite only what we would write to the public: for although 
we might venture to unbosom ourselves to a friend, whose character 
we know and esteem, some book-making executor, may compel us 
to imbosom ourselves to all the world, and make the pubUc at large 
our confidants, without our knowledge or consent. 

Hence it becomes the duty of a man of eminence, to destroy such 
letters of his friends as do not require preservation from the per- 
manent importance of their contents; for although the commumca- 
tion may be preserved as the Mrriter intended it should be, in the pri- 
vate escrutore of the friend to whom it was directed, yet a legal re- 
presentative may seize upon it as lawful prey, and expose it for his 
own purposes to all the world, provided m so doing he keeps with- 
in the tether marked out by the law. 

It would be difficult to assi^ any one reasonable motive for wri- 
ting the life and memoirs of Dr. Lettsom, a man in our time gene- 
rally regarded rather as a licensed quack, than a regular physician- 
ignorant of the common attainments of the well educated medical 
men who were his cotemporaries-— notorious for his vanity, for his 
perpetual attempts to puiF himself into public notice, for his 
bustling,' ostentatious philanthropy, and his popularity and prosperi- 
ty as a medical practitioner, in consequence of being considered by 
a particular sect, as the successor of Dr. Fothergill. Of his medi- 
cal opinions and discoveries, we know none that have survived him; 
of his writings it would be difficult to point out one that has earned 
the approbation of the literary world. 

^ He was a zealous and active promoter of many liberal and charita- 
ble schemes; instigated pardy by a desire of being useful, and munly 
by a wish that the world should notice him as being so. But though a 
zealous and an active, he was not an efficient promoter of any of dliese 
schemes; for his efforts were not seconded by any weight of perso- 
nal character. Among diose who knew him personally, he was not 
respected: indeed we incur no risk sajrine, that his general character 
was that of a man singularly desirous of popularity, but ignorant, 
vsun, and ostentatious. 

This may be deemed by some an ill-natured, harsh account of a 
character made up, like many others, of some faults and more vir- 
tues; but it will not be deemed so by those who take the trouble of 
reading, as we have done, the Memoirs of the Life and Writings of 
Dr. Lettsom, and the Selection from his Correspondence by his pre- 
sent bioffrapher, Mr. Pettigrew: for even Dr. Lettsom seems des- 
tined to be served up after death by some ^^ damn'd good natured 
friend,'' as Sir Fretful Plagiary^ expresses it, who, like Bozzi and 
Piozzi kindly exposes all the failings of his life, to the animadver- 
sion of future times. 

By the assistance of many trifling anecdotes of many trifling cha- 
racters, tiie Life and Memoirs occupy about two hundred pages of 
the itst volume. 

liiis in page 5 we are told that John Coakky Lettsom was bom 
in the island of Tortda on the SStA of November, 1744^ Fvom 

ofDr.LttUonu 91 

thence to page 1 1 , is piinciiMdly occupied by an account of the school 
in which he was educated till the age of fourteen:-^-not for the pur« 
pose of marking his improvement mere, or of noticing anv plan of 
discipline or instruction worthy to be imitated or avoidea; but to 
give an account of the amusements of the children; to wit, that there 
was a brook near the school where they fished^— ^at they made seve- 
ral litde pools by damming up the water, to preserve their fish in-— 
that birdVnesting, nutting, sliding, and other country sports, were 
their common recreations— that each boy had some kmd of singing 
bird, which occasioned a medley of noises sufficient to stun the ears 
of a person unaccustomed to such music:— then follows an episode 
of two linnets that were very fond of each other: — ^then the sports 
of the boys are resumed, and we are informed diat they used to 
Jump over hedges and ditches after the hunters, by the assistance of 
long poles — that in sunmier they were encouraged to bathe and swim, 
and to shoot with bows and arrows:-*-at lenvdi, in page ll,Lettsom 
is taken away from school, on the death of his fether. 

' Lettsom was so early sensible of the want of a good memory, that at 
this time (being in bis 18th year) he availed himself of notes, and con- 
structed tables, to assist it; and by often reverting to them, the impres- 
sions that he wished more particularly to retain, were rendered so strong 
as rarely to elude recollection. Thus, with moderate powers of mind, 
he was enabled to supply by industry and art> what nature had denied him. 
By the construction of tables, he surmounted many difficulties which oc- 
curred in the coarse of his attention to anatomy, and was thus prepared 
the better to understand what he had collected by reading.' 

It is a pity we have no specimen of, or any further information 
concerning diese tables or tneir construction* The contrivances of 
literary men to abridge labour, and facilitate the means of acquiring 
knowledge, ai^ of great importance to the literary world, when those 
means prove successful; and if Mr. Pettigrew had bestowed half 
the time on diis subject that he has done on the common sports of 
Lettsom's school boy compamons, he would have done his friend, 
his book, and himself more credit, and his readers more service. 

In pages 18 ^d 19, notice is taken of some women whom Dr. 
Lettsom was acqu^nted with in early life; Maiy Morris, Deborah 
Bamet, and Mary Fothergill; the two latter, female preachers in 
the society of friends^ Of the former Mr. Pettigrew gives the 
following account: 

< Thus his time glided smoothly away. His chief acquaintances were 
the Birckbecks, who, from a state of comparative indigence, rose to great 
opulence; but who never abused or disgraced their riches by pride, ex- 
travagance, or want of charity. With Mis^ Mary Morris, who after- 
wards married Dr. Knowles, and settled in Londoni he enjoyed an imi- 
mate friendship; and they occauonally interchanged pieces oif poetry, in 
the coiutrucHon of which she was much the superior. She excelled also 
in epistolary correspondence; and in her conversation there was a spright- 
liness and poignancy which riveted and gratified the attention of every 
bearer. Miss Morris was (Mice introduced to the king, and was reward- 
ed by his majesty, for her great ingenuity in needle-work* She execu« 
ted an excellent likeness of the monaych in worsted, which is now in one 

99 JUemoira of Dr. Lett9om» 

of the royal palaces. She was reiy careless in her dressy somedmea 
to an unpleasant degree/ 

Mr. Pettigrew, we presume, supposes that a piece of poepy can 
be constructed on the same mechanical principles with a piece of 
machinery. Indeed neither Dr. Lettsom or Mary Morris were 
ever guilty of constructing /^o^fry.- the former was a very bad, the 
latter a very tolerable rhymer. With Mary Morris, better known 
by the name of Molly Knowles, the writer of this article was for 
many years acquainted, on the introduction of their mutual friend, 
John Henderson, of Hengham, near Bristol, afterwards of Pembroke 
College, Oxford, who died at the age of about twenty-six, with more 
literary attainments than almost any man of the same age in his 
time. Molly Knowles had a cultivated uhderstanding, that render-* 
ed her worthy of being acqusdnted with such a man as Henderson; 
and was indeed superior to Dr. Lettsom, not only in the construe^ 
tion of poetry, but in every quality of mind and application of ta- 
lent. At the death of her husband. Dr. Knowles of Lombard-street, 
she was reduced to poverty, but maint^ned herself chiefly by her 
exquisite skill in needle-work, and was the esteemed companion of 
most of the literati of her day. Her argument with Dr. Johnson 
on the comparative scale of female capacity, has been published, and 
is well known. Of what use is it to the world to detail of such a 
woman that her dress was neglected? The writer of this article had 
opportunities enough for remark, but never observed her dress un- 

Eieasantly neglected, or ever heard of it being so; and he was at 
sast as well acquainted with Molly Knowles and her friends, as Mr. 
Pettigrew. But was there nothing to be told of such a woman save 
this trifling anecdote of scandal? 

It is in this way that men of the world become disgusted at pro* 
miscuous introductions, and repulsive towards strangers; who visit 
too often, like the spies of a strange country, merelv to espy the na- 
kedness of the land. It is in this way that the trifler Brydone has 
done infinite harm in Italy to his countrymen, by retailing the con- 
fidential manners and conmiunications of the persons to whom he 
was introduced; and in America, no one who nas read the shame* 
ful tittie tattle and silly scandal of Chastelleux and Liancourt, but 
must receive with prudent coldness the introduction of any travel- 
ler from the same nation. Such men are nuisances in society: they 
repress the freedom of communication, they prevent the openheart- 
ecmess of reception, and change the kindness of hospitality into the 
caution of mereciviUty. When Mr. Pettigrew visited Mrs. SLnowles, 
or collected anecdotes of this extraordinary woman, the extent of 
his observation could reach no further than the negligence of her 
dress! Such a man is truly worthy of being Lettson^^s biographen 
His remarks on Dr. Akenside, are conceived in the same spirit* 

In the year 1768 Dr. Lettsom returned to Tortola, and tiiere libera- 
ted all the slaves on his part of the estate, to the number of about fif- 
ty:— an action tiiat spoke unequivocally in favour of the goodness 
of his heart, but not of his prudence* His. remarks on the neces- 

MemoirB of Dr. LetUom. 93 

•ity of gradual emancipation in the next page, are the result of good 
sense and mature reflec^on. 

The value of Dr. L'ettsora's medical knowledge, at the age of 
twenty-eight, may be judged of from the following account of his 
proposed method of treating fevers, " such as often prove fatal 
within the tropics, and in warm climates and seasons generally," 

« I. To take olTthe fever by removing tbe spasm; and, 

* II. To strengthen the system against the recurrence of the fever, 

^ To answer these indications, he recommended the promotion of per* 
spiration by the application of heat, by means of the warm bath, heated 
bricks, fcc. Internally a combination of emetic tartar, with opium, to 
produce nausea or vomiting. If symptoms of inflammation be present, 
bleeding will be necessary. Upon a remission being obtained, he pro- 
posed to exhibit the Peruvian bark to prevent a recurrence of the disease. 

« This sketch will serve to show the degree of attention and interest 
with which he viewed his professional pursuits, and his anxious desire 
to UK>sen the trammels which habit and custom had too long and inja« 
liously fixed/ 

Such is the extent of Mr. Pettifl;rew's medical knowledge in 1817, 
after he (like Dr. Lettsom) has thrown off the trammels of habit 
and custom. 

In the tide page of this compilation, we have a list of the titles 
of Mr. Pettigrew the editor: m page 99 of the Life we have the 
following list of titles of Dr. Lettsom himself: 

< In this year (1783)*Dr. Lettsom appears to have been fully engaged 
in his profession. Each succeeding year, for a considerable time, seem- 
ed to increase the reputation he baud deservedly obtained. In this and 
following years he was chosen a member of various institutions. In 
1786 he was elected an honorary member of the Colchester Medical 
Society. In 1788 an honorary member of the Royal Medical Society 
of Edinburgh, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences. In 1789 he was chosen an honorary member of the Medical So- 
cieties of New- York, and of Newhaven; of the Agricultural Society of 
Amsterdam; and of the Bath Agricultural Society, of which he was 
one of the earliest members. In 1790 he was made a member of the 
Academy of Artsjand Sciences of MontpcUier, and an honorary member 
of the Medical Society there. He was also elected a member of the 
University of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was made a doctor of 
laws of that University. In 1791 he was chosen an honorary member 
of the Ro^al Physical Society of Edinburgh; a fellow of the Royal 
College of Physicians, Edinburgh; an honorary member of the Massa- 
chusetts Humane Society; and a correspondingmember of the Medical 
Society of Bristol. In 1793 he was chosen an honorary member of the 
Medical Society, Massachusetts; a member of the Pennsylvania Society 
for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, the Relief of Free Negroes un- 
lawfully held in bondage, and for improving the Condition of the Afri- 
can race; a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society; and a 
corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Montpel- 
Uer; for which honour he was indebted to the kindness of his friend M. 
Broossonet. In 1793 he was chosen an honorary member of the Lite* 
my and Philosophical Society of Newcastle; and of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural Society. 

d4 Memoirs of Dr. Lcttsomt 

< The accession of so man7 honours in so short a space of time^ is the 
best possible evidence of the almost universal opinion entertained res- 
pecting the literary 9 philosophical, and benevolent character and talents 
of Dr. Lettsom. Among them we observe several from America, a 
part of the world in which he was most highly respected; for the friends 
of science and humanity, however scattered, or diversified by religion 
and country, are the citizens of the same republic* 

This ^pearance of Dr. Lettsom, with ^ blushing honours thick 
upon him' affords at best but an equivocal testimony of the univer- 
sal opinion entertained of Dr. Lettsom's literar}% philosophical, and 
benevolent character and talents. A few well-timed presents and 
compliments, and a correspondent in each of these societies to pro^ 

Eose him, was fully sufficient. Societies of this kind dispense their 
onorary memberships with very little consideration, and the expec- 
tation of a correspondent for their volume, is generally a sufficient 
inducement. A business managed with so much ease and certain- 
ty, would not be neglected by Dr. Lettsom, who was anxious after 
this kind of titular popularity. Indeed, he forced his son into situa- 
tions to attract popular notice, at an age, and in a manner, that can 
only be explained by his own anxiety after it. This appears by the 
followinc; paragraph in one of his letters respecting his eldest child, 
John Miers Lettsom, {Ste page 45, and the Letter to Dr. Cuming^ 
dated May 31, 17%^.'— Letters^ page 41.) Speaking of his son. Dr. 
Lettsom says, ^ I have made him a governor of many charities, 
whose meetings he attends, and votes like an experienced member.' 
This son was at that time about ten years of age! But a governor's 
subscription was sufficient to g^ve him the tide, and the sum was of 
little importance compared to the object. To teach a child die love 
of charity — to initiate him early into the pleasure of doing good— - 
and give him opportunities of feeling the luxury of a kind action, 
purchased at the expense of self demal — is a part of education that 
a good and sensible parent will take frequent opportunities of in- 
culcating by precept and by practice. But this is not to be done by 
the parent's subscribing sums of which the child knows not the va- 
lue---by expending fifty guineas here, and fifty guineas there for the 
ostentatious pleasure of making a child of ten years of age a gover- 
nor of half a dozen charities, and forcing him prematurely into the 
company of grave and elderly people,>by buying the right of intru- 
ding him among them! This was manifesdy making the charitable 
institutions in question, a stepping stone to family popularity, with 
a view to fiunily prosperity. Keal charity is never ostentatious; its 
motive is single, to do cood: it is best rewarded when it has made 
a sacrifice of it own feelings or convenience, to effect the kind relief 
it wishes to afford. Benevolence does not consist in carelessly throw- 
ing away a small portion of superfluous wealth; still less in purchas- 
ing titles and honours under the guise of charitable donation. 

On the first of November 1815, Dr. Lettsom died. His biogra- 
^ler allows, to a certain degree, the charges of vanity so generally 
ascribed as a prominent feature of the doctor's character; and also 
that his attentioiis to the female part of his acquaintance, were cbe 

Memoirs of Dr. LetUom* 9S 

testJt of an enthusiastic attachment to the fair sex, which led him 
into an unguardedAess of behaviour, which subjected him to severe 
censure. It is a pity Mrs. Lettsom did not share more of this en* 
thusiastic attachment, which indeed comported very ill with the 
character of a g^ve quaker, the father of a large family, vrho com- 
plains so much of the very little time he has to spare tor the ordi- 
nary duties of life. For instance: 

Dr. Lettsom to Dr. Cuming, October 16, 1782: * I assure thee, 
since I arrived at the age of twenty-^ree, I have been in perpetual 
exerdon in my profession. At that early period of life, I seldom 
prescribed for fewer than fifty, and often twice as many, before 

In 1782 he received in fees three thousand six hundred pounds 
sterling; in 1784, three thousand nine hundred pounds; in 1785, 
four thousand and fifteen pounds; in 1786, four thousand five hun- 
dred pounds. From this time to 1800, he received annually from 
five to twelve thousand pounds. No wonder his very sensible cor- 
respondent. Dr. Cuming, in a letter,^dated February 8, 1783, ob- 

< When I hear of you, and others of the firimateB of the profession 
in London, visiting your fifty or a hundred patients in a day, I am thank- 
ful that I am not one of the number. Is it possible that, with all your 
leanung) sagacity, and acuteness, you can, on such a superficial view 
and inquiry, be thoroughly instructed in all the circumstanoes of your 
patients* case and constitution? have you never occasion to lament (to 
use the words of our liturgy), that you have left undone thoac things 
vfhich you ought to have doncj or that you have done those things which 
you ought not to have done?* 

Dr. Lettsom to Dr. Cuming, October 12, 1782; ^ Sometimes, fcM* 
the space of a week, I cannot command twenty minutes' leisure in 
my own house.' 

From a letter of Dr. Cuming's, dated March 18, 1783, it should 
seem that Dr. Lettsom was not only in the habit of sitting up till 
two or three in the morning, but recommended it as a very refresh- 
ing practice; ^ as a restorative for the fiatigues of the past day.' 

Dr. Cuming very properly advises him to relinqubh his noctur- 
nal lucubrations and convivialities, and to go to bed with his wife 
and family ^t eleven o'clock. 

Dr. Lettsom to Dr. Johnstone, February 22, 1800: ^ As the chief 
of my writing is managed in my carriage, allow me,' &c. 

Dr. Lettsom to Dr. Walker, September 3, 1755: ^ As I live in 
carriages, having seldom less than three pair of horses a day, and 
neelecdng my meals, excepting once a week^ when I dine with my 
wife:'— a ranty of intercourse, which elsewhere he defends, as very 

E roper, to prevent a lanp;uor of affection between the lady and her 
usband. And yet this man of incessant occupation could find 
time to trifle away with the fair sex, and lay himself open to the 
world's reproach, for his too assiduous attentions to other women 
than his wife. All which, his friend, his admirer, his biographer, 
has taken care to register^ for the honour of Dr. Lettsom and the 

96 Memoirs of Dr. Letts^m* 

amusement of the j^uhlic! ' God protect us from our fnends (says 
the Spanish proverb}; we are always on guard against our enemies!^ 

That Dr. Lettsom was a kind-hearted, liberal-minded man, i$ 
obvious from the whole tenor of his life, and sufficiendy appears 
from his letters now published; but that he was aifected, vam, tri- 
flinR, ostentatious, and ignorant, is equally manifest« 

what man, of real benevolence, would pen such an overstrained, 
Godwinian, incredible sentiment as the following? 

< I have often calculated that, if all the money in the English Euro* 
pean dominions were equally divided, each person would possess about 
forty-five shillings. All I possess above this sum is so much more 
than I deserve; for what right have I to keep more than my shared 
For so much, therefore, I am an accountable steward, as I conceive it 
to be superabundantly given to me^ to disperse, and to make those hap- 
pier who have not got forty-five shillings in the whole.* 
Or would boast of having given away six hundred pounds in cha- 
rity in a few months? 

The reader of this compilation will be compelled to admit the 
great inferiority of Lettsom to his correspondents — the trifling cha- 
racter of his letters — the vanity and egotism that pervades them— < 
and the silly affectation of overstrained sentiments and novel 
phrases that abounds in them. What man of good taste, in speak- 
ing (egotistically, as usual), would complain of his executorships 
and troublesomeships (Letters, p. 32.), and, descanting on his own 
fine feelings, would dilate on ^ tne sensibilities and exquisibilities of 
doing good?' (Letters, p. 23.) What physician can respect the me- 
dical judgment of a man, who, ^ throwing off the trammels of habit 
and custom,' as his friend Mr. Pettigi*ew observes, advises to keep 
a patient warm, who labours under an inflammatory fever, in the 
warm season of a tropical climate? Relying on the warm bath, 
heated bricks, and the trifling excitements of nauseating diaphore- 
tics? See Life, pp. 33, 34. Who for a long time considered mer- 
cury as a specific for the small pox, and who declares his opinion 
that no case of decided croup was ever cured without bleeding 
Doubdess bleeding is a very useful part of the methodus mtdenAi 
but the writer of this article has had fourteen or fifteen cases of 
croup, impossible to be mistaken, in his own family, all of which 
were cured by emetics alone, repeated when the symptoms recur- 
red. Dr. Lettsom's treatise on tea is substantially copied from Dr. 

Mr. Pettigrew talks in raptures of the taste displayed at Dn 
Lettsom's country-seat. Grove Hill. It was a pleasant place, in 
despite of the gross want of taste displayed in it. Does Mr. Pet- 
tigrew remember that it was divided irom a kind of public prome- 
nade, frequented on Sundays by the common people in the neigh- 
bourhood of Camberwell; and that to permit mem the sight of die 
beauties of diis Elysium, the hedge was clipt low, that the company 
op the outside might have a view of the beauties within? Does 
Mr. Pettigrew remember the square pond, with side-walls of brick, 
and a rough kind of rock, to imitate nature, in the middle of this 

Memoirs ofUn Ltttsom^ 9t 

brick pond, and a river-gpd, or soi^ auch animal, seated <»t the 
rock, and pouring out. wateH an omsunent^ of which the fountain 
and pond in the Centre-square of Philadelphia is an exact imita-^ 
tion, as to its size, and as- to the rock^ and differs chiefly in this, 
that in the Centre-square the pond is round, and has no brick waUs^ 
within side, to show that, if the rock be an humble intitaftioa of na^ 
tare, the brici walls were the production of art. Does Mr. Petti*' 
grew remember, at a litde distance from this brick pond, a kmd of 
open temple^ covered, or seeming to be covered, with thatch^ havingp 
a gilt baU on the top of itf We have no doubt but these were oma^ 
ments of the place devised by the strength of Dr. Lettsom's owm 
genius^ and in perfect accord with Dr» Lettsom^s tastCr 

Such are the obvious remarks on Dr. Lettsom's life and charac** 
ter, of which his friend Mr. Pettigrew has taken care to record 
the pfoofs. Of his writings we will say nothing; De mortuu nil 
nisi Bonum. 

The correspondence here collected does credit, if not fo Dn^ 
Lettsom, at least to his friends. It is impossible not to be struck 
with the masculine good sense of Dr. Cumin^^s letters, especially . 
when contrasted with the puerilities contained m the epistles of Dr.' 

There, are some passages and anecdotes in the correspondence 
which would amuse our readers; such as those relating to Faujas 
de St..-Fond, Dr. Johnson, king George II, and bishop Warburton. 
The following extract shows the Ubendity and good sense of Dr«r 
Cuming in a very favourable light. 

< Our reUgioas and polidcal priBcipIes are accidental, and mertlf 
the effect of education. Had yoa and I been born of Turkish pa^ 
tents, and educated in the city ^ Constantinople, our confession of 
faith would have been, ^ There is bat one God, and Mshomti is hi»: 
prophet/^ Can it be supposed (iiat heaven puts itself aC the head of. 
any one religions party^ Not reascm and charity compel us to believe^ 
that the virtuous of all religions are equally acceptable to the Univer-^ 
sal Fatheri' for, little as we know of heaven, I hope we may, without 
any blasphemy, presume that the Supreme Being is at least as reason^ 
abfe as the best of his creatures/ 

In page 161 of the life, we find that the Thermometrical Scale 
of temperance and intemperance,, usually* attributed, and we believe? 
propernr, to Dr. Rush, is claimed for Dr. Lettsom. 

Dr. LettsonK s^pears not to know tlmt Dr. FranklinV Chapter on 
Toleration was borrowed. Bishop I'aylor, in his LUjerty of Pro-t 
phecying, first published it in English. It is an Arabian tale, by 
Sadi, of which, in 1680, a translation in Latin was* published, in » 
work entitled Shebeth Jefaudoh, Tribus Judie, de Uebraeo in Lati-^ 
num, versa a Georgio Gentio. This was first shown by judge Coo* 
per, in 'his review of Dr. Priestley's writings, voL ii. p. 376. 

In page 204 of vol. iii. the following curio^us relation is givea^ by^ 
bishop Madison: 

*.In a town, this fall, among the mountains of our country, near to th# 
place where I happened to be, a boy of twelve or thirteen years of agt ji 

VOL^ X. • 13 


98 Memoirs of Dr. Letisom, 

was bit, on the side of one of his feetf by a very venotnotts serpentf 
commonly called a copper#bead. The poison of this animal is not less 
dreaded than that of the cit>talus horridus, or rattlesnake. The boy 
was carried home, and soon discovered symptoms of great uneasiness. 
A suf^elling commenced; and the wound was slightly scarified. A by* 
stander, acquainted, I suppose, with the practice of the Indians, re* 
commended the folloviing application: A chicken was caught, the fea* 
thers plucked from around the abdomen, and that part closely applied 
to tMe wound. The chicken instantly grew sick, and died as quickly 
as if its head had been cut off. A second was applied in a similar 
manner: it died in about four minutes. A third also experienced the 
same fate, in nearly eight minutes. A fourth was applied: it discovered 
some uneasiness, but did not die. The process was then discontinued. 
The boy was relieved, and suffered no greater inconvenience from the 
wound than he would have done from the puncture of a needle or pin. 
He was perfectly well on the second day. Having heard of what had 
passed^ I was preparing to go to the house where the boy was, when 
his father, a very respectable man, a magistrate, and noted for his strict 
veracity, together with two other persons, upon whose information I en* 
tirely relied, from an intimate acquaintance with them, came to me. From 
them I heard the particulars related, as they were present, and wit- 
nessed the effects of this extraordinary imbibition of the poison. There 
remains not the shadow of doubt of the fact, as I have stated it. I 
aaw the tyoy on the third day. 

^ The copper-head resembles the mockason somewhat; but is larger. 
Some, indeed, consider it as the female rattlesnake; but I rather sup* 
pose it to be a distinct species. This snake is not mentioned by 
Catesby. Might not the same remedy be applied, in the case of a bite 
from a mad dog?' 

The third volume is taken up with medical correspondence; but 
little«information is fotmd in it, that would be new in the pre* 
sent day. 

The second volume contains several letters fnnn Dr. Rush, Dr. 
Meade, the Rev. Mr. Madison, and Dr. Waterhouse. lite letters 
written by the latter gentleman contain remarks on the politics of 
his neighbourhood and of the day, that were evidently penned 
under me sanction of private confidence. The opinions given are 
such as were manifestly calculated to do that gendeman serious 
injury with the prevailing party; nor would the letters have been 
written, if the writer cotild have conteniplated the use that has 
been made of them. Dr. Waterhouse expresses no opinion that is 
not common to many wise and good men of the same poliUcal 
.party with himself, and of coiirse entertaining the same political 
views and prejudices. He supposes that a British party exists in 
the north-eastern section of the imion, and in his vicinity. He is 
not singular in his opinion. But many wise and good men there 
are equally convinced that we have more reason to dread a French 
, party in the United States than a British. Of all this every man 
must and will judge, according to the evidence presented to his 
reiiection, but tinged!, of course, by his previous political opinions. 
We blame neither party—- we adopt neither opinion. But what right 

Stewart's PkilosopAical Dissertation, 99 

had Mr. Pettierew to publish these confidential letters? To put in 
jeopardy Dr. Waterhouse's official situationr— to sow enmity be- 
tween him and his acquaintance? between him and those on whose 
interest and countenance he might in some degree depend? Did not 
Mr. Petdgrew know, that, next to religious, political rancour and 
persecution is the most virulent? Tm letters were notoriously 
written in private confidence: what right had this book*maker to 
expose them to the public, for his private emolument. 

But we have dwelt long enougn on this publication, which de-- 
rives no interest from*" the character of Dr. Lettsom, whose life is 
written — still less from the manner in which Mr. Pettigrew has 
made up these volumes; for if they have interest, no part of it is 
owing to the intrinsic value of his remarks, or the attractions of his 
style — nor in the professional correspondence of the third volume 
do we see any thing added to the stock of knowledge of the pre- 
sent day. We have noticed it from the local interest it derives, in 
consequence of its cont^uning the letters of our own citizens, and 
to express our strong disapprobation of the principles on which the 
book has been made up by its compiler. 

Art. U.'^Dissertation First: exhibiting' a general view oj the pro^- 

gress of Metaphysical^ Ethical^ and Political Philosophy^ since 

the Revival of Letters in Europe* By Dugald Stewart, Esq. 

F. R. SS. London and Edinburgh, &c. Boston: republished by 

Wells and Lilly. 1817. p. 260. 8vo, 

MR. STEWART has long been a very popular writer on a very 
unpopular subject: for peo[de too generally love not meta- 
physics, but they love the easy, elegant, and neat style of writing for 
which this author is celebrated. He has done much to disarm pre<> 
judice of her weapons of hostility against the philosophy of the 
human mind. His work now before us, is on a subject every way 
suited to his taste and his talents. It is a historical view of the 
writers on the subject to which he has devoted his life, and a 
critique on their productions. ITie most interesting part of the 
history of mental philosophy is yet to come, for the present disser- 
tation extends to no period later than the commencement of the 
eighteenth century, wnich was memorable for its discoveries and 
improvements in this department of science. The Preface to this 
First Dissertation occupies nearly thirty pages; and we may say of 
it, what can be affirmed of few introductory addresses, that it is the 
best part of the book. It is a history of the most important attempts 
which have been made, to reduce all the objects of human knowledge 
to a systematic classification. He says, 

* When I ventured to undertake the task of contribnting a Prelimi- 
nary Dissertation to these Supplemenfal Volumes, of the Encyclopedia 
Britannicaj my original intention was, after the example of D'AIembert, 
to have begun with a general surfey ot the various departments of 
human knowledge. The outline of such a survey, sketched by the 
comprehensive genius of Bacony together with the corrections and im- 

iOO Stewart's Philosophical Dissertation. 

' proTements suggested by his illustrious disciple, would, I thoagfat, 
have rendered it comparatiTeiy easy to adapt their intellectual map to 
the present advanced sute of the sciences; while the unrivalled autho- 
rity which their united work has long maintained in the republic of 
letters, would, 1 flattered myself, have softened those criticisms which 
might be expected to be incurred by any similar attempt of a more 
m<^em hand. On a closer examination, however, of their labours, I 
found myself under the necessity of abandoning this design. Doubts 
immediately occurred to me with respect to the justness of their 
logical views, and soon terminated in a conviction, that these views are 
radically and essentially erroneous. Instead, therefore, of endeavour- 
ing to give additional currency to speculations which I conceived to be 
fundamentally unsound, I resolved to avail myself of the present op- 
portunity to point out their most important defects; — defects which, I 
am nevertheless very ready to acknowledge, it is much more easy to 
remark than to supply. The critical strictures which, in the course of 
this discussion, I shall have occasion to offer on my predecessors, will, 
at the same time, account for my forbearing to substitute a new mass 
of my own, instead of that to which the names of Bacon and D'Alem* 
bert have lent so great and so well-merited a celebrity; and may p|er- 
haps suggest a doubt, whether the period be yet arrived for hazarding 
again, with any reasonable prospect of success, a repetition of their 
bold experiment. For the length to which these strictures ave likely 
to extend, the only apology I have to offer is the peculiar importance 
of the questions to which they relate, and the high authority of the 
writers whose opinions I presume to controvert.' 

We mubt either give Mr. Stewart credit for more diffidence than 
becomes his station, or else must suppose, that he knows him- 
self to be destitute of inventive powers. What does he venture^ 
in contributing a preliminary dissertation to an Encyclopedia? 
Why should he refuse to contribute his exertions towards a forma- 
tion of a correct chart of human knowledge? Would he not only 
remark^ but supply defects, where there are defects enough already? 
Or does this elegant scholar intend, that he thinks himself incapa- 
ble of supplying the: places of those defects which he exposes, with 
something substantial? If our author desen'es the celebrity which 
he enjoys, for any thing else than having entered into Dr. Reid^s 
old house, and having newly painted die outside, that he may 
make a show of another^s property, he ought not to have shrunk 
from the labour of contributing something to the systematic ar- 
rangement of the departments of knowledge. Stewart's writings 
deserve much praise, because he sets off, like an expert youth be- 
hind the counter, the goods which the father of mental philosophy 
collected in store for him. Something of invention, or new obser- 
vation, we have always desired to find in our author; and have de- 
sired in vain: but, strange to tell! Stewart is found in some of our 
colleges, and Reid, his teacher, only in the libraries of a few learn- 
ed men. It is easier to make a mighty noise about what Bacon has 
done, than to do something worth narrating one's self. 

A correct classification of the sciences, professor Stewart deema 
a desidcratuniy and tidesperandum. The principal divisions of know* 

Stewart^s Philosophical Diaaertation. 101 

ledge, of which he gives us an account, are those of Bacon, D^ AI- 
«mbert, and Locke. That they are all defective he has clearly 
evinced. Bacon he justly represents as the first who attempted 
any thing of importance on this subject; and his classification has 
been the chart upon which all subsequent system-makers have 
wrought their experiments. D'Alembert followed the scheme of 
lord Verulam, and * his veneration for Bacon seems, on this occa- 
sion, to have prevented him from giving due scope to his own pow- 
erful and fertile genius, and has engaged him in the fruitless task 
of attempting, by means of arbitrary difinitions, to draw a veil over 
incurable defects and blemishes, p. 10, 

It would have increased the interest w^ich literary men will 
feel in the Dissertation, had Mr. Stewart given us D' Alembert's 
' Encyclopedial Tree,' and Bacon's chart, of which he frequently 
speaks. ITiat our readers may have an opportunity of judging of 
the classification of the latter, we shall extract from his ' Advance- 
ment of Learning' his general divisions of knowledge, and, so far 
as is compatible with our prescribed limits, his subordinate ramifi- 
cations of the generic sciences. 

What, then, accomplished the immortal reviver of science in 
Europe?— The human mind, he says, has three faculties^ which are 
called Memory, Imagination, and Reason. ^That is the truest 

* partition of human learning, which hath reference to the three 
"^jaculties of man's soul, which is the seat of learning. History is 
' referred to memory^ poesy to the imagination^ philosophy to rea- 

* son. By poesy ^ in this place, we understand nothing else, but 
*- feigned history^ or fables. As for verse^ that is only a stile of 

* expression. And that this distribution is truly made, he shall easily 

* conceive that hath recourse to the originals of intellectuals. In- 

* dividuals only strike the sense, which is the port or entrance of 

* the understanding. ITie images or impressions of those indivi- 
^ duals accepted from the sense^ are fixed in the memory^ and at 
' first enter into it entire, in the same manner they were met: af- 
^ terwards the understanding ruminates upon them and refines them; 
' which then it doth either merely review^ or in a wanton delight, 

* counterfeit and resemble; or by compounding and dividing, digest 
^ and endue them. So it is clearly manifest that from these three foun- 

* tains of memory ^oi imagination^ond of reason^thcre are these three 

* emanations, of poesy ^ot history^ and of philosophy j and that there can 

* be no other nor no more: for history and experience^ we take for 

* one and the same, as we do philosophy and science**'^ His three 
generic sciences, it appears therefore, are history, poesy, and philo- 
sophy; and from these all the specific sciences are to be deduced, 
if they can be; or else the commencement of the classification is 
defective. Let us now place before our readers ' the emanation of 
sciences^ from the intellectual faculties of memory ^ imagivation^ 
end reason, 

* Adv. of Lcum. b. 2. c. 1 Oxford Edition, 1640. 

Sfewart's Phthtophteal DitsefioHon, 

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IM Stewart's Philosophical Diseer$aiion. 

^ Orations, episles, and apophthegmes,' lord Bacon informs as 
are ^ appendices, to history.^ In like manner, he Appends ^ mathema- 
tics,' divided into * arithmetic and geometry,' to * natural philosophy;' 
the doctrine of ^ angels and spirits,' to ^ natural theology; and ^ prob-^ 
lems and ^ placits,' or propositions to ^ physics;' because he could 
not mathematically arrange theiti in any place. From logic he 
derives Elocution^ and from Elocution the sciences of ^ Grammar, 
Method, and Rhetoric' We havfc not time topm*sue him through 
all his ramifications of logic, ethics, and the civil history of man; 
nor is it needful; for we have followed him to his disclosure of all 
the sciences. — Our readers have now before them, the famed classi- 
fication of all human knowledge by Bacon; which Mr. Stewart 
says, has not been much improved by all the labours of Locke, 
D Lembert, Diderot, the Germans, and the great lights of the 
eighteenth century. Of e'ver obtaining such a philosopnical parti- 
tion as he deems desirable, the professor seems to despair. Sa 
did not Bacon. He says, ^ touching impossibility^ I determine thus; 
^ all those things are to be held possible and performable, which 
^ may be accomplished by some person, though not by every one; 
*' and which may be done by the united labours of many, though 
*• not by any one apart; and which may be effected in a succession 
^of afi;es, though not in the same age; and in brief, which may be 
^ finished by the public care and charge, though not by the ability 
^ and industry of particular persons.' Adv. of Learn, n. IL Proenu 
Bacon requests, moreover, m his Preface, p. 19. that men ^ would 

* cheer up themselves, and. conceive well of the enterprise; and not 

* figure unto themselves a conceit and fancy, that this Our Instau- 
^ ration is a matter infinite^ and beyond the power and compass of 

* Mortality; seeing it is in truth the right and legitimate end and 

* period of Infinite Error, ^ * It seems to me,' he says, ' that men 

* neither understand the Estate they possess, nor their abilities U> 

* purchase; but of the one to presume more, of the other less, than 

* indeed they should. So it comes to pass, that over-prizine the 
*> Arts received, they make no further inquiry; or undervaluing 
^themselves, more mad in equity they ought, they expend their 
^ abilities upon matters^ of slight consequence, never once making 
^experiment of those things which conduce to the sum of the bu^* 

* siness. Wherefore, Sciences also have^ as it were their Fatal CO' 
^^ kimns; being men are not excited, either out of desire or h^pe, to 
^ penetrate further.^ ^ Persons who have entertained a design to 
^ make trial themselves, and to give some advancement to sciences^ 
^and to propagate their bounds^ even these authors dur^t not 

* make an open departure from the common received opinions; nor 
*' visit the Head-springs of nature, but take themselves to have done 
*a great matter, and to have gained much upon the age, if they 
^ may but interlace^ or annex any thing of their own; providently 
^ considering with themselves, that by these middle courses, they 

* may both conserve the modesty of assenting; and the liberty of 
' adaing,' 

Stewart's Philosophical DissertaHofu 105 

Stewart's Dissertation, which is introductory to the Supplement 
to the Encyclopedia Britannica, deserves the greater part of the 
encomiums passed upon it in the Edinburgh Review for September 
1816. ^ This discourse is the most splendid of Mr. Stewart's 
works;' says that critical journal^ *' and places the author at the head 
of the elegant writers on philosophy iix our language,' p. 192. 
Splendid as it is, we cannot ascertain wherein it excels his other 
works, /Unless it be in this, that it is his last\ which with some 
writers, as with soime hearers of sermons, is a sufficient reason for 
pronouncing it the best. In his sketch of classifications, Stewart 
proceeds not beyond the essays of three literary luminaries; and 
IS defective in not giving a candid narrative of several reputable 
enterprizes of this nature which might have been found in the 
annals of literature. 

He represents Locke as attempting to distribute into classes, the 
whole oz human knowledge, while the Edinburgh Reviewer is of a 
different opinion* Stewart seems, in his opinion, to suppose that the 
^ plans of Bacon and Locke are for different distributions of the same 
subject. But they plainly relate to different matters. That of 
Bacon respected aU the objects of those faculties of the human mind 
called intellectual, which in the philosophy of his age, were dis- 
tinguished from the senses on the one hand, and from the will on 
the other. The object of Locke was more limited. His distribu- 
tion is only ^ of what falls under the compass of the understanding;' 
meaning, by that term, what Bacon denotes by ^ Reason.' Mr. 
Locke, therefore, proposed only a subdivision of one of Bacon^s 
classes, that namely of ^ Philosophy:' and Dr. Smith uses the same 
language when speaking of a similar distribution adopted by the 
Greeks. It is plsdn, indeed, that an arrangement which includes 
history and the fine arts, cannot be intended to apply to the same 
subject with one which excludes them. That of Bacon, therefore, 
is a distribution of all the objects of mind;— -tiiat of Locke, only 
erf what are stricdy called sciences." In reply to this ingeni- 
ous reviewer, and in defence of Stewart whom he modestiy assails 
on tills point, we ^uote Locke himself, who must have known what 
was his own design. ^A man can employ his thoughts about 
nothing, but eitiier tiie contemplation of uiin^ themselves, for tiiQ 
discovery of truth; or about tne things in his own power, which 
are his own actions, for the attainment of his own ends; or the 
signs the mind makes use of, both in the one and the otiier, and 
the right ordering of them for its clearer information. All which 
tiiree, viz* things as they are in themselves knowable; actions as 
they depend on us, in order to happiness; and the right use of 
signs in order to kxK>wledge, being toto cotlo different, they seemed 
to me to be the three great provinces of the intellectual world, 
wholly seperate and distmct one from another.'* He means then 
to classify every thing about which man can employ his thoughts^ 
pr what he elsewhere calls the whole of human knowledge. The 

* £uay on tlw Undentanding. B. ir* ch. 21. sec. 6» 
VOL. X. 24 


106 Stewart's Philosophical Dissertatton^ 

understanding Locke used sometimes to denote one faculty ^ but 
more frequently all the faculties by which we have knoweldgc, 
whether it be of history, of the fine arts, or of philosophy. His- 
tory and the fine arts were so far from being excluded by him 
that he would have included the last under tne general head of 
actions J or things done, and the first under the head of signs; for 
history consists in the signs of things performed* At any rate, 
we can think of history and the fine arts, and they might, therefore, 
with every other science and object of contemplation be arranged 
among his things knowable. This, by the way, exhibits somethmg 
of the imperfection of Locke's * Division of the Sciences,' while 
it proves agsdnst the critic of Scotland, that Bacon and Locke 
DID attempt ^different distributions of the same subject.' 

We were gratified with the confession of this same critic, con- 
tained in the same review of Stewart's Introduction, p. 196. that 

* the very defective nomenclature, and imperfect subdivision of the 
moral and political sciences is attended with practical inconveni- 
ences.' The same inconveniences in a great measure have been 
experienced, in relation to the sciences in general. We agree, loo, 

* that the very general divisions' — are * much less useful subjects of 
consideration dian the subdivisions. The number and exactness of 
these last, in the physical sciences, must be regarded both as an in- 
dication and as a cause of their great advances in modern times.' 
Ed. Review, p. 195. But how could there be any subdivisions, 
without some previous divisions? And why might not universal 
science gain aS much from an accurate nomenclature and classifica- 
tion of its constituent parts, as any one particular branch of that 
universal science? Why would you, having written very well on the 
subject, proceed to contradict yourself, in a subsequent page (229), 
by assuring us, that ^ Descartes made an attempt to give a new 
system of all the sciences; an attempt excusable only when lectures 
were the only means of instruction, and when one professor might 
have been obliged to conduct his pupil through the whole circle of 
education?' why should you affirm it to be * impracticable' to 

^ frame a sytematic arrangement of the sciences? It is well, then, 
for one professor to have before him a plan of the whole instruction 
which he is to communicate, if he must teach all the sciences: but 
if those sciences are to be partitioned among different professors, 
the division should not be made, nor the parts allotted, from any 
comprehensive and systematic view of the whole! How, then, 
shoiild the distribution be made to the professors? Shall each take 
what part he pleases; two occupy one department; and all leave 
some portions wholly neglected? What renders it impracticable to 
reduce to system and natural order all the parts of human know- 
ledge? By a system of universal science, no one intends all which 
man may in future ages know, or which the Supreme Being now 
comprehends; but simply all the knowledge which the children of 
men nowTiave, which may be written down, and arranged in some 
order, so as to be presenlcd to our cofupanions and posterity. 

Stewart'* PhUosophieal DiMertation. t(ff 

To reduce what man now knows to a natural system is not imr 
practicable* This Bacon has proved by his partial success: this 
Woodward has proved; and if we have not ii^pcoved upon Wood- 
ward's systemi which is generally admitted by those who have ex- 
amined our pagef^ we nevertheless quote as our maxim, 

^ Possunt) quia posse videntur.* 

Should our plan be acted upon, in the erection of professorships 
in our colleges, and the diflferent parts of human learning be divid- 
ed according to the number of teachers employed, tne general 
complaint oi interference and disorder in the work of instruction 
would cease; and each persop, as in the suitable distribution of 
mechanical employments, would improve his own art, and become 
more thoroughly master of his own department of science. 

It would assist even our fratemi^, called the reviewers j for when 
we have a list of new publications to give, we frame a system of 
science for the occasion; but it is an alphabetical one; and so w^ 
have for No. LIU, of the Edinburgh Review, ^ Agriculture, An- 
tiquity, Biography, Botany, Classics, Chymistry, Drama, Fine 
Arts, Education, History, (xeography,* Horticulture, Law, Medi- 
cine, Surgeiy,f Anatomy ,t Mucellaneousj Natural History, Natural 
Philosophy, Novels, Romances,! Poetry, Politics, Political Econo- 
my, Philology, Topography, Theology, Veterinary Art, Voyages, 
and Travels.'! 

To those readers who are governed by authori^, rather than by 
their own judgment, we would adduce the opinion of our author, 
who, having stated some of the defects of Bacon's system, asks, 
^ Are we, therefore, to conclude, that the magnificent design, con- 
ceived by Bacon, of enumerating, defining, and classifying the 
multifiarious objects of human knowledge (a design, on the success- 
ful accomplishment of which he himself believed that the advance- 
ment of the sciences essentially depended)? Are we to conclude, 
that this design was nothing more than die abortive o&pring of a 
warm ima^^ation, unsusceptftle of any useful appUcation to en- 
lighten the mind, or to accelerate its progress? My own idi^ is 
widely different. The design was, in ev^ respect, worthy of the 
subliaae genius by which it was formed. Nor does it follow, be- 
cause the execution was imperfect, ihat the attempt has been attend- 
en with no advantage.' Dissert, p. 19. 

The Edinburgh Reviewer asserts, ^md in this we wree with 
him, that Mr. Stewart has in fact attempted a <iasaificatu>n, even 
after modestly saying that he was <unequal to the work. He did it| 
because he could not fix upon the number and the order of his dis- 
sfrtatinns and rhaptere, without doing it. ^ The .plan -of Mr. Stewart 
(wfaidi he does «ot offer indeed as any general dasufication), is to 
cilaas together all ^die sciences which regard mind, and to torm a 

' ' ■ ' . ■ I ■ I I ■ > i ■ » i » 

* Here tSie editor coraroitted an alphaibeticai anachronism, in bis rerj natural 
and soieiitific partitiod! 
f Hera be wueljprafte the Older ofnatoral affinity to tbat of tiiealphal^ 

108 Vaux' life of Btnezet. 

distinct class of those which relate to matter. This, however, evi* 
dently blends phy^al with moral inquiries/ If he did not offer 
this as a general 4psification, he neverdieless acted upon it, as if 
he thought it an arrangement of all the objects of knowledge. 

* There are at least three principles' (says the same review, p. 194)^ 

* on which such an arrangement may be attempted; by attending 
chiefly-— either, 1. to the faculty to which each object of the human 
mind most eminently relates, which is that chosen by Bacon, but 
not confined by him to science; or, 2. to the manner in which hu» 
man reason considers each of its objects, which is that chosen by 
Mr. Locke, but limited to science; or, 3. to the connexion subsisting 
between the things known themselves, which is that chosen for the 
purpose of this (Stewart's) discourse, and, like that of Mr. Locke, 
confined to science.' Ed. Review, p. 194, for Sept. 1816. A better 
method than either of these, is one, in which respect is had some- 
times to the faculties of the mind, sometimes to our manner of un- 
derstanding uiem, and sometimes to the objects of knowledge; nor 
can any good classification be made without a due regard to each 
method pointed out in the review. 

The preface to the Dissertation might have been entided, ' A 
history of different classifications of science." The subsequent 
parts of the book are employed in ^ving the author's philosophi- 
cal strictures upon Luther, Calvin, Bacon, Machiaevel, Malebranche, 
Descartes, Locke, D' Alembert, and a few other distinguished wri- 
ters:— and is rather a volume of criticism^ than a history of the pro- 
gress of metaphysical, ethical, and political science^; 

We shall expect the subsequent dissertations, which are promis- 
ed, with pleasure; we shall expect to find in them the history of 
the progress of the human mind; and in the mean time we wish 
our readers to know, that Stewart has very little orinnali^, has 
made very few new discoveries in the philosophy of the human 
mind; is indebted to Dr. Reid, his predecessor, for a system which 
is generally sound; is more splendid, but less argumentative, than 
his preceptor; and very jusdy reverences the talents of his meta- 
physical father so much as to think it a distinguished honour to be 
able to improve upon him, or to detect him in |n error. Reid sub- 
dued the rugged country, banished most of the tares, sowed good 
seed, and Stewart has entered into another man's labours, to enjoy 
an abundant harvest. It is not the lot, however, of every great 
man to be a Newton in physics, or a Reid in metaphjrsics. Stew- 
art ought to be read, and will be read, by every genuine son of 


Art. m.-^Memoirs of the Life of Anthony Benezet: By Roberts 
Vaux. Philadelphia: published by James P. Parke. 18ir. p. 136, 

£W schoolmasters have ever been honoured by the puUication 
of a biographical volume for the preservation of their memory* 

Yet schoolmasters are some of the most useful of mankind; and 


Vaux' Life of BenezeU 109 

were th^y estimated according to their real importance, would cer- 
tainly occupy a place in society more exalted than they now do. 

Anthony Benezet was a schoolmaster, respected, beloved, and 
useful, for the greater part of half a century. This is more to his 
reputation than his havmg descended from a French family of Hu- 

Sienots, which of itself is a high recommendation to all protestants. 
ut he was more than a teacher of children: he was a respectable 
author, and a correspondent with crowned heads. Some might call 
his conduct in writing to distinguished foreigners, ^ to Charlotte, 
queen of Great Britain,' and Frederic of Prussia, presumption; 
but he was an independent, and as he himself said, little ugly man, 
that deemed every human being nothing more, and nothing less, 
than his brother or sister; therefore, he wrote with freedom, when' 
he thought it might subserve the interests of humanity; compelled 
attention, and uniformly secured respect. Besides a few school-books, 
the subjects which employed his pen were, * An account of that part 
of Africa inhabited by the Negroes;^*-^ A Caution and Warning to 
Great Britain and her Colonies^ on the Calamitous State of the En» 
slaved Negroes;'^ — ^ An Historical Account of Guinea^ &c. with an 
Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave Trade;'—' Thoughts 
on the Nature of War;^ — ^ Serious Refections on the Times;'* — ' A 
Short Accountof the Religious Society of Friends;^''-<md ' ThePlatn" 
ness and Innocent Simplicity of the Christian Religion*^ 

One of his correspondents. Governor Livingston, of New- Jersey, 
wrote him that ' the piece on slave keeping is excellent, but the ar- 
{^uments against the lawfulness of war have been answered a thou- 
sand times.' p. 42. The father of Benezet was something more 
of a fighting man than his son, for when Anthony was an infant, 
persecution on account of religious opinions, made the former judge 
It necessary to withdraw &om his native coimtry. 

< To accomplish this purpose, he secured the services of a youug 
man, upon whose attachment he could rely, to accompany him beyond 

Sie of die military outposts, which then skirted the frontier of France, 
othing occurred to interrupt their progress, until they approached the 
centinel; when their adventurous friend presenting himself before him, 
displaying in one hand an instrument of death, and tendering with tho 
ether a purse of money, said << take your choice f this is a worthy family^ 
flying ^from fiersecutiony and they shall pass:" the guard accepted the 
gold, and their escape was safely accomplished.* 

Mr. Vaux remarks upon tlus transaction, that ^ so great an exi- 

Siacy probably reconciled to the mind of tiiis suffering individual, 
e method he adopted to effect it, thou|:h it offered the bold alter- 
native, which was to sacrifice either the life or the fidelity of the 
servant of the crown.' p. 3. Now our opinion is, that no man is 
bound to be faithful to a monarch in his work of persecution, but 
should renounce his allegiance; and the soldier took the money for 
permitting tiiat which he ought to have permitted without price. 
Had not uie soldier permitted them to pass, even without any pe- 
euniary consideration, he would have jomed the king in unlawfully 
aiming a blow at a guiltless life, and the Huguenot would have been 

iiO Vaux* life 9/ Benezeu 

justifiable in defending his own life at the expense of that of tfie 

- The puUic however, should not forget that Mr. Vaux is a very 
respectable and conscientious quaker: and we hope he may never 
have his life invaded, lest he should put off, to his subsequent re- 
gret, his dun coloured coat, in the hour of temptation. 

The peculiar characteristic of Anthony Benezet was readiness 
and perseverance in benevolent exertions. This was displayed in 
his taking off his coat in the street and giving it to an almost naked 
mendicant, so that he went home ^ in his shirt sleeves for another 
garment;' p. l^d; but much more unequivocally in his gratuitously 
teaching people of colour; in his donations to the needy; in the do- 
votion 01 much time to benevolent institutions; and particularly, 
in being a father to the neutrals. Of these people we shall extract 
a long account, because it is interesting, and will present both Be- 
nezet and his bionapher in a very just and favourable point of light. 

< In the miilst of these various and important avocations, a call wag 
made upon his active benevolence from a quarter, and of a nature the 
most nov^ and unexpected. But ever prepared to dispense good) he 
Obeyed the summons with promptitude and cheerfulness. It was a du- 
ty no less formidable than that of extending protection and care to a 
considerable part of a colony of people, whose condition was deplora- 
bly wretched) and wholly !i4endless. Previously to giving an account 
of his unremitted attentions to these unhappy exiles, it may be proper 
to fumish a brief nodce of their history and character, and of the most 
extraordinary and unjustifiable measures which terminated in their ba- 
nishment. These helpless strangers were a portion of the descendantif 
of those French inhabitants of Nova Scotia, who after the treaty of 
Utrecht in 17 1 3) by which the province was ceded to Engiandp were per^ 
mitted to hold their lands) on condition of making a declaration of aUe« 
giance to their new sovereign, which acknowledgmeiH of fidelity waa 
given under an express stipulation that they and their posterity should 
not be required to bear arms, either against their Indian neighbours or 
transatlantic countrymen. This contract was at several subsequent ^e^ 
riods revived, ^nd renewed to their children; and such was the nofeorio* 
ly of the compact, that for half a ceotury they bore the name, and with 
some few exceptions maintained the character of neutrals. They weiie 
a people remarkable for their piety and mildness of dispoaitioQi were 
frugal and industrious; strongly attached to the French moDavch^ and 
unalterably devoted to the Catholic religion. 

< During the war of 1765, some of the young neutrals were detected 
in conveying inteiUgence to the Indian acid French fi>rces, then acting 
against the province. This defection greatly incensed the British com- 
mander, and produced a determination to punish the whole fratenuty by 
the confiscation of their property, and the banishment of their persons 
to different places along the sea coast, from Massachusetts bay to South 
Carolina. When the period had arrived for carrying this cruel purpose 
into execution, an order was issued requiring the neutrals to assemble 
at the different ports, under the specious pretext of then having com* 
municated to them some important, and valuable information. The un- 

Vaux' Life of BermoeU 111 

laBpeeting Aeadkna, utttrly ignorant ef the tfesthiy that awidtetf thenty 
jfvre obedient to the requisition, and when colleeted at the time and 
^places appointed, they were informed that their lands were forfeited to 
the erown, that thejr themseWeft were prisoners, and were to be imme- 
diately removed from the province. Vessels being in readiness to con- 
vey them away, they were ordered on board. A scene of distress and 
oenfdsion ensued; the military who had been purposely kept concealed 
until now, made their appearance, and the embarkation was soon effected 
at the point of the bayonet, with the exception of between two and three 
hundred, who escaped and sought refuge in the neighbouring forests. 
Toward those who fled, all possible measures were adopted to coerce 
them back to captivity, the country was laid waste, to prevent their sub- 
sistence, and many of them were shot, and otherwise perished. This 
community at the time of this disastrous event, amounted to almost 
seven thousand persons, but the exact number who were banished, can- 
not be accurately ascertained; upwards of one thousand of them w^re 
sent to Massachusetts bay, and about five hundred to Philadelphia. 

The melancholy storv of their sufferings, would have awakened com- 
passion in the most obdurate heart, and intensely acute must have been 
the feelings of Benezet, when introduced to the knowledge of their 
dread&l fate. He at once adopted them as his children^ andproceeiied 
to employ every exeition in his power to soften' the rigour of their con- 
dition. As he was able to converse with them in their own language^ 
it facilitated their necessary intercourse with die inhabitants, whilst it 
was a circumstance that could not but have mitigated their sorrows,, 
since they had found in him, not only a friend who jdelded them all the 
comfort and consolation he could bestow, but an interpreter, who- was 
qualified and willing to hear, and make known the history of their af- 
flictions. On their disembarkation, the neutrals were taken charge of 
by the conservators of the poor, and conveyed to a building wliich had 
b^en qccopi^ as a lodging for soldiers. Many of them were labour- 
ing under disease, some were enCsebled by their crowded condition and 
the scanty fare of the passage, others were disconsolate in consequence 
of being separated from their nearest connexions, whilst all were deject- 
ed with the striking reverse of their former comforts and independence. 
Though the funds for their support were for a time supplied from the 
public imrse, Anthony Benezet undertook to provide for their subsist- 
eoee, lathe purchase and distribution of every thing which they required. 
To the sick and dying, he administered relief, so long as human exer- 
tion was availing, or could hope for success, and when death terminated 
xhi sufferings of any of them, he would perform the last ofiice of re- 
spect to their remains. The inconvenient construction of the barracks, 
as well as want of room in them, being ill suited to their accommodation, 
he solicited permission of his (rienc), the late pious Samuel £mlen, to 
occupy part of a square of ground owned by him in the south western 
section of Philadelphia, with buildings for the residence of the neutrals. 
The grant being promptly made, Benezet proceeded to collect sub- 
scriptions, and was soon enabled to purchase materials and erect a suf- 
ficient number of small houses, to which they were immediately re- 
moved. The supply from the public treasury ceasing on their change 
of situation, he was obliged to devise modes of employment for them 
to procure a livelihood; and among various occupations, to which he 

1 12 Vaux' Life of BenezeU 

directed their attentioDi was the manu&cture of wooden shoes and lin- 
sef cloth; the material for the composition of the latter article, was 
principally obtained by their gathering rags from the streets of the citf, 
which they washed, and otherwise prepared for the purpose. In addi- 
tion to the personal services thus rendered, he paid out of his small 
income annuities to several of the most ancient and helpless. It is 
related of him among other proofs of his kindness toward them, that 
his wife, having made unsuccessful search for a pair of blankets which 
she had recently purchased for the use of the family^ came into the 
room where her husband was writing, and expressing some surprise as 
to what had become of them, his attention was arrested, and when he 
understood the cause of her uneasiness, ^ Oh! (said he) my dear, I 
gave them some evenings since, to one of the poor neutrals." Thus, 
for several years he devoted himself to the advancement of the inter- 
ests of those people, who by death, and removal to different places, were 
ultimately reduced to a very small number. Such was his assiduity 
and care of them, that it produced a jealousy in the mind of one of the 
oldest men among them, of a very novel and curious description; which 
was communicate to a friend of Benezet's, to whom he said, << it is im- 
possible that all this kindness is disinterested; Mr. Benezet must cer- 
tainly intend to recompense himself by treacherously selling us." When 
their patron and protector was informed of this ungrateful suspicion, it 
was so far from producing an emotion of anger, or an expression of in-> 
dignation, that he lifted up his hands, and laughed immoderately.' 

On die subject of slavery Benezet thought, wrote, and felt much;' 
but he was temperate, in comparison with many mad theorists, who, 
whether it be practically right or wrong, woidd emancipate all the 
coloured people of the souuiem states at once. In a letter to Dr. 
Fothergilt, he writes, 

< I am like-minded with thee, with respect to the danger aiid difficulty 
which would attend a sudden manumission of those negroes now in the 
southern colonics, as well to themselves as to the whites; wherefore, 
except in jparticular cases, the obtaining their freedom, and indeed the 
freedom of many even amongst us, is by no means the present object 
of my concern. But the best endeavours in our power to draw the 
notice of governments upon the grievous iniquity and great danger 
attendant on a further prosecution of the slave-trade, is what every truly 
sympathizing mind cannot but earnestly desire, and, under divine direc- 
tion, promote to the utmost of their power.' 

We must not omit to mention that Mr. Benezet became an elder, 
or preacher, in the friends'^meeting, and was remarkable for settling 
disputes, (yes, even in his truly unique and peaceful society) about 
* the one thing needful,' in the most eiFectual way;— ^ potfing the 
difference out of his own pocket i'-^without sxiffering either of the 
parties to know peace was purchased at the expense of his purse, p. 
121. This proves his thorough knowledge of human nature, we 
must treat our readers by a sight of a well drawn picture of the 
dignity and effect of a quaker preacher and sermon, and then de-* 
sist from using our editorial scissors. 

< Having lived during that interesting period, when the religious com- 
munity to which he belonged was occupied with those considerations 

Diary of a Journey , into North Waka^ 113 

Wbkh led to iti pvificatini firam the mKfuOtj of timmtf^ht took an ac* 
thre part in pramotiDg that rightoona w«rk. ifia ardent and pathetic 
camnmiucatioDB an dua subject, in the aelect aaaemblies of his brethreni 
Were power&l and irresistible. He awakened the uoconcemedy con- 
firmed the wavering;) and infused energy into the most zealous. On one 
occasion^ during the annual convention of the society at Philadelphia^ 
when that body was engaged on the subject of slavery, as it related to 
its own memberS) some of whom hadoiot wholly relinquished the prac- 
tice of keeping negroes in bondage, a difference of sentiment was mani- 
fested as to the course which ought to be pursued. For a moment it 
appeared doubtful which opinion would prepondetate. At this critical 

J'uncture, Benezet left his seat, which was in an obscure part of the 
louse, and presented himself weeping at an elevated door in the pre- 
sence of the whole congregation, whom he thus addressed, * EtMofila 
9haU MOon stretch out her hands unto God;"* he said no more: under 
the solemn impression which succeeded this emphatic quotation, the 
propoaed measure received the united sanction of the assembly.* 

We cannot think the colour and cut of a man's coat, or the quali- 
ty of his cotton^vehet breeches^ of so much importance as scmie 
parts of these memoirs indicate that many good men do; nor are 
we oflended at a youtig lady's ^ full dress for a ball,' pr at Bene* 
zet's * attitude of surpriscg! and * unsophisticat(5d countenance' of 
regret, at * her gala attire.' p. 1 10. 

On the whole, we remark that Mr. Vaux has a stile neat and un- 
assuming,, but that it would have been well to have arranged in some 
order, the subjects of which his volume treats, under such heads as 
Benezefa Personal History ^ Correspondence, Publications, Benevo^ 
lence, and Public Functions. He has nevertheless written a good 
book for all, but especially for the society of Friends. 

Art. IV.— -4 Diary of a Journey into North WaleSy in the Tear 
1774; by Samuel Johnson, LL. D. Edited, with illustrative 
-Notes, by R. Duppa, LL. B. Small 8vo. pp. 226. Jennings. 
London, 1816. From the British Review. 
TF accident were to throw in our way an old pocket-book, con- 
'- taining sundry useless hints and observations by a revered au- 
Aor, whose reputation could not be increased, and might possibly 
be diminished, by an ill-judged partiality of his friends, what would 
be the part of judicious kindness? Would it not be to suppress the 
manuscript, and to leave the world content and happy with the vo- 
lumes alraidy in their possession? But supposing, as in the case of 
Dr. Johnson, the public attention was actively excited, and the fair 
hmc of the author far above the reach of posthumous detraction, 
might not a point be stretched for once, and the unfortunate pocket- 
book be presented to the gaze of rude curiosity, with all its imper- 
fections on its head?. 

^ We will suppose this delicate question answered in the affirma- 
tive, and that m consequence every relic of Dr. Johnson, of what- 
^er character or description, majr be dragged into the liriit, and 
nailed to the pillory of public criticism and reprehension. We will 


* Pbalais,bcviii.Sl. 
VOL. X. 15 

114 Diary of a Journey into Jtforth Waks» 


not ask whether the pages before us were imtrinskany worth {kA^ 
lishing, nor will we pause to inqunre what would have been the 
feelings of Dr. Johnson had he witnessed this attempt to obtrude 
him into public day in an imdress the most slovenly ana incomplete. 
We will consider the question decided. Somebody may be bene- 
fitted by the publication, and Dr. Johnson is out of the reach of 
the consequences. The only remaining consideration is the best 
mode and vehicle of publication; and here, more than in any other 
part oS the arrangement, we shall see the advantage of procuring 
an enlightened and ingenious editor to conduct the whole affair. 

The manuscript upon which Mr. Duppa has seen fit to employ 
his labours would not, if closely printed, nave filled more, perhaps^ 
than half a sheet of a common octavo work; so that, adaiitting it 
to be worth publication, few persons would have had the ^irit to 
soar beyond the frail aoid ignoble vehicle of a mcHilhly repositoqr 
for its insertion. But the editor of a posthiunous w>cirk of Dr« 
Johnson was not to be daunted by ordinary difficulties; nor could 
he be supposed willing to consign our illustrious monilist to the 
transitory pages of a periodical publication. A book-*^ weU* 
printed, well-margined, bona fide book— -must abscdutely be achiev- 
ed; and though Uiere was not matter 4br an ordinary sheet, and 
what there was might be deemed by some uii£t for publication, yet 
to have surrendered to trivial obstacles of this kina was evidcwidy 
beneath the spirit of an experienced editor. 

Let then the proposition be to manufactuK a volvnaM of two hun* 
dred and twenty-six pages out of the aforesud manmak; and difi- 
cult as may appear the solution of this interestiiig proUem^ we 
hope, with the assistance of Mr. Duppa, to render it quite intelli- 
gible to the dullest of our readers. In ^e first place, then, it will 
be expedient to dedicate the work to some friena, in two pages, to 
devote three leaves to the preface, two to the table of contents, and 
two to a fac-simile of the author's hand-writing. 

After so hopeful a beginning, future progress will be compara- 
tively easy; and we may therefore go on calmly to extend die given 
quantity of matter to the requisite dimensions. The way in which 
the concern must be managed is as follows: first provide for a mar* 
ipn, which is to surroimd the meagre page like the broad walls of a 
fortified city, in which there are perhaps scarcely twenty half-starv-^ 
ed inhabitants to be found. You may then proceed with a liberal 
assortment of spaces, and leads ^ and em and en quadrats, and other 
ingenious mechanical helps and devices, to fill up tfie page^ as be- 
sieged soldiers have been known to stuff ox-hides with straw, to 
convey an idea to the enemy of abundance within. Some people, 
however, will not be satisfied with appearances: it may be necessary 
therefore to admit two or three lines of solid text into a page— -oc- 
casionally more; but the number must never exceed ten or twelve 
at the utmost; especially if the subject-matter be so intrinsically . 
valuable as that which we are about to produce to our readers from 
the volume before us. As example is better than precept, and as it 
may be instructive to see how &r the above-mentioned rules may 
be literally carried into effect, we shall copy verbatim the first eight 

Dkuy ^ a Journey into North Wale^ Hi 

paMS of Dr. Johnson's tour. We do this the more wiUmgly, as it 
wm enable our readers to appreciate fully the laudable art of ma- 
nufacturing a book without materials, and give them an opportunity 
of Judging how far the original text was worthy of the trouble 
which Sir. Duppa has bestowed upon it. 

Page 1. * July 5, Tuesday. We left Streatbam II a. m. Price of A 
horsM S«. a mile.' Page 3. < Bamet 1. 40^. p. m. On the road I read 
Tully's Epistles. At night at Dunstable. To Litchfield, 83 miles. 
To the Swan.* Page 3. < To the cathedral.' Page 4. * To Mrs. Por- 
ter's. To Mrs. Aston's.* Page 5. « To Mr. Green's. Mr. Green's 
museum was much admired, and Mr. Newton's china.' Page 6. < To 
Mr. Newton's. To Mrs. Cobb's. Page 7. « Dr Darwin's. I went again 
to Mrs. Aston's. She was very sorry to part.' Page 8. * Breakfasted 
at Mr. Oarrick's. Visited Miss Vyse.' 

In this most interesting and edifying manner does the text pro* 
eeed for a hundred and forty^-nine pages; a victorious proof of what 
may be effected by art and judgment, in beating out a few grains-^ 
we cannot say of gold, but of the scorise and ashes of that metal, 
into a surface capable of covering by patches a considerable portion 
of a small octavo volume. The mind is not confused, as in many 
other works, by a breathless rapidity of narration, oc the eye by 
that crowded typography which allows no repose to the reader. On 
the contrary, between page and page, and fine and line, there is 
ample room fbr reflection and rumination, as well as for recording 
in the margin-such remarks as the narrative may appear to suggest. 
For example, on looking back, we find the third page occupied with 
those most important and isolated words, ^ the cathedral,' standing 
prominentiy and alone, like Stone-Henge, in the midst of a barren 
plun. Now, to many readers this wiU look like a waste of paper 
and of money; but when rightiy considered, we shall see that much 
instruction, both graphical and moral, is to be derived from the cir« 
cumstance. It is pnnting like a painter and philosopher; for who 
but beholds, in imagination, while he contemplates Mr. Duppa's 
page, this venerable cathedral reposing in unincumbered majesty in 
the midst of its spacious close, the eye expatiating upon a wide 
hot-pressed margin of paper, converted by the silent power of 
fancy into trim gravel-walks and avenues of stately elms. It would 
have been a lamentable want of taste in tiie admirer of Raphael 
and M. Angelo to have choked up the view of Litchfield cathedral 
with minor edifices. He has, tiierefbre, like a iudicioms designer, 
devoted a whole page, for tiie sake, doubdess, of picturesque effect, 
to this simple object; and we must do him the justice to add, that 
^ the catheoral' bursts upon the eye in tiie printed page, with a pro- 
minence and relief which we could wish were more constandy imi- 
tated in the erection of real stone and mortar edifices, many of the 
finest of which, not excepting some of our cathedrals themselves, 
are almost lost to the artist and the man of taste, by the circumja- 
cent biuldings. 

We have now seen with what excellent effect a few Hnes of let- 
ter-press tnay be judiciously expanded, as in the work before ua, 

118 Diary, of a Journey into North WateB. 

g^s, in order to persuade himself and his friends that he was ia 
possession of a respectable supply. 

The merits of the second page, both in the intrinsic value of the 
text, and the felicities of illustration, fully equal those of the first. 
The first line, as already quoted, consists of the word ^ Bamet^ 
which every, school-boy would thus immediately know was a sub- 
stantive, by its characteristic property of stanaing alone, Bamet 
therefore is sounded in the text; Bamet is echoed in the mar»n; 
Bamet is re-echoed in the index; and Bamet is reverberated in 
the table of contents. Had it been but a few miles further on the 
road to Wales, it would also have had the honour of a place in the 

The next passage (we quote regulairly, to prevent the suspicion 
of unfairness) is as follows: ^ On the road I read Tully^s Epistles.^ 
Index, * 't'ully^s Episdes, read by Dr. Johnson on his journey to 
Llewenney.' The same process is continued to * Litclmeld,' &c., 
till we come to the fourth page, which is peculiarly interesting, and 
runs as follows: * To Mrs. Porter^a. To Mrs* Aston*sJP TTiesc 
two prolific ladies thus msuestically fill a whole page of the text; 
but, not content with this, they aspire to the super-added dignity of 
two notices in the table of contents, two respectable notes in the 
body of the work, with two long articles in the appendix, as before 
rehearsed, and two references in the index, to which are added two 
references to the notes. 

In this manner the work proceeds throughout, though not always 
* passibus sequis;' and so beautifully do the text and mdex corres- 
pond, that 

Word nods to word, each sentence has a brother. 
One half the volume just reflects the other; 
an expedient of excellent use in impressing upon a sluggish me- 
mory those curious facts and illustrations with which tiie work 
abounds. We see the same image beautifully reflected from mirror 
to mirror, after the excellent plan of Turner s Latin Exercises— <^^ 
/itno te^-'-tu amaris a me.'^-^Guttte cavent lapides'-^aptdes caventur a 
jruttis. By way of magnifying still more the editors skill, it should 
be observed that the illustrations do not always take their leap from 
the text; but sometimes a note is elegantiy and judiciously sur- 
tmoimted upon a note. Thus, Dr. Johnson happened to n»ke a 
•cursory remark upon Mr. Middleton's dinner; tins gives occasion 
to a long quotation from Boswell; Boswell^s note leads the way to 
an article in the appendix from Mrs. Thrale; and the whole is con- 
cluded with this savory reference in the index:-*^ Cookery^ Slated 
upon by Dr. yohnson^-^^what Dr. Johnson was fond of m^ 

In this manner are broken sentences, hints, snreda, patches, the 
mutilated legs and wings of ideas, brought forward, under the ve« 
nerable name of Dr. Johnson, to produce an equivalent for nine 
^ splendid shillings.' If Johnson called a false copy of one of hia 
letters an adumbration^ what would be have said to these adombra- 
tions of an adumbration? It is thus that Mr. Duppa has aroided 
the application of his own introductory remark, that ^to publish 

Diary of a Journey into North Wales. !!• 

whatever has fidlen from the pen of a celebrated author has been 
reckoned among the vices of uie time.' 

We have endeafoured to do justice to Mr. Duppa's merit, ia 
giving this fragment of the great colossus; we are therefore not to 
be blamed if, sifter all that we have written, our readers should per- 
tinaciously reason as follows. TTiere were but two cases which 
would justify the publication of Dr. Johnson's Adversaria m a 
form like the present; a form in which they will be handed over 
the world and down to posterity. One of these cases would have 
existed, if there had really been a dearth of intelligence relative to 
this extraordinary man; but after all the volumes which have been 
written respecting him, there could be no valid plea of thift de- 
scription. His journeys, his modes of life, his habits of composi- 
ticm, and his most cursory remarks, have been faithfully and mi-* 
nutely— often too faitiifully and too minutely-— transcribed and pub-* 
lisfaed; his privacies have been violated, and every means devised 
to satiate dve pufalac curiosi^. The only other circumstance, which 
would have audiarized the puUicadon of these unfinished notes of 
hxB tour in a handsome volume, would have been the existence of 
a finished volume^ afterwards published by himself on the 8ub|ect. 
In this case ihe worid might have felt a gratification in contrasting 
the perfect page with the imperfect note-book, the magnificent 
fabric vrtth me t^At and indistinct sketch. But even, to gratify 
^s natural curiosity, materials are not wanting in the pages of 
Boswell, Hawkins, and other biographers. Their minute mdustry. 
has preserved many fi^gments, from which we may see the grada^ 
tions of Johnson^s mind, and his habits of literary labour, from the 
first slight hint to a finished Rambler. If no other portrait had 
been in existence, we should have been glad of the rough and in-* 
correct sketch now 'before us; but where so many good likenesses 
were to be procured, what need was there for the addition of a 
bad one? 

All this may be very true; but it shall not induce us to retract 
our admiration of Mr. Duppa's skill in the arcana of intellectual 
economy, and the mysteiy of book-making. We must not, how- 
ever, give to partiality what belongs to justice. The plain truth is, 
that th^ author has supplied a littie help, and the following passage 
will show that the editor has not made his Venus entirely out of 
Ae fix)th of the sea, or manufactured his ivory without a littie 
fragment of the elephant's tooth. 

' We saw Hawkestone, the seat of sir Rowland Hill, and were con- 
ducted by Miss Hill over a large tract of rocks and woods; a region 
abouading with striking scenes and terrific grandeur. We were alwajra 
on the brink of a precipice, or at the foot of a loffy rock; but the steeps 
were seldom naked: in many places, oaks of uncommon magnitude 
shot up from the crannies of stone; and where there were no trees, 
tiiete were underwoods and bushes. 

^ Round the rocks is a narrow path, cut upon the stone, which is verf 
frequently hewn into steps; but art has proceeded no further than to 
9iake the succession of wonders safely accessible. The whole circuit 

130 Royul Society of Agriculture 

is somewhtt'Iaborious; it is terminated by a g^rotto, cut in the rockte 
a great extent, with many windings, and supported by pillars, not hewa 
into regularity, but such as imitate the spots of nature, by asperities 
and protuberances. 

< The place is without, any dampness, and would afford an habitatioii 
not uncomfortable. There were from space to space seats cut out in 
the rock. Though it wants water, it excels Dovedale by the extent of 
its prospects, the awfulness of its shades, the horrors of its precipicesy 
the verdure of its hollows, and the loftiness of its rocks: the ideas which 
it forces upon the mind are, the sublime, the dreadful, and the vast. 
Above is inaccessible altitude, below is horrible profondity. But it 
excels the garden of Ham only in extent. 

< Ilam has grandeur tempered with softness; the walker congratulates 
his own arrival at the place, and is grieved to think he must ev^r leave 
it. As he looks up to the rocks, his thoughts are elevated; as he turns 
his eyes on the valleys, he is composed and soothed. 

* He that mounts the precipices at Hawkestone, wonders how he came 
thither, and doubts how he shall return.. His walk is an adventure^ 
and his departure an escape. ' He has not the tranquillity, but'the hor- 
rors, of solitude; a kind of turbulent pleasure, between fright and ad- 

* Ilam is the fit abode of pastoral virtue, and might properly diffuse 
its shades over nymphs and swains. Hawkestone can have no fitter in- 
habitants than giants of mighty bone and bold emprise; men of lawless 
courage and heroic violence. Hawkestone should be described by 
Milton, and Ilam by Pamel.* p. 38—43. 

Mr. Duppa will pardon us if we dismiss him with an assurance 
that this is the only occasion on which we shall spare his time and 
talents to such an employment as that which has g^ven birth to this 

Art. V. — 1. XlVme Exposition Publique de la SociSti Roycde tPA* 

griculture et de Botanique^ de la ville de Gandj 6, 7, 8 ef 9 Fevrier^ 

1816. Ghent. 1816^ pp. 12. 
2. Bouquet offert aux Bienjaiteurs de la SoctitS Royale d^Agri* 

culture et de Botanique^ d Gand, Par N. Comelissen, membre 

de cette soci6t6. Ghent. 1816. pp. 19. 
^HERE is, it seems, at Ghent, a society, called the Royal Socie^ 
-*- of Agriculture and Botany, the object of whose association i$ 
the advancement of agricultural, and, more particularly, botanical 
knowledge. They have annual exhibitions, and bestow premiums 
at stated periods, after the manner of the Royal Institution at Lon- 
don and our Academy of Fine arts; but that, instead of paintings 
and statuary, they display flowers, remarkable for elegance or no- 
vel^, and newly discovered or newty imported plants, distinguish* 
ed by their ranty or usefulness. 

It is their custom, also, at these exhibitions, to dedicate certain 
flowers, or groups of flowers, to particular individuals among theit 
own members, to whom that fanciful compliment is decreed. 

Thus much we have thought necessary to say, explanatory of the 
two litde productions, the tides of wmch are cited above. The 

and Botany at Ghent* \%i 

first is merely a list of uie flowers and plants exhibited, and die 
persons hcuioured widi dedicated groups. But it derives no slight 
degree of interest from the circumstance of our finding, in CQm- 
pany with his majesty die king of the Netherlands, and many other 
nign dignitaries, the names of a number of our countrymen, to 
whom the same compliment is paid. 

During the conferences between the American and British com- 
missioners, which terminated in the treaty of Ghent, several of the 
gendemen attached to the American legation became honorary 
members of this society; and it is highly gratifying to observe the 
great estimation in which they seem to have been held* 

Thus to the king of the Netherlands the votive group is formed 
of, 1* the Strelitzta Regtna^ 2* the Pyrus Japonica^ and, in almost 
immediate succession, to Mr« Henry Clay (the speaker of the house 
of Ropresentatives), 1. the Kalmta Glauca^ 2. the Kamellia Japonica. 
To Mr. Gallatin, 1. the Cy tints purpureua^ 2* tUe phyltca capitala; 
and to Mr. Adams, 1. the AJetrameria Hg'tUy and the Erica ignes^ 
cens. We also find the name of Mr. Muhlenbergh, of Lancaster, 
among a number of dukes, coimts, and barons. And to the memory 
of the late Mr. Bayard a beautiful and affecting tribute. By an una- 
nimous order of the society, a cypress was placed in die saloon, 
to which this epitaph was atuurhed. 

D. M. 


WijmiDgtonio, Columbio. 

Genere et nomine claro 

Virtutibus clarion; 

Uni ex quinque vins, 

Per S. P. Q. Americanorum 

Ut patrias res et civium jura 

Iterum a Brittsnis laesa 

Brittanos contra 


Oan^am misso; 

dum natale solum 

dulcesque et uxorem et liberas 

quos multum amabat 

felix patrix libertatis vindex 

vix reriserat et deosculatus fucrat 

Vita functo. 

Socio de se bene merito 

banc cupressum 

Functa inani sed testante luctum munere 

grata et memor 

dicat vovetque 

Societas regia Georgicorum et botSDophilorum 

- Gandavensis 

VI. die mensis Februarii, anni 1816. 

The other, entided by its author the Bouquet^ is an oration or 
address, delivered to the society by a gendeman, to whom, for his 

VOL. X. 16 

122 Mr* CorneHssen^s Oration at Ghent* 

liberal and favourable opinion, this country is under obli^tions,. 
.We subjoin a translation of the whole of it, because we wish our 
readers to know how kindly the state of science in America is, at 
least sometimes^ spoken of on the other side of the Atlantic, The 
eloquent eulogium of Mn Comelissen on the much lamented Mr» 
Bayard is in the highest degree interesting and gratifying to our 
national feelings. He has justly appreciated that distinguished man; 
and the partiality of Mr. Comelissen towards him and this country 
in fi;eneral, all Americans must be pleased to learn, and anxious to 
reciprocate. The Bouquet (except the title-page) reads in English 

Followed by certain propositions,^ read and adopted in the meeting of 
the society^ the IZth of October^ 1816. By N. Comelissen, mem- 
ber of the society, honorary secretary of the Royal Academy of 
Design, and of the Royal Society of the Fine Arts at Ghent. 
Gentlemen — I am confident that you will receive this report, 
and my propositions, with that kind attention which you always 
give to your fellow-members, when they speak of the interests of 
the science whose advancement is so dear to you; but I have a fur- 
ther claim to your indulgence: I shall make you acquainted with 
your new patrons. 

Our late president, Mr. J. X. Vande Woestyne, whose memory- 
we venerate, was pleased, in one of his annual discourses, to ex- 
plsun what he termed the mythology of botanists, and 'reflecting on 
the fortunate circumstances of the residence of tiie American mi- 
nisters within our walls, and the departure of a govemor-general 
for the island of Java, he predicted new advantages to the worship 
of Flora. * Associated with our institution,' said he, * the mi- 
nisters will join us in advancing its interests; millions of plants, 
unknown in Europe, live exiled in the vast regions which surround 
the immense rivers of America; many others grow here among us, 
which America has never .seen: under happy auspices, new ex- 
changes will enrich each hemisphere: a few months more, and 
other Azaleas^ other Andromedas^ will embellish our parterres; and 
already your gratitude has commenced these new relations.'* 

And placing himself in idea upon that fifth part of the globe, 
where the names of Holland^ Zealand^ Vandiemen^ and so many 
others, recall his country, and a thousand honourable recollections, 
' Here,' said he, * in this yet virgin soil, at the base of the gigantic 
Eucalypta, grow unknown, without glory and without a name, plants 
which, discovered and introduced among us, will excel the male- 
leuca, the metrosiderus, and the mimosa: others perhaps will equal 
in usefulness the precious tubercle imported from America, which 
is a gift of Providence to our state. 

*Our prayers,' added he, addressing the new governor, ^ shall 
precede you in the mission you are called to fill; your prince, your 

* The finest rose produced by culture at Ghent, in the summer of 1815, so- 
lemnly received the title of < Congreu of Ghent.* 

Mr. ComeltB^en^s Oration at Ghent* 123 

countiy, and science, will hope the happiest consequences. The 
Flora of Belnum will have in you a minister towards one of the 
extremities of the world, and her worship a missionary full of zeal 
and fervoun* 

Mn Van Toers and Mr. Verbeck, in their report, have given 
eloquent expression to our gratitude towards his excellency the 
baron de Capellan, who, having reached the Cape^ sought already 
to prove he had not forgotten us. Many seeds have been sent, by 
means of Mr. Van Hulthem, and plants confided to the paternsd, I 
had almost said religious tare of Mr. Mussche, have seen the light, 
grow and flourish, under a master who knows how to accustom 
diem gradually to sim-beams less ardent, and a temperature less 

His majesty the king has given an example of munificence, and 
have we not reason to expect protection and encouragement from a 
prince, descended from that William I. celebrated as the founder 
of the republic, and who has such particular daim to the gratitude 
of botanists? He founded the university of Leyden, where an 
asylum was given to two of the most renowned botanical writers 
of Belgium in the sixteenth century, Dodone of Malines and Clu- 
sius of Anas. 

It remains for me to tell you, gendemen, that our hopes seem 
not less justified, on the part of die new colleagues which the so- 
ciety has gained in the part of America where that one of the two 
Floras which sympathizes the best with ours, has fixed her 

A few details, more at length, may not displease you, since they 
will communicate information, lately acquired, respecting the actual 
state of science in these far countries, and certain learned men who 
cultivate it. 

And first to speak of. our colleagues, two only of the members 
of the congress of pacification were to have returned to America. 
One, Mr. Henry Clay, of Lexington, again occupies the station of 
speaker of the house of representatives. The other, Mr. Christo- 
pher Hughes, of Baltimore, secretary of the legation, after having 
performed with dignity another mission to Carthagena, in South 
America, now sits among the representatives of the nation. 

The four others were to have remained in Europe, as ambassa- 
dors, and two of them actually reside in that quality, Mr. John 
Quincy Adams at London, and Mr. John Russel at Stockholm. 

Mr. Bayard had been appointed to the court of St. Petersburgh. 
When about to embark at Portsmouth, feeling himself attacked by 
a disease destined to conduct him to the tomb, he longed to draw 

* Public spirit at Ghent secondSy in an acUniiable manner, all the efforts to 
augment our vegetable wealth. Few vessels sail to foreign porti, without in- 
structioxu being given to the ciqytains to bring home seeds and shrubs. Veiy 
recently Messrs. Von Aken have imported some from St Bartholomew's: the 
cocoUle of the botanic garden came from a nut given by Messrs. De Cock; and 
the lobster-fishery, on Uie coast of Norway, suggested to Mr. Von Imscdioot the 
idea of seeking there for seeds and plants. 

194 Mr, ComtSssen^'s Oration at Ghent. 

his last biwath in his own country, in that free and hat>py Columbia 
whose rights and independence he had so strenuously maintained. 
The prayer was granted by that Providence which had endowed 
this excellent man with the purest, most exalted soul. He lived 
but to behold for a few short hours his native town of Wilmington. 
The tears of his family, the lamentations of his countiymen, the 
public mourning of die senate, and above all the lively remem- 
brance of his virtues and his talents, are an honourable tribute to 
his memory; and yourselves, gendemen, have, by a tbuching and 
solemn homage, given expression to your regret, when, in your 
winter exhibition, a cypress (that sad and funereal tree, not indige- 
nous in the United States*), marked the spot where you had before 
displayed the olive of America*! 

The right honourable James Bayard was worthy that high ho- 
ms^, voted by acclamation. 

Descended from monarchical France, a monarchy formerly ab- 
solute, he professed, without moroseness, the principles of a repub- 
lican; the weight of a name eminently monarchical did not dismay 
him; he bore that name with pride. Under Francis I. he would 
have been at Marignan, the firmest supporter of his king, as in 
1814 another Bayard woiAA have combatted England beneath the 
walls of Baltimore. His family, it is said, have continued, and 
their seal presents the arms of the French warrior. But what 
could we infer from that isolated circumstance? It was in his vir- 
tues that we recognized the man ^ sans pear et sans reproche^ 

The fourth of those of the ministers who were to remain in 
Europe was Mr. Albert Galladn, a Genevan by birth. Already 
accredited as ambassador at the court of France, an unforeseen 
occurrence (the return of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the departure 
of Louis XVlII.) afforded nim a motive for revisiting America. 
Our illustrious colleague carried letters from Mr. Vande Woes- 
tpe, then our president, to the Rev. Mr. Henry Muhlenbei^, mi- 
nister of the gospel at Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, to Mr. Senia- 
min Barton, professor of medicine at Philadelphia, and to Dr. 
David Hosack, professor of botany in Columbia college, at New 
York, three men whose fame is not less European than American, 
and who are well known to those among us not unacquainted with 
the annals of science. 

You selected these three philosophers, amon^ many others, as 
men not only of distinguished merit and well-deserved celebrity, 
but possessed of that zeal and fervour which excite to make pro- 
sel)rte8, and to extend the sphere of learning, as well as that toci- 
lity of communication and amenity of manner which add so great 
a charm to scientific communications, and, more rare in other 
branches of science, seem natural to the cultivators of botany. 

* CaprestOB semperrirens. hmiu 

JBt non plebcws lactas tartala c ap re mn . Jym. 
f Olea Americaoa. Xmm. 

Mr. Comeliessn^s Oration at Ghent* 185 

It was by the sud of these men Mn Gallatin hoped to realize 
great advantage to our society. But death, who loves to disap* 
point the best founded calculations, and the best conceived hopes, 
had appointed the end of Mr. Muhlenberg. He is no more. Pro- 
fessor Barton, also, if I rightly understand, a paragraph concerning 
him, is now no more.* 

Mr. David Hosack survives; but living at a great distance from 
Fayette county, the residence of Mr. Gallatin, and from Washing- 
ton, the seat of government, how could he have an opportunity to 
see, how could he meet the ambassador, before his departure for 
Europe? Chance, or, as those among us would rather say, whose 
beautiful m}rthology admits the intervention of a Providence, in all' 
that concerns the transplanting and the growth of plants. Flora 
herself conducted Mr. Gallatin to New York, where the Elgin 
Botanic Garden, founded in 1801 by the same David Hosack, is 
now the most superb establishment in that part of the world, dedi- 
cated to that science. A communication has thus been opened be- 
tween the Belgic Flora and the Flora of Columbia, and shall not 
be interrupted; a very obliging letter, from our collea^e to the 
president of the society, attests and guarantees it: but it was not 
then known to the American botanist that Mr. Vande Woestyne' 
also was no more. 

Thus death extends his ravages to the two extremities of the 
world: he traverses the ocean with the speed of lightning; like the 
thunder-bolt he strikes now on this, now on the other side of the 
Atlantic, and the more or less distant rolling of the thunder an- 
nounces only whether the stroke has fallen near us or afar. 

Reflections upon death iiU us with sadness; yet we yield to them, 
in spite of ourselves, and that very melancholy is not without its 
charm. The man dies-— the plant dies too; but in this^ more bless- 
ed than man, whose virtues and whose talents too oft descend with 
him to the gvave, the plant, even in its scions, beholds itself suc- 
cessively embellished; cultivation adds to the dignity of its stature, 
to the graces of its flower, and each daughter surpassing in beauty 
the beauty of its mother, deserves the application of the verse of 
Horace, which contains tfiis sentiment.f Let us leave these images, 
and return to the subject of this discourse. 

Mr. Gallatin, like the baron de Capellan, was desirous to ac- 
<iuire a claim to the gratitude of European botanists, and imported 
into our continent a great number of seeds, which have been con- 
fided to (Jbr chief gardener. 

^ * I Fentnred to anticipate the inteDtums of the society, in askiDgf infonnatioii 
from Mr. GallatiD, and at the same time from Mr. Pictet, of Geneva, who, ia 
his magazine of Julv last, annoances that a new edition of the Elements of Bo- 
tany of the laie professor Barton had just been published at Philadelphia. Is 
thia Mr. Barton the same with Mr. Ber^amin SmUh BarUmj professor in the 
nmvenitjr of Pennsylrama, who was alire in the month of March last' That is 
the qnestion. Mr. Barton^ if he stiH lives, will see in the anticipated expression 
of our fears what pleasure he will give us in lemoving them, 
t O matre polchra filia putohiior. L. L od. 16. 

126 Mr. ComelisserC 8 Oration at Ghent. 

. Undoubtedly from the whole number some plants will grow that 
are already known and naturalized among us; but should there be 
but ten^ should there even be but one^ which was hitherto unknown 
to us, ought our joy to be less pure, our gratitude less lively? 

How will these sentiments be ii^creased, when, among the plants 
which are about to vegetate in our garden, we salute new species of 
the Jeffersonia^ of the Bartonia^ and of that Muhlenbergia conse- 
crated to the memory of our deceased colleague. 

In the future presents of this kind, the seeds of those plants 
which are already in our collections may be excluded. In those 
which, on our side, we transmit to the United States, we shall take 
care not to include such as we know to be indigenous or naturaliz- 
ed there. 

For this purpose we have only to consult the respective cata- 
logues of our vegetable riches, and to point out on each side those 
in which we are deficient. 

Mr. Mussche is engaged in forming our catalogue according to 
the cliCssification of Linneus. A Hortus Gandavensis^ thus conceived 
and executed, was wanting to the annals of science: it is anxiously 
expected, and will increase the reputation of its author. 

We have received through Mr. Gallatin two analogous works of 
emirrent merit. 

The first is entitled ' Catalogus Plantarum America Septentrio- 
nalis hoc usque cognitarum^ indigenarum et cicurum, auctore Henrico 

In this collection, which miist be very rare as yet in Europe, the 
learned author has classed all the plants, either indigenous or natu- 
ralized, at this day known in tHe United States. He has arranged 
them according to the Linnean system, and opposite each name he 
places five columns, which contain — the first, a word as to the cah/x 
— second, as to the corolla — third, the scientific name, in Latin, of 
the genus and species — ^fourth, the vulgar name in English, if there 
be one— and fiith, the place where the plant grows spontaneously, 
and the season at which it flourishes in Pennsylvania. 

This catalogue comprehends altogether nine hundred and eight 
genera. Many plants, which are indigenous in America, have 
been supposed originally natives of Europe, and we learn, not 
without surprise, our errors on this point; but first it will be neces- 
sary to examine if certain genera, classed by Muhlenberg under 
various names, have not been known in Europe by other appella- 

This is easily discovered, by. comparing this work with another 
which I have before me, the Hortus Elginensis of professor Ho- 
sack, in which aU the species are distinctly marked with their Lin- 
nean names, or with those given to them by Willdenow, Michaux, 
Lamarck, Curt-Sprengel, and other classic botanists. 

This interesting work is preceded by an introduction, in the form 
of an account of the establishment of the Elgin garden, near New 
York, its first patrons, and of the men who in that part of the worid 
do honour to our science. An engraving, in very elegant taste. 

Mr. Cornelissen^s Oration at Ghent* 127 

and very finely executed, placed as a frontispiece, shows the per- 
spective of the garden, its noble green-houses, and what we call 
here the orangery, 'fhese .buildings ^e an himdred and eighty 
feet in front; the whole garden like that of Ghent, and also, witii 
the exception of the part appropriated to display the plants in tlieir 
Linnean order, seems to resemble the rustic style of Kent, rather 
than the more monotonous regularity* of Le Notre, 

You will be pleased to learn that, in the same manner that our 
garden continues to be the particular object of municipal solicitude, 
that of Elgin also is under the superintendance of the state of New 
York, which purchased the establishment in 1810, and endowed it 
with great liberality. Its founder has had, as we have, the rare 
good fortune to find a gardener not less intelligent than active and 
zealous. Mr. Frederick Pursh has been to Mr. Hosack what Mr. 
I. H. Mussche is to us. 

I lay these two works xipon the table; but you will permit me, 
on this occasion to make a remark, which occurred to me in search- 
ing for the Azalea in the Elgin garden. Would you think it? I 
found but three species — ^the nudylora^ th» pontica (for this is also 
described as indigenous there), and the viscosa; all the others are 
called so many varieties merely — ^the glauca^ for instance, the odo" 
rata^ and the vitata of the Azalea viscosa; the calendulacea of the 
Azalea pontica^ the alba^ the btcolor^ the carnea^ the coccinea^ the 
cutilans of the Azalea rmdiflora. 

Am I not authorized to infer, from this example, that many 
amon^ us are accustomed to multiply too far what we call the spe- 
cies of exotic plants? I conceive that culture, other climates, and 
new habitudes, change or modify the colour and form of a flower, 
and the stature even of the plant; but I cannot believe that the art 
of the botanist can create a new species^ if I rightly imderstand 
that word. 

But little initiated in the science, and therefore the less able to 
express my idea with clearness, I perhaps advance an opinion that 
may appear unfounded and easily refutable. Yet at least let me 
once more rejoice in the happiness of our littie comer of the world, 
to be richer than America herself in American plants. 

Among the other works which Mr. Professor Hosack sent to the 
society, you will find the first volume of ' Transactions of the Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society of New York,' instituted by an act 
of the legislature of that province, in 1814. 

This volume, in large quarto, printed with a magnificence of ty- 
pography equal to the most correct and most elegant specimens that 
we have in Europe, is perhaps the only copy on this continent: it 
is but lately printed, and contains the proceedings of 1815. We 
find in it nothing particularly relative to botany or agriculture, but 
it includes memoirs on zoolog)% ichthyology, and ornithology, 
which are of the greatest interest. The future volumes will, with- 
out doubt, contain some which will enter the sphere of our re- 
searches and our studies, and which it will be desirable to collect. 

128 Mr. ComeltBsefCa Oraiion at Ghent. 

By an order of the faculty of Columbia college, it is directed 
that at appointed times each professor shall give an analysis of his 
course of lectures. This analysis, in a very lucid form, is here 
added, entitled ^ Syllabus of tne Course of Lectures on Botany^ 
&c. by Dr. Hosack.' 

Some other works, appertaining m<Mre to medicine and surgery, 
Mr. Hosack seems to have chosen, because they are of a recent 
date. Among these you will distinguish a very interesting treatise, 
called *' Observations on the Laws governing the Communication 
of Contagious Diseases,' &c., as well as a description and method 
of cure ox a singular case of anthrax. 

You will observe also a * Treatise on Mineralogy,' by Dr. John 
Murray, printed last June, at New York. 

These books are probably as yet unknown in Europe; and per- 
haps you will think fit to agree to the proposal which I make to 
you, of referring them either to Mr. professor Veerbeeck, your 
secretary, or to Drs. Van Rotterdam and F. Vander Woestyne, 
for them to examine whether these writings do not contain some 
novel observations, some truths hitherto unperceived, which it 
would be useful to make known in Europe, by means of the jour- 
nals devoted to medical and chirurgical discoveries. 

Finally, as you have -already accepted a copy of a splendid 
work on the American war of independence, given to me by Mr. 
Paine Todd, stepson of the president, Mr« Madison, and secretary 
of Mr. Gallatin, at the congress of Ghent, I pray you to receive a 
collection of numbers of a journal of knowledge and literature, 
published at Philadelphia, under the tide of the ^ Analectic Ma- 
gazine.' The set is not complete; but <hat very circumstance is not 
without interest, since the death a^ne of Mr. Bayard, from whom 
I received them, prevented his lending me the remaining numbers. 

I pray you, gendemen, to deposit these American productions in 
the library of die society. Inhabitants of a province so agricultu- 
ral as Flanders, and of a town so distinguished among commercial 
and manufacturing cities, you can never receive with indifference 
any thing which (h*aws you closer to a free and enlightened nation, 
that, like you, aims to found her prosperity on the improvement of 
her agriculture, the freedom of her commerce, and the develop- 
ment of her industry—^ nation on which Providence seems also to 
intend, at some day, to bestow the empire of the seas — an empire 
from which she will exclude all other nations, if the spirit of ambi- 
tion, that sure precursor of national decay, lead her astray, but 
which she will share with all, if principles of equity and modera- 
tion continue to direct her in the path of her true interest. 

I conclude this report, gendemen, with requesting the vice-presi- 
dent to submit to you for deliberation, 

' 1. Whether it is not expedient that the president be instructed 
to render, in the name of the society, our thanks to his excellency 
Mr. Albert Gallatin, ambassador m>m the United States at the 
court of France, and, through him, to Mr. David Hosack, profes- 
sor of botany and materia medica at New York. 

Mn 'C^melis»€nh Oration at Ghent* 129 

. 2; Whether k is not caqpie^iem:, i^ce the niunbior of our mem- 
bers IB not limited by rule, to associate ivith us some in diat part 
of the woildr, as well for the sake of repairing our losses as to ex- 
tend pur botanical and ag^ultural relations. 

You will see more c]learly the fitness and utility of this measure, 
vhon you insccdlect that among the Americans collected at the con- 
gress of Ghent, the majority were not familiar with the study of 
botany, perhaps because, by taste, or the hab»t of different studies, 
they had acquired a pa^efere&ce for other sciences, whether of lite- 
n^ure, or history, or the fine arts; perhaps because the elevated 
stations which ^ey are called to fiU impose on thein other cares 
and duties, claming more seriously their attention. 

We have therefiare ne^d to associate witl^ us new correspondents, 
who may be initiated in the principles of the science, or who culti# 
vale k with inteUigence and cgn amfre. 1% would be useful also to 
choose such, whose abodes are separated by great distance. Fi- 
gllre to youTselyes the vast e^^tent of the United States, which, in 
Aeir different hidtudes, possess all the various temperatures of our 
eoDljiiei^ The Andromeda rfionAoidalis^ which you expect from 
Florida, caimot be :sent to ^ou by the botanists inhabiting the shores 
pf Ontarip: the distance is equal to that from Spsdn to the north 
•f £«ffope. The season is so much later in some of the provinces 
than in others, that the aulhor of the ^ Catalogue of Americaq 
Plants' takes care to observe, that the same species of Muhkn^ 
kefgia flowers in Georgia during the month of March, and in Phi- 
ladelphia not until June. 

It IbllowB, therefore, I conceive, diat in selecting correspon^tots 
m c^itaia parts of ^e United States of America, more or less dist 
tant from each other, we should be governed by the same rule as 
in makmg such a choice at Paris, London, Edinburgh, Berlin, and 
places separated from us by more considerable distances. 

The partiality natural to Americans towards a town which re- 
ceived their ministers with so much affection, and where was con- 
cluded a pacification that they regard as the honourable recom- 
pense of their firmness and courage; this partiality will fiEu:iiitate 
our communications; and I dare confidendy to assure you, that, in 
these vastiond rich dAmains of Flora, where so many' flowers and 
I^ants, yfX unkncmm, await hath their Lrnnean appellation and Tif I 
may use the expression) the sacrament of their classification — ^wtiere 
eacii nymph, ^ach dryad, which animates them, awaits her worship- 
pers, die friends of the ^|oddess will hasten to reciprocate our 
prayeiB. . Are pot our religionf our rites the same? Are not the 
d'G^&as of d>e immortal Swede jMropagated by hb apostles and 
ihtxr sieoph^t^^ UBflmawMOsIy received: And Flora, on the summit 
pf the Alps, ^ai^.of <he Pyrenees, as amon^ the anfractuo»ties of 
lb» CoxdiUeras and of Caucasats, in the plains watered by the £8- 
cauty ,aa oaa the bordevs of the Ihames, at Geneva as at Rome, is 
ahc not evety where the object of the same universal adoration, 
whidh smites all whopjofcas Aim.^ sanig TOmmnnion? 

' VOJU X. 17 

190 Mr. Comelusen^s Oraihn at Ghent. 

If you adopt my proportions, I will have the honour te place 
before you a hst of )& number of American botanists and amateurs, 
who have deserved well of science. I have more particularly de* 
signated y?«e, among whom I propose as an honorary member, 

Mr. Jefferson, already admitted to many learned societies in 
Europe, formerly president of the United States, and now cultivate ' 
ing his estate at Monticello: 

And as corresponding members, 

1. Mr. Stephen Elliot, president of the Literary and Philoso* 
phical Society of North Carolina. The Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg 
records the services received by him from Mr. Elliot, in his bota<- 
nical researches. 

2. Mr. William Bartram, a relation, perhaps son, of Mr. John 
Bartram, to whom we owe certain botanical observations, during a 
journey which he made to the lakes of Canada. Mr. W. Bartram 
is himself a yeiy distinguished botanist. 

3. Mr. Frederick Pursh, the gardener at the Elgin establish* 
ment, who in that quality has the best opportunity to know and ap» 
predate the t-espective wants of the two gardens, a learned man 
besides, and well skilled in the knowledge of American plants. 

4. Mr. Gaspard Wistar Eddy, nephew of Professor Hosack, 
who, although still young, has gained a name among the pujnls of 
that professor, by discoveries recently made in his botanical re- 

If, according to the rule, you receive as candidates the botanists 
or friends to the science, whom I have just named, I htft my fel- 
low-members to support my proposition, and to submit me nomi- 
nations, in the usual form, to the first general meeting which shall 
lake place^ 


The meeting adopted the above report, and the question b^ing 
put on the propositions with which it concludes, they were referrea 
to the first general meeting of the society, and tiie proceedings or- 
dered to be printed. 

F. VERBEECK, Perpetual Secretary. 

There follows a note, containinff a list of Americans, whom Mr. 
Comelissen recommends as worthy of being elected members of 
the society. We find the names <^ 

Dr. Benjamin S. Barton, professor at Philadelphia, William Bar- 
tram, author of several botanical works at Philadelphia, Peter BiUy, 
of Virginia, Zaccheus Collins, of PhibdelpMa, Dr. Manasses 
Cutier, of Massachusetts, Gustavus Dallman, of South Candina^ 
the Rev. Christian Danke, of Nazaretii and Canada, Stephen EU 
liott, of Beaufort, S. C. Dr. Frederick Kampman, of Pennsylvania, 
Manias Kin, the Rev. Samuel Kramsch, of Soinh Caio&m, Jdm 
Lyon, Bernard M^Mahon, Dr. James Mease, of Philadelphia, Dr. 
S. L. Mitchell, of New York, Christopher MuUer, of tiie wesDem 

Eart of Pennsylvania, Henry Moore, of Tennessee, P. £• Mahk&- 
erg, of New York, Frederick Pursh, of New York, the.Rev^ 
Jacob Van Vleck, of Pennsylvania* 


Akt. VI. — Medicai Jurisprudence. Foderi Medicine Ufale^ 8vo* 
6 vols. Paris, 1813. Orpla Toxocologie ginirale considi'S^ soui 
les Rapports de la Phystologie^ de la Pathologie^ et de la Midicine 
ligatey Paris, 1815.^— Prom the Journal of Science and the Arts, 

OUR attention has been directed to the science of Medical Juris- 
prudence or State Medicine^ as it is termed in Germany, by some 
recent publications of considerable merit. As a science it is not 
known m tUs country^ nor does it form any part of the necessary 
studies of the medical practitioner. In the present paper, we shall 
point out what we consider to be its leading branches; and we ar« 
aoxonvinced of the benefit which would result to mankind from a 
more general attention to this science, that we shall not apologise 
for having entered on a subject which may probably be considered 
aot to be immediately withm the limits of our journal. The sci» 
ence of Medical Jurisprudence comprehends the evidence and 
opinions necessary to be given in courts of justice, by practitioners^ 
on all subjects relating to their profession: according to the English 
laws, the testimony or the opinions of medical men are not direct^ 
Iv required, thou^ it is usual in certain cases, to require their evi- 
oence on professional subjects: public attention has been of late 
called to the laws now in force relating to coroner's inquests^ and 
the mode in which they are administered. This subject is intimately 
ccmnected with Medical Jurisprudence. Without wishing to discuss 
tile propriety of the laws for the punishment of suicide, so far as they 
relate to the forfeiture of property, and the giving publicity to the of- 
fence; there can be litde question but that the exposure of the body 
of the suicide is not consonant to the feelings of tne present age; and 
yet it cannot be forgotten, that within a short perioa the body of an 
unfortunate wretch was, in open day, dragged in procession along 
the public way, headed by the civil power. Very slight evidence^ 
or rather no evidence at all, but merely the discretion of the coro- 
ner, is sufficient to procure a verdict of lunacy; and that such ver- 
diets are often corrupdy procured, no person who has attended to 
the proceedings of coroners' inquests, can have any doubt. It may 
be questioned whether an ignominious burial has any direct tenden- 
cy to the pravention of suicide; and unless it is clearly established 
that it has, in an enlightened age like the present, so barbarous and 
disgusting a law should be aboBshed, or at least why should not the 
yery fact of suicide be considered in all cases, as affording evidence 
of insanity? It is of the utmost importance to the due administra- 
tion of justice that the evidence before the coroner should be com- 
plete and correct. To insure this, it will be requisite that enact- 
meaaU should be made, at once reguladng the mode of producing 
such evidence, and the class of persons by whom it is to be given. 
Several instances of the grossest neglect and irregularity in the evi-^ 
dence of medical persons have come to our knowledge; the follow-* 
ing is one of the most flagrant:— a servant had died in consequence 
#f poison; it was wfifontd she had taken it purposely, though nbm 

132 Medical yurisprudtnce. 

stated that it was . taken by her as a dose of salts which had beea 
carelessly left about by another servant: there was, however, rea^ 
son to suspect that she had been pregnant, and had lately miscarriied. 
The prejudice was considendbly excited in favour of the deceased 
having taken the poison accidentally. Two medical gendemefl of 
eminence attended to examine the body; die apothecary who waa Id 
tfive evidence beibre the coroner, was also in attendsnce; and a§, 
m>m the early part of the examination, there was litde quesdon but 
that the woman had been pregnant, on the examination proceeding, 
the apothecary actually left die room, slating, that as he was tc^ be 
exammed before the coroner, if he gave any evidence which might 
seem prejudicisd to thexharacter of the deceased, it would serioua^ 
ly affect his professional interests in the neighbourhood! Now, in this 
case, independendy of false evidence having been in fact g^vm be* 
fore the coroner, injustice wajs done to the servant who was suppo^ 
sed to have brought the poison into the house. In order to insure 

E roper attention and skiU on the part of medical persons who may 
e called in to give their evid^ice before coroners, we should 
propose that in ad^tion to the usual couree of education, aB 
medical students should be required to attend a oertain number 
of lectures exclusively on the subject of Medical Jurisprudence, in 
which their attention would be particularly called to those parts of 
the science of medicine, respectmg which they would be liaUe to b^ 
called upon to give their opinions, in courts of jusdce, widi pecuU* 
ar directions as to the nature of the ]»xK>f required, and the effect 
of their testimony. In addition to this, we conceive much benefit 
would arise from the prescribing particular rules to be adopted ilk 
all cases of sudden or suspicious death; and making it imperative 
on the coroner to employ particular medical persons (who should 
be remunerated); and for this purpose a certam number of practi- 
tioners in each county, who had previously passed such examina^ 
nation as might be thought fit, should be named as the persons tso be 
employed by the coroner; and that every such ^examination thoidd 
be made according to certain directions to be determined on, and a 
report of it in writmg signed and sworn to by the person making it. 
In order to facilitate the mode of making these examinations and 
iheborts, tertain printed fbrmuke mifht be devised, stating die mode 
of examination to be pursued, and the results; such fermubfc, dF 
course to be varied according to circumstances. This is the mode 
adopted in Prance, and in other countries in Europe, and from the 
adoption of which we conceive mudi benefit woulo arise. The rt^ 
porter might still be examined viva voce^ either before die cotoner, 
or on die triaL ^ Independent of the imm>vement which would re^ 
suit from this, in the administration of justice, much good would 
arise from the removal of doubt and suspicion in the pubhc, ^iriuck 
is often misled by the evidence given before coroners, on medical 
subjects, owing to the unfitness .of the ^rsons employed. There 
can be litde question, that had the exammatioBs and analj^is been 
skilfully made,no public disturbance or discontent would haveaiisen 
in the case of Elizabeth Penning, who was executed for an attempt 
to poison the fiunily of a stationer, in Chancery-lane. 

The iftvfdMfie df* medkal men, amongst Inwyers, is a siibfek cf 
general animtttdvenlon; and indeed it is impotsihle to refer to' tlio 
several ptit^d trials, such as those of Spencer, Cowper, Donellan, 
and odiers, without astonishment at Ae inconsistencv and uncer- 
tuity which seems to have pervaded the opinions of former medi^ 
eal pYactilioners» 

It may idso be dxpected, that much good will result from tfa« 
eanirassing &e points necessary to be attended to, in examinationa 
of die natm« we have mentioned, and that greater skill will be 
attained, and impdrtant discoveries made, in the application of 
remecUes in cases of suspended animation, the administration of 
p^don, 8te. respecting which litde attention seems to have beefi 
paid by the generality of the present practitioners*— at least those 
dF die second cUiss; and it is amongst die second class that skffl 
and knowledge in ktih branch of science is particularly required, 
as tiiey are most firequehtiy called upon in cases of poison, Sc* 

The fil^t directions respecting the consulting medical men, in 
the administration of justice, in any modem cede, is in the Con- 
stitutio Criminalis Cartdina of Charles V., which enacts, that the 
evidente of^ medical men shall be taken in cases of violent deatii, 
poison, child murder, &c.; and now, by tiie laws of most of the 
states in the continent of Europe, their evidence is required in 
similar cades* The code Napoleon, one of the most singular pro* 
ductiote of modern jurisprudence, gives, at considerable lengdi, 
the rules to be observed in making the necessary reports, and in 
the testimony on medicd subjects connected witii jurisprudence. 

The most distinguished works on this science, amongst the Ger* 
mans, are, die Pandects Medico-legales, of Valentini, 1702^ the 
works of Plenk, Frank, and Sikora, together with the Colatio 
Opusculorum Selectorumad Medicinam Forensem spectantium: 
curante Schlegd, If 87. 

Amongst die Italians, Paul Zacchias is most distinguished. * 
Ambitise Par( was the first in France who treated on this subject; 
and the Medicine Legale et Police M6dicale, of M. Mahon; ^ the 
Course of Legal Medicine,^ of M. Belloc; the Medicine L6gale 
of M. Fodet6, and the Toxicology of M. Orfila, are amongst the 
most eminent of the modem French works on the subject. In this 
country, with the exception of the Lectures of Dr. Duncan, of 
Edinburgh (where there is a professorship, for the study of medi- 
cal jurispruaence), We have no publication of any note, aldiough 
there are several essa3rs, on particular subjects relating to mediod 
iurisprudence, of considerable value. Amongst the foremost is to 
be reckoned the Paper of Dr. W. Hunter, on the uncertainty of 
the signs of murder in bastard children. 

We shall conclude our remarks on diis subject, with a concise 
enumeration of the subjects embraced by the science of medical 
jurisprudence, whidi we shall notice in the order in which they are 
treated ot in die work of M* Foder6, which, though very pmlix^ 
and-wfltlen without either great professional skill or talent, contains 

134 MiScal yurUprudttM. 

much curious infonnatioii on the science, as well as die ^^vnigiis of 
most of the' preceding writers on the subjects discussed. 

The physical qualities of man form <me of the first and most 
important subjects of -inquiry. According to the Uws of all civi** 
lized nations, there are certain fixed epochs when reason is to be 
considered as sufficiendy developed for the exercise of certain actsi 
such as the dominion over propert^-^^—imion of sexes^-holding of 
offices, &c. Majority is to be ponsidered a civil institution, vary- 
ing in different nations and climates. In the debates on the code 
Napoleon, no point was more discussed than, whether the period 
of majority should be fixed at twenty«one or twenty-five; but the 
former was determined on, except in the case of i>ower to contract 
^marriage, and the discharge of some particular functions*- Many 
cases may arise, and have arisen in this countiy, in which the age 
of a party is onlv to be ascertained by presumption, and it is co- 
vious that the opmion of medical men, on this subject, must have 
considerable weight. A considerable portion of tne first volume 
of M. Foder6's work is taken up in discussing the physical powers 
of man, at different ages, as far as regards his legal capacities— the 
commission of crime, and infliction of injury. The Mi^cine L^^- 
gale of M. Foder6 contains a very detailed commentary on the 
code Napoleon, which, like many other codes, attempts to establish 
a scale of the physical powers of man, by which their faculties 
and incapacities are to be ascertained. Zacchias, one of the moat 
sensible writers who have considered this subject^ which, it seems, 
has (fruidessly enough,* in our opinion) occupied the attention of 
many jurists and medical writers, admits, that the legal period of 
age must arise fn>m arbitrar). pr^sumptio^ rather tiian irom any 
rules resulting from observation of nature, whose variations are 

Many important points arise on the question when tiie period of 

S station ceases: from forty-five to fifty is the ordinary time, though 
ere are exceptions. This point was much canvassed in the Dou- 
glas cause. Haller, speaking upon this subject, mentions maav 
women who have borne long after fifi^, and who,- it may be wsioy 
experienced a sort of second youth — ^have borne, as he states, up 
to seventy. The English law admits of no presumption, as to the 
time when a woman ceases to have children, though this enters into 
most other codes. In England, property, which reverts to the pa- 
rents, in default of issue, is frequently tied up till after their death, 
though the moral probability of their having issue may long have 
ceased. Many curious points seem to have arisen, in France and 
other countries, with respect to identity; and the subject, in all the 
treatises, is noticed at considerable length. 

The next point is, the relative and absolute duration of life. In 
case of absence, the English law admits of great latitude; and a» 
each particular instance is determined b^ a jury, there is very litde 
certainty as yet established; great practical convenience, however, 
would result from fixed rules on th^s subject. The relative morta* 
li^ of the sexes is also ccmsidered at length by M. Foder6« 

MeAcal Juruprudence. 155 

The presump^on of survivorship, amongst persons perislung by 
the same mischance, as shipwreck, sufibcation, &c. When no po- 
isitive evidence can be procured, as to the exact periods of their 
death, is also another p(Mnt of which the foreign jurists have writ* 
ten much, but respecting which we have no positive rules in this 
coimtry. It frequently becomes a question of considerable impor* 
tance, in the devolution of property, to ascertidn which of two per** 
-sons survived; as parent or child, testator or legatee, &c. The 
laws of several nations have admitted of arguments, drawn from 
the relative supposed physica}^ powers of the parties to sustun life, 
such as are to be inferred from the<iifference of age, sex, &c» 

In imitation of the civil law-codes, the code Napoleon has 
attempted to lay down particular rules for the devolution of pro- 
perty, in cases of this nature: we extract the following passages:?— 
* Persons dying, who are the legal representatives to each other, 
without it being known which died first, the presumption of survi- 
vorship is to be determined by the circumstances of tiie case; and 
in default thereof, by the strength, age, and sex of the parties. If 
those who shall so die togetiier shall be both under sixteen, then 
tiie eldest shall be presumed to have survived: if they were all 
above sixty, then the youngest shall be presumed to have survived; 
if some tmder fifteen, and others above sixty, then the first shall be 
presumed to have survived; if all are above fifteen, and under sixty, 
then the male is presumed to have survived, if the ages are equd, 
or the diiference does not exceed a year; if they were of the same 
sex, then the presumption of survivorship, according to tiie order 
of nature, Is to be adopted, and the younger is supposed to have 
survived the elder.' In this there is an odd mixture of arbitrary 
rules, and an attempt at reaching the probable trutii, by a compara- 
tive estimate of the physical powers of man; besides, many objec- 
tions might be made to the above rules, as far as they attempt to 
regulate, on principle^ the doctrine of presumptions, we conceive 
tiiat the simplest law, and the one that would most probably come 
nearest to natural justice, would be to enact, that in all cases, the 
order of nature should be presumed to have taken place, and there- 
fore, if father and child died, whatever their probable physical 
powers, the child should, as in the course of nature, be considered 
as having survived the father; and so in all cases of succession. 
The English law, on this subject, is entirely defective, and althoiirii 
there have been questions, in which it was necessary to decide 
which was the survivor, in the absence of all but presumptive evi- 
dence, it does not appear that any decision was ever made, or that 
any principle of law was admitted, either original, or as adopted 
from the civil code; whereas, if some fixed rule were adopted, par- 
ties at least would not be ignorant of the nature of their rights. . In 
a cause lately before the Court of Chancery, which was the case of 
a legatee and testator being shipwrecked m the same ship, it was 
sent by the master of the rrils, to be tried by a jury which survro* 
ed^ thourii he admitted there was a toUd absence of all evidence^ en 
which uey could found their verdict; whereas, had some princi- 

1 36 JfeiHciMt yumfrwknc^. 

pie, wi<h regard to legatee9 and twtmm iymE% beea ad^ted, no 
question comd have arisen. Notwitbstaiidang the nianifest fallacy 
of all reasoning tending to prove who wa^ ]^e survivor, frpm the 
relative physic^ faculties ot the deceased, it seems to have been ^ 
frequent subject of speculation amongst the writers on medic^ 
jmisprudence; and a very considen^e part of the second volume 
of Foder6^s work is devoted to the consideratioti of the modes oS 
ascertaining the probable survivor, in cases of death, by shipwreck, 
ire, cold, suffocation, &c. 

The consideration and study of the different defects of the 
mind, form an important branch of the study of niedical jurispru- 
dence. Pinel has divided the diseases of the mind.into four classes; 
maniajcr general delirium; fnekmcholia^ or eiu:lusive delirium; dc" 
menthy or obliteration of diought, and idiotiam^ or abolition of the 
ijatellectual faculties* But the diseases of the mind are so varied, 
that it is difficult with certainty to class symptoms, admitting of 
such infimte variety. However, questions, at once involving life 
and property, are frequendy deprndent <hi the judgment ana the 
evidence of the jpractidoner. From insanity are to be distinguishp 
ed hysterical aflfections, the effects of depraved instincts, jealousy, 
and md>riety, excesses arising from suclden accessions of peculiar 
passions of die nund, and ten^rary alienations of reason, arising 
(ipom disease. In considering the faculties of man, many curious 
questicms arise on the moral and physical powers of those who- are 
bom deaf and dumb, as to their capacity of performing the differ^ 
cnt functions of life, and how far they are amenable to punishnient 
for the commissioii of crimes. In this country, diese a^ questions 
on which a jury alone decide. Another Question, in which the tes*- 
timony of medical meh is of considerable importance, is the con- 
sideration how far persons, affected by disease, executing a will, 
are to be considered in a situation to judge of the propriety of the 
act executed by them. 

. Of Marriage. — Few, if any, questions are now Ukdy to arise in 
£nglax|d, relating to the time and capacity of paities to marry. 
The subject of marriage involves that of impotence^ which may be 
divided mto absolute and perpetual, relative and accidental, or tenur 
porary, curable, and incurable. 

Pregnancy ^-'^o one part of legal medicine involves so many 
important questions, as conception and chUdbirth; and none are 
more entan^ed with difficidties. These points, fitHn their imp<Mv 
tance, call for the greatest care and circumspectaocu The signs of 
conception are divided into rational, particular, and sensible; and 
notwithstanding the advancement of science, the knowledge both 
6f the one and the other of these signs, is sometimes involved in 
great difficulty, and firequ^ut errors occur, in the judgment of the 
most experienced practitioners, even when women have no motive 
for concealment. The question ot superfoetation has given rise ta 
much learned discussion: M. Foderk sides with Button, Halkr, 
and the other advocates for it>— «nd dnnka it is of nus occurrence^ 



MkAcal Jurisprudence* 137 

hut iK>t imjpossible. A case of a woman who had twins, cine 
white and the other black, is mentioned b^ Buffon* 

The symptoms of delivei^, and how far they are to be distin* 
guiahed from all other utenne excretions, form another important 
topic; as also the period of time after delivery, the symptoms may 
be ascertained with certainty. The capacity of women in labour 
to render proper assistance to the foetus, so as to preserve life. The 
determining whether the foetus died before or after delivery-— upon 
this point much difference of opinion exists, and it is deserving of 
considerable attention, in order to enable the practitioner to do jus- 
tice, in giving his opinion. 

UterO'gestation. — ^The next object of discussion is the period of 
utero-gestation. In all other animals, the period of utero-gestation 
is very constant. Haller states, that the time of going witn young 
is very regular in animals, but that it is not so regular in women. 
He gives references, by which we read of a woman going ten, ele- 
ven, twelve,* thirteen, and even fourteen months. Hippocrates says, 
that ^he can allow the 'possibility of a child being bom at ten 
months, but not later.^ The former system of France allowed ten 
months. By the code Napoleon, the legitimacy of a child, bom 
three hundred days after the dissolution of the marriage, may be 

. Dr. Clarke, in his lectures, published under the tide of London 
.JPractice of Midwifery, treats the possibility of the periods ex- 
tending^ beyond the for^ weeks with ridicule, though contrary to 
the opmion of many verv distinguished practitioners; and indeeo, 
as some have conceived, contrary to reason; for as the foetus re- 
ceives its nonrishment from the mother, the probabilily is, that any 
very material alteration in her constitution may cause the retarda- 
tion of the maturi^ of the infant. Besides, the fact of irregulst- 
ri^, in the time of utero-gestation, has been satisfactorily estab- 
lisned, in the case of animals, when no motive for prejudice or 
concealment can arise. With regard to the legitimacy of children 
bom in wedlock, cxily two reasons are allowed against th^ legiti- 
macv of the child by the code Napoleon; viz. absence of the hus- 
band, or his being suFected by some disease, by which it is to be 
inferred it is impossible he should be the father of the child. Non- 
access is the only sround of disputing the legitimacy in England; 
but die rule of eviaence, in this respect, has been of late very ma- 
terially altered, by the opinions of me Judges in the Banbuiy peer- 
age; who have, it is conceived, introduced an anotnahua envision 
respecting the evidence of access, dividing it into access sand ^ene- 
nN(n;e access; so that if this distinction be hereafter recogmzed^ 
jBttch uncertainty may be introduced respectixig the title and suc- 
cession to property, and a new and difficult subject will demand the 
attention of the medicai student. 

In discussing the time when the foetus may be supposed to be 
perfect, the faculty of l^eipsic, with great complaisance, determin- 
ed that a child, bom five montiis and eight days after t^e retum of 
the husband, might be considered as legitimate, and that children 

TOL. X. 18 

13S Medical yurisfrtuience, 

at five months i^trt often perfect and healthy. Valenttniy who re- 
ports this decision, is also gallant enough to concur in it. 

B7 the English laws, an husband is entitled to a life interest in 
the estate of his wife, if he have a child bom alive; and the expres- 
sion of the old law is, if the child should be heard to cry. Some 
cases, where children have been bom alive, but have not uttered 
'^y ^^ though they have breathed for a continued period, have 
caused much learned discussion; and a case in 1806, in the Exche- 
quer (where the lips of an infant had moved after birth, but no cry 
was heard), gave rise to much curious evidence, particularly by 
Dr. Denman, who was of opinion, that the modon of the lips, im- 
mediately after birth, was not a decisive proof of the presence of 
the vital principle, and distinguished between uterine and exterior 
life, the latter beine called into action by tiie operation of the air 
on the lungs. Each case of this nature, in England, is determined 
by a jury, on its particular circumstances: according to the civil 
code, idem est non nasci^ et non posse vivere. 

Till the relaxation of the severity of the laws in this country, re- 
lating to infanticide, many imfortunate mothers suffered death for 
crimes they never committed. Prejudice on the part of the juries, 
and ignorance on that of the practitioners seem to have conspired 
to destroy the wretched mother. Dr. William Hunter, in his able 
paper on infanticide, was one of the first who had the credit of 
turning the public attention to this subject. No one has written 
more eloquentiy in favour of the female character; and from the 
opportunities of observation, which his extensive practice afforded 
him, there is no one whose opinion is entitied to higher respect. 
Even, now, however, it may be doubted, whether mere are not 
some who suffer unjustiy, when the incapacity of the mother, to 
assist her infant in a concealed delivery, the probable accidents 
arising from position, fainting, and delirium, are considered: the 
horror excitea by the idea of a mother's murdering her offspring, 
may still prevent noankind from judging of the case of the infan- 
ticide with impartiality; added to this, the natural appearances have 
not unfrequently been attributed to violence; and a case has been 
noticed as having occurred a few years ago, where the sutures and 
fontenelle were mistaken by an i^orant practitioner, for fractures 
of the skull. That to form an opinion, which is to decide the fate of 
H fellow being, on a subject so difiicult, and presenting so extensive 
a field for observation, requires the narrowest scrutiny and attention^ 
need not be noticed; and the probable improvements in our skill 
respecting these matters, may be easily imarined, when it Is con- 
aidered, how short time since, the lungs, swimming in water, was 
considered as decisive evidence, that the fotus had inspired air, and 
Which is now admitted to afford, at best, but a very uncertain cri- 
terion of the existence of extra-uterine vitality. 

The cases of monstrous-births have seldom given rise to legal 
discussion in thb country, though the works of foreign writera 
abound with descriptions of them* 


Jfedkal ^urisprudetwe. i39 

The next class of cases which occur, are, the appearances (rf death 
in bodies, and whether the death was natural or violent, as in the 
case of strangulation, suffocation, drowning, &c. from blows and 
wounds, &c« and tiie determininor whether particular wounds are to 
be considered as mortal; after tnese, come rape, and feigned dis- 
eases, the most frequent of which are, epilepsy, insanity, ulcers, and 
blindness, &c« 

Poisons. — ^We now come to that part which relates to poisons, 
which have been treated of by M. Orfila, in the work before notic* 
cd, and which is one of the most material and extensive subjects of 
Medical Jurisprudencjc. The first part of this work contains the 
particular history of the different poisonous substances considered 
under their relations with chemistry, physiology, pathology, and 
Medical Jurisprudence. The histdry of each poison, is comprised 
in different paragraphs: comprehending the explanation of its che- 
mical properties, and external characters; its physiological action, 
determining the effects of pcnsonous substances, when administered 
in doses capable of producing accident, with the results of experi- 
ments; the general s3rmptoms; the lesion of texture produced, com- 
prehending the nature of the alterations produced by the poison, the 
application of the facts in the preceding parts to Medical Jurispru- 
dence; with the different courses to be pursued by the practitioner 
in cases of poison; lastiy, the treatment of poisoning, and tiie consi- 
deration as to whether any thing exists in each case possessing the 
propeities of an antidote. 

The second part comprehends all that relates to poisoning ^ne- 
rally considered, with the symptoms which distinguish acute poison- 
ing, from diseases, such as cholera morbus, &c. explainmg the 
variations of symptoms, the mode of ascertaining the nature of the 
poison, the history of slow poisons, with the diamosis, the exami- 
nations of dead bodies of persons poisoned, and me researches pro- 
Eer for establishing a distmction between sudden deaths produced 
y a natural cause, and those which are the result of the agency of 
poisons, and a comparison of the lesions of texture exhibitra by the 
dead bodies, under these two circumstances, which are altogether 
different; and the work concludes with directions for the preparation 
of tests noticed in the preceding parts. To compose a work contiun- 
ing such extensive and important subjects, it was necessary to insti- 
tute a numerous series ot experiments and researches, many ex- 
tremely difficult; and we think this has been done with considerable 
success W the author. The physical characters and chemical pro- 
perties ot each poison, with die appearance it presents when eroosed 
to the action of the different tests; and the (difference which the 
poison, when mixed with different alimentary substances, presents 
with the same tests, are distinctiy shown; togetiier with die modifi- 
cation produced by the admixture of the saliva, eastric juice, &c., 

M. Orfila treats of the different poisons according to the classifi- 
cation of M. Foder6, as the most rational and codnrmable to the 
ideas of jdiy siology. 

140 MetSc^ yurUpruderu^, 

Class 1. Corrosive poisms.'-^So called because Aey ijrritate and 
corrode the texture of the parts ¥nth which they come in contacU 
Their action is in general more formidable than other poisons. All 
the acids, alkalies, and most of the metallic preparations come 
under thb class. Tliere are fifteen species, noticed by M. Orfila^ 
viz. preparations of mercury, arsenic, antimony, copper, tm, zinc,, 
silver, g^ld, bismuth, the concentrated acids, caustic alkalies, the 
caustic alkaline earths, muriate and carbonate of barytes, glasa^ and 
enamel in powder and cantharides. 

Whenever the smallest quantity of any of these bodies is ad-, 
ministered internally, various changes occur either momentary or 
durable; exciting the brain or heart; or acting as sedatives; ia- 
creasnag or diminishing the customary secretions. Given in larger 
doses, the poison is absorbed, carrying in some instances its mat 
action to the brain and other organs. In certain cases it ccMTodea 
the membranes of the stomach, which acts by sympathy od» other 
organs, without absorption taking place. The general aymptoms 
produced by these corrosive substances depend upon the lesions of 
the alimentary and nervous system, and of the organs of circula* 
tion. The corrosive poisons nrequendy leave behind traces of their 
passage over our organs. Inflammation of the first passages, 
contractions of the intestinal canal, gangrene, q>hacelus, and 

Crfioration of the parts constitute the first character of these 
(ions, and the mucous coat easily detaches itself fiomthe muscu** 
lar, and the action is frequendy extended to the other visera, sX* 
though these characters are sometimes wanting, and the dead bodj 
eadubits no alterations. Various modes have been adopted at dif- 
ferent times to counteract the effect of poison, and many, serious, 
errors have arisen from practitioners mistaking the results of 
chemical operations: and the substances administered for the pur* 
pose of decomposing the poisons, have exerted no action whatever 
upon them in the stomach; and even when the decomposition hat 
been effected, the new compound has been endued with active pot* 
sonous qualities. ^ The evacuant, antiphlogistic, and antispaamo* 
die method, appears to us,' observes M. Orfila, ^ to merit me ptc^ 
ference, for,.witiiout exposiog the patient to die dang^ which a 
chemical decompontion might subject him, it offers the double 
advantage of getting rid of me poison by simple means, and re*<a- 
tablishing the fiiculties at the same time.' 

In this class x^ poisons, cases arising from the ingestion of oor* 
rosive sublimate, verdigris, arsenious acid, nitric, and sulphuric 
acid, are most frequent. In France, where the mIc of poison is 
restrained by law,* the most common poisons taken £or the purpose 
of committing suicide, are, the nitric acid of commerce, and a 
mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and indigo, used in dyeing. • 

* Hw frsqvent occurrences noticed in the papers, of fatal mHtisktf, 
finm neg i e et sod jgnorsnoe of the apprentices of the retailers of Arogs, point 
oat tta neesMi^ of some l^giiktiTe direetknis, as to die sale of dangtsnids 

by severe peoaltieti in cases of oegieet or jgnoraaei. ' 

Medical yurhfrudence. i4i 

Of dl the Hiinefal pokoiis, the effects of Ae nitric acid seems most 
Derriflc; it acts with great rapidity on the animal economy, produc- 
iiifi^ sjmiptoms almost constantly succeeded by death. In cases of 
pcnsotiing by these two acids, in addition to mucilaginous drinks 
and vomits as remedies, M. Orfila suggests the administering^ 
magnesia suspended in mucilage. Frequent mischief has lately 
occurred in this country, fixmi'Uie accidental ingestion of the oxalic 
acid, lliis is sold incuscriminately by druggists, under the name- 
dl acid of sugar^ for various domestic purposes, many of whom 
were, till lately, ignorant of its deleterious effect. Nine cases of 
accidental death are nodced by the editors of the Medical Reposi*' 
tory, as having occurred within two years and a half; and the 
number ibr the last December, contains a Report of the case of a 
death by oxalic acid; a woman having taken nearly an ounce by 
mistake for Epsom salts* In a short time after taking it, she 
oomjribdned of pain, vomited up a small quantity of fluid, threw 
herself on the bed, and expired within a quarter of an hour after 
swdlowing the acid« The body, on dissection three days after 
death, jpresented appearances similar to those in othef cases by 
deatfi nom concentrated acids: the cuticular coat of the oeso*. 
phagos peeled off with die slightest touch; the blood vessels of die 
mner coat of the stomach, appeared as if injected with a carbona-* 
cenons substance, and die stomach itself was in some parts so com- 
l^etely petfiovaied, that its contents had escaped into the cavity of 
dbe abdomen* llie conclusion drawn by Mr. A. T. Thompson, 
from e xp eri ments instituted by him, on the nature of this acid, 
was, that a mixture of chalk and water, by producing oxalate of 
lime in the stomach, may be regarded as an antidote, if exhibited 
very soon after die poison has been taken. 

In cases of poisoning by corrosive sublimate, in addition to the 
general remedies for this class, the administration of albumen is 
rscommended by M. Orfila. 

The daily use of utensils* of copper, and the facility with 
which copper combines with oxygen, renders accidental poi- 
8<^ning by preparations of it very common. The seat of die 
lesions of texture, produced by verdigris, is principally in die 
digestive canal, imd when death takes place a few hours after 
taking the poison, die mucous lining of the stomach is found to be 
inflamed, and gangrenous: sometimes die inflammation is communi- 
cated to dl the coats of these viscera, and sloughs are formed, 
which are quickly detached, and leave openings through which 
tileir ecmlents pass out, and are eSiised into the cavinr of the ^ado- 
VMfxU Amongst minml poisons, there are few wnich exert so 

fi)werful an action as the muriate of barytes, as appears from Mr. 
rodie's experiments: no case, however, is detailed, of poisoning 
on die huxhan frame by the compoimds of baiytes. Much differ- 
ence of opinion exists, whether the sharp fragments of g^ass, &c. 
wUch by 4em0 are classed as poisons, may be swallowed with im- 
ponity; b Mmi of poison by casduoides, the lesions of texture 

14d Medical Juriaprudence. 

of the digestive canal are similar to those of other corrosive pci* 
sons, occasionally, however, accompanied by inflammation of the 
bladder. To the corrosive poisons may be added. Iodine, which, 
from the experiments of M. Orfila, appears, when introduced into 
the stomach to the amount of a drachm, in dogs, to produce death* 
Six gnuns were taken by M. Orfila, which produced violent eva- 
cuations, and a pulse of 125: he recovered the effects by the next 

Class 2. Astringent poisona^'^'^Bxe so called, because they fre* 
quendy produce a remarkable constriction of the great intestines, 
and especially of the colon, and in the end, produce inflammation 
of the texture of the (Ugestive canal, and trequendy exert their 
action on the nervous system. No medical subject has excited 
more interest, or given rise to a greater number oi monographs, by 
eminent writers, man the treatment of diseases resulting from the 
astringent or lead poisons, and for this reason, the mode of cure is 
best understood, and oftenest followed by success. 

The varieties of this poison are, acetate of lead, red oxyde, or 
litharge, carbonate of lead or cerussa, wine sweetened, and water 
impregnated by lead. All artificers, who use, or are exposed to 
the action of lead, or its compounds, are often attacked with the 
most severe cholics, sometimes succeeded by death, from having 
only handled saturnine preparations, or even from having been 
placed within the sphere of their emanations. In these cases, the 
digestive canal exhibits no vestige of inflammation: a contraction .of 
die diameter of the great intestines, particularly of die colon ac- 
companied by severe gripings, is the chief symptom, but no fever 
takes place, whatever the intensity of the pain. Acetate of lead 
introduced into the stomach, in sxnall quantities, produces inflam- 
mation of different parts of it; and the salts of lead, when injected 
into the veins, destroy life. 

As the sulphates of soda, magnesia, &c. decompose the salts of 
lead with facdity, and a large quantit|r may be given with impu- 
ni^, and the metallic sulphate resulting from this decomposition, 
is insoluble: die sulphate of soda, 8cc. are dierefore recommended 
by M. Orfila, as the best antidote to the corrosive effects arising 
from saturnine poisons. The mode of treating die ckolic arising 
from saturnine emanations, is, of .course, altogether different** 

Class 3. The name of acrid poisons b given to those with a 
caustic taste, and which, applied to the surface, produce inflamnut- 
tion, usually terminated bv suppuration; and which, introduced 
into die stomach, produce local phenomena, analogous to die cor- 
rosive poisons, though some authors have attempted to establish 
distinctions in the appearance of the lesions of texture on dissec- 
tion. The action ot vegetable and animal poisons on the human 
frame, being more complex, are more difiicult to understand than 
those of die mineral poisons. The class of acrid poisons is divid- 

* For some raluable obserrations on this subject, see Dr. FembiBftoiEi's IVea* 
lise on the Diseases of the Abdomical Viscera. 

MtSctd JurUprudtnce. 143 

ed into two sections, with reference to their action on the animal 
economy: the first, highly irritating the membranes, and producing 
violent inflammation, and a sympathetic action on the brain, which 
is the principal cause of deadi; and it does not appear that they 
become absorbed into the system, or at least, they are so with dif- 
ficulty. Amongst the chief of these are, the briony root, momor- 
dica elaterium, many species of euphorfoium,* nitrate of potass, and 
chlorine: the activity of these poisons, is generally greater when 
introduced into the stomach, than when applied to wounds. Our 
limits do not admit of entering into details as to the particular ac- 
tion of each: we shall, however, g^ve the conclusions of M. Orfila, 
ixt>m his experiments with the mtrate of potass. 1. It causes death 
when vomitmg has not taken place, and when taken in doses of 
two or three drachms. 2. It appears to act immediately on the 
mucous membrane of the digestive canal, and consequendy on the 
nervous system in the same way as stupifying substances do. 3. 
It is not sdisorbed when applied to the cellidar membrane, and con- 
sequently its effects are in such cases, only local.— -The second sec- 
tion of this class comprehends poisons, which, by being absorbed, 
are taken up by the circulation, and act directly on the brain, at 
one time stupifying, and at others stimulating to an excess, pro- 
ducing more or less inflammation. Amongst these are the black 
and white hellebore, aconite, squills, toxicodendron, &c. of which 
the hellebore offers the most cunous effects, causing violent vomit- 
ings in a few minutes after its application to a wound, and stu- 
por almost immediately takes place, and death supervenes quick- 
er, even than if the poison had been introduced into the stomach. 
The white is more active than the black hellebore, and its delete- 
rious parts are those which are soluble in water, consequendy more 

The general mode of treatment in cases of poison by this class, 
appears to be the antiphlogistic system, rejecting in all cases, acids 
which have sometimes been proposed, as they constantiy increase 
the irritation. 

* A case of death by eupborbinm, used by farriers for blisters, has been kindly 
. commiinicatedto ns 1^ Mr. Fumiral, of E^hain. A tea-spoonifiil was adminis* 
tered by a farrier, ia tibe dark, by mistake for rhubarb. Mr. F. saw the patient 
about six hours after the ing^estion of the poison. He described the sensation on 
swallowing the poison, to be that of burning heat in the tliroat and fauces, after- 
wards communicated to the stomach; incessant vomiting of watery fluid took 
{ilace almost immediately, the tongue was covered with thick mucus; the pulse 
very irregular, and at least 150; the patient was in a cold perspiration, and 
unable to speak intelligibly. An emetic of sulphate of zinc and ipecacuanha 
-was given, and its effects quickened by introducing the probang into the oeso- 
phagus, a small quantity of thin black fluid onlv was discharged; both mucilages 
and anodynes were given, but almost instantly rejected: he lived nearly three 
days, and on opening the body, eight hours after death there were found in the 
stomach, several spots of mortification, the coats of the stcHnach ruptured on 
Ihe slightest touch, the spleen very much enlaiged, and tore on the smallest 
finrce l^iog i^iplied \o it; the vessels of the internal coat of the aorta were most 
beautifally injected with blood, and showed marks of tho highest degree of 
influnmation amd vascularity. 

144 MuScai Jumprutkncem 

Class 4. The Narcotic ^Off0n«,»— including opnun, hyosmmui, 
prussic acid, and the vegetable substances containing it. OiMum^ 
according to our author, cannot be considered either as coming di- 
reedy witnin the class of narcotics, or stimulating persons, its action 
being sut generis. Animak on having it administered, become 
first stupified, then exhibit symptoms of considerable excitement, 
during which they suffer great pain, and violent convulsions su- 
pervene, differing ccmsiderably from the eflEects arising frcmi hel- 
lebore. The observations on the prussic acid, are interesting. 
We g^ve shortiy the results of M. Orfila's mode of treating this 
class of poisons. 1. Vegetable acids constandy accelerate death 
when mixed in the stomach with the poison, as diey facilitate die 
solution of the poison, and consequendy its id>sorption. 2. Aci- 
dulated water is useful, when the poison has been rejected. 3. 
Strong infusion of coffee successfully resisted the effects of narcotic 
poisons, when administered unremittin^y. 4. The decoction of 
coffee, always less energetic than the infusion. 5. Camphire can- 
not be considered as an antidote, though beneficial when adminis- 
tered in small doses. 6. Mucilaginous drinks promote the absorp- 
tion. 7* Bleeding sometimes beneficial. 

Class 5. Narcotic-acrid poisoTis^r^This class comprehends die 
upas, nux vomica, some fungi, alcohol, aether, belladonna, stramo* 
mum, tobacco, hendock, &c. The results of M. Orfila's experi- 
ments correspond with those of former writers on those poisons, 
amongst the most distinguished of whom is Mr. Brodie. 

The last class i^ composed of the septic poisons^ whidi produce 
general weakness, and syncope, without in general altering the in- 
tellectual faculties. In this class is sulphuretted hydrogene gas, 
and the venomous animals whose bite or sting is acccHnpanied by 
pain or death. Our limits preclude us from noticing the mode of 
treatment of cases arising from poisoning by diese two classes. 

The detailed account of the poisons is followed by general obser** 
vations of the utmost consequence to die science of Medical Jurist 
prudence: they chiefly consist in the description of spontaneous 
diseases, which are frequendy confounded with cases oi poison, as 
cholera morbus, indigestion, malignant fever, &c. and the aflbiities 
of the appearances of these are carefully examined and disttngoish^ 
ed from die operations of poison. 

That the subject of medical jurisprudence is of die most serious 
importance, we think it is unnecesssoy to repeat. We have merely 
in an hasty sketch, glanced at the points most likely to occur in the 
practice of medical men; and although of late, some attottion seems 
to have been psdd to die subject, still it is obvious that much re- 
mains to be done.* 

* The editors of the An^lectic Magasinehave selected the fo rs g o ia geeMyea 
dical jurispradence from No 5. of profesaor BrandeVJounudof the Royal Iii8titiile» 
from a full conviction that the importance of the subject is not iaSij appreciated 
either in England or America. The cases of criminal inqpntstioo, and the 

Barnes's Tour through St. Helena. 145 

^ • 

Art. VII. — Extracts from A Tour through St. Helena. By Cap- 
tain John Barnes, CivUand Military Surveyor in the Hon. Com-^ 
• pamfs service on the Island. Published in London, 1817. 


THE black cattle, by which is meant oxen, cows, &c. 8cc. are in num- 
ber about two thousand five hundred (September, IS 15). That 
the supplies of beef to shipping may be efficiently kept up, no farmer 
can kill for his own consumption without permission from the governor 
and council;* many of the oxen are large, weighing from eight hun- 
dred to eleven hundred poimds alive— the beef is generally of very ex- 
cellent quahty. 

< The cattle are principally of English breed; some froni Madras and 
China have also been introduced, but are not in equal estimation: others 
imported from the Cape of Good Hope and from Benguela did not 
succeed; one cause may be, that they were too large and unwieldy for 
the acclivities of the pasture lands. ^ 


of hienhip and descent, wherein medical is complicated with legal knowledge, 
are not only nameroos, but of the very highest importance with regard to life, 
liherty, and property. Tet there are bat three or four tracts at the utmost, and 
^ose of a very flimsy character, that have issued from the English press in re- 
lation to medical jurisprudence. The prolix folio of Zanchius (Questiones me- 
^ico-legales) is obsolete. The continent of Europe, meanwhile, ahonnds in 
finable and seieatific knowledge on this suhject, while in this country it is hardly 
known at all as a question worth discnwsipg, except hom the late proposals of 
Dr. Caldwell to lecture upon it. 

In the English and American courts of justice, the maxim is adopted, cut^ue 
in MMi arte credendum ut; hence the practice of introducing as witnesses, per- 
sons of technical knowledge, ExpeHt* But what person has a right to be con- 
lidered as an expert, who has not paid attention to the connection between 
medicine and jurisprudence as a particular branch of study? What medical gen- 
tleman introduced as a witness on the occasion (for instance] of a cbaige of 
poisoning, can appear with advantage, who is not well and accurately versed in 
the chemical facts and doctrines of the present dayP Suppose a physician so in- 
troduced into court, a counsel would have a right to interrogate him, not merely 
as to the symptoms that would lead to the inference of poison, but as to all the 
Bsodes of ascertaining the presence of poisons— as to all the doctfine of tests and 
le-agents, chemical and galvanical — as to the experiments and the rationale of 
them institnted by the witness or others, for the purpose of throwing light on the 
foestioD before the court. All this a court has a right to expect that a physician 
slumld know; and if he knows it not, his testimony on such an examination would 
lose influence; and he himself would certainly lose character. 

It is anxiously to be wished, therefore, that the treatises here reviewed were 
translated, or perhaps abridged; that want of skill in this branch of knowledge 
ahould not be imputed as an opprtbrwm tnedieorum- 

* The good joke of a vote of the governor and council being necessary for the 
slaaghter of an ox, amounts to a rsgulation adapting a limited supply to an u^« 
aflHed dcuMtnd, and this is all. 

VOL. z. 1^ 

146 Barnes's T(mr through St. Helena. 

< Beef sells at sixpence half-penny per pound when livings or 
shilling and three*pence per pound slaughtered. 

< There are many horses upon the island, but few good ones. Arabi- 
an males, with some from the Cape of Grood Hope and England, have 
been brought here, but without much advantage. Perhaps the cohs 
are in general taken up too young, their bones not sufficiently set, nor 
a due proportion of strength acquired to undergo the fatigue of travel-* 
ling the steep and unequal roads^ they are prematurely worn out. Per- 
sons keeping horses pay an annual tax of eight shillings for each. 

^ The island sheep are small, but make very good mutton: they 
weigh from twenty to thirty pounds, dead. There are are also fine 
sheep of the Bengal and Merino breed, which thrive well->-the Merino 
are but lately introduced. Cape sheep are imported for immediate con<* 

* Formerly, numbers of sheep were allowed to pasture, unattended, 
upon the honourable Company's waste lands, thence called common 
sheep: the fact is, they wandered all over the island, destroying young 
trees, damaging gardens, plantations, &c., especially by night, being in 
this respect more troublesome than the goats; these take up their abodes 
in the hollows of the rocks from sun-set to sun-rise, while the former 
roam about continually. Both have been recently exterminated by order 
of the lords proprietors, excepting a few goats permitted to be kept un- 
der similar regulations with tame fiocks of sheep^— a measure which 
cannot fail to produce beneficial consequences. 

^ A great many hogs are raised, and the flesh (of those reared in the 
country especially) is excellent food: equal to beef or veal, and superior 
to Cape mutton at least. 

« Until within the last twenty-five or thirty years, farmers were ac- 
customed to cure their pork with salt gathered from the shores, thus 
providing one of the chief articles of subsistence, nearly sufficient for 
their consumption: this good practice has ceased, and, it may in truth 
be stated, that the facility and cheapness of obtaining salt provisions 
from the Company's stores. With which privilege tfaey were indulged 
from 1772 until 1809, has been by degrees the principid cause of tina 
neglect; this resource, however, being new cut off, they may revert to 
the custom of supplying themselves in the independent and laudable 
way of their forefathers. 

* Asses. — Of this patient and useful animal there were few until 
lately^ and thoje seldom employed: attention has been paid to augtnent 
their number, and the services they render make it an object to pro- 
cure a greater inci*ease. 

< Mnles are scarce: it is difficult and expenMve to procure them, be- 
ing brought from the coast of South America-^fac^ are exceUeatty 
adapted to the hills of Samt Helena. 

« Dogs* abounded until a wise regulation effected a diminution of 
them: every proprietor of a dog, or dogs, is annually taxed for each in 
an increased proportion to the number he keeps; and no dog is penrnt- 
ted to live unless he wears a collar with his owner's name engraven on 
it They are of the Newfoundland, spaniel, terrier, and watef-dog spe- 
cies, wirh sdme others of inferior and useless kinds. 

* No instance of canine madness has ever occurred here. 

« _ 

Baniuia's Tcur thrcsigh St. Hekfwu %^7 

< Tiitm WPO 09 h«ii^% bul many pabt>its, whic^ are often Ul}ed by 
wUd ciitflk Iq tbeir predatory e^cursiQDs: these are of the same species 
with the domestic cat, harbouriog in the rock%f and waDdering about by 
nght in quest of prey — th^y qarry off great numbers of poultry. 

< The houses both in town and the country, and the gardens, planta- 
tions, ^c, are beset with multitudes of rats ayt^ mice; every mean^ has 
been attempted to destroy them, but no apparent diminution of their 
ihousanda has been effected; the damage they do, particularly the rats, 
IB almost incredible. One of the greatest benefits this island could ex- 
perience, would be the extirpation of these vermin. 

K)f insects, reptiles, &c., none are venomous but the scorpion and 
centipede: their stings occasion considerable pain and inflammation of 
the woun4ed part, but seldom attended with more unpleasant effects. 
The remedy in general use is, to bruise the animal to pieces and apply 
k as a {»laister, or to wash the place affected with spirits in which some 
of them are kept. This treatment speedily accomplishes a cure. 

< The scorpion is small: the scolopendrae are from five to eight inches 
in length. 

< Gryllusf dome9ticu9 et camfrestrU^ the house and field cricket appear 
to be identified in species, only that the former is of a pale, yellow, 
brown cast, and the latter more decidedly brown. 

^ A species of the beetle, and two of the grasshopper, abound. 

< The cattleffly, probably oe$tru9 tarandiy is the pest of oxen: when it 
inflicts it* sting, the poor animal runs about in violent speed, careless of 
precipices, or any other danger; large worms are taken from under the 
hides, generated frum the egg of this insect Horses suffer also in like 
manner from their attacks: and instances have been kno'wn of persons 
stung by them, fix>m whose flesh similar worms have been extracted. 

< Innumerable ants are in every dry situation; the same with the com* 
mon brown ant of £ngland: they traverse the trunks and branches of 
trees in myriads, for the saccharine substance which a species of puce* 
ran affords. There are no white ants so destructive in India. 

< A few lizards occasionally appear about houses, Scc^^small and 
quite harmless. 

< There are neither toads oor frogs. 

< Btttterfiiea and moths in great variety^ and exceedingly beautiful, 
are common. 

< There are many sorts of spiders, some very large, .and of colours ele- 
gantly diversified. 

< The snail and slug are often found in gardens, and on the young 
plants in the upper lands. 

< GmbH pitHlHced most probably from molhs* eggs, afterwards 
transformed into wiitge<i insects of the same description, are of great 
mischief in the gardens, destroying numbers o( young plants, the ten^ 
der stemsof winch they bite asunder, close to the sur&ce of the earth. 

^ Mosquitoes are in swarms: the continual humming noise they make 
(which is astonisUngly loud for so minute a fly) is nearly as annoying as 
their bites in warm weather, wherever there happens to be any stag«- 
aant water they are innumerable, both in a winged state, and not yet fur* 
nisliedwithftlie,awimmingaboutlike tad*pole«. There is another kin^ not 
so numerous, called the itay mosquito, of tlie same aise, but whose sting 
ia yei itore severe; a diegree of inflammation instantly succeeds it, at- 

148 Barnes's Tour thrmgh St. Helena. 

tended with intolerable itehing, and virulent sores have been the eense- 
quence of scratching these places. This insect is of a dark brown co* 
lour, its body, legs, and wings, spotted with white. 

< The dragon-fly is from one to three inches in length: the colours 
red, green, and azure blue, of wonderful brilliance. 

^ Cock-roaches are very large, numerous, and annoying, paying theur 
unceremonious and disgusting visits in every apartment of the house. 

< It is is impossible to describe the ravages occasioned by caterpil* 
lars: extensive plantations of esculents, verdant and flourishing in the 
evening, present, too often, a leafless and distressing appearance when 
the morning calls the gardener to his aocustomed employ; they afe in« 
conceivably numerous, and their visitations are frequently as sudden as 
those of locusts in other countries. The energy and expectations of the 
farmer receive in i o way a more vexatious check, than from these de- 
structive insects. Their departure in a body is sometimes as sudden as 
their arrival.' 


* It appears from the best information which can now be obtained, 
that when Saint Helena was discovered it had no other birds than sea 
fowls, of the same species with those which now frequent the coast. 

* These are the frigate pelican, or man of war, fielicanus aquUua: it 
is a large, dark-coloured bird, in length from three to four feet, and ten 
to fourteen feet in width, from the extremities of the wings: it soars to 
a great height; from which it darts with wonderful rapidity to seize its 
prey — usually the flying-fish. 

< The trupic hivA^ fihaeton ethereus: the bill is red, the eyes surround- 
ed with black, a few of the larger quill feathers near their ends are 
black, tipped with white; all the rest of the bird is white, except the 
back, which is variegated with curved lines of black. The legs and 
feet are of a vermilion red; the toes webbed; the tail consists of two long, 
straight, narrow, white feathers. 

< There are also the white-bird, black-bird, and egg-bird: they are 
about the size of a full-grown pigeon, and in abundance. The eggs of 
the latter) which are deposited in their nests on the islets and rocks 
round the coast, are very good: the skm of the white bird is in curious 
contrast to its plumage, which is uniformly and delicately white, and' 
that as. entirely black. These birds are sometimes brought to table, but 
not much liked, on account of their fishy taste. 

^ To these may be added, the noddy, sterna stolida; petrel, firacellariu 
cafientis; and the grenadier gross-beak, loxia oriXy locally cidled wire- 

< The following are the land birds, all of which have been gradually 
introduced: the varieties are more valuable than numerous, most of 
them being articles of food. 

< Peacock, brought from Bombay in 1788: it is a magnificent bird, 
larger than the turkey: the female deposits her eggs in some secret 
place to prevent the male destroying them. They are wild. 

^ Plieasants.— A species from China; the plumage of peculiar beau- 
ty: by night they roost on the alpine trees, and by day descend into die 
brakes and bushes of the lower pastures; they do potatoe crops conuder- 
able damage, by raking them out of the earth. 

' Partridge.— Said to be from France: they prefer the rocky and bar- 
ren parts of the island; their plunc^e is cinereous, the chin white, with 


Barnes's Tour through St. Helena. 140 

a blaek band— the bills and legs blood*red. Tlus bird is propeiljr the 
cmly game) the pheasants being reserved for hospitaiides to strangers; 
and a proper delicacy to the inhabitants has generally disposed the goT* 
emor to decline complying with the wish for a sport, from which the 
gentlemen of the island are excluded. 

^ Domestic poultry are plentiful, and all good in their kinds, but much 
loo dear; large f upplies of them are furnished to shippmg. 

< Guinea-fowls, not numerous: the common pigeons are plentiful. 

* The other land birds are the dove, Java sparrow, amaduvade, and 
Canary, the two last as numerous as sparrows in England.' 

On the subject of ichthyology^ captain Barnes gives us a curious 
accotmt of the sea-lion. Coiild some of our excessively plethoric 
citizens disencumber themselves of their superfluous fat as easily 
as this animal does of his, we should soon have some of our use- 
less shippine chartered for Napoleon's rock. Our author quotes 
the words of Mr. Thomas Leech. 

< '< There is also here the manatee, commonly called the sea-cow, 
though it certainly is the sea-lion, mentioned by lord Anson, in his Toy* 
age round the World: this creature comes on shore to disencumber it* 
self of its fat, or blubber, which it does by cutting its skin against the 
rocks, from whence issues a great quantity of oil; and after it has rid it* 
self of its burden, it retires to the sea again. It will lay four, five, or 
more days on shore, if not disturbed, but on the least disturbance makes 
towards the sea: it has a large head and neck, like that of a bull, with 
large teeth and whiskers, rather resembling horn than hair; (the com* 
mon people affirm, that wearing these, ring fashion, is a specinc against 
the cramp.) In smelling, it moves its nose like a dog: it has two short 
paws, or feet, not much unlike those of a dog, extremely strong, and 
the claws are also not much different; the tail part is divided into a kind of 
fin, to assist it in swimming. The eyelids of this creature are very re- 
markable: the undermost is a thin, transparent skin, which falls down 
over the eye, while the eye itself remains entirely open; this, I imagine. 
Nature has provided for the security of the creature's eye, while under 
water, as it can certainly see through it: when it sleeps on shore, both 
the eyelids of each eye are shut. The method of taking: it is, by shoot- 
ing it near the eye, or with a hatchet to split its head open; for, if you 
fire twenty or more balls at its body, they will take little or no effect, on 
account of the thickness of its fat." ' 

The island of St. Helena has been frequently represented as un« 
commonly barren and dry; but captain Barnes informs us, that it 
contains five hundred species of plants; that rains are notunfrequent; 
that fields of potatoes nave been suffered to rot in the ground, be- 
cause the market price would not defray the expense of digging 
them; and that on this little speck of the ocean, ^ there are certainly 
sevend thousand acres of excellent land, now lying waste, which 
might, with great facility and advantage, be cmtivated.' ^ Upon 
most, if not all of the estates and farms, are plantations of young 
trees, val|iable in their kind, and rapidly advancing in their growth? 
The greatest pests of the island are mice, blackberry bushes, and 



AnT. VllLr^Perfian Ani^hg^^-^xom the ABiatic JouivaU 
Mr. £dito&) 

IN tKe bat 'fiiliiiburg^ Review, p. 243, an the article of Dugald 
Stewart's Introductioii to the fincyclopsedia Britaimica, is like 
foUowing note: 

' ' At the «onclusioii of bishop Tajrlor't Liberty of Propheiyiog^ is a 
Jewish story, told io the manner of a chapter of GeneaUy in which God 
is represented as rebuking Abraham for having driven an idolater out 
of his tent. This story, the bishop says, is somewhere to be found in 
the Rabinical books; but till the migmal is itUccvered^ we may ascribe 
the beauty of the imitation, if not the invention of the incidents, to the 
bishop himself. 

^ Dr. Benjamin Franklin gave the same story, with some slight va- 
riations, to lord Kaimes, who published it in his Sketches of the His? 
tory of Man.' 

About twenty years ago, I sent to the Asiatic Society at Cal- 
cutta a paper cm the coiacidences of the European and orienta} clas- 
sics, ancient and modem, part of which my friend general Kirkpa- 
trick furnished the editor of the Asiatic Register with a cc^y of, 
in which it appeared; but what I now send you has never been in 
print. In Europe we have of late been much amused by stories 
of Muhammadan intolerance; but it has been by writers, who were 
either ignorant of the Mussulman tenets, or wilfully misrepresented 
them. In the Koran we are told that 

* Jews, Christians, and Sabians, and indeed whoever believeth in God 
and the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have his reward 
with the Almighty, and no fear shall come upon him, neither needeth 
he to grieve.' And Sadi, in quoting that passage in one of his sermons, 
adds^-^ that any fellow-creature, who believes in €rod after his own 
iashion and heart, and thus accomplbhes good works, may expect a 
favourable reception and final sentence on the last day, notwithstanding 
his failure in ritual duty; that there is salvation for a virtuous infidel, 
but none for a vicious believer.' He moreover adds*-^ Many a be- 
liever is arrayed in vain glory, and many an infidel wears the garb of 

But what finer examples of toleration can I offer than the follow- 
ing two apologues, from the Bustspi of Sadi? 

* A Mogb, or fireworshipper, had secluded himself from the worlds 
and devoted his whole time to the service of an idol. Some years after- 
wards that professor of a rejected faith happened to fiill into distressed 
-circumstances. Confident of relief, he threw himself at the feet of bis 
idol, and iay prostrate and helpless on the floor of its temple, saying, 
'^^ I am undone: take me, ohl my idoll by the hand: I am afflicted to 
the soul: have compassion on my body." Oftentimes would he be 
thus fervent in his devotional duty; for his affairs were not in the traia 
of being settled. But how shail an image forward any man's eQocer% 
which cannot drive a fly from settling on its own body? The poor 
Mogb waxed warmi and addedy in his passion, ^* Oh! slave of errorl 
how long have I worshipped thee to a vain purpose! accompiiab for 
me at once the object of my h^rt, otherwise I must ask it of Pro?i« 
deuce, or the Lord God paramounti" That centarolnated Mogh still 

Persian Anthology* 151 

lay vith Us fiic« in the duktt now that the pwe apirit of the Allnightjr 
had complied with his prayer. One of the true iaithi whose aincev^ 
adoration had been ever clouded with calamity, expressed himself 
astomshed at what had come to pass, and said, ^^ Here is a despicablt 
and obstinate worshipper of the fire, whose mind is still intoxicated 
with the wine oi his temple; his heart full of infidelity, and hand soiled 
with perfidy; yet has God fulfilled the object of his wish!" This holy 
man's mind was occupied in trying to resolve this difficulty, when a 
message from heaven was revealed into the ear of his soul, intinoating 
to him, '* This old and perverted »nner often implored his idol, and hia 
prayers were disregarded; but were he to quit the threshold of my tri- 
bunal disappointed, then where would be the difference between a 
dumb and perishable idol, and the Lord God £temal?" Put your trusty 
oh! my dearly beloved friends! in Providence, for nothing is mote help^. 
less than a stock or a stone idol. It were lamentable, v^en you might 
lay your heads on this threshold, if you should come to leave it disap- 
pointed of your objec^t. 

Sadi's second lipologue is as foUows: 

< I have heard that no son of the road, or traveller, had approached 
the hoapitable abode of that friend of God, Abraham, for a whole week. 
From dhe natural goodness of his heart, he could never partake of his 
momtng refkst, till some weary stranger had entered his dwelling. He 
took himself forth, and explored every quarter; he viewed the valley 
to its uttermost border, and descried from afar a man, solitary as a wil- 
low, whose head and beard were whitened with the snow of years. la 
order to administer comfort, he went up and gave him a hearty wel* 
come, and, after the custom of the generous, thus kindly entreated huui 
saying ^ Oh! precious apple of mine eye! be courteously pleased to 
become my guest!" The old man consented, and getting up, stept 
brbkly forward; for he well knew the beneficent disposition of Abra- 
ham (on whom be God's blessing). The domestic companions of that 
beloved friend of God seated with reverence the poor old man: orders 
were issued, and the table spread, and the family took their respective 
stations around it. When the company began to ask God's blessing 
before meat, nobody could hear the stranger utter a word. Then did 
Abraham say to him, ^ Oh! sage of ancient times! thou seemest not 
to be holy and devout, as is usual with the aged. Is it not their duty, 
when they break his bread, to call upon that Providence, who has gra- 
doQsly bestowed it?" The old man replied, ^ I follow no religious rite, 
that has not had the sanction of my priest of the fire!" The well- 
onened prophet was now made aware that this depraved old wretch 
had been bred a Guebre; as an alien to his faith, he thrust him forth 
with scorn; for the pure abhor the contarnhmtion of the vile. From glo- 
rious Omnipotence an angel came down, and in the harshness of rebuke 
called aloud, << Oh! Abraham, for a century of years I bestowed on 
him life and food, whom thou hast taken to abominate on an hour's ac- 
quaintance; for though he is offering adoration to the fire, why art thou 
to withhold the hand of toleration from him?" ' 

We are told by oriental writers — for the Persians claim Abra- 
ham as one of their forefathers — ^that the Almisihty often commun- 
ed with him thus, and was pleased to impart to him the secret coun- 
sels and purposes of his Providence; whence he was styled the 

159 Persian Anthology. 

Khalil Khoda, or beloved fnend of God. See Issidb sdi. 8. He 
iras the second son, accorditi^ to them, of Azar; and had in hb 
youth been educated in the idolatries of his father, who, though 
descended from the prophets, had followed the multitude of those 
days to do evil^ and became on their account a maker of images in 
the city of Bamian Balkh. But Abraham, being recalled to the 
true Jinthj went, while yet a youth, into his father's shop, and 
breaking the images, ridiculed such as came to buy them; when 
his father took him for chastisement before Nimrod; who, instead 
of punishing him, was diverted by his miracles and wit. After 
this he removed to the eastern J>order of the Persian empire, and 
was famed for his love and piety to the deity, and justice and 
hospitality to his fellow-creatures; for which last purpose he often 
pitched his tents on the edge of the wilderness, near the city of 
Haran, that he might, as the above apologue informs us, entertaun 
travellers passing towards that place* Oriental scholars, who are 
awaretkf tne peculiar and fierce prejudices that the Mussulmans 
entertained against the Guebres, cannot sufficiently admire the be- 
nevolent spirit displayed by SacU, in these and many of his apo- 
logues, where he has occasion to notice different reli^ou^ sects; 
and rnaaxywell'meamhg' Christians mi^tlexm good tnadkers on this 
head^ by studying such parts of his works. We may all read, and 
equally apply the moral of such parables to our own conduct, so as 
to ensd>le us to set aside all narrow and violent prejudices, and im- 
bibe in their room, proper and liberal notions of tolerance in reli- 
gious matters, particularly towards such as differ from us perhaps 
in litde else than what is ceremonial; recollecting to this purpose 
that excellent maxim of our own gospel: — ^ Forbid him not; for he 
that is not against us (in the propaeadon of the knowledge of one 
only and true Cod) is on our part. Were indeed the Socrateses, 
the Pliny's, the Fenelons, the Addisons, and the Sadis of distant 
ages ana nations thus benevolently to talk over the subject of reli- 
gion and morality, that spleen of the soul, superstition, migh^ be 
cured of its Bloomy brooding; and that bane of humanity, lanati- 
ciam, reduced to sobriety and reason; and the soundness and inte- 
grity of our simple, as it is superior, Christian doctrines, miffht all 
the sooner gain, what every considerate man among us would wish 
and hope to see, that ultimate victory over all other faiths. To the 
avoiding evil inclinations and practices, and to improvement in sen- 
timents and habits of piety and virtue, we cannot be indifferent cer- 
tainly Mrithout being criminal; yet we may assuredly tolerate, with- 
out impatience or animosity, the errors, whether of our own dis- 
senting sects of faith, or those of Muhammadans and idolaters, so 
long as their peculiar tenets are not active in sapping the founda- 
tions of our own special belief; and we ought to combat their errors 
only by reason, argument, and truth, and not as some of us have 
lately done, by abuse, falisehood, and misrepresentation. If in the 
course of sucn discussions the opposite parties should have oppor- 
tunities of promulgating some errors, that, without this provoca- 
tion, might have remsuned within their own narrower sphere, aa 

Persian Anthology* 1413 ~ 

diis wcnild neverthdesa lead to a fireer and more open inquby, so it 
were the most likely and best means of combatting the cbstinate 
part of them with success, and of converting the reasonable. In 
our own now extensive settlements in the Eaft Indies (and where 
can we fix a limit to those setdements, and the liberaU^ of our go- 
vernments there?) we have readier means of making converts than 
any other Christian nadon; and from die liberali^ of the British 
press, abler vindications of the Old 2siA Nctw Testaments have 
been published in England dian in all the world beside. Maracci's 
translation s^id refutation of the Koran (Sale's is only a copy of 
part of it) is an able work; but tiien he was a papist, and had the 
wonhip of images, and other objectionable tenets, to defend, which 
neither Mussulman nor Hindu could be ever reconciled to. The 

fladn faith and simple doctrine of the gospel, according to the ac^ 
eptation of our best and ablest divines, may be compared to out 
system of British government, which required only a thorough and 
impartial discussion to distinguish die licentiousness, which wild 
theorists and hot-headed enthusiasts have, at different times, incul- 
cated from true liberty; and a memorab}e example of this has, in 
die temporary madness of the French revolution, passed in review 
before the eye^ of mankind, and may deter other governments, for 
some time, vrom meddling with their constitutions. 

Nihil (Return^ quodnon dictum prius: there is nothing new under 
the ^un, if w^ oelieve our own Scripture, and the reproof given to 
Abrahwi in the above apologue of Sadi, is so similar to what Moses 
is said, by oriental writers, to have received on a like occasion, that 
I may safely trace him to his original. By the by, it would scarcely 
be believed, that Pamell borrowed the beautiful story of his her^ 
mit throu^ a Risallah or sermon of Sadi from the Koran, which I 
was first made aware of by proposing to my Munshi, many years 
ago, to translate it into the Persian lan^;uage, as a fine speamen of 
our English apologue. The oriental writers tell us, that:— 

< Karan, (the Korahof oar Scriptures, Namb. xir.) was notorious for 
his riches and stinginess; and there is a Hadb or traditioD of the pro- 
phet (Muhammad)y that Moses, the cousin of Karuny had the divine pet- 
mission to punish this wickedness. Accordingly* io the midst of his 
kindred and wealth, Moses ordered the earth tp open and swallqw hiip 
op. This it did gradually, for he i^t ^rst sunk no deeper than the kne^^ 
then to the waist, after that to the shoulders, and lastly to the chin; m^ 
he after each pause called aloud; <^ have mercy on me, oh! Moses!"— 
but Moses felt no compassion, and the earth finally swallowed hini up. 
Upon which God appeared to Moses and said;— >< thou hadst no mercy 
^ on thy own cousin Karun, notwithstanding be asked thy forgiveness four 
^ sundry times, whereas had he repented and asked rae but once, how- 
** ever Iniquitous he had been, I might have compassioned him." 

Yet if Sadi was in diis instance a plagiary, men of nq contempti- 
ble literature have, among ourselves, made free with his story of 
Abraham. One indeed restores it to the "Jewish Talmud^frcym which 
Muhammad had no doubt taken it; for the'historical p^ oflus Ko- 
ran is chiefly borrowed from that, our Scriptures, and the twenty- 

vou X. %0 

154 Persian Anthology* 

one Nosks or canons of Zartasht; and the consciousness of his theft 
made his immediate followers so savage with the Guebres, Jews, 
axid Christians: Sadi's other debtor for this apologue claimed it as 
liis own, after having amused himself for years by imposing it on 
his clerical friends as a portion of Scripture. The first is that excel- 
lent bishop of Down and Conner, Jeremy Taylor, who, had he 
needed the lesson himself, lived in an age of calamity of church 
and state, sufficient to have taught humility to the proudest digni- 
taiy among us; and died in 166/« 

He says, at the conclusion of a chapter oi his Liberty of Prophe- 

< I end with a story I find in the Jewish books>-^' When Abraham sat 
at the door of his tent, according to his custom, waiting to entertain 
strangers, he espied an old man, stooping and bearing on his staff, weary 
with age and travel, coming tovrards him, who was a hundred years of 
age. He received him kindly, washed his feet, provided supper, and 
caused him to sit down; but observing that the old man eat and prayed 
not, nor begged for a blessing on his meat, he asked him why he did not 
wolShip the God of heaven? The old man told him; he worshipped the 
fire only, and acknowledged no other God: at which answer, Abraham 
grew so zealously angry, that he thrust the old man out of hi^ tent, and 
exposed him to all the evils of the night, and an unguarded condition. 
When the old man was gone, God called to Abraham, and asked him, 
where the stranger was? He replied, " I thrust him away, because he 
^ did not worship thee." God answered him and said, " I have suffered 
^ him these hundred years, although he dishonoured me; could'st thou 
^^ not endure him for one night, when he gave thee no trouble?*' Upon 
which, saith the story, Abraham fetched him back again, and gave him 
liospitable entertainment and wise instruction." . The worthy bishop 
adds^— ^ Go and do thou likewise, and thy charity shall be rewarded by 
the God of AbrahamI*' 

Dr. Franklin's imitation of Sadi's apologue I shall not here quote, 
as it is to be met with in so many late periodical works.^ In his 
weU-known story of the Whistle, the doctor has also copied verba- 
tim another apologue of Sadi's Bustan ix. 13; but as that book has 
sot, to my knowledge, been translated into any language of Europe, 
I cannot fancy through what channel he got them. A comparison 
may be drawn between all the three apologues of Abraham's intol- 
erance, and notwithstanding its priority of date, and the lameness 
of my verbal translation, I cannot doubt to which the man of taste 
will rive his preference. In all tiie three, Abraham is represented as 
comfortable m his domestic circle, grateful for the benefits of Pro- 
vidence, and hospitable to strangers; but from an ignorant zeal he 
is also represented as instigated to an act of intolerance, which the 
Deity^ notices and reproves. So far the parable is complete, having 
a begpning, a middle, and an end; and I cannot but admire both 
* the bishop^ and doctor's oriental phraseology and happy imitation 
of the narrative simplicity of the orig^al; but actuated by our £u- 

'—^ 1 — n r 1 -T ■ ^ ■ 

* The Latin trandation from Sadi, by Geoige Gentz (Georgio Gentio) in his 
StbOhJehudaey 1689, was published by Mr. Cooper in Dr. Priestley's Life. 

Persian Anthology, If 5 

ropcan taste of ampUfying their subject, the bishop proceeds in the 
detail of bringing the old man back, and the doctor adds to it the 
particulars of Abraham's punishment; and thus both destroy the 
unity and integrity of the fable and plot, which together constitute 
the chief beauty of a real Persian apologue. Many think, th£|t the 
stories, like the manners of the east, must undergo an ordeal to 
adapt ihem to the ideas of modem Europe; but they will find, that 
the point of the epigram is blunted, and that they are thuis refined 
into a vitiated and spiritless imbecility. The abstraction of modem 
European philosophy, that fashion of a day, enters too much into 
all our translations from the Persian language; and the simplicity 
of sentiment and forcible diction of the original is frittered away; 
and thus the highly expressive is sacrificed to the neat, the pathe^ 
tic to the brilliant, the strong to the frivolous, and the energetic to 
the clear. 

A writer in narrating a story, expresses either in the sentiments 
of another man, or in his own: the first mode is the simple narra« 
tive, and that generally adopted in Europe; the second the drama** 
tic, which is most consistent with the oriental idiom, and particu- 
larly with that of the Persian language. With his usual fine taste, 
Addison caught the real oriental knack of telling a story, and has 
often availed himself of it in giving an English dress to the many 
oriental parables with which he has decorated the pages of the 
Spectator; and I shall finish with quoting two of his stories, and 
giving literal translations of them out ot Sadi's works, from which 
Ke drew them, through that best of oriental travellers, sir John Cha^- 
din; and would it be believed, that though he travelled under the 
patronage of our Charles the lid., we have not to this date a com- 
plete translation of his travels into English, but a valuable edition 
of the original was lately published in France. 

Sadi \n his Risallah ii. Sermon 4, for like our Saviour he intro- 
duces many of his most beautiful apologues as parables; in his the- 
ological discourses, tells us that: 

< One day Ibrahim Aclham, let the glory of Cod encircle his majestic 
state, had seated himself in the porch of his palace with all his retinue 
standing around him in attendance; when, behold! a poor Dervise with a 
patched cloak about his shoulders, a scrip in one hand, and a pilgrim's 
stair in the other, presented himself before him, and was making his way 
into the inner hall of the palace. The servants called to him and said» 
" Oh! reverend sir! where are you going?** He replied; ** I am going 
<* into this public inn.** The servants said; ^ this is the palace of the 
** king of Balkh.** Ibrahim commanded that they would bring him for- 
ward: he now said; ^Ohl Dervi&e! this is my palace, and no inn/* The 
Dervise asked him, saying; <* Oh! Ibrahim^ whose house was this origi- 
^ nally?" He replied; <« it was the house of my grandfather.** The Der- 
vise said, <« when he departed this life, whose house was it?*' He Mr 
plied; ^ it was my father's:" he said; << and when thy &ther also died^ 
<< whose house did it become?" he replied; ^ it became mine:** he 
said; *■ and when thou departest, to whom will it belong*'* he replied; 
** it will then belong to the prince my son!*' Then did the Dertise say, 
^^ Oh! Ibrahim! a house, which one man is after this manner entering and 

U$ Notoria. 

«iii#di«r quittitigi miiy be «Diiin,batiidleptlaceorfixtlaMtsti«ioC 

In No. 289 of the Spectator may be seen Addison's admirable 
imitation of this parable* 

Oae other apologue is that of Bustan iv. 2. containing in five co- 
lumns of the original, that most poetical and beautiful sentiment of 
humility, which the man of classical taste has only to read and ad- 
mire, and no longer be led astray by die vulvar European notion, 
that die language of Persian poetry is not isomething better than 
verbktg'e/ Addison's elegant imitation may be read in No. 293 

< A solitary drop of water» as it was falling from a cloud) blushed 
when it saw the huge extent of the sea; sa3ring^— ^ Where the ocean te« 
H ists, what plac^ is left for me to occup^} if that immense body of wa- 
<< ter be present, my God! what an inconsiderable atom of matter am I?" 
^hile it was after this manner reviewing itself with an e3re of humility, 
an oystier took it into the bosom of its shell, and nourished it with its 
whole soul: the revolution of fortune raised it into an exalted station, 
for it ripened into a precious pearl, and became the chief jewel of the 
imperial diadem of Persia: it rose into dignified enunence, because its 
V^alk was humble, and knocked at the gate of annihilation, dll it was 
ushered into an illustrious existence.' 


Art. IX.'^Notoria; or Miscellaneous Articles of Philosophy^ Ute^ 

rature^ and Politics. 

Trb first number of this pablication, came out on the fint day of Aprils in the 
present year. The plan on which it is conducted, seems much like that of other 
magazines; consisting^, as to the lai^r portion in bulk, of ori^al oommunica. 
tions, selected essays, and poetiy: then follows a review of periodical works: 
notice of new publications: literaiy and scientific news: a political register of Bri- 
tish and foreign affairs: a chronicle: monthly reports of commerce and agricul* 
ture: and lastly,-^ an account of marriages and deaths. 

The original communications are interesting, as we might espect in the 
commencing number of suob a work. So are the selections under the head of 
<< Antiquarian Repertory,** particulariy to readers in North Britain. There al« 
tko titles comprised in the present worifc, Wkioh seem to ofaanu;teriie it; tiiat is, 
'i review t/tPtriMcal Workt, and a more AiU account of foreign politics and in- 
telUgence, than is customaiy in publication^ of this kind. But we were somewhat 
Inrprised lA looking over the review of periodical publications, to find none of 
the numerouiB periodical pamphlets furnished by the press of Great Britain, deeift* 
ed worthy of observation but the Edinburgh and the Quafisriy Reviews; to the 
analysis of whose contento, about fire pages of close print ai« dedicated in the 
prettnt magazine. This is an article that to many leaden will be anoeptable, and 
itom the opposite politieal character of these two publications, we Dnay augur, that 
•fbeoditonof theEdinbuigfa Magazine meanto take neutral ground with respect 
to the politics of the day. The Edinburgh Review, conducted by Mr. Jefixies, as 
dttrraaaers well know, Is fiiTomble to the pditios of that fArly which Mr. Bnxke 

NbtorUt. Uf 

tkidar, laadsd pro|Mri^ton of the kmg^om^ whosa luflaenee rested en loos' ^^ 
•cent and w6altii; the Pereyt, Hie Hovraids^ the Portlmdsy liie Devouhires, Su% 
But Ibi^desoeDt end fteat weeltli^ we Veiy leidom a0ceiii|Muued by great talent or 
faeqaireliMBt; a»d ■tlH leas by the ilerftereiinf iaduatiy Beoeasary to suoeess in po- 
litiesy as well as in etteiy other pursuit. Ifoiioey the of^fibsitioii-aiistocracy of tha 
S^glish BcAiflity , from tfaeclose of the AttierktBA Warto tbepre?aleBeeof the Frenoh 
reTolution, were £ua to ooliBltetthettselTee pelitieally witii the iiotfi hommm M 
the new wlufs — the taiea of no rank* no l6t¥tasby bat adTenturuus talentf uid aor 
live acquiTomeilt, of which phalanx Mr. Fom Iras the leader. From this piuN^t Mfw 
BariEetWliobeloofedtoiteHfiaattyfWasiodBoadtoseoede* TbB|iarl9r towhaas 
his talents were necessary, took care to apply ' perMiaMeift ia a tangible shape/ 
and with'gieal saoeesa. But llfr. Btttite*s oppositioB to his old friends^ was too 
aadden and too vindent; and notwithstandiiy the beaaty of his language, and tba 
prophetic force of numy of his ^bserfations, he made kittle impresdoa upon the 
public: as a speaker, his prohzity wearied, and his rinilenoe disgpiated his audi- 
tors — as a writer, he had too much pomp of expression, and too little anrai^emeat 
of aigument: all were amused, none were ooBTertedt with litenury men he was, 
and will be, ngarded as the most eloqaeat of British authors; but with the nation 
at large, be settled down under the character given by Safiust, mUU eloqumiikfy 
tapieniutparmn. The new whig prineqdes, bequeathed by Mr. Fox, are those 
of the present lord Grey, and of lord Holland's politico-literaiy coterie; and are 
countenanced throughout, by the political character assumed in the £dinbux]g^ 

The mantle of Mr. Pitt, and Mr. Burke, like dmt of Mr. Fox, has descended 
tfl{no one. Th^ have followers, sa^Mirt jmusii, but they have none capable of 
taking their respectire places in the political warfare. 

The Quarterly Review, set up to counteract die influence which the £di»- 
burgh Review, conducted with great ability, was gradually acquiring, is managed 
chiefly by Wm. Gifibrd and Robert Southey, the poets, or verse writers; for the 
former can hardly be considered as having any claius to th# first high character. 
Giflbid was, for many yeaxs^ a protege of lord March duke of Queensbury, and 
of comae attached to the poUtiosof the court, and of the old aristocracy, now com- 
pletely amalgamated. Southey, a few years ago, an outrageous refoimist, has 
joined Giffiird, and now wars against the tenets of his former creed, with all the 
virulence of a renegade This Review cannot admit that way thing ia wrong in 
the present beautiful order of things in Great Britain; and is furious against tboaa 
whose distempered activity would put in jeopardy the Corinthian pillars of civil 
society: Gifford and Southey adopt as their motto, that of the bishops: 

toach not a cobweb ia St. Pftai*i 
Lett you iftoiUd shake the dotoe! 

Each of these conflicting reviews, aid indirectly, but with great eflSsct, the poi- 
iillMd party to which thby are attached, by the talent displayed tn tfieir respec- 
tive publications, th every other species of literary merit, except tiiat of 
claasical acuiMn— «o accurate, a minute, and critical knowledge of the Greek 

15ft ttotorku 

■nd RoBfviIi&gTMgpes and clittic»— -whereiil the Qnaiteriy 
kas the advantage, the Edinbuiigh is superior. In TirnleiSbe, not to say inso* 
tenoe, they aie equaL Each of them strives to gire a zest to their literary 
test by thnming in the < Seasoning of ControTeny,' with an unsparing hand- 
But the talent of these writers has forced &em upon the public notice, and 
both the Edinboxgh and the Quarterly Reviews, stand at the head of miscella- 
iieotts periodical Uteratore, in the island of' Great Britain. Th^ Monthly and 
Hie Critical, an £dling into divepale: the Analytical' is no more. But a new 
one, ofHiducted with the sane political complexion, but with features not quite 
■o sour as the Quarteriy, is risiag into notice under the title of the British Re^ 
new; and whieh, if it oontiaao to bo condnetod as it has been, will claim a iiifl 
portion of the public attention. 

In the scientific dopaitsient of ttio Edinbiiigh Magazine, now under consi" 
deration, the news, can haidly bo called the news of the day: the experiments 
of professor Leslie for instance, and of Dr. Clarke of Cambridge with the com- 
pound biow-pipe, have been known here for some time previous to the date of 
the Edinburgh Magazine. 

It is strange, that the British pubUcations should not notice the veiy repre^ 
hensible character of the claims to novelty in the experiments of Dr. Clarke; 
when every scientific man in England, (I might almost say in Europe] well 
knew that Mr. Hare of Philadelphia first conceived and first executed tbe idea 
of burning together, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportions proper to form wa- 
ter. The simplification of Mr. Hare's complex apparatus by Mr. Cloud, made 
experiments of this kind familiar in this country long before the attempts of Mr. 
Brooke, Mr. Newman, or Dr. Clarke. Nor is there any thing now in the prin- 
ciple of condensation, which Mr. Cloud's neat and simple machine is calculated 
to give with at ieai^ as much eflect as the common condenser used by Mr. 

We observe that the Mirquu lUdoiphi of Florence, has repeated some of Dr.' 
Clarke's experiments, with what he pleases to call phlogogene and therm-oxy- 
gen. But until the scientific gentiemen of London shall be able to perfomi 
with success the experiments described by Dr. Clarke, we must take the liberty 
of remaining sceptical as to the accuracy of those detailed by the Marquis 

* The experiments (of Dr. Clarke) says professor Brando, have been made in 
tiiis (the Royal) Institution, and wore repeated a few days since in the presence 
of the most distinguished chemists now in the metropoItB, btd^ wUhoui awxeti.^ 
No one has yet complained that he could not repeat Mr. Hare's. See Journal 
of Science and the Arts. No. IV. p. 461. 

It is likely that we shall adopt the practice of tbe Edinbni^ Magazine, and 
dedicate a few pages hereafter, to the analysis of some of the best English and 
foreign periodical publications. 

PERIODICAL WORKS. Bxbon."— In Uiis article tiie Reviewen 

The Edinburgh Renew, .Yo. 54. do not confine themselves altogether to 

1. '* Childe Harold^s Pilgrimage, these two publications, but the Cortair 

Canto the Third, and The Prisoner of being the last work of lord Byron of 

ChiUon, and other Poems. By Lord whi^ they had ^i^en a particular ac- 

Notorta* 159 

oMint, ikiof introdnoed tlieir ez^aanA- 9!"*^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ iiMdjr niitan. 

tion of the present works by notices of The repeal of the usury laws, howeTer^ 

Ldira^ The ::iiege qfCorinthj and other is bisld to be imprudent, at tins parti* 

intermediate pieces. This Third CmUo cular oiisis, as " all persons aow owing 

of CkUde Harold^ the Reiriewers are money would inevitably have their ««• 

persuaded will not be pronounced i^fe- diton coming upon them for payment." 

nor to either of theformen and they It is to be wished the Keriewer had 

think that it will probably be ranked taken into consideration the effects 

above them by those who ha^e been which tiiii repeal would produce upon 

most delighted with the whole. Of Tk$ the tei|ns of loans to goremment, and 

Priaoner of Chilian they speak in the upon tfie price of public funds.— The 

language of praise; but the rest of the ProUgt i^amH Law Taxes is highly 

poems are said to be less amiable, and extolled. The piinlege of sueing in 

most of them, the Reviewers fear, have finwafomferu it shown to be of little 

a perscmal and not very charitable ap- indue. Stamps on law proceedings am 

plication. censured; and the vulgar aigument^ 

2. " A Letter to the Roman Catho- that such taxes operate as a check to 
lie Priests of Ireland, on theexpediency litigation, is said to be <* triumphantly 
of reviving.the Canonical mode of elect- reiitted'* by Mr. Bentham. 

ing Bishops by Dean and Chapter, &c. 4. " WesentUche Betrachtungen 

By C. O." — There is no further notice oder Greschichte des Krieges 2wischen 

of the book or its author. It is a disser- den Osmanen und Russen in den Jafa- 

tation on the Catholic questicm, in ren, 1768 bis 1774, von RbsmiAchmxd 

which the Reviewer endeavours to Erxn di, aus dem Turkischen ubersetzt 

show that no securities whatever should und durch Anmerkungen erlardert von 

be required from the Catholics as the Hswrich Frixdbsch Von Dixz."-. 

condition of their emancipation. This book is a histoiy of the war be- 

3. <' Defence of Usury: showing the tween Russia and the Ottoman Porte, 
impolicy of the present legal restraints in the jrears 1768—1774, originally 
on the terms of pecuniary baigains, in written m Turkish by Resmi Achmed 
Letters to a Friend. To which is add- Efendi, and translated into German by 
ed, a Letter to Adam Smith, Esq. L. L. M. Von Diez. The Reviewer has con. 
D. on the discouragementi opposed by trived, by the playfuloess and pleasan- 
the above restraints to the progress of try of his style, to render this short 
inventive industry. The third edition: article veiy amusing. The work itself, 
to which is also added, second edition, he says, is dull enough in all conscience, 
a Protest against Law Taxes. By but it is a literary curiosity. 
Jeremy Bentham, Esq. of Lincoln's 5. '* National Difficulties practically 
Inn." — In this article the Reviewer be- explained, and Remedies proposed as 
fins with examining the reasons that certain, speedy, and effectual, ibr the 
have been ujged in defence of the relief of all our present embarrass- 
usurylaws, and finds that they produce ments."— The qiftstions proposed for 
none of the good which they pretend discussion in this article are, 1st, In 
to have in view; and then proceeds to what manner were the people of this 
point out the mischieiB which they ere- country, who are now idle, formerly 
ate in all directions. These laws are employed? The substance of the an- 
considered to be also insufficient, and swer is, that foreign trade was '< the 
inconsistent with their avowed pur- source from which employment flowed 
poses, as they allow of transactions to all classes of her industrious inhabi- 
substantially usurious. The penalties tants."— 2d, By what means were they 
imposed upon all who assist suitors in deprived of this empJoyment? The an- 
courts of justice, with the means of en- swer is, that this commerce was sud- 
forcing their rights, stipulating for a denly pent up, partly by a train of ill 
certain premium, which the law of concerted measures at home, and partly 
England denominates maintenance and hy the policy of the enemy abroad, 
champerty y are reprobated as the growth within the narrow bounds of the British 
of a barbarous age; and a very strong territory. '* We sought to ruin the 
case is extracted firom Mr. Bentham's enemy's trade, and we have succeeded 
treatise to. show the. ruinous conse- in ruining our own** — ^And, 3d, whether 

160 Notarku 

theM i0 aoy probftbiliftjr Uiat it (eniitojr- the M«rthiaBlMi*Md."— ^Sbe Reneir- 
meBt) ever will be resr<^i]ied? This is en poiatout some mistakes in Mr. War* 
the most important question. *< We den*4 histoncai reooUections, hut ob- 
have no proof," the Reviewer says, serve, " that there is an air of plain- 
«« thai the consumption of onr manu&c* boss uid sincenty in his account of what 
teres, either in Europe or in Ameiica, he saw and heaid, that reooomiends it 
has fallen off." Our error has been in stronglj to the confidence of his read- 
overstocking these mariceti; but the ers.** Only a small portion of the ar- 
goods will be consumed, and trade re- tide iidevoted to Mr. Warden's book* 
vi^e. — ^Tbe most important of the other The greater pert is occupied <* with a 
causes of the distress which prevails short and general view of the public 
are, the decline of agriculture, and the and political lifs of Napoleon, with 
increase of taxation. such facts and anecdotes interspersed, 
6. *' The Works of Henry Hewaid, as have been furnished to us, on good 
Earl of Surrey, and of Sir Thomas aqtherity, from persons &miliarly con- 
Wyatt, the Elder. Edited by Oeoros nected with him at different periods of 
Frederick Nott, D. D. F. S. A. late his fortune, or obtained from some of 
Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford." our oountiymen, who saw and con- 
For one of these quartos, that which versed with him during his residence 
contains the works of the Earl of Sur- in the Isle of Elba." This delectable 
ley, the Reviewers are inclined to make compilation would have done honor to 
every allowance, and to muster up every M. Bertrand himMlH It is distingnish- 
thing favourable; but Sir Thomas Wy- od throughout by an exaggerated re- 
att " was in no true sense of the word presentation of what is praise-worthy 
a poet;" and as their object is to coosi- in the character and conduct of Napo- 
der poetB and poetry, they take leave of leon, and, what is infinitely wone, by 
'him at once. This article contains a a palpable anxiety to apologize for his 
summary of the Life of the Earl of Sur- greatest enormities, 
ley, and a critique on his poetry — 10. " Delia Patria di Cristoforo Go* 
^« We see not the slightest g^round," say lombo. Dissertasione pubblioata nolle 
the Reviewers, '* for depriving Chan- Memorie dell' Accademia Impeiiale 
cer, in any one respect, of his title of delle Soienze di Torino. Restampeta 
Father of English Poetry," and '* we con Quinte, Documenti, Letters di- 
are heartily ready to allow that Surrey verse, lee. and Regionamento nel Quale 
well deserves that of the eldest son, si conformal' Opinion Generaleintomo 
however he was surpassed by the bro- alia Patria di Cristoforo Colombo,— 
thers that immediately followed him. Presentato all* Accademia delle Sci- 

7. "Narrative of a Journey in Egypt, ense, Lettere, e Arti di Geneva,— 
and the Country beyond the Cataracts. Nell' Adunanza del di 16. Decembie 
By Thomas Lxoh, Esq. M. P."— The 1812, dagli Accademici Serra, Carreg^ 
Reviewers speak well of this woik.— e Piaggio."— The object of the fint of 
After accompanying Mr. Legh on his these works is to prove that Celumbui 
journey, and extracting a very inter- was a Piedmontese, and of the latter, 
esting part of the narrative, they con- that, as has been generally held, he 
elude with some account of the Waha- was a Genoese. l%e Reviewers are 
bees of Arabia, chiefly taken from the of this last opinion. To this discussion 
Travels of Ali Bey. is subjoined a most interesting letter^i' 

8. *< The Statesman's Manual; or the written by Columbus upon his return 
Bible the best Guide to Political skill from the first vovage in which he disco- 
and foresight ; a Lay Sermon, address- . vered the New World, and despatched 
ed to the higher classes of Society; with from Lisbon, where he landed, to one 
an Appendix. By S. T. Colbridob, of the Spanish king's counciL It has 
Esq." — ^This article abounds in ridicule been almost entirely overlooked by his- 
and metaphor as well as in argument, torians. 

If any one delights in seeing a poor 11. >• Statements respecting the East 

author cui up^ he must be amply grati- India College, with an Appeal to facts, 

fied by this mdignant and scornful per^ in refutation of the charges lately 

formance. ' ■ "^ 

19. *' Letters from St Helena. By * See Analectic Magasine of Jane 

William Wardxh, Surgeon on board 18 H— vol. ix. p. 613. 

Notoria. 161 

bnmsfat agaiiMtitiii-tbeCoiirtofPro- 4. << A Voyag« round the World, 
prieton. By the RsT. T. R. Malthus, from 1806' to 1812; in whfch Japan, 
Jlcc."«-Mr. Maithus and the Reyiewers, Kamschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and 
aUer ei idem perhaps, agfree in thinking the Sandwich Islands, were visited, &c. 
that some sort of instruction is really By Archibai^d Campbell."— Camp- 
desirable for the future Judges and bell is a poor young sailor, who had lost 
Magistrates of India, and this indeed is both feet^ and was found by Mr. Smith, 
a point tolerably well proved, though the Editor of the volume, in one of the 
not till after a good deal of time suod steam boats that ply on the Clyde, play- 
labour has been employed about it-— ing on the violin for the amusement of 
But whether the College at Hertford the passengers. *' The' hope that an 
be the very best institution for the pur- account of his voyage might be of ser- 
pose is not quite so clear. The argu- vice to an unfortunate and deserving 
ments in defence of it are of too general man, and not unacceptable to those who 
a nature, and the *' disturbances'* aa take pleasure in contemplating the pro- 
which the objection to it rests, too slight- gress of mankind in the arts o . civili- 
ly noticed, to enable the public to come zation, gave rise to the present publica- 
to ^ny decided opinion, without having tion." The book itself contains much 
access to information of a more definite that is curious, and adds not a little to 
and tangible characC^ir. our still very imperfect knowledge of the 

— '•, remote regions visited by the author. 

Tke Quarterly Rmei/f. Jfo. 31. 6. *' Shakespeare's Himself again! 

1. " Narrative of a Journey in Egypt &c. By Andb£w Becket."— An ar- 
and the Country beyond the Cataracts, tide fuU of irony and banter, ap'parent- 
By Thomas Lsgii, Esq. M. P." — " On ly a weU deserved chastisement of this 
the present occasion,*' say the Review- unfortunate c(»nmentator. 

ers, " we have nothing to find fault with 6. ''Tracts on Saving Banks." — 

but the omissions." Mr. Legh may There is a great deal of information 

rejoice that he has escaped so well from about those banks collected in this ar- 

the ordeal of these opposite courts of tide, but the Reviewer is too zealous 

criticisms. and too sanguine to peroeive the incon- 

2. " Counsellor Phillips's Poems veniencies which must be felt from 
and Speeches." — Mr. Phillips's sins adopting the plans of Mr. Duncan; and, 
•gainst good taste are not a Uttle ag- while he bestows well-merited praise 
gravated in the eyes of these Review- on the benevolent exertions of this gon- 
ers by his political opinions, tleman, we think that he hardly does 

3. " A Treatise on the Records of justice to some of the other fellow la- 
the Creation, and on the Moral Attn- bourers. 

botes of the Creator, with particular 7. <' Cowper's Poems and Life."— 
reference to the Jewish History, and The third volume of the poems, edited 
to the consistency of the principle of by John Johnson, L. L. D., ttie fint 
population with the Wisdom and Good- work embraced hy this Review, is con- 
ness of the Deity. By John Bird sidered decidedly inferior as to its prede- 
StJMMEB, M.A." — Mr. Burnett, a gen- cessors. The other two treatises are 
tieman of Aberdeenshire, bequeathed memoirs, said to be written by Cow- 
a sum to be set apart till it should accu- per himself, and never before publish- 
mulate to 1600/., which was then to be ed. From what we see of them here, 
given to the authors of the two best the only subject of regret is, that they 
Essays on the subject of Mr. Sumner's should ever have been published at all. 
book, — ^to the first in merit, 1200/., and The article contains a general charac- 
to the second, 400/. The second prize ter of CowpePs poetry and letters, 
vas assigned to Mr. Sumner, of whose 8. ** A Sketch of the British Fur 
Treatise the Reviewers present a pret- Trade in North America, with Obser- 
ty full, and apparently an impartial, vations relative to the North-west Corn- 
examination in this interesting article, pany of Montreal. By the Eaal qf 
Their observations on the principle of Selkirk: and Voyage de la Mer At- 
population, lead to conclusions very [antique a' TOcean Pacifique par lo 
difierent from those of Mr. Maithus^ Nord-ouest dans la Mer Glaciale; par 
and are, we hope, better supported by le Capitaine Laurent Ferrer Maldon- 
biitory and experience. ado I'an 15$8. Noavellei^ent traduit, 


16:2 Notoria. 

kcJ^ Lord Selkirk, Mme yean ago, the biglieft order, bat tiM deiioac^ end 
attempted to dirert the tide of emigra- Mrficitade of a frieoid, without, hoireFcr, 
tion from the Highlands of Scotland to shutting his eyes to tlie ecoen^citSes 
the United States, and tnm it to Prince and misjudged exhibitions of this lagii> 
£dward*8 Island, within the territories brious and indignant nusaB^rope.-^ 
of Great Britain. More lately, his There are one or two digressions in it 
views of oolooization seem to have somewhat curious, for they may be 
become more extensive; and having thought to identify the Reviewer,*— 
purchased about a third psol of (he stock upon much the same grounds as Childe 
of the Hudsop's Bay Company, he ob- Harold has been supposed to speadc the 
tained from their governors a grant of sentiments of Lord Byron. In the first, 
a wide extent (vf country, held or 8Ui>- be disputes the proposition, that rapidi- 
posed to be held, under their charter, ty of composition and publication en- 
of which he proceeded to take posset- dangers the fame of an author of grent 
sion. The settlen on this tract have talents. A little after it is stated, as an 
been molested, it appears, by the ser- / axiom, that *' every author sbeuld, like 
vants of tlie North-west Company, Lord Byron, form to hims^ and com* 
between which and the Hudson's Bay municate to the reader, a precise, de- 
Ceropany there had long subsisted a fined, and distinct view of (be land- 
deadly feud; and some very extraerdi- scape, sentiment, or action* which he 
nary proceedings are understood to intends to describe to the reader."— 
have taken place on both sides. Ac- Lord Byron's polkioal ^pimons, of 
cordine to Lord Selkirk, the fur trade course, meet with no fkvonr; but his 
is not m the best hands, nor carried cm sins of omission, as well asiMMMuissioa, 
in a very honourable manner. The though pointed nut in forcible language. 
North-west Company is pointedly ao- do not call forth those expressions of 
cused, indeed, of grant violence and contumely and bitterness^ which •» 
injustice, for which, as the law at pre- often disgrace Che subalterns in polili- 
sent stands, it is extremely difficult, or cal hostilities. Thera is eemething 
altogether impossible, to call its ser- rerj venous, or, so diArent ave peo» 
vants to account. Of the Hudson's pies* tastes, perhaps amusing, at the 
Bay Company, the Reviewers do not conclusion of this article. It b impos- 
think so well as Lord Selkirk does.— sible net to see in it the goed ncss of Ite 
The rest of this article, and that which writer's heart, though we ttafen ae 
is of a fhr deeper interest, relates to the doubt that ottieia may pretwid to dis- 
North-west passage. The relation of cover also a slight infusion of amiable 
Maldonado's voyage is held to be a simplioity. For Ufur own parts, we can- 
clumsy and audacious foxgery. l%e not help suspecting that there as a rea» 
Reviewers firmly believe, howevier, that senable portion of afectatiSM In eoaie of 
a navigable passage from the Atlantic Lord Bjftnn*s decorous verses; and that 
to the Pacific, round the northern coast to traflt him like a spoilt ohiM will not 
of America, does exist, and may be of have mneh eAcacy in remeving the 
no difficult execution. In support of complaint If any one ahould he re a ft er 
this opinion, they proceed to examine think it neceesafv, inordertoeetabiish 
the various unsuccessful attempts that his superiority ec tnlent, to hegife widi 
have been made at difierent periods.-— dtstinguiehing himsetf in the oiyolM o( 
No human being, they say, has yet ap- vice aad lolly, despisiag the restaiaei 
proached the coast of America on the to which orfinairy morteU have agreed 
eastern ^ide, from 66 degrees and a half to submit, he 4nay be led to doubt of 
to 72 degrees, and here it is thought the certainty of this mode of pranng 
the passage may be found. his daim, when he is assayed ^at the 
9. *' Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, moral and religiotts regimen, hmm pre- 
Canto III.; and the Prisoner of Chillon, scribed to Lord Byron, has been veiy 
and other Poems. By Loan Btbon." faithfully observed, both in the private 
— ^If the heart of Lord Byron be not and public life of sevnral «r the most 
dead to eveiy emotion of pleasure and diitingirished writers of the praeent 
gratitude, this article must stir up these age. 

B^lings in no common degree. The 10. '* Waiden's Lettmu."-— ** Mr. 

Reviewer displays throngheut, not only Warden's pretences and fetoehondSi** 

the powers of a poet and of a critic of say the Reviewers^ «« if net detected <0n 

tile ipot, Hid at liM nMmeiit when the iiBMORAifDras er a vi^w-vdhtbb. 

mean ef detectioD happen to be at Frotn i^$ Edmkurgh JdonMy Jita^ 

hand, might heifeafter tend to deceive ^oxwk. 

other writen, and poimm the ioytcet of Lomdony bik JUttnky 1819. 

kkiory," The motiTe of the Review- Ma. Ehitor — If yon can find room 

ers is therefore a very laudable one, for lome brief aketches of a view-hun- 

and the ' detection' will no doubt be ter, who ha« a little enthusiasm in his 

very eatisfactory to a certain class of line, and who, like not a few of his 

readers. But the historian! Sources countrymen, has been a view-hunting 

of history! If the historian and philo- lately in France, his memorandum book 

sopher should sit down to this, and the u very much at your service. The 

corresponding article in the Edinbuigfa sketches have at least one merit*— they 

Beview, about a hundred years henoe, are warm from the life, 

what must he think of the political par- No. I. 

ties, and of the state of literature, in 7b Dover. 

Britain in the year 1816? Mr. War- Preparing the race-ground 

den is a *' blundering, presumptuous, for the races. This raised a train of 

and falsifying scribblerf' and the proof ideas about the D , S , the fair 

is, that he actually brou|^t the mate- M , and allthat,Yaried but pleasing. 

rials of this book from St Helena, in — ^Pretty clean-looking village of Bridge 
the 8hi4)e of notes, instead of having in the bottom. The countzy rich with 
really despatched letters from sea, and gentlemen's houses and garden-like en- 
from St Helena, to a correspondent in closures. The track was now new to 
England! me. This had been ^e boundary of my 
11.'* Parliamentary Reform."— That former trips on the Dover road. The 
part of this article which corresponds dale to the right, with hamlets, villages, 
with its title, contains sentiments, about churches, gentlemen's seats, appears 
the justness of which there will be little peculiarly elegant, contrasted with the 
difference of opinion among well in- plsunness on the left The road is car- 
formed men. None but the most igno- ried along the east side of a valley. 
rant can expect, and none but the This valley is narrow and rich^-of the 
most wrongheaded, or unprincipled, glen sort-— and, as we approach Dover, 
will teach £e people to expect any re- it has several pleasing vista-openings in 
lief under the present distresses of the the Scottish stile, 
country, from universal sufirage and We got a small peep of the channel, 
annual parliaments. Bat the Review- two or three miles from Dover. The 
er does not confine himself to topics, in town itself is scarcely seen till we en- 
the discussion of which, he would have ter. On descending to the botlom, in 
carried atong with him the approbation which it stands, we took up a little m;2n 
of all those whose approbation is of any about twenty, one of the most free and 
value. Unfortunately, we think, for easy persons I have ever niet with. He 
the cause of which he is so able an ad- introduced himself to us in a moment, 
vocate, he has introduced a great Jeal and gave us all the information we 
of extraneous matter, concerning which wanted; indeed, much more than my 
men of the clearest heads and purest companion S seemed to want But 
intentions, cannot be brought to agree. I was pleased with the rattle for the mo- 
He has also counteracted the efiects ment He, however, did not lack either 
which the soundness of his judgment, sense or discrimination. He pointed out 
and the powers of his eloquence, might the btream that creeps in the bottom, as 
have otherways prbduced upon mis- being reckoned the richest in England 
guided or unthinking reformers, by in- of its siae, for manufacturing returns, 
dnlging in a strain of violent exaggera- So he said. Saw several paper manufac- 
tion and reproach. So wide a departure tories and dour mills. One of the for- 
fromthe Romanpoet'smaximof n«at:«<er mer, he said, was famous for fine paper; 
in modo, fortUer in re, brings him too the scenery of its banks pleasing, and, 
near to the style of the orators and au- from this account, it became more inte- 
thors whom he so justly exposes, and is resting* It seems to descend from a 
ineonsistant with the respect which so vista on the right, and to run only four 
able a writer owes to himself and to his or ^ve miles, 
readen. Our attention was attracted by a 

164 - Notoritu, 

group of Toang women pTomeiiading in hunter entangluig himself wi^ any iioii<* 
a green field on its bank, near a yery vievr-hunter as a travelling companion, 
small rustic chapel and church-yard; He is prevented from seeing half of 
the latter only about fifty feet square, what he may see.*— A word to view- 
Hie whole formed a fine rural picture, hunters. I determined to give my (mmu- 
On descending to the level of the stream, panions the slip for the future, except at 
we found both the footway and the road meals. 

covered with walkers; for this was Sun- I then proposed ascending to the ci- 
day afternoon, and the weather was un- tadel. The way at first steep, and near- 
commonly, fine. When we entered the ly on the edge of the precipice. Dr. B. 
town, we still found the footway— 'for it flndd to some of the soldiers who pointed 
has a footway on each side, and this was out our way, as they were reclining on 
one of the few we were to see for many the declivity, that it looked like ascend- 
a hundred mile — still crowded with pro- ing to the sides. Nothing of that sort, 
menaders. The people well dressed, said a drummer. I have cKmbed it of- 
particuiarly the women. The girls very ten, and I never found I was a bit near- 
psetty. Seldom have se^ so many fine er heaven than before. The pert drum- 
faces in a town of the same size; but it mer might not be very far wrong with 
was Kent. A smile on every counte- respect to himself, 
nance. I like to see the evening of the The view of the harbour, which is a 
Sabbath-day kept in this cheerful but tide one, and very extensive, having 
decorous manner. gates between the outer and inner sta- 
I shall compare this with what I see tion, with the ships so far below us, 
at Calais, said I to my companions of formed an interesting picture. The sea 
th e top. was delightfully calm. The white clifl^ 

Dover. of France, whither we were going, had 

At the Paris hoteL Very good house, their efiect. The sight set us a talking 

Civil and attentive. Full of passengers of the probability of the junction ^ 

to and from the continent. Walked out Great Britain formeriy with the conti- 

with my companions. Dr. B. and Mr. S., nent. The sameness of the soil, and 

to view-hunt a little on the heights on other geological phenomena, and the 

so fine an afternoon. The town built on . proximity, seemed to make a junction 

a narrow slip of land at the bottom of likely; the vast length of the British 

.steep chalky clifls. Ascended a circular channel, and the wide German ocean 

excavation in the chalk. Three wind- approaching so near, render a separa- 

ing stairs up it, of about 200 steps, tion from the first as naturaL In short, 

Made some years ago. Centinels both- whether this part of the channel was 

at the entry below and above. Part of once an isthmus, and Albion a peninsQ- 

thc works of defence, on the top of the la, or not, will ever be a doubtful spe- 

hill, a little to the right of this. Ascend culation. We have nothing butconjec- 

it by ladder stairs on the outside. These tural reasons, and these appear to be as 

have a fine efiect, combined with the strong on the one side as the other. 

fortifications. The castie, also, has a ve- Two very bonny lasses, with a fine 

nerable and picturesque appearance child, ascended at the same time with 

from this station. us, but still nearer the precipioe. I 

I inquired about Shakspeare's clifi'of begged them, for Heaven s sake, not to 

the soldiers. A decent-looking militia- go so near. They laughed, and went 

man, who was carrying a pret^ child, still nearer; and sat down almost on the 

while two more were playing round very edg^ of the tremendous precipice, 

him, pointed it out to me— a mile or so which, even at the distance we were 

off. A iew halfpence made the litUe standing, made us shudder. Goodbye, 

folks very happy, and the parent's fond my poor dears, said I to them; I shall see 

eye glisten with delight. I cast a wish- you no more. They gave me some jo- 

ful look to this favourite cliff: — Thede- cular reply. Such is the effect of cos- 

rlining day was so fine. But Dr. B. tom. 

said, he was so fati^ed he could not Went up to the citadeL Not allowed 

think of it; and as I could not leave to enter. A nice-looking woman sund 

him so abruptiy, I was obliged to her husband on the drawbridge. She 

give up the project, but not without re- seemed quite frightened. On raising 

gret that was constantiy recurring, my eyes, I soon found the cause of her 

This is the Inconvenience of a view- terror. They were going to fire the 

Kotori(u 165 

evening g^^^ from the nunpart The the Bank of Epgland, alfflie, are now 

picture was tmly fine. The poor female from eight to ten millions more than 

was crouching down on the bridge, when this learned body, &r abore the 

though -the gun was full twelve feet prejudices of metal-money times no 

abov% her, and stopping her ears; and doubt, were theorizing; and yet here is 

the artillery men were standing in or- a Jew (for the sake of mere amusement, 

der by it, waiting till the sun, who was it is granted) offers me more g^ld for 

now going down, should sink under the my paper mcmey, than even its mint 

lull. We were at unequal distances, price warrants. His ncgency, also, cer- 

watching the hand that held the lighted tainly lobks very much like Us consi- 

match. Thk was applied. The height dering paper really more valuable than 

seemed to shake under us. The thun- gold. 'Tis a pity that facts will still 

der ran round the hills for some time, be giving the negation flat to certain 

and returned again. The varied and iavourite theories. *We shall, however, 

pleasing form of these winding heights, reach somethmg 'like good sense on 

with their picturesque ornaments— the money at length, periiaps. I say good^ 

glens between them, which put me in and not commof» sense; for the common 

mind of some of the glens of the<3rram- sense on the subject of money, as on 

pians, though in miniature— and the many others, has a good deal of that ne- 

brilliant tints which the sun had left gative kind of sense in it which is stiled 

behind him, received such an addition nonsense. 

from this simple and fiumliar incident. All this, it is to be noticed, I thought, 
that Dr. B., who seemed to possess a and not said. Fn»n some remark tibat 
veiy moderate share of view-hunting had fallen from Dr. B. I perceived he 
en&usiasm, exclaimed, " 'Tis truly was an adherent of .the metal money 
grand andbeautifuli" I felt the justness party, and I was a decided partisan of 
of the observation home, and 1 echoed paper. Now it is well known, that a re- 
it with the most cordial assent. gular aigumentation on paper and me- 

As we marched off, highly delighted tal money, unless abruptly terminated 
with this short evening view-hunt, we by a quarrel or a duel— to say nothing 
were assailed by a host of native ene- of disturbing all around us with our 
mies. These were hornets. I did not noise — ^seldom, on a moderate calcula- 
mind them, and thev soon left me. But tion, abates in its violence in less than 
t>r. B. was quite alarmed. In vain I two hours and a half. But I wished to 
advised him to let them alone. The retire to bed early, and therefore I did 
more he laboured to chase these buz- not offer battle, s 
zers away, the more furious and nume- My bed-room was just under a per- 
rons did they return to the attack. I pendicular cliff of chalk, say, from 150 
have frequently found these insects to 200 feet high. Suppose now, thought 
near cannon and ordnance depots. ,1 I to myself, this diff should tumble 
do not know why. down in the night. However, thought I 

While we sat at tea, a little valetu- to myself again, this perpendicular cliff 

dinarian Jew, whom they called Moses, has stood during the nights of several 

offered his services in the money-change thousand years, and why should it, of 

ing line. He said he followed this busi- all nights, fall down on tihe very night 

ness merely for the sake of a little amus- that I sleep at DoverP — And sleep there 

ing employment. He charged a penny I did, and very soundly too. In three 

more for his Louises (of twenty francs) minutes I was unconscious of existence, 

dian I had paid in London, or 16s. 4d. and dreamt neither of Jews changing 

He wanted very much to tempt me to money for mere amusement, metal nor 

part with some of the slips of paper I paper, bullion committees, ner yet per- 

had received from Hammersly, for pendicular cliffs of chalk. 

French gold — ^no doubt by wajr of And now, sirj with your permission, 

amusement also. But in vain he offered I shall postpone my invasion of France 

me a douceur, as I meant to keep my till next month, 

paper till I got to Paris. He loitered in — * 

the coffee-room, and again and ag^in From the tame. 

he attempted to bribe me to part with on sitting below thk salt. 

it . Phol thought I, as I sipt mf tea; and Mr. Editor— -It is veiy pleasing to 

as the theory of our bullion committee observe with what care the^os^popu- 

come to this in practice. The notes of lar writers of this age are obliged to 

166 . Notoritu 

gaaad agaimt inteodaonig any cifcum- toeial bomrd, whils the distinGtum ob* 

sUiiCM, ewem i» their worki of a natare seired in ranking them, was a salvo to 

entirely fietitiottSy which 4^ not banno- the pride of their superiors.?* In the 

aiee with the OMumert of the period same manner, in the tale of * Old Mor- 

wfaeiein te scene of their story is laid, tality/ in the admirable picture of the 

ns example of sech sAithors as Scott, Laif^ of Milnwood^s dinner, the old but- 

Soethey, and Byitm, wbe display so ler Cnddie, '&c. sat << at a consider- 

nmch erudition even in the most trifling* able distance from the laird, and, of 

mattefs of costame, must soon put an coarse, helow the iolV* The critics, 

end to the rage for historical poems and whose remaito it was my fortune to 

nmianees from the pens of such hal^in- hear, were of opinion, that this usage of 

formed writen as Miss Porter, Miss placing guests above or below the salt, 

H<^fbrd, and the like. The novels according to the degree of nobihty in 

*■ ftHinded on fact,' 93i they are called^ their bloMi, was a mere invention of the 

with which some of these female con- facetious author, and entirely without 

noisseurs have tiiougfat fit to present any fbimdation in history; — or, as one of 

the world, abound every where in vio- them expressed it, Mum merum toL 

lations of historical truth as g^ross, and It struck ihe at tiie time, that the usage 

in sins against eostume as glaring, as was not so new to my ears as it seemed 

ever astounded the reader of a romance to be to theirs, and, on coming home, I 

of the thirteenth century. As in these looked into a volume of old English 

productions of that dark age, Achilles ballads, where I found the follovdng 

and Heeler ave always painted Uke true vterse: 

kmg^ of Lang«edoc or Armorioa, « Them art a earle mean of degre, 

with sallires and fcsses on their shields, y« salt yt doth stande twain roe and thcci 

with mottes, merry-men, pennons, gon- Bat an thou hadst been of ane gentyl strajne, 

falons, cape of maintenance, dose vi- l wold have bhtcn my gante* againe'* 
siers, tabartsj^ toumpeters, and all Ae ^^ instance of the importance at- 

^"^^^u?^"^ I^'^^^u^ tached to tlie circumstance of being 

\S^'^^^^/J!!Z}J^J^U^ seated above the salt, occuK in a much 

Wallace, '^.li^rtAr«yc/kt«/-£^ later work-^«ry^Jtfcinorie^(A« Sow- 

dsrtfoe,' metamorphosed mto an into- en»//«*," a curious book, ^ited last 
resting young colonel, making love toa ^ ^^ ^^^^ Scott-" It was," 

dehcate lady, with one arm in a sling, { ^^^ SomerviUe, (who wrote aboit 

and a cambnc handkerchief in his hand ^he year 1680) « as much out ofpeike 

"^''''^^2!f'^'^il?Li '"f** '"togive obiiiience to this actcTthe 

"^^^J sentwienfaa "ro<«by ^^^y^y^ ^^^ Salter Stewart of Al- 

theai^caaonofacrysUlsmeUing^. j^ntoune, and sir James his brother, 

de. It wouW have been cniel indeed to y^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ -^^ ^^ CambusI 

have broughtso fine a^^^^ nethen, the first, fn>m some anti<,uity, 

block on Tower^iU; so Miss Porter ^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^ j ^^ TweddUW in 

^^'''^^ fri^ ^t^rZ\^ Aucbtennuire, whose predecessor, un- 

the way on Ae ^^^ '"^^^^f . ?f ^ tU this man, never came to sit above the 

*^".^ V^"^- ^^ ^ '^'M^ when at the lainl of Cambus- 

^hw»edoff rahisi^. nethen's (SomerviUe's) table; which for 

'I^^^tijiervationjjvere suggested ^,jj V J 

1o me, by hearing some persons m a ^ ^^ ^ J^ ^ J^ /^ ^^ \ 

, ^ L {. u ''^>in tins usaire as one oi every oay oo- 

r*r w^'!^i''ir^^*t'!l«^ ««""««*. that he takes notice if it 

he has introduced m two diffe^nt parte ^ j^ Speaking of a prorost of Ediu- 

f^'**^?l^^^•^n'^ ^L.^ raeii family upon Cl^e. being brother 

'Bteck D^'V^--" f*""^^^ <if «•*: gennan to the Goodtaan of AUentone, 

cellar," says he, •' (a massire piece of * ■ „~^p-„ji«,r8 never came to sit 

table) sate the sme fwmmt turbtu, men ^ ' 

whose vanity was gratified by occupy- ". ' 

log even the snbo^inate space at the * 1. «« glove. 


Notoria. . 167 

spAf N. rapid and nnceiiain yicissitnde, that it 

Tbe stnctprohibitioBof jcNKiiak pa^ is «x(]ienely diffioalt to gfv« my dung 
iishad ia England or the Nethedands, Uke a«oivt€t yiew of tlia atate «>f tba 

wbich had for some tiiae bean saspcAd- oaatest in ifaese widely eiAeaded re^- 

ed, is nenewed wiAh great aeverity, pra- am. We see them da&aM and 4rivan 

bably on account of the popular disoea- froai plaoe to place— 'rallying, retiHS- 

tent maniliisted at some late acts «f the imf;^ and rictotfious in their tnrB» but ao 

gorenunent. The frequent arrests far ^oisive adraatage seeais as yet 4o have 

political ofenoes, is said to he resided haen gained by either parfy, nor dees 

with particalar diagnst. theriB appear, in the aoceaats wbieh 

lietters from Spain of the 4th Febra- have reaobed this oenatry, sufieient 

ary state, that in consequence of a new asatertala from which to £ma adaoided 

impost, levied on charcoal at Vala ii cia > opinion on the Aitare pragraas and final 

which bore very bard en the poor in resnlts of a contest which is marked by 

die winter season, the people marmnr- want of system and eneigy on both 

ed, aad at last deputed oommissioaen aides. Whatever may be the fesak ef 

to wait on the gevaraor (Elio) with iheir the pseseat strvggle, however the ti tse 

complaints. Instead of listening to them, cannot foe far distant whentbese exten- 

Elio put tea ccmmiasioners in prison: aive caontnes will foim several nob, 

Ibe peopliB cashed to anns, and bbe- pawaiful, and independeat states, aooa- 

lated them; and the governor, ia bis aommatioB devoudy te be wished— 4er 

tiiin, was obbgad to fly to the citadel, their own sakes, and for the general 

The iosuigants kept possesMon of dm pro^erity of the oiviliaed werbl, of 

city all the I7th January; but <» he which they are probably destined to 

l&di, supplies of troops arriving, they form one cf the mast vaiuable and iate- 

were overpowered, and the governor leatiDg divisionB. Lord Coehraaa aad 

liberated. He attempted to put to death air Robert Wilaoa are aaid to be about 

some of the 'rioters wkhout trial, but the toembaik in thecaase ef l^panish Ame- 

jadges ef the higb ceart of justice de- noan independenofc Bach strongly can- 

ebowd, they toM allow no citiaen to structed aad aaquiet minds seem to be 

be executed without a trial. The gov- aeccmvT ^ ^^ prdgross ef human af- 

emorteeafeaned to imprison the judges, tun; and in this scene cf troabie their 

The oitiBens waro emboldened by this eneigies may produce a happy eibct 

vig w o u a conduct ef the judges, aadaf- apoa the hitherto feeble and unenligbt- 

Airs ware so aarioua an aspect, that eaad subjeets of one of tbe womt gov* 

Elio posted off to Madrid to lay the eraments that ever epprossed and de- 

BiKtterbefesetbefciag* graded the human raoe.— 49ir Gtaagor 

The report of some coounotions hav- Mao Gregor, who has so much distin- 

iag atisea in Valencia, agrees very gaishedhimaelfia this contest, ii the son 

w^ with what we know of the present of the lato capt Daniel Mac Ctaagor, a 

state of popular feeling in Spain, view- gentleman of AigyJeriiire, in Scotland, 

ed in conaezioo with such instances v who was long an efioer in India. He is 

tbe fottpwiag, of tbe onielty of their under thirty years of age^aervedtts a 

aena^barbarona government* — captain with the BriiiBh anay in Spain, 

« Pamphnth Feb. ItMA. On the 3d, was afterwards cdmiel in tbe British 
3d, aad 4tb of this month, and in the service, and had a Spanish older of 
prison of this city, the torture was in- hxiighthood conferrad upon bim, aad 
fliotod an captain Olivan, who, for this was allowed by the prince regent to as* 
parpese, was brought down from the some the title in Ins native coaatry. 
cataiM, where be had been confined The Portuguese troops have invaded 
daring eight months, merely because the territory of Monte Video; but whe- 
be was auspected of disafiectwn to gov- tber in consequence of an arrangement 
emment. Amidst the most excraciating with old Spain, or with a view to con- 
pangs, no other than ^reigetic deda- quest on teeir own account, does not 
nt&ona of bis own innooenae were seem to be very dearly ascertained. It 
beaid, as wall as of that of more than is notUkely that their interimnce will 
thirty other offioeva confewd with him materially afiaot the genend reault, ex- 
onder aiadteor oironmstuiceB.' ib, cept in so fer as it ni^ have a tendenoy 
sraxramr amsmca. to carry the flame of revofaitioB into 

Tbe oaasa ef tbe inaaigaats in 1^- tiieir own treaaatiaalio tewUw fe s . 

niah America ebba and flows with such ib. 

168 Notorid. 

iTALT. the excenire fiitig;iie,nl]ier than to the 
On the 1 5th of December, a Catfiolic effect of climate, tiie joumaJs of captain 
priest proceeded on foot to the cathedral Tuckey, and the gentlemen in the 9ci- 
of Adria, in Lombardy, and retomed entific departments, are, it is said, high- 
thanks for having attained his 110th Ij interesting and satibfactoiy, as far as 
year, without inmmities or sickness! they go, and we belieye they extend 
He was accompanied by an immense considerably beyond the first rapid, or 
concourse of people, and chaunted the cataract. It would seem, indeed, that 
cathedral serrice in a finn, manly, and tiie mortality was entirely owing to the 
dignified Toice. land journey beyond these ra|Mds, and 
The German papers have brought us that captain Tuckey died of complete 
a document of greater importance than exhaustion after leaving the river, and 
usual, in the shape of a new constitution not from fever. 

for Sicily. That interesting portion of We lament to learn, that when the 

Europe has lost nothing by the restora- Dorothy transport was at Cabendo, in 

tion of the legitimate soveroign to the the end of October last, thero were ten 

throne of his ancestors. The king of Portuguese ships in the port waiting for 

Naples, UD^e his namesake and cou- slaves, and two from Spain, 

sin, the king of Spain, has signalized The Congo discoveiy vessel arrived 

his restoration bv confirming and ex- at Portsmouth from Bahia last month, 

tending theblessmgsofafree cwnstita- The journal of the lamented captain 

tion. Tuclrey is said to describe the countiy 

Conova.— The pope had attached to be explored for 236 miles as a rocl^ 

the title of marquis of Ischia,. which he desert, and thinly pec^led region, not 

conferred on the sculptor Canova, an worthy of further research. t6. 

annual pension of 3000 crowns. This — 

celebrated artist has disposed of this re- fran cc. 

venue in the following manner: First, The stamp-duty on Magazines in 

a fixed donation to the Roman academy France, which subjected even a pras- 

of aroheology of 600 crowns. Second, pectus of a literary work to a stamp- 

1070 crowns to fbnnd annual prizes, duty, is at length found to be totally un- 

and a triennial prize for sculpture paint- productive; and not only so, but acta* 

ing and arohitecture, which the young ally injurious to the best interests of the 

artists of Rome, and the Roman states state. Several of the works we have 

only, aro competent to obtain. Third, akeady announced as suspended, on 

100 crowns to the academy of St. Lue. account of the tax, are now in the 

FourA, 120 crowns to the academy of course of being reramed: of these, the 

the Lynx; and fifth, 1010 crowns to re- most important is the JUagagme JBincy- 

lieve poor, old, and infirm artists resid- clopeekque^ of M. MiUin. This work had 

ing in Rome. §6. grown to such an extent, (130 volumes,} . 

— Uiat it was deemed advisable by the 
CKTi«oH. learned editor to avail himself of the 

The Dutch planters of Ceylon -have suspension, to terminate the series, and 

adopted some judicious * rogulations for commence a new one; whifli may either 

the gradual abolition of slavery; all chil- be regarded as an entirely new work, 

dren bom of slaves, after the 12th of or a continuation of the old one, under 

August last, are to be considered free, an improved form: for this reason he has 

but to remain in their master's house, changed the title to Armalet Encyclop§' 

and serve him for board, lodging, and diqae^ the first number of which appear- 

dothing; the males till the age of 14, ed on the first of Maroh, and will be 

and the females till 12— after which to regularly continued eveiy month, and 

be fully emancipated. t6. not in volumes every two months. The 

— tax being repealed, there no longer ex- 
AVRicA. ists the necessity <^ publishing in vol- 

Cofigo esj^eciilMm."— The detailed ac- umes; and it will, therefo|e, s^ipear as 

counts of the expedition to explore the heretofore. Subscribers' names will be 

river Congo, or Zaire, reached the ad- taken in at our publisher's, 

miralty some weeks ago. Mebmcholy Om the 24th of April the Napolsok 

as the result has been, from the great Musbuii of Statues was re-opened at 

mortality of offioen and men, owing to Paris; ithaa lost several of the cA^ 

Notorta. 169 

^wmret, Imt it is still rkik in master- till die water beeomes cold. The quas- 

pieces, and is superior to any other ool* tity of water- to be double that of the 

lection in the world. corn to be purified. The musty quality 

B^ame De Stasl is said to hare sold rarely penetrates through the husk of 

her Memoirs of M. Neckar to an'asso- the wheat; and in the veiy worst cases, 

oiatioa of English, French, and German it does not extend through the amyla- 

editors, for ^boOL; the work is ta ap* ceous matter which lies immediatelv 

pear in the three languages at one time* under the skin. In the hot water, all 

The gprand desideratum of rendering the decayed or rotten grains swim on 
sea water potable, seems at length to be the surface, so that the remaining wheat 
attained by simile distillation. The is effectually csleaned from all impuri- 
French chemists hare been unable to ties, without any material loss. The 
dkcover, in dbtilled sea water, any par- wheat is afterwards to be dried, stir- 
ticle of salt or soda in any form; and, it ring it occasionally on the kiln, when 
is ascertained, <hat one cask of coals it will be found improred in a degree 
will serve to distU six casks of water, which can scarcely be believed. 
A vessel going on a voyage of discovery Mr. Edmund Davt, professor of 
by order of the French government, chemistry to the Cork Institution, an- 
fsommanded by M. Freycinet, will only nounces that new seconds flour, of in- 
take fresh water for the first fortnight; different or bad quality, is materially 
but, instead thereof, coals, which will improved, for the purpose of making 
be but one-sixth of the tonnage; distill- bread, when the common carbonate of 
ed sea water being perfectly as good as wagnAtHa is well mixed with it in the 
fresh waa^ that has been a fortnight on ];»x>portion of from 20 to 40 g^ns to a 
^oard. pound of flour. He made a number of 

Lightinfusionsof ginger alone, taken comparative experiments on the worst 
twice or thrice a-day, have been found seconds flour he could procure, with 
Teryefficacioos by the French surgeons and without the addition of the mag- 
in riieumatic affections. The pains are nesia; and the results have uniformly 
rendered at first more excruciating— been satisfactory. In the proportion of 
th^i follows copious perspiration and \% grains to a pound of flour, calcined 
relief. magnesia improved the bread, but not 

Mens. DoRtoN has discovered that nearly to the same extent as the carbo- 
the bark of the pyramidal ash, in pow- nate. He conceives that the carbonate 
der, thrown into the boiling juice cxf the of magnesia acts on the bread in two 
sugar-cane, effects its clanfication; the ways: chemically, l)y correcting its ten- 
planters of Guadaloope had given him dency to acidity; and mechanically, by 
100,000 francs, and those of Martini- improving its texture. It improved the 
que a like sum, for communicating his colour of bread made from new seconds 
discovery. JIfon. J€ag, • flour, whilst it impaired the colour of 

— bread from fine old and new flour. 

RUSSIA. s6. 

There are at Petersburgh fourteen Artificial Ears. 

printing houses, of which three belong In the London Medical and Physical 

lo the Senate, the Synod, and the War^ Journal, we observed it mentioned, that 

<iffice. The others belong to the acade* Mr. Curtis, Suigeon, of Soho Square, 

mies, or to individuak; one prints in the Aurist to the Prince Regent, has intro- 

Tartar language, another prints music, duced into this country, from France, 

There are thirteen foreign booksellers; a valuable improvement>— artificial 

and about thirty Russian. There are ears for deaf persons. By being closely 

also reading-rooms. t6. adapted to the ear, they increase the 

-* collection of sound; but, besides the 

XNGLAHD. collection of sounds, there is an addi- 

Mr. Hatchett has contrived a pro- tional force wanted to transmit it 
cess for sweetening musty com. Musty through the passage. In this respect, 
grain, which is so bitter as to be totaJly the French invention being deficient, 
unfit for use, and wfapch can scarcely m'small tube, which is added, by con- 
be groimd, may be rendered perfectly tracting the passage, occasions the 
sweet and sound by simply immening sound to enter with greater force. The 
it in boiling water, and letting it remain form of this ingenious contrivance u 

VOL* 3U 22 

1 70 Notoria. 

pardcularlj convenient; being- applied thongh hannonioiiB and Correct, tranft* 

over the natural ears, which the artifi- lation of Pitt— we are compelled to 

cial ones are made to resemble. say, that Dr. Symmons does not shine 

Mr. Curtis has likewise invented a with the lustre we could wish to behold 

hearing trumpet, which forms a para- in all the works of so excellent a man, 

bolic conoid on the same principle as and elegant a scholar.— *Tbe Howe ff 

the speaking trumpet used at sea, which Jlfournin^, by Mr. John Scott, is a 

is so well known to answer the purpose poem replete with rich, but gloomy^ 

in extending the impression of sound, fancy, such as may be imagined to cha* 

It has this convenience, that it shuts up racterise the efforts of a powerful ima- 

in a small case for the pocket. gination, exercised upon a subject so 

Mr. Curtis also, in his Lectures on a£9icting as the premature death of a 

diseases of the Ear, exhibited to his darling and blooming son. We might 

pupils a variety of improvements for advance a few legitimate objections a» 

assisting hearing, many of them newly to metre and cadence, but sacred be the 

brought from the continent accents of sorrow, and revered the dee|> 

AfUij, JfZeo. and heavy sadness that breathes in the 

The foundation of all the gcKKl which lines of him— who wu a father—Of 
the Banol LancasUrian Syxtem ^ Edti^ Mr. P. B atlet's Idwaly we regret that 
caUon has produced, to above 200,000 we cannot speak in teims calculated to 
children, is well known to be its prin- encourage the author in his design o£ 
ciple of ECOKOMT. But a recent new in- publishing the poem, of which the pre- 
vention of Mr. Lancaster's is, we sent is only apart. The verse is labour- 
understand, likely to add to its powers, ed, tame, and diffuse, abounding in ex- 
beyond the most sanguine expectations pletives, and deficient in the nre and 
of its friends. It will furnish means for energy, the vwida vU anikni, of poetic 
supplying the schools of whole empires inspiration. — The Bower ofSprkif^ by 
with lessons, in a boundless variety of the author of ** the Paradise of Co- 
subjects, independent of dialects and quettes," is a beautiful effort of imagi- 
languages, in a convenient and porta- nation; the diction is peculiary soft and 
ble shape, and at a trifling exi^ense. splendid, and the fancy of the reader 
We are at present at liberty only to is at once warmed and dazzled by the 
state the probable results. The public glowing loveliness of its conception and 
Will be sensible, that it is only needful imagery. 

for these results to be justifiea, for such Jn this department we arocalledup^ 

an invention to become a blessing to with pleasure to notice a new produc- 

all nations. The moment the description tion of the Nestor of modem poets, in 

of this improrvement is ready for publi- an Epistle to the Emperor qfChma^ on 

cation, we diall not fail to make our his uncourtly and impoHiic Be/uwioifr 

readers acquamted with this additional to the subiine Ambassador of Chreal 

means of extending knowledge. Mr. Britoifi, by Dr. John Wolcot (oUm 

Lancaster's History of his Life and Peter Pindar, esq.) who, at the a^ of 

Travels, to promote education in this fbursoore, has recalled to memoiy the 

empire, especially in Ireland, is getting age of the Lousiad. The motto indicates 

into a state of great forwardness; a most the resurrection of the veteran poet, 

numerous, noble, and respectable Kst after a silence of several years;-^ 

of subscribers is already furnished, and *• I, who dropp'd the Mate's quHl, 

daily increasing. It must be pleasing to And long had left the AodIaii hill, 

see the true friends of education rally Start from my damber vith my wooted 

round the first friend of poor children, might; 

and thereby contribute to a work so in- To seoorge a monarch of the Bast, 

teiesting to mankind. For mocking monareha of the West, 

In Poetry, Dr. Symmons' translation '^ A lord of Britain, and advent'rous knight.** 

of the iCneis, from the magnitude and • An advertisment annexed announces 

difficulty of the attempt, claims our first a lyric episle to Lord Amherst and Sir 

consideration. It is, we grant, a respec- George Staunton, by the same venera- 

table peribrmance— -but, when we com- ble and inimitable bard. 

pare it with the masterly and vehement It is to be regretted that men of ge- 

versionofDiydenyOreventheinferiory nius should ever mistake the path in 

Notorta. 171 

wychnfttora has qualified them to walk number be renewed aeren or eight 
with grace and freedom. This appears times. The art of Lithography is there- 
to hare been the case with Mr. Ma- fore a very important one, and is likely 
IvimiN, whose abilities, splendid as to extend, beyond calculation, the 
^eyundoobtedly are, seem fitted rather sphere and influence of the fine arts, 
lor the displays of poetic enchantment, The chief use that has hitherto been 
and the rereries of a magnificent ima- made of Lithography in England has 
pnation, than for the portraiture of dra- been to multiply manuscripts; and in 
matic substantialities, or the creation this way it has saved much manuel 
of natural character. Mamukl is a labour at the admiralty, post-office, and 
beautiful and highly-coloured poem^ of other establishments, and in them has 
which the conceptions are vigorous, and superseded the use of copy ing machines. 
the language is eloquent; but which, We learn, however, that Mr Acker* 
we apprehend, wiU scarcely become a Bf anic , of the Strand, proposes to devote 
theatrical favorite, inasmuch as its de- a work especially to the Lithographic 
clamatory tone and deficiency of inci- art, as a means of introducing it to the 
dent, which, in the closet, might be English people; and, as soon as any of 
<nrerlooked, g^ve to this last ofispring of its professors have established them- 
Mr. Mathurin's Muse, a character too selves in London, we propose to give 
remote from, and foreign to, the varied some specimens in the Monthly Maga^^ 
action and brief diction required by the zine. 
genius of the drama. While on the subject of art, we can- 

We learn that at Stonyhurst, near not, in justice, omit to raise the public 

Preston, the Order of the JetuUt has, expectations in regard to a work, which 

for thirty years past, possessed a spa- we have already announced, b^ Mr, 

ciouB College, which is exclusively a William Savage, on decorative or 

College of Jesuits. The studies at this ornamental printing, of which we have 

place are conducted upon the same seen some veiy striking specimens. 

system, and to the same extent, as at This art was first announced at Berlin 

the Catholic Universities abroad; and by M. Gueitz, an engraver ^m wood, 

there are reg^uiar professors in divinity, who, by producing a separate block for 

mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, the parts of each tint and colour in his 

kc* The College is capable of contain- orig^al, contrived to produce prints 

ing at least 400 or 500 pupils, indepen- from engravings in wood which exactly 

dent of professors, &c.! resembled highly-finished drawings. 

In the Transactions of Public Socie- Such is the plsm of Mr. Savage, but he 

ties we have added to the facts which is carrying this process to greater per- 

we published in vol. 30. p. 154, and fection than the German artist. As 

subsequently, in regard to the art of an example, we have seen a print 

LiTHooR APHT, or engraving on stone, worked off by him in brown tints, which, 

which seems at length to have excited without explanation, would be miatak- 

much attention. Some specimens of en for a tasteful drawing, or a superior 

small portraits have been sent to us print in aquatinta. Intruthitisprint- 

Irom Paris, equal to many etch- ed from six blocks, engraved by Mr. 

ings of HoUar; and this branch of art Bramston, each of which impresses 

seems capable of several species of but a single set of tints; and each set 

useful graphic representation. Its great being separately and exactly laid over 

advantages are the comparatively slight the other, produces an ultimate effect 

labour which attends the production of which is truly surprising. It is the 

the subject on the stone, and the dura- promise of this invention, that a printer 

bility in taking impressions. The fint can, by its means, produce three hun- 

process is perfonned with the facility died such drawings in a day; and that 

of a pencil-drawing, and consequently the blocks from which they are taken 

as good an effect is produced in three will produce above a hundred thousand 

or four hours as in three or four days impressions, the last as good as the 

on copper or wood; and, in taking im- first; whereas, a draughtsman could 

pressions, we understand, the twenty- not, with the hand, produce above hali^ 

thousandeth is as good as the twentieth, a-dozen in a day; and an aquatint plate, 

thou^ a copperplate must for that which might also take off three bun* 

172 Notoria. 

dred, would require to be renewed tern gaderor tnrBkeT,ni yenego l keqpe 

after ererj day's woiic. By meaosy tibe house, and chiefly employs hiaself 

therefore, of one or both of these arts in writings or diotatin|^ these menum 

of lithography, or multiplied bloeks, to M. las Casau^ M. de Montholoo, 0r 

the lovers ot illustrated books may marshal Bertrand. Hanzig learnt these 

speedily expect to be gratified at a yery particnlars in regard to a work which 

moderate expense. JIf ofi. Mtig, cannot fail to interest the curiosity of 

Boif APAKTx*s LfFx BT HIMSELF. this age and of all posterity, we were 

From VieMoidklyMc^fforMaiify 1 81 7. led to hope that it was possible that no 

In our last No. we inserted at length impediment might be opposed to its 

the interesting publication of M. San- publication by the ministers of the re- 

Tizvi,^ oh the subject of the Ostra- gent; and, viewing it chiefly as an af«- 

cism of Napoleon by the European fair of business, and partly as Ioym^ of 

Intimates; and we exposed the fraud truth and justice, we determined to 

which was attempted to be committed avail ourselves of the chance of a re* 

by the publication of some pretended spectful letter to that minister who 

memoirs, said to have arrived in an un- takes on himself the honour and tho 

known manner from St. Helena. Our reqwnsibility of managing this busi- 

curiosity on the subject, and a desm ness. We subjoin a copy of our letter, 

to gratify that of our readers, led us with the answer, rejoinder, and rejdi- 

subsequently to seek an interview with cation, for the informati<m of our reap 

M. Santini; which having obtained, we ders and the public* 

learnt from him many additional par^ L^ier from sir Richard PhilUpa io 

ticulars of the treatment of his master, earl BaUiwrti^ tecreiary ^ ftofo/er 

which we forbear, for the present, to the CoUmkU DepartmofU^ etc, eic. 

publish. But, in our proper business Mr Liord, I have been credibly in^ 

as purveyors of literacy intelligence, formed that the late emperor NapoleoA 

we think it proper to state, that the has been for some time past engaged 

rumour is not &bulous which describes in writing annals of his eventful Ufe; 

Napoleon as being eng^ed in writing and it has appeared to me to be a suita- 

Memoirs of his own Lifo and Times, ble speculation in which, as a publisher. 

We collected from M. Santini, that, if to engage as an aflair of business. It 

the work in question ever escape the is however necessary that I should be 

Argus-eyes of Napoleon's gaolers, and able to communicate with Ihe author 

it it be not part of the leg^timate-polic]^' on the subject, and I therefore take tho 

to prevent its appearance, it will be liberty to inquire whether, if I address 

more extensive in bulk than has hitlh* a letter under cover to your lordship's 

erto been supposed. It was finished care, it will be forwssded to him at 8t« 

down to the end of the Egyptian expe*. Helena.^ 

dition when M. Santini left St. Helena: Having read in the newspapers your 

but its connected progress was suspend* lordship's late speech in the house of 

ed at that era by the impediments Lords, I am of course duly sensible off 

which, it is said, have been oj^Kised to ihe delicacy of making this request, and 

the procuring of printed documents aware that I ought to seek nothing of 

from France and England, particularly your lordship on this subject, which is 

ofasetof the author's military bulle* mconsistent witii the line of policy 

tins, and of the Moniteur. As far as adopted by the British government, 

it is written, every year makes a large My letter, therefore, my lord, woold 

manuscript volume, and it may be ex« be open, and would be striatly limited 

pected, if it be ever allowed to appear, to a proposal in regard to the printing 

to extend to eight or ten PRiitTSD and publishing of the work in question^ 

VOLUMES nr quABTO. Napoleon, who with fidelity amd promptitude. I should 

it seems does not choose to run the also request Uiat all communication 

hazard of being fired at by the centries with me should be made in the usual 

who are stationed within a certain forms through your lorddup* 

range of his wretched habitation, nor I conceive, my ford, that you wiU 

to ride out attended by a sort of subal* feel that such a work, in its close con- 

nexion with the eventful history of the 
* The grsstcr portMo of Mr. SsnciDi's times, is an object of considerable lite- 
pamphlet has beeo pohUahsd in ths Ame- rar^r interest; and that its publication 
fisan Newspapers. eaniiot fiul to excite a lively curiosity> 

as w«Bia1iiii tge bi in pos te rity . As Beiwy OouJ&iini, uq, etc. ete. io Sir 

materisJfl of hbtofy, it could be inferior Richard PkUHpi, 

to no ancient or modem production, CoUmkUogSce; AprU 11 jlHV9. 

and in t^at Tiew it lays claim to roy Sir, I have to acknowledge the re» 

notice, and wiU, I hope, entitle this ce^t of your letter of the 4tii instant, 

application to the respect of your lord- referring to a former letter, and stating 

shipk your desire to open a negociation kr 

I hare the honour to be, ray lord, the publication of a literary and histo* 

your most obedient humble servant. rical work, which you have understood 

JUarch 39, 1817. R. Phillips. to be in preparation by general Bona* 

Rtphf ofHeiwy OouUmrn^ esq. Under' parte, or by one of his suite; and, har- 

Seeretary tf Siaiey ele. ing laid the same before earl Ba- 

Dovminf etreet; April ii'iBIl, thurst, I hare received directions te 

Sir, I am directed by lord Bathurst acquaint you that, under the circnm- 
te acknowledge the receipt this day of stances stated, his lordship must decline 
your letter of the S9th ultimoy request* being the medium of forwarding an 
ing permission to address a letter either application to this efiect, or of author- 
to general Bonaparte or to general izing such a communication being 
Bertrand, on the subject of publishing transmitted to general Bonaparte, or to 
a work, in which you hare been in- any of his ft^owers. 
formed that the former is engaged; and I am, sir, 
to acquaint you that, before giring an^ Your obedient serrant. 
reply to your letter, lord Bathurst u Hknrt Goulburn. 
desirous of being informed whether you To Sir Richard PhUHpe, knt. 
hare received any communication, ei- This answer, which had been sevei^ 
ther from general Bonaparte, or from days under consideration, appears to be 
any person authorised by him to treat conclusive in reg^ard to the intentions 
with you, on the subject of such a pub* of the present ministry; and it is tbere- 
lication. fore probable that, as long as they con- 
I am, sir, tinue to hold their power, no overtures 
' Tour obedient servant, can be made which will lead to &e 
HaiNRT GovLBVRN. ~ transmission of this manuscript to Eu- 
Sir Richard PhilHne, knt. rope, and to its consequent publication. 
Sir Richard PhilUpt to Henry €hul' Its arrival in ^ an unknown manner.' 

5tim, esq. Under-Secretary of StatOy even if it were trusted to any chance 

etc of that kind, is impracticable; for al- 

Sir, If you wiQ do me the honour to though M. Santini contrived to bring 

reccmsider my letter to eari Bathurst, away the manuscript of the count de 

you wiU perceive that f act merely on Montholon^s Letter, yet he was strictly 

;the information that the literary and searched, and even compelled to take 

historical work in question is in coarse off his clothes, before he was suffered 

of preparation^ and that, as a man of to leave the island. The noble and 

business, I am anxious, on my own magnanimous spirit of the emperor of 

motion, to open a negociation for the Russia will probably correct these 

publication of it. practices, and, if so, the manuscript 

Under other circurastanoes I should may perhaps be confided to the honour 

have felt no hesitation in addressing of the Russian commissioner. To us 

tiM author, or his ropresentative, di- it does not appear that any just or ro- 

reetly on the subject; but the actual spectable sentiment can mterpose to 

sitnation of this author renders it ne- prevent the publication of these mate- 

cessaiy that my communication be rials of history, for no suppressions or 

made through eari Bathurst; and it was system of misropresentations can avert 

the object of my letter to learn wheth- Uie solemn indictment which time is 

er an overtnre, in that form and man- preparing against the wicked authors 

ner, would be allowed to be made. I of the late devastating wars. 

am, sir, RtparUe of Marthal ViUare^ governor 

Your obedient servant, of Provence in ike reign of Louie xiv. 

Aprils 4, 1817. R. PniLLirs. Marshal VillarSi upon the death 

of the Dukede Veodome, in Louis the 

i74f Notoria. 

XIV.'b time, was made goremor of from Greenwich, to the banks of the 

Proyence in his room; and when the Euphrates. To this extent Farenheit's 

marshal went to take possession of his thermometer is never below 50 in the 

new goyemment, the deputies of the night, or 80 in the day, though it may 
proFince made him the usual present of rise to 120 at noon in the shade, at 

a purse fuU of louis d'ors; but the person which point horses are not affected bj 

who had the honour to present it, said the heat, but ?nll breed as they do at 

to him, " Here^ my lord, w tuch another Halfiua and Dongola. They are," he 

purse as that toe gave Ike Duke de Veur adds, ** entirely dOferent from the Ara- 

domey when,' Wee you, he came to be our bian; but if beautiful and symmeUical 

governor; bid the prince, tifter aeeeptmg parts, great size and streugUi, the most 

Uasa testimony of our regard to Atm, agile, nervous, and elastic moyements, 

very generously returned f<." — " M!^* great endurance of fatigue, docility of 

said Marshal Villars, squeezing the temper, and seeming attachment to 

purse into his pocket, *' JHonsieur Ven- man, beyond any other animAil, can pro- 

dome was a suprising man; he has not mise any thing for a stallion, the ^f ubi- 

Ififthis/ellow behind him" an is above all comparison, the most 

Europ, Jtfag. eligible in the world. The horses of 

We learn from a late traveller in Halfiua and Gerri do not arrive at the 

Egypt, that a Dongolese horse had been size of those in Dongola, where few are 

sold at Cairo, at a price equal to a thou- lower than sixteen hands. Thejr are 

sand guineas sterling. Bruce describes black or white, but a vast proportion of 

the horses of Dongola as the most per- the former to the latter. I never saw the 

feet in the werid. " At Halfiua and colour we call grey, that is dappled; but 

•Gerri begins that noble race of horses there are some bright bays, or inclin- 

justly celebrated all over the world, ing to sofiel. They are all kept mon- 

They are the breed introduced here at strously fat upon dora, eating nothing 

the Saracen conquest, and have been green but the short roots of grass, found 

preserved unmixed to this day. They by the side of the Nile, after the sun 

seem to be a distinct species from the hals withered it. This they digout where 

Arabian horse such as I have seen in it is covered with earth, and appears 

the plains of Arabia Deserta, south of blanched, which they lay in small heaps 

Palmyra and Damascus, where I take once a day on the ground before them. 

the most excellent of the Arabian breed They are tethered by the fetlock joint 

to be in the tribes of Mowalli and An- of die fore leg with a very soft cotton 

necy, which is about lat. 36*^. Whilst rope, made with aloop and large hutton. 

Dongola, and the dry country near it. They eat and drink with a bridle in 

seems to be the centre of excellence for theirmouth." The traveller relates also 

this noble animal; so that the bounds the superior good qualities of the horse 

within which the horse is in its greatest of Shekh Adelan, not quite four years 

perfection seem to be between that lat. old, and full sixteen hands high. • 

20 and 36, and between long. 30 east Asiatic Jour* 

Domestic Literature. 

A Sketch ^the Life, Last Sickness, and gislature of the nation he was a fluent. 
Death of Mrs, J\tary Jane Orosve- argumentative speaker, of engaging 
nor; lefl among the Papers of the late manners; and a politician, who oonla 
Hon* Thomas P. Grosvenor. Bal- candidly express his judgment, and act 
timore; published by Coale & Max- in conform!^ with it, without trembling 
well. 1817. to appear at different times, when he 
Tht author of this little volume was thought the principles of the party to 
bom in the town ofPomfret in the State which he was decidedly attached ro- 
of Connecticut, was educated at Yale quired it, in opposition to his friends. 
College, and was formerly ' settled in While a representative in Congress, he 
the practice of the law,' in the city of became acquainted with the amiable 
Hudson, in the State of New York, lady of whom he has given a sketch; 
His popularity as a man, and his repu- was united to her in March, 1816, in 
tation as an eloquent plesider, procured the most intimate of all human lela- 
him an election to Congress from the^ tions; and, selecting a new place of re- 
district in which he resided. In the le- sidenoe, became a distingaished mem* 

Notcriom IfS 

Wr. of the har in Baltimore. Their gour of exhausted feeling*, and the elec- 

prospects were enchanting^ and the ge- trie flow of thoughts, that for a moment 

aius of worldly happiness seemed just hanish by their brightness, all the black* 

ready to take the interesting pair under ness of the tempest howling around 

her peculiar protection. But death him, and through the clouds of sorrow 

rushed between, and separated them open a passage to the heavens. He 

from all their schemes and anticipations commences in an unusual strain; and 

ef felicity. The lovely woman depart- exhibits ,his own 'Contemplations, we 

ed this Ufe on the fourth day of De- should suppose, in his secret chamber, 

cember, 1816, and her husband followed after having returned from the inter* 

on tiie twenty-fourth of April, 1817, in ment. Every man would feel under 

the thirty-eighth year of his age. such circumstances; but every man 

Of the author of this little book, and could not write like Mr. Grosvenor. 

of the woric itself. Bishop Kemp, of *• It has pleased the Almighty Father 

Baltimore, has expressed his sentiments to remove from this world, in the mom- 

in words which we quote with approba- ing of her life, this young and lovely 

tion. woman. 

* It certainly will be viewed as a rarr, ** The ways of the Almighty are past 

and highly interesting piece. An affec- '* finding out."— 

ticmate husband delineating the charac- '^ As a man chasteneth his son, so 

ter of a beloved wife, tracing her reli- <« the Lord our God chasteneth us, that 

giousprog^ness through a series of disease « he may humble us and prove us, to 

rapidly advancing towards dissolution; ** do us good at our latter end." 

marking her struggles to overcome the * On our knees, then, let us devoutly 

world and all its vanities; treasuring up kiss the hand that presses us down, 

eveiy pious expression; and distinguish- saying, " The Lord gave and the Lord 

ing the various steps by which she ad- hath taken away; blessed be the name 

ranced to that confidence and love, of the Lord." 

which cast out fear, this is a work in < Yet on her interesting life, on the 

which no heart can fail to take a deep pious resignation which accompanied 

concern. Here is portrayed, with a lier protracted sickness, on the ^nn 

masterly hand, the influence of religion hope, and even triumphant Christian 

and the triumph of faith; here is exhi- confidence, with which she met the 

bited that elevation of soul, which re- King of Terrors, the mind lingers with 

signation to the will of God, and confi- melancholy delight, mingled with emo- 

dence in the atonement of a Redeemer, tions of the keenest anguish for her 

alone can beget. When we viewed loss. A short sketch of that life, that 

Mr. Grosvenor, as a man of talents, he sickness, and that death, may solace her 

secured our esteem. When we con- surviving friends and do justice to her 

templated him as a distinguished states- memory— O thou God of all Grace, 

man, standing in the foremost rank of vouchsafe that the example here dis- 

S>liticians, he excited our admiration, played may encourage the strong in 
ttt now when we follow him to rotire- faiUi to persevere, may sustain the weak 
ment, and see the eflusions of his heart, in a course of piety, and lure the infidel 
after the loss of a beloved wife; when from his hopeless wanderings to the path 
we perceive the tenderest sensibilities of faith, hope, and happiness which the 
mingling with a high degree of religious religion of Christ points out to the mi- 
affection; he gains our love; his charac- serable childron of mortality!' 
ter requires a new cast, and becomes Fifteen pages follow the close of this 
highly interesting; it strengthens the eloquent in^oduction, which are not 
sentiment that without religion no cha- remarkable for their elegance, or the 
racter can be complete, nor any human expression of tender emotions. They 
being altogether happy.' contain, however, a histoiy of Mrs. 
It was to have been expected, that, Grosvenor*s childhood and youth, with 
in the agony of his grief, Mr. Grosve- some judicious reflections about worldly 
nor should have written with a trembling amusements, in speaking of which, the 
hand; and that his perfoiinance should writer is not at all times perfectly con- 
be characterized by such inequalities, sistent with himself. The bereaved bus- 
as are natural to a man of strong mind; band writes like a man of the world 
when experiencing alternately die Ian- becomingserious, whose mind is divided 

ire Notoria. 

between ku fomer sentiinenti, and his foil perfonnaiiee eould rander tiie con- 
newly acquired religioas opimons. He ju^ state happy; her husband must 
was not a professed theologian; and bare been happy. He was ha|]|>y while 
this will excuse a Uttle inaccuracy, the she enjoyed health; he was tortared by 
subjeot of which i4>pertains equally to her sickness and agonies, 
botany and div'inify. He says, of her ' O! may the same Almighty hand, 
early afflictions, *• we may indulge the which has so heavily pressed him to the 
belief, that in this solitary and sorrow- earth, raise him from the death of sin, 
ful period, were sown those seeds of enable him to tpitate his beloved wife 
grace, which, though buried for a sea- in the hour of sickness and of death, 
son, sprouted forth, and in after yean and finally join her again in those ce- 
ionrisbed like the green bay tree, and lestial mansions where there is no moro 
finally produced the richest fruit9 of sickness or pain.' 
humility, charity, and vital piety.' p. From the thirty-third to the forty- 
18. He could not have been aware of second page, we have a specimen of 
the ftct, that the green haiy tree never the admirably descriptive powers of 
produces any fruit, and that although it Mr. Grosvenor. The history of the 
widely extends itself, yet, it is for the commencement of the pulmonary dis- 
destruction of all vegetation around it* ease, which tenninated his parbier'a 
by the deathful influences of its leaves, career, excites a lively interest in the 
He could not have known that the mournful scene. We should extract 
Scriptures compare none but the wick- several pages for the gpratification of onr 
ed to this tree. ' I have seen the wicked readers, did we not deem it a aort of 
in great power, and spreading himself literary robbery to take so mnch from 
like a green bay tree;' (Psalm xxxvii. so smsdl a volume as this. 
35.) for the destruction of all around To the Sketch is added an Appezi£dix, 
liim. It would better have suited the which contains a well written, but brief 
nature of the case, had our author notice of Mr. Grosvenor. 
compared his partner to the paim tree — - 
* planted by die rivers of water, that Kirk and MxHcxur of New York 
bringeth forth his fruit in his season: have just published, in a handsome oc* 
bis leaf also shall not wither.' Fs. i. 3. tavo volume, Colden's Life ^ Robert 
Of this tree, it is a literal troth, that it FtUton, Esq.y with a portrait « The 
never sheds its leaves. profits arising from the sale of this 
On the 29th page commences one of work, aro to be appropriated to the 
the finest strains of our author. It fund for erecting a statue to the memo- 
must please every reader. ry of the late lamented Mr. Fulton, un« 

* Her character as a wife is known der the direction of the Literary and 
but to one in this world. Philosophical Society. 

* She was capable of that deep, ge- botany. 

serous, self devoting sentiment, which, M. Caret and Son have issued pro* 

in retirement, springs amid mutual cha- posals for publishing by subscription, 

rities and mutual pursuits, links itself a work, entitled F'egetttbls^ Maierim 

with every interest of life, and twines Jdedica <jf the UnUed Staiee; or Jdedi' 

itself even with hope6X>f immortal hap- ccU Botany: containing a botanical, ge- 

piness. She was a wife but nine montl^, neral, and medical history of medicinal 

five of which were passed in sickness, plants, indigenous to the United States; 

and in suffering. But if the tenderest illustrated by coloured engravings, 

sensibility of soul, the purest and warm- made after original drawings from na- 

est heart, a sound judgment, a disposi- ture, done by the author. By William 

tion sweet and placid, a lively and play- P. C. Barton, M. D. Professor of Bo- 

ful wit, a firm, constant, self devoting tany in the university of Pennsylvania, 

attachment, knowledge various and ele- &c. It will be published in eiglit quarto 

gant, a delicacy which almost shrunk numbers, each containing six plates, 

from observation, and enthusiastick love coloured according to nature, and about 

of domestick life, a deep and solemn f>0 pages of letter ipress.— Price three 

sense of religion; a knowledge of all dollars a number, 
her duties, and a soul intent upon their 





Art, I. — The Life of RoBEKT Fvltov^ by his friend CadwBiUlsidtT 
D. Golden. Head before the Literary and Philosophical Society 
ofNewTork^ 18ir. p. sn. 

OME one has observed, that mankind respect most and reward 
' best, first those who murder and destroy them; secondly those 
who blma their understandings and cheat them; thirdly those who 
amuse them; last and leasts those who endeavour to instruct and 
benefit them. In this class must be included authors and project- 
ors; appellations that associate in their common acceptation, a por- 
tion of pity mixed with contempt. 

Fulton ranked among the class last enumerated. His life was 
spent in devising the means of promoting the comfort and facilita- 
tmg the intercourse of civilized life, and counteracting the evils of 
modem warfare. In proportion as he succeeded in demonstrating 
the practicability of his plans, he gave birth to obloquy and opposi- 
tion. During the last years of his life his plans of public utility 
were greatly interrupted. He was forced to protect himself a^nst 
men wno speculated on his ideas: who were ready to deprive him of 
the honour, and to rob him of the profit of those inventions, by 
whkh his fellow citizens had been so much benefitted, and the repu- 
tation of his native country so much promoted.* 

The present life of Fulton by Mr. Golden, is a plain, unaffected, 
unexaggerated account of what Fulton did and proposed to do for 
Ae benefit of his country and of mankind. It is neither prolix nor 

Sompous; it does not offend by anv over-stnuned panegjrric, nor 
oes it omit any part of Fulton^s character, performances, or pro- 
jects, that the public is interested in knowing. It is creditable to 
die very Useful man concerning whom it is written, and to tiie bio- 
grapher who writes it. 

Kobert Fulton, the subject of the present memoir, was the tiiird 
of five children bom <^ Kobert and Mary Fultoiu His father was 
of Kilkenny in Ireland; his mother was also of Irish descent. 
There are two countries in Europe, insig^ficant in point of popular 


* The Cbevaiier Cadet de OftMicoort ia a Isttwr firoin Ptnt« Juinaiy, 1817, 
propating the substitutioii of tke hydniulio-prafi to tiie fcfoe of 8tea», «8 a 
moving power to propel yessels, obserres that ** Steam Boats oAnr such great 
advantages to commerce, that England, France, and Amenca with one aooonl 
proclaim the gloiy of Fulton." Month. Mi^. May, 1817 p. 299. 

VOL X. 23 

1 7$ Life of Robert Fulton. 

iixm amd extern, that have furnished more examples of brilliant in- 
tellect, and useful knowledge, than nations of ten times their size 
and number. Irelanid may chatten^ Europe for her proportion of 
men of genius, and the petty temtory of Sweden has done more 
tdwards .chemistry and natural history than any single nation in 
that qu&rtea" of tWe gl«be. It is not easy to defeid the practice of 
characterisine masses of men by a few individual instances, but it is 
hardly possible to with-hold our assent to permanent traits of cha- 
racter ascribable to nations, and it is gratifying to ascribe them 
when they are so honourable. 

Fulton was bom at little Britain in Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, in the year 1/65: his father died in 1768, leaving little patri- 
monv to his children. Robert Fulton the son, was attached m hia 
youth to drawing and painting, and from his earnings and savings 
m this profession between his 17th and 22nd year, he purchased a 
small farm in Washington county, PennsyivSnia, on whidi he setded 
Tiis mother; who remained on it till her death in 1799, thirteen 
years. Fidton, therefore, commenced his career of life, by sacri*- 
ncing the profits of his earliest exertions to make his surviving pa^ 
tent comfortable and independent. This was a commencement of 
' excellent augury. 

Probably, much of Fulton^s success in his plans, depended on 
8ie ease with which he was able to express bis ideas on paper by 
tneans of his pencil. Drawing, is the first acquirement necessary 
to that nlost useful and important character, a civil engineen next 
to that is a perfect readiness in all arithmetical and itmiematical 
calculations, pardcularly of the higher mathematics j next chemstry 
bid natural philosophy. It is thus that Smeaton, and Watt, and 
Woolfe and Clegg, have been made in England; men, wiio when 
weighed in the balances of public utility against the monarch and 
the ministry, the peers and the commons of the parihiment of that 
Country, would cause the scale of the latter to kick the beam. It ia 
not too much to say tltat the duke of Bridgewater, Bootton and 
Watt, Wedgewood, and Bentley, and sir Richard Arkwri ght have 
been worth to their native country, a hundred mtUions rf pomtda 
sterling. We shaH have no such men here, till more dme is aHow-' 
ed to education, than the superficial manners of the present Assf 
d^etns necessary in this cotmtry->^till boys are permitted to remain 
boys until nature and education shall make men of them. It was 
by pursuing with steady attention his mathematical studies whkh 
he found absolutely necessary to his success, and by his acquire- 
ments in physical science, that Fulton himself was enabled to brinff 
his native talents so usefully into play: for gemius uneducated ana 
unimproved, is often a nuisance, and seld(tan of value, either to Ha 
owner, or mankind. 

Soon afterhe liad settled ina modier, he set out ^ England to 
study panting under Mn West. But while in that country, in 
1793, he became acquainted with the duke of Bridgewater and \ofA 
Stanhope, and turned his attention toward the construction and the 
use of navigable canals; asdieme, to which the duke of Bridge- 

lift of Robert Fukon. 1 1% 

imter in pteticular had 4edicated die iviiole of .his ample fottisiey. 
and ^Mefol life* 

Of -all the means of facilitating internal commerce and mutual in* 
tercovffse between the inhabitants of the same country, canals are 
the most efficient; and where heavy materials are to be transported 
from one place to another, such as ores, iron machinery, limestone, 
coals, lumber, and articles of that description, they become indis- 
pensable to any high degree of national prosperity. But it is very 
doubtful whetner die mere farming produce of a district, would pay 
iatereet for die cajntal expended in a canal, aft£r supporting the 
eKpense of keeping it in good order* In this country, however. 
there are other motives for canals, than merely the facilitating of 
intercourse in time of peace. A series of canals parallel to oqr 
sea coast or nearly so, is a war^measure of the very last importance 
to our interest. Yet the easy, envious communication between the 
Chesapeake and the Delaware, so often urged, so long meditated, 
se mamfestly useful in case of an enemy's fleet sccHUing our coasite, 
is hardly ts^ed of. The projected canal in New- York state, which 
if it ever ^e "finished wUl pwe its existence to fie Witt Clinton, may 
be considered in die same pmnt of yiew; and will be so considerea 
by aU who are aware of die enormous expense incurred during the 
last-war in die transpoytattion of heavy articks to the New-Vozik 
frmider. A numierous population, oreat inteinal commfirGe, .and 
cands, eo lund in -hand: tkey «iutuauy sustain each odier. China 
and Hdyand «re examples, and GveatBzitain has wisely followed 
these examples.* Readers are not aware that even in Great Bidi* 
tain the internal commerce of the country, independent of mere 
agriculture, is at 'least ei^t dmes the amount of the external, even 
cdlQulflrting this last at the enormous amount of 1816, viz. about 
Mty^-ene mSlion sterling; but if >the growth and manufacture of agri^ 
cifltupral'aiticles^ie taken into account it is far onore. In fact, .ex- 
ternal ^commerce is gready over-rated. What is die profit upon an 
report of Mty miffion at fifteen per cent.? seven hundred and fifty 
thousand pounds. What is this compared .to forty-five million 
ef ^cultivated acres in 'England producing die average value of 
fifteen bushels of wheat per acre? The boast of external commerce, 
is annihilated at once 'by considerations such as these. One day of 
harvest. sunshine instead of rain, would produce ^an-addidonal vsdue, 
b^ond the "whole gross amount of export or of import in Great 

But if canals are valuable in die nations of Europe, where the 
extent of territory is so small, that every part of a kingdom ma^ he 
eonsidered practically as under the same climate, and bearing simi- 
lar articles of territorial produce, how much more valuable will 
they -become in this country, where the range of climate almost 
supercedes die necessity of -foreign commeiee. 

* One of the earliest, and it is beliered one of the most efficacious adrocates of 
the canal system is Mr. Brookcj author of that sing^arnoyel the ** Fool of Claap 
Iit7," wherein Mr. Meekly i^ taoni^ht fonrani ia favour of inland navi^tioa* 

180 Life of Robert Fultoth 

Fulton, who was in all his proposals a practical man, recommend- 
ed small canals and narrow boats. He was aware that canals of 
this description, easily made, cheaply made, and speedily made, 
were best calculated to afford an early interest for the capital ex» 
pended in constructing them. In Penn^lvania^ what a lesson ha» 
the extravagance of our turnpike roads aflForded: monied men sickp' 
en at the sight of a subscription list to a new turnpike; while the 
injudicious waste of money on the Schuylkill canal, and the obsta* 
cles to the Chesapeake and Delaware caiud, appear almost insuper- 
able bars to their completion, lliis latter canal, it is the duty of 
the federal government to make at the expense of the United States; 
for so complete a measure of defensive warfiEure can hardly be ima- 
gined. But whenever this measure shall come to be discussed in 
congress, the verbose objections, the ignorance that will be displayed 
upon the question, ana the protracted debates upon a proposal of 
the first necessity, and in itself too obviously expedient to require a 
moment's discussicm, will probably cost the nation half as much as 
it would require to complete the canal from beginning to end. 

Fulton's treatise on canals ought to be republished. The treatises 
on this subject published in England, are more calculated for civil 
engineers dian for the public at large. What we want here is some- 
thing to shew that canals can be constructed cAe<i^fy and prafitabbf. 
It is really dreadful on a market day in the city of Philadbelphia, 
to see the capital expended in teams, and to consider the prodi- 
gious expense of maintaining them, when nine-tenths of the labour 
might be performed by canals, or by steam waggons.* 

Fultcm took out a patent for his peculiar improvements in the 
construction of canals, in England; and he went over to France for 
the purpose of doing the same there. While he was there, he 
wro|e several letters, apparently intended for publication, on sub- 
jects of political economy, in favour of free trade, and showing the 
effect in society^ comparatively, of the class of men who ^aceprodu^ 
cerSy and those who are merely idlers; the drcmes of the hive, 
frugea consumere natu The details of his reflections we know not^ 
for the compositions do not appear to have been published. Hie 
same idea, however, has been lately taken up by a late French 
author,t who considers society divided as into two grand periods: 
the ancient^ wherein each nation sought to enrich and aggrandize 
itself at the expense of its neighbour, by invasion and plunder. 
Under this system (which was that of Greece and Rome, so muck 
and so foolishly vaunted) the idlers — ^the non-producers*— monarchs, 
nobles, the military and the priesthood, were numerous: industry 
was confined to slaves, or to the lowest classes of society, and 
deemed dishonourable, and disreputable. War was the favourite 
and fashionable pursuit; and warriors were ranked among their di- 

* There is a coal-mine, four miles from Halifax in Yorkshire (England). A 
waggon containing a steam-engine, drags after it on an iron rail-way, at the rate 
of £urn41ea per hour, twenty-two waggons, each containing three tons of coals. 

f M. Compte in his Censeur. Essay the first 

Ufe of Robert Fulton. 181 

fkutks. In such a state of things virtue might well signify bcRh 
▼alour, and good conduct* Under this system, civilization could 
not permanently advance; the rights of men and of citizens were 
such only as a proud and warlike class of society, supported by 
a priesthood, might indulgently allow; the properties and persons 
ox weaker nations were seized on and converted to the use of the 
conquerors; and the vanquished were made slaves. 

Such are the glorious times of Greece and Rome, whose detes^ 
table morals, manners, and maxims, have been the theme of igno- 
rant panegyric for ages past. This was the period of inciviUzed 
society. The modern system of civilization proceeds on the en-' 
deavoiu* to make every member of society a producer, by the ha- 
bitual exertion of some useful kind of industry: to gain by the 
prosperity, not by the misery of neighbouring nations: by barter, 
and not by plunder: to stimulate industry abroad for this purpose, 
as well as at home: to. lessen as far as possible the number of drones 
in the hive, to diminish the class of idlers and non-producers: to , 
diminish also as far as possible, all necessity for naval and military 
systems: and generally, to abolish as far as possible, all orders of 
men, who have no means of living but on the industry of the pro- 
ducing class. /^ 

It is upon this eround in particular, that the French author in 
question, finds fault with Buonaparte and his system; who brought 
back the ancient maxims of war, rapine and plunder; who filled the 
country with swarms of idle soldiery; and established as a perma- 
nent tax upon the people, a devouring military aristocracy; an im- 
perial court, an imperial army, an imperial priesthood, imperial 
musicians, dramatists, historians, orators, poets, and panegyrists, 
whose occupation was to varnish over the existing order of things, 
and to worship, with blasphemous adulation, the powers that be». It 
was indeed a discoveiy in this country of far more importance at 
the time, than any even of Fulton's, that it was possible for a peo- 
ple to govern themselves and be happy ^ wkhout bishops, without 
nobles, without kings.' 

By what arguments Fulton supported his favourite doctrine of 
free trade, we know not, till his works shall be published, if this 
should ever be: but in the present state of things, it should seem 
as if we were compelled in this country into the measure of pro- 
tecting regulations, in self defence against those nations whose con- 
duct calls upon us to mete unto others, the measures dealt out to 
ourselves. The despotic conduct of Great Britain upon the ocean, 
and the high tone assumed by her late negociators in Europe upon 
that subject, may give rise to another armed neutrality, with Russia 
as before at the head of it: there is good reason to beUeve that the 
measure is even now meditated; but whenever free trade is adopt- 
ed as a maxim among the European powers, or whenever it may be 
declared as a position of the law of nature and nations that the 
flag shall protect the property, it will be a theoretical declaration 
only, as it was under the former armed neutrality: the strongest 
l^ava)i power will use that power in time of war against the neutrals 

t82 Life of Robert Fubon. 

who cannot protect tfaemsdves; nor wiU any thing be ^uffictctit to 
establish the maxims in practice, but some easy, dieap, speedy and 
effectual means of destroying a vessel of war. Whoever shaU 
make and establish such a discovery, will be ranked deservedly as 
aanong the greatest benefactors of the human race: a train of re« 
flection somewhat of this kind, induced Fulton to turn his attention, 
about the close of llie year 1797, to submarine navigation, and tor- 
pedo war. 

It is likely, that the ingenious and nearly successful attempt oi 
Mr. Bushnel to destroy the English fleet, so harmoniously com^ 
memorated in the battle of the kegs^ suggested the idea of subma- 
rine navigation with a similar view, to Mr. Fulton. Mr. Colden 
gives a pretty full history of Mr. Fulton's attempts to attack sh^s 
by diving boats and torpedoes; and of his machine to cut caUes 
under water. The account thus given by Mr. Colden, fiilly sanc- 
tions the opinion, that if the plans were pursued with proper Bpirit, 
and the trifling expense attending them borne by govemmeitt^ until 
time and opportunity be given to gain experience, and to overcome 
the difficulties from which no new experiment is ever free, the {dan 
would succeed; and that, to the utmost extent of Folton^s calcula* 
tions. One principal difficulty he had overcome somcftime befoit^ 
his decease by the assistance of a chemical friend in New Vork^ 
well able to render him this kind of assistance; that is, the diffi- 
culty of ensuring the communication of fire to the chamber {or 
reservoir of powder, when die lock was struck; we were present 
at some of those experiments, and know that the means employed 
were competent to the end proposed. But Fulton was a pro- 
jector: he belonged to no pohtical party: he had no political influ- 
ence: he was merely a man of science, ardent m pursuit of 
schemes for the public good, which promised no benefit to influ- 
ential individuals: he was listened to, and feebly encouraged: a 
projector is not a favourite character, and his plans fell thit)ugh. 
The report of commo^re Rodgers against them, was not warrant- 
ed by the experiment that occasioned it. Fiilton had explained 
exac^y and minutely to the commodore, the whole of his plan, and 
all the means proposed to be taken tb blow up the Argus, a vessel 
destined to the experiment. Commodore Rodgers having careful- 
ly made himself master of all Fulton's plans and descriptions, and 
of all the particulars of his intended attack with a boat and eight 
men, so fortified the Argus, that the boat could not approach it. 
Fulton not apprized of this — ^not instructed in the means of de- 
fence proposed to be adopted— taken unawares, retreated from the 
attack, and commodore Rodgers reported the whole of the ]>lan 
impracticable. Now, it was sufficient to show its practicability, 
that commodore Rodgers after being minutely instructed by Fd- 
ton himself, should be obliged to resort to these troublesome and 
expensive precautions; which although they were sufficient to repel 
the attack of one torpedo boat, would have been absolutely nugatory 
against half a dozen. In fact, it is too much to expect from naval 
commanders that they should give their approbation to a plan calcu- 

Uft of Robert Fulton, aa3 

kted to destroy a naval force with certwntyj nor are these gentle- 
men proper persons to be appointed Judges of such an experiment* 
Yet under all these disadvantages, the report of commodore Rod- 
gers stood alone. But the time will yet come when the experiment 
will again be made, and perhaps with all the effect that Fulton ex- 

Mn Colden is aware of the objections that have been made to 
Fulton on account of his applying to the executive of France and 
England to promote the plan of torpedo warfare. It is probable 
that Fulton having but one object in view, the destruction of that 
dreadful machine, a ship of war, which carries death and devasta- 
tion to the remotest quarters of the g^be, cared little whether the 
expense of his experiments were defrayed by France, Great Bri- 
tain, or America: his object at first was not national, but meant for 
the promotion of the peace of the world. When America became 
involved in the European contests, the experiment became of more 
importance to his native country than to any other; and here he 
proposed and endeavoured to pursue it to its full effect. 

We come now to that project of Fulton's which has conferred 
the highest honour on his name, and wherein no room is left to dis- 
pute the success of it: navigation by means of steam. This he 
proposed in a letter to lord Stanhope, dated 30th September, 1793, 
whose reply acknowledging the receipt of the letter of that date, 
is dated 7th October 1794. Some mistake in the trial before the 
legislature of New Jersey as to a copy of Fulton's letter to lord 
Stanhope, makes these dates worth remembering. That mistake 
is fully and satisfactorily cleared up by Mr. Golden, so that no 
doubt can now remain on the subject. 

In the article steam boats in Rees's Encyclopaedia, an article 
drawn, up with great ability, the history of steam boat navigation, 
is given with such determined negligence of American claims upon 
this invention, that it can only be paralleled by the disgraceful want 
of notice of Mr. Hare's and M^Cloud's blow pipes in the accounts 

g'ven of Dr. Clarke's pretended discoveries. Such conduct con- 
rs no credit on English fairness or veracity. But what credit can 
be given to British relations, after perusing the public inscriptions 
on the monuments of genend Ross and sir Peter Parker! docu<* 
ments, purposely calculated to mislead the future historian, and 
which set veracity at utter defiance. To such relations we can ap« 
dvno other observation than the motto to Godwin's St. Leon. 
The account in Rees's compilation is substantially as follows. 

Captain Savary suggested the apidicaUon of steam' boats to shipa 
in 1702. 

Mr. Jonathan Hull, in 1736, took out a patent for towing ves- 
sels into harbour by means of a boat vrith paddles worked by 
steam: but nothing was done. 

Mr. Buchanan m his treatise on propelling vessels, says thai 
Mr. Millar of Ualwinson first actually tried to move vessels by 
steam. His was a double vessel moved by paddles placed in the 
middle: the experiment did not answer. 

1 84 Life of Robert FuUon. 

In 1795 lord Stanhope constructed a vessel which was' tried in 
Greenland dock; moved by duck-feet paddles at the sides. This 
cxperinient came to nothing. 

In 1801 Mr. Symington tried a vessel propelled by steam in the 
Forth and Clyde Canal: but this was laid aside. Mr. Symington's 
steam boat is slightly described in the Journals of the Royal Insti- 
tute for 1803. His boat is ssdd to have travelled at the rate of two 
and a half miles per hour. Mr. Symington is said by Dr. Rees to 
have used these boats in America before Mr. Fulton's successful 
attempts in 1807. This by the way is the first intimation we have 
had in America of Mr. Symington or his experiments. It would 
have been well to have noticed a few more particulars of thb gen- 
tleman's attempt^n this country, where he seems at present to be 
a perfect stranger. 

Then Mr. Fulton is slightly mentioned as having succeeded with 
steam boats in 1807: and it is said that they were used on the Clyde 
canal in 1812. Of Mr. Fitch and Mr. Rumsey no notice is taken; 
though many persons were present in Mr. Rumsey's boat when it 
was worked on the Thames at London at the rate of three miles 
per hour; and therefore must have been well known to Englbh en- 
gineers. It is very commendable for a writer to be patriotic and 
national, buX it does not justify either the suppressto vertj or the 
8Ugg€8tto falsi. 

lliis account should be compared with Mr. Colden's from page 
126 to page 138. 

The experiments of Mr. Fitch in America, and of Mr. Rumsey 
at London were a few years previous to those of lord Stanhope* 
Whatever pretensions these gentlemen mig^t have had, they were 
abandoned; so completely, that Mr. Latrobe,one of our most inteU 
ligent engineers, stated his. opinion to the American Philosophical 
Society in 1803, that the plan of propelling vessels by means, of 
steam was impracticable. One general fact, then, is indubitable* 

Until Fulton undertook to navigate vessels by means of steam^ no 
person in Europe or America who had attempted tt^ had succeeded in 
the attempt for any practical or useful purpose. 

Fulton never pretended to have invented the steam engine he 
used, or any part of it. Mr. Barlow lent him the money to pur- 
chase that engine from Boulton and Watt, with which he made his 
first successfid experiment. The question is not, who first proposed 
to navigate by 'steam, but who first succeeded in so doin^, and en- 
abled others to succeed. In the summer of 1794 the writer of this 
article was at Birmingham, where Mr. Watt the elder, showed him 
a field of buckwheat, put in by Mr. Cooke's drill plow; and observ- 
ed that the time would soon arrive when the operation of plowing 
would be performed by steam. Surely Mr. Watt would not be 
considered as the inventor of such an operation ixst merely suggest* 
ing that it might be done! He only would deserve die honour and 
the profit of the experiment, who by means of a well-considered 
theory, verified by trial, should render the method practicable to the 

fublic at large. Fulton did this with respect to steam navigation* 
t was never done by any person who had tried to do it, before him* 

Life of Robert Fulton. IBS 

Captain Savary made nothuiK of it in 1702, nor MniHuU in li^36, 
nor the Abb^ Amal in 1781. Mr. Millar of Dalwinson abandoned 
it; so did Mr. Fitch, in this country, whose experiment on the Del- 
aware was in 1783: his boat was propelled by paddles. Mr. Rum- 
sey at London died before his views were completed; but he la- 
boured at' it ineffectually for several years from 1788 to his death. 

Then came the abortive atteiifipts of Earl Stanhope, Mr. Thomp- 
son, Mr. Walker, Messrs Hunter and Dickinson, and Mr. Synw 
ington; the two last in 1801. 

Lord Stanhope's experiment at Greenland dock, was in 1795, 
In September 1793, Mr. Fulton had communicated his ideas on 
steam navigation to that nobleman, who acknowledges it by letter 
dated October 1794. He pursued a different plan mm Fulton. 

Mr. Livingston in March 1798 obtained an exclusive right for 
•team navigation from the New York legislature, but his experi* 
ments alsQ were abortive as to any practicd utility attending them. 
He had the merit, howevier, of rightly appreciating Mr. Fulton's 
talents, and while embassador from die United States to France, 
he joined Mr. Fulton in the plan of steam navigation; and in 
1803 they joindy built a boat which was propelled by steam on the 
Seine at Paris, with so much success, that, on their return to New 
York, in 1806, the project was put in execution without delay. Ful- 
ton gave directions for a steam engine to Boulton and Watt, which 
was executed in such a manner, as to give the experiment fair play: 
with this engine the first successful steam boat, buih imder Fulton'fi 
direction, navigated the Hudson permanendy in 1807. 

Hence it appears that no person whatever, either in this country 
or in Europe, did fairly entitle himself by practical success to the 
honour of introducing steam boat navigation, undl Fulton took up 
the project: from that time, no one has found any difficulty in doing 
what he has taught the world how to do. This is his merit: he 
Bever claimed any other himself, and his friends have claimed no 
other for him. 

To show how litde pretensions die English have to this discove- 
ry, we lay before our readers die following extracts from the best 
and most popular of the monthly publications of diat country. 

In the London Monthly Magazine for October 1813, p. 244, it is 
said, * We have made it our special business to lay before the public, 
all the particulars we have been able to collect relative to the In* 
vention of Steam passage boats in America^ and their introduction 
into Great Britain; because we consider this invention as worth to 
mankind more than a hundred batdes gained, or towns taken, even 
if die victors were engaged in a war, which might have some pre- 
tence to be called defensive and necessary. It affords us great sa- 
tisfaction to be able to lay before our readers, a correct description 
of the Clyde steam boat, obligingly communicated to us by Messnk 
Woods, shipbuilders in port Glasgow. It is but justice, however, 
to those gendemen to state, that they candidly consider the steam 
boats, as they are at present constructed, (that is, on the Clyde) to 
be in a veiy rude state, and capable of g^eat improveroeaf.****** 
VOL. X. 24 ^ 

18§ Ufe of R$bert Fulton. 

The boat runs in calm weather four or four and a hdf iniles per 
hour; but against a considerable 'breeze, not more than three* 

In the Monthly Magazine for November 1813, vol. 36 page 385, 
an account is given of the New York steam boats, ^ runmng on an 
averaee, with or against the tide, at the rate ^ of six miles an hour, 
with me smoothness of a Dutch Streckshute.' 

In the same page is a wooden cut of the Clyde boat; and a note 
of the Editors, stating ^ that the inhabitants of the populous banks 
•f the Thames, are not at present acqusunted wim steam boats, 
•nly through our descriptions of thenu' 

In the same Magazine for January 1814, p. 529, is a proposal to 
erect a company for the purpose of building steam boats to navi* 
gate the Thames. 

In the Magazine for February 1814, page 27, is a further descrip- 
tion of the American steam boats, as an interesting article of infor* 

In the same Magazine for April 1814, a further account of Ame- 
rican steam boats is given by Mr. Ralph Dodd, engineer, who had 
visited them in this country. He states that there were then twa 
places in Great Britain where steam boats had been employed, to 
wit, on the river Braydon between Yarmouth and Norwich, and on 
the river Clyde, between Glasgow and Greenock: and at the close 
of his account, he mentions that he had been urging the use of this 
mode of conveyance for two years past, and was happy to find his 
recommendations realized. 

By the Monthly Magazine for 1814, p. 358, it appears diat the 
above named Mr. Ralph Dodd had succeeded in forming a compa- 
ny to build steam boats to be used on the Thames: and in the same 
page it is stated, that the Clyde steam boat had run for eighteen 
months pasl: that is^ the first steam boat began to run in America 
under Fulton's direction in 1807, and the first steam boat began to 
run in Great Britain in or about the month of May in the year 
1813, six years after they had been in full operation in this country; 
in all probability, if it had not been for Fulton's enterprize and in- 
genui^*. Great Britain would not have had a steam boat for these 
twenty years to come. He showed them how to succeed* Yet is 
this account in Rees's Encyclopaulia &o drawn up, as if the ii^diole 
of the invention was owing to English skill and enterprize. 

* We hear much (say the editors of the Monthly Magazine for 
April 1813, vol. 35, page 243) of the proven success of the steam 
passage boats against the rapid streams of the great rivers in Ame- 
rica: yet nothing of the kind has yet been adopted in Great Britain* 
Are we to succumb to America in the mechanic arts?' This was 
true, for the Clyde boat had not began to run when that paragraph 
was written, nor we believe till at least a month after it was pub- 

The Edinburgh review, whose editors ou^ht to know what was 
going on at Glasgow and on the Clyde, contains a great deal of die- 
cussion about steam engines, and much in defence of Mr. James 
Watt's title to the improvemenu he made in that machine; and 

Life of Robert Fulton. lar 

properly:, attempts were repeatedly made to plunder that great man 
' of his weU^amed reputation and honourable gains, by pretenders in 
England^ as similar attempts were made in diis country, to treat 
Fulton in the same way, James Watt has been supported by the 
courts of law, and by public opinion: he lives yet in the possession 
of a large fortune, and widely extended reputation; this is right; he 
has earned them. Fulton, with merit of the same kind, was worri- 
ed by contests from the moment his plans succeeded in practice; and 
he has died in the prime of his useful life, comparatively poor. 

The general index to the first twenty volumes of the Edinburgh 
Review, comprehending the month of October 1812, has not an 
article relating to steam boats. Yet no one can complain that the 
editors of that work are not sufficiently alive to their national claims. 
Mr. Watt was a native (we believe) of Glasgow, and the reviewers 
have not permitted him to be defrauded of his fair fame. 

All Fulton's engines for his steam boats, are built on the principle 
of Boulton and Watt's engines: the steam is condensed by the m- 
jection of water, and need not be raised to sustain more than five or 
six pounds weight upon the square inch of the safety-valve. Pulton 
was decidedly convinced, that this was not only the safest, but 
the cheapest plan of working; an engine. He was well acquainted 
with the hi^-pressure engines introduced in England by Mr. 
Trevethick, and in this countr>' by Mr. Oliver Evans, and had studi- 
ed them well; but they afforded no inducement to his adopting them. 

The generality of steam boats, however, out of the state of New 
York, are now navigated by engines that work with steam of high 
pressure, and it will be worth while to discuss briefly the very im- 
portant question, whether Fulton acted with his usual judgment, ix\ 
excluding, as he did decidedly, the high-pressure engines from his 
steam boats. 

In the early engines of captain Savary and Newcomen, the pis* 
ton being raised by means of steam let in underneath it, was per- 
mitted to fall by the pressure of the atmosphere upon its upper 
surface, in consequence of a vacuum being produced underneath 
by condensing the steam so let in: this was managed by means of 
a jet of water thrown into the cylinder itself for that purpose. The 
cylinder being thus cobkd at every stroke of the piston, consumed 
and wasted a certain quantity of steam before the next stroke took 
place, by condensing a part of the steam let in, until the cylinder 
became of the temperature of the steam itself: then, and not till 
then, the steam no longer condensed by the cylinder, acted by its 
expansive force on the piston, and raised it. 

One among the many improvements of James Watt on this en- 
gine, was, to save this expenditure of steam and of time, by con- 
densing the steam, not in the working cylinder itself, but in an iron 
box immersed in water, and communicating by a steam pipe with 
the inside of the cylinder; into which box a jet of water was 
thdtywn to condense the steam, instead of throwing it into the cy- 
lindei • It was evident that this mode of working the engine re- 
quired a considerable quantity of water to supply the injection 

188 Life of Robert Fuhon. 

pipe, and a well i^ iisually dug for the purpose of affording this 
8up[dy. Mr. Watt, however, was aware that situations ^would oc« 
cur, in which this supply could not conveniendy be afforded, and 
he accordingly provided for the case in the 4th paragraph of his 
origind patent taken out in 1769, as may be seen by referring to 
the reported cases of Boulton and Watt, v. Bull. 2 Hen. Blacks 
Rep. 463, 3 Vez. jun. 140.; and in Homblower v, Boulton and 
Watt in error, 8 Dumf. and East, 95. 

The engines of Boulton and Watt, however, worked so well, that 
nobody thought of using engines wherein the steam should be 
rendered very highly elastic, and be permitted to escape into the 
open air, till Messrs. Trevethick and Vivian, took out a patent in 
March 1802: they contemplated, as was well known at tne time, 
the moving of carriages by means of steam; and as a supply of 
water for condensation could not be obtained in this case, ana as it 
was a great object to lessen the weight of the machinery, their 
views compelled them to employ an engine, wherein the steam 
should be permitted to escape in the outer air, instead of being con- 
densed by an apparatus provided for the purpose. This would not 
only save water, but save the weight of the condensing apparatus. 
The plan of propelling carriages, however, did not take with the pub* 
lie at that time; and Trevethick erected his engines for the common 
purposes of manufacture, &c. Although Trevethick did not work 
his engines with more than sixty lb. upon the square inch of the 
valve, yet two dreadful explosions of engines built on his construc- 
tion, brought them into great and deserved discredit, and few of 
them are now used in manufactories or water works in England: 
still, the saving in weight, in size, and in the first expense of con» 
struction, are circumstances, that have tempted the owners of steam 
boats to give them occasionally a preference over Boulton and 
Wattes condensing engines. But the dreadful accidents that hap- 
pened with high pressure engines at the tide mills in the marsh 
between Greenwich and Woolwich — ^the accidoit that happened 
from a similar cause, and with a similar eng^e at Constant's sugar 
house (Phil. Mag. Deer. 1815); the late terrible accident on boara 
the Norwich packet on the 4lii of April last, whereby nine per- 
sons were killed, and twenty wounded— -besides other accidents wiUi 
high pressure engines that have not found their way into the En- 
glish newspapers, but are not imknown, have radsed a spirit of in* 
quiry into the propriety of suppressing these engines on board 
steam boats, and have turned the tide of public opinion greatly 
against them. We have seen Mr. Cook of Glasgow and Mr. Gallo- 
way of London, engineers of reputation, come forward decidedlj^" 
in opposition to these engines: and many (now indeed most} of tfaie 
steam boat owners in that country who worked with hiffh pressure 
engines before, have exchanged them for engines of Boulton and 
Wattes construction. The very able compiler of the articles Steaip, 
Steam Engine, and Steam Boat in Dr. Rees's Encyclopaedia, who 
may fairly be supposed in that elaborate work to express the senti-' 
ments common among the engineers of the present day, sajrs ^ AU 

Xf/ir tf Jtohrt Tvhon. 1 89 

llie engines (used in steam boats) hitherto used in Scotland have 
been made on Mn Watt's principle; but those in America have 
been high pressure engines; whicn being more simple and less ex- 
pensive (in the first instance that is) some ^f them have been con- 
structed m £ngland: but one of thein having exploded in an 
American boat, the proprietors of sotne of the English boats have 
changed their engines for others on Mr. Watt's principle, to avoid 
similar accidents. We think it quite unjustifiable in any engineer^ 
to advise the construction of steam boats with high pressure engines^ 
at least for passage boats; in which so many persons are ahuays 
assembled together^ and so near to the engine^ that they would all be 
destroyed in the event of a boiler burstings 

Since that was written, very serious accidents have happened on 
board the Norwich packet in England, on board the Enterprize at 
Charleston, and the Oliver Evans steam boat on the Mississippi in 
this country. It is not merely from the boiler bursting that cbanger 
arises where a high pressure engine is used; for in .the case of me 
Norwich packet, the steam swept away the boiler itself, and this 
swept away every thine and every person that stood in its way at 
the tim^e of the explosion; and was thrown in a horizontal direc- 
tion out at the stem of the boat. Phil. Mag. Ap. 1817, page 3CX>* 

Fulton never would use any engine of this description, and in a 
conversation with the writer of this article, he promised to send 
him the model of a machine that should prove beyond doubt that at 
the same expense of fuel, there was not only more safety but more 
power in the condensing engines. Certain it is, that the accidents 
on board Fulton's boats by which life or limb were lost or even 
jeopardized, have not been recorded, nor have we heard of a sinde 
accident arising from Boulton and Watt's engines in England, du- 
ring forty-five years practice throughout the kingdom. 

The sidvantages of high-pressure engines are 

1. They are more simple in their construction: the condensing 
box, the injection pipe, the well, the well-pump, and some other 
parts of Watt's engine, are dispensed with. 

2. For the same reason they are chesmer in the first cost. 

3. The cylinder is smaller, and the wnole machine occupies less 
space than an eng^e of the same power on Boulton and Watt's 

4. The power may be more easily increased, on an emergency, 
than in the condensing engine. 

As to the permanent expense in fuel, we believe the advantage on 
fair experiment will be found in favour of the condensing engine; 
which, under circumstances equaUy favourable, will afford more 
power with the same expense. Indeed, so much water is convert- 
ed into high steam, and thrown away in the open air in one of 
Trevethick's eneines, that this conclusion is very prc^able a priori. 
Boulton and Watt have never chosen to erect one on this 
construction, among a thousand that have been built at their 
works. We know of no other advantage diat can be stated in fa- 
vour of employing high pressure engines. On the other hand, 

f» Life ofRoitrt Fuh(m. 

1. The condenMng engines are safer: Fulton's boats can be 
driven above five miles an hour, with steam that does not press 
more than sii: pounds on the square inqh; and where are the ac- 
counts of lives lost on board his boats by explosions, during the ten 
years they have run, fourteen now running in New- York state.^ A 
high pressure engine working with one-hundred and fifty pounds of 
pressure on the square inch, presses with a force equal to twenty- 
one thousand six hundred pounds on the square root of one hun* 
dred and forty-four square inches: while a condensing engine, 
working with six pounds on the. square inch, presses only with 
eight hundred and sixty-four pounds on each square foot withinside 
the boiler. Hence it is manifest at once, to every man, whether he 
be an engineer or not, (a) that a boiler cannot be so much farced by 
« pressure of less than one thousand as by a pressure of more than 
twenty thousand pounds on the square foot; (b) that if an explosion 
takes place' by over-loading a condensing engine, it will only make 
a rent m the boiler, and the steam will escape; for as a boiler which 
is to sustain only a thousand pounds weight of pressure on the 
square foot, need be only the twentieth part as strong as one that 
must sustain a weight or pressure of twenty thousand pounds on 
the square foot, steam much weaker, more condensible, and less 
dangerous, will burst the one boiler, than the other: (c) Hence in 
case an explosion should happen, the steam will be comparatively 
harmless in a condensing, compared to the steam of a high pressure 
engine: the former will scald nobody at six feet distance; the latter 
will scald every man on board the boat; the former will only make 
ft rent in the boiler, and escape and be condensed, the latter (as in 
the Norwich packet) vaxy carry away the boiler itself even where it is 
too strong to burst. It may be granted that the diameter of a cy- 
lindrical boiler may be so diminished as to annihilate die hazard of 
bursting— -a thermometer tube may resist any pressure that even a 
steam engine can give withinside of it; but there is a point in prac- 
tice beyond which the leno^h of the boiler cannot be extended and 
the caliber cannot be dimmished. So that, we must reascm ftovBk 
what practice and experience will permit or compel us to use. Mr. 
CWver Evans, whose patent is two years later than Trevethick^s, 
and whose form of boiler was for some years exacdy the same as 
Trevethick's, viz. a long cylinder with a flue passing through the 
centre of it, the ends secured by cast iron flancnes — has judiciously 
altered his original plan, by rejecting the internal cylindrical fire- 
place, a source of much danger when the water is by any accident 
permitted to be too low withinside, and by substituting stxxmg 
sheet-iron for cast-iron, except we believe as to the door that doses 
the ends. In fact no part of the steam engine exposed to the pres- 
sure of the steam ought to be of cast iron at sdl. These are im- 
provements: still, shoitld an accident happen, steam at the temper- 
ature which one-hundred and fifty or two hundred pounds on die 
square inch indicates, is full as bad as gtmpowder; it is not speedily 
eondensiUe by the common temperatuie of Hie atmoq>here, DfpA 

Ufe 6f Robert FuHw. Ifl 

^etefore it is calculated to force awnf all b^ore it, m every direc* 
tion; to scald by it^ heat, and to rend by tfs force* 

2. The advocates of condensing en^ee aak, that while itiaehinei 
of this description are so much ssfer m comparison than die odiem 
—while they are competent to propel a boat Against witid-and tide 
nearly six mSes an hour, why run so much risk for such Utde ad- 

3. They say further that in the long run, the (xmdensing engines 
are not only safer, but cheaper: thev consume somewhat less fuel in 
performing the same service, and they last longer in eonsequence of 
not being so much strained, and racked, as a high pressure enpne 
is, and From its construction must be. The packing of one of 
Watt's engines will require to be renewed once a fortnight per* 
haps; an engine of one-hundred and fifty pounds on the square mch 
of die safety valve, once every two or three days. Near this city, 
an experiment can easily be tned which would setde the question m 
practice here. At die new water works near the upper bridge 
over Schuylkill, there are two engines, one of Oliver Evans's con« 
struction wcMFking with steam that presses one-hundred and fifty 
pounds on the square inch, and a condensing engine that works 
with four pounds on the square inch; both built to be of die same 

Cower, and to be applied to the same work. Some slight alteradon 
owever will: be previously necessary: 

Let the fire place of the condensing engine be somewhat enlar- 
ged, and the mouth of the fire place turned ^like that of Mn 
Evans's engine) toward the water, so that each sWl have the same 
advantage of a current of air; for in their present state, no cer-^ 
tainty would be the result of the experiment. These alterations 
being made (which in fact must be made) then see which engine 
performs die most work with die same quantity of foel in twenty-^ 
four hours. For this is the true question, what is the daily expense 
of fuel? The original expense of an engine^is comparatively no* 
tning; and indeed die actual difference in the expense of the two 
kinds of engines is litde: the great expense of an engine is the Juel 
it consumes. 

At what value in fuel can each of these engines do the work of 
a horse; that is, raise thirty*-two thousand pounds weight, one fisot 
high per minute? 

The condensing engines of Boulton and Watt in Cornwall in the 
first four months of ttte year 1816 raised about twenty-eight and 
a-half millions of poimds of water one foot high foe each bushel of 
coals consumed; the coals weighing eighty-eight pounds per bush* 
el, which is the regular London weight of a bushel of coals. 

WooHe's improved double engines, raised upwards of fifty mil- 
lions of pounds weight one foot high, for die expenditure oi each 
bushel of coals consumed. 

We do not say that this great effect will be produced by eveiy 
engine of Watt or Woolfe. Watt's engines at first raised only 
thirteen and a-half millions of pounds weight for the expenditure 
of one bushel of coals, but when the steam engine owners of Cora- 

Ite Ufe of Robert fultofu 

wall combined to pay Messrs. Thomas and John Lean far taking 
a monthly account of the actual work done bv every engine at 
every mine once a month, the engineers gradually improved in die 
care they took to keep every part of the engine in good order, un- 
1S1 from thirteen and a-half diey raised the average work to twenty- 
eight and a-half million of pounds avordupois, raised one foot hig^ 
by means of eighty-eight pounds weight of fueL 

Boulton and Watt contract that their engines shall raise five hun- 
dred thousand cubic feet of water one foot high at the expense of 
one hundred and twelve pounds weight of coaL £ver^ cubic foot 
of water weighs sixty-two and a-hali pounds avordupois: tlus will 
be, more than twenty-four millions of pounds avordupois nused 
one foot hieh, by means of one bushel of coals weighing eighty* 
eight pounds. 

It seems however that in practice the large engines do more 
work for the same fuel than the small ones. * 

It win easily be conceived how much more important the con- 
sideration of mel is than the mere first cost of the engine. Sup- 
pose for instance, one of the engines at the Schuylkill works, moved 
at its regular rate for three hundred days in the year, morning and 
night, and consumed daily eight cords of wood, at seven dollars per 
cord on the average laid down at the works — ^the annual expense of 
fuel alone, Would be near seventeen thousand dollars a year! 

4. The advocates of condensing eng^es say that they admit of 
more precautionary measures of safety than the high-pressure en- 
gines. C9i\ The boiler may be made of sheet iron that will rend in- 
stead ot bursting: or Qi) with equal convenience of copper, a ma- 
terial commonly used m England: (c) the proportion ot water and 
steam can be more easily indicated in the boiler of a condensing en- 
gine than in one of high pressure, (d) The self-acting damper that 
stops die draught when the steam by negligence or accident is rai- 
sed too high, is an effectual security which cannot be easily adapted 
to a high pressure engine: (e) when the steam is too high it can es- 
cape hy blowing through the tube that supplies the bouer with hot 
water m a condensing engine. 

Such are die chief arguments on both sides of tiiis question, 
which is now anxiously occupying the public in England generally, 
and a parliamentary committee in particular, whose report we may 
e^)ect in a few weeks. 

The following precautions have been suggested in England: 

To try the strengdi of the boiler by the injection of water under 
a pressure. This has also been recommenaed by judge Cooper, 
Mr. Perkins, Mr. Cloud, and Mr* Graaf, to whom a committee of 
the common council of Philadelphia applied for their opinions. 

To have double safety valves to every engine. Mr. Woolfe, wh<i 
never works higher than forty poimds, and lets off his steam into a 
second cyUnder, uniformly attaches a second safe^ valve to his en- 
gines. This was recommended by the above named gendemen, 
and previously also by Mr. Hare in this magazine. 

Life of Robert Fulton. 1% 

To have a mercurial ^oac^^ pressing on the safety valve with a 
column of mercury^ which m case of the steam being too much 
raised will blow out. Our objection is, the aperture will be too 
small to answer the purpose of safety* 

To have a plug of msible metal in the boiler: this was Mr. 
Trevethick's plan, and absolutely necessary to such boilers as have 
the fire inside the water cylinder: but it has been seldom adopted 
by other builders of high pressure engines. 

To strengthen the partitions between the engine and the passen- 

Sirs, and to weaken the other parts of the enclosure; so diat when 
e steam exploded, it should issue out at the place of least resis- 
tance, and the furthest from the passengers* This was the sug^s- 
tion of judse Cooper, and Messrs. Cloud, Perkins, and Graaf, in 
imitation of the practice at gunpowder manufactories; and indeed 
seems to be one of the most valuable measures of precaution 
hitherto recommended. 

Lastly, to prohibit by legislative interference, the navigating of 
passage boats by means of high pressure eng^es, as being danger- 
ous, unnecessary, and calculated to g^ve alarm even when the oeui- 
ger is slight. ^ 

This measure is objected to, because, the legislature ought not 
to interfere in the management of a man's private business — ^be- 
cause this legislative interference will arrest the progress of im- 
provement in machinery — because every man is the best judc;e of 
the risk he chooses to run — because this measure would give indi- 
rect and un&ir advantages to a particular kind of manufacture — 
because boilers can be made to resist any force whatever that can 
be applied to them— -because this kind of interference would be 
equally vexatious and unnecessary* 

To these arguments it is replied: 

That the legislature is not requested to interfere in private but in 
public business. The application relates to steam passage boats 
alone. Owners of manuractories are at liberty to erect whatever 
engine they choose, and to run whatever risk they choose. But 
carriers and passengers have at all times, in all civilized countries, 
been objects of legislative care and controul. The legislature is 
called on to prevent the wanton destruction of lives by persons who- 
are careless of every thing but their own emolument. A passage 
boat is as much an object of regulation as a stage coach; and wil- 
iiil, needless risk of danger, and dan^ arising from culpable ne- 
^gence are equally objects of regulation and of punishment injthe 
one kind of vehicle, as in the other. 

That such an interference will not stop the progress of improve- 
ment, while every private manufacturer is at liberty to erect what- 
ever kind of steam engine he pleases, at the risk of his own person 
and his own property. Whenever, by a long course of experience 
in manufactories, the high-pressure engine shall be found perfectly 
harmless, let the act interfering with tiiem be repealed. In mean 
time, the present division of opinion among scientific men, is of it- 
self a sufficient reason for the legislative interference. If an engine 

VOL. X. 25 

known to be s^fe, can do all the work required, whal injIMT ^fves 
by protecting passengers against the dangctr of an unss& one? 

That though boikrs may be constructed to bear the required 
pressure, yet the accident on board the Norwich packet shows th^t 
the boiler itself may be carried away bodily by high steam. 

That these considerations show, the interference asked for, is 
neither vexatious or unnecessary. 

Such we believe to be a tine and fair statement of the case, on 
both sides of the question: wheremi let our readers judge. 

Having dwelt so long on this questicxi, we have little more room 
to bestow on Mn Colden's Life of Fulton, though his exertions to 
procure a repeal of the present most vexatious patent law — his de- 
tection of the knave RedhafFer's fraudulent engine of perpetual mo» 
tioD — ^his unremitting labours v on the subject of csH^al navigation, 
until his premature death on the 24th ot February, 1815, woidd 
furnish room for much useful reflection and discussion. 

We sincerely believe that when Fulton died, his country sustain- 
ed a loss that will not easily be repaired. 


Art. II. — Defence of Usury; showing the ImpoUcy of the pre- 
sent legal Restraints on tf^e Terms of pecuniary Bargains; in 
Letters to a Friends To which is added a Letter to Adam Smithy 
Esq. L Z. X)., on the Discouragements opposed by the above 
Restraints to the Progress of inventive industry ^^c. By Jeremy 
Bentham, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. pp. 276. London, 1817. 

Ma. Bbntbam'b celebrated Tratttiae<lnUsuRT,whereialieexaminefttfaeiii8tm 
sad the policy of the laws rekting to that rabject, and deoMmitratea the absoidity 
aad inefficacy of legiBlative restrictions, has prodaced a rerolution in the pubTC 
sentiment in Europe on the question of usury, and ought to do So here. 

The book has been excefienHy well reriewed, and ^e argument we& coander- 
ed by the Edinburgh reTiewers; k is at least as well done in the foUowidig ae* 
count of Mr. Beatham's wwk from No. IS. of the British Revieivr; whirii w% 
hare selected, beoause it |^?es very fairly and faitfaAilly, all the difficalties that 
attend any alteration in thepresentsystemof laws on this subject; difBculties^ 
that exist with less force in America than in Europe. In short. It is high time 
we should ^^ up this plan of over-legislating, of regulating every thing, of pre* 
tending to know a man's private intevest better than be kMm it hiWiiieif, 
and of laying traps and oro^ag temptations to tnmgress a system of laws ikfi^ 
do not harmonize with (he present state of society, and that are continualb* 
broken, not merely by subterfuges and evasions, but in the face of day. The ao- 
mirable aigoment of Ivfii. Hay on the subject of usury in the Virginia legittatifre, 
oogbt to be in the hands of eveiy American. His motion did not sncceed; b«t 
ignorance and prejudice will ultimately retire from the contest 

Mr. Bentham's Treatise on Usmy, proceeds on the foUowii^ plan. He 
considers the arguments against unrestrained baigains for the loan of money 
under the following heads :1st, the prevention of usury: 2d]y, of prodigality: Sdly, 
to protect indigent persons against extA-tion: 4thly,to repress imprudent speddm- 
tors and projectors: 5thly, to protect ignorance and simjwcity against impoeitioiB. 

As to the first. What is usury? The taking of more interest lor the kan aind 
use of money, than the law allovs. The ofoice then, is the mere creature of 
society and of law. There is ao natural standsund of interest. Whether usoiy 
be pennissible or not* then, depends on the policy of the law that creates it« 

Iplwait vmMio erery ocwmtrys in Kngiwd it ia fire per c»at» in Peans]rlvuu» 
six, in New-Tork seven, in C wutta twelve. In bottomry bamins, it ifi onre- 
ftrained: among- the Romans in the time of Jnstinian it was tirttve per cent; in 
iSngland nnder Henry VIIl., ten. Interest like evwy oilier bai^pon, nmit nlti- 
antely depend on the scarcity of moo^, and the value of it; that is the use that 
can be made of it* The Jews indeed were forbidden to take interest from cHAoh 
othen but they indemnify themselves a^^ainst all the world beside« 

Secondly, to restrain prodigality. Can this be done? Will laws against usury 
prevent it^ Cannot goods be sold cheap by the prodigal; or bought dear of the 
usurer, and resold in such a way that the law cannot touch the transaction? Does 
Bot the illegality of the contract increase tiie riak, and thereftMPe enhance the dc- 
Qiand, and of coiuae the evil complained of? Who is to judge of comparative pro- 
digality? Will you put half the community of grown persons in bab^ leaoing 
atrings? Of all vexatious legislation, that is the worst which intermeddles m private 
concerns, and pretends to teach a man of business how to conduct his own affhirs. 
Moreover, it is right that prodigality riiould bring with it, its own remedy in its 
own punishoient 

Thirdly, to protect indigence. If I want money, I alone can know how 
much it IS worth to m^. If I want a house in a particular situation, who but my- 
self can judge of the value of it to me? Wherever fraud and deception takes ad* 
vantage of ignorance, the principles of equity interfere, without the aid of 
usury laws. 

Fourthly, to restrain projectors and tpecnlatorii lliese men usually do much 
miflchief to themselves, and much good to the community. But where is the 
line of speculation to be drawn? Who is to be called a projector? A tenn applied 
almost universally by ill-bred short-sighted ignorance, io superior knowledge 
and skill which it cannot comprehend. That harm may be done by a mis- 
chievous and fraudulent use of credit, is granted. Morris and Nicholson did much 
damage: bot which of the laws against usury prevented their mode of gambling, 
or repressed their speculations, or applied at all to their case? The character of 
the usury-laws throughout — ^in every case— 4s to fail in preventiBg the evil 
against which they were enacted. 

Fifthly, to protect ignorance and simplicity. A man who knows notiiing of 
medicine falls sick. He is too simple and ignorant to cure himaelf. What does 
tile world say? Send for a doctor who has nu^e it his study and profession to euro 
tiiesidc. A man is too simple and ignorant to make his own baigaitts^-Liet him 
ask advice of his friends or his lawyer Will you make laws to annihilate igno* 
ranee and folly? You had better have at once a hospital for simpletons in the vi- 
cinity of your lunatic hospital. 

There is no sound ailment in fiivour of these laws. The pretences fer 
them are founded in gross ignorance of men, of manners, oftrade, and dealing. 

But the^ are inefieieni: no man can mistake bow to evade them: by privacy 
in conducting the contract bv loans on conditions increasing the risk: by buy- 
ing dear and selling cheap, £c. Of all laws, those are the worst that can nevei 
be executed. Laws against usury are dawraiistmg. They driFO men to shifts 
nnd evasions in lending and borrowing, that blunt the edgu ef moral feeliag. They 
are tiiyUr, becanise tl^y prolnhit what is generally peiwtted and p^ 
other shapes, and by other means. Do not all banks and bankers take more 
^han legal interest? Do not all purchasers of paper in the market, money brokers^ 
shavers as they are called, practise usury witii impunity? May I not ask and take 
my own interest for my jdate, my goods, my house, my lands? This is well put 
both by Mr. B. and his reviewer. It is high time these very weak, these very 
absurd, these laws for the encoun^nment of deception and evasion, should be 
mpealed; and reaMuin no looger adisjg^uce to ourstatnte book. 

A DEF£NC£ of snmggUng, addressed to the chancellor of the 
^ exchequer ^ a defellce of Spa-fields meetings, addressed to 
the secretary for the home department, would not have excited 
greater indignation nor encountered fiercer prejudices than this de* 
nnoe of usury trill fiad.direGCied against it by the ouyority of rea- 

196 Befence of Usury* 

ders, even in the present day. The very sound, and ordinary ac^ 
ceptation of the term, cany with them a host of opposition, which 
no streng^ of argument can overcome. As soon as the word usU" 
rer is mentioned, the imag^ation conjures up a hard featured Israe* 
Ute propounding to a thoughdess youth, or a decayed tradesman, 
the exorbitant terms upon which only he will consent to relieve his 
embarrassments; and, the iniquitious bargain being finished, we see 
the former sent away with his hundred pounds, to be repaid at the 
end of a few months with half as much more, and the latter with a 
still smaller sum at a still higher interest. Usury being thus 
identified with every thing low and disgraceful, the synonym, in 
short, for fraud, meanness, and cruelty, he must be a bold man in- 
deed who will venture to write in defence of iu 

He, then, who holds Mr. Bentham's doctrines will be inclined 
to ask, in the first place, what are the general principles, whether 
of trade, politics, or morals, upon which we unaertake to justify a 
restriction on the rent of money, more than upon any other thmg 
which is let out upon hire. If I convert my money into land, or 
houses, or ships, or horses, or carriages, I am permitted to receive 
for the loan ot them as much as any one chooses to give, or thinks 
he can afford; nay, what is more, if I were to melt down my gui- 
neas and dollars into plate, I should be allowed to ask for the use 
of this plate, by the day or month, a remuneration to any extent 
that might be agreed upon between mvself and the borrower; but 
iEis soon as I should re-convert it into uie current coin of the realm 
I should be once more restricted as to the terms of lending it, and, 
in consequence of the laws against usury, I should subject myself 
to a very severe penalty, were I to take for the loan of such coin 
more than a twentieth part of its value by the year. What is there 
in the die impressed upon my metal, he would say, to prevent me 
from enjoying the same freedom as to the terms upon which I may 
let it out, which was allowed to me whilst it was in the shape of 
tureens, spoons, or salvers! For land, too, of which money is mere- 
ly the representative, I may exact and receive any usury that a ten- 
ant will give me. I may have ten per cent, on the amount of my 
purchase money, or fifteen per cent., or even a hundred per cent. 
For the use of a house, in like manner, I may charge with the 
same unlimited freedom; and in short, for every other species of 
property I am not compelled to observe any rule in modifying my 
demands, except that which is estabUshed by competition in d^ 
general market, where each wishes to have as much and to give as 
utde as he can; but with regard to the rent of coined gold and sil- 
ver, for I call the interest a rent, I must not, at my peril, receive 
more than five per cent, as the annual return from iU What argu- 
ment foimded in the nature of things, or in the general conveniency^ 
of society, can be adduced in support of this exceptioo! 

Secondly, in driving all other bargains, as to occupancy for defi- 
nite periods, I am allowed to teercise some discretion with regard 
to risking my property for an adequate compensation even in the 
most hazardous employments of it to which it could possiUy be 

Defenee of Vktrt/. t07 

exposed. I may let out my house, for example, to k maker of fire- 
works, my land to a brick-maker, my ship to be used as a priva- 
teer, my waggon to carry gun-powder, and my horse to work in a 
coal-pit» In all such cases the law leaves me entirely to myself; 
trusts me with my own interest so far as to allow me to make such 
terms as will, in the ordinary course of things, meet all hazards 
and cover all losses; but with regard to money, as before, I am not 
allowed to run any risks in letting it out upon hire; in other words, 
I am not allowed to receive any compensation in name of such 
risks. What can be. the ground of distmction between a house, for 
example, and money, which merely represents the value of a house, 
diat, for an adequate premiiun, I have it in my power to inciu* all 
hazards with respect to the one and not with respect to the other? 
It is not easy to perceive the views, theoretical or practical, upon 
which legislators proceed, in forming such distinctions and in enact- 
ingsuch statutes. 

Thirdly, as the price of all other things rises and falls with cir- 
cumstances, and particulariy as they become relatively scarce or 
abundant, how absurd must it be to fix by law the price of money, 
or, in other words, the rent to be paid for its use, when it is very 
well known that there is scarcely any other commodity which varies 
more in its marketable value? To the very same merchant at dif- 
ferent times, money may be wordi ten per cent., and it may not be 
worth four per cent. At this moment, owing to the stagnation of 
certain kinds of trade, loans can be raised by government at little 
more than three and a half per cent., whereas were there a great- 
er demand for capital created by tiie revival of our manufactories, 
loans could not be negociated under five, or even six per cent. In 
f hort, it seems irrational, in tiie highest degree, first to permit men 
to deal in money, as they deal in land or catde, that is, to try to sell 
or to let it out upon hire, and tiien to restrict them in their profits, 
and limit their enterprise* The whole system must assureoly rest 
on prejudice, and not on large and enlightened views of political 
science; it must derive its ongin from those barbarous times when 
the fineness of a man's coat, the length of his spurs, and the ex- 
pense of his dini&r, were all fixed by acts of parliament. 

We may perhaps trace the very general dislike and abhorrence 
which are directed against usurers to the single circumstance that 
all loans of ^oney, prior to tiie times of an extended commercial 
intercourse, were granted by the rich to relieve the pressing neces- 
sities of the poor; and that the former sometimes so far availed 
themselves of the dependent state of the latter, as to deprive them 
of personal liberty, and thus to secure their services for life* The 
loan of money in this case was like the loan of food to a starving 
man; it was to be consumed for present support, not to be laid out 
with the view of re-production; a demand, therefore, for usury in 
such circumstances could not fail to be regarded as the very utmost 
stretch of inhumanity or of avarice. In small societies too, where 
every man could trace tiie \x>nds of affinity or of blood by which 
he was united to the other members of the community, any return 

19S Defince rf Usury. 

deilifiild<(d fbr die use of a pecumaiy loan would at once appear 
mote criminal in itself, and brand with deeper odium the sordid 
ca^editor who coutd dttts take advantage of necessity to oppress a 
Ifirodier. We find, accordingly, in the laws of Moses that usuiy 
was not at all permitted among the family of Israel; the privilege 
to exact increase being entirely confined to dieir dealings with 
strmgers. <^ If thy ^rodier," said that divine legislator, ^ be waxen 
poot and fall into decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him. 
Take no usury of htm nor increase; but fear thy God diat thy bro« 
ther diay live with thee, lliou shall not give him thy money upon 
usu^, nor lend him Ay victuals for increase.'' And in the fifteenth 
psalm We see usurious practices coupled with ^ taking rewai^ 
agsunst the iniidcent/' and described as one of the sins which every 
Bood man would study to avoid. A prejudice thus respectable 
mm its origin g^ned ground, perhaps, at least Mr. Bentham thiidcs 
so, in the first ages of Christianity, when virtue was made to con- 
aist,in no small degree, in the severe duties of self-denial. 

In accouoting for die prejudices against usuiy we camiot surely 
^ascribe much to the absurd notion of Aristotie, that ^^ all money is tn 
its nature barren," for in the very infancy of trade the advantages of 
having a ready command of the medium of exchange, cotdd tiot 
escape the observation of the dealer. The man, too, Who had a 
piece of land without wealth to stodc it, would instandy perceive 
that a loan, on reasonable terms, to enable him to buy a few sheep, 
would, if not directiy productive itself, render available to him the 
productive properties of his farm. It must be iadnvitted, however, 
that the phrase, ^^ a barren breed of metal," is completely English, 
having been received with applause ftx>m the stage in die time of 
Shakspeare; but moreover, that Lord Bacon, in the same age, gave 
it as his serious opinion, that the power of taking intere^ upon mo^ 
ney was granted to the subjects of Elizabeth, for the very same rea- 
son that me right of divorce had been granted to die Jews by 
Moses, *^ propter duritiem cordis.^* All tiiese objections to usury^ 
in fact, proceed ftom die very same source, the presumption that 
loans were never made for the purposes of traffic^ andto enrich die 
borrower as well as the lender, but solely to relieve indigence, or to 
ward off distress. Different views, however, are now opened both 
to the legislator and the people at large. Every body knows that, 
in these times, a rent is paid for money on the very same principle 
that it is paid for land or for a ship, and that the object of die bor- 
rower, in all these cases, is to gain so much by the use of the article 
for which he pays rent as to enable him, after making such pay- 
ment, to add to his cothforts or to his capital. It dierefore naturally 
occurs to the most superficial to inquire, wherefore the holder ot 
money should be restricted in the rate at which he lets out his pro- 
perty, whilst the land-owner and the ship-owner are left at perfect 
liberty to make the best bargain they can. 

Leaving out of view the old prejudices already mentioned, and 
the bad sound of the word ustury so nearly allied to these prejudices, 
we may stiU be able to account for the fiict in question by refcrring 

D^^moeaJ^ Umfryi. %^ 

to ;^i a]^pB|^% jq^^aUe aolicil^de, on the pan of Iwgiv^q^ to 
protect ^ Qope tlMs capital of the couafry, fuid i^e p^rsc^is whp nmy 
Lave occa^icm to boirow \ti fcHT reg^c^ng all w1>q apply for the los^i 
of money as prodigiils, simpletons, paupers, or prpjec^ra, and a^ 
who leoto, as extortioners qr cheats, Uie law b^th crnly extend^ itp 
bro^d shield to cover the heads of those who in this case are su{^ 
posed PQf: tp have sens^e to take care of then^ives« I^t us, the^ 
examine into the matter a litde more closely, and endeavour to 
ascertam whe^erthe law fulfils that great purpose; whether it do^a, 
in foct, procure bettor tenns for the indigent and the prodigal, or 
whether it does not, q|i the contrary, gready aggravate the eviji; of 
their cpn^ditiicni. 

Tlvere seems, indeed, tp be only one clas9 of prodigals to whose 
case usury laws can have any application, those, namely, who have 
spent all their ready money, engaged all their securities, and have 
no longer any gfxA pledges to offer upon which to raise a loan; for, 
it is very evident thai, as long as a sp^idthrift has the means, he 
will gratify his passion, or his love of ostentation; that as long as 
he has good security to give he will get money at legal interest, and 
tiiat it is oniy when he is driven to have recourse to contingencies 
and distant reversions that a high premium Jbecomes necessary to 
bribe the usurer* In this last case, indeed, he will be likely to 
tread upon the forbidden ground of the law, but it would be in vain 
to s^empt to ihwart his purpose; for, as he is determined to have 
money, he will instantly sell his interests in these supposed contin- 
gencies, and thus find the shortest road to ruin, in spite of laws 
and judges. But the matter may, after all, be brought within very 
narrow bounds bv stating as above, that the prodigal who has any 
thin^ certain, either in possession or in prospect, will find means to 
get It. spent without violating the laws against usury; and if he has 
nothing certain, he will get very few usurers to deal with him. Be- 
sides, It will be admittra on all hands that it is not worth while to 
legislate in such cases. It is not at all necessary to the well-being 
or tranquillity of society to make laws for fools, and more particu*- 
larly when the violation of such laws, which in this instance is ea- 
sily practicable, will oxdy render ihtir foolishness more certainly 
&td. But, even supposing the law, as it respects the borrowing 
of money, to Jb^i completely efficient and successful, it would only 
shut up one yfixy narrow outlet; leaving open the large sluices of 
extravagancf which carry off wealth in the shape of tradesmen's 
biUs, overctfarged in every article, and with interest upon interest, 
for, as Mr^ fientham jusdy remarks, ^^ So long as a man is looked 
upon as one who will pay, he can much more easily get the goods 
he wantsi'than money to buy them with, though he were content to 
give fior it twice or even thrice the ordinary rate of interest." To 
put a stop to prodigality there .seems to be no other effectual expe- 
dient than that reaorted to by the ancient Romans, and still employ*- 
ed in eztmne cases, both here and in France, which is, to put the 
incurable «raater>under an interdict. His relatives may do that for 
fa]in;.aheiaMr nothing, either ci^ratiye or ^positively preven- 

no Defence of Usury. 

If we advert on the other hand to the case of the indigent and 
the simple, we shall find that the legal restriction on usury is equally 
^efficient as a protection against exorbitant demands, on the part c^ 
the lender, whilst it operates decidedly to their disadvantage in ob- 
taining relief, and that too, in proportion to the amount of their 
necessities. By the indigent, we here mean such persons as, from 
accidental circumstances, are reduced to temporary straits, and to 
whom the advance of a sum of money would be worth considerably 
more than the legal interest. It happens, however, from the very 
conditions of their case as now described, that they may not be able 
to hold out a competent securitfr for the loan which has thus become 
so necessary to them; and as tne man who might be willmg to lend, 
even on this imperfect security, were he allowed to receive an ade* 
^uate premium for his risk, is positively prohibited from entering 
into terms with them, they are consequentty, and by the direct op« 
eration of the law in question, shut out from all chance of relief. 
We shall suppose thattiie pressure of circumstances renders it in* 
dispensable for a tradesman to raise, in a given time, a certain sum 
of monev, which, if he cannot borrow it, he must realize by forcing 
a sale of his goods. But the market we may imagine is un&vour- 
able, and he is certain to lose, by the sale, twenty per cent, on the 
average price of his commodity; he would therefore willingly give 
seven per cent, for money, in order to wait a more favourable state 
of things, and to avoid so great a sacrifice. There ape, we shaU 
suppose, more than one individual who would lend him money, at 
six or seven per cent., but who, as they can get five per cent, on the 
very best securi^, will not let him have it tor less. The sale must 
therefore be made, and the embarrassed tradesman is accordingly 
compelled, by what our author denominates the loving-kindness of 
the law, to purchase his accommodation at tiiree times the jprice at 
which he could have it by means of a loan; and all this evil arises 
from the absurd officiousness of rulers, who are determined to think 
and care for the subject, without having either opportunity or talents 
for becoming acquainted vrith his busmess or nis particular situa- 
tion<. Thus, in the case before us, the person who needs the ac- 
commodation is, of all others, the best qualified to form a correct 
judgment as to what he can afford to give for it, and what it would 
be even advantageous to give; yet, the legislator, as Mr. Bentham 
remarks, in a similar supposition, who knows nothing, nor can know 
any tiling of any one of all these circumstances, who, in short, knows 
nothing at all about tiie matter, comes and says to him, * it signifies 
nothing, you shall not have tiie money, for it would be doing jrou a 
mischief to let you have it upon such terms.' The apprehension of 
the lawgiver is that a man, in embarrassed circumstances, wiU g^ve 
more for money than he can well afford, that he vrill ruin hiinself 
by tiie very means he employs to avert that catastrophe; but die 
balance of chances may, in fdl such affoirs, be left to die discern- 
ment of tiie persons concerned, and particularly of the lender, who 
before he advances any part of his funds, will make it his business 
to ascertain thd likelihood and tiie means of being repaid; and as 

D^tnce of Usury. 9Dt 

these deptnd; ia a great measure, upon the success of his debtor, 
the caution of the one will abundantly counteract the precipitancy 
of the other. With regard again to simplicity of character, which 
here means being a simpleton, why shomd the law of the land ex- 
tend its guardianship only to pecuniary transactions. A man may 
buy an estate at a thousand years^ purchase; he may give as the 
rent of a house an annual payment equal to the price of it; he may 
rent a farm at a sum greater than the worth of the fee-simple, and 
no law nor judge upon earth will interfere to save him from the ef- 
fects of his folly. But the moment he is known to rent a hundred 
pounds at more than 5/. per annum, the vigilance of the statute flies 
instantly to his aid, calls him a great simpleton, and punishes the 
owner of the proper^ for assisting him. It requires, however, only 
to be mentioned, as Mr, Bentham has justly remarked, that in what 
degree soever a' man's weakness may expose him to imposition, he 
stands much more exposed to it in the way of bu}ring goods than 
in the way of borrowing money. To be informed beforehand of 
the ordinary prices of aQ the sorts of things a man may have oc- 
casi(m to buy, ma^ be* a task of consider^le variety and extent. 
To be informed of the ordinary rate of interest is to be informed 
of one single fact, too interesting not to have attracted attention^ 
and too simple to have escaped the memory. A single per cenU 
beyond the ordinary rate of interest of money is a stride more con- 
spicuous and starding than many per cent, upon the price of any 
kmd of goods. 

But if we consider the restrictive system generally, and without 
any relation to the particular cases of prodigal simpletons, we shall 
find that the greatest evil attending it arises from the insuperable 
obstacles which it throws in the way of many persons ui the higher 
ranks of life, and possessed of considerable property, to wl^m^ 
bqm a varied of circumstances, a loan may be of the utmost con* 
sequence, and who may not be able to furnish that precise degree 
of security which every man is entitled to expect who lends his 
money at legal interest. As a return of five per cent, can be had 
from the public funds, and upon the best heritable security from 

Erivate individuals, it is not r^asond^le to suppose that a money- 
older will lend at the same rate where there is the smallest possi- 
ble risk either of losing his capital, of of having the interest irregu^ 
larly settled* In the employment of aU ^ther kinds of property 
there are various degrees of hazaxd, and the usury demanded by 
the owner always bears some proportion to his estimate of that 
hazard; but in money transactions, the law recognizes only onis de- 
gree of risk, and authorizes only one rate of premium, on which 
account, those who cannot exhibit .unexcepticmable security will ii^ 
vain apply for accommodadop. It would be easy to imagine a 
thousand cases wherein this exclusion would operate as a peculiar 
har€lship. We take one from the letters now before us, wUcn seems 
at once perfectlyftiatural, and free from all exaggeration. After stat- 
ing that before the war, meaning the American war, for these let- 
tars were originally published m 17 Wy land used 10 sell U thirty 
voiu X. 26 

208 Defence of Usury. 

years' purchase, and that owing to the distress occasioned by hos-- 
tilities, it had fallen to eighteen or even fifteen years' purchase, he 
supposes that ^ an estate worth, before the depreciation, lOOA per 
annum clear of taxes, was devised to a man, charged, say with 
1500/. and interest till the money should be paid. Five per cent, 
interest, the utmost that could be accepted from die owner, did not 
answer the incumbrancer's purpose: he chose to have the money. 
But six per cent, perhaps, woula have answered his purpose, if not^ 
most certainly it would have answered the purpose ot somebody 
else, for multitudes there all along were, whose purposes were an- 
swered by five per cent. The war lasted, I think, seven years; the 
depreciation of the value of land did not take place immediately; 
but as, on the other hand, neidier did it recover its former price 
upon the peace, we may put seven years for the time during which 
it would be more advantageous to pay this extraordinary rate of 
interest than sell the land, and during which accordingly, this ex* 
traordinary rate of interest would have to run. One per cent, for 
seven years, is not quite of equal worth to seven per cent, the first 
year; say however, that it is. The estate^ which before the war 
was worth thirty years' purchase, that is 3000/., and which the de* 
visor had given to the devisee for that value, being put up to sale 
fetched but twenty years' purchase, 2000A At the end of that pe- 
riod it would have fetched its original value, 3000/. Compare thai 
the situation of the devisee at the seven years' end, under Ae law, 
with what it would have been without the law. In die former case, 
the land selling for twenty years' purchase, that is 2000& what he 
would have after paying die 1500/. is 500/.; which, with the inter- 
est of the latter sum, at five per cent, for seven years, viz. VtSU 
makes at the end of that seven years 675/. In the other case, pay- 
ing six per cent, on the 1500/., that is 90/. a year, and receiving all 
that time the rent of the land, viz. 100/. he would have had at the 
seven years' end the amount of the remaining 10/. during that pe- 
riod, that is 70/. in addition to his 1000/.— 675/. subtracted from 
1070/. leaves 395^ This 395/. then, is what he loses out of 10704, 
almost thirty-seven per cent, of his capital, by the loving-kindness 
of the law. Make the calculations, and jrou will find tmtt by pre* 
venting him fiiom borrowing the money at six per cent, interest, it 
makes nim nearly as much sufferer as if he had borrowed it at ten.' 
In truth, innumendble instances must occur in which great and 
positive losses are sustained frt>m the operation of the law against 
usury. It will be readily admitted that nodiing could be a greater 
hardship than to preclude people frxmi borrowing at all; and it must 
follow mat in proportion as obstacles are created to pecuniary ac- 
commodation, an approach is made to that great ana umieceasary 
hardship; for, as m certain cases, money must be had upon any 
terms snort of positive ruin, the needy person is subjected to great 
inconvenience and to an immense expense to procure a loan in de- 
fiance of the law, which he is in feet compelled to violate. He re- 
^rts to a money-dealer, who not only exacts a premium proportion- 
ed to the deficiency of tiie security which the boirower preseata, 

tkfence of Usury. SQ3 

that 18, to the hazard of losing his capital; but also an additional 
sum as a compensation for the risk he runs of being detected in an 
illegal transaction, and of being punished accordingly. Thus the 
law operates against a man in the ratio of his necessities; the more 
urgent his wants, the greater are the obstacles which are thrown in 
his way. The person who lends to him must be indemnified, not 
only for whatsoever risks he incurs independently of the law, but 
also for the very risk occasioned by the law: he must be tnsuredy 
as Adam Smith observed long ago, against the law which he vio- 
lates. This cause would operate, as has been forcibly illustrated 
by our author, even if there were as many persons ready to lend 
upon the illegal rate as upon the legal. But this is not the case, a 
great number of persons are of course driven out of* this competi- 
tion by the danger of the business, and another great number by 
Ae disrepute which, under cover of these prohibitory laws or other- 
vise, has fastened itself upon the name of usurer. So many per- 
sons therefore being driven out of the trade, it happens in this 
branch, as it must necessarily happen in every other, that those 
who remain have the less to withhold them from advancing their 
terms, and each one accordingly will find it easier to push his ad- 
vantage up to any given degree of exorbitancy than he would if 
there' were a greater number of persons of the same description to 
resort to. If we apply these remarks to the cases of the prodigal 
and simpleton already considered, we shall see good reason for 
concluding that the most effectual expedient, whereby to prevent 
imposition, is to allow every one to receive for his money wnat rent 
soever he can obtain for it, whether in the name of interest alone, 
or of interest and insurance combined. Respectable people will not 
then shrink from a trade, upon which an odium has been cast mere- 
ly by an artificial distinction in the application of a word, and by a 
statute founded upon an avowed exception to all enlightened policy. 
The foolishness of any law or, at leasts its inexpediency m cer- 
tain circumstances of society, is always clearly manifested by the 
incre^ed connivance which its incessant violation renders neces* 
sarj^, and by the inconsistencies to which it ultimately leads in legal 
decisions themselves. Thus, it is very well knoi^, that, notwitn- 
standingthe severe penalty imposed by the statute we are now speak- 
ing (rf*, usury to a great extent is practised and tolerated every day* 
The method of accommodation, by redeemable annuity so com- 
monly resorted to, is nothing else than a very expensive branch of 
usurious dealing, exposing a necessitous person not only to a very 
heavy interest, as must happen in the case of all clandestine trails- 
actions, but also to the additional expense of insuring his life. Draw* 
ing and redrawing of bills, too, is a mode of raising monev known 
to most merchants, by which, as Dr. Smith has remarked, the in- 
terest on any given sum will amount in the course of ayear to 13 
or 14 per cent. The desperate resource of selling accepted bills is 
likewise, sometimes, rendered available to evade the law, and to 
ward off distress. B. a borrower, says Mr. Bentham, wants 100/., 
and finds U. a usurer who is willing to lend it to him at ten pounds 

204 Defence of V^ury* 

|>er cent* fi. has F. a friend, who is willing to stand security for hin 
to that amount. B. therefore draws upon F,, and F. accepts a biU 
of 100/. at five per cent, interest, payable at the end of a twelve- 
month from the date. F. draws a like bill upon B.; each sells htff 
bill to U. for 50/., and it is endorsed to U. accordingly: the 50/. that 
F. receives, he delivers over without any consideration to B, Pcrwn^ 
broking is a third way of conducting usurious dealings,' which, if it 
were not legalized, and of course somewhat moderated by compe- 
tition, would be the most oppressive of the whole; and we heardly 
agree with our author in thinking that if there is a case in which 
the allowing of such extraordinary interest is attended with more 
danger than another, it must be this, which is so particidarly adap-* 
ted to the situation of the lowest poor, that is, of those who on the 
score of indigence or simplicity, or both, are most open to impo- 

The only remedy for all these evils is to annul the statute agaiBrt 
usury, and thereby to grant to the subject the same liberty in giv- 
ing out money on hire, as he eniovs in the letting of land, horses, 
houses, or ships. It will indeed be admitted that such a change 
could not be introduced, all at once, without creating conidderable 
inconvenience. We are ourselves aware of several practical diffi» 
cullies that would infallibly attend a sudden throwing open of the 
money market, and there are no doubt many more which will sug- 

Sst themselves to the practical merchant and the capitalist; but he- 
re we proceed to mention any of the impediments now alluded 
to, we will endeavour to estimate the force of an objection to die 
measurejust recommended, an objection which was oririnally ur- 
ged by Dr. Smith, and which has been repeatedly brought forward 
by more modem authorities. We allude to the injury which he 
imagined would be entailed upon the community at large, were 
capital to be too freely entrusted to speculative and enterprising 
characters, who, in order to prosecute their schemes, might be inclin- 
ed to give a very high interest for money; but who, m nine cases 
out of ten, would, in consequence of failure in the project, be 
unable to pay either principal or interest. In the cases sdready con- 
sidered, the object of the law was to protect the borrower from the 
wites of the lender; in this case, it extends its guardianship to the 
lender against the borrower; and as the paternal care of the leg^- 
lator in the former was discovered to nave no other effect than to 
encumber the man who needed money and to aggravate his misfbr- 
tunes, so there is every reason to beheve that me anxiety now dis- 
played for the capitalist will do him as little service. Ine passage 
m the Wealth of Nations, in reference to which we have made 
these remarks, is to be found in the fourth chapter of the second 
book, and is as fcdlows: ^ The legal rate it is to be observed, tiiouflh 
k ought to be somewhat above, ought not to be much above the 
lowest market rate. If the legal rate of interest in Great Britain, 
far example, were fixed so high as eight or ten per cent, the greater 
part of me money which was to be lent would be lent to prodigals 
~^ ^ projectors, who alone would be willing to give this high inter- 

Defence of Usury, 20S 

est* Sober peopFe, who will give for the use of money no more 
than a part of what they are likely to make by the use of it, would 
not venture into the competition. A great part of the capital of 
the country would thus be kept out of &e hands which were most 
likely to inake a profitable and advantageous use of it, and thrown 
into those which were most likely to waste and destroy it. Where 
the legal interest, on the contra^, is fixed but a very litde above 
the lowest market rate, sober people are universally preferred as 
borrowers to prodigals and projectors. The person who lends mo- 
ney gets nearly as much from the former as he dares to take from 
the latter, and his money is much safer in the hands of one set of 
people than in those of the other. A great part of the capital of 
the country is thrown into the hands in which it is most likely to 
be employed with advantage.' 

We must rest satisfied with merely referring to Mr. Bentham's 
admirable letter, addressed to Dr. Smith, on the discouragements 
opposed by usury laws to the progress of inventive industry. We 
may t^mark, however, in passing, that like the word usury ^ the 
word projector carries something in its very sound extremely un- 
favounible to a candid estimate of the innumerable advantages 
which have arisen from the enterprizes of ingenious men; and 
Adam Smith, accordingly, in the above passage quoted £rom him, 
always couples together ^ projectors and prc^^s.' We may 
likewise observe, in the spirit of our author, that the greater num* 
ber of our manufactures, and even those trades which are now es*- 
teemed the safest, were at one time mere projects, that is to say, 
diey were begun by people who did not know, who, in fact, could 
not possibly know for certain, whether they would, or would aot^ 
succeed. It might, however, be deemed enough, as far as the 
community at large are concerned, to leave the safety of the nation- 
al capital to the good sense or self-interest of those who own it; for 
if a man of common understanding cannot judge correctly as to 
the best use to be made of his spare money, he will derive very 
Httle aid from 'all the wisdom that can be embodied in an act of 
parliament. Before he trusts his property into the hands of a per*^ 
son of the description now in view, he will, we may believe, spare 
no inquiry with regard to the means of being repaid; and, in cal- 
euli^ing chances, he will be more inclined to over-rate, than to fisdl 
short oi, the degree of risk upon which he ought to ground his 
claims for indemnification. But we repeat once more, the direct 
tendency of the law against usury, is not by suggesting suitable pre- 
cautions, to assist a monied man in guarding his property from the 
effects of fraud or casualty; it is to prevent the hazard altogether, 
by*forbidding him to listen to any such terms as might induce him 
to lend it, without having the most perfect security. This being 
the case, and satisfied that the world, and particularly this part c^ 
the world, owes its greatness and its rdinement to the success which 
has attended inventive industry, Mr. Bentham boldly recommends 
the application of a sponge to sdl the existing statutes asainst usu- 

3f mi the establishment at the utmost freedom and facility in con- 
ucting; money transactions. 

206 ' Defence of Usury. 

Viewing the question in relation to general principles, and t& th£ 
most approved maxims of political economy, mere can be no room 
for hesitation in pronouncing, that the dealer in money ought to be 
left as free as any other dealer whatsoever^ and that the terms of 
every loan should be settled on no other ground than the respective 
circumstances of the borrower and lender* But when we call to 
mind that this freedom in money dealings has never been acted 
upon in this country, and that the present distribution of property 
throughout the kingdom is regulated in a great measure by the re- 
strictive system which has so long prevailed, we cannot give our 
assent to a measure which would all at once dissolve engagements 
so essentially important. In this case, as in that of the poor laws, 
there is litue difficulty in proving that we have long been acting 
upon principles radically imsound, or even in discovering the re- 
medy which, theoretically considered, would soonest remove the 
evils resulting from the error; but in both cases when regarded in 
connexion with the habits which have fi;rown upon the public mind, 
and with the effects which they have had upon the actual value of 
real property in many parts of the country, the duty of the legisla- 
tor must appear extremely delicate. Witliout venturing to say that 
the interest of money would, in the event of the laws against usury 
being annulled, rise generally over the kingdom, we may hazard 
the assertion that it would rise in certain situations; and as many 
persons, who at present receive only five per cent, would yield to 
the inducement of eight per cent, which, upon a less complete se- 
curity,* perhaps, some would be ready to ofier them, they would of 
course use means to recover their capital from their present debt* 
ors, and thus occasion much inconvenience and distress. When, 
therefore, we add that one half at least of the landholders in Great 
Britain are answerable for borrowed money with which they have 
burdened their estates, either to discharge former claims, or for the 
purposes of improvement, and that in making all their arrangements 
they, no doubt, guided their calculations by a reference to the pre- 
sent rate of interest, what would be the disappointment and posi- 
tive loss were they compelled either to refund the loans, or to make 
new bargains with their creditors on higher terms! The mere 
transfer and change of so much capital from one hand to another, 
and from one investment of it to another, could not fail of itself to 

Iiroduce much inconvenience; and there can be no doubt that many 
enders, who, at present, rest satisfied with five per cent, would take 
advantage of the change to distress their debtors, by exacting 
higher terms, or would even insist upon having their money pud 
up, from the mere chance of laying it out to better purposes. In 
these times, any movement of this nature would prove full of Im- 
zard to the holders of real property. A great number of them 
would find it next to impracticable to arrange anew their various 
incumbrances; and the rest would be exposed to much trouble and 

A second objection occurs to us against a suddem repeal oi the 
usury laws, namely, the derangement and'uncertain^ which such a 

Befence of Usury, 207 

repeal would introduce into mercatitile affairs, and more particu- 
larly into the actual practice of bankers. As matters stand at 
present, there is no difficulty whatever in setding an account cur- 
rent between merchants . at any instance of time or place; for, as 
the legal interest does not vary from month to month, and is the 
same at London as at Inverness, the balance due at any period can 
be immediately ascertained, together with the proportion of inte- 
rest due upon that balance. This facility of transacting business 
would, however, be greatly impaired, were the rate of mterest to 
be thrown entirely loose, and no means left of establishing a maxi- 
mum in every particular case which might be open to dispute; and 
it is very obvious that, as soon as interest would be found varying 
to any greatextent in different parts of the same kingdom, and in dif- 
ferent portions of the same year, disputes would be inevitable. If 
the merchant in Londcm could get six per cent, for his money, 
whilst the merchant in Inverness could get no more than four per 
cent., the former would consider himself a loser, when, at the end 
of any given period, he should find that the latter allowed him only 
the lower of die two rates just mentioned, on all the balances which 
happeqied to be in his hands, during the lapse of any specified time. 
Nay, tJie northern merchant mi^t choose to maintain that, for 
several months of a particular year, the rate of interest at Inverness 
did jiot exceed three per cent., whereas the southern might possibly 
have heard from some other correspondent that interest, at that 
place, had never been under five per cent. What a source of dis- 
agreement and dispute Would be thus opened up! With regard, 
again, to the dlscoimting of bills in banks, the terms would be found 
to vary according to the name and supposed credit of the persons 
who accept or present them; and merchants would have a new 
bargain to make, as to the rate of discount, every time they wished 
to convert bills into money. According to the law now existing, a 
bill must either be discounted or refused^ it is either as good as the 
legal tender of the kingdom to the man who holds it, or is good for 
nothing: but as soon as bankers should be allowed to estimate the 
credit of endorsers, and to charge for discount accordingly, the 
value of a bill would vary with circumstances, from fifty to ninety- 
five jper cent.^^This, it may be retorted, is the only fair premium 
required for the risk which is thus incurred by the banker, and is, 
of course, as allowable in this case as in that of a loan granted upon 
imperfect security. True, but as bills are constanQy passing through 
the hands of merchants and constitute, in fact, tneir circulating 
medium, it must be extremely vexatious to have thei^ value so 
arbitrarily fixed, and so frequently called in question, as they must 
be, whensoever the banker shall have it in his power to raise his 
terms, by lowering the credit of the acceptor. In Hamburgh, ac- 
cordingly, where mere is no legal rate of interest established, and 
where all bills are discounted by private merchants; no man who 
holds a bill knows its actual value, as he may have to pay six, eight, 
ten, or even fifteen per cent., for an advance of money upon it. In 
this country, we are awsre an understanding would soon take place 

208 Defence of Usury. 

between the mercantiie and banking interests for the regulatioo ^ 
their intercourae, and, for this purpose, it is by no means unlikely 
that a maoctmum would be fixed, as at present, both for the rate of 
discount and for the charge of interest on running transactions* 
Still we have said enough to suggest to persons better acquainted 
than ourselves with the detail of trade a variety of cases in which 
the change recommended by Mr. Bentham would be no improve-** 
ment; and we may venture to add, that to such as have but small 
capitals, and are just entering into business, the chan^ would be 
even disadvantageous. It would compel individuals m these cir* 
cumstances to pay highest for credit, at the very time when they 
could least afford to pay; and it woidd accumulate advantages in 
the hands of old commercial houses, who would thus be enabled to 
command, to a greater extent than they can do at present^ the 
markets both of money and of saleable commodities. 

In the third place, the repeal of the laws against usury would 
materially increase the responsibility of those who act, upon trusts^ 
for absentees and minors. At present, such persons are only an^- 
swerable for the sums which come into their hands, together with 
the legal interest on such sums; but in the circumstances anticipa- 
ted under Mr. Bentham's reformation, it will become extremehr 
difficult, and not less delicate, both to act in such a way as to satisfy 
their principals; and, in some instances, to explain the motives 
upon which they may have acted. The absentee returning home, 
or the minor coming of age, may insinuate that his money mig^t 
have been more advantageously employed, that it might have been 
accumulated at six per cent, instead of four or five per cent.; smd in 
some cases, after a lapse of years, it would not be an easy matter to 
convince even impartial persons that the trustees had done all Aey 
mi^ht have done, on behalf of their wards or clients. The security 
which they had decliiied as insufficient may have turned out to be 
good; and their caution in refusing to advance money upon it at a 
high interest may be only regarded as indifference to die welfare of 
their constituents. 

We mention these things, not as insuperable bars to a repeal of 
the laws against usury, but merely as circumstances which ought Uf 
be kept in view, and allowed due weight, in all estimates of the com* 
parative advantages of the two systems, the restricted and the free* 
The subject has sdready been under the consideratifm of parliaioenty 
and it is likely that it may soon again be submitted to their itfte»« 
tion; on which accoimt, we regard every attempt to throw li^^t 
oh its tendency, immediate and remote, as pruseworthy, whatever 
be the views which the several writers may choose to recommend. 
There can be no doubt, however, that Mr. Bentham has on his side 
the full force of enlightened principle, and even the practice of the 
constitution and of the countxy at large, in every other article except 
that of money; whilst his antagonists draw all uieir arguments from 
the evils of change, from the settled habits of trade and conunerce, 
and more particularly from the present condition and distribution 
of property. The regimen recommended by the former b admit* 

Defence of Ufury. 209 

ted even by the latter -to be good, abstractedly considered; but it is 
maintained by them that the patient has been so long accustomed to 
a sjrstem diametrically opposite, that it would be unsafe to compel 
him, all at once, to alter nis mode of living. 

As a sort of appendix to this litde volume, is published, for Ae 
second time, a ^ Protest against Law Taxes,' in which the author 
animadverts with great severity on the obstacles which are therel^ 
created, to the free and equal administration of justice, llie ^ Pro- 
test' was originally put forth as a single pampluet, and is said to 
have produced such an eifect upon the men tnen in power, that it 
was seriously resolved to abolish the taxes in question. In confir- 
mation of this, Mr. Bentham tells the follQs^ing anecdote: 

< Mem. Annoy 1796.— At a dinner at Mr. M. P.*s in— —Street, Mr. 
It., in the presence of Mr. William Pitt (then minister), took me aside, 
and told me that they had read my pamphlet on Law Taxes; that the 
reasons against them were unanswerable, and it was determined there 
should be no more of them.* * Anno 1804, July 10, 12, 14, 18.— This 
being in the number of Mr. Addington's taxes; Mr. Pitt, upon return- 
ing to office, took up all those taxes in the lump. On the above days, 
this tax was opposed in the House of Comiiions; and Mr. Wyndham, 
according to the report of the 71mf«, on one of those days, spoke of 
this pamphlet as containing complete information on the subject, obser* 
ving at the same time, that it was out of print. On behalf of adminis- 
tration, nothing like an answer to any of the objections was attempt- 
ed; only the Attorney General (Percival) said, that the addition pro- 
posed to those taxes was no more than equal to the depreciation of 

Instead of entering into the merits of this question, which has 
nothing to do with me main object of this article, we shall tran- 
scribe a note contributed by a * learned friend' of the author, and 
which is called by him an ^ addition.' 

* In the Court of Chancery, two cases have recently occurred, which 
may serve us as an illustration of the extent in which taxes upon law 
proceedings may operate as a denial of justice.— Roe v. Gudgeon.-— 
The defendant, in answer to the plaintiflTs bill, submitted that he ought 
not to be compelled to set out certain accounts which had been required 
by the bill, as the expense of taking what is called an office copy of 
them— a necessary preliminary to any further proceeding on the part 
of the plaintiff in the cause^^would amount to the sum of 29,000/.; an 
expense almost wholly arising from the stamps on the paper, on which 
the office copy of the answer is cempulsorily made. In this case, the 
court determined that it was not necessary these accounts should be set 
out; but, in coming to this conclusion, bow far the court was determin- 
ed by the nature of the particular case, or by the mag^tude of the ex- 
pense that would thus be occasioned; or whether if, without any such 
objection, the defendant had actually set out these accounts, the plain- 
tiff could have been relieved from pursuing the regular mode of pro- 
curing a. copy of them, and thus incurring the above expense; or 
whether, if the expense had been instead of 29,000/. only 28,000/. or 
37,000/., such an objection would have been listened to; it is e^iitremely 
difficult to say. 

VOL. X. 27 

S|0 Ah Engliihmaii?M ymimal 

< The oUmt etae lUudtod to is one in whicht from peeulkr circum* 
ttanceti it is not thought proper to mention the namet of the parties. 
It 18 opdonal with a man to be a plaintiff in a cause, it is not altogether 
so optional with him to be a defendant* The preceding case shows 
that it is not always safe for a man to become a plaintiff, without 
$8,000/. at least in his pocket, to begin with, over and above what is 
necessary for his maintenance. The following' case shows that a man 
may not be always able to resist a demand^ however unjust it may be, 
without being able to support an outlay of at least 800/. In the case 
in question, the writer of this has been assured^ and from authoritjr 
which he has peculiar reason for relying upon, that the expense of 
merely putting in an answer by onr tii the defendants to a bill in equity 
amounted to the above sum of Boo/.; what part of this expense waft 
occasioned by the tax on law proceedings canncft be aceuratety. ascer- 
tamed, btit it tmntedly eonsthuted % very consideMd>le prot^Mtiiii tf 
diat sum/ 

Botli the subjects treated of, in the little vdume now before us, 
are unquestionably 6f gt^&t importance in Aemselves, and tfiey tspt 
rendered still more interesting ihrni the mnnner in which they are 
handled. Mr« B^nthtton, has been long known as a deep and origi* 
bal thinker, and, like all such thinkers, he never fails to express his 
views iti the most appropriate and forcible language. Fitting his eye 
i^on the leading point of his argument, he moves oh towards it in 
a steady and imdeviating line, drawing from the right and left ma* 
terials for proof or for illustration, but never tuminj; aside from the 
prosecution of his main object, either to obviate misconception, or 
to remove difficulties. His character as a writer is such, that he 
may fail to convince, but he cannot possibly fail to engage the at* 
tention of his readers. 

Art. III. — An E/igitshmarCs Journal on a Voyage from London to 
Boston^ xvkh Sketches of American Cuatom$^ Manners^ isfc. 

(TheAe is Dothing: either profound, remarkdibl6, 6r new, in die Ihillowjn^ cAiort 
account of a voyaged from England to America; it t^lates numy trifUag »M tdrfn» 
teresting facts and occarrences; still it is worth perasing; fbr it is ifeafiy what As ti* 
tleimports it to be: itootttsinslhegenaiaeQndisgfnBedrenatfaofgiisdssiiBsai^ 
good feeling. The oarrslire has tiiat stanp of tnitfa and reality upon ifei>«-4h«t 
rsciness of origiaaJity, whicb always does and always will please. Upon tbs 
whole it is an account creditable to the narrator, and honourable to our oeun- 
tiy, and we are persuaded it will be acceptable to oar readers.— £d. Aif.) 

I HAD long entertained a desire of vimtiiig die American crnni* 
nent. The narratives which I had gadierM frotis some lua^onm* 
tances at college, natives of that coutttry, whohnd cofine ovtfr fsr 
tile purpose of studying medicine, were such, as to etcite fkiy idrdetft 
turiosi^ to explore the state of society^, together with th^ v^alt iift» 
tural resources in the new world. Tht descriptiotis by Moftte, 
Winterbotham, and other writen, I had attentivefy^ peimed.^-<)p- 
portunit^ at len^ offered, on the conclusion of peace; and havifig 
an appointment m one of the West India islands, adjacetit to thft 
coast, I determined to profit by the occasion, and visit America. 

On a Voyage from JLmthn to Boston. 8]1 

HacviBg cam]died with the ventious wid expenaiTe Yorms of the 
London custom house, and seen my baggage embarked on board the 
American ship New Galen, in the London dock, i proceeded a day 
or two after, to Gravesend, the usual place of embarkation. Await- 
ing here the arrival of the captain, I experienced those exorbitant 
charges so characteristic of places of great resort in England, llie 
proprietors of taverns aiid hotels in such situations, advance their 
demands of rent upon the tenants, until they can only he defrayed 
by immoderately enhancing the price? of accommodatioa, and thus, 
as in most cases, the tax falls upon the consumer. 

7th September went on board— was much struck with the ap- 

Earance of the seamen and trim of the vessel. She 9eemed particu« 
iy well manned, and in fine suling order. The men from thr 
eastern coast of America are large, well proportioned, and make 
excellent mariners. Many of them are bred m the Newfoundland 
fisheries, where they endure great hardships and learn to become 
fertile in resources. 11 o'clock: Our captain now joined us, and the 
passengers were summoned to appear at the Gravesend custom 
nouse, personally to deliver in their names, and a statement of their 
professions. Had any been known to be artisans or manufitcturers, 
they would have been stopped and forbidden to leave the kingdom. 
An act of parliament imposes a heavy fine cm those who induce 
them to attempt it. Thotsands succeed in evading it, by giving a 
wrong description of themselves, and no one acquainted with the 

Earties being present to detect it, they succeed. The two custom 
ouse officers on board now left us, but not without soliciting a bribe 
from each of the passengers, whose travelling portmanteaus they 
did not think fit to inspect, making a merit of their forbearance, al- 
though they knew a search might be only unproductive labour, no 
part of the contents being likely to be contraband. They complained 
of their salaries being too small to enable them to mmtam their 
families, and literally begged of every passenger as for alms. There 
is a standing order ftt)m the commissioners of customs prohibiting 
this, but it is altogether overlooked, being considered a mere dead 
letter. Our mate remarked to me, ^^ we manage these things better 
in America." 

We now weighed anchor and hoisted our colours, proceeding 
down the river inames with an easy wind, which dying away to- 
wards evening, obliged us to anchor at the Nore for the night. Ebb 
tide next morning enabled us to proceed, with a gentle breeze, to 
the Downs, where we again anchored. Saw two Dutch men of war 
riding at anchor near us. The government of the Netherlands ap- 
pears determined to pay attention to the creation of a navy, llieir 
squadron in the Mediterranean is well fitted and disciplined. Ihe 
two ships appear to be r4's. 

9th, The prevalence of westerly vnhds retarded our progress 
down die British channel, and obliged us again to come tp an anchor 
in Dungeness roads. Lydd church, the mill, and even some of the 
larger houses, where I had once passed many a pleasing hour, were. 


tJ12 f. An Englishman's yournal * 



visible from the deck: and drew from me a hope that we were W}t 
to be separated for ever. 

Diilcia mra valete, et Lydia dulcior illk, 

Et casti fontes et felix nomen Agelli! 
10th, Stood into Winchelsea Bay, obliged to tack, the wind be -^ 
ing west and strong. The flag flying at the mouth of Rye harbour^ 
the usual signal for high water. 11th, Passed Beachy Head and 
Brighton, spent the remainder of this and the whole oi the follow- 
ing day in tacking down channel, the wind continuing adverse. 1 dth. 
Arrived at Cowes, and landed. It is a pretty litde town, beautifully 
situated in a rural part of the Isle of Wieht, nearly facing Spit- 
head and Portsmouth. Ships from abroad touch here to wait or- 
ders from London, as to a market, and those outward boimd here 
take on board water and live stock. Strangers cannot be too circum- 
spect at places of resort like this. Sharpers are ever on the alert 
oSiering to carry parcels or baggage for the passengers, and ready to 
disappear with their trust, if an eye is not kept upon them. One 
of the boatmen, frequenting the inns, to whose car& Inad committed a 
parcel with some silver, which I was sending to a tradesman in the 
town to get changed, came back and swore it had-been thrust out of 
his pocket in descending the side of a brig l^e had boarded on some 
other business in his way to the shore. By this subterfuge, and the 
circumstance of our getting under weigh^|;)out an hour afterwards, 
of which he was aware, the fellow screened himself from public 
. justice, and no doubt enjoyed a state of intoxication for several 
days. Our captain purchased a quantity of potatoes at East Cowes. 
Before they could be brought off in the ship's boat, the rascals in 
yie shop had emptied the sacks of about a fourth of their contents. 
Such instances of dishonesty are becoming very prevalent in Eng- 
laQ^. The distresses of the people, in many cases, drive them to 
the commission of crimes at which, in prosperous circumstances 
the mind would have rjevolted. The Englishmen of a lower class, 
will do any thing for money; are capable of going all lengths, and 
totally regardless of all consideration if they can but procure the 
means of becoming besotted. Setting aside every reflection as to 
personal respectabili^ or independence, neglectful of the interests 
of his family, and relying on a parish workhouse as his last resort, 
the low ana wretched being squandei*s the earnings of his toil^ 
and seems unworthy or incapable of welL doing. Hence, pardy, the 
accumulation of public distress, the increase of poor rates, and the 
degradation of the national character. Hie genenil poverty in Eng- 
land, the difficulty of obtaining employment and subsistence, in con- 
sequence of the redundancy of its population, and the numerous 
arts to which these causes have given rise, for plundering and de- 
frauding the unwary, contribute to produce more systematic crime 
and profligacy, perhaps, than in any other countty of the known 
world. Look at the report of the committee of the house of com- 
mons, ^pointed to inquire into the state of public morals and the 
general police. Surreptitious means of gaining a livelihood are re- 
sorted to when honest endeavours fail, and it has, unfortunately, be- 


On a Voyage from London to Boston. 213 

o<»ne a pieval^it opinion in England, that in these days ^ common 
honesty will not enable a man to get on." So dreadful are the 

At Cowes we received on board more passengers. Several 
French officers too, proceeding to join the patriots in South Ameri- 
ca, landed here from a vessel that j>roved leaky on her voyage 
from Antwerp, applied to our captain for passage to Boston, but 
could not be accommodated. The captain assured me that before 
leaving London, he had about a hundred applications for passages 
in the steerage of the vessel or between decks, and cme fnpm a cus- 
tom house officer, who could not manage to get his living by that 
calling, ^probably being too honest,) but all were so completely 
beggarea by the times, that they had no ready money. Some of- 
fered goods, and to sell their services for a term, on their arrival in 
America, as redemptioners^ but the captain was averse to the trou- 
ble and uncertainty attending these proposals. Many vessels have 
carried considerable freights, by means of accommodating these 
living cargoes. The charge for each person is 10/. The captain 
fits up a birth or bed place and finds water. The passengers take 
their own provisions. About 15/. is the total cost of such a passage. 
Persons ought to select sharp built vessels, calculated for swift sail- 
ing, and if possible to start in the months of May, June, or July, 
when southerly winds firevail. Dull scalers, setting out in the 
winter season, have been known to be three months and upwards in 
effecting the voyage to America, whereas a proper vessel, in summer, 
ought not to be more than thirty days. Westerly winds prevail in au- 
tumn, in spring, and winter: North westers, as they are termed, 
blow during the greater part of the time, and unless the vessel is 
expressly adapted for sailing well, close hauled upon a wind, those 
who calculate upon a month or six weeks trip in the purchase of 
their stock of provisions, will be liable to some inconvemence. Left 
Cowes 15th September, and took our departure from the Lizard 
Light the 20th. 

The 24th September was approaching, and we were now to ex- 
perience the windy violence of the autdmnal equinox-— it was, as 
usual, ushered in by strong gales, and consequent heavy seas. We 
lay to, as the sailors term it, during its extreme heignt, and were 
thereby enabled to ride it out with tolerable facility. 

Nothing material occurred until the 13th October, when we found 
ourselves in forty-five fathom soundings upon^e Grand Bank of New- 
foundland, and surrounded by various sails of vessels. We counted 
six at anchor this day, bearing the white flag, engaged in fishing--- 
four the next: and spoke one full of fish, bound to Marseilles, This 
valuable nursery for seamen, appears not to have escaped the atten- 
tive policy of the French government. I was informed by the mas- 
ter of Le Dauphin'^ belonging to Rouen, which I took an opportuni- 
ty of boarding with our chief mate, that these vessels receive a 
bounty according to the number of fish they take. We exchanged 
some porter and eggs for fish. The old captain insisted on oiir 
drinking some eau de vie with him, and was anxious to hear the 

S14 An EngHshmmi?$ Journal 

newB of Europe. He inquired eagerly if all Wis tnmquil in 
France, and Louis the 18th secure on the throne. On our answer- 
ing inthe affirmative, he expressed a sincere pleasure. It must be ac- 
knowledged thatunder the Bourbons, France sawits mostfloiuishing 
and happy times. The litde but useful fishing islands of St. Pierre 
and Miquelon, where the French fishermen were accustomed to dean 
and cure cod and hollibut, taken on the banks, were lost with the 
change of dynasty and the adoption of a war system. Whatever 
may be the qualifications of the present government in France, some 
security at least, appears to be afforded to the peaceful pursuits of 

Several whales, some larger than our ship, (which being of 350 
tons, was none of the smallest,) surrounded us, spouting up the wa- 
ter to an immense height, through their nostrils, and continued to 
accompany the vessel until out of soundings. 

22th Octobei^— Land was descried from our mast head, and the 
news spread rapidly tiux)ugh the ship. It was received with the 
greatest satisfaction by all on board. One of the seamen was vent- 
mg his joy in loud terms, at seeing his native country once more, 
after an absence of twelve years. I inquired the cause of so unusual 
a feature in the history of an American seaman, conceiving it could 
only arise from captivity or some such occurrence. It appeared 
that he had been three times pressed into the British navy. In the 
first instance he was taken but of an English brig, and notwi^stand- 
ing his protection as an American subject, and native of the United 
States, was produced, yet, being found sailing under British colours, 
he was not regarded as exempt. The plea for the second impress- 
ment, appears to have been rounded solely on the precedent of tiie 
first: this seems hard. What should we say, were the Americans 
to press into their navy British seamen, found on board of Ameri- 
can ships? It seems impolitic to compel a foreigner to enter the 
service of a government he does not prefer. Impressment, is at all 
times a severe hardship, but surely it ought to be restricted to natives 
of our own soil, who owe allegiance to, and live under our constitu- 
tion, such as it is. We are not to regulate the subjects of foreign 
powers by our own policy. Every subject of every country, has 
inalienable rights, which ought to be respected, or national quarrels, 
as we have already seen, may be engendered, and individual wrongs 
may justify public aggressions. This poor man, I xmderstood, was 
one of many more under precisely similar circumstances. The 
American consul in London, with a laudable attention, had shipped 
him for Boston. 

We were now drawing near to the close of the voyage. Cape 
Cod bore S. S. W, about three leagues, and it was with no common 
feeling of curiosity and desire, I saw our approximation to the 
coast. The land of Washington and of Franklin — ^presenting a 
practical example of the simplest, most economical, and most per- 
fect form of government, suited to a thinking people— confined no 
longer in its existence to the reveries of tiie schoolmen, or Utopia 
of the theorist. Such considerations, togetiier with a crowd of 


On a F9ff€^9 ff^m London to Boston. 21 if 

others^ connected with the probable future part this country may bo 
destined to perform in th^ politics of the world, occupied my mind 
in the intervals of lighter conversation, and gave rise to such a 
train of reflections as a sanguine imagination loves to indulge* I 
contemplated the migh^ objects before me*--I saw, in idea^ aflou- 
rishing empire^ destined to give laws to the new world, extending 
perhaps, at some future day, firom the Arctic Circle to Cape Hom^ 
and civilizing its boundaries to the western shore, where new riches 
and new resources break upon the astonished view. To bear a part 
in the great work of general civilization, to assist in difiusing the 
blessings of good government throughout regions ignorant of them 
and enslaved'^were to my mind objects of inexpressible interest 
and delight. I felt as though I had something new to live for: and 
diat mind, the noblest endowment of nature, was created for pur- 
poses beyond the solitary gratification of the individuaL 

Late at night we had run considerably up the bay, andoflPBoa* 
ton light hoiaae were boarded by a pilot, who conducted us safely to 
our anchorage opposite the town* 

Next morning I sallied on shore, and landed on Long Wharf, 
which is constructed of land gained from the sea, one mile in pro- 
jection. I was much pleased with this instance of public spirit and 
enterprize. A row of warehouses, or as the Americans term them, 
stores, line one side. In front and rear, vessels from almost every 
quarter are moored. The destination and name of each is denoted 
by a board affixed to the shrouds, with the words painted, as an in- 
dex for those wanting to ship goods or take passage. There are 
three other public wharves, appropriated to the reception of vessels, 
distinguished by their respective appellations, viz. Russia Wharf, In- 
dia Wharf, and English, sometimes called Liverpool Wharf, three- 
fourths of the vessels from England, coming from the port of Li* 
verpool alone. . Besides these, there are many private wharves* 
The first object that strikes the attention is tl\e busy dirongin State- 
street, the principal avenue into the town from Long-Wharf. As 
you advance, the eye is attracted towards a l^fty pile, with an ele- 
gant dome of glass. The Exchange ColFee House, originated in the 
speculation of an individual; who was ruined l^j the want of 'diatsup^ 
port, which the meritorious nature of his uimertaking might have 
entitled him to.* On the ground floor is a splcaidid saloon wdl Ughtel 
from the top of the buuding; beside different compartments, one 
appropriated to a handsome coffee room, another to a news room, 
in which are kept files of papers from every part of the union 
and from Europe; also a register book, in whicn is noted hourly, 
the latest intelligence received, sometimes by express, sometimes 
from perscmal inquiry of masters of vessels, whether poHtical, mer- 
cantile, or maritune. The conductors of the institution, certainly 
man^ this department widi ^reat zeal and public s^nt. 

The upper part of the budding is partitioned off, fior broker's 
offices and countmg houses. 

It is the custom in America for strangers to repair to a board- 
ing house on their arrival, where diey are uMlged and boarded very 

216 An Englishman's Journal 

comfortably for various sums, according to the fare, and the respec- 
tability of the situation, A gourmand mi^t be well pleased with 
his accommodation for a dollar a day. Few persons resort to ta- 
verns, unless farmers and their families who make a short stay, 
and have their horse and chaise with them. As a proof of this 
country being highly favourable for the emigrant, I am credibly in- 
formed, that thirty-seven persons, who arrived two days before us, 
all got into employ in the course of one week in Boston; they weHs 
stone masons, bricklayers, carpenters, and other handicraft trades. 
My own personal knowledge extends to this. I recognized an 
Irish seaman, who had worked his passage out in our ship, employ- 
ed on board a vessel in the harbour, helpmg to unload her. I asked 
him how he got on.. " Faith, sir,'' replied Pat, " this is a fine 
coimtry indeed; I get a dollar and a half a day, and board with 
a countryman of mine for three an4 a-half dollars a- week. In Eng- 
land I could not get any thing to do.'' 

A Swiss confectioner, who, when he first arrived, was glad to get 
' employ as journeyman, now keeps a shop in State-street, rented at 
eight hundred dollars per annum- Judge Robbins informed me of 
a family, consisting of a man, his wife, and nine children, cmly a 
few months from the neighbourhood of Northampton: He had 
himself taken one of the boys to assist in his farm, the father and 
two other of the sons were employed in a tannery at Roxbury; they 
had followed the tanning business in Northamptonshire until the 
cessation of war left them without orders. The daughters had 
been in a lace manufactory, and now got more lace to make for the 
ladies of Boston than they could accomplish — ^the people of Massa- 
chusetts are certsdnly kind to the distressed, and will not see a per- 
son suffering from want. Public institutions of every kind are well 
conducted. A number of very sensible men are entrusted with the 
regulation of municipal affairs. The state legislature or general 
assembly of the delegates of the state, holds its sittings in a very 
spacious and commanding edifice, built on an ascent. From its 
cupola, the eye is gratified with a noble view of the town, shipping, 
and surrounding country. Bunker's Hill, celebrated during ^e re- 
volutionary war, as the spot where a sanguinary engagement was 
fought between the British and American armies, m which the 
former lost an unprecedented number of officers oy the enemy's 
marksmen, is clearly discernible at a distance (Hily of two miles 
from Boston, and is designated by a stone monument to the memo- 
ry of one of the American generals. 

In another quarter, the eye is attracted to the town and universit^*^ 
of Cambridge. There are four halls or colleges, the principal of 
which is Harvard College, so called after its founder and benefac- 
tor John Harvard, Esq. It is a handsome free-stone edifice. A 
botanic garden, well stored with rare exotic plants, is attached to ic 
This is the principal seat of learning in America* 

In descending, your way to the town lies through the Mall, plant- 
ed with trees — ^the houses substantially built and very elegant. In 
many parts of Boston, indeed, houses are to be met with, that even 


On a voyage from London to Boston. 217 

in England, would be greatly admired* .The streets are pleasantly 
laid out. The inhabitants of New-England, if I may judge from 
the specimens at Boston and Newbur3rport, are a keener and more 
subde people in trade and mopey matters, than their brethren in the 
old country. They wear a serious meditative air, are wholly ab- 
sorbed in revolving their pecimiary concerns, and apparently very 
suspicious and cautious to guard ag^nst being cheated. Whether 
It be a constitutional circumstance or an acquired habit, it is evi- 
dent, that a lurking reserve is to be read in their coimtenances, 
which I am sorry to perceive are never lighted up with that cheer- 
ful animation so characteristic of a Briton. I brought to this coun- 
try no prejudices, and should be sorry to partake of any such feel- 
ings of malevolence as appear so visible in the accounts of some of 
my coimtrymen who have visited America — Farmtr Parkinson, 
Weld, and Ashe — but I must be allowed to say what I think. New 
England courtesy is deficient; and when a man, in reply to a civil 
question, is answered in a dry cold-hearted manner, with a pause 
and hesitation, as if his motives in asking it were made the sub- 
ject of doubt and suspicion, it leaves no pleasing impression upon 
the mind. Affability, in short, appears to be scarcely within the 
pale of their local vocabulary of virtues. This may be hereditary 
defect, to be traced in generations; the only way of remedying 
which, is in that case, to encourage intermarriage with some of the 
bloonung buxom young women of Lancashire or its vicinity, who 
wquld assuredly resort to Massachusetts in numbers, were encour- 
agement olFerea; tending to improve the tone of society, and infuse 
new life into the character of the rising progeny. By cheerfulness 
IS not meant levity— 43ut a certain openness oi disposition, a can- 
dour in demeanor, that suaviter in modo in short, perfectly com- 
patible with the strictest prudence. Politeness is a pleasing, and 
oftentimes a Inost useful accomplishment, the attribute of a refined 
mind. It may be cultivated too, at no expense. 

The remarkable shrewdness and inteQigence of the people on most 
subjects, we must ascribe in some measure, to the originality ci 
natural parts, and equally to the general avidity for information so 
eheaply disseminated in the public newspapers, and accessible to all. 
There exists a great jealousy as to their political rights; and two 
leading parties, termed Federalists and Republicans seem equally 
strenuous, in watching and defending them accordingto their own 
views of the question— ^ach of course has its supporters, and it is 
to the struggles of the two tofl;ether, with their unceasing vigilance, 
animated by the arguments of the respective prints, that I think I 
can trace the thirst for knowledge so generally prevalent. There is, 
besides a predominant desire of bettering their condition, a zeal for 
public improvements, as connected wim their own proximate or 
remote interest, and a very praiseworthy attention to education*- 
-suCh at least as qualifies their children to be skilful in commerce 
and the ordinary acquirements of life. The time is not yet arrived 
when large sacrifices aire made to promote the advancement of 
youth in the higher branches of attainment, nor does literary occu- 

VOL. X. 28 

218 An Englishman's Jaumal 

patibn assume, as in England, extensive rank as a separate division 
of labour. In this respect, however, the New England States, 
from what 1 can understand, are more forward than their neighbours. 
The value of advanced acquisitions in learning and the sciences 
are, as yet, but imperfectly appreciated, and the literaiy taste of the 
country requires to be farther cultivated and promoted, before they 
can receive that encouragement, which would redound both to indi- 
vidual and national honour and advantage. It cannot be from any 
want of capital in the country that the higher departments of genius 
languish in obscurity— -all classes appear to be engaged in lucrative, 
or at least productive employment — ^the value of the shipping, . 
moveable property, and warehouses, (of which an immense line is 
now building, carried to a considerable height) bear evidence of 
the prosperity of the place, and the wealth of the inhabitants. It is 
well known that some of the most monied characters in the Umted 
States are to be found in Massachusetts. The influx of distinguish- 
ed foreigners will, it is to be hoped, have a beneficial effect, in time, 
upon the literary and scientific character of the people— importing 
from countries where talents and acquirements alone constitute a 
title to consideration — ^those principles and opinions, the diflfiisibn 
of which would beneficially illuminate the human mind in this new 

To pass from these considerations to others of less ihoment, t 
cannot but censure a depravity of taste, as connected with a defici- 
ent percepti(xi of propriety in the audience of a Boston theatre, lait|;h- 
ing loudly at certain gesticulations of the performer in parts neces- 
sary to elucidate mixed feelings in the play, when the attention 
ought to be fixed in .unravelling them, — ^and I could not see that 
the English custom of sitting uncovered, in compliment to the ladies 
and the house, which has a striking appearance certainly of decency 
and decorum, was in many instances observed.— I do not suppose, 
as a companion remarked to me, that it proceeded from a feeung of 
pride and independence, when no opportunity could be so unsea* 
sonable for their display, as in an assemblage of hearers met to pro- 
fit by the moral examples or inferences of the drama. 

llie young men appear ostentatious of much hair smoothw 
combed and projecting from the head: elder people too, tie up their 
hair in a manner that has not a prepossessing appearance. Indeed, I 
have observed in America a reluctance to part with their hair, at 
which I am surprised, considering its weignt and oppression on the 
Kead, which have a tendency to produce pain, and even obtusion of 
the faculties, affecting possibly the sensorium of the brain by 

Before taldng my leave of Boston I must notice the veryrespec- 
table footing on which the custom-house is cpnducted. The offi- 
cer placed on board our vessel very politely declined examining 
any baggage, merely requiring the trunks to be opened, sU^tly- 
glanced at, and then closed* An American custom house officer 
WQuld spurn the offer of a present or a bribe; they are paid suffici* 


On a vcyag€from Zondon to Boston* ^ 219 

Wdy to enable them to subsbt and maintain their families without 
havmg recourse to practices degrading to that respectability they 
are careful to preserve. I cannot omit recording a fact which im- 
pressed my mmd with a high idea of the liberality characteristic of 
the officers of government towards strangers. I was about to enter a 
axuall library of books I had with me, and rated them of course as low 
as possible in order to save, as I thought, duty, after the rate of fifteen 
per cent. I gave in two hundred and fifty dollars as my estimate, 
9nd remarked, that as I was shortly to quit the country I should 
hope to be entitled to drawback or a restoration of the money paid 
for duties, on my exporting the same. — " What," said the coUector, 
^^ five cases of books, and valued at only two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars,— <lid not these London books cost you more?" I replied that 
many of them had been used and damaged, and that, as die valua- 
tion had passed at the London custom-house, I conceived it would 
be satisfactory to the officers of customs in Boston. *' Well" re- 
plied the other, ^^ go to the friend, to whom you came recommended, 
and consult him. If the duty amoimts to a less sum than fifty dol- 
lars, it is, in that case, not allowed by law on exportation — come to 
me to morrow." I thanked him-^-^aid I should examine my book* 
seller's bills, and wait on him as desired. I could not helpre-* 
marking the kind, manly, and generous feeling of this gentleman, 
(whose name I understand is Tr^cey) as illustrative of the prevail- 
ine disposition to befriend foreigners in the United Statesi whca 
stumble opportunity offers. 

Taking leave of my Boston friends I proceeded, 20di November, 
for Newbuiyport, a very thriving, busy litde seaport, ^>out forty 
miles from Boston. I passed ttirough Salem, a flouridiing mari- 
time town, sending more ships to the East Indies than any other 
DQrt in America, but as it was late at night, did not stop to examine 
i^— Newburyport is seated on a fine river, the Memmack, which 
flows into the interior upwards of two hundred miles, and thereby 
foi^B to this town s^ bnsk inland trade. Vessels passing up and 
OPwn with n^erchandize, &c. and all vessels entering me port 
ahould be moderately taxed for the purpose of constructing a 
breakwater, outside of the h^rbour^ whicn is rendered extremely in- 
secure by a bar of sands continually shifting. The inhabitants of 
Kewburyport are a clever, intelligent race of people, parCfdcing of 
tke usual reserve towards strangers, but friendly to those well iitfrpr 
duced. On subjects relating to the interests of the town, naviga^ 
tion, and commerce in gener^ they are extremely well informed. I 
Was introduced to a Mr. Nelson, member of congress, who seemed 
to me to possess considerable talents and information on a variety 
;of subjects. The English traveBer will be agreeably surprised to 
find no charge made at any of the inns or hotels in America for ex* 
tr^ beyond his fare or accommodation. No waiter, or chamber 
maid, or cleaner of boots, solicits his charity as in England— they 
are sdl paid by their employers, as well as the coachmeii who dxivc 
the stages. — ^This is very creditable to the regulations of the 
couptry. Travelling is expeditious; the Eastern mail stage nms at 

220 Analytical Notice of 

the rate of eight miles an hour. The horses are hardy, possess a 
good deal of mettle, and are capable of doing much work. — Every 
civility and attention is experienced on the road. 

My design of penetrating farther northward, and a projected visit 
to the Falls of Niagara were now to be cut short by the receipt of 
despatches, in a quick arrival from Liverpool requiring my speedy 
presence in the West Indies. Availing myself of the opportunity 
of a schooner bound to the island of my destination, I embarked 
and bade farewell to this far famed land of freedom and happiness. 

Art. IV. — Analytical Notice of the ^arterly Review^ No. 
XXXII. for April, 1817. 

THE Quarterly Review, cont£dns the following articles: — ^ 1. An 
Authentic Narrative of the loss of the American brig Commerce j 
^c.^-^'&y James Riley, late Master and Supercargo. 8vo. New- 
York, 1816.' Captain Riley's Narrative, which the Reviewers speak 
highly of, as a very interesting and authentic account, having been 
noticed at length, in our Number for April last, and being so well 
known in this country, it will be needless for us to dwell upon 
it now. Our readers, however, will feel interested in the following 
intelligence copied from the Review. 

< Sidi Hamet, who makes so conspicuous a figure in this volume, is 
no ficdtous personage, like his namesake Cid Hamet Benangeli; he is 
mentioned by Adams and by Dupuis; and, since Riley's release, has to a 
certain extent redeemed the pledge which he made at parting: < Your 
friend (Mr. Willshire) has fed me with milk and honey, and I will al- 
ways in future do what is in my power to redeem Christians from sla- 
very.' Scarcely two months after this, the brig Surprise, of Glasgow^ 
with a crew of seventeen persons and three passengers, was cast away 
close to Cape Bojador, on the 28th of December, 1815) when the wholci 
with the exception of two that were drowned, fell into the hands of the 
Arabs, who marched them, as usual, into the interior^ till they met a 
Moor on horseback, to whom they were delivered, and who took them 
to Wed-noon. This was no other than Sidi Hametf who advised them 
to write to Mr. Willshire, English consul at Suara, who having heard of 
the wreck, had already entered into engagements for their ransom with 
Sidi Ishem, the chief of Wed-noon, and principal owner of the cara* 
van which perished, as we have related, in the Desert. They were 
ransomed, and sent to England) as was also, at the same time, a lad of 
the name of Alexander Scott, who was wrecked in the Montezuma, of 
Liverpool, in 1810, as mentioned by Adams, and who had remained in 
slavery ever since. His appearance is said to have been most deplora- 
ble; though not twenty, he wore the marks of advanced age. Thus, in 
a very remarkable manner, have all the statements of Robert Adams 
been confirmed. We think it is by no means improbable, that Sidi 
Hamet was on his way to fulfil the oath which he swore to Riley * by 
his right hand'— ^that he would bri^g up the remainder of his crew tf 
they were to be found alive, and God spared his lifel 

< It appears, indeed, from letters which Riley has received in Ame- 
rica from Mr. Willshire, that Porter and Bums have been ransomed 
by him; that two others had been released from further sufiering in thia 


The ^arterkf Review^ No. XXXIL 221 

world; and that Sidi Ishem had heard some vague rumours of the rest 
in the southern part of the Desert. 

< It is to he hoped} indeed, that since the Arahs of the Desert know 
that all Christians wrecked on the coast will be purchased imme- 
diately at Wed-noon, for the purpose of obtaining a certain profit by 
their ransom at Mog^ore, the lives of the captives will not only be pre- 
servedt but that the certainty of the reward will operate on the avarice 
of the robbers, and secure to the shipwrecked mariners a treatment 
less rigorous than that experienced by Mr. Riley and his unfortunate 

The following letter from the English edition, in 4to, of Riley's 
narrative, confers additional credit on his story. 

24 Broad Street BuUdingg, ^th J^arch, 1817. 

< Sir— -If my opinion respecting Mr. Riley and his Narrative can be 
of any importance, it is much at your service: and in compliance with 
your request I shall now state for your information, such circumstances 
as have come to my knowledge. 

< The first intelligence I received relating to Mr. Riley was from Mr. 
Willshire, (who conducts my commercial establishment at Mogadore) 
who, as a matter of course, informed me of the shipwreck and subse- 
quent ransom from slavery of Mr. Riley and his fellow sufferers. 

^ About three months ago I received a letter from Mr. Riley dated 
from New- York, informing me of his intention to publish his Narra- 
tive, and on my mentioning the circumstance to my friend Mr. Green, 
his majesty's consul-general at Tangier, then lately arrived in England, 
he spoke of Mr. Riley, with whom he became acquainted at Tangier, in 
the highest terms, and assured me he considered him as a very intelli- 
gent and well informed man, and very capable of giving an accurate 
account of his observations. 

< Soon after this I received letters from the American consul-general 
at Tangier, James Simpson, Esq. whose account of Mr. Riley was 
equally fiivourable with Mr. Green's, and from the well known judg- 
ment and experience of both these gentlemen, and their personal know- 
ledge of the author, I think great weight will be attached to such very 
respectable testimony in his favour. 

^ I also received a short time ago a letter from Mr. Willshire, of Mo- 
gadore, of which the following is an extract: — *< I shall always reflect 
with pleasure on that day that made me acquainted with Mr. Riley; and 
it gives me great satisfaction to learn that he intends to publish an edif 
tion of his work in England, for which he not only possesses ability, 
but has also very considerable influence with his own government, and 
in consequence of it Mr. Simpson has been empowered (by the govern- 
ment of the United States) with very extensive limits to redeem Ame- 
rican shipwrecked citizens in this country." 

< With respect to the narrative itself, it is with great deference that I 
submit any opinion of mine on its merits; but having resided several 
years at Mogadore, and having travelled several times over a considera- 
ble part of the country he describes, it is but a common act of justice to 
say, that I think he has given a very accurate description of what he has 
seen. Judging, therefore, from that part of his travels which accords 
with my own personal observations, it is I think Tair in me to conclude 
that the remainder is described with equal veracity. His description of 

222 Analyttcal Notice of 

tbe country from S^ta Cruz to Mogadore, aud fnm theoct to Tan^ier^ 
his account of the Arabs, and obseryationa of their manners and cua-. 
tpms are» I think, very correct. 

< I am not able to form a judgment of his friend Sidi Hamet's account 
of Tombuctooi but I must confess that in the principal points, it agreea 
larith the descriptions I have heard related by several Mqoris(i merchanta 
that have been there. 

' I am. Sir, your most obedient aervant, 

John Murray J Bag* Albemarle Street. 

Art. 2. *' !• M. Tullii Ciceronis Sex Orationum Fragmenta ine* 
dita^ cum Commentariis anttquis etiam ineditis^ Invenit^ recensmt^ 
notis illustravit Angelas Maius, Bibliothecse Ambrosians i, Linguis 
Orientalibus. Mediolani. 18 14* 2 torn. 8vo. 

' 2. ^ Aurelii Symmachiocto Orationum ineditarum partes. In- 
yienity notisque declaravit A. Maius. Medio^ 1815. 8vq. 

^ 3. M, Cornelii Frontonts Opera inedita^ cum Fpistulis ifem inecS-- 
th Antonini Pii^ M. Aurelii^ L. Veri^ et Appicmu Iitvenit A* Af^ins. 
McdioL 1815. 2 torn. 8vo. 

^ ^ M. Acci Plauti Fragmenta inedita: item ad P. Tarentium 
Commentationes et Picturas ineditte, ivoentore A. Maio. Me^dL. 
1815. 8vo. 

^ 5. Themistii Pbilosopht Oratio de Prajectura euacepta. Inventors 
et inter prete A, Msdo. Mediol. 18}6. 8vo. 

* 6. Dtonysii Halicarnassei Roma^tarum Anttquitatum pars hactenus 
desifieratar^Nunc denique ope Codicum Ambrosianorum ab Angelo 
Maio, quantum licuit^ restituta. Opus Francisco L Augusto sacrum* 
Medici. 1816. 4to.* 

These are fragments of ancient authors discovered by M. Ang^lo 
Mai among the manuscripts of the Ambrosian library. During 
the middle ages, materials for MSS. became scarce, and the monks 
were in the habit of obliterating the ancient MSS. in the libraries^ 
t^y washing or by erasure, to make them serve for the pious legends 
of the day. This has probably caused the destrucUon of numy 2^ 
ancient author, now irrecoverably lost to us. Ancient MSS. so treat- 
ed were called Codices palimfsesti^ or rescripti* We have thus 
lost many works of ancient writers; but are not those that renudn 
enough for all useful purposes? 

< The history of these MSS. is somewhat curious. The following 
account is extracted from a Dissertation of Mr. Mai. In the year 61d| 
Columbanus founded a convent of Bendictines at Bobbio, anciently Bo- 
bium, a town situated amongst the northernmost Appennines. This re- 
ligious society, as Tiraboschi informs us, was remarkable not only for 
the sanctity of its manners, but for the cultivation of literature, — of 
course it possessed a considerable collection of manuscripts; and Mu« 
ratori has published a catalogue of that collection, written in the tenth 
century, in which are the names of several grammarians, historians, 
orators, and poets. The Ambrosian Library, being founded at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century by the cardinal Federigo Borroroeoi 
was enriched by him with a great number o£ mfamscripts, collected at 

The ^rterbf Reviiw^ No. XXXII. 2^3 

a Tast expense from Tarious quarters, especially from Thessaty, Chiotf, 
CorcTra, and Magna Graecia.* In addition to these, he g^uned posses^- 
sion, by means of large presents, of the most valuable books of the 
Bobiao collection, which are still distinguished in the Ambrosian Libra- 
ly by the tide of Codices BobianL It is obvious, that amongst these, 
oil g{ which are mentioned in the catalogue pubtished by Muratoii^ 
some must be of very considerable antiquity; and those which are fia* 
Umfisfii must be of great antiquity; because they were obsolete and 
disused at the time of their being re-written; which must have been 
before the tenth century.' 

Art. 3. — ^ Narrative of a Residence in Ireland during the Sum- 
mer of 1814, and thai of 1815. By Anne Plumptre, Author of 
Narrative of a Three Years' Residence In France, &c, illustrated 
with numerous Engravings of Remarkable Scenery. London. 4Co« 
pp. 398.' This is a very abusive review of Miss Plumptre's book, in 
the modern stile of sarcastic criticism; though it must be confessed 
the lady has afforded some room for critical severity. It must not 
be taken, however, for a fair accotmt of the book, as we are pre- 
sented with no extract or specimen unless such as are fit for the dis- 
secting knife of the Reviewer. Miss Plumptre it seems, like so 
many other ^^ fashionables" in England, is a mineralogist. 

Art. 4. — ^ Travels in Brazil^ by Henry Koster^ 4to. 501 pages. 
London. 1816.' This appears to be a sensible, plain-written book, 
concerning a part of Brazil litde known to travellers. It is not a 
scientific work, but well calculated to ^ve a fair view of the morals 
tod manners of the country. Th^ lieviewers coifimend it highly. 

Art. 5.-^* The FeilSj or the Triumph of Constancym A Poem^ hi 
Six Boots. By Miss Pordfen. 8vo. London. 1816.' This is 'a 
kind of mineralogical poem, wherein as in Pope's Rape of the Lock, 
and Darwin's Loves of die Plants, the Rosicrucian Sylphs and 
iGnomes are enlisted by Miss Porden to form the machinery <5f 
the poem. It appears to contain many fine passages, not merely 
of smooth rhyme, but of imagery and description in the spirit of 
true poetry. The extracts given by the reviewers seem to justify 
this character. ^ 

Art. 6.—' Laou^sing-^urhy or * An Heir in his Old Age^ a Chi^ 
nese Drama. Translated from the Original Chinese. By J. F. 
-Davis, Esq. of Canton. To which is prefixed a Brief View of the 
-Chinese Drama^ and of their Theatrical Exhibitions. Small 8vo. 
pf. 164. London. 1318.' The Chinese it appears have a collec- 
tion of a hundred dramas, of which two have now been translated; 
one into French by Father Premare; viz. The Orphan of China (or 
of Tchao) and from French into English; the other is called Laou- 
sing-urh, or An Heir in his Old Age^ the present drama, trans- 
lated directly from the Chinese into English, by Mr. Davis, of 
the Canton factory; beside which, we have also in English tte 
Hau-hion-tchuan, a novel, translated by Mr. Wilkinson, and pub- 
lished by Dr. Percy; this, with the emperor Kien Long's famous 

* MontfaaooD, Diarium Ital.— p. 1 1 • 

224 Analytical Notice of 

Ode in praise of Tea, and a small volume by Mr. Davis, areneariy 
^ the specimens we possess in English, of Chinese Belles Let- 
tres, in an authentic form. 

The present drama is founded on the national prejudice among 
the Chinese, of the necessity each father feels himself under, of 
having a son if possible, to perpetuate the family name, and per* 
form the usual posthumous ceremonies. Hence, if a Chinese have 
no son by his first wife, and is not likely to have any, he may take 
a second wife for the purpose, during the life of the first. 

In the present drama, the story turns upon the second wife, be- 
coming pregnant of a son; being hated by the old man's son-in-law 
on that account, she is privately removed and concealed by the son- 
in-law's wife, until the proper opportimity occurs of discovering 
and presenting her and her son to the old man, who has been long 
lamenting her supposed disease. 

There is nothing in this plot, or in the character, or in the dia- 
logue, that affords us any higher idea of Chinese talent than we have 
already. They seem, from all we know of that nation, to be com- 
paratively an ignorant and imbecile people- 
To this review of the play in question, is added, an account so 
far as the circumstances are yet known, of lord Amherst's rejec- 
tion at the court of die emperor of China. This account no where 
else that we know of to be found in any authentic detail, imperfecff 
as it is, our readers will thank us for extracting. 

Recent accounts from the embassy state, that on the arrival of the 
ships in the gulph of Pe-tche-lee, on the 28th July, two military officers 
came off from the shore, and expressed some surprise at their having 
reached that anchorage in so short a time after notice had been first re* 
ceiyed of the embassy; and it was evident that no preparations had been 
made for its reception. Two days afterwards, however, the same offi- 
cers returned with intelligence that three mandarins of rank had been 
appointed to attend the ambassador to the capital; the first of the name 
of Quong'y the imperial legate, and a Tartar; the second, Changf9L civi* 
lian; the third, Yin^ a military officer; being the exact counterparts of 
the three Ta-jin^ or great metiy appointed to wait on Lord Macartney; 
and, to make the parallel complete, the Tartar legate announced his 
intention of receiving the ambassador on shore, while the other two paid 
their respects to him on board the Alceste. They brought with them 
a fleet of junks, as on the former occasion, containing the imperial pre* 
sent of refreshments for the ships' crews, intended also, when unload- 
ed, to convey back the presents and baggage of the ambassador and 
his suite. The present did not contain such a vast profusion of hogSy 
fowls, pumpkins, and pears, as on the former occasion, from the want^ 
most probably, of a longer notice to provide them; but it was ample; 
and the friendly attentions of these two men, as well as the conciliating 
manners of the legate, held out the promise of a favourable and ho- 
nourable recepdon in Pekin. Two circumstances, however^ were casu- 
ally mentioned, that in some degree cast a damp over this agreeable 
prospect. In the first place, it was rumoured among the Chinese on 
shore that the emperor would set out for (xehol, in Tartary, on the 9th 
September, previously to which, he would receive the ambassador in 
Pekin, and give him hiis final audience of leave: secondly, the two man- 

The Quarterly Reoiew^ No. XXXII, 225 

daiiBB Ckang and Yin insinuated pretty plainly that the usual ceremony 
of prostration would be expected from the ambassador; if the former 
point was not got over, it was quite evident that no time would be allowed 
for the transaction of any kind of business, and the question of the cere- 
mony was considered as a point of vital importance — as, on the refusal 
or compliance with this degrading and humiliating demand, England 
must continue to maintain, in the eyes of this haughty government, that 
high rank and independent spirit for which she had hitherto been known 
to them, or set the seal of vassalage to her submission, and be register- 
ed among the number of their petty tributaries. However, as these 
men seemed not to have any positive instructions on that head; and as 
every thing hitherto had been conducted on the same plan and princi- 
ples as heretofore, it was hoped that no such concession would be per- 
sisted in, or any material deviation be demanded, inconsistent with the 
precedent established by lord Macartney. 

Some little objection was at first made to the number of persons at- 
tached to the embassy, which, with the guard, band of music, and ser- 
vants, amounted to seventy-five; the orders from Pekin limiting the 
number to fifty. The objection, however, was immediately removed, 
and a fleet of more than thirty commodious barges appointed to carry 
them up the river to Tong-shoo, within twelve miles of the capital; and 
so studious were they to follow the former precedent, that a vessel was 
prepared to receive two cows, to supply the English with milk for their 

Here ends our direct information from the embassy; the rest is from 
Chinese authority, which is, in fact, no authority at all; the most auda- 
cious falsehoods were daily published when the former embassy was in 
the country, and lord Macartney had constant occasion to observe, that 
< their ideas of the obligations of truth were very lax;' besides, whatever 
appears in the Pekin Gazette is prepared solely and exclusively for the 
Chinese. No foreigner is supposed to know any thing of what passes in 
China. It would seem then, from this gazette, that the emperor had not 
seen the ambassador, nor received the regent's letter and presents; and 
that the reason assigned for this unfriendly proceeding was the refusal, 
on the part of lord Amherst, to go through the deg^ding ceremony re- 
quired from all the petty kingdoms nominally under the protection of 
the empire; a ceremony which, as we have stated, is the sign and seal of 
their vassalage. This ceremony requires the person to fall down at the 
word of command on both knees, and, on another word being given by a 
kind of herald, to bow the head nine distinct times to the ground. It 
has been conjectured, that our quarrel with the Nepaulese had some 
share in the untoward circumstances of the embassy; but this is not 
likely; much less is it so that the emperor should have beei> first in"* 
formed of that quarrel by lord Amherst. He had in fiict appointed a ge- 
neral, and marched an army through Tartary to Thibet, long before the 
arrival of the embassy; and that general reached Lassa about the same 
time that lord Amherst arrived at Tien-Sing. The first appearance of 
discontent is manifested at the circumstance of the ships leaving the gulf 
of Pe-tche-lee without orders; it insinuates that these ships went off for 
some bad purpose, and with the design of examining the coast; and cir- 
cular orders were sent to the officers of the maritime provinces, di- 
recting them not to pennit the ships to anchor, or a sin|jle man to land, 

vot. X. 29 

226 Anetlytkal Notice of 

but to tiesire thenl imitaedhCtelf !• f receed to Maoto, and there to 'wait 
the aii*iva! ofthe ambassador. This ignorftut govemmeDt could not con- 
ceive the danger of a large ship of war Lying at anchor in the middle of 
an extetisiTe go!^ in less than four fethoms water, and eleven miles from 
shore, at a time too when the change of the mcmsoon was momentarily 
expected, and when those honiUie hurricanes called typhoons prevadl, 
and in one of which, in fact, the Alceste was caught in her return to the 
southwai^:«— deceitful in all its proceedings; its condnct at variance 
with all its moral and political 'maxims; it could only impute bad mo- 
tives to measures of necessary precaution, though the same measures 
had also been adopted by sir £rasmus Gower on the former occasi(»i. 

The danger, in fact, was stated to the legate and the two mandarins; 
and so well satisfied were they with the reasons assigned for not remain- 
ing in that open unchon^;e, that they furnished captain Maxwell with a 
letter, ordering the provincial authorities, wherever he might touch, to 
supply the wants of the sh^s. If they neglected to inform his imperial 
majesty of this circumstance, they alone were to blame. However they 
did not trouble the coast of China; they stood across the gulf of Lea- 
tong, saw the great wall, winding ttp one side of steep mountains and 
descending the other, doWn into the very gulf; and instead of meeting 
with the eastern coast of Corea, where it appears on our charts, they fell 
in with an archipelago of a thousand islands, among which were the 
most commodious and magnificent harbours; the real coast of the Core- 
an peninsula being at least 120 miles farther to the eastward. From 
hence they proceeded to the Leiou-Kieou islands, where they met with 
a harbour equal to that of Port Mahon, and with the most friendly re- 
ception from the poor but kind4iearted.people of those islands. Finally, 
from hence they stood across direct for Canton. 

In the mean time the embassy proceeded to Pekin; and on their ar- 
rival at Tien-Sing, so it is stated in the gazette before us, a grand en- 
tertainment was 'given to lord Amherst, agreeably with the established 
ceremonies ofthe empire; for which^ however, his lordship is said not to 
have been sttificiently thankful. Another edict, bearing date the 38th of 
August, announces the arrival of the ambassador at Pekin, bearing a 
letter and tribute from the king of England; and another edict, in the 
next day's gazette, proclaims the conclusion of the mission, orders it to 
quit Pekin the same day, points out its route through the provinces to 
Canton, commands the great officers ofthe provinces and the criminal 
judges to attend the ambassador, together with a large military escort; 
and it is difficult to say 'Whether suspicion, weakness, or pusiUanimi^ 
most preponderates in the precautions dictated in these absurd orders; 
or whether petulance or timidity is most apparent in them. It states 
that' the letter and presents have not been received, because the ambas- 
sador could not present them; and the reason' for not presenting them is 
thus announced: 

* Thia was the day which his miperial majesty had appointed to receive ' lord 
Amherst, the ambassador iVom the king of England; but when be came to the 
door of the interior palace, he was suddenly taken so ill that he 6onld neSfher walk 
nor move. The second ambassador' (sir George Staunton] ^ was sdso afieeted In 
the same mannei-; they could not therefore have the happiness of receiving Che 
gpracious favours and the presents of the celestial emperor.' 

This sitkness of the ambassador is a stale trick of the Chinese; the 
explanation of which we conjecture to bo lUs: On finding that kntl Ana- 


The ^viarterhf MeoieWy No. XXXII. 227 

bent w«» inflexible, they ende^voQieA teen^nare him by an apparent 
relaxadoii of the denand, when on aniTing at die hall of audience he 
detected their stratageniy and resisted the attetnpc to enfiorce the cere- 
mony, which they would have madenoscmple to 4o. The autocratof two 
hundred millicMis of people could not at once tell his slares that a foreign 
ambassador wouid not, he therefore qualified the refusal with suggest- 
ing tiwt he could not, through sickness, see his * heavenly Ciice.* 

The ambassador did not, however, leave Pekin on the 39th August, 
in conformity with the imperial mandates it was generally believed in 
Canton that he did not aet out on the jonmey till the 7th September; 
what happened in the intermediate time does not appear, but on the 6th 
September another edict was published. It beg^s by noticing the grand 
banquet given at Tien-Sing; the vefosal of the ambassador to comply 
with the prostrations there, with which his imperial majesty was not 
made acquaimed, and for which neglect the two mandarins, Qutmg and 
Tin^ were ordered to be degraded three degrees; and it proceeds to say, 
that the ambassador was lodged at a certain place, called Yu^yuen^ 
near the capital, that from thence he was conducted to the imperial pa- 

' Where (obcerFes his Chinese majesty) I was just about to ascend the throne to 
receive them, when the fint an4 secood were both taken ill, an<) could not ap- 
pear before me. In consequence of which I ordered them iustantly to return to 
their own country, for it then occurred to me, that they had declined to 
comply with the ceremonies of the celestial empire. With respect to their king 
who sent them on so long a voyage across the vast ocean, to present to me a let- 
ter and to offer tribute, it was undoubtedly his intention to pay us homage, and 
to obey our commands, which mark of submission we are unwilling^ entirely to 
reject, lest we also ahoold fail to observe one of the fundamental nUes of the ce- 
lestial empire, that of affording our protection to petty kingdoms. For this rea- 
son we have thought fit to select the most trifling and least valuable of his arti^ 
cles of tribute: namely, four maps, two portraits, and ninety-five prints, which 
we receive in order to confer some marks of our grace and favour. We have also 
ordered presents to be given to the king in return, namely, a Yu-Mhe, four large 
and eight small silk punes; to be conveyed to the said king; and this we do in 
conformity with the ancient and accustomed rules of the celestial empire, of 
making rich gifts in return for things of little value. The ambassadors on the re- 
4:eipt of Uiese presents were much delighted, and showed evident signs of surprise 
and astfljaishment.' 

Well, indeed, they might!— This extraordinary state-paper then pro* 
ceeds to order the viceroy of Canton to prepare an entertainment for the 
ambassador, and dictates the speech he is to make on that occasion, 
which is nearly a repetition of what we have quoted; and it concludes 
by saying, ' shou^ the ambassador again entreat that the rest of the 
presents may be received, you are merely to say, we have express or- 
ders to the contrary from the celestial emperor, and we dare not again 
offend his ears— and with these words you will reject their supplica- 
tions.* Preparations were accordingly making by the viceroy for a grand 
entertainment when the last ships came away, and he had sent a notice 
to the chief of the factory, that he had received the emperor's letter to 
the king of England, which would be delivered to the ambassador on 
his arrival. 

These edicts contain all that was known at Canton of the proceedings 
of the embassy. It is clear enough, however, from them, that it had failed; 
that is to say, that the ambassador had saved his own chai*acter aod the 
character of the nation he represented, at the expense pf foregoing the 

1228 Analytical Notice oj 

gratification of beholding the dazzling rays of the ' celestial counte* 
nance/ and having the valuable presents sent out by the. East India 
Company returned upon their hands. This is the sum total of the fail* 
ure; for we must repeat, that not only has the national character been 
upheld by the refusal of lord Amherst to comply with a disgusting and 
degrading ceremony, which a former English and a Russian ambassador 
had also refused; but that, individually, he will have experienced more 
consideration and attention from those very people who have failed in 
their attempts to degrade him, and, through him, the whole nation; for 
the less that is conceded to this pusillanimous and insolent people, the 
more will their fears for the consequence begin to operate. What the 
issue of the embassy would have been, provided lord Amherst had waved 
all personal considerations, and submitted to undergo the degrading ce- 
remony, may be collected from the extreme condescension of the two 
Dutch ambassadors, Titsingh and Van Braam. After lord Macartney's 
failure^ as it was also called, these two men imagined that a line open- 
ing was afforded to the Dutch to obtain, by an unconditional submissiony 
all that the English had lost by their obstinate refusal. They began at 
Canton to bow their heads nine times to the ground before a yellow 
skreen; to thank the emperor for having graciously condescended to 
permit them to appear before him with a letter and tribute; and, before 
their return, they were brought on their knees and bowed their heads to 
the ground ninety-nine times at least, — ' pour faire le salut d'honneur,' 
as Van Braam, with true Batavian composure, calls this humiliating ce- 
remony; — but after all this compliance on the part of the Dutch, when 
they found themselves in the capital, thrust into a stable where some 
cart horses were standing, poor Van's phlegm began to move a little, 
and he venttires to exclaim, < Nous serions-nous attendus aune pareille 
avanture!' This was not all; for they were passed through the country 
literally like so many vagrants; lodged in wretched hovels neither wind 
nor water tight; left sometimes by their bearers, perched in chairs in the 
midst of heaths, or on the summits of mountains; frequently witliout 
any provisions for whole days; and, in short, went through so many hard- 
ships, that Van Braam, who was a large man, says that he had lost oo 
his return a full foot in circumference! whereas, in the case of iprd Ma- 
cartneyi far from manifesting any petulance or ill humour, whidR might 
have been expected from mortified pride, the Chinese showed every at- 
tention to the ambassador and his suite during the whole of their pro- 
gress through the country. 

But why object, we have heard it asked, to a ceremony which is the 
established ^aage of the country? Lord Macartney, we think, has satis- 
factorily answered that question in urging ' the propriety of distinguish- 
ing between the homage of tributary princes, and the ceremony used on 
the part of a great and independent sovereign;' and * that it could not be 
expected that an ambassador of an independent sovereign should pay a 
greater homage to a foreign prince than to his own master, unless the 
compliment was made reciprocal/ It is not true that the Chinese think 
little or n6thing of their humiliating ceremony; had that been the case, 
the court of ceremonies would not have objected to lord Macartney's 
proposal of a person with equal rank to his own performing the same 
ceremony before the king's portrait that he should be required to per- 
form before the emperor. We know not of course, whether lord Am* 
herst was prepared to propose this reciprocity of compliment; but if be 


The ^arterly Seview^ No. XXXII. 229 

did>and it was not accepted, he was perfectly right in refusing as lord 
Macartney had done. We cannot conceive a case where the represen- 
tative of the sovereign of Great Britain should submit to a degradation 
which the representative of the emperor Alexander had peremptorily 
resisted. The disappointment in not succeeding could not be more mor- 
tifying, or the refusal less excusable, for lord Amherst than for count 
Goloffkin; the latter, after a long and fatiguing journey across the woods 
and deserts of Siberia, was stopped short just as he came in view of the 
promised land, and turned back, because he would neither bow the knee 
to the yellow skreen, nor promise to do so to the Baal himself, on his 
presentation at Pekin. 

We have heard it asserted that the Chinese protested against the case 
of lord Macartney being drawn into a precedent; and that lord Amherst 
was instructed to comply with the customary ceremonies: the first we 
know to be false; and the other we have every reason to believe to be 
so; it is not likely he should be instructed either to comply or. to refuse^ 
but to act according to bis own discretion and to circumstances. If it be 
asked; Why send an embassy at all? the Directors of the East India 
Company can best answer such a question. They only, and their ser- 
vants, know the comparative situation of their affairs at Canton, before 
and after the mission ot lord Macartney: since that mission, a new gene- 
ration has sprung up; old grievances were revived; all manner of vex- 
atious impediments and insulting conduct were daily directed against 
,our trade, and those who conducted it; the native servants were forbid- 
den to engage themselves to Europeans; and the latter were prohibited 
from addressing the local authorities in the Chinese language, which is 
the only language they understand; supplies of provisions were stopped 
to his majesty's ships, and cargoes withheld from those of the company; 
the magistrates entered the factory without permission or previous no- 
tice; and many other offensive proceedings were instituted, which seem- 
ed too plainly to indicate a disposition to return to a system of oppres- 
sion and insult, which, though it might have been submitted to in the 
early stage of our intercourse, could scarcely now be endured. In this 
state of things, the gentlemen of the factory, two years ago, came to the 
spirited resolution of withdrawing the whole of the ships of the seasoB 
(with their cargoes yet unloaded) from the river, and of appealing at 
once to the court of Pekin: and sir George Staunton, who conducted the 
difficult and delicate discussions, was under the necessity of actually re- 
moving the British flag from the factory, and proceeding down the ri- 
ver to carry their intentions into effect, when the natural timidity of the 
Chinese got the better of their insolence; and a deputation was sent af- 
ter him to entreat his return and continue the negociations. It mighty 
therefore, and probably was, deemed advisable to remind these corrupt 
provincial authorities, by another embassy, that the gentlemen of the 
English factory at Canton were not a set of unprotected adventurers, as 
they were inclined to consider them. Beyond the wish of obtaining jus- 
tice and protection for our trade, the East India Company could have 
nothing to ask; and when we consider the magnitude and importance of 
that trade which etnploys from England more than 30,00t) tons of ship- 
ping, and from India nearly the same amount— which takes from us 
broad cloths to the amount of one million sterling, and cottons from 
Bombay to double that value— which enables, by its profits, the East In- 
dia Company to pay their dividendsi'and brings annually inta the exche- 

230 Analytical Notice of 

mtv from tkrce to foar nullions 6terling»<"fiiiall]r9 vhich suppties an ar- 
ticle not merelf of luxury, but now ahnott bscome odc of the first ne- 
eetdty, md wldcli no other part oi the world can supply'^the preaer- 
mtiOQ of such a trade from caprickNis obatiuctkms, and vexatious im- 
poeitkaM and MxfHy is well worth dM risk even of offeBdlng his impe- 
rial majeatjT) who is geaerally contested with Tisidog his anger upon 
his owfk auhjects. If aa emhassy produced no ether effect, as one of the 
directors justly obsenred) ^ one hundred thousand pcmnds would be well 
expended every ten or twetve years, to save our people from insult and 
our trade from interniptioD/ 

< Little mischief as we apprehend from the failure of the embasay, 
we are not quite at ease wkh regard to the affair of the Alceste engaging 
with the Clunese forts. The CUneee hare at all times been jealous of 
our men uf war eatermg the river, and we believe complaints on this 
score have been* made by the Company's servants of the factory, who of 
course cMm exercise no control over d&cers of the navy; but the Aicesie 
was placed under extraordinary circiimstances; she had carried out an 
ambassador on a pacific raissioD; she was <Htlered to Canton to refit and 
prepare for the reception of thtx ambassador; her captam had a letter 
iirom the viceroy of Pe-tcbe-lee, >ordering the authorities to supply her 
wants wherever she mi|^t touch. It would appear, therefore, that the 
Chinese admiral and the commanders of the forts, in wantonly firing at 
the Alceste, had exceeded their orders; and this may expiam why no 
notice whatever had been taken of the idfair at Canton; where Captain 
Maxweli had been four days, when the last letters came away; at which 
time ndther the preparations for the reception of Lord Amherst, nor 
the loading of the Company's ^lip^, had suffered the least interruption. 
We understtoid, indeed, that our long forbearance has had nor other ef- 
lect than that of encouraging the Chinese war-junks and fiMts to fire on 
our ships of ccrmmerce uid their boats, on every frivolous pretext, 
which, though generally harmless, is a wanton and reprehensible ag- 
agression. This forbearance must have its bounds; it is not every man 
•who can carry it to Hiat pitch of endurance exercised by the late admi- 
ral 0*Brien Drury. On the memorable expedition against Macao, this 
"gallant ofiioer found the river near Canton blocked up by armed junks, 
having thousands of Chinese on beard. < Apprehending' (he observes 
in a letter to his friend) * that they might fire their little petards, I ad- 
vanced in my barge to explain to their admiral my peaceable intentions. 
When within about a hundred yards, they fired a shot which passed 
over the barge,; I still advanced; two or three more ^lot passed orer 
vl%: I came within forty yards; but in endeavouring to make myself 
heard, through my Chinese interpreter, all their junks opened their fire 
on my boat, with stones, and God knows what, untfl one of the marines 
was struck. The seamen in the other boats, seeing me fired et so furi- 
ously, were no longer under control, but pulled close up, when I saw 
4:he necessity of giving them positive orders to keep back, wdl knowing 
that the total annihilation of their poor junks, and of the city of Canton, 
must have been the inevitable consequence, had I permitted a single 
tmusket to be fired, which was impatiently kioked for by every one. I 
told the chief of the supercargoes,' continues the brave admiral, < that I 
never would consent to the slaughter of these defenceless multitudes; 
but that if their commerce required to be be supported by hostilitiea, 


The ^mrteriy Review^ No. XXXII. 231 

aadthatif a angle teaitaMi of mine was kiUcd, I vould level CaBton to 
the ground/ 

Whatever may be the issue of the untoward circumatanceB connect* 
ed with the embassy to China* by what particular point of exaction on 
the one side, and of resistance on the other^ the failure may have been 
occasioned, in the absence of all information but that which his Chinese 
inajesity has been pleased to give, we can merely form conjectures: but, 
in the well known character of lord Amherst, particolariy distinguished 
as It is by a suavity of manners, an equal temper, and a mild and conci- 
liating ^sposition, joined to the able support of sir George Staimlon} 
who, with a perfect knowledge of the language and the pec^e, possess- 
es that calm and steady determination which is best suited to deal with 
this subtle nation we have the best pledges that the honour and the a* 
terests of the nation will not be compromised, but veraun safe in their 
hands. If the Nepaul business should be foimd, which, however, we 
think not likely, to have influenced the conduct of the Chinese, they are 
the veriest bunglers in politics that ever existed, since they might have 
obtained something by a concilistory negociation; whereas, if their army 
should, unfortunately for it, come in contact with our Sepoys» their mi* 
serable soldiers with their paper helmets, wadded gowns, quilted pet- 
ticoats, and stuffed boots, will be too happy to compound for their lives 
by a surrender at discretion. 

Art. 7. * Fragments on the Theory and Practice af Landscape 
Gardenings including some remarks on Grecian and Gothic Architec- 
ture^ collected from various MSS. in the possession of the different 
Noblemen and Gentlemen for whose use they were originally design'^ 
ed» The whole tending to establish ^xed principles in the respective 
Arts. By H. Repton, Esq. assisted by his Son, J. Adey Repton, 
F.A.S. Imperial 4to. pp. 238. 1616.' The art of laying out 
grounds to produce the most picturesque effect that the nature 
of the place will admit, constitutes the modern art of Enghsh^garden' 
ings little known among the other nations of Europe, and not kBOvm 
at all with us. On the continent of Europe, the beauties of 
gardening are produced by means plainly and manifestly arti- 
ficial; and the effiect is, something highly ornamented, and per- 
fectly distinct from the scenery of nature. In England, the art 
of laying out pleasure grounds, was gradually introauced by Kent, 
and greatly improved by Brown, usually known by the name of 
Cap^ility Brown. Since Brown's day, the afflectation of imitating 
natural scenery has been carried too far, either by applying the 
scenery to situations too diminutive, or not calculated to harmonize 
with the stile of the surrounding country, or by imitating those 
parts of natural scenery, which are too rough to be pleasing or or- 
namental. We object too, to that intermixture of nature and art^ 
usually called ihtjerme omie; as being neither the one thing or the 
other, like so many of die shabby e^fices with which our carpen- 
ters and bricklayers have disgraced and disfigured the city of Phi- 

The first of these observations wfll apply to the Leasowes, the 
second struck us. at Hagley, the thiid at Mr. Morris's place on the 

232 Analytical Notice of 

Wye^ and the last is so common in England among the gentlemen 

farmers, and farming gentlemen of that country, as to obtrude itself 
frequently. Repton in his former volumes on Landscape Garden- 
ing, to which this is a supplement, introduced some common sense 
notions of convenience, which the iiltra imitators of natural scenery, 
King and Price, attacked as a departure from the setded principles 
of the genuine English School. But if they must be considered as 
innovations, they are nevertheless great improvements, encroaching 
upon nature no uuther than convenience manifestly requires; at any 
rate, the: ladies of the family will thank him for them. Whenever 
a taste for this delightful branch of science and of art, shall begin 
to manifest itself in this country, Repton's treatises will be the clas- 
sics of amateurs. The Reviewers speak of Repton's book in terms 
of deserved approbation. 

Art. 8. ^ Tales of My Landlord. 4 vols. 12mo. Third Edition. 
Blackwood, Edinburgh. John Murray, London. 1817.' — This is 
a very elaborate review of a work which every body in this coun- 
try has read. It is not merely a review of the * Tales of My Land- 
lord,' but a laborious investigation how far they are consistent with 
the real histories of the times, and the transactions referred to. It 
is a review very creditable to the reviewer, whose sentiments of the 
work, of course, are highly favourable. 

Art. 9. — *> 1. An Appeal to the British Nation on the Treatment 
experienced by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Island of St, Helena, By 
M. Santini, Porter of the Emperor's Closet.' 

* 2. Official Memoir dictated by Napoleon^ being a Letter from 
Count de Montholon to Sir Hudson Lowe, Fourth Edition, with a 
Preface. 8vo. pp. 79. London. 1817.' 

* 3. A Tour through the Island of St, Helena^ i^c, with some par- 
ticulars respecting the Arrival and Detention of Napoleon Bona- 
parte, By Captain John Barnes, Town Major, and Civil and Military 
Surveyor in the Hon. Company's Services on the Island. 12mo. 
pp. 239. London. 1817.' 

* 4. Manuscrit venu de St, Helene d^unemaniere inconnue, Troi- 
sieme Edition. 8vo. pp.151. London. 1817.' 

This is, as we may well suppose from the character of the re- 
view, a violent attack on Bonaparte and his adherents, and on the 
statements of Santini, and Count Montholon. If what they say be 
true, there is a shameful want even of decent attention to the sup- 
ply of Bonaparte's table: a disgraceful economy, that seems dic- 
tated by the most unworthy motives. 

On the part of the ministry, the charge was repelled by Loi J 
Bathurst in the house of commons; and the statement made by that 
nobleman of provisions and liquors directed for the maintenance of 
Bonaparte and his suite at St. Helena, showed that it was on a scale 
sufficiently liberal, affording no reasonable ground for complaint. 

^ Both statements may be true. The British ministry may have 
given the directions which Lord Bathurst declared were given, and 

?et Bonaparte may not have received the supplies intended for him. 
^o refute fully the disgraceful accounts of Santini and Montholon, 

Americah En^mohgtf. 833 

the ministsy shotQd not oidy have directed theae supplies to be pur- 
chased, but they should have ensured their regular delivery, and 
required as a eheck, the receipt of Bonaparte, or some person of 
yepute in his household, for the ardcles actually received. This 
would have prevented all cqmplsdnt, and set contradiction at defi- 
ance: but they have not done so: and they have therefore left room 
for reasonable doubt, whether the charges are not true in substance, 
although the expense of a liberal supply may have been willingly 
incurred* The bitter style of the Reviewers, is ill calculated to 
serve the cause they defend. 

Art. 10.—* 1. Report of the Secret Committee. 

^2. On the present State of Public Affairs. Anon. 8vo. 

' 3. A Proposal for putting Reform to the Vote throughout the 
Kingdom. By the Hermit of Marlow. 8vo.' 

We have the same remark to make on this ^ Essay on the rise 
and progress of popular dissatisfaction." It is a laboured defence 
of the ministry a^d their measures, and a violent attack on the 
friends of reform. To us it seems very imprudent to use the lan- 

Siage of goading and irritation toward men who complain because 
ey feel tiheir own and the nation's misery, and who call out for re- 
trenchments on the part of government, which are so manifestly 
reasonable and practicable. 

Art. Y.^ American Entomology; or descriptions of the Insects of 
North America. Illustrated by coloured figures^ from drawings 
executed from Nature. By Thomas Say, Member of the Aca^ 
demy of Natural Scie;nces of Philadelphia, &c. Philadelphia^ 
published by Mitchell and Ames. 1817. 

"£ac3b mow* 
Each abell, each crawling insect, holds a rank 
Important in the plan of Him who framed 
The scale of Being." Still ikgflext. 

AT this enlightened period of the world, when almost every 
branch of knowledge, from being sufficiently understood, both in 
its principles, and its amnities to other branches, is duly appreciated; 
and in a country, distinguished alike for native good sense, and cul- 
tivated intellect; to address the readers of this Magazine, in com* 
mendation of Entomology, might well seem superfluous. Yet, 
singular as it may appear, that branch of science is not without its 
enemies, and open aefamers — ^men, who not only deny its practical 
utility, but endeavour to degrade it, bv representing it as a pursuit, 
puerile, barren, without interest, and altogether unworthy of an 
elevated mind. 

In refutation of a calumny, as feeble as it is wanton, and which 
can redound only to the discredit of those who promulgate it, we 
might deem it sufficient, briefly to state, that £ntomology consti- 
tutes a legitimate and very important branch of Zoology; a science, 
which, iFor beauty, elevation, and extensive usefulness^nas no supe- 
rior. But other arguments, more specific m their nature, and which 
may, therefore, perhaps, be held more pertinent to our purpose, are 
not wanting. 

VOL. X. 30 

234 American EntotHohgy. 

In the vast family of beings, of which it is the province of En* 
tomology to treat, are comprised not a few of the most valuable 
friends, as well as many qf the most troublesome and formidable 
enemies, of the human race. Hence it is the duty, no less than the 
interest, of man, to render himself intimately acquainted with both* 
But this he can do only by the study of the science* 

lliis study, interestmg and important in every country, may be 
regarded as peculiarly so in our own. Whether scientifically or 
practically considered, the insects of the United States, are but lit- 
tle known to us — less so, than those of any other civilized quarter 
of the globe. Yet have we motives numerous and cogent, beyond 
what can actuate the inhabitants of other countries, for directing 
our attention to inquiries respecting them. 

To feel these motives, in tneir full force, we need only, in the 
spring, the summer, or the autumn, look into our fields or our fo- 
rests, our gardens or our pleasure-grounds. The depredations there 
committed, on many of our most valuable vegetables, by some in- 
sects, and the destrucdon of these insects themselves, by others 
surpassing them in power and voracity, cannot fail to impress us 
with a deep sense of the advantages to be derived from a more li- 
beral knowledge, than we, at present, possess, of that numerous and 
formidable family of beings. 

It is the result of experience, as well as one of the plainest dic- 
tates of common sense, that a perfect acqusuntance with the cha- 
racter of an enemy, furnishes the only true ground of successful 
opposition to him. In vain, therefore, will the farmers and gar- 
deners of the United States, attempt to preserve the productions of 
the soil from the Hessian fly, the cut-worm, the aphides, the wee- 
vil, and the many himdreds of other insects wnich daily attack 
them, unless they inform themselves, more fully, of the history and 
character of those destroyers. 

Similar observations might be made, in relation to the welfare of 
our domestic animals. Each one of these is liable to suffer, in 
many instances mortally, from the hostility of insects. Nor can 
we dfect their security through any other means, than a thorough 
knowledge of the history of their enemies. But this knowledge 
the science of Entomology alone can impart. 

We are even assailed in our persons, by numerous insects, against 
which a more intimate acquaintance with them would enable ud to 


Indeed, strange, and, perhaps, extravagant as the assertion may 
appear, to those who have not attended to the subject, it is, not- 
withstanding, true, that the comforts and subsistence of man, are 
much more liable to be fatally invaded by the insect tribe, than by 
the whole animal kingdom besides. The lion, the tiger, the 
bear, or the wolf, may ^ed the blood of individuals, or even de- 
populate yilla^s: but, to the locust, the palmer-worm, or some 
other family ol the insect tribe, does it belong, to bring destruction 
or suffering on a whole people. 

American Entomology. 235 

tn our contemplation of this class of beings, it is not the eviUf 
alone, widi which they threaten us, or are capable of inflicting on 
us, that we ought to consider. Our attention should be directed 
also to the benefits we derive from them. 

To theLytta Vesicatoria, are we indebted for an important remedy; 
to the bee, for one of the wholesomest and most delicious of our 
sweets; to the cochineal insect, for one of our richest dyes; and to 
the silk-worm, for our most beautiful and costly apparel. Surely, 
dien, the history of that class of animals, among a part of which 
are found our deadliest foes, while, to another part, we are under 
the weightiest obligations, is worthy of our regard. 

But, for the study of Entomology, there exist yet other reasons, 
which we are bound to respect. The science is not only becoming 
fashionable in the higher walks of life, in Europe, but is sanc- 
tioned by the names of many individuals, who, for talents and at- 
tainments, rank with the foremost in that quarter of the globe. To 
induce us to pursue it, therefore, in the United States, we have 
high authority. 

Finally, if we wish to become more familiar with the attributes 
of the Deity, through the medium of his works, there is no source 
to which we can turn, with greater advantage, than to the science 
of Entomology. 

Insects constitute, in themselves, a living world; in the arrange- 
ment and economy of which appears as glorious a display of good- 
ness, wisdom, and power, as is to be found in any other department 
of nature. The vast variety and extent of action, the consummate 
adaptation of means to purposes, and the consequent order and har- 
mony, which characterize this part of visible creation, bespeak in 
every portion of it, a hand that is cUvine. No one can attentively 
study It, and remain either incredulous of the existence and ope- 
rations, or disregardful of the majesty and beneficence, of Him who 
framed, and continues to govern it. If we are directed to the ant 
and the bee, to learn wisdom and industry, with equal propriety 
may we turn to many other families of the insect race, to improve 
in piety, and all the moral and social virtues. 

Influenced by these considerations, we could scarcely fail to re- 
ceive, with pleasure, a publication of any description, treating of 
the insects of the United States. We need not add, that this plea- 
sure is greatly heightened, by the reception of a work of ample 

As this work, which is now before us, possesses many points of 
real excellence, we are gratified at being told, by the author, that 
it is nothing but a *^ portiop of a publication of no inconsiderable 
magnitude, on the insects of North America." 

It contains six plates and a frontispiece; each plate representing 
two insects, of the same species, the mde and the femsde, or the 
same insect, in figures of cufierent sizes, well delineated and accu- 
rately coloured. 

The descriptions, accompan3dng the plates, are classical and 
correct. Most of the terms, however, bemg purely technics^, ten- 

2S6 Amerkifii Ent^mohgy, 

den a glossary highly necessary to the generality of readers; the 
more so, as explanations of entomologicallanguage, are not of easy 
access. Would it not be practicable for our author to g^ve his pro- 
-mised glossary early in the course of, his work? 

By enriching his descriptions with more of the biography of in- 
sects, Mr. Say has it in his power to render his future numbers 
more interesting and useful. 

Indeed the naturalist should never &il to bear in mind, that, in 
ev^ry department of Zoology, it is the biography of the animals 
described, which gives to the science its most practical tendencies, 
and its highest charm. 

That part in which our author is most faulty, is his preface. Here, 
the composition is loose; the selection of words is not very fortunate; 
and the production bears, tiiroughout, the marks of haste and inat- 
tention. These remarks relate to the preface only. 

We must not close this article, without observing, that, on the 
whole, we are exceedingly pleased with Mr. Say's work: we find in 
it much to praise, and but litde to blame; and can, therefore, ho- 
nestly recommend it to the patronage of ,tfae public. C. 

%* The above review of Mr. Say's specimen of American £n* 
tomology, was transmitted to the editor, and it is right to the ex- 
tent of txie observations contained in it. But Mr. Say's work, thoii^ 
small in bulk, deserves more to be said of it, to show its vsJue. 

It is worthy of remark, that important as the subject of £nto* 
mology is tQ our interest and to our comfort, there have been veiy 
few scientific works in England upon it, and hardly any popular 
work, save a small part of Dr. Smellie's compilation on natural 
bistoary, and the late popular Account of £ntomology by Messrs. 
Kirby and Spence; of which, as yet, the first volume onlv, has 
reached America, tiioug^ the second is printed. The English are 
p;rea% behind the science of the continent on the natural history of 

In this country, the late Revd. Mr. Melsheimer of Hanover, 
in York county, Pennsylvania, was very learned on the subject of 
insects. His collection was large, and the part of his catalogue 
which he published, ranks with the best arranged works on mis 
tomch of science* His son, who succeeded his father in the mi- 
nistry at Hanover, still pursues the same course of study. By 
means of these gentiemen, the entomologists of Europe have been 
made acquainted with the treasures of this countiy, of which, its 
inhabitants, some three or four excepted, have remained perfectly 
ignorant. It was in vain Mr. Melsheimer published the first part 
of his well-digested catalogue; nobody purchased, nobody pe- 
nised it. The expense remained a drawback on his scanty funds; 
the honour of his discoveries, was conferred on him by European 
philoao^l^ta; he died, comparatively, unknown. 
k In tms state, (and indeed we may almost confine the observation 
to this state) two philosophical societies have been formed: the one 
of old staiMUBg, ^ The American Philosophical Society ;^^ the other, 

Amerkan EntQtnohgy. a3f 

of Cmit or five years date only, ^^ Thfi Academy of Natural Science.^!* 
The members of the; first, hold their sitdngs, in Fifth near Ches- 
nut street: the last, in Arch, near Front street* Four or five vo- 
lumes, m quarto, have been published by the oldest of these socie- 
ties, and the first volume of a new series of its transacticms, is now 
in the press, and likely to do credit to the institution. The Acade*- 
my of Natural Science, has published two or three small numbers 
of their proceedings, which are meant to be continued, as new matter, 
worthy of publication, presents itself. Of this society, Mr. Say is 
a distinguished member; and we nuiy venture to predict that the 
gendemen belonging to it, are likely to do more for American rer 
putadon in natujniil history, ^an any other institution in this £ounr 
try. The few pages they have already published, are honourable, 
not merely to the society, but to th^ nation, for the curious and the 
useful informati<m they contain, unassuming as they are, and almost 
imknown. The presei^ work of Mr. Say may be considered as 
an emanation from the same SQurces . and we have had nothing pub* 
lished, on any branch of natural history in America, better calcu- 
lated to raise its reputation abroad, than the small book now imder 
review. It is common praise to say, that the delineations are ac* 
curate, the cdburyng respectable, the language scientificaUy descrip* 
tive of the sulnects treated. The insects are coloured about as 
wdl as the birds in Wilson's Omitholofl^; but they are not equal 
in splendor and effect to Mad. Meiran^ Surinam, or to Sep: diey 
are good enough for aU the purposes of real information, and better 
^han we have yet seen here. All this is very welL But Mr. Say 
has started in the race of science with hi^er claims. Hie present 
number contains the following insects, viz. 

Papttio Phiknor; described by Drury, Cramer, Fabricius, and 

by Smith and Abbot, in their insects of 

Geotrupes Tityusi also described l^ preceding entomologies. 

Nemognatha immaculata. This appears to be a new species, not 

hitherto described. 

)^otoxus Mtmodon. Described, but not hitherto figured. 

Bertus Sptnosus. Am)roache8 to the Tipularius of Fabricius* 

Ckindela formoBtu Ine cicindebe trifasciata, sex guttata, and 

punctulata, are well known. Tlie fbrmosa 
IS new to the entomolog^ts. 

Cicindela decern notata* This is also a new species. 

Hence it appears, that Mr. Say does not live upon the labours of 
his predecessors: he has already contributed his full share to die 
ttock of knowledge, by bringing us acquainted with insects never 
beiRxe figured and described. Mot to si4>port such a work as this, 
would be disgraceful to the national character. We agree that it 
would be rig^ to introdu<te more descrip^ns of the habits and 
manners, the uses and the mischiefs of the insects described; it 
would bring Mr. Say's work into more general circulation. €. 

238 Adolphe. 

Art. Vl.'-^Adolphe^ a Novel. By M. Benjamin de Con8tant.-«» 

Published by M. Carey & Son. 1817. 
VrOTWITHSTANDING the merit of some modem novels, by 
•*^^ Miss Blimey, Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. West, Mrs. Opie, and 
some other female writers in England, whose works are free from 
the grosser faults that are usually complained of in this species of 
composition, we are still of opinion, that novels have done, and still 
do, more harm than good. They universally tend to give force and 
effect to that passion, which, of aJl others, interferes most with the 
necessary restraints of civilized society^-they tend to impress upon 
the youthful mind, that what is delineated under the name of Love, 
is the first object, the great business of human life, to which every 
other dictate of prudence and of duty, may be required to yield — 
they increase the vividness of those emotions, which the perma- 
nent happiness of young people themselves, require to be controU* 
ed, repressed, and subjected — ^and they give false ideas of the real 
nature and character of that connexion between the sexes, which 
the laws of every wise nation consider as the ol^ect of wholesome 
regulation and restraint. Nor is it among the slightest objections, 
that they always nourish and often give birth, to that sickly train 
of feelings commonly known by the name of sentiment. Hence, a 
novel-residing female, expects attention from a husband, which the 
cares of business will not permit him to pay; and a weak woman is 
left open to the flatteries of an idler who has time to throw away 
m>on petty services, delicate attentions, sentiment and sensibili^. — 
To msikeanovel useful, or at least not mischievous, all the obligations 
toward parents upon the subject of marriage, should be sedulously 
enforced: the duty of repressing desires mat cannot be indulged, 
but at the sacrifice of prudence and of happiness, should be shown 
to be Mrithin reasonable effort; and to be indispensable, when indul- 
gence cannot take place without obvious risk of all future prospects 
of succeeding in the difficult march of life: and the principle should 
be illustrated, that marriages, to be happy, should be entered into 
like other contracts, upon the common calculations of prudential 
motives; and do not require that violence of inclination so neces- 
sary to the character of every hero and heroine of a modem ro- 
mance. Still less should scenes and conduct of manifest depravi^ 
be decked out with all the ornament of language, and treated as if 
they were at least excuseable, from the violence of passion, if not 

In the present novel, all the characters are morallv detestable..— 
There is not one that common sense, and honest feelings, ought not 
to revolt at. The incidents are of the worst description; but the 
author endeavours to make them interesting by force of description 
and the charms of language; which, whatever may be its merit in 
the original, is execrable in the translation. 

The characters are, Adolphe, his father, the Count de P., and 

The first is a young man, who does not appear possessed of one 
good, great, or estimable quality. Unequsd m his temper, morose 



Adolphe. 239 

and sarcastic in his nuainers, he systematically seduces and de- 
bauches Ellinor, the kept mistress, during ten years, of the Count 
de P., who had received him into his family with all the kindness 
of hospitality. This he does, not because he was impelled from 
love to this woman, but from mere ennui — from vanity and self-love 
-—not from an inclination to love, but a desire of being beloveds— 
" Tormented," (as he expresses it, p, 37,) " by a vague emotion, 
^^ I will be loved, said I, and I looked around me. I saw no per* 
*^ son who could inspire me with love — ^no person who seemed to 
" me susceptible of feeling it," No wonder the female world, p. 
105, ^* saw in his conduct, that of a seducer; of an ungrateful man 
^^ who had violated hospitality, and who to gratify a momentary 
** whim, had sacrificed the repose of two persons, of whom, he ought 
^ to have respected the one, and have spared the other." 

The father is represented as a man who held light discourse on 
the ties of love (p. 35), who looked upon them as amusements, if 
not permitted, at least excuseable; and who in his representations to 
his son on the subject of his intimacy with EUinor, seems to confine 
himself not to considerations of morality, but of prudence only. 

The count de P. hadlived in open defiance of the customs of society^ 
with EUenor, publicly, as his kept mistress, and had children by hen 
He attempts to introduce her in that capacity into respectable soci- 
ety; and his views are represented as well seconded, by the prudent 
and affectionate conduct of Ellenor herself, till she elopes with the 
hero of the novel, Adolphe, and at length dies of a broken heart, 
not occasioned by reflections on her own misconduct, but by per- 
ceiving that Adolphe is becoming sated, and wearied of the con- 
nexion, which no longer holds out the charm of novelty. The con- 
clusions deduced, are not those which a man of honour and mora- 
lity would draw from the story; as the reader may judge from the 
following extract: 

< You oughtt sir, to publish that anecdote. It cannot hereafter hurt 
any one, and could not be, in my opinion, without utility. The misfor- 
tune of Ellenor proves, that the most impassioned sentiment would be 
unable to struggle against the order of things. Society is too powerful: 
it reproduces itself under too many forms. It intermingles too much of 
bitterness with the love which it has not sanctioned. It favours that in- 
clination for inconstancy, and that impatient fatigue, diseases of the 
mind, which seize it sometimes suddenly, in the bosom of indmacy. 
Indifferent persons have a wonderful eagerness to be slanderers in the 
name of morality, and noxious through zeal for virtue. It might be said 
that the view of affection troubles them, because they are incapable of 
it; and when they can avail themselves of a pretext, they delight in at- 
tacking it, and in destroying it. Wo then to the woman who reposes 
cm a sentiment which every thing combines to pdson) and against which 
society, when it is not compelled to respect it as legitimate, arms itself 
with all that is bad in the heart oi man, to discourage all that is good in it! 

< The example of Adolphe will not be less instructive, if you add, 
that after having repelled the being who loved him, he has not been less 
uneasv, less agitated, and less discontented; that he has not made any 
use or a liberty regained at the expense of so much grief and of so many 


240 The Adviser. 

tears; and that bf rendering himself well desenriiig of blarney he hmm 
rendered himself also deserving of pity.* 

The author has taken good care to do strict poetical justice, by 
making EUenor, the deceived and seduced female, the most injured 
and least depraved of the whole group, die of a broken heart. All 
the other character^ bear the catastrophe as well as can be expected. 
Adolphe grieves a little; but we do not find that he feels any per- 
manent Vemorse for the mischief he has occasioned. 

As a specimen of the translation so much praised in the note to 
the first page, take the following: 

< Even to men themselves, it is not an indifferent matter to do this 
ill. Almost all of them believe themselves more corrupt, more thought- 
less than they are. They expect to be able easily to break the intimacy 
which they carelessly contract. In the distance, the image of grief ap* 
pears vague and indistinct, like a cloud, which they may pass through 
without difficulty.* 

The book is not well printed, nor is it upon good paper; this is 
right: it deserves no better. The page is small, well spaced, with a 
modem margin. This is all well enough; if we must feed upon de* 
pravity, the thinner it is spread the better. 

By far the most useful, entertaining, and instructive part of the 
volume, is an advertisement, on good paper, neatly printed, in smaD 
type, of the several publications that have issued from the press of 
a gentleman, who ranks not second in number and value of the 
works he has published, to any bookseller in the United States. 
This advertisement occupies twenty-four pages, and contains about 
sixteen thousand words: the novel Adolphe contains two hundred 
and thirty-eight pages, and contains about thirty-three thousand 
words. He seems to have thrown in his prefatory pages of ad- 
vertisement as a make-weight, to make the work go down. No 
body will read the first, without feeling a pride and a pleasure in 
the prosperous state of the American press; no one will read the 
novel itself but with regret that this silly and wicked book may 
also find its place in such a catalogue* _C. 

Art. VII.— TA<? Adviser»*^From Ackerman's Repository. 

I AM truly grateful, Mr. Editor, for your prompt attention to my 
letten I becin to have a better opinion of mankmd since die pub- 
lication of it, for I have had seversd applications for my advice; but 
as the case of Mr. Tremor appears to me the most pressing, I shafl 
consider it first. As his letter may perhaps amuse your readers, I 
have subjoined it. I am, Mr. Editor, your obliged, 

Solomon SAGSPHia. 

7b S. SAOKPHie, Esp AdvUer'GeneraL 
Never surely, sir, was there a man more in want of that sage 
colmsel which you have offered to the worid in general, dian mj^elf: 
I will not trespass on your time^ however, by complainbg of my 
misfortunes, but proceed to state them as briefly as I can. 

Having from my childhood delicate health, I had made a resolution 
never to marry— <i determination which was frequendy and at last 

The Adviser. Ml 

MCcessfuDy combated hy my aunt, Mrs. Matchem. Hie old lady 
had fonhed a desigs of marrying me to her protfgie^ Miss Grace 
Goodenough, and at last, in pursuance of her advice, I gave that 
lady my hand. My marriage took ^ace two years ago, and until 
last month I had no reason to repent it. My wife is an excellent 
manager, a pleasant companion, and what was of still more impor- 
tance to me, of such a sweet disposition, that she paid me with the 
greatest cheerfulness all those litde attentions, the value of which 
can only be estimated by those who, like myself, labour under dis- 
eases which perhaps are pardy real and pardy imaginary. We 
seldom had company, and then only in a snug quiet way; but the 
indefatigable attentions of my wife furnished me with sufficient 
amusement for my mornings, and one or other of my friends ge-* 
nerally passed the evenings witii me at chess, drafts, or backgam- 

Thus, Mr. Adviser, did I spend nearly two years in quiet com-< 
fort, till unfortunately a distant relation of my wife paid us a visit. 
This lady, whose name was Apemode, is an old maid, who had 
passed her youth in dependance upon the great. She was just re- 
turned from France, whither she went as tiie humble companion of 
a lady of quality. Our plain, quiet, and retired way of life a{^ear-> 
ed insupportable to Miss Apemode; but as she did not dare openly 
to en>ress her disgust, she commenced her insidious attack upon 
our domestic comforts, by persuading my wife that it was absolute- 
ly necessary for her, who had a right to. consider herself as the 
principal person in the town where we reside, which I should have 
told you is at a considerable distance from London, to introduce 
among her neighbours some of the delightful customs of Paris: one 
of the pleasantest of which she said, was that of having social par- 
ties, which were styled Les this dansants*, 

*^ And pray," cried my wife, ^' what sort of thing is this thtdanm 
sant? it has at least a singular name." 

^^ Why, my dear," cried Miss Apemode, ^^ it has nothine singu- 
lar but its name. You go to a th( dansant to drink tea, and dance 
afterwards, or play at cards, if you prefer it. You are expected to 
appear in a fasnionable evening costume, but not in the dress pro- 
per for a bed pari; in a word, a thi dansant is a social party, where 
ceremony is excluded, and to which every body goes with a dispo- 
sition to be pleased." 

At tiie conclusion of this speech my wife turned to me, and sud 
with a look of entreaty which I did not know how to resist, ^^ Do, 
my dear, let us have a tht dansantm'* I objected to the dancing, on 
account of the trouble which a large party would occasion in our 
small house: but all my objections were overruled. We were only 
to have a few friends, the dancing was to be over very early, and as 
to trouble or inc<mvenience, my wife assured me, it would occasion 
neither the one or the other. 

Not wishing to contest with Mrs. Tremor the first point she had 
ever seemed desirous to cany, I consented; and* invitations were 
accordingly issued for that day wedc. You will readily believe^ 

VOL. X. 31 

242 7%^ Adviser. 


Mr. Adviser, that I was not a little surprised to find that this party, 
which was to occasion neither trouble nor inconvenience, robbed me 
of all my comforts. Until then my wife had regularly read to me 
at breakfast all that was interesting in three morning papers, for the 
weakness of my sight renders it painful to me to read for any length 
of time; but the day after our invitations were given, she read only 
a few paragnq)h3, because she assured me there was nothing worth 
looking at— by the way, she said the same thing every day for the 
whole week — and after hurrying over breakfast in a most uncom- 
fortable manner, she quitted the room, to make arrangements for our 
party. I always used to take some litde nourishing thing in the 
middle of the day, which Mrs. Tremor had generally the goodness 
to prepare for me herself; but from the moment she began to ar- 
range matters for this important evening, that task devolved on Bet- 
ty, and consequendy my beef-tea was watery, my chocolate oily, 
and my soup over-seasoned. 

Well, Mr. Adviser, the important evening came at last, and, to 
my equal surprise and displeasure, the whole town poured in on us. 
Parties were immediately arranged for tric^trac and boston^ which 
Miss Apemode has succeeded in rendering fashionable among us; 
and such was the noise and confusion, that I lost two games at 
chess, the first he ever won from me, to Captain Culverin, who has 
exulted in it ever since, and declares every where that he beats me 
at chess; although I protest to you, that the noise of the tric-trac 
tables, and the chattering of a confounded little Frenchman, made 
me give him my queen tor a pawn in one game, and caused me to 

Elace three pieces in check at once in another; so you see what right 
e had to boast of his skill. 
In the mean time the young people were amusing themselves with 
reels and country dances; for to the great disappomtment of Miss 
Apemode, who presided as mistress of the ceremonies ot the ball- 
room, none of them could figure in the waltz or fandango. While 
they were in the height of their mirth, my wife proposed that the 
dancing and cards should be suspended, that we might enjoy a little 
concert; which I found afterwards had been planned to bring for- 
ward the musical talents of the Misses Screecnwell, one of whom 
favoured us with some airs in I know not what language, and her 
sister and Monsietir Frivole, the Frenchman I before spoke of, 
performed what they were pleased to. call pieces of music, which 
Miss Apemode assured us were the chefs ifceuvres of Cimarpsa, 
executed in the manner of Crescemini. I actually blushed at her 
hardihood in hazarding such a ridiculous compliment; which, how- 
ever, our musicians received as the homage due to their genius. 

At last, to my great satisfaction, the qpncert ended, and then 
Monsieur Frivole begged to have the honour of amusing the com- 
pany with some slight-of-hand tricks, which he had been taught by 
the celebrated D'Olivier, and had often practised with much apr 
plause at the house of his friend Madame la Duchesse de Parvenue^ 
in Piiris. Our guests had not hitherto thought M. Frivole of much 
consequence, but the name of the duchess convinced them of their 

Tlie Adviser. 243 

mistake, and they eagerly formed a circle round a table, at which 
the operator sealing himself, exhibited dexterouriy enough several 
tricks with cards. The room rang with applause, which was not a 
'little heightened by the whispers of Miss Apemode, that Monsieur 
Frivole was considered as the most skilful amateur of juggling in 
all Paris, and was absolutely doted upon by the noblesse. Alas! 
poor Monsieur Frivole had " touched the topmost point of all his 
greatness." He took a glass filled with wine, which he said he 
would change into rose-leaves, and scatter them on the bosom 
of Miss Bloomless. But by some mismanagement or other the 
trick failed, and instead of rose-leaves, poor Miss Bloomless 
received the wine, not on her bosom but on one side of her 
fece, which instandy exhibited the tints of the crocus, instead of 
the roses and lilies that had adorned it the moment before. 
But this was not all: the lady who sat on her right, exclaimed 
bitterly against the awkwardness which had completely spoiled 
h5r white satin robe; and the one on her left, who by the bye 
was the most difficult to appease, had, in her eagerness to see 
the experiment more clearly, leaned so forward, that her head 
struck against that of Miss Bloomless, and the violence of the con- 
cussion displaced her ilkxen wig, and broke one of her Marabout 
feathers. The three ladies were loud in their reproaches, and the poor 
operat6r, frightened at the storm which the unlucky failure oi his 
spell had raised, sought to conjure down its violence by promising 
Miss Bloomless a pot^ of genuine Parisian rouge. This promise 
unluckily rendered her ten times more furious, for prior to this dis- 
covery she always denied Aat she wore any. 

Baffled in his first attempt at conciliation, he had not courage to 
address either of the other ladies, but retreated from the table with 
a shrug so expressive of mortification, that, for his sake, I was 
heartily glad to hear supper announced. As I had conditioned that 
we should not have a formal supper, I leave you to judge of my 
surprise, when I found a table profusely covered a la Franfmse. — 
Certainly nothing could be prettier than the appearance of our sup- 

r, but unfortunately it resembled the dinner of Tqby Allspice, 
or we had nothing fit to eat, at least in my opinion; my good neigh- 
bours, however, did honor to the fricassees, friandeaus, &c. &c. &c. 
to the great satisfaction of my wife and her friisnd Miss Apemode; 
and at last, when I began to be heartily fatigued, they took leave. - 

I flattered myself, Aat in the course of a few days we should 
faB into our old quiet track; unfortunately, I was toUilly mistaken: 
irom that day all the habits of my wife are Changed; instead of at- 
tending to my comfort, she is for ever planning schemes of dissipa- 
tion. I find remonstrance and entrea^ alike ineffectual to stop the 
progress of a taste for pleasure and expense, which I supposed 
would be easily subdued, because it has been so lately acquired. — 
By pointing out to me what means* I could use to restore order and 
comfort in my family, you would, sir, effectually oblige your very 
humble servant, Timothy Tremor. 

If Mr. Tremor will follow my advice, he will directly oblige - 


SM4 On the Merits sfei Hesidefice in France* 

Misft Apeariode to quit hift house; for we may fairly conclude, ibat 
when die cause of Uie evil he complains ot is removed, the effect 
will soon cease. Let him pursue lenient measiu'es with his wife, 
let him he even generous towards her cousin; but let him separate 
tiiem by all means: in this one point he must be firm. I would re- 
commend to him to procure for his wife every rational amusement 
within his reach, and if her heart is as good as he seems to think 
it, •gratitude will soon make her renounce those pleasures which are 
inimical to his tranquillity. 

The Adviser. 

Art. Vlil. — On the Merits of a Residence in France* — i:*rom the 

(London) Monthly Magazine. 


AT the hotel or inn where you arrive, you may find die husband in 
the habit of going to market, and of keeping the books; but all 
other business, such as receiving the travellers, adjusting die bills, 
superintending the servants, male and female, falls under the pio- 
vince of madaane. Again, if you go to an upholsterer's to buy a few 
ardcles of furniture, you may observe the husband superintending 
his workmen in the back shop or yard, but leaving it to his fair 
partner to treat with customers, to manage all cash receipts, and 
payments, and, in many cases, to fix on the ardcles to be purchased 
out of doors. The mercer's wife does not limit her services to the 
counter, or to the mechanical tasks of retailing and measuring^— you 
see her at one dme standing beside the desk, and giving directJODS 
to the clerks; at another you hear of her being absent on a journey 
to the manufacturing towns, and are desired to suspend your pur- 
chases, not till her return, which would be remote, but for the few 
days necessary to let her send home marks of her progress, ^car 
madatne nous fait ses envois a mesure qvleUefoat sts achats^ In short, 
women in France are expected not only to lend an assisting hand 
to their husbands in business, but to take a lead in die management, 
to keep the correspondence, to calculate the rate of prices, and to do 
a number of things that imply not merely fidelity and vigilance, but 
the habit of deciding and acting by heraelf in the most important 
departments of the concern. We need hardly add, that they are 
abunjdandy zeidous in points so nearly connected with the welfitte of 
their families, and that the extent of assistance thus afforded to the 
husband far exceeds any idea that can be formed by those who have 
not resided in France. But all advantages have their ^wbacks, and 
this assistance is not afforded without several important* sacrifices, 
among which we are to reckon the almost universal neglect of neat- 
ness in the interior of the house, and the more serious charge of in- 
attendon to the health of their children. Hie mater propoidon of 
die latter are separated from their modiers at &e dme when paren- 
tal tenderness is most wanted, and entrusted to country nurses, who 
are frecjuendy veiy deficient in the means of preserving their heakh, 
or providing for their comfixt. 

On the MeriU of a lti9idenc€ in Ftamx. M< 

If we look to the higher drdes, we shall findeveiy whei^ exam* 
plea of similar activity and address* Your readers may have fresh 
m their minds the multiplied letters and applications of madams 
Ney, and the more fortunate exploit of madame Lavalette. Thejr 
will not have forgotten the courageous stand made by the dutcheas 
of Angouleme at Bordeaux, in March, 1815, and her repeated ad« 
dresses to the troops oi the garrison. 


This is a very delicate topic, and one on which I take the lir 
berty to diiFer from a great number of our countT3anen. In nothing 
does the exaggers^g propensity of the French iq>pear more conspi- 
cuous than in the tale of scandal; not that such tales are particularly 
frequent in this country, but, because, when they do come forth, 
they are arrayed in a garb that would hardly ever enter into the 
imagination of any of our countrywomen. On our side of the chan- 
nel a rumour, whether amonff t)^ fair or the mercenary part of the 
public, generally has probability, in some degree, for its foundation; 
but in France all you require is the direct sdlegation, the confident 
assertion. Nobody thiid» of scrutinizing your evidence, and you 
are in no danger ot being afterwards remmded of your fallacy, in 
a country where almost every thing was absorbed in the thirst of 
novelty. A lady in France, who may happen to have a quarrel, or 
or who may g^ve rise to a hostile feeling by ner vanity or rarectati<ni, 
is not, as with us, merely satirised for the eccentrici^ of her dress 
or manner, but is doomed forthwith to encounter the most vehement 
attacks on her reputation. Lovers are inunediately found out for 
her, and the circumstances of assignations are recapitulated with as 
much precision as if the parties had been present at the forbidden 
interview; if she has eclipsed her rivals at a ball, or received the 
marked attentions of a leadine personage, the unkindly rumour will 
fly from mouth to mouth, without exciting, among at least nine- 
tenths of the public, the least doubt of its reality. It lasts, indeed, 
only for a few weeks, until some other female becomes equally the 
object of jealousy, and is made to furnish materials for a fresh se- 
ries of wondrous anecdotes. It is ten to one that, at the time of the 
arrival of sm English traveller in a French town, the hecute nobks^e 
are occujpied with some precious rumour of this description, and our 
moralizmg countiyman records it in his journal with a sad convic- 
tion of the depravity of the nation. 

A residence of several years in a provincial town of considerable 
size, and of much genteel society, has satisfied me that nine-tenths 
ei the tales circulated against particular individuals are unfounded, 
and were never meant by the inventors to produce any thing beyond 
a temporary discredit to the obnoxious party. Common sense tells 
us, tmit in every civilized country, a woman will look for her hap<» 
piness in the syflPection of her husband, and in the esteem of the 
mpectable part of her sex; nor can France be accounted an txcep* 
tmn, luiless it can be shown tiiat^ by some strange peculiarity, tiie 
men hi that country are indifferent to tiie chastity of their wives and 
daughters, or the women callous to every thing in the shape of 

246 On the Merits of a Residence in France. 

vice. Gallantly is the vice of an idle man; it is characteristic of the 
higher ranks in France, in the same manner, and perhaps in a some- 
what higher degree than in other countries; but how small is the 
proportion of these idlers to the great mass of the population! The 
middling and the lower ranks follow the same habits of industry as 
with us; a married couple can find a maintenance for their family 
only by a cordial support of each other; and the time of the husband 
is occupied to a degree that leaves him very litde leisure for plan- 
ning projects on his neighbour's wife. 

ITiere is, however, a very marked distinction in the degree of re- 
probation affixed by French suid English ladies to individuals of their 
sex, labouring under unfavpurable imputations. While, with us, the 
exclusion from society takes place on a general scale, in France, it 
is only partial, owing {not as die wags will argue) to a community 
of impropriety on the part of those who still continue their counte- 
nance; but to a facility of temper, a wish to view things on the fa- 
vourable side, a credulity in listening to the vindication of the ac- 
cused party, a partiality to whoever courts protection; in short, to a 
variety of causes that do more honour to the heart than the head. 

Parents in France are very scrupulous in regard to their daugh- 
ters, and make a rule of not allowing them to go into company or 
to places of amusement without the protection of a relation or friend, 
whose age or character will prevent any loose conversation from the 
young or giddy part of Ae other sex. This, to be sure is paying but 
a bad compliment to the male part of the society; but it gives an 
English family residing in France an assurance, that their daugh- 
ters may go without hazard into female society, particularly of an 
age corresponding to their own. Music, drawing, and dancing, form 
in that country, as with us, the general occupation of unmarried 


There is a material difference .between the French of Paris and 
the provincial towns, so that the favourable part of my picture is to 
be understood as applicable chiefly to the latter. Paris has always 
been the residence of an extraordinary number of oisifs^ whether of- 
ficers, noblesse^ or others, who have just money enough to pay 
their way from day to day: and who, without being absolute adven< 
turers, are perpetually falling into all the exceptionable habits of die 
inexperienced and idle. A Frenchnmn is the creature of habit, he 
has no fixed principles, and follows, with all imaginable pliancy, the 
example or solicitation of those with whom he happens to be con- 
nected for the moment. Such a flexibility of character must inevitably 
pave the way to a variety of irregularities; and eventually to vices; 
time is wasted at theatres, at shows, or at the more dangerous occu- 
pation of the gaming table? and, although the habitual exaggeration 
of the French leads them (when speaking of the vices of the metro- 
polis^ to exhibit a very outr^ picture, particularly in what relases to 
the fair sex, there can remam no didubt that Paris is a place to be 
avoided, and that it is the scene. where, of all others, the national 
character of the French ^peata to the greatest disadvants^ge. 


Art, IXi'^Notoria; or MisceUaneoua Articles of Philosophy^ Lite- 
rature^ and Politics, 

The foUowing^ Biographical Sketches are selected from the * Dictionary of 
Living Authors' noticed in a former number of our Magazine. 

Hanm AH More. This distifiguiBhed leaving the fruits to justify both her 
ornament of her sex was one of the motives and her ccmduct. When the 
five daughters of a village school-mas- education of the princess Charlotte be- 
ter in the parish of Hanham, near Bris- came an object of serious attention to 
tol. Her parents were so meanly situ- her illustrious friends, Mrs. Hannah 
ated as to be incapable of giving her More was consulted by the first lady in 
that education which she desired. The the kingdom, on which occasion she 
casual reading of an odd volume of published a work which was deservedly 
Richardson's Pamela, excited a thirstof stamped with the royal approbation, as 
knowledge which could not be allayed, well as that of the world at large. For 
and the kindness of some ladies in the some years past, this valuable woman 
neighbourhood enabled her to gratify has been confined almost wholly to her 
her inclinations. Her improvement bed, by an exruciattng illness, notwith- 
was so rapid as to attract general no- standing which writing is her chief de- 
tice, and among others who distinguish- light, and in this condition she has ac- 
ed themselves as her friends, was the tually produced some of her most es- 
late Dr. Stonbouse of Bristol, who in- teemed performances, particularly a 
terested himself so zealously in her religious novel, calculated to render 
behalf as to enable her to set up a that species of literary amusement 
school, which prospered greatly under more serviceable to the diffusion of 
her management and that of her sisters, sound principles and virtuous practice 
By the doctor's kindness, she was in- than seems generally to have been con- 
troduced to the acquaintance of Mr. suited in works of fiction. 
Garrick , who encouraged her to write J amss Hogg, a self-taught poet, bom 
for the stage. Her performances in about 1772, who received no instruc- 
this line became very popular, but af- tion after his eighth year, and was first 
ter some years the religious views of a cowherd, and afterwards a shepherd 
Miss More took so serious a turn as to at Ettrick, N. B. Mr. Walter Scott is 
produce a declaration in the preface to said to have interested himself so warm- 
the third volume, of her works, that ly in his behalf as to have obtained for 
she did not consider the stage, in its him by the sale of his works a decent 
present state, as becoming the appeal^ competence, consisting in a little farm 
ance or countenance of a Christian, on in the Highlands, 
which account she thought proper to James Lackington, a native of So- 
renounce her dramatic prcxluctions in mersetshire, of very humble origin, 
any other light- than as mere poems, and ori^nally a shoemaker, whidb pro- 
Having realized an independence by an fession he quitted and became the ven- 
honourable profession and the fruits of der of second-hand books in Chiswell- 
ber pen, this lad)', with her sisters, re- street. His success in this line was so 
tired, about twenty years ago, from great that he erected a spacious house 
Bristol to Mendip, where amongst the and shop in Finsbury-square, to which 
colliers and the labourers in the lead he gave the name of Uie Temple of the 
works, they have effected a wonderful Muses. Mr. Lackington was chiefly 
alteration, by erecting and superin- indebted to the members of Mr. Wes- 
tending charity schools. Even this ley's society for his success in trade, 
good work, however, could not escape yet in his first, literary performance 
opposition, and sorry we are to record, he treated the Methodists with un- 
thai the attack came from a quarter warrantable severity. At that time, 
which ought to have provided the most however, he had become the disciple 
prompt and zealous support to the dis- of Paine, but sindie his retirement from 
interested and Christian undertaking, business his religious impressions have 
A sharp controversy was carried on by been renewed, and he has built a meet- 
a neighbouring clergyman against the ing-house for the people of his commu* 
schools, and several others in their fa- nion at Taunton, where he now resides. 
, TOur: but, to the honour of the founder Sir Richard Phillips, Knt. was 
herself, she took no part in the strife, bom in London in 1768, and educated 

848 Notoria. 

first at Hm Bchool in Soho Squaro, tad Thnle, an amineiit brairer in Santli^ 
next at ChiBwick. At an early period he wark, and for some years representa* 
conceired an arersion to animal food» tiye in parliament for that borough. On 
in an abstinence from which he has the death of that gentleman in 1781, 
continued to perseyere oyer since. He his widow and four daughters went to 
was brought up under his uncle, a reside at Bath, where, in 1784, Mis. 
brewer in Oxford Street, but in 1788, Thrale gare her hand to an Italiaa 
he became partner in the management teacher of music named Gabriel Pioaai, 
of a school at Chester, from whence he with whom she visited the continent, 
remored, two years afterwards, to Liei- and remained at Florence some years. 
cester, where, in 1790, he opened a Mrs. Piozzi was the intimate fiiend 
bookseller's shop and hegua to publish and ccnrespondent of Dr. Johnson^ 
the Leicester Herald. In 179S faedis- whose dis{rfeasare she incurred by her 
tinguished himself by his concern in ▼cry imprudent marriage; and whcm 
several canab, towaids which he was the doctor died, she published letten 
ft subscriber on paper^ and turned his and anecdotes of that venerable <te» 
enterprizing schemes to some advan- racter, without paying much regard t» 
tage. The foDowing year he was prose- the propriety fk the selection, or the 
cuted for selling Fame's Rights of Man, verity of her relations. The late inge- 
and having been found guilty, was sen- mous Joseph Baretti, in particular, 
tenced to be imprisoned twelve months was very severe in his animadveniotta 
in Leicester gaol. In 1795 his house on her conduct, and Dr. W^oloot pub- 
and printing office were consumed by lished an admirable poem, in which he 
ih%, soon after which he came to Lon- exposed the literary lady and her com- 
don, and was enabled by the democra- petitor, Mr. Boswell, under the appro- 
tic party to set up the Monthly Maga- priate titles c^ ** Boszy and Ptozzi." 
zine, which was designed to be the In the Miscellanies of Mrs. Anna Wil- 
oigan of that faction^ and in which liams, printed in 1765, is a very bean- 
cause it has continued to operate eifec- tiful tsJe written by Mrs Thrale, enti- 
tually enough from the period of its tied, *' The Three Warnings," besides 
commencement to the present hour, which she communicated many light 
The success which the publisher ex- essays and poetical effusicms to other 
perienced in this work induced him to collections. 

embark pretty hugely, first in the ho- Madame Db SrAEL-HoLSTsm, is 
siery, and next in Sie bookselling busi- the only daughter of- the celebrated 
ness, so that he found it expedient to M. Necker, by his wife Susan Curchod, 
remove jfrom St Paul's Church Yard the friend and correspondenc of Gibbon, 
to New Bridge Street, where he carried She was bom at Paris in 1768, and 
on a very extensive <;oncem. In 1807, received the most liberal education 
he was chosen, by the management of under the eye of her accomplished pa- 
his friends, one of the sheriffs of the rents. But as Madame Necker en- 
city of London; and on going up with couraged an assembly of literary char- 
an address in behalf of ministers, he actors at her bouse, in which questiona 
accepted the honour of knighthood, to of morals, met^bysics, and politics, 
the great astonishment of his republican were freely discussed, the young lady, 
friends. After various manceuvres to who witnessed these debates, very earii^ 
support his establishment, his name ap- contracted a disputatious and paradoxi- 
peared in the Gazette, and for some cal spirit. When young, she married 
months he led a life of obscurity at the baron de Stael-Holstein, Swedish 
Pimlico, but on obtaining his certifi- ambassadorat the court of France, bttt 
cate, he again burst forth as a meteor the union was £BLr from being an faar- 
in the sphere of literature. His Ma- monious one, as the husband soon per- 
gazine having been purchased in by ceived that his wife was too proud of 
some of his friends, he became the her own intellectual powers to pay any 
avowed editor of that publication. deference to his opinions. She was 
Mrs. HssTEn Lynch Piozzi. This besides little attentive to those graces 
lady is the daughter of John Salusbury, which give a charm to the female char- 
Esq. of Bodvel in Caernarvonshire, acter, and her appearance was fi«- 
where she was bom about the year quendy such as to create disgust by 
1744. In 1763 thematried Mr. Henry the oaxelessnesa of her dress, and thie 


Notoria. M9 

ferttdding ndeiiest of her manneta, friend and piotector Benjamin Con- 
The first publication of madame de stant. From Frankfort madame de 
Stael, was a vindication of the char- Stael went to Berlin, where she receiy« 
aoter and writings of Rosseau, in 1789, ed the intelligence of her father's ill- 
bat prior to this, she had written three ness, on which she hastened to Wei- 
short noirels, which were printed at mar, but found that he had died before 
LAUsanne, in 1795. At the beg^inning her arrival, April 9, 1804. As soon as 
of the French tevolution, this ladj took the first emotions of grief subsided, she 
a more active part in the convulsions employed herself in arranging his pa* 
which overturned the monarchy, than pers for publication, and. &ey accord- 
became either her sex or her situation ingly appeared in print the same year, 
as the wife of a foreign ambassador, at Geneva. In this publication, she 
8be involved herself indeed so much was mean enough to pay a high-flown 
in those scenes, as to become an object compliment to Buonaparte, in hopes, 
of public attention; and in 1793, she no doubt, of softening down his resent- 
ibund it necessary to seek an asylum . ment, though the man himself^ and 
in England; but, two years afterwards, every body else, well knew that the 
•ker husband being appointed ambassa- panegyric did not proceed from the 
dor to the French republic, she had the heart The sentence of her banish- 
privilege of returning to Paris; and ment remained, and to alleviate her 
about this time she endeavoured to uneasiness under the decree, she tra- 
conciliate the men in power by pub- veiled to Italy, which produced another 
lishing her '* Thoughts on Peace ad- novel fuU as extravagant and beautiful 
dress^ to Mr. Pitt," a pamphlet filled as Delphine. She sSierwards resided, 
with sophistry, though it received the for some time, at the Swedish capital, 
praises of Mr. Fox. -About this time where she formed a close intimacy 
she lost her mother, and in 1798, her with the crown prince, Bemadotte, to 
husband, neither of which events could whom she dedicated, in a very flatter- 
repress her literary ardonr or restrain ing style, her little work on Suicide. 
ker from publishing, for at thb period From Stockholm, madame de Stael 
she wrote a play called <* Secret Sen- passed over to England, where she re- 
timent," and a work, '* On the Influ- mained while the allies were marching 
ence of Literature upon Society." In upon Paris, to which city she returned 
1800, when Buonaparte passed through on the restoration of Louis XVIII, 
Switzerland, he visited Madame de in 1814. 
Stael, who talked to him a great deal «- 
about her plans for the organization of pbope&tiks or plants. 
France, on which the first consul vexy From the Literary Panorama. 
sarcastically replied: *' Who educates The following extracts from a lecture 
your children, madame?'' During her on *AgriciUlur€U ChenUttry yhy sirllumr 
residence in Switzerland she wrote her phrey Davy, are particulariy worthy the 
iiovel of <* Delphine," the elegance of attention of the ingenious. They open 
which will hardly be admitted as an a view of the operations of Nature on a 
excuse for its tendency. Shortly after large scale, that is at once striking and 
this she accompanied her father to instructive. The vegetable kingdom is 
Paris, but her residence there was short, distributed in g^at masses all over the 
for the freedom of her opinions Und the face of the earth; and it produces eflfects 
popularity of Necker, induced Buona- accordingly. The numbers of the ani- 
parte to pronounce a sentence of ban- mal kingdom bear but a small proper* 
ishment against madame de Stael, who tion to it, considered as to such eflects. 
said to him, *'You are giving me a Without entering into particulars^ we 
cruel celebrity; I shall occupy a line shall set before our readers the general 
in your history.'' This, perhaps, might results of this learned lecturer's disqui- 
be wit, but it was far from being pru- sitions. Sir Humphrey had been observ- 
dent; and she felt the eflects of her ing, that, when the leaves of vegetables 
indiscretion, for having settled near perform their healthy functions, they 
Kouen she was ordered to remove to a tend to purify the atmosphere in the 
greater distance from Paris, on which common variations of weather, and 
she withdrew to Frankfort, with her changes from light to darkness. Vege** 
VOL. X. 32 

S5d yctoria. 

tMMy be tbmki, produce more oxygen wise with the motkn of the tap upfwaide. 

than they ooosume: animals, on the Coq- lliis is shown by seyeral experiments of 

traiy, are constantly consmning'this gas. Dr. Hales. 

*• If every plant, during the progress of < A branch from an apple tree was ae- 

its life, ma&es a very small addition of parated and introduced into water, and 

oxygen to the air, and occasions a very connected with a mercurialgage. When 

small consumption of carhonio acid, the the leaves were upon it, it raised the 

effect may he conceived adequate to the mercury by the force of the ascending 

wants of nature. juices to four inches; but a similar 

' It may occur as an objection, that if branch, from which the leaves were re- 

the leaves of plants purify the atmos- moved, scarcely raised it a quarter of an 

phere, towards the end of autumn, and inch. 

through the winter, and eariy spring, ' Those trees, likewise, whose leaves 
the air in our climates must become im* are soft and of a spongv texture, and po- 
pure, the oxygen in it diminish, and the rous at their upper surnces, displayed by 
carbonic acid gas increase^ which is not hi the greatest powers with regard to 
the case: but there is a veiy satisfactory the elevation of the sap. 
answer to this objection. The difierent * The same philosopher, found that the 
parts of the atmosphere are constantly pear, the quince, cherry, walnut, peach, 
mixed together by winds, which, when gooseberry, watei^elder, and sycamore, 
they are strong, move at the rate of which have all soft and unvamiahed 
from 60 to 100 miles in an hour. In our leaves, raised the mercury under favour- 
winter, the south-west gales convey air, able circumstances from three to six 
which has been purified by the vast fo- inches. Whereas the elm, oak, chesnut, 
rests and savannas of South America, hazel, sallow, and ash, which have firm- 
and which, passing over the ocean, ar- er and more glossy leaves, raised ^ 
rives in an uncontaminated state. The mercury only from one to two inches, 
storms and tempests which often occur And the evergreens, and trees bearing 
at the beginning, and towards the mid- varnished leaves, scarcely at all affacteo 
die of our wint^, and which generally it; particularly the laurel and the lauris- 
blow from tiie same quarter of Uie globe, tinus. .... 

have a salutary influence. By constant *• As the operation of the different (^y- 
agitation and motion, the equihbrium of sical agents, upon the sap vessels of 
the constituent parts of the atmosphere plants ceases, and the ihiid becomes qui- 
is preserved; it is fitted fin* the purposes escent, the materials dissolved in it by 
of life; and those events, which the su* heat, are deposited upon the sides of 
perstitious formeriy referred to the the tubes now considerably diminished 
wrath of heaven, or the agency of evil in their diameter, and in consequence of 
spirits, and in which they saw only dis- this deposition, a nutritive matter is pro- 
order and confusion, are demonstrated vided for the.first wants of the plant in 
by science, to be ministrations of divine eariy springs to assist the opening of the 
intelligence, and connected with the buds, and their expansion, when the mo- 
order and harmony of our system. . . • tion from the want of leaves is as yet 

< The experiments of Montgolficr, the feeble, 

celebrated inventor of the baUoon, have * This beautiful principle in the vege- 

•hown that water may be raised almost table economy was first pointed out by 

to an indefinite height by a very small Dr. Darwin: and Mr. Knight has gfiven 

Ibrce, provided its pressure be taken off a number of experimental elucidatimis 

by continued divisions in the column of of it. 

fluid. This principle, there is great rea- * The joints of the perennial grasses 

son to suppose, must operate in assisting contain more saccharine and mucilagi- 

tfae ascent of the sap in the cells and nous matter in winter than at any other 

vessels of plants which have no rectili- season; and this is the reason why the 

neal communication, and which every Fiorin or Agrostis alba, which abounds 

where oppose obstacles to the perpendi- in these joints, affords so useful a winter 

cular pressure of the sap. The changes fiiod. 

taking place in the leaves and buds, and < The roots of shrubs contain the 

the degree of their power of transpira- Iai*gest quantity of nourishing matter m 

tion, must be intimately connected like- the depUiofwmter, and the bulb ioall 

Notoricu 251 

pfonts posseMin^ it, is the receptacle in erer careftilly they are ingTufted, thej 
which nourishment is hoarded up during merely tend to multiply a sickly and 
the winter. exhausted variety. 

« In annual plants the sap seems to he < The trees possessing* the firmest and 
folly exhausted of all its nutritive mat- the least porous heart- wood, are the 
ter by the production of flowers and longest in duration, 
aeeds; and no system exists by which it * Amongst our own trees, the chesnut 
can be preserved and the oak are pre-eminent as to du- 

' In perennial trees a new alburnum, rability; and the chesnut affords rather 
and consequently a new system of ves- more carbonaceous matter than the oak. 
aels is annually produced, and the nutri- ' In old Gotfiic buildings these woods 
ment for the next year deposited in have been sometimes mistaken one for 
them: so that the new buds, like the the other: but tliey may be easily known 
plume of the seed, are supplied with a by this circumstance, that the pores in 
reservoir of matter essential to their first the alburnum of the oak are much 
development laiger and more thickly set, and are ea- 

< The old alburnum is gradually con- sily distinguished; whilst the pores in 
Ferted into heart-wood, and being con- the chesnut require glasses to be seen 
atantly pressed upon the expansive force distinctly. 

of the new fibres, bec<»iies harder- * In consequence of the slow decay of 
denser, and at length loses altogether its the heart-wood of the oak and chesnut, 
vascular structure; and in a certain time these trees, under favourable circum- 
obeys the common laws of dead matter, stances, attain an age which cannot be 
decays, decomposes, and is converted much short of one thousand year& 
into aerifoim and carbonio elements; ' The beedi, the ash, and the syca- 
into those principles from which it was more, most likehr never live half so long, 
originally formed. The duration of the apple tree is not, 

* The decay of the heart- wood seems probably, much more than 200 years: 
to constitute the great limit to the age but the pear-tree, aocoiding to Mr. 
and size of trees. And in young branch- l^jught, lives through double this period; 
es from old trees, it is much more liable most of our best apples have been in* 
to decompose than in similar branches troduced into Britain by a fruiterer of 
from seedlings. This is likewise the Henry the Eighth, and they are now ia 
case with grafts. The graft is only nou- a state of old age. 
rished by the sap of the tree to which it * The decay of the best varieties of 
is transferred: its properties are not fruit-bearing trees which have been dis- 
changred by it: the leaves, blossoms, and tributed through the country by giufts, 
fruits, are of the same kind as if it had is a circumstance of great importance, 
vegetated upon its parent stock. The There is no mode of preseiving them^ 
only advantage to be gained in this way, and no resource, except that of raising 
is die affi>rdingto a graft from an old new varieties by seeds. 
tree a more plentiful and healthy food ' Where a species has been ameliora- 
than it could have precured in its natu- ted by culture, the seeds it affords, other 
ral state; it is rendered for a time more circumstances being similar, produce 
vigorous, and produces fj^^er blossoms more vig^(HY>us and perfect plants; and 
and richer fruits. But it partakes not in this way the g^at improvements in 
merely of the obvious properties, but the productions o^our fields and gardene 
likewise of the infirmities and disposir seem to have been occasioned, 
tions to old age and decay, of the tree ' Wheat in its indigenous state, as a 
whence it sprung. natural production of the soil, appeaia 

*• It is from this cause that so many of to have been a very small g^rass: and 
the apples, formerly celebrated for their the case is still more remarraible with 
taste and their uses in the manufacture the apple and the plum. The crab seeraa 
of cider, are gpradually deteriorating, to have been the parent of all our ap« 
and many will soon disappear. The pies. And two fruits can soarcely be 
golden (Mppin, the red streak, and the conceived more di&rent in colour, sixe, 
moil, so exceUent in the beginning of and s^pearanoe, than the wild piiam 
the last centuiy, are now in the ex* and the rioh magnum bonum. 
tremest stage of their decay; and, how* ' The seeds of plants, exalted by cid- 

252 Notoria» 

tiTotion, ahrayfl fnnoiih large and tai- ' And bis experiments on the cmf- 
proved yarieties; but the flavour, and ing of wheat, which is very easily ef- 
even the colour of the fruit seems fected, merely by* sowing the difTerent 
to be a matter of accident Thus, a kinds together, lead to a result which is 
hundred seeds of the golden pippin will of considerable importance. He says, 
all produce fine large-leaved apple- in the Philosophical Transactions for 
trees, bearing fruit of a considerable 1799, '* in the years 1795 agid 1797» 
size; but the tastes and colours of the when almost the whole crop of corn in 
apples from each will be different, and the island was blighted, the varieties 
none will be the same in kind as those obtained by crossing cilcne escaped, 
of the pippin itself. Some will be sweet, though sown in several soils, and in "werj 
some sour, some bitter, some mawkish, different situations." ^ 
some aromatio) some yellow, some * By making trees espaliers, the fiirce 
gfreen, some red; and some streaked, of gravity is particularly directed to- 
All the apples will, however, be much wurds the lateral parts of the branches, 
mora perfect than those from the seeds and more sap determined towards the 
of a crab, which produce trees all of the frait^buds; and hence they are mcHts 
same kii^ and wl bearing sour and di- likely to hear when in a horizontal than 
minutive fruit when in a vertical position. 

* The power of the horticalturist cix- < The twisting of a wiro, or tying a 
tends only to the multiplying excellent thread round a branch has been often 
varieties by grafting. They cannot be recommended as a means of making it 
rendered permanent; and the good produce fruit In this case the descent 
fruits at present in our gardens, are the of the sap in the bark must be impeded 
produce of a few seedlings, selected above the ligature; and more nutritive 
probably from hundreds of thoosands; matter consequently retained and ap- 
the results of great labour and industiy, plied to the expanding parts* 

and multiplied experiments. ' In engrafting, the vessels of the bark 

* The larger and thicker the leaves of the stock and the graft cannot so per- 
of a seedling, and the more expanded fectly come in contact as the alburaoiia 
iti blossoms, the more it is likely to vessels, which are much more aume- 
poduce a good variety of fruit. Short rous, and equally distributed; benoe 
leaved trees should never be selected; the cireulation downwards is prob^j 
for these approach nearer to the origi- impeded, and the tendency of the graft 
nal standard: whereas the other quali- to evolve its fruit-bearing buds ia- 
ties indicate the influence of cultivation, creased. 

< In the general selection of seeds, it « By lopping trees, more nouriahmeat 
wonld appear that those arising from is supplied to the remaining parts; for 
the most highly cultivated varieties of the sap flows laterally as weU as per- 
plantB, are such 9A give the most vi- pendicularly. The same reasons will 
gorous produce; but it is necessaz^ apply to explain the increase of the siae 
from time to time to change, and as it of fruits by diminishing the number up- 
bore, to cross the breed. on a tree. 

< Vif applying the pollen, or dust of < As piants are capable of ameliom- 
the stamina, from one variety to the tionbypecoliar methods of cnltivatioBy 
pistil of another of the same species, a and of having the natural tens of their 

^ new variety may be easily produced; duration extended; so, in oonfiDnnity to 

^ and Mr. Knight's experiments seem to the general law of change, they are 

Warrant the idea, that great advantages rendered unhealthy by bong exposed 

may be derived from this method of pro^ to peculiar unfavourable cironm- 

pagation. stances, and liable to premature old 

<Mr. Knight's lai^ peas, produced age and decay.' 
. by crossing two varieties, are celebra^ — 

amongst horticulturists, and will, I hope, locusts. 

loon be cultivated by farmers. To the Editor of the LU* Ptmorama^ 

* I have seen several of his crossed ap- Observing in yoor Panorama No. 36, 
pies, which promise to rival the best of lor Nov. 1816, some aooonnt of the io» 
those which are g^raduaUy dying away costs of North America, I take the lib- 
fai the cider countries. erty of writing yon some additionil 

' I 

Notoria. 253 

tices on that subject, which teenu ta knots of the twigr, in two or three place» 
be a branch of entmnology but little on each. On laii^e trees some hun- 
known. dreds of twigs were so perforated, and 

In the month of June, 1798, as I was in eyeiy hole was deposited an egg, or 
crossing the state of Pennsylvania on embryo of a maggot. — Owing to the 
loot, haying passed several of the ridges helBit of the summer, the tw^^s so injor- 
of mountains called properly the Apa- ed were killed, and twisting with the 
lachian mountains, my attention was process of drying away, thiey hung as I 
attracted by an unusual bum, or buzE have described, giving the woods a most 
in the air; and looking up I saw several singular and unnatural appearance. 
leige insects on ^e wing^ they were It may seem astonishing in the eco* 
b'rawn, and flew heavily, about an inch nomy of nature as to the re-production 
in length, and having four guaze-like of thfese creatures, but the larvae in 
wings. Their note there is no describ'i' every twig that dies, dies als<^ nor could 
ing^— it was rather long, and somewhat I find living maggots in any shrub or 
piercing— having a slight inflection of tree but only in the twigs of the soMfrm; 
tone, as if divided into two syllables, these twigs being more tenacious of life, 
which (together with the religious lean- sustained the puncturing, without yield- 
ing of the people) produces the notion ing to the drought;— I cut off* many of 
that they say '< Phaaaor." While I them, and sliding a small knife along the 
was but entning on the confines of the puncstures, deeper than th^ bark, cut 
tract of land which they then covered, through a row of small white maggots, 
I could distinguish the beginning and which gave out a milky moisture. At 
end of the note of each insect I saw; the latter end of the year the locusts 
but in a short space (a few miles) they disappeared, and no one considered 
were so numerous as to excite great how, or what got them. They might 
attentibn; though I still had fonned no peihaps, occupy a tract of land about 
distinct idea what they were. In two 100 miles square, 
days joumev afterwards, arriving at In the jrear 1800 I was at Baltimore, 
Pittsburgh (at the head of the Ohio) I and walking in Howard's perk (in the 
found the people all talking of nothing beginning of June) at the back of that 
else but tiie locusts, whic^ indeed was city, I observed innumerable holes un- 
no wonder, for they were so numerous der the trees (like the holes out of which 
that the hum continued without inter- our black beatles arise in spring,) and 
ntssion the whole day, and by dint of looking into the trees I perceivea the 
numbers was disagreeably loud and im- under sides of their leaves fiUed with 
portnnate.— I did not then stay lon|^ wingless insects which adhered to then^ 
in Pittsbuiigh, but pursued my expedi- every leaf that I could distinctly see had 
tion down the Ohio to Kentucky, and three or four on it fai a few da^ the 
returned in about a month through the whole atmosphere was alive with lo- 
Ohio states (unsettled teiritory ) to Pitts- ousts, and the hum was loud and unceas- 
burgh again: the noise was far from ing; the exuvisB dropped speedily from 
being over; but I began to observe a the leaves, and lay under the trees ia 
pheMnenon on the trees whi<^ I could such quantities tlmt bushels might soon 
not aoooont for. Every tree whether have been gathered. I now perceived 
u the woods, or in the gaidens, in tiie tiiat the creatures made their way out 
town or out of it, was hung with dead of the earth, without wings, and crept 
twigs, having their leaves on, but dried up the trees, fastening themselves un- 
and turned of various colourB like an- demeath the leaves, where in a short 
tnnm. I inquired of the people the reason time they were perfected; a sutnre then 
of this appearance, andiSnuid that it wis opened down the back, aind the winged 
ocoasioned by the locusts. I was now insect dropped out (cerloMy i^pon Um 
anxious to examine the process of their tsingv,) being thenceforth a tenant of 
fuvages, and I fennd that twigs of the the air. This was the second flight 
last year's shoot were perfivafeed to the that I had the opportunity of observing^-* 
pith, by holes in rows placed as near but at a considerable distance from the 
together as the teeth in a fine ivory first, and I had no means of ascertaining 
comb (and of oovne as small) and as how fkr they extended. Neither can 
nan^ w oould be bored between the I specify the period of their retorft**- 

^4 Notorz<u 

bat I remember their public 2»pers uttiforaily productiye of an extriot so 
called the insect the cicada wpfefiMleceifi. grateful to the palate and the stomaohf 
I am afraid it ironld be in vain to as to leave me neither the want nor the 
speculate frbm these imperfect notices, desire of any stronger liquor, 
upon the mode of their reproduction, or But, to acscomplish this, a vessel of 
the period they remain inactive, or the peculiar construction is requisite. Mine 
changes they may undergo. It appears is a straight-sided pot, as wide at top as . 
to becertain that they become a maggot at bottom, and inclosed in a case of si- 
before winter sets in, but whether tibia railar shape, to which it is soldered air- 
maggot (or grub) descends into the tight at the top. The case is above an 
ear&i, I know not inch wider than the pot, descends seme- 

I was at Carlisle (Pennsylvania) in what less than an inch bebw it, and is 
1794, but not in 1796 — but I passed entirely open at ^e bottom; thus ad* 
tiirough it in 1798 during the early part mltting and confining a body of hot air 
of my excursion befonrnamed. It is all round and underneath the pot The 
probable that some tract or other d the lid is double, and the vessel is of course 
United States is every year visited by furnished with a convraient handle and 
tilese swarms; but I cannot agree with ^nrat 

the statement in your extract <f the In this simmerer the extract may be 
ki€uHi ereejpmg unm/ediaMy out if Oimt made either with hot w%ter or with ccdd. 
hnuki^ ana hanging by their fore/eet If wanted for speedy use, hot water wiU 
Hke tallow candiet; the contrary is much be proper, but not actually boiling; and, • 
more probable, and their exuvim will the powdered coffee being add^, no- 
continue sticking under the leaves some thing remains but to cloae the lid tight, 
days after the insect has flown. The to stop the spout vtth a oork, and place 
holes they make in rising may be about the vessel over the lamp, where it wiU 
three quarters of an indi in diameter, soon begin to simmer, uid may remain 
and the former error in that particular unattended and unnoticed until thecctf- 
may be an error of the press. fee is wanted for immediate use; it may 

If you think this worth inserting you then be strained through a bag* of stout 
are welcome to it— and I may probably close linen, which will transmit the li- 
hereafterrecfrflect some interesting par^ quid so perfectly clear as not tocontain 
ticolars relative to that country* tiie smallest particle of the powder. 

BxN. HoLoicH. The strainer is tied round the month 

-^ of an open cylinder or tube» which is 

comEE sixvERBB* fitted into the moutii of the oo^pot 

To ike BmJtor <f the JHonilUy Maga^ that is to receive the fluid, as a steamer 

Tsine. is fitted into the mouth erf* a saucepan; 

TvE use of coffee becoming every and, if the coffee-pot have a cock near 

day more extensive in this country, I the bottom, the liquid may be drawn out 

presume that any suggestion for tiie im- as fast and as hot as it flows from the 

fnovement of that pleasing and salu- strainer. 

brious beverage cannot prove unac- If the coffee be not intended for 
cqptaUe to the public. Under that speedy use; as is the case witiime^ who 
persuasion, I beg leave to communicate have my simmerer placedover|ny night- 
a method of cofiee-making, which I lamp at bed-time, to produce the bere- 
bave long practised, and which I find rage vdiich I am to dnnk the meaX day 
to answer my purpose better than any at dinner and supper; in such case cold 
other— though I have tried several, water may be used with equal, or pei^ 
and bestowcki on the subject a share of haps superior, advantage^ though I hare 
attention, which your readers will hard- never fonpd any perceptible ^Uffisrence 
ly deem censurable when apprised, that in the result, wbediet the water em|^y- 
ooflbe has, for the last three years, been ed was hot or cold. In either case, it 
ray only beverage, except morning and soon begins to simoier, and contianes 
evenii^ tea. simmering all night, witiiont ever boil- 

My process, sir, is that of sinunering ing over, and without any sensible dimi- 
over the small, but steady, flame of a nution of quantity by emporatiott. 
lamp,— 4L process at once simple, easy. With respect to the lamp*-althougb 
aad (without watcbingor atteadnaoe) i f^ilrirt '"-"f ^ «" ^ nti w»^j y^ « £■ w. .. 

bfe> ttiy of Ihe oomnoii snail lamps, the pttUic is, for vtwog chaiacteFs 
which are lean in every tin-shop, will stioiigly combined. Perhaps, there may 
answer the purpose, provided that it be cpreat propriety in oonoealing the 
contain a snfloiency of oil to oontinne names of the writers; and in preveot- 
bnrning bright dnrinif the requisite iag preference; this must, in some de- 
lengfth of time. The tnbe or bamer of gree check the intrigue of the theatre, 
my lamp is little more than one-eighth against which merit is no protection; 
of an inch in diameter; and this, at the as some writers know but too well, 
distance of one inch and three quarters The stipulation that answers should be 
below the bottom of the pot, with the giyen within a month after the rec^)- 
wick Utile more Uian one-eighth of an tion of a piece, would prove extremely 
inch high, and with pure spennaceti oil, acceptable to many" an English appli- 
has inyariably perfdimed, as above de- cant fer manageiical protection, 
scribed, without requiring any trim- 
ming, or other attention, andwithont Programma qfthe Diredion gfihe Bay- 
ptn^King any smoke; whereas, if the allmperial Theairt qf La ScalOy al 
wick were too high, or the oil not good, MiUm, Daied April B^ \H16. 
the certain consequences would be, I. From the date of the publication 
amoke, soot, and extinctioo. of the present Programma to the end of 

One material advantage attending December, 1819, it shall be free to every 

fliis mode of coliee-mafcing is, that a Italian poet to send to the Committee 

amaller quantity of the powdered berry of Direction Dramoif or Op0rat seri- 

is requisite to give the desired strength ons or comic. 

to the liquor. The common methods II. The communications must be sent 
require that the powder be coarse, in post paid, addressed Al Sifnor Cava- 
which state it does not give out its vir- liere Angth PHrauhi; ct M Cmnerino 
tue so completely as if it were ground dellL C, TeairoAUa Scakhin Miiano* 
finer; whereas in this process it may be III. The authors must carefully con- 
used as fine as it can conveniently be ceal their names. The pieces must be 
made, and, the finer it is, tiie smaller aooompanied by a sealed note, contain- 
will be the quantity required, or the ingtheirnames, their address, and those 
richer the extract— as I have agreea^ of a person who may answer for them; 
biy experienced, since I have been the choice of whom is left to them- 
enabled, by the new invention of Mes- selves. 

srs. Deakin and Duncan, of Ludgmte- IV. The pieces so sent shall be ex- 
hill, to have my coffin at once reduced amined by two of the directors, and by 
to Uie proper degree of fineness by a a third person chosen from among tfa« 
•ingle operation, without the tedious most distinguished poets of the city of 
labour of a secmid grinding with the Milan.— -Those pieces which shall be 
mill tightened. John Cabbt. exdnded from performance shall be re- 
Wed-^quare Lambeth; April 2« turned to the author, or to the person 

— oomnlissioned to act as his deputy. 

rrALiAN oFsnA. V. One month after sending their 

Frmii tfke Literary P anorama, pieces, the authors may expect a de- 

Thefiitlowing article is net only cu- finitive answer, as to the reception or 

riotts in itself, as marking the anxiety rejection of their performances, and in 

of goverament, widiout whose sanction the latter case, they may receive them 

noising of the kind can be attempted, again immediately, with the unsealed 

or matured, to revive the talent fk note of address. 

Opera writing; but also as describing VI. The pieces which shall be ap- 

what modem times demand as the es- proved, will be placed in the director's 

sentials of an opera likely to be sue- drawer, from among which will be se- 

cessful in the present day. The En- lected all the new works composed for 

glish reader will smile at the determi- the theatre during the time that the di- 

nation that there shall be one comic rectors are in office, to the end of the 

character in a comic qBera. The times Carnival, 1890; during which time will 

of Sentimental comedy, or what the be represented at least one serious ope- 

S^nch denominated La Camedie iar^ ra and two comic operas, in each year; 

Moyonfe, are over; and the oall among with the usual approbation. 

$56 Notorta. 

Vn. iThe directofB ^Dgfage t» repre- that if tfhef «priii^ m ImJc tiie iktigae 

sent the pieces wiliioiit any alteration, becomes so gpreat at the pumps, that tbe 

wbether by the Musical composers, w men are soon exhansted. When a sloop 

the actors. In case the writers lirin^ or sm^ vessel is bnildingp, and bcJfine 

at a distance should think alteratioB ne- plankii^ the bottom and sides, let the 

cessaiy, they will nominate a proper ontside of the timbers be nibbed over 

person to that office; or they will au- with a mixture of }ntch, tar, cow-hair, 

thorise the directors. and powdered chareoal, made hot, and 

yill. The essential qualities demand- which, when cold, is of the oansislency 

ed in the pieces of both descriptions, are of cobler's wax: after mbbin|^ the tim- 

beside purity of style, bers on the outside with this con^Nisi- 

1. That they shall be in two acts. tion, plank the bottom and sides: wfam 

2. That they shall be neither too kmip the planks are caulked, fill all the 
nor too short. spaces up between the timbers with this 

3. That according to the preyailing^ mixture, and also over the inside of the 
taste, they include a i^reater number of timbers; then nail on the ceiling or lin- 
musical pieces of comMnoliofi than of ing planks. It is impossible if tlw seams 
mrff. of the outer planks are ever so open, 

' 4. That they combine interest and for the vessel to leak; nor can either 

novelty with the pomp of the spectacle, rats or mice penetrate between the tim- 

6. That in a comic opera there be at bers, because they will not touch tfan 

least one buffixm, or comic peiaonage. composition. Two small brass rollers, 

IX. For each serious c^ia that shall or ftriction wheels, fixed on the opposite 
be brought out on the stage, the sum of side of the pump-spear at the valve, 
a thousand Italian Uire will be paid; and will keep ^e pump-spear uprigfat, and 
for every comic opera eight hundred make the pump work easier. 

Hre. If the editors of the difierent periodi- 

X. When the piece is printed, after cal publications will give pubUcity io 
the title will be added— ^cnwned acoor- this paragraph, it wiH be tibe means of 
dmgUith^ProgfmmiiaqfAfrUb^X^lt, saving a number of the lives of our 
The author shall be at literty to add fat^ve seamen. Europ, Mag. 
his name, or not, according to his own •>— 

pleasure; and he, shall receive a present on Bonsx powsr. 

of twelve copiesi To the EdUor i^ihe MotUhfy Magamme^ 

XI. In case any piece sent for ap- Sm, 

probation [shall be represented on any Mr. Wilkes, of Meadiam, Derby- 
other theatre, the directors shall no shire, communicated to the board of 
longer be bound by the stipulation in Agriculture, in February 1803, te re- 
Article IX. sidt of an experiiki«&t, by which it ap- 

XII. The writers shall be authorized pears that a horse of th6 value of 801. 
to demand information ooneersing their drew fiv^ tons weight up a rail-road as- 
pieces sent, and even to withdraw them, cending five-sixteenths of an inch in 

XIII. After the Canaivai of 1820, each yard, and that the same animal 
the pieces which shall remain in charge could not draw more than three tons up 
of the directors shall be transferred to a rail rode ascending at the nteof one 
their successors in the direction, if they «inch and three quarters; By this ex- 
shall thixik proper to continue the con- periment it was proved that there was 
ditions fixed by the present Program- a decrease in the horse's power of 
ma, or in case of the contrary, they 1943-41b. on the increasing elevatien 
•haU await tiie determination of their of each one sixteenth part ol an inch, 
ftuthors. This is a species of proof whic^h de- 
Done at Milan, in the Committee of monstrates a greater advantage to be 

the Royal and Imperial Theatre Alia derived from reducing the elevtttion of 

Scala, April 5, 1816. roads in a hilly country, than is shown 

— by the usual mechanical experiments 
FLAK TO PREVENT VESSELS vhobi crfa oarriagcdrawn up an incliiMid ptone 
siNXiifo. by a weight suspended over a pulley; 
In small decked vessels, ' such as and it is much more correct, as the p^- 
iloops, there are seldom more than sioal power of the horse .rapidly de- 
three or four men to navigate them; so creases by the inoreasiBg elevatran of 

Notorim. 25r 

UMyil««t the Mne tkn« UMLlihe load it about the llSthfint of myttid; there* 

is becomiii^ mifte difficult to be drawn; fore the same proportion of the load, 

but, in the caae of the mechanical ex- which is about Sqta. ISlb. must be ad- 

periment, weight drawings the carriage ded; inaking^ together 3cwt* Iqr. 161b. 

continues equally effective.. which the horse would have to draw up 

As this is a subject of mstertal impor- this gentle slope, 
tance to the internal trade of this coun- Now, let us see what the poor beast 

try, it would render a public service if would have to do up the steeper hill, 

any of your well informed correspon- An inch and three-quarters in a yard is 

dents would be pleased to state, through an devation of about one-twentieth of 

the medium of your valuable publica- the length of the inclined plane, 'and 

tion, what information they may pos- one-twentieth part of the weight of 

tess thereon. A. B. three tons is three hundred weight; this, 

— added to the computed resistance of 

To <fte EdUor tfthe JfonMy Magaxike, friction in the machinery, makes 5 1-2 

6d^ cwt., which the horse had to draw in 

Your correspondent A. B., in the last this case, alnoet double that of the for- 

Vumber of your entertatning Miscel- men axmI he must have been a horse of 

lany, after describing the experiment conaidaable strength and spirit to hare 

communicated by Mr. Wilkes, of exerted himself with such eifSfect. 
Measbam, to the Board of Agriculture, This result seems the very reverse of 

in 1803, observes that this is a species the inference A. B. is desirous of deri- 

of proof which demonstrates a greater ving from the etperimeat he relates; 

advantage to be derived from re<lucing his-position, however, that the physical 

the elevation of roads in a hilly country, power of the horse decreases bjf the in* 

than is shown by the usual mechanical creasing elevation of the hill, is never- 

experiment of a carriage drawn up an theless true. 

inclined plane by a weight suspended That a berae geing up hill is placed 

over a pulley. in an attitude unfkvourable for drawing 

It appears, by this experiment, that, a load is sel^evident, and needs not the 

on the lail-way rising five-sixteenths of aid of mechanical pbiloeophy to furnish 

an inch to a yard, a hone drew the pro^; but it would be extremely d\M* 

weight of five tons; but on a rise of one cult to ascertain in vf bat ratio. 
aod three-quarter inches to a yard, he It might be cruel to attempt making 

couid only draw three tons: and A. B. experiments on the. absolute physical 

observes, the experiment proves that, strength of animals that cannot ex prosa 

there was a decrease in the Ikorse's po w- their sensationsi I reooUect a most in* 

or of 194 3*41b. on the increasing ele- human\rial of strength of this sort some 

vatioQ of eaoh one-sixteenth of an inch, yean ago: a wager was laid n^ietheV a 

All this is very true, but it is not by any race-horse, or a cart-horse, could bear 

itteans a correct statement of the ques- the greatest load; uid, by means of a 

tino* No horse caa put in motion &9e crane, equal weights were heaped upon 

tons, or three tons, or one ton^ without the backs of each, till the cart-horse 

the assistance oi mechanical power, sunk under his burthen, while the high- 

and the advantage derived from the ma- blooded animal stood fim and erect 
chine, by whioh he drew the weight of — 

five toos« miiat he dedncted, before any From experiments on the strength 

estimation can be made of the power of dJUferent kinds of wood, made by 

of the bone. A. B. gives no data on Col. Beaufoy, it appean that the pitch 

which to form suoh a calculation; but pine is tbe strongest Wfiod; nexttothait 

supposing tiw wheels of tiw waggon to tbe English oak. With straight and even 

ho ttorty inches high, the axles thfee fibres; tlieii the fingUsh Oak, irregular 

incboa diaaelcr, and wdl oiled, their and croas gramed; fourthly, the Riga 

power would be equal to about thirty* hr^ and fifthly the Dantzic uak. If the 

■ine-fbrtieths of the absolute weight, strength of the pitchplne be called 1000, 

leormg eno-fitrtieth part in friction fiir the strengfth of the English oak will be, 

Ike herso to overaanBe« or S 1-S cwt to fnmi the mean of two experiments, 923; 

whlcbaiiBt be added the moohaoieal of the Riga fir, 782: of the Dantzic oak, 

power of the inclined plnie aoting 063. -Veit Xag. 

HM»t hup: iHnMUEteeaths of aa iooh 

VOL. X. 33 



To giye additional streng^ to iron 
and steel, Mr. Daivtel proposes to 
twist the metal in the same manner as 
■treni^h and compactness are given to 
hemp and flax. ' ib, 

M. LcGBNDRE has refuted the objec- 
tion of Professer Leslie to his beautiful 
analysis of the relations of triangles. 
The sum of the three angles of a trian- 
gle being a determinate quantity, the 
sum of two known angles necessarily 
determines the third — ^not so the sides, 
the sum of which are not a determined 
quantity; consequently the sum of two 
being known does not determine any 
thing in regard to the third. We wish 
professor Leslie had expimged his ob- 
jection from the new edition of his 
Elements of Geometry, for the honour 
of a geometrical mind. ib. 

The sensations of beat and cold by no 
means originate entirely from what we 
oall difference of climate; innumerable 
other circumstances contribute to ex- 
cite them. 

Algarotti observes, that when the 
French king sent some mathematicians 
to measure a degree under the polar 
circle, and the king of Spain sent others 
for the same purpose to the line, to as- 
certain the true figure of the earth, who 
would have imagined that those under 
the equator would suffer most by cold, 
and those under 'the arctic circle by 
heat: and yet this was actually the 
case. The cold on the summift of the 
Andes was intense, and the heat ocoa- 
•ioned by the length of the polar days 
was hardly to be borne. Europ, J^ag.^ 

There are two extraordinary in- 
stances of predictions being fulfilled, 
where no supernatural means can pos- 
sibly be supposed. 

The first is mentioned by the learned 
bishop of Worcester, in the preface to, 
his Sermons on Prophecy. It is part of 
a choms in the Medea of Seneca:— 
Venient annia 
Secala, lerii, qoibut Oeeanus 
Vineula remm lazet et iogena 
Pateat tellus, Tiphyaque aevos 
Deteget orbes. 
This is obviously fulfilled by the in- 
vention of the compass, and the disco- 
very of America. 

The otljer is in the first book of 
Dante's Purgatorio. 

J* mi volsi a man' deitro^ e post meats 
All' altni pdo, e vidi qoatro stelle 
NoQ vitte mala fuor cb* alia prima gents. 

Now this is an exact description of 
the appearance of the four stars near 
the south pole; and yet Dante is known 
to have written before the discovery of 
the southern hemisphere. s6. 


An account of the Official Value of the 
Exports from Great Britain, in each 
year, from 1 792 to 1 8 1 6, both inclusive; 
distinguishing the value of British 
• protluce and^ Manufactures from that 
of Foreign and Colonial Merchan- 

Brithh Produce Foreign and TVrol 

and Couakd Eji^ortSm 

Manu/acturu. Merehandbee. 
Tears I I I 

I798«-18,S66,851 -6,189,998 84,466,849 
1793—13,832,268 5,784,417 1,676,685 
1794—16,725,492 8,386,043 25,111,445 
1795—16,338,213 8,509,136 24,847,339 
1796—19,102,220 8,923,^8 28,026,068 
1797^-16,903,103 9,412;610 26,315,713 
1798^19,672,303 10,617,526 30,290,029 
1799--24,084,213 9,556,144 33,640,357 
1800—24,304,283 13,815,837 38,120,190 
1801.-25,699,809 12,087,047 37,786.856 
1802—26,993,129 14,418,837 41,411,666 
1803—22,252,027 9,326,468 31,578,495 
1804—23,935,793 10,515,574 34,451,367 
1805—25,004,337 9,959,508 34,954,845 
1806—27,402,685 9,124,499 36,527,184 
1807— £5,171,422 9,395,149 04,566,571 
1808—26,691,962 7,862,305 34,554,267 
1809—35,104,132 15,182,768 50,286,900 
1810~34,<J23,575 10,946,284 45,869,859 
1811—24,131,734 8,277,937 32,409,671 
1812-31,244,723 11,998,449 43,243,172 
1813 '^^^^^■^o^<^y*B'^'*eiiedeiCMi3Pc)dhr 

1814—36,092,167 20,499,347 56,591,514 
1815— U,053,455 16,930,439 60,983,894 
1816—36,714,534 14,545,933 51,260,408 

William Irviro, 
Inspector-General of the imports 
and Exports of Great Britain. 
Custom-house, London, 
13th March, 1817. IM. Pm. 


M. Maillardet of Neufchatdl announ- 
ces, in a foreign Journal, that he has 
succeeded in solving the ceJebrated 
problem of perpetual motion, so long' 
regarded as a scientific chimm. Tlie 
piece of mechanism to which he applies 
bis principle is thus described:*-It is a 
wheel, around the circuffiference c£ 
which there is a certaia munber oC 


Notoria. 259 

tpbes, which altemately radiate or turn many friends to their ^nenl introdne- 

in towards the centre, rendering- the tion. We have taken some pains to 

moving power at one time strong, at inquire into the circumstances, and we 

another time weak; but preserving find no ground of alarm, or any just 

throughout such an intensity of force, ground of objection to steam-boats ge- 

that it is necessary to keep it in check nerally, more than might be takeft 

by a regulator. against culinary fires, or lamps, or can- 

%* We remember to have seen, dies, from their occasionally setting 

many years ago, a machine on a similar houses on fire and burning persons to 

construction, made in London, but af- death; or against stage-coaches, which 

tter a while the friction became too pow- are so often fatally overset; or against 

erful to be overcome by the moving le- horses, which kill above a thousand 

vers; M.M. may have succeeded better, persons in England annually; or to 

— - ships and boats, which are the cause ef 

From the JHonihly JUagazine. the death of tens of thousands in eveiy 

The annual revenues of the parochial year. Multitudes of the most powerful 
clergy of England and Wales have been steam-engines are in daily use in every 
stated at 2,557,000/. But it must be part of Great Britain, yet how seldom 
remembered, that these revenues arise are they a cause of any fatal catas- 
as well from glebe and augmentation trophe. In this new application of them, 
lands, with surplice-fees, as from tithes an accident may be likely to result from 
in kind or by composition, which, on inexperience; and in this instance, at 
each parish, can scarcely be estimated Norwich, the conductors of the boat are 
on. the average under 40/. per annum, reported to be exceedingly blameable. 
which, acconling to the number of It appears there was an opposition 
10,649 parochial benefices, will amount steam-boat, and, in order that one 
to nearly 526,000/.; which being de- might go off in high style, and run a- 
ducted from the gross revenue of the head of the other, the regulating valve 
parochial clergy, will leave 2,031,000/. was so fastened down that, when the 
as the actual receipt from the tithes in danger became apparent, it could not 
their possession. The impropriations be raised, and an explosion of the con- 
are usually estimated at 3,845 in num- fined steam was inevitable. A law 
ben and otthese, about one-third belong should punisli proven wantonness of 
to the bishops, dignified clei^gy; and two this kind in an exemplary manner, 
universities, and the other two-thirds and forbid the use of high pressure en- 
to the lay-impropriators: and the laity gines such as this in steam-boats, as a 
are also lessees ef the one-third belong- security to passengers, and as a protec- 
ing- to the superior clei^gy and univer- tion to a navigating power so essential 
sities. The collective income of which in opposing the current of rivers. In 
impropriations from tithes alone, al this magazine a foreign correspondent 
this time, may be t^en at 1,538,000/.* has suggested the application of a great- 
per annum. It appears, then, that er and a safer power than steam, which 
the total receipt from the tithes in the is worthy of attention; and, in the use of 
possession of the parochial clergy, and steam itself, the fears of the public may 
impropriators, whether paid in kind or be removed by employing the steam-en- 
accounted for by composition, amounts gine in a separate vessel, with which to 
to 3,569,000/. per annum: which, in tow that which is laden with passengers 
proportion to that part of the agricul- or gtiods. Our readers, too, cannot have 
turallandsin the kingdom, subject to the forgotten, that we lately submitted to 
payment of tithes, namely, 28,000,000 them the project of a team or horse-boaiy 
of acres, and valued or rented at 15#., the machinery of which may be worked 
20«., or 25#., per statute acre, will be by horses, as in a commcm horse-mill; 
under 3t. Sd. in the pound at 15f. per while the keep of the horses amounts, it 
acre, a little above Zs. 6d. in the pound is said, to less than the expense of the 
at 20f. per acre, and a little above 2s^ fuel in a steam-boat. tb. 
in the pound at 25f . per acre. — 

— From the Edinburgh JHonthly JUaga- 


An unfortunate accident befel a A report made to the council-general 

deamrhoaJt within the month at Nor- ofhospitals in Paris, relative to the st^ to. 

wicb, which has damped the ardour of ef those establiahmenti from 1803 to 

260 Noto.ria. 

1914, oooUw some imporUnt &cts. yrcp» tt< ii» i >e. 
Thej aire divided into two classes, call- italv. 
ed hopUaux and ko9piu$s the former, M. Niebuhr, the Prusaiaa enrq(F «t 
ten in number, beings desipaed for the Rome, has discoYered, in the Vatican 
sick and diseased; and the latter, which Library, the fragment yet wantin|i^ in 
Amonnt to nine, affording a provision Cicero's Oration pro Marco RMrkh 
ibr helpless infancy, and poor persons and a fragment of the Oration |»ro P/on- 
afflifsted with incurable infirmities. The do. These two fragments were dasc»T- 
Hotel Dieuy the most ancient of the ered in the same MS. from which Arai^r 
hospitals, contains 1200 beds. The gen- duzzi has already extracted an unpub- 
eral mortality in the hospitals has been lished fragment of Liry. The learQMl 
1 in 7 1-2, and in the hospices 1 in Prussian envoy has also found some 
1*2; and it has been more considera- passages of the Works ^f Seneca, 
ble among the women than the men. -— 
It is found, that wherever rooms of the From the fame- 
same size are placed one over another. The Berlin Gaaette gives the follow- 
the mortality is greatest in the up- ing account of Von Kotzebue's voyage 
permost In the Hospice de V Ac- round the world, which has been Te^ 
cottcAemenl, in 1814, there were deliv- ceived from Kamschatka. Lettexaof 
ei«d 2,700 females, of whom 2,400 an earlier date, which, after having 
acknowledged that daey were unmarri- doubled Cape Horn, he sent from the 
ed. In the ten years from 1804 to 1814, coast of Chili, have been lest, or at 
there were admitted into the Hospice least are not yet come to l^nd. M* Von 
d^ JillaUemeni^ or Foundling Hospital Kotzebue discovered three new islanda 
23,458 boys, and 22,463 girls, total in the Sooth Sea, in 14<' of latitude, and 
45,921 children, only 4,130 of whom 144^Qf Icmgitude, towhichbegavethe 
were presumed to be legitimate. The names of Komanzow (the authovof ihm 
mortality of infants in the first year af- expedition), Spiridon, and KniaensterB. 
ter their birth was under 2-7(hs. Du- Besides these, he discevefe4 a Im^ 
ling the ten years, 355,000 sick were chain of islands in the same quarter, 
admitted into the hospitals, and 59,000 and two clusters of islands in tibe 11th 
poor persons into the hospices. The to- degree of latitude and 190th of lani- 
tal number that received relief out of ^ tude. (It is not specified whether th« 
these establishments in 1813, whi<:h latitude is N. QrS.or thekmgitude£. 
gives abont the average of that period, or W.) These he called after his shipc^ 
was 103,000, of whom 21 ,000 belonged Rorich's Chain; thetwolatterKutusof 'a 
to the department of the Seine. — Some Cluster (a group) and Suwarrof 's Cliis- 
pains have been taken to ascertain the ter. AU these islands a^ covered with 
different causes of mental derangement wood, partly uninhabited, andt danger- 
It appears, that among the maniacs the ous for navigaten. The discoveier has 
number of wooMtt is generally greater sent to Count Bomanzof a great maay 
than that of men. ilmong the younger maps and drawings. On the 12lb July 
females, love is the most common cause O. S. Kotzebue designed ta sail fies 
of insanity; and among the others, jea- Kamschatka to Benin's Stvaita, acoor- 
louay or cfomestie discmid. Among the ding to his instru^tio«k He hopes to 
younger class of m%les, it is the too return to Kamschatka in S^tember 
spNBedy development of the passions, and 1817. On the whole voyage fra^ Chi- 
with the others^ the derangement of li to that place, he had not asiogKe per* 
their affiuxs, that most frequently pro- son sick on board. He toudttd at Cas- 
duces this efioot. The calamities of ter Island, but did not find the inhabi- 
the revolution were another cause of tants so friendly as La Peyiouee d^ 
madness in both sexes; and it is worthy scribes them. H» thinks that acmie- 
of remark, that the men were mad with thing must have happened since that 
aristocracy, tho women with democrat time, which has made them dktnutfol 
cy. Excessive grief occasioned luna- of tl^ Europeans: peibaps it maj be 
ey in the men, whereas the minds of the overturning of their surprisii^ijll^r 
the females were derailed by ideas of huge statues, which Kotzebue looked 
independence and equality. for in vain, and found only te mins 

Notoria. 261 

•f one of them near Ha ba8e> which which are demominated the proper vet- 

•till remaios. He saw no fruitB from seUy to nourish ^nd supply aliment to 

the seeds left by La Peyrouse, nor any the tree, for its growth and form; annu- 

sheep or hogs, which by this time must ally, a new zone of wood around the 

have multiplied exceedingly. A single tree; these vessels are situated princi- 

fowl was brought him for sale. It seems pally in the internal bark, and cellular 

we may hope mueh from this young tissue above it; and are, like the for^ 

seaman, wfaio is not yet thirty years of mer, long cylindrical tubes, running 

age. He was obliged, for many reasons, from the leaves back into the root* the 

lo leave the learned Dane, Worms- third set are the tpiral vesseU, accom- 

kroid, behind in Kamschatka. panying the common vessels; and are 

-f- supposed to .be either absorbents, or 

From the Oenikman^s J^agaxine- air-vessels; but their office has not yet 

DRY ROT. been clearly shown. In trees, besides 

** A disease kntrmn, is half removed." their vascular structure, two kinds of 

Many theories have been set forth to fluids are found, the tapy and pecu- 
account for the dry-rot; many too have Sar juices: the sap is a fluid nearly as li* 
been the remedies prescribed fo cure, quid as water, is imbibed by the roots 
and the means to prevent it* but I be- from the soil, and is conveyed, as before 
lieve all have hitherto been alike un- stated, by the common vessels through 
successful; for although its fio^uremay the tree: the peculiar juica are the sap 
have hitherto eluded oar search, yet I concocted and changed by the leaves: 
think its origim is not so obscure as to they are found in the proper vessels, 
diacovrage our endeavours to discover and are thus fitted to become the ali- 
it. I hope I may anticipate, that if the ment of the tree, 
foilowtng essay do not completely deve- Having now related of the physiolo* 
lop its nature, and preventive, that I gy of trees, what I consider necessary 
shall have furnished materials, at least, in this short disquisition, it will be pro- 
thai may enable others to supply these per to take a view of the method of Na- 
desiderata, now so greatly needful for ture, in conducting her vegetable ofl!- 
our shipping and our dwellings. spring to their final growths and uses. 

I consider the dry-rot to be the result < All Siings change,' is her motto, and 

of ttie putre&ctive fermentation, which wherever we turn we find ample proofs 

is modified and much accelerated by si- of its truth: the plant originates from 

toadon and circumstances. the seed of its parent, is fed by its euhee. 

It will, I conceive, materially assist passes through the various stages of 

many persons {th^imrightg especially) germination and vegetation, scatters 

to comprehend the whole of the subject, the germs of a new generation, and fi- 

by giving first a short general account nally nourishes its own ofispring after 

of the organisation of trees. the manner itself was supplied. 

Trees are organised bodies; being All vegetable substances, when left 

famished with several sets of vessels, to themselves, undex^o ^e putrefacUve 

adapted to perform the several functions fermentation; or in other words, they are 

of elaborating, and circulating their vi- gpradually decomposed, and decay. It is 

tal fluids, and of respiration: they con- necessary to this end, that water should 

sist obviously of the roots, stem, be present, and that the temperature 

branches, bark, and leaves; and these should not be below 45^, nor so high aa 

all contain vessels fitted to the Ainc- to evaporate the water hastily. Thia 

tiooseachhas to perform; it is generally process, therefore,' depends upon the 

agreed by naturalists, that these are of presence of moisture and heat: but the 

three kinds, besides the respiring ves- moisture must not be perpelually tq-^ 

seU of the leaves; namely, first, the newing; neither may the subjex^t be sub-^ 

mmtmon veseeU; these are long cylindri- mcrsed, nor the heat too great. Any 

cal tubes, passing up through the root temperature between 45^ and dO**- as- 

Rod bole, into the branches, and termi- sists this process, and the nearer it ap« 

nating in the leaves; and their office is preaches the maximum, ttae more rapid 

to convey the eap into the elaboratoij will be the process. When these cir"> 

•f the tree (the leaves;) where it is cumstances meet in a tree which has 

changed into the peculiar juices of the passed its age of maturity; or in timber, 

plant; and is thence conveyed back the elementary parts of the water, the 

again to the root by the secood set, oxygeR and hydrogen gases, attracted 

262 Notorta. 

by and attracting^ the principles of the chang^. Again, a high temperature i% 
wood, aided by heat, (and this heat is a favourable circumstance in the fint 
generated by the moist vegetable sub- case; so it is in the second, as is exem- 
stance, as is exemplified in the case of plified in the case of sending newly 
damp hay or saw-dust) te^/Taro^; and the built ships into hot climates; where 
fermenting and vegetating principle, they are remarked to decay in a rapid 
oxygen gas, begins to act: the conse- manner. Moisture is applicable in the 
quences of this action are, the formation same manner; let us notice those parts 
of water, the springing forth of fun- of ships most infected, and we shall find 
gus,* which owes its origin to the ac- that there heat and moisture prevail; 
tion of the oxygen gas upon the sap and from the heads of the first futtocks up 
juices of the tree (and be it remember- to the gun-deck beams, along the dead- 
ed, that timber, as now felled and used, wood, in the stem-frame, in the cant- 
is loaded with them), that stimulus, as- bodies fore and aft, its ravages are most 
sis ted by the heat generated, exciting remarkable; and precisely in those si- 
an unnatural or abortive vegetation of tuations do heat and moisture most 
these, in consequence of th^ tree not prevail; there is a difference in situation 
possessing its complete organs to modi- s^nd of circumstances in the latter case, 
fy the vegetation; gaseous matter is also which will account for its amazing ra- 

* generated ^carbonic acid gasj; the loss pidity, namely, the shutting up ttie tim* 

* of the weignt and cohesion ot the wood her in a damp state, as it were in a box; 
ensues, and this process is carried on ^^'^ surrounding it with a damp, heat* 
until the whole vegetable matter has ed and stagnant atmosphere; this must,* 
undeigone a complete change; the or- according to the nature of the thing, 
g^ic texture is at last destroyed, and cause it to decay faster than that which 
fiiere results a heap of unorgani^sed car- ^^ the advantage of an occasional re- 
bonaceous matter. newal of water and of air, and the fre- 

It now remains to show that the pu- quent action of the sun's rays, 
trefaction of wood, and the dry-rot, are '^^e phenomena are the same; being 
one and the same process, under differ- slightly modified by circumstances and 
ent modifications: this I shall endeavour situation, and passing with greater ra- 
te do by comparing the cases. pidity. In the first case they are the oc- 

The agents then in the first case are casional appearance of fungi; the extri- 

water and heat; the agents in the se- cation of carbonic acid gas; the forma- 

cond case are the same; tion of water, the reduction of the 

The circumstances are alike; being weight, solidity: and loss of the strength 

only more favourable to its rapidity in of the wood; and the destruction of its 

the second. It is found in the first, that fibrous and organic texture, 

when the water is frequently renewed, ^^ the second case these are also the' 

or the wood is submersed, that it pro- phenomena; the fungus is always found 

ceeds very slowly, or not at all; and to precede it; this is so notorious, that it 

when the wood is kept dry, it does not ^as been suppoied by many to be the 

occur. In the second case these circum- cause of it. The extrication of carbonic 

stances affect in the same manner: those =Lcid gas is also constantly found; this is 

parts of a ship that are covered with wa- evident from the unwholesome state of 

ter, as the floors and keel, very rarely the atmosphere of ships below the gan- 

have dry-rot; and those parts that are deck, when rotten; especially if they 

kept dry by being exfjosed to the sun ^^^ i^ot been ventilated for some coo- 

and air, are also frde from it; except, siderable time. The loss of weight, 

indeed, when they happen to be conti- strength, and solidity of the timber, arc 

nuations of timbers, the lower ends of its principal and mort obvious characte- 

which are in situations favouring the ristics. The fonnation of water is found 

— ; one of its indications, as frequently, bc- 

♦ It is, I think, worthy of remark, fore fungus appears, the surface of the 
that the putrefactive fermentation of timber is covered with moisture. The 
animal matter is productive of animals destruction of the fibrous and ofganic 
of inferior organisation to their parent: texture is not so generally seen, because 
thus the varieties of maggots are the the sliips are generaUy opened, and re- 
production of tliat process, in man and paired before the decay has proceeded 
brute; so the fungi in their varieties, to far, yet it may be traced; it is not im- 
owe their origin to the same cause. usual to find the centre of a timber re- 

Poetry. 263 

duced to an impalpable powder. The charcoal; we find none of these: the 

result is similar, beiQg amassof carbo- joists that support the floors are con- 

naceous powdery matter. rerted into a kind of powder; whose ap- 

Haying thus compared the two cases, pearance is inconsistent with this the- 

and found the agents, phenomena, and ory. The subject however is very im- 

results the same, the conclusion is irre- portant, and still requires investigation: 

■istible, that they are the same process, for this reason it is, we have inserted 

%*DBr-RoT. — ^In page 269 of vol. the present paper. £d. An. 
I. of the present series of the Analectic — 
Magazine, is inserted a review of the chevaliee st. oeorge. 
treatises of Richard Pering, and Wm. The chevalier St. George, so re- 
Taylor Money, esq., on ship building, nowned for his skill in fencing, once 
including some observations on the dry- s^ood close to a gentleman at the Ope- 
rot, to which we refer our readers. It ra, at Paris, who was not very clean in 
18 there ascribed to the vegetable life of his person, which occasioned the cheva- 
the tree not ^et extinct, and the re- lierto go to another partof the parterre, 
mains of sap m the timber, owing ei- The gentleman, who supposed the che- 
ther to its not being felled as irought to valier went to find out a better place 
be, in the winter— «r not sufficiently for seeing the ballet, followed him: the 
dried before it is put to use. chevalier moved again, and was again 

There are four hjrpotheses still main- followed. This took place a third and 

tained on this difficult subject* 1. That even a fourth time, when his patience 

the dry-rot is owing, as above mention- being quite exhausted, he exclaimed, 

ed, to the remains of sap in the timber. * When people are offensive they should 

^. To a parasite fungus that grows on stand by themselves like other nasty 

and within the timber, nouris^d by the noun substantives.' The gentleman 

juices still remaining in the wood. 3. took fire, and challenge the other to 

To an insect similar* in its habits and fight. * Pho!' cried the chevalier, ' I am 

properties to the teredo that infests ship St Geoige, and should be through 

timber: and 4thly, To the chemical de- your lungs twice before you could 

oomposition of the wood itself, as main- touch me once.' * If you were the de« 

tained in the dissertation now inserted, vil,' replied the gentleman, ^ you should 

but, as it seems to us, not sufficiently fight me.' < That,' rejoined the cheva- 

supported. lier, ' would answer no possible end* to 

If it were a chemical decomposition either of us, for if you were even able 

of the wood itself, we should find in the to kill me, you wou'dn't stink a bit less, 

dry-rot some of itsuchemical elements, and if I were to kill you, you'd stink a 

the gases, water, pyroligneous acid, d d deal more.' Eur. J^Iag* 

Art. X. — Poetry. 
Far the AnalecHc Jdagaxme, 


Hail fell Despair* within yon wilder'd cave, 
^ I saw thee stretch'd in agonizing sleep; 

I saw thee start, and heard a murmur deep, 
Like lonely winds that sweep the outlaw's grave. 

Within thy cave I saw a taper gleam; 

Its light shone dimly o'er thy faded breast; 

On tiiy pale brow a paler hand was prest. 
The taper fell— and thou didst cease to dream. 

The orb eclipsed, once more beholds the light. 
The wintry stem brings forth another flower, 
And Fancy builds again her broken bower; 

But not for thee— sole exile of the night H. T. F. 

ComhakHj SL Cwoiina, AprU 25, 1817. 

264 Poetry. 

Abitulit atra Dies et faneraroerait aoerbo.»^iRC. 

BjencATB this iowV-deck'd rising mouodi 

Here real the ashes of the braire; 
A hero sleeps, by glory crown'd: 

It is m patriot soldier's grftv^e! 

How l&te his manly heart beat higliy 
His country from ^ach wrong to sar^r 

But soon that heart was doom'd to lie, 
Cold, cold within a acrfdier's grare. 

Methinks I hear a footstep's tread;-«- 

H«w lightly, where ^on osieiB wav«fl 
Perfaapa by adenoe it is led, 

The ^rtt of the soldier's grare! 

Here Pity oft, at Mem'ry'a*call, 

Bepairs to view this narrow cave, 
And dew with tears the flow'ry pall 

That covers o'er the soldier's grare! 

Here too a widow's broken sighs 

Breathe o'er the relics of the bnre» 
And here her helpless orphan's eyes 

Weep torrents on the soldier's grare. 

Hik country's soinmons he obey'dj 

Fair liberty he died to sare, 
And in this lonely spot is laid, 

Unknown but as the soldier's graviB. 

For hSm the muse shaH sweep the string, 

For him who fell among the braro. 
And riigin hands with wreaths of ^iriflg 

Shall decorate the soldier's grave. lU Z. 

Charlestons Juntf^^ 1B17. 

jklf KlflOMA.—BT LORD Btaolf. 

From Ackerman'i RepotUory* 
Twas whisper'd in heav*n, and muttered in hel]> 
And Echo caught softly the sound as it fell; 
In the confines of earui, 'twas permitted to rest, 
And the depths of the ocean its preseeee confest; 
*Twas seen in the lightning, and heard in the thunder, 
'Twill be found in the spheres when riren asunder; 
It Was given. to man with his earliest breath, 
It assists at his birth, and attends him in deaUi« 
Presides o'er his hap^nneas, honour, and health. 
Is the prop of his house, and the end of his wealth; 
It begms ev'ry hope, ev'ry wish it must bound. 
And, though unassuming, with monarchs is oniwn'd; 
In the heaps of the miser 'tis hoarded with care. 
But is sure to be lust in the prodigal heir; 
Without it the soldier and sailor may roam, 
But wo to the wretch who expels it from home; 
In the whispers of conscience its voice will be foQD4} 
Nor e'er in the whirlwind of passion be drown'dj 
It softens the heart, and, though deaf to the ear^ 
'Twill make it acutely and *nstantly hear; 
But in shades let it rest like an elegant ilowV^ 
Oh! breathe on it .softly— it diet in an hour. 



NOVEMBER, 1817. 


Art. I. — {The literary merit of the £dgeworth family geaersil- 
ly, and the successful efforts of Maria Edgeworth in particularyito 
promote pure morals and engaging manners^, by means of the most 
popular species of literary composition, have rendered the name 
interesting to modem readers of almost every description. The 
meohanicsd experiments of the father — ^the joint treatise of the fami- 
ly, on practical education--^and the lively descriptions of character 
and manners, the j^in and practical morality, the useful as wdl as 
the amusing tendency of Miss Edgeworth's novels,— ^have given to 
the family a title to notice, which the following brief essay is too 
scanty to satisfy. In the next number, we hope to give a fuller ac« 
count of Mr. Edgeworth and his family, with an outline of the 
peculiar merit which characterises their literary productions.] £o. 

X|*EW families are more distinguished, even in this age of author* 
•*• ship, for their literary talents, and the attractions they haVe 
thrown round the cause of pure taste and sound morals, than that 
of the Edgeworths. Richard Lovel Edgeworth the father, wh6, 
to the regret of the wise and good, is lately deceased, was .the 
author of several scientific papers published in the Philosophic^ 
|oumals, most of which had a practical bear^is^ upon the comfoi^ls 
and conveniences of life; and in conjunction with his daughter 
Maria, has written many valuable works for the tiae of young pdr- 
sons, which,. in real benefit to that part of die comnmntty, hltve 
never been surpassed. 

Miss Maria Edgeworth his eldest daughter, possesses re|n]ftii- 
tation as a profound and successful delineator of life and manned, 
and as a pure and practical moralist, to which no praise of ouYs 
can add. Her works which are chiefiy*novels, or rather moral 
tales written in a very popular and captivating style, are too well 
Imown, both in this country and Great Britain, to require enumera- 
tion. Her mother, and her brother, Mr. Sheyd Edgeworth, are also 
advantageously known in the literary republic; the former as the 
author of several novels of reputation, and the latter b^ his life of 
the Abbe Edgeworth, the celebn^d confessor of Lewis XVI, and 
a relation of uie family. 

When we consider the incalculable benefit that writings, suoii 

as those of the Edgeworth's have been to society, by adding to 

and improving their physical coa^forts, tefining taste, and polish- 

ing the manners, and, wh^t is far more important, by inculcating 

VOL. z. 45 

354 Notice of the Edgeworth Family. 

the purest doctrines of morality, in a manner the inost pleasing, 
and intelligible to all classes of society; we cannot but be struck 
with the vastly superior claims to our respect and gratitude, such 
writers have over the mass of their brethren. The influence, in- 
deed, aftd controul which men of letters possess over the commu- 
nity, hajs nciver been duly estimated. ^^ Literature^' (says a distin- 
guished writer) ^^ is the main engine by which civil society must 
be supported or overthrown/' And though we may not agree with 
him in the full extent of the remark, yet it cannot be denied, that 
in an enlightened community, and more especially under a repub* 
lican form of government, the destinies of the people do most in- 
timately depend upon their literary taste. What care then ought 
not to be taken, lest this mighty engine should be perverted to the 
injury of socie^; and if those who add to the extent of a country, 
or raise her military reputation, obtain civic crowns, and public 
largesses, what do they not deserve, whose writings operate in fa- 
vour of their best interest and their wisest institutions. 

The following extracts from the Journal of a late traveller in 
Ireland, show that this enlightened family are not less estimable in 
private life, than they are respectable for their literary powers.^— 

<From none to whom I had been introduced, did I meet with a more 
hospitable reception than from Mr. Edgeworth, of Edgeworth town, of 
whoQ}) and his daughter Maria, to whom I had also a letter of introdac- 
^t^on, I had heard and read so much. As the covetous man rejoices in 
the prospect of adding to his stores; and the pious man at the prospect of 
those meetings, where the fire of devotion will be made to bum more 
purely, in hopes of the feast of reason and the flow of souls, I approach* 
^d Edgeworth's town, so much of late the abode of the muses. 

< Mr. Edgeworth and his daughter, being about to take an airing in 
the carriage when I called, which was soon after breakfast, and a very 
fine day, asked me to accompany them, to which I readily assented, and 
•was much pleased with their remarks on the objects which occurred m 
tiic course of our ride. 

< When we returned from our ride, I found the rector of the parish, 
the Roman Catholic priest, and the Presbyterian clergyman had been 
invited to dine, and that there might be no preference slwwn to one cler- 
gyman before another at dinner, Mr. Edgeworth said grace himself. In 
this hospitable mansion, the favourite abode of the muses, the rendes- 
vous of the wimi and good) Papists and Protestants agree. Miss Edge- 
worth joined in the conversation, and as may well be supposed, the 
author of Castle Rackrent, Irish Bulls, the Absentee, &c. Sec. served 
much to enliven and inform it. I had heard much of Miss Edgeworth, 
and knew that she and her father had taken an extensive view of thf 
vast edifice of human knowledge, but found that not one half of her nu« 
merous amiable accomplishments had been told me.««-*Of her it may be 
aiAd, ^ Omne quod tetigit omavit.*' 

< When I mentioned thai having orreries, armillary spheres, globes, 
and the apparatus necessary for giving some idea of the various branches 
of ezperiipental philosophy, vanous persona are employed in giving lea* 
SQRa on these subjects at ladies' boarding schools, Miss Edgeworth 


I{^ of Omar Bashaw^ Dey of Algieri^ "S56 

teemed not displeased, as she and her fether in their Letters on Educia*' 
tion, had recommended something of the kind. 

< As Mr* Edgewonh's children are all instructed at home, the ays*- 
tern of education recommended to others is practised in his own family. 
I observed three of his daughters, fine little girls, busily employed in 
sewing a covering of patches of various colours for a poor family in the 
vicinity, who had once been servants in the house. As soon as the work 
should be finished, the girls were themselves to make the present; and 
to this period I found them looking forward with more than ordinary 

< The children ai'e never long confined at one time; their hours be^ 
ing spent alternately in diligence and play. Indeed, children should 
seldom be idle, but constantly employed in exercising either the mind 
or body. 

< Whatever be the result of the system of education which Mr. Edge- 
worth .and his daughter have recommended, I must say, I never saw such 
marks of filial regard, parental affection, and domestic happiness as at 
this house. To reside at it, is to see almost realised such scenes of hap- 
pinesses no where exist, but are sometimes presented in the descriptions 
of enchanted castles: Miss Edge worth is none of those, as some would 
make us believe, who write merely for bread, she having an independant 
fortune, besides what she must now make by the rapid sale of her works. 
By such books as those kA Miss Edgeworth, booksellers &tten, and men 
are made wiser and better. It is needless to mention, that Mrs. Edge* 
worth is also a successful author, having published the novel, or what you 
choose to call it; ^^ The good Wife."— /&//*« Travels in Ireland^ voh 
11. p. 13, Sec. 

The vignette prefixed to this number, is from a drawing by 
Miss Honora Edgeworth, which was sent by her to a lady in this 
country. It represents the family residetice at Edgeworth town, 
spoken of in the preceding extracts. The spire seen at a distance 
among the foliage, was designed by the late Mr. Edgeworth. In 
a letter received with the drawing from Miss Maria Edgeworth, 
it is mentioned that this spire is of iron, and was raised in eighteen 

Art. II. Life o/Omar Bashaw, Dey of Algiers^ in a letter to 

an offcer of the United States army^ 

' Algiers^ Sth March^ 1817* 
Mr DEAR Sir, 

RECOLLECTING that you once testified a desire to learn 
such particulars of the life and character of the distinguished 
chief who ruka this barbarous empire aa could be obtained, I 
send you the following, which I have drawn froaa the best aourcea 
within my power. 

It is hardly necessary to remark to you, that according to the 
constitution of this regency, none but foreigners are eligible to fiU 
any of the high offices of state. The corps of Turks from which 
they are selected, is kept in existence by constant importations of 
recruits from the Levant, and which are gieniraUy the swe^pi^fi 

^6 Ltf^ 9fOmar Ba»hmv^ Dey ofAigier^fi^ 

of Ac prisons, and of the lowest orders of men in those baifaarous 
countries. On arriving, here, they are enrolled as Gommum soldiers, 
and depend upon their merit, or accidents for promotion. There* 
fore, the incidents in the life of an obscure adventurer would pro- 
bably aflFord litde of interest if they could be known. But when 
genius extricates itself from this chaos of ignorance and obscurity, 
and occupies with credit a conspicuous part in the affairs of 
men, the mdividual possessing it, becomes worthy of our notice, 
and inquiry into his character and actions. 

Omar Bashaw, Dey of Algiers, was bom in the classical island 
of Mitylene, the ancient Lesbos, and is now about forty-three years 
of age. It is said that his family are renegade Greeks. In stature 
he is about five feet ten or eleven inches, robust, active, and well 
made. His complexion is dark, with a thick shining black beard 
silvered with gray, and his features are manly, and regular; his 
countenance thoughtful; when in good humour, agreeable and pre- 
possessing; when displeased, dark and gloomy. He has very fine 
black eyes, but they appear to meet those of any other person with 
reluctance even in conversation. His manner is always dignified, 
sometimes cordial and friendly, and he never has been known to 
lose the equilibrium of his temper on any occasion. He speaks 
with hesitation and apparent embarrassment: it would seem that 
his pride does not hide from him the sentiment of his own igno- 
rance. He seems to he a noian of quick perception, strong natural 
good sense, and great decision of character. In private life he is 
said to be a man ol sreat moderation and strict mqnils, according to 
the rules of the fai.ih which he professes. He has but one wife and 
three children, with them he passes all his leisure time in great 
apparent domestic happiness. Since he rose to sovereign power, 
be has given several proofs of friendship and gratitude, and I have 
not heard him accused of an instance of individual injustice. 

Omar came to this country about twenty years since, in compa- 
ny with an elder brother, as common adventurers. His brother ap- 
pears to have been a man of merit, as he early obtained the lucra* 
tive post of Ksfife^ or intendant of one of the provinces. As Omar 
was always witii him, he attained an accurate knowledge of the 
internal mairs of the regency; and the war with Tunis, and the 
troubles and insurrections, witii which Algiers was at that time 
agitated, gave him an^le opportunities of establishing his repuU^ 
tion as a brave and intelligent wanior. About ten yeara ago his 
brother became suspected, and was murdered fay order of Achmet 
Bashttw. (hnaip escaped by taking refuge i|i the barracks, when he 
was protected b^ the soldiers, with whom he seems to have been 
always a favourite. Achmet perished shortly after, and was sue* 
ceeded by Ali, who afiter a short reign of a few montiis, gave 
place to Hadgi Ali Bashaw, who is notorious for his sanguinary cm« 
el^, and for hia declaration of war against the United States. This 
chief.raised Oxtifx totlie ia^mtant post of aga, or commander««i» 
chief. In this capacity he distinguished himself by the vigour of 

ij^jale^er t9 an Americttn officer. " 35^ 

h» admtnU^^on; and particularly bjr qii<enitig a rebellion 61 ikik 
Bejr of Oran^ which threatened the extinction of the government 
of the Turks in Algiers* While acting in this quality he is ' ac- 
cused of great and unnecessary cruelty, particularly in the afBdr 
of Oran. Tlie accusation is probably not unfounded, but I should 
rather suppose it a necessary effect of the barbarous manners and 
character of \hese people, than of a ferocious propensity in hint. 
Even the modem history of civilized nations, furnishes more in*- 
stances of cruelty and violence, than of moderation and justice; 
But there are some circumstances relative to the elevation of 
Omar, which do not appear to admit of the same excuse, and 
which chiU the blood wi^ horror. While he was absent in the iiN 
terior, the tyrant Hadgi Ali was murdered, his capricious cruel- 
ties having become insupportable. An express was sent to the aga^ 
who immediately returned to Algiers, and was offered the purple 
by unanimous consent; and which he could 'then have accepted 
without a crime. For some reasons, which are not publicly 
known, he refused, and insisted upon investing the then Hasnagee^ 
or prime minister with the sovereign authority. Little is known' 
of this personage, except that he was a moderate just <nan, univer- 
sally esteen^ed, and far advanced in age* He, also refused, until he 
was informed that he must either reign or perish. Fourteen days 
afterwards, this old man was murdered, and the Aga seated in his 
place. Hadgi Ali, though a decrepid old man indulged in the ei^ 
cessive use of spirits and opium, and kept a numerous serariio* 
These women were respected during the ephemeral reign of his 
immediate successor. j3y order of Omar they were aU put to 
death! It is difficult to assign any plausible reason for such a gra* 
tuitous act of barbarous cruelty. Though his subsequent conduct 
has been blameless, many persons are yet in doubt as to his real 

The folly and presumption of Hadgi Ali Bashaw had involved 
'Algiers in an open war with the United States, and with Holland; 
the Ottoman flag had been insulted^ and the relations of the regen*^ 
cy with France, and Spain, had been rendered doubtful. The part 
which Omar had to act, was therefore a very difficult and delicate 
one. What remains for me to say of this remarkable personage, 
consists principally of the political epochs of his reign, which have 
rapidly succeeded each other, have fairly tested his capacity, and 
on the whole, have exhibited him to the world in a light not less 
adyantagedas than conspicuous. 

Frpm the consideration in which this regency has been held by 
Europe from time immemorial, it is not surprising that the Alge- 
rines should attach a great degree of importance to their powfer 
and believe that all nations were anxious to deprecate their hosti-' 
lities. This charm was dissolved by ^e capture of two of thebf commodore Decatur, and his subsequent appearance off 
Algiers with his victorious squadron, while theirs was at seai 
Omar had the good sense to comprehend the danger of his posi* 

UB lA/e of Omar \Ba9haWj Dey of Algitrif 

don, and ceding to circumstances^ accq>ted the tenns of peace 
offered to him by the victor. If he has since equivocated upon 
that peace, and demonstrated a disposition to renew the war, it 
•ought rather to be attributed to misrepresentation here, and to a 
poUcy in which Algiers has been too long indulged, and in which 
she has always found her account, than to absolute bad faith in the 
Bashaw. Holland being at the same time at war witlrthe regency, 
her squadron arrived here a short time after ours, but their con« 
duct tended rather to aid the Dey in his design of raising the 
drooping spirits of Algiers, than to forward their object of inaking 
an honour£d)le peace. In die course of that summer he sent his 
JBeet to sea in defiance of the Dutch. 

It seems that the legitimate proprietors of mankind after restor- 
ing the golden age in £urope, and paying due attention to the 
rights of the citizens of Congo and Mosambique, believed it in- 
cumbent upon them to adopt measures for something like marri-' 
time liberty, and the suppression of the white slave trade on the 
coast of Barbary. Great Britain having in all probability good 
reasons for wishing to prevent such affairs from becoming agene* 
ral question jn the council of sovereigns, detached lord Exmouth 
here with a powerful fleet in the month of April 1816, who, with 
much parade and ostentation, concluded peace between Algiers 
and the kings of Naples and Sardinia. The conditions of this peace, 
it is true, provided for the gradual emancipation in the course of 
two years, of the slaves of those two powers, for the consideration 
of about a millidh of dollars to be paid by them to Algiers, and 
becoming their tributaries. It i^ remarkable that the first positive 
demonstration of hostility to the United States since the peace, 
was shown a few days after the conclusion of this treaty. As you 
wer6 present at this affair, you know that although the pretensions 
of the bashaw might be unfoimded, his conduct and deportment ia 
the negociation which terminated it, was magnanimous and honour- 
able. To the engagements which he made .then, he has been most 
religiously faithful. 

On the receipt in Europe ofthenewsof thenegociations by lord 
Exmouth, it excited univend indignation, and brought upon the Bri- 
tish government the imputation of entertaining views relative to Bar- 
bary, interested and oppressive to other nations. In consequence, the 
same nobleman arrived here again with his fleet in the month of May 
following. What was the exact tenor of the propositions made to 
the regency on that occasion, cannot be known here, but it appears 
evident that they contained conditions subversive of those which bad 
been solemnly stipulated one month previous. Such inconsistent 
conduct might have embarrassed a more enlightened cabinet than 
that of Algiers. The Dey on this occasion acted with great pru- 
dence, he Isdd the affair not only before the divan, but also before 
tiie soldiers in the barracks, who unanimously agreed to support 
him. He then replied to lord Exmouth, that as the regency of 
Algiers was a dependency of the Ottoman porte, he could not re- 

in a. letter to an American otker. 350 

|iljr. to Us Deposition before consultmg his Ais^rom, the grand 
signor. Lord Exmouth tlu-eatened to attack and destroy Algiers, 
if he persisted in his refusal to agree to his demands, and very 
imperiously gave him three hours to rejdy in. The bashaw then re* 
proached him with the puerile inconsistency of his conduct, which 
precluded any reliance upon whatever engagemoit he might make 
with him, and rejected his propositions* Lord Exmoiith then re- 
tired on board, from whence he again gave notice of hisintention to 
attack the place. The bashaw appears at this time to have regarded 
a war with England as actually began, and amongst other mea* 
sures of safety, he dispatched couriers to Bona and Oran, with 
orders to arrest all British subjects or persons under the British 
protection in those places. These orders were executed with ex- 
cessive rigour at the former place, where was a great number of 
Italians engaged in the coral fisheries, under British license and 
protection. These persons resisted the orders of the Algerine go- 
vernment, and in consequence many of them were massacred* 
This affair was however settled without hostilities* Lord Exmouth 
finding that he could not intimidate, agreed to allow the time ne*^ 
cejssary to consult the Ottoman government upon the points of dis- 
pute* Thus did Omar, by his correct judgment and firmness, ex- 
tricate himself from a difficulty which seemed to threaten his go- 
vernment with the most serious consequences. 

Omar on his accession to sovereign powerjhad not neglected to 
send ambassadors to Constantinople, to explain and disavow the 
hostile conduct of his predecessor* He had been long engaged in 
collecting presents of great magnificence for the same destination, 
and a British frigate was now placed at his disposal to convey 
those presents to Constantinople, which would seem to indicate 
that the late arrangement was at least a friendly one. Shortly af- 
ter this affair, arrived a Captdgi JBashi^ or commissary of the 
Porte, with the caftan and sabre, with which the deys of Algiers 
are usually invested by the grand seignor after their election, 
and which is a recognition of dieir legitimacy. This in his actual 
atuation was a very agreeable occurrence* 

The last treaty, or convention, concluded by lord Exmouth 
does not appear to have been more satisfactory in Europe than 
the first, and as the national honour of Great Britain had been most 
cruelly committed in it, the ministry determined on a third expe- 
dition to Algiers* The massacre at Bona consequent to the orders 
of the bashaw to arrest all persons then under British protection, 
was a principal pretext for this war. Those orders were a com- 
mon measure of safety, rendered necessary by the wanton mena- 
ces of the British commander* Those people resisted an order of 
the Algerine government to arrest and secure their persons: they 
were consequently reduced b^ force of arms, as they would Imve 
been in any other country m similar circumstances* Therefore 
this cannot be regatrded as a just cause of war; and lord Ex- 
jnouth had 4eclar^ h^nself satisfied inrith tl|e reparaticm made 

tiioi for the iiiauks recdived by him ted hia ofiice|B, from the 
^populace of Algiers in May; as a proof of this, he exchanged 
swords with the bashaw, and accepted a present of a horse from 
lu9B« There was therefore no new cause of war, and if these 
.ivaasaotions are ever fiiUy made puUic, diey must place the Britidi 
^vemment in a very ridicnlotis point of view. Whether the 
Turkish practice of confining amdbassadora and other public agents 
4|i the castle of die seven towers on the breaking out of war-^4hat 
.'wkkdi is sometimes adopted by civilized governments, of waylay- 
ildg, andlDMirdering them, in order to seize their paperfri--KHr finally^, 
Aie -uBsteddy, and oncandid conduct of Great Britain towards AU 
^eifs since the mondi of ApHU 1816— be a sufficient excuse for the 
^y in violating the faiws of nations in the person of the British 
consul^ by airesting,. and confining him in chains previous to 
the bsfbde — I leave to die judgement of those who are better versed 
-in swh Blatters than I ain» A. proof diat this outrage was not re- 
gmded in a very serious li^ at the time, is that no adequate re- 
j^aralion to the consul was insisted upon by the British negocla- 
4w, for the iadignitiies which he had suffered, and his name was 
not even mentioned in the public despatches which gave an ac- 
4»>upt of the batde and subsequent peace. During the battle of the 
^ih of August, diecondact of Omar was that of a brave and ju- 
dicious man; perhaps the only fault he committed was that of not 
ixm% MS^VL die enemy's riups before they took their posttions. He 
w^ always at the post of danger, and continued the fight until 
atiy Imiger resistance was vain. In the subsequent ne^iatioB, he 
psaititained the same calmness of temper that he is so remarkable 
for, requestijig-of the British negociator that he would as a favom*, 
inform him once for all, the extent of the daims of his goven- 
IMieaC upon him. 

It must be admitted thiot die initn l^ho always shows hiinself 
equal to iStkt civcimistances in which fortone places hhn, csnnot 
yroit capacity* The residts of the battle of the 271ii August af- 
forded Omar an opportunity of demonstratdng the firmness of Ins 
mind, and of developing his great ad>ilities for business. The A)- 
gerinesmay with justice, becharacterised as aturbulent,£uftiousand 
superstittouB banditti. Their fleet was destroyed, their military 
works laid in ruins: their political existence seemed to be actually 
eclipsed. They had long entertained the opinion diat their chiu 
was unfortunate, a prdudice which a dey of Algiers seldom sur- 
vives for any length of time, and on this occasion they ^ew the 
most unequivocal .disposition to sacrifice him to their despair. 
Omar, aware of his danger, visited the barracks, and harangued 
the soldiers. He represented to them, that although their misfor« 
tunes were great, Aey were not irreparable; that they had still 
great resources, by a pradent use of which, with courage, and pa- 
tience, many tldngs mij^t be restored upon a footing even better 
than ever. Thi|t tgr disunion amongst themselves every thing mig^t 
be inevitabfy^ lost. That if tiiey believed him to be sn ob^liade to 

m a ktter to an American ofictr. 351 

tke restomtion of the power of Algiers, he then offered himself 
t<f them as a victim. This discourse, together with a judicious 
distribution of presents, and the influence of his friends, most 
effectually quelled a fermentation, which if neglected, might have 
terminated in the most violent excesses, and the total ruin of the 
Turkish domination in Algiers. In the mean time he brought 
workmen and materials from the remotest part of his dominions, 
and through the most indefatigable activity, superintending every 
thing in person, he actually replaced Algiers by the middle of 
December following, in a better state of defence than it ever was. 
At the same time he cleared the port of all the wrecks; purchased 
and equipped four capital cruizrers; laid a sloop of war upon the 
stocks: and took such other measures as must in a short time ren- 
der the maritime power of Algiers, more efficient than ever; for 
as it never can be regarded in any oth^ light than as a piratical 
power, light fast sailing cruizers are obviously more to be dreaded 
than heavy frigates; as being less tangle, and equally mischiev- 
ous to commerce. Df the subsequent negotiations with us, you 
are informed. You know that the Bashaw supported his reputa- 
tion there as a man of capacity and honor. 

I shall finish this long article by noticing several traits in the 
character of Omar, which attest his clemency, and do much honor 
to his dispositions as a man. — In the latter part of the year 1815 
a conspiracy was formed against him, at the head of which was 
Abdalla, then minister of Marine. This man had been a chief of 
banditti in the neighbourhood of Sm3nma; subsequently here, the 
confidant and instrument of the sanguinary cruelties of Hadgi 
Ali, whom he afterwards murdered with his own hands as a par- 
tizan of Omar, who in consequence promoted him to the post of 
high Chamberlain; and afterwards to that of Vic Ric Hadgi^ or 
minister of Marine. It is not known that Abdalla possessed a sin- 
gle respectable quality. In him avarice, cruelty, vindictiveness, 
and brutal ignorance, were associated with inordinate ambition. 
Fortimately the plan to murder the Dey and place the supreme 
power in the hands of this monster was discovered in time, and 
he was arrested dh the 12th of December of that year. Instead of 
taking his life, which is the usual course in such cases in Algiers, 
this wretch was embarked with his family and effects for the Le- 
vant, at the expense of the Regency, by order of the Bashaw, and 
his real property given to his brother, who is a man of respecta- 
ble character. The man who succeeded him in the administration 
of the Marine, was not either distinguished by any respectable 
quality. Ignorance and brutality were his leading characteristica. 
In the batde of the 27th of August he was accused of connivance 
with the enemy, and his head was demanded with clamorous 
violence. Omar ordered him confined. The British negociator af- 
terwards appeared disposed to consider this minister as the autiiof 
of the indignities which had been heaped upon the British Con- 
6tu and his family, to which Ootiar with great magnanimity, re- 
Vol. X. 46 

36a Brande^s OuMnu offie^lfifyj 

j^^d, tkat his mipiater had acted according to ocders wUch be 
had received fropi him. Never did the affairs of a Dey of Al* 

f'ers more imperiously demand a victim than on this occasion* 
et Omar refused to take his life, and on the first occasion em* 
barked him with his family for the Levant* 

On his accession to supreme authority Omar had sent for his 
mother and a remaining brother, who arrived here in the si|mmes 
of 18tl6. It appears that he must have regarded his situation here 
as precarious, for his brother returned immediately after the bat- 
tle, and in the month of February following he embarked his 
mother and his eldest son, on board of a Swedish vessel charter* 
ed for the purpose, to return to Mitylene. On the departure of 
this vessel, he sent for the Swedish Captain in company with the 
Consul; he made the former a very magnificent present, and re<» 
(^ommended to his particular cave ,and attention, his mother and 
^n, as the dearest objects of his solicitude. On this occasicm ho 
could not restrain his tears which flowed in abundance. Here | 
take leave of Omar. It is possible that the two former instance^ 
of clemency, may be differently accounted for upon principles of 
state policy, but the latter cannot be misinterpreted. This impar* 
tial sketch of a character, can only be appreciated by considering 
what a Dey of Algiers usually is. To the most brutal violence, 
atrocity, and insolence, has succeeded in the person of Omar, a| 
least a semblance of propriety, decency, and decorum. Yours, S. 


Art. III.— 1. Outlines cf Geology; being the Substance of a Course 
of Lectures delivered in the Theatre of the Royal Institution in the 
Tear 1816. By William Thomas Brande^ Secretary to the Royal 
Society of London; Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh^ 
&?c. £?c. &?c. 8vo. Ts. 6d. Murray. 1817. 

2. A Journal of Science and the Arts. No. V. Edited at the Roy- 
al institution. Murray. 1817. 

[Mr. Brande'b outlines of Geology have but recently reached 
this country; the fifth number of the Journal of Science and the 
Arts, we have had for some time. The following review of these 
publications is not very favourable to Mr. Brande^s labours, but 
It is so manifestly drawn up with competent knowledge of the 
subject, that our readers interested in the modem Science of 
Mineralogy, will be glad to see an English estimate of Mr. 
Brande's pretensions.] 

[From the British Critic] 

PREFIXED to the second of the publication which we have 
placed at the head of our article^is an Essay *^ on the advance- 
ment of science as connected with the rise and progress o£ the 
Royal Institution;" and we think it right to state in the outset, 
ihat it is solely to the sud essay, or rem»pect, or eulogiuat, for 
we know not well ho^r to fit it with an appellation, that our. n^ 
marks are tp be directed. Our object too in fiauag^ upon this jpoh 

mnd ypsHid/ tf Science and the Arts. 36S 

ducikm we m&y Mb state, is lioi tb draw from its contents a ton- 
uettcfd view oif what has beeh ima^n^d or achieved by philosb- 
Jttiers during anv giv6n period of time: it is merely to preisent to 
IMir readers a fair and warranted specimen of that kind of style 
Which is cultivated at present in thfe Royal Institution of Great 
Britain, for illustrating facts or expounding doctrines in the more 
aevere and recondite departments of science; and to exhibit, as 
We go along, a few traits of that unaffected modesty which never 
fails to adorn the labours of those who are distinguished either b^ 
talents for deep research', or by high scientific attainments. We 
have not heard iiideed, who is the author of the little perfbrmance 
bf which we are now speaking; biit judging from internal evi- 
dence. We should be disposed to ascribe it to the professor ot 
^hjnsitstry in thb Roy^ Institution, to whom we are also indebted, 
fer the geoloj^cal outliiie^ which 'trill form the main subject of 
this article. 

• We agree then^ iu the first place with our learned author, who- 
ever he tnay be, that ^^ it can but rarely happen, &at the concen- 
Iteted getiius of ages and the multifarious science of a wide ex- 
tended world, should be traced befoi^e us by a master's hand, in 
We clear and highly finished picture;" and moreover that ^^ when 
such a view is c^red. We know of no greater intellectual treat;^ 
Init we have great doubts notwithstanding, whether an individual 
tMT even ^ corporate body can so speak of dieir own exploits as to 
8ecU^ for themselves the same degree of interest and admiration, 
br to communicate the same degree of delight as when they re- 
cord the successes of others. We shall be better understood per- 
hdps,^ when our reader has perused the following sentence. " We 
do not now address the public," says the author of this essay, 
^ as mere journalists, but we raise the voice of the Royal Institu- 
tion of Great Britain; and in tracing rapidly the march of science 
from the foundation of our establishment, we shall reclaim with 
pride the concentrated glory of discoveries which would have 
4hed no mean lustre diffused over the philosophy of an age." We 
Cannot help supposing, but that we are given to understand, in 
prttty plain words too, that all the discoveries and improvements 
IHrhitn nave been made in the present century, originated, or were 
toerfeetcd, in the Royal Institution. None certainly value more 
mriiljr than We do the successful labour^ of Sir H. Davy, nor 
^hze hi A greater degree the vast additions which he has made 
tb chethical knowledge both in respect of facts and principles; 
•^till we have not been so inattentive to what has been going on in 
other quarters of the world, as to concede to the claims of any 
one association the ^* concentrated glory" connected with every 
division of natural philosophy. That we are not overstraining 
^e meaning of die words which we have transcribed k 
^undantly manifest from the spirit of the vrhokt paper taken 
•o^Mier^ and paiticulariy frote a passage towards the close of it, 
wtefe, iajplormg Ae |iraleetioa.iif #» SMie^ and sofieitinga piai^ 

d64 . 'Brande'a QutSm^ of Geology^ ^ 


tion of those rewards irhich are bestowed upon sueh of our eoun* 
trymen as have raised the nation to glory by the aits of war, the 
author modestly asks whether ^^ it might not be right to \\xAA. forth 
some encouragement to others who have r^sed the British .name 
at least as high^ by pursuits which lead to the civilization and 
general improvement of mankind." In the same tone of feeling 
an objection is removed, which it should seem, was at one time 
•urged against the establishment of the Institution, namely, that it 
would tend to diminish the importance of our elder societies. An 
appeal is therefore boldly made to the annals of the Royal Socie^ 
itself for the record of their services, accompanied with the un- 
assuming remark, that it will not be ^^ any disparagement to the 
dignity of that venerable body, to shew that some of the £aireat 
flowers of her later transactions were sown and nurtured hf the 
experimental manipulations not of a jealous rival, but of a useful 
and laborious ally." 

It is not our business however to dispute with this eulogist of 
the Institution the ^^ concentrated glory of discoveries" which he 
has raised his voice to reclaim; we proceed, therefore to abstract 
a paragraph or two from his inimitable performance, as a sample 
of the language in which he chooses to describe the sowing and 
nurturing of scientific Jlowers of experimental manipulations. 

<< The history of chemical science/' says he, ^ must for ever date onft 
of its principal epochs from the foundation of the laboratory of the Roy- 
al Institution, The reformed doctrines of the French school were but 
just firmly established by the powerful engine of her nomenciaturey and 
the exfiiring groans of the phlogistic hypothesis were still heard in the 
last writings o^ Dr. Priestly^ when a new power of natuie was develop* 
ed by the experiments of Galvani, and a new and powerful instrument 
of research, combined by the genius of Volta. The experimentalists of 
our school were not behind others in their investigations of the laws of 
galvanism; and various were their improvements in the Voltaic appa* 
ratus, till its splendid powers were first fully displayed in giant great- 
ness, in the history of the Institution. The impulse which was given to 
science by these striking discoveries, vibrated to every part of the civi- 
lized world, and the crowded lectures in which such wonderful novel- 
ties were displayed, with all the powers of eloqu^ice and all the aids of 
-a splendid apparatus, contributed not a little in this country, to the rapid 
diffusion of a taste for philosophic enquiry.— It was now that a light 
broke forth from her laboratory whose splendour was to radiate to every 
branch of chemical science, and which while it confirmed in some things 
the generally received doctrines, was destined to effect a revolution in 
others as important as it was unlooked for; foreign nations were emu- 
lous in offering their tribute of admiration to the genius of the British 
school, and the rival policy of a hostile government presented a civic 
crown to the pre-eminence of transcendant merit. The energy which 
was thus communicated to science, spread to all the parts of the civilised 
world with the rapidity of the electric shock; the rays of the new liglft 
were reflected from every' quarter, and discoveries, which wefe trnt-the 
consequences of the newly-ascertained law of nature, flowed in with n 
tide which almost overwhelmed the imaginaliop*^ The effects of thee»- 

and Journal ofMence and the Jtrts. S65 

pl^ikm of fire damp in coal mioes h^^ long been luiown and 4eplor^ 

but the frequency and devastating consequences of it, in the last few 
years, has made every friend of humanity shudder, and look foi*ward 
with horror to the certainty of its more frequent occurrence, in propor- 
tion to the daily extending prog^ss of the miner in his subterraneous 
operations; urged by the heart-rending cry of suffering humanity, sci- 
ence turned aside from her speculations, and after an examination of the 
nature of the enemy with which she had to contend, traced with liiborious 
and often dangerous perseverance, its most recondite principles, and at 
length presented to the astonished and grateful noiner the ignited eltmenu 
^f exfUoaionftuttering harmieBB in a wire cage. But whilst proclaiming a 
train of discoveries whose splendour and importance have never been 
equalled, and whose bright effulgence will distinguish her name, as the 
names of those in whom she glories as her sons;'* (wliatis meant by all 
this we beg to know) <' the Royal Institution has not been unmindful of 
less striking though scarcely less useful interests. In the department 
of geology she boasts of the first attempt to describe the strata and mi- 
neral productions of Great Britain with reference to a collection ever 
open to the public. As a school of chiemistry, we boldly challenge com- 
petition.'* (comparison he means surely) " It is here that we behold a 
sight not to be paralleled in the civilized world. It is hither that our 
country wofnen flock to give their all-powerful countenance to pursuits 
which ennoble the mind. While besnly and fashion continue to patron- 
ise mental improvement, it will ever be unfashionable to be uninformed; 
and while we acknowledge with gratitude the benefit which science de- 
rives from a patronage which is as irreaUtable as it is extensive, justice 
calls upon us to rebut the charge of fickleness. Long may the ladies of 
London, &c. &o. And can it now be a question whether the Royal In- 
stitution is to stand? We boldly answer No." But <^our arrears, trifling 
as they are, clog our exertions; and the hands ,of the Herculeay who 
even in his infant days, has given such promise of future excellence, are 
bound by a mere spider's web. Be it remembered at all events, that we 
sink not noiseless into oblivion: our fame is gone abroad to all the cor- 
ners of the earth, and if we fail in the face of the world, our list will no 
longer be the register of names which radiate and reflect the glory of this 
splendid establishment, but the barren catalogue of those who had not 
spirit enough to support an institution which had been so pre*eminently 
distinguished in the cause of humanity and philosophy." 

After reading these quotations, taken from a paper of about 
twenty pages, no man can be at a loss to determine the extent'* of 
the claims which a body of men, allowing such a piece of inflated 
absurdity to come out under their sanction ought to have upon a 
discerning public. We can say for ourselves, most conscientious- 
ly, that we never saw as much assurance combined with the same 
quantity of bad writing, in any essay, scientific or literary, whether 
acknowledged or anon3nnous. It is quite unique. Who, fdr exam- 
ple, ever heard a man in his senses talk of " the circle of bur pur- 
suits seeming to expand as we contemplate the concentric eiforta 
of others?" or of a contemplation which " assists in forming use- 
ful anticipations of future prospects;^^ 'X>r of mathematicians be- 
holdifig ^^the abstruse calculations of numbers and of space appli- 

seA Branded OutSn^ 9f O€ology>^ 

ed to tiie forms of matter;" or of the ^fimdamentti thciriftei of 
fnotton being referred to mathematical axioms:^^ or of ^ investi- 
gating the passive strength' of materials" or of "' twenty thousand 
volumes in all current languages!" We take leave however, of this 
unknown academician; exhorting him, when he next takes up his 
pen to give his annual retrospect of philosophical discoveries, to 
attend more to common sense than to sounding words, and in all 
the details of his ^^ sowing and nurturing experimental manipula* 
tions," to give us facts and results whatever they may be, in the 
plain language appropriated to science* 

<i Mr* Brande's book, to the consideration of which we now pro- 
ceed, demands attention on two separate accounts; first as con- 
tuning a few specific notices relative to the mineralogy of tiib 
Island) and secondly as supporting a particular tiieoiy as to the 
formation and arrangement of mineral substances at large. 

We begin with his map, or section of the strata from London 
to Cornwall and Cumberland, X'espectively, in which we suspect 
there ate several inaccuracies. For example, in describing the 
amygdaloid or toadstone of Derbyshire, he represents it as being 
massive like granite, and cutting across the limestone strata from 
below; whereas the true position of the said amygdaloid is in 
beds, alternating with, or resting upon, the calcareous rocks* There 
is a similar mis-statement tooy with regard to the green-^stooe of 
Cornwall. This rock is likewise represented as being massive like 
granite, and as shooting veins into the clay slate, or slate kilas, 
^accbrding to the loeal terminology adopted by Mr* Brande; but 
%very body knows that the true situation of the Cornwall g;reeii- 
^tone is that of beds in the clay slate, along with serpentine. We 
have some difficulty in accounting for such gross Uimdering in 
itkatters so obvious and generally known, and what is more sur- 
prizing in direct opposition to his own statement in the letter-press 
portion of his book. At page 117, when speaking of traj^rocks, 
and more particularly of greenstone, he observes, that ^^ in Der- 
^shire these rocks are among the transition series of Werner; 
they form strata and fill cavities in the limestone*" In the map, 
however, there is no greenstone strata whatever represented in 
UK Derbyshire district, whilst the amygdaloid, tiie only trap-rock 
uierein exhibited, appears like a mass spouted up from the Plu- 
tonic regions, and forcing its way through the superincumbent 
limestone* A suspicious controversialist would maintain that thu 
giarihg inconsistency between the pen and the pencil was a private 
sacrifice offered up at the shrine of theory. At all events the ob- 
ject is very manifest: the trap-rocks compose one of the hills of 
strife upon which the Werhenans and Huttonians have long exer- 
cised the weapons of controversy: it is very natural therefore that 
a disciple of the latter school snould be eager to provide the 
BSAUX and belles of the metropolis with a i^cies of argument 
best suited to the nature of their studies, a apleruBdly coburti 
phtei beiiig morally certain that few of them would ever rtech the 

andyoumal o/Scknce and the Arts, IMf 

117lih page of his ouUines, to te^ae him with questiotis on the coa* 
sistency of his statements. 

2« We were struck with the inaccurate and unscientific manner 
in which Mr. Brande speaks of granite, in his 43d and 44th p^gect^ 
After mentioning that we have jftne grained and coarse grqinei 
granite, he adds, ^^ the former is abundant in Scotland, the lattey 
in Devonshire and Cornwall." Now, the fact is, that most of the 
Scotch granite is coarse granular. Again, on the same subject, h^ 
remarks, that ^ if we examine a granitic district in nature, ^9 
shall observe, in regard to it, two leading phenomena. The pi^ 
is, that veins of granite frequently shoot n-oi|i the great ma%s inta 
the superincumbent strata." We have merely to state however 19 
answer to this, that the extensive granitic range of the Riesei^ger 
berge exhibited no such appearance to the acute and enlightened 
eye of Raumer, one of the best observers of our time, 

3. The meagre account of the highly interesting hill of Avi^^ 
more $4)pears to us exceedingly incorrect. The author calls thf} 
district of Aviemore granitic^ whereas the hill itself is gneiss, a]tt 
^mating with beds of granite and traversed with vein9 of th9l 
rock. We do not however call in question his statement that sucli 
vems are seen ^^ penetrating the slaty rock in aU directions," and 
that ^^ upcm the weather worn side, facing the north-east, a large 
vein of granite may be perceived, widest at bottom, running near-r 
ly perpendicular, and enlarging into a mass or- stratun^ of granite, 
between the schistose layers;" but we crave liberty to. add, thai 
m^y of those veins are seen termina^ng both aboye and helow^ 
and that, consequently,, they cannot have been ejected fxQXfi At 
gre^t Huttonian furnace in the bowels of the earth. Such yeins eie 
of GontemporaneQua fom^ticm with the rocks in which they nr^^ 
found; for we hold sp far with Werner, as to deny the poaition 
of Mr. Brande, that ^^ every vein must be of ^ date superior ta 
that of the body which cont^ns it." Every one in the smaUea^ 
degree acquainted with thes^ matter knows the nature of the art 
gument and the conclusion which the Huttonians have founded 
on the facts now alluded to by Professor Brande. From the shoott 
ing of granite veins into the superincumbent strata they labour to 
prove both that the granite must have been in a state of fusion "at 
the moment of its injection, and alsp as a natural consequence, 
that it must be, of later formation thftn the strata which it penii? 
grates* But to satisfy owr author that the facts for which he coo* 
tends, would even if substantiated, go onlv a very little way 19 
making out his point, we have to remind him that many other 
ro^ks, besides granite, shoot veins from their masses, both udt 
wards wd downwards; which rocks^ even according to the lead? 
ing {HTincipies of thp Huttonian- thecMy itself, could never hav# 
been in a state of fusion. This is found to be the case with floets 
Kmestone, sand stone, and even clay slate; and, indeed, there are 
lew rocks which do not occasionally exhibit at their line of juncr 
tioB, i^peaiwcee of the same description with those which 

d68 Brande^s Outlines ofGeotagy^ 

sometimes occur at the junction of granite with gneiss^ or clay 

4. Thie professor after admitting that there are granite veins 
frequently discovered which cannot be traced to any original mass 
or mountain, inform us, that *' Dr. Hutton, from collateral evi- 
dence, conceives that these are always united to some granitic mass, 
though too deep, or at too great a distance to be traced and dis- 
covered." What, we beg leave to ask, is Dr. Hutton's evidence, 
either collateral or directf It amounts, at the best, to mere con- 
jecture, grounded too on a bold hypothesis, unwarranted by rea*^ 
son, and unsupported by observation. Such veins, we repeat, are 
contemporaneous, exactly like the siliceous and calcareous veins 
which present themselves in the most common rocks of the floetz 
formation, and whidh are to be seen on a still smaller scale, in 
almost all the members of the quartz and clay families. Our au- 
thor is exceedingly unfortunate in all his examples under this 
head. He refers to Portsoy and Glentilt, to some of the Western 
isles of Scotland, particularly Tirce and Coll, as also some parts 
of Cornwall. Now, it happens that in Glentilt there is no granke 
at all, whilst the granitic veins at Portsoy can in general be traced 
to their termination, both above and below. Those again, of Tirce 
and Coll are evidently of the contemporaneous formation, the na- 
ture of which we have alreadv described. 

. 5. The account of Porphyry and Serpentine, in the opening of 
the third lecture is extremely meagre and unsatisfactory. Does 
Mr. Brande not know that die basis of porphyry may be clay- 
stone, homstone, and pitchstone, as well as felsparf Is he certain, 
moreover, that he ever sa>r serpentine resting upon blocks of por- 
phyry? And what are we to understand by the very loose expres- 
sions, ^* veins of granite associating with those of steatite, per- 
vading the granite?" and ^^ Serpentine at Portsoy associating with 
granite?" Such descriptions of the locality and relative situation 
of rocks, would not be pardoned in a common miner. Of Kme- 
stone too, that very important mineral substance, all that we are 
told, with respect to its geognostic relations at least, is, that it is 
associated among primary rocks with mica-slate and serpentine, 
and that in ^^ Inverary Park it may- be seen in contact with mica- 
slate and porphyry." After these enlightened and profound re- 
marks, which constitute the philosophy of this part ot the geologi- 
cal outlines, we are gravely informed, that ^ die most esteemed 
varieties (of marble) are perfectly white and free from veins, 
somewhat translucent, and susceptible of a good polish;" and 
that ^ these marbles are imported for ornamental purposes, espe- 
cially for those of the sculptor," aU which is followed by this sim* 
pie assurance: ^ We have now considered a highly important se- 
ries of rocks, and have enumerated their characters as insufaited 

To be serious: had this book been the first publication in die 
department of mineralogy; had Wemar, and KirMa, $oA Von 

ixnd youmal of Science and the Arts. ' 369 

Busch, and Jameson, never written their several works; had the 
English public in these times had as few means of prosecuting 
this interesting study, as they possessed in the days of Burnet or 
Whiston, then, peradventure, might such a treatise as that now 
before us, have done some credit to its author, and some good, 
perhaps, to the inquisitive student. But, in the present state of 
knowledge, both as to simple minerals, and the composition and 
relation of mountain rocks, the case is, without doubt, entirely dif- 
ferent, and these *' Outlines of Geology," accordingly contain not, 
we are positively certain, one single nict or argument which is not 
already before the public in a more accurate and intelligible form. 
Considering what has been done by the Geological Society, the 
Wemerian society, by Dr. Kidd,and Professor Jameson, compared 
with the scanty and incorrect details of Mr. Brande, we cannot 
sufficiently condenm the imprudence of the writer, in the journal 
of the Royal Institution, who says, in allusion to the essay we are 
now reviewing, that " she (the Institution) boasts of the first at- 
tempt to describe the strata and minersd productions of Great 
Britain."— Nascitur ridiculus mus! 

We had marked several other mistakes in the course of reading 
this little work, but we shall content ourselves with mentioning 
one more, namely, the^appearance of sandstone, when in beds, al- 
ternating with trap rocks. In such circumstances it is very well 
known, the sandstone at the line of junction has an indurated look, 
as if a portion of the greenstone or basalt were incorporated with 
it, or introduced by percolation into its pores; and this appear- 
ance has been ascribed by the Huttonians to their favourite doc- 
trine that the trap rocks were originally interjected between the 
sandstone beds in a state of fusion. 

" The common observer," says Mr. Brande, " to whom a piece of 
basalt is presented^ would presently announce it to be the produce of a 
volcano, and the analogy between it and lava is most striking. This 
alone would justify us in concluding that whinst'one is the produce of 
fire. But the Huttonian hypothesis^ as applied to its origin, becomes 
much more satisibctory, when we contemplate the effects produced 
upon the strata, into which it has been thrown, or upon the substances 
in its vicinity. Thus the sandstone of Salisbury Crag is broken^ indu* 
rated, and even fused by its irruption." 

In reply to this statement, we have briefly to observe, that the 
fusion of such sandstone is a mere fancy of Dr. Hutton's; the very 
same appearance being discoverable in sandstone, where it alter- 
nates with slate-clay, at a distance too from trap of every descrip- 
tion, and even in situations where no trap is to be found. 

Tliese remarks naturally lead us to the second part of the sub- 
ject discussed by our author, and introduce us to his notions on 
what has been called a theory of the earth. Taking up very lite- 
rally the doctrines of Hutton and Playfair, he regards trap rocks, 
as well as granite, as having been completely melted in the im- 
mense. aubtenaMnn fire, liipited tt|^by Ms master, at an inde&iite 

Vol .X. 4/ 

3fB Brafub?9 OuiOntB o/Geohgy^ 

depth in the entrails of our globe, and afterwards tfaiown up to 
form masses, beds, and dykes among the stratified minerals de- 
posited by the ocean. Let us examine then, into the few pheno- 
mena of which we are in possession , and see hpw this hjrpotheais 
accounts for the said fused sand tone of Salisbury Crag. "Mr. 
Brande certainly does not require to be told, that in the well- 
known hill he has mentioned, there is a succession of strata, or 
beds, of greenstone and sandstone alternating with each other; 
and this being the case, we are desirous to be informed how the 
fused trap could make its way through the sandstone mass, and 
divide it into regular strata, parallel to one another, and to the in- 
terposed beds of greenstone! It is admitted by all Huttonians, we 
believe, that sandstone is a deposition from water, and moreover, 
that it has never been melted m their migh^ furnace at the cen- 
tre of the earth; how then are they to explain the undeniable fact^ 
that strata, composed of a stone^ avowedly of aqueous origin, are 
found alternating with those of another stone, which they maintain 
to be of igneous origin, in the most regular succession, and preserv- 
ing at the same time in their position the strictest parallelism 
throughout their whole extent. Could the melted greenstone be 
injected from the deep, in a direction nearly horizontal too, into 
a superincumbent rock, so regularly, and almost at given distan- 
ces! We admit that the Wemerians have to encounter no small 
difficulty in explaining the alternation of sandstone and green- 
stone, in what they csdl their independi^nt coal fermatioinsf and it 
is not very easy to conceive that the fluid which covered the frtce 
of the earth, should deposite siliceous matter in a state of mechani- 
cal division, until it had formed one stratum in a particular place, 
and then proceeded to deposite hornblende and felspar until it had 
formed a stratum of greenstone to cover that other stratum, and 
so on in regular succession, we know not how often. There is a 
difficulty here, and no candid Wemerian will deny it; but still, 
when compared with the monstrous assumption, that the one rock 
was spouted into the other from a great depth in a state of fluidi^, 
it vanishes into nothing. If, however, the Huttonian could prove 
tfiat, where the sandstone is foimd in contact with the trap, tlie 
former is indurated, or fused^ in a way in which it is never round, 
when in contact with any other kind of rock, we should be com- 
pelled to yield to a presumption at least considerably in favour of 
his hypothesis. But so far is this from being the case, we are pre- 
pared, as we have already said, to bring forward a multitude of 
facts to show that sandstone exhibits the very same i^pearance; 
the appearance of induration, or fusion, we mean; where it aker* 
nates with slate clay, a substance which no man ever imagined to 
have been exposed to fire. 

When on tnis topic, we may adduce one or two cases from Dr. 
Murray, whose book Mr. Brande does not appear to have read. 
Alluding to the operation of the internal heat of the Huttonians, 
ibit Doctor mentions, among other Aings, that strata ttf rodM&k 

and ymral of Science and the Arts, Sft 

are sometimes covered by strata of sandstone or limestone. The 
Huttonian geologist, he observes, must suppose that this sandstone 
has been consolidated by the central heat, acting through the 
rock-salt below it* But this is plainly an impossibility. The salt is 
a substance comparatively very fusible^ as it can even be vola- 
tilized by the heat of a coarse pottery furnace, while sandstone is 
very infusible. The heat necessary, Uierefore, to soften sandstone 
in ws position, must have melted the salt beneath; and as this 
latter substance is of a much inferior specific gravity, the sand- 
stone, most have sunk in it, and the arrangement observed by na- 
ture could never have been produced. We find, continues the 
Doctor, in innumerable cases, strata more imperfecdy consoli- 
dated than others above them, and of course further removed 
irom the consolidating power, though the difference cannot be 
ascribed to any diflPerence in the fusibility of the substances com- 
posing them. An exaipple will place this in a clear light. In a sec- 
ti<m of the strata at Newcasde, coal is found at the depth of 102 
feet; over it is a bed of black clay, 13 feet thick, with impressions 
of ferns in its substance; above this, another bed of harder clay, 
S6 feet in thickness. The stratum incumbent on this is a hard 
quartKOse sandstcme, with specks of mica, 25 feet thick; and this 
is again covered by clay. Now, how could this sandstone have 
been consolidated by the subterranean heat, while so many feet of 
clay beneath it, and of course, nearer the operation of that heat, 
had not even been indurated! We may pronounce it impossible 
diat it should be so. Nor is the exiample uncommon: there are 
many similar to it, and even less favourable, as the banks of cl^ 
extend to eigh^, an hundred, or more fathoms in thickness, with 
perfecdy consolidated sandstone above; and this is diversified 
with alternations of limestone, gypsum, coal, and a great variety 
of other secondary rocks. 

In this book of Mr. Brande's there is not the slightest attempt 
made to remove the objections now stated; indeed he does not 
seem to be aware that such objections have ever been urged. With 
regard, again, to the difficulty attending the fundamental position 
of the Huttonian hypothesis, that there exists a subterranean fire^ 
which consolidates and raises mineral strata; tht pabulum which 
maintains it, if it does feed upon consumable materials, the causes 
and periods of its renovation, if it is ever extinguished or supr 
pressed; our author merely observes, that ^^ the discoveries of Sir 
Humphrey Davy, concerning the true nature of earthy bodiesi 
have furnished unexpected evidence In defence of these apparemt 
incongruities of the Huttonian doctrines." With the utmost desire 
to appreciate the value of this evidence, we are entirely thrown 
out in our search for the particular point, on which it may be supr 
posed to bear. That the alkaline earths have a metallic base of 
small specific gravity, and easily combustible, is a fact, the di»f 
eovery and confirmation of which we owe to Sir H. Davy; but as 
HO attempt has been vmA^ to deduce fro^i that faa> cither tW 

572 Brande^s Outlines ofGeohgy^ 

lime or any other earth constitutes the bunung substance in the 
centre of our globe, or that these bodies have become more com- 
bustible since their constituent parts were brought to light, by the 
analytic processes now attached, we cannot possibly discover the 
connexion to which Mr. Brande refers us, between the splendid ex- 
periments in the institution and the doctrines of the Huttonian theory. 

But, leaving professor Brande, who has not said any thing new, 
either for the Uieory which he has chosen to defend, or against 
that which it has pleased him to oppose, we cannot help observ- 
ing, in relation to the Huttonian hypothesis, that its author has 
undertaken to explain, from . an assumed and very doubtful 
principle, the most magnificent phenomena on the earth's sur- 
face. What an immense body of granite and other primary 
rocks must be contained in the Andes, and in the Thibet chain of 
mountains, the latter of whic)i ascend nearly twenty-seven thou- 
sand feet above the level of the ocean! If the secondary istrata, 
which rest upon the sides of those gigantic ridges were as the 
Huttonian maintains, at one time, a dead fiat at the bottom of the 
sea, how incalculably large the quantity of matter, and how im- 
measurably great the force, necessary to raise and support them 
at such an elevation. Those astonishing chains of mountains which, 
as Cuvier says, constitute the frame-work of this globe, stretching 
from the arctic nearly to the antartic circle, and giving a form and 
character to all our continents, in the old world as well as in the 
new, originated, says the disciple of Dr. Hutton, in the spouting 
up of melted granite from the bowels of the earth! The mighty 
Andes themselves, towering into the clouds, and extending more 
than a thousand leagues in length, are to be traced to a Plutonic 
furnace, belching forth quartz and mica in a state of fusion! 

A thought has just struck us, which, we imagine, might be ap- 
plied with some success, to ascertain whether transitive and secon- 
dary rocks have been deposited, according to the Wemerian hy- 
pothesis, on the primitive masses, placed at their present height 
above the level of the waters, or whether, agreeably to the views 
of Hutton, they were broken and forced up from a horizontal po- 
sition at the bottom of the sea. If the secondary strata, covenng 
the sides of a primitive mountain would, when restored to their 
level posture, occupy more ground than the base of that mountain, 
we might jusdy infer that they had not been deposited in hori- 
zontal layers. If, for example, a mountain elevated four thousand 
feet above the ocean, presented on its sides, at the height of three 
thousand feet or upwards, a stratification of secondary rocks, we 
might safely conclude that these rocks had been deposited upon 
it, and not broken through and lifted up during its ascent from 
below; for, according to the latter supposition, the separated strata 
would not have, attained so great an elevation. Somediing no 
doubt, depends upon the length of the base, and the angles at 
which the mountain rises from the plain, but in no case can the 
sum of the two sides, to the point at which they are over laid 
with secondary strata, exceed the base, without furnishing po» 

and Journal of Science and the Arts. ^73 

sitive proof that these strata were not disrupted by the propul- 
sion from below, of the central granite. We have not the means 
at present of making any reference to facts in relation to this sub- 
ject; but considering that the principal waste takes place in the 
strata which cover fiie primitive rocks, and that, consequendy, 
these strata must now be found at a level considerably lower than 
they originally stood, the Huttonian can have no reason to chal- 
lenge this test. 

At all events, it is high time to have a truce with h3rpothesis. 
The speculations of the theorist have already far outstripped the 
progress of actual knowledge: the geologist has already advanced 
too far without the aid of the minersdogist. Kirwan himself was not 
deeply versed in the details of simple minerals; Hutton was still 
less so; and Mr. Playfair puts forth no pretensions to that kind of 
science. It is to the works of Werner and his later disciples that 
the world has been indebted for the recent improvements in this 
field of inquiry; and guided by the same views, the members of 
the Wemerian and geological societies, in different parts of Britain, 
are at this moment occupied, not in imagining hypothetical condi- 
tions to explain the past and present state of the earth's crust, but 
in endeavouring to ascertain die natural arrangement of rocks, and 
the various relations which subsist among them. The memoirs ac- 
cordingly, which make up the transactions of these societies, are 
almost entirely descriptive: they are collections of facts gathered 
inmiediately from nature, pure from the drossof hypothesis, and un- 
affected by the spirit of controversy. Since the publication of Mr. 
Jameson's Elements of Geognosy, which afforded at once the first 
connected view of Werner's principles, and the first regular sys- 
tem of geology in the English language, we have several works of 
considerable merit, drawn up in the same practical and descriptive 
manner. Among these, we cannot fail to eive a place to the ele- 
gant litde work of professor Kid, of Oxford, and to the Geological 
Treatise by Mr. Phillips. Cuvier's Essay towards a Theory of 
the Earth, is indeed a performance in rather a different line of 
study: but, superficial as it unquestionably is, it will be found of no 
small use to the beginner in mineralogy. The works of Parkinson 
and Martin, on petrefactions too, merit high commendation, and 
ought to be in the hands of every student. 

A parting word to the royal institution, and we have done. Let 
the professors prosecute their experiments, and employ their pow- 
erful apparatus, without ceasing; for they have thereby done great 
service to chemical science, and may yet do more ; but let them write 
sparingly. Their manipulations ought not to extend to pens and 
paper. Popular lecturers, like popular preachers, should seldom 
publish; for the kind of style which suits addresses to the heart 
and the imagination of half learned youths, or susceptible damsels, 
will not be endured in a book having any pretensions to scientific 
accuracy. We allude chiefly to the retrospect prefixed to the last 
journal of the. institution, tlum which we certainly never read any 
thing of greater pomp, and wof se taste. 


Art. IV. A Mormn^'^s Walk in the State of Dtlaumre^ 

Doverj Ut October^ 1817* 
n^HE patriotic sir John Sinclair when he designed a statistical 
*- account of Scotland, for the benefit of his native country, with 
a view to apply those improvements of which it might be suscep- 
tible, had recourse to the correspondence of the established clergy 
in the several pai:ishes, whom he knew to be generally a most en* 
lightened body. A concern fot^ the welfare of their respective 
cures, he was aware, had led them to form an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the interests, and wants, temporal as well as spintual^ 
of their several districts, and from such a class of men, the most 
accurate and intelligent reports were to be expected. To each 
minister he transmitted a series of queries, which were answered 
in a manner altogether so clear and explanatory — ^in language so 
correct and philosophical— -embracing every relative point uncon- 
fined, and abounding in useful practical suggestions, as to form a 
most valuable and admired contribution to die stock of knowledge 
in rural and political economy. The encomiums of Europe have 
awarded the due praise to the venerable author of the project, as 
well as to the clergy of Scotland, whose papers bear internal evi« 
dence of their learning and talents. 

May we profit by so happy an example; and, though the want 
of a national establishment of religion, may appear, at the first 
glance, to oppose some obstacle to the success of the plan, yet 
surely, some expedient might be devised to set the necessary re- 
searches in motion, by promoting local attention and examination. 
I propose to supply this defect in my district, by way of instance 
of the feasibili^ of the scheme; scarcely hoping, however, to do 
more than reflect the objects which come within the range of a 
country clergyman, leaving more experienced economists to de- 
duce the higher conclusions. 

Dover is the seat of government for this state, being wisely cho- 
sen for that purpose, on account of its situation in the centre of it. 
Inferior to Wilmington, which deserves to be ranked as the capi- 
tal of Delaware, in size and population, it can boast none of those 
manufactures or works of public utility which distinguish that bo- 
rough, but surrounded by a country wholly agricultural, assumes 
no other feature than that of a mart for the productions of the 
soil, and the resort of law officers, barristers, attomies, with occa- 
sionally a ^^ purba clientum^^ from every quarter of the state. Here 
the public elections are held, and hence emanate the dispensation 
of justice, the provisions of the constitution, and the representa* 
tive character of the people. 

It would seem, from the names of some places in this state, that 
a Kentish interest from England had formerly been seated in these 
parts. We have Kent county, and Dover and Canterbury, both 
places in it. So, in England, they have Dover, a well known sea 
port, and Canterbury, an archbishop's see, the Metropolitan of 
Great Britain; both in Keat. About three miles to the south of 

A Mmdf^s Waik in tk^ Stoic efDekmart. zrs 

tliie place, is Camden^ a village also in Kent county, possibly de- 
riving its name from the celebrated antiquary whose *'*' Britannia" 
is well known over Europe. Camden, it is remarkable, was a na- 
tive of the county of Kent (England) in which he resided during 
his life. 

This state, indeed, was settled principally from England. Its 
name and that of the noble river that laves the eastern shore of 
our Peninsula are to be traced to West, earl of Delaware, 
whose descendant the present earl, is to be found in the cata- 
logue of British peers. The Wests abound, to this day, in the 
lower part of this state. 

The convenience we enjoy in the proximity of the river Dela- 
ware, wbich though ten miles distant communicates with a creek 
aavigable by sloops to within a mile of the town, affords a cheap 
and easy outlet for the produce of the country, and the exchange 
of commodities. Hence firewood, bark,- staves, shingles and boards, 
wheat, flour, Indian corn and meal, are exported to Philadelphia, 
Wilmington, &c. in return for which, dry goods, domestic manu- 
factures, hardware, iron, groceries and other articles are received 
in barter. Philadelphia ^sorbs the greater part of the commerce 
of the Delaware, on account of its superior demand and capitaL 
Tlie balance of trade has, latterly, been against this portion of the 
country, owing to the deficiency of crops— *a circumstance attri^ 
buted by the natives to the unfriendly seasons, vnA more particu- 
larly acknowledged to be the case widiin the last three years. Old 
men, speaking of twenty-five years ago, exclaim, *^ Ah, sir! our 
country does not yield the half now of what it used to do." I have 
endeavoured to solve this problem, and, as some admit, to their 
satisfaction, while others, with steadfast perseverance in exploded 
principles, for which farmers in every age have been proverbial, 
teemed resigned to expect no change for the better, and therefore 
relinquish all experiment. 

The real cause of the unproductiveness of the land, I consider 
to arise from its exhaustion. The farmer, in many instances, holds 
900 to 1000 acres, scarcely any part of which is in grass, the con«> 
aequence is, his manures are msufficient; for it is the pasture 
which maintains catde, and it is on cattle the fanner depends 
chiefly for the due quantity of manure. When all, or nearly all 
the land of a farm is arable, the soil must be impoverished in a 
term of years, unless the purchased manures are very consider«> 
tble. Arable and pasture mutually assist each other in forming a 
ff eat quantity of those most essential aids; the arable, in furnish- 
ing roots for the winter subsistence of the cattle, and straw for 
them to make into manure: the grass, in maintsuning catde in the 
summer, and raising hay for winter use. Without a proper obser* 
vance of this distinction, the farm must suffer: Clover, it ahould 
be remembered, will not answer for fattening cattle, nor can cows 
be advantageously fed upon it. Our farms are too large, and our 
farmers too systematic in error. They seem totally to overlook 

3^6 A Morning^ 8 Walk in the State ofDeUtware. 

the consideration, that without proper fallows, and the due rota-* 
tion of crops, it is vain to expect the full rewards of husbandry. 
Tull mentions an instance of a poor man, whom necessity com- 
pelled to allow his field to remain two seasons under fallow, be^' 
cause he could not get seed for his ground after he had tilled it 
the first year. The consequence was, that his crop was worth 
more than the value of the land it grew on. Maxwell too, another 
^writer on husbandry, states the case of a tenant who, from a like 
necessity, followed the same example, and ultimately obtained 
such a crop as enabled him to pay many debts, and, by continu- 
ing the same practice, in a few years to be in a condition to pur-^ 
chase the farm. If it is found tliat one summer's fallow does not 
entirely answer the purpose of dividing and loosening the earthy 
it is most beneficial to continue it for another. Weeds impiur the 
strength of a soil, and it ought to be a special object in fsdlowing 
to extirpate their growth; added to which, the application of ma- 
nures, prepared and covered from the weather, until wanted, so 
as to exclude the absorbent influence of the sun and winds, will 
then be in good season. So industrious kre the Flemish farmers, 
and so careful to insure the exuberant crops they enjoy, that, 
with immense labour, diey cover the sandy surface of their soil 
by a new stratum of compost: they know and feel, that much 
must be given to the land before much can be required of it. 

Indian com is a species of crop, infinitely too exhausting for a 
country so long worked as this has been. It ought not to be cul- 
tivated in the proportion of one-fifth of its present growth. As a 
food for cattie, it is too heating in the warm months, and for 
man, rye is better, as a substitute. Carrots, parsnips, cabbages, 
and potatoes, will feed cattle, without that detriment to the land 
occasioned by rearing Indian com. The English carrot, with pro- 
per culture,* will grow in a sandy loam to tiie size of a quart bot- 
tle. It is not to be surpassed for nutritive properties," and is, for 
milch cows, an incomparable food, enriching the quality and aug- 
menting the quantity of their yield. Might not the beet be gene- 
rally applied to the same purpose, in the absence of the requisite 
description of carrot seed? 

' With respect to wheat, I was prepared, when I first came into 
this state, on learning that no measures were generally taken to 
exchange the native seed for foreign, to expect, as I found to be 
the case, a degenerate and stinted produce. In time of peace, I 
would recommend the Polish seed, or that of tiie Netherlands, 
When these are not to be procured, the exchange with Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, and the new countries. Whatever be tiie real source 
and causes of the fly, so destructive to our crops of late years, 
this much appears certain, that its attacks are more destmctive on 
the native seed. When a change of country shall be found, as as- 

* Sow the latter end of March, and take up in October. Ptoogh a deep hanm 
and harrow in your seed. 

A M^rving^s Walk in the Siaie ofDehtwm^. »7 

suredtty it will, to improve the character of the plant, its heaMi 
and vigor, we shall then be better prepared to speculate upon the 
true causes of its imperfection. 

If an apprehension, commonly entertained, of liability to ague 
in this state, at certain seasons, did not obtain such extensive cir- 
culation, we might hope for much benefit from the resort of in- 
dustrious emigrants, who, importing an experience of the prac- 
tices of other countries, would go far, by the persuasive effects of 
successful example, to correct d^e oversights in this. Of the un- 
kealthiness we may expect to be reminded, until the enactments 
of the legislature for the draining of marshes throughout the state 
shall be more generally known to be, what they now are, com- 
pletely efficacious. Ague, and remittent and intermittent fever, I 
have observed to be more particularly accessible to those who in- 
dulge in spirits, raw or diluted, the bane of mankind. In such 
persons an artificial stimulus is produced repeatedly, exposing in 
the intervals, the pores of the system to the chilling influence of 
the winds in August and September, when no doubt our atmos- 
phere is charged with miasmata, more prejudicial than at any 
other period. When this reproach of our peninsula shall have 
subsided, we may hope to see our forest lands, yet in a state of 
nature, teeming with the boimuful returns of a well directed in- 
dustry, attractmg the transmarine setder by the advantages of 
price (3 to 5 dollars per acre, on credit) and securing his reward 
by the proximity of markets. New courses of husbandry might 
then be reduced to practice, to the infinite benefit of our country, 
new means of abridging labour and extending produce be intro- 
duced. Mr. Jefferson, in his .Notes on Virginia, speaking of the 
wants of the country, with regard to pcqiulation, and the acquisi- 
tion of settlers from abroad, appears not to have taken a compre^ 
hensive view of that question: he says, ^ the presjent desire of 
America is, to produce rapid population by as great importaticms 
of foreigners as possible. But is this founded in good policy?' and 
then deduces the negative, from an- apprehension that foreigners 
may retain their adherence to the principles of the governments 
they leave, imbibed in early youth. ^ These principles, with their 
language, they may transmit to their children. In proportion to 
their numbers,' they will share with us the legislation. They may 
infuse into it their spirit, warp and bias its direction, and render 
it a heterogeneous, incoherent, distracted mass.' These conjec- 
tures, plausible in prospect, yet futile by experience, were penned 
at a time when the infancy of the country had not as yet disclosed 
its cs4>abilities, when its internal energies were neither matured 
nor fully ascertained, and its real wants, throughout so extensive 
a territory, but imperfectiy known. Only look at the obje