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Full text of "An alphabetical compendium of the various sects which have appeared in the world from the beginning of the Christian aera to the present day. [electronic resource] : With an appendix, containing a brief account of the different schemes of religion now embraced among mankind. : The whole collected from the best authors, ancient and modern."

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University of California Berkeley 

J J 



A N 


. , : V * 



Which have appealed in the World from the beginning of the 
CJuiftian A>a to the prcfeat Day. 



Containing a brief Account 
Of the different Schemes of 


NJW embraced among Ma^.klad. 

The vhote colltasd 
From the beft Authors, ancient and modem, 


^Prove ail things; bold faft that which is 


5 S T 6 N: 
Wttttd by B. Ejp E S 6 SON S, N ' **> 


IT will be eafily perceived, that the compiler of 
the following work has, with great labour and 
pains, ranfacked the trealures of ecclefiaftical hiftory^ 
ancient and modern, to bung into, view what is here 
prefented to the public. 

She claims no other merit than that of having 
honeftly and impartially collected the fenfe of the 
different feds ? as it is given by the authors to whom 
{he refers : nbr was it a vain ambition of appearing 
as an author, that put her upon writing 5 her own 
fatisfadtion and amufement being the only objedl. 
Having yielded however to its publication, at the de* 
fire of feveral judicious friends, (he has alfo done vio 
lence to her own inclination, by prefixing her name, 

The world has been abfurdly accuftomed to 
entertain but a moderate opinion of female abili-? 
ties, and to afcribe their pretended productions tp 
the craft and policy of defigning men j either to 
excite admiration or fcreen their weaknefs from cen- 
fure : whereas unbiafed reafon muft allow, if an in 
vidious companion between the fexes is in any ref- 
peft justifiable, it cannot be grounded upon a defedt 
of natural ability, but upon the different, and per 
haps faulty mode of female education ; for under 
fimilar culture, and with equal advantages, it is far 
from being certain that the female mind would not: 
admit a meafure of improvement, that would at 
leaft equal, and perhaps in many inftances eclipfe, 
the boafted glory of the other fex. 

There have been female writers, and hiftorians,' 
who have been defervedly honored in the literary 
world. The celebrated Mrs. Maecauley Graham, 
who has larely x honored our country with her pre- 
fnce> is a living example, ' 

**"*" ~<~ *._ ^< r*^.^.*^ A . Z 

t a I 

The writer of this compendium having been from 

K r vqu'.h fond of hooks, has made herfelf acquaint- 

he Greek and Latin tongues, which may 

.lv recount for io frequent a ufe of terms in 

\.n uages. 

>.ve:ver ihe volume may be received by thofe 

v h ye verb'd in the jhiitoiic page, it may at Iraft 

l.'tul and entertaining to thofe who have neither 

leisure nor opportunity to perufe the numerous vo- 

> fr< i) ',*'hYh t!iC \\hole ^ is collected. With' 

.i to n. ..v -t the ancient fefls, it is well known 

li.t e ha;- been preferved, and therefore lit f le can bq 

here ex e- ed. With relpect to others fuch as de- 

fire higher information, are directed by references 

to the volumes, and generally to the pa^es, whcte 

their inquificive minds may be {aiibfied, 

Jt is truly aAoniihing that fo great a variety ol 
fairh and pradice fhould be c'Qrived \viih cq 1 
confidence of their different -abettors from one and 
the lame revelation from heaven : but while \vc 
have the lively oracles, we are not to adopt any 
of the numeions fchemes of religion, further than 
they have a rn mitcll foundation in the facred pages. 
To the law ana to ihc teftimony 5 if they (peak not 
acco: to this word, however fpecious their fjf- 
ttnr niHV appear, 4< there is no liht in them/' 

appear, 4< there is no ligh 
W^h curdiai will c? for the divine illumination 
of the h-.!y f t n hlch the (acred fcriptures 

1 a iiiiiv.Tfal prevalence of the knowledge 
ana praj'ice .>f pure and undefiled religion before 
Cud a: d the Father : 

I am the readers mod obedient humble iirfvant:, 

September 2dJ 1784. 


THE reader will pleafe to obferve, thafc 
the following rules have been care 
fully adhered co through the whole of ttjis 

i, >o avoid giving the leaft prefe 
rence of one denomination above another : 
pmiting thofe pafp&es in the authors 
cired, where they pafs their judgment on 
the ftntiments of which they give an ac 
count : confequently the making ufe of any 
fuch appellations as Hert.-icks, "chifmiticks, 
Enthiijidftsi Fanaticks, &c. is carefully 

2 To give a few of the arguments of 
the principal feds, from their own au 
thors, where they could be obtained 

3* To endeavour to give the fenci. 
ments of every feel in the general collec^, 
tive fenfe of that denomination. 

4. To give the whole as much as^p^f- 
fible in the words of the authors fronij 
wHich the compilation is made, and where, 
that could not be done without too great 
prolixity, to rake the utmoft care noc to, 
inifreprefetxt: the ideas. 

September 2, 1784. 




ABRAHAMIANS, A tea In the ninth centu 
ry; fo called from their founder, Abraham. 
They received the doftrines of the PaulicianS, 
and are faid to have employed the crols in the riaoft 
fervile offices. [See Paulicians.] 

Diflionaty of Art s and Sciences t vot* I. p 10. 

ABYSSINIAN-CHURCH, that eftabliflied in 
the empire of Abyffinia : they maintain that the two 
natures are united in Chrift without either confufion or 
mixture \ fo that though the nature of our Saviour bfe 
really one i yet it is at the fame time two-Jold arid 

The Abyffinian church embraced thefe tenets in 
the feventh century. *They difown the Pope's fu- 
premacy, and moft points of the Popifh dodtrines. 

Mo/helm's Ecclejiaftical Hiftory> voL 2. f. 172. vol 3 p. 492; 
Dictionary of Arts and Sciences t vol. I. p. 15. 

ACEPHALI, i.e,headlefs. The word is com 
pounded of the privative [a] and [kephale] a bead. 
They were a branch of the Eutichians, who, by the 
lubmiffion ofMongos,had been deprived of their chief. 
left was afterwards divided into three others, 


A E R 

who were called Anthopomorphites, Earfariaphites, 
and Efaianites. [See Eutychians.J 

's Ecclcfaflical HiJ1cry t vol i. /. 418. 

ADAMITES, A fefifc in the fecond century, who 
aflumed this title from their affening that fince their 
redemption by the death of Chrift, they were as in 
nocent as Adam before the Fall, and confequentiy 
went naked in their affemblies. The author of ihis 
denomination was Prodicus, a difciplc of Carpocrates. 
It was renewed in the fifteenth century by one Pi- 
card, a native of Flanders. 

Brcugbton't Hifloric&l Library > v ol. i. p. 14. 

ADESSEN ARI ANS, A branch of the Sacramen- 
tarians> fo called from the Latin Adefre^ to bepre^nt ; 
becaufe they believed the prcfence of Chriit's body in 
the eucharift, though in a manner different from the 
Roinanifts. They were fubdivided into thofe who 
held that the body of Jefus Chrift is in the bread, 
whence they were likewite ; thofe who 
-hold that it is. about the bread; thofe who laid it is 
with the bread ; and thofe .who maintained that it 
is under the bread. 

Br ought on , $lid t p. 1$. 

ADIAPHORISTS. [See Lutherans.] 

ADOPTIANS, Followers of Felix of Urgel, an 
Elipand of Toledo ; who, towards the end of the 
eighth century ,taught that JelusChrift,with refpedt to 
his human nature, was not the natural, but adoptive 
Son of GOD. ' m. 

Diflionary of Aft $ and Sciences , r^/. i. p 49. 

AERIANS, A feft which arofe about the yead 
^342 > fo called from oneAcrius, a Pr efbyter,Monk,aud 


AGN 3 

Seitti-ariari.' One of his principal tenets was, that 
there is no diftindtion, founded in fcripture, between 
a Pre&yter and a Biflbop. . He built his opinion 
chiefly on the paffage in the firft epiftle to Timothy, 
in which the apoftle exhorts him not to negledt itit 
gift he bad received by the laying on the hands of the 
Prejbytery. Aerius condemned prayers for the dead, 
ftated fafts, the celebration of Bailer, and other rites 
of the like ^nature, i . / 

Eccltjtafltcal Uiflory, vol. I p, 314* 
B rough ton's Hiftorical Library , vol. i p, 22. 

AETIANS, A fed which appeared about the year 
336, fo called from Aetius, a Syrian. Befides the 
Opinions which the Aetians held in common with 
the Arians, they maintained that faith without works 
was fufficient to falvation, and that n'6 fin, however 
grievouSjWOuld be imputed to the faithful. Aetius 
moreover affirmed, that what GOD had concealed 
/rom the tpo/lleSt he had r^v^aled to him* 

Brought on, ibid t p. 24. 

AG1NIANS, A fet which appeared about the end 
6f the ieventh century. I hey condemned the ule of 
certain meats and marriage, They had but few fol 
lowers, and \Vere foon fu'pprefled. 

< 26. 


AGNOITES, A fedi which appeared about theyear 
3^6. They were followers of Theophronius, the 
Capadocian, who called in queftion the omnifcienap 
of GOD ; alledging that he knew things pad only 
6y memory, and things future only by ao uncertain 

There aroft another fe<3 of the fame name about 

fentiments of 

4 ALB 

Themiflicus, deacop of Alexandria, who held that 
Chrift knew not when the day of judgment fhall be. 
He founded this opinion on a paffage of St. Mark : 
Of that day and boar knoweth no man ; no not the an 
gel* who are in heaven t nor tbe jon> but the father only. 

This feft derive their name from the Greek 
agnoein^ to be ignorant. 

Brougbion> ibid, p. 26, 27. 

ALBANENSES, A feel which commenced about 
the year 796. They held with the Gnoftics and 
Mariichseans, two principles, the one of good, the 
other of evil. They denied the divinity \ and even 
the humanity of jefus Chrift, aflerting that he was 
not truly man ; did not fuffer on the crofs, die, rife 
again, nor really afcend into heaven. They rejected 
the doctrine of the fefurreftion ; affirmed that the 
general judgment was part 5 and that hell torments 
were no other than the evils we feel and fuffer in 
this life. They denied free-will, did not admit 
original fin ; and never adminiftered baptijm to in 
fants. They held that a man can give the holy fpi- 
rit of himfel^ and that it is unlawful for a chriftian 
lo tak an oath. 

This feel derived their name from the place where 
their fpiritual ruler refxded. [See Manichseans and 

Broughton, ibid ^31. 
mo/bftm's Ecclefiajlical Hifi vol. 2 />. 44$. 

e ALBANO1S, A fed which fprung up rn the eighth 
century, and renewed the greateft part of the Ma- 
nichaean principles. They alfo maintained that the 
world was from eternity, [See Manichsans.] 

C?///>rV Htfcric*! D'Monary^ vol. i. [Set Albanr/n^ 


A M M 5 

ALBIGENSES, So called from their firft increafe 
Jn AIbi and Albigeos. A denomination remarka 
ble fqr their oppofition to the difcipline and ceremo 
nies of the church of Rome. Their opinions are ll- 
with the Waldenfes. [See Waldenfes,] 

f Hiflorf of the Vlfaldtnfts, ,3. 

ALMARICIANS, A fedl which arofe in the 
thirteenth century. They derived their name from 
Almaric, pfofeffor of logic and theology "at Paris, 
who taught that every chriflian was obliged to believe 
btmlelf a n\ember of Je/us Chri/t y and that without 
this belief none could he javed. His followers affert* 
ed that the power of the Father had continued only 
during the Mofaiq difpenfation j that of the Son, 
twelve hundred years after his entrance upon earth ; 
and that,, in the thirteenth century, the Qge of the 
Ho/y Spirit commenced, in which the facraments 
and all external worlhip were to be abolifhed ; and 
that every one was to be faved by the internal opera 
tions of the Holy Spirit alone, without any external 
act of religion. 

Mo/helm's EcclefiaJlJcal lliftory Note [c] vol. tit. 129, 133; 

ALQGIANS, [in Latin Alogil A fedT: in A fa-' 
Minor, in the year 171 5 focalled, becaufethey de 
nied the divine logos, or word, and the gofpel and 
writings of St. John, attributing them to Ceririthus. 

One Theodore of Byzantium, by trade a currier, 
\vas th^ head of this denomination. A 

tirwghtori's Hiftorical Library < t vol. i> p. 33. 

AMMQNIANS, So called from Ammonius Sac- 
cas, who taught with the higheft applaufc in th\e 
Alexandrian feiool, about the conclufion of the fc- 

B 2 cond 

6 AMM 

cond century. This learned man attempted a ge 
neral reconciliation of ail /t$s y whether pbilojophical 
or religions. He maintained, that the great princi 
ples ot all pbilojrfhical and religious truth were to be 
i< und equally in all fcfls ; arid they differed from 
ecch other only in their method of esprefling them, 
and in ibme opinions of little or no importance -, and 
that by a proper interpretation ol their refpe<5Uve (en- 
timents, they might eafily fce united in one body. 

AiViMONIUS, Suppofed that true philofophy de 
rived its origin and its confidence from the Eaftern 
nations ; that it was taught to the Egyptians by 
Hermes $ that it was brought from thern to the 
Greeks, and preferved in its original purity by Plato, 
\vho was the beft interpreter of Hermes and the 
other Oriental fages. He maintained that all the 
different religions which prevailed in the world, 
were in their original integrity, conformable to this 
ancient philofophy j but it unfortunately happened 
that the fymbols and fictions, under which, accord 
ing to the Eaflern manner, the ancients delivered 
their precepts and do&rines, were, in procels of time, 
erroneously underftood both by priefls and people iri 
a literal fenfe 5 that in confequence of this, the in- 
vifible beings and daemons, whom the fupreme Dei 
ty had placed in the different parts of the univerfc 
as the minifters of his providence, were, by thefug- 
gertions of fuperftition, converted into Gods, and 
vrorfhiped with a multiplicity of vain ceremonies.' 
I^e therefore infifted, that all the religions of all na 
tions (hould be reftored to their primitive ftandard., 
viz. tie ancient pbilofophy oj the Eaft ; and he af- 
ferted that his projed was agreeable to the intentions 
of Jdus Chrift (whom he acknowledged to be a 
* " * moft 

A MS ? 

rnoft excellent man, the friend of GOD) and affirm 
ed that his fole view in defcending on earth, .was to 
fet bounds to the reigning^ fuperftition, to remove 
the errors which had crept into the religion of alt 
nations, but not to abolifh the ancient the ology, 
from whence they were derived. 

Taking thefe principles for granted, Ammomus 
aflbciated the fentiments of the Egyptians with the 
doctrines of Plato ; and to finifli this conciliatory 
fcheme, he fq interpreted the doftrines of the other 
ghiiofophical and religious Jeffs by art, invention, and 
allegory, that they leemed to bear tome refemblancQ 
of the Egyptian and Platonic fyftems.f 

With regard to moral difcipline, Ammonius per 
mitted the people to live according to the law of 
their country and the dilates of nature ; but a more 
jfublime rule was laid down for the wife, they were 
to raife above all terreftrial things by the towring ef 
forts of holy contemplation, thofe fouls whofe ori 
gin was celeitial and divine. They were ordered 
to extenuate by hunger, thirrr, and other mortifica 
tions, the fluggith body which reftrains the liberty 
of the fpirit ; that in this life they might 
enjoy communion with the Supreme Being, and af- 
cend after death, adive and unencumbered, to the 
Univerfal Parent, to live in his prefence forever. 

Mofheim's Ecc/ejaftical Htftory t vol. I. f>. 137 to 144. 

AMSDORFIANS, A fe<5t of Prpteftants in the 
fixteenth century, who took their name from Armf- 
dorf their leader. It 

* Ammoniui left nothing behind him io writing ; nay, he im- 
pnfed a law upon hit difciples not to divulge his do&rioei among 
the mnlutude, which law, however, they wade no fcrople to 

ceglcdt and violate* 

$ ANT 


It is faid they maintained that good works were 
pot only unprofitable, but even oppofite and perni 
cious to falvation. 

Diflhnary of Artt and Sciences, vol. i./. 131. 

ANABAPTISTS, [See Baptifts.] 

ANGELITES, A feft which fprung up about 
the year 494 ; fo called from Angelium, a place in 
the city of Alexandria, where they held their firft 
meetings. They were called likewiic Serverites, 
from one Serverus, who was the head of their fed: ; 
as alfo Theodofians, from one among them named 
Theodofius, whom they made Pope at Alexandria. 

They held that the Father, Son, and Holy-Ghoft, 
are not the fame ; that none of them exifts of hhn- 
felf, and of his own nature ; and that there is a com 
mon Deity cxifting in them all ; and that each is 
GOD, by a participation of this Deity. 

Broughton** Hijiorical Library, vol. \ f> 4^. 

ANOMOEANS, A name by which the pure 
Arians were diftinguifhed in the fourteenth century, 
in contradi/lindion to the SemUArians. The word 
is taken from the Greek [anomoios] different, 
dhTmiilar. [See Arians.] 

3 t i&id. p.. 51. 

tenth century : fo denominated from [anthroeposj 
man, and [morphoe] fliape. In the diftrift of 
Vicenza, a confiderable number, not only of the 
illiterate vulgar, but alfo of the facerdotai order fell 
into the notion, that the Deity was cloatried with aa 
human form, and feated like an earthly monarch^ 



upon a throne of gold, and that his angelic mini* 
fters were men arrayed ih white garments, and fur- 
himed with wings to render them more expediti 
ous in executing their fovereign's orders. They 
take every thing fpoken of God in fcripture in a li 
teral fen fe, particularly that paffage in Genefis, in 
which it is faid that God made man after his 

Broughton , Mid, p. 5 
Mo/he im's Ecclcf. Htfi.vyl. 3. 

They erive their .name 
Irom the Greek [arid] again/I and [homos] law. 
In the i6th century while Luther was eagerly em 
ployed iri cenfuring and refuting the Popifh doflors^ 
who mixed the law and go/pel together, and repre~ 
fented eternal happinefs as the fruit of legal Obedi 
ence, a new teacher arofe whofe name was John 
Agricola, a native of Aifteben, and an eminent doc 
tor ih the Lutheran church. His fame began to 
fpread in the year 1538, when from the doftrine of 
Luther, now mentioned, he took occafion to ad 
vance Jentiments which were interpreted in filch a 
tnanner, that his followers were diilinguifhed by 
ihe title of Antlnomians. *' 

The principal doftrines which bear this appella 
tion, together with a ihort fpecimen of the argu 
ments made ufe oif in their defence, are compre 
hended in the following fummary. 

I. That the law ought not to be propofed to the 
people-as a rule of manners, nor uled in the church 


* Agricola held, that repentance was not to be taoght from 
the decalogue ; asd oppofcd fuch as maintaiced that the g^ 
was not to be preached to 297 bu( fuch M wcrs humbled b/ 

lo NT 

as a means of inftruftion ; and that the gotyel alone 
Was to be inculcated and explained, both in the 
churches and in the fchools of learning. 

For the fcriptures declare, that Cbrjfl is not the 
Jaw-giver, as is faid, Ibe taw <was grven by Mefts 
but grace and truth came by Jefus Cbri/i. There 
fore, the tninifters of the go/pel, ought not to teach 
the taw. Chriftians are not ruled by the law^ but 
by the fpirit of regeneration, according as it is faid, 
ye are not under the law, but under grace. 1 here- 
fore the taito ought not to be taught in the church 
of Chrift. 

II. That the juftification of (inner s, is an imma 
nent ahd eternal ad of God, not only preceding 
all atf s of fin j but the eXiiknce of the iinner him- 
fclf. f 

For nothing new can arife \\\ God, on which' 
account he .calls things that are not as though they 
were ; and the apoftle faith, wbo bath bkjjed us 
with alt Ipiritual bteffings in heavenly places in 

Chrift. ye, us, before the foundation of the 'world. 

Befides, CHRIST was fet up from evertafling^ not 
only as the head of the church, but as the furety 
of his people j by virtue of which engagement thd 
Father decreed never to impute unto them their fins,; 
See 2d. of Cor. iv. 19. 

III. That juftification by faith, is no more than 
a manifeftation to us of what was done before we 
bad a being. 


f This it the opinion "of moft, who arc ftilcd Ant*rKtninf 
thtugh fome fuppofe : with Dr, Crifp, that thccU^ wcrt;< 
t the tic of Chrift*! death. 

ANT n 

r- , . :.*.,-..,.,.. t i ., .- 

v For, it is thus expreflbd in Hebrews xr. f. . Now 
faith is the /ubftance of tvings hoped for, the evi- 
'denceof thing* not teen. We are juftiried only by 
thrift j but by faith we perceive it, and byjaitb 
rejoice in it, as we apprehend it to be our own. 

IV. That men ought not to doubt of their faith,' 
nor q'jeftion whether they beiieve in Chrift. 

>For, we are commanded to draw near in full 
ajjurance o~ faith. .. Hebrews x. 22. He that beiiev- 
cth r >n the Son of GOD hath the witness in himfelft 
2dofJ)hnv. 10. i.e. he has as much evidence as 
can be defired. 

_ V. That GOD fees no fin in believers., and they 
are not bound to confefs fin, mourn for it, or prajr 
that it may be forgiven. 

For GOD has declared, Hcb. x. 17. Iheir fas and 
iniquities I will remember to wore: and. in Jer. I. 20* 
In thole da>s, and in that time, faith the t Lerd, the 
iniquity of Ijratl /hali be fought for y and there jhaii be 
n ne and the fins of Juda.b> and they {halt not be 
Jound : /or 1 wid pardon them 'whom Irejerve. 

VI. That GOD is not angry with the ele<3, hor 
doth he punifh them for their fins. 

. For Chrift has made ample fatisfacllon for their 
fins, lee Haiah liii. 5. He was wounded fir our trant- 
grejfions, ht wai bruifed for our in-quities^ cc. nnd 
to inflidl puni.liment once upon the lufety, and again 
6pbn the believar, is contrary to the juftice of GOD, 
as well as derogatory to the iatisfa&ion of Chriftv 

VII*. That by GOD's laying our iniquities upon 
Chnft, he bt came as completely Rnful as we, and we 
as? completely righteous as 


u ANt 

For -Chrift repTfents our perfons to the Father ; 
voe repfelent the per/on of Cbri/t to him : the loveli* 
nefs of Chii;: is transferred to us ; on the other hand, 
all that is baleful in our nature is put upon Lbri/f 9 
"who was torfaKen -by the Father for a time ; fee 2d 
of Cor. v. 2*. rfr ttftfJ made (in for us, <wbo knew no 
fin j that we might be made ibc TVgbtttuffMp oj GOD 
in him. 

VIII. That leSrceri need not fear either their 
own fins or the fifis of others, fince neither can do 
them any injury. 

See Rom. viii, 33, 34.. Who (kail lav any thing t9 
the charge of UOD's txtf ? &c. The apoftle does 
not fay that they never tranfgrefs ; but triumphs in 
the thought that no curie can be executed againft 

IX. That rhe new covenant is not made properly 
\vith us, but with Chrifl for us j and that this 
covenant 5s all of it a promife, having no conditions 
for us to perform $ for faith, repentance, and obe 
dience, are not conditions on our part, but Chrift's j 
and he repented, believed, and obeyed for us. 

For the covenant is fo expreflcd, that the perfor 
mance lies upon the Deity himfeif, 'For this is the 
covenant that I witi make with the bwfe oj Ifrael */- 
ter thole days, faith the Lord ; 1 wiil put my taws 
into -their mind, end write tkem in their hearts ; 
and 1 will be to them a GOD, and tbey (ball be to 
me a people. Hebrews viii. 10. 

X. T&Ltj4#3ijit&i*n is not a proper evidence of 

For thofc who endeavcnr to evidence their jufti- 
fication by their fandificjttion, are looking to their 


APE jj 

own attainments and not to Chrift's righteoufnefs for 
hopes of falvation. 

Mo/heim's Ecckf. Hifi <?/ 4 p 33. 
Clark's Lives p 142. 
Urjinut'- Body of Divinity, p t 620. 
Spiritual Magazine, voi 2 p 171. 
*ChriJp's Serm /. vol i. p 24 29 ^136* 137, 143, 

281, 298 730.. i>*/. 2 144, 15$. 
altmar/b of Free Grace % ^.92, 
Baton's Honey ccmb t p 44,6. 
Town** Afcrtiinf p 96 
D iff lay &/ GGLfifynffal Grace p. 102. 

ANTITACTES, Of [antitakto] to oppofe, A 
left of Ghoflies who held that GOD the creator 
of the univerfe, was good and juft ; but that one of 
his creatures had created evil, and engaged mankind 
to follow it in oppofition to GOD ; arid that ii is the 
duty of mankind to oppofe this author of evil in or 
der to avenge GOD of his enemy. 

ai>e/j Diflicnarjt wi. 2. [See Antitatts* ] 

ANTITRINITARIANS, A general name given 
to all thofe who deny the dodtrine of the Trimty,and 
particularly to the Brians and Socinians. 

Dtftionarj of Aits and Sciexces, vet I p l6j 

APELL/EANS, A fe6l in the fecond century, 
fo called from Apelles, a difcipie of Maraon, They 
affirmed that Chrift, when he came down from Hea 
ven, received a body, not from the lubftance of his 
mother, but from the four elements ; which, at his 
death, he rendered back to the world, and fo afcend- 
cd into Heaven without a body. With the Gnof- 
tics and Manichees, they held two principles, a good 
and a bad God. They afferted that the prophets 
contradicted each other 5 and denied the relurrefli- 
on of the body. C z 

ij A P O 

They erafed that paffaee of St. John, which fay? 
wry Ipirit that confe/ctb not that jfe/us Cbri/1 is 
come in the fell?, is not oj GOD. 

Brought on* $ Hiflorical Library t vol. 1/58. 

APHTHARTODOCITES, A fccYin the fixth 
century, fo called from the Greek [aphthartos] ;- 
corruptible, and fdokeo] to judge, becauie they held 
that the body of JESUS CHRIST was incorrupti 
ble, and not fubjedt to death. They were a branch 
of the Eutychians. See Eutychians/ 

Broughlon t ibid. p. 58. 

APQCARIT^, A fea in the third century, 
fprung from the Maniclieans. They held that tbef 
ioul of man was of the iubftance of God. 

Brcttghton, ibid p. 60. 

APOLLTNARIANS, A fe^ in the fourth cen 
tury, who were the followers of Apollinpris, biO>op 
of Laodicea. He taught that Chilli's perfon was 
compofcd of a union oh the true divinity and a hu 
man body, endowed with a fenfuive loul, but de 
prived ot the reafonabl.e one, the divinity lupplying 
its place. He added, that the human body united 
to the divine fpirit, formed in Jefus Chritl one en 
tire divine nature. 

Forrxf/t Ecclcf bift.vol l, f 79. 

APOSTOLICS, A fea in the twelfth century, 
who had at their head one Gerard Saggarel, 'of 
Parma. They were fo called, becaufe they pro- 
feffcd to exhibit in their lives and manners the piety 
and virtues of the holy apoftlcs. They held it un- 

' m lawful 

A R. I 1 5 

lawful to take an oath ; renounced the things of 
thus woild, and prefered celibacy to wedlock. ; 

Me/htim's Ecclef hift, vol 2 /> 457 
Dufrefnoy's Chronological Tablet^ vol 2 /> 239. 

AQUARIAN^, A fed in the fecopd. century ; 
who under pretence of ab'Unence, made uie ot wa 
ter inftead of wine, in iheEucharift. See Encrames. 

Diflionary of Arts and Sciences* vol. I p 173, 

ARABICI, So called becaufe they fpruns; up \\ 
Arabia, in the year 207. It is uncertain who w:s 
their author. They denied the immortality ot ihe 
foul, believed that it perifhed with the body ; bat 
maintained at the fame time that it was to be ay, .in 
recalled to life with the body, by the power of God, 

M ofl) tints Ecclef HiJ} vol. i, /> 249 
Broughton** ftifitricxl Library, -out. i, p. 73. 

ARCHONTICKS, A fcfl which appeared *~ 
bout the year 175, fo called becaufe they held that 
archangels created the world. They denied the re- 
furredion of the body ; they maintained that the 
God of Sabaoth exercifed a cruel tyranny in the 
feventh heaven ; that he engendered the Devi*, who 
begot Abel and Cain of Eve. 

Thefe tenets they defended by books of their own 
compofing, ftiled, The revelation of the prophets, 
and the Harmony, 

E 'chard's Eccltf. hift. vol 2 p. $42. 

A denomination in the fourth cen 
tury, which owed its origin to Arius, a man of a 
fubtil turn, and remarkable for his eloquence. 
He maintained that the Son was totally and eflenti- 
diftinflt from tjie tytbcr.. \ that he was theyfry? 


i6 ARI 

and nolle/I of thofe beings whom God the Father 
had created out of nothing, the inftrument by whofc 
iubordinate operation the Almighty Futher formed 
the univerfe, and therefore inferior to the tatbt r 
both in nature and in dignity. * He added that the 
holy fpirit was of a different nature from that of 
the Father, and of the fcon j and that he had been 
created by the Son. However, during the life cf 
Ariu?, the difputes turned principally on the divinity 
of thrift. 

To prove their fundamental docl r ire, the Aria ns 
alledge, that the apoftle ftiies Chrifr, i be fir It fa>n 
*j every creature. Col. i, 15. Therefore he is 
only the firft and nobleft creature of God. 

In the i ft Cor. xv. 24, it is faid thatCir//? fiall 
deliver up the kingdom to God, even the tatber ; 
therefore he will be fubjedled to him ; and conie- 
quently inferior 

John viii 24. v. 19. xiv. 10 28. Mark 
Xlii. 33. Thefe texts with fome few others of like 
nature, are generally made ufe of by this denomi 
nation, as proofs of a lubordination of Jefus Chrift 
to God the Father. 

The ARIANS were divided among themfelves, 
and torn into factions, which regarded each other 
with the bittereft averfion. Of thefe the ancient 
writers make mention under the names of Semi- 
arians, Eufebians, /Etians, Eunomians, ^Eacians, 
Pfathyrians, and others : but they may all be ranked 


* Hit followers deny that Chrift had ary thig which could 
properly be called A divine nature aof othtrwifc ihm ai any 
thir.g very excellent may by a figure b: called divine, rr his dele 
gated d minion ever the fyftcca of juuurc mighi e&tuk him to iflc 
Dame of GOD. 

ARM 37 

With the utmoft propriety into three claffes ;- the 
firft of thefe were the primitive and genuine Arians, 
who rejecting all thofe forms and modes of expref- 
fions, which the moderns had invented to render 
their opinions lefs (hocking to the Nicenians, taught 
fimply, *lbat the Sen was not begotton of the father, 
(i. e. produced out of his fubftaqfe) but only cre 
ated out of nothing. This clafs was oppofed by the 
Serrii-arians, who in their turn were abandoned by 
the Eunomians, or Anomaeans* the difciples of 
jEtius and Eunomius. The Semi-arians held, 
that the Son 'was [omoroufeos] i. e. fimiiar to the 
Father in bit e/Jence, not by nature, but by a peculiar 
privilege. The Eunomians, who were alfo called 
wffitians, and Exucontians, and may be counted in the 
number of pure Arians, maintained that Chrift was 
[eterooufios] or [anomoios] i. c. unlike the Father 
in his ejjtnce as well as in other reipeSs. 

Under this general divifion many fubordinate 
fefls were comprehended, whole fubtletjes and re 
finements have been but obfcurely developed by 
ancient writers. 

Mcfotim's Ecclef kiji vol. i, p 335, 3421 343.' 

Format Ecclef. kifl. vot i, p 76 

Qpe*a Zanchii, vd. i, t&m. i, p 492 494* 

Doddridge's Letfures p 401. 

Logman's Trafif t p* 253. 

ARMENIANS, A divifion of Eaftern chriftians; 
thus called from Armenia, a country they anciently 

The principal points in their dodlrine are as fol 
lows, ift. They affert, with the Greeks, the pro- 
ceffion of the Holy Ghoft from the Father orjly. 
ad. They believe that Chrift, at his defcent into 


i8 ARM 

Hell, freed the fouls of the damned from thence, 
and reprieved them till the end of the world, when 
they fhall be remanded to eternal flames. 3d. They 
believe that the fouls of the righteous (hall not be 
admiaed to the beatific vifion till after the refur- 
redion : notwithftanding which, they pray to de 
parted faints, adore their pictures, and burn lamps 
before them. They, ufe confeffion to the priefts ; 
and adminifter the Eucharift in both kinds to the 
laity. In the facrament of baptifm, they plunge 
the infant thrice in water, and apply the chrilm 
with confecrated oil, in form of a crofs, to feveral 
parts of the body, and then touch the child's lips 
with the Euchuritt. 

They oblerve a multitude of fafts and feflivals. 

Brcughton'f Hiftorical Library vol 2. />. 3:9 333. 

ARMINIANS, They derive their names froin 
James Arminius, who was born in Holland in the 
year 1560. He was firft paftor at Amfterdam j 
afterwards profeffor of divinity at Leyden, and at 
tracted the efteem and applaule of his very enemies, 
by his acknowledged candor, penetration and pie.y. 
They received alio the denomination of Remon- 
flrants, from an humble petition entitled their re- 
monftrances, which they addreffed in the year 1610, 
to the ftates of Holland. 


The principal tenets of the Armlnians are com 
prehended in five articles, to which are added a few 
of the arguments they make ufe of in defence of 
their fentiments. 

I. That the Deity has not fixed the future 
fiateof mankind, by an absolute unconditional de 
cree ; 

A R S/f 19 

tree ; but determined from all eternity, to beftow 
falvation on thofe whom he forefaw would perfe- 
vere unto the end in their faith in Jelus Chrift 5 
and to inflict everlafting punidiments on thofe who 
fliould continue in their unbelief, and reiift unto the 
tnd his divine iuccours. 

For, as the Deity isjuft, holy, and merciful, wife 
in all his counfels, and true in all his declarations to 
the fons of men, it is inconfiftent with his attributes, 
by an antecedent decree, to fix our commiffion of fo 
many fins, in fuch a manner, that there is no pofiibi- 
lity for us to avoid them : and he represents GOD 
dilbonorably, who believes, that by his revealed wf// 9 
he hath declared he would have all men to be faved ; 
and yet, by an antecedent/^r^ w///, be would have 
the greats ft part of them to peri(h. That he hath 
impofed a law upon them, which he requires them 
50 obey, on penalty of his eternal difpleafure, though 
he knows they cannot do it without his irrefiftable 
grace 5 and yet is abfplutely determined ?o withhold 
this grace from them, and then punifli them eter 
nally for what they could not do without his divine 

IT. That JESUS CHRIST, by his deatli and fuf- 
ferings, made an atonement for the fins of all man 
kind \n general, and of every individual' in particular : 
that however, none, but thofe who believe in him, 
can be partakers of their divine benefit. 

That is, the death of CHRIST put all men in a 
capacity of being ju (lifted and pardoned,upon condi 
tion of their faith, repentance, and fincere obedience 
to the laws of the new covenant. 

For the fcriptures declare, in a variety of places," 
that CHRIST died for the whole world. Tohriiii, 

5 16* 

20 ARM 

16,17. GOD fb loved the world, tlat le gave 1n1 
only begotten Son, that whojoever believeth on bi*ti 
mi^ht not peri-h) but have evtr/a/ling life, &c. ift 
of J jhn, ii. 2. He is the propitiation not only for our 
fns, but for the fins of the whole wirld. And the 
apoftle expreffrs the fame idea in Heb. ii. 9. when 
he fays, CHRIST tafted d^ath for every man. Here 
is no limitation of that comprehenfive phrafe. 

If CHRIST died for them that perifh, and for 
them that do not perifli, he died for 'alt. That he 
died for them that do not perifh, is confefled by all ; 
and if he died for any that may or (hall perifh, there 
is the fame reafon to affirm that he died for all that 
perifh. Now that he died for fuch, the fcripture 
lays exprefly, in ift of Cor. viii. ii. And through 
thy knowledge (hall the weak brother perifh for whom 
Cbrilt died. Hence it is evident Chrifl died for 
them that perifh, and for them that do not perifh j 
therefore he died for ail men. 

III. That mankind are not totally depraved, and 
that depravity does not come upon them by virtue 
of Adam's being their public head ; but that morta 
lity and natural evil only are the direct confequences 
of his fin to his pofterity. 

For, if all men are utterly difabled to all gooc\ 
and continually inclined to all manner of wickednels, 
it follows, that they are not moral agents. For how 
are we capaWe of performing duty, or of regulating 
ouradtions by a law commanding good and forbidding 
evil, if our minds are bent to nothing but what is 
-evil ? Then fin muft be natnral to us ; and if natu 
ral, then neceffary, with regard to us 5 and if necef- 
fary, then no fin : for what is" natural to us*, as hun 
ger, third, &c, we can by no means hinder ; and 



what we can by no means hinder, is not our fin ; 
therefore mankind are not totally depraved. 

That the fin of our firft parents is not imputed 
to us is evident 5 becaufe, as the evil a&ion they com 
mitted was perional, fo muft their real guilt be per- 
fonal and belong only to themfelves : and we can 
not, in the eye of juftice and equity, be punifhable 
for their tranfgreffion, 

IV. That there is no fuch thing as irrefiftablc 
grace, in the converfion of finners. 

For, if converfion be wrought only by the un- 
fruftrable operation of God, and man is purely paf- 
five in it, vain aie all the commands and exhortations 
to wicked men to turn Jroin their evil ways : Ifaiah 
i 1 6. ?0 cea/e to do evil, and learn to do well : 
Deut. x f >6, 70 put off the old man, and put on 
the new : Eph. iv. 22. And divers othei^ texts to 
the fame purpofe. Were an irrefutable power ne- 
ceffvtry to the converfion of finners, no man could 
be converted fooner than he is ; becauie, before this 
irrefiftabie action came upon him he could not be 
converted, and when it came upon him he could 
r,ot refill its operations, and therefore no man could 
reafonably be blamed that he lived fo long in an 
unconverted ftate : and it could not be praife-wor- 
thy in any perfon who was converted, fince no man 
can refift an unfcuftrable operation. 

V. That thofe who are united to Chrift by faith," 
tibay fall from their faith, and forfeit finally their 

flate of grace. 

For the do&rineof a poffibility of the final depar 
ture of true believers from the faith, is exprefled in 
Heb. vi, 4, 5, 6. Jf/ is impefltttejor them who 

D z 

22 A R N 

*nce enlightened i &c. // they fiall fall away to re- 
new them again to repentance - y feeing they crucify to 
tbemjekes the Son t?/ Go d ajrefb, and put him to open 
ftame. See alio ad. of Peter, ii. 18,20, 21, 22, 
and divers other paflages of fcripture to the fame 

All commands to perfevere and fiand faft in 
faith, (hew that there is a poffibility that believers 
may not fiand faft and perievere unto the end. All 
cautions to chriftians not to fall from grace, are 
evidences and fuppofitions that they may fall, for 
what we have juft reafon to caution any perfon 
ageinft, muft be lomething which may come to" pafs 
and be hurtful to him. Now fuch caution Chrift 
gives his difciples ; Luke xxi 34, 36. To them 
who had like precious faith with the apoftles, St. 
Peter faith, Beware, left being led away by tbe error 
o the wicked, you Jail from your own fiea^faftne/s. 2d. 
of Peter, iii. 17. Therefore he did not look upon 
this as a thing impoffible : and the dodtrine of per- 
ieverance rerders thofe exhortations and motives in- 
iignificant, which are fo often to be found in fcripture. 

Mo/kcim'j EC c Itf /;(/? vol. v. p 3, 7 8 

Wbitby* on the Five Points p. 106 107 12O> 124, 134, 

231, 232 254 394 398 
Taylor, on Original Sin f>. 13 125. 
Stackhsu/c's Body of Divinity p 15^. 156- 
Colour's Hiftorical >iflionarj t vol. i. [Set 

'ARNOLDISTS, A fe<3 in the twelfth century, 
which derive their name from Arnold, of Brefiu. 
Having obferved the calamities that fprung frpp tw 
opulence of the Pontiffs and Bifiops, he maintained, 
that nothing was to be left to the miniftcrs of the 
gofpel but a fpiritual authority, and a fubfiftence 


ASC 23 

drawn from tithes, and from the voluntary oblations 
of the people. 

Mo ft? elm* $ Ecclefiafiical Hi ft vol. u p $O. 

ARTEMQNITES, A fefl in the fccond centu r 
ry, fo called from Arteman, who taught, That at 
the birth of the man CHRIST, a certain aroint 
energy, or portion of the divine nature, united itfelf 
to him. 

iltiJ. voL i. p. 191. 

ARTOTY RITES, A fed in the fecond century, 
who celebrated the Eucharifl. with bread and cheefe, 
faying, that the firft oblations of men were of the 
fruits of the earth, and of fheep. The word is de 
rived from the Greek of [artos] bread, and [turos] 

The Artemonites admitted women to the priefi> 
hood and epiicopacy. 

Brougb ton's Hijiorical Library* vol, L p 85. 

ASCLEPIDOT^ANTS, A feft in the third 
century - 9 fo called from Afcleptodotus, who taught 
that Jefus Chrift was a mere man. 

Brought on, Hid. /. 88. 

ASCODROGITES, A fel which arofe in the 
year 181. They brought into their churches bags, 
or (kins, filled with new wiue, to represent the new 
bottles, filled with new wine, mentioned by Chrift. 
They danced round thefe bags, or fkins, and intox 
icated themfelves wiih the wine, i hev are like- 
wife called Alcita^ and both woro^ are derived from 

or ^ a S" 

Brought**, MM, p. 8$! 



ASCODRUTES, A fefl of Gnoflics in the fe. 
icond century \ who placed all religion in knowledge, 
and aflerted, that divine myfteries, being the images 
cf invifible things, ought not to be performed by 
vifible things, nor incorporeal th*ngs by corporeal 
and fenlible : therefore, they rcjeiled iwftijm and 
the Eucbartft. 

Broughtoiti ib;J, p 9. 

ASSURITANS, A branch of the Donatiils, who 
held that the Son was inferior to the Father ; and the 
HolyGhoft to the Son ; they re-baptized thole who 
embraced their feel j ana afferted that good men 
only were within the pale of the church, [See 
Donatiils] ^ 

ra*y of Arts and Sciences t vol. \ p 207. 

A fea in the fourth century ; fo 
called from Audxus, who was laid to have attribu 
ted to the Deity a human form. 

EccltfivflicalHtflo'j, vol. \ />, 350, 

AZYMITES, So called from the Greejc [aza, 
rnos] a name given by the Greeks in tie eleventh 
century, to the chriftians of the Latin ch.irch, be- 
caisfe they u fed unleavened bread in the Eucharift. 

Di8ion&ry t vol. i. [-5 


denomination claim an immediate defcent from 
the apoliie* ; and uflert, that the conftitution of their 
phurches is from the authority ot JEbUS CHRIST 
himfelf, and his immediate fucceflors. 

Many others indeed deduce their origin as a fedl 
from much later times, and affirm they firft fprang 
up io Germany in the fixtcenth century. Th? 

B A P *5 

The ciiftinguifhing tenets of the Baf tiffs are as 
follow ; to which are added a few of the argu 
ments made ufe of in defence of their fentiments, 

I. That thofe who actually profefs repentance 
towards God, 'faitb in, and obedience to our Lord 
Jefus, are the only proper /ubjeffs of baptijm ; and 
that immerfion is neeeffary to the due adrhinill ration 
of that ordinance. 

For, fay they, John the firft adminiftrat'or of 
that ordinance, preached the baptifm of repentance^ 
and required repentance previous to baptijm. Mat. 
iii. 2, 5, 6, $. See John iv. i. Jefus firft made 
difciples, and then baptized them, or ordered therrf 
to be baptized ; and with his pradlice agrees the 
eommiffion he gave in Matt, xxviii. 19. witli 
which compare Mark xvi. 16.- See alio Acts viir. 
37 and other paflages of fcripture where repentance 
and faith are mentioned as neeellary in otder to 

PPbofoever are baptized into Chri/I, have put on 
t have put on the new man : but to put on the 
new man, is to be formed in righteoujnejs, bolinefs^ 
and truth ; this whole argument is in the exprefs- 
words of St. Paul : the major proportion is'pofi- 
tively determined, Gal. iii. 27. The minor in 
Ephei, iv. 24. The conclufion then is obvious, 
that they who are not formed anew in rigbteoufnefs^ 
holineft and truth ; they who remaining in the pre- 
fent incapacities cannot walk in mivnejs of life, have 
not been baptized into thrift \ have not that baptijm 
'which is the an/wer of *z good conference towards 
God y which is the only baptijm which faves us :- 
and as this is the cafe of children^ they are not 
proper fubjsds of that ordinance. * 


e BAP 

Refpefting the mode, they argue from the figni- 
ficuion of the word baptijm - from the phrafe, 
buried with him in baptijm from the firft ad- 
miniitrators repairing to river?, and the practice of 
the primitive chuich after the apo/tles. 

II. The Baffi/ls in general refufe to communi- 
fcate wiih other denominations. 

For they fuppofe the mode of immerfion eflential 
to baptilm ; and that baptijm is neceffary previous 
to receiving the L ord's fupper : and that therefore 
it would be inconfiftent for them to admit unbapti- 
zed perfons (as others are in their view) to join 
with them in this ordinance. 

This denomination all unite in pleading for 
verfat liberty of conscience. For they alledge that 
the (acred rights of conjcience are unalienable, and 
fubjeft to no controul but that of the Deity. For 
it does not appear that God has given fuch authority 
to one man over another, as to compel any one to 
his religion. Nor can any fuch power be vefted in 
the magiftrate by the confent of the people ; be- 
eaufe no man can lo far abandon the care of his 
own falvation as blindly to leave it to the choice of 
any other, whether prince or fubjetf, to prefcribe to 
him what faith or worfhip he fhall embrace. 

In the fecond place, The care of fouls canrfot be 
long to the civil magiilrate, becaufe his power 
confifts only in outward force, but true and faving 
religion confifts in the inward perfuafion of the 
mind, without which nothing can be acceptable to 
God. And fuch is the nature of the underftanding, 
that it cannot be compelled to any thing by out 
ward force. 


BAP *? 

From thefe and many other considerations^ they 
fconclude that all the power of civil government re 
lates only to mens civil intereft, is confined to the 
care of the things of this world, and has nothing to 
do with the world to come. 

In confequence of this tenet, the Bapti/Js exclaim 
againfl the civil authority compelling people to fup- 
port minillers ; but they enjoin it on their churches 
as an incumbent duty a to afford theiir ministers a com 
fortable fupply. 

The aflfociation of Baptifls in New-England call 
themfelves Calvinifts, with regard to dodrines ; and 
Independents, with referrence to church-governaienU 
[See Galvinifts and Independents] 

The Englifh Baptifls have been divided irito two 
parties ever fince the beginning of the Reformation, 
viz. thofe who have followed the Calviniflicat doc* 
trines^ and, from the principal point in that plan, 
per/onaleletfienJi&VQ been termed particular Baptifts^ 
and ihofe who profeffed the Armiman tenets ; and 
have alfo from the chief of thofe doftrines univerfal 
redemption^ been ftiled general Baptifts. 

For an account of the other denominations of Bap- 
ti/ts, fee Dunkers, Kethians^ Mennonites^ Sabbatari 
ans, and Uckewalliils, 

Cr (fly's Hiftory of tie Englijh Baptijlt.voi. i, f. 3^' 

173 vaL 4, j> 165 
Hiftory of Religion NJ. 35. p. 193. 
B apt (ft i Confeffion of faith p .47 50. 
Gilt on Baptijm p 93. 94, 95. 
Tailor's Libsrt* of Prophefying , p . 329. 
Stiitman's Stettin Sermox. p n, 23, 2& 
on Minutet,/or 1777 /. 4. 


28 BAR 

BARDESANISTES, A fefl in the fecond cen 
tury, they derived their name from Bardefanes a 
native of Edefla, and a man of a very acute and 
penetrating genius. 

The fum of his doflrine was as follows : 

I. That there is a Supreme GOD, pure and be 
nevolent, abfolutely free from all evil and imperfec 
tion ; and there is alfo a Prince of Darknej^ the 
fountain of all evil, difordcr and mifery. 

IL That the Supreme GOD created the world 
without any mixture of evil in its compofition j he 
gave exiftence alfo to its inhabitants, who came out 
of his forming hand, pure and incorrupt, endued 
with fubtle ethereal bodies and fpirks of a celeftial 

III. That when the Prince of Darkneft had 
enticed men to fin, then the Supreme GOD per 
mitted them to fall into fluggifh and grofs bodies, for 
med of corrupt matter by the evil principle ; he per 
mitted alfo the depravation and diforder which this 
malignant being introduced both into the natural and 
moral world, defigning by this permiffion, to punifli 
the degeneracy and rebellion of an apoftate race ; 
and hence proceeds the perpetual conflid: between 
reafon and paffion in the mind of man. 

IV. That on this account JESUS defcended from 
the upper regions, cloathed~ not with a real, but 
with a celeftial and aerial body, and taught man* 
kind to fubdue that body of corruption which they 
carry about with them in this mortal life ; and by 
/ibftineuce, failing^ and contemplation , to difengage 
themfelves from the fervitude and dominion of that 
malignant matter -, which chained down the foul to 
low and ignoble purfuits, V. That 

B A S 29 

V. That thofe who fubmit themfelves to the 
difcipline of this divine teacher, (hall, after the diffo- 
lution of this terreftrial body, mount up to the 
manfions of felicity, cloathed with aetherial vehicles, 
or celeftial bodies. 

This denomination was a branch of the Gnoftics, 
[See Gnoftics] 

Majhtim's Ecclcf. Hifl vd. i- p. 179, 180. 

BARLAAMITES, A fe<3 in the fixteenth cen- 
turv, followers of Barliaam, he was by birth a Neo- 
politan, and Monk of the Order of St. Bafih He 
maintained that the light which (unrounded Chrift 
on mount Tabor was neither the Divine eflence, nor 
flowed from it.* , 

Broughtorfs Hifiorical Library, vol. i p. 127. 

BASILIDIANS, A fed in the fecond centur, 
fo called from Eaffilides, chief of the Egyptian 
Gnoftics. He acknowledged the exiftence of one 
Supreme GOD, perfedt in goodne'fs and wifdom, 
who produced from his own fubftance feven beings, 
or Mcm^f of amoft excellent nature. Two of thefe 
E Z 

* Br!aaro was cppofd by Palamai, Archbifhop of Thcfalo- 
!, who affsrtcd that the light feen upon Tabor, wai an un 
created tight, and crt-eurnal with GOD. 

^ t The word [.4/'3, or Jon~] from fxprcfiing only the dura 
tion of beif'gi, wai by a metonymy employed to fignify the btingf 
themfelvfci. Thui the Supreme Being was c lied fv^<5, er 
J^on} and the angeli diftinp uifhed alfo by the title of Mont. All 
this will lead ui to *he true meaning of tht word amocg the 
Gooftici. They had form* d to thcmielvci the no'ion of an ln- 
Tifible world, c^mpofed of entities or virtues^ proceeding fr-ra 
the Supreme Being, and fucceediug e*ch other at c^rt.ia inter- 
vah of time, fo as to form an eternal chain, of which our world 
wai the terminating lirk. To the beings which formed thii 
eternal chain, the Gnoftics sffigned a certain term of duration 
and a certain fphere of aioD. Their termt of duratisn were, 

' firft, called [Aim] and they therafelves WCCC afterward* 
by that title. 

jo BAS 

Mom called Dynamls and SopHa (i. c 
j/0;*^ engendered ihe angeis of the higheft order. 
Thcfe angels formed an Hc-aven for their habitation, 
and brought forth ether argelic beings, of a nature 
feme what infciior to their own. Many other ge 
nerations of angels followed thefe ; new Heavens 
vere allo created, until the number of angelic or* 
ders, and of their refpe^'ive Heaven?, amounted to 
three hundred aqd fxtv-five, and thus equalled the 
days of the year. All thefe are under the empire of 
en omnipotent Lore), whom B/.fi ides called Abraxas. 

The inhabitants of the lowed Heavens, which 
touched upon the borders of the eternal, malignant, 
and felf- animated matter^ conceived the drfign of 
forming a world from that confuied mafs, and of 
creating an order of brings to people it. Ihis de- 
fign was carried into execution, and was approved by 
the Supreme GOD, who, to the animal life, wivh 
which only the inhabitants of this new world were 
at fir ft endowed, added a reafonable foul, giving, at 
the fame time to the angels, the empire Qver them. 

Thefe angelic beings advanced to the government 
of the world which they had created, fill, by de 
grees, from their original purity, and rnanifelled fooa 
the fatal marks of their depravity and corruption. 
They not oply endeavoured to efface in the minds of 
men the knowledge of the Supreme !,eing, that they 
nught be woiihipped in hi r ftead, but alio began to 
vyar againft one another, with an ambitious view to 
enlarge, every one, ihe bounds of his reipeflive do 
minion. Ihe moft arrogant and turbulent of all 
theie angelic fpirits, was that which prefided over the 
Jf wim nation. Hence the Supreme GOD, behold 
ing with companion tire milerable fiate of rational 

beings, who groaned under the conteft of thefe jar 
ring powers, lent from Heaven his Son AUS", or 
CHRIS? y the chief of the JEons, that, joined in a 
fubrtantial union with the man JESVS, he might 
reftore the knowledge of the Supreme GOD, deftroy 
the empire of thole angtlic natures which prefided 
over the world, and particularly that of the arrogant 
leader of the Jewifh people. The God of ihe J-ws 
alarmed at this, lent forth his minifters to feize ihe 
man JESUS and put him to death. They executed 
his commands, but their cruelty could not extend to 
HRiST, againft whom their efforts were vain, 
"J he fe fouls who obey the precepts of the Son of 
GOD, (hall, after the diffolution of their mortal 
frame, afcend to the Father, while their bodies re 
turn to the corrupt rmfs of matter from whence they 
were formed. Difobedient fpirit$ s on the contrary- 
(hall pals lucceffively into other bodies. [See Gnofticsj 

Molbtims Ecchf H'.ft vol. 1. p, 181 182,183. 

BEHMENISTS, A fedt which arofe in the fe ? 
yenteenth century, fo called from Jacob Behman, a 
Tayloi at Gprlifz. He taught that the Divine grace 
operates by the fame rules, and follows the fame me-' 
thods, that the Divine Providence obferves in the 
natural world ; and that the minds o( men are pur 
ged from their vices and corruptions in the fame way 
that metals are purified from their drofs. 

1 his denomination was a branch oi the My (lies* 
[See MyfticsJ 

Mofaim's ibM V 9 l *v p 476. 

BERENGARIANS, A fed in the eleventh cen 
tury, which adhered to the opinions of Berengarius, 
who affcrted that the bread and wine in the Lord'% 



(upper is not really and eflentially, but figuratively 
changed into the body and blood of Chrift. 

His followers were divided in opinion as to the 
FLcbanft. 1 hey all agreed, that the elements are 
not cflentially changed, though fome allowed them 
to be changed in effed ; others admitted a change 
in part ; and others an entire change, with this re- 
fhLlion, that to thole who communicated unwor 
thily the elements were changed back again. 

Diftionary of Attt and Sciences vet. i, p. 

BERYLLIANS, Socaled from Beryllus, an Ara-> 
bian, Biihop of Bozrab, who flourished in the third 
century. He taughc that CHRIST did not exift be 
fore Mary, but that a fpirit ifluing from GOD him- 
ielf, and therefore fuperior to all human fouls, as be 
ing a portion of the Divine nature, was united to 
him at the time of his birth. 

Mojkeivis Ecclef. Hift. vol. i. p. 248. 

BIDDELIANS, So called from John Biddele, 
who, in the year 1644, creeled an independent con 
gregation in London. The doctrines he taught were, 
in general, fimilar with the Socinians. He admitted 
the perfonality of the Holy Ghoft, but denied its di 
vinity, afferting it to be no more than chief among 
the holy angels. [See Socinians] 

of Religion [ to BiMf'ian] 

BOGOM:LES, A fed in the twelfth century, 
which fprung from the Maflalians, 

They derived their name from the Divine mercy^ 
which its members are faid to have inceflantly im 
plored ^ for the word Bogomites, in the Myfian Ian* 

ge, fignifks wiling oufjor imtcy]tvm 

, a Monk at Conftantinople, wfas the foun 
der of this denomination. The dodlrines he taught 
were fimilar with the Manicheans and Gnoftics^ 
[See Gnoftics and Manicheans] 

Ecclejiaftical Hi/lory vol. ii. />. 444.' 

BONOSlANS, A fed in the third century^ who 
followed the opinions of Bonoftns, Bifhop of Sardica* 
Their fentiments were the fame with the Photinians, 
though they appear to have been different commu 
nions. [See PhotiniansJ 

Brougkton's Hiflorical Library, vol. I p 169. 

BORRELLISTS, A fet in Holland, fo called 
from their leader, one Adam Boireel, of Zealand^ 
who had fome knowledge of the Hebrew, Greek^ 
and Latin tongues. They rejed theuie ot churches^ 
of the lacraments> public prayer, and all other exter 
nal ads ofworfhip. They affert that all the chri- 
ftian churches of the world have degenerated from 
the pure apoftolical doctrines. 

They lead a very auftere life, and employ great 
part of their goods in alms and works of piety* 

Broughton, ibid, p. 170; 

BORIGNONISTS, A fed in the feventeenth 
century, which derive their name from the famous 
Antoinette Bourignon de la Ponfe, a native of flan- 
den y who pretended to be divinely inlpired, and 
fet apart to revive the true fpirit of chriflianity 
that had been extinguished by theological animofi-* 
ties and debates. 

The predominant principle which reigns through 
her productions, is js follows. 

34 BRB 

lhat tit cbriQian religion neither con/if}* in 
knowledge nor in practice, but in a certain internal 
feeling and di ine impulje, which an'/ s immediately 
from communion with the Deity. She allowed a ge 
neral toleration of all religions. 

Du^refncfs Ch' O'.O cg>cal Tabttf. V<)1 11, p 2JJ. 

Mojheinfi Ectitf. hiji. vol. v p 64 65. 

SPIRIT, A led, which in the thirteenth century, 
gained ground impeiceptibly, in holy, France, 

They took their denomination from the word$ 
bf St. Paul, Rom. viii. 2, 14, and maintained, 
that the true children of God were inverted with 
the privilege of a full and perfect freedom from the 
j<irifdition of the law. They were called by the 
Germans and Ftemilh, Belarus and Beguttes ; 
\vhich was a name given to thofe who make an ex 
traordinary profefllun of piety and devotion. 

The fentiments taught by this denomination, were 
as follow : 

That all things flowed y emanation from God, 
ahd were finally to return to their divine fource : 
That rational fouls were fo many portions of the Su 
preme Deity ; and that the univerfe, confidered as 
one great whole, was GOD : That every man, by 
the power of contemplation, and by calling off his 
ftiind from (enfible and terreftrial objefts, might be 
united to the Deity in an ineffable mai.ner, and be 
come one with the Source and Parent of all Things : 
and that they, who, by long and afliduous meditati- 
Cn, had plunged themfelves, as it were, into an atyjs 
of the Divinity, acquired thereby a moft glorieus 


... . ' 

fublime liberty j and were not only delivered 
jfrorri the violence of finful lufts, but even frojn the 
common inftindls of nature. 

From thcfe, and fuch-like do&rines, the Brethren 
under confideration, drew this conclufion, viz. That 
the perfon who had afcended to God in this manner, 
and was abf orbed by contemplation in jhe abyfs of 
Deity' became thus a part of the "Cod-head com 
menced God f-was the Son of Godm the fame ftnfe 
and manner that CHRIST was, and thereby raifed 
to a glorious independence, and freed from the obli 
gation of all laws, human and divine. 

In confequence of this, they treated with con 
tempt the ordinances of the gofpel, and every exter 
nal adt of religious worihip looking upon prayer, 
fafting, baptifm, and the facrament of the Lord'.s 
fupper,as the firft elements of piety Adapted to the ca 
pacity of children, and as of no fort of ufe to the 
perfeSt man, whom long meditation had raifed above 
all external things, and carried into the bofotn anct 
effence of the Deity. 

: : .. !...-..., ,. I, 5 . ;. .; 

They rejefled with horror every kind of induftry 
and labour, as an obffacle to Divine contemplation, 
and to the affent of the foul towards the Father oJf 

Mo/he in? t Eccle/taftical HiJ$orj> vol. 3, /. 122* 123, 124.* 

A fea which (prung up inEng* 
towards the end of the fixteenth century. They 
derive their name froni Robert Brown, a native of 

This denomination did not differ, in point of doc- 
tn e, from the church of England, or from the other 
Paritans ^ but thy apprehended, acording to fcri^>- 


36 C A I 

ture, that every church ought to be confined withirt 
Jthe limits of a fingle congregation j and that the go*. 
vernment ftiould be democratical. They maintain 
ed the difcipline of the church of England to be Po- 
pifli and Antichriftian, and all her ordinances and fa- 
craments invalid. Hence they forbid their people 
to join with them in prayer, in hearing the word, or 
in any part of public worship ; nay, they not only 
renounced communion with the church of England, 
but with all other churches, except fuch as were of 
the fame model. 

l\lo/heim> /*//. vol. 4. p 98 
Ncaft Hiftorj of the Puritans^ Vil I />. 37$, 377. 

BUDNEIAN3, A branch of the Socinians, which 
appeared in the year 1589 ; fo called from Simort 
Budnoeus, who maintained that Chrift was not be 
gotten by an extraordinary aft of Divine power ; but 
that he was born like other men, in a natural way, 
and that confequently he was no proper objeft of 
Divine worfhip and adoration. [See Socinians ] 

Mojhtim*i Ectltf. Mifl. v*/. 4 p t 199. 

CA I N I A N S, A feel which fprang up about 
the year 130, fo called on account of their 
great refpeft for Cain. They pretended that the 
virtue which had produced Abel, was of an order 
inferior to that which had produced Gain, and d^ 
this was the reafon why Cain had the vidlory oH 
Abel and killed him ; for they admitted a great 
number of Genii, which they called virtues, of dif 
ferent ranks and orders. They had a great venera 
tion for the inhabitants of Sodom, Efati, Corah, 
Dathan and Abiram > and in particular for Judas, 


C A L 37 

under pretence that the death of JESUS CHRIST 
had laved mankind, and he betrayed him for that 
end ; they even made ufe of a gofpel of Judas to 
which they paid great refpeft. 

The morals of this denomination were the fame 
with thofe of the Carpocratians* [See Carpo- 

H'iflorical Difltonary, vol, i. [Sfe Cainianj'] 
Broughton't tlijlorical Library > vol. I, p 190. 

CAL1XTINS, A branch of the Huffites in 
Bohemia and Moravia in the fifteenth century. The 
principal point in which they differed from the 
church of Rome was the ufe of the Chalice, (Calix) 
or communicating in both kinds. 

Calixtins, was alfo a name given to thofe among 
the Lutherans who followed the opinions of George 
Calixtus, a celebrated divine in the feventeenth cen 
tury ; who endeavoured to unite the Romifli, Lu 
theran, and Calviniftical churches, in the bonds of 
charity and mutual benevolence. He maintained, 

I. That the fundamental dotfrines oj chriflianlty, 
by which he meant thofe elementary principles 
from whence all its truths flow, were preferved pure 
in all three communions, and were contained in that 
ancient form of dodlrine that is vulgarly known by; 
the name of the Apoftlei Creed. 

tl. That the tenets and opinions which had been 
received by the ancient Doftors, during 
the firft five centuries, were to be confidered as of 
equal truth and authority with the exprefs declara 
tions and dodtrines of fcripture. 

Brovghtoiti iliAy p. 192. 
EccleftaJiicAl Hiji. vol. 4. />. 450, 451. 


C A L 

CALVINISTS, They derive their name frorn 
John Calvin, who was born at Nogen, in Picardy) 
in the year 1509.' He firft ftudied the civil law, 
and was afterwards made prefeffor of divinity at Ge 
neva, in the year 1536. His genius, learning, and 
e'oquence, rendered him refpedable even in the eyes 
of His very enemies. 

The principal tenets of the Calvinifts are compre 
hended in five articles, to which are added a few of 
the arguments they make u(e of in defence of their 

I. Tfiat GOP has chofen a certain number in 
Chrift, unto everlafting glory, before the foundation 
of the world, according to his immutable purpofe, 
and of his Jree grace and love, without the leaft fore- 
fight of faith, good worh, or any conditions perfor 
med by the creature : and that the reft of mankind 
he was pleafed to pafs by and ordain them to difho- 
nor and wrath for their fins, to the praife of his vin 
dictive juftice. 

For, as the Deh'y is infinitely perfect and indepen 
dent in all his adls, the manifeftation of his eflential 
perfections muft be the fupreme end of the Divine 
counfels and defigns. Prov. xvi. 4. The Lord hath 
ir.ade all things for llmfcl^ &c. Since GOD is om- 
nilcient, it is evident that he forefaw from everlaft- 
5ng whatever fhould come to pafs : but there can 
be no preCcience of future contingents > for whairti 
certainly torefeen, muft infallibly come to pafs, c<S 
fequently the preference of the Deity cannot be an 
tecedent to his decrees. 

The facred fcriptures a(fcrt the doctrine of the 
Diviae iovcrci^nty in the cleared terms. Rom. ix. 

' ' 21. 

* CAL. | 9y 

-2 1 .-- fflas not the Potter power over the clay of 'the fame \ 
lump, to make one vefjd unto honor, and another untb 
di/honor. See from verfe j i to the end of the chap 
ter. The fame Divine author prefents as with a 
golden chain of falvation in Rom. via. 30. To fjbte 
fame purport fee Eph. i. 4. Atfs xiii. 48% and a 
riety of other paflages in the facred oracles. 

II. That Jefus Chrift, by his death and fuffiering$ 3 
made an atonement only for the fins of the ele$. 

That is, that redemption is cornmenfurate with 
the Divine decree. Chrift has abfolutely purchafed 
grace, holinefs, and all fpiritual bkffings for his people. 

For, i: GOD really intended the falvation of 
all men, then no man can perifh. For the counjel 
&f the Lord /landeth forever. Pfalm xxxiii^ n, 
There are exprefs te^ts of fcripture which teftify 
that Chrift did not die for all men. John vi. 37^ 
All that the Father givetb me, {hall come to me, &c^ 
and in John x. n, Chrift ftiles himfelf 7 be. good 
Jbepherd, who lays dnvnbislifejor his fhtep. This 
is alfo implied in our Saviour's limitation of his in- 
terceffion. John xvii. 9. 

To fuppofe that the death of Chrift procured 
only a poffibility of falvation, which depends upon 
our performance of certain qonditionSjis contradi&ory 
tothofe fcriptures which affert that falvation is wholly 
owing to free Sovereign grace. If Chrift died for 
a%and all are not faved, the purpofes of his death 
are in many inftances fruftrated, and he fhed his 
precious blood in vain : to fuppofe this would be 
derogatory to the infinite perfections of the great 
RedeMhr ; therefore he did not die for all, and all 
for whom he died wijl certainly be faved. 


40 C A L 

III. That mankind are totally depraved in ccn- 
fequencc of the Fall ; and by virtue of Adam's being 
their public head, the guilt of bit tin was imputed, 
and a corrupt nature conveyed to all his pofterity : 
irom which proceed all actual tranfgreffions : and 
that by fin we are made fubjeft to death, and all 

miferies, temporal Spiritual and eternal. 


For the infpired pages aflert the original depra 
vity of mankind, in the moft emphatical terms : 
Gen. viii. 21. The imagination of man's heart is 
evil from bis youth. Pfalm xiv. 2, 3. 'Ibe Lord 
looked down from Heaven upon the children of men^ 
to fee if there were any that did under/land, andjeek 
after GOD. Ihey are all gone afide^ they are al 
together become filthy ; there is none that doetbgood % 
tie not one. To the fame purport fee Rom. iii. 
jo, n, J2, &c. And it is evident, that Adam's 
fin was imputed to his pofterity, from Horn. 5. 19. 
JBy one man's disobedience many were made /inner -j, &c. 
The fcriptures alfo teach, that all fin expofes us to 
everlasting deftrudlion. See Gal. iii. jo. 2d of 
Cor. iii. 6, 7. And Rom. iv. 14, 

The total depravity of human nature is alfo evi 
dent from the univerfal reign of death over perfona 
of all ages : from the propenfity to evil which ap 
pears in mankind, and impels them to tranfgrefs 
God's law : from the neceflity of regeneration : 
the nature of redemption : and the remains of 
corruption in the faints, 

IV. That all whom God has predeftinatcd unto 
life he is pleafed in his appointed time effe&ualty to 
call by his word and fpirit, out of that eftate of fin 
and death, in which they are by nature, to grace 
and Jahation by JESUS CHRIST. For 

CAL 4t 

For an irreli (table operation is evident frdm thofe 
paflages in fcripture> which exprefs the efficacious 
virtue of divine grace in the converfion of finners* 
Eph. i. 19. And 'what is the exceeding greatnefs of 
his power towards us who believe^ &c. Eph. ii. T , 5* 
Phil. ii. 13. and divers other paflages* If there 
was any thing in us which renders the grace of God 
effectual, we fhould have caufe for boafting 5 but 
the facred pages declaim againft this in the moft 
cmphatieal terms. Rom. v. 27 : fPhtre is boa/ling 
then ? It is excluded > &c. See Titus iii. 5. ift of 
Cor. i. 3 1. and a variety of other texts to the fame 

If the jne will of man renders grace effetfual, 
it may be made ineffectual by the fame power, and 
fo the creature fruftrate the defigns of his Creator, 
which is derogatory to the infinite perfe&ions of 
that omnipotent Bting, who worketh ail things ac* 
cording to the counfel of his will. 

V. That thofe whom God has effectually called 
and fanftified by his fpirit, (hall never finally fall 
from a ftate of grace. 

For this dodhine is evident from the prdmifes of 
perfevering grace in the facred fcriptures. Jfaiah 
liv. 10 : For the mountains Jhall depart, and the 
hills be removed, but my kindnefs [hall net depart from 
thet^ neither Jhall the covenant of my peace be re* 
moved, faith the LORD, that bath mercy on thee. 
See alfo Jer. xxxii. 3840. John iv. 14, vi. 39* 
x. 28. xi. 26. And the apoftle exclaims with 
triumphant rapture,/ a*n perjuaded that neither 
life, nor death, &c. (hall be able to (eparate us from 
the love of GOD, which is in Chrjft Jejus eur Lord. 
Rom, viii, 38, 39. 

42 CAP 

The ptrfeverance of the fainfsls alfo evident from 
the immutability of the Deity his purpoies and 
the reafons on which he founds them are invariable 
as himielf ; with him there is no variabienel* nor II a- 
dew of turning. James i. 17. The faithfulnefs of 
the Deity is ever difplayed in performing his promi- 
fes : but the do&rine of falling from grace fru ft rates 
the defign of the promifes ; for if oneYaint may fail, 
why not another, and a third, till no fincere chri- 
ftians are left ? But the doctrine of betievers pcrje- 
verance remains firm as it is fupported by the expreis 
tenor of fcripture, the immutability of the Deity, and 
his faithfulnefs in performing his promifes. 

Ifaofaeim's Ecclejiafiical Hiflory vol. 3/>. 352. vol. 4. p. 70. 
CaJviv's Infiituti ms t p 127. 

Jj/imbly't Confeffion of Faith , p 25, 36 48, 49, 67, 
Cbarnock's Workt^ vol. 2. p. 1353! 1354- 
Ttui/t'j Worktop. 220 
'bettor Edwar&'s Vtritas Rtdux, p, 56, 89 91, 92, 319 

321, 358 384 390, 45* 

Edwards on Original Sin, p. 13, 40, 356 ?66. 
's Hifiorical Lilirarj t voi, i />. 195. 

CANUSARS. [See French Prophets] 

CAPUTIATI, A feft which appeared in the 
twelfth century ; fo called from a fiogular kind of 
cap which diftinguifli their party. They wore up 
on their caps a leaden image of the Virgin Mary, 
and declared publickly, that their purpofe was to 
.level all diftinftions, to abrogate magi ft racy, atwjto 
remove all fubordination among mankind, and to 
reftore that primitive liberty, that natural equality, 
which were the ineftim^le privileges of the firft 

fccchf. Hift. vol. a. /. 456, 457. 


CAT 43 

CAROLOSTAD1ANS, So called from Carolo- 
ihdt, a colleague of Luther's. He denied the real 
prefence in the Eucbarift ; and declaimed againft 
numan learning. 

Mofhtlnft Ecdef, Hijl. vol 4 />. 28, 36.' 

CARPOCRATIANS, A feft which arofe to-? 
wards the middle of the fecond century ; fo called 
from Carpocrates, whofe philofophical tenets agreed 
in general with thofe of the Egyptian Gnoftics. He 
acknowledged the exigence or a. Supreme GOD, 
and of the Mom derived from him by fucceffive ge 
nerations. He maintained the eternity of a corrupt 
matter, and the Creation of the world from thence 
by angelic powers, as alio the Divine origin of fouls 
unhappily imprifoned in mortal bodies, &c. He af- 
ferted, that JESUS was born of Jojlfpb and Mary^ 
according to the ordinary courfe of nature, and was 
diftinguiilied frorri the reft of mankind by nothing 
but his fuperior fortitude and great nefs of foul. He 
held, that lufts and paffions, being implanted in our 
nature by GOD himfelf, were confequently void ol 
guilt, and had nothing in them criminal ; and not 
only allowed his difciples full liberty to fin, but re* 
commended to them a vicious courfe of life, as a 
matter both of obligation and peceffity, aflerting that 
eternal falvatioti was only attainable by thofe who 
had committed all forts of crimes, and had daringly 
filled up the meafure of iniquity. He alfo taught 
that all things (hould be poflefied in common. [See 

's IbM, vol 4, p 184, 185^ 

CATAPHRO6GIANS. [See Montamfls] 


44. CER 

CYTHARISTS, A branch of the Manichins; 
in the twelfth century. This led agreed in the 
following points of doctrine, viz. That Matter was 
the fource of all evil ; that the Creator of this world 
was a Being diftindfc from the fuprerhe Deity j that 
Chrifl was not cloathed with a real body, neither 
could be properly (aid, to have been born, or to 
have feen death ; that human bodies were the pro- 
dudion of the evil principle ; that baptifm and the 
Lord's fupper were ufelefs institutions ; and that 
human fouls endued with reafon, were fliut up by 
an unhappy fate in the dungeons of mortal bodies, 
from whence only they could be delivered by fad 
ing, mortification, and continence of every kind. 
Hence they exhorted all who embraced their doc 
trine to a rigorous abftinence from animal food^ 
\vine, and wedlock^ and recommended to them, in 
the mod pathetic terms, the mod fevere ads of 
aufterity and mortification. 

This denomination treateH all the books of the 
Old Teftament with the utmoft contempt, but ex- 
prcffed a high veneration for the New, particularly 
for the four Evangel ids. 

im*s Eccltf. Hift. vol. 2. p. 444. 

CERDONIANiS, , A branch of the Gnoftics in 
the fecond century, which derive their name from 
Cerdo ; they are alfo called Marcionite?, from Mar- 
cion, who propagated his dodrines with ailonifhing 
fucceis throughout the world. 

The fentiments taught by this denomination were 
as- follow : 

That there are two principles, the one perfedly 
good, and the other perf e&ly evil , and between 


e E R 45 

thefe there is an intermediate kindofDeity,neither per- 
fetly good nor perfedtly evil, but of a mixed nature 5 
and to far j ift and powerful, as to administer rewards 
and inflidt punithments.. r i his middle Deity is the 
creator of this inferior world, and the God and le- 
giflator of the Jewish nation ; he wages perpetual 
war with the evil Principle ; and both the one and 
the other aipire to the place of the jttpreme Being* 
and ambitioofly attempt fubjeding to their authority 
all the inhabitants of the world. 

The Jews are the fubje&s of that powerful genius 
who formed the globe : the other nations, who 
worship a variety of Gods, are under the empire of 
the wit Principle. Both thefe con0ifling powers 
exercife oppreflions upon rational and immortal 
fouls, and keep them in a tedious and miferable cap 
tivity* Therefore, the fupreme God, in order to ter 
minate this war, and to deliver from their bondage 
thofe fouls, whofe origin is celeftial and divine, fent 
to the Jews a being moft like to hirofelf, even his 
fpn JESUS CHRIST, cloathed with a certain 
fhadowy refemblance of a body, that thus he might 
be vifible to mortal eyes. The commiffion of this 
celeftial meffenger was to deftroy the empire both 
of the eviiBrinciple^ and of \heutbor of thh wor/d, 
and to, bring back wandering fouls to God. On 
this account he was attacked with inexpreffible fury 
by the Prince of Darkne/s t and by the God of tbe 
Jews, but without effedt, fince having a body only 
in appearance, he was thereby rendered incapable 
of fuffering. Thofe who follow the facred dSrefti- 
ons of the celeftial conduftor, mortify the body by 
fafting, and aufterities, call off their minds from the 
alk)rements of fenfe, and renouncing the precepts of 

G 2 the 

46 P e & 

the Cod of tbe Jews, and of the Prim of Darfaefs, 
turn their eyes towards the Supreme Being y (hail 
after death aicend to the manfions of felicity and 

This denomination rtjcSed all the Old Teft^ 
mem, and received only part of St. Luke's gofpel, 
and ten of St. Paul's epiftles in the New. [ee 

Mofaito'sEcc'.ef H'tfi. vol. i, p 178. 
Broughlont Htftorical Library , tW. 2 p. 48. 

CER1NTHIANS, A feel which arofe in the 
firft century ; fo called from Cerinthius, who taught, 
That the creator of the world, whom he coniidercd 
alfo as the fovereign and law-giver of the Jewi;h 
people, was a Ifeirtg endowed with the greateft vir 
tues, and derived his birth from the fupreme God - 9 
that this Being fell by degrees from his native vir 
tue and his primitive dignity ; that the fupreme 
God, in confequence of thb, determined to deftroy 
his empire, and fent upon earth, 'for this puipofe, 
one of the ever-happy and glorious lons y whole 
tiame was CHRIST ; that this CHRIST chofe for 
his habitation the perfon of JESUS, a man of the 
moft illuflrious fan&ity and jultice, the fob of Jofcph 
and Mary, and defcending in the form of a dove, en 
tered into him, While he was receiving the baptifm 
of John in the waters of Jordan : that JESUS, after 
his union with CHRIST, oppoied himfelf with vi 
gor to the God of the Jews, and was, by his inftiga- 
tion, feized and crucified by the Hebrew chiefs : that 
when JESUS was taken captive, CHRIST afcend- 
cd up on high, fo that the man JESUS alone was 
fubjetted to the pains of an ignominious death. 


C H R 47 

Ceri-nt-hius required of his followers that they 
fhould worfhip the Father of CHRIST, even the 
iupreme GOD, in conjunction with the Son ; that 
they fliould abandon the law- giver of the Jews, 
whom he looked upon as the creator of the world 5 
that they (hould retain a part of the law given by 
Moles, but fliould, neverthelefs, employ their princi 
pal attention and care to regulate their lives by the 
precepts of CHRIST. % To encourage them to this, 
he promised them the refurredion of this mortal bo 
dy, after which was to commence a fcene of the moft 
exquifite delights, during CHRIST'S eatthly reign 
of a thoufand years, which was to be fucceeded by 
a happy and never-ending life in the celeftial world. 
[See Gnofticsj, 

Ecclef, Hifl. voL i. p. 117, 118. 

CHAZINZARIANS, A fed which arofe in Ar 
menia, in the feverith century. They are fo called 
from the Armenian word chazus, which fignifies 
a croj^ becaufe they were charged with adoring the 


Hiflory of Religion, vol. 4, [See Chazinzaricrni] 

CHILIASTS. [See MillenariansJ 

caufe they lay they received their faith,books,and tra 
ditions from John the Baptifl. They always inhabit 
near a river in which they baptize,for they never bap 
tize but in rivers,and only on Sundays. Before they go 
to the river, they carry the infant to church, where 
there is a Bifliop who reads certain prayers over the 
head of the child ; from thence they carry the child 
to the river, with a train of men and women, who, 


C H R 

together with the Bifcop, go up to the knees in 
ter: then the Bifhop reads again certain prayers out 
of a book, which d ne, he fprinkles the infant three 
times, faying, In the name of the Lord y fir ft and la ft 
of the wcrld end farudile^ the high creator of all 
things. After that the Biihop reads again in his 
book, while the god-father plunges the child all 
over in the water ; after which they all go to the pa 
rents houfc to feaft. They have no knowledge of 
the mv fiery of the holy Trinity, only they fay that 
Chi id is the .pirit and word-ot the eternal Father. 
They confefs he became man to free u . from the 
puniftiment of fin : but when the Jews came to take 
him, he deluded their ccuelty with a fhadow. 

They believe the angel Gabriel is the Son of 
GOD, begotten upon light, and that he undertook 
to create the world, according to the command 
which GOD gave him, * and took along with him 
three hundred and thirty-fix thoufand demons, and 
made the earth fo fertile that it was but to low in 
the morning and reap at night ; and that the fame 
angel taught Adam all die neceffary fciences. 


* The? fay, tint af;er the angel Gabriel had firmed the world 
fcy, the cm-nil d, of GOD, he th,u d-fcoutfed, Lord GOD, I 
have Vui!t the world ai thou didft command Q. It has put me 
end my brethren to a vsft deal of trouble Co raife fuch h'gh mouc* 
taim, which Teem to (attain Heaven : but. inftead of thai fatiifao 
n n I ought to feel, for having acconaplifhed fo great a work. I 
find reafjn to be altogether grieved. When GOD demanded 
the caufr, the angel Gabriel anfwerrd, My GOD and Fa'her, I 
vill teli yrm what sfBifl* me : after the oukn g of the world, I 
f rcfee that there wiil come into it a prodigious cumber of Jtw f 
Tuikt and UfideJs, enemies to your name, who will be on worthy 
TO enjoy the frnics of our labour. To whom GOD ihut replitd ; 
Nfvtr grieve, my fon, there (hall l?ve ia thii world, which thp^ 
haft built, certain chrifttaus of St, Johu t who (hall be my ffiefidij 
wd ih^li all be favcd. 

CHR 49 

In reference to the life to come^ it is faid they be 
lieve that when any one lies at the point of death, 
three hundred and fixty demons come and carry his 
foul to a place full of ferpents, dogs lions, tygers^ 
and devils $ who; if it be the foul of a wicked man, 
tear it in pieces ; but being the foul of a juit man, 
it creeps under the bellies yf thofe creatures into the 
prefence of GOD, who fits in his feat of majefty to 
judge the world ; and that there are angeis alio, who 
weigh the fouls of men in a balance, who being 
thought worthy,are admitted immediately into glory ; 

They have no canonical books, but a number full 
of charms, &c. Their chief feftivals are three ; one 
in the winter, which lafts three days, in memory of 
our fir ft parents and the creation of the world ; the 
other in the month of Auguft, which is called the 
feafllof St. John ; the third, which lafts five days^ 
in Jane, during which time they are all re-baptized; 

In the Eucharift, the/ m*ke ufe of meal or flour 
kneaded, with wine and oil $ they add oil to fig-nify 
the benefit we receive by the facrament, and put us 
in mind of our love to GOD and our neighbour. 
The words of their confecration are certain long 
prayers, which they make to praifeand thank GOD, 
at the fame time blefiing the bread and wine. After 
all the ceremonies are ended, the Pried takes- the 
bread, and having eaten iome of it, diftributes the 
reft to the people. 

Thefe Chriftians refide in Perfia and Barfora. 

Taviniers Travels, p 90 91 92. 93. 


the peninfula ot India^ on this fide the gulph. They 

, .. 


jo C O C 

are called Chriftians of St. Thomas, becaufc that 
apoftle preached the gofpel and fuffered martyr 
dom in that peninfula ; and for whom thole Chri 
ftians have a peculiar veneration. 

They admit of no images, and receive only the 
crofs, to which they pay a great veneration. They af 
firm, that the fouls of the faints do not fee GOD, 
till after the day of judgment. They acknowledge 
but three facraments, viz. Baptifm, Orders, and the 
Eucharifi. They make no ufe of holy oils in the 
administration of baptifm , but after the ceremony, 
anoint this infant with an undlioo, compofed of oil 
and walnuts, without any benedidtion. They have 
no knowledge of confirmation, or extreme unffion j 
and abhor auricular confejjion. In the Eucbarifl^ 
they coniecrate with little cakes, made of oil and 
lalt ; and, inflead of wine, make uie of svatct in 
which *raifms have been infufed. 

Brought en's Hifiorical Library vol. I. p, 236. 

CIRCUMCELLIANS, in Latin Circumcclliones, 
A branch of the fedt of the Donatifts. They a- 
bounded chiefly in Africa. They had no fixed abode, 
but rambled up and down, begging, or rather exac 
ting, a maintenance from the country people. It 
was from this wandering courle of life they had 
their name. 

Broughton t ibid p. 249. 

COCCEIANS, A fea which arofe in the feven- 
teenth century, (o called from John Cocceius, Pro- 
feflbr of Divinity, in the Univerilty of Leyden. He 
reprefented the whole hiftory of the Old 'le/lamcnt 
as a mirror^ which held forth an accurate view of 
the tranfactions and events that were to happen in 


COC t 

the church under the difpenfation of the New It/la 
ment, and unto the end of the world. He main 
tained that by far the greateft part of the ancient 
prophecies foretold CHRIST'S rhiniftry and media 
tion, and the rife, progrefs, and revolutions of the 
churchy riot only under the figure of perfons and 
tranjaffiom, but in a literal manner, and by the very 
fenfe of the words ufed in thefe predictions ; and 
laid it down as a fundamental rule of interpretation, 
that the words and pbrafes of fcripture are to be un- 
derftood in every fenfe of which they are fufceptiblej 
or, in other words, that they fignify in ffiff, every 
thing that they can poffibly fignify. 

Cocceius alfo taught that the covenant made be 
tween GOD and the Jewifli nation, by the miniftr/ 
of Vtofes, was of the lame nature of the new cove 
nant obtained by the mediation of JE*US CHRIST4 

fn confequence of this general principle, he main- 7 , 
tained, That the im commandments were promulga-] 
ted by Mofes, not as a rute of obedience^ but as a re~ 
presentation of the covenant of grace : That when 
the Jews had provoked the Deity by their va 
rious tranfgreffions, particularly by the worfliip 
of the golden calf, the fevere and fervile yoke 
of the ceremonial law was added to the decalogue, 1 
as a punifhment inflidled on them by the fupremc 
Being in his righteous difpleafure, that this yoke: 
which was painful in itfelf, became doubly fo on 
account of its typical fignification, fince it admoni{h4 
ed the Israelites, from day to day, of the imperfect 
tion and uncertainty of their ftate, filled them with' 
anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had 
merited the righteous difpleafure of God, and could 
not expert before the coming of the Mefliah tha 

H entire 

52 CON 

entire rcmiflion of their iniquities, that indeed good 
men, even under the Mofaic difpenfation, were 
immediately after death made partakers of everlaft- 
ing glory j but that they were neverthelefs, during 
the whole courfe of their lives, far removed from 
that firm hope and aflurance of falvation, which 
rejoices the faithful under the difpenfation of the 
golpel^ and that their anxiety flowed naturally from 
this confederation, that their fins, though they re 
mained unpunilhed, were not pardoned, becaufe 
Chrift had not, as yet, offered himfelf up a facrifice 
to the father to make an entire atonement for them. 

jMo/heim't Ecclcfiajlical Hijlorji vol. 4 p. 54$* 546 547, $48. 

COLARBARSIONS. [See Marcofians] 

COLLEGIATES, A name given to a fbciety of 
Mennonites at Holland, becaufe they called their 
religious aflemblies colleges. They are alfo called 
Rhinftergers. [See MennonitesJ 

Mo/h sin's iMJ v-j/. $ p. 59. 
Collier 9 / Hift, Difliorarj. [S*e 

COLLUTHIAN3, A feft which arofe in the 
fourth century ; fo called from Col'uthus, a Pried 
of Alexandria, who taught that GOD was not the 
author of the evils and affli&ions of this life. 

Broughtons H'ft. Library, vol. I. p. 264. 

COLLYLYRIDIANS. An Arabian feft, in the 
fourth century 5 fo denominated from their idolizing 
the virgin Mary, worfhi ping her as a goddefs, and 
offering to her little cakes. 

ffffl. of Rsligion, vol 4. [S:e CoUjtyridians'] 

.. CON 7 GREGATIONALISTS, A denomination 
of Prftfftants, who maintain, that each particular 


C p R 53 

church has authority from Chrift for exercifiiig- go 
vernment, and enjoying all the ordinances of wor- 
ihip within itfelf. 

This denomination differ from the Independents 
5n this refpeft, viz. They invite councils which are 
advjfary only ; but the Independents formerly deci 
ded all difficulties within themlelves.* 

NeaP't Htfl. o/ NffwEngland. vol. 2- p. 314, 

CONONITES, A fe<3 which appeared in the 
fixth century j they derive their name from Conon, 
Bishop of Tarfus, he taught, that the body never 
loft its form, that its matter alone was fubjea- to 
corruption and decay, and was to be reftored when 
this mortal (hall put on immortality. 

In other points they agree with tfoe Philoponifts. 
[See Philoponifts and TritheiftsJ 

Mofbeittfs Ecclef. //{/?. vol. i .473. 

COPHTES, Chriftians of Egypt, Nubia, and 
the adjacent countries 5 theft fentiments are fimilar 
with the Jacobites. [See Jacobites. See alfo the 

Father Simons' Religion of the Eajlcrn Nationt, p no. 

CORRUPTICOLA, A feft which arofc in the 
fixth century ; they derived their name from their 
maintaining that the body of.Chrift was corruptible, 
that the fathers had owned it, and that to deny it 
was to deny the truth of our Saviour's paffion. 

Dictionary of Arts and Scicttcet t vol. I , p 492. 



* Thofe who are defirou* cf f eicg a particular account of 
Congregational principles, may confolc their platform of church 
difciptine, wiucfc the buyity of t^is work doei woe admit of u: 

54 DAY 

DA M I A N 1 S T S, A fcft in the Cxth centu* 
ry ; io called from Damian, Hfhop of Alex 
andria. The opinions maintained by this denomi 
nation were fimiler to thofe of the Angelhes. [bee 

Mo/heim** Ecclcjiafiictl Hijl vol. i p. 473. 

DANCERS, A (eft which arofe at 

in the year 1373, from whence they (pread 
through the diftri<5$ oi Liege ^ Haiwutt, and other 
parts of Fiandcn. It was cuftomary among them 
for perfons of both fexes, publicly, as \yell as in pri 
vate, to fall a dancing all of a iudden, and holding 
each others hands, to continue their motions with 
extraordinary violence, till, being almoft fuffocated, 
th<?y (eil down breathlefs together ; and they affirm 
ed that, during thefe intervals of vehement agitation, 
they were favoured with wonderful vifions. Like 
the Flagelants, they wandered about from place to 
place, had recourfe to begging for their fuftenance, 
treated with the utmo:1 contempt, both the prieft- 
hood, the public rites and worfliip of the church, 
and held fecret aijemblies. 

Mojhcim ibid, vol. 3 p. 206 207. 

DAVIDISTS, A feS in the fixteenth century ; 
fo called from David George, a native of Delft > who 
Acquired great reputation by his prudent converfat'i- 

He deplored the decline of vital and pra&ical re* 
ligion, and endeavoured to reftore it among his fol 
lowers ; but rcje<5ted, as mean and ufelcfs, the e^- 
ternal fervices of piety, 


D O N 55 

He was charged with averting, that he was 
third David, ion of GOD $ and that he ought to 
lave men by grace and not by death : and with de 
nying the exigence of angels and demons, the au 
thority of the Icriptures, and the refurreflion of the 

Mo/helm's Ecchjiajiic^l Etiftoryi vol. 4 p. 164, 165. 
Cr Jby y s Hifiorv oj the" Englifl) Baptifit > vol. I p. 64. 
Dufrefnoj V Chronological Tables > vat. 2 p 249, 

DIGGERS, A fecit which fprung up in Germany 
in the fifteenth century j fp called, becaufe they dug 
their aflcmblies under ground, in caves and forefts. 
They derided thq church/its minifters and iacraments. 

Br ought on* t Htftorical Library t vol. I. p. 32^* 

DLMOERITES. (See Appollinarians] 

DOCETOE, A fcft in the firft and fecond cen 
turies 5 fo called from the Greek of [apo tou dolcee 
in] to appear, becaufe they held that Jefas Chrift 
w^s born, lived in the world, died, and rofe again, 
not in reality, but in appearance only. It was the 
common opinion of the Gnoftics. [See Gnoftics] 

Brovghtotii ibid. p. 339. 

DONATISTS, A feet which arofc m the fourth 
century. They derived their name from Donatus, 
Biihop of Numedia. 

They maintained, that their community was alone 
to be considered as the true church, and ; avoided all 
communication with other churches, from an appre- 
henfion of contracting their impurity and corruptiqn. 1 
Hence they pronounced the facred rites and inftitu- 
tions void of all virtue and efficacy among thofe 
chriftians a \vho were not precifely of their fentiments ^ 


5-6 DUN 

and not only re-baptized thofe who came over to 
their party from other churches, but with refpeft 
to thofe who had been ordained minifters of the 
gofpel, they either deprived them of their office or 
obliged them to be ordained the lecond time. 

M'jjbeini'i Ecc'ef. tiijl. vol. i. p. 333. 

BULCINISTS, The followers of Dulcinus, a 
layman, of Novara, in Lombardy, about the begin 
ning of the fourteenth century. He taught that the 
law of the father, which had continued till Moie, 
was a law of grace and wifdom, but that the law of 
the Holy Ghoft, which began with himfelf in the 
vear 1307, was a law entirely of love, which would 
iaft to ihe end of the world. 

St H Jlorical Library , vol. I. /. 344. 

DUNKERS, A denomination which took its 
rife in the year 1724, and was formed into a fort 
of commonwealth, moftly in a fmall town called 
Ephrata, in or near Pcnnfylvania. They feem to 
have obtained their name from their manner of bap 
tizing their new converts, which is by plunging. 
Their habit fcems to be peculiar to themielves, con 
fiding of a long tunic or coat, reaching down to 
their heels, with a fafii or girdle round the waift, 
and a cap or hood, hanging from the moulders, like 
the drefs of the Dominican Friars. The men do 
not {have the head or beard. 

The men and women have feparate habitations, 

ind diftindl governments. For thefe purpofes, they 

lave eredled two large wooden buildings , one of 

which is occupied by the brethren, the other by 

*V V fibers of the fociety : and in each of them 

" r there 


there is a banqneting-room, and an apartment for 
public worlhip ; for the brethren and lifters do ndt 
meet togeiher even at their devotions. 

They live chiefly upon roots and other vegetables $ 
the rules of their fociety not allowing them flefhj 
except upon particular occafions, when they hold 
what they call a Love-feaft ; at which time the bre 
thren and fillers dine together in a large apartment, 
and eat mutton, but no other meat. No member of 
the fociety is allowed a bed, but in cafe of ficknefs. 
In each of their little cells they have a bench fixed 
to ferve the purpofe of a bed, and a fmall block of 
wood for a pillow. The Dunkers allow of no in- 
tercourfe betwixt the brethren and fillers, not even 
by marriage. 

The principal tenet of the Dunken appears to be 
this : That future happinefs is only to be obtained 
by penance and outward mortifications in this life $ 
and that as Jefus Chrift, by his meritorious luffer- 
ings, became the Redeemer of mankind in general, 
fo each individual of the human race, by a life of ab- 
ftinence and reftraint, may work out his own falva- 
tion. Nay, they go fo far as to admit of works of 
fupererogation $ and declare, that a man may do 
much more than he is in juftice or equity obliged 
to do ; and that his fuperabundant works may there 
fore be applied to the falvation of others. 

This denomination deny the eternity of future 
punifliments ; and believe that the dead have the 
gofpel preached to them by our Saviour, and that the 
fouls of the juft are employed to preach the gofpel 
to thofe who have had no revelation in this life. 
They fuppofe the Jeivijh Sabbath > Jabbattical year % 



and year of jubilee, are typical of certain periods after 
the general judgment, in which the fouls of thofe, 
who are not then admitted into happinefs, are pu 
rified from their corruption. If any within thcfe 
fmaller periods are fo far humbled as to acknowledge 
GOD to be holy, juft and good, and CHRIST 
their only Saviour, they are received into felicity : 
while thofe who continue obftinate, are refervcd in 
torment until the grand period, typified by the ju 
bilee, arrives, when all (hall be made happy in the 
endlefs fruition of the Diety. 

Caft'rpinfs letters, />. 76, 71. 72, &c. 
A*.n. Reg p 343. 


EB I O N I T E S, A fed In the firft and fe- 
cond century ; fo called from their leader 
Ebion, or from their poverty, which Ebionites fig- 
nifies in Hebrew. 

They believed the celeftial miflion of CHRIST, 
and his participation of a Divine nature, yet they re 
garded him as a man born of Jo/eph and A/jry, ac 
cording to the ordinary courfe of nature : they more 
over aflerted, that the ceremonial law, inftituted by 
Mofes y was not only obligatory upon thejews, but alfo 
upon all others ; and that the obferVance of it was 
very eflential to falvation. They obferved both the 
Jewifti Sabbath and the Chriftian Sunday ; and in 
celebrating the Eucharift, made ufe of unleavened 
bread. They abflained from the flefli of animals, 
and even from milk. 

They rejefted the Old-Teftament ; and in theNevr 
Teftament received only the gofpel of St. Matthew, 


E N C 59 

and made ufc of a book which they filled, ^he 
go/pel according /0 the Hebrews. 

Mcfheim't Ecclcf Hijt. vol. I. p. 173. 174. 
tie^rnes Dutior Hiftoricus? vol. 2, />. 74. 

EICET^E, A fedl iri the year 680, who affirmed^ 
that in order to make prayer acceptable to God, it 
ihould be performed dancing. 

Disjrefnoy's Chronological Tablet, vol I. p 213. 

EFPRONTESi Sd called from theif (having 
their foreheads till they bleed, and then anointing 
them with oil, ufing no other bAptifrn but this. 

They fay, the Holy Ghoft is nothing but a bare 
motion infpired by God in the mind $ and he is not 
to be adored. 

Vh^a of all Re:igisitt, p, 2:3. 

ELCESAl ES, A fea in the fecond century 5 
fo. denominated from their prophet Elcefai. His 
fundamental dodrine was, that Jefus Chrift, wha 
was born from the beginning of the world, had ap 
peared from time to time under divers bodies; 

of RtligioAi vol. 4. \_Sss Elccfaites'] 

given to a led: in the fecond century, beeaufe they 
condemned marriage, forbid the eating of fled), 
or drinking of wine, arid rejected, with a fort of hor 
ror, all the comforts and conveniencies of life. Ta- 
tian, an Affyrian, was the leader of this denomina 
tion. He regarded Matter as the fountain of all 
evil ; and therefore recommended, in a peculiar 
manner, the mortification of the body. He diilin- 
guiihed the creator of the world from the Supreme 
I Being -, 

60 E r PI 

Being ; denied the reality of CHRIST'S body ; and 
blended 'the Chriftian religion with feveral other te 
nets of the Oriental philofophy. 

'Mo/hgiwft Ecc'ef. Hlft. vol. i, p 180-. 

ENERGIA, A fe3 in the fixteenth century ; fo' 
called becaufe they held, the Eocharift was the ener 
gy and virtue of Jsfus Chrifl $ not his body, nor a 
repiefentation thereof. 

ffift. of Religion^ vol, 4. IS ft Energici~\ 

EON1TES, A fe<3: in the twelfth century, fol 
lowers of Eon de Etoile, a gentleman of Eretagne. 
Having heard it fung in the church, per eum % qui 
venturus eft judicare vivos at mortuos, he concluded 
that he was the perfon who was to judge boih quick 
and dead, from the refcmblance between the word 
Eum and his name. He was followed as a great 
prophet , (ometimes he walked with a great num 
ber of people ; fometirnes he Irved in folitude, and 
appeared afterwards in greater fplendor/than before. 
He ended his days in, a miferable ptifon, and left a 
confiderable number of "followers, whom perfecution 
and death in the moft dreadful forms could not 
perfuade to abandon his caufe. 

Mofljtim*s Ecc/ff tiifl. vol 2 p. 457, 458. 
Broaghtotfs Hiftortcal Library* vol i. J>. 361. 

EOQUINIANS, A fe6l in the fixteenth century ; 
fo called from one Eoquinus, their mafter, who 
taught that Chrift did not die for the wicked, but 
only for the faithful, 

Ro/ft View of all Religions^ p. 234. 

EPIvSCOPALIANS, So called from [cpi] and 
[fkopeo] They maintain, that Bifhops, Preibyters > 


ETH 61 

and Deacons, are three dlftinft fubordinate callings 
ip God's church. That the Bilhops have a fuped- 
ority over the Priefts jure divini, and direftly from 
God. To prove this point they alledge, that Bifliops 
were inflituted by the apojt/es themfeives to fucceed 
them in great cities, as Timothy, at Ephefus ; Titus, 
at Crete, &c. It is faid in iftof Timothy, v 19 : 
Jgainft ah Elder receive not an accufatlon^ but before 
one or two <witne/es. Therefore, fay they, Timothy 
was a judge :* Prefbyters were brought before him, 
and he was fupericr to them. And they affsrt that 
epi/copacy was the conftitution of the primitive 
church. [See Appendix] 

AW/ Hlft, of the Paritantf, vol. i, p. 494. 
Dr. Edward^s Remains, p 229. 

ERASTIANS, So called from Eraflus, n German 
divine of the fixteenth century. The palloral office 
according to him was only perfuafive, like a pro- 
feflbr of fciences over his ftudents, without any 
power of the keys annexed. The Lord's (upper, 
and other ordinances of the gqfpel, were to be free 
and open to all. The minifter might diflfuadc the 
vicious and unqualified from the communion, but 
might not refufe it, or inflift any kind of cenfure j 
the punifhment of all offences, either of a pivil or 
religious nature, bping refered to the civil magiftrate. 

Ne'al's flifl, of the Puritans. voL 3. p. 140. 

ETHNOPHRONES, [Greek] In Englifh Ta- 
ganizers. So they ^called a fed in the eighth cen 
tury, who profeffing Chriftianity, joined thereto all 
the ceremonies of Paganifm, fuch as judicial aftro- 
logy, divinations of all kinds, &c. and who obfgr- 
yed 'allfwfts, times, and fealons of the Gentiles. 

} 2 ' 

,62 E U T 

The word is compounded of the Greek [ethnos] 
nation, and [phren] thought or fcnttment. 

Broughton's Hiftorical Lilrary % vol. I p. 378. 

EUCHITES. [See Maffiilians] 

EUDOXIANS, A branch of the Arians in the 
fourth century ; fo called, from Eudoxus, who af 
ter the death of Anus, became head of the party. 
[See AriansJ 

Hift* of Religion , v?/. 4 [_S?t SudoxUns] 

EUNOMIANS. [See Arians] 

EUSEBIANS, So called from Eufebius, Eiihop 
of C&farea y in Pale/line, in the fourth century. He 
maintained that there was a certain dflparity and 
jubordination between the perfons of theGod-Head. 
[See AriansJ 

EecUf //(/?. voi. i. p 291.. 

EUSTATHIANS, A fcft in the fourth century 
fo called from Euftathius, a Monk ; he prohibited 
marriage, the ule of wine and flefh, feafts of cha- 
iity, and other things of that nature. To thole 
\vho were joined in wedlock, he prefcribed imme 
diate divorfe ; and obliged his followers to quit al! 
they had, as incompatible with the hopes of heaven. 

Mofheln** ibid, /> 313. 

Etylcy'f D;fiionary t vol. 2. [$** Evfiatbiziu'] 

EUTUCHITES, A fc6b in the third Century ; 
fo called from the Greek [eutuchein] which figni- 
fies, to live 'without pain, or in pleafurc. 

They held that our fouls are placed in our bodies 
only to honour the angels who created ihcm 5 that 


FA.M 3 

we ought to rejoice equally in all events, becaqfe to 
grieve would be to diftiotiour the angels, their cre 
ators. They alfo held that Jeius Chrift was not the 
bon of God, but pf an unknown God. 

rSt H ijl or leal Library > vol. 2 p. 552* 

EUTYCHiAtfS, A left in the fifth century . 
fo called from EutycheSj a Monk and Abbot, of 

They maintained, that there was only one nature 
in Jcfus Chrift. The divine nature, according to 
them, had fo entirely (wallowed , up the human, 
that the Litter could not be diftinguifhed ; infomuch 
that JESUS CHRIS F was merely GOp, and had 
pothjng of humanity but the appearance. 

Bare/ay/ Dittionary. [See 

F^ A MI LISTS, A fedl which appeared in 
Holland, about the year 1555 5 * they de 
rive their origin from Henry Nicholas, a Weftpbalian^ 
who ftiled his followers the family of Love. He 
pretended he had a commiffion to teach mankind ; 
;and that there was no knowledge of Chrift, nor 
of the fcriptures, but in his family. 

To prove this point, he argued from i ft of Gor. 
xiii. 5, 9, 10. For we know but in part ', and we 
prophefy in part : but when that which i$ perfeff is 
come, then that which is imperfeff fyail be done away, 
Hence he inferred that the doctrine of Chrift isim- 
perfect, and a more perfect doclrine /hould be re 

* Thu f^a appeared ia England about the year 1580, where f 
when their founder wai 4i(^v:r:d 4 their batks w 
be publicly burnt. 

64 FIP 

vealed to the Family of Love. This denomination 
alfo taught the iollowing doctrines. 

I. That the eflence of religion confifted in the 
feelings of Divine love 5 and that it was a matter of 
the mod perfedt indiffcrci^ce,what opinions chnttians 
entertained concerning the Divim nature, provided 

* their hearts burned wi.h *ae pure and iacred flame 
of piety and love. 

II. That the union of the foal with CHRIST 
transforms it into the eflence of the Dehy. 

III. That the letter of the fcriptuie is yfelefs, 
and thofe facred books ought 10 be interpreted ih aa 
allegorical manner. 

IV. That it wafc lawful for them (if for their 
convenience) to fwear to an untruth, either before a 
magiftrate, or any other perfon who was not ol their 

Mo/brim's Ecclcfi aft ical H'tflory, ?/ 4 p. 166. 
Brought on" s Htji. Library voi' 2 .30. 
Min'/ Myflery of Godiintfs* p. 256. 
LeigVs Critic a Sacra 9 p. 253 
fulfilling of the Scriptures, vol \. p. 166. 

FARVONIANS, A branch of the Socinians ,< fa 
called from Staniflaus Farvonius, who flourilhtd in 
the fixteenth century. He aflerted that CHRIS T 
Jiad been engendered, or produced, out or nothing, 
bytheSupremeBeing,before the creation of this tenti- 
tial globe ^ and warned his difciples againll paying reli 
gious worfhip to the Divine Spirit. [See Socinians] 

't Ecclffiafiical Hijiorji vol. 4 p. 201 202. 

arofe in the feventeenth century. They derived 
their name from their maintaining,that there will 

FLA 65 

a fifth univerfal monarchy under the pp rfonal reign 
ot King Jeftts upon earth. In confequence of this 
tenet, they aimed at the fubverfion of all hunran go 

ftlojheim illd t p. 533. 

FLACIANS, The followers of Matthias Fiacius 
Illyricus, who flourished in the fixteenth century. 
He taught that original /in is the very lubftance of hu 
man nature^ and that the fall of man was an evens 
which extinguished in the human mind, every vir 
tuous tendency, every noble faculty, and left nothing 
behind it but univerfal darknefs and corruption. 

ibid, p 43. 

FLAGELLANTS, A fed which fprung up in 
Italy in the year 1 260, and was propagated from 
thence through almoft all the countries of Europe. 
They derive their name from the Latin fia^ello^ to 
ibhip. The fociety that embraced this new difcipline 
ran in multitudes, compofed of perfons of both fex- 
es, and all ranks and ages, through the public ftreets, 
with whips in their hands, lafhing thdir naked bo 
dies with the moft aftonifhihg feverity, with a view 
to obtain the Divine mercy for themfelves and others 
by their voluntary mortification and penance. This 
fed: made their appearance anew in the fourteenth 
century, and taught, among other things, that flagella 
tion was of equal virtue with baptifm and the other 
facraments : that the forgiveneis of all fins was to 
be obtained by it from GOD, without the merit of 
JESUS CHRIST : that the old law of CHRIST, 
was foon to be abolifhed, and that a new law, en 
joining the baptilm of blood to be adniiniflred by 
whipping, was to be fub/Ututed in its place. 


66 FR A 

A new fet of Whippers arofe in the fifteenth 
century, who rejedkd the facraments and cv r ery 
branch of external worship, and placed their only 
hopes of ialvation in faith and filiation. 

I\'tojhcim*j Ecc'if. thjt. v^ t . 5 p 9^, 206 277. 

FLANDRIANS* [See Mcnhdriitcs] 

FLORINIANS, A branch of the Vatervtimahs, 
in the fetond century ; fa called from Florinus,- 
their leader. [See Valeminians] 

MoJ/.ttm. li.d. vol. iv />. 189. 

FRATES ALBATI, A name which diftinguiffi- 
ed a ie^ in the fifteenth century ; they owed their 
origin to a certain Piieft, \vhadefcentiediromthe 
Alps, arrayed in a white garment, and accompanied 
with a prodigious, number of both fexes, who, after 
the example of their chief, were alib doathed ia 
white linen $ hence they acquired the name Prates 
Matt, i. e. White Brethren. They went in a 
kind of procefibn through feveral provinces, fol 
lowing a crofs, which their leader held credted like 
a ftandard, and by the ftriking appearance of their 
ianSity and devotion, captivated to iuch a degree 
the minds of the people, that petfons of all ranks 
and orders, flocked in crouds to augment their pum~ 
ber. The ntw chief exhorted his followers to op- 
pcafe the anger of an inctnfed Deity ; emaciated 
Ills body by voluntary acls of mortification and pe 
nance, endeavoured toperfuade the European nations 
to renew the war againft the Turks in Paieftine, 
and pretended, that he was favoured with divine vi- 
fibns, which inftrufled him in the will and in the 
ftcrets of Heaven. 

, i&ij t vol. 3. p. 375. 


FR E 7 

, ; FR ATRICE,U> In Englifli Little Brothers, a 
fe^which appeared in Italy about the year 1298, 
and f pread all over Europe. , Their origin is attribu 
ted by fome, to one Herman Pongilup, who pre 
tended that Ecclefiafties ought to have no pofleffion 

of their own. 

t . , > t ,- ,- ' , . * : j , 

Broughtori'j Hiflorical Library ', vol. I. /. 427^ 

, FRENCH^PROPHETS,, They firft appeared m 
Dauphins and Vivarais. In the year 1688 five or fix: 
hundred Proce'tints of both (exes gave therqfetvei 
out to be Prophets, , and infpired of the Holy Ghoft. 
They foon became Ib numerous that there were many 
thoulands of them infpired,* , They had ftrange 
fits^' which came upon them with tremblings and 
faintings as in a fwoon, which made them ftrach out 
their arms and legs, and ftagger feveral times before 
they dropt down : they ftruck themfelves with their 
iands ; they fell on their backs ; (hut their eyes, and 
heaved with' their breads ; they remained awhile irt 
trances^ and coming out of them with twitchings^ 
uttered all which came into their mouths : they laic! 
they (aw the faaveris opeh,the angth y paradije and h'til 
Thofe who were Jilft ,on the point "of receiving the 
fpirit of prophefy, dropt down, not only in the af- 
femblies, crying out fo-ercy, but in the fields,, and i'nt 
their own houfes. The lead of their affembli'ea 
made up four or five hundred, and fome of theni 
amounted to even three or four t'houfind perfons. 
When the Prophets had for a while been under agi 
tations of body, ttk^ began to prophefy the bun'eri 
of their prophefies was, amend your lives j repent ye ; 5 


: ....,, 

, * They were people of all ge|,and frxef, without .cIift'nftioD,' 
though the gract ft pan of th^m W bcry$ and giris ticA bt of 
fycn to tweat|-CiTe |tar of age, 

6$ F R 

the end of all things draws nigh. The hills rebound-* 
ed with their loud cries for mercy , and with impre 
cations again ft the Prie/h, the Church, the Pope^ 
andagainit the Anticbriftian dominion j with predic 
tions of the approaching fall of Popery. All they 
laid at thefe times was heard and received with re 
verence and awe. 

Tn the year 1706,* three or four of thefe Prophets 
came over imo England, and brought; their prspbs- 
iic Ipirit along with them $ which difco.vered itfelf 
in the fame ways and manners, by extafies and agita 
tions, and infpirations wider them, as it had done in 
France ; and ihcy propagated the like fpirit to others, 
fo that before the year was out, there were two of 
three hundred 'of thefe Prophets in and about Lon 
don, of both fexes, of all ages, men, women and 
children ; and they had delivered under infpiration^ 
lour or five hundred prophetic warnings. 

The great thing they pretended by their fpirit was, 
to give warning of the near approach of the kingdom 
cfGod y the happy times of the church , the millennium 
Jlate. Their meflage was, (and they were to pro 
claim it as heralds to the Jews, and every nation un 
der heaven y beginning firft at England) that the 
grand jubilee ; the acceptable year of the Lord - 9 the 
siccomplilhment of thofe numerous fcriptures con 
cerning the new heavens and the new earth ; the 
kingdom of the Mefjiah ; the marriage of tie Lamb ; 
the^r/2 re/urreftion, or the new Jerusalem defcend- 
ing from above, was now even at the door j that 
this great operation was to be wrought, on the part 
of man, by fpiritual arms only, proceeding from the 
mouths of thofe, who fhould, by infpiration, or 
the mighty gift of the fpirit, be fenc forth ia 


G A Z 9 

great numbers to labour in the vineyard; that this 
miffion of his fervants (hould be witneffed to, by 
figns and wonders from heaven, by a deluge of 
judgments on the wicked univerfally throughout 
the world, as Jamine, peftitence, earthquakes, &C^ 
That the exterminating angels,fhall root out the tares, 
and there ftiall remain upon earth only good corn ; 
and the works of men being thrown down, there 
(hall be but one Lord> one faith, one t 0r/,and one 
voice, among mankind. They declared that all the 
great things they fpoke of, 'would be mani^ft over^ 
the whole earth, within the term of three years. 

Thefe Prophets alfo pretended to the gift of lan 
guages ; of difcerning the fecrets of the heart ; the 
gift of miniftration of the fame Ipirit to others by 
laying on of hands, and the gift of healing. 

To prove they were really infpired by the Holy 
Ghoft, they alledged the compleat joy and fatis- 
fadion they experienced ; the fpirit of prayer which 
was poured forth upon them f and the anfwer of 
their prayers by God. 

Works, vol. 3. />. 2, 3,4* 10, II, 2$, 25, 3I> 37- 3$, B91 


GACIANIT^, A fed fprung from the 
Eutychians ; they derive their name from 
Gaian, a bi(hop of Alexandria, in the fixth century, 
who denied that Jefus Chrift, after the hypoftaticai 
union, was fubje<a to any of the infirmites of human 

of Religion not 4. See 

GAZARES, A fedl which appeared about the 
year H07, at Gazare, a town ofDalmatia. They 

70 Q N Q 

held almoft the fame opinions with the Albigenfts ; 
but their diftinguiihing tenet was, that no humad 
power had a right to fentence men to death for any 
crime whatever. 

rft Hijlorical Librarj t vol. \. f. 598. 

GEORGIANS. [See Iberians] 

GNOSIMACHI, A name which diftinguifyed 
thofe in the feventh century, who were profefied 
enemies to the Gnofc i, e. the ftudied knowledge, 
or jcience of chriftianity ; which they relied wholly 
on good works, calling it an ufelefs labour to leek 
for knowledge in the fcripture. v In (borr, n- 

tended for the practice 'of morality in all fimp'icity, 
and* blamed thofe who aimtJ at iiiiprovirj^ j:d per- 
feeling it by a deeper knowledge and'inihht int6 
the dodlrines and myfteries of religion. ! The Gno- 
fimacbi were the very reverfe oi the G no/lies, [bee 
Gnoftics] - *- . N - - 

........ * j Brotgbt**, ibi J, / 5^9 

GNOSTICS, So called from their boafti: . k 
being able to reftbre mankind 1 to the knowledge, 
[Gnofis] of the fupreme-Being which had been loft, 
in the world. ' This denomination fprung up in the 
firft century, but was ntft confpicuoos f6r its nurn- 
bers, or reputation, before the time of Adrian.* It 
derives its origin from the Oriental philofophy. It 
was one of the chief tenets of this philofophy, that 
rational fouls were imprifoned in corrupt matter, 
contrary to the will of the fupreme Deity. ' They 
looked upon Matjpr as the fource of all evil, and ar 


* Under the general appellation of Gnoftics, are comprehended 
ftUthofc. who io the firft tges of chriftianity, bltfidcd t 
philofuphy wilh the daftrina of $h< gofpcJ. 

GNO ;?? 

gued in this manner : Tjiere are many evils in this 
World, "and men feebi impelled by a natural inftin'ifj 
to the pradlice of thofe things which reafon con- 
Berlins ; but that eternal Mind, from which all ipints 
derive their exiftfcrice, ' inuft be inacceflible to ail 
kinds of evil, and alfo of a mod peifedt and benificerit 
mture ; therefore, the origin of thole evils, ' yvith. 
which the univerfe abounds, muft be fought fome- 
where etfe than in the Deity. It cannot refide ia 
Him who is all perfection ; therefore, it mail be 
without him. ' Now, there- is nothing without or 
bewnd the Deity but Matter ; therefore, Matter is 
the centre and fource of all evil, and oi -U vice. 
Having taken for granted thefe principles. *tiey pro 
ceeded further, and affirmed, That Mau, was e- 
ternal/ and derived its prelent form, net irorn the 
will of the iupreme God, but from the crei'.ing 
power of fome inferior 'inteliigence, t) whom the 
world and its. inhabitants owed their exigence." As 
a proof ef this affertion they ailed ged, that it was 
.incredible that the iupreme Deity, per fedly good, 
and infinitely remaved from all evil, IhouSd eithe< 
create or modify Matter, which is eiTentially malig 
nant and corrupt j or.beftow upon it, hi any decree, 
the riches of his wKdom and liberality. The Gno- 
flic doclrine, concerning the creation of the world 
by one or mora inferior Beings' of an evil, or, at 
kaft, of an imperfoA nature, led them to deny the 
Divine authority of the books of the Old Tefta- 
Such was their averfion to thefe iacred 

* When the Gnoftics wcr challecg^d to producs authnrities 
for their dcftrines, ibme referred to wntiugs of Abraham, 
*fter, Chrift, and his apoftU* : otberi bsafted f their 
wu tbcfe opi&ioai frcsa ^GJTC; 4c^triacs of Chriit : othcn, 

7 i GNO 


books, that they lavifhed their encomiums upon the 
Serpent, the firft author of fin, and held in venera 
tion fome of the moft inpious attd profligate perlons, 
of whom mention is made in the facred hiftory. 

The Oriental fages expeflcd the arrival of an ex 
traordinary meffenger of the moft high upon earth $ 
a meffenger inverted with a divine authority* en 
dowed with the moft eminent fandtity and.wildom, 
and peculiarly appointed to enlighten, with the 
knowledge of the fupreme Eeing,the darkened minds 
of mifcrable mortals, and to deliver them from the 
cchpins of the tyrants and ufurpers of this world. 
When therefore fonne of thefe philofophers perceiv 
ed that Chrift and his followers wrought miracles 
of the moft amazing kind, and alfo of the moft fa- 
lutary nature to mankind, they were eafily induced 
to believe that he was the great meffenger expeded 
;from above, to deliver men irom the power of the 
malignant genii, or fpirits, to which, according to 
their dodrine, the world was fubjedted, and to free 
their fouls from the dominion of corrupt matter. 
-But though they confidered him as.the Son of the 
fupreme God, ient from the pleroma, or, habitation 
of the everlafting Father, they denied his divinity, 
looking upon him as the Son of God, and confe- 
quently inferior to the Father ; they rejefted his 
humanity, upon the fuppofition that every thing 
concrete and corporeal is in itfelf effentially and 
intrinfically evil. From hence the greateft part of 
the Gnoftics denied that Chrift was cloathed with a 
real body, or that he fuffered realty for the fake of 


they h d arrived at ihefe degreeiof wlfdoca by w maate Tijtcur of 
cnird : other*. hat thfty were iflftruft-'d by Thendas, a drf 
of S(. P*Ql nd bf Matthiis, oae of the friend* of OUT Lord. 

G N O 73 

mankind, the pains and forrows which he is faid to* 
have fuftained, in the /acred hiftory. They main 
tained that he came to mortals with no other view, 
than to deprive the tyrants of this world of their in 
fluence upon virtuous and heaven-born iouls, and 
deftroying the empire of thefe wicked fpirits, to 
teach mankind how they might feparate the divine 
mind from the impure body, and render the former 
worthy of being united to the Father of Spirits. 

Their perfuafion, that evil refided m,Mafter, ren 
dered them unfavourable to wedlock j and led them 
10 rejeft the doftrine of the refurredtion of the body, 
and its fature re-union with the immortal fpirit. 
Their notion that the malevolent genii prefided in 
nature, and that from them proceed all dileafes 
and calamities, wars, and defolations, induced them 
to apply thenifelves to the fludy of magic, to 
weaken the powers, or iufpend the influences of thefe 
malignant agents. 

Their dodlrine relating to morals and practice was 
of two kinds^ and thole extremely different from 
each other. The greateft part of this fed adopted 
rules of life that were full of aufterity, recom 
mended a ftrit and rigorous abftinence, and pre- 
fcribed the mod fevere bodily mortifications, from 
a notion that they had a happy influence in purify 
ing and enlarging the mind, and in difpofing it for 
the contemplation of celeftial things* Others main 
tained that there was no moral difference in human 
actions ; and aflerted the innocence of following 
blindly all the motions of the paffions, and of living 
by their tumultuous di&ates. 

The Egyptian Gnoftics are diftingai&ed from 
the Afiatic, by the following difference in their reli 
gious fyftem ;--; I, ' 

74 G R E 

I. That, befides the exiftence pf a Deitv, they 
maintained that a'(o of an eternal Matter , endued 
with life and motion, yet they^did not acknowledge 
an eternal Principle of Barknels, or the evil principle 
of the Peifjans. 

II. They fuppofed that our bleffcd Saviour was 
a compound of two perfons, of the man Jefus, and 
of Chrirt the Son of God ; that the divine nature 
entered into the man Jcfus, when he was baptized 
by John in the river Jordan^ and departed from 
him when he was feized by the Jews. 

III. They attribiued to Chrift a real, not an 
imaginary body. 

IV. Their difcipline, with rcfpeft to .life and 
manners; was much Ie(s fevere than that of the* 
Afiatic fed. 

Both thefe branches of the Gnoftics were ^di 
vided into various denominations. [See Amitaftes, 
Afcodrute?, Bardefaniftes, fiafilidians, Bogomiles, 
Carpdcratians, Cerdonians, Cerinthians, Marcofians, 
Ophites, Saturnians, Simonians and Valentinians] 

Mofatm's Ecclef. Hijl v*J. i. /. 69. 70, 107, 108, 109, 
no, ill. 181. 

1 GREEK-CHURCH, In the eighth century 
there aroie a difference between the eafternand wef- 
tern churches, which in the ninth century termina 
ted in a fep^ration which continues to this day. 
[For an account of the extent of the Greek or eaf- 
tern church, fee Appendix] 

The -principal tenets which diftingui'fli theGreek- 
church from the Latin, are as f jllow. 

I. Theydifown the authority of the Pope, an<i 
deny tnat the church of Rome is the true Catbolit 
tkunb. II. 

GRE *> 

* ' ''',.,*-, 

, It. They do not baptize * their children, till 
they are three, four, five, fix, ten, nay fometimes 
eighteen years of age. 

Us. They infift, that the facrament of the Lord's 
fupper ought to be adminiilered in both kinds ; 
and they give the facrarnent to children immediately} 
after baptifm. 

IV. They deny that there is any fuch place as 
purgatory, ~\* notwithstanding they pray for the dead, 
that GOD would have mercy on them at the gene* 
ral Judgment. 

V. They exclude confirmation^ extreme unftion 
and matrimony out of the feven facraments. 

VI. They deny auricula? confeflion to be a di 
vine precept, and fay, it is only a pofitive injunction 
of ihe church. 

VII. They pay no religious homage to the Eu-] 

VIII. They adminifter the communion in both" 
kinds to the laity, both in ficknefs and in healthy 
though they have never applied ihemfelves to their 
confeffors ; becaufe they are perfuaded, that a livel/ 
faith is all which is requifite for the worthy re-' 
Reiving the Lord's fupper. 

IX. They maintain, that the Holy-Ghoft pro-; 
ceeds only from the Father, and not from the Son. 

L X. They 

* Thty perform baptifm by dipping the perfoo three times un 
der water diftm&iy, ia the name of the Father t Son, and Holy\ 


f Yet the Greeks, and all the Eaftcrn natiocf in general, ire 
of opinion, fhac departed f u!i will not be immediately and per^ 
lediy happy ; tbat the Hrft Paradifc will bi ft ftatc of rcpofc, an^ 
th next, ct curaal 

7 6 HAT 

X They admit of no images in tafs-rtlieft 6f 
tntfafftd work ; but u(e paintings and Sculptures ihr 
copper or filver. 

XI. They approve of the marriage of Priefts, 
provided they enter into that ftate before their ad- 
miffion into Holy Orders. 

XII. They condemn all fourth marriages. 

They obferve a number of holy days ; and Keep 
four Fafts in the year more folemii than the reft,- 
of which the Faft in Lent, before Eafter, is the chief. 

Father Simint* ReUgism of the Eaftern Natlo is, p 5-61 7i / 
7hevennt y f Travels % p. 412 

Brought it's Hiji. Library, vol. I. p. 14$ 246, 247. 
Bavlej't Diftionary, V9? 2. [St* Greeks] 
ift* of Religion, number vi. p. 35 i r 


HATTEMISTS, A Dutch feft which 'arofe in 
the fcventeenthcentury : they derive their name 
from Pentium Van Hattem, a miniftcr in the pro 
vince of Zealand. He interpreted the Calviniftical 
doftrine concerning absolute decrees, fo as to deduce 
from it the fyftem of a jdtat and uncontroulabtt 
neceffiti. Having laid down this principle to ac 
count for the origin of all event % s, he denied the 
difference between moral good and eviJ 9 and the 
corruption of human nature. 

From hence he concluded, That mankind were 
un^cr no fort of obligation to correct their manners, 
to improve their minds or to endeavour after a regu 
lar obedience to the divine laws that the whole of 
religion confilled not in afting but in fuffering 
and that all the precepts of Jcfus Chrifl are reduci 
ble to this finale one, thaf we bear with chearfuU 


HER 77 

pefs and patince the events that happen to us through 
the divine will, and make it our conftant and only 
ftudy to maintain a permanent tranquility of mind. 

This denomination alfo affirmed, that CHRIST 
had not fatisfied the divine juflice, nor made an ex- 
pcpiation for the fins of men by his death and (of 
ferings, but had only fignified to us, by his media 
tion, that there was nothing in us tliat could offend 
the Deity. They maintained that this was Chrift's 
manner of juftifying his fcrvants, and prefenting 
jhem blamelefs before the tribunal of GOD. * 

They alfo taught, 7 bat God doet not punijh mm 
for their fins, but by their tins. 

Mofteim's Ecelef. HtjL voi iv. p 553. 554. 

HFLSAITES, A fed which arofe in the fecond 
century ; they denied fomc parts of the old and 
new Teftament, and did not own St. Paul to be an 
apoftle, and thought it an indifferent thing if in 
perfection i they denied the j ait b in words : they re 
ceived a certain book which they faid came jdown 
from Heaven, and contained their dodtrine. 

Athenian Oracle t vol. it p. 128. 

HENRICIANS, A fefl in the twelfth century; 
founded by Henry, a Monk, he rejected the bap- 
tifin of infants, ceniured with feverity the licentious 
manners of the clergy, and treated the feftivals and 
ceremonies of the church with the utmoft contempt. 

Mojk<im*s Ecchj: Bift. vol. it. p. 448- 


HERACLEONITES, A branch of the Valen- 
tinians, in the lecond century ; they derived their 

L 2 name 

^ Thif opinion w peculiar to the HaUfcniftf, and di 
id tlxesn from the Vcrfchorifts. 

78 HIE 

name from Heracleon, who maintained that the 
world was not the immediate production of the Sori 
of God ; but that he was only the occasional caufe 
of its being created by the Demiurgu*. The He- 
racleonites denied the authority of the prophecies 
of the old leftament, maintaining that they were 
meer random founds ih the air, and that St. John 
the Baptift was the only true voice which directed 
Jo the Meffiah. 

Brcvghton's ttiflorical Library* vol. i. p. 484. 

HERMOGENIANS, A fed! which arofe to- 
wards the clofe of the fccond century ; fo denomi 
nated from Hermogenes, a Painter by profeffion. 
He regarded Matter as the fountain of all evil, and 
cculd not perfuade himfelf that GOD had created it 
from nothing by an almighty act of his will ; an4 
therefore hetaaintained, that the world, with what 
ever it contains, as alfo the fouls ot men, and other 
jfpirits, were formed by the Deity from an uncreated 
and eternal mafs of corrupt Matter. 

Mo/heim's Eccltf. Hifl. vol. i, f 190. 

HERRENHUTTERS. [See Moravians] 

13ETEROUSI ANS, A name given to one of the 
r Arian divifions. [See Arians] 

H1ERACITES, A feft in thejhird century ; fo 
called from their leader Hierax, a philolopher and 
inagician of Egypt. Hierax maintained, that the 
principal objedt of CHRIST'S office and miniflry 
was the promulgation of a new Jaw, more levere 
and perfeft than that of Mo/es ; and from hence he 
concluded, that the ufc of flcfli, wine, wedlock, 


HOP & 

of other things agreeable to the outward fenfes, 
which had been permitted qnder the Mofaic difpen- 
iation, was abfolutely prohibited and abrogated by 
CHRIST. He excluded from the kingdom of 
Heaven children who died before they had arrived 
to the ufe of reafon ; and that, upon the fuppofition 
that GOD was bound to adminifter the rewards of 
futurity to thofe only who had fairly finilhed their 
victorious conflict with the b>ody and its lufts. lie 
maintained alfo, that Melchifedic was the Holy 
Ghoft. His diiciples taught, that the Word, or. Son 
of God, was contained in the Father , as a little vcf- 
fel in a great one ; whence they had the name of 
Mejangimonifts, from the Greek word [metan^imo- 
nosj which fignifies contained in a veffel. 

Hierax alfo denied the doitrine of the refurredioQ 
of the body. . 

jVtofctirfs i&iti p 34$. 
Broughtorfj Hiflorical Library vol. i. p, 493 

HOMOUSIANS, A name given to a branch of 
|he Arians. [See Arians] 


piled from the Rev. Mr. Samuel Hopkins, paftor of 
the firft congregational church at Newport ; who 
in his fermons and trads has made feveral addition? 
to the fentiments firft advanced by the .celebrate^ 
Mr. Jonathan Edwards, late Prefident of New-Jer- 
fey College. 

TKe following is a fummary of the diftinguiflhing 
tenets of this denomination, together with a few of 
the reafons of \phich they make ufe to ftipport their 

1. That all true virtue^ or n?al boHneJs^ ccnfifts 
ia di (inter efled^ btn?vQltnce> 

f p HOP 

The objeA of benevolence is univerfal Being, in 
cluding GOD, and all intelligent creatures ; it wifhcs 
and feeks the good of every individual fo far as con- 
fiflent with the greateft good of the whole, which is 
comprifed in the glory of GOD, and the perfection 
and happinefs of his kingdom. 

The law of GOD is the ftandard of all moral rec 
titude, or holinefs.* This is reduced into love to 
GOD, and our neighbour as ourfelves ; and univer 
fal good-will comprehends all the love to GOD, our 
neighbour and ourfelves required in the divine law j 
and therefore mud be the whole of holy obedience. 
Let any ferious pcrfon "think what are the par 
ticular branches ot true piety ; when he has viewed 
each one by itfelf, he will find, that difmterefted, 
friendly affe&ion is its diftinguiihing charadleriftic. 
For inflance, all the holinefs in pious fear, which 
diftLpguifhes it from the fear of the wicked, confifts 
in love. Again, holy gratitude is nothing but good 
will to GOD and our neighbour, in which -we our 
felves are included 5 and crorrefpondent afFedtion ex- 
cited by a view of the good-will and kindnefs of 

Univerfal good-will alfq, implies the whole of the 
duty we owe to our neighbour. Forjaftice, truth, 
and faithfulnefs, are comprifed in univerfal benevo 
lence ; fo are temperance and chaftity : for, an un 
due indulgence of our appetites and paflions is contra 
ry to benevolence, as tending to hurt ourlelves or 

otfiers ; 

* The law rrqulrci us to lore GOD with all our hearts, becaufc 
lie ii the LORD, btciufe he i juft fach m Being i.s he is Oa this 
tceonit, primarily and antecedently to all other coofiderattoai, he 
ii infinitely amiable ; and therefore, on this recount, primarily 
a- d antecedently to aQ other cotfidcrauoaii ought he to appear 
aniublc ifi oar ejej. 

HOP 81 

and fo oppofite to th* general good, and 
the Divine command, in which all the crime of 
fuch indulgence confifts. In fllort, all virtue is no 
thing but benevolence adted out in its proper nature 
and perfection, or love to GOD and our neighbour 
made perfect in ail its genuine exercifeS and ex- 

II. That all fin confifts in Jclfi&nefi. 

By this is meant an iriterefted, felfilh affcflion, by 
which a perfori fits himfelf up as fupreme, and thd 
only objcft of regard ; and nothii^j is good or lovely; 
in his view, linicfs fuited to promote his own pri 
vate intereft. This felf-love iis in its whole nature 
and every degree of it, enmity againft God. // is 
not lubjetf to the /aw of God ; and is the only affefH- 
on that can oppofe it. It is the foundation of all fpi- 
ritual blindneis ; and therefore the fource of all the? 
open idolatry in the heathen world $ and falfe religi 
on under the light of thegofpeU All this is agree 
able to that felf-love w$ch oppofes God's true cha-* 
raflef : under the influence of this principle men de 
part from' the truth, it being itfelf the greateft prac 
tical Hie in nature, as it fets up that which is compara 
tively nothing, above Univerfal Exiftence. Self- 
love is the fource of all the profaneneis and impiety 
in the world ; and of all pride and ambition' among 
men, which is nothing but felfiftinefs ailed out in 
this particular way. This is the foundation of all 
covetoufnefs and fenfuality $ as it blinds peoples eyes^ 
comradts their hearts, and finks them dbwn, fothat 
they they look upon earthly enjoyments as the great- 
-eft good. This is the fource of all falfehood, in- 
jujlice, and oppreffion, as it excites mankind by 

l ^ property of others.-* 

82 HOP 

Self-love produces all the violent paffions, envy; 
wrath, clamour and evil fpeaking, and every thing 
contrary to the divine law, is briefly comprehended 
in this fruitful fourcc of all iniquity, lelf-love. 

III. That there are no promifes of regenerating- 
grace made to the doing* of the unregenerate. 

For as far as men aft from felf-love, they aft from 
a bad end. For thofe who have no true love to 
God really do no duty, when they attend on the 
externals of religion : and as the Unregenerate act 
from a felfim principle, they do nothing which is 
commanded. Their impenitent doings are wholly 
oppofed to repentance and converiion, therefore not 
implied in the command, To repent, &c; 80 far 
from this, they are altogether difobedience to the 
command. Hence it appears, that there are no 
promifes of falvation to the doings of the Unrege 

IV. That the impotency of finner?, with re- 
fpedt to believing in Chrift, is not natural but moral. 

For it is a plain di<5h?te of common fenfe, that 
natural impoffibility excludes all bliime. Eut an 
unwilling mind is univerfally confidered as a crime, 
and not as an excufe, and is the very thing wherein 
our wickednefs confitts. That the impotence of the 
iinner is, owing to a difaffedlion of heart, is evident 
from the promifes of the gofpel. When any ob- 
jeft of good is propofed and promifed to us upon 
afking, it clearly evinces that there can be no im 
potency in us with refpeft to obtaining it, befides 
the djfapprobation of the *w7/, and that inability 
whicri confifts in disinclination, never renders any 
thing improperly the fubjeft of precept or *ommand, 
* V. That 


HOP 83 

V. That in order to faith in Chrift,, a {inner 
mail approve in his heart of the divine conduct, even 
though God (hould caft him off forever ; which, 
however, neither implies : tive 'to misery nor hatred 

For, if the law is good, death is due to thofe who 
have broken it. The Judge of all the earth carinoC 
but do right. It would bring everlafting reproach 
upon his government to fpare us, cohfidered merely 
as in ourielves. When this is felt in our hearts, and 
riot till then, we ftiall be prepared to look to the 
free ^race of God through the redemption which is 
in Chrift, and to exercife faith in his blood, who it 
fet forth to be a propitiation to declare God's rights- 
oufntfa that he might be juft> and jet thejuftifier 
him who betieveth in 

VI. That the infinitely wife and holy GOD hai 
exerted his omnipotent power in fuch a manners as he 
purpofed (Lould be followed with the exigence and 
entrance of rrwral evil in the fyftem. 

M For; 

* As a pmlcle of water ii An ill in cnrnparifjo of a generous 
ftream, fo the man of humility :e!s &n*U before the great family 
of hii fellow ere uures He v lues hii foul, but when he Ccm-< 
pares it to the great foul of mankind he almoft forgets and lofe* 
fight of it : for the governing principle of his heart if to eftimatc 
thtogs according to their wonh Whea* th*refore, he icdufges ar 
humble comparifpn with his Maker, he feels loft in the infinite 
fullnefsard brightnef* of divine Icve, as a ray of light is loft ia 
the Son, and a panicle of water in the ceezn. It it fpires hicn 
with the mift grateful feelings cf heart, that he has opportunity 
to be in the haad of GOD as clay in the hand of the Potter : 
.and as he conilders himfelf in this humble light, he fubmiis the 
nature ard fiii of his fumre vdTel Entirely to Gc d. As his pride 
is !dft ia the duft, he looks up with pleafure toward the thrme of 
God. and rejoices with all his heart ia th rftitt4e bi the divine 

84 H O P 

For, it mud be admitted on all hands, that God 
has a perfe& knowledge, forefight and view of all 
poffibfe exiftences and events : if that fyftem and 
Icene of operation in which moral evil fhould never 
have exiftence was actually preferred in the divine 
mind, certainly the Deity is infinitely difappointed 
in the iffue of his own operations. Nothing can be 
more difhonourable to God than to imagine that the 
Jyftem, which is actually formed by the divine 
hand, and which wa$ made for his pleafure and glo 
ry, is, yet, not the fruit of wife contrivance and de- 

VII. That the introdu&ion of (in> is, upon th? 
whole, for the general good. 

For, the wifdom and power of the Deity are dif- 
played in carrying on defigns of the great eft 
good :' and the exiftence of moral evil has undoubt 
edly occafioned a more full, perfeCt and glorious 
difcovery of the infinite perfections of the divine 
nature, than could otherwife have been made to the 
view of creatures. If the extenfive manifestations 
of the pure and holy nature of God, and his infinite 
averfion to fin, and all his inherent perfections, in 
their genuine fruits and effeds, is either itfelf ihe 
greateft good, or necefurily contains it j it muft ne- 
ceffarily follow, lhat the introduction of fin is for 
\hs greatcfi good. 

, VIII. That repentance is before faith in Chrift. 

By this is not intended, that repentance is before 
a fpeculative belief of the bting and per/eflions of 
God, and of the per/on and character of Chrift 
but only, that true repentance is previous to a faving 
Jaith in Chrift^ in which the belieyer is united to 



Chrift, and entitled to the benefits of his mediation 
and atonement. That repentance is before faith in 
|hjs fenfe, appears fropi feveral confederations, 

i ft. As repentance and faith refpeft different ob- 
jefts, fo they are diftindt exercifes of the heart, and 
therefqre not only may, bqt muft be prior to the 

ad. There may be genuine repentance of fin 
without faith ia Chrift j but there cannot be true 
faith in Chrift without repentance of fin ; and fince 
repentance is ncceffary in order to faith in Chrift, it 
muft neceflarily be prior to faith in Chrift. 

jdo John the Baptift, fChrift and his apoftles 
taught, that repentance is before faith. John cried, 
Repent , Jor the kingdom of Heaven is at hand ; in 
tending, that true repentance was nec^flary in order 
to embrace the gofpel of the kingdom. Chrift com 
manded, Repent ye, and believe the gofal. And 
Paul preached repentance toward God, and JQitb to 
ward our Lord Jefu* Cbrift. 

IX. That though men became finners by Adam 
according to a Divine conftitution, yet they have, 
and are accountable for no fins but perfonal. For, 

i ft, Adam's aft in eating the forbidden fruit 
was not the aft of his pofterity, therefore, ihey did 
not fin at the fame time he did. 

2d. The finfulnefs of that aft could not be tranf- 
ferred to them afterwards, becaufe the finfulnefs of 
an adt can no more be transferred from one perfon 
to another than an aft itfelf. Therefore, 

3d. Adam's adt in eating the forbidden fruit 
was not the caufe, but only the occafion of his pof- 

M 2 terity's 

86 HOP 

terity's being finners. God was pleafed to make * 
conftitution, that, if Adam remained holy through 
his Hate of trial, his pofterity fhould, in coj)ieqnence 
of it, be holy too ; but if he finned, his pofterity, 
in conlequenec of it, fhould be firmers too,. Adarn 
finned, and now God brings his pofterity into the 
world finners. By Adam's fin we are become Tin 
ners, notyor it j his fin being only the eccafion, net 
the cau\e of our committing fins. 

X. That though believers are juftificd through 
Chrift's righteoulnefs, yet his righteoufnefs is not 
transferred. to them. . For, 

! ft. Perfonal righteoufnefs can no more be tranf- 
fened'frcm one perlcn to another than perfonal fin. 

2d. If Chrift's peifonal righttoujnels were tranf- 
ferred to lilleben\ they would be as perfelfly holy as 
Chrift, aiid fo ftand in no need of forgivenefs. Bur, 

3d. Pelievers are not confcious of having Chrid's 
perional righteoufneff, but feel and bewail much in 
dwelling fin and corruption. And, 

4th. The fcripture reprefents believers as receiv 
ing only the benefits of CbriiVs righteouinels in juf- 
tification, or their being pardoned and accepted for 
Chrift's righteoufnefe lake. And this is the proper 
fcripture notion of imputation. Jonathan's righte 
oufnefs was imputed to Mephibofheth when D^vid 
/tl:ewed kindneis to him for his father Jonathan's fake ? 

Hopklnr on Holineht p. 7, 8, II, 12. 19, 26. 27, 28, 

29, 34, 171, 197, 202. 
Edwarut bn the Wttl, p. 234, 289. 
tttllantfs True Religion Delineated, p ii. 
< Dialogue! betwefn Thercn anl Puulinut, j>. 18 

S vi alley* i Irxpctency of Sinner s> p 16 

*s Efaj on Moral dgencjtp. 179. 177, 181. 
', Nature of Duty, p 23. 

bj the fiw. Mr. Emaions/ 


J A N 87 

HUSSITES, A fea-in Bohemia ; fo called from 
John Huis, one of their principal teachers, who 
about the year 1414 embraced and defended the 
opinions of Wickliff. [See Wickliffites] 

H'ft of the Rtjotm vol. II. p* 18. 

I & J 

JACOBITES, A feel of EaRern chriftians, in the 
J fixth and the beginning of the feventh century ; 
io denominated from Jacob Bardeus, or Zanzalus>& 
Syrian, and a diiciple of Eutycbes and Dyofcsrut. 

His dodtrines fpread in Afia and d/rfca to tha,t 
degree, that the Ie6l of the Eutychians were fwal- 
lowed up by that of the 'J.acMus> which alfo com 
prehended all the Monopbrftes of the Ea/l, i. e. 
Such as acknowledged but one nature, and that hu 
man in Jefus Cbriftt by that taking b the Arme 
nians and Abtfinei : they denied the three perfons 
in the Trinity, and made the fign of the crofs with 
one finger, to intimate the one-nefs of the Godhead. 
Before baptifm they applied a hot iron to the fore 
heads of children after they had circumcifed them, 
founding that practice upon the words of John the 
Bapti/i. Mat. i\\.ir.'He will baptize you with 
tbt Holy Gkoft and ivitb fire. 

Bayly's Dictionary) vfL it, [See Jacobites'] 

JANSENISTS-, A denomination of Roman Ca 
tholics in France, which was formed in the year 
1640. They follow the opinions of Janfenites, Bi- 
fliop of Yprefs, from whole writings the following 
propofitions are faid to have been extracted : 

I. That there are divine precepts, which good 
men, notwithftanding their defire to obferve them> 

88 J A V( 

are, neverthelcfs, abfolutcly unable to obey j nor has 
God given them that meaiure of grace which is ef- 
i'entially neceffary to render them capable of fuch 

II. That no perfon, in this corrupt ftate of na 
ture, pan refift the influence of divine grace, when 
it operates upon the mind. 

III. That, in order to render human aftions me- 
r!torious,tit is not requifite that they be exempt from 
nectffity % but that they be free from ccnfiraint.* 

IV. That the Semi- pelagians err greatly in 
maintaining that the human will is endowed with 
the power of either receiving, or refitting the aids 
and influences pf preventing grace. 

V. That whofoever affirms, that Jefus Cbri/l 
made expiation, by his fuffcrings and death, lor the 
iinsof all mankind, is a Semi-pelagian. 

This denomination arc alfo diftingui&ed from 
the generality of the Roman Catholics, by their 
maintaining that the people ought to be carefully 
inftrufted in all the dodrincs and precepts of chri- 
fiianity 5 anci that, for this purpofe the holy Scrip 
tures and public Liturgies hould be offered to their 
perufal in their mother tongue ; and finally, they 
look ppon it as a matter of the higheft moment to 
pcrluade all chriftians that true piety does not 
confirt in the performance of external ads of devo 
tion, but in inward holinefs an divine love. 

Mojbtim's Ecclcf, Hifi. vol. iv. p 373. 379. 


9 AuguBine, Leibnitz, and a confiderable Dumber of modern 
phil"f phtri who mainuio the dcftrtne of ncccffity, coofider this 
neccility io moral aflioms as canQftiDC with fpontanittj aid cho'CC. 

According to them, cjoftraiot alone, a&d cxvcrnal force, dcftroy 
and ioipatatioo. 


JES 89 

IBERIANS, A feft of Eaftcrrf chriftians, which 
derive their name from Iberia, a j {Province of Afia, 
now called Georgia : hence they are alfo called 

Their tenets are faid to be the fame with thofe 
tif the Greek Church. [See Greek Church] 

Father Strains' Hifior) of the Eafltrii Chnfllant % p 64, 6;. 

JESUITS, A famous religious order in the Ro- 
mi(h church, eilabliflied in the year 1540, un'det' 
the name of the company of JESUS. 

Ignio, otj Ignatius Loyola, a Spanifh gentleman 
of illuftrious rank, was the founder of this order, 
which has made a moft rapid and aftoniftung pro- 
grefs through the world. 

The dosftrinal points which diftinguifh the Jefu- 
its from many others of the Roman communion, 
are as follow : 

I. This order all maintain, that the Pope is 
infallibti ; that he is the only vifible fource of that 
univerfal and unlimited power which CHRIST 
has granted to the church 5 that all Bilhops and 
fubordinate rulers derive from him alone the autho 
rity and jurifdiftion with which they are inverted ; 
and that he alone is the fupreme law-giver of that 
facred community j a law-giver whofe edifts and 
commands it is in the higheft degree criminal to 
oppofe or diiobey. 

II. They comprehend within the limits of the 
church, not only many who live feparate from the 
communion of Rome, but even extend the inheri 
tance of eternal falvation to nations that have not 

?f A? Chriilian Religion, or of 



its divine authqt^ j, and confider as true member? ,-.f 
the church opepjtranfgreflors, who prof efs its doc 

III. The Jefuits maintain that human naturt is 
far from being deprived 'of alt power of doing good ; 
that the./uccours of grace are adminiftered to ail 
mankind in a meafure Sufficient to lead them to eter 
nal life and falva ; tion - y that the operands of grace 
offer no violence to the faculties and 'powers of 
nature, and therefore may be refifted ;-^-and that 
God from all eternity has appointed evtrlafting re 
wards and puniihments, as, the portion of men in a 
future world, not by an '-abfolute^ arbitrary^ and 
unconditional decree, but in confequence of that 
divine and unlimited preference by which he fore- 
faw the aSionSi merits and characters of every in 

IV. They reprefent it as a matter of perfect 
indifference, from what motives men obey the laws 
of God, provided thefe laws are really obeyed : 
and maintain that the fervice of thofe who obey 
from the fear of punimment, is as agreeable to the 
Deity, as thofe adions which proceed from a prin 
ciple of love to him and his laws. 

V. They maintain, that the facraments have In 
themfelves an inftrumentdt and efficient power, by 
virtue of which they work in the foul (indepen 
dently on its previous preparation or propenfities) 
a difpofition to receive the divine grace. 

VI. The Jefuits recommend a devout igno 
rance to fuch as fubmit to their direction, and think 
a Chriflian fufficiently inftrudled when he has lear 
ned to yield a blind and unlimited obedience to the 

ot the church, The' 

j E 8 9* 

The following maxims are faid to be extra&ed 
from the moral writings of this order : 

I. That perfons truly -wicked^ and void of ike 
h*ve of God, may expeft to obtain eternal life in 
Heaven, provided that they Be impfefled with a fear 
of the divine anger, and avoid all heinous and enor 
mous crimes through the dread of Juture punifhmenii 

i[. That thofe perfons may tranfgrefs with fafe- 
ty, who have a probable reafon for tranfgreffing, i. e. 
any plaufible argument or authority in favour of the 
fin they are inclined to commit. 

III. That aftions intrinficdlly evi/, and directly 
contrary to the divine law> may be innocently perfor 
med by thofe who have fo much power over their 
own minds as to join; even ideally, a good end to 
this wicked atfion . 

IV. That pbilo/ophical fin * is of a very light 
and trivial nature, and does not defer ve the pains of 

V. That the tranfgreffions committed by a per-' 
fon blinded by the fedu&ions of tumultuous paffions,, 
and deflitute of all fenfe and impreffion of religion, 
however deteftible and heinous they may be in them- 
felves, are not imputable to the tranfgreflbr before 
the tribunal of God ; and that fuch tranlgreffions 
may be often as involuntary as the actions of a mad* 

VI. That the perfori who takes an oath, or en* 
ters into a contradt a may,' to elude the fofee of the 

N one 

* By philosophical fin, the Jefutti meto, an *flh* contrary tv 
ih* tjiftatet of naturt and right reafon* which Is dont fy a ptrfo* 
it tit&tr abfolvitly ignorant of GOD t &r dw *9t think of 
tht tits* bit affio it 

9* I L L 

one and obligation of the other, add to thfe forni of 
the words that exprefs them certain mental additi 
ons and tacit refervations. 

This entire fociety is compofed of four forts of 
members, viz. Novices, Scholars, fpiritual and 
temporal Coadjutors, and profefled Members, fce- 
fides the three ordinary vows of poverty, chaftity* 
and obedience, which are common to all the mo- 
naflic tribes, the profeffed Members are obliged to 
take a fourth, by which they lolemnly bind them- 
felves to go, without deliberation or delay, where 
ver the Pope fhall think fit to fend them. They 
are governed by a General, tvho has four Affiftants ; 
and the inferiors of this order are required tocon^ 
fider their Chief as infallible, and entirely to re 
nounce their own Will in all things, and abandon 
themfelves blindly to his conduit. 

Mojhcim's Ecchjtafilcal Hiflo^y^ vol. iii. p. 465 ^70. 

t/W. iv p. 354, 355 &c. 
Hffl. of Don Ignatius vol. p 2190. 
Broughton^t Hijlorical Library , vol. i. p. 512* 

ILLUMINATJ, i. e. the EnKtfteneJ, A deno 
mination which appeared in Spain about the year 
3575. They were charged with maintaining, that 
mental prayer and contemplation had fo intimately 
united them to God, they were arrived to fuch a 
flatc of perfection, as to ftand in no need of good 
works, oc the facraments of the church ; and that 
they might commit the groffelt crimes without fin. 

After the fupiffreffion of the llluminati in Spain,' 
there appeared a left in France which took the lame 
name. They maintained, that one Anthony Buc- 
kuet, a Friar, had a fyftem of belief and pradice re 
vealed to him, which exceeded every thing Chrifti- 


IND , 93 

anity had yet been acquainted with ; that by this 
method, perfons might in a {hort time arrive at 
the fame degrees of perfection and glory which the 
Saints and the Bleffed Virgin have attained to ; and 
this improvement might be carried on till our aftions 
became divine, and our minds wholly given up to 
the influence of the Almighty. They faid further, 
that none of the Doctors of the church knew any 
thing of religion ; that St. Peter and St. Paul u ere 
well-meaning men, but knew nothing of devotion ; 
that the whole church lay in darkneis and unbelief ; 
that every one was at liberty to follow the fuggefti- 
ons of his confcience $ that God regarded nothing 
tut himfelf ; and that within ten years their do^rinie 
would be received all over the world, and then 
there would be no more occafion for Priefts, Monks, 
and other fuqh religious difUndlions. 

Brcugktorfs Hiflor leal Library > vol i p 523 524. 

INDEPENDENTS, A denomination of Pro- 
teftants, in England and Holland : they appeared in 
England in the year 1616. John Robinfon, a Nor 
folk Divine, was the leader of this party. They 
derive their narpe from their maintaining, that every 
particular congregation of Chriftians has an entire 
and compleat power of jurifdidlion over its members, 
to be exercifed by the Elders of each church within, 
itfelf, without being fubjedt to the authority of Bi- 
JhopS) Synods, Prejbyferies, or any ecclefiaftical af- 
fembly cocnpofed pf the deputies from different 

The Independents allcdge, that the cburcb of 
Corinth had an entire judicature within itfelf : for 
St. Paul thus addrefles them, DQ not ye judge them 
an witfrw? ift of Cor, v. jx. So they 

*-!>+**> W-oWm^ __. - Wr H- ~- *^ 

2 were 

94 I SB 

were not dependent upon the apoflle to comp ta 
him for a fentence. 

Mofh elm's Ecelejiafltcal Hijiory. vol Iv f p6. 
Rial* i Hifl of tbt Pur it ants. yoi. Hi. j> 1^3. 
Gooawin't Work$ % vot. iv. p. 71. 

INVISIBLES, A name of diftmtfion given to 
the difciples of Gfiander, Flacius, Jllyricus, Swenk- 
{eld, &c. becauie they denied the perpetual vifibility 
f the church. 

Collier'* Hifloflcal 

JOACHIMITES, A feft which appeared about 
the commencement of the thirteenth century ^ fo 
called from Joachim, Abbot of Spra, in Calabria. 

He foretold the deftruflion of thp church of 
|lomc, and the promulgation of a new and more 
ferjeS go/pel in the age o/ tbe Holy Gboft, by a fett 
of poor and auflere minifters, whom God was to 
raife up, and employ for that purpofe. For he 
divided the world into three ages, relative to the 
three difpenfations of religion which were to fug- 
cced each other in it. The two imperfeft ages. 
Viz. the age 6f the Old Teftament, whi^h was that 
of the Father, and the age of the New which was 
under the adminiftration of the Son, were accord 
ing to his predidlions now paft, and the third age, 
even that of the Holy Ghoft, was at hand. 

Mofkeim's Eccttf. Hift. vol. iii, p. 66. 

ISBRANIKI, A fetf which appeared in Ruffia, 
about the year 1666, and affumed this name, which 
fignifies the multitude of the cleft, but they were 
called by their adverfaries, Rolikolfnika, or the ftdi* 
tiom faff ion. They profefled a rigorous zeal for 
letter of the holv fcriptures. 

'^* -~~- *_^*. v .__ A < - ^ 


They maintained,that there is no fubordination of 
rank among the faithful $ and that a Chriftian may 
kill himfelf for the love of Chrift. 

Mojkttrii itid s vol. hf. p. 40$, 

KEITHIANS, A party which fcparated 
from the Quakers, in Pennfylvania, in the 
year 1691. They were headed by the famous 
CJeorge Keith, from whom they derived their name. 
Thofe who perfifted in their feparation,after their 
leader deferted them, pradifed bffiptijtn and rcceiy- 
f d the Lord's Jupper. 

This party were alfo called Quaker -TSaptl ft *+ be? 
aufe they retained the language, drefs and mannert 
of the QuakerSo 

Edwards* Hiji* of the American Baptlfli* p 5;, 56 $7, 60. 

KTISJOLATR^E, A branch of the Monophy- 
fites, which maintained, that the body of Chrift be- 
.(ore his refurreftion, \^as corruptible. 

Mojh*im j t Ecclff. Hifi* wl. i. p. 

LABBADISTS, A fed which arofe in the 
feventeenth century j fo called from their foun 
der John Labbadie, a native of France, a man of no 
mean genius, and remarkable for a natural and mafcu- 
line eloquence. He maintained among other things, 

I. That Qod might, and did, on certain occafions* 

Deceive men. 

II. That the holy fcripture was not fufficicnt to 
lead men to falvation, without certain particular tt+ 

and rwctetion* from the Holy Ghoft. 

96 LAM 

III. That in reading the fcripture we ought to give 
lels attention to the literal ienfe of the words than to 
the inward fuggeftions of the fpirit, and that the ef 
ficacy of the word depended upon him that preach* 
cd it. ^ 

IV. That t t}ie faithful ought to have all things in 

V* That there is no, fubordination or diftin&ion 
in the true church of CHRIST. 

VI. That CHRIST was to reign a thoufand years 
ypon earth. 

VII. That the contemplative life is a ftate of grape 
and union with Go,d,and the very height of perfedlion. 

VIII. Ifhat the Chriftian, whofe mind is content 
ed and calm, fees all things in God A enjoys the Deity, 
and is perfeftly indifferent about every thing that 
paflcs in the world. 

IX. That the Chriftian arrives at that happy ftate 
by the exercife of a perfect felf-denial $ by morti 
fying the flcfh and all fenlual afFcdlions, and by 
inental prayer. 

Mo/btim's Ecelef. H.ifl. vol. s f-6*. 

LAMPETIANS, A fefl in the feventeenth cen 
tury, the followers of Lampetious, a Syrian Monk, 

He pretended that as man is born free, a Chrif 
tian, in order to pleafe God, ought to do nothing by 
neceffity ; and it is therefore unlawful to make vows 1 
even thofe of obediejice. 

To this fyftem he added the doftrines of the An-' 
ans, Carpocrations, and other fefts. [See Arians and 

LMr*ry t vol. ii p 3* 


LU 7 

LIBERTINES, A fedt which arofe in Flanders 
about the year 1525 j the heads of this party were 
One Copin and one Qojntin of Picardy. 

The doctrines they taught are comprifed in the 
following propofitions. 

I. That the Deity was the fole operating caufe iii 
the mind of man^ and the immediate author of all 
human actions. 

II. That, confequcntly; the diftinftions of good 
and wilt that had been eftablifhed with refpeft to 
thofe actions, were falfe and groundlefs, and that 
men could not, properly fpeaking, commit fin. 

III. That religion confided in the union of the 
fpirit or i&tional foul with the fupreme Being. 

IV. That all thofe who had attained this happy 
union, by fublime Contemplation and elevation of 
mind, were then allowed to indulge, without excep 
tion or reftraint, their appetites and paffions, as ail 
their adions were then perfedtly innocent. 

V. That after the death of the body, they were 
to be united to the Deity. 

This feft permitted their followers to call them*! 
felves either Catholics or Lutherans. 

Brovgbton 9 ibid, p, 543, 
Mojbeim's Ecdef, Hift. vol. iv. p. 122, 123. 

LOLLARDS. [Sec Wickliffites] 


LUCIANISTS, So called fromLucianus, a difci- 
ple of Marcion. [See Marcionites and CerdoniansJ 

LUCIFERIANS, A fe<a in the fourth century ; 
fo called from Lucifer, Bifhop of Cagliari > thcj 

9 * LUf 

are faid to hare maintained, that the foul was tfanf- 
fufcd from the-parents to the children. 

tflfl)*ims ibiJ t vol. i. p. 314. 

LtTTHERANS, f hofe who follow the opini 
ons of Martin Luther, an Augufline Friar, who was 
born at Ifleben, in the country of Mansfield, in the 
Circle of Upper Saxony, in the year 1483. He pof- 
lefled an invincible magnanimity, and an uncommon 
vigour, and acutenefs of genius. 

This denomination took its rife from the diftafte 
taken at the indulgences which were granted in 
15*7* by Pope Leo X, to thofe who contributed 
towards finifhing St. Peter's church at Rome. 
Thofe famous indulgences adminiftered remiffion of 
all fins, part, prefent and to come, however enor 
mous their nature, to thofe who were rich enough 
to purchafe them. At this, Luther railed his war 
ning voice ; and in ninety -five propofitions maintained 
publicly ^ at Wittenberg, on tne 3Oth of September, 
in the year 1517, expofcd the doftrine of indulgen 
ces, which led him to attack the authority of the 
Pope j and was the commencement of that memo 
rable resolution in the church 4 whictr is ftiled the 

The capital articles which Luther maintained are 
'as follow ; to which are added, a few of the argu 
ments which are made ufe of in their defence. 

I. That the holy fcripturu are the only fourc$ 
from whence we are to draw our religious fentimcnts, 
whether they relate to faith or practice. 

For, the apoftle declares, 2 Tint), iii. 15, i6 9 .i7 
that, The Jcriptures are able to make us wife unt* 
fatwtion 5 and arc profitable for d<)8rine> Jor 

LUT 9 

proof, for corrttfion, and, for tnflruftion in rigbte- 
oufae/s. To which may be added a cloud of divine 
witneffes to the fame effect. -Prov. i. 9. Ifa. viii. 
20. Luke i. 4, John v. 39 j xx. 31. i Cor, 
iv. 6, &c. 

Reafon alfo confirms the fufficiency of the fcrip- 
tures 3 for if the written word is allowed to be a 
rule in one cafe, how can it be denied to be a rule in 
another ? for the rule is but one in all, and is per- 
fe<5t in its nature. 

If. ThztjttjIificatiM is the effecl of faitb* ex- 
clufive of good works, and that faith ought to pro 
duce good works, purely in obedience to God, and 
not in order to our juftification. * 

For the dodtririe of the gofpel attributeth all 
things to God, and nothing to man. St. Paul in his 
c^iftle to the Galatians, ftrenuoufly oppofed thofe 
whoafcribed our juftification partly to our works. 
He aflerts, that if right eoufnejs come by the law y then 
Chri/i is dead in vain* Gal. ii. 2 r. Therefore it is 
evident we are not juftified by the law, or by our 
works; but to him who believeth, finis pardoned 
and righteoufntfs imputed. 

III. That no man is able to make fatisfaclion for 
his fins. 

For our Lord exprefly tells his difciples, ivben ye 
lave done all y ye are unprofitable fervants. Luke xvii. 
10. Chrift's lacrifice is alone fufficient to fatisfy for fri : 

O and 

* Luther conftantly oppoftd this doftrine to the RomiOi tenet 
That rain, by work* of his own, prayer, faftiag and corporal 
afHAloni, might merit and cUim pardon. He ufed to call rhe 
dodtrine ot juftiication by faith /**, the article of a 
or falling church. 

ibd L U T 

and nothing need be added to the infinite value of 
his merit and fufferings. 

In confequence of the fe leading articles, Luther 
rejected tradition, purgatory \ penance^ auricular con- 
Jeffivn y tnaffes^ invocation of faints^ monaftic vows^ 
and other doctrines of the church of Rome. 

The Lutherans differ from the Calvinifh in the 
following poinis : 

I. The Lutherans have Biihops, and f;iperr,ten- 
dants for the government of the chinch, but thd 
Ecclefiaftical government which Calvin introduced 
was called Prejbyterian> and does not admit of the 
inftitution of Bifliopr, or of any fu bore ination among 
the Clergy. 

II. Th&y differ in their notions of the facixment 
of the Lord's fupper. 

The Lutherans rejeft tranftibftarit<afion\ but af 
firm that the body and blood of Ch.ift are materi 
ally pre'ent in the facrammf^ though in an incom- 
prehertfible manner ; and that they are really exhi* 
bited both to the worthy and unworthy receiver. 

This union of the body and bloocLof Chrift with 
the bread after consecration, is, by the Lutheran^ 
called confutflantiattwf, 

The CahiKt/is hold on the contrary, that the man 
Chrift, is only prefent in this'ordinance, by the cx- 
tel^jal figns cf bread and wine. 

IU> They differ in their doflrine of the eternal 
decrees of God re/petting man's fafoation. The Lu 
therans maintain, that the Divine decrees refpcding 
the falvaticn and mifery of men, are founded upoa 
a previous knowledge of their femimenu and cha- 


L U T loi 

. The Cakini/Js on the contrary, confider 
the Divine decrees a$ Jrte and unconditional. [See 
fL'a-vioiih | 

[For an account of the particulars in which Lu- 
fher differed from Zuingle, fee Zainglians] 

The Lutherans are generally divided into the mo- 
j?erate and the rigiti. The moderate Lutherans are 
thofe who lubmitted to the Interim, * publifhed by 
the Emperor Charles V. Melanchthon ^ was the 
1 -id of this party. They were called Aliaphorifts. 

The rigid Lutherans are thofe who would not 
endure any change in their matter's fentiments. 
Matthias Flacius was the liead of this party. 

To thefe are added another divifion calledLuthero- 
Z -linglians, becaufe they held fome of Luther's te 
nets, a<id fome of Zuinglius's. 

The Lutherans are alfo fubdivided into a variety 
o denominations. [See Amfdorfisns, Calixtins, 
Fiacians, Ofiandrians, Synergifts, and UbiquitariansJ 

[F r an account of the extent of the Lutherans* 
fee Appendix] 

on Ga''atfant> p 14? 144. 
Hiftarj of Pfipery vol. i. p 226. 

Mojhtinft Zcclef fftfl. v*l. Hi p. 331. vol. iv, p. xoS 
Rot ffrt fan's Htflory of Charltt V. vol. li. p. 42. 
Bfitighton'i Htftorictl Library, vol. \\. p. 33, 36* 
fiijlotf of Religion, Number xi, p. 1,21, 128, 
Chrtftian Magaz ne % vol. i. /. 4, 6. ^ 


*. Thi wa a nsm g'vsn to a cooffffi^a r.f fiith ; crj incd 
ttpoa tjie Protgftants aftef the dsath of Luthtr> by tb. Emperor 
Charlei the V:h. It wai f> called, becanfe it V7*.s,on!y to take 
p!cc in the Interim, till a general cotfr,ctl fhould decide all ibc 
pototi in qu:&iou Mwcea ihc CatLoii:? ^Ad ?rotftmti. 

102 M A K 

M. f/ 

MACEDONIANS, A fefl which arofe ia 
the fourth century ; Jo called from Macedo- 
nius, Bifhop of ConOantinople. He confidered the 
Holy Ghoft as a Divine energy diffafed throughout 
the univerfe, and not as a diftinft perlon proceeding 
from the Father and the Son. 

EccU'j' liift. vol. i. p. 346. 

MANICHEANS, A fed founded by one Manes 
or Manicheus, in the third century, and fettled ia 
many provinces, He was a Peifian by birth educa 
ted among the Magi, and himlelf one of the number 
before he embraced Chriftianity. His genius was 
vigorous and lublime, but redundant andungoverned. 
He attempted a coalition of the dodtrine ot the Magi 
with the Chriftian fyfiern, or rather the explication 
of the one by the other ! and in ordef to lucceed ia 
the enterprizc, affirmed that Chrift had left the doc 
trine of lalvation imperie^ and unfiniibed ; and that 
lie was the comforter whom the departing Saviour 
had promifed to his diciples to lead them into all 
truth The principles of Manes are comprehend 
ed in the following fummary. 

That there are two principles from which all 
things proceed : the one, a moft/wr<? andfubtle mat 
ter called Light ; and the other a grofs and corrupt 
fubflance called DarkneU : Each ot thefe are fubject 
to the dominion of a fuperintending Belng^ whole 
exifience is from all eternity : the Being who pre- 
fides over theLigbt is called GOD ; he'that rules the 
land of Darkne/s bears the title of Hyte, or Demon. 
ThtRulcr of theLigbt is fupremely bappy,and in con- 
thereof benevolent and good : the Prince 


M 4 N 103 

of parknefs is unhappy in himfelf, and defiring to 
render others partakers of his milery, is evil and ma- 
lignanu Thefe two beings have produced an im- 
menfe multitude of creatures, refembling them- 
ielves, and diftributed them through their icfpedtive 

The Prince of Darknefs knew not for a long feries 
of ages, that ligbt exifted in the univerie ; and no 
iuoner perceived it by means of a war kindled in his 
dominion?, than he bent his endeavour? towards the 
fubjeding it to his empire. *lbe Ruler of the Light 
oppofed to his efforts an army commanded by the 
fir/I man, but not with the hLJieft iuccefs ; for the 
Generals of the Prince of Darknejs^ feiZwd upon a 
confiderable poruon of the ceieftial elements, and of 
the light iifelf, and mingled ihem in the mafs of cor 
rupt matter. The fecond General of the Ruler of the 
LtgbfiWhofe name was the Living Spirit, made war 
with more fuccefs againft the Prince of Darkne^^ 
but could not entirely difengage the pure particles 
of the celeftia! matters, from the corrupt rjiafs through 
which they had been difperfed. The Prince of 
Darknefs after his defeat, produced the firft parents 
of the human race : the being's engendered from this 
original flock, confift of a body formed out of the 
corrupt matter of the kingdom of Darknejs and of 
two fouls, one of which is /enfitive and luftfulj and 
owes its exigence to the evil principle ; tk\e other 
rational and immortal, a particle of that Divine light 
which was carried away by the army of Darknejs t 
and immerfed into the mafs of malignant matter. 

Mankind being thus formed by the Prince of 
Darknefs i and thofe minds that were the produdti- 
ons of the eternal Light 9 being united to their mortal 




bodies,God created the earth out of the corrupt mafs 
of matter, by that living Spirit who had var,q ( n(hed 
the Prince of Darkne/s. The defign of this crea 
tion was to furnifh a dwelling for the human race, 
to deliver by degrees the captive fouls from their 
corporeal prifons, and to extract the celeftial ele^ 
jcnents frooi ihe grois fubftance in which they 
were involved. In order to carry this defign in 
to execution, God produced two Beings of emi 
nent dignity from his own fubftance, which 
Were to lend their aufpicious fuccours to im- 
prifoned fouls ; one of thefe fublime entities was 
Chrifti and the other the Holy-Gho/t. Chrift is 
that glorious intelligence which the Perfians calledl 
JMytbrai ; he is a moft iplendid fubftance, confifting 
of the brightnefsof the eternal Light : fubfifting in 
and by bimfelf : endowed with life j enriched with 
infinite wifdom ; and his refidence is in the Sun : 
9 ke HQly-Gbofl is alfo a luminous animated body, 
diffufed through every part of the atmofphere, 
which furrounds this tqrreftrial globe. This genial 
principal, warms and illuminates the minds of men, 
renders alfo the earth fruitful, and draws forth gra 
dually from its bofom the latent particles of celeftial 
fire, which it wafis upon hi^h to their primitive 

After that, the Supreme Being had, for a long time, 
admonifhed and exhorted the captive fouls, by the 
ininiftry of the angels and holy men raifed up and 
appointed for that purpofe, he ordered Chrift to 
leave the folar regions and to defcend upon earth, in 
order to accelerate the return of thcfe impriloned 
fpirits to their celeftial country. In obedience to 
|his pivine command^ Chrift appeared among the 



Jews cloathed with the (hadowy form of a human* 
body, and not with the real fubftance. During his 
miniftry, he taught mortals how to dlfengage the* ra 
tional fouls from the corrupt body, to conquer the; 
violence of" malignant matter, and he demonftrated 
his divine miffion by ftupendous miracles : on the 
other hand the Prince of Darknefi ufed every me 
thod to inflame the jews againft this Divine mef- 
fenger, and incited them at length to put him to 
death iipon an ignominious crofsj which punifh- 
ment, however, he buffered not in reality, but only in 
appearance, and in the opinion of men. , When 
Chrift had fulfilled the purpofes of his miffiqn, he 
returned to his throne in the Sun, and appointed a 
certain number of chofen apofttes to propagate 
through the world, the religion he had taught during 
the courfe of his miniflry, 

But before nis departure he promifed, that at 
certain period of time, he would fend an apoftle 
fuperior to all others in eminence and dignity, 
whom he called the Paraclete, or Comjorter, who 
jfhould add many things to the precepts he had de 
livered', and difpel all the errors under which his 

fervants laboured with refped: to Divine things. ^ 

rhis Comforter thus' exprefly promifed by Chrift is 
Manes the Perfian, who by the order of the Moft 
Rigb declared to mortals the whole doctrine of 
falvation without exception, and without concealing 
any of its truths under the veil of metaphor, or any 
other covering. 

Thofe fouls who believe Jefus Chrift to be the 
Son of GOt), renounce the worship of the God of 
the Jews, who is the Prince of Darknefs, obey the 

are enlarged and 


illuftrated by the Comforter, Manes, and combat 
with perfeveriiig fortitude, the lufts and appetites 
of a corrupt nature, derive from this faith and obe 
dience the ineftimable advantage of beir>g gradually 
purified from the contagion of matter/ The total 
purification of fouls cannot indeed *;e accomplished 
during this mortal life. Hence it is, that the fouls 
of men, after death, mult pals through two ftates 
more of probation and trial, by water and fire, be 
fore they can afcend to the regions of tight. They 
mount therefore firft into the Moon, which confiits 
of benign and Jatutary water -, from whence, after a 
luftration of fifteen days, they proceed to the Sun, 
\vhofe purifying fire removes entirely ail their cor 
ruption, and effaces all their ftains. The bodies, 
compofed of malignant matter which they have left 
behind them, return to their firft flate, and enter into 
their original mafs. 

On the other hand, thofe fouls who have negledt- 
cd the falutary work of their purification, pals, after 
death, into the bodies of animals or other natures, 
where they remain until they have expiated their 
guilt and accomplished their falvation. 

Some, on account of their peculiar obftinacy and 
perverfenefs, pafs through a feverer courfe of trial, 
being delivered over, for a certain time, to the power 
of malignant aerial fpirits, who torment them in vari 
ous ways. When the greateft part of the captive fouls 
are reftored to liberty and to the regions of light, 
then a devouring fire (hall break forth at the Divine 
command from the caverns in which it is at prefent 
confined, and (hall deflroy the frame of the world. 
After this tremendous event, the Prince and Powtrs 
of Darkncjs ihall be forced to return to their pri 


. ... ' *- r ., . ; - .. ,', 

fiiitive feats of anguifli and mlfery, In which they 
(hall dwell forever. For to prevent their ever re- 
Dewing this war in the regions of tight ^ GOD (hall 
furround the rnanfions of clarknejs with an invincible 
guard, compofed of thofe louls who have fallen ir 
recoverably from the hopes of falvation, and who 
fet in array like a military band, {hall furround thofc 
gloomy, feats cf woe, and hinder any of their 
wretched inhabitants from coining forth again to 
the tight* * 

, To fupport their f m'damcntal do&rine of twb 
Principle?, the Manicheans argue in this manner r 
If we depend only on one Almighty caufe, infinitely 
go-)d and infinitely free^ who difpofes univerially of 
all beings, according to the pleafure of his will, we 
cannot account f.>r the exigence of natural and moral 
tvi't It the author of our Being is fupremely good, 
he will take continual pleafurc in promoting the 
happinels of his creatures, and preventing every 
thing which can diminifh or difturb their felicity.: 
We cannot therefore explain the evils we experience 
but by the hypothefis of two Principles, for it is im- 
poffible to conceive that the firft man could derive 
the faculty of doing ill from a good principle j 
fince this faculty, and every thing which can produce 
tv\l is vicious, for evil cannot proceed but from a 
bad caufe - 3 and therefore the free-will of Adam 
was derived from two oppofite Principles. He de*- 
|>ended upon the good Principle for his power to 

P perfevere 

* To remove the ftrongeft obftacles to this fyftem, Ma'esrc- 
jca^d the oM Tcftameot, the four G'fpeli, and' the Afls f ih 
Ap^ftlet, and fatd-xhe Epiftle* ot St.*Paul were faifified in a vari* 
ety of pl*c Hs wrote a Gofpcl which he pretended wai didta- 
by Gad fcimfeif, aiid difttoguiihtd ii by the title of 

*o8 MAN 

perfevere in innocence j but his power ta deviate 
from virtue owed its rife to an evil Principle* 
Hence it is evident there are two contrary Principles^ 
the one the lource of good, the other ihe fountain 
of all mifery and vice. 

Manes commanded his followers to mortify and 
macerate the body, which he looked upon as effen- 
tiaily corrupt ; to deprive it of ail thofe objects 
tthich coula contribute either to its conveniency or 
delight ; to extirpate all thole defires which lead ta 
the purfuit of external, objcds ; and to divert them- 
ielves of all the paffions and inftinds of nature, 
ljut he did not impoie this leverc manner of living,- 
without diftinftion upon his adherents,- he divided 
his difciples into two clufks ; the one of which com 
prehended the perfedt Chriflians under the name 
of the Eledt ; and the other the imperfeft and 
feeble, under the title of Hearers. The Elecl 
\vere obliged to an entire abflinence fronl fled), c^gs, 
milk, fi(h, wine, all intoxicating drink, wedlock, 
and all amorous gratifications ; and to live in a 
/late of the fharpeft penury, nourishing their ema- 
tiatcd bodies with bread, herbs, pulfe, and melons. 
The difcipline appointed for the Hearers, was of a 
milder nature : They were allowed to poffds hou- 
fes, lands and wealth, to feed upon flelTi, to entef 
into the bonds of conjugal tendernefs ; but this li^ 
berty was granted them with many limitations, 
and under the fhideft conditions of moderation and 

The General Affembly of the Manicheans was 
headed by a Prefident, who represented JESUS 
CHRIST. There wefe joined to him twelve rulers^ 
or mailer^ v ho were defined toreprefent the twelve 

MAR 109 

; and thefe were followed byftwnfy-fw #/- 
(hop$t the images of the fcventy-two di<cip>ei of our 
Lord. Theie 'Bi&ops had Pre fibers and Deacons 
under them ; and all the members of thefe religious 
prders were chpfen put of the clafs of the Elefl. 

Wofheim's Ecclef. Hift vol. i. p 23^ 24?. 
BaylSs Hiftoticai Dttl&nary, vol. iv /> 2487 2489. 

M4RCELLIANS, A fe6t 5n the fourth century; 
ft called from Marceilus, who held the lentiments 
of the Sabellians. [See Sabellians] 

Bay ltj* i DMtwy. [Ste 

MARGIQN1TES, So called fro 19 Marciqa, a 
difciple ot Cerdo. (For an account of their ienti- 
jnients, fee Cerdonians) , 

MARCOSIANS, A branch of Gnoftics % in th 
fecond century $ their leaders were Marc and Co* 

They taught, that the fupreme God did not 
confift of a Trinity but a Qaaternity, to wit, the 
Ineffable, Silence, the Father, and Truth. They 
fceld two Principles, denied the reality of Chrjft's 
iufFerings, and the refer red ion, of the body : Their 
doctrine concerning the -/Eons was the lame with 
the Valentinia^ns. [See Valentinians] 

Marc maintained that the plenitude and ptrfeftion 
qf Truth refided in the Greek Alphabet ; and ailed - 
ge-d that as the real on why JESUS CHRIST was 
the Alpha, and Omega, 

, >fheim y t Etclf/iaftical Hifliry, vol.1 p. 188. 
nt Hijiorical library^ vol. ii. p. 48. 

MARONITES, Certain Eaftern Chriftians, who 

jphabit near MountLibanus, in Syria. The name is 

P 3 derived 

iio MAS 

derived either from a town in the country 
Maronia, or from St, Maron, who built a monaitr/ 
there in the fifth century. 

This fe& retained the opinions of the Monpthe- 
litcs until the twelfth century, when abindoning 
and renouncing the dodlrineof ens uil> in CHRIST, 
they were re-admhed in the year 1102, to the com^ 
munion of the Roman church. 

As to the particular tenets of the Maronites, be 
fore their reconciliation to the church of Rome, 
they observed ^Saturday as v/Sl as the Sabbath ; and 
held, that all fouls were created together, and that 
thofe of good mert do not enter into Heuvcn lilt 
after the refurredion 5 they added oihcr opinions 
which were fimiiar to the Greek Church. [Sec 
Greek Church] 

Library, vil. ii p 51 
Me ft; rin's Eccl'jiajiicel Hijhry i vol. ii /> 37. 

A kft which arofein the fourth 
century. They derived their name from a Hebrew 
word fignifyihg prayer, it being their diftinguifhing 
tenet, that a man is to pray withwt ceafing, in the 
literal icnfe.oi the words. 

Hereupon they fliunned not only the fociety of 
other men, but renounced all the exterior part of 
religion, the ufage of the facraments and the fafls ; 
dwelt witli their wives and children in the woods, 
t:;id foreils, that they might wait folely snd contin- 
tiriily on prayer. They imagined, that two fouls 
refided in man, the one good the other evii ; and 
taught, that it was impoii':ble to expel the evil dimon 
by any o'>>'- means than by conltant prayer and 
:s : and that, when this malignant 


MEL 211 

(pint xvascaft out the pure *mW ( returned to GOD 3 
anJ was again united to the Divine effnce from 
whence it bad been feparattd. They boafted of 
having perpetual revelations and vifions, and thefe 
they cxpcded particularly in the night. They 
added many opinions which bear a maniieft refem- 
blancc to the Manicheaniy item, "and are derived 
from the fame (ource, even from the tenets of the 
Oriental pbilofapby. 'The authors of this denomi- 
Ration were certain Monks of Mesopotamia. 

'~ Mofhe<m*s Ecclefijf<tcal Htf. vol, \> p, 350, 551. 
Fffrmt/s Rcc'tf Htfl. VPt. I. p. 82. 
lit]} of Religion ,. vtl iv [See 
Baytey't Dictionary voL ii [Sec 

>, The Syrian, Egyptian, an4 
other Eaftern Chriftians in the Xevant ; who, tho 8 
they are nbt Greeks, follow the doctrines of tho 
Greek Church, ^except in lome few points which 
relate only to ceremonies and ecclefiaftical difcipline. 
They were called Melchites, i. e. Royalifts, by 
their adverfaries by way of reproach, on account 
of their implicit fubmiffion to the eJid of the Em 
peror Marcion, in favour of the council of ChalcedooT 

>' 'Mo/helm* s Ecclef Hift. wl. n p 31. 

Hif.orical Diftionaryt vol. ii. [See Melckite ] 

MELECIANS, A feft in the fourth century, fo 
calftd from their leader Melecia,s t Bifhop of Lyco- 
polis in Egypt, 

This Prelate declared with great zeal againffc 
thole Cbriflians, who, having apoftatized, defirecj 
to be reconciled to the Church ; and would not have 
thofe admitted to repentance who fell into Jin? 
though their contrition was ever fo greau 


ju MEN 

The Melecians fattened little bells to the bottom 
of their garments, and fung their prayers, dancing 
all the time j and this they thought a lure means to 
appeaie the wrath of God. 

Brought on* t Hifior'tGal Library^ vol. ii p. 547. 
CAevrtau's, H ft vol. iii p 98. 

MELCHIZEDICHIANS, A led which arofe 
about the beginning of the third century 5 aud affir 
med, thai Melcbizedek was not a man, but a heaven 
ly power fuperior to Jdus ChriiV; forMelchizedek, 
they laid, was the interceffor and mediator ot the 
angels, and jeius Chnlt was only lo for men, and 
hib pritfthood only a copy of that of Melchizedek. 

"1 his denomination was revived in Fgypt by one, 
Jiierax. [See Hieracites] 

of .'it i. and Sciences, vot. iii. f. 2049. 

MELATONI, So called from one Mileto ; who 
taught, that not the foul, but. the body of man, was 
rnade after QOD's image, 

nOfj't View of all Rftfghnt, p. 211. 

MENANDE.RIANS, A feel in the firft century j 
Ip called from IVIenander, a difciplc.of Simon Magu<> 

He pretended to be one of the JEon* fent from 
the Pleroma, or celeftial regions, to fuccour the fouls 
^hat lay groaning under bodily oppreffion and iervi- 
tude, and to maintain them againfi the violence and 
fli&tagems otiticdamom that hold the reins of empire 
in this fublunary world. He baptized his difcipies 
in his own name ; and promifed them after this bap- 
tifm a more eafy victory over the evil fpirits ; and 
that, after this life, they fhould become partakers cf 

? refurredtion of the dead, and of immortality. 

Mojhttm's Ecciff f,'>J?. vol. i p ii6. 
F? ;m/j Etsfe/. H>Ji v-J. t p it. 



, MENNONIT^, A fociety of Baptifa in Hol 
land j io called from Mennon Simoms, ot FriezUnd,* 
who lived in the fixteeathi century. 

It is a univerfal maxim of this denomination, that 
pradical piety is the effence of religion, and that the 
fureijt mark of the true church is the fanitity of its 
members : they all unite in pleading for toleration in 
religion, and debar none from their afiemblies who 
lead pious liv;es and own the fcriptures for the word 
of GOD. They teach, that infants arc not the pro 
per iubje&s of baptifm, and that minifters of the gof- 
pel ought to receive no falary/and that it is not law 
ful to fwear or wage war upon any occafion. They 
al(o maintain, that the terms Perfon and Trinity are 
not to be ufed in fpeaking of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghoft. 

The Mennonites meet privately, and evdry one in 
the affembly has the liberty to fpeak, to expound the 
fcriptures, to pray and fing. They aflemble twice 
every year from all parts of Holland, at Rynfbourg,' 
a village about two leagues from Leyden, at which 
time they receive the communion fitting at a table, 
where the fir ft diflributes to the reft ; and all feds 
are admitted, even the Roman Catholics if they pkafe 
to come. 

The ancient Mennonites" profefled a contempt of 
erudition and fcience : and excluded all ftom their 
eomYftunibn who deviated, in the leaft, from the 
moft rigorous rules of fimplicity and gravity in their 1 
looks, their gefturres, their cloathing, or their table. 
But this primitive aufterity is greatly diminiihed in 
the moft confiderable feds of the Mennonites. Thofc 
who adhere to t&eir ancient diicipline are called 
flemings or Flandrians. 


The Mennonitcg in Pennfylvarria do not bap f ize 
by immerfion, though they adminifter the ordinance 
to none but adult perfons. Their common method 
is ibis the pcrion to be baptized kneels 5 the mi- 
nifter holds his hand: over him, into which the 
deacon pours water and through winch it run$ on 
the crown ot the kneeling perfbn's head after which 
follow impofitiori of hands and prayer. 

SetJtf: Hifi vol. iv./>. rji. 159 161. 
of Atts and ScUt-cst uo( lit f 2037 

/? ;.//////, wi i. p 94. 

a fed which appeared irt Flanders andi 
in the year i 51 r. 1 hey owed their origin 
to an illiterate man whnfe name was Egidius Cantor, 
and to William ot 'Hiidenifon, a Carmelite Monk, 
1 hey pretended to be honoured with celeftial vifion?., 
denied that any. could arrive at perfect knowledge of 
the holy (captures without the extraordinary fuccoura 
of a Divide illumination anddeclared the approach 
of a new revelation from Heaven, more perfect 
than the gofpel of Chrifl :" they faid that the refur- 
redHon was accompliflied in the perfon of J^fus, and 
no other was to be expected, that the inward 
rnan was not defiled by the outward actions what 
ever they were, that the pains of Hell were to have 
an cod, and not only all mankind, but even the De 
vils themfelves, were to return tq.GOD and be mads 
partake; s of eternal felicity. y 

They aHo taught among other things, 
I. That CHRIST alone had merited eternal life 
and felicity for the human race, and that therefore 
men could not acquire this ineftimablc privilege by 
their own actions alone, 

II. Thac 

MET ilj 

. II. That tBe priefts to whom the people cohfcffcd 
their tranfgreflions, had not the power of abfolving 
them, but this authority was veiled in CHRIST, 

III. That voluntary penance nd mortification wai 
foot neceflary to falvation. 

This denomination appear to have been a branch 
bf the Brethren and Sifters of the Free Spirit. 

tj Eccltf. Hift, voL iii. p. 276, 

[See flieracites] 

METHODISTS, This name firft diftingui&ed # 
number of ftiiderits in Oxford College ; who, ini thb 
year 1729, joined in a religious fociety; and agreed 
upon certain methods and rules for f pending their 
time in failing, praying, communicating, viliting the 
fick and the prifoners, inftruding the ignorant, &.] 
and hence they were called Methodifts. 

The Rev. Mr. George Whitefield,- a celebrate^ 
itinerant preacher, became the leader of this deno 
mination : he was a profeffed member of theChurcb 
of England, and maintained the Caivinlflical doc 
trines as exprefled in the articles, of that church. In. 
all his public difcourfes, he infifted largely ori the 
neceffity of regeneration. He maintained that (her 
form of ecclefiaftical worfhip i'nd prayers, whether 
taken from the Common prayer-book, .or poured 
forth extempore, was a matter of indifference, and 
accordingly made ufe of both forms; 

Another party of Methodifts embraced the opi 
nions of the Rev. Mr. John Wefley, who warmlj^ 
oppofed the Calvinifticai do&rines of election arid 
final perfeverance. He maintained that finlefs per- 

if6 MIL 

fedion was attainable in this life : and to prove this 
point, afferted that Mat. V.-28. ought to be tra; fit- 
ted thus, Therefore ye (hall be perfect as your father 
who is in Heaven is perfefl. He a j lo lupported this 
do>.rine from lit of John, iii. 9 Wbojbevef is birn 
of GOD dotb not commit fin ; Jor his (ted aui'ltth in 
him> and be cannvt //, bec^e be is torn cf GOD. 

This fociety obfrrve a love-feuft once a month. 
They have alio a euftom of keeping watch-nigh s, 
i, e. finging, and prajing, and preaching, from eight 
o'clock to twelve. They have this fervice alfo once 
a month. 

The Methodifts, in particular Mr. Whitefield's 
fociety, are at prefent very numerous in England,, 
[bee Appendix] 

Fcrmffs Ecc'ef Hift vol it. /, 268. 
GllUet Sttcceft of the Gcjpel vol h p. 52. 
frhitsfield't fetters, vol i. p. an. 
Wcjlty't Notej % vol. i. p. 331 vol. iii, p 196. 

given to thole who, in the primitive ages, believed 
that the 'faints will reign on earth with Jefus Chrift 
a thoufand years. 

The former appellation is of Latin original, the 
latter of Greek, and both of the fame import. 

The Millenarians hold, that after the coming of 
antichrjft, and the deflrudion of all nations which 
fhdll follow^ there (hall be a firft refurredion of the 
ju(t alone ; that all who (hall be found ujxj)#,arth, 
both good an4 bad, (hall continue alive ;" the good 
to obey the juit who are rifen as their princes ; the 
Dad to be conquered by the juft, and to be fubjedl 
to them : that Jefus Chrift will then defcend from 
Heaven m fas glory ; that the city of Jerufalem will 


MOL 117 

be rebuilt, enlarged, embelifhecl, and its gates ftand 
ppen night and day. They applied to this new Je- 
rufalem what is faid in the Apocalypfe, chap *xj f 
and to the temple, all that is written in Eztkhl^ 
xxxvi. Here they pretended Jefus drift will fix 
the ieat of his empire, and reign a thoufand years 
with the faints, patilatchs and prophets, who will 
enjoy perfect and uninterrupted felicity. 

The Millenarians were divided in opinion ; fome 
pretended that the faints fhould pafs their time in 
Corporeal delights 5 others that they fhould only ex- 
rcile themfelves in fpiritual pleafures. 

Broughton's H tft or ical Library > voL ii. p 93 94. 

MOLTNISTS, So called from Lewis Molina, a 
Spanifh Jeiuit, Profeffor of Divinity in the Univeifity 
of Ebora in Portugal ; who, in the year 1598* pub- 
liftied a book to fiiew that the operations of Divine 
grace were entirely confident with the freedom of 
the human wilt y and who introduced an hypothefis 
to remove the difficulties attending the doctrines of 
predeflinatipn and liberty. 

He aflerted, that the decree of .predeftination to 
Eternal glory, was founded upon a previous know 
ledge and confideration of ihe merits of the elefl ; 
that the grace, from whofe operations thefe merits 
are derived, is not efficacious by its own intrinfic 
power only, but alfo by the content of our own will; 
and becauie it is adrniniftcred in thofe circumftances 
in which the Deity, by that branch of his know 
ledge which, is called Scientia Media^ forefees thai it 
will be efficacious. The kind of prefcience, deno 
minated in the fchools Scientia Media is that fore- 
knowledge of future contingents whMvarifes iron* 

, : - 9,2 


. i 

im acquaintance with the nature and faculties of ra 
tional beings, of the circumftances in which they 
fholl be placed, ot the objects that (hall be prefented 
to them, and of the influence that theie circumftan 
ces and objects mufl have on their aflions. 

Mo/bciw '/ Ecclef. H>ft. vtl. i. p 475, 476. 

MONARCHIANS, A fed which aroie in the 
fecond century; they derived their origin from 
praxeas, a man of genuis and learning. He denied 
any real diftincftion between iheFatier> Son and Hoy 
Chofl ; and maintained, that the father \ fole creator 
of all things, had united to himfelf the human nature 
of CHRIST. Hence his followers were called Mo T 


yhis fedt were alfo ftilcd f atropaffians. 

Mojhtim, ibid y vtl. i, p 190. 

WQNQPHYSITES, A fed which arofe in the 
fifth century. They maintained that the divine and 
Jouman nature of CHRIST were ib united as to form 
only cne nature, yet without any chan^e> con(u/ion, 
or mixture of the two natures. 

Mojb elm's Hid, p 420. 

MONOTHELITES, A fcdl in the fevcnth ccn- 
(ury 5 fo called from the Greek words [monos] and 
{thelosj Their founder was Theodore, Bifhop of 
Pharan, in Arabia, who maintained the following 
dodtrines : 

I. That in CHRIST there were two diftin6t 
natures which were fo united, though without the 
kaft mixture or confufion, as to form by their uni 
on only GDC pcffon. 

II, That 

MON 119 

II. That the foul of Chrift was endowed with 3, 
>yillpr faculty of volition, which it (till retained. after 
its union with the divine nature. 

For they taught that CHRIST was not only per- 
|ed GOD, but yv* endovyed with the faculty of 

III. That this faculty of volition in the foul of 
CHRIST, was not abfbluteiy unaftive, bat that it. 
co-operated with, the divine will. 

IV. That, in a certain fenfe, there was in 
CHRIST but one will and one manner of operation. 

Mo/hcir*'s Ecclef. Hifi. vol. il />. 36. 
Broughton** ftijiorical Library, voL ii. />. 123. 

MONTANISTS, A feel which arofe in the fe- 
qond century ; fo called from Montanus, who pre 
tended, that he was the Paraclete^ or Comforter,* 
which the divine Sayiour at his departure from earth, 
promifed to lend to his difciples to lead them to all 
truth ; and declared that he was fent with a divine 
commiffion to, give to tfee moral precepts delivered 
$y Chrift and his apoftles the finifhing touch that 
was to bring them to perfedion. He was of opi 
nion, that Chrift and his apoftles made, in their 
precepts, many Allowances to the infirmities of thofe 
3tnong whom they lived, and that this condefcend- 
ing indulgence rendered their fyftem of moral laws 
imperfea and incomplete. H[e therefore inculcated 


* Montanui i^ade a diftinaion bctweea the Paracltts promifed 
Jby Chrijl to hit apoftlei, ard the Holy Spirit, which was toed up r 
oh them on the diy of Penticoft, and undcrftood by the former, a 
divine teacher pointed out by Chrift ucder the name of Paraclfte. 
or Comforter, who wt$ to perf<& the gofpel by the addition o 
fome do^riaes omitted by our Saviour. It wai this divine mef- 
fwgcr which M^gjmus pr$tcg4c4 to \ 

X20 MOR 

the neceffity of multiplying fafts ; prohibited fccond 
marriages as unlawful ; maintained that the church 
fhould refufe abfolution to thpfe who had fallen in 
to the commiffion of enoroious fins ; and condemn 
ed all care ol the body, eipecially all nicety of drels, 
and all female ornaments. He alfo gave it 35 his 
opinion,that philofophy^ arts, and whatfoever favour 
ed of polite literature, fhould be banifhed from the 
hriftian church. 

He looked upon thofe Chriftiansas guilty of a 
xnoft heinous tranfgreffun, who faved their lives by 
flight, from the perfecuting fword, or who ran- 
fomed them by money, from the hands of their 
cruel and mercenary judges. 

This feel were firft caljed Cataphrygoans, front 
the place where they had their firft principal abode ; 
they were alfo filled Pepuzians, hecaule Montana^ 
lived in a Phrygian village, called Pepuza. 

Moflesm's Ecdef Rift. vol. i. p. 193 
F*rme/j Ecctcfiejlical Hifiorj, vol. i. p. 4 8 

MORAVIANS, A name given to the fHfow- 
ers cf Nicolas Lewis, Count of Zinzendorf ; who ia 
the year 1721, fettled at Bartholdorf, in Upper 1 u- 
fatia. 1 here he made profelytes of two or three 
Moravian families, and having engaged them to leave 
their country, received them at Bartholdorf. They. 
were directed to build a houfe in a wood, about 
hajf a league from that village, where, in 1722, 
this people held their firft meeting. 

This fociety encreafed fo faft, that in a few years 
they had an orphan houfe and other public buildings, 
An adjacent hill, called the Huth-Berg, gave thcj 
^olonifts occafioa to call this dwelling place Heren- 

huih : 

MO it 

fmth $ which may be interpreted, the guard, or 
protection of the Lord : hence this fociety are fome- 
times called Hcrrenhuttets. 

The following doftrines are maintained by this 
denomination, to which is added a fhort fpecimeit 
of the arguments they make ufe of in defence o 
their fentiments : 

I. That creation and fan&ification ought not id 
be afcribed to the Father, Son and Holy Ghoftj 
but belongs principally to the Saviour : and to avoid 
idolatry, people ought to be taken from the Father 
and Eioly Ghofl $ and be firft directed fingly to 
Jefus, who is the appointed channel of the Deity. 

For , the eflence of God; both Father, Son and 
Holy Ghoft, is a depth fo unfathomable, that ia 
contemplating it we may ruin our intelle&ual facul 
ties, and yet not be able to fprmone juft expreffioh 
concerning this miftery, yet we can have all the gifts 
"and effects of their offices, through him who is daily 
"agent between God and man. 

II. That Chrift has not conquered as God but as 
man, with precifely the lame powers We have to 
that purpofe. 

For as his Father affifted him he afliff s us ; the on 
ly difference is, it was bis meat and drink to do the 
will. of bis Father who is in Heaven. 

III. That the law ought not to be preached under 
the gofpel difpenfation. 

for Paul is very exprefs, that the meffengers of 

Chrift are not appointed for the miniftration of the 

letter, ad of Cor. iii. 6. Therefore, the method of 

preaching the gofpel is alone to be preferred. 



IV. That the children of God have not to combat 
with their own fins, but with the kingdom of cor 
ruption in the world. 

For the apoftle declares, that fin is condemned in the 
fefh. Rom. viii. 3 : and our marriage with it dif- 
folved,through the body of Chriit, the Lamb of God*, 
tvho has undergone this Conflidt once for all, and 
inftcad of all. 

The Moravians affert, that faith confiftsin a joy 
ful perfaafion of our intereft in Chrift, and our 
tide to his purchafed falvation. 

They deny the Calvini/lical doftrines of particular 
redemption , and final perseverance ; . 

This denomination have eftabliflied among theni- 
felves a fort of dilcipline, which clofelv unites them 
to one another, divides them into different ctaffes, 
puts them under an entire dependence of their fu- 
periors, and confines them to certain exercifes of de 
votion, and to the obferving off different little rules. 

The church at Fferenhuth is fo divided, that firft 
the hufoands, then the wives, then the widows, then 
the maids, then the young men, then (he boys, then 
the girls, and laftly the little children, are in 10 many 
diftinft claffes : each of which is daily vifited, the 
married men by a married man, the wives by a wife, 
and fo of the reft. Each clafs has its dire&or chofen 
by its members, and frequent particular affemblies 
are held in each clafs, and general ones by the whole 

The members of each clafs are fubdivided into 
people, who are dead, awaked, ignorant, willing 
dilciples, and difciples who have made a prflgre/s. 
Proper affiftance is given to each of thefe fubdivi- 

- -^ t - - if -*^ .- _* . . ,.,., *% 



fions ; but above all, great care is taken of thofe 
who are ipiritually dead. 

The Elder, the Co-elder, the Vice-elder, fu- 
perimend all the claffes. There are likewife Infor 
mers by office, fome of them known, ibme kept 
iecret, befides many ether employments, and titles 
too tedious to enumerate. 

A great part of their worfhip confifts in finging z 
and their fongs are always a connected repetition of 
thole matters which have been preached juft before. 

At all hours, whether day or night, fome perfons 
of both #re appointed by rotation to pray for 
|he iociety. 

When the brethren perceive that the zeal of the 
fociety is declining, their devotioi) is revived by cele-< 
brating agapes, or love-feafts. 

The carting of lots is much praflifed among them. 
They make ule of it to learn the mind of the Lord. 

TheElders have the fole right of making matches. 
No premife of marriage is of any validity without 
their conient. 

This denomination aflert, that they are defcended 
from the ancient ftock of the old Bohemian and Mo 
ravian brethren, who were a little church fixty years 
before the reformation, and fo remained without in 
fringement till that time, retaining their particular 
ecclefiaftical diftipline, ^nd ]tbeir own Bilhops, El 
ders and Deacons. 

Rimini's Hiftory of the Moravianr t p, 161 1 8 19. 

Moravian Maximf p. 18, 20. 44, 45, ^7> 8$ 

Zinztnttorfs Strmont t p. 200. 

Manual of Dcfirine p 9 

Gillie*! Svectfj nf the Gofpcl, vol. ii./. 66.* 

pickinfon'i Letter t, P 169 


M V S 

MUGGLETONIANS, A feft which arofe iri 
England about the year 1657 ; fo denominated from 
their leader Lodowic Muggleton, a journeyman 
taylor ; who, with his afibciate Reeves, fet up for 
great prophets, pretending, as it is faid, to have an ab- 
folute power of laving and damning whom they 
pleafed ; and giving out that they were the two laft 
witneffes of GOD, who (hbuld appear before the 
end of the world. 

They denied the doctrine of the Trinity & affirm 
ed, among other things, that GOD the Father, leav 
ing the government of Heaven to Elias, came down 
and fuffered upon earth in an human form. 

D'flionary of /litt and Scisncet, vot. iii. p. 2T<59- 
Collitr'g Hijlorical Dittionary> vol. iii. [See Mu^gtetoni^n ] 

MYSTICS, A fe<3 which appeared in the third 

century, diftinguifhed by their profeffing a pure, /u- 

4nime^ and perfeft devotion, with an entire difinte- 

refted love of GOD, and by their afpiring to a (late of 

paflive contemplation. 

The firft promoters of thefe fentiments proceeded 
from the known dodlrine of the Platonic ichool, 
that the Divine nature was diffujed through alt hu 
man fouls, or in other words, that the faculty of rea- 
Jon> from which proceeds the health and vigor of 
the mind, was an emanation Jr cm GOD into the hu 
man foul, vfid comprehended in it the principles and 
dements of ail truth, human and divine. 

*f hey denied that men could, by labour or ftudy,' 
excite this celeftial flame in their breads, and there 
fore they difapproved highly of the attempts of thofc 
who by definitions, abftradl the orems, and profound 
fpeculations, endeavoured to form diftinft notions of 


N A Z i$ 

(ruth, and to difcover its hidden nature." On the 
contrary, they maintained that filewce, tranquility> 
repofe and jolitude^ accompanied with fuch ads of 
mortification as might tend to extenuate and exhauft 
the body, were the means \>y which the hidden and 
internal 'word was excited to produce its latent vir 
tues, and to indraft men in the knowledge of Divine 
things. For thus they reafoned ; 

They who behold, with a noble contempt, all hu 
man affairs, who turn away their eyes from terref- 
trial vanities, and fhut all the avenues of the outward 
fenfes againft the contagious influence of an outward 
world, muft neceflarily return to GOD, when the 
ipirit is thus difengaged from the impediments which 
prevent this happy union ; and in this bleffed frame 
they not only enjoy inexpreffible raptures from their 
Communion with the Supreme Being, but alfo are 
inverted with the ineftimable privilege of con- 
^emplating truth undifguifed in its native purity, 
while others behold it in a vitiated and delufive : 

The apoftle tells us, that ttefpirit makes intercef- 
fion for us, &c. Now if the ifpirit prays in us/ we 
muft refign ourfelves to. its motions, and be fwayed 
and guided by its impulfes by remaining in a ftate of 
mere inaction. 

Mo/ktim's Ecclef* Hift. vol. t. p. 222^23^ 
Diflionary of Arts and Sciences- vol. Hi /> ' 

vol. iv, [5 


NA Z A R E A N S, A name originally given 
to all Chriftians in general, on account that 
Mijs Chrift vyas of the city Qf Nazareth > but after- 

R 2 wards 

N E S 

wards it was rcflrained to a fcft in the firft and fe- 
condcentuty, which blended Chriftianity and Juda- 
ifm together. They held, that CHRIST was born 
of a virgin, and was alfo in a curtain manner united 
to the Divine nature. They reiulcd to abandon the 
ceremonies prefcribed by the law of Mo/es, but were 
far from attempting to impofe the oblervance of 
thefe ceremonies upon the Gentile Chriftians.* 
They rejeded alfo all thofe additions that were made 
to the Mofaic inihtutions by the Pharifees and Doc 
tors of the law. 

Like the Ebionites, this denomination made ufe 
of a gofpel which was called indiscriminately, the 
gofpel of the Nazarites or Hebrews -j* 

Mojhtim't Ecelef. Ht/f. vol. i p. 173. 
Brougktorfs Hiftoric&l Lilrarj % vol. ii j>. 15$. 

NEONOMIANS, So called from the Greek 
[neos] new, and [nomos] law> Cgnifying a new taw, 
bccauie this denomination maintain, that the gcl- 
pei is a new law> the condition whereof is imperied, 
though fiucere, and perfevering obedience. 

Chauxcy's Netnowianifm IJnmaJked. 

KESTORIANS, A feft which arofe in the fifth 
century ; to called from Neftorius Bihup of Con- 

This denomination maintain, that the union of 
CJ:> rift* t divinity with his humanity , is an union ot U7//, 
operation and benevttente* For the Divine word is 


* fjith'f rfp,*#, ^i well f i in forae othf n. th"t 
6iftired from ihe E^iooites ;' tor ihty rtceivtd both ihc Old and 
New TcAMDcnc. fbte Ebiocites] 

t Thff U foppoftd by fomc to be the gofptl St. Paul rcfcn to 
In Ga). i, 4. 

N O E 

perfect in his nature and perfon. The huwan nature 
united to him> is likewile a perfeft humanity in its 
nature and perfon : neither of them is changed, or 
undergoes any alteration. Therefore there are two 
perjons in Jejut Chrift, and two natures united by 
one operation and will. 

Neftorious afferted, that though the Virgin Mar) 
was the mother of Je/us Cbrift as a man, yet flic 
was not the mother of GOD, becaufe no human 
creature could impart that to another which (he did 
not poffefs herfelf. 

The generality of Cbriftian* in the Levant go 
under this name, 

tiayuy's Diflitnary. vol ii, ?te Nefl*r\ans\ 
Memoirs of Literature, vol. v. p. 137. 

NICOLAITANS, A fe<3 in the firft century ; 
fo called fromNicolas, one of the firft feven Deacons 
of Jerufalem. 

They made no difference between ordinary meats 
and thofe offered to idols ; allowed a community 
of wives, and indulged themielves in all fcnfual plea- 
fures without reftraint. 

Dunn's Church Hi/tory> Vol, I . p. 3. 
Broughton's HiJiortCAl Library, vol. ii. /. 170* 

NOETIANS, A (eft which arofe in the third 
century, followers of Noetus, wh pretended that 
* he was another Mofes fent by God ; and that his 
brother was a new Aaron. 

He affirmed, that the fupreme God, whom be 
called the Father, and confidered as abfolutely indi- 
vifible, united himfelf to the man CHRIST, whom 
he called the Son, and was born and crucified with 
him, from this ppinion JXottv* and his followers 


N O V 

were diftinguilhed by "the title of Patripaffions, i. . 
perfons who believe that the fupreme Father of the 
univerfe, and not any other divine perfcn had expi 
ated the guilt of the human race. 

Mojkcim's Eccltfiaflical Htftory> vol.i. 246 247. 
BroughtorCt Htjloricai Library^ vol. n. p. 172. 

NOVATIONS, A feft in the third century $ 
they derive their name from their founders, Novat 
and Novation $ the firft a Prieft of the church of 
Carthage, the other of that o^f Rome u 

This denomination laid it down for a fundamen 
tal tenet, that the church of Chrift ought to be pu*e 
and free from every ftain ; and that the finner who 
had once fallen into any offence, could not again 
become a member of it, though they did not reiufc 
him the hopes of eternal life. 

Hence they looked upon every fociety which re 
admitted thofe te their communion, who after bap- 
tifrn had fallen into heinous crimes, as unworthy 
the title of a Chriftian church. 

They feparated from the Church of Rome, be- 
caufe they admitted to communion thofe who had, 
fallen off in tirpe of perfecution, which opinion 
they founded on Heb. vi. 6. They obliged fuqh 
as came over to them from the general body of 
Chriftians, to (ubmit to baptifm a fecond time, as 
a neceflary preparation for entering into their 

This denomination alfo condemned fecond mar 
riages, and denied communion forever to fuch as 
gfter baptifm married a fecoc;d time 

diti 12$ 

Tjiey afiumed to themfelves the title of Catbari* 
i. e. the pure. 

Format Ecclejtaflical Hlflorf^ vol. i. p t 4. 

Mofbeim's ibid, vol. i. p 2o, 251. 

ffift. of ReH&hn, vyl. iv. [See Novations'] 

Broitghton's Hiftorical Library > vol. ii. / 17 j 


OPHITES, A fe<3 which appeared in the* 
fecond century ; whofe leader was called Eu 
phrates. They derive their name from their main 
taining the fdllowiog tenet, viz. That the ferpent 
by which our firft parents were deceived, was either 
Chrift himfelf, or Sophia, concealed under the form 
of that animal : and in confequence of this opinion^ 
they offered a fubordinate kind of Divine vtfof (hip to 
a certain number of ferpents, which they nourilhed 
and efteemed facred. 

It is faid they kept a live lerpent in a kind of cage^ 
/U certain times they opened the door, and called 
the ferpent. The animal came out, and mounting 
upon the table, twined itfelf about fome loaves of 
bread. This bread they broke, and diftributed 
among the company, who all tiffed the ferpent. 
This they called their Eucbarift. 

Their other opinions were fimilar with the reft of 
the Egyptian Gnoftics. [See Gnoftics] 

B*oughtoni ibid. p. 191. 

Mojhcim j s Ecclcf, Hi ft. vol. I. p, 189, 190. 

ORIGINISTSi A denomination which appeared 
in the third century, and derived their opinions from 
the writings of Origen, a Prefbyter of Alexandria, 
and a man of vaft and uncommon abilities, who 
interpreted the Divine truths of religion according to 


130 O R I 

the tenour of the Platonic philofophy : He alledged, 
that the fource of many evils lies in adhering to the 
literal and external part of fcriptwe ; and that the 
true meaning of the facred writers was to be fought 
in a myfterious and hidden lenfe, arifing from the 
nature of things themfelves. 

The principal tenets afcribed to Origin, together 
with a few of the reafons made ufe of in their de 
fence, are comprehended in the following fammary. 

I, That there is a pre-exiflent ftate of human 

For the nature of the foul is fuch as makes her 
capable of exiting eternally backward as well as 
forward : for her fpiritual effence, as fuch, makes it 
Jmpoffible that {he ihould either through age or 
violence be diflblved, fo that nothing is wanting 
to her exiftenee but his good pleafure from whom 
all things proceed j and if according to the Platonic 
fcheme, we affign the produ&ion of all things to the 
exuberant f ullnefs of life in the Deity, which thro' 
the bleffed neceffity of his communicative nature 
empties itfelf into all poffibilities of being, as into 
(o many capable receptacles, we muft fuppofe her 
jcxiftence in a fenfe neceffary, and in a dtgrce co-eter 
nal with God. 

II. That fouls ^rere condemned to animate mor 
tal bodies, in order to expiate faults they had com- 
mitted in a pre-exiftent ftate. 

For we may be affured from the infinite goodnefs 
of their Creator, that they were at firft joined to 
to the pureft matter^ and placed in thofe regions of 


Origin fuppofed that our fonls b'ing incorporeal and inv.fible 
Iways hand in need of buUici fuiutic 10 (Uc BIlUUC o 

vherc they c*ift. 

ORI * 3 'f 

the nniverfe which were mod fultable to the purity of 
cffence they then poffefled : for that the fouls of men 
are an order of effentially incorporate fpiritSjtheir deep 
irnmeriioninto terre/fial matter y the modification of alt 
their operations by it, and the heavenly body promi- 
fed in the gofpel, as the higheft perfection of our 
renewed nature, clearly evinces. Therefore, if our 
fouls exifted before they appeared inhabitants of the 
earth, they were placed in a purer element, and en 
joyed far greater degrees of happinefs, and certainly 
he, whole overflowing goodneis brought them into 
exigence, would not deprive them of their felicity, 
until, by their mutability, they rendered themfelves 
lefs pure in the whole extent of their powers, and 
became difpofed for the fufception of fuch a degree 
of corporeal life as was exactly anfwerable to their 
preient difpofition of fpirit : hence it was necefTiry 
that they fhould become terrefirial men. 

III. That the JouJ of CHRIST was united to the 
word before the incarnation.* 

For the fcriptures teach us, that the foul of the 
Meffiah was created before the beginning of the 
world : fee Phillipians ii. 5, 6, 7. This text muib 
be underftood of Chrifl's human foul, becaufe it is 
unuiual to propound the Deity as an example of hu 
mility in fcripture. Though the humanity of Cbrifl 
was fo God-like, he emptied himfel'f of this fulnefs 
of life and glory to take upon him the form of a Itr- 
<uant. It was this Meffiah who converfed with the 
Patriarchs unc?er a human form : it was be who ap 
peared to Mofes upon the holy Mount : it was he 
who fpoke to the prophets under a vifible appear- 

S ance : 

* Sec this jfuhUa mere fully illuflratcd in Dr. Wau'i Giorj of 


ance : and it is he who will at laft come in triumpfi 
Upon the clouds, to reftore the univerfe to its pri 
mitive fplendor and felicity. 

IV. That at the refurredion we (hall be cloathed 
with etherial bodies. 

For the elements of cur terrefirial compositions 
jtre fuch as almoft fatally entangle us in vice, paffion 
and mifery : the purer the vehicle the foul is united 
with, the more perfeft is her life and operations ; 
betides, the Supreme Goodnefs, which made ail 
thtngs, affures us, he made all things bed at firft ; 
and therefore his recovery of us to our loft happinefs, 
(which is the defign of the gofpel) muft reflore us to 
our better bodies and happier habitations ; which is 
evident from ift of Cor, xv. 49. ad of Cor, v. i, 
and other texts of Icripiure. 

V. That after long periods of time, the damned 
be releafed from their torments, and reftored 

to a new ftate of probation* 

For the Deity hks fuch refcrves in his gracious pro- 
iridence, as will vindicate his fovereign goodnefs and 
wifdom from all difparagement. Expiatory pains 
are a part ot his adorable plan ; for this fharpet 
kind of favour has a righteous place in fuch 
creatures as are by nature mutable. Though fin 
has extinguifhed or filenced the Divine life, it has 
not deftioyed the faculties of reafon and underftand- 
ing, confideration and memory, which will ferve 
the life v^hich is moft powerful, if therefore the 
vigorous attraction of the fenfual nature be abated 
by a ceafelels pain, thefe powers may refume thr 
iccds of a better life and nature. 

o s i 133 

As in the material fyftem there Js a gravitation of 
the lefs bodies towards the greater, there muft of 
fieceffity be fomething analogous to this in the intel- 
ledluai fyftem ; and fince the fpirits created by GOD 
are tmar.atiom and ftreams from his own afyfs of 
being ; and as felf-exiflent power muft needs fubjeft 
all being* to iffelf\ the Deity could not but iniprefs 
upon their intimate natures and fubftances, a central 
tendency towards himfelf, an effential principle of 
re-union to their great original. 

VI. That the earth, after her conflagration, fliall 
become habitable again, and be the manfion of men > 
and other animals, and that in eternal viciffitudes.- 

For it is thus expreffed in ifaiah, Behold 1 make 
new heaven* and a new earthy 8cc, and in Heb. i. 
10, .11, 12, Lord in the beginning ha/l laid 
the joundat ions of the earth 5 as a ve/iure fkalt thw 
change them and they (halt be changed , &c. Where 
there is only a change the fubftance is not deftroyed ; 
this change, being only as that qf a garment worn 
out and decaying : the fafoion of the world paffes 
away like a turning fcene, t;o exhibit a frefh and 
new reprefentation of things ; and if only the pre- 
fent drefs and appearance of things goes off, the iub* 
ftance is fuppofed to remain entire. 

Mi/heim 9 * Ecclejtaftical Hift. vol. I- p. 219, 22 j. 
CK.Iwrtk'j Intellefiual Syftem, vol. ii. p. 818. 
The Phoenix. voL i. p. 16, 17, 18, 28, 29, 31, 32, 

46 47, 49 50, 56 57. 

Cheyne*sPbil*fophicalPrincipiesofReligi9n, p. 47,84. 
Travels of Cyrus t / 235* 238. 

OSIANBRI&NS, A feft among the Luthfrans, 
which was founded in the year i ^50, by Andrew 
Ofiander, a celebratedGerman divine, whole dodtrine 
amounted ta the following propofiuons, 

S 2' L That 


I. That Chrift, confidered in his human nature 
cnly, could not by his obedience to the di? ine law 
obtain juftification and pardon for finners, neither 
can we bz juflified before God by embracing and ap 
plying to ourlcives, through faith, the rigbteoulnej* 
and obedience of the man CHRIST. It is only 
through that eternal and eflential righteoufne^ which 
dwells in Chrift confidered as God, and which re- 
fides in his divine nature, that is united to the human, 
that mankind can obtain compleat jaftification. 

II. That man becomes a partaker of this divine 
righieoufntfc by faith ; fince it is in confluence of 
this uniting principle that Chrift dwells in the heart 
of man, with his divine righteoufnefs ; now whcre- 
cver this divine righteoufnefs dwells, there God can 
behold no fin, and therefore, when it is* pre/ent 
\vith Chrift in the hearts of the regenerate, they are, 
OR its account, confidered by the Ddry as righteous^ 
although they be finners. Moreover, this dmitie 
2nd juflifying rigkfecufaffs of Chrift, excites the 
faichtul to the purfuit of holinefs, and to the prac 
tice of virtue. 

*'* Ecclffiafiical Hifi**y, vsl iw p. A 6 

OSSENIANS, A feft in thefirft century, which 
taught, that faith may and ought to be diflembled. 

Du/rtfnoyj Chfo*&lcgical Tables i vol. ii p. 19;. 

PAPISTS, So called from their adhering to 
the Pope, whofe fupremacy is faid to have been 
cftablifhed in the eleventh century. 

The word Pope is derived from the Greek of 
f papa] which fignifies a father ; hence he is filled 
the Father of the Church. The 


The principal points which diftingui(h the l?apift$ 
from the Proteftants, together with a few of the 
reafons they bring to iupport their fentiments, arc 
comprifed in the following furnmary : 

I. That St. Peter was defigned by Chrift to be 
the head of the church ; and the Bishops of Romo 
being his lineal fucceffbrs, have the iame apoftolic 
authority ; and that the Roman church is the j0- 
ther and mi/irel*. of all churches* 

For our Saviour declares, in Mat. xi. 18, 7te 
art Peter ; and upon ibis rack will 1 build my church : 
Therefore the church is built upon Peter. * 

A fucceffion in the church is now ncceffary in the 
New Teitament, as Aaron had his fucceffion in the 
Old ; but there can be no certain fucceffion now 
fhewed, but in the choir of St. Peter, at Rome : 
Therefore the Biihops of Rome are the true fuo 
ceffors of Peter. 

The church of the Old Teftament was a figure 
of the church under the New ; but they had a High 
frieft above the reft ; therefore the Pope is fuperior 
to other Bifhops. 

II. That the fcnptures are Rot fufficient with 
out traditions : and that their approved traditions 
are of equal authority with the fcrip tares. 

For there are divers books of canonical fcripture 
loft ; for mention is made of the books of Nathan 
and Gad, ill of Chron. xxix, 29. And in 2d of 


* The general doarioe of rbe Chorch ofRtmt, it that Pctr was 
not ooly applaud by our Saviour, the chief of the ApoftJes, and 
he^d f<f theUnivfrfalCbwrcb.but that after having been feren year* 
E:(hop at dntiock he cams to Rome, where he wu Bift->p tweoty- 

jcars, a&d jTufcrcd martyrdom uudcr the Emperor 

I 3 8 PAP 

Chron. ix. 29, of the books of Abijah and Iddo ^ 
and in the New Teftament Col. iv. 16, of the epi- 
file of Paul to the Laodiceans : all thofe books are 
loft : therefore that part of fcripture which remain- 
eth is not fufficient. 

We are direfted in ad. of Theff, ii. 15, to 
keep the traditions wbicb we have been taught ^ whe 
ther by word or by epiftle ; therefore there are tra 
ditions of equal authority with the fcripture. 

III. That the Catholic Church cannot poffibly 
err : but is not only infallible in all things neceflary 
to falvation, but alfo in any thing it impofeth and 
commandeth, even if it is not contained in the word, 
of God. 

For the Church has the fpirit of God to kad it 
into all truth : the gates of Hell fiall not prevail 
^gain/I it. Mat. xi, 18. Chrift hath prayed for 
the Church, that it might be fanftified in the truth. 
The Church is without Jpot or wrinkle. Eph. v. 27. 
Therefore the Church cannot err. 

IV. That there are feven facraments inflituted 
by Jefus Chrift, viz. Baptifm, Eucharift, Confir 
mation, Penance, Extreme Unflion, Orders, and 
Marriage \ and that the facraments have power to 
confer grace. 

I. To prove that Confirmation, or impofition of 
hands is a facrament, the Papifts argue from Adts 
viii, 17. They did lay their hands upon them, and 
they received the Holy Gbofl. This impofition of 
hands, together with the prayers here fpecified, was, 
no doubt, the facrameut of Confirmation : for here 

A P 


is an outward figri, and a fpiritual grace j therefore, 
Confirmation is a facrament.* 

II. Penance includes in it, contrition and pain 
ful forrow of heart, confeffion to the Prieft, and fatis- 
fkaion to GOD for our fins : and Chrift inftituted 
this facrament when he breathed upon his apoftlei 
after his rcfurrediofi, and faid unto them, receive 
ye the Holy Ghoft ; who/e fin* ye remit, are re- 
tnitted ; ivtofe fins ye retain^ are retained : John 
xx. 22. The faculty of the priefthood confiding in 
remitting of (ins, is here beflowed upon the apoftles 
and their fucceffors therefore Penance h x truly and 
properly a facrament. 

III. That Extreme Unftiori, or anointing the fick 
with oil is truly a facrament, is evident from James 
v. 13. I* any lick among you> let him call J or the El 
der s of the church , and let them pray over him t 
anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord* 
Here is a remiflion of fins promifed upon anointing 
the fick with oil ; therefore it is a facrament. 

IV. That Holy Orders is a facrament appears from 
ift of Tim. iv. 14. Defpije not the gift which w#s 
given thee r through prophecy, with the laying on oj 
hand*. Holy Orders give grace by an external ce 
remony and work ^ therefore Holy Orders is a facra* 

" V. That Marriage is a facrament is evident front 
Eph. v. 32. TBis is a great my fiery. Matrimony is 


* Tie Church of Rome maintain, that Confirmation is that 
tohich makes us perfcft Chrifttans t the Prieft a&nioifters th*x 
ceremony after Baptifm, by ftrikiog confecrated oil and balm, 
in the manner of a crofs upon the forehead of him who is to be 
confirmed ; and pronounces thefc words, I fign thee with the 
,J*g n 9 f f t> ff eroff, and confirm the chrifm of falvatioji ia the name 
f I ihc Fathsri Son and Holy Ghoft. 

138 PAP 

here a fign of an holy thing reprefentin^ the conjunc 
tion of Chrift, and his church j therefore it is a fa- 

VI* That in the mafs there is offered unto GOD 
a true and propitiatory Sacrifice for the quick and 
dead, and that in the facrament of the Eucharill, 
under the forms of bread and wine, is really and tub- 
ftantially prefent the body and biood> together with 
the lout and divinity of our Lord Jeius Chrift : and 
that there is a conversion made of the whole jubilance 
ot the bread into his body, and of the wine into his 
bloody which is called tranfubfkantutiion* 

For, fay they, Chrift, in the inftitution of this fa 
crament, faid to his apoftles, <1 his is m fodp: that 
is, that which is contained under the form of this 
bread is my very body, ift of Cor. x. 16. Chrift 
transfigured his body marvelloufly on the Mount. 
Mat. ix. therefore, he is able to exhibit his body un 
der the forms of bread and wine. 

VII. That the laymen and clergy not faying mafs, 
(hall receive the Eucharift in one kind, that is, in 
bread only ; and that it is not lawful for them to 
communicate in both. 

For it is faid, John vi. 57. He that eateth me Jball 
Jive by me. But Chrift is eaten only under the fojya 
of bread; therefore under the form of bread whole 
Cbrift is prejent. 

VIII. That there is a Purgatory, in which fouls 
are cleanfed byjire before they can be received into 


f NotwithfUndiog thii, thty CDJOIQ the celebacy r.f the clergy, 
pretebd it was ei joined upon them AS (fee co&djlicn of 
cvca frc ;bc apoftollc jigc. 

PAP 13 

lleaven, and thai fouls kept prisoners there, do re 
ceive help by the fuftrages of the faithful.* 

For it is faid in ift of Cor. iii. i 5. // any marts 
work fljall be burned, he fhaU jufier Jojs ; but he him- 
jetyiball be laved ; yet fo as by fire : which, fay they, 
may be underftood of the flames of Purgatory. 

IX. That the faints reigning together with Chrift 
are to be worfhipped sind prayed unto ; and that 
they do offer prayers unto GOD for us, and their 
relics are to be had in veneration. 

For there are certain examples in the fcriptures 
of the adoration of angels, as Abraham, Lot, and 
Joftuia adored the angels that appeared unto them ; 
therefore angel*, and confequently jaint* t atre to be 
worfhipped and prayed unto. 

Rev. v. 8. *Ihe Eiders a re faid to have golden vials 
full of odour ^ 'which are the prayers of the Jaints j 
therefore the faints in Heaven do pray for us. 

X. That the images of Chrift, of the blefled Vir 
gin the mother of GOD, and of other faints, ought 
to be retained in churches, and honor arid veneration 
ought to beghten untto them -f- 

For, the images of cherubims were allowed in the 
temple -, therefore images fhould be placed in church 
es, and had in veneration. 

XI. That the Pallors of the church have powef 
to difpenie the virtues and I'uffenngs of the jairitSj 

T and 

* Tii P*ptft fuppofe that fou^i are rehafed from Purgatory 
bjr the msffct acd prayers of the clergy, who are liberally re 
warded for thofe performances. 

f Not, fay they, beciufe there is tcy virtus 10 images, but be- 
c .f; Chrift and hii l*iutt are wsilhipped by ilitm, wJiofe 
,tud they bear. 

I4'o PAP 

and thereby to abfolve from all fins> and the puniilv- 
rnent of fins ; to grant indulgences, dilpenfcs with 
oaths, vows, laws, &c. 

This opinion the Papifts found on a notion, that 
bur Saviour has left an infinite treafure of merits, and 
lupererogatory fuusfaclions arifing from his own fuf- 
ierings, and thofe of the blcffed Virgin, and the reft 
of the faints, and that the guides of the chiirib^ and 
more efpecially the Popes, have power to apply this 
treafure to the living by virtue of the feyV, and to 
the dead by way of fuffrage, to dilcharge them from 
their portion of punifhment, by taking as much me 
rit out bf this general treafure as th^iy conceive the 
debt Acquires, and offering it to the Deity. Mat. xiii. 
1 8. U'batloever you tOtfe on earth} ftall be toofed in 
Heaven. Conlequentty the indulgence of the church 
lets free from the punifhrrrent of fin. 

The following ceremonies, and many others too 
tedious to enumerate, are pra&iied by the Church of 
Rome in their rdigious worfliip. 

I. They make ofe of the fign of the crofs in all 
their facratnents, to give us to underftand, that 
they have their whole force, and efficacy from the 

II. Sprinkling holy water by the Prieft on folemn 
days, is ufed likevvife, by every one going in, or 
coming out of a church. 

III. The ceremony of blefling bells, is by the 
Catholics called chriftening of them j becaufe the 
name of fome faint is ascribed to them, by virtue 
of whole invocation they are prefented, in order that 
they may obtain his favour and protection. 

IV. The; 

PAS , 4 f 

. They keep a number of lamps and wax can- 
files continually burning before the (brines and ima 
ges of the faint?. 

V. They have a cuftom of bowing at the name of 

1 he Church of Rome obferve a variety of holy 
clays, as the feftivals of pluift and his apoftles, the 
festivals of the faints, &c. 

For an account of the divifions among the Papifts 
fee Borignonifts, Yanienifts J Jefuits, Molinifts, and 

For an account of the extent and prefent flate of 
tbs Roman Catholic religion, fep Appendix. 

Wiltett't View of P0f>ery p j2 ; 57, 70, I2, l6j, 406 427* 

439 4^5 

BitigAata'j tfctbt Vol \. p. ijj. 
B rent's Couneil of Trent, p. So6 
Watch's Hsjtory of the Popes.p 24. 
Jfift* oj &'<///<?, Number vi p 235* 2g8, 242. 
Pope PiuSs Creed. 

PARMENIANITES, [See Donatifts] 

PASAGINIANS, A (eft which arofe in the 
twelfth century, known alfo by the name of the 
Circumcifed. Their diftinguiftiing tenets were as 
follow : 

I. That the obfervation of the law of Mofes, ia 
every thing except the offering of facrifices, was obli 
gatory upon Chriftians ; in confequence of which, 
they circumcifed their followers, abftained from 
thofe meats, the ufe of which was prohibited under 
the Mofaic ceconomy, and celebrated the Jewifli 

II. That Chrift was no njore than the fir/I and 
$ure/f crwture of God. 


S4. P'AU 

This denomination had the utmoft averfion to the 
dodtrine and difcipline of the Church of |lome. 

'i Eccitf Hiji. wt ii. />. 456. 

PASSALORYNCHITES, A branch of the 
Montanifts. They held, that in order to be faved, 
it was neceffary to observe a perpetual filence ; 
wherejore they kept their finger conftantly upon 
their niquth, and dared not open it even to fay their 

Their name is derived from the Greek [paffalos] 
a nail, anJ [rin] a M/iril ; becaufe, when they car 
ried their finger to their mouth, they touched their 

ltrii Q'florical library vol. ii. p. 224. 

PATRICIANS, A fe<3 which arofe in the fe- 
cpnd century ; fo called from Patriciui their leader, 

Their diftinguiflnng tenet was, that the fubftance 
of the flelh" is not the work of GOD but of the De 
vil : on which account they bore (uch hatred to 
their own bodies, as fccnetjmes to kill ihtmielvcs. 

Say '.eft Difli ntry, vl. ii [ ee 

PATRIPASSIANS, [See Noetians and Mo- 

appeared in the third century ; fo called Ircm PauL 
of amo ata> Biflhop of Antioch. 

He taught, that the.S?? and the TJofy Gkoft exift 
in GOD in the fame manner, as the faculties otrea- 
/on and aSivity do in man : that CHRIST was 
born of a mere man ; but that the rea t on or wldtm 
of the Faiher deicended into him, and b; Mra 

PAU 143 

Brought miracles upon earth, and inftrufled the na 
tions ; and finally, that on account of this union of 
the Divine 'word with the wan JESUS, CHRIbT 
might, though improperly, be called GOD. 

filo/tci'if'f Eccief, Hi/}, wsi. i. p 248. 

PAULICIANS, A feil formed in the feven'h 
century, by two brothers, Paul and John, inhabi 
tants of Jerusalem 5 from the former ot whom they 
derive their name. The tenets attributed to this 
fed are as follow : 

I. That the inferior and vifihle world is not the 
production of the Supreme Being* 

II. That the evil principle was engendered by- 
darknefs and fire ; not ielf- originated and eternal.* 

III. Th^t though Chrift was the Son of Mary, 
he brought from Heaven his human nature. 

IV. That Chrift was cloathed with an etherial, 
celeftial and impaffible body^and did not realty expire 
on the cro/s ; hence they refufed to pay religious 
homage to the crofs. 

V. That the bread and wine which Chrift is 
faid to have ?,dminiftered to his difciples at his la(^ 
fupper, only fignifies the divine difcourfes and ex 
hortations of the Saviour, which are a fpiritual food 
and nourifhment to the foul, and fill it with repote, 
fatisfadion and delight. Hence they refufed to ce? 
lebrate the inftitution of the Lord's fupper. 

VI. They rejefted the books of the old Tefta- 
ment, and looked upon its writers as inlpired by 


* The? confidcred eternal matter as the fource cf all evil ; *cd 
b'lieveid ih-*t toil caatter, endued from all eteraity with life and 
mot OD, had produced an adlive priocipie ; which is *.he t ut,taia, 
of vice, milcry and d ; ford,er ; and ii the aurhor of &li 
, ' wialc GOD is the Creator acd Father of 


the Creator oj the world, and not by the fupremt 
God i They received all the books of the new Tcf- 
tament, except the epirtles of St. Peter, which they 
rejected for reafons unknown to us. 

This denomination had not, like the Manichasans, 
an ecclefiaftical government adminiftered by Bifhops, 
friefts and Deacons : they had no facred order of 
men diflinguifhed by their manner of life, their ha 
bit, or any other circumfiance from the reft of the 
affembly : nor had Councils, Synods, or fuch like 
irifiitutions, any place in their religious policy. 
They had certain Do&ors whom they called Sunec- 
demi y i. e. companions in the journey of life , and 
alfo Notarii. Among thefe there reigned a perfect 
equality, and they had no peculiar rights, privileges, 
nor any external mark of dignity to diftinguifh them 
from the people. The only Angularity which at 
tended their promotion to the rank of Dodors was, 
that they changed their lay-names for fcripturc ones, 
as if there had been fomething peculiarly venerable 
in the names of holy men, whole lives and adlions 
are recorded in the facred writings. 

For the arguments this left make ufe of to fupport 
|heir dodrine of tyvo principle*, feo Manicheans. 

Mofl. '-viiEcJtJiafitcalHiJlorj t vol.\\ p. 175, 176. 

PELAGIANS, A fedt which arofe in the fifth 
century 5 fo called from Pelagius, a Monk, who 
looked upon the dodrines which were commonly 
received concerning the original corruption of human 
nature, and the neceflity of divine grace to cniighttn 
the under /landing and purify the heart, as prejudicial 
to the progrefs of holinefs and virtue, and tending to 
eftablifli mankind in a prefumptuous and fatal fccu- 
rity. He maintained the following doftrines : 

PET 145 

I. That the fins of oiir fir/I parents were im 
puted to them alone, and not to their pofterity ; and 
that we derive no corruption frorh their fall, but are 
born as pure and unfpotted as Adam came oiit of 
the forming hand of his Creator. 

II. That mankind therefore are capable of re 
pentance and amendment, and of arriving to the 
higheft degrees of piety and virtue by the ufe of their 
natural faculties and powers ; that indeed external 
grace is neceffiry to excite their endeavours, but 
that they have no need of the internal fuccours of 
the divine fpirit. 

III. That Adam was by nature, mortal ? and 
whether he had finned or not, would certainly have 

IV. That the grace of God is given in propor 
tion to our merits. 

V. That mankind may arrive at a ftate of per- 
feftion in this life. 

VI. That the law qualified men for the king 
dom of Heaven, and Was founded upon equal pra- 
triifes with the gofpel. 

Mo/heim*s Ecclef. Hift vol. i. / 412- 

of A? tt and Sciences > vot. Hi. p. 2378. 

PEPUZIANS, [See Montanrfts] 

PETROBRUSS1ANS, A fed which was formed 
about the year mo in Languedoc and Provence^ 
by Peter de Brays, who^taught the following doc 
trines : 

I. That no perfons whatever were to be bapti-* 
sed before they came to the full ufe of their reafon. 

II, That 


TI. That it was an idle fu perdition to build 
churches for the fervice of God, who will accept of 
a fincere wordiip, wherever it is offered ; and that 
therefore fuch churches as had already been credled, 
were to be pulled down and deftroyed. 

III. That the crucifixes deferved the fame fate. 

IV. That the real body and blood of Crmft 
were not Exhibited in the Eucharift, but were only 
represented in that holy ordinance, by their figures 
and fymbols. 

V. That the oblations, prayers, and good works 
of the living, could be in no refpcdt advantageous to 
the dead. 

Mo/heim's Ecthf. Hifl. vtf. u p 446, 447. 

ers of Jane Leadly, who, towards the conclufion of 
the feventeenth century, by her vifions, predictions 
and dodrines, gained aconfiderable number of dif- 
ciples j among whom were fome perfons of learning. 
This woman was of opiniorr, that air diffentions 
among Chriftians would c'eafe, and the kingdom of 
the Redeemer become even here below,, a. glorious 
fcene of charity, concord and felicity, if thole who 
bear the name of JESUS, without regarding the 
forms of doflrine and difcipHne, which diftinguifli 
particular communions, would all join in cOrnmiting 
their fouls to the care of this internal guide, to be 
inftruded, governed and formed by his divine im- 
pulfe and fucgeftions. She went irill further, and 
declared in the name of the hord, that this defira- 
ble event would happen ; and that (he had a divine 
commifii n to proclaim the approach of this glori 
ous communion oi iaints, who were to be gathered* 

P I E 

i .*..'"' ' <y * 

together in one vifible univerfal church, or king 
dom, before the diflolution of this earthly globe. 
This predidion (he delivered with a peculiar degree 
of confidence, from a notion that her PhiiadilptiQn.- 
Society was the true kingdom of CHRIST, in which 
alone the Divine fpirit refided and reigned. She alfo 
maintained the final reftoration of all intelligent bt^ 
ingt to perfection and happinefs. 

Mojbcim ibid, vol. v f 66, 67. 

, PHOTINIANS, A fcft in the fourth century ; fd 
called from Pliotinui, bilhop of Sirmich, in Panno- 

. . 

, He taught, thatJESUS CHRIST was born^of the 
HOLY GHOST, and the Virgin Mary ' 'that a 
certain divine emanation, or ray, (which he called 
the word) defcended upon this extraordinary man * 
that on account of the union of the Divine word 
with his human nature, JESUS was called the Sort 
of GOD, nay, GOD himfelf ; and that the Holy 
Ghoft was not a diftindt perlon, but a celeftiai 
iue proceeding from the Deity. 

Mojhcivn>s Ecchf. Hij?. vol. f. p. 

Hiftorical Library t W. ii. /. 441 

PICARDS. [See Adamites] 

PIETISTS, A denomination in the feventeenlK 
century, which owed its origin to the pious and learn* 
ed Spenfer, who formed private focieties at Franc* 
fort, in order to promote , vital religion. His fol-^ 
lowers laid it down as an eficntial maxim, that none; 
fhould be admitted into the miniftry, bat fuch as had 
received a proper education, were diftinguiihed by 
their wifdom and iandtity of manners; and had 

t? hearts 

j 4 5 P R E 

hearts filled with Divine love. Hence they propo* 
fed an alteration of the fchools of divinity, which 
confided in the following points. 

I. That the fyftematical theology, which reigned 
in the academies, and was compofed of intricate and 
difputable doftrines, and obfcure and unufual forms 
of expreflions, fhould be totally abolifhed, 

II. That polemical divinity, which comprehend 
ed the controversies lubfifting between Chriftians of 
different communions, fhould be lefs eagerly ftudied, 
and lefs frequently treated, though not entirely ne- 

III. That all mixture of philofophy and humaii 
learning with Divine wifdom, wa"s to be moft care 
fully avoided. 

IV. That on thfc contrary, all thofe who were de- 
figned for the miniftry fhould be accuftomed from 
their early youth, to the perufal and ftudy of the 
holy fcriptures, and be taught a plain fyftem of the 
ology, drawn from thefe unerring fources of truth. 

V. That the whole courfe of their education was 
to be fo dire&ed as to render them ufeful in life, by 
the pradtical power of their dodlrine, and the com 
manding influence of their example. 

ivSs Ecclejtajlical Hijlory> vsl. ir. p. 454 46$. 

PREDESTINARIANS, A name given to thofc 
in the ninth century who followed the dodrines of 
Godefcalcus, a German Monk, whofe fentiments 
were as follow : 

That the Deity predeflinated a certain number 
to lalvation, and others to deftru&ion, before the 
world was formed, 

II. That 



II. That GOD predeftinated the wicked to eter 
nal punifliment, in confequence of their fins, which 
were freely committed and eternally forefeen. 

III. That Chrift came not to fave all men ; and 
that none {hall perifh for whom he jhed his blood. 

IV. That fincethe Fall mankind cannot exercift 
Jree wi/1, only to do that which is evil, 

Mopjeim's Ecclef Hi ft vzi. \\ p jf^. 
icai H'fiory of France, p, 6*. 
Church Hijlcry, chap x p. 26*. 

PRESBYTERIANS, From the Greek of 
[pre&uteros] a denomination of Prote/iants ; fo 
called from their maintaining that the government 
of the church, appointed by the New-TeftamenF, 
was by Prefbyterks, that is, by Prefbyters and ruling 
Elders, affociated for its government and diicipline. 
The Prelbyterians affirm that there is no order in 
the church, as eftablifhed by Chrifl and his apoftles, 
fuperior to that of Prefbyters ; that all Miniilers, 
being Ambafladors, are equal by tl\eir commiflion ; 
and the Elder or Prefbyter, and Bifhop, are the fame 
in name and office ; for which they alledge Ads 
xx, 28. Titus i. 5, 7, &c. Their higheft affembly 
is a Synod, which may be provincial, national, or 
oecumenical, and they allow of appeals from inferior 
to fuperior affemblies, according to Ads xv. 4, 6, 
&c. The lowefl of their Aflemblies, or Prefbyte- 
ries, confifts of the Minifters andElders of a congre 
gation, who have power to cite before them any 
jnember, and to admonifh, inftrucl, rebuke, and 
fufpend him from the Lord's table. They have alfo 
a Deacon, whofe office it is to take care of the poor. 
Their ordination is by prayer, faftingj find impofi- 
|ion of the hands of the Prefbytery. 

" U 2 This 


This is now the difcipline of the Church of Scot 
land. [See Appendix] 

Cclli r's Hi/itrical Dictionary, vol. TI [Stt Vrejb)teria*s~\ 
B *r clay* t Ditf hnarj [Scg 

PRIMirtNISTS, A party of Donatifts ; focalle4 
from Primianus, who bedame the head of their fedh 

PRISCILIJANISTS, A fcft which arofc in the 
fourth century 5 fo called from their leader Prifcil- 
Jian, a Spaniard by birth, and Bilhop of Avila. 

He is faid to have praftifed magic, ard to have 
maintained the principal tenets of the Manichaeans. 
His followers denied the reality of CHRIST'S birth 
arid incarnation : held that the 1 vifible univerfe was 
not the' produdlion of the Supreme Deify, but of 
lame damon or malignant principle : adopted the 
doftrine of 'JEon^ 1 or emanations from the Divine 
nature : confidered human bodies a$ prifons formed 
by the author of evil to eaflave ct-leftial minds : con- 
-deirined marriage, and di(be!ieved the refunedion 
of the body, [iree Manichaeans] 

Mofhiim's Eccltf. Hijl. vil i. p 349- 

PROCLIANITES, So called from Procalus, a 
philolopher of Phrygia, who appeared 194, and put 
himfelt at the head of a band of Montaniils, ii order 
to ipread the feniiments of that feCt ; to which he 
added, that St. 'Paul was not the author of the epif- 
tle to the Hebrews. \ 

The dodlrinc which his followers maintained 
with the greateft warmth was, that Jelus Chrift af- 
fumed our nature only in appearance, [See Monta- 
nifts and Valentinians] 

Broughton'j Hijlerical Lilrary, vol. ii. p. 285* 


PUR 151 

1. V ! 

PROTESTANTS, A name firft given in Ger 
many to thofe who adhered to the dodrine of Lu 
ther ; becaufe in 1529 they protefted againft a de 
cree of the Emperor Charles V. and the Diet of 
Spires 5* declaring that they appealed to a General 
Council. The fame name has alfo been 'given to the 
fcalvinifts, and is now become a common denomi 
nation for a variety of feds, which differ from the 
Church of Rome. [See Lutherans, Calvinifts, Ar- 
Iranians, &?c.J 

Diftionary of /I? ft and Sciences* vol lit. p 2578 2^79. 
Robertfon's Hiftory of Ckarlet K. vol. ii. p 249 250. 

PSATYR^ANS, A (eft of the Arians in the 
Council of Arians, held Jn the year 360, maintained* 
that the Son was not like the Father in will ; that 
he was made of nothing, and that in God generation 
was not to be diflinguilh from creation. * [See Ari 

Hiflory sfRsligion, **l. iv, See P/af?ri*rtf. 

PTOLEMATTES, A branch of the Valentini- 
ans in the fecond century ; fo called from Ptolemy, 
their leader 5 who held, that the law of Mofes came 
part from GOD, part from Mofes, and part from 
the traditions of the Dodtors. 

Bay ley's Diftionary, vol. ii. [See Pt&lematt9t\ 

PURITANS, A name given to a party which 
appeared in England in the year 1 565, and oppofed 
the liturgy and ceremonies of the Church of England. 

They acquired this denomination from their pro- 
fefled defign to eftablifh a purer form of worflbip 
and difciplinc, 


* TfetiDtet was held at Spirei, (March 15, 1529) Tfc7 dcftd. 
to prQkibit aay fanfesr -innoYadoRi m 


Thofe who were firft ftiled Puritans werePrefby- 
tcrians, but the term was afterwards applied to o- 
thers who differed from the Church of England. 

Thofe who feparated from the Church of England 
were alfo (tiled Diflenters. 

Hift cf the Puritant, w>!. i./ ivS 
Dittionary nf drtt and Science* va/ iii f 2606. 
Baj!e/s Di3i;xary. vsl. ii. ' [^ i'u; itaai ] 

QUAKERS, A religious fociety which began 
to be diftinguifhed by this name in England* 
vyhere it firft took its rife about the middle of the 
leventeenth century. 

George Fox was the principal inftrument of 
gathering this people into a religious lociety. The 
appellation of Quakers, was affixed upon them early 
by way of contempt. In their affemblies it fome- 
times happened that fome were fo ftruck with the 
remembrance of their pad follies, and forgetfulnefs 
of their condition ; others fo deeply affe&ed with 
a fenfe of God's mercies, to them, that they ac 
tually trembled and quaked. This name foon be 
came general. Friends, or the Friends of 7rutb 3 
was the name they were commonly known by to 
one another, which they borrow from primitive 
^xample, 3^. of John i. 14, Our Friends 

The principal points maintained by the Quakers, 
together y/ith fome of the moft material reaions 
they bring to fupport their fentiments, arc compre 
hended in the following iummary. 

I. That God has given to all men fufEcient light ^ 
y!iich will work their falyation unlefs refifted 5 that 

A 152 

this light is not lefs universal than the feed of fin, 
and faves thole who have not the outward means 
of falvauon ; and that this light is a divine principle, 
in which God as Father, Son and Holy Spirit, 
dwells ; which the fcriptures call Cbrift within tbe 
hope of glory. 

To prove this point this denomination alledge, 
that according to this doctrine the merq( of God is 
excellently well exhibited, in that none are necefla- 
rily excluded from his favour 5 that his juftice is 
demonftrated, in that he condemns none, but luch 
to whom he offered the means of falvatiori. 

2d. That it agrees with the nature of the miniftry 
of Chrifty according to which the gofpel is t# be 
preached to every creature. 

jd. It magnifies the merits of Ciri/t*s death, 
in that it not only accounts them fufficient to fave 
all, but declares them brought fo nigh unto all, as 
to put them in the neareft capacity of falvation. 

4th. That it exalts the grace of God to whom 
it attributeth the imalleft good a&ions. This grace 
faves all who do not refift its divine impulfes 5 and 
whoever will carefully and, ferioufly turn into him- 
felf, with a fincere defire t# know and practice his 
duty, will not fail to find there a (ufficient direflor, 
& ray from the fountain of light, illuminating his 
underftanding, and affifting him to diftinguifli good 
from evil. 

If. That the fcriptures are not to be e'fteemed 
the principal ground of all truth and knowledge ; 
tior yet the primary rule of faith and manners ; 
neverthelefs, becaule they give a true and faithful 
teftimony of the firft foundation, they are and may 


be cftccmcd a fecondary rule fubordinate to iht 
fpirit, from whom they have all their excellence. 

for the principal rule of Chriftians under the 
gofpel is not an outward letter, but an inward fpiri- 
tual law, 1 engraven on the heart, the law of the 
Jptrrt of tife^ or the wcrd is that which is nigh in 
the heart and In the mouth. But the letter of the 
fcripture is outward, and in itfelf a dead thing, a 
fnere declaration of good things : therefore, it is 
not the principal rule of Chriflians.* 

III. That immediate revelation is not ccafed, a 
Meafurc oj the fpirit being given to every one. 

For the nature of the new covenant is thus ex- 
preffed in Jerem. xxxi. 33, For this is the cove 
nant that 1 will make with the boufe of Ifrae^ after 
thole Jays, faith the Lofd> 1 will put my laws into 
their minds^ and write them in their hearts^ and I 
will be to them a God, and they (hall be to me a people. 

Where the law of God is put into the mind, and 
Written in the heart, there the objeft of faith and 
revelation of the knowledge of God is inward; 
immediate, and objective. 

But the law of God is put Into the mind, anc! 
written in the heart of every true Chriftian, under 
the new Covenant ; therefore, the objed of faith 
and revelation of the knowledge of God, to every 
true Chriftian, is int6ard y immediate, and objeftivc. 

' IV. That as by 'the light or gift of God all fpiri- 
tual knowledge is received, thole who have this &i ft 
ought to preach, though without human commiffiori 


* Yet thii denoittiDation faalntain, that divine inward revelation** 
xtiitbef do, oor ever can contract the outward letter ot feriptartV 
or right and foaad rcafocu 

QUA 155 

?br literature and as they have freely received this 
holy gift, io ought they freely to give it : and that 
any one of a fober life, without diftinftion of lex, is 
allowed to preach, when moved by the fpirit. 

For it is clear, that women have prophefied and 
preached in the church, elfe had the faying of Joel 
been ill applied by Peter, A&s iil 17. xvii, 4. Paul 
fpeaks of women who laboured with hihi in the 
golpel : and Phi.Hphad four daughters who prophe 
fied. Male and female are one inCbnft Jefus^nd he 
imparts his (pirit no lefs to one than to the other. 

V. That all true an4 acceptable worfliip to GOD 
is offered by the inward and immediate moving of 

For though we are to worfhip GOD always, yet 
as to the outward fignification thereof in prayer, 
praifes, or preaching, we ought to do it only when 
Tve are moved by the fecrtt impiration of tb? fpirit of 
GOD in our hearts ; for GOD is never wanting to 
tnove us thereunto, when need is, of which he him- 
felf is the only proper judge. The duty of filent 
waiting on the Lord is ftrongly enforced in Rom,. 
+iii. 26, 27.* 

VI. That water baptifm, and the Lord's f upper^ 
1vere only commanded for a time. 

For our Saviour obfertfed thefe ceremonies only to 
(hew in a vifible manner the myilical purification of 

W the 

* This fctiety do not plsrd far entirely filent meetings, but 
pvlj for a reiircd waiting for the Biviae aid, which alon* quaiifiei 
to pray or preach They apprehend it their diry to bs diit'gfint 
in tffembling themfelves together for the wcrfhip of Almighty 
GOD, when foch as are duly, prepared by being gathered itto a 
compofed awfui frame of roinct, are enabled, under ihe kfiuu.ce' 
of Divine grace, to worlhip in folema fifende ; or, ^f raov^d there 
to* to pray r preach^ ai the fpirit giveth them utterance. 

156 QJJ A 

the foul, under the figure of baptifm> and the fpirj- 
tual nourilhment of the inward man under that of 
the Lord's {upper. . As there is one faith, fo there 
is one baptifm> to wit, the baptijm ef the /pirit and 
fire, of which the baptifm of John was a figure, which 
may be proved from the nature of it, as John'* bap- 
tilm was with water ; but Cbrift's is with the fpirit 5 
therefore Jobn's bapt^mmuft be a figure of Cbri/i's ; 
and fince it is a figure, it ceafcth and giveth way to 1 
the lubftance. The breaking of bread was ufed in 
thechurch for a time for the f ,ke of the weak, even 
as the wafhing one another's feet, and anointing the 
lick with oil ; all which are commanded with no 
lefs authority than the former, yet they are ah abo- 
lilhed, fince they are but fhadows of better things. 

The moral dodtrines of the Qiiakers are chiefly 
comprehended in the following precepts : 

I. That it is not lawful to give to men fuch flat 
tering titles as, Your Grace, your Lord (hip, your 
Honor, &c. nor ufe thofe flattering words common 
ly called compliments. 

II. That it is not lawful for Chriftians to kneel 
or proftrate themfelvos to any man, or to bow the 

^body, of to uncover the head to them. 

III. That k is not lawful for a Chriftiaii to ufe 
fuch fnperfluities in apparel, as are of no ufc, iave 
for ornament and vanity. 

IV. That it is not lawful to ufe games, fports or 
plays among Chriftians, under the notion of recrea 
tions, which do not agree with Chriftian gravity and 
fobriety ; for laughing, fporcing, gaming, mocking, 
jefting, vain talking, 6cc, are not Chriftian liberty, 
nor harrnlcfs mirth. 

V. That 

V That it is not lawful for Chriftians to fwear 
at all under the gofpel, not only vainly, and 'n their 
common diicourfe, which was alfo foi bidden under 
the law, tut even not in judgment before the Magi- 
ftrate. ; , 

VI. That it is not lawful for Chriftians to refill 
evil, or to war, or to fight in any cafe. 

This denomination alledge, that the chief end of 
religion is to redeem man from the fpiric and vain 
eonverfation of the world, and to lead them into ia- 
ward communion with GOD j therefore, every 
thiog ought to be rejected which waftes our precious 
time, and diverts the mind from the witnefsofGOD 
in the heart, and from the living fenfe of his fear, 
and that evangelical fpirit which is the ornament of 

All fwearing, fay they, is forbidden by the words 
of Q\ir Saviour, Mat. v, 3^,34. and the words of 
jheapoflle, James v. 12. thrift reproved Peter for 
the ufe of the fword, and commands us to love onr 
enemies ; but war, on tbe contrary, teacheth us to 
bate and deftroy theixi. 

With regard to religious liberty, their fentiments 
are the fame with the Baptifts. [See Bap tilts] 

Where there are any Quakers they meet once a 
monthjtoconfider of the neceflities of their poor,^nd 
provide fo their relief j to hear and determine com 
plaints arifing from among thcmfelves ; to enquire 
into the conversion of their refpedtive members, in 
regard to $iorality, and conformity to their religious 
fentiments ; to allow the paffing of marriages ^ and 
to enjoin a ftridt regard to the peace and good order 
g| Society j the proper education of the young peo-^ 
W a ' J>lc, 

w * 


pie, and a general attention to the principles and 
prad ices of their profeflton. In every country where 
there are monthly meetings, a meeting for fimilaf 
purpofes is held every quarter, and from ihefe are 
cLputtd a number of their members once a year, to 
attend their annual Afletnbly at London. In this ftf- 
fembly accounts are received of the flate of the iociery 
in every part of the world where it exifts ; and luch 
advices aie fent to the fubordinate meetings, as the 
particular or general itate of the fociety requires, 
[See Appendix] 

S"we'! r J fiiftory of tie Qialers, p 6, 672. 

Jjarclafs dppuogy for the Quakers p 5 ie n, 12, 31, 15. 

Jie'ton's Deftncc of Barclay"**, dppiicgy p 6, 2g 27. 

BtnrZtt's Account of the Quakers, p 3, n, 15. 

Brief Account of th< ^akers, f. 3 

QUARTODECIMANI, A fet in the feconcl 
century ; lo called becaufe they maintained, ihat the! 
feftival of Barter was always to be celebrated con 
formably to the cuftom of the Jews, on the four 
teenth dav of the moon of March, whatever day "of 
the month that happened to be." 

BroughtoiCi H'Jltrical Library, vol. ii, /. 307. 

QUIETISTS, The followers of Michael dc 
Mohnus, a Spanidi Prieft, who flour iihed in the fe- 
vcnteenth century. They were fo called from a 
kind of abfolute reft and inaftion, which the foul is 
fuppofed to be in, when arrived at that (late of per- 
iedion, which they call the unitiw life. 

The principles maintained by this denomination 
are as follow : That the whole of religion confifts 
in the prelent calm and tranquitity of a mind remo 
ved irom gll external and finite things, and centered 


in God, and in fuch zpure love of the fupreme Being 
as is independent on all profpecT; of interefl or reward. 

For, fay they, the primitive difciples of Chrifc 
were all of them inward and fpiritual j and when 
Jefus Cbri/t laid to them, It is expedient j or you 
that I go away : lor if J! go not away the Coth/orter 
will not come unto you, he intended thereby tq 
draw them off from 'that which was fenfible, though 
very holy ; and to prepare their hearts to receive the 
fullnefs of the Holy Spirit^ which he looked upori 
as the one thing necejary. 

To prove that our love to the Deity mud be dif- 
jnterefted they alledge, that the Lord hath made all 
ibin f it /or himfetf^ as faith the fcripture, and it is 
for his glory that he wills our happinefs. Our hap- 
pinefs is only a fubordinate end, which he has made 
relative to the laft and great end, which is his glory". 
To conform therefore to the great end of our cre 
ation, we rriuft prefer God to ourfelves, and not de- 
fire our own happinefs but for his glory 5 otherwife 
we (hall go contrary to his order. As the perfections 
of the Deity are intrinfically amiable, it is our glory 
and perfection to go out of ourfelves, to be loft and 
abiorbed in the pure love of infinite beauty. [See 

Mo/beim's Ecclef Hifl. vol. iv p. 388 
Broughton's Hiftortcal Library, vol ii /> 309. 
Cambray, on Pure Love, p 131 ijS. 
Lady Cutout Letters. /. 167, 

QUINTILUNS, * A fedT: which appeared in 
Phrygia, about the year 189. They derived their 
name from their prophetefs Qaintilia. 

Their diftmguiihing tenet was, that women 
ought to be adinilcd to perform the facerdotal arid 


160 ROM 

cpifcopal fun&ions, grounding their praftice on that 
paffage of St. Paul. Gal. iii. 28. 3 fare is neither 
jew nor Greek, tbtre is neither male nor female. 
They added, that Philip theDeacon,had four daugh 
ters, who were propheteffes, and were doutnlels of 
their fed. 

In their aflemblies it was ufual to fee the virgins 
enter in white robes, perlonating prophetefics. 
This denomination was a branch of the Montanilts. 
[See Montanifts] 

Htflory 9f Rtligion, vol. IT [$** Qii*ti!ian, J 
Krwghton't Htjfarical Library t vot. ii p. 310. 


RANTERS, A fetf' which arofe in the year 
164:-. They fet up the light of nature under 
the name of Chrift in men. With regard to the 
(burcbfiripfure, mini/try , &c. there fentiments were 
the lame with the Seekers. [See Seekers] 

Abridgment of Baxter's Hiftory vol. i j>. ioi. 

REMONSTRANTS. [See Arminians] 

ROGEREENS, So called from John Rogers 
their chief leader. They appeared inNew- England, 
about the year 1677. The principal diftinguifhing 
tenet of this denomination was, that worfhip per 
formed the firft day of the wetk was a fpecies of 
idolatry which they ought to oppofe : inconfequence 
of this, they ufed a variety of meafures to difturb 
thofe who were aflembled ifor public worfhip on the 
Lord's day. 

Backus' i tiijlory^ vol. I. f 473. 

ROMAN CATHOLICS, A name given to the 
fapifts, bccaufc theJBifliop of R%ne_i$ not only fliled 


SAB 161 

Supretne, but cectimenical or univerfal Bifiop. [Sec 

This Pontiff is likewife ftiled Holinefs in the a- 
flrat> God's Vicegerent, Vicar of Jefus Chrift, Suc- 
ttflir of 6 : f. Peter, Prince of the Apofties^ and Pa~ 
tber of all the Kings of the earth. 

He wears three keys 5 one as an emblem of his 
power to give ablolution, or of admitting into the 
kii gdom of Heaven ; another to denote his power 
of excommunicating finners j and the third, with 
much ceremony is delivered unto him, to fignify and 
imply his univerfal knowledge and infalibility : And 
he wears a triple crown, to inform the Chriitiaa 
world that he is Prieft, Emperor and Kng. 

An account of the gradual rife and progrefs of the 
Papal authority cannot be comprifed within the nar- 
fow limits of this work, the reader is therefore re 
ferred to Mojheim^ Formey, and other ecclefiafticai 

Hifl. of Religion, vol iv p. ige, 131. 

ROSECRtJCiANS, A Aame given fo thofe iii 
the feventeenth century, who blended the dodrines 
of Religion with the fecrets of Chymiflry. Their 
fentiments were limilar with thofe of the Behmenifts. 
[See BehmeniftsJ 

Mo/keim'f Ecclefaflkal Hijlory, ioL iv p; 266. 


SABBATARIANS, A branch of the Bap- 
tifts, who obferve the Jewifh or Saturday Sa&- 
batbt from a perfuafion that it was one of the ten 
commandments which they plead are all in their na 
ture moral, and was never abrogated in the New- 

A B 

*lellamtnt> and muft nt lead be deemed of equal 
validity for public worlhip, as any day never parti 
cularly fet apart by Je,us Chrift and his apc/iies* 

/; crr of Religion. v*l iv. [^ee Sabbafar i j- ;~j 

til/lory of the American Baptifls, p. 6?. 

SABELLl ANS, A feft which arofe in the third 
Century. They derived their name from Sabellius, 
anAfncanlifhopor Prefbyter ; who taught, that there 
is but one perion in the Godhead -, and in confir 
mation of this do&rine, he made ufe of a compari-* 
Ion. He laid, that, as man, though compoled of 
bodv and foul, is but one perfpn ; fp God, though 

he is Fatter, Son and Holy Gboft^ is but one perfon. 


The Sabellians, upon their matter's princ!p 1 es, 
made the Wurd and the HolySpirtt to be only virtues, 
emanations, or functions of the Deity ; and held, 
that he who in Heaven, is the Father of all things, 
defcended into aVirgin, became a chi!d,and was bora 
of her as a Son ; and that having accomplifhed the 
myftery of oufr falvatron, he diffufed himfelf on the 
thsMpofties in tongues of fire, and then was denoftii- 
nated the Holy Gboft. 

They refembled God to the 5^, the illuminative 
virtue or quality whereof was the Wtrd^ and itf 
warming virtue the Holy Spirit. The Word^ they 
taught, was darted, like a Diyine ray, .to accon?plih 
the work of redemption ; and that being reafcended 
to Heaven, as the ray returns to its iource, the 
warmth of the father was communicated, after a 
like manner, to the apoftlcs. They allo illuftrated 
this myftery by one tight kindled, as it were, from 

another ; 

* The Sabbatarians in Pennfylyalii*, crigmatcd from lh K^ 
thiiQ Bxptifti, ia the year 1700. 

S A & 163 

Another ; by the fountain and ftreams, and by the 
hock and branch. , , 

The Sabellians differed from the Noetiam in this 
particular : Noeuus was of opinion, that the perfort 
of the Father had aflumed the, human nature of 
(Thrift bat Sabetiius m.tinuined,that a certain tner- 
gy only, proceeding , frorjn the Supreme Parent^ or .a 
certain portion >of the Divine nature, was united to 
the Son of GOD, the man Jefus. ; and he cqnfider- 
ed, in the fame manner, the Holy Gho/i> as a portion 
ot the everlafting Father- 

Brought on* * Hiftoricql Library > vol. ii. j|5. 348* 
Mo/heim's Ecctef fit ft. vol \ p 244. 
Weatertzndon the Trinity 9 p 385. 

S ACOPHORT, A fed in the fourth century ; jfb 
calleH becauie they always wentcloathedin fack-cloth, 
and affcded a great deal ofaufterity and penance. 

H ftory of Reiigion t viL iv. [Ste $acopb r ,ri~\ 

r SANDFM^NIANS, So called from Mr. Robert 
Bandsman, who published his lentiments in the year 
1757, He was firfl. a congregational preacher at 
Edmburg,* and afterwards came, to Njw-Eng'and, 
and fettled a (ociety at Bofton, Danbury, and other 
places. His leading ientiments appeared to be as 
follow : . 

I. That juftifying faith is no more than a fimpte 
belief cf the truih> or the Divine? teftimony paffively 

II. That this divine teftimony carries in itfelf fuf-' 
ficient .ground of hope, and occafion of joy to every 
one who believes it, without any thing wrought iri 
us, or done by us; to give it a particular direction to 
ourfelves. X To 

tfe.wai a difciple of Mr Jtbn Glat t from 
arc calkd Glofu* in Scotland. 

1 64 S A Nf 

To fupport this fyftem the c andemamans alledge, 
'tbat faith is Called r conning the love of th? truth % 
and the apoftle often fpeaks of t aith and truth to <he 
lame puipoie, as in John xvi. 13, the Ipirit of truth, 
d of Cor. iv. 13, fbe jpirit of jatth. *ds vi. 7, 
Obeaient to the faith, jft. Pet. i, 22. In obe^i g 
the truth. And divers other paffages. The Icrip- 
tuies confider Jaith not as a work of ours, nor as 
any ad ion exerted by the human minri ; but let it 
in dired oppofition to every work, whether of bjdy 
or mind. See Rom. iv. 4, 5. This contraft ex 
cludes every idea of adivity in the mind, from the 
matter oi j 'unification j fo that we cannot ipeak of 
preparatory woiks of any fort, wiihout making <nc 
go pel a law of works. Rom. Hi. ^7, Where it 
boa/ting thtn ? It is excluded, &c. Mow boafling 
tannoi be excluded, if any thing done by us fets us 
in a more probable way of obtaining the la hat ion 
which is of grace, whether it be called by the names 
oi a law work, Jerious cxenije of Jeeking fouls, or 
labouring to obtain an intereft in Chriji, &c. 

Every doctrine then which teaches us to do, or 
endeavour any thing towards our acceptance with 
GOD, ftands oppoied ta the dodrine of the apoftles, 
which inftead of direding us what to do, fets before 
us all that the mod difquieted confcience can require, 
in order to acceptance with GOD, as already done 
and finifhed by JESUS CHRIST. 

The particular pradices in the Scndemanian 
churches, are as follow : 

I. They conftantly communicate together in the 
Lord's fupper every Sabbath : for they look up n 
the Chriitian Sabbath as dcfigned for the celebration 
ot divine ordinance^ which aie iuminarily compriit<* f 
ii. 42. 11. in 

3 A N 165 

II. In the interval between the morning and the 
afternoon iervice, they have their fove-fea/ls of 
which every member partakes by dining at the hou- 
fes of fuch of the brethren who live f ufficientiy near, 
and whofe habitations are convenient for that pur- 
pofe. Their profefled defign in thefe feafts is to 
cultivate mutual knowledge and friendship, to teftify 
that they are all brethren of one family ; and that 
the poor may have a comfortable mtal at the ex- 
pence of the more wealthy. 

This and other opportunities they take for the 
JJ/'/i of charity, or the faluting each other with an 
boiy ktfs j a duty this denomination believe exprefly 
exhorted to in Rom. xvi. 16. ift. of Cor xvi. 20* 
And other texts of fcripture. 

They not only ufe this kifs of charity at the fove 
Jea/ls, when each member falutes the perion who 
fets next him on each fide, but at the admiffion of a 
new church member j to teftify that they heartily 
welcome him into their fellow fhip, and love him 
for the fake of the truth he has prote&d. They 
alledge that thefe love /ea/Is were not laid afide by St. 
Paul's writing to the Corinthians, but enjoined to 
be obferved in a right manner, and the abufes of 
them correded 5 and they continued in practice 
while the primitive profeffion of brotherly love re 
mained among the ancient Chriftians, and as charity 
never faiietb> ift. of Cor. xiii. 8. fo neither fliould 
any of the duties, or exprefljons of it, be allowed to 

Since our Lord tells his difciples that they ought 
to wa'h one another* jeet r according to the example 
be gave them : John xiii 14, 15. This denomi- 
3aatiou enjoin this as an incumbent duty. 

? 3 They 

)64 SAT 

They are direflcd to look upon all they 
0s open to the calls of {he poor and churcb \ to con 
tribute according to their ability, as every one v has 

Letters 9* 'Cher on ni 4/pajio, vot. i /. 16 
Yot it p 38 

Clefs' t IVoikt vci iv p 940. 
&imp e Trutb vindicated p 19 38 

of the Sandemanian Ckutchft. /. J 6 

SATANIANS, So called becaufe they taught, 
that Satan, or the Devil, was extremely powerful ; 
that he occafioned infinite mi [chiefs ; and that it 
tvas much wifer to refpecft'and adore, than to curie 
him; this being a means to render him favourable 
to men,' inftead of injuring them. 

The Satamam were a branch of the Me{Jjliaw, 
and appeared about the year 390. Thev pretend- 
fcd, they were the only true cbfervers ot the 
pet : they poffefled no goods,' lived b-; begging,, 
and lay together prornilcuoufly on the p:vcmunt 
<if the ftreets. ' When any one afked concerning 
their q lality, they would call themselves ^ rriarchs, 
prophets, angels, and even Jdus Chrirt. 

Brou^htons HiflorUal Library vtl. i. p 36?. 

SATURNIANS, A fed which arofe about the 
year 1 1 5. They derived their name from Saturnius 
of Antioch, one of the principal Gnoflic chiefs. 

He held the dodrine of two Principe, from 
whence proceeded all things ; the one a wiic and 
benevolent Deity ; and the other, Matter > a Principle 
tjjentialfa evil, and which he fuppofed under thelu* 
perintendence of a certain intelligence of a malignant 

3 A T 167 

world and its inhabitants were, according to 
Jiis fyftem, created by feven angels, which prefi Jed 
over the feven planets.' This work was carried ori 
without the knowledge of the benevolent Deity> and 
in oppofition to the will of the material Principle, 
The former, however, beheld it with approbation, 
and honoured it with feveral marks of his benefi 
cence. He endowed with rational fouls, the heings 
who inhabited this new iyfiem, to whom their Cre 
ators had imparted nothing more that the animal 
life : and having divided the world into {even parrs, 
he diftributed them among the leven angelic arcbi- 
lefts ; one of whom was tha God of the Jews ; and 
refesved to hirqielf the fuprerne empire over all. 
To thefe creatures^ whom the btnevdent Principle 
had endowed with reafonable fouls, and wiih dilpo- 
iitions that led to goodnefs and virtue, the wii Be- 
ing^ to maintain his empire, added another kind, 
whom he formed of a wicked and malignant cha 
racter ; and hence; tlie difference we fee among men. 
When the Creators of the world fell from their al 
legiance to the fupreme Deity, God fent from .Hea 
ven, into 'our globe, a re/iorer of order , whofe name 
vtzsLhrifl.' This Divine conqueror came cloathec^ 
with a corporeal appearance, but not with a real bo- 
d/ : tie came to deffroy the empire of the material 
Principle ', and to point out to virtuous fouls the way 
by which they muft return 'to G 6 D. This way 
is befet with difficulties and fufferings 5 fince thofe 
fouls, who propofe returning to the fupreme Being, 
muft abftain from wine, flefli, wedlock, and, in 
ftfort, from every thing that tends to fenfual gratifi 
cation, or even bodily refrefhment. [See "GhoftijfsJ 

Mojhtim's ttciej titji. vol. i. />, 176, !?? 

V - ' 

168 SEC 

SCHEWENKFELDIANS, A feel in the fix- 
teenth century fo called from one Gal per oche- 
venkfeldt, a Silefian Knight, , He differed trom 
Luther in the three follow ing points. The fir/I of 
thele points Delated to the doctrine concerning the 
JLucharift. Sch^wenkfeldt inverted the following 
words of Chiift, Ibis is r&y body $ and infixed on 
their being thus underftood, A/v body is this, i. e. 
loch as this bread, which is broken and com fumed ; 
a true and real iood, which nourifheth, laiisfictb^ 
and delighteth the ioul. My biooai* tb* , i. e. iuch 
its effects as the wipe, which ftrengtbens and reirttfi- 
Clh the heart. 

If. He denied that the external tvcrd which is 
committed to writing in the boh icrtptu'ts, was 
endowed with the power of beating, ttfatninati g 
and renewing the mind ; and he afcnbed this power 
to the infernal worj, which according to his notion, 
wasChrift himfelf. 

III. He Would not allow ChrifVs human nature 
in its exalted ftate to be called a creature, or a crea 
ted fubftance', as fuch a denomination appeared to 
him infinitely below its majeftic dignity, united as it 
is in that glorious ftate with the Divine eflence. 

Mojhtim's Hid vol. Jr. /. 32. 

SECUNDIANS, A left in the fecond century, 
which derived their name from Secundus, a dilciple 
of Valentine. He maintained the doftrine of two 
eternal Principles, viz, Light and Darkn$i** from 
whence arofc the good and the evil that are obferva- 
tic in the univcrie, [See ValentiniansJ 

> vol. i. p. 188. 


S E U 169 

SEEKERS, A (eft which arofe in die year 1645. 
They derived their name from their maintaining^ 
that the true church, miniftry^ Jcripture and ordinan 
ces were loft, for which they were leekin$. They 
taught, that the fcriptures were uncertain ; that pri- 
jeri miracles Wtre neceffary to faith ; that our mi 
ni jiry is without authority ; and our wor/kip \an4 or* 
dinances unwceflary or vain. ( 

Ca am/s Abridgmtnt of Jtaxter't Uiflory, vol. i. p. no. 

SELEUCf *NS, Difeiples of Seleucus, a philofo^ 
pher of Galaiia j who, about the year 380, adopted 
tjie fentirpents of Hermogenes, and thole of Audeus^ 
He taught witfe the Valeqtinians, that Jefut Chrift 
affnmcd a body only in appearance. He allo main 
tained, that the foul was only an atoitnated fire, crea 
ted by the angels, and therefore men (hould be bap 
tized with fire : and that the plcafures of beatitude 
confided in corporeal delights. [See Hermogeni^ 
ans, Audasans, and Valentinians] 

Brighton's Hifloncal Library^ vo/ H f 559. 

SEMBIANI, So called! from Sembianus their lea 
der ; who condemned all ufe of wine as evil of itfelf ' 
he pcrfuaded his followers, that wine was a produc 
tion of Satan, and the earth : denied the reforreo* 
tion of the body ; and rejected moil of the books 
of the Ql^leftament. 

Hijloryof faligion, vol. t> ( [Sic Senliani] 

SEMI-ART ANS, So called becaufe they held tho 
opinions of the Arians in part* 

For a farther account of their fentiments, feo 

f/tflerba' Library vol if. p. 



SEMI-PfiLAGHNS, A branch of the Pelagians 
in the fifth century. The Monk Caffian was the 
leader of thi denomination In order to accommo 
date the difference between Auguftin and Pelagius, 
he maintained the following doftrines : 

I. That Cod did not c'ifpenfe his grace to one 
more than another in co? kquence of fn aeltination : 
i. e. an eternal a:.d cbtoutt* d crce ; but was \\\ 

to fave all men if they complied with the terms of 
his gofpel. 

II. That CHRIST died for all men. 

If I. That the grace pmchakd by Chri/t, and 
iieceffary to falvation, was offered to all men. 

IV. That man, before he received grace, was 
capable of faith and holy dcfirts. 

V. That man, born free y was confequently ca 
pable of refitting the influences of grace, or com- 
pying with its fuggeflions. 

The Petagfans and Semi- Pelagians differ in this 
fcfpefl : the I e-lagians afllrt, that there is no ne- 
ceffity for inward grace ; but the bemi-Pela^u^s 
maintain, th.u none can advance in virtue without 
the affiflahcc of Divine grace, though they fubjedt 
this inward grace to the freedom of the will. [Sec 

Mopt'rx'j Eccl'fjjlical W'Jlr.ry vl i. /. 426. 
Stackboujc't Bo~) of Divinity % p. 150 

SFRVERHNS, A feft in the fecond centorv ; 
fo called irom Serverus ; who tanjrht, that the won d 
\Hras made by Principalities and Powers : that the 
Devil is the fon of the Great Piince of the Princii- 
palities.-^They laid, ihe Serpent that proceeded 


a E R 

iron! him produced^ the vine, and therefore abftained 
from wine. They forbid marriage^ and denied the 
refarre&ion : they rtje&ed Paul's epiftleSj and the 
Ats of the tpojiies. 

Broughton's Biftorical Library, vol ii. p, 540^ 
Hearnit DuRor Hiftoricut t vol. ii. J>. I0l 

MVERltES. [See Angelites] 

SERVETIANS, A name which in the i6th cen 
tury, diftinguiihed the followers of Michael Servetus, 
a Spaniard by birth, He taught;, that the Deity y be 
fore the creation of the world, had produced withia 
himfeljf two personal representation^ or manners of 
exifhnce^ which werb to b'e the medium of fnter- 
courfe between him and mortals, and, by whom, 
confequently, he was to reveal hisrwill, and to dif- 
play his mercy and beneficence to the children of 
xnen r -That thefe two reprefentatives were the 
Word and the Hoty Ghoft * That the former was 
united tcf the man CHRIST, who was born pf the 
Virgin MARY, by an omnipotent act of the Divine 
will $ and that, on; this account, CHRIST might 
be properly called God -That the Holy Spirit di 
rected the courfe, and animated the whole fyftem 
of nature ; and more efpecially produced in the 
minds of men, wife counfels, virtuous propenfities, 
and divine feelings : And finally, that thefe two 
representations were to ceafe after the deftrudlion of 
this terreftrial globe, and to be ablorbed into the 
Jubftance of the Deity > from whence ihey had been 

17* S H A 

Servefus denied infant baptlfnt ; and maintained 
that no man ought to be proiccuted like a criminal,' 
for any doftrinal point. 

Mijheirfi Ecclff ftijl. vet. ir /. 172, 173. 
Memoir t of Literaturt t vol. iv. p. 199. 

SETHIANS, So called becaufe they paid Divine 
worfhip to Sethi whom they looked upon to be 
Jefus Chrirt, the Son of God 5 but who was made 
by a third Divinity, and fubftituted in the room of 
the two families of Abel and Cain, which had been 
destroyed by the deluge. 

This denomination appeared in Egypt about the 
year 190, and continued above two hundred years/ 

Broughton's H:Jl9ricat Library , vol. ii. p. 390. 

SHAKERS, The firft who acquired this deno 
mination were Europeans ; a part of which came 
from England to New York in the year 1774, and 
being joined by others, they fettled at Nijqueunia> 
above sitbany ; from whence they have fpread their 
doctrines, and increaied to a confiderable number. 

Anna Lee/e, whom- they ftile the Elett Lady, is 
the head of this party. They aflert, that fhe is the 
v^onv\n fpoken of in the twelfth chapter of Revela 
tions ; and th 1 H:e (peaks feventy-two tongues : 
And though tLofe tongues are unintelligible to the 
living, (lie converter v;ith the dead, who underftand 
her language. They add further, that fhe is the 
mother of all the elect : that (he travails for the 
whole world : and that no bleffing can delcend to 
any perfon, but only by and through her, and that 
in the way of her being poffeffed of their fins, by 
their conteffing and. repenting of them, one by one, 
accordhj2 to her diredtion* 


S H A ,73 

The principal dodtriDes w^ich arc attributed to 
the Shakers, by thofe who have had opportunities tp 
be acquainted with their religious tennis, are as fol 
low : 

I. That there is a new difpenfation taking place^ 
in which the faints fliall reign a thousand ye*rs with. 
Cbrifl, and attain to perfection j and that they have 
entered into this flate ; are the only church in the 
y^orld 5 and have all the apoftolic gifts,** 

They attempt to prove this dodtrine of a new dif 
penfation by counting the myftical numbers fpecified 
in the prophefies of Daniel, as well as by their figns 
and wonders. 

II. That God, thro' Jefus Chrift in the church, 
is reconciled with man : and that Chrift is come a 
light into human nature to enlighten every man ivb& 
Cometh into the world, without diftindion. 

III. That no man is born of God, until, by 
faith, he is affimulated to the character of Jelus 
Chrid in his church. 

IV. That in obedience to that church, a man's 
faith will encreafe, uptil he comes to be one with 
Chrift, in the Millenium church ftate. 

V. That every man is a free agent to walk in the 
true light, and chufe or rejeft the truth of God with 
in him ; and, of confequence, it is in every man's 
power to be obedient to the faith. 

VI. That it is the gofpel of the firft refurredion 
\vhich is now preached in their church, x 

Y 2 VII. That 

* They sf&rt, that all external ocdinarc^f, ?fpec":^ly tap ^ Jut 
and the lord's fupper, ceafed in the tpojioiic ag* ; aod xhh* God 
sever fsnt or m^n to preach fir ccihai lime, Uiiu! the; en- 

to call ia ih 

T74 H A 

VII. That all who are born of God, as they ex* 
plain the new-birth, Hull never tafte of the Jecond 
death. ' 

VIII. That thofe who are faid to hive been re 
generated among Chriftians, are only regenerated ir* 
part ; therefore, not affimulated into the character 
of Chrift in his church, while in the prefeat llate, 
and, of consequence, not tailing the happineis of thp 
firft relurredion, cannot efcape, in part, the iecond 

IX. That the word everlafting, when applied 
to the punifhment of the wicked, refers only to i 
limitted fpac? of time excepting m the cafe of 
thofe who fall from their church ; But for f.ich, 
there is no forgivenefs, neither 'in this wcrLi, 
that which is to come. 

They quote Matt. xii. 32, to prove thic d'-Jb 

X. That the fecond death having power o* 
fuch as rife not in the character of Chrift in the fii ft 
reiLirredlion, will, in due time, "fill up the mealure 
of his iufFerings beyond the grave. 

XL ^ That the righteoufncfs and fufferings of 
Chrift,in his members, are both one : but that every 
inan fuffers perfonally, witli inexpreffible woe and 
injiery, for (ins not repented of, notwithftanding 
this union, until final redemption. 

XII. That Chrift will never make any public 
appearance, as a fingle perfon, but only in his faints : 
That the judgment day is now begun in their 
church ; and the books are opened, the dead now 
rifing and coming to judgment, and they are fet to 
judge the world, For which they quote ift of Cor. 

S H A 175 

X.I1L That their church is come out of the or 
der of natural generation, to be as Chrift vyas ; and 
that thole who have wives be as though they had 
none ; that l)y ihefe means, Heaven begins upoq 
earth, and they thereby loie their fenfual and earth 
ly relation to Adam the firft, and come to be tran- 
iparent in their ideas in the bright and heavenly vi^ 
|ions of God. 

XIV. That their is no falvation out of obedience 
to the fovereignty of their dominion : that all fin 
which is committed againftGod is done againft them 
^nd muft be pardoned for Chrift's iake thro* them, 
and confe'lion muft be made to them for that purpofe. 

XV. They hold to a travel and Jabour for the 
redemption of departed fpirits. 

iY-e dilcipSSneof this denomination is founded op 

the U ppoied perfedion of their leaders: the mq- \ fai i ob^ys God through Chrift 5 European 

obey er ; American labourers, and the com- 

eopie obey .hem, while confeflion is made of 

-ct in nature, from the oldeft to the yoqng- 

* fle people are made to believe they are feen 

fhrou-.h and t/iroii^h in the gofpcl glafs of perkdion, 

. their teachers, wh-i bchpld rhe ftate of the dead, 

a;ui ttinumerable worlds of fpirits good an i bad. 

Theie people are generally inftruded to be very 
induftrious, and to bring in according to their ability 
to keep up the meeting They vary in their exer- 
cites,their heavy dancing, as it is called, is performed 
by a perpetual fpringing from the houfe floor, about 
four inches up and down, both in the men's and wo 
men's apartment, moving about with extraordinary 
tranfport, finging fometimes one at a time, 
times morej making a per fed charm * 

*4^ <, - * . . %aF 4k , truM -m*nn- mfr ^-' -^ 

176 S I M 

This elevation affefts the nerves, fo that they have 
intervals of fhuddering as if they were in a ftrong 
fit of the ague. They iometimeb ciap hands, and 
leap fo as to ftrike the joift above their heads. They 
throw off their Qiufide garments in theie exercifes, 
and fpend their ftrength very cheerfully this wa^ ; 
their chief fpeaker oftn calls for their attention, 
then they all ftop, and hear fome harrangue, and then 
fall to dancing again. 'They aflert,that their dancing 
is the token of the great joy and happinefs of the new 
Jerusalem Jiate y and denotes the vi&ory overfly 
One of the poftures which incrcafe among them, 
is turning round very fwift for an hour or two. 
This they fay 5s to {how the great power of God. 

They fometimes fall on their knees and make a 
found like the roaring of many waters, in groans 
and cries to God, as they fay, for the wicked world^ 
who perfecute them. 

Hathburrfs Accsunt of the Sbaktrt, p 4 5 6, 14- 

*s Account of Ike Shaktrs, p 4, 7, 89 15 *6- 
Account of the Skakers t p &, 13. 

SIMONIANS, A fed in the firft century ; they 
derived their name from Simon Magos, their leader, 
who is-fo often mentioned in theA(51s of the apoilles ; 
end affumed to himlelf the title of the Supreme 

Power of God. 

This denomination maintained the eternity of 
matter, and alfo the exiflence of an evil Being, who 
prefided and thus {bared the empire of the univerfe, 
with the fupreme and beneficent mind. They pro 
bably embraced the opinion of thofe who held that 
matter -moved from eternity, and by an intrinfic 
and neceflary activity, had from its innate force, 
produced, at a certain period of time, from its own 
? {ubftance 


6 c 177 

Aibftance, the evil Principle which now exercifes 
dominion over it, with all its numerous train of at 
tendants. They are faid to have taught, that alt 
human aflions were indifferent : to have attribu 
ted a (urprifing power to magic : and to have de 
nied the returreClion of the dead. 

Simon Magos taught thofe who followed 
to fail down" before him and his miftrefs Helena; 
in his journey from Alia to Rome, to whom heaf- 
cribed the quality of the firft intelligence of the fo- 
verci^n virtue $ to her he attributed the production 
of snge's, 1 and to angels the creation of the world* 
He pretended that in his perfon refided the greatetl 
and mod perfect of the tfi.v*ne JEons ; and another 
of the female fex, f the Another of all human fouls, 
dwelt in the perfon of his miftrefs Helena, and that he 
came by the command of God, upon earth, to efta- 
blifn the empire of thofe who had formed the ma 
terial world, and to deliver Helena from their power 
and dominion. 

Ecclefaftical ffiflary. vol.i. p. ny. 
Si*tfvn > j Hiflory of the Church, p. 414. 
Dupin's Church Hi/lory^ vol. \\ p 29. 
Forney's Ecciejjitftical Hiftory t vol. i. p. 21. 

SQCINIANS, A denomination which appeared 
In the fmeenth century ; and owed its origin to 
Lelius Socinus, a man of uncommon genius and 
learning ; and to Fauftus Socinus, his nephew ; whp 
propagated his uncle's fentiments in a public inan^ 
ner'after his death. 

The principal tenets maintained by this denomi 
nation are as follow ; to which are added a fewof 
ihe arguments th^y ufe in defence of their fentiments. 

L That 

I. That the holy (captures were to be under-' 
flood and explained in fuch a manner as to render 
them conformable to the dilates of reafon. 

In confequence of this leading point in their I 
blogy^ they maintain, that God, who i infinitely 
nv s re perfect than man, though of a fimilar nature 
in fome refpedls, exerted, an adl of that pov"er by 
\vhich lie governs all thing?; in conh q ;ti: : 
'ivhich, an extraordinary perfon v. as born Vir 

gin A/dry. That perfon was .J.///5 drift, whom 
God firft tranflated to Heaven by thu poition of his 
divine power which is called the holy Gboft ; and 
having inflru&ed him fully in the knowledge of his 
counfels and defigns, fent him agaifi into thi< iublu- 
nary world, to promulgate to mankind a new rule 
of life, more excellent than that under v hich they 
had formerly lived to propagate divine truth by 
his miniitry, and to confirm it by his death. 

That thofe who obey the voice of this Divine tea 
cher ', (and this obedience is in the power of every 
one whofe will and inclination leads that way) &al!, v 
one day, be cloathed with new bodies, and inhabit, 
eternally, thofe blefled regions, where God himfelf 
immediately refides. Such, on the contrary, as are 
difobedient and rebellious, fhall undergo moft ter 
rible and exquifite torments, which fhall be fucceed- 
ed by annihilation, or the total extinction of their 

Thus the Socinians argue againft the Eivinity of 

i. The fcriptures contain the cleared: and moft 
cxprefs declarations that there is but one God y with 
out ever mentioning any exception in favour of a 

C 179 

or guarding us againft being led into any 
miftake by fuch general and unlimited expreffions, 
Ex. xx. 3. Tboii llalt have no other GOD but me. 
Deut vi. 4. Mark xii. ao. ift of Cor. viii. 6 Eph. 
iv. 5. 

2. This one GOD is faid to have created all things; 
and no intimation is given of his having employed 
any inferior agent in the work of creation. Gen. i. 
1. <c In the beginning GOD created the heaven 
and the earth." Pfalms xxxiii, 6. v. 9. 

3. This one GOD is called the Father, i. e, the 
Author of all Beings ; and he is called God and Fa 
ther with refpeft to Chrift, as Weil as all other per- 
fons. John vi. 27. xvii. 3. xx. 17, Col, i. 3. 

4. Chrift is faid expreflly to be inferior to the 
Father \ all his power is faid to have been given 
him by the Father, and he could do nothing with 
out the Father. John xiv. 28. " My Father i* 
greater than 1." lit Cor. iii. 23. John v. 19. Mat. 
xxviii, 1 8. 

5. Some things were withheld from Chrift by his 
Father, Mark xiii. 32. <c But of that day and 
that hour knowetb no man, no not the angels which 
are in Heaven, neither tfo Son, but tbeFatber. Mat. 
xx. 23. 

They alledge, that it is impoffible to reconcile the 
dodrine of the fatisfadion for fin by the death of 
Chrift, with the dolrine of free grace ; and if Chrift 
paid a full price for our j unification, j;here can be no 
free grace in GOD in pardoning us on that account 

The Socinians rejeft the dodlrines of original fin, 
and predeftination. They maintained that man, be 
fore his fall, was naturally mortal, and had no ori- 

Z ginal 


ginal righteoufnefs : and that God has no knowledge 
of future contingencies but alternately. 

This denomination differ from the Arians in the 
following particular^ : 

The Socinians deny that Chrift had exiftence be 
fore he was born of the blefled Virgin. 

The Arians fay, that Chrift was generated befor* 
the world 5 and in procds of time became incarnate 
in our nature. 

The Socinians fay, that the Holy Gboft is th* 
power and wifdom of God, which is God. 

The Arians fay, that the Holy Spirit is the crea 
ture of the Son, and fubfervient to him in the work 
of redemption. 

For an account of the Socinian divlfions, fee 
Bidclians, Budneians, and Farvonians. 

Mo/heini's Ecclcf. Hi ft. vol. iv. p. 167 I93t T9f* 
Colliers HiJloricalDtftionaryi vol \\ [Stc &oci*ium~\ 
Lcjlit Socinian Controverfi, p j6 
Pricfl'hy'r s'fyeat, p. 19 47.46 49. 

SOLDINS, So-called from their leader one Soldi it* 
a Greek Prieft. They appeared about the middlr 
of the fifth century, in the kingdoms of Saba and 
Godolia. They altered -the manner of the facrifice 
ot the mafs ; thei* Pr ierts offered gold ; their Deacons, 
incenfe 5 and their Sub -deacons,, myrrh ; and this 
in memory of the like offerings made to the infant 
JESUS by the wife men. Very few authors men 
tion the Soldins, neither do we know whether they 

Brcugkton's Hiftvrlcal Library, vol ii p. 560. 


SUB iti 

STANCARIANS, The difciples of Francis Stan- 
jcarus, profeffor of the Hebrew tongue, and a native 
of Mantua, in Italy. 

The tenet which he mod eagerly defended was, 1 
that Jefus Chrift was a Mediator, in quality of a 
mere man, and not in quality of God aiid man. 

This denomination took its rife in the fixteentk 

Broughton's Hiftorical Library v*l. it. p. 561. 

STIL1TES, So called by the Greeks ; and Sanfti 
Columnaries, or Pillar-Saints, by the Latins. They 
flood motionlefs upon the tops of pillars, expreffly 
raifed for this exercife of their patience, and remain 
ed there for feveral years, amidft the admiration and 
applaufe of the populace. 

The inventor .of this difcipline was Stmeon, a Syr/- 
an, who, in order to climb as near Heaven as poffi- 
ble, * paffed thirty feven years of his life upon five 
pillars of fix, twelve, twenty- two, thirty-fix, and 
forty cubits high ; and thus acquired a moft (Lining 
reputation, and attracted the veneration of all about 
him. Many of the inhabitants of Syria followed 
hi$ example, though not with the fame degree of 
aufterity : and this practice, which was begun in 
the fifth, continued in vogue till the twelfth century. 

Mtfceim's Ecchjia/lical Hifttry, vol. i. p 391. 
Hijiory of Don Ignatius > vvl. i. p. 31. 

SUBLAPSARIANS, An appellation given to 
thole Cahinijts who fuppofe,, that the decree of pre- 
Z 2 deflination 

* It 11 faid that Simeon imagined he faw an angel of light jca- 
g to him in a fiery chariot to c :rry him to Ile^vco, aad lifted 
nb Coo:, ia order to cater the 4ma* vehicle. 

.28*' TAB 

deflination regards ipan as fallen, by sn abivfe of that 
freedom which Adam had, into a Itate, in which 
all were to be left to necefiary and unavoidable ruin> 
\vho were not exempted from it by predeftination. 

Doddridgis Ltfiurts t />. 460. 

SUPRALAPSARTANS, A title given to tliofe 
Calvimfts who fuppc*fe,that God intended to glorify 
his juftice in the condemnation of feme, as well as 
his mercy in the falvation of others ; and for that 
purpofe decreed, that Sldam fhould neccflarily fall, 
and by that fall bring himfelf and his offspring into 
a ftate of everlafting condemnation. 

Doddridge^s Lefiures. ibid. 

SYNCRETISTS, A name given to the follow 
ers of Calixtus. [See Calixtins] 

SYNERGISTS, So called from the Greek word 
[funcrgeia] which fignifies cooperation. Hence 
this name was given to thofe in the fixtccnth cen 
tury, who denied that GOD was the fole agent in the 
converfion of finful man ; and affirmed, that man 
co-operated with divine grace in the accompli fo 
ment of this falutary purpofe. 

Mo/he MM'S Ecclef, Hifl. vol. if. p t /jo. 

TA B O R I T E S, A feft in the fifteenth cen 
tury ; fo called from a mountain well known 
in facred hiftory. They not only infifted upon re 
ducing the religion of JESUS to its primitive fira- 
plicity, but required alfo that the fyftem of ecclefia- 
ilical government fhould be reformed in the lame 
manner -, the authority of ^the Pope deftroyed ; the 


TAN 183 

form of divine worfhip changed : they demanded, 
in a word, the erection of a new church, a new 
hierarchy, in which CHRIST alone fhould reign, 
and all things fhould be carried on by a Divine di- 
re&iou and impulfe. 

The famous Jqbn Zijca, a Bohemian Knight, was 
the leader of this denomination. They maintained, 
that it was lawful to perfecute and extirpate, with 
fire and (word, the enemies of the true religion : 
and fome of the principal doflors among the *Tabo- 
rices, f'uch as Martin Loquis, and his followers, flat 
tered themselves that CHRIST would defcend in 
perfon upon earth, armed with fire and fword, to 
extirpate fatfe opinions in religion, and purify the 
church from its multiplied corruptions. Soon after, 
however, this denomination abandoned the doflrines 
wh ; ch upon ferious examination, they found to be 
incontinent wiih the fpirit and genius of the gofpel. 
The '1 aborites> thus new modelled, were the fame 
vmh thofe Bohemian brethren, who joined Luther 
and his fucceflbrs at theReformation ; and of whom 
there, are at this day many of the defcendants and 
followers in Poland, and other countries, 

Mo/beim's EceJt/. Hift vol. iti />. 260, 262, 263, 264. 
Gtiptfs Lift of Zifca, /. 296- 

TANQUELINIANS, So called from Tanqueli- 
nus, who formed a numerous fet in Brabant and 
Antwerp, in the twelfth century. He treated with 
contempt the external worfhip of God, the facra- 
jnent of the Lord's fupper, and the rite of bapti/m ; 
and held clandefline aflemblies to propagate his opi 
nions. He declaimed againft.the vices of the clergy 
vehemence and intrepidity, 

Mojktim's EeetfJ. fiiji. vol. ii. p. 448, 449. 


8 4 TRI 

TATIANITES, A fcft in the fecond century ; 
fo called from their leaderTatian, a difciple oiju/tifi 

They were however more frequently diftinguifh-; 
cd by the names of Encratites, or Continents ; Hy- 
droparaftates, or Drinkers of Water j Apotadtites, 
or Renouncers. 

[For an account of the fentiments of this denomi 
nation, fee Encratites] 

Mo/heim's Ecclejiajlical Hiflory. vol. i. p. 180. 

THEODOSIANS. [See Angelites] 

THEOPASCHITES, A feft in the fifth century, 
which derived their name from theGreek of [TheosJ 
God, and [pacho] to fufFer. 

They were charged with maintaining, that the 
whole Trinity fuffered in the perfon of Je/us Cbnft, 

One Peter, firnarrfed Fullo, was the author of this 

Mofhciirfi \lid* p 417 
Bailey's 'Dictionary, vol. ii. [Stf Theop a fcbites"\ 

TRASKITES, A fe<3 which arofe in the vear 
j6<4- They derived their name from Mr. John 
Tralke. His opinions were fimilar to the Saboata- 
rians. [See Sabbatarians] 

Pagift Ptrtjiographj) p 135. 

TRISORMIANI, A feft which appeared about 
the year 408 ; fo called from the Latin [tria-forma] 
They maintained, that the Divine nature was one 
and the fame in three per/om together, but imperfect 
in the federal perjons. 

i Dufttr Hiftoricvt, vol. \\ p. 170. 



T illf HEISTS, A fed in the fixth century; 
whofe chief was John Afcufnage, a Syrian philofo- 
pher, and at the fame time a Monophyfite. This 
ifcan imagined in the Deity three natures, or fub- 
ftances, abfolutely equal in all relpeds, and joined 
together by no common tflence : to which opinion 
his adverfaries gave the name of Trithcifm, front 
the Greek of [treis] three/ and [Tfobs] God. One 
of the warmed defenders of this dodlrine was John 
Philoponus, an Alexandrian philofopher and gram 
marian of the highefl reputation and hence he was 
confidered by many as the author of this (eft, whofe 
members have confequently derived from him the 
title of Philoponifts. 

This fe<3 was dividedi into two parties, the Phi 
loponifts, and the Cononites ; but they differecl only 
concerning the doftrine of the rejurreSion. Phi 
loponus maintainedjthat ihtjorm as well as the mat- 
ttr of all bodies was generated and corrupted^ and 
7 that both therefore were to be reftored in the r%ur~ 

[See Cononites, for an account of the tenets of 
that denomination J 

Mo/helm's Eccltf. flifl. vvl. \ .. 473. 
Burclafs Ditlionary. [Set Tritbtijii] 

TURLUPINS, A fcft which appeared about 
the year 1372. Their principal fcene was in Savoy 
and Dauphiny. 

They taught, that when a man is arrived at a 
certain date of perfection, he is freed from all fub- 
jeftion to the divine law. They often went naked : 
and they allowed of no prayer to God but mental. 
John Dabantonne was the author of this denomina 


tion. Some think they were called Turluplns, be- 
caufe they ufually abode in places expofed to wolves, 
[lupis] They called themfelves the Fraternity G J 
tbe poor. 

Broughton's Biftorical Lifrrarj, vol. \\ p. 474. 
Tab/ej, vet. ii f> 243* 

VALENTIN I ANS, A fed which fprung 
up in the fecond century 5 fo called from 
their leader Valentinus. Their principles were, gc^ 
nerally fpeaking, the fame with the Gnoftics, whole 
name he aflumed, yet in many things he entertained 
opinions peculiar to himfelf. He placed, for inftance, 
in the Pltroma, (fo the Gnoftics called the habita^ 
tion of the Deity) thirty JEons, of which the one 
half were male, and the other female. To thefe 
he added four others, which were of neither lex, viz. 
HcruSt who guarded the borders of the Pieroma, 
Chrift, the Holy Ghoft, and Jefas. The youngcit 
of the JEonS) called Sophia y (i. e. wifdom) conceiv 
ed an ardent defire of comprehending the nature of 
the fupreme Being % and by the force of this propen- 
iity, brought forth a daughter, named Achamoth. 
jicbamoth being exiled from the P!eroma 9 fell 
down into the rude and undigested mafs of mattc^ 
to which ihe gave a certain arrangement ; and by 
the affiftance of Jejus, produced the Demiurge, the 
Lord and Creator of all things. This Demiurge fe- 
parated the lubtle or animal matter from that of the 
grofler, or more terreflriat kind 5 out of the former 
he created the Superior world, or the vifible Hea 
vens ; and^out of the latterhe formed the inferior 
world, or this terraqueous globe. He alfo made 



than, in whofe compofitiort the fubtle^ aftd alfo the 
groffcjr matter were both united, and that in equal 
portions 5 bat Achamoth %i the mother of Demiurge^ 
added to thefe two fubftancesj of which the human 
race was formed a fpiritual and celeftial fubilance. 

The Creator of this world,ac0ordmg to VaUntine^ 
arrived, by degrees, to that pitch of arrogance, that 
he either imagined hinifelf to be God alone, or, at 
leaft, was defirous that mankind fiiould confidec 
him as fucru t For this purpofe, he fent forth pro 
phets to the Jewi(h nation, to declare his claim to 
the hond'ur that is due to the fop* erne Being $ and in 
this alfo the other angels who prefide over the different 
parts of the univerie immediately fet themfelves to imi 
tate his ambition. . To chaftife this lawlefs arrogance 
of Demiurge^ and to Illuminate the minds of ration 
al beings with the knowledge of the true and [upremc 
)<?/>>', Chrift appeared upon earth, compofed df an 
animal nd fpiritual fubftance, and cloathed, moreo 
ver, with an ferial body. This Redeemer paffed 
through the womb of Mary, as the pure water 
flows through the untainted conduit. Jefas t one of 
the fupreme Mom, was fubftantiaily united to him, 
^hefi h'e was baptized by John in the waters of 
Jordan. The Creator of the world, when he per 
ceived the foundations of his empire were fhaken by 
this Divine man, caufed him to be apprehended and 
nailed to the crofs. But before CHRiST fubmitted 
to this puniihment, not only Jejus^ the Son oj God 9 
but alfo the rational foul of Chrift afcended up on 
high ; fo that only the animgl foul and the etherial 
body fuffered crucifixion. Thofe who abandoning 
the fervice of falfe Deities, and the worfkip of the 
God of the Jeu>$> live according ta the precepts of 

A a 

U C K 

Cbriff, and fubmit the animal and fertfual foul to 
difcpline of reafon, (hall be truly happy : their ra 
tional, and alfo their fenfual fouls (hall afcend to 
thofe glorious feats of blifs which border on the 
P/<rr0w*. And when all the parts of the Divine na 
ture, or all fouls are purified thoroughly, and Sepa 
rated from matter, then a raging fire^ let loofe frorn 
ItsprHon, fhall fpreid its flames throughout the uni- 
verfe, and diffolve the frame of this corporeal world. 

The denomination of the Valentinians was divi 
ded into many branches. [See Ptolemates, Secun- 
dians, and Heracleonites] 

Mothers Ecc'tf. Hifi vvl.'i p 185 186 1*7, 1*8. 

VANISTS, So called from Sir Henry Vane, who 
was appointed Governor of Rew- England in the 
year 1636 5 and is fa-id to have been at the head of 
that party, in New-England, who were charged 
with maintaining Antinmian tenets. [See 

Ctlamfi Abridgment ', vol \ p, 98. 

UBIQUITARIANS, A feft which derived their 
'name from their maintaining, that the body of Jefus 
Chrift is [ubique] every where, and in every place. 

Brentius is faid to have firft advanced this fenti- 
jnent, about the year 1560. The Ubiquitarians 
were not quite agreed among themfelves : fome hold- 
Ing, thatjelus Chrift, even during his mortal life, was 
every where ; and others dating the ubiquity of his 
tody from the time of his alcenfion only. 

Broughton's Hiflorical Difiionary, vol. ii. /. 481. 

UCKEWALLISTS, A fed which derives its 
denomination from Uke-Wa)les, a native of Frief- 
land, who published his fentimems in the year i6^jl 


U N I |8* 

He entertained a favourable opinion of the eternal 
#ate of Judas, and the reft of Chrift's murderers. 
To give an air of plaufibility to this fentiment, he 
invented the following hypothefis :-^That the pe 
riod of time which extended from the birth ofChrifl 
to the dcfcent of the Holy Ghoft, was a time of 
deep ignorance and darkueis ; during which the 
Jews were void of light, and ehtirely deftitue of 
Divide fuccour ; and chat of confeq ience, the fins 
*ind enormities which were committed during this 
Interval,, were in a great meafure excufable, and 
could not merit the fevereil diiplays qf the Divine 

This denomination M&ly adhere to tl?e doaripe 
and difcipline of the primitive Mennonites, The 
ceremony of wafliing the feet of ftrangers, who 
come within the reach of their hospitality, ihe 
$fteem a fight of Diyine inftittttion. 

Mt/hcfa's, Ecchjfaftical Hijlory^ vol. v. fr 48, 49- 

VERSCHORISTS, A Dutch fe<3, which derived 
its denomination from Jacob Verfchoor, a native of 
Flufliing, who publiftied his fentiments in the year 
1680. i?he religious tenets of this denomination 
referable the Hauemifts, in molt points. [See 

Mofhtim*s Eccltjiafliwl ffijl. vol. iv. />. 552. 

UNITARIANS, A name given to the dntitrlm- 
tartans ; the Sociniaw are alfo lo called. The term 
is very compreheafive, and is applicable ta a great 
variety of psrfons, who, notwkhilanding, agree in 
this common principle, that there is no diftinftkfk 
JBivitie nature* 

Mojheim's Ecclefiajjical Hifory, ?ol, v. p. 5,8, 

A a 2 


UNIVERSALITS, The fentiment which has 
acquired its profeffors this appellation, was embra 
ced by Qrigen in the third century ; and in more 
modern times by Chevalier Ram fay, Dr. Cbeyne, Mr. 
Hartttyi and others. 7 he' plan of univtr/al /aha- 
lion, as exhibited by a learned divine of the prefent 
ctay, who, in a late performance, entitled, The Jdha- 
&on of ail men y has made feveral additions to the 
fentiments ot the above mentioned authors, is as 

That the fcheme of revelation has the happinef^ 
of all mankind lying at bottom, as its great and ul 
timate end that it gradually tends to this end ; and 
'ifrill not fail of its accomplifhment, when fully com- 
pleated. Some, in confequence of its operation, as 
Conduced by the Son o^God % will be difpofeci and en 
abled, in this prelent ftate, to make fuch improve- 
irients in virtue, the only rational preparative lor 
fcappinefs, as that they {hall enter upon the enjoyment 
6t it in the next ftate. " Others, who have proved 
incurable under the means which have been ufed 
with them in this ftatc, inftead of being happy in 
t^he next, will be awfully miierable ; not to conti 
nue io finally, but that they may be convinced of 
their folly, and 'recovered 'to "a virtuous frame of 
mind : and this will be the efFedt of the future tor 
ments upon many ; the confequence whereof will be 
their faivation- thfcy being thus fitted for it. Ai 
there may be yet other ftates, before <ic fcheme of 
God may be perfected, and mankind univcrially 
cured of their moral diforders, and in^this way qua 
lified for, and finally inflated in, eternal happinefs. 
But however many ftates fome of the individuals of 
the human fpccies may pals through, and however 



long eontjnuance they may be, the whole is intend 
ed to lubferve the grand defign of umverfal hap* 
pine/s, and will finally terminate in it $ inioinuch, 
that the Son of God and Saviour of men % will not de 
liver up his truft into the hands of the Father^ who 
committed it to him, till he has dilcharged his ob 
ligations in virtue of it j having finally fixed all mea 

in Heaven, when God will be Ail in All. 

\ ^ ' . ~* ' i 

A few of the arguments made ufe of in defence 
of this fyfteoi, are as follow : * 

I. Chrift died not for a te!e<t number of mea 
only, but for mankind unherjaliy^ and without c- 
exception or limitation. 

For the facred writers are Cngularly emphaticaj 
in exprtfljng this truth. They Ipeak not only of 
CHRIST'S < dying JorutS* * /or our fin*," " /or 
JinnertJ'. \\ for the ungodly" " for the u?jn/i * 
but afBrm in yet more extenfive terms, that u he 
died, for the world", for " v the whoie ivorlt," See 
ift, of Thef. v. 10. jft, of Cor. xv. 3. Rom. 
y. 6. 8. ift, of Pet, iii. 18. John K 29, iii. 
16,^ 17. ift* of John. ii. 2 Heb. ii. 9. and a 
yariety of other paffages. 

If Chrift died for all, 'tis far more reafonable to 
Relieve, that the whole human kind, in confequence 
of his death, will finally be faved, than that the 
greateft part of them ihould perifh. More honour 
^s hereby refle&ed on GOD 5 greater virtue is attri- 


* The learned author cf rhe performance, frooa whence theft 
arguments are c x^nacd; has illuftrared the pa/Tagcs of (crip are 
quo td by critic 1 notci on the original language ; and br ihew* 
ing their aaaJogy to other p^lfigei in the iufpired 
foruj a juft y^| p| the arguments pttft 


bated to the blood of Cbrift flied on the erofs j 
and inftead of dying in vain, as to any real good 
which will finally be the event, with refpedt to thp 
greateft part of mankind, he \\ill be made to die to 
the bed and nobleft purpole, even the eternal hap- 
pinels of a whole world of intelligent and moul 

II. It is the purpofe of God, according to his 
good pleafure, that mankind uxiverjafy, in conie- 
quence of the death of his Son Jefus Chriit, ihall 
Cfrfainly and finally be faved. 

The texts which afcertain this, arc thofe which 
Ibflow : fir ft. Rom. v. i2th to the end. There 
jhdam is confitfere4 as the fource of damage to man 
kind untoerfally : And Cbrift, on the ether hand, ^s 
a like fource of advantage to the fame jnankmd ; 
feut with this obferv^ble difference, that the advan 
tage oft the fide of CHRIST exceeds, overflows, 
abounds, beyond the damage on the fide of AD/iM - 9 
a"nd this to all mankind. The 1 5th, i6th, and i;th 
terfes are abfolutely unintelligible upon any other 

Another text "to the purpofe of our prefent argu 
ment, we meet with in Rom. viii. from the igih 
to the 24th verfe. On the one hand it is affirmed 
of the creature^ that is, of mankind in general^ that 
they are iubjrifad to vanity, that is, the imperf eel ions 
and infelicities of a vain mortal life 1 here on earth. 
On the other hand, it is pofiiively affirmed of the 
ereature^ or mankind in general^ that they were not 
lubjedled to this vanity, finally and forever > but in 
confequence of Hvpe, not only that they Ihould be de 
livered from this unhappy fubjettim> but inflated in 
immortal gtiry 9 as God's Jons* 


Another text to this purpofe occurs in Gol. i. 
19, 20, For it pleated the Father ', that in bim-fl-ould 
nil fullm/s dwell j " ##<* (having made peace thro* 
the blood of the cro/sj by him to reconcile" ail things 
unto bim'eft &c.* And in this epiftle, ii, chap. $ 
ver(e, the apo/iie> fpeakiag of Chrift, fays, " in hint 
dw-lletb atitbefuilnefc tf the Godhead bodily," that 
i?, he is the glorious per/on in whom God has really 
lodged, and through whoni he will adhiatly com 
municate all that /fc/%/j wherewith he intends this; 
lapled world Jhall be filled, in order to Us rejioration* 
And Chrift having this fullneft lodged in him, afcen- 
ded up jar above all Heavens, that he might fiu all 
things* fephi iv. 10^ And as the filling ail things 
in the lapled world, that they might be reflored, was 
the final caufe of the afcention of Chrift up to Hea 
ven, all things muft accordingly be filled in fal by 
him fooner or later< The apoftle, therefore, ob- 
ferves in the following verfes^ not only that he has 
imparted gifts, in profecution of the end of his ex 
altation, but that, in order to the full accomplishment 
of it, he would go on to impart them, <c //// we all 
come to the unity of the faith unto a per f eft man y un 
to the mcafure of the ftature of the fullnejs of Chnftr 
And it is declared, in ph. i. 9, 10, that all thefe 
things, in Heaven and tarib^ ftiall be reduced from 
the ilate they were in by means of the lapfe , into a 
tyell-fubjedted and fubordinate whole, by CHRIST. 


* Our author pfifaphrafes thefe texts in thft following manner, 
" It pleafed the Father that all communicable futlnejs IhouW be 
lodged iti his Sou Jefut Chrift, and by him as his great agent* 
(having prepared the way for it by his blood fhsd on the croft) 
to changt back again all thingt to him f elf ; I fay, by him it pleafrdt 
the F4ther to change the fiate of ibis Iftucr morlA, of the men, 
and the thingt of it, whether shej U Oft tht Wtk* Of IA the Hta- 
wn that iatonaxiFss it. 


' * , - 

Another proof of the prefent propofition we find 
in i Tim. ii. 4. If God is able, in confiftency with 
hiens make, as moral and intelligent agents, to effed; 
their falvation, his defining they (hould be javed^ and 
his eventually laving them, are convertible terms. 

III." As a means in order to rriens being made 
ineet for falvation, God will, fooner or later, intbii 
ftate or another, reduce them bit under a willing and 
obedient lubjeflion to his moral government. 

The texts which donfirm this propofition are nu- 
tnerous. The apoftle fays, in I John iii. 8, For thii 
purpofe IMS the Son of God manife/led, that he might 
tieltroy the works of the Devil. Parallel to this paf- 
fage, lee John i. 2$; Matt. i. 21;. and Pfa. viii. 5, 6, 
as explained and argued from Heb. ii. 6; 9. The<e 
words are applicable to thrift in their ft rift a : nd full 
fenfc: And if ALL THINGS, without any limita 
tion or exception^ (hall be brought under fubjedion to 
C/6r//?, then the time muft come, fooner or later, in 
this ftate or fome other, when there fhall be no rebels 
among the fons of Adam -no enemies againft the 
moral government of God. For there is no way of 
reducing rebeS, fo as to deftroy their charnfler as 
fucb, but by making them witling and obedient fab- 
jefits. That this fcripture is thus to be understood 
is evident by parallel paffage in Phil. ii. 9, 10, 1 1. 
The next portion of fcripture in proof of the pfefent 
propofition, we meet with in i Cor. xv. chap, from, 
the 24th to the end of the agth verfe. Though the 
apoitlc, in this paragraph, turns our view to the end 
of mediatory fcheme^ it is affirmed, that univerlal fub- 
je&ion to Chrijl (hall firft be efFcfted, in a variety 
of as ftrong and exfenfive terms as could well have 
been ufed : as by <c putting dowy alt rule, and all 


U N I 

tfnd power ;" by " putting alt enemies un 
der his feet" &c. It is worthy of ipecial nonce, 
that before Chrift's delivery of the meaiatorialk\\\v- 
dom to the Father, the la/i enemy mujl be deflro\ed^ 
which is Death, the SECOND DEATH, whicii 
thofe who die wicked men muft fufFer BEFjR^ 
they can be reduced under willing fubjedion to Jefu* 
Cbrift. For the firft death cannot be called the 
LAS? iSNEAff* with propriety and truth, becaufe 
thv fecond death is pofterior to it, and has no exigence 
till that has been fo fair deftroyed as to allow of a ref- 
toration to life. 

The two period*, when the mediatory kingdom is 
in the hands of Je/us CM/?, and when God as King, 
will be immediately All in All y are certainly quite 
diftind: from each other. And the reign of Chrift 
in his mediatorial kingdom, may be divided into two 
general periods. The one takes in this prefenf ftate 
of etifterice, in which Chrift reigns at the head of 
Gcd'f kingdom of grace, and that one tjfeSt whereof 
tvill be the reduction of a number of the ions of 
Adam under fuch an obedience to God, as that they, 
will be fitted for a gloricMs immortality in the next 
ftate. The other period of Cbrifis reign, \**.tbat 
which intervenes between the general refurreftion 
and judgment, and the time when God (hall be All 
in sill. This ftate may contain a duration of to long 
continuance, as to aniwer to the fcripturc phraiis 
\ew tous aionas ton aidnion] for ever and ever ; or, 
as might more properly be rendered, for ages of a?*s. 
During the whole of this ftate, the righteous (hall 
be happy, and the wicked, who are mott- obdurate^ 
MISERABLE, till they are reduced as wilting and obe 
dient iubjetfs to Chrift ; which, when accomplished, 

B b 

j 9 6 UNI 

the %rand period ftid\ commence, when God (hall be 
himielf immediately All in Alt. 

IV. The fcripture language concerning the te~ 
ducedor rejlored, in confequence of the mediatory 
interposition of Je/.s Cbrift, is fuch as to lead us 
into the thought, that they are comprehenfive of 
mankind unfair jally. 

There is one text at lead fo fully expreffive of this 
idea, as renders it incapable of being underftoofl in 
any other fenfe ; it is Rev. v. 13 : " And ever? 
creature which is in Heaven, and on the eartb y and 
under the earth , aidjuch as are in the fea y and alt 
that are in them^ beard I ja}ing> Blejfing and bonoi*r % 
and glory y and power , be unto him that fitteth upon the 
throne, and unto the Lamb^ forever and ever. 

Dr. Chauncy'i Sa'vstion of all Men p. 12, 13, 20, 22* 
81 91. 117, 118. 123 124.1?;. 126 146 163 167, 
17*. 171 172, 17V 177, 178 179, 182, 183, 184, 

186, 197, 198, 2C8, 209, 211, 217, 2l8, 219 222, 

237. 2$8. 

UNIVERSALISTS, This title alfo diainguimes 
thofe who embrace the fentiments of Mr. Relley, 
a modern preacher of univerfal laivation, in Eng- 
land+vnA Mr, Murray, in America. This denomi 
nation build their fcheme upon the following foun 
dation, viz.* 

That Chf'ut as Mediator \vas fo united to man 
kind, that his adtions were theirs, his obedience and 
iufferings theirs, and confequently he has as fully 
reilored the whole human race to the divine favour, 
as if all had obeyed and fuffered in their own per- 


* The d ffererce between tbif party ard'he Ckaunctan Univcr* 
fa iftt will Appear cbvicui, bjr ccoiparirg thU with the picccdicg 

UNI 197 

fons. The divine law now has no demands uparj 
them, nor condemning power over them. Their i^W 
vation folely depends upon their union toCr//?,wri!ch 
God contVuuted and eftabiiihed before the wotld 
began. And by virtue of this union, they will all 
be admitted to Heaven at the ta/i day , not one of 
Cbrift's members, not one of Adam's race will be 
finally loft. Chrift having taken on him the feed of 
Abraham, he in them, and they in him, fulfilled all 
rjghteoulnefs, obeyed the law, and underwent the 
penalty for the paft tranfgreffion, being all made 
perfefl in one. According to this union, or being in 
him, as. branches in the <vine Y as members in the body, 
$cc. the people are confidered together with him 
through all the circumftances of his birth> life* 
death> rejurreffion % and glory. And thus confider- 
ing the whole law fulfilled in ^eftis, and apprehend 
ing ourielves united to him, his condition and ftato 
is ours. And thus (landing in him we can read 
the law, or the dodlrine of rewards and puni(hment$ 
without fear ; becaufe all the threatenings in the law 
of God, have been executed upon us (as finners and 
law-breakers) in him. And this facrrfice of Jdus 
is atl-lufficicnti without any aft of ours, mental or 

This denomination alledge, that the union 

h\s church, is a neceffary confideration for the 
Sight explanation of the following fcriptures $ as 
Pia. cxxxiv. 16, In thy book all my members were 
written Eph. v. 30^ We are members of his bod$ 9 
cf bis fltlh> and of bis bones, ift. of Cor. xii. 26, 
Whether one member Jt*ffer> all the members fufer 
with it : or one member be honoured* atl the members 
it. ift.. of Cor. xiit 12, Fw a* 
B b z 

r i9* U N I 

is Qne> and bath many members, and alltte 
bers of that one ^Wv 5 being many, arc one bidy : So 
aiu isChnft. ' See Col i. "i 8 Eph. i. 22, 23 
Col. ii. ic Rom. xii. 5 Eph. ii. 16 Heb. ii. 
ii~-J!m xviL 22, 23, and a variety of other pa(- 
fage^ in the inipired writings. 

The . fc-iptnre- affirm, that ^ by the offence of om^ 
j- .gment caw upon ali t men, unto condemnation" 
Rp n v '-'. ^ For all have (infed^ and come [kort 
Oj ibc gkrv e? Gf<d.". Rom. iii. 29. It is evident 
hem c, thai in Adam's offence all offended 5 which 
,'t-s inch a unwn between Adam and liis off- 
i ring, thai his fin was their fin, and his ruin their 
join : thus bj his offence were they made fmners ; 
vyhiitt ^hey included in him were in paffivity, and 
he the adlive coniciou(nefj> of' the whole. And that 
] (i - fiji has corrupted the whole mais of mankind, 
bpth the iqiptures and common experience evident 
ly declare, if it be granted that there was fuch a 
inion between Adam^nA his offspring, as rendered 
Lis fin their's, why (hould it be thought a thing in 
credible, that the like union iubiifling between Jefus 
$nd his feed, renders his condition their's ? efpecwi- 
ly, as the apoftle has dated the matter thus : " ^/j 
by one man's dilobedience, many wtre made fmnen ; /o 
by the obedience of one, (hail many be made righteous" 
Ri m. v. 19. c The fcriptures here fliowing the me 
thod of fin in Adam> and ot grace in Chrift y lake an 
c , ,fion to illuftrate the latter by the former : inti- 
m.iiinjr, that as fin came upon all Adam's poflcrity 
by his fingle adl, before they had any capacity of 
finning, after the iimilitude of his tranfgreiTion, or of 
perional concurrence- with him in his iniquity j it muft 
nave been from iuch a itnim to hknj as rendered 

UNI 159 

his condition their's, in whatever ftate he was',- ' 
Th-.;s '" by 'one man's dijcbcdience, many were made 
jinners" *n like manner Cfyrift's righteou/nefs is up 
on aU his (eed ; by his .fingle adt, before they ha4 
any capacity of obeying, after the fimilitude of his 
obcdie;-ce ; or of aflenting to what he did, or fuffbr- 
cd : this manifefts iuch a union to him, as renders 
his cov.diiion theirs, in every ftate which he pafled 
thion/^h, iiiiomuch that his righteoufnels, with all 
the hieffings and fruits thereof, is theirs, before they 
ytre avlcious ot exiftence ; Thus " hy tbe obedi* 
tnce of one, are niany madt righteous."* 

T ) prove that the atonement was fattsfadory for 
^!K \*\<>'-\z human race, 'hey alledge, that the fcrip- 
tures. abound with puUuve declarations to this eftecl : 
V 1 be re Hi ration o> aii things is preached by the 
ifiouth of at* G 4's. holy prophets, ever fince tbe world 
fagan" it is (aid that " Chrift, died for all" tha,t 
44 he is the propitiation for our fins^ and not for curs 
##/v, b;ut ,gr. t'k$, flris <?/ th& yo$oi$ world' 9 

This denomination admit of no punishment for 
fin, but, what Chrlft iuffered ; but fpeak of a^u- 
nifljm.eqt vyhich is Qpnlequen^ upon fin, as darkne!s 9 
^7/?T x and tnifery, which, they aflert, are ever 
attendant upon tranfgrefllon. But as the fcriptures 
affire us, the .btood of Jefus ctean'etb jrom all Rn^ 
*' fbat my fiery of iniquity," which is fo predomi 
nant at prefent in the human heart, will finally <c be 
consumed by the pirit of his mouth and be dtftroyed 
bj tbf brightness of hh coming. 9 ' As <e to know the 
true God^ and Jf/us Chrlft is life eternal " and as 
* e all (kail kn^ Lim from the lea/i to thegrtateft" 
That knowledge, or belief, will confequently difpel 
gr fa,ve irom all t^at darknej$) ctiftrejs and fear which 


*oo W A L 

is ever attendant on guilt and unbelief ': and being 
perfcdly holy we ihaU conk oi.ently be pericdly and 
eternally happy. 

Rellj'sUvion p 7 8 1J 14 22,26,3$. 
7Vwf//tf*^'* Remarks p 16 17. 
Female Cateehtfm> />. 13. 


WALDENSES, Many authors of note maka 
the antiquity of this denomination :ctval 
with the apottolic age.* The following is rt n ^x- 
trad from their conjeffion of /aifb, which is ia'ul to 
have been copied out of certain manufcriprs, bearing 
date near four hundred years before the time of - 
tber^ and twenty before Pettr Waldo. 

I. That the fcriptures teach, that there is one 
GOD Almighty , all wi(e> and all govd, who has made 
all things by his goodne/s ; for he formed Adam in 
his own image and tikencfs 5 but that by the entry 
of the Devil, and the dijobedience of Adam, fin en 
tered into the world, and that we arc finners in an4 
by Adam. 

IL That CHRIST was promifed to our father^ 
vho received the /aw, that fo knowing by the /aw 

* The learned Mr. All?*, iahit hiftory of ?he chiuches of Pied 
mont, gives thtt account : That for three hundred y<an or rxKrc, 
the B<&op of Rome attempted to fubjograte the church of Miiaa 
under her jurifdidioD.and at laft The iotereft of Rome grew too po- 
tert for the cburch of Milan, planted by of th{ dUcip^et ; ^n* 
irmuch, that the Bilh^p and ibe people, rather than own h^ir jt*- 
riftl ^tion, retired to the valii, acd from rhscce were called V*l- 
ienfa, Wall*nj*t t or thtPeoplc in the Va/iiej. [-^ec ^Jlix't HHory 
of the Churches of Piedmooi, aad Fcrrm'* Hiftory of Ue 

On the othar hard the Papifti derive their origin frf m Peter 
[Se Duftft Cfaffk Uiforit aad 


their iiririg&tedufntfs and ihfufficieHcy.^ they might 
defirc the coining of CHRIST to iatisfy for their 
/?3j, and accomplifti the law by himfelf; 

III. That CHRIST was born in the time ap 
pointed by GOD the Father 5 that is to fay, in the 
time when all iniquity abounded, that he might fhetf 
us grace and mercy, as being faithful. 

IV. That CHRIST is our life, truth, feace 
and righteoufneh, as alfo our Pa/lor, Advocate and 
Prieft, who died for the Jahation all who believe j 
and is rifen for ow juftifaation. 

V. That there is no Mediator and Advocate with 
GOD the Father, fave JESUS CHRIST. 

VL That after this life, there are only two pla 
ces, the one for the /aved, and the other for the 

VII. That the feafa, the vigils of faints, the 
water which they call holy ; as alfo to abftain from 
Jlejh on ctrtain days y and the like ; but especially 
the ma/eSy are the inventions of men s and ought 
to be rejected. 

VIII. That the facfamfnts are ftgris of the fofy 
thing) vifible forms of the invifibff grace ; and that 
it is good for the faithful to ufe thofe /igns, or w* 
fiblejorm* j but they arc not eflential to fahation. 

IX. That there are no other facraments but bap- 
tifm and the Lord's fupper. 

X. That we ought to honour ih& faular powers 
by Juf>je}ion 9 ready obedience ', and paying of tribute*. 

Perrin't Hifi^oftke Waldenjet* . 226. 


202 vr T b 

WICLIFFITES, A fed which /prang up h Eng 
land in the fourteenth century. '1 hey took their 
name from John Wicliff, Doctor and Proleffcr of 
Divinity in the Univerfity of Oxford, a man of an 
Cnterprifing genius, and extraordinary learning. 

He began with attacking the jurifdiction of the 
Pope and the Bijhops ; and declared, that penance 
had no iort of merit in the fight of God, uniefs 
followed with a reforrhed life. He' was a warm 
'oppoter of abfotution : for he alledgcd, that it 
belonged to God alone tb fcrgv'e fits } but 
inftead of a&ing as God's mlnifters, the Romifh 
tlergy took upon them to forgive fys in their 
own names. He alio taught, that external con* 
Jeffion was not neccflary to falvation $ exclaimed 
again ft indulgence^ prayers to the /atnts^ the ceitbacy 
of the cier%y % the do&rine of tran/nb/iantiaticn^ 
monaftic vow ; and other practices in the Romifl* 

He not only exhorted the laity to ftudy the fcrip- 
tures, but alto t ran dated into Englilh the(e divine 
books, in order to render the perufal of them more 

The followers of Wickliff were alfo called 

Mofheirrfs Ecclefnftical ////?. vol ill />. 166. 
Gilpim's Life ofWicktiff\p 67. 68 7^ 
Baiiey't Dictionary, vol. ii [3et tVtck iffitcs~\ 

WILHEL1\1INIANS, A fe<ft which arofe in the 
thirteenth century ; fo called from Wiibelmina % a 
Bohemian woman, who refided in the territory of 
Milan. She perfuaded a large number, that the 
Holy Ghoft was become incarnate in her perlon, fojj 
the falvation of a great part of mankind. 


Z U 1 

According to tier doftrine, none were favcd by the 
blood of JESUS, but true and pious Chriftians $ 
while the Jews, Saracens, and unworthy Chriftians* 
were to obtain felvation through the Holy Spirit 
which dwelt in her and that, in confequence there 
of, all which had happened to CHRIST, during hia 
appearance upon earth in the human nature, was to 
be exactly renewed in her perfon, or rather in that 
of the Hety ?&?//, which was united to her.* 

s Eccltf. Hijt* vol. Hi. p 

ZA C H E A N S, Difciples of Zacheusi a nsP 
tive of Palejline $ who, about the year 350, 
retired to a mountain .near the city of ^ferulalem* 
and there performed his devotions in fecret $ pre 
tending that prayer Was only agreeable to Gad when 
it \vas performed fecretly and in (Hence. 

Broughton't Hijloricat Library, vol. iS* /; 5 iff 

ZANZALIANS. [See Jacobites] 

ZUINGLIANS, A branch of the ancient Pro? 
tenants ; fo called from Vine Zuirig/ius, a Divine 
of Switzerland, who received the Doctor's cap at 
Bafil, in 1505, He pofleffed an uncommon lhar 
of penetration and acutenefs of genius* 

Zuinglius declaimed againft indulgences^ the 
wa!s> the celibacy of the clergy, and other doftrinea 
of the Romifh Church. He differed both from 
Luther and Calvin in the following point, vfo. He; 
fuppofed only a jymbolical or figurative prefence of 
the body and blood of Chrift in the Eucbarift, and 
teprefenced a pious remembrance of Chrift's deaih, 


2 U 1 

and of the benefits it procured to mankind, as 
only fruits which arofe from the cclcbraiiou uf 
the Lord'* fupper.* 

He was alfo for removing out of the chnrches, 
and abolifliing in the ceremonies of public wor*x u>, 
many things which Luther was difpofcd u> treat 
\vith toleration and indulgence, fuch as images, at 
tars, wax tapers, the form of exorcifm, and private 

The religious tenets of this denomination were, in 
'moft other points, fimilar to thofc oi ihe Luthciuiii?.- 
[bee Lutherans] 

Mvfbeim*! Ecrl-Jiaftical Hifl^'y* v*f. IT. p 6^, 79. 
Htjioriwl Library vt>/. it. p 59 

held cotfubflsntiaticn ; ard Calvin acknowledged * 
fe*t thoudfh fyiritkul prtftnee of Cftfift io the facrament : ib rhsst 
tkey ail three cater ikiAicd dtffgrept fsa;imuu upoa tni 



H E religions which are not included in thi 
I foregoing wo^k, are the Pagans, Mahome 
tans, jfciw"and Dei/If. Of thefe, the Pagans are 
the niVit exterifive j and the wor(hip of the Grand 
Lama is the moft extenfive and fplendid mode oi 

The Grand Lama is a name given to the 
rei ; j;n Pontiff, or High Prieft of the *lhibctlan Tar- 
f,rj, whorefides at Patoli 9 a vaft palace on a mouq^ 
tain, near the banks of Barampooter, about feven 
miles from Labaffa. The foot of this mountain is 
inhabited by twenty thoufand Lamas, or Priefts, 
who have their kparate apartments round about the 
mountain 5 and according to their refpeflive quality 
are placed nearer, or at a greater diftance from the 
Sovereign Pontiff. He is not only wor (hipped by the 
*Lhibetiam^ bat allo is the great Gbjeft of adoration 
for the various tribes of heathen Tartar*, who roaojt 
through the vaft tradt of continent which ftretches 
Jrom the banks of the Wolga to Correa on the fea 
of Japan. He is not only the Sovereign Pontiff, 
the Vicegerent of the Deity on earth, but the more 
Demote Tartar* absolutely regard him as the Deity 
himfelf ; and call him God, the ever/afting Father 
believe him to be immortal, anc} 
C c 55 endowed 

A P P E N D I X. 

Endowed with all knowledge and virtue. Everj> 
year they come up from different parts to worftip 
ancj make rich offerings at his fhrine : even the Em 
peror of G6i00, who is a' fytancbou Tar far, does 
not tail in acknowledgments to him in his rel^ious 
capacity ; and actually entertains, at a great ex pence, 
in the palace of Peking, an inferior Lama, deputed 
as his riuncio /from' fbibet. The Grand Lama is 
tiever to be ifcen but in a fecret place of his palace^ 
amiiift a great number of Jampa, ' letting' crofs -leg 
ged upon a cu(hion : , and deckecj all over with gold 
and precious ftones ; where at a diftancc the people 
proftrate thcmfelves before him, it being not lawful 
ior any fo much as to kifs bis feet. He returns not 
the leaft fign of refpedfc, nor ever fpeaks, even to th$ 
greateft Princes ; but only lays his hand upon their 
Seads, and they are fully perfuacled they receive froni 
thence a full forgivnefs of all their fins. 

The SunniafleS) or Indian pilgrims, often vifit 
^Jbtbet as a hoiy place 5 and the Lama .always enter 
tains a body of two or three hundred in his pay, 
Itefides his religious influence and authority ; thp 
Grand Lama is poffefled of unlimhtcd power thro'- 
out his dominions, which are very extenfive. The 
inferior Lamas,who form the moft numerous as well 
fis the moft powerful bodj in the ftate, have the 
prieflbood entirely in their hands j and befides, fill 
up many monaftic orders, which are held in great; 
veneration among them, J The wl^ole country/ like 
aly, abounds with Priefts j and they entirely fub- 
ft on the great number of rich prefents which are 
nt them from theutmoft extent of lartary, from 
_.e empire of the Great Mogul, and from almoft all 

parts 01 the Indies. 

- ~~ w^.^. _.. w .,,j < 


opinion of thofe who are reputed the mod 
orthodox among the 'Thibet iansi^ is, that when the 
Grand Lama fcems to die either of old age, or of m- 
firmi.y,his foul in fat only quits a cra^y habitation tq 
look for another younger or better, and is difcqvereJ 
again in the body of fome child, by certain tokens 
known only to the Lamas, or Priefts, in which or- 
cler he always appears'.' 'in 1774 the Grand Lam& 
was an infant which had been discovered fome limo 
before by the Tayfhoo Lama $ who, in authority and 
landity of character, is next to the Cr and Lam*,md 
during his minority ails as chief. 

AlmoS: all the nations of thp Eaft, except the 
J4ahQmttan*> believe the Metempfychofis as che moft 
Important article of their faith j especially the inha- 
fyitants of Thibet and A*va> the Pcguans, Siame/e^ 
t;he greateft part of the Ghintfe and Japaneft, ancf 
the Monguh and Kalmucks, who changed the reli 
gion of Schamanijm tor the worlhip of the Grand 

*L -1 *,..-.. . -v- t J^. --. _ < ' .' <* . t '-"... T ; 


According to the do&rino. of this 
the foul is always in adtion, and never at reft : for 
1^0 fponer does (he leave her old habitation, but Ihe 
enters a new one. The Daiiai Lama being a di 
vine per fon, can find no better lodging than the bo 
dy of his fucceff -r ; or the Foe redding in the Daiiai 
Lama which paffes to his fucceflbr : and this being 
a God to whom all things are known ; the Daiiai 
Lama is therefore acquainted with every thing which 
happened during his refidence in his former body* ' 

This religion is faid to have been of three thou- 
fand years ftanding j and neither time, nor the in- 



authority of the Grand Lama. This theocracy ex 
tends as fully to temporal, as to fpiritual concerns. 

The Eafl -India Company made a treaty with the 
Lama in 1 774. 

G*thrie*i Gtogr, Gram Edition printed 1783 p. 596 597. 
Midilttoifs New Syftem of Geography v*l. i. p 33. 
Ann. Rig. 1780 p. 4: 
Oeconomy of Human Life, p $. 
Dr. Stlle'i EUflio* Sermon, p< 7$, 

The Mohammedans, or Mahometans, derive their 
pame and dodtrine irQmMobammed % or Mahomet , who 
was born in Arabia in the Iixth century. He was en* 
dowed with a fubtle genius, and poflefled an enter- 
pi ize and ambition peculiar to himfelf. He pre 
tended to receive revelations ; and declared, that 
God fent him into the world not only to teach his 
will, but to compel mankind to embrace it. The 
magiftrates of Mecca were alarmed at the progrefs of 
his doftrines, and Mohammed being apprifed of their 
defign to deftroy him, fled to Medina ; frem thi$ 
flight, which happened in the 622d year of Cbrijf % 
his followers compute their time. This sera is called 
io Arabic, Hegira. 

The book in which the Mahometan religion is con- 
tained is called the Koran , or Alcoran^ by way of 
eminence, as we fay the Bible, which means the 
Book.* Its doftrines made a moft rapid progrefs 
over Arabia, Syria, Egjpt and Perfia -, and Mo 

9 The generality of the Mtkatnmedans believe, that the firft 
cnanufcripi of the AI a-i h*f bten rrcm cvtrUfti- g bv G (!'* throne 
written on a txble oi vift b'g .efs, ca^l:d the Preferved Tabtt> in 
v^ich are recorded the Diviue decrees : that a c^py fmoi tbu ta 
ble, ia one volume on paper, was, by the nnaiftry of the argei 
Gabriel, fent 4jw to the lowcft Hcaycn tn^che gaauih of R*t**~ 


bammed became the moft powerful monarch in his 
time. His fucceflbrs fpread their religion and con- 
quetfs over the greateft part of A(la> Africa and 
Europe ; and they ftill give law to a very confider- 
able part of mankind. 

The great doctrine of the Koran is the unify of 
God : to reftore which point, Mohammed pretended 
was the chief end of his miffion j it being laid down 
by him as a fundamental truth, that there never was 
nor ever can be more than one true orthodox religi 
on. For though the particular laws or ceremonies 
are only temporary; and fubjeft to alteration accor 
ding to the Divine direction, yet the fubftance of it 
being eternal truth, is not liable to change, but conti 
nues immutably the fame. And he tatight, that 
whenever this religion became negledled, or corrup 
ted in eflentials, GOD had the goodnefs to rfcinform 
and readmonifh mankind thereof by feveral prophets, 
of whom Mofes and Jefus were the riioft diftinguifli- 
cd till the appearance of Mohammed. The Koran 
afferts Jt/us to be the true Me/pas, the word and 
breatb of God, Worker of Miracles ^ Healer of Dif* 
ea/ss, Pretcber of Heavenly Doffrine, and exempla 
ry Pattern of a per f eft Life ; denying that he was cru 
cified, but affirming that he afcended into Paradife j 
and that his religion was mended by Mohammed^ who 
was the [eat of the prophets, and was fent from G.od 
to reftore the true religion^ which was corrupted in 
his time, to its primitive fimplicity ; with the ad 
dition, however, of peculiar laws and ceremonies, 
fome of which had been uled in former times, and 
others were now firft inftituted. 

The Mohammedans divide their religion into two 
general parts -Jritk $r theory and religion or prac 


Faith or theory is contained in this cbnfeffioh 
of faith, Ibcre is but one God, and Mohammed is 
tn prophet. Under thefe two propofitions are com 
prehended fix diftinit branches. 

1. Belief in God. 4. In his prophets. 

2. In bis angels. 5. In the refurredion and 

3. In bis fcriptures. judgment. 

6. JfoGod's abfolute decrees, 

They reckon four points relating to pfaflice, 
i. Prayer, with wafli- 3. Farting. 

ings, &c, 4. Pilgrimage to Mecca.' 

a. Alms. 

The idea which Mohammed taught his difciples 
to entertain of ihe Supreme Being^ may be feen front 
a public addrefs he made to his countrymen, which 
is as follows : 

" Citizens of Mecca f 

c< The hour is now come when you muft give an 
account of your reafon and your talents. In vain 
have you received them from an Almighty Mafler^ 
liberal and beneficent in cafe you ufe them ne^li* 
gently, or if you never reflect in the name of this 
JMafter : 1 mutt tell you, he will not fuffer'you to 
abufe his ineflimable gifts by wafting life away un- 
profitably, and imploying them only in unworthy 
amufements. No more permit delufive pleafures to 
diftradt your hearts ! Open your minds and receive 
the truth ! Woe to you for the unworthy notion 
you have entertained of God ! The heaven and 
the earth are his own ! and there is nothing in all their 
copious furniture but what invariably obeys him J 
[Ihe fun and ftars with all their glory, have never, 



d5f<Jained his fervice ! and net being can refift his 

w i '-i, and the exerciie of his omnipotence ! He will 
cul' t.uen to an account, and require of them the 
n for all ihofe gods they have invented in de 
fiance ot le-ifon I 7kr* is no otbtr God but GOD, 
and him onh wz izufi adore /" 

The belief of the cxiflenCe of dngehjs absolutely 

required in the Kcra * : the Mohammedans fuppoie 

have pure and kibu! bodies, created of fire j 

and that they have ya ' ,..s forms and offices fome 

lo^ed in writing down the adlio'ns of 

hers in Carrying the tfirone of God, and 

other fervices. They reckon four angels fuperior to 

all the reft : Thde are, Gabriel, who is employed in 

writing down the divine decrees ; .Michael} the 

friend and proteflor of the Jews ; Azraet, the an 

gel of d,eath 5 and Ifrafil, who will found the trum 

pet at the refurredlion. They likewife affign to each 

perion two guardian angels. 

The Devil, according to the Koran, was once 
of the highcft angels, but fell for refilling to pay ho 
mage to ddam at the command of God. 

Befides Angels and'DeviU, the Mtbamineddns are 
taught by the Koran to believe an intermediate order 
of Creatures, which they call jfirt, or Genii, created 
al/o of fire, but of a groffer fabric than angels ; and 
ard fubjedt to death. Somfe of thefe are fuppofed to 
be good, and others bad, and capable of future 
falvation or damnation as rnen are * whence Moham 
med pretended to be fent for the converflonof Genii 
as well as men. 

As to the Scripture*^ the Mohammedans are 
taught by the Korfa* t ^ at G*4 ^ divers ages of the 

D d( 


world, gave revelations of his will in writing tof 
feveral prophets. The number of thefe facred 
books, according to them, are one hundred and 
four j of which ten were given to Adam^ fifty to 
Seth, thirty to Enoch, ten to Abraham ; and the 
other four, being the Ptntateuch y the Pfaim^ the 
Go/pel, and the Kordn^ were fucceffively delivered 
to Mo/es, David, Je/us, and Mohammed ; which 
laft being the feat of the prophets thefe revelations 
are now clofed. All thefe divine books, excepting 
the four laft, they agree to be entirely loft, and their 
contents unknown. And of thefe four, the Penta 
teuch, Pjalmt and Go/pels^ they fay, have undergone 
fo many alterations and corruptions, that very little 
credit is to be given to the prcfent copies in the 
hands of the jews and Cbriftiens. 

The number of prophets which have been from 
time to time fent into the world amounts to two 
hundred and twenty-four thoofand ; among whom 
three hundred and thirteen were apoftles, fent with 
fpecial commiflions to reclaim mankind from infi 
delity and fuperflition j and fix of them brought 
new laws or difpenfations, which fucceffively abro 
gated the preceding. Thefe were i. ddam y 2. No- 
tb, 3. Abraham, 4. Mo/es, 5. Jtfus, 6. Moham 

The next article of faith required by the Koran, 
is the belief of a general refurreflion and a future 
judgment. But before thefe they believe there is an 
intermediate ftate, both of the foul and of the body 
after death. When a corps is laid in the grave, 
|wo angels come and examine it concerning the /'- 
God and the miflion of Mohammed. If the 

body anfwers rightly it is fuffered to reft in peace t 



and is refrefhed by the air of Paradife : if not, they 
beat it about the temples with iroo maces ; then 
prefs the earth on the corps, which is gnawed and 
flung by ninety-nine dragons with (even heads each. 

As to the fouls of the faithful, when they are 
feparated from the body by the angel of death, they 
teach, that thofe of the prophets are admitted into 
Paradije immediately. Some fuppofe the fouls of 
fa/ievers are with Adam in the loweft Heaven j and 
there are various other opinions concerning their 
ftate. Thofe who arc called the mod orthodox 
hold, that the fouls of the wicked are confined in a 
dungeon under a green rock, to be there tormented 
till their re-union \ynh, th,e body at ihtsgenerat re- 

That the rejurreffihn will be general, and extend 
to all creatures, both angels, genii, men and animals, 
is the received opinion of the Mohammedans, which 
they fupport by the authority of the Koran, 

Mankind, at the refurre&lon, will be diftingmflned 
into three claffes 5 the firft, of thole who goon foot ; 
the fecond, of thofe wijo ride ; and the third, of 
thofe who creep grovelling with their faces on the 
ground. The firft clafs will confift of thole believ 
ers whofe good works have been few ; the fecond, 
of thofe who are more acceptable to God; whence 
Aii affirmed that the pious, when they, come forth 
from their fepul'chres, thall find ready prepared for 
them white- winged camels, with laddies of gold. 
The third clafs will be cornpofed of the infidels, 
whom God will caufe. to make their appearance 
with their faces on the ground. When all are af- 
fcmbled together^ they will wait, in their ranks and 


orders, for the judgment ; lome fay forty years 
others leventy, others three hundred, and lorrie no 
lels than fifty thoufand years. During which time 
they will JufTer great inconveniences, the good as 
well as the bad,* from their thronging and pref- 
iing upon each other, and the unufual approach of 
the fun, which will be no farther off them than the 
diftance of a mile ; fo that the fkulis of the wicked 
*vi!( boil like a pot, and they will t>e all bathed with 
fweat. At length GOD will come in the clouds 
iurrounded by the angels, and will produce the 
bocks wherein every man's actions are written. 
Seme explaining thole words fo frequently uicd in 
the Koran, God will be livift in taking an ace 
fay, 'that he will judge all creatures in the 
half a day ; and others, that it will be i 
time than the twinkling of an eye. At t 
every adlion, thought, word, &c. will K- > 
in a balance held by the angel Gab 
fize, that its two kales are capacious enom-n to con 
tain both Heaven and L'arth. 

The trials being over, and the ^flembly diffolved, 
thofe who are to be admitted into Paradilc, ill 
take the right-hand way ; and thofe who are cu 
ned to hell fire, the left : but both of tr.em niuft hril 
pafg the bridge called in Arabic^ dl $irjt y which 
is laid over the middle of He!!, and is defcribcd ip 
be finer than a hair, and (harper than the edge ot a 
fword. The wicked will mils thtir looting and fall 
headlong into HelK In 

* Yec they m^kc a imnffeft difFcrerce between the CuffVriDgs of 
the rfghteou* ar d the wicked : for the limb of the furiraer par 
ticularly thcfc pans they ufcd to wafii before prayer, (hall fhine 
glori/'unf, ard their fuffcricg (haU laft no lorger than the tima 
rict<r*ry to f*y tLeir prayers : aod they (hall bt prouft.d free? 
the j)et of ihc fu& bj the ihadc <$ God'i ibroac. 


In the Koran it is faid that Bell has. feven gates ; 
|he firft for the Muflelmans, the 'fecond for the 
'CbriftianS) *he third for thejfc"za, the fourth for thjs 
Sabiani) the fifth for theMagicians, the iixth tor the 
Pagans, the fevcnth and word of all, for the Hypo 
crites of all religions. The inhabitants of Hel; 
fuffer a variety of torments, which (hall be of e e-- 
nal duration, except with thofe who have erubidc',.1, 
the true religion, who will be delivered tljenr 
after they have expiated their crimes by their * 

The righteous, after having furmounted * T .e 
ficulties in their ps flags, v;ill entci 
which they defcribe to be a mod dr r 
whofe earth is the finett wheat ', or ?jy.'-: 
flones pearly or jacinths. It is alfo udixued witfi 
flowery fields, beautified with trees of gold, enlivened 
with the molt ravishing mufick, abounding xvith 
rivers of milk, wine and honey, and watered by { 
Springs, whofe pebbles are rubles^ emeralds, &.;;. 
Here the faithful enjoy the mod exquifite ieniuat 
delights, free from the leaft alloy. -f- 

The fixth great point of faitb which the Mobam* 
medans are taught to believe is, GOD 1 5 abfolute de- 
crett'dnd predetermination both of good and evil. 
The dodrine, which they call orthodox, is, that 
whatever doth or {hall come to pafs in the world, 


* Between Paradijt and Hell they imagine there 11 a wall or 
petition; is which, fome fuppofe, tbofi were placed vh^fe gocd 
lind evil works fx^ftly counterpoifed each other, Thefe will bs 
admitr; d soParadiff a^t the laft day, fcer they have performed a a 
at of ad< ration, which will make the fcale of their good woik* to 

t Some of the raoft refined Mahometans underhand their 
phct's dcfcriptiQft ot'Pjiridfc itt a //^r/w/ fenfe. 

xii A P P E N D I X. 

whether it be good or bad, proceedeth entirely from. 
the Divine will, and is irrevocably fixed and record 
ed from all eternity in the preserved table ; and that 
God hath fecretly predetermined not only tbeadverfe 
and profperous fortune of every perfon in the v. orld, 
in the moft minute particulars, but alfo his obe 
dience or difobedience, and confequently his ever- 
Jafting happinefs or mifery after death ; which fate 
or predeftinaiion it is ioipofiible by any forefight or 
V'iidom to avoid.* 

Of the four praflical duties required by the Ko 
ran, prayer is the fir ft. Mohammed ufed to call 
f raver the pillar of religion and key of Paradije. 
Hence he obliged his followers to pray five times 
every twenty- four hours, and always wafli before 

Circumcifaii is held by the Mohammedans to be of 
Divine inftitution. 

The giving of alms is frequently commanded in 
the Koran, and often recommended therein jointly 
with prayer ; the former being held of great effi 
cacy in cauiing the latter to be heard with God. 

Fafiing is a duty enjoined by Mobammedzs of the 
Btmoft importance. His followers are obliged by 
the exprefs command of the Koran, to faft the whole 
month of Ramadan ; during which time they arq. 
pbliged to fail from day- light to lun-fet. The 


* Of thii d'-ftriae Mybtnmed made preat nfis for tbe advar ce 
ment of hit defig^; encaaraging bi follower! to fight wiihoat 
fear, and^CYen defpcratelj, for the propagation of their faith, by 
repr? fen ting to them that all their caution could not arert their in 
evitablc deftiny, or prolong their lives for a moment Hence fora* 
oC his followers c*rry this matter fo far at to take no cars to 
the pjagut, which U common ia Eafttrn 

A^PENDIJC. xiii 

ttafbn olf the month of Ramadan is pitched upon 
for that purpofe is* they fuppofe that at that time 
the Koran was lent down from Heaven. 

The pilgrimage to Mecca is fo neceffary a point of 
pradice, that, according to a tradition of Moham 
med, he who dies without performing it, may as well 
die a Jew or a Cbriftian ; and the fame is expreflty 
commanded in the Koran* 

The negative precepts of theKoran are, to abftairt 
from u/ury, gaming drinking of wine, eating of blood 
and /wines flefh* 

The Mihammedans are divided add fubdivided in* 
to an endlefs variety of fefts : as it is faid there is as 
great a diverfity in their opinions as among the Chri- 
ftians, it is impoffible to give a particular account of 
their divifions in the compafs of this work ; which 
will admit only of noticing a few of their principal 

The divinity of the Mohammedans may be divided 
into (cbolaftic and praStical. Their (cboltftic divinity 
confids of logical, tmtaphyfical, theological, and philo- 
Jophical difquifitioni 5 and is built on principles and 
methods of reafoning very different from what are 
ufed by thofe who pafs among the Mohammedan* 
themfelves for the founder divines, or more able phi- 
lofophers. This art of handling religious difputes 
was not known in the infancy of Mobammedijm, but 
was brought in when fels fprang up, and articles 
of religion began to be called in queftion, r 

As to their practical divinity or jurijprudcncc, it 
confifts in the knowledge of the decifions of the 
law which regard pradice gathered from diftin<5t 
proofs. The principal points pf faith fubjefl to the 



elimination and difcuffion of the fchoolmen 
the unify and attribute* of GOD ; the divine decrees, 
or prcdtjiinatlon ; the promi/es and threats contained 
in the law ; and matters of biftcry and rcafar^ 

The teas among the Mohammedans who are 
cftccmed orrbodox, are called by the general name 
of Sonnitrs, or Tradttionartys, becaufe they acknow 
ledge the authority of the Sonna> or collection of 
moral. tradition^ of the fa y ings and ' aQions of their 
fii ophet. 

The Sonnites are fubdivided into four chief fcdls; 

I ft. The Hani fifes, ad. The Makkites. 3d. 
The bbafeits. 4th. The Hanbalites. 

The difference between thefe fedts confifts only 
in a few indifferent ceremonies. 

The fefls whom the generality of the Mohamme 
dans fuppofe entertain erroneous opinions are nume- 
r6us ; the following arc feledled ffom^a large num 
ber, in order to give (ome ideas of the difputes among 
Mobammedan divines. 

Firft, the Afontazalifes, the followers of Wafel 
Ebn Ata. As to their chief and general tenets, lih 
They entirely rejefled all eternal attributes of God 
to avoid the diftin&ion of perfons made by the 
Chriftians. 2d. They believed the word of God 
to have been created in Jufytffo, as the fchoolmerr 
term it, and to confift of letters and founds ; copies- 
thereof being written in books to exprefs and imi 
tate the original. They alfo affirmed, that what 
ever is created in fubjc&o is alfo an accident,and liable 
to perifli. 3d. They denied abfolute predeltination ; 
that God was not the author of evil B 



but of good only ; and that man was a free agent* 
4th. They held, that if a profcflbr of the true reli 
gion be guilty of a grievous fin, and die without 
icpentance, he will be eternally damned, though his 
puniihment will be lighter than that of the infidels. 
5th. They denied all vifion of God in Par&dife by 
the corporeal eye, and rejeded all comparifons or 
fimilitudes applied to God. ,.. . 
. . This fe<3 are faid to have been the firft inventors 
of -IcboUtflic divinity, and are fubdivided, as fome 
reckon, into twenty different feds. 
i Secondly, the Hafkbmiant ; who were fo named 
from their mailer Aba Hafham dbelal Salem His 
followers were fo much afraid of making God the 
author of evil, that they would not allow him to be 
laid to create an tnfidel> becaufe an infidel is a com 
pound ot infidelity and man> and God is not the cre 
ator of infidelity. 

Thirdly, the Nohamians, or followers of ttrabini 
al Ttiedhdm* who imagined he could not Efficiently 
remove GOD from being the author f evil, withouc 
diverting him of his power in refpe<ft thereto, taught 
that no power ought to be afcribed to God concern 
ing, evil and rebellious adions : but this he affirmed 
againft the opinion of his own difciples, who allow-? 
ed that God could do evil, but did not becaufe of 
its turpitude. 

Fourthly, the yabedbians, or followers of Amrtt 
Ebn tiabr, a great . doilor of the Montazalites, who 
differed from his brethren in that he imagined the 
damned would not be eternally tormented in hell, 
but would be changed into the nature of fire f and 
that the fire would of itfelf attract them without 
neceffity of their going into it. 

E e - 

*vl A P P E N D I X. 

Fifthly, the Kddarians, or followers of Mabad a\ 
Johni. This fed deny ablolute prede/iination ; lay 
ing, that evil and injuftice ought not to be attributed 
to GOD, but to man who is a free agent, and may 
therefore be rewarded or punifted tor his adions^ 
which GOD has granted him power either to do 
or omit, 

Sixthly, the Jabar;ans> who are the direft oppo 
nents of the KadtrianSy denying free agency in man^ 
and afcribing his adlions wholly to GOD. The moil 
rijid of this led will not allow man to be faid either 
toad or have any power at all, either operative or 
acquiring ; affertingj that man can do nothing, but 
produces ail his adions by necejfity, having neither 
power, nor w/V/, nor choice^ any more than an ina 
nimate agent 2 they declaue that rewarding and pu* 
nifhing are al(o the eflfcds of neccffity^ and the fame 
they fay of the impofing of commands* 

Seventhly, the Jamidns, the followers of Jam Ebn 
Safwan, who held the fame do&rine with the Ja- 
tartans -, and likewife maintained, that Paradife and 
Hell will vaniih, or be annihilated after thofe who 
are deftined thereto refpedively fhall have entered 
them, fo that at laft there will remain no exifting 
Bein^ befides GOD 5 fuppofing thofe words of the 
Koran, which declare that the inhabitants of Para- 
dife and of Hell {hall remain therein Jorever, to be 
biperbotical only,' and intended for cprroboration^ 
and not to denote an eternal duration in reality. 

Eighthly, the Scbites: thisnameisufed peculiarly 
to denote thole who maintain AH Ebn All *laltb 
to be their lawful Kbalif, or Iman, and that the iu- 
preme authority both in fpirituals and temporals, of 
right belongs to his defendants. 



Some of thefe affirm, that GOD appeared in the 
form of AH, and with hi* tongue proclaimed the 
rnoft hidden myfteries of religion 5 and fome have 
gone fo far as to afcribe Divine honours to him, and 
to expedt his return in the clouds ; and having fixed 
this belief as an article of their faith, they keep a fine 
fcorfe ready faddled 8cc. for him in the mofque 
of Cufa, 

Others believe that he is concealed in a grotto 
near Cufa, where he will continue till the'day of 
judgment, and then come forth to convprt all people 
to the Koran. 

Sale's Koran, vol i. p 83 93, 94 95 96 97 99 ic> 

III, 112 114 117, I2Q, 122* 126, 128, 1$7 138, 14!, 
J42. 146 148, IJO 152 153, 201;, 202, 203, 204, 205 
211,2 2 213 2I4,2l6 23.7. 

Turkifh Spy. vol. vii p, 2>j. 

Gutbrie's Geographical Grammar^ p, j8o> sSl. 

RoulainvilUtrt, Lift of frlahcmtt* 

Bajlcfs DifiioKary* vol. it. [Stt Scbitei] 

The modern Jews are difperfed over every king 
dom in the world 5 and in Ipite of the miferies they 
have fuffered, ftill overlook all nations, and confidec 
themfelves as the favourites of Heaven. 

The Jews commonly reckon but thirteen articles 
of their faith. Mamonides^ a famous Jtwifh Rabbi , 
reduced them to this number when he drew their 
confeffipn about the end of the feventh century ; 
and it was , generally received. All the Jews are 
obliged to live and die ia the profeffion qf thefc thir 
teen articles. 

L That GOD is the creator of all things ; that 
fee guides and fupports all creatures ; that he has 
<Jone every thing ; and that he ftill ads, and (hail 
fift coring the whole eternity. 

E e . JI. 

iviii APPENDIX. 

II. That GOD is one. There is no unity like 
his. He alone haih been, is, and fhall be eternally 
our God. 

III. That GOD is incorporeal, and cannot have 
any material properties ; and no corporeal eflence 
can be compared with him. 

IV. That GOD is the beginning and end of 
all things, and fhall eternally fubfift. 

V. That GOD alone ought to be worfhipped, 
and none but him is to be adored. 

VI. That whatever has been taught by the 
prophets is true. 

VII. That Mofes is the father and head of all 
cotemporary doctors, and thole who lived before, or 
ihall live after him. 

VIII. That the law was given by Afojes. 

IX. That the law (hall never be altered, and 
GOD will givs no other. 

X. That GOD knows all the thoughts and ac 
tions of men. 

XT. ; That GOD will regard the works of all 
thofe who have performed what he commands, and 
Jpunifh thofe who have tranfgreffcd his Uws. 

XII. That the Meffiab is to come, though he 
tarry a long time. 

XIII. That the refurreftion of the dead fhall 
happen when GOD fhall think fit. 

The modern Jews adhere ftill as clofely to the A/0- 
faic dilpenfation, as their difperfed and delpifed con 
dition will permit them. Their Jervice confiiU 
chiefly in reading the law in their fynaogues,togcther 


K i-^ 


> . k 

a great variety of prayers. They ufe no facri- 
Sees dice the deftrudion of the temple. They re 
peat bleffings and particular praifes to GOD, not only 
in their prayers, but on all accidental occafions, and 
in almoft afl their adlions.' They go to prayers three 
times a day in their fynagogucs. Their fermons are 
inade no; ia Hebrew, which few of them now per- 
fetfly underftand, but in the language of the country 
where they refide. They are forbidden all vain fwear- 
ing,and pronouncing any of the names of GOD with 
out neceflity. They abftain from meats prohibited 
by the Levhical law ; for which reafon whatever 
they eat miift be drefled by Jews, and after a man 
ner peculiar to themfelves. As foon as a child can 
fpeak, they teach him to read and tranflate the bible 
into the language of the country where they live. 
In general they obferve the fame ceremonies which 
were praclifed by their anceftors in the celebration 
of the PaJJover. They acknowledge a two-fold law 
of GoDj a written and an unwritten one. The for- 
itter is contained in the Pentateuch, or five books of 
Moles : the latter, they pretend, was delivered by 
God to Mofes, and handed down from him by oral 
tradition, and now to be received as of equal autho~ 
rity with the former. They affert the perpetuity of 
their laiv> together with its perfection. They deny 
the accomplimment of the prophecies in the perfon 
of Lbrift ; alledging, that the Mejfiah is not yet 
come, and that he will make his appearance with 
the greateft worldly pomp and grandeur, fubduing 
all nations before him, and fubjedling them to the 
houie of Judah. Since the prophets have predicted 
I)is mean condition and fufFerings, they confidently 
talk of two Me/tabs : one, Btn-Epbraim> whom 



they grant to be a perfon of a .mean and affli&ed 
condition in the world ; and the other, Ben-David^ 
who (hall be a victorious and powerful PrL.ce. 

Almoft all the modern Jews are Pbariject, and 
are as much attached to tradition as their anceitors 
were ; and aflert, that whoever rejedls the orai law 
deferves death. Hence they entertain an implacable 
hatred to the Caraifes, a tett among the Jews, who 
adhere to the text of Mofes and the word of God ; 
rejecting the Rabbinifiicat interpretation and ca 
bala* The number of the Caraifes is (mall in 
comparifon with the Rabbins : and the latter have 
fo great an averfion to this fedr, that they will have 
no alliance or even convcrfation with them. And 
if a Car ait e would turn Rabbinijl^ the other Jews 
would not receive him. 

The modern Pharifees are lefs flridl than their 
anceftors with regard to food, and other aufterities 
of the body. They formerly fafted the fccond and 
fifth day of the week ; and put thorns at the boitom 
of their robes, that they might prick their legs as 
they went along : they lay upon boards covered 
with flint (tones, and tied thick cords about their 
waifts : hut thefe mortifications were not obferred 
always, nor by all. They paid tithes as the law 
prefcribed, and gave the thirtieth and fiftieth part 
qf their fruits $ adding voluntary facrifices to thofe 
which wert commanded, and (hewing themfclves 
very exadl in performing their vows. As to their 
dodlrine, with the EJj'enes* they held ab/otutt prede- 
Jiinaticn, and with the Sadduces, free will. They 
believed with Pythagoras^ the tranlmigration of Jouh ; 
Specially thofe of people of virtue ; efteeming thoio 
who were notorioufly wicked to be eternally mife- 

V ...- _ -->- -. < .' . -4-_ . . 



table. As to lefs c: imes, they held they were pu- 
ziUbed in the bodies which the fouls of thofe whoi 
committed them were next lent into. According 
to this notion ijt was, thatChrift's difciples afked him 
concerning the blind man, Who did lin y this man or 
bis parents, that be was born btlhd ? Johrt ix. 2. 
And when the difciples told Chrift that jome /aid 
he was Elias> and others Jcremidt, or one of the pro- 
phets> the meaning only can be, that they thought 
he was come into the world animated with the foul 
of Elias, Jeremias, or fome of the old prophets tranf- 
migrated into him. 

There are flill fome of the Sadduces in Africa and 
in feveral other places ; but they are very few in 
number ; at leaft, there are but very few who declare 
openly for thele opinions. 

There are to this day fome remains of the anci 
ent fel of the Samaritans, who are zealous for the 
law of Mofes, but are defpifed by the Jews, becaufe 
they receive only the Pentateuch, and obferve diffe 
rent ceremonies from theirs. They declare they 
are no Sadduces^ but acknowledge the Ipirituality 
and immortality of the foul. There are of this feft 
at Gaza, Damajcus, Grand Cairo, and in fome other 
places of the Eafl, but efpecially at Sichem, now cal 
led Naplouje, which is rilen out of the ruins of the 
ancient Samaria, where they facrificed not many 
years ago, having a place for this purpofe on Mount 

With regard to the tin tribes, the learned Mr.B/7/- 
nage fuppofes they ftill fubfift in the Eafl ; and gives 
the following reafons for this opinion. ift. Salma- 
gaffar had placed them upon the banks of the Cbabo- 

A P P E N D I X; 

ras, which emptied itfelf into the Euphrates. On 

the Weft was Ptolemy's Cbalcitis and the city Carra. 

And therefore God has brought back the Jews to the 

country from whence the patriarchs came On tho 

Eaft was the province of Ganxan betwixt the two 

rivers Cbaboras and Saocoras. This was the firft fi- 

tuation of the tribes : but they fpread into the neigh 

bouring provinces^ and upon the binks of the Eu- 

phratts. 2d. The ten tribes were liill in being in 

this country when Jerujalem was deftroyed, fince 

they came in multitudes to pay their devotions in 

the temple. 3d. They fubfifled there from that 

time to the eleventh century, fince they had their 

heads of the captivity and moft flourifhing acade 

mies. 4th. Though they were confiderably wea 

kened by perfections, yet travellers of that nation 

difcovered abundance of their brethren and lyna- 

gogues in the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. 5th.' 

No new colony has been fent into the Eafl , nor 

have thofe which were there been driven out. 6th.' 

The hiftory, of the Jews has been deduced from age 

to age, without difcovering any other change than 

what was caafed by the different revolutions of that 

empire the various tempers of the governors or 

the inevitable decay in a nation, which only lubfifts 

by toleration. We have therefore reafon to con 

clude, that the ten tribes are ft ill in the Ea/i, whether 

God fnffered them to be carried. If the families 

and tribes arc not diftinguilhable, it is impoflibte it 

ihould be otherwife in fo long a courle of ages and 

afflidions which they have paffed through in fine, 

iays this learned author ^ if we would leek out the 

remains of the ten tribes^ we muft do it only on the 

bduks of Euphrates^ in Perfia^ and the neighbour 

ing provinces, ft 


It is impoffible to fix the number of people the 
yewifh nation is at prefent compofed of: but yet we 
have reafon to believe, there are (till near three mil 
lions of people who profefs this religion^ and, as their 
phrafe is, are witneffes of the unity cf God in all the 
nations in the world. 

They always are expefHnga glorious return,which 
{hall rjaife them above all the nations of the earthj 
They flatter ttiemfelves this deliverance will fpeedily. 
arrive, though they dare not fix the precife time. 

Befxage's s Hij}. of the Jew, f> t no, 115, 227; 

274 467, 746, 747< 743 
Broughlon't Hift, Library, vol. i. . 2Q, 221, 

522 vol. ii, p 126. 245:, 329. 
Collier's Hift. Ditlio*mry t vet. ii. 
rifelft and 

'the I)ei/Is are ifpreacJ all over Europe^ and have 
multiplied prodigioufly among the higher rank in 
mod nations ; but the fentiments which are diftin- 
goiflied by this title, are rarely embraced among the; 
common people. 

1"he name of JDei/i's is fald io have befen firft afla- 
ihed about the middle .of the fixteenth century, by t 
lome gentlemen in France and Italy > in order to a- 
void the imputation of Atleifm. One of tke firft 
authors who made ufe of this name was Peter Viret* 
a celebrated Divine ; who, in a work which was 
publiihed in 1563, fpeaks of fome perforis in that 
time who were caiied by a new name, that of Deifts. 
Thefe, he tells us^ profefled to believe a God> but 
fhewed no regard to Je/us Chrijl, and confidered the 
dodtrines of the cpofiles and toangelifts, as fables and 

F f The 


The Lord Edward Herbert, Baron V Cberfary, 
who flrjimihed in the feventeemh century, has been 

-..trdsd as the mod eminent of the Dei/Heal wri 
ter: i appears to be one of the firft who formed 
Betjni ifltWiyfterh ; and aflerted the Efficiency, uni- 
verjirtity^ '?. f -d ab *lutt perfection of natural religion, 
with a, view to difcard all extraordinary revelation 
a utelefs and needlefs. He reduced ihis 'universal 
reiigian 10 rive articles, which he frequently menti 
oned in his works. 

I. That there is one fupreme GOD. 

II. That he is chiefly to be worfhipped. 

III. Thai piety and virtue are the*principal parts 
of his ivoi Chip. 

IV. That we.muft repent of our fins ; and if 
we do fo God will pardon us. 

V. That there are rewards for good men, and 
punifhments for bad men, in a future flate. 

The Dei/ts are dafled by fome of their own wri 
ters into two tons mortal and itntnortal Deifii. 
The latter acknowledge a future flate the former 
deny it, or at lead reprefent it as a very uncertain 

The learned Dr. Clark, taking the denomination 
in the mod extenfive fi^ni6cation, diftinguifhes D*- 
ijis into four lorts. The firft are, iuch as pretend 
to believe the exiftence of an infinite, eternal, inde 
pendent, inttelligf nt Being j and who, to avoid the 
name of Epicurean sttbei/i*, teach alfo, that this /if- 
preme Beintr made the world ; though at the fame 
time they agree with the Epicureans in this, that 
they fancy God does not at all concern himfelf in 



the government of the world, nor has any regard to, 
or care of, what is done therein. 

The fecond fort of Drifts are thofe who beljev e 
not only the being, but alfo the providence of God, 
with refpeft to the natural world 5 but who not al- 
Jowing any difference between moral good and evil, 
deny thatGod takes any notice of the morally good and 
evila&ions of men : thefe things depending, as they 
imagine, on the arbitrary conititution of human laws. 

A third fort of Dezfts there are, who believe in the 
natural Attributes of God, and his all-governing provi 
dence, and have fome notion of his moral p^rfedti- 
ons alfo 5 yet deny the immortality of the foul, be 
lieving that men perifh entirely at death, and that 
one generation thall perpetually fucceed another, 
without any future reftoration or renovation of things, 

* A fourth, and the laft fort of Drifts are, fuch as 
believe the exiftence of a (upreme Being, together 
with his providence in the government of the world, 
as alfo all the obligations of natural religion ; but fo 
far only as thefe things are difcoverable by the light 
of nature alone, withoqt believing any Divine re 

Many of the modern Delfts in Europe are faid to 
be of that clafs who deny the immortality ot the 
foul, and any future ftate of exifter.ce. 

Letand's View of Deifttcal Writer t^ vol* \, p. 2 $ 
BroughtorSs Hi ft. Library, vol, i. p. 316 
VoltairSs U*ii>erfal Hijftory> vol, ii. p. 259. 

F fa 


A foort View of the different Religions of 
the feveral People and Kingdoms of ike 
habitable World. ' 


Qreentanden believe the immortality of the foul, 
and the exiflence of a fpirit called Thorngarfuk : 
the Angukutt) or Priefts, who are luppofed tp be Kis 
immediate fucceffors, form very different opinions 
with regard to his nature, form, and place of reii- 
dence : they fuppofe all the elements are filled with 
fpirits, 'from which every "Ahgukut is fupplied with 
u familiar fpirit called *Ihorngak, who is always rea^ 
cy when lummoned to their afllllancc. 

They pretend to cure difeafes by fpells and charms, 
to converie with their GQ&1horngarluk> and to pro- 
inulgate his commands.* 

DENMARK, The Lutheran religion is uni- 
JsJORWAY, verfally embraced in thefe king- 
SVVEDEN. doms ; excepting that at jLryrf- 
nia in Sweden t there are a num 
ber of Papiftf, and at Copenhagen in Dcnvturk^ there 
is a church allowed for the French refugees ; and 
at Glukllat a few Popifh families hive been permit- 
cd tlie ufe of a chapeL*f 

LAPLAND. The Laplanders believe in a good 
and evil Principle, which they fuppcie to be at con- 
fiant variance, and the prevalence of either, prodiu> 
Cive of the happinefs or mifery of mankind, 


* J >ne' Uoirerfa' Grammar. Vul, i. p. 134. 

t Uryugh.uc, Vyl. ii p. 333, 

APPENDIX. xxvi? 

They believe a Metewpbjcofis, or tranfmigration of 
fouls, and pay their adoration to certain Genii^ who 
they iupppfe inhabit ^he air, mountains, lakes, &c. 
They alfo place an implicit faith in magic : an4 
their magicians, who are a peculiar fet of men, make 
ufe of what they ca'l a drum, made of the hollowed 
trunk of a fir, pine or birch tree,' one end of which 
is covered with a fkin ; on this they draw, with a 
kind of red colour, the figures of their own gods, as 
well as of Jtjus Chrift, the apoftte^ the fun, moor* 
and ftars. birds, and rivers : on thefe they place one or 
two brafs rings, which,when the drum is beaten with 
a little hammer, dance over the figures ; and, accord 
ing to their prograls the forcerer prognofticates.* 

RUSSIA, The eftabli&ed religion is that of thq 
Greek Church. This church, according to its origi 
nal cpnftitution, is governed by four patriarchs, viz. 
thofe of Alexandria, of Jerufalem, of Antioch, and 
of Conftantiriople $ the latter of which, affumes to 
himfelf tlie title of #/zmr//or Ecumenical Patriarch, 
en account of his reiiding in the imperial city, and 
having a larger jurifdidtion than the reft.-f- 

The conquered provinces retain the exercife of 
their own religion j and fuch is the extent of this 
vaft empire, that many of its inhabitants are Maho~ 
wetans, and there are many Pagans in the uaculti* 
yated provinces. J 

SCOTLAND. The eftabliihed religion is the 
Prejbyferian, which was introduced into this coun 
try by John Knox, a difciple of Catvin> in the yeac 


* Guthrie, p. 96, f Hiftory of Rcligiopi Njnbr iv. p 250'. 
t Oulhrie, p. 

ixvtii APPENDIX. 

1561,* and ftill continues, being moft agreeable 
to the genius and inclination of the people. -f- 

TheOiflenters in Scotland confib of the Epifcopa- 
Kans, a few Quakers, Reman Catholics, and other 
feds, who are denominated from their preachers. J 

ENGLAND. The eftablifhed religion in this 
kingdom is that of a Proteflant Epifcopacy. The fo- 
vereigns of England, ever fince the rei^n of Henry 
the Eighth, have been ftiled, the Supreme Heads of 
the Church. And the Church of England under the 
monarchical power over it, is governed by tvvo^rch- 
bifhops, and twenty -four Bifhops. TheArchbimops 
are dignified with the addrefs of Your Grace. Thg 
Archbi&op of Canterbury is the firft peer of the 
realm, as well as metropolitan of all England. The 
Bilhops are addreffed, Your Lordfliips ; and filled, 
Right Reverend Fathers in God j and precede as Ba- 
rons, on all public occafions. 

The dignitaries of theChurch of England, fuch as 
Deans, Prebends, and the like, have generally large 
incomes. England contains about fixty Arch-deacons, 
whole bufinefs it is to vifit the churches twice or 
thrice every year. Subordinate to them are the ru 
ral Deans, formerly ftiled Arch-pre%ters, who fig- 
nify the Bithop's pleafure to his clergy, the lower 
ckfe of which confifts of Priefts and Deacons. 

The thirty-nine articles of the Church of England 
are Cahini/iical ; yet there are not many of the 
eftablilhed church who think they are ftriftly and 
conicientioufly bound to believe the do&rinal parts 


* Robertfon'f Hift of Scotland TO!, i. p. aji. 

t Joaci'i Gramwir, voK i. P, 242* t C/whric, p. 161, 


of thefe articles, which they are obliged to fubfcribc 
before they can enter into holy orders. 

TheDiffenters in England are very numerous ; the 
principal denominations are the P re Jby tenant 9 Inde- 
f-.ridtnt&i Baptifts, Quakers, and Metbo&fti. The 
JMetbodi/ts are divided into different parties, and forni 
large focieties. There- is alfo a large number of 
<drians>&Qcinians> Deifts^ and other fubordfrtate de 
nominations. And many families in England ftill 
profefs the Roman Catholic religion - and its exercife 
is under very mild and gentle reflriftions.* 

WALES. The eflablifhed religion is that of the 
Church of England $ but fome ancient families are 

IRELAND. The eftablifhed religion is fimliar 
to that of England ; and there are as many denomi 
nations, particularly Pre[byterian&> Quakers, Baptifls^ 
and Mctbodijts. 

FR A ^CE. The eflabliflied religion in this king-' 
dom is Roman Catholic, in which their Kings have 
been fo conftant that they have obtained the title of 
Moll Chriftian ; and the Pope, in his bull, gives the 
King of France the title of Elde/l Son of, the Church. 
The Galacian clergy are, however, more exempt 
than others who profefs the Romifli religion from 
the Papal authority j their church confines the 
Pope's power entirely to things relating to falvati- 
on ;j| and has feveral antient rights, whfth they 
have taken care never to relinquish. The Pope ne- 
yer can, excommunicate the King of France, or ab- 

folve ' 

* Gmfcrfc, p, an, 212, 313. t HM* p. 377. 1 MM* p. M 


folvc any of his fubje&s from their allegiance : lie is 
not allowed to be fuperior to an cecumienical or gene 
ral Council : and they aflert, that infalibility is lodg- 
fcd, not in the Pope, but in a general Council only.* 

The Hugoncts in France, who were formerly op- 
prefled with heavy perfections, enjoy a good degree 
fcf religious liberty at prefent. J 

, The Roman Catholics in this kingdom are divided 
into feveral denominations ; among whom the Jan- 
ienifts, Quietifts, and Borignomifts are chief. j| 

prevails grektly among thofe of high rank. 

PROVINCES. The Dominant fedl 
of Chriftiarjs in thefe Provinces are thofe who are 
called the Rfjormed Church. They are fevere CW- 
uiniftsy who maintain the dodlrine of the Synod of 

Roman Catholics, amongft whom are the Jtinje- 
fiifts. They are in proportion to the inhabitants of 

the Provinces as two to three. 

. * 

The Remonflrants or Armirnani, who only have 
churches in Holland, Utretht and Friejland. The 
greateft part of them are inhabitants of Holland, prin 
cipally Amjltrdaw, Rotterdam and Geuda. 

Lutherans^ are a Very great and increafing number. 

Baptift$ y divided into fcveral feds, are mighty 
and numerous. Thofe who are called Menonites 
approach nigh to the Reformed Church. The Bap- 
tifis are generally Unitarians, loving and pradifing 
tiniverfal toleration. 


* Hift. Religion, Number TI, p, 256. J Slilc^f Sermoo, p. 53. 
Vol. i. p, 5772 


formed by the perfccution of the 
tteinonjlrant minifters in 1639. They have no pe 
culiar minifter, but every one learns and preaches 
tfhat he thinks ufeful : at prefent they are only in 

Quakers', with us are a fmall number; 

Hernbutters, and at Amsterdam, Perfiaris, arid 
tnembers of the Grecian church $ to which add 
many thoufand Jews. 

There is at prefent, ndtwitfiftanding the rigid 
Placards againft the Roman Catholics and Socinians^ 
a prevailing ipirit of candor and Caiholicifm among 
the different denominations. 

The minifters of the gofpel belonging to the Do 
minant church, ait maintained by the civil .magi- 
ftrate ; thofe ofiheDi/enters, by their own church* 
fcs, who have acquired funds for various purpoies, by 
gifts, teftaments, legacies, and donations of privatd 

Deifm> in the worft fenfe of the word i^ not com-* 
mon in this country. Few men, who love to be 
called philofophers ; fome profligates, and boys^ con- 
ftituie this clafs. * 

The eftabliihed rdigion here is the &oman Catholic j 
but ProteJIanf* and other denominations are not mo- 

GERMANt. the Roman Catholic, Lutheran} 
and Catoiniflical religions, are profefled in this em* 

G g 

* Extraft of a letter from a Gc&tUm'iti of character in Holland 

t Gutiric, p 444 _ 

abttil . APPENDIX. 

pire. The inhabitants of Auftria, Barbaria, and 
the Spiritual Electorates, and (ome other pkices, are 
Roman Catholics. Thofe of Mecklen burgh, Hol- 
iicin, Erandenbur^h, Saxony arid Pomerania, Lutke- 
ram. The Heffuns, and the people in the iouth 
of Franconia, Calvinifts. The reft of the empire 
is a mixture of all thefe denominations 4 

The prefent Emperor of Germany has granted a 
moft liberal religious toleration, and fupprelfed mod 
of the religious orders of both fexes, as uielefs to 

FRUSTA. The cftabli&ed religions in this king 
dom are the Lutheran and Ctuviniftic chiefly the 
former ; but Roman Catholics* Baptijh, and other 
denominations are here tolerated. -f- 

BOHEMIA. Though Popery is the eftabHflied 
religion of this place, yet there are many Protejfants^ 
who are now tolerated in the free exerciie of their 
religion 5 ahd fome of the Moravians have embra 
ced the doftrines of Count Zinzindorf^ which have 
been propagated in feveral parts of the globe. J In 
order to extend this denomination, the Count lent his 
fellow-labourers thro'out the world. He himfelf has 
been over all Europe, tmd at Icaft twice tostmerica. \\ 

HUNGARY, the eft ablilhed religion of the 
Hungarians is the Roman Catholic, though the ma 
jor part of the inhabitants are Profeftants and 
Greeks, who now enjoy the fall cxercife of their 
religious liber ties. 


Tol. i. p 46?. * Gu hrie. 476 f ibid. p. 456. 
480. n Km^iu'i HUt. of the Mvravufis, p. 25. 

Guihrie, 484. 


TRANSYLVANIA, Roman Catholic*, 
SCLAVONIA, and ram, Cafosnifts, Socini- 
CRQATIA, <w> drians, Greeks, Ma 

hometans, and other fcdts^ 
cnpy their ft veral religions in Tranlylvania. 

The Slavonians are zealous Roman Catholics > 
though Greeks and Jews are tolerated.* 

religion of the Croats is firxiilar to that of the 
i^waniaM and Sclavonians, y^ho are their 

2 ~ 

POLAND. The number of Proteffants,. con-* 
filling of Lutherans and Caivinifts, in their republic, 
is very confiderable ; and when thefe are joined 
to the Greek Church, the whole are called DiJ/icttnts. 
At the fame time, the Poli(h nobility and the bulk of 
the nation, are tenacious of the Roman Catholic re 

The monaflenes in this country are, by fome 
writers, laid to be five hundred and feventy-flx, and 
the nunnaries one hundred and feventecn, beiides 
two hundred and forty-fix femiaaries or colleges, 
and thirty-one abbeys. 

No country has bred more Delfts and Freethinkers 
in religious matters than Poland^ 

SWITZERLAND. Cahinijm is faid to be the 
region of the Proteftant Swifles : but this mtrft 
chiefly be underftood with reipedl to thq mode of 
church government ; for in fome do&rinal points 
they are far from being Cafainifts. 

Zuingtius, was the apoftle of Proteftanifm in 
Switzerland. \\ G g a SPAIN, 

? Guthrie, p. 486, f P 4$$. J p. 4^3; II p, 507. 

ixxivr APPENDIX. 

SPAIN. The Spaniards are flricl: Roman 
lies, and their King is diftinguimed with the epithet 
of Moft Catholic* 

The JnquifitiW) a tribunal which it is faid wa* Cr 
redled about ihe year 1212, by Dominic, a Spaniard^ 
and intended for the extirpation of thofe who werjp 
fujrpofed to entertain erroneous opinions, formerly 
reigned here ia all its horrors.^ At prelent its pe- 
jnalfies are greatlyjeffened ; but though difufed it is 
rot abrogated. It appears, however, that the power of 
the clergy ha? been greatly leflene.d of late years j 
A royal edi6t has been iflbed to prevent the admiffion 
of noviciates into the different convents without 
Ipecial permiffion ; which has a great tendency to 
reduce the monalleries in this kingdom : fpr which 
purpofe the King has published an ordinance > con 
taining twenty-five articles ; to which is added, a 
lift of t r he convents to be lupprcfled, or united to 

Before the fuppre/Tion of the Jtfvifs, the King of 
Spain.) as wel.l as the King ot France and the govern 
ment of Naples^ threatned to take iome iteps fatal 
to the Court of Rome. Venice propokd to reform 
their religious communities, without paying any at 
tention to the Holy See \ fo that no Pope was ever 
clecred in more tempeftuous times than the late Pvn- 
tiffGonganelti ; but after he had lupprefled this reli 
gious order* the Kings and the Venetian ftate imme 
diately accommodated the difputes which had lub- 
iiitcd fo long between them and iheCourt of Rome. * 


* Gutbrie. p 517; \ Limborch'sHift. cf th iDquIfition, p 
\ Guihric, p. 517. H London Town Ld Couniry M 
^784, p. 49. \ GAngnUi'$ Lciucij vol. i. p,j9 44. 


PORTUGAL. The eftabliflied religion of this 
Country is the Roman Catholic, in the ftrideft fenfe. 
But the P'jpis authority in Portugal, has been of late 
ib much curtailed, that ft is difficult to defcribe the 
religious ftate of this country. 

The royal revenues are greatly increafed at the ex- 
pence ojithe religious inftitutions in this kingdom,*? 

Before the eleclion of the late Pontiff Ganganelli, 
Portugal was about to choofe a Patriarch, and lay 
atide all communication with the Pope ; but he took 
the firft (leps to an accommodation with Portugal, 
#nd fucceeded in re eftablifhiog the antient friend- 
fhip which had (ablifted between the two Courts. *f* 

ITALY. The religion of the Italians is the 
Roman Catholic from hence it fpread over Europe. 
The ecclzjiaHical government of tne Papacy has em 
ployed many volumes in defcribin'g it.J The Car-? 
dinzl^ who are next in dignity to the Pope> are fe- 
venty, in allufion to the feventy difciples of our 
Saviour, and are chofen by the Roman Pontiff. . 
TThefe Cardinals ele^ the Pope ; which election is 
determined by the plurality of voices. Thecleclioa 
of a Pope is followed by his coronation ; and this 
ceremony is performed in the Lattran church,where 
they put a triple crown upon his head. The provin 
ces which depend on the Holy See are governed by 
Legates ; and there are few countries where the 
Pope has n6t ambaffadors, who are ftiled Nuncios. 

The title giveo to the Pope is, His Holinefs, arid 
the Cardinals have that of Emminence. 


* Guthrie, p. 550. t Ganganclli'i Letters, p 191 3i 

J GuthrU, p. $63. 


All the numerous ccclcfia flics, and religious orders 
who profefs the Roman CathoHc religion, are under 
the Pope ; and every one of thefe orders has its Ge 
neral at Rome ; by whom, the Pope is acquainted 
with every thing which paffes in the world.* 

At prefent the Papal authority is evidently at a 
low ebb,-f* and is not refpedted as it was formerly. 
The celebrated Pope Ganganeiil^ who has been fti- 
led the Phanix of dgei>\ after the matureft delibe 
ration, figned a brief on the 21 ft July, 1773, which 
fupprefled the famous order of the Jejuits, who 
have been the warmeft affertors of the Papal power, 
and whofe cabals and intrigues have made them for 
midable for ages to every Court in Europe^ and ena 
bled them tp eftabliih a powerful, well-regulated 
fovereignty in another hemifphere.|| 

As the Jefuits had a great ffrare in the education 
of youth, the faulting up their ichools might have 
proved of bad confequences if this Pontiff had not 
prevented it. After having Sketched out a plan 
of education, worthy of the greatefl matter, he caft 
a rapid eye upon fome Pr/t/ls and Friars 3 who by 
their talents and example were capable of replacing 
the Jeluit, teachers, and immediately inftituted them 
Profeflbrs j fo that, to the afionifhment of Rome, 
there feemed to be fcarce an interval between the 
departure of Jejuitt and the coming of their iuccef- 

In the Rtrruin Catholic kingdoms, Rcme Has DO ad- 
miniftration but what is purely fpiritual : k is onty 

* Barclay! Dtaionary. [SeePpe] 

t Gurhrie, p 563 Sales'* Sermon, p, 

1} Piragu^y. in Siouih America. 

$ GiUJginclli'i Lciurs, vol. i, p. 2, 43 44. 

APPENDIX. **vil 

!n the ecclefiaftical ftate that fhe has any temporal 

Perfons of all denominations live unmolefted iii 
Italy, provided no grofs infult is offered to their 
worfhip, -f- Even the Jews are allowed the full ex- 
ercife ot their religion in the heart of Rome j J and 
the profeffors of a religion which one fligmatiied all 
others as unworthy the facred rights 6f humanity* 
now openly avow the liberal fentiments of rhildnefs,* 
forbearance, and moderation. || The famous Pon-' 
tiff above-mentioned obferves in his letters, " That 
every impetuous zeal which would bring down fire 
from Heaven excites only hatred. A good caufe 
fupports iifetf, fo that religion needs only produce 
its proofs, its traditions, its works, and its gentleoefs, 
to be reipeftedV Chriftianity of itfelf overthrows 
every fed: which may be inclined to fchifm, or which 
breathes a fpirit of animofhy." 

Dei/m prevails greatly among the politer part of 
the inhabitants of this country.** 


g) f DANUBIAN PRO- The eftabliihed reli- 

: 1 VINCES, LITTLE gion in thefe parts is 

TARTARY, the Mahometan ; the 

O L GREECE. Turks profefs that of 

the fedt of Omar.* 

There is no ordination among their clergy : Any 
perlon may be a Prieft who pleafes fo take the habit, 


* Ganganelli'f Letteri, TO! ii. p. 208. f Cuthrie, p. 563; 

J Ganganclti't Letters, vol. ii p. 138. 

|| London Magazine 1784. p 8. 

f Ganganelli'i Lettert, vol i. p. 130, 131: 

y. Hiftory of Religion, No. |r. p, 174. 

*xxviii APPENDIX. 

and perform the fnridlionsof his order ; and may lay 
down his office when he pleafes. Their chief Prieft 
or Muiti ieems to have great power in the ftate.* 
He is (tiled by the Mahomttais the Msker of Lvws, 
Giver of Judgment s, and Prelate of Orthodoxy. -J- 
Friday is the day fet apart by Mahomet for the ob 
fervance of religious worfhip. This day was pitched 
upon in order to diftinguilh his followers fromi 
the Jews and Cbriftians.% 

There are large numbers of the Greek Church 
in the Turki/b dominions $ and alfo fom Armenians 
and Jews. 


ICELAND. The only religion which is tole 
rated in this I/land is the Lutheran^ 

OR CADES, The religion of thefe Iflands Is 

HH BRIDES, & P rot eft ant, according to the 

SHETLAND. drltipline of the Church of 

Scotland : but the Roman Ca 

tholic religion prevails among fome of the natives of 

the Hetrids 

being peopled either from Sweden, Denmark, or 
horway, profefs the Lutbtran religion.** 

MAJORCA, The inhabitants of thefe I/lands 
MINORCA, profefs the Rowan Catholic reli- 
aridYVJfCA. cion; 


p. 79. f BroughtOD, vol. ii, p, 14 W 

f Salt's Koran, vjl. i. p. 199. 
|f Guihrie, p 71. ibid. 141, 

** Broughtopj vol. ii. p. ja^. 


CORSICA, The inhabitants of thefe Ijlands, 
SARDINIA. are Roman Catholics 5 and it is 
faid, that in Sardinia, the peo 
ple will dance, and fing profane fongs in their chur 
ches, immediately after divine worftiip. 

SICILY, The Roman Cathdlic religion is pro- 

MALTA. fefled in thefe Iflands, and is fo ef- 

fential to the order of the Knights 

of Malta, that no perfon of a different perfuafioa 

can be admitted into it. 

AZORES* Thefe Iflmds being inhabited by the 
Portuguefe, profefs the Romi{h religion, as eftabliihed 
in the kingdom of Portugal. 

C \NDIA, The eftabliihed religion of thefe 

CYPRESS* anc l l ^ c ot ^ er Ifl a ds under the 

RHODES. Turks, is Mahometanijm ; but 

there are numbers of Chriftians 

who profefs the tenets of the Greek Church.* 


* Bronghton. VoJ, ii. p. 



' f PART OF ARABIA, ^ h l#'*T''f. is 
^yR eftabliihed religion of 

PALESTINE, 1 5 cfc 

N VTOLU, ere * nuibr of 

MK; OPOTAMH, ? f Wfc^l * 

TURCOMAN!*/ left j ne) 1 

1 G EORGI A an m 

tians, Armenians, Ja 

cobites, Maronites, Neftorians and A.eichites. 'All 
denominations are tolerated in many parts of the 
Turkifh dominions.* 

w; f The religion of this coun- 

RUSSIAM, try partakes of the Mabo- 

<JCHJNFSE, metan, the Gentoo, the 

} MOGULIAN, Greek, and even the P- 

< | ]NDEPN 7 DENT.///*, Some of them 

worfliip little rude images 

d?e(Ted up in rags. Each has a deity, with whom 
thry make very free when matters do not go accor 
ding to tfteir own mind. 

The inhabitants of Tibet > a large trafl of Tarfary, 
worlhip the Grahd Another religion which 
is very prevalent among; the Tartars is that of Scba- 
wani.m. The profeffors of this religious fed beluve 
in one fupremc God, the creator of all things. They 
believe that he loves his creation, and all his crea 
tures ; that he knows every thing, and is ail power* 
ful ; but that he pays no attention to the particular 
actions of men, being too great for them to be able 



1 Broughton, Vol. i'. p 


to offend him, or to do any thing which can he men- 
to ious ir, his n ht. Tbev are ail firm 'y pet iua/ded, 
of a future ex-ftence : i hey aho maintain, ih-it 
the fupcetne Ben;* has divided the- govar.nvj'it of 
the world, and the detliry of men among a 
great number of fubiltern Divinities under his com 
mand and controul, bit who, nevenhelefs, generally 
act according to their own fancies $ and, therefore, 
mankind cannot difpenfe with ufing all the means in 
their powe'r for obtaining their favour. r l hey iike- 
wiie fuppoie, that, for ihe moil part, thefe infeiior 
Deities abominate and puniih premeditated vilidiuy, 
fraud and cruelty.* 

A ha fid of Tartars in Sib-ria y have in every hut 
a wooden idol termed, in their language, bhetan, to 
which they addrefs their prayers for plenty of game 
in hunting, promifing to give it, if iucceisful, a new 
coat or bonnet, -f- 

K4MTCHATKA. The inhabitants of this 
peninfula, acknowledge many malevolent Deities, 
having little or no notion of the good Deity, They 
believe the air, the water, the mountains, and the 
woods to be inhabited by malevolent Spirits, whom 
they fear and worfliip'.J 

The method which the Emfirefs ofRuffia takes to 
convert her Pagan fubjefts in Kamtthatkz, is to ex 
empt from taxes, for ten years, (uch as profeis che 
Chriftian religion. The Pagan Kamtjchodaies be- 
Jieye the immortality of the loui. 

Hh 2 CHINA. 

Guthrie. p, 59 <5. f Kaim'i Sketches, vol. if, p, 176 
J p. 142, p. 575, 


CHINAS Befides the worfhip of the Grand La 
'ma, the religion of China is divided into three ieds. 
jfi. '[ he foilowers of Laokiur> who lived five hun 
dred years before Cbrijt, and taught, that God was 
Corporeal. They pay divine honours to the philo- 
fophcr Laokium > and give the fame wor&ip, not 
only to many Emperors who hive been ranked 
with the Gods, but alib to certain Spirits under 
the name of Xamte, who prefide over every 
element. They call this fe& that ot the Magician** 
becaufe the learned of it addift themielves to Magic % 
and are believed to have the fegret of making men 

ad. The worfliippers of Foe* who flourilhed a 
thoufand years before our Saviour, and who became 
a God at the age of thirty years. He is reprefentcd 
finning in light, with his hands hid under his robes, 
to (hew that he does all things invifible. The Doc 
tors of this fed teach a double law, the one exter 
nal, the other internal. According to the external 
taw, they fay, that all the good are recompervfed, 
and the wicked punifhed, in places deftined for each. 
They enjoin all works of mercy 5 and forbrd cheat 
ing, impurity, wine, lying and murder, and even 
the taking life from any creature whatever. 

The interior do&rine of this fetf, which is kept 
fecret from the common people, teaches a pure, on- 
mixed atbtifa % which admits neither rewards nor 
punishments after death,-^believes not in a ProvU 
dencc, or the immortality of the foul, acknow 
ledges no other Cod but the Void or Nothing, and 
which makes the fupreme happinefs of mankind to 
confift in a tcial inalion> an rntirt injtnfibility, and 
a periett quietude.* 3d, A 

* Hiftory of Tgnitiui, vol. ii. p. fi> 99 


$d. A fed which acknowledges the philofopher 
fynfueius for its matter, who lived five, hundred 
years before our Saviour* This religion, which is 
profeffed by the literati and perfons of rank in China 
and 1'onquin> qonfifts in a deep inward veneration 
for the God or King of Heaven, and in the practice 
oi every moral virtue. They have neither temples 
nor Priefts, nor any fettled form of external wor- 
(hip ; every one adores the fupreine Being in the 
way he himfelf thinks, beft.* 

The Chinefe alfo honour their dead anceftors j burn 
perfumes before their images j bow before their 
j>iftures j and invoke them as capable of beftowing 
upon them $11 temporal Weffings.^ 

MOGUL'S EMPIRE. The origin*! inhabitants 
of India are called Gentoos, or, as others call them, 
Hindoos. They pretend that Brumma, who was 
their legiflator both in politiqs and religion, was in-> 
jferior only to God 5 and that he exifted many thou-* 
fand years before our account of the creation. The 
Bramins for fo the Gentoo Priefts are called pre 
tend, that he bequeathed to them a book, called the 
Vidam^ containing his cloiUines and inftrudions ; * 
and that though" the original is loft, they are ftill 
pofftfled of a commentary upon it, called the Shah- 
ilah, which is wrote in the Shanfcrita language, now 
a dead language and known only to the Bramins, 
who ftudy it* The foundation of Brumma's doc- 
tine confided in the belief of a fupreme Being, who 
has created a regular gradation of beings, fome fu- 
perior, and fome inferior, to man j in the immor- 
Jality of the foul, and a future flate of rewards and 


if. p. 119. t Hift. rf ISQat|ai| I??i w* Pi *9?- 

ftlir APPENDIX. 

punishments, which is to confifl of a tranfmigration 
into different bodie c , according to the live? they have 
led in their pre-exiilent ilate. From rhs it appears 
more than probable, that the PatbtgQridn Mttamp- 
(ycbofis took its rile in India.* 

The neceffity of inculcating this complicated doc 
trine among the lower ranks, induced the Eramim 
to have recourfe to fenfib e reprelentations of the 
Deity and his attributes $ Jo that the original dodrines 
of Erumma were changed into idolatry : and though 
the eftablifhed religion in the Mo%ul** Empire is Ma- 
lorn tani/m y there are various fetts of Pagans, as the 
Banians, the Perjees, and the Faqiiir*. I he B 'Mi- 
am believe a tranfmigration of fouls ; afid therefore 
have hofpitals for beads, and will by no means de 
prive any animal of life. But of all living creatures 
they have the greateft veneration for the Cow, to 
whom they pay a folemn addrefs every morning^ 
Of thefe Banians there are reckoned in India about 
twenty-four different feds. The Per/ees are the 
pofterity of the antient Perfiam, and worfhip the ele 
ment of fire : befides which they have a great ve- 
ration for the Cock. The Faquirs are a kind of 
JMonks, and live very auftere, performing many fe- 
vere ads of mortification. Some continue for life 
in one pofture - y fome never lie down ; iome have 
thir arms always raifcd above their heads ; and fome 
mangle their bodies with knives and fcourges. Moft 
of the Indians believe the river Ganges has a fandi- 
fying quality, for which reafon they often wafh them- 
felves in it. There are many Jews and European 
tbri/iiem in the Mogul's dominions. 

Gothrie, p. 313. f RaK Y0 1, IT. p. 

Gnthriei p 313. f K*'^ 
Rroughtoo, TOI. . p. 328* 



GANGES. The inhabitants cf this tract of land 
are generally Mabomefiaift ; but the natives of the 
i.iLwd pms woiihip the iun, maon and other idols. 
In lome parts, they look upon the fir ft creature they; 
inert in the morning as the proper object of wo r (hip 
for that day> except it be a Crow^ the very fi^ht of 
which is enough to confine them to their houfes for 
the whole day. In the Tea-port towns there are a 
number of Jews and European Cbriftians. || 

GANGES. The inhabitants of this penin/ula are 
generally Pagans. The biamite* hold, all nature is 
animated by a rational foal $ that the foul tranfmi- 
grates through many dates, and is then confined to 
a human body to be punched for its crimes. They 
hold Jibe degrees of felicity and puniChment. * 

In the kingdom of Pegu, they have a kind of re 
ligious veneration for Apes and Crocodiles, believing 
thofe perfons very happy who are devoured by them. 
Mahometanilm prevails in fome parts, bat mixed with 
many Pagan rites and ceremonies, -j- 

When the Kings of this part of India are interred, 
a number of animals are buried with them, and fuch 
veffels of gold and filver as they think can be of 
ufe to them in a future date. J 

ARABIA, (That part which h not Included in 
7urkey.) The wandering tribes in the fouthern and 
inland parts acknowledge themfelves as the fubjeds 
of no foreignj^power 5 but have prefer ved their in 

U Broughton, vol. 5i. p. 325. * Middleton, vol. i p. 155.; 
t Broughton, vol. U. p, 328. J GaUrfe, p. ^18. 


dependence From the earlieft ages. Many of th 
wild drub* ftill continue Pagans^ though the people 
in general are Mahometans. * 

PERSIA. The Perfians are ftri<3 Mahometans, 
but of the feft of AH. They differ from the Turk* 
concerning the fucceffion of Mohammed. The Turks 
reckon them thus : Mohammed, Abubtker^ Omar, 
O/man, Ali. But the Perfians reckon Ah to be the 
immediate fucceflbr of Mohammed. The Gaurs, 
who pretend to be the pofterity of the ancientA^/', 
and ftill worfhip the fire, are faid to be numerous in 
Perfia, though tolerated in but few places. A com- 
buftible ground, about ten miles diftant froin Baku, 
a city in the north of Perfia y is the fcene of their 
devotions. It muft be admitted, that this ground 
is impregnated with very furprifing inflamatory qua 
lities ; and contains leveral old little temples j in one 
of which the Gaurs pretend to preierve the facred 
flame of the univerfal fire, which riles from the end 
of a large hollow cane firuck into the ground, reiem- 
bling a lamp burning with pure fpirits. J 


THR JAPAN ISLANDS. The worfhip of 
the Jafane/e is Pagan! fm % divided into feveral lefts : 

I. The Sinto, who believe that the fouls ot good 
men are tranflated to a place of happinefs next to 
the habitation of their Gods : But they admit no 
place of torment ; nor have they any notion of a 
Devil,but what animates theFox, a very mifchievoos 
animal of that country. They believe the fouls of 
the wicked, being denied entrance into Heaven, 
wander about to expiate their fins. IL Thofe 

p, 618.- J jM p. 


. It Thofe of the Bub/Jo religion believe, that m 
the other world there is a place of mifery as well as 
of happinefs, and that theie are different degrees of 
both, proportioned to the different degrees of virtue 
and vice, When fouls have expiated their fins, they 
are font back to animate fuch vile animals as refem- 
bled them in t heir former ftate of exigence : from 
thefe they pafs into the bodies of more innocent 
animals ; and at laft are again (tiffered to enter hu> 
hi in bodies : after the diffolution of which, they run 
the fame courfe of happinefs or mlfery as at 'fir ft. -J* 

III, The Siutto, who admit of no ceremonies 
in religion. There are innumerable temples and 
idols in this ifland j one temple in particular, con 
tains thirty-three thoufand three hundred and thirty- 
three Idols. * 

and FORMOSA, of theie ifandi 

are all Pagan*. 

Thofe of Formofa recognife two Deities in compa 
ny $ the one a mate, god of the men $ the other a 
female, goddefs of the women, The bulk of their 
inferior Deities ard the fouls of upright men* who 
are conftantly doing good, and the fouls of wicked 
inch, who are cohilantly doing ill. 

The inhabitants of the Ladrone I/lands belietfe 
Heaven is a region under the earth, filled with cb- 
coa-trees, fugar-Canes, and a variety of other delici 
ous fruits; and that Hfell is a vaft furnace cooftantly 
red hot ; thofe who die a natural death go ftrait to 
Heaven ; They may fin freely if they can, but prc- 

I r fervp 

t Kim, vol. IT, p. 13. Mi^etopatoU i. p. 


xlvili APPENDIX. 

ferve their bodies againfi. violence j but war and 
bloodshed are thek averfion.* 

THE MOLUCCA ISLANDS. The inhabitants 
f thcle Iflands, who believe the exigence ot ma 
levolent invifible Beings, fubordinate to the fnpreme 
benevolent Being, confine their worfliip to the for 
mer, in order to avert their wrath : and one branch 
of their worfhip is, to fet meat before them, hoping, 
that when the belly is full^ there will be Jcls inclina 
tion to mifchief.f- 

PHILLIPINE ISLANDS. The inhabitants of 
thefe Iflands are generally Mahometans J 

CELFBES. The inhabitants of this Ifland are 
profeffed Mahometan^ who retain many Lbineje ce 



SUMATR'A w10 relce on re ea coalt > are 

AVA &r i generally Mah&metaw ; but he 
J, ' ' natives who rt fide in the h land 

parts are Pagans.^ The lduan: y a people in the 
Ifland of Borneo % believe, that every peifon they put 
to death muft attend them as a flave in the other 
world. The worfhip of the inhabitants of Java is 
fimilar to that of the Molucca Iflands, 4- 


Knm, vol. IT. p. 235. f told p. 190. 

: MiddUtoo. [Sec Pb01 ; pme] ibtd. f Sre Celebfi] 
vol. ii. p. 330. \ *im, fol. IT. p 


CEYLON. The inhabitants of this Tfland ac 
knowledge an all -powerful Being, and imagine their 
Deities ot a fecond and third order are fubordinate 
to him, and act as his agents. Agriculture is the 
peculiar province of one, navigation of another. 
Buddow is revered as the mediator between Cod 
and man. Another of their favourite Deities is the 
tooth of a 

MALDIVE ISLANDS. The inhabitants of 
thefe Iflands are Mahometan^ who retain many; 
Pagan ceremonies, -j* 

I i a 3 d. RELIGIONS 

Kmn, vol. it; p. 15*. f Middletoa, [See Mi'di 




EGYPT. The prevailing religion of this coun 
try is Matotoctanifrt, There are alfo a Dumber of 
jews, and many Chriftians called Coptics,* who are 
iubjeft 'to the Alexandrian Metropolitan. He ha$ 
twelve Hi/hops uncier him, but no tffcttnfkpbtl 
Thev have (even (acraments, viz - Baptijm, the 
JLucbarifl) Confirmation^ O'dinatien, 'faith, Fa/i- 
ing % and P/rfj^r. They circumcile their children 
before baptijm, and ordain Deacons at (even years of 
age. They follow the do<ftrine of the Jacobites 
v ith regard to the nature of Chfijt, and baptljm b) 

>'-t :*; ....... 

R A R B A R T. 

r\/ir\nr\rrr\ inhabitants of thefe flates 

pfz are Mal *m*t*n*. Many fi,b- 

Alc'lFRS j i: fls of Morocco foliow the te- 
"c i TR1POI f ' fl ets * Hamtt one ol their Em- 
O I BARCA : * P eror s> who taught, that the 

^ dodlrinesof tiaii and O-.nar^ and 

other interpreters of the law, were only human tra 
ditions. There are alfo many perfuns in and about 
jtfgiers, who "differ from the other Mahometamin 
divers particulars. Some of them maintain, that to 
fa ft fevcn of eight months merits eternal happinefs ; 
and that idiots are the cleft of GOD. 


ZAARA, OR THE DESART. feffed f . in thefe 

. countries 

inetanifm j but there is fcarce any fign of religion 

among ' 

* Guthric, p. 66f, f Bvclay'i Diaioaar/. [Sc 
p. 67 ^ 


among many of the people,, There is a number 
of 'jews fcattered up and down in the beft inhabuecj 

s m Bilduigerid * 

NEGROLAN ? D. The inhabitants of this vaft 
country are either Mahometans or Pagans. And 
fome in the midland parts live altogether without 
any fi^n of religion, -J- 

GUINEA. Paganifm is the religion of this coun-- 
try. "The Negroes' on' the Gold Coaft believe a /-' 
pr. me Bring, and have fome ider.s of the immortality 
of the fjul ; they addrels the Almighty by a feii(h, 
or charm, as mediator, and ' worfhip two days in a 
week. They afcribe evil in general, a ad all their 
rnisfortuncs to theDevii, whom they fo r^, 1 , as to 
tremble even at the mention of his name. J I botc 
of the kingdom of Bentm acknowledge a fupreme 
Being, whom they caii Orifa ; bat they thi".k it 
needled to wodhip him, becaufe being infi'iuc'y 
good, they are fure he will not hurt them. On the 
contrary, they are very careful in paying their devo 
tions to the Devi/, who they think is the caufe of 
all their calamities. They do not think of any 
other remedy for their mod common difeales, but 
to apply to a forcercr to drive him away. Such 
Negroes as believe in the Devil paint his image 

The inhabitants of this fpacious coun 
try are either ftrift Mahometans or Pagans. \\ 


Brighton; val ii. p 331. s . 

M-ddle'.on, vol i. p 
K,ina, v>l IT p, 143 
f olt ii. P- 

' *^ ' ~ - 


This fpacious empire contains a great mixture of 
people, of various nations, as Pagans^ Jew** and 
Mahometans : but the main body of the natives are 
CbnliianS) who hold the fcriptures to be the iole 
rule of faith. Their Emperor is fupremc, as well 
in tcclefiaftical as civil matters. They ule different 
forms of baptifm, and keep both Saturday and Sun 
day as a SMatb. They are circumciied, and ab- 
flain from fwines flefh, not out of any regard to the 
Mtfaic law, but purely as an ancient cuftom of their 
country. Their divine fervice confifts wholly in 
reading the tcriplurcs> adminiftering the Enckanft) 
ana hearing foine Homilies of the fathers.* 

ETHIOPIA INFERIOR. The numerous in 
habitants of thefe countries are Pagans, excepting 
thofe of Z'inguebar, Jjan t and sdex, who proieis 
Mahomet anifm.^* t 


nr\\^nc\ T^ Q inhabitants of thefe 

'o rnro countries are Pagans. In 

2 J SSr n^o the kln ^ nm of L '***> the 

QwAiTr L P e P le entertain a taint no * 

*&tt tion of God, whom they 
U LMANTAMAN. ^ Samkian > Pcng0t + 

CAFFRARIA. The Hottentots believe in one 
fupreme Being, called Goanya Itquon, or God cf 
Gods. They place his refidencc beyond the moon, 
and fuppofe him a humane and benevolent Being ; 
but they have no mode of worshiping him, for which 


J Brougfcton f, f. 333; 


they gire this rea(on, that he curfed our firft patents 
for having offended him ; and on this account th^y 
never paid him adoration fince. They worfhip the 
M^n at full and change, and the Gold Beetle, which 
makes a faint of ali he lights upon. Their evil Dei 
ty, whom they call Tongoa^ is a crabbed, malicious, 
mifchievous Being, to whom they afcribe all their 


MADAGASCAR. The inhabitants of thte 
Ifland believe God to be the author of all good, and 
the Devil the author of all evil. -j- There are alfo 
fomc Mahometans in this Ifland $ but here are no 
rhoiques, temples, nor any ftated worfliip, except 
fome of the inhabitants of this place offer Sacrifices 
of beafts on particular occafions ; as, when fick ; 
when they plant yams or rice j when they hold 
their affemblies $ circumcife their children $ declare 
war j enter into riew-built houfes \ or bury their 
dead. Many of them obferve the Jewi/h &&bbath % 
and give (ome account of the facred hiftory, the 
creation and fall of man, as alfo of Noah> Abraham* 
Jicob, and David j from whence it is conjedtured 
they are defcended of Jew, who formerly fettled 
here, though none knows how or when, j 

CAPE VERD ISLANDS, The Inhabitants of 
CANARY ISLANDS, thefe iflands an* 
M A D E R A S. Roman Catholics. || 


* M'ddlston, rol. i. p, 0$ 4 ; f p 53;. 

% Guthric, p. 680. J Broughwoi vol. is s p. 3^3. 


ZOCOTRA, The inhabitants of this ifland ate 
Mahometan* of Arab extraction. 

COMORA. The inhabitants of this ifhnd aie 
Kegrocs of the Mahometan pcifuafion. * 


A P f E N D I X. If 





" -' ' ' .' .; i . 

PREVIOUS to an account of the preftnt d& 
nominations in this part of America, a fhori 
/ketch of the Aborigines will not perhaps^ &r /*- 
entertaining to Jome readers, 

The natives o 

fi W believed n0t ?- 
ly a plurality of G^wfio 

CONECTICUT made and g vern the fe - 
^ UT > ( veralnatio^oftheworldi 

but they made Deities of every thing they imagined 
to be great, powerful, beneficial, or hurtful to man 
kind : yet, they conceived one Almighty Being, 
who dwells in the fouthwe/l region of the Heavens* 
to be fuperior to all the reft : this Almighty Being 
they called Kicbian, who at firft, according to their 
tradition, made a man and woman out of a flone^ 
but upon fome diflike deftroyed them again j and 
then made another couple out of a tree, from whom 
defcended all the nations of trie earth j but how 
they came to be fcattered and difperfod into Coun 
tries lo remote from one another they cannot tell. 
They believed their fupreme God to be a good Bc~ 
?ng 9 and paid aiori of acknowledgement to him for 
plenty, victory, and other benefits* 

K fc 

Ivi A P P E N D I X. 

But there is another power which they called Hob- 
bamocko, in Englifh the Devit, of whom they ftood 
in greater awe, and worshipped merely from a prin 
ciple of terror. 

The immortality of the foul was univerfally be 
lieved among them ; when good itien die they laid 
their fouls went to Kicbtan, where they meet their 
friends, and enjoy all manner of pleaiures ; when 
wicked men die, they went to Kichtan alfo, but are 
Commanded to walk away ; and fo wander about in 
reftlefs difcontent and darknefs forever.* 

At prefent the Indians in New-England are almoft 
wholly extindt.-f- 

MASSACHUSETTS. There are various deno 
minations in - this ftate, but the Congregationalifti 
jredominate. Thofe of New-England, generally 
regulate themfelves according to the Congregational 
Platform. This Platform leaves the fcripture to be 
the fole rule of faith, ordinances and difcipline, as 
to what relates to authority and polity. It leaves 
each church with plenary unceded power ; making 
the Councils and Synods advifory only. It was paf- 
fed and received as the plan of public confederacy, 
which united the Pre/byterians and Independents 
under the one common title of Congregationalifts. 

It was a fundamental principle of this union, that 
every voluntary affembly of Chriftians had power to 
form, organize and govern themfelves ; and in imi 
tation of the apoftolic churches, to gather and incor 
porate themfelves by a public covenant, and to elet 
<.nd ordain all their public officers ,J There 

* Ncal'i H^ftory of New-England, vol, i. [\ 33, 34, 
Belknap's ritftory of New Hiropfture, iol, i a p. 12 
' Cbriftuu Ufiioo, p. 56, 65. 


There arc alfo in this ftate a number of 
paliam, Prejbyferans, Bapti/ls, Quaker^ liop 
Univer/a/ifts, Shakers, Deiji^ &c. 

NEW-HAMPSHIRE. The prevailing religion 
of this ftate is fimilar with that of the Mafjacbujetts. 
And the other denominations are- nearly the fame ; 
only it is laid, there is a larger proportion of 

RHODE ISLAND. This ftate was fettled by 
fome of the . Antinomian exiles, on a plan of entire 
religious liberty : men of every denomination being 
equally protected and countenanced, enjoying all the 
hpnours and offices of government. 

Many of the Quakers and. Baptifls flocked to this, 
new fettlement 5 and there never was an inftance of 
perfecution for confcience fake countenanced by the 
Governors of this ftate. * 

There are at prefent ip this ftate, a large nunober 
of Bakers and Baptifts of different denominations; 
a few ongregationaiifts> Moravians, 

The Jews have a fynagogue in this ftate. 

There are alfo a few in Rbede-Jfland who adhere 
to Jemima Wilkinjon, who was born in Cumberland* 
It is faid by thofe who are intimately acquainted with 
her, that ilie aflerts, that in O2ober 1776, fhe was 
taken fick and adtually died, and Ijqr foul went to 
Ileaven, where it flill continues. Soon after, heq 
body was re- animated with the fpirit and power of 
Chriftt upon which (he fet up as a public teacher, and 
declares (he has an immediate revelation for all Ac 
delivers ; and is arrived to a ftate of abfolute perfec -* 
K k z tion, 

* Bcllina^VHiftory of Jtfsw Haropfliire, vol. i. ^ 39: 

(viii APPENDIX. 

tion. It is alfo faid fhe pretends to foretel futuro 
events, to difcern the fecrets of the heart^nd to have 
fche power of healing difeafes : and it any pericn 
ifrho makes application to her is not healed, fhe at 
tributes It to their want of faith. She aflerts, that 
thole who refufe to believe tliefe exalted things con 
cerning her, v ill be in the ftate of the unbelieving 
jfews, whorejefled thecounfelof God againil them- 
ieives $ and ftie tells her hearers,' this is the eleventh 
tour, and this is the laft call of mercy that ever 
fhall be granted them : for fhe heard an enquiry in 
Jleaven, faying, * Who will go and preach to a 
dying world ?". or words to that import : and the 
fays (he afifwered, " Here am I, fend me ;". and 
that (he left the realms of light and glory, and the 
company of the heavenly hoft, who aie continually 
fraifing and worshipping God, 5ri order to defcend 
upon earth, and pafs through many iufferings and 
trials for the bappinefs of mankind. She aflinnes 
the title of the Univerfal Friend of Mankind j 
hence her followers diflinguifti themielves by the 
Oame of 

CONNECTICUT. Cor^regationaiifm is the 
predominant religion of this ftate^ ; but a number 
of the ttnnc&icut churches have formed themfeives 
on the Prejbyterian model according to Scotland^ 

There i? alfo a number of Epifcopalian*> Bapti/!s> 
Hopkinfian*> Univcrjati/is, 

NEW-YORK. The inhabitants of this flate 
are generally Prote/lants of different perfuafions, 

* Brownell't Et>vfiaaical Errori. p. c. 7. . 
t Sti^ciuiMimUmaD, p. 6g. 


jiS Lutherans) Quakers^ Bapti/ls 9 TLpitc*palians % 
J)utcb^ Gaiiic and German Catvinijis^ Moravians'^ 
MethodijlS) &c. who have all their refpedivc hou 
fcs of worfhip. 

The yews have a fynagogue In this ftate. 

It is ordained in the conftitution of New- York* 
jhat the free exercife of religious worfhip, without 
difcriminaiiori or, preference, ihall forever be aliovy- 
ibd to all mat kind. 

There is alfo a number of Sbakers at Nifquiunia 
in this ftate, J 

A gCijtleman of New-Tor&j who lately vifited a 
fociety of Shakers in Acquakanocb, whofe congrega 
tion confifted of about ninety perlons, was aftonifh- 
ed at the facility with which they performed almofi 
incredible adions : one woman, in particular, had 
acquired fuch an underftanding in the principle of 
balance as to be able to turn round on her heel a full 
half hour, fo fwiftly, that it was difficult to difcri- 
ininate the obje6l. Th^y are extremely reluftani. 
to enter into converfation upon the principles of their 
worfhip, but content themfelves with declaring, that 
they have all been very great finners, and therefore 
it is that they mortify themfelves by painful ex^ 

NEW-JSRSEY, After the coming o^ the 
white people, the Indian* in New-Jertey^ who once 
held a plurality of Deities, luppofed there were only 
three, becaufe they faw people of three kinds of 
complexions, viz. #////&, Negroes^ and theoi- 
felves. * " 

Guthnc, pi 72^. I Boftoa Gascttc, O^obcf 851 


It is a notion pretty generally prevailing among 
them, that it was not the fame God made them who 
nude us ; but that they were created after the 
white people : and it is probable they fuppofe their 
God gained fome fpecial fl^ill by feeing the white' 
people made, and fo made them better : for it is 
certain they look upon themfelves, and their me 
thods of living, which they fay their God expreffly 
prefcribed for them, vaftly preferable to the white 
people, and their methods. 

With regard to a future ftate of exiftence, many 
of them imagine that the cbicbung, i. e. the fhadow, 
or what furvives the body, will, at death, go fouth- 
ward, and in an unknown but curious place -will 
enjoy fome kind of happinefs, fuch as hunting, feaftr 
ing, dancing, and the like. ' And what they fup 
pofe will contribute much to their happinefs in the. 
next ftate is, that they fhall never be weary of thofe 

Thofe who have any notion about rewards and 
punifhments in a future ftate, feem to imagine that 
moft will be happy, and that thofe who are not fo, 
will be punifhed only with privation, being only ex 
cluded from the walls of the good world where 
fcappy fpirits refide. 

Thefe rewards and punifliments, they fuppofe 
to depend entirely upon their behaviour towards 
mankind 5 and have no reference to any thing which 
relates to the worfhip of the fupreme^Being.* 


Thii account 11 extracted from the Journal rf the lite piorc- 
Mr. Braioard, who formed a focieiy of Cbriftian Indians, at Crof- 
t ia New Jtrfgj. [Sec Praiflard'i Life, p, 448 


According to the prefent conftitutiori of this fiate, 
all perfons are allowed to worfhip God in the man 
ner which is moft agreeable to their own confciences. 
There is no eftabli&menc of any one religious fe<$, 
in preference to another ; and no Proteftant inhabi 
tants are to be denied the enjoyment of any civil 
rights, merely on account of their religious fenti- 
ments * 

There are Dutch, Gallic, and German Cahinifls 
in this ftate.-f- There is alfo a number of Epif- 
copatians, Prejbyterians> I$aj)tijis y Quakers, &c. 

PENNSYLVANIA. The inhabitants 7 of this 
Hate are of different religious denominations, efpeci- 
ally Quakers ; it was from Wtiliam Penn, a celebrated 
Qyaker, that this place received its name. Civil and 
religious liberty in their utmoft latitude, was laid 
down by this great riian, as the only foundation of all 
his inftitutions. Chriftians of all denominations 
might not only live unmolefted, but have a lhare in 
the government of this colony. J 

At prefent the Quakers have at leaft four places 
of worfliip in the city of Philadelphia. A number 
feparated from the reft on account of political prin 
ciples, maintaining defenfive war, and have built an 
elegant plain meeting-houfe in Arch-ftrett. They 
call themfelves/? Quakers , but it is thought fince 
the peace, they will reunite with the other Friends. 

There are alfo in this city,threeE/>/72^/ churches, 
two Roman-Catholic chapels; feveral German and 
Dutch churches,fome of which are Lutheran, others 
Calvini/iicat ; one M or a vian chapd $ one Methodifi 

meeting $ 

Guthrie* p. 728. f StUet' Eleaion Scrmoo, p, 54. 
t GuUirip, P . 733, 


meeting; three Prcjbyterian or Congregational^ one 
Baptift church, Caivini/ls ; part of this church who 
feparated from the other, call themfelves Univer- 

There is alfo a number of Jews in this ftate.^ 

DELAWARE. The religious denominations in 
this flate, are laid to be fimiiar with thole of Penn- 

MARYLAND. the firft European fettlers of 
this ftate were chiefly, if not wholly, Roman-Catho 
lics, and, like the lettlers of New-England, their 
fettlement mas founded upon a ft rong dc fire of the 
unmolelted practice of their own religion.* 

Lord Baltimore^ one of the moft eminent of the 
fettlers, eflabliJ;ed a perfed toleration in all religious 
tnatters, lo that Diffenters of all denominations flock 
ed to this Colony. 

At prefent there is here a larger proportion of 
Roman Catholics than in any of the other ftate? If 
Among the Proteftants, \Eptfttyeiy is, the predomi 
nant religion ; but there are vadoua othtr denomi 

VIRGINIA. The pj-edominart religion in this 
ftate, is th^t of the Cbur.h of England ; but all 
other denominations are tolerated. 

Virginia contains fifty- four parishes and churches, 
thirty or forty of which have minifies, with cha 
pels of eafe in thofe of larger extent. $ 


t Extria oft letter from a Lady, who fometime nfidcd in 
Philadelphia. * UniTerf-1 Hlft. vol. rl. p 466 ^ Garrie 
| Barclay 1 ! Did. [Sec MtryU&dJ $ IM. [Stt 



predominant religion in thefe /tales, is EpifApacy ,- 
but there are various other perfuaiions ; liberty of 
confcience being univerfally allowed.* 

; GEORGIA. According to the bed account, the 
Indian natives of Georgia had fome notion of an 
omnipotent Being, who formed man, ami inhabited 
thelun, the clouds, and the clear fky. They like- 
wife had fome idea of his providence and power 
over the human race. It is even faid, that they bs-> 
lieved fomewhat of a future, flate ; and that the 
fouls of bad men walk up and down the place where 
they died ; but, that God, or, as they call him, 
the Beloved, choofes forne from children, whom he 
takes care of, and refides in and teaches.^ 

At prefent Epifcopacy is the predominant religion 
of this ftate. 

There is a considerable number of Dutch, Gallic* 
and German Calviniftical churches, at Ebenezer^ ia 

There is alfo a number of Methodifts, Here 
the Rev. Mr. George White field founded an orphan- 
houfe, which is now converted into a college for 
the education of young men defigned chiefly for the 
miniftry 5 and through his zeal and pious care, this 
favourite feminary is at prelent in a thriving con- 


.NOVA-SCOTIA. The eftablilhed religion of 
this province Is the church of England ; but al! 
L 1 

i Bronghton. f Ueirerfal Hift. vol. xl. p. 464, $ 


fe<5ts of Bhriilians are tolerated, and government ftf 
far encourages them as to render contrads between 
minifters and people binding. Nova-Scotia is fet 
tled by people from New ^England ^ Old-England^ 
and Ireland. Thefe different people bring their pe 
culiar modes and local attachments with them. 
The greateft part of them were originally of the 
Congregational^ or Prejbyterian perfuafion : but be 
ing fcattered round ihe ihores of this province in 
imall villages, they have been unable to fupport the 
eftab!i(hments of the gofpel. Hence a number of 
illiterate men have ftepped forth as the minifteriai 
infirudors of this people, and have profelyted many. 

At the head of this clafs was the late Mr. Henry 
jtllen^ a man of natural good fenfe, and warm ima 
gination. This mun has journeyed nearly through 
the province, and by his popular talents made many 
converts. He has alfo publifhed feveral treatifes and 
fermcns, in which he declares he has advanced fome 
new things. He fays, that the fouls of all the hu 
man race are emanations, or rather parts of the one 
Great Spirit ; but that they individually originally 
had the powers of moral agents ; that they were 
all prefent with our firft parents in Eden, and were 
adual in the firft tranfgreffion. He fuppofes, that 
.our iirft parents in innocency were pure Ipirits, 
without material bodies 5 that the material world 
was not then made ; but in confequence of the fall 
man being cut off from God, that they might not 
fink into immediate deftrudion, the world was pro 
duced, and they cloathed with hard bodies ; and 
that all the human race will in their turns, by na 
tural generation, be inverted with fuch bodies, and 
in them enjoy a flate of probation" for happinefs of 



immortal duration. He fays, that the body of our 
Saviour was never raifed from the grave, and that 
none of the bodies of men ever will be : but when 
the original number of fouls have had their courfe 
on earth, they will all receive their reward or pu- 
nifhment in their original unembodied ftate. He 
iuppofed lapti(m> the Lord's /upper, and ordination, 
matters of indifference. 

Thefe are his mod diftinguiflnng tenets, which 
he and his party endeavour to fupport by alledging, 
that the fcriptures are not to be underftood in their 
literal fenfe, but have a fpiritaal meaning. He has 
had fuch influence over his followers, that fome of 
them pretend to remember their being in the garden 
of Eden. The moment of their converfion, they 
are fo well affared of that, it is faid forrie of them 
even calculate the age of their cattle by it. 

Mr. Allen begun to propagate his fentiments about 
the year 1778 : he died 17^3 ; and fince his death 
his party much decline. 

There is a confiderable number of Methodift^ 
or difciples of Mr. Wejl^ in this province, and one 
or two focieties of Baftift^ who do not much differ 
from thofe of their name among us, 

The number of Epijcopalian clergy in this pro 
vince, may be abaut nine ; Prcjbyterians and 
i feven.* 

CANADA. The Indians of this continent have 
an idea of the fupreme Being ; and they all in ge 
neral agree in looking upon him as the Firft Spirit, 

L 1 2 and 

* This ace DUO t wat given by an irgeoious ycurg 
at NwaSjotia ia the 


and the Governor and the Creator of the world* Jt 
is faid, that almoft all the nations of the Alqonq-<m 
language, give this Jovereign Being the appellation 
of ihe Great Hare. Some again call him Micbabou^ 
and others Atabtcan. Mod of them hold the opU 
nion, that he was born upon the Waters, together 
with his whole court, entirely compofed of four- 
footed animals, like himfelf , that he formed the 
earth of a grain of fand, which he took from the 
bottom of the ocean, and that he created man of 
the bodies of the dead animal?. There are likewife 
fome who iriention a God of the waters, who oppo- 
fed the defigns of the Great&4r*,6r at leaft refufed to 
be affirting to him/ This God is according to fome, 
the great Tyger. Laftly, they have a third called 
Matcomtk, whom they invoke in the winter feafon* 

The drejkoui of the "Borons, and the Agref- 
touje of the Iroquois, is in the opinion of thefe 
nations, the fovereign Being, and the God of war. 
Thefe Indians do not give the fame original to man 
kind with the Atqonquim j they do not afcend fo 
high as the firft creation. -According to them there 
were in the beginning fix men in the world, and if 
you afic them who placed them there, they aniwer 
you, they don't know. 

The Gods of the Indians have bodies, and live 
much in the fame manner with us, but without any 
of thofe inconveniences to which we are fubje<ft. 
The word Spirit, among them, fignifies only a Being 
of a more excellent nature than others. 

According to the Iroquoh^ in the third generation 
there came a deluge, in which not a foul was laved, 
fo that in order to &e-people the earth, it was necef- 
fary to change bcafls into men. 


Pefides the Firft Being, or the Great Spirit, they 
Jiold an infinite number of genii or inferior fpirits^ 
both good and evil, who huve each their peculiar 
form of worflhip. 

They afcribe to thefe Beings a kind of immenfity 
and omniprefence, and conftantly invoke them as 
the guardians of mankind. But they never addrefs 
themfelves to the evil genii, except to beg of them, 
to do them no hurt. 

They believe the immortality of the foul, and fay 
that the region of their everlafting abode lies fo far 
iveftward, that the fouls are feveral months in arri 
ving at it, and have vaft difficulties to luimount.' 
The happinefs which they hope to enjoy, is not be 
lieved to be the recornpenfe of virtue only ; but to 
Jiave been a good hunter, brave in war, &c. are the 
merits which entitle them to this Paradife,* which 
they and the other American natives figure as a de 
lightful country, blefled with perpetual fpring, 
whofe forbfts abound with game, whofe rivers f warm 
with fifli, where famine is never felt, and uninter 
rupted plenty fhall be enjoyed without labour or toil. J; 

Many of the Indian natives have been convened 
to Chriftianity ; and no accounts could be procured 
io afcertain how far fome of their tribes now retain 
the fentiments above defcribed. 

The predominant religion in this province, at pre- 
fent, is the Roman Catholic ; but there are Proteft- 
ants of different denominations. 


* CharJevoix's Voyage to North- America, vol. ii. p, 14X114^ 

143, 144; 14$, 152, 153, 154* I 55- 
$ Robmfou'i Hiftory oi Sottth-Amcncag voL i, p. 3^7* 


LOUISANIA. The natives of this part of 
'America^ moft of them, have an idea of a fupreme 
Being, whom they call the Grand Spirit., by way of 
excellence ; and whofe perfections arc as much fu- 
perior to all other Beings, as the fire of the fun is to 
elementary fire. They believe this omnipotent 
Being is fo good, that he could not do evil to any 
one, even if he inclined. That though he created 
all things by his will, yet he had under him fpirjts 
of an inferior order, who, by his power, formed the 
beauties of the univerfe ; but that man was the work 
pf the Creator's own hands. Thofe fpirits are, by 
the Nafcbes, termed free fervants or agents j but at 
the fame time they are as fubmiflive as flaves. They 
are conftantly irf the prefence of God, and prompt 
to execute his will. The air, according to them, is 
full of other fpirits of jnore mifchieYousdifpofitions, 
and thefe have a chief, who was fo eminently mif- 
ehievous, that God Almighty was obliged to confine 
him 5 and ever fince, thofe serial fpirits do not com- 
jnit (o much mifchieif as they did before, efpecially 
if they are entreated to be favourable. For this rea- 
/on the favages always invoke them when they want 
cither rain or fair weather. 

They give this account of the creation of the 
world, namely. That Gop firft formed a little 
man of clay, and breathed upon his work, and that 
he walked about, grew up, and became a perfect 
man ; but they arc filent as to the creation of 


Modera Uafrcrf*! Hiforj, vol. tl. P- 3-74." 


The greateft part of the natives of Louifania had 
formerly their temples as well as the Natcbes, and 
in all thefe temples a perpetual fire tfas preferved. 

The Chriftians inhabiting this place are Roman 


of this country believe a fupreme benevolent Deity, 
and a fubordinate Deity who is malevolent $ neg 
le&ing the former who they fay does no harm ; they 
bend their whole attention to foften the latter, who 
they fay torments them day and night.* : 

The Apalacbites bordering on Florida, worjlhip 
the fun, but Sacrifice nothing to him which has life : 
they hold him to be the parent of life, and think 
he can take no pleafure in the deftrudfion of any 
living creature : their devotion is exerted in per 
fumes and fongs.-f- 

The Spanifh inhabitants of this country areU0/#tf# 


The inhabitants of this country are chiefly Indians* 
Whom the Spanifh miffionaries have in many places 
brought over to Chriftianity.|; 

In the courfe of a few years after the reduction of 
theMexican empire, the facrament of baptifm was ad- 
miniftered to more than four millions. Many of thefe 
profelytes, who were adopted in hafte, either retained 
their veneration for their ancient religion in its full 


f Charlcvoix Voyagei, vol. ii. p. 273; 

* Kaino'i Sk^c , ?0 1. iv. p t x;;. 4- Ibid, p, 

J GuifitU, p 761, 


' ' : 

force, or mingled an attachment to its doftrines and, 
rites, with that flender knowledge of Chriftianity 
which they acquired. Thefe fentiments the new 
converts tranfmitted to their pofterity, into whofe 
minds they have funk fo deep, that the Spanifh ec- 
clefiafiics, with all their induftry, have not been able 
to eradicate them. The religious inftitutions of 
their anceftors are ftill remembered, and held in ho 
nour by the Indians both in Mexico and Peru, and 
whenever they think themfelves out of reach of in- 
fpedion by the Spaniards, they aflemble and cele 
brate iheir Pagan rites.* 


divinities of the native inhabitants of Mexico were 
cloathed with terror, and delighted in vengeance. 
The figures of ferpents, of tygers, and of other de- 
ftrudive animals decorated their temples. Fafts,; 
mortifications and penances,' all rigid, and many of 
them excrutiating to an extrerne degree, were the 
means which they employed to appeafe the wrath 
of their Gods. But of all offerings, human facrifices 
\vere deemed the moft acceptable. *f 

Notwithstanding the vaft depopulation of America} 
a very confiderable number of the native race ftill 
remains both in Mexico and Peru. Their fettle- 
ments in fome places are fo populous as to merit 
the name of cities. In the three audiences into 
whichA*z0 Spain is divided, there are at leaft two 
million of Indians ; a pitiful remnant indeed of its 
ancient population ! but fuch as ftill form a body of 
people fuperior in number to that of all the other 
inhabitants of this vaft country, f la 

* Robertfon'* Hift. S. America, TO!, ii. p 384, 38^.. 
f -IM. vol. U. p, 302, 303, J p. 351. 

A P P E N D i x; 


In confeqnence of grants beftowed upon Ftrdi~ 
nand Q{ Spain by Pope Alexander VI. and Julius 'II. 1 
the Spanifh Monarchs have become, in effeff, the 
heads of the Roman Catholic American church. la 
them the adminiftration of its revenues is veiled.- 
^fheir nomination of perfons to fupply vacant bene 
fices, is inftandy, confirmed by the Pope. Papa! 
bulls cannot be admitted into America nor are they 
of any force there, until they have been previoufly. 
examined and approved of by the Royal Council of 
the Indies : and if any bull fhould be furreptitioufly 
introduced, and circulated in America, without ob 
taining that approbation, ecclefiaflics are required,' 
not only to prevent it from taking effed, but to feize 
all the copies of it and tranfmit them to the Coun 
cil of the Indies.* 

. The hierarchy is eftablifhed In America in 
lame form as in Spain, with its full train of Arch- 
biihops, , Bifl^ops, Deans, and other dignitaries. ' 
The inferior clergy are divided into three clafles, 
Under the denomination of Curas, Dotfnneros, and 
JtfffionerQs.ThQ firft are' parifh Prieils, in thote 
parts of the country where the Spaniards have fettled* 
The leccnd have the charge of fuch diftridls as are 
inhabited by Indians fubjecled to the Spanifh go 
vernment; and living under its protection. The 
third are employed ia converting and inftrudting 
tliofe fiercer tribes which difdain ' ('ubmifGon to the 
Spanifh yoke, and live in remote or inacceffible re 
gions" to which the Spanifh arms have not .pehetra-" 
ted, So numerous are the ecclefiaftics of all ' thofc- 
various orders, and fuch the profufe liberality withj 
M m which 

f Rwb^f'foa'i Hiftory of South America; vol. U. p. 


which many of them are endowed, that the reve 
nues of the church in America are immenfe. The 
worfhip of Rome appears with its utmoft pomp ia 
the New World. Churches and convents there are 
magnificent and richly adorned ; and on hi^h fef- 
tivals, the difplay of gold and filver, and precious 
flones, is fuch as exceeds the conception of an E- 

There are four hundred monafteries in A> Spain. 

PERU. The Sun, as the great fource of light, 
of joy and fertility ia the creation, attracted the 
principal homage of the native Peruvians. The 
moon and ftars, as co-operating with him, were en 
titled to fecondary honours. They offered to the 
ton a part of thofe productions, which his genial 
warmth had called forth from the bofom of the 
earth, and reared to maturity. They facrificed, as aa 
oblation of gratitude, fome of the animals who were 
indebted to his influence for nourishment. They 
prefented to him choice fpecimens of thofe works of 
ingenuity which his light had guided the heart of 
man in forming. But the Incas never ftained his 
altars with human blood ; nor could they conceive 
that their beneficent father, the Sun, would be de 
lighted with fuch horrid vi&ims.f- 

At prefent there are feveral diftrias in Peru, par 
ticularly in the kingdom of Quito, occupied almoft 
entirely by Indians J 

Notwithftanding fome of the native Peruvians ftill 
pra&ife in fecret their Pagan rites, the Roman Ca 
tholic is the prevailing religion in this place. From 


Robcrtfoa'i Hia. vol. it. p. 377. f p. 3?. 3W- t 3Si. 


the fond delight the American Spaniards take in the 
external pomp and parade of religion, and from their 
reverence for ecclefiaftics of every denomination, 
they have beftowed profufe donatives on churches 
and rnonafteries $ -j- and have conceived fuch an 
high opinion of monadic fandity, that religious hon- 
fes have multiplied to an amazing degree in the 
Spanifli colonies. 

It was obferved in the year 1620, that the num 
ber of convents in Lima covered more ground than 
all the reft of *he city. 

The fecular Priefts in the New World are lefs 
diftinguiflied than their brethren in Spain, for literary 
accomplishments of any fpecies. But the higheft 
ecclefiaftical honours are often in the hands of the 
monaftic orders, and it is chiefly to them that the 
Americans are indebted for any portiorvof fcience 
which is cultivated among them.* 

The Spaniards form fuch an idea of the incapacity 
of the Indians, that a Council held at Lima decreed 
that they ought to be excluded from the facrament 
of the Eucharift. And though Paul Hid. by his 
famous bull, iffued in the year 1537, declared them 
to be rational creatures, entitled to all the privileges 
of Chiiflians ; yet after the lapfe of two centuries, 
during which they have been members of the church, 
very few are deemed worthy of being admitted to 
the holy communion. 

From the idea which was entertained of their in 
capacity, when Philip the lid. eftablilhed the In- 
quifition in America, in the year 1 570, the Indians 
M in 2 were 

t Robertfoft'i Hiftorjr* ?ol, ii, p. 365. 3*1* 


\vere exempted from the jurifdiclion of that tribut 
3ial, and (till continue under the infpedion of iheir 
dioorfans. Though ibme of them have been taughc 
ihe learned languages, and have gone through the 
ordinary courfe of academic education with applauie, 
their frailty, is ftill fo much fufpeded, that no Indian 
is either ordained a Prieft, or received into any reli 
gious order,"* 

CHILI. The mountainous part of this country 
5s ftill pofleffed by tribes of its original inhabitants. 
That part of Chili, which may properly be deemed 
a SpanUh province, is a narrow diilricl, expending 
along the coafl from the deiart of Atacamas to the 
ifland of Chiloe, above nine hundred miles. -p. 

Thg Reman Catholic inhabitants have eitablitlied 
divers feminaries in this place for the con ver lion oi 
the natives ; who, it is iaid, paid religious worihip to 
the Devil.J 

TERRA FIRMA. The Roman Catholic is the 
eflabliihed religion of this place, as well as in ihe 
other Spanifh fettlements in iouth America. 

PARAGUAY. The Jefuits entered this country, 
in the year 1586, they began by gathering together 
about fifty wandering families, who they periuaded 
to fettle ; and they 'united them in a little townfliip. 
"When they had made this beginning, they laboured 
\vith iuch indefatigable pains, and with fuch matter- 
3y policy, that they prevailed upon thoufands of va- 
lious dilperled tribes to embrace their religion ; and 
thefe icon induced others to follow their example, 

magnifying ' 

* EoV- ^. **'. I?. ^ - t'p "i^i 


the peace and tranquility they enjoyed 
qnder the direction of the fathers. 

It is (aid tfcat above three hundred and forty thou- 
fand families, ievefal years ago, were fubjecl: to the 
JefifkSj living in obedience, and an awe bordering 
upon adoration, yet procured without apy violence 
or conftraint,* 

It is (aid that nothing can compare with the pro- 
ceflion of the Bleffed Sacrament in. this place ; and 
thaty without any difplayoi riches and magnificence, 
it yields in nothing to the ricbeft and moil ma^nifi- 
fcnt proceilion in any other part of the world. 

A Spanifh gentleman defer ibes it in the following 
manner : -" It is attended wirh very fine d.ift- 
cin^ and the dancers are all neatly dreffed. Over 
the greens and flowers which com pole the trium- 
} ; i 1 arches, under which the Blcffcd Sacrament paf- 

I , there appear flocks of Birds of every colour, 

II xi by the legs, to firings of fuch a length, that 
a would imagine they enjoyed their full li 
berty, and were come of their own accord to mix 
their warblings *uh\she voices of the muficians and 
the reft of the people j and blefs, in their own way, 
him whole providence carefully iupplies all their 

" All the ftreetsare hung with carpets very well 
wrought, and feparated by garlands, fe (loons, and 
compartments of verdure, difpofed with the moil 
beautiful fymmetry. From diftance to diftance, 
appear lions and tygers very well chained, that 
may not difturb the lolemnity inftead of adofn- 
it 3 and even very fine fi&es fporting and 



playing in large bafons of water. In a word, every 
fpecies of living creatures affift at the folemnity, as 
it were by their deputies, to do homage to the in 
carnate word, in his auguft facrament ; and acknow 
ledge the fovereign dominion his father has given 
him over all living. Wherever the proceffion paf- 
fes the ground is covered with mats, and ftrewed 
with flowers and odoriferous herbs. All, even the 
fmalleft children, have a hand in thefe decorations, 
amongft which, are likewife to be feen the fiefli of 
the animals newly killed for food , every thing the 
Indians regale themfelves with at their greateft re 
joicings ; and the firft fruits of their labours 9 all, 
in order to make an offering of them to the Lord ; 
the grain particularly they intend to fow, that he 
may give it a bleffing. The warbling of the birds, 
the roaring of the lions and tygers, the voices of the 
muficians, the plain chaunt of the choir, all inter 
mix without confufion, and confpire to form a con 
cert not to be equalled in any other part of the 

' The great royal ftandard is carried behind the 
Blefled Sacrament. The Cacique, the Corregidor, 
the Regidors and the Alcades fupport the canopy. 
The militia, both horfe and foot, with their colours 
and ftandards flying, affift likewife,at the proceffion, 
in good order. But however ftriking this fpeilacle 
may be, the greateft beauty of it confifts in the piety, 
the modefty, and refpeft, and even the air of holinefs 
vifible in every countenance. 

" As foon as the Blefled Sacrament is returned to 
the church, the Indians prefent the miiTionaries all 
the feveral kinds of eatables which have been expo- 
fed in the proceffion ; and the fathers, after lending 



the beft of every thing to the fick, diftribute what 
remains, among the reft of the inhabitants. The 
evening concludes with the moil curious fire- works."* 

In 1767 the Jefuits were fent out of America by 
royal authority, and their fubjeds were put upon 
the fame footing with the reft of the inhabitants of 
this country. -j- 


BRAZIL. Though the natives of America in 
general acknowledge the being of a GOD, and the 
immortality of the foul, yet feveral tribes have been 
dilcovered which have no idea whatever of a fu- 
preme Being, and no rites of religious worfhip. 

The natives of Brazil had no temples nor Priefts ; 
but they were fo much affrighted by thunder, that 
it was not only the object of religious reverence; 
but the mod exprcflive name in their language for 
the Deity was 'loupan, the fame by which they di- 
ilinguifli thunder, 

The eftabliihed religion at prefent in this place, 
is ihe Roman Catholic. 


GUIANA. The favage tribes in this place be* 
lieve the exiftencc of one fupreme Deity, whofc 
chief attribute is benevolence ; and to him they 
afcribe every good which happens. But as it is 
againft his nature to do ill, they believe in fubor- 



* CharleToix Hift. of Paragaty. yol. i, p. 286, 287, 288. 

T Guihrie, p 776. 

j Rotor Obni fimory, vol f i, p, 381. p. 488. 

bcxviU A PPENDIX. 

dinate malevolent Beings like our Devil, who occi* 
fion thunders, hurricanes and earthquakes, and who 
are the authors of death and difeaies, and or every 

The religion of the Chriftiari inhabitants of this 
place is fimijar with the United Provinces. 


AMAZONIA. The inhabitants of this country 
are faid to worfhip images made of wood, fee up iu 
their houfes, for they have no temples, their Priefta 
teaching them, that thefe pieces of timber are real 
ly inhabited by certain divinities from Heaven. -f-' 


NEWFOUNDLAND. The natives of this ifbnd 
fvhen firft difcovered, had forne knowledge of a fu- 
jpreme Being, and believed that men and women were 
triginally created from a certain number of arrows 
ftuck faft in the ground. They generally believe 
the immortality of the foul, and that the dead go into 
a far country,there to make merry wuh their friends. J 

The prefenl religion of this place is fimilar with 
Nova- Scotia. 

JAMAICA, The religion of thefe iflandl 
BARBADOES, is univerfally of the Chufcb 
BERMUDAS, of England. 

The Negroes on- thefe and the other Weft-India 
iflands believe, that they (hall return to their native 


* Kami, vol. iv, p. 150. 

f tjrcug 1 ton. vol. it, p 53 ^ 

j Broughtoo, Vwl. ii, p 


Country after death. This thought is fo agreeable, 
that it chears the poor creatures, arid renders the 
burden of life eafy, which otherwife to many of 
them would be quite intolerable. They look upon 
death as *a bleffing, and fame of them meet it with 
furprifing courage and intrepidity. They are quite 
tranfported'to think their flavery is near an end- 
that they fhafl revifit their native fhores, and fee 
trfeir old friends arid* acquaintance. When a Negro 
is about to expire, his fellow- flaves kifs him, wifh 
him a good journey, and fend their hearty good 
toifhes to their, relations in Guinea. They* make no 
lamentations; but with a great deal of joy inter his 
body, believing he is gone home and happy,* 

The original inhabitants ,of the Weft-India iflanda 
are now almoft erxiirpated.-j* 

CUBA The infla ^ itants F thefeand 

HibPANIOLA, * e . other jjknds belonging to 
Spain are Roman Catholics J 

MARTbNlCO. The predominant religion- in 
this and the other iflands belonging to France is the 
Roman Catholic. 




the South Sea,in general acknowledge an almighty, 
invifible Lord and Creator of the univerfe, who ex 
ecuted the various parts of th creation by various 

JN n iubordinate 

* Ga^ne. 704. 

$ Bfcughton. vol. i, ?. 

Ixxx A IP P E N D I X. 

fubordinate powerful Beings. They are of opintoft, 
that he is good and omnikient J that he fees and 
hears all human actions ; and is the giver of all good 
gifts. They feel their own wants, and therefore 
apply for redrefs to the fupreme. Being, and offer 
him, with a grateful heart, the beft gifts of their 
lands. They acknowledge to have a Being within 
their bodies, which fees, hears, fmcjls,' tafles, and 
feels, which they call E>tee-be$ ; and they bdieve, 
that after the dillblution of the body, it hovers aboift 
the corps ; and laftly, retires into the wooden re* 
prefentations of human bodies, credited near the bu- 
rying-place?. They are convinced of the certainty 
of a happy life in the Sun t where they fhall feaft on 
bread-fruit,* and meat which requires no drcfiing : 
and they think it their duty to' direct their prayers 
to this fupreme Divinity, or Eatcocr RaLiii. Thofc 
who have leiiure among thefe people, are very defir- 
ous of learning what is known relative to this and 
all other inferior Divinities, and to pradile fuch vir 
tues, as by the general consent of mankind, confti- 
tute good adlions. ^ Thefe are briefly the general 
outlines of their religious worihip. 

The name Eatooa, admits a very great latitude in 
its ime r pretat:</n : however, they, admit a Being 
which they call EatQQOirR<*bai, which is the fupreme 


* The t^ec which b-'s^s this frm% is about the Gr: of a m;d 
!Lng ui.k, w.'.h >*rge !ev>s deeply finu-ited, 4^d whea brt.k.-n 
from tht btarcb, exub a wti;c CQUCV juics. The fruit if ab.ut 
tlis fize ^f a child'* he-<d, ai;d ne.riy Qiapcd lik- it It is ccv;red 
with a fk'n, the lurtacs of which i reticiHatcd, and ic has a imall 
core. lv ia quit? white ; aitd w^;n roifted'oc bailed, hat the coa- 
fidencs of ntw wheat b.-csd, acd rcfetnbltt *t ia fiftc. onlr it fi 
fwter. There are large iorefi* of this fruit on raoft of the 
in the Sovub e. [S? todk'i Uft Voyage, p, ^8J 


Deity above all. .Each of the iflands furroundmg 

^bailee has its principal God, or tutelar Deity. P- 

This is always the Divinity whom the High-Prieft 
of each ifle addiefies in his prayers at the grand Afa- 
fai of the Prince of that ifland. 

The great I)elty they think to be the prime caufe 
of all divine and human Beings'; and fuppole the in 
ferior Deities, andeven.mankiad-are descended from 
him and another Being of the female fex ; and in 
this refpe<3\ they call the great Deity. Ta-routiay 
Bto-mou, the great procreating ftem ; but his wife 
is not of the. fame nature with him. They imagine 
a coexisting hard fubftance neceffary, which they 
cMOte*papa t The fe procreated Heenaa, the 
Goddefs who created the mocn, and prefides in that 
black cloud, which appears in that luminary j 7<? 
wbetto-ma-tardii the creator of the ftars ; fio-mdr- 
rtco, the God and creator of the feas ; and Qrre-or- 
re, who is God of the winds*. But the fea is. under 
the diredion of thirteen Divkwies, who have all 
their peculia* employment. The great God lives in 
the fun, and is tho't to be the caufe of earthquakes. 
They have one inferior Genius, or Divinity.,.oi a ma 
lignant difpofition, refiding near the morai> or bury 
ing- places, and in or near the cheft including the 
heads of their d^ceafed friends, each of which is 
called the boufe of the Evil Genius. The people 
are of opinion, that when a Prieft invocates this evil 
Cenius, he will kill, by a fudden death, the perloa 
Oil ^yhom they intend to bring down the vengeance 
of this Divinity. They have another inferior Divi 
nity, who. had the fame power of killing men, wi;h 
this difference only, that he was: not addreffed by 
prayer, but is only worshipped by^hifling. This 

i n 


kind of Genius, is called Teethe? : this, they fay, i$ 
the Being which hea r s, fmells, taifesard feels within 
us, and after death exiits feparately from the body, 
bu: lives near burying-places, -and hovers round 
the corpfe of their friends ; and is likewife an objedl 
of their reverence, though addrefled only by hiding. 
Theie Tec-bets are likewife feared : for, according 
to their belief, they creep during night into the hou- 
fes, and eat the heart and enf rails of the people flcep- 
ing therein, and ihis caufes their death. * 

The inhabitants of thefe iflands honour their Di 

vinities firft,' by prayers ; lecondly, by letting a- 

p^n a certain order of men to offer up theie prayers ; 

thirdly, by letting apart certain days for religious 

worlhip ; fourthly, by iconfecrating certain places 

' for that purpofe ; fifthly, by offering human facrifices 

.to the God of war,-f They prelerve a condemned 

maietador, of an interior clafs, for a facrifice ; pro 

vided they are not poflefled of any priioner of war, 

The Otabeiteans, and the other Iflanders, prepare 

. thofe oblations on their morafs. 

We have plain proofs that the Otaheiteans have 
notions of. a metemphicbofis.% 

NEW HOLLAND. The people' inhabiting 
this vaft iOand appear to be all of one race.|| But 
no account can yet be procured which indicate there 
entertaining 'any ideas of religion. The New-Hoi- 
lander is a mere favage ; nay, more, he pcfTefles 
the lowed rank in the clafs of Beings, 

* F-ift-r's Gf-cr Obfervationi. p 533, 534 
+ C k% 1, u V y ge p 76 131, 13^. 
J R;: w . rifoo, Y .-I. i. p. 472. 
1U yoyagc, p. 14. 

APPENDIX. Ixxxjit 

from the foregoing view ef the various religions 
?/ th< different countries of ihe world, it appears^ 
that the Chriftian Religion is efvery (mail extent, 
compared with tbo/e manv ana va/i countries overjpread 
with Paganilm or Mohammedrm, Ibis great and 
fad truth may be further evinced by the following cal 
culation, ingenioujly made by fame, who, dividing I be 
inhabited world into thirty farts, find y that 

XIX 1 f Pagans, 

VI | j Jews and Mohammedans^ 

Of them I Chyiftians of the Greek 
are pof- ^ Church, 
feflfed by j ^p, , f Chqcch of Rome,; 

1111 of t he Proteftant Comma- 


1A | 

11 \ 

If this calculation be true, Chriftanity, taken in 
its largeft latitude \ bears no greater proportion to the 
ether religions than five to twenty- five >* 

* It is worthy our obfervation, that the above calculation war 
made before thts late difc;verics of the n^h-weft par of America, 
the north eaft part of Afit, the vaft tr- ct cf New-H >l]*nd ; New- 
Guinea, and the numerouf other illandi in the Pacific Oeesti : how 
much greater then muft the rumerical idiffsrencs appear at tha 

efsnt day, between that part of mankind, who eojjy the light of 
hnftunity, and that pirt who arc now groping ia Pagan dark- 




//*r /> 



5 from top, tcktt 



ij from bottom, to, 



1 6 from top, ' ***>>, 



1 6 eentur, 
i i from bottom, Ctnufar/, 



8 dtjiinpui/h 



9 from top Fra(rt t 



8 Dittoing 



17 tntnntry., 


. 86 

16 pffelfty* 


5 from bottom, J*nft*it9t} 



12 from top, tntilicsi 

' entirict. 

1 4 /^tf/r, 



a 4*fp'J*t 9 



12 dele /x-. 


9 from bottom, 1? f>*rmlltl % 

by a parallel, 

A P P E N D I 


rr/fr^? / />5r tfMtf /" 

rtfled. In the 

came cf 

4 ) 

J <* /Aw /W^r : / 1 

this M-fter, 

I nauli 

my? /<//jf^tf. 

teil you. 


8 from bottom, feventl, 



lo from top, p9rij>nomiJ1t t 



4 from bottom, / Jef*itt t 
X at top, Bhrtjiians, 

of the Jefuiic. 


[Other fraillcr crron etc cindid reidcr will excufe. 

IN D E X, 


A A *<" 


Abyffinian Church, ibid. 














































1 3 

































E X. 








J V-J 










' 33 





T^\ * 



Brethren and Sifters 7 



of the free Spirit, | 




1~\ i * * n. 











Calvin ids* 




Catharifts, * 





Eheratites, qr Con- 7 
tinentSj ) 



Cerinthians, " 
Chriftians of St. John, 
Chriftians of St 





i nomiQ ' ( 



JL liDillctb, 

Circumcellians > 












Farvonians;, , 

. 6 * 

llluininati 1 

9 % 






















French Prophetsi 






t /., -, . L . T - 













Gnoftics, ..... ,-. 








4. --- * 



tj H 




,?- 7 









.7 8 


















Hopkintonians, or? 



Hopkinfians, $ 


Melecians, , 



87 Melchizedichians, 








Men of Under- T 
Handing, i 




ii 15 


Q Method 

N D E" X 

Methodifts, n^ 
Milleharians, o* ? TT 

Chiliads, 3 

Mnlinifts, 117 

Moharcliians, 118 
MonophyfTtes, ' ibid. 

Monothelites, 'ibi. 

tylontanifts, * 119 




i 20 



J^ AZ ARE ANS, 1 2 5 

Neonomians,* 126 

Neflorians, ibid. 

Nicolaitans, 127 

No'etianH ibid. 

Novations^ .128 







Pepuzians,* 145' 

Petrobruffians, ibid. 
Philadelphian Society, 146 

Photinians, 147 

Picards, . ibid. 

Pietifts, ibid. t 

Predeftinarians; 148 

Prefbyterians, - 149 

Primianiils, 150 

Proteftants, .151 

Pfatyrians, ibid* 

.Ptolemattes, ibid. 

Puritans, ibid* 

T) P 


Fannenianites> 141 

Pafaginians, ibid.* 

Pafl*alorynohites > . 142 

Patricians, .ibid. 

Patripaflians, ' ibid. 

Pautians, or Pau- 1 , m 

lianifts, ) 

Paulicians, 143 


Quiet ills, 





1 60 




1 6 1 


Sabellians, 162 

Sacophori, - 163 

Sandemanians, . ibid. 

S&aniahs, i66i 

Saturnians, ibid. 

Schewenkfddians, i 168 


D E 








169 Triformiani a - 





. l8 * 







1 ibid. 







.ibid. * 

Vanifts, ' 


Sethians, ^, 


Ubiquitarians, . 












Unitarians x - 




UniVerfalifts, \ 



Cbauncean y 3 







Murray eon* 













' 183 







Theopafchitesi , 











. A P P P E N D I X, 


w v ORSHIP of the Grand Lama, 

Account of the Mahometan religion, * 
[Religion of the modern Jews, 
Account of the Deifts, 

A A 



Azores^ . . 

- ..^ 



Bermudas, . 
Bohemia, * 



** Cape Verd Wands* 

78 Carolinas, 

42 Celebeiy ! 

39 Ceylon, 

50 Comoro, 

78 Connedticutj 

Hid. CorficaV 

50 Croatia, , 

32 Cuba, * 

48 CypniSj 



52 Denmark, . 4 

6 S 

39 17 E 

53 tLGYPT, 






4 9 ; 






Und 4 

E X. 

England, Old,* 

Page. F 
a8 Lapland, 


England, New, , ' 

' 55 Louifania, 


Ethiopia Superior, 



Ethiopia Inferior, 

ihia. \/f M 


TT ^F 



Mad eras, it 
69 Majorca, 
47 Maldives, 





29 Malta, 


Friendly Ifles, 

7^9 Martinico, 


, , 



63 Mexico, Old, 



^9 Mexico, New 1 , 



6 Minorca, 



77 Mogul's Empire, 



51 Molucca lilands, 

Guinea, Lower, 


< - . * , 



38 Netherlands, 

3. 1 


79 Newfoundland, 


32 New-Hampihire, 


i. . . . t^ . _ 



46 New-York, 



48 Nova-Scotia, 

O T 


38 Norway, 


India, ' 

45 Nubia, - 




' Italy, . 

3S /^\ 

f CHATKA, 46 








.46 Sweden, 26 

48 Switzerland, 33 
Poland, 33 
Portugal, 35 rr\ T 

Pruffia, 32 X ARTARY, 40 

f> - R Tranfylvania, 33 

JL\HODE ISLAND, 56 Turkey in Europe, 27 

.Rhodes, 39 . -furkeyiri Afia, 40 
Kuffia, 27 




'vonia,^ 33 

Scandinavian Iflands^ -38 . 

-tland, aj X^ - Y 

Shetland*, 3 X VICA A 55 

Si:ily, 39 

Society-Iflands, 79 r~W Z 

Spain, 34 jfjAA^A^ yy 

Sumatra, 48 ^ocaftra, r^ 

* * . J v 


CENTURY i. Ofienians, Aquarians, 

CErinthians, S 011 ^ 5 ' ' Archonticks, 

Docetae, r Artcmonites, 

Ebionites, CENTURY H. Artoty^tes, 

Gnoftics/ Adamites, 

Menanderians, ' Alogians, 









Hermogeni a^^> 














Apocarit^Sy . 







Manichxans, ^ 





Cfriginiftsj ' 


Quintilians> 9 
















Pfatyrians, - 














Theopafchkes; \ 











Aginian% :ri'n 
Eicetae, nj 







CENTURY. ix t 

Abrahamians, ' 










Fratres AFbatl, 

CENTURY fcvrij. 





Mert of Under- 


* CENTUTY *n. 





Fjfth Monarchy* 



French Prophet^ 

6nites,. " 
Henri ci^ns; 


Brethren and Sif 


Philadelphian So ? 
, ciety, 
Quakers, . 
Trafkites; .- 

Ve f fc h n r i (V<; 

ters of the Free 


T vi. I v 1 1 v 1 1 1 L J % 

! Spirit, 


CENTURY xviri, 












,\ ,. i 


R3EVERENPM-. Thomas Abbott, Brooklyn, 
Mr. Samuel Abbot, jun. Andover, 
Rev. Mr. Zabdiel Adams, Lunenburgh, 
Rev. Mr. Mofes Adams, Afton, 
Rev. Mr. Jedediah Adams, Stpughton, 
Mr-. Samuel; Adams, jun. Bofton, 2 Copies* *. 
'Mr. 'Elijah Adams, Medfield, % Copies* 
Deacon Enoch Adams^ ditto, , . . 
Mr., Jofeph Adalns, ditto, * . ^ 

Mr. Ward Adams^ Franklin j . 
Mr. John Adams, Roxbury, 
Mr. George Whitefield Adams, Newton^* 
Mr. Thomas Adams, Pepperrell',, . 
Mifs Sukey Adams, Bofton, 2 Copies* 
Mifs Eunice Adams, Medfteld, 
Mifs Sally Adams, Pepperrel^ 
Miff Silence Adams, Medway, 
Capt. -Silas Aldeh, Needtam, 
Col. ' John Allen, PafTamagudda* 
Mifs Polly Allen, Bofton, 
Ebenpzer Allen, A. M. Stoneharrt, 
Mr. John Allen, Barnftable, 
Mr. Elea^er Allen, jun. Dedham, ' 
Mr. James Ames,- Bridgewater, ' 
Mr. Robert Anan, Rhode-Iflahd College*' 
Nathaniel Appleton, EJq.\ Boftbh, a Copi&* 
Welcome Arnpld, Efq\ 
Johja Ayres, 



Andrew Bacchus, Efg; Plainfield, ConneRicut, 

Rev. Mr. Ifaac Backus, Middkborough, 

Mr. Jofiah Bacon, Springfield, 

Mr, Jofeph Bacon, Winchendon, 

Rev. Mr. Benjamin Balch, Danvers, > 

Mr. Thomas Bancroft, Student, Harvard- College, 

Aaron Bancroft," A. M., Reading, 2 Copies, 

Mr. James Bancroft, Bofton., ^ 

Nathaniel Barber, Efq-, ditto, 

Mr. Bcriah Bailow, Wrentham, . 

Caff. John Baxter, jun. Medfield, 

Mr. Stephen Baxter, Student, HarvardaCollege, 

Mr. Silas Beaman, Shrewsbury,* 

Mr. George Bertfon, Providence, 

Dr. Amariah Bigelow, Shrew/bury, 

Mifs Olive Bigelow, ditto, 

Mr.- William Bigelow, Natu:k> 

Mr. William Billings, Bofton, 

Mr., Nathan Blake, Wrentham, 

Caleb Blake, <d. B. ditto, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Samuel Blodget, Bofton, 

Rev. Mr. Caleb Blood, Newton, 

Mr. Jonathan Bowdrick, Franklin, b. Copies. ' 

Hon. Jabez Bowen,' EJq\ Providence^ Lieut. Governor 

Copt. JohnBoyd, Franklin, 

Mr. Benjamin Boyden, Walpole, 

John Bradford, A. 'M. Bqilon* 

Mr. Luther Bri<8t, Shei-burne,. 

Mr. Daniel Brick, ditto, 

Mr. John Bridge, Lexington, 

Mr. Antipas Brightman, Waldoborough^ 

Jofeph Brown, Efq-, Pfovidence, 

Rev. Mr. Elijah Brown, Shierburnc, 

Mr. William Brown, Bofton, 

Mr. Jofiah Brown, ditto, 

Nicholas Brown, Efq-, Providence, 

fdifs PjJy Biown^ ditto, ' 


Rev. Mr. Jofeph Brown, Winchendon, 
Mr. William Brown, Fitchburgh, 
Rev. Mr. Nathan Buckman,- Medway, 
Mr. John Buckminfter, Barre, 
'Major Seth Bullard, Walpole, 
Mr. Benjamin Bullard, Sherburne, 
Rev. Mr. John Bullard, Pepperrell, . 
Mofes Bullen, Efq- 9 Medfield, 
Mr. Samuel Butler, Providence, 
Mr. Jofhua Butters^. Bofton,, 

Mr. Seth Capron, 'Norton, 
Rev. Mr. Benjamin Caryl, Dedham, 
Rev. Charles Chauncy, D. D. Bofton, 
Afr. Nathaniel Champney, Cambridge^ 
Rev. Mr* Daniel Chaplin, Gr6ton,' 
Mr. Eliflia Cheney, Newton, 
Mr. Ephraim Chenery, Medfield, 
Rev. Mr. Jabez Chickering, Dedham^ 
Mr. Daniel Chickering, Needham, 
Rev< Mr. John Clark, .Boflon, 
Mr. Dyer Clark, Franklin* 
Mr. Stephen Clark, Wrentham, 
Mr. Jacob Clark> Medfield, 
Mr. Pitt. Clark, ditto, 
Mr. Phillips Clark, ditto, 
Mifs Sibel Clark, ditto, 
Mr. Roland Clark, jun. Sturbridgc, 
Mr. Zimri Cleaveland, Medfield, 
Mr. John Cpburn, Bofton, 
Rev. Mr. Curtifs Coe, Durham, New~HaMpjhire, 
*' Mr. Jonathan Colburn,' Dedham, 
Mr* James Fpfter Coridy^ Bofton, 
Mr. Ezra Conant, jun. C6.ncord, 2 
Mr. Jacob Cooper, Bofton, 2 Copies* 
Mr. . Peter Coolidge, jun. Medfiel^ 
Jacob Corey 3 Sturbridge, 

LIS % T OF.' Suaac H.I 5-BR 

IWr. Ebenezer Corey, Roxbjuiy, . 
Thomas Cowden, Efy-> Fitchburgh, 
Ebenezer Crafts^ Efq; Stu'rbridge, 
Richard Cranch, EJq-> Braintree, 2 Copley 
Abraham Cummings, A. M. ditto, 
Major James Cunningham,. Medfield^ 
Rev. Mr. Phillips Curtifs, Sharon^ 
Sally Curtifs a Newton* 

Stephen Dana, EJq\ Cambridge^ 
J\^ir. Jeremiad Daniels, ^i/^ 
Pavid Daniels, . A. Af./ditto, % 
Mr. Daniel Davis, Harvard, 
Robert Davis, Efq- y Bofton, 
Mr. Nathaniel Day is, ditto, 
//(?;;/ Caleb Dayio, -EJq-i ditto,. 
Mr. Jofeph'Day, Walpole, 
Mifs Eunice Day, Wfentham, 
Hon. Samuel Dexter, EJq-> Dedham^ 
Rev. Mr. Jordan Dodge,- Sturbridge^ 
Mr. Thomas Doggett, Attic-borough^ 
Hon. Jofegh Porr, Efq\ Mendbn, 
Dr. Philip Draper, Dedham^ 
Solomon Drowne, M; B. Providence, 
JM>. Eliphalet Dyer, jun. Windham, 

Rev. Mr. Jofeph Eckley, Boflon^ 

John Eddy, A. M. Newton, 

Mr. Richard Eddy, Providence^* 

Mr. George Ellis, Medfield, . 

Mr. Oliver Ellis, dittcy, 3 Ceptes. 

Mr. Jonathan Ellis; Needham, 

Mr. Samuel Emerfon, Hollis, 

Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Ernmons, Franklin', 6 Cbfiet* 

Jitv. Mr, Ivtofo Everett^ 


.Tfttv. Mr. Oliver Everett, Bofton, 
.Jtfift Xryphena Everett, Foxborougru 


Rev. Mr. Eleazei; Fairbanks, Shrewfbury, 2 Copies* 

Mr. Jonathan Felt, Wrentham, 

Mr. John Fenno, Bofton, 

Hon. Jafrez Fifher, EJq\ Franklin* 

Mr. Daniel Fifher, ditto, 

Elias Fiftier, 4- M. Wrentham,^ % 

Mr. Nathaniel Fifner, Needhanrij 

Mr. Simpn Fiftxer,, Sturbfidge, . 

jVfr, John Flagg* Shrewfbuiy, 

Mr. Nehemiah Flanders,, Newbury-Port 

Theodore Fofter, Efq> Providence/ 

JVfr. Nathaniel Fofter, Bofton^ . - 

Mr. John Fofter, -Weftem, 

Mr. Jofeph Fox, Fitchburgh, 

Rev. Mr, James Freeman, Bofton> 

Mr. Benjamin Freerr^ah, Sturbridge, 

Mr* Edmund Freeman, Rhode-Irtand-Colleg^ 

$tfr. 9 Nehemiah Fuller^ Fitchburgh, 

Jtf r* Henry Fullerton^ Bofton, 


Rev< Mr. TJipmas Gaif, Medfield", 3 Copit* . 

Jfcev. Mr. Francis Gardner, Leominfter, / 

Mr. Jotham Gay, Dedham, 

Mr. Calvin Gay, Walpole, 

Mr. Benjamin Goldthwait, Bofton, 

Mifs Finis Gookin, Dedham, 

Rev. .William Gordon,. D. D-. Roxbuiy, 

Hon. Nathaniel Gorham, Efq- Charleftown, 

Mrs Jonathan Gould, Rhode-Ifland-Collegc> 

^frjr. Catharine Macaulay Graham, Boilon, 

Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Green, -Charlton, 

jtfr< Timothy 

LIST Of S u B 5 c * i 8 1 ft 

Rev. Mr. William Greenough, Newton, 
Dr. Daniel Greenleaf, Bofton, 
Benjamin Guild, 'A. M. .ditto, 2 Copies. 
Moles Guild, Dedharru 


Deacon Mofes Hales, Winchendon> 

Mr. Jofiah Hall, Newton, 

Mr. Charles Hamant, Medfield, 

Mr. Francis Hamant* ditto, 

Capt. William Hammond, Newton,, 

Mr. Nicholas Harris, Walpole, 

Mr. Samuel Hartfhornr, cfitto 

Mr. Ebenezer Hartfhorn, Rindge, 

Mr. Oliver Haftings, Wefton, 
. Rev. Mr. Jafon Haven, Dedham, 

David Haven, Efq; Framingham, 2 

Mofes Haven, A* B. ditto, 

Mr. Abijah* Hawes, Wrendiam^ 

Mr. James HaWes, ditto, 

JMifs Mary Hawes, Franklin, 

JameS Hawes, Efa We (thorough, 

Mr. Lemuel Hedge, Hai-dwick, 3 Cojpftt* 

%4ifs Elizabeth Herriinan, Rowley, 

Benjamin Hichborn, EJq* y Bofton, 

Mijs Jane Hill, ditto, 

Capt. John Hiwejl, ditto,. 

Mr. Jofiah Hoi brook, Wremfiam, 

Mfs Martha Holbrook, Medfield, 

Mr. David Holbrook, Sherhurne, 

Capt. David Holbrook, Wrenthain, 2 Copier* 
Mr. John Holbrook, Sturbridge, 

Mr. Edward Holyoke, Bofton, 

Dr. Abraham Holland, Walpole, New-Haffipffiire 

Rev. Mr. Jonathan Homer, Newton, 

Rev. Mr. William Hooper, Dover, 

Capt. Caleb Hopkins, Bofton, ' 

Samuel Hunt, A, M. ditto* 

L I S T Of S H B S C R I B E 

. Edward Hunt, Shrewfbury, 
Rev. Mr. Afa Hunt, Middleborough, 
William Hyflop, Efq> Brooklyn, 4 Copi{S 
Hon. David Howell, Efqi Providence, 
Mr. John Howland, ditto, 

Mr. John Jackfon, Bofton, 

Mr. John Jenkins, ditto, 2 Copies. 

Dr. James Jerauld, Medfield, 

Daniel Jones, EJq- 9 Bofton, 3 Cofits* 

John Jones, Efq-, Dedham, 

Mr. Eleazer Jones, Cambridge^ > 

JDr* John Joy, Boilon. 


Mr.* Jonathan Kendrick, Newton, 
Mr. Ebenezer Kingfberry, Dedham, 
Mr. Enoch Kingfberry, ditto, 
Mr. Benjamin Kingfberry, jun. Walpolc.) 
Mr. Seth Kingfberry, jun. ditto, 
Abigail Kollo'ck, 

Mr. Seth Lawrence, .Franklin>, 
Mr. Thomas 'Lawrence, Bofton, 
Mr. Nathaniel Lawrence, Woburn, 
Rev. Mr. Jofeph Lee, ,Royalfton, 
Mr. Thomas Lee, Cambridge, 3 
Mr. Jofhua Leland,- Sherburne^ 
Mr. Levi Lindfey, Walpole, 
Mr. Abner Lincoln, Hirtgharn^ 
Mr. Ezekiel Little, Haverhjll^ 
.Dr. Samuel Lock, Sherbume a 
John L\Jcas^ Ijfyi Bofton* 

LIST OF 5 U B S C R : I S I R I. 


James Manning, Prefident of Rh, Ifland-College^ 
Mr. Rufus'Man, Medfield, i' Copies. 
Mr. EbenezerMan, Shrewfbury, 
Mr. Nathan Man, Franklin, 

Mi . Thomas Man, ditto> 
Col. Sabin Mann, Medfield, 
Dr. Bazaleel ,Mann, Attleboroughi 
Dr. SethMann, Walpole, 
Mr. David Mann, Wrentham, 
Mr. Jofeph Martin, Providence, r 
Lieut. Henry Marble, W^ftborpugh, 
^//.David Maforr, Bofton, 
Rev. Samuel Mather, j3. D. Boflon, 
Mr. Afahel Matthews, Southborough, 
Capt. Ephraim May, Bofton, 
Mr. Daniel Mayo, 'Cambridge, 
Mr. 'Jonathan Medcalf, Franklirl, 
Mr. , Luther Medcalf, Medway, 
Mr. John MelTenger, Wrentharri, 2 Copies* 
Mr. Timothy MetCalf, ditto, 
Mr. Thomas Miller, . Charleftown,- 
Mr. Oliver MiMs^Needharrn 
Rev. Mr. George Morey, Walpole^ 
Dr. Ifaac Morall, Natick, 
Mr. Eliakim Morrill, difto, 
Mr. Samuel Morfe, Franklin, 
Rev. Mr.' Ebenezer Morfe, 
Mr. Peletiah Morfe, Natick-., 
Mr.. Jofeph Morfe, 'MedfTeld, 
Jtiifs Abigail Morfe, *ditto, 
'Jmfs Hannah Morfe, ditto, 
X)r.' Mofes Mofman, Sudbury 

Ancjrew Newell, Efq; Sherburne, 
Mr % Samuel Nightingale, 



Mr. Daniel Oliver, Student, Dartm. College, 6 Copies, 
Mr, Amos Qrdway, Fitchburgh. 

Mr. jofeph Pietce Palmer, Bofton, 

Mr. Brick Parkman, Weftborough, 

Rev. Mr. Seth Payibn, Rindge 

Mr. George Payfon, Walpole, 

Mr. Thomas Payfon, jun. Cambridge 

Mr. Eliiha Peirce, Br^ttleborough, 

Mr. Ebenezer Pemberton, tlainfield, 

Daniel Perry, Efq-, Medfield, 

Mil's Eflher Perry, Medway, 

Mr* William Peters, Medfield* 

Afa Piper, A. M. Afton, 

Rev. Mr. John Pitman, Providence, 

Mr. Gerfhom Plimpton, Sturbridge, 1 Copies; 

Mr. Frederick Plimpton, ditto, 3 Copies* 

Mr. Benjamin Plympton, Medfield, 

Mr. Jofeph Plympton, ditto, 

Mr. ElifhaPond, Franklin, 

Mifs Kezia Pond, ditto, 

Rev. Mr. E. Porter, ^Roxbury, 

Mr. Nicholas Power, Providence, 

Mr. John Pratt, Plainfield, 

Mr. Allen Pratt^ridgwater, 

Mr. Seth Pratt, difco^ 

Mr. Simeon Pratt, Medfield, 

Rev. Mr. Thomas Prentice, x ditto> 

Mr. Stephen Prentice, Sherburri % 

Edmund Quincy, Eft-, Bofton* 


$#> Stephen, Randelj 


Rev. Air. Afaph Rice, Weftminf: 

T Mcfes Richardfon, Medway, 

. Abijah Richardfon, ditto, 
Jvlr. John Richardfon, Franklin, 

Rev. Mr. George Robinfon, Killingly, C<mnelicut> 5 
Aflicr Robins, A. M, Rhodc-lfUnd, (C 

Rev. Mr. William Rogers, Philadelphia; 
Mr. John Rogers, Bofton, 
Lieu*. John Rogers, Newton, 
Mr. John Rogers, Providence, 
Mr. George Roulflone, Bofton, 
Mift Betfey Ruffell, Natiok. 


Rev. Mr. Zedekiah Sanger, 'Duxbu/y, 
Mr. Afa Sanger, Sherburne, 
Mr. Daniel Sanger, Framingham, 
Hon. Samuel Phillips Savage, E/j; 
Mr. Nathaniel Sawyer, Kirigflon, 
Mr. Samuel Scott, Bellingham, 
Rev. Mr. Job Seamans, Attleborough 
Dr. Timothy Shepard, Sherburne, 
Mr. Thomas Sherburne, Boflon, 
Mr. Peter Sigourney, ditto, 
Rev. Mr. Ifaac Skillman, ditto, 

Mr. John Slack, Needham, 
Rev.. Mr. Ii r aac Smith, Bofton, 

Jolhua Smith 
Mr. Lebbeus Smith, 
Mr. Timothy Smith., -Jtto, 
Mr. Jonathan' Srnith, Hadley, 
Rev. Mr. Jofeph Show, Piovidencc, 
Mr. Benjamin Spear, Franklin, 
Mr. Ellas Stanley, Attleborough, 
Rev. Mr. Samuel Stillman, Bofton, 
Dr. Benjamin Stone, Shrewsbury, 
Mr. Peter Stone, Southborough, 
Jofeph Stone, Edl-Sudbury, 


Mr. lather Stone, Fitchburgli, 
William Story, Efqi Bofton, 
Hon. James Sullivan, Efq; ditto, 1 Copies. 
Rev. Mr. Jofeph Sumnerj Shrewfbury, 
Nathaniel Sumner, Eft; Dedham, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Jonathan Tay, Sherhurne, 
Rev: Mr. Ebenezer Thayer, Hampton, N, 
George Thacher, A. B. Biddeford, 
Rev. Mr. Thomas Thacher, Dedham, 
Rev. Mr. John Thomfon, Berwick, 
Rev. Mr. Charles Thomfon/^wnny.ey, 
Caft. Eliphalet TJiorp,.Dedham, 
Mr. Edward Thurbur, Providence, 
Mr. Daniel Thurfton, Franklin, 
Mr, Shippie Townfend, Bofton, 
.Horatio Townfend, A. B. Medfield, 
Mijs Sarah Townfend, ditto, 
Mr. Thomas-H. Townfend, Needham^ 
Dr. Thomas Truman, Providence, 
Mr. Jedediah Tucker, Stoughton, 
Bon, Cotton Tufts, Efq\ Weymouth, 
Mr. Seth Turner, Medfield/ 
Mr. John Turner, ditto, 
Mr. Arnos Turner, Medway, 
Mr. Samuel T^/ifs, Franlclin, 


Mtfs Abigail Volney, "Bofton, 
Mr. Nathan Underwood, Needham, 
Mr. John Upton, Fitchburgh, 
Mr. Jacob Upton^ ditto, 


Mr. Thomas Walcutt, Bofton, 
Elizabeth Walley^ Roxbury, 


Mr. Amos Walton, WYentham, 

Mr. Stephen Wardwell, Providence> 

Mifs Rebecca Ward, Newton, 

Mr.. JofephWare, Sherburne, 

Mr. John Ware, ditto, 

Mr. Elijah Ware, Wrentham, 

B. Waterhoufe, Profe/or of the fbtory and Pra&C* of 

Hon. Oliver Wendell, Efy- 9 Bofton, 4 Copies. 

Rev. Mn Samuel Weft, Needham, 

Mr. EleazerWheelocVMedfield, 

Rev. Mr v Phinehas Whitney, Shirley* 

Mr. Jofeph Whiting, Franklin, 

Mifs Mehitable Whiting, Natick* 

Daniel Whitney, Efq- y Shcrburne, 

Dr. Ifrael Whiton, Winchendbn, 

Mr. John White, Shrewfbury, 

Rev. Mr. Anthony Wibird, Braintree, 

Rev. Mr. Ebenezer Wight, Bofton, 

Mr. Jonathan Wight, Medfield* 

Job Wight, A. B. ditto, 

Henry Wight, A. B. ditto, 

Dr. Aaron Wight, Medway, 

Rev. Mr. William Williams, Wrentham^ 

Mr. Benjamin Wilfon, Weftminfter, 

Dr. Jonathan Wild, Walpole, 

Capt. ' Jofhua Witherlee, Bofton, 

Mr. Silas Wincheft*, Broofiyn, 

Mr. Jonathan Winfhip, Cambrjds> 

Mr. Ebenezer Woodwar#<tf ewton, 

Peter Wood, Efq-, Marfboi ough, 

Mr. Abijah Wyman, A/hby, 

Should the Titles of any of tie foregoing Gentle* 
men be omitted^ Vw defired that fab Qmi/m may b*