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O R, A N 


O F 


Wherein an Attempt is made to divefl: Tradition of 
Fable; and to reduce the Truth to its Original Purity. 

In this W O R K is given an H I S T O R Y of the 




I O N I A N S, 

L E L E G E S, 
P E L A S G I : 



I N D O S C Y T H /E, 


The Whole contains an Account of the principal Events in the firft Ages, 
trom the Deluge to the Dispersion : Alfo of the various Migrations, 
which enfued, and the Settlements made afterwards in different Parts : Cir- 
cumllances of great Confequence, which were lubfequent to the Gentile 
History of Moses. 




Formerly of King's College, Cambridge ■, and Secretary to his Grace the 
late Duke of Marlborough, during his Command abroad ; and Secretary 
to him as Mafter General of his Majefty's Ordnance. 


Printed for T. PAYNE, Mews -Gate-, P. E L M S L Y, in the 
Strand; B. WHITE, in Fle et-str e et^ and 
J. WALTER, Ch AR ing-cross. 


( V ) 



IT is my purpofe in the enfuing work to give an account 
of the firft ages ; and of the great events, which hap- 
pened in the infancy of the world. In confequence of 
this I (hall lay before the Reader, what the Gentile writ- 
ers have faid upon this fubjeft, collaterally with the accounts 
given by Mofes, as long as I find him engaged in the general 
hiftory of mankind. By thefe means I fhall be able to bring 
furprifing proofs of thofe great occurrences, which the facred 
penman has recorded. And when his hiflory becomes more 
limited, and is confined to a peculiar people, and a private 
difpenfation ; I ftiall proceed to (hew, what was fubfequent 
to his account after the migration of families, and the dif- 
perfion from the plains of Shinar. When mankind were 
multiplied upon the earth, each great family had by 
Vol. I. b divin; 



* divine appointment a particular place of dellination, to 
which they retired. In this manner the firil: nations were 
conftituted, and kingdoms founded. But great changes were 
foon effected ; and colonies went abroad without any re- 
gard to their original place of allotment. New eftablifh- 
ments were foon made j from whence enfued a mixture of 
people and languages. Tliefe are events of the higheft 
confequence : of which we can receive no intelligence, but 
through the hands of the Gentile writers. 

It has been obferved by many of the learned, that fome 
particular family betook themfelves very early to different 
parts of the world ; in all which they introduced their 
rites and religion, together with the cuftoms of their coun- 
try. T hey reprefent them as very knowing and enterprizing : 
and with good reafon. They Vv^ere the firft, who ventured 
upon the feas, and undertook long voyages. They fhewed 
their fuperiority and addrefs in the numberlefs expeditions, 
which they made, and the difficulties, which they fur* 
mounted. Many have thought that they were colonies 
from Egypt, or from Phenicia ; having a regard only to the 
fettlements, which they made in the weft. But I fhall 
fhew hereafter, that colonies of the fame people are to be 
found in the moft extream parts of the eafl: : where we may 
obferve the fame rites and ceremonies, and the fame tradi- 
tional hiftories, as are to be met with in their other fettle- 
ments. The country called Phenicia could not have fuf- 
iiced for the effecting all, that is attributed to thefe mighty 
adventurers. It is neceffary for me to acquaint the Reader, 
that the wonderful people, to whom I allude, were the 

' Kara Br/sy Sv^oron ^^■na-jj-ov. Eufebii Chron. P. lo. See alfo Syncellus. 

5 defcendants 



defccndants of Chus ; and called Cuthites, and Cufeans. 
They flood their ground at the general migration of fami- 
lies : but were at laft fcattered over the face of the earth. They 
were the firfl: apoflates from the truth ; yet great in worldly 
wifdom. They introduced, wherever they came, many 
ufeful arts ; and were looked up to, as a fuperiour order of 
beings : hence they were ftiled Heroes, Dgemons, Heliadse, 
Macarians. They were joined in their expeditions by other 
nations ; efpecially by the collateral branches of their fa- 
mily, the Mizraim, Caphtorim, and the fons of Canaan. 
Thefe were all of the line of Ham, who was held by his 
pofterity in the higheft veneration. They called him Amon : 
and having in procefs of time raifed him to a divinity, they 
worihiped him as the Sun : and from this worfhip they were 
ftiled Amonians. This is an appellation, which will conti- 
nually occur in the courfe of this work : and I am autho- 
rized in the ufe of it from Plutarch ; from whom we may 
infer, that it was not uncommon among the fons of Ham. He 
fpecifies particularly in refped to the Egyptians, that, when 
any two of that nation met, they ufed it as a term of ho- 
nour in their * falutations, and called one another Amoni- 
ans. This therefore will be the title, by which I fliall 
choofe to diPcinguifli the people, of whom I treat, when I 
fptak of them colledively : for under this denomination are 
included all of this family ; whether they were Egyp- 
tians, or Syrians, of Phenicia, or of Canaan. They were 
a people, who carefully preferved memorials of their ancef- 

* AiyvTTTiw^TT^oi aAAnAes tm p////c«T« A,wy)' ^^Pno-^xh IfiS ct Ofiris. P. 255' 

h 2 tors J 

viii PREFACE. 

tors i and of thofe great events, which had preceded their 
difperfion. Thefe were defcribed in hieroglyphics upon 
pillars and obeliflcs : and when they arrived at the know- 
ledge of letters, the fame accounts were religioufly main- 
tained both in their facred archives, and popular records. It 
is mentioned of Sanchoniathon, the moft ancient of Gentile 
writers, that he obtained all his knowledge from fome writ- 
ings of the Amonians. li was the good fortune of Sancho- 
7iiathony fays ^ Philo Biblius, to light upon fome ancient Amo- 
nian records^ which had hee7i freferved in the innermoft part of 
a temple^ and known to very few. Upon this difcovery he applied 
himfelfwith great diligence to make himfelf mafter of the con- 
tents : and havings by divejling them of the fable and allegory, 
with which they were obfcured^i obtained his purpofe.^ he brought 
the whole to a co7iclufon. 

I lliould be glad to give the Reader a flill farther infightinto 
the fyftem, which I am about to purfue. But fuch is the 
fcopeof my inquiries, and the purport of my determinations, 
as may poflibly create in him fome prejudice to my defign : 
all which would be obviated, were he to be carried flep by 
ftep to the general view, and be made partially acquainted, 
according as the fcene opened. What I have to exhibit, is 
in great meafure new : and I (hall be obliged to run coun- 
ter to many received opinions, which length of time, and 
general ailent, have in a manner rendered facred. What is 

* 'O ^% ivfAJioiX'^v roii aTTo rwv ccS'utcov w^nQeia-it' a7r'jxcv(poii AMMOTNEHN (jvyneifjievoi?, a S'fi ax nv irctn yt'UPiftx, rnt' fxa^na-iv aTravrmv ccviei 
VCKrai' xai Tg/o; firi^iti tyi yr^ayfj. art to. tov* a^^ai f*.vvov xai t«5 aMn- 

yo^iai exiroS'ctiv ToivvafAevoi, i^mva-a.To tw T^c^iciv. Eufeb. Pra^p. Evang. L. i, 
c. 9 p. 32. 




truly alarming, I fliall be found to differ not only from fome 
few hiftorians, as is the cafe in common controverfy ; but in 
fome degree from all : and this in refped: to many of the 
moft effential points, upon which hiflorieal preciiion has 
been thought to depend. My meaning is, that I muft fet 
afide many fuppofed fads, which have never been contro- 
verted : and difpute many events, which have not only been 
admitted as true ; but have been looked up to as certain 
£eras, from whence other events were to be determined. All 
our knovvledge of Gentile hiftory muft either come through 
the hands of the Grecians ; or of the Romans, who copied 
from them. I (hall therefore give a full account of the 
Helladian Greeks, as well as of the lonim, or lonians, in 
Afia: alfo of the Dorians, Leleges, and Pelafgi. What may 
appear very prefumptuous, I fhail deduce from their owr^ 
hiftories many truths, with which they were totally unac- 
quainted ; and give to them an original, which they certainly 
did not know. They have bequeathed to us noble mate- 
rials, of which it is time to make a ferious ufe. It was their 
misfortune not to know the value of the data, which they 
tranfmitted, nor the purport of their own intelligence. 

It will be one part of my labour to treat of the Pheni- 
cians, whofe hiftory has been much miftaken : alfo of the 
Scythians, whofe original has been hitherto a fecret. From, 
fuch an elucidation many good confequences will, I hope, 
enfue : as the Phenicians, and Scythians have hitherto af- 
forded the ufual place of retreat for ignorance to fkelter it- 
felf. It will therefore be my endeavour to fpecify and dif- 
tinguilh the various people under thefe denominations ; of 

who mi 


whom writers have (o generally, and indlfcriminately 
fpoken. I fliall fay a great deal about the Ethiopians, 
as their hiftory has never been compleatly given : alfo 
of the Indi, and Indo-Scythae, who feem to have been 
little rep-ardcd. There will be an account exhibited of 
the Cimmerian, Hyperborean, and Amazonian nations, as 
well as of the people of Colchis : in which the religion, 
rites, and original of thofe nations will be pointed out. 
I know of no writer, who has written at large of the 
Cyclopiaus. Yet their hiftory is of great antiquity, and 
abounds with matter of confequence. I fhall therefore 
treat of them very fully, and at the fame time of the great 
works, which they performed; and fubjoin an account of 
the Leflrygons, Lamii, Sirens, as there is a clofe correfpon- 
dence between them. 

As it will be my bufmefs to abridge hiftory of every thing 

fuperfluous, and foreign ; I fliall be obliged to fet afide many 

ancient lawgivers, and princes, who were fuppofed to have 

formed republics, and to have founded kingdoms. I cannot 

acquiefce in the ftale legends of Deucalion of Theffaly, of 

Inachus of Argos, and ^gialeus of Sicyon ; nor in the long 

line of princes, who are derived from them. The fuppofed 

heroes of the firft ages in every country are equally fabulous. 

No fuch conquePcs were ever atchieved, as are afcribed to 

Ofiris, Dionufus, and Sefoftris. The hiftories of Hercules, 

and Perfeus, are equally void of truth. I am convinced, 

and hope I fhall fatisfacftorily prove, that Cadmus never 

brought letters to Greece : and that no fuch perfon exited 



as the Grecians have defcribed. What I have faid about 
Sefoftris and Ofiris, will be repeated about Ninus, and Se- 
miramis, two perfonages, as ideal as the former. There 
never were fuch expeditions undertaken, nor conqueds 
made, as are attributed to thefe princes : nor were any fuch 
, empires conftltuted, as are fuppofed to have been eflablifiied 
by them. I make as little account of the hiftories of Sa- 
turn, Janus, Pelops, Atlas, Dardanus, Minos of Crete, and 
Zoroafter of Bad-ria. -Yet fomething myfterious, and of 
moment, is concealed under thefe various charaders : and 
the inveftigation of this latent truth will be the principal 
part of my inquiry. In refped to Greece, I can afford cre- 
dence to very few events, which were antecedent to the 
Olympiads. 1 cannot give the leaft affent to the Rory of 
Phryxus, and the golden fleece. It feems to me plain be- 
yond doubt, that there were no fuch perfons as the Gre- 
cian Argonauts : and that the expedition of Jafon to Col- 
chis was a fable. 

After having cleared my way, I fhall proceed to the 
fources, from whence the Grecians drew. I lliall give aa 
account of the Titans, and Titanic war, with the hiftory 
of the Cuthites and ancient Babylonians. This will be ac- 
companied with the Gentile hiftory of the Deluo-e, the mi- 
gration of mankind from Shinar, and the difperlion from 
Babel, The whole will be crowned with an account of an- 
cient Egypt ; wherein many circumflances of high confe- 
quence in chronology will be ftated. In the execution of 
the whole there will be brought many furprizing proofs in 
confirmation of the Mofaic account : and if v/ill be found 




(lom repeated evidence, that every thing, which the divine 
hiftorian has tranfmitted, is moft affuredly true. And though 
the nations, who preferved memorials of the Deluge, have 
not perhaps ftated accurately the time of that event ; yet it 
will be found the grand epocha, to which they referred ; 
the higheft point, to which they could afcend. This was 
efteemed the renewal of the world ; the new birth of man- 
kind; and the ultimate of Gentile hiftory. Some traces may 
perhaps be difcernible in their rites and myfteries of the an- 
tediluvian fyftem : but thofe very few, and hardly perceptible. 
It has been thought, that the Chaldaic, and Egyptian ac- 
counts exceed not only the times of the Deluge, but the 
2era of the world : and Scaliger has accordingly carried the 
chronology of the latter beyond the term of his artificial 
* period. But upon enquiry we fhall find the chronology 
of this people very different from the reprefentations, which 
have been given. This will be fhewn by a plain and pre- 
cife account, exhibited by the Egyptians themfelves : yet 
overlooked and contradicted by the perfons, through whofe 
hands we receive it. Something of the fime nature will be 
attempted in refpedl to Berofus ; as v/ell as to Abydenus, 
Polyhiftor, and Apollodorus, who borrowed from him. 
Their hiftories contained matter of great moment : and will 
afford fome wonderful difcovcries. From their evidence, 
and from that, which has preceded, we fhall find, that the 
Delucre was the p^rand epocha of every ancient kingdom. It 
is to be obfervcd, that when colonies made anywhere a fet- 

" He makes it exceed the sra of the Mofaic creation 1336 years. See Mar- 
Ihim's Canon Chrcn. F. 1. 




tlement, they ingrafted their antecedent hiftory upon the 
fubfequent events of the place. And as in thofe days they 
could carry up the genealogy of their princes to the very 
fource of all ; it will be found, under whatever title he 
may come, that the firft king in every country was Noah. 
For as he was mentioned firft in the genealogy of their 
princes, he was in aftertimes looked upon as a real monarch ; 
and reprefented as a great traveller, a mighty conqueror, and 
fovereign of the whole earth. This circumftance will ap- 
pear even in the annals of the Egyptians : and though their 
chronology has been fuppofed to have reached beyond that 
of any nation, yet it coincides very happily with the ac^ 
counts given by Mofes. 

In the profecution of my fyftem I fliall not amufe the 
Reader with doubtful and folitary extrads ; but colled: all, 
that can be obtained upon the fubjeft, and fhew the uni- 
verfal fcope of writers. I fliall endeavour particularly to 
compare facred hiftory with profane, and prove the gene- 
ral affent of mankind to the wonderful events recorded. 
My purpofe is not to lay fcience in ruins; but inftead of 
defolating to build up, and to redlify what time has im- 
paired : to diveft mythology of every foreign and unmean- 
ing ornament; and to difplay the truth in its native limpli- 
city : to fliew, that all the rites and myfteries of the Gen- 
tiles were only fo many memorials of their principal an- 
ceflors ; and of the great occurrences, to which they had 
been witneffes. Among thefe memorials the chief were the 
ruin of mankind by a flood ; and the renewal of the world 
in one family. They had fymbolical reprefentations, by 
Vol. I. c which 


which thefe occurrences were commemorated : and the an- 
cient hymns in their temples were to the fame purpofe. 
They all related to the hiftory of the iirft ages j and to 
the fame events, which are recorded by Mofes. 

Before 1 can arrive at this elfential part of my enquiries, 
I mufl: give an account of the rites and cuftoms of ancient 
Hellas ; and of thofe people, which I term Amonians. This 
I niuft do in order to {hew, from whence they came : 
and from what quarter their evidence is derived. A great 
deal will be faid of their religion and rites : alfo of their 
towers, temples, and Puratheia, where their worfhip was 
performed. The miftakes likewife of the Greeks in refpe61; 
to ancient terms, which they flrangely perverted, will be 
exhibited in many inftances : and much true hiftory will be 
afcertained from a detcdion of this peculiar mifapplication. 
It is a circumftance oi great confequence, to which little 
attention has been paid. Great light however will accrue 
from examining this abufe, and obferving the particular 
mode of error : and the only way of obtaining an inlight 
muft be by an etymological procefs, and by recurring to 
the primitive language ol the people, concerning whom we 
are treating. As the Amonians betook themfelves to re- 
gions widely fcparated ; we fliall find in every place, where 
they fettled, the fame wor{hip and ceremonies, and the 
fame hiftory of their anceftors. There will alfo appear a 
?reat fimilitude in the names of their cities and temples : 
fo that we may be aftlired,. that the whole was the opera- 
tion of one and the fame people. The learned Bochart 
faw this; and taking for granted, that the people were 
5 Phenicians, 



Phenicians, he attempted to interpret thefe names by the 
Hebrew language ; of which he fuppofed the Phenician to 
have been a dialedl. His defign was certainly very ingenious ; 
and carried on with a wonderful difplay of learning. He 
failed however : and of the nature of his failure I fhall be 
obliged to take notice. It appears to me, as far as my 
reading can afford me light, that moft ancient names, not 
only of places, but of perfons, have a manifeft analogy. 
There is likewife a great correfpondence to be obferved in 
terms of fcience ; and in the titles, which were of old be- 
ftowed upon magiftrates and rulers. The fame obfervation 
may be extended even to plants, and minerals, as well as 
to animals ; efpecially to thofe, which were efteemed at all 
facred. Their names feem to be compofed of the fame, or 
fimilar, elements ; and bear a manifefl relation to the relio-ion 
in ufe among the Amonians, and to the Deity, which they 
adored. This Deity was the Sun : and mofl of the an- 
cient names will be found to be an allemblage of titles, 
bellowed upon that luminary. Flence there will appear a 
manifeft correfpondence between them : which circumitance 
is quite foreign to the fyfiem of Bochart. His etymolo- 
gies are deflitute of this collateral evidence: and have not 
the leaft analogy to fupport them. 

In confequence of this I have ventured to give a hft of 
fome Amonian terms, which occur in the mythology of 
Greece ; and in the hiftories of o'-.hcr nations. Mofl: an- 
cient names feem to have been compofed out of tiiefe ele- 
ments : and into the fame principles they may be again re- 

c 2 iolved 

xviii PREFACE. 

Hence has arifen the demand, tts fw> which has been re- 
peated for ages. It is my hope, and my prefumption, that 
fuch a place of appulfe may be found : where we may take 
our ftand ; and from whence we may have a full view of 
the mighty expanfe before us : from whence alfo we may 
defcry the original defign, and order, of all thofe objeds, 
which by length of time, and their own remotenefs, have 
been rendered fo con fu fed and uncertain. 


PLATES. Vol. First. 

With the Pages, which they are to face. 


'^i ^HR E E reprefentations of Mount Argceus^ called now 
J. Mount Argau^ near Tyana and Ca^farea Taurica : 
by which it appears to have been an hollow and inflamed 
mountain. Taken from coins of Patinus, Seguinus, and 
others. To front Page 251 


Temple of Mithras in the mountains of Perfia near Chil- 
minar and the plain of the Magi, from Le Bruyn. Vol. 2d. 
Plate 158. 

Temples in the rock near the fame plain, from Le Bruyn. 
Plate 166, 167. p. 224 


Petra Mithrcs^ or Temple of Mithras^ in the fame region : 
from Thevenot. Part 2d. c. 7. ^'232 


The Jhlp of IJjs with the Ark and Paterce, from Pocock's 
Egypt. Plate 42. 

A fecond Defcription of the fhip of Ills, &c. p* 2^2 


Temple of Mithras Petrceus from Le Bruyn. Plate 158. 

p, 294 
A reprefentation of two ancient Fire-Towers : the one at 
Tor one ^ from Goltzius, Plate 24. 

Vol. I, c 4 The 


The other ot Cronus in Sicily, from Paruta. In Monte 
Pelegrino, Taxis quadratis. 90. 

Ancient Triatuce from Vaillant, Paruta, and others, p, 410 


Ophis Thennuthis Hve Ob Bafilifcus ^gyptiacus : The 
royal and facred Serpent of Egypt, together with a priefl: 
worfhiping : copied from the curious fragments fent over 
by the Hon. Wortley Montague, and depofited in the BritiQi 
Mufeum. Alfo reprefentations of the ferpent Canuphis, or 
Cneph. ^.478 


Serpentine Deity of Periia limilar to Cneph in Egypt, 
from Kiempfer and Le Bruyn. Alfo Serpentine devices from 
China, Periia, and Egypt. p. 488 


The Head of Medufa from a gem in the colledion of his 
Grace the Duke of Marlborough. j^. 512 


Two Heads irom Goltzius. — Upon the laft page. 



Page Line 
iio 18 A comma after />&^. 
147 15 dtk Strabo. 

162 16 for Jamblicus read Jamblichus paffim. 
167 6 frefix the numerals 51 to ct,K\a,. 
190 s /or favou read favour. 

202 24 /hr ttyvctiov read ciyvAlw. 
207 note 58, before L. 3 t/t/ert Nonnut. 

225 23 before is rn/fr/ it. 

239 ««/f 14, for lAH^oilS^m read nitroitJ'lf. 

242 22 fir tti/.<pif\na read etfX^ipuTif. j 

252 18 for perfons read pitLces. 

2?7 '7 /<"■ Ditharambuj craj' Dithyrambus. 

262 26 yir thefe kind ri-arf" this kind. 

270 note 22, for iffijixv read strs.Soi'. 

27 1 2 yir efforts read effort. 
279 note 49, for 407 (Ta^ 487- 

282 note 60, yir Nat. Deor. read Divinatio. 

292 4 /sr fatiety of happinefs rf^rf iatiety of blifs. 

321 lo for fctp' read "jrcti)'. 

330 14 far Amphilocus r^nrf' Aniphilochut, 

350 15 for Tr.xzen read Troezen. 

363 16 for Chrufus read Chufus. 

365 5 for Ciirufiftis read Chrufitis, 

405 22 for Hetrurian deep read Hetrurian main, 

429 23 for feam-an read feaman. 

480 5 for Ludim read Lubim. 

494 12 for KvK\e4- readKuKKa-^ 

497 '9 ■/"'' ^'"'■'^ ''^'^'^ Eryx. 

Vol. I. d 



TH E materials, of which I purpofe to make ufe in the 
following enquiries, are comparatively few, and will 
be contained within a fmall compafs. They are fuch, as 
are to be found in the compofition of moft names, which 
occur in antient mythology : whether they relate to Dei- 
ties then reverenced ; or to the places, where their wor- 
fhip was introduced. But they appear no where fo plainly, 
as in the names of thofe places, which were lituated in Ba- 
bylonia and Egypt. From thefe parts they were, in procefs 
of time, transferred to countries far remote ; beyond the 
Ganges eaftward, and to the utmoft bounds of the Mediter- 
ranean weft ; wherever the fons of Ham under their vari- 
ous denominations either fettled or traded. For I have 
mentioned that this people were great adventurers ; and 
began an extenfive commerce in very early times. They 
got footing in many parts ; where they founded cities. 
Vol. I. B which 


which were famous in their day. They likewife erected 
towers and temples : and upon headlands and promontories 
they raifed pillars for fea-marks to dived: th^m in their pe- 
rilous expeditions. All thefe were denominated from cir- 
cumftances, that had fome reference to the religion, which 
this people profeiTed ; and to the anceftors, whence they 
fprung. The Deity, which they originally worfhiped, was 
the Sun. But they foon conferred his titles upon fome of 
their anceftors : whence arofe a mixed worflnp. They par- 
ticularly deified the great Patriarch, who was the head of 
their line ; and worfhiped him as the fountain of light : 
making the Sun only an emblem of" his influence and power. 
They called him Bal, and Baal : and there were others of 
their anceflry joined with him, whom they ftiled the Baal- 
im. Chus was one of thefe : and this idolatry began among 
his fons. In refped then to the names, which this people, 
in procefs of time, conferred either upon the Deities they 
worfliiped, or upon the cities, which they founded ; we fhall 
find them to be generally made up of fome original terms for 
a bafis, fuch as Ham, Cham, and Chus : or elfe of the 
titles, with which thofe perfonages were, in procefs of time,, 
honoured. Thefe were Thoth, Men or Menes, Ab, El, 
Aur, Ait, Ees or Ifh, On, Bel, Cohen, Keren, Ad, Adon,, 
Ob, Oph, Apha, Uch, Melech, Anac, Sar, Sama, Samaim. 
We muft likewife take notice of thofe common names, by 
which places are diftinguifhed, fuch as Kir, Caer, Kiriath, 
Carta, Air, Col, Cala, Beth, Ai, Ain, Caph, and Cephas. 
Laflly are to be inferted the particles Al and Pi j which 
were in ufe among the ancient Egyptians. 

5 ^^ 


Of thefe terms I fLall firft treat ; which I look upon as To 
many elements, whence mofi: names in ancient mythology 
have been compounded ; and into which they may be ea- 
sily refolved : and the hiftory, with which they are attend- 
ed, will, at all times, plainly point out, and warrant 
the etymology. 

HAM or C H A M. 

'^ I "^ H E firll: of the terms here fpecified is Ham ; at dif- 
JL ferent times, and in different places, expreffed Cham, 
Chom, ' Chamus. Many places were from him denomi- 
nated Cham Ar, Cham Ur, Chomana, Comara, Cama- 
rina. Ham, by the Egyptians, was compounded Am-On, 
A|U,w; and AjOt^a'j/. He is to be found under this nam.e 
among many nations in the eafl: ; which was by the Greeks 
expreffed. Amanus, and "^ Omanus. Ham, and Cham arc 
words, which imply heat, and the confequences of heat; and 
from them many words in other languages, fuch as ^ Kav^cc, 
Caminus, Camera, were derived. Ham, as a Deity, was^ 
efteemed the * Sun : and his priefls were ftiled Chamin, Cha- 
minim, and Chamerim. His name is often found com- 

' Called alio Chumus. Lilius Gyraldus fpeaks of the Phenician God Chu- 
mus. Syntag. i. p. 7. 

^ Of Amanus, and Omanus, fee Scrabo. L. 11. p. yj^. and L. 15. p. 1066. 
He calls the temple 'le^ov Ofxam. 

' Et Solem et calorem TV2r\ Chammha vocant (Syri.) Selden de Diis Syris. 
Syntag. 2. c. 8. p. 247. 

♦ The Sun in the Perfic language, Hama. Gale's Court of the Gentiles. V. i. 
c. II. p- 72. 

B 2 pounded 


pounded with other terms, as in Cham El, Cham Ees, Cam 
Ait : and was in this manner conferred both on perfons and 
places. From hence Camillus, Camilla, Camella Sacra, 
Comates, Camilium, ^ Camirus, Chemmis, with numberlefs 
c^ther words, are derived. Chamma was the title of the 
hereditary * prieftefs of Diana : and the Puratheia, where 
the rites of fire were carried on, were called Chamina, and 
Chaminim, v/hence came the Caminus of the Latines. They 
were facred hearths, on which was preferved a perpetual fire 
in honour of Cham. The idols of the Sun were called by 
the flmie ^ name : for it is faid of the good king Jofiah, that 
they brake down the altars of Baalim in his prefence j and the 
Chami?2ini (or images of Cham) that were 07t high above them^ 
he cut down* They were alfo ftiled Chamerim, as we 
learn from the prophet ^ Zephaniah. Ham was efteemed 
the Zeus of Greece, and Jupiter of Latium. ' A^|U,8^, o 
Zsy?, A^/roTsAsi. '° K\}^\L^v yoL^ Kiyvimoi KOLheii<Ti rov Aix, 


' Camifene, Chamath, Chamane, Choma, Chom, Cuma, Camas, Camelis, 
Cambalidus, Comopolis, Comara, &c. All thefe are either names of places, 
where the Amonians fettled i or are terms, which have a reference to their reli:- 
glon and vvcrfhip. 

* Plutarch. Amatorius. Vol. 2. p. 768. 

^ 2 Chron. c. 34. v. 4. Cl^cv sioo&ccji Ka.ifji.Lu Tr^oaayc^iueiv. Plutarch. Ifis et 
Ofiris. Vol. 2. p. 374. 

8 / will cut off the remnant of Baal from this placet and the name of the Cham- 
msrim -with the priejts. Zephaniah. c. i. v. 4. From hence we may in fome degree 
infer, who are meant by the Baalim. 

' Hefychius. 

'° Herodotus. L. 2. c. 42. 



Plutarch fays, that of all the Egyptian names, which 
feemed to have any correfpondence with the Zeus of Greece,. 
Amoun or Ammon was the moft peculiar, and adequate. 
He fpeaks of many people, who were of this opinion t 
" En Js roov iroKhm vofJLK^onoov i^iov Trap' AiyvTrnoig ovqulqu. 
ra A/o$ SivoLi rov Ajaai', o Trx^ccyonsg ni^sig A^^jli^vol MyofJiBV. 
From Egypt his name and worfhip were brought into 
Greece ; as indeed were the names of almoft all the Deities 
there worfhiped. '* X'^shv Js xcci iroiVTct to, qvvo^7.7ol jm 
&sm sj AiyvTTTH sKiTiKv^s sg rrjv 'EAAaJa, Almojl all the 
Tiames of the Gods m Greece were adventitious^ having bee?i 
brought thither from Egypt, 

C H U S. 

Chus was rendered by the Greeks X.V(rQg^ Chufus ♦ but 
more commonly X^V(rog : and the places denominated from 
him were changed to X^iktji, Chrufe ; and to Chrufopolis. His 

Ham fub Jovis nomine in Africa diu culms. Bochart. Geog. Sac. L. i. c. i. p. 5. 

Ayf/.vycc Atiuii Toy Zlia vr^oa-ctyoPe'J'dcTi^ Koci tnco riy.Cioai' acci yap xoci ^oi.t(^oi iv 

Zfu Ai^ux? Ajun-to))', xecccTtKpo^e, xerAi/O; Mccvtu 

Pindar. Pytli. Ode 4. v. 28. Schol; 
" Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. Vol. 2. p. 354. Zeus was certainly, as thefe writers 
fay, a title given to Ham : yet it will be found originally to have belonged to 
his father ; for titles were not uniformly appropriated. 

'- Herodotus. L. 2. c. 49. Speaking afterwards of the people at Dodona, hefays^. 
X^^ora ttoAAh tf/f^eAosi'To?, S7iv\}ovro ex. r-iji AiyvTns ocurixouiva. to. ovvo/xutcc to. 
Tav aiuv TU3V aAAwr, A;c)fc7it S'i u^^epov leroAAu gtzruG^rro. C. 52. // was a long tims 
before they bad -names for any of the Gods ; and very late before they were acquahited- 
•with Dionufus ;. which Deity, as well as all the others,- they received from Egypt. Sea 
alio I. 2. c. 59.. 



name was often compounded ' ' Chus-Or, rendered by the Greeks 
X^V(roo{^, Chruforj and Chrufaor ; which among the Poets be- 
came a favourite epithet, continually beftowed upon Apollo. 
Hence there were temples dedicated to him, called Chrufa- 
oria. Chusj in the Babylonifh dialed, feems to have been 
called Cuth -, and many places, where his poflerity fettled, 
were ftiled '"^ Cutha, Cuthaia, Cutaia, Ceuta, Cotha, and 
compounded '"" Cothon. He was fometimes expreffed Cafus, 
Cefiiis, Callus ; and was ftill farther diverfified. 

Chus was the father of all thofe nations, ftiled '^ Ethiopi- 
ans, who were more truly called Cuthites and Cufeans. 
They were more in number, and far more widely extended, 
than has been imagined. The hiftory of this family will be 
the principal part of my inquiry. 


Canaan feems, by the Egyptians and Syrians, to have been 

pronounced Cnaan : which was by the Greeks rendered 

Cnas, and Cna. Thus we are told by Stephanus Byzanti- 

nus, that the antient name of Phenicia was Cna. Xm, sruig 

,j Sanchoniathon apud Eufebium prodit ^^gyptiorum Kr,i(p efTe Phoenicum 
AyoSoS', vel fecundum Mochum, Xao-waa. See notes to lamblichus by 
Gale. P. 301. 

'I- Chufillan, to the eaft of the Tigris, was the land of Chus : it was likewife 
called Cutha, and Ciffia, by different writers. 

A river and region ftiled Cutha, mentioned by Jofephus, Ant. Jud. L. 9. c. 14. 
u. 3. the fame which by others has been called Cufhan, and Chufiftan. 

's The harbour at Carthage was named Cothon. Strabo. L. 17. p. 1189. Alfo 
an Ifland in that harbour. Diodorus Sic. L. 3. p. 168. 

^'^ XouiToi' fj.iv ouSev s^Aa-^iv y.poio(, hanirn yctp, we vp^ey, ni y.xi vuv utto ecu- 
■fm Tg y.xi Twi' ev rv Aa-ia. ■:^a.vT<ay<i XOTiSAIOl kx^.qvvtoU' Jofephus. Ant. 
Jud. L. I.e. 6. §. 2. 

Hadicals* 7 

rj (PoiHXri bkuXbito. to bQvikqv Xvolio;. The fame is iliid by 
Philo Biblius from Sanchoniathon. '^ X^a T8 9r^60T8 (xstovo^ 
^(KT^Bvrog OonJiKog. And in another place he fays, that Ifiris, 
the fame as Oiiris, was the brother to Cna. '^ Itr/^/j — aJsA- 
(pog Xvcx. : the purport of which is conformable to the ac- 
count in the fcriptures, that the Egyptians were of a colla- 
teral line with the people of Canaan ; or that the father of 
the Mizriiim and the Canaanites were brothers. 

M I Z R A I M. 

This perfon is looked upon as the father of the Egyptians ; 
on which account one might exped: to meet with many me- 
morials concerning him : but his hiftory is fo veiled under 
allegory and titles, that no great light can be obtained. It 
is thought by many learned men, that the term, Mizraim, is 
properly a plural ; and that a people are by it fignified ra- 
ther than a perion. This people were the Egyptians : and 
the head of their fimily is imagined to have been in the lin- 
gular Mifor, or Metzor. It is certain that Egypt by Stepha- 
nus Byzantinus is amongft other names ftiled Mva^cty which 
undoubtedly is a miftake for Mvcrct^Xy the land of Mufar or 
Myfar. It is by '' Eufebius and Suidas called Meftraia, by 

»7 Eufeb. Prsp. Evang. L. i. c. lO. p. 39. 

'® Sanchoniathon apud eundem. Ibid. 

See Michaelis Geographia Hebrxor. Extera. P. 2. 

" 'O TrpnToi ci'>cricrc(.i Tnv Mec^paiav i^ajpxf^ nroi AiyvTTTOi'^ MsT'^xi/x, eSx<7i- 
Xsuaev iv ccuTYi T>i MsT^a/a, Eufeb. Chron. P. 17. 

Ms^pccifx of the LXX. 

Jofephus calls the country of Egypt Meftra. Tw yxo Aiyvmrov Meq^^m; 
Kxi Msq-pufrii r-di AiyvTrTim a-zo-su'Tas, c< Txwnv oix^vTii^ 3caAa/-c£r.- Ant. Jud. 
L. I. c. 6. §. 2, 


8 radicals: 

which is meant the land of Metzor, a different rendering of 
Myfor. Sanchoniathon alludes to this perfon under the 
name of "° Micw^, Mifor ; and joins him with Sydic : both 
.which he makes the fons of the Shepherds Amunus, and 
Magus. Amunus, I make no doubt, is Amun, or Ham, the 
real father of Mifor, from whom the Mizraim are fuppoled 
to be defcended. By Magus probably is meant Chus, the 
father of thofe worfhipers of fire, the Magi : the father alfo 
of the genuine Scyths, who were ftiled Magog. The Ca- 
naanites likewife were his offspring : and among thefe none 
%vere more diftinguiflied, than thofe of Said, or Sidon ; which 
I imagine is alluded to under the name of Sydic. It muft 
be confeffed, that the author derives it from Sydic, juftice : 
and to fay the truth, he has, out of ancient terms, mixed fo 
many feigned perfonages with thofe that are real, that it is 
not poflible to arrive at the truth. 

N I M R O D. 

It is faid of this perfon by Mofes, that he was the fon of 
CuHi. "' ^A7id Cujh begat Nmirod : he began to be a mighty 
one. in the earth : he ivas a i?2ighty hn7tter before the Lord : 
wherefore it is faid^ even as Ninirod^ the mighty hunter be- 
fore the Lofd, And the beginning of this kifigdom was Babel. 

" Apud Eiifeb. Pra?p. Evan. L. i. c. lo. p. 36. 

riierapolis of Syria was called Magog, or rather the city of Magog. It was 
alfo called Bambyce. Ccele (Syria) habct — Banibycen, qux alio nomine Hiera- 
polis vocatur, Syris vero Magog. Plin. Hifl. Nat. L. 5. §. 19. p. 266, 

■*_' Genefis. c. 10. v. S, 9. Hence called tiiQco.4o xwnyoi, xxi T.yx-, AiO;^^' 

Chronicon Pafchale. P. 28. 



His hlftory is plainly alluded to under the charader of Alo- 
rus, the firft: king of " Chaldea ; but more frequently under 
the title of Orion. This perfonage is reprefented by Homer 
as of a gigantic make ; and as being continually in purfuit 
of wild *' beafts. The Cuthite Colonies, which went weft- 
ward, carried with them memorials of this their anceflor ; 
and named many places from him : and in all fuch places 
there will be found fome peculiar circumftances, which will 
point out the great Hunter, alluded to in their name. The 
Grecians generally ftiled him *^ Ng^^wcT, Nebrod : hence 
places called by his name are expreffed Nebrod, Nebrodes, 
NebrifTa. In Sicily was a mountain Nebrodes, called by 
Strabo in the plural *^ Ta Ns^^oo^ri o^t\. It was a famous 
place for hunting ; and for that reafon had been dedicated 
to Nimrod. The poet Gratius takes notice of its being 
flocked with wild beafts : 

*" Cantatus Graiis Acragas, vida^que fragofum 
Nebrodem liquere fer^e. 
And Solinus fpeaks to the fame purpofe : '-^ Nebrodem dams 

- UDC.3T0V ya's.^-xr'BcirTt?\ex AXeapov sv LccCvXun XaA/ajoc. Eufeb, Chron. 
p. 5. ex ApoUodoro. The fame from Abydenus. Eufeb. Chron. P. 6. 

Ev ran a<r^oii ra aoara srac^ccv (to;' NsSfojS''), xcll xa^i^aiy D.otMvcc. Cedrenus. 
P. 14. 

iyu'V/iae Tov Nso/iw/, FiyccvTci, rov tw BccQvXmviccv xricroit'rcc, qv Xiyeaiv c< 
Uioa-ui aiT'Mca^ivTx-i y.xi ysvoju.irov ev rots cc^^on rd aoocvdj Ivrivx y.ct/\.i(rtitD.otcam. 
Chronicon Pafchale. P. 36. 

*3 Homer. OdyfT. L. A. v. 571. 

*4 Chronicon. Pafch. P, ^6. 

^^ Strabo. L. 6. p, 421. 

^^ Gratii Cyneget. V. 527. 

^7 Solinus de Situ Orbis. c. 11,'' 

Vol. I. C et 



et hinnuli pervagantur. At the foot of the mountain were 
the warm baths of Himera. 

The term N£,8^o$:, Nebros, which was fubftituted by the 
Greeks for Nimrod, fignifying a fawn, gave occafion to 
many allulions about a fawn, and fawn-fldn, in the t)ionu- 
fiaca, and other myfteries. There was a town NebrifTa, near 
the mouth of the BiEtis in Spain, called by Pliny Veneria ; 
"* Inter siiuaria Bffitis oppidum NebrifTa, cognomine Vene- 
ria. This, I fhould think, was a miftake for Venaria ; for 
there were places of that name. Here were preferved the 
fame rites and memorials, as are mentioned above ; v^^herein 
was no allufion to Venus, but to Nimrod and Bacchus^ 
The ifland, and its rites, are mentioned by Silius Italicus. 
*' Ac NebrifTa Dionufsis confcia thyrfis, 

Quam Satyri coluere leves, redimitaque facra 
The Priefts at the Bacchanalia^, as well as the Votaries^^ 
were habited in this manner. 

^° Inter matres impia Maenas 
Comes Ogygio venit laccho^. 
Nebride facri przecinda latus. 
Statins defcribes them in the fame habit. 

3' Hie chelyn, hie flavam maculofo Nebrida tergoj. 

Hie thyrfos, hie pledra ferit. 


*« Plin. Nat. Hift. L. 3. c. 1. 
'9 Silius Italicus. L. 3. v. 393. 
3° Seneca. CEdipus. AiH: 2. v. 436.. 
3' Sylv£e. L. I. carm. 2. v. 226. 
Dionyfius of the Indian Camaritas : 

Eu3( Ba5c;^e Aeyoi'Tts. V. 703. At 


The hiftory of Nimrod was in great meafure loft in the 
fuperior reverence flievvn to Chiis, or Bacchus : yet there is 
reafon to think, that divine honours were of old paid to him. 
The Family of the Nebridae at ^^ Athens, and another of the 
fame name at Cos, were, as we may infer from their hiftory, 
the pofterity of people, who had been priefts to Nimrod. He 
feems to have been worfhiped in Sicily under the names of 
Elqrus, Pelorus, and Orion. He was likewife ftiled " Belus: 
but as this was merely a title, and conferred upon other per- 
fons, it renders his hiftory very diincult to be diftinguiflied, 


Theuth, Thoth, Taut, Taautes, are the fame title di- 
verftfied ; and belong to the chief god of Egypt. Eufebius 
fpeaks of him as the fame as Hermes. '^ Oi/ AiyvirTioi ( 

7B(p^0L<TCLV . From Theuth the Greeks formed ©EOS ; which, 
with that nation, was the moft general name of the Deity. 
Plato in his treatife, named Philebus, mentions him by the 

At the rites of OCris, Kai yxo vi/Spi'^ccs TrsoixoL^xTrToi'Tcci (oi AiyvirTioi.) v.(x.i 
^■jca-si (fomai v.-cK. Plutarch. Ifis et Ofir, P. 364. 

3* Arnobius. L. 5. p. 185. edit. 1661. Certs ieiTa, oras ut venit Atticas— 
Nebridarum familiam pellicula cohoneftavit hinnuloe. 

" Nimrod buiit Babylon ; which is faid to have been the work of Eelus. Ea- 
ZuKoiv' — Hc-inan S' uttq E);?l8. Etymologicum Magnum. 

Arcem (Babylonis) Rex antiquiflimus condidit Belus. Ammian. Marcellinus. 
L, 23. 

Here was a temple, ftiled the temple of Belus. 

"* Eufebius. Prajp. Evang. L. i. c. 9. p. 32. L. i, c. lo. p. 36. p. 40^ 

C 2 name 


name of ^^ @bv9. He was looked upon as a great bene- 
faclor, and the firft cultivator of the Vine. 

He was alfo fuppofed to have found out letters : which 
invention is likevvife attributed to Hermes. ' Ato Mi^rw^ 

Toixvrogy o; sv^s Ttiv tl'JV tt^octoci/ g'Oi'^sim y^acpYiv, 'EAAn- 

i'sg ^5 'E^pji/ B}ia.XB(rcLV . Suidas calls him Theus ; and fays, 
that he was the fame as Arez, ftiled by the Arabians Theus 
Arez, and fo worfliiped at Petra. @BV<Ta^Yig, T8t' s?i @ZQg, 
A^r^g, £V UsT^a, Trig ApcfJ^iCLg. Inftead of a ftatue there was 
KiQog y,sX<x.g^ TST^u.'yoovog, cnvTrocrogy a black, fquare pillar 
of ftone, without any figure, or reprefentation. It was the 
fame Deity, which the Germans and Celts worfhiped under 
the name of Theut-Ait, or Theutates ; whofe facrifices were, 
very cruel, as we learn from Lucan. 

^^ Et quibus immitis placatur fanguine diro 

A B. 

Ab fignifies a father, fimilar to 2« of the Hebrews. It is 
often found in compofition, as in Ab-El, Ab-On, Ab-Or. 

'* See alfo the Phjedrus of Plato : Hjcacra toivuv tts^i ' rm AiyvTrTH 

'* Anthologia. L. i. 91. L. I. 29. 

'■■ Eufcbius. Prasp. Evang. L. i. c, 10. p. ^6, from Sanchoniathon. 

!? Lucan. L. 1. v. 444. 



A U R, O U R, O R. 

Aur, fometlmes exprefTed Or, Ur, and Our, fignifies both 
light and fire. Hence came the Orus of the Egyptians, a 
title given to the Sun. " Quod folem vertimus, id in He- 
bra20 eft m«, Ur ; quod lucem, et ignem, etiam et Solem de- 
notat. It is often compounded with the term above, and ren-* 
dered Abor, Aborus, Aborras : and it is otherv^ife diverfificd. 
This title was often given to Chus by his defcendants ; whom 
they ftiled Chuforus. From Aur, taken as an element, came 
Uro, Ardeo ; as a Deity, oro, hora, oo^a, 'Is^oi/y 'l^pBvg. 
Zeus was ftiled Cham-Ur, rendered Ko^iJLv^og by the Greeks; 
and under this title was woriliiped at Halicarnafius. He is 
ib called by Lycophron. '^° H^uo? KOLTOLi^tf^y duc^Kct KooLiVfioi 
Asciov. Upon which the Scholiaft obferves ; (Koo^jLV^og') T^ivq 

SV ' AhiKOL^yOL<TCt} TlllCLTOLl. 

E L. 

El, Al, HA, fometimes exprefted Eli, was the name of 
the true God ; but by the Zabians was transferred to the Sun: 
whence the Greeks borrowed their 'HA/o$', and HsAio^. El 
and Elion, were titles^ by which the people of Canaan dif- 

" Selden de Diis Syris : Prolegomena, c. 3. 
■*' Lycophron, V. 459. Scholia ibidem. 

It is alfo compounded with Cham, as in Orchamus, a common Babylonifli ■ 

Rexit AciiEemenias urbes pater Orchamus ; ifque 
Septimus a'prifci numeratur origine Beli. 

Ovid. Metamorph. L. 4. v. 212; 

tin gui (lied: 



tinguldied their chief Deity. ^' TivsroLi rig EXiovv, KOiXsfxsm 
v-^'ig-og. This they foinetimes ilill farther compounded, and 
made AbeHon : hence infcriptions are to be found "^^ D E O 
ABELLIONI. El according to Damafcius was a title 
given to Cronus. ^' ^oiviKz; jccci Xv^oi rov K^ovov HA, By}\ 
KOLi BoAa^r;!/ S7rovo[.tac^s(ri. Tl:e Pheiima7is a?id Syrians name 
Croiius Eel J and Bed, a7id Bolathes. The Canaanitifh term 
Elion is a compound of Eli On, both titles of the Sun : hence 
the former is often joined with Aur, and Orus. '^^ Elorus, 
and Alorus, were names both of perfons and places. It is 
fometimcs combined with Cham : whence we have Camil- 
lus, and Camulus : under which name the Deity of the Gen- 
tile world was in many places worfhiped. Camulus and 
Camillus were in a manner antiquated among the Romans ; 
but their worfliip was kept up in other countries. We find in 
Gruter an infcription ^'DEO CAMULO: and another, 
the fame Deity, a little diverfified ; who was worfliiped 
by the Hetrurians, and efteemed the fame as Hermes. 
■** Tufci Camillum appellant Mercurium. And not only 

'♦' Eufebii Prjep. Evang. L. i. c. lo. p. 36. 

4* Gruter. V. i. 37. n. 4, 5, 6. 

''' Damafcius apuJ Photium. C. 242: 

*♦ AAwfio?, Alorus, the firCt king who reigned. Syncellus. P. 18. 

'AAia, Halia, was a feftival at Rhodes in honour of the Sun, to whom that 
Ifland was facred. PcZ/si ra'AAiaTj^two-;)'. Athenseus. L. 13. p. 561. Thefirfl: 
inhabitants were ftiled Heliadze. Diodoriis Sic. L. 5. p. 327. And they called the 
chief temple of the Deity 'AA;or, Halion. Euftad^ ad Horn. Odyff. Z. They 
came after a deluge, led by Ochimus, Macar, and others. 

■*' Gruter. Infcript. xl. 9. and Ivi. 11. 

■** Macrobii Saturn, L. 3. c. S. 

1 the 


the Deity, but the mmifter and attendant had the fame 
name : lor the priefts of old were ahnoft univcrfally deno- 
minated from the God, whom they ferved, or from his tem- 
ple. The name appears to have been once very general, 
*^ Rerum omnium facrarum adminiftri Camilli dicebantur. 
But Plutarch feems to confine the term to one particular 
office and perfon. "^^ Tov VTrrj^sTsna to 'Is^w tb Aiog OLy.(pidoiXYi 


'EKXrjVoop Ka^u.<AAoy cctto rrig ^iccfconag Tr^o^rrfyo^svov. He fup- 
pofes the name to have been given to Hermes on account o£ 
the fervice, and duty enjoined him. But there is nothing of 
this nature to be inferred from the terms. The Hermes of E- 
gypt had nothing fimilar to his correfpondent in Greece. Ca- 
millus was the name of the chief God, Cham-El, the fame as 
Elion, V'^ig'og. He was fometimes expreffed Cafmillus ; 
but ftill referred to Hermes. "^^ KaCfJiiXXog 'E^fxrig £5'^^, (*}g 
Wo^Bi Aioi/V(rio^C'J^og. The Deity El v/as particularly invoked: 
by the eaflern nations, when they made an attack in bat- 
tle : at fuch time they ufed to cry out, El-El, and Al- 
Al. This Mahomet could not well bring his profelytcs to 
leave ofF : and therefore changed it to Allah ; which the 
Turks at this day make ufe of, when they fhout in joining 
battle. It was however an idolatrous invocation, originally 

•♦'' Pomponiusl-aetus. 

Camilla was in like manner attendant on the Gods. 

CtElitiim Camilla ej;pe6lata advcnis. Ennius in Medo, ex Varrone de Ling; 
Lat. P. 71. Edit. Dordrechti. i6i(j. 

'*® Jiiba apud Plutarchum in Numa. Vol. i. p. 64. 

■♦' Scholia in ApoUon. Rhodium. L, s. v. 517, So Camoena was rendered 



made to the God of war ; and not unknown to the Greeks, 
Plutarch fpeaks of it as no uncommon exclamation j but 
makes the Deity feminine, 

49 K7\v()' A A AAA, ttoXbiab hyocTe^. 

Hence we have in Hefychius the following interpretations ; 

EKeXsVy STTKpoourjfJLOL ^oXzyMQV, It is probably the fame as 
SSn in Ifaiah, ^° Hozv art thou fallen, Halaly thou fo?i of 

O N and EON. 

On, Eon, or Aon, was another title of the Sun among 
the Amonians : and fo we find it explained by Cyril upon 
Hofea : ^v ^s B?iV o 'WXiog : and fpeaking of the Egyptians 
in the fame comment, he fays, ^y ^s 6?i Ttaf avToig o 'HKiog, 
The Seventy likewife, where the word occurs in Scripture, 
interpret it the Sun ; and call the city of On, Heliopolis. 
5' Ka; B^xaev avTcp rrjV A(rsvs^ ^vycrs^a. U.sTS(p^ri 'Is^scf)g 'HA/g- 
ttqTkS^K, Theophilus, from Manetho, fpeaks of it in the 
fame manner : ^' H;/, Y\rig 2^iv 'HAfOTToAi?. And the Coptic 
Pentateuch renders the city On by the city cf the Sun. 
Hence it was, that Ham, who was worfhiped as the Sun, 

"" De Amore Fraterno. P. 483. 

5° Ifaiah. C. 14. v. 12. 

'' Genefis. C. 41. v. 45. and Exodus. C. i. v. 11.^ 

'\ Theophilus ad Autolycum. L. 3. p. 392. lablonflcy. L. 2. c. i. p. 13B. 



got the name of Amon, and Amnion ; and was ftiled Baal- 
Hamon. It is faid of Solomon, that he had a vineyard at 
" Baal-Hamon ; a name probably given to the place by his 
Egyptian wife, the daughrer of Pharaoh. The term El 
was combined in the fame manner ; and many places facred 
to the Sun were ftiled El-on, as well as El-our. It was 
fometimes rendered Eleon ; from whence came >lA<o?, and 
rikiov. The Syrians, Cretans, and Canaanites went farther, 
and made a combination of the terms Ab-El-Eon, Pater 
Summus Sol, or Pater Deus Sol ; hence they formed Abel- 
Ion, and Abelion before mentioned. Hefychius interprets 

Voffius thinks, and with good reafon, that the Apollo of 
Greece, and Rome, was the fame as the Abelion of the Eaft. 
^+ Fortafie Apollo ex Cretico A'osKiog' nam veteres Romani 
pro Apollo dixere Apello : ut pro homo, hemo ; pro bonus, 
benus 5 ac fimilia; The Sun was alfo worfhiped under the 

" Canticles, c, 8. v. ii. 

Mention is made of Amon, Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 25. Nahum. c. 3. v. 8. 

It was fometimes compounded ; and the Deity worfhiped under the titles of 
Or-On : and there were temples of this denomination in Canaan. 

Solomon fortified Beth-Oron the upper, and Beth-Oron the nether. 2 Chron. 
c. 8. V. 5. 

As Ham was ftiled Hamon, fo was his fon Chus, or Cuth, named Cuthon 
and Cothon ; as we may judge from places, which were denominated undoubt- 
edly from him. At Adrumetum was an ifland at the entrance of the harbour fo 
called: Hirtius. Afric. P. 798. Another at Carthage, probably fo named from 
a tower or temple. 'Tttokuvtxi Se Tn ccJc^oroAgi 01 re Aiixiys?, xxi KQ.QCIN. 

Strabo. L. 17, p. 1189. 

'♦ Vofs. de Idol. Vol. i. 1. 2. c. ly. p. 391. 

Vol. I. D title 


title Abaddon ; which, as we are informed by the Evangelift, 
was the fame as Apollo ; or, as he terms him, AttoT^Xvu^v : 


A I T. 

Another title of Ham or the Sun was Ait, and Aith : a 
term, of which little notice has been taken ; yet of great 
confequence in refpedl to etymology. It occurs continually , 
in Egyptian names of places, as well as in the composition of 
thofe, which belong to Deities, and men. It relates to fire, 
light, and heat ; and to the confequences of heat. We may 
in fome degree learn its various, and oppofite fignifications 
when compounded, from antient words in the Greek lan- 
gua<ye, which were derived from it. Several of thefe are 
enumerated in Hefychius. Ai^a;, i^bT^cliucii . Ai^ziv, misn>. 
Ai&olMsv (a compound of Aith El), nsmvfMsm. Ai^ivog, mTt- 
yog. Ai&ov, T^ctfJiTr^ov. Ai^oov-x (of the fame etymology, from 
Aith-On) (Jt^sXavdj Trv^Cf^^Yi. ^^ Ai^og, kcojilcl. The Egyptians, 
when they confecrated any thing to their Deity, or made it 
a fymbol of any fuppofed attribute, called it by the name of 
that attribute, or " emanation : and as there was fcarce any 

" Apocalyps, c. 9. v. 1 1. 

'^ The Sun's dilk ftiled A/Jg4 : ' 

'iTTTTSuiov (Xiitt)S'ov oAov TToAov AIGOIII AISKHf. Nonnus. L. 40. v. 371: 
Ai^ioTTtx.iS'ai. Atovuaov-. Avcot^iuv. aX?^oi rov on-oy. aAAoj rnv A^niAU-. He- 
fychius. Altered to AiGovra -n-onSa. by Albertus. 

s"" The Egyptian Theology abounded with perfonages formed from thefe 
emanations, who according to Pfellus were called Eona, Zwss, A'Qmn. See 
lambiichus, and Pkllus, and Damafcius, 



thing, but what was held facred by them, and In this man- 
ner appropriated ; it neceffarily happened, that fevcral objedls 
had often the fame reference, and were denominated aUke. 
For not only men took to themfelves the facred titles ; but 
birds, beads, fifhes, reptiles, together with trees, plants, ftones, 
drugs, and minerals, were fuppofed to be under fome parti- 
cular influence; and from thence received their names. And 
if they were not quite alike, they were however made up of 
elements very fimilar. Ham, as the Sun, was ftiled ^^ Ait ; 
and Egypt, the land of Ham, had in confequence of it the 
name of Ait, rendered by the Greeks Aericc : E}tKrj§ri (^s 
AiyvKro;) KCfA As^/a, kcli Ilorapa, nai Ai^iOTridy koli 
59 AETIA. One of the moft antient names of the Nile 
was Ait, or AsTo^. It was alfo a name given to the Eagle, 
as the bird particularly facred to the Sun: and Homer alludes 
to the original meaning of the word, when he terms the Eagle 
^° KiBTog cn^m. Among the parts of the human body it was 
appropriated to the ^' heart : for the heart in the body may 
be efteemed what the Sun is in his fyftem, the fource of heat 
and life, affording the fame animating principle. This word 
having thefe two fenfes was the reafon why the Egyptians 
made a heart over a vafe of burning incenfe an emblem of 
their country. ^^ AiyvTTTov Js y^a^poneg ^vyjarrjaiov Kocio^s- 

'^ Stephanus Byzanr. 
• " Scholia on Dionyfuis. V. 239, What it alluded to, may be feen from other 

^° Homer. Iliad. O. V. 690. 'O g!'9?^//o?, y.xi Trvpu^^K. Hefychiiis. 

" H^xct^Six. Ecymolog. Magnum ex Orione, in Athribis. 

'"hey exprefs it after the manner of the lonians, who always deviated from 
the original term. The Dorians would have called It with more propriety Ath» 

^' Hcrus Apollo. L. i. c. 22. p. 38. 

D 2 f/oi; 


VQV i(i)y^oi(pii<Tty Kcti STTCivoo KAPAIAN. This term occurs 
continually in compofition. Athyr, one of the Egyptian 
months, was formed of Ath-Ur. It was alfo one of the 
names of that place, where the fhepherds refided in Egypt ; 
and to which the Ifraelites fucceeded. It flood at the upper 
point of Delta, and was particularly facred to -nx Ur, or Or us : 
and thence called Athur-ai, or the place of Athur. At 
the departure of the fhepherds it was ruined by King Amolis. 

As Egypt was named Aith, and Ait ; fo other countries,, 
in which colonies from thence fettled, were ftiled Ethia and 
Athia^ The fons of Chus founded a colony in Colchis ; and 
we find a king of that country named Ait ; or, as the Greeks 
exprefled it, AiYirr,; : and the land was alio diftinguifhed by 
that charaaeriflic. Hence Arete in the Orphic Argonautics, 
fpeaking of Medea's returning to ColcJiis, exprefles this place 
by the terms n^soL KoK'^ccv l 

It is fometimes compounded Ath- El, and Ath-Ain ; from 
v/hence the Greeks formed ^^ A^i^Aa, and A^i^^a, titles, by 
which they diftinguiihed the Goddefs of wifdom. It was 

*' Clemens Alcxandrinus from Ptolemy Mendefius. Strom. L. i. p. 378. 

It was called alfo Abur, or Abaris, as well as Athur. In after times it was re- 
built ; and by Herodotus it is ftiled Cercafora. By Athuria is to be underftood 
both the city, and the diftridl ; which was part of the great Nome of Heliopolis. 

*"* Orphic. Argonaut. V. 1323. 

*' Athenagoras Legatio. P. 293. ^. 

Piolerpine (Ktoa) was alfo called Athcla. Ibid. 



looked upon as a term of high honour, and endearment. 
Venus in Apollonius calls Juno, and Minerva, by way of re* 

" Hhiaij rig ^sv^o voog, ^fSiw ts, zo^jLii^ei ; 
Mcnelaus fays to his brother Agamemnon, *^ Ti<p^* STocg, 
HkirSj Ko^v(r(r£Cii ; And '^ TiTrrs [jloi, H^sin KS(pcc7\Yi, ^svf 
siXri7\iiOoLg, are the words of Achilles to the fhade of his loft' 
Patroclus.. H^SiO^ in the original acceptation, as a title, {ig- 
nified Solaris, Divinus, Splendidus : but in a fecondary fenfe 
it denoted any thing holy, good, and praife- worthy. ^^ AKKa 
fjiiv HOsiov y.ciXsoo kcli vo(r(piv sona^ fays Eumasus of his long 
abfent, and much honoured mafter. / wJI/ call h'mt good, 
and nohk^ whether he be dead or alive. From this antient 
term were derived the wog and r\my.<x of the Greeks. 

I have mentioned, that it is often found compounded, as 
in Athyr : and that it was a name conferred on places,, 
where the Amonians fettled. Some of this family came 
ih early times to Rhodes, and Lemnos : of which migrations 
I fhall hereafter treat. Hence one of the moft antient 
names ol '° Rhodes was Aithraia, or the Ifland of Athyr \ 
fo called from the worfhip of the Sun : and Lemnos was 
denominated Aithalia, for the fame reafon from Aith-El. 
It was particularly devoted to the God of fire ; and is hence, 
ftiled Vulcania by the Poet : 

'' Apollonius Rhodius. L. 3. v. 52^. 
«■' Homer. Iliad K. v. 37, 
'® Homer. Iliad -^. v. 94. 
" Homer. Odyff. S. v. 147. 

Ath-El among many nations a title of great honour, 
II Plin. Nat. Hift. L. 5. c. 31. 



^' Summis Vulcania furgit 
Lemnos aquis, 

Ethiopia itfelf was named both ^" Aitheria, and Acria, from 
Aur, and Athyr : and Lelbos, which had received a colony 
of Cuthites, was reciprocally ftiled " iEthiope. The peo- 
ple of Canaan and Syria paid a great reverence to the me- 
mory of Ham : hence we read of many places in thofe parts 
named Hamath, Amathus, Amathufia. One of the fons of 
Canaan feems to have been thus called : for it is faid, that 
Canaan was the father of the '^'^ Hamathite. A city of thi; 
name flood to the eaft of mount Libanus ; vvhofe natives 
were the Hamathites alluded to here. There was another 
Hamath in Cyprus, by the Greeks expreffed AjW-a^H?, of the 
fame original as the former. We read of Eth-BaaL a king; 
of 7^ Sid on, who was the father of Jezebel ; and of ''^ Atha- 
liah, who was her daughter. For Ath was an oriental 
term, which came from Babylonia and Chaldea to Egypt ; 
and from thence to Syria and Canaan. Ovid, though his 
whole poem be a fable, yet copies the modes of thofe coun- 
tries, of which he treats. On this account, fpeaking of an 
Ethiopian, he introduces him by the name of Eth-Amon, 
but foftened by him to Ethemon. 

"" Valerius Flaccus. L. 2. v. 78. The chief city was Hephseftia. 

'"■ Univerfa vero gens (TEthiopum) yEtheria appellata eft. Plin. L. 6. c. 30. 

''"' Plin. L. 5. c. 31. 

""* Genefis. c. 10. v. 18. c. ir. v. 2. 

■'" I Kings, c. 16. V. 31. 

■"^ 2 Kinprs. c. II. V. I. 




" Inftabant parte finiftra 
Chaonius Molpeus, dextra Nabath^eus Ethemon. 

Ath was Ibmetimcs joined to the ancient title Herm ; which 
the Grecians with a termination made 'E^|U.j]^. From Ath- 
Herm, came 05^, 02^p?, Qs^^aim, Thefe terms were 
fometimes reverfed, and rendered Herm-athena. 

A D 

Ad is a title, which occurs very often in compofition, as 
in Ad- Or, Ad-On; from whence was formed Adorus, Adon, 
and Adonis. It is fometimes found compounded with itfelf : 
and was thus made ufe of for a fupreme title, with which 
both Deities and kings were honoured. We read of Hadad 
king of ^^ Edom : and there was another of the fame name 
at Damafcus, whofe fon and fucceffor was ftiled '^ Benhadad„ 
According to Nicolaus Damafcenus, the kings of Syria for 
nine generations had the name of *^ Adad. There was a 
prince Hadadezer, fon of Rehob king of ^' Zobah : and Ha- 
doram, fon of the king of ^' Hamath. The God Rimmon 
was fiiled Adad : and mention is made by the Prophet of the 

■" Ovid Metamorph L. 5. v. 162. 
So in Virgil. Comites Sarpedonis ambo, 

Et clarus Ethemon Lycia comitantur ab alta. 
Or, Claruset Echemon. ^neis. v. 126. 

■'* I Kings, c. 1 1. v.- 14, AdaJ the fourth king of Edom. Gen. c. 36. v. 35, 
■" I Kings, c. 20. V. I. 
*° NicoKius Damaic. apud Jofephum Antiq. L. 7. c. 5. 

®' 2 Samuel. c.,S. v. 3. 

** I Chron. c. ib. v. 10. 

•2: mourning 


mourning of Adad RImmon in the valley of ^' Megiddo. The 
feminine of it was Ada : of which title mention is made by- 
Plutarch in fpeaking of a ^"^ queen of Caria. It was a facred 
title, and appropriated by the Babylonians to their chief 
'^ Goddefs. Among all the eaftern nations Ad was a pecu- 
liar title, and was originally conferred upon the Sun : and if 
we may credit Macrobius, it jGignified Oriey and was fo inter- 
preted by the Aflyrians : ^^ Deo, quern fummum maxi- 
mumque venerantur, Adad nomen dederunt. Ejus nomi- 
nis interpretatio Hgniiicat unus. Hunc ergo ut potiffimum 
adorant Deum. — Simulacrum Adad infirae cernitur radiis 
inclinatis. I fufpeft, that Macrobius in his reprefentation 
has miftaken the cardinal number for the ordinal ; and that 
what he renders cm, fhould be frj^ or chief. We find that 
it v/as a facred title ; and when fingle, it was conferred 
upon a Babyloni{l:i Deity : but when repeated, it muft de- 
TiOte greater excellence : for the Amonians generally formed 
their fuperlative by doubling the pofitive : thus Rab was 
great ; Rabrab fignified very great. It is indeed plain 
from the account, that it mull: have been a fuperlative ; 
for he fays it was defigned to reprefent what was efteemed 
fummum maximumque, the moft eminent and great. I 
fhould therefore think, that Adad in its primitive {tnk 

'' Zechariah, c. 12. v. ii. 

There was a town of this name in Ifrael. Some fuppofe that the Prophet 
alhided to the death of Jofiah, who was flain at Megiddo. 

*■• Plutarch. Apothegmata. P. 180. One of the wives of Efau was of Ca- 
iflaan, and named Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite. Gen. c. 36. v. 2. 
' AJa, n/oi'})' vtto Ta.€vA(i}i'ia)u >) Hecc. HefychiuS. 

*' Macrobii Saturnalia. L. i.e. 23. 



fio-nlfied 7tC'():iTog. and itfi'Mevm-. and in a fecondary meanlna' 
it denoted a ciiicf, or prince. We may by thefe means 
redlify a miftake in Philo, who makes Sanchoniathon fay, 
that Adodus of Phenicia was king of the country. He 
renders the name, Adodus : but we know for certain that 
it was exprefied Adad, or Adadus, in Edom, Syria, and 
Canaan. He moreover makes him /Sac/Asi)? ©sa'i/, King of 
the Gods : but it is plain, that the word Adad is a com- 
pound : and as the two terms, of which it is made up, are 
precifely the fame, there {hould be a reciprocal refemblance 
in the tranflation. If Ad be a chief, or king ; Adad fhould 
be fuperlatively fo, and fignify a king of kings. I fhould 
therefore fufpedl, that in the original of Sanchoniathon, not 
(^ci(ri?\svg 0S&.I;/, but ^0L<n7\Svg ^OL(n'?\s(f}y was the true read- 
ing. In fliort Ad, and Ada, fignified Jit'J}, TT^ojTog ; and 
in a more lax fenfe, a prince or ruler : Adad therefore, 
which is a reiteration of this title, means TT^c^nog Tccy 
TT^ooruv, or TT^MTSVoni/JV J and anfwers to the moft High, or 
moft Eminent. 

Ham was often ftiled Ad-Ham, or Adam contracted ; 
which has been the caufe of much miftake. There were 
many places ^'named Adam, Adama, Adamah,Adamas, Ada- 
man a ; which had no reference to the protoplaft, but were by 
the Amonians denominated from the head of their family. 

^' Adamantis fluv. Gangeticus. 

Adam was fometimes found reveifed, as in Amad, a Canaanitidi town in the 
tribe of Afhur. Jofhua. c. 19. v. 26. There was a town Hamad as well as Hamon 
in Galilee : alfo Amida in Mefopotamia. 

Vol. I. E EES 


E E S and IS. 

Ees, rendered As and Is, like \ifii of the Hebrews, re- 
lated to light and fire ; and was one of the titles of the Sun. It 
is fometimes compounded Ad-Ees, and Ad-Is ; whence came 
the Hades of the Greeks, and Atis and Attis of the Afiatics ; 
which were names of the fame Deity, the Sun. Many places, 
were hence denominated : particularly a city in Africa, men- 
tioned by ** Polybius. There was a river *' Adefa, which paffed 
by the city Choma in Afia minor. It was moreover the name 
of one of the chief, and moft ancient cities in Syria, iaid to have 
been built by Nimrod. It was undoubtedly the work of fome 
of his brotherhood, the fons of Chus, who introduced there 
the rites of fire, and the worfliip of the Sun ; whence it was 
ililed Adefa, rendered by the Greeks Edefia. One of the 
names of fire, among thofe in the Eaft, who worfhip it, is 
'° Atefh at this day. The term ^j-, like Adad before men- 
tioned, is fometimes compounded with itfelf, and rendered 

** Polybius. L. I. p. 31. '' 

Atis ill Phrygia, and Lydia, was reprefented with a crown of rays, and a 
tiara fpangled with ftars, t;w KXTctq^i^Tov rois at^^on nac^ay. Julian. Orat. 5.. 
p. 179. 

*' Podalia, Choma, prtefluente Adefa. Plin. L. 5. c 1 7. 

It was compounded alfo Az-On. Hence A(^uyes in Sicily near Selinus. Dio- 
dori Excerpta. L. 22. 

'° Herbert's Travels. P. 316. He renders the word Attafii. 

Hyde of the various names of fire among the Perfians ; Va, Adur, Azur, 
Adifh, Atefh, Hyr. c. 29. p. 358. Atefli Pereft is a Prieft of fire. Ibid. c. 29. 
p. 366. 

2 Afas, 

R A D I C A L S. 


Afas, and Azaz ; by the Greeks exprefled A^a^oj and ^'Al^iCo;, 
In the very place fpoken of above, the Deity was vvorfhiped 
under the name of Azizus. The Emperor Julian acquaints 
us in his hymn to the '' Sun, that the people of Edefla pof- 
feiled a region, which from time immemorial had been fa- 
cred to that luminary : that there were two fubordinate 
Deities, Monimus and Azizus, who were efteemed coadju- 
tors, and afTeflbrs to the chief God. He fuppoles them to 
have been the fame as Mars and Mercury : but herein this 
zealous emperor failed; and did not underftand the theo- 
logy, which he was recommending. Monimus and Azizus 
were both names of the fame God, the Deity of EdefTa, and 
5^ Syria. The former is undoubtedly a tranflation of Adad, 
which fignifies (JLOVcgy or '•^ unitas : though, as I have before 
fhewn, more properly primus. Azizus is a reduplication o*^ 
» like term, being compounded with itfelf ; and was of the 
fame purport as Ades, or Ad Ees, from whence the place was 
named. It was a title not unknown in Greece ; for Ceres 
was of old called Azazia ; by the lonians Azefia. Hefychius 
obferves, A(^/]a'ia, r\ ArifJLrjTY]^. Proferpine alfo had this 
name. In the fame author we learn that a^a, aza, fignified 
ac/SoAo;, or fun-burnt : which fhews plainly to what the 

'' Aziz, lightning ; any thing fiiperlatively bright, analogous to Adad and 
Rabrab. Hazazon Tamer, mentioned 2 Chron. c. 20. v. 2. 

" Orat. 4. p. 150. 

'' Azaz, and Afifus, are the fame as Afis and Ifis made feminine in Egypt; who 
was fiippofed to be the fifter of Ofiris the Sun. 

"* T;;i MONAAA Tdi a.vS'^a.i ovofJLcc^etv AxoXXcava. Plutarch. Ifis & Ofiris. 
P. 354. 

E 2 primitive 


primitive word '^' related. Tiiis word is often found combined 
with Or ; as in Aforus, and Eforus, under which titles the 
Deity was worfhiped in '* Syria, '' Sicily, and Carthage : 
of the laft city he was fuppofed to have been the founder. 
It is often compounded with El, and II ; and many places 
were from thence denominated Alefia, Elyfa, Eleufa, Hale- 
fus, Elyfus, Elcufis, by apocope Las, Lafa, Lsefa, Lafaia; alfo 
Liffa, Lifllis, Liflia. Sometimes we meet with thefe terms 
reverfed; and inftead of El Ees they are rendered Ees El : 
hence we have places named Azilis, Azila, Afyla, contradlcd 
Zelis, Zela, Zeleia, Zelitis ; alfo Sele, Sela, Sala, Salis, Sillas, 
Silis, Soli. All thefe places were founded or denominated by 
people of the Amonian worfliip : and we may always upca 
inquiry perceive fomething very peculiar in their hiftory, 
and fituation. They were particularly devoted to the wor,- 
fhip of the Sun ; and they were generally fituated near hot 
fprings, or elfe upon foul and fetid lakes, and pools of bi- 
tumen. It is alfo not uncommon to find near them mines 
of fait and nitre ; and caverns fending forth peftilential exr 

" Hence came ado, aflfare, of the Romans. 

Jezebel, whofc father was Ethbaal, king of Sidon, and whofe daughter v/as 
Athaliah, feems to have been named from Aza-bel; for all the Sidonian names 
are compounds of faered terms. 

^^ Places, which have this term in their compofition, are to be found alfo in 
Canaan, and Africa. See Relandi Palxftina. Vol. 2. p. 597. Jofeph. Ant. L. 8. 
c. 2. Hazor, rhe chief city of Jabin, who is ftiled king of Canaan, flood near 
Lacus Samochonites. Azorus near Heraclea in Theflaly, at the bottom of 
Mount CEta. Hazor is mentioned as a kingdom, and feemingly near Edom 
and Kedar. Jeremiah, c. 49. v. 39. 33. 

'^ Hazor in Sicily ftood near Enna, and was by the Greeks rendered Ao^.T<i>fc^, 
and A(xj&'foi'. Azor and Azur was a common name for places^ Puratheia 
were conftruded. See Hyde. Relig. Perf c. 3. p. 100. 



halations. The Elyfian plain near the Catacombs in Egypt 
flood upon the foul Charonian canal : which was fo noifome, 
that every fetid ditch and cavern was from it called Charo- 
nian. Afia Proper comprehended little more than Phrygia, 
and a part of Lydia ; and was bounded by tlie river Halys. 
It was of a moft inflammable foil ; and there were many 
fiery eruptions about Caroura, and in Hyrcania, which latter 
v/as fliled by the Greeks KSzavy.Bro. Hence doubtlefs the 
region had the name of '^ Afia, or the land of fire. One of 
its mofc ancient cities, and moft reverenced, was Hierapolis, 
famous for its hot " fountains. Here was alfo a facred ca- 
vern, failed by "° Strabo Plutonium, and Charonium ; which 
lent up peftilential effluvia. Photius in the life of Ifidorus 
acquaints us, that it was the temple of Apollo at Hierapolis, 
within whofe precinds thefe deadly vapours arofe. ' Ey 
'is^^TToAs; TYig ^^vyiag 'h^ov TtV K7:o7\7^xvogy vtto cs tqv vaoi/ 
Kccva^oLTioy vitayisno^ ScivoL(n[j.'dg crjotTrvoag ttcc^s'^o^svov. Ht 
fpeaks of this cavity as being immediately under the edifice. 
Four caverns of this fort, and Ailed Charonian, are men- 
tioned by * Strabo in this part of the world. Pliny fpeaking 


'^ The country about the Cayfter was particularly named Afia. 

Aa-ia iv ?veip.'jnn KaiJ-r^ii aw.^i pssyta. Homer. Iliad. B. v. 461^ 
Gf thefe parts fee Strabo. L. 13. p. 932. 

^' licoLircAii — vS'^fjLcoy vS'acTuv ttoAamv TrA'Sdirctj cctto ry ti^a ttoXXo. i^av, 

Stephanus Byaant. 

'^txvriva. f;yoj'T«. Strabo. L. 13. p. 933. 

' Damafcius apod Phutium m Vita Ifidor, c. 242. 

- At Hierafolis, Achaiaca, Ma^nefia, and ^:yus. Strabo. L, 12. p. 868. 


of fonie Charonian hollows in Italy, fays that the exhala- 
tions were infupportable. ^ Spiracula vocant, alii Cha?'omas 
fcrobes, mortiferum fpiritum exhalantes. It may appear won- 
derful ; but the Amonians were determined in the iituation 
both of their cities and temples by thefe ftrange phasnomena. 
They efteemed no places fo facred, as thofe, where there were 
fiery eruptions, uncommon fleams, and fulphureous exhala- 
tions. In Armenia near ■* Comana, and Camifena, was the 
temple of ^ Anait, or fountain of the Sun. It was a Perfic 
and Babylonifh Deity, as well as an Armenian, which was 
honoured with Puratheia, where the rites of fire were parti- 
cularly kept up. The city itfelf was named Zela : and clofc 
behind it was a large nitrous lake. In fhort, from the Amo- 
nian terms, Al-As, came the Grecian aAo?, aAa?, a.'Kg ; 
as from the fame terms reverfed (As-El) were formed the La- 

4'Oi T? y.a.1 'Hfa? xat to XAPflNION ccvt^ov uTn^xsi/Jieyov tb ccAaa?, ^ctuy.x<^oi' 
TM (pvast. Strabo. L. 14. p. 960. 

' Plin. H. N. L. 2. c. 93. Spiritus lethales alibi, aut fcrobibus emifTi, aiit ipfo 
loci fitu mortiferi : alibi volucribus tantiim, ut Sora6le vicino urbi tradu : alibi 
prater hominem cseteris animantibus : nonnunquam et homini ; ut in Sinueflana 
-agro, et Puteolano. Spiracula vocant, alii Charoneas fcrobes, mortiferum fpi- 
ritum exhalantes. Strabo of the fame: ©u/-x.C^;«, xap' m Acovov e^t a7r>iha.iov 
tipov, XAP^NION ^iyofy.ii'oi'y oAg6^<aj e^ov a.-moqiopai. L. 14. p. 943. 

■* A.'STa.v'ia. fj-iv tiv rx ruv Vli^aav liox y.a.i MnSoi xcci ApiJ.ivtot TiTifJiiixaaf 
Toc S'e TY,i Avani^oi Siatpe^ovrcDS A^fAH'io:. Strabo. L. 1 1. p. S05. 

* Anait fignifies a fountain of fire ; under which name a female Deity was 
worfliiped. Wherever a temple is mentioned dedicated to her worfliip, there 
will be generally found fome hot Hreams either of water or bitumen : or elfe 
fait, and nitrous pools. This is obfervable at Arbela. fls^i A^GAx cTg e~i ^r^jjinrptoLi TiroAii, iS' rt t« catpSa ttk^w, xcct let ■wvca, xa.t to Tm Ara<as 
(or AvairiS^oi) h^ov. Strabo. L. 16. p. 1072. 

Of Anait fee Strabo. L. 11. p. 779. L. 12. p. 838. L. 15. p. 1066. 



tine Sal, Sol, and Salum. Wherever the Amonians found 
places with thefe natural or praeternatural properties, they 
held them facred, and founded their temples near them. 
* Selenouda in Ionia was upon a fait lake, facred to Artemiso. 
In Epirus was a city called Alefa, ElifTa, £^nd Lefa : and 
hard by were the Alefian plains : fimilar to the Elyfian in 
Egypt: in thefe was produced a great quantity of foflil ^ fait. 
There was an Alefia in Arcadia, and a mountain Alefium 
with a temple upon it. Flere an ancient perfonage, u^^putus, 
was fdid to have been fuffocated with fait water : in which 
hiftory there is an allufion to the etymology of the name. 
It is true that Paufanias fuppofes it to have been called Ale- 
fia from Rhea having wandered thither ; * ^la t/jv aA/]y, oog 
ipoi<ri, y.oLKovfxsi^ou rriv 'Fsa.g : but it was not aAji, but aAa?, 
and ctAo;, fil ; and tlie Deity, to whom that body was fa- 
cred, from whence the place was named. And this is cer- 
tain from another tradition, which there prevailed : for it is 
faid that in ancient times there was an eruption of fea water 
in the temple : ^ ©aAcicrcTj]? Js OLvapoin/St^oii kv^xol sv tw 'Is^w 
TUTtf) Koyog sg-iv a^-^caog. Nor this appellation confined 
to one particular fort of fountain, or water : but all waters, 
that had any uncommon property, were in like manner facred 
to Elees, or Eefel. It was an ancient title of Mithras and Ofi- 

' Strabo. L. 14. p. 951, 

' £7-; xcti AAwov TZTiSiov rm H-zs-f/sa, i'ra 'zc-jjfj'UTa; aAas. Stephanus Byzan- 

^ Paufanias. L. 8. p. 618. 

5 Athanafius, who was of Egypt, fpeaks of the veneration paid to fountains 
and waters. AAAo* 7r0ra.1j.tii xcci xfiU'cc?, xat ttxvtoov [jlccAi-cc Aiyu-zB-Tioi to 
vSuo 7r^oTiTtpi.iy,cxo-i, Ka.i Gfis a.vxyo^ivH(xi'_ Oratio contra Gentes. P. 2. Edit. 


ris in the eaft, the fame as '° Sol, the Sun. From liCnce the 
priefts of the Sun were called Soli and Solimi in Cilicia, Selli 
in Epirus, Salii at Rome, all originally priefts of lire. As 
luch they are defcribed by Virgil : 

Turn Salii ad cantns incenfa altaria circum. 
In like manner the Silaceni of the Babylonians v/cre wor- 
ihipers of the fame Deity, and given to the rites of fire^ 
which accompanied the worfhip of tlie Sun. 

The chief city of Silacena was Sile or Sele, where were 
eruptions of fire- Sele is the place or city of the Sun. When- 
ever therefore Sal, or Sel, or the fame reverfed, occur in the 
compofition of any place's name, we may be pretty certain 
that the place is remarkable either for its rites or lltuation, and 
attended with fome of the circumftances " above-mentioned. 
Many inftances may be produced of thofe denominated from 
jthe quality of their waters. In the river '" Silarus of Italy 

" It was an obiblete term, but to be traced in its derivatives. From Ees-El 
^came AavAor, Afylum : from El-Ees, Elis, EliHa, Eleufis, Elcufinia Sacra, 
Elyfium, Elyfii campi in Egypt and ellcwhere. 

" Of thofe places called Lafa many inftances might be produced. The foun- 
tain atGortyna in Crete was very facred, and called Lafa, and Lyfa. There was 
a tradition, that Jupiter when a child was wafhed in its v/aters : it was there- 
fore changed to Acvcw Paufanias fays, vjo.-p -^v^ootoctop -wcc-^i'^jiccL Trorccixcoi' 
L. 8. p. 658. 

In Judea were fome medicinal waters and warm fprings of great repute, at a 
place called of old Lafa. Lafa ipfa eft, qu.'E nunc Calhrrhoc dicitur, ubi aqus 
calidas in Mare Mortuum defiuunt. Hieron. in Ifaiam. c. 17. 19. 

HpwJ^«5 Toii v-oi-va. KaAA/ppG»r ^-pjj-Oii e->is^'(.vTo. Jofcphus de B. J. I, i. c. 33. 

Alefa, urbs et fons Siciliie. Solinus. c. xi. The fountain was of a wonderful 

'* Strabo. L. 5. p. 385. 




every thing became petrified. The river '' Silias in India 
would fuffer nothing to fwim. The waters of the "*■ Salaffi in 
the Alps were of great ufe in refining gold. The fountain 
at '^ Selinus in Sicily was of a bitter faline tafte. Of the 
fait lake near *" Selinoufia in Ionia I have fpoken. The foun- 
tain Siloe at Jerufalem was in fome degree '^ fait. Ovid 
mentions Sulmo, where he was born, as noted for its '* cool 
waters : for cold ftreams were equally facred to the Sun 
as thofe, which were of a contrary nature. The fine 
waters at iEnon, where John baptized, were called "' Salim. 
The river Ales near Colophon ran through the grove of 
Apollo, and was efteemed the coldeft ftream in Ionia. 
" AKng TTOTOLfJLog -vJ/yp^^oTaTo^ Tm sv l(^na,. In the country of 
the Alazonians was a bitter fountain, which ran into the 
" Hypanis. Thefc terms were fometimes combined with the 
name of Ham ; and expreiTed Hameles, and Hamelas ; con- 
traded to Meles and Melas. A river of this name watered the 

'' Strabo. L. 15. p. 1029. 

'♦ Strabo. L. 4. p. 314. 

'' Strabo. L. 6. p. 421. 

'* Strabo. L. 14. p. 951. Here was a cavern, which fent forth a mod pefti- 
kntial vapour. Diodorus Sic. L. 4. p. 278. 

'■' Voyages de Monconys. Parte 2dc. p. 38. 

" Sulmo mihi patria eft, gelidis uberrimus undis. 

Ovid. Triftia. L. 5. Eleg. 10. y. 3.' 

'' John. c. 3. V. 23. Hi' S'g xcti Icoavfiii Sxttti^cov ev AivMy g^^-w 2aAe//x.* 
,fo denominated by the ancient Canaanites. 

*" Paufanias. L. 7. p. §25- The city Aries in Provence was famed for medi- 
cinal waters. The true name was Ar- Ales, the city of Ales : it was alfo called 
Ar-EI-Ait, orArelate. 

" Herodotus. L. 4. c. 52. 

Vol, I. F region 


region of Pamphylia, and was noted for a moft cold and pure 
" water. The Meles near Smyrna was equally admired. 
*3 X^jLv^mioig Js 7:orccfj.og MsXTj^' A^ sg'i Ka7<Ki^ov^ koli u-ttyj- 
7^cciOV STTi raig Trriyctig. The Melas in Cappadocia was of a con- 
trary quality. It ran through a hot, inflammable country, 
and formed many flery pools. *+ Ka; rccvTct, ^' sg-i tol sKyi 
TroLPTCi'^B TTV^iKriTrra.. In Pontus was Amafus, Amafia, A- 
mafene, where the region abounded with hot waters : 

^cc^YifXQVsncfWy vyiBiyoL (r<po^^oL. 

It is wonderful, how far the Amonian religion and cuf- 
toms were carried in the firft ag-es. The ancient Germans 
and Scandinavians, were led by the fame principles ; and 
founded their temples in fituations of the fame nature, as 
thofe were, which have been above defcribed. Above all 
others they chofe thofe places, where were any nitrous, or 
faline waters. "* Maxime autem lucos (or lacus) fale gig- 
nendo fscundos Coelo propinquare, precefque mortalium 
nufquam proplus audiri firmlter erant perfuafl ; prout exem- 
plo Hermundurorum docet teflis omni exceptione major 
'' Tacitus. 

** Paufanias. L. 8. p. 659. 

'■' Paufanias. L. 7. p. S25' 

•* Strabo. L. 12. p. 812. 

*5 Strabo. L. 12. p. S39. 

*^ Gafpar Brechenmaker. § 45. p. ^jl 

*" Tacitus. Annal. L. 13. c. 57. 

From this ancient term As, or Az, many words In the Greek language were 
derived : fuch as a<^o//a:(, veneror > a^w, ^Yioaivu ; a^aAesr, ^spjAov; a^a, «a-fo- 
Aoi ', aJ^tjiiTii^ dt ^iisca ix Tm ^iw^iai. Hefychius. 



SAN, SON, Z A N, Z A A N. 

The mofl: common name for the Sun was San, and Son ; 
exprefled alfo Zan, Zon, and Zaan. Zeus of Crete, who 
was fuppofed to have been buried in that Ifland, is faid to 
have had the following infcription on his tomb : 

-^'OJg fJLEyoLg KSiTCii Zaj/, ov Aid KDiXYincatn, 
The lonians exprefled it Z»]i', and, Hcfychius tells us, 
that the Sun was called Xawg by the Babylonians. It is to be 
obferved that the Grecians in foreign words continually omit- 
ted the Nu final, and fubflituted a Sigma. The true Baby- 
lonifli name for the Sun was undoubtedly Saa'j/, oftentiines 
exprefled Sway, Soan. It was the fame as Zauan of the Si- 
donians ; under which name they worlLiped Adonis, or the 
Sun. Hefychius fays, Za.vcimgy &Bog Tig sv Xi^upi Who the 
Deity was, I think may be plainly feen. It is mentioned by 
the fame writer, that the Indian Hercules, by which is 
always meant the chief Deity, was ftiled Dorfmes : Ao^cra- 
VYig 'H^a,KMg vraf h^oig. The name Dorfanes is an abridg- 
ment of AdorSan, or Ador-Sanes, that is Ador-Sol, f/je lord 
of light. It was a title conferred upon Ham; and alfo upon 
others of his family ; whom I have before mentioned to have 
been colledively called the Baalim. Analogous to this they 
were likewife called the Zaanim, and Zaananim : and a tem- 

"' Cyril, contra Juliaiuim. L. lo. p. 342, And lamblich. in vita Pytha- 

Zai' K^ora. Ladlantii Div. Inftitut. L. i. c. 11, p. 53. 
Zar, Zfi/s. Hefychius. 

F 2 pie 


pie was ereded to them by the ancient Canaanites, which 
was from them named '' Beth-Zaananim. There was alfo 
a place called Sanim in the fame country, rendered Sonam'% 
^(f^vafJL, by Eufebius ; which was undoubtedly named ia 
honour of the fame perfons : for their pofterity looked up 
to them, as the Heliada^, or defcendants of the Sun, and de- 
nominated them from that luminary. According to Hefy- 
chius it was a title, of old not unknown in Greece ] where 
princes and rulers were ftiled Zanides, ZcLVik;^ 'Hys[U,QVsg, 
In ^' Diodorus Siculus mention is made of an ancient king of 
Armenia, called Barfanes ; which fignifies the offspring of 
the Sun. We find temples ereded to the Deity of the 
fame purport ; and ftiled in the lingular Beth-San : by 
which is meant the temple of the Sun. Two places occur in 
Scripture of this name : the one in the tribe of ManafTeh 5 
the other in the land of the Philiflines. The latter feems to 
have been a city ; and alfo a temple, where the body of Saul 
xvas expofed after his defeat upon mount Gilboa. For it is 
faid, that the Philiflines ^* cui off his head, and ftripped off his 
armour — ajid they put his armour in the houfe of Aptorethy 
and they faflened his body to the wall of Bethfan, They feem 
to have fometimes ufed this term with a reduplication : for 
we read of a city in Canaan called " Sanfanah ; by which is 
fignified a place facred to the mofl: illuftrious Orb of day» 

»9 Jolhua. c. 19. V. ^2- Judges, c. 4. v. 11. AlfoTzaanan. Micah.c. 1. v. 11. 
Soils Fons. 

30 Relandi Palseftina. V. 2. p. 983,. 
"" Diodorus Siculus. L. 2. p. 90. 
3* I Samuel, c. 31. v. 9, 10. 
-' Jolhua. c. 15. V. 31. 

-f ,ce^ i^:-3. f'-^i-<' Some 


Some ancient ftatues near mount Cron'us in Elis were by the 
natives called Zanes, as we are told by Paufanias : ^* KoLhovvrca 
(Tg VTTO rm STn-)(j£^im Zxveg They were fuppofed to have 
been the ftatues of Zeus : but Zan was more properly the 
Sun J and they were the ftatues of perfons, who were deno- 
minated from him. One of thefe perfons, ftiled Zanes, and 
Zanim, was Chus : whofe pofterity fent out large colonies to 
various parts of the earth. Some of them fettled upon the 
coaft of Aufonia, called in hter times Italy ;. where they wor- 
fhiped their great anceftor under the name of San-Chus, 
Silius Italicus fpeaking of the march of fome Sabine troops,, 

" Pars Sancum voce canebant 
Audlorem gentis. 
Ladtantius takes notice of this Deity. ^^ i^gyptii liidem 
Mauri Jubam, Macedones Cabirum — Sabini Sancum colunt. 
He was not unknown at Rome, where they ftiled him 
Zeus Piftius, as we learn from Dionyfius of HalicarnafTus r 
^' Ey 'Is^w A<o?nifi8, ov "Poo^aioi I/OLynQv kolKhq-i. There are 

^■♦Paufanias. 1. 5. p. 430. 

Za; a, Zc; a, Hoa.a' all names of the fame purport, all ftatues of the Sun, 
called Zan, Zon, Zoan, Xoan. 

= ' Silius Italicus, L. 8. v. 421. 

°* Laftantius, de F. R. L. i. p. 6^. 

Fie facrificium, quod eft: proficifcendi gratia, Herculi, aut Sanco, qui idem 
deus eft. Feftus. 

'■' Dionyfius Halicarnaft". Antiq. Rom. L. 4. p. 246. St. Auftin fuppofes the 
name to have been SaniSlus. Sabini etiam Regem fuum primum Sancum, five, 
ut aliqui appellant, Sandum, retulerunt inter deos. Auguftinus de Civitate Dei. 
L. 1 8. c. 19. The name was not of Roman original ; but far prior to Rome. 



in Gruter Iiifcriptions, wherein he has the title of Semon 
prefixed, and is alfo ftiled Sandus. 

'^^ S A N C T O. S A N C O. 


Semon (Sem-On) fignifies Cceleftis Sol. 

Some of the ancients thought that the foul of man was a 
divine emanation ; a portion of light from the Sun. Hence 
probably it was called Zoan from that luminary ; for fo we 
find it named in Macrobius. " Veteres nullum animal fa- 
crum in finibus fuis efie patiebantur ; fed abigebant ad fines 
Deorum, quibus facrum efiet: animas vero facratorum homi- 
num, quos Grgeci ZI2ANA2 vocant, Diis debitas aeflima- 

D I, D I O, D I S, D U S. 

Another common name for the Deity was Dis, Dus, 
and the like ; analagous to Deus, and Theos of other na- 
tions. The Sun was called Arez in the eafl, and com- 
pounded Dis-arez, and Dus-arez ; which fignifies Deus Sol. 
The name is mentioned by Tertullian ^°. Unicuique etiam 

'^ Gruter. Infcripr. Vol. i. p. g6. n. 6. 

Setnoni Sanco Deo Fidio. n. 5. 

Sanco Fidio Semo Patri. n. 7. 

Sanco Deo Patr. Reatin. facrum. n. 8. 
From San came the Lacine terms, fanus, fano, fanclus, fancire. 
Voffius derives San or Zan from ^^T^, fzevire. De Idol. L. i. c. 22. p. 16S. 
.^' Macrobii Saturn. L. 3. c. 8. p. 282. 

Hence perhaps came ^coeiv and Q,:' to live : and ^uov, animal : and hence the 
title of Apollo Xw'oS'oTr^. 
'*" Tertullian. Apolog. c. 24. 

2 provincial 


provinclae et civitati fuus Deus eft, ut Syrice Aftarte, Ara- 
bia Dyflires. Hefychius fuppofes the Deity to have been the 
fame as Dionufus. Aacra^ryi/ rov Aiovvcrov Na/3aTai0i (^KaKa- 
(Tiy), 60$ Ic/dCtJ^o;. There was a high mountain or promontory 
in "^^ Arabia, denominated from this Deity : analogous to 
which there was one in Thrace, which had its name '^* from 
Duforus, or the God of hght, Orus. I took notice, that 
Hercules, or the chief Deity among the Indians, was called 
Dorfanes : he had ajfo the name of Sandis, and Sandes ; 
which fignifies Sol Deus. ^' Bj^Aoj' tov Aid TV^ov, Xau- 
^TiV Ts TQV 'H^aKKsa, Aycf.hiia Tr^v Atp^o^iTTiV, kqli ciX7^(/:g 
ciAKa; sy.a,K8V. Agathias of the people in the eaft. Probably 
the Deity Bendis, whofe rites were fo celebrated in Phrygia 
and Thrace, was a compound of Ben-Dis, the offspring of 
God. The natives of this country reprefented Bendis as a 
female ; and fuppofed her to be the fame as '^^ Selene, or 
the moon. The fame Deity was often mafculine and femi- 
nine : what was Dea Luna in one country, was Deus Lunus 
in another. 

*' ^na-ocpn (lege Aaaaas;?) axoirtXoi kcci )toPV(pn u-\r,Xora.Tyi AcctQiai" ?iQmixi 
J' aTo Td Afa'cai-a. Geo? J^g bto5 irccoa. A'-'Otli x-cci A.a.^'oii riyMf/.€vo;. See- 
phanus Byz. 

Ays, Dous, is the fame as Deus. Aoo^-Acj;.-, Deus Sol. 

** ^.vawpov xuAeofjLii'ov :ivooS' Herod. L. 5. c. 17. 

•** Agathias. L. 2. p. 62. 

"''* To cvofj-x THTC3 Qpa,x,2v n Bevi'ii' ovtco KatQoccy.oi Qso?'.oyH ,weTa 'Tijy s-oAXscr 

Ex Proclo. See Poefis Philofophica. Edit. H. Steph, p. 91. 



K U R, K T P O 2, C U R A. 

The Sun was like wife named Kur, Cur, Kv^og, ^^ Kv^(>v 
yoL^ KctKsiv ris^tra^ rov 'HKioi/. Many places were facred to 
this Deity, and called Cura, Curia, Curopolis, Curene, Cu- 
refchata, Curefta, Cureflica regio. Many rivers in Perfis, 
Media, Iberia, were denominated in the fame manner. The 
term is fometimes exprefled Corus : hence Corufia in Scy- 
thia. Of this term I fhall fay more hereafter. 


Cohen, which fcems among the Egyptians and other 
Amonians to have been pronounced Cahen, and Chan, fig- 
nified a Prieft ; alfo a Lord or Prince. In early times the 
office of a Prince and of a Prieft were comprehended under 
one character. 

^'^ Rex Anius, Rex idem hominum, Phcebique Sacerdos. 
This continued a great while in fome parts of the '^^ world ; 
efpecially in Afia Minor, where even in the time of the Ro- 
mans the chief prieft was the prince of the ** province. The 

■" Plutarch, in Artaxerxe. P. 1012. 

■*' Virgil, ^neis. L. 3. v. 80. 

Majorum enim hsc erat confuetudo, ut Rex eflct etlam Sacerdos, et Pontifex: 
unde hodieqiie Imperatores Pontifices dicamus. Servii Scholia ibidem. 

"*^ Oi S liQiii TO TTCiXixicv f/,sv S wx<^ai TLvsi iiTuv. Strabo. L. 12. p. 851, It is 
fpoken particularly of fome places in Afia Minor. 

•»® Pythodorus, the high prieft of Zela, and Comana in Armenia was the king 
of the country. Hr 'h^eui Kv^im ruv TravTuv- Strabo. L. 12. p. 838. 



term was fometimes ufed with a greater latitude ; and de- 
noted any thing noble and divine. Hence we find it pre- 
fixed to the names both of Deities and men ; and of 
places denominated from them. It is often compounded 
with Athoth, as Canethoth ; and we meet with Can-Ofiris, 
Can-ophis, Can-ebron, and the like. It was fometimes ex- 
preffed Kun, and among the Athenians was the title of the 
ancient priefts of Apollo ; whofe pofterity were ftiled Kyy- 
viocci, Cunnidae, according to Hefychius. KvuviS'cx.ij ysvog ev 
AdYivri<np, ej ov 'is^svg th Kvma ATToKKmo;. We find from 
hence, that Apollo was ftiled K.vvviog^ Cunnius. Kuwoj, 
AiroKKoovog STti^srov. Hence came avvsiv^ Tr^orKVVsiv, Tr^QtrKvy^" 
cig, well known terms of adoration. It was alfo expreiTed 
Con, as we may infer from the title of the Egyptian Hercu- 
les. "" To;/ 'H^cckXyiv (priG-i kcctol rt]v Kiymrim ^laKsurov 
KI2NA 'KByB(T^c(.i. It feems alfo to have been a title of the 
true God, who by ^° Mofes is ftiled Konah, njp. 

We find this term oftentimes fubjoincd. The Chaldeans, 
who were particularly poflefled of the land of Ur, and were 
worfhipers of fire, had the name of Urchani. Strabo limits 
this title to one branch ol the Chaldeans, who were literati, 
and obfervers of the heavens ; and even of thefe to one fed: 
only. Er< ^£ KOLi Twy XaAJ'aiwy rm Ag-eovo^iKm ysvri TrAsiw* 

"*' Etymologicum Magnum. 

KwaSiji rioafi^uv A^vvraiv irifjiOLTo. Hefychius. 

'° Grnefis. c. 14. v, 19. cD'Cty 7\yp irSy Sk- 

Sabacon of Ethiopia was Saba Con, or king of Saba. 

Vol. I. G 



KOLi yoL^ 5' O^'^mi Tivsg Tr^ou'ccyo^svonxi . But ^'- Ptolemy fpeaks 
of them more truly as a nation ; as does Pliny likewile. He 
mentions their flopping the courfe of the Euphrates, and di- 
verting the ftream into the channel of the Tigris. " Euphra-^ 
tern pi^clufere Orcheni, &c. nee nifi Pafitigri defertur in 
mare. There feem to have been particular colleges appro- 
priated to the aftronomers and priefts in Chaldea, which 
were called Conah ; as we may infer from ^* Ezra. He 
applies it to focieties of his own.priefts and people; but it 
was a term borrowed from Ghaldea. 

The title of Urchan among the Gentile nations was appro- 
priated to the God of fire, and his " priefts ; but was af- 
fumed by other perfons. Some of the priefts, and princes 
among the Jews after the return from captivity took the 
name of Hyrcanus. Orchan, and Orchanes among the 
Perfic and Tartar nations is very common at this ^^ day ; , 
among whom the word Chan is ever current for a prince or 
king. Hence we read of Mangu Chan, Cublai Chan, 

" Strabo. L. i6. p. 1074, 

5* Ptolem. Geogr. Lib. 5. cap. 19. p. 165. He places very truly the Orcheni 
upon the Sinus Perficus : for they extended fo far. 

napctxfirat rri ipuf/.ui A^xQia ri X.a.Ati'ctiit ^c^y^oc. Idem. L. 5. C. 20. p. 1 67. 

" Plin. H. N. L. 6. c. 27. ' ^ 

*♦ Eara. c. 5. v. 6. c. 4. v. 9 — 17. 

" The priefts in Egypt, among other titles, were called Sonchin, five Soils 
Sacerdotes, changed to Soij^jis in the fingular. Pythagoras was inftrufted by a 
Sonchin, or prieft of the Sun. It is mentioned as a proper name by Clemens 
Alexandr. Strom. L, j. p. 356. And it might be fo : for priefts were denomi- 
nated from the Deity, whom they ferved. 

'' See Obfcrvations upon the Ancient Hiftory of Egypt. P. 164. 


R A D I C A L So 43 

Cingis Chan. Among fbme of thefe nations it is exprefled 
Kon, Kong, and King. Monfieur de Lifle, fpeaking of the 
Chinefe, fays, " Les noms de King Che, ou Kong-Sfe, fig- 
nifient Cour de Prince en Chine. Can, ou Chan en langue 
Tartare fignifie Roi, ou Empereur. 

P E T A H. 

Of this Amonian term of honour I have taken notice in 
a treatife before. I have fhewn, that it was to be found in 
many Egyptian '^ names, fuch as Petiphra, Petiphera, Peti- 
fonius, Petofiris, Petarbemis, Petubaftus the Tanite, and Pe« 
tefuccus builder of the Labyrinth. Petes, called Peteos in 
Homer, the father of Mneftheus the Athenian, is of the fame 
original : " Tov ycc^ IlgTioJ/, Tov ttxts^ci Msvs^sojg^ th j-^a- 
rsvTanog sig T^qiolv, (potvs^ojg AiyvTTTiov VTrct^^avTct ktA, 
All the great officers of the Babylonians and Perfians took 
their names from fome facred title of the Sun. Herodotus 
mentions *° Petazithes Magus, and ^' Patiramphes : the lat- 
ter was charioteer to Xerxes in his expedition to Greece : 
but he was denominated from another office ; for he was 

"'' Defcription de la Viile de Pekin. P. 5. He mentions CIuo Kong. P. 3. 
" See Obfervations and Inquiries. P. 16 2- 
" Diodorus Siculus. L, i. p. 25. 
*' L. 3. c. 61. 
*' L. 7. c, 40. 

Pat£cion is mentioned by Plutarch de audiendis Poetis. P. ai. 
Patiramphes is for Pata-Ramphan, the prieft of the God Rampban, changed 
to Ramphas by the Greeks. 

Ram-Phan is the great Phan or Phanes, a Deity well known in Egypt. 

G 2 brother 


brother to Smerdis, and a Magus ; which was a priefl of the 
Sun. This term is fometimes fubjoined, as in Atropatia, a 
province in ^* Media ; which was fo named, as we learn from 
Strabo, ^^ a^o ra AT^oTraTa riysf^ovog. In the accounts of the 
Amazons Hkewife this word occurs. They are faid to have 
been called Aorpata, or according to the common reading in 
Herodotus, Oiorpata ; which writer places them upon the 
Cimmerian Bofporus. ^'^ Ta? (Js AfxcL^opoLg y.oCKz<i<n Xkv^oll 
Oio^Trara' ^'vdoltcci h ro hi/gixol tuto kolt 'E7vAa(^a yXoc^o'ccv- 
oLv^^oKrovoi' Oio^ yot^ KOLksan tov ouc^x^ to Js itoLTo. KTeivziy-, 
This etymology is founded upon a notion that the ATnazons 
were a community of women, who killed every man, with 
whom they had any commerce, and yet fubfifted as a people 
for ages. I fhall hereafter fpcak of the nations under this 
title; for there were more than one : but all of one family ;. 
all colonies from Egypt. The title above was given them 
from their worfhip : for Oiorpata, or, as fomc MSS. have it, 
Aor-pata, is the fame as ^^ Petuh Or, the prieft of Orus ; 
or in a more lax fenfe, the votaries of that God. They were 
Kvo^OKTOVOi ; for they facrificed all ftrangers, whom fortune 
brought upon their coaft : fo that the whole Euxine fea^ 
upon which they lived, was rendered infamous from their 
cruelty : but they did not take their name from this oir- 

*^ Alfo in Afampatx, a nation upon the Masotis. Plin. L- 6. c. 7. 
*' L. 1 1, p. 794. He fpeaks of ic as a proper name ; but it was certainly 
a title and term of office. 

*"* Herodotus. L. 4. c. no. 
*5 Aor, is -JW of the Chaldeans. 



One of the Egyptian Deities was named Neith, and 
Neit ; and analogous to the above her priefts were ftiled 
" Pataneit. They were alio named Sonchin, which ficrni^ 
fies a prieft of the Sun : for Son, San, Zan, are of the fame 
fignification ; and Son-Chin is Za>'o; h^svg. Proclus fays, 
that it was the title of the priefts ; and particularly of him^. 
who preiided in the college of Neith at Sais.. 

BEL and B A A L. 

Bel, Bal, or Baal, is a Babylonlfh title, appropriated to the 
Sun; and made ufe of by the Amonians in other countries; 
particularly in Syria and Canaan. It fignified Kv^iog, or 
Lord, and is often found compounded with other terms ; 
as in Bel-Adon, Bclorus, Bal-hamon, Belochus, Bel-on ; 
(from which laft came Bellona of the Romans) and alfo 
Baal-fhamaim, the great Lord of the Heavens. This was a 
title given by the Syrians to the Sun : ^^ Tov 'UXiov BssAcrajU-Jii/ 
ndK^Tiy, £^1 Tra^a ^qlvi^i Kv^iog Ov^ava, Zsvg k itaf 
'EKM<ru. We may from hence decipher the name of the 
Sun, as mentioned before by Damafcius, who ftiles that 

*^ Proclus in Timasum. 11. i.p. 31^ 

See labioniky. L. i. c. 3. p. 57. 

Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. ^^6. 

It is remarkable chat the worflnpers of Wifftnou or Viftnou in India are now- 
called Petacares, and are diftinguifhed by three red lines on their foreheads. The 
priefts of Brama have the fame title, Pctac Arez, the pncfts of Arez or the Sun. 
Luc£ Viecampii Hid. MifTion. Evangel, in India, 747. c. 10. §3. p, i^y. 

*7 Eufebius. Pr^p. Evang. L. i. c. xo. p. 34. 



Deity Bolathes : '^^ ^omasi mi ^v^oi rov K^om HA, mi 
BriKy mi BoKx&riv STropofXcci^ao-i. What he terms Bolathes is a 
compound of Bal-Ath, or Bal-Athis ; the fame as Atis, and 
Atifh of Lydia, Perfis, and other countries. Philo BibHus 
interprets it Zeus : Damafcius fuppofed it to mean Cronus ; 
as did likewife Theophilus : ^^ Enoi ^sv (Ts^oi/Tou tqv K^o- 
voVy KOLi rarov olvtov QVOfJia^aiTi Bj^A, koli BaA, ^jlolKi^ix, 
01 ommrsq ret OLVOiroT^iitoL K?^i[Ji,a,rci, This diverfity amounts 
to Httle : for I fhall hereafter {hew, that all the Grecian 
names of Deities, however appropriated, were originally 
titles of one God, and related to the Sun. 


Keren fignifies in its original fenfe a horn : but was al- 
ways efteemed an emblem of power ; and made ufe of as a 
title of fovereignty, and puifTance. Hence it is common with 
the facred writers to fay ^° My ho7-n Jhalt thou exalt — ^' his 
horn pall be exalted with ho?tour — ^* the horn of Moab is 
ait off : and the Evangelift " fpeaks of Chrift as a horn offal^ 

6s Damafcius apud Photium. c. 243. 

Belus primus Rex Aflyriorum, quos conftat Saturnum (quern eundem et So- 
km dicunt) Junonemque coluifle. Scrvius in Virg. ^neid. L. i. 

'9 Theoph. ad Antolycum, L. 3. p. 399. M>j >«'«o-JcorTf?, /-oire Tis i^iv * 
Kfovof, \JOfiTi Tii e^iv B«Aof. Idem, 

'• Pfalm 92. V. 10. 

■" Pfalm 1 12. V. 9. 

■'* Jeremiah, c. 48. v. 25. 

'^' Luke, c, I. V. 69. 



fjatkn to the world. The Greeks often changed the nu final 
into figma : hence from keren they formed K^<X';^ KS^xrog i 
and from thence they deduced the words K^oiTogy K^OLTS^og : 
alfo Koi^avog, k^B'j^v^ and m^Yivov, all relating to ftrcngth and 
eminence. Gerenius, Vs^r^vioc^ applied to Neftor, is an Amo- 
nian term, and fignifies a princely and venerable perfon.. 
The Egyptian Crane for its great fervices was held in hio-h 
honour, being facrcd to the God of light, Abis (t:'K 3s) or as 
the Greeks expreffed it, Ibis ; from whence the name was 
given. It was alfo called Keren and Kerenus ; by the Greeks 
Ts^OLPog, the noble bird, being moft honoured of any. It was 
a title of the Sun himfelf : for Apollo v/as named Craneiis, 
and ^* Carneiis ; which was no other than Cereneiis, the fu- 
preme Deity, the Lord of light : and his feftival ftiled Car- 
nea, Koc^usici, was an abbreviation of Ks^s^s/a, Cerenea. 
The priefl: of Cybele in Phrygia was ftiled Carnas ; which 
was a title of the Deity, whom he ferved ;_ and of the fame 
purport as Carneus above. . 

O P H. 

Oph fignifies a ferpent, and was pronounced at times and 
exprefied, Ope, '^ Oupis, Opis, Ops j and by Cicero '^ Upis. 

''* Paufanias. L. 3. p. 239. 

Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo. V. 71. He mentions Minerva Kf^ra/a, Cra- 
nasa. L. 10. p. 886. 

Among the Romans this title in later times was exprefled Granus and Gran- 
nus: hence in Gruter Infcriptions, P. 37. n. 10, 11, 12, APOLLINI GRANNO. 

■" The Dorians exprefled it Outt;:. Pal«phatus. P. 78, 

'^ Cicero de Nat. Deor. L. 3. 23. 



It was an emblem of the Sun ; and alfo of time and eter- 
nity. It was v/orfhiped as a Deity, and efleemed the fame 
as Oliris ; by others the fame as Vulcan. Vulcanus ^gyp- 
tiis Opas didus efl:, eodem Cicerone " telle. A ferpent was 
alfo in the Egyptian language ftiled Ob, or Aub : though 
it may po/libly be only a variation of the term above. We 
are told by Orus Apollo, that the bafilifk or royal ferpent 
was named Oubaios : • ^ Ov(^cfAog, o sg-ip 'EXKYing-i V>a.7i7\iT}io;. 
It fhould have been rendered Ov^o;^ Oubus ; for Ov^onog 
is a pofleilivc, and not a proper name. The Deity fo deno- 
minated was efteemed prophetic : and his temples were ap- 
plied' to as oracular. This idolatry is alluded to by Mofes,^' 
who in the name of God forbids the Ifraelites ever to en- 
quire of thofe demons, Ob and Ideone : which fliews that it 
was of great antiquity. The fymbolical worfliip of the fer- 
pent was in the firft ages very extenlive ; and was introduced 
into all the myfleries, wherever celebrated : ^° Yiy.PCL ircf^ri 
■7-jJiJ )/Ofj,i(^'jlJ.Bvm TtOL^ vyjv Qb^'J O^IS (Tv^^o}^'jy y.sya zca 

'■^ Huetii Demonllratio. P. Sj. 

''' Orus Apollo, c. I. p. 2. 

Some have by miftike altered this to Guoaiov. 

■*'' Leviticus, c. 20. v. 27. 

Ueiiteronomy. c, 18. v. 11. TranQated a charmer, or accnfulter zvllh fa.T.iUar 
fpirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. 

Tunc etiam ortJE funt opiniones, et fententis ; et inventi funt cxeis augures, 
et reagni divinatores, et fortilegi, et inquirentes Ob et lideoni, et requirentes 
mortuos. Selden de Diis Syris. Synt. i. c. 2. p. 48. from M. Maimonides in more 

•• Juftin Martyr's fecond Apology. P. 6. 

Of ferpent worfliip fee Eufebius. P. E. L. i. c. 10. p. 40, 41. And Clementis 
Alexand. Cohort. P. 24. Arnobius. L. 5. ./Elian. L. 10. c, 31. of the Afp. 

Herodotus. L, 2. c. 74. 



y,V5-YjPiov CiVCty^X(peTa.i. It is remarkable, that wherever the 
Amonians founded any places of worfhip, and introduced 
their rites, there was generally fome flory of a ferpent. 
There v^as a legend about a ferpent at Colchis, at Thebes, 
and at Delphi : likewife in other places. The Greeks called 
Apollo himfelf Python, which is the fame as Opis, Oupis, 
and Oub. The woman at Endor, who had a familiar fpi- 
rir, is called ^' 3i», Oub, or Ob ; and it is interpreted Py- 
thonifla. The place, where fhe refided, feems to have been 
named from the worfhip there inftituted : for Endor is com- 
pounded of En-Ador, and lignifies Pons Pythonis, the foun- 
tain of light, the oracle of the God Ador. This oracle was 
probably founded by the Canaanites; and had nev^r been 
totally fuppreil'ed. In ancient times they had no images in 
their temples, but in lieu of them ufed conical flones or 
pillars, called BaiTvKioc ^ under which reprefentation this De- 
ity was often worfhipped. His pillar was alfo called ^' Abad- 
dir, which fhould be exprefied Abadir, being a compound 
of Ab, 31K, and Adir ; and means the ferpent Deity, Addir, 
the fame as Adorus. It was alfo compounded with On, a 
title of the fame Deity : and Kircher fays that Obion is ftill 
among the people of Egypt the name of a ferpent. j^Sy Ob 
Mofi, Python, vox ab ii^gyptiis fumpta ; quibus Obion ho- 

*' I Samuel, c. 28. v. 7. 31H rhyi- 

^' his called Abdir, Abadir, and Abaddir by Prifcian. He fuppofes the ftone 
Abaddir to have been that which Saturn Iwallov/ed inftead of his fon by Rhea. 
Abdir, et Abadir BaiTt^Ao'-. 1. i. and in another part, Abadir Deus tit. Dicitur 
et hoc nomine lapis ille, quern Saturnus dicitur devorafie pro Jove, quem Grasci 
BainvAcv vocant. 1. 2. 

H dicque 


dieque ferpentem fonat. Ita *' Kircher. The fame alfo occurs 
in the Coptic lexicon. The worfhip of the ferpent was 
very ancient among the Greeks ; and is faid to have been 
introduced by Cecrops. ^^ Phiiochorus Saturno, et Opi, pri- 
mam in Attica ftatuifle aram Cecropem dicit. But though 
fome reprefent Opis as a diftind Deity ; yet ^^ others intro- 
duce the term rather as a title, and refer it to more Deities 
than one: Callimachus, who expreffes it Oupis; confers it 
upon Diana, and plays upon the facred term : 
" OvTTi, aj'acro"' svooiri. 
It is often compounded with Chan ; and exprefled Cano- 
pus, Canophis, Canuphis, Cnuphis, Cneph : it is alfo other- 
wife combined ; as in Ophon, Ophion, Oropus, Orobus, Ino- 
pus, Afopus, Elopus, Ophitis, Onuphis, Ophel. From Ca- 
neph the Grecians formed Cyniphius, which they ufed for 
an epithet to Ammon : 

*^ Non hie Cyniphius canetur Ammon, 
Mitratum caput elevans arenis. 

*' Bochart. Hierozoicon. 1. i. c. 3. p. 22. 

*■♦ Macrobius. Saturnalia. 1. i. c. 10. p. 162. 

«' The father of one of the goddeffes, called Diana, had the name of Uph. 
Cicero de Natura Deorum. 1. 3. 23. 

It was conferred upon Diana herfelf, alfo upon Cybele, Rhea, Vefta, Terra, 
Juno. Vulcan was called Opas. Cicero de Nat. Deor. 1. 3. 

Ops was elleemed the Goddefs of riches : alfo the Deity of fire: 

CItti civaaaa, irvpa. tt^oQuoo?, ttu^ ti'^o Toyv wocuv. Hefychius.^ 

Tm A^-Tifxiv ©pastes BtvS'etciv, K^nres S'i Aiktuvocv^ Aa-x.iS'xiy.ovm S'i Ouirtv 
(KccAHai.) Palsphatus. c 32. p. 78. 

8' Callimachus. Hymn to Diana, v. 204. 

^■' Sidonius ApoUinaris. Carm. 9. v. 190. 



On the fubjed of ferpent worlliip I fhall fpeak more at 
large in a particular treatife. 

A I N. 

Ain, An, En, for fo it is at times exprefiedj Signifies a foun- 
tain ; and was prefixed to the names of many places, which 
were fituated near fountains, and were denominated from 
them. In Canaan near the fords of Jordan were fome ce« 
lebrated waters ; which from their name appear to have 
been of old facred to the Sun. The name of the place was 
^^ iEnon, or the fountain of the Sun ; the fame, to which 
people reforted to be baptized by John : not from an opi- 
nion, that there was any fandity in the waters; for that 
notion had been for ages obliterated ; and the name was 
given by the Canaanite : but ^' yohi baptized in ^no7i near 
to Salim^ becatife there was much water there : and they came^ 
and were baptized. Many places were ftiled An~ait, An-abor, 
Anabouria, Anathon, Anopus, Anorus. Some of thefe were 
fo called from their fituation : others from the worfhip 
there eftablidied. The Egyptians had many fubordinatc 
Deities, which they efteemed fo many emanations, ctTTOi^pQicciy 
from their chief God; as we learn from lamblichus, Pfellus, 
and Porphyry. Thefe derivatives they called '^° fountains, 


*® Aivuv syjvi m ^oiKufj.. Eufebiiis de locorum nominibus in facru Script. 
Ain On, fons folis. Salem is not from Salem, peace, but troai Sal, the Sun, 
the Sol of the Latines. Salim, Aqua; folis ; alfo Aquae falfs. 

*' St. John. c. 3. V. 23. 

'• Pythagoras ufed to fwear by TirpxxTw vrscycti' cturx'-d ■pveriv;. See Stanley 
of the Chaldaic Philofophy, and Selden de Diis Syris. Synt. 2. c. i. p. 135. 

H2 Kxi 


and fuppofed them to be derived from the Sun ; whom they 
looked upon as the fource of all things. Hence they 
formed Ath-El, and Ath-Ain, the '' Athela, and Athena 
of the Greeks. Thefe were two titles appropriated to the 
fame perfonage, Divine Wifdom ; who was fuppofed to 
fpring from the head of her father. Wherever the Amo- 
nian religion was propagated, names of this fort will oc- 
cur ; being originally given from the mode of worfhip 
ellablifhed ''. Hence fo many places ftiled Anthedon, An- 
themusj Ain-{heme(h, and the like. The nymph OEnone 
was in reality a fountain, Ain-On, in Phrygia ; and facred 
to the fame Deity : and agreeably to this fhe is faid 
to have been the daughter of the river '^ Cebrenus. The 
ifland -^Egina was named ^^ OEnone, and OEnopia, probably 
from its worfhip. As Divine Wifdom was fometimes ex- 
preffed Aith-Ain, or AoYiva. j fo at other times the terms were 
reverfed, and a Deity conftituted called An-Ait. Temples 
to this Goddefs occur at Ecbatana in Media : alfo in Mefo- 
potamia, Perfis, Armenia, and Cappadocia ; where the rites 
of fire were particularly obferved. She was not unknown 

Ka( 7r>!7 )) 7r«7 wi', -koci Trnyoov irei^cLi diraauv. Oracle concerning the Deity, 
quoted in notes to lamblichus. P. 299. 

'' Athenagor. Lcgatio. P. 293. 

'' The Amonians dealt largely in fountain worfhip : that is in the adoration 
of fubordinate demons, which they fuppofed to be emanations and derivatives 
from their chief Deity. They called them Zones, Intelligences, Fountains, &c. 
St-e Pfellus and Stanley upon the Chaldaic Philofophy. P. 17. c. 3,. 

See Prcclus on the Theology of Plato. L. 5. c. 34. p- 315. 

" Edita de magno flumine Nympha fui. Ovid. Epift. 5. v. 10. 

Some make her the daughter of Cebrenus ; others of the river Xanthus. 

'IPlin.N. H. L. 4. c. 12. 



among the ancient Canaanites ; for a temple called Beth- 
Anath is mentioned in the book of " Jofhua. Of thefe tem- 
ples, and the Puratheia there eflablifhedj accounts may be 
feen in many parts of Strabo. 

I have mentioned, that all fprings and baths were facred 
to the Sun : on which account they were called Bal-ain ; the 
fountains of the great Lord of Heaven ; from whence the 
Greeks formed BoLKctysid : and the Romans Balnea. The 
fouthern feas abounded formerly with large whales : and it 
is well known, that they have apertures near their noflrils, 
through which they fpout water in a large ftream, and to a 
great height. Hence they too had the name of Bal Ain, or 
Balasnas. For every thing uncommon was by the Amonians 
confecrated to the Deity, and denominated from his titles. 
This is very apparent in all the animals of Egypt. 

The term Ov^cLVog^ Ouranus, related properly to the orb 
of the Sun ; but was in aftertimes made to comprehend the 
whole expanfe of the heavens. It is compounded of Our- 
ain, the fountain of Orus; and {hews to what it alludes, by 
its etymology. JVIany places were named Ees-ain, the re- 
verfe of Ain ees, or Hanes : and others farther com- 
pounded Am-ees-ain, and Cam-ees-ain, rendered Amifene, 
and Camifene : the natural hiftories of which places will ge- 
nerally authenticate the etymology. The Amonians fettled 
upon the Tiber: and the ancient town Janiculum was 
originally named »* Camefe ; and the region about it Ca- 
mefene : undoubtedly from the fountain Camefene, called 

" Jofhua. c. -. 19. V. 38. 

'' Macrobius. Sat. 1. i. c. 7. p. 151. 



afterward Anna Perenna, whofe waters ran into the facred 
pool 9^ Numicius : and whofe priefts were the Camoens. 

I am fenfible, that fome very learned men do not quite 
approve of terms being thus reverfed, as I have exhibited 
them in Ath-ain, Bal-ain, Our-ain, Cam-ain, and in other 
examples : and it is efteemed a deviation from the common 
ufage in the Hebrew language ; where the governing word, 
as it is termed, always comes firft. Of this there are 
many inftances ; fuch as Ain-Shemefh, Ain-Gaddi, Ain- 
Mifhpat, Ain-Rogel, &c. alfo Beth-El, Beth-Dagon, Beth- 
Aven, Beth-Oron. But, with fubmiflion, this does notaffedthe 
etymologies, which I have laid before the Reader : for I do 
not deduce them from the Hebrew. And though there 
may have been of old a great fimilitude between that lan- 
guage, and thofe of Egypt, Cutha, and Canaan : yet they 
were all different tongues. There was once but one lan- 
guage among the fons of men '^ Upon the difperfion of 
mankind, this was branched out into dialects ; and thofe 
again were fubdivided : all which varied every age ; not 
only in refped: to one another ; but each language differed 
from its felf more and more continually. It is therefore im- 
poffible to reduce the whole of thefe to the mode, and 
ftandard of any one. Beiides, the terms, of which I fuppofe 

'■' Fontis ftagna Numici. Virg. 1. 7. 150. 

Egeria eft, qux prjebet aquas, Dea grata Camcenis. Ovid. See Plutarch. 


'* It is my opinion that there are two events recorded by Moles, Gen. c. 10. 

throughout; and Gen. c. 11. v. 8. 9. One was a regular migration of mankind 
in general to the countries allotted to them : the other was a difperfion which re- 
lated to fome particulars. Of this hereafter 1 fhall treat at large. 

2 thefe 


thefe names to be formed, are not properly in regimine ; but 
are ufed adjedively, as is common almoft in every language. 
We meet in the Grecian writings with '' 'EAA>]!/a i^^cLToVy 'EA- 
AaJ^a ^iccKBKTov, £(r^B<Tsv 'EAAaJa (p(t:]/r,v. Alfo J'acrov XizsKav 
yvuciizcc [xa^ov, U.s^(rYiv f^aro;/, vcivririv ^^o^ov, XKvdrii/ oiulqv. 
Why may we not fuppofe, that the fame ufage prevailed in 
Cutha, and in Egypt ? And this pra6lice was not entirely fo- 
reign to the Hebrews. We read indeed of Beer-flieba Beer- 
lahoiroi, &c. but we alfo read of '°° Baalath-Beer, exadly fi- 
milar to the inftances, which I have produced. We meet in 
the facred writings with Beth-El, and Beth-Dagon : but we 
fometimes find the governing word poftponed, as in Elizabeth, 
or temple of Eliza. It was a Canaanitifli ' name, the fame as 
Elifa, Eleufa, Elafa of Greece and other countries, k was a 
compound of El-Ees, and related to the God of lio-ht, as I 
have before ihewn. It was made a feminine in aftertimes : and 

" Nao-o;- S'JceAar. Theocritus. Idyll, i. v. 124. 

Tuvaixa. Tg ^nactro [jlx^ov. Homer. H. n. v, 58. 
'Xxv^yjv e? oif^ov, c£a,Tov eis f^n/x/af. j^fchyl. Promech. v. 2. 

To give inftances in our own language would be needlefs. 

""^ Joflnia. c. 19. V. 8. Baalath-Beer, the well or fpring of Baal-Ath.' 

' The Jews often took foreign names ; of which we have inftances in Gnias, 
Hyrcanus, Barptolemasus, &c. 

Solinus, c. 25. mentions an altar found in North-Britain, infcribed to U ly (Tes : 
but Goropius Becanus very truly fuppofes it to have been dedicated to the God- 
defs Eliflj, or Eliza. 

Ab ElilTa Tyria, quam quidam Dido?.utumant. Velleius Paterculus. L. i, 

Elifa, quamdiu Carthago invifta fair, pro Dea culta eft. J.uftin. L. i3. c. 6. 

The worfhip of Elifa was carried to Carthage from Canaan and Syria : in 
thefe parts fhe was firft worfhiped ; and her temple from that worlhip was 
called Eliza Beth. 



was a name afiumed by women of the country ftiled Phe- 
nicia, as well as by thofe of Carthage. Hence Dido has this 
as a fccondary appellation ; and mention is made by 'the Poet 
of Dii morientis" Elizs, though it was properly the name of 
a "Deity. It may be faid, that thefe names are foreign to the 
Hebrews, though fometimes adopted by them : and I readily 
errant it ; for it is the whole, that I contend for. All, that I 
v/ant to have allowed, is, that different nations in their feveral 
tongues had different modes of collocation and expreflion : 
becaufe I think it as unreafonable to determine the ufage 
of the Egyptians and ancient Chaldeans by the method of 
the Hebrews, as it would be to reduce the Hebrew to the 
mode and ftandard of Egypt. What in Jofhua, c. 19. v. 8. 
is Baaleth, is, i Kings, c. 16. v. 31. Eth-baal : fo that even 
in the facred writings we find terms of this fort tranfpofed. 
But in refped to foreign names, efpecially of places, there are 
numberlcfs inftances fimilar to thofe, which I have produced. 
They occur in all hiftories of countries both ancient and 
modern. We read of Pharbeth, and Phainobeth in Egypt : 
:of Themifkir, and ^ Tigranocerta, which fignifies Tigranes' 


* Sarbeth or Sarabeth is of the fame analogy, being put for Beth-Sar or Sara, 
oixoi nvofj, or y.'jpioc-^n i as a feminine, anfvvering to the houfe of our Lady. 
Ato oosi 2afa=«6a. Epiphanius de vitis Prophetar. P. 248. See Relandi Pa- 
lEEftina. P. 984. 

' Damafcus is called by the natives Damafec, and Damakir. The latter fig- 
nifies the town of Dama or Adama : by which is not meant Adam, the father 
of mankind; but Ad Ham, the Lord Ham, the father of the Amonians. Abul- 
feda ftiles Damafcus, Damakir. P. 15. Sec orShec is a prince. Damafec fignifies 
principis Ad-Amae (Civitas). From a notion however of Adama fignifying Adam, 
S. ftory prevailed that he was buried at Damafcus. This is fo far ufeful, as to 

3 Ihew 

RADIO A L S. 57 

city, in Cappadocia, and Araienia. Among the eaftern na- 
tions at this day the names of the principal places are of 
this manner of conftruction ; fuch as Pharfabad, [ehenabad, 
Amenabad : fuch alfo Indoftan, Pharfiftan, Moguliftan, with 
many others. Hence I hope, if I meet with a temple or 
city, called Hanes, or Urania, I may venture to derive it 
from An-Ees, or Ur-Ain, however the terms may be dif- 
pofed. And I may proceed farther to fuppofe that it was de- 
nominated the fountain of light ; as I am able to fupport 
my etymology by the hiflory of the place. Or if I fliould 
meet with a country called Azania, I may in like manner 
derive it from Az-An, a fountain facred to the Sun ; from 
whence the country was named. And I may fuppofe this 
fountain to have been facred to the God of light on account 
of fome real, or imputed, quality in its waters: efpecially if I 
have any hiftory to fupport my etymology. As there was a 
Tegion named Azania in Arcadia, the reader may judge of my 

fliew that Damafec was an abbreviation of Adamafec, and Damakir of Ada- 

Alfo KvpscrjcccpTtx, the city of Kuros, the Sun. Stephanus Byzant. Manakarta, 
AccS oxaoTcc, 'ZaS' See Bochart. notas in Steph. Byzantinum. P. 823. 

Vologefakerta. Plin. L. 6. p. 332. 

There was No-Amon in Egypt, and Amon-No. Giiebr-abad. Hyde. P. ^Gj. 
Ghavrabad. P. 364. Atefh-chana, domus ignis. P. '^c^g. An-Ath, whofe temple 
in Canaan was ftiled Beth-Anath, is found often reverfed, and fiiled Ath-An ; 
■whence came Athana, and AG:jra of the Greeks. Anath fignificd the fountain 
of light, and was abbreviated Nath and Neith by the Egyptians. They wor- 
fhiped under this title a divine emanation, fuppofed to be the Goddefs of Wif- 
dom. The Athenians, who came from Sais in Egypt, were denominated froni 
this Deity, whom they exprefled Ath-An, or AO;;)'/), after the Ionian manner. 
T»5 TToAews (SaiVwr) Qioi a^^nyci f^rn', Aiyvimq-i p.iv TUv^iJix NjjiB, 'EK7\.-n~ 
pttp-i Se, 075 gKfirwr ?'.oyoi, AO/jjo.. Plato in I'imaso. P. 21. 

Vol. I. I in'er- 


interpretation by the account given of the excellence of its 
waters. '^A^awa, [Jis^og Trig A^KaS'iag — sg-i K^r\vn TYjg At^avioLg^ ^ 
Tag y&vd'cL^eviig ra v^arog ttoisi ^,Tih rriv o(TiJLY,y tb qiv^ olvb- 
^s^di. Hanes in ^ Egypt was the reverfe of Azan ; formed 
however of the fame terms, and of the fame purport precifely. 
In refped: to this city it may be objedled, that if it had 
fignified, what I fuppofe, we fhould have found it in the 
facred text, inftead of Din, exprefled ty« fy. If this were true, 
we muft be obHged to fuppofe, whenever the facred writers 
found a foreign name, compofed of terms not unHke fome 
in their own language, that they formed them according to 
their own mode of expreflion, and reduced them to the He- 
brew orthography. In fhort, if the etymology of an Egyptian 
or Syriac name could be poflibly obtained in their own lan- 
guage, that they had always an eye to fuch etymology ; and 
rendered the word precifely according to the Hebrew manner 
of writing and pronunciation. But this cannot be allowed. 
We cannot fuppofe the facred writers to have been fo unne- 
cefTarily fcrupulous. As far as I can judge, they appear to 
have adled in a manner quite the reverfe. They feem to 
have laid down an excellent rule, which would have been 
attended with great utility, had it been univerfally followed : 
this was, of exhibiting every name, as it was exprefled at 
the time when they wrote, and by the people, to whom they 
addrefled themfelves. If this people through length of time 
did not keep up to the original etymology in their pronun- 

*Stephanus Byzantinus. 

* Ifaiah. c. 30. v. 4. 

Of Hanes I fhall hereafter treat more fully. 



elation, it was unnecefl^ry for the flicred Penmen to main- 
tain it in their writings. They wrote to be imderftood : 
hut would have defeated their own purpofe, if they had 
called things by names, which no longer exifted. If length 
of time had introduced any variations, thofe changes were at- 
tended to : what was called Shechem by Mofes, is termed 
* Xip(^a^ or Si^X^^ ^y ^^^ ' Apoftle. 

A P H A, APHTHA, P T 11 A, P T H A S. 

Fire, and likewife the God of fire, was by the Amonians 
ftiled Apthas, and Aptha ; contraded, and by different au- 
thors expreffed, Apha, Pthas, and Ptha. He is by Suidas fup- 
pofed to have been the Vulcan of Memphis. Oi^aj, o H(pcii- 
sog Trance ^ Ms[M(pira,ig, And Cicero makes him the fame 

^ Genefis. c. 34. v, 4. John. c. 4. v. 5. It is called 'Xy,yojp by Syncelkis. P. 100. 

■' The fame term is not always uniformly expreffed even by the facred writers. 
They vary at different times both in refpeft to names of places and of men. 
What is in Numbers, c. 13. 8. V^IT), Hofhea, is in Jodiua. c. 1. v. i. VK'ln* 
Jehofhua : and in the Ads, c. y. v. 45, Jefus, lijo-n^- Balaam the fon of Beor, 
Numbers, c. 22. v. 5. is called the fon of Bofor, 2 Peter, c. 2. v. 15. 

Thus Quirinus or Quirinius is ftiled Curenius, Luke. c. 2. v. 2. and Laza- 
rus put for Eleafar, Luke. c. 16. v. 20. and John. c. 11. v. 2. 

Baal-Zebub, EfgA^eCaA, Matthew, c. 12. v. 24. So Bethbara in Judges, 
c. 7. V. 24.. is Bethabara of John. c. i. v. 28. 

Almug, a fpecies of Cedar mentioned i Kings, c. 10. v. 11. is ftiled Algum 
in 2 Chron. c. 2. v. 8. The city Chala of Mofes, Gen. c. 10. v. j 2. is Calne of 
Ifaiah. Is not Chalno as Carchemijl:) ? c. 10. v. 9. Jerubbaal of Judcres is Jerub- 
befeth, 2 Samuel c. 11. v. 21. Ram, i Chron. c. 2. v. 10. is Aram in Matth. 
c. I. V. 3. Ruth. c. 4. V. 19. Hefron begat Ram. 

Percuftit Dominus Philiftim a Gcbah ad Gazar. 2 Sam. c. 5. v. 25. 

Percuffit Deus Philiftim a Gibeon ad Gazarah. i Chron. c. 14. v. 16. 

^ lamblichus fays the fame : 'EXAwec. Jg m 'h(pxi~ov ^irocXccu^ccvBai rov ^Sx> 

lamblichus de Myfter. Se£t. 8. c. 3. p. 159. 

I 2 Deity 


Deity of the Romans. ^ Secundus, (Vulcanus) Nilo natii% 
Phas, ut iEgyptii appellant, quern cuflodem effe iEgypti 
volunt. The author of the Clementines defcribes him much 
to the fame purpofe. '° AiyvTrTioi h o/xojw? — to ttv^ i^m 
^L(X.X£KTCf)^^ci SKct7^s(rav, e^^YiVSVBTOLi 'iri(poLig'o;. " Huetius 
takes notice of the different ways, in which this name is 
expreiled : Vulcano Pthas, et Apthas nomen fuiffe fcribit 
Suidas. Narrat Eufebius Ptha ^Egyptiorum eundem efle 
ac Vulcanum Grascorum : Patrem illi fuiffe Cnef, re- 
rum opificem. However the Greeks and Romans may have 
appropriated the term, it was properly a title of '^ Amon :: 
and lamblichus acknowledges as much in a '^ chapter, 
wherein he particularly treats of him. But at the fame time 
i't related to fire : and every place, in the compoHtion of 
whofe name it is found, will have a reference to that e]e-- 
ment, or to its worfhip.. 

' Cicero de Natura Deorum. L. 3. c. 22. 

'° Auttor Clementinorum. Horn. 9. P. 687. Gotelerii. 

" Huetii Demonftratio Evan. P. 8S. 

'* It is fometimes compounded, and rendered Am-Apha; after the. Ionic man- 
ner exprcficd HjM.«(f«-, by lamblichus H^«(p. Kstr' aXXiw St ra^iy tt^otccttsi 
Gg-sv H,a/)(p. Seit. 8. c. 3. p. 158. 

Hemeph was properly Ham-Apha, the God of fire. 

It was alfo rendered Gamephis, K<Xf^v<pts and Ka/oxp)), from Cam^-Apha. Sto- 
bxus from Hermes. 

By Afclepiades, Kafji'/j^i;, or. KjM«(p(«. KafJi.r)(piv rov-^Xtcv etvai (py^atv clutov toV 
J^WTe rov vav tov cowrar. Apud Damafcium in vita Ifidori. Photius. 

-•3 lamblichus. Seft. 8. c. 3. p. 159. 

Hence aTrrw, incendo : alfo Aptha, an inflammation, a fiery eruption, 

A(f8a, n iv q-ofJiccTi eAx&icris. Hefychius. 

Acp^x, AiyiTcii e^c(.iB}^fj(.oc,i-ciiv eiSoi x/\. Etymolog. Mag. 



There was a place called Aphytis in Thrace, where the 
Amonians fettled very early ; and where was an oracular 
temple of Amon. "^ A(p:;T/], j^ Acpvrig^ 7ro?jg ir^og ty\ IlaA- 
7KW(i Q^ctxiTjg, dTTO A(pvog rii/o; syY^^ia. Etr^s Js y\ 7rQ7ag ^olv 
r.eioy th Aajaa)fO?. y^phyte, or Aphytis, is a city hard by Pal- 
km ill 'Thrace, fo called from one Aphys, a native of thofe. 
parts. This city had once an oracular temple of Am??ion. 

It flood in the very country, called Phlegra, where the 
worfhip of fire once particularly prevailed. There was a- 
city Aphace ; alfo a temple of that name in Mount Libanus, 
facred to Venus Aphacitis, and denominated from. fire. Here 
too was an oracle : for mpfl temples of old were fuppofed to 
be oracular. It is.defcribed by Zofimus, who fays, '^ that near 
the temple was a large lake made by art, in fhape like a ftar. 
About the building, and in the neighbouring ground, there 
at times appeared a fire of a globular figure, which burned 
like a lamp. It. generally fhewed itfelf at times, when a 
celebrity was held : and he adds, that even in his time it 
was frequently feen. 

All the Deities of Greece were aTOcrTariOtara, or derivatives, 
formed from the titles of Amon, and Orus, the Sun. Many 
of them betray this in their fecondary appellations : for we 
read not only of Vulcan, but of Diana being called ^^ Apha, 
and Aphaea; and in Crete Di6lynna had the fame name : He- 
fychius obferves, A^a<a, r\ Aiktvpm, Caftor and Pollux were. 

'* Stephaniis Byzantinus 
" Zofimus. L. I. p. 53. 
See Etymolog. Magnum, Apha> 
•** P.aulanias, L. 2. p. j8o. 



filled '^ Acpsr^oi : and Mars '^ Aphseus was worfliiped in 
Arcadia. Apollo was likewife called '' Acpj^Tw^ : but it was 
properly the place of worfhip ; though Hefychius otherwife 
explains it. Aphetor was what the ancient Dorians exprefied 
Apha-Tor, a "fire tower or Prutaneum ; the fame, which the 
Latines called of old Pur-tor, of the like fignification. This 
in aftertimes was rendered Pr^torium : and the chief per-^ 
fonsj who officiated, Pr^tores. They were originally priefls 
of fire ; and for that reafon were called " Aphetse : and 
every Prastor had a brazier of live coals carried before him, 
as a badge of his office. 


Aft, Afta, Efla, fignified fire, and alfo the Deity of that 
element. The Greeks exprefled it Efia, and the Romans, 
Vefta. Plutarch, fpeaking of the facred water of Numicius 
being difcovered by the prieftefTes of this Deity, calls them 
the virgins of *'" Heflia. Efta and Afta fignified alfo a fa- 

'7 Paufanias. L. 3. p. 242. fiippofed to be named from races. 

'^ Paufanias. L. 8. p. 692. or A((:veio?, as feme read it. 

In like manner Acf'SaAa zcci A'pSa.ix, EKocm. Stephanus Byzantinus. 

'' CjEfms Rhodig. L. 8. c. 16. A^/jtw^, 6 ev roa AeAqioa Qeoi, Auflor An- 
tiquus apud Lilium Gyraldum. Syntag. 7. 

*° Thefe towers were oracular temples ; and Hefychius exprefly fays, A^pn- 
Topiia, fxavTeicc. AtpJiro^c?, tt po<p;niuovT ai. Hefychius. AfnTipoi A^roAAcDJ'os. 
Iliad. L. A. v. 404. n^otpinsvovroi xcci fJiarTeuijuiSvy. Schol. ibid. 

*' See Hoffman. Lexic. / 

" Plutarch. Nurna. Vol. i. p. 68. 'TSoyo lecov aToS'ei^xt tccis 'Eq'iata^ 

3 Nec 


cred hearth. In early times every diftridl was divided ac- 
cording to the number of the facred hearths ; each of which 
conftituted a community, or parifli. They were in different 
parts ftiled Puratheia, Empureia, Prutaneia, and Pretoria : 
alfo ^5 Phratriai, and Apaturia : but the moft common name 
was Afta. Thefe were all places of general rendezvous for 
people of the fame community. Here were kept up per- 
petual fires : and places of this fort were made ufe of 
for courts of judicature, where the laws of the country, 
S-cp^-ai, were explained, and inforced. Hence Homer 
fpeaking of a perfon not worthy of the rights of fociety, 
calls him '^ Aip^yiTo;^, a^gp^o^, avsg-iog. 

The names of thefe buildings were given to them from 
the rites there pradifed j all which related to fire. The 
term Afta was in aftertimes by the Greeks exprefied, Ag-v, 
Aftu ; and appropriated to a city. The name of Athens 
was at firft ^^ Aftu ; and then Athene of the fame purport ; 
for Athense is a compound of Ath-En, Ignis fons ; in Vv'hich 
name there is a reference both to the guardian Goddefs of 
the city ; and alfo to the perpetual fire preferved within its 
precinds. The God of fire, Hephaiftus, was an Egyptian 

Nee tu aliud Veflam, quam vivam intellige flammam. 

Ovid. Fafti. L. 6. v. 291. 
*' 'f'paTopa?, T85 T«5 ccvTni fJ.srs'Ypi'rcci ^pacr^ia;, auyyivsa. Hefychius. 
Aira-Tii^ia.^ eo^Ti] A&iivi-aii'. Hefychiiis. Ap.uuria is compounded of Apa- 
tour, a fire-tower. Phrator is a metathefis for Phar-Tor, from Pluir, ignis. So 
Prstor and Pr£ecorium are from Pur-tor of the fame purport. The general 
name for all of them was Purgoi, ftill with a reference to fire. 
*'' Iliad. A. V. 63. 
*' Diodorus Siculus. L, i. p. 24* 



compound of Apha-Adus, rendered by the Ionian Greeks 

The *^ CamoenjE of Latium, who were fuppofed to have 
fliewn the facred foiHitain to the Veftals, were probably the 
original prieftefles, whofe bufinefs it was to fetch water for 
hiftrations from that flream. For Cani-Ain is the fountain 
of the Sun : and the Camoenffi were named from their at- 
tendance upon that Deity. The Hymns in the temples of 
this God were fung by thefe women ; hence the Camcsnte 
were made prefidents ot mufic. 

Many regions, where the rites of fire were kept up, will 
be found to have been named Aflia, Heflia, Heftijea, He- 
phjeftia ; or to have had cities fo ^^ called. This will appear 
from the hiftories of Theflaly, Lycia, Egypt, Lemnos ; a^ 
well as from other countries. 

From Afta and Efta come the terms ^flas, ^ftus, lE^uo^ 
Afy, 'Efia, 'Eciol^biv. 


Shem, and Shamefh, are terms, which relate to the hea- 
Tenl, and to the Sun, fimilar to CDit?, D'au? ti^ai^' of the He- 

*' Plutarch. Numa. P. St. 

'^^ In Syria was Afticus, or the city of Chus : and Aftacur, the city of the 
Sun. In other parts were Aftacures, and Aftaceni, nations : Aftacenus Sinus j 
Aftaboras ; Aftabeni -, Aftabus and Aftafaba in F.thiopia •, Aftalepha at Colchis ; 
Afta and Aftea in Gedrofia ; Afta in Spain, and Liguria ; Afta and regie Aftica 
in Thrace. 
Doris named Heftiaeotis. Strabo. L. 9. p. 668. 

Pindar. Ncni. Ode 11. v. i. 



brews. Many places of reputed fandity, fuch as Same, Sa- 
mos, Samothrace, Samorna, were denominated from it. 
Philo Biblius informs us, that the Syrians, and Canaanites, 
lifted up their hands to Baal-Samen, the Lord of Heaven ; 
under which title they honoured the Sun : *' Toes ysi^oiq o^s- 
ysiv si; a^dvag it^o; rov 'HXioV mrov ya^, (pyiu-iy hov svofju- 
Ephefus was a place of great fandlity : and its original name 
was ** Samorna ; which feems to be a compound of Sam- 
Oran, Coeleftis Sol, fons Lucis. We read of Samicon in 
Elis, *» •)(jj)^iov liCi^iKOV^ with a facred cavern: and of a town 
called ^° Samia, which lay above it. The word Xs(Jivog 
was a contraction of Semanos, from Sema-on ; and properly 
fignified divine and celeflial. Hence o'sijlvoli &socij (TSjCtJ/j) ko^ol. 
Ancient Syria was particularly devoted to the worfhip of the 
Sun, and of the Heavens ; and it was by the natives called 
Shems and Shams : which undoubtedly means the land of 
Shemefh, from the worfliip there followed. It retains the 
name at this '' day. In Canaan was a town and temple, 

*■' Philo apud Eufeb. Prasp. Evang. L. i. c. lo. 

Arabibus Sol Talos, TaAcs, €t Samafa. Lilius Gyrald. Syntag. 7. p. 280. 

*8 Stephanus Byzant. 

*9 Paufanias. L. 5. p. 386. 

*" Paufanias. L. 5. p. 387, 388. 

'* Abulfeda. Tab. Syrice. P. 5. Syria Scham appellata. Dividitur Syria in quin- 
que prffifefturas, quarum unicuique nomine proprio nomen, Al Scham, fcil. 
Sjri^, commune datur. Excerptum ex Ibn Ol Wardi. P. 176. 

Abulfeda fuppofes, that Syria is called Scham, quafi finiftra. It was called 
Sham for the fame reafon that it was called Syria. Xv^oi'yxo r^Ata, the fame 
as2f'f<o?. Perfas Xuon Deum vocant. Lilius Gyraldus. Syntag, i. p. 5. Supicc 
Bex,i. e. Dea Cceleftis, Syria is called at this day Souriftan. Souris from Schor, 
Sol, ^ii^tci of Greece. 

Vol. I. K called 

66 R A D I C A" L S. 

called Beth-Shemefh. What fome exprefled Shem and Sham, 
the Lubim feem to have pronounced Zam : hence the ca- 
pital of Numidia was named Zama, and Zamana, from Sha- 
men, Cceleftis. This we may learn from an infcription in 
^* Reineccius. 



33 Z A M A N ^. R E G I iE. 
Ham being the Apollo of the eaft, was worfhiped as the 
Sun ; and was alfo called Sham and Shem. This has been 
the caufe of much perplexity, and miftake : for by thefe 
means many of his pofterity have been referred to a wrong 
line, and reputed the fons of Shem ; the title of one brother 
not being diftinguifhed from the real name of the other. 
Hence the Chaldeans have by fome been adjudged to the 
line of 3+ Shem : and Amalek, together with the people of 
that name, have been placed to the fame account. His ge- 
nealogy is accordingly reprefented by Ebn Patric. He makes 
him the fon of Aad, and great grandfon of Shem. 3> Fuitque 
Aad filius Arami, filius Shemi, filius No?e. The author 

3» Reineccii Syntagma, Clafs. 6. cxxii. p. 458. 

'=i El-Samen was probably the name of the chief temple at Zama ; and com- 
prifed the titles of the Deity, whom the Numidians worlhiped. El Samen fig- 
nifies Deus Cceleftis, or Ccelorum : which El Samen was changed by the Ro- 
mans to iElia Zamana. 

'♦ 'It^sov H ii XaAJ^aoi clto t8 Sw/a y^a.-ixyovTai^ ff a xcci A^^aa/A. Syncelli 
Chronograph. P. 98. 

'' Eutychii five Ebn PatricilHift. Vol. i. p. 60. 



of the Chronicon Pafchale fpeaks of '* Chus, as of the line 
of Shem : and Theophilus in his treatife to Autolycus does 
the fame by ^'' Mizraim. Others go farther, and add Canaan 
to the ^^ number. Now thefe are confefTedly the immediate 
fons of " Ham : fo that we may underfland, who was properly 
alluded to in thefe paffages under the name of Shem. 

M A C A R. 

This was a facred title given by the Amonians to their 
Gods; which often occurs in the Orphic hymns, when any 
Deity is invoked. 

'^° KAu^f, McLKd^ TlaicLVj rirvozroi/Sj ^oi^s Avkwsv. 

Many people affumed to themfelves this title ; and were 
ftiled '''' MoLKd^sg, or Macarians : and various colonies were 
fuppofed to have been led by an imaginary perfonage Macar, 

'" Ex. TW q:'j?\.r,i T'd S/)|M. Xow oi^cfxccn, Ai^n-^. Chron. Pafchal. P. 35. 

''' 'Eieoci cTg vtoi Trs "^Tiy. — ovofxciTi Mi^pxsi/x.. Theophilus ad Autolyc. 
L. 2. p. 370. 

=^ Alii Shemi filiuin faciunt Canaanem. Relandi Paljeftina. V. i. p. -, 

-' The fons of Ham -, Culh and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. Genefis, 
c. 10. V. 6. 

Hani is the father of Canaan. Genefis. c 9- v, 18, 22. 

From Sam, and Samen, came Summus ; and Hercules Summanus ; Samabe- 
thi, Samanrei, Samonacodoma. 

"*" Orphic. Hymn. 33. 

■*' Orphic, Hymn. 7. So Ea9s Maxao, to Hercules, and to Pan. KAt;9; Maxaa, 
to Dionufus. Alfo Muxccp Nwoeys. KAu6;, Maxx^, (ruvoui-j to Corybas the Sun. 

Orphic. Argonaut, v. 42. 

K 2 



or *' Macareus. In confequence of this we find, that the- 
mod ancient name of many cities and iflands was Macra, 
Macris, and "^^ Macaria. The Grecians fuppofed the term- 
Macar to fignify happy ; whence Ma.Kx^s<; osoi was interpreted' 
smoLi^on; -. but whether this was the original purport of the 
word, may be difficult to determine. It is certain that it' 
was a favourite term : and many places of fanftity were de- 
nominated from it. Macar, as a perfon, was by fome ef- 
teemed the offspring of "^^ Lycaon : by others the fon of 
*^ iEolus. Diodorus Siculus calls him "^^ Macareus, and 
fpeaks of him as the fon of Jupiter. This term is oftea. 
found compounded, Macar-On : from whence people were 

"" Diodorus Sicului. L. 5. p. 327, 328. 

We read of Macaria in the Red Sea. Plin. L. 6. c. 29. 

To Tvpy.atov ocoi, xai Mctxctoix. Diodorus Sic. L. 3.; p. 173. 

■»■♦ Cyprus was called Maxa^^a, with a town of the fame name. Ptolem. 

X.efbos Macaria. Clariflima Lefbos ; appellata Lana, Pelafgia, Aigeira, iEthi-- 
ope, Macaria, aMacareo Jovis nepote, Plin. L. 5. c. 31. and Mela. L. 2. c. 7.. 
p. 209. 

Oao-Dv Asa^ofavot) Mccxxpc^ iSoi svroi ispyei. Homer. Iliad. H. v. 544. 

Rhodes called Macaria. Plin. L. 5. c. 31. 

A fountain in Attica was called Macaria. Paufanias. L. i. p. 79. 

Part of Thrace, Macaria. Apollbnius Rhod. L. i.v. 1115. 

A city in Arcadia, Macxctpiai. Steph. Ryzant. 

Maxa^, a king of Lefbos. Clement. Cohort. P. 27. 

An ifland of Lycia, Macara. Steph. Byzant. 

The Macares, who were the reputed fons of Deucalion, after a deluge fettled" 
in Chios, Rhodes, and other iflands. Diodorus Sic^ L. 5. p. 3474 

■*' Paufanias. L. 8. p. 602. He fpeaks of Macaria the daughter of Hercules. 
L. I. p. 80. 

■♦' Paufanias. L. 10. p. 896. 

'♦'' Diodorus. L. 5. p. 347. Mccx.<x.o o K^jjujce. Schol. in Homer. Iliad. 
•iU. V. 544. 



(denominated Mctm^msg^ and ** MoLK^mB; ; and places were' 
called MciK^m. This probably was the original of the name 
given to Illands, which were ftiled Maaa^m vri<roi. They 
were to be found in the Pontus Euxinus, as well as in the 
Atlantic. The Acropolis of Thebes in Boeotia was in 
like manner called ^^ M(x,m^c>}v vrj^og. It was certainly 
an Amonian facred term. The inland city Oafis ftood 
in an Egyptian province, which had the ^^ fame name : 
fo that the meaning mull not be fought for in Greece. This 
term was fometimes exprefled as a feminine, Macris, andJ 
Macra : and by the Grecians was interpreted longa , as if it 
related to extent. It was certainly an ancient word, and- 
related to their theology : but was grown fo obfolete, that 
the original purport could not be retrieved. I think we may- 
be aflured that it had no relation to length. Euboea was o£ 
old called Macris ; and m,ay be looked upon as compara- 
tively long: but Icarus, Rhodes, and Chios, were likewife 
called fo: and they did not projed: in length more than the- 
illands. in their 5' neighbourhood. They were therefore not 

•*' 'Oi'Xccrfoi, y^ TT^oTe^of ??V€yovMax^uv(z?. Strabo, Lj, 12. 

Sannij-^ai'i-ifj means Heliadas, the fame as Macaroncs. Max^wiffj near 
Golchis, ot vvv XcLvvoi. Stephanus Byzant. 

"*' The fame as the Cadmeum. Maaapojv yno'oi^ n oinpoTroAn tcov ev EoicoTta, 
©■flQoiJV TO TcLXatov, a>i 6 na^^fJttviS^rii. Suidas. 

Diodorus Siculiis. L. 5. p. 347. Maxa^wy rvaot near Britain and Thule. 
Scholia in Lycophron. V. 1200. 

AsS' imiv ^loLKaoctiv vntrait Torn ttso tcv apifov 

Of the Theban Acropolis, Tzetzes in Lycophron. V. 1 194» 

'° Herodotus. L. 3. c. 16. 

l'_ Macra, a river in Italy. Plin. L. 3. c. 5, 

4. deno- 


denominated from their figure. There was a cav^ern in the 
AcropoHs of Athens, which was called Macrai, according to 

The fame author fhews manifeftly, that it was a proper 
name ; and that the place itielf was fliled Macrai. This 
was a contra6lion for Macar- Ai, or the place of Macar : 

All thefe places were for a religious reafon fo denominated 
from Macar, a title of the Deity. 

M E L E C H. 

Melech, or, as it is fometimes exprefled, Malech, and Mo- 
loch, betokens a king ; as does Malecha a queen. It was a 
title of old given to many Deities in Greece ; but in after 
times grew obfolete, and mifunderflood : whence it was of- 
ten changed to fxsi?\i')(pg, and [xsiT^i'^iog, which fignified the 
gentle, fweet, and benign Deity. Paufanias tells us, that Ju- 
piter was ftiled MsiKi'^iog, both in ^^ Attica, and at 's Argos : 
and in another part of his work he fpeaks of this Deity 
under the fame title, in company with Artemis at Sicyon, 

" Euripides in lone. V. 937. EiGo. TrpoaSoppBi-jrer^cci 
Mccx^oci KxAncrt yi;i avccxTH Ai^i^d. Ibid. 

Paufanias informs us that the children of Niobe were fuppofcd to have been 
here flain in this cavern. 

*' Euripides ibid. Alfo in another place he mentions 

'* Z^^ixCcMi Se rov Kmcraov fwfcos £T"' ctp^xiri Mf;A/;v;/y Atoi. Paufanias. 
I,. I. p. 9. 

'"' i'.uiianiis. T... 2. p. 154, 



s^Eg-i h Zsvg Msihi')(iogy mi A^Tsyjg ovoixa^oijisvn ITaT^wa. 
He mentions, that they were both of great antiquity, placed 
in the temple before the introdudlion of images : for the one 
was reprefented by a pyramid, and the other by a bare pillar: 
Uv^ct[Xi^i Js MsiAiyiiog, ri^s movi sg-iv simu-y,svn. He 
alfo fpeaks of fome unknown Gods at Myonia in Locris 
called Qsoi MsiT^i-^iOi : and of an altar with an infcription 
of the fame purport, ^^ ^(^yog ©buov MsiXi'^im. 

Rivers often had the- name of Melech. There was one in 
Babylonia, generally exprefled Nahar Malcha, or the royal 
ft ream : thefe too were often by the Grecians chano-ed to 
MsiKi'^oi. The foregoing writer gives an inftance in a 
^^ river of Achaia. Malaga in Spain was properly Malacha, 
the royal city. I take the name of Amalek to have been 
Ham ^' Melech abbreviated : a title taken by the Amalek- 
ites from the head of their family. In like manner I ima- 
gine ^° Malchom, the God of the Sidonians, to have been a 
contra6lion of Malech-Chom, licc(nKsvg 'HKiog : a title o-iven 
to the Sun ; but conferred alfo upon the chief of the: 
Amonian *' family. 

'* Paufanias. L. 2. p. 132, 

^ Paufanias. L. 10. p. 897. 

'^ Paufanias. L. 7. p. 573. 

" The country of the Amakkites is called the land of Ham. i. Chronicles. 
G. 4. V. 40. 

*° I Kings, c. 1 1. V. 33. 

" I will cut off the remnant of Baal from this place, and the name of the 
Chamerims with the priefts ; and them that worfliip tiie hoft of heaven upon 
the houfe tops, and them that woifhip, and that fwear by the Lord, and tha^ 
Iwear by Malcham. Zephaniah. c. i. v. 4, 

5. A N A C. 


A N A C. 

Anac was a title of high antiquity, and feems to have 
teen originally appropriated to perfons of great ftrength, 
and flature. Such people in the plural were ftiled Anakim ; 
and one family of them were to be found at *^ Kirjath-Arba. 
Some of them were likewife among the Caphtorim, who 
fettled in Paleftina. Paufanias reprefents Afterion, whofe tomb 
is faid to have been difcovered in Lydia, as a fon of Anac, 
and of an enormous fize. *' E<w< ^s Afs^iov [jlbv Kvolktoq' 
hvoLKTOL h Fjij Tra/tJa — og-oL s(po(,vri to (ry^rifjicc vrs^is'^ovrci eg 
TTig-iVj txii sgi^y oiv^^ooTra' sttbi ^iol ^eyB^og hk eg-ip OTTOig olv s^o^sp. 
We may from hence perceive that the hiftory of the Ana- 
kim was not totally obliterated among the Grecians. Some 
of their Deities were ftiled olvolktsq' others avcucro^Bg, and 
their temples olvcckto^icc, Michael Pfellus fpeaking of herefies, 
mentions, that fome people were fo debafed, as to worfhip 
Satanaki ; ^* Avrov h (jlovov sTTiyeiov Xoitolvccki eyi^s^vilovrciLi* 
Satanaki feems to be Satan Anac, ^ict^oXog ^a,<nK£vg, 

Necho, Nacho, Necus, Negus, which in the Egyptian and 


Judges, c. I, V. lo. Jofliua. c. 15. v. 13. Deuteronomy, c. 2. v. 21. 
Jofhua. c. II. V. 22. and c. 13. v. 12. 

The priefts at the Elufinian myfteries were called AvccxTOTeXs^at. Clement. 
Alex. Cohort. P. 16. 

" Paufanias. L. i. p. 87. It was In the ifland Lade before Miletus. The au- 
thor adds, when the bones were difcovered. Avrtxx Si Xoyoi r)'A^iv a ras ttoA- 
Aas TrifVoyB ra Xpaao^a nvcci f/.tv rov )'£x.por— ;tTA— )caJ ^ajJictoaov ts 7roTU}Ji.ov 
Cly.ia.vov €x.a.?\.ow. 

See Cicero de Nat. Deer. L. 3. of Anaces, AiaxTfs. Twi Ajoi xovpui Avxx.cxs 
jDt A^iii'ctiot Trpoan'} o^iuaxv. Plutarch. Numa, 

5* Michael Pfellus. 1*. 10. 



Ethlopic languages fignified a king, probably was an abbre- 
viation of Anaco, and Anachus. It was fometimes expreffed 
Nachi, and Nacclii. The buildings reprefented at Perfe- 
polis are faid to be the work of Nacki Rufl:an : which Cicrni- 
iies the lord, or prince Ruftan. 

Z A R, and S A R. 

Sar is a rock, and made ufe of to fignify a promontory. As 
temples were particularly eredled upon fuch places, thefe 
eminences were often denominated Sar-On, from the Deity, 
to whom the temples were facrcd. The term Sar was often- 
times ufed as a mark of high honour. The Pfalmifl: repeat- 
edly addrefles God as his Rock, ^^ the Rock of his refuo-e; 
the Rock of his falvation. It is alfo ufed without a meta- 
phor, for a title of refped : but it feems then to have been 
differently expreffed. The facred writers call that lordly 
people the Sidonians, as well as thofe of Tyre, ^'' Sarim. The 
name of Sarah was given to the wife of Abraham by v/ay of 
eminence ; and iignifies a ^^ lady, or princefs. It is con- 
tinually to be found in the compofition of names, which re- 
late to places, or perfons, efteemed facred by the Amonians. 
We read of Serapis, Serapion, Serapammon : alfo of Sar- 
chon, and Sardon ; which is a contraction for Sar-Adon. 
In Tobit mention is made of ''^ Sarchedonus ; the fame 
name as the former, but with the eaflern afpirate. The 

'' Pfalm 23. V. I. Deuteron. c. 32. v, 15. Kaiah. c. 17. v. 10. Pfalm 78. v. 35. 
Ic is often ftiled Selali. 
" Ifaiah. c. 23. v. 8. 
*'' Genefis. c. 1 7. v. 15. 
^^ Tobit. c. I. V. 22. 

Vol. I. L Sarim 


Sarim in Efther are taken notice of as perfons of high 
^^3 honour : the fame dignity feems to have been known 
among the PhiHftim, by whom it was rendered ^° Sarna, or 
Sarana : hence came the ^' Tyrian word Sarranus for any^ 
thing noble and fplendid. In the prophet Jeremiah are 
enumerated the titles of the chief princes, who attended 
Nebuchadnezzar in his expedition againft Judea. Among 
others he mentions the ''* Sarfechim. This is a plural, com- 
pounded of Sar, and Sech, rendered alfo Shec, a prince or 
governor. Sar-Six:him {ignifies the chief of the princes and 
rulers. RabiLekah is nearly of the fame purport : it Sig- 
nifies the great prince ; as by Rabfares is meant the chief 
^'^ Eunuch; by Rabmag, the chief ol the Magi. Many places 
in Syria and Canaan have the term Sar in compoiition ; 
fuch as Sarabetha, Sariphaa, Sareptha. Sardis, the capital of 
Crcefus, was the city of Sar-Ades, the fame as Atis, the 
Deity of the country. 

High '" groves, or rather hills with woods of antient oaks, 
were named Saron ; becaufe they were facred to the Deity 
fo called. Pliny takes notice of the Saronian bay near Go- 
's Efther. c. i. v. 16. 

■'" JoQiua. c. 13. V 3. ''JID. Judges, c. 16. v. 5. 

In Samuel they are ftiled Sarnaim. 1. c. 29. v. 7. 

"" Oftrum Sarraniim. 

""• Jeremiah, c. 39. v. 3. 

" Ifaiah. c. 37. v. 4. Jeremiah, c. 39. v. 3. 

''■♦ It is fometimes exprefled Saronas. 

Eft et regio Saronas, live J^^L/^os. Reland. Pal^ftina. P. 188; Any place facred 
to the Deity Saron was liable to have this name : hence we find plains fo called 
in the Onomafticon of Eufebius. 'O 'S,ccociop-^r\ cnro m coy, Qsc^oop eyri tuv Ti- 



rinth, and of the oaks which grew near it. ^^ Portus Cceniiis, 
Sinus Saronicus oHm querno nemore redimitus ; unde nomen. 
Both the oaks and the place were denominated from the 
Deity Sar-On, and Chan-Ait, by the Greeks rendered Xa^'j)i/j 
and Koivsingy which are titles of nearly the fame purport. 
Saron was undoubtedly an ancient God in Greece. '" Lilius 
Gyraldus ftiles him Deus Marinus : but he was properly the 
Sun. Diana, the fiftcr of Apollo, is named " Saronia : and 
there were Saronia facra, together with a feftival at ^* Trce- 
zen ; in which place Orus was fuppofed to have been born. 
79 Cl^ov ysjjscr&cii (r<pi(ny sv yri TC^omv. Orus was the fame as 
Sar-On, the Lord of light. *^ Rocks were called Saronides, 
from having temples and towers facred to this Deity : juft as 
groves of oaks were, of which I took notice above. This 
interpretation is given by ^' Hefychius j and by the Scholiafl 
upon the following verfe of Callimachus ; 

^^ H 7ro?J\ctg vttsvs^^s Xoi^oovi^ag vy^og lac^v 

As oaks were ftiled Saronides, fo likewife were the antient 

" Plin. L. 4. c. 8. 

7^ Lilius Gyraldus. Syntag. 4. p. 170. from Paufanias, and Ariftides in The-; 

77 'Xapoji'icc, Apre)/.ii' A^xioi. Hefych. She was by the Perfians named Sar- 
Ait. 2a^>?T<5, AorifMi' at riepcrcit. ibidem. 

78 Paufanias. L. 2. p. 189. 
" Paufanias. L. 2. p. 181. 

"" Callimachus calls the idand Afterie -^xy-of a-apoi'. Ar^p"', TrovToa xxxov 
cacoov. This by the Scholiaft is interpcetcd zxP'^uut^ov' bac it certainly means a 
Rock, Hymn, in Delon. v. 225. 

'S.xp'jiviS' a TTirpai^ '/I a.1 Six. irxXxiormx x(^}jvuixi ^pva, Hefych. 

!^ Callimachus. Hymn to Zeus. v. 22. 

L 2 Druids, 


Druids, by whom the oak was held fo facred. Hence Di- 
odorus Siculus fpeaking of the priefts of Gaul, ftiles them 
^T' ^[^(^(r 0(^01 ^ ^^(fkoycii. — Ts^iTTocg riiJi,ooy,s'JOi, ng 2}API2NI- 
AA2 ovo^dt^ao'i. This is one proof out of many how far the 
Amonian religion was extended: and how little we know of 
Druidical vvorfhip, either in refped: to its effence or its origin. 

U C H. 

Uch, T/f, exprefied alfo Ach, Och, O^a, was a term o£ 
lionour among the Babylonians, and the refl: of the progeny 
of Chus ; and occurs continually in the names of men and. 
places, which have any connexion with their hiftory. I have 
fhevvn in a former ^"^treatife that the fhepherds, who ruled in 
Egypt, were of that race j and that they came from Babylonia, . 
and Chaldea. Eufebius informs us, that their national title 
was ^' Tkov^to; ; or, as it was undoubtedly exprefled by the. 
people themfelves, T/i/iOftrof, Uc-Cufus. It is a term taken no- 
tice of by Apion, and Manethon ; and they fpeak ot it as a 
word in the facred language of the country, which fignified a 
king J ^'^ ^K, KOL^' Is^ccv yAwrcrai/ jSacrtAsa, CYifxcfAVBL I wonder 
that this word has been pafled over with fo little notice ; as 
it is of great antiquity ; and at the fame time of much impor- 
tance in refpedl to etymology. Uc-Cufus fignified the royal 
or noble Cufean : and as it was a word in the facred language 
of Egypt, we may from hence learn what that language was ; 
and be affured that it was the primitive language of Chus, the 

** Diodorus Siculus. L. 5. p. 30S. 

** See Obfervations and Inquiries npon ancient Hiftory. P, 196.. 

*' Eufebii Prsep. Evang. L. 10. c, 13. p. 500. 

*6 Jofephus contra Apion. L. i. c. 13. p. 445. 



fame as the ancient Chaldaic. It was introduced among the 
Mizraim by the Auritae, or Cuthites, together with their rites, 
and rehgion : hence it obtained the name of the facred lan- 
guage. Diodorus Sicuhis affords ^'^ evidence to the fame pur- 
pofe : and it is farther proved by HeHodorus ; who favs that 
the facred charaders of Egypt, and thofe of the Cuthites in 
Ethiopia were the ^' fame. This term occurs very often a- 
mong the titles, of which the Babylonifli names are compofed;, 
fuch as Ochus and Belochus. Among the Egyptians it is to 
be found in Acherez, and Achencherez ; which are the- 
names of two very ancient princes. Acherez is a compound 
of Ach-Ares, Magnus Sol j equivalent to Achorus, another 
name of the fame Deity, affumed in like manner by their 
kings, The latter was fometimes exprefied ^' Achor, Acho- 
ris, Ochuras, Uchoreus : which are all the fame name di- 
verfified in different ages, and by different writers. As 
priefts took the titles of the Deities whom they ferved, Lu- 
can has very properly introduced a prieft of Egypt under 
the name of Achoreus : 

5" quos inter Achoreus, 

Jam placidus fenio, fradifque modeftior annis. 

The name of Ofiris feems to have been Uc-Sehor, and 

Uc-Sehoris. According to Hellanicus, if a perfon had in. 

Egypt made enquiry about the term Ofiris, he would not 

have been underftood : for the true name was '' Ufiris. Philo 

*7 Diodorus Siculus. L. 3. p. 144. 
^* Heliodori ^thiopica. L. 4. p. 174. 

•''9 Achor, Gsss oiTrofjLvioi. Clement. Alexandr, Cohortatio. P. 33. 
9* Luean. L. 8. v. 475. 

'' \<xi yap rov OatPiv EAAaiT/Co^ Tcnpiv (lonxiv ccKVKoevxi a,TO i(av Ispsuy 
?\.iyoixiv(.v. Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. Vol. i. p. ^64.. 



Biblius from Sanchoniathon calls the fame Deity '^ Ifiris ; and 
adds, that he was the brother of Cna, or Canaan ; and the 
inventor of three letters. I'Ti^^;, Tc^v T^ioov y^ciiJLf.iixTOov bv^b- 
Trj?, cfAX(pog X^■a tb ^OiPiy.og. I take Ifiris, and Uiiris, as 
well as Ofiris, to be all Uc-Schorls foftened, and accommo- 
dated to the ears of Greece. 

The Sun was ftiled El-Uc, which the Grecians changed 


to AvKogy Lucos ; as wc learn from " Macrobius. He was 
alfo ftiled El-Uc-Or, which was changed to AvKoc^sug ; and 
El-Uc- Aon, rendered Lycaon^*, Avmoo!/. As this perfonage 
was the fime as El-Uc, Avaog ; it was fabled of him, that he 
was turned into a wolf. The caufe of this abfurd notion a- 
rofe from hence : every facred animal in Egypt was diftin- 
guiflied by fome title of the Deity. But the Greeks never 
confidered whether the term was to be taken in its primary, 
or in its fecondary acceptation : whence they referred the 
hiftory to an animal, when it related to the God, from whom 
the animal was denominated. AvKog, Lucos, was, as I have 

'' Eufebius. Pisep. Evang. L. i.e. lo. p. 39. 

■*' Annum quoque vetuftiffimi Grsecorum Aux.a.€avra appellant Toy uto tb 
ATKOT, id eft Sole. &c. Macrob. Saturn. L. i. c, 17. p. 194. 

'* Lycaon was the fame as Apollo ; and vvorfhiped in Lycia : his priefts were 
ftiled Lycaones : he was fuppoiJed to have been turned into a wolf. Ovid. Me- 
tam. L. I. V. 232. Apollo's mother Latona was alfo changed to the fame animal. 
'H A))Tw en AnAov );A0s ^£Ta£'a.,Vivo-a en Avx.01: Scholia in Dionyf. v. 525. 

People are faid to have been led to Parnaffiis by the hov/ling of wolves ; 
AvKm' copvyan. Paufanias. L. 10. p. 811. 

The Hirpi were worfhipers of fire ; and were conduced to their fettlement 
in Campania by a wolf. Strabo. L, 5. p. 383. 

In the account given of Danaus, and of the temple founded by him at'Argos, 
is a ftory of a wolf and a bull. Paufan. L. 2. p. J 53. The temple was ftiled 

ATTC/MwytS liOOV* 

3 fhewn, 


fliewn, the name of the Sun : hence, wherever this term oc- 
curs in compofition, there will be commonly found fome re- 
ference to that Deity, or to his fubftitute Apollo. We read of 
55 Kvyjs AttoAAwwj h^ov -. of '^ Lycorus, a fuppofed fon of 
Apollo : of 57 Lycomedes, another fon : of '^ Lycofura, the 
firfi: city, which the Sun beheld. The people of Delphi v/ere 
of old called '^^ Lycorians : and the fummit of Parnanus, 
'"^ Lycorea. Near it was a ' town of the fame name ; and 
both were facred to the God of light. From Lucos in this 
fenfe came lux, luceo, lucidus, and Jupiter Lucetius, of the 
Latines : and Ay^i/o?, Twyvicij Tw^vevoo, of the Greeks : alfo 
AvKCif^xg, and OL^(pi'hviiQ(;, though differently expreffed. 
Hence it was, that fo many places facred to Apollo Vv'ere 
filled Leuce, Leuca, Avkiol, Leucas, Leucate. 

Mox et Leucatse nimbofa cacumina montis, 
Et formidatus nautis aperitur * Apollo. 

'' Paiifanias above: alfo Apollo Aux-a/o?, and Aojtf.o;. Paufan. L. i. p. 44. 
L. 2, p. 152, 153. 

9' Paufanias. L. 10. p. 811. 

57 Paufanias. L. 7. p. 530. 

9S Paufanias. L. 8. p. 6y^. 

"' Oi Aihcfoi TO TrpuiTou AuKcopen sxaAouvjo. Scholia in Apollon, Pvhod. 
L. 4. V. 1489. 

'°° Stephaniis Byzant. and Strabo. L. 9. p. 640. faid to have been named 
irom wolves. Paufanias. L. 10. p. 811. 

* AvTcccoiix, TToAii AsA^'Jof, ei' ji Tj/xara/ q AtoAAwi'. Etymolog. Magnum. 

Thcfe places were fo named from the Sun, or Apollo, filled not only AuKci, 
but Auxu^ivi and Auy^coonoi : and the city Lucoreia was efteemed the oldeft in 
the world, and faid to have been built after a deluge by Lycorus, the fon of 
Huarnus. Paufan. L. 10. p. 8n, 

'Ttxvos ^oi€oio AuxK^itoio Ka(p(Xvnoi. Apollon. L. 4. V. 1489. 
Avxa-petotoy auri tb zl£A<p;3ts. Scholia, ibid. It properly fignified Sshnis. 

^ Virgil, ^neid. L, 3. v. 274. 



Hence alfo infcriptions ' DEO LEUCANI^ : which term 
feenis to denote, Sol-Fons, the fountain of day. 7'he name 
Ljcophron, AviiO(p^m^ vv'hich fome would derive from Avkqc,^ 
a wolf, fignilies a perfcn of an enlightened mind. Groves 
wTre held very {acred : hence lucus, which fome would ab- 
furdly deri\'e a non lucendo, was fo named from the Deity 
there worfhiped : as was Aj^oj, a word of the fame pur- 
port among the Greeks. 

This people, who received their theology from Egypt 
and Syria, often fupprelTed the leading vowel ; and thought 
to atone for it by giving a new termination : though to fay 
the truth, this mode of abbreviation is often to be obferved 
in the original language, from whence thefe terms are derived. 
Ki'^o^j the name of Cyrus, feems to have fufFered an abridg- 
ment of this nature. It was probably a compound of Uch- 
Ur, the fame as Achor, and Achorus of Egypt, the great lu- 
minary, the Sun. In ancient times all kings, priefts, and 
people of confequence took to themfelves fome facred title. 
But as Aneith was abbreviated to Neith, Acherez to Cherez ; 
fo Achorus was rendered Chorus, Curus. Thus far is mani- 
feft, that Curus fignified the Sun. '^ O fxsy ovv Kv^og oltto 

CoLi (pOLfTi' Kv^ov ycL^ zaXsiv Us^crag tov HKioi/. Ctefias likewife 
informs us that the name of Cyrus had this Signification, 

5 Kai Ti^slai TO ovo^ol avra a^o T8 'HA<8 : He ii'as de?iomi- 

= Gruter's Infcriptions. Vol. i. p. mlxxxii. n. S.' 
* Plutarch, in Artaxerxe, P. 1012. 
' Ctefias in Perficis. 

So Hefychius TcrQao tiKiov U Df^crai Kuror Kiy^^i\'* Hence Kv^c(, ac^cci; 
jfacr/Afw, ibid, alfo Kupoi, i^aa-ia., 



nated Cyrus from the Su7i^ which was fo called. It was the 
fame as Orus : and according to Strabo it is fometimes fo 
exprefled ; as we may infer from a river of this name, of 
which he fays, ^ EkolMito Js tt^ots^ov Ko^og. We find it 
fometimes rendered Kv^ig, Curis : but ftill with a reference 
to the Sun, the Adonis of the eaft. Hefychius explains 
Kv^ig, A^mig, In Phocis was ^Kyppa, Currha, where A- 
pollo Kvl>f!C(.iog was honoured; which names were more com- 
monly exprefled K/ppa, and Ktppajo?, The people of Cyrene 
are faid by Palaephatus to have been originally Ethiopians or 
Cuthites. They, as well as the Egyptians, worfhiped the Sun: 
under the title of Achur, and Achor : and like them efteemed 
him the * QSog ccTTo^viog, From the God Achur we may infer 


* Strabo, fpeaking of the river Cur, or Cyrus. L. ii. p, 764. 
' Quid tibi cum Cyrrha ? quid cum Permeflidos undd ? 

Martial. L. i. Epigram. 77. v. 11. 
Phocaicas AmphifTa manus, fcopulofaque Cyrrha. 

Lucan. L. 3. v. 172. 
K<ppai', STTti'itiiv AtA(piiv. Paufan. L. 10. p. 817. 
® Cyreniiici Achorem Deum (invocant) mufcarum mulcitudine peftilentiain 
adfcrente; qua; protinus intereunt, poftquam litatum eft illi Deo. Plin. L. 10. 
G. 28. See alio Clement. Alexand. Cohort. P. 33. 

Some late editors, and panicularly Harduin, not knowing that Achor was 
worlhiped at Cyrene, as the Gcss aToy.wcr, have omitted his name, and tranf- 
fcrred the hiflory to Elis. But all the ancient editions mention Achor of Cy- 
rene ; Cyrena'ici Achorem Deum-, izc. I have examined thofe printed at Rome, 
1470, 1473. thofe of Venice, 1472, 1476, 1487, 1507, 1510. thofe of Parma, 
1476, 1479, 1481. one at Brelcia, 1496. the editions at Paris, 1516, 1524,-. 
1.332. the Bafil edition by Frobcn, 1523 : and they all have this readinp-. Tlie 
edition alfo by Johannes Spira, 1469, has Acorem, but with fome variation. 
The fpurious reading, Eki myc^grum Deum., was, I imagine, firft admitted into 
the text by Sigifmund Gelenius, who was milled by the fimilarJty of the tv^o 

Vol. I. M ■'''^°'''"- 

82 RADICAL 6. 

that their country was at firft called Acurana ; which is a 
compound of Achur-Ain, and betokens the great fountain 
of light. Acurana v/as abbreviated to Curane and Curene.; 
but was always fuppofed to relate to the Sun, and Heaven. 
Hence the Greeks, who out of every obfolete term formed 
perfonages, fuppofed Cyrene to have been the daughter of 
the fupreme Deity. » ^v^m^ TroMg Ai^vr^g^ a/Ko ILv^Yivrig 
Trig 'Tyso;^. T/je city Cyrene in Libya was denominated from 
.Cyrene^ the daughter of the inojl High, There was a foun- 
tain here of great fandtity, which was in like manner deno- 
minated from the Sun. It was called '° Y^ver\ T:t\yr\^ which 
terms are equivalent to K,ur-Ain, and Achur-ain of the A- 
monians, and {ignify the fountain of the Sun. Pliny proves, 
that this was the purport of the terms, when he de- 
fcribes this part of the world. " Cyrenaica, eadem Tri- 
politana regio, illuftratur Hammonis oraculo — et Fonte 
Solis. The like account is to be found in Pomponius 
Mela". Ammonis oraculum, fidei inclytae ; et fon?, quem 
Solis '' appellant. As Achor was a term, which related 

hiftories. Harduin has followed him blindly, without taking any notice of the 
more ancient and true reading, 

' Stephanas Byzantinus, See alfo Scholia on Callimachus. Hymn, in ApolL 

'" 'OiS'' BTTM Kvpm Tryiyvi eSuvavTo iriXaiacti 
/^wuiii, TrvKiinv ii va.7ra.ii A^eiAiv fvatov. 

Callimachus. Hymn, in ApolL V. 8S. 
" Plin. N. H. L.5. p. 249. 
'* L. I. c. 8. p. 43. 

'' Juftin, fpeaking of the firfl: fettlement made at Cyrene, mentions a moun- 
tain Cura, which was then occupied. Montem Cyram, et propter amoeni- 
tatem loci, et propter fentium ubertatera occupavere. L. 13. c. 7. 



to the Sun ; we find it often compounded with Q.Vj On 
another name of that Deity; from whence was formed 
Acharon. This was the true name of the city in Paleftine, 
called in Scripture, according to our verfion, "^ likron. It 
was denominated from Achor, the God of flies, worfhipped 
alfo under the name of Baal-zebub with the fame attribute. 
The Caphtorim brought the worfliip of this God from 
Egypt; where was a river called Acharon ; fo denominated 
from the Deity of the country. This river, and the rites 
prad:ifed in its vicinity, are mentioned in a beautiful frag- 
ment from fome Sibylline poetry, but when, or by whom 
compofed, is uncertain. The verfes are taken notice of by 
Clemens Alexandrinus, and what is remarkable, are cer- 
tainly quoted long before the completion of what is por- 
tended. However the purport may perhaps be looked upon 
rather as a menace, than a prophecy. 

Movvrij fJiOLivoigy oLOi^o;^ stti -^aixadoig A-^z^ovTog, 
The Deity was likewife called Achad, and Achon : and 


'■♦ Conformably to what I fay, Ekron is rendered Akkxpcu- by the Seventy. 
1 Samuel c. 6. v, 15. 

So alfo Jofephus Antiq. Jud. 1, 6. c. i. p. 312. 

In Achore veftigia Accaronis : Seldcn de Dijs Syrls. Syntag. 6. p. 22S. 
O:; i^jjT/io-acr/ Mvixv Gfii- A/cxa^wr. Gregory Nazianz. Editio Etonenf. 1610. 
Pars fecundacont. Julianum. p. 102. 

In Italy this God was fliled by the Campanians, 'H^zxAii? A/ro/xv.or'. See 
Clemens. Cohort, p. 33. 

The place in Egypt, where they wordiippsd this Deity, was named Achoris ; 

undoubtedly the fame, which is mentioned bySozomen. 1. 6. c. 18. 

'* Clemens A lexand. Cohort, p. 44. 

M 2 He 


many cities aad countries were hence '* denominated. Aeon 
in Paleftine is faid to have been fo named in honour of Her- 
cules, the chief Deity in thofe '^ parts. 

I have mentioned, that Ham, ftiled alfo Cham, was 
looked up to as the Sun : and worfliipped by his pofterity. 
Hence both his images and priefts were ftiJed Chamin : 
and many princes affumed this title, jufl as they did that of 
Orus, and Arez. His pofterity efteemed themfelves of the 
Solar race, by way of eminence: and the great founder of the 
Perfic Monarchy was filled Achamin, rendered by the 
Greeks A'-^CLi^2vr\gj Achasmenes : and all of his family after- 
wards had the title of Ay-ciiy.snoi, and A'^aifien^aij from 
the fame pretenfions. They all of them univerfally efteemed 
themfelves the children of the Sun ; though they were like- 
wife fo called from their worfliip. Hence Lutatius Placidus 
in his Scholia upon Statius interprets the word Achsmenidae. 
by ** Solis Cultores. This may ferve to authenticate my 
etymology, and jfhew,. that the term is derived from Cham, 

He quotes another, where the fate of Ephefus is foretold : 

'Ttttio. S" oijM&ifg/5 Ef £(Tcc3<;A«iB(7a Trap' ijKOai?) 

KcCt'NiJOV C,'1T'iC-a. TOl' OVXiTl lOiiiTCCCVra. 

There is a third upon Scrapis and his temple in Egypt r 
Kai cu 'XsfocTTi A(6sLif !x.^')GVi iTnxiijJiivi xoAAa?, 
Ksicrr] TTTW/wa fJLf) tq'ov Bv AtyvTrraj TfjiTccAxivr, 

The temple of Serapis was not ruined till the reign of TheodoPius. Thelc 
three famples of Sibylline poetry are to be found in Clemens above. 

" Achad was one of the firft cities in the world. Genefis. c. lo. v. lo. 

Nifibis city was named both Achad and Achat. See Geographia Hebrjsa 
Extera of the learned IVlichaelis. p. 227. 

" Srephanus Byzant., 

'' Lutatius Placidus upon Statius. Theb. 1. i. v. 718. 



the Sun: but the purport of it was generally more limited, 
and the title confined to the royal race of the Perfians ; 
who were looked upon as the offspringof theSun. The Cu- 
thites of Ethiopia Africana had the fame high opinion of 
themfelves : hence Calafiris in Heliodorus invokes the Sun 
as his great ancellior. '^ EzizsKMo'doo ^cl^tv; Fs^a^^r;? ri^(/}v 
HAioj* and Chariclea in another place makes ufe o^ a like 
invocation : '° 'HA/s, Tsvclc'^^ol it^oyovm yjijl'jjv. 0, Sun, the g7^ eat 
fource of my a7tce/iry. The Amonians, who fettled at Rhodes, 
fliled themfelves 'H?uaJatj the Solar " 7'ace. Thofe, who fet- 
tled upon the Padus, did the ^" fame. Hyde mentions a peo- 
ple in Diarbeker called *^ Chamfi ; and fays, that the mean- 
ing of the word is Solares; and the fame in purport asShemli 
and Shamfi of the Arabians. 

The term T;i, of which I have been treating, was obfo- 
lete, and fcarce known in the times when Greece mod 
flourifhed : yet fome traces of it may be found, though 
ftrangely perverted from its original meaning. For the 
writers of this nation, not knowing the purport of the words, 
which they found in their ancient hymns, changed them to 
fomething fimilar in found ; and thus retained them with a 
degree of religious, but blind reverence. I have fhevvn, that 
of El-Uc they formed h-VKog^ Lucus ; which was acknow- 


■' Pleliodori ^thiopica. 1. 4. p. 175. 

'• Hcliodori jEthiopica. 1. 10. p. 472. 

*' Diodorus Siculus. 1. 5. p. 327. 

** Apollonius Rhod. of the Hcliad^e. 1. 4. v. 604. 

*5 Chamfi, feu Solares, fuat Arabice Shemfi vel Shamfi. 

Hyde Religio Vet. Perf. p. 523. and ^j^. 



Icdged to be the name of the Sun : of El-Uc-Aon, Lycaon: 
of El-Uc-Or, Lycorus and Lycoreus : 

So from Uc-Ait, another title of the God, they formed He- 
catus, and a feminine, Hecate. Hence Nicander fpeaks of 
Apollo by this title : 

And Herophile the Sibyl of the fame Deity : 
Moi^av syjiV'T 'Ekoltc^ Tr\g tot AvoLKTo^iYii. 

The only perfon who fcems knowingly to have retained 
this word, and to have ufed it out of compoiition, is '^ Ho- 
mer. He had been in Egypt ; and was an admirer of the 
theology of that nation. He adhered to ancient *^ terms with, 
a degree of enthufiafm ; and introduced them at all hazards, 
though he many times did not know their meaning. This 
word among others he has preferved ; and he makes ufe of 

Cham being pronounced Sham, and Shem, has caufed Ibme of his pofterity 
to be referred to a wrong line. 

"* Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo, v. 19. 

*' Nicander Alcxipharmica. V. 11. 

^'^ Paufanias. 1. 10. p. 827. 

" It is however to be found in Euripides under the term op'C?. Thefeus fays 
to Adraftus : 

Ejc Te cf' e^.civt'fi- i-nix. TT^oiQ-ii^ai 0^»U Supplices. v. 131. 

*^ From Uc and Uch came the word euge : alfo iu-^^ju ivxouxi,i'j^a)?'.v, of the 
Greeks. Callimachus abounds with ancient Amonian terms. He bids the young 
women of Argos to receive the Goddefs Minerva, 

2i^f t' evccyopia., aw t ivyixxat^ cw t aKoiXvyaa. 

Lavacr. Palladis. v. 139. 

From Uc-El came Euclea Sacra, and EuzAcsZsu?. EuxAf/a, Af.rey.ii. 

EuxAof, Z^io5 li^nji, gi' I'iya.ooii xcci gr Ko(nGf . Hefychius, fo amended byAl- 
bertus and Hemflerhufius. 



it adverbially in its proper fenfe, when he defcribes any 
body fuperlatively great, and excellent. Thus he fpeaks of 
Calchas as far fuperior to every body elfe in prophetic 
knowledge, and ftiles him op^ a^iirog : 

*9 KaA^a^ @b?o^i^yi<; oimoTToKo^v 0^' a^/ro?, 

'O^ rj^n Tot T sovroLy to, t s(r<TO{jL£yXy tt^o t Bona.. 
So on the Trojan fide Helenus is Ipoken of in the fame 
light : 

5° H^iafxi^rig ''EKsvog oimo7:QXm o'^ a^ig'og. 

So ^' ^tt)iiY\m 0^' ct^ig-oVy 3* AitooXojv op^' a^^s^o?, and " Ty- 
•^log — l/'MTOToiJim 0^' a^ig-og. 

In thefe and in all other inftances of this term occurring 
in Homer, it is obfervable, that it is always in the fame ac- 
ceptation, and uniformly precedes the fame word, a^ig'og. It 
is indeed to be found in the poetry afcribed to '* Orpheus : 
but as thofe verfes are manifeftly imitations of Homer, we 
muft not look upon it as a current term of the times, when 

»5 Iliad. A. V. 69. 

5" Iliad. Z. V. 76. 

'' Iliad, P. V. 307. 

'* Iliad. O. V. 282. 

'' Iliad. H. V. 221. It occurs in other places'; 

Aivojii-, oTTCioi 0^ cc^ic^o. fj.iT uy-^oTSPoiCTt "ysviiTd!. Iliad, r. V. IIO. 
Tis T ao rcjf c^ a,pi<^oi £?;i', an jxai evi'Syre, Mdo-cc- Iliad. B. V. 761. 

Alfo OdyfT. G. V. 12*3. and H. V. 428. 

'♦ In the Hymn to Silenus that God is called Xi^^wuv o--/ aoi<^i. And in the 
poem de Lapidibus, the Poet Ipeaking of heroic perfons mentions their receptioa 
m heaven : 


Hymn 35. v. 2. and ttsoi ASm: Proem, v. 14. 



that poetry was compofed : nor was it ever, I believe, In 
common ufe, not even in the age of Homer. It was an A- 
monian term, joined infeparably with another borrowed from 
the fame people. For a.^ig'og was from Egypt, and Chaldea. 
Indeed mofl of the irregular degrees of comparifon are from 
that quarter ; being derived from the Sun, the great Deity 
of the Pagan world, and from his titles and properties. 
Both a^si:icv and cx.^ig'o; were from a^Ji?, the Arez of the 
eaft. From Bel, and Baaltis, came ^sKtrnv, and bsXrifog-. 
afJLeivw is an inflexion from Amon. From the God 
Aloeus came Aw<o^, "hmrs^og, and "km^o; : from ics^sy 
changed to KS^OLg^ zs^arog, were formed y.^s(r(r(f)Vj K^s^<r(ro:v, 
x^ccTS^ag, and KPOLrigog. 

P H L 

Phi {ignifies a mouth ; alfo language, and fpeech. It is- 
tifed by the Amonians particularly for the voice and oracle 
of any God ; and fubjoined to the name of that Deity. The 
chief oracle in the firft ages was that of Ham, who was wor- 
fhiped as the Sun, and ftiled El, and Or. Hence thefe ora- 
cles are in confequence called Amphi, Omphi, Alphi, Elphi, 
Urphi, Orphi. It is made to fignify, in the book of " Ge- 
nefis, the voice, or command of Pharaoh. From Phi in this 
acceptation came fii,ai, <p)ijU.j), (pn^JLvg, (poKTZcc, cpaTig, fama, 
fari, — ita farier infit. 1 imagine that the term Pharaoh itfelf 
is compounded of Phi-Ourah, Vox Cri, five Dei. It was no 
unufual thing among the ancients to call the words of their 

f' GeneCs. c. 45. v. 21. 



prince tlie voice of God. Jofephus informs us that it fignihed 
a king : ^'^ 'O ^oc^ccoou TTCtf AiyvitTioig ^oltiKsoi. (Xrifjioiivsi i- 
and Ouro in the Copto-Arabic Onomafticon is faid to f^cr~ 
nify the fame : but I fhould think, that this was only a fe- 
Gondary acceptation ot the original term. 

Phi is alfo ufed for any opening or cavity : whence we find 
the head of a fountain often denominated from it ; at leaft 
the place, whence the fountain iffued. forth, or where it loft 
itfelf. And as all ftreams were facred, and all cavities ia. 
the earth looked upon with a religious horrour, the Amoni- 
ans called them Phi-El, Phi-Ainon, Phi-Anes ; rendered by 
the Greeks Phiale, Phsnon, Phanes, Phaneas, Paneas. The 
chief fountain of the river Jordan loft itfelf underground,, 
and rofe again at fome miles diftance. It funk at Phiale, and 
rofe again at '^ Paneas. Pliny fpeaks of a place of this fort at 
^* Memphis, called Phiala ; and, as he imagines, from its 
figure: but it was undoubtedly a covert aquaedudl, by which 
fome branch of the river was carried. The Nile itfelf is 
faid to be loft underground near its fountains ; and that 
place alfo was called Phiala. ^' Phialam appellari fontem 
ejus, mergique in cuniculos ipfum amnem. There was alfo 
a fountain of this name at *° Conftantinople. Sometimes it 
occurs without the afpirate, as in Pella, a city of Paleftine,^ 

'' Jofephuj. Antiq. Jud. L. 8. c. 6. 

'■' See Relandi Palseftba. Vol. i. c. 41. p. 265., 

5' Plin. L. 8. c. 46. 

5' Plin. L. 5. c. 9. 

Paulus Silentiarius. Part. 11. v. 177. See RelandUs above. 

VojL. I. N- named 


named undoubtedly from its fountains : for Pliny calls it 
Pellam aquis ** divitem. 

Mines were held facred ; and like fountains were deno- 
minated from ^non, and Hanes, thofe titles of the Sun. 
In Arabia near Petra was a mine, worked by condemned 
perfons, which was named '''■ Phinon, and Phasnon. Epi- 
phanius mentions "^ ^OLVTiTiO. fj,STC(,KKoL^ or the mines of Ha- 
nes ; to which Meletius a bifhop of the Thebais was con- 

A I. 

Ai, and Aia, Signifies a diftri<a or province ; and as moft 
provinces in Egypt were infular, it is often taken for an 
illand. In other parts it was of much the fame purport as 
ccioi of the Greeks, and betokened any '^* region or country. 
It was from hence, that fo many places have been reprefented 
by the Greeks as plurals, and are found to terminate in az ; 
fuch as Athenai, Thebai, Pherai, Patrai, Amyclai, Therap- 
nai, Clazomenai, Celaenai, There are others in eia', as Chs- 
roneia, Coroneia, Eleia. In others it was rendered fliort ; as 
in Oropia, Ellopia, Ortygia, Olympia, Ethiopia, Scythia, C^- 
nia, Icaria. It is likewife found exprefied by a fingle letter, 
and ftill fubjoined to the proper name : hence we meet with 
iEtna, Arbela, Larifla, Roma, Himera, Hemera, Nufa, 

-»• Plin. L. 5. c, 18. 

■** Athanafii Epift. ad folitariam vitam agentes. P. 658. 
*' Epiphanius adverfus Hsres. L. 2. torn. 2. p. 719. 
^* See the learned Profeffor Michaelis in his Geographia Extera Hebrxor. 
P. 134. 135- 




Nyfla, Patara, Arena, '^' Cabafa, and the like. Wc may from 
hence prove, and from innumerable other inftances, that 
among the people of the eaft, as well as among other na- 
tions, the word in regimine was often final. Thus the land 
of Ion was termed Ionia : that of Babylon, Babylonia : from 
AfTur came Affyria : from Ind, India: from Lud, Ludia: in 
all which the region is fpecified by the termination. To fay 
Lydia tellus, Aflyria tellas, is in reality *^ redundant. In the 
name of Egypt this term preceded, that country being ftiled 
Ai-Gupt, AiyvTTTogj the land of the Gupti, called afterwards 
Cupti, and Copti. 

Common Names relating to Places. 

As to the common names, which are found combined 
with additional terms, in order to denote the nature and fi- 
tuation of places ; they are for the moft part fimilar to thofe 
in the ancient Chaldaic, and admit of little variation. 

Air is a city : often exprelTed Ar, and Ara. Hence Ara- 
chofia, Arachotus, Aracynthus, Arambis, Aramatha (Ar- 
Ham-aith) Archile, Arzilla, Arthedon: all which were cities, 
or elfe regions denominated from them. 

Kir, Caer, Kiriath, are words of the like purport. We 

"•' The lonians changed this termination into r. Hence Arene, Camifiene, 
Cyrene, Arface, Same, CapiiTene, Thebe, &c. 

1' Colchis was called Aia fimply, and by way of eminence : and probably 
Egypt had the fame name, for the Colchians were from Egypt. Srrabo men- 
tions lao-oMs ttAbv tov iii A/ar, 1- i- p. 38. and Apolionius ftilcs the country of 
Colchis Aia. 

Aict ys/jt.tiv en ivv fjuvit efJLjrsS'oi'f utuvciTS 

Toiv J' Kv^pcDV, 85 oiyi xx^i^ciTo ycctSfxSv Aixv . !• 4- V. 277. 

N 2 read 


read in the Scrljiturcs of Kiriath Sepher, Kiriath Arha, KI^ 
riath Jearim. It was in fome parts pronounced Kirtha, and 
Cartha. Melicartus, the Hercules of the Phenicians and 
Cretans, was properly Melech-Carta, the Deity of the place. 
The city of Tigranes in Armenia was called Tigranocerta. 
One name of Carthage was Kct^'^rjooov^ from Car-Chadon, the 
fame as Adon. It was alfo called Carthada from Cartha- Ada, 
the city of the queen or Goddefs, who was by the Romans 
fuppofed to be Juno, but was properly the Amonian Elifa. 
Caer among many ancient nations fignified a city, or fortrefs ; 
as we may learn from the places called Carteia, Carnaim, 
Caronium, Caroura, Carambis. Among the Britons were 
of old places exactly analagous, fuch as Caerlifle, CaerdifF, 
Caerphilly, Caernarvon, and Caeruriah in Cornwall. 

Kir and Caer are the fame term differently exprtffed. In 
Scripture we meet v/ith Kir Harefh, and Kir-Harefeth. 
Ifaiah. c. 16. v. 7. and v. 11. and Kir Moab, c. 15, 
V. I. and Kir Heres, of the fame purport as Kir Ha- 
refli, is mentioned by Jeremiah, c. 48. v. 31. Upon the 
Euphrates was Cercufium, and Carchemifh. In Cyprus was 
Kironia, rendered Ks^coviot by *^ Ptolemy ; whofe true name 
was Kir-On, the city of the Sun ; where was a temple to 
Our-Ain, ftiled Urania. Kir-On was often rendered Ciro- 
nis, Coronis ; and the Deity Coronus and "^^ Cronus. By thefe 
means the place was fubftituted for the Deity, and made an. 
objed of worfhip. Of this abufe I fhall often fpeak. Arte- 

^■'Lib. 5. c. 14. 

•♦* Coronus is to be met with in Greece. He is mentioned as a king of the La- 
pithse, and the fon of Phoroneus : and placed near mount Olympus. 
— fie iCxaiAevcrs KoFoiyoSyO (poeccviuii. Diodorvis. 1. 4. p. 242. 



mis was properly a city, Ar-Themis, the fame as Thamuz 
of Egypt. What was called Artemis, and Artemifium, was 
in fome places reverfed, and exprefled by Kir fubjoined: 
hence Themifcir, and Themifcura in Pontus. 

Col, Cal, Calah, Calach, fignify properly an eminence, 
like the Collis of the Romans: but are often ufed for a for- 
trefs fo lituated. We fometimes meet with a place ftiled 
abfolute Calah : but the term is generally ufed in compofition, 
as Cala Nechus, Cala-Anac, Cala-Chan, Cala-On, Cala-Es, 
Cala-Ait, Cala-Ur, Cala -Ope, Cala-Ham, Cala-Amon, Ca- 
la-Adon : whence came the names of people and places ftiled 
^^ Callinicus, Calachene, ^° Colons, Cales, Calathe, Califta?, 
Calathufa, Calauria, Colorina, Caliope, Calama, Calamos, 
5' Calamon, Calymna, Calydnus, Calycadnus ; all which 
were places in Phrygia, Bithynia, Aflyria, Libya, denomi- 
nated from their (ituation and worfhip. 

Comah is ufed for a wall : but feems to be fometimes 
taken for thofe facred inclofures, wherein they had their 
Puratheia : and particularly for the facred mount, which 
flood in thofe inclofures. From Comah came the Greek 
^oj^a, a round hill or mound of earth ; called alfo Taph 
and ra^o? ; and thence often miftaken for a tomh : but it 
was originally a high altar. 

49 Upon the Euphrates. 

»° A city in Parthia. 

" Cahmon or Cal-Amon, was a hill in Judea ; which had this name given to 
it by the Canaanites of old. Cyril mentions — a.(fixoiJiivQi ma oura ra OPOTS 
K«Aa/xw; c.=— iii epifiola ad Calofyrium, 



By Gib is meant an hill. Gibeon was the hill of the Sun: 
faid to be famous for its fprings. Gibethon is a compound 
of Gib-Ethon or Ath-On, titles of the fame Deity. Nadab 
the fon of Jeroboam was flain by Baafha at Gibethon of the 
5'- Philiftines. 

Har and Hor fignify a mountain ; o^og of the Greeks. 

Tin feems to have fignified a facred place, for facrifice ; 
a kind of high altar. The Greeks generally expreffed it in 
compofition, Tig- hence we read of Opheltis, Altis, Baaltisj 
Abantis, Abfyrtis. It was in ufe among the ancient Hetru- 
rians and other nations : hence came the terms Aventinus, 
Palatinusj " Numantinus, &c. It feems to be the fame as 
Tan in the eaft, which occurs continually in compofition, 
as in Indos-tan, MogoHs-tan, Pharfis-tan, Chufis-tan. 

Tor is an hill or tower. Many places in Greece had it in 
their compofition ; fuch as Torone, Torete, Toreate : alfo 
in Hetruria, Torchonium. Turzon in Africa was a tower 
of the 5-^ Sun. It was fometimes expreffed Tar, hence Tar- 
cunia, Taracena, Tarracon in Spain, Tarne (Tar-ain) which 
gave name to a fountain in Lydia; Taron (Tar-On) in Mau- 
ritania. Towers of old were either Prutaneia, or light- 
houfes, and were ftiled Tor-Is : whence came the Turris of 
the Romans. Sometimes thefe terms were reverfed, and the 
tower was called Aflur. Such a one was near fome hot 

"• I Kings, c. 15. V. 27. 

'' In Canaan was a well known region called Palcelline. 

So Tan-agra, Tan-is, Tyndaris. 

Tin in fome languages lignified, mud, or foil. 

'"* PtQlemy. 1. 4. p. 112. 



flreams at no great diftance from Cicero's Villa. It Is thus 
defcribed by Plutarch : Ag-v^d — yj^^iov %c/.^OLKioy KiKS^mog. 
The river too was called Aftura. There was alfo a place of 
this name oppolite to the ifland Lefbos, undoubtedly de- 
nominated from the like circumftances in its fituation ; as 
may be learned from Paufanias, who had feen it. 'T<J6i)^ (jg 
CLTto Ttiffym oLVB^yyiJLBVQV fjLsT^civ i^m oi^ci Bv Ag-v^oig' raJe 
Ag-v^ct aTToiniK^v s?i Ascr^a' "hovr^oL eg-i ^s^fj^a bv tw Atcl^vbi 


Caph, Cap, and Cephas, fignify a rock ; and alfo any 
promontory or headland. As temples ufed to be built upon 
eminences of this fort ; we find this word often compounded 
with the titles of the Deity there worfhiped, as Caph-El, 
Caph-El-On, Caph-Aur, Caph-Arez, Caph-Is, Caph-Is- 
Ain, Caph-Ait ; whence came Cephale, Cephalonia, Ca- 
phareus, Capifa, Cephifus, CapifTene, Cephene, Caphyat^, 
Capatiani* In Iberia was a wonderful edifice upon the ri- 
ver Boetis, mentioned by Strabo, and called Turris Capionis. 
It was a Pharos, dedicated, as all fuch buildings were, to the 
Sun : hence it was named Cap-Eon, Petra Soils. It feems 
to have been a marvellous ftrudlure. Places of this fort, which 
had towers upon them, were called Caphtor. Such a one 
was in Egypt, or in its ^' vicinity : whence the Caphtorim 
had their name. It was probably near ^^' Pelufium, which 
they quitted very early for the land of Canaan. 

Diu fometimes, but fparingly, occurs for an ifland; and is 

" See Amos. c. 9. v. 7. 

'^ Jeremiah, c. 47. v. 4. fpeakaof the ifland of Caphtor in Egypt. 



generally by the Greeks changed to Dia, A/a. The purport' 
of it may be proved from its being uniformly adapted to the 
fame objedt. The Schaliaft upon Theocritus takes notice 
that the ifland Naxos was called Dia : "Aiaj' i:tp uvp KCiKufJLSViriJ' 

Najoy ; and he adds, Tro?^^:^ ^3- zai irs^ai si(n Vi'i^roi Aiai za- 
TKBiJLSvai, rjTS tt^o t/j? K^JiTii? — rj irs^i Mrikov, kc/.i yi ttb^i^ 

All thefc were iflands, or penini'ular regions.. 

BET H.. 

Beth is a houfe or temple ; as in jg Beth-El, Beth-DagoHy. 
Beth-Shemefh, Beth-Oron, or Beth-Or-On, &c. &c. It is 
fometimes fubjoined, as in Phar-beth, and Elifa-beth ; the 
latter of which is the houfe of" Elifa, the fame as Elufa of 
Idume, and Eleufa of Egypt. Beth was in different coun^ 
tries expreffed Bat, Bad, Abad. Hence we meet at th-'s day 
with Pharfabad, Aftrabad, Amenabad, Mouftafabad, lahena-r 
bad in Perfia, India, and other parts of the eaft. Balbec in 
Syria is fuppofed to be the fame as Balbeth, the temple of Bal, 
or the Sun. There are^ fays ^° Dr. Pocock, 7na?iy cities in 

" Theocritas. Tdy]l. 2. v. 45. Scholia. 

It is ftilL common in the Arabian Gulf, and in India', and is often exprefled 
Dive, and Diva ; as in Lacdive, Serandive, Maldive. Before Goa is an ifland 
called Dill v.a.'x s^o^nv. 

'* Ea<G>7A, oiKCi 0ea. Hefychius. 

Eai6»A, bcioi vctQi. Suidas. 

" Elifa, called Eliza, Elefa, Eleafa, EKixax. i Maccab. c. 9. v. 5- and c. 7.- 
V, 40. often contrafted Lefa, Lafa, &c. 

60 Pocock's Travels. Vol. 2. p. io6. 



Syria^ that retain their ancient names. Of this Balbecl^ or ra- 
ther Balheit^ is an i7ij}ance ; which Jigjiijies the houfe or temph 
of Baal, Gulielmus Tyrius, fo called from being bifhop of 
Tyre, who wrote of the Holy war, alludes to Baalbec, under 
the name of "* Balbeth. He lived in the eleventh century, 
and died anno 1127. According to lablonfky, Bee and 
Beth are of the fame meaning. Atarbec in Egypt is the 
temple of Atar or Athar ; called Atarbechis by ^'' Herodotus. 
The fame is Athyr-bet, and ftiled Athribites (A^^£;/3;t»5j) 
by *^^ Strabo. The inner recefs of a temple is by Phavorinus 
and Hefychius called Bcutj}?, Bsri^?, Bst/?, fimilar to i^n rra 
among the Chaldeans. It was the crypta or facred place, 
where of old the everlafting fire was preferved. Hefychius 
obferves, Bstj}?, to azoK^vipov ^iB^og ra 'Is^a. Bet-Is fio-nifies 
the place of fire. 

It is faid of Horapollo by Suidas, that he was a native of 
Phainubuth in Egypt, belonging to the nome of Panopolis : ' 
^ €l^oL7roXKm ^a,im^vds(t)g ;io;|Otjj; th TloLvoToKiVd NofjLu. Phai- 
nubuth is only Phainabeth varied, and fignifies the place 
facred to Phanes ; which was one of the mod ancient titles 
of the Deity in Egypt. So Pharbeth was an abbreviation of 
Pharabeth, or the houfe of Pharaoh. 

G A U, expreffed C A U, C A, and C O. 

Gau likewife is a term which fignifies a houfe ; as we learn 

*' lablonfky. Vol. i. 1. i. c. i. p, 4. dc Gulielmo Tyrio, ex libro 21. c. 6. 
** Herodotus. L. 2. c. 41. 
*3 Strabo. L. 17. p. 1167. 

Vol. I, O from 


from Plutarch, The great and decifive battle between A}ex^ 
ander and .Darius is generally faid to have been fought at 
Arbela. But we are affured by this writer, that it was de:T 
cided at Gaugamela*^ He fays, that Gau fignified in the 
language of the country a houfe : and that the purport of 
the word Gaugamela was the houfe of a camel. This name, 
it feems, was given to the town on account of a tribute exv 
aded for the maintenance of a camel, which had faved the life 
of fome king, when he fled from battle : and the reafon why 
the victory of Alexander was adjudged to Arbela, arofe from 
its being more famous than the other place : for Gaugamela 
was not of fufficient repute : therefore the honour of this 
vidlory was given to Arbela, though it was according to 
fome five hundred, according to others fix hundred ftadia *^ 
from the field of battle. I have not now time, nor is it to 
my purpofe, to enter into a thorough difcuffion of this point: 
I will only mention it as my opinion, that Arbela and Gau?- 
gamela were the fame place. The king alluded to is faid by 
" Strabo to have been Darius the fon of Hyllafpes. But is 
it credible, that fo great a prince, who had horfes of the far 

*■* Tat/Ta y-ev ovv 'E^aToSuvrA l(^ooY,y.iv' rnv cTg (/.iyaMv ^a^nv vrgoi AapSiOf 
cvK iv Ap^nXoii — aMa iv T avy afj-nhon yniaBxt avviiriciv' any.ocnsiv j'e (pccaii/ 
ctxiv Ka^-nAa Twi'cT/aAfjcToi'. Plutarch, vita Alexand. Vol. i. p. 683. 

Strabo fays the fame. E<^i f^ev ow tottos sina-nfAOi aTcs, xa/ TouvofAo.' fxi^s^^ 
fj.wiv^sv ycc^ sq'i Ka/x)jAa otKOi. L. 10. p. 1072. 

"''0< fJi£v roc TrKHq-ct. ivyy^a.-\a.vTei P^eyaan; oTt e^axocisi c^aSiSi airf^si^ 
Qi^s TO. e^^a^ii^cc, oTi a Trsi'TccxoaiBi. 

AAAa ev Tauyajx-nKon ya.^ yiveadai tw fJiK^w t^oc tw Troraf/.u Be//.<xSu As- 
yei YlToMixoLioi xcci A^i^o^uAoi' TrcAiS Ss bjc w to. T <xuya.i/.'ti^a.^ aMa x^ixn 
IxiyaKrt, uSe ovo}Aa.<^oi X'^pofj BcTe en ay.ow r.i'u to ovofjio.. ^ 

Arrian. Expedit. Alex. L. 6. p. 247. 

•^ Strabo. L. 16. p. 1072; 



mous breed of Nyfa, as well as thofc of Perfis and Arabia 
the moft fleet of their kind, fliould be fo circumftanced in 
battle, as to be forced to mount a camel, that could fcarce 
move fix miles in an hour : and this at a time when the 
greatell: difpatch was neceflary? This author gives a different 
reafon for the place being thus denominated. He fays, that 
it was allotted for the maintenance of a camel, which ufed 
to bring the king's provifions from Scythia, but was tired 
and failed upon the road. I know not which of the two 
circumftances in this fhort detail is moft exceptionable ; a 
king of Perfia's provifions being brought to Babylon, or Su- 
fhan from Scythia ; or a tired camel having fuch a penfion. 
The truth is this : the Grecians mifinterpreted the name, 
and then forged thefe legendary (lories to fupport their 
*^ miftake. Had they underflood the term, they would have 
been confiftent in their hiflory. Gau, and, as it v/as at times 
exprefled, Cau, certainly fignifies a houle, or temple: alfo a 
cave, or hollow j near which the temple of the Deity was 
founded. For the Amonians ereded raofl: of their facred 
edifices near caverns, and deep openings of the earth. Gau- 
gamela was not the houfe of a camel, as Plutarch and Strabo 
would perfuade us, notv/ithftandlng the flories alledged m 
fupport of the notion: but it was the houfe and temple of 
Cam-El, the Deity of the country. Arbela was a place fa- 
cred to Bel, called Arbel, S3 TK of the Chaldeans. It was 

"' Strabo acknowledges the failure of his countrymen in this refpefl. — floAAct ovi' Kcti y.n ovtcc Kiy'daiv ot Ao^xnt Xvyypx(^5ti, cruyT£^Pci.fy.y.t!'ji ry -^ivSn Sia. 
THi iJjJ]i^Koyia.i- 1. 8. p. 524. 

O 2 the 


the fame as Beth Arbcl of '* Hofca : and Gaugamela is of 
the fame purport, relating to the fame God under different 
titles. The Grecians were grofly ignorant in refpedt to fo- 
reign events, as Strabo repeatedly confeffes : and other writ- 
ers do not fcruple to own it. Lylimachus had been an attend- 
ant upon Alexander during the whole feries ot his conquefts 
in Afia : there had been nothing of moment tranfadted ; in 
the fuccefs of which he had not partaken. Yet even in his 
days, when he was king of Thrace, the accounts of thofe 
great actions liad been fo mifreprefented, that when a hiflory 
of them was read in his prcfence, they feemed quite new to 
him. It is all very fine, fays the prince ; but where was I 
when all this happened ? There was a feries of events exhi- 
bited, with which the perfon mofl: interefted was leaft ac- 
quainted. We may then well imagine, that there exifted in the 
time of Plutarch many miftakes, both in refpedl to the geo- 
graphy of countries very remote, and to the ^^ language of 
nations, with whom the Romans were little acquainted. The 
great battle, of which we have been fpeaking, was confeffedly 

''^ All thy fortreffes Jhall be fpoiled, as Shalman fpoiled Beth Arhel in the day of 
battle. The mother was dafied in pieces upon her children. Hofea. c. lo. v. 14. 
yfr in this place does not fignify a city; but ^l**, the title of the Deity : from 
whence was derived Uqk of the Greeks. The feventy, according to feme of 
their beft copies, have rendered Beth Arbel cikov Jg^c-DaaA, which is no impro. 
per verfion of Beth-Aur-Bel. In fome copies we find it altered to the houfe of 
Jeroboam; but this is a millake for Jero-Baal. Arbelus is by fome reprefented as 
the firlt deified mortal. Cyril contra Julian. 1. i. p. 10. and 1. 3. p. no. 

There was an Arbela in Sicily, Stephanus, and Suidas. Alfo in Galilee ; fitu- 
ated upon a vaft cavern. Jofephus feized and fortified it. Jofephi Vita, p. 29. 

" See Strabo. 1. 11. p. 774. 1. 15. p. 1006. 1. i. p, 41, p. 81. 

See alfo PhiloBiblius apud Eufeb. P. E. 1. i. c, lo, p. 34. lamblichus. § 7. c 5, 



10 1 

fought at Gaugamela. Ptolemy Ceraiinus, who was prefent, 
averred it ; as did Ariftobulus : and it has been recorded by- 
Plutarch and others. It is alfo adjudged to Arbela by perfons 
of equal credit : and it muft certainly have been really there 
tranfa^ted : for notwithftanding the palliating excufe of Plu- 
tarch, it is utterly incredible in refped to fo great a viclory, 
that the fcene of adtion fhould be determined by this place, 
if it were fixty, or, as fome fay, feventy miles out of the way. 
But in reality it was at no fuch diflance. Diodorus Siculus 
fays, that Alexander immediately after the vidory attacked 
Arbela, and took it : and found in it many evidences of its 
being a place of confequence. ^° 0a\|/a? Tag TSTsX£vrr,}iOTocg 
STTsl^ccKs Toig A^^riMiC) kcj 7roXKr,v fXBv iv^sv ol^Qoviolv tj], 
T^O(pr]gj ovK o7\iyov h KoCfjLOPj KCii ycni^'-vj ^(JL^ui^iy.T\V ^ a^yv^ia Js 
rxXanoL ^icr'^iKic/. The battle was fought fo near the city, 
that Alexander was afraid ofl'ome contagion from the dead 
bodies of the enemy, which lay clofe by it in great abun- 

I have mentioned, that Gaugamela was the temple of 
Cham-El, or Cham-Il. This was a title of the Deity brought 
from Chaldea to Egypt ; and from thence to Greece, He- 
truria, and other regions. The Greeks out of different titles, 
and combinations, formed various Deities ; and then invent- 
ed different degrees of relation, which they fuppofed to have 
fubfifted between them. According to AcuflJaus Cham-ll was 
the Son of Vulcan, and Cabeira. ^' A/^(r/Aao? os o A^ysiog SK 
KoL^si^r,g koli 'HipatfaKapAo; ?^£yei. He was by others ren- 

^''' Diodoriis Siculus. 1. 17. p. 538. He makes no mention of Gaugamela. 
II Strabo. 1. 10. p. 724. 



dered Camillus, whofe attendants were the Camilli ; and lie 
was elleemed the fame as Hermes of Egypt. ^^ Statins Tul- 
lianus de vocabuHs rerum libro primo ait dixiffe Callima- 
chum, Tufcos Camillum appellare Mercurium, &c. Romani 
quoque pueros et puellas nobiles et inveftes Camiilos et Ca- 
millas appellant, Flaminicarum et Flaminum prseminiftros. 
Servius fpeaks to the fame purpofe. '^ Mercurius Hetrufca lin- 
gua Camillus dicitur. The reafon of the attendants being alfo 
called Camilli was in confequence of a cuftom among the 
ancients of conferring generally upon the priefts the title of 
the Deity, whom they ferved. The Camilli were commonly 
young perfons of good family, as we learn from Plutarch ; 
and were to be found in the temples of Jupiter, or Zeus : for 
Zeus and Hermes were originally the fame : ^'^ Kai rov VTrri- 

(fg KOLi roil 'E^jjiYiv' ^rojg evioi TOiv 'EAAj^m'> KocfJuT^T^ov cctto rng 
^LCLKOViag 7r^c(rY}yo^£vov. He mentions E^[/.r,i,' — Ka^i7<hov olt^o 
Tt,g ^icuKcviagj and fuppofes that Camillus had the name of 
Hermes from the limilarity of his office, which was waiting 
upon the Gods. But the Chaldeans and Egyptians from 
whom thefe titles were borrowed, efteemed Hermes as the 
chief Deity, the fame as Zeus, Bel, and Adon. They knew 
nothing of Mercurius pedifiequus, nor Hermes the lacky. 
They ftiled their chief God Cam- II, or Camillus, and his 
priefts had the fame title. He did not borrow it from them ; 
but they received it from him. The name is fometimes expreffed 

■"* Macrobius. Satum. 1. 3. c. 8. p. 284. 
'5 Servius in lib. 1 1. ^neid. v. 558. 
'< Plutarch in Numa. p. 64. 

Camulus ; 


Camulus : and the Amonians, who travelled weflward, 
brought his rites and vvorlliip into the weflern parts of Eu- 
rope : hence there are infcriptions to be found infcribed 
" Camulo San6lo Fortiflimo. He was fometimes taken for 
Mars : as we may learn from an infcription in Gruter. 


Ob Salutem Tiberi Claud. Cxf. Cives Remi pofuerunt. 

Such is the hiftory of this Deity ; whofe worfhip was 
better known in the more early ages ; and whofe temple was 
filled Gau-Camel, by the Greeks rendered Gaugamela. I 
make no doubt but that Arbela was the fame place : for 
places had as many names as the Deity worfhiped had titles. 
Arbela was probably the city, and Gaugamela the "temple; 
both facred to the {ame Deity under different names. 

It is remarkable that Syncellus, fpeaking of Venephres 
King of Egypt, fays, that he built the pyramids of ^* Co- 
chone ; which are the principal pyramids of that country, 
Eufebius before him had taken notice of the fame hiftory : 
" OvsvB':p^r,gj gip' 6v Ki^JLog Karsrys Triv yjti^oLv^ og juxi ro^g 
Xly^a^aiJa? tts^i Ko'^(£yriV rjysi^sy. Fenep/jres was a prince, in 
whofe time happened a famine in the land of Egypt. He was 
the fa?ne, who built the Pyramids about Cochone. Now Co- 
Chone, analogous to Beth-El, Beth-Shan, Beth-Dagon, fig- 
nifies the temple of the Deity ; the lioufe of the great king, 

■" Gruter. P. Ivi. n. ii. vol. r. 

76 Gruter. Vol. i. P. Ivi. 12. alfo P. xl. 9. 

■77 Or elle Beth-Arbel was another name of the fame temple.. 

7* Syncellus. P. p,Ci. 

J9 Eufetii Chron. P. 14. 



or ruler : for fuch is the purport of Con, and Conah. Her- 
rules, the chief Deity of Tyre, and who was alfo highly re- 
verenced in Egypt, was ftiled Con. ^° Tov 'H^ctuKriv (pr\(n fcct" 
7a Tf\v AiyvTrnoov ^ioCK^ktov Ka;j/« AsysT^af. From hence we 
find, that it was a facred Egyptian title. According to fome 
readings the place is exprefied Cocome ; which is of the fame 
purport. Co-Chome, the fame as Cau-Come, fignifies the 
houfe of Chom, or the Sun ; and feems to betray the pur- 
pofe, for which the chief pyramid was ereded : for it was 
undoubtedly nothing elfe but a monument to the Deity, 
whofe name it bore. According to ^' Herodotus the great 
pyramid was built by Cheops ; whom others called Chaops. 
But Chaops is a fimilar compound ; being made up of the 
terms Cha-Ops, and fjgnifies omog Ylvrnvog^ domus Opis Ser- 
pentis. It was the name of the pyramid, which was ereded 
to the Sun, the Ophite Deity of Egypt, worfhiped under 
the fymbol of a ferpent. Analogous to Cau-Come in Egypt 
was a place in Ethiopia, called ^* Cufcha : doubtlefs fo 
ftamed from Chus, the great anceflor, from whom the 
Ethiopians were defcended. 

The Sun was ftiled by the Amonians, among other titles, 
Zan ; as I have before fhewn : and he was worfhiped under 
this denomination all over Syria, and Mefopotamia s efpecially 
at Emefa, EdelTa, and Heliopolis. One region was named 
^Gauzanitis from a city Gauzan, the Gofan of the *^ Scrip- 

*° Etymologicum magnum. 'HjcaJcAw. 

^' Herodotus. L. 2. c. 124. 

*^ Geog. Nubienfis. P. 17. 

Michaelis Geog. Hebrseorum Extera. P. 154. 

*3 % Kings, c. 1 7. V. 6. and c. j8. v. 11. alfo i Chron, c. 5. v. 26, 

A. tures. 


tures. Strabo calls it ^^ Xct^m, Cha-Zene, and places it- 
near Adiabene. Gauzan, or Go-zan, is literally the iioufe 
of the Sun. I once thought that the land of Gofnen in Hgypt 
was of the fame purport as Cufhan ; and have fo mentioned 
it in a former ^^ treatife. So far is true : the land of Go- 
fhen was the land of Cufhan, and pofleffed by the fons of 
Clius : but the two terms are not of the fame meanino:. Go- 
fhen, or Gofhan, like Gauzan in Mefopotamia, fignifies 
the temple of the Sun : hence it was as a city rendered by 
the Greeks Heliopolis; Artapanus, as we learn from Eu- 
febius, expreffes it Caifan, KccKTav. Go-Shan, Gau Zari, 
Caifan, Cazena, all denote a place facred to the Sun ; and 
are fuch variations in rendering the fame term, as mufl: be 
expe<Sled in an interval of fifteen hundred years, and from 
different tranfcribers. This luminary was alfo called Abor, 
the parent of light ; and his temple Cha-Abor, and Cho- 
Abor, contracted Chabor, and Chobar. Of this name both 
a city and river were to be found in Gauzanitis ; as well as 
in Su liana, and other parts : for rivers often took thdr names 
from fome temple, or city, by which they ran. The temple 
at Dodona was of old called Cha-On, or houfe of the Sun ; 
as we may infer from the country having the name of Cha- 
onia : for Chaonia is the land of Chaon. The priefls and 
inhabitants were called ^* Chaones from their place of wor- 
fliip : and the former had alfo the name ^^ of Belli, which fig- 

'"* Strabo. L. 16. p. 1070. 

'' Obfervations upon the Ancient Hiftory of Egypt. P. 175. 
^^ Strabo. L. 7. p. 505. So alfo Herodotus and Paufanias. 
*' 2sA/>.oi, 0; ^'ji^bivaioi. Steph. Byzantinus. 

2o< I'BCiST \nro%riTO(.t. Homer. Iliad. 17. v. 234." 

Vol. I. P nifies 


nifies the priefts of the Sun. In Arcadia, near the eruption 
of the river EraGnus, was a mountain, clothed with beau- 
tiful trees, and facrcd to Dionufus. This alfo was called 
'" Chaon, the place of the Sun ; and was undoubtedly fo named 
from the ancient worfhip : for Dionufus was of old efteemed 
the fame as Ofiris, the Sun. There was alfo a place called 
*' Chaon in Media, and Syria ; Chaonitis in Mefopotamia; 
and in all thefe places the fame worfhip prevailed. So 
Caballis, the city of the Solymi, was named from Ca-bal, 
the place of the god Bal, or Baal. It is mentioned by 
Strabo. In like manner Caballion, in GaHia Narbonenfis, 
is a compound of Ca-Abelion, a well known Deity, whofe 
name is made up of titles of the Sun. Thepriefls of this place 
were fliled ^^ Salies ; the region was called Xaoiia^a ; un- 
doubtedly from Cha-Our, (mNJ fome temple of Ur, eredled 
by the Amonians, who here fettled. Canoubis in Egypt 
was a compound of Ca-Noubis ; Cabafa in the fame coun- 
try, Ca-Bafa ; called by many Befa, the Befeth of the Scrip- 
tures, a Goddefs well known in Egypt. She had a temple 
in Canaan called ^' Beth Befa. Cuamon, near Efdraelon, is 
a compound of Cu-Amon, the place or houfe of Amon: 
^' 26tJ^ T8 K.vcLiJLU]VOi, There was a temple in Attica called Cu- 
amites ; and a perfonage denominated from it. The hiflory 

^® Paufanias. L. 2. p. 166. 

8' It is called Chau-On, Xauwr, by Steph. Byzantinns, from Ctefias. Xxvav, 
'ywca. ry.i M««r<a?. Kiwc-iaf: ev 'srooor^ Tlifaixw. Chau-On is axoi flA<H, the houfe 
of the Sun, which gave name to the diftrid, 

'• Strabo. L. 4. p. 270. and p. 282. 

5' I Maccab. c. 9. v. 62, 64. 

'-Judith, c. 7. V. 3. 



of the place, and the rites, in time grew obfolete ; and Pau- 
fanias fuppofes, that the name was given from Kva^og^ Cu- 
amos, a bean. '* Xacpsg h ov^bv s'^oo KsysiVj bits vr^MTog Kv- 
a^xag btttbi^bv ovrog I have not authority for the fuppofuion^ 
but it feeins probable that this temple was ereEled to the me??iory 
offorne perfon.yivho firjl fowed beans. And here it is proper 
to take notice of a circumllance, of which I muft continu- 
ally put the reader in mind; as it is of great confequence to- 
wards decyphering the mythology of ancient times. The 
Grecians often miftook .the place of worfhip for the Deity 
worfhipped : fo that the names of many Gods are in reality 
the names of temples where they were adored. Artemis was 
Ar-Temis, the city of Themis, or Thamis ; the Thamuz of 
Sidon and Egypt. This the Greeks expreffed A^T£|Ct/j, and 
made it the name of a Goddefs. Kir-On was the city and 
temple of the Sun in Cyprus, and other places. They changed 
this to Kironus, which they contracted Cronus : and out of 
it made a particular God. From Cha-Opis they formed a 
king Cheops ; from Cayfter, the fame as Ca After, they fan- 
cied a hero, Cayftrius; from Cu-Bela, Cybele ; from Cu- 
Baba, Cybebe. Cerberus, the dog of hell, was denominated 
from Kir-Abor ; as I fhall hereafter '^ fliew. 

I have mentioned Caucon, or Caucone in Egypt : there 
was a place of the fame name in Greece. It was originally 
facred to the Sun ; and the priefts and inhabitantSj were 

'■* Paufanias. 1. i. p. 91. 

" There were many places and temples of Baal, denominated Caballis, Ca- 
bali. Cabala, Cabalia, Cabalion, Cabaliffa, &c. which are mentioned by Pliny, 
Strabo, Antoninus, and others. Some of thera were compounded of Caba : con- 
cerning which I fliall hereafter treat. 

P 2 called 


called Caucones. Inftead of Con, which fignifies the great 
Lord; the Greeks fubflituted a hero ''^ Caucon, who was 
fuppofed to have firft introduced thofe Orgies, pra6tifed by 
the Meffenians. It was properly a temple of the Sun ; and 
there was another of the fame name in Bithynia, and from 
thence the country was called Cauconia. I fliall hereafter 
treat at large of Cuthite colonies, which went abroad, and 
fettled in different parts. One of the firft operations when 
they came on fhore was to build temples, and to found cities 
in memory or their principal anceftors, who in procefs Oi 
time were worfhippcd as Deities. A colony of this people 
fettled at Colchis, which they called Cutaia ", from the head 
of their family, filled both Chus and Cuth. We may infer, 
that they built a temple which was called Ca-Cuta : and 
from which the region was alfo denominated : for it is cer- 
tain, that it has that name at this ^^ day. Cocutus, which we 
render Cocytus, was undoubtedly a temple in Egypt. It 
gave name to a flream, on which it flood ; and which was 
alfo called the Charonian branch of the Nile, and the river 
Acheron. It was a foul canal, near the place of Sepulture, 
oppoilte to Memphis, and not far from Cochone. Cocutus 
was the temple of Cutus or Cuth: for he was fo called by 
many of his poPcerity. A temple of the fame was to be 
found in Epirus, upon a river Cocutus. Here was alfo a 

'* Paufanias. 1. 4. p. 282. 

Strabo mentions Caucones in Elea. ]. S. p. 531. The Caucones are alfo men- 
tioned by Homer. OdyfT. y. v. ^66. 

Caucane in Sicily was of the fame purport, mentioned by Ptolemy 1. 3. c. 4. 

«■' Apollonius Rhodius Ililes it Cutais : Kvra.lJ'ci Sia.ya.m. h 4. v. 512. 

i*" See De Lifle's curious map of Armenia and the adjacent parts of Al- 
bania, &c. 



river Acheron, and a lake Acherufia : for a colony from 
Egypt fettled here ; and the ftream was of as foul a nature 
as that near Memphis. '9 'pg^ ^Jg }c&.i Kw/^yro? yJw^ ars^- 

Juno is by Varro ftiled Covella. '°° Dies quinque te kalo, 
Juno Covella ; Juno Covella, dies feptem te kalo. Here, as 
in many inftances, the place of worfhip is taken for the per- 
fon, to whom the worship is directed. Covella is only a va- 
riation for Cou-El, or Co- El, the houfe or region of the 
Deity, and fignifies heavenly. It is accordingly by Varro 
interpreted Urania, Ov^dVicL : whence Juno Covella muft be 
rendered Cceleftis. From the fubftantive, Cou-El, the Ro- 
mans formed Coel, heaven ; in aftertimes exprefled Coelus, 
and Cesium. I fay, in aftertimes : for they originally called 
it Co-el, and Co-il, and then contra6led it to Ccel. Hence 
Aufonius in his Grammaticomaftix mentions a pafTage to 
this purpofe. 

Unde Rudinus ait Divom domus altifonum Coel : or as 

" Paufanias. L. i. p. 40. 

There was a river Acheron in Elis. Strabo. L. 8. p. 530. And the fame 
rites were obferved in honour of the Otss fj.vtcty^of, that were pradifed in 
Cyrene. Clement. Cohort. P. 3^. 

In Pontus was a river Acheron. I:i9a cTg y.ce.i Tnyc^oai TroTxy-'d A^yspvTos laaiv. 
Apollon. Argonaut. L. 2. v. 745. alfo c-^oac A^^iPt^atx- The like to be found 
near Cuma in Campania : and a ftory of Hercules driving away Hies there alfo. 
'Pufj-ccici Si a-ro/y.wij 'V\oa.v,Kii (9'j:?cr/). Clementis Cohort, ibid. 

100 Varro de Ling. Lat. Lib. 5. p. 49. altered to Novelia by fome, contrary 
to the authority of the befi; MSS. See Scaliger's notes. P. 81. Edit, anno 
1619. Dordrechti. 

See Seldcn de Diis Syris. Syntag. 2. c. 2. p. 174. In vetuftioribus excufis de 
Re Ruftica non Novella, fed Covella legitur. Covella autem Coelcftis, five Ura- 
nia interpretatur. 

Vol. I. P 3 Ennius, 

no. radicals; 

Ennius, to whom he alludes, has rendered it, according to* 
the prefent MSS, abifonum ' Coil. He fometimes fubjoins 
the Lacine termination : 

Coilum profpexit flellis fulgcntibuc aptum. 

Glim de Coiio laivum dedit inclytus fignum. 

Saturmis, quern Coilus genuvit» 

Unus erit, quern tu tollas in Coirila Coili 

Goslus in aftertimes was made a Deity : hence there are 
infcriptions dedicated - Ccelo iEterno. The ancient Deity 
Celeus, mentioned by ^ Athenagoras, and faid to have been 
worfhiped at Athens, was the fame as the above,. 

Many places and regions, held facred, and called Coel by 
the Amonians, were by the Greeks rendered KoiKdj cava. 
Hence we read of Ko<Aif] Accks^c/a(j.oop , KoiT^yj HKig, and the 
like. Syria was by them fliled KoiAio, the hollow : but the 
true name was Coela, the heavenly or facred. It was fo 
denominated from the Cuthites, who fettled there^on ac- 
count of the religion eftablifhed. Hence it was alfo named 
Shem, and Shama ; which are terms of like purport, and fig- 

' Ennii Annal. L. r. 

* The Pcrfians worHiiped CceIus •, which is alkided to by Herodorus, when 
he fays, that they facrificed upon eminences : Tov -/.vxAcv ■Tra.jTct tci Ovoayy Aia:. 
:na.?^iQvri'i. L. I.e. 131. To the iame purpofe Euripides ; 

Opai TOV via tov S' (XTritcov arkcx, 
lev ynv 7rf^;f f;^s('& vypan iv ccyxvAxi? ; 

TbTCI' VOjXtC^e "Z^VVa, TOV d ' ^yov /lix. 

Clement. Alexand. Strom. L. 5. p. 717. Plutarch. P. 369. p. 424. 

Aipice hoc fublime candens, quern invocant omnes Jovcm. Cicero de Na- 
tura Deor. L. i. 

' AAA' A^fiiciiot fjiiv KeAtor, kcli Ki')ai'afav iS^wTxi Gsfs. Athenag. Lcgat. 
P. 29c* 

ni fy 


nify divine, or heavenly. It is a name, which it retains at 
this day ; as we are informed by '^ Abulfeda, and others. 
Elis Coela was the moft facred part of Greece ; cfpecially 
the regions of Olympia, Cauconia, and Azania. It was de- 
nominated Elis from HA, Eel, the Sun : and what the Greeks 
rendered KoiKyj, of old meant ^ heavenly. Hence Homer 
ftyleth it peculiarly '^ HXi^cc ^lav, Elis the facred. As Coele 
Syria was ftiled Sham, and Sama ; fo we find places, which 
have a reference to this term, in Elis. A town of great 
antiquity was named ^- Samicon, which fignifies Cceli Do- 
minus. Here was alfo a temple of Pofeidon Samius, fur- 
rounded with a grove of olives ; and there were feftivals ob- 
ferved, which were called Samia. There was likewife of old 
a city named Sama, or Samos : which Strabo imagines, 
might have been fo named from its high fituation : for high 
places were called * Samia. It certainly fignifies in fome de- 
gree high ; but the true meaning of Sama was heavenly, 
fimilar to Sam, Sham, Shamem,. of the eafiern nations. 
Hence Same, Samos, Samothrace, Samacon, were denomi- 
nated on account of their fan6lity. Strabo fuppofes,. that 
the city Samos in Elis was fituated in the Samian plain : it 
therefore could not well have this name from its high fitu- 

•♦ Abulfeda. Tabula SyriiE. P. 5. 

NaffirEttufeus. P. 93. apud Geog. vet. 

' The cicy Argos was in like manner called KojAoi/; DaAAaK;? to A^-)oi KoiXoy 
(fnai^xcc^acTreo ev Eiriyoi'oti. To KOIAON A^-yoi ax iT oixtia-ovT iTi,~'iit xxi iv 
Qctixv^ob, Apyiilio!?.'^. Scholia in Sophoc. CEdipum Colon. 

* Iliad. B. V. 615. 

■" Strabo. L. 8. p. 529. 

' Strabo. L. 8. p. 534. 

5 atlon. 


•atlon. It Is moreover inconfiftent to fuppofe regions called 
KOiXcty or cava, to have been denominated from Sama, high. 
•In fhort both terms have been miftaken : and Coilus in the 
-original acceptation certainly fignified heavenly : whence we 
read in Hefychius, as alfo in Suidas, KoioAi^^, o Is^Bvg, By 
-which we learn, that by Coioles was meant a facred or hea- 
venly perfon ; in other words, a prieft of Coelus. In Coioles 
there is but a fmall variation from the original term ; which 
was a compound from Coi-El, or Co-El, the Coelus of the 

Concerning the term Coel in Ennius, ' Janus Gulielmus 
takes notice, that this poet copied the Dorians in uling ab- 
breviations, and writing Ccel for Coelus and Coelum. But 
herein this learned perfon is midaken. The Dorians were 
not fo much to be blamed for their abbreviating, as the 
other Greeks were for their unnecefTary terminations, and 
inflexions. The more fimple the terms, the more ancient 
and genuine we may for the moft part efleem them : and in 
the language of the Dorians we may perceive more terms re- 
lative to the true mythology of the country, and thofe ren- 
dered more flmilar to the ancient mode of expreflion, than 
are elfewhere to be found. We mufl: therefore, in all ety- 
mological inquiries, have recourfe to the Doric manner of 
pronunciation, to obtain the truth. They came into Greece, 
■or Hellotia, under the name of Adorians ; and from their 
iimplicity of manners, and from the little intercourfe main- 
tained with foreigners, they preferved much of their ancient 

Janus Gulielmus Laurenbergius, Antiquarius. 



tongue. For this there may be another additional reafon 
obtained from Herodotus ; who tells us, that they were 
more immediately defcended from the people of the '" eaft. 
The ancient hymns, fung in the Prutaneia all over Greece, 
were " Doric : fo facred was their dialedl efteemed. Hence 
they cannot but afford great help in inquiries of this nature. 
What was by others ftiled A^rj^/], they exprefled A^a:/a : 
Cheops they rendered Chaops : Zeen, Zan : Xa^riV^-, Xcc^cci/cc: 
MrjVj May : Mencs, Manes : Orchenoi, Orchanoi : Neith, 
Naith : lr,n(rogj lancrog -. Hephsflus, Hephaftus : Caiete, Cai- 
ate : Demeter, Damater : all which will be found of great 
confequence in refpe6l to etymology. And if they did 
not always admit of the terminations ufed by their neigh- 
bours ; they by thefe means preferved many words in their 
primitive ftate : at lead they were nearer to the originals. 
They feem to have retained the very term, of which I have 
been treating. It was by them ftiled Xaf, Cai ; and (igni- 
fied a houfe, or cave : for the firft houfes in the infancy of 
the world are fuppofed to have been caves or grottos'". 
They expreffed it Cai, Caia, Caias, flmilar to the cava, 
cavus, and cavea of the Romans. When thefe places were 
of a great depth, or extent, they were looked upon with 

'• 4>xit/oice.To a.v iwiii 01 tcov Aa>^i?cav i]y€fj(.avei Aiyuvniot Sxynen. Herod. 
L. 6. c. 54. 

Of their original and hiftory I fhall hereafter give a full account. 

" Ottoctx S'e aSovcru' iv ru npurae.i'etUy (fuvn iJ.iv s-T' «ut&)!' « i^'jicm. Paufanias» 
I.. 5. p. 416. 

'* Turn primum fubiere domes -, domus antra fuerc. 

Ovid. Metamorph. L. i. v. 121. 

Vol. I. Q^ a I'^ii^^ 


a kind of religious horror. A cavern of this fort was at 
Lacedsmon, with a building over it ; of which in aftertimes 
they made ufe to confine malefactors. It was called Ka^aJV;?, j 
or as the Spartans expreffed it, Kaiaoa^, the houfe of death. 
'^ KoLioL^ag h^riimmov — ro 7:ol^ol KctKs^oLiiJLOvioig. Cai figni- 
fied a cavern : Adas, which is fubjoined, was the Deity, to 
whom it was facred, efteemed the God of the infernal regi- 
ons. He was by the lonians, &c. expreffed Ades, and Hades ; 
and by other nations Ait, and Atis. Hence thefe caverns 
were alfo ftiled KatsTS?, and KaiSTOi. The author above 
quoted gives us the terms varioufly exhibited : "^ Ka/eroi.— 
*Oz OLTto r(^v (TSKT^m fOJ'^fJ'Oi Ka/sTo/ Myonai. Kai KaioL^oLg 
70 ce(r[JLooTr}^iov snev^sv, to tcol^ol AaKsiaiixouioig, (TT^fikoLioi^, 
Hefychius renders it in the plural, and as a neuter : KcuccTcty 
o^vyfJUXTd. Whether it be compounded Cai-Ait, Cai-Atis, 
or Cai-Ades, the purport is the fame. The den of Gacus 
was properly a facred cave, where Chus was worfhiped, 
and the rites of fire were '^ pradifed. Cacus is the fame 
name as Cufcha in Ethiopia, only reverfed. The hiftory of 
i-t was obfolete in the days of Virgil ; yet fome traces of it 
ftill remained. 

Strabo fays, that many people called thefe caves, Kwo/, 

'* Strabo. L. 8. p. 564, 

Ic is mentioned by Thucydides: Es ror Ka.ici^cx.i;B7rf^ t85 xcczv^yHi ey.Ca.^- 
X^tv Stuiceto-av {01 AcLXi-^cctfj.ovioi.) L. I. C. 134' 

It is expreffld KgacTa? by Paulanias ; who fays that it was the place, dbwn 
which they threw Ariftomenes, the Meflenian hero. L. 4. p. 324. 

'* Strabo. Ibidem. 

.*' Huic msriilro Vulcanus erat pater : illiL',s atros 

Ore Yomens igncs, magna fe mole ferebat. Virgil, lEu. L. 8. v. igT,. 


R A D I C -^ L S. 115 

EpioiKmvg ^/.c^KKov ra toiolvtol fioihoi){j,scra \sye<rQcu pv.Tiv, 
Hence he very truly explains a paffage in Homer. The 
poet, fpcaking of Thefeus, Dryas, Polyphemus, and other 
heroes of the Mythic age, mentions their encountering with 
the mountaineers of Theffaly ; whom he fliles (pri^e; o^B(r- 

O^s<r'^Cf)0g fignihed a perfon, who lived in a mountain habi- 
tation : whofe retreat was a houfe in a mountain. Co, and 
•Coa, was the name of fuch houfe. Strabo fays, that this term 
is alluded to by Homer, when he fliles Lacedsemon '* Aolks- 
cccifxovct Krir(*3e<Tcra,Vj for it was by ma7iy thought to have been 
Jo called on accou?it of the caverns. From hence we may fairly 
conclude, that KY\r(f)B(T<ra. was a miftake, or at leaft a variation, 
for '5 mi£ms(r(ra,i from Cai-Atis ; and that Co, " Coa, Caia, 
were of the fame purport. 

But this term does not relate merely to a cavern ; but to 
temples founded near fuch places : oftentimes the cave itfelf 
was a temple. Caieta in Italy near Cuma, called by .Dio- 
dorus Ka/J)TJ5, was fo denominated on this account. It was 

'«::Strabo. 1, 8. p. 564. 
" Iliad. 1. I. V. 266. 
•8 Iliad. €. V. 5S1. 

Odyff.cT. V. i.'eiS^' t^ovKOlAHN Acc^eS^uty.oi'ccKHTnUZXAN. 
■'Strabo fays as much, 'Oi(^e,ori oiairo tuv a-eiay.uv pcD^fj-oi Kaieroi hiy^vrui, 
1. 8. p. 564. 

^° Hence the words cove, alcove, and perhaps to cover, and to cope. 

0^2 a cave 


a cave in the rock, abounding with variety of fubterranesj 
cut out into various apartments. Thefe were of old inha- 
bited by Amonian priefts :^ for they fettled in thefe parts 
very early. It feems to have been a wonderful work. 
""AyswysT snsvSsv (TTnrjXonoL VTrs^^sysSr}^ KcuroiKiag ^zyaXoLg^ 
KCLi ttoKvtbXsi; ce^£y[U,svcc. Jn thefe parts were large open- 
ings in the earthy exhibiting caverns of a great exte?it ; which 
afforded very ample^ and fuperh apartnie?Jts. Diodorus in- 
forms usj that what was in his time called Caiete, had been 
fometimes filled " Aiete: by which we may fee, that it was a 
compound; and confided of two or more terms, but thefe 
terms were not precifely applicable to the fame objed. Ai-Ete, 
or Ai-Ata, was the region ot Ait, the Deity to whom it v/as 
facred. Colchis had the fame name ; whence its king v/as 
called Aietes: and Egypt had the fame, expreffed by the 
Greeks "-^ Asnotj Aetia. Aiete was the diftridl : Caiete was 
the cave and temple in that diftrid y where the Deity was 

In BcEotia was a cavern, into which the river Cephifus de- 
fcended, and was loft. It afterwards emerged from this gulf, 

" Strabo. 1. 5. p. 356. 

p. 259. 

Vir"iK to o^ive an air of truth to his narration makes Caieta the nurfe of 


According to Strabo it was fometimes expreiTed Cai Atta-, and gave name 
to the bay below. — Koa tov fJLirx^u xoAttoc sksivoi Kxiccttm' uyo'xao-ccv. 1. 5. 
p. 366. 

-3 Scholia Eullathij in Dionyfij 7r?piV}ri<iiy> v. 239. and Steph. Byzantinus. 



and pafled freely to the ka. The place of eruption was 
called An-choa, which fignifies Fontis apertura. The latef 
Greeks exprefled it Anchoe"^. KaAe/raf ^' 6 totto? hyuQYi 
eg-i Js KifXYiV 6[j,mviJ,og. The etymology, I flatter myfelf, is 
plain j and authenticated by the hiftory of the place. 

From Cho, and Choa, was probably derived the word 
XoUogy ufed by the apoftle. *^ 'O TT^mog avd^ooTTOQ sk yng. 
Xo'i/.og' ^svrs^og civ^^(^7rog o Kv^iog £$ ov^ar<5. Oiog 6 Xoi- 
Hogy mi TOiccvToi oi Xokoi. Hefychius obferves, Xohog, 
7:rikivogy yi]ivog. From hence we may perceive, that by 
Cho was originally meant a houfe or temple in the earth. 
It was, as I have fliewn, often expreflied Gau, and Go ; and 
made to flgnify any houfe. Some nations ufed it in a ftili 
more extended fenfe ; and by it denoted a town, or village,. 
and any habitation at large. It is found in this acceptation 
among the ancient Celta;, and Germans, as we learn from- 
Cluverius. "^ Apud ipfos Germanos ejufmodi pagorum ver- 
naculum vocabulum fuit Gaw ; et variantibus dialedis, p'lw, 
gew, gow, gow, hinc — Brifgaw, Wormefgaw, Zurichgow,, 
Turgow, Nordgavv, Andegaw, Rhingaw, Hennegow, Wefl- 
ergow, Ooftergow. The ancient term Hv^yocy Purgos, was 

*■* Xaa^wa Se yivvSiv—'ii itccTo rov TroTcciJ.av—ii'Ta i^^'/vri^ev m tuv £7rt(px~- 
viiccv itcLTcx. Tiii Aoy.oiS'oi Tiif ai^i)— KaAf/Tai J^' o tottos AyKoii x.tA. 
Strabo. I,. 9. p. 623. 

Iris called Anchia by Pliny. N. H. L. 4. c. 7. As both the opening, and the 
ftream, which formed the lake, was called An-choe ; it fignified cither ions- 
■fpelanc£e, or fpelunca fontis, according as it was ada^ ted. 

''' 1 Corinchianj. c. 15. v. 47, 48. 

*' Ckiverii Germaniie Antiq. L. i. c. 13. p. 91. 

Vol. I. Q^ i ^ properly 


properly Pur-Go ; and fignified a light-houfe, or temple of 
fire, from the Chaldaic Pur. 


Together with the words above mentioned are to be found 
in compofition the particles Al and Pi. Al or El, for it is 
differently exprefled in our charaders, is ftill an Arabian 
prefix: but not abfolutely confined to that country; though 
more frequently there to be found. The Sun iix, was 
called Uchor by the people of Egypt and Cyrene ; which 
the Greeks expreiTed A^w^, Achor. He was worfhiped 
with the fame title in Arabia, and called Al Achor. *^Geor- 
gius Monachus defcribing the idolatry, which prevailed in 
that country before the introduction of the prefent religion, 
mentions the idol Alachar. Many nations have both exple- 
tives and demonftratives analogous to the particle above. 
The pronoun Ille of the Romans is fomevvhat fimilar : as 
are the terms Le and La of the French : as well as 11 and 
El in other languages. It is in compofition fo like to HA, 
the name of 'HAiO?, the Sun, that it is not always eafy to 
diftino-uifh one from the other. 

The Article Pi was in ufe among the ancient Egyptians, 
and Cuthites, as well as other nations in the eaft. The na- 
tives of India were at all times worfhipers of the Sun ; and 
mfed to call themfelves by fomeof his titles. Porus, with whom 

*■" Beyeri Additamenta to Selden de Diis Syris. P. 291. 
Achor near Jericho. Jofhiia. c. 15. v. 7. 



Alexander engaged upon the Indus, was named from the 
chief obje<a of his worfhip "n», Pi-Or, and P'Or ; rendered 
by the Greeks ITw^o?, Porus. Pacorus the Parthian was of 
the fame etymology, being a compound of P'Achorus, the 
Achor of Egypt : as was alfo the '^ city Pacoria in Mefopo- 
tamia, mentioned by Ptolemy. Even the Grecian ^y^ was 
of Egyptian or Chaldaic original ; and of the fame com por- 
tion (P'Ur) as the words above : for '' Plato informs us, 
that TTV^, v&u}^, Kvvsg, were efleemed terms of foreign impor- 
tation. After the race of the Egyptian kings was extind, 
and that country came under the dominion of the Grecians, 
the natives flill continued to make ufe of this prefix ; ns did 
other ^° nations, which were incorporated with them. They 
adapted it not only to words in their own language; but to 
thofe of other countries, of which they treated. Hence 
there is often to be found in their writings, ^' TLi^Bvg, JJiij^cc^- 
TV^, Uiixoi^riTrig, 7ri(ro)iJ,ci, TTiTKaog, Pidux, Picurator, Pitribu- 
nus : alfo names of perfons occur with this prefix ; fuch as 
Piter us, Piturio, Pionius the martyr, alfo Pior, Piam.mon, 
Piambo ; who are all mentioned by ecclefiaflical ^^ writers, 


^^ Ptolem. Lib. 5. c. 18. p. 164* 

=" Plato in Cratylo. P. 410. 

'° See Kiicher's Prodromus Copticus. P. iSo. and p. 297.. 

" Ibidem, and Jamefon's Specilegia. c. 9. § 4. 

'-'' Pionius. Eufeb. Hift. Ecclefiaft. L. 4. p. 173, 

Pior Monachus ^lilgyptiacus. Socratis Hift. Eccles. P. 238.. 

Piamman, Sozon-ien. H. E. P. 259. 

Piambo, or P'ambo. Socratis Ecc'.es. H. P. 26S. 

It was fomeiimes exprelTcd Po, as in Poemon Abbas, in Evagrius* 



as natives of that country. This article is fometlmes ex- 
preffed Pa : as in the name of Pachomius, an abbot in Egypt, 
mentioned by ''' Gennadius. A pricfb named Paapis is to be 
found in the Excerpta from Antonius ^'^ Diogenes in Photius. 
There were particular rites, ftiied Pamylia Sacra, from 
5 5 Pamyles, an ancient Egyptian Deity. We may infer from 
Hefychius, that they were very obfcene : HoLdfj.vy^rig, AiyvTT- 
Tiog Qsog H^iccTroccri;. Hades, and Pi-Ades was a common 
title of the Sun : and the latter in early times was current 
in Greece ; where I hope to give ample teftimony of the 
Amonians fettling. He was termed Melcch Pi-Adon, and 
Anac Pi-Adon : but the Greeks out of Pi-Adon formed 
TlaiJwj/ : for it is inconceivable, how very ignorant they were 
in refpeft to their ancient theology. Hence we read of 
TraiJ'wj/ ArjTa?, ttoh^ocv Zr,Pogy Trai^ooy AtoAAww; • and legends 
of 7rc/.i^u)v cfJcci/ccru'V ; and of itixicm, who were mere found- 
lings ; whofe fathers could never be afcertained, though di- 
vine honours were paid to the children. This often puzzled 
the mythologifts, who could not account for this fpurious 
race. Plutarch makes it one of his inquiries to filt out, 

In Apophthegmat. Patrum. apud Cotelerii monumenta. Tom. i. p. 6'^6. 

Baal Peor was only Pi-Or, the Sun : as Priapus was a compound of Peor- 
Apis, contradled. 

" Gennad. Vitse illuftrkim virorum. L. 7. Pachomius, a fuppofcd worker 
of many miracles. 

^* Antonius Diogenes in Photius. Cod. 166. 

'' Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. V. i. p. ■^^s- 

Paamyles is an ademblage of common titles, Am-El-Ees with the prefix. 
Hence the Greeksformed Mclifla, a facred name ; as of Ham El- Ait, they formed 
Melitca, the name of a foreign Deity, more known in Ionia than in Hellas. 



^*T;? riaiowv Ta(p'0? Tra^^a XcfJM^VQ-i -^ Paufanias mentions 
37 AfXpXvKH TTdi^wv ^ao? : and in another j)lace, '' Bw- 

nAIAON m @n(rec>igy mi ^aXri^ov. From this miltake aroie 
fo many boy-deides ; among whom were even Jupiter and 
Dionufus : " AvTov rov A<a, am Toy /^lovvcrov IlaiJa^, ;ta< ^£a?, 
}'] ^BoXoyia KCQ.BI Jccordi^ng to the theology of the Greeks even 
yupiter and Dio7iiifiis are ftiled boys, and young perfons. One 
of the moll: remarkable paffages to this purpofe is to be found 
in the antiquary above quoted ; who takes notice of a cer- 
tain myfterious rite performed by the natives of Amphina in 
Phocis. The particular Gods, to whom it was performed, 
were ftiled Avx-nsg rcci^sg. '^° Ayovcri h koli Ts>\srYiV oi Aijl- 
(pi(T(Tsig rojv AvccKtm KcOKEfJLSvctJV Hai^oov. 'OLTiveg 6s @bc>:v sitip 
01 ApoLKTBg UoLi^sgy ov KOLTOL T ctVTOL s<^iv s/^>ijU,£yoy. 1 he people 
oj An phi jj a perform a ceremony m honour of perfons^ filled 
Afiacl^'^ P aides ^ or Royal Boys ; hut who thefe AnaEles Pat- 
des were, is matter of great uncertainty. In fliort -the au- 
thor couid not tell : nor could the yjriefts alTord liim any fa- 
tisfadory information. There ar^ nany inftanccs in Pau- 

'* Plutarch: Qu^ftiones Graces. V. p. 296. 

*■" Paufanias. 1. i. p. 83 Amphilucus was a tide of L.-e Sun. 

'^ Pauianias. 1. i. p. 4. in like manner, ra(foL tuv I(pifj(.e^i^r.:s Kai AKuim irM^KiV' 
Paufanias. 1. 9. p. 754. 

" Prgclus in Platonis Parmenidcm : See Orphic Fragment of Gefner. p. 406. 

A twofold reafon may be given for their having this chara.f!.cr : as will be 
Ihewn hereafter. 

'*° Paufanias. 1. io. p. 896. Many inflances of this fort are to be found in this 

Vol. I. R ^^^f^ias 


fanias of this nature : v/here divine honours are paid to the 
unknown children of fathers equally unknown. 

Herodotus tells us, that, when he difcourfed with the 
priefts of Thebes about the kings, who had reigned in Egypt; 
they defcribed them to him under three denominations, 
of Gods, of heroes, and of men. The laft fucceeded to thofe 
above, and were mere mortals. The manner of fucceflion is 
mentioned in the following words : ^' Ili^(j^^iv BK lii^i^i^iog 
ysyovsyoLi — koli ovts sg ^sovj ours b? H^ojcl ciPDL^ri(rc(,v OLVj^g 
{oi KiyvTtrm.) There are many flrange and contradidtory 
opinions about this '^'' paffage ; which, if I do not deceive 
myfelf, is very plain ; and the purport of it this, /ifter the 
fabulous accounts, there had been an uninterrupted fucceJftQ7t 
of Piromis after Piromis : a?jd the Egyptians referred none 
of thefe to the dyiiafties of either the Gods or Heroes, who were 
fuppofed to have firft popffed the country. From hence I 
think it is manifeft, that Pi-romis fignifies a man. Hero- 
dotus indeed fays, that the meaning of it was /taAo? xaya^o^, 
a perfon of a fair and honourable charaBer : and fo it might 
be taken by implication ; as we fay of a native of our own 
country, that he is a true, and ftaunch ^^ Englifhman : but 

-»' Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 143. 

-»' See Reland, Diflertatio Copt. p. 108. 

Jablonfky Prolegomena in Pantheon iEgyptiacum : p. 38. Alfo Weflelinge, 
Notes on Herod. 1. 2. c. 143. 

43 This was certainly the meaning : for Plato, fpeaking of the native Grecians 
in oppofition to other nations, ftilcd Ba^^a^o/, makes ufe of the very expreffion : 
n&AA« ixsi' « 'EMas, f?;>', w Kgfws, ev « eveta-i ttov a.yoc.^:iL aaS'^iiy tto^^o. S's xxi tx 
7(>iv QafsL^oivysvr^ In Phsdone. p. 96. 

A the 


the precife meaning is plain from the context ; and Piromis 
certainly meant a man. It has this iignification in the Cop- 
tic : and in the '^'^ Prodromus Copticus of Kircher, II/^wp) 
Piromi, is aman\ and feems to imply a native. Pirem Ra- 
cot is an Alexandrine, or more properly a native of Racotis 
called Rafchid, and Rofetta. Pirem Romi, are ''^ Ro- 

By means of this prefix we may be led to underftand 
what is meant by Paraia in the account given by Philo from 
Sanchoniathon : who fays, that Cronus had three fons in the 
region of Paraia : "^^ E-j/smi^JiiTay Jg aoLi bv Uctoccia. K^ovca T^sig 
7ta.mi, Paraia is a variation of P'Ur-aia ; and means literally 
the land of Ur in Chaldea ; the region from whence ancient 
writers began the hiftory of mankind. A crocodile by the 
Egyptians was among other names called *^ Sap^o? : and the 
name is retained in the Coptic, where it is expreffed "^^ Pi- 

This prefix is fometimes expreffed with an afpirate. Phi : 
and as that word fignifies a mouth, and in a more extenfive 
fignification, fpeech and language, it fometimes may caufe a 
little uncertainty about the meaning. However, in mod 
places it is fufficiently plain. Phaethon, a much miftaken 

■<♦ Kircher. Prodromus Copticus. p. 300 and p. 293. 

■♦' Kircher. Prod. p. i()^. '■ 

■♦' Sanchoniathon apud Eufeb, Prjep. Evan. 1. i.e. 10. p. 37, 

'»■' Damafcius : Vita Ifodori, apud Photium. Cod. ccxlii. 

*^ Jabbnflcy : Pantheon Egypt, v. 2. 1. 5. c 2. p. 70, 

R 2 per- 


psiTonag.?, was an ancient title of the Sun, a Compound of 
rlii-Ath-On. Bacchus war. called Phi-Anac by the My- 
fian?, rendered by the poets '^^ Phanac and Phanaces. Hanes 
was a title o^ the fame D^ity, equally rcvxrcnced of old, and 
compounded Ph' Planes. It figniiied the fountain ol light : 
a:id from it was derived Phan'i-s of Pgvpt : alfo ^a/j'W, ^zi'Big^ 
^ai/z^og: and from Ph'ain on, Fanum. In (l^iort thefe particles 
occur continually in v/ords, which relate to religious rites, and 
the ancient adoration of lire. They are generally joined to Ur, 
by v/hich that element is denoted. From P'L^r Tor came Prce- 
tor and Prsetorium, among the Romans: from P'Ur-Aith, 
Purathi and Purathela among the Afiatics. From P'Ur-tan, 
TT.'vrayBi';^ and TrpvTa'JSix amonr^ the Greeks of Hellas : in 
wliich Prutaneia there were of old facred hearths, and a per- 
petual fire. The antient name of Latian Jupiter was P'ur, 
by length of time changed to Puer. He was the Deity of 
fire; and his minifters were ftiled Pueri : and becaufe many 
of them were handfome youths feledled for that office, Puer 
came at length to fignify any young perfon. Some ol the 
Romans would explain this title away, as if it referred to 
Jupiter's childhood : but the hidory of the place will fliew 

■♦' Aufonius. Epigram. 30. 

Kircher fays, that Pi in the Coptic is a prefix, by which a noun is known to 
be mafculine, and of the fingular number : and that Pa is a pronoun pofleffive. 
Paromi is Vir meus. It may be ib in the Coptic : but in ancient times Pi, 
Pa, Phi, were only variations of the fame article : and were indilFerently put 
before all names ; of which I have given many inftances. See Prodromus. Copt, 

P- 303- , 



that it had no fuch relation. It was a proper name, and 
retained particularly among the people of Prasnedc. They 
had undoubtedly been addided to the rites of fire; for 
their city was fiid to have been built by Calculus, the fon 
of Vulcan, who was found in the midft of fire : 

5° Vulcano genitum pecora inter agreflia Rc^rem, 
Inventumque focis. 
They called their chief God Pur: and dealt particu- 
larly in divination by lots, termed of old Purim. Cicero 
takes notice of this cuPiom of divination at Pra3nefl:e • 
and defcribes the manner, as well as the place: bi:t gives into 
the common miflake, that the Purim related to Jupiter's 
childhood. He lays, that the place, where the procefs was 
carried on, was a facred inclofure, ^' is cIl hodie locus fcptu.^, 
religiofe propter Jovis Ptieriy qui laclens cum Jiinone in 
gremio i^or/^/«^ mammara appetens, cafbillime colitur a A-la- 
tribus. This manner of divination was of Chaldaic original, 
and brought from Babylonia to Prasneffe. It is mentioned 
in Efther, c. 3. v. 7. They cafi: Pur before, that he 
might know the fuccefs of his purpofes againft the Jews. 
Wherefore they call thefe days Purim after the name of Pur '\ 
c. 9. v. 26. The fame lots of divination being ufed at Pra^- 
nefte was the occafion of the God being called Jupiter Pur. 
This in aftertimes was changed to Puer : whence we find 
infcriptions, which mention him under that naaie; and at 

'• Virgil, ^neid. 1. 7. v. (>■](). 
" Cicero de Divinatione. 1. 2. 
" See aifo V. 28, 29, 31, and 32. 



the fame time take notice of the cuftom, which prevailed 
in his temple. Infcriptions Jovi Puero, and Fortunas Primi- 
geniae Jovis " Pueri are to be found in Gruter. One is very 

5"^ Fortunse Primigenias Jovis Pueri D. D. 

Ex S RT E compos fadus 

Nothus Ruficanae 

L. P. Flotilla. 

That this vi^ord Puer was originally Pur may be proved from 

a well known paffage in Lucretius : 

^^ Puri faepe lacum propter ac dolia curva 
Somno devindi credunt fe attollere veftem. 
Many inftances, were it neceflary, might be brought to this 
purpofe. It was a name originally given to the priefls of 
the Deity who were named from the Chaldaic niK, Ur : 
and by the ancient Latines were called P'uri. At Praenefte 
the name was particularly kept up on account of this divi- 
nation by ^^ lots. Thefe by the Amonians were ftiled Pu- 


" Gruter. Infcript. Ixxvi. n. 6. 
'•♦ Ibid. Ixxvi. n. 7. 

P O R O. 

Gruter. Infcrip. p. Ixxxviii. n. 13. 
" Lucretius. 1. 4. v. 1O20. 
5' Propertius alludes to the fame circumftance : 
Nam quid Praeneftis dubias, O Cynthia, fortes ? 

Quid peiis JExi mcenia Telegoni : 1. 2. eleg. 32. v. 3. 



rim, being attended with ceremonies by fire; and fuppofed 
to be efFeded through the influence of the Deity. Prasnefte 
feems to be a compound of Puren Efta, the lots of Efta, the 
Deity of fire. 

Thefe are terms, which feem continually to occur in the 
ancient Amonian hiftory : out of thefe moft names are com- 
pounded ; and into thefe they are eafily rcfolvable. There 
are fome few more, which might perhaps be very properly 
introduced : but I am unwilling to trefpafs too far, efpe- 
cially as they may be eafily taken notice of in the courfe of 
this work. I could wifii that my learned readers would 
afford me fo tar credit, as to defer pafling a general fentence, 
till they have perufed the whole : for much light will ac- 
crue ; and frefli evidence be accumulated in the courfe of 
our procedure. A hiflory of the rites and religion, in 
which thefe terms are contained, will be given ; alfo of the 
times, when they were introduced ; and of the people, by 
whom they were difFufed fo widely. Many pofitions, which 
may appear doubtful, when they are firft premifed, will, I 
hope, be abundantly proved, before we come to the clofc. 
In refpedl to the etymologies, which I have already offered 
and confidered, I have all along annexed the hiftories 
of the perfons and places fpoken of, in order to afcertain 

What in the book of Hefter is filled Purim, the feventy render, c. 9. v. 29. 
(ppBpat. The days of Purim were ftiled ^ohpcli — Ti S^ix/.iKTcu av-rcov jc«As>Ta{ 
q,cnpxi. fo inc. 10. The additamenta Graca mention — . ;;»' 7r^«j«!' f:r<f-c,- 
AwTft)!/ (p|ja^ai,inftead of (paoaj and ildpai: from P'Ur and Ph'Ur, ignis. 




my opinion concerning them. But the chief proof, as I 
have before faid, will refult from the whole; from a uni- 
form feries of evidence, fupported by a fair and uninterrupted 


( 129 ) 

O F 


As it has been too generally handled. 

AAXa ^soi tm [jlsv fjLotvirjV ocTrer^s'^oLre yXoi}(r(rYigy 
Ek J" o(noop g'o^oLxm kol^ol^yiv o-^exswctTB 'KtiytiV. 

UsfjLZs itcL^ sv(rel^ir}g sKo(,3<t evpiov d^fjLcc, 


T may appear invidious to call to account men of learn* 
ing, who have gone before me in inquiries of this nature ; 
and to point outdefedls in their writings: but it is a tafk 
which I muft in fome degree take in hand, as the beft writ- 
ers have in my opinion failed fundamentally in thefe re- 
fearches. Many in the wantonnefs of their fancy have yielded 
to the mofi: idle furmifes ; and this to a degree of licentioufnefs, 
for which no learning nor ingenuity can atone. It is there- 
fore fo far from being injurious, that it appears abfolutely ne- 
cefiary to point out the path they took, and the nature of 
their failure ; and this, that their authority may not give a 
fandlion to their miflakes : but on the contrary, if iny me- 
Vou I. S thod 



thod iLould appear more plaufible or more certain, that the 
fuperiority may be feen upon comparing ; and be proved from 
the contraft. 

The Grecians were fo prepofTefled with a notion of their 
cwn excdlence and antiquity, that they fuppofed every an- 
cient tradition to have proceeded from themfelves. Hence 
their mythology is founded upon the grolleft miftakes : as all 
extraneous hiftory, and every foreign term, is fuppofed by 
them to have been of Grecian original. Many of their 
learned v/riters had been abroad ; and knew how idle the 
pretenfions of their countrymen were. Plato in particular 
law the fallacy of their claim. He confeiTes it more than 
once : yet in this article nobody was more infatuated. His 
Cratylus is made up of a moft abfurd fyftem of etymology. 
^' Herodotus exprefly fays, that the Gods of Greece came in 
great meafure from Egypt. Yet Socrates is by Plato in this 
treatife made to derive Artemis from rocc^rs^sg^ inteoritas: Po- 
feidonfrom 7rQ(n ^BTfiov, fetters to the feet : Heflia from ovrioLr 
fubflance and effence : Demeter, from oidov(TC(. c/jg, jU-j^tk]^, dif- 
tributing as a mother : Pallas from ttccKKsiv to vibrate, or 
dance: Ares, Mars, from ctlif>sUj mafculum, et virile: and the 
word Theos, God, undoubtedly the Theuth of Egypt, from 
u.SciV, to run'^ Innumerable derivations of this nature are to; 

" Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 4. and 1. 2. c. 52. 

cLTrfX-o/Aaa to. Bvofj.a.'rcL T<wr Qicav. 

'* So Saiy.ccv from S a.;)fJion' i AttoAAwc from « ofJicu TroXncrii' Aioiva-ai au&Cu 
£ iSavuaoi from S'iS'ql and oivoi. and oivo^, from oirirSai, Kpoccf, quafi ypovs x.opQi- 
Tiii%v, ro ■n^ovf/.it'ov — with many more. Plato in Cratylo. 

v^gyptus Trance 70 aiyai Tnocmn- Euftatb, in Odyff. 1. 4, p. 1495. 



be found in Ariflotle, Plato, ^^ Heraclides Ponticus, and 
other Greek writers. There is a maxim laid down by the 
fcholiaft upon Dionyfius ; which I fhall have occalion often 
to mention. ^° Ei hct^^ooi^ov to ovo^a., ov "^^ri irfCB'.v 'EKAYivmriv 
STVixoT^oyidV ccvra. If the term be foreigft^ it is idle to have re- 
courfe to Greece for a folution. It is a plain and golden rule, 
pofterior in time to the writers above, which however com- 
mon fenfe might have led them to have anticipated, and fol- 
lowed : but it was not in their nature. The perfon who 
gave the advice was a Greek, and could not for his life abide 
by it. It is true, that Socrates is made to fay fomethino- 
very like the above. *' Ef/^ow ya^, or; TiOKkot. 01 'EKKrivsg 

" Pofeidon, Troiarra st^>ii'. Tifiphone, Ttirojv (puvv, Athene quafi aG«iaTo?. 
Hecate from (xotrov centum. Saturniis, quafi facer, la?. See Heraclides Ponti- 
cus, and Fulgentii Mychologia. 

See the Etymologies alfo of Macrobius. Saturnalia. 1. i.e. 17. p. 189. 

M^o-czi' quafi o/j.-d uaai. Plutarch de Fraterno Amore. v. 2. p. 480. ^i* 

ri(xc-i(ia.}h (Cicero Trcccriqiixivstvrx jj.aniicc. Plutarch. Agis and Cleomenes. 
. V. 2.p. 799._ 

''" Euftathius on Dionyfius : Treomyi^u;?. 

Ut Jofephus rCifte obfervat, Grcecis fcriptoribus id in more ell, ut peregrina, 
et barbara nomina, quantum licet, ad Grscam formam emoUiant : fic illis Ar 
Moabitarum eft A^eaxoAisi Botfra, }j-jp7a.; Akis, A')-^^-^;; Aftarte, Atpocco^)); 
torrens Kifon, Xsz/zapposTair Kiaaccv; torrens Kedron, Xg//aarpo5 Twr Kslpo."/; 
et taliawfff/ kgvi^' Bochart. Geog. Sacra. 1. 2. c. 15. p. 11 1. 

We are much indebted to the learned father Theophilus of Antioch : he had 
great knowledge ; yet could not help giving way to this epidemical weaknefs. 
He mentions Noah as the fame as Deucalion, which name was given him from 
calling people to righteoufnefs : he ufed to fay, JeuTr xaAa J/y.a? Gtos ; and 
from hence, it feems, he was called Deucalion. Ad Antol. 1. 3. 

" Plato inCratylo. p. 409. 





cvo^aroLj OLKKb^g ts koli oi vxo Toig Ba^^a^oig niKsvrsg^ TTcn^ct Tiwr 

Boi^^oL^ojv £iXn<pa,(ri Bing^Yiroi tolvtcx, kocto, rriv 'EKKrjViKriv 

(pCfjyrjV, u); eouoru^g ksitoHj v.'kXoL [jlyj kxt s/,BivrjVi s^ r,g to ovoixa 
Tvy^dPSi Oh OKT^CL on UTTO^oi OLv. I am very fenftble that 
the Grecia?2s in ge?ieral, and efpecially thofe who are fub- 
jeBs to foreigners^ have received into their language many exotic 
terms : if any perfoii fJjould be led to feek for their analogy or 
meaning in the Greek tongue^ and not in the language from 
'whe7ice they proceeded^ he would be grievoufy puzzled. Who 
would think, when Plato attributed to Socrates this knowledge, 
that he would make him continually adl in contradiction to it ? 
Or that other *^ writers, when this plain truth was acknow- 
ledged, {hould deviate io fliamefuUy ? that v/e (Lould in af- 
ter times be told, that Tarfus, the ancient city in Cilicia, 
was denominated from Ta^fCO?, a foot : that the river Nile- 
fignified V't\ Q-^vg; and that Gadcr in Spain was Vrig hi^cL, 

The ancients in all their etymologies were guided 
folely by the ear : In this they have been implicitly copied 
by the moderns. Inquire of Heinlius, whence Thebes, that, 
ancient city in upper Egypt, was named j and he will tell 
you from xjn, Teba, ^' ftetit : or afk the good bifliop Cum- 
berland, why Nineve was fo called, and he will anfwer from 
Schindler, that it was a compound of ^"^Nin-Nau,. mj pj, a. 
fo7t inhabited.. But is it credible, or indeed poflible, for- 
thefe cities to have been. named from terms fo vague, cafual,, 

'^ Soidas, StepKaniis, Ecymolog. Eiiftathiiis, &e. 
So Coptu3 in Egypt, from ttoTneiv. 

'5 See Cajlimachus. vol. 2. Spanlieim'.s not. in Hymn, in Del. v. S7. p. 43 S.;. 
't Cumberland's Origines. p. 165. fo lie derives Goflien in the land of Egypt: 
from a (liower of rain, See Sanchon. p. 364. 



and indeterminate; which feem to have fo little relation 
to the places, to which they are appropriated ; or to any 
places at all ? The hiftory of the Chaldeans is of gre^t coa- 
fequence: and one would be glad to know their original. 
They are properly called Chafdim : and are very juftly 
thought to have been the firft conflituted nation upon earth. 
It is faid of the patriarch Abraham, that he came from the 
city Ur of the Chafdim. Whence had they their name? 
The learned Hyde will *^ anfwer, that it was from Chefed, 
their anceftor. Who was Chefed ? He was the fourth fon 
of Nahor, who lived in Aram, the upper region of Mefopo- 
tamia. Is it faid in hiftory, that he was the father of this 
people ? There is no mention made of it. Is it faid that 
he was ever in Chaldea ? No. Is there the leaft reafon to 
think, that he had any acquaintance with that country ? 
We have no grounds to fuppofe it. Is there any reafon to 
think, that this people, mentioned repeatedly as prior to him 
by ages, were in reality conftituted after him ? None. What 
then has induced writers to fuppofe that he was the father of 
this people? Becaufe Chefed and Chafdim have a remote Si- 
militude in found. And is this the whole? Ahfolutcly all 
that is or can be alledged for this notion. And as the Chaf- 
dim are mentioned fome ages before the birth of Chefed ; 
fome would have the paffage to be introduced prolepticaljy ; 
others fuppofe it an interpolation ; and would. ftrike it out ot 
the facred-text : fo far does whim get the better of judgment, 
that even the written word is not fafe. The whole hiflory 
of Chefed is this. About £fty years after the patriarch Abra^- 

** Hyde de Relieione veterum Perfr.rum. c. 2. p. y^. 



Bam had left his brother Nahor at Haran in Aramea, he re- 
ceived intelligence, that Nahor had in that interval been 
tlefled with children. "// was told Abraham^ behold Milcah^ 
JJje alfo hath bor7t children to thy brother Nahor ; Huz^ Buzy 
Kemuel atid Chefed: of thefe Chefed was the fourth. There 
occurs not a word more concerning him. 

It is moreover to be obferved, that thefe etymologifts dif- 
fer greatly from one another in their conceptions ; fo that 
an imexperienced reader knows not v/hom to follow. Some 
deduce all from the Hebrew, others call in to their affiftance 
the Arabic, and the Coptic; or whatever tongue or dialed 
makes moft for their purpofe. The author of the Univerfal 
Hiftory fpeaking of the Moabitifh Idol Chemofh, tells us, 
*^ that 7na7iy make it come from the verb ^^12 ^ 7?2aJJjaJh^ to 
feel : but Dr. Hyde derives it fro7n the Arabic^ Kha- 
mufj^ which fignifes gnats^ (though i7t the particular dialeSi 
of the tribe Hod ail) fuppof7ig it to have been aTt afironotnical 
talifman in the figure of a g7iat : — a7id Le Clerc^ who takes 
this idol for the uun^from Co7?iof3aj a root, in thefa7ne t07igue, 
figJiifying to be fwift. There is tlie fame variety of fenti.- 
ment about Silenus, the companion of Bacchus. *^ Bochart 
derives his name from Silan, fV'ky, and fuppofes him to have 
been the fame as Shiloh, the MeiTias. Sandford makes him 
to be Balaam the falfe prophet. ^' Huetius maintains that 

*' Genefis. c. 22. v. 20. 

*' Univerfal Hiftory. vol. i. b. i. p. 286. notes. 

*^ Bochart. Geograph. Sacra. 1. i.e. 18. p. 443. 

Sandford dc defcenfu Chrifti. 1. 1. §. 21. 

See Gale's Court of the Gentiles, vol. i. b. 2. c, 6. p. ^Z. 

*' Huetius. Demonft. p. 138. 

2 he 


he was afluredly Mofes. It is not uncommon to find even 
in the fame writer great uncertainty ; we have fometimes- 
two, fometimes three etymologies prefented together of the 
fame word : two out of the three muft be groundlefs and 
.the third not a whit better : otherwife the author would have 
given it the preference ; and fet the other two alide. An 
example to this purpofe we have in the etymology of Ra- 
meffes, as it is explained in the ^° Hebrew Onomafticum. Ra- 
mefies, tonitruum vel e.xprobratio tineje ; aut malum delens 
five diffolvens j vel confradionem diffolvens, aut confradlus 
a tinea — civitas in extremis iinibus iEgypti. A fimilar inter- 
pretation is given of Berodach, a king of Babylon. Bero- 
dach : creans contritionem, vel eleclio interitus, aut filius 
interitiis, vel vaporis tui ; five frumentum ; vel puritas nubis, 
vel vaporis tui. Rex Babylonian. 

It muft be acknowledged of Bochart, that the lyftem, 
upon which he has proceeded, is the moft plaufible of any : 
and he has fliewn infinite ingenuity, and learning. He every 
where tries to fupport his etymologies by fome hiftory of 
the place, concerning which he treats. But the misfortune 
is, that the names of places, which feem to be original, and 
©f high antiquity, are too often deduced by him from clr- 
Gumftances of later date : from events in after ages. The 
hiftories, to which he appeals, were probably not known,, 
when the country, or ifiand, received its name. He like- 
wife allows himfelf a great latitude in forming his deriva- 
tions : for to make his terms accord he has recourfe not 
only to the Phenician language, which he fuppofes to have: 

■" Hebrasa, Chaldsea, &c. n&mina virorum, mulieruni, populorum — ^Antver- 



I^een a dialed of the Hebrew; but to the Arabian, Chal- 
daic, and Syriac, according as his occafions require. It 
happens to him often to make ufe of a verb for a radix, 
which has many variations, and different fignifications : but 
at this rate we may form a fimilitude between terms the 
moft diflimilar. For take a word in any language, which 
admits of many inflexions, and variations, and after we have 
made it undergo all its evolutions, it will be hard, if it does 
not in fome degree approximate. But to fay the truth, he 
many times does not feem to arrive even at this : for after 
he has analyfed the premifes with great labour, we often find 
the fuppofed refemblance too vague, and remote, to be ad- 
mitted : and the whole is effeded with a great ftrain and 
force upon hiftory before he brings matters to a feeming coin- 
cidence. The Cyclops are by the beft writers placed in 
Sicily, near Mount ^' jEtna, in the country of the Lsontini, 
called of old Xuthia ; but Bochart removes them to the 
fouth wefl: point of the ifland. This he fuppofes to have 
been called Lelub, Aihv^ctioVj from being oppolite to Libya : 
and as the promontory was fo named, it is, he thinks, proba- 
ble that the fea below was ftiled Chec Lelub, or Sinus Le- 
bub : and as the Cyclops lived hereabouts, they were from 
hence denominated Chec-lelub, and Chec-lub, out of which 
the Greeks formed "' KvKXctJTTsg, He derive- the Siculi firft 
from ^^ feclui, perfection : and afterwards from SiDt^K, Efcol, 

•" Pliny. 1. 3. c. 8. 

vEtna, qu£e Cyclopas olim tulic. Mela. 1. 2. c. 7. 
'"■ Bochart. Geog. Sacra. 1. i.e. 30. p. 560. 
^^ Ibidem, p, ^6^, ^66, 



pronounced, according to the Syrlac, Sigol, a bunch of grapes. 
He deduces the Sicani from J3iy, 74 Sacan, near : becaufe they 
were near their next neighbours : in other words, on ac- 
count of their being next to the Poeni. Sicani, qui Siculo- 
rum Poenis proximi. But according to the beft accounts 
the Sicani were the moH: ancient people of any in thefe 
parts. They fettled in Sicily before the foundation of Car- 
thage ; and could not have been named from any fueh vici- 
nity. In Ihort Bochart in moft of his derivations refers to 
circumftances too general ; which might be adapted to one 
place as well as to another. He looks upon the names of 
places, and of people, rather as by-names, and chance appel- 
lations, than original marks of diftindlion : and fuppofes them 
to have been founded upon fome fubfequent hiftory. Whereas 
they were moft oi them original terms of high antiquity, 
imported, and afTumed by the people themfelves, and not 
impofed by others. 

How very cafual, and indeterminate the references were 
by Vv'hich this learned man was induced to form his etymo- 
logies, let the reader judge from the famples below. Thefe 
were taken for the moft part from his accounts of the Gre- 
cian iflands ; not induftrioufly picked out; but as they ca- 
iually prefented themfelves upon turning over the book. He 
derives ^^ Delos from Sm, Dahal timor. '^ Cynthus from tDJn, 
Chanat, in lucem edere. " Naxos from nicfa, facrificium ; 

■'♦ Bochart. Geog. Sacra* 1. i.e. 30. p. 565, 566. 
■" Bochart. Geog. Sacra. 1. i. p. 406. 
•'« Ibidem. 
"P. 412. 

Vol. I. T or 


or elfe from nicfa, opes. "* Gyarus from acbar, foftened to 
acuar, a moufe, for the ifland was once infefted with mice. 
7' Pontus in Aiia Minor from n:d3, botno, a piftachio nut. 
*° Icaria from icar, paftures : but he adds, tamen alia etymo- 
logia occurrit, quam huic praefero ma 'X, Icaure, five infula 
pifcium. ^' Chalcis in Eubea from Chelca, divifio. *^ Seri- 
phus from reliph, and refipho, lapidibus ftratum. *' Patraos 
from Diaoa, batmos, terebinthus ; for trees of this fort, he 
fays, grew in the Cyclades. But Patmos was not one of the 
Cyclades : it was an Afiatic ifland, at a confiderable diftance. 
** Tenedos is deduced from Tin Edom, red earth: for there 
were ootters in the ifland ; and the earth was probably red. 
^^ Cythnus from katnuth, parvitas: or elfe from wau, gubna, 
or guphno, cheefe : becaufe the next ifland was famous for 
that commodity : Ut ut enim Cythnius cafeus proprie noa 
dicatur, qui e Cythno non efl, tamen recepta KCL7ir^^-f\(rBi 
Cytlinius dici potuit cafeus a vicina Ceo. He fuppofes 
Esypt to have been denominated from *^ Mazor, an artificial 
fortrefs ; and the reafon he gives, is, becaufe it was naturally 
fecure. Whatever may have been the purport of the term, 
Mizraim was a very ancient and original name, and could 
have no reference to thefe after confiderations. The author 
of the Onomafticum therefore differs from him, and has 
tried to mend the matter. He allows that tlie people, and 
country, were denominated from Mazor, but in a different 

^« p. 415. ■" p. 3S8. 

«°P. 381. 

" P- 435- 

«»p. 414- *'P- 381- 


*' p. 408. or from Mazor, anguftije. 

*' Ibidem, p. 258^ 

acceptation : 


acceptation : from Mazor, which fignified, the double pref- 
fure of a mother on each {ide^% preflionem matris geminam, 
i. e. ab utraque parte. Upon which the learned Michaelis 
obferves — ^^ quo etymo vix aliud veri diflimihus iiiigi poteft. 
In the theology of the Greeks are many ancient terms, 
which learned men have tried to analyfe, and define. ,^But 
they feem to have failed here too by proceeding upon thofe 
fallacious principles, of which I have above complained. In 
fhort they feldom go deep enough in their enquiries; norcon- 
fider the true charader of the perfonage, which they would 
decipher. It is faid of the God Vulcan, that he was the 
fame as Tubalcain, mentioned Genefis. c. 4. v. 22 : and it 
is a notion followed by many writers : and among others by 
Gale. ^' Fir ft as to the natne (fays this learned man) Vojfius^ 
de Idolat. 1. i. c, ib^jhews us^ that Vulcanus is the fame as 
"Tubalcainusy only by a wonted^ and eafy mutation of B into Vy 
and cafli?ig away a fyllable. And he afterwards affeds to 
prove from Diodorus Siculus, that the art and office of Vul- 
can exadlly correfponded to the charader of Tubalcain, 
5° who was an inftriiEior of every artificer in brafs and iron. 
Upon the fame principles Philo Biblius fpeaking of Chru- 
for, a perfon of great antiquity, who firft built a ihip, and na- 
vigated the feas ; who alfo firft taught hufbandry, and hunt- 
ina;, fuppofes him to have been Vulcan; becaufe it is farther 
faid of him, '' that he firft manufactured iron. From this 

'■' Simonis Onomafticon. 

•® Michaelis Spicilegium Geographic Hebr^or. Exterae. p. 158. 

*' Gale's Court of the Gentiles, vol. \. b. 2. p. 66. 

'' Genefis. c. 4. v. 22. 

'I Philo apud Eufebium. PrjEp. Evan. 1. i. c. 10. 

1 2 partial 


partial refemblance to Vulcan or Hephaftus, Bochart is in- 
duced to derive his name from Dii U'"^3, Chores Ur, an arti- 
ficer in '* fire. Thefe learned men do not confider, that 
though the name, to which they refer, be ancient, and ori- 
ental, yet the character, and attributes, are comparatively 
modern, having been introduced from another quarter. Vul- 
can the blackfmith, who was the mafter of the Cyclops, and 
forged iron in Mount ^tna, was a chara<3:er familiar to the 
Greeks, and Romans. But this Deity among the Egyp- 
tians, and Babylonians, had nothing fimilar to this defcrip- 
tion. They efteemed Vulcan as the chief of the Gods the 
fame as the Sun : and his name is a facred title, compounded 
of Baal-Cahen, Belus fandus, vel Princeps ; equivalent to 
Orus, or Ofiris. If the name were of a different original, 
yet it would be idle to feek for an etymology founded on 
later conceptions, and deduced from properties not origi- 
nally inherent in the pcrfonage. According to ^^ Herma- 
pion he was looked upon as the fource of all divinity, and 
in confequence of it the infcriptlon upon the portal of the 
temple at HeliopoHs was 'Htpajj-w Tw @eoov llcir^i. To f^ul- 
can the Father of the Gods. In fhort they, who firft ap- 
propriated the name of Vulcan to their Deity, bad no notion 
of his being an artificer in brafs or iron : or an artificer iii 
any degree. Hence we muft be cautious in forming ideas 
of the ancient theology of nations iroin the current noaons 

»' Bochart. Geograph. Sacra. 1. 2. c. 2. p. 706. 

'5 Marcellinus. 1. 22. c. 15. He was alio called Eloiis. CA*«, 'Hifa/T-a; irctpx 
Aa'fiivfj-w. Hefycli. The Lariiie title of Mulciber was a compouftd of Melech 
Aber, Rex, Parens lucis. 

4. of 


of the Greeks, and Romans ; and more efpecially from the 
defcriptions of their poets. Polytheifm, originally vile, and 
unwarrantable, was rendered ten times more bafe by coming 
through their hands. To inftance in one particular : among 
all the d^mon herd what one is there of a form, and cha- 
racter, fo odious, and contemptible as Priapus? an obfcure 
ill-tormed Deity, who was ridiculed and didionourcd by his 
very votaries. His hideous figure was made uie of only as a 
bugbear to frighten children ; and to drive the birds from 
fruit trees ; with whofe filth he was generally befmeared. 
Yet this contemptible God, this fcarecrow in a garden, was 
held in high repute at Lampfacus, and efteemed the fame 
as ^* Dionufus. He was likewife by the Egyptians reve- 
renced as the principal God ; no other than the Chaldaic 
'^ Aur, the fame as Orus and Apis : whofe rites were particu- 
larly folemn. It was from hence that he had his name: for 
Priapus oi Greece is only a compound of Peor-Apis among 
the E[yyptians. He wasfometimes ftiled Peor fingly ; alfo Baal 
Peor ; the fame with whofe rites the Jfraclites are fo often '* up- 
braided. His temples likewife are mentioned, which are 
ftiled Beth Peer. In (hort this wretched divinity of the Ro- 
mans was looked upon by others as the foul of the world : 
the firft principle, which brought all things into light, and 

''* Tiiu.arat ie ttxo-x. Aa/J.-^acKyn'oH o Uciccttc-, o avroi oov tu Aiovj(rcf.\ Athe- 
n£Eus. 1. I. p. 30. 

" Ts cc')cc/ u.x VtnT'c-, TH y.a.1 Clou ira-^ Aiyu7rrio:i. Suidas. 

''^Numbers, c. 25. v. 3. Deuteronomy, c. 4. v. 3. Jofliua. c. 22. v, 17. 

Kircher derives Priapus from nS T'^S, Pehorpeh, os nudiiaus, 



being. '^ U^iYjTro? o nofT^og^ y\ q Tr^oe^'oog avTs Aoyog. The 
author of the Orphic hymns ftiles him '^ U^Cf^royovov — ysvs- 
■ criv ixccKd^ijOh OvTiTuov T dvO^d^Trm, The fir ft born of the worlds 
from whom all the immortals^ and mortals were defcended. 
This is a charader, which will hereafter be found to agree 
well with Dionufus. Phurnutus fuppofes Priapus to have 
been the fame as Pan, the fhepherd God : who was equally 
degraded, and mifreprefented on one hand, and as highly re- 
verenced on the other. '' \<Tm J" olv ovro; koli o H^iTiTtog sir], 

KOL^' OV TT^OSKTIV Si? fpwg TCC TTOiVTa* TOCV (JL^yjL\,m (J" SiO"/ Aa<- 

{jLOVCtJV. Probably Pan is no other than the God Priapus^ by 
whofe means all things were brought into light. They are both 
Deities of high '°° antiquity. Yet the one was degraded to a 
filthy monller ; and of the other they made a fcarecrow. 

'''' Phurnutus de natura Deorum. c. 17. p. 205. 

'® Orphic Hymn 5. to Protogonus, the fame as Phanes, and Priapus. See 
vcrfe 10. 

'» Phurnutus. c. 17. p. 204. 

'°° ria^' AiyvTTTioiai Se Uuv /jliv a^^aaoTcc7 a, y.a.t ruv oxtoo tmv tt^cothv Myo' 
fAivuv Qeooy. Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 145. 

Alba; Julia Infcriptio. 


P A N T H E O. 

Gruter. v. i. p. xcv. n. i. 


{ '43 ) 



Helladian and other Grecian Writeps. 



'T may be proper to take fome previous notice of thofe 
writers, to whofe affiftance we muft particularly have 
recourfe ; and whofe evidence may be moft depended 
upon, in difquifitions of this nature. All knowledge of 
Gentile antiquity muft be derived to us through the hands 
of the Grecians : and there is not of them a fingle writer, 
to whom we may not be indebted for fome advantage. The 
Helladians however, from whom we might expedt moft 
light, are to be admitted with the greateft caution. They 
were a bigotted people, highly prejudiced in their own fa- 
vour ; and fo devoted to idle tradition that no arguments could 
wean them from their folly. Hence the fureft refources 
are from Greeks of other countries. Among the Poets, Lyco- 
phron, Callimachus, and Apollonius Rhodius are principally 
to be efteemed. The laft of thefe was a native of Egypt; 
and the other two lived there, and have continual alluftons to 
the antiquities of that country. Homer likewife abounds with 

a deal 

144 DISSERTATION upon the 

a deal of myfterious lore, borrowed from the ancient Arao- 
nian theology ; with which his commentators have been often 
embarraffcd. To thefe may be added fuch Greek writers of 
later date, who were eithernot born in Hellas, or were not fo 
deeply tindured with the vanity of that country. Much light 
may be alfo obtained from thofe learned men, by whom the 
Scholia were written, which are annexed to the works of 
the Poets abovementioned. Nonnus too, who wrote the 
Dionyfiaca, is not to be negleded. He was a native of Pa- 
nopolis in Egypt, ' E;i rj^j Ha^oj Tti<; Kiyvitra ysysvrj[Msvog ; 
and had opportunity of collefting many ancient traditions, 
and fragments of myfterious hiftory, which never were known 
in Greece. To thefe may be added Porphyry, Proclus, and 
Jamblichus, who profeffedly treat of Egyptian learning. 
The Ifis and Ofiris of Plutarch may be admitted with pro- 
per circumfpedion. It may be faid, that the whole is ftilj 
an enigrma : and I muft confefs that it is : but we receive it 
more copioufly exemplified ; and more clearly defined; and 
it muft necefiarily be more genuine, by being nearer the 
fountain head : fo that by comparing, and adjufting the va- 
rious parts, we are more likely to arrive at a folution of the 
hidden purport. But the great refource of all is to be found 
among the later antiquaries and hiftorians. Many of thefe 
are writers of high rank ; particularly Diodorus, Strabo, 
and Paufanias, on the Gentile part : and of the fathers The- 
ophilus, Tatianus Athenagoras, Clemens, Origenes, Eufcbius, 
Theodoretus, Syncellus ; and the compiler of the Fafti Si- 

• Agathias. 1. 4. p. 133. 



Helladian aiid other Grecian Writers. i^^ 

culi, otherwife called Chronicon Pafchale. Mod of thcfe 
were either of Egypt or Afia. They had a real tafte for an- 
tiquity ; and lived at a time when fome inhght could be ob- 
tained : for till the Roman Empire was fully eftablifhed, and 
every province in a ftate of tranquillity, little light could be 
procured from thofe countries, v^-hence the mythology of 
Greece was derived. The native Helladians were very li- 
mited in their knowledge. They had taken in the grofs 
whatever was handed down by tradition ; and aflumed to 
themfelves every hiftory, which was imported. They more- 
over held every nation but their own as barbarous; fo that 
their infuperable vanity rendered itimpofliblefor them to make 
any great advances in hiftorical knowledge. But the writers 
whom I juft now mentioned, either hadnotthefe prejudices; 
or lived at a time when they were greatly fubiided. They 
condefcended to quote innumerable authors, and fome of 
great antiquity ; to whom the pride of Greece would never 
have appealed. I had once much talk upon this fubjed: with 
a learned friend, lince loft to the world, who could ill brook 
that Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, fhould be difcarded 
for Clemens, Origen, or Eufebius ; and that Lyfias and De- 
mofthenes fhould give way to Libanius and Ariftides. The 
name of Tzetzes, or Euftathius, he could not bear. To all which 
I repeatedly made anfwer ; that it was by no means my in- 
tention to fet alide any of the writers, he mentioned : whofe 
merits, as far as they extended, 1 held in great veneration. On 
the contrarv I fhould have recourfe to their affiftance, as far 
as it would carry me : But I mufi: at the fame time take upon 
me to weigh thofe merits ; and fee wherein they conlilled ; 
Vol. L U and 

146 DISSERTATION upon the 

and to what degree they were to be trufted. The Helladians 
were much to be admired for the fmoothnefs of their periods, 
and a happy collocation of their terms. They fhewed a great 
propriety of didion ; and a beautiful arrangement of their 
ideas : and the whole was attended with a rhythm, and har- 
mony, no where elfe to be found. But they were at the 
fame time under violent prejudices : and the fubjeft matter 
of which they treated, was in general fo brief, and limited, 
that very little could be obtained from it towards the hiftory 
of other countries, or a knowledge of ancient times. Even 
in refpedl to their own affairs, whatever light had been de- 
rived to them, was fo perverted, and came through fo dim a 
medium, that it is difficult to make ufe of it to any deter- 
minate and falutary purpofe. Yet the beauty of their com- 
pofition has been attended with wonderful ' influence. 
Many have been fo far captivated by this magic, as to give 
an implicit credence to all that has been tranfmitted j and 
to facrifice their judgment to the pleafures of the fancy. 

It may be faid, that the writers, to whom I chiefly appeal 
are in great meafure dry, and artlefs, without any grace and 
ornament to recommend them. They were likewife pofte- 
rior to the Helladians ; confequently farther removed from 
the times of which they treat. To the firfl: objection I an- 
fvvcr, that the mod dry and artlefs hiftorians are in general 
the mofl authentic. They who colour and embeilifli, have 
the leafl: regard for the truth. In refped to priority, it is a 
fpecious claim ; but attended with rio validity. When a gra- 

' See TheopKilus ad Autolycum. 1, 2. p. "iSl^ 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. 147 

dual darknefs has been overfpreading the world, it requires 
as much time to emerge from the cloud, as there pafled when 
we were finking into it : fo that they who come later may 
enjoy a greater portion of light, than thofe who preceded 
them by ages. Befides, it is to be confidered, that the 
writers, to whom I chiefly appeal, lived in parts of the 
world which gave them great advantages. The whole theo- 
logy of Greece was derived from the eafl;. We cannot 
therefore but in reafon fuppofe, that Clemens of Alexandria, 
Eufebius of Czefarea, Tatianus of Aflyria, Lucianus of Samo- 
fata, Cyril of Jerufaleni, Porphyry of Syria, Proclus of Ly- 
cia, Philo of Biblus, Strabo of Amafa, Paufanias of Cappado- 
cia, Eratoi^henes of Cyrene, muft know more upon thirfubjed 
than any native Helladian. The like may be faid ofDiodorus, 
Jofephus, %laii^ Cedrenus, Syncellus, Zonaras, Euftathius ; 
and numberlefs more. Thefe had the archives of ancient 
3 temples, to which they could apply : and had traditions 
more genuine than ever reached Greece. And though they 
were pofterior theirfelves, they appeal to authors far prior 
to any Helladians: and their works are crowded with ex- 
tradls from the moft curious and the moft ancient '^ hiftories. 
Such were the writings of Sanchoniathon, Berofus, Nicho- 
laus Damafcenus, Mocus, Mnafeas, Hieronymus i^igyptius, 
Apion, Manethon : from whom Abydenus, Apollodorus, 

' See Philo Biblius apud Eufeb. P. E. 1. i. c. 10. p. 32. He mentions apply- 
ing to a great number of authors, in Phenicia. 

* Yl'iKKiw i^igBJvna c^if.ivoi uAmi', ^"X} tw ttcco 'EAAwer/. 

Philo apud Eufeb. P. Evang. 1. i.e. ix. p. 32. 

U 2 Afcle- 

148 DISSERTATION upon the 

Afclepiades, Artapanus, Philaftrius, borrowed largely. We 
are beholden to Clemens^, and Eufebius, for many evidences 
from writers, long lince loftj even Euftathius and Tzetzes 
have refources, which are now no more. 

It muft be after all confefled, that thofe, who preceded, 
had many opportunities of information, had they been willing 
to have been inforaied. It is faid both of Pythagoras and 
Solon, that they relided for fome time in Egypt : where the 
former was inftrudled by a Son-chen, or prieft of the Sun. 
But I could never hear of any great good, that was the con- 
fequence of his travels. Thus much is certain ; that what- 
ever k^^owledge he may have picked up in other parts, h© 
got nothing from the Grecians. They, who pretended moil 
to wifdom, were the moft deftitute of the bleffing. * AAAa 
TCCL^ aXMig (rvXKs^ccfjLBvog^ fjLovov ttol^x rojir'fm^p 'EKkrivm 
£(^sv ovhv^ TCBVicL <TQ(piOLg KOLi OLTTo^icL (TvyoiKuvrodv . And as their 
theology was before very obfcurc, he drew over it a myfte- 
rious veil to make it tenfold darker. The chief of the in- 
telligence tranfmitted by Solon from Egypt contained a fa- 
tire upon his own country. He was told by an an- 
cient ' prieft, that the Grecians were children in fcience : 
that they were utterly ignorant of the mythology of other 
nations; and did not underftand their own. Eudoxus 

' Clemens Alexandiinus Strom. 1. i. p. 356. 
* Eufebij Prasp. Evang, 1. 10. c. 4. p. 471; 

Theophikis ad Autol. 1, 3. p. 381. 
' Plato in Timaso. Clemens. Strom. 1. i.p. 426. 
Q. ^oAoDV, SoAwe, 'EAA»,"f5 uii ^rsucTes— >ctA. 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. jaq 

likevvife and Plato were in Egypt ; and are faid to have 
reflded there feme time : yet very few things of moment 
have been tranfmitted by them. Plato had great opportu- 
nities of redifying the hiftory and mythology of Greece: 
but after all his advantages he is accufed of trifling fhame- 
fully, and addiding himfelf to fable. ^ IlAa-'w:/ J5, ^omii 
7m 'EKT^rimv <ro(pmcirQ; yBye^^oLi, Big TrorrjV (pAvcc^iav zy^^ 
§Yi(TBV. Yet all the rites of the Helladians, as well as their 
Gods and Heroes, were imported from the ' eaft: and chiefly 
from '° Egypt, though they were unwilling to allow it. 
Length of time had greatly impaired their true hiftory ; and 
their prejudices would not fufler them to retrieve it. I fliould 
therefore think it by no means improper to premife a fhort 
account of this wonderful people, in order to fliew whence 
this obfcurity arofe ; which at laft prevailed fo far, that they 
in great meafure lofl: fight of their origin, and were involved 
in myflery and fable. 

The firft inhabitants of the country, called afterward* 
Hellas, were the fons of Javan j who feem to have degene- 
rated very early, and to have become truly barbarous. Hence 
the beft hiftorians of Greece confefs, that their anceftors were 
not the firft inhabitants j but that it was before their arrival 

' Theophilus ad Autolycum. L. 3. p. 390. 

» See Eufebius. Prsep. Evan. L. 10. c. 4. p. 469. and c. 5. p. 473. alfo Clemens 
Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 361, Diodorus Siculus, L. i. p. 62, 6^. and p. 86, ij, 

*° KaGoAe Si (fccixt TBi 'EhAnrM i^iS'ia^ecr^cct Tbi £7r/{pa>'£TaTa5 AtyuTmuy 
'H^waSTg, xa( ©g85. L. I. p. 20. 

See here a long account of the mythology of Egypt being tranfporfed to 
Greece ; and there adopted by the Helladians as their own, and ftrangeiy 

Vol. I. U 3 in 

150 DISSERTATION upon the 

in the pofTeflion of a people, whom they ftile " Ba^Sa^Oi, or 
Barbarians. The Hclladians were colonies of another family : 
and introduced themfelves fornewhat later. They were of 
the race, which I term Amonian ; and came from Egypt 
and Syria : but originally from Babylonia. They came under 
various titles, all taken from the religion, which they pro- 
fefled. Of thefe titles I fhall have occalion to treat at large 5 
and of the imaginary leaders, by whom they were fuppofed 
to have been conducted. 

As foon as the Amonians were fettled, and incorporated 
with the natives, a long interval of darknefs enfued. The 
very union produced a new language : at lead the ancient 
Amonian became by degrees fo modified, and changed, that 
the terms of fcience, and worfhip, were no longer under- 
ftood. Hence the titles of their Gods were mifapplied r 
and the whole of their theology grew more and more cor- 
rupted ; fo that very few traces of the original were to be dif- 
covered. In fhort, almoft every term was mifconfirued, and 
abufed. This " aera of darknefs was of long duration : at laft 
the Afiatic Greeks began to beftir themfelves. They had a 
greater correfpondence than the Helladians : and they were 
led to exert their talents from examples in Syria, Egypt, and 
other countries. The fpecimens, which they exhibited of 
their genius, were amazing : and have been juftly efteemed- 

" 'Exarxic; jxiv cwc MjA»5-fc5« ttspi rmTlsAoTGri/yia-y ^mt/c, otl tt^o imv EAA>>- 
vti.v wttmay oLvrm' BapSapoi' cr^eScv Si n xai ti av^uTraicc 'EAAccs xxtoixix Bag- 
4'it.'>f<)i'U7r»T'i ro TraAa/oi'. Strabo. L. 7. p. 321. 

" OSt iu.STx^u ^oGi'oi 7ra.pccAi?\ii7nxi} iv u i*:nhv i^ou^iTiv EAAtjau' iT°^vrou^ 
Theopompus in Tricareno. 

2 a rtandard 

Helladian and other Grecian Writers. \t\ 

a ftandard for elegance, and nature. The Athenians were 
greatly afFeded with thefe examples. They awoke as it were 
out of a long and deep fleep : and as if they had been in the 
training of fcience for ages, their firft efforts bordered upon 
perfedion. In the fpacc of a century, out of one little con- 
fined diftrid, were produced a group of worthies, who at 
all times have been the wonder of the world : fo that we 
may apply to the nation in general, what was fpoken of the 
fchool of aphilofopher : cujus ex ludo, tanquam ex Equo Tro- 
jano, meri Principes exierunt. But this happy difplay of parts 
did not remedy the evil, of which I have complained". They 
did not retrieve any loft annals : nor were any efforts made 
to difpel the cloud, in which they were involved. There 
had been, as I have reprefented, a long interval ; during whicE 
there muft have happened great occurrences : but few of them 
had been tranfmitted to pofterity ; and thofe handed down by 
tradition, and mixed with inconliftency and fable. It is fard 
that letters were brought into Greece very early by *' Cad- 
mus. Let us for a while grant it ; and inquire what was the 
progrefs. They had the ufe of them fo far, as to put an in- 
fcription on the pediment of a temple, or upon a pillar, or 

'= How uncertain they were in their notions may be feen from what follows. 
Alii Cadmum, alii Danaum, quidam Cecropem Athenienfem, vel Linum The- 
banum, et temporibus Trojanis Palamedem Argivum, niemorant fcdecim lite- 
rarum formas, mox alios, et pr^cipue Simonidem cxteras invenifle. Lilius Gy- 
raldiis de Poecis. Dialog, i. p. 13. Edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696. 

Tots ll(xhcx.[A:nim eups to. i<^ ^pa//yU3tT« ra «/.^aC>jT3j 'a, €, y^ <J^, e, /, Xj^, 

^ — TTCoi rxvicc XifA.i:}iiim Keios Trpoai^ny-S Svoy v ^cci u. Eiri^cx.^f/.oi </g o ^u^~ 
x'daioiT^iat Cjt*^" cuTwiiT^.')^oiho-xy Toi^^ c^oi^eict. Eufebii Chron. P. 33. 1. 13. 

Vol. I. U 4 to 

152 DISSERTATION upon the 

to fcrawl a man's name upon a tile or an oyfter-fliel], when 
they wanted to banifli, or poifon him. Such fcanty know- 
ledge, and fo bafe materials, go but a little way towards fci- 
ence. What hiftory was there of Corinth, or of Sparta ? what 
annals were there of Argos, or Meflena ; of Elis, or the cities 
of Achaia ? None : not even of '^ Athens. There are not 
the leaft grounds to furmife, that any fmgle record exifted. 
The names of the Olympic vidors from Corosbus; and of 
the prieflefTes of Argos, were the principal memorials, to 
which they pretended : but how little knowledge could be 
obtained from hence. The laws of Draco in the thirty-ninth 
Olympiad were certainly the mofl ancient writing, to which 
we can fecurely appeal. When the Grecians began after- 
wards to beftir themfelves, and to look back upon what had 
pafTed ; they colleded whatever accounts could be '"^ obtained. 
They tried alfo to feparate, and arrange them to the beft 
of their abilities ; and to make the various parts of their 
hiftory correfpond. They had ftill fome good materials to 
proceed upon, had they thoroughly underftood them: but 
herein was a great failure. Among the various traditions 
handed down they did not conlider, which really related to 

" OuyapfJLQVov ira^a. tok aAXon EAA);<7ic -tip.eXiSi ret tts^i tjj? aray^a.(p>ii, aAA' 
aSe irapac. roii A^iP.'xioi't h; avro^uoi'xi encc' ^eyeat^ tton Tra-t^eiai em/^eXeii, yJ^gr 
T0iaT0!'lu^i(7>cgTa< ysvofjiei'of'. Jofephus contra Apion. L. i, p. 439. Their hif- 
torians were but little before the war with the Perfians : do6trina vero temporum 
adhuc longe recentior — hinc tenebrae fuperioribus feculis, hinc fabujje. Mar- 
Iham. Chron, Canon, p. 14. 

'♦ The Arundel Marbles are a work of this fort, and contain an account of 
13 18 years. They begin from Cecrops, and come down to the i6och Olym- 
piad. So that this work was undertaken very late, after the Archonfliip of Di- 



Helladun and other Grecian Writers. ic-? 

their country, and which had been introduced from 
other '^ parts. Indeed they did not chufe to diilincruifl-!, 
*but adopted all for their own; taking the merit of every an- 
cient tranfaftion to themfekes. No people had a greater 
love for fcience ; nor difplayed a more refined tafle in com- 
pofition. Their ftudy was ever to pleafe, and to raife admi- 
ration. Hence they alv/ays aimed at the marvellous ; which 
they dreffed up in a moil: winning manner: at the fame 
time they betrayed a Teeming veneration for antiquity. 
But their judgment was perverted ; and this veneration at- 
tended with little regard for the truth. "* They had a high 
opinion of themfelves and of their country in general : and 
being perfuaded that they fprang from the ground on which 
they flood ; and that the Arcadians were older than the moon, 
they refted fatisfied with this, and looked no farther. In fhort 
they had no love for any thing genuine, no defire to be in- 
truded. Their hiftory could not be reformed but by an ac- 
knowledgment which their pride would not fufier them to 
make. They therefore devoted themfelves to an idle mythology : 
and there was nothing fb contradictory and abfurd, but was 
greedily admitted, if fandilied by tradition. Even when the 
truth glared in their very faces, they turned from the light ; 

" See Diodorus above, p. 19, 20. 
iyccc<por, x>A a,< ex.iX,^ot TrSft tuv 7r^cx.yua.7U'V £iXa(^:,ii'To i TrAetov y'dv j lac raiv 

Qi&'AlMV CC»vn?Ji^ fAiy^r(Tl,XaiiyrX.l'TtMTXrcc TTiOl roov XVTUV AS-) iiT -dK 0:'.V:i(7L ;CT?i.' 

Jofephus contra Apion. vol. 2. 1. i. c 3. p. 439. 

vj-teii- tx'^i~'n'7xv rc'!v ''STxAxiut ij.vij!j\' 'I'jj.ii'i Si Tnv evx"Tixv tutoh xi'.hjiv i^p:ri-:t 
xxt Tor ex. TYii arxy^x(pn<: ttgi'-^v uzfjic^ai- :ii^ 7;;i ttxgxi t'sjiy.cAiixr twzriac:}x.Jja, 
7«-' ac;^a;oAs'3-(x?. Diod. I. 4. p. 209. 

YoL. I. X and 

154 D I S S E R T A T I O N ubon the 

and would not be undeceived. Thofe, who like Euemerus 
and Ephorus had the courage to dillent from their legends, 
were deemed atheifts and apoAates ; and treated accordingly. 
Plutarch more than once infifts that it is expedient to veil 
the truth, and to drefs it up in '^ allegory. They went fo far 
as to deem inquiry a '^ crime; and thus precluded the only 
means, by which the truth could be obtained. 

Nor did thefe prejudices appear only in refpedl- to their 
own rites, and theology, and the hiftory of their own nation ; 
the accounts which they gave of other countries, were always 
tinftured with this predominant vanity. An idle zeal made 
them attribute to their forefathers the merit of many great 
performances to which they were utterly ftrangers : and fup- 
pofed them to have founded cities in various parts of the 
world, where the name of Greece could not have been 
known : cities which were in being before Greece was a 
ftate. Wherever they got footing, or even a traniient ac- 
quaintance, they in their defcriptions accommodated every 
thing to their own preconceptions ; and exprelTed all terms 
according to their own mode of writing, and pronunciation, 

" Plutarch de Audiendis Poetis. 

See Strabo's Apology for P'able. 1. i. p. 35, 36. 

'^ riA/jf yt Sly oTt yx ax.pi€yi e^nrct^w ^pn etvcci ruv VTrep ra QiiB ex. ira.KouH 
fjn/xu^iufxei'Mi: Arrian. Expedit. Alexandri. 1. 5. 

Herodotus puts thefe remarkable words into the mouth of Darius- — El's* ya^ 
Ti Set -^^-vfof Xiye^cci, Xsyi^co' th ya.^ ccvth yT^i^oixiha., oi re ^gucToyOtgro;, xact 
61 TV ctXS^ni Sioc^oiuiu.ei'01. 1. 3. c. 72. We may be aflured that thefe were the 
author's own fentiments, though attributed to another perfon : hence we muft 
not wonder if his veracity be fometimes called in queftion : add to this, that he 
was often through ignorance miflaken: HoMa rov H^oJ^otov eAey^si (MaigBwr) 
T(uv AiyvTrTiccxciov utt' ayyoiccs i-^iva-fJiivoy. Jofephus cont, Ap. 1. i. c. 14. p. 444. 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. 155 

that appearances might be in their favour. To this were 
added a thoufand (illy ftories to fupport their pretended 
claim. They would perfuade us that Jafon of Greece founded 
the empire of the Medes ; as Perfeus of the fame country 
did that of the Perfians. Armenus a companion of Jafon 
was the reputed father of the Armenians. They gave out 
that Tarfus, one of the moft ancient cities in the world, was 
built by people from '^ Argos : and that Peluiium of Egypt 
had a name of Grecian " original. They too built Sais in 
the fame " country: and the city of the Sun, ftiled He- 
liopolis, owed its origin to an " Athenian. They were fo 
weak as to think that the city Canobus had its name from 
a pilot of Menelaus, and that even Memphis was built by 
Epaphos of *' Argos. There furely was never any nation 
fo incurious and indiiTerent about truth. Hence have arifen 
thofe contradictions and inconiiftences, with which their hif- 
tory is ^'^ embarraffed. 

It may appear ungracious, and I am fure it is far from a 
pleafing tafk to point out blemiOies in a people of fo re- 
fined a turn as the Grecians, whofe ingenuity and elegance 
have been admired for ages. Nor would I engage in a dif- 

'' Ta^aoi evnc-viMTaTyi iroXii KiX^icci — ec^' ^' ccTraixoi Apyaccy- Steph. By- 
zantiniis, and Strabo. 1. i6. p. 1089. 

" D.."5M«c-a/cr'a7ro th ttjiA^. Strabo. 1. 17. p. i ^55' 

According to Marcellinus it was built by Peleus of Thefialy. 1. 22. c. 1$. 
p. 264. 

Diodoriis. 1. 5. p. 328. 

Diodorus. 1. 3. p. 328. built by Aftis. 

Apollodoriis. 1. 2. p. 62. Clemens. 1. 1. Strom, p. 383. from Ariftippus. 

See Jolephus contra Apion. 1. i. c. 3. p. 439. 

X 2 play 



156 DISSERTATION upon the 

play of this kind, were it not necefiary to {hew their pre- 
judices and miftakes, in order to remedy their failures. On 
our part we have been too much accuflomed to take in the 
grols with little or no examination, whatever they have been 
pleafed to tranfmit : and there is no method oF difcovering 
the truth, but by (hewing wherein they failed ; and pointing 
out the mode of error; the line of deviation. By unravel- 
ing the clue we may be at lafi: led to fee things in their ori- 
ginal ftate; and to reduce their mythology to order. That 
my cenfures are not groundlel's, nor carried to an undue 
degree of feverity, may be proved from the like accufations 
from fome ot their befl: writers : who accufe them both of 
ignorance and forgery. ^^ Hecataeus of Miletus acknowledges, 
that the traditions of the Greeks were as ridiculous as they 
were numerous : ** and Philo confedes that he could obtain 
little intelligence from that quarter : that the Grecians 
had brought a tnifi upon learning \ fo that it was impojfible to 
difcover the truth. He therefore applied to people of other 
countries for information ; from who?n only it could be obtained. 
Plato *^ owned that the moft genuine helps to philofophy were 


*' O/ ya.0 EAAxj'wi' Ao^/oi -ttoKKo^ yfXowi, <os (//.oi (pxivovrcct. Apud Jam- 
blicutn — See notes, p. 295. 

* rjo^vv auroi iTrnyov tu(^'Ov^ ws jm.>j pct^'iwi riva. cvvoooiv to. xat a.?\.iniia.v yi- 
vofj-tvoi. He therefore did not apply to Grecian learning— On rnr Trap' ti AA/;cri, 
S'ia<f>covoi yccp aurn vui (pi^voveiKOTioov mtt ivioiv //.acMoi', w irooi aX'Saxv GUvri^iKjct,, 
Philo apud Eufeb. P. E. 1. I. c. ix. p. 32. 

See the fame writer of their love of allegory, p. 3a. 

*'' nAaTft)!' 8JC a.oveiTa.1 to. xct?\.?\t~ct €if <f>iAo7o(piaf yracx luv ^apCxpoov sjXTro- 
fivecr^ai. Clemens Alexand. Strom. 1. i. p. ^§5. 

— KAgTTas 

Helladian a?id other Grecian V/riters. ie>i 

borrowed from thofe, who hy the Greeks were Jliled barbarous : 
and '^ Ja.nblicus giv^es the true reafon for the preference. 
The Helladians^ fays this writer, are ever wavering a?id tm- 
fettled in their principles ; and are carried about by the leafl 
impulfe. They want JJeadiyiefs : and if they obtain any falutary 
knowledge^ they cannot retain it : nay they quit it with a kind 
of eager fi^fs : and whatever they do admits they new mould 
and fajhion^ according to /owe novel and uncertain mode of 
reafoning. But people of other countries are more deter?}ii- 
nate in their principles ^ and abide fftore uniformly by the very 
terms ^ which they have traditionally received. They are repre- 
fented in the fame light by Theophilus: ^' he fays, that they 
wrote merely for etnpty praife^ and were fo blinded with va- 
nity, that they neither difcovered the truth theitf elves ^ ?ior en- 
couraged others to purfue it. Hence Tatianus fays with great 
truth, '° that the writers of other comitries were fran^ers to 
that vanity^ with which the Grecians were infe&ed : that they 

— KAgTTTot? r-,}; CccoCccoy (ptXaaoq^icci 'EAAijca?. Clemens Alexand. Scrom. 1. 2, 
p. 428. 

Clemens accufes the Grecians continually for their ignorance and vanity : yec 
Clemens is faid to have been an Athenian, though he lived at Alexandria. He 
facrificed all prejudices to the truth ; as far as he could obtain it. 

** ^va*i ya.0 EAAnve^ eia-t veor^oTroi^ Xj ocTrcvrei (pBpovTa.1 Tracvra^Hj ouSiv i^ov- 
Tfj iptJia. «f eauTOff, a/' oirep Si^covTat Trctoct Ttvcov S icx.(pv\aTroi'Tef' aAAa iccci 
THTo o^i'jii a(f£i'Tg; TTiXi'Ta xaxa t/ic afaroi' luoiaiAoyaxv ^graTrAaTTaa/. B«p- 
Qapoi Se fxovtuoi Toii jiGecrii' oi'Tts, xcti Ton Aoyoii Ci^cciui Ton wjtois ifj^/JLeiaai. 
Jamblicus. feft. 7. c. 5. p. 155. 

*' Ao^rii yap revm >^ /xaraiH Trapxes ivroi eoa^evTe;, ovrs ccvtsi ro aAijSs? sy- 
rcocxv^ ovTi jutf aAAHs iiri ii)v olKSholv Trpoer^e-l-cirTo. Theophilus ad Autol. 
1.3. p. 382. 

'° Uccp ifxiv cTg T>;j xivrjo^iai i iy.fpoi 'dx. ert' S'oyfji.ccTMV Si ttoikiAims b kcltoc- 
ypufju^ix.. Tatianus contra Grjccos. p. 269. 


158 DISSERTATION upon the 

isoei'e tnore Jtjnple^ arid uniform^ a?td did not encourage them- 
J elves in an affecied variety of notions. 

In refped: to foreign hiftory, and geographical knowledge, 
the Greeks in general were very ignorant : and the writerSj 
who, in the time of the Roman Empire, began to make 
more accurate inquiries, met with infuperable difficulties 
from the miflakes of thofe who had preceded. I know no 
cenfure more fevere and jufl than that which Strabo has 
paffed upon the hiftorians and geographers of Greece ; and 
of its writers in general. In fpeaking of the Afiatic na- 
tions he afiures us, that there never had been any account 
tranfmitted of them, upon which we can depend. ^' Some of 
ihefe nations^ fays this judicious writer, the Grecians have 
called SaccSy and others Maffageta^ -without havi7ig the leaf light 
to determine them. A?td though they have pretended to give 
a hiflory of Cyrus^ and his particular wars with thofe who were 
called MaJfagetcSj yet nothing precife and fatisfaBojy could 
ever be obtained \ not even in refpeSi to the war. "There is the 
fame uncertainty in refpeEl to the ancient hiftory of the Perfans, 
as well as to that of the Medes, and Syrians : TVe can meet 


°' Toui p.iv '%cfita.i^ rovi cTg MacrrirciySroci itcaXow^ hy. e^ovres ctxptCoos Mysiv vrepi 
cLVTMi' o'jifVjXa.iTrep -TrgosMocaaayeroci tov l{.upii TrcXiixov Iq-opowTii ccAXcc ovn 
Tre^i rcvTcev ouS m vx^iQwto lupoi aAwnoLv evif^ey, btb ret. 'uja.Xa.icLictivTltpa-uy^ ovn 
TMV M))cr(x.&)r, n 2f/3 ax-i'! , £5 'ztTiq'iv cc(piKvetTo fA.iya.Xm' ^icc rw tmu avyypxcptuiv 
aTrXoTnia. xai T>;>' (piXoyxMiuv. Og(t)vrii yao roui (pocvepaii fA.vQayp<x(pav; evJ^oxi/xovr' 
Tots, ODnmaccy xai ccvres ircc^i^eSuxi tyiv y^aCfw r,{'Siav, exv €v iq^opiui <r^ri/ut.a.Ti Ae- 
yono-iv, a. ^wJ^gTrerg giJ^or, j««Tg MJCouixai', n ou Tra.occ ye ei^orav aKOTryvres' S'l 
aVTo cTg f/.ovov TBTo, on ocx^oocatv nS'eiacv e^ei, xcci ^avfji.oc<^>iv. Voc^ieas (S^'av t/s 

Hcr/oJ^ct) Xj O/xyipiJ Tnc^iVfTSav H^cooAo^aa/, xai roti Tpex.yix.oii TJoimccHy « Kmata 
te x«t HpJ^oTw, xcct EAAar;3CM, xcct ocAXon roi'Jroti. OucTg roii vre^i AXt^ccv- 

i-^cp Se avyy^x-laatv fo.S'iov TTi'^evSiv tois ttoAAcxs" jca< yx^ ovju px^iypyuai J^ia. re 

Helladian and other Grecian Writers. icq 

mth little that can be deemed authentic, on account of the 
'weaknefs of thofe who wrote, and their uniform love of fable. 
For finding that writers, who profejfedly dealt in fiSlion with- 
out any pretenfto?is to the truth, were regarded ; they thought 
that they fijould make their writings equally acceptable, if in 
the fy ft em of their hiflory they were to introduce circumfianceSy 
which they had neither feen nor heard, nor received upon the 
authority of another perfo7i ; proceeding merely upon this prin- 
ciple that they fhould be ■ mofi likely to pleafe peoples fancy by 
having recourfe to what was marvellous and new. On this 
account we may tnore fafely truft to Hefiod and Homer, whe?t 
they prefent us with a lift of Demigods and Heroes, and even 
to the tragic poets, than to Ctefias, Herodotus, and Hel!a?ticuSy 
and writers of that clafs. Even the generality of hifiorians, 
who wrote about Alexander, are ?iot fafely to be tru/led : for 
they fpeak with great confidence, relying upon the glory of the 
monarch, whojn they celebrate ; and to the remotenefs of the 
countries^ in which he was en^^aved ; even at the extremities 
of Afia ; at a great diflancefrom us, and our coficerns. "This 
renders them very fecure. For what is referred to a difJance 
is difficult to be confuted. In another place fpeaking of India, 

TYiV So^CLV KXi^OLvS'^'B, It.a.i S^ iOL T TTDV ^ DOLTilOiV IT ^^i TCti ifT^a.TKX.i ySyoVil'Cit Tflj 

Aaicci'ujopoc.o cL(p riuMv' TO (f'ii "Zffopcco S'ucrsAiyToi'.StTcibo- I, II. p. 774" 

Grjecis Hiftoricis plcrumque poecicai funilem eiTe licenciam. Quinftilianus. 

1. I I. C. 1 I. 

— — quicquid Grsecia mendax 
Audet in Hiftoria. Juvenal. 
Strabo of the ancient Grecian hiftorians : Aei Se tuv twc volKouuv ic^o^imv 
aaovitv ovTui, ciii iJLriOjj.oAoyoviJ.fvm' a^oS Pa. oi ').cip veiiiTSpoi -uroAAxx/s v)uiQ^ai 
jcai T a.pxvrtu Aeyuv. 1. 8. p. 545. 

Yluvrii fjiv yap 01 -Tsioi A.Ks^x.vS'nv To ^cwfAci^ov a.vri T cnXmsi atffoS'ixpvTci.i 
j^aAAo). Sijabo. 1. 15. p. 1022. 

4 he 

i6o DISSERTATION upcn the 

he fays, that it was very diiiicult to arrive at the truth : for 
the '* writers^ "joho viujl neceffarily be appealed to, nsoere in cg71 • 
t'mtial oppofiticn^ and contradiEied one another. And hoiso, lays 
Strabo, could it be otherivi/e^ Jcr if they erred fo pja7nefully 
mohen they had ocular proof ^ how could they f peak irith certaintyj 
where they were led by hearfay? In another place ^'^ he excufes 
the miftakes of the ancient poets, faying, that we muft not 
wonder if they fomctin:ies deviated from the truth, when peo- 
ple in ages more enlightened were fo ignorant, and fo devoted 
to every thing marvellous and inrredible. He had above given 
the poets even the preference to other writers : but herein 
his zeal tranfported him too far. The lirft writers v*'ere the 
poets ; and the mifchiel began from them. They firft in- 
fedled tradition ; and mixed it with allegory and fable. Of 
this Athenagoras accufes them very juflly ; and fays, ^"^ that 
the greatefl ahufes of true knowledge cafne from them. I ifif/ly 
fays this learned father, that we owe to Orpheus^ Hofner, and 
Hefod, the fBitious names and genealogies of the Pagan 

'* — 2\}}.% iKCic^c'^ ruaq-cc) T ccyxi'Tia. Xiy^t ■vioXXxiii^' czra J"6 inin ton' :cxry- 
6srT&'i' BTfc' cf;x(fff3rT:.(, T( Sit vofJ-iZ^nv -^i^' T&'i' i^ ay.or,i. Scrabo. 1. 15. p. 1 006, 

See alfo 1. 771, 2, 3, 4. And Diodorus Siculus. 1. 1. p. 63. Of Herodotus and 
other writers — '^Lttauawi ^zty-oiv^LfTii rm a?^miixi to ■Ttrx^U'^o^oA'^yeiv. 

" Gv hoLVfAoii^ov i^'iivai irept n'OfunpoW xaiyec.^ xes eri ncoiipdi exeit'B--!ro/\?vcx. 
ayvoSiv, V.M n^a.-rohiy-iv. Strabo. 1. 7. p. 458. 

'* $))^( cvv Of(peoc jtoci 'OfJ-iipov xai 'HaioS ov itvxi TOVi ovoiAUTct y.ui yivvnSoT~a.i 
roii vt' avriov 'Aiyopiivoii dan' Si ■x.oci Hpoioroi—HerioS ov ycco >ca« 
'O/J.npci' rAixiw mpaxoaion sreai Soxeco Tpstr^vTSpni ey.y yeria\)xi^ xai ou irAnocri. 
'OvToi SiiiTiv, 01 TToiiiaxi'Tii bio'^oviCLV 'EA/./;^;, xxi Totat motai tm e7rcoi'utjt.ioti 
cToi'Tf?} xa< Ti,uxi xaci Ti^vxi SiiKovTi^f XXI Si-fio. aVToiv a-yiy.ait'oi'Tii' at iiiixcva 
fJ.i'^pt f<.>!7rw TrAaq'ixn xxt y^xfixn^ xxi ocvi pixvTOvrotnrixr) 'ncrav^ ovS i ivofj.t^ovTo. 
Athenagorse Legatio. p. 292. See Herodotus. 1. 2. c. si* 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. i6i- 

Dcejnons^ whom they are pleafecl to flyle Gods : and I ca}i pro- 
duce Herodotus for a witnefs to what I affert. He informs us^ 
that Homer and Hefwd were about four hufidred years prior 
to hini/elf ; and ?jot more. Tbefe^ fays he^ were the petfons 
who frf framed the theogony of the Greeks ; and gave appel- 
lations to their Deities \ and diflinguifhed them according to 
their feveral ranks ^ and departments. Ihey at the fatne time 
defcribed them under different appearances : for till their time 
there was not in Greece any reprefentation of the Gods^ either 
in fculpture or painting ; Jiot any fpecimen of the jlatuarys 
art exhibited : no fuchfubfitutes were in thofe times thought of. 
The ancient hidoiy and mythology of Greece was partly 
tranfmitted by the common traditions of the natives : and 
partly preferred in thofe original Doric hymns, which were 
univerfally fung in their Prutaneia and temples. Thefe were 
in the ancient Amonian language ; and faid to have been 
introduced by ^^ Pagafus, Agyieus, and Olen. This laft 
fome reprefent as a Lycian, others as an Hyperborean : and 
by many he was eftcemed an Egyptian. They were chanted 
by the Purcones, or priefts of the Sun : and by the female, 
Hierophants : of whom the chief upon record were '^^ Pha- 
ennis, " Phaemonoe, and Baso. The laft of thefe mentions 
Olen, as the inventor of verfe, and the moft ancient prieft: 
of Phoebus. 

'' Paufanias. 1. lO. p. 809. Clemens mentions Xjusx. ^u^w^ov riij 'Eofjji. Co- 
hort, p. 44. 

Oca. y.ii' ai wa-iv ii' rct) rirvraysiw, (^m^y) jj.iv i<^iv ccvtuv h ^otofji) , Paufanias- 
1. 5. p. 416. 

'' Paufanias. 1. 10. p. 828. of Phacnnis and the Sibyls. 

'■' Paufanias. 1. lO. p. S09. of Phrenionoe and ancient hymns. 

Vol. I. Y Q,},YiV 

i62 DISSERTATION upon the 

^^ HAjiv J" he, ysvsro w^ooTog ^oi^oio '7r§0(pYiTr,g, 

Thefe hymns grew by length of time obfolete ; and fcarce 
intelligible. They were however tranflated, or rather imitated, 
by Pamphos, Rhianus, Phemius, Homer, Bion Proconnefius, 
Onomacritus, and others. Many of the facred terms could not 
be underftood, nor interpreted ; they were however " retained 
with great reverence : and many which they did attempt to 
decipher, were mifconftrued and mifapplied. Upon this bafis 
was the theology of Greece founded : from hence were 
the names of Gods taken : and various departments attri- 
buted to the feveral Deities. Every poet had fomething dif- 
ferent in his theogony : and every variety, however incon- 
fiftent, was admitted by the Greeks without the leaft hefita- 
tion : '^° Oycrgi ya^ 'EAAj^j'?? vsor^oiroi — 'EKKyjctip araXixiTrU' 
^og rr,g cc?.irj^siixg (^rirr,(ng. Ihe Grecians^ liiys Jamblicus, are 
naturally led by novelty : The invejligation of truth is too 
fatiguing for a Grecian. From thefe ancient hymns and 
mifconflrued terms '^' Pherecydes of Syrus planned his hif- 
tory of the Gods: which, there is reafon to think, was the 
fource of much error.^ 

" Paiifanias. 1. lo. p. 809, 8ic. nA)ii'. 

" Jamblicus de Myrteriis. Scft. vii. c. 5. p. 156. 

In like manner in Samothracia the ancient Orphic language was obfolete, yet 
they retained it in their temple rites : U^x^^^'-ci ^ri TraKcaav IS'ta.v S'uxhiX'rov 01 
AvTox^'^vsc (gfSapiciOpaJtvi) ni TroAAa iv txh Quaiati jxi^Pi ts yuv Tvo^nccs. Dicdo- 
rus. 1. 5. p. 322. 

'»" Jamblicus de Myfter. Sc<fl. 7. c. 5. See notes, p. 295. 

■•' Clemens Alexandrinus Strom. 1. 5. p. 6y6. 

Such was Arifta:us Proconneifius: Ai'/)^ yom a in aAAof. Strabo. 1. 13. 

5 Such 

Helladian afid other Grecian Writers. 163 

Such were the principles which gave birth to the mytho- 
logy of the Grecians ; from whence their ancient hiftory was 
in great meafure derived. As their traditions were obfoletc, 
and filled with extraneous matter, it rendered it impolTible 
for them to arrange properly the principal events of their 
country. They did not feparate and diftinguifli ; but often 
took to themfelves the merit of tranfadlions, which were of 
a prior date, and of another clime. Thefe they adopted, 
and made their own. Hence^ when they came to dio-eft 
their hiftory, it was all confufed : and they were embarrafled 
with numberlefs contradidions, and abfurdities, which it was 
impoflible to *^- remedy. For their vanity, as I have fhewn, 
would not fuffer them to reclify their miftakes by the autho- 
rity of more ancient and more learned nations. It is well 
obferved by Tatianus ^^ Ailyrius, that where the hiftory of 
times paji has not been duly adjujled^ it is inipojftble to arrive 
at the truth : and there has been no greater caufe of error in 
writing, than the endeavouring to adopt what is groundlefs and 
ificonfijlent. Sir Ifaac Newton fomewhere lays it down for a 
rule never to admit for hiftory, what is antecedent to letters. \ 
For traditionary truths cannot be long preferved without 

** Thus ic is faid in Eufebius from fome ancient accounts, that Telegonut 
reigned in Egypt, who was the fon of Orus the fliepherd ; and feventh from Ina. 
thus : and that he married lo. Upon which Scaliger afks : Si feptimus ab Ina- 
cho, quomodo 16 Inachi filia nupfit ei ? How could 16 be married to him when 
Ihe was to him in degree of afcent, as far off as his grandmother's great grand- 
mother ; that is fix removes above him. See Scaliger on Eufcbius. ad 
Num. cccclxxxi. 

*° Tloio on yoe.0 etanya^Ttnoi iq'tv » rcov X^ovwr ecvxy^ocfpv, Trxox tutoh »Se tcc 
im Ic^o^ixi ahnuiuciv SvvoLTov' T( yoio TO aniov mi iv Tw ypctOHv TAar?;?, a fj^n ts 
^jwxTTTitv Tccf/j) aA»G«i Tatianus. p. 269. 

Y 2 fome 

i64 DISSERTATION upon the 

Tome change in themfelves, and fome addition of foreign 
circumftances. This accretion will be in every age enlarged ; 
till there will at lafl: remain fome lew outlines only of the 
original occurrence. It has been maintained by many, that 
the Grecians had letters very early : but it will appear upon in- 
quiry to have been a groundlefs notion. Thofe of the ancients, 
who confidered the matter more carefully, have made no 
fcruple to fet afide their "^^ pretenfions. Jofephus in particular 
takes notice of their early claim ; but cannot allow it : "^^ They^ 
fays this learned hiftorian, who would carry the introduEiion of 
letters among the Greeks the higheji, very gravely tell us, that 
they were brought over by the Phenicians, and Cadmus. Tet 
after all they cannot produce a Jingle fpeclmen either from their 
facred writings, or from their popular records, which favours 
of that antiquity. Theophilus takes notice of thefe difficulties; 
and fhews t-hat all the obfcurity, with which the hiftory of 
Hellas is clouded, arofe from this deficiency of letters. He 
complains, that the ** Hellenes had loft fight of the truth ; 


** Nur }JiW o-^e TTon fn 'EXXvvxi « rcov Xoyuv irxpnX^i S'tf^acntxAtx re xj y^ccfn' 
Clemens Alexand. Strom. I. i. p. 364. 

■*' '0< fJiiv ovv a.o'^aiOTo.Tnv ocvToof ti)v '^oyiaiv Stvxt DgAoKTe?, Traox ^sittKcov ly 

Y.xS fAfi eriUVUVOVTXt fJLXUitV. Qu fJ-W a/" STT itCHVd Td ypoVd SvvaiTO T;5 XV Sii^Xl 

ccfi^ofjiivnv xyxycx(pw By 'upoHjUt' sv J nfx^a-tjn xi'xbr)fjLX(Ti. Jofeph cont. Apion. 1. I. 

^' Toov S'e TYK x?\.n^iixiic{'opi(t)v EAAijyes e fjLSimvwTxt' ttcmtov ^sv iix ro viMq-' 
avTHi icjuv y^x^fj-xrcov rm ifXTrnptxi /jsto^ou; yiyivn&xi kcci xuro* ofJ.o/\oyyat, 
^/xaKQViii TX ypxfjLfJiXTX eupyi^ct.1, ot fxiv xiro XocA/a<5tir» ot Si irxp AtyvTrriooVj 
«AAs/ (T' XV x7ro^oiviy.(t)v. SevTS'-^ofjOii i'miarA'^il -ZB-ra/^ff;, 'uri' j hid fxn -moiJ/^H'u 
TW fJii'dxi', xKAx irici fAXTXKiov ^ xvcofiAoov -mpxyiJLUTMV. Theoph. ad Autol- 1. 3. 
p. 400. 

Plutarch aflures us, that Homer was not known to the Athenians till the time 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. i6c 

and could 720t recolkSi any genuine hijlory. The reafon of this 
is obvious : for they cajne late to the hiowledge of letters in com- 
farifon of other nations. This they confefs^ by attributing the 
invention of them to people prior to themfelves ; either to 
the Chaldeans^ or the Egyptiaris : or elfe to the Phenicians. 
Another caufe of failure^ which relates to their theology^ and 
flill greatly prevails^ is owing to their not making a proper dif- 
quifition about the true objeSi of worjhip : but amufng them- 
felves with idle J and unprofitable fpeculations. 

Notwithftanding this deficiency, they pretended to give a 
lift of Argive princes, of which twenty preceded the war of 
*^ Troy. But what is more extraordinary, they boafted of a 
feries of twenty -fix Kings at Sicyon, comprehending a fpace of 
one thou fand years, all which kings were before the time of 
"^^ Thefeus and the Argonauts. Among thofe, who have p-iven 
the lift of the Argive kings, is ^'Tatianus AfiyriuSjWho advifes 
every perfon of fenfe, when he meets with thefe high preten- 
fions, to confider attentively, that there was not a fmgle voucher ^ 
not even a tradition of any record^ to authenticate thefe hi/lo- 
ries : for even Cadmus was ?nany ages after. It is certain, 

of Hipparchus, about the 63d Olympiad, ye: fome writers make him three, 
fome four, fome five hundred years before that £era. It is fcarce poflible that he 
fhould have been fo unknown to them if they had been acquainted with let- 

*■' Eufebius. Chron. p. 24. 

*^ Eufebius. Chron. p. 19. Synccllus. p. 148, 152. 

The kings of Sicyon were taken from Caftor Rhodius. 

*^ KcLi^-.n roi' itivi^yj GUfiyai xaia. TraTHi ax^iQiicci, on xara. rnv'Fj^Xn- 
rccv TTccocfi caiv ovS' iq^o^iai tis vv ircto u'jtoH ava.y.a<fy)' KxS fJiof ycco — /xnae. 
■sroAAcdJ 5£i'£a5. >c A. 'lacianus AflVrius. p. 274, 

4 that 

i66 DISSERTATION upo?i the 

that the Helladians had no tendency to learning, till they 
were awakened by the Aliatic Greeks : and it was even 
then fome time before letters were in general ufe; or any 
hiftories, or even records attempted. For if letters had been 
current, and the materials for writing obvious, and in com- 
mon ufe, how comes It that we have not one fpecimen older 
than the reign of Cyrus ? And how is it poilible, if the Gre- 
cians had any records, that they ftiould be fo ignorant about 
fome of their mofl: famous men ? Of Homer how little is 
known ! and of what is tranfmitted, how little, upon which 
we may depend! Seven places in Greece contend for his 
birth : while many doubt whether he was of Grecian origi- 
nal. It is faid of Pythagoras, ^° that according to Hippo- 
botrus he w'as of Samos : but Arifloxenus, who wrote his 
life, as well as AriRarchus, and Theopompus, makes him a 
Tyrrhenian. According to Neanthes he was of Syria ; or 
elfe a native of Tyre. In like manner Thales was faid by 
Herodotus, Leander, and Duris, to have been a Phenician : 
but he was by others referred to Miletus in Ionia. It is 
reported of Pythagoras, that he vifited Egypt in the time of 
Cambyfes. From thence he betook himfelf to Croton in 
Italy : where he is fuppofed to have redded till the laft year 
of the feventieth Olympiad : confcquently he could not be 
above thirty or forty years prior to the birth of ^fchylus, 
and Pindar. What credit can we give to people for 
hiftories many ages backward ; who were fo ignorant in 

*• Clemens Alexand. I. i. p; 352. and Diogenes Ltcrtius, from Dicsearchus, 
and Heraclides. 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. 167 

matters of importance, which happened in the days of their 
fathers ? The Hke difficulties occur about Pherecydes Syrius; 
whom Suidas ftiles Babylonius : neither the time, when he 
lived, nor the place of his birth, have been ever fatisfa£lorily 
proved. Till Eudoxus had been in Egypt the Grecians did not 
know the fpace of which the true year confifted. ^'hXK 
riyi/osiro tsw^ svictvTog Tra^oLToig 'EAA»](r<i/, c^gKai ci?\Ka ttMiu). 
Another reafon may be given for the obfcurity in the 
Grecian hiflory, even when letters had been introduced among 
them. They had a childifh antipathy to every foreign 
language : and were equally prejudiced in favour of their own. 
This has paffed unnoticed ; yet was attended with the moft 
fatal confequences. They were milled by the too great de- 
licacy of their ear ; and could not bear any term which ap- 
peared to them barbarous, and uncouth. On this account they 
either rcjedled foreign ^^ appellations ; or fo modelled and 
changed them, that they became in found and meaning ef- 
fentially different. And as they were attached to their own 
country, and its cuftoms, they prefumed that every thing 
v/as to be looked for among themfelves. They did not con- 
fider, that the titles of their Gods, the names of cities, and 
their terms of worfliip were imported : that their ancient 

^ Strabo. 1. 17. p. 1 160. 

" ^lian mentions, that the Bull Onuphis was worfhipped at a place in Egypt,. 
which he could not fpecify on account of its afperity. Julian de Animalibus. 
L 12. c. II. 

Even Strabo omits fome names, becaufe they were too rough, and difibnant. 
Ot; A£>w S'e tmi' e^i'cov to. ovoixxtoc rx tccXccicc S ix tdv aSo^ia,i,.iy xy.x mv xTovrixy 
ryji iKfio^i ciUTwv. 1. 12. p. 1123. 


i68 DISSERTATION upon the 

hymns were grown obfolete: and that time had wrought a 
great change. They explained every tiling by the language 
in ufe, without the leafl: retrofped; or allowance: and all 
names and titles from other countries were liable to the fame 
rule. If the name was diilbnant, and difagreeable to their 
ear, it was rejected as barbarous: but if it was at all fimilar 
in found to any word in their language, they changed it to 
that word ; though the name were of Syriac original ; or 
introduced from Egypt, or Babylonia. The purport of the 
term was by thefe means changed : and the hifhory, which 
depended upon it, either perverted, or effaced. When the 
title Melech, which fignified a King, was rendered MsiAi^o? 
and MsjAip^iO?, fweet and gentle y it referred to an idea quite 
different from the original. But this gave them no concern : 
they ftill blindly purfued their purpofe. Some legend was 
immediately invented in confequence of this mifprifion, fome 
fiory about bees and honey, and the miftake was rendered in 
fome degree plauiible. This is a circumflance of much con- 
fequence ; and defervcs our attention greatly. I fiiall have 
occafion to fpeak of it repeatedly ; and to lay before the 
reader fome entire treatifes upon the fubjed. For this failure 
is of fuch a nature, as when deteded, and fairly explained, 
will lead us to the folution of many dark and enigmatical 
hiftories, with which the mythology of Greece abounds. 
The only Author, who feems to have taken any notice of 
this unhappy turn in the Grecians, is Philo Biblius. " He 

'* Mera. TavTo. 7T?\anv V-KXyiOI ai'nci.'Tcci{o't>iA(cv)?^iyci.n'.ov "y ccp fxccT caaii ctvTX 
TToAAaxas cf 'f'T^iAa/xtGa, aX?a. Trfoi jai avba iraPixio^cti tojv iv T out fay uctTiv 
cvofj.aroov' ccino cf 'HAAjic?? ayrcr,aixvT€^, aA?c:i itf<fi^a.vro, TrAocvntivTSi t^ ay.- 
pSoAta rwv oiofJ.uT(>jy.[ Philo apud Eufcbium. P. E. 1. i. c. x. p. 34. 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. 169 

fpeaks of it as a circumflance of very bad confequence, and 
fays, that it was the chief caiife of error and obfcurity : 
hence, when he met in Sanchoniathon with ancient names, 
he did not indulge himfelf in whimfical fohitions ; but gave 
the true meaning, which was the refult of fome event or qua- 
lity whence the name was impofed. This being a iecret to 
the Greeks, they always took things in a wrong accepta- 
tion ; being mifled by a twofold fenfe of the terms, which 
occurred to them : one' was the genuine and original mean- 
ing ; which was retained in the language, whence they 
were taken : the other was a forced fenfe, which the Greeks 
unnaturally deduced from their own language, though there 
was no relation between them. The fame term in different 
languages conveyed different and oppofite ideas : and as they 
attended only to the meaning in their own tongue, they 
were conftantly -* miftaken. 

'♦ Bozrah, a citadel, they changed to Cu^cnx, a fkin. Out of Ar, the capital of 
Moab, they formed Areopolis, the city of the Mars. The river Jaboc they ex- 
prefTed lo Bacchus. They did not know that diu in the eaft fignified an ifland : 
and therefore out of Diu-Socotra in the Red-Sea, they formed the ifland Diofco- 
rides : and from Diu-Ador, or Adorus, they made an ifland Diodorus. The 
fame ifland Sococra they fometimes denominated the illand of Socrates. The 
place of fountains, Ai-Ain, they attributed to Ajax, and called it Aiavroi axpo- 
r-nf,iov, in the fame fea. The ancient frontier town of Egypt, Rhinocolura, they 
derived from on, ^ivo?, a nofe: and fuppoled that fome people's nofes were here 
cut off". Pannonia they derived from the Latin pannus, cloth. So Nilus was 
from vn <Aw : Gadeira quafi Tm /s/^a. Necus in Egypt and Ethiopia fignified a 
kincr : but fuch kings they have turned to HKvsci : and the city of Necho, or 
Royal City, to NixoTroAn and 'Ney.ooTrcAn. 

Lyfimachusin his Egyptian hiftory changed the name of Jerufalem to 'le^o- 
a-uPict: and fuppofed that the city was fo called becaufe the Ifraelites in their 
march to Canaan ufed to plunder temples, and flea! facred things. See Jofephus 
contra Ap.l. i.e. 34. p. 467. 

Vol. I. Z It 

170 DISSERTATION tipon the 

It may appear flrange to make ufe of the miftakes of any 
people for a foundation to build upon : yet through thefe 
failures my fyflem will be in fome degree fupported : at leaft 
from a detedion of thefe errors I hope to obtain much light. 
For as the Grecian writers have preferved a kind of unifor- 
mity in their miftakes ; and there appears plainly a rule and 
method of deviation, it will be very poflible, when this 
method is well known, to decipher what is covertly alluded 
to ; and by thefe means arrive at the truth. If the open- 
ings in the wood or labyrinth are only as chance allotted, 
v/e may be for ever bewildered : but if they are made with 
defign, and fome method he difcernible, this circumftance, 
if attended to, will ferve for a clue, and lead us through the 
maze. If we once know that what the Greeks in their my- 
tliology ftikd a wolf, was the Sun ; that by a dog was 
meant a prince, or Deity ; that by bees was Signified an or- 
der of priefts ; thefe terms, however mifapplied, can no more 
miflead us in writing, than their refemblances in fculpture 
would a native of Egypt, if they were ufed for emblems on 

Thus much I have been obliged to premife: as our know- 
ledge muft come tlirough the hands of the ^^ Grecians. 
1 am fenfible, that many learned men have had recourfe to 

" 1 do not mean to exclude the Romans : though I have not mentioned 
them ; as the chief of the knowledge, which they afford, is the produd of Greece^ 
However it muft be confefTed, that we are under great obligations to Pliny, 
Marcellinus, Arnobius, Tertullian, Ladantius, Jerome, Macrobiiis ■■, and many 
others. They contain many necelTary truths, wherever they may have obtained 


Helladian and other Grecian Writers. 171 

other means for information : but I have never leen any fpe- 
cimens, which have afforded much Hght. Thofe, to which I 
have been witnefs, have rather dazzled than illuftrated ; and 
bewildered inftead of conducting to the truth. Among the 
Greeks is contained a great treafure of knowledge. It is a rich 
mine; which as yet has not been worked far beneath the fur- 
face. The ore lies deep, and cannot be obtained without much 
induftry and labour. The Helladians had the beft oppor- 
tunities to have afforded us information about the antiqui- 
ties of their country : of their negligence,, and of their mif- 
takes I have fpoken ; yet with a proper clue they may ftillbe 
read to great advantage. To fay the truth, there is fcarce: 
an author of them all^ from whom feme good may not be. 

What has been wanting in the natives of Greece, has 
greatly fupplied by writers of that nation from other coun- 
tries, who lived in after-times. Of thefe the princ pal 
have been mentioned ; and many others might be added,, 
who were men of integrity and learning. They were fond. 
of knowledge, and obtained a deep inhght into antiquity : 
and what is of the greatefl: confequence, they were attached 
to the truth. They may fomctmies have been miftaken in. 
their judgment : they may alfo have been deceived : but ftill 
truth was the fcope, at which they aimed. They have ac- 
cordingly tranfmitted to us many valuable remains, which, 
but for them,, had been buried in oblivion. There arc like- 
wife many pagan authors, to wliom we are greatly indebted ; 
but efpecially to Strabo and Pauianias ; who in their different 
departments have afforded vvon'-.erful light. Nor muft we 

Vol, L Z 2 omit 

172 DISSERT AT I 6U upm t^i 

oifiit Jdfcphus bf Jddea ; whofe treatife againft Apion mufi: 
be eAeemed of ineftinidble value i indeed all his writings are 
of corifequence, if read with a proper allowance. 

I have mentioned, that it is my purpofe to give a hiftofy of 
the firll: ages ; and to fhew the origin of many nations, whofe 
defcent has been miftaken ; or elfe totally unknown. I fhall 
fpeak particularly of one great family, which dift'ufed itfelf 
over many parts of the earth ; from whom the rites and myf- 
teries, and almoft the whole fcience of the Gentile world, were 
borrowed. But as- 1 venture iri an uhbe^ten trackj and in 
a wafte, ^hich has beeii little frequented ; I fhali ilrfl take 
upon me to treat of things near at hand, before I advance to 
remoter difcoveries. I (hall therefore fpeak of thofe rites and 
cuftoms, and of the nations, where they prevailed; as I (hall 
by thefe means be led infenfibly to the difcovefy of the peo- 
ple, from whom they were derived. By a flmilarity of cuf- 
toms, as well as by the fame religious terms, obfervable in 
different countries, it will be eafy to (hew a relation, which 
fubfifted between fuch people, however widely difperfed. 
They will be found to have been colonies of the fame family ; 
and to have come ultimately from the fame place. As my 
courfe will be in great meafure an uphill labour, I fhall pro- 
ceed in the manner, which I have mentioned ; continually 
enlarging my profpe<5t, till I arrive at the point I aim at. 

It may be proper to mention to the reader that the follow- 
ing treatifes were not written in the order, in which they 
now ftand; but juft as the fubjed matter prefented itfelf be- 
fore me. As many, which were firft compofed, will occur 
laft, I have been forced to anticipate Ibme of the arguments, 
3 as 

Helladians and other Grecian Writers. 173 

as well as quotations, which they contained, according as I 
found it expedient. Hence there will be fome i^w inftances 
of repetition, which however I hope will not give any great 
difguft : as what is repeated, was fo interwoven in the argu- 
ment, that I could not well difengage it from the text, where 
it occurs a fecond time. 

There will alfo be found fome inftances, where I differ from 
myfelf, and go contrary to politions in a former treatife. 
Thefe are very few, and of no great moment ; being fuch 
as would probably efcape the reader's notice. But I think 
it more ingenuous, and indeed my drift duty, to own my 
miftakes, and point them out, rather than to pafs them over 
in filence ; or idly to defend them. 

Vol. I. Z 3 SOME 

( '7S ) 






The better underftanding the Mythology of 


E mufl never deduce the etymology of an Egyp- 
tian or oriental term from the Greek language. 
Euftathius well obferves, Ef ^ct^^OL^oy to ovoulol 

We {hould recur to the Doric manner of expreffion, as 
being neareft to the original. 

The Greeks adopted all foreign hiftory ; and fuppofed 
it to have been of their own country. 

They miftook temples for Deities ; and places for per- 


175 R U L E S «;;^ O BS E RVAT I O N S 

They changed every foreign term to fomething fimilar in 
their own language : to fomething fimilar in found, how- 
ever remote in meaning, being led folely by the ear. 

They conftantly miftook titles for names: and from tliefe 
titles multiplied their Deities, and Heroes, 

All terms of relation between the Deities to be difre- 

As the Grecians were miftaken ; it is worth our while to 
obferve the mode of error, and uniformity of miftake. By 
attending to this we may bring things back to their primi- 
tive ftate ; and defcry in ancient terms the original meaning. 

We muft have regard to the oblique cafes, efpecially in 
nouns imparafyllabic, when we have an ancient term 
tranfmitted to us either from the Greeks, or Romans. The 
nominative in both languages, is often abridged: fo that 
from the genitive of the word, or from the pofleffive, the 
original term is to be deduced. This will be found to 
obtain even in common names. From veteris we have ve- 
ter for the true term : from fanguinis we have fanguen : and 
that this is right we may prove from Ennius, who fays : 
^* O ! pater, O ! genitor, O ! fanguen diis oriundum. 
^^ Cum veter occubuit Priamus fub marte Pelafgo. 
So mentis, and not mens, was the true nominative to 
mentis, menti, mentem: as we may learn from the fame 

^^ Iftic eft de fole fumptus ignis, ifque mentis eft. 

'* Ennii Annales 1. 2. *■" Ibidem. 1. i. 

'* Apud Ennii fragmenta. 

^ In 

in refpeSi to Etymological Inquiries, 8cc. 177 

In like manner Plebes was the nominative to Plebi and 

Deficit alma Ceres, nee plebes pane potitur. Lucilius. 

All the common departments of the Deities are to be fet 
afide, as inconfiftent, and idle. Pollux will be found a iudae : 
Ceres a law-giver ; Bacchus the God of the year ; Neptune 
a phyfician ; and ^fculapius the God of thunder : and this 
not merely from the poets : but from the beft mythologifts 
of the Grecians ;, from thofe, who wrote profefledly upon 
the fubjed. 

I have obferved before, that the Grecians in foreign words 
often changed the Nu final to Sigma. For Keren, they wrote 
Ks^a? : for Cohen, Kwji; : for Athon, A^6i'j : for Boun, Bar ^ 
for Sain, Sais. 

People of old were ftiled the children of the God, whom 
they worfhiped : hence they were at laft thought to hava 
been his real ofl^spring \ and he was looked up to as the trua 
parent. On the contrary, Priefts were reprefented as fofter- 
fathers to the Deity, before whom they minifiered ; and 
Prieftefles were ftiled Ti^j^j/a/, or nurfes. 

Colonies always went out under the patronage and tide 
of fome Deity. This conducting God was in after times 
fuppofed to have been the real leader,. 

Sometimes the whole merit of a tranfatftlon was imputed 
to this Deity folely ; who was reprelented under the charac- 
ter of Perfeus, Dionulus, or Hercules. Hence inftead of 
one perfon we muft put a people : and. the hiftory will bs 
found confonant to the truth. 

Vol. I. A a As 



As the Grceians made themfelves principals in many great 
occurrences, which were of another country ; we muft look 
abroad for the original, both of their rites and mythology ; 
and apply to the nations, from whence they were derived. 
Their original hiftory was foreign; and ingrafted upon the 
liidory oF the country, where they fettled. This is of great 
confcquence, and repeatedly to be conddered. 

One great miftake too frequently prevails among people, 
who deal in thefe refearches, which muft be carefully 
avoided. We fhould never make ufe of a language, which 
is modern, or comparatively modern, to deduce the etymo- 
logy of ancient, and primitive terms. Pezron applies to the 
modern Teutonic, which he ftiles the Celtic, and fays, was 
the language of Jupiter. But who was Jupiter, and what 
has the modern Celtic to do with the hiftory of Egypt, or 
Chaldea ? There was an interval of two thoufand years be- 
tween the times, of which he treats, and any hiftory of the 
Celt£e : and there is ftill an interval not very much inferior 
to the former, before we arrive at the sra of the language, 
to which he applies. 

It has been the cuftom of thofe writers, who have been 
verfed in the Oriental languages, to deduce their etymologies 
from roots ; which are often fome portion of a verb. But 
the names of places and of perfons are generally an affem- 
blage of qualities, and titles ; fuch as I have exhibited in the 
treatife above: and I believe were never formed by fuch evolu- 
tions. The terms were obvious, and in common ufe ; taken 
from fome well known charaderiftics. Thofe, who impofed 
4 fuch 

tnrefpeSito Etymological Inquiries, 8cc; 179 

fuch names, never thought of a root : and probably did not 
know the purport of the term. Whoever therefore in etymo- 
logy has recourfe to this method of inveftigation, feems to 
me to ad like a perfon, who fhould feek at the fountain head 
for a city, which flood at the mouth of a river» 


( i8i ) 



HELLADIANS, and their Origin j 

In order to obviate fome Objeftions. 

AS I have mentioned, that the Helladians came from 
Egypt, and the eaft ; it may be proper to obviate 
an objedion, which may be made, to the account I 
give ; as if it were contradictory to the tenor of the fcrip- 
tures,astheyare in general underftood. Greece, and the iflands 
of Greece, are continually fuppofed, from the account given 
by Mofes ", to have been peopled by the fons of Japhet ; and 
there is fcarce any body, either ancient or modern, who has 
touched upon this fubjed, but has imagined Javan to have 
been the fame as Ion, the fonof Xuth, from whom the loni- 
ans were defcended. This latter point I fhall not controvert 
at prefent. In refpe£t to the former, the account given in the 
fcriptures is undoubtedly moft true. The foas of Japhet did 

" Genefis. c. lo. v. 5. 
t people 

1 82 A Jhort ^ccouni pj {he}^ELLkmAi^s, 

people the illes of the Gentiles ; by which is meant the re- 
gions oi Greece and Europe, feparated in great meafure from 
the Afiatic continent by the intervention of the fea. They 
certainly were the iirft inhabitants of thofe countries. But 
the Helladians, though by family lonians, were not of this 
race. They came alterwards ; and all their beft writers agree, 
that when their anceftors made their way into thefe pro- 
vinces, they were poflefied by a prior people. Who thele 
were is no where uniformly faid : only they agree to term 
them in general Ba^/Sa^oi, or a rude, unciviHzed people. As 
my fyfi-cm depends greatly upon this point ; to take away 
every prejudice to my opinion, I will in fome degree antici- 
pate, what I fhall hereafter more fully prove. I accordingly 
fubmit to the reader the following evidences ; which are com- 
paratively ^QWy if we confider, what might be brought to 
this purpofe. Thefe are to fhew, that the Helladians were 
of a different race from the fons of Japhet : and that the 
country, when they came to it, was ia the polTefHon of 
another people : which people they diflinguifhed from thenir- 
felves by the title of Ba^^o^oi. 

'^oltcliq; [jlsv qvv q MiXYj(riOQ re^i Trig YIsKottopvyich <pYi<nVy 
on TT^o rm 'EKKrivm mr,(j'OLv oimriv Ba^oa^or (^shv Jg t/ koh. 
Yi (rviJL7rc(.<TC(, 'E?C\a? KC(,roi)no(, Bct^^ct^oon virrj^^oiro ro TtoCkoLioy.. 
Strabo. 1. 7. p. 321. 

E<(ri Js ■f\i^.m cL^'^OLioTs^oi 'Bol^^oc^ol Plato in Cratyla 
vol. 1. p, 425. 

riaActi Trig vvv KaT^nfJisr^g 'EKhoL^cg Ba^fis^oi ra TroAAa 
b}K)](J'Ciy. Paufanias. 1. i. p. 100. 

A pjoH Accmnt of the Helladians. ig* 

A^KOL^iOLV Bsifi^x^oi (i}H.rj<roLV, Scholia ApoUonii Rhod. 1. 3, 
V. 461. 

Diodoriis mentions, A^Yivaiiig — OLTtoiKnq XahoiV rm s^ 
Aiyvzrs. 1. i. p. 24. 

Again— rsvofj^spou h aoLi Twy Y^yB^ovm rivctg Aiyvxrini 
TOLUOL TQig A^Y]vcLm;. ibidem. 

Africanus having fpoken of the Egyptian rites, fays. On 
7S A&rjvai^i; Toov uvtoov Aiyvitrioig oLTtoXcf.ven' siKog rjv, oLTraiKat; 
SKsiPOjy a.7royoii[/,si'iigj wV (pci(rii/ a?vAo; rs, koli bv tw T^izxprjvca 
©soTTOi^TTOg. Apud Eufeb. Prosp. Evan. 1. x. c, x. p. 4.91, 

Concerning perfons from Egypt. 

KsK-^o-^, AiyvTTTiog m, Jyo y>M(r(TOLg YiTris-aro, Cedrenus* 
p. 82. 

KsK^o-J/y AiyvTrriog to y^vog^ mitrs ro(.g A^nvag, Scholia 
Ariftoph. Pluti. 

'flcrJs OLTTO Xasug iroXsoog AiyvTTTiagj 

MsTct Tov KOLTOL Q,yvyov iia.rciLKKv(r^ov £/,sivoVj 

'O Ksz^o-^ TTCi^Bysyovsv A^r^vciig rr^g 'EXKot^og. J. Tzetzes. 
Chil. V. hift. 18. 

KsK^o-^j AiyvxTLogro ysvog, m-^fre rag A^nvoLg. Suidas. 

Paufanias mentions AsT^sya x<pitcofj,svou sj AiyvTrra. h i. 

p. 95. 

Eredheus from Egypt. Kai lov E^B'^dscc XByno-L ro yBvo^ 
AiyvTrriov ovroi. Diodorus. 1. i.p. 25. 

Triptolemus from thence, who had been the companion 
of Ofiris. Diodorus. 1. i. p. 17. He gave the Athenians 


184 A Jhort Account of theYizUuhTiik-^^, 

laws. Porphyry mentions Twv K^riVtfTi vofJLO&STocp T^/ttto- 
T^sfxov. Abftinent. 1. 4. p. 431. 

It is faid, that Danaus was a native of the city Chem- 
mis J from whence he made his expedition to Greece. 
AuvoLo; X£{JL[JnrYig. Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 91. 

Navem primus ex j^gypto Danaus advexit. Pliny. 1. 7.. 
c. 56. He brought a colony with him. Asy^Ti Js TovgTCS^i 
AoLPOLOP o^fJLri^sna.; ofJLOiocg sKSihPj fcil. s^ AiyuTrm. Dio- 
dorus. I. I. p. 24. 

All the heads of the Dorian race from Egypt, ^oimiccro. 
civ Bonsg 01 jm Act^^isoiv riys^JLOVsg AiyvTTTiOi idotyevseg. Hero- 
dotus. 1. 6. c. 53.. 

The Lacedaemonians efteemed themfelves of the fame fa- 
mily as the Caphtorim of Paleftine : hence they furmifed, 
that they were related to the Jews, i Maccabees, c. 12.. 
V. 20, 21. Jofephus : A.J. 1. 12. c. 4. p. 606. Perfeus 
was fuppofed to have been a foreigner. 'Q,g Js liz^TB^'J 
Koiyo.; KsysTCf.ij avTog Ils^trsvg em A<T(rv^iQg sysvsro 'EAA^y. 
Herodotus. 1. 6. c. 54. 

It is faid of Cadmus, that he came originally from Egypt, 
in company with Phcenix. Ku^fjiog KUi <Poivi^ a.7^0 Qri^wv 
7U)v AiyvTTTioov. Eufeb. Chron. p. 15. 

Eufebius in another place mentions the arrival of Cadmus 
with a company of Saitas. They founded Athens, the prin- 
cipal city of Greece : alfo Thebes in Boeotia. They were of' 
Egypt ; but he fays, that they came laft from Sidon. It is 
in a pafiage, where he fpeaks of a former race in Attica before 
thole of Egypt called SaitJE : UM^ Tw;/ ^BJQiKr,TO(,yrm vs's^ov 


A -Jhort Account of the Vi2.iXkY>iKv<%, 185 

Adr,vc(,g, Koti ro(.g ©ri'cag. SiJwwwi' ya^ bto/ OLicoimi sk KaJjag 
T8 AyrjVO^o;. Chron. p. 14. The ancient Athenians wor- 
fhiped Ifis : and were in their looks, and in their manners 
particularly like the Egyptians. Kai raig i^BCtig^ koli Toig 
Yjhcriv 'QfJLOioTixriig sivaa roig AiyvTTTiQig, The whole of their 
polity was plainly borrowed from that country. Diod. Sic. 
1. I. p. 24, 25, 26. 

It is faid by Sanchoniathon, that Cronus, in his travels 
over the earth in company with his daughter Athena, came 
to Attica; which he beftowed upon her. Eufeb. P. E. lib. i. 
c 10. p. 38. 

This is not unlike the account given by the Scholiaft upon- 
Lycophron concerning Cecrops : from whence the legend may 
receive fome light. EK^w a^' (0 Ksk^o"^) oltto l,OLsocg zo- 
Ksoog Aiyv^ra Ta? A&rivo(,g (rvmnKTS. Xocig h kqlt AiyvTrTmg 
ri A^TivoL KsysroLi, ocg <pYi(nv Xct^OL^. Lycoph. v. iii. Schol. 

Hence it is, that almoft the whole of the mythology of 
Greece is borrowed from Egypt. Ka^oXa Js, (priO'i, T3g 'EA- 
A»]2/a? s^i^iccTs^c/A rag STTioca/S'^cir^g Aiyvitrim 'H^wa^ rs^ 
KVA @3'(ig. Diodorus. 1. i. p. 20. All their rites and cere* 
monies from the fame quarter. 

lioLvrri'v^ioig h ct.^(/.^ koli, ■^oy.Trccg^ Koti Tr^oTOiycijycf.; it^moi' 

'EXhrjVsg fJisi-xci^r/^v.^n. Flerod. 1. 3. c. 58. 

2}i Trig Aiyvirrii aTriKOfis'^x ret ovvoy/ATcx. twv Qsxv, Hcroc^. 
I. 2. c. 52. See alfo 1. 2, c. 4. 

Vol. I. B b K(Xi 

1 86 AJhort Account of the Helladians. 

ttiv 'ETO^ol^ol. Herod. 1. 2. c. 50. Hence it is faid that the 
Corybantes with their mother Comba came and fettled at 
Athens: KofJL^rjg btftxtoks [JLsrot, fjLYirs^og. Nonni Dionyf. 
1. 1 3. And that the priefts at Athens, ftiled Eumolpida2, were 
from Egypt. Diodorus Siculus. h i. p. 25. One of the 
Egyptians, who brought thefe rites to Greece, is mentioned 
under the name of Melampus : as the Egyptians are in ge- 
neral under the charadier of Melampodes. 'ET^XyiTI yct^ 
^Yi MsAajW-TTB? £5'<J', s^riyrirccfJLsm th Aiovv(ris ovo[JLOi, koli 
TYiv ^KTioLVy Koci rriv 7ro(M7rriy TB (paXha. Herod. 1. 2. c. 49. 
He is like wife faid to have firft introduced phyflc : by which 
this only is meant, that phyfic too came from Egypt. 

To the fame purpofe may be confulted Lucian de Suria 
Dca. n^wTO/ jU-r^y aj/^^WTTo;; hiyvitnoi htK Eufebius. P. 
Evan. lib. 10. c. 4. p. 469. and c. 5. p. 473. Clemens Alex- 
and. 1. I. p. 361, 381. Diodorus Siculus. 1. i. p. 20. p. 62, 
63. and p. 86, 87. Tatianus Afiyrius. p. 243, 274. Thu- 
cydides. 1. i. c. 2, 3. 



R, A N 


O F 




( "89 ) 

O F 


A N D O F 



Exemplified in the Names of Cities, Lakes, and 


tiol; TT^og tqv NsiAoj', yj koltol /aAAo?, ciog &sTTix.Xoig Tr^og Iln- 
vsioVj Yi KOLTCt fJLeyB^og^ u}g "^KV^OLig it^og tojj Is'^ov^ r\ kcltcl 
fxvdov, ujg AiTCt'Aoi? Tr^og rov A'^sXocot/. Max. Tyrius. 
Diflert. viii. p. 8i. 

AS the divine honours paid to the Sun, and the ado- 
ration of fire, were at one time almoft univerfal ; 
there will be found in mofl: places a fimilitude in 
the terms of worfhip. And though this mode of idolatry 
took its rife in one particular part of the world ; yet as it was 


1 90 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

propagated to others far remote, the ftream, however widely 
diffufed, will ftill favour of the fountain. Moreover, as people 
were determined in the choice of their holy places by thofe 
praeternatural phaenomena, of which I have before taken no- 
tice; if there be any truth in my fyfliem, there will be uni- 
formly found fome analogy between the name of the temple, 
and its rites, and fituation : fo that the etymology may be 
afcertained by the hiftory of the place. The like will ap- 
pear in refpedt to rivers and mountains ; efpecially to thofe, 
which were efteemed at all facred ; and which were deno- 
minated from the Sun, and fire. I therefore flatter myfelf, 
that the etymologies, which I fhall lay before the reader, will 
not fland fingle and unfupported ; but there will be an ap- 
parent analogy throughout the whole. The allufion will not 
be cafual, and remote, nor be obtained by undue inflexions, 
and diftortions : but however complicated the name may 
appear, it will refolve itfelf eafily into the original terms : 
and when refolved, the truth of the etymology will be as- 
certained by the concomitant hiftory. If it be a Deity, or 
other perfonage, the truth will appear from his ofiice, and 
department ; or with the attributes imputed to him. To 
begin then with ancient Latium. If I fliould have occaflon 
to fpeak of the Goddefs Feronia, and of the city denominated 
from her, I fhould deduce the name from Fer-On, ignis Dei 
Solis : and fuppofe the place to have been addided to the 
worfliip of the Sun, and the rites of fire. I accordingly find 
from Strabo and Pliny, that rites of this fort were pradtifed 
here : and one cuftom, which remained even to the time 
of Auguftus, confifted in a ceremony of the priefts, who 


The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. iqj 

ufed to walk bareioot over burning coals, ^ Tv^voig yoLp ttoti 
^is^ia.riv OLvQ^dKiOLV, Kxi (Two^ioLv i/,ByoL7\Y\v, Tie priefls with 
their feet naked walked over a large qua?itity of live coals .^ 
and cinders. The town ftood at the bottom of Mount So- 
rade, facred to Apollo ; and the priefts were ftiled Hirpi. 
Aruns in Virgil, in his addrefs toApoUo, takes notice of this 

' Summe Dcum, magni cuftos Soradis, Apollo, 
Quern primi colimus ; cui pineus ardor acervo 
Pafcitur, et medium freti pietate per igneni 
Cultores multa premimus veftigia pruna ; 
Da, Pater. 
The temple is faid to have been founded on account of a 
peftilential ^ vapour, which arofe from a cavern : and to 
which fome fhepherds were conduced by (Ay;^o^) a wolf. 
Were I to attempt the deciphering of Ferentum, I fhould 
proceed in a manner analogous to that above. I Ihould fup- 
pofe it to have been named Fer-En^ ignis, vel Solisfons, from 
fomething peculiar either in its rites, or iituation. I accord- 
ingly find, that there was a facred fountain, whofe waters 
were ftiled Aquee Ferentinas, — cui numen etiam, et divinus 
cultus tributus ^ fuit. Here was a grove equally facred, men- 
tioned by 5 Livy, and others; where the antient Latines 
ufed to hold their chief alTemblies. As this srand meetino- 

' Strabo. L. 5. p. 346. 

* Virgil, ^n. L. xi. v. 785. 

3 Servius upon the foregoing paffiige. 

■♦ Cluver. Italia. L. 2. p. 719. 

' Livy. L. I. c. 49. Pon:ipc!Us FcRus. 

3 ufed 

192 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ufed to be in a place denominated from fire, it was the caufc 
jof thofe councils being called Ferias Latins. The fountain, 
which ran throucrh the srove, aroje at the foot of mount 
* Albanus, and afterwards formed many ^ pools. 

The ancient Cuthites, and the Perfians after them, had a 
great veneration for fountains, and ftreams ; which alfo pre- 
vailed among other nations, fo as to have been at one time 
almoH: univerfal. Of this regard among the Perfians Hero- 
dotus takes notice : ^ SsjSoi/Tai woTccixag TU)v TTCJTm [xa,7\ifc(,: 
Of all things in nature th^y reve?'ence rivers mojl. But if thefe 
rivers were attended with any nitrous, or faline quality, or 
with any fiery eruption, they vi^erc adjudged to be ftill more 
lacrcd ; and ever diftinguifhed with fome title of the Deity. 
The natives of Egypt had the like veneration. Other na- 
tions^ fiys ' Athanafius, reverenced rivers ^ and foimtains ; 
but above all people in the world the Egypt ains held them in 
the highefi honour^ ajtd ejleemed them as divifie. Julius Fir- 
micus gives the fame account of them. " JEgyptii aquse 

* Not far from hence was a diftridt called ^^er Solonus, Sol-On is a com- 
poond of the two mod common names given to the Sun j to whom the place 
and waters werefacred. 

■' Dionyfius HaHcarnaiTenfis. L. 3. 

® Herodotus. L. i. c. 138. 

(BvddiSi Kxt vS'a.Ti xai (xviiJ.otTtv (ci Uioa-ai). Hcrodotus. L. I. c. 131. 

Ridetis temporibus prifcis Perfas .fluvium cokiifTc. Arnobius adverfiis 
Genres. L. 6. p. 196. 

' AAAoi 7r5Tajw,y5 xcci xcura?, -ttxi irxvTM' y.xAirtxoi Aiyuimoi TTPoriTiiJ.mcca-i, 
xa* Ggyj afX'}oceuB(Ti. Athanafius adverfus Gentes. P. 2. 

AiyvTmoi vi'xri %d(n' nanoi fj.iv xTraatxaii'ov tc*; AiyjTrriCiirov-f'a}^. 

Lucian. Jupiter Tragoed. V. 2. p. 223. Edit. Salmurii.. 

" Julius Firmicus. P, i. 

A beneficium 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ig-* 

beneficium percipientes aquam colunt, aquis fupplicant. 
From hence the ciiftom pafTed vveftward to Greece, Italy, and 
the extremities of Europe. In proof of which the following 
infcription is to be found in Griiter : 

" Vafcanise in Hifpania 
How much it prevailed among the Romans we learn from 

Seneca. " Magnorum fluviorum capita veneramur co- 

luntur aquarum calentium fontes ; et qu^edam ftagna, quse 
vel opacitas, vel immenfa altitudo facravit. It mattered not 
what the nature of the water might be, if it had a peculiar 
quality. At Thebes in Ammonia was a fountain, which was 
faid to have been cold by day, and warm at night. 'H K^rjVYj 
'^ aciKsircii T8 riXia. If was framed the fou?ttam of the Sun. In 
Campania was a fountain Virena ; which I {hould judre to 
be a compound of Vir-En, and to fignify ignis fons, from 
being dedicated to the Deity of fire on account of fome par- 
ticular quality. I accordingly find in '* Vitruvius, that it 
was a medicinal fpring and of a ftrong vitriolic nature. The 
Corinthians had in their Acropolis a'^Pirene, of the fame 
purport as Virena, juft mentioned. It was a beautiful foun- 
tain facred to Apollo, whofe 'Smage was at the head of the 
water within a facred inclofure. We read of a Pyrene, which 

" Gruter. Infcript. vol. i. p. xciv. 

" Seneca Epift. 41. 

'' Herodotus. 1. 4. c. 181. The true name was probably Curene, or Curane. 

'♦ Vitruvij Architefb. 1. 8. p. 163. 

" Pliny. 1. 4. c. 4. p. 192. Ovid. Metamorph. 1. 2. 

" Paufanias. 1, 2. p. 117. Et' >« ^ri xai AiraA^vvoi ccyoi?\.fAac, TT^oi ry Flei- 

Pirene and Virene are the fame name. 

Vol. I. C c was 

194 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

was a fountain of another nature : yet of the fame etymo- 
logy, however differently expreiTed: It was a mountain, and 
gave name to the vaft ridge, called Saltus Pyrensi. It is un- 
doubtedly a compound of '^ Pur-ain, and fignifies a fountain 
of fire. I fhould imagine without kiiov/ing the hiflory of the 
country, that this mountain once flamed; and that the name 
was given from this circumftance. Agreeably to this I find from 
Ariftotle de Mirabilibus, that here was formerly an eruption of 
fire. The fame is mentioned by Pofidonius in Strabo : and 
alfo by Diodorus ; who adds — '^ Ta [xsv o^r\ ^ici ro cry/xSg- 
^tjKog KMhycf.1 lh)^if\vcLiOL, That the mountains from hence had 
the name of Pyrencei, Mount ^tna is derived very truly by 
Bochart from Aituna, fornax ; as being a refervoir of molten 
matter. There was another very ancient name, Ineffusj by 
which the natives called the hill, as well as the city, which 
was towards the bottom of it. The name is a compound of 
Ain-Es, like Hanes in Egypt ; and fignifies a fountain of 
fire. It is called Ennefia by Diodorus ; who fays, that this 
name was afterwards changed to ^tna. He fpeaks of the 
city; but the name was undoubtedly borrowed from the 
mountain, to which it was primarily applicable, and upon 
which it was originally conferred: '^ Kai tjij/ vvv 0V(roLv AnvY\v 
£>KTncraj'Ta, ^^o rara KaKa^mv Evpyi'^^olv. Strabo expreffes the 
name Innefa, and informs us more precifely, that the upper 
part of the mountain was fo called. O/ Je '' AiTvoLioi Tra^d" 

'* Pur, Pir, Phur, Vk : all fignify fire. 
" Diodorus Siculus. 1. 5. p. 312. 
*' Diodorus Siculus. 1. xi. p. 57, 
*' Strabo J. 6. p.. 41 a. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. in; 

yjt^oY^Q'ciyrBg rtiv ImiTcii) Kv.7\'S(xsyi]v^ ir,; Airvri; o^si^jt^p, mt\TGLV. 
Upon this the people withdrawmg thei?ifelves ive72t and occu- 
pied the upper part of Motmt ^tna, which was called Innefa. 
The city Hants in Egypt was of the fame etymology ; being 
denominated from the Sun, who was ftiled Hanes, Ain-Es, 
fons ignis live lucis. It was the fame as the Arab HeHopoHs, 
called now Matarca. Stephanus Byzantinus calls the city 
liiys : for that is manifeflly the name he gives^ it, if we take 
away the Greek termination. " hvu'G'oc^ 71:0X1; AiyvTrra : but 
Herodotus, ^'fromwhom he borrows, renders itienis. Itwould 
have been more truly rendered Dorice lanis ; for that was 
nearer to the real name. The hiftorian however points it out 
plainly, by faying, that it was three days journey from mount 
" Caiius ; and that the whole way was through the Arabian 
defert. This is a fituation, which agrees with no other city 
in all Egypt, except that, which was the Onium of the later 
Jews. With this it accords precifely. There feem to have 
been two cities named On from the worfhip of the Sun. One 
was called Zan, Zon, and Zoan, in the land of Go-zan, the 
-5 Gofhen of the fcriptures. The other was the city On in 

Arabia ; 

'■" Stephanus fays, that it was near mount Cafius : but Herodotus exprefly 
tells us, that it was at the diftance of three days journey from it. 

*' Atto rccuTii^ rx ifxircoix rcc iiri QocAcco-atii fJf-i^pi Ivt'ian TroAni £T' '^^ A^a- 
fixB. Herodotus. 1. 3. c. 5. 

gar bv. c?\.iyov ^m^iov, aAA' ceroi' ein r^eii iitjiepxi oV'oi', arutf^cc g~/ Jen-coi. Hero- 
dotus, ibidem. 

-= Go-zan is the place or temple of the Sun. I once thought that Gofhen, 
or, as it is fometimes exprefled, Gozan, was the fame as Cufhan: but I was cer- 
tainly miftaken. The diftri(ft of Gollien was indeed the nome of Cuflian : but 

C c 2 the 

196 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Arabia ; called alfo Hanes. They were within eight or nine 
miles of each other : and are both mentioned together by the 
prophet -* Ifaiah. For his pr'mces were at Zoan ; a?id his am- 
bajfadors came to Haftcs. The name of each of thefe cities, 
on account of the fimilarity of worfliip, has by the Greeks 
been tranflated '^ Hcliopolis ; which has caufed great confu- 
fion in the hidory of Egypt. The latter of the two was the 
lanis, or hinrog, of the Greeks ; fo called from Hanes, the 
great fountain of light, the Sun : who was worfliiped un- 
der that title by the Egyptians and Arabians. It lies now quite 
in ruins, clofe to the village Matarea, which has rifen from 
it. The iituation is fo pointed out, that we cannot be mif- 
taken : and we find moreover, which is a circumftance very 
remarkable, that it is at this day called by the Arabians A in 
El Sham, the fountain of the Sun ; a name precifely of the 
fame purport as Hanes. Of this we are informed by the 
learned geographer, D'Anville, and others ; though the name 
by different travellers is expreiTed with fome variation. 
*^ Cette ville prefque enfcvelie fous des ruines, et voifine, die 
Abulfeda, d'un petit lieu nommc Matarea, confcrve dans les 
geographies Arahes le nom d'Aiafiems ou du fontain du So- 

the two words are not of tlie fame purport. Gofhen is the fame as Go-flian, 
and Go-zan, analogous to Bech-flian, and figniEes the piace of the Sun. Go- 
Ihen, Go-fhan, Go-zan, and Gau-zan, are all variations of the fame name. In 
refpedt to On, there were two cities fo called. Tiie one was in Egypt, where 
Poti-phera was Pried. Genefis. c. 41. v. 45. The other ftood in Arabia, and 
is mentioned by the Seventy : Q.1,, r, i^tv 'HA(^toA;5. Exodus, c i. v. 11. This 
was alfo called Onium, and Hanes, the liinifus of Herodotus. 

^■» Ifaiah. c. 30. v. 4. 

= 5 See Obfervations upon the Ancient Hiftory of Egypr. p. 124. p. 1 27. 

** D'Anville Memoires fur I'Egypt. p. 114. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 197 

leil. A like account is given by Egmont and ''' Hayman ; 
though they exprefs the name Ain Ei Cham : a variation of 
little confequence. The reafon, vi^hy the ancient name has 
been laid afide by thofe who reiide there, is undoubtedly 
this. Bochart tells us, that fince the religion of Mahomet 
has taken place, the Arabs look upon Hanes as the devil : 
** proinde ab ipfis ipfe Daemon DN:n vocatur. Hence they 
hrve aboUfhed Hanes r but the name Ain El Cham, of the 
fame purport, they have fuffered to remain. 

I have before taken notice of an objedion liable to be 
made from a fuppofition, that if Hanes fignified the fotm- 
tain of light ^ as 1 have prefumed, it would have been differ- 
ently expreffed in the Hebrew. This is a ftrange fallacy j but 
yet very predominant. Without doubt thofe learned men, 
who have preceded in thcfe refearches, would have bid fair 
for noble difcoveries, had they not been too limited, and bi- 
affed, in their notions. But as far as I am able to judge, 
moftof thofe, who have encased in inquiries of this nature, 
have ruined the purport of their labours through fome prevail- 
ing prejudice. They have not confidered, that every other 
nation, to which we can poflibly gain accefs, or from whom 
we have any hiflory derived, appears to have expreffed fo- 
reign terms differently from the natives, in whofe language 
they were found. And without a miracle the Hebrews muft 
have done the fame. We pronounce all French names dif- 
ferently from the people of that country : and tliey do tlie 

■^^ Travels, vol.2, p. 107. It is by them exprcfied Ain el Cham, and ap- 
propriated to the obeljils : but the meaning is plain,. 
"^ Bothart. Geog. Sacra. I. i. c, 'i^- p. 638.- 


jg8 The Analysis of AncieiNT Mvthologv. 

fame in refped to us. What we call London, they exprels 
•Londres : England they ftile Angleterre. What fome call 
Bazil, they pronounce Bal : Munchen, Munich: Mentz, 
Mayence: Ravenfpurg, Ratifbon. The like variation was 
obfervable of old. Carthagro of the Romans was Carchedon 
among the Greeks. Hannibal was rendered Annibas : Af- 
drubal, Afdroubas : and probably neither was confonant to 
the Punic mode of expreflion. If then a prophet were to rife 
from the dead, and preach to any nation, he would make 
life of terms adapted to their idiom and ufage ; without any 
retrofped: to the original of the terms, whether they were 
domeftic, or foreign. The facred writers undoubtedly ob- 
ferved this rule towards the people, for whom they wrote ; 
and varied in their expreffing of foreign terms ; as the ufage 
of the people varied. For the Jewifh nation at times dif- 
fered from its neighbours, and from itfelf. We may be mo- 
rally certain, that the place, rendered by them Ekron, was 
hy the natives called Achoron ; the Accaron, Akkol^oov, of 
Jofcphus, and the Seventy. What they termed Philiftim, 
was Peleftin : Eleazar, in their own language, they changed 
to Lazar, and Lazarus : and of the Greek (Tvve^^iov they 
iormed Sanhedrim. Hence we may be certified, that the 
Jews, and their anceftors, as well as all nations upon earth, 
were liable to exprefs foreign terms with a variation, being 
led by a natural peculiarity in their mode of fpeech. They 
therefore are furely to be blamed, who would deduce the or- 
thography of all ancient words from the Hebrew ; and bring 
every extraneous term to that teft. It requires no great in- 

4 fight 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 199 

light into that language to fee the impropriety of fuch pro- 
cedure. Yet no prejudice has been more *' common. The 
learned Michaelis has taken notice of this ^° fatal attachment, 
and fpeaks of it as a ftrange illufion. He fays, that ii is 
the reigning influenza^ to which all are liable^ vqLo make the 
Hebrew their prificipal Jiudy . The only way to obtain the 
latent purport of ancient terms is by a fair analyfis. This 
muft be difcovered by an apparent analogy; and fupported 
by the hiftory of the place, or perfon, to whom the terms 
relate. If fuch helps can be obtained ; we may determine 
very truly the etymology of an Egyptian or Syriac namej 
however it may appear repugnant to the orthography of the 
Hebrews. The term Hanes is not fo uncommon as may 
be imagined. Zeus was worfhipped under this title in 
Greece, and ftiled Zs^? A/j/j](r/o?. The Scholiaft upon Apol- 
lonius Rhodius mentions his temple, and terms it ^' Aio? 
A/Wycri8 ls^ov-3 fj,pr,^ovsvsi koli Asa'i/ ev 7r£^i7rK(*)i koli Arj^jLog- 
^BVY\; ey Xi^e(n. It is alfo taken notice of by Strabo, who 
fpeaks of a mountain Hanes, where the temple ftood. 
'^ Msyi^QV Js o^og sv olvth] Aivo; (lege Am^g) sv w to th Aiog 
Aivii]<riis is^ov. The mountain of Zeus Ainefius mufl: have 
been Aines, and not Ainos ; though it occurs fo in our pre- 
fent copies of Strabo. The Scholiaft above quotes a verfe 
from Hefiod, where the Poet ftiles the Deity Aivriiog, 

*' See Page 59. notes. 

'• DifTertation of the influence of opinion upon language, and of language upon 
opinion. Seft. vi. p. d"]. of the tranflation. 
5' Scholia upon Apollonius. 1. 2. v. 297. 
5- Surabo. 1. 10. p. 700. 

200 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Aineius, and Ainefius are both alike from Hanes, the 
Deity of Egypt, vvhofe rites may be traced in various parts. 
There were places named Aineas, and Ainefia in Thrace; 
which are of the fame original. This title occurs fome- 
times with the prefix Ph'anes : and the Deity fo called was 
by the early theologifts thought to have been of the higheft 
antiquity. They efteemed him the fame as " Ouranus, and 
Dionufus : and went fo far as to give him a creative ^^ power, 
and to deduce all things from him. The Grecians from 
Phanes formed Oavaio?, which they gave as a title both to 
^^ Zeus, and Apollo. In this there was nothing extraor- 
dinary, for they were both the fame God. In the north of 
Italy was a diftrict called Ager ^^ Pifanus. The etymology 
of this name is the fame as that of Hanes, and Phanes; only 
the terms are reverfed. It fignifies ignis fons : and in con- 
firmation of this etymology I have found the place to have 
been famous for_ its hot ftreams, which are mentioned by 
Pliny under the name of Aquae Pifanae. Cuma in Cam- 
pania was certainly denominated from Chum, heat, on ac- 
count of its foil, and fituation. Its medicinal ^^ waters are 

'' Orphyc Hymn 4. 

'* 'Oi boAc^oi— gvQ/s Tu •tacHT/ rnv J ii/y.itifytx.m' ociriex-v avvfjivwct.v. Orphic 
Fragment 8. from Proclus in Timseutn. 

'* ^v ixct "Lixii I <f>a)ai55 r\y.iii. Eurip. Rhefus. V. 355. 

^avoiiQi KiroXhodv ev X(o<$. Hefych. 

5* Pliny. 1. 2. c. 106. p. 120. 

''' AyTPo. Ti TTxpe^ei to ^it}fiov ^epfAx, yySey ocuTOfiaTO, acvtcvrx, Jofephi Antiq. 
1. iS. c. 14. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 201 

well known ; which were called Aquae Cumanae. The 
term Cumana is not formed merely by a Latine inflec- 
tion ; but confifts of the terms Cumain, and lignifies a hot 
fountain ; or a fountain of Chum, or Cham, the Sun. The 
country about it was called Phlegra; and its waters are men- 
tioned by Lucretius. 

" Qualis apud Cumas locus eft, montemque Vefevum, 
Oppleti calidis ubi fumant fontibus audlus. 
Here was a cavern, which of old was a place of prophecy. 
It was the feat of the Sibylla Cumana ; who was fuppofed to 
have come from "^^ Babylonia. As Cuma was properly Cu- 
man ; fo Baise was Baian ; and Alba near mount Albanus*', 
Alban : for the Romans often dropped the n final. Pifa fo 
celebrated in Elis was originally Pilan, of the fame purport 
as the AqucE Pifanre above. It was fo called from a facred 
fountain, to which only the name can be primarily appli- 
cable : and we are affured by Strabo ^' T^v a^TiVfiV liircLV Si- 
^>i;S"a{j that the fountain had certainly the name of Pifan. I 
liave mentioned that Mount Pyrene was fo called from being 
a fountain of fire : fuch mountains often have hot flreams in 
their vicinity, which are generally of great utility. Such we 
find to have been in Aquitania at the foot of this mountain, 
which were called Thermae Oaefs ; and are mentioned by 
Strabo, as ^^^ Qs^fxcx. KCiT^Xig-ct 7ronfJL(fJTa.TS v^curog. What in one 

=' Lucretius. 1. 6. 

'f Juftin Martyr. Cohort, p. 33. 

■*■ Mount Albanus was denominated Al-ban from its fountains and baths. 

■♦' Strabo. ]. 8. 545. 

■*' Strabo. 1. 4. p. 290. Onefa fignifies foils ignis, aMalon;ous to Hancs. 

Vol. I. D d part 

202 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

part of the world was termed Cumana, was in another ren- 
dered Comana. There was a grand city of this name in Cap- 
padocia, where flood one of the nobleft Puratheia in Afia. 
The Deity worshipped was reprefented as a feminine, and 
ftiled Anait, and Anais ; which latter is the fame as Hanes. 
She was well known alfo in Perfis, Mefopotamia, and at Eg- 
batana in Media. Both An-ait, and An-ais, Hgnifies a foun- 
tain of fire. Generally near her temples, there was an erup- 
tion of that element ; particularly at Egbatana, and Arbela. 
Of the latter Strabo gives an account, and of the fiery matter 
which was near it. '^'^ Os^i A^^y\7\ol h £?"< kc^j A'tifxriT^ioLg tto- 

7\ig' Bi& Y\ T8 VCL^^OL TtTiyY^^ KOLl TOt TTV^IX, (or TTV^SIOl) KOCl TO 

Trig Ayaiag le^ov. 

I fliould take the town of Egnatia in Italy to have been 
of the fame purport as Hanes above mentioned : for Hanes 
was fometimes exprefled with a guttural, Hagnes ; from 
whence came the igi;nis of the Romans. In Arcadia near 
mount Lyceus was a facred fountain ; into which one 
of the nymphs, which nurfed Jupiter, was fuppofed to have 
been changed. It was called Hagnon, the fame as Ain-On, 
the fount of the Sun. From Ain of the Amonians, ex- 
prefled Agn, came the ^yvog of the Greeks, which figni- 
fied any thing pure and clean ; purus five caftus. Hence 
was derived dyvsiov, Trriyciioy' a.yvciiOVi kcc^ol^oV ciyp-^^ y.aOc^.oa,'., 
as we may learn from Hefychius. Paufanias fiiles the foun- 
tain '^^ Hagno : but it was originally Hagnon, the fountain 

■♦* Strabo. 1. i6. p. 1072. fee alfo 1. 11. p. 779. and 1. 12. p. 838. likewife 
I?liitarch in Artaxcrxe. 
« Pau-fanias. 1. 8. p. 678. 


The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. ' 203 

of the Sun : hence we learn in another place of HcfycTiJus, 
dyi'OTToXsi^cci^ TO vtto YiXia^B^zdoii. The town Egnatia, 
which I mentioned above, ftood in campis Sale'ntinii, and at 
this day is called Anazo, and Anazzo. It was fo named from 
the rites of fire : and that thofe cuftoms were here pradifed,' 
we may learn from fome remains of therh among the natives 
in the times of Horace and Pliny. The former calls the 
place by contradion '^^ Gnatia ^ 

Dein Gnatia Nymphis 
Iratis extruda dedit rifumque, jocumque ; 
Dum flammis fine thura liquefcere limine facro 
Perfuadere cupit. 
Horace fpeaks as if they had no fire: but according 
to Pliny they boafted of having a facred and fpontane- 
ous appearance of it in their temple. "^^ Reperitur apud 
audores in Salentino oppido Egnatia, impofito ligno in 
faxum quoddam ibi facram protinus flammam exiftere. From 
hence undoubtedly came alfo the name of Salentum, which 
is a compound of Sal-En, Solis fons ; and aroie from this 
facred fire to which the Salentini pretended. They were 
Amonians, who fettled here, and who came lall: from 
Crete ^'^ Ta? Js l^cLXzvTivag IL^rp^m ccTroiJiag (po(,(n. Innumera- 
ble inftances of this fort might be brought from Sicily : for 
this ifiand abounded with places, which were of Amonian 
original. Thucydides, and other Greek writers, call them 

■*' Horace. 1. i. fat. 5. v. 97. 
•*■' Pliny. 1. 2. c. no. p. 123. 
"♦^ Strabo. 1. 6. p. 430. 

The ancient Salentini worfliipped the Sun under the title of Man-zan, or 
Man-zana ; by which is meant Menes, Sol. Feftus in V. Odobris. 

D d 2 Phenicians 

204 '^"^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Pheniclans": Q-kqw Js ;^ (!?QiHKsg TTS^i TTctroLV (jlsv XiKsXiaif, 
But they were a different people from thofe, which he fup- 
pofes. Befides the term Phenician was not a name, but a 
title: which was affumed by people of different parts; as 
I fhall fhew. The diftri6l, upon which the Grecians con- 
ferred it, could not have fupplied people fufficient to occupy 
the many regions, which the Phenicians were fuppofed to 
have poffefled. It was an appellation, by which no part of 
Canaan was called by the ancient and true inhabitants : nor 
was it ever admitted, and in ufe, till the Grecians got pof- 
feffion of the coaft. It was even then limited to a fmall tracft ; 
to the coaft of Tyre and Sidon. 

If fo many inftances may be obtained from the weft, many 
more vi'ill be found, as we proceed towards the eaft ; from 
whence thefe terms were originally derived. Almoft all the 
places in Greece were of oriental etymology ; or at leaft from 
Egypt. I fhould fuppofe that the name of Methane in the 
Peloponnefus had fome relation to a fountain, being com- 
pounded of Meth-an, the fountain of the Egyptian Deity,, 
Meth, whom the Greeks called M>iTi?, Meetis. 

We learn from '' Paufanias, that there was in this place ai 

■" Tliucydides. 1. 6. c. 2. p. 379. 

'"Orphic Fragment, vi. v. 19. from Proclus. p. 366, 

M);Tjf, divine wifdom, by which the world was framed : efteemed the fame as 
Phanes, and Dionufus. 

AuToiTi oAiofjaofy '^ui i'ai'Hi, xai H^iK£7ra.ioi. Ibidem, p. 373. 

IrinTii — i^fy.wiverai, BtAn, ^'ii-r, Z&xJct/;^ — from Orpheus : Eufebij Chroni- 
con. p. 4. 

AwT^a. Paufun. 1. 2; p. 190. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 205 

temple and a ftatue of Ills, and a ftatue alfo of Hermes in 
the forum ; and that it was fituated near fome hot fprings. 
We may from hence form a judgment, why this name 
was given, and from what country it was imported. We 
find this term fometimes compounded Meth-On, of which 
name there was a town in '' MefTenia. Inflances to our 
purpofe from Greece will accrue continually in the courfe 
of our work. 

One reafon for holding waters fo facred arofe from a no- 
tion, that they were gifted with fupernatural powers. Jambli- 
cus takes notice of many ways, by which the gift of divina- 
tion was to be obtained. ^* Some^ fays he, procure a prophetic 
fpirit by drinking the facred water ^ as is the praEiice of Apollo s 
prief at Colophon. Some by ft ting over the mouth of the ca- 
vern^ as the women do^ who give out oracles at Delphi. Others 
are infpired by the vapour .^ which arifes from the waters ; as 
is the cafe of thofe who are prief ef^es atBranchidce. He adds", 
in refpeB to the oracle at Colophon^ that the prophetic fpirit 
was fuppofed to proceed from the water. The fountain^ from 
whence it flowed, was: in an apartment under ground ; and the 
priefl went thither to partake of the emanation. From this 
hiftory of the place we may learn the purport of the name, 

" Paufanias. 1 4. p. 287. 

*^ 'O/cT'' viwp Trtoi-Tery y.cL^a.TTip iv KcXo(p'j}yi 'legevi ts KAap;a. 'OiSe <^ofJi.toii 
vrafaxa^vixivoi, ui at iv Ai?\<^oii ^ia7nC,3a<xi. 'OiS' ?^ vS a.rci>v a.T[J.iQoii/.et'oi, xo-- 
daTTf^ oil iv B^a^-^^/J^aiS D^stpJiTiJ^gT. Jamblicus de Myfterijs. Sed. 3. c. xi. p. 72. 

'^ Toii iv K.oAopcioti ixavTiiov of^oAoysnat jraccc Tracn S to. vi aios yprixctrsQeiv' 
enai ycx^ Trnyw iv oixm xarxyiM-, xa.: air ccvti}^ t^hv my Ii£-cf /jt)!;-. Jamblicus- 

2o6. The Analysis of Ancient Mvti-iologv. 

by, which this oracular place was called. Golophon is Col- 
Oph On, tumulus, Dei, Solis Pythonis, and correfponds with 
the character given. The river, into which this fountain 
ran, was facred, and named Halefus ; it was alio called 
^* Anelon : An-El-On, Pons Dei Solis. Halefus is compofed 
of well known titles of the fame God.' 

Delos was famed for its oracle ; and for a fountain facred 
to the prophetic Deity. It was called ^^ Inopus. This is a 
plain compoimd of Ain-Opus, Pons Pythonis. Places named 
Afopus, ElopuSj and the like, are of the fame analogy. The 
God of light, Orus, was often ftiled Az-El ; whence we 
meet with many places named Azelis, Azilis, Azila, and by 
apocope, 'Zelis, Zela, and Zeleia. In Lycia was the city 
Phafelis, Situated upon the mountain ^^ Chimjera ; which 
mountain had the fame name, and was facred to the God of 
fire. Phafelis is a compound of Phi, which in the Amonian 
language is a mouth or opening ; and of Azel above men- 
tioned. Ph'Afelis fignifies Cs Vulcani, five apertura ignis ; 
in other words a chafm of lire. The reafon why this name 
was impofed may be feen in the hiflory of the place^''. Pla- 
grat in Phafelitide Mons Chimera, et quidem immortali 
diebus, et nodibus flamma. Chimsra is a compound of 

'* Paufanias. 1. S. p. 659. AnXovTzi -ra sv Ko?\.o(pa)vi x.a.i HAsysioov Troinrat -^ii' 

" Callimachus: Hymn to Delos. 

Strabo. 1. 10. p. 742. 

" Pliny. I. 2. c. 106, p. 122, 

" Pliny above. 

'Ot< irvoicr^v iy^^i ^oicnXiS^oi iv Avxia cSavxTOV^ xat on ecu xcciSTxi STi ■jre- 
rpafy v-xi ivKTct, Kcci i\jj.i^xv. Ctefias apud Photium. clxxiii* 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 207 

Cham-Ur, the name of the Deity, whofe altar flood towards 
the top of the ^^ mountain. At no great diftance flood 
Mount Argaius, which was a part of the great ridge, called 
Taurus. This Argaius may be either derived from Har, 
a mountain ; or from Aur, lire. We may fuppofe Ar-gaius 
to fignify Mons cavus : or rather ignis cavitas^ five Vul- 
cani domus^ a name given from its being hollow, and at 
the fame time a refervoir of fiery matter. The hiftory of the 
mountain may be feen in Strabo; who fays, that it was im- 
menfely high, and ever covered with fnow ; it flood in the 
vicinity of Coniana, Caflabala, Ca^farea, and Tyana : and all 
the country about it abounded with fiery " eruptions. But 
the mod: fatisfad;ory idea of this mountain may be obtained 
from coins, which wereftruck in its vicinity; and particularly 
'" defcribe it, both as an hollow, and an inflamed mountain. 
In Thrace was a region called Psonia, which feems to 
have had its name from P'Eon, the God of light *'. I'he 
natives of thefe parts were fliled both Peonians, and Pierians; 
which names equally relate to the Sun. Agreeably to this 
Maximus Tyrius tells us, that they particularly worfliipped 
that luminary : and adds, that they had no image ; but inftead 
of it ufed to fufpend upon an high pole a dilk of metal j pro- 

' nat'Tf?, oaot ^011'tx.ov gJcS TrBot Trayiv veixovTai^ 

AlTDTi M.OC.CrcriKVTOlO poOV, &UJJ.OV Tg KlfXXipCii. Li. ■^, 

"Scrabo. 1. 12. p. S12. For the purport of Gaius, doniiis vel cavitas, See 
Radicals, p. 97. 

*" Patins Numifmata Imperatorum. p. 180. 1. 194. 

*' He was called both Peon, and Peor: and the country from him Peonia and 
Pieria.' The chief cities were Alorus, Aineas, Chamfa, Mcthone : all of oriental 

4 bably 

2o8 The Analysis of Akcie^:t Mythology. 

bably of fine gold, as they were rich in that mineral : and 
before this they performed their ^* adoration. 

There is an apparent analogy between the names of 
places farther eafl: ; whofe inhabitants were all worfhippers 
of the Sun. Hence mofi: names are an affemblage of his 
titles. Such is Cyreflia, Chalybon, Comana, Ancura, Co- 
calia, Cabyra, Arbela, Amida, Emefa, Edefia, and the like. 
Emefa is a compound of Ham-Es : The natives are faid by 
Feftus Avienus to have been devoted to the Sun : 
'5 Denique flammicomo devoti peclora Soli 
Vitam agitant. 

Similar to Emefa was Edefia, or more properly Adefa, Co 
named from Hades, the God of light. The Emperor Julian 
ftiles the region — 'Is^ov sj on(*)VQg Tc>i 'HAjm * Xw^iOJ/. This 
city was alfo from its worfiiip fi:iled ^^ Ur, Urhoe andUrchoe ; 
which lafi: was probably the name of the " temple. 

There were many places called Arfene, .Arfine, Arfinoe, 
Arfiana. Thefe were all the fame name, only varied in dif- 
ferent countries : and they were confequently of the fame 
purport. Arfinoe is a compound of arez-ain, Solis fons : 

*' llaiovii c-tCaai rev riMov' ctyccXiJia ie «A(a Tlxioviy.<^v Sicr^oi Cox'xw unep }j.x- 
v.o\i ^uAy. Maximus Tyruis. Differt. 8. p. 87. 

Of the wealth of this people, and of their fkill in mufic and pharmacy ; See 
Strabo. Epitom. 1. vii. 

'"' Rufus Feftus Avienus. Defcrip. Orbis. v. 1083. 

** Juiiani Oratio in Solem. Oiat. 4. p. 150. 

^on'iKoov (puvi) EXa.yce.€aAov xa^vovvrei. Herodian. 1. 3. 

*' EdclTeni Urchoienfes —Urhoe, ignis, lux, &c. Theoph. Sigefredi Bayeri 

Hift. Ofrhoeni. p. 4. 

" Ur-choc figniftcs Oridomus, vel templum ; Solis yEdes. 

Ur in Chaldea is by Ptolemy called Orchoe. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 209 

and mofi: places (o denominated will be found famed for 
fome fountain. One of this name was in Syria : ^ A^(rmrj 

TfOXli; SV liV^lCLy STTl ^iiV(f) KSlfJLSVY), OLTTO Jfi 73 ^SVH K^YjVOLg S^BV- 

yeroLi TrT^aiovag — OL<p dv ri itoXig mo^<x?-oLi. Arftnoe is a city 
in SyriUi Jituated upon a rijing ground .^ out of which ijfue 
many Jir earns ; from hence the city had its name. Arfine, 
and Arfiana in Babylonia had " fountains of bitumen. Ar- 
fene in Armenia was a nitrous lake : ^' A^Qy,vn Xi^ttV — vi" 
T^iTig. Near Arfinoe upon the Red Sea were hot ftreams of 
bitter '° waters j and Arfinoe near ^' Ephefus had waters 
equally bitter. 

There were many people called Hyrcani ; and cities and re- 
gions, Hyrcania : In the hiftory of which there will be uni- 
formly found fome reference to fire. The name is a compound 
of Ur-chane, the God of that element. He was worfhipped par- 
ticularly at Ur in Chaldca : and one tribe of that nation were 
called Urchani. Strabo mentions them as only one branch of the 
'* literati ; but ^' Pliny fpeaks of them as a people, a tribe of the 

*■" Etymologicum magnum. The author adds, ccoaai ya^ to TroTicnxi^ as if it 
were of Grecian original. 

'^ Marcellinus. 1. 23. p. 287., 

** Apanvn A(^t'«, w xat OwviTtv xaXncrf—ic^i S'e vn^irn. Strabo. 1. xi. p. 801. 

"" npCDTov fjiiv anr A^>7tvovc 7ra^a6?ocT< im ^i^tctv rtTrei^ov Qspfx,x. TrAnoa-iv au- 
Xoi? £5c TTiTpni v-^nMi in bciAa.TTo.i' (^ii}^eiTa.t. Agatharchides de Rubro mari. 

p- 54. 

EiTcc aAAxc TToKiv Apaivow' ut<x ^ipfnav vS'aroov fxCoAas, TTiJCPwr aXfj-vpuv. 

Strabo. 1. 1 6. p. 1 1 1 4. 

■" Some nuke Ephefus and Arfinoe to have been the fame. See Scholia upon 
Dionyfius. v. 828. 

" Strabo. I. 16. p. 1074. See Radicals, p. 41. 

■" Pliny. 1. 6. c.27. Euphraten prasdufere Orchenl: nee niE Palitigri de- 
fertur ad mare. 

Vol. I, E e Chaldeans* 

2IO Tke Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Chaldeans, Here was the fource of fire-worflilp : and all the 
country was replete with bitumen and fire. There was a 
■region '"^ Hyrcania inhabited by the Medes ; which feems to 
have been of the fame inflammable nature. The people 
were called Hyrcani, and Aftabeni : which latter fignifies 
the fons of fire. Cellarius mentions a city Hyrcania in 
^^ Lydia. There were certainly people ftiled Hyrcani ; and 
a large plain called Campus Hyrcanus '^ in the fame part of 
the world. It feems to have been a part of that parched 
and burning region called Kccr(X}ieK(x,vixBPY]j Co named from the 
fires, with which it abounded. It was near Hierapolis, Ca- 
roura, and FoiTa Charonea, all famed for fire. 

It may feem extraordinary ; yet I cannot help thinking, 
that the Hercynian forefl: in Germany was no other than the 
Hurcanian, and that -it was denominated from the God 
Urcan, who was worfhipped here as well as in the eaft. It 
is mentioned by Eratofthenes, and Ptolemy under the name 
.oC ^^v^og O^KVViog, or the foreft of " Orcun ; which is un* 

'** Ptolemy Geog. 

Ifidoriis Characenus. Geog. Vet. vol. 2. p. 7. 

" Celiaiii Geog. vol. 2. p. 80. 

■" Strabo. 1. 12. p. 868, 869. and 1. 13. p. 929—932. 

Eip/ Si s-n-i(fa.viia. TKp^aiS'iT; ruv TrsSiaov* 

Strabo fuppofes that the Campus Hyrcanus was fo named ffom the Perfians, 
as alfo K' pj 7r--i lov near ir, but they feem to have been fo denominated ab origine- 
The river Organ, which ran into the Mseander from the Campus Hyrcanus, was 
properly Ur-chan. Ancyra was An-cura, fo named a fonte Solis xvpoi ya.^ 
rA/o? AH the names throughout the country have a correfpondence: all re- 
late either to the foil, or the religion of the natives } and betray a great anti- 

I] Ptolemy. Geog. 1. 2. c. xi. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


doubtedly the fame name as that above. I have taken no- 
tice, that the name of the mountain Pyrene figniiied a foun- 
tain of fire, and that the mountain had once flamed. There 
was a Pyrene among the Alpes ^^ Tridentini, and at the foot 
of it a city of the fame ^' name; which one would infer to 
have been fo denominated from the like circumftance. I 
mention this becaufe here was the regio Hercynia, where the 
Hercynian foreft ^° commenced, and from which it received 
its name. Beatus Rhenanus in his account of thefe parts 
fays, that there was a tradition of this mountain Pyrene once 
*' burning: and conformably to this notion it is ftill diftin- 
guifhed by the name of the great ^' Brenner. The country 
therefore and the foreft may have been called Orcunian 
upon this account. For as the vvorHiip of the Sun, the 
Deity of lire, prevailed greatly at places of this nature, I 
make no doubt but Hercynia, which Ptolemy expreffes 
O^Kvncty was fo named from Or-cun, the God of that ele- 

We muft not be furprifed to find Amonian names among 

■'' Mentioned In Pliny's Panegyric: and in Senecaj confolatio ad Helv. 1. 6. 
Ariftode in Meceoris.. 

"" Here was one of tiie fountains of the Danube. I-poi re yctp irota.u.oi ccp- 
^xjxivoi iK KfATCi}v iiccLnupiiyni-iroAioi ^sit, fAicrni' cx^^oov r.m \i'jou7r7\i'> Herodo- 
tus. 1. 2. c. 33. 

*° See Cluverii Germania. 

*' Beatus Rheninus. Reium Germanic. I. 3. 

'* It is called by the Swils, Le Grand Brenner: by the other Germans, Der 
grofs Verner. 

Mount Ctenis, as we term if, is properly Mount Chen-Is, Mons Dei Vul- 
cani. It is called by the people of the country Monte Canife : and is part of the 
Alpes Cottiffi. Cluvcr^ Ital. vol. i. \. i. c. 32. p. 337. Mons Genebcr. Jovij. 

E e 2 the 

2! 2 The Analysis op Ancibi^t MYTHOLocy. 

the Alpes ; for fome of that family were the firft v/ho paf^d 
them. The merit of great performances was by the Greeks 
generally attributed to a fingle perfon. This paiTage there- 
fore through the mountains is faid by fome to have been the 
work of Hercules: by others of Cottus, and ^^ Cottius. 
From hence this particuW branch of the mountains had tkc 
name of Alpes Cottias ; and the country was called Regio 
Cottiana : wherein were about twelve capital ^* cities. Some 
of that ancient and facred nation, the Hyperboreans, are faid 
by Pofidonius to have taken up their refidence in thefe parts. 
^^ Th^ 'TTTS^'oo^sag — oiksiv irs^i toL(; AKttsk; rr,g IrcxXioLg. 
Here inhabited the Taurini : and one of the chief cities was 
Comus. Strabo ftiles the country the land of *^ Ideonus, and 
Cottius. Thefe names will be found hereafter to be very re- 
markable. Indeed many of the Alpine appellations were Amo- 
nian j as were alfo their rites : and the like is to be obferved 
in many parts of Gaul, Britain, and Germany. Among 
other evidences the worfhip of Ills, and of her facred fhip, is 
to be noted ; which prevailed among the Suevi. *^ Pars Sue- 
vorum et Ifidi facrificat : unde caufa et origo peregrine facro, 

^' See Marcellinus. 1. 13. c. 10. p. Tj. and the authors quoted by Cluverius. 
Italia Antiqua above. 

They are ftiled hKiren Staxiai by Procopius : Rerum Goth. 1. 2. 

Marcellinus thinks, that a king Cottius gave name to thefe Alps in the time 
of Auguftus, but Cottius was the national title of the king; as Cottia was of the 
nation : far prior to the time of Auguftus. 

'* Pliny. 1. 3. c. 20. Cottianse civitates duodecim. 

®' Scholia upon ApoUonius. 1. 2. v. 677. 

®^ Taxw!' Si eq-t Kxi n t« Uiovvayv^ n ra Kotti'j. Strabo. 1. 4. p. 312. 

®'' Tacitus de Moribus Germanorum. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 213 

parum comperi ; nifi quod fignuin ipfum in modum Liburnze 
figuratum docet advedtam religioneni. The flilp of liis was 
alio reverenced at Rome : and is marked in the ^* calendar 
for the month of March. From whence the myftery was 
derived, we may learn from ^^ Fulgentius. Navigium Ifidis 
iEgyptus colit. Hence we find, that the whole of it came 
from Egypt. The like is fliewn by ^° La<aantius. To this 
purpofe I could bring innumerable proofs, were I not li- 
mited in my progrefs. , I may perhaps hereafter introduce 
fbmething upon this head, if I fhould at any time touch 
upon the antiquities of Britain and Ireland ; which feeni to 
have been but imperfedlly known. Both of thefe countries, 
but efpecially the latter, abound with facred terms, which 
have been greatly overlooked. I will therefore fay fb much 
in furtherance of the Britifb Antiquarian, as to inform himi 
that names of places, efpecially of hills, promontories, and 
rivers, are of long duration ; and fuffer little change. The 
fame may be faid of every thing, which was efteemed at all 
iacred, fuch as temples, towers, and high mounds of earth ; 
which in early times were ufed for altars. More particularly 
all mineral and medicinal waters will be found in a great 
degree to retain their ancient names : and among thefe there 
may be obferved a refemblance in moft parts of the world. 
For when names have been once determinately affixed, they 

•® Gruter. vol. i. p. 138. 
*' Fulgentius : Mytholog. 1. i.e. 25. p. 655. 
'•Laftantius defalfa Relig. vol. i. 1. 1. c. 1 1. p. 47. 

To thefe inftances add the worfhip of Seatur, and Thuth, called Thautates. 
See Cluverii Germania. 1. i. c. 26. p. 188, and 189. 

4- are 

214 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

are not eafily efFaced. The Grecians, who under Alexan- 
der fettled in Syria, and Mefopotamia, changed many names 
oF places, and gave to others infledions, and terminations af- 
ter the mode of their own country. But Marcellinus, who 
was in thofe parts under the Emperor Julian, affures us, that 
thefe changes and variations were all cancelled : and that in 
his time the ancient names prevailed. Every body, I pre- 
fume, is acquainted with the hiftory of Palmyra, and of Ze- 
nobia the queen; who having been conquered by the em- 
peror Aurelian, was afterwards led in triumph. How much 
that city was beautified by this princefs, and by thofe of her 
family, may be known by the ftately ruins, which are ftill 
extant. Yet I have been aflured by my late excellent and 
learned friend Mr. Wood, that if you were to mention 
Palmyra to an Arab upon the fpot, he would not know to 
what you alluded : nor would you find him at all more ac^- 
quainted with the hiftory of Odaenatus, and Zenobia. In- 
ftead of Palmyra he would talk of Tedmor; and in lieu of 
Zenobia he would tell you, that it was built by Salmah Ebn 
Doud, that is by Solomon the fon of David. This is ex- 
actly conformable to the account in the fcriptures : for it is 
laid in the Book of Chronicles, ^'ii/g alfo (Solomonj built Tad- 
tnor m the wlldernefs. The Grecian name Palmyra, probably 
of two thoufand years {landing, is novel to a native Arab. 

As Lt appeared to me neceflary to give fome account of 
the rites, and worfhip, in the firft ages, at leaft in refpedl to 
that great family, with which I (hall be principally con- 

»' 2 Chronicles, c 8. v. 4. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


cerned, I took this opportunity at the fame time to introduce 
thcfe etymological inquiries. This I have done to the intent 
that the reader may at firft letting out fee the true nature 
of my fyflem ; and my method of inveftigation. He will 
hereby be able to judge beforehand of the fcope which I 
purfue ; and of the terms on which I found my analyfis. 
If it fhould appear that the grounds, on which I proceed, 
are good, and my method clear, and warrantable, the fub- 
fequent hiftories will in confequence of it receive great illuf- 
tration. But fhould it be my misfortune to have my lyf- 
tem thought precarious, or contrary to the truth, let it be 
placed to no account, but be totally fet alide : as the hiftory 
will fpeak for itfelf ; and may without thefe helps be au- 

( 217 ) 

O F 



The Adoration of Fire m the firft Aees. 

S foon as religion began to lofe its purity, it dege* 
nerated very fafl : and inflead of a reverential awe, 
and plcafing fenfe of duty, there fucceeded a fear- 
ful gloom, and unnatural horror, which were continually 
augmented, as fuperftition increafed. Men repaired in the 
firft ages either to the lonely fummits of mountains, or clfe 
to caverns in the rocks, and hollows in the bofom of the 
earth ; which they tliought were the refidence of their 
Gods. At the entrance of thefe they raifed their altars, 
and performed their vo'vs. Porphyry takes notice, Iiow 
much this mode of worfhip prevailed among the ilrPc na- 
tions upon the earth : ' 2/r/;Aa;ct -tovpjv k:l\. avT^a. tc£V t^-cc- 


' Porphyry dc Antro Nymphamfn. p. 262. Edit. Cantaij. i%5. 

He fpeaks of Zcroailer, Avrc(^'ji; cnm?K'xiov iv tou Tr^oic-tov ocea-i rn; Tlipcrt'-. 

M/&^3. -'p. 254, 

Vol. I. F f Clement 

2i8 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOGV, 

XoLior^zm^ ir^iv koli vaag £Tij/o)^(ra{, Ssoig ci(pQ(n3vrm KCii Bt 

Avzsi(>)y iiOLi sv N(xjw Aioi/vrci). When in procefs of time they 
began to ered: temples, they were ftill determined in their 
fitualion by the vicinity of thefe objtds, which they com- 
prehended within the Hmits of the facrcd enclofure. Thefe 
melancholy recclTcs were efteemcd the places of the highcft 
fandity : and fo greatly did this notion prevail, that in af- 
tertinies, when this pradice had ceafed, ftill the innermoR: 
part of the temple was denominated the cavern. Hence 
the Scholiaft: upon Lycophron interprets the words 7ra^ 
mi^d in the poet, ^ Ta? scroJTaTL'? TOTra? ra ;/aa. The 
caver ji is the inncrmo/l pLwe of the temple. Paufanias fpeak- 
irg of a cavern in Phocis fays, that it was particularly 
facred to Aphrodite. ^ A^^O(JiTJ] ^' b^bi bv tTTfrM^u) ri[j,a,g. 
hi this caver?i divifte honours vcere paid to Apl^rodite. Par- 
naiTus was rendered holy for nothing more than for thefe 
unpromifmg circumftances. 'h^OTT^STf^g o Ii%^vci(r<Togy B-y^m 

Clemens Alexandrimis mentions Bar^ixDcci'q'oiJtci.TxrioaTi^cii s/A-rAfa. Cohor- 

tatio ad Gcntes. 

Ai'Tca f-^iv //) Jixcti-ji a Tr^Aci'Oi, xoci cnriiAxia^ r.) x:itu:) xa8/g:8i'. Por- 
phyry de Antro Nymph, p. 252. There was oftentimes an olive-tree planted 
near thefe caverns, as in the Acropolis at. Athens, and in Ithaca. 
AvicLo iTi xidTsi /jtxi.i'of Tcc^ vq:v?\o5 EAa/wj 

Ay^o^f^' oiUTT? Anp-.v. Homer d3 Antro Iihacenfi. OdyfT. I. £. v, 346. 
' Lycophron. v. 208. Scholia. 

' Paufanias, 1. x. p. 898. I imagine, that the word caverna, a cavern, was 
dinom.inattd originally Ca-Ouran, Domus Coekltls, vti Doaiiis Dei,, from the 
tvppofed fandity of fuch places. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mytiiqlogy. 219 

T.U mountain of Parn^ffus is a place of great reverence'^ hav- 
ing many caverns^ and o'her detached f pots highly honoured, 
and fanSlijied. At Ticnarus was a temple v/ith a fearful 
aperture, through which it was fabled that Hercules dragged 
to light the dog of hell. The cave itfelf feetns to have been 
the temple ; for it is faid, * E/Ti Ti) a;:^a Ncco^ BiKy.<Tus!/os 
<r7ri]?*.:t<c.o. Upon the top 0/ the promontory /lands a temple in 
appearance like a cavern. The ficuatioii of Delphi feems tc* 
have been deterir.ined on account of a mighty chafm in the 
hill, ^ ovro; •^cx.r^.iXjog sv tw 7071^^^ ; and Apollo is faid to have 
chofen it for an oracular fhrine, on account of the effluvia 
which from thence proceeded. 

* Ut vidit Psan vaflos telluris hiatus 
Divinam fpirare fidem, ventcfque loquaces 
Exhalare folum, facris fe condidit antris, 
Incubuitque adyto: rates ibi fa^ilus Apollo. 
Here alfo was the temple of the ' Mufes, which flood 
clofe upon a reeking ftream. But what rendered Delphi 
more remarkable, and more reverenced, was the Corycian 

' Strabo. 1. 9. p. 638. 

E^9a Tofcufva 

r^m'u BeceBpoj >Tvyy.<x.TV[^€<pii c^iym. Lycophron of the Sibyls cavern n?3t 
tlie promontory Zofterion. V. 1278. 

* Paufanias. 1. 3. p. 5. 275. 

"" Scholia upon Ariftophancs : Pkitus. v. g. and Euripides in the Orefles. 

T. 164. 

• Lucan. 1. 5. v, S2. 

' Macwi'-ja^ w le- .'■ giTauba inn t;)v ayccTrv^nv m vacy.cnos. Plutarch de Pyth* 
Oracul. vol. i. p. 402. 

F f 2 cave^ 

220 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

cave, which lay between that hill and Parnaflus. It went 
under ground a great way :• and Paufanias, who made it his 
particular bufinefs to vifit places of this nature, fays, that it, 
ivas the tnojl aordinary of a7iy which be ever beheld^ 

1 here were many caves ftiled Corycian : one in Cilicia, men- 
tioned by Stephanus Eyzantinus from Parthenius, who fpeaka 
of a city of the fame name : Ilvt^' fi to Koo^vkiov olvt^o'A 
Nx;x?^^) ccjiayafoj/ (Jsap.:^. Near which city was the Corycian. 
cavern^ facred to the ?iyinphsy which afforded a Jight the inojl. 
affo7iiffi?2g,. There was a place of this fort at " Samacon 
in Elis, and, like the above, confccrated to the nymphs.. 
There were likewife medicinal waters, from which people 
troubled with cutaneous,, and fcrofulous diforders, found 
great benefit* I have mentioned the temple at Hierapolis in 
" Phrygia ; and the chafm, within its precinds, out of which 
there iiTued a peHilential vapour. There was a city of the 
fame name in '^ Syria, where flood a temple of the higheft 
antiquitv : and in this temple was a liffure, through which^ 
according to, the tradition of the natives, the waters at the 
delude retired. Innumerable inftances might be produced 
to this purpofe from Paufanias, Strabo, Fliny, and otlitr 

'" Paufanias. K lo. p. ^77. 

" Paufanias. I. 5. p. 387. Sama Con, Ccrli vel Cceleftis Dominus.\ 
" Strabo. 1. 12. p. 869. 1. 13. p. 934. Demeccr and ICora were wordiipped 
at the Charoniaa cavern me:i:ioned by Strabo : Y^a. 'mh-a' cciT^oy bavf.xc^cv rn 

(^'J7it. 1. 14. p. 961. 

'°Lucia;i dc Dca Syria. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. zzi 

It has been obferved, that the Greek term KOiXog^ hol- 
low, was often fubftituted for Coeliis, heaven: and, I think, 
it will appear to have been thus ufed from the fubfequent 
hiftory, wherein the worfhip of the Atlantians is defcribed. 
The mythologifts gave out, that Atlas fupported heaven : 
one reafon for this notion was, that upon mount Atlas flood 
a temple to Coelus. It is mentioned by Maximus Tyrius in 
©ne of his differtations, and is here as in many other in- 
flances changed to iioikoi;^ hollow. The temple was un* 
doubtedly a cavern : but the name is to be underftood in its 
original acceptation, as Coel, the houfe of God ; to which 
the natives paid their adoration. This mode of worfhip 
among the Atlantians betrays a great antiquity; as the tem- 
ple feems to have been merely a vail: hollow in the fide of 
the mountain; and to have had in it neither image, nor pil- 
lar, nor flone, nor any material objedt of adoration; '* Ef7 

<ls ArAa; Q^o; /mXov^ sttibikoc; v-^/riXoy. Taro Ai^vm 

KOLi Is^ov, KOLi ^so?, Kctt o^^cog, Koci ctyaA^ac^. T/jIs Atlas (of 
which I have been fpeaki7ig) is a ?nountain with a cavity^ and 
of a tolerable height^ which the ?:atives efleem both as a temple^ 
and a Deity: and it is- the great ohjeEi by which they fwear\, 
and to which- they pay their devotions. The cave in the moun- 
tain was certainly named Co-el, the houfe of God; equi- 
valent to Ccslus of the Romans. To thi^ the people made 
their offerings: and- this was the heaven which Atlas was fup- 
pofed to fupport. It fecms to have been no uncommon, 
term among the Africans. There was a city in Libya named 

*J^ Maximus Tyrius, DilTert. S. p. 87, 

Cowlj . 

2 22 The Analysis of Anciemt NfyTfiOLOGY. 

Coel, which the Romans rendered Coelu. They would have 
exprcffed it Coclus. or Coslus ; but the name was copied in 
the time of the Punic wars, before the s final was admitted 
into their writings. Vaillant has given feveral fpecimens of 
coins flruck. in this city to the honour of fome of the Roman 
'^ emperors, but cfpecially of Verus, Commodus, and AntO' 
jiinus Pius. 

Among the Perfians mofl: of the temples were caverns in 
rocks, cither formed by nature, or artificially produced. 
They had likevvife Puratheia, or open temples, for the cele- 
bration of the rites of fire. I fliall hereafter fhew, that the 
religion, of which I have been treating, was derived from the 
fonsofChus: and in the ancient province of Chufiftan, called 
afterwards Perfis, there are to be feen at this day many curi- 
ous monuments of antiquity, which have a reference to that 
worfhip. The learned Hyde fuppofes them to have been 
either '* palaces, or tombs. The chief building, Vv'hich he 
has taken for a palace, is manifeflly a Puratheion ; one of 
thofe open edifices called by the Greeks, T7ra,iU^x. It Is very 
like the temple at Lucorein in upper Egypt ; and feems to 
be ftill entire. At a glance we may perceive, that it was ne- 
ver intended for an habitation. At a dillance are fome fa- 
cred grottos, hewn out of the rock ; the iarne which he ima- 
gines to have been tombs. Many oi the ancients, as well as 
of the moderns, have been or the lame opinion. In the 

" Vaillant : Numifm. ^rea Imperator. Pars prima, p. 243, 245, 285. and 

'J Hjde, Religio Vccerum Perlarum. c. 23. p 506, 7, 8. 

5 front 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 223 

front of thefe grottos are reprefentatlons of various charadlers : 
and among others is figured, more than once, a princely per- 
fonage, who is approaching the altar, where the facred fire 
is '^ burning. Above all is the Sun, and the figure of a 
Deity in a cloud, with fometimes a facred bandage, at other 
times a ferpent entwined round his middle, fimilar to the 
Cnuphis of Egypt. Hyde fuppofes the figure above to b& 
the foul of the king, who fiands before the altar : but it is 
certainly an emblem of the Deity, of which we have a fe- 
cond example in Le '^ Bruyn, copied from another part of 
thefe edifices. Hyde takes notice, that there were feveral 
repetitions of this hiftory, and particularly of perfons, foleni 
et ignem in pariete delineates intuentes : yet he forms his 
judgment from one fpecimen only. Thefe curious famples 
of ancient architecflure are defcribed by '' Kcempfer, -° Man- 
delloe, " Chardin, and " Le Bruyn. They are likevvife 
taken notice of by ^' Thevenot, and Herbert. In refpeft to 
tlie grottos I am perfuaded, that they were temples, and not 
tombs. Nothing was more common among the Perfians, 
than to have their temples formed out of rocks. Mithras e- 

'^ See PLATE ii, ili. 
'* Le Bruyn. Plate 153. 

See the fubfcquent plate with the characters of Cnc-jphis. 

'' KEcmpfc". Amoenitates Exoticas. p. 325. 

" p. 3. He mentions the iacred fire, and a ferpent.- 

*' Sir John Ghardln. Herbert aifo dcfcribcs thefe cavtrns, and a ferpenf, 

and \vinQ;s ; when was the fame emblem as the Cncuphis of Egypt. 

-' Le Bruvn's Travels. Vol. 2. p. 20. See plate 117, ii!j, 119, 120. Alfo p»- 
158. 159, i6'i, 167. 

*' The\ciioc..PttrC;2d. p. 144, 146* 


22^ T-HE Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

'■^Petra was in a manner a proverb. Porphyry afiures us, 
that the Deity had always a rock, or cavern lor his temple : 
that people, in all places, where the name of Mithras was ' 
known, paid their werHiip at a '^ cavern. Juftin Martyr 
(peaks to the fame "^ purpofe : aqd Lutatius Placidus mentions 
that this mode of worfhip began among the Persians. ^'' Pcr- 
fai in fpela^is coli folcm primi invcnifle dicuntur. There is 
therefore no reafon to think that thefe grottos were tombs ; 
or that the Perfians ever made ufe of fuch places for the fe- 
pulture of their kings. The tombs of -^ Cyrus, *' Nitocris, 
and other oriental princes, were within the precincls of their 
cities : from whence, as well as from the devices upon the 
entablatures of thefe grottos, we may be aflured that they 
were dellgned for temples. Le Bruyn indeed fuppofes them 
to have been places ok burial ; which is very natural for a 
perfon to imagine, who was not acquainted with the antient 
xvorfhip of the people. Thcvenot alfo fays, that he ^° went 

y: c-n-,)Xaiov %a.Xiicn rov tottov. Cum Tyrphone Dialog, p. 168. 

*' He fpe^ks of people — UavTx^a^ oVa tov MiS/jar s^ifc-cx;', /^a ff'^r/jAoiS 
IhiHuivoiv. Porphyry de Antro Nymphariim. p. 263. 

*" Juftin Martyr uipra. 

■*"' Scholia upon Statins. Thtbaid. \. 1. v. 720. 
Sen Perfci de rupibus Antri 
Indignata fcqui torquentem cornua Mithran. 

'' Plutarch : Alexander, p. 703. and Arrian. 1. vi. p. 273. 

*' Herodotus. 1. i.e. 187. 

'° Thevenoc. Part 2d. p. 144, 146. 

Some iay that Thevenot w.;s never out of Europe: confequeritly the travels 
which go under his name were the work of another perfon : for they have many 
curious circumftances, which could not be mere fidion.^ 


Plate II. 

f//,i(> f /t>//ifiu\i III f/i,- ri'c/i /iiuir 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 225 

into the caverns, and faw feveral ftone coffins. But this was 
merely conjedlural : for the things, to which he alludes, were 
not in the Oiape of coffins, and had undoubtedly been placed 
there as cifterns for water, which the Periians ufed in their 
no6lurnal luftrations. This we may in great meafure learn 
from his own words : for he fays, that thefe refervoirs were 
Iquare, and had a near refemblance to the bafons of a foun- 
tain. The hills, where thefe grottos have been formed, are 
probably the fame, which were of old famous for the flranp-e 
echoes, and noifes heard upon them. The circumfcance is 
mentioned by Clemens Alexandrinus^', who quotes ir from the 
writers, who treated of the Perfic hiftory. It feems that 
there were fome facred hills in Perils, where, as people pafTed 
by, there were heard ffiouts, as of a multitude of people : alfo 
hymns, and exultations, and other uncommon noifes. Thefe 
founds undoubtedly proceeded from the priefts at their mid- 
night worfhip : whofe voices at that feafon were reverberated 
by the mountains, and were accompanied with a reverential 
awe in thole v/ho heard them. The country below was 
called, Xw^ct ro^v Maywy, the region of the Magi. 

The principal building alfo, which is thought to have 
been a palace, was a te^nple ; but of a different fort. The 
travellers above fay, called Iftachar : and Hyde repeats 
it, and tells us, that it fignifies e rupe fumptum, feu rupe 
ccnflans faxeum palatium : and that it is derived from the 
Arabic word fachr, rupes, in the eighth ^' conjugation. I 

'" Clemens Alex^rdrinu?. 1 6. p. 756. 
'* Hyde de Religione Vet. Perfar. p. 506. 

Vol, I. G g am 

226 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

am forry, tliat I am obliged to controvert this learned man's 
opinion, and to encounter him upon his own ground, about 
a point of oriental etymology. I am intirely a ftranger to 
the Perdc, and Arabic languages ; yet I cannot acquiefce in 
his opinion. I do not think, that the words e rupe fump- 
tum, vel rupe conflans faxeum palatium, are at any rate ma- 
terials, out of which a proper name could be conftru(5led. 
The place to be fure, whether a palace, or a temple, is built 
of ftone taken from the quarry, or rock : but what temple 
or palace is not ? Can wc believe that they would give as a 
proper name to one place, what was in a manner common to 
all ; and choofe for a charaderiftic what was fb general and 
indeterminate ? It is not to be fuppofed. Every fy mbol, and 
reprefentation relates to the worfhip of the country : and all 
hiftory fhews that fuch places were facred, and fet apart for 
the adoration of fire, and the Deity of that element, called 
Ifta, and Eil:a." Ifta-char, or Efta-char is the place or tem- 
ple of iRa or Efta ; who was the Heftia, Ef ia, of the 
Greeks, and Vefta of the Romans. That the term originally 
related to fire we have the authority of Petavius. ^+ Hebraica 
lingua iTkS ignem fignificat, Aramasa HniyN qua voce ignem a 
Noemo vocatum Berofus prodidit: atque inde fortaflis Gr^ci 
Eg'ia.g originem deduxerunt. Herbert therefore with great 
propriety fuppofes the building to have been the temple of 
^^ Anaia, or Anais ; who was the fame as Hanes, as well as 

'' See R idlcals. p. 62. 

5+ ?V;avius in F.piphanium. p. 42. 

-'Kerberi'c Travis, p. 138. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 227 

Heftla. Procopius, fpeaking of the facred fire of the Per- 
fians, fays exprefly, that it was the very fame which in af- 
te.times the Romans worfhipped, and called the fire of 
Heftia, or VeOa. '* TsTo e^t, to ttv^, otts^ 'Eg-ixv smKovnoy 
Kcci £(r£^ono sv roig v^e^oig '^(^ovoig Fca[jLa,ioi, This is farther 
proved from a well known verfe in Ovid. 

'^ Nee tu aiiud Veftam, quam vivam intellige flammam. 
Hyde renders the term after Ksmpfer, Ifta : but it was more 
commonly expreffed Efta, and Afta. The Deity was alfoftiled 
Aftachan, which as a mafculine fignified Sol Dominus, five Vul - 
canus Rex. This we may infer from a province in Parthia, re- 
markable for eruptions of fire, which was called ^^ Afta-cana, 
rendered by the Romans Aftacene, the region of the God 
of fire. The ifland Delos was famous for the worlhip of the 
fun : and we learn from Callimachus, that there were tradi- 
tions of fubterraneous fires burfling forth in many parts 
of it. 

" ^uKog a,7ra,v )ca.rB(p?\B^cigj sttsi Trs^ucctiso ttv^i. 
Upon this account it was called '^°Pirpile; and by the fame poet 
Hiftia, and Heftia, fimilar to the name above. '^' Ig-ir], a; vn- 
<rm evs^iri. The ancient Scythse were worftiippers of fire : 


Procopius. Perfira. 1. i. c. 24. 
Ovid. Faft. 1. 6. v, 291. 
'^ Similis eft natura Naphthas, et ita adpellatur circa Babylonem, et in Af- 
tacenis Parthias, pro bituminis liquidi modo. Pliny. 1. 2. c. 106. p. 123. 
-' Caliim. H. to Delos. v. 201. 

'♦° Pliny. 1. 2. c. 22. p. 112. He fuppofes the name to have been given, igne 
ibi primum reperto. 

"♦' Callimachus. H. to Delos. v. 325. 

G g 2 and 

2 28 Tpie Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and Herodotus defcribes them as devoted to Hiftia '^'. iKxr- 
KQiirag 'ifiYiv [j,bv ^0L?.ig'ci. From hence, I think, we may 
know for certain the purport of the term Iflachar, which 
was a name eiven to the grand Pureion in Chufiflan from 
the Deity there woriliippcd. It ftands near the bottom of 
the hills with the caverns in a widely extended plain: which 
I make no doubt is the celebrated plain of tlie magi men- 
tioned above by Clemens. We may from thefe data venture 
to corred a miftake in Maximus Tyrius, who in fpeaking of 
fire-worihip among the Perfians, fays, that it was attended 
with acclamations, in which they invited the Deity to take 
his repafi:*\ Uv^^ hTTroTCi^ 2<tOis. What he renders ecr^/s, was 
undoubtedly E^<£, Heftie, the name of the God of fire. 
The addrefs was, O Ilve^ ^bg-ttotol, 'Eg-ie : O mighty Lord of 
fire, Heflius : which is changed to O Fire, come, and feed. 
The illand Cyprus was of old called "^^ Cerafiis, and Ce- 
raftia ; and had a city of the fame name. This city was 
more known by the name of Amathus: and mention 
is made oi cruel rites pra(9:ifed in its "^^ temple. As long 
as the former name orevailed, the inhabitants were ftiled Ce- 
raftas. They were more particularly the priefls, who were 
fo denominated ; and who were at laft extirpated for their 

■♦^ Herodotus. 1. iv. c. 69. 

Ht;^, i^icToiat, iSra. Maxinius Tyriiis, Difierc. 8. p, 83. 
■** See Lycophron. v. 447. and Stephanus. Kt;-r^o;. 

Kfcatj-id c5£i« ;:(^9o(a [{u-rpa. Nonni Dionyf. 1. iv. 
^'^ Hofpcs erat csfus. Ovid. Mecamorph. 1. x. v. 228. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 229 

cruelty. The poets imagining, that the term Cerafts re- 
lated to a horn, fabled that they were turned into bulls. 
** Atquc illos geniino quondam quibus afpera cornu 
Frons erat, unde etiain nomen traxere Ceraftaj, 
There was a city of the fame name in Eubcea, expreffed Ca- 
ryRus, where the ftone " Afbeftus was found. Of this they 
made a kind of cloth, which was fuppofed to be proof ao-ainft 
fire, and to be cleanfed by that element. The purport of 
the name is plain ; ' and the natural hiftory of the place af- 
fords us a reafon why it was impofed. For this we are 
obliged to Solinus, who calls the city with the Grecian ter- 
mination, Caryftos ; and fays, that it v/as noted for its hot 
ftreams : '^^ Caryftos aquas calentes habet, quas EAAo^ia; 
vocanl. We may therefore be aftured, that it was called 
Car-yftus from the D^^ity of fire, to whom all hot fountains 
Vv-ere facred. Ellopia is a compound of El Ope, Sol Python, 
another name of the fame Deity, Caryilus, Ceraftis, Ce- 
rafta, are all of the fame purport : they betoken a place, or 
temple of A ft us, or Afta, the God of fire. Cerafta in the 
feminine is exprefty the fame, only reverfed, as Aftachar in 
Chufiftan. Some places had the fame term in the compo- 
fition of their names, which was joined with Kur ; and they 
were named in honour of the Sun, ftiled Ku^og^ Curos. He 
was worftiipped all over Syria ; and one large province*was 

■** Ovid. Ibidem. 

■f Scrabo. I lo. p. 6S4. 

''^ So\inus. cap. 1 7. Pliny takes notice of the city Caryftus. Eubcea— Urbi- 
biis clara quondam Pyrrha, Oreo, Gersefto, Caryfto, Oritano, &c. aquifque cal- 
jidis, qucC Ellopis vocantur, nobilis. 1. 4. c. 12. 


230 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

hence named Ciirefla, and Cureftica, from Kv^ E^of, Sol 

In Cappadocia were many Puratheia ; and the people fol- 
lowed the fame manner of worfhip, as was pradifed in 
Perfis. The rites, which prevailed, may be inferred from 
the names of places, as well as from the hiftory of the coun- 
try. One city feems to have been denominated from its tu- 
telary Deity, and called Caftabala. This is a plain com- 
pound of Ca-Afta-Bala, the place or temple of Afta Bala ; 
the fame Deity, as by the Syrians was called Baaltis. Afta 
Bala was the Goddefs of fire : and the fame cuftoms pre- 
vailed here, as at Feronia in Latium. The female atten- 
dants in the temple ufed to walk with their feet bare over 
burning*^ coals. 

Such is the nature of the temple named Iftacher ; and of 
the caverns in the mountains of Chufiftan. They were fa- 
cred to Mithras, and were made ufe of for his rites. Some 
make a diftindion between Mithras, Mithres, and Mithra : 
but they were all the fame Deity, the ^° Sun, efteemed the 
chief God of the Perfians. In thefe gloomy recedes people 
who were to be initiated, were confined for a long feafon in 
the dark, and totally fecluded from all company. During 
this appointed term they underwent, as fome fay, eighty 

**' Ev Toii Koic^aSaXoii e^i to rm Tle^ccaiai A^TgfOcTos (£poi', ottcv (pcta-i Tas- 
Upiicus yvfJLvcti Toii TToa-i (f'/aj'8ax/«T' ^cci'i^etv a-nraog;;:. Strabo. 1. 12. p. 811. 
'° MSpai «A/os -za-ctptx. Tli^craii. Hefych. 
MiOf«5 J ■ztrpcoroi ly riepa-cciiQtoi. Ibidem. 
Mithra. was the fame. Elias Cretenfis in Gregorij Thtologi Opera. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 231 

kinds of trials, or tortures, by way of expiation. 5' Mithra 
apud Perfas Sol cffe exiftimatur : nemo vero ejus facris ini- 
tiari poteft, nifi per aliquot fuppliciarum gradus tranfierit. 
Sunt tormentorum ij Ixxx gradus, partim intenfiores. — Ita 
demum, exhauftis omnibus tormentis, facris imbuuntiir. 
Many ^^ died in the trial : and thofe, who furvived were often 
fo crazed and fhaken in their intellects, that they never re- 
turned to their former ftate of mind. 

Some traces of this kind of penance may be ftill perceived 
in the eaft, where the followers of Mahomet have been 
found to adopt it. In the hiftory given by Hanway of the 
Perfian Monarch, Mir Maghmud, we have an account of a 
procefs fimilar to that above; which this prince thought pro- 
per to undergo. He was of a four and cruel difpofition, 
and had been greatly dejeded in his fpirits; on which ac- 
count he wanted to obtain fome light and affiftance from 
heaven. " With this intent Maghnud undertook to perfonn 
the fpiritual exercifes which the Indian Mahofnmedans, who 
are more addiBed to them than thofe of other countrieSy have 
introduced into Ka7ida.har. Tljis fuperfitious pra&ice is oh- 
ferved by f jutting thenf elves up fourteen or fifteen days in a 
place where no light enters. "The only nouriJJjmefit they take is 
a little bread and water at fu7ifet. Duririg this retreat they 
employ their time in repeating incejfa?itly with a JlrG?ig guttural 

" Elias Cretenfis. Ibidem. In like manner Nonnus fays, that there could be 
no initiation — h^^a a ras uy-S oyiKovrcc x-oAxaea 7rapiAh:i. In Nazianzeni Steli- 
teutic. 2. 

'* Kxt Tore XoiTs-ov euvjo-t ocutcv rcc rsAjw-fsct. go." ([^mth. Nonnus fupra. 
• *' Account of Perfia by Jonas Hanv/ay, Efq. vol. 3. c. 31, 32. p 206. 

4 voice 


The Analysis of Anciemt Mythology. 

voice the word Hou, by which they dc?2ote one of the attributes 
.of the Deity. Ihefe continual cries, and the agitations of the 
body, with which they are attended, naturally unhi?tge the 
whole fratne. When by fajling and darknefs the braiii is d>f- 
tempered, they fancy they fee JpeSlres and hear voices. Thus 
they take pains to confirm the di/lemfer, which puts them upon 
fuch trials. 

Such was the painful exercife which Maghmud undertook 
in fanuary this year ; and for this purpofe he chofe a fubter- 
raneous vault. In the beginning of the next month, tvhen he 
came forth, he was fo pale, disfigured, and emaciated, that they 
hardly knew him But this was not the worji effeB of his de- 
votion. Solitude, often dangerous to a melancholy tur7i of 
thought ^ had under the circiun fiances of his inquietude, and the 
flran<renefs of his pe?iance, impaired his reafon. He became refi- 
lefs, and fufpicious , often fiarting. — la one of thefe fits he 
determined to put to death the whole family of his prede- 
ceffor Sha HuH'ein ; among whom were feveral brothers, 
three imclesj and feven nephews, befides that prince's chil- 
dren. All thefe, in number above an hundred, the tyrant cut 
to pieces with his own hand in the palace-yard, where they 
were aflembled for that bloody purpofe. Two fmall children 
only efcaped by the intervention of their father, who was 
wounded in endeavouring to fcreen them. 

The reverence paid to caves, and grottos, arofe from a no- 
tion that they were a reprefentation of the ^^ world ^ and 
that the chief D.'ity whom the Perfians worfliipped pro- 

'* Ejjtora ?£soi/T« o-=a-!;A«!y ra Kao-jots. Porphyry de Antro Nymph, p. 254, 


Plate m . 

//■//?/ r ll/////;i or TfJOplei"/' Miriu-U.S //^V// < VV^VK/z'cV /7»y 2,'V'. -. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 233 

ceeded from a cave. Such was the tradition, which they had 
receii^ed ; and which contained in it matter of importance. 
Porphyry attributes the original of the cuftom to Zoroafter, 
whoever Zoroafler may have been : and fays, that he firft 
confecrated a natural cavern in Perfis to Mithras, the creator 
and father of all things. He was followed in this pradice 
by others, who dedicated to the Deity places of this ^J na- 
ture ; either fuch as were originally hollowed by nature, 
or made fo by the art of man. Thofe, of which we have 
fpecimens exhibited by the writers above, were probably en- 
riched, and ornamented by the Achaimenids of Perfis, who 
fucceeded to the throne of Cyrus. They are modern, if com- 
pared with the firft introdudlion of the worfliip : yet of high 
antiquity in refped to us. They are noble relics of Perfic 
architedure, and afford us matter of great curiofity. 

cirmXcim^ in ovv ccvTo<pvm; ure x^ipoTronnM', rai TsAirai clttoS tUvcti. Porph. 
de Antro Nymph, p. ,08. The purport of the hiftory of Mithras, and of the 
cave from whence he proceeded, I (hall hereafter Ihew. Jupiter was nurfed in a 
cave, and Proferpine. Ko^« Koay.^, nurfed in a cave : c^cccrj-r^i xcanAn,xmw iy 

rx ruv deoAoyuy. Porph. ibid. p. 254. 

Vol.1. Hh OF 

( 235 ) 

O F T H E 

O M P H I, 

A N D O F 


TH E term Omphi is of great antiquity, and denotes 
an oracular influence, by which people obtained an 
inflght into the fecrets of futurity. I have taken 
notice, with what reverence men in the firft ages repaired to 
rocks, and caverns, as to places of particular fandity. Here 
they thought that the Deity would mod likely difclofe him- 
felf either by a voice, or a dream, or fome other preternatu- 
ral token. Many for the fame purpofe worfhipped upon 
hills, and on the tops of high mountains ; imagining that 
they hereby obtained a nearer communication with heaven. 
Hence we read as far back as the days of Mofes, concerning 
the high places in ' Canaan. And under the kings of If- 
rael and Judah, that the people made their offerings in high 
places. We are particularly told of Pekah, the fon of Re- 
maliah, that he walked in the way of the ^ kings of Jfrael', yea, 

' Numbers, c. 22. v, 41. Leviticus, c 26. v. 30. 
* 2 Kings, c. 16. V. 3, 4. 

H h 2 and 

236 The Analysis of Anciemt Mythology. 

and made his Jons to pafs through the fire according to the aho- 
fninatiofts of the heathen — and he facrificed and burnt mcenfe 
in the high places^ and on the hills ^ and under every green tree. 
And many times when a reformation was introduced under 
fome of the wiferand better princes, it is flill lamented by the 
facred writer, that ^ the high places were not taken away: the 
people Jlill offered^ and burnt ificenfe on the high places. It is ob- 
fervable, when the king of Moab wanted to obtain an anfwer 
from God, that he took Balaam the prophet, and brought 
him to the * high places of Baal. And finding that he could 
not obtain his purpofe there, he carried him into the field of 
Zophim unto the top of Pifgah : and from thence he again 
removed him to the top of Peor. In all thefe places he ereSled 
/even altars ; and offered a bullock and a ram on every ' altar. 
It is faid of Orpheus, that he went with fome of his difciples 
to meet Theiodamas, the fon of Priam, and to partake in a 
facrifice, which he every year offered upon the fummit of a 
hi^h ^ mountain. We are told by Strabo, that the Perfiana 
always performed their worfhip upon hills \ Ils^o-at jQivm 

' 1 Kings, c. 22. V. 43. 2 Kings, c. i2. v. 3. c. 15. v. 4 — 35. 

* There were two forts of high places. The one was a natural eminence ; a 
hill or mountain of the earth. The other was afadticious mound ; of which 
1 fliall htrtduer treat at large. 

' Numbers, c. 22. v. 41. and c. 23. v. 14 — 28. 

* Preface of Demetrius Mofchus to Orpheus de Lapidibus — QetzJ'ccfJLa.vTt 
TaHf/a/za cwnviriaiv Ooc^tu, — /crA. 

' Strabo. 1. 15. p. 1064. 

TiipcrcciiTit Tccv\vj'AoTcc-rot.Tei}v ofiuv ^ua-ioLii^^iiv. Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 131.' 
Some nations inftead of an image worfhipped the hill as ■ the Deity — ETref »- 
fjAuav Si xsti A;; ayaXfJiarot. It TTfcoroi arh^ojirot ia^^vrfaii oouv, OAv/jlttov, xxi 
IcT/)!', xcci a Ti aAAo oor, TrAnatx^d tm (Jv^aya..^ Maximus Tyrius Diflert. 8. 
p. 79. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 237 

rov ovooLvov riyovy,sj/oi Aict. 

The people of Cappadocia and Pontus obferved the like 
method of worfhip : and of all facrifices, wherever exhibited 
upon high places, none perhaps ever equalled in magnifi- 
rence that, which was offered by Mithridates upon his war 
with the Romans. He followed the Perdc modes of wor- 
fliip, as well as the mixed rites of the. Chaldeans, and Sy- 
rians. Hence he chofe one of the higheft mountains in his 
dominions: upon the top of which he reared an immenfe 
pile, equal in fize to the fummit on which it flood : 
and there he facrificed to the God of armies. — ^E&i^s Tw 
Xt^oltm An TiciT^iov ^vTiOLVj B7n oph; u\}/)f]A8 •/.o^v(priV yisiipvoL 
cO\7\Y\v STTiTiOsig. The pile was raifed by his vaffal princes : 
and the offerings, befides thofe cuftomary, were wine, honey, 
oilj and every fpecies of aromatics. The fire is faid to have 
been perceived at the diflance of near a thoufand ftadia. 
The Roman poet makes his hero choofe a like iituation for 
a temple, which he ereded to Venus ; and for the grove 
which he dedicated to the manes of his father. 

^ Tum vicina aftris Ericino in vertice fedes 
Fundatur Veneri Idalias : tumuloque Sacerdo?, 
Et lucus, late facer, additur Anchifeo. 

In Japan moft of their temples at this day are conftrudled 
upon eminencies ; and often upon the afcent of high moun- 

' Appian de Bello Mithridatlco. p. 215. Edit. Steph. He by an hyperbole 
irakes the pile larger than the apex on which it flood. 
» Virgil. 1, 5. V. 760. 


238 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tains. They are all, ^ fays Kjsmpfer, moft fweetly feated : A 
curious view of the adjacent country, a fpring, and rivulet of 
clear water, and the neighbourhood of a grove with pleafant 
walks, being the necefliiry c^ualifications of thofe fpots of 
o-round, Vv'here thefe holy ftruftures are to be built : for they 
fiy, that the Gods are extremely delighted with fuch high 
and pleafant places. 

This praflice in early times was almoft univerfal ; and 
every '° mountain was efteemed holy. The people, who 
profccuted this method of worfhip, enjoyed a foothing infa- 
tuation, which flattered the gloom of fuperftition. The 
eminences to which they retired were lonely, and filent ; 
and feemed to be happily circumftanced for contempla- 
tion and prayer. They, who frequented them, were raifed 
above the lower world ; and fancied that they were brought 
into the vicinity of the powers ot the air, and of the Deity 
who refided in the higher reo-ions. But the chief excellence 
for which they were frequented, was the Omphi, expreffed 
0[Ji(^Yi by the Greeks, and interpreted " @sici K7\Y]Q(s)y^ vox 
divina, being efteemed a particular revelation from heaven. 
In fliort they were looked upon as the peculiar places where 
God delivered his oracles. Hermsus in Plutarch exprelTes 
thi^ teriyi opipi?, omphis ; and fays, that it was the name of 

'Hift. Japan. Vol. 2d. book 5. c. 3. p. 417. 

'" rioiV ii OPOS TH A/55 ODOi OVOULOL^iTal, iTii iBoi »V TOii TrxKcttoti t/^'T^ OVTl TU 

Qiaevu-^et Bua-ixiTroisirboci. Melanthes de Sacrificijs. See Natalis Comes. 1. i. 10. 

" O/V-^'ii, Gs.'a xAhcTw!'. Hefych. It was fometimes exprefled without the afpi- 

rate, aw?«: hence the place ofthe oracle was ftiled Ambon, ay.Suy. Afj-Qocv, at 

4 an 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 239 

an Egyptian Deity : and he interprets it, I know not for 
what reafon, '^ svs^yerrig. The word truly rendered was 
Omphi or Amphi, the oracle of Ham ; who, according to 
the Egyptian theology, was the fame as the Sun, or Ofiris. 
He was likewife revered as the chief Deity by the Chaldeans ; 
and by moft nations in the eaft. He was ftiled both Ham, 
and Cham : and his oracles both Omphi and Ompi. In con- 
fequence of this the mountains, where they were fuppofed 
to be delivered, caiiie to be denominated Har-al-Ompi ; 
which al-ompi by the Greeks was changed to OKv^TTog, 
Olympus ; and the mountain was called o^og OXv^tts. There 
were many of this name. The Scholiafl: upon ApoUonius 
reckons up '' iix: but there were certainly more, beiides 
a variety of places ftiled upon the fame account '+ Olympian. 


'' Toi' OiJ.(^iv svepysrvf 0'EpfA.aici (pwt S'idXouv t^^ijivviuojxivov. Plutarch : Ifis et 
Ofiris. Vol. I. p. 368. 

" OAv/Ji'Troiiiaive^ — 5cA. Scholia upon ApoUonius Rhodius. 1. i. v. 598. 

'*.Many places ftiled Olympus and Olympian. 

In Lycia : OAvpi.7roi /meyccXn TroAnjXai o^oi o,uoovvixov. Strabo. 1. 14. p. 982. 

0?iVfA7rn ToA/s lAAt;oia?. Stephanus Byzantinus. 

In Cyprus: AfA-ahn TroAii, x«/ oooi ixac^oiiim OAvinTroi. Scrabo. 1. 14. 

p. lOOI. 

'Hcf £ axgor.eia. xah-inat OX'jf/.iroi. Strabo. Ibidem. 

Jofephus mentions the temple of Olympian Zeus at Tyre. Antiq. Jud. 
1. 8. c. I. 

At Megarain Greece: Tejxivoi OXvfJL-jriiov. Paufanias. 1. i. p. 97. 

In Elis : 'H OAvfJLiria. TrpcoToy K^ouos Aapcs iMyeTo. Scholia upon Lycophron. 
V. 42. 

In Attica : Naos Kocsra, >cai 'Pias, xat Tifj.ivo-, rm' eynxXvaiv OAu/>t7r/a5. Paufan. 
1. i.p. 43- 

In Achaia : Aios OAu^wx^a mos. Paufan. 1. 2. p. 123,. 



Ths Analysis of Anciei-jt Mytmologv. 

They were all locked upon to be prophetic; and fuppofcd 
to be tlie relicence of the chief Deity, under whatever deno- 
mination he was fpecifi^d, which was generally the God of 
light. For thefe oracles no place was of more repute than 
the hiil at Delphi, called Omphi-El, or the oracle of the 
Sun. But the Greeks, who changed Al-omphi to Olympus, 
perverted thefe terms in a manner ftill more ftrange : for 
findins them fomtwhat fmiilar in found to a word in their 
own language, their caprice immediately led them to think 
of oiJL^vJ^Oi, a navel, which they fubftituted for the origi- 
nal word. This they did uniformly in all parts of the 
world ; and always invented fome flory to countenance 
their miftake. Hence, whenever we meet with an idle ac- 
count of a navel, we may be pretty fure that there is fome 
allufion to an oracle. In refpeft to Delphi, they prefumed 
that it was the umbilicus, or center of the whole earth. The 
poets gave into this notion without any difficulty : Sopho- 
cles calls it '5 [jLS(ro^(pctXc(. Fy]? (J^anzix : and Euripides avers 
that it was the precife center of the earth : 

At Delos : OAw7r£;ot', Toir-.i sv AwAaj. Stephanus Byzantinus. E<r< xa; toA/j 

Libya was called Olympia. Stephanus Byzant. 

The moon called Olympias: 'H yxo 2sA«y» Trao' AtyvTTion kv^iw OAvy.Trias 
xaAsira'. Eufebii Chron. p. 45. 1, 10. 

The earth itfelf called Olympia by Plutarch, who mentions tw Fm OAvf^Triai 
ispov in Thefeus, by which is meant the temple of the Prophetic Earth. 

Many other inftances might be produced. 

" Sophocles': CEdipus Tyrannus. v. 487. 

Oyw.ffaAoi' i^iQ^oixB XGoco?. Pind. Pyth. Ode 6. v. 3. 

O'-Mo^i-Kccv Ten oa(pa.?\ov xeA«/))rg. Pind. Pyth. Ode 1 1. antift. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 241 

Livy, the hiftorian, does not fcruple to accede to this notion, 
and to call it '^ umbilicum orbis terrarum. Strabo fpeaks 
of it in this light, but with fome lielitation. ''Trig 'EKKcc^og 

sv (jLsrct) UD.X sg-i Tr,g (rvixTTxcng ENOMI20H ^n zxi 

oiKny^si/rig' mi smKsTccv rng y/jg OAl$AAON. Varro very 
fenfibly refutes this idle notion in fome '' ftridures upon a 
paflage in the poet Manilius to the purpofe above. 

O, fande Apollo, 
Qui umbilicum certum terrarum obtines. 
Upon which he makes this remark : Umbilicum didum aiunt 
ab umbilico noftro, quod is medius locus fit terrarum ut 
umbilicus in nobis ; quod utrumque eft falfum. Neque hie 
locus terrarum eft medius ; neque nofter umbilicus eft ho- 
minis medius. Epimenides long before had faid the fame : 

" OvTs yct§ riv yccirig fj,s(rog o^icpcLhog^ ovk ^0Lh0L(r<rng. 

'" Euripides in lone. v. 233, 

Mg<75/x^aAo5 E<r;«. V. 461. 

" Titus Livius. 1. 38. c. 47. 

'® Strabo. 1. 9. p. 642. 

" Varro de Ling. Lat. 1. 6. p. 68. 

Paufanias gives this account of the omphalus at Delphi. Tar/s Cto A?X(pm 
KccXufxivov ofj.(pocXov AiSa 7ri7roi>]f/.ej'ov Ag-j;ca, toutq tivxi to ev fjnaa 'ym 7rot.a-vji a.u- 
ToiKiyiaiv o< AtXQpoC ^ittLvuran re 3ca< o/^^aAos TI2 £v tu vam rnxiyco/xeyoi. 
Paufan. 1. 10. p. 835. 

It is defcribed by Taiianus, but in a different manner. Ev ru rejAivu ro An- 
ro'i^B Ko.Xinct.i Tii o/x(p«Ao5. 'OcTe o//.(paAos Tafos £<j-(v ^covikth. P. 251, Oratio 
contra Graecos. 

f° Plutarch Tre^t AeAojT. X^xr^^. 

Vol. I. I i Buj 

242 Thb Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

But fuppofing, that this name and charadler had feme relation 
to Delphi, how are we to account for other places being called 
after this manner ? They could not all be umbilical : the 
earth cannot be fuppofed to have different centers : nor could 
the places thus named be always fo iituated, as to be central 
in refpedt to the nation, or the province, in which they were 
included. Writers, try to make it out this way : yet they do 
not feem fatisfied with the procefs. The contradiftory ac- 
counts fhew the abfurdity of the notion. It was a term 
borrowed from Egypt, which was itfelf an Omphalian regi- 
on. Horus Apollo not knowing the meaning of this has made 
Egypt the center of the earth : ^° hiyvi^TOJV yt] \LZ(Xri Trig oum- 
fJLSurjg. Paufanias mentions an Omphalus in the PeloponnefuSj 
which was faid to have been the middle of that country. 
He feems however to doubt of this circumftance, as he well 
niay *'. Ov tto^^o) h stfiv KaXufjisvog 0|C^aAo?, IlsXo7rom]Q'3 
h TtOLfTirii; iJLSfToi/j SI ^r] to,- once si^riKOLCi, At 710 great dijlance is 
a place called the Omphalus y or navel-, which is the center of the 
-whole PeloponnefuSj if the people here tell us the truth. At Enna 
in" Sicily was an Omphalus : and the ifland of Calypfo is re- 
prefented by Homer as the umbilicus of the fea. The God- 
defs refided — "'N/icrco zv ctix(pi^vTS§- o^n Q[Ji,(p(x,Kog s?i ^(xKoL(T(rY\g. 

** Horns Apollo. § 21. p. 30. Edit. 1729. 

*' Paufanias. I. 2. p. 141. It is fpoken of Phliuns, far removed from the cen- 
ter of the Peloponnefus. 

" This omphalus was near the Plutonian cavern. Diodorus. 1. 5. 
Tp(5 J' iTTt xaAA;7-);5 vriaou S^ccf/.Si oy.(pccAov Ei'i'«?. 

Callimachus : Hymn to Ceres. Cicero in Verrem, 4. c. 48. 
** Homer. OdylT, 1. «. v. 50^ 

., The 

The Analysis of A>jcient Mythology. 243 

The ^tolians were ftiled umbilical j and looked upon them- 
fekes as the central people in Greece, like thofe of Delphi. 
But this notion v/as void of all truth in every inftance which 
hasbe^en produced; and arofe from a wrong interpretation of an- 
cient terms. What the Grecians ftiled Omphalus was certainly 
Ompha-El,the fame as Al-Ompha; and related to the oracle 
of Ham or the Sun : and thefe temples were Prutaneia, and 
Puratheia, with a tumulus or high altar, where the rites of fire 
were in ancient times performed. As a proof of this etymo- 
logy moft of the places filled Olympian, or Omphalian, will 
be found to have a reference to an oracle. Epirus was cele- 
brated for the oracle at Dodona ; and we learn from the 
antient poet, Reianus, that the natives v/ere of old called 
Omphalians : 

There was an Omphalia in Elis ; and here too was an ora- 
cle mentioned by '^Pindar andStrabo: "^ Trjv h B7Ci<poLVBioLV 
scrp^av {r\ Ohvy^zia) sj a^^jj? Jios to ^oLvrsiov tb OXvfxm^ 
^log. 'The place derived all its luft re originally fro?n the ora- 
cular temple of Olympian Jove. In this province was an 
ancient city ^' Alphira ; and a grove of Artemis '-' Alphei- 

^* Stephanus Byzantinus. The Natives were alfo ftikd Pyrrhidse, and the 
country Chaonia from the temple Cha-On, -nAin- 

^' Pindar. Olymp. Ode 7. 

*' Strabo. 1. 8. p. 542. 

*'' By Livy called Aliphira. I. 32. c. 5. 

In Meflenia was a city Amphia— noA(cr//;a iiri Ao(pa J-^jiAa KHfJuvov. Pagfan." 
1. 4. p. 292. The country was called Amphia, 

.** AAfgicwas Apref/.iScif » AAfetaam ce./\To?. Strabo. 1. 8, p. 528, 

li 2 onia, 

244 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ania, and the whole was watered by the facred river Al- 
pheus. All thefe are derived from El, the prophetic De- 
ity, the Sun ; and more immediately from his oracle, Alphi. 
The Greeks deduced every place from fome perfonage : and 
Plutarch accordingly makes Alpheus^' — E<? Tu^v to ysvog OL<p 
)5A(8 KOLTixyonm^ one of thofe who derived their race from the 
Sun. The term Alphi, from whence the Greeks formed 
Alphira, Alpheionia, and Alpheiis, is in acceptation the fame 
as Amphi. For Ham being by his pofterity efteemed the 
Sun, or El ; and likewife Or, the fame as Orus ; his oracles 
were in confequence ftiled not only Amphi, and Omphi, 
but Alphi, Elphi, Orphi, Urphi. 

I have taken notice of feveral cities called Omphalian, and 
have obferved, that they generally had oracular temples: 
but by the Greeks they were univerfally fuppofed to have 
been denominated from a navel. There was a place called 
'" Omphalian in Theflaly : and another in Crete, which had 
a celebrated ^' oracle. It is probably the fame that is men- 
tioned by Strabo) as being upon mount Ida, where was the 
city Elorus. Diodorus fpeaks of this oracle, named Omr 
phalian ; but fuppofes that the true name was OfKpctKog^ oiur- 
phalus : and fays, that it was fo called (ftrange to tell] be- 

*' Plutarch de Fluminibiis — AA(p6/Q^. 

Alpheus, faid to be one of the twelve principal and moft ancient Deities* 
called (rt^//,^wjM.c( ; who are enumerated by the Scholiaft upon Pindar. Bw/x.51 cTi- 
Svy.oif TTfftjTo? Aioi xai noaiti'Mvoi—xih. Olymp. Ode. 5. 

''"Stephanus Byzant. OM<faA/cr. It was properly in Epirus, where was the ora- 
cle of Dodona, and whofe people were ftiled 0//(f aAi«£is above. 

" Ofx<pce.Atory lOTr-oi K^mtw — Steph. Byzant.Eif-* Se ev K^nriKon opsai xxi v.o.'t 
^i iTtEhuPoi TsAi?. Scrabo. 1. 10. p. 834. Eluros— TlK.vK. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 245 

caufe Jupiter, when he was a child, loft his navel here, which 
dropped into the river Triton : ^^ Kito THTH tots (Tv^jJoocvTog 
0[j,(poLKoy TT^oo-ayo^sv&rii/a,!, to -^Cfj^iov : from this accident the 
place had the name of Omphalus^ or the navel. CalHmachus 
in his hymn to Jupiter dwells upon this circumftance : 
" Eyrs ©e^a? oLTrsXsiTrsv stti K^wctco/o cps^acr/), 
Zgy TCOLTB^^ Y] Nv[jL(pr] erg (^©svai J" s^roLv syyv^i K^/wirtra) 
Thtolki Toi 7r£(re, AotifxoVi ouk o{jL(poL?^og^ sv§ci/ sksivo 
0[j,(pa.?\iQV fjLSTBTrsiTOL TTs^ov KCiXss(n Kv^oovsg, 
Who would imagine, that one of the wifeft nations that 
ever exifted could reft fatisfied with fuch idle figments : and 
how can we account for thefe illuftons, which overfpread the 
brighteft minds ? We fee knowing and experienced people in- 
venting the moft childifh tales ; lovers of fcience adopting 
them ; and they are finally recorded by the grave hiftorian : 
all which would not appear credible, had we not thefe evi- 
dences fo immediately tranfmitted from them. And it is 
to be obferved that this bHndnefs is only in regard to their 
religion ; and to their mythology, which was grounded there- 
upon. In all other refpedls they were the wifeft of the fons 
of men. 

We meet in hiftory with other places ftiled Omphalian. 
The temple of Jupiter Ammon was efteemed of the higheft 
antiquity, and we are informed that there was an omphalus 
here ; and that the Deity was worfhipped under the form of 
a navel. Quintus Curtius, who copied his hiftory from the 

'* Diodorus Siculus. 1. 5, p. 337. 

♦* Callimachus. Hymn to Jopiter. v. 42;. 


246 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Greeks, gives us in the life of Alexander the following 
ftran-^e account, which he has embellifhed with fomc co- 
louring of his own. '* Id, quod pro Deo colicur, non ean- 
dem effigiem habebat, quam vulgo Diis Artifices accommo- 
darunt. Umbilko maxime fimilis eft habitus, fniaragdo, et 
gemmis, coagmentatus. Hunc, cum refponlum petitur, na- 
vigio aiirato geftant Sacerdotes, niultis argenteis pater'is ab 
utroque navigii latere pendentibus. The whole of this is an 
abufe of terms, which the author did not underftand, and 
has totally mifipplied. One would imagine that fo impro- 
bable a ftory, as that of an umbiHcal Deity with his filver 
bafons, though patched up with gold and emeralds, would 
have confuted itfelf Yet Schottus in his notes upon Cur- 
tius has been taken with this motly defctiption: and in op- 
pofition to all good hiftory thinks, that this idle ftory of a na- 
vel relates to the compafs. Hyde too has adopted this no- 
tion ; and proceeds to fliew how each circumftance may be 
made to agree with the properties of the magnet. '^ Ilia 
nempe jovis effigies videtur femiglobulare quicaam, uti eft 
comoaftus marinus, forma umbilici Hbrarii, feu umbonis, tan- 
quam zx^ZQV quoddam adoratum, propter ejufdem divinum 
auxilimn : utpotc in quo index magneticus erat ftcut intus 
exiftens quidam deus, navigiorum curfum in medio squore 
dirip-ens. Thefe learned men were endued with a ready 
faith : and not only acquiefce in what they have been told, 
but contribute largely to eftabhfti the miftake. The true 

'* Quintus Curtius. ). 4. c. 7. p. 154. Varior. 

" Hyde of the Umbilicus. Relig. vet. Perfarum. Appendix 3. p. ^-i^. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 247 

hiftory is this. Moft places in which was the fuppofed ora- 
cle of a Deity, the Grecians, as I have before mentioned, 
fliled Olympus, Olympia, and Olympiaca : or elfe Om- 
phale, and Omphalia, and the province "/os^iov 0^<poLKioy, 
Thefe terms were thought to relate to a navel: but, if fuch an 
interpretation could have been made to correfpond with the 
hiftory of any one place, yet that hiftory could not have 
been reiterated ; nor could places fo widely diftant have all 
had the fame reference. What was terminated 0|U,^aAo^ was 
^^ Omph-El, the oracle of God, the feat of divine influence: 
and Al-Omphiwas a name given to mountains and eminen- 
ces upon the fame account. An oracle was given to Pelias 
in Theflaly : and whence did it proceed ? from the well 
wooded omphalus of his mother Earth. 
HA^£ Js 01 y.^vosv 

TLoL^OL fjLBcrov o^<pc(.Kov 

In other words, it proceeded from the ftately grove of Heftia, 
where ftood an oracular temple. 

In refpeft to the omphalus of Ammon, which Curtius 
has translated umbilicus, and garniftied with gold and jewels, 
the whv)le arifes from a miftake in terms, as in the many 

'' That Olympus and Olympia were of Egyptian original is manifeft from 
Eufebiiis-, who tells us, that in Egypt the moon was called OJympiai; and that 
the Zodiac in the heavens had anciently the name of Olympus, f-l yxn XiAm'n 
TTcc^ AiyjTTTiois wJciMi OAvfXTnixi y.(xXiiTcu, fi'ix. To Kocrx /Jivrcc -u^ : pi-oj o?.i v rov 
'ZodS'ioLxcv KuxAov, ov CI -m-aAxioi xvrccv OATMFJON iKxXi". Chronicon. p. 45. 
L 9. The reafon given is iiile : but the faft is worth attending to. 

Olympus was the fuppofed prasceptor of Jupiter. Diodorus. 1. 3. p. 206. 

*■' Pindar. Pyth. Ode 4. p. 24L., 

^ 4 inftances. 

24-8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

irjftances before. It was Omphi El, the oracle of Ham, or 
the Sua : and the fhrine, from whence it was fuppofed to 
proceed, was carried in a boat. The Paterae, reprefented as 
£o many filver bafons, were in reality the interpreters of the 
oracle. They were the priefts, who in the facred proceffions 
walked on each fide, and fupported both the image and the 
boat, in which it was carried. They are faid to have been 
eifrhty in number; and they pretended to bear the Deity 
about, juft as they were by the divine impulfe direded. T/je 
God, fays ^^ Diodorus Siculus, is carried about in a Jhip of gold 
by eighty of his priejls. They bear him upon their JJjoulders, 
and purfue their way by inJlinSi^ jujl as the divine automaton 
chances to direSi them. Thefe perfons, who thus officiated, 
were probably the fame as the Petipharas of the ancient 
Egyptians, but were called Paterae by the Greeks. It was 
a name, and office, by which the priefts of Delphi, and of 
many other places beddes thofe in Egypt, were diftinguifhed ; 
and the term always related to oracular interpretation. Hence 
Bochart defcribes thefe priefts, and their fundion, very juftly. 
" Pater?E, Sacerdotes Apollinis, oraculorum interpretes. Pa- 
tor, or Peter, was an Egyptian word ; and Mofes fpeaking of 
Jofeph, and the dreams of Pharaoh, more than once makes 
ufe of it in the fenfe above. It occurs Genefis. c. 41. v. 8. 
— V. 13. and manifeftly alludes to an interpretation of that 

'* Etzrj rfojs 'zo-SPKpiPSTai ^rvatii J-sro Ifpwr oy^crtKcvra. (o ©go<.). Outoi S'U'wt 
TO))' &'/>tw!' (piPovTii rov biov 'uj^oayasiv ccvTofAxnas, otth acyci to tb d^s isviaoc. rav 
7ro^e:ai'. Diodorus. 1. 17. p. 528. 

it is obiervable, that this hiftorian does not mention an omphalus : but fays, 
that it was a ftatue, ^cavov^ which was carried about. 
j9 Bochart. Canaan. 1. i.e. 40, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 2A.g 

divine intercourfe, which the Egyptians fliled Omphi. This 
was communicated to Pharaoh by a dream: for the Omphi 
was efteemed not only a verbal refponfe, but alfo an inti- 
mation by '^° dreams — Ofz^pY], cprifxri ^^^oLy ^sicc xKriOCi)v — ovst- 
^H (pccvrciG'fMCira,. Hefychius. So it likewife occurs in Eufe- 
bius; who quotes a paPiage from the oracles of Hecate, 
wherein the Gods are reprefented, as infenfibly wafted through 
the air like an Omphean vifion. 

'^' Tag Js fiso-ag jjLB(TOLT0i<nv STTSfX^s'^c/MTa.g ariTxig 

No(r(pi TTv^og kmo IIANOMOEAS r;jT ONEIFOTS. 
Thefe Omphean vifions were explained by Jofeph; he in- 
terpreted the dreams of Pharaoh : wherefore the title of Pa- 
tor is reckoned by the Rabbins among the names of Jofeph. 
There is thought to be the fame allufion to divine interpre • 
tation in the name of the apoftle Peter : UsT^og^ o STTiXvooi/y 
£7i:iyiV(A)(rKm. Hefych. Petrus Hebrso fcrmone agnofccns 
notat. Arator. From thefe examples we may, I think, learn 
that the prieft was ftiled Petor, and Pator : and that it was 
the place, which properly was called Patora. The Coloffal 
ftatue of Memnon in the Thebais was a Patora, or oracular 
image. There are many infcriptions upon different parts of 
it ; which were copied by Dr. Pocock'^'', and are to be feen 
in the fird volume of his travels. They are all of late date 

'*'' Oftffw, Os/a -/'AwcTii', c f^-ji' ofxo. Sehol. on Homer. Iliad. B. v. 41, 
^' Eufebius. Prsp. Evang, 1. 5. p. 194. 
■ One title of Jupiter was ilccv^y.q^cno-. 

Ei'Ja rictvoixcpxiM Zni'i p;)C,go"xoi' Ayxtoi. Homer. Iliad. Q. v. 250. 

Ara Panomphaso vetus eft facrata Tonanci. Ovid. Metamorpri. 1. 11. v. 198. 
♦' Pocock's t gypt. p. io3 Plate xlii. 

Vol. I. K k in 

250 The Analysis of Ancient MYXjaoLOOY. 

in comparlfon of the ftatue itfelf ; the antiquity of which is 
very great. One of thefe infcriptions is particular, and re- 
lates to the Omphi, which feems to have frightened away fome 
ill difpofed people in an attempt to deface the image : 

*'E;;iOJ/a K(/)^Yirri^sg eT^vfJLYivan on ^lav 
©sioTOLm vvarcs)^ oix<pT,v stti Msfxi/opog TiK^ov. 

One of the moft famous oracles of Apollo was in Lycia : 
and in confequence of it the place was named Patara. Patra 
in Achaia was of the fame purport. I fhould imagine, that 
the place where Balaam the falfe "** prophet refided, was of 
the fame nature ; and that by Pethor and Pethora was meant 
a place of interpretation, or oracular temple. There was 
probably a college of priefls; fuch as are mentioned to have 
exifted among the Amonians : of whom Balaam had been by 
the king of Moab appointed chief Petora, or prieft. It feems 
to have been the celebrated place in Arabia, famous in af- 
ter times for the worfhip of Alilat, and called by the Romans 
^' Petra. 

''"'Pocock. Plate xxxix. p. 105. 

^■* He fenc meflengers to Balaam the fon of Beor to Pethor. Numbers. 
c. 22. V. 5. 

■" We learn from Numbers, c. 22. v. '^6. and c. 31. v. 8. that the refidence 
of Balaam was in Midian, on the other fide of the river to the fouth, beyond the 
borders of Moab. This feems to have been the fituation of Petra -, which was 
either in Midian or upon the borders of it : fo that Pethor, and Petra, were 
probably the fame place. Petra is by the Englifii traveller, Sandys, faid to be 
called now Rath Alilat. 

Petra by fome is called a city of Paleftine : Tlir^cc. iroAn Tla.?\.ai(^ivm. Suidas. 
But it was properly in Arabia, not far from Idume, or Edom. See Relandi 
Palseftina. p. 930. and Strabo. 1. i6. 

- The 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 251 

The cuftom of carrying the Deity in a fhrine, placed in 
a boat, and fupported by priefts, was in ufe among the Egyp- 
tians, as well as the *^ Ammonites. It is acircumftance, which 
deferves onr notice ; as it appears to be very ancient, and 
had doubtlefs a myfterious alluiion. We have three curious 
examples of it among '''' Bifhop Pocock's valuable fpecimens 
of antiquity, which he colled:ed in thofe parts. He met 
with them at Luxorein, or"^^ Lucorein near Carnac in the The- 
bais ; but mentions not what they relate to : nor do I knov/ 
of any writer, who has attended to their hiftory. The ac- 
counts given above by Curtius, and Diodorus, are v/onder- 
fully illuftrated by thefe reprefentations from Egypt. It is 
plain that they all relate to the fame religious ceremony ; and 
very happily concur to explain each other. It may be worth 
obferving that the originals, whence thefe copies were taken, 
are of the higheft antiquity : and probably the moft early 
fjjecimens of fculpture in the world. Diodorus mentions, 
that the fhrine of Ammon had eighty perfons to attend it : 
but Dr. Pocock, when he took thefe copies, had not time to 
be precifely accurate in this article. In his fpecimens the 
greatefl; number of attendants are twenty : eighteen fupport 
the boatj and one preceeds with a kind of fceptre ', another 
brings up the rear, having in his hand a rod, or flaff, which 
had undoubtedly a myftic allufion. The whole feems to 

■** The Ammonites were a mixed race ; being both of Egyptian and Ethiopic 
original: Ai')V7rTiccv xai Ai^ioircav a.7roix.o:. Herod. 1. 2. C. 42. 

'•■' Pocock's Egypt, vol. i. Plate xlii. 

'*"' Luxorein by Norden, called Lucorein, It was probably erefted to the Sun 
and Ouranus ; and one of thefirft temples upon earth. 

K k 2 have 

252 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

have been emblematical ; and it will be hereafter {hewn, 
that it related to a great prefervation, which was moft reli- 
gioufly recorded ; and became the principal fubjedl of all 
their myfteries. The perfon in the flirine was their chief 
anceflor, and the whole procefs was a memorial of the de- 
luge ; the hiftory of v.hich muft have been pretty recent 
wlien thefc works were executed in Egypt. 

From the ihrines of Anion abovementioned we may de- 
rive the hiftory of all oracles ; which from the Deity, by 
whom they were fuppofed to be uttered, were called Omphi 
and Amphi, as I have fl-icwn : alfo Alphi, Elphi, Or- 
phi, Urphi, from El, and Orus. The Greeks adhered re- 
ho-ioufly to ancient terms, however obfolete and unintelli- 
gible. They retained the name of Amphi, though they 
knew not the meaning: for it was antiquated, before they 
had letters. That it originally related to oracular revelation 
is plain from its being always found annexed to the names of 
^rTons famous on that account ; and from its occurring in the 
names of men, renowned as priefts and augurs, and fuppofed to 
have been gifted Vv'ith a degree of foreknowledge. We read of 
Amphiaraus, Amphilocus, Amphimachus, perfons reprefented 
as under particular divine influence, and interpreters of the 
will of the Gods. Amphion, though degraded to a harper, 
was Amphi-On, the oracle of Apollo, the Sun ; and there 
was a temple, one of the ancient VTrcciu^Uj dedicated to him 
and Zcthus, as v/e may read in Paufanias. Mopfus, the di- 
viner, is ftiled AfLTrv/j^rig^ Ampucides : which is not a patro- 
nymic but a title of the oracular Deity. 

nJ//ie%^J/iiii o/ Isis JSiprora n'//// /n/ r //A 


The Analysis of Ancient MYTHbLOGY. 253 

MoLnoQ-vvoLig' a yct^ Tig oltfqt^q'kiyi ^oivoLTOio. 
Idmon, the reputed fon of Abas, was a prophet, as well as 
Mopfus ; he was favoured with the divine Omphe, and like 
the former ftiled Ampucides. 

^° Evdci iJ,sv oLKTa 7roL^eG"^s KOLroL:p^k^oLi ho cpmoLg, ' 
A(jL7rv/jiirjV lJ)u,w^a, Kv'oS^iriTri^oL ts Ti(pvy. 
What his attainments were, the Poet mentions in another 
^' Ari TOT A^ccnog Tctig vo^og riKvh Ku^Ts^og iJjotwy, 
To J/ ^' V7:oKV(r<TCiiiBvri tsksv AttoXXwi olvol^cti 
AfJi^^oriov TTcc^ct av^d (pe^sT^iog Avtiolvsi^ol, 
Tm mi MANT02TNHN btto^s, mi k<T(poLTOv OMOHN. 
To fay the truth, thefe fuppofed prophets were Deities, to 
whom temples were confecrated under thefe names ; or, to 
fpeak more properly, they were all titles, which related to 
one God, the Sun. That they were reputed Deities is 
plain from many accounts. Dion Caffius fpeaks of AjCt- 
(piXo'^H ')(^^ri<^Y\^iov : and the three principal oracles men- 
tioned by Juftin Martyr are ^^ ^clvtbiol — A[j,(pi?^0'^H A&iJw- 

■♦' Apollonius Rhodius. L, 4. v. 1052. 

MopfLis was the fon of Ampycus. Hygin. Fab. C. cxxviii. By fome he 
is faid to have been the fon of Apollo. Apollo and Ampycus were the fame. 

so Orphic. Argonaut. V. 720. 

"Ibidem. V. 185. 

Si Juftin. Martyr. Apolog. P. £4. 

Amphilochus was the God of light and prophecy. Plutarch meritions g| 
AfJi<pi^o^ti [jt.avriix, in the trcatife Tn^i C^cc^eooi T;,«Aa>oH/x.ej'«f. P, 56^. 

Vol. I. K k 3 vrigj 

254 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

'JrSj Kcii ni^^J:J^. We have a fimilar account from Clemens 
Alcxandrinus. -^ AirjyJicou r^^JLiv koli rr^g a?J.rig [JLoivTiicrig, [jlolK- 
Aoj/ <3s (JLCLViJU^g^ Tx ap(;^!05'a p(^^)05'iOf *«, Tov KXx^iov, top Hv^iqv, 
Tov A|t/,^;a^sw, rov A(x<piKo'^ov. The Amphidluons were ori- 
ginally prophetic perfonages, who attended at the temple at 
Delphi. Hefychius obferves; AfJL(pi}crvoi/sg — tts^ioikoi AsA- 
(pooVj TrvXayo^oLij Is^o^vriixovsg. Minerva, heavenly wifdom, 
is by Lycophron ftiled " Amphira j which is a compound 
of Amphi-Ur, the divine influence, or oracle of Orus. Of 
this name there was a city near Olympia in Elis: for many 
places were in this manner denominated, on account of their 
being efteemed the feat of prophecy. In Phocis was the 
city Hyampolis: and clofe to it ^* AmphifTa, famous for 
the oracle of an unknown Goddefs, the daughter of Maca- 
ria. Amphryfus in Boeotia was much famed for the influ- 
ence of ^^ Apollo: and Amphimallus in Crete was well 
known for its ^^ oracle. Amphiclea in " Phocis had Dion- 
ufus for its guardian Deity, whofe orgies were there cele- 
brated ; and whofe flirine was oracular. 

"• Cohortatio. p. lo. 

"Lycophron. v. 1163. 

5 Paufanias. L. 10. p. 896. 

»■" Hence the prophetic Sibyl in Virgil is ftiled Amphryfia vates. Virgil. 
iEn.L. 6. V. 368. 

5«Plin. L. 4. c. 12. Strabo. L. 10. Called Mallus, by Paulanias Ev McxJ^m 
fji.a.VTii'jr a-\iuSi'^!X.TOv L. I. p. 84. 

" AijiTou cTg uira rcav ,'TUVTg a-<fuj-t tov (~>esv tbtov, kcci €cii- 

^ov v.aoii v.oS'^a.i'a.t — 7r^ou.<iLVTtui-(iii li^ivisi^i. Paufaaias. L. 10. p. 884. The 
city was alfo called Ophitca. 

I imagine. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 255 

I imagine, that this facred influence under the name of 
Amphi is often alluded to in the exordia of Poets ; efpe- 
cially by the writers in Dithyrambic meafure, when they ad- 
drefs Apollo. Taken in its ufiial fenCe (ctap circum) the 
word has no meaning : and there is otherwife no accounting 
for i'-s being chofen above all others in the lano-uawe to begin 
hymns of praife to this Deity, who was the principal God of 
prophecy. We have one inftance of it in the Nubes of Arif- 
tophanes : 

*° A/x^i [jLOi ccvTs aj/af, 

Periander is mentioned as beginning a hymn with a like ex- 
ordium : A|U.(p/ 11.01 civdig CLVcuTcc : And Terpander has nearly 
the fame words: ' A^(p{ ^.oi avdig avoLfc^' i}ca.rr}^oKop. Apollo 
was fo frequently called A|U.<p/ am^, that it was in a manner 
looked upon as a neceflary prooemium. Suidas oblerves, A^(pi- 
ctvccKTii^siv TO TT^QOifJiici^eiv : And Hefychius, AfJL<pic(,V(X,;cTcty 
cc^')(/l vofjis Ki^a^oj^iKH. Much the fame is told us in the Scho- 
lia upon the pafiage above from Ariftophanes : *^ MiiJLSiTai Js 
(A^<?'0(paj'/]?) rctjv Aidv^a^jL^o^v ra tt^ooi^iol' (rvvByj/^g ya^ 
•^^o^vTOLi roLvrri As^sr Jio afJipioLi/oLHTcii; avTsg Kix,X8(ri. Howe- 
ver, none of thefe v/riters inform us why this word was fo par- 
ticularly ufed : nor tell us what was its purport. In the fhort 
hymns afcribed to Homer this term is induftrioufly re.- 

*° Ariftophanes. Ne<p?Atx.i. v. 595. 
*' See Scholia to Ariftoph. v. 595, 
«» Ibidem. 


256 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tained : and the perfons who compofed them, have endea- 
voured to make fenfe of it, by adopting it according to the 
common acceptation. 

Aap fJLOi E^|a£/«o (piMv yovov svpstts, Maca. 

AfJL<pi Aio(rK3^oov sXi/MTtihg sTxsrSy Mao'af. 

Au(pi Aimvirov Xsi^sM? B^iKv^eog viov 

Thefe hymns vv^ere of late date, long after Homer ; and 
were introduced in Ionia, and alfo in Cyprus and Phenicia, 
when the Grecians were in pofleffion of thofe parts. They 
were ufed in the room of the ancient hymns, which were 
not underftood by the new inhabitants. One of them iscon- 
feffedly addrefled to the Goddefs called Venus Ourania in 
Cyprus ; and was defigned to be fung by the prieft of that 
Goddefs upon the ftated feftivals at Salamis. 

^'^ Xoii^Sy •S'sa, liCL7\OLi^ivog evKTifJLSVYjg [ms^sug'oLj 

AvroL^ syct) ksv (Tsio koh aXKrig ^vyig'oijl oloi^yi;. 
We may perceive from what has been faid, that the word 

*' We meet with the like in the Orphica. 

Gm^o.'!', OiMiwi' re. Argonautica. v. 33. 
So in Pindar. KeAstcTo! r/ inoi uu(pi Kivroscr. Pyth. Ode 2. p. 203. 
"We have the fame from the Tripod itlelf. 

AiJL<pi Si r7t;96 , xat KA«Pi-' fJLOLVTivjLCLTo. <f>otCii. Apollo de defeftu Ora- 
culor. apud Eufebium. Prjep. Evang. 1. 5. c. 16. p. 204. 

'♦ Hymn to Venus of Salamis. See Homer Didymi. vol. 2. p. 528. 
The names of the facred hymns, as mentioned by Proclus in his X^w^-oMaflt/aj 
were Ha/ai'ts, ASvpaf/£'.cy AtTwi';?, lo Bax-X'^i't 'T7ro^^nfA,oi.TcCf Eyy-wfjuoc^ Emx- 
Tjjca. Photius. c. 236. p. 983. 

5 Amphi, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 257 

Amphi was a term of long {landing ; the fenfe of which was 
no longer u'nderftood : yet the found was retained by the 
Greeks, and ufed for a cuftomary exclamation. In refped; 
to the more antient exordia above quoted, efpccially that of 
Terpander, I take the words to be an imitation, rather than 
a tranflation, of a hymn fung at Delphi in the ancient Amo- 
nian language : the found of which has been copied, rather 
than the fenfe, and adapted to modern terms of a different 
meaning. I make no doubt but that there were many ancient 
hymns preferved in thofe oracular temples, which were for 
a long time retained, and fung, when their meaning was very 
imperfedly known. They were for the moft part compofed 
in praife of Ham, or the Sun: and were fung by the Ho- 
meridae, and lamidse. They were called after his titles, Ad, 
Athyr, Amphi, which the Grecians expreffed Dithyrambi. 
They were drains of joy and exultation attended with grand 
proceffions : and from the fame term ditlArambus was de- 
rived the ^^<ajU.?o? of the Greeks, and the triumphus of the 
Romans. We are informed that triumphs were firft infti- 
tuted by ^^ Bacchus, who was no other than Chus: the hif- 
tory therefore of the term muft be fought for from anions 
the Cufeans. That it was made up of titles is plain from 
its being faid by Varro to have been a " name ; and one that 
was given by the Amonians among other perfonages to Di- 
onufus : for they were not in this point uniform. Diodorus 
takes notice that it was a name, and conferred upon the per- 

*' Diodorus. 1. 5. p. 213. 

** Idque a 2-^<x^.Cm Graeco, Liberi Patris cognomento, Varro de lingua Lat. 
1. 5- P- 58. 

Vol. I. LI fon 

25 5 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fon fpoken of : *^ S^iccfJi^Qv h c/.vrov o^voy.a^i^voLi (poLTi : They fay y 
that am of the titles given to Dionufus was Thriambus. Ham 
in the very ancient accounts of Greece is called lamus, and his 
priefts lamidas. His oracle in confequence of this was ftiled 
lamphi, and Iambi, which was the fame term as Amphi, of 
which we have been treating. From the name Iambi came the 
meafure la^bo? Iambus, in which oracles were of old delivered. 
Ham among the Egyptians was called '^ Tithrambo, vi^hich 
is the fame name as the Ditherambus of Diodorus. There 
is a remarkable paffage in the Scholia upon Pindar concern- 
ing Ham, under the name of lamus, and alfo concerning 
his temple, which is reprefented as oracular. ^' MctVTSiov y]V 
sv OXv^Ttio,, '3 u^'^Yj'yog ysyovsv Ia|U,o?, rri ^ict s^jlttv^oov ^jlolv- 
T£ia.y Yi KOLi ]W-£p^^< T8 i/VD Oi loLfjLi^oLi •^^ocvTcci. There was in Olym- 
pia, aji ancie?jt temple efeemed a famous feat of prophecy, in 
which lamus is fuppofed to ha-ve frft prefided\ and where the 
will of the Deity was fnade manifefi by the f acred f re upo?i the 
altar : this kind of divination is fill ca?-ried on by a fet of 
priefs^ who are called lamidce. la^og ci§')(Y\yQg was in 
reality the Deity : and his attendants were the ^° lamids, 
perfons of great power and repute. EJ qv TroKvKX^^Tav kol^' 

*"" Diodorus Siculus. 1. 5. p. 213. 

** Epiphaniiis — adverfus Ha;ref. I. 3. p. 1093. 

'' Pindar. Olympic Ode vi. p. 53. 

lamus fuppofed by Pindar to have been the fon of Apollo ; but he was the 
fame as Apollo, and Ofiris. He makes Apollo afford him the gift of prophecy; 
Eroa 01 (OTTcccrs 
©YKTav^ov Sifvixov fxocvToawa.i {hTo?s.X(iov). Ibid. p. 53. 
'^ Of the laniidie, fee Herodotus. I. v. c. 44. 1. ix, c. ^i- 
TiaXXicy Twv loLjJLiSiiiv fj.oi.yrir. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 259 

'EKXavog ysvog IoL[j,i^m. Pindar. lamus was immortal, and 
was therefore named adavxTog. 

From hence we may be aflured, that he was of old the real 
Deity of the place. 

I have mentioned, that in the facred proceflions in early 
times the Deity ufed to be carried about in a flirine ; which 
circumftance was always attended with fhouts, and excla- 
mations, and the whole was accompanied with a great con- 
courfe of people. The ancient Greeks ftiled thefe celebri- 
ties the proceflion of the ^* P'omphi, and from hence were 
derived the words tto^ttyIj and pompa. Thefe originally re- 
lated to a proceflion of the oracle : but were afterwards made 
ufe of to defcribe any cavalcade or fhow. In the time of 
Herodotus the word feems in fome degree to have retained 
its true meaning, being by him ufed for the oracular in- 
fluence. He informs us that Amphilutus was a diviner 
of Acharnan ; and that he came to Pillftratus with a com- 
mifiion from heaven. By this he induced that prince to 
profecute a fcheme which he recommended. ^^ Ei>Tixv^cc ^si/j 
TTo^Tf/j -^^sc/^y^svog Tra^ig-ccfai Il3i<n^^oLT(t) A^-ipKuTog. — @3i^ 
-TroiMTTYj is a divine revelation, or commiffion. Ham was the 
Hermes of the Egyptians, and his oracle, as I have fhewn, 

■" Pindar. Ibidem, p. 51. 

■'* Pi is the ancient Egyptian prefix. 

'"'Herodotus, L i. c. 62. p. 30. 

t. _,~i 

L 1 2 was 

26o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

was ftiled Omphi : and when particularly fpoken of as the 
oracle, it was expreffed P'omphi, and P'ompi, the to^w-TJ) 
of the Greeks. Hence Hermes had the name of 7rop.7raio?, 
which was mifinterpreted the meffenger, and condudor : 
and the Deity was in confequence of it made the fervant of 
the Gods, and attendant upon the dead. But TfoiXTTCciog 
related properly to divine influence ; and TrofXTrrj was an ora- 
cle. An ox, or cow, was by the Amonians efteemed very 
facred, and oracular : Cadmus was accordingly faid to have 
been directed TTOfJLTrr} ^oog. 

Many places were from the oracle ftiled P'ompean: and 
fuppofed by the Romans to have been fo named from Pom- 
peius Magnus ; but they were too numerous, and too remote 
to have been denominated from him, or any other Roman. 
There was indeed Pompeise in Campania : but even that 
was of too high antiquity to have received its name from 
Rome. We read of Pompeiae among the Pyrenees, Pom- 
pion in Athens, Pompelon in Spain, Pompeditha in Baby- 
lonia, Pomponiana in Gaul. There were fome cities in Ci- 
iicia and Cappadocia, to which that Roman gave the name 
of Pompeipolis : but upon enquiry they will be found to 
have been Zeleian cities, which were oracular : fo that the 
Romans only gave a turn to the name in honour of their own 
countryman, by whom thefe cities were taken. 

?* Apollonius Rhodius. 1. 3. v. 11 80. 

An ox or cow from being oracular was ftiled Alphi as well as Omphi. Hence 
Plutarch fpeaks of Cadmus : Ov (pccai to aA(pa ttolvimv Trpora^xi. S'la. to ^oivi~ 
xxi aTW xaheiv tov Ssy. Sympof. Quaeft. 9. 3. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 261 

Befides the cities ftiled Pompean, there were pillars 
named in like manner; which by many have been refer- 
red to the fame perfon. But they could not have been 
built by him, nor were they ereded to his memory : as 
I think we may learn from their hiflory. There are two 
of this denomination ftill remaining at a great diftance 
from each other : both which feem to have been raifed for a 
religious purpofe. The one ftands in Egypt at ' Alexan- 
dria ; the other at the extream point of the Thracian Bof- 
porus, where is a communication between the Propontis 
and the ancient Euxine fea. They feem to be of great an- 
tiquity, as their bafis witnefTes at this day : the fhaft and fu- 
perflrufture is of later date. The pillar at the Bofporus 
ftands upon one of the Cyanean rocks : and its parts, as we 
may judge from ^ Wheeler, betray a difterence in their aera. It 
was repaired in the time of Auguflus : and an infcription was 
added by the perfon, who eredled the column, and who de- 
dicated the whole to that Emperor. 

E. . C L. . . A N D I D I U S. . . 
L. F C L. A R G E N T O. . . 
We may learn from the infcription, however mutilated, that 
this pillar was not the work of Pompeius Magnus ; nor could 
it at all relate to his hiftory : for the time of its being rebuilt 
was but little removed from the age in v/hich he lived. The 

' In infula Pharo. Pliny. 1. 36. c. 12. 

* Wheeler's Travels, p. 207. 

' Wheeler, p. 204. Sandy's travels, p. ^z^ , 


262 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

original work muft have therefore been far prior. The 

pilla-- n Egypt is doubtlefs the fame which was built upon 

the ruins of a former, by Softratus of Cnidos, before the 

time of Pompeius : fo that the name muft have been given 

on another account. The infcription is preferved by'^Strabo, 


A E H I c|> A N O T 2 


The narrow fcreight into the Euxine fea was a paflage of 
difficult navigation. This was the reafon, that upon each fide 
there were temples and facred columns credled to the Deity 
of the country in order to obtain his alTiftance. And there is 
room to think, that the pillars and obelifks were made ufe of 
for beacons, and that every temple was a Pharos. They feem to 
have been ere6led at the entrance of harbours ; and upon emi- 
nences along the coafts in mofl countries. The pillars of Her- 
cules were of this fort, and undoubtedly for the fame purpofe. 
They were not built by him ; but eredled to his honour, by 
people, who wcrfhipped him, and who were called Her- 
culeans. ^ E^og ya^ 'nOLhoLiov vttyi^^s to ri^£(rSca roiHTng 
Ofing^ y.a^oLTTS^ 01 V-fiyivoi Triv fj^XiJa s^sfajy tyjv stti Tea iro^O- 
^w zzi[j,si/Y}Vi TTV^yov Ti. Kc.i IlsAw^o; Ksyo^svog TTV^yog av- 
TiKSiTcii TY] TOLVTrj g-^Ki^i. For ii ivas a cujlo?)!^ fays Strabo, 
among the ancients to ereB thtf& kind of la?id-marksy fuch as 

"•Scrabo. 1. 17. p. 1 141. 
' Strabo. 1. 3. p. 259. 

4. the 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 263- 

the pillar at Rhegium near the foot of Italy : which is a kind of 
tower., a?id was raifed by the people of Rhegium at the freight 
where the pajfage was to Sicily. DireEily oppofite flood afiother 
building of the fame forty called the tower of Pclorus. Such 
Pillars were by the Iberians ftiled Herculean, becaufe they 
were facred to Hercules; under which title they worfhipped 
the chief Deity. Some of thefe were near Gades, and 
Onoba^, Kar Ovo^olv Trig l^n^iag: others were eredled ftill 
higher, on the coaft of Lulitania. This caufed an idle dif- 
pute between Eratofthenes, Dicsearchus, and ''others, in order 
to determine which were the genuine pillars of Hercules; as 
if they were not all equally genuine ; all denominated from 
the Deity of the country. Two of the moft celebrated flood 
upon each lide of the Mediterranean at the noted palTage 
called fretum Gaditanum — /!:aTa tol ccK^ct th Tro^^fMs. That 
on the Mauritanian fide was called Abyla, from Ab-El, pa- 
rens Sol : the other in Iberia had the name of ^ Calpc. This 
was an obeliilc or tower, and a compound of Ca-Alpe, and 
fignifies the houfe, or cavern of the fame oracular God : for 
it was built near a cave ; and all fuch recelTes were efteemed 
to be oracular.. At places ol this fort mariners ufed to come 
on fliore to make their offerings ; and to inquire about the 
fuccefs of their voyage. They more efpecially reforted to 

* Strabo. 1. 2. p. 258. 

'' Strabo. Ibidem. On-Ob. Sol. Pytho. Onoba, regio Solis Pytlionis. 

® Strabo calls the African pillar Abyluca; vvhicii is commonly rendered Abila. 
— Krio; Si i^nAccs UTTiAaSoy mv KctA-rw, r-nu A^oAuxa — xtA. Ibidem. Ab- 
El-Uc, and Ca-Alpe. 

Calpe is now called Gibel-Tar, or GibraUer: which name relates to the hill 
•where of old the pillar flood.. 


264. The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

thofe towers, and pillars, which flood at the entrance of their 
own havens. Nobody, fays '" Arrian, will venture to quit 
bis harbour without paying due offerings to the Gods, and 
invoking their favour. Helenus in Virgil charges ^neas, 
whatever may be the confequence, not to negledl confulting 
the oracle at Cuma. 

" Hie tibi nequa morge fuerint difpendia tanti, 
Quamvis increpitent focij, et vi curfus in altum 
Vela vocet, poiTifque finus implere fecundos, 
Quin adeas vatem, prccibufque oracula pofcas. 
The illand Delos was particularly frequented upon this ac- 
count ; and the failors feem to have undergone fome fevere 
difcipline at the altar of the God, in order to obtain his fa- 
• " A^-s^iYj, TToT^v^uofjis, itoXvTOKirB^ rig h crs vcLvrrig 
EfJLTTo^o; AiyoLiQio TCOL^rikv^s vt]i ^S3<rri ; 
Ovy^ sToj fjLsyctT^oi [Mv zitiTCvzia^rtv a)ira<, 
X^'Sfw (]" QTJi Tciyjg'oy ctysi TrKooi/y olTsXol to. KoLKpr^ 
Qjiesg sg'siKa.vro^ zca a ttccKiv avdig e^r](ro(,>/^ 
U^iv y.syoLv yj <rso ^ocixov vzo 7r?^YjyY]triv sKi^cti 
Vrifr(roy.svoi — 

O, ever crown'd with altars, ever blefl:, 

Lovely Afteria, in how high repute 

Stands thy fair temple 'mid the various tribes 

Who ply the ^gean. Though their bufinefs claims 

'* —AAA' UTTO XifA.ivoi fjLSv ouSiii avayVTat, fjLn Buacci roii ©£o/?, xcci Traoaxa- 
A£o-«5 auTHs Cc))Gy$. Arrian upon Epidetus. 1. 3. c. 22. 
" Virgil. L 3. w^neis. 
'^ Callimachus. Hymn to Delos. v. 316. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 265 

Difpatch immediate ; though the inviting gales 
111 brook the lingering mariners' delay : 
Soon as they reach thy foundings, down at once 
Drop the flack fails, and all the naval gear. 
The fliip is moorM : nor do the crew prefume 
To quit thy facred limits, till they have pafs'd 
A painful penance : with the gaUing whip 
Lafli'd thrice around thine altar. 

This ifland was greatly efteemed for its fandity, and there 
ufed to be a wonderful concourfe of people from all na- 
tions continually reforting to its temple. The priefts in con- 
fequence of it had hymns compofed in almoft all languages. 
It is moreover faid of the female attendants, that they could 
imitate the fpeech of various people; and were well verfed 
in the hiftories of foreign parts, and of ancient times. Ho- 
mer fpeaks of thefe extraordinary qualifications, as if he had 
been an eye-witnefs : 


AvTig r ay Aiotw re, koli A^rs[j,iv loysxi^rii/, 
Mvri<Ta,[X£yo(.i olA^oov ts 7roLKcuu)v^ n^s yvvccijcoovy 

Uccnocv J"' av^^ocTTCf}!/ (poovag, koli K^o^JL^oLhiOL^vv 
Mifxsi^oLi KToLTi <pa.iY\g Je asv avrog skol^ov 
^de'yys(^aiy aVw (T(pi kolXy] (rvvoL^n^si/ oLOi^r}. 

'"' Homer. Hymn to Apollo, v. 156. 

Helen is faid to have been a mimic of this fort. 

Vol. I. Mm yi^Q 

266 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The Delian nymphs, who tend Apollo's flirlne, ' 

'When they begin their tuneful hymns, firft praife 

The mighty God of day: to his they join 

Latona's name, and Artemis, far fam'd 

For her fleet arrows, and unerring bow. . 

Of heroes next, and heroines they fing,. 

And deeds of ancient prowefs. Crowds around, 

Of every region, every language, ftand 

In mute applaufe, footh'd with the pleafing lay, 

Vers'd in each art, and every pov/er of fpeech, 

The Delians mimick all who come : to them 

All language is familiar : you would think. 

The natives fpoke of every different clime. 

Such are their winning ways: fo fweet their fong. 
The offerings made at thefe places ufed to be of various kinds,, 
but particularly of liba, or cakes, which were generally de- 
nominated from the temple wliere they were prefented. A 
curious infcription to this purpofc has been preferved by Spon 
and Wheeler, which belonged to fome obeli/k or temple upon 
the Thracian Bofporus. It was found on the Afiatic fide, 
nearly oppofite to the Pompean pillar, of which I before 
took notice. The Deity, to whom it was infcribed, was the 
fame as that above; but called by another title, Aur, and 
Our, n^N; rendered by the Greeks '*Ot;^io?; and changed in 
acceptation fo as to refer to another element. 

•x.a.1 e^i-'^evoTOLTov to i^ofj-cc tu OoyTa ;i«Aa/<e;'oj'. Anon. Defcript. Ponti Euxini. 


The Analysis of Anciemt Mythology. 267 

'^ Ov^iov 2K, 7r^v[jLi/rig Tig oJi^yioTJi^a kolKsitoj 
ZyiviXj narct TC^orctvm Wiov BiCKsroLtroLQ. 
EiT B-Ki KvxvBag ^ivccg ^^o^og^ zv^ol lioret^m 

Kcx,[j,7rvKov si'hiG'u'si kv^jlcl ttcl^cl \J/a|U.a^o/;, 
E;T£ /.olt Aiyai'd ttovtb TrT^ciica., i/oTOi/ s^svi/ocy 

Top cTs ya^ svanriTov olsi deov AvnTraT^H Trc/jg 
XTriTB (piXccv-oLya^rig trv^^oKov svTrXo'irig. 

Great IJriaii Jove invoke to be your guide : 
Then fpread the fail, and boldly ftem the tide. 
Whether the ftormy inlet you explore, 
Where the furge laves the bleak Cyanean {here. 
Or down the Egean homeward bend your way, 
Still as you pafs the wonted tribute pay, 
An humble cake of meal : for Philo here, 
Antipater's good fon, this fhrine did rear, 
A pleafing omen, as you ply the fail, 
And fure prognoftic of a profperous gale. 

The lapygian promontory had a temple to the fame God, 
whofe name by Dionyiius is rendered T^iog. 

^^ ^vKoLT IrjTTuyict)!/ TctTdvvQ'iJiBi'ai y.s(r(p' 'T^ioio 
Ucf^^pciXiagi 'T^/a, To^i <rv^sron 'A^^ictg olKllyi. * 

The more difficult the navigation was, the more places of 
fanclity were ereded upon the coaft. The Bofporus was 
efteemed a dangerous pafs \ and upon that account abounded 

" See Spon. and Wheeler's travels, p. 209. 
'^ Dionyfius 7r£0i«>«s. v. 380. 

M m 2 with 

268 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

with CIppi, and altars. Thefe were originally mounds of 
earth, and lacred to the Sun ; upon which account they were 
called Col-On, or altars of that Deity. From hence is de- 
rived the term Colona, and KoAw^ii. It came at laft to de- 
note any nees or foreland ; but was originally the name of a 
facred hill, and of the pillar which was placed upon it. To 
fay the truth there was of old hardly any headland, but what 
had its temple or altar. The Bofporus in particular had 
numbers of them by way of fea-marks, as well as for facred 
purpofes : and there were many upon the coaft of Greece. 
Hence ApoUonius fays of the Argonauts : 
" H^i (Jg vi<r(rofJt,Bvoi(nv A^w avsrsAAs KoXocvri, 
In another place of the Bofporus — 

The like occurs in the Orphic Argonauts, where Peleus- 
is pointing out the habitation of the Centaur Chiron : 

'' D, (piKoiy oL&^sirs CKOTTiYig TT^H'^onci KoKmoVy 
Mstrcrw bvi Tr^rimi KoirctrKLoVy svdoL h Xsi^w 
NoLisi svi (TTtYiKvyyi^ ^iKdicrroLrog Ksnav^aiv, 

Thefe Colonze were facre4 to the Apollo of Greece : and 

" ApoUonius Rhodius. 1. i. v. 6oi. 
''ApoUonius Rhodius. 1. i.V- 1114. 
la another place, 

^vXoc rt BSvyuy auT)i KTSccTitra-aro yatvi^ 

Apollon. Rhod. 1. 2. v. 790. 
'J Orphic Argonaut, v. 375, 

4 as 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 269 

as they were fea-marks and beacons, which flood on emi- 
nences near the mouths of rivers, and at the entrances of 
harbours, it caufed them to be called w^<a, oy^ga, and o^fJLOi, 
Homer gives a beautiful defcription of fuch hills and head- 
lands, and of the fea-coaft projeded in a beautiful landfcape 
beneath, when in fome ravifliing poetry he makes all thefe 
places rejoice at the birth of Apollo : 


In that happy hour 
The lofty cliffs, that overlook the main. 
And the high fummits of the towering hills. 
Shouted in triumph : down the rivers ran 
In pleafmg murmurs to the diftant deep. 
The fhelves, the fliores, the inlets of the fea, 
Witnefs'd uncommon gladnefs. 

Apollo from this circumftance was often called BTTODCTiogy 
or the tutelary God of the coaft : and had particular offerincrs 
upon that account. '^ 

" UsKrixotrct t d-^ctf/^svoi 'Ko^(rvvo^Bv Ib^ol KoCha 

h was not only upon rocks and eminences, that thefe 


50 Homer's Hymn to Apollo. 
*' Orphic Argonaut, v. 1295. 

Sophocles calls the fea coaft Ta.«f..u;cs axr., from the numbers of altars. 
Cfcaipus Tyrannus. V. 193. 


27P The Analysts of Akcien't Mythology. 

Cippi and Obeliiks were placed by the ancients. They 
were to be found in their temples, where for many ages 
a rude ilock or ftone ferved for a reprefentation of the 
Deity. They were fometimes quite fhapelcfs; but generally 
of a conical figure : ol which we meet with many inftances. 
Clemens Alexandrinus takes notice of this kind of " worfliip; 
and Paufanias in defcribing the temple of Hercules at Hy- 
ettus in *"^ Bceotia, tells us that there was no flatue in it, nor 
any work of art, but merely a rude ftone after the manner 
of the firft ages. Tcrtullian gives a like defcription of Ceres 
and Pallas. Pallas Attica, et Ceres ''^ Phrygia — quze fine effi- 
gie, rudi palo, et informi fpecie proftant. Juno of Samos 
was little better than a '^ poft. It fometimes happens that aged 
trees bear a faint likenefs to the human fabric : roots likewife 
and fprays are often fo fantaftic in their evolutions as to be- 
tray a remote refemblance. The ancients feeni to have taken 

The like province was attributed to the fuppofed fifter of Apollo, Diana : Ju- 
piter tells her — 

y.c(.i fxiy a') L/«;S 
Eac->i xxi ?'.ii'.sria-a'ir iTrtaxoyro;. 
And in another place: 

Tp;5 Sexcx. to; TTTo^.ieupx kcci ax, fi'x lluoyci' oTuctaaco. 

Callimachus. Hymn to Diana. 
HaTria, Moii^^l^iJi, Ajyjioo-JCOTrg, ;^a<pg, <J>gaa;a. Ibid. v. 259. 
** riotvyi ovv <x.xptQoounva.L ras Tcoi' cc^aAjwaTw;' crpj^scrsi?, Kiovai i~<x.t'TSi 01 ttcc- 
XsL'-ot i(Ti^&v TBTas, Mi oi(piS'pvu.xT(x, Tn ©in. Clcmens Alcxand. 1. i. p. 418. 

*' —Ovroi cv^i ccyocAuocrci cruy ts^vt, ?iiVd Si ccoyB xutcc to cco^xiov- Pau- 
fan. 1, 9. p. 757. 

Alfo of the Thefpians : Kxi c-f/s-.'j' c.ya.Kjj.a. 'xaXanQTccrov i^iv ctpyos A<0a5. 
p. 761. 
•^ Tertullian adverfus Gentes. 1. i. c. 12. 
"" Kcct TO y.s!' 1,cct/.ixs 'Hcxi TToorsoov w crzyii. Clemcntis Cohort, p. 40. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 271 

advantage of this fancied fimilitude, which they improved by 
a little art; and their firft efforts towards imagery «tSB from 
thefe rude and rotten materials. Apollonius Rhodius in his 
account of the Argonauts gives a defcription of a monument 
of this fort, which was by them eredted in a dark grove upon 
a mountainous part of *^ Bithynia. They raifed an altar of 
rough ftones, and placed near it an image of Rhea, which, 
they formed from an arm or ftump of an old vine, 

U^oyi/v ys^-xi/^^vov, to ^bv sktol[jlov o(p^a. TrsKomx- 
AoLifJioi/og a^sirig U^ov ^^eTOig' s^b(Ts cT' A^yoj? 
EvKO(r[j.Kgj koli ^yi ^iv stc' ok^vosvti KoAwj^w 
iJ^^iicrai/, (priyoitriv £7rrj^s<psg CLK^oraTrjiTiv' 
'At ^a Ts 7rc(.<T0LCt)v TroLiVTrs^raroLi Sfifn^Cfjvro. 
BojfjLov J" OLV '^s^a^og Troc^SLvrjVSOv, ol^z^i oe (pvXkoig 
'^TS'^OL^zyoi ^^vivoKTi ^viri7roKir,g b^sKopto. 

A dry and wither'd branch, by lime impair'd. 
Hung from an ample and an aged vine, 
Low bending to the earth : the warriors axe 
Lopt it at once from the parental ftem. 
This as a facred relick was configned 
To Argus' hands, an image meet to frame 
Oi Rhea, dread Divinity, who ruled 
Over Eithynia's mountains. With rude art 
He fmooth'd and fafhion'd it in homely guife,. 
Then on a high and lonely promontory 
Rear'd it amid a tall and ftately grove. 


Apollonius Rhodius. 1. i. v, n 17. p. 115. 


272 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Of ancient beeches. Next of ftones unwrought 

They raife an altar ; and with boughs of oak. 

Soft wreaths of foliage weave to deck it round. 

Then to their rites they turn, and vows perform. 
The lame circumftance is mentioned in the Orphic Argo- 
nautics*^; where the poet fpeaks of Argus, and the vine 
branch : 

^Bir<Ts ^' £7rig-aiJ,si'(^'g. 
The Amazonians were a very ancient people, who wor-^ 
fhipped their provincial Deity under the charader of a fe- 
male, and by the titles of Artemis, Oupis, Hippa. They firft 
built a temple at Ephefus ; and according to Callimachus '* 
the image of the Goddefs v/as formed of the ftump of a beech 

*' ^rjyo)V7ro Tr^sfJiv^h TsKsfTsv h roi /s^oj/ I^t'ttW 

Inftead of an image made of a ftump, the poet Dionyfius 
fuppofes a temple to have been built beneath the trunk of a 
decaved tree. 

Eidct 02J1 TTOTs VYiov AfjLot^ovi^sg rsrv^ono 

Yi^Bixv^i^ VTTo TfTsXsrigy 7r£^iOJ<nQv 0LV^^0L<ri ^cco^oL, V. 827. ^ 

*■' Orphic Argonaut, v. 605. 

Pliny, 1. 16, mentions fimulacrum vitigineum. 

-^ Callimachus. Hymn to Diana, v. 237. 

*' npifj-vov — .f fA«;^o-:, CAa<f as, Trctv ^;^w^a S^svS ps to yti^ccaKov' » ts oifJLTS/\y 
TTPOiTii yn Trpey.voi'. Heiychius. 
ri/EjMyiacraf, ex.oiC^uaa.i- Ibidem. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 273; 

It is obfervable, that the Chlnefe, as well as the people of 
Japan, ftill retain fomething of this cuftom. When they meet 
with an uncouth root or fpray of a tree, they humour the ex- 
travagance : and by the addition of a face give it the look of 
a Jofs or Bonzee, juft as fancy diredls them. 

The vine was efteemed facred both to Dionufus, and 
Bacchus ; for they were two different perfonages, though con- 
founded by the Grecians : indeed the titles of all thofe, who 
were originally ftiled Baalim, are blended together. This 
tree had therefore the name of Ampel, which the Greeks 
rendered AfXTTsKog^ from the Sun, Ham, whofe peculiar plant 
it was. This title is the fame as Omphel before mentioned, 
and relates to the oracular Deity of the Pagan world; under 
which chara£ler Ham was principally alluded to. The 
Egyptian and Afiatic Greeks had fome imperfed: tradi- 
tions about Ham, and Chus : the latter of which they ef- 
teemed Bacchus. And as the term Ampelus did not prima- 
rily relate to the vine, but was a facred name transferred from 
the Deity, they had fome notion of this circumftance : but as 
It was their cuftom out of every title to form a new perlon- 
age, they have fuppofed Ampelus to have been a youth of 
great beauty, and one whom Bacchus particularly favoured. 
Hence Nonnus introduces the former begging of Selene not; 
to envy him this happinefs., 

^° Mr] (pdoi/£(rrjg, on Viaic^og bilyiv (piMrriTcc (pvXx(r<rsi». 
'Orn vso; yzvoary^ on koli (piXog sifxi Avaia. 

The worfliip of Ham was introduced by the Amonians in^. 

^'' Nonni Dionyfiaca. 1. xi. p. 306, 

'l^ N tt f'%gia^ 

274 '^^'^^ Analysis of Ancient MyTnoLocy.. 

Phrygia and Afia Minor : and in tliofe parts the Poet makes 
Ampelus chiefly converfant. 

^' H^ri ya.^ f^^vyirig vtto ^si^ol^i y.a^og a^v^ocv 

AfXTtBhog r^s^riTo vsor^B(psg s^yog s^wtwj'. 
He fpeaks of his bathing in the waters, and riling with 
frefh beauty from the ftream, Hke the morning ftar from the 



AfJLXsXo; ansKXooVy oltb (poo<T(po^og — 
Kocpicrsi <rso KoCkXog oKov liy.Krif^Xiov v^w^. 
In all thefe inRances there are alluflons to a hiftory, which 
will hereafter be fully difcuffed. Ovid feems to make Am- 
pelus a native of Thrace; and fuppofes him to have been the 
fon of a fatyr by one of the nymphs in that country: 
^' Ampelon intonfum, Satyro Nymphaque creatum, 

Fertur in Ifmariis Bacchus amafle jugis; 
But however they may have miftaken this perfonage, it is 
certain that in early times he was well known, and highly reve- 
renced. Hence wherever the Amonians fettled, the name of 
Ampelus will occur : and many places will be found to have 
been denominated from the worfhip of the Deity under this 
facred title. We learn from Stephanus Byzantinus^ '* tl)afy 

" Nonni Dion. 1. x. p. 278. 
'* Nonni Dion. 1. xi. p. 296. 
" Ovid. Faft. 1. 3. v. 409. 

AiA.iriXoi ^veyofxevn' sq-i xca Inpa ax^x. tj); Sajota* xa< aAA« ev Kvpm>r,' AypoiTxi 
Si S'\)o iroXiii (pwt, tuv fj^iv ai'ca, rm' S'e xcctoo' ff / tTg x.xi IraA^as ait^a, j^ Ai/jluv. 
Steph. Byzant. 

KoAe/TflM fAsy oiiv xai axfiot ris hfji.Tihoi. Strabo of Samos. 1. 14. p. 944. 

4 ,( according 

The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 275- 

according to Hecatceus in his Europa, Ampelus was the nmm 
of a city in Liguria. 'There was likewife a fro7no?itory in the 
diJlriB of Tor one called Ampelus: a like promontory in Samos: 
another in Cyrene, Agrcetas mentions two cities there^ an up- 
per^ and a lower ^ of that 7tame. There was likewife a har- 
bour in Italy fo called. We read of a city ^' AmpeloefTa in 
Syria, and a nation in Lybia called Ampeliot^e : A|ar£?a60Tat 
h e^vog Ai^vrii;, Suidas. Alfo Ampelona in Arabia : and a 
promontory Ampelufia near Tingis in Mauritania. In all thefe 
places, however diftant, the Amonians had made fettlements. 
Over againft the ifland Samos ftood the lacred promontory, 
Mycale in Ionia. This too was called Ampelus, according to 
Hefychius, as the paflage is happily altered by Albertus, and 
others. Ap^TsAo^, [LTr)(cuTi^ kcli, olh^ol MvKOihTii;^ r^yovv o^sg. 
From the words riyovv o^ag one might infer, that Ampelus 
was no uncommon name for a mountain in general ; fo far 
is certain that many fuch were fo denominated : which name 
could not relate to cc^TTsKogj the vine ; but they were fo 
called from the Deity, to whom they were ^^ facred. Many 
of thefe places were barren crags, and rocks of the fea, ill 
fuited to the cultivation of the "^^ vine. And not only emi- 

''Ampelufia called Koorrm axpov. Ptolemy. 1. 4. fo named according to 
StraboaTTo Kwrsw;', or Kwra/wr, not far from a city Zilis, and Cota. See Pliny. 
1. 5.C. I. 

Promontorium Ocean! extimum Ampelufia. Pliny. 1. 5. c.i. 

Ampelona. Pliny. 1. 6. c. 28. 
■ ^' Atto Afj-TTS/.a a.y.^Ti'i iin^^a.nn' axpnu. Herodotus. L 7. c. 123, 

Ajw.7reAo5 axca, in Crete. Pcolcmy. See Pliny. 1. 4. c. 12. 

^"^ In Samos was Afc^eAss ax^a* i<^i Se s;c evuyos. Scrabo. L 14, p. 944- 

N n 2 Some 

2/6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

nences were fo called, but the ftrand and fliores alfo for the 
fame reafon : becaufe here too were altars, and pillars to this 
God. Hence we read in Hefychius i A^Ttshoi; — OLiyioLhog — 
Kv^Yivctrng cLiyicO\og. By A7Jipelus is fignijied the fea Jhore\ 
or Am-pelus among the people of Cyrene Jig7tifies the fea 

From what has been faid, we may be afTured, that Am- 
pelus, and Omphalus, were the fame term originally ; how- 
ever varied afterwards, and differently appropriated. They are 
each a compound from Omphe ; and relate to the oracular 
Deity. Ampelus at Mycale in Ionia was confeffedly fo de- 
nominated from its being a facred ^* place, and abounding 
with waters, by which people, who drank them, were fup- 
pofed to be infpired. They are mentioned in an ancient 
oracle quoted by Eufebius^' : Ey d^ih^JL'^v yvaXoig MvKOLKrjG'iov 
EN0EON v^(£^. I have mentioned that all fountains were 
efteemed ficred ; but efpecially thofe which had any praeter- 
natural quality, and abounded with exhalations. It was an 
univerfal notion that , a divine energy proceeded from thefe 
effluvia ; and that the perfons, who refided in their vicinity, 
were gifted with a prophetic quality. Fountains of this na- 
ture from the divine influence, with which they were fup- 
pofed to abound, the Amonians ftiled Ain Omphe, five 

Some places were called more fimply Ampe. 
See Herodotus of Ampi in the Perfian Gulf. 1. 6. c. 20. 
AuTTii of Tzetzes. See Cellarius. 
y Mvx.a/\yK ^ca^iov lepm'. Herodotus. 1. I.e. 148. 
"Prjep. Evan. 1. 5. c. 16. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology.' 277 

fontes Oraculi. Thefe terms, which denoted the fountain 
of the prophetic God, the Greeks contracted to Ny^^j], 
a Nymph: and fuppofed fuch a perfon to be an inferior 
Goddefs, who prefided over waters. Hot fprings were 
imagined to be more immediately under the infpedion of the 
nymphs : whence Pindar ftiles fuch fountains '^° 0£^,aa Ny^^ai/ 
A8T^a. The temple of the Nympha; lonides in Arcadia 
flood clofe to a fountain of great *' efficacy. The term 
Nympha will be found always to have a reference to +* wa- 
ter. There was in the fame region of the Peloponnefus 
a place called Ny^^a?, Nymphas ; which was undoubtedly fo 

named from its hot fprings: *' Karapps/rai yoL^ v^olti . 

Ny|Ct(pa^ : for Nytnphas — abounded with waters. Another 


j'" Pindar. Olymp. Ode 12. 

Nu/Ji.(pxi sicri iv Tu (p^exrt. Artemidorus Oneirocrit. 1. 2. c. 23. 

aXynp.a.Tc>}v Trctv-rMv ioc;j.xTx- Paiifanias. 1. 6. p, 510. 

■** Kvf/,:iix.ct, and Aaroa, are put by Hefychiiis, as fynonomous. 

Omnibus aquisNymphse funt prsfidentes. Servius upon Virgil. Ecloo-. i. 

Thetis was ftiled Nympha, merely becaufe fhe was fuppofed to be water. 
Thetidem dici voluerunt aquam, unde et Nympha dida eft. Fulgentij My 
tholog. c. viii. p. 720. 

■♦' Paufanias. 1. 8. p. 670. 

Young women were by the later Greeks, and by the Romans, ftiled Nym- 
phas-, but improperly. Nympha vox, Gra:corum Nt;/x(pa, non fuit ab origine 
Virgin! five Puelte propria: fed folummodo partem corporis denotabat. 
^gypcijs, ficut omnia animalia, lapides, frutices, acque herbas, ita omne mem- 
brum atque omnia corporis human! loca, aliquo dei titulo mos fuit denotare. 
Hinc cor nuncupabant Ath, uterum Mathyr, vel Mether : et fontem fsmi- 
neum, ficut et alios fontes, nomine Aia Omphe, Greece ry/zipM, infignibant : quod 


2yS The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

name for thefe places was Ain-Ades, the fountain of Ades, 
or the Sun : which in like manner was changed to Na/aJW, 
Naiades, a fpecies of Deities of the fame clafs. Fountains of 
bitumen in Sufiana and Babylonia were called Ain-Aptha, 
the fountains of Aptha, the God of fire : which by the Greeks 
was rendered Naptha, a name given to ^"^ bitumen. As they 
changed Ain Omphe to Numpha, a Goddefs; they accord- 
ingly denominated the place itfelf ^UfXtpsiov, Nymphaum : 
and wherever a place occurs of that name, there will be 
found fomething particular in its circumftances. We are 
told by ^^ Pliny, that the river Tigris, being flopped in its 
courfebythe mountains of Taurus, lofes itfelf under ground, 
and rifes again on the other fide at Nymphaeum. According 
to Marcellinus it feems to be at Nymphaeum, that it finks 
into the earth. Be it as it may, this, he tells us, is the place 
where that fiery matter called naptha iffued : from whence.: 

lib iEgyptijs ad Graecos derivatum eft.— Hinc legimus, N^^/^if}) Tr^iyn, xai vio- 
•}-a.iJici yvvriy pvfjt.(},w Ss xccAnai xtA. Suidas. 
riap Afimxioii rj ra Aioi fxmvp^ Nuixpi. Ibidem. 

'** Naptha is called Apthas by Simplicius in Categoric. Ariftotelis. Kat o A<p- 
^ai^i^iTcci TToplu^iv Td TTv^oi iii oi. Thc famc by Gregory Nyflen is contrafted, and 
called after the Ionic manner <i'Ow : ua-n-e^ o xaAB/^ej'os'i'S/js i^aTrreTui. Liber de 
anima. On which account thefe writers are blamed by the learned Valcfius. They 
are however guilty of no miftake ; only ufe the word out of compofition. Ain- 
Aptha, contraded Naptha, was properly the fountain itfelf: the matter which 
proceeded from it was ftiled Apthas, Pthas, and Ptha. It was one of the titles of 
the God of fire, called Apha-Aftus, the Hephaftusof the Greeks; to whom this 
inflammable fubftance was facred. 

See Valefij notse in Amm. Marcellinum. 1. 23. p. 285. 
Epirus was denominated from the worfliip of fire; and one of its rivers was 
called the Aphas. 
• ♦' Pliiiy. 1. 31. p. 3i3. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 279 

undoubtedly the place had its name. '^^ Bitumen nafcitur 
prope lacum Sofingitem, cujus alveo Tigris voratus, fluenf- 
que fubterraneus, procurfis fpatiis longis, emergit. Hie et 
Naptha gignitur fpecie picea. In his pagis hiatus confpici- 
tur terrsE, unde halitus lethalis exfurgens, quodcunque animal 
prope confiftit, odore gravi confumit. There was an ifland 
of the like nature at the mouth of the river Indus, which 
was facred to the Sun, and ftiled Cubile *^ Nympharum : 
in qua nullum non animal abfumitur. In Athamania was 
a temple of the Nymphs, or ^^ Nymphasum ; and near it a 
fountain of fire, which confumed things brought near to it. 
Hard by Apollonia was an eruption of bituminous matter^ 
like that in Aflyria : and this too was named +' Nymphsum. 
The fame author (Strabo) mentions, that in Seleucia, ftiled 
Pieria, there was a like bituminous eruption, taken notice 
of by Pofidonius ; and that it was called Ampelitis : ^°Triy 
AfJLTTsKiTriV ytiv oL(r(p<xkv(^^r\, rriv bv l^sXsv/.sici rr, Uis^io. ^xstccX- 
7.svoy,B])Yiy . The hot ftreams, and poifonous efHuvia near Puteoli 
and lake Avernus are well known. It was efteemed a place 
of great fandlity ; and people of a prophetic charadler are faid 
to have here refided. Here was a ^' Nymphaum, fuppofed to 

■♦' Marcellinus. I. 23. p. 285. 

'»"' Pliny, 1. 6. p. 326. 

■♦* Strabo. 1. 7. p. 487. See Antigoni Caryfui Mirabilia, p. 163.'iSBa-a: UT ccvrviSi Kc-iivai pgao-; ^Aixoh AaipctArB. Strabo. 1. 7. p. 407; 

'• Strabo. Ibidem. 1. 7. p. 4S7. He fiippofes, that it was called Ampelitis from 
a.f/.irsXQi, the vine : becaufe its waters were good to kill vermin, Ax.05 irji q^^etpi- 
omm ctiJ.TriKii. A far fetched etymology. Neither Strabo, nor Pofidonius, whom 
he quotes, confiders that the term is of Syriac original. 

f Philoftrati vita Apollonii. 1. 8. c. 4. p. 416. 


28o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

have been an oracular temple. There was a method of di- 
vination at Rome, mentioned by '^ Dion Caflius, in which 
people formed their judgment of future events from the 
fleam of lighted frankincenfe. The terms of inquiry- 
were remarkable : for their curiofity was indulged in re- 
Ipedt to every future contingency, excepting death and 
marriage. The place of divination was here too called 
" Nvmphaeum. Paufanias takes notice of a cavern near 
Platea, which was facred to the Nymphs of Cithaeron : Tirs^ 

h TTj? fCO^VCpn^y B(p T) 70V ^Od^JLOV TrOlSVrOiiy TSVTS TTB fJLCthl'^OL 

KOLi ^sfiot VTTOKOLrot'oixvri fOL^iHt; NTMOQN es'^v an^ov Ki^ar 
^oopi^ct^v — MANTETE20AI cTs ra? NvfJLpcug ro ol^'^oliov olv 
ToSi S')(£i Xoyog, We find that the Nymphs of this place 
had been of old prophetic. Evagriusmentions a fplendid build- 
ing at Antioch called Nymphaeum, remarkable ^'^ Ncc^dTcaV' 
7rA8T6iJ> for the advantage of its waters. There was a Nym- 
pliaeum at Rome mentioned by Marcellinus. " Septemzo- 
dium celebrem locum, ubi Nymphaeum Marcus condidit Im- 
perator. Here were the Thermie Antonianas. As from Ain 
Ompha came Nympha; fo from Al Ompha was derived 
Lympha. This differed from Aqua, or common water, as 
being of a facred, and prophetic nature. The ancients 
thought, that all mad perfons were gifted with divination; and; 
they were in confequence of it filled Z^ymp/jaiL 

From what has preceded, we may perceive that there once; 

"■ Dion is Hiftoria Romana. Johannis Rofin : Antiq. 1. 3. c. 11.. 

"Pau&nias. I.9. p. 718.. 

'i4 Evagrius. 1. 3. c. 12. 

" Marcellinus. 1. 15- c 7. p. 6.8. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 281 

exifted a wonderful refemblance in the rites, cuftoms, and 
terms of worfhip, among nations widely feparated. Of this, 
as I proceed, many inftances will be continually produced. 
I have already mentioned, that this fimilitude in terms, and 
the religious fyftem, which was fb widely propagated, were 
owing to one great family, who fpread themfelves almoft 
univerfally. Their colonies went abroad under the fandtion 
and diredion of their priefts ; and carried with them both 
the rites and the records of their country. Celfus took no- 
tice of this ; and thought that people payed too little atten* 
tion to memorials of this nature. He mentions particularly 
the oracular temples at Dodona, at Delphi, at Claros, with 
thofe of the Branchidsi and Amonians : at the fame time 
paffing over many other places, from whofe priefts and vo- 
taries the whole earth feemed to have been peopled'*. Ta y^v 

AfJLiJLoovogy VTTo fxv^iCf^v Ts aXKm dsoTT^oTrm Tr^osi^rifJisvcij vp" oov 
STTisiKoog 7i:oL(rct yr\ KOLrmii^r]^ tolvtoc fjLSi^ ovhvi Koyui ri&svToci. 
As colonies went abroad under the influence, and direclion 
of their tutelary Deities ; thofe Deities were ftiled 'ilye[xovsgi 
and A^^yiysTai : and the colony was denominated from 
fome facred title of the God. A colony was planted at 
Miletus ; of which the condudling Deity was Diana. ^''Xs yaa 
TTQiYiTdJo NriKsvg 'H.ys(J.oi/r,v. This Goddefs is ftiled ttoAv- 
TTToAif, becaufe this office was particularly afcribed to her ; 

'' Celfiis apud Originem. 1. 7. p. 333. 
See alfo Plutarch, de Oraculorum defedln. 
'' Callimachus. Hymn to Diana, v, 226. 

Vol. I. O o 

282 The Analysis op Ancient MyTHOLOcr.. 

and {lie had many places under her patronage, Jupiter ac- 
cordingly tells her : 

^* T^ig haoL roi TrroXisd^x^ kcli sk svol yrv^yov OTrafrcw. 

Thrice ten fair cities fhall your portion be, 
And many a (lately tower. 

Apollo likewife was called OiKTigrig and A^^JiysTJ]?, fronj 
being the fuppofed founder of cities ; which were generally 
built in confequence of fome oracle. 

KTi^ofj^sPccig' avTog is dsfJLSiKici ^oi^og v(poLivBi, 

'Tis through Apollo's tutelary aid, 
That men go forth to regions far remote, 
And cities found : Apollo ever joys 
In founding cities. 

What colony, fays *° Cicero, did Greece ever fend into ^to- 
lia, Ionia, Afia, Sicily or Italy, without having firft confulted 
about every circumftance relative to it, either at Delphi, or 
Dodona, or at the oracle of Ammon. And Lucian fpeaks 
to the fame purpofe. *' Ovre ^roAsa? icKiipVi ah. rsi'^eoL. 

rs^is'ooiXXono tt^iv olh Jjj ^ra^a MctnBooy oLKHtroa img-ot. 

People "jDOiild not venture to build cities^ nor even ratfe the 
wallsy till they had made proper e?iquiry amo?ig thofe^ who were- 
prophetically gifted^ about the Juccefs of their operatio?ts. 

'' Callimachus. ibid, v, 33. 

" Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo, v. 56.. 
*" Cicero de natuia Deorum. 1. 1. 
•' Lucian, Aftrolog- v. i. p. gg^s 


( 283 ) 

P A T O R and P A T R A. 

I Cannot help thinking that the word ^raTJi^, pater, when 
ufed in the reHgious addrefTes of the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, meant not, as is fuppofed, a father, or parent; 
but related to the divine influence of the Deity, called by 
the people of the eaft, Pator, as I have ' fhewn» From hence 
I fhould infer, that two words, originally very diftindt, have 
been rendered one and the * fame. The word pater, in the 
common acceptation, might be applicable to Saturn ; for he 
was fuppofed to have been the father of all the Gods, and 
was therefore fo entitled by the ancient poet Sulpitius. 
' Jane pater, Jane tuens, Dive biceps, biformis, 
O, cate rerum fator, O, principium Deorum. 
But when it became a title, which was beftowed upon Gods 
of every denomination, it made Jupiter animadvert with fome 
warmth upon the impropriety, if we may credit Lucilius : 

' See in the former treatife, infcribed Ojnp; 

* Are not all the names, which relate to the different ftages of manhood, as 
well as to family cognation, taken from the titles of priefls, which were originally 
ufed in temples; fuch as Pater, Vir, Virgo, Puer, Mater, Matrona, Patronus, 
Frater, Soror, AJ'fAcpos Kaccs ? 

' Verfes from an ancient Choriambic poem, which are quoted by Terentianus 
Maurus de Metris. 

O O 2 Ut 

284 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

* Ut nemo fit noftrum, quin pater optlmus Divom eft : 
Ut Neptunus pater, Liber, Saturnus pater, Mars, 
Janus, Quirinus, pater, omnes dicamur ad unum. 
And not only the Gods, but the Hierophantae in moft tem- 
ples ; and thofe priefts in particular, who were occupied in the 
celebration of myfteries, were ftiled Patres : fo that it was un- 
doubtedly a religious term imported from Egypt, the fame 
as Pator, and Patora, before mentioned. I have taken notice, 
that the Paterae of Curtius were the priefts of Hamon : but 
that writer was unacquainted with the true meaning of the 
word ; as well as with the pronunciation, which feems to 
have been penultima produdla. The worfhip of Ham, or 
the Sun, as it was the moft ancient, fo it was the moft uni- 
verfal of any in the world. It was at firft the prevailing re- 
ligion of Greece ; and was propagated over all the fea coaft 
of Europe ; from whence it extended itfelf into the inland 
provinces. It was eftabliftied in Gaul and Britain ; and was 
the original religion of this iftand, which the Druids in after 
times adopted. That it went high in the north is evident 
from Aufonius, who takes notice of its exifting in his time. 
He had relations, who were priefts of this order and de- 
nomination: and who are on that account complimented by 
him in his ode to Attius Patera ^ Rhetor. 
Tu Boiocafns ftirpe Druidarum fatus, 
Si fama non fallat fidem, 

♦ Lucilii Fragmenta. 

» Ode of Aufonius to Attius Patera Rhetor in Profeflbrum Burdigalenfium 
commemoratlone. Ode 10. 


The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 285 

Beleni facratum ducis e templo genus, 

Et inde vobis nomina, 
Tibi Paterae: fie miniftros nuncupant 

Apollinares Myftici. 
Fratri, Patrique nomen a Phsebo datum, 
Natoque de Delphis tuo. 
He mentions, that this worfliip prevailed particularly in 
Armorica ; of which country his relations were natives, 
* Nee reticebo Senem, 
Nomine Phcebicium,. 
Qui Beleni uJEdituus, 
Stirpe fatus Druidum, 
Gentis Arraoricae^ 
Belin, the Deity, of whom he fpeaks, was the fame as ' Bel 
and Balen of Babylonia, and Canaan ; the Orus and Apollo 
of other nations. Herodian takes notice of his being wor- 
fhiped by the people of Aquileia ; and fays, that they called 
him Belin, and paid great reverence, efteeming him the 
fame as * Apollo. 

The true name of the Amonian priefls I have {hewn to 
have been Petor or Pator ; and the inftrument,. which they 
held in their hands, was ftiled Petaurum. They ufed to 
dance round a large fire in honour of the Sun, whole orbit 

* Aufonius. Ode 4. 

' He is called Balen by ^fchylus. Perfas. p. 156. BaAwr, ao-^atoi BaA«»'. 

* EsA/j' ii •A.a.Ayai r'drov' aiQaat Se V7re^(^-jcui^ AttoAAoovcc Sirxi SiAovrti, HerO' 
dian. 1. 8. of the Aquileians. 

Infcriptio vetus Aquileis re^crta. APOLLINI. BELENO. C. AQUI- 


,28^ The Analysis of Anci&nt MvTnoLOGV. 

they affected to deTcribe. At the fame time they exhibited 
other feats of adivity, to amufe the votaries, who reforted to 
their temples. This dance was fometimes performed in ar- 
mour, efpecially in Crete : and being called Pyrrhic was fup- 
pofed to have heen fo named from Pyrrhus, the fon of Achil- 
les. But when was he in Crete ? Befides it is faid to have been 
pradlifed by the Argonautic heroes before his time. It was 
a rengious dance, denominated from fire, with which it was 

' AiJL(pi, h ^oLiofjLevoig sv^v yp^^ sgyi^ranot 

It vvas originally an Egyptian dance in honour of Hermes ; 
and praclifed by the Patarae or Priefts. In fome places it 
was efleemed a martial exercife; and exhibited by perfbns in 
armour, who gave it the name of Betarmus. We have an 
inftance of it in the fame poet. 

'" AfJLV^ig Js vsoi O^(prjog amy/j 
XKOL'^^cnzg BriTct^^jLou suottXiov o^'^r\<TOLnOi 
Kat ITOLKBOL ^i(pss(T(nv VTrSKTVTrOV. 
Br;Ta^|U.o?, Betarmus, was a name given to the dance from 
the temple of the Deity, where it was probably firft pradifed. 
It is a compound of Bet Armes, or Armon, called more 
properly Hermes, and Hermon. Bet and Beth among the 
Amonians denoted a temple. There is reafon to think that 
the circular dances of the Dervifes all over the eaft are remains 

' Apollonius Rhodius. Argonautic. 1. 2. v. 703. 
" Apollonius Rhodius. 1. i. v. 11 35. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 287 

of thefe ancient cuftoms. In the firft ages this exercife was ef- 
teemed a religious rite, and performed by people of the tem- 
ple, where it was exhibited : but in aftertimes the fame feats 
were imitated by ropedancers, and vagrants, called Petau- 
riftas, and Petauriftarii ; who made ufe of a kind of pole, 
ftiled petaurum. Of thefe the Roman writers make frequent 
mention ; and their feats are alluded to by Juvenal : 
*' An magis obledlant animum jadata petauro 
Corpora, quique folent redum defcendere funem ? 
Manilius Hkewife gives an account of this people, and their 
adtivity ; wherein may be obferved fome remains of the ori- 
ginal inftitution : 

" Ad numeros etiam ille ciet cognata per artem 
Corpora, qux valido faliunt excufia petauro : 
MemhvaquQ per JJammas orbefque emilTa flagrantes, 
Delphinumquc fuo per inane imitantia motu, 
Et viduata volant pennis, et in aere ludunt. 
I have fhewn, that the Paterae, or Priefts, were fo denomi- 
nated from the Deity ftiled Pator ; whofe fhrines were named 
Patera, and Petora. They were oracular temples of the Sun j. 
which in aftertimes were called Petra^ and afcribed to other 
Gods. Many of them for the fake of mariners were eredled 
upon rocks, and eminences near the fea : hence the term 
wsr^cLj petra, came at length to fignify any rock or ftone,, 
and to be in a manner confined to that meaning. But in the 
firft ages it was ever taken in a religious fenfe ; and related to 
the fhrines of Ofiris, or the Sun, and to the oracles, which. 

" Juvenal. Sat. 14. v. 265. 
*• Manilius. 1. 5.. v. 434^ 

4. were; 

2 88 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

were fuppofcd to be there exhibited. Thus Olympus near 
Pifa, though no rock, but a huge mound, or hill ( '' Ils^i 
yoL^ Tov K^omv AOOON ayBTcci rat 0?vy/xT;a) was of old 
termed Petra, as relating to oracular influence. Hence Pin- 
dar fpeaking of lamus, who was fuppofed to have been con- 
duced by Apollo to Olympia, fays, i/jat they both came to 
the Petra EUbatos upon the lofty Cronian mount : there Apollo 
■bejlowed upon lamus a double portion of prophetic knowledge. 
'* 'ifcono J" v-^riXoio Ust^olv 

Ai^vixov MANT0 2TNA2. 
The word HAt^aro?, Elibatos, was a favourite term with 
Homer, and other poets ; and is uniformly joined with Petra. 
They do not feem to have known the purport of it ; yet they 
adhere to it religioufly, and introduce it wherever they have 
an opportunity. HAibaTO^ is an Amonian compound of Eli- 
Bat, and figniiies folis domus, vel '^ templum. It was the 
name of the temple, and fpecilied the Deity there worfhip- 
ed. In like manner the word Petra had in great meafure 
loft its meaning ; yet it is wonderful to obferve how induf- 

'' Phavorinus. 

H OAiipLTTitx. TT^uTop Koovtsi ?yc(pci iKi-yi-ro. Scholia in Lycophron. v. 42. 
^wTwo l-\ii'i(fii'Z,iv^ Kpoviou ri fcciiov /\o(piv. Pindar. Olymp. Ode 5. p. 43. 
** Pindar. Olympic Ode 6. p. 52. 

Apollo was the lame as lamus ; whofe priefts were the lamidx, the moft an- 
tient order in Greece. 

" It is a word of Amonian original, analogous to Eliza-bet, Bet-Armus, Bet- 
Tumus in India, Phainobeth in Egypt. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 289 

trioufly it is introduced by writers, when they fpeak of fa- 
cred and oracular places. Lycophron calls the temple at Elis 
Azv^ccv MoA^jJoj Tte^^cLV: and the Pytho at Delphi is by 
Pindar ftiled Petraefla : '^ Ettsj nsT^CK,£(r<Tcig e7^a,vvm her stc 
livmvog. Orchomenos was a place of great antiquity; and 
the natives are faid to have worfhiped Petra, which were 
fuppofed to have fallen from '^ heaven. At Athens in the 
Acropolis was a facred cavern, which was called Petra; Ma- 
crae, Petrae Cecropi^. 


1 have lliewn that people of old made ufe of caverns for 
places of worfhip : hence this at Athens had the name of 
Petra, or temple. " It is faid of Ceres, that, after fhe had wan- 
dered over the whole earth, fhe at lafl: repofed herfelf upon a 
ftone at Eleufis. They in like manner at Delphi fhewed 
the petra, upon which the Sibyl Herophile at her firft ar- 
rival fat "down. In fliort there is in the hiftory of every 
oracular temple fome legend about a ftone ; fome refe- 
rence to the word Petra. To clear this up it is neceflary 
to obferve, that, when the worfliip of the Sun was ahnoft uni- 
verfaljthis was one name of that Deity even amono- the Greeks. 

'* Lycophron. v. 159. here they facrificed T^mi Ofji.Qf,it^l 
" Pindar. Olymp. Ode 6. p. 51. 

'* Ta5 fj.iv ^n iriTocci aeC'dai re /j-cxAK^ajycct tm Ereox-Asi (pce.aii> avTcci TSaew ey. 
TB Paufanias, 1. 9. p. 786. 

'' Euripides in lone. v. 935. See Radicals, p. 67. Macsr. 
*° Clemens Alexand. Strom. 1. i. p. 358. 
■' Paufanias. 1. 10. p. 825. 

Vol. L P P They 

290 THJi Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

They called him Petor, and Pctros ; and his temple was 
fliled Petra. This they oftentimes changed to T^i^og ; fo lit- 
tle did they imderftand their own mythology. There were 
however fome writers, who mentioned it as the name of the 
Sun, and were not totally ignorant of its meaning. This 
we may learn from the Scholiafi: upon Pindar. -^ Us^i CB T8 

KvoL^oLyo^a yevoy.euov Ev^iZi^i]V i^v.^tirr^v ^ TLsr^ov si^yizsvoli rov 

Aiog 7:B(pvKU}';^ a^g 7^yii(n, TayraXog^ 
KQ.^v<pYig V7:2orBXkovrcL ^siy^apjCfji^ IIETPONj 
As^i Trorarcii, :icii rii/si ravrriV ^izir.v. 
The fame Scholiafi: quotes a fimilar paffagc from the fame 
writer, where the Sun is called Petra. 
*^ Mo?^oiyA ray ov^am furoLV 
X^oyog rs rsr oifjisvocy aiw^io/>ta(r< TrsT^oiv, 
AXvQ'su'i '^fjtrsoL^g (ps^o^svav. 
If then the name of the Sun, and of his temples, was among 
the ancient Grecians Petros, and Petra ; we may eafily account 
for that word fo often occurring in the accounts of his wor- 
{hip. The Scholia above will moreover lead us to difcover, 
whence the ftrange notion arofe about the famous Anaxagoras 
of Clazomenas ; who is faid to have propheiied, that a fione 
would fall from the Sun. All, that he had averred, may be 
feen in the relation of the Scholiafi: above : which amounts 

" Pindar. Olymp. Ode i. p. 8. 

-' Scholia in Findar. Olymp. Ode i. p. 8, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 291 

only to this, that Petros was a name of the Sun. It was a 
word of Egyptian original, derived from Petor, the fame as 
Ham, the liimus of the ancient Greeks. This Petros fome 
of his countrymen underflood in a different fenfe ; and gave 
out, that he had foretold a ftone would drop from the Sun. 
Some were idle enough to think that it was accompliilied : 
and in confequence of it pretended to Oiew at i^gofpotamos 
the very ^'flone, which was faid to have fallen. The like ftory 
was told of a ftone at Abydus upon the Hellefpont : and 
AnaxacToras was here too fuppofed to have been the prophet *^ 
In Abydi gymnaiio ex ea caufa colitur hodieque modicus 
quidem (lapis), fed quem in medio terrarum cafurum Anaxa- 
goras praedixifle narratur. The temples, or Petra here men- 
tioned, were Omphalian, or Oracular : hence they v/ere by a 
common miftakc fuppofed to have been in the center of the 
habitable globe. They were alfo HKi^aroi IlsT^c:i : which 
Elibatos the Greeks derived from ^aim defcendo ; and on this 
account the Petra were thought to have fallen from the 
*^ Sun. We may by this clue unravel the myflerious ftory 
of Tantalus ; and account for the puniQiment, which he was 
doomed to undergo. 

-* Ko^w y bKsv 

Atolv vTrs^oTrXovj 

** Diogenes Laertius : Vita Anaxagorse. 

"' Pliny. 1. 2. c. 58. p. 102. 

*■■ HAiCaroi' TreTcay they conftrued kAjV a"^ riAm ^xtyofJi-n'oV. 

*' Pindar. Olympic. Ode i. p. 8. 

Pp2 Tav 

292 liiE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Toy aei fxsvoiym ks^olKoli; ^x7\si» 

The unhappy Tantalus 
From a fatiety of hmffoaaiR i>-£^ 
Underwent a cruel reverfe. 
He was doom'd to fit under a huge flonej 
Which the father of the Gods 
Kept over his head fufpended. 
Thus he fat 
In continual dread of its downfal, 
And lofl: to every comfort. 
It is faid of Tantalus by fome, that he was fet up to his. 
chin in water, with every kind of fruit within reach : yet 
hungry as he was and thirfty, he could never attain to what 
he wanted ; every thing, Vv^hich he caught at, eluding his ef- 
forts. But from the account given above by *^ Pindar, as 
well as by ^° Alcccus, Alcman, and other writers, his punifh- 
inent coniifted in having a ftone hanging over his head ; 
which kept him in perpetual fear. What is fliled ?^/^o?, was- 
I make no doubt originally Petros ; which has been mifin- 
terpreted a ftcne. Tantalus is termed by Euripides a/ioAa^o^ 
Tr\v yAwcro-av, a man of an ungovernable tongue : and his hif- 
tory at bottom relates to a perfon, who revealed the myfte- 
ries, in v/hich he had been 3' initiated. The Scholiafc upon; 

*' lev vTiP xiqxx.Xa.i TavraXs xSov. Pindar. Ifthm. Ode 8. p. 482. 
'° AAJcafcf, xcci AAn/xxy At^ov fcctriv STra.icacuSnx.1 TarraAw. Scholia upon 
Pindar. Olymp. Ode i. p. 3. 

Ihvi Myit TO To^fvy.a, Kcct cryict fJLdv^ccve aiyvu Antholog. 

5 Lycophron 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 293 

Lycophron defcribes him in this light ; and mentions him as 
a prieftj who out of good nature divulged fome fecrets of 
his cloifter ; and was upon that account ejedied from the fo- 

ciety^'. 'O TcuiTaXog sv(rs^rig aon Cso<r£7rTc-j^ y^v 'Is^bvc, kcli tp*- 
7\cii'd^(fj7:ici ret rm ^sojv ^v?moL roig ct^VTiToiq v^s^ou ziiru^Vi 
s^b^Xti^yi T8 h^a KCLroCKoyH. The myfteries, which he re- 
vealed, were thofe of Ofiris, the Sun : the Petor, and Petora^ 
of Egypt. He never afterwards could behold the Sun in its 
meridian, but it put him in mind of his crime : and he was 
afraid that the vengeance of the God v/ould overwhelm him. 


This Deity, the Petor, and Petora of the Amonians, being 
by the later Greeks expreffed Petros, and Petra, gave rife to 
the fable above about the flone of Tantalus. To this folu- 
tion the fame Scholiaft upon Pindar bears witnefs, by inform?- 
ingus, ^^ that the Sun was of old called a ftone : and that fome 
writei-s underftood the ilory of Tantalus in this light ; inti- 
mating that it was the Sun, which hung over his head to 
his perpetual terror. ^* ^Vioi olkhuti, lov Xi^ov siri ra r,Xtii 

KOLi BTTYiCO^Bl^OLl C(.VT3 (Tai/TaAa) TOV TiXlOV) V(p W CBi^JLCi' 

Td^oLiy KOLi KCiroL7:Tfi(T(Tziv . And again, Ils^i Js Ts riKis oi cpv^ 
(TiKoi ?\S'yii(nVy (£g XiOo.g (it fnould be ttzt^ol) KaKsiroLi iXiog,- 
Some under ft and y what is f aid in the hijlory about the Jlone^ as 
relating to the Sun : and they fuppofe that it was the Su?7, 
which hung over his head to his terror and confufwn. The na- 
turalijls fpeahng of the Sun often call him a fto^ie^ or petra,. 

'^ Scholia upon Lycophron. v. 152. 

'' Scholia upon Pindar. Olymp. Ods i. p, 8.* 

'"* Pindar. Scholia. Ibidem. 


294- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

By laying all thefe circumftances together, and comparing 
them, we may, I think, not only find out wherein the mif- 
take confifled ; but likewife explain the grounds, from whence 
the miftake arofc. And this clue may lead us to the detec- 
tion of other fallacies, and thofe of greater confequence. We 
may hence learn the reafon, why fo many Deities were filled 
TLsT^ciiQij Pctrffii. We read of '^ Mi^^a^, o ^soj sk TfST^otg^ 
Mithras^ the Deity out of the rock ; whofe temple of old was 
really a rock or cavern. The fame worfhip feems to have 
prevailed in fome degree in the weft ; as we may judge from 
an ancient infcription at Milan, which was dedicated ^* Her- 
culi in Petra. But all Deities were not (o worfhiped : and 
the v^cry name Petra was no other than the facred term Pe- 
tora, given to a cavern, as being efieemed in the firft ages an 
oracular temple. And fome reverence to places of this fort 
was kept up a long time. We may from hence underfland the 
reafon of the prohibition given to fome of the early profelytes to 
Chrifdanity, that they fliould no more '"' ad petras vota red- 
dere : and by the fame light we maypoffibly explain that paffage- 
in Homer, where he fpeaks of perfons entering into compadts 
under oaks, and rocks, as places of ^^ fecurity. The oak was 

'' Juftin. Martyr ad Tryphonem. p. i68. The rites of Mithras were ftiled Pa- 

'* Gruter. Infcript. p. xlix. n. ^. 

*■' IndicLilus Paganiarum in Confilio Leptinenfi ad ann. Chrifti 74J. 

See du Frefnc Glofs. and Hoffman. Petra. 

Nullus Chriftianus ad fana, vel ad Petras vota reddere prasfumat. 

T.j oa'"(^fy.?j'a<, are Tra^Gscor, Jji'OeoSTfj 

HxpSiyo;, >;/9?3? Toa.oiC.iTQv «>\.Kn>^oi(Tiv. Homer. Iliad. ;>j^. v. 126. 
Ai9jM.3Ta<, Sv/^))y'j^3tj iTTi ra Ai9i ojj.vwTei. Hefychius. 



r^yt'/N/i/t- (1/ i^Jitlu'as Fetj'ajua; (-// //^<' f Ut>////A 

>ni/t- ('f 

>/uu,u //, 

' •/ 

^'i/ilUl . t/Vi-V/, . ','/,'/•,-//, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 295 

facred to Zeus, and called Sar-On : and Pctra in its original 
fenfe being a temple, muft be looked upon as an afylum. But 
this term was not confined to a rock or cavern : every ora- 
cular temple vi^as ftiled Petra, and Petora. Hence it pro- 
ceeded that fo many Gods were called ©jOi UsT^ctLOi^ and 
Uar^Cfioi. Pindar fpeaks of Pofcidon Petraios; ^9 JJcn Hou-Si- 
^capog Usr^ctrs : under which title Neptune was worfhiped 
by the ThefHilians : but the latter was the more common 
title. We meet in Paufanias with Apollo Patroiis, and with 
^° T.m MziKix^og, and A^Ts^a/? YIoLr^m ; alfo ^' Bacchus 
Uccr^wogj Zeus Patroiis, and Vefta Patroa, together with, 
other inftances. 

The Greeks, Vv'henever they met with this term, even in 
regions the moit remote, always gave it an interpretation ac- 
cording to their own preconceptions; and explained dsot 
riaT^wo/, the oracular Deities, by Dii Patrii, or the Gods of 

»' Pindar. Pyth. Ode 4. p. 248. 

T]iTca.i:.i Ti[j.a.Tai Vioaii^'oiv Tcc^a. ©eTTaXoi?' Scholia ibidem. 

••* Zeus was reprefemed by a pyramid : Artemis by a pillar. FJupcCiUiS'i Je-o 
Mii^^-^io':^}] cTg Kni'teq-ii' ii^°t-'^y-i'''»- Paufan, 1. 2. p. 132. 

■♦' Paufanias. 1. i. p 104, 

According to the acceptation, in which lunderftand the term, we may account 
for fo many places in the eaft being (tiled Petra. Pcrfis, and India, did not abound 
with rocks more than Europe : yet in thefe parts, as well as in the neighbouring 
regions, there is continually mention made of Petra: fuch as HcTcex. XitnyJlou 
in Sogdiana, Petra Aornon in India, ^w rn O^h (F/gTrat), ot c/g Aact/zaCy,- 
Strabo. 1. 11. p. 787. Petra Abatos in Egypt: Uijpx NaSctraicc in Arabia.. 
Many places called Petra occur in the hiftory of Alexander •.'HAuv S-i xaillsTrcc; 
(o-jysai apoS'pa. i->t ir^'j^'^ai-ai. Strabo. 1. i 1. p. 787. They were in^ reality facredi 
eminences, where of old they worlhiped ; which in aftertimes were fortified. 
Every place ftiled Arx and Ay-poiroXn was originally of the fame nature. The 
fame is to be obfervcd of thcfc ftiled Purgoi. 


3296 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the country. Thus In the Palmyrene Infcription two Syrian 
Deities are charaderized by this title. 

*'A r A I B £2 A 12 KAI MAAAXBHA^ 
Cyrus in his expedition againft the Medes is reprefented as 
making vovvs*^ 'E^io, lioLX^wa,^ koli Au Uolt^'^Wj Kctiroig aA- 
Aoi? @eoig. But the Perfians, from whom this hiflory is pre- 
fumed to be borrowed, could not mean by thefe terms Dii 
Patrii : for nothing could be more unneceffary than to fay 
of a Perlic prince, that the homage, which he payed, was to 
Perfic Deities. It is a thing of courfe, and to be taken for 
granted ; unlefs there be particular evidence to the contrary. 
His vows were made to Mithras, v/ho was fliled by the na- 
tions in the eaft Pator ; his temples were Patra, and Petra, 
and his feftivals Patrica. Nonnus gives a proper account of 
the Petra, v/hen he reprefents it as Omphean, or oracular : 

EiCSTi viriTtioc^oio y(o^iig l^^vTaTo Baxp/8. 
At Patara in Lycia was an oracular temple : and Patrae in 
Achaia had its name from divination, for which it was fa- 
mous. Paufanlas mentions the temple, and adds, '^^' Tl^o Jg th 

'l£^8 Tcg ArjfJLrir^og zgi irY^yTi (jlolpts^ov os bwolv^ol eg-iP 

av^zvosg. Bejo?'e the iefnple is the fount ai?! of Demeter — and 
in the temple an oracle.^ which never is k?iO'von tofaiL 

•♦' Gruter. Infcript. Ixxxvi. n. 8. 
*'Xenophon. KvpH7ra.tSs;c(, 
*^ Nonnus. Dionyfiac. 1. ix. p. 266. 
♦' Paufanias. )< 7. p. ^j^. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mvthology. 297 

The offerings, which people in ancient times ufed to pre- 
fent to the Gods, were generally purchafed at the entrance of 
the temple; efpecially every fpecies of confecrated bread, 
which was denominated accordingly. If it was an oracular 
temple of Alphi, the loaves and cakes were ftiled '»■* Alphita. 
If it was expreiTed Ampi, or Ompi ; the cakes were Ompai*'', 
0|a9ra< : at the temple of Adorns *', Adorea. Thofe made in 
honour of Ham-orus had the name of •^^ Homoura, Amora, 
and Omoritas. Thofe facred to Peon, the God of licrht, 
were called ^° Piones. At Cha-on, which lignilies the houfe 
of the Sun, 5' Cauones, Xa^w^s;. From Pur-Ham, and Pur- 
Amon, they were denominated Puramoun, ^^ liv^oL^av, From 


^^ AA$ITON, TO a.7ro vexi jf^<G»?, « o-itb 7reipuojj.ii'Qv nKsvcov. Hefychius. 

AA(f<Ta fj.iXtTi xat sAo-iiJ Si^suu.eycc- Hefych. 

^'' OMnAI, GufxocTx, ytcti TTvpi fxsKtri J'ei'eufx.evoi. Hefychius. 

OMniA, Tcci'ToI'a.Tra T^coya'Aix. Ibidem. 

If it was exprefled Amphi, the cakes were Amphitora, Amphimantora, Ani- 
phimafta : which feem to have been all nearly of the fame compofuion. 

AM<I>A2;MA, ■\'a.oivoj -noneAaiM QtQpiyiJ.iyct. Ibidem. 

*^ Fine flour had the facred name of Ador, from Adorns the God of day, an 
Amonian name. 

"♦' 'OMOTPA, crSfji.iS'aAi; I^Gij, yw.£A( £;^so-cj, ycxi crmc(.fj(.jv. Hefych. 

AMOPA, anfJi.iia.Xis I(p6)7 aw fLiXni. Ibidem. 

'OMOPITA2, a^To? iit TTUoou S'lrpnpMvou yeyovu^. Ibid. 

Alfo AfJiopSnact, Amorbits. See AthenjEus. 1. 14. p. 646. 

"TIIOISES, 7rAa5tBCTg5. Hefychius. 

Pi-On was the Amonian name of the Sun : as was alfo Pi Or, and Pe-Or, 

*' XATQNAS, cc^TBi eXaiCfj aracpv^ocfjivTw; x.j.Jjtyci. Suidas. 

''' The latter Greeks exprefled Puramoun, Purameus. 

riTPAMOTS, a cake. Hi- Flu^ ttol^x roig TrccXctr^n iinvr.uoi. Artemi- 
dorus. 1. i. c. 74. Kcct S'lxypuTrPnacti fj.ix^' '^'"' ^« sXa.iJ.^xvi tov TrupocfjL^vTcc. 
Schoi. Ariftoph. 'iTTTrea, 

Vol. L 0.9 See 

298 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ob-Elj Pytho Deus, came " Obelia. If the place were a 
Petra or Petora, they had offerings of the fame fort called 
Petora, by the Greeks expreffed ^""Hitv^ct, Pitura. One of the 
titles of the Sun was El-Aphas, Sol Deus ignis. This El- 
aphas the Greeks rendered Elaphos, BKct(pog-j and fuppofed it 
to relate to a deer : and the title El-Apha-Baal, given by 
the Amonians to the chief Deity, was changed to gXatpj^boAo?, 
a term of a quite different purport. El-aphas, and El-apha- 
baal, related to the God Ofiris, the Deity of light : and there 
were facred liba made at his temple, fimilar to thofe above ; 
and denominated from hiiji EAccipot, Elaphoi. In Athensus 
we have an account of their compofition, which confifted 
of fine meal, and a mixture of fefamum and honey. " EAa- 
<pog irT^KHQ ^iOL g-QiiTog kcli ^bKito; kcu o'YjU'a.iJ.ii. 

One fpecies of facred bread, which ufed to be offered to 
the Gods, was of great antiquity, and called Boun. The 
Greeks, who changed the Nu final into a Sigma, ex- 
preffed it in the nominative ^ag-^ but in the accufative more 
truly boun, oaj/. Hefychius fpeaks of the Boun, and de- 
fcribes it, si^og 7rsy.[JL0LrQg ae^arcL sy^ovTog ; a kind of cake with 
a reprefeniation of two horns. Julius Pollux mentions it af- 
ter the fame manner: ^a:/) z\.l(ig ^rs/x/xaro^ ^ie^ara s-^onog't 
a fort of cake with horns. Diogenes Laertius, fpeaking of 

See Meurfiias on Lycophron. v. c^<)i. and Hefych. nv^ccfjfBi, fi^&s TrAar- 


" OBEAIAI, placenta. Athenasus. 1. 14. p. 645. 

'* Nvv ^uaco T« filTTPA. Theocritus. Idyl. 2. v. S3' 

'/ AtheniEus. I. 14. p. 646. 

4 . the 

The Analysts of Ancient Mythology. 299 

the fame offering being made by Empedocles, defcribes the 
chief ingredients, of which it was compofed ; ^* Bhp euv(rs 
. — BK [JLsKiTog KOLi oXcpiTm. He offered up one of the facred 
liba^ called a botm^ 'which was made of fine flour and honey » 
It is faid of Cecrops, ^^ T:^m(iC, ^'dv s^voS: He firfl offered 
up this fort offweet bread. Hence we may judge of the 
antiquity of the cuftom from the times, to which Cecrops 
is referred. The prophet Jeremiah takes notice of this 
kind of offering, when he is fpeaking of the Jewifh wo- 
men at Pathros in Egypt, and of their bafe idolatry ; in 
all which their hufbands had encouraged them. The wo- 
men in their expcftulation upon his rebuke tell him : Sinc& 
we left off to burn incenfe to the ^uee?z of heaven^ and to 
pour out drink-offerings unto her, we have wanted all things : 
and have been co?jfu?ned by thefword and by the famine. And 
vjhen we burnt incejfe to the ^ueen of heaven ^ and poured 
out drink- off eriftgs imto her^ did we make her cakes to wor- 
fljip her^ a?id pour out drink-offerings u?tto her without our 
^* men f The prophet in another takes notice of the 
fame idolatry. -'' The children gather wood^ and the fathers 
kindle the fre^ ajid the women knead their doughy to make 

'' Diogenes Laertius : Vita Empedoclis. 1. 8. 

" Some read e6a'j^.a.(7f. Cedrenus. p. 82. Some have thought, that by €'sf was 
meant an Ox : but Paufanias fays, that thefe offerings were TniJ.fJATx : and more- 
over tells lis ; rj-jrcidoL iyn -l-v^m'-, rouraiv fjisv n^ii}<r(v a/er Sru<jixi. Cecrops facrificed 
nothing., that had life. Paufan. 1. 8. p. 600. 

'^ Jeremiah, c. 44. v. 18, 19. 

"Jeremiahi c 7. v. 18. 

Q_q 2 cakes 

300 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

calies to the '^ee7t of heaven. The word in thefe indances 
for facred cakes is CD^ra, Cunim. The Seventy tranflate it by 
a word of the fame purport, Xa'ja'^a^, Chauonas ; of which I 
have before taken notice : ^° M>] ayBV rm olv^^(/}v Ti^u^v s^oiri- 
(Tct^si/ avTYi XoLvwpocg. ktK. 

I have mentioned, that they were fometimes called Petora, 
and by the Greeks Pitura. This probably was the name of 
thofe liba, or cakes, which the young virgins of Babylonia, 
and Perfis, ufcd to offer at the fhrine of their God, when they 
were to be firft proflituted : for all before marriage were 
obliged to yield themfelves up to fome ftranger to be de- 
flowered. It was the cuftom for all the young women, when 
they arrived towards maturity, to fit in the avenue of the 
temple with a girdle, or rope, round their middle; and what- 
ever paflenger laid hold of it was entitled to lead them away. 
This pradice is taken notice of, as fubfifling among the Ba- 
bylonians, in the epiftle afcribed to the prophet Jeremiah ; 
which he is fuppofed to have written to Baruch. v. 43. 
Aios yvvcciKsg Trs^iSs^JLefai (ryyivioL su rang o^oig synoL^riVTOLi 
^ypwcr^f Ta niTTPA* otolv k Tig oLvrm cK^s.Ky.vhio'cL vi^o 
vvog rm 7ro(.^ci7ro^Bvo[j,syoi)p zoi^^-rj^riy Tr,v 7rXri(nov oi/si^ii^si^ on 
UK Yi^imcti, l^<T7:b^ cf.vrt), ovrs to c^oiviov ocoTtig ^is^payr,. 
This is a tranflation from an Hebrew, or Chaldaic, oriainal ; 
and, I fliould think, not quite accurate. What is here ren- 
dered yvmiUBg^ fhould, I imagine, be 'KCi.^()evOi : and the pur- 

*° Jeremiah, c. 51. v. 19. according to the Seventy. 

So aho c. 7. V. 18. X«'jAr«5 tv i^^ccrta. 78 Gvcoivii. Chau-On, domiis vel tem- 
^rurrx Soli?. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 301 

port will be nearly this. The virgins of Babylonia put gir- 
dles about their waijl ; a7td in this habit Jit by the way-fide^ 
holding their Pitura or f acred offerings over an urn of incenfe : 
and when any one of them is taken notice of by a Jlranrer^ and 
led away by her girdle to a place of privacy, upon her return pe 
upbraids her next neighbour for not being thought worthy of the 
like honour ; and for having her zone not yet broken^ or ^Hoofed. 
It was likewile a Perfian cuftom : and feems to have been 
univerfally kept up, wherev^er their religion prevailed. Strabo 
gives a particular account of this pradice, as it was obferved 
in the temple of Anait in Armenia. This was a Perfian 
Deity, who had many places of worfhip in that part of the 
world. Not only the 7nen and maid ferv ants, fays the author, 
are in this manner profit uted at the fjrine of the Goddefs, for 
in this there would be nothing extraordi?jary : '^ AKKa x,on 
Ovyoirs^^g 01 sirK^'XVBg-oLToi t3 e^vag oLVis^'dTi 'n-cc^&BPsg, dig vo^og 
£g-h za,TOi7ro^isv^ei<Ta,ig ttoAvv "^^omv Tra^ct rri ©blc ijlstol ravTx 
^B^Q(T^oLi TT^og yoLy.op' QVK QLTtoL^i'svrog TYj ToioLVTY} (TVi/oi/.siv ovhvogi- 
But people of the frft fajlmn in the nation ufe to devote their 
own daughters in the fa?72e ma?i?ier ; it bei^ig a religious injii- 
tution, that all young virgijts fhall in honour of the Deity be 
pro/litizted, aftd detained for fome ti^ne in her te?nple : after 

*' Herodotus mentions this cufton^, and ftiles it juftly ai^'i~os rw vofjiw. He 
fays, that it was prailifed at the temple of the Babylonifh Deity Melitta. 1, i. 
c. 199. 

'^ Strabo, 1. 11. p. S05, Anais or Anai'c called Tanais in this paffage : they are 
the fame n..rne. 

The fims account given of the Lydian women by Herodotus: Trogvc'juv yap 
axxnx-.' 1. 3; c. 93 : all univerfally were devoted to v.horedom.. 


^02 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

which they are permitted to be giv^en in marriage. Nor Is any 
body at alt fcnifulous about cohabiting with a yotmo- woman 
afterwards^ though pe has been in this manner abufed. 

The Patrica were not only rites of Mithras, but alfo of Oil- 
ris ; who was in reality the fame Deity. We have a curious 
infcription to this purpofe, and a reprefentation, which was 
iirft exhibited by the learned John Price in his obfervations 
upon Apuleius. It is copied from an original, which he faw 
at Venice : and there is an engraving from it in the Edition 
of Herodotus by '^ Gronovius, as well as in that by ^•^ Weffel- 
inge : but about the purport of it they are ftrangely mif- 
taken. They fuppofe it to relate to a daughter of Myceri- 
nus, the fon of Cheops. She died, it fcems : and her father 
was fo affeded with her death, that he made a bull of wood, 
which he gilt; and in it interred his daughter. Herodotus 
fays, that he faw the bull of Mycerinus ; and that it alluded 
to this hiftory. But notwithftanding the authority of this 
great author, we may be affured, that it was an emblema- 
tical reprefentation, and an image of the facred Bull Apis 
and Mneuis. And in refpedl to the fculpture above men- 
tioned, and the charaders therein expreffed, the whole is a 
religious ceremony, and relates to an event oi great antiquity, 
which was commemorated in the rites of Ofiris* Of this I 
fliall treat hereafter: at prefent it is fufficient to obferve, that 
the facred procefs is carried on before a temple ; on which is a 
Greek infcription, but in the provincial charaders ; EyJby 

' Herodotus, I. 2. c. 129. p. 138. 
* Herod. 1. 2. c. 1 29. p. 1 66. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 303 

IJxr^iKriv 'Eo^Triv C^b^oc, How can 'Eo^rri Uar^iKri relate to a 
funeral ? It denotes a fcftival in honour of the Sun, who 
was ftiled, as I have (hewn, Pator ; and his temple v/as 
called Patra : from whence thefe rites were denominated Pa- 
trica. Plutarch alludes to this Egyptian ceremony, and fup- 
pofes it to relate to Ifis, and to her mourning for the lofs of 
her fon. Speaking of the month Athyr he mentions ^' Bai/ 

Jia^^DCrOV l^OLTiU) ^ShOL'Jl ^VfTfTlVijC TTS^loOLAonS^ STTi TTSl^&Bt TTj; 

&sii hiKW^Q-iv (0/ AiyvTtriQi) . The Egyptians have a cujlom in 
the f7ionth Athyr of ornamenti?tg a golden image of a bull ; ivhich 
they cover with a black robe of the fneji linen. This they do in 
coftifnemoration of Jfis^ a?td her grief for the lofs of Orus. In 
every figure, as they are reprefented in the fculpture, there 
appears deep filence, and reverential awe : but nothing, that 
betrays any forrow in the agents. They may commemorate 
the grief of Ifis ; but they certainly do not allude to any mif- 
fortune of their own : nor is there any thing the leaft funereal 
in the procefs. The Egyptians of all nations were the mofl: 
extravagant in their " grief If any died in a family of con- 
fequence, the women ufed by way of (hewing their concern 
to foil their heads with the mud of the river; and to disfi- 
gure their faces with filth. In this manner they would run 
up and down the ftreets half naked, whipping themfelves, 
as they ran : and the men likewife whipped themfelves. They 
cut off their hair upon the death of a dog ; and ihaved their 
eyebrows for a dead cat. We may therefore judge, that 

'^ Plutarch. Ins et Ofiris. p. 366. 
'•' Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 85, 86., 


304 The Analysis of Ancient Mytiiologv. 

fome very ftrong fy mptoms of grief would have been ex- 
preffed, had this picture any way related to the fepulture of a 
kino-'s dauo;hter. Herodotus had his account from different 
people: one half he conkfledly "^^ difbelieved ; and the remain- 
der was equally incredible. For no king of Egvpt, if he had 
made a reprefentation of the facred ^^ bull, durft have profti- 
tuted it for a tomb ; and, as I have before faid, Eo^n) Ha- 
T^iKY] can never relate to a funeral. 

*' TavTcc cT)) XiyBai (pXuticeovrsi. Herod. 1. 2. c, 131. 

*® The ftar between the horns fhews that it was a reprefentation of the Deity, 
and the v/hole a religious memorial. 

ij(< jijj 

A N 

( 305 ) 

A N 


O F T H E 


To lliew that they were all originally one God, 

the Sun. 

AS I fhall have a great deal to fay concerning the Gre- 
cian Theology in the courfe of this work, it will be 
neceflary to take fome previous notice of their Gods ; 
both in refped to their original, and to their purport. Many 
learned men have been at infinite pains to clafs the particu- 
lar Deities of different countries, and to point out which 
were the fame. But they would have faved themfelves 
much labour, if, before they had bewildered themfelves 
in thefe fruitlefs enquiries, they had confidered, whether 
all the Deities, of which they treat, were not originally 
the fame : all from one fource ; branched out and diverfified 
Vol. I. R r in 

3o6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

in different parts of the world. I have mentioned, that the 
nations of the eaft acknowledged originally but one Deity, 
the Sun : but when they came to give the titles of Orus, 
Ofiris, and Cham, to fonie of the heads of their family ; they 
too in time were looked up to as Gods, and feverally wor- 
fliiped as the Sun. This was praclifed by the Egyptians: 
but this nation being much addicted to refinement in their 
worfhip, made many fubtile diftindlions : and^ fuppofing that 
there were certain emanations of divinity, they affeded to 
particularize each by fome title ; and to worfhip the Deity 
by his attributes. This gave rife to a multiplicity of 
Gods: for the more curious they were in their difqui^- 
tions, the greater was the number of thefe fubftitutes. 
Many of them at firft were defigned for mere titles : others^ 
as I before mentioned, were ccTTO^poiai^ derivatives, and ema- 
nations : all which in time were efteemed diftind beings, 
and gave rife to a moft inconiiftent fyflem of Polytheifm. 
The Grecians, who received their religion from Egypt and 
the eaft, mifconftrued every thing which was imported ; 
and added to thefe abfurdities largely. They adopted Dei- 
ties, to whofe pretended attributes they were totally ftrang- 
ers ; whofe names they could not articulate, or fpell. They 
did not know how to arrange the elements, of which the 
words were compofed. Hence it was, that Solon the Wife 
could not efcape the bitter, but juft, cenfure of the prieft in 
Egypt, who accufed both him, and the Grecians in general, 
ofthegrofTeft puerility and ignorance. ' £2 2oAa)j/, SoAw;',. 

* Cyril, contra Julian, p. 15. It is related fomewhat differently in the Ti- 


The Analysis of Ancient .Mythology. 307 

*EXh^vEg BTS TTcci^eg ctsi, ye^m h 'EKMv mc sg-h pboi ts "vj/y- 
'^xg a,7rc(,vT£g' ov^sfJLiocv ya^ su savToig ey^sTs 'Kd'koLioLV ^o^ctv, 
ovh [JLCi%[jLa, ')(^§ov(xi TToKiop ovkv. The truth of this alle- 
gation may be proved both from the uncertainty, and incon- 
Hftency of the ancients in the accounts of their Deities. Of 
this uncertainty Herodotus takes notice. ^ EvdeiJ^s sysvsTO 
sKOL^-og Toov dsuJVi SITS J" asi Yi<TOLV Tvansg, okoioi Jg rivsg tol 
sihuy iiic YiTng-saTo [J^s'^^i ov Trains koli ')(^^sg, wg sittsiv Xoyu^, 
He attributes to Homer, and to Hefiod, the various names 
and diftindions of the Gods, and that endlefs polytheifm, 
which prevailed. ^ 'Ovroi Js siTh oi 7roin<TOLnsg ^soyovioLV 'EA- 

Aj^CT;, KOLl TOKTl @SOl<Tl TOLg STrOJVVfJLlCtg ^Onsgj KOLl TllJLCtg rS KOLl 

rs'^va.g S^isKonsg, koli sihoL oLvrm (rni^trimnsg. This blindnefs 
in regard to their own theology, and to that of the countries, 
from whence they borrowed, led them to mifapply the terms, 
which they had received, and to make a God out of every title. 
But however they may have feparated, and diftinguiflied them 
under different pcrfonages, they are all plainly refolvable into 
one Deity, the Sun. The fame is to be obferved in the Gods 
of the Romans. This may in great meafure be proved from 
the current accounts of their own writers ; if we attend a 

mseus of Plato, vol. 3. p. 22. See alfo Clemens Alexandr. Strom. 1. i. 


* L. 2. c. 53. The evidence of Herodotus mvifl: be efleemed early; and his 
judgment valid. What can afford us a more fad account of the doubt and dark- 
nefs, in which mankind was inveloped, than thefe words of the hiflorian ? 
how plainly does he fliew the necelTity of divine interpofition ; and of revelation 
in confequence of it ! 

' Herodotus. 1. 2.0. 53. 

R r 2 little 

3o8 The Analysis of Ancient MYTHOLOcy. 

little clofely to what they fay : but it will appear more ma"^ 
nifell: from thofe, who had been in Egypt? and copied their 
accounts from that country. There are few characters, 
which at firfl fight appear more diftind, than thofe of Apollo 
and Bacchus. Yet the department, which is generally ap- 
propriated to Apollo, as the Sun, I mean the condudi: of the 
year, is by Virgil given to Bacchus, or Liber. He joins him 
with Ceres, and calls them both the bright luminaries of the 

'^ Vos, O, clariffima Mundi 

Lumina, labentem Coelo qui ducitis annum. 

Liber, et alma Ceres. 
5 Quidam ipfum folem, ipfum Apollinem, ipfum Dionyfium 
eundem efie volunt. Hence we find that Bacchus is the 
Sun or Apollo ; though fuppofed generally to have been a 
very different perfonagc. In reaUty they are all three the 
fame ; each of them the Sun. He was the ruling Deity of 
the world : 

* 'HAig TtoLyyiVBTo^^ 'kolvcuo'Kb^ '^^v(r£Q(pSYysQ, 
He was in Thrace efteemed, and worfhiped as Bacchus,, or 
Liber. ^ In Thracia Solem Liberum haberi, quem illi Seba- 
dium nuncupantes magna religione celebrant : eique Deo ia 

•* Virgil. Georgic. 1. i. v. 6. 
Liber is El Abor contrafted : Sol, Parens Lueis. 
' Scholia in Horat. 1. 2. Ode 19. 
* Orphic. Fragment, in Macrob. Sat. 1. 1. c. 23. 
' Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 18. 

He is called by Eumolpus A^^oif ar>j Amvaov iv axrn'iaa-i TrwcfiTrov : apud 
Eufeb. P. E. 1. 9. c. 27. 

5 colle 

The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 309 

colle * ZemifTo asdes dicata eft fpecie rotunda. In fhort 
all the Gods were one, as we learn from the fame Orphic 
Poetry : , 

' 'Ei? Zsvgi Biq A;'Jj5^, hg 'HAiogt iig Aiovvrog 
'Eig $iog Bv 7roLns<T(ri. 
Some Deities changed with the feafbn. 

'° HsXiov Jk ds^agy fjLBTOTUi^ng J" d^^ov laoj. 
It was therefore idle in the ancients to make a difquifition 
about the identity of any God, as compared with another ; 
and to adjudge him to Jupiter rather than to Mars, to Venus 
rather than Diana. " Toy Ou-i^iv 01 ^sv Xb^ccttiv, oi^s Aioi^vrov, 
oi^B riA^Twrn, Ti3iBg Js A/a, TroKKoih Uclvol vsvo^im^n. Some, 
fays Diodorus, think that Oftris is Serapis- others that he is 
Dionufus ; others ft ill that he is Pluto .- many take him for Zeus,. 
or Jupiter \ and not a few for Pan, This was an unnecef- 
&ry embarraffment : for they were all titles of the fame God: 
there being originally by no means that diverfity, which is 
imagined, as Sir John Marfbam has very juftly obferved. 
" Neque enim tanta toA^^sot)]? Gentium, quanta fuit Deo- 
rum TToA^wi/ypa. It is faid above that Ofiris was by fome 

* Zemiflus is the Amonian Sames, or SameQi, analogous to Beth-Shemefh io 
the Scriptures. 

' Orphic. Fragment. 4. p. 364. Edit. Gefner. 

See Stephani Pocifis Philofoph. p. 80. from Jiiftin Martyr. 

'"Macrobius. Saturn. 1. i. c. 18. p. 202. He mentions Jupiter Lucetius,. 
and Dicfpater, the God of day ; and adds : Cretenfes A<c£ tw y,f^e^ccv vocanr. 
The Cretans call the day dia. The word dies of the Latines was of the fame ori- 

Diodorus Siculus. 1. i. p. 22, 

^* Chronolog. Canon, p. 32. 



310 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

thought to be Jupiter, and by others to be Pluto. But 
Pluto among the bed theologies was eftcemed the fame as 
Jupiter ; and indeed the fame as Proferpine, Ceres, Hermes, 
Apollo, and every other Deity. 

T^iroovsgy Nri^svgy Trjhg Kcci Kya;/o^aiT»i?, 
'E^|U.ji?^', 'HcoLig-og ts KKviog^ IIolv, Xzvg ts, koli 'H^J), 
A^TSjOCi^, >](]" 'Exag^yo? AttoAAwi/) ^\g Qsog Sfiv. 
There were to be fure a number of flrange attributes, which 
by fome of the poets were delegated to different perfonages : 
but there were other writers, who went deeper in their re- 
fearches ; and made them all center in one. They forae- 

'' Hermefianax. 

It may be worth while to obferve below, how many Gods there were of the 
fame titles and departments, flaiowos Aioivaioi. Hefychius. Pseonia Minerva, 
Plutarch, de decern Rhetoribus. 

riaAa/uwv HcaxAw. Hefychius. 

Itnnp Trai'TW, Aa-xXnTrie, ^iairoioi Y[cliolv. Orphic. H. S6. 

noo-E/cTwf la.T^'-A iv Tjji'u). Clement. Cohort, p. 26. 

Olen, the mod ancient mythologift, made Eilithya to be the mother of Eros: 
fo that Eilithya and Venus mull: have been the famej and confcquently Diana. 

Mjixera Ef&'Tcs V^iXi^vxv eivcct. Paufan. 1. 9. p. 762. 

Adonim, Attinem, Ofirim et Horum aliud non effe quam Solem. Macrobius 
Sat. 1. I. c. 21. p. 209. 

Janus was Juno, and ftiled Junonius. Macrob. Sat. 1. r. c. 9. p. 159. 

Lunam •, eandem Dianam, eandem Cererem, eandem Junonem, eandem Pro- 
ferpinam dicunt. Servius in Georgic. 1. i. v. 5. 

Aftartc, Luna, Europa, Dea Syria, Rhea, the fame. Lucian. de Syria Dea. 

Kgioi A^it^atov rov ccutov x,cci Atx zat Att&AAw vofAi^ovrn. xtA. Athenago- 
ras. p. 290. 

'HAfO:;, 'ZiJi. Sanchoniathon. Eufeb. P. E. lib. i. c. x. p. 34. 

'HA«3f, Kpoyoi. Damafcius apud Photium. c. 242. 

4 times 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. on 

times reprefented this fovereign Deity as Dionufus : who ac- 
cordingj to Aufonius was worfhiped in various parts under 
different titles j and comprehended all the Gods under one 

''^ Ogygia me Bacchum vocat ; 

Ofyrin ^gyptus putat : 

Myll Phanacem nominant : 

Dionyfon Indi exiftimant : 

Romana Sacra Liberum ; 

Arabica Gens Adoneum ; 

Lucanianus Pantheon. 

Sometimes the fupremacy was given to Pan, who was ef- 
teemed Lord of all the elements. 

*^ Ilcii/cx, kolKoj, K^ars^ov NofMioVi iiO(r^oio rs <rvu,7rciv, 

Ka< TTV^ oL&OLVOLTOVi Tcch yoL^ jOteAio £f< TOL lioLvog, 

An^o-^oL^sg, U^vfJLmg, AAH0HS ZET2: 'O KE- 

More generally it was conferred upon Jupiter : 

Zsy? eg-iv oLi^r)^, Zsvg h yrii Zsvg J"' Ov^avog* 
Zsvg roi tol 'kclvtos,. 

''* Aufon. Epigram. 30. 

See Gruter for infcriptions to Apollo Pantheon. Dionufus was alfo Atis, 
or Attis. Atoivcrov ma Att<c Ti^oaccyo^ivsa^cci GcAeo-ir. Clementis Cohort. 
p. 16. 

" Orphic. Hymn. x. p. 200. Gefner. 

ria^' Aiyvirriota-i S'e Ylav ixiv a^^sciorxTos, xcu tuv oxtw tmv yrrooroov ?^eyoy.e- 
voov QsMi- Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 145. Priapus was Zeus: alfo Pan, and Orus : 
among the people of Lampfacus efteemed Dionufus. 

•* Euphorion. . 


312 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology; 

Pofeidon, God of the fea, was alfo reputed the chief God, 
the Deity of Fire. This we may infer from his priefl:. He 
was ftiled a Purcon, and denominated from him, and ferved 
in his oracular temples ; as we learn from Paufanias, who 
fays, '^ Ilo(Tei^(£n J" VTrri^sr/jV sg tol fJLOLprev(jL0LTcc sivai liv^zocpx. 
He mentions a verfe to the fame purpofe. Sy; os TS liv^Kwv 
ay,p7roXos Kkora EvpO{riycti^, P'urcon is Ignis vel lucis do- 
xninus : and we may know the department of the God from 
the name of the prieft. He was no other than the fupreme 
Deity, the Sun: from whom all were fuppofed to be de- 
rived. Hence Pofeidon or Neptune, in the Orphic vcrfes, 
is, like Zeus, ftiled the father of Gods and men. 

In the neighbourhood of Tyre and Sidon the chief Deity 
went by the name of '' Ourchol, the fame as Archel and Ar- 
■cles of Egypt ; whence came the H^a;cAj]?, and Hercules of 
Greece and Rome. Nonnus, who was deeply read in the 
mythology of thefe countries, makes all the various depart- 
ments of the other Gods, as well as their titles, center in him. 
He defcribes him in feme good poetry as the head of all. 


^' I., lo. p. 805^ 

" Orphic. Hymn, in Pofeidon. xvi. p. 20S. 

" Stlden de Diis Syris. p. 77. and addicamenta. He was of old ftiled Arcles 
ifi Greece ; and fuppofed to have been the fon of Xuch. KoGss x.«< A^jcAw, 01 
X-u^'d ira.tS'ii. Plutarch. Qiiacftiones Grasca?. v. i. p. 296. 

*° Konnus. L 40. p. 1038. 


The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 313 


KvkKov aysig fxsrct hvkXov — 

Hs^iKg ri(t:QV s^svysToii oL^^y^ov esfi(rrig 

Brj?^og ZT E^ip^j^rao, Ai^yj Ks/.XYjfjLSvog Ai^^tav^ 

Att;? £f 'j? Ns/Awof, A^a\[/ K^ovog-, -A^rcrv^iog Zsvg . 

EiTS Xa^aTTig s^vg AiyvTrriog^ OLVB<poCkog Zsvg, 
Ei X^ovogy SI ^cts^ooi/ TroXvuvv^og, sits cry Midprig^ 
All the various titles, we find, are at laft comprifed in 
Apollo, or the Sun. 

It may appear ftrange, that Hercules, and Jupiter, or whom- 
ever we put for the chief Deity, fhould be of all ages. This 
muft have been the cafe, if they were the fame as the boy of 
Jove, and Bacchus ever young; and were alfo the reprefenta- 
tives of Cronus, and Saturn. But the ancients went farther; 
and defcribed the fame Deity under the fame name in vari- 
ous ftages of life : and *' Ulpian fpeaking of Dionufus, fays 
that he was reprefented of all ages. Kcti ya.^ TtOLicoL, koli 
7r^s(r^vTr,Vy mi av^^cc y^a(p'd<nv clvtov. But the moft extraordi- 
nary circumftance was, that they reprefented the fame Deity 
of different fexes. A bearded Apollo was uncommon ; but 
Venus with a beard muft have been very extraordinary. Yet 

" In Demc.fthenem Kara Mgicf/a, Uav ^x^l^^ TrsoirAeoLaiv olutm. P. 647. 
See alfo Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 18. 

AvTov Tcr ilicc xai Tor A.isyvi7cy Trai^a^ y.c.i vi-ii ri QioAoyix xxAst. Proclus 
upon Plato's Parmenides. See Orphic Fragments, p. 406, 

Vol. I. S f fhe 

314 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

fhe is faid to have been thus exhibited in Cyprus, under the 
name of Aphroditus, A(p^o^iTog : " Trooycfjviccv oLv^^og T^i^ Qsov 
2(T')(YiiJ,ajTi^a.i sv Kv7r^(f). The fame is mentioned by Servius : 
'^ Eft etiam in Cypro {imulacrum ba7'batai Veneris, corpore 
et vefte muliebri, cum fceptro, et natura virili, quod h(p^o^noy 
vocant. She was alfo looked upon as prior to Zeus, and to moft 
other of the Gods. "^ A<p^oJ/T/] ov (jlovov KQy\voli;^ kcli 'H^OLg, 
aAAa mi AI02 s^i 7r^s(r(^vTs^cc. The Poet Calvus fpeaks 
of her as mafcuHne: ^^ PoUentemque Deum Venerem. Vale- 
rius Soranus among other titles calls Jupiter the mother of 
the Gods. 

*^ Jupiter omnipotens, Regum Rex ipfe, Deumque 
Progenitor, Genetrixque Deum \ Deus unus et idem. 
Synefius fpeaks of him in nearly the fame manner. 
*^ Sy TaTif]^, cry (T z<x^i [J-riTrj^y 
Xv <J*' a,§(rriv, cry Js Cri?^VQ. 


** Hefycbius. The pafTage is dilTerently read. Kufter exhibits it Aip^ohToi^ 
OcTg TO. irf^i AfxcSsvTo. yey^K(pui Da/acjcus acvS'^ci Tnv %iov S(T^n/Ji.oe.Tt^cii £;' Kti- 

'■^ Servius upon Virgil, ^neid. 1. 2. v. 632. 

** Scholia upon Apoilon. Rhod. 1. 3. v. 52. Tuv KaX^fxivon' Moipoov fivai 
TT^eo-^uTs^ccv. In fome places of the eaft, Venus was the fame as Cybele and Rhea> 
the Mother of the Gods : riej-i rm 'X,'"^°'-'^ lavTiK csCttat jjsv coi sin ttxv tw A(p^o~ 
SiTiify a'-s fxnTSpx 6ecw)', 7rc1x.1Aa.1i xcci ty^wpion ovofj-xai Tr^oaayo^svoviii. Ptol. 
Tetrabibl. 1. 2. 

*' Apud Calvum Aderianus. Macrob. Sat. 1. 3. c. 8. Putant eandem ma- 
rem efle ac foeminam. Ibidem. 

'* Apud Auguftin. de Civitate Dei. 1. 4. c. 11. and 1. 7. c 9. 

The author of the Orphic verfes fpeaks of the Moon as both male and female. 

Av^ofxivt) y.a.i AsiTrofxivn, ^n'Aume xai apa'/jv. Hymn 8. v. 4. 

Deus LuHLis was worfhipcd at Charras, Edcfla, and all over the eaft. 

*' Synefius* Hymn 3. g. 26. Edit. H. Steph. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 315 

And the like chara<3:er is given to the ancient Deity Mior<j, 
^^ A^fTYiv fjisv KoLt ^YjXvg s<pvgi TroXvo^vvfjLB Mj^rt. 
In one of the fragments of the Orphic poetry there is 
every thing, which I have been faying, comprehended within 
a very fhort compafs. 

*^ Zsvg a,^(rr,v ysvsrOy Zsvg ctfjL^^orog sttKsto Nvfj^tpYj^ 

Zsvg TTV^fJiYiv yaiY]g rs kcli ov^am ctg's^osnog. 

Zsvg TTons p^^oci Zsvg '°'HA<o^, nh XsKnvri, 

Zsvg BacnAsy?, Zsvg oLvrog (/.Troinm a.^'^iysvs&Kog 

Kcci MriTig, ir^mog ysi/sroo^ koli E^w? TroKvTs^Trrig. 
UoLVTix, yoL^ sv Zrivog yisyoLh(jC tol^s (Tca^JLCLTi ksitoli. 
''Ev K^ctrog, sig ActifJLmt ysi/STai ^syoLg ct^'yog OLTi^ayrm, 
Whom he meant under the title of Zeus, he explains after- 
wards in a folemn invocation of the God Dionufus. 
^' YLs/Shv^i TY]Ks7ro^H ^ivrig sKiKOLvysoL kvkKov 
Ov^cLvioLig g'^o<poLkiy^i Tcs^i^^oy.ov uisv s7\i<t<toov^ 
AyKoLS ZET, AIONT2E, iroLrs^ 'Tfons^ ttolts^ oLiYig^ 
'HA/s, Tcctyysvsro^y TtavoLioKs, "^^vcso^psyysg. 
As we have feen how the father of the Gods was diverli-- 
fied J it may be worth while to hear what the fuppofed mo- 

The Orphic verfes irept (pvaeui are to the fame purpofe. 
TJavrcr.v fJLiv au Trccrnp, fxtnn^, T^o(poi, nS'e rnwoi. Hymn 9. v. 18. 
" Orphic Hymn 31. v. 10. p. 224. 

*' Orphic Fragment, vi. p. 2^6. Gefner's Edit, from Proclus on Plato's Al- 
cibiades. See alfo Poefis Philofophica H. Stephani. p. 81. 

'' Jupiter Lucetius, or Sod of light. Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 15. p. 182. 
" Orphic Fragm. vii. p. 371. See Poefis Philofoph. H. Stephani. p. 85. 
Orpheus of Protogonus. 
XJ^ooToyov't H^ixaTa<£, .^-eiiof Trar?^, ■nS'i xxi u<e. Hymn. 51. p. 246. 

S f 2 ther 

31 6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ther of all the Deities fays of her titles and departments, ia 
Apuleius. ^^ Me primigenii Phryges Peffinuntiam nomi- 
nant Deuni Matrem : hinc Autochthones Attici Cecropiam 
Minervam : illinc iluduantes Cyprii Paphiam Venerem : 
Cretes fagittiferi Diclynnam Dianam. Siculi trilingues Sty- 
giam Proferplnam : Eleufinii vetuftam Deam Cererem. Ju- 
nonem alii : alii Bellonam : alii Hecaten : Rhamnuiiam 
alii : et qui nafcentis dei Solis inchoantibus radiis illuftrantur 
^thiopes, Ariique, prifcaque dodlrina pollentes ^gyptii, ce- 
remoniis me prorfus propriis percolentes, appellant vero no- 
mine Reo-inam Ilidem. 

Porphyry acknowledged, that "^'^cfta, Rhea, Ceres, The- 
mis, Priapus, Proferpina, Bacchus, Attis, Adonis, Silenus, 
and the Satyrs, were all one, and the " fame. Nobody had 
examined the theology of the ancients more deeply than 
Porphyry. He was a determined Pagan : and his evidence 
in this point is unexceptionable. The titles of Orus and Ofiris 
being given to Dionufus, caufcd him in time to partake of the 
fame worfhip, which was paid to the great luminary : and as 
he had alfo many other titles, from them fprung a multiplicity 
of Deities. ^'^ Morichum Siculi Bacchum nominarunt : Ara- 
bes vero cundem Orachal et Adonzeum : alii Lyaeum, Ere- 
binthium, Sabazium; Lacedoemonii S.cytidem, et Milichium 

*' Apulcii Metamorph. 1. xi. p. 241. 

*' Porphyr. apud Eufebium Prsp. Evang. 1. 3. c. 1 1.. 

T/jLc^Tai Trapa. Accfjc-^-acicyivots I1oiac7ro?t ° ccvtos uv T(p Awvcru. AthcnSEUS^ 

!. I. p. 30. 

*♦ Janui Gulielmus Laurenbergius.. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 317 

vocltarunt. But let Dionufus or Bacchus be diverfified by 

ever fo many names or titles ; they all in refpedl to worfhip 

relate ultimately to the Sun. ^^ Sit Ofiris, fit Omphis, Ni- 

lus, Siris, five quodcunque aliud ab Hierophantis ufurpatum 

nomen, ad unum tandem Solem^ antiquiflimum Gentium 
numen, redeunt omnia. 

''Selden de Diis Syris. p. 77. 


( 3>9 ) 

P H OE N I X and P H OE N I C E S. 

AS there has been much uncertainty about the purport 
and extent of thefe terms ; and they are of great 
confequence in the courfe of hiftory ; I will endea- 
vour to ftate their true meaning. Phoinic, or Poinic, was 
an Egyptian, and Canaanitifh term of honour ; from whence 
were formed Oo/j/iJ, (^oiviKsg, ^oinKosig of the Greeks, and 
Phoinic, Poinicus, Poinicius of the Romans ; which were af- 
terwards changed to Phoenix, Punicus, and ' Puniceus. It 
was originally a title, which the Greeks made ufe of as a pro- 
vincial name : but it was never admitted as fuch by the peo- 
ple, to whom it was thus appropriated, till the Greeks were in 
polTeflion of the country. And even then it was but par- 
tially received : for though mention is made of the coaft of 
Phoenice, yet we find the natives called Sidonians, Tyrians, 
and ' Canaanites, as late as the days of the Apoftles. It was an 
honorary term, compounded of Anac with the Egyptian 
prefix ; and rendered at times both Phoinic and Poinic. It 
fignified a lord or prince : and was particularly aflumed by 

' In all ancient accounts of the Romans the term was exprefled Poini, and 
Poinicus. Poinei ftipendia pendunt, Poinei fiint folitei fos facrificare puellos. 
Ennius. Annal. vii. Afterwards it was changed to Paenus, and Punicus. 

' Simon the Canaanite. Matth. c. lo.. v. 4. Alfo the woman of Canaan. Mat* 
thevv. c. 15. V. 22. 

4j the 

320 The Analysis of AncienV Mythology. 

the Tons of Chus and Canaan. The Myfians feem to have 
kept nearefl to the original pronunciation, who gave this 
title to the God Dionufus, and called him Ph'anac. 
' Ogygia me Bacchum vocat, 

Ofirin JEgyptus putat, 

Myfi Phanacem. 
It was alfo conferred upon many things, which were ef- 
teemed princely and noble. Hence the red, or fcarlet, a 
colour appropriated to great and honourable perfonages, 
was ftiled Phoinic. The palm was alfo fliled Phoinic, ^oivi^ : 
and the ancients always fpeak of it as a flately and noble 
tree. It was efleemed an emblem of honour ; and made ufe 
of as a reward of vidtory. Plurimarum palmarum homo, was 
a proverbial expreflion among the Romans, for a foldier of 
merit, Pliny fpeaks of the various fpecies of palms ; and of 
the great repute, in which they were held by the Babylo- 
nians. He fays, that the nobleft of them were ftiled the 
royal Palms ; and fuppofes, that they were fo called from 
their being fet apart for the king's ufe. But they were very 
early an emblem of royalty : and it is a circumftance in- 
cluded in their original name. We find from Apuleius, that 
Mercury, the '^ Hermes of Egypt, was reprefented with a 
palm branch in his hand : and his priefts at Hermopolis ufed 
to have them ftuck in their ^ fandals, on the outfide. The 

' Aufonius. Epigram. 25. Ph'Anac, the Great Lord. 

•♦ Apuleius. 1. xi. p. 246. 

' Zachlas adeft ^gyptius, propheta primarius, et cum dido juvenem 

quempiam lintcis amiculis inteftum, pedefque palmeis baxei's indutum, et aduf- 
que derafo capice, producit in medium. Apuleius. 1. 2. p. ^g. 


The Analtsts of Ancient Mythology. 321 

Goddcfs ^ Ifis was thus reprefented : and we may infer that 
Hermes had the like ornaments ; which the Greeks millook 
for feathers, and have in confequence of it added wings to 
his ^Qtt. The Jews ufed to carry boughs of the fame tree at 
fome of their feftivals ; and particularly at the celebration 
of their nuptials : and it was thought to have an influence at 
the birth. Euripides alludes to this in his Ion ; where he 
makes Latona recline herfelf againft a Palm tree, when fhe is 
going to produce Apollo and Diana. 


In how great eflimation this tree was held of old, we may 
learn from many pafTages in the facred writings. Solomon 
fays to his efpoufed, ' how fair and how phafa7it art theu^ 
Love^for delights : thy fiat ure is like a Palm tree. And 
the Pfalmift for an encouragement to holinefs fays, ' that the 
righteous Jhali Jlourijh like the Palm tree : for the Palm was 
fuppofed to rife under a weight ; and to thrive in proportion 
to its being '° deprefled. There is pofTibly a farther allufion 
in this, than may at firft appear. The ancients had an opi- 
nion, that the Palm was immortal : at leaft, if it did die, it 

* Pedes ambrofios tegebant foleae, palmae viftricis foliis intext^. Ibid. 1. 11.. 
p. 241. 

■" Euripides in lone. v. 920. 

* Cantic. c. 7. v. 6. 

* Plalm 93. V. 12. 

'" Plutarch Sympofiac. 1. 8. c. 4.'. 

Adverfus ponaera relurgit. GcUius. 1. 3. c6. 

Vol. L T t reco- 

32 2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

recovered again, and obtained a fccond IKe by renev/al. 
Hence the ftory of the bird, filled the Phcenix, is thought to 
have been borrowed from this tree. Plin}', ia defcribing the 
{pecies of Pahn, ftiled Syagrus, fays, " Mirum de ea acce- 
pimus, cum Phcenice Ave, qux putatur ex hujus Palmar ar« 
crumento nomen accepiffe, iterum mori, et renafci ex feipfa. 
Hence we find it to have been an emblem of immortality among 
all nations, facred and prophane. The blefled in heaven are 
reprefented in the Apocalypfe by St. John, " as {landing before 
the throne in white robes with branches of Palm in their 
hands. The notion of this plant being an emblem of roy- 
alty prevailed fo far, that when our Saviour made his laft en- 
trance into Jerufalem, the people took branches of Palm 
trees, and accoftcd him as a prince, crying, '^ Hofanna — 
hlejfed is the Kt?ig of Ifrael. • 

The title of Phoinic feems at firft to have been given to 
perfons of great ftature : but in procefs of time it was con- 
ferred upon people of power, and eminence, like ai'a^ and 
ai'UKTsg among the Greeks. The Cuthites in Egypt were 
ftiled Royal Shepherds, BaCiXs;? noifJLSi/sg, and had tlierefore 
the title of Phcenices. A colony of them went from thence 
to Tyre and Syria : hence it is faid by many writers, that 
Phoenix came from Egypt to Tyre. People, not confider- 

" Pliny. Hift. Nat.l. 13. c. 4. 

'le^ov 'HAia to outov, aytip^v li ov. Juliani Imp. Orat. v. p. 330. 

" Revelations, c. 7. v. 9. nfgiiCgCA»/xgyo« c^ohui AeuJta?, ««< ^owKii iv txh 


''John. c. 12. V. 13. 

4 ing 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 323 

ing this, have been led to look for the fhepherd's origin in 
Canaan ; becaufe they were fometimes called Phoenices. 
They might as well have looked for them in Greece; for 
they were equally ftiled '* 'EKhnvsg, Hellenes. Phoenicia, 
which the Greeks called ^Oinzrj^ was but a fmall part of Ca- 
naan. It was properly a flip of fea-coaft, which lay within 
the jurifdidiion of the Tyrians and Sidonians, and fignifies 
Ora Regia ; or, according to the language of the countiy, 
the coaft of the Anakim. It was a lordly title ; and derived 
from a {lately and auguft people. All the natives of Canaan 
feem to have afiumed to themfelves great honour. The 
Philiftines are fpoken of as '^ Lords, and the merchants of 
Tyre as Princes : whofe grandeur and magnificence are of- 
ten alluded to in the Scriptures. The prophet Ezqkiel calls 
them the princes of the fea. ^^ 77je/i all the princes ofthefea 
JJjall come dowtt from their thro?2es^ and lay away their robes ^ 
and put off their hroidered gar?ne?2ts. And Ifaiah fpeaks to the 
fame purpofe. ^' Who hath taken this coiinfel again]} lyre, that 
crowiting city, whofe 7nercha7tts are princes : whofe traffickers 
are the ho7iourable of the earth? The fcripture term by which 
they are here diftinguifhed is cunt:?, Sarim : but the title 
which they afiumed to themfelves was Ph'anac or Ph'oinac, 
the Phcenix of the Greeks and Romans. And as it was a 

'* ExxaicTf-ztaTi; cTyrasq-K/a floty.ivsi 'EAAw'SS Batr/Afi?. Syncellus. p. 6i. 
" ,The Lords of the Philillincs ; and the princes of the Philiftines. i Samuel. 
c.,29. V. 2, 3, 4. 

" Ezekiel. c. 26. v. i6. 
" Ilaiah. c. 23. v. 8. 
Ezekiel'. c. 28. v. 2. 

T t 2 mere 

324 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology." 

mere title, the facred writers of the old teflament never make 
life of it to diftinguifh either the people or country. This 
part of Canaan is never by them called Phoenicia : yet others 
did call it fo ; and the natives w^ere ftilcd Phoenices before 
the birth of Homer. But this was throuo;h miftake : for it 
was never ufed by the natives as a provincial appellation. 1 
have fhewn, that it was a title of another fort, a mark of 
rank and preeminence : on this account it was aflumed by 
other people ; and conferred upon other places. For this 
reafon it is never mentioned by any of the flicred writers be- 
fore the captivity, in order to avoid ambiguity. The Gen- 
tile writers made ufe of it; and we fee what miftakes have 
enfued. There were Phoenicians of various countries. They 
were to be found upon the Sinus '^ Perficus, upon the Sinus 
'' Arabicus, in Egypt, in " Crete, in " Africa, in" Epirus, 

Herodotus brings the Phoenicians from the Mare Erythrsum ; by which he 
means the Sinus Perficus. L. 7. c. 89. I. i. c. i. 

" Philo, mentioning the march of the Ifraelites towards the Red fea, and the 
Amalekices, adds j I'SfxovTca J" auiw i> De V. Mofis. voL 2. p. 115. 

'^itntcvv Ka!fA.;i, in Edom. Procopius. Perfic 1. i. c. 19. 

*" Phoenicus, in Crete. Steph. Byzant. 

*' A<pooi <P:in'tKii. GIoAIe. 

** Kara E^f}ocoToi>^oifix.>j. Strabo. L 7. p. 495. 

Mount Olympus in Lycia was ftiled, by way of eminence, Phoinic. OXvy.Tui 
TToAiS fA.iyee.?\.H km o^oi o/nuvufjiovj o Jtai ^oti'txoui v.xKsna.i. Strabo. 1. 14. p. 982. 
Bochart fuppofes, Phoenic and Phoenices (^o/wxes) to be derived from Beni 
Anac, changed to Pheni Anac, i, e. the fons of Anac : but how can this be 
applicable to a mountain ; or to the Palm tree .? I am happy however that in 
a part of my etymology, and that a principal part, I am countenanced by that 
learned man. 

Bilhop Cumberland derives it from Anac torquis. Orig. p. 302. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 3.2^ 

and even in Attica. ""^ <^QiviKsg — ysvog ri A^irir/j(n. There is 
a 7' ace of people called Phcenicians among the '"' Athenians. In 
{hort, it was a title introduced atSidon, and the coafl; adjoining, 
by people from Egypt : and who the people were, that brought 
it, may be known from feveral paflages in ancient hiftory : but 
particularly from an extradl in Eufebius. *^ Oo/yi^ KCLi KacT- 
jito?, aTTo ®f^'j}v T(/)v AiyvKTim s^sX^onsg en; t^v Xu^iccv^ Tv^h 
KCLi liiomog SocccriXsvov. Phoenix a7id Cadmus j retiring from 
Thebes in Egypt towards the coafl of Syria^ fettled at Tyre a?id 
Sidon^ and reigned there. It is faid, that *^ Belus carried 
a colony to the fame parts : and from what part of the 
world *^ Belus muft be fuppofed to have come, needs not to 
be explained. Euripides ftiles Cepheus the king of Ethio- 
pia, the fon of Phoenix : and ApoUodorus makes him the 
fon of Belus : hence we may infer that Belus and Phoenix 
were the fame. Not that there were any fuch perfons as 
Phoenix and Belus, for they were certainly titles : and under 
the charaders of thofe two perfonages. Colonies, named Be- 
lidae and Phoenices, went abroad, and fettled in different 
parts. Their hiftory and appellation may be traced from 
Babylonia to Arabia and Egypt : and from thence to Ca- 
naan, and to the regions in the weft. It were therefore to 
be wiftied, that the terms Phoenix and Phoenicia had never 

*' Hefychius. 

** A city and mountain in Boeotia called Phcenice : the natives Phoenicians. 
Strabo. 1. 9. p. 639. 
*' Chron. p. 27. 

*' Syncellus. p. 126. from Eufebius. 
*' BmAos aTr' Euf'tJiras. xtA. Nonnus, 


326 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

been ufed in the common acceptation ; at leaft when the di£~ 
courfe turns upon the more ancient hiftory of Canaan. 
When the Greeks got pofieffion of the coail: of Tyre, they 
called it Phoenicia: and from that time it may be admitted 
as a provincial name. In confequence of this, the wri- 
ters of the New Teftament do not fcruple to make ufe 
of it, but always with a proper limitation; for the geo- 
graphy of the Scriptures is wonderfully exa6l. But the Greek 
and Roman writers often fpeak of it with a greater latitude; 
and include Judea and Paleftina within its borders : and 
fometimes add Syria, and Idume. But thefe countries were 
ail feparate, and diftind ; among which Phoenicia bore but 
a fmall proportion. Yet fraall as it may have been, many 
learned men have thought, that all the colonies, which at 
times fettled upon the coaft of the Mediterranean, were from 
this quarter : and that all fcience was of Phoenician original. 
But this is not true according to their acceptation of the 
term. Colonies did fettle ; and fcience came from the eaft: 
but not merely from the Sidonian. I fhall fhew, that it v^^as 
principally owing to a prior and fuperior branch of the fa- 

A D D E N 

Of the PALM TREE. 

H OE NIX was a colour among horfes. They were 

ftiled Phoenices, and *^ Phceniciati, from the colour of 

the Palm tree, which they refembled j and upon the 

^^ Bcchart, Hierazoican. 1. 2. c. 7. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 327 

fame account had the name of Spadices. This, according 
to Aulus Geilius, was a term fynonymous with the former. 
*' Rutilus, et Spadix Phocnicii (Tvvmv^og^ exuberantiam fplen- 
doremque fignilicant ruboris, quales funt frudus Pahxis- ar- 
boris, nondum fole inco6li : unde fpadicis et Phoenicei no- 
men eft. ^^ Spadix, CTrao/^, avulfus eft a Palma termes cum 
frucStu. Homer, defcribing the horfes of Diomedes, fays, that 
the one was Phoenix, or of a bright Palm colour, with a 
white fpot in his forehead like a moon. 

^' 'O; 1:0 [JLsy ccKKo to<top (poivi^ riv, svh fJLSTocTrca 


Upon this the Scholiaft obferves, OoiPifcag to '^^ctJfjLOc, t[Tqi 
Trvppo;, The horfe was of a Palm colour, which is a bright led. 
We call fuch horfes bays; which probably is a term of the 
fame original. The branch of a Palm tree was called Bai in 
Egypt : and it had the fame name in other places. Baia> 
Baicti are ufed for Palm-branches by St. John. ^^' Ta ^cciot tojv 
OoiPiKOdv. And it is mentioned by the author of the book of 
Maccabees, that the Jews upon a folemn occafion entered the 
temple. " Msra OLivsosocg mi, ^c^i(£V. And Demetrius writes 
to the high prieft, Simon, '^^Tov gstpccvov top "^^vcovp koli Triv 
Bcchriv, a aTTSfs^Aarg, Keao^ifT^s^oL. Coronam auream et 
Bainem, qu« mififtis, accepimus. The Greeks formed the 

*' Geilius. 1. 2. c. 26. 
'" Geilius. Ibidem. 
'' Iliad 4 V. 454. 
°* John. c. 12. V. 13. 
" I Maccab, c. 13 v. 51. 
'* I Maccab. c. 13. v. Z7' 


328 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

word bair>5 from the Egyptian Bai. The Romans called the 
fame colour Badius. '^ Varro, fpeaking of horfes, mentions, 
Hie badius, ille gilvus, ille Murinus. 
As the Palm tree was fuppofed to be immortal ; or at leaft, 
if it did die, to revive, and enjoy a fecond life, the Egyp- 
tians gave the name of Bai to the foul : ^* Er* (^£v yct^ to. 

** Varro apud Nonium Marcellum, 
** HorapoJlo. L. i. c. 7. p. 11. 


( 329 ) 


Term CAHEN, 

The COHEN, | n d, of the Hebrews. 

IH A V E before taken notice, that the term Cahen de- 
noted a Prieft, or Prefident : and that it was a title of- 
ten conferred upon princes and kings. Nor was it 
confined to men only : we find it frequently annexed to the 
names of Deities, to fignify their rule and fuperintendency 
over the earth. From tliem it was derived to their atten- 
dants, and to all perfons of a prophetical or facred charadter. 
The meaninp- of the term was fo obvious, that one would 
imagine no miftake could have enfued: yet fuch is the per- 
verfenefs of human wit, that we find it by the Greeks and 
Romans conftantly milapplied. They could not help imagin- 
ing from the found ol the word, which approached nearly to 
that of /£t;wi/ and canis, that it had fome reference to that 
animal : and in confequence of this unlucky refemblance they 
continually mifconftrued it a dog. Hence we are told by 
Vol. I. U u ^lian 

330 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

' iElian and * Plutarch not only of the great veneration paid 
to dogs in Egypt, and of their being maintained in many, 
cities, and temples ; in which they certainly exceed the 
truth : but we are moreover afiured, that the people of Ethi- 
opia had a dog for their king : that he was kept in great 
ftate; being furrounded with a numerous body of officers and 
guards ; and in all relpedls royally treated. Plutarch fpeaks 
of him, as being ^ csixvoog 7:^Q(rK.vvoiJ,BVog, worfhiped with a 
degree of reHgious reverence. The whole of this notion 
took its rife from a mifmterpretation of the title above. I 
have mentioned, that in early times Cahen was a title univer- 
fally conferred upon priefls and prophets : hence Lycophron, 
who has continually allulions to obfolete terms, calls the two 
diviners Mopfus and Amphilocus, K.vycLg. 

* Ao/a/Js psi^^wp Ilv^oL^is TT^og SK^oKcci; 
AvroKTovoig (rcpayoLKn Ari^aim KTNEI^ 

Upon which the Scholiaft obferv^es ; Kvvsg oi MavTSig : fy 
Cunes are meani Diviners : and again Kvvccg A.7to70\mog rag 
[xansig sittsiu. The Poet by Y^vv&jg means the minijiers and 
prophets of Apollo. Upon this the learned ^ Meurfius obferves, 

' JElian de Animalibus. 1. 7. c. 60. 

He cites Hermippus and Ariftode for vouchers. 

Edi'05 iivctt (px.ati' AaioTToji', cth, xvcov ^ctaiAeust, xcci CocaiAsui Trpoaayofajract, 
ya.1 ispcc xa.1 rif/.cci e^st fao-/Agwv. Ai'J'ges J": -Tr^aao-ova-it', ociri^ ■/^yejjt.Q'n yroAeoov 
T^oo-yj^ft, xut x^^yaif. Plutarch adverfus Stoi'cos. vol. 2. p. 1064, 

' Ibid. 

■♦ Lycophron. v, 439. 

/ Comment, upon Lycophron. p. 68. 

5 that 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 331 

that Lycophron had here made ufe of a term imported from 
Egypt: fo that, I think, we cannot be miftaken about the 
purport of the word, however it may have been perverted. 

The name of the Deity Canouphis, expreffed alfo Canu- 
phis, and Cnuphis, was compounded with this term. He 
was reprefented by the Egyptians, as a princely perfon, with 
a ferpent entwined round his middle, and embellifhed with 
other chara6leriftics, relating to time and duration, of which 
the ferpent was an emblem. Oph, and Ouph, fignified a 
ferpent in the Amonian language : and the Deity was 
termed Can-uph, from his ferpentine reprefentation. The 
whole fpecies in confequence of this were made facred to 
him, and fliled Canyphian. To this Lucan alludes, when 
in fpeaking of the Seps he calls all the tribe of ferpents Ciny- 
phias pefles : 

^ Cinyphias inter pefles tibi palma nocendi. 

Canuphis was fometimes expreffed Anuphis and Anubis : 
and, however rendered, was by the Greeks and Romans con- 
tinually fpoken oi as a dog: at leafl: they fuppofed him to 
have had a dog's head, and often mention his ^ barking. But 
they were mided by the title, which they did not underftand. 
The Egyptians had many emblematical perfonages, fet off 
with heads of various animals, to reprefent particular vir- 
tues, and affedions; as well as to denote the various attributes 
of their Gods. Among others was this canine figure; which 
I have no reafon to think was appropriated to Canuph, or 

* Lucan. Pharfalia. 1. 9. v. 787, 

■' Aufa Jovi noftro latrantem opponere Aniibim. Propert. I. 3. El. 11. 
JE§«5 i^i i^tv y,wo7rCiAnii ca^/.w, Kvyw vroAif;, f." n Ai'st;?/? TiiJbcx/T'Xi-, yea 
7::i zv(7i iiy.yi, ctm TeraxTa* t:« isja. Strabo. 1. 17. p. 11 66. 

U u 2 Cneph. 

332 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Cneph. And though upon gems and marbles his name may 
be fometimes found annexed to this characlerj yet it muft 
be looked upon as a Grecian work, and fo denominated in. 
confequence of their miftaken notion. For we muft make a 
material diftinclion between the hieroglyphics of old, when 
Egypt was under her own kings ; and thofe of later 
date, when that country was under the government of 
the Greeks : at which time their learning was greatly im- 
paired, and their ancient theology ruined. Horus Apollo 
affures us, if any credit may be given to what he fays, 
that this canine figure was an emblem of the earth : 
* OiiVdlJLZvriV Y^c(.(poneg kvvokb^clKov ^c^y^oKpso-i. When they 
^iiooidd defer ibe the earthy they faint a Cunocephalus. It 
could not therefore, I (liould think, in any degree relate 
to Canuphis. The fame ' writer informs us, that under the 
figure of a dog, they reprefented a prieft or facred fcribe, 
and a prophet ; and all fuch as had the chief management 
of funerals : alfo the fpken, the fmell, fneezing ; rule and 
government, and a magiftrate, or judge : which is a circum- 
fcance hard to be believed. For as hieroglyphics were de- 
figned to diftinguifh, it is fcarce credible, that the Egyp- 
tians fliould crowd together fo many different and oppofite 
ideas under one character, whence nothing could well cnfue 
but doubt and confufion. Befides, I do not remember, that 
in any group of ancient hieroglyphics the figure of a dog 
occurs. The meaning of this hiflory, I think, may be with a 

' '^iKiw^v cTg ^'^aipoyTSs', H OIKOTMENHN, •-) y^cLij.iJiOL-Tia.^ w /e^ea:, /; ocynv^ » 
v.oXvfjiQov,y.uvoy.<i(fx?.'^v CfitypoiCpuai' L. I. c 14. p. 26. 

' 'UfoypajJifutTici. IS TraKiv^ m Tr^ccpHTm', n caCpnia-iy, '/} TrrucfjLOVj n xoyt]:, n St~ 
xx^AVy ^BAofAivii ypxtfUf K'-jycc'^ay^ccfas-i!'^ L. I. c. 39. p. 52. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^33 

little attention made out. The Egyptians were refined in 
their fuperftitions, above all the nations in the world : and 
conferred the names and titles of their Deities upon vege- 
tables, and animals of every fpecies : and not only upon thefe, 
but alfo upon the parts of the human body ; and the very 
paflions of the mind. Whatever they deemed falutary, or 
of great value, they diflinguifhed by the title of Sacred, and 
confecrated it to fome '" God. This will appear from words 
borrowed from Egypt. The Laurel, Laurus, was denomi- 
nated from Al-Orus : the berry was termed bacca from Bac- 
chus : Myrrh, Miippa, was from Flam- Ourah : Cafia from 
Chus. The Crocodile was called Caimin and Campfa : the 
Lion, El-Eon: the Wolf, El-Uc: the Cat, Al-Ourah : from 
whence the Greeks formed Aswy, KvKog, cnX^og. The Egyp- 
tians ftiled Myrrh, Baal ; balfam, baal-fimien ; Camphire, 
Cham-phour, /ra^tttpa^a of Greece; opium, Ophion. The 
fweet reed of Egypt was named " Canah, and Conah by^ 
way of eminence : alfo '^ Can-Ofirls. Cinnamon was de- 
nominated from Chan-Amon : Cinnabar, Kma^oCi^K;^ from 
Chan-Abor : thefacred beetle, Cantharus, from Chan-Athur. 
The harp was iHled Cinnor, and was fuppofed to have been^ 

'" Eft) yao ra? AtyuTPTiB' , oittip y.a.1 S'naiS'ccif/.oi'e'^aTQt etai iravruiv' cfj-oo^ rcn 
^itoii ovcfj.o:a'.v £ti y.orci' eTn^-^KiJ.ivm' cr^s^ci' yao t« TrAacf-a EH OTPANOT 
ic^iv. Liician de imaginibus. 

See Obfervations on Antient Hidory. p. i65. 

Solebant autem ^-gyptii fibi iuifque Deorum patriorum nomina plerumqiie 
rmponere. — Moremque hunc gens ilia fervare perrexit, poftquani falutaii luce. 
Evangclica dill truira cfTct. Jablonfky. v. i. 1. i. c. 5. p, 105, 

" It is pofllbly alluded to in Plaim 80. v. 16. and in Jeremiah, c. 6. v. 20. 

^ Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. p. '^Sc,. Xcoc^i^n. 


334- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

found out by Cinaras : Vv'hich terms are compounded of Chan- 
Or, and Chan-Arez ; and relate to the Sun or Apollo, the 
fuppofed inventor of the lyre. Piiefts and magi Urates were 
particularly honoured with the additional title of Cahen: and 
many things held facred were liable to have it in their com- 
pofition. Hence arofe the errour of Florus Apollo ; who 
having been informed, that the ancient Egyptians diRin- 
guifhed many things, which were edeemed jioly, by this 
facred title, referred the whole to hieroglyphics; and gave out 
that they were all reprefented under the figure oi a dog. And 
it is poffible, that in later times the Grecian artifts, and the 
mixed tribes o(^ Egypt, may have expreffed them in. this 
manner ; for tbey were led by the ear ; and did not inquire 
into the latent purport of the '' theology tranfmitted to 
them, l^'rom hence we may perceive, how little in later 
times even the native Egyptians knew of their rites and hif- 

Farther accounts may be produced from the fame writer 
in confirmation of what I have been faying. He not only 
mentions the great veneration paid by the Egyptians to dogs, 
but adds, that in many temples they kept KVvoKB(po.'Koi, a kind 
of baboons, or animals with heads like thofe of dogs, which 
were wonderfully endowed. By their afliftance the Egyp- 

■" The purport of the term Cahen, or Cohen, was not totally unknown in 
■Greece. They changed it to y.o;)s, and xzon ; but ftill fuppofed it to fignify a 
prieft. Kci>;?j [?■. £W KaffKwr, X(xGa<cfc'/^;!'05 (poifa. Hefychiiis. Ks/aroc; liPa-Tcct. 

It was alfo ufed for a title of the Deity. Knx^^o <rooyyiiA'>i AiQosj fcilicet R«<- 
ivAc^. Mofcopulus. p. 5. The Bsetuliis was the moft ancient reprefentation of 
the Deity. See Apollon. Rhod. Schol. ad L. 1. v. guj. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 33^ 

ti'ans found out the particular periods of the Sun and Moon, 
Thefe did not, like other animals, die at once, but by piece- 
meal ; fo that one half of the animal was oftentimes buried, 
while the other half '* furvived. He moreover afliires us, that 
they could read and write: and whenever one of them was 
introduced into the facred apartments for probation, the 
prieft prefented him with a '^ tablet, and with a pen and ink, 
and by his writing could immediately find out, if he were of 
the true intelligent breed. Thefe animals are faid to have been 
of infinite ufe to the ancient Egyptians in determining times 
and feafons : for, it feems, they were in fome particular func- 
tions the moft accurate, and pundual of any creatures upon 
earth, '^ Per aequinoclia enim duodecies in die urinam red- 
dere, et in node '^ compertus (Cunocephalus), a^quali inter- 
ftitio fervato, Trifmegifto anfim dedit diem dividendi in 
duodecim partes aequales. Such is the hiftory of thefe won- 
derful '^ animals. That Apes and Baboons were amoncr 
the Egyptians held in veneration is very certain. The 

'* Ou, xa^a.7r?p roc Xoiira. ^o ix. £i' « «. fjt.ict TsAeuTa, arw xa; Tara?: aAAa 
jj.iioi ccvzccv xaO ixoe.q'm rijuspocv isxpa/uiii'GV vtto to-<v licioov aa.7r7ri<^ct.t, xrA» 

'Eoi'S S av cci IQS'oij.'nxovTa. tccxi S'uo TrAwcwoajffiv rifxicaif tots cAoi ctiro^vmy-zu 
Horapoilo. 1. i.e. 14, p. r„ 

" EiS Upov i-riii'a.V TT^MTOt 'X.ZfA.l^Vl Kwoxe^oAo::, SiXtoV aCVTiJ TraciaTi^aiv 

ypa/j.fjiccTa., xati ii ypa.;'ii. Horapoilo. 1. i. c. 14. p. 28. 

" Horapoilo. 1. i. c 16. p. 30. AooSexxTis rm y^fJiSras xaG' exccTW eapavupsC: 
<rcSi cLuro -^ Tccii ^uii vu^i irotii. x.tA. Speaking of the two Equinoxes.. 

" Hoffman : Cunocephalus. 

Voffiusde Idol. Vol. 2. I. 3. c. 78. 

'® What Orus Apollo attributes to the Cunocephalus, Damafcius (in Vita Ifi- 
dori) mentions of the Cat. Photii Bibliotheca. c. 242. p. lo^y. 


336 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ape was facred to the God Apis; and by the Greeks 
was rendered Capis, and '' Ceipis. The Baboon was de- 
nominated from the Deity " Babon, to whom it was equally 
facred. But what have thefe to do with the fuppofed Cu- 
nocephalus, which, according to the Grecian interpreta- 
tion is an animal with the head of a dog ? This charadler- 
iftic does not properly belong to any fpecies of Apes ; but 
feems to have been unduly appropriated to them. The term 
Cunocephalus, KvvoKS(pcc7\ogj is an Egyptian compound : and 
this ftrange hiftory relates to the priefts of the country, ftiled 
Cahen ; alfo to the novices in their temples ; and to the ex- 
aminations, which they were obliged to undergo, before they 
could be admitted to the priefthood. To explain this I 
muft take notice, that in early times they built their tem- 
ples upon eminences, for many reafons ; but efpecially for the 
iake of celcllial obfervations. The Egyptians were much 
addid:cd to the ftudy of aftronomy : and they ufed to found 
their colleges in upper Egypt upon rocks and hills, called by 

'' By Strabo exprtfTed K?i7ro<, who fays, that it was reverenced by the people 
at B.ibylon oppofite to Memphis. L. 17. p. 1 167, Kst-sroy ae 'BxSvAoori'-A u y.urx 
lsisu(^ii' (aeC'dc-i-) 

*° Babiin, T>aSut; of Hellanicus Lefbius. Athenseus. 1, 15. p. 6S0. called Be- 
bon, Lttw), by Manethon. Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. p. 371. 276. Babon was 
thought to have been the fame as Typhon: by ibme efteemed a female, and 
the wife of that peifonage. Plutarch, ibid. 

The Ape and Monkey were held facred, not in Egypt only, but in India-, and 
.likewife in a part of Africa. Diodorus Sicul. 1. 20. P. ygs. Maffcus men- 
tions a noble Pagoda in India, which was called the monkeys Pagoda. Hifloiia 
Ind. 1. I. p. 25: and Balbus takes notice of Peguan temples, called by the na- 
tives Vaiellc; in which monkeys were kept out of a religious principle. See 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 337 

them Caph. Thefe, as they were facred to the Sun, were 
farther denominated Caph-El, and fometimes Caph-Aur, and 
Caph-Arez. The term Caph-El, which often occurs in 
hiftory, the Greeks uniformly changed to Ks^aAy^, Cephale : 
and from Cahen-C:iph-El, the facred rock of Orus, they 
formed KvpoKE(py,KY}^ and Kv:^ozs(;:ccXo; ; which they fuppbfed 
to relate to an animal with the head of a dog. But this Ca- 
hen-Caph-El was certainly fome royal feminary in upper 
Fgypt ; from whence they drafted novices to fupply their col- 
leges and temples. Thefe young perfons were before their 
introdudion examined by fome fuperior priell ; and accord- 
ingly, as they anfwered upon their trial, they were admitted 
or refufed. They were denominated Caph-El, and Cahen« 
Caph-El, from the academy, where they received their firft 
inftru6lion : and this place, though facred, yet feems to have 
been of a clafs fubordinate to others. It was a kind of infe- 
rior cloifter and temple, fuch as Capella in the Romifn 
church ; which, as well as Capellanus, was derived from 
Egypt : for the church in its firft decline borrowed largely 
from that country. That there was fome particular place 
of this fort fituated upon a rock, or eminence, may, I think, 
be proved from Martianus Capella : and moreover that it was 
a feminary well known, v/here the youth of Upper Ep-ypt 
were educated. For in defcribing the fciences under differ- 
ent perfonages, he gives this remarkable account of Di- 
aledica upon introducing her before his audience. "" Heec fe 


*' Martianus Capella. L. 4. fub initio. 

Aftronomia is made to fpeak to the fame purpofe. — Per immenfa fpatia fe- 

VoL. I. X X ciilorum. 

338 The Analvsis of Ancient Mythology; 

educatam dicebat in j^gyptiorum Rupe \ atque in Parme- 
nidis exinde gyranafium, atque Atticam demeaffe. And 
Johannes Sarilburienfis feems to intimate, that Parmenides 
obtained his knowledge from the fame quarter, when he 
mentions " in Rupe vitam egific. In this fliort detail we 
have no unplealing account of the birth of fciencein Egypt ^ 
and of its progrefs trom thence to Attica. It is plain, that 
this rupes jEgyptiaca could be nothing elfe but a feminary, 
either the fame, or at leaft {imilar to that, which I have be- 
fore been defcribing. As the Cunocephali are faid to have 
been facred to Hermes, this college and temple were proba- 
bly in the nome of Hermopolis. Hermes was the patron of 
Science, and particularly ftiled Cahen, or *' Canis : and the 
Cunocephali are fiid to have been wor{l:»iped by the people of 
that ^'^ place. They were certainly there reverenced : and this 
hiftory points out very plainly the particular fpot alluded to.. 
Hermopolis was in the upper region ftiled Thebais : and 

Guloriim, ne profana loquacitate vulgarer, ^gyptiorum claufa adytis occulebar. 
Martianus Capilla. L. 8. 

"Johannes Sariiburienfis Metalogic. L. 2. p. 787. Editio Lugd. Bat. anno. 


He fpcaks of Parmenides, as if he were a native of Egypt : and feems to have 
underftood, that Parmenides took up his refidence in the Egyptian fcminary, in- 
order to obtain a thorough knowledge in fcience. Et licet Parmenides ^gyp- 
tius in rupe vitarn egerit, uc rationem Logices inveniret, tot et tantos ftudii ha- 
b'jit fucceflbres, ut ei inventionis fuse totam fere prseripuerint gloriam. 

'' Hermes v/as the fame as Anubis Latrator. Jablonfky. L. 5. c. i. 

Kura (Ttfiiii' ruTTTu cT' i'}^. Anaxandrides apud Athensum. L. 7. p. 300. 

'EpfJLYiv itvva. Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. 

*♦ Strabo. L. 1.7. p. 11 67. KwoxffaAo;' /g (r/^itjo-nO'E^/AOTroAiTai. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 339 

there was in this difl;ri6l a tower, fuch as has been ''^mentioned. 
It was in after times made ufe of for a repolitorv, where they 
laid up the tribute. This may have been the rupes lEgyp- 
tiaca, fo famed of old for fcience; and which was tiie feat of 
the Chancephalim, or Cunocephalians. 

It is faid of- the Cunocephali, that when one part was 
dead and buried, the other ftiil furvived. This can relate to 
nothing elfe but a fociety, or body politic, where there is a 
continual decrement,' yet part ftill remains ; and the whole 
is kept up by fuccellion. It is an enigma, which particu- 
larly relates to the prieflhood in Egypt : for the facred office 
there was hereditary, being vefted in certain families ; and 
when part was dead, a refidue flill '^ furvived, who admitted 
others in the room of the deceafed. '^ ETTsav^sTig CLTro^cLi/i'j, 
TUTH TTCcig ccniy.v.T 1^0.7 M. The fons, we find, fupplied the 
place of their fathers; hence the body itfelf never became 
extindt, being kept up by a regular fucceilion. As to the 
Cunocephali giving to Hermes the iirft hint of dividing the 
day into twelve parts from the exaclnefs, which was obferved 
in their *^ evacuations, it is a furmife almoft too trifling to 
be difcufled. I have fliewn, that the Cunocephali were a 
facred college, whofe members were perfons ot great learn- 

*''Eo,w.oxoAiTi;«;) (^vAax>i. Strabo. ihid. 

*" Analogous to this we read in Herodotus, that the Perfian brigade, whofe 
deficiencies were fupplied by continual recruits, was fliled xGxiccto^, immortalis. 
Herodotus. 1. 7. c. 8 j. 

It confided often thoufand men. 

*■" Herodotus. L. 2. c. 27- 

*' AooS'ey.a.Tis rv.epa.i v.aSi iv.x^m u^ccv OTPKI K-jroze^xAsf. Horapollo. 
L. I.e. 16. 

X X 2 ing : 

340 Thk Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOcy. 

ing : and thdr fociety feems to have been a very ancient in- 
ftitution. They were particularly addided to aftronomical 
obfervations ; and by contemplating the heavens, ftiled Ou- 
ran, they learned to diflinguifh the feafons, and to divide 
the day into parts. But the term Ouran the Greeks by a 
flrange mifconception changed to s^siv ; ot which miftake 
they have afforded other inftances : and from this abufe of 
terms the iilly iigment took its rife. 

The Cunocephali are not to be found in Egypt only, but 
in India likewife; and in other parts of the world. Hero- 
dotus *^ mentions a nation of this name in Libya : and 
fpeaks of them, as a race of men with the heads of dogs. 
Hard by in the neighbourhood of this people he places the 
AfcspaKoij men with no heads at all : to whom out of hu- 
manity, and to obviate fome very na-ijral diftreffes, he gives 
eyes in the breaft. But he feems to have forgot mouth and 
ears, and makes no mention of a nofe : he only fays, 
'' AKSipcMiy oi sv f ll^£c^/^' o^pQoi'h^sg z'^onsg. Both thefe and 
the Cunocephali v/ere denominated from their place of refi- 
dence, and from their worfhip : the one from Cahen-Caph- 
El, the other from Ac-Caph-El: each of which appellations 
is of the fame purport, the right noble, or facred ^° rock of 
the Sun. 


'■^ Herodor. L. 4. c. 193. 

Upon the Mare Krythrseumy IS'pufj.acKvvoj-xKpxXuv y.x^^'^fj.ii'oj'. Strabo. L. 16. 
p. U20. Alfo Pliny. L. 6. c. 30. and L. 7. c. 2. of Cunocephali in Ethiopia and. 

*'Herodot. L. 4. c. 191. 

'"Many places were named Cunocephale : all which will be found upon en- 
quiry to have been eminences, or buildings fituated on high, agreeably to this 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 341 

Similar to the hiftory of the Cunocephali, and Accphali, 
is that of the Cunodontes. They are a people mentioned 
by SoHnus and Ifidorus, and by them are fuppofed to 
have had the teeth of dogs. Yet they were probably deno- 
minated, like thofe above, from the objedl of their worlhip, 
the Deity Chan-Adon ; which the Greeks exprefied Kvi/o^ojv 
and ftiled his votaries '' Cunodontes. 

The Greeks pretended, that they had the iife of the 
fphere, and were acquainted with the zodiac, and its after- 
ifms very early. But it is plain from their miflakes, that 
they received the knowledge of thefe things very late ; at a 
time when the terms were obfolcte, and the true purport of 
them not to be obtained. They borrowed all the fchemes 
under which the ftars are comprehended, from the Egyp- 
tians ; who had formed them of old, and named them from 
circumftances in their own religion and mythology. They had 
.particularly conferred the titles of their Deities upon thofe 
flars, which appeared the brightest in their hemifphere. One 
of the mod remarkable and brilliant they called Cahen Se- 

etymo'ogy. KvyG(jy.i:px/\.v, AO'f'OS m (Bidaa-KiOLi. Stephanus Byzant. from 
Polybius. L. 17. 

K'jrcoi'3<g(faA«; near Scotiufla. AO^HN ■kvv.vmv ■n-oioa.XKriKcav AKPAI. Plu- 
tarch in Flaminino, of the fame place. 

The citadel at Thebes v/as called K'j.":;o-xe?:aA); by Xenophon. Thofe who 
fpeak of the Cunocephali as a people, dcfcribe then as Mountaineers. Megaf-- 
thenes per diverfos Indis montes effe fcribit nationes caninis capitibus. Solinus. 
C. 52. 

A promontory of this name upon the coaft of the Red Sea, mentioned above 
from Strabo.. Another promontory Cunocephale in Corcyra. Procopius. Goth.. 
L. 3. c. 27. 

'• Solinus. C. 4. and Ifidorus. Origi L. 9. de Portentis. 

5. hor:; 

342 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

hor ; another they termed Purcahen ; a third Cahen Ou- 
rah, or Cun Ourah. Thefe were all mifconftrued, and 
changed by the Greeks; Cahen- Sehor to Canis Sirius ; P'ur- 
cahcn to Procyon ; and Cahen Ourah to Cunofoura, the 
dog's tail. In rcfped: to this laft name I think, from the ap- 
plication of it in other inf!:ances, we may be affurcd, that it 
could not be in acceptation what the Greeks would perfuade 
us : nor had it any relation to a dog. There was the fummit 
of a hill in Arcadia of this '' name : alfo a prom.ontory in 
" Attica; and another in ^* Eubcea. How could it pofTibly 
in its commoxi acceptation be applicable to thefe places ? And 
as a conftellation if it fignified a dog's tail, hew came it to 
be a name given to the tail of a bear? It was a term brought 
from ^' Sidon, and Egypt : and the purport was to be fought 
for from the language of the Amonians. 

The ancient Helladians ufed upon every promontory to 
Taife pillars and altars to the God of light, Can-Our, the 
•Chan-Orus of Egypt. But Can-Our, and Can-Ourah, they 
■changed to /^yj'OO'Gi'^a, as I have fliewn : yet notwithftanding 
this corruption the true name is often to be difcovered. The 
place which is termed Cunofoura by Lucian in his Icarome- 
menippus, is called Cunoura by Stephanus Byzant. and by 

" Stcph. Byzantinus. 
'' Ptolemy. L. 3. c. 15. 

*' Hefychius. Alio a family at Lacedaemon, '5o/\); Accy.uTix.;j : and Cunofouroi, 
the name of a family at Megara. See Alexander ab Alexandre. 1. i.e. 17. 
'^Efle duas Anftos, quarum Cynofura petatur 
Sidoniis ; Helicen Graia carina notet. Ovid. P'aflor. L. 3. v. 107. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 343 

'^Paufanlas. Cunoura is alfo ufed by Lycophron, who under- 
ftood ancient terms full well, for any high rock or headland. 

lisvKiTig o^onag. 

He^og KWB^a, TT^og T^cf^sioig TrsT^ag. Schollaft. ibid. 

We iind the fame miftake occur in the account tranf- 
mitted to us concerning the firfl: difcovery of purple. The 
ancients very gratefully gave the merit of every ufeful and 
falutary invention to the Gods. Ceres was fuppofed to have 
difcovered to men corn, and bread : Ofiris fhewed them the 
ufe of the plough ; Cinyras of the harp : Vefta taught them 
to build. Every Deity was looked up to as the caufe of 
fome blefiing. The Tyrians and Sidonians were famous for 
the manufadure of purple : the die of which was very exqui- 
fite, and the difcovery of it was attributed to Hercules of 
Tyre ; the fame who by Palsphatus is fliled Hercules ^* Phi- 
lofophus. But fome will not allow him this honour; but 
fay, that the dog of Hercules was the difcoverer. For acci- 
dentally feeding upon the Murex, with which the coaft 
abounded, the dog ftained his mouth with the ichor of the 
£fh ; and from hence the firft hint of dying was ^' taken, 

*'' L. 3. p. C07. 

«' V. 99. 

*^ Palaephatus irect ((pi-joia-sojf^vXr,i. p. 124. 

" CalTiodorus of the purple. Cum fame canis avida in Tyrio littore projefla 
conchylia imprefiis mandibulis contudifier, ilia naturaliter humorem fanguineiim 
diffluentia ora ejus mirabili colore tinxerunt : et ut eft mos hominibus occafiones 
repentinas ad artes ducere, talia exempla meditantes fecerunt principibus decus 
nobile. L. 9. c. ^6. 

See alfo Chronicon Pafch-ale. P. 43. Achilles Tatius. L. 3. Julius Pollux. 
L, ir c- 4. p. 30. Ed. Amftel. Pliny. L. 9. c. 36,. 


344 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

This gave birth to the proverbial expreflion, *° 'Ev^rifm KVyo; 
YiV jj (Ts^oLS'Yj 7to^(pvooL. Noiinus mentions the particular cir- 
cumftance of the dog's ilaining his mouth : 

'^' 'KiovBCf.; 7^0P(pv^s Trct^rii^^g ciiixari ko'^Xs. 
Such is the ftory, which at firfl; fight is too childiln to admit 
of credit. It is not likely, that a dog vi^ould feed upon fhell-fifh : 
and if this may at any time have happened, yet whoever is 
at all converfant in natural hiftory, muft know, that the mu- 
rex is of the turbinated kind, and particularly aculeated ; 
having ftrong and fliarp protuberances, with which a dog 
would hardly engage. 1 he flory is founded upon the fame 
mifconception, of which fo many inftances have been pro- 
duced. Hercules of Tyre, like all other oriental divinities, 
was ftiled Cahen, and Cohen ; as was allowed by the Greeks 
themfelves. '^'" Tov 'H^ayJ^YiV (puTi KCiTO'. rt.v AiyvTTTKf^y oi,- 
oK^KTOV XONA Ksyz<x)-cii. We are told^ that Hercules in 
the la7iguage of ths Egyptians is called Cho?i. This intelli- 
gence however they could not abide by \ but changed this 
iacred title to '^^ Kvxy^ a dog, which they dcfcribed as an at- 
tendant upon the Deity. 

The Grecians tell us, that the Egyptians fliled Hermes a 
dog: but they feem to have been aware, that they were 
guilty of an undue reprefentation. Hence Plutarch tries to 

"*' Cyrus Prodronnis s^i aTro^nixy tv (^.Kta. 

"*' Noiini Dionyfiaca. L. 40. p. 1034. 

^' Etymologicum M:gnum. 

^' Johannes Antiochenus, v/ho tells the flory at large, fays, that purple was the 
■difcovery y.vvoi 7nty.ivix.->.^ which in the original hiftory was undoubtedly a l]iep- 
ierd king. 


The Analysis of Ancient MvTHOLocy. 3^5 

foften, and qualify what is mentioned, by faying, *^ Ov ycc^ 
KV^iOjg Tov 'E^[jLYii/ KTNA KByaTiv (0; KiyvTcrioi) : by which 
this learned writer would infinuate, that it was not fo much 
the name of a dog, as the qualities of that animal, to which 
the Egyptians alluded. Plutarch thought by this refinement 
to take off the impropriety of conferring fo bafe a name upon 
a Deity. But the truth is, that the Egyptians neither be- 
ftowed it nominally ; nor alluded to it in any degree. The 
title, which they gave to Hermes, was the fame, that they 
beftowed upon Hercules: they expreffed it Cahen, and Co- 
hen ; and it was very properly reprefented above by the 
Greek term Xco;/, Chon. It is faid of Socrates, that he 
fometimes made ufe of an uncommon oath, (jLoc top kvi'ck., jcoli 
TOV "^riVOCi by the dog and the goofe : which at firfl does not 
feem confiftent with the gravity of his charadter. But we 
are informed by Porphyry, that this was not done by way of 
ridicule : for Socrates efteemed it a very ferious and religious 
mode of atteftation ; and under thefe terms made a folemii 
appeal to the fon of +^ Zeus. The purport of the words is 

ob\'ious : 

'^^ Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. P. 355 

■^^ Qui'e 'Xooy~pccTr,i -rov xuicc y.ixi tov x^vcc o/MVi S7ra.iC,sy. Porphyry de Aftinen- 
tia. L. 3. p. 286. 

It is faid to have been firft inftituted by Rhadamanthus of Crete : Ey.sXsva-e 
( Vcc^afAccvQv^} xccrcc x^i'oi, Kxi Kwoi., xcci K^m of/.vwa.i. Euftathius upon Homer. 
Odyff. T. P. 1 871. 

See Ariftophan. 0^r<9g-. Scholia, v. 521. O/y.^i/ra/ xiXiuaai (Pa.iay.cciOin') 
•^ywoi^ v_xi ■Kvvce., y.tX. from Socrates. L. 12. de Rebus Creticis. 

The ancient Abantes of Euboea ftiled Zeus himfelf Cahen ; called in after- 
times Censeus. There was a promontory of the fame name : Kmany kkomt/i^ 

Vol.1. Yy ^,;v 

34^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

obvious : and vyhatever hidden meaning there may have been> 
the oath was made ridiculous by the abfurdity of the terms. 
Befides, what poiTible connexion could there have fubfifted 
between a dog and a Deity ; a goofe and the fon of Jove ^ 
There was certainly none : yet Socrates, like the reft of his 
fraternity, having an antipathy to foreign terms, chofe to 
rcprefent his ideas through this falfe medium ; by which 
means the very eflence of his invocation was loft. The Ion 
of Zeus, to whom he appealed, was the Egyptian Cahen 
abovementioned ; but this facred title was idly changed to 
KVVOL KQLi YYivcij a dog and a goofe, from a limilitude in 
found. That he referred to the Egyptian Deity is manifeft 
from Plato, who acknowledges, that he fwore, +^ |W.a rov kvvcl 
7Q'J AiyVTrr^ii^v ^sov. By which we are to underftand a Ca- 
hen of Egypt. Porphyry exprefly fays, that it was the God 
Hermes the fon of Zeus, and Maia : '^^ KccTcc Toy 73 Aiog Kca 
Mcciag tcoh^ol siiotsiro top o^/.ov. 

I cannot account upon any other principle than that, 
upon which I have proceeded, for the ftrange reprefen- 
tation of Apollo, and Bacchus, gaping with open mouths. 
So it feems they were in fome places defcribed. Clemens 
of Alexandria mentions from Polemon, that Apollo was thus 

(!tov (A^avTWj-) Steph. Byzant. Here Hercules was fuppofed to Rave facrificed 
after his conquefl: of y^ichalia. 

Vidlorab jEchalia Censeo facra parabat 
Vota Jovi. Ovid. Metamorph. L. 9. V. 136. 
Sophocles in Trachin. V. 242. mentions, B&juy<, t£A>;t' iyy.a^Ta. YLwatoiAiu 
"♦^ Plato in Gorgia. Vol. i. p. 482. 
^' Porphyry. L. 3. p. 286. fo correded by Jablonflvy. l^. v. c. i. p. 10. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 3^7 

exhibited : ^° TloXeixoov Jg fcsy^iVoroi; hTCoK'Kmog oihv oiycx.KfjL(x., 
And we are told, that a gaping '' Bacchus was particularly 
worfliiped at Samos. They were both the fame as the 
Egyptian Orus ; who was ftiled Cahen-On, Rex, vel Deus 
Sol ; out of which Cahen-On the Grecians feeni to have 
formed the word Xaivctjv : and in confequence of it, thefe 
two Deities were reprefented with their jaws widely ex- 
tended. This term was fometimes changed to Koivog^ com- 
munis : hence it is that we fo often meet with y.oii^oi Qsoiy 
and KQiVQi ba)|U.o/, upon coins and marbles : alfo fioivog 'E^^Yig, 
And as Hermes was the reputed God of gain, every thing 
found was adjudged to be KOivog, or common. 

^* AAA' s^iho-ot 
EjaTTiJ//]?, 'E^fi'rig zoiuog, S(pri ^vyccrrj^. 
5^ Koivov sipcui Tov 'E^^riv, 
Notwithftanding this notion fo univerfally received, yet 
among the Grecians themfelves the term aoiuog was an an- 
cient title of eminence. ^^ KoiJ/o^, Ascttotjij. Coinos fig- 
fiijies a lord a72d majler : undoubtedly from Cohinus ; and 
that from Cohen. It would be endlefs to enumerate all 
the inftances which might be brought of this nature. Of 
this, I think, I am aflured, that whoever will confider the 
uncouth names both of Deities, and men, as well as of places, 
in the light recommended; and attend to the mythology 

" Clementis CohoTtatio. P. 32. 

" Pliny. L. 8. p. 446. 

'- Anthologia. L. i. Epigram. 144. 

" Theophraft. Charadl. 

i* Hefychius. 

Y y 2 tranf- 

34^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tranfmitted concerning them ; will be able by thefe helps to 
trace them to their original meaning. It is, I think, plain, that 
what the Grecians fo often interpreted Kvvsg^ was an ancient 
Amonian title. When therefore I read of the brazen dog 
of Vulcan, of the dog of Erigone, of Orion, of Geryon, of 
Orus, of Hercules, of Amphilochus, of Hecate, I cannot 
but fuppofe, that they were the titles of fo many Deities ; 
or elfe of their priefls, who were denominated from their 
office. In fhort the Cahen of Egypt were no more dogs, 
than the Pater?e of Amon were bafons : and though Diodo- 
rus does fay, that at the grand celebrity of ^^ Ids the whole 
was preceded by dogs, yet I cannot help being perfuaded 
that they were the priefts of the Goddefs. 

By this clue we may unravel many intricate hiftories tranjf- 
mitted from different parts. In the temple of Vulcan near 
mount JEtn2i there are faid to have been a breed of dogSj 
which fawned upon good men, but were implacable to the 
bad. ^^ Inde etiam perpetuus ignis a Siculis alebatur in ^t- 
nffio Vulcani templo, cui cuftodes adhibiti funt facri canes, 
blandientes piis hominibus, in impios ferocientes. In the 
celebrated gardens of Eledlra there was a golden dog, which 
fhewcd the fame regard to good men, and was as inveterate 
to others. 

" X^v<rsog oi^oLivoPTi kvxv (rvyvKazTss Aa/^w 

lidiVm Yl^CL^CL (pOiTCC. 

■' Diodorus Siculus de pompa Ifiaca. L. i. p. 78. 
" Huetius. Prsep. Evang. P. 86. from Cornutus de natura Deomm.' 
A like hiftory is given of ferpents in Syria by Ariftotle, Trepi ha.vij.a.(ji(av a.v.3a:- 
)j.<}v : and by Pliny and Ifidorus of birds in the iOands of Diomedes. 
" Nonni Dionyfica. L 3. p. 94' 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 349 

What is more remarkable, there were many gaping dogs in 
this temple ; which are reprefented as fo many ftatues, yet 
were endowed with life. 

^^ Xa.(rfJLOf.(ri TroiriroKn (T£(rY]^orsg cLv^B^i(j)vzg 

Homer defcribes fomething of the fame nature in the gar- 
dens of Alcinous. 

^' X^v(rsioi J" sKOLTs^h KOLi ct^yv^sQi y.vvsg Yi<T(lv, 
Ovg 'H(paig-og srsv^sv ihiricri 7r^a7ri^s(r(nv^ 
A^avoLTug oncig., koli ctyiTi^oog y^^oltol Tta-vroL. 
All this relates to the Cufean priefts of Vulcan or Flephaiftos 
and to the prieflhood eftabliilied in his temple : which 
priefthood was kept up by fucceiTion, and never became ex- 
tind. What was Cufean, the Greeks often rendered X^vcrsiovt 
as I {hall hereafter £hew. The fame people were alfo ftiled 
Cuthim ; and this word likewife among the ancients fignified 
gold : from hence thefe priefts were filled X^vir&iot Kvvzg. 
We find the like hiflory in Crete : here too was a golden 
dog, which Zeus had appointed to be the guardian of his 
temple*". By comparing thefe hifhories I think we cannot 
fail of arriving at the latent meaning. The God of light 
among other titles was ililed Cahen, or Chan-Ades : but the 
term being taken in the fame acceptation here, as in the 
inftances above, the Deity was changed to a dog, and faid; 

" Ibid: 

" Homer. OdyfT. L. 8. v. 92.. 

'° Toi' Kwcc rov ^^vai'-jy ccTriSu^iv (0 2ey«) (pvAxTTUv to is^ov o' Kp>)T>t. Anto- 
ninus Liberalis. C. ^5. p. 180. 


350 The Analysis of Ancien-t Mythology. 

to refide in the infernal regions. From hence he was fup- 
pofed to have been dragged to light by Hercules of Thebes. 
The notion both of Cerberus and Hades being fubterraneous 
Deities took its rife from the temples of old being fituated 
near vafl: caverns, which were efteemed pafTages to the realms 
below. Such were in Meffenia, in Argolis, in Bithynia, and 
at Enna in Sicily ; not to mention divers other places. Thefe 
temples were often named Kir- Abor ; and the Deity Chan- 
Ades ; out of which terms the Greeks formed Tov Ks^bS^ov 
KWOL ada ; and fabled, that lie was forced into upper air 
by Hercules through thefe infernal inlets. And as temples 
fimilar in name and Htuation were built in various parts, the 
like hiftory was told of them ail. Paufanias takes notice of 
this event, among other places, being afcribed to the cavern 
at *' Tcenarus ; as well as to one at ^* Trcezen, and to a third 
near the city ^' Hermione. The Poet DionyGus fpeaks of 
the feat being performed in the country of the Marianduni 
near Colchis. 

Xs^crii/ oLvzKzoixzvov ^syaKrjTo^og 'H^a/iA/^oj, 
But however the Deity in all thefe inftances may have been 

' Paufania-s of Txnarus. L. 3. p. 275. 

''- ■ of Trcezen. L. 2. p. 183. 

*' - of Hermione. L. 2. p. 196. 

** Dionyf. n?^:;;^)!:. V. 791. This temple ftood, according to Diodorns Sicu- 
lus and Arrian, in the country of the Cimmerians near the Acheriifian Cherfo- 
aefe. Sec Scholia to Dionyfius above. 

5 degraded 

The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 351 

degraded to the regions of darknefs, yet he was the God of 
light, Kvu-dOYi^-y and fuch was the purport of that name. 
He was the fame as Apollo, as may be proved from 
the Cunidae at Athens, who were a family fet apart for 
his fervice. Ki»mJa/, ysvog A&r]i/i^(rivj sj ov 6 k^avg th 
Kvvvis ATToKKmog. Helychius. 77)e Cun?iidai are a fa- 
mily at Athens ; out of which the priefl of Apollo Cunnius 
is chofen. He ftiles him Apollo Cunnius : but the Cunidai 
were more properly denominated from Apollo Cunides, the 
fame as Cun-Ades. Pofeidon was exprefly ftiled Cun-Ades; 
and he was the fame Deity as Apollo ; only under a differ- 
ent title, as I have fhewn. Kyj/aJ"/]? Iloo's/Jwy K^tiVtiTiV £t/- 
^iiro. Hefychius. Pofeidon was worfoiped at Athens under' 
the title of Cun-Ades. 

Though I have endeavoured to fliew, that the term, of 
which I have been treating, was greatly mifapplied in being 
fo uniformly referred to dogs ; yet I do not mean to infinu- 
ate, that it did not fometimes relate to them. They were 
diftinguifhed by this facred title, and were held in fome de- 
gree of ^^ veneration : but how far they were reverenced is 
not eafy to determine. Herodotus " fpeaking of the fandity 
of fome animals in Egypt, fays, that the people in every fa- 
mily, where a dog died, fhaved themfelves all over: and he 
mentions it as a cuftoni ftill fubfifling in his own time. Plu- 
tarch^^ differs from him. He allows, that thefe animals v/ere at 

*' Oppida tota canem venerantur. Jvivenal. Sat. 15. v. 8. 
' Diodorus. L. i. p. i6. 
*' Herodotus. L. 2. c. dS. 
'U^lutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. P. 368. 


352 The Analysis of Axcient Mythology. 

one time efteemed holy ; but it was before the time of 
Cambyfes : from the aera of his reigii they were held in ano- 
ther light : for when this king killed the facred Apis, the 
dogs fed fo liberally upon his entrails without making a pro- 
per diftindion, that they loft all their fandlity. It is of lit- 
tle confequence, whichever account be the trueft. They 
were certainly of old looked upon as facred ; and efteemed 
emblems of the Deity. And it was perhaps with a view 
to this, and to prevent the Ifraelites retaining any notion of 
tliis nature, that a dog was not fuffqred to come within the 
precin£ls of the temple at ^^ Jerufalem. In the Mofaic law 
the price of a dog, and the hire of a harlot are put upon the 
fame level. *' Ihou JJmlt 7iot bri?7g the hire of a whorc^ or the 
price of a dog^ into the hoiife of the Lord thy God for aiiy 
vow : for both thefe are an abotniiiation to the Lord thy 


Toconcl-ude : The Dog in Egypt was undoubtedly called 

Cahen, and Cohen ; a title by which many other animals 

and even vegetables were honoured, on account of their 

beino- confecrated to fome Deity. The Greeks did not con- 

fider, that this was a borrowed appellation, which belonged 

to the Gods, and their Priefts ; and was from them extended 

to many things held facred. Plence they have continually 

referred this term to one objc6l only : by which means they 

have mifreprefented many curious pieces of hiftory ; and a 

number of idle fables have been devifed to the difparagement 

of all that was true. 

** E^w v.vvii was a proverbial exprcffion among the Jews. 
^•''Deuteronomy. C. 23. v. 18, 


< 353 ) 

O F 

G H U S 

S T I L E D 

X P T S O S, and X P T £ A £2 P. 

AMONG the difFerent branches of the great Amo- 
nian family, which fpread themfelves abroad, the 
fons of Chus were the moft confiderable ; and at 
the fame time the mofi; enterprifiing. They got accefs into 
countries widely diftant ; where they may be traced under 
different denominations, but more particularly by their fa- 
mily title. This we might expeft the Greeks to have ren- 
dered Chufos, and to have named the people XvTaiot, Chu- 
faei. But by a fatal mifprifion they uniformly changed thefe 
terms to words more familiar to their ear, and rendered 
them X^yo'o?, and X^vcrsiog, as if they had a reference to 
gold. I have before mentioned the various parts of the 
world, where the Amonians fettled ; and efpecially this 
branch of that family. Their moft coniiderable colonies 
weft ward were in Ionia, and Hellas j and about Cuma, and 
Vol. I. Z z Liguria 

354 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ligiiria in Italy; and upon the coaft of Iberia in Spainv. 
'i"iiey were likevvife to be found in Cjrene; and ftill farther 
in Mauritania, and in the iflands oppofite to that coaft. 
In the nortli they were to be met with at Colchis, towards' 
the foot of Mount Ciucafas, and in mofl: regions upon the* 
coafi: of the Euxine fea. In the hiflories of thefe countries 
the Grecians have conflantly changed Chufos, the Gentile- 
name, to ChrufoSj X^V(ro; ; and Chus-Or, Ghuforus, to X^y- 
trw^, Chrufor : and in confcquence ot this alteration they 
have introduced in their accounts of thefe places fome legend- 
about gold. Hence we read of a golden fleece at Colchis ;. 
golden apples at the Hefpcrides ; at ' Tartefius a golden.: 
cup ; and at Cuma in Campania a golden branch: 
Aureus et foliis, et lento vimine, ramus. 
Something fimilar is obfervable in the hiftory of Cyrene.- 
The natives were not remarkable for either mines, or mer- 
chandife : yet Pal^ephatus having mentioned that they were 
Kara yspog A/^/otsj, Ethiopians by extradion, that is, Cu- 
feans, fubjoins: -EiTi Js (r(po^PCi p/^t;croi. Pindar in celebrat- 
ing each happy circumflance of the Infjl^ Fortunataj men- 
tions, that there were trees with branches of gold : ' AvJe^.cc. 
OB Y^^V(T^ (p7\syBi. The river Phafis in Colchis was fuppofed 

* In this 2:olden cup Hercules was fuppofed to have pafTed over the ocean. 
Xputrgo:— — SiTTccf, iv u rov cti'ttiavov Si?.7ripu.aei' UcctxAyj;. Apoliodorus. L. 2. 
p. 100. 

There was likcwife in the fame place a flory about a golden belt. Philo- 
Aratus : Vita ApoUon. L. 5. p. 212. 

* PalcEphatus. Edit. Elz. 1642. p. y6. the author would not fay afoJ''-a ttAw- 
c-ioi., but keeps to the ancient term ;^fi;joi, though it is fcarce lenfe. 

'Pindar. Olymp. Ode 2. 7-^9. cf. P. 25. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^-^^ 

to have abounded with gold : and the like was pretended oF 
the Flermus and Pa6loliis in Ionia. Not only the Poets, but 
many of the graver '^ hiftorians fpeak of their golden fands. 
Yet there is reafon to doubt of the fail: for not one of 
them produces any good voucher for v;hat they fuppofe. 
They do not mention any trade carried on, nor riches accru- 
ing from this lucky circumftance : fo that there is no reaforl 
to think, that one grain of gold was gathered from thefe ce- 
lebrated ftreams. Among the fcveral iflands occupied by 
this people were Rhodes, and Delos. In the former the chief 
city is (Iild to have been blefied with (liowers of gold. ^ Ejj^x 
TiOTS ^^S'^s ^socv BoL(n?^svg o ^syotg '^PVTOLig vi:poLh(r(n TrrJ^ii/. 
At Delos every thing was golden, even the flippers of the 

X^VfTea. iiofA ret its^iKci^ 7roAoyjv<Tog yctp AiroXT^oov, 
And this not only in after times, when the ifland was en- 
Tiched with ofterings from different nations, but even at 
the birth of the God ; by which is nieant the foundation of 
liis temple, and introdudion of his rites. 

^ X^ycrsa toi tots ttccvtcc ^sy^siXia ysii/aTo, A>i7.s, 

* Xct;(70(pf^8(7i fi' gjc T8 KavxaaB TroXKcti Tr'AycLt -^nyixa cx.(pxve<;. Appian de 
Eello Michridat. P. 242. Salauccs, an ancient king of Colchis, was faid to have 
abounded with gold. Pliny. L. ^2' ^•^5- P- 614. Arrian fuppofes that they 
put fleeces into the rivers to intercept (4">/t-'a a(j^aig ) this imperceptible 
mineral : and that from hence arofe the fable of the Golden Fleece. 

' Pindar. Olymp. Ode 7. p. 64. 

* Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo, V. 34. 

In like manner there was a fhower of gold at Thebes in Bceotia. Pindar 
fpeaks of Jupiter j<^va-u> y.ia-oivxriGy it(poiTct. Ilthm. Ode 7. p. 476. 
' Callimachus. Hymn to Delos. V. 260. 

Z Z 2 X^VQ-Ou 

2^6 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOGie. 

We find, that the very foil and foundations of the iflanci' 
were golden : the lake floated with golden waves : the olive 
tree vegetated with golden fruit i. and the river Inopus, deep 
as it was, fwelled with gold. Homer in a Hymn to the 
fame perfonage reprefents the whole more compendioufly by 
faying, that the ifland was weighed down with treafure :. 

I have before mentioned, that the Amonians fettled in Ligu-^ 
ria : and in confequence of it the Heliadas are reprefented as 
weeping not only amber, but gold. PhiloftratuSj fpeaking of 
a particular fpecies of fir-trees in Boetica, fays, that they 
dropped blood, juft as the Heliada; upon the Padus did ' gold. 
Chus by the Egyptians and Canaanites was fliled Or- 
Chus, and '" Chus-Or ; the latter of which was exprefled 
by the Greeks, analogous to the examples above, X^ya'w^y 

® Homer. Hymn to Apollo. V. 135. 

' Tiivx-m eiS'oi he^oy' A6<cg^a/ J'' dijL'.ari, v.cSa.7rio ru ^^cveruj tup 'hXicclx 
aiyet^ov. PhlloftratLis. L. 5. p. 21 1. iEfchylus mentions the Arimafpians as liv- 
ing upon a golden ftream; 

Oi 'Kpvaopi.vToir 
OfjcBa-ii' ay-p iciuoc nAeT&'vss vro^y. Prometheus. P. 49. 

" Hence the celebrated city in Egypt had the name of Cerchufora. Some 
traces of Orcus may be found in Zeus Hircius, and Orcius, mentioned by Pau- 
fanias. L. 5. p. 442. He fuppofes the name to be from ioxoi, an oath, and 
mentions a legend to that purpofe. 

Chrufor t 

The AisfALYsrs of Ancient Mythology. 357 

Chrufor : and we learn in F.ufebius from Philo, that Chru- 
for was one of the principal Deities of the Phenicians, a 
great benefactor to mankind ; and by fome fuppofed to have 
been the fame as Hephaiftus. Both the Tyrians and Sido- 
nians were undoubtedly a mixed race ; and preferved the 
memory of Ham, and Chus, equally with that of Canaan. 

This name fo often rendered Chrufos, and Chrufor, was 
fometimes changed to X^vu'cccf)^^ Chrufaor ; and occurs in 
many places, where the Cuthites were known to have fettled. 
We have been fhewn, that they were a long time in Egypt ; 
and we read of a Chrufaor in thofe parts, who is faid to 
have arifen from the blood of Medufa. 

We meet with the fame Chrufaor in the regions of Afia Mi- 
nor, efpecially among the Carians. In thefe parts he was 
particularly worshiped, and faid to have been the firfi: deified 
mortal. The great Divan of that nation was called Chru- 
faorium ; and there was a city '* Chrufaoris ; and a temple 
of the fame name. '^ Eyyvg Js tyi; TtoKeoog to ra X^V(rcic^£ocg 
Aiog KOivop dTranm Kot^c^p, sig 6 <rvnc(,ri ^v<T0Lnzg rs koh ^a-- 
?^£V(rcc[j,suQi. This city was properly called Chus-Or ; and built 
in memory of the fame perfon, as the city Chufora, called" 
alfo '* Cerchufora, in Egypt. It was undoubtedly founded 

" Hefiod. Theog. V. 281. 

" X^vc-cto^ii, TTo^it Ka^/a? E7ra(p^oS'irQi J'srriV Kaoiccv Traactt' 'Kcvtrxopi'fx 

Xeysvbcu ((fw;). Steph. Byzant; 

" Strabo. L. 14. p. 975. Zeus was a title conferred upon more than one of 
the family. 

'* HcTodotus. L. 2. c. 15. Alfo C. 17. and ^y. calkd by Strabo Kfpx?crBfcc. 
L. 17. p. 1 1 6a. 

orS The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

by fome of the fame family, who in aftertimes vvorfliiped 
their chief anceftor ; as the Sidonians and Syrians did like- 
wife. For this wc have the teftimony oi Sanchoniathon ; 
who having mentioned the various benefits befliovved upon 
mankind by Chrufaor, fays at the conciufion, '^ A/o y.txi w; 
^Bov civrov i^gTa ^avctrov sirs^cT^yiTav' for isohich reafon after 
his death they worfjiped him as a God. The firft king of 
Iberia was named Chrufaor, the reputed father of '^ Ge- 
ryon ; and he is faid to have been ^oAy^^'Jcro?, a perfon of 
great wealth : all which is an Egyptian hiRory transferred 
from the Nile to the Bostis. 

Geryon of Spain vi'as, according to this mythology of the 
Poet, the fon of Chrufaor ; and Chrufaor was confefTedly of 
Egyptian original : fo that whatever the fable may allude to, 
it mufl; have been imported into Boetica from Egypt by fome 
of the fons of Chus. The Grecians borrowed this term, and 
applied it to Apollo ; and from this epithet, Chrufaor, he 
was denominated the God of the golden fvvord. Homer 
accordingly ftiles him '^ A^oAAwva X^ycrao^a : and fpeaking 
.of Apollo's infancy he fays, '' Ov^' a^' A7ro?^?.mci X^v<Toi,o^ft 

" Sanchoniathon apiid Eufeb. Prsp. Evan. L. i. p. 25' 

" Diodorus Sic. L, 4. p. 224. 

"Hefiod. Theog. V. 287. 

TpitTuy.arcv€oT,jp' E^vdetai. Euripides. Hercules Furens, V. 423. 

'« Homer. Iliad. O. V. 256. 

'" Homer, Hymn to Apollo. V. 123. 

4: ^/^(rccTo 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 2S9 

^iTifTOLro (JL/jTr;^ : and Diana is termed " AvTo;iciQ'iyi'riTY\ X^y- 

(TOLo^og KicoKk'j^vQg. 

This title cannot poffibly relate to the implement fup- 
pofed : for it would be idle to ftile an inflint the God of the 
golden fword. It was a weapon, which at no time was af- 
cribed to him : nor do I believe, that he is ever reprefented 
with one either upon a gem, or a marble. He is defcribcd as 
wi{hing for a harp, and for a bow. 

And his mother is faid to have been pleafed, that fhe pro- 
duced him to the world an archer ; 

'OvvsKd ro^oipo^ov h.cli kcl^ts^ov viov £Ti;iTsy. 
Thefe habiliments are often fpecified : but I do not recollecfl 
any mention made of a fword, nor was the term Chrufaor 
of Grecian etymology. 

Since then we may be aiTured that Chus was the perfon 
alluded to under the name of Chrufos, Chrufor, and Chru- 
faor ; we need not wonder that his fubftitute Apollo is fo often. 
ftiled X^V(roKoiJ.r.g^ and X^V7oKv^og : that the harp, called by 
the Amcnians ^' Chan-Or, and Cuth-Or, from the fuppofed 
inventor, fhould by the Grecians be denomJnated X^vrsx. 
(po^l^iy^ '■^AtoMwj'o^ : that fo many cities, where Apollo, was 

*° Second Hymn to Diana. V. 3. 

Perfeus is ftilcd y^^vaaoc^oi in Orpheus de Lapid. C. 15. v. 41, 

*' Homer. Hymn to Apollo. V. 131. 

"Ibid. V. 126. 

*' Apollo was reprefented as the author of the lyre, called among the orientat 
nations Kinor, and Cuthar : from the latter of which came xitac;?, and cithara in. 
the weft. 

^-^ Pindar. Pyth. Ode 1. 


360 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt. 

particularly worfhiped, fhould be called Chrufe, and Chrufo- 
polis ; the number of which was of no fmall '■^ amount. Nor 
is this obfervable in cities only, but in rivers, which were 
named in the fame manner. For it was ufual in the firft 
ages to confecrate rivers to Deities, and to call them after 
their names. Hence many were denominated from Chu- 
forus, which by the Greeks was changed to ^^viroppoxg ; 
and from this miftake they were fuppofed to abound v/ith 
gold. The Nile was called Chruforrhoas ^^, which had no pre- 
tentions to gold : and there was a river of this name at *^ Da- 
mafcus. Others too might be produced, none of which had 
any claim to that. mineral. There was a ftream Chruforrhoas 
near the Amazonian city Themifcura in ^* Pontus : and the 
river Paclolus was of old fo called, whence probably came the 
notion of its abounding with gold. '■^ HcczrooKoi; TroTOLfJiog sg-t 
rri; Av^iag — — szolKsito Js tt^otb^ov X^v(rQf)pooo;. It was 
named Chruforrhoas firft, and in aftertimes Padolus: whence 
WQ may conclude in refpe6l to gold, that the name was not 

*' yipuan, « TToAiS T'd AiroXXoovoi eyyvi A>im'3—/.xi tk AsaCicii tottos* 
riai'/ifanria rm Ajifxvj a.KpeoTiiPioi-—x.ati ev Biuvpta.^ xcci iri^t Xa'Ax.ii^Gvz, xai Tm 
Kocpicci' -fCcci ev T/1 ''i I Aco^iov yreS'iov xcu iv EXXna-TrovTM' iq-i y.txiai^n 
X«pp3M;cro5 Tijs IvS'ixw ev Se t>i exros ravya hSix.ri. Stephanus Byzant. 

See alfo yLouasTrohn ibidem. 

^' Cedrenus. P. 12. 

'■' Strabo. L. 16. p. 1095. 

'' Hoftman Lexic. 

" Plutarch de fluminibus. P. 1151. The original name was Chrufaor, which 
had no relation to a golden ftream : at leaft that part of it was fo named which 
rs.n through the city Maftaura. See Stephanui Byzant. Ma'^ccv^'x.. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 361 

given on account of any fuch circumftancc ; but the notion 
was inferred from the name. 

It is apparent that this repeated miftake arole in great 
meafure from the term Chufus and Chrufus being fimilar : 
whence the latter was eafily convertible into the former ; 
which to the Grecians appeared a more intelligible, and at 
the fame time a more fplendid, title. But there was ftill 
another obvious reafon for this change. Chus was by many 
of the eaftern nations exprefied Cuth ; and his poflerity the 
Cuthim. This term in the ancient Chaldiiic, and other 
Amonian languages, fignified ^° gold : hence many cities and 
countries, where the Cuthites fettled, were defcribed as 
golden, and were reprefented by the terms Chrufos and 
Chrufe. Thefe, as I have fhewn, had no relation to gold, 
but to Chus, who was reverenced as the Sun, or Apollo ; 
and was looked upon as Dionufus; but may more truly be 
efteemed Bacchus. Hence, when the poet Dionyfius men- 
tions the ifland Chrufe in ^' India, his commentator obferves ; 
X^ucrj] VYi(rogj ?\£yofjLSVYi ^Toog^ y} ^iol ro '^^V(Tov (ps^siv, yi kcltcl 
rov AiQi/v<rQV' and at laft concludes, ^* X^v(r8g siPdi Troog ^ozsi 

In a former dilTertation concerning the Shepherd Kings in 
Egypt, I hav^e fhewn that they were the fons of Chus, who 

»° ana of the Hebrews. 

'' Dionyfius ire^r/^ym. V. ^^g. Scholia ibidem. 

'^ The ancients, as I have before obferved, were not confident in their theo- 
logy. The Sun was properly Cham, ftiled aUb Orus j but, as a title, was 
bellowed upon more perfons than one. 

Vol. I. A a a came 

362 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

came into that country under the title of Auritae. They fet- 
tled in a province named from them Cuflian, which was at 
the upper part of Delta ; and in after times called Nomos^ 
Arabicus. It was in the vicinity of Memphis, and Aphro- 
ditopolis, which places they likewife ^' occupied. I have 
mentioned that Chufos was often expreffed Chrufos, and the 
country of the Cuthim rendered the golden country. If 
then there be that uniformity in errour which I maintain, it 
may be expedled that in the hiftory of thefe places there 
fhould be fome reference to gold. It is remarkable that all 
this part of Egypt, conformably to what I have laid, was 
called X^V(rr,j Chrufe. Here was the campus aureus, and' 
Aphrodite Aurea of the Romans: and all the country about 
Memphis was ftiled golden. To this Diodorus, among- 
others, bears witnefs : ^^ T)iv Ts A(p^o^i7Y]V ovofJiOK^Si^cci ttcc^cc^ 
roig Byx-^^^ioig Xp^'J EK HAAAIAS nAPAAOSEOi:,- 

KOLl Tre^lOV StVCll KCi?\.iifJLSJ/OV X^VCTYig A(pfi0^iTYig TTS^I TYiV ovovlol- 

io'^svYiV MsfJ^piv. When the Cuthite fiiepherds came into- 
Egypt, they made Memphis the feat of royal " refidence : 
and hard by was- the nome of Aphrodite, and the Arabian: 
nome, which they particularly poffeffed : and which in con- 
fequence of it were both ftiled the regions of the Cuthim.- 
Hencc came the title of ^^ Aphrodite Chrufe : and hence- 

''" Jofc'phus of Salatis, the firit Shepherd King; 'OuToi iv t/j Mefx.(^iSt xcas— 
ytviro. Contra Apion. L. i. §. 14. 

'♦Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. ?>>. 

'' Joft-phiis contra Apion. L, i. c 14. 

-' Juftin Martyr mentions this : Uyvit) ya^ xxi -rijj.ivoi "Xcva-rii A(po'j^tTHi sv 
AiyvTTTCfj ^<syofAei'ov,xca TTi'^'ioi'^pvaiK AippoS'iTiji ovou.x^oy.{:yiy. Cohort. P. 28* 
Chrufe .Aphrociitc is plainly the Culhite Venus ; the Deity of the Cuthiin. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 363 

the country had the name of the Golden diftrid. The 
ifland at the point of Delta, where ftood the city Cercuforaj 
is called Gieferat " Eddahib, or the Golden Illand, at this 
day. Diodorus mentions, that this appellation of Chrufe 
was derived from a very antient traditio?i. This tradition, 
undoubtedly related to the fhepherds, thofe fons of Chus, 
who were fo long in pofTeffion of the country ; and whofe 
hiftory was of the higheft antiquity. 

The Cuthites in the weft occupied only fome particular 
fpots : but from Babylonia eaftward the greateft part of that 
extenfive fea-coaft feems to have been in their pofTeflion. In 
the hiftory of thefe parts there is often fome allufton to gold, 
as may be feen in the ifland Chrufe, above mentioned ; and 
in the Cherfonefus Aurea, which lay beyond the Ganges : 
and not only of gold, but fometimes a reference to brafs ; 
and this from a ftmilar miftake. For as Chi ufus was changed 
to Chrufus, yi^'o^d';^ gold ; fo was Gal -Chus, the hill, or 
place of Chus, converted to Chalcus, ^(x.XKog^ brafs. Col- 
chis was properly Col-Chus ; and therefore called alfo Cuta, 
and Cutaia. But what was Colchian being fometimes ren- 
dered Chalcion, XolXkiov^ gave rife to the fable of brazen 
bulls ; which were only Col chic Tor, or towers. There 
was a region named Colchis in ^* India : for where the Cu- 
thites fettled, they continually kept up the memory of their 
forefathers, and called places by their names. This being a 

" Pocock's and Norden's Travels, and maps of the country about Cairo. 

'* Colchis near Comar. Arrian Periplus maris Erythrsei. Geog. Vet. Vol. i. 

P- 32- 

A a a 2 lecret 

364 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

fecret to Philoftratus has led him into a deal of myfterious 
errour. It is well known, that this people were ftiled Oreitae, 
and Auritffi, both in Egypt and in other parts. Philoftratus 
fays that " Apollonius came to a fettlement of the Oreitas 
upon the Indian Ocean. He alfo viHted theiif" Pegadae ; and, 
what is remarkable, he met with a people, 'w hofe very rocks 
were brazen ; their fand was brazen : the rivers conveyed 
down their ftreams fine filaments of brafs : and the natives- 
efteemed their land golden on account of the plenty of brafs. 
Now what is this detail, but an abufe of terms, ill underftood, 
and fhamefully mifapplied ? Philoftratus had heard of a re- 
gion in India ; the hiftory of which he would fain render 
marvellous. The country, whither Apollonius is fuppofed to 
go, was a province of the Indo-Cuthites, who were to be 
met with in various parts under the title of Oreitae. They 
were worfiiipers of fire, and came originally from the land 
of Ur ; and hence had that name. The Pegadaj of the 
country are what we now call Pagodas ; and which are toa 
well known to need defcribing. There were in this part of 
the world feveral cities, and temples, dedicated to the me- 
mory of Chus. Some of thefe are famous at this day, though 
denominated after the Babylonifii dialed Cutha, and Cuta ; 
witnefs Calcutta, and Calecut. The latter feems to have 
been the capital of the region called of old Colchis. This 
was more truly exprefled Cal-Chus ; which Philoftratus has 

^' KccTaa^itv cTg (paa-i y.oc.i es Ylnycti'a.i tw tmv Vlanajv ^mpo.^. '0;/s flpsiraty 
vaAxa; m£i' uvtoh at irirpcci, ^a?V/iiiSs ti -]-cc,uf.'.Gi, ^ccAxhiySe -^iiyfy-ot 01 ttotxjj.oi 
ocydTi. 'iipvaniv rjy^vTcct m> y7n' J'la my ivytfiKxr TH 'KoiAx.^. Philoftratus. Vita 
Apollon. L, 3. p. J 55. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 365 

miftaken for XclKkq;^ brafs ; and made the very '^° rocks and 
rivers abound with that mineral. And yet, that the old 
miftake about gold may not be omitted, he concludes with 
a ftrange antithefis, by faying, that the natives efteemed their 
country Chrufinis, or golden, from the quantity of *' brafs. 

It has been my endeavour to prove that what the Grecians 
reprefented by Chrufos, Chrufor, and Chrufaor, fhould have 
been exprefled Chus, Chufos, and Chufor, called alfo Chus- 
Orus. Chus was the fon of Ham ; and though the names 
of the Grecian Deities are not imiformly appropriated, yet 
Ham is generally looked upon as 'HA;o?, the Sun ; and had 
the title Dis, and Dies : hence the city of Amon in Egypt 
was rendered Diofpolis. If then Chrufos, and Chrufor, bcj^ 
as I have fuppofed, Chus ; the perfon fo denominated muR' 
have been, according to the more ancient mythology, the 
fon of Hejius, and Dios. We find accordingly that it was 
fo. The Scholiafl upon Pindar c.vprelly fays, '^^ Ato^ TtCLK; 
X^V(ro<;. And in another place he is faid to have been the 
offspring of Helius, who was no other than Cham. ''^ E;^ 
hictg KOLi 'Tttz^lovo; 'HA/o?, £;i Js 'HA<8 X^V(rog, Magia 
and incantations are attributed to Chus, as the inventor ;. 
and they were certainly lirft pradifed among his fons : henc3 
it is faid by Sanchoniathon, '^^ Tov X^-jtrw^ Aoya^ afTKYiO'cii KCti 

■'° The Petra, and Pagoda were the fame : both names for temples. 

*' This miftake arofefrom Cal-Chus beino; ftiled the region of the Cuthim. 

■** Scholia upon Pindar. Pyth. Ode 4. p. 259. 

^'' Scholia upon Pindar. Ifth. Ode 5. p. 462. 

■♦''Sanchoniathon apud Eufeb : Prsep. Evan. L. i. c. 10, p. 35. 

5 e7:mixi;\ 

3-66 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

gTTwJa?, Kdi fjLXVTSiccg. He was however efteemed a great be- 
nefadlor ; and many falutary inventions were afcribed to him. 
He had particularly the credit of being the firfl: who ven- 
tured upon the feas ; *' U^ci)Tqv rs ttolvtoov oD/d^d^TToci/ wKsvg'xi. 
Whether this can be faid truly of Chus himfelf, is uncer- 
tain : it agrees full well with the hiftory of his fons ; who, 
as we have the greateft reafon to be aflured, were the firft 
great navigators in the world. 

•♦' Sanchoniath : ibid. 


( 3^7 ) 

O F 

CANAAN, C N A A N, and X N a S s 

And of the Derivative X T K N O S. 

U C I A N tells us, that refleding upon the account 
given ofPhaethon, who fell thunderftruck into the 
"-* Eridanus, and of his fifters, who were changed to 
poplars, weepingamber, he took a refolution, if hefhould ever 
be near the fcene of thefe wonderful tranfadlions, to inquire 
among the natives concerning the truth of the ' ftory. It fo 
happened, that, at a certain time, he was obliged to go up 
the river above mentioned : and he fays, that he looked 
about very wiftfully ; yet to his great amazement he faw 
neither amber, nor poplar. Upon this he took the liberty 
to aik the people, who rowed liim, when he fliould arrive 
at the amber-dropping trees: but it was with fome diffi- 
culty that he could make them underftand, what he meant. 
He then explained to them the flory of Phacthon : how he ■ 
borrowed the chariot of the Sun ; and being an awkward cha-- 

' Lucian de Ekdro. Vol. 2. p. 523. Edit. Salmur-iu 


36S The Analysis cf Ancient Mythology, 

rioteer, tumbled headlong into the Eridanus : that his {Ifters 
pined away with griet ; and at lafl: were transformed to trees, 
the fame or which he had juft fpoken : and he afiured them, 
that thefi: trees were to be found fomewhere upon the banks, 
weeping amber. Who the deuce, fays one of the boatmen, 
could tell you fuch an idle flory ? We never heard of any 
charioteer tumbling into the river ; nor have we, that I know 
of, a fingle poplar in the country. If there were any 
trees hereabouts dropping amber, do you think, mafter, that 
we would fit here day after day, tugging againfl: ftream 
for a dry groat, when we might ftep afliore, and make our 
fortunes fo eaiily ? This affected Lucian a good deal : for 
he had formed fome hopes of obtaining a little of this pre- 
cious commodity ; and began to think that he mufl: have 
been impofed upon. However as Cycnus, the brother of 
Phaethon, was here changed to a fwan, he took it for granted 
that he fhould find a number of thofe birds, failing up 
and down the ftream, and making the groves echo with their 
melody. But not perceiving any in a great fpace, he took 
the liberty, as he pafTed onward, to put the queftion again 
to the boatmen ; and to make enquiry about thefe birds. 
Pray, gentlemen, fays he, at what particular feafon is it that 
your fwans hereabouts fing fo fweetiy ? It is faid, that they 
were formerly men, and always at Apollo's fide j being in a 
manner of his privy council. Their fkill in mufick mufl 
have been very great : and though they have been changed 
into birds they retain that faculty, and, I am told, fing mofl 
melodioufly. The watermen could not help fmiling at this 
account. Why, fir, fays one of them, what ftrange ftories 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 369 

you have picked up about our country, and this river ? We 
have pHed here, men and boys, for years : and to be fure 
we cannot fay, that we never faw a fwan : there are fome 
here and there towards the fens ; which make a low dull 
noife : but as for any harmony, a rook or a jackdaw in com-^ 
parifon of them may be looked upon as a nightingale. 

Such are the witty ftridures of Lucian upon the flory of 
Phaethon, and Cycnus, as defcribed by the poets. What- 
ever may have been the grounds upon which this jfidiion is 
founded, they were certainly unknown to the Greeks ; 
who have raifinterpreted what little came to their hands, 
and from fuch mifconftrudion devifed thefe fables. The 
ftory, as we have it, is not uniformly told. Some, like Lu- 
cian, fpeak of fwans in the plural ; and fuppofe them to 
have been the minifters, and attendants of Apollo, who af- 
lifted at his concerts. Others mention one perfon only, called 
Cycnus ; who was the reputed brother of Phaethon, and at 
his death was transformed to the bird of that name. The 
fable is the fame whichever way it may be related, and 
the purport of it is likewife the fame. There is one mif- 
take in the ftory, which I muft fet right before I pro- 
ceed ; as it may be of fome confequence in the procefs 
of my enquiry. Phaethon is reprefented by many of the 
poets as the offspring of the Sun, or Apollo: *Sole fatus 
Phaethon. But this was a miftake, and to be found ehieily 
among the Roman poets. Phaethon was the Sun. It was 
a title of Apollo ; and was given to him as the God of 
light. This is manifeft from the teflimony of the more early 

* Ovid. Metamorph. L. r. v. 751. 

Vol. I. B b'b Greek 

370 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Greek poets, and particularly from Homer, who uies it in 
this acceptation. 

^ OyJgTOT oLvrag 

In refpe<?t to Cycnus and his brotherhood, thofe vocal mi- 
nifters of Apollo, the ftory, which is told of them, undoubt- 
edly alludes to Canaan the fon of Ham; and to the Canaan- 
ites his pofterity. They fent out many colonies; which co- 
lonies, there is great reafon to think, fettled in thofe places, 
where thefe legends about fwans particularly prevailed. The 
name of Canaan was by different nations greatly varied, and 
ill exprefled : and this mifconftrudlion among the Greeks 
gave rife to the fable. To fhew this it will be proper to 
give an account of the rites and cuftoms of the Canaanites, 
as well as of their exteniive traffick. Among the many 
branches of the Amonian family, which fettled in various 
parts of the world, and carried on an early correfpondence, 
the Canaanites were not the leaft refpedable. They traded 
from Sidon chiefly, before that city was taken by the king of 

' Homer. OdyfT. L. A. v. 15. Phaethon was univerfally allowed to be the 
Sun by the ancient mythologifts of Greece ; to whom we muft appeal, and not 
to the Roman poets. Orpheus fays, 

He/\iov 'i'tx.Soi'Ta. £(p' aofxaii iruXoi ccyBai. de Lapid. V. 90. 

And in another place ; 

EuSw ct' fx. TrepocTojv yocivi ^otidcov aro^ao-fci!', x.A. 

Phaethon was the fame as Phanes : and there is fomething very myflerious in 
his charafter- He is reprefented as the firft bor& of heaven: U^coToyov 3i 'i'ca^up 
Tre^ijjLytKi^i He^o; uoi — Hunc ait (Orpheus) efTe omnium Deorum parentem ; quo- 
rum caufa caelum condiderit, liberifque profpexeric, ut haberent habitaculum, 
fedemque communem : E-kticsv A^uvoltch Sojjlqv a'^^nov- La6lantius de falla 
religione. L. i. c. 5. p. 15. His hiftory will-be explained hereafter. 

2 Afcalon • 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. -^^i 

Arcalon : and upon their commerce being interrupted here 
they ^ removed it to the ftrong hold of Tyre. This place 
was foon improved to a mighty city, which was very memo- 
rable in its day. The Canaanites, as they were a fifter 
tribe of the Mizraim, fo were they extremely like them in 
their rites and religion. They held a heifer, or cow, in 
high veneration, agreeably with the ^ cuftoms of Egypt; 
Their chief Deity was the Sun, whom they worfliiped toire- 
ther with the Baalim, under the titles Ourchol, Adonis 
Thamuz. It was a cuftom among the Grecians at the ce- 
lebration of their religious feftivals to crown the whole with 
hymns of praife, and the moft joyful exclamations. But the 
Egyptians were of a gloomy turn of mind, which infedled 
the whole of their worfbip. Their hymns were always com- 
pofed in melancholy afFedting airs, and confifted of lamen- 
tations for the lofs of Ofiris, the myftic flight of Bacchus, 
the wanderings of Ifis, and the fufferings of the Gods. Apu- 
leius takes notice of this difference in the rites and worfhip 
of the two nations : ^ ^gyptiaca numinum fana plena plan- 
goribus : Grasca plerumque choreis. Hence the author of 
the Orphic Argonautica, fpeaking of the initiations in Egypt, 

' ©^Yivag T ALyv7rTict)Vi kcli Oo"/^ Jo; W^ol '^vtXol. 

* Phcenices port multos deinde annos, a Rege Afcaloniorum expugnati, navi- 
bus appulfi, Tyron urbem ante annum Trojans cladis condiderunt. Juftin. 
L. i8.c. 3. See Ifaiah. C. 23. v. 12. They enlarged Tyre : but it was a city be- 
fore : for it is mentioned, Jofliua. C. 19. v. 29. as the ftrong city Tyre. 

' Porphyry de Abftinentia. L. 2. p. 158. 

* Apuleius de genio Socratis. 

■ Argonautica. V. 32. See Clementis Cohortatio. P. 12. 

B b b 2 The 

372 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The Canaanites at Byblus, Berytus, Sidon, and afterwards 
at Tyre, ufed particularly mournful dirges for the lofs of 
Adonis, or Thamuz ; who was the fame as Thamas, and 
Ofiris in Egypt. The Cretans had the like mournful hymns, 
in which they commemorated the grief of Apollo for the 
lofs of Atymnius. 

'Old TTd^cc K^Yir£<r<Tiv avx^ sAiyaiPsv AttoATvwv 


The meafures and harmony of the Canaanites feem to have 
been very affeding, and to have made a wonderful im- 
preiTion on the minds of their audience. The infectious 
mode of worfhip prevailed fo far, that the children of Ifrael 
were forbidden to weep, and make lamentation upon a fefti- 
val : ' Eii/cci ya.^ so^rriv^ koli [xri ^slp bv avTri KhoLiBiv, a ya.^ 
s^siPdi. And Nehemiah gives the people a caution to the 
fame purpofe : '° 7^/jis day is holy unto the Lord your Godt 
mourn not^ nor weep. And Efdras counfels them in the fame 
manner : " This day is holy unto the Lord : he not forrowful. 
It is likewife in another place mentioned, that " the Levites 
Jlilled all the people^ f<-^y^^^-> Hold your peace^ for the day is- 
holy : neither be ye grieved. Such was the prohibition given- 
to the Ifraelites : but among the Canaanites this fhew of for- 

row was encouraged, and made part of their '' rites. 


' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 19. p. 520. 
' Jofeph. Antiq. L. 1 1. c. 5. p. ^(>i, 
'"' Nehemiah. C. 8. v. 9. 
" I Efdras. C 9. v. 52, 53. 
" Nehemiah. C. S. v. 11. 

" Sanchoniathon alludes to the fongs o£ Canaan, and their great fweetnefs», 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. -^^3 

The father of this people is reprefentcd in the Mofaic hif- 
tory, according to our verfion, Canaan : but there is reafon 
to think that by the Egyptians and other neighbouring na- 
tions it was exprefled Cnaan. This by the Greeks was ren- 
dered X^oca?, and Xmg ; and in later times Xvx, Cna. "^ Xvcc., 
8Tw?/i <^oiviKr\ sJcaXsno — ro s&n/.ov Xuccog. We are told by 
Philo from Sanchoniathon, that '^ Ifiris the Egyptian, who 
found out three letters, was the brother of Cna : by which is 
meant that Mizraim was the brother of Canaan. 1 have 
taken notice more than once of a particular term, Tk^ Uc ; 
which has been paffed over unnoticed by mofi: writers ; yet 
Is to be found in the compolition of many words ; efpecially 
fuch as are of Amonian original. The tribe of Cuili was 
ftiled by Manethon, before thepafiage was depraved, TK}tov(rog, 
Uch, fays this author, in the facred language of Egypt fig- 
nifies a '^ king. Hence it was conferred as a title upon the 
God Sehor, who, as we may infer from Manethon and '^ Hel- 
lanicus, was called Ucfiris, and Icfiris; but by the later 
Greeks the name was altered to Ifiris and Ofiris. And not 
only the God Sehor, or Sehoris was fo expreffed ; but Cnas, 
or Canaan, had the fame title, and was ftiled Uc-Cnas, and 

when he is in an allegorical manner fpeaking of Sidon ; whom he makes a per- 
fon, and the inventrefs of harmony. Atto S\- floi'Ta ywerai SJw:', >) xaQ' VTrp^o.- 
Xw iuZMi'iai TTo&nyi v/jlvov cfHih^iv. Apud Eufeb. P. E. Lib. i. c. 10. p. 38. 

'* StQphanus Byzant. 

''Sanchoniathon apud Eufeb, L. i. c, lo. p. 39. 

'* T-'i. xccb' li^ccv yXeaa-a-xv €xa-tAex (Ty)fJiouvu. Jofephus contra A p, L. i.e. ji^ 
p. 445- 

" Ofiris, To-/p<?5 according to Hellanicus. Plutarch de Ifide et Ofiride. 


374 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the Gentile name or pofTeffive was Uc-cnaos, "Vit-K-JCLo; : TO 
e^vmov yv.^ XvoLogi as we learn from Stephanus. The Greeks, 
whofe cuftom it was to reduce every foreign name to fome- 
thing fimilar in their own language, changed TKKVCCog to 
KvKmoij Uc Cnaus to Cucneus ; and from T;c Km; formed 
KvK^og. Some traces of this word ftill remain, though al- 
moft effaced ; and may be obferved in the name of the God- 
defs Ichnaia. Inftead of Uc-Cnaan the fon of Ham, the 
Greeks have fubftituted this perfonage in the feminine, whom 
they have reprefented as the daughter of the Sun. She is 
mentioned in this light by Lycophron : '' Tjo? 'HKih hyctT^og 
lyvoLiag ^^a.'osvg. They likewife changed Thainuz and Tha- 
mas of Canaan and Egypt to Themis a feminine ; and called 
her Ichnaia Themis. She is fo ftiled by Homer. 

'' ©gat S'' e<ra,i/ svS'oSi Tracat, 
'Ocr(ra< a^fs'a/ so-oLVy A/w^j} ts, 'Ps/ji ts, 
lyvoLiri T£ 0£jUt$, KCii uyoLg-ovog AiJ,(pir ^ityj. 
V^moL is here ufed adjedively. I^^a/a 0£p^ fignifies The- 
mis, or Thamuz, of" Canaan. 

There was another circumftance, which probably affifted 
to carry on the miftake : a Canaanitifti temple was called 
both Ca-Cnas, and Cu-Cnas ; and adjedlively ^' Cu-Cnaios • 
which terms there is reafon to think, were rendered YLv-KVogy 

'® Verfe 129. 

"Homer's Hymn to Apollo. V, 92. 
"Ichnaia was a city in Sicily, and elfewhere. 
A;:^iat iroAn (S>icTua.?iicn—e<:^i xxi ttoXh Eo<a)Tia$. Steph. Byzant. 
A^ctx>'ct.iov opoi ApyBu Ibid. Ar-Achnaion is the hill of Canaan, or the Ca- 
naanitifh mount. 

"■' See Radicals, P. 89. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. qyr 

and KvKvsiog. Befides all this, the fwan was undoubtedly 
the infigne of Canaan, as the eagle and vulture were of Eo-ypt, 
and the dove of Babylonia. It was certainly the hierogly- 
phic of the country. Thefe were the caufes which contri- 
buted to the framing many idle legends; fuch as the poets 
improved upon greatly. Hence it is obfervable, that where- 
ever we may imagine any colonies from Canaan to have fet- 
tled and to have founded temples, there is fome flory about 
fwans : and the Greeks in alluding to their hymns, inftead 
of TKKvaov a,(rfxci^ the mufick of Canaan, have introduced 
nv/JSiov a(r|Ua, the finging of thefe birds: and inftead of 
the death of Thamuz lamented by the Cucnaans, or 
priefts, they have made the fwans fing their own dirge, and 
foretell their own funeral. Wherever the Canaanites came 
they introduced their national worfhip : part of which, as I 
have fhewn, confifted in chanting hymns to the honour 
of their country God. He was the fame as Apollo of 
Greece : on which account Lucian, in compliance with the 
current notion, fays, that the Cycni were formerly the affef- 
fors, and minifters of that Deity. By this we are to under- 
ftand, that people of this denomination were in ancient 
times his priefts. One part of the world, where this notion 
about fwans prevailed, was in Liguria upon the banks of the 
Eridanus. Here Phaethon was fuppofed to have met with 
his downfall: and here his brother Cycnus underwent the 
metamorphofts, of which we have fpoken. In thefe parts fome 
Amonians fettled very early ; among whom it appears, that 
there were many from Canaan. They may be traced by the 


37^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

mighty works, which they carried on : for they drained the 
river towards its mouth ; and formed fome vaft canals, 
called FoiTx Philiftinze. Pliny fpeaking of the entrance into 
the Eridanus fays, *" Inde oftia plana, Carbonaria, ac fofli- 
ones Philiftinn?, quod alii Tartarum vocant : omnia ex Philif- 
tinaj fofra2 abundatione nafcentia. Thefe canals were un- 
doubtedly the work of the Canaanites, and particularly of fome 
of the Caphtorim, who came from Philiftim : and from hence 
thefe outlets of the river were named Philiftinas. The river 
betrays its original in its name : for it has no relation to the 
Celtic language ; but is apparently of Egyptian or Canaan- 
itifh etymology. This is manifeft from the terms, of which 
it is made up: for it is compounded of Ur-Adon, five Orus 
Adonis ; and was facred to the God of that name. The ri- 
ver fimply, and out of compofition was Adon, or Adonis : and 
it is to be obferved, that this is the name of one of the prin- 
cipal rivers in Canaan. It ran near the city Biblus, where the 
death of Thamuz was particularly lamented. It is a circum- 
ftance taken notice of by many authors ; and moft patheti- 
cally defcribed by Milton. 

'^ Thammuz came next behind, 

"Whofe annual wound in Lebanon allur'd 

The Syrian damfels to lament his fate 

In amorous ditties all a fummer's day : 

While fmooth Adonis from his native rock /' 

Ran purple to the fea; fuppos'd with blood 

Of Thammvz yearly wounded. 

*' Pliny. L. 3. p. 173. 

*' Milton. Paradile Loft. L". i.v. 445. See alfo Ezekiel. C.8. v. 14. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 377 

It is faid, that the Eridanus was fo called firft by *^ Pherecy- 
des Syrus : and that my etymology is true, may in great mea~ 
fure be proved from the ^^ Scholiaft upon Aratus. He fKews, 
that the name was of Egyptian original, at leaft confonant 
to the language of Egypt ; for it was the fame as the Nile. 
It is certain, that it occurred in the ancient fphere of Egypt, 
from whence the Grecians received it. The great effuiion of 
water in the celeftial fphere, which Aratus fays was the 
Nile, is flill called the Eridanus : and as the name was of 
oriental original, the purport of it muft be looked for among 
the people of thofe parts. The river Strymon in Thrace was 
fuppofed to abound with fwans, as much as the Eridanus : 
and the ancient name of this river was Palaeftinus. It was 
fo called from the Amonians, who fettled here under the 
name of Adonians, and who founded the city Adonis. 
They were by the later Greeks fliled after the Ionic man- 
ner Edonians, and their city Edonis. ^^ Sr^y^awy TTOTcciJLog eg-i 
Trig ®^cLKT,g /cctra ttoXiv HJwwtJot, Tr^orriyo^svsTo Js Tt^oTs^oif 
lLlciX!Xi<^iPog. 77je Strymon is a river of Tl^race, which rwis 
by the city Edonis : it was of old called the river Palaflinus, 
In thefe places, and in all others, where any of the Canaaii- 
ites fettled, the Grecians have introduced fome flory about 

Some of them feem to have gained accefs at Delphi : as 

'* Hyginus. Fab. 154. P. 266. not. 7. 

'Ergpsi J £ (patri, cfixxiSTaTcc a-jTOf £«'«< NiiAov. Eratofthenes. Catafterifm. 37. 
^' Ko(.Kina.i Se vtto tmv ey^copicov Bv^s^voi, At") vxtioi <^s S/xat N£/Aof nvcci t&c 
KciTii-yi^.Gixet'ov. Scholia in Aratam. P. 48. 
^'' Plutarch de Fluminlbus. \ui, 2. p. 1154. 

Vol. L C g c did 

3 7^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

did likewlfe others from Egypt : and by fuch was that oracle 
firft founded. Egypt among other names was called Ait, 
and Ai Ait, by the Greeks cxprefled Abtiol : '^ EkM^^I ^b — 
KCLi AETIA. The natives in confequence of it were called 
AsT/o;, and AsTa/ j which was interpreted eagles. Hence 
we are told by Plutarch, that fome of the feathered kind, ei- 
ther eagles or fwans, came from the remote parts of the earth, 
and fettled at Delphi. ^^ Azrovg Tiw.?, n KvKmg, uj Ts^sv-- 
TixvB n^KTzs, fJLvdoAoyau'iv OLTTO 7(j)v oDi^m TT^g yrig sin 7o ^e- 
(Toy (ps^opLSPsg sig rccvro (rv[jL7rs(r£iv Uv^oi its^i rov zoiAsfjisvov 
OfX(pctMv, Thefe eagles and fwans undoubtedly relate to co- 
lonies from Egypt and Canaan. I recolledl but one philo- 
fopher ftiled Cygnus: and, what is remarkable, he was of 
Canaan. Antiochus the Academic, mentioned by Cicero 
in his philofophical works, and alfo by '' Strabo, was of Af- 
calon in Paleftine, and he was furnamed Cygnus, the fwan : 
which name, as it is fo circumftanced, muft, I think, necef- 
farily allude to this country. 

As in early times colonies went by the name of the Deity, 
whom they worfhiped ; or by the name of the infigne, and 
hieroglyphic, under which their country was denoted ; every 

*'' Euftathiiis in Dionyfium. V. 239. See Steph. Byzant. AiyvTTToi. 

Plutarch ■3-£f< rooy eK?<.€Aoi7roTuv ^ptit^yj^tuv. Vol. i. p. 409.. 
'' Strabo. L. 16. p. nor. There was fiippofed to have been a perfon in> 
Theflaly named Cycnus, the fon of Apollo. He lived upon a lake Uria ; which 
was fo called from his mother. 

Inde lacus Hyries videt, et Cycneia Tempe, 
Qtias fubitus celebravit olor. Ovid. Metam. L. 7. v. 371. 
Uria was alfo a river in Boeotia : and here was a Cycnus, faid to have been the- 
fon of Pofeidon. Paufan. L. 10. p. 831. 


The Analysis of Ancient MvTHOLOGy. 079 

depredation made by fuch people was placed to the ac- 
count of the Deity under fuch a device. This was the man- 
ner in which poets defcribed things : and in thofe days all 
wrote in meafure. Hence, inflead of faying that the Egyp- 
tians, or Canaanites, or Tyrians, landed and carried off fuch 
and fuch perfons ; they faid, that it was done by Jupiter in 
the fhape of an eagle, or a fwan, or a bull : fubftituting an 
eagle for Egypt, a fwan for Canaan, and a bull for the city 
of ^° Tyre. It is faid of the Telchines, who were Amonian 
priefts, that they came to Attica under the condu6l of Ju- 
piter in the fhape of an eagle. 

^' Aisrog rjysiJLovsvs ^i" aids^og OLvrnviro; Zevg. 
By which is meant, that they were Egyptian priefls ; and an 
eagle was probably the device in their ftandard, as well as 
the infigne of their nation. 

Some of the fame family were to be found among the At- 
lantes of Mauritania ; and are reprefented as having the fhape 
of fwans. Prometheus in ^fchylus fpeaks of them in the 
commifTion, which he gives to lo, ^^ Tou mufl go, fays he, as 

'■' 'E^a.Savra. S'i IlcciTitpctiK Aja yevii^xi fxev Tav^oy' ivv S'e ecSTov kxi xukvov. 
Porphyry de Abftin. L. 3. p. 285. 

Ha vuu exeivos xbtos ^ ir'd S'ou kukvos ; vra ^ou axiroi 'Zsw. Clemens. Alex. 
Cohort. P. 31, 

'' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 24. p. 626. 

■'* npoiFopyoveicx. TreS'iccKi^si'Vii ira 
'Ai (poPxtS'Si pdi'dci, S'twaiot xo^ai^ 
Tpeis y.ux.vofji.o^(f/ot,x.otvov Q,upi iKrnfjiivxi. j^fchyli Prometheus. P. 48. 

'Ai (xsc (po^xiJ'g? r^ui — si^ov nS'oi Kvkvcdv. Scholia ibidem. 

^jo-iL'jv »v oLvtio Ku&mouoi' QiSi Kupw^aisi stara yivoi y.iv iitrtv ASiOTTBi. Palxpha- 
tus. Edit. Elz. P. 76. 

C c c 2 far 

380 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

far as the city Cijlheiie In the Gorgonian plains^ where the three 
Phorcides refide^ thofe ancient venerable ladies^ who are in the 
Jhape offwansy and have but one eye ; of which they make afe in 
common. This hiftory relates to an Araonian temple founded 
in the extreme parts of Africa : in which there were three 
prieftefles of Canaanltifli race ; who on that account are faid 
to be in the fhape of fvvans. The notion of their having but 
one eye among them took its rife from an hieroglyphic very 
common in Egypt, and probably in Canaan : this was the 
reprefentation of an eye, which was faid to be engraved upon 
the pediment of their " temples. As the land of Canaan 
lay fo opportunely for traffic, and the emigrants from moft 
parts went under their condudl, their hiftory was well known. 
They navigated the feas very early, and were neceflarily ac- 
quainted with foreign regions ; to which they muft at one 
time have betaken themfelves in great numbers, when they 
lied before the fons of Ifrael. In all the places, where they 
fettled, they were famous for their hymns and mufick : all 
which the Greeks have transferred to birds ; and fuppofed, 
that they were fwans, who were gifted with this harmony. 
Yet, fweet as their notes are faid to have been, there is not, 
I believe, a perfon upon record, who was ever a witnefs to it. 
It is certainly all a fable. When therefore Plutarch tells us, 

^' Tare «Ta, v.a.1 Ta; o(f CccAjwhs 01 S njxf-i^Ydvm s§ uA>?; Ttfjctcis )ca8<?^Bo-/, to;s 
GiQii ccvari^ivTii £is TK? iSMi' T8T0 cfjjTra a.iiiTacf/.ii'cs, cci iravTce. ce^.i cca^ xca aicss!. 
Clemens Alexand. L. 5. p. 671. 

See Diodorus L. 3. p. 145. This may have been one reafon among others^ 
why the Cyclopians and Arimafpians are reprefented with one eye : rev iJLcvvMTra. 
<^pa.rci' Apifj.a.{77rci. -ffifchylus Prometh. P. 49. The Arimafpian hiftory v/as 
written by Arifteus Proconnefius, and ftikd Afj^cia-Triia. gx;j. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mvthologv, 381 

that Apollo was plealed with the mufick of fwans, ^* fLaci- 
fCYiTB jiJsTat, KOLi }CVKV(jdv mi/ciig ', and when ^fchylus men- 
tions their finglng their own dirges ; they certainly allude to 
Egyptian and Canaanitifh priefts, who lamented the death 
of Adon, and Ofiris. And this could not be entirely a fe- 
cret to the Grecians : for they feem often to refer to fome 
fuch notion. Socrates termed fwans his fellow-fervants : in 
doing which he alluded to the ancient priefts, ftiled Cycni.. 
They were people of the choir, and officiated in the tem- 
ples of the fame Deities ; whofe fervant he profeiTed himfelf 
to be. Hence Porphyry afTures us, " Ov Trai^m oiLohx^ig. 
avTs sXsysv rag jcvKmg (Xoox^oLTrjg), that Socrates was very 
feriouSy when he mentioned fwans as his fellow-fervants. When 
therefore Ariftophanes fpeaks lof the ^^ Delian and Pythian 
fwans, they are the priefts of thofe places, to whom he al- 
ludes. And when it is faid by Plato, that the foul of Or- 
pheus out of difguft to womankind led the life of a "■'^ fwan ; 
the meaning certainly is, that he retired from the world to 
fome cloifter, and lived a life of celibacy, like a prieft. For 
the priefts of many countries, but particularly of Egypt, 
were reclufes ; and devoted themfelves to ^^ celibacy: hence 
monkery came originally from Egypt. Lycophron, who v/as 
of Egypt, and fkilled in ancient terms, ftiles Calchas, who 
was the prieft of Apollo, a fwan. " MoAo(ra-8 KV%B(i)g Kona 

'-* Plutarch. Ez. Vol. 2. p. 387. 

'' Porph. de Abft. L. 3. p. 286- 

'' Ariftophanes. Aves. KuKm llvQtcp y.a.t A«A/r. V. Z'JO^ 

'■' Plato de Republica. L. 10. p. 620. vol. 2. 

*' Porph. de Abftin. L. 4. p. 364. 

!' Lycophron, V. 426. Scholia Ibidem, 


2'^2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology-. 

y.vpop, Tliefe epithets, the Scholiaft tells us, belong to 
Apollo ; and Calchas is called a fvvan, ^ia to y^CLiov^ kcu 
fjLOLvriKOV : becaufe he was wi old prophet^ and prieft. Hence 
at the firft inftitution of the rites of Apollo, which is termed 
the birth of the Deity, at Delos, it is faid, that many fwans 
came from the coaft of Afia ; and went round the ifland for 
the fpace of feven days. 

'^° YjjKvoi Js 5-£8 (JLS?^7ronsg aoi^oi 
Mriomv Ilcx.iircf)Kov s^vKKcfxrano XiTTonsi; 

MovTOLOiiv o^viGe<;y ctoi^oTaroi Trsrsriv^v. 
The whole of this relates to a choir of priefts, who came 
over to fettle at Delos, and to ferve in the new ereded tem- 
ple. They circled the ifland feven times, becaufe feven of 
old was looked upon as a myfterious and facred number, 
*"E?Jb,aj] siv ccyoL^oig, koli sQoii.y\ sg-i ysvs^Xy}, 

'EQoflOLTri (5j] O; 7BT£'hB(T^BV0L 7j:CLVTCL TBrVKTOLl, 

The birds in the ifland of Diomedes, which were faid to 
have been originally companions of that hero, were undoubt- 
edly priefts, and of the fame race as thofe, of whom I have 
been treating. They are reprefented as gentle to good men, 
and averfe to thofe who are bad. Ovid defcribes their fhape, 

'♦° Callimachus. Hymn to Delos. V. 249. 

'•' Fragmenu Lini. Ex Ariflobulo. See Poefis Philofop. H. Steph. P. 112. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 38^ 

and appearance, ** Ut non cygnorum, fic albis proxima cyg- 
nis ; which, after what has been faid, may I think be eafily 

If then the harmony of fwans, when fpoken of, not only 
related to fomething quite foreign, but in reality did not of 
itfelf exift, it may appear wonderful that the ancients fhould 
fo univerfally give into the notion.. For not only the poets, 
but '^^ Plato, Plutarch, Cicero, Pliny, with many others of 
high rank, fpeak of a circumflance well known. But 
it is to be obferved, that none of the^n fpeak from their 
own experience: nor are they by any means confident 
in what they fay. Some mention this finging as a gene- 
ral faculty ; which was exerted at all times : others limit 
it to particular feafons, and to particular places. Ariftotle 
feems to confine it to the feas of *''■ Africa : '^^ Aldrovandus 
fays, that it may be heard upon the Thames near London. 
The account given by Ariftotle is very remarkable. He 
fays, that mariners, whofe courfe lay through the Libyan 
fea, have often met with fwans, and heard them finging in a 
melancholy ftrain : and upon a nearer approach, they could 
perceive that fome of them were dying, from whom the 
harmony proceeded. Who would have expeded to have 

'»- Ovid. Metamorph. L. 14. v. 509. 

■*"' Plato in Phasdone. Vol. i. p. 84. Plutarch, in Li. V. 2. p. 387.. 

Cicero Tufc. Qiiasft. L. i. Pliny. L. x. c. 23. 

TElian de Animal. L. 2. c 32. L. x. c. ^6. 

Philoftratus. Vita Apollon. L. 3. c. 23. 

^^ De Animalibus. L. 9. Kai Tivn ni'ii TrXiovnc ira^a. Trtv At^vw yrspieTV^zv 
e<- T)i 9aAa7Tv? TTiAAois ccSovfft (poMYi '};OmS Bi' xcci rovTCov k-.iouv a.TTi^yriCr'K'Arcci ivtbi. 
Vol. 2: p. 423; 

;*' See Brown's Vulgar Errours. L. 3. c. 27. 

4. found 

384- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

found fwans fwimming in the fait fea, in the midft of tlie 
Mediterranean ? There is nothing that a Grecian would not 
devife in fupport of a favourite errour. The legend from 
beginning to end is groundlefs : and though moft fpeak of 
the mufick of fwans as exquifite ; yet fome abfolutely deny 
"^^ the whole of it ; and others are more moderate in their 
commendations. The watermen in Lucian give the pre- 
ference to a jackdaw : but Antipater in fome degree dilTents, 
and thinks that the fwan has the advantage. 


"^ AooiTs^o; KVKvm yuK^og ^^oog, rjs zo?j^ic>jp 
And Lucretius confefles, that the fcreaming of a crane is not 
quite fo pleafing : 

'^^ Parvus ut eft, Cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam 
Clamor : 
Wliich however is paying them no great compliment. To 
thefe refpedlable perfonages I muft add the evidence of a mo- 
dern ; one too of no fmall repute, even the great Scaliger. 
He fays, that he made a ftridl fcrutiny about this affair, 
when in Italy ; and the refult of his obfervations was this: 
■*^ Ferrariae multos (cygnos) vidimus, fed cantores fane malos, 
neque melius anfere canere. 

'*'^ 'O (fg l''Ivi'S"io?(pnaiv AAg^aj'jTpo? Troh^^on reKiurutrt 7rttpzx.oXHB>ia-as hk aJtw- 
crat aSovTMv. Athenaeus. L. 9. C. II. 

'*'' Epigram, in Erinnam. L. 3. p. 2S0. H. Sieph. 

** Lucretius. L. 4. v. 182. 

*' See Voffius de Idol. Vol. 2. 1. 3.1c. 88. p. 12 12. and Pierius de Cygij'ts. 
P. 254. 


385 ) 



"^ H E Egyptians were very famous for geometrical 
knowledge : and as all the flat part of their country 
was annually overflowed, it is reafonable to fuppofe that 
they made ufe of this fcience to determine their lands, and to 
make out their feveral claims, at the retreat of the waters. 
Al^any indeed have thought, that the confuflon of property, 
which muft for a while have prevailed, gave birth to prac- 
tical ' geometry, in order to remedy the evil : and in confe- 
quence of it, that charts and maps were firfl delineated in 
this country. Thefe, we may imagine, did not relate 
only to private demefnes ^ but included alfo the courfe of 
the Nile in its various branches ; and all the fea coaft, and 
its inlets, with which lower Egypt was bounded. 

It is very certain, that the people of Colchis, who were 
a colony from Egypt, had charts of this fort, with written 
defcriptions of the feas and fliores, whitherfoever they 
traded : and they at one time carried on a moft: extenflve 

' Herod. L. 2. c. 109, 

TecofjLerpiixi t£ av Iucstch y^yoyxtriv (qi Atyjimoi.) Clemens. Strom. L. i.^ 
,p, 361. 

Vol. I. D d d commerce. 

386 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

commerce. We are told, fays the * Scholiaft upon Apollo- 
nius, tbat the Colchians ftill retain the laws and cuftoms of 
their forefathers : and they have pillars of ftone, upon which 
are engraved maps of the continent, and of the ocean : EtcTi 
Js, (pr^triy KOLi vofJLOi Ttcc^ avraig to^v li^oyovm^ zoli Sri'^Aa/, sv 
dig yr,; zoli OccKa.(r(rrig OLVOLy^c/L(pcLi eiri. The poet, upon, 
whom the above writer has commented, calls thefe pillars, 
iiv^bsig: which, we are told, were of a fquare figure, like 
obelifks : and on thefe, he fays, were delineated all the paf- 
fages of the fea j and the boundaries of every country upon 
the earth. 

' 'Ot ^Yi 701 y^oLTFToLg T^ars^ocv s^sv si^vonat 
Kv^^eoLgj iu; svi 7tcL(roLi 0^01 j koh ttsi^cct £OL(riv 
'Ty^i]g TSj T^oL(pt^Ti]g rg, itB^i^ B7riysi(r(roizsvoi<Tiv. 
Thefe delineations had been made of old, and tranfmitted to 
the Colchians by their forefathers j which forefathers were 
from '^ Egypt. 

If then the Colchians had this fclence, we may prefume 
that their mother country poffefled it in as eminent a degree : 
and we are affured, that they were very knowing in this ar- 
ticle. Clemens Alexandrinus ^ mentions, that there were 
maps of Egypt, and charts of the Nile very early. And we 
are moreover told, that Sefoftris (by v,?bich is meant the. 

* L. 4. V. 279. 

' /pollonius Rhcd'uis. L. 4. v. 279. 
*Dionyf. lleor.iy^iTi^. V. 688. 

' Clem- Alexand. fpeaks Ue^t ts t«? KoiTfj(.oy ^apices xai Teoc) fa(p:ai xr>..—-< 
X&'fo>'p«<fja5 T£ TW Ai^vTCTS, Jcoti Tiis TS N^/Ab Stce.-)^ap}i, Strom. 6. p. 757. 


The Analysis of Anciemt Mythology. 087 

Setliofians) drew upon boards fchemes of all the countries 
which he had traverfed : and copies of thefe were given both 
to ^ the Egyptians, and to the Scythians, who held them in 
high cftimation. This is a curious account of the firft de- 
lineation of countries, and origin of Maps ;• which were fird 
defcribed upon ^ pillars. We may from hence be enabled to 
folve the enigma concerning Atlas^ who is faid to have fuo- 
ported the heavens upon his fhoulders. This took its rife 
from Ibme verfes in Homer, which have been ftrangely mif- 
conftrued. The paiTage is in the OdyiTy ; where the poet 
is fpeaking of Calypfo, who is faid to be the daughter of At- 
las, o?\oog^oi/o;j a perfon of deep and recondite knowledge : 
ArXctnog ^vyarr;^ oKooip^ovog^ cxtts ^cCA%(T<Tr\g 
IioL(rrig ^sv^sa oihvy S'^si Js ts KIONA2 avToC 
MdK^ccgj di VoLioiv ts koh Ov^v.vcv a^pg byhitiv. 
It is to be obferved, that v/hen the ancients fpeak of the. 
feats of Hercules, we are to underftand the Herculeans ; un- 
der the name of Cadmus is meant the Cadmians ; under that 
of Atlas, the Atlantians. With this allowance how plain 
■are the words of Homer ! The ' Atlantians fettled in Phry- 
gia and Mauritania ; and, like the Colchians, were of the 

* ^ea-ui^^ii cTf, (puan; o AiyuTrnc?, ■jro}\r)v 7riot2>\vi?yu^coi yw -jriva^i ts ■^elc/ixs 
TYSV moioS'ov, y.xt Tf.i Twy ttlvxy-MV ccvccypcc(pce.c ovy. AiyuTrriAH (/.qvov^ aAAx xat 
2"''-v8a.ii; Hi Sxvy.x jJHraS^ovvat -ii'^tMasi: Euftath. Prasf. Epift. to Dionyf. P. 12. 

■' iEgyptios primos omnium tarn coslum quam terram elic dimcnlbs : ejufque 
rei fcientiam columnis incifam ad poftcros propagaffe. Pccavii Uranalcna. P. 121. 
taken from Achilles Tatius. 

* Homer. OdyfT. L. a. v. 52. 

' The Atlanrians were ftiled Ouoccnoore<:, or fons of heaven. The head of the 
family was fuppoled to be the brother of Saturn. Diodorus. L 3. p. 193. 

D d d 2 family 

388 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt. 

family of Ham. They had great experience in fea aftairsj- 
and the poet tells us, that they knew all the. foundings in 
the great deep. 

E^s; ^s TS Kiovy.g avrog 

iTjey had alfo long pillars^ or ohelijks^ which referred to the 
fea ; and upon whfh was delineated the whole fy fern both of 
heaven and earth \ cty^^pigy all aroti7id\^ both on the front of th^ 
obelifky and on the other fJes. Y^iovzg Kocy/s were certainly 
maps, and hiftories of the univerfe; in the knowledge of 
which the Atlantians feem to have inftrucled their brethren 
the Herculeans. The Grecians in their accounts, by put- 
ting one perfon for a people, have rendered the hiflory ob- 
fcure; which otherwife would be very intelligible. There 
is a pafTage in Eufebius, which may be rendered very plain, 
and to the purpofe, if we make ufe of the clue above-men- 
tioned. ' 'H^oJ'oto? h Xsysi tou H^a;i?.=a [xamv koli (pvtruov 
y£VO[JL£]jQy TfCL^ct ArXanog ts Ba^^a^iS'TS <^^vyog ^iOihysBoLi 
Tcng 73 Kac^B Kiovag. This may be paraphrafed in the fol- 
lowing manner ; and with fuch latitude will be found per- 
fedlly confonant to the truth. The Herculea7is were a peo^ 
pie much given to divination^ aiid to the fludy of nature. Great 
part of their knowledge they are thought to have had tranf- 
mitted to them from thofe Atlafiiians, who fettled in Phrygiay 
efpecially the hifory of the earth a?id heavens ; for all fuch 
knowledge the Atlantians had of old confgned to pillars a?td 
obelifks in that country : andfrofu them it was derived to the 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 389 

IIerculea7iSy or Heraclidce^ of Greece. The Atlantians were 
efteemed by the Grecians as barbarous : but they were in re- 
ality of the fame family. Their chief anceftor was the father 
of the Peleiadas, or lonim ; of whom I fhall hereafter have much 
to fiy : and was the fuppofed brother of Saturn. The Hel- 
lenes, though they did not always allow it, were undoubtedly 
of his race.- This may be proved from Diodorus Siculus, 
who gives this curious hiftory of the Peleiadce, his offspring. 
'° Tat^ra; h ixiysKrccg' roig sv^vsg-ccToig 'H^oca-i KCfj Ssotg a^- 
yj\y'ig Kctra-cnvcti rs irXsig-a yevag roov ai^^^ooTrooVj rsji'srctg 
Tag Ji' ct^STriy Qsag Kcti 'H^wa$ ovoi-m^snccg. — nct^a^A?]cr£a)? Je 
KCii rc.g 0L7\?.cf.g AjKavri-^OLg yznT\<ran, Trai^ccg B7ri(pctv£ig, m jui; 
^jLSV B^i/'jJVj ra; Js TroAswy ysvsc^OLi, Krig:cig' ^iotts^ a uovcv 
TTOL^' snoig Tcjy Bci^^a^Cfjpy olKKgl koll TtoL^oL Toig 'EXAricri rag 
TiXsig-s? rm a^^aioxarwy 'H^woiv Big TOLVTotg olvolcpbpbid to 
ysvog. 7hefe daughters of Atlas ^ by their conneB ions a^td mar- 
riages ivith the mof illujirious heroes^ and divinities^ may he 
looked up to as the heads of mofl families upon earth. And 
from them proceeded all thofe^ who upon account of their 
eminence v:ere in afterlimes efleejned Gods and Heroes. And 
having fpoken of Maia, and her offspring, the author proceeds 
to tell us, that the other At^lantides in like manner gave birth 
to a mo ft noble race : fome of whom were the founders of na- 
tions ; a?2d others the builders of cities : iftfomuch that mojl of 
the more ancient heroes^ not only of thofe abroad^ who were ef- 
teemed Barbariy but even of the Helladians, claimed their att- 
ceftry from them. And they received not only their anceflry 


4' but 

tQO Tiia Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

but their knowledge alfo, T8 zor(j,H Kiovccg ; all the celeftial 
and terreflrial phaenomena, which had been entrufted to the 
facrcd pillars of the Atlantes, a< yairiv ts mi a^avov aiJLpiq 
s'^ao'iv, which contained defcriptions both of the heavens, 
and the earth. From Phrygia they came at laft to Hellas, 
where they were introduced by Anaximander, who is faid, 
" EtrJaya; tt^ootov ysoy^cioijiov 7nva,xa, to have been the firjl 
■who introduced a geographical chart : or, as Laertius expreiies 
it, '^Ttii KOLi ©OLXdTTYjg TTSflii^tsr^oVj the circu?nfere?ice of the 
terraqueous globe delineated. 

Though the origin of maps may be deduced from Egypt; 
yet they were not the native Egyptians, by whom they were 
£rfl: conflruded. Delineations of this nature were the con- 
trivance of the Cuthites, or Shepherds. They were among 
other titles ftiled Saitas; and from them both aflronomy and 
geometry were introduced in thofe parts. They with im- 
menfe labour drained the lower provinces, eredied ftupen- 
■dous buildings, and raifed towers at the mouths of the river, 
which were opportunely {ituated for navigation. For though 
the Mizraim were not addided to commerce, yet it was fol- 
lowed by other families befides the Cuthites, who occupied 
the lower provinces towards the fea. The towers, which 
were there raifed, ferved for lighthoufes, and were at the 
fame time temples, denominated from fome title of the 
Deity, fuch as Canoph, Caneph, Cneph, alfo Perfes, Proteus, 
Phanes, and Canobus. They were on both accounts muck 

Strabo. L. I. p. 13. 
'- Diog. Laert. Anaximander. 

3 reforted 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 301 

reforted to by mariners, and enriched with offerings. Here 
were depoiited charts of the coafi:, and of the navigation of 
the Nile, which were engraved on pillars, and in aftertimes 
fketched out upon the Nilotic Papyrus. There is likewife 
reafon to think, that they were fometimes delineated upon, 
walls. This leads me to take notice of a paffage from Phe- 
recydes Syrus, which feems to allude to fomething of this 
nature : though, I believe, in his fhort detail that he has mif-» 
reprefented the author,- from whom he copied. He isfaid by- 
Theopompus "' tt^cotoj/ ttb^i Trig <pv(rsojgj kcci. @sooVy 'EAAjicrt- 
y^Ci(psiVy to have been the jii-Jl who wrote for the heitejit of his 
cou7ztrymen about itature and the Gods, Suidas '* mentions^, 
that he compofed a theogony ; all which knowledge we are 
affurcd came from Egypt, it is certain, that he ftudied in 
that '^ country ; whence we may conclude, that the follow- 
ing hiflory is Egyptian. He fays, that Zas, or Jupiter, com- 
pofed a large and curious robe, upon which he defcribed the 
earth, and the ocean, and the habitations upon the ocean.. 
Zaj Ttct^u (poL^og (xayct T£, kch KaT^ov, koli ev olvtcc TrouaKXst 
FriV, Kcci Q.ynvQVy koli tol D-yfiva ^'j^^jloxol. Now Zas, or as it 
fhould be rendered, Zan, was the Dorian title of Amor.. 
And Ogenus, the Ocean, was the mofl ancient name of the 
Nile, from whence the Grecians borrowed their Oceanus. 

57 f 

" Laertius. L. i. p. 74. 

'"* In Pherecydc. 

^' Jofephus cone. Apion. L. 1. c. 2.. 

'* Clemens. Strom. L. 6. p. 741.. 

1' JDiodorus Sic. L. i. p. 12,. 


392 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology.; 

rciuov Ns/Aoj/. T&e Egyptians hy the term Oceanus underftand 
their own river Nilus. The fame author in another place calls 
this river Oceames'^ Ttjy (Ts 7rora,ixoi/ cc^'^ctioroirov [jlsv ovo^lol 
cyBiv Q-KeajxriVj vg sg'iv'Eh.Knvi^'i (t^Ksavog. The former term, 
O genus, from whence the Greeks borrowed their Oceanus, 
was a compound of Oc-Gehon, and was originally rendered 
Ogehonus. It fignifies the noble Gehon, and is a name taken 
from one of the rivers of Paradife. The Nile was fome- 
times called fmiply Gehon, as we learn from the author of 
the Chronicon Pafchale. '» Ep^si h (>i AiyvTTTog) itora^ov Trim 
— NsiAoj/ KCLT^nfMSvoi/. It was probably a name given by the 
Cuthites, from whom, as will be hereafter fhewn, the river 
Indus had the name of Phifon. " floTapi ovoy,ccg-oi h^og^ 
KOLi ^SKTuVj NsiXog, KCLi Trim. The two mojl celebrated 
rivers are the Indus ^ the fame as the Phifon, and the Nile, 
ischich is called the Gehon. The river alfo of Colchis, rendered 
Phafis, and Phafm, was properly the Phifon. The Nile be- 
ing of old ftiled Oc-Gehon, and having many branches, or 
arms, gave rife to the fable of the fea monfter ^geon, 
whom Ovid reprefents as fupporting himfelf upon the whales 
of the ocean. 

'^'^ Balaenarumque prementem 
iEgaeona fuis immania terga lacertis, 

'^ Diodorus. L. i- p. 17. 

" P. 30. 

""Cliron. Pafchale. P. 34. Zonaras. P. 16. 

See Salmafius upon Solinus. C. ^,5' concerning Ogen. Alfo Windelini Admi- 
randa Nili. P. 12. and 16 
*' Metamorph. L. 2. v. 9. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 29i 

The Scholiaft upon Lycophron informs us farther, that the 
river had three names ; and imagines, that upon this ac- 
count it was called Triton. " T^trojv o Ns^Ao?, oTi r^ig jw,£T- 
ooi/ofjict^rj' Tt^ors^ov ycn^ Q.K£0(.vog ccv bkolXbito^ ^svts^ov Asro;' 
— TO Js NsiXo; vsov s^i. I fliall not at prefent controvert his 
etymology. Let it fuffice, that we are affured both by this 
author, and by others, that the Nile was called Oceanus : and 
what is alluded to by Pherecydes is certainly a large map or chart. 
The robe, of which he fpeaks, was indeed a Pharos, Oa^o^ ; 
but a Pharus of a different nature from that which he de- 
fcribes. It was a building, a temple, which was not con- 
ftrudled by the Deity, but dedicated to him. It was one 
of thofe towers, of which I have before treated ; in which 
were defcribed upon the walls, and otherwife delineated, 
£lyYjVog Kcci QyriVii ^ct)y,0Lrc(,^ the courfe of the Gehon, or Nile ; 
and the towns, and houfes upon that river. 

I imagine that the fhield of Achilles in Homer was co- 
pied from fomething of this fort, which the Poet had feen in 
Egypt. For Homer is continually alluding to the cuftoms, 
as well as to the hiftory, of that kingdom. And it is evi- 
dent, that what he defcribes on the central part of the 
Ihield, is a map of the earth, and ol the celeflial appear- 

'' Ev fJ,Bl/ TaiOLV £TSV^\ SV J" Ov^M'Ol/j sv Js ^olTkocu'u'clv. 
Ev (^' snOsi nOTAMOIO pycc ^svog aKEANOIO. 
The ancients loved to wrap up every thing in myftcry and 

'^' V. 119. 

" Iliad. L., 18. V. 483. and v. 606. 

Vol. I. E c e . fable : 

394 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

fable t they have therefore defcribed Hercules alfo with ^ 
robe of this fort : 

*' n.Ol}Cl?',OV SlfJLCC tpS^CfiVj rVTTQV AlSs^Og, SIKOVOL Kc<r(XB : 
He was invejled with a rohe^ which was a type of the heavenSy, 
and a reprefentatiGn of the whole world. 

The garment of Thetis, which the poets mention as given 
her upon her fuppofed marriage with Peleus, was a Pharos 
of the fame kind, as that defcribed above. We may learn 
from Catullus, who copied the ftory, that the whole alluded 
to an hiilorical pidlure preferved in fome tower : and that it 
referred to matters of great antiquity ; though applied by 
the Greeks to later times, and afcribed to people of their own. 

*^ Pulvinar vero Divae geniale locatur 

Sedibus in mediis ; Indo quod dente politum 

Tindla tegit rofeo conchylis purpura fuco. 

Hffic veflis prifcis hominum variata figuris 

Heroum mira virtutes indicat arte. 
It contained a defcription. of fome notable achievements in- 
the firft ages: and a particular account of the Apotheofis 
of Ariadne; who is defcribed, whatever may be the mean- 
ing of it, as carried by Bacchus to heaven. The flory is faid 
to have been painted on a robe, or coverlet 3 becaufe it was^ 
delineated upon a Pharos : that word being equivocal, and to- 
be taken in either (qw^q. And here I cannot but take notice 
of the inconfiilency oi the Greeks, who make Thefcus a par- 
taker in this hiftory ; and fuppofe him to have been ae- 

*' Nonni Dionus. L. 40. p. 1040. 

*^ Catull. Epichalamiiim of Peleus and Thetis. V. 47. 

4 quainted 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 39^ 

qualnted with Ariadne. If we may credit Plutarch"', The- 
feus, as foon as he was advanced towards manhood, went by 
tlie advice of his mother ^thra from Troezen in queft of 
his father ^geus at Athens. This was fome years after the 
Argonautic expedition; when Medea had left Jafon, and put 
herfelfunder the protection of this fame iEgeus. After having 
been acknowledged by his father, Thefeus went upon his expe- 
dition to Crete; where he is faid to have firfl feen Ariadne, 
and to have carried her away. All this, I fay, was done, after 
Jafon had married Medea, and had children by her : and 
after fhe had left him, and was come to Athens. But the 
ftory of Ariadne in the above fpecimen is mentioned as a fatl 
of far older date. It was prior to the arrival of Medea in 
Greece, and even to the Argonautic expedition. It is fpoken 
of as a circumftance of the higheft antiquity : confequently 
** Thefeus could not any ways be concerned in it. 

There is an account in Nonnus of a Robe or Pharos, which 
Harmonia is fuppofcd to have worn, when {he was viiited by 
the Goddefs of beauty. There was delineated here, as in 
fome above mentioned, the earth, and the heavens, with all 
the ftars. The fea too, and the rivers were reprefented : and 
the whole was at the bottom furrounded by the ocean. 

*' Plutarch. Life of Thefeus. 

*' Add to this, what I have before taken notice of, the great abfurdity of 
making the Grecian Argo the firft (hip which failed upon the feas : Ilia rudem 
curfu prima imbuit Amphitriten: when the Poet at the fame indant is defcribing 
Thefeus previous to the Argo/w ajliip-, and attended with zfeet cfjhips, 
Namque fluentilbno profpeftans littore Dis 
Thefea cedentem celeri cum cbjfe tuetur, 
Indomitos in corde gerens Ariadna furores. 
Catulli. Epithal. Pel. et Thet. V. 52. See Famiani Strada; Prolus. L. 3; 
p. 285. 

E e e 2 n^wTJir' 

39^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

Xv^cps^TYjV Js ■^aAao'O'av B(pmx.o<TB (Tv^vyi Tctiri^ 

Tciv^o(pvrjg fJio^(povTo KB^OL<r(po^oi sy^Aoog sikojv, 
Ka; irv^oLVriV 7:ol^ol irzEp s'vK?\(/)g'oio yiToovog 


All this relates to a painting either at Sidon or Berytus ; 
which was delineated in a tower or temple, facred to Her- 

Orpheus alludes to a Pharos of this fort, and to the paint- 
ings and furniture of it, in his dcfcription of the Robes, with 
which Apollo, or Dionufus, is inverted. He fpeaks of them 
as the fame Deity. 

%'j)[LOL ds3 ttKolttbiv B^ioLvysg HbXioio. 
Il^u)7Ci ^.Bv a.oyv(pBOLig si'ochiyyjo'j ciKTiyB(T<n 


As^fMX 7:o7~.v^iK7ov ^^og koltol h^iOV U)^OV, 
Af^ooj' ^cci^aMoJv yj^riiu,^' Ib^b tb ttoMiq, 

ElTCC (3" VTTB^k VSt^Yjg '^^VQ'BOV ^OOfJ^^a ^OLkB^CLt^ 

Bv^vg, OT B'/i. TTB^ciToov ycar,g ^olb^c/jv oLVo^ii(r(/Jv 

^^ Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 41. p, 1070. 

':' Orpbica ex Macrobio Saturn. L. i.e. i§. p. 202. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^gy 

MoL^^oLi^y] ^ivr}(nv BXi<T(ro^evTi kcctol kvkMv 

When the Poet has thus adorned the Deity, we find towards 
the conclufion, that thefe imaginary robes never fhew to 
fuch advantage, as in the morning. When thefim, fays he, 
r'lfes from the exire?niiies of the earth, and enlightens the ocean 
with his horizontal rays', then they appear i?z great fplendour, 
which is increafed by the imrning dew. All this inveftiture 
of the Deity relates to the earth and the heavens, which 
were delineated upon a *' fkin, h^[L:L TTohvg'iK.TOP ^r]^og, ftiled 
TfSirAoi'. This is defcribed, Ag-^oov ^ai^ccKsoci/ [jUi^rifJi, Is^s TS 

°' Maps, and books too, when writing was Introd viced, were made offlcins, 

called J'j^Sc^ai. Tas ^/oAb; Sicpui^cii -AoiXidrji ccto ts irxKaa oi lajus. Herodot. 

L. 5. c. 58. 

A Zone of curious imagery is given by Homer to Hercules. OdyflT. L. A. 
V. 609. 

A remarkable paflage from Ifidorus Bafilidis quoted by Clemens Alexandria. 
Kai yctp fxci S OKit rm Tr^ca-rctH/jiSi'Ui q.iAoo-ci<fiiv^ Ivx (xcSooai, 11. i<^Lv n uTroTnepoi 
J'cvfy-KXi TO STT at/TM TriTTOixiAy.ivoi' <J>AP02. Oai'Ta o-xa ^i&s-auim cc?^?\.'»yooiia-ai- 
e^ioAoyrcrSi', Aac wi' cctto rnf ra "Kay. Tr^c(pmitcci' Strom. L. 6. p, 767. 

In the former verles from Nonnus we may fee the method of deviation. 
Pharos a tower is taken for Pharos a garment; and this altered to '^trcav: and 
after all, the genuine hiftory is difcernable, notwithftanding the veil which is 
fpread over it. The author fays, that at the bottom iv/.?M^on Xnco-.o? of 
the well woven garment, flowed the Ocean, which furrounded the world. This 
is certainly a mirinterpreta;ion of the term fxpoi- and in the original wricino-^, 
■whence thefe verfes were copied, the hiftory related to a tower : and it was at 
the foot <J)APOT ETKATSTOiO that the ocean, beat,, by which th£ earth was 

398 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

TtoXoio : as a copy and imitation of all the cdefiial appearances. 
The whole was depofited in a Pharos upon the fea-fhore, 
upon which the fun at his riling darted his early rays ; and 
whofe turrets glittered with the dew : ^Ttto gs^vm olijlst^yitoov 
(pctivsT CL^ w-iisai/8 KVKXog: from the upper ftory of the tower, 
which was of an unmeafurable height, there was an unlimited 
view of the ocean. This vaft element furrounded the edi- 
fice like a zone ; and afforded a wonderful phaenomenoa. 
Such, I imagine, is the folution of the enigma. 


( 399 ) 


FTave taken notice of the fears an J apprelienfions, under 
which the firft navigators muft necefTarily have been, 
when they traverfed unknown feas ; and were hable to 
be entangled among the rocks, and fhelves of the deep : and 
I mentioned the expedients, of which they made ufe, to ob- 
viate fuch difficulties, and to render the coaft lefs dangerous. 
They built upon every hill, and promontory, where they 
had either commerce or fettlement, obelifks, and towers,, 
which they confecrated to fome Deity. Thefe ferved in a 
twofold capacity, both as feamarks by day, and for beacons 
by night. And as people in thofe times made only coafting 
voyages, they continually went on fhore with ofterings, in 
order to gain the affiftance of the God, whoever there pre- 
fided : for thefe towers were temples, and oftentimes richly 
furnifhcd and endowed. They were built fometimes on ar- 
tificial mounds ; but generally on natural eminences, that 
they might be feen at a great diftance. They were called 
by the Amonians, who firfl: eredted them, ' Tar, and Tor • 

' Bochart Geog. Sacra, L. i. c 228. p. 524. of "i"^^. 


40O The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the fame as the nin of the Chaldees, which fignified both a 
hill and tower. They were oftentimes compounded, and ftilcd 
Tor-Is, or fire towers : on account of the light, which they 
exhibited, and the firesj which were preferved in them. 
Hence came the turris of the Romans; and the Ty^f?, Tv^ffic^ 
TV^Q'tgy rv^crog, of the Greeks. The latter, when the word 
Tor occurred in ancient hiftory, often changed it to rctv^ogy 
a bull ; and invented a number of idle ftories in confequence 
of this change. The Ophite God Ofiris, the fame as Apollo, 
was by the Amonians fliled Oph-El, and Ope-El : and there 
was upon the Sinus Perficus a city Opis, where his rites were 
obferved. There feems likewife to have been a temple fa- 
cred to him, named Tor-Opel ; which the Greeks ren- 
dered ToLV^OTToXog. Strabo fpeaks of fuch an oracular tem- 
ple ; and fays, that it was in the hland Icaria towards the 
inouth of the Tigris : ^ N/icroi/ Ikol^iov, kcci Ib^ov AroXKoovog 
dyiov £V OLVTYj, KOLi fxoLVTsiop Tccv^ozoKs. Here, inflead of Oii- 
ris, or Mithras, the ferpent Deity, the author prefcnts us with 
Apollo, the manager of bulls. 

One of the principal, and moft ancient fettlemcnts of the 
Amonians upon the ocean was at Gades ; where a prince was 
fuppofcd to have reigned, named Geryon. The harbour at 
Gadcs was a very line one ; and had feveral Tor, or Towers 
to direft fiiipping : and as it was ulual to imagine the Deity, 
to whom the temple was erected, to have been the builder, 
this temple was faid to have been built by Hercules. All 
this the Grecians took to themfelves : they attributed the 

: Strabo. L. 16. p, 1 1 10. 

5 whole 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 401 

whole to the hero of Thebes : and as he was fuppofed to 
conquer wherever he came, they made him fubdue Geryon ; 
and changing the Tor, or Towers, into To many head of cat- 
tle, they ' defcribe him as leading them off in triumph over 
the Pyranees and Alpes, to Hetruria, and fo on to Calabria. 
From thence, for what reafon we know not, he fwims them 
over to Meffana in Sicily : and after fome ftay he fwims with 
them through the fea back again, all the while holding by one 
of their horns. The bulls of Colchis with which Jafon was 
fuppofed to have engaged, were probably of the fame nature 
and original. The people of this country were Amonians, 
and had once a * mighty trade ; for the fecurity of which 
they ereded at the entrance of the Phafis towers. Thefe 
ferved both as light-houfes, and temples ; and were facred to 
Adorus. They were on this account called Tvnador, whence 
the Greeks formed Tyndarus, Tyndaris, and Tyndaridaj. 
They were built after fome, which flood near the city ^ Pa- 
rcetonium of Egypt j and they are alluded to by the geoora- 
pher Dionyfius: 

KoA^oi vaisTo.iiQ'iy S7rr]Xv^eg Aiyvitroio. 
Colchis was filled Cutaia, and had been early occupied by 
the fons of Chus. The chief city, vi^hence the country has 
been in general denominated, was from its iituation called 

' Diodoros Siculus. L. 4. p. 231. 
■* Strabo. L. ii. p. 762. 

* TvvS'ctpioia-XQ-TreXQi. Ptolemsus. P. 122. See Strabo. L. 17. p. 1150. 

* Dionyfius. V. 688. Pliny ftiles them oppida. 

Oppida — in ripa celeberrima, Tyndarida, Circjeuin, &c. L. 6. c. 4, 

Vol. I. F f f Gal- 

402 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Cal-Chus, and Col-Chus, the hill, or place of Chus. This 
by the Greeks was rendered Colchis : but as travellers are 
not uniforni in expreffing foreign terms, fome have rendered, 
what was Colchian, Chalcian, and from Colchus they have 
formed XccMog, brafs. The Chalcian towers being more- 
over interpreted rav^oi, bulls, a ftory took its rife about the 
brazen bulls of Colchis. Befides this there was in thefe towers 
a conftant fire kept up for the diredion of fhips by night :; 
whence the bulls were faid to breath fire. 

We however fometimes meet with facred towers, which 
were really denominated Tauri from the worfhip of the 
myftic bull, the fame as the Apis, and Mneuis of Egypt. 
Such was probably the temple of Minotaurus in Crete, where 
the ' Deity was reprefented under an emblematical figure ; 
which confifted of the body of a man with the head of a bull. 
In Sicily was a promontory Taurus, mentioned by Diodorus 
Siculus; which was called alfo Tauromenium. He acquaints 
us, that Hanno the Carthaginian fent his Admiral with or^ 
ders Tra^axAs/j/ stti rov Xo^pov m?.3[j,£vop Tav^ov, to fail alo7tg 
the coajl to the promontory na?ned "Taurus. This Taurus, 
he thinks, was afterwards named Tctv^ofj^snoi/, Tauromenium,, 
from the people who fettled, and ^ remained there : as if this. 

'' The Minotaur was an emblematical-reprefentation of Menes, the fame as 
Gfiris ; who was alfo called Dionuliis, the chief Deity of Egypt. He was alfo 
the fame as Atis of Lydia, whofe rites were celebrated in conjundlion with tliofe- 
of Rhea, and Cybele, the mother of the Gods. Gruter has an infcription, 
M. D. M. ID^, et ATTLDI MINOTAURO. He alfo mentions 
an altar of Attis Mirioturanniis. Vol. i. p. xxviii. n. 6. 

* Dlodor. Sicul. L. 16. p. 41 1, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^03 

were the only place in the world where people fettled and re- 
mained. It was an ancient compound, and no part of it of 
Grecian ' original. Tauromenium is the fame as Menotaurium 
reverfed : and the figure of the Deity was varied exadly in the 
fame manner ; as is apparent from the coins and engravings, 
which have been found in Sicily. The Minotaur is figured 
as a man with the head of a bull ; the Tauromen as a bull 
with the face of a '° man. 

Among the " Hetriirians this term feems to have been 
taken in a more enlarged fenfe ; and to have fignified a city, or 
town fortified. When they fettled in Italy, they founded many 
places of ftrength ; and are reputed to have been the firft who 
introduced the art of fortification. " Tv^(rir,voi. TT^a'To;/ S(p£V^ov 
Tiw TSi'^OTTouan. Hence the word Tar, and Tur, is often 
found in the compofition of names, which relate to people 
of this country; They worfhiped the Sun, ftiled Zan, and 
Zeen ; whofe temples were called Tur-Zeen : and in confe- 
quence of it one of the principal names by which their coun- 
try was diftinguiflied, was Turzenia. The Scholiafl. upon 
Lycophron mentions it as '^ XctJ^cci/ azo Tv^rrjrs KKrj^si(ray 
Tv^o'riVia.v, a region^ which from Tur-Seen was named 'Tur" 
fenia. The Poet above takes notice of two perfons by the 

' Meea was the moon : and Meno-Taurus fignified Taurus Lunaris. It was 
a facred emblem, of which a great deal will be faid hereafter. 

'° See Paruta's Sicilia nummata. 

" Turij, TTspj^cAo; T8 TUX*''- Hefych. From whence we may infer, that any 
place furrounded with a wall or fortification might be termed a Tor or Turris. 

Ta/;^(y!'joi' 7roA(5 Tu:p/ina5. Stephan. Byzant. 

'* Scholia upon Lycophron. V. 717. 

'' Scholia upon Lycophron. V. 1242. 

The Poet fays of ilineas, n«Aa' -rKoiVintw Js^iTxi Tvpo-wih. V. 1239. 

F f f 2 names 

404» The Analysis of Ancie.n-t Mvtkology, 

names of Tarchon, and Turfeen. "^ Tc/.^yj^v T5, am Tv^<rriyo?'y 
durnvs; ?\v/.oi. From Tarchon there was a city and diftrid 
named '^ Tarcimia ; from whence came the family of the 
Tarquins, or Tarquinii, fo well known in the hiftory bf 
'* Rome. The Amonians efteemed every emanation of 
light a fountain ; and ftiled it Ain, and Aines : and as they 
built lighthoufes Upon every ifland and infular promon- 
tory, they were in confequence of it called Aines, Agnes,. 
Inis, Inefos, Nefos, Nees r and this will be found ta obtain 
in many different countries and languages. The Hetru- 
rians occupied a large tradl of fea-coaft ; on which account 
they worfhiped Pofeidon : and one of their principal cities 
was Pofeidonium. They ered:ed upon their fhores towers 
and beacons for the fake of their navigation, which they 
called Tor-ain : whence they had a flill farther denomi- 
nation of Tur-aini, and their country was named Tur-ainiaj 
the Tv^ipmcc of the later Greeks. All thefe appellations 
are from the fame objed:, the edifices which they ere6led : 
even Hetruria feems to have been a compound of Ai-tur ; 
and to have fignified the land of Towers. 

Another name for buildings of this nature was Turit, or 
Tirit ; which lignified a tower or turret. 1 have often men- 
tioned, that temples have been miftaken for Deities, and 
places for perfons. We have had an inftance of this above ; 
where Tarchon, and Turfenus are fuppofed to have been 

'* Lycophron. V. 1248. 

" Tat Jt'ji'ia ToAii Tvpj.nyi^oi octto Tatf^upoi' to i^viKov Tapx.vvto?. Steph. Byzant; 
** Strabo. L. 5. p. ^3^' Tap-noovX} ct<p' a Tasxwia ri ttoAw. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 405 

founders of colonies. Torone was a place in Macedonia ; 
and fignifies literally the Tower of the Sun. The Poets have 
formed out of it a female perfonage ; and fuppofed her to 
have been the wife of '^ Proteus. So Amphi-Tirit is merely 
an oracular tower. This too has by the Poets been changed 
to a female, Amphitrite ; and made the wife of Neptune, 
The name of Triton is a contradlion of Tirit-On ; and fig- 
nifies the tower or the Sun, like Torone : but a Deity was 
framed from it, who was fuppofed to have had the appearance 
of a man upwards, but downwards to have been like a hfh. 
From this emblematical reprefentation v/e may judge of the 
iigure of the real Deity ; and be aflured, that it could be 
no other than that of Atargatis and Dagon, The '^ Hetru- 
rians were thought to have been the inventors of trumpets :• 
and in their towers upon the fea-coaft there were people ap- 
pointed to be continually upon the watch both by day and 
night ; and to give a proper fignal, if any thing happened 
extraordinary. This was done by a blaft: from the trumpet : 
and Triton was hence feigned to have been Neptune's trum^^ 
peter. He is accordingly defcribcd by Nonnus, 

as poffe£irig the deep toned trumpet ef the Hetrtiriaii 
However in early times thefe brazen inftruments were but 
little known : and people were obliged to make ufe of, what 
was near at hand, the conchs of the fea, which every flrand 

" Lycophron. V. ii6. 
H To^wc;;, ywm risuTSco?. Scholia ibidem. 
'® Tuppmof craATTC) fsc, Tatianiis AflTyrius. P. 243, 
Z'L. 17. p. 468. 


4o6 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLocy. 

afforded. By founding thefe they gave fignals from die top 
of the towers, when any fhip appeared : and this is the im- 
plement, with which Triton is more commonly furnidied. 
The ancients divided the night into different watches ; the 
laft of which was called cockcrow : and in confequence 
of this they kept a cock in their Tirat, or Towers, to give 
notice of the dawn. Hence this bird was facred to the Sun, 
and named Aledor, AAs/iTW^ : v/hich feems to be a compound 
out of the titles of that Deity, and of the tower fet apart for 
his fervice : for all thefe towers were temples. Thofe ftiled 
Tritonian were oracular; as wc may infer from the applica- 
tion made by the Argonauts. What Homer attributes to 
Proteus, Pindar afcribes to Triton. " Mccnsverai Js ojg ttcc^^ 
0|W.>]^w Yl^odTevg, koli ttol^ol liiv^a^ct) T^irm Toig A^yovoLvroiig. 
Paufanias mentions a tradition of a " Triton near Tanagra, 
who ufed to molefl: women, when they were bathing in the 
fea; and who was guilty of other a6ls of violence. He was 
at laft found upon the beach overpowered vviih wine ; and 
tiicre flain. This Triton was properly a Tritonian, a prieft: 
of one of thefe temples : for the priefts appear to have been 
great tyrants, and oftentimes very brutal. This perfon had 
ufed the natives ill ; who took advantage of him, when over- 
powered with liquor, and put him to death. 

The term Tor in different parts of the world occurs fome- 
times a little varied. Whether this happened through mif- 
take, or was introduced for facility of utterance, is uncer- 

" Scholia upon Lycophron. V. 754. 
*' Paufanias. L. 9. p. 749, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 407 

tain. The temple of the Sun, Tor Heres, in Phenicia was 
rendered T^iYj^Yig, Trieres : the promontory Tor-Ope-On in 
Caria, Triopon : Tor-Hamath in Cyprus, Trimathus : Tor- 
Hanes in India, Trinefia : Tor-Chom, or Chomus, in Palef- 
tine, Tricomis. In ancient times the title of Anac was 
often conferred upon the Deities ; and their temples were 
ftiled Tor Anac, and Anac- Tor. The city Miletus wa& 
named " Anadoria : and there was an Heroiim at Sparta 
called Ava^ZTo^O]/, Anadoron i where Caftor and Pollux had 
particular honours, who were peculiarly fliled Anades. It 
was from Tor- Anac that Sicily was denominated Trinacis 
andTrinacia. This in procefs of time was ftill farther changed 
to Trinacria ; which name was fuppofed to refer to the tri- 
angular form of the ifland. But herein was a great miftake^ 
for the more ancient name was Trinacia, as is manifeft from. 
Homer : 

'^ 'OTTTrors Ji] 7r^c;)TQV 7rs?\0L(rrig evspysa price. 
T^ivoLKiTi vri(rca. 
And the name originally did not relate to the ifland in ge- 
neral, but to a part only; and that a fmall diftrid near 
^tna. This fpot had been occupied by the firft inhabitants, 
the Cyclopians, Leftrygons, and Sicani : and it had this 
name from fome facred tower, which they built. Callima- 

"" Paufanias. L. 7. p. 524. 

Aeiy.i is T3J fj-ccAcL yLccAov Ava-x.ropov. Callimachuus. Hymn to Apollo. V. yj. 

^' Homer. Odyfl". A. V. 105. Strabo fuppofes Trinakis to have been the mo- 
dern name of the ifland -, forgetting that it was prior to the time of Homer. 
L. 6. p. 407 : he alfo thinks, that it was called Trinacria from its figure: which 
is a miftake» 

5 . chus 

4o8 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

chus calls it miftakenly Trinacria; but fays that it was neaf 
JEtna.j and a portion of tlie ancient Sicani. 

""* Ave (5" a^' A<TJ/a, 

The ifland Rhodes was called ^^ Trinacia, wliich was not tri- 
angular : fo that the name had certainly fuffered a variation ; 
and had no relation to any figure. The city Trachin, 
T^cf^iVy in Greece was properly Tor-chun, turris facra vel 
regia, like Tarchon in Hetruria. Chun and Chon were 
titles, faid peculiarly to belong to Hercules : ** Toy 'H^dlkM^ 
^pYiTi KOLTd 70V AiyvTrriojv ^iccXszTOv K(£vo(, AsyscS-a;. We accord- 
ingly find that this place was facred to Hercules : that it was 
fuppofed to have been *^ founded by him ; and that it was 
called ** Heraclea. 

I imagine that the trident of Pofeidon was a miftaken im- 
plement ; as it does not appear to have any relation to the 
Deity, to whom it has been by the Poets appropriated. Both 
the towers on the fea-coaft, and the beacons, which flood above 
them, had the name of Tor-ain. This the Grecians changed 
to Triaina, T^icm/cCj and fuppofed it to have been a three 
pronged fork. The beacon or Torain confided of an iron or 
brazen frame, wherein were three or four tines, which ftood up 
upon a circular bafis of the fame metal. They were bound 

** Hymn to Diana. V. 56. 1 make no doubt, but Callimachus wrote Tftraxiac, 

" Pliny. L. 5. c. 31, 

** Etymolog. Magn. 

*■" Stephanus Byzant. 

*® Tfo-X'^^ rt vvv 'HfaxAfia KccXy/juvii. HefycTi. or, as Athen^us reprefents it 

jmore truly, HfascAf/ai', rnvT ^a^n'tecy xet.KioiJ.ivvv, L. II. p. 462. 

4 with 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 409 

with a hoop : and had either the figures of Dolphins, or clfe 
foliage in the intervals between them. Thefe filled up the 
vacant fpace between the tines ; and made them capable of 
holding the combuftible matter, with which they were at 
night filled. This inftrument was put upon a high pole, 
and hung fioping fea-ward over the battlements of the 
tower, or from the ftern of a fhip : with this they could 
maintain either a fmoke by day, or a blaze by night. There 
was a place in Argos narned *' Triaina ; which was fuppofed 
to have been fo called from the trident of Neptune. It was 
undoubtedly a tower, and the true name Tor-ain ; as may 
be fhewn from the hiftory, with which it is attended. For 
it flood near a fountain ; though a fountain of a different na- 
ture from that, of which we have been fpeaking. The waters 
of Amumone rofe here : which Amumone is a variation from 
Amim-On, the waters of the Su?2. The ftream rofe clofe 
to the place ; which was named Tor-ain from its vicinity to 
the fountain. 

Cerberus was the name of a place, as well as Triton, and 
Torone, though efteemed the. dog of hell. We are told by 
^° Eufebius from Plutarch, that Cerberus was the Sun : but 
the term properly fignified the temple, or place of the Sun. 
The great luminary was ftiled by the Amonians both Or, 
and Abor ; that is, light y and the parent of lig/jt : and Cer- 
berus is properly Kir-Abor, the place of that Deity. The 

*' T^iouvx TOTTCi A^yys' svoa TWf T^tixtvctv o^^nv eq^uaev o Ylo/reiS'ui', luyyivoiJiSvci 
T>i Af/.ufiuvYi, v.a.1 eu^vi v.a.T sxuvo vS^x^ atfiSXiiosv, o xat t»c eTriy.P'.vcriv i(r^iv i% 
Afj.viJiuvni. Scholia in Euripidis PhcEnilT. V. 155. 

^° Eufebius, Prasp. Evan. L. 3. c. 1 1. p. 1 13, 
Vol. I. G g g fame 

4IO The Analvsis of Ancient Mythology. 

fame temple had different names from the diverdty of the 
God's titles, who was there worfliiped. It was called Tor- 
Caph-El ; which was changed to T^iKB(pa,Koc^ juft as Cahen- 
Caph-El was rendered zv^ydKBipciKog : and Cerberus was from 
hence fuppofed to have had three heads. It was alfo ftiled 
Tor-Keren, Turris Regia ; which fullered a like change 
with the word above, being exprefTcd r^iKCL^-^vog : and Cahen 
Ades or Cerberus was from hence fuppofed to have been a 
triple-headed monfter. That thefe idle figm.ents took their 
rife from names of places, ill expreffed, and miiinterpreted, 
may be proved from Palasphatus. He abundantly fhews, 
that the miftake arofe from hence ; though he does not point 
out precifely the mode of deviation. He firft fpeaks of Ge- 
ryon, who was fuppofed to have had three heads, and was 
thence ftiled t^ikb^olKo;. ^' Hv Js Toioyh rsra' 7:o?^i; sg'iv sv 
Tw Ev^ivca TTovrtc T^i/.cc^riVicc kolKh^svyi zX, The purport of the 
fable about Geryones is this. There was upon the Pontus Eu- 
xinus a city named Tricarenia : and from thence came the 
. hiftory Vr\epom ra T^mcc^Yimj of Geryon the Tricarenian, 
which was interpreted j a man with three heads. He mentions 
the fame thing of Cerberus. ''- AsyacTi Trs^i Ks^^s^s, o)g kvocv 
^y, S'^m r^Biq KS(^y.Xc/.g' ^■r\hov h on zcti 8Toj oltto t/]? ttoAsw^ 
bkM^Y] T^iKd^Tii/og, mTTB^ o TYi^von^g. Tloey fay of Cerberus^ 
that he was a dog with three heads : but it is plain that he was 
fo called from a city naiiied Tiicaren^ or Tricare?2ia^ as well 

3' Palasphatus. P. 56. 
^ Pal^phacus. P. g6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 411 

as Geryo7ies. Palaephatus fays very truly that the ftrange 
notion arofe from a place. But to ftate more precifely the 
grounds of the miftake, we muft obferve that from the an- 
cient Tor-Caph-El arofe the blunder about r^i}i£(pccXog ^ 
as from Tor-Keren, rendered Tricarenia, was formed the 
term t^mcL^Yivog : and thefe perfonages in confequence of it 
were defcribed with three heads. 

As I often quote from Pal^phatus, it may be proper to 
fay fomething concerning him. He wrote early : and feems 
to have been a ferious, and fenfi.ble perfon ; one, who faw 
the abfurdity of the fables, upon which the theology of his 
country was founded. In the purport of his name is fignified 
an antiquarian ; a perfon, who dealt in remote refearches : 
and there is no impoflibility, but that there might have ca- 
fually arifen this correfpondence between his name and writ- 
ings. But, I think, it is hardly probable. As he wrote 
againfl; the mythology of his country, I fliould imagine that 
TLyJkoLKpoLTog^ Palaephatus, was an affumed name, which he 
took for a blind, in order to fcreen himfelf from perfecu- 
tion : for the nature of his writings made him liable to much 
ill will. One little treatife of ^^ Palasphatus about Orion is 
quoted verbatim by the Scholiaft upon ^'^ Homer, who 
fpeaks of it as a quotation from Euphorion. I fhould there- 
fore think, that Euphorion was the name of this writer: but 
as there v/ere many learned men fo called, it may be diffi- 
cult to determine which was the author of this treatife. 

'* Palasphatus. P. 20. 
»Mliad. 2. V.486. 

G g g 2 Homer, 

412 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

Homer, who has conflrudled the nobleft poem, that was 
ever framed, from the ftrangefl: materials, abounds with al- 
legory and myfterious defcription. He often introduces 
ideal perfonages, his notions of which he borrowed from 
edifices, hills, and fountains ; and from whatever favoured of 
wonder and antiquity. He feems fometimcs to blend together 
two different characters of the fame thing, a borrowed one, 
and a real ; fo as to make the true hiftory, if there fhould be 
any truth at bottom, the more extraordinary, and enter- 

I cannot help thinking, that Otus and Ephialtes, thofe gi- 
gantic youths, fo celebrated by the Poets, were two lofty 
towers. They were building to Alohim, called ^"^ Aloeus ; 
b.ut were probably overthrown by an earthquake. They 
are fpoken of by Pindar as the fons of Iphimedeia ; and are 
fuppofed to have been flain by Apollo in the illand Naxos» 

'' Ev Js Nagw 

Q,TQV, acfj crs, ToKy^ccBig E<pKiKroL ava,^. 
They are alfo mentioned by Homer, who ftiles them yriysi/Sigy 
or earthborn: and his defcription is equally fine. 

^* Kotl f STSKSV. SvO TTOnh, fJLlVVV^OL^Kt) Js yzv3^ir,v^ 

Q.TQV T avTi^sov, rriKSKXSiTOV T E(piOLXTl^V' 

Ovg Jh [/.riKig-ovg ^^£\[/2 ^6i^c>)^og a^a^cc, 

'♦ Diodorus Siculus. L. 5, p. 324. 
5' Pindar. Pych. Ode 4.. p. 243. 
'' Homer. OdyfT. A. V. 306, 


The Analysis of Ancient MyxHOLOGY. 413 

Edao^, cnap iJLr,.zog ye ysvio^TV svvBo^yvioi. 
Homer includes Orion in this defcription, whom he men- 
tions elfewhere; and feems to borrow his ideas from a fi- 
milar objed, fome tower, or temple, that was facred to him. 
Orion was Nimrod, the great hunter in the Scriptures, called 
by the Greeks Nebrod. He was the founder of Babel, or 
Babylon ; and is reprefented as a gigantic perfonage. The 
author of the Pafchal Chronicle fpeaks of him in this light. 
^^ Na^^M^r^yajTCij rov rriv Boi^vKwnoiv KTiTccvTci — ovtivol aoLha- 
(Tiv D.pimci. He is called Alorus by Abydenus, and Apollo- 
dorus ; which was often rendered with the Amonlan prefix 
Pelorus. Homer defcribes him as a great hunter ; and of an 
enormous ftature, even fuperior to the Aloeidas above men:- 

^* Toy Js fjisr Q,^iooyoi n£?vw^wy si(rsvQiri(Tciy 
Qri^oLg o^H siKsvna Kotr OL^r&ohXov Kei^Jimo!.. 
The Poet ftiles him Pelorian ; which betokens fomething vafi-, 
and is applicable to any tovv^ering perfonage, but particu 
lariy to Orion. For the term Pelorus is the name, by which 
the towers of Orion were called. Of thefe there feems to 
have been one in Delos : and another of more note, to which 
Homer probably alluded, in Sicily ; where Orion was par- 
ticularly reverenced. The flreight of Rhegium was a dan- 
gerous pafs : and this edifice was ereded for the fecurity of 

"Chron. Palchale. P. 36. 

N^S^c.-l ^hiio tv Cinaivx. Cedrcnus. P. 14,' 

i! Homer. Odyff. A. V. 57 it 


4^4 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

thofe, who were obliged to go through it. It flood near 
Zancle ; and was called "^' Pelorus, becaufe it was facred to 
Alorus, the fame as '^° Orion. There was Jikevvife. a river 
named from him, and rendered by Lycophron '^' Elorus. The 
tower is mentioned by Strabo ; but more particularly by 
Diodorus Siculus. He informs us that, according to tlie tra- 
dition of the place, Orion there refided j and that, among 
other works, he raifed this very mound and promontory, 
called Pelorus and Pelorias, together with the temple, which 
was fituated upon it. ''' £lpi(jom Tr^oT-^oou-oLi, to koltcl t/jV IIsAw- 
^<aJa KziixBvov ciKP(/^rri^iov, kcli to re^Bvo; 73 Ho<Tsi^mog kocto,- 
(TKSvcirciiy rifJLWfj.svov vtto rw sy^w^^m SioKps^ovrojg. We iind 
from hence that there was a tower of this fort, which be- 
longed to Orion : and that the word Pelorion was a term 
borrowed from thefe edifices, and made ufe of metaphori- 
cally, to denote any thing ftupendous and large. The de- 
fcription in Homer is of a mixed nature : wherein he retains 
the ancient tradition of a gigantic perfon ; but borrows his 
ideas from the towers facred to him. I have taken notice be- 
fore, that all temples of old were fuppofed to be oracular ; and 

^' Strabo. L. 3. p. 259. 

^° Alorus was the firft king of Babylon ; and the fame perfon as Orion, and 
t>Jimrod. See Radicals. P. 9. notes. 

■♦' EA(w^&5, €pBx -^u^^ov £x.Cx^Aei TTorov. Lycophron. V. 1033. 
PeS^u)' 'EAw^a tt^oShv. Idem. V. 1 1 84. 'O irorxfjioi 6 'EAco^oc ur^e to ovoixa. 
ctTTo Tivoi f^aa-iXfMi 'Ea&i^h. Schol. ibid. There were in Sicily many places of this 
name •, UsS fiv 'EAco^ior. Diodorus. L. 13. p. 148. Elorus Caftellum. Fazellus. 
Pec. 1. L. 4. c. 2. 

Via Helorina. EAwoos ttoA*?. Cluver. Sicilia Antiqua. L, i.e. 13. p. 186. 

t*^ Diodorus Siculus. L. 4. p. 284. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology/ 41^ 

By the Amonians were called Pator and Patara. This temple 
of Orion was undoubtedly a Pator ; to which mariners 
reforted to know the event of their voyage, and to make 
their offerings to the God. It was on this account filled 
Tor Pator ; which being by the Greeks exprefTed T^iTrarcf)^, 
tripator, gave rife to the notion, that this earthborn giant 
had three fathers. 

Thefe towers near the'fea were made ufe of to form a judo-- 
ment of the weather, and to obferve the heavens : and thofe, 
which belonged to cities, were generally in the Acropolis, 
or higher part of the place. This by the Amonians was 
named Bofrah; and the citadel of Carthage, as well as of 
other cities, is known to have been fo denominated. But 
the Greeks by an unavoidable fatality rendered it uniformly 
''* ^v^cra,, burfa, a fkin : and when fome of them fucceeded to 
Zancle '^^ in Sicily, finding that Orion had fome reference to 
Guran or Ouranus, and from the name of the temple ^T^i- 
Trarw^j judging that he mufl have had three fathers, they 
immediately went to work, in order to reconcile thefe differ- 
ent ideas. They accordingly changed Ouran to a^Siv j and 
thinking the mifconffrued hide by^ccc no improper utenfil 
for their purpofe, they made thefe three fathers cooperate 
in a moft wonderful manner for the produdlion of this ima- 

^' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 1 3, p, 356, 

"*■* Kara fj-Sarji' Ss t))v ttqMv n ay.ooircKi?^ r;v ejcaAaj' Cuoo-av^ Q(pous l/.xvui odiat,. 
Strabo. L. 1 7. p. 1 1 89. 

See alfo Juftin. L. 18. c. 5. and Livy. L. 34. c. 61. 

■" 'Layx/oi iTohii HixiP'Au.i — a.:To Zx-j^xAaTa ynyei'Bi. Stcphanus Byzant. 

4 gifiary ' 

4i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ginary perfon ; inventing the moil flovenly legend, that 
ever was devifed. '^^ T^sig (^soi) tb (r(pa.ysnog ^oog ^v^u-/} 
syii^Yi<ra.y, xcci s^ avrrig Q.^im sysvsTo. Tres Dei in bovis mac- 
tati pelle minxerunt, et inde natus eft Orion, 

*' Scholia in Lycophron. V. 32 8 J 

flpioop^xocra rpoTDiv ra a en w utto ts a^wv i~iv ctiro iq'omoci ts sniTat TSS 
fiee? iv Tin Cv^a-yi^ xccf yit'S^at ccvtov. Etymolog. Mag. D.fiuy. 


( 4«7 ) 

TIT and T I T H. 

WHEN towers were fituated upon eminences fa- 
fhioned very round, they were by the Amonians 
called Tith ; which anfwers to nn in Hebrew, and 
to ' T<T^)5, and rirdog in Greek. They were fo denomi- 
nated from their refemblance to a woman's bread ; and were 
particularly facred to Orus, and Ofiris, the Deities of light, 
who by the Grecians were reprefented under the title of 
Apollo. Hence the fummit of ParnafTus was ~ named Ti- 
thorea from Tith- Or : and hard by was a city, mentioned by 
Paufanias, of the fame name ; which was alike facred to 
Orus, and Apollo. The fame author takes notice of a hill 
near Epidaurus, called ' TiT^eiov o^o; AroKh^apog, There was 
a fummit of the like nature at Samos, which is by Callima- 
chus ftiled ii)e breaji of Parthenia : * Aioc^^oyov v^oLTi ucc^'ov 
Ux^knrig. Mounds of this nature are often by Paufanias, and 

' T(t6j), t;t9o?, T;T9(sr, i^xc^oi. Hefychius. 
* Paufanias. L. lo. p. 878. 

Paufan. L. 2. p. 170. 

-* Callimach. Hymn in Delon. V. 48. Ma-o; often taken notice of by Xeno- 
phon. hrc£a.i. L. 4. p. 320. A hill at Lefbos. ^v AiaQ-x, xAmw Ep«(7w xso/- 
icvfx.onMAXrQ.,. Athensus. L. 3. p. iii. E;^ei S' n- uvry -Kcct jwarsr. Polyb. 
L. I. p. 57. 

Vol. L Hhh Strabo 

41 8 The Analvsi3 of Ancient Mythology. 

Strabo, termed iTom their refemblance ^ ^oicrosihig. Titho- 
nus, vvliofe longevity is fo much celebrated, was nothing 
more than one of thefe ftruftures, a Pharos facred to the 
iiin, as the name plainly (hews. Tith-On is [mx?-o; riKi3y 
the moufit of the ^ Sim. As he fupplied the place of that lu- 
minary, he is fiid to have been beloved by Aurora, and 
through her favour to have lived many ages. This indeed is 
the reverfe of that, which is fabled of the ^ Cyclopes, whofe 
hiftory equally relates to edifices. They are faid to have 
raifcd the jealoufy of Apollo, and to have been flain by his 
arrovt's : yet it will be found at bottom of the fame purport. 
The Cyclopian turrets upon the Sicilian fliore fronted due 
cad : and their lights muft necedarily have been extinguifhed 
by the rays of the rifing Sun. This, I imagine, is the mean^ 
inor of Apollo's flaying the Cyclopes with his arrows. Te- 
thys, the ancient Goddefs of the fea, was nothing elfe but 
an old tower upon a mount ; oi the fame ihape, and eredled 
for the fame purpofes, as thofe above. On this account it 
was called Tith-Is, fJiOL^og ttv^o;. Thetis feems to have 
been a tranfpofifion of the fame name ; and was probably a 
Pharos, or Firetower near the fea. 

Thcfe mounts, Aoipot (JLag-ost^si;, were not only in Greece j 
but in Egypt, Syria, and mofl parts of the world. They 

' Strabo mentions in Cyprus, A/^-aGai ttoP^h — oooi f/.a.<^oeiS'ii OAi;ftT05. 
L. 14. p. 1001. 

* The Circean promontory in Italy Teems to have been named Tit-On ; for 
the bay below is by Lycophron ftiled Titonian. Tnuvnv ie ^svy,cx., V. 1275. 
Rivers and feas were often denominated from places, near which they flowed. 

'' Of the Cyclopes I fhall hereafter treat at large. 


TtTE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 410 

were generally formed by art; being compofed of earthy 
raifed very high ; which was floped gradually, and with 
great exadlnefs : and the top of all was crowned with a fair 
tower. The iituation of thefe buildings made them be 
looked upon as places of great fafety : and the reverence, in 
which they were held, added to the fecurity. On thefe ac- 
counts they were the repofitories of much wealth and trea- 
fure : in times of peril they were crowded with thino-s of 
value. In Aflyria was a temple named Azara ; which the 
Parthian plundered, and is faid to have carried off ten thou- 
fand talents : ^ Ka,i' r]^6 raXanocv ^v^im y^^oLV, The fame 
author mentions two towers of this fort in {udea, not far 
from Jericho, belonging to Ariftobulus and Alexander, and 
ftiled ' Ta^o(pv'kcf,inoL rm Tv^olvvoou ^ which were taken by Pom- 
peius Magnus in his war with the Jews. There were often 
two of thefe mounds of equal height in the fame inclofure ; 
fuch as are defcribed by Jofephus at Machrerus near forae 
warm fountains. He mentions here a cavern and a rock ; 

mavsi [j^ag-Qi ho avs'^HriVj ol^^M^^v oT^iyu) ^tsg-ccrsg: and 
above it two round hills like l??-eajlsy at no great dijlance from 
each other. To fuch as thefe Solomon alludes, when he 
makes his beloved fay, " / am a wally and ?ny breajls like 
towers. Though the word nain, Chumah, or Comah, be ge- 

^ Strabo. L. i6. p. loSo. Azara fignified a treafure. 
' Strabo. L. i6. p. uo6. 
"Bell. Jud. L. 7. p. 417. 
" Canticles. C. 8. v. lo. 

H h h 2 nerally 

420 The Analysis op Ancient MyTHOLocy. 

nerally rendered a wall ; yet I fhould think that in this place 
it lignificd the ground, which the wall furrounded ; an in- 
clofure facred to Ch^m, the Sun, who was particularly wor- 
fhiped in fuch places. The Mizraim called thefe hills Ty- 
phon, and the cities, where they were erected, Typhonian. 
But as they {lood within enclofures facred to Chom, they 
were alfo ftiled Choma. This, I imagine, was the mean- 
ing of the term in this place, and in fome others ; where 
the text alludes to a different nation, and to a foreign mode 
of worfhip. In thefe temples the Sun was principally adored, 
and the rites of fire celebrated : and this feems to have been 
the reafon, why the judgment denounced againft them ia 
uniformly, that they (hall be deftroyed by fire. If we fup- 
pofe Coraah to mean a mere wall, I do not fee why fire 
fhould be fo particularly deftined againft a part, which is the 
leaft combuftiblc. The Deity fays, '" 1 will kindle a fire i-a 
the wall of Damajcus, ' ' / will fend a fre on the wall of 
Gaza, '"'I will fe fid a fre on the wallofTyrus. '^ 1 will kindle 
a '^ fire in the wall of Rahbah. As the crime, which brought 
down this curfe, was idolatry, and the terra ufed in ail thefe 
inftances is Chomah ; I fhould think that it related to a tem- 
ple of Chom, and his high places, called by the Greeks 
Aofpo/ y,oLg-osi^£ig : and to thefe the fpoufe of Solomon cer- 

"^Jeremiak C. 49. v. 27., 
" Amos. C. I. V. 7. 
** Amos. C. i.v. 10. 
" Amos. C. I. V. 14. 

'* It is remarkable, that in many of the very ancieat templss there was a tradi* 
tion of their iiaving fuftered by lightning. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 421 

talnly alludes, when fhe fays, syw reiyo;, kcli 01 ^ctas'Oi jU.8 
w? TTV^yoi. This will appear from another paffage in Solo- 
mon, where he makes his beloved fay, ''' PFe have a htm 
fijler^ and Jhe hath no breafts. If /he be a Comah^ we will 
build up07t her a palace of Jiher. A palace cannot be fup- 
pofed to be built upon a wall ; though it may be inclofed 
with one. The place for building was a Comah, or emi- 
nence. It is faid of Jotham king of Judah, that '^ on the 
wall of Ophel he built much. Ophel is literally Pytho Sol, the 
Ophite Deity of Egypt and Canaan. What is here termed 
a wall, was a Comah, or high place, which had been of old 
ereded to the fun by the Jebulites. This Jotham fortified, 
and turned it to advantage j whereas before it was not ufedj 
or ufed for a bad purpofe. The ground fet apart for fuch 
ufe was generally oval ; and towards one extremity of the 
long diameter, as it were in the focus, were thefe mounds 
and towers ereded. As they were generally royal edifices, 
and at the fame tim.e held facred ; they were termed Tar- 
chon, like Tarchonium in Hetruria : which by a corruption 
was in later times rendered Trachon, T^a^ot;:'. There were 
two hills of this denomination near Damafcus i from whence 
undoubtedly the Regio Trachonitis received its name : '' y^s^- 
KemoLi Js OLVTr^q [AxixaTKa) Jyo ?\syofjLsvoi T^ct'^msg, Thefe 
were hills with towers, and muft have been very fair to fee to. 
Solomon takes notice of a hill of this- fort upon ''° Lebano^tj, 

" Canticles. C. 8. v. 8; 
'* 2 Chron. C. 27. v. 3. 
''Strabo. L. 16. p. 1096, 
*° Cancicks. C. 7. v, 4. 


42 2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

looking toward Damafcus ; which he fpeaks of as a beautiful 
llruclure. The term Trachon feems to have been flill far- 
ther fophifticated by the Greeks, and expreffed A^dKcaVy 
Dracon : from whence in great meafure arofe the notion of 
treafures being guarded by " Dragons. We read of the gar- 
<3ens of the Hefperides being under the protedlion of a fleep- 
kfs fei"pent : and the golden fleece at Colchis was entrufled 
to fuch another guardian j of which there is a fine defcri- 
ption in ApoUonius. 

" Hu^yag skto-^/si^b Kvrcisog A//]Tao, 
AAo'o, Ts (TKiosv A^soj, rodi Kijcccg zt: az^ri; 
lisTTTOL^eyov <pr,yoio A^olkc^v^ rs^ag olivov ih^cLi^ 
A^.(pig oTriTTTSvsi ^eooKrifXSiog' ov^s oi rjfjLoi^j 
Ov /JSyCig ri^vfjLog viruog ocmi^sct ^ol^jlvoltoli o(r(re. 
Nonnus often introduces a dragon as a protedor of virginity ; 
watching while the damfel flumbered, but fleeplefs itfelf: 
^^ 'TTTvciXsng a.yfJ7:vov OT^iTrrevrri^ci ko^biy,;-. and in another 
place he mentions ^^ O^a^oj/ ^yj'-'^ OL7rs7\sC^oy 0(piv. Such a 
one guarded the nymph Chalcomeda, -^ Uct^^sn/.-rig ayatjLOio 
hori^Qog. The Goddefs Proferpine had two ^^ dragons to pro- 
ie6l her, by the appointment of her mother Demeter. 

^' Pervenit ad Draconis fpeluncam ultimam, 
•Cuftodiebat qui tlififaiiros abditos. Ph^drus. L. 4. Fab. 18. 
See Macrobius. Saturn. L. i.e. 20. of dragons guarding treafures. 
** ApoUonius Rhodius. L. 2. v. 405. 
"' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 14. p. 408. 
*■* Nonni Dionyf. L. 33. p. 840. 
-' Nonni Dionyl". L. 35. p. 876. 
*' Konni Dionyf. L. 6. p. iS6. 

i Such 

The Analysis of An'cient Mythology. 42^ 

Such are the poetical rcprefentations : but the hiftory at 
bottom relates to facred towers, dedicated to the iymbolical 
worfhip of the ferpent ; where there was a perpetual watch, 
and a light ever burning. The Titans, TnoLVsgj were pro- 
perly Titanians; a people fo denominated from their wor- 
fhip, and from the places, where it was. celebrated. They 
are, like Orion and the Cyclopians, reprefented as gigantic 
perfons : and they were of the fame race, the children of 
Anak. The Titanian temples were (lately edifices, ered:ed 
in Chaldea, as well as in lower Egypt, upon mounds of 
earth) T^oipoi, i^v.g'osihi;^ and facred to Hanes ; TiTCivig, and 
TncLVBg are compounds of Tit-Hanes ; and fignify literally 
fMCicog j]A/8, the conical hill of Orus. They were by their 
Situation ftrong, and probably made otherwife defenlible. 

In refpeft to the legends about dragons, I am perfuadcd 
that the ancients fometimes did wilfully mifreprefent things, 
in order to increafe the wonder. Iphicrates related, that in 
Mauritania there were dragons of fuch extent, that grafs 
grew upon their backs : ' A^otzovTag tb 7\sysi ^syoLKag^ 
wf£ HOLi TFOdV S7ti7rB<pViisvcLi. What can be meant under this 
reprefentation but a Dracontium, within whofe precinfls 
they encouraged verdure ? It is faid of Taxiles, a mighty 
prince in India, and a rival af Porus, that, upon the arrival 
of Alexander the Great, he fhewed him every thing that was 
in his country curious, and which could win the attention 
cf a foreigner. Among other things he carried him to fee a 

^' Strabo. L. 17. p. 1183; 


424. The Analysis of Ancient Mythology^ 

*^ Dragon, which was facred to Dionufus ; and itfelf eP- 
teemed a God. It was of a ftupendous fize, being in extent 
equal to five acres; and refided in a low deep place, walled 
round to a great height. The Indians offered facrifices to it : 
and it was daily fed by them from their flocks and herds ; 
which it devoured at an amazing rate. In fhort my author 
fays, that it was treated rather as a tyrant, than a benevolent 
Deity. Two Dragons of the like nature are mentioned by 
^' Strabo ; which are faid to have refided in the mountains of 
Abifares, or Abiofares in India : the one was eighty cubits in 
length, the other one hundred and forty. Similar to the 
above is the account given by Pofidonius of a ferpent, which 
he faw in the plains of Macra^ a region in Syria 3 and which 
he fliles ^° ^^OLZoncL 7rs7rTi>)/,orci vzk^ov. He fays, that it was 
>about an acre in length ; and ot a thicknefs fo remarkable, 
as that two perfons on horfeback when they rode on the op- 
poflte fides, could not fee one another. Each fcale was as 

*® Er'cTg Tci5 g/gi^g XXI ^u)ov •J7re^(piis-, AiovvjB ctyxXixoc.^ m hS'ot S'jov. Aoa- 

i-ifVX'ji vTTSp rciv a.y.pMv 7n^£^?^nfJ.ii'Di' Kxt urnAiaKS TUi IvSojv uyiAxi. xtA. 
Maximus Tyr. Diflert. 8. C. 6. p. 85. 

*' Strabo. L. 15. p. 1022. 

^ MaJCfa irsi lav. E/' tcvtctj Si YloiiiSmnoi I'^cpit rov i^pcaovroc ■TrlTTooy.cTa. 
opaG»i'a< leapov, panxoi -c^tSov ti xai ■7rXs')^iciiov^ Trac^oi Si, coad' iTTTrixi Ixarg^w- 
fisc 7ra<'a<7"a)'Ta« aAAijAbs /x/i Jcaosf ai'" yc(.a\J.a. Si, i'^j-' e^.tTrvroi' Ss'^a^cu, t»5 Se <po- 
AjJos T'.iiriS'x 'ex.ccTw vTioxto'diai' Bupia. Strabo. L. i6. p. 1095. The epithet 
TrexTwxws could not properly be given to a ferpent : but to a building decayed, 
and in ruins nothing is more applicable. A ferpent creeps upon its belly, and 
is even with the ground, which he goes over; and cannot fall lower. The mo- 
derns indeed delineate dragons with legs : but I do not know that this was -cuf- 
tOvTiary among the ancients. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 425 

biof as a fhield : and a man mls^ht ride in at its mouth. 
What can this defcription allude to, this ^§CLKm TteitT^'/Mg, 
but the ruins of an ancient Ophite temple ; which is repre- 
Tented in this enigmatical manner to raife admiration? The 
plains of Macra were not far from Mount Lebanon, and 
Hermon; where the Hivites refided ; and where ferpent- 
worfhip particularly prevailed. The Indian Dragon above 
mentioned feems to have been of the fame nature. It was 
probably a temple, and its environs ; where a fociety of 
priefts refided, who were maintained by the public; and who 
worfhiped the Deity under the femblance of a ferpent. Tityus 
muft be ranked among the raonilers of this clafs. He is by the 
Poets reprefented as a ftupendous being, an earthborn giant; 
^' Terrce omniparentis alumnum, 

per tota novem cui jugera corpus 

By which is meant, that he was a tower, erected upon a co- 
nical mount of earth, which ftood in an enclofure of nine 
acres. He is faid to have a vulture preying upon his heart, 
or liver ; immortale jecur tondens. The whole of which 
hiftory is borrowed from Homer, who mentions two vul- 
tures engaged in tormenting him. 

Ka< Tnvov si^ov Tairig s^iKv^sog vioVy 


'' Virgil. iEneis. L. 6. v. 5^5. 
''■ Homer. OdyfT. L. A. v. 575. 
Qiiintus Calaber ftiles him TraALiTrfAsOoi?. 

^8ALl7^£A^6ps £/<,giTo xxTx ^^Qsi'os eucuTreSoio. L. 3. v. 39 g. 

Tnvsv fjiiyxv, or ^ £ts;c?(' yi 
Ai 'EAaow, ^fi-^sv S's xai a-^ £Ao;:^fJcrctTO Taia.. 

Apollon. Rhodius. L. i. v, 761. 

Vol. I. I i i Ksiusvov 

426 The Analysis op Ancient Mythologv. 

Tvze OS [JLiV i/.OLTS^^S TrOi^YifJLSVOl YjTroC^ SKSl^QV, 

As^r^oy stoj hvovrsg^ oJ" qvk dTirccfJLVPSTo 'X.^^Ti, 
The fame flory is told of Prometheus, who is faid to have 
been expofed upon Mount Caucafus near Colchis ; with this 
variation, that an eagle is placed over him, preying upon his 
heart. Thefe ftrange hiftories are undoubtedly taken from 
the fymbols and devices, which were carved upon the front 
of the ancient Amonian temples; and efpecially thofe of 
Egypt. The eagle, and the vulture, were the infignia of 
that country : whence it was called Ai-Gupt, and ^' Aetia, 
from Ait and Gnpt, which Signified an eagle and vulture. 
Ait was properly a title of the Deity, and fignified heat : 
and the heart, the center of vital heat, was among the 
Egyptians ftiled ^* Ait : hence we are told by ^^ Orus Apollo, 
that a heart over burning coals was an emblem of Egypt. 
The Amonians dealt much in hieroglyphical reprefentations. 
Nonnus mentions one of this fort, which feems to have been 
a curious emblem of the Sun. It was engraved upon a jaf- 
per, and worn for a bracelet. Two ferpents entwined toge- 
ther, with their heads different ways, were depidled in a fe- 
micircular manner round the extreme part of the gem. At 

-* AiyviTTci — sy.K-n^-/i f'l'j(Txccc-—y.cci Aepiex, y.cci TJaTaufTti, y.cci AETIA, aTa 
Ttyac hSs Asth. Stephanus Byzant. 

Euftathiiis nientions, Ka; Aence., ayro Tivji IvS'n Astp. ^tA. In Dionyfium. 
Y. 239. p. 42. 

'* Orus Apollo ftiles \i in the Ionian manner H9. L. i. c. 7. p. 10. Tc/s KO 

L. I. c. 22. p, 38. It alfo fignified an eagle. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 42*7 

the top between their heads was an eagle ; and beneath a 
facred carriage, called Cemus. 

O^^og, BYJ^voLi'jrj ^ih^^v fj,£(r(rr,yv aoL^rivm^ 
''T-^i(poLyrig TtTs^vym Tricrvooiv rsTpa^vyi kyiijl'jk 
Tji i^BV ^avdog iciQ'Trig sttst^b'^s. 
The hiftory of Tityus, Prometheus, and many other poeti- 
cal perfonages, was certainly taken from hieroglyphics mif- 
iinderftood, and badly explained. Prometheus was wor- 
shiped by the Colchians as a Deity ; and had a temple and 
high place, called ''^ ITsT^ct Tv(pctovici, upon Mount Caucafus: 
and the device upon the portal was Egyptian, an eagle over 
a heart. The niag;^ude of thefe perfonages was taken from 
the extent of the temple inclofures. The words, per tota 
novem cui jugera corpus Porrigitur, relate to a garden of fo 
many acres. There were many fuch inclofures, as I have 
before taken notice: fome of them were beautifully planted, 
and ornamented with paviHons and fountains, and called 
Paradifi. One of this fort flood in Syria upon the river 
'^ Typhon, called afterwards Orontes. Places of this nature 
are alluded to under the defcription of the gardens of 
the Plefperides, and Alcinous ; and the gardens of Ado- 

= 'See the whole in Nonnus. L. 5. p. 14S. It feems to have been a winded 
machine, which is called K/j/^.w, from Cham the Sun. Hence the notion of ths 
chariot of the Sun, and horfes of the fame. 

'* KccvKXTH iv y.iniJi'Jt'j.y Tu^xovo) crs iriT^r,. ApoUonius Rhodius. L. 2. 
V. J 2 14. 

'^ Typhon was a high place -, but reprefented as a Giant, and fuppofed to be 
thunderftruck here, near the city Antioch. Scrabo. L. 16. p. 1090. Here was 
'^uy.c^aiwv, CTTT/ihciiov n lecoy. P. icpr. 

I i i 2 nis. 

42 S The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

nis. Such were thofe at Phaiieas in Paleftine; and 
thofe beautiful gardens of Daphne upon the Orontes above 
mentioned; and in the fhady parts of Mount Libanus. 
Thofe of Daphne are defcribed by Strabo, who mentions, 
^' Msyci rs /.ai (rwfi^e(pB; ciX<ro;, ^ia'^'^so^Bvov Tn-jyaioig v^ci(nv' 
£V iJ.Sfj'^ h A(rv?^ou rsy^svog, vbu^q A7ro7\Kmoi kc/a A^ts- 
ai^og. 'Tkerz voas a fi7ic 'ocide extended grove^ which JJjehered 
the whole place ; a?2d which was watered with ?iumberlefs foun- 
tains. I7t the centre of the whole was a faiiSluary and afy- 
lum^ f acred to Artemis and Apollo. The Groves of Daphne 
upon the mountains Hersi in Sicily, and the garden and tem- 
ple at bottom were very noble; and are finely defcribed by 
^5 Diodorus. 

I have taken notice that the word o^dKUiVj draco, was a 
miftake for Tarchon, Ta^'^u^V: which was fometimesexpreffed 
T^a^wj/ ; as is obfervable in the Trachones at Damafcus. 
When the Greeks underftood that in thefe temples people 
worfhiped a ferpent Deity, they concluded that Trachon 
was a ferpent : and hence came the name of Draco to be 
appropriated to fuch an animal. For the Draco was an . 
imaginary being, however afterwards accepted and under- 
ftood. This is manifeft from Servius, who diftributes the fer- 
pentine fpecies into three tribes ; and confines the Draco folely 
to temples : '^° Angues aquarum funt, ferpentes terrarum, 

'^ Strabo. L. i6.p. 10S9. He mentions a place near the fountains of the river 
Orontes called Paradifos : Me^-pi x<xi ruv TaOpcrrs Tryiym'^ «; ■n?\wiov raii Ai~ 
€aivi^ rBllcicaSsia'd. Strabo. L. 16. p. 1096. 

'' Diodorus Sicukis. L. 4. p. 283. 

'*■' Scrvii Comment, in Virgil. TEneid. L. 2. v. 204, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 4.29 

Dracones templorum. That the notion of fuch animals took 
its rife from the temples of the Syrians and Egyptians, and 
efpecially from the Trachones, T^oc^ct^psg, at Damafcus, 
feems highly probable from the accounts above : and it may 
be rendered ftill more apparent from Damafcnus, a fiippofed 
heroj who took his name from the city Damafene, or Damaf- 
cus. He is reprefented as an earthborn giant, who encoun- 
tered two dragons : ''' Kcti '^uoi/og axAsToy mciy S^ciKovTO(poi/0'j 
H'j.^<x<TWJ" One of the monftcrs, with which he fought, is 
defcribed of an enormous fize, TCsnyizonairsKs^^og Oipig,, 
a ferpent i?i extent of fifty acres : which certainly, as I have 
before infinuated, muft have a reference to the grove and 
garden, wherein fuch Ophite temple ftood at Damafcus. For 
the general meafurement of all thefe wonderful beings by "^^ ju- 
gera or acres proves that fuch an eftimate could not relate 
to any thing of folid contents ; but to an enclofure of that 
fuperficies. Of the fame nature as thefe was the gigantic 
perfonage, fuppofed to have been feen at Gades by Cleon 
Magnefius. Fie made, it feems, no doubt of Tityus and 
other fuch monders having exifted. For being at Gades, he 
was ordered to go upon a certain expedition by Flercules : 
and upon his return to the ifland, he fav/ upon the fhore a 
huge feam-an, who had been thunderflruck, and lay ex- 

*' Nonni Dionyf. L, 25. p. 66S. 

*' Toe jugera ventre prementem. Ovid of the Pytho of Parnaffds. Met. L. r. 
Y, 459. 

See Paiifanias. L. 10. p. CgS- He fay?, the extent related. to the place, svScc 


^.-^o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tended upon the ground: *' rovTO'J zKs^^cl (xsp ttbvts fia'hig'cc 
STTsyBiv ; and his dimeTijiom were not lefs tha?^ five acres. So 
Typhon, Caanthus, Orion, are faid to have been killed by 
lightning. Orpheus too, who by fome is faid to have been 
torn to pieces by the Thracian women, by others is repre- 
fentcd as flain by the bolt of Jupiter : and his epitaph imports 
as much. 

*■ @^'/iUoL yjv<roXv^'fiv tj^J" O^^bo, Movircti s^ct-^xv, 

All thefe hiRories relate to facred inclofures; and to the wor- 

i1iin of the ferpent, and rites of fire, which were pradifed 

within them. Such an inclofure was by the Greeks ftiled 

"*' TSfJLSVogj and the mound or high place Ta.<^og and TV^A^tog ', 

which had often a tower upon it, efleemed a fanduary 

and afylum. Lycophron makes Caflandra fay of Diomedes, 

"^^ TTMB02 $' OLvrov £KU'Cf)Tsi : the temple^ to 'which he pall 

■fly^ fiallfave hitn. In procefs of time both the word rvfj^^og, 

as well as rafoj, were no longer taken in their original 

fenfe; but fuppofed uniformly to have been places of fcpui- 

ture. This has turned many temples into tombs : and the 

Deities, to whom they were facred, have been reprefented as 

•*' 'n? /s au9/5 g7rai'«5ifn' (rovKMoyra) ?i TccTa-ieipct, av^'^a evpeiy ^aAxa-criov 
EKnEflTilKOTA 65 rm' yv' tcvtov -n-M^pa. p.iv irsvre y.aAiq-a iiri^uy, xipa-Jiw- 
6c!'Ta J^« vTro T'd^i-d ■x.aaSixi. Paufan. L. lo. p. 806. 

"♦* Diogenes Laertius. Proocm. P. 5. 

■*' Te!J.ivoi' lioov X'^f'^'^^ cc(po}^icry.€Poi'Qeu. Scholia 'in Homer. II, L. F. v. 696. 

Ka< rs/J.ero^TripiTrvq'ov AjJiuxAoctoio KarwCy. Dionyfius. VJe^iriyii?. V. 13. 

Ao-jAiv riy.iyos at Daphne upon the Orontes. See above. P. 428. 

"•^ Lycophron, V. 613, 

5 there 

Thr Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 431 

there buried. There was an Orphic Dracontium at Lefbos ; 
where a ferpent was fuppofed to have been going to devour 
the remains of Orpheus: and this temple being of old ftiled 
Petra, it was fabled of the ferpent, that he was turned into 

'''' Hie ferus expolitum peregrinis anguis arenis 
Os petit, et fparfos ftillanti rore capillos. 
Tandem Phoebus adefl : morfufque inferre parantem 
Arcet J et in lapidem ridlus ferpentis apertos 
Congelat ; et patulos, ut erant, indurat hiatus. 
All the poetical accounts of heroes engaging with dra- 
gons have arifen from a mifconception about thefe towers 
and temples ; which thofe perfons either founded, or elfe 
took in war. Or if they vi'ere Deities, of whom the ftory is 
told ; thefe buildings were ereded to their honour.. But the 
Greeks made no diftindion. They were fond of Hcroifm ; 
and interpreted every ancient hiftory according to their own 
prejudices : and in the moft fimple narrative could find out 
a martial atchievement. No colony could fettle any where, 
and build an Ophite temple, but there was fuppofed to have 
been a contention between a hero and a dragon. Cadmus, 
as I have fhewn, v/as defcribed in conflid with fuch a one 
near Thebes ; whofe teeth he fowed in the earth: 

'♦■' Ovid. Metamorph. L. 1 1. V. 50. 
''' ApoUoniiis Rhodius. L. 3. v. 1176. 


4-> -1 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

Serpents are faid to have infefted ^^ Cyprus, when it was 
occupied by its iirft inhabitants : and there was a fearful dra- 
gon in the ille of ^° Salamis. The Python of ParnaiTus is 
well known, which Apollo was fuppofed to have flain, when 
he was very young : a (lory finely told by ApoUonius. 
^' 'Q.g TTors Trsr^arri vtto hi^aA lioL^ntTfToio 

K'd^og em sti yv^vog, sti 7r?^ozixy.oiTi ysyri^ctjg. 
After all, this dragon was a ferpent temple ; a tumbos, 
rv^JL^oog^ formed of earth, and efteemed of old oracular. To 
this Hyginus bears witnefs. ^' Python, Terrze filius, Draco 
ingens. Hie ante Apollinem ex oraculo in monte Parnafib re- 
fponfa dare folitus eft. Plutarch fays, that the difpute between 
Apollo and the Dragon was about the privilege of the place. 
^* Oi AsX(p'j:]/ §so?'.oyQi vofM^ii(rii^ snav^a ttots tt^oc ociv 
T6-J 0£6O TCSPi T8 ^^iif/j^ja ^CL'^TiV ysvs^c/j. From hence we 
may perceive, that he was in reality the Deity of the temple ; 
though the Greeks made an idle diftinclion : and he was 
treated with divine honours. ^'^ IlvSoi fXiv ovv o A^x/mv q 
Ylv^iog ^^TiU'/.svsTOii, kcli m O^so)g jj zcn'riyv^ig KCirc(,yysh.7\sra.t 

"" E/) J''e7r' iDdV A'toc? (psvycov o<piCt}istx. Kt;'ar.''oi'. 

Parthenius, as correfted by Voffius. See Notes to Pompon. Mela. P. 391. 

'" Lycophron. V. 1 10. 

" ApoUonius Rhodius. L. 2. v. 707. 

''Hyginus. Fab. 140. 

*' Plutarch de Oiaculorum defedu. V. i. p. 417. 

'* Clemens Alexand. Cohort. P. 29. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 433 

Uvma, h is faid moreover, that the feventh day was ap- 
pointed for a feftival in the temple, and celebrated with a 
Pasan to the ^^ ferpent. 

We often read of virgins, who were expofed to dra- 
gons, and fea-monfters ; and of dragons, which laid wafle 
whole provinces, till they were at length by fome perfon of 
provvefs encountered, and flain. Thefe hiftories relate ta 
women, who were immured in towers by the fea-fide ; and 
to Banditti, who got poiTeflion of thefe places, from whence 
they infefted the adjacent country. The ^^ author of the 
Chronicon Pafchale fuppofes, that Andromeda, whom the 
Poets defcribe as chained to a rock, and expofed to a fea- 
monfter, was in reality confined in a temple of Neptune, 
a Petra of another fort. Thefe dragons are reprefented as 
fleeplefs ; becaufe in fuch places there were commonly lamps 
burning, and a watch maintained. In thofe more particu- 
larly fet apart for religious fervice, there was a fire, which 
never went out. 

" Irreftinfta focis fervant altaria flammas. 
The dragon of Apollonius is ever watchful. 

Ov KD£(pct? ri^vfxog virvog oivoLihoL ^c/j^xvaroLi ot<ts. 
Wiiat the Poet fiilcs the eyes of the Dragon, were undoubt- 
edly windows in the upper part of the building, through 
which the fire appeared. Plutarch takes notice, that in the 

'^^ Prolegomena to the Pyth. Odes of Pindar. 

'' P. 39. 

'■" Silius Ital. L. 3. V. 29. 

Vol. I. K k k temple 

434 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

temple of Amon, there was a ^^ light continually burning.. 
The like was obfervable in other temples of the -'' Egypti- 
ans. Paufanias mentions the lamp of Minerva ^° Polias at 
Athens, which never went out : the fame cuftom was kept 
up in moft of the '' Prutaneia. The Chaldeans and Per- 
fians had facred hearths ; on which they preferved a *' per- 
petual fire. In the temple of ^5 Apollo Carneus at Cyrene 
the fire upon the altar was never fufFered to be extinguillied.. 
A like account is given by Said Ebn Batrick of the facred 
fire, which was preferved in the great temple at ^* Aderbain 
in Armenia. The Nubian Geographer mentions a nation in 
India, called ^^ Caimachitae, who had large Puratheia, and 
maintained a perpetual fire. According to the Levitlcal 
law, a conftant fire was to be kept up upon the altar of God. 
" The jire Jhall he ever burning upon the altar :. it JJjall never 

go out. 

From what has preceded, we may perceive, that many 
perfonages have been formed out of places.. And I. cannot; 

»9 Av-xy^v aaQicrov. Plutarch de Defeft. Orac. Vol. i. p. 410. 
" Porphyr. de Abftinentia. L. 2. 
••L. I. p. 63. 

*' To S'i Kvxyiov iv Ucuravxtw. Theoc. Idyll. 21. v. 3^. 
Ylvpa TS (^iyyoi a<f^trov KixXrjij.ivov. TRfch. yiorxfopot. V. 268; 
'* See Hyde Relig. Vet. Perfarum : and Stanley upon the Chaldaic religion; 
*"' Ail- '^( roi a.iva.Qv TTvo. Callimach. Hymn to Apollo. V.. 84. 
•♦ Vol. 2. P. 84. 
*' Clima. 4. p. 213. 

<^ Leviticus, c. 6. v. 13. Hence the ^vXcfoPix; a cuftom, by which the 
people were obliged to carry wood, to repienifli the fire when decaying. 



The Analysis of Ancient Mythology-. 435 

help fufpediing much more of ancient hiftory, than I dare 
venture to acknowledge. Of the mythic age I fuppofe al- 
moft every circumftance to have been imported, and adopted ; 
or elfe to be a fable. I imagine, that Chiron, fo celebrated 
for his knowledge, was a mere perfonage formed from a 
tower, or temple, of that name. It flood in ThefTaly ; and 
was inhabited by a fet of priefls, called Centauri. They 
were fo denominated from the Deity, they worfhiped, who 
was reprefented under a particular form. They ftiled him 
Cahen-Taur: and he was the fame as the Minotaur of Crete, 
and the Tauromen of Sicilia ; confequently of an emblema- 
tical and mixed figure. The people, by whom this wor- 
fhip was introduced, were many of them Anakim ; and are 
accordingly reprefented as of great ftrength and ftature. 
Such perfons among the people of the eaft were ftiled ^^ Ne- 
phelim : which the Greeks in after times fuppofed to relate 
to i^£(psKrjy a cloud. In confequence of this, they defcribed 
the Centaurs as born of a cloud : and not only the Centaurs, 
but Ixion, and others, were reputed of the fame original. 
The chief city of the Nephelim ftood in ThefTaly, and is 
mentioned by *^ Pala;phatus : but through the mifconcep- 
tions of his countrymen it was exprefled Ngt^sAio, Nephele, 
a cloud. The Grecians in general were of this race ; as will 
be abundantly fliewn. The Scholiaft upon Lycophron men- 

*■' It is faid in the Scriptiir-i-s, that there were giants in the earth in thofe days ; 
end alfo after that. Gcnefis. c. 6. v. 4.. The word in the original for giants is 

*« C. 2: p. 6, 

K k k 2 tions. 

436 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tions, that the defcendants of Hellen were by a woman- 
named Nephele, wliom Athamas was fuppofed to have mar- 
ried. ^' A^oLixoLg AioAa th 'EAAi^^oj Tfong £^ NsipsAji? yswcc. 
'EAAji^, KOLi <^^i^QV. The author has made a diftindion be- 
tween Helle, and Hellen ; the former of which he defcribes 
in the feminine. By Phrixus is meant ^^V!:;^ Phryx, who 
pafTed the Hellefpont, and fettled in Afia minor. However 
obfcured the hiftory may be, I think the purport of it is 
plainly this, that the Hellenes, and Phrygians were of the 
Nephelim or Anakim race. Chiron was a temple, pro- 
bably at Nephele in TheiTalia, the mofi: ancient feat of the 
Nephelim. His name is a compound of Chir-On, in purport 
the fame as Kir-On, the tower and temple of the Sun. In 
places of this fort people ufed to- ftudy the heavenly mo- 
tions: and they were made ufe of for fcminaries,where young 
people were inftrudled ; on v/hich account they were ftiledr 
7!:cti&OT^o(poi. Hence Achilles was fuppofed to have bceru 
taught by '° Chiron, who is reported to have had many dif- 
ciples. They are enumerated by Xenophon in his treatife 
upon hunting, and amount to a large number. ' Eysvono avToj 
fjLOL^rjTon Kwriysriocv ts.j Ka,i hs^ocv kc/SKw, KB(pa.?KQg, A(r;<Ai^- 
TTiog, MsAay/wy, Nsfa^^, AfjL(pic(.^c/.oj;, UiKsv?, TsXay^u^u, Ms- 
Ascty^o^, @r,TBvg, 'iTtitoXviO';^ IlcO\0LmM;, 0^v(rr£vg, M=- 
fSa^sv;, AiOfJLr,^rjg, Kol'^cjjp, HoKv^sv/.y,;, Moc^olojv^ TLo^aXsi^ioc; 
AmXo-^og, Aivsiccgy A-^iXT^evg. Jafcn is by Pindar made to.- 

" V. 2.2. 

■'•Orphic. Argonaut, V. 395. 

'" De Ven:;tione. F- 972. 


The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. ^^7 

£iy of himfelf, ^^ OajCti Mc(.<TKctkicx.v Xsi^ctjvog oktbiv : and the 
lame circumftance is mentioned in another place ; '^ K^ovi^cc 
h 7^0L(psy Xsi^odvi ^omoLV (^lci<rom). Thefe hiftories could not 
be true of Chiron as a perfon: for, unlefs we fuppofe him to 
have been, as the Poets would perfuade us, of a difTerent 
fpecies from the reft of mankind, it will be found impoflible- 
for him to have had pupils in fucli different ages. For not 
only vEfculapius, mentioned in this lift, but Apollo likewife^ 
learnt of him the medicinal arts. ^* K(ryJ\T,7i:iQi; aai KtfoKK^m- 
TTOt^ix. Xsi^wi T(f KsnciV^M lOC^OLi ^i^y.<TKOvrcfA, Xenophon in- 
deed, who was aware of this objedion, fajs, that the term 
of Chiron's life was fufficient for the performance of all, that 
was attributed to l>im : " 'O Xsi^xvog ^log 7j:oLfnvB^r\^}iBi' ILzvc;. 
yct^ mi Xsi^d^'J aJ^sAcpoi : but he brings nothing in proof of 
what he alledges. It is moreover incredible, were we to fiip^ 
pofe fuch a being as Chiron, that he fbould have had pupils' 
from fo many different ^^' countries. Befides many of them,. 
who are mentioned, were manifeftly ideal perfonagesi For 
not to fpeak of Cephalus and Caftor, Apollo was a Deity ; 
and jEfculapius was the ^^ like : by fome indeed efteemed the- 
fon of the former ; by others introduced rather as a title, and. 

'» Pyth. Ode 4. p. 244; 

■'5 Ibid. p. 246. 

■"* Juftin. Martyr deMbnarchia. P." 42.. 

''' Ue Venar. P. 972. 

■^ iEfculapius was of Egypt. Gephakis is faid to have lived in the time of 
Cccrops uuTox^m': or, as fome fiy, in the time of Eredlieus ; many centuries be- 
fore Antilochus and Achillesj who were at the ficge of Troy. 

" j^ifculapius was th'eSun. luifcb. Evang. L. 3. p. 112. 


438 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

annexed to the names of different Gods. Ariftides ufes it as 
fuch in his invocation of ^* Hercules : Iw, UctKXV, 'H^clkXz;^ 
A(rxA»]Ti5 : and he alfo fpeaks of the temple of Jupiter -^fcu- 
lapius, Aio^ A^rKKriTrm vim. It was idle therefore in the Poets 
to fuppofe that thefe perfonages could have been pupils to 
Chiron. Thofe, that were inftrudled, whoever they may- 
have been, partook only of Chironian education ; and were 
taught in the fame kind of academy : but not by one per- 
fon, nor probably in the fame place. For there were many 
of thefe towers, where they taught aftronomy, mufic, and 
other fciences. Thefe places were likewife courts of judica- 
ture, where juftice was adminiftered : Vv'hence Chiron was faid 
to have been (piKoip^ovzm^ koli ^iKCCiorciTog : 

^' 'Ov Xsi^oov B^i^QL^e ^'.KOLiorarog Ksnccv^wv, 
The like charadter is given of him by Hermippus of B^ry- 

*° 'OvTog 
Ei? T£ ^imio<rviiriV ^^j^twv ysvog riyays^ ^si^ocg 
'0^}CQVj Km h<ricig iKa^ccg, koli <X'^\l^i OKv^jltts. 
Right was probably more fairly determined in the Chironi- 
an temples, than in others. Yet the whole was certainly at- 
tended with fome inftances of cruelty : for human facrifices 
are mentioned as once common, efpecially at Pella in Thef- 
faly ; where if they could get a perfon, who was an Achean 

'''•Oratio in Herculem, Vol. i. p. 64. Oratio in uEfculapium. P. 67. 

''9 Homer. Iliad. A. V. 831. 

*" Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 361. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 439 

By birth, tliey ufed to offer him at the altars of Peleus and 
'' Chiron. 

There were many edifices denominated Chironian, and 
facred to the Sun. Charon was of the fame purport, and 
etymology; and was facred to the fame Deity. One tem* 
pie of this name, and the moft remarkable of any, flood op- 
pofite to Memphis on the weftern fide of the Nile. It was 
near the fpot, where moft people of confequence were buried. 
There is a tower in this province, but at fome diftance from 
the place here fpoken of, called ^^ Kiroon at this day. As 
Charon was a temple near the catacombs, or place of burial; 
all the perfons, who were brought to be there depofited, had 
an offering made on their account, upon being landed on this 
fhore. Hence arofe the notion of the fee of Charon, and 
of the ferryman of that name. This building ftood upon 
the banks of a canal, which communicated with the Nile:: 
but that, which is now called Kiroon, ftands at fome dif- 
tance to the weft, upon the lake ^' Moeris ; where only the • 
kings of Egypt had a right of fepulture. The region of the 
catacombs was called the Acheronian and ^'^ Acherufian plain,, 
and hkewife the Elyfian : and the ftream, which ran by it,, 
had the name of Acheron. They are often alluded to by 
Homer, and other Poets, when they treat of the region of 

Ax^'ov Avb^MTTcr rinAsi xati 'Kei^uvi xcnoSuiS;xi. dementis Coliort. P. 36. . 
«' Pocock's Travels. V. i . p. 65. 
" Pocock's Travels. Ibid. 
^ riuoot. mv hijAVYw TW,ri' hx^^°<^i<^v. Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. 86. 


44^ The Analysis dp Ancient Mythology. 

departed fouls. The Amonlans conferred thefe names upon 
other places, where they fettled, in different parts of the 
world. They are therefore to be met with in *^ Phrygia, 
** Epirus, ^' Hellas, ^* Apulia, ^' Campania, and other coun- 
tries. The libri ^° Acherontii in Italy, mentioned by Arno- 
bius, were probably tranfcripts from fome hieroglyphical 
writings, which had been preferved in the Acherontian tow- 
ers of the Nile. Thefe were carried by Tages to Hetruria; 
where they were held in great veneration. 

As towers of this fort were feminaries of learning, I-Iomer 
from one of them has formed the charader of fage Mentor ; 
under whofe refemblance the Goddefs of wifdom was fup- 
pofed to be concealed. By Mentor, I imagine, that the 
Poet covertly alludes to a temple of Menes. It is faid, that 
Homer in an illnefs was cured by one 5' Mentor, the fon of 
A?\KiiJ,og, Alcimus. The perfon probably was a Mentorian 
prieft, who did him this kind office, if there be any truth in 
the flory. It was from an oracular temple ftiled Mentor; 

" In Phrygia — juxta fpecus eft Acherufia, ad manes, ut aiunt, pervius. Mela. 
L. I. c. 19. p. 100. 

** River Acheron, and lake Acherufia in Epirus. Paufan. L. i. p, 40. Stra- 
bo. L. 7. p. 499. Thucydides. L. i. p. 34. 

*■■ Near Corinth Acherufia. Paulan. L. 2. p. 196, 

In Elis Acheron. Scrabo. L. 8. p. 530. 

** Celfe nidum Acherontias. Horat. L. 3. Ode. 4. v, 14. 

■*' Near Avernus. In like manner there were Treha UAvaKx. in Egypt, MefTenia, 
and in the remoter parts of Iberia. See Plutarch in Sertorio, and Strabo. L. 3. 
p. 223. 

'" Alfo Libri Tarquitiani Arufpicum Hetrufcorvm; fo denominated from Tar- 
Cuftian. Marcellinus. L. 25. c. 2. p. 322. 

'• Herodot. Vit. Horn. C. 3. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 441 

and Man-Tor, that the facred cakes had the name of Am- 
phimantora. ''^ AfjL<pi(j.oino^oc^ ci'K<pira, (j^sT^m ^e^sv^sua. 

Caftor, the fuppofed dilciple of Chiron, was in reality the 
fame as Chiron ; being a facred tower, a Chironian edifice^, 
which ferved both for a temple and Pharos. As thefe build- 
ings for the moft part flood on ftrands of the fea, and pro- 
montories ; Caflor v/as efleemed in confequence of it a tu- 
telary Deity of that element. The name feems to be a 
compound of Ca-Aftor, the temple or place of Aflor 5 
who was rendered at different times Afterius, Aflerion, 
and Aftarte. Ca-Aftor was by the Greeks abbreviated to 
Caftor; which in its original fenfe I (hould imagine be- 
tokened a fire-tower : but the Greeks in this inftance, as well 
as in innumerable others, have miftaken the place and tem- 
ple for the Deity, to whom it was confecrated. The v/hole 
hiftory of Caftor and Pollux, the two Diofcuri, is very 
ftrange, and inconliftent. Sometimes they are defcribed as 
two mortals of Lacedsemon, who were guilty of violence 
and rapine, and were flain for their wickednefs. At other 
times they are reprefented as the tv/o principal Deities ; and 
ftiled Dii Magni, Dii Maximi, Dii Potentes, Cabeiri. Men- 
tion is made by Paufanias of the great regard paid to them, 
and particularly by the Cephalenfes. °' MsyctKovg ycc^ T(pc/,; 
oi, TOLVTY] @SHg ovofJiOL^STii'. The -people there fiile them by way of 
em'nience the Great Gods. There are altars extant, which are 

»* Hefychius. 
'' L. [. p. 77. 
'■* Fleetwood's Infcript. 1'. 42. 

Vol. I. L 11 In 

44-2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

In 9' Gruter is a Greek infcription to the fame purports 
Totiog TcLis Ayji^vsv^ 'Is^svg ysvofj^svog ®sooi/ MsyaAwy A<oo"- 
KQ^oov Kcttsi^uov. But though Caftor was enflirinedj as a 
God, he was properly a Tarchon, fuch as I have before de- 
fcribed ; and had all the requifites, which are to be found 
in fuch buildings. They were the great repofitories of trea- 
fure ; which people there entrufted, as to places of great fe- 
curity. The temple of Caftor was particularly famous on. 
this account, as we may learn from Juvenal : 

^^ iErata multus in area 
Fifcus, et ad vigilem ponendi Caftora nummi. 
The Deity, who was alluded to under the name of Caftora 
was the Sun : and he had feveral temples of that denomi- 
nation in Laconia, and other parts of Greece. His rites were 
firft introduced by people from Egypt, and Canaan. This 
we may infer among other circumftances from the title of 
Anac being fo particularly conferred on him and his bro-^ 
ther Pollux : whence their temple was ftiled Ai/ctKSiov in 
Laconia ; and their feftival at Athens omcciCSicCy anakeia. For 
Anac was a Canaanitifl:i term of honour; which the Greeks 
changed to ai/a^ and " ccvazrs^. I have before mentioned,, 
that in thefe places were preferved the Archives of the ci- 
ties, and provinces, in which they jftood : and they were, 

" P. 319. n. 2. 

*' Sat. 14. V. 259. 

*■" Paufanias. L. 2. p. 161, 162. 

There was a hill called Anakeion : Avaxsioy' o^oc^ a ruv Aioa-xB^coy 'lioou. 

It is faid of the celebrated Polygnotus, that he painted Tai tv tu Br,(ra.vou) 
iv ru> AvotyeiM y^ac(pa.i. Harpocration. The treafiiry we may fuppofe to have 
been a part of the temple. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 44, 


often made ufe of for courts of judicature, called tt^vtcjzio.^ 
and przetoria ; whither the ancient people of the place re- 
forted, to determine about right and wrong. Hence it is 
that Caftor and Pollux, two names of -the fame perfonage, 
were fuppofed to prefide over judicial affairs. This depart- 
ment does but ill agree with the general and abfurd charac- 
ter, under which they are reprefented : for what has horfe- 
manfhip and boxing to do with law and equity ? But thefe 
were miftaken attributes, which arofe from a mifapplication 
of hiftory. Within the precindls of their temples was a pa- 
rade for boxing and wreftling ; and often an Hippodromus. 

Hence arofe thefe attributes, by which the Poets celebrated 
thefe perfonages : 

The Deity, originally referred to, was the Sun. As he was 
the chief Deity, he muft neceflarily have been efteemed 
the fupervifor and arbitrator of all fublunary things : 

On this account the fame province of fupreme judge was con- 
ferred on his fubftitute Caftor, in conjun6bion with his brother- 
Pollux : and they were accordingly looked upon as the confer- 
vators of the rights of mankind. Cicero makes a noble appeal to 
them in his feventh oration againft Verres ; and enlarges upon 
the great department, of which they were prefumed to be pof- 
feffed : at the fame time mentioning the treafures, which were 
depolited in their temples. '°° Vos omnium rerum forenfium, 

'' Homer. Iliad. F. v. 237; 

" Homer. OdylT. M. v. 323. 

«°° Cicero in Verrem. Orat. 7, Seft. ulr. 

L 1 1 2 tonll" 

444- '^^^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology 

confiliorum maximorum, Jegum, judiciorumque arbltri, et 
tefles, ccleberrimo in loco PR^TORII locati, Caftor et 
Pollux 3 quorum ex templo quoeftum fibi ifte (Verres) et prce- 
dam inaximam improbiflime comparavit — ^teque, Ceres, et 
Libera — a quibus initia vkx atque vidus^ legum, morum,. 
manfuetudinis, humanitatis exempla hominibus et civitatibus. 
data ac difpertita elTe dicuntur. Thus we find that they are 
at the clofe joined with Ceres, and Libera ; and fpoken of, 
as the civilizers of the world : but their peculiar province, 
was law and judicature. 

Many inflances to the fame purpofc might be produced ;^ 
fome few of which I will lay before the reader. Tropho- 
nius, like Chiron and Caftor, was a facred tower; being 
compounded of Tor-Oph-On, Solis Pythonis turris, rendered 
Trophon, and Trophonius. It was an, oracular temple, fi- 
tuated near a vaft cavern : and the refponfes v/ere given by^ 
dreams. Tirefias, that ancient prophet, was an edifice of the 
fame nature : and the name is a compound of Tor-Ees, and 
Tor-Afis ; from whence the Greeks formed the word Tire- 
fias. He is generally efteemed a diviner, or foothfayer, to 
whom people applied for advice: but it was to tlie temple 
that they applied, and to the Deity, who was there fuppofed 
to refide. He was moreover faid to have lived nine ages i 
till he was at laft taken by the Epigoni, when he died. The 
truth is, there was a tower of this name at Thebes, built by. 
the Amcnians, and facred to the God Orus. It ftood nine 
ages, and was then demoliflied. It was afterwards repaired, 
and made iife of for a place of augury : and its fituation 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 4.45- 

was clofc to the temple of Amon. '"" ©ri^cnoig Js ijlstol ra Ajoc- 
pLoovog 70 'Ig^oj/, oioovo(rK07rsiov rs Tsi^sms KoCks^evov. Tirefias 
according to Apollodorus was the fon of Eueres, '" 'Evr\^Yig, 
or, according to the true Dorian pronunciation, Euares, the 
fame as the Egyptian Uc Arez, the Sun. He is by Hyginus- 
fi:iled'°' Eurimi filius; and in another place Eurii filius, Paftor. 
Eurius, Eurimus, Euarez, are all names of the Sun, or places 
facred to him ; but changed to terms of relation by not being 
underflood. Tirefias is additionally ftiled Paftor ; becaufe 
all the Amonian Deities, as well as their princes, were called 
Shepherds : and thofe, who came originally from Chaldea, 
were ftiled the children of Ur, or Urius. 

By the fame analogy we may trace the true hiflory of Teram- 
bus, the Deity of Egypt, who v^as called the Shepherd T^rambus. . 
The name is a compound of Tor-Ambus, or Tor-Ambi, the 
oracular tower of Ham. He is faid to have been the fon of 
Eufires, '°^ Eycre/^a ra IlQ(rB'J(xvog', and to have come over, and' 
fettled in Theffaly near mount Othrys. According to Anto- 
ninus Liberalis he was very rich in flocks; and a great mu- 
iician, and particularly expert in all pafloral meafure. To 
him they attributed the invention of the pipe. The mean- 
ing of the hiftory is, I think, too plain, after what has pre- 
ceded, to need a comment. It is fabled of him, that he was 
at laft turned into a bird called Cerambis, or Cerambix. 

'°' Paufanias. L. 9. p. 741. . 

'°* Apollodorus. L. 3. p. 154. 

'°3 Hyginiis. Fab. 68, and 75. 

^"4 Amonin. Liberalis Metamorph. c. 22.;. 


44^ The Analysis op Anciekt Mythology. 

Terambus and Cerambis are both ancient terms of the fame 
purport: the one properly expreffcd is Tor-Ambi ; the 
other Cer-Ambi, the oracular temple of the Sun. 

I have taken notice that towers -of this fort were the repo- 
iitories of much treafure ; and they were often confecrated to 
the Ophite Deity, called Opis and Oupis. It is the fame, 
which Callimachus addreffes by the title of '°-' Ovm, Ai/acj-' 
evooTTi : and of whom Cicero fpeaks, and ftiles Upis : '°^ quam 
Grasci Upini paterno nomine appellant. The temple was 
hence called Kir-Upis ; which the Grecians abridged to 
r^VTTs;: and finding many of the Amonian temples in the 
north, with the device of a winged ferpent upon the frontal, 
they gave this name to the hieroglyphic. Hence, I imagine, 
arofe the notion of T^VTrsg^ or Gryphons ; which, like the 
dragons aboveraentiorted, were fuppofed to be guardians of 
treafure, and to never fleep. The real confervators of the 
wealth were the prieds. They kept up a perpetual fire, and 
an unextinguifhed light in the night. From Kir Upis, the 
place of his refidence, a priefl was named Grupis ; and 
from Kir-Uph-On, Gryphon. The Poets have reprefented 
the Grupes as animals of the ferpentine kind ; and fup- 
pofed them to have been found in countries of the Arimaf-r 
plans, Alazonians, Hyperboreans, and other the mofl: nor- 
thern regions, which the Amonians pofTefTed. In fome of 

'°5 Hymn, in Dian. V. 204. 
"^ Cicero de Nat. Deorum. L. 3, 23. 

She is fuppofed to be the fame as Diana. KaAycr; Je rw Aprsyiv ©pccxsi 
E=;'J^£;a)', Kfi]Tii Si Atx-Tvyxu, AccKsSaifj^sytot Si Quttiv. Patephatus. C. 32. p. 78. 

1 the 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 447 

the temples women officiated, who were denominated from 
the Deity, they ferved. The Scholiafi: upon Callimachus 
calls the chief of them Upis; and ftiles her, and her aflbciates, 
Ko^ag '°7 'TTTS^^Q^SEgy Hyperborean young women. The 
Hyperboreans, Alazonians, Arimafpians, were Scythic na- 
tions of the fame family. All the ftories about Prome- 
theus, Chimsra, Medufa, Pegafus, Hydra, as well as of the 
Grupes, or Gryphons, arofe in great meafure from the facred 
devices upon the entablatures of temples. 

'°7 Scholia in Callimach. Hymn, in Dianam. V. 204. 
Q.TrtyyXai'Ey.xi'pyrji—'iiiroov'TTrepSopiMi'. Paufan. L. 5. p. 3920 

Metuenda feris Hecaerge, 
Et Soror, optatum numen venantibus, Opis. 

Qaudian in Laudes Stilic, L. 3. v. 253.;: 

T A P H. 

( 449 ) 


THERE was another name current among the 
Amonians, by which they called their Ao^po;, or high 
places. This was Taph ; which at times was ren- 
dered Tuph, Toph, and Taphos. Lower Egypt being a 
flat, and annually overflowed, the natives were forced to 
raife the foil, on which they built their principal edifices, 
in order to fecure them from the inundation : and many of 
their facred towers were ereded upon conical mounds of 
earth. But there were often hills of the fame form con- 
ftruded for religious purpofes, upon vi^hich there was no 
building. Thefe were very common in Egypt. Flence we 
read of Taphanis, or Taph-Hanes, Taph-Ofiris, Taph-Ofiris 
parva, and contra Taphias, in Antoninus ; all of this country. 
In other parts were Taphioufa, Tape, Taphura, Tapori, Ta- 
phus, Taphofus, Taphitis. All thefe names relate to high 
altars, upon which they ufed oftentimes to ofler human fa- 
crifices. Typhon was one of thefe ; being a compound of 
Tuph- On, which fignifies the hill or altar of the Sun. To- 
phet, where the Ifraelites made their children pafs through 
Vol. I. M m m fire 

450 The Analysis of Ancient MythoIogy. 

fire to ' Moloch, was a mount of this form. And there 
feem to have been more than one of this denomination ; as 
we learn from the prophet Jeremiah. "■ They have built the 
high f laces of Tophet^ nvhich is i?t the valley of thefon of Hin- 
noin^ to burn their fons^ and their daughters in the f re. And 
in another place : 7 hey have built alfo the high places of Baal ^ 
to burn their fons with f re for burnt-offerings unto BaaL 
Thefe cruel operations were generally performed upon 
mounts of this fort ; which from their conical figure were 
named Tuph, and Tupha. It feems to have been a term 
current in many countries. The high Perfian ^ bonnet had 
the fame name from its fhape : and Bede mentions a parti- 
cular kind of ftandard in his time ; which was made of ■ 
plumes in a globular fhape, and called in like manner,* Tu- 
pha, vexilli genus, ex confertis plumarum globis. There 
was probably a tradition, that the calf, worfhiped by the 
Ifraelites in the wildernefs near Horeb, was raifed upon a 
facred mound, like thofe defcribed above : for Philo Judseus 
fays, that it was exhibited after the model of an Egyptian 
Tuphos : ^ K^yvKricLKB [j,i[/.rjfL(x, Tv^a. This I do not take to 
have been a Grecian word ; but the name of a facred orbi- 
cular mount, analogous to the Touphas of Perfis. 

i '2 Kings, c. 23. V. 10. 2 Chron. c. 28. v. 3. 

* C. 7. V. 31. and c. 19. v. 5. There was a place named Tophel (Toph-EI) 
near Paran upon the Red fea. Deuteron. c. i. v. i. 

' Zonar. V^ol. 2. p. 227. Ttcpccf >c«Af< Srifx.oti'rti xcti TroXvi ay^^coTroi. 

♦ Bedas Hift. Anglic. L. 2. c. 16. 
' De legibus fpecialibus. P. 320. 

The Greek, term 7v<poi, fumus, vel faftus, will hardly make fenfc, as intro- 
duced here. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ,451 

The Amonlans, when they fettled in Greece, raifed many 
of thefe Tupha, or Tapha in different parts. Thefe befide 
their original name were ftili farther denominated from fome 
title of the Deity, to whofe honour they were ereded. But 
as it was ufual in ancient times to bury perfons of diftinc- 
tion under heaps of earth formed in this fafhion ; thefe Ta- 
pha came to fignify tombs : and almofl all the facred mounds, 
raifed for religious purpofes, were looked upon as monu- 
ments of deceafed heroes. Hence ^ Taph-Ofiris was ren- 
dered 7a,(pogj or the burying place of the God Ofiris : and as 
there were many fuch places in Egypt and Arabia, facred 
to Oiiris and Dionufus ; they were all by the Greeks ef- 
teemed places of fepulture. Through this miftake many- 
different nations had the honour attributed to them of thefe 
Deities being interred in their country. The tumulus of the 
Latines was miftaken in the fame manner. It was originally 
a facred hillock ; and was often raifed before temples, as an 
altar ; fuch as I have before defcribed. It is reprefented in 
this light by Virgil : 

^ Eft urbe egreflis tumulus, templumque vetuftum 
Defertae Cereris ; juxtaque antiqua cupreflus. 
In procefs of time the word tumulus was in great meafure 
looked upon as a tomb ; and tumulo fignified to bury. The 
Greeks fpeak of numberlefs fepulchral monuments, which 
they have thus mifinterpreted. They pretended to (hew the 
tomb of * Dionufus at Delphi ; alfo ol Deucalion, Pyrrha, 

* Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. V. i. p. ^^g. 
"Virgil. JEn. L. 2 v. 713, 
Ttivracp.'v (Atovuad) iivcLL (paatv ev AsAipois irctoa top X^uffsuv A7ro?Aw«. 
Cyril, cont. Julian. L, i. p. 1 1. 

M m m 2 Orion, 

452 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Orion, in other places. They imagined that Jupiter was 
buried in Crete : which CalHmachus fuppofes to have beea 
a forgery of the natives. 

'KpTi'Tsg sTs/.TYji/ano, (TV cT' ov ^avsg^ 's<r<n ya^ oubu 
I make no doubt, but that there was feme high place 
in Crete, which the later Greeks, and efpeciaily thofe^ 
who were not of the country, miftook for a tomb. But 
it certainly mufl have been otherwife efteemed by thofe, v/ho 
raifed it : for it is not credible, however blind idolatry 
may have been, that people fhould enfhrine perfons as im- 
mortal, where they had the plaineft evidences of their mor- 
tality. An infcription P^iro hnmortali was in a ftile of flat- ^ 
tery too refined for the fimplicity of thofe ages. If divine' 
honours were conferred, they were the effeds of time, and 
paid at fome diftance ; not upon the fpot, at the veftibule 
of the chamel-houfe. Befides it is evident, "that moft of the 
deified perfonages never exifted : but were mere titles of the 
Deity, the Sun; as has been in great meafure proved by Macro- 
bius. Nor was there ever any thing of fuch detriment to an- 
cient hiftory, as the fuppofing that the Gods of the Gentile 
world had been natives of the countries, where they were wor- 
fhiped. They have by thefe means been admitted into the 
annals of times : and it has been the chief ftudy of the 
learned to regifter the legendary ftories concerning them ; to. 
conciliate abfurdities, and to arrange the whole in a chronolo- 

* Callimach. Hymn, in Jovem. V. 8. 

Porphyr. Vita Pythagorcc, P. 20.. 


The Analysis of Ancient MyTKotoGv. ^r^r 

gtcal ferics. A frmtlefs labour, and inexplicable : for there 
are in all thefe fables fuch inconfiftences, and contradidions, 
as no art, nor induftry, can remedy. Hence all, who have 
expended their learning to this purpore,are in cppofition to one 
another ; and often at variance v/ith themfelves. Some of them 
by thele means have rendered their works, which might have 
been of infinite ufe to the world, little better than the reve- 
ries of Mons'. Voltaire. The greateft part of the Grecian 
theology arofe from mifconceptions and blunders : and the 
ftories concerning their Gods and Heroes were founded on. 
terms mifinterpreted and abufed. Thus from the word 
Tct(pog, taphos, which they adopted in a limited fenfe, they 
formed a notion of their gods having been buried in every 
place, where there was a tumulus to their honour. This 
milled bi(hop Cumberland, Ufher, Pearfon, Petavius, Sca- 
liger, with numberlefs other learned men ; and among the 
foremoft the great Newton. This extraordinary genius has 
greatly impaired the excellent iyflem, upon which he pro- 
ceeded, by admitting thefe fancied beings into chronology. 
We are fb imbued in our childhood with notions of Mars^ 
Hercules, and the reft of the celeftial outlaws, that we 
fcarce ever can lay them afide. We ablblutely argue upon 
Pagan principles : and though we cannot believe the fables,. 
which have been tranfmitted to us ; yet we forget ourfelves 
continually ; and make inferences from them, as if they 
were real. In fhort, till we recoiled ourfelves, we are femi- 
pagans. It gives one pain to fee men of learning, and prin- 
ciple, debating which was the Jupiter, who lay with Semele ; 
and whether it was the fame, that outwitted Amphitryon. 
3 This. 

454- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

This is not, fays a critic, the Hermes, who cut off Argus's 
head ; but one of later date, who turned Battus into a flone, 
I fancy, fays another, that this was done, when 16 was 
turned into a cow. It is faid of Jupiter, that he made the 
night, in which he enjoyed Alcmena, as long as '° three ; or, 
as fome fay, as long as nine. The Abbe " Banier with fome 
phlegm excepts to this coalition of nights; and is unwilling 
to allow it. But he is afterwards more complying ; and 
feems to give it his fandion, with this provifo, that chrono- 
logical verity be not thereby impeached. / am of opinio77, 
fays he, that there was 710 foundation for the fable of fupi- 
ter s halving ?nade the nighty 07t which he lay with Alcmena^ 
longer than others : at leofl this evejit put nothing in nature 
out of order; f nee the day f. which followed^ was proportionally 
Jhorter^ as Plautus " remarks. 

Atque quanto nox fuifti longior hac proxima, 
Tanto brevior dies ut fiat, faciam ; ut sque difparet, 
Et dies e nodle accedat. 
Were it not invidious, I could fubjoin names to every article, 
which I have allcdged ; and produce numberlefs inftances to 
the fame purpofe. 

It may be faid, that I run counter to the opinions of all 
antiquity : that all the fathers, who treated of this fubjedl, 
and many other learned men, fuppofed the Gods of the hea~ 

'" Hence Hercules was ftikd To/eo-n-eoos. Lycoph. V. 35. 

ZsL/? T^g/5 (aTTi^cci Hi fj.iccv fjisruSaAcoy avvixaOsvie rn AAKfj.wi). Schol. ibid. 
" Abbe Banier. Mythology of the Ancients explained. Vol. 4. F. 3. c. 6. 
p. 77, 78. Trandation. 

" Plaut. Amphitryo. Aifl. i. S. 3. 

c then 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 455 

then to have been deified mortals, who were worfhiped in 
the countries, where they died. It was the opinion of Cle- 
mens, Eufebius, Cyril, Tertullian, Athenagoras, Epiphanius, 
Laftantius, Arnobius, Julius Firmicus, and many others. 
What is more to the purpofe, it was the opinion of the 
heathen themfelves ; the very people, by whom thefe gods 
were honoured : yet flill it is a miftake. In refpedt to the 
fathers, the whole of their argument turns upon this point, 
the conceffions of the Gentiles. The more early writers of 
the church were not making a ftrid chronological inquiry. : 
but were labouring to convert the heathen. They therefore 
argue with them upon their own principles ; and confute 
them from their own teftimony. The Romans had their 
Dii Immortales ; the Greeks their ®soi Adxva,TOi : yet ac- 
knowledged, that they had been men ; that they died, and 
were buried. Cicero owns ; '' ab Euhemero et mortes, et 
fepulturae demonftrantur deorum. It matters not whether 
the notion were true ; the fathers very fairly make ufe of it. 
They avail themfelves of thefe conceflions ; and prove from 
them the abfurdity of the Gentile worfhip, and the incon- 
fiftency of their opinions. Even Maximus Tyrius, the Pla- 
tonic, could not but fmile, at being (hewn in the fame 
place the temple, and tomb of the deity '* ; Is^ov 0£8, KOii 
rct(pQV ©sa. Thefe fuppofed places of fepulture were fo nu- 
merous, that Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, they were not 

** Cicero de Nat. Deor. L. i. c. 42. 

A>^ct xcct Taf-yv ccvTki {'Zmvoi) Ssixwdcri. Sacrificiis. V. i. p. 355'- 

'♦•Maximus Tyrius. DilTert. 38. p. 85, 


456 Ths Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

to be counted. '^ AKKcc yot^ eiriom fxoi rag 7r^o(TKVV8fJLsmg 
vfJLiv rxpag, sfJLoi ^zv ov^' Trctg olv a^KS(rri '^^ovog. But after 
all, thefe Tatpoi were not tombs, but 7^Q(poi ^CL<^ozihig^ conical 
mounds of earth ; on which in the firft ages ofFerings were 
made by fire. Hence Ty(pw, tupho, fignified to make a 
fmoke, fuch as arofe from incenfe upon thefe Tupha, or 
eminences. Befides, if thefe were deified men, who were 
buried under thefe hills ; how can we explain the difficulty 
of the fame perfon being buried in different places, and at 
different times ? To this it is anfwered, that it was another 
Bacchus, and another Jupiter. Yet this ftill adds to the 
difficulty : for it is hard to conceive, that whoever in any, 
country had the name of Jupiter, ffiould be made a God. 
Add to this, that Homer and Hefiod, and the authors of the 
Orphic poetry, knew of no fuch duplicates. There is no hint 
of this lort among the ancient writers of their nation. It was 
a refinement in after ages ; introduced to obviate the diffi- 
culties, which arofe from the abfurditles in the pagan fyftem. 
Arnobius juflly ridicules the idle expedients, made ufe of to 
render a bafe theology plaufible. Gods, of tlie fame name 
and charadler, were multiplied to make their fables confift- 
ent ; tliat there might be always one ready at hand upon 
any chronological emergency. Hence no difficulty could 
arife about a Deity, but there might be one produced, 
adapted to all climes, and to every age. '*' Aiunt Theologi 
veflri, et vetuftatis abfcondita; conditores, tres in rerum na- 

'' Clementls Cohort. P. 40. 

'* Arnobius contra Gentes. L. 4. p. 1 J5. Clem. Alexand. Cohort. P. 24. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mvthology. 457 

tura JovTs eflc -quinque Soles, ct Mcrciirios quinque. 

Aiunt iidem Theologi quatuor efle Viilcanos, et tres Dianas ; 
JEkuhpios totidem, et Dionyfos quinque ; ter binos Hercu- 
les, et quatuor Veneres ; tria genera Caftorum, totidemquc 
Mufarum. But Arnobius is too modeft. Other writers infift 
upon a greater variety. In refped to Jupiters, Varro accord- 
ing to Tertullian makes them in number three hundred. 

'^ Varro trecentos Joves, five Jupiteres, dicendum, ■ in- 

troducit. The fame writer mentions forty heroes of the 
name of Hercules ; all which variety arofe from the caufes 
above afligned : and the like multiplicity may be found both 
of kings and heroes ; of kings, who did not reign ; of he- 
roes, who never exifted. The fame may be obferved in the 
accounts tranfmitted of their moll early prophets, and poets : 
fcarce any of them ftand fingle : there are duplicates of every 
denomination. On this account it is highly requiflte for thofe, 
who fuppofe thefe perfonages to have been men, and make 
inferences from the circumftances of their hiftory, to declare 
explicitly, which they mean ; and to give good reafons for 
their determination. It is faid of Jupiter, that he was the 
fon of Saturn ; and that he carried away Europa, before 
the arrival of Cadmus. He had afterwards an amour 
with Semele, the fuppofed daughter of Cadmus : and they 
mention his having a like intimacy with Alcmena an age 
or two later. Alter this he got acquainted with Leda, 
the wife of Tyndarus : and he had children at the fiege of 

" Tertullian, Apolog. c. 14. 

YliV(70f/.oci Si an Ka.yo), ca oiv^o-jiTri, Toaoi 'ZavH h^iaKQVTcci, Theoph, ad Au» 
tolyc. L. I. p. 344. 

Vol. I, N n n Troy, 

458 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Troy. If we may believe the poets, and all our intelligence 
comes originally from the poets, Jupiter was perfonally in- 
terefted in that war. But this interval contains little lefs 
than two hundred years. Thefe therefore could not be 
the ad ions of one man : on which account I want to 
know, why Sir Ifaac Nevv'ton '^ in his chronological in- 
terpretations choofes to be determined by the ftory of Jupi- 
ter and Europa, rather than by that of Jupiter and Leda. 
The learned '' Pezron has pitched upon a Jupiter above 
one thoufand years earlier, who was in like manner the fon 
of Saturn. But Saturn, according to fome of the befl: mytho- 
logifts, was but four generations incluUve before the jera of 
Troy. Latinus, the fon of Faunus, was alive fome years 
after that city had been taken ; when JEncas was fuppofed 
to have arrived in Italy. The poet tells us, " Fauno Picus 
pater : ifque parentem Te, Saturne, refert ; Tu fanguinis 
ultimus audlor. The feries amounts only to four, Latinus, 
Faunus, Picus, Saturn. What authority has Pezron for the 
anticipation of which he is guilty in determining the -reign 
of Jupiter ? and how can he reconcile thefe contradidory hiflo- 
ries ? He ought to have given fome good reafon for letting afide 
the more common and accepted accounts ; and placing thefe 
events fo "' early. Shall we fuppofe with the critics and commen- 
tators that this was a prior Jupiter? If it Vi^ere a different perfon, 

'® Newton's Chronology. P. 151. 

'' Pczron. Antiquities of nations, c. 10,1/, 12. 

" Virgil. iEn. L. 7. v. 48. 

*' Sir Ifaac Newton fuppofes Jupiter to have lived after the divifion of the 
kingdoms in Ifrael ; Pezron makes him antecedent to the birth of Abraham, 
and even before the AlTyrian monarchy. 


The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLocy. 459 

the circumftances of his life fliould be different : but the per- 
fon, of whom he treats, is in all refpeds fimilar to the Jupiter 
of Greece and Rome. He has a father Saturn ; and his mo- 
ther was Rhea. He was nurfed in Crete ; and had wars with 
the Titans. He dethrones his father, who flies to Italy ; 
where he introduces an age of gold. The mythology con- 
cerning him we find to be in all refpeds uniform. It is 
therefore to little purpofe to fubflitute another perfon of the 
fame name by way of reconciling matters, unlefs we can fup- 
pofe that every perfon fo denominated had the fame relations 
and connexions, and the fame occurrences in life reiterated : 
which is impofTible. It is therefore, I think, plain, that the 
Grecian Deities were not the perfons " fuppofed : and that 
their imputed names were titles. It is true, a very ancient 
and refpedlable writer, "^ Euhemerus, of whom I have before 
made mention, thought otherwife. It is faid, that he could 
point out precifely, where each god departed : and could 
particularly fliew the burying-place of Jupiter. Ladantius, 
who copied from him, fays, that it was at CnofTus in** Crete, 

** Arnobins has averyjuft obfervation to this purpofe. Omnes Dii non 
funt : quoniam plures Tub eodem nomine, quemadmodum accepimus, efle non 
poiTunt, &c. L. 4. p. 136. 

*' Antiquiis Audtor Euhemerus, qui fuit ex civitate Meflene, res geftas Jovis, 
et cjeterorum, qui Dii putantur, collegit ; hiftoriamque contexuit ex titulis, ec 
infcriptionibus facris, qus in antiquiffimis templis habebantur-, maximeque in 
fano Jovis Triphylii, ubi auream columnam pofitam efle ab ipfo Jove titulus 
indicabar. In qua columna gella fua perfcripfic, ut monumentum efl*et pofteris 
rerum fuarum. Ladant. de Falfa Relig. L. i. c. 1 1. p. 50, 

(Euhemerus), quern nofter et interprctatus, et fecutus eft praster castercs, En- 
nius. Cicero de Nat. Deor. L. i. c. 42. 

*'* Ladlantius de Falla Relig. L. i. c. 1 1. p. 52. 

N n n 2 Jupiter, 

460 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Jupiter, jetate pefTum aAa, in Creta vitam commutavit. — 
SepLilchriim ejus eft in Creta, et in oppido Cnoffo : et di- 
citur Vefta hanc urbem creaviffe : inque fcpulchro ejus eft 
infcriptio antiquis Uteris Grascis, Zai/ K^ovov. If Jupiter had 
been buried in Crete, as thefe writers would perfuade us, the 
accounts would be uniform about the place where he was de- 
pofited. Laclantius, we find, and fome others, fay, that it 
was in the city Cnoflus. There are writers who mention it 
to have been in a cavern upon "^ Mount Ida : others upon 
Mount *'^ Jafius. Had the Cretans been authors of the no- 
tion, they vi^ould certainly have been more coniiftent in their 
accounts : but we find no more certainty about the place of 
his burial, than of his birth ^ concerning which Callimachus 
could not determine. 

- Zey, (Ts J" sv A^hcl^iti. 
He was at times fuppofed to have been a native of Troas, of 
Crete, of Thebes, of Arcadia, of Elis: but the whole arofe from 
the word Ta^o? being through length of time mifunderftood: 
for there would have been no legend about the birth of Ju- 
piter, had there been no miftake about his funeral. It was 
a common notion of the Magnefians, that Jupiter was bu- 
ried in their country upon Mount Sipylus. Paufanias lays, 
that he afcended the mountain, and beheld the tomb, which 

*i Varro apudSolinum. c. 16. 

'* Epiphanius in Ancorato. P. 108. 

Cyril, contra Julianum. L. 10. p. 342. See Scholia upon Lycophron, V. 1194. 
*7 Callimach. Hyn:in. in Jovem. V. 6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 461 

was well worthy of ^^ admiration. The tomb of' Ifis in 
like manner was fuppofed to be at Memphis, and at Phil« 
in upper Egypt: alfo at Nufa in Arabia. Oiiris was faid to 
have been buried in the fame places : likewife at Tapho- 
firis, which is thought by Procopius to have had its name, 
5" becaufe it was the place of fepulture of Ofiris. The fame 
is faid of another city, which was near the mouth of the 
Nile, and called Taphofiris parva. But they each of them 
had their name frorh the worfhip, and not from the inter- 
ment of the Deity. This is plain from the account given 
of the Tcc(pog (ir/^iJ'o?, or high altar of Ofiris, by Diodorus ; 
from whom we learn that Bufiris and Ofiris were the fame. 
^' The Grecians i fays this author, have a 7iotiony that Biijiris 
in Egypt ufed to facrijice Ji rangers : not that there was ever 
fuch a kmg, as Bufiris ', but the Tci<pog, or altar, of Oftris 
had this name in the language of the 7jatives, In fhort Bu- 

** Ta.(pov^ix<ia.^iov. Paiifan. L. 2. p. i6i. 

»9 Diodor. Sicul. L. i. p. 23. T(x(p'^ya.i Aeyaa-i niv Icriv iv Miuf?i. 

Ofiris buried at Memphis, and at Nufa. Diodorus above. Alio ac Byblus in 

Ejct; Je et'ici Ei^^Aiw)', 01 Xiysat Trccpx a<picri T^oaf Oct; roy Oaip'v rov A.iyvTTioy. 
Lucian. de Syria Dea. V. 2. p. 879. 

Ta y.ev ouv vrspt T,]i icc^m to:v Qioiv Turaiv S'tx'fioovenoLi tuox tou ttAh^oh. 
Diodor. L. i. p. 24. 

'" Procopius TTiot y.Tiafji.xrMi'. L. 6. c. i. p. 109. 

AtyvTrrioi Tg yao Ovi^tS'oi TroAAa^^a Qmccit coairso si^nrat, S'lrAvuiiai. Plutarcli. 
Ifis et Ofiris. P. 358. He mentions ■jro/'A'di Ocri^iS'oi raipas sv Aiyuyn^j. Ibid. 

P- 359- 

'' L. I. p. 79. Y]ifiTr.iY)c(7ipiSoi ^evoxTcvicci ttcc^oc roii E».>]an' ei'ia^'-iiacit Tot> 
l^v^oi' ou ra Ea!7iA£&-? ov^jixctZ^oiJiiVB B'^aipiSoi, a?? rou OjtotS'ci rccipQU racvTHf 
i^'Ci'Toi Till' TrcoarQocicci' ■x.o.'xcl t);>' txv ey^ojoiaiv S icchctrov. Strabo likewife fays, 
that there was no fuch king as Bufiris. L. 17. p. 1 154. 


462 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

iiris was only a variation for Ofiris : both were compounded 
of the Egyptian term ^* Sehor, and related to the God of 
day. Hence the altars of the fame Deity were called indif- 
ferently the altars of Oiiris, or Bufiris, according as cuftoin 

I have in a former chapter taken notice of the Tarchons 
and Dracontia in Syria, and other parts : which confided of 
facred ground inclofed with a wall, and an altar or two at 
the upper part. Such an inclofure is defcribed by Paufa- 
. nias, which muft have been of great antiquity : hence the 
hiftory of it was very imperfectly known in his time. He is 
fpeaking of Nemea in Argolis ; ^^ ?!ear whichy fiys h^^JIands 
the temple of Nemea7i 'Jupiter ^ a JlruBure truly wonderful^ 
though the roof is now fallen in. Round the temple is a grove 
of cyprefs ; in which there is a tradition that Opheltes was 
left by his nurfe upon the grafs^ and in her abfence killed by a 
ferpent. — hi the fajne place is the tomb of Opheltes , furrounded 
with a wall of flo7ie ; aiid within the inclofure altars. There 
is alfo a mound of earth f aid to be the tomb of LycurguSy the 
father of Opheltes. Lycurgus is the fame as Lycus, Lycaon, 
Lycoreus, the Sun : and Opheltes, his fuppofed offspring, is 
of the fame purport. To fay the truth, ^^ Opheltes, or, as 
it fhould be expreffed, Ophel-tin, is the place ; and Ophel 
the Deity, Sol Pytho, whofe fymbol was a ferpent. Ophel- 

5* Bou-Sehor and Uch- Sehor are precifely of the fame purport, and fignify 
the great Lord of day. 

*' Paiifanias. L. 2. p, 144. 

'='♦ Altis. Eaaltis, Oroinis, Opheltis, arc all places compounded with fomc 
title, or titles, of the Deity. 


. The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 463 

tin was a Taphos with a Ts^jisvog, or facred inclofure : it was 
a facred mound to the Ophite Deity ; hke that which was ' 
inclofed and fortified by ^^ Manafleh king of Judah ; and 
which had been previoujQy made ufe of to the fame purpofe 
by ^^ Jotham. A hiftory limilar to that of Opheltes is given 
of Archemorus ; who was faid to have been left in a garden 
by his nurfe Hyplipyle,-and in her abfence flain by a ferpent. 
Each of them had feftivals inftituted, together with facred 
games, in memorial of their misfortune. They are on this 
account by many fuppofed to have been the fame perfon. 
But in reality they were not perfons, but places. They are 
however fo far alike, as they are terms, which relate to the 
fame worfhip and Deity. Opheltin is the place, and altar 
of the Cphire God above mentioned : and Archemorus was 
undoubtedly the ancient name of the neighbouring town, or 
city. It is a compound of Ar-Chemorus ; and fignifies the 
city of Cham-Orus, the fame who is ftiled Ophel. In many 
of thefe places there was an ancient tradition offome perfon 
having been injured by a ferpent in the beginning of life ; . 
which they have reprefented as the ftate of childhood. The 
mythology upon this occafion is different : for fometimes 
the perfonages fpoken of are killed by the ferpent : at other 
times they kill it : and there are inftances where both hiflo- 
ries are told of the fame perfon. But vs^hatever may have 
been the confequence, the hiftory is generally made to refer 

" 2 Chron. c. 33. v. 14. 

'' 2 Chron. c. 27. v. 3. On the wall (r»"in) of Ophel he built ranch : or rather 
on the Comah, or facred hill of the Sun, called Oph-El, he built much. 

4. to 

464 The Analvsis of Ancient Mythology; 

, to a {late of childhood. Hercules has accordingly a conflift 
with two ferpents in his cradle : and Apollo, who was the 
•fame as Python, was made to engage a ferpent of this name 
at ParnaffuSj when he was a child ; 

" Ka^og, ewf, ETI TTMNOS, sn TrXomfjLOKn ysy^j^ocg* 
Near mount Cyllene in Arcadia was the facred Taphos of 
^^ i^^putus, who was fuppofed to have been ftung by a fer- 
pent. -ffiputus was the fame as lapetus, the father of man- 
kind. In the Dionuiiaca the priefts ufed to be crowned 
with ferpents 5 and in their frantic exclamations to cry out 
^' Eva, Eva ; and fometimes Evan, Evan : all which related to 
fome hiftory of a fcrpcnt. Apollo, who is fuppofed by mofl 
to have been vidor in his conflid with the Pytho, is by Por-= 
phyry faid to have been flain by that ferpent i Pythagoras 
affirmed, that he faw his tomb at Tripos in '^° Delphi ; and 
wrote there an epitaph to his honour. The name of 
Tripos is faid to have been given to the place, becaufe 
the daughters of Triopus ufed to lament there the fate of 
Apollo. But Apollo and tlie Python were the fame ; and 
Tripus, or Triopus, the fuppofed father of thefe humane 

" Apollon. Rhodii Argonaut. L. 2. v. 709. Apollo is faid to have killed Ti- 
tyus, Ba'jrafs eojv. Apollon. L. i. v. 760. 

3^ To;- J'g Tou AiTTurov ra(pov aToiiS'ri/jia?ii^cci^€ci(ra.fJiiji'—e^ifjiivouv ym X'^y-d, 
cv y.eyct, Xiuov ^i^vriS'i iv xvyAcc vre^ie^ofJiSyov. Paufan. L. 8. p. 632. 

AtTTurt'A' TvyiSor, celebrated by Homer^ Iliad. /3. V. 605. 

Anrvroi fuppofed to be the fame as Hermes. Naos 'Epy.8 AnrvrB near Te- 
gea in Arcadia. Paufan. L. 8. p. 696. Part of Arcadia was called Aittvtis. 

"Clemens Alexand. Cohort. P. 11. AnTiy-y-iroi ion cp7iv iiroXcXv^ovrSi 
"E-iixv^ Etiai' y.T/\. 

^' Porphyrii Vita Pythagoras. 



The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 465 

lifters, was a variation for Tor-Opus, the ferpent-hill, or 
temple ; where neither Apollo, nor the Python were flain, 
but where they were both worfhiped, being one and the 
fame Deity. '^^ UvQoi fxsv ovv A^OLJCCtiv Ilv^iog ^^rirnevBTOLiy 
Kcn TH O^soog Yi TTocvriyv^ig Kcx.roLyfs?^Ksro(.i Uv^icx.. At Python 
(the fame as Delphi) the Pythian Dragon is worjhiped ; and 
the celebrity oftheferpent is Jiiled Pythian. The daughters 
of Triopus were the prieftefles of the temple ; whofe bufincfs 
it was to chant hymns in memory of the ferpent : and what 
is very remarkable, the feftival was originally obferved upon 
the feventh "^^ day* 

The Greeks had innumerable monuments of the fort, 
which I have been delcribing. They were taken for the tombs 
of departed heroes, but were really confecrated places : and 
the names, by which they were diftinguifhed, 'fhew plainly 
their true hiftory. Such was the fuppofed tomb of "^^ Orion 
at Tanagra, and of Phoroneus in ^'^ Argolis ; the tomb of 
*^ Deucalion in Athens ; and of his v/ife ** Pyrrha in Locris : 
of '^^ Endymion in Elis : of Tityus in ♦* Panopea : of Afte- 

41 Clement. Alexand. Cohort, p. 29. 

+» The Scholiaft upon Pindar feems to attribute the whole to Dionufus, 
who firft gave out oracles at this place, and appointed the feventh day a fefti- 
val. E»' u -arfwTcs A/o^oo-65 ibtfJii'^ivaf, xai ate- jXTf « a<; T(>iO(J(v rov Viuuuvcc, ccycc- 
vt^srat Tov riuGiJtoc ayova. kutu 'EQS^ofJiriv ^r^fxioav. Prolegomena in Find. Pyth. 
p. 185. 

43 Paufanias. L. 9. p. 749, 

44 Paufan. L. 2. p. 155. 

45 Strabo; L. 9 p. 651. 

46 Strabo. Ibidem. 

47 Paufan. L. 5. p. 376- 
4« Paufan. L. 10. p. 806. 

Vol. I. O o o xion 

466 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

lion in the ifland '^' Lade: of the Egyptian ^'' Belus in 
Achilla. To thefe may be added the tombs oF Zeus in 
Mount Sipylus, Mount lafius, and Ida : the tombs of Ofiris 
in various parts : and thofe of Iii§, vvliich have been enume- 
rated before. Near the iEaceum at Epidaurus v/as a hill, 
reputed to have been the tomb of the hero ^' Phocus. This 
^aceum vi^as an inclofure planted with olive trees of great 
antiquity ; and at a fmall degree above the furface of the 
ground was an altar {acred to iEacus. To divulge the tra- 
ditions relative to this altar would, it feems, be an high 
profanation. The author therefore keeps them a fecrer. 
Juft before this facred feptum was the fuppofed tomb of 
Phocus, coniiPcing of a mound of raifed earth, fenced round 
with a border of ftone work : and a large rough ftone was 
placed upon the top of all. Such were the rude monuments 
of Greece, which were looked upon as fo many recepta- 
cles of the dead : but were high altars, with their ficred 
TS[XBir,, which had been ereAed for divine worfliip in the 
mcfl: early times. The FIclladians, and the Perfians, were 
of the fame ^'" family : hence we find many fimilar rites fub- 

♦? Paufan. L. i. p- 87, 

50 At Patr^e, fj.i/htAu AiyuTrrin tb B/jAs. Paufan. L. 7. p. 578. 
i' Paufanias. L. 2. p. 179. 
5* Herodotus. L. 7, c. 150. and L. 6. c. 54, 
' Plato in Alcibiad. i"". Vol. 2. p. 120. 

Upon Mount Mrenalus was faid to have been the tomb of Areas, who 
the father of the Arcadians. 

Eq-i Jg Ma;i'«Ai/; Suc^iiy.f^o^, nScx. re xiiraf 
- At^«?5 «?' oxj i 'n TTcci'Tii eTTixXnani v.a'K'-.ovTa.i. 

Oraculum apud Paufan. L. 8. p. 616. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 467 

(ifting among the two nations. The latter adhered to the 
purer Zaba'ifm, which they maintained a long time. They 
ereded the fame facred Tupha, as the Grecians : and we 
may be aflured of the original purpofe, for which thefe hills 
were raifed, from the ufe, to which they put them. They 
were dedicated to the great fountain of light, called by the 
Perfians, Analt : and were fet apart as Puratheia, for the 
celebration of the rites of fire. This people, after they had 
defeated the Sacas in Cappadocia, raifed an immenfe Comah 
in memorial of their vidory. -' Strabo, who defcribes it very 
minutely, tells us, that they chofe a fpot in an open plain ; 
where they reared a Petra, or high place, by heaping up a 
vaft mound of earth. This they fafhioned to a conical fi- 
gure ; and then furrounded it with a wall of ftone. In this 
manner they founded a kind of temple in honour of Anait, 
Omanus, and Anandrates, the Deities of their country. I 
have mentioned that the Egyptians had hills of this nature : 
and from them the cuftom was tranfmitted to Greece. Ty- 
phon, or more properly Tuphon, Tvcpoov, who was fuppofed 
to have been a giant, was a compound of Tuph-On, as I 
have before mentioned ; and fignified a facred ^* mount of 
the fun. Thofe cities in Egypt, which had a high place of 

But what this fuppofed tomb really was, may be known from the fame author: 
To Se ^ooDiov TUTOySiucc. Tacpoi et^i Td Aox.aS'oi, JtaAoycTO' 'HA<a Ba)/A0U5* Ibid. 

Ta(f.o«, « Ti^jwf 0?, H cYif/.iiov. Hefych. 

" Strabo. L. ii. p. 779. Ev d^g tu ttsS'm DETPAN TINA Trpoirxi^F-oLTi. 
CL/,w,7rA))cw(7afTg5 m QowonS'ii c^nfj-a. >ctA. 

'* Typhon was originally called Vnytvrt;^ and by Hyginus Terras Filius. Fab." 
152. p. 263. Diodorus, L. i, p. 79. he is ftiled Tm Iik e^xiijio?. Antoninus 
Liberal, c. 2j. 

O o o 2 this 

^68 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

this fort, and rites in confequence of it, were ftiled Typlio- 
nian. Upon fuck as thefe they facrificed red haired men, or 
men with hair of a hght colour ; in other words ftrangcrs.. 
For both the fons of Chus, and the Mizraim were particu- 
larly dark and woolly : fo that there could be no furer mark. 
than the hair to diftinguifli between a native and a foreigner., 
Thefe facrifices were offered in the city " Idithia, ^^ Abaris,, 
•^ HeliopoHs, and Taphofiris ; which' in confequence of thefe. 
offerings were denominated Typhonian cities.. Many writ- 
ers fay, that thefe rites were performed to Typhon. at 
the ^^ tomb of Oliris. Hence he was in later times fup- 
pofed to have been a perfon, one ot immenfe fize: and 
he was alfo efteemed a " God. But this arofe from the. 
common miftake, by which places were flibflituted, for the 
Deities there worfliipcd. Typhon was the Tupha, or al- 
tar, the fuppofed tomb of the God : and the offerings were.- 
made to the Sun, ftiled On ; the fame as Ofiris, and Bu- 
firis. As there were Typhonian mounts in many parts, ha 
was in confequence of it fuppofed to have been buried in; 
different places : near mount Caucafus in Colchis ; nean 
the river Orontes in Syria ; and under lake Serbonis. Ty- 

■" Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. P. 380. 

'* Jofephus contra Apion. L. i. p. 460. 

'^ Porphyry de Abftinen. L. 2. p. 225. 

There was Ucrpa. Tv((,xovl(x. in Caucafus. Etymolog. Magnum. Tvcpm' Tv- 

Kctvxaa'd ev xih/xoict/, Tvcpccoi'pj o7i Ost^j?. Apollon. L. 2. V..12J4, 
'^ Diodorus Sicul. L. i. p. 79. 

" n«pj}>o<'B(7< Dvaiocti xat Trgot^vvdai {rov Tv^uya}. Plutarch. Ifis e.t Ofiris.. 
p. 362. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 469 

plion, or rather Typhonian worfhip, was not unknown 
in the region of ^° Troas, near which were the Scopiili Ty- 
phonis. Plutarch mentions that in the Phrygian Theology 
Typhon was eftecmed the grandfon of Ifaac or If^ac : and- 
fays that he was fo fpoken of ev Toig (P^vyioi? " y^aaixcLTiv, 
But all terms of relation are to be difregardcd. The pur- 
port of the hiftory was this. The altar was termed Tuphoa 
Ifiac, five Bwp? l^ioLKog., from the facra Ifiaca, which were 
performed upon it. The fame Ifaac or Ifseac was fometimes 
rendered ^lacus, and fjppofed to have been a fon of the. 
river Granicus. 

** ^facon umbrofa furtim peperiffe fub Ida 
Fertur Alexirhoe Granico nata bicorni. 
The ancient Arcadians were faid to have been the offspring 
of ^^ Typhon, and by fome the children of Atlas ; by which 
was meant, that they were people of the Typhonian, and 
Atlantian religion. What they called his tombs were cer- 
tainly mounds of earth, raifed very high, like thofe which have 
been mentioned before : only with this difference, that fome 
of thefe had lofty towers adorned with pinnacles, and bat- 
tlements. They had alfo carved upon them various fymbols ; 
and particularly ferpentine hieroglyphics, in memorial of the 
God, to whom they were facred. In their upper ftory was 
a perpetual fii-e, which was plainly feen in the night. I have 

*° Diodorus Sicul. L. 5. p. 338.. 

" Plutarch. Ifis et Ofiris. P. 362. Icra/axa tb 'H^aJcAeas a Tv^t^r- 

^» Ovid. Metamorph. L. 1 1. v.- 762, 

'5 Ewe; St uTTo TB Tuq^ooycc, uVo Ss ArAarTss Sei^xyopxi Sipmiv. Schol. Apol- 
lon. L. 4- V. 264. 


470 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

mentioned, that the poets formed their notions about Otus 
and Ephialtes from towers : and the idea of Orion's ftupen- 
dous bulk was taken from the Pelorian edifice in Sicily. 
The gigantic ftature of Typhon was borrowed from a like 
obje6l : and his charafter was formed from the hieroglyphi- 
cal reprefentations in the temples filled Typhonian. This 
may be inferred from the allegorical defcription of Typhoeus, 
given by Hefiod. Typhon and Typhoeus, were the fame 
perfonage : and the poet reprefents him of a mixed form, 
being partly a man, and partly a monftrous dragon, whofe 
head confifted of an affemblage of fmaller ferpents, 

Hv sKdTov KS<pciXoLi 0(^10;, hivoio A^ccKonog. 
As there was a perpetual fire kept up in the upper ftory, he 
defcribes it as fliining through the apertures in the build- 

^ Ek h 01 o^<rm 

©S(r7rscnirjg KSipaKYjinv vtt o(p^v<Ti ttv^ oLfJLOL^vtrtrs' 


But the nobleft defcription of Typhon is given in ibme very 
fine poetry by Nonnus. He has taken his ideas from fome 
ancient tower fituated near the fea upon the fummit of an 
high mountain. It was probably the Typhonian temple of 
Zeus upon mount Cafius near the famed Serbonian lake. 
He mentions fad noifes heard within, and defcribes the 
roaring of the furge below : and fays that all the monfters of 

'♦Hefiod. Theogon. V. 824. 

•' Ibid. V. 826. Typhis, Typhon, Typhaon, Typhoeus, are all of the fame 


The Analvsis of Ancient Mythology. 471 

the fea ftabled in the cavities at the foot of the mountain^ 
which was wafhed by the ocean. 

* Ey i'^dvosvn ^s Tronic 
*Ifajt/tsJ/8 Tv(pooi/og s(r(a ^^vosvTog evxvXs 
Bsv&s'i Ta^tra Ti^STrriKrOy koli yis^i fjnyvvro yoL^'n^ 
GKi^oiJLSPYi vs(pss<T<n' riyciyrsis h kol^yivh 

We may perceive, that this is a mixed defcription, wherein ^ 
under the charader of a gigantic perfonage, a towering edi- 
fice is alluded to ; which was fituated upon the fummit of 
a mountain, and in the vicinity of the fea, 

** Nonni Dionyf. L. i. p. 24; 


( 473 ) 


OB, O U B, P Y T H O; 

S I V E D E 


Ha^x TToim Tm vo^iiip^smv tpol^^ v[jliv Qsuv Opg (Tvil^oKou 

ixsycc mi pr*lf/oj/ civciy§x(ps7C(.u Juflin. Martyr. Apolog* 
L. I. p. 60. 

IT may feem extraordinary, that the worfhip of the fer- 
pent fhould have ever been introduced into the world : 
and it muft appear ftill more remarkable, that it fhould 
almoft univerfally have prevailed. As mankind are faid to 
have been ruined through the influence of this being, we 
could little expedl that it would, of all other objedls, have 
been adopted, as the mofl facred and falutary fymbol ; and 
rendered the chief objedt of ' adoration. Yet fo we find it 

' Oif£« — Tif/.-j.a^cii la^voois. Philarchus apud /Elian : de. Animal, L. 17. c. 5. 

Vol. I. P P P ^O 

474 '^"^ Analysis of Ancient MyTHotocri^. 

to have been. In mod: of the ancient rites there i^ ferae al- 
lufioQ to the '- ferpent. I have taken notice, that in the 
Oro-ies of Bacchus the perfons, who partook of the ceremony, 
ufed to carry ferpents in their hands, and with horrid fcreams 
call upon Eva, Eva. They were often crowned with ^ fer- 
petits, and ftill made the fame frantic exclamation. One 
part of the myflerious rites of Jupiter Sabazius was to let a 
fnake flip down the bofom of the perfon to be initiated, 
which was taken out below *. Thefe ceremonies, and this 
iymbolic worfliip began among the Magi^ who were the 
fons of Chus : and by them they were propagated in va- 
rious parts. Epviphanius thinks, that the invocation, Eva^ 
Eva, related to the great ^ mother of mankind, who was 
deceived by the ferpent : and Clemens of Alexandria is of 
the fame opinion. He fuppofes, that by this term was 
meant * Evav SKsmv^ ^i ¥ n t^T^olvyi 7rct^riKoMv^ri(rs. But I 
fhould think, that Eva was the fame as Eph, Epha, Oplia,, 
which the Greeks rendered Oipig, Ophis, and by it denoted 
a ferpent. Clemens acknowledges, that the term Eva pro- 

* See Juftin Martyr above. 

^tiy.eiov Opyiuv Eax^i^.cav Ofi? f^i leTi^eo-ixevos. Glcmens Alexand. Cohort; 
T. II. See Auguftinus de Civitate Dei. L. j. c. 12. and L. l8. c. 15. 

* Avi-ffjiixivot Tcii (.(Tiaiv. Clemens above. 

■' In myfterlis, quibus Sabadiis nomen eft, aureus coluber in finum dimitcltiii* 
confecratis, et tximitur rurfus ab inferioribus partibus. Arnobius. L. 5. p. 171. 
See alfo Clemens. Cohort. P. 14. /ipotxccv SiiAxoy.eyoi tw jcoAtth. x. A. 

Sebazium colcntes Jovem anguem, cum initiantur,.per finum ducunt. Julius 
Firmicus. P. 23. SaCa^ic?, gTrcoiu^eczi/owo-B. Hefych. 

* Tss 0^f« oirei^t}j.fx.iioiy tva^ovTii to Ovxy Ovx^ exiww rw B.vxv Sri, T)n' Siae. 
T8 C(p w5 aTraTwbicra!', £7rixaAB^w£!'o;. Epiphaoius. Tom. 2. L. 3. p. 1092. 

* Cohortatio. P. 11. 

4 perly 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 47? 

perly afplrated had fuch a fignification. ' To ovo^Jia to Evict 
^cLTWo^Jisvov e^fJLYivsvBTcci 0(pi?. Olympias, tKe mother of 
* Alexander, was very fond of thefe Orgies, in which the fer- 
pent was introduced. Plutarch mentions, that rites of this 
fort were pradifed by the Edonian women near mount Hae- 
mus in Thrace ; and carried on to a degree of madnefs. 
Olympias copied them clofely in all their frantic manoeuvres. 
She ufed to be followed with many attendants, who had 
each a thyrfus with ' ferpents twined round it. They had 
alfo fnakes in their hair, and in the chaplets, which they wore ; 
fo that they made a mofl fearful appearance. Their cries 
were very (hocking : and the whole was attended with a con- 
tinual repetition of the words, '° Evoe, Saboe, Hues Attes, 
Attes Hues, which were titles of the God Dionufus. He was pe- 
culiarly named Tj^^; and his priefts were the Hyades, and 
Hyantes. He was likewife ftiled Evas. " Eya^ Aiovvrog, 
In Egypt was a ferpent named Thermuthis, which was 
looked upon as very facred ; and the natives are faid to have 
made ufe of it as a royal tiara, with which they ornamented 
the ftatues of '- Ifis. We learn from Diodorus Siculus, that the 

■" Cohortatio. P. r i. 

* Plutarch. Alexander. P. 66§. 

' 0(p!ti fj-iyaKBi ^B!f:oijQiii £jf<A^gT3 Tois otxaoii (n OAv/xTT/aOi 01 vroMaxti ex th 

TCtTTB XXt TCi)V fAV^tKUV AlXrUV TTCtCaVCcS UOJJiiVOi, y.!X.t TTi^ieXmop-iVOi mCsaOH 1(i)V 

yvvex.ixciji', xcti roa q-epca'oti, t^67rXmTov tow aiS-pxf- Plutarch, ibid. 

" Tow i(f£i5Tcwn«^f/as GA^^w:', xa/ uttSo tw x£(paA»? atcopoov, xxi 4'o<uc, Etoi, 
2aCoi, XXI STTo^^yiJLiroi T/;j Att;;<, Att?;5 T»?. Demofth. Tle^ic^eq:xvn. P. 516. 

" Hefych. 

" Tvi laiSo: a-) xXjj.xrx xvtivai rawT*?, ws t<« S'lx^rjiAv.n CxviheiM- ^lian. 
Hift. Animal. L. 10. c 31. 

P p p 2 kings 

476 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

kings of Egypt wore high bonnets, which terminated in a 
round ball: and the whole was furrounded with figures of 
'3 afps. The priefts likewife upon their bonnets had the repre- 
fentation of ferpents. The ancients had a notion, that when- 
Saturn devoured his own children, his wife Ops deceived 
him by fubftituting a large flone in lieu of one of his fons, 
which ftone was called Abadir. But Ops, and Opis, repre- 
sented here as a feminine, was the ferpent Deity, and Aba- 
dir is the fame perfonage under a different denomination. 
'♦ Abadir Deus efl ; et hoc nomine lapis ille, quern Saturnus 
dicitur devoraffe pro Jove, quem Grieci ^mtvTkov vocant. — 
Abdir quoque et Abadir ^airvT^og. Abadir feems to be a va^ 
nation of Ob-Adur, and fignifies the ferpent God Orus. 
One of thefe flones, which Saturn was fuppofed to have 
fwallowed inftead of a child, flood according to '^ Paufanias 
at Delphi. It was efteemcd very facred, and ufed to have 
libations of wine poured upon, it daily ; and upon feftivals 
was otherwife honoured. The purport of the above hiftorj 
I imagine to have been this. It was for a long time a cuf- 
tom to offer children at the altar of Saturn : but in procefs 
of time they removed it, and in its room ere<5led ^g-vKos,, 
or ftone pillar ; before which they made their vows, and of- 
fered facrifices of another nature. This flone, which they 
thus fubftituted, was called Ab-Adar from the Deity re- 

'•' T8« EatriAf/f— ;^PHa-6ai 7riAo« fjixyt^on iiri rs Trf^aro? o}J.(p(xAQV iX^'^'r ''"^ 
-^tPiiarTTSi^aixivcii o'pia-t^yiKctAaviv a.aTTii'ix^. L. 3. p. 145. 
'■♦ Prifcian. L. 5. and L. 6. 
*' Paufan, L. 10. p. 859. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 477 

prefented by it. The term Ab generally fignifies a '' fa- 
ther : but in this inflance it certainly relates to a ferpent,. 
which was indifferently fliled Ab, Aub, and '^ Ob. I take 
Abadon, or, as it is mentioned in the Revelations, Abaddon, 
to have been the name of the fame Ophite God, with whofe 
worfliip the world had been fo long infeded. He is termed 
by the Evangelift '* A^a^Jwi/, rov AyyB7^ov ng A^vQ-trs^ 
the angel of the bottomlefs pit ; that is,^ the prince of dark- 
nefs. In another place he is defcribed as the '' dragon, that 
old ferpent, which is the devil, and Satan. Hence I think, 
that the learned Heinfius is very right in the opinion, which 
he has given upon this paffage ; when he makes Abaddon 
the fame as the ferpent Pytho. Non dubitandum eft, quin 
Pythius Apollo, hoc efl fpurcus ille fpiritus, quern Hebrs^i 
Ob, et Abaddon, Helleniftae ad verbum A7roAAya)j/a, caeteri 
AiroKhma, dixerunt, fub hac forma, qua miferiam humano 
<Teneri invexit, primo cultus "'. 

It is faid, that in the ritual of Zoroafter, the great expanfe 
of the heavens, and even nature itfelf, was defcribed under 
thefymbol of a ferpent^'. The like was mentioned in the 

'^ BoGhart fuppofes this term to fignlfy a father, and the purport of the name 
to be Pater magnihcus. He has afterwards a fecondary derivation. Sed fallor, 
aut Abdir, vel Abadir, cum pro lapide fumitur, corruptum ex Phcenicio Eben- 
Dir, lapis fphasricus. Geog. Sac. L. 2. c. 2. p. 708. 

•' See Radicals. P. 49. and Deuteronomy, c. 18. v. 11. 

'* Exovaai QaciMa. t(p' auToov rov Ayye?yov rm A^.varrti- -qvoixx xutoj" ES^cc'-r' 
ACa^^icov, tv Si T>i*EAAnr<>c>i ovcjj.ct i^i^ AiroAXvon: Revelations, c. 9- v. 1 1. 

" Revelations, c. 20. v. 2, Abadon fignines ferpens Dominus, vel Serpens 
Dominus Sol. 

»^ Daniel Heinfius. Ariftarchus. P. n. 

»« Eufeb. P. E. L. ]. p. 4«> 42- ^^ o 1 


478 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Odateuch of Oftanes: and moreover, that in Perils and In 
other parts of the eaft they ereded temples to the ferpent 
tribe, and held feftivals to their honour, efteeming them "©sy^ 
TH? fjLsyifovgy Kou OL^YTiy^i; rm oT^m^ the fupr erne of all Gods^ 
mid the fuperintenda?its of the whole wofld. The worfliip 
began among the people of Chaldea. They built the city 
Opis upon the ^^ Tigris, and were greatly addided to divi- 
nation, and to the worfhip of the ferpent **. Inventi funt ex 
iis (Chaldeis) augures, et magi, divinatores, et fortilegi, et 
inquirentes Ob, et Ideoni. From Chaldea the worfhip 
pafled into Egypt, where the ferpent Deity was called Can- 
oph, Can-eph, and C'neph, It had alfo the name of Ob, 
or Oub, and was the fame as the Bafilifcus, or Royal Ser- 
pent ; the fame alfo as the Thermuthis : and in like manner 
was made ufe of by way of ornament to the flatues of their 
'^ Gods. The chief Deity of Egypt is faid to have been Vul- 
can, who was alfo ftiled Opas, as we learn from ^* Cicero. 
He was the fame as Ofiris, the Sun ; and hence was often 
called Ob-El, five Pytho Sol : and there were pillars facred 
to him with curious hieroglyphical infcriptions, which had 
the fame name. They were very lofty, and narrow in com- 
parifon of their length ; hence among the Greeks, who co- 

'* Eufeb. ibidem. TaSs aura xai Otp-ccvK jctA. 

*3 Herod. L. 2. c. 189. alfo Ptolemy. 

*4 M. Maimonides in more Nevochim. See Selden de Diis Syris. Synt. i. 
c. 3. p. 49. 

»5 Oucaioi',© ST'fK 'EAAjji'/t'x Bao-jA<i7Xoy' ovtts^ ^pvaovv ttolbvth ©eon TSPtri- 
Beaaiv. Horapollo. L. i. p. 2. 

OvCuiov is fo correfted for Ov^etioi'i from MSS. by J. Corn. De Pauw. 

»* Cicero de Nat. Deor. L. 3. 



( /i/iut t '/lennumui, tu/r { r i 't>ihi///r>rn,i n'tj //iitt^uyto, ct/ui t ItJiw r//t>t^ jL^ff/i/i/iran/f 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 479 

pied from the Egyptians, every thing gradually tapering to 
a point was ftijed Obelos, and Obelifcus. Ophel (Oph-El) 
was a name of the fame purport : and I have fliewn, that 
many facred nKJunds, or Tapha, were th\is denominated 
from the ferpent Deity, to whom they were facred. 

Sanchoniathort makes mention of an hiftory, which he 
once wrote upon the worOiip of the ferpent. The title of 
this work according to Eufebius was, *^ Ethothion, or Etho- 
thia. Another treatife upon the fame fubjedl was written 
by Pherecydes Syrus, which was probably a copy of the for- 
mer ; for he is faid to have compofed it, *^ tcol^cl ^oiviKm Kcx.^ 
hoiv Tag oL(po^iJ.ctgy from fome frevious accounts of the Phenki- 
ans. The title of his book was the Theology of Ophion, 
ftiled Ophioneus ; and of his worfhipers, called Ophionida?,. 
Thoth, and Athoth, were certainly titles of the D'eity 
in the Gentile world : and the book of Sanchoniathon might 
very poflibly have been from hence named Ethothion, or 
more truly Athothion. But from the fubjed, upon which 
it was written, as well as from the treatife of Pherecydes, I 
fhould think, that Athothion, or Ethothion, was a miftake 
for Ath-opliion,-a title which more immediately related to that 
worfhip, of which the writer treated. Ath was a facred- 
title, as I have fhewn : and I imagine, that this diflertation 
did not barely relate to the ferpentine Deity ; but contained 
accounts of his votaries, the Ophitae, the principal of which were 
the fons of Chus, ' The worfhip of the Serpent began among 

»■ Fnisp. Evan. L. i. p. 41.. 
»8 Eufcb, fupra. 

them ;, 

480 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

them ; and they were from thence denominated Ethoplans, 
and Aithopians, which the Greeks rendered Aid iOTTSg . It was 
a name, which they did not receive from their complexion, 
as has been commonly furmifed ; for the branch of Phut, 
and the Lufiim, were probably of a deeper die : but they 
were fo called from Ath-Ope, and Ath-Opis, the God, 
•which they worfhiped. This may be proved from Pliny. 
He fays that the country Ethiopia (and confequently the 
people) had the name of ^thiop from a perfonage who 
was a Deity — ab *' ^thiope Vulcani filio. The iEthiopes 
brought thefe rites into Greece: and called the ifland, where 
they firft eftablifhed them, ^"Ellopia, Solis Serpentis infula. 
It was the fame as Euboea, a name of the like purport ; in 
which ifland was a region named jEthiopium. Euboea is 
properly Oub-Aia^ and fignifies the Serpent-Iiland. The 
fame worfhip prevailed among the Hyperboreans, as we may 
judge from the names of the facred women, who ufed to 
come annually to Delos. They were priefteffes of the Tau- 
rjc Goddefs, and were denominated from her titles. 

"' OvTTig Ts, Aojw Ts, KOLi Evoituv 'EKOLS^yri. 
Hercules was efteemed the chief God, the fame as Chronus ; 
and was faid to have produced the Mundane egg. He was 
reprefented in the Orphic Theology under the mixed fym- 
bol of a ^' lion and a ferpent : and fornetimesof a ^' ferpent 

'-' L. 6. p. 345- 

*° Scrabo. L. 10. p. 683. Ic was fiippofcd to have had its name from El- 
lops, the Son of Ion who was the brother of Cothus. 

=' Callimachus. H. in Delon. V. 292. Evxiojv, Eva-On, Serpens Sol. 
''■ Athenagoras. Legatio. P. 294. Hoa-xA»j X^oio?. 
*• Athenag. P. 295. HcciK^ns ©£js — cT^axw;' eA/xras. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 481 

only. I have before mentioned, that the Cuthites under 
the title of Heliadae fettled at Rhodes : and, as they were Hi- 
vitcs or Ophites, that the ifland in confequence of it was of 
old named Ophiufa. There was likewife a tradition, that 
it had once fwarmed with ^'^ ferpents. The like notion pre-' 
vailed almoftin every place, where they fettled. They came 
under the more general titles of Leleges and Pelafgi: but 
more particularly of Elopians, Europians, Oropians, Afo- 
pians, Inoplans, Ophionians, and ^thiopes, as appears from 
the names, which they bequeathed ; and in moft places, 
where they refided, there were handed down traditions, 
which alluded to their original title of Ophites. In Phry- 
gia, and upon the Hellefpont, whither they fent out colo- 
nies very early, was a people ftiled Oipioysi/sigy or the fer- 
pent-breed ; who were faid to retain an affinity and cor- 
refpondence with ^' ferpents. And a notion prevailed, that 
fome hero, who had conducted them, was changed from a 
ferpent to a man. In Colchis was a river Ophis ; and there 
was another of the fame name in Arcadia. It was fo named 
from a body of people, who fettled upon its banks, and 
were faid to have been condudled by a ferpent : '^ Tov riys^oi/cc 
ysi/sc^on ^^ccKonoL, Thefe reptiles are feldom found in iflands, 
yet Tenos one of the Cyclades was fuppofed to have once 
fwarmed with them. " Ev rn Tr,yy, (J,icf. Vj)v KvukAv vrjtrcf, 

'* It is faid to have been named Rhodus from Rhod, a Syriac word for a 
ferpent. Bochart. G. S. P. 369. 

'' Ei'TauBo. fj.v^uiii-1 T«? Otfij') ei'5(? (Tvyyevfixv Ttvcc iyjiv iroci ry; opui. Strabo, 
L. 13. p. 8.80. Ophiogense in Hellefponto circa Parium. Pliny. L. -j. p. 371. 

'^ Paufan. L. 8. p. 614. 

5' Ariftoph. Plutus. Schol. V. 718. 
Vol. I. Q^q q Q^sig 

'82 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

o^s<? KCti (TZO^TTioi ^sivoi zyvJOVTo. Thucydides mentions k 
people of i^tolia called ^^ Opiiionians : and the temple of 
Apollo at Patara in Lycia feems to have had its firft inftitu- 
tion from a prieftefs of the fame " name. The iiland of Cy- 
prus was fliled Ophiufa, and Ophiodes, from the ferpents, 
with which it was fuppofed to have '^° abounded. Of what 
fpecies they were is no where mentioned ; excepting only 
that about Paphos there was faid to have been a '^' kind of 
ferpent with two legs. By this is meant the Ophite race, 
who came from Egypt, and from Syria, and got footing in 
this '^^ ifland. They fettled alfo in Crete, where they in- 
creafed greatly in numbers ; fo that Minos was faid by an 
unfeemly allegory, "^^ o^Si^ 8^»jtrai, ferpentes minxifTe. The 
ifland Seriphus was one vaft rock, by the Romans called 
** faxum feriphium ; and made ufe of as a larger kind of pri- 
fon for baniOied perfons. It is reprefented as having once 
abounded with ferpents ; and it is ftiled by Vix^ferpentifera^ 
as the paflage is happily correded by Scaliger. 

*^ -(Slginamque fimul, ferpentiferamque Seriphon... 

'* L. 3. c. 96. Strabo. L. 10. p. 692. 
39 Steph, Byzant. nuru^a, 

•*' Bv J^' fir' i^av Aioa (pevycov ofiuS'ecx. Kv7r(^ov. Parthenius- See Voflius upon 
Pomp. Mela. L. i.e. 6. p. 391. 

Ovid Metamorph. L. 10. v. 229. Cypri arva Ophiufia. 

*' They were particularly to be found at Paphos. Apollon. Difcolus. Mirabil. 

C. 39. 0(p<? TTO^Cti i^o)y Su3. 

'*'' Herodotus. L. 7. c. 90. 'O; J^s ccto At^to7rm,aii ccutoi Kuttpioi Asydiri. 
'^3 'O ya^ Mivoos o(fiii, v.oa axoo-ni'di^ ■ko.i aKci/\o7rivS^oci Bpeaxiv jcA. Antonin, 
I.iberalis. c. 41. p. 202. See notes, P. 276. 
■»■• Tacitus. Annal. L. 4. c. 21. 
**' In Ceiri. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 483 

It had this epithet not on account of any real ferpents, but 
according to the Greeks from "^^ Medufa's head, which was 
brought hither by Perfeus. By this is meant the ferpent 
Deity, whofe worfliip was here introduced by people called 
Perefians. Medufa's head denoted divine wifdom : and the 
ifland was facred to the ferpent, as is apparent from its 
name '^^ The Athenians were efteemed Serpentigenas ; and 
they had a tradition, that the chief guardian of their Acro- 
polis was a '^^ ferpent. It is reported of the Goddefs Ceres, 
that fhe placed a dragon for a guardian to her temple at 
*^ Eleufis ; and appointed another to attend upon Eredheus. 
-ffigeus of Athens according; to Androtion was of the ^° fer- 
pent breed : and the firft king of the country is faid to have 
been ^' A^otKCfJVj a Dragon. Others make Cecrops the firft 
who reigned. He is faid to have been ^* ^^<pvrig, of a twofold 
nature 'y (rvfjupvs; eyi:t)v (r(^i^ct ctv^^og koli ^^oLKonog, be'ijig formed 
with the body of a man bk?ided with that of a ferpent, Dio- 
dorus fays, that this was a circumftance deemed by the 
Athenians inexplicable: yet he labours to explain it by re- 
prefenting Cecrops, as half a man, and half a '' brute ; be- 


♦* Strabo. L. lo. p. 746. 

■♦■' What the Greeks rendered ll^^ifoi was properly Sar-Tph ; and Sar-Iphis, 
the fame as Ophis : which fignified Petra Serpentis, five Pychonis. 
■♦'' Herodotus. L. 8. c. 41. 
■" Strabo. L. 9. p. 603. 

'• Lycophron Scholia. V. 496. airo roov oS'ci'txi' tb S^ocxovToi. 
*' Meurfius de reg. Athen. L. i.e. 6. 
" Apollodorus. L. 3. p. 191. 
" ''Diodorus. L. i. p. 25. Cecrops is not by name mentioned in this pafTage 

Q^q q 2 according 

484 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

caufe he had been of two clifl'crent communities. Eufla- 
thius likewife tries to folve it nearly upon the fame prin- 
ciples, and with the like fuccefs. Some had mentioned 
of Cecrops, that he underwent a metamorphofis, ^'^ 01.7:0 
0(p2u:; Big oi)'^^cs:7roy B7.(/2iV, that he was cha777ed from a ferpent 
to a man. By this was fignified according to Euflathius, 
that Cecrops by coming into Hellas diverted himfelf of gU 
the rudenefs, and barbarity of his ^^ country, and became 
more civilized and humane. This is too high a compli- 
ment to be payed to Greece in its infant ftate, and detrads 
greatly from the charader of the Egyptians. . The learned 
Marfham therefore animadverts with great juftlce. ^* Eft 
verifimilius ilium ex ^gypto mores magis civiles in Grjeciam 
induxifTe. It is 7nore probable^ that he i?itroduced into Greece, 
the urbanity of his own country, than that he was beholden to 
Greece for any thing from the?2ce. In refpedt to the mixed 
charadler of this perfonage, we may, I think, eaiily account 
for it. Cecrops was certainly a title of the Deity, who was 
worfhiped under this " emblem. Something of the like na- 
ture was mentioned of Triptolemus, and ^^ Eri6lhonius : 

according to the prefent copies : yet what is fiiid, certainly relates to him, as 
appears by the context, and it is fo underftood by the learned Marlham. 
SceChion. Canon. P. 108. 
. "* Euftat. on Dionyf. P. 56. Edit. Steph. 

** Toe Cac^aocv AiyuirTixaixov cc(p€ii. jctA. ibiu. 

See alfo Tzetzes upon Lycophron. V. iii. 

" Chron. Canon. P. 1C9. 

" It may not perhaps be eafy to decipher the name of Cecrops: but thus 
much is apparent, that it is compounded of Ops, and Opis, and related to his 
fymbolicftl charadter. 

f* /l^aKiVTas J'uo "jreoi rev Eoi^^qviqi: Antigonus Caryftius. c. 12. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 485 

and the like has been faid above of Hercules. The natives 
of Thebes in Bccotia, like the Athenians above, efleemed 
themfelves of the ferpent race. The Lacedaemonians like- 
wife referred themfelves to the fame original. Their city is 
faid of old to have fvvarmed with " ferpents. The fame is 
faid of the city Amyclte in Italy, which was of Spartan ori- 
ginal. They came hither in fuch abundance, that it was 
abandoned by the ^° inhabitants. Argos was infefted in 
the fame manner, till Apis came from Egypt, and fettled. 
in that city. He was a prophet, the reputed fon of Apollo, 
and a perfon of great {kill and fagacity. To him they attri- 
buted the blefiing of having their country freed from this 

' ATTig ycc^ sX^qop bk ifb^ol; NoLVTraKriaSy 
l^r ^ofjLOLVTig J TTdig AToAAcdj/oj, y^oviuL 

Thus the Argives gave the credit to this imaginary perlbn- 
age of clearing their land of this grievance : but the brood 
came from the very quarter, from whence Apis was fuppofed 
to have arrived. They were certainly Hivites from Egypt: 
and the fame ftory is told of that country. It is reprefented 
as having been of old over-run with ferpents ; and almoft 
depopulated through their numbers. Diodorus Siculus feems 
to undcrftand this ^"^ literally : but a region, which was an- 
nually overflowed, and that too for fo long a feafon, could 

" Ariftot. de Mirabilibus. Vol. 2. p. 717. 
'"Pliny. L. 3. p. .53. L. 8. p. 455. 
*' ^fchyli Supplices, P. 516. 
^-L. 3. p. 184. 


486 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

not well be liable to fuch a calamity. They were ferpents 
of another nature, v/ith which it was thus infefted : and the 
hiftory relates to the Cuthites, the original Ophita;, who for 
a long time pofiefied that country. They paffed from Egypt 
to Syria, and to the Euphrates : and mention is made of a 
particular breed of ferpents upon that river, which were 
harmlefs to the natives, but fatal to every body elfe. ^' This, 
I think, cannot be underftood literally. The wifdom of the 
ferpcnt may be great ; but not fufHcient to make thefe dif- 
tindions. Thefe ferpents were of the fame nature as the 
^"^ birds of Diomedes, and the dogs in the temple of Vulcan : 
and thefe hiftories relate to Ophite pricfls, who ufed to 
ipare their own people, and facrifice flrangers, a cuftom, 
which prevailed at one time in moft parts of the world. I 
have mentioned that the Cuthite priefts were very learned : 
and as they were Ophites, whoever had the advantage of 
their information, was faid to have been inflruifled by fer- 
pents; Kence there was a tradition, that Melampus was 
rendered prophetic from a communication with thefe ^-ani- 
mals. Something fimilar is faid of Tirefias. 

As the worfhip of the ferpent was of old fo prevalent, 
many places, as well as people from thence, received their 
names. Thofe who fettled in Campania were called Opici ; 
which fome would have changed to Ophici ; becaufe they 
were denominated from ferpents. " 0< Js {jpcKriv) on O(pi/coi 

*3 Apollonius Difcolus. c. 12. and Ariftot. de Mirabilibus. Vol. 2. p. 737. 
64 Aves Diomedis—judicant inter fuos et advenas, &c. Ifidorus Orig. L. 12. 
c 7. Pliny. L. 10. c. 44, 

*5 ApoUodorus. I^. i. p. 37. 
" Stephanus Byzant. Ottikoi. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 487 

CLTto Twi/ (i(pi(jn'. But they are in reality both names of the 
fame purport, and denote the origin of the people. We 
meet with places called Opis, Ophis, Ophita^a, Ophionia, 
Gphioeffa, Ophiodes, and Ophiufa. This laft was an an- 
eient name, by which, according to Stephanus, the iflands 
Rhodes, Cythnus, Befbicus, Tenos, and the whole continent 
of Africa, were diftino-uifhed. There were alfo cities fo 
called. Add to thefe places denominated Oboth, Obona, 
and reverfed Onobaj from Ob, which was of the fame 
purport. Clemens Alexandrinus fays that the term Eva 
fignified a ferpent, if pronounced with a proper ^^ afpi- 
rate. We find that there were places of this name. There 
was a city Eva in " Arcadia : and another in ^' Macedonia. 
There was alfo a mountain Eva, or Evan, taken notice of by 
'° Paufanias, between which and Ithome lay the city Mef- 
fene. He mentions alfo an Eva in Argolis, and fpeaks of 
it as a large town. Another name for a ferpent, of which 
I have as yet taken no notice, was Patan, or Pitan. Many 
places in different parts were denominated from this term. 
Among others was a city in ^^ Laconia ; and another in 
" Myfia, which Stephanus ftiles a city of iEolia. They were 

*7 The fame is faid by Epiphanius. 'Euia. tov o(piv TraiTei 'ES^octcov cvs/^iai^Kcr/. ■ 
Epiphanius adveif. Hsres. L. 3. torn. 2. p. 1092. 
<'^ Steph. Byzant. 
*9 Ptolemy. P. 93- E-jia. 
""^ Paufanias. L. 4. p. 355. 
■" L. 2. p. 202. 
'"■ Paufan. L. 3. p. 249. 
Z' There was a city of this name in Macedonia, and in Troas. Alfo a river. 


4^8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

undoubtedly fo named from the worfliip of the ferpent, 
Piian : and had probably Dracontia, where were figures and 
devices relative to the religion, which prevailed, Ovid men- 
tions the latter city, and has fome allufions to its ancient 
hiftory, when he defcribes Medea as flying through the air 
from Attica to Colchis. 

^•* ^oliam Pitanem la^va de parte relinquit, 
Fadlaque de faxo longi fimulacra Dracoiih. 
The city was fituated upon the river Eva or Evan, vvliich 
the Greeks rendered ^^ Evenus. It is remarkable, that the 
Opici, who are faid to have been denominated from ferpents, 
had alfo the name of Pitanatse : at leaft one part of that fa- 
mily were fo called. ^^ TiVCLq Js K(l\, UnctvctTa; KsysT^ai. 
Pitanatae is a term of the fame purport as Opici, and relates 
to the votaries of Pitan, the ferpent Deity, which was 
adored by that people. Menelaus was of old ftiled " Pita- 
tiates, as we learn from Hefychius : and the reafon of it may 
be known from his being a Spartan, by which was intimated 
one of the ferpentigena?, or Ophites. Hence he was re- 
prefented with a ferpent for a device upon his fhield. It is 
faid that a brigade, or portion of infantry, was among fome 
of the Greeks named ^^ Pitanates ; and the foldiers in con- 
fequence of it muft have been termed Pitanatas : undoubt- 

'''♦ Ovid Metamorph. L. 7. v. '^gy. 

'^Strabo. L. 13. p. 913. It is compounded of Eva-Ain, the fountain, or ri- 
ver of Eva, tiie ferpent. 
■"Strabo. L. 5. p. 383. 
'■' MiviAxov, OS nv riiTafaTJi?. Hefych.' 

^pxxct)v(7n rri ocaTTiS'i (MiveAccb) e^iy eioyaiT[j(.syc?. Paufan. L, 10. p. 86^^ 
-■"^ iUrccyoiTm, Xoxoi. Hefych. 

4 edly, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 489 

ediy, becaufe they had the Pitan, or ferpent, for their " ftand- 
ard. Analogous to this among other nations there were foU 
diers called ^° Draconarii. I believe, that in moft countries 
the military ftandard was an emblem of the Deity there wor- 

From what has been faid, I hope, that I have thrown 
fomc light upon the hiflory of this primitive idolatry : and 
have moreover {hewn, that wherever any of thefe Ophite 
colonies fettled, they left behind from their rites, and infti- 
tutes, as well as from the names, which they bequeathed to 
places, ample memorials, by which they may be clearly traced 
out. It may feem ftrange, that in the firft ages there fhould 
have been fuch an univerfal defedion from the truth ; and 
above all things fuch a propenfity to this particular mode 
of worfhip, this myfterious attachment to the ierpent. 
What is fcarce credible, it obtained among chriftians ; and 
one of the moft early herefies in the church was of this 
fort, introduced by a fed, called by ^' Epiphanius Ophite, 
by *"■ Clemens of Alexandria Ophiani. They are particu- 
larly defcribed by Tertullian, whofe account of them is well 

*" It was the inllgne of many countries. 

Text i lis Unguis 
Difcurrit per utramque aciem. Sidon. Apollinaris. Carm. 5. v. 409. 
^^ Stent bellatrices Aqiiilas, fevique Dracones. 

Claudian dc Nuptiis Honor, et Marias. V. 193: 
Ut primiim veftras Aquilas Provincla vidit, 
Defiit hoftiks confeltim horrere Dracones. 

Sidon. Apollinaris. Cjtrm. 2. V. 235.' 
" Epiphanius Hxres. 37. P. 267, 
'* Clemens. L. 7. p. 900. 

Vol. I. R r r worth 

49© The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

worth our notice. ''^ Acccfferunt his Hoeretici etiam ilH, 
cjui Ophitns nuncupantur: nam ferpentem magnificant in 
tantum, ut ilkini etiam ipfi Chrifto pra^Ferant. Ipfe enim, 
inquiunt, fcientiai nobis boni et mali originem dedit. Hu- 
jus animadvertens potentiam et majeftatem Moyi'es jcreuin 
pofuit ferpentem : et quicunque in eum afpexerunt, fanita- 
tem confecuti fiint. Ipfe, aiunt, prsterea in Evangelio imi- 
tatur ferpentis ipfius faciram poteftatem, dicendo, et ficut 
Moyfcs exaltavit ferpentem in deferto, ita exaltari oportet 
fiUum hominis. Ipfum introducunt ad benedicenda Eucha- 
riftia fua. In the above we fee plainly the perverfenefs of 
human wit, which deviates foinduftriouHy ^ and is ever after 
employed in finding expedients to countenance errour, and 
render apoftafy plaufible. It would be a noble undertaking 
and very edifying in its eonfequenccs, if fome perfon of true 
learning, and a deep infight into antiquity, would go through 
with the hiftory of the ^"^ ferpent. I have adopted it, as far 
as it relates to my fyftem, which is in fome degree illuftrated 
by it. 

*' Tertullian de Prasfcript. H^ret. 'c. 47. p. 221.. 

** Voffiiis, Selden, and many learned men have touched upon this fubjeft. 
There is a treatife of Philip Olearius de Ophiolatria. Alio DilFertatio Theolo- 
gico — Hiftorico, &c. &c. de cultu ferpentum. Autftore M. Johan. Chriltian. 
Kock. Lipfi^e. 17 1 7. 


( 49t ) 


TJbucydides. L. 6. p. 378. 

THUCYDIDES acquaints us concerning the Cy- 
clopes and Laiftrygones, that they were the moft 
ancient inhabitants of Sicily, but that he could not 
find out their race : nor did he know from what part of the 
world they originally came, nor to what country they after- 
wards betook themfelves. I may appear prefumptuous in 
pretending to determine a hiftory fo remote, and obfcure j 
and which was a fecret to this learned Grecian two thou- 
fand years ago. Yet this is my prefent purpofe : and I 
undertake it with a greater confidence, as I can plainly £[iew, 
that we have many iight:^; with which the natives of He!las 
were unacquainted ; befides many advantages, of which they 
would not avail themfelves. 

Vol. I. R r r 2 The 

492 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology." 

The gigantic Cyclopes were originally Ophitae, who wor- 
fhiped the fymbolical ferpent. They have been reprefented 
by the poets, as perfons of an enormous ' ftature, rude and 
favage in their demeanour, and differing from the reft of 
mankind in countenance. They are defcribed as having 
only one large eye ; which is faid to have been placed, con- 
trary to the ufual fituation of that organ, in the middle of 
their foreheads. Their place of refidence was upon mount 
iEtna, and in the adjacent diftricft at the foot of that * moun- 
tain, which was the original region ftiled Trinacia. This is 
the common account, as it has been tranfmitted by the Po- 
ets, as well as by the principal mythologifts of Greece : and 
in this vi^e have been taught to acquiefce. But the real hif- 
tory is not fo obvious and fuperficial. There are accounts of 
them to be obtained, that differ much from the reprefenta- 
tions, which are commonly exhibited. The Poets have given 
a mixed defcription : and in lieu of the Deity of the place 
have introduced thefe ftrange perfonages, the ideas of whofe 
fize were borrowed from facred edifices, where the Deity 
was worfhiped. They were Petra, or temples of Ccelus j of 
the fame nature and form as the tower of Orion, which was 
at no great diftance from them. Some of them had the name 
of ^ Charon, and Tarchon : and they were efteemed Pe- 
lorian, from the God Alorus, the fame as Ccelus and Py- 

* Homer. Odyff. L. lo. v. io6, 

* Hsc a principio patria Cyclopum fuit. Juflin. of the ifland Sicily. L. 4» 
C. 2. 

'Kacuno^ Lycophron. V. 659. Ciiaron was not a perfon, but Char-On, 
the temj.-le of the Sun. ' 

6 ■ thon. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 493 

thon. The Grecians confounded the people, who railed 
thefe buildings, with the ftru6lures themfelves. Strabo 
places them near * iEtna, and Leontina : and fuppofcs, that 
they once ruled over that part of the ifland. And it is 
certain that a people ftiled Cyclopians did poffefs that 
^ province. Polyphemus is imagined to have been the 
chief of this people : and Euripides defcribes the place 
of his refidcnce as towards the foot of the mountain : 
OiKSi; VTT Amy) ty\ Trv^og-azTifUsT^ci. They are reprefented 
as a people favage, and lawlefs, and delighting in human 
flefh. Hence it is prophefied by Caflandra, as a curfe upon 
Ulyfies, that he would one day be forced to feek for refuge 
in a Cyclopian ^ manfion. And when he arrives under the 
roof of Polyphemus, and makes inquiry about his hoft, and 
particularly upon what he fed ; he is told, that the Cyclops 
above all things efteemed the flefh of ftrangers. * Chance 
never throws any body upon this coaft, fays Silenus, but he 
is made a meal of; and it is looked upon as a delicious re- 
paft. This character of the Cyclopians arofe from the cruel 
cuftom of facrificing ftrangers, whom fortune brought upon 
their coaft. This was pradiifed in many parts of the world, 
but efpecially here, and upon the coaft of the Lamii in 

* Tuv Trepi TW Ani'nv text AeovTivijv KuKA&jTras (S'vvx'^vaact)' Scrabo. L. i. 
p. 3S. 

' The province of Leontina called Xuthia. Diodorus. L. 5. p. 291. 

* Cyclops V. 297. 

' Lycophron. V. 659. 
? TXvKVTocTa (paat rx ■x.^ia. tss f eras (pe^eiv. 
OvSsii fJioPiuv S'ivp\6ii'tiiixccrsafxyt). Euripid. Cyclops. V. 126. 

Italy ; 

494 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Italy ; and among all the Scythic nations upon the Euxine 
fea : into all which regions it was introduced from Egypt 
and Canaan. 

But we muft not confider the Cyclopians in this partial 
light : nor look for them only in the ifland of Sicily, to which 
they have been by the Poets confined. Memorials of them 
are to be found in many parts of Greece, where they were 
recorded as far fuperior to the natives in fcience and inge- 
nuity. The Grecians by not diftinguifhing between the 
Deity, and the people, who were called by his titles, have 
brought great confufion upon this hiftory. The Cyclopians 
were denominated from l^vji7\o^/j Cyclops, the fame as Coe- 
lus. According to Parmeno Byzantinus he was the God 
' Nilu3 of Egypt, who was the fame as *° Zeus, and Oiiris,. 
The hiflory both of the Deity, and of the people, became 
in time obfolete : and it has been rendered more obfcure by 
the mixed manner, in which it has been reprefented by the. 

It is generally agreed by writers upon the fubjeci, that 
the Cyclopians were of a fize fuperior to the common race 
of mankind. Among the many tribes of the Amonians, 
which went abroad, were to be found people, who were 

' The river Nilus was called Triton, and afterwards Nilus. M£T&)co//ao-6>i cTg: 
a-TsNiiAsxa Ku/cAwttos. Scholia in Apollori. L. 4. v. 268. 

Nilus Deorum maximus. Huetii Demons. Evang. Prop. 4. P. in.. 

^° AiyjTTTis 'Ziu, Ns/As. Athenosus. L. 5. p. 203. 

Vulcanus — Nilo natus, Opas, ut iEgyptii appellant. Cicero de Natiira Deor, . 
L. 3. c. 22. Hence NuAos KvkAoo^ muft have been the chief Deity ; and the 
Cyclopians his votaries and priefts. 

tieiAoio'oi Kp:)i'ijce,. Pindar. Pyth. Ode 4. p. 239. He was no other than 
Ouranus, and Coelus.* 

I ftiled 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology; 495 

filled " Anakim, and were defcended from thefons of Anac : 
fo that this hiftory, though carried to a great excefs, was 
probably founded in truth. They were particuldrly famous 
for architedlure ; which they introduced into Greece, as we 
are told by " Herodotus : and in all parts, whither they 
came, they erected noble ftrud:ures, which were remark- 
able for their height and beauty : and were often dedicated 
to the chief Deity, the Sun, under the name of tlorus, and 
P'elorus. People were fo ftruck with their grandeur, that 
they called every thing great and ftupendous, Pclorian. 
And when they defcribed the Cyclopians as a lofty towering 
race, they came at laft to borrow their ideas of this people 
from the towers, to which they alluded. They fuppofed 
them in height to reach to the clouds ; and in bulk to equal 
the promontories, on which they were founded. Homer 
fays of Polyphemus, 

Av^^i ys (Tiro^oLycp, aXha ^m vXyisvti. 
Virgil fays of the fame perfon, 

'* Ipfe arduus, altaque pulfat fidera.. 
As thefe buildings were oftentimes light-houfes, and had in 
their upper flory one round cafement, Argolici clypei, aut 

" Arsf"^!'? "•'=' Ara-zCTo,-, who was buried in the ifland Lade near Miletus, is 
mentioned as a gigantic perfonage by Paufanias. L. i. p. 87. Large bones have 
been found in Sicily ; which were probably the bones of elephants, but have 
been efteemed the bones of the Cyclopians by Kircher and Fazellus. Fazellus. 
Dec. 1. L. I. c. 6. 

" Herodotus. L. 5. c, 61. He alludes to them under the name of Cad- 

" OdyfT. 10. V. 190. 

'4- .^neid. L. 3. v. 6ig, 


496 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Phoebcre lampadis inftar, by which they afforded light in 

the nicrht-feafon : the Greeks made this a charafteriftic of 
t> ' 

the people. They fuppofed this aperture to have been an 
eye, which was fiery, and glaring, and placed in the middle 
of their foreheads. Hence Callimachus defcribes them as a 
monflrous race : 

'^ mvoL risAw^a, 

Oasa ^iivoy7\Y\voL cromsi ktol tbt^ol^qbiw. 
The Grecians have fo confounded the Cyclopian Deity 
with his votaries, that it is difficult to fpeak precifely of 
either. They fometimes mention him as a fingle perfon ; 
the fame as Nilus of Egypt, who was efteemed the father of 
the Gods. At other times they introduce a plurality, whom 
they ftill reprefent as of the higheft antiquity, and make 
the brethren of Cronus : '^ }LvKX(/)7ts; — oi OL^Xtpoi nrcLV ra 
K^oj/a, T8 TTxiT^og T8 Aiog. Proclus in Photius informs us, 
that, according to the ancient mythology of the Au6tores 
Cyclici, the giants with an hundred hands, and the Cyclopes 
were the firfl: born of the '^ Earth and Coelus. But in 
thefe hiftories every degree of relation has been founded upon 
die furmifes ; and is uniformly to be fet afide. The Cyclo- 

'5 Hymn in Dian. V. 51. 

Mai'05 /*' o^O«A//oo« fjiea-TCf) eTrsx-SiTo jxirMircp. Hefiod. Theogon, V. 143. 
Clemens AJexandrinus tells us, that Homer's account of Polyphemus is bor- 
rowed from the charafter of Saturnus in the Orphic poetry. Strom. L. 6. p. 751. 
•* Scholia in ^fchyl. Prometh. P. ^6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 497 

pian Deity was '* Ouranus, and the Cyclopians were his 
priefts and votaries : fome ot whom had divine honours paid 
to them, and were efteemed as Gods. Upon the Ifthmus 
of Corinth was an ancient temple ; which feems to have 
been little more than a roLtpo; or high altar, where offerings 
were made to the Cyclopian '' Deities. People of this fa- 
mily fettled upon the fouthern coaft of Sicily at Camarina ; 
which fome have fuppofed to have been the Hupereia of 
Homer, where the Pheacians once refided. 


But there is no reafon to think, that the city Hupereia was 
in Sicily ; or that the Pheacians came from that country. 
The notion arofe from a common miftake. All the Greek, 
and Roman, Poets, and even Strabo with other refpedable 
writers, have taken it for granted, that the Cyclopians of were near ^tna in Sicily. Others except to their 
being near JEtna ; and infift, that they were in the vicinity of 
Erix upon the oppofite part of the ifland. But Homer 
does not once mention the ifland during his whole ac- 
count of the Cyclopes : nor does Ulylles arrive in Sicily 
till after many fubfequent adventures. That there were 

^^ E^ yii aurcu {Qv^xvct)) rpsii ttxiScx. f q ivct:(x-x.iiaiv hccLTovTcx.ysirciii xxi rpsii he~ 
f8~ a-rori-A.-Tnai Kt/xAwTraj. Proekis in Photio. C. ccxxxix. p. g82. 
Euripides makes them the fons of Oceanus. 
iv 01 fx-oi'MTTii TTOvria iraiSiiQi'd 

Kt;3f AiWTTgs oiycBo- ccvrp gp),v., av^^oxTovoi. Cyclops. V. 2 r. 
i9Kc:<cf)7 hoovf-ivct^^cciii', KuxKoTTCcv Ka.?^iifj.ivoi Cco/j.oi, xat ^vdaiv nr olutu, 
Y.uxAec-\i. Paufanias. L. 2. p. 114.- 

*° Odyff. Z. V. 5. TTTf^fiai', g< ^jy rnv ev XixsAitx. Katpucpmiv. Schol. ibid. 

Vol. L S f f CyclopiaQs 

4'<)8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Cyclopians near TEtna is certain : but thofe mentioned by- 
Homer were of another country, and are reprefented as na- 
tives of the continent though his account is very indetermi- 
nate and obfcure. There were probably people of this family 
in many parts of Sicily, efpecially about the city Camarina. 
They feem to have been of the Anakim race, and worfhip- 
ers of the Sun. Hence they were ftiled Camarin, and their 
chief city Camarina, which was fo called from a city of the 
fame name in ^' Chaldea, the Ur of the Scriptures. Poly- 
phemus is mentioned as a muiician and a fhepherd ; but 
of a favage and brutal difpoiition : which character arofe 
from the cruel rites pradifed by the Cyclopians. Accord- 
ing to ** Bacchylides it was faid, that Galatus, Illyrius, 
and Celtus were the fons of Polyphemus. By this was cer- 
tainly fignified, that the Galats, lllyrii, and Celts, were 
of Cyclopian original, and of the Anakim race; all equally 
Amonians. Lycophron mentions the cave of this perfon- 
age, by which was meant an ancient temple ; and he calls it 
""^ fMovoyKriVa 5'sya? Xct^oovog : the habitation of Charo?i^ afer- 
fonage with one eye. But here, as I have often obferved, the place 
is miftaken for a perfon ; the temple for the Deity. Charon 
was the very place; the ancient temple ot the Sun. It was 

*'£i'7r3A5i T/jc Ea/2i;A&ji';a5 Kor;/a/3;v>i, w rivui Asyeiu ttoAh' OvpioLV. Alexar.d. 
Polyhift. apud Eufeb. Prsp. Evan. L. 9. p. 418. ' 

** Natalis Comes. L. 9. p. 510. By the Celcse are meant thofe of Iberia : i^.- 
yovot TiTi)iii of Callimachus. 

=^3 Lycoph. V. 659. Appian mentions a nation of Cyclopians in Illyria, who 
were near the Pheacians. 


The Analysis of Ancient MvTiroLOGy. 400 

therefore filled Char-On from the God, who was there wor- 
fliiped ; and after the Egyptian cuftom an eye was engraved 
over its portal. Thefe temples were fometimes called Charis, 
"^Xa^ig; wliich is a compound of Char-Is, and hgnihes a 
prutaneion, or place facred to Hephaftus. As the rites of 
iire were once almoft univerfally pradifed, there were many 
places of this name, efpecially in '' Parthia, Babylonia, and 
Phrygia. The Grecians rendered Char-Is by Xot^ig, a term 
in their own language, which fignified grace and elegance. 
And nothing witnefles their attachment to ancient terms 
more than their continually introducing them, though they 
were ftrangers to their true meaning. The Arimafpians 
were Hyperborean Cyclopians ; and had temples named 
Charis, or Charifia, in the top of which were preferved a 
perpetual fire. They were of the fame family as thofe of 
*5 Sicily, and had the fame rites; and particularly worfhiped the 
Ophite Deity under the name of ** Opis. Arifteas Procon- 
nefius wrote their hiftory ; and among other thinos men- 
tioned that they had but one eye, which was placed in their 
graceful forehead. 

*3 The liba made in fuch temples were from it named Charifia. XxPicrioi't 
tii'oi TrAaxBi'Twr. Hefych. 

*♦ In Parthia, KoMwxj;, Xapn. Appian. Syriac. P. 125. 

^pvyicci TToAis Ka^is. Steph. Byzant. 

Charifias in Arcadia. Ibid. The idand Cos, called of old Caris. Ibid. 

*' Herodotus. L. 4. c. 13, A/j/fixaTr-.t;? «i'/'ca5jM.a(o(p9aA;W3?. 

Strabo. L. i. p. 40. Tcx^x Se r.cci tks f/.cvo^ufxccTbi K'jxPvojTrcci f.x. rm X^'Akth 

'* OuTTtirei Aofw re, xxi iuxim 'Exxeo-) «. Callimacli. H, in Delon. V. 292. 

^co The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

How could the front of a Cycloplan, one of the mofl: hide- 
ous monfters that ever poetic fancy framed, be ftiled grace- 
ful ? The whole is a miflake of terms : and what this 
writer had mifapplied, related to Charis, a tower ; and the 
eye was the cafement in tKe top of the edifice, where a light, 
and fire were kept up. What confirmed the miftake was 
the reprefentation of an eye, which, as I have mentioned, 
was often engraved over the entrance of thefe temples. The 
chief Deity of Egypt vvas frequently reprefented under the 
fymbol of an eye, ^* and a fcepter. I have obferved, that 
Orion was fuppofed to have had three fathers, merely be- 
caufe a tower, facred to him in Sicily, and called Tor-Pator, 
was altered to T^iTTCtTW^ ; which change feemed to counte- 
nance fuch an opinion. The Cyclopians were of the fame 
region in that ifiand ; and their towers had undoubtedly 
the fame name : for the Cyclopians were fliled *' T^iTOTars^s?, 
and were fuppofed to have been three in number. Some 
fuch miftake was made about the towers ftiled Charis : 
whence the Grecians formed their notion ot the Graces. 
As Charis vvas a tower facred to fire j fome of the Poets 
have fuppofed a nymph of that name, who was beloved by 

*' Cafaubon. not. In Scrabon. L. i. p. 40. 

iMsiwTra (^^arov A^i/xxairoy. iElchyl. Prineth. P. 49. 

** Tor ya.0 CacriAex xcci xvpioy Oaioiv o<^ba.X[xoj jca< o"3C/)TT^ ypa(p8aiy. Plu- 
tarch. Ifis et Ofiris. P. 354. 

»9 Lycophron. V. 328. See Suidas. 

itXo^oooi T^troTraTOPcci TravTui' yeyovivat tt^cotus. Etymolog. Mag. See 
Meurfii not. in Lycophron. V. 328. 'Penan T^tirxT^'d ( KccvJ'aoyoi. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. roi 

Vulcan. Homer fpeaks of her as his wife : 3° Xa^ig 

KaA)^, r> u)7rvis irs^aXviog A^Jipyvrizig. But Nonnus makes 
her his miftrefs; and fays, that he turned her out of doors 
for her jealoufy. 

^' E;i h ^o^'j^v s^ioczs Xa^iv ^ri7^Y;[j.oyc(, vvmnv. 
The Graces were faid to be related to the Sun, who was in 
reality the fame as Vulcan. The Sun among the people of 
the eaft was called Hares, and with a guttural Chares : and 
his temple was ftiled Tor-Chares. But as Tor-Pator was 
changed to Tripator ; fo Tor-Chares was rendered Tri- 
chares, which the Greeks expreffed T^iy^a^ig ; and from 
thence formed a notion of three Graces. Cicero fays that 
they were the daughters of night, and Erebus : but Antima- 
chus, more agreeably to this etymology, maintained, that 
they were the offspring of the Sun and light ; ^* AiyX-fig /.ca 
*HAi8 ^vycaz^cig. Thefe feeming contradictions are not diffi- 
cult to be reconciled. 

The Amonians, wherever they fettled, were celebrated 

'° Iliad, 'x. V. 382. and H. V. 275. See Paufan. L. 9. p. 781. 

'' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 29. p. 760. 

The Graces and the Furies (Charites et Furi^) were equally denominated 
from the Sun, and fire ; and in conlequence of it had join: worfhip in Arcadia. 
Paufan. L. 8. p 669. Charis, Xai>i=, of the Greeks was the fame perfonage as 
Ceres of rhe Romans. She was alfo called Damcter, and efteemed one of the 
Furies. Paufan. L. 8. p. 649. 

3* Paufanias. L, 9. p. 781. So Coronis is faid to have been the daughter of 
Phlegyas. Paufan. L. 2. p. 170: and Cronus th^ Ton of Apollo, L. 2 p. 123. 
Chiron the fon of Saturn; Charon the fon of Erebus and night. The hero 
Charifius, the fon of Lycaon, which Lycaon was no other than Apollo, the 
God of light. Thefe were all places, but dcfcribed as perfonages 5 and made 
the children of tlie Deity, to whom they were facred. 


502 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

for their fuperiority in fcience; and particularly for their 
ilcill in building. Of this family were Trophonius, and his 
brother Agamedes, who are reprefented as very great in the 
profeflion. They were truly wonderlul, fays ^^ Paufanias, 
for the temples, which they eredled to the Gods; and for the 
irately edifices, which they built for men. They were the 
architeds, who contrived the temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
and the treafury conftrudled to Urius. They were, I make 
no doubt, fome of thofe, who were filled Cyclopians ; as the 
people under this appellation were far the mofl eminent in 
this way. When the Sibyl in Virgil fhews i5)neas the place 
of torment in the fhades below, and leads him through many 
melancholy recedes, we find that the whole was feparated 
from the regions of blifs by a wall built by the Cyclopians. 
The Sibyl accordingly at their exit tells him, 

^* Cyclopum eduda caminis 
Maenia confpicio. 
From hence we find that they were the reputed builders 
of the infernal manfions ; which notion arofe from the real 
buildings, which they eredted. For all the ideas of the an- 
cients about the infernal regions, and the torments of hell, 
were taken from the temples in each country ; and from the 
rites, and inquifition, pradifed in them. But the Cyclo- 
pians were not merely imaginary operators. They founded 
feveral cities in Greece ; and conftrudcd many temples to 

SS Aeif'Bs ©6015 Tg I'fpa xaTao"X£U3C(7acrG«/, xcci (iccT ihiioc ccv^^mttoh' xai yap 
Tu AttoAAwj'i tov Naor uKQlofji.nca.yTo Tot' ev AeA?- o;5, xcci Tptei tqv QncroLvoov, 
Paufan. L. 9. p. 785. 

Turres, ut Ariiloteles, Cyclopes (invcnerunt). Pliny. L. 7. c, 56. 

«♦ Virgil, ^n. L. 6. v. 630. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 503 

the Gods, which were of old in high repute. They were 
fo much efteemcd for their fkill, that, as the SchoHaft upon 
Statius obferves, every thing great and noble was looked 
upon as Cyclopian : ^^ quicquid magnitudine fua nobile eft, 
Cyclopum manu dicitur fabricatum. Nor was this a fidlion, 
as may be furmifed ; for they were in great meafure the 
real architedls. And if in the room of thofe portentous be- 
ings the Cyclopes, Ky;iAw7rs?, we fubflitute a colony of peo- 
ple called Cyclopians, we fhall find the whole to be true, 
which is attributed to them ; and a new field of hiftory 
will be opened, that was before unknown. They were un- 
doubtedly a part of the people fliled Academians, who re- 
fided in A,ttica ; where they founded the Academia, and 
Ceramicus, and introduced human facrifices. Hence we 
are informed, that the Athenians in the time of a plague 
facrificed three virgin daughters of Hyacinthus at the tomb 
Ger^eftus, the ''^Cyclops. But Gerseftus was not a perfon, but a 
place. FsfiCtig'O'; is a fmall variation for Ker-Aftus ; and 
fignifies the temple of Aftus the God of fire. It was cer- 
tainly the ancient name of the place, where thefe facrifices 
were exhibited : and the Taphos was a Cyclopian altar, 
upon which they were performed. The Cyclopians are 
faid to have built the ancient city Mycene, which Hercules 
in Seneca threatens to ruin. 

— ^^ quid moror ? majus mihi 

35 Lutatius Placidus in Statii Theba'id. L, i. p. 26. 

^' Tecs 'TccKiyba y.opai-—i7ri roi' Fe/jx/^a xa KuxAwros rcc(poy ycxTea-fpoc^av ^ 
Apojlodorus. L. 3. p. 205. 

■-' Hrrcules furens. Ad. 4. V. ^^6. 


504 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Bellum Mycenis reftat, ut Cyclopea 
Everfa manibus msnia noliris concidant. 
Nonnus fpeaks of the city in the fame Hght : 

The gate of the city, and the chief tower were particularly 
afcribed to them : '^ KukKootto^v h koli roLvroL s^ycL bivoli ?£- 
ynd'iv. 7l)eje too are reprefented as the work of the Cjclopians. 
They likewife built Argos; which is mentioned by Thyefles 
in Seneca as a wonderful performance. 
''* Cyclopum facras 
Turres, labore majus humano decus. 
All thefe poetical hiflorics were founded in original truths. 
Some of them built Hermione, one of the moft ancient ci- 
ties in Greece. The tradition was, that it was built by 
''^ Hermion the fon of Europs, or Europis, a defcendant of 
Phoroneus, and Niobe ; and was inhabited by Dorians, 
who came from Argos : in which hiflory is more than at 
firft appears. The city flood near a ftagnant lake, and a 
deep cavern ; where was fuppofed to be the moft compen- 
dious paffage to the (hades below : ''- Tr,v B\g aJa zciTa,^a.(nv 
(Tvyro^Qy. The lake was called the pool of Acheruda ; near 

'' Nonni Dionyfiaca. L. 41. p. io6S\ 

Euripides ftiles the walls of Argos Uvfana: 

'Ircc Tii^ia. Acciiocj¥.ux?i.u7rii , ovpxi'ix I'ifj.oi'Toii. Troades. V. 10S7. 

"Paufanias. L. 2. p. 146. 

^° Seneca Thyefies. Aft. 2. V. 406. - 

TTcAswi 'Epy-ioviiiyeriaQai (faav E^fj.iorct YLvcooiroi. P'aufan. L. 2. p. 191. 

-♦•■ Strabo. L. 8. p. 573, It was inhabited by people particularly ftiied'AAif^?, 
or men of the Tea ; who were brought thither by Druops Areas. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mytmologv. 505 

to which and the yawning cavern the Cyclopians chofe to 
take up their habitation. They are faid to have built ^' Ti- 
ryns ; the walls of which were efteemed no lefs a wonder 
than the ** pyramids of Egypt. They muft have refided at 
Nauplia in Argolis ; a place in fituation not unlike Hermi- 
one above mentioned. Near this city were caverns in the 
earth, and fubterraneous paflages, confifting of *' labyrinths 
cut in the rock, like the fyringes in Upper Egypt, and the 
maze at the lake M-aeris ; and thefe too were reputed the 
work of Cyclopians. Paufanias thinks very truly, that the 
Nauplians were from Egypt. ** H^ccv Js 01 NoLVTrXisig, SfJLot 
^OKBiH^ AiyuTrrioi tol TCoiKoLioTe^oi. The Nauplians feem to ms 
to have been a colofiy fro7n Egypt in the more early times. 
He fuppofes that they were fome of thofe emigrants, who 
came over with Danaiis. The nature of the works, which 
the Cyclopians executed, and the lake, which they named 
Acherulia, fhew plainly the part of the world, from whence 
they came. The next city to Nauplia was Tr<Ezen, where 
Orus was faid to have once reigned, from whom the coun- 
try was called Oraia : but Paufanias very juftly thinks, that 
it was an Egyptian hiftory ; and that the region was deno- 
minated from *^ Orus of Egypt, whofe worfhip undoubt- 

*' Paufan. L. 2. p. 147. Y>.vxX'xiix-oiv \Jiiv i^tv loyov. P. 169. 

See Strabo. L. 8. p. 572. '^H'Xj'^oli S'kx. Kvy.?^co7roop, 

*"* To. Tit^^^'i Ta er Tiovvbi—o'jS's ovtcc eAaTToros QavfJLXTOi {toou rivPXfJuJ^iai'). 
Paufanias. L. 9. p. 783. 

^' Ecpi^vs ^s T>i Nat>7rA/a, xa er7r«Aaia, 01 sv auTon oixoS^o/^yiTor^txSupn^oi. 
Kvx.7\(/i-iriia. ^'' orowa^aa/;'- Strabo. L. 8. p. ^S"/. 

•♦'' Paufanias. L. 4. p. 367. 

^'' EfJiot (x.iv ovv Atyvimov (pxivSTXi, Kxi ov^xfJ.005 EAAjjhjc^v ovofAX riooi iivm. 
xtA. Paufan. L. 2, p. 181. 

Vol. I. T 1 1 edly 

5o6 Th,r Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

edly had been here introduced. So that every circumftance 
witneffes the country, from whence the Cyclopians came. 
Hence when '^^ Euripides fpeaks of the walls of ancient 
Mycene, as built by the Cyclopians after the Phenician rule 
and method : the Phenicians alluded to were the ^oiviKBg 
of Egypt, to which country they are primarily to be referred. 
Thofe who built Tiryns are reprefented as feven in number ; 
and the whole is deferibed by Strabo in the following man- 
ner. '^' Tl^W^i O^IJLriT/j^lW Y£-fi(jOL(T()cii ^QKSl H^OtTO^, KOLl TSl'^l'-- 

'X^^^cig, T^S(pofJisvovg az TYig rsyvrig. PrcBtus feems to have been 
the jirfi^ who made ufe of Tiryns, aS' a7i harbour \ which place' 
he walled round by the ajf} fiance of the Cyclopians. They zvere 
feven i?i number, filed Gafrocheirs ; and lived by their la- 
hour* Hefychius in fome degree reverfes this ftrange name, 
and fays, that they were called Eyp^^s/^oyafs^s^. The Gre- 
cians continually miftook places for perfons, as I have fhewn. 
Thefe feven Cyclopes were, I make no doubt, feven Cyclo- 
pian towers built by the people, of whom I have been treat- 
ing. Some of them flood towards the harbour to afford 
light to fhips, when they approached in the night. They^ 
were facred to After, or ^°Afl:arte; and ftiled Aftro-caer, and; 


•♦' KuxA&JTTWF faogo.- 

Eurip. Plerc. Furens. V. 944." 
■" Strabo. L. 8. p. 572. 

'"Many places were denominated from After; fiich as Afteria, Afterion,' 
Afteris, Aftrsa, Aftarte. See Steph. Byzantinus. Acre^icp, xoA/s QeT-raXix:-— 
ii ivy riipt-ff/a. Idem. A<rf^'W) n ^iihoc, xcci h Kp;j7)i, exaAjixo. Hefychius. /N>;= 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 507 

Caer-After; out of which the Greeks formed Fag'^o^s;^, 
and 'Ey^si^oyocg-ri^ ; a ftrange medley made up of hands, 
and belHes. Strabo in particular having converted thefe 
buildings into fo many mafons, adds, ^' Faj'S^o^s/^a?, t^s- 
(poi^svag SK Ti^g reyniYig, Tloey were hojieft bellyhanded mcfi^ 
indujlrious people^ who got their livelihood by their a?~t. Thefe 
towers were eredled likewife for Purait, or Puratheia, where 
the rites of fire were, performed : but Purait, or Puraitus, 
the Greeks changed to Il^onog ; and gave out that the 
towers were built for ^^ Prcetus, whom they made a king of 
that country. 

I imagine, that not only the common idea of the Cyclo- 
pians was taken from towers and edifices ; but that the term 
Ky;«AwY, and Ky;£Aw7r<?, Cuclops, and Cuclopis, fignified 
a building or temple ; and, from thence the people had their 
name. They were of the fame family as the Cadmians, 
and Phoenices ; and as the Hivites, or Ophites who came 
from Egypt, and fettled near Libanus and Baal Hermon, 

A'.5 A<rfoir,. Callimach. H. in Delon. V. ^j. and 40. Afteria fignifies the 
ifland of After. 

*'L. 8. p. 572. 

5* Paufanias mentions the apartments of the daughters of Prcettis. L. 2. 
p. 169. But the daughters of Proetus were properly the virgins who officiated 
at the Purait, the young prieftefles of the Deity. 

The Sicilian Cyclopes were three, becaufe there were three towers only, 
erefted upon the iflands called Cyclopum Scopuli -, and that they were light- 
houfes is apparent from the name which ftill remains : for they are at this day 
ftiled Faraglioni, according to Fazellus, The Cyclopes of Tiryns were feven, 
as we learn from Strabo ; becaufe the towers probably were in number fo many. 
From this circumftance we may prefume, that the ideas of the ancients con- 
cerning the Cyclopians were taken from the buildings, which they ere(5ted. 

T 1 1 2 "poa 

5o8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


upon the confines of Canaan. They worfliiped the Sun uiv 
der the fymbol of a ferpent : hence they were ftiled in dif- 
ferent parts, where they in time fettled, Europians, Oropi- 
ans, Anopians, Inopians, Afopians, Elopians ; all which 
names relate to the worfhip of the Pytho Ops, or Opis. 
What may be the precife etymology of the term Ky;i;Aot;\J/, 
Cuclops, I cannot prefume to determine. Cuclops, as 
a perfonage, was faid to have been the fon of ^' Oura- 
nus and the earth : which Ouranus among the Amo- 
nians was often ftiled Ccel, or Ccelus ; and was worfliiped 
under the forementioned emblem of a ferpent. Hence the 
temple of the Deity may have been originally called Cu- 
Coel-Ops, Domus Cceli Pythonis ; and the priefts and peo- 
ple Cucelopians. But whatever may have been the pur- 
port of the name, the hiftory of thefe perfonages is fuffici- 
ently determinate. 

There was a place in Thrace called ^"^ Cuclops, where fome 
of the Cyclopian race had fettled : for many of the Amonians 
came hither. Hence Thrace feems at one time to have 
been the feat of fcience : and the Athenians acknow- 
ledged, that they borrowed largely fropi them. The 
natives were very famous; particularly the Pierians for 

" The Cyclopian buildings were alfo called Ouranian.. Kvx.>iM7reia, t' s^a- 
vicc Tfi^ect. Euripid, Eledtra. V. 1158. 

^* Both Cuclops, and Cuclopes, was the name of a place. We may there- 
fore, I think, be pretty well afilired, that the Cyclopians were from hence de- 
nominated. And as facred places had their names from the Deity, to- whom 
they were dedicated, it is very probable, that the Cuclopian towers were named 
from Ccelus Ops, the Deity there worshiped : for I have fliewn, that this peo- 
ple were the reputed children of Ouranus, and Ccelus. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 509 

their mufick, the Peoniaiis for pharmacy, and the Edoni- 
ans for their rites and worOiip. Thofe, who went under 
the name of Cyclopes, probably introduced architedure ; 
for which art they feem to have been every where noted. 
There was a fountain in thefe parts, of which Ariftotle takes 
notice, as of a wonderful nature. ^^Ei/ (5^£ Ky;eAw^iTot^0^a?< 

mi roig oL'h'Koig oixoior otolv <Js mn ri ^mv sf ayra, ^a^^a- 
p^Jljita ^lOL^pki^srai. In the region of the Cyclopians of Thrace h 
a fountain, clear to the eye, and pure, and in no wife differing 
from common water : of which however if an a?mnal drinh, 
it is immediately poifoned. There is another account given 
by Theopompus ; who fpeaks of the people by the name 
of the Chropes, which is a contradion for Charopes. 
He fays, that even going into the water was fatal. '' 0£O» 
TtoiiTtog ko^si K^mv SJ' X^w-^i n; ®^o,m, s? k rag Aa^a^g- 
v^q 7ra^ciX§^[^°^ [J^STOi.KhoL<r(rsiv, Theopompus mentions a foun- 
tain among the Charopes of Jhrace, in which if a perfon at- 
tempts to bathe, he i?mnediately lofes his life. I have taken 
notice of this hiftory, becaufe we find, that the perfons, who 
are called '' Cuclopes by one writer, are ftiled Char-opes by 
another, and very juftly : for the terms are nearly of the 
fame purport. The Charopes were denominated from a 
temple, and place called Char- Ops, or Char-Opis, locus 

" Ariftoteles de mirabil. auiciilr. P- 73■2• 
'Mn excerptis apud Sotionem. See not. Meurfii in Antigonum Caryftium. 

P J 8? 
''^ Of the Cyclopians of Thrace fee Scholia in Euripid. Oreft. V. <^^6. Ki/- 

xA«7re.,egaKM5. e6m. Alfo Scholia in Statia Theb. L. 2. p. 104. ^ 

510 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Dei Pythonis : and the Cyclopes were, as I have before fup- 
pofed, denominated from Cu-Ccel-Ops, or Cu-Coel-Opis, 
the temple of the fame Deity. They were both equally 
named from the Ophite God, the great objeft of their ado- 
ration, and from the temple, where he was worfhiped. 

The head of Medufa in Argolis is faid to have been the 
work of the ^^ Cyclopians. This feems to have been an 
ancient hieroglyphical reprefentation upon the temple of 
Caphifus. It was ufual with the Egyptians and other Amo* 
nians to defcribe upon the Architrave of their temples fome 
emblem of the Deity, who there pre{ided. This reprefen- 
tation was often an eagle, or vulture ; a wolf, or a lion ; alfo 
an heart, or an eye. The laft, as I have fhewn, was com- 
mon to the temples of ^' Ofiris, and was intended to lignify 
the fuperintendency of Providence, from whom nothing was 
hid. Among others the ferpent was efleemed a moft falu- 
tary emblem: and they made ufe of it to fignify fuperiour 
fidll, and knovv^ledge. A beautiful female countenance fur- 
rounded with an affemblage of ferpents was made to denote 
divine wifdom, which they ftiled Meed, and Meet, the MrjTig 
of the Greeks. Under this charadleriftic they reprefented 
an heavenly perfonage, and joined her with Eros, or divine 
Love : and by thefe two they fuppofed that the prefent 
mundane fyftem was produced. Orpheus fpeaks of this 
Deity in the mafculine gender : 

'' Uccocc Se TO upov T8 Kntf ((Tira Ms/'airJis Ai6a rsjeTromfJiiv^ y.KpxPvr. KukXcjottuv 
(fcccriv sii'cx.1 y.a.1 TBTo i^yov. Paufan. L. 2. p. 156. K);(p(o-o-s;, Dorice Kayfaffos, vel 
Katpio-G? : from Caph-Ifis, Petra Deas Ifidis. 

*' tii?aovj 05 TTAVT ffo^sc xoii ToivT uTTXKnei. Homcr. OdyfT. L. A. v, 108. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 511 

"^ Kot; MioTi^, TT^mog ysi/srw^, koli E^oog 7roKvrs^7rY\g. 
On this account many ancient temples were ornamented 
with this curious hieroglyphic : and among others the tem- 
ple of Caphifus ^' in Argolis. Caphifus is a compound of 
Caph-Ifis, which fignifies Petra liidis, and relates to the 
fame Deity as Metis. For we muft not regard fexcs, nor 
difference of appellations, when we treat of ancient deities. 

' IloLiiTO(pvr\gj ysiJSTOt)^ TrayTooVy iroTwrnv^s Aa/|aoy. 
I have taken notice that the Cyclopians of Thrace were 
ftiled Charopes ; which name they muft have received from 
their rites, and place of worfhip. Char-Opis fignifies the 
temple of the Python, or ferpent ; and we find that it was 
fituated near a poifonous pool. It was facred to the Sun : 
and there were many temples of this name in ** Egypt, and 
other countries. The Sun was called Arez; and the lion, 
which was an emblem of the Sun, had the fame denomina- 

" Orphic Fragment. 6, V. ig, the fame as Phanes, and Dionufus. Fraiy. 8. 
V. 2. Schol. ibid. 

" Hence the ftream and lake of Cephifiis in Bceotia were filled J/ ar a yta.i 
A;,u.i>7 KyKpiddiSoi : by the ancient Dorians exprelTed Kaipwcr/cTo;, from Kccq^-lais. 

** Orphic Hymn. 31. V. 10. 

*' Hymn. 10. V. 10. Metis was the fame as Pan. 

Meed-Ous, whence came Msiovaa., is exaftly analogous to Cotinoiifa, Ai- 
thoufa, Alphioiifa, Ampcloufa, Pithecoufa, Scotoufa, Arginoufa, Lampadoufa, 
Amathoufa, Ophioufa, Afteroufa ; and fignifies the temple of Metis, or divine 
wifdom. After-Ous was a temple on Mount Caucafiir: Amath-Ous, the fame 
in Cyprus : Ampel-Ous, a temple in Mauritania : Alphi-Ous, in Elis : Achor- 
Ous, in Egypt : all dedicated to the Deity under different titles. 

'"* 'X.aaf/.xai Xiovreion roc rojv leouf QuoocfAXTct, KocriJLHa-iy (0; AiyvTnioi.) Plu- 
tarch. Ifis etOfiris. P. -^66. 

4 tion : . 

312 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOGv; 

tion : and there is reafon to think, that the device upon 
Charopian temples was fometimes a lion. Homer undoubt- 
edly had feen the fierce figure of this animal upon fome fa- 
cred portal in Egypt ; to which he often alludes, when he 
Ipeaks of a Charopian lion. 

^^ A^KToiTj ay^Ts^oi rs Sys;, ^a^OTTot re Asovrsg. 
The devices upon temples were often efteemed as talifmans, 
and fuppofed to have an hidden, and falutary influence, by 
^vhich the building was preferved. In the temple of Mi- 
nerva at Tegea was fome fculpture of Medufa, which the 
Goddefs was faid to have given, olpolXoctov s; tov '^olvtol k^o- 
.vov sivoLi (^rr]v 7:67\iv) ; to preferve the city from ever being taken 
in war. It was probably from this opinion, that the *' Athe- 
nians had the head of Medufa reprefented upon the walls of 
their acropolis : and it was the infigne of many cities, as we 
may find from ancient coins. The notion of the Cyclopes 
framing the thunder and lightning for Jupiter arofe chiefly 
from the Cyclopians engraving hieroglyphics of this fort 
upon the temples of the Deity. Hence they were repre- 
fented as perfons, 

*' OdyfT. A. v. 6 10. It is a term which feems to have puzzled the commen- 
tators. Xaco7ro<, g7r(7rA))5<.TiKcj, (po€e^oi. Scholiaft. Ibid. It was certainly an 
Amonian term : and the Poet alluded to a Charopian temple. 

T«5 cT' w T^eii x.ipcc^.at.1, fJLisc u.iv ;)^a5o7ro;o AeocToj. Hefiod. Theogon. V. 321, 
Homer in another place mentions, 

Auxccv y.XccyyriVy ^acpoTTCoy t£ Aeoi'Twr'. Hymn. £15 Mwre^a figwc. V. 4. 

As a lion was from hence ftiled Charops, (o from another temple it was 
named Charon. Xa^au- c Agwi'. Hefych. Achilles is ftiled AiXH-mni Xapuv, 
X^ycoph. V. 260. a martial Charonian Lion.^ 

&« Paufan.L. 8. p. 696. 

i] Paufan. L. 1. p. 49- 

3 Oi 

V\M.' 1\ 

M E U U ^ A .- 

f'^iiffu^ ^SAifi-rceye^i^. ' 

r^r'rv)!! iJ 

The Analysis of Ancient Mytholqgv. 513 

Oi ZriH fynriv t £^o(rc(.i/, tsv^olp ts hs^olvvov. 
The Poets confidered them merely in the capacity of black- 
fmiths, and condemned them to the anvil. This arofe from 
the chief Cyclopian Deity being called Acmon, and Pyrac- 
mon. He was worfhiped under the former title in Phry- 
gia ; where was a city and diftrid called Acmonia, men- 
tioned by Alexander '' Polyhiftor. The Amazonians paid 
the like reverence : and there was a facred grove called Ac- 
monium upon the ^° Thermodon, which was held in great 
repute; He was by ibme looked upon as the offspring of 
heaven ; by others worfliiped as Ouranus, and Ccelus, the 
heaven itfelf : and Acmonides was fuppofed to have been his 
^' fon, whom fome of the mythologifts made the ruling fpi- 
rlt of the earth. Hence Simmias Rhodius introduces Divine 
Love difplaying his influence, and faying, that he produced 

"^ HeTiod. TheogOn. V. 141. Scholia ApoUon. L. i. v. 73a 

KyxAwTE^TcTf An uiv SiSoxii ^pouTJw, Kxi x~cx7r>]t'yy~<zi x&pccuvov. ApoUodo- 
rus. L. I. p. 4- 

69 See Stephanus. Axjulovio. ttoXh ^gvyid.;. xtA. He ftiles Acmon Axfjcoyoc 
rov MarEw5. Manes was the chief Deity of Lydia, Lycia, and Perfis ; and the fame 
as Menes of Egpyt. 

There was a city Acmonia in Thrace. Ptol. L. 5. p, 138. 

'* Eq-i y.xi aAAo Axfj.oviov aA<ro; 7reo< Gif/A.a.S'ovTx. Steph. Byzant. Apollo- 
nius takes notice of AAo-eos Axjownoo. L. 2. v. 904. Here Mars was fuppofed 
to have married Harmonia the mother of the Amazonians. 

■" Acmonides is reprefented as a patronymic ; but there is reafon to think that 
it is an Amonian compound, Acmon- Ades, Acmon the God of light, the fame 
as Ccelus, Cronus, and Ofiris. Acmon and Acmonides were certainly the fame 
perfon : AxyMv' K^oioi,Oj^<xioi. Ilefych. Ax,'JLoviSni^6 Xafwr, xtxi a Ovpccvos. 
ibid. He was the Cyclopian God, to whom different departments were given 
by the mythologifts. Charon Cyclops is mentioned by Lycophron. V. 659. 
above quoted. 

Vol. I. U u \\ Acmonides, 

514 '^'^^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

Acmpnidesj that mighty monarch of the- earth, and at 
the fame time founded the fea. '* Asv(r(rs jtcs to;/ Tag ts ^a- 
fiv^spva Avxfcr Aaixon^av, rxv aJhoL ^' s^^ccfranoL, 

Acmon feems to have been wordiiped of old at Tiryns, 
that ancient city of Greece, whofe towers were faid to have 
been built by the Cyclopians. For Acmon was the Cy- 
clopian Deity ; and is reprefented by Callimachus as the tu- 
telary God of the place, though the pafTage has been other- 
wife interpreted. 

'^ Toiog yoL^ asi Ti^vvQ^og Ak^jlo^v 

The term has commonly been looked upon as an adjedive ; 
and the paflage has been rendered Talis Tirynthius indefef- 
fus, which is fcarce fenfe. Callimachus. was very knowing 
in mythology, and is here fpeaking of the Cyclopian God 
Acmon, whom he makes the ^sog Tr^OTj^vXaiog, or guardian 
Deity of the place. It was the fame God, that was after- 
wards called Hercules, and particularly ftiled Tirynthius, 
to whom Callimachus here alludes under a more ancient 


As the Cyclopians were great artifts, they probably were 
famous for works in brafs, and iron : and that circumftance 
in their hiftory may have been founded in truth. The Idaei 
Daftyli were Cyclopians : and they are faid to have firft 
forged metals, and to have reduced them to common '* ufe ; 


"•* Simmias Rhodii Uri^ytx. Theocritus. Heinfii. P. 214. 

■" Callimachi Hymn, in Dianam. V. 146. 

■•♦/laxTuAc* U'ccm Kpr)Txiis. Apollonius Rhod. L. i. V. 1129. 


The A^alVsis of Ancient Mythology. 515 

the knowledge or which art they obtained from the fufion 
of minerals at the burning of mount '^ Ida. Whether this was 
an eruption of fire from the internal part of the mountain, 
or only a fire kindled among the forefts, which crowned its 
fummit, cannot be determined. It was an event of ancient 
date ; and admitted, as a remarkable epocha, in the moft 
early feries of chronology. From this event the Curetes, 
and Corybantes, who were the fame as the ^' Idaei Dadyli, 
are fuppofed to have learned the myftery of fufing and forg- 
ing metals. From them it was propagated to many coun- 
tries weftward, particularly to the Pangasan mountains, and 
the region Curetis, where the Cyclopians dwelt in Thrace : 
alfo to the region Trinacia and Leontina near ^tna, which 
they occupied in Sicily. 

Thus have I endeavoured to fhew the true hiftofy 
'^ and antiquity of this people: and we may learn from 


The Scholiafl: upon this Poet takes notice of only three j of which one was 
Acmon t 

KiXfji.i<, Aajj-vctfAfvevi re fjt.eyai, xai viripQioi AK/xojy, 

\luoov iv apetwi vocttxh losvra. (ri^iiPoi', 

Es TTV^ t' rviyxxv, x.a.1 ccpivrpeTrei spyov iS'ii^ccv- "» 

Thefe verfes are quoted from the ancient author, o rnv q>o^mnlct crvvBea. 
Diodorus Siculus, L. i. p. 333. fays, that fome made the Idsi Daftyli ten 
in number ; others an hundred. 

■" Clemens Alexand. Strom. L, i, p. 401. Strabo. L. 10. p. 725. 
■"* Strabo. L. 10. p. 715. They are by Tatianus AflTyrius fpoken of as the 
Cyclopes, and the fame invention attributed to them, Xa.^.x.evsiv KuxAuTrti 

{tii^a.^c(.v). P. 243. 

Fabricam ferrariam primi excogitarunt Cyclopes. See Hoffman. Ferrum." 

'^ KujcAoiTrei, Q^axikov iuvoi^ avro KvxAuTroi QuotXiui ^tus otofxx^o/jiSvot.—' 
-TvXitovii ^i ctvTU'v iv T>) K.B^-miS'i wccv .fg APISTOI TEXNITAI. Schol. in 
Euripid. Oreft. V. 966. 

2 Mention 

5i<3 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOGY. 

their works, ^* that there was a time, when they were held 
in high eftimation. They were denominated from their 
worfhip: and their chief Deity among other titles was 
ftiled Acmon, and Pyracmon. They feem to have been great 
in many fciences : but the term Acmon fignifying among 
the Greeks an anvil, the Poets have limited them to one 
bafe department, and x;on{idered them as fo many black- 
fmiths. And as they refided near iEtna, they have made the 
burning mountain their forge: 

'' Ferrum exercebant vafto Cyclopes in antro, 
Brontefque, Steropefque, et nudus membra Pyracmon. 

Mention is afterwards made tuv ex. rm Ka^«T</ot KvxXuttuv. The Curetes 
■worfhiped Cronus : fo that Cronus and Cuclops, were the fame. Sec Porphyry 
de Abftin. L. 2. p. 225. 

'* They are faid to have made the altar upon which the Gods were fworn, 
t*hen the Titans rebelled againft Jupiter. Scholiaft upon Aratus. P. 52. In 
memorial of this altar an Afteriiin was formed in tlic Sphere, denominated ^w- 

r Virgil ^n. L. 8. v. 424. 





















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