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O R, A N 


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Wherein an Attempt is made to divefl: Tradition of Fable; 
and to reduce the Truth to its Original Purity, 

In this WORK is given an HISTORY of the 









The "Whole contains an Account of the principal Events in the firft Ages, from the 
Deluge to the Dispersion : AHb of the various Migrations, which enfued, and 
the Settlements made afterwards in different Parts : Circumftances of great Confe- 
quence, which were fubfequent to the Gentile History of Moses. 




Formerly of King's College, Cambridge ; and Secretary to his Grace the late Duke 
of Marlborough, during his Command abroad ; and Secretary to him as Mailer 
General of His Majelty"s Ordnance. 


Printed for T. PAYNE, Mews-Gate; P. E L M S L Y, in the Strand; 
B. WHITE, in Fleet-street; and J. WALTER, Charing-cross. 


E F A C E. 

^'I^H ROUGH tlie whole procefs of my inquiries, it 
JL has been my endeavour from fome plain and de- 
terminate principles to open the way to many interefting 
truths. And as I have fliewn the certainty of an univerfal 
Deluge from the evidences of mod nations, to which we 
can gain accefs : I come now to give an hiftory of the 
perfons, who furvived that event ; and of the families, 
which were immediately defcended from them. After 
having mentioned their refidence in the region of Ararat, 
and their migration from it : I fhall give an account of 
the roving of the Cuthites, and of their coming to the 
plains of Shinar, from whence they were at laft expelled. 
To this are added obfervations upon the hiftories of Chaldea 
and Egypt; alfo of Hellas, and Ionia; and of every other 
country, which was in any degree occupied by tlie fons 
of Chus. There have been men of learning, who have 
denominated their v/orks from the families, of which they 
treated : and have accordingly fent them into the world 
under the title of Phaleg, Japhet, and Javan. I might, 
in like manner, have prefixed to mine the name either of 
10 Curb, 


Cuth, or Ciithim : for upon the hiftory of this people 
my fyftem chiefly turns. It may be afked, if there were no 
other great families upon earth, belides that of the Cuth- 
ites, worthy of re-cord : if no other people ever performed 
great adions, and made themfelves refped;able to pofterity. 
Such there poflibly may have been: and the field is open 
to any, who may choofc to make inquiry. My taking 
this particular path does not in the leaft abridge others 
from profecuting difierent views, wherever they may fee 
an opening. 

As my refearches are deep, and remote, I fhall fome- 
times take the liberty of repeating, what has preceded ; 
that the truths, which I maintain, may more readily be 
perceived. We are oftentimes by the importunity of a 
perfevering writer teazed into an unfatisfaftory compliance, 
and yield a painful affent : but upon clofing the book, our 
fcruples return ; and we lapfe at once into doubt, and 
darknefs. It has therefore been my rule to bring vouchers 
for every thing, v/hich I maintain : and though I might 
upqn the renewal of my argument refer to another volume, 
and a diftant page ; yet I many times choofe to repeat my 
evidence, and bring it again under immediate infpedlion. 
And if I do not fcruple labour and expence, I hope the 
reader will not be diigufted by this feeming redundancy 
in my arrangement. What I have now to prefent to the 
Publick, contains matter of great moment, and fnould I 
be found to be in the right, it will aifbrd a fure bafis 
for the future hiftory of the world. None can well judo-e 
either of the labour, or utility of the work, but thofe, who 


R E F A C E. 


have been converfant in the writings of chronologers, and 
other learned men, upon thefe fubje6ts; and leen the dif- 
ficulties, with which they were embarraffed. Great undoubt- 
edly muft have been the learning and perfpicuity of a 
Petavius, Perizonius, Scaliger, Grotius, and Le Clerc ; alfo 
of an Ufher, Pearfon, Marfham, and Newton. Yet it may 
polTibly be found at the clofe, that a feeble arm has 
effecfted, what thofe prodigies in fcience have overlooked. 

Many, who have finifhed their progrefs, and are determined 
in their principles, will not perhaps fo readily be brought 
over to my opinion. But they, who are beginning their 
ftudies, and paffing through a procefs of Grecian literature, 
will find continual evidences arife : almoft every ftep will 
afi'ord frefh proofs in favour of my fyftem. As the defola- 
tion of the world by a deluge, and the renewal of it in one 
perfon, are points in thefe days particularly controverted ; 
many, who are enemies to Revelation, upon feeing thefe 
truths afcertained, may be led to a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with the Scriptures : and fuch an infight cannot but be 
productive of good. For our faith depends upon hiftorlcal 
experience : and it is mere ignorance, that makes infidels. 
Hence it is poflible, that fome may be won over by hiflori- 
cal evidence, whom a refined theoloo-ical argument cannot 
reach. An illnefs, which fome time ago confined me to my 
bed, and afterv/ards to my chamber, aftorded me, during its 
recefs, an opportunity of making fome verfions from the 
poets, whom I quote: when I was little able to do any 
thing of more confequence. The tranilation from Dio- 
nyfius was particularly done at that feafon : and will 



R E F A C E. 

give the reader fome faint idea >of the original, and its 

I cannot conclude without ackno^ ledging my obligations 
to a moft worthy and learned ' friend for his zeal towards 
my work ; and for his afliftance both in this, and my former, 
publication. I am indebted to him not only for his judicious 
remarks, but for his goodnefs in tranfcribing for me many of 
my diflertations : without which my progrefs would have 
been greatly retarded. His care likewife, and attention, in 
many other articles, afford inftances of friendfhip, which I 
fhall ever gratefully remxember. 

' The Rev. Dr. Barford, Prebendary of Canterbury ; and Reftor of Kimpton, 


Page Line 

15 1 4 /or /s /strct/ read ^ij[rt^ctl. 

17 10 /<!;■ Arbaches rMi/ Arbaflus. 

54 J for T VI read Ti. 

59 '9 «/"'"■ Homer add aXfo. 

106 II after iexit add them.- 

J 27 13 ^y/tT difperfion «flV yet fo it will appeal'. 

155 5 /(/>- Cafhemife rf/?rt' Cailimire. 

]6o 4 /ir fynonimous rrW fynon vinous. 

187 7 /or Colcas read Colins. 

194 2 for in read into. 

212 ig for K.vfoi read Yicfot 

213 z for from which the former was derived reiui of 

which the former was a branch. 

227 ult. /or diaphonous ?■(■««' diaphanous. 

253 I 3 y«;- Cenofora read CsxQziors.. 

282 26 y'or fifth rtW fourth. 

304 8 for at laft read in the end. 

312 23 dele thefe. 

327 20 /or fourteenth rfa^i' fourteen. 

330 19 /"or Heraclotic jrci/ Heracleotic. 

339 7 f"'' thirty-five read twenty-five. 

303 l6/5rEgyptus )-f«^ ^gyptus. 

389 8 for firll iling read firft king. 

391 14 for Miz read CEta. 

404 l'^ for a.fyii read etyfu. 

536 24/irFokein read Fokien. 

552 5 after i lav addrov- 



O R, A N 


O F 





Eyw Js 'urs^i ijToXKn top ctM^^ 7\oyov Tifji^fjiBVOi koli to uk^i^ss 

'urccnoiag. Georgius Monachus, p. 66. 

N the Mofaic hiftory wc have an account of the antedi- 
luvian world being deftroyed by a deluge, the family of 
one man excepted, which was providentially preferved. 
The manner of their prefervation I have defcribcd j and 
have ftiewn, that the ark rcfted upon Mount Ararat, in a 
province of Armenia. This was the region in which man- 
kind firft began to multiply, and from whence they after- 
wards proceeded to their different places of allotment. It 
Vol. III. B will 

2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

will therefore be neceffary to give fome account of this 
country; as from fuch an inquiry we fhall find innumerable 
eviacnces ftill arife in confirmation of the primeval hiftory : 
and there will be alfo many proofs obtained in confirmation 
of my opinion, concerning the migration of mankind. 

Armenia lay to the north of Aramea, or Mefopotamia r 
and one might be led to think, from the fimilarity of terms, 
that Armenia and Aramea were the fame name. This, 
however, was not the cafe. Aramea was the land of Aram : 
but Armenia, which was feparated from it by ' Mount Tau- 
rus, was denominated from Ar-Men, and Har-Men, the 
mountain where the ark refted. It was a branch of the 
abovementioned Taurus : and was diftingviifiied by feveral 
appellations, each of which was fignificant, and afforded 
fome evidence to the hiftory of the deluge. It was called 
Ararat, Baris, ' Barit, Luban, which laft fignified Mons Lu- 
naris, or the Mountain of Selene. It had alfo the name of 
Har-Min, and Har-Men, which was precifely of the fame 
fignification. The people who lived round it were called 
Minni and MinyaB ; and the region had the name of Armenia 
from the mountain, which was the great objeA of reverence 
in this country. 1 he name is to be found in the prophet 
Jeremiah, where he is calling together various foreign powers, 
ta make an invafion upon Babylon. ^ Set up a Jta7idard in 
the land ; blow the trumpet among the nations ; prepare the 
nations againjl her. Call together agai?2jl her the kingdoms of 

* Strabo. L. ii. p. 792. 798. 
*" See Vol. II. of this work, p. 442. 

' Jeremiah, c. 51. v. 27. Sufcitate luper eamgcntes; annunciate adverfus illam 
icgibus Ararath Menni. Vulgate. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 3 

Ararat Minni^ and Apchenaz, By Ararat-Minni is fignified 
the region about Mount Ararat, which was poffeffed by the 
Minyze. The paffage is by the Chaldee Paraphraft very 
juftly rendered tdix, Armini, the fame as Armenia. From 
hence the learned Bochart infers with good reafon, that the 
name of Armenia was taken from this Ararat of the Minni, 
called Ar-Mini. "^ Videtur Armenia vox conflata efie ex 
*ja--in, Har Mini, id eft Mons Mini, five Montana Miniadis. 
Something fmiilar is to be found in Amos ; where the fame 
mountain is mentioned under the name of nJia -in, ' Har- 
Munah, or Mountain of the Moon. * Jerome takes notice 
of this paffage, and mentions how differently it has been 
rendered by expositors ; a circumftance which muft happen, 
when writers are of different countries and of different times. 
^ Hieronymus et projiciemini inquit in locis Armenise, qu^e 
vocantur Armona. Denique Symmachus ita interpretatus eft, 
et projiciemini in Armenia : pro quibus LXX montem Rem- 
man, Aquila montem Armona, Theodotio montem Mona. 
^ Bochart, who quotes this paffage, at the clofe afks. What if 
Mini, Minyas, and Monah, fhould after all prove to be the 
fame name, only differently expreffed ? We may fafely an- 
fwer, that they are ; and that they relate to the fame hifto- 
ry. Even the Remman of the LXX is a tranfpofttion of the 
true name ; and a miftake for ^ Ar-Man, the fame as Ar- 

* Geog. Sacra. L. i.e. 3. p.* 20. 

' C. 4. V. 3. 

' Hieron ct Theodoretus. See Bochart. Geog. Sacra. L. i.e. 3. p. 20. 

Bochart fupra. p. 20. ©eo/a;oHTo?, ccTroppi(pr,<Tta-^s en ro o^a to Ao^waca, &cc. 'O 
'Si ''os. Aof/.£viav wfJ-Wivaii' 'O Se ©eoSorim v-^vAov opo?. Ibid. 

' This is manifeft from the Vulgate, in which it is rendered, Et projiciemini in 

B 2 Mini 

4 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Mini in the Chaldaic Paraphrafe, as Ar-Mona of Aquila, 
Ar-Muna of Amos, and the Mountain Mona of Theodotion. 
They all fignify Mons Lunus, and relate to the Arkite em- 
blem Selene, of which I have before treated. 

The moft common name given to the mountain was Ara- 
rat ; and by this it has been diltinguiflicd by Mofes. This 
is a compound of Ar-Arat, and fignifies the Mountain of 
Defcent, and is equivalent to nT-"in, of the Hebrews. That 
the name was a compound of Ar-Arat, is plain from Hatho 
the Armenian, who mentions it out of compofition by the 
name of Arath. ^ In Armenia eft altior mons, quam fit in 
toto orbe terrarum, qui Arath vulgariter nuncupatur ; et iu 
cacumine illius montis area Noae poft diluvium primo ftetit. 
Jofephus tells us exprefly, that it was called by the natives 
the Mountain of Defcent, which he tranflates OLTTO^ciTYi^iov^ 
on account of the Patriarch here lirft defcending from the 
ark. '° ATTO^dTYi^iov tottqv tutop A^^jlshoi KcO\E<nv. The fame 
is mentioned by " Euftathius Antiochenus. By Jerome it i£ 
ftyled the place of exit. '' Nunc locum Armenii exituni 
vel egrefTum vocant. The facred writer feems always to 
exprefs foreign names of places, as they were exhibited by 
the natives. He accordingly calls this mountain in the pro- 
vincial dialedl '^ Ar-Arat ; which would have been rendered 

' Hatho Armcnius. See Purchas. Vol. 9. p. 1 10. 

'" Jofcphiis. Antiq. L. 1. c. 3. p. 16. 

" Ka< TQv TOTTov iTi Y.aL ivv sxiivov AttoSoltv^hv 01 STTip^cocm x.ccA8(ri. Eullathlus 
Antiochenus. See Bochart above, p. 20. 

'* Hieron. in Eufebianis. 

" Pro VniH Mofis reperitur in Codice Samaritano tJ'^in, Hararat. Le Clerc. 
Vol. I. p. 72. 

10 Har-Irad 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 5 

Har-Irad by the Hebrews. By this is iignified oLTTQ^OLTYi^ioy, 
or place of defcent. The region round about was called 
Araratia, and alfo Minyas, where the Minyag refided, of 
whom I have taken notice before. This probably, after the 
general migration, was one of the oldeft colonies in the 
world. Nay, it is not impoflible, but that the region may 
have been originally occupied by a people ftyled Minys, 
who out of .a falfe zeal adhered to the fpot, and would never 
depart from it. From the fimilitude which the natives of 
thefe parts bore to the Syrians and Arabians, in religion, 
cuftoms, and language, it appears plainly, that they were 
one of the '^Cuthite branches. 

We may be aflured, that the ark was providentially wafted 
into Armenia ; as that region feems to have been particularly 
well calculated for the reception of the Patriarch's family,, 
and for the repeopling of the world. The foil of the coun- 
try was very fruitful, and efpecially of that part where the 
Patriarch iirft made his defcent. Some have objeded to. the 
Mofaic account of the dove and olive, and will not allow, that 
the ark could have refted in Armenia,, becaufe travellers of late 
have difcovered no olives in that '^ country : they therefore 
infer, that there never were any trees of this fort in that re- 
gion. In like manner, there may be in thefe dnys no balfam at 
Jericho, nor date trees in Babylonia : but it does not follow, 
that there were none of old. Vv^e muft not therefore fet 

To ycto TiiV Aoijiiviciov Si'ai^yic(.i TO.TCtiv' xai Tjiv A^aCiav 'woAAr,]/ ojjt.o(fv- 
?^tav ifj.(pxi:st n\- Strabo, L. i. p. 70. One of the principal cities in this part q£ 
Armenia was Cu-Coufus, which fignifies the place of Chus. See tlierccles X^vi^- 
cTwjt^o;. p. 703. Kqukouo-o?, KajWayaj AfsiootAtx- 
ii ,Tournefort. Letter 7 th. 


6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

afide ancient liiftories faithfully tranfmitted, becaufe the 
fame occurrences do not happen at this day. But the infer- 
ence is not only trifling, but falfc. Strabo was a native of 
Alia Minor ; and he fpeaks of the fertility of Armenia, and 
■efpecially of the region Gogarene, which he particularly 
mentions as productive of the olive. '* E;^' j^ Tooyap^vri' 
Ilacra ya^ y\ ^^'^a ayrj] y.a^Troi; re koli roig r^^e^oig S'sv^^oigy koli 
roig OLei^oLhB(n urKti^VBi' (pe^si h koli EKaiav, He had been 
fpeaking of various parts of Armenia, and then adds, After 
thefe fucceeds Gogarene. All this country abounds with fruits 
and trees for the ufe of man^ and with thofe alfo which arc 
evergreen. It likewife produces the OLIVE. I have men- 
tioned, that Arene was one name of the ark ; and many 
places were fo denominated in memorial of it. It is to be 
obferved, that there is fcarcely any eaftern name, which be- 
gins with a vowel or common afpirate, but is at times to be 
found expreffed with a guttural. The city Ur was called 
Cur, Cour, and Chora : Aza was rendered Gaza : Ham, 
Cham ; Hanes, Chanes : Hala, Habor, and Haran ; Chala, 
Chabor, and Charan. So Arene, an ark or Ihip, was ex- 
preffed '^ Carene : from whence came the Carina of the Ro- 
mans. The term Go-Carene [V Ui-V a.^Tivr\) Signifies literally 
the place or region of the ark. I do not, however, imagine, 
that this was precifely the fpot, where the '^ defcent was 

" L. II. p. 800. 

'' Many places arc to be found in Media, Sufiana, and Armenia, named Carene 
and Carina. See Cluvcr. Gcog. 

'^ Gogaiene was beyond the Cyrus, and a northern province. See Strabo, Ste- 
phanos, and others. It was at too great dillance from Ararat, which was upon the 
river Araxes. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 7 

firft made, though the name was given in memorial of that 
event ; a circumftance common to many other places. I 
make no doubt, but that the region of the Minyas, at the 
foot of Mount Arad, or Ar-Arat, was the diftrid where the 
Patriarch and his family firft refided. It was upon the river 
'' Araxes, and one of the mediterranean provinces of Arme- 
nia. It was called '" Ararat and Araratia from the moun- 
tain ; and feems to have been a fine " country, productive of 
every thing neceffary for life. The whole of Armenia ap- 
pears to have been "'' fruitful ; and we have the atteftation 
of Strabo, that it produced the olive. It feems, for the moft 
part, to have been of a very high fituation. One province 
was ftyled, on this account, Armenia Alta. It bordered 
upon Araratia weftward ; and the account given of it by 
Mofes Chorenenfis is remarkable. ''^ Armenia Alta inter 
omnes regiones revera altifiima eft ; quippe quas ad quatuoF 
coeli partes fluvios emittit. Flabet prasterea montes tres,, 
feras plurimas, aves utiles, thermas, falinas, atque aliarunx 
rerum ubertatem, et urbem Carinam. Armenia Alta is o?ie 
of the highefi regions in the world ; for it fends out rivers i?r 
coittrary direBions towards the four cardinal pomts m the' 

'' The Araxes is properly the river of Arach, or Aracha, which fignifies the river 
of the ark. 

""" Ifaiah. c. 37-. v. 38. and 2 Kings, c. 19. v. 37. Ararat, regio ArmeniEe, 
Hieron. in Ifaiain. Araratia, in medio regionum (ArmeniEe) loco. Mofes Chore- 
nenfis. Geog. p. 361. 

" Habet Araratia montes campofique, atqvie omnem foecunditatem. Idem. p. 361. 

""■ Habet Armenia rerum ubertatem. Id. p. 358. Strabo fays of Armenia,, 
•ZEToAAoi aL/A&)>'£5j 0( }jLiv fjiiaooi, w Si a(poSpa,y euSai[Ji.oi'ei, xa.u<x7re^ to Apu^nvov •srtJ'io/-.- 
L. 1 1. p. 800. 

'' Geog. p. 358. 

B heavenr,- 

8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

heavens. It has three jnountains^ and aboimds with wild ani- 
mal's^ and f pedes of fowl for food^ alfo with hot baths ^ and 
mi7ies of falt^ and with other things of utility ; ajid the chief 
city is called '^ Carina. The region ftyled Araratia was alfo 
very high, though it had fine plains and valleys between the 
mountains. A country of this nature and Htuation muft, 
after the flood, have been fooneft dried, and confequently 
the fooneft habitable. And it feems alfo, in an eminent de- 
gree, to have contained every requifite for habitation. The 
mountain ftill has the name ot Ararat, which it has retained 
through all ages ; and the province beneath is at this day 
peculiarly ftyled "^ Ar-Meni. This name feems by the na- 
tives to have been originally limited to the "^ region of the 
ark ; but writers in after times have fpoken of it with a 
greater latitude, and extended it to a large country. It was 
of great repute, and its chief city very ample, before it was 
ruined by the Tartars. The learned Roger Bacon mentions, 
that it once had eighty churches : ""/ Fuerunt in ea civitate 
odtoginta ecclefi^ Hermenorum. 

The mountain was alfo called "^ Mafis, and likewife Tha- 

** Some of the principal cities in Armenia were Carina, Area, Comana, Ararathia, 
Cucoufus. See Hierocles 2w£xcf «/>(.:;. p, yo^. Tliefe names are very remarkable. 

*^ Ermenia of D'Anville. See his curious map of Armenia, entitled, Carte 
generale de la Georgie et de I'Armenie, definee a Peterfbourg, en 1738, d'apres les 
Cartes, Memoires, et Obfervations des Gens du Pays, &c. publiee en 1766. 

^* It was the fame as Ararat, which was extended in the fame manner. But Jerome 
fays, Ararat non eft tota Armenia. L. 1 1. in Efaiam. 

*^ Rogeri Baconi Pars major de Aquilonaribus Mundi partibus. See Purchas. 
Vol. 3. p. S5- 

*° See Cartwright's Travels, p. 30. and William de Rubruquis. c. 48. Maaiov 
0^0: £>' h-u.ivia. Scrabo, L. 11. p. 772. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 9 

manim and Shamanim, the purport of which is remarkable. 
I have before taken notice of the facred Ogdoas in Egypt, 
which was held in great veneration. It confifted of 
eight ^' perfonages defcribed in a boat, who were efteemed 
the moft ancient gods of the country. This number was 
held facred, and efteemed myfterious by other nations. It 
is obfervable, that the Chinefe have fomewhat more than 
two hundred principal elementary charadlers ; and out of 
thefe all other reprefentations are formed, by which in wri- 
ting they exprefs their ideas. By thefe combinations, the 
charadleriftic is, in fome degree, made a definition of the 
thing reprefented, and it has often a relation to the original 
hiftory. Some of thefe have a reference to this myftical num- 
ber eight, of which I fhall give two inftances of a very curious 
nature. They are taken from the letter of that learned 
Jefuit at ^° Pekin, who wrote in anfwer to fome queries fent 
by the Royal Society at London. Le caradlere de barque, 
vaifleau, eft compofe de la figure de vaiffeau, de celle de 
bouche, et du chiffre huit : ce qui pent faire allufion au 
nombre des perfonnes, qui etoient dans I'arche. — On trouve 
encore les deux caradleres huit^ et bouche avec celui d'eau 
pour exprimer navigation heureufe. Si c'eft un hazard, il 
s'accorde bien avec le fait. The fame reference to the 
number eight is to be obferved in the hiftory of Mount Mafis, 
or Ararat. It was called the Mountain Thamanim, or Tflia- 
manim ; and there was a town towards the foot of the 

"^ See Vol. II. of this work, p. 234. 

'" Lettre de Pekin fur le Genie delaLangue Chinoife, &c. A Bruxelles, 1773. 
p. 32. 

Vol. III. C mountain 

lo The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

mountain of the fame name, which was fuppofed to have 
been built by Noah. Now Thaman is faid in the ancient 
language of the country to have lignified eight, and was ana^- 
logous to the fOtt', Shaman, of the ^' Hebrews, which denotes 
the fame number. Ebn ^" Patricius mentions the Ark refting 
upon Ararat, and calls the diftridl below the region of theTha- 
manin. He alfo mentions the city of the fame name; and he 
fays, that it was fo called from the eight perfons who came out 
of the Ark. Other writers exprefs it Thamanim, which is a 
plural from Thaman. Terra Thamanim iignihcs the region 
of the eight perfons ; whofe hiflory needs no explanation. It 
is fo rendered by Elmacini, who fpeaks of the town, and 
flyles it, " pagum, quem extruxit Noa, poftquam ex Area 
egreflus efl: : the place^ which Noah built ^ after that he came 
out of the ark. William de Rubruquis, who travelled into 
Tartary in the year 1253, ^^^ returned by Armenia, has a 
remarkable pafTage to this purpofe. ''^ Near the city Nax- 
uariy there are mountaitis called Mafs, upon which they fay 
that the Ai'k of Mofes refled. There are two of thefe mou?itains^ 

" See Bochart. Geog. Sacra. L. i. p. i8. 

'* Vol. 1. p. 40. Vocatur autem hodie terra Thamenin. In another place Ke 
adds, Cumque egreffi efient, urbcm extruxerunt, quam Thamanin appellariint, juxta 
numerum fiium, quafi dicas, Nos OSlo fitvius. p. 43. 

^* L.. I. c. I. p. 14. Thamininum vel Thfamininum pagum. Ylia to. Y.a.a^s'^ia, 
£(» xwf<,»f QapiSi'jov. Agatliias, L. 4. 

'* See Purchas, Vol. 3. p. 50. but efpeclally the original. AraxI ct Naxuanns duos 
imminere montes Maffis nomine-, in quibus Area refedit : etCemainum oppidum ab 
octo illis ibi conditum, qui ab Area exiverunt : idque patere ex ipib nomine, quo 
ofto fignificatur. Rubriquis. The town of Naxuan is mentioned by Ptolemy, L. 
5. c. 13. and placed upon the Araxes. In the map of D'Anville, it is exprefTed 
Nadllhevan ; and is fituated upon the river, at a fmall diftancc from Mount Ararat. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ii 

the one greater than the other ^ and the Araxes runneth at the 
foot of them. There is alfo a little town Cemainum, which is 
by interpretation eight ; for they fay it was fo called from the 
eight perfons who came out of the Ark^ and built it. This is- 
plain from the na^ne ; for Cemainum fgnifies eight. Thy call 
the mountain the mother of the world. From hence we may- 
perceive, that what this writer renders Cemainum, fhould 
rather have been exprefled Shemainum, or Shemanum ; for 
it is undoubtedly the fame as the Themanim and Thama- 
nim of Elmacini and others, and analogous to the pu^, Sha- 
man of the Hebrews. The town of tlie Thamanim, or Sha- 
manim, was fo called from thofe eight primaeval perfons. 
who were faid to have founded it. There is reafon to think, 
that it was the fame as Naxuan, a very ancient city, which 
is mentioned by Ptolemy, and placed upon the Araxes. 
The editor of Mofes Chorenenfis has fome curious obferva- 
tions upon the hiftory of this place. " This town, which 
feems to be the Naxua?ia of Ptolemy., is clofe upon the plain of 
Araratia \ and held in great regard by the Armenians, who 
give outy that it is the mojl a?tcie?tt place in the world, and buili 
imjnediately after the Deluge by Noah. Galanus, a Roman 
Prefbyter, who wrote an account of the Ar7ne7iia?i Church 
being reconciled to the Church of Rome, tells us, that, according 
to the natives, the true name is Nachidfhevan. By this, they 
fay, is fgnified ^^ the first plage of descent. Hence there 
can be no doubt, but this is that place in Armenia, of which J of to- 
phus tales notice, a?id fays, that by the natives it was called 

" L. I. c. 29. p. 71- 

'* I believe that the name related to the hiftory of the Patriarch -, but whether 
the etymology is precilcly true, I qucftion. 

Vol. III. C 2 o^o^a- 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

a^TOoari^^/O!', or the place of " defce7it. In the map of D' An- 
vdlle it is exprefied "^ Nadlilievan; and placed at the diflancc 
of a i^w miles to the eafl of Mount Ararat, in the true re- 
gion of Har-Men, or Armenia, which retains its name to 
this day. 

I have mentioned, that the fame names have been given 
to different places, where the Arkite rites were inftituted, 
under the titles of Baris, Meen, and Selene. Hence the fame 
event was fuppofed to have happened in different places, 
and the like hiftory has been recorded. Mount Taurus 
extended a great way eaflward of Armenia : and one part 
of it, in the province of Adarbayn in PerjQa, is ftill called 
Al Baris, fimilar to the name by which Ararat was of old 
diilinguifhed. ^' Sir Thomas Herbert travelled this way in 
1626 ; and he mentions one peak near the city Tauris re- 
markably high, which he with great reafon imagines to have 
been one of thofe, where fcood the lafonea mentioned by 
Strabo. This hill was called ''° Da Moan ; and the town at 
the foot of it had the fame name. By this, according to the 
natives, is fignified a fecojid plantation. But Mon and Moan 
was the name of the Arkite type, as I have abundantly fhewn: 
and Da was the ancient '^' Chaldaic particle analagous to the 

'' Jofephiis. Ant. L. 1, c. 3. p. 16. 

'"^ They have a tradition that Noah died here. See Tavernier. L. i. c, 4. p. 16. 

" He calls the ridge of Taurus El Bors, p. 197. This is a variation of El Ba- 
ris. Taurus is exprefied by the natives Tabaris : from whence we may inter, that 
the former term is only a contraftion of the latter; and that from Tabaris and Ta- 
varis came the names of Tauris and Taurus, both the city aod mountain. Har 
Ta-Baris is the mountain of the Ark. 

*" p. 201. 

*' See of this work Vol, II. p. 443. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 13 

in our own language. Da Maon related to the Arkite Moon: 
and the hiftory of the place flill evidences the fad: ; for they 
have an ancient tradition, that the Ark was driven to this 
mountain, *' They f pare 7tot to avei^fays the author^ from a tra- 
ditio?t, that upon this mountain of Damoan the Ark rcfled. Hard 
by is a village named Morante, where they fuppofe the wife of 
■•^^ Noah to have died. I mention thefe accounts, however 
inaccurately tranfmitted, to fhew how univerfal the hiftory 
was of that great event, of which I have been treating. 
The fcene of adion was attributed to different places \ but 
the real appulfe of the ark was upon the mountain of Arat, 
called Ar-arat, in the province of Har-Men, upon the river 
Arach, or Araxes. 

After the facred writer has defcribed the prefervation of 
Noah and his family, and their defcent from the Ark, he 
gives a fhort hiftory of the Patriarch, and mentions his refi- 
dence upon the fpot, and his planting of the '''' vine. He after- 
wards proceeds to fhew how the reparation of mankind was 
effedted in that family, and how they multiplied upon the 
earth. When they were greatly increafed, he gives a lift of 
their generations, and defcribes them with great accuracy 
upon their feparating, according to their places of deftina- 
tion : and concludes with telling us, "^^ By thefe were the ifes 
of the Gentiles divided in their lands ; every one after his 
tongue^ after their families^ i?i their nations. And again^ 

''^ Herbert's Travels, p. 20 1. The mountain Da Moan fignifies Mons Lunus, 
or Lunaris. 

■*' Tavernier. L. i.e. 4. p. zo. 
^ Genefis. c. g. v. 20, 21. 
*' Genefis. c. 10. v. 5. 


14 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

^* Thefe are the families of the Jons of Noah ^ after their gejie- 
rations, in their nations ; and by thefe were the nations divided 
in the earthy after the food, I have fpoken upon this fubjed: 
in a former '^^ treatife ; and have fhewn that this diftribution 
was by the immediate appointment of God. We have full 
evidence of this in that fublime and pathetic hymn of Mofes, 
where he addrelTes himfelf to the people whom he had fo 
long conducted, and was now going to leave for ever. '''^ Re- 
member^ fays he, the days of old \ confder the years of many 
generations. AJk thy father^ and he will Jhew thee\ thy elders, 
and they will tell thee. When the Mof High divided to the 
nations their inheritance'.^ when he feparated the fons of Ada7n\ 
he fet the bounds of the people, according to the ?iumber of the 
children of Ifrael : for the Lord's portion is his people ; facob 
is the lot of his inheritance. By this we may fee, that the 
whole was by God's appointment ; and that there was a re- 
ferve for a people who were to come after. St. Paul like- 
wife fpeaks of it exprefsly as a divine ordinance. '^' ETO/j^crs 
T£ (o (dsog) s^ svog difjLOLTog utolv e^vog cti'^^coTruiv koltqiksiv stti •wolv 
TO 'W^o(ru)7rop 7t)g yi^g, o^^rag 'W^oT&roL'yiJieviig Kcti^Hg, kou Tccg o^o- 
ostnug Trig KctTOiHictg ocvtoov. God made of one blood all nations 
of fnen for to dwell on all the face of the earth ; and determined 
the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation. 
This is taken notice of by many of the fathers. Eufebius 
in particular mentions ^° the difribution of the earth : and 

** Genefis. c. lo. v. 32. 

*' Oblcrvations and Inquiries relating to various parts of Ancient Hiftory, p. 261. 
*' Deuteron. c. 32. v. 7. 
♦' AAs. c. 17. V. 26. 

^° M-^ii7/u.»s 7)1? yn;. Tu 'B(po€eTei is x-oa/J.^ eva.x.oatoq-c^JTpia'ttocrio^cii t-rn ryNw-, xaTa 
S-sio* (/xAoi'OTi ^^vafjiov iy.€ptae Na)£ TsiS roit/iv vtoii a'jxa TUf y.iv. Euieb. Chron. p. 10. 

6 adds. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 15 

adds, that it happened in the two thoiifand fix hundred and 
feve?tty-fecond year of the creatiojj, and in the fiine hundred 
and thirtieth year of the Patriarch' s life. Then it was that 
Noah^ by divine appointment^ divided the world between his 
three fons. The like is to be found in '' Syncellus, ^'' Epi- 
phanius, and other writers. The Grecians had fomc tradi- 
tions of this partition of the earth, which they fuppofed to 
have been by lot, and between Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, 

The fons of Cronus afcertain'd by lot 
Their feveral realms on earth. 

Homer introduces Neptune fpeaking to the fame purpofe. 

We are from Cronus and from Rhea fprung, 
Three brothers; who the world have parted out 
Into three lots ; and each enjoys his fharc. 

The tradition probably came to Greece from Egypt ; and 
we have it more fully related in Plato. ^' @soi ya.p dTTffjTXv 

yriv 'WOTS Kara, Tovg roirovg ^isXay^avov, ov /ax s^iv ^i/.ri; Js 

KhTj^oig ret (piXcfjv Kay^oir.nsg /.ar'j^Ki^ov rag yjf)^ag. The gods 
of old obtained the dominion of the whole earthy according to 

' Syncellus. p. 89. 

' Epiplianius. L. 2. t. 2. p. 70:}. 

' Callim. Hymn, in Joveni. v. 61. 

* Iliad. O. V. 187. 

' In Critia. Vol. 3. p. 109. 



i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

their different allotments, T'his was effeSied without any con- 
tention ; for they took poffeffion of their feveral provinces in an 
ajnicabh and fair way by lot. 

It is faid of Noah, from whom all the families upon earth 
were derived, '* that he was a jufl man., and perfeEl in his ge- 
7ieration : and that he walked with God. We may fuppofe, 
that his fons fbewed him always great reverence : and after 
they were feparated, and when he was no more, that they 
ftill behaved in conformity to the rules which he eftablifhed. 
But there was one family which feems to have ad:ed a con- 
trary part ; and however they may have reverenced his me- 
mory, they paid little regard to his inftitutions. It is faid, 
that " Cup begat Nimrod. He began to be a ^nighty one in 
the earth. He was a mighty hu7iter before the Lord : where- 
fore it is faid., Even as Nimrod., the niighty hunter before the 
Lord. And the begi7ini7ig of his ki7tgdo7n was Babel, and 
Erech, and Accad, and Cahieh, i7i the land of Shi7iar. Out 
of that land went forth Affjur, and builded Nineve, and the 
city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Refen, between Nineve and Ca- 
lah, the fa77te is a great city. We have, in this narration, an 
account of the firft rebellion in the world ; and the grounds 
of this apoftafy feem to have been thefe. At the diftribution 
of families, and the allotment of the different regions upon 
earth, the houfe of Shem ftood firft, and was particularly 
regarded. The children of Shem were Elam and Afhur, 
Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. Their places of deftination 
feem to have been not far removed from the region of 

'* Genefis. c. 6. v. 9. 
^■^ Genefis. c. 10. v. 8. 



TJa/.- 1. F. 

A M A V of 

lU'/lli' <'/ ///,■///,'/ l///tll/l/ll/ 

i: R E B 


1) E S E R T U JVr 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 17 

deicent, which was the place of feparatioii. They in general 
liad Aiia to their lot, as Japhet had Europe, and Ham the 
large continent of Africa. And in Alia, the portion of Elam 
was to the eaft of the river Tigris, towards the mouth of it, 
which country, by the Gentile writers, was ftyled Elymais : 
and oppofite to him, on the weftern fide, was Afhur. In 
like manner, above Afhur, upon the fame river was Aram, 
who polTeffed the countries called Aram and Aramea : and 
oppoUte to him was Arphaxad, who in after times was called 
^^ Arbaches and Arbaces, and his country Arphacitis. Lud 
probably retired to Lydia, and bordered upon the fons of 
Japhet, who were pofTeffed of fome regions in Afla Minor. 
This was the original difpoHtion of thefe families ; but the 
fons of Chus would not fubmit to the divine difpenfation ; 
and " Nimrod, who iirft took upon himfelf regal ftate, drove 
Afliur from his demefnes, and forced him to take fhelter in 
the higher parts of Mefopotamia. This was part of the 
country called Aram, and was probably ceded to him by 
his brother. Here the Afhurites built for their defence a 
chain of cities equal in ftrength and renown to thofe which 
had been founded by Nimrod. We have, in this detail, an 

*' Juftln. L. r. c. 3. Ptolemy exprelTes the country Arrapachitis, L. 6. c. i.' 
The chief city was Artaxata. 

-^ Nsf^wJ"', xvp'/iyoi xcci ytya.?, c Aifiis^ Tdrcu riu Ne^^tuJ^ tw (^xijiXuxv Bx^' 

QuXxvoi [JiSTcc Tcc KurxxXvajJiov n ^eicc y^a.(r)n avxrt^rri. Chron. Pafchale. p. 28. 
Nimrod was ftyled Orion, and Alorus by the Gentile writers-, and is acknowledged to 
have been the firft king upon earth, and to have reigned at Babylon, Tol-jtck. /msv 
Bn^cocroi i<^o^mi ■ux^urov ysveaooci BocatXea AXoocov ejc Ba/SuA&^ros XaAcTaicf. Eufeb. 
Chron. p. 5, Syncellus fays the fame, p. 37. 79. We meet with the fame hiftory 
in another place of the Chron, Pafchale, p. 36. alfo Johan. Antiochen, L. 2, 
p. 18. 

Vol. III. D account 

1 8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

account of the firft monarchy upon earth, and of the tyranny 
and ufurpations which in confequence of it enfued. 

The facred hiftorian after this mentions another aft of a 
rebellious purpofe; which confifled in building a lofty tower 
with a very evil intent. Moft writers have defcribed this 
and the former event, as antecedent to the migration of 
mankind, which they fuppofe to have been from the plains 
of Shinar : but it will be my endeavour to fliew, that the 
general migration was not only prior, but from another part 
of the world. The words of the hiftorian are thefe : [° A?id 
the whole earth was of one languagey and of one fpeech. And 
it came to pafs^ as they journeyed from the eaft^ that they found 
a plain in the land of Shinar ^ and they dwelt there. A7td they 
faid one to another ^ Go to^ let us make brick^ and bum thetn 
thoroughly. And they had brick for flojie^ and fime had they 
for 7}iortar. And they faid ^ Go to^ let us build us a city, and 
a tower whofe top 7nay reach unto heaven \ and let us make us 
a na?ne, left we be fcattered abroad upon the face of the whole 
earth. And the Lord came down to fee the city and the tower, 
which the children of men builded. And the hord faid. Behold, 
-the people is one ; and they have all one language ; and this 
tJjey begin to do ; and now nothing will be refrained from them 
which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and 
there coyifound their language, that they may not tmderftand 
each other s fpeech. So the Lord fcattered them abroad from 
thence upon the face of all the earth ; and they left off to build 
the city : therefore is the Jiame of it called Babel ; bccaufe the 
Lord did there confound the la7iguage of all the earth \ and 

*° Genefi^ c. ii. v. i. 

'■■' 2 frofn 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 19 

from the?tce did the Lord feat ter them abroad npo?i the face of 
all the earth. It had been in the preceding chapter men- 
tioned, where the family of Shem was enumerated, that wtio 
Heber were born tivo fans ; the iia7}ie of 07ie was Peleo- ; for 
i?i his days was the earth divided. I think, that we may, 
from the preceding portions of Scripture, obferve two diffe- 
rent occurrences, which are generally blended together. 
Firft, that there was a formal migration of families to the 
feveral regions appointed for them, according to the deter- 
mination of the Almighty : Secondly, that there was a 6.i{£i~ 
pation of others, who flood their ground, and would not 
acquiefce in the divine difpeiifation. Thefe feem to have 
been two diftindl events, and to have happened in different 
places, as well as at different times. In the beginning of 
the latter hiftory, mention is made of people's journey- 
ing, and proceeding towards a place of fettlement. It is 
generally thought, that the whole of mankind is included 
in this defcription ; and it is inferred from the words of 
Mofes. A7td the whole earth was of one language^ and of one 
fpeech. And it came to pafs^ as they jourfieyed from the eafly 
that they foimd a plain in the land of Shinar ; and they dwelt 
there. But I am not certain that thefe words afford any 
proof to this opinion : for, in refpeft to what is here faid, I 
do not fee, but that a migration of families might have hap- 
pened antecedently to this journeying from the eaft. The 
paffage, when truly tranflated, does not by any means refer 
to the whole of mankind. According to the original, it is 
faid indeterminately, that in the joti?'7ieyi?ig of people fro7n the 

*' Genefis. c. JO. V. 25. Peleg fignified divifion, 

D 2 eafl. 

20 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

eaj}^ they fotmd a plain in the land of Shinar. The purport, 
therefore, of the whole pafTage amounts only to this, that, 
before there was any alteration in the language of mankind, 
a body of people came from the eaft to the place above fpe- 
cified. This is all that is faid : fo that I am far from being 
fatisfied, that the whole of mankind was engaged in this ex- 
pedition from the eaft. The Scripture does not feem to fay fo: 
nor can there be any reafon afTigned, why they fliould travel 
fo far merely to be dilTipated afterwards. We have reafon 
to think, that foon after the defcent from the Ark, the Pa- 
triarch fotmd himfelf in a jfine and fruitful country ; for fo 
it is defcribed by '^^ Strabo and others ; and there is nothing 
that we can fuppofe to have been done at Shinar, but might 
have been effected in the fpot where he firft refided ; I mean 
in refpedt to migration. The region about Ararat may be 
efteemed as nearly a central part of the earth ; and it is cer- 
tainly as well calculated as any other for the removal of co- 
lonies upon the increafe of mankind. The Ethnic writers, 
in their accounts of the wanderings of Ifis and Jonah, feem 
to allude to the journeying of mankind ; and they fpeak of 
the country about Caucafus as the place from whence thofe 
travels began. The fame is to be obferved in the original 
hiftory of the Miny^e, which is called the retreat of the Ar- 
gonautae : for they retire from the region about Caucafus to 
the remoteft parts of the earth : and it is well known, that 
Ararat in Armenia is a part of that vaft chain of mountains 
called Caucafus and Taurus. Upon thefe mountains, and in 

** L. II. p. 8co. Ararat, regio in Armenia campeftris eft ; per quam Araxes 
fiuit; incredibilis ubertatis. Hicron. in Eiaiam. c. 37. See Tavernie/s Travels, p. 
14, 15. andToiirnefort. Letter 7th. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 21 

the adjacent country, were preferved more authentic accounts 
of the Ark, than ahnoft in any other part of the world. 
Mofes Chorenenfis takes notice of the many memorials re- 
lating to ancient times, which were preferved by the people 
of Armenia. They were commemorated in their poems, 
fongs, and facred hymns. ^^ Czeterum veteres Armenii in 
carminibus fiiis, cantilenis ad cymbala, ac tripudiis, longe 
copiofiorem -de his rebus mentionem agitant. The ancmit 
Arjneniafis i?z their poems and hymns^ which are accompanied 
with cymbals and dances^ afford a far more copious account of 
thefe events than a?iy other natioji. The place where man- 
kind firft refided, was undoubtedly the region of the Minyas, 
at the bottom of Mount Baris, or Luban, which was the Ar- 
arat of Mofes. Here I imagine, that the Patriarch refided; 
and ^"^ Berofus mentions, that in this place he gave inftru6tions 
to his children, and vaniflied from the iight of men. But 
the facred writings are upon this head fUent : they only 
mention his planting the vine, and feemingly taking up his 
abode for a long time upon the fpot. Indeed, they do not 
afford us any reafon to infer that he ever departed from it. 
The very plantation of the vine feems to imply a purpofe of 
relidence. Not a word is faid of the Patriarch's ever quit- 
ting the place ; nor of any of his fons departing from it, 
till the general migration. Many of the fathers were of 
opinion, that they did not for fome ages quit this region. 
According to Epiphanius, they remained in the vicinity of 
Ararat for five generations, during the fpace of fix hundred 

" L. I.e. 5. p. 19. 

5+ Apud Eufeb. Chron. p. %l 


22 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology,' 

and fifty-nine years. *^ MsTOL tJi Tov KccroiKXvT^LQV, Qjig-c(.(rri; 

pioo'j KOLi ILoL^^vsm, sv TO) Aa^oL^ o^Bi x,a.Xiiiiem, ezsiTs TtX^^firov 
oiZYim yivsTdi ixsrx top KOLTa.KXvT^ov Toov cv^^ojTTCfjV yJxBi (pvrsvsi 
a[JL7rs7\Oivx Nws o 'ur^o:pyiTrjg, oi/jg'rjg ts yivsrxi rs roTra. VivonoLi 

Jg roi; avTn 'vrccKri 'urcLi^eg, koli 'urai^ctjv tzra<^e?, giwj 'WSfXTTTrig sToov s^oLy.Qrim ■wsnrjKona bvvbol. After the Ark upon 
the decreafc of the ^waters had refted up07t the 7?iou7ita'nis of Ar- 
arat^ np07t that particular e7ni7ie7ice called Lubar^ mohich bou7ids 
the cou72tries of the Ar77te7tia7ts a7id the Carduea7Js ; the regio7t 
where it fettled beca77ie the frfl place occupied by ma7iki7id. 
Here the Patriarch Noah took up his refde77ce^ aTid pla7tted 
the viTie. I71 this place he faw a large proge7iy defce72d fro7ft 

hij77^ childre7i after childre7i to the ^^ ffth ge7ieratio77y for 

the f pace of fx himdred a7id ffty-7ii7ie years. 

During the refidence of mankind in thefe parts, we may 
imagine, that there was a feafon of great happinefs. They 
for a long time lived under the mild rule of the great 
Patriarch, before laws were enafted or penalties known. 
When they multiplied, and were become very numerous, it 
pleafed God to allot to the various families difFerent regions, 
to which they were to retire : and they accordingly, in the 
days of Peleg, did remove, and betake themfelves to their 
different departments. But the fons of Chus would not obey. 
They went off under the condudl of the archrebel Nimrod; 



Hasref. L. i. p. 5. 

The fame is mentioned by this writer in another place. TIsfJiTnyi yivio. fxirae. 

Tov y,acTctx?\vaf:t.ov, -izrA^Dyrof'T&u' ct^ri toov an^pwTrooi xtto ra AuQctp tk A^jocgr/as, 

tbt' e<r*^' A^aoaT T?)5 ;^w5a5, yironTcci tv ■ziriS'tu Xiyaap, L. I. p. 6. 

•" '' and 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 23 

and feem to have been for a long time in a roving ftate ; but 
at laft they arrived at the plains of Shinar. Thefe they 
found occupied by AfTur and his fons : for he had been 
placed there by divine appointment. But they ejeAed him, 
and feized upon his dominions ; which they immediately 
fortified with cities^ and laid the foundation of a great mon- 
archy. Their leader is often mentioned by the Gentile 
writers, who call him Belus. He was a perfon of great im- 
piety ; who finding, that the earth had been divided among 
the fons of men by a divine decree, thought proper to coun- 
teract the ordinance of God, and to make a diiferent diftri- 
bution. This is often alluded to in the Ethnic writings ; 
and Abydenus particularly mentions, that ^^ Belus appointed 
to the people their place of habitation. Dionyfius refers to 
this Belus and his aflbciates, when he is fpeaking of the dei- 
ties, who were the anceflors of the Indo-Cuthites. 


They firft allotted to each roving tribe 
Their fhare of fea, and land. 

This is the beginning of that period, which, upon account 
of the rebellion then firft known, was by the Greek writers 
alluded to under the title of XfiV^iT^og, Scuthifmus. This 
ejectment of AfTur feems to fhew, that thefe tranfadions were 
after the general migration ; for he was in pofTeffion <jf the pro- 
vince allotted to him, till he was ejected by this lawlefs people. 

*^ Xtoretv e>£a<j-(j) tcwovetfJiccirx. Eufcb. Prtcp. Evang. L. 9. p. 457. 
'^ V.I 173. 


.24 'i ^iii Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

In the beginning of this hifloiy it is faid, that they jour- 
neyed from the eaft, when they came to the land of Shinar. 
This was tlie latter part of their rout : and the reafon of 
their coming in this diredion may, I think, be plainly fhewn. 
The Ark, according to the beft accounts, both facred and 
profane, refted upon a mountain of Armenia, called Minyas, 
Baris, Lubar, and Ararat. Many families of the emigrants 
went probably diredrly eaft or weft, in confequence of the 
Situation to which they were appointed. But thofe who 
were deftined to the fouthern parts of the great continents, 
which they were to inhabit, could not fo eafily and uniform- 
ly proceed ; there being but few outlets to their place of 
deftination. For the high Tauric ridge and the ^' Gordyean 
inountains came between, and intercepted their due courfe. 
How difficult thefe mountains were, even in later times, to 
be pafTed may be known from the retreat of the ten thoufand 
Greeks, who had ferved under Cyrus the younger. They came 
from thefe very plains of Shinar -, and paffing to the eaft of 
the Tigris, they arrived at thefe mountains, which with great 
peril they got over. But in the times of which we are treat- 
ing, they muft have been ftill more difficult to be ^° fur- 
xnounted : for after the deluge, the hollows and valleys be- 
tween thefe hills, and all other mountainous places, muft 
have been full of flime and mud ; and for a great while have 
abounded with ftagnant waters. We know from ancient 
hiftory, that it was a long time before paflages were opened, 

'9 Strabo, L. ii. p. 798, 

'" In later times there were only two paflages fouthward. Armenia orientales 
Cilicioe fines attingit, atque ad Tauriim montem patet-^atque ex ea duo adieus in 
Syriam patent. Mofes Chorenenf. Geog. p. 354. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 25 

and roads made through places of this nature. I fhould 
therefore think, that mankind muft neceflarily for fome ages 
have remained near the place of defcent, from which they 
did not depart till the time of the general migration. Ar- 
menia is in great meafure bounded either by the Pontic fea, 
or by mountains : and it feems to have been the purpofe of 
Providence to confine the fons of men to this particular re- 
gion, to prevent their roving too foon. Otherwife they 
might have gone off in fmall parties, before the great fami- 
lies w^ere conftituted, among v^^hom the world was to be 
divided. The oeconomy and diftribution afligned by Provi- 
dence, would by thefe means have been defeated. It was 
upon this account, that at the migration, many families were 
obliged to travel more or iefs eaftward, who wanted to come 
down to the remoter parts of Afia. And in refpe6l to the 
Cuthites, who feem to have been a good while in a roving 
ftate, they might pofTibly travel to the Pylaj Cafpise, before 
they found an outlet to defcend to the country fpecified. 
In confequence of this, the latter part of their rout muft 
have been in the direction mentioned in the Scriptures ; 
which is very properly ftyled a journeying from the eaft. I 
was furprifed, after I had formed this opinion from the na- 
tural hiftory of the country, to find it verified by that an- 
cient hiftorian Berolus. He mentions the rout of his coun- 
trymen from Ararat after the deluge ; and fays, that it was 
not in a ftrait line : but people had been inftruded ^' 'We^i'i 
'WO^BV^iTii/OLi sig BoL^vAwi/iccv, to take a circuity a?id fo to defceiid 
to the regions of Babylonia. In this manner, the Ibns of Chus 

'■ Eufeb. Chron, p. 8. nff/tf, xt;xAM. Hefych. 

Vol. III. E came 

26 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

came to the plains of Sliinar, of which Babylonia was a part; 
and from hence they ejected Affur : and afterwards tref- 
pafled upon Elam in the region beyond the Tigris. 

It may ftill be urged, that all mankind muft certainly 
have been at Babel : for the whole earth and its language 
are mentioned '" ; and it is faid, that God co/ifounded there 
the language of all the earth. But this, I think, can never be 
the meaning of the facred writer : and it may be proved 
from the premifes, upon which thofe in oppofition proceed. 
The confufion of fpeech is by all uniformly limited to the re- 
gion about Babel. If we were to allow, that all mankind were 
included in this fpot, how can we imagine, that the facred 
hifliorian would call this the whole earth ? If mankind were 
in pofleffion of the greater part of the globe, this figurative 
way of fpeaking would be natural and allowable. But ir 
they are fiippofed to be confined to one narrow interamnian 
diftrid: ; it is furely premature : for we cannot fuppofe that 
the language of the whole earth would be mentioned before 
the earth was in great meafure occupied ; v/hich they do 
not allow. And if what I affert be granted, that the earth 
was in fome degree peopled, yet the confufion is limited to 
Babel ; fo that what is mentioned in the above paflage can 
never relate to the whole earth. 

There are two terms, which are each taken in difi'erent 
acceptations ; and upon thefe the truth of this hiftory de- 
pends. In the firft verfe of this chapter it is faid, that, Col 
Aretz, the whole earth was of one language (or rather lip), 
and way of fpeaking. The word Col fignifies the whole^ and 

"^ C. ii.v. I. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 27 

alfo every. By Aretz is often meant the earth : it alfo fig- 
nifies a land or province ; and occurs continually in this 
latter acceptation. We find in this very chapter, that the 
region of Shinar is called Aretz Shinar; and the land of Ca- 
naan " Aretz Canaan. The like may be feeu in the pre- 
ceding chapter, and in various parts of Scripture. I lliall 
therefore adopt it in this fenfe ; and lay before the reader a 
verfion of the whole paflage concerning Babel; rendering 
the terms above as I have obferved them at times exhibited 
by fome of the beft judges of the original. 

1 . And every region ivas of one lip and ''^ mode of fpeech. 

2. And it came to pafs^ in the journeying of people from the 
eajl^ that they found a plai?i i?z the (Aretz) land of Shinar, 
and they dwelt there. 

3. A?id one 7nan faid to another \ Go to\ let us make brick, 
and burn them thoroughly : and they had brick for fane ; and 

flime had they for mortar. 

4. And they faid ; Go to ; let us build us a city and a 
tower, whofc top may reach imto heaven : and let us make us a 
>nark or fignal, that we may not be fcattered abroad upon the 

Jurface of every region, 

5. A?td the Lord came down -to fee the city, and the tower ^ 
which the childreji of men were building, 

6. And the Lord faid'. Behold, the people is one (united in 

" V. 32. So Aretz Havilah, the land ofHavilah. Genefis. c. 2. v. ii. U?tD ^*1K, 
Aretz Cufh, v. 12. the land of Cufli. The Plalmifl makes life of both tlie terms 
precifely in the fenfe, which I attribute to them here. 'Their found is gone out into every, 
land: Col Aretz, in omnem terram. Pf. 19. v. 4. 

"* Et 5»zK/j/frrfl labium unum, et verba una. Verfio Ari^e Montani. -/.ai q-cotn 
fAia ■vsa.Qi. Sept. 

E 2 one 

28 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

one body) ; a?id they have all one lip «?r pj'onu7iciation: and 
this they begbi to do ; and now 7iothing will be rejirained frotn 
them, which they have ijnagined to do. 

7. Go to\ let lis go down, and there coiifound their lip, that 
they may not imderjland one a?iother s lip, or pro7imiciatio7t. 

8. So the Lord fcattered thetn abroad fro77i the7tce over the 
face of every regio7i ; and they left off to build the city. 

9. T'herefore is the 7^a7ne of it called Babel, becaufethe Lord 
did there co7ifound the lip of the whole land ; and fro7n thence 
did the Lord fcatter the7n over the face of every region, or of 
the whole earth. 

This I take to be the true purport of the hiftory ; from 
whence we may infer, that the confufion of language was a 
partial event : and that the whole of mankind are by no 
means to be included in the difperfion from Babel. It re- 
lated chiefly to the fons of Chus ; whofe intention was to 
have founded a great, if not an univerfal, empire : but by 
this judgment their purpofe was defeated. 

That there was a migration firft, and a difperfion after- 
wards, will appear more plainly, if we compare the different 
hiftories of thefe events. " /;/ the days of Peleg the earth 
•was divided : and the fons of Noah were diflifiguifoed in their 
generations, in their 7iations : and by thefe were the nations 
divided in the earth after the flood. We fee here uni- 
formity and method ; and a particular diftribution. And 
this is faid to have happened, not after the building of the 
tower, or confufion of fpeech, but after the flood. In 

''' Genefis. c. 10. v. 25. 31. 32. E§ a.vr'3 {^xXiy) xai rr,v toh' 'Ka.X^aicov Botcri- 
Atfac, t]i 'WPWTOi EvTu^ioijO Kcii 'i^efJiCp^S, (f'awsv xccTcco^ccabxi. Syncellus. p. 79. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 29 

the other cafe, there is an irregular diflipation without any 
rule and order. ^* So the Lord fcattered them abroad from 
thence upon the face of eve?y regio?i ; and they left off to build 
the city : and from thence (from the city and tower) did 
the Lord fcatter them abroad. This is certainly a different 
event from the former. In fliort, the migration was general ; 
and all the families among the fons of men were concerned 
in it. The difperfion at Babel, and the confufion, was par- 
tial ; and related only to the houfe of Chus and their adhe- 
rents. For they had many affociates, probably ovit of every 
family; apoftates from the truth; who had left the ftock of 
their fathers, and the religion of the true God, that they 
miprht enlift under the rule of the Cuthites, and follow their 
rites and worfhip. For when Babel was deferted, we find 
among the Cuthites of Chaldsa fome of the line of " Shem, 
whom we could fcarcely have expeded to have met in 
fuch a fociety. Here were Terah, and Nahor, and even 
Abraham, all upon forbidden ground ; and feparated from 
the family to which they belonged. This Jofhua mentions, 
in his exhortation to the children of Ifrael. ''* Tour fathers 
dwelt on the other fde of the food iit old time^ even 'Terah the 
father of Abraham^ and the father of Nachor^ and they fej'ved 
other gods. And we may well imagine, that many of the 
branches of Ham were aiTociated in the fame manner, and- 
in confederacy with the rebels ; and fome perhaps of every 
great divifion into which mankind was feparated. To this 

^^ Genefis. c. ii. v. 8. 9. 
■^^ Genefis. c. 11. v. 2&. ; 
"* Jofhua. c. 24. V, z. 


30- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Berofus bears witiiefs, who fays, that in the firft age Baby- 
lon was inhabited by people of different families and nations, 
who relided there in great numbers. ^' Ev Jg Tji Bol^vXoovi 
'uroTw 'UT'kYi^oi; oLvO^oiTroov ybvbt^oli aXkoB^mv KctroDiYiTOLVTit^y Xcth- 
^OLiOM. ht thofe times Babylon was full of people of differ efit 
nations and families^ who rejtded in Chaldea. And as all thefe 
tribes are faid to have been of one lip, and of the fame 
words, that is, of the fame uniform pronunciation, and the 
fame exprefs language, it feemed good to divine wifdom, to 
caufe a confufion of the lip, and a change in pronunciation, 
that thefe various tribes might no longer underftand each 
other. *° Go to^ let us go down^ a?id there co7tfound their ns::?. 
Up ; that they may 7iot underjland one another s fpcech. 
*' 'Therefore is the name of it called Babel \ becaufe the Lord 
did there co7 found the lajiguage of all the earth. Our verfion 
is certainly in this place faulty, as I have fhewn : for by 
faphet col haretz is not here meant the language of the 
whole earth, but of the whole region, or province ; which 
language was not changed, but confounded, as we find it 
exprefly mentioned by the facred writer. This coniufion of 
fpeech is by all uniformly limited to the country about Babel. 
We muft therefore, inftead of the language of all the 
earth fubftitute the language of the whole country : for fuch. 
is the purport of the terms. This was confounded by cauf- 
ing a *^ labial failure ; fp that the people could not articulate. 

" Eufebii Chron. p. 6. 
'° Genefis. c. ii. v. 7. 
'• C. 11.V.9. 

*' By all the Grecian interpreters it is rendered avyxyfJii'- whicli can never denote 
a change j but only a confufion, 

10 It 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythdlogy. 31 

It was not an aberration in words, or language, but a failure, 
and incapacity in labial utterance. By this their fpeech was 
confounded, but not altered; for, as foon as they feparated, 
they recovered their true tenor of pronunciation ; and the 
language of the earth continued for fome ages nearly tfi^ 
*' fame. This, I think, appears from many interviews, takea 
notice of in Scripture, between the Hebrews, and other na- 
tions ; wherein they fpeak without an interpreter, and muft 
therefore have nearly the fame tongue. And even the lan- 
guages, which fubfift at this day, various as they may be, yet 
retain fufficient relation to fhew, that they were once dia- 
lers from the fame matrix ; and that their variety was the 
effedl of time. If we may truft to an Ethnic writer, the evi- 
dence of Eupolemus is decilive ; for he fpeaks of the difper- 
fion as a partial judgment, inflidled upon thofe perfons only, 
who were confederate at Babel. His account is very parti- 
cular, and feems to agree precifely with the purport of the 
Scriptures. He fays, ** that the city Babel was jirjl foimded^ 
and afterwards the celebrated tower ; both which were built by 
fome of thofe people who had efcaped the deluge. 'Eivai cb clvthq 
ViyccvTocg. They were the fame who in after times were recorded 

*' Upon this head, the perfon of all others to be confulted, is the very learned 
Monfieur Court de Gebelin, in his wovk entitled, Monde Primitif Analyfe et Com- 
pare ; which is now printing at Paris, and is in part finifhcd. The laft publifhcd vo- 
lume is particularly to be read ; as it affords very copious and latisfadlory evidences 
to this purpofe •, and is replete with the moft curious erudition, conccrnino- the 
hiftory and origin both of writing and language. 

Ec/7roA£/<oS Si iv Tu -uiifi IsSxtoiv Tils Aaffuoicci (fyiai) sroXiv 'EccCvAuvx -zcrpuTov fxsv 
XTicrDHr«( UTTO TOJi' SioiCTM^evToiv tx. xj xccTocKAvo-ixa' eivcci Si cLVTiii Tiycci'TcLi. OixcSa- 
fxiiv Se TO!' ic^op'zifxiv'A' Ylupyov. -weacrrof Si t^to vtto ms tb Qea evsoyfta?, louiTiyonTciii 
S'laaTrapmat xa}f oAw Ti\v yi]v. ApudEufeb. Prxp. L. 9. p. 418. 


32 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

under the charaSier of the Gia?its. 'The tower was at length 
by the hand of the Almighty ruined : and thefe Giants were 
fcattered over the whole earth. By this we find, that only a 
part of mankind was engaged in the building of the tower ; 
and that thofe only were difperfed abroad : confequently 
the confufion of fpeech could not be univerfal, no more than 
the difperfion, of which it was the caufe. 

The people concerned in this daring undertaking encou- 
raged each other to this work by faying, ^^ Go to ; let us 
huild us a city and a tower ^ whofe top may reach unto heaven : 
and let us jnake us a na?ne, leji we be fcattered abroad upon the 
face of the whole earth. What is in our verfion a name, is 
by many interpreted a monument, a ^^ mark, or fign to di- 
rect : and this certainly is the fenfe of it in this paffage. 
The great fear of the fons of Chus was, that they might be 
divided and fcattered abroad. They therefore built this 
tower, as a land-mark to repair to; as a token to dired 
them : and it was probably an idolatrous temple, or high 
altar, dedicated to the hoft of heaven, from which they were 
never long to be abfent. It is exprellly faid, that they raifed 
it, to prevent their being fcattered abroad. It was the ori- 
ginal temple of Sama-Rama, whence the Babylonians were 
called Semarim. The apoftates were one fourth of the line 
of Ham, and they had an inclination to maintain themfelves 
where they firft fettled, inftead of occupying the countries 
to which they were appointed. And that the fons of Chus 

*' Genefis. c. 1 1. v. 3. 

" According to Schultens, the proper and primary notion of tZSty, is a mark, or 
fign. Handing out, raifed up, or expofed to open view. Taylor's Hebrew Concord- 
ance, n. 1963. CDU', is fimilar to o-»fca, and ( of the Greeks. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 33 

were the chief agents both in erecting the tower of Babel, 
and in profecuting thefe rebellious principles, is plain from 
a previous paffage ; for it is faid of Nimrod, the fon of 
Chus, that the beginning of his kingdom was Babel. We can- 
not therefore fuppofe this defedion general, or the judgment 
univerfal ; unlefs all mankind co-operated with this ty-rant. 
Or fuppoling, that the term of his life did not extend to the 
ereding of the tower, and that he only laid the foundation 
of the city : yet the whole was carried on by thofe of his 
family, who were confefledly rebels and apoftates. They 
aded in defiance of God ; and were in a continual ftate of 
trefpafs towards man. And though fome did join them ; 
yet it is hardly credible, that all fhould co-operate, and fo 
totally forget their duty. How can we imagine that Shem, 
if he were alive, would enter into a league with fuch people? 
or that his fons Elam, Aram, or Arphaxad would join them ? 
The pre-eminence fhewn them in the regions to which they 
were appointed, and the regularity obfervable in their defti- 
nation, prove that they could not have been a part in the 
difperfion, and confequently not of the confederacy. In- 
deed, they had retired to their feveral departments, before 
the ered;ing of the tower : and Affur, the fecond of the fons 
of Shem, fo far from co-operating with this people, had 
been driven from his fettlement by them, and forced to take 
Shelter in another place. In fhort, there was a mio-ration 
firft, and a difperfion afterwards : which latter was effedled 
by a fearful judgment ; a confufion of fpeech, through a 
failure in labial utterance. This judgment was partial, as 
was the difperfion in confequence of it. It related only to 
Vol. III. F the 

34 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the Cuthites of Shinar and Babel, and to thofe who had 
joined themfelves to them. They feem to have been a very 
numerous body : and, in confequence of this calamity, they 
fled away ; not to any particular place of deftination : but 
were fcattered abroad upoji the face of the whole earth. And 
the truth of this will appear from the concurrent teftimony 
of the moft approved Ethnic writers. 

Such is the account tranfmitted by Mofes of the reparation 
of mankind after the flood ; and of their migration, accord- 
ing to their families, to the regions appointed for them : of 
the rebellion alfo of the Cuthites, and the conflirudlion of the 
tower ; and of the di/lipation, which afterwards enfued. 
This is a curious and inefl:imable piece of hifl:ory, which is 
authenticated in every part by the evidence of fubfequent 
ages. As far as this hiftory goes, we have an infallible 
guide to dired: us in refped; to the place of deftination, to 
which each family retired. But what encroachments were 
afterwards made \ what colonies were fent abroad ; and 
what new kingdoms founded ; are circumftances to be 
fought for from another quarter. And in our procefs to 
obtain this knowledge, we mufl have recourfe to the writers 
of Greece. It is in vain to talk about the Arabian or Perflc 
literature, of modern date : or about the Celts, and the 
Scythse ; at leafl:, according to the common acceptation, in 
which the laft nation is underftood. All knowledge of an- 
cient times has been derived to us through the hands of the 
Grecians. They have copied from the moft early writers of 
the eaft : and we have no other refources to apply to, where 
the Mofaic hiftory clofes. It may perhaps be faid, that thefe 

5 helps 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 35 

helps nluft be very precarious ; as little truft can be repofed 
in writers, who have blended and fophifticated whatever 
came to their hands : where the mixture is fo general, that 
it is fcarce poflible, with the greateft attention, to diftinguifh 
truth from fable. It muft be confefTed, that the truth is 
much difguifed : yet it is by no means effaced ; and confe- 
quently may be flill retrieved. I hope, in the courfe of my 
argument, that this has been abundantly fhewn. To pafs a 
proper judgment on the Grecian hiftories, we muft look 
upon them collecflively as a rich mine ; wherein the ore lies 
deep ; and is mixed with earth, and other bafe concretions. 
It is our bufmefs to fift, and feparate ; and by refining to 
difengage it. This, by care and attention, is to be effed:ed : 
and then what a fund of riches is to be obtained ! 

The laft great event, which I mentioned from the Mofaic 
account, was the difiipation of the Cuthites from Babel : 
from whence they were fcattered over the face of the earth. 
This is an sera to be much obferved : for at this period the 
facred penman clofes the general hiftory of the world. What 
enfues relates to one family and to a private difpenfation. 
Of the nations of the earth, and their polities, nothing more 
occurs ; excepting only, as their hiftory chances to be con- 
ne6led with that of the fons of Ifrael. We muft therefore 
3iave recourfe to Gentile authority for a fubfequent account. 
And, previoufly to this, we may from them obtain collateral 
evidence of the great events which had preceded, and which 
are mentioned by Mofes. We learn from the poets, and all 
the more ancient writers were poets, that there was a time, 
when mankind lived a life of fimplicity and virtue : that 

F 2 the^ 

36 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology." 

they had no laws ; but were in a ftate of nature ; when 
pains and penalties were unknown. They were wonderfully 
bleffed with longevity, and had a fhare of health and ftrength 
in proportion to their years. At laft, there was a mighty 
falling off from this primitive limplicity ; and a great change 
was effedled in confequence of this failure. Men grew 
proud and unjuft : jealoufies prevailed ; attended with a 
love of rule : which was followed with war and bloodfhed. 
The chief perfon, who began thefe innovations, was Nimrod. 
The Greeks often call him Nebrod, and Nebros, and have 
preferved many oriental memorials concerning him, and his 
apoftafy ; and concerning the tower, which he is fuppofed 
to have ereded. He is defcribed as a gigantic, daring per- 
fonage ; a contemner of every thing divine : and his affoci- 
ates are reprefented of a charadler equally enterprizing and 
daring. ^^ Abydenus, in his Affyrian Annals, alludes to the 
infurre6tion of the fons of Chus, and to their great impiety. 
He alfo mentions the building of the tower, and confu- 
sion of tongues : and fays, that the tower, analogous to the 
words of the Scripture, was carried up to heaven ; but that 
the Gods ruined it by ftorms and whirlwinds ; and fruftrated 
the purpofe for which it was deligned ; and overthrew it 
upon the heads of thofe, who were employed in the work : 

*'" Ei'Ti cTs ii Xiyaai tb? ■mpuTHi ex. yn; ava.d'XpvTa.i pcof^'(i re xcci f/sj sQf; x^x-jyocf^errx?, 
xcciSij^eccvx.tx.TWpfovyja-ccvTaia.jj.etvQi'Ot.feii'cc.iy-zs-voycovTV^aiv rtAiSccroi' ccsi^iw, wot vvv 
'Ea.QuXctiv eq-iv, «/« Tg aacroi' eivxt ra B^avn' xcct Tfa« aviixa ^i:itat /3i JiovTXi ai'XT^e-^xt 
'ojioi ocvioKTi TO p.r)^a.vnfjia.' ra ^ma. epsnrix Aeyiadxi Bx^uAmi'x. Tsws cTg ovrxi o/^a- 
yXai(r(jBi iit ^rsoM' -sroAuB^ai' ^wi'Hr eveiHxa^xt. Mgra Se Koovm xxi Tmivi cuc^vaxi -sro- 
?^ilJiov. O Se T37ro;, ev a 'srvpyov wxaJs/Ltuyai', vuv BaouA&j;' KxXitrxt, S'ix Tnv auy^vc-tu 
Tn -zFrpt r-i-ii/ §:x?:eytTov t^^mtvv ivx^yovi. 'ESpxict yxo t^v avy^vaiy BxSe?^ KxiK'dat. 
Eufeb. Chron. p. 13. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^7 

that the ruins of it were called Babylon. Before this, there 
was but one language fublifting among men : but now they 
had, "SToKv^^av cpoji^riv, a manifold found, or utterance. A 
war foon after enfued between Cronus and Titan. He re- 
peats, that the particular fpot, where the tower flood, was 
in his time called Babylon ^^ It was fo called, he fays, from 
the confufion of tongues, and variation of dialect : for in 
the Hebrew language, fuch confufion is termed Babel. The 
Scriptures fpeak only of a confufion of tongue : but Abyde- 
nus mentions high winds, which impeded the work, and 
finally overthrew the tower. The like is mentioned in the 
Sibylline oracles, together with the confufion of tongues : 
which circumftance moft of thefe writers, from not being 
vi^ell verfed in the original hiftory, have fuppofed to have 
been general *'. And fimilar to the hiflory of Abydenus, an ac- 
count is here given of a war, which broke out foon after. 

Some traces of thofe fearful events, with which the dif- 
perfion is faid to have been attended, feem to have been 
preferved in the records of Phenicia. Syria, and the greateft 
part of the country about Libanus, was, as I have abundant- 
ly fhewn, pofTefTed by the fons of Chus : and even the city 
Tyre was under their rule. The people of this city were 
ftyled Phenicians, and are faid to have been driven from 
their firfl place of fettlement, which we know to have been 
in Babylonia, by earthquakes. '° Tyriorum gens, condita a 

*' Strabo fpeaks of a tower of immenfe fize at Babylon, remaining in later times, 
which was a ftadium every way. L. x6. p. 1073. Thefe are nearly the dimenfions 
of fome of the principal pyramids in Egypt. 

*' Theophilus ad Autclyc. L. 2. p. 371, 

'' Jufcin. L. 18. 0.3. 


38 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Phcenicibus fuit ; qui terrse motu vexati Aflyrium ftagnum 
prime, mox mari proximiim littiis incoluerunt. 

I have mentioned the remarkable evidence of Eiipolemus, 
who attributes the conftru6lion both of Babylon, and the 
Tower, to people of the giant race. By thefe are always 
meant the fons of Ham and Chus : fo that it certainly was 
not a work of general co-operation. Epiphanius alfo takes 
notice of Babel, or Babylon ; '' Tri; 'W^uoTYig 'uroKsoog fJLSTcc top 
koltcckKvu'ijlov K.ri(T^Si<rrig' Which ^ he fays, voas the Jii'ft city that 
ivas built after the flood. E^' ayrj] Tj5 oiko$'o[jlyi ^iyj\ Mittqv 
cvfjtJosXioLgy a&^oi(r[JLiiy koli Tv^oLVviSog, yivsrcci NsS'^w^. Ns^^w^ 
ya.^ ^OLTiKevii mog T3 Xag Aidiowog. Fro7ntheveryfoimdation 
of this city^ there comfnenced an imjnediate fce7ie of co7jf piracy, 
f edition, and tyranny, which was carried o?z by Nimrod : for 
royalty was then firfl afftmied by Nifnrod, who was the fo7t of 
Chus, the JEthiop, He is in all hiftories reprefented as a 
giant ; and, according to the '"' Perfian accounts, was deified 
after his death, and called Orion. One of the afterifms in 
the celeftial fphere, was denominated from him. The Scrip- 
ture fpeaks of him as a mighty hunter : and Homer, in re- 
ference to thefe hiftories, introduces him as a giant, and a 
hunter in the fhades below. 

'• L. I. p. 7. 

'* ^Bi—oq'ne'yevvws tov "NeCpoo^ yiyocvra.^ rov mv Babt'^iwia icTifjavroL^ ov Af^a- 
otv 01 TJepaxi ccyro^iu^evra, xxi yivojAivov iv a.<^poii m Ou^ccva, ovriva. Asyyan HPIH- 
NA. Chron. Pafch. p. ;^6. Ev ^e ion 'urpostpvt/.evoii ^^oron ysyove tk yiyxSyTyyo{jux 
Nef^o-'J^, t;ic? Xfs ra AStoTroi. Johan. Malala. p. 18., 

" Homer. Odyff. L. A. v. 571. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 39 

Next I beheld Orion's tow'ring fliade, 
Chafing the favage race ; which wild with fear 
Before him fled in herds. Thefe he had flain 
Upon the cliffs, and folitary hills. 
His arms, a club of brafs, maffy and ftrong, 
Such as no force could injure. 

The author of the Pafchal Chronicle mentions all his at- 
tributes, in fpeaking of him : '"^Ns^^wJ" Kvnjyog, koli Fiyag, 
Ai^io\[/. — Tarn rw Ns^^cc^ tyiv /Sacr/As/av Bix^vXmog fjusrx tov 
KaTOLKXvtTfJLOV iTj ^siOL y^cc^pif] OLVCtTi&riTi. Nebrod^ the great hunter^ 
and giant ^ the Ethiopia?! ; whofn the f acred writi7igs make king 
of Babylon after the deluge. The fame author fays, that he 
firft taught the Affyrians to worfhip fire. ^Ovrog JiJacr;££t 
AfTfTv^iag (TS^siv ro 'Wv^. By the Affyrians are meant the Ba- 
bylonians, who in after times were included under that 
name, but in thefe days were a very diftindl people. Nim- 
rod, by the Grecians, was fometimes rendered Ns^^o^, Ne- 
bros ; which fignifics alfo a fawn : whence in the hiftory of 
Bacchus, and the Cuthites, there is always a play upon this 
term ; as well as upon vs^^ig and PB^^i^sg, Nebris and Hebrides, 

They were not only the oriental hiftorians, who retained 
the memory of thefe early events : manifeft traces of the 
fame are to be found in the Greek poets ; who, though 
at firft not eafy to be underftood, may be fatisfadlorily ex- 
plained by what has preceded. The clue given above will 

«* Chron. Pafch. p. 28. 


40 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

readily lead us to the liiftory, to which they allude. The 
difperfion of the Cuthites is manifeftly to be difcovered under 
the fable of the flight of Bacchus : and the difunion of that 
formidable body, which made fo bold a ftand, and the fcat- 
tering of them over the face of the earth, is reprefented un- 
der the fable of difmembering the fame perfon. It is faid of 
him, that he was torn '^ limb from limb : that his members 
were fcattered different ways ; but that he afterwards re- 
vived. The Scripture account is, that the Lord fcattered 
them abroad ; not to any certain place of deftination, but 
over the face of the whole earth. This is plainly referred to 
by Nonnus, where he fpeaks of the retreat of Bacchus, and 
the diflipation of his alTociates j by whom are to be under- 
ftood the Cuthites. 

^^ Ag'Oihsg Js (pochotyysg olyiObol KvaKa kbXbv^h 

Eg'lKOV SV^OL KCtl, BV^OL ^lOCK^l^QV, B? 'UTTB^OV Ev^H, 

Eig Ts poL'^iv XB(pv^o^o, KOLi 'EfTTtB^ia kKi^cc yoLirig, 
'Ai^b Nora 'urct^a 'STBiciv cLhri^ovBg^ diSe Bo^rjog 
'Boi.(T(TOL^ihg KhovBovro. 

His wavering bands now fled in deep difmay 
By different routs, uncertain where they pafs'd, 
Some fought the limits of the eaftern world ; 

'' Clemens Alexandr. Cohort, p. 15. Oi Tnavei S'lSa-Trcco-a.v ztl rviriccxov ouia. 
Juftin Mart. Apolog. L. i. p. 56. and p. 75. mentions Aiorvaov S'loccrTct^ivTa' 
Bacchus was the fame as Ofiris. 

Ogygia me Bacchum vocat : 
Ofirin iEgyptus putat : &c. Aiuonius. 
Ofiris, in confequence of this, is fiippofed to have been torn to pieces, and his limbs 
fcattered. Plutarch. Ifis& Ofiris. See alfo Diodorus Sicul. L. 3. p. 196. 
■f. Nonni Dionyfiac. L. 34. p. 864. 

7 Some, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 41 

Some, where the craggy weftern coaft extends, 
Sped to the regions of the fetting fun. 
Sore travel others felt, and wandered far 
Southward ; while many fought the diftant north, 
All in confufion. 

He fpeaks of this people in the feminine ; becaufe many of 
the attendants upon Bacchus were fuppofed to have been 
women, and were his prieftefTes : but the meaning of the 
ftory is evident. I fliall fhew, that many of them fled by fea 
to India, where they fettled upon the great Erythrean Ocean. 
The poet has an eye to this likewife in another place, where 
he fpeaks of the flight of Bacchus. He paints him in great 
terrors, and in the utmoft confternation. 

- Ta^^aKsoig ^s 'uroos(r(n (pvym ciKi'^Yirog o^iTio?, 
T'hoLVKoy EPT0PAIH2 v7i:sh<roLro kv^jlol ^oLkoL<r<TY\i* 
Toy (jg @eri; fivSiY] (piXB(f 'UTYiKVVBV ctyo^ui, 
Ka; ^ly s<ruj hvovrcc 'uro7^(pXoi<T^Qio fjLsXct&^s 

Bacchus all trembling, as he fled away, 
Call'd on the mighty Erythrean deep 
To yield him flicker. Thetis heard his cries, 
And as he plung'd beneath the turbid wave, 
. Received him in her arms : old Nereus too. 
The Arabian God, ftretch'd out his friendly hand. 
And led him darkling thro' the vaft abyfs 
Of founding waters. 

'" Nonni Dionyfiac. L. 20, p. 552, 

Vol. III. G The 

42 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

The check, which Bacchus received, and his flight in con- 
fequence of it, is fuppofed by many to have been in 
Thrace. Here Lycurgus is faid to have been king, who 
drove Bacchus out of his dominions. But Lycurgus be- 
ing made king of Thrace is like Inachus and Phoroneus 
being the fame at Argos, Deucalion in ThefTaly. Thefe are 
all ancient traditions, ingrafted upon the hiftory of the place 
by the pofterity of thofe who introduced them. Diodorus 
Siculus '* afliires us, that many writers, and particularly An- 
timachus, made Lycurgus a king of Arabia : and Homer 
places the fcene of this tranfacStion at Nufa : but which 
Nufa he does not fay. In fhort Lycus, Lycorus, Lycoreus, 
and with a guttural Lycurgus, were all names of the Deity ; 
and by the Amonians appropriated to the Sun. Under 
the fable of ^' Lycurgus, who exterminated Bacchus and his 
aflbciates, is veiled the true hifl:ory of the jufl judgments of 
God upon Chus, and his family ; who fled every way from 
the place of vengeance, and pafl'ed the feas to obtain fhelter* 

"' L. 3. p. 199. 

'''' Lycus, Sol. Macrob. Saturnal. L. i. p. 195. 

So alfo Lycoreus, In Callimach. Hymn, in Apoll. v. 19. 

Lycurgus is Lycorus with a guttural .- which manner of pronunciation was very 
common among the ancients. So Reu or Rau is ftyled Ragau : the plains of Shinar, 
Singar ami Singara : Sehor, Segor: Aza, Gaza : Nahum, Nachum : Ifaac, Ifchiac ;: 
Urhoe, the land of Ur, Urchoe, and Orchoe. The fame place, ftyled ilcz, is by 
the LXX always rendered Xwpo. The rites of fue were originally calkd.O/»a, but 
were changed to O^yia. : aia. to yctia. 

As Lycurgus waa a title of the Deity, they fometimcs gave if, which is extraordi- 
nary, to Bacchus himfelf, or at leaft to Dionufus. Ka( rov cTg Aiom<rov y.oct tov H/o'iwf 
Avx.s^yov aui'UTrrovTBi eneyyToov tiPM' ofjLOiOTgOTricw aiviTrovrxi. Strabo of the Thra- 
cians, and alfo of the Phrygians. L. 10. p. 722. 

c The 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 43 

The facred writings mention only a confufion of tongues : 
but all Pagan accounts allude to fome other fearful judg- 
ment, with which this people were purfued till they were 
totally diflipated. Homer, fpeaking of Lycurgus, mentions 
this purfuit ; but by a common miftake, introduces Dionu- 
fus inftead of Bacchus. 

Xsvs KOLT riy^Jsoi/ ' 'Sviru'Yjioy'' di ^' ol^jlol 'utol<toli 

QsivofJLzvoLi (^HTrMyi. Aioovv(rog Jg (po^rj^sig 
AvTeff olKq; kol^ol kv^xol' (dsrig J" VTro^e^ccTo KoXTTca 

In a mad mood while Bacchus blindly rag'd, 
Lycurgus drove his trembling bands confufed 
O'er the vaft plains of Nufa, They in hafte 
Threw down their facred implements, and fled 
In dreadful difTipation. Bacchus faw 
Rout upon rout ; and lofl: in wild difmay 
Plung'd in the deep : here Thetis in her arms 
Receiv'd him, fhuddering at the dire event. 

By the Tidr,va,i^ or nurfes, ot Bacchus are meant the priefts, 
and priefteffes, of the Cuthites, I make no doubt, but the 
ftory is founded in truth : that there was fome alarming 
judgment j terrified with which the Bacchians, or Cuthites, 

Homer. Iliad. Z. v. 133. 

S'lx.Ci y-cci AiCvr^, xcci Na^td, oTTH cTg ■cj-sAi5, ws sv Kaota, y.ot.i €v t'j oph' oim 
S£ vncoi, cdiv Ns(Au TM 'uirorxuu. Scholia in Homer, fiipra. 

G 2 fled 

44 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fled different ways : that their priefts in confternation threw 
away what Heftiaeus ftyles ' Ib^^^cltol Zrivog EvvotXiiSj all their 
implements of falfe worjhip. In fhort, the hand of heaven 
hung heavy upon their rear, till they had totally quitted the 
fcene of their apoftafy and rebellion, and betaken themfelves 
to different quarters. The reafon why the Cuthites com- 
bined in a ftrong body, and maintained themfelves in their 
forbidden territory, was a fear of feparation. Let us build us^ 
a tower ^ and make us a fgny leji we befcattered abroad. It was 
their lot to be totally diffipated : and they were the greateft 
wanderers of all nations : and the titles of aJhrftoLi and aA»]- 
^ovsi are peculiar to their hiftory. They feem to have been 
in a roving ftate for ages. 

I have often taken notice of a cuflom, which prevailed 
among the Grecians ; and confifted in changing every foreign 
term, that came under their view, to fomething of fimilar 
found in their own language, though it were ever fo remote 
in fenfe. A remarkable inftance, if I miftake not, may be 
found in this paffage from Homer. The text manifeftly 
alludes to the vengeance of the Deity, and the difperfion of 
the fons of Chus. The term Boy, Bou, in the Amonian 
language, fignified any thing large and noble. The God 
Sehor was called Bou-Sehor. This was the Bufiris (BBtTi^i?) 
of the Greeks, who retained this term in their own language; 
and ufed it in the fame fenfe. Accordingly, BuTrcag was a 
jolly fine boy : Ba^v^ricc, a great facrifice : BsTT^riovBg, vaft 
rocks : Bayctiog, a great boafter : B8Aip?, great hunger, or 
famine. Hence Hefychius tells us. Boy, ro fJLsyoL Kai iroKv 

.* Eufeb. Chron. p. 13.. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 45 

^Tihoi. By Bou is fignijied any thing great and abundant. 
The term Pleg, or Peleg, related to fepar^tion and difper- 
lion : and when Homer mentions ^sivofMSVoti ^HTcKriyiy the ori"^ 
ginal word was Bou-pleg, or Bou-peleg, which means lite- 
rally a great difperdon. In the Hebrew tongue, of which 
the Amonian was a collateral branch, nSs, Pelach is to fepa- 
rate ; and, jSb, Peleg to fever, and divide. The fon of He- 
ber was named Peleg, ^ becaufe in his days the earth was di- 
vided : and his name accordingly fignified divifion, and 
feparation. But the poet, not knowing, or not regarding, 
the true meaning of the word Pleg, or Peleg, has changed it 
to an inftrument of hufbandry. And inftead of faying, that 
the Deity purfued the rebels, and fcattered them with (Bou- 
pleg) a great diflipation, he has made Lycurgus follow and 
beat them, jSaTrAi^y/, with an ox-goad. 

The city of Babel, where was the fcene of thofe great 
occurrences, which we have been mentioning, was begun by 
Nimrod, and enlarged by his pofterity. It feems to have 
been a great feminary of idolatry : and the tower, a ftupen- 
dous building, was ere<3:ed in honour of the fun, and named 
the Tower of Bel. Upon the confufion of fpeech, both the 
city and tower were called Babel ; the original appellation 
not being obliterated, but contained in the latter. And as 
the city was devoted to the worfhip of the fun, it was alfo 
called the city of Bel-On, five civitas Dei Solis : which was 
afterwards changed to Babylon. From thefe terms, I think, 
we may learn the nature of the judgment inflidled at the 
time of the difperiion. It did not coniift in an utter change 

' Genefis. c. lo. v. 25. 


46 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of language; but, as I have faid before, it was a labial failure; 
an alteration in the mode of fpeech. It may be called the 
prevarication of the lip ; which had lofl: all precifion, and 
perverted every found, that was to be expreffed. Inftead of 
Bel, it pronounced Babel ; inftead of Bel-on, Babylon : 
hence Babel, amongft other nations, was ufed as a term to 
lignify a faulty pronunciation. 'E^^ccioi yoL^ ty\v <Tvyyy<Tiv Ba- 
fgA KCX.Kii<n. 'The Hebrews^ fays ''^ Jofephus, by the word Babel 
de?iote cojifufwti of fpeech, Thefe terms feem ever afterwards 
to have been retained, even by the natives, in confirmation 
of this extraordinary hiftory : and the city, as long as it ex- 
ifted, was called Babylon, or the City of Co7ifufwn. 

The tower of Babel was probably a rude mound of earth, 
raifed to a vaft height, and cafed with bricks, which were 
formed from the foil of the country, and cemented with af- 
phaltus or bitumen. There are feveral edifices of this fort 
ftill to be feen in the region of Babylonia. They are very 
like the brick pyramids in Egypt : and between every ninth 
or tenth row of plinths they have a layer of ftraw, and fome- 
times the fmaller branches of palm. Travellers have had 
the curiofity to put in their hands, and to extrad: fome of 
the leaves, and ftraws : which appear wonderfully frefh, and 
perfedt ; though they have lain there for fo many ages. 
Many have been, led to think, that one or other of thefe 
buildings was the original tower of Babel. But ancient 
writers are unanimous, that it was overthrown ; and that 
Nimrod perifhed in it. This was the opinion of Syncellusv 
^ Ensivog h sfJLsivsv sksi koltoikooVj koh (jlyj a.(pifoLiJ,svog rs Ylv^yHf 

* Ant. L. I. c. 4. ^ P. 42. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 47 

(iiX(n?<Bvoov (jLs^iKH Tivog 'srXn&Qvg, B<p ov 'urv^yo; cfjsij,(fi ^ictiWy 
cogifo^8(n, tcciT(x.w£(rujVy ^sia. k^iq'si tutov btcoltol^sv. But Nijnrod 
would Jlill objlinately Jlay.^ a7jd rejtde upofi the fpot : nor could 
he by aity mea?js be withdrawn from the tower ^ Jlill having the 
command over no contemptible body of mejt. Upo?i this^ we are 
informedy that the tower being beat upon by violent winds gava 
way ; and by the jufl judgment of God crufhed him to pieces. 
Cedrenus alfo mentions it as a current notion, that Nimrod 
perifhed in the ^ tower. But this, I think, could not be 
true : for the term of Nimrod's life, extend it to the utmofb 
of Patriarchic age after the flood, could not have fufficed 
for this. And though writers do affert, that the tower was 
overthrown, and the principal perfon buried in its ruins : 
and it mufl; be confelTed, that ancient mythology has conti- 
nual allulions to fome fuch event: yet I fhould imagine, that 
this related to the overthrow of the deity there worfhiped, 
and to the extirpation of his rites and religion, rather than 
to any real perfon. The fable of Vulcan, who was throwa 
down from heaven, and caft into the fea, is founded upon 
this ftory. He was fuppofed to have been the fon of Juno, 
and detefted by his mother, who threw him down with her 
own hands.. 

E<p cv Uv^'Oi ccvifxctj (liaiCf), &)« tc^c^aai rue', v.a.1 uvto? Joar,7roi, y.xrccTSac>Jv av- 
m^'Ce. Cedrenus. p. ii. See Jofeph. Ant. L. i. c. 4. 

^ Homer, Hymn to Apollo, v. 317. It related probably to the abolition of fire- 
worlhip at the deftrudtion of Babel. . 


4S The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

My crippled offspring Vulcan I produced : 
But foon I fciz'd the mifcreant in my hands, 
And hurled him headlong downward to the fea. 

Many writers fpeak of him as being thrown off from the 
battlements of a high tower by Jupiter : and there is a paf- 
fage to this purpofe in Homer, which has embarraffed com- 
mentators; though I do not think it very obfcure, if we con- 
iider the hiftory to which it relates. 

The poet, who was a zealous copier of ancient mythology, 
mentions, that Vulcan was caft down by Jupiter from an 
eminence. He fays, that he was thrown cctto ByjKh , which 
muff certainly lignify ct'^o 'UTV^ya B>iA8, or 0L(p U^a BjjAs ; 
for the fentence is manifeftly elliptical. 

He feiz'd him by the foot, and headlong threw 
From the high tower of Belus. 

This is the purport of the paffage ; and it is confonant to all 

The Giants, whom Abydenus makes the builders of Babel 
are by other writers reprefented as the Titans. They are 
faid to have received their name from their mother Titasa. 
^ Koii/ojg h woLVTcag cl-ko rrig [JLy]T^og on^oiip^BViig T/TJi^a? : 
by which we are to underftand, that they were all denomi- 
nated from their religion and place of worfhip. I have 

' Iliad. L. A. V. 591. 

' Diod. Sicul. L. 3. p. 190. 

Ky^as J" Ov^ccviuivxi iyuvuro "Txtotihx Faia, 

'Oia S^n xa{ Tnmce.i sinxM'nv xaAsacni'. Orphic. Frag. p. 375,' 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 49 

taken notice of fome of the ancient altars, which conflfted 
of a conical hill of earth, ftyled oftentimes, from its figure, 
T^o^og uocg'osi^rigy a mound^ or hill^ i7i the fjape of a womaTi s 
hreajl. Titsea (TiTa<a) was one of thefe. It is a term com- 
pounded of '° Tit-aia ; and fignifies literally a breaft of 
earth, analogous to TtT^o? (Xici.g of the Greeks. Thefe altars 
were alfo called Tit-an, and Tit-anis, from the great foun- 
tain of light, ftyled An, and Anis. Hence many places were 
called Titanis and " Titana, where the worfhip of the Sun 
prevailed : for Anes, and Hanes, fignified the fountain of 
light, or fire. Titana was fometimes expreffed Tithana, by 
the lonians rendered Tithena : and as Titana was fuppofed 
to have been the mother of the Titans ; fo Tithena was faid 
to be their " nurfe. But they were all uniformly of the fame 
nature, altars raifed of foil. That Tith-ana, the fuppofed 
nurfe, was a facred mound of earth, is plain from Nonnus, 
who mentions an altar of this fort in the vicinity of Tyre ; 
and fays, that it was ereded by thofe earth-born people, the 

Tit is analogous to TH, Tid, of the Chaldeans. 

So Titurus was from Tit-Ur, jt/.a<j-o5 €lp. The priefts fo famous for their mufic 
were from hence ftyled Tituri. It was fometimes exprefled Tith-Or •, hence the 
fummit of Parnalfus had the name of Tithorea, being facred to Orus, the Apollo of 
Greece. Paufan. L. lo, p. 878. 

There were places named Titarefus from Tit- Ares, the fame as Tit-Orus. Tit- 
^tp^aioi'uTOTafj'.oi H-Treifd. Hefych. 

At Sicyon was a place called Titana. Steph. Byzant. alfo a temple. Paufan. 
L, 2. p. 138. 

Euboea called Titanis. Hefych. 

" TiBjiJ-as- rpc(p8;, titQccs. Hefych. So Tith-On was like Tith-Or,<roi r.Ki-a : 
whence was formed a perfonage, named Tithonus, beloved by Aurora. 

Vol. hi. H 


50 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ti^yspssg ^a^vKoXTtov s^cjJfJiYiToiVTO Ti^rip/iv, 

Upon the coaft of T^re, amid the rocks, 
The Giants rais'd an ample mound of earth, 
Yclep'd Tithena. 

Tiiph alfo in the ancient language was an hill ; and Ty- 
phoeus is a mafculine compound from Tuph-aia, and fignifies 
a mound of earth. Typhon, Tyf wy, was in like manner a 
compound of Tuph-On ; and was a mount or altar of the 
fame conftrudlion, and facred to the fun. I make no doubt 
but both Typhon and Typhceus were names, by which the 
tower of Belus was of old denoted. But out of thefe the 
mythologifts have formed perfonages ; and they reprefcnt 
them as gigantic monfters, whom the earth produced in de- 
fiance of heaven. Hence Typhon is by Antoninus Libera- 
lis defcribed as, '^ Trig viog, s^oLiTiog AaifJioov, the offspri?ig of 
the earthy a baleful Dcsmon. The tower of Babel was un- 
doubtedly a Tuphon, or altar of the fun ; though generally 

" Nonni Dionyf. I.. 40. p. 104S. 

'* Bci, and Belus, was a title beftowed upon many perfons. It was particularly 
given ,to Nimrod, who built the city Babel or Babylon. Hence Dorotheus Sidonius-, 
an ancient poet, calls that city the work of Tyrian Belus. 

A^^ccni TjxSvAci}1' Tvprd EwAois Trc?:t<Ty.ixr. 
This term Tups? has been applied to the city Tyre. But Tv^ioi here is from IMl, 
Turris •, and Belus Tvpioi fignifies Belus of Babel, who erei5led the famous tower. 
This leads me to fufpecl, that in thefe verfes of Nonnus there is a miftake: and that 
this Tithena, which the Giants built, was not in the vicinity of the city Tyre: but 
it was an high altar, ety^t Tuoy, near the tower of Babel, which was erefted by the 
Titanians. Nonnus, imagining that by Tur was meant Tyre, has made the Tithe- 
jia to be fituated •ma^cc -axovTor, I'y thefea ; from which, I believe, it was far removed. 

'^ Tvphon, Terrs filiiis. Hyginus. Fab. 152. 

g reprefented 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 51 

rcprefented as a temple. For in thofe early times we do not 
read of any facred edifices, which can be properly called 
temples ; but only of altars, groves, and high places. He- 
fiod certainly alludes to fome ancient hiftory concerning the 
demolition of Babel, when he defcribes Typhon, or Typhoeus, 
as overthrown by Jove. He reprefents him as the youngeft 
fon of the Earth. 

Th' enormous Earth, 
Produc'd Typhceus laft of all her brood. 

The poet fpeaks of him as a deity of great ftrength, and im- 
menfe ftature ; and fays, that from his fhoulders arofe an 
hundred ferpent heads ; and that from his eyes there ifliied 
a continual blazing fire. And he adds, what is very re- 
markable, that had it not been for the interpofition of the 
chief God, this Daemon would have obtained an univerfal 

Kcti Kzv oye ^vt{Tqi<ti, zai oi&avctroKnv oiva^eVj 
El fjLri oLo Q^v vQn<rs xcct/j^ av^^oons ^socnsj 
XkKy]^ov J'' s^^ovTri<rs, koli o^^i^jloV afjLtpi Js yaix 
XiJLB^^ccMoy KovoL^r](rSy koli Ov^avog sv^vg vtts^^sv^ 
Uovrog t? ooKSOtm ts poa/, nai Ta^ra^a yocii^g. 

" Theogon. v. 821, 

'' Typhceus was properly Taicc rieAcu/ja, a Pelorian mound of earth : being, as I 
faid above, a mafcuhne from Tiiphoea 5 which is a compound of I'uph-aia, a mound 
of earth. 

" Hefiod. fupra. v. 836. 

H 2 llocrc; 

52 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

KoiVfjLa cT' VTc' a[JL<poTs^m KctTsysv toBihcL 'urovrov, 
Zsvg STTSi av no^&vi/s sov [JLevog, siKsTo J" oVAa, 
B^onriv TS, s's^OTrrinSj koli oLi^oLKoBvroL kb^cwvov., 

TLAyi^sp aTT OvKvy^zoio STtoCK^zvog. . 

AvTcc^ STTsi ^n ^iv ^0LyM.(rs 'urKYiyriQ-iv l^oL<T(roLZy 

That day was teeming with a dire event ; 

And o'er the world Typhoeus now had reign'd 

With univerfal fway : but from on high 

Jove view'd his purpofe, and oppofed his power* 

For with a ftrong and defperate aim he hurl'd 

His dread artillery. Then the realms above, 

And earth with all its regions j then the fea. 

And the Tartarian caverns, dark and drear, 

Refounded with his thunder. Heaven was moved, 

And the ground trembled underneath his feet. 

As the God march'd in terrible array. 

Still with frefh vigour Jove renew'd the fight ; 

And clad in all his bright terrific arms, 

V/ith lightnings keen, and fmouldering thunderbolts,, 

Prefs'd on him fore ; till by repeated wounds 

The tow'ring monfter funk to endlefs night. 

Typhon was the fame perfonage as Typhoeus ; and Antoninus 
1° Liberalis defcribes him as a Giant, who was thunderftruck 

*! O Txiifijn ix.^v^'iy IctuTsj', xui iicpciviai rnv (pMycc, iv Ti) S-aAx(7(7))' Fab. 28. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 53 

by Jupiter. But he fled to the fea, into which he plunged, 
and his deadly wounds were healed. The like has been faid 
of Bacchus, that upon his flight he betook himfelf to the fea. 
And when Vulcan is caft down from the tower, he is fup- 
pofed to fall into the fame element. Juno is accordingly 
made to fay, 

I feiz'd him in my arms, 
And hurl'd him headlong downward to the fea. 

Heflod giv^es an account of the difperflon of the Titans, and 
of the feuds which preceded : and he fays, that the Deity at 
laft interpofed, and put the Titans to flight, and condemned 
them to reflde in Tartarus at the extremities of the earth. 
The defcription is very fine ; but he has confounded the 
hiftory by fuppoflng the Giants and Titans to have been 
different perfons. He accordingly makes them oppofe one 
another in battle : and even Cottus, lapetus, Gyas, whom 
all writers mention as Titans, are by him introduced in op- 
pofition, and defcribed as of another family. He fends them 
indeed to Tartarus ; but fuppofes them to be there placed, 
as a guard over the Titans. His defcription, however, is 
much to the purpofe ; and the firft conteft and difperflon is 
plainly alluded to. I fliall therefore lay fome part of it be- 
fore the reader. 

!"' Theogor.. v. 676. 


54 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ay.(pors^oi' hivov h 'urs^ict'^s 'srono; oLTCsi^ocVy 
Ty] Js ixsy s(rfj,oc^ccyri(rsi'j STTsg'ei's J^' ov^oLvog sv^v^ 
.^siofjLsvogy 'ureh^Bv ^' ij^clk^o; Ohvyito;. 

KsKKofJLsi/oov' 01 Js ^vyircLv fJL£yix?M aAaA>iTw. 
Ov (j" a^' sri Zsvg kt'^bv sov fj^sv^g, uTkAol vv th ys 
Ei&a^ fjLsv [jLSVsos 'srT^rjTo (p^svsg, sx. Js tyj 'urairctv 
^OLivs (^iriV oL^v^ig T a/ olt/ Ov^oiva, rjJ'' oltt 0?^vijl71'8, 


Xsi^og dTTO '^i^OL^Yig. 

Xvv $' avsfJiQi svomvTs }coviv&' d^JLO. s(r(pa,^oLyi^ov, 

B^onrins, s'S^ottyivts, kcjli mSccT^osna ks^olvvov' 

noj/TOdT ar^vysTog' rag S' oi^(pzzz ^s^fJLog ayT|U.)] 
TiTrivag '^Sovisg' <pXo^ J" j^s^a ^iolv Ikolvbv 

A(r^£TOr 0<T(rB cT' OL^JiB^h KOLt. Kp^lfJUf^P 'UTB^ SOVTUP 

Avyri yoL^ycii^3(rct kb^olvvhtb ^B^oTrricrTs. 
• ••••••♦.....•^ 

KoLVfJLCt 7S ^£Q-7rB(n0V KCCTS'^BV '^OLOg 

Kai rag [jlbv TiTrjVccg vtto y^ovog sv^vo^Birig 
Ubix-^ccv, KOLi ^B(ryQi<Tiy sv oL^yoCKBQKnv B^wav, 
NiKnravrBg "^s^triv v7rB^^v[j,ovg 'urs^ sonctg' 

Ey&x ^soi TiTrivsg vtto ip(pu^ yjs^obvti 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 55 

TlovTiiT dT^vysToiOj KOLI Ov^cfjn OLgs^osnog^ 

■'B^siYig "uroLVToov tfTYiycn kxi "UTSI^c/.t sci(riv. 

Firm to their caufe the Titans wide difplay'd 
A well-embodied phalanx : and each fide 
Gave proofs of noble prowefs, and great ftrength, 
Worthy of Gods. The tumult reach'd to heaven, 
And high Olympus trembled as they ftrove. 
Sea too was mov'd ; and Earth aflonifh'd heard 
The noife and fhouts of deities engag'd, 
High vaunts, loud outcries, and the din of war. 
Now ]ov^ no longer could withhold his ire ; 
But rofe with tenfold vengeance : down he hurl'd 
His lightning, dreadful implement of wrath, 
Which flafli'd inceffant : and before him mov'd 
His awful thunder, with tremendous peal 
Appaling, and abounding, as it roU'd. 
For from a mighty hand it fhap'd its courfe, 
Loud echoing through the vaulted realms of day. 
Meantime ftorms rag'd ; and dufky whirlwinds rofe. 
Still blaz'd the lightning with continual glare, 
Till nature languifh'd : and th' expanded deep. 
And every fcream, that lav'd the glowing earth, 
Boil'd with redounding heat. A ruddy flame 
Shot upwards to the fiery cope of heav'n, 
Shedding a baleful influence : and the gleam 
Smote dreadful on the Titan bands, whofe eyes 
Were blaflied, as they gaz'd ; nor could they fland 

The fervour, but exhaufied funk to ground. 


56 The Analysis of A>fciENT Mythology. 

The Gods, victorious, feiz'd the rebel crew, 
And fent them, bound in adamantine chains. 
To earth's deep caverns, and the fliades of night. 
Here dwell th' apoftate brotherhood, confign'd 
To everlafting durance : here they fit 
Age after age in melancholy ftate. 
Still pining in eternal gloom, and loft 
To every comfort. Round them wide extend 
The dreary bounds of earth, and fea, and air, 
Of heaven above, and Tartarus below. 

Such was the firft great commotion among men. It 
was defcribed by the poets as the war of the Giants ; who 
raifed mountains upon mountains in order that they might 
fcale heaven. The fons of Chus were the aggreffors in thefe 
ads of rebellion. They have been reprefented under the 
charadter both of Giants and Titanians : and are faid to 
have been dillipated into different parts of the world. One 
place of their retreat is mentioned to have been in that part 
of Scythia, which bordered upon the Palus Maeotis. It was 
called " Keira ; and defcribed as a vafl cavern, which they 
fortified. The Romans under Craffus are faid to have viewed 
it. But Keir, and Keirah, fignified of old a city or fortrefs : 
and it was the appellative name of the place, to which this 
people retired. They were to be found in various parts, as 
I fhall fhew : but the mofl: prevailing notion about the Ti- 
tanians was, that after their war againft heaven, they were 
baniflied to Tartarus, at the extremities of the earth. The 
ancient Grecians knew very little of the weftern parts of the 

" To cTTTwAaw rtivKii^w Kx?\.BiJ.ivtiv. Dion. Cafllus. L. 51. p. 313. 

7 world. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 57 

world. They therefore reprefent the Titans, as in a ftate 
of darknefs ; and Tartarus as an infernal region. 

*^ Kai T^g [JLSV vtto "^^ovog sv^vohi^g 

Tortroj/ gyg^^' v7to yrig, cxrov Ov^avog eg"' cctto yctirjg. 

They plac'd the rebels, faft in fetters bound, 

Deep in a gloomy gulf; as far remov'd 

From earth's fair regions, as the earth from heaven. 

They are the words of Heliod ; who fays, that an anvil of 
iron being dropped down would but juft reach the abyfs in 
ten days. Here the Titans were- doomed to relide, 

** Ei^Scc ^soi TiTrivsg vtco ip(pui ^s^osnt 
KsK^v(poLrix.ij ^'dMfTi Aiog vs(psXY]ys^&ra.o, 
Xotj^ca sv sv^(^svrij 'WB?M^irig B(r'^oLrcc yonrig. 
Eu&oL TvyYjgy KoTTog rs^ jcccl B^ici^svg ixsya,l)v[JLog 

There the Titanian Gods by Jove's high will 
In manlions dark and dreary lie concealed, 
Beyond the verge of nature. Cottus here, 
And Gyges dwell, and Briareus the bold. 

Thefe were part of the Titanian brood, though the author 
feems not to allow it. This will appear from fome of the 
Orphic fragments, where we have the names of the Titans, 
and a fimilar account of their being condemned to darknefs. 

*' Hefiod. Theog. v. 7 1 7. 
''* Ibid, V. 729. 

Vol, III. I KoiOV 

58 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

.^^ Koiop TSj K^siop re jCtsyaf, ^o^kvp ts z^oLTouoVy 
Kai K^QvoPy £iKBOLVQv^\ 'T7rs^sioyoLT\ IccTTsroprs. 

The poet here fpecifies feven in number ; Coeus, Crius, 
Phorcys, Cronus, Oceanus, Hyperion, and lapetus, and he 

'P/;rT£ ^oL^vv yoLir\g eg Tol^tcl^ov. 

Soon as high Jove their cruel purpofe faw, 

And lawlefs difpofition 

He fent them down to Tartarus confign'd. 

If we look into the grounds of thefe fidtions, we fhall find 
that they took their rife from this true hiftory. A large 
body of Titanians, after the difperfion fettled in Mauritania, 
which is the region ftyled Tartarus. Diodorus Siculus men- 
tions the coming of Cronus into thefe parts ; and gives us 
the names of the brotherhood, thofe fons of Titaea, who 
came with them. The principal of thefe, exclufive of Cro- 
nus, were '^^ Oceanus, Coeus, lapetus, Crius, and Hyperion ; 
who were fuppofed firft to have fettled in Crete. Atlas 
was another of them, from whom they had the name of 
!^ Atlantians ; and they were looked upon as the offspring 

*' Orphic. Frag. p. 374. 

** Diodor. Sic. L. 5. p. 334. According to Apollodorus their names were Ou- 
ranus, Cceus, Hyperion, Crius, lapetus, and the youngeft of all Cronus. L. i. p. 2. 
"■' Diodor. L. 3. p. i8g. 

6 of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 59 

of heaven. The above hillorian defcribes the country, 
which they poflefTed, as lying upon the gre^t ocean : and. 
however it may be reprefented by the poets, he fpeaks of it 
as a happy ''^ region. The mythologifts adjudged the Titans 
to the realms of night ; and confequently to a moft uncom- 
fortable climate ; merely from not attending to the purport 
of the term ^oipog. 

Ev^oL ^soi Tirrivsg vtto ^ocpca ris^osni 

It is to be obferved, that this word had two iignifications. 
Firft, it denoted the weft, or place of the fetting fun. Hence 
Ulyffes being in a ftate of uncertainty fays, *' a ya^ t /Jjasf, 
OTTYi ifxpog^ aS' oxri rjoog. We cannot determine, which is the 
wej}, or which is the eajl. It fignified alfo darknefs : and 
from this fecondary acceptation the Titans of the weft were 
conftgned to the realms of night : being fttuated in refped: 
to Greece towards the regions of the fetting fun. The vaft 
unfathomable abyfs, fpoken of by the poets, is the great 
Atlantic Ocean ; upon the borders of which Homer places 
the gloomy manftons, where the Titans reftded. The an- 
cients had a notion, that the earth was a widely-extended' 
plain ; which terminated abruptly, in a vaft clifF of immea- 
furable defcent. At the bottom was a chaotic pool, or 
ocean ; which was fo far funk beneath the confines of the 
world, that, to exprefs the depth and diftance, they imagined, 

X&ipai/ evSoitfjiova.. Ibid. 
^5 OdyfT. K. V. 190. 

' Zo(po> axoTo?. Hefych. Ai'yii Se a 'uyomir^i xui to aKoroij y.xi tiiv i'vaiv^ 
^o^fov. Ibid. 

I 2 an 

6o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

an anvil of iron toffed from the top would not reach It under 
ten days, ^ut this mighty pool was the ocean abovemen- 
tioned ; and thefe extreme parts of the earth were Maurita- 
nia, and Iberia : for in each of thefe countries the Titans 
refided. Hence Callimachus, fpeaking of the latter country, 
defcribes the natives under the title of ^° O-^iyoi/oi Tirrjvsg ; 
by which is meant ihe offspring of the ancient ''Titans. They 
were people of the Cuthite race, who alfo took up their ha- 
bitation in Mauritania ; and were reprefented as the children 
of Atlas. He was defcribed as the fon of lapetus the Ti- 
tan ; and of fo vaft a ftature, as to be able to fupport the 

^' Twy 'cr^oo'^' IctTTsroio 'craiV sysT ov^avov Bv^m 

There Atlas, fon of great lapetus, 

With head inclin'd, and ever-during arms, 

Suftains the fpacious heavens. 

To this Atlantic region the Titans were banifhed ; and fup- 
pofed to live in a ftate of darknefs beyond the limits of the 
known world. 

^* n^Qcrhn Js, ^B(f)v sKTOfrDsv (iTravTciJv, 
TiTrii/sg yaisci ^sts^TiV '^olsq; io(ps^oio» 

'° KiXTcv ara.<^ncoi,\irii anrx 

Q-\'i'ycvoi Tnmii a(p' esTTrspa £<rx«Toj<»'Tc(;. Hymn, in Delon. V. 174. 
'' Hefiod. Theog. v. 746. 

AtA«« if Ov^ocvoy ev^uv e^i xpxr^^m inr a.voiyxr\i 

llsifcicrm £i"}ai>ii. Ibid. V. 517^^ 

'r Ibid. V. Si 3. " ' 

^ Fartheri 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 6i 

Fartheft remov'd 
Of all their kindred Gods the Titans dwell, 
Beyond the realms of chaos dark. 

By ^ao? ip^e^QV we mufl certainly underfliand the weftern 
ocean : upon the borders of which, and not beyond it, thefe 
Titanians dwelt. By the Nubian Geographer the Atlantic 
is uniformly called according to the prefent verlion Mare 
Tenebrarum. " Aggrelli funt mare tenebrarum, quid in eo 
effet, exploraturi. They ve?2tured into the fea of darhiefs^ in 
order to explore what it might cojitain. Another name for 
Tartarus, to which the poets condemned the Titans and 
Giants, was Erebus. This, like ^Oi^of, was a term of two- 
fold meaning. For Ereb, 3")y, fignified both the weft, and 
alfo darknefs : and this ferved to confirm the notion, that 
the Titans were configned to the regions of night. But 
gloomy as the country is defcribed, and horrid, we may be 
affured from the authorities of ^+ Diodorus and Pliny, that it 
was quite the reverfe : and we have reafon to think, that it 
was much reforted to ; and that the natives for a long; time 
kept up a correfpondence with other branches of their fami- 
ly. Homer affords fome authority for this opinion, in a 
pafiage where he reprefents Jupiter as accofting Juno, who 
is greatly difpleafed. 

Xa'OjO.i*')!?, aJ" size ra vbioltol 'ursi^a^' ijcmi 

" Geog. Nubienfis. p. 4. p. 6. and p. 156. 

'* 'X.oicav vjS"a.iiJoi'ccviu.oiJiivat (ArAarTe;). L. 3. p. 189. 
'' Iliad. 0. V. 477. 

62 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Fai^? Koci isronoio^ Iv locTTSTou'rs K§ovo(rTs 

I Jhall not, fays Jupiter, regard your refentmetit ; not though 
youjhould defer t me, and betake yourfelf to the extrefjitties of 
the earth, to the boundaries offea and land ; ^Sictra 'ZtTSi^ara, 
to the lower limits, where lapetus and Cronus refide ; who 
never enjoy the light of the fun, nor are refrefoed with cooling 
breezes', but are feat ed in the depths of Tartarus. In the Ion 
of Euripides, Creufa, being in great diftrefs, wifhes, that fhe 
could fly away to the people of the weftern world, which 
£he alludes to as a place of fecurity. 

n^oo'w yoLioii 'EXT^xnccg 

Ag-s^cig 'E<T7r£^iiig' 
Oiov my aJkyog bt^ol^qv, 

O ! that I could be wafted through the yielding air, 

Far, very far, from Hellas, 
To the inhabitants of the Hefperian region : 

So great is my load of grief. 

From the words of Jupiter above, who tells Juno, that fhe 
may retire to the regions in the weft ; and from thefe of 
Creijfa, who longs to betake herfelf to the fame parts ; we 
may infer, that in the firft ages it was not uncommon for 
people in diftrefs to retire to thefe fettlements. Probably 
famine, flcknefs, and opprefllon, as well as the inroads of a 

'* Euripid. Ion. v. 796. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 63I 

powerful enemy, might oblige the lonim to migrate. And 
however the Atlantic Titanians may have been like the 
Cimmerians, defcribed as a people devoted to darknefs; yet 
we find them otherwife reprefented by Creufa, who ftyles 
them Afs^a? EcTTTS^isg^ the Jlars of the wejiern world. They 
were fo denominated from being the offspring of the original 
lonim, or Peleiad^, of Babylonia ; in memory of whom 
there was a conftellation formed in the heavens. Thefe Pe- 
leiadas are generally fuppofed to have been the daughters of 
Atlas, and by their names the ftars in this conftellation are 
diftinguifhed. Diodorus Siculus has given us a lift of them, 
and adds, that from them the moft celebrated " heroes 
were defcended. The Helladians were particularly of this 
family ; and their religion and Gods were of Titaniaii 
^^ original. 

'^ Diodor. Sic. L. 3. p. 194. 

* Oxj^avB xai Tm suriv 01 -zzr?^/ K^ovov, 01 a.?^Aoi Tnacyei' sx. S'e tcov TtTod'oov ot 
vq-epoi@eoi. Scholia in Find. Nem. Od. 6. v. i. 

Tnni'Si ' ' ■ HfjiSTepuv -m^oyovoi TurccTipccv. Orphic. Hymn. 36. Pindar fays that 
the Titans were at lafl freed from their bondage. Ava cfe Z-ivi afSixos Titccvxs. 
Pyth. Od. 4. V. 518. 


64 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

GENESIS. Chap. X. 

V. 8. And CuJId begat Ni?nrod. He began to be a mighty 
one in the earth. 

10. And the beginni7jg of his kingdom was Babel ^ and Erech, 
a7td Accad^ and Calne in the land of Shinar, 

11. Out of that land went forth Ajfur^ a7id builded Nine- 
veh ; a?tdthe city Rehoboth^ and Calah : 

1 2. And Rezen between Nineveh and Calah ; the fame is a 
great city. 

IN the courfe of my arguments I have followed the com- 
mon interpretation of the paffage above about Aflur, and 
Nineve in verfe the eleventh. And I think, we may be 
aflured, both from the context, and from the fubfequent 
hiftory of the city and country, that this is the true meaning 
of the facred writer. I mention this, becaufe the learned 
Bochart does not allow, that Nineve was founded by AiTur. 
He gives a different interpretation to the " paffage, going 
contrary to all the verlions which have preceded. Inftead 
of out of this land went Affur^ and builded Nijieve^ he ren- 
ders it, out of this land^ he (NimrodJ went into Affur^ or Af- 
fyria^ and built the cities mentioned. '^° He adds : habeo per- 

" Gen, c. 10. V. 11. 

*' Geog. Sacra. L. 4. c, 12. p. 229. He is followed in this opinion by LeClerc. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 65 

fualifilmum Aflur hie hominis nomen non efle, fed loei : 
— 'adeoque verba Hebraea ita reddenda : Egrejftis ejl in Ajjy- 
riam. I afn perfuaded^ that the term AJJur is not i7t this 
place the ?tame of a man ; but of a place, — The words therefore 
i?t the original are to be thus interpreted. He ( Nijnrod) went 
out of this la7td into Affyria. In this opinion he has been 
followed by others, who have been too eafily prejudiced 
againft the common acceptation of the pall'age. 

As the authority of Bochart muft neceflarily be of great 
weight, I have fubjoined his arguments, that the reader may 
judge of their validity. 

1. His firft objedion to the common verfion is this. He 
thinks, that there is an impropriety in having the name of 
AfTur, the fon of Shem, introduced where the facred text is 
taken up with the genealogy of the fons of Ham. 

2. It is contrary to order, that the operations of AfTur 
fhould be mentioned v. 1 1 . and his birth not till afterwards 
at V. 22. 

3. There is nothing particular in faying that Affur went 
out of the land of Shinar ; for it was in a manner common 
to all mankind, who were from thence fcattered abroad ov^er 
the face of the earth. 

Thefe objections are by no means well grounded : and 
the alteration propofed, by remedying a fancied evil, would 
run us into innumerable difficulties and contradid:ions. If 
Affur be in this paffage referred to as the name of a region, 
the fame as Affyria ; and if Nimrod feized upon a preoccu- 
pied place ; colonies muft have gone forth before the difper- 
fion from Babel. This (whatever my opinion may be) is a 

Vol. III. K con- 

66 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

contradiction in Bochart ; who fuppofes the difperfion to 
have been univerfal, and from the land of Shinar; not allow- 
ing any previous migration. The principal city of Nimrod 
was Babel, feparated from Nineve, and the other cities above, 
by a fandy "^^ wild ; and it is faid to have been left unfinifh- 
ed. T'hey left off to build the city. c. ii.v. 8. Is it credible, 
that a perfon would traverfe a defert, and travel into a fo- 
reign country to found cities, before he had completed the 
capital of his own kingdom ? It cannot, I think, be 

As to the fuppofed impropriety of introducing an account 
of Aflur, where the text is taken up with the genealogy of 
another family, it is an objection of little weight. It arifes 
from our not feeing things in their true light. We fhould 
obferve, that it is not properly the hiftory of Affur, which 
is here given ; but the hiftory of Nimrod. He trefpailed 
upon Affur, and forced him out of his original property : 
and the accounts of each are fo conne6ted, that one muft be 
mentioned with the other, or the hiftory would be incom- 
pleat. Many things recorded in Scripture are not intro- 
duced according to precife method : and the like is to be 
found in all writings. We have in the fame book of Mofes 
an account given of " " Canaan, the fon of Ham, antecedent 
to the genealogy of his family, which comes afterwards in 
another '^'^ chapter. 

*' Amona; the learned men, who have betaken themfclves to thefe refearches, I 
have hardly met with one, that has duly confidered the fituationj diftance, and natu- 
ral hiftory of the places, about wliich they treat. 

*" Gen. c. 9. 

♦' C. 10. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 67 

Bochart thinks, that the mentioning of Affur's going forth 
out of Shinar is imneceflary : as it was a circuniftance com- 
mon to all mankind : but I have endeavoured to prove, that 
all mankind were not concerned in the difpcrfion from Shi- 
nar. Befides, Bochart does not quote the whole of the 
paffage, but omits, what is immediately fubjoined, and of 
no fmall moment. The facred writer does not merely fay, 
that Affur went forth out of the land ; but that he wejit outy 
and builded cities ; a circumftance not common to all. 
Thefe cities were afterwards of great renown ; and it was 
of confequence to be told their founder, and the reafon of 
their being built. 

This learned writer tries farther to prove, that the He- 
brew term s**', which is tranflated by the words 'we7it fof'th, 
always denotes a martial expedition : and he adds, Nimrod 
porro dicitur egreffus effe in Affur, nempe ad bellum infe- 
rendum. By this we find, that, according to Bochart, 
Nimrod made war upon the Affyrians, and ^^ feized upon 
their country. I fliould be glad to know, when this hap- 
pened. Was it antecedent to the general difperfion ? If 
fo ; colonies had gone forth, and kingdoms were found- 
ed, before that event : and the difpcrfion was not, as 
he maintains, general ; a circumftance, which I have urged 
before. If it were afterwards ; then Nimrod and his 
affociates were left to follow their wicked purpofes, when 
all other families were fcattered abroad. When the reft 

** Quod jure non poterat fibi arrogare, id per vim ufurpavit. Bochart. L. 4. 
p. 230. 

K 2 of 

-.68 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of the world was diflipated, the founders of Babel were 
exempted from the calamity. This, I think, cannot be 

Bochart farther adds, that Nimrod muft have been in pof- 
feffion of AfTyria : for it was called the land of Nimrod. 
The converfe perhaps might have been true, that the land of 
Nimrod was called Aflyria : for the region of Babylonia and 
Chaldea was the original country of Affur, and was poffefTed 
by Nimrod. But that the region about Nineve, to which 
Bochart alludes, was ever referred to Nimrod, I am certain 
is a groundlefs furmife : and Bochart is miftaken in the paf- 
fage, which he quotes. His evidence is taken from '^^ Mi- 
cah, where thefe words are found. Et depafcent terram 
Affyrice gladio, et terram Nimrod lanceis ejus : '^^ vel fi ma- 
vis, oftiis ejus. He fuppofes, that the land of AfTur, and the 
land of Nimrod, of which the prophet here makes mention, 
were one and the fame region. But he is furely guilty of a 
ftrange prefumption. If this were the purport of the paf- 
fage, there would be, I think, an unneceffary repetition ; 
and a redundancy not common in the facred writings. By 
the land of Affur is plainly meant the region of Affyria ; 
but by the land of Nimrod is Hgnified the country of Baby- 
lonia, which was the true and only land of Nimrod. In 
order to underftand the purport of the prophecy, we fhould 
confider the time when it was "^^ uttered. Micah is foretell- 


C. 5. V. 6. 
*'' Bochart fupra, 

*' Micah prophefied about the times of Salmanaflar, and Aflarhadon; and of 
Merodach Baladan of Babylonia. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 69 

ing the ruin of the Affyrian empire, of which Babylonia by 
coiiquefl; had been made a part. But the Babylonians 
were at this time difengaging themfelves from their de- 
pendence, and fetting up for themfelves. However, as 
they made a part of the Affyrian empire, they were to 
fhare in its calamities. To thefe events the prophecy 
alludes ; in which two nations, and two different regions 
are defcribed. • We may therefore be allured, that the land 
of AlTyria, and the land of Nimrod were two diftind: 

In confequence of this, it may not be improper to recapi- 
tulate what I have before laid about the peopling of the 
regions, of which we have been treating. At the time of 
the migration from Ararat in Armenia, the fons of Shem 
came down through the principal paffage in Mount Taurus 
to the countries, which they were to occupy. Elam pof- 
fefled the region called afterwards Elymais upon the lower 
and eaftern part of the Tigris *^ : and oppofite to him was 
AfTur. Above Elam was Arphaxad, whofe region was after- 
wards called Arpacitis : and his oppolite to the weft was 
Aram. Lud took poffeflion of the country called AiiJia, 
Ludia, and bordered upon Tobal, Mefliech, Gomer, Afh- 
kenaz, and other fons of Japhet. For they feem at firfl: to 
have fettled in the regions of Afia Minor. The fons of 
Chus came at lafl by a different rout from the eaft, and 
invaded the territories of Aflur, who was obliged to re- 
treat. He accordingly pafl'ed northward into the region 

^^ Elam, regio Perfidis trans Babylonem. Hieron. T.Kuy.oii nco^a. — t«5 2«o"</o5 
&yyv:, Stephanus. Byzant. 


70 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of Aram ; a part of which he occupied : and to feciirc 
himfelf from his enemy to the fouth, he built four ci- 
ties, which are fpecified by the facred writer. To fliew 
the difpofition of thefe families in a clearer light, I muft 
reler the reader to the map, which is fubjoined. 



ASU (' K \ K X 


1 AA^A2^ 

M O « IT K r' 

^ -^>: 

:1>. :>- -»- 

--s- <»• 

G O M Y. R 

I, XT^ D I M 


<:a.^ 0--i 

IliU 2i J' ;,■ 

ASH I' i;\ K 

- o. ^v 

[ 71 3 

O F T H E 


TH E firft war of the Titans confifted in ads of apofta- 
fy, and rebellion againft Heaven : but there was an- 
other war, in which they were engaged with a different 
enemy, being oppofed by men ; and at laft totally difcom- 
fited after a long and bitter contention. This event will be 
found to have happened in confequence of the difperfion. 
It is a piece of hiftory, which has been looked upon as fo 
obfcure, and the time of it fo remote, that many have 
efteemed it as merely a poetical fable. Yet from the light 
already difclofed, and from farther evidence to be obtained, 
we may determine many circumftances concerning it, both 
in refpe<5l to the people, between whom it was waged, and 
to the time, when it was carried on. I have taken notice of 
two memorable occurrences, and have endeavoured properly 
to diflinguifh them ; though they are confidercd by moft 
writers as one fmo;le event : I mean the mipration of fami- 
lies to their feveral places of allotment ; and the difperfion 
of the Cuthites afterwards. The firft is mentioned, as ef- 
feded in the days of Peleg : the other is introduced by the 

9 facred 

72 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

facred writer aiterwards; and fpoken of as a different ev^nt. 
The Titanian war is to be diftingiiiflied from both, being of 
ftill later date ; yet not far removed from the difperfion. It 
has been fhewn, that the fons of Chiis were engaged in 
building a mighty city in the region, which they had 
iifurped ; and in erecting a lofty tower, to prevent their 
being fcattered abroad. They were however difperfed ; 
the tower was deferted ; and the city left unfiniflied. 
Thefe circumftances feem in great meafure to be recorded 
by the Gentile writers. They add, that a war foon after 
commenced between the Titans, and the family of Zeiith ; 
which was the firft war, that ever happened among the fons 
of men. Some fuppofe it to have been carried on againfl: Cro- 
nus : ' y^sTd cs K^om ts hcli Tirtivi ^vg-rjvai 'UTqXb^ov. But it 
matters little under what titles the chief characters are re- 
prefented : for the hiftory is the fame. It was no other 
than the war mentioned by Mofes, which was carried on by 
four kings of the family of Shem, againft the fons of Ham 
and Chus ; to avenge themfelves of thofe bitter enemies, 
by whom they had been greatly aggrieved. The difperfion 
from Babylonia had weakened the Cuthites very much : and 
the houfe of Shem took advantage of their diHipation ; 
and recovered the land of Shinar, which had been imduly 
Iifurped by their enemies. Babylon feems to have been 
under a curfe and not occupied, being deftitute both of 

T3t5, 3cai tT}) Qii-'t' x.ccTcc'^ poviio-ocvTcci afxiii'oi'xi in'xtj nuoya.'t' Tuo7ii' vAi^ccTov asipiii'j 

av(x.T^i-\ai Tuici auToiit to iJin^uvnf/.u. — fjLsrcx, Si Kpoyu iccci Tnw't av^'O'cii -3-oAe,asi'. 
Abydenus apud Eufeb. Priep. L. g. p. 416. 

6 prince 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 73 

prince and people : in lieu of which we read of a king of 
Senaar, or Shinar, who joins the confederates, having lately 
gotten pofTeffion of that province. There is a curious frag- 
ment of Heftisus Milefius, which feems to relate to this 
part of the Titanic hiftory ; and fupplies what is omitted in 
the account given by Mofes. The paflage is in Jofephus ; 
who tells us, from feveral evidences in ancient hiftory, that 
the tower of Babel was overthrown by whirlwinds, and that 
a confufion of fpeech enfued. And he adds, that in refpedl 
to Senaar, the Shinar of the Scriptures, there was a paffage 
in Heftiaeus Milefius, in which it was mentioned : and he 
fubjoins the paffage. * T(/jv Js 'h^socv rsg ^lOLdu^^BvTctg^ ra T8 
V.vudJKi'a Aiog Is^ooixctTo. Aa^o^ra?, Big ^Bvacf.^ Tir,g BahvTKWiag bK- 
^eiv. X/j^PdPTCii cjg TO Xoizov snsvhv^ vtto rrig ofj,oy?^ct)r(nag rcf.g 
<rvvQiKioLg 'uroiY\<TciL^2voi 'UScLVTOLy^^ KOLi ytiV sKag-Qi zciTsT^cc^^avov 
Tr,v Bvw^i5<T0LV. Somc have imagined, that this hiftory related 
to the people faved at the deluge ; rag ^lOLCCtiGBnag oltto th 
KdTOL/.Xvcrixii. But this is impoffible : for we cannot fuppofe, 
that the rites of Jupiter Enualius were preferved by Noah : 
or that the priefts of this Deity were in the Ark. Jofephus 
moreover introduces this paffage, as if Heftisus had been 
fpeaking 'UTS^i TH 'sre^m XByoKLBva Ssj/aa^, about the coH?itry 
called Sejiaar. But this too is certainly a miftake, as may 

' Oi Si 0fO( atSfJLovi i7rt7r€fj.^ce.vrei octnTCi-^av tcv llvpyov, y.ix.i toiocv<^u (ponnif 
iocoxav' xa» Stoc THTO LccCvP^an'a cwi^n ■>cXSwixi Tnv 'ojoAiv. Vleot ie rd 'rnii't'i ra 
A£')0M.£(B2£raap iv Tn Bot^uA&rna ;^^&>fa piVVjjiorivei '< ^■.lyaii' dTMi' Tcov J^g 'li:jui/ 
T^i J tacrOi'Uevra.'^ rcc in EruaAia Aix lepotuaToe. Xa.^'^v'rai sti 'S.ivtx.a.o rw Raf uAo ^ xi 
iMeivt ^■Kimav'Ta.i Je to Aoittcv fVTfe&se vtto rm ofj.oyXci:(TG'ia.i nrai nvvoitctixi ■njoinaccuSf^.i 
iD-ai7a;ya, xa< ■) >it itta<^oi X4C7fAaf(.C«v3r t>jv (VTV^cav. Jofeph. Ant. L. I. C. 4. 
Eufeb. Pn-Ep. Evang. L. 9. p. 416. Eufeb. Chron. p. 13. 

Vol, III. L be 

74 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

be fecii from the words of the author. He is not treatino- 
about Babylon in the land of Senaar ; but of Senaar in the 
land of Babylonia ; and of circumftances fubfequent to the 
difperfion. Senaar. in Babylonia muft have been the city of 
that name, and not the country. It was the fame as the 
Shinar of IVIofes, and the Singara of Ptolemy, and other 
writers. Heftiasus had undoiibtedly been treating of the 
demolition of the tower at Babel, and of the flight of the 
priefts. To this he fubjoined the curious piece of hiftory, 
which has been tranfmitted to us by Jofephus. The pur- 
port of it is this. After the ruin of the tower, the prieJIs, 
who efcaped from that calamity^ faved the impleme^its of their 
■idolatry., and whatever related to the worJJjip of their Deity ^ 
and brought them, sig Xsi/OLd^ rri^ BoL^vKooviag, to the city Se- 
naar in Babylonia. But they were again driven from hence by 
a feconcl difpcrfon ; a?id mankind being as yet all of one ^ lan- 
guage, they 7nade their fettlements in various parts, laying 
hold of any f pot to dwell in, that chalice offered. The former 
flight of the people from Babylon, and particularly of the 

' The words are, \^iro im o/JcoyXaiaiTias ra? avvoixias 'mowaa.fji^voi : which fome 
may fuppofe to mean, ihai they made their fettlements^ where they found people of the 
fame language. But the author adds, ia.i cvioiiticcs ■c7on:a«M£''3' HANTAXOT. By 
i!7ai'Ta^rji is meant ir ■zn-anTi TOTTio. They made their abode in all parts of the worlds 
Thev could not therefore be determined to any particular places: for it is plain 
that they were indeterminately fcattered : and to fliew that they had no choice, the 
author adds, jcai yw 'excc<roi ica7S?>.api.Cxvoi' tmc tpru^jaav. The whole world was. 
open before them : they foj owned in any Uaid, that fortune put in their way. And this 
was eafy, v-iro nK ofxoyXuiaata.'i; on account of the uniforrnity of language., which as yet 
prevailed. From this ancient writer we find, that there was originally one language 
in the world: and though at Babel there was an impediment in utterance, yet lan- 
(Tuage fuffcred no alteration for fome ages. Bochart alters ofMyXaitrenai to -zzroAu- 
')?M( but furely this is too bold a deviation. See Geog. Sac. L. i. p. 64. 

6 \ priefts. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 75 

priefts, is the circumftance alluded to by the poet, when he 
fpeaks of Lycurgus, as driving the Tithenae, or Nurfes, of 
Bacchus over the plain of Nufa. 

* 'Oj iiTors ^ctmofjLS'joio Aimvtroio Ti^rivoLg 

Upon the expulfion of this people from Senaar it was, that 
the fons of Shem got pofTeflion of that city, and region : and 
after this fuccefs, they proceeded farther, and attacked the 
Titanians in all their quarters. Their purpofe was either to 
drive them away from the countries which they had ufurped; 
or to fubdue them totally, and reduce them to a ftateofvaf- 
falage. They accordingly fet out with a puifTant army ; 
and after a difpute of fome time, they made them ^ tributa- 
ries. But upon their rifing in rebellion after the fpace of 
thirteen years, the confederates made a frefh inroad into their 
countries, where they fmote the Repha)ms i?i AJljteroth Kar~ 
nainiy who were no other than the Titans. They are ac- 
cordingly rendered by the Seventy ^ Tag Tiyouuroig Tag sv Ag-a.- 
^c«j^, the Giant brood z>z AJiaroth : and the valley of the 
Rcphaim in Samuel is tranflated ^ rrji/ /mKol^ol tuv Tirayojv 

* Iliad. L. Z. V, 1.32. He makes them in their fright throw away all their idola- 
trous implements. 

* Twelve years they ferved Chedorlaomer. Gen. c. 14. v. 4. 

* Ibid. V. 5. The rebellion of their family is alluded to by the prophet Ifaiah, 
who ftyles them in tl>e language of the Seventy FtyccrTis. :^'MiyEc^mui act -ajaviii 
01 "yiyavTSi, ci ap^oLvrei rv, yni. C. 14. v. g. 

' 2. Samuel, c. 5. v. 18. They are mentioned by Judith. OvSe i,oi Tnav^v 

iTTiXTCC^CiV UVTOV. C. l6. V. S. 

L 2 i/j^ 

76 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the 'valley of the Tit mis. We are alfo told by Procopius Gaz^eus, 

that thoje^ whojn the Heb?^ews mentio?ied as Raphaim^ 'were by 
other people called Giants, a7id Titans. Thofe of the confe- 
deracy fmote alfo ^ the Zuzims i?i Ham, and the Emims ifi 
Shaveh Kiriaihatm. All thefe were of the Giant, or Tita- 
nian race. Hence Mofes fpeaking of the land of Moab fays, 
'° The Emims dwelt therein in times pajl, a people great, and 
many, ajtd tall, as the Anakims : hut the Moahites call them 
Emims ; which alfo were accounted Giants. He mentions 
alfo the " Zuzims in the fame light. This attack made 
upon the fons of Ham is taken notice of by Theophilus ; 
who fpeaks of it as the firft war upon " earth, and calls it 
the war of the Giants. Cedrenus alTures us, that there were 
records in Egypt, which confirmed the account given by 
Mofes, concerning thefe perfonages of fo extraordinary fta^ 
ture ; and that they particularly flourifhed about the times 
of '^ Abraham and Ifaac. And he adds. Tag vjo 'EKKyjvw 

* Ad L. 2. Rcgum. c. 5. Mofes Chorenenfis fpeaks of the people here mern- 
tioned as the Titans. Cxterum de I'itanibus ac Raphxmis memineiuat Sacra; Lir 
terre. L. i.e. 5. p. 17. 

' Genef. fupra. 

" Deuteron. c. 2. v. 10. 

" Dcut. c. 2. V. 20. Giants dwelt therein in old time, and the Ammonites called them, 
Zcnztanniim. Tliey were the fame as the Zuzim. 

" Ad Autolyc. L. 2. p. 372. duTn cco^-.j sysiSTO- 'w^mth rs yivea-^'zi TuroAef/.'^i eiri 
7/)5 >»«, xai xcLTixc-^xv Tdi TiyoLvrxi, iv Koc^cc.!'ca,u, xcc: e^vn la^^ufo. ct/na ccvtoiS, 5cA._ 

'' 'Ot( £v rot; ^p:ivoi^ AQpocafJ. xcct Icra«>c ■sT'jXvrFaiy.ctrovi acivpaiTrovg AtyuTrrtot it^o- 
^natytiia^at^icvi utto 'EAAhpwv n^acxa? ci/s^ai^oM'Ji'H;. p. 34. Artapanus mentions 
Abraham a.vxq.ioovra HiTBiTiyaviot,^. Eufeb. F. E, L. 9. p. 420. Jolephus alfo 
mentions, that this ensaorement of t!ie four kings was with fome of the Titanic or 
Gigantic race, whom they defeated. Ka/ Ka.iiv.o\xv ths xTroyonhi ruv TiyavToiv. 
Amiq. L. I. c, 9. p. 31. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 77 

ViyoLvrcL; ovoy^alp^eviig^ that thefe were the people^ whom the 
Grecians called Giants. 

The moft full account of the Titans and their defeat, is. 
to be found in fome of the Sibylline poetry. The Sibyls 
were Amonian priefteflcs ; and were pofTeffed of ancient 
memorials, which had been for a long time depofited in the 
temples where they prefided. A great part of thofe compo- 
iitions, which go under their name, is not worth being men- 
tioned. But there are fome things curious ; and among 
thefe is part of an hiftorical poem, to which I allude. It is-. 
undoubtedly a tranfl'ation of an ancient record, found by 
fome Grecian in au Egyptian temple : and though the whole 
is not uniform, nor perhaps by the fame hand, yet we may 
fee in it fome fragments of very curious hiftory. 

^+ AAA' oVoTa^ jUfiyaAoiO ©sa rsAswj'Tai cLTtsihai^ 
'Ag 'WOT £7n^7rsiKr.tTS (^^oroig, oi Ylv^yo-J sTsv^aif 
Xoj0 Bv Acruv^iYj, oiJLOi:pmoi $' r,<TOLV dTransg.,. 
Kai (iiiKovT avoL^TiV Big Ov^olvov ccg's^osna^ 
AvTLKOL J" A.^avciTog fJLsyci?^r,v STrB&r/.sp amyKr,y 
Uy£V(JLC(.(rn/' Avtol^ bttsit olvbij^oi fJLsyxv v\^odi ttrvoyov 
'Pi-^j/av, KOLi ^pr.TOLCiv bt: aAA>]Ao/? B^iv w^^tolv' 
TayBKcc roi Ba^v'Aooi/CL ^^oroi 'uroKsi hvo^jl e&sno.- 
AvTct^ BTTBi 'urv^yog t bttb^b^ yXcfjtTcoii-T ai'^^ooirocp 
Eig -TJroAAa^ ^vrirocv Bfjis^KrCr^G-av ^iixKs'/.r'dg, 
UoLVTo^ccTrciig (f:c>}mi(n ^iB<^^B<pov, olvtu^ a.7rci(rc<, 

VOLKX. (i^OTOJV 'WKri^HTO ^B^l^Q^BVm jSaCTiAyj&i}^* 

'* Sib. Orac, L,3. p. 22^. Theoph. ad Autol3'c. L, 2, p. ^"i. 


yS The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

KoLi (ici(n?\sv(rs K^ovog, tcai T/raj/, Iolzbto; ts, 
TaiYig rsKvoL cpB^ig'OL Kcti Ov^avs, s^smKs<r(rc(,v 
Avd^caTTQiy yoLirig tb koli '^ Ov^xvs avofxa ^snsgy 

T^KTCOLi Jjo fjLS^ihg yociYjg koltol hM^ov SKag-ov, 
Kcti ^CL<nKsv(rsv hcccog s'^ucv (xs^ogy atJs fxoL'^ovTo' 
'O^Koi yoLo T eyzvovro 'uroLT^og, [Jis^i^ig rs S'ikolioli, 
T'^viKCL diQ 'UTOLT^og TsXsog '^i^oyog Uzro yji^w^, 
YLoLi f bQolvbv' KCf.i 'uron^sg V7rs^^ct(niriv o^koktl 
Asij/JiJ/ ^QiY](ra,ursg, btt cO\MXovg s^iv o)^(roLVy 
Og 'urcit,vTB(r(n (^^otqi^ip b'^oov (ioLU'iKYi'i^oL ti^jltiV 
A^^si, Koci ^OL'^STXPTO K^ovog Tirai/ ts -cr^o; avTovg. 

AvTn ^' Sf' Ot^X^ T'oXSfJiS 'WCtVTSTG'l (^^OrOKTl* 

Yl^ojiTi ycc^ Ts ji^oToig avrri 'uroAB[JLoio KOLTcc^x/i* 


But when the judgments of the almighty God 
Were ripe for execution ; when the Tower 
Rofe to the fkies upon Aflyria's plain, 
And all mankind one language only knew : 
A dread commiflion from on high was given 
To the fell whirlwinds, which with dire alarm 
Beat on the Tower, and to its loweft bafe 
Shook it convuls'd. And now all intercourfe, 

"' Scilicet rTnyivsiiyOtJ^uvMva.iy 'HAiacTa?. 

TovTif i'i fi'<f.S.iTU^wi S'n^iTo^xa.i r)jv otx^iJievnv rois rpiaiv aura uion S^ajjupic-t' 
S.yncclkis. p. 8a 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 79 

By fome occult, and overruling power, 
Ceas'd among men : by utterance they ftrove 
Perplex'd and anxious to difclofe their mind ; 
But their lip fail'd them ; and in lieu of words 
Produc'd a painful babbling found : the place 
Was hence cali'd Babel ; by th' apoftate crew 
Nam'd from th' event. Then fever'd far away 
They fped. uncertain into realms unknown : 
Thus kingdoms rofe; and the glad world was fiU'd. 

'Tv/as the tenth age fucceflive, iince the flood 
Ruin'd the former world : when foremoft far 
Amid the tribes ot their defcendants flood 
Cronus, and '^ Titan, and liipetus, 
Offspring of Heaven, and Earth : hence in return. 
For their fuperior excellence they fliar'd 
High titles, taken both from Earth and Heaven. 
For they were furely far fupreme ; and each 

'* From a common notion, that lapetus was Japhet, this name is afTigneii to one 
of the three brothers : and the two others are diilinguiflied by the names of Cronus, 
and Titan. But they are all three indeterminate titles. lapetus was a Titanian ; 
and is mentioned as fuch by Diodorus, L. 5. p. 334. He was one of the brood,, 
which was banifhed to Tartarus, and condemned to darknefs ; 

Homer. Iliad. ©. v. 478. He is alfo mentioned as an earth-born Giant -, one of the 
j)rime apoftates. 

Turn partu Terra nefando 
Goeiimque, liipetumque cieat, fa^vumque Typhoea, 
Et conjuratos coelum refcindere frattes, 

Virgil. Georg. L. i, v. 279. 
The hiftory of lapetus has no relation to Japhet. loneroi hs tujv Titcxvuv. Schol. in 
Homer, lupra. liipetus ij^cs one of the Giiints, 


8o The Analysis of Ancient MYTHaL,oGY. 

Ruled o'er his portion of the vaffal world, 

Into .three parts divdded : for the earth 

Into three parts had been by Heaven's decree 

Sever'd ; and each his portion held by lot. 

No feuds as yet, no deadly fray arofe : 

For the good fire with providential care 

Had bound them by an '^ oath : and each well knew 

That all was done in equity, and truth. 

But foon the man of juftice left the world, 

Matur'd by time, and full of years. He died : 

And his three fons, the barrier now remov'd, 

Rife in defiance of all human ties, 

Nor heed their plighted faith. To arms they fly. 

Eager and fierce : and now their bands compleat, 

Cronus and Titan join in horrid fray ; 

Rule the great objedt, and the world the prize. 

This was the firft fad overture to blood ; 
When war difclos'd its horrid front ; and men 
Inur'd their hands to flaughter. From that hour 
The Gods wrought evil to the Titan race ; 
They never profpered. 

This Sibylline hiflory is of confequence. It has been 
borrowed by fome Helleniflic Jew, or Gnoflic, and inferted 
amid a deal of trafh of his own compofing. The fuperior 
antiquity of that part, which I have laid before the reader, 
is plain, from its being mentioned by '* Jofephus. Some 

" See Eufebii Chron. p. lO. 1. 38. 
^' Antiq. L, I.e. 4. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 8i 

lines are likewife quoted by "* Atlienagoras, and '' Theophilus 
Antioclienus. But there are paflages afterwards, which re- 
late to circumftances of late date : fuch as were in time 
much inferior to the age of Atlienagoras ; and ftill farther 
removed from the a?ra of Jofephus. Upon this account I 
pay a greater deference to thefe verfes, than I do to thofe 
which are fubfequent. For thefe contain a very interefting 
hiftory ; and are tolerably precife, if we confider the re- 
motenefs of the times fpoken of. We have here an accurate 
account of the confuiion of fpeech, and demolition of the 
tower of Babel, and of the Titanian war, which enfued. 
And we are moreover told, that the war commenced in the 
tenth generation after the deluge \ and that it lafted ten 
years ; and that it was the firfl war, in which mankind were 
engaged. The author, whoever he may have been, feems to 
allude to two quarrels. The one was with the head of the 
family, and proceeded from a jealoufy and fear, left he 
fhould have any more children : as that would be a detri- 
ment in polTefTion to thofe, whom he already " had. Some- 
thing of this nature runs through the whole of the Pagan 
mythology. The other quarrel was upon a fimilar account. 
It began through ambition, and a defire of rule among the 
Titans ; and terminated in their ruin. Abydenus conform- 
ably to the account given above, ~ mentions, that foon after 
the demolition of the tower commenced the "' war between 

Athenag. Leg. p. 307. fxiiAv.nctt h ccvrvii [Xt^vAAns) y.cttUhccTa>y. 
" Ad Antol. L. 2. p. 371. 
*° See Sibylline Verfes. L,. 3. p. 227. 

HJ^>! cTg aaaov (ivcci TtiQu^ccva (tw Tu^ct/O, v.a.t xa? avifjiw ayccTfe-Yoct — fJi^rx S'e 
K^ovaj Ti acii 1 irnii au^-iivoii -ziToAifxov. Eiifcb. Prsep. Evang. L. ig. c. 14. p. 416. 
Syncel. p. 44. "Zeus 's:(^t tik a.'^'xj^i ■znfO'iTiravaci iTroAi/JLtiae. Athenag. Lcgatio. p. 325. 

Vol. III. M Cronus 

iSfi The Analy45is of Ancient Mythology'. 

Cronus and Titan : and that it was carried on by people 
•of uncommon flrength and ftature. Eupolemus alfo, whom 
I have before quoted, calls them " Giants ; and fays, that 
they were fcattered over the face of the earth. Upon this 
difperfion Babylonia was quite evacuated, and the city left 
oinfiniflied. Some of the fugitives betook therafelves to Shi- 
nar, a city which lay between Nineve and Babylon, to the 
north of the region, which they had quitted. Others came 
into Syria, and into the Arabian provinces, which bordered 
upon Canaan. Thofe, who fled to Shinar, the Senaar of 
Heftiaeus Mileflus, refided there fome time. But being in 
the vicinity of Elam, and Nineve, they raifed the jealoufy of 
the fons of Afliur, and of the Elamites, who formed a con- 
federacy againfh them ; and after a difpute of fome time 
drove them from that neighbourhood. And not contented 
with this, they profecuted their vengeance ftill farther, and 
invaded all thofe of the line of Ham weftward ; and made 
them tributaries, as far as the confines of Egypt. The fa- 
cred writings take notice of the conclufion of the war, which 
ended almoft in the extirpation of fome families in thefe 
parts ; efpecially of thofe, which were properly Titanian. 
And that this was the fame war which happened in the time 
of Abraham, is manifeft from its being in the tenth genera- 
tion from the deluge : for Abraham was tenth in defcent 
from Noah ; and confequently from the deluge. Cedrenus 
is very particular in his account of thefe times. He fays, 
that in the days of Abraham, *' Tag 'sraiJaj ra Ov^am 0(.KfjLO(,<rcLi : 

" Etvau Ss auras FtyaiTai. Eufeb. Prsep. Evang. L. 9. c. 17. p. 418. 
*' P. 29. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 83 

the fons of Ccelus fiourijhed. And having before fpoken of 
the Patriarch's retiring upon account of a famine into Egypt, 
he adds, ""^ ym'xa.i Js /iai Tixaj'wj' 'ure^oq tov Aiol 'uroTKSfJLog : 
about this time was the war of the Tita7ts agai^ifl fupiter. 
Theophilus alfo gives an account of this war from the 
hiftorian Phallus. '^^ Kcci ya^ Bi^Aa Toy A<r(rv^icav ^0LU'i7\£V(TaV' 
Tog, KOLi K^ova, koli ICnoLvog^ ©xKhog ixs^vyiXoli^ <poL<TKm^ rovBriKov 
'UTSTToAsixniiBvoLi dvv Totg Tira.(n irr^og tov Aict, koli rag trvv avTu) 
©sag TKByof-iBvag, Ep^x (pri(ri, fccti Fvyrig riTTrjSsig s^pvysv sig Ta^- 
TY^ccov. Phallus takes ?iotice of the Affyrian moiiarch Belus ; 
likewife of Cronus^ and Tit an : and he fays ^ that Belus aitd the 
Titatis made war upon fupiter and the Gods : and that Gyges 
being worjled in battle fled from thofe parts to Tartejftis. la- 
ftead of Cronus, he mentions Jupiter, as the perfon engaged 
on the opposite fide : but it is of little confequence by what 
title the leaders be called ; for the hiftory of the war is very 
plain. In Mofcs we read only of the conclufion : but the 
Gentile writers give a detail of the whole procedure from the 
beginning of the quarrel. We accordingly find, that there 
were three brothers, and three families ; one of which was 
the Titanian : that they had early great jealoufies ; which 
their father, a juft man, forefaw, would, if not prevented, 
become fatal. He therefore appointed to each a particular 
portion in the earth ; and made them fwear, that they 
would not invade each others right. This kept them during 
his lifetime in order : but after his demife the Titans com- 

'-* Ibid. 

*' L. 3. p. 399. Remakes the Titans war againft ihe Gods ; but they were pro- 
perly tr.e perlons efttemed immortal. He alfo makes Belus an AfTyrian, intlead of 
a Babylonian. 

M 2 menced 

§4 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

xnenced hoftilities, and entered into an affociation againfl 
the family of Sliem. When they firft formed themfelves into 
this confederacy, they are faid to have raifed an *^ altar: and 
upon this they fwore never to abandon the league, nor to give 
up their pretenfions. This altar was the work ot the Cy- 
clopians, a people who feem to have been wonderfully inge- 
nious : and it is thought that the Chaldeans in memorial of 
this tranfacftion inferted an altar in their ancient ""^ fphere. 

From the facred hiftorian we may infer, that there were 
two periods of this war : the firf!:, v/hen the king of Elam 
and his affociates laid the Rephaim, Emim, Horites, and 
Amalekites under contribution : the other, when upon their 
rebellion they reduced them a fecond time to obedience. 
The firft part is mentioned by feveral ancient writers ; and 
is faid to have lafted ten years. Hefiod takes notice of both; 
but makes the firft rather of longer duration. 

*'' Tovro i^ii', sv cj wpojrov ot Qeoi inv cruvufjiocrixv eOfyTo, ote iirt K^ovov o Z;'j5 i~fx- 
Ti'josv. Eratofth. After. Srvaiocc^n^iou. p. 1 4. 

Hyginus fuppoies, that the Gods fwore upon this altar, when they were going to 
oppofe the Titans : and he fays, that it was the work of the Cyclopians. But the 
Cyclopians were Titanians j and the altar was for the ufe of their brotherhood, who 
were called T<tmi'«5 S-eoj. 

"Tnnvii ii ^eoi — tuv e^ avofn re l^ioi Tt. 

Homer. Hymn, in Apol. v. 335. 
Juno in Homer fwears by the Titans, as the original Deities. 

Tow VTroTccprapiBi, at TnniH '/.etXiovrai. Iliad. H. v. 279. 
In this we have a fliort, but true, hiftory of dsmon-worfliip, and its origin. 

*' ESHxav y.xi ocvto sv ru Ou^aiu in fJivniAOdwov, Eratofthenes fupra. Some how- 
ever think, that it was placed there upon another account : in memorial of tlie lirft 
altar, that was raifed after the flood. 

*' Theog. V. 6^6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 85 

Ten years and more they fternly ftrove in arms. 

He in another place fpeaks of it as a very long and ftubborn 

Ti7r\ve!; rs ^so;, koo. otoi K^ova s^sysvono. 

Year after year in cruel conflicSt ftrove 
The Titan Gods, and thofe of Cronus' line. 

In the fecond engagement the poet informs us, that the Ti- 
tans were quite difcomfited, and ruined : and according to 
the mythology of the Greeks, they were condemned to reiide 
in Tartarus, at the extremities of the known world. Ac- 
cording to the Mofaic account it happened fourteen years 
after the concluiion of the firft war. '° 'Twelve years they 

ferved Chedorlao7ner : and in the thirteenth they rebelled. And 
in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that 
were with him ; and fmote the Rephaims i?t AJIoteroth Kar- 
natm^ and the Zuzims i?t Ham^ and the Emims in Shaveh Ki- 
riathaim : and the Horites in their mount Seir U7ito El Paran^ 
which is by the wildernefs. And they returned and came to 
En-Mijhpat, which is in Kadejh, and fmote all the country of 
the Amalekites^ and alfo the Afnorites, that dwelt in Hazezon 
Tamar. And there cafne out the king of Sodom, and the king of 
Gomorrah, &c. Jofephus, and later writers, do not confider 

'the purport of the fcripture account, nor the extent of this 

''•V. 629. 'b''[ix.^cy.B'.ocv Si ck.-jTj:v evtxuiBi Sskk n F/) t-j /I'u eysn7i Tnv vikw. 
ApoUodorus. L. i. p. 4. 
'' Genefis. c. 14. v. 4. 5. 6. 


86 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

war : but fpeak of it as carried on chiefly, if not folcly, with 
the petty kings of the Afphaltite \ ale. They bore an incon- 
fiderable part in this grand '' affair: and were taken in after a 
fweep of many, and far more powerful, nations. The for- 
mer war, when the power of the Titans was firfi broken, 
feems to have been a memorable aera with the Cuthites and 
their defcendants, though overlooked by other people. 

The kings, who compofed the confederacy againft the Ti- 
tans, were the king of Elam, the kingof Elafur, the king of 
Shinar, and a fourth, ftyled king of nations. It was a family 
allociation againft a common enemy, whence we may form a 
judgment concerning the princes of whom it was compofed. 
Of the king of Shinar we know little : only we may be af- 
fured, that he was of the line of Shem ; who had recovered- 
the city, over which he ruled, from the Titanians. And we 
may farther prefume, that Tidal king of Nations was no 
other than the king of Aram. In like manner we may infer, 
that Arioch Melach Elafur, idSm, however expreifed, was the 
king of Nineve, called of old, and at this day, ^'' Afur and 
AfTur. In the ancient records concerning this war, it is 
probable, that each nation made itfelf the principal, and 
took the chief part of the glory to itfelf. For the conquefts 
of Ninus (by which word is fignified merely the Ninevite) 
coniifted in great meafure of thefe atchievemcnts: the whole 
honour of which the Ninevites and Aftyrians appropriated 
to " themfelves. The real principal in the war was the king 

'' See Obfervations and Inquiries, p. 206. 

'* Benjamin Tudtlcnfis. p. 61. 

" Zonaras fpe.iks of the war as being carried on by the AfTyrians. p. 22. 

10 of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 87 

of Elam ; as we learn from the Scriptures : and another 
material truth may be obtained from the account given by 
Mofes ; that notwithftanding the boafted conquefts of the 
AfTyrians, and the famed empire of Ninus and Semiramis, 
the province of Afilir vi^as a very limited diftrid ; and the 
kingdom of Elam was fuperior both to that of Nineve, and 
Babylonia. The king of nations I have fuppofed to have 
been the king ot Aram : and the nature of the confederacy 
-warrants the fuppolition. But there are evidences, which 
fhew, that he was no other, than the prince of that country : 
and it was called the region of nations, becaufe all Syria, 
and the country upon the Euphrates confifted of mixed peo- 
ple ; which was obfervable quite down to Galilee in Canaan. 
Mofes Chorenenfis wrote the hiftory of Armenia ; and he tells 
us, that when Ninus reigned in '''^ Afiyria, there was a war 
■carried on againft the " Titans of Babylonia, whom he ftyles 
the Immortals : and that the king of Aram had the condud 
of that war. It is well known, that thefe kings, after they 
had defeated thofe in the vale of Siddim, carried off many 
prifoners. Among thefe was Lot, who was afterwards in a 
wonderful manner refcued by his brother Abraham. This 
hiftory is mentioned by Eupolemus ; v/ho fays, that they 
were the people of Aram, who had taken him prifoner : and 
that they had been making war upon the people of Canaan, 
whom he ftyles Phenicians. He adds, that upon the news 
of Lot being a prifoner, Abraham with his armed houfhold 

'* Mofes Chorenenf. L. i. c. lo. p. 27. 

'' Bellum Titanium cum Gigantibus — immortalibus ac proceriflimis. Ibid. 
AOTien Titanium. Ibid. 


88 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

alone defeated the enemy, and regained his ^^ brother. Dio- 
dorus Siculus has a paffage very much to the prefent piirpofe. 
Fie tells us, that " Ni?ius^ or the Ninevite^ with the ajfiftancc 
of another prince., made ivar upo'n his neighbours the Babylo- 
nia?ts. He proceeds afterwards to fay, that this formidable 
expeditioTi was ?jot agai?tji the city of Babylon \ for that was 
not then in being : but againfl other refpeSiable cities of the 
country. In this war he zvith much eafe fubdued his enemiesy 
and obliged them to pay an annual tribute. How very confo- 
nant this hiftory is to the account given by Mofes ? The 
author fays, that the city Babylon, which in aftertimes made 
fuch a figure, was not now in being. It is very truly faid : 
for the city Babel had been begun \ but was at that time 
deferted, and left unfinifhed. ^^ They left off to build the city. 
It feems to have been under a curfe : and we hear nothing 
more of it for ages. Not a word occurs about Babylon or 
Babylonia, till the time of Berodach Baladan, and of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who came after him, when this city was rebuilt. 
And from the extent of it, when compleated, we may form 
fome judgment of the original defign. " The king (Nebu- 
chadnezzar) fpake aitd faid: is 7iot this great Babylon., that I 
have built for the houfe of my kingdojn, by the might of my 
power., and for the honour of my majefy f Abydenus inforins 

jnfyuv tjv a.SiX(fitS iiv aura (A^oaa^), rov ACoaajj. fj.era cikstoiv ^o-iTjija-avioc. syxpxTn 
■yiHc^cu Tcov a.t;;^iJ.aAcori(TaiiJi.ivu'v, x.t A. Eufeb. Frxp. Evang. L. g. p. 418. 

" Kar' etcen'r^i S'e tk? Pt^PorKs n fJ^sv vw aaa Jju^vAoov ay. nv exTia-fxim' 7carac Si Tnv 
B'X^uAwnai' uir-it^'xov acXAui isoXHi cc^ioXoyoi pa^iaii ^i ^/ifcorrafxivoi rovi sy^yoi'di — > 

THTCK imiii BT.X^S TiXilV KUT iflXJTZV d^piCrfXiVii p3fi35. Diodof. L. 2. p. QO. 

'^ Genefis. c. ii. v. 8. 
'" Daniel, c, 4. v. 30. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 89 

us from Megaflhenes, *° that Babylon was frji walled rotmd by 
Belus : but in time the wall was rui?ied. At lajl Nebuchodo- 
nofor built it anew ; and it remained with gates of brafs to the 
time of the Macedonia?i empire. 

In the pafTage taken above from Diodorus Siculus men- 
tion is alfo made of fome fervice impofed upon the con- 
quered nations ; which is conformable to the account 
given by Mofes. '*'' Twelve years they fervcd Chedorlaomer : 
which fervice undoubtedly conlifted in a certain tribute, 
as Diodorus rightly informs us. There are two circum- 
fbances, in which this author, as the text now ftands, 
does not accord with the original hiftory. He mentions 
firft, that the king of AfTur was in league with the king 
of Arabia : and in the next place, that after the fub- 
duing of the Babylonians, he attacked the Armenians. In 
refpedl to Arabia, there was probably no country in that 
age fo called : nor could it be the king ol Arabia, 
with whom he was in alliance ; no more than it was the 
Armenian with whom he was at war, Thefe two names, 
Arabia and Aramia, are very Umilar, and have therefore been 
confounded ; and the hiftory by thefe means has been ren- 
dered obfcure. The prince, with whom the king of Nineve 
had entered into an alliance, was not the king of Arabia, 
but Aramia. He was a branch of the fame family as Melech 
Al Afur, the king of Nineve : and his country was ftyled 

*° BwAoi' ]jo£vXo>va. TSi^ft -mepiCaAeiv' tw ^covm S'e fHHUfx^i'M a<fuvtamna.t' reiyjacci 
Je x'jfjii KaCbj^o/^ot'co-o^oi', x.T.A. Apud Abydenum in Eufcbio. Prsep. Evang. 
L. 9. p. 459. 

*' Genefis. c. 14, V. 4. See Diodorus above, erafg TsAe/y <fo^B». 

Vol. IIL N Aram. 

90 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Aram. '^' Ta? ycn^ V(p v\^m liV^sg KaT^BfJLsmg vtt* avTO^v Twy 
Xv^ocv A^fj^sviagj kcli A^ciiJL[JLC(.isg kolKbht^oli. Thofcy fays Strabo, 
whom we Greciajts na?ne Syrians, are by the Syrians themf elves 
called Art?ie7tians a7td Ara?nceans, On the other hand the 
people, whom Diodorus by miftake ftyles Armenians, were 
the fame that in aftertimes were called Arabians. The 
countries of the Rephaim, the Zuzim, the Amalekites, and 
the *' Horites, lay in Arabia Petraea : and thefe were the 
people, upon whom this inroad was made. It lay neareft ta 
Babylonia, though feparated by a defart. It was accordingly 
invaded by the confederates, after tliey had made themfelves 
mafters of Singara. We fhould therefore for Arabia in the 
iirft inftance replace '^* Aramia : and for the Aramians, in 
the latter part read Arabians. This fmall change makes the 
whole perfedlly agreeable to the truth. It correfponds with 
the account given by the Armenian writer above ; and a 
wonderful atteftation is hereby afforded to the hiflory of 

*^ L. I. p. 71. 

*' The Horites were Hivites of the race of Ham. ZIbeon, Seir's fon, is fo ftyled. 
Gen. c. 36. V. 2. 

ApTCLTTOiVOi (5g (ptiaiV iV TO iYsoxixOii £!' Oi 01.0 iT TOT Oli iVpOfJiiV TOP ACpctdix ocvai^epovTcx.. 

Hi Ttii r lyOLVTOLi THTaS S^B Qitt'-iVTai iV T>? ^OlQdK'jIVIO, S'KX. TYIV CX.alCsiXV UTTO TaV Qi'jlV 

aval pi^m' act, wv hot Bii^oy, n.r.A^ Eufeb. Prsp. Evang. L. 9. p. 420. 

■** Arabia has more than once been put for Aramia, or tather for Armenia. A 
miftake of this fort is to be found in Theophilus. Every b dy knows, that the ark 
of Noah is faid to have refted upon Mount Ararat in Aiuienia. Bat this writer 
makes it reft upon the mountains of Arabia ; and fays, that the remains of it were 
to be feen in his time. 'Hs y.i€eoTB tx XH'^ccvoc fxiy^oi th S'iupa S^uxvitrou nvcci ev tou 
ApocSixoii opiui; for A^ccixiKoi; o^ea*, ihe mountains of Aram. Ad Autol. L. ^v 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 91 

Thus have I given an account of the ancient Titans, or 
woriliippers of fire ; who were engaged in building the 
tower called Babel, and the city of the fame name. They 
feem to have been a very numerous body, who had attached 
themfelves to the fpot, and were determined never to leave 
it. But they were wonderfully diflipated ; and fled to dif- 
ferent parts. Some of the remoter clans feem not to have 
been involved in the firft calamity ; whom however ven- 
geance purfued. For the family of Shem boldly attacked 
thefe formidable tribes ; which for courage and ftature had 
been deemed invincible. They carried it with a high hand; 
and feem to have reduced many nations to a ftate of obe- 
dience, from the Euphrates downwards to the entrance 
of Egypt. From thence they turned, and pafTmg up- 
wards by the weft of Jordan, they took in all thofe na- 
tions, which had before efcaped them. From the fer- 
vice impofed, and from the extent of the conquefts, we 
may perceive, that the king of Elam and his affociates 
entertained the fame views, which had been condemned 
in their adverfaries. They were laying the foundation 
of a large empire, of which the fupremacy would moft 
probably have centered in the kings of Elam. But the 
whole fcheme was providentially ruined by the Patriarch 
Abraham. He gave them an utter defeat ; and after- 
wards purfued them from Dan quite up to ^^ Hobah, and 

Thefe are the events, which the moft early writers, Li- 

*' Genefis. c. 14. v. 15. 

N 2 nus, 

92 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

mis, Olen, '^* Thamyras, and Thymcetes, are faid to have 
commemorated under the titles of the jflight of Bacchus ; 
in which were included the wars of the Giants, and the 
fufferings of the Gods. *^ Ta 'urs^i Trig TiTOLVo^oLyjoLg, Kcci 
70 (Tvvo7\ov rrjv 'wc-^i tol "UTol^y] tojv @su)v Ig-o^ioLV. I have 
before mentioned from Hyginus an account of Phoroneus, 
the firft king upon earth ; wherein is contained an epitome 
of the Noachic hiftory ; and where there are alfo fome 
allufions to the difperlion, and to this war. *^ Inachus, 
Oceani filius, ex Archia forore fua procreavit Phoroneum, 
qui primus mortalium dicitur regnaffe. Homines ante 
fccula multa fine oppidis legibufque vitam exegerunt, una 
lingua loquentes fub Jovis imperio. Sed poftquam Mer- 
curius fermones hominum "^^ interpretatus eft, unde Her- 

meneutes dicitur interpres Idem nationes diftribuit : 

tum diicordia inter homines effe coepit. Inachus^ whofe 
father was Oceanus^ had by his ftjler Archia a fon named 
Phoroneus \ who was the Jirji kitig upon earth. Before his 
reign people had but one la?iguage ; and lived for many ages 
under the direEiio7i of Jupiter^ without any cities being foimded^ 

■* YliiT'-jnv.iYai ii THTor '^QxfJOipu') tt^opH'Toct Tov Tnavodv ■n^poi tbs Qeus 'sro^ef/.ov. 
Plutarch, de Mufica. 

o €l:^ct.irt!ji iTrix/^n^tii, iv l2iC?vto t/i e^i^^a^oy.g;'/) 2£y^e»'a9'. Theoph. ad, Autolyc. 
L. 2. p. ;^sz. 

*' Diodorus, L. i. p. 87. 

riAai'a?, X.CCI J*iafi«A«7/*8Cj -arsAAa toiccutcc ■ma^ny.oLTcc. Plutarch. Ifis et 
Ofir. p. 355. 
-^ Fab. 143. 
'■'•^ Interpretatus eft. It is difficult to arrive at the author's precife meaning. 

^ or 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 93 

or any laws promtilged. But after that Her?fies had diverfi- 
jied the language of ma?i ; from whence Her?neneutes came to 
fignify a?i interpreter ; he proceeded^ and divided them into 
nations. Upon this there immediately commenced feuds and 
com^notions. It is a fhort account, but contains much inte- 
refting matter: and we learn from it, that immediately after 
the difperiion the firft war enfued. 


t 95 1 




Abydenus, Apollodorus, and Alexander PolyhistoRj 



I Cannot proceed without taking notice of fome extradls 
of Babylonifh hiftory, which time has happily fpared us. 
From what has been already faid, it is evident, that the 
hiftory of nations muft commence from the aera of Babylon: 
as here the fiift kingdom was founded ; and here was the 
great fcene of aftion among the lirftborn of the fons of men. 
The hiftory therefore of the Babylonians and Chaldeans 
fhould be the firft in order to be considered. Not that I 
purpofe to engage in a full account of this people ; but in^ 
tend only to confider thofe extrads, of which I have made 
mention above. The memorials are very curious ; but have 
been greatly miftaken, and mifapplied. The perfon, to 
whom we are beholden for them, was Berofus, a prieft of 

5 Belus, 

96 The Analysis of Ancibnt My.thology. 

Belus. He was a native of Babylonia ; and lived in the 
time of Alexander, the fon of Philip. The Grecians held 
him in great efteem : and he is particularly quoted by the 
oriental fathers, as well as by Jofephus of Judea. He treated, 
it feems, of the origin of things, and of the formation of the 
earth out of chaos. He afterwards fpeaks of the flood ; and 
of all mankind being deftroyed, except one family, which 
was providentially preferved. By thefe was the world re- 
newed. There is a large extract from this author, taken 
from the Greek of Alexander Polyhifhor, and tranfmitted to 
us by Eufebius ; which contains an account of thefe firft 
occurrences in the world. But it feems to be taken by a 
perfon, who was not well acquainted with the language, in 
which it is fuppofed to be written ; and has made an irre- 
gular and partial extrad, rather than a genuine tranflation. 
And as Berofus lived at a time, when Babylon had been re- 
peatedly conquered ; and the inhabitants had received a 
mixture of many different nations: there is reafon to think, 
that the original records, of whatever nature they may have 
been, were much impaired; and that the natives in the time 
of Berofus did not perfedly underftand them. I will foon 
prefent the reader with a tranfcript from Polyhiftor of this 
valuable fragment ; in which he will perceive many curious 
traces of original truth; but at the fame time will find it 
mixed with fable, and obfcured with allegory. It has like- 
wife fuffered greatly by interpreters : and there ire fome 
mift.ikes in the difpofition ^of the tranfcript ; of which I 
fliall hereafter take notice ; and which could not be in the 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 97 

Other authors, as well as Alexander Polyhiftor, have co- 
pied from Berofus : among thefe is Abydeniis. I will there- 
fore begin with his account; as it is placed firft in Eufebius: 
the tenor ot it is in this manner, 

" ' So much concerninof the wifdom of the Chaldeans, 


*' It is fiid, that the firft king of this country was Alorus ; 
who gave out a report, that he was appointed by God to 
be the fhepherd of his people. He reigned ten fari. Now 
" a farus is erteemed to be three thoufand fix hundred years. 
" A nereus is reckoned fix hundred : and a fofus fixty. 
*' After him Alaparus reigned three fari: to him fucceeded 
"*' Amillarus from the city of " Pantibibkis, who reigned 
*' thirteen fari. In his time a femid^emon called Annedotus, 
" in appearance very like to Oannes, fhewed himfelf a fe- 
■*' cond time from the fca. After him Amenon reigned 
twelve iari ; who was of the city Pantibiblon. Then 
Megalanus of the fame ^ place, eighteen fari. Then Daus 
the fhephcrd governed for the fpace of ten fari : he was 
of Pantibiblon. In his time four double-fliaped per- 
fonages came out of the fea to land -, whofe names were 
Euedocus, Eneugamus, Enaboulus, and Anementus. Af- 
ter Daus fucceeded Anodaphus, the fon of Aedorefchus. 
There were afterwards other kings ; and laft of all Sifu- 
thrus ; fo that, in the whole, the number of kings 

Eufebii Chronicon. p. 5. 

* Sometimes Pantibibkis, atotlier times Pantibiblon occurs for the name of the 
place. See Syncelkis, p. 38. 

' It is in the original Panfibiblon : but the true name was Pantibiblon ; as may 
be feen by comparing this account with that of Apollodorus, which fucceeds ; and 
with the fame in Syncellus. 

Vol. III. O " amounted 

98 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

" amounted to ten ; and the term of their reio;ns to an hun- 
*' dred and twenty fari." This lafl: was the perfon who 
was warned to provide againft the dekige. He accordingly 
built a veffel, by which means he was preferved. The hif- 
tory of this great event, together with the account of birds 
fent out by Sifouthros, in order to know, if the waters were 
quite abated ; and of their returning with their feet foiled 
v/ith mud ; and of the ark's finally refting in Armenia, is 
circumftantially related by "^ Abydenus, but borrowed from 

A fimilar account of the firft kings of Babylonia is given 
by Apollodorus ; and is taken from the fame author, who 
begins thus. " This is the hiflory, which Berofus has 
" tranfmitted to us. He tells us, that Alorus of Babylon 
" was the firft king, that reigned ; who was by nation a 
" Chaldean. He reigned ten fari : and after him Alaparus, 
" and then Amelon, who came from Pantibiblon. To him 
" fucceeded Amenon of Chaldea : in whofe time they fay^ 
•■' that the Mufarus Cannes, the Annedotus, made his ap- 
*' pearance from the Eruthrean fea." ^ So we are told by 
Alexander (Polyhiftor), who firft took this hiftory in hand ; 
and mentions, that this perfonage fliewed himfelf in the 

* Syncellus. p. 38. He ftyks him Abydenus : but by Eufebius the name is ex- 
preficd Abidenus. 

' Eufebii Chronicon.p. 5. 

So we are told. Tiiele are the words of Eufebius : fo that there is no regular 

YlDoKacQm ; who foreftalls the event, and makes the appearance of this perfonage 
to have been in the firft year. 

The account of Cannes is in Alexander Polyhiftor, as taken from the firft book of 
Berofus : but not a v/ord is there of his appearing in the reign of Amenon. 

" firft 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 99 

firft year: but Apollodoriis fays, that it was after forty ^ fari. 
Abydenus, differing from both, makes the fecond Annedotus 
appear after twenty-fix fari. " After this laft king, Mega- 
" larus fucceeded, of the city Pantibiblon ; and reigned 
" eighteen fari. Then Daon the fhepherd, of the fame 
" city, ten fari. In his time it is faid, that Annedotus ap- 
" peared again from the Eruthrean fea, in the fame form, 
" as thofe, who had fhewed themfelves before : having the 
" fhape of a fifh, blended with that of a man. Then 
" reigned Aedorachus of Pantibiblon, for the term of eigh- 
" teen fari. In his days there appeared another perfonage 
" from the fea Eruthra, likg thofe above ; having the fame 
" complicated form between a fifh and a man : his name 
" was Odacon." All thefe perfonaf^es, accordino- to Aool- 
lodorus, related very particularly and circumflantially, what- 
ever Oannes had informed them. Concerning thefe Abyde- 
nus has made no mention. " After the kings above, fuc- 
*' ceeded Amempfinus, a Chaldean, from the city Larach, 
*' and reigned eighteen fari. In his time was the great de- 
" luge." According to the fum of years above, the total of 
all the reigns was an hundred and twenty fari. 

There leems to be fome omiffion in the tranfcript given 
by Eufebius from Apollodorus, which is fupplied by Syncel- 
lus. He mentions " Amempfinus as eighth king in order, 
" v/ho reigned ten fari. After him comes Otiartes of ^ La- 
" ranch^ in Chaldea, to whom he allov.s eight fari. His 

' From what fixed term do they reckon ? to what year do they refer? and whofe 
are thefe reflexions ? ' 

^ Laracha, the Larachon of Eufebius, 

O 2 , " fon 

100 The Analysis of Ancient MvTHOLOGr, 

" fon was ' Xifuthros, who reigned eighteen fari 3 and in 
" whofe time was the well-known deluge. So that the fuiu 
*' of all the kings is ten ; and of the term, which they col- 
*' ledlively reigned, an hundred and twenty fari." 

Both thefe writers are fuppofed to copy from Berofus : 
yet there appears a manifeft diiierence between them : and 
this not in refped: to numbers only, which are eafily cor- 
rupted ; but in regard to events, and difpofition of circum- 
ftances. Of this ftraiige variation in two fhort fragments, I 
Ihall hereafter take further notice. 

J come now to the chief extrad: from Berofus ; as it has. 
been tranfmitted to us by ^ Eufebius, who copied it from 
Alexander Poiyhiflor. It is likewife to be found ia '° Syn- 
cellus. It begins in this wife. 

" Berofus, in his firft book concerning the hillory of Ba- 
*' bylonia, informs us, that he lived in the time of Alexan- 
** der the fon of Philip. And he mentions, that there were 
written accounts prefcrved at Babylon with the greateft 
care ; comprehending a term of fifteen myriads of years. 
Thefe writings contained a hiftory of the heavens, and 
*' the fea; of the birth of mankind; alfo of thofe, who had 
fovereign rule ; and of the actions achieved by them.. 
And in the firft place he defcribes Babylonia as a "coun- 
try, which lay between the Tigris and Euphrates. He 



' The name is expreflTed Xiluthrus, Sifufthru?, and Sithithrvis. 

' Eufebii Chronicon. p. 5. 
'° Syncelli Chronograph, p. 2S. 

" It is necertary to obferve the arrangement of this hlftor/ of Berofus ; as much 
depends upon the difpofition of thefe articles. 

** mentions^ 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, ioi 

mentions, that it abounded with '' wheat, barley, ocrus, 
fefamum : and in the lakes were found the roots called 
gongje, which were good to be eaten, and were in refped: 
to nutriment like barley. There were alfo palm trees, 
and apples, and mod kind of fruits : iifh too, and birds; 
both thofe, which are merely of flight ; and thofe, which 
take to the element of water. The part of Babylonia, 
which bordered upon Arabia, was barren, and without 
water : but that, which lay on the other iide, had hills, 
and was '^ fruitful. At Babylon there was ''^ in thefe 
times a great refort of people of various nations ; who in- 
habited Chaldea ; and lived without rule and order, like 
the beafts of the field. '^ In the firft year there made its 
appearance from a part of the Eruthrean fea, which bor- 
dered upon Babylonia, an animal '* endowed with reafon, 
who was called Oannes. According to the accounts 
of '^ Apollodorus, the whole body of the animal was 
like that of a fifh ^ and had under a fifh's head an- 
other head, and alfo feet below, fimilar to thofe of a 
man,, fubjoined to the fifh's tail. His voice too, and 

" riu^'di ay^i'jiy wild wheat. 

'' Euitb. a.(po^ci: Syncall. ivi^opcc. 

'■* I add, in thefe times : for he means the firft ages. 

'' /« /^t'j?r/?j(?rtr from what determined time ? No data are here given ; yet the 
meaning will, I believe, be eafily arrived at. 

'* Eufebius, or rather Alexander Polyhiftor, mentions in the fequel his great know- 
ledge and fagacity. In like manner he is ftyled Muo-acos- by Apollodorus ; though 
reprefented in the original as a Being of great juftice and truth,, and an univerfal be- 

'^ It appears from hence, that this is no regular trandation from Berofus j the 
Grecian copier putting in obfervations of his own, and borrowing from others : 
thoiighj to fay the truth, they feem to be the words of Eufebius. 

" lano-uaore 

I02 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

*' language was articulate, and human : and there was a re- 
" prefentation of him to be feen in the time of Berofus. 
" This Being in the day-time ufed to converfe with men : 
" but took no food at that feafon : and he gave them an 
" infight into letters, and fcience, and every kind of art. 
He taught them to conftruft houfes, to found temples, to 
compile laws ; and explained to them the principles of 
geometrical knowledge. He made them diftinguiih the 
" feeds of the earth ; and fhcwed them how to colled: 
" fruits : in fhort, he iniiru6ted them in every thing, which 
" could tend to foften manners, and humanize mankind. 
From that time, fo univerfal were his inflruclions, nothing 
has been added material by v/ay of improvement. When 
the fun fit, it was the cuftom of this Being to plunge 
again into the fea, and abide all the night in the deep." 
After this there appeared other animals like Oannes ; of 
which Berofus promifes to give an '* account, when he comes 
to the hiflory of the '^ kings. 

Moreover Oannes wrote concerning the generation of 
mankind : of their different ways of Hie, and of civil poli- 
ty : and the following is the purport of vv^hat he faid : 
" There was nothing but darknefs, and an abyfs of water, 
*' wherein refided moft hideous beings, which were pro- 
" duced of a twofold principle. Men appeared with two 
*' wings ; fome with four: and with two faces. They had 
" one body, but two heads ; the one of a man, the other of 

Thcfe again are the words of the tranfcriber. 
'' The hiftory of the kings of Babylon was to come afterwards ; which is of con- 
fequence to be obferved. 

7 ** a woman. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 103 

" a woman. They were likewife in their feveral organs 
** both male and female. Other human figures were to be 
*' feen with the legs, and horns of goats. Some had horfes' 
" feet : others had the limbs of a horfe behind ; but before 
were fafhioned like men, refembling hippocentaurs. Bulls 
likewife bred there with the heads of men; and dogs with 
" fourfold bodies, and the tails of fifties. Alfo horfes with 
" the heads of dogs : men too, and other animals with the 
" heads and bodies of horfes, and the tails of fifties. In 
" fhort, there were creatures with the limbs of every fpecies 
*' of animals. Add to thefe, fifties, reptiles, ferpents, with 
** other wonderful animals ; which aflumed each other's 
fliape, and countenance. Of all thefe were preferved de- 
lineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. The per- 
fon, who was fuppofed to have prefided over them, had 
" the name of Omorca. This in the Chaldaic language is 
Thalath ; which the Greeks exprefs ■S'aAao'ff'a, the fea : 
but according to the moft true computation, it is equi- 
valent to [XsT^YiVYj) the moon. All things being in this 
fituation, Belus came, and cut the woman afunder : and 
out of one half of her he formed the earth, and of the 
other half the heavens ; and at the fame time deftroyed 
the animals in the abyfs. All this, Eerofus laid, was an 
allegorical defcription of nature. For the whole univerfe 
confifliing of moifture, and animals being continually ge- 
nerated therein ; '° the Deity (Belus) abovementioned cut 








Eufebius exprefles it, rarw;/ 5rsov ; Syncellus, tutov rov S-gsr, the God above- 
mentioned. This may be proved to be the true reading, from what comes after: 
for the fad is repeated j and his head cut oil again, 


104- The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


off '' his own head : upon which the other Gods mixed 
the '" blood, as it guflicd out, with the earth ; and from 
" thence men were formed. On this account it is, that 
they are rational, and partake of divine knowledge. This 
Belus, whom men call Dis, divided the darknefs, and fe- 
parated the heavens from the earth ; and reduced the 
*' imiverfe to order. But the animals fo lately created, not 
being able to bear the prevalence of light, died. Belus 
upon this, feeing a vaft fpace quite uninhabited, though 
by nature very fruitful, ordered one of the Gods to take 
off his head ; and when it was taken oft, they were to 
" mix the blood with the foil of the earth; and from thence 
to form other men and animals, which fhould be capable 
of bearing the ^' liglit. Belus alfo formed the ftars, and 
the fun, and moon, together with the five planets." We 
have after this the following intelligence concerning the 
hiftory above; that what was there quoted, belonged to the 
firft book of Berofus, according to the author's own diftri- 
bution of fads : that in the fecond book was the hiftory of 
the Chaldean monarchs, and the times of each reign; which 
confifted colledively of one hundred and twenty fari, or 
four hundred thirty-two thoufand years ; 7'eachmg to the 
ii7ne of the deluge. This latter atteflation of the reigns of 

*' Al/th?, according tofome. Others have eavTn, which is the true reading. 

" XufJioc, Syncell. 

^' Ae^a (pvaiiv, Eufebius ; af^a (^.e^SiVy Syncellus ; which is the true reading. 
The original word was TIN, Aur, light -, which Aur they have changed to a«^: 
but the context fliews that it was not the air, which they were formed to be proof 
againft, but 'lift, light. This is a common miftake among the Latins, as among 
the Greeks. The Orientals v.'or{hipped Aur, *T)K, the fun : this is by Julius Fir- 
jnicus and many other writers rendered Aer. 

lO the 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 105 

the kings, reaching in a line of defcent to the deluge, was 
never taken from **■ Berofus : they are the words of the co- 
pier ; and contrary to the evidence of the true hiftory, as 
fliall be plainly fhewn hereafter. 

After this comes a detached, but mofl: curious extract from 
the fame author: wherein he gives an account of the deluge, 
and of the principal circumftances, with which that great 
event was attended, conformably to the hiftory of Mofes : 
and he mentions the perfon, who was chiefly interefted in 
the affair, by the name of Sifuthrus. " '^ After the death of 
Ardates, his fon (Sifuthrus) fucceeded, and reigned eigh- 
teen fari. In his time happened the great deluge ; the 
hiftory of which is given in this manner. The Deity, 
Cronus, appeared to him in a vifion; and gave him notice, 
that upon the fifteenth day of the month Dasfius there 
would be a flood, by which mankind would be deftroyed. 
He therefore injoined him to commit to writing a hiftory 
of the ^* beginning, procedure, and final conclufion of all 
things, down to the prefent term ; and to bury thefe ac- 
counts fecurely in the City of the Sun at ^^ Sippara. He 
then ordered Sifuthrus to build a veffel ; and to take with 
him into it his friends, and relations ; and truft himfeif to 
the deep. The latter implicitly obeyed : and having con- 
veyed on board every thing neceffary to fuftain life, he 
took in alfo all fpecies of animals, that either fly, or rove 
upon the furface of the earth. Having afked the Deity^ 

''* It is accordingly omitted by Syncellus, as foreign to the true hiftory. 
'-^ Eufeb. Chron. p. 8, Syncellus. p. 30. 

A/a •) pxy.fAct.rooi- 'urtx.vTuv ccp^ai. 
*' Xidirce.^vK. Syncellus. 

Vol. III. p whither 

io6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

" whither he was to go, he was anfwered, To the Gods : 
" upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of man- 
" kind. Thus he obeyed the divine admonition : and the 
" veffel, which he built, was fiv^e ftadia in length, and in 
" breadth two. Into this he put every thing which he had 
" o-ot ready ; and laft of all conveyed into it his wife, chil- 
" dren, and friends. After the flood had been upon the 
" earth, and was in time abated, Sifuthrus fent out fome 
" birds from the veffel ; which not finding any food, nor 
" any place to refl their feet, returned to him again. After 
" an interval of fome days, he fent forth a fecond time : and 
" they now returned with their feet tinged with mud. He 
*' made tryal a third time with thefe birds : but they returned 
*' to him no more : from whence he formed a judgment, 
" that the furface of the earth was now above the waters. 
" Having therefore made an opening in the veffel, and find- 
" ing upon ^* looking out, that the veffel was driven to the 
fide of a mountain ; he immediately quitted it, being at- 
tended with his wife, children, and ""^ the pilot. Sifuthrus 
immediately paid his adoration to the earth : and having 
" coiifiru6led an altar, offered facrifices to the Gods. Thefe 
'^' things being duly performed, both Sifuthrus, and thofe, 
" who came out of the veffel with him, difappeared. They, 
" who remained in the veffel, finding that the others did not 

*' This is wonderfully confonant to the Mofaic account ; which reprefents Noah 
and his family as quite fnut up, without any opening, during the time of the 

*' This is fcarcely the true account. Berofus would harldy fuj^ipofe a pilot 
{K'j?spviims), where a veflel was totally fhut up, and contefledly driven at the will 
of the winds and waves. I can eafily imagine, that a Grecian interpreter would run 
into the miftake, when lie was adapting the hiftory to his own tafte. 

7 *' return, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 107 

*' rdturn, came out with many lamentations, and called con- 

" tinually on the name of Sifuthrus. Him they faw no 

" more : but they could diPcinguidi his voice in the air : 

" and could hear him admonilli them to pay due regard to 

*' the Gods ; and likewife inform them, that it was upon 

*' account of his piety, that he was tranllated to live with 

" the Gods : that his wife, and children, with the pilot, had 

" obtained the fame honour. To this he added, that he 

" would have them make the beft of their way to Babylonia, 

" and fearch for the writings at Sippara, which were to be 

" made known to all mankind. The place, where thefe 

*' things happened was in Armenia. The remainder, having 

" heard thefe words, offered facrifices to the Gods ; and 

*' ^° taking a circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia. Berofus 

" adds, that the remains of the veffel were to be feen in his 

" time, upon one of the Corcyrean mountains in Armenia : 

*' and that people ufed to fcrape off the bitumen, with 

" which it had been outwardly coated ; and made ufe of it 

" by way of an alexipharmic and amulet. In this manner 

*' they returned to Babylon : and having found the writings 

" at Sippara, they fet about building cities, eredting tem- 

" pies ; and '' Babylon was thus inhabited ''' again." 


" Tleoi^ TcfivQiivxt, Eufebius. This confirms what I fuppofed about the rout of 
the Cuthites, as mentioned Genefis. c. 11. v. 2. 

''. If Babylon furvived, one would imagine, that other cities would have been in 
like manner preferved : and that the temples, if any had been in the world before, 
would have remained, as well as that at Sippara. Whence it would naturally appear 
unneceflary for thefe few people to have been in fuch a hurry to build. In lliort, 
they are not the genuine words of Berofus : for he knew too much not to be apprifcd 
that Babylon was not an antediluvian city, 

'* An epitome of the foregoing hiftory is to be found in an cxtracl from 

P 2 Abydenus. 

io8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

In this hiftory, however here and there embelliflied with 
extraneous matter, are contained wonderful traces of the 
truth : and we have in it recorded fome of the principal, and 
moll interefting circumflances of that great event, when 
mankind periflied by the deluge. The purpofe of the au- 
thor was to give an account of Babylonia ; with which the 
hiftory of the world in its early ftate was connedted. If we 
confider the three writers, to whom we are indebted for thefe 
fragments ; we may perceive that none of them were tranf- 
lators, or regularly copied any part of the original : but werd 
fatisfied with making extracts, v/hich they accommodated to 
their own tafte and fancy ; and arranged, as feemed beft to 
their judgment. And in refpedl to what is more fully tranf- 
mitted to us by Alexander Polyhiftor from Berofus ; we may 
upon a clofe infpedtion perceive, that the original hiftory 
was of a twofold nature ; and obtained by different means 
from two feparate quarters. The latter part is plain, and 
obvious : and was undoubtedly taken from the archives of 
the Chaldeans. The former is allegorical and obfcure ; and 
was copied from hieroglyphical reprefentations, which could 
not be precifely deciphered. Berofus mentions expreftly, 

Abydenu?. MsrctJivBt^Oi^psa^ov cx.?^?^ci riva nc^ocVyy.xi'X.trSpos, Tw JtiKpcroT 'zs-pcaa- 
fxctivii eaeaflat •mX-n'hci ofj£p'jjv /\a.ia-iy li xeAsvei Si ttolv c, t/ ypaj^uocruv w i'XP- 
[KiVQV iv 'HAla 'utqXu t/} iv 'S.iinra.ooiai a.7roy.f.v^cit. "XterSooi J's tuutx eTrneAea. isToirr 
(Tcci ev^icci £7r' Apfx.eniis a.vnrXii-.i.'' v-oii ■zs-ccoxvTix.a fj.iv xxTSAafi^arg -ra iy. t3 0fH. 
TpT)i Sey]Uipriy iTrei it voci' iy.07rcy.a-(, y.erist tuv opuGcor, ■:xj£to;;y ■woisuy.e: a, sitth ym 
iSoiiii TS bSa.'TO', SkSvcolv. Ai/f, ixS SX-o/JUvB rj(picLi 'ureAxyloi a;/y.(pi^ai'£3S, uTTooeacrxij 
oyjn ■KcSopfjiriaQV'ra.i, Tua^a. Xictboov o—iaso y.o/y.i^ovrat, v.o.i Sfri cvjT'mt sTSpcci. '£li Ss 
TTcri Tpnr.a-i iimw^fiiv, {^carty.iwro yap S"-/) 'whAb ■Kccra.jrAioi rm TaotrBi) ^eot e§ 
akGpwTi))' a(poi.ii^y(n . Toi^e -srAo.'oi' iv AppLivivi ^yAa tusoixtttx ccAe^i<p(xofjLXKa. ku- 
Toi(7i27n^(iopioi(j-i Tsa.pii'xiTQ. Euicbii Chron, p. 8. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 109 

that the reprefentations of the chara6lers, which he defcribes 
in his chaotic hiftory, were in his time extant in Babylonia. 
In confequence of his borrowing from records {o very diffe- 
rent, we find him, without liis being apprized of it, giving 
two hiftories of the fame perfon. Under the chara6l°r of t/je 
man of the fea^ whofe name was Oannes, we have an a-iicgo 
rical reprefentation of the great patriarch ; whom in hi 
hiftory he calls. Sifuthriis. '^ His whole body^ it feem^^ 
like that of a fJJj : and he had under the head of a fflj ano'L. 
head^ ^c. and a delineatio7i of him was to he fee?i at Babylon. 
He infufed into ?nanki?'id a knowledge of 7~ight and wrong : in- 
flruEled them in every fcience : direSled them to found te77iples ; 
and to fay regard to the Gods. He taught the^n alfo to diflin- 
guiflj the different forts of feeds ; and to collcSi the fruits of the 
earth : and to provide agaijijl futurity. In ffort, he i7iflruSied 
tnankind fo fully , that ?iothing afterward could be added there- 
to. This is the charadler given afterwards to '"^ Sifuthros, 
only dificrently exhibited. He was a man of the fea, and 
bequeathed to mankind all kind of inftrudlion ; accounts of 
every thing, that had paffed in the world; which were fup- 
pofed to have been buried in Sippara. They were to be uni- 
verfally known ; and confequently abounded with every 
thing, that could be beneficial. But there was no occafion 
for this care, and information, if fuch a perfon as Oannes 
had gone before : for, according to Berofus, he had been fo 
diitufe in his inftrudions, and comprehended fo compleatly 
every ufeful art, that nothing afterwards v/as ever added. 
So that Oannes is certainly the emblematical charader of 

" Eufeb. Chron. p. 6, '^ Ibid. p. S. 


no TiiE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Sifiitlirus, the great inftrudor and benefadior. Cannes is 
tlie fame in purport as the Grecian Oivocg, Oinas ; and as the 
lonas of the Babylonians and Chaldeans. He was reprefented 
under different fymbols, and had various titles ; by which 
means his character has been multiplied : and he has, by the 
Grecian writers, who treat of him above, been introduced 
feveral times. In one of his introduftions they call him 
Odacon ; v/hich is certainly a corruption for o Aoljioov, or 
Aaywj/, the God Dagon. He was reprefented varioufly in 
different places ; but confifted always of a human perfonage, 
in fome degree blended with a " iifh. He fometimes appears 
alone : fometimes with three other perfonages fimilar to 
himfelf ; to whom he gave inflrudlions, which they imparted 
to the reft of the world. He is faid to have fhewn himfelf 
sv 'W^it^TCf sviCLVTUj in the fir Jl year : which is an imperfeA, 
yet intelligible piece of hiftory. The firfl year, mentioned 
in this manner abfolute, muf!: lignify the firft year in time ; 
the year of the renewal of the world. He appeared twice, 
and difcourfed much with mankind ; but would not eat 
with them. This, I imagine, was in his antediluvian ftate ; 
when there is reafon to think, that men in general fed upon 
raw flefh ; nay, eat it crude, while the life was in it. This 
we may infer from that pofitive injunftion, given by the 
Deity to Noah, after the deluge. '^ Every moving thing, that 
liveth Jhall be meat for you but fiefij with the life there- 
of which is the blood thereof f jail you not eat. Such a cuftom 
had certainly prevailed : and a commemoration of it was 

'' The Indian reprefentation of Ixora, and VilTi-Nou. 

'^ Genefis. c. 9. v. 3. 4. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. in 

kept up among the Gentiles, in all the rites and inyfleries of 
Dionufus and " Bacchus. 

From what has been faid, I flatter myfelf, it will appear, 
that Berofus borrowed his hiflory from two different fources ; 
and in confequence of it has introduced the fame perfon 
under two different charadlers. With this clue, his hiftory 
will appear more intelligible : and a -further inflght may be 
gained into the purport of it, by confldering it in this light. 
We may be able to deted:, and confute the abfurdity of Aby- 
denus and Apollodorus ; who pretend upon the authority of 
this writer to produce ten antediluvian kings, of whom no 
mention was made by him : for what are taken by thofe 
writers for antediluvians, are expreffly referred by him to an- 
other ^ra. Yet have thefe writers been followed in their 
notions by Eufebius, and fome other of the ancients ; and 
by almoft every modern who has written upon the fubjedt. 
Their own words, or at leaft the words, which they quote 
from Berofus, are of themfelves fuflicient to confute the no- 
tion. For they fpeak of the firft king, who reigned, to have 
been a Chaldean, and of Babylon ; and to have been called 
Alorus. Now it is certain, that Nimrod built Babel, which 
is Babylon, after the flood. He was a Chaldean, and the firll 
king upon earth : and he was called by many nations 
^* Orion, and Alorus. Yet by thefe writers Alorus is made 

'■ tlence Bacchus was called oofxcOxyoSy crjyjj-vs. Vivum laniant dcntibus taurum. 
Jul. Firmicus of the rites of Crete. 

^loivcrov MatvoXiiv opyixf^aai Y,aK.^oi, ajp.o(payia, ivv 'lir-oiJ.a.viav ct'^ovTS-' koli ts- 
TvicTx'Jai TOii JtfgovOjtija? twv goupjo!', uvic^itxy.H'oi tois ocpicnv. Clemens Alexandr. 
Cohort, p. II. 

'^ The Perfians called Nimrod, Orion : and Orion in Sicily, and other places 
was named Alorus, See this volume, p. 17. 38. 


112 .1'he Analysis of Ancient Mvthology. 

an antediluvian prince ; and being raifed ten generations 
above Sifuthrus or Noali, lie ftands in the fame degree of 
rank as the Protoplaft : and many in confequence of it have 
fuppofed him to be Adam. We are much indebted to 
Alexander Polyhiftor for giving us, not only a more copious, 
but a more genuine extrad; from Berofus, than has been tranf- 
mitted by the other two writers. We know from him, that 
there were of that author '^ two books ; of the firfl: of which he 
has tranfmitted to us a curious epitome. In this book, after 
having given an account of the country, and its produce, he 
proceeds to the hiftory of the people : and the very firfl: occur- 
rejjce is the appearance of Oannes, (o Aayw:/) the man of the 
fea. He is introduced, ev ijr^ooTCf: sviCLvrw^ in the firft yeai: of 
the hiftory, which is no other than the firft year of the 
world after the flood ; when there was a renewal of time, 
and the earth was in its fecond infancy. At this period is 
Gannes introduced. But the other two writers, contrary to 
the tenor of the original hiftory, make him fubfequent in 
time. This embarraffes the account very much : for, as he 
is placed the very firft in the prior treatife of Beroius : it is 
hard to conceive how any of thefc ten kings could have been 
before him : efpecially as the author had expreflly faid, 
"Ev ti] ^BVTzpcL Tag i ^c.<ji7\B0Lq. In the fecond book I fall give 
an accou?jt of the te?i kings of Babyloii. It is manifeft 
from hence, that they were pofterior to Oannes, and to ail 
the circumftances of the firft book. The Grecians, not 
knowing, or not attending to the eaftern mode of writing, 
have introduced thefe ten kings in the firft book, which 

'' There were in all three. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. hi 


^^ Berofus expreffly refers to the fecond. They often inverted 
the names of perfons, as well as of places : and have ruined 
whole dynafties through ignorance of arrangement. What 
the Orientals wrote from right to left, they were apt to con- 
found by a wrong difpofition, and to defcribe in an inverted 
feries. Hence thefe fuppofed kings, who, accordino- to 
Berofus, were fubfequent to the deluge, and to the Patri- 
arch, are made prior to both : and he, who flood firft, is 
made later by ten generations, through a reverfion of the 
true order. Thofe, who have entertained the notion that 
thefe kings were antediluvian, have been plunged into infu- 
perable difficulties ; and defervedly. For how could they 
be fo weak, as to imagine, that there was a city Babylon, 
and a country named from it, ten generations before the 
flood ; alfo a province ftyled Chaldea ? Thefe names were 
circumftantial ; and impofed in aftertimes for particular rea- 
fons, which could not before have fubfifted. Babylon was 
the Babel of the Scriptures ; fo named from the confufion 
of tongues. What is extraordinary, Abydcnus mentions this 
fad: ; and fays that '^^ Babylon was fo called from confu- 
fion ; becanfe the la72guage of 77zen was the7~e co7ifounded. In 
like manner, Chaldea was denominated from people ftyled 

*" Abydenus begins the hiftory of the ten kings with thefe words ; 'Ka.XS'a'.ojv ij.iv 
TK o-o(f.ia.i icspircaccoTcx.: So much concerning the ivifdom of the Cbaldt'ain. Is it not 
plain, that this could not be the beginning of the firft book ? and may we not be 
afliired from the account given by Alexander Polyhiftor, that this was the intro- 
duftion to the fecond treatife, in which Berofus had promifed to give a hiftory of 
the Chaldean kings ? 

*' EaCuAcoi/ xa.?\.ina.i i loL t/jc avy^aw, x.t.A. Eufebii Chronic, p. 13. from 

Vol. III. Q^ Chafdim 

H4 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

'^' Chafdim and Chufdim, who were the pofterity of Chus. 
But if the name were of an etymology ever fo different; yet 
to fuppofe a people of this name before the flood, alfo a city 
and province of Babylon, would be an unwarrantable "^^ pre- 
fumption. It would be repugnant to the hiftory of Mofes, 
and to every good hiftory upon the fubje6t. 

At the clofe of the firft book, it is faid by Eufebius, that 
Berofus had promifed in the fecond to give an account of the 
ten kings, who reached in a feries to the deluge. 1 wifli that 
Eufebius, inftead of telling us himfelf the author's inten- 
tion, had given us his words. The paffage is very fufpi- 
cious ; and feems not to have exifted even in the Greek 
tranflation : as it is totally omitted by Syncellus. Berofus 
might, at the conclufion of his firft treatife, fay, that he 
would now proceed to the hiftory of the ten kings: but that 
they were to reach down to the deluge, I believe was never 
intimated : nor does there feem in the nature of things any 
reafon for him to have mentioned fuch a circumftance. It 
is highly probable, as Cannes flood foremoft in the allego- 
rical hiftory of the Chaldeans, that Sifuthrus held the fame 
place in the real hiftory of that country ; for the^ were both 
the fame perfon : and whatever feries there might be of per- 

"*' The true name of the country, called by the Greeks and Romans Chaldea, 
was Chaldia and Chufdia-, nained ib from the inhabitants, fly led Chufdim, or the 
children of Chus. This is the general name which uniiormly occurs in Scripture. 

""' Syncellus fays, that before the flood, are YnxQvXmv y,v an im ym, an '\.(i ctirxv 
(2a(7iXiiix; there was no fuch city as Babylon^ nor any kingdom of Chaldea. p. 15, Again,; 
Tar&iJ' T( aa^ic^i^ov caoaiv ebs^oifj.i inipi BabuAwj'O?, on Trrpo Ta ■Kxjcx.y.hua fJd aSiTra 
ft.'^6i?, aSi y.iTa. to* ■ftara.KXua^QV^ iaos tb JC«'))'7a; ts5 a.M^pMTrBi'UTXn^vy^ivToii arro a.vx- 
ToA&jr, xcci xxTOfKiicrcci oairm iv yn '^st'xa.p, xcct ofK'A Ofx-iiacci Tnv tjioAiv xca tov Tatuc- 
yov, ■nrfr/jyBy.Bi'H uvTcav tb !^ioij.oc^B Ns^fwJ^, kxi l^sca-ihiVjrroi. Ibid, p. 37. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. xi$ 

fons recorded, they were m defcent from him. But the 
Greeks, not attending to the mode of writing in the original, 
have ruined the whole difpofition, and made thefe perfons 
precede. And here is a queftion to be afked of thefe hifto- 
rians, as well as of Eufebius in particular, allowing thefe 
kings to be antediluvian ; What is become of thofe, who fuc- 
ceeded afterwards ? Were there no poftdiluvian kings of 
Babylon ? Did nobody reign after the flood ? If there did, 
what is become of this dynafty ? Where is it to be found ? 
The hiftory of Babylon, and of its princes, taken from the 
later sra, would be of vaft confequence : it is of fo early a 
date, as to be almoft coeval with the annals of the new 
world ; and muft be looked upon as the bails of hiftorical 
knowledge. The fuppofed antediluvian accounts are trifling 
in comparifon of the latter : the former world is far fepa- 
ratcd from us. It is like a vafi; peninfula joined to the con- 
tinent by a flip of land, whicJi hardly admits of any com- 
munication. But a detail of thefe after kings would be of 
confequence in chronology ; and would prove the foundation 
for all fubfequent hiftory. Where then are thefe kings ? In 
what quarter do they lurk? They are nowhere to be found. 
And the reafon is this : their dynafty has been inverted. 
Hence they have been mifplaced through anticipation ; and 
adjudged to a prior £era. On this account the later dynafty is 
not given to us, though fo neceflliry to be made known : and 
much I fear that we are deprived of the fecond book ot Po- 
lyhiftor from Berofus ; becaufe this dynafty of kings was to 
be found there, probably differently exhibited ; and under a 
contrary arrangement: which would have fpoiled the fyftem 

ii6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

efpoiifed. For, that the original has been mifconftrued, and 
mifquoted, is apparent from the want of uniformity in thofe, 
who have copied Berofus, or any ways taken from him. In 
fhort, the tenor of this hiftory, even as we have it in Alex- 
ander Polyhiftor, is very plain ; and the fcheme of it eafy to 
be traced. The purpofe of Berofus was to write an account 
of his ov/n country : and he accordingly begins with the na- 
tural hiftory ; wherein he defcribes the lituation of the re- 
gion, the nature of the foil, and the various produd:s, with 
which it abounded. All this is faid of Babylonia, not of any 
antediluvian country. He muft have been wife indeed, after 
an interval of fo many thoufand years, to have known that 
it originally bore fefamum and dates. He is fpeaking of Ba- 
bylon, the place of his nativity, and the country denomi- 
nated from it ; of which when he has given a juft defcrip- 
tion, he proceeds to relate the principal occurrences of for- 
mer ages. And the firft great event in the hiftory of time is, 
the appearance of "^ Cannes, the man of the fea^ who fhewed 
liimfelf to mankind in the very firft ''^ year : fo that Berofus 

makes . 

*^ Helladius fpeaks of this perfon, and calls him Vi;)v, which the Dorians would 
cxprefs flar. I have fometimes thought that this term was Noe, and Noa, reverftsd 
and confounded. This author fuppofcs, that Oan is the fame as ^ov ; and that the 
perfon was born of the mundane egg. 'On fxv^DAoyei avS'^a. tivcc O3voij.aca-fj.ivov- 
CiViV Ti)i lio'j^fas '^a.Ka.auK ai£A6si>, t aAAa f/.iv rcoi' jj-eAcov t^huoi e^ovrcc, xi<pa.ADv- 
Si XCX.I TsoS oLi Ha/ X^'p<x.i (xvi fOi' nxi xxrccS^et^oci t»i/ ts di^^ovo/J.tciv, xxi to. yptZfJLf/.ccrac- 
Oi Se avTov i'K. TyurpMToyovn ■UTi(pm'Bvai /Myaatv ild' koci fj-pcprvoHv t i^voucc' ccvuooottqv 
iiovTcx. ~o(. Tcancc, t^Quv S^o^xi' SioTeo npi(pi£i^o v.mwS'r) S'opa.v. Helladius apud. 
Phot. Hill:, cclxxix. p. 1594. 

I have before fhewn, that bynsi- 'mpuToyovov-NHS fignified the ark. 

'■' It is faid that there were three perfons like him, who made their appearance from 

the fea in the fame manner. Their hiftory is poftponed by Berofus to his fecond 

6 book. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 117 

makes his annals commence from him. This perfon is re- 
prefented as a preacher of julHce ; and a general inftrudor 
and benefaftor, who had appeared in two different ftates. 
He informed mankind of what had happened in preceding 
times : and went higher, even to the chaotic ftate of things, 
before the jera of creation. He faid, that there was origi- 
nally one vaft abyfs, which was inveloped in univerfal dark- 
nefs. This ab.yfs was inhabited by myriads of hideous mif- 
created beings, horrid to imagination. The poet Milton 
feems to allude to this defcription of Berofus, when he 
fpeaks of 

The fccrets of the hoary deep, a dark 

Illimitable ocean, without bound. 

Without dimenfion, where length, breadth, and height, 

And time, and place were loft : where nature bred 

Perverfe all monftrous, all prodigious things,. 

Abominable, unutterable, and worfe 

Than fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd, 

GorgonSj and Harpies, and Chimeras dire. 

After having given an account of chaos, Berofus tells us, 
that a delineation of this hiftory, and all thefe monftrous 
forms were to be feen in Babylonia : and from this undoubt- 
edly he borrowed this motley reprefentation. The whole is 
certainly taken from ancient hieroglyphics. Oannes nov/ 

book. They were certainly the three fons of Noah, who had, like their father, been 
witnefies to the ancediluvian world: but as the greater part of their life was after the 
flood, their hiftory is by this writer deferred till he comes to treat of the kings of 
Babylon : which was in his latter book. 


ii8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

proceeds to the works of the creation, and the formation of 
the heavens : at which time all the animals of the deep were 
annihilated. A fet of rational beings fucceeded, who par- 
took of divine knowledge : but not being able to bear the 
brightnefs of new-created light, they perifhed. Upon this, 
another fet of rational beings were formed, who were able to 
bear the light. The Deity alfo formed the ftars, together 
with the fun, and moon, and five planets. He then gave an 
account of the wickednefs of men, and the ruin of all man- 
kind by a deluge, except Sifuthrus. Thefe are the contents 
of the firfl book of Berofus. In the fecond he promifes to 
write of the kings, who reigned in Babylonia : which hiftory, 
if we may believe Abydenus and ApoUodorus, contained an 
antediluvian account of the vv^orld. In this notion they are 
followed by that very learned father, Eufebius. At this rate, 
Berofus expended his labour upon times the moft uncertain, 
and the leaft interefting ; and of his real anceftors, the ge- 
nuine Babylonians and Chufdim, faid not a word. For had 
it appeared to Eufebius, that there was any further account 
given of the kings of Babylon, and their achievements ; he 
could not but have mentioned it ; as it' was oi fuch con- 
fequence to him as a chronologer, and fo connected with 
the purport of his writings. But, if we may judge from his 
filence, there was no fuch account : and the reafon, as I be- 
fore faid, is plain. For whatever kings may have reigned at 
Babylon, or in Chaldea, they have had their feries reverfed ; 
and by a groundlefs anticipation havT been referred to an- 
other period. But if we turn the tables, and reduce the 
fcri^r, to is original ■-^'-rier ; v/e fhall find Sifuthrus, the Patri- 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 119 

arch, ftand firft : and whoever they may be, who are brought 
between him and Alorus, they will come after. For Alorus 
will be found to be no other than '^^ Nimrod, the fon of 
Chus. He is by Berofus truly ftyled XaK^cciogj one of the 
Chufdim, or Chaldeans ; and reprefented as the firfl: king of 
Babylon. He was indeed the firft, who reigned upon earth. 
And we need no other proof, that this is the trvith, than the 
words of thefe very writers, Abydenus and ApoUodorus. 
'^^ XolK^olioov fjisv TYi; (Tocpiag 'UTs^i rocroLVTOL. BoLTiXsutTca (5s ttji; 
yj^^ccg "ur^mov Asysrat AAw^ov. So jnuch for the wifdom of 
the Chaldea?n. It is faid, that the firfl king in this coun- 
try (Chaldea) was Alorus. To the fame purpofe ApoUodo- 
rus. Taura ^sv 'Q^o)(T(rog /fo^Jicrs, 'ct^wtoi/ ys^gtr^ai ^oL<n7\eoL 
AAw^oy 2K BoL^vXmog XaK^diov. What the Greeks and Ro- 
mans rendered Chaldceus^ whom we in our fcripture verfion 
idly follow, is in the original Chafdim or Chufdim, one of 
the fons of Chus : and the purport of this extrad: from Be- 
rofus is very explicit and particular : that the firft of all 
kings, that is, the firft perfon who reigned in the world, 
was a man ftyled Alorus ; who was of Babylon, and one of 
the Chufdim or Cuthites. How is it poiTible to imagine, 
that this defcription refers to an antediluvian ? We may 

*' riapx \ XaAcTais/s -zirpwTo? o a/)^a5 a'JTWj' AAojpos. Chron. Pafchale. p. 2^. 

■^^ The Chaldeans were famed for their knowledge in aftronomy and other fci- 
ences : and according to Abydenus, the previous account given by Beroliis was 
concerning the wifdom of this people. He then concludes ; XaAJaidtr t/i; co- 
<pia5 "wiq^i raaravTx : §0 tnuchfor the wifdom of the Chahkans: we come new to their kings. 
Thefirfi of thefe was Alorus, a Chaldean by birth, &c. Who can fuppofe that this re- 
lates to an antediluvian £era ? And Eufebius puts the matter out of all doubt ^ 
0( XaAcTccio* T^rpcoroi ccvnyopeucrixv fayras (Boca-ihsi?, ccv 'uXPutus Ev^^octS^'j 'wap vf^iv Nt'o 
^aJ' (or Nejv.poJ^) iQxcriAsuiv. Eufebii Chron. p, 14. 


I20 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

therefore clofe the account with that curious paffage from 
Eupolcmus, which was preferved by the fame Alexander 
Polyhiftor, to whom we are indebted for the fragment from 
Berofus. He tells us, that Babylon was the iirfl built city 
in the world ; founded by fome of thofe perfons, who had 
efcaped the deluge ; who were of the Giant race. They 
likewife ereded the celebrated tower. But when that was 
thrown down by the hand of God, the Giants were fcattered 
over the face of the earth. '^^ UoKii' BoLovKmcc 'UT^ootov fxsv 

KTKT^tiVOLi VTTO 70CV $lOL(T(jO^Snm BK T8 K0(,T0LK7\V(T^S' BlVOLi Ss OLVT'dg 

TiyoLnoLg^ omo^o^siv h top Ig-o^nfjisvov Ilv^yov. TLscronog h thth 
vjo rrig Tn 0sa svs^ysioig, isg TiyoLVTa.g hoL<T7i:oL^Y\voLi kol^' oXy]v tyiv 


Who the perfonages may be, who intervene between Sifu- 
thrus and Alorus, that is, between Noah and Nimrod, is 
hard to determine. Thus much we know, that the Patri- 
arch never affumed royalty : fo that there could be no con- 
nexion between them as monarchs in fucceflion. The feries 
exhibited in the hiftory muft have been by family defcent ; 
in which Nimrod ftood only fourth : fo that all the perfon- 
acres but two, of thofe, who had been introduced in the in- 
terval, are probably kings of other places in Chaldea ; or 
priefts, who had a kind of fovereign rule, and have been 
wrongly inferted. Sifuthrus is pafl: controverfy "^^ Noah. 
Amelon is compofed of the titles of Ham, confifting of Am 
El On ; all relating to the Sun or Orus ; under which cha- 
rader this perfon was in after times worfhiped. Daus Paftor 

♦' Eufebii Pr£ep. Evang. L. 9. c. 17. p. 418. 

*' NweSicrsBoos -ara/'X XaA^TaioiS. Cedrcnus. p. 1 1. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. i2i 

is by Apollodorus exprefTed Daonus, from '° Da On, tlieSun, 
a title alTumed by Ham and his fons. Amenoiij like Amel- 
on, is made up of terms, which are all titles of the fame 
perfon ; each of them well known in Egypt. Alaparus 
feems to be the fame as Al-Porus, the God of fire. Am- 
illarus is a compound of Ham-El- Arez, all names of Ham, 
and the fun. Some of the perfons are faid to be of Laracha, 
which Syncellus expreffes wrongly Larancha. Laracha is 
tor Al-Aracha, the Aracca of Ptolemy, one of the cities built 
by ^' Nimrod. Others are faid to be of Pantibibla or Panti- 
biblon, whom I take to have been Ponti-Babilon, or priefts 
of Babel or Babylon. Panti, Ponti, and Phonti in the Am- 
onian language Hgnified a ^^ prieft. Argeiphontes in Greece 
was an Arkite prieft, or minifter of Argus : but the Grecians 
fuppofed that Phontes denoted flaughter, from a word in 
their own language ; and in confequence of it beftowed the 
name on Hermes, whom they made the murderer of Argus. 
Pontifex and Pontifices among the Romans were titles of 

'° It is a title given to Orion, who was the fame as Nimrod. Chron. Pafch. ^6' 
He is ftyled Chan-Daon, the Lord Daon, by Lycophron : who mentions Tpiirocro- 
fioi (fixcryccvov Kav^xovoi. v. 328. Icillcet D^ptuvoi^ ov -tcai KavS^xovct, Boiwto; xx^-bcrn'. 
Schol. ibid. So Mcgalorus of Abydenus is Mag-Alorus; in other words. Magus 
Alorus, Nebrodes, Orion, the chief of the Magi. 

'' He built Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the bnd of Sbinar. Gen. 
c. 10. V. 10. 

^' Hence 'Iroofavrm^ a facred prieft, or prieft of Orus ; KaSa^o^acTus; Hermo- 
phontes ; Cerefphontes ; AiVKocpovTHi from Aeuy.o?, Sol. See Jablonlky Proleo-om. 
p. 90. 

Phantafia of Memphis was properly Phant-Afis, a prieftefs of Afis or Ifis. Am- 
illarus, Megilorus, Adorcfcus, Alaparus, Daon the Shepherd, are all faid to have 
been of Pantibiblon. This was not a place, but an office: and it fignilied that they 
were priefts of Babel, 

Vol. III. R the 

122 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the priePcs of fire. I imagine that the original lift, which has 
been fuppofed to have been a dynafty of antediluvian kings, 
was the genealogy of Nimrod, the firft king of the country ; 
in which were contained four perfons ; Sifuthrus, or the 
Patriarch : next, under the charadler of ^* Amenon, Amel- 
on, Amilarus, is Ham : Eudorefchus (Euc-Ad-Arez-Chus) 
is his fon Chus : and laftly Alorus, and Daonus the Shep- 
herd was Nimrod : for it is expreftly faid of him, that 
he took the title of " Shepherd. The reft are foreign 
to the catalogue ; and through ignorance have been in- 

It is faid, that both Cannes and Sifuthrus inftrufted men 
in the knowledge of letters, and committed many things to 
writing. And it is the opinion of many learned men, that 
letters were not unknown to the people of the antediluvian 
world. Pliny fays, Literas femper arbitror Aflyrias fuifle. 
But this v/as only matter of opinion : and, as he, a pro- 
feft'ed geographer, makes no diftin6lion between the Afly- 
rians and Babylonians, who were two very different people ; 
but introduces the former by miftake for the latter ; we 
cannot p",y mucli regard to his notions in chronology. 
If the people of the firft ages had been poffeffed of fo 
valuable a fecret, as that of writing ; they would never 
have afterwards defcended to means lefs perfcdl for the 

^* Amenon may be Mencn ill expreffal, the fame as Men or Menes. This 
was one of the moft ancient of the facred titles. Anticlides in ^gypto in- 
venifle quendam nomine IVTenona tradit, quindecim annos ante Phoroneum an- 
tiquiffimum GrcEciiE regem : idque monumentis adprobare conatur. Plinii Nat. 
I-Iift. L. 7. c. 56. 

" Abydenus above quoted, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 123 

explanation of their ideas. And it is to be obferved, that 
the invention of hieroglyphics was certainly a difcovery of 
the Chaldeans ; and made ufe of in the firft ages by the 
Egyptians ; the very nations, who are fuppofed to have 
been pofleffed of the fuperior and more perfed: art. They 
might retain the former, when they became poirefied of 
the latter ; becaufe their ancient records were entriifled 
to hieroglyphics : but, had they been pofleffed of letters 
originally, they would never have deviated into the ufe of 
fymbols ; at leaft, for things, which were to be pubiifhed 
to the world, and which were to be commemorated for 
ages. Of their hieroglyphics we have famples without 
end in Egypt ; both on obelirks, and in their fyringes ; 
as alfo upon their portals, and other buildings. Every 
mummy almoft abounds with them. How comes it, if 
they had writing fo early, that fcarcely one fpecimen is 
come down to us ; but that every example fhould be in 
the leaft perfed: character ? For my part, I believe that 
there was no writing antecedent to the law at Mount Sina. 
Here the divine art v/as promulgated ; of which other 
nations partook : the Tyrians and Sidonians firft, as they 
were the neareft to the fountain-head. And when this 
difcovery became more known ; even then I imagine, that 
its progrefs was very flow : that in many countries, whi- 
ther .it was carried, it was but partially received, and made 
ufe of to no purpofe of confequcnce. The Romans carried 
their pretenlions to letters pretty high ; and the Helladian 
Greeks ftill higher ; yet the former marked their years by 
a nail driven into a poft : and the utmoft effort of Grecian 

R 2 literature 

124 Th^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

literature for feme ages was fimply to write down the names 
of the Olympic vidlors from Corasbiis ; and to regifter the 
prieftefTes of Argos. Why letters, when introduced, were 
fo partially received, and employed to fo little purpofe, a 
twofold reafon may be given. Firfl:, the want of antece- 
dent waitings, to encourage people to proceed in the fame 
track. Where fcience is introduced together with letters ; 
the latter are more generally received, and more abun- 
dantly ufed. For the pradlice of writing, or, in other 
words, compoiing, depends upon previous reading, and 
example. But the Cadmians, who brought letters to 
Greece, brought thofe elements only ; and thofe much 
later, I believe, than is generally imagined. Nor had the 
Helladians any tendency to learning, till they were awak- 
ened by the Aiiatic Greeks, and the iilanders, who had 
been fooner initiated in fcience. They had made a great 
progrefs ; while their brethren in the weft were involved 
in darknefs. And this early knowledge was not owing to 
any fuperiority of parts ; but to their acquaintance with 
the people of the eaft, and with the writings of thofe 
countries ; by v/hich they were benefited greatly. Com- 
pofition depends upon fcience : it was introduced in 
Hellas together with philofophy. Anaxagoras of Clazo- 
men^ brought the learning of the Ionic fchool to Athens : 
he was fucceeded by Archelaus, of whom Socrates was a 
follower. Writing, I am fenfible, was antecedent : but at 
this time it became general. About this period, Theog- 
nis, iEfychylus, and Pindar fhone forth in poetry ; and 
the ancient comedy was firft exhibited. After which, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 125 

wonderful fpecimens of genius were in every kind dif- 

Another reafon for this deficiency feems to have been 
the want of fuch materials as are neceffary for expedi- 
tious and free writing. The rind and leaves of trees, 
and fhells from the fea, can lend but fmall afiiftance to- 
wards literature : and ftones and flabs are not calculated 
to promote it much further. Yet thefe feem to have been 
the beft means, they could in early times procure, to 
mark down their thoughts, or commemorate an event. 
The Chaldaeans and Babylonians are greatly celebrated for 
their wifdom and learning : and they were undoubtedly 
a moft wonderful people ; and had ceitainly all the learn- 
ing, that could arife from hieroglyphical reprefentations. 
they had, I make no doubt, the knowledge of lines, by 
which geometrical problems muft be illuftrated : and they 
had the ufe of figures for numeration : but I imagine, that 
they were without letters for ages. Epigenes faid that the 
Babylonians, vv^ho were great obfervers of the heavens, had 
accounts of thofe obfervations for feven hundred and twenty 
years, written upon plinths baked in the fun. ^^ Epigenes 
apud Babylonios 720 annorum obfervationes fiderum co6li- 
libus laterculis infcriptas docet gravis audor in primis. 
Qui minimum, Berofus et Critodemus, 490 annorum. Ex 
quo apparet aeternus literarum ufus. I can fee no proof 
from hence of the eternity of letters, for which Pliny con- 
tends : nor, indeed, do I believe, that letters exifted among 

'* PliniiHift.Nat. L. 7. p. 413. Some prefix M. or Mille to the other numbers, 
and make thefums 1720 and 1490. 


126 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

them at the time, of which he fpeaks. For if they had 
been fo fortunate as to have had for fo long a time thefe 
elements, they were too ingenious a people not to have ufed 
them to better purpofe. The Babylonians had writing 
among them fooner than mod nations of the earth : but the 
years taken notice of by Epigenes were antecedent to their 
having this knowledge : at which time they were ingenious, 
and wife above the refl: of the fons of men ; but had no 
pretenfions to literature properly fo called. For, as I have 
before mentioned, I cannot help forming a judgment of the 
learning of a people from the materials, with which it is ex- 
pedited, and carried on. And I fhould think that literature 
muft have been very fcanty, or none at all, v/here the means 
abovementioned were applied to. For it is impoflible for 
people to receive any great benefit from letters, where they 
are obliged to go to a jQiard or an " oyfter-fhell, for informa- 
tion ; and where knowledge is configned to a pantile. As 
to the high antiquity affigned to letters by Pliny ; it is im- 
pofiible to give any credence to that author, v/ho from 720 
years infers eternity, and fpeaks of thofe terms as fyno- 

" Oftracifmus, Petalifmus, Liber, Folium, Tabella, Latercula. 
From writing upon leaves and fliells, came the terms Petalifmus and OJlracifmia 
among tlie Greeks : from the bark of trees came Libri of the Latins. 

P E Z R O N, 

[ 127 ] 


I Took notice, when I was treating of the firft apoftafy, 
and rebellion upon earth, that it was a remarkable aera, 
when ' Scythifmus was faid to have commenced. This was 
attended with Hellenifmiis ; which by fome is brought 
after ; but feems to have prevailed about the fame time. 
What the purport is of thefe terms has never been fatisfac- 
torily explained. In refpedt to Scythifmus, we may be thus 
far affured, that it is a term which relates to a people ftyled 
Scythze ; and they were the fame, from whom the region 
called Scythia had its name. There were feveral countries 
of this denomination : but what relation could the people 
have with Babylonia ? and how can we imagine, that their 
hiftory could precede the aera of difperfion ? 

As I am therefore about to treat of thefe nations, it will 
be proper to fay fomething of the learned Monlieur Pezron, 
whofe notions upon this head are remarkable. He feems to 
have been the founder of a new fyftem ; in which he has 
had many followers : and all that fcience, which I fuppofe 
to have been derived to the weftern world from Babylonia, 
and Egypt, they bring from the Sacas, and Scythians of the 

' P. i6. 23. of this volume. 
7 north : 

128 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

north : making it take its rife beyond Media and Mount 
Imaus, in the upper regions of Afia. We are particularly 
informed by Pezron, that there was a people in thefe parts, 
who in the firft ages fpread themfelves over Ba6lria, and 
Margiana ; and proceeding by Armenia and Cappadocia, at 
iafl paffed over into Europe. The whole of this continent 
they conquered, and held, under the names of Gomarians, 
Cimmerians, Celts, and Scythse. From hence he takes upon 
him to fhew, that the GaulifK and Celtic nations were from 
the upper regions of Afia ; and particularly from thofe 
countries, which lay beyond the Badlrians and Medes. He 
takes notice, that there was in thefe parts a city named Co- 
mara, mentioned by Ptolemy, and others ; and from the 
iimilitude, which fublifts between Comarians and Goma- 
rians, the learned writer is induced to bring the fons of 
Gomer, by whom Europe is fuppofed in part to have been 
peopled, from the regions about Thebet and Tartary. As 
he proceeds methodically in the hiftory of this people, I 
will lay before the reader an epitome of what he advances ; 
and this in as precife, and fair a manner, as I am able. 

* The Comariajts^ fays Pezron, are by Ptolemy placed in 
BaSiria7ia^ 7iear the foiaxes of the laxartes^ towards the moji 
eajler?! boimdaries of ^ Sogdiana : and they are reprefented as 
a powerful and warlike people. They paffed the mountains of 
Margiana^ and made an irruptiojt into that country. It was 
the?i i?t the poffefion of the Medes called Arii : but they were 

* See Chap. 3. 4. 5. 6. of Monfieur Pezron's work, entitled, The Antiquities of 
Nations •, more particularly of the Celtse and Gauls : by Monfieur Pezron, Doftor 
in Divinity, and Abbe of La Charmoye. Englifhed by Mr. Jones, 1706. 

' C. 3. p. 18, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 129 

afterica}'cls fylcd Partkians \ a name impofed by the co?i- 
qiterors. By this is meant perfo?is parted, or separated ; 
fro7?t the Celtic -isoord to part ; becaufe they were expelled^ aijd 
fevered from their country. T'hefe feparatifs in return^ find- 
ing that they could not retaliate, but by abufve language, 
called the others by way of ridicule Scac^, or Sac^, jneaning 
by it Noxii, Latrones, Sackers ; people, who sack and 
SLAY. 'Thefe Sacce feized upo7i BaBriana, and made them- 
felves mafters of the mofl eligible part of Arjnenia, which they 
called Sacafene, after the jiajne, which had bee77 given to them- 
felves. They afterwards pajfed into "^ Cappadocia ; and took 
pojfeffion of all that part, which lay upojt the Euxine Sea. "The 
peffon, who conduBed them i?! theje eiiterprizes was o?ie Ac7non. 
This name occurs iit Stephafius, who mentions, that a city in 
Phrygia was built by ^ Ac^non-, and flyles hijn Aa^m Ts Mc/jsoog, 
Ac7non, the f on of Man, or Maneus. It is likely that Ac7non, 
or Ach-Man, as perhaps the word was pronotmced by the 
Sacce, fig7iified properly the fen of 7nan, or of the race of man. 

In the 7nea7i ti77ie the Ci77i7nerians, who were of the fame fa- 
77iily, we7it by the 7iorth ; and having fnade various incurfons, 
at lafl fettled above the Euxi7te Sea, 7iear the Palus Mceotis. 
If a7iy fdould be difide7it about what is here advanced, let hi77i 
C077fult Plutarch, Pofido7tius, Diodorus, and Strabo. 

Thus, fays Pezron, have I conduBed the Sacce from their 
origifial place of refidence to Ar7ne77ia and Cappadocia : but as 

■* Jofephus and Syncellus make the Gomerians the firft inhabitants of Cappadocia. 
fouip, gf 01) KuTTTTccS'oxe^. Syncell. p. 49. They were the people attacked by the 
Sac£E, who feized upon the belt of the country. 

' Of Acmon I have before fpoken in my fecond volume. Acmon was a title of 
the Deity. Axfj.Mv' Kpovoi, Ou^ayoi. Hefych. 

Vol. III. S if 

130 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

if this ^famous nation 'were of afuddeii lofl^ we hearno more of 
them. Their Jiame feems to be quite extinEi ; and the people 
annihilated. And here a difcovery is to be made of matter s., 
which have laiji concealed from all a?icient hiforians. I am 
now to bring to light majty great and, important truths^ which 
they could iiever arrive at. After the Sacce had entered Up- 
per Phrygia ; as if they had gone into another world, they 
quitted their ancient name, which they probably detefted, and 
were now called 'Titans. I iiever could comprehend, why they 
took the name ; whether it was through fome myjlery, or a fnere 
caprice, that they affeSied it ; or to make themfelves '' fo?y?iida- 
ble, Thefe events were lo?ig before the war of Troy. The con- 
quefls of Acmon were prior to the birth of Abraham, and the 
foundation of the ^ Affyriaji monarchy. This prince was fuc- 
ceeded in his kingdom by Ura7ius, who conquered Thrace, 
Greece, and the ijland Crete ; aiid afterwards fell violently 
ttpo?t the other provinces of Europe ; and carried all before him 
to the tittermofl boundaries of Spain. He alfo fubdued Mau- 
ritania. Uranus was fucceeded by Saturn ; and Saturn by 
fupiter, who was three hundred years before Mofes. This lafi 
entrufted one part of his vajl e^npire to his brother Pluto, and 
another to his coujin-german Atlas, who was flyled Tela?no?t. 
He was a perfon of high Jiature : and Telamon in the la?i- 
guage of yupiter fignified ^ ^ tall man ; tell being tall> 
and MON fignifying man. 

In this detail there are many exceptionable poUtions ; 

* C. S. p. 45- 
' C. 8. p. 46. 

* C. 8. p. 48. Even Uranus is by this writer fuppofed to have been before 
Abraham. C. 12. p. 83. 

« c. 12. p. 84. y which 

The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 131 

which are too .palpable to need any difcuiTion. I mall 
therefore take notice only of fome of the principal fads, 
upon which his fyftem is founded. He tells us, that while 
the Sac^ were proceeding by the fouth, the Cimmerians, 
who likewife came from Badriana, are fuppofed to take their 
rout by the north of Afia : and they are reprefented as 
making their way by force of arms, till they fettled upon 
the '° Palus Maeotis. And it is requefted by Pezron, if any 
fliould doubt the truth of what he advances, that they would 
apply to the beft Grecian hiftorians. But thefe writers 
have not a fyllable to the purpofe. That there were fuch 
a people as the Cimmerians upon the Mseotis is as certain, 
as that there were Phrygians in Troas, and Spartans at La- 
cedaemon. But that they came from Badria, and fought 
their way through different countries ; that they were the 
brethren of the " Scythians ftyled Sacae, and took the upper 
rout, when the others were making their inroad below ; are 
circumflances, which have not the leaft fhadow of evidence. 
They are not mentioned by the authors, to whom he ap- 
peals : nor by any writers whatever. The conquefts of 
Uranus, and the empire given to Jupiter, are incredible. It 
would be idle to trouble ourfelves about a circumftance, 
which does not merit a ferious confutation. The conquefts 
of Ofiris, and Sefoftris, have as good title to be believed. 
To thefe we might add the exploits of the great prince Ab- 

Herodotus makes mention of the march of the Cimmerians : and proves it to 
have been in a quite contrary direcftion, from the Palus Mseotis towards Caucafus, 
and the eaft. L. 4. c. 12. 

Strabo fays, the Cimmerians were driven out of their country by the Scythians. 
Tbtss ^ec ouy (K/^jwe^^as) e^nAccG-xv ex. tmv tottcov ^JCoGa/. L. 11. p. 756. 

S 2 camaz. 

132 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

camaz, who ruled over the whole earth. His rib was jfhevvn 
to the " Jew of Tudela at Damafcus : and by the moft exad: 
meafurement it was nine fpans long, and two in breadth ; 
fo that his ftature was in proportion to his dominions. But 
fetting ahdc thefe fabulous hiftories, which confute them- 
felves, let us examine one circumftance in the account of the 
learned Pezron, upon which his whole fyftem depends. He 
tells us, that after the Sacse had entered Cappadocia, they 
feemed in a manner extinct : but they appeared again under 
the name of Titans ; and carried on their conquefts under 
the fame hero Acmon. This, he fays, is a difcovery of the 
greatefl: importance, which was unknown to every ancient 
hiftorian, and had lain dormant for ages. And for the hif- 
tory of the Sacce he appeals to Strabo ; and particularly 
concerning their inroad into Cappadocia, from whence they 
are fuppofed to have proceeded to the conqueft of all Eu- 
rope. But in the execution of this grand and pleafing 
fcheme, he is guilty of an overlight, which ruins the whole 
of his operations. Carried on by a warm imagination, he 
has been eredling a bafelefs fabric, which cannot fubfift for 
a moment. The pafl'age in Strabo, upon which he founds 
his notions, makes iiitirely againfl: him. This v/riter fpeaks 
thus of the Sac^e. '' 2a/ai [j^svroi i7ra^a7rAr;cr<«? sipohg STroi-ri-- 
cravro roig Kii^i^B^LOtg. The exairfions of the Sacce 'wej'-e like- 
thofe of the Cimmerians. In this defcription the author refers 
to a prior circumftance. Now the excurfions of the Cim- 
merians were in the reign of "^ Ardys, the fon of Gyges, king 

'^ Benjamin Tudtlenfis. p. c^G, 

*' L. II. p. 779. 

'* tierodotus. L. i.e. 6. 15. 16^ 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 133 

of Lydia, long after the Trojan war, and ftill farther removed 
from Abraham, and the fuppofed foundation of the Afiyrian 
empire. And in proof of this being the author's meaning we 
find him afterwards more explicitly fliewing, that thefe exciir- 
fions of the Sacje were as late as the empire of the Perfians. 
The account is fo particular, and precife, that I will lay it at 
large betore the reader. '' The inroads of the Sacce were very 
like thofe of the Cimmerians^ and Treres ; fo7ne of them bciiio- 
made to a great diflance^ and others Jiearer home. For they 
not only got poffejfwn of Media ; but alfo feized iip07i the mof 
eligible part of Armenia y which they called Sacafe?ie after their 
oivn 7iame. They advanced as far as Cappadocia ; efpecially 
towards that part of it^ which borders upon the Euxine fea^ and 
is called the region of Pontus. Thus far all is right : but 
obferve the fequel. Here^ as they were giving the^nf elves up 
to feafling a?id jollity frotn the plunder , which they had taken^ 
they werefet upon in the ?iight by fotne of the P erf an SatrapcSy 
and all cut off. Pezron therefore might well fay, that the 
Sacje in the midft of their exploits feem at once to have 
been annihilated, and their name extind:. Strabo tells us, 
that they were totally ruined : a^j)^:/ (wi'sq rj:f)CiVi<TO(.v : the Per- 
fans cut thetn all off to a 7nan. Hence we may fee of what 
great overfights this learned man v/as guilty in the profecu- 
tion of his fcheme. Firft, in fuppofing thefe Sacs to have 
been of as great antiquity as the Patriarchs, and antecedent 
to the foundation of Aflyria, who were manifellly as late as 

" L. II. p. 779- 

JLitihii^ivat ^ ocuroii 'STCit>ii-)Ufi^sai» c/.-ruo rc>:v >.a.<fvpm' ot jots rciDrt rev flfCfrccy 
t^CdTiiyci VVXJ0-1D, a^Siw a.-J7yi /iqa.»icrciv. Ibid. 


134- '^^"^P' Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the reign of '^ Cyrus. Secondly, in giving the character of 
iiniverfal conquerors to a let of banditti, who in one attack 
were extirpated. Laftly, in attributing the moft material 
circumfcances in the ancient hiftory of Europe to a people, 
who were never there. Thus is this fairy viiion brought to 
an end. The hiftory of the Titans, the achievements of Ac- 
mon, the empire of Jupiter, the part delegated to Tal-man, 
are quite effaced : and much labour and ingenuity has been 
expended to little purpofe. In fliort, the whole Celtic 
fyftem is ruined : tor the Sacas, upon whom it depended, 
are flopped in their career, and no more heard of : and all 
this is manifeft from the authorities, to which Pezron ap- 
peals. Such too frequently are the quotations made ufe of 
by people of an eager difpofition ; which, as they are intro- 
duced, anfwer but in part ; when examined, are totally re- 
pugnant. His reafoning throughout is carried on by a chain, 
of which not one link is fairly connedred. 

An ingenious writer, and antiquary of our own nation 
has followed the fteps of Pezron, and added to his fyftem 
largely. He fuppofes, that all fcience centered of old in 
Ba6lria, called ''' Bochary, or the La?id of Books ; which 


"* Strabo fays, that according to fome hiflorians, it was Cyrus, who cut them off. 
L. 1 1, p. 780. But it was probably an age later, when the Perfian empire was more 
eftabliflied. See the pallage : Qi ^£, 07/ Ku^o?, jc.t.A. See alfo Diodorus Sic. 
L. 2. p. 1 19. 

■' See the Hiftory and Chronology of the Fabulous Ages, by Wife. p. 1 19. and 
note Ci) in another treatife, he fays : Pezron proves^ the! Uranus^ Ca-ltis, Saturn, and 
Jupiter., zvcre no imaginaiy hings ; but the true tuimes of CeJ.ic emperors, "jjho were more 
generally known by the name of Titans. Wife. DiiTcrtatiun on the Language, Learning, 
&c. of Europe. It appears, that Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, were powerful princes ; 
fever eigns over a vafi empire, comprehending all Europe, and a great part of Afia. Ibid. 

p. 5.5- 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 135 

Pezron had fuppofed to have been the principal place of re- 
lidence of his Sacie. He accordingly tells us, that in thefe 
parts we muft look for the origin of the Titans, Celts, and 
ScytliJE. We are likewife informed by another writer, that 
near Cafhemife and Thebet they fpeak good '^ Irifh at this 
day. The learned Salmalius alfo deduces every thing from 
Scythia. '^ Nulla fere Europae gens nee Alice, quin a fepten- 
trione promanaverit, &c. Scythia igitur, quae ad feptentrio- 
nem, omnes tere gentes evomuit. But what are we to 
underftani by Scythia ? It is an unlimited, undefined term, 
under which Grecian ignorance flieltered itfelf. Whatever 
v/as unknown northward was called Scythian. It is certain, 
that vaft bodies of men have at times come from the north : 
though Salmafius carries his notions to a degree of extrava- 
gance. But giving his opinion a full fcope. What has this 
to do with the language and learning of Europe ; which by 
many are fo uniformly deduced from the fame quarter ? It 
is notorious, that this vaft track of country called ignorantly 
Scythia, was pofleffed by people eflentially differing, from 
one another. Timonax, a writer of great antiquity, took 
notice of fifty nations of " Scythians. Mithridates had 

p. S5- Thefe writers were too modeft in limiting J^-ipiter's empire, which they might 
as well have extended over ail the earth-, efpecially as they might have quoted au- 
thority for it, Tov A.ia ((pccai) f2ciai?^ivaai ra ffvy.7rcx.vr0i Koaixn. Diodorus. L,. ?. 
p. 194. 

See Parfons, in his treatife ftyled Japhet. 
'' De Helleneftica. p. 366. 

Scholia in Apollon. L. 4. v. 320. 


136 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

twenty-two " languages fpoken within his territories, mod 
of which were efteemed Scythic. The people of Colchis at 
one time carried on a great trade ; and variety of inland 
nations came down to their marts. According to Ti- 
mofthenes, they were not lefs than three hundred, which 
had each their particular ^" language. And even afterwards, 
in the times of the Romans, it is faid, that they were ob- 
liged to keep up an hundred and thirty interpreters to carry 
on traffic. Yet we are apt to fpeak of the Scythians collec- 
tively as of one family, and of one language, and this the 
Titanian or Celtic. *^ "The Titan language^ lays Wife, ^was 
imiverfal 171 Europe : the Titan language^ the vehicle of all the 
knowledge^ which daw?ied in Europe. — The Titans^ majiers of 
all the knowledge derived from the Jojis of Noah, And who 
thefe Titans were, he repeatedly fhews, by faying, that they 
were the firjl civilizers of~inunkind^ and Scythians. The true 
Scuthai, or Scythians, were undoubtedly a very learned and 
intelligent people : but their origin is not to be looked for 
in the north of Alia, and the deferts of Tartary. Their 
hiftory was from another quarter, as I purpofe to fhew. 
How can we fuppofe one uniform language to have been 
propagated from a part of the world, where there was fuch 

" Mithridates duarum et viginti gentium Rex, totidem Unguis jura dixit. Plin, 
L. 7. c. 24. p. 387. See Aulus Gcllius. L. 17. c. 17, There were twenty-fix lan- 
guages among the Albani. Strabo. L. 11. p. 768. See alfo Socratis Hill. Ecclef. 
L. I, c. 19. p. 49. Ijoic^ciooov iuvm -aroAAa, S'i<x,(popoii ^pctijJiiva. yXwao'oLis. 

" Plin. 1. 5. c. 5. p. 305. Many of thefe were probably only dialedis. Yet there 
muft have been in fome inftances a real difference of language ; and confequently a 
diftinftion of people. 

" P. 56. 

variety ? 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 137 

variety ? And how could this language be fo widely ex- 
tended, as to reach from Ba6lria to Thrace, and from thence 
to the extremities of Europe ? What adds to the difficulty 
is, that all this was effedled, if we may believe our author, 
fix hundred years before Mofes. Then it was, that Jupiter 
fubdued all Europe from Thracia to Gades. As to the 
learning fuppofed to be derived from thefe Scythians, it is 
certainly a groundlefs furmife. The greater part of thefe 
nations commonly ftyled Scythic, were barbarous to the lafl: 
degree. There are no monuments, nor writings, remain- 
ing, nor any upon record, which can afford us the leaft idea 
of their being liberal, or learned. The Huns and Avares 
were of thefe parts ; who overran the empire in the fourth 
century : but their character had nothing in it favourable. 
They were fo rude in feature and figure, and fuch barba- 
rians that they were not thought ""^ human. It was a com- 
mon notion, that they were begotten by devils upon the 
bodies of fome favage hags, who were found wild in the 
woods. Procopius fays, that they neither had letters, nor 
would hear of them : fo that their children had no inftruc- 
tion. He calls them "* olvyiKOOi koli a.iJ.BXiTf\roi ; quite deaf, 
mid averfe to all fcience. In fhort, all the Tartarian nations 
of '^ old feem to have been remarkably rude. But it may be 
faid, that the people fpoken of by Pezron and Wife were of 
Badria and Margiana. They may place them as they 

*■* Jornandes de Rebus Geticis. p. 104. 

*' Procopius. Bell. Goth. L. 4. c. 3. L. 4. c. ig. 

I fay of old : for there have in later times been fome inftances to tlie 

Vol. III. T pleafe : 

138 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

pleafe : ftill they are no other than the Sacae Nomades ; a 
Tartarian clan, who from Strabo appear to have been in a 
continual roving ftate, till they were cut off. But after 
all, who in their fenfes would think of looking for the Ti- 
tans among the Tartars, or deduce all fcience from the 
wilds of Margiana ? But if thefe countries had all the learn- 
ing, that ever Egypt or Greece boafted, how was it tranf- 
mitted to Europe ? How could it be derived to us, when 
fo many, and fuch mighty, nations intervened ? We have 
feen the plan adopted by Pezron ; which was found defec- 
tive from tlie very authorities, to which he appealed : and 
Wife proceeds upon the fame fyftem. Thefe were both in 
their time refpeftable perfons on account of their learning : 
but they have certainly lowered themfelves by giving into 
thefe idle reveries. What can be more fallacious than the 
notion adopted by *' Wife, of the antiquity of the Scythians 
from the height of their ground ? Which height^ he fays, the 
Scythiafts urged i7t their difpute with the Egyptians^ as a chief 
argumefit of the antiquity of their nation : and the EgyptianSy 
at leaf other good judges^ acquiefced in the proof The notion 
was, according to Juftin, from whom it is borrowed, that, 
as the earth was once overflowed, the higher grounds emerg- 
ed firf^, and confequently were firl^ inhabited. And that 
Scythia was the higher ground, they proved from this j 
becaufe all the rivers of Scythia defeended from the north 
to the fouth, and ran towards Egypt. "^ Porro Scythiam 
adeo editiorem omnibus terris effe, ut cunda flumina ibi 

'' Religion and Learning of Europe, p.p. 
** Juitin. L. 2. c, I. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 139 

nata in Msotim, turn deinde in Ponticum, et .ffigyptium 
mare decurrant. What a ftrange proof is this ? and what 
an argument to be laid before the Egyptians ? They lived 
upon the Nile ; and from the fame principles might draw 
a different conclufion. As their river ran in a contrary 
diredion, from foiith to north, they had the fame reafon to 
''' infifl, that Upper Egypt, and Ethiopia were the higher 
grounds, and the more ancient countries. And they would 
be fo far in the right, as the earth is certainly higher, as we 
advance towards the equator, than it is towards the poles. 
As to the Tanais running from north to fouth, and fo enter- 
ing the Palus Maeotis, and Pontus Euxinus ; it is well 
known, that there are many rivers upon the coaft of the 
Black Sea, which run in various and contrary diredlions : 
cpnfequently different countries muft be equally fuperemi- 
nent, and have the fame title to be the moft ancient; which 
is abfurd and a contradidion. The learned Pezron argues 
no better, when he tries to fhew the fimilitude, which fub- 
fifted between the Sacae, and the ancient Gauls. He takes 
notice from Herodotus, that the Amyrgian Sacae wore 
breeches like the Gauls : and having obferved, that they 
were an enterprifing people, and given an account of their 
drefs, and arms ; he concludes by faying. We may upon the 
whole find hi thefe Gomarians of Margiana the laiigiiage^ 
arms., habit., with the rejllefs and warlike fpirit of our ancient 
Celtce. Will any body take upon him to deny., that they came 
originally from this Afiatic natio7if Yet after all, I cannot 
affentj lor I do not fee the refemblance: and the authority 

'' The Egyptians did infift upon it. See Diodorus. L. i. p. lo. 

T 2 upon 

140 «The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

upon which I proceed, is that of Herodotus, to whom he 
fends me. This author takes notice both of the Badrians, 
and the Sacae. He fays, that the Badrians were archers, and 
ufed bows made of their country reed, or cane ; and had 
fhort darts. In other refped:s, they were accoutered like 
the Medes, who wore tiaras, tunics, and breeches, with a 
dagger at their girdle. The Sacae, or Amyrgians, had caps 
upon their heads, which terminated above in a point : they 
had alfo breeches. Their chief arms were bows and arrows 
with a dagger ; alfo battle-axes, and fagars. Let us now 
turn, and view the habiliments of the Celt^e ; and fee if any 
refemblance fubfifted. Their chief weapons, according to 
Polybius, Livy, and Cjefar, were a long dart, or framea ; 
and a long cutting fword, but pointlefs : and they ufed an 
immenfe fnield, which covered the whole body. They had 
helmets upon their heads, which were ornamented with the 
winas of a bird for a creft : or elfe with the horns of fome 
wild animal. To bows and arrows they were flrangers, or 
did but feldom ufe them. From hence we may fee, that they 
were in nothing Umilar, but breeches and bravery : and 
of the former they were divefted, when they fought j for 
they went into battle naked. 

Great reipeft is certainly due to men of learning ; and a 
proper regard fhould be paid to their memory. But they 
forfeit much of this efleem, when they mifapply their ta- 
lents ; and put themfelves to thefe fhifts to fupport an hy- 
pothefis. They may fmile at their reveries, and plume 
themfelves upon their ingenuity in finding out fuch expe- 
dients: but no good can pofTibly arife from it; for the whole 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 141 

is a fallacy, and impoiition. And a perfon who gets cut ot 
his depth, and tries to fave himfelf by fuch feeble fupports, 
is like an idcot drowning, without knowing his danger: who 
laughs, and plunges, and catches at every ftraw. What I 
have faid in refped: to thefe two learned men, will, I hope, 
be an argument to all thofc, who follow their fyftem. 

O F 

( 143 ) 







AS we have been for fo many ages amufed with accounts 
of Scythia ; and feveral learned moderns, taking ad- 
vantage of that obfcurity, in which its hiilory is involved, 
have fpoken of it in a moft unwarrantable manner, and ex- 
tended it to an unlimited degree : it may not be unfatisfac- 
tory to inquire, what the country originally was ; and from 
whence it received its name. It is neceffary iirfl: of all to 
take notice, that there were many regions, in different parts 
of the world fo called. There v/as a province in ' Egypt, 
and another in Syria, ftiled Scythia. There was alfo a Scy- 
thia in Alia Minor, upon the Thermodon ^ above Galatia, 

' Pcolem. Gcog. L. 4. c. 5. p. 121. 

* !Sxt^^i(« uTTgp rnv ToL>^c(.iioLv. Diod. Sic. L. 5. p. 302^ 


144 T"^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

■where the Amazons were fiippofed to have refided. The 
country about Colchis, and Iberia ; alfo a great part of 
Thrace, and Mcefia ; and all the Tauric Cherfonefus, were 
ftyled Scythic. Laflily, there was a country of this name 
far in the eaft, of which little notice has been hitherto taken. 
It was fituated upon the great Indie Ocean ; and confifted 
of a widely-extended region, called ^ Scythia Limyrica. 
But the Scythia fpoken of by the ancient Greeks, and after 
them taken notice of by the Romans, conlifted of thofe 
countries, which lay upon the coaft of the Euxine ; and 
efpecially of thofe upon the north, and north-eaftern parts 
of that fea. In fhort, it was the region of Colchis, and all 
that country at the foot of Mount Caucafus, as well as that 
upon the Palus Maeotis, and the Boryfthenes, which was of 
old efteemed * Scythia. As the Greeks were ignorant of 
the part of the world, which lay beyond ; or had a very 
imperfedl knowledge of it ; they often comprehended this 
too under the fame denomination. Many however did not 
extend their ideas fo far : but looked upon the coaft above- 
fpecified to have been the boundary northward of the habit- 
able ^ world. Hence we read of extremum Tanain, ultimam 


' Periplus Maris Erythr^i. 

* The people were of Cuthite original j a part of that body which came from 
Egypt. AtyuTnioov cc7roiy.ct aiiv oi 'St'KV^a.t' S'lx raro x«i //.£A«i'o%5oa$ oi.vriii ea'cn 
?\.syiiaiv. Schol. in Pindar. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 376. 

' A. a J'e KoA^ti 
TJcvTB Kou yctiiii iinKiy.KiTOii ea-^ccTirun'. 

Apollon. Rhod. L. 2. v. 419. 
Extremum Tanaun fi biberis, Lyce. Horat. L. 3. Od. 10. 
XGiKO? fAiv Hi Tnhn^ov woy-sv ■zrsS'oi', 
X^vdnv a oiy-ov^a-Qxrov j<5 fowjocfar. ^fch. Prometh. v. i. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 145 

Scythiam, and Kciv/.ct(Tov scr'^ccTosna ; Caucafus the boundary 
of the world. And although, upon the return of the Greeks, 
who had followed the fortunes of Cyrus the younger, fome 
infight might be fuppofed to have been gained into thofe 
parts ; yet it amounted to little in the end : as no corre- 
fpondence was kept up ; and the navigation of the Bofporus 
was feldom attempted. Hence it happened, that, till the 
conquefts of LucuUus and Pompeius Magnus, thefe coun- 
tries were to the north-eaft the limits of geographical know- 
ledge : and even of thefe parts the accounts were very ob- 
fcure and imperfeft. Yet, however unknown they had lain 
for ages, there was a time, when the natives rendered them- 
fehxs very rcfpedlable. For they carried on an extenfive 
commerce ; and were fuperior in fcience to all the nations 
in their neighbourhood. But this was lonp^ before the 
dawning of learning in Greece : even before the conftitution 
of many principalities, into which the Hellenic ftate was 
divided. They went under the name of Colchians, Iberians, 
Cimmerians, Hyperboreans, Alani. They got footing in 
Paphlagonia upon the Thermodon ; where they were called 
Amazonians, and Alazonians : alfo in Pieria, and Sithonia, 
near Mount Haemus in Thrace. Thefe were properly Scy- 
thic nations : but the ancients, as I have before mentioned, 
often included under this name all that lay beyond them ; 
whatever was unknown, even from the Cronian and Atlantic 

Plato fpeaks of earth being extended from Gades to the river Pharis. Phicdon. 
p. 109. Herodotus was uncertain, wliere Europe terminated. L. 4. c. 45. 

Colchidem Grreci, non Homericis folum temporibiis, fed pluribus etiam feculis 
'poft, orbis noftri ad oricntem terminum effe credcbant. Vofl'ius de Idolatria. L. i. 
c. 24. p. 177. 

Vol. III. U feas 

146 Tim Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

feas one way, to Mount Tabis and the Corean fea the other. 
' 'ATroLvroL; { h th; 'nr^oc-^o^pHg Kovjit^g 01 ^ctAaioi Tm 'EKKyjvoou 
cvyy^oL^s^ l>y.vOixg y.on Ks?-^ro-XKvOag SicaX'SV. The ancient 
•writers of Greece tifed to include ail the norther?i nations in 
general under the name of Scythians a?id Celto-Scythians. In 
this they went too far : yet the Scythic nations were widely 
extended, and to be met with on very different parts of the 
globe. As they are reprefentcd of the higheft antiquity, 
and of great power ; and as they are faid to have fubdued 
mighty kingdoms ; and to have claimed precedency even of 
the Egyptians : it will be worth our while to enquire into 
the hiftory of this wonderful people ; and to iift out the 
truth, if poflibly it may be attained. Let us then try to in- 
veftigate the origin of the people denominated Scythians, 
and explain the purport of their name. The folution of this 
intricate problem will prove of the higheft importance ; as 
we fhall thereby be able to clear up many dark circumftances 
in antiquity : and it will ferve for the balls of the fyftem, 
upon which I proceed. To me then it appears very mani- 
feft, that what was termed by the Greeks Xiiv^cc^ XjivOM, 
Xkv^ikoc, was originally Cutha, Cuthia, Cuthica; and related 
to the family of Chus. He was called by the Babylonians 
and Chaldeans Cuth; and his pofterity Cuthites and Cuthe- 
ans. The countries where they at times ^ fettled, were 
uniformly denominated from them. But what was pro- 
perly ftyled Cutha, the Greeks expreffed with a * iigma 

prefixed : 
* Strato. JL. ii. p. 774. 

^ Cufiftan in Perils was called Cutha, or the land of Cuth. See Jofeph. Antiq. 
L. g. c. 14. p. 507. 

' So 'TA)} was by the Latines rendered Sylva ; Ixra, feptem; epjrco, ferpo ; and 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 147 

prefixed : which, however trifling it may appear, has been 
attended with fatal confequences. Whence this mode of 
expreffion arofe is uncertain : it has univerfally obtained : 
and has very much confounded the hiftory of ancient times, 
and of this people in particular. In fliort, the miftake 
reaches in its confequences much farther than we may at 
firO: apprehend : and being once detefted, will be the means 
of explaining many difficulties, which cannot otherwife be 
folved : and a wonderful light will be thrown on the re- 
moter parts of hiftory. 

As the Scythic colonies were widely difperfed, I will take 
them in their turns, and fhew that they were all of them 
Cuthic : that the people upon the Indus were of the fame 
origin as thofe upon the Phafis and Thermodon : and that 
the natives of Bastica in Iberia were related to both. That 
the Boeotians and Athenians were in great meafure Cuthian, 
I have endeavoured already to prove : and what I term Cu- 
thian, was by them undoubtedly ftyled Scythian. Hence 
Anacharfls the Hyperborean plainly maintained that the 
Athenians were apparently Scythic : which national charac- 
teriftic he muft have obferved in their language and man- 

from a/ 5, «Ao5 of Greece was formed fal, and falum. The river Indus was often 
called Sindus. Indus ah incolis Sindus appellatur. Plin. N. H. L. 6. p. 319. 
Ur of Chaldca was ftyled Sur, ^ovp: and it is fo rendered by Syncellus. Ek x'^pa, 
rc:v "KaP^OaicM', iv Xtup th -tc-.Ae . p. 95. The Elli, thofe priefts of the fun at Do- 
dona, W'jre called Selli. The Alpes Cottire are by Procopius ftyled Xxyxfa/. De 
Bello Goth. L. 2. p. 457. And Lycophron, fpeaking of the Alps in general, inftead 
oi AXtticc op, calls them SaAx/a, Salpia. 

Kai SaA7r<wi' fiiQcDaocv o^y\^u)v 'ujxyctiv. V. i-^6l. 
This letter is ufed by the Wellh as an afpirate : and has undoubtedly been intro- 
duced by many nations for the fame purpofe. 

U 2 ners. 

148 The Analysis of Ancirnt Mythologv. 

ners. ' E[j,oi ct, (piiTif Ava^a^cTi;, ^urcfJTBg 'E?.7.r,vsg u-y.v^i^a^i. 
Li all other countries, where this people fettled, a like limi- 
Htude will be found in their rites and cuftoms ; and a great 
correfpondence in their original hiftory : and all this attended 
with a manifcft analogy in the names of perfons and places ; 
and in the language of each nation, as far as we can arrive. 
It may be faid, if by IzvOia, Scythia, we are to underftand 
Cutliia, and by IfK-vOc'ii^ Cutha.i or Cutheans, the fame fhould 
obtain in all hiflorics of this people : for the like miftake 
would be obfervable in the accounts tranfmitted in the ac- 
counts of Chaldea, and Babylonia, whence this people firft 
came ; as well as in thofe of Egypt, where they for a long 
time refided. And, upon enquiry, we fliall find this to have 
been the cafe. Chus was by the Babylonians ftyled Cuth; and 
the country of his pofterity Cutha. His fens were the firft 
rebels upon record. The building of the Tower called Ba- 
bel is fuppofed to have been effeded under their direction : 
for Babel was the place of habitation, where their imperious 
prince Nimrod, who was called Alorus and Orion, refided. 
'" 'The beginn'mg of his kingdom^ we are told by Mofes, was 
Babel. In confequence of this it may be urged, that if the 
Cutheans of Colchis or Greece are fly led li/.vOcLi, the fame name 
JJjotcld be fojnetimes found attributed to thofe of Babylonia and 
Chaldea. It is no more than we ought to exped: : and we 
.{hall find that the natives of thefe countries are exprellly fo 
called. Epiphanius, who has tranfmitted to us a moft cu- 
rious epitome of the whole Scythic hilf ory, gives them this 

' Clem. Alexandn. Strom. L. i. p. 364. 
'" Gcncf. c. 10, V. 10, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 149 

very appellation. " Atto Js T8 y.T^i^arog ra ijr^og Ev^oottyiv sig 

(nv 2KT0AI* KTi^sfTi h tt,v liv^yoirouav^ koli oiKo^o^^iri rr,v 
BabiiAw^a. T/jo/h ?jatio7is^ which reach fouthward frojft that 
part of the worlds where the two great C07itinents of Etirope 
and Afa i?icline to each other ^ and are co?t?ieBed^ were tcniver- 
fally fiyled " Scythes^ according to a?! appellatioii of longfland- 
i?2g, Thefe ivere of that family^ who of old ereSied the great 
tower (called Babel), and who built the city Babylon. This is 
the plain purport of the hiftory : from whence we learn ex- 
preffly, that the Scythians were the Cuthians, and came 
from Babylonia. The works, in which they were engaged ; 
and the perfon, from whom they were denominated ; in 
fliort, the whole of their hiftory paft all controverfy prove 
it. They were the fame as the Chaldaic lonim under a 
different name. '^ \'j}Vb; Js Tara'j' a.^'ytiyoi, yBysvrsVrcn, w? 
ctx^i^ri; s'^Bi TKoyog, ctjo Td loovay, Bvog au^^og ra'i/ Toy Ilv^yo'j 
oiKO^ofj,ri(rci.vrojy, ots di y7\(jO(r<rcLi ^iB[.JLB^i^-fi<TCLV toov oiv^^(f)7rooy. 
T'he lones were the leaders of this people according to the beft 
information. They were defcendanls of one Io?i or lonah^ 
who was concerned in the building of the tower ^ whe7t the lan- 
guage of mankind was cofifounded. Thus wx may obferve 
what light the hiftories of different nations, if duly com- 

" Epiphanius adverfiis Hferef. L. i. p. 6. 

" The author fuppofes, that all mankind were occupied in the building of the 
tov/er •, and hence leems to think, that all families were Scythic. But this is a oreat 
miftakc. The Cuthites were the people principally engaged In that work ; and 
tlity are the family, who are alluded to under the name of S^uOa;. It was a parti- 
cular and national appellation ; and could not be appropriated to all mankind. 

" Chron. Pafchale. p. 49. Eufebii Chron. p. 7. 

pared J 

J50 The Analysis of Ancient Mvthologt. 

pared, refiedt upon each other. Like evidence may be ob- 
tained from other parts of Epiphanius : where it is manifeft 
that the term Scuthic is a mifnomer for Cuthic. In de- 
fcribing the firft ages of the world, he tells us, that, to the 
time of Serug, the feventh from Noah, there continued a 
Scythian fucceflion ; and that the Scythian name was pre- 
valent. '* 'Ew? T8T» (T/S^V^) SfJLSVS XfCV^lKYj Tig ^la.^O'^Yl KOLl STTl- 

KXif\7ig : meaning, that this period was efteemed the Scythian 
age. The fame piece of hiftory is to be found in Eufebius, 
and other writers ; fome of whom were prior to '^ Epipha- 
nius. Now I think it cannot be doubted, but that in the 
original hiftory, whence this was taken, it was K.v^iKri Tig Si~ 
a.^o'vri a Cuthic fuccejfion ; vl'xi Ky^i/^J] zirivSNcfTig^ and it was the 
Cuthic name^ by which that period was marked. Xzv^io'fJLogy 
fays this author in another place, cctfo th Kca'a.z7:V(T^j^s ciy^i th 
Uv^ya : from the deluge to the ere&ing of the tower Scuthifm 
prevailed. This notation is perhaps carried too far back : 
but the meaning is plain ; and what he alludes to, is cer- 
tainly Cuthifmus, Kv^i^r^og. The purport of the pafTage 
teaches, that from the time of the deluge to the conftrudlion 
of the tower was efteemed the Cuthic age. It was for the 
moft part a period of ufurpation and tyranny under the fons 
of Chus, which was in a great degree put a ftop to at the 
difperfton : at leaft the intention of keeping mankind toge- 
ther, and conftituting one great empire was prevented : for 
this feems to have been the dcftgn of the Cuthians and their 

'* Epiphanius adv. H^ref. L. i. p. S. alfo L. i. p. 9. See alfo his Refponf. ad 
Achaium et Paulum. p. 8. g. 
" Eufebii Chronicon. p. 13. 

10 Some 

The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 151 

Some of the ancient fathers, from terms ill underftood, 
divided the firft ages into three or more epochas ; and have 
diftinguiflied them by as many charaderiftics : '* Ba^Sa^Krao?, 
Barbarifmus, which is fuppofed to have preceded the flood i 
l,KU^i(rf/,Oiy Scuthifmus, of which I have been fpeaking : and 
'' 'EXXYiHQ'fJLOiy Hellenifmus, or the Grecian period. This 
laft mufl: appear as extraordinary as any. For how was it 
poflible for an Hellenic xra. to have exifted before the name 
of Hellas was known, or the nation in being ? This arofe, 
like the preceding, from a miftake in terms, the word being 
warped from its original purport and direction. The Cu- 
feans or Cuthites were the firft apoftates from the truth : of 
which defedlion I have before taken notice. They intro- 
duced the worfhip of the fun, that great fountain of light ; 
and paid the like reverence to the ftars, and all the hoft of 
heaven. They looked upon them as fountains, from whence 
were derived to men the moft falutary '^ emanations. This 
worfhip was ftyled the fountain worfhip. The Grecians, 
juft as they ftyled the Bay of Fountains on the Red Sea El- 
anites from El Ain, might have called this charaderiftic of 

At Si Tcov atpSfTtuiv "Sjccaajv i^nreca li icai "zs-poKpiroi y.oct ovofA-w^oi enrtv auTcci Bac— 
€(zpia/A.o<^'^xu^iay.o?f'EA?^Wicrpt.o(, lnScii'a-fAoi. Chron.Pafchale.p. 23. This author makes 
Barbarifmus precede the deluge : Scythifmus comes after. 2KT0I2MO2 a-ro rm- 
rifj-i^cov r'd Niwg f/.irc(. mv xcx-rxxAuaixov u^^^i rvtira TlupyB oixoS'ofA^ii ■ BccCiiAaivsi' 
xcti fjLiTO. rov ^^Qvov T«5 TH Ylvoys ctxo-^ ofj.TDi iir o?ifyoii nsa-iv, TBT s^iv ejus Px- 
•ycoi' ui^i^ov J's 'EAAnvicj-fJLOs h.t.A. Chron, Pafch. p. 49. 

'^ Atto Se Td 'Xep'd;^ 2<w? tb A^PctafA. xai Siv^o^ 'EAAmi'/u^ao?. Epiphan. L. i. 
p. g. Ssfia;;^, cV'? w^i'7 05 r]^^a.To tb EAAi)>'i(7/U.a. Eufeb, Chron. p. 13. In like 
manner, a fourth lierefy is fuppofed to have arifen, ftyled Juda-'fnuis, before the 
lime of either Jews or Jfraelites. 

'' Concerning fountain worfhip, or derivative virtues, fee Pfellus and Jambli- 
chus; and Stanley upon the Clialdaic Religion. El-ain, Solisfons^ the fountain 
of the fun, 


152 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the times EAayJCjaof, Elanifmus. But fuch a change would 
not fatisfy them. They made fome farther alteration ; and 
rendered it according to the Ionic dialect 'EKXtjVKTfJ^ogy Plel- 
lenifhius with an afpirate ; and made it by thefe means re- 
late to their own country. One of the titles of the Cufean 
fliepherds, who came into Egypt, was taken from this wor- 
fliip, and derived from El Ain, the fountain of light, which 
they worfliiped. But the Greeks expreflcd this after the 
fame manner as the above : whence they are by many wri- 
ters flyled '^UoifjLSVs; 'EK7\mg, He/Ienic or Grecia?i pepherds. 
They were truly El-Ancs, and by race Cuthites. Many of 
them fettled in Armenia, and at Colchis, and alfo upon the 
Palus M^otis. They are taken notice of under this name by 
" Claudian : 

patriamque bibens Maeotida Alanus. 

Procopius mentions, that all the nations about Caucafus, 
which we know to have been Cuthites, as far as the Portse 
Caucafeze, were comprehended under the name of " Alani. 

Some have thought, that this diilindlion of times, taken 
notice of by the ecclefiaftical writers, vvas owing to fome 
expreffions of St. Paul in his Epiftle to the Coioflians. 
" 'Ottb an Bvi 'EA?.rji/, koli la^am' 'UT^iioiXYi kcli clkcq^v^lol' 
Bcc^^oLcog^ X/.v^Ytg' ^nKog, s'Ksv^s^og' clKKol Tct istclvtoLj icai sv 

'' Exv^ai/gxaTM Sufxq-nx, Uoitxivsi '£AA>;i/S5. Syncellus. p. 6|. 

*' In Rufin. L. i. v. 3 12. 

" TcxxiTi-.v Ss ivv ^ir'Pccf, r\ i^ QOBi T« Kcivycudi'd (x^pi is Tcci \{a.(77ricL; Karariiei 
'zniAai, AAai'oi e^ncri. Procop. Goth. Hift. L. 4. c. 3. p. 570. This comprehends 
all the country of Iberia, Colchis and CircafTia. 

" ColofT. c. 3. V. II. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 153 

'SracTi X^ifo?. Where there is 7zeither Greek tior "Jew^ circum- 
cifion nor uncircumciJion\ Barbaria7i\ Scythiajt ; hot^d nor free ; 
but Chriji is all and in all. The Apoftle plainly alludes to 
thofe invidious diftin<5lions, which fubfifted among men; but 
what the fathers mention, concerns the divifion of times, 
and the charadlers, by which different epochas were diftin- 
guifhed. Some writers however have gone farther, and from 
the words of St. Paul have added Judaifmus ; introducing it 
in the firft ages, to which it could not poiTibly belong. For 
how could Judaifm fubfift, before there was either Jew or 
Ifraelite ? In fhort, they have brought in fucceiTion, and at 
different aeras, what the Apoftle fpeaks of as fubflfting 
together at the fame time ; even in the age wherein he 

Hellenifmus however, which led the way to thefe diftinc- 
tions, was of ancient date. The firft innovation in religion 
was called by this name : which had no relation to Greece ; 
being far prior to Hellas, and to the people denominated 
from it. Though it began among the Cuthites in Chaldea ; 
yet it is thought to have arifen from fome of the family of 
Shem, who refided among that people. Epiphanius accord- 
ingly tells us, that Ragem^ or Ragau, had for his fon Seruch^ 
whe7t idolatry and Helleniff?ius firfl began amo?ig me7i. '^ Pa- 

TS, K(/.i 6 'E?\7\r,vi<TfJLog. By this we are only informed, that 
idolatry and Hellenifmus began in the days of Seruch : but 
Eufebius and other writers mention, that he was the author 

*' Hasref. L, i.e. 6. p. 7. 

Vol. III. X of 

154 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology,. 

of this apoftafy. ^* ^5^«%, og-ig "GT^odrot; ri^^aro ra 'EAXrinu-fjos. 
Seruch was the firjl^ who ifjtroduced the falfe worjhip^ called 
Helle72ifmus. Some attribute alfo to him the introdudion of 
^■^ images : but moft give this innovation to his^ grandfon 
Terah. ^^ Na^w^ Js yevvct Toy Qapfict,, snsv^p yeyoysp ccv^pi' 
anoTrXaQ-ici — Jia rY\g rs @ct^ps ts'^vyj;. Nachor begat Thar ah: 
and in his time were introduced images for worjhip^ which were 
Jirji frajned by his art. 

It is obfervable, that Johannes Antiochenus fiyles the peo- 
ple of Midian Hellenes : and fpeaking of Mofes, who married 
the daughter of Jethro, the Cuthite, the chief prieft of 
^^ Midian, he reprefents the woman, ^^ t/]j/ ^yyceTS^a lo^o^ ra 
a^y}H^^^ Tuoy 'EAAio^wy, as the daughter of Jother, the high- 
friefi of the Hellenes. This is not fo culpable as I have 
fometimes thought it. It is to be obferved, that the people 
of Midian lived upon the upper and eaftern recefs of the 
Red Sea ; where was a city called El Ain, the Elana 
of ^' Ptolemy, and Ailane of Jofephus. It happens, that 
there are in the oppoiite recefs fountains, which retain the 

^* Eufebii Chron. p. 13. See Chron. Pafchale, and Syncellus. p. 94. 95. Some 
fuppofe this innovation to have been introduced about the death of Peleg. Etti tyiv 
Ta 4>aA£;v^ nXiurnv irn T^iax''^'cc' sv^iv ap^nv rcrw 'EAA/jnxwf Qsojt' ?\ay.^cx.i'Hai ra. 
ovo/JiccTa. Cedrenus. p. 15. 

Nsc'e TB S'laatty. Conllant. ManalTcs. p. 21, 

** Epiphanius. L. i. p. 7. 

'■^ Exodus, c. 2. V. 16. 

'' P. 76. 77. 

*' 'H^e EAaya xutx (m^ov xei/Jt-evn ra cjjt.uvvfji.ii koXttou. Ptolem. L. 5. c. 1 7. p» 162. 

Ou "TO-oppiw AiAavm -TSToXicci. Jofeph. Ant. L,. 8. c. 2. p. 4^y. 

AiAar« ra-oA« ApaCia?. Steph. Byzant. AiA«?. Piocop. Perfica. L. i. c. 19. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 155 

-name of El Ain at this day : and they are likewife called by 
the Arabs Ain Mofh, or the fountains of Mofes. Hence 
each bay has been at times called Sinus Elanites ; which 
Jias caufcd fome confufion in the accounts given of thefe 
parts. The nether recefs had certainly its name from 
the celebrated fountains of Mofes, which ran into it : 
but the bay on the other lide was denominated from the 
people, who there ^° fettled. They were Cuthites, of the 
fame race as the lonim and Hellenes of Babylonia, from 
which country they came. They built the city Elana ; and 
were called '' Hellenes, from the great luminary, which they 
worfhiped ; and to which their city was facred. In the 
days of Mofes the whole world feems to have been infeded 
with the rites of the Zabians : and Jethro the Cuthite was 
probably high-prieft of this order, whofe daughter Mofes 
^* married. The very firft idolatry conlifted in worfhiping 
the luminary El Ain; which worfliip was accordingly ftyled 
Hellenifmus. El Ain fignifies Sol Pons, the f omit ain of light : 
and Ulpian upon Demofthenes feems to have had fome in- 
timation of this etymology ; for he explains the term 
s7\Ky]i/iH.uoTCiTov by " KOi^cc^oorctrov and giAi/i^i^Sfaroy, fomethi7ig 
'very pure anddear^ like a fountain. Hefychius alfo intimates, 
that the name related to the '^ fountain of day ; and in a 
fecondary fenfe to the fountain of wifdom. 'EAA)i!/s?, 0/ a^ro 

'° The bay Is now called Bahhr al Akaba. See Defcription d'Arabie par Monf, 
Niebuhr. 1773. p. 345. 

" The people ftill retain their primitive name Ellancs. Dr. Pocock exprcfics it 
Allauni. The Arabs about Acaba arc called Allauni. Pocock's Egypt, p. 13S. 

'* Exodus, c. 2. V. 16. Numbers, c. 12. v. i, 

" P. 118. 

'■* Jiih-T, n Tfj n^m xvyn. Hcfych. 

X 2 T-g 

156 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

T8 A/0? T8 'EhT^YjVOg' Y} <p^oi/i(JLOi, YiToi (ro<poi. The people Jiyled 
Helle7ies are the defce?idants of Hellene the fon of Zeuth : and 
by this title are denoted people of intellige?it and enlightened 
minds. Hellen was the fame as Ion ; the fame alfo as He- 
lius, Oiiris, and Apollo : by which titles was iignificd the 
Deity of light and of fcience. 

From Babylonia the Hellenes came into Egypt; and were 
the fame as the Auritae^ thofe Cuthite fhepherds, who fo 
long held that country in fubjedion. Hence we read of 
55 W^ii^zvii 'E?\.7\riiSij and ^* Batr/As/? 'EXXnvsgy Hellenic fiep- 
herdsj and Helle72ic princes, who reigned in the infancy of 
that nation. They were what I term colledlively Amonians; 
being the defcendants of Ham, who by the Gentile writers 
was reputed the firft-born of Deucalion, or Noah. ^" Tivov^ 
70.1 Jg BK riyppa? I^zvKC(.7\imi 'UTaihg, 'UKT^yiV (jlsv 'ur^mog, 01/ sz 
Aiog svioi yzy^vrfT^o.i Asyaci — ^ix^^oltt^^ h U^ooToyevBia. Hellen 
•was the frfl-bor7i of Deucalio7i by Pyrrha : though fotne 7nake 
him the f 071 of Zeuth, or Dios. — There was alfo a daughter 
Protogeneia ', fo named from being the firft-born ot women; 
He was alfo faid to have been the fen cf Prometheus : but 
in this there is no inconfiftency ; for they were all titles of 
the fame perfonage, whofe fon was '^ Ham, reprefented botli 

" Africaniis apud Syncellum. p. 6i. 

'* Syncellus. ibid. * 

" Apollodofus. L I. p. 20. 

Ktto V.AAm'oi TH AevxctAicci'oi 'EAAnv;5. Syncellus. p. 157. EAXx^, r.i, Aios 
'£AA>i» gJtTiirsr. Diccearchus. Geog. Gr. Vol. p. 22. Strabo. L. 8. p. 507. 'RAAw 
Ta AefJtaAiOK-ios. Tl^iicyd. L. 1. c. 3. UpofAndeooi xat Flupfa^ EAAjji'. Scliol. ia 
Apollon. I.. 3. V, 1086. Strabo mentions the tomb of Hellen ; raCpcv Ta 'EAAhvss 
«ia Aeyj^aAi&wos u;y, xxi Flypp*?, L. g. p. C60. 

»' C3n. Sol. 

10 as 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 157 

as Hellen, and Helius. The Cuthite Hellenes, who came 
into Egypt, introduced their arts and learning ; by which 
that country was benefited greatly. Hence the learning of 
Egypt was ftyled Hellenic from the Hellenic fhepherds : 
and the ancient theology of the country v/as faid to have 
been defcribed in the '^ Flellenic charadter and language. 
This had no relation to the Hellenes of Greece ; being, as I 
have before obferved, far prior to that nation. The Gre- 
cians, it is true, were both lonim and Hellenes ; but by a 
long defcent, being the pofterity of the people here fpoken 
of. This theology was faid to have been derived from 
"^^ Agathodaemon, that benign deity, the benefadlor of all 
mankind. He was il-ippofcd to have had a renewal of life ; 
and on that account was reprefented under the figure of a 
ferpent crowned with the lotus, and flyled "^^ Noe Agatho- 
dsmon. The Grecians fuppofed, that by the Hellenic 
tongue was meant tlie language of Greece ; and that the 
Hellenic charafters were the letters of their own country. 
But thefe writings were in reality fculptures of great anti- 
quity : and the language was the Cuthite, ftyled by *^' Ma- 
netlion die lacred language of Egypt.. 

" Manethon apud Eufeb. Chron. p. 6. 

**° Syncellus. p. 40. The hiftory was fuppofed to have been by him trannated" 
after ths deluge^ jj.iTct rov KccrocK/^vapLo:', tx. rw Upxi SiccXix-ra si; tiiv HLWiiviSx (^'xrw 
from the facred language into the Hellenic: by which mull be meant the- ancient 

*" The name Noe the Greeks tranfpofed, and cxpreffed it Neo Kya.^oSD(.-fjMv, 
See Vol. II. p. 336. Plate VI. where the Patriarch is defcribed under the fymbol of 
a ferpent, with the emblems of plenty and peace. Agathodsmon was the fame as. 
Gneph. Eufeb. Prsep. Evang. L. i. c. 10. p. 4.1. ' * 

■** Jofeph. contra Apion. L. i. p. 445.. '■ 


,158 The Analysis of Anci&nt Mythology^ 

Philo JudtEUS, not being apprifed of this, has been guilty 
of a great miftake in his Life of Mofes. For mentioning how 
that great perfonage had been inftrudled in his youth ; and 
that he was ficilled in all the learning of Egypt, in numbers, 
geography, and hieroglyphics ; he adds, that the reft of the 
circle of fciences he learned of the Hellenes, or Grecians : 
'*^ Triv Js ccAArjV syy.vySKiov 'uroLihiav 'E?\?jji/Bg £^i^oL(ryou : as if the 
circle of fciences had been eftabliflied, and the Greeks were 
adepts in philofophy, fo early as the time of Mofes. The 
Hellenes, who were fuppofed to have inftrucled the Patri- 
arch, were undoubtedly an order of priefts in Egypt: which 
order had been inftituted before the name of Hellas, or the 
Helladians, had been heard of. Stephanus mentions from 
Ariftagoras, a place called Hellenicon (E?^?'.r,viKOi') at Mem- 
phis ; and fays, that the perfons, who relided there, were 
ftyled ''* Helleno-Memphitae. Clemens Alexandrinus has 
tranfmitted the fame account concerning Mofes, as has been 
criven above by Philo., ^^ Triv ^s aKKYjV eyy.VKXiov 'Wa.i^eiciv 
[EKkTiVSQ B^i^OL<Ty.ov Bv KiyvTTTLc^ c^; ciV ^CKTiXiKoy ^oiihov. The 
Hellenes educated him in Egypt as a pi'ijicely child \ and in- 
JiruEied him in the whole circle of fciences. Thefe writers have 
certainly miftaken the hiftory, from whence they borrowed. 
It did not relate to Greece, but to the Hellenes of Egypt ; 
thofe Helleno-Memphita; of Stephanus and Ariftagoras. 
When Clemens therefore tells us concerning Mofes, Oi E?v- 
7\T,VBg sMoLTZov BV Aiyy/TTio, The Hellenes taught him in Egypt : 

« In VitaMons,V. 2. p. 84. 

qnTai, coi Apti^ccyopa?' Steph. Byziint. 
*' Strom. L. i. p. 413. 

9 it 

The Analysis of Anciexnt Mythology. 159 

it fliould be rendered, 'Of 'E?\?^rtVsg zv AiyvTTTcp bci^xtkov, the 
Hellenes of Egypt taught him : for fuch, we may be afTured, 
was the purpM^rt of the original, and true hiftory. And this 
may be proved by the account given of Ofiris ; of whom it 
is faid, that after his travels over the earth, he inflituted re- 
ligious rites, and founded fchools of eloquence in Egypt. Of 
thefe he made Hermes profefTor, who inftruded the ''^ Helle- 
nes in that fcience. This was many ages before the fuppofed 
arrival of Danaus, or of Cadmus, in Greece : confequently 
thefe Hellenes could have no relation to that country. They 
were undoubtedly an order of priefts ; the fame as are laid 
to have inftrudled Mofes. The hiftory was certainly true, 
though the perfons have been miftaken. Zoroafter is by Ebn 
Batrick flyled luna-Hellen ; and faid to have been the au- 
thor of the Zabian worfliip, which commenced about the 
time that the tower of Babel was ereded. " Autumant au- 
tem nonnulli, primum rcligionis Sabiorum audiorem fuiffe 
GriEcum (Hellenem) quendam nomine liinam. — Fertur etiam 
ilium, qui primus Sabiorum religionem inflituit, ex eorum 
numero fuiffe, qui turri Babelis extruenda? adfuerunt. Ac- 
cording to Dicaearchus, the great Sefoftris was a favourer of 
*' Hellenifm. 

From what has been faid, it appears plainly, that the 
Hellenes and lones were the fame people under different ap- 
pellations. They were the defcendants of Heilen and Ion, 
two names of the fame perfonage ; among whofe fons idolatry 
firft began in the region of Babylonia. Fie was flyled Ion, 

"" K«i T85 E/./\«ra« J^icTa^ai TaTcc to, 'zs-e^i rriv 'Efy-mfcioct: Diodorus. L. i. p. 15. 

*' Vol. 1, p. 63. from the Latin verfion. 

*^ Kctt E?\?\.}irix-d l2rd^iaoy^oo(riiS'i'xi. Schol. in ApoUon. L. 4. v. 273. 


i6o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

loiian, lonichus ; and was fuppofcd to have been the author 
of magic. From him the Babylonians had the name of lonim, 
as weJl as ot Hellenes : for thefe terms were ufed as in fome 
degree fynonimous. Hence when the facrcd writer men- 
tions people's flying from the weapons of the *' lonim, or 
Babylonians, it is very truly rendered by the Seventy fro7/i 
the Helle?iic fword : ^° Avccg'', zy.i cjoL7§B'l^(f)(J,si/ 'UT^og tov 
Kccov Yiix,m Big ttiv 'urctT^i^a ^jmv^ oltco 'or^ou'UTfii fj^oi'^at^oig 'EA- 
7^.Ylvi/.Y]g. Arife^ a?jd let us go again to our own people, and to 
the land of our nativity, from the Hellenic ^lewY/. The like 
expreflion is to be found in the fame verlion, and of the fame 
prophet : ^' Ato ijT^o(nc7r8 fJiOL'^on^<xg 'EXXr.viKYig s/.ag-og sig tqi> 

7\0LQy 0LVT3 OiXO^^S-^kHTl, KXl BKOL^Og Big TiTiV y't\V avTH (psv^BTcci. 
From the fword of the Hellenes they fj all tu7~n every one to 
hjs ow?i people, and they pall flee every one to his own land. In 
each inftance the words in the original are the fword of T\i'\\ 
lijnah : by which are meant the lonim or Babylonians. The 
fame worfhip, of which the Hellenes are faid to have been 
the authors, is attributed to the lonim, the fons of lonah. 
^- Iwsg h, 01 SK TYig I«?, rm 'ET^Mvm ct^'^riyoi ysyovoTBg, roig 
^ooLVOig 'W^oTSKVVovv. 'The lonim, the reputed fons of lonah, who 
became the head of the Hellenes, introduced the adoration of 
images. They alfo introduced Zabaifm, as is mentioned by 
the fame " author ; and worfhiped the celeftial conftellations. 
The perfon, from whom the Hellenes had their name, was 

■« nJV D"in, the fword of the lonah. 

*° Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 16. 

'' Ibid. c. 50. V. 1 6. See Vol. II. p. 302. of this work. 

'* Eufeb. Chron. p. 13. 

-' luvis 785 KXT Ovpocvov (pu<^tifxi ^eoTToiBfJLii'ot. Ibid. See alfo Cedrenus. p. 46. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. i6i 

Hellen, the fame as Cham, the fon of Noah. ^' 'EXXriv mo; 
t^BViicO\imoi;. Hellen was the fo7i of the pcrfo7i who efcapcd the 
flood. The lones were from the fame perfonagc, under a 
different title. 

Such was the firfl herefy in the world, which was ftyled 
Hellenifmus : and fuch the Hellenes, by whom it was pro- 
pagated. They were diflipated from Babylonia, and paffed 
into Egypt ; and betook thenifelves to Syria, Rhodes, and 
Hellas ; and many other countries. Many traces of them 
are to be found in Syria ; where particularly is to be ob- 
ferved a city, which from them muft have had its name. 
Stephanus, fpeaking of places called Hellas, tells us. 
Eft KCLi uXKr\ ■woXig 'EAAa? KoiX'rig l,v^icf.g' to z^vizov 'E7^XrjV. 
There is alfo another city Hellas in Coile Syria. The Gentile 
derivative^ or pojfejfive^ is Helle7t. There were Hellenes at 
Rhodes ; the fame as the Heliad^, of whom ^^ Diodorus Si- 
culus makes mention. They feem to have been the firft, 
who peopled that illand. Thofe Hellenes, who fettled at 
Dodona, were the firft of the name among the Helladians, 
and from them it became at laft univerfal. They had alfo 
the name of Elli, and Selli, and were properly priefts of the 
oracle, which they brought from Thebes in Egypt. ^^ 'EA- 
Aor 'EAAr/fg?, hi sv Aoj^ocr/i, y,cti oi is^sig' EAAa (it fhould be 
EAAar) Aiog le^ov zv At^^mri. The Elli are the fame as the 
Hellenes at Dodona : a?id the priefls of the place have the fajne 

" Enfeb. Chron. p. 28. 

' I'-^iv Si viicrcv raVTiv TOTS KaTiiJtBi/ 'EAA);r£c. L. 4. p. 26. 

'' Hefych. Elli and Selli arc terms of the fanie purport ■, being derived from El 
and Sel, two names of the fun. What the Grecians rendered Hellas would have been 
exprciled more truly Hellan. 

Vol. III. Y name. 

1 62 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

■name. Elian is the name of the temple dedicated to Jupiter at 
Dodona. The like is faid by ** Ariftotle and ^^ Strabo. Of 
this people I Ihall fay more, when I come to the lonah-Hel* 
lenic colonies of Greece. 

'' Meteorolog. L. i.e. 14. p. 772, 
" L. 7. p. 505. 


C 163 ] 



O R 

AGE of the C U T H I M. 

I Have taken notice of the manner, in which the firft ages 
of the world were diftinguifhed : and I have Ihewn, that 
Scythifmus and Hellenifmus were miftaken terms : that they 
were not the charafteriftics of times in fucceffion, as many 
of the learned fathers have fuppofed ; but related each to 
nearly one particular feafon, the age of Chus ; and to the 
worfhip introduced by his fons. The Golden Age of the 
poets took its rife from a miftake of the fame nature : which 
miftake being once eftablifhed, a Silver, a Brazen, and an 
Iron Age were in confequence of it added. What was termed 
Vsvog X^v<rsov and X^v(rBiov, fhould have been expreffed Xv(rsov 
and Xvcreioy : for it relates to the fame sera, and hiftory, as 
the terms beforementioned ; to the age of Chus, and to the 
domination of his fons. It is defcribed as a period of great 
happinefs : and the perfons, to whom that happinefs is 

Y 2 attributed. 

164 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

tributed, are celebrated as fuperiour to the common race of 
men : and upon that account, after their death, they were 
advanced to be Deities. 

A^avcnoi 'Woiiri(j-oiv, OXv^TTiot ^oofjiaT Byovrsg' 

'Ol fJLSV STTl K^Om YiTOLVy OT OV^OLVUii £IJ.^Ci(n?\BuSP, 

'£2f£ 0£Oi J"' e^c/jov olkyi^sol ^v[jlov s'^onsg, 
NocTip/v oLTs^rs 'UTovm Kcti o'ii^vog' ah t; hi7\ov 
Fri^ctg S7rr]V' h,tX. 

Aurot^ STTsi Ksv TBTo yspog koltol yoLicn, kolXv^s^ 
Toi [xsi/ AcufJLoyeg £i<n Aiog [xsyoLXa ^ick, jSaAa^, 

'Ol pec (pvXoL(T(riiinv rs ^iKctg^ koli (T'^stT^ici T^yct. 

The Immortals firft a Goldeii race produced : 

Thefe liv'd, Vv'hen Saturn held the realms of heaven ; 

And pafs'd their time like Gods without a care. 

No toil they knew, nor felt folicitude ; 

Not e'en th' infirmities of age — 

Soon as this race was funk beneath the grave ; 

Jove rais'd them to be Demons of the air. 

Spirits benign, and guardians of mankind. 

Who ftcrnly right maintain, and forely punifli wrong. 

We have in this fliort account a juft hiftory of the rife of 
idolatry, when deified men had firft divine honours paid to 
them : and we may be affured of the family, in which it 
began. The ancients had a high notion of this Golden, or 

' Hefiod. E^7 a xsc/ 'H//f^. L, i.v. 109. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 165 

Cufean age ; and always fpeak of it with great deference, as 
a time of uncommon equity and happinefs. They indeed 
take into the account the sra of patriarchal government, 
when all the world was as yet one family, and under the 
mild rule of the head of mankind. Aratus fays, that this 
was the feafon, when Aftrzea, or Juftice, appeared perfonally 
in the world. 

She ftay'd, while yet the Race of Gold furvived. 

And he laments, that thofe excellent perfons, who then 
flourifhed, fhould have been fucceeded by a pofterity fo de- 
generate and bafe. 


What an unworthy and degenerate race 
Our Golden Sires bequeath'd ? 

By this we find, that not only a particular age, but alfo per- 
fons were ftyled X^vo'sioiy or Golden. Thofe who came into 
Greece, and built the temple at Olympia, are reprefented as 
'^ Xpv(riiV yevog^ a Golden Race : by which is certainly meant 
Cufoan or Cufean. But however this people may have been 
celebrated, they were the firft idolaters, who introduced a 
plurality of Gods, and made other innovations in life. 

* Phajnom. v. 113. 
' Tbid. V. 123. 

* Piiufan. L. 5. p. 391, 

i56 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

The j^thlopes^ or Cut bites ^ were the Jirji, who paid honours to 
■more Gods than one., and who enaSied laws. 

The Grecians by rendering what fliould be Cufean, X^ycrsoy, 
Crufean, have been led Hill farther in chara6leriling the 
times : and to this fuppofed Golden Age, which they have 
embellifhed with many ii6tions, they have added an age of 
Silver, and of Brafs and of Iron. In the firft of thefe periods 
the poet manifeftly alludes to the longevity of perfons in the 
patriarchic age ; for they did not, it feems, die at threefcore 
and ten, but took more time even in advancing towards 

f AAA' BUOLToy fJLSv 'vroLi; sTsa tra^a (jlyiTs^i KS^i/ri 

In early times, for full an hundred years 
The foftering mother with an anxious eye 
Cherifh'd at home the unweildy backward boy. 

He fpeaks however of their being cut off in their prime : 
and whatever portion of life Nature might have allotted to 
them, they were abridged of it by their own folly, and in- 
juftice ; for they were guilty of rapine and bloodfhed ; and 
in a continual ftate of hoftility. 

7 AAA' oroLV yi^t^^tbib^ koli rl^rig ^sr^ov iJiovTo, 

' Steph. Byzantin. 

* Hcfiod. Ep'y.'Kcti'Hi^fo, L. I. V. 130. 

^ Ibid. V. 132, 

y A(p^O(.§mg' 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 167 

Soon to the term of blooming youth they came. 
But did not long furvive it : their fhort life 
Was a fad fcene of mifery, brought on 
By mutual ad:s of infult. 

They were at the fame time highly irreligious and great 
contemners of the Gods ; and for that reafon removed from 
all commerce with other beings. 

* Tg? fjLSv STTSira, 

OVH, sMaV [JL0UCOLeS<T(n 0£O{;, 61 OXVfJLTTQP s'^au'iv. 

This race Jove foon confign'd to endlefs night ; 
Vex'd, that due honours they {hould dare refufe 
To the great Gods, who high Olympus hold. 

Yet what is extraordinary, when they were through the an- 
ger of the offended Gods, fwept away from the face of the 
earth, they were made fubordinate Deities, and great reve- 
rence was jfhewed to them : ' Ti^ri koli roi(nv OTri^Jgi : T^efe 
too had their jhare of ho?iQiir. 

The third Age, ftyled the Brazen, was like the former: 
only, to diverfify it a little, the poets fuppofed that there 
was now a more regular procefs of war. They had now, it 

* Ibid. V. 137. 

' To; y.zv UTTo^Ucvioi MctttoLoei Srnnoi ■k.o.Xsovtcx.i, 
Aivrt^ot' aAA s/j-TrrK tija^ XKnoia-ivoTn^Su. v. 141, 


i68 The Analysts of Ancient Mythology. 

fecms, brazen arms, and brazen houfes : and every imple- 
ment was of brafs. This race is faid to have been quite 
different from thofe of the Silver Age; '° a/c a^yy^M ahv OfJLOiov. 
Yet I cannot fee wherein the difference confifted. The for- 
mer were guilty of violence and bloodflied ; and flew one 
another fo faff, that they fcarce attained the age of man- 
hood. The latter had the fame love for war ; and fell 
in like manner by each other's hand ; fo that not one 

B/](raj/ sg sv^oosna, ^o^qv k^vs^h A't^aOy 

This race engag'd in deadly feuds, and fell 
Each by his brother's hand. They funk in fight, 
All to the fhades of Erebus confign'd. 
Their name forgotten. 

After thefe came another Age, by moft poets called the 
Iron ; but by Hefiod mentioned as the Heroic, or Age of 
Demigods ; and defcribed as a time of great juftice and 
'' piety. Yet thefe heroes, whofe equity is fo much fpoken 
of, upon a nearer enquiry are found to be continually engaged 

'° Zevi Se 'uraTnp rpircv aAAo yevoi fA-poTroov aM^cMirwv 
XaAxeioi' 'utoi,y\(t\ yx. ecpyvoa uS iv ofjLOiOv. v. 14;^. 
See Aratus of the Golden Age, and of thofe fucceedina;. Phasnom. v. 108, Alfo 
Ovid. Metamorph. L. i. v. 8g. 
" Hefiod fupra. v. 151. 

'ZjtuiKfoviini 'UTomui ^iy.xioTipovyXaitx,piiov. v. 156. 

Hefiod nnakes the Iron Ase the fifth in fucceflion. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 169 

in wars and murders : and, like the fpecimens exhibited of 
the former Ages, thefc are finally cut off by one another's 
hands, in a£ts of robbery and violence : fome for purloining 
oxen ; others for ftealing fheep ; and many for carrying away 
the wives of their friends and neighbours. 

'' Kcti rsg fJLSv 'uro?.s[JLog rs fcixKog, koli (pvXoitig aivi^y 
Ta^ fJLSP eip STrTdTTuKw ©n^ri, Ka^^JiriUi yonrjy 

In battle fome were carried off; and fell 
At Thebes, renown'd for its feven tow'ring gates, 
The feat of Cadmus : here they fternly ftrove 
Againft th' Oedipod^ for their jQocks and herds. 
Some paffed the feas, and fought the Trojan fhore : 
There joined in cruel conflid for the fake 
Of Helen, peerlefs dame : till their fad fate 
Sunk them to endlefs nio;ht. 

In like manner it is faid of the hero Cycnus, that he robbed 
people of their cattle, as they went to Delphi : whence he 
was called Kvavog AJij-r^;. He, like the '* reft, was flain in 
fight, having ralhly encountered Hercules. Such was the 
end of thcfc laudable banditti : of whom Jupiter, we are 

'' Hefiod. ■Mxi'H/j.fp.'L. i. v. i6i. 
'* Hefiod. Aa-7ri<;'HociK?. v. 478. 

Vol. III. Z told, 

lyo The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

told, had (o high an opinion, that after they had plundered 
and butchered one another, he fent them to the lilands of 
the BlefTed, to partake of perpetual felicity, 

Thefe, freed from grief and every mortal care, 
And wafted far to th' ocean's verge extreme. 
Rove uncontroul'd amid the Happy Ifles, 
Illuftrious heroes. 

We have here feen four divifions of times : in fome of 
which the poet has endeavoured to make a diftindion, 
though no material difference fubfifts. And as thefe times 
are fuppofed to be in fucceffion, he has brought the laft pe- 
riod as low as the £era of Troy. The whole relates to a 
feries of hiftory, very curious and interefting ; but ruined, 
by being diverllfied, and in a manner feparated from itfelf. 

From what has been faid we may perceive, that the Cru- 
fean Age being fubllituted for the Cufean, and being alfo 
ftyled the tera of the '^ Cuthim, was the caufe of thefe after- 
divifions beins; intro<:luced : that each Ao-e mip-ht be diftin- 
guifhed in gradation by fome bafer metal. Had there been 
no miPcake about a Golden Age, we fhould never have been 
treated with one of Silver; much lefs, with the fubfequent of 
Brafs and Iron. The original hiftory relates to the patri- 

'' Heficd. Tn • ><«' 'H,w.£/:. L. i. v. 170. 
** Cuthim, CrjnD, iignificd Gold and Golden., 



The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 171 

archie age, and to what the Greeks termed the Scuthic pe- 
riod, which fucceeded : when the term of man's life was not 
yet abridged to its prefent f!:andard ; and when the love of 
rule, and adts of vicvlence firft difplayed themfelves upon the 
earth. The Amonians, wherever they fettled, carried thefe 
traditions with them: which were often added to the hiflory 
of the country ; fo that the fcene of action was changed. 
A colony, who ftyled themfelves Saturnians, came to Italy; 
and greatly benefited the natives. But the ancients, who 
generally fpeak colledlively in the lingular, and inftead of' 
Herculeans, introduce Hercules ; inftead of the Cadmians, 
Cadmus ; fuppofe a lingle perfon, '' Saturn, to have betaken 
himfelf to this country. Virgil mentions the ftory in this 
light : and fpeaks of Saturn's fettling there; and of the low 
ftate of the natives upon his arrival, when he introduced an 
Age of Gold. 

^* Hxc nemora indigenae Fauni, Nymphaeque tenebant, 
Genfque virum truncis et duro robore nata ; 
Quels neque mos, neque cultus erat; nee jungere tauros, 
Aut componere opes norant, aut parcere parto : 
Sed rami, atque afper vi6lu venatus alebat. 

He then proceeds to fhew, how this people were difciplined 
and improved : all which, according to the ufual miftake, 
he fuppofes to have been effedied by one perfon, Saturn, in- 
ftead of Saturnians. 

'' It is faid of Saturn alfo, that he built the ancient city Byblus in Syria. This was 
many ages before his fuppofed arrival in Italy. See Sanchoniatho in Eufeb. Praep. 
Evang. L. i. c. 13. p. 37. The city was built by Saturnians. 
:' Virg. MnddA. 8. v. 314. 

Z 2 Primus 

172 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

'' Primus ab sthereo venit Saturnus Olympo, 
Arma Jovis fugiens, et regnis cxul ademptis. 
Is genus indocile, ac difperfum montibus altis, 
Conipofuit ; legefque dedit : Latiumque vocari 
Maluit, his quoniam latuilTet tutus in oris. 
Aurea, quse perhibent, illo fub rege fuerunt 
Ssecula : fic placida populos in pace regebat. 
Deterior donee paulatim, ac decolor atas, 
Et belli rabies, et amor fuccefTit habendi. 

Lo ! mighty prince, thefe venerable woods 

Of old were haunted by the fylvan Gods, 

And favage tribes, a rugged race, who took 

Their birth primasval from the ftubborn oak. 

No laws, no manners forin'd the barbarous race : 

But wild the natives rov'd from place to place. 

Untaught, and rough, improvident of gain. 

They heap'd no wealth, nor turn'd the fruitful plain. 

Their food the favage fruits the forefts yield ; 

Or hunted game, the fortune of the field : 

Till Saturn fled before vidorious Jove, 

Driven down, and banifh'd from the realms above. 

He by juft laws embodied all the train. 

Who roam'd the hills; and drew them to the plain ; 

There fix'd : and Latium call'd the new abode, 

Whofe friendly fhores conceal'd the latent God. 

Thefe realms in peace the monarch long controll'd, 

And blcfs'd the nations with an Age of Gold. 

Tranflated by Pitt. 

'' Virg. iEneid. L. 8. v. 319. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 173 

This account is confufed : yet we may difcern in it a true 
hillory of the iirfl: ages; as may be obferved likewife in He- 
fiod. Both the poets, however the fcene may be varied, al- 
lude to the happy times immediately after the deluge : when 
the great Patriarch had full power over his defcendants; 
when equity prevailed without written law. 

Thefe traditions, as I have repeatedly taken notice, being 
adopted and prefixed to the hiftories of the countries, where 
the Amonians fettled, have introduced a Saturn in Aufonia ; 
and an Inachus and Phoroneus at Argos : and in confequence 
of it, the deluge, to which the two latter were witneffes, has 
been limited to the fame place, and rendered a partial ''° in- 
undation. But, in reality, thefe accounts relate to another 
climate, and to a far earlier age : to thofe times, when, ac- 
cording to " Hyginus, the firft kingdom upon earth was 
conftituted : and when one language only prevailed among 
the fons of men. 

jiAuo-^o?. Ciem. Alexandr. Strom. L. i. p. 379. 
*" Fab. 143. 

O F 

C 175 ) 




of the CUTHITES. 

E may, I think, be aflTured, that by the term Scuthai, 
XKV&aij are to be underftood Cuthai or Cutheans. It 
may therefore be proper to go to the fountain head, and to 
give an account of the original people; from whom fo many 
of different denominations were derived. They were the 
fons of Chus; who feized upon the region of Babylonia and 
Chaldea ; and conftituted the iirft kingdom upon earth. 
They were called by other nations Cufhan : alfo XsTdioiy 
A^a?s$, D.^siTOLiy E^'j^^a^oij Ai^iotts^j Cufeans^ Ar^abians^ Orei- 
tce^ EruthrceanSj and Ethiopians : but among themfelves 
their general patronymic was Cuth ; and their country Cu- 
tha. I fliall take notice of them in their feveral mio;ration& 
under each of thefe appellations. They were an ingenious 

■ 7 and 

176 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and knowing people, as I have before obferved ; and at the 
fame time very prolific. They combined with others of the 
line of Ham ; and were enabled very early to carry on an 
extenllve commerce, and to found many colonies ; fo that 
they are to be traced in the moft remote parts of the earth. 
Thefe fettlements have been enumerated by ' Eufebius, Syn- 
cellus, and other writers ; as i'ar as they could be difcovered. 
Nor muft we wonder if they appear fo numerous, and fo 
widely extended, as it is perfedlly confonant to their original 
hiftory. For we are informed by ^ Mofes, when he enume- 
rates the principal perfons, by whom the earth was peopled, 
that Ham had ' thirty and one immediate defcendants, all of 
them heads of families, v^hen Shem had but twenty-fix; and 
fourteen only are attributed to Japhet. A large body of 
this people invaded Egypt, when as yet it was in its infant 
ftate, made up of little independent diftridls, artlefs and un- 
formed, without any rule or polity. They feized the whole 
country, and held it for fome ages in fubjection, and from 
their arrival the hiftory of Egypt will be found to commence. 
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates, where they 
originally refided, was ftyled the country of the Chuf- 
dim or Chafdim ; but by the weftern nations Chaldea. It 

Syncellus. p. 46. 47. 48. Johan. Malala. p. 15. Euffb. Chron. p. 11. 12. 
See alio Vol. II. of this work, p. 187. 188. igi. See particularly the Chronicon 
Pafchale. p. 29. 30. 

* Genefis. c. 10. On account of the comparative fmallnefs to be obferved in the 
line of Japhet, that encouraging prophecy was given, that Japhet fhould one day 
be enlarged. Godjhnll enlarge Japhet. This, within thefe few centuries has been 
wonderfully completed. 

' Moft of the Fathers make the number thirty-two, counting Canaan : fo that the 
total of the three families they fuppofe to have been feventy-two. 

I o lay 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 177 

lay towards the lower part of the Tigris, to tlie weft, and 
below the plain of Shinar. On the oppofite iide to the eaft 
was the province of Elam, which country they feem foon to 
have invaded ; and to have occupied the upper part. This 
confifted of that fine region called afterwards Sufiana^ and 
Chufiftan, which was watered by the Ulai, Chobar, and 
Choafpes, and by other branches of the Tigris. When the 
Perfians gained the fovereignty of Afia, it was from them 
denominated Perfis. Some have thought Elam was Perfis : 
but Elam lay to the fouth, and Perfis was only another name 
for Cutha : for the Perfians were the Cuthites of that coun- 
try under a different appellation. The prophet Ifaiah dif- 
tinguifiies thefe nations very accurately, when he mentions a 
return of the captives from '^ Elam^ Chus^ and Shinar. This 
country is faid to have been alfo called Scutha ; and the au- 
thor of the ^ Chronicon Pafchale mentions Scuths in thefe 
parts, who were fo called even in his days. But he fuppofes 
that the name Scutha was given to the region on account of 
I know not what, Scythians from the north. Jofephus, 
whofe language had a greater affinity with the Chaldaic, 
and to whom the hiftory of the country was better known, 
exprefles it Cutha ; and fpeaks of a river Cutha, which was 
probably the fame as the Choafpes. Hence we have another 

* C. 1 1. V. II. Thus far is true, that Sufiana was originally apart of Elam. See 
Daniel, c. S. v. 2. but it was difmembered, and on that account efteemed a feparate 

' Kai SfAettav iv Tiepaili 01 a.'j-'ii S/CtyGa; gf exftva iocs t>!5 ivv. p. 47. Arrian 
mentions a region called Scuthia near the Perfian Gulf. E^^t Se xot,i aurv (Xa.^~ 
^a^a.) auy^pnaiv toov 'vricxv efA-Trcpioov, Bcc^vyccQcci; y.a.1 'Xy.vwa.':, xai Tm "ZB-ct^ccKH' 
fjieiii; Tle^ciS-Qi. Arriani Periplus apud Geog. Gr. minores. vol. i. p. 15. 

Vol. III. A a proof, 

178 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

proof, and, I think, very determinate, that what the Grecians 
ftyled Scutha, was Cutha, the land of the Cuthites. It ex- 
tended a great way eaftward, and was in great meafure 
bounded by Media to the north. When SalmanafTer had 
taken Samaria, and carried the people into captivity, he re- 
peopled it with a colony from * Cutha, Media, Babylonia^ 
and other conquered nations. And to this the Samaritans 
allude, when they give an account of themfelves in Jofephus. 
7 2aA|U,aya(ra^Ji?, tw:^ K<T(Tv^i(j>}v (ia.(ri7\svg sk. tyj; XOT0IAX 
rjULoig KOLTrjyoLys koli MjiJ/a? svdctS's. Salma?iaJ[er, the khjg of 
the AJjyriaiis^ brought us hither from the cou?itries of Cuthia 
a?id Media, In procefs of time, through conqueft the em- 
pire of the Perfians was greatly enlarged : and Cuthia made 
but a part of it. Hence in another place Jofephus, fpeak- 
ing of the people of Samaria coming from Cuthia, makes it 
but a portion of Perils. He calls it here Cutha, and fays, 
* Efi (5s ax)i:r\ {y\ Xa^a) ^w^a zi) W.ze,<r\,h : The province of Cu- 
tha, of which I have beeft fpeaking, is aregio72 i7^ Perfis. This 
is one of the countries ftyled Cuilian in Scripture : for there 
are certainly more than one referred to by the facred writers. 
By other people it was rendered Ethiopia. Having thus 
traced the Scythe, or Cuthites, to their original place of re- 
fidence, and afcertained their true hiftory ; I fliall proceed to 
defcribe them in their colonies, and under their various de- 

* See 2 Kings, c. 17. v. 24. Men of Babylon and Cutha. 
' Antiq. L. 1 1. c. 4. p. 556. 

Jofvphus Ant. L. g. c. 14. p. 507. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 179 


As I have repeatedly mentioned Cufhan, or Ethiopia, 
and it is likely to continually recur again ; I think it 
will be proper to defcribe the countries of this name, and 
the people, who were in like manner denominated : for to 
the beft of my knowledge, I never yet faw this properly per- 
formed. It is well known, that the Ethiopians were Cuth- 
ites or Cufeans. ' Ek (jlbv Xag, Xscccioi' sroi A^QiOTTsg zktiv. 
Chus is the perfon^ from whom the Cufeaiis are derived. They 
are the fame people^ as the Ethiopians. So alfo fays Eufebius : 
" Xa?, £^ 8 Ai^iOTrsg. Chus was the perfon^ from whom came 
the Ethiopiafis. The name is fuppofed to have been given to 
this people from their complexion ; as if it were from a/^oj, 
and 0%]/ : but it is not a name of Grecian original. It was a 
facred term ; a title of the chief Deity : whence it was af- 
fumed by the people, who were his votaries, and defcend- 
ants. Euftathius tells us, " A;o? STTiSsrov Aidio-^ : .^thiops is 
a title of Zeus. Prometheus was ftyled ^thiops, who had 
particular honours among the people of the eaft. '^ Lyco- 

' Zonaras. p. 21. Syncellus. p. 47. Ai^ioTrei, uv r^^? (X-di) sti vuv viro ixo' 
TCr'v IB x.<xi T&j> £c Tji Affia 'wccviciov 'KoucTuioi y.<x.hiivT(x.t. Joicphi Antiq. L. 1. 
c. 6. p. 22. 

Chron. p. 1 1. E/t tw (f'jXw raXoitji Xas ovofjf.oiTt, AiQ.'o^. Chron. Pafch. p. 36. 
Ng^^wcT hioi Xa« T8 AibioTTof. Malala. p. 18. 

" Schol. in Homerum. OdyfT. A. v. 22. 

'" '^'^- 533- Some read n^s/x^arOtu?. 

A a 2 phron 

i8o The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

phron flyles him, Aa<^wi/ H^QfjLOLhvg Ai^io-^. Pro7netheus 
^thiops^ the Dcemon or tutelary Deity. Pliny fpeaking of 
the country, fays, that it was firft called ^theria, and then 
Atlantia : and lafl: of all Ethiopia, '' a Vulcani filio iEthio- 
pe, from j/¥^thiops^ the/on of Vulcan. Homer fpeaks of two 
nations only, which were named vEthiopes. 

'* AAA' ^Lzv Ai^lottol; (jlstskic/.^s tioAo^' sonotgj 

'Oi ^sv ^v(roy,Bvii 'TTTS^ioi/og, oi J" avioPTog. 

Neptune was now vifitiytg the Ethiopians.^ who refde at a great 
dijlance : thofe Ethiopians, who are divided into two nations, 
and are the mofl remote of ma7ikind. One Jtation of them is 
towards the fetting fim ; the others far in the eafl, where the 
fun rifes. But this is much too limited. For, as the Cuth- 
ites got accefs into various parts of the world ; we fhall find 
an Ethiopia in mofl; places, where they refided. The Scrip- 
ture feems to mention three countries of this name. One, 
and the neareft to Judea, was in Arabia, upon the verge of 
the defert, near Midian and the Red Sea. This is alluded to 
by the prophet Habakkuk, where he fays that '^ ]\q faw the 
tents of Cuffttfi in afjiiEiion ; and the curtaitis of the land of 
Midian did tremble. A fecond Ethiopia lay above Egypt to 
the fouth ; and is taken notice of by the prophet Ezekiel, 
where he is foretelling the defl:ru6tion of the latter country ; 

" I- 9- P- 345- 

'* Odyir. L. A. V. 22. Hefychius ftyles Dionufas AS.cTrcaSa, or A<G.07ra 

*' Habakkuk. c. 3. v. 7. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. i8i 

and fays that It fhall be laid wafte from one extreme part to 
the other. '* Behold therefore^ I a7n againji thee, and aga'mji 
thy rivers : and I will make the land of Egypt utterly wajle 
and defolate, from Migdol to Syene aiid the borders of Ethiopia. 
The third country, ftyled Ethiopia, comprehended the re- 
gions of Perfis, Chufiflan, and Suliana. '^ Herodotus takes 
notice of Ethiopians about thefe parts : and the country is 
mentioned by the prophet Zephaniah, when he fpeaks of the 
return of Judah from captivity. '^ From, beyond the rivers of 
Cufljan, or Ethiopia, my fupplia7its, even the daughter of jny 
difperfed fljall bring mine offering. The principal rivers, to 
which he referred, were the '^ Ulai, Kur, Chobar, and Cho- 
afpes ; all eaftern branches of the Tigris ; near which were 
the chief places of captivity. Still further eaft, beyond Car- 

'* Ezekiel. c. 29. v. 10. Our verfion feems to be very faulty, and renders the 
pafiage, from the toivcr of Syene unto the borders of Ethiopia^ or Cufh. In a former 
treatife I v/as under a miftake, from underftanding it in this light : but was led to 
the right interpretation by the verfion of Xantes Pagninus and Montanus. Migdol, or 
Magdalum, was a fort not far from Pelufuim, at one extremity of the country : Syene 
was the uttermoft city at the other extreme ; and Itood under the Tropic upon the 
borders of Ethiopia. The meaning of the prophet is plain, that the whole length of 
Egypt, north and fouth, from Migdol the garrifon to Syene, fliall be utterly made 
dcfoLite. Syene Hood at the extremity of Pathros, or fuperior Egypt ; Migdol, the 
fort, was nearDaphntE Pclufuc upon the lea. Jeremiah ftates the chief divifions of 
the country very accurately, fpeaking of the Jews who dwelt in the land of Egypt: 
which dwell at Migdol^ and at Tabphanes, and at Nopb, and in the country of Pathros. 
c. 44. V. I. See Obfervations and inquiries, &c. p. 152. 

'^ Oi S'i cLTT ii/\m avcLToAiojv AivioTT&i, Si^ot ya.^ <?» i^^^oLrivovro^ 'ZtTp-ja-ereTxya.TO 
Toiai lu-^ oiat^ ^icthXccQa-ovrti uS'ai jj.ivB^ev toiti erepotai, (pwvnv J'e Kat rpi^cDfAx iJt.woy, 
L. 7. c. 70. p. 541. 

'^ Zephaniah. c. 3. v. 10. 

'' Upon the banks of the Ulai, or Eulceus, the prophet Daniel had his vifions. 
Even Chaldea was efteemed Ethiopia ; and Tacitus fpeaking of the Jews, whofe an- 
ceftors came fromUr in Chaldea, ftyles them ^Ethiopum prolem, Hiftoi". L. 5. c. 2. 

10 mania, 

1 82 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

mania, was another region of this name, which by Eufebius 
is termed '° AidiOTria,, Jo ^XBTTi^crcc koltcl lyJa?, 'ur^og Ev^oyorov^ 
the Ethiopia^ which looks towards the Indiy to the fouth-eajl : 
and even the Indi themfelves will in the fequel be found to 
have been Ethiopians. The fons of Chus came into Egypt 
under the name of Auritae and Shepherds, as alfo of Ethio- 
pians. Hence Egypt too inherited that name : "' EK?\r,&yi Js 
[AiyvTrTog] — koh As^ia, /,cn IIoTapa, Ka.i AI6IOniA, J/a ry? 
£KBi Ai^iOTTccg, 'UTB^i m 'UToXXoi rm 1jTcO\olio^v Wo^ari. This coun- 
try was called — both Aeria^ and Potamia, or the River Coun- 
try ; alfo Ethiopia ; which nafne it received from fome Ethio- 
pia72Sy who fettled there ; a7td of whom ma?iy of the very ancient 
writers have fpoke?!. The Cuthites fettled at Colchus, the 
Colchis of the Greeks: in confequence of which it was called 
Cutaia and Ethiopia. "Jerome in his Catalogue of Ecclcliafti- 
cal Writers mentions St. Andrew preaching the gofpel in the 
towns upon the two Colchic rivers, the Apfarus and Phafis ; 
and calls the natives Ethiopians. Andreas, frater Simonis 
Petri, ut ?najorcs nofri prodiderunt, Scythis, Sogdianis, et Sa- 
ceis in Augufd civitate preedicavit, quce cognominatur magna ; 
ubi efi irrupt io Apfari, et Phafs fluvius : illic incolu7it Ai^thio- 
pes interiores. He relates the fame circumftance of Matthias. 
In altera Ethiopia, ubi efi irruptio Apfari, et HyJJi portus, 
prcedicavit. The port of HylTus near Colchis is taken notice 
of by Arrian in his Periplus, and by Socrates in his Life of 

*" Eufcb. Chron. P. 12. he adds, aAA» ASiOirix -n^po? voror, o^/iv eKTro^sueTcc. Ns-i- 
Aos 'woTafj.oi. 
" Euftath. Comment, in Dionyf. V. 241, p. 42. 
" Hieron. de Scriptoribus Ecclefiafticis. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 183 

the fame faint : Ev rn ^svTs^ct Ai^iOTTict, otts j5 'Ufa^&iL^oM A-^/a- 
PUj KOLi 'T(r(r8 Ai^aji;/. I have obferved that the fons of Chus 
are faid to have come under the titles of Cafus and Belus 
into Syria and Phenicia, where they founded many cities : 
and we are informed by Strabo, that this country was called 
Ethiopia. ^'^ Ekti Js oi koli rr,v Ai^iozioLV sig ri^v kol^' Ji^aa? ^om- 
KtiV u.STO(.y<i(Ti. "There ar^e people^ who would ijit7'odiice an Ethio- 
pia into the region, which we ejieem Phe72icia. In the account of 
the Cadmians, who are ftyled Arabians, A^afs^ 0/ <tvv Ka^fxci}, 
I have fliewn that Euboea v/as the place, to which they firfl 
came : and here was a place called '* Ethiopium. Samo- 
thrace was alfo fo called : ^^ AidiOTria, ri Xol^o^^ixkyi. The ex- 
treme fettlement of this people was in Spain, upon the Bastis, 
near TartelTus and Gades : and the account given by the 
natives, according to the hiftorian Ephorus, was, that co- 
lonies of Ethiopians traverfed a great part of Africa : fome 
of which came and fettled near TartelTus ; and others got 
polTeiTion of different parts of the fea coaft. ""^ Aeyz^oLi ya^ 

*' Strabo, L. I. p. 73. Thefe nations were the Scythje of the Grecians. Hence 
it is faid, A^yvTTT.cav cctt-idcoi Haw oi -S'-to&af. Find. Fyth. Od. 4. Schol. ad v. 376. 
for they were a known colony from Egypt. 

** Strabo. L. 10. p. 68 j. de Cotho et Cadmo. 

A^jionoi' ov3fx.oc i^ajpiasv EuSoia. Harpocration. 
-sT?\.ri(Tiov Ev^iTT'i. Steph. Byzantinus. 

*' Hefychius. Lefbos had the name of Ethiope and Macaria. Plin. Nat. Hift. 
L. 5. c. 31. p. 288. 

Arabians lumetimes diflinguifhed from the fons of Chus. Moreover, the Lordjlir- 
red up againft Jebcram the [pifit of the Philiftines, and of the Arabians, that -ujere near the 
Ethiopians. 2. Chron. c. 23. v. 16. 

Beth Arabah. 

** Strabo. E. i.p. 57. , 

184 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

(pYj(riu VTTO TMv To(^rn<rG'im Ai^iOTra^ rnv Ai^vriv STreX^onag 
f^-X^^ ^^^^^^> "^^^ f^^'^ ^^'^^ [JLeivai^ Ts; h kcli rrjg iiroL^oLXixg 
Kcx,roc<ysiv 'uroXXrii'. "They 7ne?itio?i it as a tradition among the 
people of T'arteJJ'us, that the Ethiopians o?ice trave?-fed the re • 
gions of Africa^ quite to its isoefern limits : and that fome of 
them came^ aiid fettled at Tartejfus : others got poffeffton of 
different parts of the fea-coaft. They lived near the ifland 
Erythea, which they held. 

Upon the great Atlantic, near the iile 
Of Erythea, for its paftures fam'd, 
The facred race of Ethiopians dwell. 

It is on this account, that we find fome of the fame family 
on the oppofite coaft of '* Mauritania ; who are reprefented 
as people of great ftature. ""^ Ki^iotBg 3T0i si(n, fJLsyi^oi av- 
$^c/)7rct:v, m ri^sig KTfXSV. The people of this cotmtry (Mauritania) 
are Ethiopic : and they are in ftature the largefl of a7iy nation 
with which we are acquai7tted. The original Ethiopia was, 
as I have faid, the region of Babylonia and Chaldea, where 
the firft kingdom upon earth was formed, and the moft early 
police inftituted. Here alfo the firft idolatry began. Hence 

*^ Dionyf. Perieg. v. 558. 

*' Thefe are the Ethiopians alluded to by Homer. 

Eo-^ocToi ccvopoov^ 
'Ot jmsv SvaaofJLivd'TTreptoioi' OdyflT. A. v. 22. 
*' Scylax Caryandenfis. v. i. p. 54. See alfo Strabo. L. .^5. p. 237. who mentions 
the Ethiopians near Mauritania, upon the weftern ocean, 'Ot vT€p tws ISiccvpova-iui 
oiKnyrei 'srpoi ion '^(nrtomi AiBw^''' 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 185 

it is very truly faid by Stephanus of Byzantium : T/]i/ Ai- 
GiOTTiav yi\v 'ur^mtiv 'urccyrivoLi' 'ur^ooroi J's {ol AidiOTTsg) @B3g 
STifjiriTCiP, KOLi vo^oig s'^^rjcroLVTO. Ethiopia was the firjl ejlab- 
bUpoed country upo?i earth : and the people were the firjl^ 
who i?itroduced the worJJjip of the Gods^ and who enaSied laws. 
And as the Scythae, or Cuthites, were the fame people, no 
wonder, that they are reprefented as the moft ancient people 
in the world ; even prior to the Egyptians. Scytharum gens 
antiquiflima femper habita. The Scythce^ fays Juftin, were 
ever ejleemed of all natio?is the mofl ancient. But v/ho were 
meant by the Scythe has been for a long time a fecret. 

Of the E R Y T H R E A N S. 

NO THE R title, by which the Cuthites were diftin- 
guifhed, was that of Erythreans : and the places, 
where they refided, received it from them. And here it may 
not be improper to firft take notice of the Erythrean Sea ; 
and confider it in its full extent ; for this will lead us to 
the people from whom it was called. We are apt to confine 
this name to the Red Sea, or Sinus Arabicus ; but that was 
only an inlet, and a part of the whole. The Cuthite Ery- 
threans, who fettled near Midian, upon the Sinus Elanitis, 
conferred this name upon that gulf: but the Perfic Sea was 
alfo denominated in the fame manner, and was indeed the 
original Erythrean Sea. Agathemerus feems to make it 
Vol, III. B b commence 

i8'6 Ths Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

commence at the jundion of the bay with the fca. ^^ Taxa 
h ji EfV^^oL ^o(,Kci<r<rri ocg "ure^i Tag (rvfji^oXag koltol tb Us^fTifca 
koKttb g-0[MCC KBirm. Herodotus, fpeaking of the coaft of Afia 
arid Perils, after having mentioned the coaft of the Pontiis 
Euxinus above, fays, ^' 'H h irj irs^ri, utto Us^o'S'jrj a^^ciixsrrj, 
'UTctfictrsrctTCfj eg rr\v E^v^^rtV S-aAaircrav. 'The other coajfy of 
which I am to fpeah^ commences fro7n among the Perfians {xh^t 
is, from the outlet of the Tigris), and extends to the Ery- 
threan Sea : which Sea both he and Agathemerus induftri- 
oufly diftinguifli from the Arabian Gull ; though the latter 
was certainly fo called, and had the name of Erythrean. 
The Parthic empire, which included Perils, is by Pliny faid 
to be bounded to the fouth by the ^"^ Mare Rubrum, which 
was the boundary alfo of the " Perfians. By Mare Rubrum 
he here means the great Southern Sea. And the poet Dio- 
nyfius, fpeaking of the limits of the fame country, fays, that 
to the fouth it was bounded by the fame fea, even to the 
fartheft eaft ; comprehending under this name the whole 
tradt of ocean, to Carmania and Gedrolia. 

'° Agathemer. apud Geogr. Gr. Minores, vol. 2. p. 50. 

'' Herodotus. L. 4. c, 39. So Megafthenes, who wrote coitcerning the Baby- 
loiiifli hiftory, calls the Sinus Perficus Mare Erythr.'sum. He is quoted by Abydenus 
in Rufeb. Pra;p. Evang. L. 9. c. 4 1. p. 457. ETrsTSi^iae <^e xnt rm Epv^pm SrccAoca-- 
0-iii gTTJxAuo-ir. This was the agger Semiramidis; a work attributed to an imaginary 
queen. Nearchus mentions king Erythras in the Indie Sea ; and lays that fea was 
called Eruthrean from him : oltt ot« xxt t«v t>? ^ccXctaa-)} T(X'jti\ itvxi, x.cci 
EpvBpm' 3caAgf9a(. Nearchi Parapl. apud Geogr. G rase. vol. i. p. 30. See alfoMar- 
ccllinus. L. 2-> c. 6. p. 287. 

''- Plin. Nat. Hilt. L. 6. c. 25. 

" Perfte Mare Rubrum femper accoluere, propter quod is Sinus Perficus. vocatur. 
Pliny. L.6. c. 25. p. 330. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 187 

KA'j^£t' E^vS^aioig vjo kv^xtiv whbolvoio. 

Speaking of the iiland Taprobane, which he places far In the 
eaft, towards the Golden Cherfonefe, he fays, that this too 
was {ituated in the Erythrean Sea. He places it fo, as not 
to be miftaken, in Afia, near the region of the Indian Col- 
cas, or Colchis ; and ftyles it the great breeder of Adatic 
elephants ; 

" MrftB^ct ToLTT^o^civriv Atririysvem sXt^avroov, 

He mentions the whales, with which its coafl: ufed to be in- 
fefted ; which are taken notice of by other writers. 

3"^ K/]T£a ^ipsg s'^atriVj E^vQ^am ^qtol 'UTovth, 

High places, and ancient temples were often taken by the 
Greeks for places of fepulture ; and the Deity there of old 
worfhiped for the perfon buried. A tomb of this fort is men- 
tioned by the fame poet in the ifland Ogyris upon the coaft 
of Carmania. 

'* Dionyf. Perieg. v. 931. Mofes Chorenenfis gives a true account of this fea, as 
being one of the three, with which the earth is furrounded. Primum eft Mare Indi- 
cum, quodetiam Rubrum vocatur •, ex cujus finu Perficum et Arabicum profluunt 
maria; atque a meridie inhabitabili ignotaque terra, ab oriente regione Sinenfi, a 
feptentrionibus India, Perfide et Arabia, &c. terminatur. Geog. p. 342. 

" Dionyf. Perieg. v. 593. 

^^ Dionyf. Perieg. v. 597. Alfo of the Erythrean Sea to the fouthof India." 

A/*.Aa T0( iCTTTi^lOli jXiV OfJiH^lOi uS'a.tTll/ It'J'oi 

Fcctciv uTTOTMiyei' voTiov S"' aKoi o(S'[jt.xr EPT©PHS' 
Tacyyvi <^' m auyoc;. v. 1 132. 
The fame as the Colchic Sea, or Indian Ocean. 

IvS'aim ijcergfo-gy E^v^^aiw AfooS'nm'. Noiini Dionvfiac. L. 25' p- S76. 

B b 2 E^'i 

1 8^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

57 Eg-i <Js to; 'W^oTs^ca, Kct^fMciviSog zKro^sv cx.k^y]';^ 
Q,yv^ig, zv^OL ts TVfJL^og E^v^^cx-m &ixTihY]og. 

As you fail onward towards Carmania's cape, 
You meet the ifland Ogyris, where ftands 
The tomb of king Eruthrus. 

Thofe of this family, who paffed ftill farther, and fettled ia 
India, and upon the peninfula beyond the Ganges, conferred 
this name upon the great Indie Ocean. The author of the 
Periplus wrote profefTedly about the hiftory of this part of 
the world ; and the whole is ftyled the navigation of the Ery- 
threan Sea. The people themfelves muft confequently have 
been called Eruthreans, from whom it was named. People of 
their family founded many places weftward, which were 
called Erythra, in ^^ Ionia, Libya, Cyprus, ^Etolia; and one 
in Bceotia, mentioned by Homer : 

I took notice that there were Erythreans about Tarteflus. 
Pliny from Philiftus and Ephorus acquaints us, that Gades 
itfclf was called Erythia : a fmall variation from Erythria, 
*° Gadis infula — vocatur ab Ephoro et Philiftide Erythia t 
and he adds, that it received this name from people, who 
came from the coafl: of Tyre ; but originally from the Ery~ 

" Dionyf. Perieg. v. 6o6. 

'' Vide Steph. Byzantin. 

^' Homeri Iliad. B. v. 499. 

'*" Plin. Nat. Hift- L. 4. p. 2 p. If they came from the Erythrean Sea, and were 
tlience najned,, the text fliould be altered to Erythria: for that muft have been the 
triK name, 


The Analysis of. Ancient Mythology. 189 

threan Sea. Erythia dida eft, quoniam Tyrii aborigines eo- 
rum orti ab Erythraeo Mari ferebantur. What is here meant 
by Mare Erythraeum, may be known from Strabo, who fays, 
that the people ftyled Phenicians, among whom are include J 
the Tyrians, were by fome faid to come originally from the 
ocean, or from people, who reiided upon its confines. 

by which muft be meant the Perfic Gulf near Chaldea. In 
refpedl to Gades, or Gadir, the fame author mentions, that 
it was called by Pherecydes Syrus Erutheia : JL^v^sic/j cs Tot 
FaJsi^a soiKS Xsysiv ^B^eav^ri; : Pherecydes feems to fpeak of 
Gadeira^ as the fame as Erytheia. Here lived the ^e'shzg 
Ai^iOT^iTiSg of '^' Dionyfius ; under which chara£leriftic the 
Cuthites are particularly denoted. 

It may feem wonderful, that any one family ftiould extend 
themfelves fo widely, and hav^e fettlements in fuch different 
parts. Yet, if we confider, we fhall find nations within 
little more than two' centuries, who have fent out immenfe 
colonies, and to places equally remote. Moreover, for the 
truth of the fadts abovementioned, we have the evidence of 
the beft hiftories. Cedrenus fpeak s of the ufurpations of 
the fons of Ham : and fays, that in his time they lived in 
a ftate of apoftafy as far as India one way ; alfo in the 
countries called Ethiopia, quite to Mauritania, the other. 

*' Strabo. L. i. p. 73. I cannot but take notice here of a miflake, which I ni.iJe 
in a former work, concerning thefe Eruthreans of Iberia. I fuppofed that they v/ere 
Edomites from the Red Sea : but they were certainly ot another family, and came 
from the vicinity of the Tigris, and the Sinus Perficus j where the original Eru- 
tlireans inhabited. 

*' DionyfiiPerieg. v. ^^q. 


190 Tke Analysis (jv Ancient Mytholoov. 

KctT'j. ys Tbig INAL\S, holi AiOioTtictg^ koh Mccvfiimyictv zyjx 
^s KOLi sv TOig zatci /Sdpi^aj' ftspso'ii) 'tsroL^i^'yJKy.^friof.g. They have 
difo upon the nofthem coaji (that is, the coaft of Europe) y^/- 
tlements upon the fea. Zonaras fpcaks to the fame purpofe ; 
but is more particular ; mentioning the place, where they 
laft refided, before they fpread themfelves in the weft. 
•^ 'Oi h ys 'uroLihg tb Xa^a rr\y ctTto Xv^iag kcci A^ava koli Ai- 
ca^a rwv o^uv yriv koltbo^ov — koli q<tol 'ur^og ^aAoco'irciv avrm srsr^a- 
TTSTO jW.£^^i? oozsctPH KCLTBi,7\-fi(pa.fn. Ihefons of Ha7n feized upo7i 
all the country^ which 7'e aches from Syria, and from the 7noiin- 
tains of Aba7ms and Libanus — They got alfo poJ[effio7t of the 
places, which lie upon the fea-ci)afl, evefi to the Ocean, or great 
Atlantic. Thefe writers fpeak of this people very properly 
under the name of the foils of Ham : they were, however, 
chiefly Cuthites, or Ethiopians : to the vaft extent of whofe 
colonies Strabo bears witnefs. "^^ Ha^a^AjiCioy B'^iv, Ksyoo, 
non 'UTB^i rcu^v ^I'^ci Sirj^YjiJLSPoci/ Ai^iOTToov, on Js; hy^BT^ai rovg 'ura^" 
oXrjV T/ji/ oczBOLHTiP oioLTsmnxg OL<p rjT^iii cavionog fJi-B'^^i rihm ^voyievs. 
He had been fpeaking of many nations, comprehended under 
one name : and in confequence of it fays ; What I have been 
7ne7ttioni7ig relates equally to the Ethiopia77s^ that twofold people, 
whom we i7iufl look upon in the fa7ne light ; as they lie extended 
171 a lo7tg traSi, fro7n the rifmg of the fun, to the fet ting of the 

■" Cedreni Annal. v. i. p. 14. Waotv /g xara tbtov tov nccipoi — :< 'srocvTSi IQ^oixn' 
TtovToL S'uo civS'^isrov apSfj.ov, ct^^tiyoi t£, xca x.Kp'xAa.ioorix.t. To jjhv "Kctfjt. yevB; rptet- 

KOVTO. Svo' TB Si Ia(p£T S SKOC lAliVTi' TB Ss 'S.ilfJl. ilXCXTl 'Z^iVTS. EpiphaniuS. L. I. t. J. 

p. 28S. 

** Zonar. L, i. p. 21. 
*' Strabo. L. i. p. 60. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. igic 

fame. Ephorus gave a limilar account : "^^ Jb/is/ yaf , fJi-r;, re 
Twy AidioTTCiov sdvog 'UTOL^oLTSivsiv olt: OLVOLToKm ysifXB^ivudv ysy^i 
Toov ^v^TfJim. This fa?nily of the Ethiopians, fays Ephorus, 
feems to me to have exte?ided thejnfelves from the winter tropic 
i7i the eafl to the extre77iity of the weft. 

In fome places, as I have before mentioned, they mixed 
with the natives, and held many iilands in common with 
them. "^ AyTOi h v/jq-qi STriKoivoi (J^btcc^v t« Xa.^, zoci th Icc- 
<p£(^, roL K0L7C/. ^cO\0L<r<T0LV yivovTcii, Q^'d rtirroi ii^\ Thefe ijlands, 
which I have juft fpecified, are thofe that are jointly held i?y the 
fons of Ham, a?td thofe of Jap bet ; and they are in number 
twenty and Jix. The principal of them in the Egean Sea were 
Cos, Chios, Cnidos, Imbros, Lefbos, Samos. The author adds, 
''^ Ep^gf Js ra o^;a ra Xo/jU, w.\, srs^ag PYifrng, Xa^^ccnoLVy KpyjtyiVj 
KvTT^ov. There-were other ifands occupied by this people, fuch as 
Sardinia, Crete, and Cyprus. Eufebius enumerates almoft the 
fame places occupied by the Amonians; and concludes with 
their fettlements upon the Atlantic, v/here they mixed with 
the natives : '^^ ^io^i^si ^Tct^v th Xol^jl koh 73 l(X(ps^ to g-oua 
Trs BTTTS^ictg ^cO\&.<riTrig ra sttlkoipcc T8 Xap, zai ra ionps^. 

Thus by reciprocal €videnc:es from the moft genuine hif- 
tory it appears, that the Cuthites, Ethiopians, and Erythreans 
were the fame people. And it has been fhewn, that they 
h^d a ftill more general name of X/.i^ai, Scuthai. This, 
though an incorredl appellationj yet almoft univerfally ob- 

** Strabo. L. r. p. 59. 

*" .Chron. Pafchale. p. 30. 

*" Ibidem. 

*■ -Euleb. 'Chronicon. p. 12., - 

7 C U T H I A 

192 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


O R 


AS fo much depends upon my clearing up this ar- 
ticle, which I have taken in hand ; I fhall proceed 
to fhew, that not only the Scythae of Colchis, Mcefia, 
and Thrace, with thofe upon the Palus Maeotis, were 
in great meafure of the race of Chus : but that all nations 
ftyled Scythian were in reality Cuthian or Ethiopian. This 
may be afcertained from the names of places being the fame, 
or fimilar among them all ; from the fame cuftoms prevail- 
ing ; from the fame rites and vi^orfhip, among which was the 
worfhip of the fun ; and from thofe national marks, and fa- 
mily charadleriftics, whence the identity of any people may 
be proved. I have mentioned, that the Cuthites fent out 
many colonies ; and, partly by their addrefs and fuperiority 
in fcience, and partly by force, they got accefs among various 
nations. In fome places they mixed with the people of the 
country, and were nearly abforbed in their numbers : in 
other parts, they excluded the natives, and maintained them- 
felves folely and feparate. They are to be met with in the 
hiftories of the iirft ages under different names and titles ; 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 193 

being denominated fometimes from the cities, which they 
built ; fometimes from the worfhip, which they profelTed : 
but the more general name, both of themfclves, and of the 
coimtries, which they occupied, was in the Babylonifh dia- 
led Cuth, Cutha, and Cuthia. They were by other nations 
ftyled Chus, Cliufan, Culei : and thefe terms again were 
altered to Cafus, Callus, CilTii, and ^° CilTaei. 

After they had feized upon the province of Suliana, and 
Chuliftan, they were in pofleflion of the navigation of the 
Tigris downwards ; and probably commenced a very early 
trade. They got footing in India, where they extended 
themfelves beyond Gedrolia and Carmania, upon the chief 
river of the country. The author of the Periplus takes no- 
tice of them under the name of Scythians ; and mentions 
thofe places in the eaft, where they reiided. ^' MsTx Je ray- 
TYiv YJf^^oLV (Q.^a,ictv) Yi^ri Trig WBi^Sy J/a to jSa^o^ rocv koXttoop 
£K TYig amroXr.g VTrs^Ks^o^u'rig, sK^'^BroLi 'srct^x^OL'KctG'u'iix, {xs^yi TYjg 
X/.v^iag, ifTcc^' CX.VTOV KSifJLSPa rov (^o^soLVy TXTrsiva. Kiolv, 'E^ri; 
'UTora.fjLog l^iv^og, (Jisyis'og 7m koltol Tr]v E^v&^olv ^oLkoirtroLV 'nro^ 
Ta/x6oi/, Kui 'urMig'ov v^(a^'zig ^oCKoL^<TOLVBK^cO\Km' — gVra h ^rog 
6 'uroTafJLog zyo^v g-oy^ajoi. After the cotmtry of Ora, the con- 
tinent noWf by reafon of the great depth of its gulfs and inlet s.^ 
forming vaft promontories^ runs outward to a great degree 
from the eafiy and inclofes the fea coafl of Scythia, which lies 
towards the 7iorth^ that is, in the recefs of one of thefe bays. It 

*° Of Kiflla in Perfis, iEfchyl. Perf. v. 16. Oi ts to 2ao-wi', nf ExQarocvuv^Kat 
TO riAAAION Kia-amv ioy.oe. Strabo. L. 15. p. 1058. Aiyovrou tfg xa< Ki^a-m 6t 
Xao-iot. Saitfe in Sufia. Plin. Nat. Hift. L. i. p. 334. 

^' Arriani Perip. 2. Geogr. Vet. vol. 1. p. 21. 

Vol. III. C c is 

194 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

is low land, and lies upon the river Sinthus\ iiohich is the large]} 
river of any, that run in the Rrythrean Sea ; and affords the 
greatejl quantity of water. I need not mention, that what he 
calls the Sinthus is the fame as the Sindus, or Indus. They 
bccupied alfo that iiifular province, called in their language 
from its iituation Giezerette, or the illand ; and from their 
anceflor, as well as from their worfhip, Cambaiar, or the Bay 
of Cham, Vv'hich names it retains at this day. They fettled 
alfo upon the promontory Comar, or Comarin ; and were 
lords of the great ifland Pelfelimunda, called afterwards Se- 
ran-dive. They were all ftyled the Southern Scuthae ; of 
whom the poet Dionyfius gives the following defcription : 

Acc^^QTctrov ^oo'j oczvp CTTi I'orov o^Oov BhOLVVm. 

This country is likewife taken notice of by Prifcian under 
the name of Scythia : 

" Eft Scythise tellus auftralis flumen ad Indum : 

The inhabitants of which country were certainly Cuthians, 
the pofterity of Chus and Ham. Ccdrenus expreflly men- 
tions them in this light, when he is taking notice of fome of 
the principal Amonian fettlements in a paffage before quoted: 

** Dionyfii Perieg. v. 1088. 

'' Prifcian. v. 996. The PIrythrean Sea is by mod writers fuppofed to be the 
fiime as the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea : but Herodotus calls the Perfic Gulf Ery- 
threaa : and Agathemerus, Dionyfuis, and the author of the Periplus call the whole 
Indie Ocean by this name. Many other authors extend it in the fame manner. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 195 

5+ Ta h TH Xcc[jl 'urXsi^oL fJ^s'-^^i kc/li vvv s^i/y) z^iv sv &.7ro- 
^a^ricf. noLTa ys Tocg INAIA2, koli AiOioTTic/.g kc/j Moiv^ircjixg. 
That this Scythia was the land of Cutha, may be known 
from its being ftyled Ethiopia ; under which charadler h is 
alluded to by Eufebius, when he fpeaks of " Ai^ioZiCi ri |3As- 
TTHira aoLTct ^* h^'sg 'W^og sv^ovotov. The Cuthites worfhiped 
the Patriarch Noah under the name of Nufos, and Dio-nufos: 
and wherever they came, they built cities to his memory, 
called Nufa. They alfo worfhiped Chus under the cha- 
radler of lachus, Pachus, Bacchus: and their hiftory is al- 
ways attended with an obfcure account of fome check, 
which they once received ; of a retreat, and diffipation ; 
which is veiled under the notion of the flight of Bacchus. 
It related to the difperfion at Babel ; and is mentioned in 
the hiftories of moft places, where they fettled : and was 
particularly preferved among the traditions of the Indian 

^^ Efi ^£ Tig ^ri^tTog Bv^^eirriV 'ura^cc VayyrjV 
Xo:^og TifJiriSig ts kva iB^og, ov 'UTqtz 'QoLKyog 


ATtVOL(j^v Nso^iJs? sg oiiXTri^ag — 

T' ^vsKct Nucrcra/j^j/ y^Bv B(pT,yA^oLvrQ y.BXBV^ov. 

^* Cedren. Hid. Compend. vol. i.p. 14. 

" Eulcbii Chron. p. 12. 

The arrangement of the oriental nations by Eufebiiis Is very particular: EAy- 
//a/o/, Apafe, A^;:{^«ic(, Ks/fao-fo;, XKT0AI, Fi^f.i'oirc^-f^'a/. Chron. p. ii. 

'* Thele are the Ethiopians mentioned by Apuleius, Qtii nalcentibus Dei Solis 
inchoantibus radiis illultrantiir jEthiopes, Ariique. L. 11. p. 364. 

" Dionyf. Perieg. v. 1152. 

Vol. III. C c 2 In 

196 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

In confequence of this, they had many rites fimilar to thofe 
in ^^ Greece. It was cuftomary with them to crown them- 
felves with ivy ; which was to be found only at Meru, a 
mountain facred to Bacchus. They alfo at their facrifices 
wore the nebris, or fpotted fkin, like the Bacchanalians in^ 
the weft: and ufed cymbals and tabours upon the like fo- 
lemn occa{ions. They had alfo, o^^j^cr;^ (TaTV^iKiri, the fatyric 
dance, which was common among the Thracians, and the 
people of Greece. 

On this account, when Alexander came into this country, 
the natives looked upon the Grecians as in great meafure of 
the fame family, as they were themfelves : and when the 
people of Nufa fent Acouphis, the chief perfon of their city, 
to folicit their freedom of the Grecian conqueror ; they 
conjured him by the well-known name of Dionufus, as 
the moft efficacious means of obtaining their purpofe. 
" n (ic(.<nKsv, ^Bovrai (ra Nycrcraioi scLTai (r<pot,g sKsvh^Bg ts koli 
ctvTovoy.agj ai^oi m AiovvT'd. kwg, the. Nujfaans i-ntreat thee 
to fuffer them to enjoy their liberties and their laws^ out of re- 
gard to their God Dionufos. Their chief city was Nufa : 
and wherever the Cutheans fettled, they feemed to have 
founded a city of this ^° name. Hence Stephanus fays, 

'^ Arrian. Hill. Ind. p. 318. p. 321. Diod. Sic. L. 2. p. 123. The Indians alfo 
worfhiped Ofiris. Ibid. L. i. p. 17. 
-' Arrian. Exp. Alex. L. 5. p. 196. 

" The Scholiaftupon Homer. Z. v. 139. mentions a Nufa in Arabia, and in 
Egypt. Nufa in Arabia is taken notice of by HerodoruSj a later poet. 
Ef / Si T(5 Inv-xm, nircLTiv xspa?, avBgs!' uA>i, 
T;;Aa <I»3i)T/i;)?, q'^^^'^v Ai^otttoio ioavy. 

Scholia ApoUonii. L. 2. v. 12 15, 

f 2 N^'TCtr 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 197 

*'' Nycrar ^oXsig 'uro'KKot.i. The Amonian colonies may be 
continually traced by this circumftance : for there was a 
city Nufa in Arabia, in Egypt, in Syria, in Colchis, upon 
Mount Caucafus, in Thrace, upon Helicon near Thebes, in 
Naxos, in EubcEa ; and one in ^* Libya, of which it was faid, 
that it could never be feen twice by the fame perfon. The 
Oxydracae, another Indian people, pretended that they were 
immediately defcended from Dio-Nufos ; of whom Strabo 
takes notice : ^^ O^v^^olkoli, iq T8 A/oyyiTB cuyysvBiq £(pa^si/ 

^v^rjtrx^oLi — O^v^^dKcig oLTroyovag Aio^ycra. 

There were many other tribes of people, which lay upon 
the Indus and the Ganges ; and betrayed their origin in their 
name. Of the latter river Dionyilus fpeaks : 

'* Knvo; rot "sroT^sm oLTroTSfJO/STcti BSvsa (^(jnm* 

'' Steph. Byzant. of cities ftyled Nufa. Alfo Euftathii 7ra.pix.Qohai in Dionyf. v. 
1 159. — Stephanus of Nufa in. Eubcea : gr6a S'lcc fjLtcLi rifjLf^aiTtii' aqxiriKov (paatv a>Ge/v, 
xa< TOv (iorpiiv luiTronvia^oci. 

*^ Strabo. L. 7. p. 459. Nufa in Libya, the city of Dionufus. 

There was a city Scythopolis in Cr^naan, undoubtedly founded by Cuthites, who. 
eame early into thefe parts of the country near Hermon. It is remarkable, that this 
place was of old called Nufa : Scythopolim, antea Nyfam, a Libero Patre, fepulta 
nutrice, ibi Scythis dedudlis. Plin. Nat. Hill. L. 5. c. 18. So that there is an uni- 
formity in the hiftory of all thefe places. It was alfo called Tricomis, T pixcofjui, and 
Bethfan, which laft fignifies, the houfe or temple of San, or Zan,,the Shepherd Deity, 
the Zeus of the Greeks : 

Ey6a lAiyoLi xsirai Zav, ov Aioi xiy.?vniTy.ycn. 

^ Jamblich. in Vita Pythag. 

' Strabo. L, 15. p. 1008. 1026. 

t* Dionyf Perieg. v. 1096. He expreffes Arabes, A^£ei.. 


198 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

*^ Ganges 

Separat innumeras et vaftas gurgite gentes ; 
Oritafque, Aribafque fimul, Unique Arachotas 
Utentes Isenis. 

And the Scholiafl upon Dionylius more particularly ; tjrpo; 
^vtriv Ts h$H 'urorcciJLii Q,^iTOii. The titles of Oritae and Aribes, 
like that of " ^thiopes, were peculiar to the fons of Chus. 
Hence, when mention is made of Scythia Indica, and when 
the poet to the fame purpofe tells us, 

Eft Scythise tellus auftralis flumen ad Indum ; 

we may be afTured that the country alluded to was Cuthia. 
The inland ^^ Oritae in fome decree deg-enerated from their 
forefathers, and became in habit like the natives of the 
country j but differed from them in fpeech, and in their 
rites and cufloms : ^* yAwo'o'a h aAA/^ olvtokti koli olKKol vofJiCLici : 
fo that we may be affured, that they were not the original 
inhabitants, though they came thither very early. One re- 
gion of the Gangetic country was named Cathaia, and the 
people '' Cathaians. Arrian fpeaks of them as a very brave 
and refpedable people ; and fays, that their chief city was 

*' Prifclan. v. 1001. 
■ *' AiQioTT/a, 71 ^AsTraact xetroc THi Mai. Chron. Pafcli. p. 29. 

*' Infula Solis — in qua Ori gens. Pliny. L. 6. p. 326. 

" Arrian. Hift. Indie, p, 340. and 338. of the Oritte. 

*' The Cathaians, famous for a breed of fierce dogs ; and for mines of fait, and 
others of gold and filver. Strabo. L. 15. p. 1025. 

Cathaia is no other than Cuthaia, the name, by which Perfis and Cufiftan were 
called, according to Jofcphus. Ku6a«t, — sv HefaiS'i. Antiq. Jud. L. 11. c. 4. 
p. 55^- 

Smgala : 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 199 

Singala : ^^ olvtovo^i^i; h^(£V ciXXzg, koli th? XzyoiLZvaq Ka^a/8? 


TOLToi TS, KOLi TCL 'WoXs^JLiOL K^ojig'oi, siofJiK^ovTO. Cathaia is a 
fmall variation for Cuthaia, as Aribes before was for ^' Ara- 
bes : and the latter are rendered by Arrian Arabians, 
A^QL^isg ; who fpeaks of them as refiding upon one of the 
mouths of the Indus, near the ifland Crocaie. ^' YI^OfToiKSSi 
^z TccvTYj s^vog hS'aov, o< A^aJoisg KoCh<i^evoi. They lived upon 
the river Arabis ; which ferved as a boundary to them, and 
to their brethren the Oreitce : " og ^lOL Tr,g yt^g auTOJv ps&u;/ s;^- 
Imi sg ^oiKoL<T(roLv , o^i^ijov tutxv ts rrfi p/w^io!' kcli rui/ Q,^sirsct)y : 
which ran thj'ough their territories^ and fo pajfed into the ocean \ 
ferving as a boundary to their country ^ and to that of the Orei- 
tce. The chief city of the latter was Ur, like that in Chal- 
dea ; but exprefled by the Greeks ^'^ O^a, Ora. They had 
been for ages an independent people ; but were forced to 
fubmit to the fortunes oi Alexander, to whom they furren- 
dered their city. 

Together with the Oreitas and A rabians of Dionyfius, are 
mentioned the Arachoti. Thefe are undoubtedly the fame 
as theCathaians above; and were denominated from their city. 
Ar-Chota is the fame as Cothopolis, or the city of Cutha, 
fomewhat varied in the poet's defcription. The Arachotians 
are ftyled Kivo'^a.iVQi^ from their particular habit, which 
was of linen. This circumftance is a ftrong charafteriflic of 


Arrian. Expedit. Alexandr. L. 5. p. 224. 

" The country is called Araba at this day, to the wcfl of the Indus. 


Arrian. Hift. Indie, p. 336. 

Arrian. Hift. Indie, p. 0,0,6. ApxQa Ii/sjc Eufeb. Chron. p. 1 1. 
'* Arrian. Expedit. Alexandr. L. 4. p. 190. L. 6. p. 261. 


200 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the Amonians. I believe, in every place where they fettled, 
they were famous for this ^'^ manufadture. They introduced 
it in Colchis, which was celebrated for its flax and linen : 
fo was the country of Campania, where they fettled in Italy. 
The Egyptians were ftyled "Ttirba linigera : and the ^^ Athe- 
nians had not long left ofl* this kind of apparel in the time 
of Thucydides. The fame habit prevailed in Bsetica, efpe- 
cially among the priefts : 

'* velantur corpora /ino, 

Et Peluflaco praefulget ftamine vertex. 

It feems to have been univerfally the garb of the Cuthic In- 
dians : as we may infer from Philoftratus : " g'oKriv h siuai 
Toig KOLTci rov hS^ov Kiva (pctfTiv sy^oj^ia, koli VTro^rjfjLccTct /SySXa. 
This was the exprefs habit of the Egyptians, whom this peo- 
ple refembled in many other refpedls. From circumftances 
of this nature, many learned men have contended that the 
Indians, and even the ^* Chinefe, were a colony from Egypt : 
while others have proceeded as warmly upon the oppoflte prin- 
ciple ; and have inlifled that the Egyptians, or at leaft their 

'* Of the Colchi : e^na-i (f'i xai ^ivn^ysa-i rnv xaAajwwf, maTi^ Atyuirrioi- Schol. 
in Find. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 376. 

Solomon fent for linen from Egypt, i Kings, c. 10. v. 28. 

Moreover they that work in fine fiax Jhall be confounded. Ifaiah. c. 19. v. 9. of the 

Euftathius of the Egyptians ; to Xiveti i(T%Tai a/x7rg;n^gcr6ai. 

Schol. in Dionyf. Perieg. ad v. 689. 

'* Thucydides, L. i.p. 6. 

'* Silius Italic. L. 3. v. 25. 

'^ Philoftrati Vita Apollonii. L. 2. p. 79. 

'* Memoire, dans lequel on prouve, que les Chinois font une colonie Egyptienne, 
&c. Par M. de Guignes, de 1' Academic Royale, &c. &c. A Paris. 1760. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 201 

learning and cufloms, are to be derived from the Indi and 
Seres. But neither opinion is quite true : nor need we be 
brought to this alternative ; for they both proceeded from 
one central place : and the fame people, who imported their 
religion, rites, and fcience into Egypt, carried the fame to 
the Indus and Ganges ; and ftiil farther into China and Ja- 
pan. Not but that fome colonics undoubtedly came from 
Egypt : but the arts and fciences imported into India came 
from another family, even the Cuthites of Chaldea ; by 
whom the Mizra'im themfelves were inftrudled : and from 
Egypt they palled weftward. ^' Ez XoCK^oLim yoL^ "KByzroii 
<poiTr\<TOLi Ta:;Ta isr^o^ hiyvTtroVy mKBi^ev 'ur^og 'EAAjii^a?. T/je 
mofi approved accowit is, that arts came from Chaldea to 
Egypt ; and from the7ice paffed into Greece. Hence we mull 
not be furprifed, if we meet with the fame cuftoms in India, 
or the fame names of places, as are to be found in Egypt, or 
Colchis, or the remoteft parts of Iberia. In this country 
were cities named Ur, Cuta, Gaza, and Gaugamela. The 
river Indus was faid to rife in Mount Caucafus, Umilar to 
the mountain in Colchis. There was a place called Aornon 
in Epirus, in Campania, and in Iberia near TartelTus. The 
like was to be found in India : *° Ao^rov Ti^cc 'srer^ai/, i5; Ta^ 
pi^a? \vIq(; mo^^Bi njfKYifrm rm 'urriym. It was fuppofed hercj 
as in other places, to have received its name from the iriipof- 
fibility of birds flying over it ; as if it were of Grecian ety- 
mology. By Dionyfius it is expreffed Aornis, 

' Zonar. v. i. p. 22. 
Strabo. L. 15. p. looS. 


Vol. III. D d TaWa 

202 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

I took notice that the Oreitse and Oxydracag pretended to be 
defccnded from Dioniifus. The like was faid of the Gargari- 
das, who lived upon the Hypanis, near Mount Hemodus, and 
are mentioned by the poet Dionyfius. 


jU,£Ta 78; Jg, Ai(/)W(r(rs ^s^ciTrons; 

He ftyles them from their worfhip and extra&iionihe/ervanfs of 
Dmmfos, As there was a Caucafus in thefe parts, fo was there 
alfo a region named *^ Colchis ; which appears to have been a 
very flourifhing and powerful province. It was fituated at the 
bottom of that large ifthmus, which lies between the Indus and 
Ganges: and feems to have comprehended the kingdoms, which 
are ftyled Madura, Tranquebar, and Cochin. The Garga- 
ridae, who lived above upon the Hypanis, ufed to bring down 
to the Colchians the gold of their country, which they bar- 
tered for other commodities. The place, where they prin- 
cipally traded, was the city Comar, or Comarin, at the ex- 
tremity of the ifthmus to the fouth. The Colchians had 

*' Dionyf. Pericg. v. 1 151. He places it at the extremity of the ifthmus, near 
Cape Comar: for there were two places in India of this name. 

'* Dionyf, Perieg. v. 1 143. Pompon. Mela fpeaks of the city Nufa in thefe parts. 
Urbium, quas incolunt, Nyfa eft clariflima et maxima: montium, Meros, Jovi facer. 
Famam hie pr^cipuam habent in ilia genitum, in hujus fpecu Liberum arbitrantur 
eflTe nutritum : unde Grscrs aufloribus, ut femori Jovis infitum dicerent, aut mate- 
ria ingeffit, aut error. L. 3. c. 7. p. 276. 

The mod: knowing of the Indi maintained that Dionufos came from the weft. 

*' Colclfis mentioned by jEthicus, and ftyled Colche : alfo by Ptolemy. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 203 

Kere the advantage of a pearl fifliery, by which they muft 
have been greatly enriched. A learned commentator upon 
the ancient geographers gives this account of their country. 
'* Poft Barim amnem in Aiorum regione eft Elancon empo- 
rium, et Cottiara metropolis, ac Comaria promontorium ; et 
oppidum in Periplo Erythrsi Ko^cc^ et KofJLot^si, nunc fervato 
nomine Comarin. Ab hoc promontorio linus Colchicus in- 
cipit, cui Colchi, KoA^oi, emporium adjacens, nomen dede- 
runt. The Periplus Maris Erythraei, here fpoken of, is a 
moft valuable and curious treatife, whoever may have been 
the author : and the paffage chiefly referred to is that which 
follows : ^^ Att EXci^aKx^cc to ?.syo{JL£]/ov Uv^pov o^og, aAA?) 
'wot^r/.s "X^oo^a, r) Ila^aA/a ?.syofJLsvY]y 'ur^og avrov rov voroVy sv j5 
Kcci ri Ko'kv^^Y\(ng B?iy vito tqv ^ol(TiKscx. Hcilv^iovol 'WivccKHy koli 
'UTo'Kig Y\ XsyoixsvYi KoT^'^oi. Il^mog TOTfog BaA/ra )co(.As[JLSvogy 
o^lJLov zolKov s-^m koli KWfjLriV 'W(x.^ci&oLKa(r(noy, Atto h Tocvrrig 
sg'iv sTs^og Tozog to Ko|W.a^ KsyofjLsvoVy ev ca roTrca to (p^a^iov b<^i, 
Kdi Xi^Y\Vy sig ov oi (^sKofJisvoi Toy ^bIkKovtcl avToig '^^ovov is^ot 

yeVzBoLly "X/lgOl ^BV^<TIV ClVTSy KOLKSl S^'^O^SVOl OL'n'OASOVTOLl. To$' 

^* Geographi Minores. Prolegom. 

'* Arriani Peripl. Maris Erythrsei, apud Geograph. Grcccos Mirj.ores. Vi i.' 

Dionyfius calls this region KwA/s inftead of XoA;^o5. 

rjpoi I'OTor (Xy.'JiA.ivo: 'ura^a, TipfjiccTct. KcfoXi^oi a;;-)?, Perieg. v, 1 14S. 
And others have fuppolcd it was named Colis from Venus Colias. But what has any 
title of a Grecian Goddefs to do with the geography of India ? The region was ftyled 
both Colica, and Colchica. 

It is remarkable, that as there was a Caucafus and Regio Colica, as well as Colchi- 
ca, in India: fo the fame names occur among the Cutheans upon the Pontus Euxinus. 
Here was Regio Colica, as well as Cholcica at the foot of Mount Caucafus. Pliny 
L. 6, c. 5. p. 305. They are the fame name differently cxprefled. 

D d 2 avTO 

204 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

fJi-B'^^i KoKyocv, sv i? KoXv[jt,^Yi(ng th ^ivajia Bg'iv' octto h kxtol- 
•^ioi(r[jLif)v zcLTs^ya^BTOLi. JJ^og rov vorov vtto tov jSactAsa Uxp^iovct 
sg-iv. MsTx Js KoT^'^ag svhysTOLi ctKKog diyioLXog sv K<ii\'K(A Ksi- 
y^vog. From Elabacara extejids a motmtai?i called Purrhosy 
and the coajl fiyled Par alia (or the pearl coaft), reaching down 
to the mofi foiithern pointy where is the great ji fiery for pearly 
which people di%>e for. It is under a king named Pandion, and 
the chief city is Colchi. Tljere are two places', where they fifi 
for this *^ commodity : of which the firfl is Balita : here is a 
forty and an harbour. In this placey many perfons who have a 
mi7id to live an holy lifey and to feparate themfelves from the 
worldy come and bat hey and then enter into a ft ate of celibacy. 
There are women y who do the fame. For it is faid that the 
place at particular feafons every month is frequented by the 
Deity of the cotmtryy a Goddefs who comes and bathes in the 
waters. Ihe coaft y near which they fftj for pearly lies all along 
fro?n Comari to Colchi. It is perfonned by perfons y wJdo have been 
guilty of feme crime y and are compelled to thisfervice. All this 
coaft to thefouthward is under the aforeme?2tioned king Pandion. 

■*' Paralia feems at firft a Greek word ; but is in reality a proper name in the lan- 
o-uao-e of the country. I make no doubt, but what we call Pearl was the Paral of the 
Amonians and Cuthites. Paralia is the Land of F earls. All the names of gems, as 
now in ufe, and of old, were from the Amonians : Adamant, Amethyft, Opal, 
Achates or Agate, Pyropus, Onyx, Sardonyx, iEcites, Alabafler, Beril, Coral, Cor- 
nelian. As this v/as the fliore, v/here thefe gem.s were really found, we may conclude, 
that Paralia fignified the Pearl Coaft. There was pearl fifhery in the Red Sea» and it 
continues to this day near the iQand Delaqua. Purchals. v. 5. p. 778. In thefe 
parts, the author of the periplus mentions iQands, which he ftyles Ilt^^aAao/, or Pearl 
IHands. See Geogr. Gr. Minores. Periplus. v. 1. p. 9. 

^ After 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 205 

After this there proceeds another traB of coafi^ 'which forms a 

The author then proceeds to defcrlbe the great trade, . 
which was carried on by this people, and by thofe above, 
upon the Hypanis and Ganges : and mentions the fine linen, 
which was brought down from Scythia Limyrica, and from- 
Comara, and other places. And if we compare the hiftory, 
which he gives, with the modern accounts of this country, - 
we fhall find that the fame rites and cuftoms ftill prevail ; 
the fame manufactures are carried on: nor is the pearl fifhery 
yet exhaufted. And if any the leaft credit may be afforded 
to etymological elucidation, the names of places among the- 
Cuthite nations are fo fimilar in themfelves, and in- their 
purport, that we may prove the people to have been of the 
fame family ; and perceive among them the. fame religion 
and cuftoms, however widely they were fcattercd. The 
mountains Caucafus and *^ Pyrrhus, the rivers Hypanis, Ba- 
ris, Chobar, Soana, Cophis, Phafis, Indus, of this country, 
are to be found among the Cuthite nations in the weft. One 
of the chief cities in this country was Cottiara. This is no 
other than Aracotta revcrfed; and probably the fame that is 
called Arcot at this day. The city Comara, and the promontory 
Comarine are of the fame etymology as the city Ur in ChaL- 
dea; w-.icliv/as called Camar and Camarina from the priefts 

^ '' The mountain Pyrthus, nuj^ss, vjias an eminence facred to Ur, or Qrus ; who 
vvi".s alio ca.;c..i ChanirUr, and his priefts Chamurin. The city Ur in Chaldea is called 
Chamurin by iiupolemu?, who exprefles it Kafxvpirn, w rivei 'sroKiv Ovoiav ■A.ahn'jiv. 
Eufcb. Prsp. Evang. L. 9. p. 418. Hence this promontory in Colchis Indica is ren- 
der: J Comar by the author of tlie Peripkis ; and at this day it is called Comorin. 
The river Indus is faid to run into a bay called Sinus Saronicus. Plutarch, de Flu- 
min. Sar-OnjDomiaus SoL 


2o6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and vv'orfliip there eftablifl:ied. The region termed Aia above 
Colchis was a name peculiarly givxn by the Amonians to the 
places, where they reiided. Among the Greeks the word 
grew general ; and Aitx. was made to fignify any land : but 
among the Egyptians, at leaft among the Cuthites of that 
country, as well as among thofe of Colchis Pontica, it was 
ufed for a proper name of their country t 

** A/a ys ^lYiV sTi vw (jl^vsi, $[JL7rs^ov' 

And again ; 

It was owing to this, that the name given to the chief per- 
fon of the country was Aiates : and when fome of the fa- 
mily fettled at Circeum in Italy, the name was there pre- 
ferved. Hence the Goddefs Circe, who is reprefented as 
fifter to Aiates, is called by Homer Aiaia.; v/hich is the 
Gentile epithet from Aia, the country. It occurs in fome 
enchanting verfes, where Ulyffes defcribes his being detained 
by the two GoddeiTes Calypfo and Circe : 

Eii (T7t£<T<ri y7\.ct<pv^Gi<riy KiXctio^Bvri 'uro<nv sivui* 
'Q.g $' a.vT(jt}g Ki^tcri KOLts^rfrvBv sp (JLeya^OKTiUy 
AioLiif}y SoAo£<T(rcx,j 7\i\ouo^svr\ "urdcriv simi' 



ApoliOn. Rhod. L. 4. v. 277. 
'' Apollon. Rhod. L. 2. v. 423. 
'° Homer. Odyff. L. I. v. 29. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 207 

The adoration of fire prevailed no where more than in thefe 
countries, together with the worfhip of the fun. They were 
likewife Ophites, fuch who reverenced the Deity under the 
fymbol of a ferpent. All the names of '' places in thefe parts 
have a manifeft reference to the rites and worfliip : and if 
they be compared with names of other places, where this 
people are fuppofed to have fettled ; they will be generally 
found very fimilar, and oftentimes the fame. And this not" 
only in ancient accounts ; but in thofe of later date, fmce 
the people of Europe have got footing in thofe parts. We 
read of Onor, Canonor, Candonor, all terms relating to the 
fun and fire. Calicut, Calcutta, Cotate, Comar, Comarin, 
Cottia, Cathaia, are of an etymology too obvious to need an' 
interpretation. The moft confiderable miflion in Madura is 
called 5' Aour (-nw) at this day. Near it is a city and river 
Balafore. Bal is the Chaldean and Syrian Deity, well known : 
Azor was another name of the Deity, worlhiped in the fame 
countries. He is mentioned by Sanchoniathon and other 
writers; and v/as fuppofed to have been the founder of Car- 
thage. He was alfo known in Sicily, where there were 
rivers named from him. This people got likewife pofieffion 
of the ifland Pali^fimunda or Ceylon, called alfo Taprobane. . 

5' hi-tiTs^ct Tct.7:^o^:m-iV A(riYiysi/e(fJV sXe^poiVTmy. 


'' Hence fo many places end in patan zndpatam, which fignifies a ferpent. 

^'- Travels of Jefuits by Lockman. v. i. p. 470. 

" Dionyf Perieg. v. 59^. That Taprobane, named alfo Palcefinuinda. 
and Serandive, was the ifiand now called Ceylon, may. be proved from 
many authors. '£^«5 Se tbtciji/ i~iv « hS't-nn, n ivroi ro!.')yy ttroTa/xy KiifA'-vn, «•; 
xaxa fjLiaatrarov t/is ijiriifd vnaai xar^ avrixpu netTcci [xeyiq-j]^ Tatpofaai'n )caAs-- 
//gi'H. Marcian. Heracleot. apud Geog. Vet. v, i.. p. 14. Tw a-y.^uTapM T«f 
IfJ^ijcJis Tw AiyofAiytf Kofv ayrtxeira,! to t?(5 TuTrp-Xuvni ccx^wt^oiov KaXBf/.evov 


2o8 The Analysis of Ancient 'Mythology. 

The adoration of fire and the wormip of the fun was intro- 
duced here very early. In this illand is an high mountain, 
held very facred ; the fummit of v^hich is called the Pike of 
Adam. This had no relation to the great Protoplaft, though 
generally underftood to be denominated from him. For 
writers may make what inferences they pleafe from Sancho- 
iiiathon, and other antiquarians, ill interpreted, and worfe 
applied: I am perfuaded, that there are very few allufions in 
ancient hiftory to the antediluvian world. The Pike of 
Adam is properly the fummit facred to Ad Ham, the King 
or Deity Ham, the Amon of Egypt. This is plain to a de- 
monftration from another nam.e given to it by the native 
Cingalefe, who Jive near the mountain, and call it Hamalel, 
This without any change, is '^ Ham-ail-El, Ham the Sun ; 

Bop«or. Marcian. Heracleot. p. 26. Tbto S't ctv.^(aTyiDiav t«? j'mo-b to a.i'rix.iifA,evov tu 
Kopv — ctTre^ei q-cc^ta, y^<^v^. 

The poet Dionyfius places it in the great Eruthrean Ocean : and mentions the 
whales, vvitli which that lea once abounded : a clrcumftance taken notice of by other 
writers. He fpeaks of it as a very large ifland. 

AvT/i S' euouTocTn [jnyshoi -miXzC aifjL(pi S'S 'sra.vTyt 

Knnx 5riyei ix^aiv, EPT0PAIOT /Sora -njo^Ty, 

Ouoi(7iv nhiQairoKTiv eomora.. v. 596. 
^* On the fide of Conde Uda is an hilL, fuppofed to be the highefl: in the ifland, 
called in theChingiilay language Hamalel, but by the Portugueze and theEuropeans 
Adam's Peak. It is fharp as a fugar-loaf, and on the top is a flat ftone, with the 
print of a foot like a man's on it ; but far bigger, being about two feet long. The 
people of this land count it meritorious to go and worfhip this imprefllon ; and gene- 
rally about the new year, the men, women, and children go up this vaft and high 
mountain to worfliip. Knox. Hift. of Ceylon, p. 5. The notion of this being 
Adam's Pike, and the print of Adam's foot, did not arife from the Portugueze, or 
any Europeans •, but was very ancient. It is mentioned by the Mahometan travellers 
in the ninth century : and the name of the mountain, Ad Ham, was undoubtedly as 
old as thefirft Cuthite inhabitants. See p. 3. of Renaudot's Edition of Moham- 
medan Travellers; and Notes, p. 8. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 209 

and relates to the ancient religion of the ifland. In fliort, 
every thing in thefe countries favours of Chaldaic and Egyp- 
tian inftitution. The worfliip of the ape ; the imputed 
fandlity of the cow; the fymbolical adoration of the ferpent 
have been introduced by people from thofe parts : not fo 
much by the Mizraim, or genuine inhabitants of Egypt, as 
by the Cuthites. They came hither from that country, as 
well as from Chaldea : but they came firft and principally 
from the latter. Whatever therefore was fimilar in the rites 
of the Indians and the Mizraim, was imported into each 
country, principally by the fons of Chus ; though fome 
chance colonies of real Egyptians may have likewife come 
hither. When Alexander had taken Nufa in India, he ap- 
pointed one of the natives to be governor, whofe name was 
Acouphis. In like manner the perfon, whom he made his 
fubftitute at the great city Palimbothra, is ftyled Moph or 
Mophis. He feems to have had more appellations than one : 
for he is by Curtius called Omphis. Laftly, the perfon, to 
whom Alexander applied to get Porus to furrender, had the 
name of Meroe. All thefe are names apparently limilar to 
Egyptian and Chaldaic terms. Even Porus is nothing elfe 
but Orus, with the Egyptian prefix. And as names of this 
kind continually occur, it is impoffible but that fome rela- 
tion muft have fublifted between thofe nations, where this 
ftmilitude is found. The Cuthic Indians worfhiped parti- 
cularly Dionufus ; but confeffed that he was not a native of 
their country, and that his rites were imported : ^^ Afovncroj/ 
ZK 7(/iV 'UT^og SQ'Tts^oLV TOTTOiV '. He camc from the weft ; that is 

'' Diodorus Sic. L. 2. p. 123, 

Vol. III. E e from 

210 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

from Babylonia and Chaldea. Arrian, fpeaking of the Nu- 
feans, fays, that they were not the original inhabitants of the 
country. '^ NvfTG'onoi §' an h^iKOv yspo; Bi.(nv^ olKKol tocv d[j(,cx. 
AiovviTc^ sX^qi'TCa)!/ sg TYi^ yriv 7(/^v h^oov. "The people of Nufa are 
not '^ p?'operly an Indian race \ hut are part of the company^ 
who attended Uionufus in his expedition into thefe parts. They 
were therefore of the family of Chus, and ftyled Cufeans^ 
Cuthites, Arabians, and Ethiopians ; which were the moft 
common titles of people of that family. The fame author 
tells us, that they diifered very little in their appearance 
from the Ethiopians of Africa, efpecially thofe of the fouth; 
being of the fame dark complexion ; but without woolly 
hair. Thofe, who lived to the north, refembled the Egyp- 
tians. ^* "Vm rs 0Lv^^w7:m di ihai z 'Wanr^ oLito^aiTLV a; h^m re 
Kdi Ki^ioTtm. 'O; ^jlbv 'ur^og vora avs^n hSoi (fcil. oi KoK'^oi) 
Toig Ai^io-^i (jlolKKov t; eomau'i, ixsKavsg rs i^so'^cci biti, kocl ri zofJLn 
avToig fjLsKoLivct, -srAjii/ ys Jh on (n[jiOi ax. (^(rcivrug, h^b hX^k^olvoi, 
dg Ai^iOTTBg. 'Oi ^b (^o^biots^oi raroov kolt AiyvTrTiag ^cLXig-oL 
OLV BiBV TOL (TCf^ULOLTCi. 'The inhabitants tipon the hidus are iiz 
their looks afid appearance.^ not tmlike the Ethiopians (ot Africa). 
Thofe upon the font hern coafl refemble them " mofl : for they 
lire very black ; and their hair alfo is black : but they are 7iot 

'* Arrian. Hifl. Indica. p. 31.3. 

" They were miftaken in faying, 85t h'^iv.Qv ysioi : but their meaning is plain, 
that they were not Aborigines. 

'^ Arrian. Hift. Indica. p. 320. 

" Vincentius Bellovacenfis mentions two Indian nations particularly profeffing 
the rites of Bacchus ; one of which was named Albarachuma. Al-bara-Chuma 
means tlie fons of Chuni or Cham : and that they were the fons of Cham may be 
inferred from Eufcbius : Ta Ss Xajw. -ro-Asi-ra f^i^p^ y~^' 'w s^"') ^T'" -^ ccTro'^xaiaj 
KxrccTi TccihS'iai xxi ASiQTixy^x.T.A. Chron. P. 1^. ■ " . 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 211 

fo Jiat-nnfed ; nor have they woolly hair. 'They^ who are jjjore 

to the norths have a greater refemblance to the Rgyptia7is, 

Strabo defcribes them in the fame manner ; and fays that 

the fouthern Indians were very like the Ethiopians. '°° '0< 

|U,gj/ jU,S(r)i|a^^iJ'Oi to<? Ai^;o'^|/iy zi^nv OjO-oto; /iara TCii) y^^qiolV y.oLTCL 

Jk TYiV o'^iv^ KCLi TiTiv T^i'^wTiv Toig ccKkoig. Ov^z yoL^ nT^or^i'^sri 

^la T>iy vy^QTYira m as^og. 'O; ^s (^o^Biore^oi roig AiyvTrrioig, 

They might well be like the nations fpecilied: for they were 

colonies from Chaldea ; colonies chiefly of Cuthites, who 

fettled at different times in India. Thefe writers all concur 

in fhewing their likenefs to the Ethiopians: whereas they 

were Ethiopians. Herodotus fpeaks of them plainly by that 

name : and fays, that they differed in nothing from their 

brethren in Africa, but in the ftraitnefs of their hair : 

' 'Oi fJLSV yoLo CL7C rjKiis Ai^ioTTs; i^vr^iysg skti. They extended 

from Gedrofia to the Indus, and from thence to the Ganges, 

under the name of ' Ethiopians, Erythreans, and Arabians. 

When Nearchus, by the appointment of Alexander, failed 

down the Stour, an arm of the Indus; the firft nation, 

which he encountered, was that of the Arabians. They re- 

Uded, according to Arrian, below Carmania, in the mouth 

of the great river, near the ifland Crocale. ^ 'n.^O(TOiK££i ds 

'"" Strabo. L. 15. p. 1012. 

"' Oi yap oLTT vAin AiQioTd Surpi^n eici' ot S's ex r^n AiCvm ovAotcctov r^i- 
^cijfjLa ix^'^' T^avTcov ctv^puiTTCiJi'. Hcfiod. L. J. c. 70. p. 54 1 . 

^ ^thiopumGymnolbphiftas mentioned by Hieronymus. L. 4. in Ezechiel. c. i;^, 

' Arrian. Hift. Indie, p. 336. Oras tenent ab Indo ad Gangem Palibothri : a 
Gange ad Colida (or Colchida) atrte gentes, et quodammodo iEtiiiopes. Pomp. 
Mela. L. 3. c. 7. They vvorfhiped Zew 0//ffio?, Strabo. L. 15. p. 1046. He 
mentions the promontory Tamus, and the idand Chrufe. Tamvis was the name of 
the chief Egyptian Deity ; the fame as Thamuz of Syria. 

E e 2 roLVTr^ 

212 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

TOLVT)) s^P'og h^mov, oi A^oL^isg KctXsofJLSVoi. They lived upon 
the river Arabis, by fome called '^ Aribis, to which they had 
given name. 

Of the I N D J. 

f^ n ^H E Grecian writers, finding that the Ethiopians and 
_L Cutheans of this part of the world were not the ori- 
ginal inhabitants, have very properly diftinguifhed them 
from thofe who were Aborigines : but they have been guilty 
of a great miftake, in making thefe Aborigines the Indi, and 
feparating the latter from the ^thiopes. The Cuthites, 
ftyled ^thiopes, were the original Indi : they gave name to 
the river, upon which they fettled ; and to the country, 
which they occupied. Hence ^ larchus of India tells Apol- 
lonius ; OTi AIQIOIIEZ [JLev mav Bnccv^a, ysvog INAIKON. 
And almoft in ^ every place, where their hiftory occurs, the 
name of Indi will be found likewife. The river Choafpes, 
of whofe waters only the kings of Perfis drank, was efteemed 
an Indian river. 

' Xuj^ig fjLSv Kv^og b^i [Jisyoig, '}(o)§ig rs Xoacr:^)^^ 

* Apo£ncii fxiv Si £0>5?, xai la-ro (XUTOvoi*.ov ruu Turspi tov Apcchwv TuroTUfAov vSi^ofAi^ 
vm-. Arrian. Expedit. L. 6. p. 260. Of theOrite, ibid, and p. 261. 

' Philoftrati Vit. Apollon. L. 3. p. 125. 

* Diodorus Sicul. L. i . p. 1 7. The chief inhabitants upon the Indus were Gufeans- 

' Dionyf. Perieg. v. 1073. Coros is the river Cur, the river of the Sun. Kvpa, 
Sol. Hefych. Tov iAivn^.wvUip(TMKvpv hiyjicru Kupoi' hairoTm. Hefychius. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology/ 211: 


It ran through Chufiftan, and was a branch of the Tigris : 
whence that river, from which the former was derived, mufi: 
have been Indian. This is rendered certain from the Cuthite 
Ethiopians, who came under the title of fhepherds into 
Egypt. They came from Chaldea upon the river Tigris : 
and they are faid expreflly to have come from the Indus. 

About this thnCj fays Eufebius, fome Ethiopia?ts, takmg have 
of their country upon the river Indus, came and fettled iii 
Egypt. Hence it is that ' Bacchus has been reprefen'ced as 
the fon of the river Indus. Hence alfo arofe the true notion 
that the Indian Dionufos was the moft ancient : i\io]iv<Tov 
OL^yy.iOTCLrov IN AON ysyovsvm. The genuine and moft an- 
cient perfon of this title muft be referred to Babylonia. 
This is the country, to which Phylarchus alluded, when he 
faid that Bacchus firft brought the worfliip of the two bulls, 
which were called Apis and Ofiris, from India into Egypt. 
'° U^'j^Tog sig Aiyvirroy s^ I^cTit'i/ Aiovv(rog nyays ^vcfj fisg, m p-si/ 
ATTig oyo^JLdj rco ^s 0(n^ig. It was a true hiflory, though Plu- 
tarch would not allow it. This worfhip was common in 
Egypt before the Exodus: for it was copied by the Ifraelites 
in the wildernefs near Mount Sinai. It \vq.s of too early 
date to have been brought from the country near the Gan- 
ges : and was introduced from Chaldea, and the Tigris, the 
original Indus. The Africans, who had the management of 
elephants in war, were called Indi, as being of Ethiopic 

' Eufeb. Chrcn. p. 26. 

' Philoftrati Vit. Apollonii. L. i. p. 64, 

" Plutarch. Ifis et Oiir. v. 2. p. 362. 


214 The Analysis of Ancient My-thology. 

ori<nnal. Polybius fays in the pafllng of the Rhone ; 
" T8S [JLSV h^a; olttoAbOoli o'vus^yi "woLnoig, rag h eKB(poLvrcLg ^icc- 
<r(j}Si]KH : it happeiied that Ha?mibal lojl all the Indi \ but ths 
elephants were preferved. The fame author fays of the con- 
ful Ctecilius Metellus in the battle againft Afdrubal : '^^j^^ia 
<rvv ccvroig Iv^oig sXct^s ^sna. The fable of Perfeus and Andro- 
meda, whatever it may mean, is an Ethiopia ftory : and it is 
faid of that hero ; 

"' Andromeden Perfeus nigris portavit ab Lidls. 

Virgil, fpeaking to Auguftus of the people of this family, 
calls them by the fame name : 

.*^ Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 

If we change the fcene, and betake ourfelves to Colchis, 
we (hall meet with Indians here too. The city Afterulia 
upon Mount Caucafus is ftyled Indica. '^ Ags^HG-ia, Iv^iKri 
'SroA/?. I have mentioned from Jerom, that St. Matthias 
preached the gofpel at Colchis, near the Phafis and Apfarus ; 
which country is called Ethiopia. Socrates in his '* Eccle- 
fiaftical Hiftory mentions the fame : and adds, that St. Bar- 
tholomew was in thefe parts ; and that his particular pro- 
vince was India ; which India joined to Colchis, and to the 

" Polyb. L. 3. p. 200. 

" Polyb. L. I. p. 42. 

'' Ovid, de Arte Amandi. L. i. v. 53. 

'* Virg. Georg. L. 2. v. 173. The poet means here the Parthians, who were in 
poflcnion ot Pcrfis and Babylonia. 

" Stephan. Byzantinus. 

'* Socratis Hift. Ecclefiaft. L. i. c. 19. See alfo L.. i. c. 20. p, 50. and 51. 
lyS'Mv Tuv erS^orefii) xcci iSijpuv to, io;w. p. 49. 

9 region 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 215 

region upon the Phafls, where Matthias refided. Ba^^oAo- 
fjt,a.iog h skKyi^sto tyiv (rvvTi^L^svYiv tccvtyi INAIAN, t/)v sv^ors^u. 
He calls it the innermoft India, to diftinguifh it from that 
which was not mediterranean, but lay on the Southern 
Ocean. The country here mentioned was a part of Ibcrii 
Colchica : and as fome of the fame family fettled in Iberia 
Hifpaniae, we find there too an Indie city ; '^ INAIKH, 
♦croAi? I'oYj^iccg, '^KYinav Ilv^r\VQi;. The author adds, what is very- 
remarkable, rivsg Jff BXa^s^^^civ avrr,v /.ccKufri ; So^e call it . 
Blaberoura. Is not Blaberoura ill expreffed? I think that 
there is a tranfpofition of a fingle letter ; and that it was 
originally Babel-Oura ; jfo denominated from the two chief 
cities of the Cuthites, Babel and Our, in Babylonia, and 
Chaldea. The river Indus was often called the Sindus r and 
nations of the family, whereof I am treating, were' called 
Sindi. There were people of this name and family in Thrace, 
mentioned by Hefychius : 2i;Jb/ (t»]? @ficf,zi-{]g) sdvog Iv^ikqv, 
The Sindi (of Thrace) are an Indian nation. Some v/ould 
alter it to J:^iv^VMV^ Sindicmn: but both terms are of the fame 
purport. He mentions in the fame part of the world, 
'UToXig, Xiv^izog Xi^ir,v KByofj^B^n \ a city, which was defwminated 
the Sindic, or Indian, harhoiw. '^Herodotus fpeaks of a re- 
gio Sindica upon the Pontus Eu::inus, opponte to the river 
Thermodon. This fome would alter to Sindica.; but both 
terms are of the fame amount. Tliis Indica was the country 
of the Moeotiae, a Cuthic tribe. The Ind, or Indus, of the 
eaft is at this day called the Sind 3 and was called fo in the 

" Stepli. Eyzantiri. 

*' Herodot. L. 4. c. S6. 


2i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

time of Pliny : '^ Indus, incolis Sindus appeliatus, in jugo 
Caucafi montis, quod Paropamifus vocatur, adverfus folis or- 
tum efJufus, &c. 

If this title be peculiar to the Cuthite Ethiopians, we 
may well expeft thofe above Egypt, among whom the Nile 
took its rife, to be fo called. We accordingly find that river 
diftinguifhed for being derived from the country of the 
Indi ; 

" Ufque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis : 

and the fame poet, in another place, fpeaking of Auguftus, 


" fuper et Garamantas et Indos 

Proferet imperium. 

Nor is this a poetical rant, but a juft appellation. JEl'mn^ 
in defcribing the Libyans of interior Africa, fays that they 
bordered upon the Indi ; " Ai^vuov Toov yenvi^nm Toig h^oig, 
by which were meant the Ethiopians. And ApoUonius of 
Tyana, in a conference with thefe fouthern Ethiopians, find- 
ing that they fpoke much in praife of the Indians in general, 
tells them, *^ Ta [jlsv h^m STnrtVsnSi INAOI to a.^'^a.iov 'UTixhoLi 

" Plin. Nat. Hift. L. 6. c. 20. p. 319. 

'Xtp^osTjjoTcifx.oi. Arriani Pcripl. apud Geogr. Vet. Grtec. v. i. p. 21. 

''^ Virgil. Georg. L. 4. v. 293. 

*' Virgil. JEn. L. 6. v. 794. The like occurs in another place. 
Omnis eo terrore j^igyptus, et Indi, 

Omnis Arabs, omncs verteriint terga Saba;i. iEneid. L. 8. v. 75. 
By the Indi are meant the Ethiopians above Egypt. 

" JEVian. de Animalibus. L. 16. c. 33. 

*' Philoftrati Vit. ApoUon. Tyansi. L. 6. c. 6. p. 277. 

There are fome remains of an ancient city between the Tigris and Euphrates, near 
the ruins of ancient Babylon, which ftill retains the name of Sindia, mentioned by 
Gafpar Balbi. SeePurchas. v. 2. L. 10. c. 5. p 1723. 

7 opts; : 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 217 

orrf ^ : You f peak much in favour of every thing relating to the 
hidians ; not confdering that originally you were Indians your- 
felves. In fliort, Egypt itfelf was in fome degree an Indie 
nation ; having received a colony of that people, by whom 
it was named Alt or Aetia. '^ Y^/Jk-^yi h koli Mv^a^ciy Kdi 
As^iciy xoLi llQTCi[JLio(., KCLi KsnoLy aTTo rivog INAOT "^ Asra.' 
Hence it is faid, '^ O^ti^i^ol Iv^qv sivoli to ysi^og, That Oftris was 
a7i I7idia7i by extraBion : becaufe the Cuthite religion came 
from the Tigris. 

Thus have I endeavoured to fhew, from the names of 
places, and of men, but more particularly from various parts 
of ancient hiftory, that the Scythic Indians were in reality 
""^ Cuthic ; as were all people of that denomination. They 
were divided into various cafts, moft of which were denomi- 
nated from their worfhip. The principal of thefe names I 
have enumerated, fuch as Erythraei, Arabes, Oritas, ^Ethiopes, 
Cathei, Indi : and, however various in title and charafterif- 
tic, I have fhewn they were all one family, the Cuthites from 
Babylonia and Chaldea. There is a remarkable pafTage in 
the Chronicon Pafchale, which muft not be omitted. This 
author tells us, ^\ Ej/ 701; "^^Qvoig Trig ILv^yoTronag sk, ts ysvag 

Stephanus Byzantinus. 

Nxi //.>!!' KcaAsTtct, €K rn'oi INAOT, Aera JcaAH^eca. Euftath. in Dionyf. Perieg. 


i\u.i fj.111' K^imiiX, EX. TH'Oi liNiLiV^l , n.f:Tkl XBLAU JJiimi , HUltiltll. Ill UlUUy 1. JTCFIL^. 

v.. 241. 

Diodor. Sic. L. i. p. 17. Add to the above a remarkable paflage, concerning 
the people about the Palus Moeotis, who were a colony of Cuthites : 
y.ocu^of/.a.ra.i J"' eTrs^uaiv eTrctaauTecoi yiyxoirii 
2INAOI, Kif/.f/.epioi re, kcci ot TreXcti ^v'fiivoio 
KsfxeTiot t', OpiToti re, Dionyf. Perieg. v. 680. 
*^ Hence Hefychius : SifcT;?, or, as Albertus truly reads it, XivS la, t, X-'iu^ix. 
'" Chron.Pafch. p. 36. 

Vol, III. F f ra 

21 8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

73 A^(pci^oL$ ccvYj^ Tig Iv^og 0Lvs(pavY] <ro(pog ot^^ovofJLogy ovoixocri Aj/-- 
^soOL^iog, 6g Kcti (rvvsy^oL-^s 'ur^ocrog hSoig ag-^ovofjuav. At the 
timey when the tower of Babel was ereEled^ a certain perfoji 
made his appearance in the worlds who was (Indus) an Indian^ 
and fat d to have bee7t of the race of Arphaxad. He was famed 
for his wifdomy and for his jkill in aflronojnyy and ?ia7ned A?i~ 
doubarios. He frfl delineated fchemes of the heavens y.a?id in- 
flruSled the Indi in that fcience. The fame hiflory occurs in- 
""^ Cedrenus. Why thefe writers make this perfbnage of the 
race of Arphaxad, I know not. This aftronomer is probably 
Chus, the father of the Magi, who is faid to have firft ob- 
ferved the heavens, and to have paid an undue reverence to 
the celeftial bodies. The name Andoubarios feems to be a 
compound of Andou-Bar, Indi filius. Hence the original 
Indus mufl have been Ham. 

I cannot conclude this account of the Cuthites in India 
Limyrica, without taking notice of the great character they 
bore in the mod early times for ingenuity and fcience. 
Traditions to this purpofe prevailed, wherever they fettled : 
and I have given many inflances of their fuperiority herein. 
They were, like the Egyptians, divided into {qvqti orders ; 
of which the philofophers were the moft honourable. Each 
tribe kept to the profeffion of its family ; and never invaded 
the department of another. ^° ^^t^ti (js (Msycc^E^Ji?) ro rooi/ 
hci/^vysvog sig STrroL [JiB^Yj ^iri^riT^cci- Nilus the Egyptian tells 
ApoUonius Tyanceus, that the Indi of all people in the world 
were the moft knowing ; and that the Ethiopians were a 

*' Cedren. Hift. p. 14. 
'° Strabo. L. 15. p. 1025. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 219 

colony from them, and rcfembled them greatly. '' So^^Ta- 


Pain Js 8T0t TYiv (ro(piOLV. The Indi are the isoifeft of all man- 
kind. The Ethiopians are a colony from them : and they inhe- 
rit the wifdom of their forefathers. 

The philofophy of this ^* people was greatly celebrated : 
infomuch that Alexander vifited the chief perfons of the 
country, who were efteemed profeffors of fcience. Among 
the Perlians they were flyled Magi : but among the Indo- 
Cuthites they had the title of Sophim and Sophitse. Many 
regions in different parts were denominated from them So- 
phitis, Sophita, Sophene. '^ Strabo mentions an Indian pro- 
vince of this name : and Diodorus Siculus fpeaks largely of 
their inftitutions. The march of Alexander through their 
country is particularly taken notice of by ^"^ Curtius. Hinc 
in regnum Sophitis perventum eft. Gens, ut Barbari cre- 
dunt, fapientia excellit, bonifque moribus regitur. They 
were formed into focieties, and reilded in colleges as re- 
clufes : others lived at large, like fo many mendicants. 
Their religion, like that of all the Amonians, con/ifted in 

'" Philoftrat. Vit. Apollon. L. 6. p. 2S7. So p. 125. A/9jo7rg5— >fi'05 luT/xo!'. 

'* 2c(po< iio-iv 61 2>cu8ai afo^^x. Antiphanes Comicus apud AthenEum. L. 6. 
p. 226. 

" Strabo. L. 15. p. 1024. 

'* Quint. Curtius. L. 9. c. i. See Voffius de Philofophorum Seftis. L. 2. 
c. 2. §. 2. 

Ka6a/a* -zroAfs L'J^ixw. Steph. Byzantin. 

Pliny mentions Magi among the Arabians. 

The people are ftyled Catheans by Strabo : and he fuppofes one Sopeithes to have 
been the chief perfon of the country. Kac(iixv (read with Berkelius KaQaciay) tivh 
TW ^uTreSes x.a.7 ac rwSs tw MsaoTroTocfuxv rt^eaatv, L. 15. p. 1024. 

F f 2 the 

220 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the worfhip of the fun, and adoration of fire. Hence the^r 
were denominated, from Cham the Sun, Chamin and Cho- 
min ; and their wife men Chomini Sophite, and Sophitim : 
but the Greeks from the term Chomin and Chominus formed 
FvfJLVog, and rendered this people FufJiVQ-CQC^sncti and Vvfjuvo- 
(ro(pii^OLi ; as if they were naked philofophers. Suidas feems 
to have been aware of the miftake ; and owns that Tvfxvog 
was the Indian name of a philofopher. Confequently, it 
had no relation to Greece. The people of this facred cha- 
radler were divided into different focieties, which were de- 
nominated from the Deity Manes, whom they ferved. He 
was fometimes compounded Achmanes and Oro-Manes 'y 
and was well known in Perfis, and in Egypt. From him 
thefe priefts in India were ftyled Bar- Achmanes, contracted. 
Brachmanes : alfo Ger-manes, Sar-manes ; and Al-Obii» 
35 A/TToy Js Tarojy {Fvixvoo'Oipis'ocv) to ysvog. Oi [ 1,ol^^jlou/oli 
OLvrm* 01 h B^0L')(^fJL0LVOLi kolXs^svoi ' KOii 7u)V XoL^fJ^amv 01 AAAo- 
^loi 'UT^O(roLyo^BVO^zvoi. Thefe were the titles, by which the 
profefTors of fcience were diftinguifhed. They were the 
fame as the '^ Magi, and fo famed for their knowledge, that 
many of the Grecian philofophers are faid to have tra- 
velled to them for information. This is reported of 

" Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 359. 

Bar-Achmanes, the fons of the great Manes. In Phrygia and Pontiis he was 
ftyled Ac-mon : Ax/jloov. 

'* Of the Babylonian and Chaldean Magi, fee Ariftotle ev tk Ma.yi->ca : and So- 
tion in Libris n^i S'loc.So^m apud Laertium in Procemio. p. 2. 

'Oi xaAafcgfo/ S'e Mayoi, yivoi tbto /jlolvtihov xce.t ©eon amccxstfjiivop^ ■zuctpoc t£ Vlep- 
acci^i 5c«i n«p9o/''» xa< BaXT^oKt xoii 'Kcopxa'/^toi:, xoci Alston, tcai 2«>£a'?5 '<«' MwJ^o/f, 
x.a.1 ' ixroAAow aAAofS Bx^Cx^on. Lucian. dc Longaevitate. vol, i. p. 632. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 2.21 


Democritus, Pyrrho of Elea, and Apollonius Tyaneus. 
Nay, the very Scriptures feem to allude to their fuperlative 
knowledge : for it is faid of Solomon, that his ^* wifdom ex- 
celled all the wifdom of the children of the eaft country, and. 
all the wifdom of Egypt. In which account I cannot but" 
fuppofe that the learning of the Cuthim Sophitim was in- 
cluded ; if not principally alluded to. 

Thus have I endeavoured to fhew, that all this interam- 
nian country between the Indus and the Ganges was called 
Scythia ; like that about the river Phafis, and upon the Pa- 
lus Maeotis ; as well as regions in other parts. As all thefe 
places were apparently inhabited by Cutheans ; I think we 
may be aflured, that the name Scuthia, S;ii»^/a, is a miftake 
for Cuthia ; and that the Scythae were Cuthae, or Cuthians. 
and this will be found to obtain, wherever the name of Scy- 
thia prevails : the people of that country, wherever iituated, 
will be found upon examination to be in fome degree de- 
fcended from Chus, whom the Babylonians and thofe of his 
family feem to have exprefled Cuth. 

It is very, remarkable that the poet Dionyfius, having de- 
fcribed all the nations of the known world, concludes with 
the Indo-Scythae ; of whom he gives a more- ample, and a 
more particular account, than of any, v/ho have preceded. He 
dwells long upon their habit and manners, their rites, and 
cuftoms, their merchandize, induftry, and knowledge : and 

" Democritus went to the Indians. Aio. ravrx toi xcci tuoXXw sttyh ■) ?i»* wer av 

INAHN. iElian. Var. Hid. L. 4. c. 20. p. 375. Of Thracian Philofophy, fee 
Ger. Voffius de Philofophorum Sei5lis. c. 3. p. ig. 
'^ X Kings, c. 4. V. 2^^, 


2 2*2 The Analysis of ANcrENT Mythology. 

has tranfmitted fome excellent fpecimens of their ancient 
Iiiftorv. And all this is executed in a manner fo affedting, 
that if Homer had been engaged upon the fame fubje6t, he 
could not have exceeded, either in harmony of numbers^ or 
beauty of detail. Some extra<5ls I have given : but as the 
poet is fo difFufe in his defcription of this vv^onderful people, 
and his hiftory fo much to the purpofe, I w^ill lay the greater 
part of it before the reader, that he may be v^^itnefs of the 
truth. . 

" h^QV 'srcc^ 'urorccfJLov NoTio/ Xkv^oli evvoLiatyiVy 
'Og fd r E^v^^oLiYig Kccrsvccmov sio'i ^OLhoL(y<TYi<;y 


XoiT^aiSag ^\ oVcra? re ^sra^x 'urrv^i Uct^TravKroio 
ZvvYj ofjLCt^g [jlolKci 'uravrctg STroovvfjur/J A^iYjvng' 


AAA* ziLTtYig l(£Ti(riv sra^Kssg bkt^ zsKsvdoi. 

YioLVTY\ yoL^ Xi&og sfiv s^v&^h ks^giXioio, 
Uctvrri J" sv 'ursr0(nv vtto <p7\B^sg ooSiv^ci 

" Dionyfil Perieg. V. 1088. &c. 

*° Scholia Euftathii ad V. 1096. Two nations Arachotje. 'Eravr^oivorov, 


The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOcy. 223 

Trig oLTroTBixvoiJLsvoi, f^iori^(riov mov s'^hti. 

li^og J" oLvyoL; *' Iv^m s^oltsivyi 'UTbtctoltoli «/a, 

Xlacawv 'WUfJiaTi^j "uroL^a yeiXefriv Q.KSctvoio. 

'Hv pa T OLi/s^'^oy,£vog Ma^KOi^m stti s^yct, koli cuv^^ocv 

HsKiog 'ur^ocTrjtriy STtKpXzysi ciKTivs(T(ri. 

@s(r7rs(nov KiTComreg' esi^o^BvoLg $' volkivQw 


Tuv ^' 01 fjisv ^i^v(roio [JLsraKX£VH(n y^vB^'hYiv ^ 
"^cciJLiJLov evymiJLWTri(n Xoc^ctiyonsg iidKzKr^nr 
'O/ <J" l?^g v(pQ(/)(n Kivs^ysag' ot J" &Xe<poLvr(*iv ■ 
A^yv(psisg 'UT^Kr&svTa.g vzo^v^(nr- o^onag, 

HTTa ^-fi^vKKa y'h<x,viCY\v hi^ov., yi a,^ciy.cinoi 


Ka/ yXvKs^riv cl^jlb^vtov v7rir,gSfJLC(, tfTo^pv^saG-civ.- 
Yloinoioi/ yoL^ yoLiCL ^zt o.v^^clti.i' oKbop as^Bij 
Asvccoig 'WoroifJ.oKn y.a.T7.'^'^u7Qg bv^ol kcli su^ix. . 
Ka; fJLYjV KCLi Kei^ixivzg olsl KOfxcjcin 'uTBTrP'^oi;. 

Kat TJi^ ^Bv 'VTqXKoi ts hcii o?Joioi av^^sg Byyriv^ 

*' Ad V. 1107. AiXTtiTo ^pvixci 'fep'^ai (oi If /o(") ■zj-apoiTrAva-icv ASto^i. The 
Schoiiaft fuppoks tlie complexion to have arilen from the climate. Eto"* Se /AeAavxg- 
toi Ti-'f aA/\«:' ai'DpaJTTwr, -wAn" AiOioireL'v, ' 

^tXcaS'oi o< IvSqi jcccl (piAop^y^ Ibid. 

22A. The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Ovy diJLX voLiBtoLovTBi; o[Ji,mvfj,Qi, aXKoL ■hctfjL'pig 

^v^ofJLsvov hy^sroLi 'W'h(j^roq vyistciv 'TiJ*ao*;ni?. 
Toig S' B7ti KOLi KojipYig T^iTog strTTSZoii a^yv^o^iprig, 
Tm h fX£(roi }/ciiH(n . 2a^a; koli To^iT^oi OLV^eg, 
XkoS^oi J" s^sirig' stti J" i<T7rsrc(.i ccy^icx, (pvXa, 
'^5 YlsuKOLysodv. Msra tb? ^s Airnvrtra ^s^aironBg 

AoLi^ccT^sr.v 'TTT.oLng ts (ps^ei, ^skog rs MsyoL^fag^ 
AoL^^oTCLTOi 'uroTa.[jiCiov aTTo J" a^sog H/^wooio 

U§og vorov sX^ofJiSPoi 'UTcl^ol re^fxoLTa KooXi^og airig, 


HA<foo?, Td'^ivoKn ^v<r£[jjQCiTog oimoKri* 
TivBKx i^iv KOLI (p.oorsg BTr^KKsmTLV Ao^nv. 
JEfi ^g Tig ^mTog svppBiTriv 'UTol^ol Vctyyiriv 
Xoo^og TiiJLTtBig ts koli h^og^ ^ qv 'urors Botfc^og 
Qv^jLO-ivm s7rx7ri(r£Vy ot YiK7\oL'r<rovTo ^bv ol^^oli 
AnvoLm VB^^ihg eg oLTi^t^cLg, sg Js cri^^QV 

** Adv. 1 138. 'Ot Aap^aveti, IvS'tx.ov sdvoi' 61 fxivroi Aup^avoi Tpu'iKoy. Dardan 
was the original name of each people: it fignified little what termination the Greeks 
were pleafed to. affix. 

*' Adv. 1 143. TJivxavecev — 'E^ oiTlivicaAsii. Peuce at the mouth of 

the Danube. 

— Alarlcum babara Peuce 

Peuca-On, and Peuce-El. 

See here accounts of Aornis and Aornon — probably a metathefis for Ouranon. 
** Ad. V. 1 153. 'O^x Ss x.ofJi.7rov'EAA)jnKov. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 225 

©v^(rQi fjLctifjLoo.wnOy Kai si; (rTrsi^i-j^jLoc ^^a.H.ovTmy 
Xod^^eg 3"', sKiKsg ts, 'uroTwyvoL^TCTYig sKifoio, 
Trj/jLOi OT cc(p^ci^irj(n ^sa OLri^Ti(Ta.v so^t/jV. 
Thvskoc Nv<r(rciiirjV f.csv £(prj^i'^o(.no ksMv^ov' 
Ko<r[jL(t} $' ricrj<rcino (Tvv motriv o^yia, 'urany.. 

AVTOg (5", OTTTfOTS (pvXOL KSKCilVOOP CO?\S(reV h^Cx^Vy 

'EKiCBTiyA Hocoio fj.ByoLg poog (^y.eoLvoio. 
'EvQoL Jbo g-riAoLg ?ri<roLg 'urs^i Ts^ixara yciii]g, 

Tocr(roi [mbv koctcc yoLioLP vzs^raroi oLv^^sg boltiv, 
KKKoi (J" sy^cL koli su&a kxt rjTrsi^sg aKomrai 
Mv^ioiy 4g UK OL)) Tig a^L^p^ahoog OLyQ^sv(roi 
Qi/riTog soov fxsvoi h ^bqi fsa 'UTolvtol hvoLVJOLi, 
AvToi yct^ KOLi ur^oorct ^b^biXiol To^v(id(ra,nOj 
Ka; (ictdw oi^xov s^Bi^av a^JiBr^rfCQio ^cLhoLTiTrig' 
KvToi J" B^T^'s^a, 'Wanx |3<w ^isTSKixri^cinOj 
Ag-^cc ^lOLK^ivoLVTBg' B'iikY\^(ji(rcivro J" s/ia^rw 
yioi^oiv B'^Biv 'urovroio kch t^ttbi^qio (^ct&eirjg. 
Tw pa KOLi (0\KoiY\y pv(r[jL'd (pv<nv bXKol"^ img'ri, 

'H fJ(,BV yCL^ T^BVKY] TS KCLl '^^ OL^yiyQB<T<TCL TBTVKrdly 

*^ Adv. 1 176. To Se a^yivoiaaavy y^aifiTcti xat aypiXoecra-ai', Stoc. tj Accu^S'cc, 
ycarcc c^oi^ieMv avyyeveiccv. Ovtm yxp aai to virpoi'y ?vtrpoVy Ttai tov 'zo-ycvfA.oi'x, izKiv- 
u-ovx (puaiv 01 ArTmoi. 

Prifcian adds to the charadter of the Indians great fize and agility, and fpeaks of 
their philofophy and rites. 

Hie alii fuperant procero corpore tantum, 
Infiliantequitum faciles ut more elephantos. 
Aft alii vivunt fapienti pedlore nudi, 
Vol. III. G g Luminibufque 

226 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology^ 

HJ>i ya^ 'uroLT/ig ^jlzv BWB^^cLy.ov oi^^ol ^OLKy.(T<TYig'' 
H^Ti c5" rtTTSi^ocii (TKoXioi/ ^QOQv. AXhcf, ^01 vyjm 
Avrojv SK fJLCi/,oi^m ccvrc/.^iQ; Bir\ a.^oi'ori. 

Upon the banks of the great river Ind, 

The fouthern Scuthae dwell : which riv^er pays 

Its watery tribute to that mighty fea, 

Styled Erythrean. Far removed its fource,, 

Amid the ftormy cliffs of '^'' Caucafus : 

Defcending hence through many a winding valcj.. 

Luminibufqiie vident redis, mirabile, folem ; 

Et radios oculis et facra mente retradtant; 

Signaque concipiiint arcana luce futiiri. v. 1027. 
Of whales, v. 600. 
Of the Tigris ; 

T^KTiri Ttxpo^oimL Tif^nSoi'oi cyyui o^iuisv. 

Dionyf. Perleg. v. 982. 
According to this poet, Dionyfus was born in Arabia, v. 939. 

ZtW ccVTcv ^lovucrov t'j^'^a.(fioi •ma.oa. ixnpH' 
i. e. Chaldea, afcribed to Arabia, according to his limits. 
Of the v/ealch of Arabia. Ibid. 

*' Mount Caucafus in India was different from the mountain fo called upon the 
Euxine : there were more than one of this name. The poet Dionyfius makes the 
Tanais take its rife in Caucafus : 

Ta (/^ ijron^iiyxi fJLSv ev BpecTiKecvKamoKTt. v. 66^. 
The Tanais and the Indus cannot be fuppofed to have the fame fource. 

9 It 

The Analysis of Ancient Mytiiologv. 227 

It feparates vaft nations. To the weft 

The Oritae live, and Aribes : and then 

The Aracotii famed for linen geer. 

Next the Satraids ; and thofe, who dwell 

Beneath the. fhade of Mount Parpanifus, 

Styled Arieni. No kind glebe they own. 

But a wafle fandy foil, replete with thorn. 

Yet arc they rich : yet doth the land fupply 

Wealth without meafure. Here the coral grows^ 

Ruddy and fmooth : here too are veins of gold ; 

And in the quarries deep the fapphire's found, 

The fapphire, vying with the empyreal blue. 

To the eaft a lovely country wide extends, 

India; whofe borders the wide ocean bounds. 

On this the fun new rifing from the main 

Smiles pleafed, and fheds his early orient beam. 

The inhabitants are fwart ; and in their looks 

Betray the tints of the dark hyacinth, 

With moifture ftill aboundino- : hence their heads 

Are ever furnifh'd with the fleekeft hair. 

Various their funcflions : fome the rock explore. 

And from the mine extract the latent gold. 

Some labour at the woof, with cunning fkill, 

And manufafture linen : others fhape, 

And poliili, ivory with the nicefl care : 

Many retire to rivers fhoal ; and plunge 

To feek the beryl flaming in its bed, 

Or glittering diamond. Oft the jafper's found 

Green, but diaphonous : the topaz too, 

G o- 2 Of 

228 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Of ray ferene and pleafing : laft of all 

The lovely amethyft, in which combine 

All the mild Hiades of purple. The rich foil, 

Wafhed by a thoufand rivers, from all fides 

Pours on the natives wealth without controul. 

Here mighty meadows, ftretch'd out wide, produce 

Herbs ol all fpecies, trees of every leaf.. 

The fucculent grafs, ftyled cenchrus, here abounds, 

And yields redundant pafture. High above 

Wave the tall groves of Erythrean '^^ cane, 

Sweet to the fenfe and grateful. .. ...... 

Nor is this region by one people held : 
Various the nations under different names. 
That rove the banks of Ganp-es and of Ind. 


Lo, where the ftreams of Acafme pour. 
And in their courfe the ftubborn rock pervade 
To join the Hydafpcs ! here the Dardans dwell ; 
Above whofe feat the river Cophes rolls. 
The fons of '* Saba here retired of old : 
'' And hard by them the Toxili appear, 
Join'd to the Scodri : next a favage cafl, 
Yclcp'd Peucanian,- Then a noble race, 

*~ Ad V. 1127. Eufl'.ithius of thefe eanes or reeds: p^a; xaAa;,M.a.'i — t<) i \-/i<jii 
yKvtciiOi:- — y.a?ia.iJ.zi 'x :,i'sat /j.iP'.i, y-iXiaaon y.v Hcrcov., 

*^ Ad V. 1 141. Gcner. c. 10. v. 7. And the fons of Chus, Sal^a, and Haz-ilah, and 
£abtc.h, &c. 

People of this name lay alfo to the weft of the Indus, towards the extreme part of 

TlpvTx IccCxi, uiTcc T«? cTe-riaaai^aJ^af. Perieg. v. 1069. 
Upon which pafraj;e Euilathiiis obferves, HfT<xv oettai £^roi&pa.y.tx.ov 'XccSci. 

The fame poet mentions a people of this name in Arabia. 

MiiiKiot Tf, 2«^x( Tiy Kxi «y^L')vsi KA£Taf«!'j/. V. 959. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 229 

Who ftyle themfelves Gargarid^e, and fhew 

To Dionufos a peculiar care. 

Near a fair ftream their happy lot is fallen, 

Where the fwift Hypanis and Megarfus fpeed 

From Mount Hemodus to Gangetic Ihores, 

Fraught as they run with the rich feeds of gold. 

Not far from hence, but near the fouthern maiuj 

The limits of the country Colis reach, 

By others Colchis named. Here towering fteep. 

The rock Aornon rifes high in view. 

E'en to the mid-air region : not a bird 

Of boldeft pinion wings this fubtile clime. 

There is moreover, wonderful to tell. 

In the rich region, which the Ganges laves, 

A pafs efteemed moft facred : this of old 

Bacchus is faid, in wrathful mood, diftrefs'd. 

To have travers'd, when he fled: what tmie he chano-ed 

The foft Nebrides for a fhield of brafs ; 

And for the Thyrfus, bound with ivy round. 

He couched the pointed fpear. Then firf!: were feen 

The zones and fillets, which his comrades wore. 

And the foft pliant vine-twigs, moving round 

In Icrpentine direction, chang'd to afos. 

Thefe fads lay long unheeded : but in time. 

The natives quickened paid memorial due;, 

And call the road Nufaia to this day. 

Soon as the lovely region was fubdued 

By the God's prowefs, glorying down he came 

From Mount Hemodus to the circling fea, . 


230 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Tliere on the flrand two obelifks he reared, 
High and confpicuous, at the world's "^^ extreme. 

To enumerate all, who rove this wide domain 
Surpafles human pow'r : the Gods can tell, 
The Gods alone : for nothing's hid from Heaven. 
Let it fufRce^ if I their worth declare. 
Thefe were the firfh great founders in tlie world. 
Founders of cities and of mighty '° flates : 
Who fhewed a path through feas^ before unknown : 
And when doubt reign'd and dark uncertainty, 
Who rendered life more certain. They firft viewed 
The ftarry lights, and torm'd them into fchemes. 
In the firft ages, when tkc fons of men 
Knew not which way to turn them, they afligned 
To each his juft department : they beftowed 

*' Ad V. 1 164. He mentions thefc obelifks or pillars io another place, y. 623. 

EfOa Ti XXI ij-ijAai ^nSoii') evios /lioruay 
Hq' ■mvfj.a.Toio -wxpoc fioov ooxiaroio; 
JiSctiv uq-ccTioiaiv iv ypeaiv' evux. reTayyiji 

At India's verge extreme, on hills remote. 

Where the proud Ganges pours the facred flream 

Nufean call'd, and joins thefouthern wave. 

Beneath a grove of ftately plane arife 

The lofty pillars of this arc-born God. 
The poet confounds Dionufus with Bacchus, as many others have done. 

Q;iScx,iy€i'ni is Arc-born : it alludes to the Patriarc's prefervation and fccond 
birth in the arc. The Greeks interpreted this, hrn at Thebes. Hence Dionufus 
was made a native of Bceotia. 

-° Dionyfius feems in this paflage to fpeak of the Gods : but thofe, who by the 
ancients were ftyled Gods, were the AOaiaro;, Axifji.ovif, 'HA/ac(f a/, the heads ot the 
Cuthite family, who performed, what is here mentioned. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 231 

Of land a portion, and of fea a lot j 
And fent each wandering tribe far ofF to (liare 
A different foil and climate. Hence arofe 
The great diveriity, fo plainly feen 

Mid nations widely fevered 

Now farewell 

Ye fhores and fea-girt illes : farewell the furge- 

Of ancient Nereus, and old Ocean's ftream. 

Ye fountains too, and rivers ; and ye hills. 

That wave with fhady forefts, all farewell. 

My way I've fped through the wide pathlefs deepj 

By the bluff cape and winding continent : 

'Tis time to feek fome refpite and reward. 

Such is the charadler given by the poet Dionyiius of the 
Indian Cuthites under their various denominations. It is to 
be obferved, that the fons of Chus, however they may be 
diftinguifhed, whether they be ftyled Orits, Arabians, Ethio- 
pians, or Erythreans, are in all places celebrated for fcicnce. 
They were fometimes called Phoinices : and thole of that 
name in Syria v/ere of Cuthite extradlion ; as I have before 
fhewn. In confequence of this, the poet, in fpeaking of 
them, gives the fame precife charafter, as he has exhibited 
above, and fpecifies plainly their original. 

5' Oi J' aAo? syyvg sone^j sTrocwfjUYiv ^-oiHKsg, 


'' Dionyf. Perieg. v. 905. He adds, v. 910. 

'Oi T loirrv^ y.cii TaC,a.v, EAcciJ^ct t' fi'vaiaa't. 
He does not diftinguifh between the Pliiliftim and the true Phoinices, who were of a 
different family. The former were the Caphtorim, of the Mizraim race -, the latter 
Cuthites, of wliom he fays truly, v. 911. that they poffefled, 



210 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


Oi 'ur^'jLiroi VYisTO'iP £7rs/^»ica^T0 ^ccKa,(r<rYjg, 


Ka/ jSa^yy a^avioov oc^^wv 'gto^ov s(p^(x,(r(roLVTo, 

Upon the Syrian fea the people live, 

Who ftyle themfelves Phenicians. Thefe are fprung 

From the true ancient Erythrean.ftock ; 

From that fage race, who firft afTay^d the deep. 

And wafted merchandize to coafts unknown. 

Thefe too digefted firil the ftarry choir ; 

Their motions mark'd, and call'd them by their names. 

Here they mixed wich thefons of Canaan. 

[ 233 ] 

O F 

E G Y P T, 



in that Country. 

I Have mentioned, that there were two memorable occur- 
rence^ in ancient hiftory, which the learned have been 
apt to consider as merely one event. The firft was a regular 
migration of mankind in general by divine appointment : 
the fecond was the difperlion of the Cuthites, and their ad- 
herents, who had a£led in defiance of this ordination. Of 
the confequences of their apoftafy I have taken notice ; and 
of their being fcattered abroad into different parts. The Miz- 
raim feem to have retired to their place of allotment a long 
time before thefe occurrences : and were attended by their 
brethren the fons of Phut. They had no fhare in the rebellion 
of the Cuthites ; nor in the Titanic war, which enfued. 
The country, of which they were feized, was that, which 
Vol. III. H h in 

234 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

in aftertimes had the name of Upper Egypt. They called 
it the land of Mezor, and the land of Cham, from their two 
chief anceftors : which the Greeks rendered ' Mefora, and, 
' Chamia. The lower region was at that time in great mea- 
fure a morafs, and little occupied. The Caphtorim had 
made fome fettlements between Mount Cafius and Pelulium; 
but were obliged to quit them, and retire to '' Paleftina. In 
procefs of time, the Mizraim were divided into feveral great 
families, fuch as the Napthuhim, Lehabim, Ludim, Pa- 
thrufim, and others. They lived chiefly upon the lotos of 
the Nile, and the herb agroftis : and fheltered themfelves 
under fheds of mean workmanfliip, which they thatched 
v/ith the flags of the "^ river. In procefs of time, they began 
to feed upon flfli, which the fame ftream afforded ; and; 
were cloathcd with the {kins of beafts. They held the river 
in high reverence ; and fuppofed, that man had fomehow a 
relation to ^ water. It is probable that fome centuries lapfed,. 
while they proceeded in this iimple way of life, feparated in a 
imanner from the world, and unmolefled by any foreign; 
power. At lafl the Titanic brood, the Cuthites, being 

' The land of Egypt is called Meftre, MfT/Jvby.Joreph'js. Aiu. L. i. c. 7. a!fo. 
lAic^-'fUicc. Stephanus llyles Egypt Muara, which is certainly, a miftake for Mufara, 
Mverapa, th': land of Myfor. Cairo by the Arabs is now called Mefer, and Ivlelrc.. 
SeeLeoAfricanus. L. 8. 

■' The land of Ham by the lonians, and later writers,. was exprefled Chemia. A/— 
yv-TTTOv yi)iiJLioLV xxAbai. Plutarch. If. et Ofir. p. 364. By Sttphaniis it is com-., 
.pounded, and rendered Hermo-Chumius, 'E^/oco-Xvftfos, in the mafculine. The CoptL 
call it Chemi at this day. 

- Amos. c. 9. V. 7. Jeremiah, c. 47. v. 4. 

"■ Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. 41. OiXnamS'A tuv xaAafJiaiv, 

' Ibid. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 235 

driven from Babylonia, fled to different parts: and one very 
large body of them betook themfelves to Egypt. Eupo- 
iemus fpeaks of their diilipation, and calls them giants, 
* Ylsronog h mrs (th Hv^ys) vwo tyi; T3 Qsh svs^ysioig, tov; 
ViycLvroLQ hoLU'7:ao-f\voii naff ohtiv rr^v yr]V, Whe?i the tower of 
Babel was by the hand of Heaven overthrown^ the Giajits were 
fcattered over the face of the earth. We may perceive, from 
what has preceded, that they were a knowing and expe- 
rienced people ; of a family, which had been long engaged 
in oppofition, and tried in fome fevere conflicts. As they 
had maintained themfelves by a grand confederacy, they 
knew how to obey, and were fenfible of the advantages of 
being under one head. It is then no wonder, that a people 
well difciplined, and united, fhould at once get the fove- 
reignty over a nation fo rude and unexperienced as the Miz- 
raim. They took Memphis with eafe, which was then the 
frontier town in Egypt. This they held folely to them- 
felves ; and afterwards overran the whole region above, and 
kept it in fubje6tion. Manethon therefore might very truly 
fay, paJ/w^ y.oa a.^<iyT{Ti rr^v "Xoo^ccv kiXov. They feized the 
country without the leaf oppofition : 7iot a fi?igle battle was ha- 
zarded. There are many fragments of ancient hiftory, 
which mention the coming of the Cuthites from Babylonia 
into the land of Mizraim ; and the country changing its 
name. An account of this fort is to be found in Suidas. 
He tells us, that ^ Rameffes, the f on of Belus (of Babylonia) 


* Apud Eufeb. Prrep, Evang- L.-g. p. 418. Diodoriis mentions that there was a 
gigantic brood in the time of Ifis. L. i. p. 23. 

' Afj-t/TTTOs, orofca Kv^iov' xat n l^wfa Twy AiyuTrrtcov' oii a<p.xgTo PajjUf 7(7H«, via 

HJ12 BMa, 

•2-26 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

-sho was thefo?! of Zeuth^ came i?ito the rsgion called Mejlrcea^ 
a7id gained the fo-vereignty^ over the people of the cotmt7j. He 
was the pe?fo?iy whom they afterwards called j^gyptus \ and 
the region was denominated from him. Others fay, that it was 
* Sethos ; others that it was Belus, who was called ^gyp- 
tiis ; and that from him the country had its name. ' B;i?vO? 
Tuq MsKoc^JLTro^ag '^si^O'JG'a.y.svog ap bolvth ty\v yy^^oLV cojTm mo- 
^OLfTcV AiyvTTTOV. Beliis having conquered the Mizraim^Jlyled 
Melampodes^ called the country^ after one of his own titlesy 
^gyptus. In all thefe cafes I have fhewn, that for a fingu- 
lar we mufl: put a plural; and by Belus underftand a people 
ftyled Beleidffi, who came from Babylonia. Manethon, who 
was an Egyptian, gives the moft particular account of their 
inroad. I'f^e had once^ '° fays he, a king named Titnaus^ i?i 
whofe reig7t^ I know not why^ it pleafed God to vifit us with a 
hlafl of his difpleafure, when of. a fudden there came upon this 
country^ a large body of obfcure people (to yg^Of acrrjfJLOi) from 
the eafl ; who with great boldtiefs invaded the land, and took it 
without oppoftion. The chief of our people they reduced to obe- 
dience, afid then in a mofl cruel manner fet fire to their towns ; 
and overturned their tejnples. Their behaviour to the natives 
was very barbarous : for they fiaughtered the men, and made 
flaves of their wives a?id childreji. At le7igth they conjlituted 

E«Ay TS y.cci /Im'-, m MeTpa/af, i^xrnXiV(yiTtt3V txn' or fxtre>}v:)fJLcc(Tat.v Aiyvinov' a.(p ov 
At')V7rToiy) ^ccpx. See alfo Eufebii Chron. p. 29. 'Pxf/.£acnn—~o Aiyvmoi x«Afc'-- 

* AiyjTnoiien xr^'^xi->tM^i)OLTro'i»(ia.<TiXiuii'S,i^c>K. Theoph. ad Autolycum. p. 
:59 2. There feems, to be fome miftake in this biftory j for Sethos was a king of later 

9 Scholia in Mk\\. Prometh. p. 52. 

'" Jofephus contra Apion. L. i. p. 444- 

7 ^''^^ 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 237 

one of their body to be their hiiig ; whofe na??te was Salatis. He 
rejided at Memphis^ holdi7ig all the Upper and Lower country 
tributary ; and having gar r if on s in every place of cotifequence. 
He took particular care to fecure evejy part to the eaf ; as the 
Aj]yria7is were then very powerful \ and he forefaw^ that they 
would one tifne or another make an attempt upofi his kingdom. 
And having obferved a city^ %vhich lay particularly commodious 
in the nome of SdtSy to the eaf of the Bubafite river ^ which 
was called Avar is (a tta^ne^ that had fome relation to the an- 
cient mythology of the cowitry)\ he fet about fortifying it in the 
flrongefi 7?la^^7^er ; placi7ig /;/ it a garrifo7i of two hundred and 
forty thoufand 77ien. Hither he reforted i7i fuj7i7ner to receive 
the corn, which he exaBed ; a77d to pay his arjny : a7id at the 
fajne ti7ne to 7/mke a pew of exercifmg and difcipli7ti7ig his 
troops, by way of terror to other nations. He afterwards gives 
an account of fix kings, who are reprefented as in a co7iti- 
nual fate of hoftility with the natives ; and who fee7ned to la- 
bour, if pojfble, to root out the ve7y na7ne of an Egyptian. 
The Shepherds are faid to have maintained themfelves in 
this fituation for five hundred and eleven years. At laft the 
natives of Upper Egypt rofe in oppofition to them, and de- 
feated them under the condudl of king Halifphragmuthofis. 
They afterwards beleaguered them in their firong hold Ava- 
ris ; which feems to have been a walled province, contain- 
ing no lefs than ten thoufand fquare " Aroursc. Here they 


K«TaxA£/o-6nra< J' m roTrov, aoy^cov i^ovto, fMoioov r-nv 7ripin.?rp'.i/' Auxctv oyoucc. 
Tx roTTu. Jofeph. cont. Ap. L. i. p. 445, Avaris was the city y\ur, the Cercafora 
of Grecian writers, at the apex of Delta. Abaris was properly Abarim, the city of 
the pafTage near the mountain of Arabia. Thefe two places are continually con, 


J3S' The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

maintained themfelves for a long fpace : but at laft under 
Tluimolls, the fon of the former king, they were reduced to 
luch ftraits, as to be glad to leave the " country. 

In the courfe of this hiftory Manethon tells us, that the 
whole body of this people were called Ucfous, or, as '' Eu- 
febius more truly exprelTes it, TKovfToog^ Ucoufos. This term 
is analogous to Ufiris, Uchoreus, and many other titles in 
Egypt ; and undoubtedly means the Noble "^ Cufean. Ma- 
nethon gives another interpretation ; but owns, that Uc in 
the facred language fignified fomething Royal. Tk kol^' Is^olv 
yX^^TOLV /Sacr/Asa crj/JLCLivsu Hence we may learn for certain, 
what was meant by the facred language ; and confequently, 
what was alfo the facred chara(5ler in Egypt: and be alTured, 
that they were the ancient Ethiopic, or Chaldaic : for the 
original Ethiopia was no other than Chaldea. This writer 
adds, Tivsg Js KsyH(nv otVTsg A^a^ctg sii/OLi : but fome fay, that 
they were Arabians, This is a title of the fame purport; fof 
the Arabians were originally Cuthites, or Ethiopians. Hence 
the province of Cufhan in Egypt, the fame as the land of 
Gofhen, was called the Arabian nome ; which was the beft 
of the land of Egypt. They were alfo ftyled Hellenes, 
Phoenices, Auritss ; the laft of which titles is of great con- 
fequence in the hiftory and chronology of the country. The 

founded. Avaris was from UN, the city of Onus: Abu. is from "13y, fo denomina- 
ted from being fitiiated in the palTage into Upper Egypt, and guarding that pafs. 
li was probably the fame, which was afterwards called Eibylon. The two places 
■vvcrc very near, which makes the miftake of more confcquence, 

" Manethon apud Jofephum fupra, 

'' Prssp. Evang. L. 10. p. 500. 

*+ See Vol. I. p. 76. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 239 

people fo called were the firll who reigned in Egypt : and" 
with them the hiftory of that people muft commence. 
Syncellus, who follows the ancient Chronicle, in fpeaking of 
the dynafties in the Egyptian chronology, mentions the Au- 
rits as the firft who reigned. '^ Il^itjrop rm Avoirm. They 
were tlie fame as the 'lAtxi^soi, Semidei, who are placed in the 
fame rank. 

We are told by Manethon, that the whole body of this, 
people had the appellation of Royal Shepherds. But I 
ihould imagine, that this title was more particularly given, 
to their kings ^ who, by Africanus and others are flyled the 
'^ Hellenic and Royal Shepherds. It was a mark of diftinc- 
tion, which they borrawed from their anceilors in Babylo- 
nia ; among whom it feems to have been common. '^ It is 
remarkable, that the firft tyrant upon earth mafked his vil- 
lainy under the meek title of a Shepherd. If we may credit 
"the Gentile writers, it was under this pretext, that Nimrod 
framed his oppoiition, and gained an undue fovereignty over 
his brethren. He took to himfelf the name of Orion, and 
Alorus ; but fubjoined the other abovementioned : and gave 
out that he was born to be a prote6tor and guardian: or, as 
it is related from Berofus ; '* rovh vttb^ Bo^vT'd 7\oyov hoLO'dvai^ 
oti fjLiy T3 ?^s(^ IIOIMENA Qbo; cL7:ohi^oLi. He fpread a 
report, abroad-,, that God had marked him out for a Shepherd to 
his people.. Hence, this title was affunied by other kings of 

'' Syncellus. p. 51. 

'* 'EK^tatSixciTn ivvacfiict TloifxivSi 'E^vXvvii (ioLijiKiti. . SyncellLi.s p. 6 1 . 
'^ ncrf/.i:si ot (Scca-iAeii Myoi'Tat, Scholia In iEichyli Perfa.s, v. 74. I am the 
Lord, that faith of Cyrus, he is my Shepherd. Il'aiah. c. 44. v. 28. 
'' Abydenus apud Eufeb. Chron. p. 5.. 

a> ' the 

240 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the country, as may be feen in the '' Chaldaic hiftory: and 
from them it was borrowed by thofe of the family, who 
came into Egypt. It was a favourite appellation : and by 
this they may be traced, both here, and in every *° fettle- 
ment which they made. All their anceftors were efteemed 
of this profeflion : and moft of their Gods were ftyled, 
NopoJ iCOLi Iloi(JLSVsgy Pajlors and Shepherds ; particularly 
Dionufus, Orus, Pan, Zeuth, and Ofiris. An ancient writer, 
alluding to the Cuthites in Egypt, and to their iirft king, 
ftyles the latter Telegonus, a foreigiier j one that ca7ne frotn 
a far cotmtry : and he defcribes him as the fon of Orus, the 
Shepherd. " Sub Acherre, in jEgypto regnavit Telegonus, 
Ori Pajloris filius. The name Acherres is a compound of 
Heres, pronounced Cheres, and Cherres, the Sun. Moft of 
the primitive occurrences in Egypt are appropriated to the 
reigns of Apis, Orus, Vulcan, Timaus, the fame as Tamus 
and Thamuz. Thefe were all facred titles, and did not re- 
late to any particular king. For notwithftanding the boafted 
antiquity, and the endlefs dynafties of the Egyptians, they 
had in reality no king of the country to whofe time thefe 

'' AXoffou {iiTot'NiSpccl) UoiiJ.ivct. iloia3i-7roifj.Yiv. Abydenus. Ibid. Aa,aivc.vTloif/.€vot 
[ZccatMuo-cci. Apollodoi-Lis. ibid. p. 5. This title was probably borrowed from the 
cluirch of God. The Deity feems from the moft early times to have been reprefented 
as the Shepherd of his people. This was retained by thofe, who were apoftatcs from 
the truth. They gave it to the Gods, which they introduced -, and aflumed it them- 
felvcs. Many types and allufions were borrowed from the fame quarter. 

*' It obtained in Greece. Hence no/w))r/3a<riA£i;?. n2ifj.oiyo}p,'STo:f/.r,v,v,Qxai}\eus. 
Hefych. rioifjicciuo, n fcccfxiXiui. Scholia in Perfas ^Efchyli. v. 2+1. 

-' Eufebii Chron. Hieron. Interprete. p. 14. 

" Syncellus expreffes it Acheres, p. 155. 

Acheres, like Uchorus, is probably a compound of Ach or Uch, and Heres ; the 

.The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 24.1 

Fads could be referred. Their iirft monarchs were certainly 
the Cuthites ftyled Aiiritce, who built the city Aur, called 
Avaris, in the land of Golhen, and nome of Heliopolis. 
Tclegonus is above faid to have been the offspring of a 
Deity : for it was ufual tor perfons to be denominated the 
children of the God, whom they worfliiped. From hence 
it arofe, that this foreigner was ftyled the fon of Orus ; and 
his people in like manner were called the Oritce or Auritoe ; 
as I have mentioned before. They likewiie efteemed them- 
felves the offspring of Zeuth : and are faid to have been the 
firft after the Gods, who reigned in Egypt. Thefe Gods 
were no other than their principal anceftors ; whofe names 
were in aftertimes prefixed to the lifts of their kings. Alex- 
ander the Great, in a very large letter to his mother Olym- 
pias, takes notice of this intelligence, which he had extorted 
from one of their priefts. He learned from this perfon the 
fecret hiftory of the country : and among other things, that 
after Hephaiftus, or Vulcanus, fucceeded the offspring of 
Zeuth. Thefe were deified men, to whom divine honours 
were paid ; and who were the Dasmones and 'HfJLi^Boi of 
alter ages. "' Alexander ille magnus, Macedo, infigni volu- 
mine ad matrem fuam fcripfit, metu fuce poteftatis proditum 
fibi de Diis hominibus, a facerdote fecretum. lUic Vulca- 
num facit omnium principem ; et poftea Jovis gentem. 

However they may have degenerated afterwards, their 
religion at firft was the pureft Zaba'ifm. They worihiped 
the fun and moon, and other celeftial bodies : but had no 
images ; nor admitted any refemblance by way of adoration. 

*' Minucii Felicis Oclavius. 163. 

Vol. III. I i The 

242 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The Egyptians Teem to have been quite the reverfe ; and 
were lapfed into a grofs fpecies of idolatry. This was the 
reafon, when the Ciithites came among them, that they 
ruined their temples, and overthrew their altars ; not being 
able to bear the bafcnefs of their fuperftition. They were 
however of great fervice to this people ; and compenfated 
for the evil, which they are faid to have brought upon them. 
Their hiftory is continually alluded to by ancient writers, who 
point out the country, from whence they came. Eufebius 
takes notice of a tradition of the Ethiopians arrival in thefe 
parts : and fays, that they came from the river ^* Indus. I 
have fliewn, that the Tigris was the original river called 
Indus : that the Choafpes, a branch of it, was faid, '^ £A;i£/j/ 
h^ov v^ciCP, to furnip a7% Indie fir ea7}t : and this name came 
from the fons of Chus ; who both in thefe parts, and in 
others, where they fettled, were peculiarly ftyled Indi. 
Stephanus Byzantinus, fpeaking of the ancient names of 
Egypt, among others mentions, that it was called ""^ Mufara, 
and Aetia ; which laft it received from one Actus, a7i hi- 
diaft. I have taken notice, that the name ^gyptus was 
from the fame quarter; and that it was conferred by a fon 
of Belus ot Babylonia. Euftathius gives a like account of 
the ancient names of Egypt : and fays, that it was called 

'* Anioirii a-roh'Ss -z^ro-rxuB ca.ixq'ct.yTii -zspii tyi AiyuTTTK i^xvaccv. Eufeb. Chron, 
p. 26. Syncellus. p. 151. 

Ai9o7raf Toivuv l—opaiTt -mocarBi aTravnov yeyovsuxi, xxi ra? ccTroi^ei^eis rovruv if/.(^oL- 
rsis eivai. — ^ocai Je nai tb; AiyvTrribi /zToixm Ixin^v uTup^^ui; Oaipi-^oi riynacciJ^va- 
T/!? ctTT'AKia;. Diodorus Sic. L,. 3. p, 143. 14.4. 

*' Dionyf. 'zueoiyiym. v. 1074. 

** Mucc^x (read Mva-apx) — kxi Aeria, ccttq r^yoi hSij Aets. See alfo Scholia in 

Dionyf. v. 239. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 243 

Aetia from one Actus, an Indian. He adds, that it was alfo 
called Ethiopia from a body of Ethiopians, who fettled there, 
^^7 'nrs^i ecu 'TSTqKMi t&jv 'GToCKoluxv Ig-o^HTi : of whom many of the 
aiicknt hiflorians make mentmi. They miglit well take no- 
tice of them ; for their arrival was a wonderful a^ra, and 
much to be remembered in the annals of iEgypt. Though 
they behaved in a tyrannical manner, yet they performed 
mighty works, and benefited the country greatly. Their 
very oppreffion obliged the Mizraim to exert themfelves; 
and afforded them an opportunity of improving both in li- 
terature and arms. Hence the latter v/ere of neceflity en- 
riched with much knowledge, to which otherwife they had 
been ftrangers. 

At the time, when the Cuthite Ethiopians arrived. Lower 
Egypt v/as in great meafure a ~'^ morafs : but under their di- 
rei5tion it was drained by numerous canals ; and rendered 
the mofl beautiful country in the world. They carried a 
fluice with vaft labour from the Pelufiac branch of the Nile 
to the weflern sulf of the Red Sea. Part of it remains at 
this day ; and paffes through Grand Cairo towards Matarea, 
and is kept up with *^ great care. The chief of the pyra- 
mids at Cochome were eredled by them. Herodotus men- 
tions a tradition of their being built in the time of the 

^' Ex/*i/)9/) Si -uraTS xxtx T'liv iq-ofioct' r\ TOiuvTit ^jiwa, xcci Aipict, xa.1 rioTafxtcc, v.c/a 
AibiOTist. Six Ttib ixet A.6.0T«.', xrA. Euftath. in Bionyf. ad v. 239. See Eukbii 
Chron. p. 29. 

KaG.iAy ") ctp TW vvv Hcrcii' AtyuTTT'jy Kiyicnv a '^(ccfxv, aAAa S-ocAaTTar yiyovevxi 
jctA. Diodor. L. 3. p. 144. 

TloifToc. n ^w^cx. 'jroTcc!JLo')(y~ci. Ibid. 

(?ccXa7(Tcc')ccp;iv V AtyuTTTo?. Pint. If. et Ofiris. p. ^567. 

"' See Pocock, and Norden's Travels in Egypt. 

I i 2 Sheoherd 

244 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Shepherd ^°Philitis, when Egypt was under great calamities;: 
when princes reigned, whofe names were held by the peo- 
ple in abomination. The modern Arabs have accounts oP 
their being built by ^' liin Ebn Ian. By this is fignified,. 
that they were conftrudted by the lonim, the fons of that 
Ion, called lonas, and lonichus, of Babylonia. Juba in his 
hiftory took notice, that the city Heliopolis was not the 
work of the native Egyptians, but of ^^ Arabians ; by which 
name the fons of Chus are continually diftinguifhed. They 
raifed the moft ancient obelifks in Egypt; which were formed 
of one piece ; yet of an amazing fize : and the granate, of 
which they confift, is fo hard, that fcarcely any tool now-a- 
days can make an impreffion. Hence it is m^atter of won- 
der, how they were originally framed, and engraved. They 
are full of hieroglyphics, curioufly wrought ; which, as we 
learn from Cailiodorus, were ancient " Clialdaic characters.. 
Thefe were the facred characters of Egypt, known only to 
the ''""' priefts ; which had been introduced by. the Cuthite 

I have often taken notice of a common miftake among 
the Greek and Roman v/riters; who, when the facred terms 
grew obfolete, fuppofed the Deity of the temple to have 
been the perfon, by v/hom it was built. Thus it is faid of 

'° Ilerod. L. 2. c. 12S. 

'' HerbelotBiblioth. Oriental. 

" Plin. L. 6. p. 343. 

" Obelil'corum prolix-itas ad Circi altitudinem Iwblsvatiir : fed prior Soli, inferior 
Lunse dicatus eft : ubi facra prifcorum CbaldauJs fignis. quafi literis, indicantur.. 
Caffiodorus. L. 3. Epift. 2. and Epift. 51. 

Tliey had two forts of letters. Ai(fy.ixioi(7i Si ycauuxm ^^fi'j.irrai. Herod. L. 2.- 

c. 30. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 245 

the Chaldaic God Mithras, that he firft ere<5led the obelifks 
in Egypt. '"^ Primus omnium id (obelifcorum eredlionem) 
inftituit Mitres, qui in Solis Urbe regnavit, fomnio jufTus. 
Mitres was no other than Mithras, the fame as Arez, and 
Ofiris, who was greatly reverenced in the eaftern world. He 
did not reign at '^ Heliopolis ; but was there adored : nor 
did he raife the obelifks ; but they were eredled to his ho- 
nour. His rites were introduced into Egypt by the people 
abovementioned. But he was more commonly reprefented 
under the charadler of Ollris and Orus. Stephanus, in like, 
manner, fpeaks of Mithras, as a man, and joins him with 
Phlegyas. H!e fays, ^^ that thefe two were the authors of 
the Ethiopic rites and worJJjip : for they %vere by birth Ethio- 
pians : which people were the firfi natio7i C07jflitutecl in the 
world', and the firflj which enaSled laws, and taught im?i to 
reverence the Gods. All this is true of the Chaldaic Ethio- 
pians. A large body of this people fettled in Ethiopia 
above Egypt : and from their hiftory we may learn, how 
much the Egyptians were indebted to their anceftors. They 
in fome degree looked upon the Egyptians as a "'^ colony 
from their family : and lo far is true, that they were a 
draft from the great Amonian body, of which the Mizraim 
and the Cutliites v/ere equally a part. Nothing can more 

'^ Plin. L. 36. c. s. 

" By tliis however is pointed out tiie r.ome, in vvhich the Cuthites fettled ; the 
fame as Zoan, of which Gollien was a part. 

iy^YKTc^vTo. Oi':/-ta^yo"i 6i THi cciTi'd'i T8TWI/ MiGiac ptai 'I'Aeyucx.-.'f ociopxi Ki'Hjircf,^ to 
•)iroi. Steph. Byzanc. By this we find, that tiie fons of Chus, called here Ethiopians, . 
were the firfl confbituted people, and the authors of idolatrous rites. 
" ^^ao". Je An 'JTrr/ts ccTi-iX-Bj sa-jTc<;i' iJ,Tacp|^£;j'. Diodor. L. 3. p. 14..;., 

9 fatis- 

246 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fatisfadlorily prove, that the Ciithlte Ethiopians had been in 
Egypt, and ruled there, than the laws of the '^ country, 
which were plainly Ethiopic. And not only the laws, but, 
as we are afTurcd by " Diodorus, the rites of fepulture, and 
the honours paid to the ancient kings, their anceftors, were 
Ethiopic inftitutions. I have mentioned from Caffiodo- 
rus, that the facrcd characters upon the obelifks were of 
Chaldaic original ; which is the fame as '^° Ethiopic. In 
confirmation of this, Diodorus tells us, that thefe characters 
in Egypt were known only to a few, who were of the prieft- 
hood. But that in Ethiopia they were the national charaAer, 
and univerfally "^^ underftood. In fliort, this writer affures 
us, that the rites in both nations had a great refemblance, 
fo as to be nearly the '^' fame. The priefls in each were re- 
clufe, and given to celibacy. They alike ufed the tonfure, 
and wore a garment of linen : and they ufed to carry in 
their hands a fceptre, or ftaff, which at the top had tvttov 
a^or^osiS'r}, the 7'eprefentation of a plough ; undoubtedly in 
memorial of their anceftor, ol]/Q^(/}7:o; yr)^, the great hiijhafid- 
ma7i. Their bonnets, as well as thofe of their kings, were or- 
namented with figures of ferpents : for they held the ferpent 
as facred, and were addicted to the Ophite worfhip. 

Among the cities, which the Cuthites built in Egypt, 

'' Ta Si 'Zij?^ii^oc Tuv vofJLiiJLw Toti AiyuTntoii uTccf^iiv AiGisTixat. Diodorus. L. J. 

p. 144. 

" Ibid. 

*° Diodorus mal:es mention ASioynx.MV •yoocy.iJicx.rxv 7mv ij-a^' Aiyvmioti xctXa- 
f/.iva.^v '\ifoyXv(piXMi'. p. 145. 

■*■' riaocc Seroii AiUio^n- cc7ra.vTa,i rouTOti ^pncrooci roii tlittoi?. p. 144. 

■*' TaT£ (i'j^))}J.c(.i<x. Tcciv hpioov ■maoo(.7r?\j)a ioiv i^av tcc^w -urcipx Uf-'-poTepoii roa 
ihi7i. Ibid. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 247 

there was one in the nome called Men El Ai [MsusXcciTrig) , 
or Provincia Dei Luni. This city was called Canobus, and 
was oppofite to the ifland Arg^eus. The Grecians afcribed 
the building of this city to Menelaus of Sparta: but Ariftides 
allures us, that it was far prior to the aera, when that per- 
fonage was fuppofed to have been in Egypt. '^^ I was toldy 
fays this writer, from a prieji of confequence at Canobus^ that 
this place had its name^ many ages before the arrival of Mene- 
laus. He did not mention the name of the place fo articulately y 
as to give me an opportunity of exprejjing it in Grecian charac- 
ters. Befides^ it did Jiot correfpond with our idiom : nor was 
it round and f moot h ; but quite of the Egyptian cajl^ a7td hard 
to be uttered. 'Thus much I learned from him^ that it fignified 
a crolden foundation. I make no doubt but the term, upon 
which the prieft founded his notion, was Cuthim ; which 
undoubtedly fignifies gold : but at the fame time it is the 
plural of Cuth, and relates to the Cuthites. The later 
Egyptians did but very imperfedly underftand their original 
language ; and miiinterpreted their traditions. The original 
terms certainly fignihed a Cuthite foundation. They re- 
lated not to gold, but to the ^ Cuthim, who founded the 
city Canobus upon the lower and mofl wellern part oi Delta. 


*"' E^'W^g vxaacc iv Kat'ojScu ion' 'hpiuv ou ts q:xuhora.Td, on ixvpion iriii -zirporsp 
V Mivf^-xov Biceios TSTfoa^stv, to ^o^ptov aro)? ajro.wa^gro. x.a/ fcx avrixp-Ji fJ.iv s/Ve^g Trf- 
voixa, r'dT avTO, &)? ccToypaCpcci yp«,uu.acriv 'EAAwrmoJf:, aAA (a;t) »v //.£)' dmnp eu<ps- 
^ouiroi', y.cci "^€^17 pQ^ov, Aiyuiniov Se y.oc.i Svay^afxixxiov y.xAAov' Toi iv ■ni/.e-ripa 
q^air.^ S-nXoi -^^pvaow iia.%.%. Ariftid. Qratio iEgypt. vol. 3. p. 608. 

** The terms were probably d"13 pK, Adon Cuthim. They mp.v be inter- 
preted a golden foundation, or a Cuthite foundation, indifferently. Adon Cuthim 
may alio refer to Canobus, the God of the Cuthites. Adon Cuthim, Deus Cu- 

I o The 

248 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology. 

The facred emblems in ufe among this people were at 
firfl: innocent ; -but in time proved the iource of much fu- 
perflition. Many of thefe were taken from the forms of 
animals, by which they diftinguifbed both the titles and 
attributes of their Gods. By thefe means the Deity and the 
animal had the fame name: and the latter, in confequence of 
it, was entitled to much honour and reverence. As all their 
cities were denominated from fome God, they feem to have 
made ufe of thefe animals, as fo many devices, by which 
their cities were diftinguifbed. Hence we read of Lycopolis, 
Leontopolis, Latopolis, and the city of Mendes, the goat. 
The hawk, the ibis, the crocodile, the dog, were, all ufed 
for facred marks of diftindion. After the Cuthites had 
drained Lower Egypt, and had there built cities, it is pro- 
bable that every city had fome one of thefe facred emblems, 
reprefented in fculpture, either upon the gates, or upon the 
entablature, of their temples. This charadleriftic denoted 
its name, as well as the title of the Deity, to whom the 
place was facred. And the Deity in thofe cities was often 
worfliiped under fuch particular fymbol. This is plainly 
alluded to in fome of the poets. They have reprefented 
the difperlion of the fons of Chus from Babel, as the flight 
of the Gods into Egypt ; where they are fuppofed to have 
fheltered themfelves under the form of thefe facred animals. 
Ovid in particular defcribes this flight : and though he has 
in fome degree confounded the hiftory, yet the original pur- 
port may, I think, be plainly difcerned. What I allude to, 
is to be found in the fong of the Pica, when fhe. contends 
with the Mufes. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 249 

^^" Bella canit Superum ; falfoqiie in honore Gigantas 
Ponit, et cxteniiat magnorum fa6ta Deorum. 
Emifl'umque ima de fede Typhoea narrat 
Coelitibus fecifle metum ; cundlofque dedifTe 
Terga fug^e : donee feffos JEgjpt'm tellus 
Generit, et fepteni difcretus in oftia Nilus. 
Hue quoque Terrigenam veniffe Typhoea narrat, 
Et fe mentitis Superos celaiTe figuris. 
Duxque gregis, dixit, fit Jupiter : unde recurvis 
Nunc quoque formatus Libys eft cum cornibus AmmoD. ■ 
Delius in corvo, proles Semeleia capro, 
Fele foror Phcebi, nivea Saturnia vacca, 
Pifce Venus latuit, Gyllenius Ibidis alls, 

Ovid diftinguiflies between the Giants and the Gods, througii 
miftake. The Giants, or Titans, were the Deities, who fled; 
and Typhon, the fame as Typhceus, by which is meant di- 
vine vengeance, purfued them. The folution of the hiftory 
is obvious. It amounts to this : that the Cuthites fled from 
Typhon, or Typhceus ; and betook themfelves to Egypt, 
where they flieltered themfelves. Here they built many cities, 
where they inflituted the religion of their country : and 
where their exiled Deities were in aftertimes worfliiped un- 
der diflerent lymbols ; fuch as a ram, a lion, a ''* goat, and 
the like. Of thefe Deities I hav^e before taken notice ; and 
fhewn, that they were the chief anceflors of the Cuthites : 
from fome of whom the Egyptians v/ere equally defcended. 

■" Metamorph. L. 5. v. 319. 

** See Antoninus LibcFalis from Nicander, concerniniT the chanttes, which the 
Gods underwent upon their flight from Typhon into Egypt. Fab. 28. p. 145. 

Vol. III. K k Hence 

250 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Hence they alfo looked upon themfelves as the offspring of 
the Gods. *^ Oi (TopooTOLToi AiyvTTTioi, ^S(f)v dTroyovoi. 

It is extraordinary, that Manethon, in fpeaking of the 
CuthiteSj fliould deicribe them as ro ysvog ct(rYifjLOi, people of 
an ohfcure and ignoble race.- This cannot be rendered con- 
fiftent with their general charader. They were the defcen- 
dents -of perfons well known ; who were reprefented even by 
their enemies as a race of luperior beings. They were llyled 
Gods, and Demigods, and the children of Heaven. The 
Egyptians, who hated their tyranny, yet in fome degree re- 
vered their memory. They are called by Manethon the Royal 
Shepherds ; and are alfo ftyled PhcEnices, and Hellenes : 
which terms, whether they were underftood or not by the 
writers, who have tranfmitted them, were certainly titles of 
the higheft honor. They were a people who valued them- 
felves greatly upon their defcent ; and kept up the beft me- 
morials of their family. They pretended to be derived from 
the '^* Sun ; and were called Heliads, or the Solar Race. 
They were the defcendents of the original Titanians, who 
were fo highly reverenced by their pofterity ; and whom 
Orpheus addreffes, as the origin of the *' Hellenic nations. 
In confequence of this, I cannot help thinking, that what is 
rendered ccTYiy.og^ was an ancient term of a very different 
purport. Manethon wrote in Greek ; and being led by the 
ear, has chansed this word to one familiar to him in that 
language : by which means he has well nigh ruined a curious 

*'' Callifthencs apud Fabricium. vol. 14. p. 14^'- 

*' 'Pa^.go-o-Hi; 'HAis -LTaiC From Hermapion in Marcellinus. I,. 17. p. 126, 

*' Orphic. Hymn. 36. 

6 piece 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 251 

■piece of hiftory. What he has rendered Afemos, ignoble^ 
the Dorians would have exprelled Afamos ; which in the 
original was Afamah, noble and divine. By this was (ignified, 
that the Shepherds were of a ^° royal or celeftial race, the 
children of Heaven. Afamah was the name of the Deity 
among the Samaritans and Syrians. The God of Hamath was 
called ^' Afamah : and in the ancient Samaritan Pentateuch 
it is faid to have been made ufe of as the name of the true 
God : for inftead of the words, hi prijicipio creavit DeuSy 
there was fubfbituted, In pri?icipio a^eavit Afmjiah. Some 
think, that this is only a falfe imputation of the Jews, who 
hated the Samaritans. It may poffibly be falfe, that the term 
was thus applied : yet it fliews, that fuch a title certainly ex- 
ited, and v/as in ufe. The people of Hamath, who were 
tranfplanted into the land of Ifrael, built a city of this name, 
undoubtedly in honour of their country ^'' God. Selden ex- 
preffes it Alima; and affures us, that there was fuch a Deity. 
^' Deum fuilTe Alima, et facra ** Scriptura, et citatus Jofephi 
locus oftendunt. From the above I am inclined to think, 
that the original term related to ^^ Heaven ; and was of a 

^^ Analogous to (OUTI, Hafamenj of the Hebrews, which fignifies Princes. 

" Selden de Diis Syris. Syncag. 2. p. 252. 

Afama was the name of a river in Mauritania, Ptol. Geogr. L. 4. c. i. Fluvius 
facer, vel divinus. 

'* Afima oppidum in terra Judae, quod cedificarunt hi, qui ad earn venerant dc 
Emat. Hieron. in Locis Hebrjeis. Afama feems to be in purport the fame as Ou- 
fxro', ; and to relate to Sam and Samah, Ccelum. The prieils of this Deity were 
called Samansi •, and were to be found in many parts of the world. See Clemens 
Alexand. and others. 

" Selden de Diis Syris. Syntag. 2. c. g. p. 252. 

'* 2 Kings, c. 17. V. 30. 

" Analogous to Samah of the Arabians, NOiy. 

K k 2 different 

252 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

difFerent purport from that, by which it is rendered in Ma - 
nethon. It was a title, I imagine, common among the Sy- 
rians, and all the family of Ham. 

From fome circumftances not well explained in the hillory 
of the Cuthite Shepherds, Jofephus has been induced to 
think, that they were his anceftors ; and that the account 
given by Manethon related entirely to the fojournment of the 
Ions of Ifraei in Egypt. Sir John Marfham diffents from 
him ; and with good reafon : for the hiftories of the two 
people are repugnant, and can never be reconciled. Among 
other arguments, he takes notice, that the Ifraelites, when^ 
they came into Egypt, were in number but feventy ; whereas 
the Shepherds were two hundred and ^* forty thoufand^ 
The former were in a ftate of fervitude, and grievoufly op- 
preffed : but the latter excrcifed lordfhip ; and made the- 
whole land tributary. Add to this, that the Ifraelites were- 
detained ; and refufed the leave, they fued for, to depart.. 
The Shepherds would not go, till they were by force driven 
out of the country. Thefe arguments alone are of fuch 
force, as to fet afide the notions of Jofephus. Had he not 
been blinded with too great zeal for his countrymen, the 
author, from whom he quotes, aifords fufEcient evidence to 
overturn his hypotheiis. Manethon plainly fpeciiies two 
fets of people, one of which fucceeded to the other. The 
firfl were the Cuthite Shepherds from Babylonia: the fecond 
were the Ifraelites, who had the land g-iven to them, which 
the former had deferred. This Vvas the diftrid: of Auris, or 

'* Marlham's Chronol. Sec. 8. p. 101. and Sfc. 12. p. 309. Herman Witfius 
refers the hiftory of the Shepherds to Abraham. L. 3. p. 210. 

Avaris ^ 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 253 

Avians; which the Cuthites had fortihed, and in which they 
were finally befieged. After their departure, it was demo- 
liflied by king Amofis, as we are informed by Apion t 
57 KOLTS<TKci-^ri yoL^ T^v A'dOL^iv Afic^jfTLg. It was afterwards given; 
to the Ifraelites by Amenophis, who is reprefcnted as third 
inclufive from Amofis. ^^ Tiyj tots Tm Iioiy.2V^y £^Y][J,uchi<Ta.v 
'uroT^iv KvoL^iv (TV'JS'^o^^-riG'sy (AjU-^j/o^is). Upon the people being 
difirejj'ed^ Ajnenophis granted them for an habitation^ the city 
Avai'is^ which had been deferted by the Shepherds. It was 
not merely a city, but, as I have before mentioned, a walled 
province : for it contained no lefs than ten thoufand fquare 
5' arource. In this was a city Aur, -nx, called Avaris, and 
Aouaris, Aaa^i?, by the Grecians > the Cenafora. of Mela, 
and other writers. Manethon particularizes the people, to 
whom this diftrid: was ceded ; though he has in many re- 
fpeds fadly confounded their hiftory. He fays, that they 
were employed in ads of fervitudc, and greatly opprefled : 
but they were delivered, and formed into a republic, by one,, 
who was their lawgiver, and whofe name was ^° Mofes. Thefe. 
data, though culled out of a deal of heterogeneous matter, 
are very clear, and determinate: and if learned men, inftead 
of trying to adapt thefe plain fads to the flood ot Ogyges,. 
the sra of Argos, or the landing of Danaus in Greece, 
had chofen to abide by what is fo evident and fatisfadory, 

'^ Tatianus Afiyrius. p. 273.. 

Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 379. Euleb. Prjep.L. 10. c. 1 1. 

'* Jofephus conii-a Ap. L. 1. p. 460. 

" Jof^^phus contra Ap. L. i. p. 446- 

See Oblervations upon the Ancient Hiftory of Egypt, p. 175. 177, 

*° Kai •«r^off«'>;6f£u6fl Miwu(7)if. Jofephus cent. i^p. L. i. p. 461. 


■2^54 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the liiflory of Egypt would have been lefs obfcure. But 
the Fathers, through whofe hands we receive the greateft 
part of our knowledge, are ail to a' man mifled by thefe no- 
tions : and the teftimony of the befl: hiftorians is fet afide, 
becaufe it does not agree with fome preconceived opinion ; 
being found either too much before, or after, the reign of 
Phoroneus, and Apis ; or the landing of Cadmus the Pheni- 
cian. In refpedl to the hiftory of the Shepherds, the beft 
writers have been greatly miftaken, by proceeding always 
upon extremes. Theyfuppofe, either that the people fpoken 
of were folely the Ifraelites, which is the opinion of Jofe- 
phus, and his adherents : or eife that they v/ere a people en- 
tirely of another race ; and appropriate the hiftory accord- 
ingly. But there is a medium to be obferved : for it is cer- 
tain that they were two feparate bodies of people, who came 
at different times : and they are plainly diftinguifhed by Ma- 
nethon. Thofe, who are mentioned with Mofes, are pofte- 
rior to the others, and inhabited the very province, which 
the former had vacated. It is likewife mentioned by the 
llime writer, that thefe fecond Shepherds were once under 
the rule of an ^' Heliopolitan, a perfon of great influence ; 
who advifed them not to reverence the facred animals of 
the country, nor regard the Gods : nor to intermarry with 
the Egyptians ; but to confine themfelves to thofe of their 
own family. The name of this perfon was Oca^cr/^o?, Ofar- 
fiph. Now I am perfuaded, that Ofarfiph is nothing elfe 
but a miftake in arrangement for ** Sar-Ofiph, ^/je Lord OJiph, 


^' JofepTi. contra Ap. L. i. p. 460. 

'' Sar is a Prince: and the term continually occurs in the hiftory of Egypt, and of 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 255 

By which, no doubt, is meant Jofeph of the Scriptures. Ma- 
nethon has to be fure greatly confufed the account ; and at 
the clofe fays, that Ofarfiph at laft changed his name to Mo- 
fes : by which means he would make them appear as the 
fame perfon. He has likewifc interfperfed much foreign 
matter; and is guilty of grofs anachronifins : notwithftand- 
ing which, he affords fufficient light to afcertain the hiflory 
of the two people. And in refped: to the Ifraelitifli Shep- 
herds, we may be affured, that by Sar-Oiiph they were in- 
troduced into Egypt ; ana that they were led out of it by 
Mofes. jofeph was the caufe of great wealth, and plenty to 
the Egyptians ; and was accordingly efteemed a great bene- 
factor. They likewife looked upon him as a revealer of hid- 
den myfleries, a difclofer of the will of the Gods. In con- 
fequence of this, they ftyled him Hermes, whick figni- 
fies an interpreter. Hence came s^^TiVsvziv-, and s^^r\VBV7Tt\gy 
among the Greeks. There is a remarkable account of this 
Hermes in the Chronicon Pafchale, and Cedrenus, which is 
worthy to be mentioned. 'Mt is faid. of him, that he was^ 


other countries : hence we read of Sar-chon, Sar-don or Sar-Adon, Sar-Apis, 
Sar-Apion, Sar-Adon-Pul -, or Sardanapalus. The name of Sarah was the fame as 
Hera, Ladj. See Vol. I. of this work. p. 73. It was fometimes exprefled 
Zar. The captain of the guard to the King of Babylon was ftyled Nebo- 
Zar-Adon. 2 Kings, c. 25. v. 11. The feminine was Zarina. Diodorus Siculus 
mentions a Qiieen of the Sacas, called Ztz/xc;;, Zarina •, which undoubtedly 
was not a proper name, but a title. See Diod. L. 2. p. 1 19. 

*' Troi/S j^g^ E^//M$) oTi SiciXp^outuvrai ccvtm 01 a.S'iA(poi clutu' — n?ou?^ovTo yap avrov 
qovivc-ui, ojs ovTSi ■woX?voi, 'uji^iTTov eSSofj.:iKovTa, — ^Ks;^wp?<7-g!', xoci XTrSD^ercu en rnv 
At'] VTToi' ijypoi my (juA»i' Td Kce.f/.^vid N«?, 61 rivsi ect'i^xvro ccurov sv TifAr'. xcct SiirpiQiv iiTif.Y>q,CLVuiv 'wa.vTCLi^ xai (^opoov i;\v ^fuar.y q-oAm' £(3;Ao(7o^a ■zrctpcc roii AtyvTnioi?, 
hiyo}V avion //.xvtsius f/.eX?^ovTo:v\ m' yap (puaei cr(po^fX K'-iyixo'^. Kci; ■mpoa-invv^.w^ oai- 


V56 The Analysis of Ai^cient Mythology, 

efivied by his brethren^ who are reprefented 2i% feventy m num- 
ber. Th.2.t findings they were contmu ally laying fnares for him, 
and'cojifulting how they might deftroy him, he went into Egypt, 
•nr^o? rr,v (pvKnv t« Xa^, to the fojis of Ham, where he was re- 
ceived with great honour. Here he refded in much fate, being 
fuperior to every body : and he was cloathed with a particular 
robe of gold. He proved himfelf in fnajty i7tflances to be both a 
philofopher and a prophet ; and foretold ma^ry things, bei7ig by 
nature nobly endowed. They therefore reverenced him as a 
Deity ; a72d' conferred upo7i him the name of Heri7ies, on ac- 
coimt of his prophecies, and for having i7iterpreted to the7n thofe 
oracles, tvhich they had received fro77t heaven. A7id as he had 
■been the caufe of great riches to their nation, they fly led hifn the 
difpe7ifer of wealth ', and eftee7ned hitn the God of gai7i. Whe7i 
he ca77ie i7ito Egypt, Mizram the fo7z of Ha7n reigned there. 
This account is very curious; and feems to have been taken 
from fome ancient Egyptian hiftory. It is, as I have ob- ' 
ferved in refpedl to other national records, in fome meafure 
perverted, and obfcured : yet the outlines are plain ; and 
even in the miftakes we may fee allufions to true hiftory, 

Toji' ju.gAAii'Twr T/;i' xTroxcio-tv' x.cci -ztraPf^oi'Tx auroii ^pvixctTu, ovTiycc xcci '^X^roS'orm 
iy.<x?\ouv, wi ra ^iucTB ®co\' ovsu.oiQ^cvTii. Ore o:/v xuToi lip/JL/ji en tw Aiyvirrov vAvev, 
i^a.aiXiu<ji TCrJV AiyjirriMV roji i->t fs yivHi ru 'Ka.f/. Mi<^pefx. jcA. Chronicon Pafch. 
p. 44. 45. Cedrenus. p. i8. I have omitted adeal of exrnineous matter : for theft:; 
authors have ftrangely perplexed this curious hiftory. They imagine Hermes to 
have be?n the fame as Fauiius the fon of Jupiter : and fuppofe that he reigned 
after Picus in Italy ; though in the fame page Cedrenus tells us, that he lucceeded 
Mizraim in Egypt. Me^fifjr. in u-a Xajot, ra iy.n fixaiArjovroi, oiTroQavovro?, iu^n ocvx- 
yopi-^erat. Mizrahi the fon of Hani, who was khig of the country, dying, Hermes was 
ekSied in his room. See Cedrenus. p. 18. He is placed in the reign of Sefoftris ; 
tiri T8Ta '^pij.w (facr.i' ei' Ai^'JTTTw, 3-«v/Aa<f Gr ccvJ'pac, yvu(r%va.i xoci (p-.^icof stti astpia. 
Cedrenus. p. 20. 

^ however 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 357 

however mifapplied. The Egyptians acknowledged two 
perfonages under the titles of Hermes, and of Thoth. The 
firft was the moft ancient of the ^^ Gods, and the head of all. 
The other was ftyled the fecond Hermes ; and likewife for 
excellence called T^icrjJLBy^g'og^ Trifmegiftus. There are hifto- 
ries given of this Hermes Trifmegiftiis, which will be found to 
accord very much with thofe of the Hermes mentioned above: 
and his real name will appear to be very (imilar to Ofarfiph, of 
whom we have before treated. This perfon is faid to have 
been a great adept in myfterious knowledge ; and an inter- 
preter of the will of the Gods. He particularly decyphered 
all that was written in the facred *^ language upon the obelifks 
in Terra Seriadicd : and inftruded the Egyptians in many 
ufeful arts. He was a great prophet ; and on that account 
was looked upon as a " divinity. To him they afcribed the 
reformation of the Egyptian ^^ year : and there were many 
^^ books either written by him, or concerning him, which 
were preferved by the Egyptians in the moft facred recefles 
of their temples, and held in high efteem. We are *' told, 
that the true name of this Hermes, was Siphoas. We have 
here, I think, an inftance of the fame confuHon of elements, 

** Eufeb. Prcep. L. i, c. lo. p. ^2. 

'' Manethon apud Syncell. p. 40. 

^lian mentions rcc ra 'Epfxy vofji.iy.a. Var. Hift. L. 14. p. 399. 

" Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 399. 

'^' Hermes by Cenforinus is ftyled Arminus. Annum iEgyptiacum noviflime 
Arminon ad duodecim menfes et dies quinque perduxifTe (ferunt). c. 19. p, 103. 
So corredled by Scaliger. 

'^ Clemens fupra. Jamblicluis. fetft. 8. c. i. 

'' Eratofthenes apud Syncelluin. Xtq^ioaiyo'Epf/.iK, vioilrii^xt<r'd' p. 124. fup- 
pofed to have been a king. 

Vol. III. L 1 


258 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

as was obferved in Ofarfiph. For what is Siphoas but Aofiph 
mifplaced ? And is not Aofiph the Egyptian name of the 
Patriarch, who was called ^dv by the Hebrews ? 

The names of thofe Shepherd kings, who are faid to have 
reigned in Egypt, are tranfmitted to tis by Manethon, Afri- 
canus, and Syncellus. But thefe authors differ greatly both 
in refpedl to the names themfelves, and to the years, which 
the,^° kings reigned. The firft of them is by Manethon called 
Salatis ; but by Africanus, and Eufebius, the name is ren- 
dered Saitis. From hence, I think, we may be affured, 
that Salatis is a miPcake, and tranfpofition for ^' Al-Sa- 
itis, or Al-Sait : which was not a proper naine, but a 
title of the prince, and related to the country, which he 
governed. Sait was one of the ancient names of Upper 
Egypt : whence the colonies, which went from thence, 
were called ""^ SaitJE : and that region has the name of " Said 
at this ^'^ day. Saitis therefore, and Al-Saitis, fignify the 
Saite Prince, and are both the fame title. The names of 
the other kings feem to be equally exceptionable. 

The Shepherds are faid to have relided in Egypt five hun- 
dred and eleven years. But the total of the reigns of thofe, 
who are fpecified, amounts only to two hundred and fifty- 
nine, if we may credit Manethon, and Syncellus : though 
Africanus makes them two hundred and eighty-four. Ac- 

^° See M;irfh;ini's Chron. Ssec. 8. p. 100. 

"' n^coTofZaiTS. Enfcb. Chron. p. 16. Syncellus. p. 61. I am obliged to 
diflfer from what I have faid in a former treatife. p. 318. 
'' ABmctioui ccTToncovs "^icc'ircov. Diodor. L. i. p. 24. 
" Leo-Africanus. L, 8. 
^■' In the Arabic vcrlion, the land of Gofhen is rendered Sadir. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 259 

cording to Eufebius, they amounted only to one ^^ hundred 
and three. I take therefore for granted, that the five hun- 
dred and eleven years relate to the IfraelitiilT., as well as to 
the Cuthite Shepherds ; and that the refidcnce of both peo- 
ple is comprehended in that term : for the accounts of them 
are certainly blended. And as the one did not fucceed to 
the other immediately, that interval alfo is taken into the 
computation. This eftimate upon examination will be found 
to ap-ree with all the circumflances of hiftory ; and will 
ferve for a clue to afcertain other events. The children of 
Ifrael v/ere tv/o hundred and fifteen years in Egypt : and 
Jofcph had been there ^^ twenty-one years, when he intro- 
duced his brethren into that country. Thefe amount toge- 
ther to two hundred and thirty-fix years. The years of the 
former Shepherds, according to Manethon and Syncellus, 
were two hundred and fifty-nine : which, added to the 
above, amount to four hundred and ninety -five years. 
Thefe fall fiiort of five hundred and eleven juft fixteen 
years ; which I imagine to have been the interval between 
the departure of the Cuthites, and the arrival of " Jofeph. 

"' Regnaverunt Paftores annis centum tribus. Eufeb. Chron. A''errio Lat. p. 12. 
According to the old Chroniclcj they reigned two hundred and fevcnteen years. 
Syncellus. p. 51. 

'* Jofcph v/as carried into Egypt, when he was feventeen years old. Gencfis. c. 37. 
V. 2. He was thirty years old, when he firfc frood before Pharaoh. Gen. c. 41. 
V. 46. He law [even years of plenty, and two of faniine; lb that when he invited his 
brethren into Egypt, he had refidcd 21 years compkic. 


'" The firft Shepherds refided — — • — — ■ — 259 

Between their departure and the coming of Jofeph — — 16 

Jofeph relided before the arrival of his brethren 21 years complete 21 

The Ifraelitilh Shepherds were in Egypt — — — 215 

L 1 2 • But 

zbo The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

But if the numbers of '^ Africanus be true, thofe added to 
the years of the Ifraelitifli Shepherds make four hundred 
and ninety-nine, and leave an interval of twelve years only. 
According to this computation, the Cuthites left the coun- 
try after Jofeph had been in Egypt fome time, and only 
twelve years before the arrival of his brethren. I fhould 
think the former computation the neareft to the truth : 
though we may either way account for the land of Goflien 
lying vacant ; and for the city Avaris being ^' unoccupied. 
Jofeph therefore tells his brethren, that they muft fay to 
Pharaoh, that they were fhepherds ; becaufe he forefaw, 
that they would then be entitled to the befl: of the land of 
Egypt. This was Gofhen, called from the late inhabitants 
Tabir Cufhan ; and in aftertimes the Arabian nome. In 
conformity to this the province is by Bar-Bahlul, the Syriac 
Lexicographer, rendered Cufliatha, as having been the an- 
cient Cuthite region. It lay in the region of Heliopolis, the 
Zoan of the Scriptures, at the extreme part of Delta ; betv/een 
the mountain of Arabia to the eaft, and the plain of the 
pyramids weftward. The city Avaris feems to have been 
rebuilt, and to have been called Cufh-Aur, and Cer-Cufhaur ; 
the Cercafora of ^° Mela, and Herodotus. Cer-Cufhora fig- 
jnifies the city of the Cufhan-Orits. 

'' 2S4 The time of the firft Shepherds,, according to Africanus. 
215 The time of the Ifraelites. 

499 This fiibtraifled from 5 1 1 , leaves only twelve years. 
By this eftimate the firfl: Shepherds, left Egypt twelve years,, before the other3 

" We find that it was converted tOipallure ground, and pofTcfTed merely by feme 
herdfmen. Genefis. c. 47. v. 6. 

?° Nilus juxta Cercaforum oppidum triplex efTe incipit. Mela. L. 1. c. 9. p. '^i. 

7 ^^ 

The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLooy. 261 

The fons of Chus feem to have come into Egypt imme- 
diately after their difperfion from Babel. And as their ar- 
rival was five hundred and eleven years before the Exodus, 
this w^ill carry us in computation as far back as to the time 
of Terah ; and to the fixth year before the birth of Abra- 
ham. About this time, I imagine, was the confufion of 
fpeech, and the difperfion abovementioned. If then we 
recapitulate the great occurrences of the firft ages, as thpy, 
have been tranfmitted to us both by facred and profane 
hiftorians ; we fhall find that they happened in the follow- 
ing manner, and order. When there was a great increafe of 
mankind, it was thought proper, that they fliould feparate, 
and retire to their feveral departments. Their deftination 
was by divine appointment : and there was accordingly a 
regular migration ot families from Araratia in Armenia. 
The fons of Chus fcem to have gone off in a diforderly 
manner : and having for a long time roved eaftward, they at 
lafl changed their diredlion, and came to the plains of Shinar. 
Here they feized upon the particular region, which had fallen 
to the lot of Affur. He was therefore obliged to retreat ; 
and to betake himfelf to the higher regions of Mefopotamia. 
In procefs of time the Cuthites feem to have increafed 
greatly in ftrength, and numbers; and to have formed apian 
for a mighty empire. People of other families flocked in 
unto them : and many of the line of Shem put themfelves 
under their dominion. They were probably captivated with 
thefr plaufible refinements in religion ; and no lefs feduced 
by their ingenuity, and by the arts, which they introduced. 
For they muft certainly be efteemed great in fcience, if v/e 


262 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

conlidsr the times, in which they lived. The tower of Ba- 
bel, which their imperious leader had erefted, feems to have 
been both a temple, and landmark, from which they had 
formed a refolution never to recede. It therefore feemed 
good to divine Providence to put a ftop to this growing con- 
federacy : and, as they had refufed to retire regularly, to 
force them by judgments to flee away, and to fcatter them 
into different parts. The Ethnic writers, as I have before 
mentioned, fpeak of many fearful events, which attended 
the difperfion ; particularly of earthquakes, and hurricanes, 
and fiery meteors, which the apoftates could not withftand. 
Many of the facred Vvriters, though they do not fpeak deter- 
minately, yet feem to allude to fome violent, and praeterna- 
tural commotions, which happened at this feafon. What- 
ever may have been the nature of the cataftrophe, it appears 
to have been confined folely to the region of Babylonia. 

Upon the difperfion, the country about Babel was intirely 
evacuated. A very large body of the fugitives betook them- 
felves to Egypt, and are commemorated under the name of 
the Shepherds. Some of them went no farther than ' Shi- 
nar ; a city, which lay between Nineve and Babylon, to the 
north of the region, which they had quitted. Others came 
into Syria, and Canaan ; and into the Arabian provinces, 
which bordered upon thefe countries. Thofe, who fled to 
Shinar, refided there fome time : but being in the vicinitv 
of Elam and Nineve, they raifed the jealoufy of the fons of 
Afliur, and the Elamites ; who made a confederacy againft 
them, and after a difpute of fome time drove them irom 

*' It gave name to the whole region, of which Babylonia was only a part. 

10 their 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 263 

their neighbourhood. And not contented with this, they 
carried their arms ftill farther ; and invaded all thofe of the 
line of Ham weftward, as far as the confines of Egypt. 
This was the firfc part of the great Titanic war, in which 
the king of Elam was principal. We are informed by Mo- 
fes, that they ferved him twelve years; and in the thirteenth 
they rebelled ; and in the fourteenth year the king of Elam 
attacked them, in conjundlion with the kings of Aram, 
Afliur, and Shinar : for Shinar was now regained, and in 
the hands of the Shemites. 

This invafion happened, when Abraham had refided fom.e 
time in Canaan ; in which he iirfl: fojourned, when he was 
feventy-five years old. It happened alfo after his return 
from Egypt ; but was antecedent to the birth of Ifhmael, 
who was born in the eighty-lixth year of Abraham's life. 
We may therefore venture to refer this event to the eightieth 
year of the Patriarch's age. And as the firft war is faid by 
the Gentile writers to have lafted ten or ^^ eleven years ; if 
we add thefe to the fourteen mentioned by Mofes, Vvdiich in- 
tervened betv.'-een that war, and the invaiion made by the 
confederates, it will be found to amount to twenty-four 
years. And thcfe being deducted from the eightieth year 
of Abraham, will give us the tifty-fixth of his life, and 
the firft year of the Titanian war. At this time, or near it, 
I fliould imagine that it commenced. I have fupnofed, that 
the Cuthite Shepherds came into Egypt immediately upon 
the difperfion : and it is very plain from Manethon, that 

*' 'livfS^iooi '^ eiJia^pno Si-Kcc ■mXii-iZvitfjTHi. Hefiod. Theog. v. 636. 
hia^ofxiiKi ae uvtcdv ivixuT^i oSKc: n Fj; gv__»crs tjj ilinnv viki^v. Apollod. L. i . p. 4. 


264 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

their coming was five hundred and eleven years before the 
Exodus. The call oP^ Abraham was only four hundred and 
thirty, and his birth five hundred and five, years before that 
[era : therefore the difperfion muft have been about fix years 
prior to his birth. According to this computation, the firft 
Titanian war was about fixty-two years after the difper- 
fion. ** Abydenus, ^^ Cedrenus, and other writers, who take 
notice of the difperfion, mention this war as the next great 

As the Cuthite Shepherds were in pofiefiion of Egypt at 
the time of this war ; it may feem extraordinary, that they 
did not take a ihare in it, and aflift thofe of their family, 
who were invaded. There is an obfcure tradition of their 
being folicited to interfere: but as they were not themfelves 
attacked, nor injured, they did not liften to the propofals. 
This is intimated in a hiftory given of Oceanus, who was 
one of the " Titans. It is alfo a name of the Nile, which 
was called both *^ Oceanus, and i^gyptus : and in this ac- 
count, that country, and its inhabitants are alluded to. 
The hiftory is, that, ^* when the Titans entered into a con- 

'' Abraham was feventy-five years old, when he left Haranj and eighty-fix at the 
birth of IHimael. 

'■* F.ufeb. Prasp. Evang. L. 9. c. 15. Syncclliis. p. 44. 

' P. 2g. FlVlTacl S'i Xct.1 TiTai'UV 'SX^Oi tov £^UX 'ZaOXSfJiOi. 

^' Diodorus. L. 3. p. 195. 

"' "NiiXoi D.icfct.voi. Nithos AiyvTTTo?. Ibid, p, 17. 

Tft)» aXXuv "TiTcuroov Hi rtiu vccctcc t« 'moirfsos iiriQaK-nv Ufjuvm'^ £lxixvoi airoi- 

Ei'O ev Clxeocvoi fxiv svi jmeyctfoicrn' ifju/j.nst', 

rioAAa Se "z^opcpupuv jjunv ti[ji.spoi sv f/syapotatv. 

Proclus in Timasum Platonis. 4. p. 296. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mvthclogv. 265 

{piracy againft their father, Oceanus withflood the folicita- 
tions, which were made to him : though he was foine time 
in doubt, whether he {houid not take a part in the -commo- 
tion. Proclus, who gives this account, has preferved fome 
Orphic fragments to this purpofc. The fame is to be found 
in Apollodorus ; who mentions the Titans engaging in war, 
and fays, that Oceanus would not join them. ^' Oi Js ^o)^/? 
£lzsciV3 ETTiTihnai. By Oceanus is meant in the language 
of mythology the Oceanitse and NilotJe, the inhabitants of 

1 imagine, that the Canaanites had been in the fame ori- 
ginal rebellion in Babylonia, as the fons of Chus ; and that 
they were a part of the difperfion. It is therefore probable, 
that they came into Canaan about the fame time that the 
others betook themfelves to Egypt. This is certain, that 
when Abraham travcrfed the country, it is repeatedly faid, 
that '° t^e Cajiaanite was then i?i the la?id : from whence we 
may infer, that they were but lately come. And the facred 
writer, fpeaking of Hebron, a feat of the Anakim, or Titans, 
fays, that it was built /even years before ^' Zoait i7i Egypt. By 
this we may infer, that the two nations in fome degree cor- 
refponded in their operations, and began building about the 
fame time. All the while, that the Patriarch fojourned in 

'' L. I. p. 2. 

'° Gencfis. c. 12. v. 6. c. 13. v. 7. 

'" Numbers, c. 13. v. 22. Some have thought, that Zoan was Tanis, towards 
the bottom of Lower Egypt, and it is lo rendered in the Vulgate. But this part of 
the country, called afterwards Delta, was not formed, when Hebron was built. The 
lower region of Delta increafed gradually, and was the work of time. Zoan was 
Heliopolis, one of the firll cities built by the Shepherds, and towards the 2pex of 

Vol. hi. M m this 

266 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

this country, we find it fo thinly peopled, that he could pafs 
where he lifted, and pitch liis tent, where he pleafed : and 
yet he travelled with a large retinue, and with flocks and 
herds in abundance. All this feems to indicate a recent po- 
pulation. Syria, and the coaft from Libanus upwards, had 
been peopled by a different family before : and it is probable, 
that thofe of the confederacy, who fettled there, had fome 
battks with the natives. Eufebius accordingly mentions, 
that in ea?'ly times the Chaldeans^ by whom are meant the Baby- 
lonians, fnade war upon the people of Phenicia. ^'' XaX^cfJoi 
KOLTOf, 0oin/.oov Sf^XTSV(ra,i'. But the land, which the Canaanite 
invaded, was in great meafure vacant, and had been fet apart 
for another people. For the diftribution of the whole earth 
was by divine appointment ; and the land of Canaan was 
particularly allotted to the fons of Ifrael. They according- 
ly have this ftrongly inculcated to them, that in the divifiorl 
of countries, " the Lord's portion is his people ; Jacob is the 
lot of his inherit a7ice. The Son of Sirach alfo informs us to 
the fame purpofe ; that '"^ in the divifon of the nations of the 
4)^ole earthy He (the Lord)y^/ a ruler over every people ; but 
Ifrael is the Lord' s portion. In conformity to this, the 
Pfalmift introduces the Deity as telling Abraham, ^^ Unto 
thee will I give the land of Canaan, the lot, or line, of your 
inheritance : which circumftance had been before recorded 
by '* Mofes. And yet even to him, and to his pofterity, it 

'^ Eufeb. Chron. p. 28. Syncellus. p. 153. 

" Deuteron. c. 32. v. 9. 

9* C. 17. V. 17. 

" Pfalm. 105. V. I r. 

'' Genefis. c. 13. v. 15. c. 15. v. iS. 

10 , was 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 267 

was rather a loan than a gift : for the Deity feems always to 
have peculiarly referved the property of this country to him- 
felf. The Ifraelite therefore had never a full command of 
it : he only held it at will, and was fiibjedl to God as pro- 
prietor. In fhort it was ever the Lord's portion. The peo- 
ple therefore are told, when a permiffion is given to them in 
fome degree to part with their inheritance, ^'' The land JJj all 
not be fold for ever : for the land is mine : andje are Jlr angers 
and fojourners with me, faith the Lord. Indeed the whole 
earth may jnftly be called the Lord's : but this was his par- 
ticular portion. It was however invaded, as were other 
places, in oppoiition to the divine appointment. Eufebius, in 
conformity to this tells us, that Noah explained to his fons 
the will of the Deity ; and allotted to each their particular 
place of retreat, ^^ Konrct. ^Siov ^riKopon y^^ri(riJLoyj haviiig received 
his i?tJlruBio?ts from. Heaven. But the fons of Chus firft 
ufurped the region allotted to Aihur; and afterwards tranf- 
greffed ftill farther upon the property of their neighbours. 
Of all others the tranfgreflion of Canaan was the moft 
heinous; for he knowingly invaded God's peculiar ^^ portion; 
and feized it to himfelf. The trefpaffes of the fons of Ham 
brought on the difperlion ; and afterwards the war of the 
confederates, as Syncellus juftly obferves. '°° 'Of vm rs l<r\iJL 

" Numbers, c. 25. v. 23. 

'' Chron. p. 10. 

*' Tar&L* Bv Toiv xA^i^o^o-TiiuevTcop t8 X«fc uioi Xavaai', tSiiii' rijt' Tn^oi ru AiSan-jj 

e^MAaere, y.(Xi btw ^aacc r) -yn t);5 £7rxyye?^ioii tb 'Koc.vccav ■nr^ocnyopeuTcx.i. Auftor 
Anon. Johan. Malals pi\xfixus. p. 16. 
"° P. 90. 

M m 2 5^0- 

268 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

STToKsurirccv 'ur^og Tsg wag Xa^a 'urz^i ^m o^iocv Trig IlcO^cLis'm,;. 
The fons of Shem 7nade war upon the Jons of Ham about the 
botmclaries of Palceflina. Eufebius mentions the particular 
tranfgreflion of the Canaanite. ' NewTS^icra^ o T8 Xa^ viog 
XcivciOLv BTTZ^r] toig o^ioig th ^r]fji, Kci KCLrmri^rBv szsi, 'Wa^yJoag jtiV 
SVTO?\Yiv Nws. Canaan, thefon of Ham, was guilty of imiova- 
tion, and trefpajfed upo?i the allotment of Shem ; a?id took up 
his habitation therei?t, contrary to the C07mna7idment of Noah. 
Belides the kings in the Afphaltite vale, the nations attacked 
in this war were the " Rephaims, or Giants, in Afliteroth 
Karnaim ; and the Zuzims, and Emims, who were equally 
of the Titanic race : alfo the Amorites, and Amalekites, and 
the Horim in Mount Seir. All thefe were upon forbidden 
ground ; and were therefore invaded. 

Such is the hiftory of the Titanic war, and of the difper- 
iion, which preceded. Sanchoniathon fpeaking of the peo- 
ple, who were thus diflipated, and of the great works, which 
they performed concludes with this fhort, but remarkable 
charader of them, ^ 'Omov Js ;ia; AAi^rat, /ccti TiTa^'sj kolKsvtolu 


' Eiiffb. Chron. p. lo. Eufebitis lived in tlie country, ofv/hicli he fpeaks : and 
had opportunities of obtaining many curious hiftories from the original inhabitants. 
Sfe alfo Epiphanius adverf Hsref. L. i. c. 5. 

' Genefis. c. 14. v. 5. Tm riyocvTcti tbs (v A<^a^ci}^. So rendered by the Seventy. 
See Deuteron. c. 2. v. 10. 11. alfo v. 21. 22. 

' Sanchoniathon apud Eufeb. Pntp. L. i.p. 35. 

So Pelafgus aXvrm. Cadmus aXmni' 

Terah, and Nahor, and all the fons of Heber had feparated themfelves from the 
Cock of their fathers, and dwelt in a forbidden land, tiere they ferved other Gods. 
But the faith of Abraham was at laft awakened .: to which perhaps nothing contri- 
buted more than the demolition of the tower of Babel, and the difperfion of the fons 
of Chus: and lallly, the wonderful and tremendous interpofition of the Deity in, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 269 

Thefe are the people^ who are defcribed as exiles and wajiderers^ 
and at the fame time are called the 'Titans. This event feems 
to have been very happy in its confequences to thofe of the 
family of the Patriarch Abraham: as it muft have facilitated 
their converlion ; and given them an opening to retreat. 
They lived in the land of Ur of the Chaldees ; which lay 
upon the Tigris, to the fouth of Babel and Babylonia. There 
was no pafTage for them to get away, but through the above 
country ; which was then pofTeffed by a people, who v/ould 
not have fuffered their defertion. Nor v/ould they have 
thought of migrating, fo long as they followed the religion 
of their fathers. But when Terah and his family had i^^n 
the tower fhaken to its foundations, and the land made a 
defert; it was natural for them to obey the firft call of Hea- 
ven ; and to depart through the opening, which Providence 
had made. They therefore acceded to the advice of Abraham; 
and followed him to Haran in Mefopotamia, in his way to 
Canaan. The rout, which the Patriarch took, was the true 
way to the country, whither he was going : a circumftance, 
which has been little confidered. 

After the Cuthite Shepherds had been in pofTeillon of 
Egypt about two hundred and iixty, or eighty years, they 
were obliged to retire. They had been defeated by Halif- 

producing thefe efFecls. This event not only infpircd them with an inclination to 
get away, but alfo afforded them an opening for a retreat. 

It is, I think, plain, that even the Chaldeans were not included in the people dif, 
perfed ; as v/e find luch a nation in the days of Abraham ; and not only in his time, 
but in the days of his father and grandfather. Both Terah and Nahor dwelled in 
the land of Ur of the Chufdim : which coulJ not have happened, if thofe Chufdim, 
ox Cuthites, had been fcattered abroad. 

phragmuthoiis -y 

270 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

phragmutholis ; and were at lafl bcficged in the diflrid: of 
■^ Avaris, which they had previoufly fortified, by ^ Amofis, 
the fon of the former king. Wearied out by tlie length and 
ftraitnefs of the fiege, they at laft came to terms oi compo- 
fition ; and agreed to leave the country, if they might do it 
unmolefted. They were permitted to depart ; and accords 
ingly retired to the amount of two hundred and forty thou^ 
fand perfons. Amofis upon this deftroyed their fortifica-f 
tions, and laid their city in ruins. Manethon, who has 
mixed their hiflory with that of the Ifrael-ites, fuppofes, that 
they fettled at Jerufalem, and in the region round about. 
This has led Jofephus to think, that the firft Shepherds 
were his anceftors : whereas their hiftory is plainly alluded 
to in that part, which is flyled the return of the Shepherds: 
\vhere Ofarfiph is mentioned as their ruler ; and Mofes, as 
their conductor upon their retreat. Mofl of the fathers, 
who treat of this fubjedl, have given into this miftake : and 
as the Cuthites were expelled by Amofis, they have fuppofed, 
that the Ifraelites departed in the reign of that king. This 
was the * opinion of Tatianus, Clemens, Syncellus, and many 
others: but it is certainly a miftake: for it was not till the 
time of ^ Amenophis, fucceflbr to this * prince, that they 


* Jofephus contra Ap. L. i. p. 446. 
5 By fome he is called Thummofis. 

* Kara Ay-ooatv AiyvTrT'd (^ctariXicc. yiyovsva.1 I'di^aioa t«c e^ AtyvirTS 'sro^enxv. 
Eufeb. Prsp. L. 10. p. 493. See Tatianus. p. 273. Clemens. Strom. L. i, p. 379. 
Juftin. Martyr. Cohort, p. 13. He calls the king, Amafis. They have certainly 
made fome alterations in the i8th dynafty, to make it-accord to their notions. 

' He gave them the place called Avaris, which his grandfather had laid wafte. 
Jofeph. cont. Ap. L. i. p. 460. 

' Theliftof the kings of this zera, as they give them, proves this. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 271 

entered the country, which they did not quit till after two 
centuries. And however Manethon may have confounded 
the hiftory ; yet it is apparent from what he fays, even as 
the Fathers quote him. For he tells us, that Amofis- de- 
ftroyed the feat of the former people ; and Amenophis gave 
it to the ' latter : fo that the hiftory thus far is certainly 
very '° plain. As they were each a very large body of peo- 
ple, and their hiftory of great confequence in the annals of 
Egypt ; their departure muft have been faithfully recorded. 
But length of time has impaired the memorials : fo that the 
hiftory is of a mixed nature; and it is not eafy to arrive at 
precifion. And as many events were prior to the reigns of 
any of their kings ; they generally refer thofe to the times of 
their Gods. Eufebius gives us a curious account of an event in 
the time of Apis; " when a large body of men deferted Egypt y 
and took up their abode in Palcejiijtay upon the confines of Ara- 
bia. The Ifraelites may poftibly be here alluded to : but I 
fliould rather think, that the hiftory relates to the Caphto- 
rim, who feem to have reftded between Mount Cafius and 
Pelufium ; but retired to Pal^ftina Propria, which was im- 
mediately upon the borders of Arabia. There are howeven 

AjUi,'cri?,, V.OU Ti^jjLO-.mi 

See Syncellus, Eufebius, &c. 

' Jofephus cont. Ap. L. i.p. 460,461.. 

'° Eufebius, whole evidence Syncellus without realbn reje£ls, places the exit of the 
latter Shepherds in the reign of another king,, whom he calls Cencheres. Chron. 
p. 16. Syncellus. p. 72. 

" Etti hiriioi TB ^opuviooi f/.oi^<x. TB AiyVTTTiaii' T^aTH e^eyrsasv AkyuTrrs, 01 iv tv 
naAaif""C ^oLTvajAivv X^^ia qv ■wopfct) AoocS:aiqjxwocv. Eufeb. Chron. p. 26. 


;272 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. ' 

otKcr Iiiilories more precife, which manifcflly allude to the 
departure of the Shepherds from Egypt ; and point out the 
places, to which they retired. There was a tradition of Ca-. 
fus and Belus leading one colony to " Syria, which fettled 
upon the Orontes. By Cafus and Belus are undoubtedly 
meant the Cuthites and Beleidae of Babylonia, who fled from 
Egypt ; and are faid by Manethon to have retired to thofe 
parts. Some are faid to have gone to '^ Jerufalem ; which 
hiflory needs no explanation. Eufebius mentions, that 
'■^ Cadmus and Phoenix reflded in Egypt ; but afterwards 
pafTed over to the region about Tyre and Sidon, and were 
for a time kings of that country. The moft plain and fa- 
tisfaftory account is that, which I have more than once 
mentioned from Diodorus. He tells us, that there were 
formerly in Egypt many '^ foreigners, whom the Egyptians 
expelled their country. One part of them went under the 
condud: of Danaus and Cadmus to Greece : and the others 
retired into the province called in aftertimes Judea. But it 
was not only to Syria, and to Greece, that people of this 
family betook themfelves. I have '^ fhewn, that they were 
to be found in various parts, widely feparated, as far as India 
and the Ganges in the eaft ; and Mauritania weftward. 
Diodorus mentions Ammon, by which is meant the Am- 
monians, reigning in a part of '^ Libya : and fpeaks likewife 

" Euftbii Chron. p. 24. See Zonaras. p. 21. 
'' Jofeph. cont. Apion. L. I . p. 460. 
'" Chron. p. 27. ' 

'^ L. 40. apudPhotiuin. p. 1151. 

'* See Vol. II. oftliis work, and the treatife infcribed Cadmus : which is inti- 
f-nately connefted with tlie whole of the prefent fubjeft. 

'^ A/-tMS);'a (^aaiAivovTcc [jiSp'diTm Alburn. Diodor. L. 3. p. 201. 

7 of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 273 

of the Titans of '* Mauritania, whom he ftyles the fons of 
Heaven. The Grecians fuppofed, that they were conducied 
to this region by KaJju-o; aAi^TJif, Cadinus the great rove?^ : 
and Nonnus mentions : 

People, who dwelt amid the Atlantian cliffs, 
In cities founded by the wandering chief. 

They came alfo with the Curetes into Crete ; and fettled 
particularly about CnolTus, where they were of the greatefl 
benefit to the natives ; and improved them in architedlure, 
and in various other arts. Diodorus fpeaks of the temple 
of Rhea in thefe parts, which was built by the Titans, the 
fons of Heaven ; whofe foundations were fliewn in his days : 
and near it was a venerable grove of cyprefs, planted in early 
times. He mentions the names of many of the Titans : and 
fays, that there was not one, " who had not been the author 
of fome ufeful art to mankind. 

The calamities, which this people experienced, were fo 
fevere, and accumulated, that they were held in remembrance 
for ages. The memorials of them made a principal part in 
their facred "' rites ; and they preferved them alfo in their 
hymns. Thefe v/ere generally in a melancholy ftylc ; and 
their mufick was adapted to them. The chief fubjccl was 

" L. 3.p. 190. 

'^ Dionuf. L. 13. p. 370. 

^' L. 5. p. 334. ojv r^ccq'Qv -TivMViufiTm yivca'.»\.i:iii c!.\%:yj:-roti. 

" Ssje Orph. Argonaiuica. v. 26. 31. &c. 

Philoftratus, Vita Apollon. L. 3. c. 6. 

Vol. III. N n the 

274- '^"^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the hiftory of the Titanic age, the fiifferings of their Gods ; 
and above all the flight of Bacchus, and the fcattering of his 
limbs over the plain of Nufa. To thefe M^ere added the wan- 
derings of Ifls, or Damater ; who went over the world to 
pick up the limbs of the fame Bacchus, under the charadler 
of Oflris. The Egyptians fucceeded to the Cuthites in their 
cities and temples ; and had been too early initiated in their 
rites ever to forfakethem. They had the like hymns ; and' 
commemorated the fame events : for they were a branch of 
the fame family. Hence they recorded the labours of the 
Titans, and all the calamities and wanderings, to which their 
Deities had been expofed. The Grecians did the like: their 
rites and myfleries related to the fame events. Linus, Or- 
pheus, Pronapides, Thymoetes, are fuppofed to have written 
upon this " fubjeft ; fome in Pelafgic, and others in Phry- 
gian chara(5lers. The ground-work of their hiflory is com- 
prifed by Plutarch in a fmall compafs, ^''TiyoLvriKOL^ kcli TiTa- 
viKci^ — (p^oyyoi ts AfOM'cra, kcli nrXoLVCti ArifjiriT^og : The labours 
of the Giants and Titans — the cries of Bacchus^ aitd the wan- 
derings of Dajnater. 

Such is the hiflory of the Cuthites, who came from Baby- 
lonia, and conquered Egypt. This people were no other 
than the ^zv(jcf.i^ Scuthce, or Scythians, as I have fhew^n. It 
is therefore no wonder, that the nation fo denominated fhould 
be efteemed the mofi: ancient of any upon earth. ""^Scytharum 

^' Diodorus. L. 3. p. 201. 

"' Plutarch. If. et Oilr. P. 360. 

'wcLfct. 70. i HAAiiTJ, 'ycxi Tec ■mici Kpnvs fjxiuoX^iy'dfxiva., xcci roc. 'zoipi Tr,i Tnai'^iccf, 
xa.1 TO auvoX'.v Tijv -mi^t tx njd^inojy Qiow i-j-ocnav. Diodor. L. i. p. S7. 

** Juftin. L. 2. c. I. gens 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology-. 275 

gens antlquiflima femper hablta. — iEgyptiis antlqiilores fem- 
per vifi Scythae. "The Scythic 7iation was at all times ejleemed 
the moji ajicient. — The Scytha were always looked upon as 
snore ancient than the j^gyptians. All this in its proper ac- 
ceptation is true : for the Cuthites were the firft upon earth, 
who were conftituted into a large kingdom ; and reduced 
under a regular government : while other nations confided 
of little independent towns and villages. And as they paid 
the higheft reverence to the memory of their anceftors; they 
preferved evidences for their own antiquity, of which other 
nations were bereaved : fo that they maintained this prero- 
gative for ages. 

N n 2 CON- 

( 277 ) 


UR of the CHALDEESj 


The Region, from whence it was thus diftinguifhed. 

EFORE I proceed, it may not be improper to obviate 
an objed:ion, which may be made to the place, and 
region, where I have fuppofed Abraham to have been firft 
converfant : as there are writers, who have imagined Ur of 
Chaldea to have been in another part of the world. The 
region in queftion is by Strabo plainly defined as a province 
ot Babylonia : and Arrian, Ptolemy, Dionyfius, Pliny, and 
Marceliinus, all determine its fituation fo clearly, that I 
fhoiild have thouo;ht no doubt could have arifen. It 
appears however, that Bochart, Grotius, Le Cierc, Cel- 
larius, with fome others, are diilatisfied with the com- 
mon opinion ; and cannot be perfuaded, that Abraham 
came from this country. Bochart accordingly tells us, 
that the Ur ot the Scriptures was near Niiibis, in the 
Upper regions of Affyria ; and bordered upon Armenia. 


•278 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

* Ur Clialdjeorum, ubi Abrah^e majores habitarimt, Gen. 11. 
28. non procul erat a Corduena, in qua fubftiterat area Noze. 
Res patet ex Ammiani L. 5. Ibi enim Romani tranfmilTo 
Tigri ad locum a Corduena centelimo lapide difparatum, via 
fex dierum emenfa, ad Ur 7Jomi?ie Perjicum verier e cajlelhmi : 
vmde profedtis primo Thifalphata, deinde Nifibin iter fuit. 
.itaque Ur circa Nifibin. This is furely too lightly deter- 
mined. All that we learn from Marcellinus is, that they 
pafied by a caftle called Ur : not a word is there mentioned 
about a region called Chaldea ; nor ol a people ftyled Chal- 
deans : which was necelTary to be found. Yet the learned 
writer fays, res patet, we may be ajfuredy that here was the 
birth of the Patriarch: and the original place of his relidence 
was near Nifibis. In another part of his work, he mentions 
a place called Ur, near Syria, upon the Euphrates; of which 
notice is taken by ^ Pliny: and he feems to think it not im- 
probable, that here might have been the firft abode of 
^ Abraham. From hence we may perceive, that he was not 
very determinate in his opinion. Edeffa is faid to have been 
called Ur, and Urhoe : on which account fome have been 
induced to place the birth and refidence of the Patriarch 
here. But who ever heard of Chaldeans in thefe parts ; or 
of a region named Chaldea ? 

If there be any thing certain in geography, we may be 
affured from a number of the beft writers, that the country, 

' Geogr. Sac. p. 38. 

^ Ita fertur (Euphrates) ufqiie Uram locum, in quo converfus ad orientem relin- 
quit Syrias Palmyrenas folitudines. Plin. L. 5. c. 24. 

' Sic Ur Chalda-'orum erit Ura, de quii Plinius. L. 5. c. 24. — quod fiquis tnalic 
fequi, aon veliementer repugnabo. Gcogr. Sac. p. 78. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 279 

of which we are treating, was in a different part of the 
world. Ghaldea lay to the fouth of Babylonia ; and was 
originally bounded to the eaft and weft by the Tigris and 
Euphrates : fo that it was an interamnian region. Hence 
Jofhua tells the children of Ifrael, in fpeaking of the firft 
refidence of their anceftors, that their '^fathers dwelt on the 
other fide of the flood ^ or river, in old time ^ even "Terah^ the 
father of Abraham. And St. Stephen, fpeaking of the call 
of this Patriarch, fays, ^ T'he God of glo?y appeared unto our 
father Abraham^ when he was in Mefopotajnia^ before he dwelt 
in Charran. The land of Chaldea was in thofe times a por- 
tion of the great region called Mefopotamia : and, as I be- 
fore faid, it was bounded to the weft by the Euphrates ; 
which in its latter courfe ran nearly parallel with the Ti- 
gris, and emptied itfelf into the fea below. But as this river 
was apt every year, about the fummer folftice, to overflow 
the low lands of ^ Chaldea, the natives diverted its courfe; 
and carried it, with many windings through a new channel 
into the Tigris : which jundlion v.^as made about ninety 
miles below Seleucia. There were in reality three ^ ftreams, 
into which the Euphrates was divided. One ot thefe was 
the Nahar-Sares, called alfo the Marfyas. There was an- 
other called the Nahar-Malcha, or Pvoyal River ; which 
was made by ^ Nebuchadnezzar, and pafTed into the Tigris 
near the city abovementioned. The third may be confidered 

* C. 24. V. 2. 
' Afts. c. 7. V. 2. 

* Strabo. L. 16. p. 1075. 
" Plin. L. 6. ,c. 26. 

* Abydenus apud Eufeb. P. E. L. 9. p. 457. 

9 as 

sSo The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

as the original river, which ran through Babylon ; but was 
foon alter diverted into a new channel ; and joined the 
Tigris about ninety miles below the Nahar-Malcha and Se- 
leucia. ^ Periluunt eafdem terras et Marfes, et ilumen Re- 
gium, et Euphrates, cunftis excellens, qui tripartitus navi- 
gabilis per omnes eft rivos ; infulafque circumfluens, et arva 
cultorum induftria diligenter rigans, vomeri, et gignendis 
arbuftis, habilia facit. There were at the fame time many 
fmaller ftreams, formed by the natives from the Euphrates, 
both to moiften their grounds, and to take oft the exuber- 
ance of its waters. Thefe fecondary rivulets are often al- 
luded to by the facred writers : and in the Pfalms, they are 
fpoken of under the general name oix.\\Q^° waters of Babylon. 
For Babylonia abounded with ftreams and pools; and was wa- 
tered beyond any country in the world, except Egypt, which 
in, many refpeds it greatly rcfembled. Thofe, who performed 
the great work of all, which conftfted in turning the river 
itfelf, were the people of Ur, called by " Ptolemy and Pliny 
Orcheni. '' Euphraten praeclufere Orcheni, et accolte, ripas 
rigantes ; nee nili Pafitigri defertur ad mare. Before this it 
ran down to the fea, and emptied itfelf into the Perftc Gull, 
near Teredon, about twenty-feven miles below the mouth of 
the '^ Tigris. By thefe means the old channel became dry : 
and the region was now bounded to the weft by the dcfert 

' Ammian. Marccllinus. L. 23. p. 287. Maries is a miftake for Narfcs ; and 
that an abridgment for Naar-S.ires. 
'° Pfalrn. 137. v. i. 
•■L. 5. c. 19. 
" L. 6. c. 27. 
'» Plin. L. 6. c. 28, 

6 of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 281 

of Arabia, as Strabo and other "^ writers obferve. In this 
province was the Ur of the Scriptures, called Ur of the Chal- 
deans : which was fo ftyled, in order to diflinguifh it from 
every other place of the fame name. It was alfo expreffed 
Our, Ourhoe, Ourchoe; and the people were called Ourchani. 
It was fometimes compounded Camour, and rendered Ca- 
murine ; and it is thus mentioned by Eupolemus. The de- 
fcription of Chaldea given by Strabo is very precife. He 
fpeaks much in favour of the natives : and fays, that they 
inhabited a portion of '^ Babylonia, which bordered upon 
Arabia and the Periic Sea. He defcribes them as being de- 
voted to philofophy ; efpecially the Borfippeni, and the Or- 
cheni. Thefe laft we may fuppofe to have been particularly 
the inhabitants of the city, concerning which we are treat- 
ing. For here, in the true land of Chaldea, we muft look 
for Ur of the Chaldees. We accordingly find, that there 
was fuch a place, called Oy^^O], Urchoe, by Ptolemy ; by 
Jofephus, Ura, or Ure : '* Ov^ri Twv XaXJcciwy. By Eufebius 
it is rendered Ur: and it was undoubtedly the capital city of 
the province. '^ Ov^ "uroKig T^g (icc(n?\sicig tojv XocT^iouccv . 
Add to this the account given by Eupolemus ; who points 
out plainly the place of the Patriarch's birth, and abode. 
*^ He was bo7'n^ fays this hiftorian, in the city CajnaTina of 

'■* n«:ax.?iTa( Tr ffi'/zw AcxCta ri XaXSccia X^p'^- Pcolem}'. L. 5. c. 20. 

'' L. 16. p. 1074. 

'^ Jofephus fay of Haran, the fon of Terah, er XaXSatm airebctny, ev •nrcAsi Ovpri 
?\.i'}Ofx.i]>>}ra]vXccA^aioov. He died among the Chaldeans, in the city called Ur of the 
■Chaldeans. Anc. L. 1. c. 7. 

'' Eufebius in locis Hebraicis, five facris. 

El' -sToAgi T»5 EafuAwr/xg Ka^awrii, r\v Tivxi Xeyiiv Ovprm' eimi Ss 'jLe^Bpfjim'Suoue- 
nv XaAJaiov -uroKiv — ysnaQcci AG^xuy.. Eufeb. Prsep. L. 9. c. 17. p. 418. 

Vol. III. O o Bahyloniay 

282 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Babylonia, ivhich fome call Uria. By this is denoted a city of 
the Chaldeans. 

As the hiftory is fo plain, why do we go fo wide of the 
mark, as to fuppofe this city to have been upon the confines 
of Syria ? or, what is more extraordinary, to make it, as 
fome do, an Affyrian city: and to place it high in the north, 
at the foot of Mount Taurus, upon the borders of Media, 
and Armenia; where the name of Chaldeans is not to be 
found ? Yet to thefe parts does Grotius, as well as Bochart, 
refer it: and mentioning Ur of the Chaldees, he adds, ^'^ the 
nai?te remairied to the time of Marcelli7itis. But this learned 
man is furely wrong in determining fo haftily, and with fuch 
a latitude : for there was no Ur of the Chaldees, nor any 
Chaldea in thefe parts. Lucian was born at Samofata : 
and Marcellinus was thoroughly acquainted with this coun- 
try. Yet neither from them, nor from Pliny, Ptolemy, 
Mela, Solinus, nor from any writer, is there the leaft hint of 
any Chaldeans being here. The place mentioned above was 
an obfcure caftle ; of little " confequence, as we may infer, 
from its never having been taken notice of by any other 
writer. Grotius fays, manfit loco nomen: from whence one 
might be led to imagine, that it had exijfted in the days of 
Abraham. But there is not the leaft reafon to fuppofe any 
fuch thing. It is indeed idle to form any conjecture about 
the antiquity of a place, which occurs but once in hiftory ; 
and which is never mentioned before the fifth century. 

'' Grotius in Genefin. c. 1 1. v. 31. Ur Chaldsoriim : manfit loco nomen, &c. 
*° The wliole hillory of the place is comprifed in four words : Ur nomine Per- 
ficum caliellum. Marcellinus. L. 25. p. ^^6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 283 

Why then have men of fuch extendve learning fo induftri- 
oufly deviated from the truth ; and gone contrary to the 
common interpretation? The reafon given is this. We are 
told by thefe writers, that "' Abraham was ordered to leave 
his father s houfe^ and to betake hijnfelf to the la?td of Ca?taa7j. 
Now to go from Babylonia to Ca?iaan by Haran^ as it is faid 
that Abraham did^ is not the direSi road : for Haran lies out 
of the way. But from the Ur of MarcellinuSy or fro?ft the city 
Edejfa., ''* Haran lies in the very rout ; and the courfe is very 
direSi. But why muft all hiftorical certainty be fet afide for 
the fake of a more plaufible and compendious way of pro- 
ceeding ? We frame to ourfelves, at this diftance of time, 
notions about expediency and convenience ; which arife 
merely from our inexperience, and from thofe unneceffary 
doubts, which are formed through ignorance. Where is it 
mentioned in the Scriptures, that the Patriarch was reftrained 
to the diredl road ? After he had left Ur of the Chaldees, 
he went with his father to Haran, and dwelt there. Some 
make the term of his relidence to have been a year : others 
imagine it to have been a great deal more. If he did not 
proceed diredlly in regard to time, why muft he be fuppofed 
to have been limited in refpeft to place ? What matters it, 
by which rout he went to Canaan, if the call was not fo co- 
gent, but that he had permiflion to ftay by the way ? 

There is another queftion to be afked. As the rout fup- 
pofed to be taken from Babylonia and the fouth towards 
Haran is objeded to j I fhould be glad to know, which way 

*' Genefis. c. 12. v. 1, 

*' In Judceam viareftaeftper Carrhas. Bochart fupra. p. 7S. 

O o 2 the 

284 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the Patriarch fliould have direded his fteps. It is anfwered, 
that he ought to have gone to Ca?2aa?z direEfly *' wejiwardy 
through Arabia : which would have bee?i nearly in a Jlrait liney 
if he had gone from the lower regiojis of Babylonia : but as he 
proceeded in a circuit, that could not be the place of his depar- 
ture. Now, from the bcfl accounts, we may be affured, that 
the rout, which we fuppofe him to have taken, was the true, 
and only way : there v/as no other, by which people could 
proceed. And we take off greatly from the purport and 
precifion of the holy Scriptures, by thus arbitrarily changing 
the fcene of action, becaufe it does not accord with our pre- 
judices. And thefe prejudices arife from our being accuf- 
tomed to fcanty inaps ; and not looking into the natural 
hiftories of the countries, about which we are concerned. 
The very befl accounts prove, that this was the rout ever 
taken by people, who went from Babylonia, and its pro- 
vinces, to Palasftina and Egypt : for the dired; way, as Gro- 
tius terms it, and which Bochart recommends, could not be 
purfued. From Babylonia and Chaldea weftward was a 
""^defert of great extent ; which reached to Canaan, and ftill 
farther to the Nile. Nor is there, I believe, upon record 
above one inftance of its having ever been *^ traverfed. All 
armies, and all caravans of merchants, were obliged to go to 
the north of the Euphrates, when they came from Babylonia 

*' Via eflet (e Babylonia) muko compendiofior per Arabia deferta. Ibid. 

^* Mera Si t«« avfACoAoci EvippiiTB re x.a.1 TiyptSoi xccrsicri* n JjccCv^pio. M-S^pi S'as- 
Aao-crw?, SvTtxooTepacv e^nax rnu Ep//oi'. Agathemer. apud'Geog. Vet. vol. 2. 

P- 43- 

*' It is faid by Berofus, that Nebuchadnezzar, hearing of his father's death, made 

his way in great hafte over this defert. Apud Jofephum contra Ap. L. 1. c. 9. 

p. 450. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 285 

to Egypt ; or the reverfe, when they went from Egypt to Ba- 
bylonia. Herodotus,, when he is Ipeaking of the march of 
Cambyfes to Egypt, fays, that the only way into that coun- 
try was downward from the Euphrates, by Syrophenicia, and 
Palccftine. ''^ Movi'i) Js rocvrn sicri (pccPB^ai ekt^cXui eg Kiyviriov. 
Thej'e is 7J0 other apparent pajjage irito Egypt but this. And. 
the reafon is plain : for the Arabian defcrt rendered it im- 
pra6licable to proceed in a flirait line. People were obliged, 
to go round by Carchemifh upon the Euphrates : and the 
kings of Babylonia and Egypt fortified that place alternate- 
ly, to fecure the pafTage ot the river. When Pharaoh Necho, 
and the king of Babylon wanted to meet in battle, they 
were obliged to come this way to the "' encounter. The 
army of Cambyfes, and all the armies of the Greeks and 
Romans ; thofe who ferved under Cyrus the younger ; the 
army of Alexander, Antiochus, Antonius, Trajan, Gordian, 
Julian, went to the north by the Euphrates. Someofthefe 
princes fet out from Egypt, yet were obliged to take this 
circuit. It is remarkable, that CraiTus, in his rout towards 
Babylonia went by *^ Charrse, or Haran : which was the 
very fpot, where Abraham, in his way from Chaldea to Ca- 
naan, refided. At this place, the Roman general was met 
by Surena, and flain. Alexander the Great went nearly in 
the fame track : for though this was round about, yet it was. 

** Herodotus. L. 3. c. 5. 

*'' The army of Pharaoh Necho— which was by the rher Euphrates iir Carchemijh, 
which Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylott, fmote. Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 2. See 2 Kino-.s. 
c. 23. V. 29. 2 Chron. c. 35. v. 20. 

" Charrasis called Harran by the Nubian geographer, p. igS. and by Naffir Et- 
tufeus. Geog. Vet. v, 3. p. 94. 


286 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

by many efteemed the beft road to Babylonia. The emperor 
Julian alfo took his rout by Haran ; but from thence went 
the lower way by Cercufium and the Euphrates. For there 
were two roads through Mefopotamia to Babylon, and Perfia; 
and they both commenced at *' Charras or Haran. All thefe 
circumftances afford great light to the Mofa'ic hiftory, and 
abundantly witnefs its truth and precision, even in the molt 
minute particulars. It is therefore a great pity, that men of 
learning are not fufficiently confederate in their determina- 
tions. We from this inftance fee, that they would fet afide 
a plain and accepted interpretation, on account of a feeming 
difhculty, to the prejudice of Scripture : which interpreta- 
tion, upon inquiry, affords a wonderful evidence in its favour: 
for it appears, upon the ftrideft examination, that things 
muft have happened, as they are reprefented. 

The inhabitants of Chaldea were Cuthites, of the fame 
family, as thofe, by whom Babylon was founded. They are 
in the Scriptures uniformly called Chafdim, or Chufdim. 
This, I may be told, is contrary to the ufual mode of com- 
pofition : for if they were the fons of Chus, they fhould re- 
gularly have been rendered Chufim. How then came they to 
be called Chufdim, contrary to all rule and analogy ? To 
this I can fay little. I can give no reafon, why Chus was 
called Cuth ; and the land of Cufhan, Cutha: much lefs can 
I account for its being ftill further diverfified, and rendered 
Scutha, and Scuthia. It is equally difficult to fay, why 
thefe very Chafdim of the Scriptures are by the Ethnic 

*' Marcelllnus. L. 23. p. 273. Carras, antiquum -oppidum •, unde duas ducentes 


Perfidem via; regise diftingiiuntur. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 287 

writers continually ftylcd Chaldzei; whicli is flill a greater 
variation. All I know is, that the fame names, at different 
periods, will be differently expreffed : and fcarce any terms 
are exhibited by thofe, who are foreign to a country, as they 
are pronounced by the natives. But we are not to go by 
found and fimilarity: nor does the hiftory of a family depend 
merely upon their '° name. Had the people, of whom we 
are treating, been in any degree natives of Affyria, we fhould 
certainly find fome traces of them in the Affyrian hiftory. 
But we hear nothing of them till the reign of Salmanaffer, 
or Afuraddon : who, when they tranfplanted conquered na- 
tions, and had removed Ifrael from Samaria, brought men of 
^' Babylon and Cutha in their room. From hence we may 
judge, that the Cuthites and Babylonians, among whom the 
Chaldeans are included, were in the fame intereft ; and had 
been in confederacy againft the Affyrians: confequently they 
were not of their family. In a little time, the Babylonians 
fhook off the Affyrian yoke, and in their turn formed a great 
empire : and then we have continual accounts of the Chal- 
deans. They were in a manner the fame as the Babylonians, 
who were indifputably the fons of Chus : and the two names 
are ufed by writers indifferently, as being nearly fynonymous. 
Hence when the army of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 
furrounded Jerufalem, it is called the arfuy of the Chaldees. 
'The Chaldees were againjl the city roimd about : ^' ^nd the 


'° There was a Chaldea upon the Pontus Euxinus, to the eaft of Sinope, in the 
country of the Chalybes : but nobody will fuppofe that Abraham came from hence. 

" 2 Kings, c. 17. V. 24. of Aflur-Adon. See Ezra. c. 4. v. 2. 

'* 2 Kings, c. 25. V. 4. In like manner it is faid, that the army of the Chaldeans pir- 
fued after the king, and overtook Zedckiab. Jeremiah, c. 52. v. 8. 

" 2 Kings, c. 25. V. 10. ^j-j^^y 

288 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology.. 

army of the Chaldees — brake down the walls. Ifaiah fpeaks of 
Babylon, as ^* the beauty of the Chaldees excelle?2ce. And when 
Darius the Mede obtained the throne of Babylon, he is faid 
to have been ^^ made king over the realm of the Chaldees. 
Even Nebuchadnezzar abovementioned is diftingiiiflied by 
•the title of ^* Nebuchadnezzar^ the king of Babylon^ the Chal- 
dean. The reafon of all this, I think, is plain. It has been 
mentioned, that, when Babel was ruined, it lay unoccupied 
for ages : and the region of Babylonia feems to have been 
but thinly inhabited. The city was at laft rebuilt : and 
when it was taken in hand, the work was carried on by the 
Chaldeans, under the infpedion of Merodach Baladan, but 
chiefly of his fon Nebuchadnezzar. He is expreflly faid to 
have " built it, and to have been a Chaldean. Hence Baby- 
lon is very truly reprefented, as the beauty of the Chaldea?is 
excellence : for that people raifed its towers ; and gave it an 
extent and magnificence faperior to Erech, Ur, Borfippa, and 
every city of the nation. Indeed, if we may judge from the 
accounts tranfmitted, there was not a city in the world, that 
could equal it in ^^ grandeur and beauty. For this reafon, 
the Chaldeans and Babylonians are fpoken of as the fame 
people ; for they were originally the fame family : and when 
they came to refide in the fame province, there could be no 
difference between them. There were however fome tribes, 
which feem to the laft to have been diflinguifhed, and called, 

''' Ifaiah. c. 13. v. 19. 

" Daniel, c. 9. v. i. 

'* Ezra. c. 5. V, 12. 

''^ Daniel, c. 4. v. 30. 

^' Babylon, tke glory of kingdoms, the beanty of the Chaldeans excellence. Ifaiah above. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 289^ 

by way of eminence, Chaldeans. Such were thofe of Bor- 
fippa and Ur, fo celebrated for philofophy and divination ; 
out of whom came the Magi, Arufpices, and Soothfayers. 
Thofe of Ur were particularly ftyjed Urchani, which may 
either fignity Lords of Ur^ or Priejis of Fire. Strabo fpeaks 
much ot the Chaldeans, -and of their great wifdom : and fays, 
that from them, and from the Egyptians, the learning of 
Greece was derived. Such is the hiftory of this city of the 
Chaldees, and of the country, wherein it was fituated. 

Vol. hi. P p OF 

[ 291 ] 

O F 






THE land of Egypt conflfted of a narrow region, which 
reached from Syene downwards to the upper point of 
Delta, following the courfe of the Nile. It was above five 
hundred miles in length ; and on each fide bounded by 
mountains, which terminated exadlly, where the region 
ended. At this point the Nile divided, and the country 
below for a great while was a morafs : but when it came to 
have canals made, and to be properly drained, it turned out 
the richefl, and at the fame time the moft beautiful, part of 
Egypt. It was called Delta, and divided into numberlefs 
iflands, which fwarmed with inhabitants. In confequence 
of this it abounded with towns and cities beyond any coun- 
try upon earth ; fome of which feem to have been of great 

P p 2 extent. 

Z92 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

extent. Thefc iflands were finely planted ; and the com- 
munication between them was kept up in boats and baro-es. 
In this manner they made their vifits to particular temples at 
ftated times : which voyages were attended-v with mufick, 
collations, and the higheft ' feflivity. In the courfe of their 
navigation, they pafl'ed by innumerable towns and villap-es, 
furrounded with gardens well difpofed, and abounding with 
trees of difierent forts, particularly with palms, and "^ peach- 
trees, and groves of acacia. On the Libyan fide to the weft, 
a large region feems to have been of old overflowed by the 
waters of the Nile, which had no outlet to pafs freely, and 
became ftagnant and unwholefome. An ancient king took 
an opportunity, during the recefs of the Nile, to dig out the 
wafte mud, and with it to form an head below : by which 
means he prevented the exuberant waters from defcending 
any more to the lower country. All that was above he 
formed into a mighty lake, which comprehended a foace of 
above one hundred ^ miles fquare. In this were many illands, 
with temples and obelifks : and clofe upon it was the Laby- 
rinth, a fiupendous work ; alfo the city of the facred croco- 
dile, held in great veneration. It was called the lake Moeris; 
and was fuppofed to have had this name from the king, by 
whom it was made. But Moeris fignifies a marifii, or marfii ; 
and alludes to its priftine ftate, from whence it was deno- 
minated. The later Egyptians did not know for certain the 
name of any one prince, by whom their great works had been 

' Herod. L. 2. c. 60. 61. 

* The Perfica, a tree moft acceptable to Ifis. Plutarch. If. et Ofir. p, 378. 
' Herod. L. 2. c. 149. Mela. L. i.e. 9. p. 56. Qiiingenta millia paffluim in 
circuitu patens. 

lo performed. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 293 

performed. Tliey cither fubftitiited the title of fome Deity j 
or out of the name of the place formed a perfonage, whom 
they fuppofed to have been the chief agent. Lacus Mceris 
fignifies the marfh-lake; the piece of water made out of the 
fen : and the region below, which was converted to dry 
ground, was called '^ Scithiaca, alio the fca without wafer. 
That part of Delta, v/hich cxifted in the lirfl ages, was in like 
manner marfhy, as I have fhewn. It was likewife conti- 
nually increaiing towards its bails by the protrufion of foil 
from the river. This was very conliderable, when the 
Nile overflowed ; fo that the lower region had every year an 
additional barrier towards the fea : and oftentimes new 
illands arofe from the prevalence ot the floods above. "What 
it was originally, may be feen from the natural trending of 
the coaft, if we take in a large circuit, and carry the ter- 
minating curve from Afcalon, Gaza, and Mount Caflus on 
one fldc, to Alexandria and Para^tonium on the other. This 
line regularly produced, as in the annexed map, will fhew the 
original extent of Delta : and what exceeds that termination, 
Vvill mark the increafe of foil, which the country has for 
ages been obtaining. Of all this the natives availed them- 
felves. What was thus given them, they raifed by art, and 
further improved; and gained one third more of territory by 
this increment from the Nile. 

The Mizraim, who fettled in Egypt, w^ere branched out 
into ' feven families. Of thefe the Caphtorim were one ; 
who feem to have reflded between Peluflum and Mount 

•* 2xiS;«xw j^«oa. Ptolemy. L. 4. c. 5. p. 121. Called allb Macaria, or the 
land of Macar. 

' Genefis. c. lo. v. 13. 


294 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Cafius, upon the fea-coaft. Pelulium was properly in Ara- 
bia : but the Egyptians very early drew a vaft canal, which 
reached near an hundred and fifty miles from Bubaftus to 
the ^ fea. This was a barrier to the eaft ; and included Pe- 
lufium within the precindts of Egypt. Caphtor, from 
whence the people were denominated, fignifies a tower upon 
a promontory ; and was probably the fame as Migdol, and 
the original place of reiidence of the Caphtorim. This peo- 
ple made an early migration into Canaan, where they were 
called Paleflines, the Philiftim of the Hebrews ; and the 
country, where they fettled, was named ' Palaeftina. Whe- 
ther the whole of their family, or only a part, are included 
in this migration, is uncertain. Be it as it may, they feem 
to have come up by divine commiflion, and to have been en- 
titled to immunities, which to the Canaanites v/ere denied. 
* Have not I (faith the Lord) brought up Ifrael out of the land 
of Egypt f' and the Phiiijii7tes from Caphtor P In confequence 
of this, upon the coming of the Ifraelites into Canaan, they 
feem to have been unmolefted for years. They certainly 
knew from the beginning, that the land was deftined for the 
Ifraelites, and that they only dwelt there by permiffion. 
Hence when Abrahain fojourned at Gerar, the king of the 
country was particularly courteous ; and oftered him any 
part of his demefnes to dwell in. ^ y^nd Abimehch faid^ 

'' Diotlor. Sic. L. i. p. 52. 
rJaAaiT'''^ of Greece. Pelufuim was called Peleffin, and Peleitin : and the 
people, who fettlcdin the part of Canaan, of which we are fpeaking, calkd it Pe- 
leftina, in memorial of the region, from whence they came. 

* Amos. c. g. v. 7. Jeremiah fpeaks of the remnant of Caphtor, by which he 
alludes to the Philiftines. c. 47. v. 4. See Deuteronomy, c. 2. v. 2.5. 
' Genefis. c. 20. v. 15. 

y Behold^ 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 295 

Beholdy my land is before thee : dwell where it pleafeth thee. 
And when the Patriarch afterwards, being aggrieved, retired 
to Beerfheba ; the king thought proper to go to him, at- 
tended with Phichol, his chief captain, who was probably 
one of the Anakim ; and infifted upon a covenant and pro- 
mife, which was to be in force for future senerations. 
■"^ Now therefore /wear unto me here by God^ that thou wilt 
7iot deal falfely with 7ne^ nor with 7fiy fon^ 7ior with my foil s 
fon : hut accordi7tg to the kind7tefs, that I have done unto thee, 
thoufjalt do unto 7ne^ and to the land, wherein thou hajl 
fojourned. Many years afterwards the fame thing happened 
to Ifaac» He had relided at Gerar ; and was obliged to re- 
tire to Beerfheba, where he pitched his tent. The herdfmen 
of the king had ufed him ill: and the prince of the country 
made a point to be reconciled to him ; and fet out with his: 
chief captain, and in the fame ftate as his " predeceffor. 
" A7id Ifaac faid unto tbe7n^ Wherefore co7ne ye to 7}ie^ feeing 
ye hate mef — And they faid ^ We faw certainly that the Lord 
was with thee : a7td we faid y Let there be now an oath betwixt 
us^ even betwixt us and thee ; a77d let us 7nake a cove7ia?it with- 
thee\ that thou wilt do us 710 hurt. What hurt could be 
feared either to them, or to their country, from an old man 
of above an hundred years, who with his whole retinue had 
been put to flight by fome herdfmen ? or what harm could 

'° Genefis. c. 21. v. 23, 

It was undoubtedly a different king of the country. Abimefech wcs not a pro- 
per nanne, but an Iiereditary title. Phichol fignifies the mouth of all; or tlie perlbn,. 
who gives out orders : in other words, the commander in chief. The meetis" of 
ifaac and Abimelech was above an hundred years after the interview with Abraham, 
.'* Gen. c. 26. V. 27. 


296 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

be dreaded from Abraham, v/ho was equally advanced in 
years, or from his attendants ? Yet a covenant was deiired : 
and nothing can more effedlually fliew the reputed fand:ity 
of thefe Patriarchs, and the dignity of their charadler, than 
the reverential regard, which was paid to them. Weak to 
appearance, and unfettled, without the leaft portion of land, 
which they could call their own, they are folicited by the 
princes of the country; who cannot think themfeives fecure 
without their benedidion and favour. And the covenant 
fued for by thefe perfons is not merely for their own time ; 
but to extend to their fons, and fons fons, and to the land, 
in which they dwelt. Accordingly when Joihua conquered 
the kingdoms of Canaan, we find no mention made of the 
Philiftines being engaged in thofe wars ; nor of their having 
entered into any confederacy with the kings of the country. 
And though their cities were adjudged to the tribe of Judah, 
yet they were not '^ fubdued : and feem to have enjoyed a 
term of reift for above forty years. No mention is made of 
any hoftilities during the life of Jofhua : which, confidering 
their fituation, is hard to be accounted tor, except upon the 
principles, upon which I have proceeded. It is probable, 
that they afterwards forgot the covenant, which had been 
formerly made ; and would not -acknowledge any right of 
property, or jurifdidion in the Ifraelites : upon which they 
were invaded by the fons of Judah, and fome of their cities 
taken. Thefe hoftilities commenced in the time of Caleb, 
above forty years after the Ifraelites had been in Canaan. 
The other tribes of theMizraim fent out colonies to the weft; 

'' Jofliua. c. 13. V. 2. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 297 

and occupied many regions in Africa ; to which part of the 
world they feem to have confined themfelves. The children 
alfo of Phut, the third of the fons of Ham, paffed very deep 
to the fouthward : and many of the black nations are de- 
fcended from them ; more, I believe, than from any other 
family. We are informed by "^ Jofephus, that P/jia was the 
fou7ider of the jiations in Libya ; and that the people were 
from him called^ ^wxai^ Phuti. By Libya he underftands, as 
the Greeks did, Africa in general : for the country called 
Libya Proper, was peopled by the Lubim, or Lehabim, one 
of the branches from Mizraim. '^ Aa^iSi^, £^ ov Ai^vsg, 
From Lehabi?n came the Libyes^ fays the author of the 
Chronicon Pafchale. The fons of Phut fettled in Mau- 
ritania ; where was a region called Phutia, as we learn from 
Jerom ; and a river of the like denomination. '* Maurita- 
nia fluvius ufque ad praefens tempus Phut dicitur : omnif- 
que circa eum regio Phutenfis. '^ Jofephus alfo mentions 
in this country a river fo called. Some of this family 
fettled above Egypt near Ethiopia ; and were ftyled Troglo- 
dytse, as we learn from Syncellus. '^ Ooi^J", sj w T^ooyKo^VTai, 
Many of them paffed inland, and peopled the mediterranean 
country. In procefs of time, the fons of Chus, after their 
expulfion from Babylonia, and Egypt, made fettlements 
upon the fea-coaft of Africa, and came into Mauritania. 
We accordingly find traces of them in the names, which 

'* Antiq. L. i. c. 7. See Bochart. Phaleg. p. 295. 
" Chron. Pafch. p. 29. 
'* Traditiones Hebr. 
'■^ Antiq. L. i. c. 7. 
'■^ Syncellus. p. 47. 

Vol. IIL Q^q ^^^Y 

298 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

they bequeathed to places; fuch as Chuzis, Chufarez, upon 
the coaft ; and a city Cotta, with a promontory Cotis, in 
Mauritania. Flumen Cofenum alfo is mentioned by '' Pliny. 
By their coming into thefe parts the memorials of the Phu- 
teans were in fome degree obfcured. They are however to 
be found lower down ; and the country upon one fide of 
the river Gambia is at this day called Phuta. Of this Bluet 
gives an account in his hiftory of Mofes Ben Solomon. It 
is not pofTible at this asra to difcriminate the feveral cafls 
among the black nations. Many have thought, that all 
thofe, who had woolly hair, were of the Ethiopian, or Cu- 
thite, breed. But nothing can be inferred from this diffe- 
rence of hair : for many of the Ethiopic race had ftrait hair, 
as we learn from " Herodotus : and we are told by Marcel- 
linus, that fome of the Egyptians had a tendency to wool. 
From whence we may infer, that it was a circumftancc 
more or lefs to be obferved in all the branches of the line of 
Ham ; but univerfally among the Nigritse, of whatever 
branch they may have been. 

The learning and wifdom of the Egyptians have been 
always greatly celebrated ; fo that there is no writer, of con- 
fequence, who treats of their hiftory, but fpeaks of them 
with admiration. The Grecians had high notions of their 
own antiquity and learning : yet notwithftanding all their 
prejudices, they ever allow the fliperiority of the Egyptians. 
Herodotus had vinted Egypt, and [qqh the temples and col- 
leges of that country. In confequence of this, he had op- 
portvmities of gaining fome intelligence of the natives, 

"L.5. c. 1. 

*' l^uTpixii A(5.o7r£s. L. 7. c. 70. whom 



l-l,l/f III 1' i<)& 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology-. 299 

whom he mentions with the higheft marks of honour. He 
fays, that they were the *' wifeft of all nations : and he ac- 
knowledges, that they were never beholden for any thing to 
the Grecians ; but on the contrary, that " Greece had bor- 
rowed largely from Egypt. No nation appears to have en- 
joyed a better eftablifhed polity. Their councils, fenate, and 
tribunals feem to have been very ''^ auguft, and highly re- 
garded. Their community was compofed of ^"^ feven different 
orders. In moft of thefe there were degrees of honour, to 
which particulars, upon their any ways excelling, were per- 
mitted to rife. They were deeply {killed in "^ aftronomy and 
geometry ; alfo in chymiftry and phyfick. Indeed they feem 
to have been acquainted with every branch of philofophy ; 
which they are fuppofed of all nations to have cultivated the 
"^ firft. The natives of Thebes above all others were re- 
nowned for their great wifdom ; and for their knowledge in 
thefe ""'fciences. Their improvements in geometry are thought 
to have been owing to the nature of their ""^ country. For the 
land of Egypt being annually overflowed, and all property 
confounded ; they were obliged, upon the retreat of the 

" 1.. 2. c. 121. c. 160. 

" L. 2. c. 49. See Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 361. 

'^ See Johannes Nicolaus de Synedrio j?^gyptiorum. Lugd. Bat. anno lyoS.- 

** Herodotus. L. 2. c. 163. 

*' Diodoriis. L. i. p. 6^. Clemens Alex. Strom. L. 5. p. 6§y. Hefodot. I,. 
3. c. 129. The very term Chymiftry, Chemia, X«^<a, fignifies the Egypiicvi art. 
The country itfelf was named Chemia, antl Chamia, or the land of Cham. Another 
fenfe of Chemia, and Al-Chemia is aprocefs by fire. 

"* Tatianus Affyrius. p. 243. Juft. Martyr. Cohort, p. 18. 

'' O/ SiQy)Qoi.ioi (fatcrivlccurfii ccp^aioTXTBi iivxi Travrcnv a.v^F037rc>}f.jy.a.i iinxci Ictvrcii 
'SjpcDToii <piAcco(pia.v re si;g»o-9ai, xcct mv iir axoiQa a,<^poAo'yiccf', xtA. Diodorus. 
L, I. p. 46. 

'^ Herodot. L. 2. c. log. 

Q^q 2> waters, 

300 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

waters, to have recourfe to geometrical decision, in order to 
determine the limits of their poffeflions. All the beft ar- 
chited:ure of Greece may be traced to its original in*' Egypt. 
Here were the firft efforts of genius difclofed ; as may be 
fhill feen about Luxorain, Ombus, Afibuan, and Thebes. 
In thefe parts relided the Artifts, who formed the ancient 
cornice and architrave : and who invented the capital, and 
fliaft, of which the firft pillar was compofed. And however 
early thefe fpecimens may have been, yet there are among 
them fome, which witnefs no fmall elegance and beauty. 
To them is attributed the invention of the ^° zodiac and 
fphere : and they are faid to have firft obferved accurately 
the folftitial points ; and to have determined the year. 
Macrobius ftyles Egypt the parent of ^' arts: and he fays, that 
Julius Casfar, when he took in hand to correal the Roman 
Calendar, eifedled it upon Egyptian principles ; ^* copyi7tg^ 
thoje great jnajlers^ who were the only proficients upon earth in 
the 7ioble and divi?ie fciences. The works, which they erected 
were immenfe. Both their obeliiks and pyramids have been 
looked up to with amazement : and it has been the ftudy 
of the world to devife, by what mechanical powers they were 
eifedled. Their ramparts, fluices, canals, and lakes, have 

*' See Pocock's Egypt, p. 216. and Norden. Plates 107. 127. and 144. 

*° Macrobius Somn. Scip. L. i. p. 75. 76, Herod. L. 2. c. 4. 

Anni certus modus apud Iblos j^gyptios femper fuit. Macrob. Saturn. L. i,. 

p. 169. 

'' iEgyptus artium mater. Ibid. p. 180. 

AiyBat TOiivv AiyvirTtoi Tcixf aurun t;)v t? toiv ypcx.ui/.ccrci:v wpsaiv yeieauxi, xxt 
rccv acTf^" ■waparnpiiaiv' 'mpos Se 7»rciii Tct re -zirepi tiiv ysu/xSTfiacv ^nwpijfy.a.ra, xxt 
Tuv ri^vuv Tce,s-Tzr?isi<^ot.isvpeonv(x.i. Diod, Sic. L. i. p. 63. 

^* C. CiElar — imitatus iEgyptios, lolos divinarum rerum omnium confcios. 
Macrob. Sat. L. i.p. 178. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. -joi 


never been fiirpaffed, either in number, or magnificence, by 
any people in the world. Their fculptures, though exe- 
cuted in fo early an age, are reprefented in many inftances 
as very curious and precife. Frederick Haffelquift, a learned 
Swede, " aflures us, that he could plainly diflinguifli every 
bird, and the particular fpecies of every bird, upon the obe- 
lifk at Matarea. 

No wonder, that a people fo excellent fhould be beheld 
with a degree of ^* veneration by the Grecians. On this ac- 
count all thofe, who were zealous of making a proficiency 
in philofophy, betook themfelyes to ^^ Egypt, which was the 
academy of Greece. Among the foremofl: of thefe were Py- 
thagoras, Thales, Solon, ^' Eudoxus, '^ Plato ; who fludied 
there a good while. In the days of the two lafl, the coun- 
try was more open to foreigners : and from that time it was 
more generally, and more eagerly vifited. Yet the JEgyp- 
tians were then lowered, by having been fo often fubdued : 
their hiftories had been greatly damaged, and their know- 
ledge much impaired. Yet there was fufficient merit flill 
left to make even a Grecian admire. From hence we may 
fairly judge of the primitive excellence of this people : for 

" Travels, p. gg. 

' risAAa yap tcov 'urctXacwv Svv yivofAivuv -map AiyuirTioK a y.ovov ■mapx roi~ ey- 
^CL^pioii acTToJ o^'/j; STJ^svy aAAa xxt -wccpa ron 'EAA«o-<i' a julbtpioh- iuxvy.xa^n. Diod. 
Sic. L. I. p. 62. 

'' Diodorus. ibid. Clemens Alex. Strom. L. i. p. 356. 

^* Eudoxus primus ab iEgypto motus (fiderum) in Grsedam tranftulit. — C'onon 
poftea, diligens et ipfe inquifitor, defedliones quidem (forte quafdam) Iblis ab ^gyp- 
tiis fervatas collegit. Senecae Qusft. Nat. L. 7. c. 3. 

" Macrobius mentions, that Plato in particular was an admirer of the Egyptians. 
Plato iEgyptios, omnium philofophis dilciplinarum audores, fecutus. Somn. 
Scip. L. I. p. 64. 


302 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

if fcicnce appeared fo lovely in ruins, what muft have beea 
its luftre, when in a ftate of perfe6lion ? 

O, quam te dicam bonam 
Antehac fuifle, tales cum iint reliquise ! 

It is obfervable, that in the law of Mofes a deference is paid 
to the Egyptians ; and the Ifraelites were ordered to look 
upon them with an eye of favour : nay, they were permitted 
to enter the fandluary after the fecond ^* generation. 

The Egyptians were very happily iituated ; and enjoyed 
all the neceffaries of life within themfelves. They were pe- 
culiarly fortunate both in the falubrity of their air, and in 
the uncommon properties of the Nile. Their animals were 
very prolific : and their foil, being continually renewed, was 
beyond meafure fruitful ; and in moft places produced two 
•crops of corn in a year. They moreover enjoyed the good 
things of the whole earth : for though they were themfelves 
averfe to navigation, yet they admitted merchants to Coptos, 
and to other places. From thefe they received balm, gold, 
fpices, ivory, gems; and in return they gave their corn, flax, 
and fine linen, and whatever was the produdt of Egypt. 
The facred writers take notice of the rich garments, and 
curious embroideries of this people : indeed there are re- 
peated allufions in the Scriptures to their wonderful " fkill 
and wifdom. Hence, when the prophet Ifaiah foretells the 
ruin of the kingdom, he fpeaks of the fuperior underfbanding 
of the people, which nothing but a judicial blindneis could 

'' Deuteron. c. 23. v. 7. 8. 

" Ezekiel mentions the Tyrians trading for the fine Unen, and embrohlred work ^f 
Eiypt. c. 27. V. 7. The Egyptians, that work in fine flax. Ifaiah. c, 19. v. 9. 

10 pervert. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 303 

pervert. "^^ The Lord hath mingled a perverfe fpirit in the 
midft (of. Egypt.) *' Surely the princes of Zoan are fools: the 
counfel of the wife counfellors of Pharaoh is becoi7te brutip. 
How fay ye unto Pharaoh^ I am the f on of the wife ; the f on of 
ancie?it h.i?tgs f Where are they f Where are thy wife men f 
— 'The princes of Zoan are become fools : the princes of Noph 
are deceived. They have alfo feduced Egypt. The prophet 
had before faid, *' The fpii'it of Egypt Jhall fail in the midfl 
thereof \ a7id I will defray the counfel thereof : — and the 
Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruel lord., and 
a fierce king.^ &c. Hence we find, that nothing but infatua- 
tion could be the ruin of this people. 

Egypt of all countries feems to have been the moft fecure. 
It was to the north defended by the fea; and on every other 
fide by deferts of great extent. It abounded with inhabi- 
tants ; and had many cities of great ftrength : and as it en- 
joyed every thing neceffary for life within itfelf, and was in 
a manner fecluded from the world; it had little to fear from 
any foreign power. We find however, that it was conquered 
more than once; and after a feries of great calamities finally 
brought to ruin. 

The misfortunes of this people arofe from a repining dif- 
Gontented fpirit, which produced inteftine animofities. They 
often fet afide their rightful monarch; and fubftituted many 
princes inilead of ^^ one. At the invafion of Sabacon, the 
Ethiopian, the Egyptians feem to have been difunited bj 

*° C. ig. 14, 

"•^ C. 19, V, II, 12. i3> 

^ V. 3. 

*^ See Marfham's Chron. Scec. i6. rioAuxoi^am. p. 443. 


304 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


fadions, and under many petty '^ princes. And when the 
Ethiopic government ceafed, they again lapfed into a ftate of 
mifrule; till at laft twelve of the moft powerful in the nation 
aflumed regal dignity ; and each feized to himfelf a portion of 
the ^'kingdom. This was productive of ftill greater confuiion; 
and of more bitter feuds. For though they are faid to have 
agreed together for a while; yet they at laft quarrelled, and 
hoftilities "^^ commenced, till at laft the monarchy came to 
Pfammitichus. Of thefe commotions the prophet Ifaiah 
fpeaks, when he is foretelling the deftru6tion of Egypt. '^^ / 
will fet the Egyptians^ fays the Deity, agai?jjl the Egyptia?ts; 
a?id they JJjall Jight every 07ie againjl his brother .^ and every one 
agai7ijl his neighbour ; city againji city^ and nojne agai7ijl 7t07ne. 
.And the fpirit of Egypt fmll fail in the midfl thereof : and I 
will deflroy the counfel thereof. They were the wifeft people 
upon earth ; but their good fenfe was at laft perverted : and 
no nation ever co-operated more ftrongly to its own deftruc- 
tion. Hence they were conquered by E far- Adon the Aflyrian ; 
and by the king of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar, who took ad- 
vantage of thefe internal commotions. Afterward they be- 
came a more eafy prey to the Perftans, and Grecians, who 
ruled over them in their turns. The conqueft of Egypt by 
Nebuchadnezzar feems to have been attended with grievous 

"^^ Sabacon ^thiops i^gyptum jam disjundis viribus debilitatam occupat. Ibid. 
Sasc. 16. p. 456. When afterwards Sennacherib invaded the land, the foldiers re- 
fufed to fight. Herodot. L. 2. c. 141. 

*^ Tc^v o-^Xkv eti Tapa^af Koci fcvovs efjiq,v?^i8i rpeTTofj.evuv, eTrotrcccvro avvooixoaia.v 01 
p.iyiq'oi raiv nyf/jLovajv S'uSexoe,^ Ko.i—ccvsS'it^a.ii lavrsi (icKTiAeii. Diodorus. L. J. p. 59. 
See alio Herod. L. 2. c. 147. 

** Diodorus. L. i. p, 60. 

*' C. 19. V. 2. 

'' r calamities, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 305 

calamities, fuch as the nation had never before experienced. 
The country, as I have mentioned, was fo happily fituated', 
as to have little occafion to interfere with the politics of 
other nations. But they were a mighty people, and could 
not refrain themfelves from fhewing their power. Hence 
they unnecefTarily oppofed both the*^ AfTyrians and Babylo- 
nians : and Pharaoh Necho went up ■" twice to Carchemifh 
upon the Euphrates, to encounter thofe nations. He was 
at laft '" beaten ; and both by his march upwards, and by 
his retreat, he pointed out the path to Egypt, and fhewed, 
how it might be affaikd. In confequence of this it was at- 
tacked by Nebuchadnezzar, and totally fubdued : and not 
content with this, the vidtor feems to have carried his re- 
ientment to a vioknt degree, fo as almoft to extirpate the 
nation. What they fufFered may be known from what was 
predidled ; which contains a fad denunciation of evil. ^^ There- 
forCt thus faith the Lord God \ Behold I will bring a fword 
upon thee \ and cut off man^ and beajl out of thee. And the 
land of Egypt f jail be deflate and waffe ; ajid they fj all knowj 
that I am the Lord : becaufe he hath faid. The river is 
mine^ and I have made it. Behold.^ therefore I am againfl 
thee J and. agai?jf thy rivers ; and I will make the land of 
Egypt utterly wafe^ and deflate^ from the Tower Migdol to 
Syene., and the border of Ethiopia. JVo foot of man fall pafs 
through ity nor foot of be af fall pafs through it^ 7ieither fall 
it be inhabited forty years. And I will fnake the land of 

*' 2 Kings.. c. ig. v. 9. and c. 23.. v. 29. 2 Chron. c. 35. v. 20. 
■*' 2 Chron. c. 35. v. 20. Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 2. 
'^ Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 2. 
'*■ Ezekiel. c. 29. v. 8, 

' Vol. Ill, R r E,gypt 

3o6 The Analysis or Ancient Mytholot>y, 

Egypt defolute in the midji of the countries that are defolate-^ 
and her cities^ among the cities that are laid wafie.^ jlsall be defo- 
late forty years : and I will fcatter the Egyptians among the na- 
tions.^ and will difperfe them through the cou?itries. Tet thus faith 
the Lord God, At the end of forty years will I gather the Egyp- 
tians from the people^whither they werefcattered. And I will bring 
again the captivity ofEgypt'^ and will catife them to return into ths 
landofPaphroSy into the land of their habitation, and they fo all be 
.there a bafe kingdom. In the fubfequent part of this prophecy 
there are many beautiful allufions to the rites and idolatry 
of this people : and the fame is to be obferv^ed in Jeremiah. 
^* Ohy thou daughter, dwelling i?2 Egypt^ fu7'7iify thyfelf to go 
into captivity : for Noph foall be wafle and deflate without an 
inhabitafit. Egypt is like a fair heifer ; but deJlruBioj^ cometh : 
it cometh out of the north, Alfo her hired men are ifi the midJl 
of her, like fatted bullocks 'y for they alfo — are fled away toge- 
ther : they did not ft and, becaufe the dc^ of their calamity was 
come upo?i them — 'The daughter of Egypt fhall be confounded : 
fte JJmll be delivered into the hand of the people of the north. 
The Lord of Hofts, the God of Ifrael, faith ; Behold, I will pu- 
nifi the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their 
- Gods, and their kings ; even Pharaoh, and all them that truft in 
him. And I will deliver them into the ha7td of thofe, that feek 
.their lives \ and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Ba- 
. by Ion, and into the hand of his ferv ants : and aftej'wards it fhall 
be inhabited, as in the days of old, faith the Lord. We fee, that 
the defoladon of the country is foretold by both prophets; 
and likewife a rcfloration of thofe, who were to be carried 

^* Jeremiah, c. 46. V. 19. 


The Analysis of Ancjent Mythology. 307 

into captivity. This return of the people, according to 
Ezekiel, was not to be effeded till after forty years. The 
accounts in the Egyptian hiftories concerning thefe times are 
very dark and inconfiftent. So much we learn, that there 
were great commotions and " migrations of people, when 
Pharaoh Necho, and Pfammitichus are fuppofed to have 
reigned. And both thefe, and the fubfequent kings, are re- 
prefented as admitting the ^"^ Carians, and other nations into 
Egypt ; and hiring mercenaries for the defence of the coun- 
try. All this is repugnant to their former ^^ manners ; and. 
fliews, that the country was become thin of inhabitants, and. 
wanted to be repeopled. Moll writers mention an interval 
about this time, which is ftyled '^^ovog (xJoa.(nKsurog : but they 
iitrppofe it to have been only ^* eleven years. Diodorus Sicu- 
ius mentions about the fame time an interval of four *^ ages, 
in which there was no king. The original hiftory was un- 
doubtedly not fooir ages, but four decads of years ; and 
agrees very well with the prophecy of Ezekiel. The hifto- 
i^ian places this interval between the reign of Pfammitichus 
arid Apries. But there is no truft to be given to the pofition 
of the kings of Egypt about this time. Apries is by fome 
expreffed ^* Vaphres ; and is with good reafon fappofed to 

'^ Plin. L. 6. c. 30. Strabo. L. i6. p. 1115. 

'* Diodorus. L. i. p. 60. 61. Strabo. L. 17. p. 1 153. 

" UpMrotdroiiv AtyvTcru aAMyXuua-oi. Herod. L. 2, c. 154. 

Sir John Marfham thinks very truly, that thefe eleven years relate to the anarchy 
brought on by Nebuchadnezzar. Hiatus ifte, five annorum undecim am/:;^(a, cum 
calamitatibus ^Egypto a Nabuchodonoforo illatis convenienter fe habec. Chron,., 
Sasc. 18. p. 543. 

" L. I. p. 62. 

^' Africanus apud Eufeb. et Syncellu-n, 

R r %: ^1 

cibS The Analysis op Akcient Mythologt.. 


be the Pharaoh Hophra of the " Scriptures. He is the prince, 
concerning whom Jeremiah prophesied ; and who by Eu- ' 
febius is called ^° Oyacp^r^?, Vaphres, He introduces him not 
long after the captivity : and fays, that when Jerufalem was 
ruined, many of the Jews fled to him for fhelter. On this 
account it was, that the prophet denounced God's wrath 
upon him, and upon thofe, who trufted in his affiflance. 
^' Behold., I will watch over them for evil, afid not for good :■ 
and all the men ofjudah^ that are in the land of Egypt, fhall 
be conf limed by the fword, and by the famine, u?itil there be an 
end of thevi. "Thus faith the Lord : Behold, I will give Pha- 
raoh Hophra, king of Egypt, into the hand of his enemies, and 
into the hand of them thatfeek his life : as I gave Zedekiah, king 
of Judah, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar^ king of Babylon, 
his enemy, and that fought his life. By whofe hand he was 
cut off, is not faid. We find, *^ that he lived foon after Je- 
rufalem had been ruined by the Babylonians ; confequent- 
ly before the defolation of Egypt : for this did not happen 
till after the feven and twentieth year of the captivity. '' A7id 
it came to pafs in thefeveji and twentieth year, in thefrfl mo7tth, 
in the firfl day of the mo?ith, the word of the Lord came unto 
me, fayijtg : Son of 7nan ; Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, ■ 
catifed his army to ferve a great fervice agaiiift Tyrus : yet he 
had no wages, nor his army, for the fervice that he ferved 
againfl it. Therefore thus faith the Lord God: Behold, 

''■'' Jeremiah, c. 44, v. 30. Toe Cux(pp» (iuenAeac. Seventy. 

*° Oux(pfW irii xf, ai tiT pcae(piiyot', aAacrwj vtto Aa-au^icov lep^aaXyifx, 01 toov lovS'auoy 
VsAocTToi. Eufeb. Chron. p. ij, 

" Jeremiah, c. 44. v. 27. 

*' Ibid. V. 30. 

*' ILzekiel. c. 29. v. 17. Jeremiah, c, 43. v. 10. and c. 44. v. i. 
i J ^ J will 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 309 

/ will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadrezzar y hng of 
Babylon : and he Jh all take her multitude^ and take herfpoil, — 
and it fjall be the wages for his army. For I have given him 
the land of Egypt for his labour. — ^* From Migdol to Syene Jhall 
they fall. — ^^ And I will feat tcr the Egyptians among the nations^ 
ajid difperfe them among the countries. This defolation was to 
te for forty years ; as the end of which period the Egyptians 
were to be reftored. I have dwelt a good deal upon this 
fubjed, becaufe it is an aera of great confequence. We nnd 
from thefe accounts, that Pharaoh Hophra preceded thefe 
calamities ; and fliould be placed prior to the four ages of 
Diodorus. We may learn alfo from hence, why the hiftory 
of Egypt in general, and efpecially about thefe times, is fo 
defeftive. From Sabacon downwards to Apries there is great 
" uncertainty and confufion. All this was owing to the feuds 
and commotions, and to the final difperfion of the people ; 
which was attended with the ruin of their temples, and of 
the colleges, where their priefts refided. Thefe were at Aven, 
the fame as On; alfo at Taphanes, No-Ammon, Moph, Zoan, 
and Pathros : which places, and regions, had been by name 
fpecified as the objedls of God's wrath. When their femina- 
ries were again opened, and their priefthood eftabliihed ; I 
make no doubt, but that the Egyptians tried to retrieve their 
loft annals, and to redify what had been impaired. And in 
refpeft to aftronomy, and other parts of philofophy, tliey feem 
to have fucceeded. But a great part of their hiftory had been 
configned to pillars andobelifks; and defcribed in the facred 

"+ C. 30. V. 6. 
""' Ibid. V. 26. 
** See Manfnam's Chron. Sasc. 1 8. p. 542. 


310 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

characters, which conlifted of hieroglyphics. Thefe were^ 
imperfed: helps to oral tradition ; and never could from the 
beginning give a precife account of thofe great events, 
which they were fuppofed to commemorate. They contained 
the outlines of the hiftory : the reft was to be fupplied by 
thofe, who undertook to explain them ; and who interpreted' 
as they had been traditionally inftru6ted. But when this, 
traditional information ceafed, or was but imperfe(fbly known,, 
thefe characters became in great meafure unintelligible : at 
leaft they could never be precifely decyphered. Hence has 
arifen that uncertainty, which we experience both in the hif- 
tory, and mythology of this people. 


( 3" ) 



A N 


PLUTARCH takes notice of the great difficulties, with 
which the Egyptian hiftory is attended. He however 
acknowledges, that fome helps are to be obtained; but thofe 
inconflderable, and very difcouraging. ' Kanoi Kstttoh Tivsg 
OLiro'f^oion^ Km c(.(xv^^c(,t. t/]? c(.Kr,^sia,g svsnTi rctig Kiyvirrim sv^is- 
(TTra^^svoLi fJLV^oXoyiaig' ol7\7\ol i'^vyiT^olth Ssiph ^sovraij koli i^syciKcc 
fjLiK^oig sKsLV ^vvci^svis. 'There are after all fome Jlight and ob- 
fcure traces of true hiflory here and there to be founds as they lie 
fcattered up a?id down m the ancient writi?igs of Egypt. But it re- 
quires aperfon of unconunoii addrefs tofndthem out', one, who ca?i 
deduce great truths fro?nfca7ity premifes. This at firfl: is fuffi- 
cient to deter a perfon from going on in a fludy of this nature. 
But upon recolledion, we find that we have helps, to which 
the more early writers were ftrangers. We have for a long 

' Plularch. BpcariKix. p. 762. 

'^ time 

312 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

time had light opening upon us ; and begin now to avail 
ourfelves of the blefling. We talk indeed of ancient days, 
and times of antiquity ; but that time is moft aged, which 
has endured longeft : and thefe are the moft ancient days, 
in which we are ourfelves converfant. We enjoy now an 
age of accumulated experience : and we are to make ufe of 
the helps, which have been tranfmitted, to difpel the mift, 
which has preceded. 

Nothing has fo embarrafled the learned world, as the dy~ 
nafties of the kings of Egypt. We find, that there were 
people very early in the Chriftian aera, who took pains to 
collate and . arrange them : and many of the beft chronolo- 
gers in the laft and prefent century have been at much pains 
to render them confiftent. But notwithftanding this has been 
attempted by perfons of moft confummate learning ; yet 
their endeavours have hitherto been attended with little ad- 
vantage. The principal of thofe of old, who have at all en- 
gaged in this hiftory, are Theophilus, Tatianus, Clemens, 
Africanus, Eufebius, and Syncellus. The three firft only 
cafually touch upon it : but the others are more particular 
and diffufe. Jofephus alfo of Judea, in his curious treatife 
againft Apion, has a great deal to this purpofe. The chief 
perfons, to whofe authority -tij^^ writers principally appeal,, 
are three. The firft is the anonymous author of the Old 
Chronicle ; which has been preferved by Syncellus, and 
tliought to be of very early date. To this fucceed the dy- 
nafties of Manethon of Sebcnnis ; who was an Egyptian 
prieft in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; and wrote what 
he exhibited, at the requeft of that prince. The third is the 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 313 

account given by Eratofthcnes of Cyrene in the reign of Pto- 
lemy Eiiergctes ; who has tranfmitted a curious account of 
the Theban kings ; but of thofe folely, without taking any 
notice of the princes in other parts of Egypt. From thefe 
Egyptian writers the accounts given by Africanus and Eufe- 
bius have been compiled ; as well as thofe by Syncellus. 
According to thefe chronologers the number of the dynafties 
amounts to thirty and one : and they extend downwards to 
the reign of Darius, who was conquered by Alexander. 
Many moderns have gone deep in thefe inquiries : among 
whom we ought to mention with particular refpedt Petavius, 
Scaligcr, Perizonius, and the incomparable Sir John Marfham. 

As there are different fpecimens tranfmitted by ancient 
authors of the Egyptian hiftory ; one would imagine, that 
there could not be much difficulty in collating the reigns of 
princes, and correding any miftake, that may have happened 
in the dynafties. But thefe writers often differ effentially 
from each other : and as there is nothing fynchronical, to 
which we can fafely apply ; it is impoffible, when two 
writers, or more, differ, to determine which is in the right. 
Add to this, that thefe dynafties extend upwards, not only 
beyond the deluge ; but one thoufand three hundred and 
thirty-fix years beyond the common asra of the creation. 
Sir John Marfham is very fanguine in favour of the fyftem, 
which he has adopted ; yet is often obliged to complain of 
having a moft barren field of inveftigation, where there are 
nothing but names and numbers : and he acknowledges 
how difficult it is to arrive at any certainty, when a fet of 
unmeaning terms prefent themfelves without any collateral 

Vol. III. S f hiftory. 

314, The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

hiHory. There is one miftake common to all, who have- 
engaged in this dark fcrutiny. They proceed upon fome 
preconceived notion, which they look upon as a certainty ; 
and to this teft every thing is brought. Such is the reign of 
Inachus, the flood of Ogyges, the landing of Danaus in 
Greece. Such alfo is the fuppofed reign of a king, when 
Jofeph went into Egypt ; and the reign of another, when 
the Ifraelites departed. They fet out upon thefe fads as 
firft principles; though they are the things, which want moft 
to. be canvafled : and Vv'hen they have too inconflderately 
made thefe aflumptions, they put a force upon all other hif- 
tory, that it may be brought to accord. In moft lifts of the 
Egyptian kings, Menes is found firft. Many writers fuppofe 
this perfonage to have been Mizraim : others think it was 
Ham ; others again that it was Noah. And as thefe lifts 
go down as far as Alexander the Great; the dynafties are to 
be dilated, or curtailed, according to their greater or lefs 
diftance from the extreams. In one thing they feem to be 
agreed, that the number of the dynafties was thirty and one^ 
Whether it be in the power of man to thoroughly regu- 
late the Egyptian chronology, I will not pretend to fay. To 
make fome advances towards a work of this confcquence is 
worth our attempting: and it it is not always poftible to de- 
termine in thefe dynafties what is true, it may however be 
of fervice to point out that which is falfe : for by abridging 
hiftory of what is fpurious, our purfuit will be reduced into 
narrower limits. By thefe means thofe, who come after, will 
be lefs liable to be bewildered ; as they will be confined to a 
fmaller circle, and confequently brought nearer to the truth. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 315 

The firft attempt towards redlifying the chronology of 
Egypt muft confift in lopping off intirely the fixteen firft 
dynafties from the thirty-one fpecified in Eufebius : for I 
am perfuaded, that the original lift confifted of fifteen dy- 
nafties only. The reft are abfolutely fpurious ; and have 
been the chief caiife of that uncertainty, of which we have 
been fo long complaining. This may appear too bold and 
defperate a way of procedure : nor would I venture to fpeak 
fo confidently, were I not aftlired, that they never really 
cxifted; but took their rife from a very common miftake of 
the Grecians. This may be proved from that ancient Chro- 
nicle, of which I took notice above. The Grecians had 
this, and many other good evidences before them, as they 
plainly fhew : but they did not underftand the writings, to 
which they appealed ; nor the evidences which they have: 
tranfinitted. In the firft place I much queftion, whether 
any Grecian writer ever learned the language of Egypt. 
Many negative proofs might be brought to fhew, that neither 
Plato, nor Pythagoras, nor Strabo, were acquainted with 
that tongue. If any of them had attempted the acquifition 
-of it, fuch was their finefle and delicacy, that the firft harfii 
word would have fliocked them ; and they would imme- 
diately have given up the purfuit. If they could not bring 
themfelves to introduce an uncouth word in their writings, 
how could they have endured to have uttered one, and to 
have adopted it for common ufe ? I doubt whether any ot 
the Fathers were acquainted with the language of the coun- 
try. Befides, the hiftories, of which we are fpeaking, were 
written in the facred language and character, which were 

5 f 2 grown 

3i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

grown obfolete : and Manethon, Apion, and the other Hel- 
lenic Egyptians, who borrowed from them, were not well 
acquainted with their purport. Had thefe memorials been 
underftood, we Ihoidd not have been at a lofs to know who 
built the pyramids, and formed the lakes and labyrinth, 
which were the wonders of the world. In refpedl to the Fa- 
thers, who got intelligence in Egypt, they obtained it by a 
very uncertain mode of inquiry ; and were obliged to inter- 
preters for their knowledge. The Grecians wrote from 
left to right: but the more eaftern nations from ^ right to 
left. This was a circumftance, which they either did not 
knov/ ; or to which they did not always attend ; and 
were therefore guilty of great miftakes ; and thefe con- 
iifted not only in a faulty arrangement of the elements, 
of which the names are compofed ; but alfo in a wrong dif- 
tribution of events. Hence an hiftorical feries is often in- 
verted from want of knowledge in the true difpofition of the 
fubjed. Something fimilar to this has happened in refpe6t 
to the Old Chronicle, v/hich has been preferved by Syncel- 
lus. It contains an epitome of the Egyptian hiftory ; and 
was undoubtedly obvious to every perfon in that country. 
In fhort, it mud have been one of the chief fources, from 
whence Manethon, and others, who came after him, drew» 
Thofe of the Grecians, who copied the dynafties from the 
orio^inal, were neceiTarily told, that the true arrangement 
here was different from that, which was in ufe in Greece : 
that according to their way of reckoning, the firft dynafty 
was the fifteenth, or iixteenth, according to the point, from 

* Ai>y7rTio( (■> .oa(faa»') avro roi^y (S'^^imv stti txccfi-eocc, Herod. L, 2, c. ^6. 

7 whence 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. -^ly 

whence they counted. In confequence of tliis, they have 
marked it the fifteenth, or fixteenth ; and then fancying, 
that there was a long feries preceding, they have invented 
as many dynafties more, as they thought wanting, to fupply 
this feeming vacancy. This is not furmife : for we may fee 
the very thing done by ^ Syncellus. Fie has tranfmitted to 
to us an abridgment of the Egyptian hiftory from the Old 
Chronicle ; containing the dynaflies of their kings. And 
as he was told, that the firll was the fifteenth according to 
his way of numeration, he has aftually marked it the fif- 
teenth. In confequence of this, he fuppofes, contrary to the 
authority of the hiftory, fourteen prior dynafties, which with 
■ that of the Demigods make thirty in the whole. But what 
he calls the fifteenth, was the firfl of the Mizrai'm, who fuc« 
ceeded the Auritas, or Demigods ; and this is plainly indi- 
cated in the hiftory. It has been fhewn, that there was no 
regal ftate in Egypt before the coming of the Shepherds, 
ftyled Auritas : that with them commences the hiftory of 
the country. Syncellus accordingly, having mentioned from 
this Chronicle the imaginary reigns of the Gods, comes at 
laft to tho.fe who really reigned ; and places them in this 
order : ^ 'GT^ca^tov ^sv rm Kv^nm, ^bvts^qv k tocp Mb^-acciu-j^ 
r^nov k AiyvTrrim. The firji Jerks of princes was that of the 
AuritcB : the fecQitd was that of the Meflrccajis^ or Mizrahn ; 
the third of Egyptiafjs. Thefe are the words of the Chronicle i 
and, one would think, fufiiciently clear and determinate, 
had not the Greeks been infatuated through their precon- 
ceived opinions. The author afterwards fubjoins the lift of 

' I mention Syncellus : but it ms.y be the perfon from whom he borrowed, who 
was guilty of this miftakc. 

^- 5'- the 


3i8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology^ 

their kings from the Chronicle, in which the Demigods 
ftand plainly firft : and there is not the leaft hint given of 
any prior dynafties. Syncellus, not knowing, that the De- 
migods were the Aurit^e, begins with the next feries as the 
firft, and calls it the fifteenth. 

' The REIGNS of the GODS, 
according to the Old Chronicle. 

To Hephaiftus is affigned no time, as he is uniformly appa- 
rent both by night and day. 

Helius, the fon of Hephaiftus, reigned three myriads of 

Then Cronus, and the other twelve Divinities reigned 3984. 

Next in order are the Demigods (the Auritae), in number 
eight, who reigned 217 years - - - - - - 217 

After thefe are enumerated fifteen generations of the 
Cunic circle, which take up 443 years - - _ 44^ 

16. The fixteenth dynafty is of the Tanites, eight 

kings, which lafted 190 years ----- 1.^0 

17. The feventeenth of Memphites, four in defcent, — 

103 years - - - -------103 

1 8. The eighteenth of Memphites, fourteen in defcent, 

—348 years ---------- 348 

19. The nineteenth of Diofpolites, five in defcent,— 

194 years - - - ~ ------ ig^ 

20. The twentieth of Diofpolites, eight in defcent, — 

^28 y£ars - --------- .228 

' Ibid. 

21. TJie 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 319 

2"i, The tvventy-firfl; of Tanites, fix in dercent, — 121 

years ------------121 

22» The tvventy-fecond of Tanites, three in defcent, — 

48 years ------^_-.. _ ^g 

23. The twenty- third, Diofpolites, two in defcent, — ■ 

19 years --------___ 19 

24. The twenty-fourth, Saites, three in defcent, — 44 

years ------------ ^^ 

25. The twenty-fifth, Ethiopians, three in defcent, — 

44 years ----------- ^^ 

26. The twenty-fixth, Memphites, feven in defcent, — 

177 years - - ----__-_ x 77 

27. The twenty-feventh, Perfians, five in defcent, — 

124 years - ---------124 

28. The twenty-eighth, loft. 

29. The twenty-ninth, uncertain who. — 39 years - 39 

30. The thirtieth, a Tanite, — 18 years - - - _ 18 

To the above fliould be added the thirty-firft dynafty, which 
confifted of three * Perfians ; for with this every catalogue 
^ concluded. The lifts tranfmitted to us by Africanus, and 
Eufebius; anti that of Manethon, from whom they borrowed, 
clofes wdth this : and it was undoubtedly in the original 
copy of Syncellus. We have in the above an epitome of the 
regal fucceftion in Egypt, as it ftood in the Ancient Chro- 
nicle : and though fhort, it will prove to us of much confe- 

Darius Ocliiis, ArfeSj and Darius Codomannus, who was conquered by Alex- 

^ Tpiaxoc['-n TfT^MT-,) fwa.'^i.a. Tlipcrxv (Exaiheacv y, Eufeb. Chron. p. 17. Syn- 
cellus. p- 77. p. 256. 

6 quence 

3 20 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

quence in our inquiries. We find here, that the Demigods, 
or Auritsc, ftand firft: and with them the hiftory of the country 
muft commence. Thefe are fucceeded by thofe of the Cunic, 
or Royal, circle, the ancient Mizrann : and thofe again by 
other dynafties in their order. As to Hephaiftus, Helius, 
and the twelve other Gods, they were only fo many facred 
titles, which were either prefixed to the Egyptian calendar, 
or to the months of the year, by way of diftindion. The 
numbers, with which they were accompanied, were aftrono- 
mical computations ; and related to time, and its portions, 
and not to the reigns of princes. From hence we may be 
afTured, that there were no kings prior to thofe abovemen- 
tioned. But the Grecians having been told, that in their 
retrograde way of computation, the fifteenth dynafty was 
the firft, were led to think, that the converfe alfo was true ; 
and that the firft was the fifteenth. And thofe, who difircr 
in the pofition of the Shepherd dynafty, yet count from the 
laft. This may be feen in the Chronicle, which I have exhi- 
bited above : where the firft dynafty numbered is the Tanite, 
which is marked the fixteenth : and this is the ^ fixteenth 
from the bottom, if we include the laft of the Perfians. In 
confequence of this, that of the Auritas muft have been the 
fourteenth dov/nwards, which would naturally induce us to 
expeft many prior kings. But it is manifeft from Egyptian 
evidence, from the Chronicle itfelf, that there were no pre- 
ceding dynafties : for the lift of the Deities was not taken 
into conlideration. Manethon counted it the fifteenth ; and 

' The reafon of their flopping at this in tlieir computation upwards, was, becaufe 
this was looked upon as the fiift genuine Egyptian dynafty. This will be fhewn 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 321 

it is accordingly fo exprefTed by Africanus. Hence thefe 
writers, and their followers, have been led to fuppofe, that 
there were once fourteen dynafties antecedent. They ac- 
cordingly prefixed them to the true lift; and immediately 
fet themfelves to work, in order to remedy an evil, which 
did not exift. For when thirteen or ^ fourteen dynafties 
had been thus imagined, it afforded matter of very much 
ftudy to find out the perfons, of whom they were compofed. 
There was a great vacuity ; and the means were fcanty to- 
wards fupplying what was demanded. Menes was at hand 
to begin with ; who is made the firft king by all : and to him 
they fubjoined a lift of others, wherever they could obtain 
them. Africanus in his lift mentions this perfon the firft; 
and fays, that he was a Thinite by birth, and deftroyed by 
an hippopotamus. In this he is followed by others. But 
Menes I have fhewn to have been the Lunar Deity, who was 
probably worftiiped in fome Thinite temple. The hippo- 
potamus was reprefented as an emblem of his prefervation ; 
which they have perverted to an inftrument of his deftruc- 
tion. Eufebius ftyles him a Thebinite, and Thebean. 

Aioi/^og. 'The jirjl^ who reigned, was Menes the Thebinite, the 
Arkccan ; which is hy interpretation the Tonian. This The- 
binite, and Arkasan, was, we find, the fame perfon, of whom 
the lonah, or Dove, was an emblem; fo that of his true hif- 
tory we cannot doubt. 

At the beginning, next after Menes, they have got together 

' They amount to fixteen in Eufebius -, and as many in Africanus. 
•' Eufeb. Chron. p. 18. 1. 13. 

Vol. III. T t an 

322 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

an aflemblage of names, and titles ; fome of which belong 
to Deities, and others feem to be borrowed from Eratofthe- 
nes, and occur in later ages. Such is Sefoftris, whom they 
repeatedly introduce. They reprefent him as a gigantic 
perfonage : and he is at times called " Sefolis, SethooHs, Se- 
fonchofis, Gefon Gofes; and otherwife diverfified. Diodo- 
rusj and others, tell us, how he conquered the whole earth ;, 
Co that there was not a nation, which did not acknowledp-e 
his power. Upon his return after his conquefts, the firft 
thing, which he took in hand, was the making of a long 
" ditch upon the eaftern coaft of Egypt, to fecure himfelf 
fforix hisi Rcxt neighbours. Strange ! that the monarch of 
the whole earth, whofe army is faid to have been above half 
a, n:^illion, fliould be afraid of a few clans upon the de- 
fert. He is mentioned as the firft of the line of '' Ham, 
who reigned in Egypt ; and he is placed immediately after 
''^ Orus. According to fome, he comes a degree lower, after 
'^ Thules : in which Situation he occurs in '* Eufebius. Yet 
he is again introduced by this author ijn, the fecond dynafty 
under the name of '^ Sefocris : and the like hiftory is given- 
of his height, and ftature, as is to be found in Herodotus, 
and Diodorus. Again in the twelfth dynafty we meet with 
'* Gefon Gofes, in our copies of Eufebius ft;yled '' Sefon.chorisj 

" Newton's Chron. p. 69. 

" Diodor. Sic. L. i. p. 51. 

" Chron. Pafchale. p. 47. 

'* Scholia in Apollon. L. 4. v. 272. 

*' Ceilrcnus. p. 20. 

'" Eufcb. Chron. p. 7. 1. 43. 

" Ibid. p. 14- 

'* SyncelUis. p. 59. 

" Eulcb. Chrcn. p. 14. but 

The Analy$i$ oj? AncieKt Mythology. 32^5 

but by Syncellus more truly rendered " Sefotichofis : and, 
what is flrange, next but one in the fame dynafty, we meet 
with *' Sefoftris. That we may not fuppofe him to have 
been a different perfon of the fame name, a fliort hiftory of 
his life and conquefts is annexed. His height too, and fta- 
ture, are defcribcd, juft as we find them reprefented by other 
authors. From hence we may be afllired of the identity of 
this perfon, who is thus repeatedly introduced to make up a 
fuppofed deficiency. In fhort they have adopted every va- 
riation of a name, and out of it formed a new king. 

In this manner writers have tried to fupply the vacancies 
in their imaginary dynaflies of the kings of Egypt. But they 
foon begin to be tired : and we have many dynaflies without 
a fmgle name. The duration alfo of the reigns is often too 
fhort to be credited. In the eighth dynafly, twenty-feven 
Memphites reign but 146 years; which is little more than 
five years apiece. In the eleventh, fixteen Diofpolites reign 
but 43 years ; which amount not to three years apiece. In 
the thirteenth dynafty, fixty more Diofpolites are found, and 
the fum of their reigns is but 184 years; which are not 
more than three years and a few weeks apiece. But, what is 
of all the moft incredible, in the feventh dynafty feventy 
kings reign jufl " feventy days. 

From the above we may perceive into what difficulties 
the chronologers were brought, who tried to fupply thefe 

'" P- 7.?. 

" Ibid. p. 59. 

" Quot dies, tot reges. Marfiiam's Chron. Sxc. y. p. 90. Eulchius alters this 
to hftcen days apiece: upon which Sir John Marfham obferves, Numerus dierum 
augetur, ut reges finguli xv. dies habeanr. Ibid. 

T t 2 fuper- 

324 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

fupernumerary dynafties by fuch wretched means. They* 
fearched into every old regifter j and laid their hands upon 
every lift, which occurred, in order to fill up thefe vacancies. 
Synccllus fuppofes "^ Menes to have been Mizraim : but I 
have fhewn, that he was another perfon ; and the emblem o£ 
the hippopotamus proves it. Beiides, what reafon have we 
to imagine, that Mizraim reigned in Egypt ; or that he was 
devoured by fuch an animal ? The kings, who are brouglit 
in immediate fuccefTion to him, are ""^ Athothis, Cercenes, 
and Venephes. But thefe very kings occur in the fame order 
elfewhere. They occupy the fifty-ninth, fixtieth, and fix- 
ty-firft places in the catalogue ot Syncellus. They confe- 
quently lived above one thoufand years later. Who can put 
up with thefe dynafties of Diofpolites, and others, whofe 
reigns are fo uncommonly ftiort ? And is it poflible to give 
credit to the account of feventy kings, who reigned but fe- 
venty days ? May we not be affured> that it was fome col- 
lege hiftory ; and related to a fociety of priefts, whofe office 
came in rotation ; and who attended once in that ""^ term ? 
After all, that Africanus, or Manethon before him could da 
to m.ake up what was wanting, yet many dynafties have, 
fcarce a name inferted. The feventh, eighth, ^* tenth, ele- 
venth, thirteenth, and fourteenth, are quite anonymous : 

^' Syncellus. p. 91. 

^* Euleb. Chron. p. 14. 

*' The Cunocephali were faid to die by piecemeal ; and the whole body was ex- 

t\n& after feventy-two days. Ems (i"' ax at iQi'ofj.ny.ovia. xxi Suo 'uj-Ampeo^Mo-iv ri/xfpat^ 

TOTg oAo? a7ro9!'H(Tx.ii. Horapollo. L. i.e. 14. p. 29. They were undoubtedly an 

-order of priefts, who were in waiting at fon'je temple ; and their term was completed 

in feventy-two, or rather in feventy, days. See of this work Vol. I. p. ^35. note 14. 

*" In the ninth, one name only out of nineteen fpecified. 


The Analysis o? Ancient Mythology, 325 

and in many places, where names have been inferted bv 
Africanus, they are rejeded by Eufebius, who came after 

For thefe reafons, and from the authority of the Old 
Chronicle, I entirely fet afide the reigns of all princes an- 
tecedent to the Auritie, or Shepherds. They firfl: reigned 
in Egypt, as the beft hiftories fhew. And however high the 
later Egyptians may have carried their antiquity ; I cannot 
admit of any dynafty prior to the fifteenth, counting back 
from the laft. Indeed we may infer, that the fifteenth was 
looked upon by all as the leading dynafty, before the true 
fyftem was fpoiled. And even afterwards, there feems to 
have been a tacit reference to it, as to a ftated point, by 
which every thing elfe was to be determined. Both Mane- 
thon, and Africanus place the Auritae, or Shepherds, in the fif- 
teenth dynafty; but count from the firft. Eufebius alfo places 
them in the fifteenth, if we count from the ^' laft. From hence 
we may perceive, tliat which way fo ever we may reckon ; and 
however the accounts may have been impaired-, the fifteenth 
was the obje6t> by which they were originally determined. 
The words of Africanus are very remarkable, when he fpeaks 
of the kings of this dynafty. '* lienehmTri IlQiuLsvm. Hrccy 
h ^oiviKsg ^si/oi ^cc(TiXsig, /, 01 mi Ms[.i(pLu elXov 0; nm bv too Xs- 
^.^OiTYi vofj^M TTo'Aiv szTLTOLV, dp rig o^^m^JLemi AiyvTriiag s^siccjcoLno, 
The fifteenth is the dynafty of the Shepherds. Thefe were foreign 
pri7ices,ftyled Ph(B7iices.. They- firft built themfehes a city, in 

*' It is to be obferved, that- Eufebius begins with what he flyles the f^ventcenth, 
and. ends with the tiiirty.. firft : but in thc-kries the twentjvfirft is fomchow oniittcdJ'' 
•^ Syncellus. p. 61. 


326 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the Seihro'ite for rather ^^ Sethite) region ; fro7n whe7tcc they 
made their invafio?!^ and conquered all Egypt. This author 
having mentioned thefe Shepherds, whom he calls Phcenices, 
adds a dynafty of thirty-two Hellenic Shepherds ; and a 
third of forty-three Shepherds, who reigned collaterally with 
as many kings of Thebes. This is extraordinary, that they 
fhould correfpond fo exactly in number ; but what is more 
ftrange, that they fhould reign the fame number of years. 
5° 'O|u.oy o{ Yloi^evsg koli 01 (drj^oLioi &^0L<n7\iV(rcLV st/j pvot. The 
Shepherd ki?igSj and thofe of Thebes reigned the fame number of 
years : which amount to one huiidred arid fifty 07ie. We fee 
here two dynafties at different places, commencing at the 
fame time, which correfpond precifely in number of kings, 
and in number of years. And the fum of thefe years allows 
little more than three years and an half to the reign of each 
prince. For there are forty-three in each place ; and reign 
but one hundred and fifty-one years ; which is incredible. 
"Both the Phoenician, and Hellenic Shepherds were certainly 
the fame as thofe, who made an inroad into Egypt, and took 
Memphis ; and afterwards conquered the whole country. 
They are brought by Africanus in fucceflion after the for- 
mer ; but were certainly the fame, however diverfified by 
titles, and increafed in number. The years of their reigns 
are apparently a forgery. We may, I think, be affured, 
that Manethon and Africanus out of one dynafty have formed 
three ; and have brought them in fucceflion to one another. 
And this arofe from their not knowing the ancient titles of 
the perfons ; nor the hiftory with which it was attended. 

■*' It was the province of Scth, called alfo Sait, to which the author alludes. 

'° Syncellus. p. 61. 6 Eufcbius 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 327 

Eufebius faw this ; and therefore ftruck out two of thefe 
dynaflies ; and brought the third downwards two degrees 
lower. By tkefe means the dynafty of the Shepherds is made 
the fifteenth upwards ; which is the true place : and at this 
commences the hiftory of Egypt. If then we take away 
the two fuppofititious. dynafties of Manethon, which are re- 
jecfled by Eufebius, the Shepherd dynafty, marked by him 
the fifteenth, will be the fifteenth from the bottom. And 
It will be plain, that the feries, from the Shepherds to the 
laft Perfic princes inclufivc, confifted at firft of fifteen dy- 
nafties only. The notion of any antecedent kings arofe fronr 
a retrograde manner of counting among the Greeks ; and 
from an error in confequence of it. In Eufebius the Shep- 
herd dynafly is the fifteenth from the bottom : and if we 
difcard the two fpurious dynafties, which he has fubftituted 
fn the room of the two inferted by Manethon, it will be 
found the fifteenth from the top, and accord every way. In. 
fhort, it was, according to Manethon, the center dynafty ol 
twenty-nine. All from it inclufive downwards were ge- 
nuine ; but the fourteenst above fuppofititious. They 
were fuperadded, as I before faid, from an error in judgment, 
and a faulty way of computation. 

As the mifhake began with Manethon and- the Hellenic 
Egyptians ; it may be worth while to give a* lift of the dy- 
nafties, as they ftood before they were further corrupted by 
the Grecians in other parts. 


328 The Analysis op Ancient Mythology* 



From the D E L U G E, 

As they are recorded by Manethon. 

l^he Firfl Dynafiy, 

Next after the Demigods was Menes the The- 

einite, who was deftroyed by a crocodile. 

TTdz Second Dynafiy of Thmites, 








TTje Third Dynafiy of Memphites, 



The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 329 





Tofer tails. 




The Fourth Dynafiy of Memphitss. 

Suphis the Second, 
Sefocris, who was five cubits high, and three 

in circumference. 
A ninth unknown. 

The Fifth Dynafiy of Elephantine Kings. 

Vol. III. U u Tarcheres. 

330 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


The Sixth Dynajly of Memphites. 







The Seventh Dynajly. 
Seventy Memphites, who reign feventy days. 

The Eighth Dynafty. 

Twenty -feven Memphites, who reign 146 

The Ninth Dynajly conftjls of nineteen Princes of Heracka^ 

Othoes, killed by a crocodile. 
The eighteeen others unknown. 

The Te7ith Dynajly,, 

Nineteen Heraclotics, who reign 185 years; 
their names and hiftory unknown. 

The Eleve72th Dynajly, 

Sixteen Diofpolites, who reign 43 years. 
Of thefe Amemenenes only fpecified. 

g The 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 331 

The Twelfth Dyiiajly : twelve Diofpolites. 

^' Sefonchoris, the fon of Ainanemes. 

Sefoftris : the great monarch, who conquered 
all the world: the next in order to ^^ Ofiris : 
his height was four cubits, three palms, and 
two digits. 

'^ Ammeres. 



The reft unknown. 

The Thirteenth Dytiajly, 

Sixty Diofpolites, who reign 184 years. No 
names nor hiftory mentioned. 

The Fourtee7ith Dyjiajly. 

No rhention made of it. Eufebius however fupplies this vacan- 
cy with a Dynafty of 76 Xoites, who reign coUediveiy 1 84 
years : which is but two ^* years and five months apiece. 

'' He is called Sefonchofis by Syncellus In another lift. He is faid to have 
been the fon of the former king. But all dynafties begin with kings of a new 

'^ OvvTTo AiyuTTTti)!' /w,5Ta Ocrifiv fo/jjamvact. How then can he be a king in the 
twelfth dynafty ? The account of his ftature is from Eufebius. 

'' Thefe three feem not to have been in Manethon : but are fupplied by Afri- 

^' See Syncellus. p. 49. Some make the number of years 4S4, which amounts 
to abou: fix years and feven months apiece. Neither account feems credible. 

uu 2 n 


332 The Analysis-"6F Ancient Mythology. 

'The Fifteenth "'^ Dynafty is of the Shepherds. 

Tliefe were fix foreign princes, ftyled Phoenices, who took 
Memphis ; and built a city in the Sethro'ite nome ; from 
whence they made an irruption, and conquered all Egypt* 



Pachnan. . ~ 




At this period are introduced the two fpurious dynafties 
by Manethon ; or at leaft by ^^ Africanus. 

The firft is of thirty-two Grecian Shepherd kings, who 
reign 518 years. 

The fecond of forty-three Shepherd kings, who reign col- 
laterally with juft the fame number of Diofpolites : and alfo 
reign precifely the fame number of years j which amount 

to 153. 

Thefe dynafties I omit : and in confequence of it call the 
next dynafty the lixteenth. 

The Sixteenth Dynnfly of fxteeji Diofpolites. 




" This is in reality the firft dynafty of Egyptian kings. 

'* It is not certain to whom this miftake is to be attributed \ but I fhouH judge, 
that it was owing to Africanus, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 333 














The Seventeenth Dynafly of Diofpolites, 
Rap faces. 

I'he Eighteenth Dynajiy of twelve Diofpolites. 
No names nor hiftory is given. 

The Nineteenth Dy?iafty of f even Tahites. 





334 The Analysis of Ancient .Mythology, 


The Twentieth Dynajly of nine Bubafiites, 



The three next are not named. 


The three next are rot n.imed. 

The Twe7tty-firft Dy7iafiy of Jou?' Tanites. 


Tloe T'we7ity-fecond Dyjjo/ly. 
Bochoris the Saite. 

The Tisoenty-third Dynajly of three Ethiopians. 


The Tweiity-foiirth Dynajly of nine Sa'ites, 





The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 335 


Nechao the Second, 





The Twenty-fifth Dynafly of eight Perftaiis, 


Darius, the Son of Hyflafpes. 







The TweTi^^'-fxth Dynafly. 
AmyrtfJus the Sai'te. 

The Twer.ty-fevinth Dynafly of four Meftdefans,. 


The Twenty-eighth Dynafly of three Sebetinytes,. 


T. COS. 

N e fl^iiebes .. The- 

2S^ The Analysis of Akcient Mythology. 

Tie Twejity-ninth Dyjiafiy of three Perjtans. 


Darius : the fame who was conquered by 

Such was the ftate of the dynafties, before they had fuffer- 
ed a fecond interpolation, by having two, which were fpu- 
rious, inferted. Thefe confifted of no Icis than feventy 
Grecian, and other, Shepherd kings, which are very jufdy 
fet afide by Eufebius. This learned writer had done well, 
if he had flopped fhort, after that he had remedied the mif- 
take in Africanus. But he had no fufpicion, that the pre- 
vious dynafties were all fpurious ; I mean all thofe before 
the fifteenth. Fie was therefore fearful of making a gap in 
the lift ; and has fupplied the place of thofe, which he ex- 
punged, with fome Diofpolites, or ^^ Thebans. But they 
fhould be all alike cancelled : for with the Shepherds, thofe 
Auritae, and Demigods, the chronology of Egypt began. 
Therefore the feventeenth dynafty of Eufebius fhould have 
been marked the firft ; for it certainly was fo efteemed 
by the ancient Egyptians ; and we ought for the future to 
read, IT^wtj] A^^^aj-sicc, lioi^JLevB; rj(ro(.v ^svoi jSair/As/?, oi koli Msfj.-^ 
<piv iiTKOVy KTh. The Jirji dy77ajiy cojtjtjis of the Shepherd kings ^ 

" As the two dynafties of Manethon were brought after the Shepherds, Eufebius 
varies his difpofition, and places his Diofpolites above them : for he faw plainly 
that the place of the Shepherds was the fifteenth inclufive from the bottom. But 
by this interpolation he made it the feventeenth from the top. Whereas it was the 
center dynafty equally removed from the extremes. It ftood between the fpu- 
rious and the genuine dynafties •, and belonged tg the latter. 

7 ivho 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 337 

who were foreigners^ and took Memphis^ &c. To the truth of 
this the Old Chronicle bearr^ witnefs : in which the flrft 
who reign are the Shepherds, under the title of Semidci and 
Auritas. The number and titles of the dynafties do not 
turn out fo precifely the ^^ fame, as we find them in other 
accounts ; for the Chronicle falls off towards the end \ being 
mod defedliv^e, where we might expedl it to be moft perfed:. 
It affords however, though very concife, the great outlines 
of the Egyptian chronology ; and muii be efteemed as an 
excellent guide, as far as it is capable of condii6ling us. I 
would not therefore do any thing to difparage its merit : yet 
it is probably nothing more than a part of a yearly calendar, 
in which the ceieftial motions were calculated. The months 
and holy days fpecified, and the reigns of the kings prefixed. 
Among many others, there were two Hermetic books, in 
common ufe among the Egyptians. The " firfl: of thefe re- 
lated to the energy of the heavens ; to the powers of the 
planets, and the influence of the ftars ; and was properly a 
treatife concerning horofcopes, and aftrology ; and was full 
of dark and myfterious learning. The other, which related 
to the real operations of nature, was of more ufe, but in lefs 
efteem ; being nothing more than a common almanack, and 
fo denominated. *° Tars gv toic A7\^bvi'^iclkqi; (forte AX^sviol- 

<TBm,BV TOi; BQ"^Ol.TQi; Biy^B 7Y,V 'UTOL^' AiyVKTlOig C/ATlOhoyiOLV. What 

'' It has in fome places been altered to ferve a purpofe ; and probably by Syn- 

>' Jamblichus, Se(fl. 8. c. 4. p. i5o. 
*° Ibid. 

. Vol. III. X X fays 

2S^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

fays Chaeremon, is comprijed in the Rgyptiait almanacks^, 
contains but a fmall part of the Herma'tc injiitutions. The 
whole, that relates to the rijifig and occult at ion of the Jiars, to- 
the increafe and decreafe of the moon, was held in the leaf: efli- 
mation. Porphyry likewife mentions the Egyptian Alma- 
nacks ; and gives an account of their contents, which feem 
to be very curious. They coniifted of a detail about the 
phafes of the fun, and moon ; and of the riiing, and fetting 
of the ftars for the year : alfo of the afped:s and influences of 
the planets, and what was from them portended : '^'^ koli ^s^x- 
TTSicci 'WOLom, there was alfo fotne phyf cat advice fubjoined. Alt 
this, fays Porphyry, sv K7^^svi')(iOLK0ig (psfSTai, is contained in 
the Egyptian almanacks. According to lamblichus, thefe 
calendars were not held in fo high repute, as the other Her- 
Tiietic writings. Be this as it may, our Chronicle is proba- 
bly of this fort : and though formerly of no great efleem on 
account of its being cheap and obvious, yet not at all for that 
reafon of lefs authority. It began, as I have fhewn, with the 
fuppofed reign of Hephaiftus, and of the Sun ; and after- 
wards of Cronus, and twelve other Gods. Syncellus ima- 
gines, that it mifled Manethon by the immenfe number of 
year^, of which thefe reigns are faid to confift. The amount 
of the whole was no lefs than 36525 years. There is fome- 
thing particular in this number, to which we muft attend j 
as it has mifled not only Manethon, but Syncellus. For 
they with many more have applied thefe numbers to the dy- 
nafties of Egypt : by which means the annals ot the country 
have been carried to an unwarrantable height. lamblichus, 

■*' Epiflola ad Ancbonem. p. 7. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 339 

who had ftudied the Egyptian hiftory very clofely, takes no- 
tice of the fame numbers, and applies them to the writings 
of Hermes. He introduces Chaeremon, who is fpeaking of 
firft principles and effences : ** all which^ fays he, Hermes 
tranjjnitted in twenty thoufand volumes^ according to Seleucus^ 
or rather^ as M.a7ietho7t has Jheiv?!, they were compkated in 
thirty-fix thoufand five hundred and thirty-five. We may 
from hence perceive, how uncertain writers were about 
a circumftance of this confequence. What fome applied 
to the duration of their monarchy, others fuppofed to 
be a number of books, the volumes written by Hermes. But 
the numbers were mifapplied in both cafes. They related 
indeed to volumes ; but to volumes of another nature ; to 
the revolutions of the fun : and were an artificial calcula- 
tion. One kind of Egyptian year conilfted of three hun- 
dred and fixty days ; with the five STroLyofJLSVOLi, which were 
facred to five Deities, *^ Ofiris, Aroueris, Typhon, Ifis, and 
Nephthe. Some Deity, or title of a Deity, was afiixed to 
every day in the calendar : hence they amounted to 365 in 
number. Thefe were introduced into Greece, and, as was 
fuppofed, by Orpheus. To this Theophilus alludes, when 

he upbraids Orpheus with his polytheifm. '^ti Cfj(ps7\r,Q'£V 

O^cpsa 01 T^iamtrm s^-riKonct "srsnTS ©soi ; fFhat advantage did 
Orpheus ever find fir om his three hundred and fiixty-five Gods f 
This year of 365 days was termed the Sothic, from Sothis, 

^^ ToLiixiv Qvv oAai'EpfAKevrxti S'tcf^upiccn (^iQXoif, m'Zi^siix.oi acTnypx-^xro' n tcch 
^fua-f^vpieciS Tg xa< f^otx.ia-^tXiat.t?, kcci ■srivrccxoaiaa staj sixotri ■srivn, ik ^fa(•£6w; <V'f •:;,, 
TiXiMi KviS'ii^i. lamblich. Seft. 8. c. i. p. 157, 
*' Plutarch. Ifiset Ofir. p. ■^^^. 

"** Theoph. ad Autol. L, 3. p. 381. 

X X 2 the 

24-0 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the dog-ftar ; at whofe heliacal rifing it was fuppofed to com- 
mence. But they had another year in Upper Egypt, which 
was heliacal, and ftyled the Theban. This confifted more 
accurately of three hundred iixty-five days, and {ix hours. 
■^^ Tlsns cJ" ir,[JL£^ag koli tstol^tov Toig ^oohacL fJUiTiv BTroLya^ri. 
"They add, fays Diodorus, to the twelve 7nonths, jive days complete 
a?id one quartej\ It was ufed in many parts of Egypt : and 
the numbers fpoken of above, related to a period in calcu- 
lation ; and was no hiftorical account. They were the 
amount of days in a cycle of one hundred years : for if one 
year confifts of three hundred iixty-five days, and a fourth 
part, they in one hundred years will amount to 36525, the 
number of which we treat. What therefore had belonged to 
an ancient ephemeris, has by miftake been applied to hiftori- 
cal computation : and days have been taken for years. This 
might well raife the Egyptian hiftory to an unwarrantable 
height ; and make it precede the creation by many ages. 
Some have thought to evade this difficulty by fuppoling that 
the years ''* XsMvcciOij and ^'' ^YiHOCiOi shccutqIj lunar and monthly 

"' Diotl. I,. I. p. 46. 

Cuius — iniitatus TEgyptios, folos dlvinarum rerum omnium confcios, ad 
numerum foils, qui dicbus fingulis tricenis icxaginta quinque et quadrante curluai 
conficit, annum dirigcre contendit. Macrob. Sat. L. i. c. 14. p. 17S. 

The Thebans undcrftood rm' tir a.xp£ii a(r^c?^.o-)ixr. Diod. L. i. p. 46. 

(iEgyptii menfes) tricenum dierum omncs habent : eoque cxplicitis duodecinj. 
menlibus, id efl:, 360 dicbus exacfbis, tunc inter Augullum et Septembrem reliquas 
quinque dies anno fuo reddunt •, adneilentes, quarto quoque anno exai5to, interca- 
iarem, qui ex quadrantibus confit. Macrob. Sat. L. i.c.i5.p. iSo. 

** Euleb. Chron. p. 8. See Diodorus. L. i. p. 22. Kaicc rw tw 2:A)};'J),- -Tirsoto^jv 
ocyia^cii rci iviocjiov. 

"•^ Oi "} ccp vjap avTcti sracXxtoTo.Tot'Zi^i'n'xiyi iCpxazov eivxi, n jxin'tam r'di ii'iavrss £* 
xfJLSPuv TfiaxoiTa auvi^onccc. 'Oi S's iJt,eT(x. raxs; 'H(J.Seoi oupovi i-naXow tbc evtavry?. 
Syncellus. p. 40. Apud .^.gyntios pro annis menfes haberi. Varro apud Laftanr. 

L. 2. c. 12. p. iCg. years I 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 3-41 

years ; which were in ufe in fome parts of Egypt. Syncellus 
tries to folve it another way ; by giving the dynafties from 
the lixteenth downward their proper number of years, and 
allowing the overplus to the Gods, and Demigods. But we 
have no occafion to have recourfe to thefe helps : for the 
numbers of the real dynafties had nothing to do with this 
aftronomical computation : and lamblichus, who equally 
mifapplies *^ them, ftiews, that they who treated of them 
differed in their opinions, and were by no means "'^ confiftent. 
The dynafty ot thofe kings, who immediately fucceeded 
the Shepherds, is termed the Cynic cycle : and the ftar Si- 
rius, and many other things of eminence among the Egyp- 
tians, were ftyled Cynic ; and fuppofed to have fome refer- 
ence to dogs. But the Cynic cycle, or more properly the 
^° Cunic, was the Royal cycle, and related to a feries of 
kings : and every thing fo denominated is to be taken in 
that acceptation. Some of the books of Hermes are ftyled 
Tbvikoli KCLi ^' Kv^avLKOH, Gem'c and Cui'anic ; and from them 
it is faid, that Apion, Manethon, and Panodorus obtained 
moft of their knowledge. Thefe fecm to be both Egyptian 
terms, diftorted by the Greeks ; but oi: the fame purport, as 
that above. They were properly Chanic and Curanic 
books ; and contained the hiftory of the priefts, and kings 

■*' He fuppofes, that they related to the bocJks of Hermes : but the bocks of Her- 
mes were but forty-two. Clemens mentions them, and ipecifKs the contents of 
each. Strom. L. 6. p. 75S. 

''^ We learn from him, that what Syncellus in aftertimes applied to Chronology, 
was by Manethon thought to relate to the books of Hermes. Sedt. 8. p. 157. 

'° Cun, Chon, Cohen, a King. See Vol. I. Radicals. 

'' By Syncellus exprcllcd Y^upclvvh^. 'n>x7rfp iv TctiTii'ixonrii'Ep/j.ii, v.cti ev tuh Kw- 
^oLvvidi (ii^Aoii iip^iTcci. p. 52. See Vol. I. of this work. Radicals. Keren, Rex. 
Kuran, Heliicus. Hence xurr-?, Koi^ato5. 


The Analysis, of Ancient Mythology, 

of tlie country. Every Grecian term, which alludes to Egypt, 
and its hiftory, is to be fufpefted. It is to be obferved, that 
Manethon, and his copier Africanus, mention, that after the 
reigns of the Demigods, there was a fucceffion of other per- 
fons ; and he fpecifies thofe of the firft dynafty. ^^ MsTct 
vskvol; rove 'Hfju^ssg 'ur^mri (^ariXBia KOLTCLPi^fjLZiTOLi^ ktX. But 
what can we rnake of thefe terms ? Pojl manes Semideos 
prima dynajiia^ or poji cadave?'a Semideos pj'i7na dynajiia^ &c. 
They cannot be made fenfe by any expoiition. Eufebius faw, 
that there was fome miftake ; and he has altered it by in- 
ferting a copulative. ^^ Msra vevzccg koli Tsg 'tifJuSsag 'W^CfJTi]v 
hvafsiav fCOiTa^i^^airi. But this does not feem to mend the 
matter. PoJ^ manes, vel cadaver a, et Semideos pritna dynajlia 
numeratur. In another place Syncellus, befides the vzKVzg 
'H(Jnkoiy makes mention of ^ ©swv, mi 'Hp^sw;/, Kdi vsKVcaVy 
KXi ^vrjTOOV : Deorum^ et Semideorum^ et cadaverwn, et mo7'ta- 
lium. But what fenfe can be obtained from hence ? Is it 
not manifeft, that there is fome miftake in terms ? I think, 
we may be affured, that what the Grecians have rendered 
vzKoq, a dead body, was Nechus, a King : and that by the 
words Msra vzmv.g 'Hjat^sa? 'sr^wTj} ^ariKsix, we are to under- 
ftand, poft reges Semideos, after the reigns of the Demigods- 
began thefrfl Egyptian dynafty. The title of Nechus was 
very " ancient, and to be found in many nations. The king 

'* Syncellus. p. 54. 

" Eufeb. Chron. p. 14. Msra rgxt^as xai ths 'HjHiSsa?. Eufeb. apud Syncellum. 

P- 5S- 

'* Syncellus. p. 40. 

5' It feems to have been exprelTed Ntcho, Nechao, Nechus, Negus ; and was pro- 
bably the fame as nJ3, Nagud of the Hebrews, which fignifies a Prince. It occurs 
in compofition •, and wc read of Necepfus, Necherophes, kings of Egypt. It was a 
common title. *^*" 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 34^, 

ofAbyffinia is called Negus at this day. The purport of 
the hiflory given will, I think, prove what I fay. Syncellus 
mentions, that Manethon borrowed what he wrote from the 
books of Hermes ; and that the firft part of his work gave 
an account of the Gods, and Demigods ; which laft we 
know were mortal men, and reigned in '^ Egypt. Thefe cer- 
tainly were the firft, who had the title of Nechu-s : and it is 
infeparably found with them. Eufebius indeed and Syncel- 
lus take pains to disjoin them ; and out of them would form 
a different fet of perfons. The former accordingly through 
miftake complains of the Egyptians for introducing fuch a 
ftrange fet of perfonages. ^^ YIol^ol tstoi; ('H|C/j^£Oi?) vsavcf^v 

IxvaoXoyiav. Beftdes thefe Demigods, they have got together 
a tedious ill-grounded hijlory of dead perfons, and other 
mortals, who reigned. But the whole of this is a miftake of 
the true hiftory : and I am perfuaded from the pofition of 
the terms, that what Eufebius alluded to fliould have been 
rendered NB'^ifiv KUi eiB^m ^ol(Ti7\boov, And in the readijig 
above, ^asTa vBKVOLg 'Hfjuhag fhould have been expreffed, ac- 
cording to the original, fjisra Ns'^ovg 'HfJU^Bagy pofl reges 
Semideos, after the Demigod kings, the firft dynafy C07nme7jced. 
But either the traiiHators, or tranfcribers, did not know the 
meaning of the title Nechus ; and have changed it to yB'/.'jg^ 
a dead body. The like is to be obferved in the paffage above 
quoted from Syncellus ; where the three orders of princes 
are mentioned, which occurred in the Egyptian lifts : ©sw;/, 

'* 'H^<9£ci /2ao-<AS(; — xoii iJ.iT ccji'di yivia.1 uKmr^'^i y.vy.K^. Eufcb. Cliron. p. 7. 
" Syncellus. p. 40. 

6 Ky.l 

344 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

KCLi 'H^JLiOsccfy KOLi vBKVm^ KOii ^nftm. I make no doubt, but 
according to the true hiftory the reading was, 05wy, kca 'H^i- 
i^£6(;^, KOLi "Ssyoov ^i/r^rc^v : Gorisy and Demigods^ a?id kmgSy who 
were 7tiortah. I'liefe mortal kings are mentioned in contra- 
diftindion to the Gods, and Demigods, though the latter 
were equally men, but were ftill efteemed a fuperior order 
of beings. Eufebius is very fevere upon the Egyptian annals, 
as beino- full of forgeries. But in this I muft in fome degree 
diffent from this very learned author. For I believe, that 
the hiftory of Egypt would have been fomid far more con- 
fiftent, than is imagined, if it had never been perverted by 
thofe who borrowed from it. The Grecians ruined a fine 
fyftem by blending what related to aftronomy with chrono- 
logy ; and confounding theology with ^^ hiftory : by not dif- 
tinguifhing between Gods, and men ; between reigns of 
kings, and revolutions in the heavens. The kings of Egypt 
had many names, and titles. ^' Aimv^jLOi, KCii t^ioovv^jloi 'UTqX- 
T^ayn Toov AiyvTrrLooi/ oi 'BoLTihsig sv^r\VTa.i. The pri?ices of the 
country have often two^ and often three names. The Deities 
had ftill a greater variety : and I have before mentioned a 
ftatue of Ifis, infcribed, ^° Ifidi Myrionymse, to Ifis with a 
thoufand iiames. Thefe names and titles have been branched 
out into perfons, and inferted in the lifts of the real monarchs. 
Hence we find Menes, the Lunar God, with the hippopota- 
mus ftand foremoft ; and Ofiris, and Orus nearly in the fame 
pofition. I have mentioned of Ofiris, that he was expofed 

5' Both Eufebius and Syncellus failed by trying to adapt foreign occurrences to 
Grecian mythology. 
'' Syncellus. p. 63. 
'° Gruter. p. 83. n. 11. 

JO , m 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 345 

in an ark, and for a long time in a ftate of death. Tlie like 
is faid of Orus, whom ^' Ifis found floating upon the waters: 
alfo of Adonis, and Thamuz, who returned to light after the 
expiration of a year. We have the fame hiftory concerning 
Talus, or Tulus, who fucceeded Orus. He is by fome called 
Thoulus ; and is faid to have had a renewal of life, and to 
have recovered, when Cybele was in labour. 

Laftly, it is faid of ^^ Rhamefes, whom Herodotus calls 
Rhampflnitus, that he defcended to the manfions of death ; 
and after fome flay returned to light. The anniverfary of his 
return was held facred, and obferved as a feftival by the 
Egyptians. I mention thefe things to fhew, that the whole 
is one and the fame hiftory : and that all thefe names are 
titles of the fame perfon. They have however been other- 
wife efteemed : and we find them accordingly inferted in the 
lifts of kings ; by which means the chronology of Egypt 
has been embarrafled greatly. 

Having mentioned Rhamefes, and his defcent to Hades, I 
cannot help adding a fhort piece of hiftory concerning him in 

*' Plutarch. Ifis et Ofir. p. ^i^-j. 

** Nonnus. L. 25. p. 674. TaAajs' nhio;. Hefych. TaAaios' 'Ziui ev 
Kfnrt). Ibid. 

' EXiyov TBTcv 70V (2ccai?^tix i^Moi' xxra€}]vai xarw £5 top 01 'EAA>ji'gs oc'i^v vo/xi^sa-i 
iivxi. Herodotus. L. 2. c. 122. He is faid to have ruled over the whole earth, like 
Zeuth, Ofiris, Orus, and others. Hermapion calls him Rhameftes, Pa^fTWf. 
Marcellinus. L. 17. p, 126. See Tacitus. Annal. L. 2. c. 60. 

Vol. III. Y y that 

346 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

that fitiiation ; in order to give another inftance of Grecian 
fophiftry, and abiife of terms. It is well known, that under 
the character of Damater the ancients alluded to the ark, 
and to the fuppofed Genius, which prefided over it. This 
Goddefs is faid to have received, and fheltered Rhame- 
fes in the {hades below : and it is further mentioned, 
'■^ TvyKV^sveiy t>] Arj^JLTtT^iy that he played at dice with the God- 
defs. The perfons in the ark were reprefented as in a ftate 
of death : and the ark itfelf was looked upon as a bier or 
coffin ; and as fuch commemorated in all the rites of Oliris. 
A coffin, or bier, feems by the Egyptians to have been ftyled 
Cuban : which term the Greeks retained, and expreffed 
Cubas. Hence Ki;oa;' cro^oj. Ciibas^ fays Hefychius, figni- 
jies a bier. A ffiip alfo -was called Cuba, and ^^ Cubeia. 
But at the fame time that Cubas, Cuba, and Cubea, had a 
reference to an ark or ffiip, KiiS'o;, Cubus, iignified a die : 
and Ky^gw, Cubea, had alfo a relation to a game. In con- 
fequence of this, the Grecians have taken the terms in a 
WTong acceptation : and inftead of faying, that Rhamefes, 
during his ftate of confinement, was with Damater in Cuba, 
a ffiip, or ark, they have turned the whole into paftime, and 
made him play with her at dice. The like llory is told by 
" Plutarch of Hermes: whence wx may infer, that one of that 
name, for there were feveral,was the fame perfon as Rl:kamefes. 

** Herod. L. 2. c. 122. 

^MCaCsics, is/5 n^tfis/. Hefych. It fhould be resjj. Cubeam maxlmam, trlre- inftar, pulcherrimam, atque ornatiffimam. Cicero. Verrina 5. 17. from hence 
Apollo, the prophetic God, was called Cabasus. 

'O xiaatvi ArroAAi;!-, Ka^ac;;, y.xvTti. ^Ichylus apud Macrob. Sat. L. i. 
c. iS. p. 200. 

^ JfisetOfiris.p. 355. 

lO It 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 347 

It is then, I think, manifeft, that the Cuthite Shepherds 
compofed the firft dynafty of kings in Egypt : and that the 
Ifraelitifli Shepherds fucceeded them not long after their de- 
parture. Moft of the Fathers are milled by Jofephus ; who 
fuppofes, in oppofition to the beft authority, that the whole 
hiftory related to one body of people only, and that thofe 
were his anceftors. But the purport of the hiftory given, 
and the very dynafties, which they have tranfmitted, prove 
the contrary. Yet they perfift ; and accordingly place the 
Exodus in the reign of ^^ Amos, or Amolis; which was many 
years prior to the departure of the firft Shepherds, as will be 
{hewn ; and confequently contrary to the true order of hif- 
tory. Of thefe Shepherds we have very circumftantial ac- 
counts ; though their dynafty is tranfmitted to us by diffe- 
rent writers in a very confufed manner. The perfons, who 
have preferved it, are Manethon, Africanus, Eufebius, Syn- 
cellus, and Theophilus of Antioch. There is to be found a 
very great difference fubftfting between thefe writers, of 
which at prefent I fliall fay nothing. Let it fuftice, that we 
have from them tranfmitted to us a dynafty of the Shep- 
herds ; the fifteenth of Africanus ; and the feventeenth of 
Eufebius, which is likewife the fifteenth, if we reckon 
from the bottom. The next, which is by them all intro- 
duced as the eighteenth, begins in this manner : 

Mft;o"»)' e^»iA6e;' £| AiyvTrra. Syncellus. p. 62. 

Yy 2 7%e 

348 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

I'he Eighteenth Dynajly of Sixteen Diofpolite^ orTheban^^^ Kings. 


*' AmoHs or Tethmofls. 

The account given by Manethon, concerning the expul- 
fion of the Shepherds, is this. After they had for many- 
years kept the Egyptians in fubjedion; the people of Upper 
Egypt rofe againft them, and under the diredion of their 
kings carried on a long and bloody war. At laft Halifphrag- 
muthofis,more generally called Mifphragmuthofis, furrounded 
them in their diftrid, named Avaris, which they had fortified. 
Here they were befieged a long time : when they at laft came 
to terms with ^° Amofis, the fon of the former king. After 

*' The names are in great meaJure taken from Africanus in Syncellus. p. 72. See 
alfo Theoph. ad Autolyc. L. 3. p. 3-;2. ,., .^ , ^ . ^. 

*' So he is called by Apion, and Ptolemy Mendelius : hkewile by Tatianus Al- 
fyriu.s,p. 273. Jiiftin. Martyr. Cohort, p. 13. Clemens Alex. Strom. L. i. p. 378. 
See Eufeb. Prasp. Evang. L. 10. p. 490. 493. 497- 

'' Tethmofis of Africanus, lome 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. '349 

Ibme conferences, they agreed to intirely evacuate the coun- 
try, if they might be permitted to go off unmolefted. He 
accordingly gav^e them his promife, and they all departed. 
V/hcn they were gone, he demolifhed the ^' fortification, 
which they had raifed ; that it might not any more be a re- 
ceptacle to difaffeded, or rebellious people. From this hif- 
tory we learn, that Mifphragmuthofis, and his fon Amofis 
reigned in the time of the firft Shepherds. Therefore the 
reign of the former, and fome years of the latter, fhould be 
placed in collateral order, as being plainly fynchronical. 
The like is to be obferved of all the previous kings of that 
dynafty. They v/ere the princes who firft made head againft 
the Shepherds ; and carried on the war mentioned above, 
which was put an end to by Amofis. They were confe- 
quently fynchronical. But by this not having been obferved, 
they are brought after, and fome of them are funk above an 
hundred years lower than they fhould be : and this in con- 
tradiction to the very evidence by thefe writers produced. 
For they allow, that Amofis ruined the place called Avaris, 
into which his father Mifphragmuthofis had before driven 
the Shepherds: and it is expreflly faid, that it was afterwards 
given by Amenophis to the other Shepherds, who fucceeded. 
Nothing can be more determinate than the words of Mane- 
thon ; ^^ TTiV tocd TlQi[j(,sj/oop s^r,fJM^Si(rav 'WoXiu Kua^iv crvvB^/oc^ri<Ts. 
He gave them the city Avaris^ which had beoi vacated by the 
fortner Shepherds. We find that the hiftory lies within a 
fhort compafs. The only thing to be inquired into, is the 
identity of the perfons fpoken of. As Mifphragmuthofis 

'' ¥.ctTZov^<u.-\i ir,v h-jctov.' huMQii. Tatianu.s AfTyrius, from Ptolemy McndtTi us. 
p. 273. See alio Clemens Alex. L. i.p. ^78. and note 7. 

^' Manethon apud jofephum contra Ap. L. i. p. 460. defeated 

350 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

<lefeated the Shepherds, and drove them into Avaris ; do we 
find a king of Egypt fo called ? There is a king of that 
name : and if we look into the lift, we find him the fixth in 
the eighteenth ^^ dynafty, which confifts of Theban, or 
Diofpolite kings. His fon Amofis is faid to have concluded 
the whole affair, and finally to have expelled them. Does 
nny prince occur of the name of Amofis or Tethmofis, in 
this order ? A perfon of this name appears in the fame dy- 
nafty ; and he is fucceflbr to the former, in conformity to 
the hiftory given. It is faid, that Amenophis gave the dif- 
trift, which the former Shepherds vacated, to the latter. As 
thefe fucceeded the others very foon ; is there any king of 
the name of Amenophis, whofe reign coincides v/ith thefe 
circumftances ? Such a one very happily occurs : and he 
comes the very next in fuccefiion to the prince, who fent the 
firft Shepherds away. Thefe things furely are very plain. 
Why then are thefe kings brought fo much lower than the aera 
allotted to the Ifraelites ? and why have the moft learned of 
the Fathers adjudged the departure of that people to the time 
of the firft king of this Theban dynafty ? This prince is faid 
to have lived ^^ twenty-five years after they were retired. 
From hence we may be aflured, that this could not be the 
perfon, with whom Mofes was concerned ; for that king was 
drowned in the Red Sea. Theophilus calls this king Ama- 
fis ; and fpeaking of thefe twenty-five years, fays, that he 
reigned that term, ^^ (Jlstci Triv bk^oM^ t^ ^^^ 5 ^fi^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

^' 6. Mifphragmuthofis, 

7. Amofis, five Tethmofis. 

8. Amenophis. 

''* Theoph. ad Autolyc. L. 3. p. 392, 

'' Ibid. expelled 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 351 

expelled the people fpoken of. This can never be made appli- 
cable to the Ifraelites. It cannot with any propriety be faid 
of them, that they were expelled. They were detained 
againft their will : and when they were fuffered at laft to 
depart, the Egyptians purfued after them, in order to bring 
them '"^ back. The hiftory certainly relates to the Cuthite 
Shepherds, who flood their ground, till they were a6lually 
driven away. So far, I believe, is true ; that the Ifraelites 
left the country in the reign of Amafis, who was more pro- 
perly called Ramafes, and Ramafes the fon of Sethon : but 
this was a long time after the reign of Amos, or Amofis, who 
is placed at the head of the Theban dynafty. 

If thefe great out-lines in hiftory are fo clear, as I prefume 
them to be ; it may be afked, how it was pofTible, for fuch 
miftakes in chronology to have arifen ? What reafon can 
be given for this wilful inconliftency ? I anfwer with regret, 
that it was owing to an ill-grounded zeal in the Fathers. 
They laid too much ftrefs upon the antiquity of Mofes; and 
laboured much to make him prior to every thing in "Greece. 
It had been unluckily faid by Apion, that the perfon, who 
ruined Avaris, v/as contemporary v/itli '^^ Inachus of Argos. 
If this perfon Vv^ere before Mofes, then Inachus mufl alfo 
have been before him, v/hich was not to be allowed. Hence 

'^ It may be faid, that the Egyptians preftcd the Ifraelites to depart: A:\ithe 
Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might fend them out of the land, &c. 
Exodus, c. 12. V. 33. But this does not come up to the real and hoftile cxpulficn, 
which is mentioned by the Egyptian hiftorians : fo that the people thus forcibly 
expelled could not poffibly be the Ifraelites. 

" See Clemens, Tatianus, and the authors above quoted. Afi Icanus apud Eufeb. 
Prrep. L. lo. p. 490. Juftin. Martyr. Cohort, p. 15. 1 heophilus. L. 3. p. 393. 

'^ Syncellus. p. 62. p. 68. 


352 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

names have been changed, and hiftoiy has been perverted, 
to prevent this alarming circumftance. Accordingly Tatia- 
nus having gone through a long feries of argument to this 
purpofe, concludes with fome triumph : ^' Ov/,ouv 'UTB(pT^vs 
MuvjYii;^ caro ye 7m 'sr^osi^i][j.svoo:j, ■w^sG'^vTs^og 'H^if)m 'uraKo'jooVy 
'WoKsm, ccii^.ovm. Therefo?-e it is maiiifejl^ from what has 
been faid^ that Mofes %vas prio?^ to the heroes, to the cities., and 
to the Deities (of Greece). But truth does not depend upon 
priority : and the Fathers loft fight of this blefling through 
a wrong zeal to obtain it. They, to be fure, might plead 
fome authority for their notions : but it was not of fuch 
weight, as to have influenced men of their learning. Ma- 
nethon does mofl certainly fay, at leaft as he is quoted, that 
the Shepherds, who were expelled, betook themfelves to 
Jerufalem. ^° Msra to s^shhiv s^ AiyvTTTs tqv Kolqv toov IIo;- 
fjLS'Joov sig 'lB^O(TQKv^oi, B/J^oCKm oLVTOvg £^ AiyvTTTii (io(.(nKsvg 
Ts^^^rig B^oL(n7\sv(Ts ixbtol Tcf.vroL btyj siZO(n 'srsvTs, Koti (jLYivocg 
Tscru'ct^ag. After the Shepherds had departed from Egypt to 
feriifaletn, T^ethmofs, who drove them away, lived twenty-fvR 
years mtd four months. This one circumftance about Jeru- 
falem has contributed beyond meafure to confirm the Fa- 
thers in their miftakes. Jofephus, and thofe who have 
blindly followed this authority, did not conflder, that the 
Ifraelites were not driven out ; that they did not go to Je- 
rufalem ; and that the king, in whofe reign they departed, 
did not furvive the event : for he perifhed, as has been faid 

" Tatianus. p. 274. See Juftin. Martyr. Cohort, p. 13. Theophilus fuppofes 
the Exodus to have been a thoufand years before the war of Troy. L. 3. p. 393. 
'° Jofephus contra Ap. L. i. p. 446. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 353 

before. Add to this, that the fame writer, Manethon, plainly 
fhews, that the Ifraelites did not come into Egypt, till the 
reign of *° Amenophis, who was many years later: ib that this 
hiftory could not relate to them. He gave them the very 
diftrid:, which the former Shepherds had deferted. The 
whole account of the firft Shepherds is inconfiftent with the 
hiftory of the latter. The Fathers often quote Apion, Pto- 
lemy Mendefius, and Manethon, to prove that the Ifraelites 
were expelled Egypt by Amofis, or Amafis ; and fpeak of 
Mofes as contemporary with that king, whom they place at 
the head of the Theban dynafty. Thus Juftin Martyr ap- 
peals to the firft of thofe writers for the truth of this afTertion. 
^' Kara hoLyov A^yag ^oKriT^sa, AixoL(n$og AiyvKTrnv ^cctiT^sv- 
onog, oLto^YivoLi la^onag^ oov riysKr^oLi Moov<tsix. According to 
Apion, in the time of Inachus of Argos^ and in the i-eigit of 
Ajnafis of Egypty the Ifraelites left that country under the 
conduSi of Mofes. He quotes for the fame purpofe Polemo, 
and Ptolemy Mendefius. But the hiftory could never be as 
we find it here reprefented. We have a long account of the 
Shepherds in Manethon ; who fays not a word of what is 
here mentioned of the Ifraelites ; but contradids it in every 
point. Apion likewife expreflly tells us, that Amofis was 
the perfon who ruined Avaris ; which, we know, was after- 
wards given to the later Shepherds. And fo far is he from 

'" Jofephus contra Ap. 6i. p. 460. The coming of the Ifraelites is plainly de- 
fcribed under the return of the firft Shepherds. Many have fuppofed the two bodies 
of people to have been one and the fame. They have therefore miftaken the arrival 
of the latter for a return of the former -, and have in confequtnce of it much con- 
founded their hiftory : but the truth may be plainly difccrtied. 

*' Cohort, p. 13. 

Vol. hi, Z z referring 

354 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

referring the departure of this people to the reign of the firft 
Diofpolite king in the eighteenth dynafty, that he fuppofes, 
the Exodus to have been in the ^' feventh Olympiad, which 
was many centuries later. 

The Fathers do not always quote precifely ; but often put 
their own inferences for the words of their author. Ptolemy, 
Apion, and others mention, that a people called Shepherds 
.were driven out of Egypt in the reign of Amolis. Thefe. 
Shepherds, fay Theophilus and Tatianus, were the Jews : 
therefore the Jews left the country in the reign of that king : 
and as they were conduced by Mofes, it is plain, fay they, 
from Apion, that Mofes was contemporary with *^ Amofis. 
In like manner Jofephus tells us, that, according to Mane- 
thon, the Jews were driven out of Egypt in the reign of 
king ^■^ Tethmofis. Now the paffage, to which he alludes, is 
preferved in his own works at ^^ large : and not a fyllable does 
Manethon there fay about either Jew or Ifraelite. He gives 
quite a different hiftory. A.nd though his account is very 
incorrect, yet fo much we may plainly learn from him, that 
the Ifraelites came into Egypt in the time of Amenophis, the 


'* Jofephus contraAp. L. i. p. 469. 

*' The fame hiftory is quoted from difFerean v/riters with a fimirarity of language,. 
which is very fufpicious. Thus Ctefias is by Clemens made to give the fame account 
as we havi" liad from the writers of Egypt. 'H M'jxn'jii xara Pifj-uaiv rev Aiyuirriuvy, 
xai xxrctlva^^ov 70V A^yiioi', f^ Aiyjirrd y.iv)iirii. Strom. L. i. p. 379. It is very 
(rxtraordinarv, that fo many foreign writers fliould uniformly refer Mofes to Inachus;. 
as it is a point of little confequence to any, but thofe, v/ho wanted to enhance the an- 
tiquity of the former. To the fame purpofe Apion, Polemo, and Ptolemy Mende- 
fius are quoted. Yet I am perfuaded, that the ancient Egyptians knew nothing of 
Argos •, norof Inachus, the fuppofed king of it. See JuIlinMartyr. Cohort, p. 13. 

*+ Contra Ap. L. I. p. 469. 

" Ibid. p. 444.- . , , 


The Analysis of Ancif.nt Mythologv. 355 

eighth king of the Diofpolite dynafty; and they likewife left 
the country in the reign of Amenophis, fometimes rendered 
by miftake Amenophthes. This was not the fame prince, 
but one long after, whofe fon was Sethon, called alfo Ra- 
mafes Sethon, from Rampfes (the fame as Ramafes), the fa- 
ther of ^* Amenophis. 

If then we recapitulate the principal fads, which relate to 
the ancient hiftory of Egypt, we lliall find that they hap- 
pened in the following order. After that the Mizraim had 
been for fome time fettled in that country, they were in- 
vaded by the Shepherds, thofe Cuthites of Babylonia. Thefe 
. held the region in fubjeAion ; and behaved with much cru- 
elty to the natives. They were at laft oppofed ; and by 
kingMifphragmuthofis reduced to great ftraits, and befieged 
in their fhrong hold Avaris. His fon Amofis, the Tethmo- 
fis of Africanus, prefled them fo clofely, that they were glad 
to come to terms of compofition. He agreed to let them 
go unmolefted, if they would immediately leave the coun- 
try. Upon this the whole body retired, after having been 
in poiTeilion of Egypt above two hundred and fifty years. 
To Amofis fucceeded Amenophis ; who is faid to have given 
their deferted town and diftrid: to the Ifraelitifh Shepherds. 
Thefe came into the country from Canaan about thirty 
years after the exit of the ^^ former. They refided here two 
hundred and fifteen years ; and then they too retired in the 

'* Ibid. p. 461. 

*' This I have fhewn before. The Old Chronicle makes the refidence of the firfl 
Shepherds in Egypt to have been but 217 years : but I believe that it is a miftake for 
271. This would make the interval 25 years between the departure of the firll, and 
arrival of thefecond Shepherds. 

Z z 2 reign 

356 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

reign of Amenophis, the Ton of Rampfes, and father of Rar- 
mafesSethon. Such is tiiv hiftory, which is given by*'Ma- 
nethon, Apion, and other writers. That we may know in 
what degree this accords with the dynafty of princes tranf- 
mitted by Africanus, Eufebius, and Syncellus, it will be pro- 
per to lay before the reader a lift of the firft kings, as we 
find it exhibited by thofe writers. I have fhewn, that the 
firft dynafty confifted of the Demigods, or Auritze ; called 
alfo the Hellenic and Phoenician Shepherds, who took Mem- 
phis. The next dynafty was of Diofpolite or Theban. 
princes, who were of the Mizraim race, and expelled the for- 
mer. And as the perfon, who drove them away, was Amo- 
fis, or Tcthmofis, the fon of Mifphragmuthofis, that king,^ 
and all above him, fhould be placed collateral with the Shep- 
herd dynafty, as being fynchronical. Indeed there is reafon 
to think, that moft, if not all, of the five, which precede are 
fpurious ; being for the moft part the fame names placed 
here by ^° anticipation ; and having the fame hiftory re- 
peated. I lliall therefore begin with Mifphragmuthofis; as 
with him the true Egyptian hiftory commences ; but will 
firft give the dynafty of the Shepherds. 

"^ Apud Jofephum cont. Ap. L. i. p. 461. 

'° Haiiiphragmuthofis, Tethniofis, Amenophis, have been placed at the head of 
the dynafty, to raife the antiquity of Mofes. The fame names occur again in tlie 
fame lift, and nearly in the lame order, below. What was truly faid of the firft' 
Shepherds, and their expulfion under Tethmofis,. and Amofis,.has been anticipated, 
and attributed to the Ifraelitifti Shepherds : and the name of the fame king has been 
repeated, and placed at tlie top of the lift. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


^he Firfi Dynajly of Kings in Egypt ; tonfifiing of Hellenic 
and Phenician Shepherds^ who were Foreigners^ and took 



Salatis - - - 19 

Saites - - - 

- 19 

'' Been - - 44 m. 7 

Byon - - - 

- 44 

Apachnas - - 36 m. 7 

Pachnas - - - 

- 61 

Apophis - - 61 

Staan - _ _ 

- 50 

lanias - - - 50 m. i 

Archies - - _ 

- 49 

Aflis - - - 49 m. 2 

Aphobis — - 

- 61 





- 19 

Saites - - - - 19 

Silites - - _ 

Anon - -. - - 43 

B^on - _ _ 

- 44 

Apachnas - - 

- 36 

Aphophis - - - 14 

Aphophis - - 

- 61 

Anchles - - - - 30 

Sethos - - - 

- 50 

Kertus - _ _ 

- 29 

Afeth - - - 

- 20 




»' Many of thefe miftakes, with which thefe lifts abound, are owing to the igno- 
rance of tranfcribers and editors: of which we have a flagrant in ftan°ce before us. 
After Salatis, in three copies, we find the Shepherd king called B^on and Bnon.' 


358 The Analysis of At^cient Mythology. 

The Second Dynafyy co?iJiJiing of Diofpolite, or Thehan Kings, 

According to '^ Jofephus 

According to ^^ Africanus 

from Manethon. 

in Syncellus. 

Halifphragmuthofis 2 5 m . 
Thmofis - - - gm. 


Tethmofis - - - ^ 


Amenophis - - 30 m. 


Amenophis - - - 


Orus - - - - 36m. 
Acencres - - 12 m. 



Orus ----- 
Acherres - - , - 


Rathotis - - - 9 

Rathos - - - - 


Achencheres - 12 m. 


Chebres - - - - 


Achencheres - 12 m. 


Acherres - - - _ 


Armais - - - ^m. 


Armefes - _ - - 


Rhamefies - - im. 


Rhammefes - - - 


Rhamefies Miamun 66m. 
Amenophis - - igm. 
'^ Sethon ^gyptus 59 
Rampfes - - 66 
Amenophis - - 00 
'^ Ramefi^es Sethon 00 


Amenoph - - - 


"Third Dynajly. 

Sethos - - — - 
Rap faces - - - - 
Ammenephthes - - 



But this is a manifeft blunder. There was a fecond king in the dynafty ; but the 
chronologers could not arrive at his name. They therefore put him down B. arwr : 
the fecond king is anonymous : and fo it octurs in Eufebius. But in the other lifts it 
is altered to Bjjwi', Baiw*-, Bvuiv ; and has pafTed for a proper name. See Marfham's 
Chron. p. 100. Themiftake is as old as Jofephus. 

'" Contra Ap. L. I. p. 446. 

" Ibid. p. 460. 

»* Ibid. p. 46 1. 

'' Syncellus. p. 72. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


According to '* Eufebius. 


Tuthmofis - 


Orus - - - _ 


Athoris - - - 



Cherres - - - 

Armais - - - 

Ammefes - - - 


Third Dynajiy. 













According to " Theophilus 

Methrammuthofis 20 m. 10 

Tythmofis - - 9 m. 8 

Damphenophis - 30 m. 10 

Orus - - - 

Ori Filia - 

Mercheres - 

Armais - - _ 

Mefles - - - 

Rhamefles - - 




Sethos iEgyptus 

35 m- 

12 m. 

30 m. 

6 m. 

I m. 
19 m. 






Some of thefe names by collating may be correded ; and 
each of the authors quoted will contribute towards it. At 

'* Eufeb. Chron. p, i6. 

" Theophilus ad Autol. L. 3. p. 392, 


pre fen t 

3'6o The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLcrSY* 

prefent each fpecimen abounds with miftakes. Tythmofis, 
Tethmolis and Thmofis, feem to have been originally Tha- 
mofis ; probably the fame as Thamus, and Thamuz. Me- 
nophis, Amcnephthes, and Amenophthes are undoubtedly 
miftakes for '^ Amenophis, as it is rendered in Jofephus. 
Rathos, and Rathotis, are for Rathor, and Rathccis: and 
thofe again are for Athor and Athoris. Chebres of Africa- 
nus fliould be altered to Cheres, the fame as Sol. The 
whole lift is made up of divine titles. Cheres is fometimes 
compounded Chan-Cheres ; and exprefted Achancheres ; 
all of which are the fame title. Meffes, Ammefes, and Ar- 
mefes, are all miftakes for Ramefes, -either abridged, or 
tranfpofed ; as may be fhewn from Theophilus. Armais, 
and Armes, feem to be the fame as Hermes. Raphaces, 
and Rapfes are by Jofephus more corredlly rendered Ramp- 
fes. Thoefus in Theophilus is a tranfpofition, and variation 
of Sethos, the fame as Sethon, whom he very properly, in 
another place, ftyles Sethos Egyptus. As thefe names may, 
I think, to a degree of certainty be amended, I fhall endea- 
vour to give a more corred lift, as I have prefumed to form 
it upon collation. 

1. Mifphragmuthofis. 

2. Thamoiis ; Amofts of Clemens and others. 

3. Amenophis. 

4. Orus. 

'' To fay the truth, I believe that Menophis is the original name. It was a di- 
vifie title, like ail tlie others ; and afllimed by kings. It was properly IMenophis, 
five Menes Pytho, vel Menes Ophion : and it originally was a title given to the 
.perfon commemorated under the charader of Noe Agathodsmon, changed by the 
■<Treeks to Neo. See Vol. II. Plate VI. p. 336. 

^ 5. Chan- 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 361 

5. Chan-Cheres, 

6. Athoris. 

7. Chancheres 2. 

8. Chancheres 3. 

9. Armes, or Hermes. 

10. Rhamefes. 

11. Amenophis. 

Dy7iajiy the Third, 

1. Sethos iEgyptus. 

2. Rampfcs, the fame as Rhamefes. 

3. Amenophis. 

4. Rhamafes Sethon. 

But though this lift may be in fome degree corredled ; 
yet we may ftill perceive a great difference fubfifting among 
the writers above, and particularly in the numbers. The 
only method of proceeding in thefe cafes, where we cannot 
obtain the precilion, we could wifh, is to reft contented 
with the evidence, which is afforded ; and to fee, if it be at 
all material. We are told, that Mifphragmuthofts was the 
perfon, who gave the Shepherds the firft notable defeat : and 
we accordingly find him in the fubfequent dynafty to the 
Shepherds. Next to him ftands his fon Themofis, who 
drove them out ol the country. The Ifraelites came foon 
after, in the reign of Amenophis, who gave them a place 
of habitation. In conformity to this, we find, that Ameno- 
phis comes in the lift- immediately after Themofis, or Teth- 
mofis : all which is perfectly confonant to the hiftory before 
given. This people refided in the country about two 

Vol. III. A a a hundred 

3^2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt, 

hundred and fifteen years ; and departed in the reign of 
Amenophis, the father of Ramefes '' Sethon. We find, that 
the eleventh king is Amenophis ; and he is fucceeded by 
Sethos : by which one might be induced to think, that this 
was the perfon alluded to. But upon due examination, we 
fhall find, that this could not be the king mentioned; for he 
was not the father of the perfon, who fucceeded him. We 
find in Eufebius, and Syncellus, that at Sethos ^gyptus, a 
new dynafty commenced, which is prbperly the third. Jo- 
fephus takes no notice of this circumftance : yet he gives a 
true lift of the firft kings, who are 

'!° Sethon ^gyptus. 
Ramafes Sethoti. 

The third of thefe is the Amenophis fpoken of by Mane- 
thon, in whofe reign the Ifraelites left Egypt : for he is the 
father of the Ramafes called Sethon. In refped: to the 
numbers annexed to each king's name, they are fo varied by 
different writers, that we cannot repofe any confidence in 
them. I therefore fet them quite afide ; and only confider 
the numbers of the kings, who reigned from Amenophis the 

" Toi' viov SsBwv rov xai VoLfJuaanv aTO VetfA-^sooi t8 -nraT^'QS (th A'/ASvcoiptoi) et>vo- 
fAaa-fAevQv. Jofephus contra Ap. L. i. p. 460. Rhamefles feems to have reigned 
•with his f;uher. He is called Rhameles, and Rhamafis ; and is undoubtedly the 
perfon alluded to by Clemens, and others, under the name of Amafis; in whole 
time they luppoie the Exodus to have been. See Strom. L. i. p. 378. Of Rha- 
mafis, they formed Amafis, which they changed to Amofis, and thus raifed the sra 
of Mofes to an unwarrantable height. 

'" Sethon ^gypuis. Cont. Ap. L. i. c. 460. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 363 

firft to Amenophis the father of Rhamafes. I find them to 
amount to twelve inclufive. If then we allow twenty years 
to each king, the reigns will amount to tv/o hundred and 
forty years. And as we do not know the year of the firft 
Amenophis, in which the Ifraelites entered Egypt ; nor the 
year of the latter king, in which they departed ; if we make 
proper allowance for this, the fum of the years will corref- 
pond very well with the fojourning of the people in that 
country ; which was two hundred and fifteen years. 

Manethon tells us, as I have obferved before, that the 
Amenophis, in whofe reign the Ifraelites left Egypt, pre- 
ceded Rhamafes Sethon. In his reign they were led off, 
under the '' conduSi of Mofes. It is to be obferved, that Ma- 
nethon ftyles this king the father of Sethon. This is the 
reafon, why I do not think, that the fcwmer Amenophis was 
the perfon fpoken of. Sethon Egyptus, who fucceeded that 
Amenophis, was of another dynafty, confequently of another 
family, and could not be his fon : for new dynafties com- 
mence with new families. This, I imagine, was the prince, 
who is alluded to in Scripture ; where it is faid, that * there 
arofe up a ?iew khig over Egypt .^ who knew uot Jofeph. He 
was not acquainted with the merits of Jofeph, becaufe he 
was the firft king of a new dynafty ; and of a different fa- 
mily from thofe, who had been under fuch immediate ob- 
ligations to the Patriarch. In the ancient hiftories there is 

' Manethon has confounded the hiftory of Jofeph, and Mofes, of which I have 
before taken notice. He allows, that a perfon called Mofes led off the Ifraelites ; 
but fvippofes that tliis was a fecondary name. MfTeTsG/j rayofjix, x.a.i 'urpoariyo^ivQn 
hlcoiiarvi. Ibid. 

* Exodus, c. I. V. 8. 

A a a 3 a dif- 

364 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

a diflindion made between the Mizra'im and the Egyptians : 
and the former were looked upon as prior in time. Thus 
in the Old Chronicle, the reigns of the kings are divided 
into three clafles : the firfl: of which is of the Auritse ; the. 
next of the Mizraim ; and the third of the Egyptians. Here 
is a difference expreffed between the two latter ; and it may 
not be eafy to determine, wherein it confifted. Thofe, fa 
particularly ftyled Egyptians, were probably of Lower 
^ Egypt ; and of a more mixed family, than thofe Mizraim, 
who were of the fuperior region, called Sait. Of thefe the 
Cunic, or Royal, Cycle confifted ; and the fupremacy was 
in their family for fome generations. But a change of go- 
vernment enfued ; and the chief rule came into the hands 
of the AiyvTTTioi, Egyptians, of whom "^ Sethon, called 
-tEgyptus, was the firft m.;onarch» This new dynafty was 
the third : but according to the common way of computa- 
tion it was reputed the nineteenth. Hence in the Latin 
verfion of the Eufebian Chronicle the author tells us very 
truly, ^ ^gyptii per nonam decimam dynaftiam yi/(? impera- 
tore uti coeperunt ; quorum primus Seth.os. We find, that 
the genuine race of Egyptian monarchs did not commence 
before Sethon, He was of a different family from the 

' The region of Delta feems to be particularly denoted' under the name of ^gyp- 
tus. The words ^-aAacrtra yxp w Aiyuirro; relate only to Lower Egypt. In like 
manner A'yvTTTO'i J'u^ci' th tjjotccjj:^^ AiyvTrroi 's:(jT(x,u.:,^ci;cno^, cxpi'cfTions ufed by 
Herodotus, and Diodorus, have a like reference to the fame part of the country', 
and to that only. 

* O iJ.iv 1.i^.ot3aii iK.c(.XuTo Afyvirrci. Joiephus cont. Ap. T.. i. p. 447. 
Ai-yvTrrci S.i » ;^&.'fa g5cA;)fi); aTTs t8 Lacr, A?&)« St^a's' T3 ya-o SsS*'?} (p^cnr, Ai-)V7nai: 

-AaXiiTru. Theophil. ad Autol. L. 3. p. 392,. 

* Eufvb. Chron. Lat. p- 17. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 365 

former, and undoubtedly the perfon ftyled a 7iew king; who 
was not acquainted with the merits of [ofeph ; and who 
unjuflly enilaved the children of Ifrael. To him fucceeded 
Rampfes ; and next after him came that Amenophis, in 
whofe reign I have fhewn that the Exodus happened under 

I wifli that I could proceed, and with any degree of ac- 
curacy fettle the dynafties downward ; that the whole of the 
Egyptian chronology might be eftablifhed. But as this is a 
work which will require much time, and more fagacity, than 
I can pretend to, I fhall leave it to be executed by others. I 
flatter myfelf, that it may one day be effedled ; though there 
will certainly be great difficulty in the execution. The Exo- 
dus is fuppofcd to have happened 1494 years before the birth 
of Chrift. As this event has been miftaken for the retreat of 
the firft Shepherds, and adjudged to the reign of the hrft 
Amofis ; it has been carried upwards too high by two hun- 
dred and fifty years. In confequence of this, the v/riters, 
who have been guilty of this anticipation, have taken pains 
to remedy the miftake, which they found muft enfue in chro- 
nological computation. But this was healing one evil by in- 
troducing a greater. They faw from their commencing fo 
high, that the years downwards were too many for their pur- 
pofe. They have therefore, as we have reafon to fear, 
omitted fome kings ; and altered the years of others ; in 
order that the aera of Amofis may be brought Vv'ithin a pro- 
per diftance, and accord with the year of Chrift. By means 
of thefe changes, the kings of Africanus differ from thofe of 
Eufebius ; and the years of their reigns flill vary more. 


366 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Syncelius lias formed a lift of liis own: upon what authority 
1 know not ; wherein there are ftill greater variations : fo 
that there fometimes occur three or four princes in a fuite, 
of which there are no traces in the foregoing writers. Thus 
every one has endeavoured to adapt the chronology of Egypt 
to his own prejudices ; which has introduced infinite con- 
fufion. Of this Sir John Marfham very juftly complains. 
^ His modis luculentiflimos JEgypt'i antiquitates, Kara, fTV^oXriv 
KXi (5\a5-oAr;!/, Kctra 'ur^o^eciv Hcti OL(poLi^B<Tiv mifere vexat^, fpiflis 
involiita; funt tenebris ; ab ipfis temporiim interpretibus ; 
qui omnia fufque deque permifcucrunt. Upon Syncelius he 
pafles a fevere cenfure. '' Reges comminifcitur, qui neque 
apud Eufebium funt, neque Africanum : annofque et fuc- 
cefTiones mutilat, vel extendit, prout ipfi vifum eft, magna 
nominum, maxima numerorum interpolatione. It muft be 
confefled, that there is too much truth in this allegation ; 
though we are in other refpeds greatly indebted to this 
learned chronologer. The perfon, to whom we are moft 
obliged, is Eufebius: for he went very deep in his refearchesj 
and has tranfmitted to us a noble colleiflion of hiftorical re- 
cords, which without him had been buried in oblivion. But 
even Eufebius had his prejudices, and has tried to adapt the 
hiftory of Egypt to fome preconceived opinions. Hence he 
laboured to enhance the antiquity of Mofes : and not conft- 
dering that the Shepherd kings were the firft who reigned 
in Egypt, he has made it his buftnefs to authenticate ftxteen 
antecedent dynafties, which never exifted. Hence the annak 

* Marfham. Can. Chron. p. 7. 
" Ibid. 

*J of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 367 

of this country have been carried up higher than the sera of 
^ creation ; and have afforded embarraffment to men of the 
greateft learning. They have likevi^ife afforded handle to 
ill difpofed perfons to arraign the credibility of the Mofaic 
hiftory ; and to call in queftion the authenticity of the 
Scriptures in general. Some have had fufpicions, that thefe 
dynafties were not genuine; and would gladly have fet them 
afide. But fufpicions are not fuiBcient to make void fuch a 
portion of hiftory. It has been my endeavour to detedl the 
fallacy, and to fhew manifeflly, that they are fpurious : and 
I hope, that the authorities, to which I appeal, have fuffi- 
ciently proved it. 

* According to Africanus, Menes preceded Conchares in the Cunic cycle, no lefs 
;ban3835 years. 

( 369 ) 

O F T H E 




I HAVE repeatedly taken notice, that the worfliip of the 
Dove, and the circumftances of the Deluge, were very- 
early interwoven among the various rites, and ceremonies of 
the eaftern world. This worfhip, and all other memorials 
of that great event, were reprefented in hieroglyphical cha- 
radlers in Babylonia : and from thefe fymbolical marks ill 
underftood was that mythology framed, which through the 
Greeks has been derived to us. The people, by whom thefe 
rites were kept up, were ftyled Semarim, lonim, and Derce- 
tidse ; according to the particular fymbol, which they vene- 
rated : and fome alluHons to thefe names will continually 
occur in their hiftory, wherefoever they may have fettled. 

The Capthorim brought thefe rites with them into Palef- 
tine ; where they were kept up in Gaza, Afcalon, and Azo- 
tus. They worfhiped Dagon ; and held the Dove in high 

Vol. III. B b b vene- 

370 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

veneration. Hence It was thought, that Semiramis was born 
in thefe parts, and nourifhed by pigeons. Their coaft feems 
to have been called the coaft of the lonim: for the fea, with 
which it was bounded, was named the Ionian fea quite to 
the Nile. ' Aeyaci $s 7ivsg -/.cli to cctto Ta^rig [^sy^ig AiyvTrvd 
'Wshayog lONION T^sys^ca. Indeed Gaza was itfelf ftyled 
lonah : ^ Imrj ya^ yj Fa^a skoAsito : which name Stephanus 

fuppofes it to have received from the flight of 16. ^ Foc^cc 

BKM^n ^s Kcci lONH SK T/jg lag 'W^OQ"7r?\<^v(roL(rrig, aoLi fjLsivaiTYjg 
avTYig BKBi, EkKyj^yj is KOLi Mima. Euftathius takes notice of 
the fame circumftance : '^ to cltto Tcc^rig (jf-S'^^ig Aiyv7rT8 'We^- 
7\a.yog lono:^ 7\zyz^on — oltto TY]g Isg — rjToi Trig ^sT^rji/Yjg' loo ya.^ r^ 
I/BKyivyi koltcil Tr\y Tm A^ysiocv iicLhZKTOv. If the title of Ionian 
came from 16, that name muft have been originally I6n or 
lonah : and fo it will hereafter appear. What one writer 
terms Minoa, the other renders ^sM^^ J which is a true in- 
terpretation of * Mjjy, the Moon, the name of the deified 
perfon, Meen-Noah. I have mentioned, that the like terms, 
and worfhip, and allulions to the fame hiftory, prevailed at 
Sidon, and in Syria. The city Antioch upon the Orontes 
was called I6nah. ^Iwm^' 8Tw? bkoCKsito Yi ApTio'^SiOL, ri S7ti 
At^.pYj, TiV wKiTOLV A^ysioi. Who thefe Argeans were, that 

' Steph. Byzant. lovioy. 

* Ibid. 

^ Ibid. Ta^a. Menois oppidum juxta Gazam. Hieron. in locis Hebr^is, 

* Scholia in Dionyf. Pcri<'g. v. 94. 

' Hence lo, or lonah, by being the reprefcntanve of Meen, came to be efleemed 
the Moon. Iw •) ao n 2eA«yw naTot. rvv tccv A^yiim' SiaMKiov. Scholia in DionyC 
Pcrieg. V. 94. 'Oi A^ystzi fy/jq-iKO.'i to ovoixa t«5 2gAi;!'?)5 to aTroJctyf oj' Ixi ?:iy=Qiv, 
itoiapTi, Joan. Antijchenus. p. 31. See Chron. Paich. p. 41. 

^ Steph. Eyzant. loom. 

2 founded 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 371 

founded this city lonah, needs not, I believe, any expla- 

It was mentioned ^ above, that 16, among her various pe- 
regrinations, arrived at laft at Gaza in Palcftine, which from 
her was called lonah. Under the notion of the flight of 16, 
as well as of OUris, Damater, Affcarte, Rhea, Ifis, Dionufus, 
the poets alluded to the journeying of mankind from Mount 
Ararat ; but more particularly the retreat of the lonim, upon 
their difperflon from the land of Shinar. The Greeks re- 
prefented this perfon as a feminine, and made her the daugh- 
ter of Inachus. They fuppofed her travels to commence 
from ^ Argos ; and then defcribed her as proceeding in a re- 
trograde direction towards the eaft. The line of her pro- 
cedure may be feen in the Prometheus of i^fchylus : which 
account, if we change the order of the rout, and collate it 
with other hiftories, will be found in great meafure confo- 
nant to the truth. It contains a defcription of the lonim 
abovementioned j who, at various times, and in different bo- 
dies, betook themfelves very early to countries far remote. 
One part of their travel is about Ararat and Caucafus ; and 
what were afterwards called the Gordiaean mountains. In 
thefe parts the ark refted : and here the expedition fhould 
commence. The like ftory was told by the Syrians of Af- 
tarte ; by the Egyptians of Ifis. They were all three one 
and the fame perfonage ; and their hiftories of the fame 
purport. ^ Quae autem de Iflde ejufque erroribus iEgyptii, 

' Steph. Byzant. Fa^a, 

* By the travels of 16 from Argus is fignified the journeying of mankind from 
the ark. 

' Marlhami Can. Chron. Sasc. i. p. 42. 

B b b 2 eadem 

372 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology.' 

eadem fere de Aftiirte Phcenices, de lone Grasci fabulantur. 
The Greeks for the moft part, and particularly the Athe- 
nians, pretended to be oluto'^^ovb;, the original inhabitants 
ol their country : but tliey had innumerable evidences to 
contradi6t this notion ; and to fhew, that they were by no 
means the lirfl, who were feized of thofe parts. Their beft 
hiftorians ingenuoufly own, that the whole region, called 
Hellas, was originally occupied by a people of another race, 
whom they ftyled '° Ba^S'a^of : that their own anceftors came 
under different denominations, which they took from their 
mode of worfliip. Among others were the Idnim, called in 
after times lonians. They were fuppofed to have been led 
by one Ion, the fon of Zeuth, ftyled by the Greeks Xuthus : 
but what was alluded to under the notion of that perfon> 
may be found from the hiftory given of him. Tatian ima- 
gines, that he came into Greece about the time of Acrifius, 
when Pelops alfo arrived : " koltol (Je KK^i<nov r\ XieXoTrog olwo 
<I>^yyia? (Jiaoacig', jcoli Imog sig rag A^rimg api^ig. This arrival 
cf Ion was a memorable asra among the Grecians ; and al- 
ways efteemed fubfequent to the iirfb peopling of the 
" country. Ion in the play of Euripides is mentioned as 
the fon of Xuthus, but claimed by Apollo, as his offspring. 
In reality, both Xuthus and Apollo, as well as Dionufus and 

'° '^Zx'^^ov cTg T( xat n avjj.Tcx.<j(x. 'EAAaj xxTCficiu. BccpSccpoov uirvp^e ro 'srxXoi.iov. 
Strabo. L. 7. p. 494. YlxAoti yatp t>;5 vuv ■H.aXBy.evni liAAaJ'oi ^ctoQaaot Tcc-rsrohKot. 
(fjx.yiTxi. Paujan. L. i.p. 100. Ap^xJ'iocv Bcc^Cxpoi cej-nnaai: Schol. in Apollon. 
Rhod. L. 4- v. 264. H S^ bv Eoi&)T;«. -ztr^oTepov i^evuTro Bao^apwi' o.y.siTo. Strabo. 
L. 9. p. 615. Sec further evidences in Vol. I.p. 150. of this work: and p. 181. 
Sec alfo the treatife inlcribed Cadmus. Vol, II. p. 136. 

" Tatian. p. 274. 

" Clem. Alexandr. Strom. L. i. p. 381. Herodot. L. 7. c. 94. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 373 

Ofiris, were titles of the fame perfon. Xuthus tells his fon, 
that he fhall give him. the name of Ion, or lone, from his 
meeting him fortunately, as he came out of the temple of 
the Deity : 

l-^pog (TvvYf^OLg 'W^ocTog, 

He likewife in another place mentions, that his fon was called 
Ion from an aufpicious encounter : 

'* locv\ sTTsiTTs^ 'ur^o^rog rivTi^irsp tJTOLr^i, 

It is true, the poet would fain make the name of Grecian 
etymology, and deduce it from the word iovTi^ to which it 
had no relation. The truth he fo far accedes to, as to own 
that it had a reference to fomething aufpicious ; that it fig- 
nified an omen, or token of good fortune. There are fome 
other remarkable circumftances, which are mentioned of this 
Ion. He was expofed in an Ark ; and in the Ark faid to 
have been crowned, not with laurel, as we might expeft the 
reputed fon of Apollo to have been ornamented, but with 
olive : 

'5 'Li:B(pc(.voy EKoLiotg a^xips^riKa, (roi tots. 

From thefe two, Xuthus and his fon Ion, the Dorians, 
Achaeans, and lonians were faid to be defcended. Hence 

" Euripid. Ion. v. 66i. 
'* Ibid. V. 802. 
" Ibid. V. 14.34. 


n >7 

74 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

Apollo is made to prophefy in this manner of thefe nations 
to come, addreiling himfelf to Creufa ; 

loovsg^Byrsg s^ii(n zKsog. 

A3^io Js Kcii (TOi yiyvBTai koivov ys'jog' 

HoAi^, kolt' oLiccv Yls7.07CiaJ J" o hvTSPog 

It has been a prevailing notion, that the lonians were of the 
family of Javan. His fons certainly fsttled in Greece ; but 
they were the original inhabitants : whereas the Dorians 
and lonians confefiedly fucceeded to a country, which had 
been in the poffefTion of others. They were therefor-: a dif- 
ferent people, notwithftanding the fimilitude, whicli may 
fubfift between the two names. There is a remarkable paf- 
fage in the Chronicon Pafchale, which determines very fatis- 
fadtorily the hiftory of the lonians. The author fays, that, 
according to the moft genuine accounts, they were a colony 
brought by lonan from Babylonia. This lonan was one of 
thofe, who had been engaged in the building of Babel, at the 
time, when the language of mankind was confounded. 
'^lo^jj/'s^ h T8T60I/ (^'E7J\r\vm) oL^yriyoi ysysyrivron, w; o cm^i^Yig zyj^i 
7^(jyog^ OL-KO Td \ma.v^ svog av^^og rcfjv rov Hv^yov oiKoS'oy,r,'Tcinocv, 
ors di y7\W(T(TCLi hsfJiS^i^r^froiv Twv ccv^^oottojv. He moreover fays, 
that the Hellenes in general were denominated airo s7\a.iotg, 
from the olive. It is very certain, that fome of the Hellenes, 

'' Ibid. V. 1587. 

'" Cliron. Pafch. p. 49; 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 375 

apd efpecially the ** Athenians, were flyled Sait^e : not from 
the city Sais, as is commonly fuppofed ; but from the pro- 
vince of Sait, in '' Upper Egypt, which is by interpretation 
the Land vf the Olive. ^° <^(x,(n Tag ACrivctiag OLiroiK'sg stmi 
SaiTWf TOJJ/ sj AiyyTTa. The building of Babel is in " Scrip- 
ture attributed to Nimrod, the firft tyrant upon earth ; and 
it was carried on by his afibciates the Cuthite lonim. They 
were the firft innovators in religion ; and introduced idola^ 
try wherever they came. We accordingly find, that they 
were the perfons, who firft infected Greece. " loivsg h 01 bk. 
TJi? la? TWf ''EKhY\vm oL^yr]yoi ysyovorsg roig ^ooLvoig 'W^ou'skwhv. 
The lonians, ivho were denominated fro?n To7i (or lonah)^ and 
who were the heads of the Hellenic families^ were the firjl wor~ 
pipers of idols, I render the verb, 'sr^ocrs/iyj'Oiij/, thefrfl wor- 
fdipers : for fo much is certainly implied. The tower of 
Babel was probably defigned for an obfervatory ; and at the 
fame time tor a temple to the hoft of heaven. For it is faid 

'' The Athenians brought the rites of Damater from Egypt to Eleufis ; which 
was poflefTed by a different race. Others fay, that they were introduced by Eu- 
molpus. KctTOiKnacci Si im Ryieva-iva. i^opacri 'utputov jjlsv ths auTo^bovci?, ena Qp-z- 
y.xi T8f YLvixoXttb 'ziTaPix.ysvQfji.ei'HS -nj-POi (2o-/SiMv m nrov y.xr' Eps^^sms 'zvoAspLOi'. 

Tnii Si (^am V.a.1 TOV EufJioKiraV W^iiV Tt]V [AVYICTIV T1)V <TVVTiAiifJ.iV1)V KCCT BVIxilTOV iv 

EAiua-ai Ayi}Jimci y.cci Kopr. Acufilaus apud Natal. Com, L. 5. c. 14. p. 279. The 
Eumolpidffi were originally from Egypt, and brought thefe rites from tliat country. 
Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. 25. 

'' Of Siiit in Upper Egypt, fee Obfervations and Inquiries relating to various 
Parts, &c. p. 321. 

^° Diodor. Sic. L. i. p. 24. n?iW tcov fj^iToix^crctrroJv vc^tpov ivM licuTooi', xai 
'A.a.TOix.yiauvTCiiv tuv irs EKXccS oi fjinr^oiroXiv Auf,!/a5, rai Qn^a.i. See Eufeb. 
Chron. p. 12. See alfo the account from Theopompus of the Athenians from 
Egypt, in Eufeb. Prasp. Evang. L. 10. c. 10. p. 491. 

" Genef. c. 10. v. 8. &c. 

" Eufeb. Chron. p. 13. 


37"^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of Chus, that he was the firft obferver of the flats : and his 
-defcendents the Chaldeans were famous in their day. Some 
attribute the invention of it to Ham, ftyled *^ lonichus. 
''^ Hie lonichus accepit a Domino donum fapientiae, et invenit 
aftronomiam. Hie Gigantem Nimrod decern •cubitorum 
proceritate, et nepotem Sem ad fe venientem erudivit, do- 
cuitque quibus in locis regnare deberet. Multa etiam prse- 
vidit et prffidixit. The author of the ""^ Fafciculus Tempo- 
rum mentions lonichus as the fon of Noah. Ifte lonichus 
fuit filius Noe (de quo Moyfes tacet) fapiens. Pfimo poft 
Dihivium aftronomiam invenit: et quasdam futura prsvidit; 
■maxime de ortu quatuor regnorum, et eorum occafu. Cum- 
■que pater dediffet ei munera, ivit in terram Etham ; et ha- 
titavit ibi, gentem conftituens. Hie fertur coniilium de- 
dilTe Nimroth, quomodo regnare poffit. 

The fame hiftory is to be found in the *^ Nurenberg Chro- 
nicle, printed in the year 1483 : the author of which fays, 
that lonichus went to the land of Etham, and founded there 
a kingdom : and adds, liasc enim Pleliopolis, id eft, Solis 
terra. This, if attended to, will appear a curious and pre- 
cife hiftory. The ancients continually give to one perfon, 
what belonged to many. Under the character of lonichus 
are meant the Amonians; thofe fons of Ham, who came into 
Egypt ; but particularly the Cuthites, the lonim from 
Chaldea. They came to the land of Etham, and built the 

" Centefimo anno tertin; chiliadis genuit Noe filium ad fimilitudinem fiiam, 
qucm appellavit lonichum. Ex Method. Maityre Comeft. Hift. Schol. C. 37. 
'* Methodius Martyr. 
" Fafciculus Temporum impreff. A. D. 1474. 

'" P. J4- 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 377 

city, named Heliopolis, in the province of Zoan. Etham is 
mentioned by Mofes ; and was the firft place in the ^^ defert, 
at which the Ifraelites halted, after they had leftSuccoth. The 
author of the Fafcicuhis fays, that lojiichus ivas afon of Noah ^ 
of whom Mofes makes no nie7ition. The truth is, it was only a 
different name for a perfon often mentioned : for lonichus was 
Ham: and as titles were not uniformly confined to one perfon, 
it is probable that Chus alfo was included under this charadte- 
riiHc. lonichus feems to be a compound o'i lon-Nechus; and 
is undoubtedly a term, by which the head of the lonim was 

From hence, I think, wc may be allured, that the lonians 
were not of the race of Javan, as has been generally imagined. 
I'he latter were the original inhabitants of Greece : and to 
them the lonians fucceeded; who were a colony from Baby- 
lonia firfl:, and afterwards from Egypt, and Syria. There is 
a pafl'age in Cedrenus, fimilar to that quoted above ; fhew- 
ing that the lonim, the defcendents of lonah, were the firfl 
idolaters upon earth ; and that they were upbraided by Plu- 
tarch for their defedion from the purer worn:iip. "' Iw^£^ Js, 
o; £/ TJ^? ly? (it fhould be \moL(;)^ oicrjKn [jLBix:;:<iTa.i o Xcci^oovyiinog 
YlXarcc^'^ogj ojg 'wXavriv cLya^K^xTm i^vm si(roiyii<n, ra; kolt 
a^oLvov (pwfji^a? ^bo-koi^^zvqi^ tov 'HAtov /coct Tf,v XsKYjvriv. The 
lonians are the defcendents of Tona ; a?id are the people^ ivith 
'whom Plutarch of Chceronea is fo offended^ for hi?ig the frfly 
iioho f educed ma7iki7id to idolatry^ by introducing the fun and 
moony and all the far s of heaven^ as deities. They were the 

*' Ibid. c. 13. V. 20. 

*' Ccdren. vol. i. p. 46. See alfo Eufcb. Chron. p. 14. 

Vol. III. C c c authors 

378 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

authors of that fpecies of idolatry, ftyled Hellenifmus, of 
which I have before treated. Thefe hiftories backed with 
many other evidences fhew, I think, manifeflly, that the 
lonians were lonim, a colony from Babylonia. They feem 
therefore to have been diftinguiOied from the fons of Javan, 
by being ftyled loovsgy lones ; whereas the others were ftyled 
laovsg-: though this diftindlion is not, I believe, uniformly 
kept up. The people of Boeotia in the time of Homer were 
lonim ; and the laones feem by that poet to be mentioned as 
a different race : 

2° Eii^a h BoiWTOf koli Icnovsg sKjis'^irmsg, 

And Attica is faid by Strabo to have been called both Ionia, 
and las : ^' Y} yx^ Attwjo to 'WaKaiov Icfj'Ma koli lag BKoChBiro. 
We find from hence, that it had two names ; the latter of 
which, I fliould imagine, was that by which the primitive 
inhabitants were called. The Grecians continually changed 
the V final into figma : whence p», Ian, or Javan, has been 
rendered las. It was originally expreffed, lav, and law^ : 
and this was the ancient name of Hellas, and the Hella- 
dians ; as we may infer from its being fo called by people 
of other countries : for foreigners abide long by ancient 
terms. And according to the Scholiaft upon Ariftophanes, 
the Grecians in every country but their own were ftyled 
laones ; by which undoubtedly is meant the fons of Javan. 
3" ll^vroLg T8? 'EAA^ya? loLOVcig 01 Ba^^a^oi sacChav. The like 

'= Homer. Ilisd. N. v. 685. 
'' Strabo. L. 9. p. 600. 
'* Schol. in Acharn. v. 106, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 379 

evidence is to be found in Hefychius : " sttibikoo; h 01 Ba^^a- 
poi rsg 'EAAiii'a; loivvccg Xsys<riv. All foreig7iers very jujlly call 
the Grecians lamus. He had before mentioned, layya — ■ 
'EAArjj'W)!, Z'KZi lavvoLg Tsg 'EKXrjyag T^sysciK lanna is certainly 
the land of Javan : and the purport of what this writer here 
mentions is, that Hellas ivas of old called Ia7i^ oryavan ; be- 
catife the natives 'were ejleemed layines^ or Javanes ; being the 
■pofterity of the perfon fo named. Stephanus alfo mentions 
lawv, and Iti^v : bk Js T8 \am^ lav. From the above it is 
very plain, that by the laones were meant all the ancient 
inhabitants of Greece ; all that were the offspring of Ian, or 
Javan. But the lones and Ionia related only to a part. 
'^+ Ife'^s^* A&ni/Moi.' 0; Iw;'2$, OLTTO IcfJi/og, Enoi ncfj T8g@^o(,y.c/.g, koli 
Ap^aia?, KVA Bo;wT8f, 'EAA)]j'a?. The term Jones came from 
Ion 5 who was the reputed fon of Xuth, as I have before 
fhewn : and it was a name appropriated to fome few of the 
Grecian families ; and not uniformly beftowed upon all, 
though by fome it was fo ufed. The laones, or fons of Ja- 
van, were the firft, who peopled the country, and for a while 
a diftinft race. But when the lonians afterwards joined 
them, and their families were mixed ; we muft not wonder, 
if their names were confounded. They were however never 
fo totally incorporated, but what fome feparate remains of 
the original ftock were here and there to be perceived : and 
" Strabo fays, that this was to be obferved even in the ao-e, 
when he lived. 

" It is fo correflcd by Ileinfius. 
'* Hefych. 

e^eri. Strabo. L. 7. p. 495. 

C c c 2 There 

iSo The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

There are fome remarkable truths, which have been 
gleaned up by Joannes Antiochcnus : and we (hall find them 
to be worth our notice ; as they relate to the origin of thofe 
people, who brought idolatry into Greece. It was, he fays, 
introduced ''^ 0,7:0 Tivog 'EAAjo^o? OPoy^OLTi, via Kdi olvts UriKH 
Aiog,'iKCL tivol 'uroiBno; olv^^o;, rm sv ''EKKy.^i noLTOiKYiTocnuVy 
sz Tr]g ipyAj]^ onog rs Ict^s^, ma Nws ra T^iVd. He has in fome 
degree confounded the hiftory, in making the chief anceftor 
of the Grecians of the line of Japhet. The name, which 
milled him, and many others, was AiTTvrog^ and IciTTSTog : of 
which I have taken notice before. It was a title given to 
the head of all families, who fro-m hence were ftyled lapeti 
genus. But writers have not uniformly appropriated this- 
appellation : but have fometimes bcftowed it upon other 
perfonages ; fuch however as had no relation to the line of 
Japhet. It may be difficult to determine, whom they moft 
particularly meant : but thus much we are informed ; 
" IdTTSTog, Big Ta'j/ Tiroivctjv. lapetus was one of the T'itanic 7- ace. 
^* loczBTog a^yyuog riv^ hg T(fjv F/yayTWV. He was , a per/on of 
great antiquity.^ and of the Giant brood. Hence by the lape- 
tida2, the fons of Ham and Chus are undoubtedly alluded to: 
and the Grecians were maniieftly af the fame race. The 
author above proceeds afterwards more plainly to fhew, whci 
were the perfons, that led thefe colonics into Greece ; and 
propagated there the various fpccies of irreligion. " I:v'^£^ 

'* P. GG. 

" Schol. in. Horn. Iliad. 0. v. 479. Ia-£TC5 af^);^^. Ikiych, 
''^ Lexicon inedit. apud Albert, in Hcfych. 
^' loan. Antioch. p. G6. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 381 

Js 01 SK Tri; loo (the term Iccvsg could not be formed from Iw : 
it fhould here, and in all places, be exprefled sz Trig II2NA2) 
raro^'v a,oyT,yQi sysvopTo' ritrav yx^ Si^a'^OEVTsg sk ts IOANEHS 
ytyanog ts oizo^oi/,rtiTuvTog crvv joig a.?.7\oig rov Hv^yov, oontvuv: 
aoLL y7M(r(TCLi ^iS[JLS^i^ri(roLV. The loiies^ fo denotnmated from 
To}ta^ were the leaders of thofe colofiies : they had bee?i inflruEied 
by loanfies^ 07ie of the Giant race ; the fame perfon^ who with 
his ajfociates built the tower ; and who, together with them, was 
punifed by a C07ifufi07i of fpeech. 

It may be here proper to obferve, in refped to the hiftory 
of the Ark and Deluge, as well as of the Tower abovemen- 
tioned, that we are not fo much to confider, to whom thefe 
circumstances could perhaps in general relate ; as who 
they were, that chofe to be diftinguifhed by thefe me- 
morials ; and moft induftrioully preferved them. They 
were the offspring of one common father : and all might 
equally have carried up their line of defcent to the fame 
fource ; and their hiftory to the fame period. But one fa- 
mily more than all the refc of the Gentile world retained 
the memory of thefe events. They built edifices, in order 
to commemorate the great occurrences of ancient days : and 
they inftituted rites, to maintain a veneration for the means, 
by which their anceflors had been preferved. Nothing ma- 
terial was omitted : and v/hen they branched out, and re- 
tired to different climes ; they took to themfelves names and 
devices, which they borrowed from the circumftances of this 
wonderful hiftory. Hence, when we meet with lones, 
lonit.e, Argei, Arcades, Inachids, Semarim, Boeoti, Thebani, 
and the like^ v/e may be certified of their particular race.: 


382 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and in the accounts tranfmitted concerning them, there will 
be found a continual feries of evidence, to determine us in 
our judgment. 

The Grecians were, among other titles, ftylcd Hellenes, 
being the reputed defcendents of Hellen. The name of this 
perfonage is of great antiquity ; and the etymology foreign. 
To whom the Greeks alluded, may be found from the 
hiftories, which they have tranfmitted concerning him. 
'^° FivovTOii ^s SK Hv^^ag /S.evKCiXioj'Ji ^cA^sg' 'EAArj:^ fJLZi/ -tet^w- 
To;, Of BK Aiog ysysvrio^oLi KeynTi^ — %yoLT]ri^ Js II^wToysisja. 
Deucalion had children by his wife Pyrj'ha ; the eldejl of whom 
was Hellen^ who7n fo'7ne make the fon of Zeuth : he had alfo a 
daughter Frotogeneia ; by which is {ignified the firfl-honi of 
wome7t. By '' others he was fuppofed to have been the fon 
of Prometheus, but by the fame mother. In thefc accounts 
there is no inconfiftency ; for I have fliewn, that Deucalion, 
Prometheus, Xuth, and Zeuth were the fame perfon. The 
hiftories are therefore of the fame amount; and relate to the 
head of the Amonian family, v/ho was one of the fons of the 
perfon called Deucalion. He is made coeval with the Deluge; 
and reprefented as the brother to thefirft-born of mankind: by 
which is meant the firft-born from that great event : for the 
Deluge was always the ultimate, to which they referred. 
The Hellenes were the fame as the lonim, or ''' ICfJUBg : 
whence Hefychius very properly mentions Iwj^a^, 'EKMvag. 
The lonians a?td Hellenes are the fwie fatnily. The fame is 

■*" Apollodor. L. i. p. 20. 

*" npojw.«6e!W5 xa( riuppas 'EAA>?^'. Schol. in Apollon. Rhod. L. 3. v. 10S5. 
** They were equally defcended from Ion, the ion of Zeuth, called alfo Xuth: 
airo Icovoi t8 Sa6» (fvvTH. Dicjearch. ap. Geogr. Vet. vol. 2, p. 2 1. 

10 to 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 383 

to be faid of the ^olians, and Dorians : they were all from 
one fource, being defcended from the fame Arkite anceftors, 
the lonim of Babylonia and Syria ; as the Phoenician women 
in Euripides acknowledge : 

*^ KOIVOV C/A^a, KQIVOL rsKsx 

The term Hellen was originally a facred title : and feems to 
have been confined to thofe priefts, who firft came from. 
Egypt ; and introduced the rites of the Ark, and ^ Dove at 
Dodona. They were called alfo Elli and Selli : under the 
former of which titles they are mentioned by Hefychius j 
'EAAor 'EAA/]J'£^, oi BV Awowi/ji, kch oi 'is^sig. This country 
was the firft "^^ Hellas ; and here were the original Hellenes; 
and from them the title was derived to all of the Grecian 
name. Ariftotle affords evidence to this : and at the fame 
time mentions their traditions about the Deluge, Kcih^i^BVOQ 
VTTO AsvKCihioovog ', which he thinks chiefly prevailed about 
the country of the Hellenes in Dodona, and the other parts 
of Epirus. '^^ Kai ya^ iirog ws^i top 'EXKyivizov sysvsTo ^jlol- 

*' Phceniir. V. 256. \uvia — aTro In'i/os t« HbO:?, '^ h Aevx.x?\iuivoi iJLiv'[L/\?\.woi 
iivcci.. Strabo. L. 8. p. 587. 

** Hence the Dove Dione was laid co fliare the honour with Zeuth in that country. 
^•jivccoi Toj All ■cu poaxTTioii^yii xcci (i zAiwi ;;. Strabo. L. 7. p. 506. 

■*' 'EAAa (or 'EAAcci) Aioi ispov sv AcoS'cai'r. Heiych. 'EAAa? m sq^m, Mcnrip 
f/.ixfcij Tp^oTipov itiimocy.i!; nv Aioi 'EAAiiv sxTicrgr. Dicasarch. ap. Vet. Geoo-r. 

vol. 2. p. 22. 

The original name was 'EAAac. 

'EAAas a(p' 'EAA)?i'05. Ibid. 

The people in Theffaly had alfo the name of Hellenes. 

MvpfuS'ovi; Si ^(xXiivTo, KoLi 'EAAwei. Horn. II. B. v. 684. 
Some fuppofe thcfe to have been the firft of the name. TI^utqi incai iXiyovra at. 
evOiaaccAia, avf^ccri-roi. Breviorum Schol. Aufton. 

*^ Ariftot. Meteorol. L. i. c. 14. p. 772. »^ 

384 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

J" BS'lV jj "^S^' TfiV AoJ^OJVYjVy KVA 70V A'^SKUCOV (tMHV yOL^ 01 SsA- 

Aot snccv&a,, kcci oi KoCkaixevoi tots T^cf.iKoi, vvv Js 'EKArivsg, 
"The Deluge prevailed greatly in the Hellenic regio?i ; and parti- 
cularly i?i that part called Ancie7it Hellas. "This is the cowitry^ 
niohich lies about Dodona^ and upon the river Achelous. It was i?i- 
habitedhy the SclJi^ who were then Jly led Grceci, hut now Hellenes. 
He exprefTes himfelf, as if the name of Hellenes were of later 
date than that of Grsci. But if the region was originally 
called Hellas, the name of Hellenes, I fhoiild apprehend, was 
coreval. The people, who refided here, the Aborigines, were 
of another family ; and are therefore by Strabo flyled Ba^- 
6'a^o<, Barbari. Thefe were the Dodanim, of the race of Ja- 
van: but the temple was founded by people from Egypt and 
Syria, the ^'' Ellopians, Pelafgi, and "^ Hellenes. 

*' Of the Ellopians fee Strabo. L. 7. ^o^. 

Ei'Barg zNwj" &)!■);. 

From the fj.eya/\cii Uoiai m fkliol. Sophocl. Trachin. v. xiSf 
*' We meet with Hellenes in Syria. Et' ^xi ccAA» '3r;A/j XvfLxs £AAai •/.oi>.m 
"XvoiKi Tot^ymov'EhMv. Steph. Byzant. 


( 3S5 ) 




S every colony, which went abroad, took to themfelves 
fome facred title, from their particular mode of wor- 
fhip ; one family of the Hellenes ftyled themfelves accord- 
ingly Dorians. They were fo named from the Deity Adorus, 
who by a common aphsrefis was exprefled 'Dorus. The 
country, when they arrived, was inhabited by a people of a 
different race; whom they termed, a^ they did all nations in 
contradiftindion to themfelves, Ba^^a^oi, Barbarians. ' Ila- 
Aa< ya^ rrig m mX^ 'EKhoL^g Ba^S'a^Of tcc 'UToKKol mriQ-oLV. 
With thefe original inhabitants they had many conflicts ; of 
which we may fee fome traces in the hiftory of the Heracli- 
dffi. For the Dorians were the fame as the Herculeans : and 
did not fettle in Greece only; but in many parts of the world, 
whither the Amonians in general betook themfelves. They 
were taken notice of by Timagenes: v/ho mentions that they 
were widely fcattered ; but that the chief places of their 

' Pauliin. L. I. p, loo. 
Vol. III. D d d refidence 

386 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

reiidcnce were upon the fea-coaft of the Mediterranean. 
Here they polTefl'ed many good ports for navigation. '^ Alii 
(ferunt) Dorienfes antiquiorem fecutos Herculem, oceani 
locos inhabitafle confines. Paufanias imagines that the Do- 
rians were comparatively of late date : yet he fhews, from 
inany evidences in different parts of his Antiquitiesj that they 
were high in the mythic age : and informs us of one curious 
particular, that all the ancient hymns of Greece in every 
province were in the ^ diale6l of this people. From hence I 
fhould infer, in oppofition to this learned antiquary, that 
they were as ancient as any branch of their family ; that 
their language was the true Hellenic ; and that it was once 
univerfally fpoken. Their hiftory is not to be confined to 
Greece: for they, were to be found in^Phenicia, ' Caria, 
f Crete, and ^ Hetruria. In Greece they fettled about Par- 
naffus, called Tithorea ; and afterv/ards in Pthiotis of Thef- 
laly, the fuppofed country of Deucalion. They forced 

^ Marcellin. L. 15. c. 9. Plato de Leg. L. 3. p. 6S2. gives another hiftory of 
the Dorians. Bochart excepts to this account from MarceUinus ; but without any 
good reafon, Geogr. Sacr. L. i. c. 41. p. 659. 

' Kai Sn xa.1 raurx (pMPoca ai ijn tu/?, ret iirn, 'x.a.i ocra. a fcera fxSTPB f/.efJityfAlvcx. Jfc 
roti eireai, tcc -urcivrx zlIiFJ^TI sttsxojjito. Paufan. L. 2. p. 199. 

* Zlw^ofj liTQAii d'j;w5C)i5' 'ExxTaiof-, — kccl aitys luariTroi avTVU xaAsi^ x.t.A. Stcph. 
Byzant. Called alfo Dora. 

' Et< ^e Kaptui Hoopoi ■njoA/?, jc.t.A. Ibid. 

Ka.1 otK^riTfi /^(^Ctiii iycacA'dVTO. Ibid. lImpiqiu 

/howiesire r^t^cctxi?, Sioi t« UeActayv. Horn. Odyl!'. T. v. 177. 

See Strabo. L. 10. p. 729. 

' Herodot. L. i.e. 57. A&.'pi?(5 J s/criir (oVPocTfo;), wo-ttSo xa/ 'AAixxfraacrgi?, xai 
Ki'i^ioi. Strabo. L. 14. p. 965. A city Dora in the Perfic Gulf. Another in Pa- 
Icftine, between Afcalon and Joppa. llavaanai Se ev rr) rm -nraTfJos avrd XTta-st 
^eo^iiii ciVT'di xaAei, rxJg yp(x.(puv^ Tupioi, Ao-jcaAwi'/TCj, j^copisii'—-x.cct AAi^cci'J^pos iv 

AiLipoi T , Ay^iaXoi t\ Iotiv, •sr^y^Ho-ci ^-ccAaTT^. Steph, Byz. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 387 

themfelves into Laconia, and Meffenia: in the latter of which 
provinces the Dorian language was retained in the greated 
^ purity : and from their hiftory are to be obtained more an- 
cient terms than can be elfewhere colledled. 

The Grecian writers, when they treat of the principal of 
their anceftors, fuppofe Hellen to have been the fon of Deu- 
calion, and Ion the fon of Xuthus. Dorus is introduced a 
degree later, and made the fon of Hellen. But in thefe points 
fcarce any two authors are confiftent. In reality, Xuthus, 
and Deucalion were the fame perfon : and Ion, Dorus, Hel- 
len, were terms imported into Greece ; and related not to 
any particular. But though thefe genealogies are ground- 
lefs, and thefe perfons ideal ; yet we may hereby plainly 
difcover, to what the hiftory ultimately relates. And of this 
we may be aflured from almoft every writer upon the fub- 
jed; ; that the Dorians, like their brethren the lonim, were 
not the firft occupiers of the country. They were colonies 
from Egypt : and Herodotus fpeaks of all the heads and 
leaders of this people as coming diredly from thence. He 
takes his epocha from the fuppofed arrival of Perfeus and 
Danae : and fays, that all the principal perfons of the 
Dorian family upwards were in a dire6l line from Egypt. 
' Kito h HyLV<x't\q T'/ic AK^ttTi'd KO(.roL?^syovTi 7sq oLV'ji ciisi 'Wcirs^otg 
uvrecf)v cpaiuoiciTo olv sonsg 01 rm Aw^/ewi/ riysfjiovsg hiyvitrioi 
i^ccyBVSsg. He proceeds to fay, that Perfeus was originally 
from AiTyria, according to the traditions of the Perlians. 
" O? h Ils^(rso^v Koyog KsyaTai^ avrog Ils^(rsv;, sooy A(r<rv- 

^ Paufan. L. 4. p. 346. 347. 
' Herodot. L. 6. c. 5^. 
" Ibid. c. 54. 

D d d 2 §iogy 

388 The Analysis Ox^ Ancient Mythology. 

fio;, sys'^sro 'E7\7\r,y. The like is faid, and with great truth, 
of the Heraciidss ; who are reprefented by Plato as of the 
fame race, as the Achaimenidas of Perfis. " To J's 'H^o(.K?\Siig 
ro ysi/og to A'^cai^svag sig ns^trsy, top Aiog (x,vct(ps^sTa.i, 
The Perfians therefore and the Grecians were in great mea- 
fure of the fame family, being equally Cuthites from Chal- 
dea : but the latter came laft from Egypt. This relation be- 
tween the two families may be further proved from '^ Hero- 
dotus. He indeed fpeaks of Perfeus becoming an Hellenian; 
as if it were originally a term appropriated, and limited to a 
country, and related to the foil : which notion occurs more 
than once. But Hellen was the title of a family ; and, as I 
have fhewn, of foreign derivation : and it was not Perfeus, 
nor Ion, nor Dorus, who came into Greece : but a race of 
people, fly led lonians, Dorians, and Pereiians. Thefe were 
the AiyUTTTioi iOaysvssg ; but came originally from Babylonia 
and Chaldea ; which countries in aftertimes were included 
under the general name of Affyria. The Pereiians were 
Arkites: v/hence it is faid of Perfeus, that after having been 
expofed upon the waters, he came to Argos, and there upon 
Mount Apefas firft facrificed to Jupiter. The fame ftory is 
told by Arrian of Deucalion ; who after his efcape from the 
v/aters, facriiiced in the fame place to Jupiter Aphelius. 
"^ Arrianus tamen in libro fecundo rerum Bithynicarum 
Deucalionem in arcem, locumque eminentiorem tunc Argi 
confugiffe inquit ex eo diluvio : quare poft illam inundatio- 
n^ii\Jovi Aphefw^ Liberator! fcilicet, aram erexiffe. 

" Plat. Alcibiad. v. 2. p. 120. See alfo Faufan. L. 2. p. 151, 

'' Herodot. L. 7. c. 150. 

'* Natal. Com. L. 8. c. 17. p. 466. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 389 

When thefe colonies fettled in Greece, they diftinguiifhed 
themfelves by various titles, which at different aeras more or 
lefs prevailed. Some were called '^ Caucones. They refided 
about Meffenia, near the river Minyas, and the city Aren ; 
and betray their original in their name. Others were called 
'^ Leleges, and were a people of great antiquity. They were 
fuppofed to have been conduced by one Lelex, who by 
Paufanias is mentioned as the firft I^ing in Laconia, and faid 
to have come from '^ Egypt. There was a remarkable paf- 
fage in Heliod, v/hich is taken notice of by Strabo, concern- 
ing thefe Leleges. They were fome of that chofen family, 
whom Jupiter is faid in his great wifdom to have preferved, 
out of a particular regard to that man of the fea, Deucalion. 

'* Tsg pa 'urors K^on^rig Zsvg, acpOira p^cJeci si^ijjg, 
AsKTsg SJi yciific aA/w 'ZS'o^s Asv;ic(.7\ic/:pi. 

The lonim are fometimes fpoken of under the name of 
Atlantians : who were the defcendents of Atlas, the great 
aftronomer, and general benefactor. He was fuppofed to 
have been a king in Arcadia ; alfo to have refided in Phry- 
gia : but the more common opinion is, that he was an an- 
cient prince in Mauritania upon the borders of the ocean. 
The Grecians made a diftindion between the Heraclids, 
Atlantes, and lones : but they were all of the fame family ; 
all equally defcended from lonan, the fame as Hellen, the 

* Strabo. L. 7. p. 519, and 531. A§-/.a^r,cci' yivoi. They were denominated fro'ii 
their temple Cau-Con, ELdzs Herculis, five Domus Dei. 
'* Pauian. L. 3. p. 203. 

' Ai?^iya, a.(^vitoij.irc]/ e'^ Ai')V7rr'd. Paufan. L. i. p. gr. 
" Strabo. L. 7. p. 496. So the pafTage fnould be read. 


■lao 'i'liE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fame aifo as Pelias, the offspring of the Dov^e. Hence the 
children oi: Atlas were ftyled Peleiadae, being no other than 
the lones ; of whofc hiftory and peregrinations I have before 
given fome "' account. Diodorus, and other writers fpeak of 
the Peleiads, as only the female branch of the family : but 
all the children of Atlas had equal claim to the title. For 
Atlas was Ion : and in the hiflory of the Atlantians, we 
have an epitome of the whole Ionic hifcory; comprehending 
their connexions, colonies, and fettlements in various parts 
of the world. Diodorus accordingly tells us, '^° that the At- 
la7itidcs gave birth to a j?ioJ} 7tobh race : fojne of whom ivere 
founders of nations ; ar:d others the builders of cities ; i7ifo?nuch 
that mofi of the more antient heroes^ not only of thofe abroad^ who 
were efleemed Barbari ; but e''oe7t of the Heiladia77S, claimed their 
a7iceflry fro7n thetn. In another place, fpeaking of the Pe- 
leiadas, he "" fays, Thefe daughters of Atlas ^ by their connexio7ts^ 
a7id marriages with the 77iofl illuflrious heroes^ and divi7iitiesy 
may be looked up to as the heads of 77iofl fa7nilies upon earth. 
This is a very curious hiftory; and fhews how many different 
regions were occupied by this extraordinary people, of whom 
I principally treat. 

Some of them were ftyled Myrmidones ; particularly thofe 
who fettled in ^monia, or ThefTaly. They were the fame 
as the Hellenes, and Achivi ; and were indifferently called 
by either of thofe appellations, as we learn from " Pliny, and 

" Vol.11, p. ^87. 
*" Diodorus Sic. L. 3. p. 194. 
^' Ibid. 

" Pliny. L. 4. c. 7. p. 199. Philoftratus lays, that all the Thefialians were 
called Myrmidons. Heroic, c. 1 1. p. 682. ^"OPM^QVZC 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 391 

They firft fettled about the cities ^'^ laolcus, and Arenc : and 
they had a tradition of their being defcended from one 
*^ Myrmidon, a king of the country. This term was not 
only a proper name, but alfo iigniiied an ant or pifmire , 
which gave occasion to much fable. It was by the ancient 
Dorians exprefled ""^ Murmedon. Now Mur, Mar, Mor, 
however varied, fignified of old the fca : and Mur-Medon 
denotes Maris Dominum, the great Loj'd of the Ocea7t. It 
is a title, which relates to the perfon, who was faid to have 
firft conftruiled a fhip, and to have efcaped the waters. He 
was the fame as Deucalion, whom they imagined to have 
refided in the fame parts, after he had been driven by a flood 
to Mount ^ta. The Myrmidons are fometimes reprefented 
as the children of ^acus: and are faid to have firft inhabited 
the ifland of iEgina. It is mentioned of this perfonage, that 
having loll all his people by a public calamity, he requciled 
of Jupiter, that the ants of the ifland might become ""^ men : 
which wifh was accordingly granted to him. "Who was alluded 
to under the name of iEacus, may be known from the hiftory 
tranfmitted concerning him. He is reprefented as a perfon 
of great juflice ; and by the poets is fuppofed for his equity 

-*' Iliad. B. V. 684. 

'* V\a.rja, Se MvpfxiS' re -zr-oAfS, xXur'n r' lxv?<.xa;, 

Apc» t', wcT' HA/x/j, AybetccTS i^ Heliod. AtxTrii. v. jSo. 

*' A rege Myrmidone didi Jovis etEurymedufe filio. Servius in TEncid. 

L. I. V. 7. fo it iliould be read, as we learn from Clemens. Cohort, p. 34. Toe Aix 
—Ev^v/xeSuari ij.i-yYircci, Mvpu.iT^oi'oc yemia-xi. 

Muguii^ovii.,oi ixv^ljt.;m?i UTTo Aojpiiuv. Hefych. 
*' Scholia inLycoph. V. 176. Scholia in Iliad. L. A. v. iSo. 


392 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

to have been made iudf^e of the infernal world. He is faid 
to have collected people together : '^ S^'^fxs^-:>)<TCJ tSj koli voting 
iiivoLi, KCA (TVPTccriv "UToAiTiKT,:/' alfo to have huma?iifed mafikindy 
and to have enaBed laws^ aiid to have jirjl eJlabUJljed civil po- 
lity. This is precifely the fame cliarader, as vv^e have before 
fcen given to Uranus, Atlas, OUris, Dioniifus, Saturnus, 
Phoroneiis, Janus : all which are titles of the fame perfon, 
by whom the world was renewed, and from whom law and 
equity were derived. Both i^acus and Mur-Medon were 
the fame as Deucalion : and all thefe characters are com- 
prifed in that of the Patriarch, the great benefaftor, andjuft 
man ; who is alluded to in every inftance ; particularly in 
the hiRory of the firfl: fliip. This circumftance is obfervable 
in the account given of the Myrmidons, who are faid to have 
firft conftrufted fhips, and from whom the art was made 
knov/n to the world. The poet accordingly tells us, 

Thefe firft compofed the manageable float. 

Upon this fuppolition they had the name of Mur-Medons, 
or Sea-Captains. But it was properly derived to them from 
their chief ancefcor Mur-Medon ; who firft conftrudled an 
ark, and was efteemed the ruling Deity of the Sea. 

The mofl general appellation, under which thefe colonies 
palled, before the name of lonians and Dorians, and that 
flill more univerfal of Hellenes, grev/ fo predominant, was 

'' Scholia in Pind. Nem. Od. 3. v. 21. 

^' Hefiod. in Genealog. Heroic. See Scholia in Pindar. Nem. Od. 3. v. 21. 
alfo Scholia in Lycoph. v. 176. 

7 that 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 393 

that of Pelafgi. They are reprefented indeed as a different 
people, and of another charader : but this difference was not 
of perfons, but of times. They were very numerous ; and 
fuppofed to have been for a long time in a wandering ftate. 
Befides Hellas, they occupied many regions of great extent, 
where their name was in repute for ages. There were na- 
tions, called Leleges, Caucones, and Pelafgi in Alia Minor ; 
who are mentioned by Homer among the allies of the 
Trojans ; 

Strabo fpeaks of thefe Pelafgi as a mighty people ; and fays, 
^' that, according to Menecrates Elaites, the whole coaft of 
Ionia from Mycale, and all the neighbouring iflands were 
once inhabited by them. They poffeffed the whole region of 
"^' Hetruria: nor do we know the ultimate, to which they were 
extended. ^' AXKcc 01 fisv ((poL<ri) lisT^oLfTyag sin 'urhsig-a rri; 
oiKSfj^svrig TtTKccvridsvragy av^^caTTifJv Tm 'urKsig-ctJV }C^o(jyj(ro(.PTugj av- 
Todi KdToiJCYiQ-cii. The Pelafgi^ fays Plutarch, according to an- 
cie?it tradition^ roved over the greatefi part of the world : and 
having fubdued the inhabitants^ took up their rejidence in the 
coimtries^ which they had conquered. Strabo fpeaks of their 

'" Iliad. K. V. 429. 

ta.i -rnXmiQ-y vw'ii. Strabo. L. 13. p. 922. Thefame is faid of the Carians, and 
Leleges. Hre wv Ic^via. Myoysm TsaMo. iiro Kacwi/ uxfiro, v.a.i AiKiyuv. Strabo. 
L. 7. p. 495. 

Strabo. L. 5. p. 339. So^jjxAw iv hccx-c (pvai, xcci 01 Tvpam'oi risAxcryoi. 
Scholia in Apollon. L. x. v. 5S0. See alfo Herod. L. i.e. 57. 
" Plutarch, in Romulo. p. ly. 

Vol. III. E e e great 

394 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

great antiquity ; and fays, that they overran all Greece : 
3* A^yoLiov Ti <pvXov koltcl tfiv 'EAAaJ'a 'UToltodi STrsTroXacrs. 
We may perceive from thefe accounts, that the Pelafgi were 
to be found in various parts ; and that it was only a more 
general name for thofe colonies, which were of the difper- 
iion, and fettled under the title of lones, Hellenes, Leleges, 
and Argivi. Hence it is wonderful, that writers fliould 
efteem them as a different people. Herodotus has much 
perplexed their hiftory; or elfe his account has been greatly 
interpolated : yet he acknowledges, that they had their 
rites and religion from Egypt ; and that from them they 
were derived to the Hellenes : ^^ 'urct^a. h HsAacryw; 'EAAjii/sj 
s^e^s^ccno vs'S^qp. The perfon, from whom this people are 
fuppofed to have been derived, and named, is by fome re- 
prefented as the fon of Inachus ; by others as the fon of 
^* Pofeidon and Lariffa. Staphylus Naucratites mentioned 
him under the name of Pelafgus ; and faid, that he was 
" A^ysiov TO yzvog ; which I fhould render, of Arhte extrac- 
tion. Hence it is faid of his pofterity, the Argives ; 
^* K^Li Oivroi 01 A^ysioi SKaKEVTO IIsAatryor that the Argives 
aljo were denominated Pelafgi. They fettled very early in 

'* Ly. 5. p. .^37- 'Oi S'e neXxayot ruv -ariot rtiv 'EAAacTa ^■jvac^ivaavTODV ao^ccio- 
ToiToi. Ibid. L. 7. p. 504. Of their founding cities named Lariffa, fee ibid. L. 13. 
p. 922. 

'' L. 2. c. 52. 

'° Schol. in Apollon. Rhod. L. i. v. 580. YltXacryB TsYlia-eiS'cdvoi vis xctt Aa- 
^iiraiii. Some make him the father of Lariffa: my Ss ax.ps7roAiv {rm Apysi) Aa- 
(ii(7a(xv jxiv xa.X'daiv o.TTo'rr.iTliKcia-j'd^uya.T^oi. Pauflm. L. 2. p. 165. Pelafgus, 
the fon of Niobe. Dionyf. Halicarn. L. i.e. 1. p. 9. Of Lariffa. p. 14. 

" Schol. in Apollon above. Ex Pelafgo Laris. Hygin. Fab. 145. p. 253. 

'' Schol. in Apollon. above. 

Thefialy ; 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 395 

Thefialy ; to which they gave the name of Aeria; by Apol- 
lonius Rhodius exprefled Hs^iyj, Eerie. 


This was the ancient name of Egypt, from whence this peo- 
ple came. "^^ AiyvTrro; skKt^^yi Mytra^a, teat Hs^ia. Egypt 
was called both Myfara and Eeria. The part of ThefTaly, 
where they fettled, was the fuppofed country of Deucalion, 
the fame as Inachus : fo that we need not wonder, when we 
find Pelafgus reprefented as an *' Argean or Arkite by birth. 
They likewife, as I have mentioned, called the fame coun- 
try Ai Monah, Regio Lunaris ; which the poets changed to 
Aimonia. At no great diftance was a city Argos, and a na- 
tion Oritas ; from whence we may judge of the natives, and 
their origin, 

■^^ E<Ta jU,sTa varov bi<tiv O^sitcci T^syo^sm' 

EiT AfJLcpiKo'^oi, A^yo; t svto(,v&' s?-i ro 

I have fhewn, that all the country about Dodona was parti- 
cularly ftyled Hellas ; and it was at the fame time called 

" L. i.v. 580. 

*" Steph. Byzant. See Schol. in Dionyf. Perieg. v. 239. 

*' H>8rTo Se TW« ccTToiKtixi A^ccio?, xat $9(0$, y-oLi YliXaayo?, o\ AAPIS2H2 xa; 
nr22EIz;^nN02 Ui3/. Dionyf. Haiicarn. L. i. c. 17. p. 14. ns/\ccayoi ex. Aioi xai 
Ni6^«5 Tw ^c^wvyiM, Ibid. They are all mentioned as the fons of Larifla, or of 
Niobe •, both which terms denote the children of the Ark. 

** Dicsearch. apud Geogr. Vet, vol. 2. v. 45. 

E e e 2 Pelafgia. 

39^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Pelafgla. The Oracle is faid by Scymnus Chius to have 
been of Pelafgic original : 

.The rites of the place were introduced from Egypt ; as we 
are affured by Herodotus, and other writers : confequently 
the people, who founded the temple, and inftituted thofe 
rites, were from the fame country. The Deity was there 
worfhiped under the title of Zeuth, whom Homer ftyles 
Pelafgic : 

The prieftefTes of the temple have been mentioned under the 
character of two black Doves, which came from Theba in 
Egypt. In fhort, the name of Pelafgi feems to have been 
the mofl ancient and '^^ general of any, which were affumed 
by thofe foreigners, who came into the land of Javan. They 
forced themfelves into ** countries pre-occupied: and were fo 
fuperior to the natives in ability and fcience, that they eaiily 
fecured themfelves in their fettlements. Many have been the 

*' Apud Geogr. Vet. vol. i.p. 26. v. 448. 

A(io^'j}vy,]i,q,-ny-v TeyTh^iaa-ywy tSoavovi miv. Hefiod. apud Strab. L. 7. p. 504. 
See alio L. 5. p. 338. 

** Iliad, n. V. 233. 

■*' All the Peloponnefus according to Ephorus was efteemed Pelafgic. Kaj tw 
rieXoTroi'Viiaov h Yli?\oi,(jytav (inatv E(popoi xAwG^fa;. Strab. L. 5. p. 338. 

** See this certified in the Pelafgi, who came to Italy. Dionyf. Halicarn. L. i. 
c. 10. p. g. & 14. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 


inquiries about this ancient people, as well as concerning 
their language. Even Herodotus is at a lofs to determine 
whether they iliould not be efteemed "^^ Barbarians. Yet he 
feems to folve the difficulty more than once; and this too in 
a very fatisfadory manner, by mentioning, among other in- 
ftances, "^^ hjjVBg IIsAaa'yo/, that f/je Ioma72s wef^e Pelafgic ; 
*' 70 Attihov s^vog YIsXoL<Tyiy.oi/ ; the people of Attica were Pe- 
lafgic. He likewife fpeaks of the ^° Arcadians under this 
denomination : and feems to include all the Dorians, the 
whole of the ^' Peloponnefus, under the fame title. He 
fpeaks alfo of the iEolians in the fame light : ^^ AioAss^ Js 
— TO 'UTolKoli KaKeo^Jisvoi YlsKcicryoi. From hence we may be 
affured, that by the Pelafgi are meant the ancient Dores, 
lones, and Hellenes : in fliort, all thofe Cuthite colonies, 
and thofe of their collateral branches, which I include un- 
der the name of Amonians. When therefore it is faid, that 
Greece was firft occupied by Pelafgi ; and afterwards by 

*^ He acknowledges his uncertainty about them. Ovy. sx'^ urpsxeui iittsiv. L. r. 
c. 57. 

*' L. 7. c. 95. 

« L. I. c. 57. 

'° Apxa.3ei ns?\.cc'7yc/i. L. i. c. 146. The lones of Achaia were called flgAao-^oi 
AiyiaXeei. L. 7. c. 94. Pelafgi alfo in Crete, and in various regions. Strab. L. 5. 

'' Herodot. L. i. c. §6. He is fpeaking of the Doiians in the Peloponnefus, 
and of the Athenians ; which two families he ftyles, to fj^iv UiXcLcryiKov, to cTg 'E?\.- 
Mviicov £6vo«. By this one would imagine, that he excluded the Athenians from 
being Pelafgic. The paflage is very confufed. 

'" L. 7. c. 95. All the coaft of Phrygia was peopled by them. They built the 
cities Theba and Larifla in Troas. 

JTTTriUco? S^'ayi (pvAu YliKarjyoiv ey^saifjiMcctiv, 
Tool', 01 Accpiccocv ioi^wKoiXcx. va.iiTcx.a.<jv.ov. Horn. II. B. v. 840. 

Leleges \ 

39^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

Leleges ; and then by Hellenes, Dores, and lonians ; it is 
only a change of title, but no diiFerence of people : for they 
were all of the fame great family, however branched out. 
The fame is to be obferved in the hiftory of any particular 
city, fuch as Athens. 

To ^Bv HzXoLTyag 'nr^ooTov, sg Jj^ /ma Koyog 
K^ccvccag Ksy£(r^o(.i, fjLSTd cJs ravTa KsK^OTri^otg' 

vg'B^oiin h "^^ovQig 

Attq 7Y\g K&Tf\voLg rriv 'UTooo'riyo^ioLV Kol^biv. 

All thefe were different names of the fame people. In like 
manner the people of Argos, in a play of Euripides, are ad- 
drefled by Oreftes, as the fame race under different appel- 

5'^ £2 yY\v hayii KBKrrifjLBUoi, 

The like is to be obferved in a paffage from the Archelaus of 
the fame author. 

i^ Aai/ao?, o ttrsvrYiy.ovra, ^vyars^u^y 'Warri^, 
EA^wy eg A^yog mid hoLys "sroKiv' 
HeAao'yiwTa? J" (fjvofjLOLfrfJLBimg to "UT^iv 
AccvoLug kolKskt^oli vo^jlov s^yjzs. 

In refped to the Arcadians, they are faid to have been fo 

" Scymnus Chius apud. Geogr. Vet. vol. i. p. 32. v. 55^' 
'* Euripid. Oreft. v. 930. 
" Apud Strab. L. 5. p. ^39. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 399 

named from ^* Areas the fon of Zeuth, being before called 
Pelafgians. But Pelafgus, who was prior, and the very " iirll 
man in the country, was called ** Areas : from which cir- 
cumftance a ftrange inconiifteney arifes : for the country is 
fuppofed to have been called Arcadia, before the birth of the 
perfon, from whom the name was receiv^ed. It is therefore 
plain that the term Areas was a title ; and that by Pelafgus 
Areas was meant Pelafgus the " Arkite. And when the 
people of Phrygia and Hetruria were faid to be ^° ai/SKOL^sp 
A^zcfJsg ; the true purport of the exprcflion was, that they 
v/ere ab origine Arkites. Neither Argolis, nor Arcadia, 
could have fufficed to have fent out the colonies, which are 
faid to have proceeded from them. They are fuppofed to 
have filled regions, before they were conftituted as a people. 
The Grecians in their hiftories have been embarraffed and 
confounded Vv^ith variety of titles. They tried to feparate 
them, and to form diftindlions : by which means their my- 
thology became more and more confufed. The only way is 
to unite inftead of diverfifying: andtofhew that thefe titles, 
however varied, were but one in purport : that they all re- 
lated nearly to the fame perfon, and to one event. By this 
method of proceeding we fhall render the hiftory both obvious 


Paufanias. L. 8. p. 604. 
'' UeAciayoi — ev Tn yriTccvT/i 's-^ano?. Ibid. L. 8. p. ^gS. 
'* UiAuaya — Ta ApxctS oi. Ibid. L. 2. p. 143. Paufanias feems here to make 
him the fon of Areas. Either way it is inconfiftent. 
" Hera, the fame as lonah, is ftyled Pelafgis. It is faid of Jafon, 

U^n- Se niXaaythi uy. a/.iyi^tv. Apollon. Rhod. L. i. v. 14. 
Dionyf. Halicarn. L. i. c. 10. p. 9. YliXaayBi ctMxoJ^iv ho~A.a.ias. Strab. 
L. 5. p. I2il- ^""^^ Schol. in Dionyf Perieg. v. 347. 

400 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and true. The accounts, of v/hich we have been treating, 1 
were adopted by the Grecians ; and as it were ingrafted 
upon the hiftory of the country: and the principal terms, in 
which they were defcribed, were equally foreign and im- 
ported. I have mentioned, that by the appellation Areas 
we are to underftand an ^' Arkite : and who is principally 
alluded to under this chara<£ter can only be known from the 
hiftory, with which it is attended. We find this perfonage 
defcribed in the fame light as Dagon, Ilis, Dionufus ; and 
as Ofiris, ftyled Orus, and Helius. He is reprefented as a 
great *^ benefaftor to mankind: teaching them the ufe of 
corn, and confequently the arts of agriculture, v^^hich were 
before unknown. He likewife intruded them in weaving, 
in order to cloath themfelves : and the whole manufacture 
of wool is attributed to him. His name vi^as a title of the 
chief Gentile Divinity, like Helius, Ofiris, and Dionufus 
above : and he was worfhiped with the fame rites at Manti- 
nea, near a temple of Juno : and in another of Zeuth the 
Saviour, there flood an high place facred to Areas : which 
in aftertimes was miflaken for his tomb. There feem to 
have been more than one ; for they are fpoken of in the 
plural : and what they really were may be known from their 
name ; for they were called *' 'HAta Bio^o/, the altars of the 
Helius. Areas was fuppofed by his pofterity to have been 

" When it is faid by Hyginus, Arcades res divinas primi Diis feccrunt ; it only 
means, that the Arkites, the Ions of Ham, were t!;e firll, who introduced pclytheifm. 
Hygin. c. 274. p. 387. 

""■ Paufan.L. 8.p. 604. 

*' Ibid. L. 8. p. 616. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 401 

buried upon Mount Maenalus, which was undoubtedly de- 
nominated from him. 

Near the bleak Mount Maenalia lies entomb'd 
Areas, from whom the natives have their name. 

Mccnalia, or more properly Maenalus, is a compound of Meen 
El : by which is fignified Lunus Deus, another title of Ar- 
eas, the Arkite God, who had been worfhiped upon that 

From what has preceded, we may decipher the hiftory of 
the Arcadians, who were the defcendents of Areas, and re- 
prefented as prior to the *^ moon. They were ftyled " Mi- 
nys, Selenitze, and [A^yoLioi) Archsei : and their antiquity is 
alluded to by Apollonius, when he mentions, 


fU Arcadiaji tribes^ who lived before the Moon. 

This is the common interpretation; but properly by Selene, 
and Selenaia, is meant the Ark, of which the Moon was only 

'* Oracle of Apollo ; ibid. 

*' Orta prior luna, de le fi creditur ipfi, 

A magno tellus Arcade nomen habet. Ovid. Fafl. L. i. v. 469, 

Luna gens prior ilia fuit. Ibid. L. 2. v. 290. 

Sidus poft veteres Arcadas editum. Senec. Hippol. Ad. 2. v. 785. 
" Minyse Arcades. Strabo. L. 8. p. 519, 
*' A pollen. Rhod, L. 4. v. 264. 

Vol. III. Fff 


402 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

an emblem: and from hence the Arkites had the appellation 
of Selenitae. Dionylius Chalcidenfis takes notice, that this 
name was preferved among the Arcadians. ^^ Euvog K^KOLm'J 
XsXrjViTag. When therefore it is faid by the ancient writer 
Mnafeas, that this people were under a regal government, 
before the Moon appeared, -nr^o ^^ XsKrjVYjg A^kol^ol; (ia,(riXsv<roci' 
it only means, that their family originally exifted, and were 
eftablifhed under a monarchy, before the Arkite rites pre- 
vailed. This may be proved by determining the time, 
when Selene is faid to have firft made its appearance. This 
we find from Theodorus, and other writers, to have been a 
little while before the war of the Giants. ^° ©so^cti^og h sy 
siKog-u^ syi'arc*} , oXiycp 'ut^ote^ov (pr\(n T8 'ur^og FiyoLnctg 'uroKs^jLis 
— Tr,v l,sMw (pctvYjmi. koli A^ig-m 6 Xiog ev raig ^s(rs(n, kch 
Aiowirog o yLoCKmhvg bv td'^wtw Krio'gw? to. olvtol (pYiai. Theodo- 
ras the Chalcidian^ in his twenty-ni?ith hook^ tells us^ that fome 
little /pace afitecedent to the war of the Gm^tts^ SeleTie jirji ap- 
peared : and Arifion the Chian^ in his Thefes^ and Dionyfus of 
Chalcis, in the firfl book of his treatife upon the Creation^ both 
ajfert the fame thing. I have already treated of the Giants 
and Titanians ; and of the wars, which they carried on : 
and it has been fhewn, that a little before thofe com- 
motions the Arkite worfhip, and idolatry in general, be- 
gan. When therefore it is faid, that the Arcades were 
prior to the Moon, it means only, that they were conftituted 
into a nation, before the worfhip of the Ark prevailed, and 
before the firft war upon earth commenced. From hence 

'* Scholia in Apollon. L- 4. v. 264. 

" Scholia, ibid. 

'" Ibid. we 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 403 

we may perceive, that the Grecians have referred to the pla- 
net, what was merely fymbolical, and related to another 
objedl. The Arcadians were a party from the difperlion ; 
and forced their way into Hellas. Ariftotle mentions the 
region, which they occupied ; and fays, that it was poffefTed 
by a people of a different family, whom the Arcades ^' drove 
out. And he adds, that this happened^ '''^ 'UT^o Tn S/TiTfiiAat 
TYjV XsXr,i/Yiv, ^10 KOLT0VQiJLa.^QriVOLi n^oTeXYjvag' before Selene ap- 
peared^ on which accoimt they were called Profelejii. It was 
not however from their fettling in Greece, but from their 
worfhip, which was far prior, that they had this title. In- 
deed they could go ftill higher : for, as they were both Ar- 
cades and Selenitse, they could carry up their hiftory to Ar- 
eas himfelf, and to times antecedent both to the Ark and 
Deluge. This might be another reafon, why they were 
called, not only Minyae, Selenitae, and " Arcades, but alfo 
n^otrsAjifo/, Profeleni ; as being of a family prior both to 
the Ark, and Deluge. But the later Grecians miftook this 
hiftory, and referred it to a different objedt: hence they have 
fuppofed the Arcadians to have been older than the moon. 

Similar to the charadier given of Areas, is that of Pelaf- 
gus J but accompanied with many additional and remarka- 
ble circumftances. He was equally a benefadlor to mankind; 

'" BapCapot Tiiv Apy.<x,hxv axnaccy, o.i tva eS,iQXinriaa.v a.7r3 tuv Apy.(x,S(/jv sTrjOg/^fmf 
oLVToi'^. Scholia, ibidem. 

^' Ibid. Apy.a.iiiTMv E^?\.iivcijv ccf^aioTxroi. — Ot AoxccS'si So-jcaa-i ■zir^or-iK'Xi^-'n'yji 
yiyovivoci. AkipuS'S — A^x.<x.^oi (pnciv O^^ofjuva vtoi — Apxai o Ei-Ju^iwr. eytoi i's 

UTTO TB Tu(f,etii'oi' vTTO ^6 AjXccvTo?, Sii'ccycpcti sipyixiv. Ibid. 

li^pci Si (pvcri,@eiJit<^yg xou Atos Apx.ix.i. Steph. Byz. See Paufan. L. S. p. 604, 

" Scaliger gives a different folution. See Prolegom. ad Emend, Temp. p. 3. 
5ee alfo Cenforinus deDic Natal, c. 19. p. 10^. 

F f f 2 and 

404 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and inftriided them in many '"^ arts. He taught them to 
cloath themfelves ; and to build houfes, that they might be 
ilieltered from the inclemency of the weather. He likewife 
improved them in their diet ; and fhewed them what was 
noxious and deadly. He is faid to have built the firft tem- 
ple to the Deity : ^^ aedem Jovi Olympio primum fecit Pe- 
lafgus. I have taken notice, that, as Noah was faid to have 
been olvQ^ootto; yyig^ a 77ia7i of the ea-rth, this charadleriflic is 
obfervable in every hiftory of thefe primitive perfons : and 
they are reprefented as vofjiioiy ay^ioij and yrjysvsig. Pelafgus 
accordingly had this ^' title : and it is particularly men- 
tioned of him, that he was the firft huibandman. " 'O <)s 
Yls?^a,(ryog 'ur^ooTog ot^ys KccTct(rn£vyjV s^sv^s: P elafgus jirft fou72d 
out ally that is necejfary for the cultivation of the groimd. 
There is a curious flcetch of his hiftory given by the poet 
Alius; which is comprifed in two verfes, but points out very 
plainly, who was meant by Pelafgus. It reprefents him as 
a perfon of a noble characSter, who was wonderfully preferved 
for the good of mankind. 

I have fliewn, that Fa/a, Gaia, in its original (tnfe, figniiied 

'* Paufan. L. 8. p. 599. 
" Hygini Fab. 225. p. 346. 

'* Ta ynyiVdi yap iijx eyu 'waXai^ovui 
Irii UiXaa-yy. ^fch. Suppl. v, 258. 

Some read it ngAao-^o-:. 
'' Schol. in Euripid. Oreft, v. 930. 
'' P;^u^an. L. 8. p. 599. 

10 a facred 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 405 

a facred cavern ; a hollow in the earth ; which from its 
gloom was looked upon as an emblem of the Ark. Hence 
Gaia, like Hefta, Rhoia, Cybele, is often reprefented as the 
^^ mother of mankind. It is here to be taken in that fenfe : 
and the paffage will be found remarkable, though concife^ 

On a high mountain's brow 
The gloomy cave gave back again to light 
Godlike Pelafgus, that the race of man 
Through him might be renewed. 

In like manner Inachus is faid after the deluge to have htcii 
faved upon the top of a high mountain. Inachus, Pelafgus, 
and Danaus, are titles of the fame perfon ; though diverfified 
by the Greeks, and made princes in fucceflion. The Scho- 
liaft upon Euripides mentions, that ^* Inachus, the 77tan of the 
earth, was the ji?'fl k{?tg of Argos ; Pelafgus was the fecond , 
and Danaus, the fon of Belus, the third. The fame writer 
adds, ' MsTCL rov\v<r^ov bv o^£(tiv oiKuvrm tu^v ApyBioov 
'sr^mo; aurag. (rvv(^m<T£V Ivocy^^q. When the Argivi, or Arkites, 
after the Deluge lived ,difperfed upon the mount ainsy Inachus 
firfi brought them together ^ and formed them- i?ito communities. 
Concerning the language of the Pelafgi^ there have been 
many elaborate difquifitions ; and we find, that it was matter 
of debate, even in the time of ^' Herodotus. Yet the quef- 
tion, if rightly ftated, amounts only to this : What was the 

" Fafa 0!?a, ^«Tg/3 Maxapuv, Srvmuv r ccvSpMirMv. Orph. Hymn. 25. 

li'a.^3< «t;To;^6a)r, Trpajroi ^aatXivi A^ym' Sivrepoi YltKomyoi' rpnos Actvctos a 
B/jAa. Scholia in Euripidis Oreft. v. 930. See Herod. L. 7. c. 94 
" Ibid. . 

L. i.e. 57. 


4o6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

language of this varioufly denominated people, before it had 
undergone tliofe changes, which neceffariiy enfue from time? 
In other words, how did the Hellenes difcourfe fome ten, or 
twelve centuries before the birth of iEfchylus or Pindar ? 
As we have no written records, nor any monumental evi- 
dences of that date, or near it; the queftion may at firft feem 
not very eafy to be decided. Yet from the names of places, 
and of men ; and from the terms ufed in their rites and 
worfliip ; but more efpecially from the hiftory of the peo- 
ple themfelves, and of the country from whence they came; 
we may be affured that it was the Cuthic of Chaldea. This 
in a long feries of years underwent the fame changes, as all 
languages undergo. And this alteration arofe partly from 
words imported ; and partly from a mixture with thofe na- 
tions, among whom the Hellenes were *^ incorporated. Ex- 
clufive of thefe circumftances, there is no language but will 
of itfelf infeniibly vary : though this variation may be in 
fome degree retarded, where there is fome ftandard, by which 
common fpeech may be determined and controuled. But 
the Grecians had no fuch affiftance. Letters undoubtedly 
came to them late ; and learning much later. There was 
no hiftorian prior to Cadmus Mileiius ; nor any public in- 
fcription, of which we can be certified, before the laws of 
Draco. The firft Grecian, who attempted to write in profe, 

*' Of old there were many nations and languages in Greece. Strabo. L. 7. p. 494. 
495. Scymnus Chius fpeaks of the barbarous people, who lived near Dodona : 
Eiat fJLiycci'ei BxpCctpoi, 
'Ovi xui 'njpc.aoixiiv (pccai tu) ^^n<^r)f>ice). 

Apud Geogr. Vet. vol. 2. p. z6. 
See alfo Herodor. L. i. c. 146. 

^ was 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 407 

was Pherecydes the philofopher : and he lived as late as the 
reign of Cyrus the Perfian. Hence there is no change in 
their language, but fuch as we might exped: from an interval 
of this extent, and from a people thus circumftanced. 

Such is the hiftory of the Hellenes and lonim in their 
various branches. Of thofe, who fettled in Hellas, I have, 
fpoken before ; and fliewn, that they were no other than 
the Shepherds of Egypt, who came originally from Chaldea.. 
They were expelled by the Egyptians a very few years be- 
fore the Ifraelites got accefs to that country: and when they, 
came into Greece, they went under difFerent denominations; 
being ftyled Pelafgi, Leleges, InachidcC, DanaidDe, Heracli- 
das, and ^* Cadmians. Of their expulfion there is an account 
given in a curious fragment from Diodorus Siculus, preferved' 
by Photius : in which alfo notice is taken of the Ifraelites, 
who migrated from the famx^ country. It i-s what I have 
before ^^ quoted : but I efteem it of fuch confequence, that I 
muft beg leave to introduce it again. " Upopi this^ as fome 
writers tell us^ the moji emineiit and enterprijing of thofe fo-. 
reigners^ who were bi Egypt ^ and obliged to leave the coimtry^ 
betook themf elves to thecoafi of Greece^ and alfo to other regions \ 

'* They were alfo called Cutlii : but from a general title the later Greeks always 
formed a perfonage, who was fuppofcd to have been the leader of the colony. Hence 
inftead of the Cuthites, and Hercuk^ans, Plutarch fubftitutes a Cothus and Arclus ; 
and fays that they fettled in Euboea, K0605 xa< ApAo?, li HaSy -nycL^a sa EvQoiccv y^xov 
oix-naavm. Cothus and Arclus, the two fans of Xuth, came and fettled in Eiihxa. Plu- 
tarch. Qu^Itiones Grascre. p. 256. Thefe were the fame as thofe Arabians, who are 
faid to have come v/ith Cadmus. Kfa&a, o( IWS ixm avi'J tcc^c^yju. Strabo. L 10 

'' Vol. II. p. ^/^/.. 

** Ex Diodori L. 40. apud Photium. p. 1 152. 



4o8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

having put themf elves under the command of proper leaders for 
that purpofe. Some of them were co7iduSied by DanauSy and 
Cadmus ; who were the jnof illufiriaus of the whole. There 
were iefdes thefe a large ^ but lefs noble body of people , who re- 
tired into the province^ called now yudea^ which was 7iot far 
from Egypty and in thofe times uninhabited. Thefe emigrants 
were led by Mofes^ who was fuperior to all ;';; wifdoin andprow- 
efs.^-^He gave them laws ; atid ordained that they fj^ould have 
no images of the Gods ; becaufe there was only 07ie Deity ^ 
the Heaven^ which furrounds all things^ a7id is Lord of the 
whole. I make no comment upon this curious extrad; : let 
it fuffice, that this latter migration was an age or two after 
the former ; though mentioned here, as if it were of the fame 
date. Thofe, who came into Greece, brought with them 
the fame arts, and the fame worfhip, which they had before 
introduced in Egypt. Hence Zonaras very truly tells us, 
^' E^ XoLK^aioo'j yoL^ Ksysrai, (pQirrj(rixL tolvtol Tjy^og AiyvT^Toy^ 
KQLK&idsv T'^og 'EAA)i!/a^. yill thefe things came fro77i Chaldea 
to Egypt \ and fro7n thence were derived to the Greeks, 

'' V. I. p. 22. See Syncellus. p. 102. 

s n A p T o I. 

( 409 ) 

s n A P T O I. 





T is remarkable, that the Cadmians, and people of other 
colonies, ^who came into Greece, were called XTTdPTOi, 
Sparti. The natives of Bceotia had this appellation ; as had 
thofe of Lacedasmon, which city was peculiarly named 
Sparta. There were traditions of this fort in Attica, and 
alfo at Colchis ; and a notion prevailed, that the people in 
thofe parts took their rife from fomething which was fown. 
Hence the twofold perfonage Cecrops is faid to have origi- 
nally fprung from the teeth of a ' ferpent fcattered in the 
ground. Alexander Polyhiftor, fpeaking of the children of 
Ifrael, and Edom, fays, that they were originally the fons 
■of Semiramis : but Claudius lolaus derives them from one 

KexfOTTcc Ai(p'jy]i — sk nw ry S'^ccxcms cS'ovim' e^'sAOsir. Scholia in Lycoph. 

V. III. 

Vol, III. G g g Sparton, 

4IO The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Sparton, who came from Thebes with Dionufus. This 
Sparton, by the Greeks, is mentioned, as the fon of ^ Phoro- 
neus, the firft man who reigned. The terms Sparti, and 
Sparton, were both foreign to Greece ; and manifeftly im- 
ported. Hence the name of Sparta in Laconia was conferred, 
^ aTTO Td^J' ixsrcc KctcJj'XB XTrct^roJv-. by the Spa?'ti^ who came inta 
that country with Cadmus, A fimilir hiuory of this place is 
given by Timagoras ; who informs us, '^ that it received its 
name from people, who had wandered from their own coun- 
try, and happened to light upon this, w^hich from them- 
felves they named Sparte. They are by fome reprefented 
as the offspring of Ogyges, the fame as Inachus, and Deu- 

I think, it is plain, that the people here mentioned were 
of the family of the difperfed, who were fcattered over the 
face of the earth. They were denominated Sparti from an 
ancient word analogous to "ins, Parad, of the Hebrews, and 
to ' (TTTa^aTTOJ of the later Greeks ; by which was fignified, 
to part, fever, and difperfe. Their feparation and flight 

* Paufun. L. 2. p. 1-46. 

Phoroneus, qui primus mortalium dicitur regnaiTe. Hyginus. Fab. 143, 
Sparta condita a Sparto filio Phoronei. Eufeb. Verfio Lat. p. i %. 
^ Schalia in Horn. OdyfT. A. arc twi' iM^ivoi/.ivm ^j-iTo. Ka(J,wa ^nrctorm ccv^pccv. 
See Suidasj Epaminondas. 

* Uipi oov iXyrcc^Tcor) Tifj.xyociai qimn', eiCTTiCrovTcci S's avrsi en tw Axxcavixw-, 
X-raaTm a.<p icvJTjiv ovou.auat. Steph. Byzant. STraarw. Salmafius would alter 
txinaiiv to eiairidSiv. He iays, that he would do it, though every manufcript were 
ao-ainft him. But this would certainly ruin the purport of the hiftorian ; who 
means, that the Sparti had been deprived of one country, and lighted upon another. 
We have no term precifcly analogous as a metaphor to the word ufed : however iK- 
TTiTeiv i'.i certainly means to mifs of one thing, and to light upon another. 

' Hence partior, difpertior, partitio. 


The Analysis of Ancient ^JYTHOLOGY. 411 

from Babel was continually commemorated under the notion 
of the flight of Bacchus, and Ofiris, and the fcattering 
abroad their limbs. V/liat feems to confirm my notion, 
is a pafTage from Androtion, quoted by the Scholiafl 
upon Lycophron ; who fpeaks of the Sparti as (TTro^OL^sg, or 
people, who had been fcattered abroad. ^ Av^^onoov h 6 
Ig-OPiKOg {XSTOL (T'^O^aiuV TiPCCV (pYtQ-i TOV Kot^^o'j Big ©s^of.i; £?.hn'. 
By Sporades this writer does not mean people fown ; for he 
fpeaks of them as prior to the nsra of that fable : but the 
purport of his words is, that Cadmus catne to T'hehes in Bceo- 
tia with fo7ne people of the difperfion. Thofe too, who gave 
name to Sparta, are by another writer faid to have been a 
difperfed and a wandering crew. ^ T'dc, 'Zzr^wTH? TDVOiKtfS'a.via.q 
nv 'GTqXiv AzTKByaq AIESITAPMENOTS sig tolviyiv irvveXkiv. 
"The fij'Jl who inhabited the city were the Leleges, a people who 
came after a difperjion. In their hiftory we have continual 
allufions to the flood ; and to their being diilipated after- 
wards. Hence Lycophron flyles them natives of Thebes 
* Q.yvyov I^Tra^Tog Xsojg : the original purport of which is 
merely this, that they were the defccndents of thofe people, 
who were difperfed after the Deluge. And ^fchylus de- 
fcribes them in much the fame light. 

9 XTrot^rm <J" oltt' olv^^cov, ccv A^r,g s^f/caro. 

* Schol. in V. 1206. This is given more at large by Pindar's Scholiaft ; AvSpc- 
Ticiv ^s (pwi <^vyovra ex. rm ^sn'txns tov Kacf/^sv^wSTa ixxruv aTTopccSojv xoiTiX^Uv m 
©nCct';. 3C.T.A. Efth. Od. 7. p. 447. v. 18. 

' Euftathius in Horn. Iliad. B. 

* V. 1206. Og, Ogus, and Ogugus, fignify thefea, or ocean. From ogua came 
aqua, water. 

' Septem thebana. v. 418. 

G g g 2 They 

412 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

They were the fojierity of thofe people^ whofn the cha?ice of war 
had f pared \ but who were afterwards fcattered abroad. They 
were the fame as the Titanians : hence the Cecropians, who 
came into Attica, were ftyled '° Fj^ysj/fi/^ ; and their country 
" Titanis. 

I have taken notice, that the great objed of the Cuthites 
in ereding the Tower of Babel was that they might not be 
difperfed. " L,et us build us a city, and a tower, — left we be 
fcattered abroad. They were however wonderfully diflipated : 
and this circumftance of their difperfion is to be found com- 
memorated in all their hiftories. Hence, as I have before 
obferved, we read of Perfeus, Cadmus, and other leaders of 
colonies, ftyled AA)iTa/, Aletae, or wanderers. At Athens 
they had a feftival called '' Aletis : and there was a facred 
'* hymn of the fame name ; the fubjeft of which was un- 
doubtedly the wanderings of their anceftors; thofe anceftors, 
'5 o{ ^Ki A7\TiroLi KDLi TiTOLVsg KCLhovvrcLi : who were diflinguifjed 
by the name of the TFanderers, and of theTitans. Pindar calls 
the Corinthians the children of the '^ Aletes. Upon which 
the Scholiaft obferves, that Aletes was the perfon, who led 
the colony, which fettled in that city. But Aletes was not a 
proper name: and the hiftory merely alludes to one of thofe 

'° Lycophron calls the Athenians Tnyeveic. Tiryiviii Ksyu rm A^nvotmi. See v. 
III. ad Scholia. This v/as a title of the Titans. 
" TtTavtt^cc ym'. Etymolog. Mag. 
'" Genefis. c. 1 1. v. 4. 

'' AA))Ti5 loprn A^i^vmiv, ri vuv AiwPa. Xiyojj.ivn. Hefych. 
'* AA/it/;, acfj^oL iom copxh 'srpoaaS'ofjLei'oy. Jul. Pollux. 
'^ Sanchoniath. apud Eufeb. P. E. L. i.e. 10. p. 35. 
■' 'Tz-t^iycTg, •roaiJ'ss AAara. Olymp. Od. 13. v. 17. 
AAwtws ya^ rymxTo rm aTroiKici?, Scholia ibid. 

-5 Aletze, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 413 

Aletas, or people of the difperfion, who came into the Pelo- 
ponnefus, and founded Corinth. By the Gentile accounts 
given of this people, who were their anceftors, it appears, 
that they were not only exiled, and difperfed ; but doomed 
to wander for ages, before they could get a place of reft. 
This is the hiftory given of the Leleges, and Pelafgi, and 
other wandering tribes. The fame may be inferred con- 
cerning thofe of the family who fettled in Thrace. Orpheus 
(by which character we are to underftand the Orphites of 
that country) is introduced in the Argonautica, as giving 
Jafon an account of his peregrinations. 

I have for a long time^ fays he, had enough of labour^ and dif- 
quietude : for I have wandered over a vaft traEi of country ^ 
and over various cities. But my Goddefs Mother put a fop to 
my rovi7ig, and healed me of that fatal '* iinpidfe^ by which I 
was before drive?! ; and at lafi gave tne afettle7?te?it^ in lieu of 
that^ which I lof. This is the purport of the words, which 
cannot be explained but by a paraphrafe. Something fimi- 
lar is to be obierved in the hiftory of Saturn, and the de- 
fcription of his flight into Italy. By this flight was fignifled 
the difperfion of a people, called Saturnians ; who, after 

'' Orphsei Argonaut, v. 98. 

O'Tfos' £^e&.o",woj — iJ.ct.via., eKKacvaiij Aucrcra, (fo^o?. Hefych. 


414 Ti-iE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

many wanderings, fettled in that country, and introduced 
there the rites of this God. They were of the family of the 
AietcC, and Spartani: whence it is faid of Saturn, that in his 
flight from Crete, he was concealed in Italy by a people of 
this denomination. '' Saturnus, ex Creta tugiens, in Italia a 
Spartanis abfconditur. We have been told above, that the 
Titans, or Giants, were Aletas: and Athenagoras goes fo far 
as to fuppofe, that even after their death they had no reft. 
" Twy Viycivrm -^v^yj^ oi 'UTB^i rov zotuq-j si<n 'wKavoj^svot 
AcLitJLOVsg. He is fpeaking of the fouls of the Giants; which 
Giants he fuppofes to be Hjoandering Damons .^ that arz ever 
roving about the world. 

Such is the hiftory of the Sparti, who were undoubtedly 
of Titanian race; of that family, which was difperfed. They 
were fuppofed to be Heliads, or offspring of the Sun : and 
at the fame time Ophitas, worfliiping that Deity under the 
fio-ure of a ferpent. Hence there was given to the Spartan 
Meneiaus a ferpent for a device upon his " fhield : the fame 
alfo was depided upon th.e fhield, and cuirafs of ^' Aga- 
memnon. There was alfo a ferpent engraved upon the 
tomb of "' Epamincndas, and inclofed in the figure of a 
fhield : all which, fays Paufanias, was done, that he might 
be known to have been a Spartan (%7ra.^rog) by defcent. They 

'5 Julius Firmicus. p. 27. 

^° P. 303- 

" Paufan. L. 10. p. 863. 

*' Homer. Iliad. A. .v. 26. a ferpent alfo upon his fliield. V. 39. Yjja.vioi eAe- 

von'S-oiv. Paufan. L. 8. p. 622. n • , 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 415 

worfhiped the Sun, their fuppofed progenitor, whom they 
called Zan: and his images were ftyled Zanes ; and were 
peculiar to '* Sparta. He was of old called San, and Shan : 
hence we meet with many places dedicated to him under this 
title. One of thefe was Beth-San ; where ftood the temple, 
to which the Philiftines faftened the body of *^ Saul, after he 
had been flain upon Mount *'^ Gilboa. The Greeks expreffed 
it Bs^-craj', and ''^ Brj^-crai/. It was built in early times by the 
Cuthite Ophitse, or Hivites ; who were very numerous in the 
upper regions of Canaan. Of this city I ihall take farther 
notice. From the data above afforded, we may dccypher the 
fable about the ferpent's teeth, from which the Sparti were 
fuppofed to have been derived : and we may fhew the 
grounds, from whence the miftake took its rife. I have 
mentioned, that they were Heliada;, the fuppofed offspring 
of the Sun , whom they defcribed as a ferpent, and ftyled 
San, and Shan. But ""^ Shan, \\if, fignified alfo a tooth. 
Hence the Grecians, inftead of faying, that the Sparti had 
their origin from the Serpent Deity the Sun, made them 
take their rife from the teeth of a ferpent. And as they 


Paufan. L. 5. p. 430. KaAai'Toti J'e utto rav i7nX'^^ia)v Zai'f?, 

^C-n^3. i Samuel, c. 31. v. 10. Jofliua. c. 17. v. 11. Judges, c. i. v. 27. 

** I am lorry, that I did not recolledt a miftake in my firft volume, p. 36. time 
enough to have it corredled in my Lift edition. I tliere mention Beth-San in the land 
of the Philiftines, &c. &c. But the Beth-San of the Scriptures was a celebrated 
place in the tribe of IManafles, upon the borders of Galilee. It was within a very 
few miles of Endor, and ftill nearer to Gilboa, where Saul was flain. We may 
therefore be affured, that here was the temple, to whicli the Philiftines affixed his 
body. See Eugefippus de Diftant. Locorum Terra; Sandlce. 

*" B«8o-ai', ;i m;' 2)x.'jGo7roA/;. Joleph. Ant. L. 6. c. 14. 'Bi^aocvm'y ttiv x.ccAvfxevvi' 
v(p' EAAhk'oi' SsoiOoTToAi!'. Jofeph. Antiq. L, i ^. c. 6. 

** \Vf. Dens. Taylor's Hebrew Concordance. 1978. 

Vol. III. G g g 4. were 

4i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

were Sporades, by which term is meant any thing, that is 
either fcattered abroad, or fowed in the ground ; they took 
it in the latter fenfe ; and fuppofed, that thefe teeth had 
been fowed in the earth, and produced an army of men *'. 

Of the S P A R T O - H E B R ^ I. 

M A NY things, which feem inexplicable, may, with a 
little attention be made out, if we proceed with a proper 
clew : and many traditions, which we efteem as fables, will 
appear to have been founded in truth. The mythology of 
the ancients may be looked upon as fo much fymbolical 
writing : and we muft interpret it in the fame manner as 
one would decipher a colled:ion of hieroglyphics. What 
can at firft fight appear more ftrange, than the account given 
of Judea by Alexander Poly hiftor ; or that, which is fub- 
joined from Claudius lolaus ? yet they will be both found 
in great meafure confonant to truth. ^° laJbt/a" ATKS^ccv^^og q 
UoXvig'oo^ awQ "uxcu^ocv Xs^i^ctfJii^ogj laJa koli I^a^JiaiOL' oog h KKolv- 
Oiog loXaog cctto I'd^ai'd "^Tra^rujvog^ sk. Qri^rig [J.stol Aiovv(rii f^ocrsvonog. 
The country of ytcdea^ accordi?ig to Alexaiider Polyhijlor^ was 
fo named from luda and Idiimea^ two fo7ts of S emir amis. But 
according to Claudius lolaus^ it received its name from fudeus 
S part Oft \ who wasofie of thofe^ who went from Thebes up072 an 
expedition with Dionufus. We find in the firft part, that the 
children of Edom and Judah are reprefented as the fons of 

*' The learned Bochart gives a difFerent folution. 
'° Stephanus Bvzant. 

7 Semiramis, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 417 

Semiramis. This at hrft may appear foreign to the truth : 
yet, upon my principles, this is very confonant to the hiftory 
of thofe nations. For their forefathers were natives of Chal- 
dea, and Babylonia : and Abraham came from thence to 
Canaan. Hence they might ea{ily by the eaftern nations 
be looked upon as of the race of the Semarim, or '' Baby- 
lonians. In confequence of which their pofterity are by this 
writer ftyled the fons of Semiramis. According to Claudius 
lolaus they were defcended from Judasus Sparton. By this 
is meant, that they were of the family ftyled Sparti ; from 
among the people, who were difperfed. This naturally fol- 
lows from their being efteemed of the line of the Semarim : 
and we have reafon to think, that there is great truth in this 
hiftory. For though Terah and Abraham, who relided ia 
Chaldea, were not of that number ; yet we may infer, that 
many of the fons of Heber were. For they muft have been 
pretty numerous at this time ; and feem to have been all ido- 
laters ; and to have reiided upon forbidden ground in the 
vicinity of Babel. It is added, that "Judceus Sparton went 
with Dionujus fro7n Thebes^ and attended him in his warlike 
expeditions. It is to be obferved, that thofe nations, who pre- 
ferved any traditions of their ^" forefathers having been pre- 
ferved in the Deluge, came in procefs of time to think, that 
the hirtory related only to their family : at leaft they con- 

'' Some of the Fathers go lb far as to make them of Chaldean race. 

"'' Dionufus was the Patriarch, the head of all. By Bacchus is fomctimes meant 
Zeus Pachus, ftyled n«>co5 by the Ionian writers, who was Chus. At other times, 
the tide relates to Nimrod-, who, as Bochart very truly fuppofes, was named Bar- 
Chiis, the fon of the former. The names of two pcrfonagcs, from fimilitudc, have 
been blended into one. 

Vol. III. H h h fined 

41 8 The Analysis of Ancient Mvthology. 

fined it to thofe, who had the befl: memorials of this event. 
Among thefe were the people of Judea, who were efteemed 
a branch of the Semarim. Hence it is mentioned as pecu- 
liarly charadieriflic, that Spar ton, by whom is meant the 
head of the family, which was difperfed, came with D-ionufus, 
£Z ©Yi'orjg ; by which is meant, not from Thebes, but oja of 
the Ark : and it is added, that he attended him in his wars, 
Thefe are two hiftorics ; and iliould be accordingly diftin- 
guifhed. The Grecians continually confounded Dionufus 
and Bacchus, and often fpeak of them as one perfom But 
they were two diftindl charaders : and the firft of thefe hif- 
tories belongs to the one, and the latter to the other. The 
coming out {^a STi^'f\<;) fro??t the Ark relates to Dionufus : the 
warlike expedition to Bacchus, and to his fons the Cuthites. 
If this allowance be made; and it be permitted me to take ofF 
the falfe glofs, which the Grecian writers have put upon this 
iiiflory ; I will venture to paraphrafe it in the following man- 
ner, and by thefe means reduce it to its primitive flate. Judea^ 
fays Alexander Polyhifor^ ivasfo de?iomi?2ated from. o?2e Judah ; 
who^ together with Edom^ was looked upon as of the ancient flock 
of the Se?narim inChaldea : for their ancefrors came from that 
country. But according to lolaus the region had. its name from 
fudceus^ftyled Spartan : fo named ^ becaufe his ancefors were 
among thofe of the difpe?fion in Babylonia. They were of the 
family of thofe who came [sa Qr^Tti) out of the Ark with Dionu- 
fus ; and who were co?federate with the fons of Chus irifome of 
their fir Jl enter prifes. 

In refped to theFIebrews, and Ifraelites, whom Claudius 

lolaus deduces from Judceus Sparton, they were, according to 

10 the 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 419 

the Scriptural account, the fons of Hcber ; and are men- 
tioned as fuch by many of the " Fathers. This name is by 
interpretation '^ 'urs^cLng ; by which is meant o?te, who pajfes 
over. The names of the Patriarchs were moft of them pro- 
phetically given ; and had a reference to fome future con- 
tingency. Thus one of the fons of Noah was fly led Hamj 
or Cham ; which was prognoftic both of the worfhip, and 
the complexion of his pofterity. Peleg {ignified divifion : 
and the earth was in his time divided. Sarah was called 
Ifcha, or Ifchac, which denoted laughter : and the purport 
of the name was manifefted by an involuntary fit of laugh- 
ter upon a folemn '^ occafion. Her fon in confequence of it 
was named Ilchac. Thus Heber had a name given him, 

" 'EQipo<ii «?)' su Tds ldSui=i 'ECpxiB? ot.o-)Q)hv i:(.a.KHv' Jofephus, Ant. L. i. 
c. 6. p. 25. 

''' Airo TB ESsf — anf^anei Se tbto top SiotTrepoovTO.. Eufeb. P. E. L, 9. p. 520. 
TlioxTixaiyccpriveiipfj.iii'evQvrxi. Ibid. p. 309. 

^' The wife of Abraham was called Sarai ; which was changed to Sarah. Sarai 
fignifies a Lady, or Princefs -, and was only a Chaldaic title. The true name 
given at her birth was licha, or Ifchac ; prophetically beftowcd, and denoting 
laughter. This feems to be not properly exprefied, being written n3D' ; whereas 
the name of Ifchac, or Ifaac, denominated from her, is fpelt pniJ\ from pnty, ridere. 
Probably Sarah's name is rendered according to the ancient Chaldaic pronuncia- 
tion, when the name was firft given. Ifaac's is exhibited, as it was pronounced 
afterwards, in the time of Mofes. They are certainly the fame words in different 
dialedts -, and equally relate to the hiftory above given. The name Ifcha was pro- 
phetic ; and the purport of it was fulfilled not only in Sarah's laughing, but in 
Abraham's. For Jl/raham fell upon his face, and laughed. Genef. c. 17. v. 17. The 
child in memorial of this event was named Ifchac ; or, as more commonly ex- 
prefied, Ifaac, laughter. By this was further prefigured a token of joy and gladnefs. 
The child was to be an omen of happinefs to the world. Therefore God direfts 
Abraham to name him Ifaac, and fubjoins the reafon -, ThouJ/jalt call his name Ifaac ; 
and I iinll eflallifh my covenant -with him for an everlafiing covenant. Genefis. c. 17. 
V. 19. In Ifaac were all the nations upon earth to be blcffed. ■' • 

H h h 2 which 

420 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

which iignified 'oT^^aT/]?, and was equally prophetic. Many- 
have fuppofed, that it related to Abraham, who pafTed over 
the Euphrates in his way to Canaan. Abraham was the 
fixth in defcent from Heber, on which account the fons of 
Heber muft have been very numerous in his time» They 
may have amounted to fome hundreds, and perhaps tliou- 
fands. It feems therefore flrange, that a general name ftiould 
be impofed upon a large body of people, becaufe in after- one of the family pafled a river. I have fhewn, that 
moft of the prophetic names were given to denote fome ex- 
traordinary occurrence; fuch as could not well be expefted 
in the common courfe of things. The paffing of a river 
could not be efteemed of this nature : efpecially when the 
perfon fpoken of lived in an interamnian country ; and in a 
part of it, which was clofe bounded by two ftreams, the 
Tigris and the Euphrates. Many deduce the name, not 
from Heber, but from Abraham ; ftill fuppoling, that it was 
given from his paffing of a river. In confequence of which 
Abraham is made the head of the whole Hebrew family. 
Hence Artapanus tells us, '* KOiXsKT^ai dviag 'E?^a/8? dlttq 
A?^aa|W,8* i/ja^ the Hebrews had their name fr07n Abraham. 
And Charax to the fame purpofe : " 'E^^aiQi, HTwg la^aiai 
tt.'^o A^pdfiujvo;. This feems to have been the opinion of 
many '^ eccleiiaftical, as well as other writers ; who deduce 

'* Eufeb. P. E. L. 9. p. 420, 
" Apud Steph. Byzant. 

'" 'L(^paioi yccp Qt 'wioaTcx.i ipfA.m'?voi'rai, SixTr^pxaccvTOi llv(ppccTm AQpoLXfJi' xai Hr, 
ui oiovra.1 rtys?;a.7ro'ECip. Ex Eufebianis. See Selden de Dlis Syris. Prolegom. 
c. 2. p. 4. 

A^pa;/. nr-fparm. Ilcfych. In another place he comes nearer ro the truth-, when 
he fays, 'ECpci'o?^ xai 'ECpxio^, -nrg^aTws. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 421 

the name from Abraham, and not from Heber. Thus we 
are told by Hcfychius, A^^cc^jl, ^urs^OLTtig' By Abraham is Jig- 
nijied 07ie^ who pajjes over. From hence we find, that they 
imagined the name of Abraham to have been a compound of 
Aber, to pafs over : than which notion there can be nothing 
more idle. It is notorious, that Abraham is called the 
" Hebrew ; which would, be unneceflary, and redundant, if 
his original name had that fignification. He is not ftyled 
Heber, but like his pofterity, an Hebrew. This fhews, that 
he did not giv^e, but receive the name. It was a patronymic ; 
a name, by which his fathers had before him been diftin- 
gulined. The authors of the Greek verfion are therefore 
guilty ot a miftake in tranflating it ■^° 'srs^aTJ^, inftead of 
'Eb^ctiO?. For they introduce it as referring to an uncertain 
piece of hiftory, about the pallage of a river ; when it is in 
reality an hereditary title, a Gentile mark of diftindtion. As 
to thofe, who have imagined that the name of Abraham is a 
compound of Aber, to pafs ; their notion is founded upon a 
notorious miftake in etymology. The Patriarch had two 
names, which were both given prophetically, and were of 
high confequence ; relating to great events, which in the 
fullnefs of time were to be accomplifhed. He was called 
both Abram and Abraham; which names are faid to fignify 
"' Pater illuflris, and Pater multitudinis. They were both 
given before he had a child, and when there was little pro- 
fpedl of his having fuch a progeny. 

" Genefis. c. 14. v. 13. 
♦' Ibid. 

♦' AQpctix—mccT^ct jj-iTEco^ov. Eufeb. P. E. L. 11. p. 518. Ab-Ram, Pater 
magnus. See Genefis. c. 17. v. 5. concerning the name Abraham. 


42 2 The Analysts of Ancient Mvthology-. 

Abraham therefore could not have been the head of the 
Hebrew family. The perfon alluded to under the name of 
U.s^CK.rrig was Heber : he was certainly the father of the He- 
b?ews ; and they are fpoken of as his pofterity by ** Mofes. 
Syncellus alfo makes him vxry truly the head of that *'' line. 
The name of Heber, like the names of moil of the Patri- 
archs, was prophetically given ; and it did not relate to the 
pafTing of a river, but to a '^^ trefpafs in his pofterity. They 
pafled over from the ftock of their fathers ; and dwelt upon 
forbidden ground, among the fons of Ham, and Chus, in Shi- 
nar, and Chaldea, where they ferved other Gods. I make no 
doubt, but that the true meaning of the name Heber was not 
fo much 'UTS^ccTYig, as "Wx^aJoCLTrig ; and related to this apoflafy 
of his family. They were the defcendents of Shem ; but re- 
Uded among the enemies to the truth, to whom they had gone 
over. From this land Abraham was called ; and brought 
with him his father Terah, and others of his family, who re- 
Iided afterwards at Haran. Hence there was a great deal of 
truth in the words of Achior the Ammonite, when he gave 
an account of the Hebrews to the AfTyrian general Holopher- 
nes. ''^ T'his people are defcended of the Chaldeans ; aitd they 
fojourned heretofore in Mefopotatnia^ becaufe they wotild not fol- 
low the Gods of their fat hers , which were in the land of Chal- 
dea, This in great meafure agrees with that which is faid 

•** Numbers, c. 24. v. 24. They are fhewn to be lineally defcended from Hcb(.r. 
Genefis. c. 10. v. 25. 

*^ P. 87. Eufeblus alfo fays, 'E^^aioj clito ra 'ECgp- Tr^oTreirup H ra AC^uxjj. ouroi 
31'. Prsep. Evang. L. g. p. 304. 

*♦ *iay, to tranigrefs. 

■*' Judith, c. 5. V. 6. J. • 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 423 

by Jofliua, when he addreffes the children of Ifrael, and puts 
them in mind of their idolatrous original. '*^ Tour fathers 
dwelt on the other fide of the flood m old time^ evejt "Terah^ the 
father of Abrahcwi^ a?jd the father of Nahor ; and they ferved 
other Gods. Thefe Gods they quitted, and came to Haran, 
as Achior truly witnefled. As they had refided fo long in a 
foreign land, the facred writer feems to have been apprehen- 
five, that their true line might one day be miftaken ; and that 
they might be adjudged to a wrong family. Hence he ftrongly 
inculcates, that Shem was the ''''father of all the children of 
Heber. And this caution was not unnecelTary ; as we may 
perceive from their being ftyled the fons of the Semarim, and 
of the Chaldeans. And this is to be found, not only among 
Pagan authors, but even among the ecclefiaflical writers, by 
whom Abraham is reprefented, ''^ tq ysuogXaX^cciog^ a Chaldean, 
not 7?ierely by natio?t^ but by race. 

We read in the Mofaic hiftory, that "*' unto Heber were born 
two fons : the name of one was Peleg ; for in his days was the 
earth divided : and his brother s ?ia}ne was JoBan. The fa- 
cred writer then proceeds to give an account of the children 
of Joctan, who were very numerous ; and alfo of the region, 
to which they migrated.. ^' And their dwelli7ig was from Me- 
flja, as thou goefl unto Sephar, a mountain of theeafl. But of 
Peleg no fuch hiftory is given : no mention is made, where 
his pofterity refided 3 nor are his fons enumerated. V/e have. 

** Jofhua. c. 24. V. 2; 

*■' Genelis. c. lo. v. 21. 

''^ Eufebius. Chron. p. 20, See alfo Syncellus, 

*' Genefis. c. 10. v. 25. 

^° Genefis. c. 10. v. 30. 


424 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

only a line of fingle perfons in defcent from him to Abraham. 
Peleg, we have been told, was fo named, becaufe in his time 
there was a divifion of the earth : and there feems alfo to 
have been a divifion of the church of God. If then we 
compare all that has been faid upon this fubje6t, we may in- 
fer, that the fons of Peleg, the Hebrews of his line, were 
apoftates ; and dwelt with the fons of Chus in Babylonia and 
Chaldea; while the fons of Jo6tan went to their proper place 
of fettlement. As the former mull have increafed in number 
greatly at the time of the difperlion ; we may fuppofe, that 
many of them were involved in that calamity. Hence came 
the notion of Claudius lolaus, concerning the people of [u- 
dea; that they were the fons of Sparton, Xra^Toov. This 
fliould not be reprefented as a proper name : for by Sttoj^twj' 
is meant Xtto^ol^ojUj and by the hiftory we are to underftand, 
that they were reputed of the family of thofe perfons, who 
were of old difperfed abroad. 

Bochart thinks, that they were not all the fons of Heber, 
who were Hebrews ; but only thofe who preferved the He- 
brew language ^' pure. ^* Itaque majorum Abrah^ hasc fuit 
praerogativa, quodHebrzeum fermonem fervaverimt incorrup- 
tum ; cum reliqui omnes, etiam in Heberi familia, aut ilium 
prorfus mutaverint, aut infecerint faltem cseterarum lingua- 
rum quafi contagione quadam. This is prima facie very 
ftrange ; to be told, that any of the fons of Heber were not 

" Hebrfeos voco pofteros Heberi non omnes ; fed eos duntaxr.t, qui primitivne 
linguje, hoc eft Hebrsas, ufum conftanter retinuerunt. Geogr. Sacra, L. 2. c. 14. 

p. 92-93- 
** Ibid. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 425 

Hebrews. Not a fyllable to this purpofe can be inferred 
from the Scripture : and the whole of what is advanced 
arifes from prejudice. Bochart, and many others, have 
thought, that there mufh be fomething facred in the Hebrew 
language ; becaufe it has pleafed God to make it the means 
of conveyance, by which his oracles have been tranfmitted. 
From hence it has been fuppofed to be holy ; and likewife 
the primitive, and original language of the world. There 
are many things, which Bochart has advanced, that are ex- 
ceptionable. Firft of all, the poiition, before taken notice 
of, that all the fons of Heber were not Hebrews. The 
Scriptures exprefly fay, without any limitation, that the He- 
brews were from Heber. They fpecify Peleg, Reu, Serugh, 
and all that were in a dire6l line from him to '' Abraham. 
He fays, in the fecond place, that only thofe were Hebrews, 
who retained the language pure. Here too the Scriptures 
are filent : not a fyllable can be produced to this purpofe : 
nay it is contrary to the tenour of the facred writings. It 
fuppofes the people to be named from their language ; 
whereas the language was denominated from the people. 
The anceftors of the Hebrews lived in Chaldea, and ferved 
other Gods ; even Terah, and Abraham, from whom they 
were fo immediately defcended. They were confequently 
far removed from the flock of their fathers. Heber, by his 
name, feems to have been the firft tranfgrellor : he feceded 
with a large part of his family: and when he paffed over, 
there was but one language in the world. In the days of 

^' Genefis. c. 11. v. 17. See alfo Numbers, c. 24. v. 24. Ships from the coafi of 
Chitthnfiall — affiiSi Hchr. 

Vol. III. 1 i 1 his 

426 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

his Ton Peleg, the earth, as all agree, was of one language, 
andfpecch. The language therefore of Heber was common to 
all mankind, confequently there could be nothing particu- 
larly holy in it. To fay the truth, for ages after, there was 
but one language in the world. This in procefs of time 
was difparted into diale6ts ; and thofe were again fubdivided. 
To afk, which was the primitive language of thefe, is to in- 
quire which of the feven ftreams of the Nile, or Danube, is 
the original branch ; when they are collateral, all equally 
deduced from one common fource. There is this difterence 
to be obferved in the comparifon : the parent ftream re- 
mains ; but the maternal fource of languages is probably no 
more. The principal of Heber's pofterity ftayed in Chaldea 
after the migration of families, and the confuiion at Babel. 
They therefore fpake the language of the country, the 
Chaldaic. No, it will be faid ; they were excepted in the 
general confufion of tongues ; and had their language pre- 
ferved. I do not admit, that the confufion was general :. 
but if it were, why fhould Terah, and his anceflors, who 
were apoftates, and idolaters, have this prerogative granted 
them ? The Scriptures fay not a word about it ; and it 
would be idle to infer it. The fons of Heber therefore fpake 
the ancient Chaldaic : and the Hebrew was ever a dialed; 
of that lanoruao-e. 

C3 t> 

M E R O P E S. 

( 427 ) 

M E R O P E S. 

ANOTHER name given to thofe of the difperfion was 
Meropes. ' A/str/tsJacrg ya^ (o ®bo;) avruv rag yXw^r- 


av^^c/jv a^i^lJLOv sv^sdsnct' o^sv koli Ms^otts; ovtoi kskKyivtoli, 
The learned Father, from whom I quote, fuppofes, that the 
language of mankind at Babel was changed : and he accord- 
ingly tells us, that the Deity feparated their tongues ; and 
from 07ie language forjned feventy a7id two : for this was the 
exaSi iiumber of men^ who at that time exified : and from this 
feparation^ they were called Meropes. Many other * writers 
have imagined, that there was at Babel, an univerfal change 
of language ; and that feventy-two new tongues arofe, ac- 

' Epiphaniiis adverf. H^eref. L. i. p. 6. 

' By fome they are laid to have been leventy-five. Evfpzpo^ Se, ■/.a.i aXAoi "tbqXAoi 
TOiiviq'optx.uiv-, xcciiuvrj xcti yXoma-cLi insv-rs x.xi lQoofAr\-^ov~x Aiyaaiv etvxi, ETTaKStrai-Tt; 

a.1 eii Atyvinov y^xTe?idii<rcci. Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 404. By the author 
himfelf there are fuppoled to have been only feventy-two. 

The author of the Clementine Homilies mentions only feventy nations, and fe- 
venty tongues. Horn. 18. c. 4. In the Recognitiones Clement, the earth is fup- 
pofed to have been divided into feventy-two parts, for the reception of feventy-two 
families of mankind. L. 2. c. 42. 

I i i 2 cording 

428 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

cording to the number of mankind at that feafon. For this 
notion they have no ^ authority : and it is certainly contrary 
to the tenour of Scripture^ We may however venture to 
agree with them, when they tell us, that the people ftyled 
Meropes were fo named from the difperfion. The author of 
the Chronicon Pafchale more truly confines the change, of 
which we are treating to found and utterance. He fays, that 
the Meropes were the people originally concerned in the 
conftrufting of the Tower in Babylonia : and that they 
were prevented in executing their purpofe through default 
in fpeech : * ^ict riV olitiolv koli Ms^oTTsg 'uroLvrsg KSKXYivraiy ^icc 
Till/ ^s^JLS^KTiizvTiV TTiV (pm'fiV '. On this account they had the name 
of Meropes^ becaufe their fpeech was divided. Johannes An- 
tiochenus fpeaks much to the fame * purpofe : and all wri- 
ters, who take notice of this name, and its origin, fuppofe 
that it related to the difperlion. 

I have mentioned, that the apoftafy in Babylonia com- 
menced under Nimrod, and his aiTociates, the fons of Chus. 
He was reprefented as a perfon of extraordinary flature, the 

' There was however an ancient tradirion, which prevailed among the Egyptians, 
that the earth was originally divided into feventy-two portions. 'ECSo/xnicovTci Sua 
^copoti rai ap^aicti (paa-i tj)5 oiH.iiy.evvii eivaci. HorapoUo. L. i.e. 14. p. 28. 

If there were but feventy-two perfons in the days of Peleg, how could there be 
fuch confiderable kingdoms formed in the days of Abraham ? The Scripture men- 
tions Elam, Canaan, Egypt, and feveral others ; and there were undoubtedly many, 
of which we have no account. 

* Chron. Pafch. p. 49. 

* 'Curu yivirat SictixepiafJiO?, j^tdi Sixairo^a. rccv vioov Nw?, xa.t rmv E^ ccutuv yivvrt- 
Blvruv' StoTTi^ xai Mf^oTes g5cA»6«cr«y, ctTro le t>J5 i/.i[Jii^iaiJi.Siins (pooi'ijs. jc.t.A. Joh. 
Malala. p. 13. 

Me^oTTE?, uv^pccTroi' Siccto f/.£/ASpi(rf/.li'ijv iy(eiv rm ovrcc, vyouv (puvw' i\ airo'M.i^oirQi 
'stpo tb (pasdofToi Kwy" Aiyayrxi cTe Koooi NlspoTrei. Hefych. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 429 

head of the Triysvsic, or earth-born brood: and he was ftyled 
by the Grecians Ncbros, and * Nebrodes ; and his people 
Ns^^iJ^a/, Nebrids. According to Berofus, he was the firft 
who took upen himfelf the title of a ^ Shepherd king. Many 
of this family came into Hellas, Mylia, and Ionia, as I have 
mentioned. They poffefled fome of the beft illands in the 
JEgea.n Sea ; particularly Lefbos, Lemnos, Samos, Chios, 
Cos. The name of this laft ifland is often expreffed Coiis. 
By this is meant Xa?, the Grecian name of Chus, and relates 
to his family, who fettled here : for this ifland was particu- 
larly occupied by the Cuthites, who preferved many memo- 
rials of their original. We are accordingly told by Stepha- 
nus, that it was the feat of the Meropes. Kc*)g, 'UToKig koli 

v^(ro; — Y\ Ms^oTTig sy.ctKeiro cctto Ms^oTirog Ttiyzvag. Asysrar h 
Kww? J/a ho w, Kc^A Kow^ — AsysTat h Koog. Ovroo os s'^^r,fjLCi- 


KaKaiJLBVOJy NsS'^iJ^of. Cos is both a city^ and an ijland. — It was 
formerly named Meropis from Merops^ 07te of the earth-born 
giant brood. "They fometimes exprefs it with tivo 07negaSy and 
fome times with one. It is alfo written Cous. Both Hippocra- 
tes and Eraffratus^ the two famous phyficians^ were of this 
if and y and denofninated Coans. Hippocrates was of the family 
of the Nebridce. Euftathius expreffes it Ka"/?, Cois ; and 

" See Vol. I. Radicals. Nimrod. p. S. 

^ Euiebii Chron. p. 5. 
It is not to my purpofe : yet it may be worth while to take notice, that Erafi- 
ftratus was not of Coos, but of the ifland Ceos. 

All Myfia is thought to have been peopled by Cuthites, and efpecially by thofe, 
who were fuppofed to have been tJie defcendents of Nimrod. l^i^^xi I xvnyo; xL 
•ytycci — i^ iu Mmoi. Chron. Pafch. p. zS. 


430 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fays, that the name Merope, and Meropeis, was given to it, 
^ CLiro sdvagy n ysvag, from a people^ or family^ who fettled 
here. Ariftides fpeaks of the people as '° Meropids ; and 
reprefents them as great in knowledge. The two principal 
occurrences preferved by the Cuthites were the Deluge, 
and DifperjGon : and they ftyled themfelves both Ogugians, 
and Meropians, from thefe circumftances. Hence Coiis 
is characterized by the fame epithets : and Callimachus 
fpeaking of the wanderings of Latona mentions her coming 
to this illand : 


The Meropidae were the fuppofed defcendents of Merope ; 
and likewife of Merops. Who is denoted by the latter, may 
in fome degree be known by the character given of him. We 
are told by Clemens of Alexandria, that this perfonage was by 
fome looked upon as the author of" Daemon worfhip ; cqn- 
fequently one of the firft, who introduced innovations in re- 
ligion. Antoninus Liberalis gives a further account ; and 
fays, that the Meropidae were the fons of ''Eumelus (a Shep- 
herd) whofe father was Merops : and he adds, that their oif- 

■ ' Euftath. in Iliad. B. p. 31S. 

'° Kw r/}v M?£OTJ#a >);r, oixBf/isi'ijv cltto MiooTK^uv. Oratio in Afclepiad, torn, I. 
p. 77.79. 

" Callim. H. in Delon. v. 160. 

M.AviTCj TJ, Kccoi Tg, ■woXis MepoTTCt)!' <xp^Fco7ra)i\ 

Homer. Plymn. ad Apoll. v, 42. 
" Cohort, p. :5 s. 

■' Eumelus fignifies a Shepherd. Em/schAh th Msoa/ro; eyevavTO TirxiS'ei vTre^iKfiavoi 
■xcct u^piq-xi — y.cci wkmi/ Kojj' rw M.spoin'Sa, vncov. Fab. 15. 

^ fpring 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 431 

fpring were people of great pride, and addi6led to violence ; 
and that they got ppfTe/Iion of the ifland Coiis. They were. 
the fame as the Heraclidas, or Herculeans ; though Pindar 
fuppofes them to have been conquered by Hercules, v/ha 
fubdued all the Meropians. But we mufl connder, that 
Hercules was the chief Deity of the firfl: ages : and in the 
fubduing of the Meropes we have an ancient tradition tranf-- 
mitted, which the Coans had preferved. It related to their 
difperlion, and to the Giant monarch, who was by way of 
eminence ftyled Al-Cuon, or the great king. 


T' s^vsa, KOLi TQv Ba^oraj', a^ei i^rovy 

We find, that the Deity ruined the family of the Meropes^ and 
defrayed the Giant Shepherd Al-Cuon at Phlegra ; "who was 
in fze equal to a motmtai7t. The war of the Giants was re- 
corded in many parts of the world ; each of which v/as at 
length thought to have been the fcene of aftion. It was 
uniformly called Phlegra ; which is only a tranflation of the 
true name ; for Phlegra fignifies the land of fire, equivalent 
to Ur in Chaldea. Pindar takes notice of the fime hiftory 
in another place; where, if infhead of Hercules we fubftitute 
divine vengeance, the purport of the tradition will be very 

• *5 ITo^^jia's VMA Ms^oTug (Qeog), 

** Pind. Illh. Od. 6. v. 46. BatoTjj; is properly an herdfman : but in early time 
the '..IHce of a Ihepherd, and herdhnan was the fame. 
*^ Pind.Nem. Od. 4. v. 4,2. 

432 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

E/.TrayXoy AKkvovyi. 

"The Deity 7'tmted the Meropians, together with their great aitd 
^warlike ?/i07tarch, the Jiupe?tdous Al-Cuon, The poet, as I 
have obfervedj fuppofes Hercules to have invaded them : 
but they were Heraclidis, and looked upon Hercules as one 
of their progenitors. Wherefore, when Artaxerxes tranf- 
mitted his orders to them, and required, that Hippocrates 
Ihould be fent to him ; their anfwer was, that they fhould 
never fhould do any thing unworthy of thofe, who had gone 
before them, mentioning ^Efculapius, Hercules, and ^* Me- 
rops. They feem, like the Cyclopians, to have been people 
of great ingenuity : and there is a ftatue of Apollo men- 
tioned by Plutarch, which is faid to have been, ''^ g^yoj' i;b)V 
KCi^' 'Hf a;iA£CC Mspottc^jv, the work of the Meropes, who lived in 
the time of Hercules. They were the fame as the Titanians: 
hence Euripides, fpeaking of a female of this family, ftyles 
her ''^ Ms^OTTOj T<Ta;^iJct r6^t\V^ a Tiia?iia?i damfel^ a daughter 
of Merops. They were alfo the fame as the Macares, and 
A^OLVOLTOi 3 thofe perfons ftyled Deities and Immortals. On 
this account the ifland Coiis, one of the chief feats of the 
Metopes, is by the poet Demoxenus faid to have been the 
parent of Gods ; '' 0£8? ya^ ^ai;/£^' Ji rf]Tog (ps^siv. 

Some feem to apply the term Merops to all mankind : 

*'^ See Spanheim's Notes upon Callimach. H. in Delon. v. i6o. 

'^ Plucarch de Mufica. p. 1 136. 

*' Eurip. Helena, v. 3S7. 

'' Athenasus. I-. i. p. 15- 1 

g and 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 433 

and ^° Hefychius defines Meropes by ccv^^xiroh as of univerfal 
fignification. But it is plain from what has been faid, that 
they were a particular race : and Pindar above made men- 
tion of '' Ms^OTTCfJV sdi/sa ; intimating, that there were feveral 
families, and nations of them. Among thefe were the 
Athenians, who muft have been Meropians by being '* Ne- 
bridge ; for thefe were titles, which related to the fame fami- 
ly. They were alfo ftyled Eredlheidae, or the defcendents of 
Ere6lheus: andMerope was fuppofed to have been his"daugh- 
ter. Theopompus feems to have had an obfcure tradition 
concerning a large body of this family fettling far in the 
weft, and occupying a region, called Ms^oTTiJa yriv. This is 
looked upon as an idle furmife by ^'^ Strabo : but there feems 
to be much truth in the tradition. By thefe Meropes are 
meant the Atlantians, who fettled in Mauritania. They 
were of the Titanian race, and the fuppofed offspring of At- 
las. His daughters were the celebrated Peleiadae ; one of 
whom was Merope, the reputed mother of the family, de- 
nominated here Meropians. The like hiflory is given by 
^lian, who mentions in this country, " MspoTrag iivc.g arw; 
KdKaiJLSi'iig OLV^^i^TTUg ; a race of people called Meropia??s. If 
we compare the account given by ^lian with that, which 
has been given above ; and likewife collate it with thofe 

'° Ms^o^rs? acGawTTO/. Hefych. 
" Pindar fupra. 

'' Liber — Nebridarum familiam pellicula cohoneftavit hinnulas. Arnobius. 
L. 5. p. 185. 

*' Plutarch in Thefeo. p. 8. 

'* Strabo. L. 7. p. 458. 

'5 ^lian. Var. Hift. L. 3. c. iS. p. 251. 

A^OL. III. J^ k k lines 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

lines in Heliod, where he defcribes the place of retreat, to 
which the Titans were configned ; we Ihall find the whole 
to relate to the Atlantians, and to the region in which they 
dwelt. They were the fame as the Cuthite Erythreans ; 
and the ocean, upon which they lived, was called the Ery- 
threan Sea. Heliod, as I have fhewn, defcribed it as a vaft 
pool, and an unfathomable abyfs. Strabo has preferved a 
curious fragment from the Prometheus liberatus of ^fchy- 
lus ; wherein there are allufions to all thefe circumftances : 
and where the Atlantians are very truly defcribed under the 
chara<£ler of Ethiopians, who lived upon the Erythrean Sea : 

'iv 'ZfTOLnBTroTnag tiBhio; 

'TS'a.rog ixaXana 'Wp'^oaig oLVOLitoLVBi. 

The learned Cafaubon thinks, from a paffage in Dionyiius 
Halicarnaffenjis, that thefe verfes are a part of a fpeech of 
Hercules, who is informing Prometheus concerning fome 
future events. This is very probable ; and they feem, I 

'" Strabo. L. i. p. 58. 

" What XccAxaxipavyov means, I know not. It may pofllbly be a miftake for 

'* So it occurs in fome MSS. for -ziTavTor^ocpMy. See Cafaubon's learned notes 
upon this paflage in Strabo. 

6 think, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 435 

think, particularly to relate to the wanderings of the Tita- 
nians, and Meropes, who fettled in Mauritania. The poet 
here mentions "The f acred waves of the Krythrean Sea : and 
the vajl pool 7iear the ocean, upon the borders of which the 
'^ waftdering Ethiopia?2S had taken up their refdence : where 
the Sun J that all-feeing Deity, tfed to refrefj his i^mnortal body, 
und recruit his wearied horfes, in the tepid Jirea^ns of that falu- 
tary water. The term Erythrean Sea has mifled Strabo ; 
who fuppofes, that the people fpoken of were to the fouth, 
above Egypt. But how can it be faid, that the Sun refted 
from his labours in the fouth, and refreflied his horfes, when 
he was in his meridian ? The waters, in which the poets 
fuppofed him in the evening to fet, were thofe in the 
weft, in the midft of the great Atlantic. He was in like 
manner reprefented as riling from an Erythrean Sea in 
the eafl. Here lived the Indo-Cuthites, a people of the 
fame family as the Meropes, and called Ethiopes, Mauri, and 
Erythrffii. There is another fragment preferved in Strabo, 
which is from the Phaethon of Euripides, and relates to this 
people. The poet in this takes notice of the eaftern Indie 
Ethiopians, and of the region, which they pofTefTed. 

'Hv SK Ts^^/TTzrwj' d^fJLarm 'UT^^ttiv y^^ovx 
'Hhiog ciLViQ"^m '^^V(r£ci ^cikKsi cpT^oyi, 
KaAH(r< J' OLVTriV ysnovsg ^bKolii^^otqi 

'' rixi'To^pofoi may fignify wife and artful. 
^' Strabo. ibid. 

K k k 2 'E8g 

43^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

The poet is fpeaking of Clymene, who was the fuppofed 
mother of Phaethon, and of the Heliades, his fifters : and 
he tells us, that the Gods bejiowed Clyme?2e upon Merops^ a 
king of that country. This., fays he, is the region^ which the 
fun fi7'Ji enlighte?is with his golden 7'ays in the mornings whe?t he 
afcends his car., aiidfets out with his four hoffes. On this account 
it is called by all the black tribes in the vicinity^ the place ofrepafly 
and flable^ both of Aurora., aiid of the Sun. Thus we find, 
that whether we inquire in Mauritania, or at the Indus, the 
fame names occur : and in almofl all places, where the 
Cuthites fettled, the titles of ^thiopes, Titanes, Mauri, 
Erythrei, and alfo of Meropes will be found. From hence 
we may learn the extent of the curfe at the difperfion j and 
how widely the Meropes were driven. That they came into 
Greece has been fhcwn : all the Helladians, as well as the 
lonians, were Meropians. Hence the term occurs continually 
in Homer. The Trojans alfo were of this family : and the 
poet fpeaking of the foundation of Troy, mentions it as a 
city of the Meropes. 

*' Aa^oV;/oi/ ay 'Ufe,'^i;QV t6}{sto vB(pBXr\ye^ercL Zsug-y 
Kt/ctits ^e Aoi^^oLVtriV, sttbi ^nt^ iKiog I^yi 
Ep 'urs^iw 'UTBTTo'Kig'o, "uroXig Ms^o'Km oLv^^c/)7rm, 
AAA' g^' VTroo^sictg i>mBov 'UTo'hVTn^oLKog iJj^?. 

*" In the original the line is 'Esj (paivvav, Strabo i^ys, ISluv fj.iv S'n xowx? ts-otsnai 
T-a^iVrrsT-ao-gi? t>i re Hs<, zoci tw'HAiu. This is not true, according to the prefent 
read'npr. It fhoiild therefore be 'Eas qiuivftiiy or Has, that l7r7ro^a.(rBii may relate to 
both'Ea?, and'HAia. 

*' Iliad. T.V.2 15. 


The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLOGYr 437 

Offspring of Jove, great Dardanus arofe. 

And founded all Dardania. Troy's high tow'rSj 

The facred feat of the Mcropian bands, 

Grac'd not the plain. The fcatter'd tribes as yet. 

Dwelt at the foot of Ida's fhady hill, 

Amid the gufhing waters. 

The Dardanians were Atlantians, being the reputed children 
of Eledtra. Their hiftory is comprifed in that of Dardanus, 
whom Virgil, in opposition to Homier, makes the founder of 
Ilium or Troy. 

■** Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis, et auftor, 
Eledlra, ut Graii perhibent, Atlantide cretus, 
Advehitur Teucros. 

The common opinion is, that the city was built by Ilus, the 
fon of Dardanus ; who muft confequently have been of the 
fame family, a Merop-Atlantian. On this account the poet 
fpeaking above of Troy ftyles it "UJoXig Ms^otto^v av^poiTroop, 
or a city of the Difperfed. 

The Trojans, and '^'' Myfians were of a different family 
from the native Phrygians ; being of the fame lineao-e, as 
the people of Hellas and Ionia. The Phrygians were the 
defcendents of Japhet, and Javan ; and poffeffed the whole 
country, except fome diftridts upon the fea-coafl. It is Hiid 
indeed by Homer, that there had been a dynafty of feven 
kings, at Troy ; who are mentioned as refpedable princes: 
and Virgil ftyles Priam, fuperbum regnatorem Afias. Yet 

■** ./Eneid. L. S. V. 134. 

*' Ne^gw/' Kwnyoi — :-^ oJ Muaot, Chron. Pafch. p.. 2.S, 


43^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the region of Troas was comparatively ^^ fmall ; and the in- 
habitants few in number, in refpe6l to the natives of Phrygia. 
The latter, as they were of a different race, fo they had a 
language of their own diftind: from that of Troas. They 
were likewife in fubjedion to a king, who is reprefented as 
monarch of the whole country. All this is to be obtained 
from the evidence of Homer himfelf ; who mentions this 
prince, and his people, and fpeaks of their language, as dif- 
ferent from that of the Trojans. This piece of hiftory is to 
be found in the defcription of that interview, which Venus is 
fuppofed to have had with Anchifes upon Mount Ida ; and 
it is introduced in the Hymn to that Goddefs. Upon en- 
tering the cave of Anchifes, among other things, Venus tells 
him, upon his accofting her as a Deity, that Jhe is no God- 
defs ; a7id wonders^ that he jhould take her for fuch apetfojiage, 
'The mother^ fays fje^ who bore me^ was a woman ; and I am a 
mere mortal. My father indeed is of note ; and is no lefs than 
the monarch Otreus, of whom you ca?mot hut have heard : for he 
rules over all Phrygia^ which fo abounds with well-walled towns, 
I am acquainted with your language^ as well as that of tny own 
fiat ion. 

"^ Ov ri; roi Qsog £1^X1' ri [m ASavctrriiTiv si^Dcsi; ; 


Or^svg §' sg-i utoltiti^ ovo^cl kKutq;^ sitts oLKHzig^ 

^ If any credit may be given to the Trojan hiftory, as related by Homer, the very 
cities of Troas were not fubjed to Priam. Lyrnefflis, like Troy, was fituated at the 
foot of Mount Ida, at the diftance of a very few miles from the latter city ; yet was 
fubjeft to its own king. Iliad. T. v. 295. Strabo. L. 13. p. 910. The fame cir- 
cuinftance is to be obferved in refped to Thebes, and other neighbouring cities. 

♦' Hymn to Venus, v. 109. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mviuology, 439 

Thus we find, that the language of the Trojans, and of 
the native Phrygians was different ; for they were not 
of the fame race. But the Grecians and the Trojans 
were of the fime family, however they may be repre- 
fented, as in a ftate of warfare : and they are introduced as 
fpeaking the fame language. Priam's people could converfe 
with their enemies : but their allies difftred from them in 
fpeech, and indeed from one another. The Carians were 
a large and powerful nation : and Homer reprefents them. 
particularly, as barbarous in refpe6l to language. 

Polydamas therefore advifes Hedlor to arrange the troops in 
their encampment according to their tribes, and dialedis ; 
that there might be no confufion. As the Trojans were Me- 
topes and Titanians, they were confequentlv A^ai/arof, or of 
the race of the Immortals. Their language accordingly is 
charaderized by Homer as the language of the Gods. It was 
the Amonian, or Titanian tongue ; and we often find it op- 
pofed to that of men, which was the language of Japhct and 
Javan. Homer makes a diftindion of this nature, when he 
is fpeaking of Briareus. 

■^^ 12^' sKc/.roy^si^ov KaXscroLir' eg (jlcck^qv 0?Kvy,7ro'j^ 
KiyoLimcL, * 

-"^ Iliad. B.v. 867. 
*' liiaJ. A. V. 402. 


44^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The like occurs, when he is fpeaking of the tomb of Myrin- 
na the Amazon. 

"* Eff h rig 'nr^oTra^oi&s 'uroXsocg oLiTrsict KoT^ujpriy 

Tnv YiTCii cLv^^sg BoLTisiav Ki!iXYi(rKii(nv, 
A^ayciToi h Ts (Tyjixol 'WqXvct/.ci^Cijlqio Mv^imig. 

There is a third inftance, when he is fpeaking of the bird 

*9 Ep^' rig-' o^QKTiv lirsTi^vKCiTfJLsvog siT^oltivoktiVj 

A fourth, when he introduces the river Xanthus. 

*° Avroi $' a^' 'H<pong-oio (xsyctg 'ZtTora^os', f^a^vSivrigy 
Op 'Eolp^op KccK£ii(n ©£0/, up^^sg h Xkol^clp^^qp, 

In fpeaking of the herb Moly in the OdyfTey, Homer again 
mentions the language of the Gods 5 but without putting it 
in oppofition to that of men. 

^' 'Fii^ri fxsp [jLsKolp strtcs, yoiXccKTi h siKshop cLP^og* 
MwAy (Te (jlip KoChe^^Ti 0£o;. 

In the fame manner, he takes notice of the famous rocks 
' Symplegades : 

♦' Iliad. B. V. 811. 
-*' Iliad. -S.v. 289. 
'° Iliad. T.v. 73. 
" Odyff. K. V. 304. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 441 

^* Hhccyzrag $ri 701 raorys Qeoi Mam^sg aoLhBinri, 

In the Scholia upon Theocritus, the fame rocks are faid to 
be differently denominated by Gods and by mortals, accord- 
ing to Caryftius Pergamenus. ^' l^OL^v^io; Hs^yaiJLYjyog (pYifTi, 
Kvavsag [jlsv vzo OLv^^o^irm^ vto ^s Qsoov O^icn HvXag kbkT^yi^t&oli, 
Proclus quotes fome poet, who fpeaks of the Moon, as dif- 
ferently named by thefe two parties. 

K^CLVOLTOl KMiiifTlVj ZTtl'^QoVlOl h T£ Mj^J'^^y. 

Heiiod mentions the language of men ; but of men only % 
and fays, that they had a particular name for a pigeon. 
" Tag h (i^oToi KCiKs3(ri ITsAsiaJa?. Probably there was a 
reference to the Gods in that part of the paflage, which is 
loft, and to the lonah. Thefe are the only inftances of this 
nature, that I am able to recollect. 

Hence we find, that there were two languages alluded to 
by the Grecian writers : one of which was the Meropian, or 
that of the Difperfed ; the other was the language of Javan, 

*' Odyir. M. V. 61. 

" Scholia in Theoc. Idyl. 13. v. 22. 

'* Proclus in Timjeum Plat. ^.i.y. p. 154, 

" E Fragmentis Hefiodi. 

Vol. III. Lll OF 

( 443 ) 

O F 


In SYRIA, and in COLCHIS; 



S there are many circumftances to the purpofe above, 
here and there fcattered in the courfe of the former 
treatifes, I muft beg leave in fome degree to recapitulate 
thefe evidences, and to place them in one view before the eye 
of the reader. For this is a very interefting fubjed, which 
has been ftrangely overlooked, and negledled : though it will 
appear upon enquiry to be the bails of all Gentile hiftory. 
Of the fons of Chus, who upon the difperlion betook them- 
felves eaftward to the Indus and Ganges, I have fpoken at 
large : alfo of thofe who palTed into Egypt. When they 
were ejected from this country, they retired to many parts : 
and particularly to the coaft of Syria ; which they occupied 
under the titles of Belidae, Cadmians, and Phoenices. From 
hence they went to Hellas, as I have {hewn, likewife to He- 

L 1 1 2 truria, 

444 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

truria, and Iberia ; and the coaft of the great ' Atlantic. A 
colony alfo fettled at Colchis, and upon different parts of 
the Pontic region. Wherever they came, they were in every 
refpedt fuperior to the natives : and as their fettlements were 
made very early, the annals of each nation begin with their 
hiftory ; and with the hiftory of their forefathers, which 
was ingrafted upon it. They were very fkilful in phyiic : 
and generally carried with them vulnerary herbs, and plants of 
ufeful and falutary properties ; which they adapted to the 
foil of the countries, whither they came. They particularly 
cultivated the vine : and almoft every region, where they fet- 
tled, will be found famous for the grape. They introduced 
Zuth, or ferment; and taught the compofition of many liquors. 
As the earth in the firft ages had been overgrown with woods 
and forefts; and was in many places obftruded by lakes, and 
moraffes : they opened roads, and formed caufeways ; and 
drained the ftagnant waters. Specimens of thefe extraordi- 
nary performances were exhibited in various parts : but all, 
that they performed at different times, has been attributed to 
fome one heio, either Oliris, Hercules, or Bacchus. In the 
peregrinations of the laft perfonage may be particularly (etn, 
the hiftory of this people, and of the benefits, which they 
conferred upon the world. "There was no natioji upon earthy 
fays * Diodorus, neither Grecian^ nor foreign., hut what was 
indebted to this Deity for fome mark of his munifcence^y and 

' See Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. 24. and 26. They feem to have been the firft> who 
peopled the ifland Sicily. 

^acpno9. Diodor. Sic. L. 3. p. 207. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 445 

favour. — He taught people to pla?jt the ^ vine, and to preferve 
the juice of the grape: a?id to lay up the fruits of the earth in pro- 
per repoftories. — 'Thofe who pojfejfed an harfj, and ungenial foil^ 
not adapted to the cultivatio?i of the vine^ were fljew7t the art of 
making a dri?ik from barley^ not lefs grateful than that^ which 
proceeded from the grape. The "^ perfon., from whom thefe blef- 
fmgs were derived^ is reprefented, as of the highejl antiquity ; 
and the great eft hefiefaSior^ that ever jnankind experienced. 
The like liiftory is given of ^ Ofiris, under which character 
we are to underftand a people, who went forth, and per- 
formed all that has been mentioned. Their religion coniifted 
in the worfhip of the Sun under various titles. To this were 
added divine honours, paid to their anceflors, the Baalim of 
the firft ages : all which was attended with particular myf- 
terious rites. In thefe were commemorated the circum- 
ftances of the Deluge ; and the hiftory of the great Patri- 
arch, through whom mankind was preferved. 

Among the many titles, under which this people pafTed, 
they particularly preferv^ed thofe which were moft effential, 
and charadieriflic. Hence they are continually in the more 
ancient hiftories reprefented as Tircojizq Triyei/Big, Titanian 
and Earthhorn. They were alfo fly led Arabians, Ethiopians, 
Saites, Sethites, Sithonians, Zones, Zoanes, Azones, Ama- 
zones, and Arkites. This laft was by the Grecians rendered, 

av.^o^Dvcov, y.oii nvMV aAAcov KapTrojv. Ibid, 

* riaAuiov itvat a(poS poc TdTov, xai y.eyt<^cU5 Svs^yeaian xonccti^ia^ai ru yevi-t Tcav 
avD^ojTTwy. Diodorus Sic. L. 4, p. 210. 

' See the treatife infcribed Ofiris. vol. 2. p. 5S. The fame things are mentioned 
of Ouranus. Diodor. L. 3. p. 189. alio of Cronus. L. 5, p. 384,. 

44^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

A^KctSss mi A^ysioi, Arcadians ajtd Argeans. But above all 
they retained their family name of Cutje, Cuths, and Cu- 
theans ; which I have fliewn to have been almoft univerfally 
expreffed XKvdai, Scuthae, or Scythians. 

Thofe, who fettled in * Syria, built the city Antioch upon 
the Orontes : and Zonaras, who fpeaks of them colle6tively, 
as the fons of Ham, mentions, that they got poffefTion of all 
the country about Libanus quite up to the farther part of 
^ Syria. As Phoenicia was imagined to have had its name 
from a hero, Phoenix : fo Syria is faid to have been denomi- 
nated from a like perfonage Syrus ; who was fuppofed to 
have come there in the firfl: ages. * Taroig TOig y^^ovoig Xv^og 
ho^siroLi ysyovsvoti yn]ysvrjgy ov B7!:mv^og ii I^v^icl. In thofe twies 
it is reported^ that Syrus livedo one of the earthborn people : 
and from him the comitry received its name. But the term 
Sur, and Sour, from whence was formed Sn^o?, figniiied the 
Sun. It was the fame as Sehor of Egypt, exprelTed Xsi^iog^ 
Seiriusj by the Greeks. Hence we are told, ^ l>si^iog o 'HA/o^, 
By Seirius is meant the great luminary. In confequence of 
this we find places, where the God of light was worshiped 
under the name of Sehor, and Sur, called '° Bji^cra^, Bethfur, 
and Bn^Tn^dj Bethfoura. The city Ur in Chaldea was fome- 
times expreffed Sur. Syncellus fays that Abraham was born 

' 'Ot cTg Xa,we nsjaiSii im airo 2uf '«?, ta^ h^avs xaci AiCavB T&;;' ofoon yw v.a.Tiayj))/. 
Jofeph. Aiitiq. L. i- c. lO. p. 22. SeeEuleb. Chron. p. 12. 

' P. 21. See alfo Syncellus. p. 126. 

* Syncellus. p. 150. 

» Hefych. 

■° Beth-Sur. Jofliua. c. 15. v. 28. BsGo-ap. Jofephus. Antiq. L. 12. c. ;_. 
E>;9o-ap. Ibid. L. 8. c. 10. Ba^Qo-aga. i Machab. c. 4. v. 29. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 447 

" gj/ Tj) %w^ct Twv XaAoViw^, s^ Soy^ tj^ "uroXsi : hi the land of 
the Chaldeans^ and in the city Sur. Xv^ov Kom}/ ovo^CL "uroKhm 
TO'KUiV : Sti?'-, fays Stephanus, is a najne co77imon to many places. 
The Persians called their chief Deity Sura : " Perf£e Sy^jj 
Deum vocant : and we know, that they particularly adored 
the Sun> Eufebius fpeaking of Oiiris, the fame as Melius, 
tells us, '^ 'EAAi^ys? A<oj'y(ro^ 'UT^QQ-ayo^svafn^ Koii Xv^iov lira^w- 
iivfic^g. The Grecians call him indiffe7'ently Dionufus, or Su- 
rius^ as beiiig fyno7ty7nous. Plutarch alfo mentions ^"^ 07i^iv 
Xsi^ioVj Oft7~is Sirius : which is the fame name differently 
exhibited. From this perfonage the region had its name. 
'5 2y^<a h 0,1:0 Xv^s KBKXTf^oLi. Syria had its 7ia7ttefro7n Syrus : 
which was the fame as Helius, and Apollo. It is by Maun- 
deville in his travels uniformly expreffed '^ Surrye : which 
we may imagine to have been the true name, as it was in his 
time rendered by the natives. 

I have dwelt upon this circumftance, becaufe many have 
fuppofed Syria to have been named from the city Tyre, ex- 
preffed Tfor : which is a notion void of all truth. Tyre did 
not belong to that country. It was feparated from Syria by 
the whole ridge of mountains called Libanus, and Anti-Li- 
banus. It did not fo much as give name to the little diflridt, 
where it ftood. We never read of Tyria; no more than wc 

Lilius Gyraldus. Syntag. L. i. p, 5. 
" Prsp. Evang. L. i. p. 27. 
'■^ If. etOfir. p. 372. 

'^ Scholia in Dionyf. v. 498. He is fometimes mentioned as the fon of Apollo: 
Su/)ia a/To Xvm yeyovoToi tb AttoAAwj/qs. Ibid. v. 775. 
i* The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Knt. anno 1322. 

10 do 

44^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

do of Sidonia. In fliort, thofe, who have given into this 
opinion, have erred for want of geographical precifion. 
Tyre was not a city of Syria ; but ot Canaan : and fo was 
Sidon, which ftood ftill higher, about four and twenty miles 
above it. They were both included in the land of Ifrael ; 
and belonged to the tribe of Afher. It is accordingly dif- 
tincruilhied by the author of the book of '^ Judith : who 
mentions the people of Tyre and Sidon, and thofe who 
dwell in Sur : Tovg onag sv Xiioon KCii zp Ty^w, koli rovg kol- 
ToiKovnctg Soy^. 

Some of this family fettled in that part of Canaan, called 
Galilee ; which feems always to have confilled of mixed in- 
habitants ; and from hence was ftyled Galilee of Nations. 
Here they founded a city, which was in aftertimes called 
Scy thopolis ; but originally '^ Beth-San, from the worfhip of 
the Sun. It had alfo the name of Nufa ; and there was a 
tradition, that it had been founded by Dionufus, in memory 
of his '' nurfe. It feems to have been a Typhonian city : 
for there was a hiftory of a virgin having been there facri- 

■^ C. 2. V. 28. 

" Scythopolis civitas, Galilean metropolis, qiias et Bethfan, id eft Domus Solis. 
Eugefippus de Diftantiis Locorum in Terra Sanda. 

'' SxuSoTToAf?, Nuo-o-)), riuAatq-tvyji 'uroXii, 'ur^ore^ov Xiyo}^ivn BaGaai'- Stephanus 
Byzant. lb correded. 

Scythopolin, antea Nyfam, a Libero Patre, fepulta nutrice, Scythis dedudis. 
Pliny. L. 5, p. 262. The Nufa in India was alfo built in memory of the nurfe of 

Bporoia-i jcAen'Mi/ Nuffcrai', w Baxe^ui 
lax^oi avTCti MAIAN rtS'icrnv 

Strabo. L. 15. p. 1008. from Sophocles. 

In all thefe hiftories there is a ftrid analogy. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mvthologv. 449 

ficed, whom they called Nufa : and the offering Is faid to 
have been firft made by " Argcans. The city alfo, which 
they built upon the Orontes, was one of thofe ftyled Ty- 
phonian. Hence the river was called the ftream of "' Ty- 
phon : and there was a tradition of Typhon being buried 
upon its "' banks. This was owing to a Taphos, or high altar, 
named Typhon, upon which they offered human vidlims. 
The name of Orontes Vas faid to have been given to the river 
by one Orontes, an *^ Indian. From hence we may learn, that 
they were Babylonian and Chaldaic perfons, by whom it 
was conferred ; a colony of people from the Tigris. Hard 
by was the fine grove of Daphne, denominated from Taphanes 
in Egypt. The natives of this region were ftyled both lonim 
and ** Argeans : and retained many memorials of the Deluge, 
and of the difperfion afterwards. Many of this family ex- 
tended themfelves quite to the Euphrates ; and ftill farther 
into Aram-Naharaim : for we read very early of a prince in 
this region, named ^^ Cufhan-Rifhathaim : to whom the If- 
raelites were tributary. This is certainly the colony alluded 
to by Diodorus Siculus, when he tells us, "^ that Belus led a 
body of people from Egypt to the Euphrates, and there infti- 
tuted the Chaldaic v/orfliip. 

Cedrenus. p. 135. 
" Srrabo. L. 16. p. logo. 
" Ibid. 

O^orTjjK eii'ai' yivcvi cTe, eivxi xvtqv inhSoov, Paufan. L. 8. p. 661. 
*■* Chron. Pafchale. p. 40. 
*' Judges, c. 3. V. S. 

L. I. p. 24. He fuppofes, that they went to Babylon : but no colony ever 
fettled there ; nor was Babylon inhabited for ages. 

Vol. III. u m m Of 

450 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology., 


THE region called Colchis was lituated at the foot of 
Mount Caucafus upon the Pontus Euxinus : and was one of 
the moft ancient colonies of the Cuthites. It is faid to have 
exifted many ages before the sera of the Argonauts : nay, ac- 
cording to the poet, many of the conftellations were not form- 
ed in the heavens at the time, when this colony was ''''founded. 
One of the principal cities was called Cuta, and Cutaia : 
hence we read, *^ KvTo, "nfoKig YLoXyjUTi^ "War^ig Mri^siccg. Cuta 
was a city of Colchis^ in which Medea was born. *' ILvtoliol, 
'UToh.ig KoKyi^og' aljo Cutaia was a city of the fatne region. 
The country was called ^° Cuteis, and Cutais, from the 
Cuthite inhabitants. Herodotus mentions many particulars, 
wherein this people refembled the ^' Egyptians. T'hey had 
the like tendency to woolly hair ; ajtd were of the fame dark cofn- 
plexion. There was a great Jimilitude i?t their manufaBures ; 
particularly in their linen : for they abounded in flax^ which 
they wrought up- to a high perfcSiion after the Egyptian method. 

*'' Ol/ttoi Tiipicc -wccvTct, tat' oupuvui iiXiaa-Qviai' zi'dAui yap ciSriv iTreptnouiy^ 

atm'. Apollon. Argon. L. 4. v. 267. v. 276. 

'* Steph. Byzant. 

*' Scholia in Apollon. L. 4.. v. 401, 

*° TciiA Kvriiii. Orph. Argonaut, v. 818. 

'' Ms?<.ay^^^oSi iiari, aai ouhorpi^es. — Au'or jwsvov 8T0« TS Kai Aiyvynioi B^ycx,<^or- 

rrai. L. 2. c. 104. 105, 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 451 

^' KoLi j5 ^ojy] "UTdfroLj KM Yi y'K(j^(f(rciL^ £fX(ps^rjg sg-iv ctKXriXoKnv. 
In Jhort their whole way of life^ and their language had a 
great refemblatice. From hence we may perceive, though 
they were not, as the hiftorian fuppofes, of the real Miz- 
raim race, yet that they came from a collateral branch, and 
were a colony from Egypt. They retained a great reverence 
for the memory of their anceftor Chus : and the vaft moun- 
tain, or rather ridge of mountains, which ran through their 
country, was from him denominated Caucafus ; or more 
truly, according to the idiom of the natives, " Co-Cufus. 
There was alfo a city of the fame ^'^ name. It Signifies the 
place or temple of Chus, who was called both Cafus, and 
Cufus. Apollonius mentions an ancient Typhonian Petra 
in the hollows of the mountain ; where we may fuppofe the 
fame rites to have been prad:ifed, as in the Typhonian cities 
of Egypt. It was an Ophite temple, where the Deity was 
probably worfhiped under the figure of a ferpent. Hence 
the poet fuppofes the ferpent, with which Jafon engaged, to 
have been produced in thefe parts : 

''^ 'Ov avrr] Feci' 0Lve<pv<TBv 
KoLVKaTii sv KVYi^JLOKri Tv(po(,onYi on IIbt^oc, 

I have mentioned, that Egypt was called Ai-Ait, by the 
'* Ibid. 

" It is called Co-cas by Hatho the Armenian. PurchalT. vol. 3. p. 109. 

'* Iter a Sebattia Co-cufo per Melitenem. Antonin. Itin. p. 176. See alfo p. 
178. This city ftood at the foot of the mountain in Armenia : and by Johan. 
Chryfoflome it is called Cucufus. 

" Apollon. L. 2. V. 1213. 

M m m 2 Grecians 

452 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Grecians expreffed Aetia. ^^ EKT^ri^ri h KCCi AsT/a, oltco Ij/Jk 
Til/OS AsT3. li was named Aetia from one Aetus of Indie ex~. 
traSiion. Ai-Aet anfwers to KiOL A&TH of the Greeks ; and 
fignifies the land of the Eagk : a name given to Egypt from 
the hieroglyphic, by which it was denoted. For both an 
eagle and a vulture were fymbols of that " country. The 
people, who fettled in Colchis gave this name to the ^^ coun- 
try: whence the king had the title of Aiates ; by the lonians 
exprefled Ajj^Ty]?, Aietes. We are told above, that it was 
originally an Indie name, oltto Tivog INAOT Astb. Hence the 
Colchians, who were of that family, which firft introduced 
it, were looked upon as an Indie people, being by defcent 
Cuthites of Babylonia. '' '0( ^s KoT^-^oi h^uoL ^KV^ai sktiv, 
'The Colchians^ fays the Scholiaft upon Lycophron, are no other 
than the Indie Scythce : the purport ot which terms I have 
before explained. The Scholiaft upon Pindar calls them 
Scyths ; and under this title gives the fame hiftory of them, 
as has been previoully given by Herodotus. '^'^ AiyvKTim 

'* Steph. Byzant. hiywrroi. 
" It was called Ai-Ait, and Ai-Gupt. 

^' ApoUonius uies it out of compofition, and calls the country Aia. 
E| Aiij; iv-.GVTo tna.^ KmTa.0 Ki/Ta:(0. L. 2. v. 1095. 
But the original name feems to have been Ai-Aet, or Ai-Ait, though in aftertimes 
exprefied A/a, Aia. See p. 206. of this volume, 

" Schol. in Lycoph. v. 174. See p. 214. of this volume. 
*" Pind. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 376. The poet had previoufly mentioned the com- 
plexion of the Colchians. 

^\%a. y.i?vct.ivM7retjai Y^oX^oim fSixv 
Mt^xv Ai»ja -ujoif auT^.'. Ibid. 

10 l^e 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 453 

'The ScythcSy or CtithceanSy of Colchis, are a colo7iy frojn Egypt, 
Hence they are reprefented as of a very dark complexion. They 
deal in fax, of which they 7nake linen after the jnanner of the 
Egyptians. Under the name of Indi they are fpoken of by- 
Socrates ; who feems to allude to more nations than one of 
this denomination. '^^ TrjUiKOLVTO. ya^ I^^iji;!/ ts tccv sv^ts^oj, koli 
l^Yj^ujv B^VY\. Some of them were called Sindi, and Sindones; 
and they had an harbour named '^^ Sindicus Portus. Of their 
ingenuity and extenfive knowledge I have fpoken before : 
alfo of the obclifks, which they creeled, fimilar to thofe at 
Thebes, and in other places of Egypt. Some traces of thefe 
things were to be obferved in after ages : and one vaft flone 
is particularly commemorated, which was fuppofed to have 
been the anchor of the *^ Argo. 

Some of thefe fugitives from Egypt came from Heliopolis, 
the capital of the region called Zoan. Hence they particu- 
larly reverenced the Sun; and from this worfliip were named 
'''^ Soani. Pliny calls them Suani ; and they are fpoken of 
as a powerful people, and of great natural ftrength. Their 
neighbours, the Iberians, were of the fame race, and like all 
the Cuthite families, followed the Dionufiaca, or rites of 
Dionufus. This people are faid to have come from Pyrene. 

*' Hift. Ecclefiaft. L. i. c. 19. p. 49. 
*" Strnbo. L. II. p. 753. 757, 

'2,iv^oi e^)}y.a.icv TsiS lov fj.iya. vonSTccoiTei. Apollon. L. 4. v. 322. 
*' Ai6n')j5 S's Tivoi aAA»5 ^pava,v.ccTcc iSeixiVjro -sraAaia' i>$— rci5c«(7a( eKewcc iivoci 
Tu A£/4-ai'« TW ctyxucoci tyu A^-j-hs. Aniani Periplus Maris Eiixini. p. 9. 
** rjA>;o-*of J"g }t«i 0/ 2oarg?» xcctTit^oi x«t' aAjojc. Strabo. L. 11. p, 762. 
*' Dionyf. 7>:ip:))yrKr. v. 695. 

454 T'^E Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Tlie poet fuppofesj that they came eaftward from Pyrene in 
Spain : but in thefe early times colonies did not come from 
the weft ; but went for the moft part in a quite contrary di- 
redlion. The Pyrene, Uv^rivriy from whence the Iberi came, 
was Ur, the land of fire ; in other words, Babylonia and 
Chaldea. Next to them was the nation of the Camaritae, 
who ftiew their original in their name. They are reprefented 
as a large and powerful tribe : and are faid to have enter- 
tained Bacchus, after the Indie war in which he had been 
put to flight. This flight was (Oi^pprji^yi^si') from the land of 
fre, the Chaldaic Ur: and from the banks of the Tigris, the 
original Indus. From hence the Camaritse, thofe priefts and 
votaries of Cham fled, together with the Iberi, and brought 
the rites of Bacchus into the neighbourhood of Colchis and 
Caucafus: and eftablifhed them, where they fettled; which 
is called the entertaining of the fugitive Deity. Of this 
people the poet Dionyflus gives a fine account immediately 
fubfequent to the former. 

'^^ Ka/ KcLfxct^iTccocv cvXov fJisyoLy roi 'urors BoiK'^ov 
IvJw;' SK 'WqXbixqio ^shy^svoi £^siH(r(roVy 

Euoi, Bc(.yjyB^ 7\iyovizz' o ^b (p^sin pXctro Acci[jlup 
Ksiiiojp av^^taTTocv yepsrivrs, kcli rfieoL, yaiYig. 

It is obfcrvable of the '^^ Iberians, that they were divided 

♦' V. 700. 

f Strabo. L. 11. p. 765. 

9 into 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 455 

into different cafts : each of which had its proper fundlion.. 
The rank and office of every tribe were hereditary and un- 
changeable. Tliis rule of invariable diftinftion prevailed 
no where elfe, except in ''^ India, and '^^ Egypt. 

That the Colchians were from the latter country, is mani- 
feft from the evidence already produced. And we may not 
only perceive, from whence they came \ there are fufficient 
proofs to afcertain alfo who they were. We may be allured, 
that they were a part of that body, who by the Egyptians 
were ftyled the Hellenic and Phenician Shepherds. They 
quitted Egypt, and were fucceeded by the Ifraelites, called 
afterwards the Jews. Thefe alfo retired, and fettled in 
Canaan, between Arabia and Syria. Of this migration, and 
of that previous to Colchis, Diodorus affords the followino- 

•extraordinary evidence. '^^ To T£ "Xm KoA^oij:/ z(}voq sy Twllo!/- 
Tw, K^i TO TL'JV lsccacf:v QLV(x ^strov A^oL^iag km Xv^iag, oiKr\<TCLi 
Tivotg o^fj^ri^snag 'sra/ savTCf^v {Aiyv7rTi(A)v). The hiftorian had 
been fpeaking of various colonies from this country, and 
particularly of that colony fuppofed to be led by Danaus to 
Argos ; and of others to different places : and then adds, 
t/jai the Colchic nation tipon the Pontus Ruxinus^ as well as that 
of the Jews J iv ho fettled (in Canaan) hetweejt Syria and Ara- 
bia^ were both foimded by people^ who w.e7it forth in early times 

from Egypt. As they enriched this country withr many ufe- 
ful arts, we may well expedl that they retained to the laft 

*' Strabo. L. 15. p. 1029. 

*' Herodotus. L. 2. c. 164. The Egyptians and Indi were divided into feven 
cafts ; the Iberi only into four. 
*' L. 2. p. 24. 


45^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

feme o£ their original excellence. We accordingly find, 
that writers fpeak greatly of their ^° advances in fcience, 
though it muft have been much impaired, before the Gre- 
cians were acquainted with their coaft. They however car- 
ried on for a long time an extenfive commerce: and we have 
from Strabo a very good defcription of their country ; the 
nature of which we may prefume to have been always the 
fame. He fays, ^' that the whole region abounded with 
fruits of every kind ; and with every material, that was re- 
quifite for navigation. The only produd of the country at 
all exceptionable was the honey, which had a bitter tafte. 
Timber was in great plenty : and there were many rivers for 
its conveyance downwards. They had alfo abundance of 
flax and hemp : together with wax and pitch. The linen 
manufadlured by the natives was in high repute. Some of it 
was curie\ifly painted with figures of animals and flowers ; 
and afterwards dyed, like the linen of the Indians. And 
^* Herodotus tells us, that the whole was fo deeply tindured, 
that no wafhing could efface the colours. They accordingly 
exported it to various marts, as it was every where greatly 
fought after. Strabo fays, that many people, who thought 
that they faw a fimiiitude between the natives of Colchis and 
of Egypt, particularly in their cuftoms, made ufe of this cir- 
cumfliance to prove the refemblance. He adds, that the high 
reputation and fplendor, which they once maintained, may 
be known by the repeated evidences, that writers have tranf- 
mitted concerning them. 

^° 0(751!' e-^:q)o!,vsixv iax^v « Pti^'/"" at^T);, ^nA'^aty ot [/.v^i, Strabo. L. 1 1, p. 76 

'■ Ibid.> 

^' Herod. L. i, c. 203. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 457 

Of the AMAZON S. 

AS the Cuthitcs of Colchis were fo very cntcrpriling; and 
carried on fuch an cxtenfive commerce; they in confequence 
of it made many fettlements; fo that the coaft of the Euxine, 
upon which they lived, was in many places peopled from 
them. One of their chief colonies feems to have been of that 
celebrated people, who were called Amazons; and whom the 
Grecians have reprefented as a nation of women. They are 
fuppofed to have been of a very v/arlike turn ; and to have 
made expeditions into countries at a great diflance. To keep 
up their community, they permitted men at ftated times to 
come among them : but after that they had enjoyed a fuffi- 
cient commerce with them, they put them to death. Hence 
they are faid to have been called " Aorpata, or murderers of 
their hufbands. Of the children, which were born to them, 
they flew all the males: but nurfed the females; and trained 
them up to war. And that they might in time ufe their arms 
more readily, they feared up the right ^^breafl: in their infancy, 
to prevent its growth : imagining, that otherwife there v/ould 
be fome impediment in their management of the bow. They 

" Herod. L. 4. c. no, 

^py^iovt ttT^oi i^a.'^mv XP'"^^'- Strabo. L. 11. p. 769. Penthifilea in Virgil is 

Aurca fubnectens exedtC cingvila mamma;. iEneid. L. i. v. 492. 

Vol. III. N n n refided 

458 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

redded chiefly upon the river ^'' Thermodon, and the coaft of 
Cappadocia ; where they held the cities ^^ Cutora, Amila, 
Comana, Themifcura, Cadifia, Lucaftia, and Sinope. They 
aifo poflefTed a large tra6l of territory in Armenia. They 
overran divers countries ; and many cities are faid to have been 
founded by them ; which cities were of the highefl: antiquity. 
This is the hiftory which has been tranfmitted concerning the 
Amazons: but is it poflible, that fuch a nation could have ex- 
ifted ? or could fuch mighty operations have been carried on 
by a band of women ? Every circumftance, as it is related, 
is incredible : yet there have been at all times " perfons, who 
have efpoufed this notion ; and made ufe of all their learning 
and ingenuity to lliew, that fuch a community of women did 
exift. In confequence of this, they have been forced to 
maintain the whole feries of grofs abfurdities, with which 
the notion is attended. 

Many try in fome degree to extenuate the cruelty men- 
tix)ned in the above hiftory, in order to make it more corre- 
fpondent to reafon. They tell us, that the Amazons did not 
kill their male children ; but only ^^ lamed them, that they 
might ftay at home, and be more fubfervient to their com- 
mands. In refpedl to their fearing the right breafts of the 

" Qiialcs Threicis cum flumina ThermodontJs 

Pulfant, etpiftis bellantur Amazones armis. Ibid. L. 11. v. 659. 
'* Strabo. L. 12. p. 823. 825. 

©iviirTxvpx, — iv 11 TO. (iaa iKiioc roou A/bta'C^orau' uTrv^'^e. DIodor. Sic. L. 4. p. 224. 
" See particularly Petri Petiti, Philofoplii et Medici, de Amazonibus Diflertatio. 

Lutetife Parifior. 16S5. 

'^ TojiJ'e yevofjiivoiv ras fAiv cipcrevaf iinoouv to, t« axiXn^ ■x.a.i ra? ^pa^io'.'x?^ 

y.a.'^ov iTixxHiv. Dioclor. Sic. L.. 2. p. 12S, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 459 

females, both Hippocrates and Galen allow, that it was [o 
reported : but they fay, that it was not done on account ol: 
liny impediment, which might have accrued in the manage- 
ment of the bow ; but to render the right arm ftrongcr by 
an addition of " aliment. For what would have p-onc to the 
breaft, would now be expended on the neighbouring mcm^ 
ber. This is a notable refinement. Thefe learned men 
fhould have been fure of the fa6t, before they gave a reafon 
for the procefs. To me it appears to be a mofl idle fable : 
and notwithflanding the high authority of thefe truly great 
phyficians, I appeal to any anatomift to determine, whether 
it be pofUble, by any cauterizing in the ftate of infancy to 
prevent the future breaft from riling : and were it poffible, 
whether it could be performed by any means, which would 
not equally affed: the life. But fetting this alide, the ad- 
vantage is too ideal : and the whole is fo remote a cpnlide- 
ration, that it never could have been thought of by a parent. 
Or if it had, fuch a theory could never have been reduced to 
practice, and adopted by a nation. It is not to be believed, 
that a mother could be devoted to fuch an infernal policy, as 
to fear the bofom of her daughter with a red-hot *° iron : or 


" Galen of Hippocrates. Tai -youi' A y.oc^ot'iS m auro? (pvcni' eTrivxisiv rov S'i'^icv 

yiviiToci' COS Tn(fva-ii ys koci lauTiii uTrccc^da-rii ccafjevai. Comment, in Aphorifm. 43. 
fetft. 7. 

MuooAo^ao"* (Tg t;t'B, oti oci A/na^onSei to acpaSv yeroi 10 g&jUTWi', a'jT:/ca vmriov or, 
i^afvps'da-iv' Oil ij.iv Kocra. yavaru, di Si kutcc. tcl io-^ia., cos S'n^sv yjjiKa. jH'oiro, xxi 

fx/i tTritaAg'jsj TO cxppSi' "j ivoi tcc ^r)7\.ii. ^f; 'J.iv av ochiSix rocurcc i^'iv, eyu O'jk oiiS^x. 

Hippocrates -argri apS^ijr. c. 58. vol. 2. p. 814. 

Hippocrates fays, that they ufcd ;^aAx.goj' rSTf^Wfj'.iPor, an implement of brafj, 
which thf y heated for that piirpofe -, and then -sj^s toc f^-cc'Coi' ti^sccci tov Sii,iov, 

N n n 2 «='* 

460 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

to break the legs, or disjoint the knees of her fon ; or to ren- 
der him incurably lame in the hips and thighs by luxation, 
as Hippocrates and Galen afiert : and this that he might be 
more eafily reduced to a ftate of dependence and flavery. 

The whole of this ftrange hiftory has been owing to a 
wrong etymology. The Greeks, who would fain deduce 
every thing from their own language, imagined, that by the 
term Amazon was fignified a perfon without a *' breaft. This 
perfon they inferred to be a female : and in confequence of it, 
as the Amazons were a powerful people, they formed a no- 
tion, that they were a community of ^"^ women, who fubiifhed 
by themfelves : and every abfurdity, with which this hiflory 
is attended, took its rife from the mifconception above. They 
did not confider, that there were many nations of Amazons 
widely feparated from each other : nor did they know, that 
they were theirfelves of Amazonian race. There may be 
found however fome few, who faw the improbability of the 
ftory, and treated it with fuitable contempt. Paljephatus, 
a man juftly complimented for his good *^ fenfe, gave it no 
'* credit. Strabo was born at Amaftris in Cappadocia, an 
Amazonian region ; and yet could obtain no evidence to 

y.cii iTTixatsrizi, cio^e t/\v ccvtiicrtv (fvsipsaoxt, £? J"s rev J's'^nv o^j-iov xa( /Spxjyiora Tuoicrav 
T-flv layxjv to ■aTA>i6sf exi'iSorxi. Hippocrates de Aquis, Locis, Aere. c. 42. vol. 

2. p. 552- 

''' Af^a.^6ov was fuppofed to be a compound of a and y.a.^o?. 

*' "Ai Si AfJ'.c-^ofSi iPTxacci av^pcci ajc B^dtTiy, aAA' w? rcc aAoyx ^soa aTo.^ ra 
erovi Tsrepi TW iacivw tcrny-Bpiai' vTrip^ccivaaai ths tiU^i op3i ttoivoiv^iai Ton ■mXt)ai'^^M- 
poif, I'-^DTiiv Tii'cc TavTw nyovfxivoif. Bardefanes apud Eufeb. P. E. L. 7. p. 277. 

*' naAa((faT05 ac(p'jjraToi. 

^* XpccTSiccv S'i yvvxr/MV BSevrore sixoi yiyia-^a.1 ovSe ya.p vjv aj'auy. PaLxphatus. 
p. 84. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 46.1 

countenance the hiftory. He fays, ^^ that many legendafy 
Jiories have a mixture of tf^uth ; and jnofl accounts adtnit 
of fame variation. But the hifo?y of the Amazons has 
beeit uniformly the fa7ne ; tl^e whole a monfrous and abfurd 
detail^ without the leaf fjew of prcbability. For who ca?i 
be perfuaded^ that a com?nu?iity of wofnen, either as an army^ 
or a city^ or a fate^ could fubfefi without meft f and 7iot 
only fubfifl^ but make expeditio?is^ into other countries^ a?id gain 
the Jovereignty o'^er kingdoms : not jnerely over the Tonians and 
thoje^ who were i?i their 7ieighbourhood\ but to pafs the feas^ and 
to carry their arms into Ruropef 'To accede to this were to fup- 
pofe, that Jiature varied from her fxed principles : and that in 
thofe days wofnen were 7nen^ a77,d 77ie7i wo7ne77. This is very 
fenfibly urged: and if it be incredible, that fuch an eftablifli- 
ment fhould fublift in one place, as Strabo fuppofes ; it muH 
be ftill more improbable, that there fhould be nations of wo- 
men widely feparated, and all living independent of men. 
This has not been attended to by thofe, who 'would counte- 
nance the fiible. The moft confiderable body, that went 
under the name of Amazons, fettled upon the Atlantic in- 
Africa, at the extreme verge of that region. Of their exploits 
and expeditions a long account is given in the hiftory of 

*' T\z'p^i S'c Tov A|«aC,oi'5jr Tx aVTx KsySTcti y.xi i-jv, yccci 'urctKcci^ npccrocSi) t' ovtoc, 
xamriq^tus 'UTo'^ou. ycrA. Strabo. 1^. ii. p. 770. 

*^ Tc'JTo yao oyxiov^ooiav (ir.iAsyct raj y.ev avS'^izi yuvonxcci yiyvofj^iiHi r'di roTi, 
Tu^Se • uvo feci. Ibidi 

If fuch a people had really exifled, fome traces of them would have been found, 
either in Iberia, and Albania ; or in the country, upon the Thermodon, where tliey 
are fuppofed chiefly to have refided. But Procopius fays, that there was no mark, 
no tradition to be obtained concerning theiii. DeBcUoGoth. L. 4. c. 3. p. 570. 


462 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

'^Myriiia. She is fiippofcd to have lived in the tinieof Orus, 
the foil of liis, and to have conquered Africa, and the greater 
part of Alia ; but was at lafl: flain in Thrace. There were 
Amazons in Mount Caucafus, near Colchis and ^^ Albania, 
and likevvife near the Falus ''^ Ma:otis. Polyrenus fpeaks of 
Amazons in '^° Indi.i ; and they are alfo mentioned by Non- 
nus. They likewife occur in '' Ethiopia. They at one time 
poffeffedalH* Ionia: and there were traditions of their being 
at " Samos, and in ^* Italy. Even the Athenians and Boeo- 
tians were of the fame family : hence it is faid, that Cad- 
mus had an " Amazonian wife, when he went to Thebes ; 
and that her name was Sphinx. It will be found, that the 
Colchians and Iberians, as well as the Cimmerians and Mceo- 
tse, were Amazonians. So were all the lonians ; and the At- 
lantians of Mauritania. They were in general Cuthite colo- 
nies from Egypt and Syria : and as they worfliiped the Sun, 

^' Diodor; Sic. L. :>,. p. 18S. and p. 185. 

Ai:.iVTtoi iv SevTfpc'j xa.ra Ai^uw avrai c>jKnv.irxi (pnoii'. iiTrSra^xi tS avrciii to 

ATAa^Tzx.oI'£'J^o?. Scholia in Apollon. L. z. v. q66. 

*' TttSo ty,; AhCctviai opirji xccnxs A-fxa-C^ovai oixnv ^atn, Strabo. L. II. p. 769. 

"' Twi' Fui aiv-ox px.Tdiy.ivciiy e^^oi'TXi MxiajToci. Scylacis Teriplus apud Gcogr. 
Vet. vol. 2. p. 31. 

^' AfJLK^oi'ot.i xcci hoy;. L. I. p. II. 

'' ^ii/obsyji Si oc'jTcci (pmiv a-Kvuivcciei' Ai9io7r;a. Scholia in Apollon. L. 2. v. 

^'^oietot' «T&); iy.<xKiiTo km n KuiJ.n. Steph. Byzant. ' There were Amazons 
upon the Danube, according to Philoftratiis in Heroicis. 

"' Plutarch. QijEeft. GraeccE. vol. j.p. 303. 

^* Aua^orii u7re<^pi->\-xv caiQii en Ira^.mv. Schol. in Lycoph. v. 1332. alfo v. 995. 
There was a town in MefTapia, towards the lower part of Italy, named Amazonia. 
Steph. Byzant. 

^* KaSfAOi sp/on' yvvaiy.a Ay.a^oricTa, -;; ovo[j(.a.'^(piy^, ijX^iv ei5Qi}^x5. Patephatus. 
p. 26. .He went firft to Attica. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 463 

they were called Azones, Amazones, Alazones ; which are 
names of the fame purport ; and have equally a reference to 
the national objedl of ^^ worfhip. The mod noted were thofe 
who fettled near the river Thermodon, in the region of Pon- 
tus. They were alfo called Chalybes, and Alybes ; and oc- 
cupied part both of Cappadocia, and Armenia. The poet 
Dionyfius takes notice of their fettlements in thele parts^ 
and flyles the region Affyria. 

" Tsg Je fjLsr Acrcry^/Ji? 'ur^o'^VG'ig ^^^ovog szrzrcLVVs'Oii 

AbVKOV V^OC^ 'W^OLYlfTlV EyVCi?JOg 0=^|U,wJ(WI/. 

It is fpoken of in the fame manner by the '^^ poet Apollonius, 
There were more regions than one called Affyria : but the 
principal was that about " Nineve. This was denominated 
from AfTur the fon of Shem. There were others, which were 
fo called on another account, and of a different etymology. 
They were properly expreffed Ai-Sur, from the Sun, to whom 
they were facred. For as Ai-Mon, and Ai-monia, figniiied 
Lunaris Regio ; fo by Ai-Sur, and Aifuria, was denoted Re- 
gie Solaris. Syria, as I have Ihewn, was denominated from 

^* Paufanias mentions Apollo Amazonius, who was worfhipped in Laconia, 
L. 3-P-274. 

" V. 77 

''^ Apollonius fpeaks to the fame purpofe. 

Tvccf/.-'l-xv Af/.ci^ovi^o.'ti ixaQsv Aifxai'ti^oov (x.->crvv. L. 2. v. g66. 
" The original Aflyria was undoubtedly the land of Babylonia : but it feems to 
liave loft that name. 

9 Sur, 

464 The Analysis oF' Ancient Mythology. 

Sur, Sol : and it was often called ^^ AfTurla. Ur in Chaldea 
was fometimes expreffed ^' Sur, as has been obferved before. 
On this account the region of Syria above mentioned, as well 
as that in Pontus, ought to have been differently rendered, 
and diftinguifhed from the land of ^^ Affur : but the Grecians 
from a fimilitude in found were led to exprefs them alike. 
As the land of Chaldea was fometimes called Sur ; fo the 
Pontic Suria had the name of Chaldea; and the people were 
ftyled Chaldeans, They were the fame as the Alybes, and 
Chalybes ; who were fituated near ''^ Sinopc ; and extended 
towards ^^ Colchis. They are mentioned by Homer among 
the allies of the Trojans , and came under the condu6t of 
Odius and Epillrophus. 

This paffage has been quoted by Ephorus, and it is obferva- 
ble, that for Alizonians he read Amazonians : which un- 
doubtedly arofe from the two words being fynonymous. 
Pie calls the place Alope. 

*° Eio-i Sf Irepji {Aaavpici) -urctpx Tdi Suaa?. Steph. ByzaaL 

'■ Abraham was bom iv t/i p/&'fa t<i.'* XaAj'aiwf er '^o-op Tn 'ujoXzi. Syncelkis. 

P-95- . 

*' The two names iliould have been written Affuria and Aifuria ; which would 

have prevented all rniftakes. 

^■' Pomponius Mela. L. i.e. 19. p. 102. 

^■* XoAi^aro* fj^yj^i KoA;^Jc<;. Strabo. L. 12. p. 833. XaAcfaiy; //e;^p< tj;? \ 
Affxgj'.a';. "Ibid. p. 8 j2. 

*' Iliad. B.v.Sj6. 

" Strabo. L. 12. p. 827, 

E A ^0:^7 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 465 

Strabo fays, that the name of Chaldeans given to this people 
was not fo old, as that of Alybes and ^^ Chalybes. It is of 
little moment, when the name came into common ufe among 
the Grecians: it is fufficient, that the people were fo called. 
Two of their principal cities were Sinope and Amifon. 
^^ Chalybes proximi urbium clariffimas habent Amifon et 
Sinopen. The latter city by Pliny is more truly exprefl'ed 
*' Amazon : and he mentions a mountain near it of the fame 
name. The people of this place were probably the principal 
of thofe ftyled Amazonians. 

That this Affyria had no relation to Affur, but was a 
compound of Ai-Sur, may, I think, be proved from the lat- 
ter term being found out of compolition ; and from the peo- 
ple being often called Xv^oi, and Xv^ioi ; Syri, and Syriajts. 
The Scholiaft upon Dionyfius mentions them by this name. 
^° ^v^ioiy 01 "urcc^a Qs^^oo^ovtcc 'sroraijcov. The people, who live 
upon the Thermodo^j, (by whom are meant the Amazonians) 
are Syrians. Herodotus fays the fame of the Cappadocians. 
'' Oi h K.0L7t7tCL^Qy.a.i i)(p 'EAAj^f&jy l,v^m ovoi^oLipvroLi, The Cap- 
padocians are by the Greeks called Syrians. The country of 
the people muft in confequence of this have had the name 
of Syria, and alfo Ai-Xv^ioty Ai-Suria ; by miftake rendered 

' 0( Se ivv "KccAdodDi y^aXuCes to 'ury.^a.iov 'jivojJioiQovro. Ibid. p. 826. 

Pompon. Mela. L. i.e. 19. 
^' Mens Amazonium etoppidum. L. 6. p. 303. 

V. 772. Oj 'S.-J^oi uto riepaxv y.a.?\.BvTxi KxTTTra^oKcct. Ibid. p. 137, 
'' L. I.e. 72. See Strabo. L. 12. p. 832. 

Vol. III. O o o AfTyria. 

466 The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLocy. 

Affyria. The inhabitants were alfo called '' Aovzo-Xvpoi, 
Luco-Syrij from AovKy and 2oy^, two names of the Deity, 
whom they worfhiped. Stephanus Byzantinus having men- 
tioned, that there were Chaldeans near Colchis, XocK^oiiov 
s^vog 'UTMcriop Trig KoAp^iJ'o?, quotes a fragment out of Sopho- 
cles, wherein thefe peculiar names of the Pontic Amazonians 
are mentioned. 

'" KoA^o? T£, XoL?,^ciiog rs, Kcti Xv^oov s^vog. 

They had alfo the name of Mauri, or Moors j iimilar to 
thofe of their family in India, and Mauritania. Under this 
appellation they are mentioned by the author of the Or- 
phic Argonautica. 

Every circumftance fhews plainly their original. 

As this people had different titles in the countries where 
they fettled ; and often in the fame region ; their hiftory 
by thefe means has been confounded. We find, that they 
v/ere called not only Amazonians, but Syri, Affyrii, Chaldaei, 
Mauri, Chalybes : and were ftill further diverlilied. They 
were the fame as the lonirn ; and in confequence of it they 
are faid to have founded the chief and moft ancient cities in 
Ionia, and its neighbourhood. Among thefe are to be 

'' Strabo. L. 16. p. 107 r, AvKce, Sol. Macrob. Saturn. L. i. p. 194. Hence 
Lux, and Luceo. 

'* V. 741, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 467 

reckoned '^ Ephefus, Smyrna, Ciima, Myrina, Latorea, Anaea, 
Elaea, Myrlea, Paphos, Cuna ; befides many others, which 
further witnefs their original, by the devices on their coins. 
For the money of the cities in Ajfia Minor, and particularly 
of thofe in Phrygia, Ionia, and Myfia, has often an Amazon 
for its device. At other times there is a reprefentation of 
Rhea, or Cybele, crowned with a tower, to denote the reli- 
gion of the place. And as the Deity there worfliiped was 
known under different titles ; the names of thefe cities will 
be found to have a reference to them. And not only the cities, 
but the rivers and fountains being held facred, will appear 
to be denominated in the fame manner : and from hence the 
original of the people may be known. "^^'Ori h di A^Md^ovsg 
'UToTsXovg ev AtrioL koltb<T'^ov roTrovg 'UTots, ^yjAhiti koli KopOLi Tivsg 
KiioL^ovm oftmviJLoi, Kai [jltiv koli "uroAsig^ oiov ccvr^ ri E(pS(rog^ ri 
Mv^iVYj Tj KioXiKYi, That the Amazons held many places i7i Afiay 
may be fee?t from their fiamcs havi?Jg been given to fount ai7tSy as 

Kliju-W, 5ta/ yiupivm., Koci ria.<pou^ Kxt aAAa itTrofJt.vtt{JixTix.. Strabo. L. 1 1. p. 771. See 
Diodorus Sic. L. 3. p. 1 88. 

'XfJifjp'''^ — a7ro2f<.'Jci'/)§ Afca^oro;. Steph. Byzant. 

Ky/A'/j — TOcTe ovofjLix. ccTTo AjULcc^d'oi, xcSxTTi^ Koci « Mv^ivii. Strabo. L. 1 1, p. 771. 
KvfAV Tnohii AtoAiKr, — xtto Kuum Afx.a.^ovoi. Steph. 
Latorea — xtto Aa-Tcomai Aucc^ovoi. Athenseus. L. i.p. 31. 
Avccia. — CCTTO Avatai AfjLa^ovoi. Steph. 
lB.Aa.ia. — xTTO^Xxiai AfJLxC,ovo?. Schol. in Dionyf. v. 828. 
Korra — xtto fj.ixi rcov'C^ivuv. Steph. Byzant. 

Kai STTuyufjLOUi {toou AjjlxC^'A'mv) -zrroAeti Tivca etvxi (pxai; kxi yxp Efsaor, kxi ^y.vo- 
rnv, xai Kvy.vr, xai MvpAeixv. Strabo. L. 12. p. S27. 
*' Scholia in Dionyf. v. S28. 

O o o 2 well 

468 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ii^ell as to cities : which ?iames are J} ill " retained. This is ap- 
parent in the name oj Ephejus^ Ancca^ and of My r in a in j^olia. 
They were no other than the lonim, of whom I have treated 
at large: and though the Helladians would perfuade us, that 
this part of the world was peopled from Attica ; and from 
other little difl:ri6ls in Greece; jet it is all a miftake. They 
gave out, that ^* Neileus, Athamas, iEgyptus, and Canopus 
an Erythrean, went at different times from Hellas, and founded 
the chief places in Ionia. They were without doubt founded 
by Nileidoe, and people of Egypt: by Canopians and Ery- 
threans : but they did not come from Greece. The moft 
memorable, and one of the moft ancient events in the annals 
of this country was \moq a^* Ji5, the arrival of Ion the fon of 
Xuth. He was fuppofed to have come in the reign of' Erec- 
theus, and to have fettled in Attica, at the very time, that 
Hellen the fon of Deucalion betook, himfelf to Ai-mon, 
Ai^awj'ia, the fame as Theffaly. We are affured by '°° Thu- 
cydides, and by other good writers, that Greece v/as for 
many ages after this in an unfettled ftate, and thinly peopled. 
And the natives of Attica for a long time lived ' difperfed 1 

" TIiolc ancient term^., which he looi;s upon as the names of Amazons, were 
iacred titles ; and all related to the religion of the people. Elasa wgs tlie city of 
the Olive : Cuma the city of the Sun : Cuna the Royal city. 

'^ AiyuTTTcr NgiAewf. Paufan. L. 7. p. 526. 

^uXiu-. — a MiPunoy. Paufan. L. 7. p. 524. Ecv^ipui SeKaivuiTrof, or as Cafaubou 
reads, Kvcairo?. Strabo. L. 14. 939. 

NeiAeu?, nfAoxo!'t'i!ffj&)!' xai Aom'aiwf :S2/yju.gco?, en Acixv £A9a'y t«; IccviXi Mxiaty^ 
■37oAsi5. Euleb. Chron. p. ^6. 

'^ Strabo. L. 8. p. 587. Tatianus AfTyrius. p. 274. 

'°° L. I.e. ^. 

^ Plutarch, in Thefeo. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 469 

and were not formed into any kind of community, till the 
time of Thefeiis. Yet there are faid to have been many 
colonies fent out before his £era. Nay the very perfon, 
Ion, the fon of Xuth, who is fuppofed to have come 
in the moft early times, led out, before he could be 
well fixed, no lefs than thirteen colonics to Ionia. '^ Athe- 
nienfes ex refponfis Apollinis Delphici communi confi.- 
lio totius Hellados tredeeim colonias uno tempore in Afiam 
deduxerunt : ducefque in fingulis coloniis conftituerunt ; et 
fummam imperii partem loni^ Xeuthi et Creufa; filio dede- 
runt. 'The ylthenians in obediejice to fome oracles of Apollo at 
Delphi^ by the joint C07ife7it of the whole Hellenic fiate^ fent out 
at the fame time thirteen colonies into Afia^ and appoi7ited a 
leader to each. Bict the chief co?7tmand of the whole they i7i~ 
trufled to /<?';?, the fon of Xetith and Creufa. 

Under the hillory of Ion and Hellen is fignified the arri- 
val of the lones and Hellenes ; who came into Attica and 
Theflaly. In thefe times there was no Hellenic body : nor 
was the name of Hellas as yet in general acceptation : fo 
that the above hiftory is all a fable. How is it poilible to 
conceive, that a country fhould be able to fend out thirteen 
bodies of men fo early : or that people fhould migrate, be- 
fore they could be well fettled ? It was, it feems, effedled 
by the joint advice of all the Grecian ftates. But there was 
at thefe times neither Hellenic flate, nor kingdom ; nor were 
any of the great communities formed. Befides the above- 
mentioned, there were other colonies fent out in a long; fuc- 

* Vitruvius. L. 4. c. i. 

lones, duce lone, profecti Athenis nobiliffimam partem regionis maritimre occu- 
paverunt. Velleius Paterculus. L. i. c. 4. 

cefllon : 

47<^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ceffion : and thefe fo numerous, that one would imagine that 
the country quite up to Thrace muft have been e'xhaufted. 
One of thefe was led by ^ lolaus from Attica and Thefpis : 
and not long after there were migrations under * Phorbus to 
Rhodes ; and under Tleptolemus of ^ Argos to the fame 
place : under Triopas to ^ Caria ; and under others to Crete. 
Under Penthilus the fon of Oreftes to Thrace : under Ar- 
chelaus to Cyzicus and Bithynia. The Athenians pretended 
to have founded Erythaea; and to have built Cuma, Ephefus, 
and the twelve cities of Ionia : and mofl; of the iflands were 
peopled from the fame ^ quarter. The Amazonian city Elaia 
was according to them built by * Mneftheus, who lived at 
the fuppofed a^ra of Troy : all which is inconfiftent and un- 
true. Some fugitives from Hellas may at times have croffed 
the feas : but the celebrated cities of Ionia were coeval with 
Greece itfelf, and built by people of the fame family, the 
lonim, who at other times were ftyled Amazons. Their hif- 
tory was obfolete ; and has been greatly mifreprefented ; yet 
there are evidences ftill remaining to fhew who they were : 
and the Grecians, however inconliftent it may appear, con- 
fefs, that thefe cities were of ' Amazonian original. 

The Amazons were '° Arkites, who came from Egypt ; 

' Paufanias. L. 7. p. 524. He gives an account of many colonies. 

* Eufeb. Chron. p. 13. Verfionis Lat. 

' This was before the war of Troy. 
E/$ Voaov i^sv aAwyW.ews aAyeat. Tirao-^mv (TAwTrToAsfta;). Iliad. B. V. 66y. 

^ See Marfhani's Chron. p. 340. Grtecorum Coloniie. 

^ Strabo. L. 14. p. 939. See Marmora Arundeliana. 

EAa/a 'Mevio'UBcoi ■x.i i<j fJici^ xai toov auv c.uTa Amircciooy tmv crvq' pariucrxvTOov eiri 
lAioc. Strabo. L. 13. p. 923. 

' See backward the quotations from Strabo, Diodorus, Stephanus, Athenens, and 
the Scholiafts, p. 467. 

'° One of their chief cities was called Archceopolis. Procop. de B. G. L. 4.0. 13. 

10 and 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt. 471 

and worfniped the Sun, and Selene, the chief deities of the 
country, from whence they came. Herodotus ftyles them 
i^orpata, and fays, that they had this name from killino- 
their hufoands. But granting that they were women, I never 
found that they ever had huibands ; unlefs an accidental 
commerce with any man they met, and fuch as they are here 
fuppofed immediately to kill, can entitle him to be called 
an hufband. ^orpata is a name taken from their worfhip ; 
which was given to their priefts. It Hgnilies a prieft of nw, 
or Orus, analogous to Pataneit, Patazithes, Atropata, Afam- 
pata, of Egypt, and other countries. Thefe priefts ufed to 
facrilice ftrangers, who by chance came upon their coaft j 
and from thence were ftyled {Av^^ohtovoi) murderers. 

It is well known, that the Egyptians admitted the fiftrum 
among their military inftruments of mufick ; and made ufe 
of it, when they went to war. Hence Virgil fays of Cleo- 
patra — " patrio vocat agmina fiftro. And the fame princefs 
is upbraided by another poet for prefuming to bring this 
barbarous inftrument in oppoiition to the Roman trumpet — 

" Romanamque tubam crepitant! pellere fiftro.. 

The fame pradlice prevailed among the Amazons, who wor- 
ihiped the Ifts of Egypt, and made ufe of her fiftrum, when 
they engaged in battle. — '^ Apud Amazonas fiftro ad bellum 
ieminarum exercitus vocabatur. They are the words of Ifi- 
dorus, who gives into the notion of their being a nation of 

" Virgil. iEneis. L. 8. v. 696. 

Propertius. L. 3. Eleg. 9. v. 43.. 
'' Ifidorus. Orig. L. 2. c. 21. 

women ; 

472 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

women ; but affords us this material circumftance in their 
hiftory. In another place he fpeaks to the fame purpofe. 
'*Apud. Amazonas autem non tuba, ficut a reglbus, fed a 
regina fiftro vocabatur fcemlnarum exercltus. 

The Amazonians of Colchis and Armenia were not far re- 
moved from the Mlnyae near Mount Ararat : and were un- 
doubtedly of the fame family. They were Arkltes, as we 
may learn from the people of Pontic Theba ; and followed 
the rites of the Ark, under the name of Meen, Baris, and 
lona. Hence it is, that they have ever been reprefented with 
lunar fhields. Many have thought, that they were of a lunar 
Ihape : but this is a miftake, for moft of the Aliatic coins 
reprefent them otherwife. The lunette was a device taken 
from their worfhip. It was the national eniign, which was 
painted upon their fhields: whence it is faid of them: pi^lis 
bellantur Amazones armls. And in another place : ducit 
Amazonidas lunatis agmlna peltis Penthifelea furens. The 
Amazonian fliield approached nearly to the fliape of a leaf, as 
did the fhields of the Gothic nations. Pliny fays of the In- 
dian fig : '^ Foliorum latitudo peltas effigiem Amazonlze 
habet. Upon thefe fhields they had more lunettes than one : 
and from them the cuftom was derived to the Turks, and 
other Tartar nations. 

A large body of this family fettled upon the Boriithenes ; 
alfo in the Tauric Cherfonefe, and in the '* regions adjacent. 


" Ifidorus. Orig. L. i8.c. 4. 

" Pliny. Hill. Nat. L. 12. c.5. p. 657. 

'* Efpecially upon the Tanais. 

Tca-(T0i fJLiv ■nrOTo.fJiov ■zs-eon'cciSrcciiO'i, 

So'cToi, Kifx/jiSpiot Ts. Dionyf. Ilfpiny. v. 678. 


The Analvsis of Ancient MyTHOLocy. 473 

In thefe places they were ftyled Amazons, and alfo ''' Cim- 
merians. Some writers have thought, that the colony of the 
Colchians was from hence : but others more truly fuppofe, 
that this people came from Colchis. They were once a very 
powerful '^ nation, and made a coniiderable figure : and 
though their hiflory, on account of their antiquity, is fome- 
what dark, yet we have fufficient evidences of their greatnefs. 
They are faid to have overran the coafl: of Pontus and Bithy- 
nia ; and to have feized upon all Ionia. But as the times 
■of thefe inroads are varioufly reprefented, there is reafon to 
think, that thefe hiftories relate to their firft fettling in thofe 
parts. For though it is not impoflible, but that one part of 
a family may make war upon another, yet it is not in this 
inftance probable. We know that moft of the migrations 
of old were by the Greeks reprefented as warlike expedi- 
tions. And there is room to think, that this has been mif- 
•reprefented in the fame manner. However both '' Herodo- 
tus and Strabo mention thefe invafions; and the latter fpeaks 

Here was a river PIkiPis, fimilar to that at Colchis. E^-/ ya.p zxi mgo; (^ao-/?) Eu^w» 
7r«?, 'wX'iKTiQv TM5 MciicaTiS'oi A;/vti';i$, T'd Ta.vxii'Qi 'nrora.fJM, Scholia in Find. 
Pyth. Od. V. 4. 376. 

'' Some fpeak of the Amazons and Cimmerians as only confederates : but they 
were certainly the fame people. When Seneca mentions the Amazons invading 
Attica, he brings them from the Tanais and Ma^otis. 
Qualis relidlis frigidi Ponti plagis 
£git catervas Atticum pulfans Iblum 

Tanaitis autMsotis Hippolytus. Aft. 2. v. 399. 

£ut they are generally fuppofed to have come from the Thermodon. 

'* ExsJiTHCTo tT' 01 Kiufx.epizi fxiyccXriv -zirore iv tu Bo(TTOca iuvxi^iv' S'lOTip xui Kitn- 
'IJLspfKoiBotnropoiojvouccG-b)]. Strabo. L. 1 1, p. 756. 
■9 L. I. c. 6. 15. 

Vol. III. P P P of 

474 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of the Cimmerians as being likewife called ""* TpYjPCfJvcg, Tre- 
rones. He fays, that they often made inroads upon the 
Ibuthern coaft of Pontus, and all the neighbouring pro- 
vinces ; fometimes invading the Paphlagonians, and at other 
times the Phrygians and lonians. This is extraordinary ; 
for they were certainly of the fame family as the lonim, who 
were denominated from lonah, the Dove. The word T^rj^ooVy 
Treron, is a tranflation of the original name ; and is pre- 
cifcly of the fame purport. Hence we read in Homer more 
than once of '' T^Ti^uova 'WzKsiCf.v and of Mycene, the city of 
luno, being ftyled " UToTwT^rj^uvct Mvkyivyiv. It has been fliewn, 
that the Cimmerians worfhiped Ofiris, and the emblematical 
Deity Taur-Ione : fo that we may be certified of their ori- 
ginal. The people, whom they invaded upon the coaft of 
Pontus, were both Cimmerians and Amazonians. They 
lived near the lake Acherufia, upon the river Sagar ; or as 
the Greeks expreffed it ""^ Xayya^iog : and one of their chief 
cities was ^^ Heraclea. What is moft extraordinary, while 
they are carrying on thefe adts of hoftility, they are joined 

*° Oi re KiiJ.fxspioi, oui re, xcci T^r,poora:i ovofJLOi^'daiv, n sxiivoov rt suyo;, ■vioXKa.v.n 
STTS'^ pxnov Toc. cfgfia y.ep-n rid llovT'd^ x.cct tcl ami'x^i-\ ccujoii^ jctA. Scrabo. L, i. p. io6. 

" Iliad. X.v. 2^8. ^.v. 853. 

" Iliad. B. V. 502. and v. 582. They were alfo Amazonians : their chief river 
the Tanais was ftyled Amazonius. ixex.Xino cTg si^orspoi' Afxa^oviof. Audor de Flu- 
minibus. Geogr. Vet. v. 2. p. 27. 

They were of the Titanic race, and are faid to have retreated hither after their de- 
feat, and to have been fheltered in a ftrong hold called Keira. Dion. Caffius. 

'' Sagar is the fame as Sachor, the name of the Nile, which has been given to a 
river in Pontus. Acherufia is from the fame quarter. In thefe parts was a river 
Indus. Amnis Indus in Cibyritarum jugis ortus. Pliny. L. 5. p. 275. 

'-* risAi? 'HpcLxXacx. — STTB Ki^jwspio;. Scholia in Dionyf v. 790. 

'HjcaxAeia — 'u:epivv A^epBO'ix'Ksfpovncrof. Ibid. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 475 

by the very people, the Amazonians, upon whom they are 
making war. ""^^ovsg rp Aoria. STrriKdov ol^ol KtfJLfXs^ioig, 

OLVTCLl KOLl TO BV E(pS<T(f Is^QV 'Ur^07ZV£77^T\(TCLy. The Amazo'/is 
overran Ajia in co?ijiin£iion with the Cimmerians : they likewife 
burnt the temple at Ephefus. This too is very extraordinary: 
for it was a noble ftru6liire ; which they had ereded with 
their own hands ; and which they muft have particularly 
reverenced. The city Ephefus was the chief feat of the 
Amazonian lonim. 

Ev^cc S-gj} 'WOTS vYfiy Afjict^onosg tstv^qitq. 

The like is mentioned by Mela. ^'' Ephefus, et Dian^e cla- 
riilimum templum, quod iVmazones Afia potentes facraffe 
traduntur. I think it is fcarcely poflible for thefe accounts 
to be precifcly true. We may be allured, according to the 
generally received opinion concerning the lonians, that they 
v/ere the fame as the Amazonians; and their cities were 
of Amazonian original. The beft hiftories are to this pur- 
pofe : and the coins of almoft every city further prove it. 
The Grecians indeed, though they continually contradict 
themfelves, claim the honour of having peopled thefe re- 
gions. But as this was a work of great antiquity, they have 
been forced to carry the aera of their peregrinations fo high, 
as to totally difagree with their Hate and hiftory. In confe- 

*' Eufeb. Chron. p. 35. Syncellus. p. 178. 

'^ Dionyfius. v. 827. See alfo Paufaaias. L. 4. p. ^§-/. 

'■' Mela. L, I.e. 17. p. 87. 

P p p 2 quencc 

476 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

quence of this, they are reprefented as making powerful fet- 
tlements abroad, before they could maintain themfelves at 
home : at a time when their country was poorly inhabited : 
and muft have been exhaufted by fuch draughts. Strabo, 
who had enquired into thefe hiftories diligently, laments the 
uncertainty, with which they are attended. He gives into 
the common notion, that Rhodes, and other Afiatic places, 
were peopled from Greece before the war of Troy : yet 
feems to be diffident ; and coniefTes, that the accounts given 
of thefe places and countries are very obfcure and uncertain. 
f This obfcurity^ fays Strabo, has arifeji not only from the 
changes and revolutions^ which have happened in thefe provinces', 
but alfo from the dif agreement to be found in writers, who never 
defcribe the fa7ne fa8l iit the fame maiiner. The inroads of the 
Cimmerians and Amazonians are equally obfcure and un- 

It is mentioned by ApoUonius Rhodius, that, when Or- 
pheus played upon the lyre, the trees of Pieria came down 
from the hills to the Thracian coaft, and ranged themfelves 
in due order at '^^ Zona. As the people, of whom I have been 
treating, worfhiped the Sun, whom they ftyledZon, there were 
in confequence of it many places, which they occupied, called 
Zona. One of thefe, we find, was in Thrace, near the Hebrus. 
It was undoubtedly a city built by the Orphite priefts, and 
denominated from the luminary, which they adored. There 

rsycve (fg « cio-a(pet<z ov S'la xa; />c£TafoAa; fjcovov, a.XAa. xxt S'lx rai roov avfy^a,- 
(pioiv ocvofjLoKoytai, srepi rooi' aVTcav ov ra clvtcx, Aeyoyruv. Strabo. L. 12. p. 859, 

^' Argonaut. L. i. v. 29. 

Serrium, et, quo canentem Orphea fecuta narrantur nemora. Zone. Mela. L.2.' 
c. 2. p. 140. See Herod. L. 7. c, 59. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 477 

was a city Zona in Africa, faid to have been taken by the 
Roman ^° general Seftius ; which we may fuppofe to have 
been named from the fame objed:. I mention thefe things, 
becaufe there was likewife a city ^' Zona of the Amazons 
in Cappadocia, which led the Greeks into a ftrange miftake. 
For when, in their legendary hiftories, they fuppofe Hercu- 
les to march to Zona, and to take it ; they mifconftrue the 
name, and imagine, that it was ^ocvyj, a ba?idage. Hence in- 
ftead of a city, they uniformly render it i^w^h]^, and make the 
grounds of the Amazonian war to have been a woman's 

The term Zon, the Sun, was oftentimes varied to Zan, 
Zaon, and Zoan : and people and places were accordingly 
denominated. I have taken notice of the ^^ Suanes and Soanes 
of Colchis ; who were fometimes called " Zani. Mention 
is made of a temple in Thrace named I^olov^ Saon ; which is 
a variation of the fame term, as is mentioned above. It was 
iituated near a cavern: and is faid to have been built by the 
Corybantes, and to have alfo had the name of Zerynthus. 
^' Lycophron accordingly ftyles it, Zr,^vi/dov an^QV — s^v^vop- 

'" Dionyf. Hift. Rom. L. 48. 

" It is called Zoana by Antoninus, p. 1S2. who places it in Armenia Minor v 
which was an Amazonian province, and often afcribed to Capp^idocia. 

'^ Pliny. L. 6. c. 4. 

" They were called Zani, Zaini, and Zanitc-e : alio SanitcE. Agathias. L. 5. p. 
143. To-«n'0(, Tiaini. The author of the Chronicon Pafchale calls them Salli and 
Sanitse, SaAAoi xa.i Xccvtrai — otou e~iv « 'u:a.^ifj£oAn A-^-aps?. p. ^54. Both terms 
relate to the Sun, ftyled Sal, and Sol ; Zan, and Zon. The Amazons lived betweea 
the Thermodon and the river Aplarus. 

■'* Lycoph. V. 77, 

2 One 

478 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

One of the moft extraordinary circumftances in the hiflory 
of the Amazons is their invalion of Attica. They are re- 
prefented as women, who came from the river Thermodon, 
in revenge for the infult offered to them by Hercules, who 
had plundered their country. Their attack is defcribed as 
very violent ; and the conflid: for a long time doubtful. At 
lafl:, having loft many of their companions, they were ob- 
liged to retreat, and intirely leave the country. The Athe- 
nians pretended to have many evidenices of this invasion : 
they pointed out the place of engagement : the very fpot, 
where they afterwards entered into a truce : and they could 
fhew the tombs of thofe Amazons,, who fell in the difpute. 
The place was named Amazoneum: and there was an ancient 
pillar near it, faid to have been ereded by this people. The 
hiftory given is circumftantial, yet abounds with inconfiften- 
cies ; and is by no writer uniformly related. Such a people 
as the Amazonians had certainly been in Attica : the Athe- 
nians, as well as the Boeotians, were in great meafure de- 
fcended from them. Plutarch from the names of places, 
which had a reference to the Amazonian hiftory, tries to 
fhew the certainty of this invafton, and of the circumftances, 
with which it was faid to have been attended. For there 
was a building named " Horcomoftum, which he fuppofes to 
have been the place of truce ; and he mentions facrifices, 

" AA Aa Tfa'Q'S Tcv 'TfToKifJLOv en Tirovicx.i TsAstTHo-aj fxacpTuptor (t^i ini tb Toir'd ■>t?<.n- 
oii TO ■wxfcx. TO ©Jjcrgjcr, ov i^ep Opxwftocr/o}' KaAycr/f, me •) erofxer/i 'zs-aAcci ^-jtricc Ton 
AfJiaC^oai ■uTpoToivQiio-etocv. Thefeus. vol. i. p. 13. Orchom-ous, like Afterous, 
Ampeloiis, Maurous, Amathous, Achorous, fignilies a place facred to Or-Chom. 
He was the Orcharnus of the eait : and the fame perfonage from whom the cities 
called Orchomencs had their name. 

6 which 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 479 

which iifcd there to be offered to the Amazons. But there 
is nothing in thefc arguments, which proves the point in 
qucftion. The name of the place, if it be genuine, may re- 
late to an oath : but it does not necellarily follow, that the 
Amazons here entered into a treaty ; nor do the rites eftab- 
lifhcd at all fliew, that they were in a date of hofWity with 
the ^* Athenians. The rites confifted originally in offerings 
made to the Deity, from whom the Amazons received their 
name. He was called Azon, and Amazon, the fame as Ares, 
the Sun. They worfhiped both Ares and Harmon : which, 
the Grecians chanc^ed to a feminine Harmonia: and the Am- 
azons, in confequence of this worfhip, were faid to be the 
offspring of thofe Deities. 


A/) ya^ KOLi ysysYiv srocv A^sog ^A^^ovir^ ts. 

By yzvzfi A^sog koli A^fj-oviri^ is meant the children of the Surt 
and Moon. Hence it is, that the wife of Cadmus was faid to 
be Harmonia ; for the Cadmians were certainly Amazonians, 
After the Grecians had fuppofed, that thefe female warriors 
invaded their country, and were repulf'ed, they were at a lofs 
to account whither they afterwards withdrew. Some have 

'* By Plato they are faid to hare been condufled by Eumolpus. Eufxo?:7r3 fj.sp 
ovv y.a.1^'jvciov i7riq-paT:.vaur-ioiv iiri tw •^uoa.v. Menexeiuis. vol. 2. p. 239. 
He introduced hymns, and facrifices, and the myfteries at Eleufis. This could not 
be the work of an enemy in a ftate of war. 

'' Apollon. Argonaut. L. 2. v. 992. 

Har-Mon is Dominus Lunus. Hara Mona, from whence came 'ApiJ.ovia, Domi- 
naLuna. The Cadmians were certainly Amazonians; but their ancient name by 
length of time was effaced. 


480 The Anj\lysis of Ancient Mythology, 

given out, that they retreated into Magna ^^ Gr^cia, where 
they founded the city ^' Cleite : and Ifocrates fo far agrees, 
as to acknowledge, that none of them returned to their own 
^^ country. But Lylias goes farther, and fays, ^' that their 
nation was wholly ruined by this expedition : that they 
loft their territories, and were never more heard of. Upon 
all which ^° Plutarch obferves, i^at we 7}iuft ?tot wo?tder.i when 
tra}ifa8iions are of fiich aniiqtiity^ if hiflory fJjould prove contra- 
diSiory a?id obfcure. The Amazons were fuppofed to have 
always fought on horfeback ; and they were thus defcribed 
by Micon in the Poicile at *' Athens. Yet it is certain, that 
the ufe of cavalry in war was not known in Greece till long 
after this asra : and, if we may credit Homer, the Afiatic 
nations at the liege of Troy were equally unacquainted with 
this advantage. The ftrongeft argument for this invafton 
of the Amazons, and their defeat, was the tombs of thofe, 
who were flain. Thefe are mentioned by many writers. But 
tlie Grecians had likewife the tomb of Dionufus, of Deuca- 
lion, of Orion ; and the tombs of other perfons, who never 
exifted : all which were in reality high altars, raifed in an- 

Scholia in Lycoph. v. 1332. 

" KXiiTi). — jxixTuv AfA.aZ.ovuivmcXivsx.TiO'i. Etymolog. Mag. 

^' AiyiTUI IJ.iV O'JV ■ZHi^t TClIV AfJLX^Oi'OJV, (iJi TMV fAlV eA^daCOV B^ifJitai IjTxXiv (X.TTYl'h^iV. 

'At ^i u7rcAit(p^ei(jXi d IX rnv ev^xSe (7Vjj.(popxv tJt rm xo^k iCji^K-iihwxv. In 
PariCgyr. p. 93. 

" Ex£i»cii \jiiv cut' TiK aAAoT^/as a.'Stx.coi eirSypt.iia'xa-xi rrjv auruv aixxieoi xTu?y?aav. 

T/)» txvTKv -wxTfiSx Stx Till' ii'^xh av/jLCp-ioxv xycDVUf/.ov zxTSi^iiarxf'. Lyfias. Funeb. 
Orat. T015 KooifbLoiv Ci«9ois. 

*" Qxvjxxq'ov ax e~n' eyrt 'urpxyjAx-aiv arw TuxxXxioii -TurKxvxavxi my tq'optxn, 
Plutarch in Thefeo. p. 13. 

*' T«5 Se A/Aa^Qvas axoTii, as MiKuv eypx-^iv iiri 'iirircjof /i/.a;^ojMgraf. Ariftophanis 
J^^vfilirau. V. 6'io. cicnt 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 481 

cient (lays. The whole of this hiftory relates to old rites 
and cuftoms, and not to any warlike expedition. They like- 
wife fhewed a pillar, called Amazoneum, which was fuppofed 
to have been denominated from this ^' people. But we can 
only infer from it, that fuch people were once in the country, 
and probably ereded it. This was the exprefs objed to which 
the Amazonians paid their adoration ; as they lived in an 
age, when ftatues were not known. Such a one the Arcro- 
riauts are faid to have found in the temple of Arez, when 
they landed upon the coaft of Pontus ; and made their offer- 
ings to the Deity. 

^<T<rv^BV(^;, rj r suTog ccvri^s^psog 'urzhB vy\^ 

'Is^og, w 'urors 'WaTon AMAZONE2 svysTooono, 

Now to the grove of Arez they repair. 

And while the vidims bleed, they take their ftand 

Around the glowing altar, full in front 

Of a fair temple. Here of ebon hue 

Rifes in air a lofty antique ftone. 

Before it all of Amazonian name 

Bow low, and make their vows. 

That the tombs fpoken of were high altars is evident from 
their lltuation : for how could they otherwife be found in 

riAiKTiov ooTcii rccv TmiXcav 'w^oi rri AfJt.a^oriS'i c^vXv. Plato in Axiocho. vol. -5. 

'' Apollon. Argon. L. 2. v. 1174. 

Vol. III. Q^q q the 

482 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the middle of the ^' city : and in fo many different places. 
There was an Amazonian monument at ^'^ Megara : and 
tombs of Amazons near ''^ Chceronea upon a river named 
Thermodon. The like were fliewn in Theflaly near ^* Sco- 
tuffasa, and Cunofcephale : all which were fuppofed to have 
been places of burials, where Amazons had been flain. To 
thefe might be added monuments of the fame nature in 
^^ Ionia : and others in ^^ Mauritania ; all mifconftrued, and 
fuppofed to have been tombs of female warriors. In refpedt 
to thofe at Athens, the place where they were ere6led (sv ctg-Biy 
within the walls of the ^' city J and the facrifices there offered, 
fhew, that they could not relate to enemies : but were the 
work of people, who had there ''° fettled. The river Ther- 
modon, which was alfo called 'Ai^m, in Theffaly, could not 
have received its name from a tranlient march of Amazons ;. 
but muft have been fo called from people of tliat family^ 
who relided in thofe parts. Every circumftance of this fup- 
pofed invalion is attended with fome abfurdity. It was. 
owing, we are told, to the injuflice of Hercules, who ftole 
the girdle of Hippolyte ; and attacked the nation, of which 

*' Plutarch in Thefeo, p. 13. Ey ac^u 'x.a.ri'^^oTrfS'euffa.v. p. 12. Ev Tvi-sroAgc. 

** Ibid. p. 13. 

'' Ibid. 

** Ibid. Called by Plutarch SxoToyo-cra.'a. By fomeic is exprefled Scotuffiu 

*■' Xiip'.ac}-1vpiyi">ji. Homer. Iliad. B. v. 813. 

*' DiodorusSic. L. 3. p. 188. 

*' They were, according to Plutarch, fuppofed to have fought 'uri^i tav VIvvkhc 
xcci TO Maaeicv. The place called Uiv^ was clofe to the Acropolis. YJw^ Ss ijs 
^^lov -zs-ipi iw Ait.po7roA.iv. Jul. Pollux. L. 8. c. 10. p. 957. 

'° Plutarch in Thefeo. p. 13. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 483 

(Ke was queen, fo as to quite ^' ruin it. The Amazons having 
been thus cruelly defeated and weakened ; and not being 
able to withftand their next '^'^ neighbours, refolved to wage 
war with the Greeks, and particularly with Thefeus of 
Athens. They accordingly began their march, being fully 
determined to make reprifals. In this difpojQtion of mind, 
one would imagine, that they took the diredl way to Greece : 
but it was far otherwife. The rout, by which they are fup- 
pofed to have gone, was quite the reverfe of the path, which 
led to Greece. Every ftep was in a contrary direftion. To 
arrive at the fouth-weft they paffed north-eaft ; and ranging 
round the whole Euxine Sea, by Mount Caucafus and Col- 
chis, to the " Cimmerian Bofporus; and having pafled many 
hills and many rivers ; among which were the Phalis, the 
Tanais, the Borifthenes, the '* Ifter, the Hebrus, they at laft 
arrive at Athens. Here they pitch their camp, zv oig'sij 
within the precindls of the city, and clofe to the Acropolis. 
They then fight a fevere battle, and are obliged to retire : 
and not being able to return home, they are diflipated, and 
dwindle to nothing. Lyfias fays,^ " T)jy solvtooi/ 'OTolt^i^x ^icc 
Tr,v (rvfJL(po^CiV avodVVfJLOV STroirjCav. "They by this 7mfcarriage ruined 
their country : fo that their very name becajne extinB, Here 

'■ To £6:c;? TdTo TiMiMi cvv'T^t^a.t. Diodor. Sic. L. 2. p. 129. 
''' —i lOTTip T85 ■zcgc<o(X«rTa<: ['-ii Tiii [J-iv adUiviicLi oi'jToov xoiTa(pporniTa.yTa.-, 
xA. Diod. L. 4. p. 229. He mentions -z^aj'TgAws to gOio-: aunwc Gwrp£wat. 

" EA A«i'(xo« Si AioSioi (pHo-/!', CTi 'mxyiVToi ra KufAfJ-s^tKa Boa-Tro.a S'leSnTa* 
auTov {cu Afj(.cc'C,ovei) ;ca; jiAGsi' en Attc/.)))'. Scholia in Lycophron. v. 1332. 
''* I ioij'cc? a.bei\-yCTdi afTTocyiii i i^'iif^ivcci 
Tirip xiXatroy \^pov jjAacaf "^xvucci 
iTTTra?. Lycoph. v. 1336. 

'' Orat. Funeb, ion Ko^iv^tuv Eo^flo/?. 

Qj\ 4 2 then 

484 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

then one would imagine, that this female hiftory would con- 
clude. No : they are introduced again by the ^* poets at the 
iien-e oFTroy : and are to be met with in the wars of" Cy- 
rus. Some ages after, in the time of Alexander an interview 
is '^ mentioned to have pafTed, wherein the queen of the 
Amazons makes propofals to that monarch about fharing for 
a night or two his bsd. And even in the time of Pompeius 
Macrnus, during the Mithridatic war, they are fuppofed to 
cxift : for after a vidory gained by that general, the Roman 
foldiers are faid to have found many boots and bufkins, which 
Dion CaiTius thinks were undoubtedly ^' Amazonian. 

Such was the credulity of the ancients about one of the 
moft improbable ftories, that was ever feigned. Strabo had 
the fenfe to give it up : and Plutarch, after all the evidence 
collefted, and a vilible prepoffefTion in favour of the legend ; 
nay, after a full affent given, is obliged in a manner to fore- 
o-o it, and to allow it to be a forgery. For he at laft con- 
feffes, that *° the whole^ 'which the author of the 'Thefeh wrote, 
about the ijivafion of the Amazo7is, and of Antiope' s attack 
upon Thefeus, who had carried off Phcedra, and of her affociates 
fupporting her \ alfo of thofe Afnazon^y whom Hercules flew^ 
feemed manifeftly a romance a?id fSiion. 

From what has been faid, I think it is plain, that the 

"^ Homer, Virgil, Qiuntus Calaber, &c. 

" Diodorus. L. 2. p. 128. Polyffinus Strateg. L. 8. p. 619. 

'' Cleitarchus apud Strabonem. L. 11. p. 771. See alfo Diodorus Sic. L. 17. 
p. 549. Alexander is ilud to have had feme of them in his pay. Arrian. L, 7. 
p. 292. 

" InBelloMithridatico. 

*" Plutarch in Thefeo. p. 13. tsspiq^uvus eoiKS y.uQc>jy,ai7:!r/\xa-fJt.xTi, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 485 

Amazoniaiis were a manifold people, and denominated from 
their worfhip. They were fome of the Titanic race, who 
fettled in Colchis, Ionia, Hellas, and upon the Atlantic 
in Mauritania. They were alfo to be found in other parts, 
and their family charad;eriftic may in all places be feen. 
They were the fame as the Cadmians ; and the ftrudlures, 
which bore their name, were not ere6ted to them, but were 
the work of their own hands. Such was the buildino- called 
Amazoneum. *' Aij.a,^ovsior iTOLiog ^isiXsKrai sv tc*) "ut^o; Aio~ 
kKsol 'Ws^i Tooy Ay.di^ovooi/ ci(pis^(jj(rsu)g A&riVirj(nv' sg-i h k^op, 6 A|U,a-. 
(^ovsg IS'^vrcno. They are the words of Harpocration. Con- 
cerning f he place called AmazoTieum^ Jfceiis fays a great deal in 
his treatife to Diodes about the confecration of the A7nazoits at 
Athens. It was a temple'^ which of old was built by thefc 

I have before taken notice of a pafTage in ^' Plato, where- 
in that writer mentions, that Eumolpus led the Amazons, 
when they invaded Attica. This perfon is reprefcnted both 
as a Thracian, and as an Athenian ; and fometimes as a fo- 
reigner from Egypt. Clemens of Alexandria fpeaks of his 
coming with the Eumolpid^ into Attica ; and ftyles him the 
*^ Shepherd Eumolpus. He is fuppofed to have been the 
principal perfon, who introduced the rites and myfleries, 
which were obferved by the Athenians. Elis fons were the 

" Harpocration. The original Amazons were deities ; and the people lb called 
were their priefts and votaries. Hence S-ucria ron'C'^ffi in Plutarch. See The- 
leus.p. 13. 

'* Menexenus. vol. 2. p. 239. 

" Evixo?\.7roi -moi/nvji'. Cohort, p. 17. 

Eumolpus, Neptuni filius. Hyginus. Fab. 46, 


486 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

priefts, who officiated at the temple of Ceres in Eleufls. 
The Eleufinian myfterics came from Egypt; and the perfons, 
who brought them muft have been of that ^* country. All 
thefe things prove, that what has been reprefented as a war- 
like expedition was merely the fettling of a colony : and 
thofe, who had the condu6l of it, were Amazonians, who 
have been reprefented as women. And fo far is probable, 
that there were women among them, who officiated at the reli- 
gious ceremonies, which were inftituted. Something of this 
nature is intimated by the Scholiaft upon Theocritus, who 
gives a fliort but curious account of the firft Amazonian 
priefleffes. ^^ KaAAi/>ta^o^ (p/^cTi, T/)? BoLU'iAKrcrrj; tocv Ay^y.^yjoov 
Yi^rcLV ^vyccrs^sg' di YlsKsicc^s; 'W^o<rrjyo^svdri(rciv. n^wrai Js olvtoh 
•^o^siccv KOLi 'urcf.nv^i^cL <rv]/BS'T,(roino. We lear7i from Cailima- 
chus^ that the quee^i of the Amazo7is had daughters^ 'who were 
called Pekiades. Thefe were they^ by who?n the facred' dance^ 
and the night vigils were f?'fl inflituted. It has been before 
fhewn, that the Peleiades, or Doves, were the female branch 
of the lonim, by whom idolatry was firft " introduced. And 
as they were at the fame time Amazonians, it proves, that 
they were all the fame people, under different ^^ denomina- 
tions ; who chiefly came from Egypt, and were widely feat- 
tered over the face of the earth. 

** Tas fj-iv yaa Et;,i4sAx(/a5 cctto rur xxra Aiyvmov 'lepeuv fAiJxvnvi^xt. 
Diodorus. L. i. p. 25. 

*^ Idyl. 13. V. 25. 

** I&jrg? — TKv 'EAAucwj' a.p^y)yoi '}eyovoTei tou ^oxtvis "STpoaiKvyouv. Eufcb. 
Chron. p. 13. 

*' Ticanians, Atlantians, lonim, Amazonians, &c. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt, 487 


ANOTHER name, by which the ancients diftinguifhed 
this people, was that of Hyperboreans. Under this appella- 
tion, we may obtain a farther infight into their hiftory. 
They are placed, as many of the Cimmerians and Amazo- 
nians were upon the Palus Maeotis, and Tanais; and in thofc 
regions, which lay near the Borifthenes, and Ifter. But from 
a notion, that their name had a relation to the north, they 
have been extended upwards almoft to the Cronian Sea. 
They were of the Titanic race, and called Sindi ; a name, as 
I have fhewn, common among the Cuthites. ** T«? 'Ttts^- 
^o^sag T8 TirccPiHa ysv8g ^s^BPiKog (pri(riv slvoli. We learn from 
PherenkuSy that the Hyperboreans were of 'Titanic original. 
*» Tm MoLimm $' avroi re 01 Xiv^oi. The Sindi are one fa- 
mily of thofe^ who live up07t the Mceotis. Strabo fpeaks of 
them as called among other names Sauromatas. '° Tb? as;/ 

VTiZ^ Vd Ev'^SlVHy KCLl IS'^H, Kdl A^^lHj KOLTOiKQVnOig 'TTTS^^O^S'dg 

sKsyoVy KOLi l/OLV^o^oLTOLgy Kcci A^ifJiOLTTrag. Thofe^ who live above 

*'' Scholia in Find. Olymp. Od. 3. v. 28. 

*' Strabo L. 11. p. 757. E;« Jg tvi ^i^J^iX)? to Bao-<A£ioy luv- 'Xi.vS'kv 'usKfiaiQV 

Tocraci fJLSv 'srorixfj'.ov Tccratv TrepivaiiTot^crr 
'S.a.vpoixa.Tai d iiri^cfiv iTroKjavTipoL yiyzomi- 
^iv^oi, KifJifxiOiot Tfj y.xi 01 -miXai E.u^eiroio 
Ke^KiTioi t', Op£Ta; te, kki aAKVivTSs A^ccioi. 

Dionyf. Uepmy. v, 680.. 
'" Strabo. L. 11. p. 774^ 

10 de 

488 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the EuxinCy IJlcr^ and Adriatic^ were for77ierly called Hyper- 
6oreanSj a?id Sauromatce^ and Arimafpians. The fame by 
Herodotus are reckoned among the '' Amazonians. They 
worfhiped the Sun, whom they held in high honour \ and 
they had Prutaneia, which were flyled, '^ Ai^^iOL, Aithria ; 
where they preferved a perpetual lire. Like the people of 
Colchis, they carried on in early times a great trade ; and 
the pafTage of the Thracian Bofporus, as well as of the Hel - 
lefpont, being pofleffed by people of their family, gave them 
opportunities of profecuting their navigation to a great 
diflance. When the Hetrurian mariners have laid hands 
upon Bacchus, and are thinking, where they can fell him to 
the befl: advantage; the mafter ol the (hip mentions Cyprus, 
Egypt, and the country of the Hyperboreans, as the befl: 
marts in thofe days. 

'5 EA7rO|(/a/, y] AiyvTrrov ci(pi^srcfj, Ji oys Kvir^oVy 
H sg 'TTTs^^o^sag. 

The people of Cyprus were of the fame race, as the other 
nations, of which I have been fpeaking. '* Ei<n h Kai 01 
KvTT^ioi SK roov KiTTiciioov, KOLi 01 sv TCfi /3o^^a oyLO(pvXoi rm ctvrojv 
KiTTioLiojv. The meaning of this is, that the people of Cy- 
prus were of Cuthean original, as were the people of the 
north, the Hyperboreans : they were all of the fame race, 

'' L. 4. c. 10. 

^'' Koa-TU'cv sv Aii^ixaty, 'T7rs^Co^g<a« ASpix rifxciovrxi <^i(pyi. Hefych. A/6|3<a. 
They were alfo Atlantians : for we read of Atlas Hyperboreus. Apollodorus. 
L. 2. p. 102. 

9' Aiovvo-oi H A/'trai. V. 28. 

'* Euleb. Chron. p. 12. 1. 38. 

7 all 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 4S9 

all equally Cutheans. A colony of them fettled in Crete, 
whofe priefts were the ancient Curetes, fo denominated from 
their " temple, and fervice ; and who were acknowledged to 
have been of Titanian race. 'The Creta?ts, fays '* Diodorus, 
have traditions^ that the Titania?ts came to their if and in the 
time of the Curetes; a?id took pofeffion of that part ^ which lay 
about Cnoffus. Here to this day^ they few the ruijts of the 
temple J where Rhea is fuppofed to have refded : ajid there is 
alfo a grove of Cyprus treesy which were pla?Jted i7i ancieitt times. 
By the fame rout they came to Eubcea, and other parts of 
Greece ; and were fuppofed to have been condudled by 
'^ Cothus and Archlus, the fons of Xuth ; and by Ion and 
Hellen, fons of the fame perfonage. They alfo paffed up to 
Thrace, and to Phrygia : hence Anchifes tells iEneas, that 
the Trojans were originally from Crete. 

'* Creta Jovis magni medio jacet infula ponto, 
Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula noftrae. 

The Hyperboreans upon the Euxine at one time feem to 
have kept up a correfpondence with thofe of the Titanian 
race in moft countries. But of all others, they feem to have 
refpedled moft the people of Delos. To this ifland they 
ufed to fend continually myftic prefents, which were greatly 
reverenced. In confequence of this the Delians knew more 

" Kir- Ait, Templum Solis. Cfiris was called Ait-Ofiris. Herodotus. L. 4. 
c. 59. 

'* Diodorus Sic. L. 5. p. 3^4. 

*' K0605 5cai A^;;^Ao;, 0; EbGb ■EraicTgs m Eu(2oix'.- ny.oy oiXwayjl?. Plut. Qiijeftion. 
GrrecsE. p. 296. 

^'* ^neid. L. 3. v. 104. 

Vol. III. R r r of 

490 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 

of their hiftory than any other community of'' Greece. Calli- 
machus, in his hymn to Delos, takes notice both of the Hy- 
perboreans, and their offerings ; and fpeaks of them as a 
people of high antiquity. 

^°° Kdi 01 KOL^UTTB^^e Bo^siYig 

Oiyjct ^ivo; S'^ii(n^ 'uroTw^^onoorcnop difiot. 

Afa^nwj/ cpo^sii(n. 

Plutarch likewife mentions, that they ufed to come to Delos 
with flutes, and harps, and other inftruments of mufic ; and 
in this manner prefent their ' offerings. Their gifts were 
emblematical ; and confifted of large handfuls of corn in 
the ear, called oi^aXKcci, which were received with much 
reverence. Porphyry fays, that no offerings were looked 
upon with greater veneration than thefe of the Hyperboreans. 
He ftyles them prefents, and "^ VTrofXvrifJLOLrciy memorials ; for 
they were fymbolical, and confifted of various things, which 
were inclofed in fheaves, or handfuls of ^ corn. This people 
were efteemed very facred; and it is faid, that Apollo, when 
he was exiled from heaven, and had feen his offspring flain, 
retired to their country. It feems, he wept ; and there was 
a tradition, that every tear was amber. 

" Ho^Ai) Jm -crAe/f a -ste/k auTfwf A«Aioi Xiyvaiv. Herod. L. 4. c. 33. 
'°° V. 281. 

Kai TO. B^ Tire^Qociuv lepa' uuXcov xxi avpiyyoev^ xcci mua-pai eis inv /!\.nKov 
q/a.(Ti TO 'nra.Xa.iQv cfiAXi(r^xi. Plutarch de Mufica. vol. 2. p. 1136. 

"S.ij/.vce. J^g )»/ Twv 'VTptv u7rofJivnfJioc.T!X. iv A«A&) e§ TTrSjiCopeooy Af/.xXXo(poDm'. 
Porph. de Abftinentia. L. 2. p. 154. 

' 'I^a ivS'iSefA.ivx iv Kot.Aay.ri'wupm. Herod. L. 4. c. 33. 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 491 

'Q.g «/ ATToXAct^i/og rcfis ^olk^vol Ar^Toi'Jao 
'E^cps^zToti ^ivoLi;, axe ^jlv^iol y^Bvs 'UTol^qiQbv^ 

Ov^cLvov ayA)isj/Ta A/zrw;'. 

The Celtic fages a tradition hold, 
That every drop of amber was a tear, 
Shed by Apollo, when he fled from heaven. 
For forely did he weep ; and forrowing pafs'd 
Through many a doleful region, till he reach'd 
The facred Hyperboreans. 

In like manner it is faid of Perfeus, that he went to the 
^ Hyperboreans : and Hercules alfo made a viflt to this people : 

His purpofe was to obtain a branch of the wild olive, which 
grew in the grove of the Deity. They are fometimes repre- 
fented as "^ Arimafpians ; and their chief prieftefTes were 
named ^ Oupis, Loxo, and Hecaerge ; by whom the Hyper- 

* Apollon. Argonaut. L. 4. v. 61 1. Tertius (Apollo) Jove tertio natus et La- 
tona, quem ex Hyperboreis Delphos ferunt advenifie. Cicero de Nat. Deor. L. 3. 

' Find. Pyth. Od. 10. v. 47. 

* Find. Olymp. Od. 3. v. 28. 

" Apijj.x(77roi Svoi'TTTipQopim't Steph. Byz. 

Y]p'j)ra.t roi tccS"' eveiKav otTro ^avbiav ApifxcccnrMv 

OvTTH re, Ao^ci) re, xcci succioov 'ExaepyYi, 

Guyarspa Bopsao — x t A. . Callim, Hymn, in Delon. v. 29 r,' 
See Paufanias. L. 5. p. 392, Qiiidam diciint Opin et Hecaergen primas ex Hyper- 
boreis facra in infiilam Delon occultata in fafcibus mergitum pertuli/Te. Servius 
in Virg. yEneid. L. 11. v. 522. See Pliny. L. 4. c. 12. 

••^ ^ r 2 borean 

492 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

borean rites are faid to have been brought to Delos. They 
never returned, but took up their refidence, and officiated 
in the ifland. People from the fame quarter are faid to 
have come to Delphi in Phocis ; and to have found out the 
oracular feat of Apollo. Paufanias produces for this the evi- 
dence of the ancient prieftefs Baso. She makes mention of 
Olen the Hyperborean, as the iirft prophet of Delphi : and 
further fays, that the firft temple of the Deity was founded, 
by him in conjundtion with Pagafus and Agyieus. 

IlcfA^sg 'Ttts^^o^soov IloLya.Q'Qg xai ^log Ayvievg^, 

Q,7\YiV J" og ysvsTQ 'UT^ooTog ^oi^oio 'ur^o^oira-g, 

By other writers Olen is faid to have been from Lycia. 
'° D.?\riV Tsg 'urcLkoLisg ufi-vag B7rQiY}(rsv, sk AvKiT^g £A^6(;i/, rag cisi^o- 
{jLSi/ag sv AriX(t). Ohfi^ who came ft'om Lycia^ was the author 
of thofe a?2cie?it hymns y which are Jung at Delos. The word 
Olen, was properly an Egyptian facred term ; and expreffed 
Olen, Olenus, Ailinus, and Linus : but is of unknown 
meaning. We read of Olenium Sidus; Olenia Capella, and. 
the like. 


' Paufanias. L. lo. p. 809. 

'° Herod. L. 4. c. 35. He is by Paufanias himfelf mentioned as a Lycian. 
Avxioi h QAmc, oi ■x.a.i tb? vfxvm tow af;^;;<auoTaTot;5 iiroinuiv 'EhXwu'. L. g. p. 762. 

" Arati PlicEnom. V. 164. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 493 

If then this Olen, ftyled an Hyperborean, came from " Lycia 
and Egypt, it makes me perfuaded, of what I have often 
fiifpedied, that the term Hyperhoreaji is not of that purport, 
which the Grecians have affigned to it. There were people 
of this family in the north; and the name has been diftorted 
and adapted folely to people of thofe parts. But there were 
Hyperboreans from the eaft, as we find in the hiftory of 
Olen. And when it is faid of Delos, that the firft rites were 
there inftituted by this people ; and that they founded the 
temple at Delphi : we mufl not fuppofe, that thefe things 
were performed by natives from the Tanais, and the Riphean 
hills ; much lefs from the Cronian feas, upon whofe fliores 
fome people would place them. People of this name and 
family not only came to Greece, but to Italy : and extended 
even to the '^ Alps. The Mons Palatinus at Rome was fup- 
pofed to have been occupied by Hyperboreans ; and the 
ancient Latines were defcended from them. Dionyfius Ha- 
licarnaflenfis tells us, '* that Lathncs was the fon of Hejxules 
by aft Hyperborea?i woma7t. By this is meant, that the people 

Nafcitur Olenias fidiis pluvi.ile Capellse. Ovid. Fall. L. 5. v. 113. 

A facred ftone ir. Elis was called Pftra Olcnia. Paufan. 1^. 6. p. 504. 

'■^ nA«>, ccviio AvK-ioc. Herod. L. 4. c. ■^^. 

D.?\Yiv Auxici. Paulaji. L. 5, p^ 392. 

i.lA;iv'T7refSofSz?. Ibid. L. 10. p. Sio. 

'' 'TyripCopis- 0'x.sti' -zripi Ton AAtte:? rm IrciXix^. Scholia in Apollon. Argonaut. 
L. 2. V. 677. Here were fome remarkable Cuchean fettlements. Tbtccc cT" f^-* jcat 
'nli iovvi Xiyou.ivn yi),y.ot.i Ti KaxT/a. Strabo. L. 4. p. T,\i. 

'* AaTirov j' S-SiTivos TTre^Sspi-f'iixopy,?. L. i. p. 34. 

Eufebius makes the Citeans of Cyprus, and the Romans equally of Hyperborean 
original. Eiai S'S xai 01 Kvyr^iot iK riov KiTriaioov, xai ci iv tc/j ^ol'ia. cjwoCuAoi T&jf 
a'jict:y KiTTiaioji', x«( Tc>)vVc>}iy.ocix,v, Chron, p. 12. 1, 38^ 

494 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of Latium were an Herculean and Hyperborean colony. 
Thofe, who occupied the Mons '^ Palatinus, are fuppofed to 
have been alfo Atlantians, and '^ Arcadians ; by the latter 
term is denoted people, whom I have diftinguiflied by the 
name of Arkites. The Hyperboreans, who came to Delos, 
were devoted to this worfhip. Herodotus mentions two of 
their '^ prieftefTes, whom he calls Opis and Arge. They 
built the chief temple in that ifland, and planted the olive. 
They alfo conftrufted a facred ^Yj^cr)., or cheft, on account of 
ooKVTOfCB, a fpeedy delivery. As they were virgins, this cir- 
cumftance did not relate to themfelves, but to a myfterious 
'^ rite. In the celebrating of the myfteries, they held hand- 
fuls of corn ; and had their heads {liorn after the manner of 
the Egyptians. The like rites were pracSVifed by the Pso- 
nians and people of '' Thrace. 

It would be unnatural to fuppofe, that thefe rites, and 
thefe colonies came all from the north : as it is contrary to 
the progrefs of nations, and repugnant to the hiliory of the 
firft ages. A correfpondence was kept up, and an inter- 

•' It had its name a Palanto Hyperborei filia. Feftus apud Auftores Ling. Lat, 


'" They were fuppofed to have come with Evander. 

Turn rex Evander Romanjs conditor arcis.. 

Virg. yEneid. L. 8, v. 313. 

Vobis MercLirius pater eft, queir, Candida IVIaia 

Cyllenes gelido conceptum vertice fudit : 

At Maiam, auditis fi quicquam credimus. Atlas, 

Idem Atlas generate Cceli qui fidera tollit. 

Yirg. /Enei'd. L. 8. v. 138. 
•' L. 4. c. 34. and 35. 

'* By the name Arge is fignified S-«x», a facred cheft, or ark. 
'9 Herodot, c. 33. 

9 courfe 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 495 

courfe maintained between thefe nations : but they came 
from Egypt and the eaft. There muft have been fomething 
myfterious in the term '° Hyperborean : it muft have had a 
latent meaning, which related to the fcience and religion of 
the people fo called. Pythagoras, who had been in Egypt, 
and Chaldea, and who afterwards fettled at Croton, was by 
the natives ftyled the "' Hyperborean Apollo. And though 
fome of this name were of the north, yet there were others in 
different parts of the world, who had no relation to that 
clime. Pindar manifeftly makes them the fame as the At- 
lantians, and Amazonians of Afric : for he places them near 
the Iflands of the Bleft, which were fuppofed to have been 
oppofite to Mauritania. He fpeaks of them, as a divine race; 
and fays, that Perfeus made them a vifit, after that he had 
flain the Gorgon. At the fame time he celebrates their rites, 
and way of life, together with their hymns and dances, and 
variety of mufic : all which he defcribes in a meafure exr- 
quiHtely fine. 



Herodotus fuppofes people to have had this name •rc-a^' ci;o Bopsxi a t3-tf<. 
Writers give different rcalbns for the name, all equally unlatisfadory. 

ApcfoTgAws A£9-£(, icv rivuctyo^ocv utto T&iy K.^oTa}yiccTooy tcv AttoXKuvx 'TTTip^o- 
peiov 'uT^oda.yopivia^oii. TElian. Var. Hill. L. 2. c. 26. 

" Pindar. Pyth.Od. 10. V. 57. jsj,^,, 

49^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

OiKBOKTi, (pvyovrsg 

Pleas'd with the blamelefs tenor ot their lives, 

The Mufe here fix'd her ftation. 

Hence all around appears 

A lovely fcene of virgin choirs. 

In every grove 

The lyre is heard refponfive to the lyre ; 

While the {hrill pipe confpires 

In a pleafing din of harmony. 

The natives revel in delight, 

Their heads bedeck'd with laurel ; and their hair 

Braided with gold. 

They feel not age, nor anguiili : 

But are free from pain ; 

Free too from toil. 

And from every evil, that enfues from war. 

The frowns of Nemefis reach not here : 

But joy abounds, 

Joy pure, and unimpaired. 

In a continual round. 

The northern Hyperboreans, who were the fame as the Cim- 
merians, were once held in great repute for their knowledge. 
Anacharlis was of this family ; who came into Greece, and 
was much admired for his philofophy. There was alfo an 
I o Hyperborean 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 497 

Hyperborean of great fame, called *^ Abaris, who is men- 
tioned by ^^ Herodotus. He was the fon of Zeuth, ftyled 
Seuthes : and i/reprefentcd as very knowing in the art of 
divination, and gifted with fupernatural powers. Apollo is 
faid to have lent him a golden arrow, upon which he was 
wafted through the air, and vilited all the regions in the 
"^ world. He neither eat, nor drank ; but went over the 
earth, uttering oracles, and prefaging to nations, what was 
to come. This feems to be an imaginary character ; and 
probably relates to the various migrations of the fons of 
Chus, and the introdudion of their religion into different 
parts of the world. All the Ethiopic race were great archers. 
Their name was fometimes exprefled Cufliitze ; and the an- 
cient name of a bow was Cufhet; which it probably obtained 
from this people, by whom it was invented. There is rea- 
fon to think, that by their fkill in this weapon they eftab- 
liflied themfelves in many parts, where they fettled. This 
may poffibly be alluded to in the arrow of Abaris^ the im- 
plement of "^ pajjage ; by which he made his way through 
the world. 

They were people ot the fame family, who fettled in 
Thrace under the name of Scythze ; alfo of Sithones, Paso- 
nians, Pierians, and Edonians. They particularly worfliiped 
the £rfl planter of the vine under the known title of Dio- 

" See Eufeb. Chron. Verfio Lat. p. 32. Strabo. L. 7. p. 461. 
*' L. 4. c. 36. Strabo. L. 7. p. 461. 

** In like manner Mufeus of Thrace is faid to have had the art of flying ; which 
was Bopge cTwcof. Paufan. L. i. p. 53. 

^' may nirp. nisy raa 
Vol. III. Sff nufus, 

498 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

niifiis, and alfo of Zeus^'^Sabazius. They had alfo rites, which 
they called Cotyttia from the Deity *^Cotys; and others named 
Metroa, and Sabazia, which were celebrated in a moft frantic 
manner by theEdoni upon Mount Hasmus. The Deity was alfo 
called *^ Sabos, which term, as well as the title Sabazius, was 
derived from «3D, Saba, wine. Hence amid all their exclama- 
tions the words, Evoi Xoitoi, Evoe Sabae, were to be particularly 
diftinguiflied. He was worfliiped in the fame manner by 
the ^^ Phrygians, who carried on the fame rites and with 
the like fliouting and wild geftures upon Mount Ida. The 
priefts alfo were called Sabi ; and this name feems to have 
prevailed both in "' Phrygia and in ^° Thrace- 
Some of this family are to be found in Theffaly, particu- 
larly in Magnefia and Pthiotis. A large body came into 
Italy : fome of whom occupied the fine region of Campania, 
and went under the name of ^' Cimmerians. It has been the 
opinion of learned men, that they were fo called from "iD3, 
Cirnmer, Darknefs. This may poffibly have been the ety- 
mology of their name : though moft nations, as far as I have 
been able to get any infight, feem to have been denominated 
from their worfliip and Gods. Thus much however is cer- 

^' T«f //.£!' KoTVoi rr,i ec tois HoMvccii Aicr^vAoi fxiiJunnoti. Strabo. L. 10,, p. 72 r. 

2s/^c)'a KcTu; bv-toh HcTwvsis. jETch. ibid. 

V.VQI '^cnQoi, 'T/i; Att»; x.a( Att»5 'Ti;5, Tuuto.. ya^ BTi Sa^'ac^ia, xa* Mnr^wct,, 
Ibid. p. 72^. 

'^ 2aS'a^'o?, iiTKiWfJ.ov Aiovva'd xa.i.'S.i^^ov eviore xccXaam avror. Helych._ 

*' Kat '^ocCa.'C^iciSs Tuv ^^vyiaxcuv £T'- Strabo. L. 10. p. 721. 

''' XccCoi, Si-oi ^^vytccg' Xiyovroci xa; avTi Td Bocx^ot 'S.a.Qoi. Steph. Byz, 

'° 2ae«^oi' TQv Aiovvdov h QpcL/cii xci?<.i)a-t, xoa '2.o£^i tbs leotn acvja. , Schol.". 
in Ariftoph. Vefp. v. 9. 

V Strabo L. 5. p. 374. 

6 tainv 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 499 

tain, that this people had in many places fiibterranean apart- 
ments, where their priefls and reclufes dwelt ; and were fup- 
pofed to be configned to darknefs ; all which favovirs the 
opinion abovementioned. UlyfTes, in Homer, fpeaks ot his 
arrival in the country of the Cimmerians, whom he defcribes 
as in a moft uncomfortable fituation, and places at the ex- 
tremities of the ocean. 

^^ 'H J" zg 'UTsi^cc^' Imvs jSa^yppoa wkbolvoio. (fc. vavg) 
'EvQoL Js Ki^^s^ioov av^^m ^iiiJLog ts, iiroXig t£, 
Hs^i y,cLi vs(p£XYj KSKdXvfjLixsi/riy ah 'mfoT avrsg 
Ushiog <^a.z^m sTrih^asrai, a/.rivs(r(riv. 
OyJ" 6'^oT OLV <^siyj^<n iJT^og ov^olvqv ag's^osna, 
Ov^' oTccv a.-^ STTi yoLic/j Ti: ov^ctvo^sv ijr^QT^ci7n]T7Jy . 
AAA' STTi vv^ oXoYi TSTarai hiXonri ^^otokti. • '1 

Now the dark bounds of ocean we explore^ 

And reach at length a melancholy fhore : 

Where loft in cloud, and ever-during fhade, 

His feat of old the fad Cimmerian made. 

The Sun may rife, or downward feek the main ; 

His courfe of glory varying ; but in vain ; 

No pleaiing change does morn, or evening, bring ; 

Here Night for ever broods, and fpreads her fable 


I imagine, that many temples of old, and efpecially the cele- 
brated Labyrinths, were conftrudied in this manner. Four 

"• OdyfT.A.v. 13. 

S f f 2 -of 

500 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of thefe are mentioned by ^* Pliny : of which the moil 
famous was in Egypt, and from this the others were copied. 
That in Crete is defcribed by ^'^ Euftathius, as a deep cavern, 
which went far under ground, and had innumerable wind- 
ings. Virgil fpeaks of it as a fine piece of architecture, and 
executed with great fkill. 

_" Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 
Pari^tibus textum cascis iter, ancipitemque 
Mille viis habuifle dolum, quo figna fequendi 
Falleret indeprenfus, et irremeabilis error. 

About Caieta, were fome vaft caverns near the fummit of the- 
promontory. Uere^ fays ^^ Strabo, are to befeen huge apertures 
in the rock ; Jo large, as to be able to afford room for noble and 
extenfive habitations. Several apartments of this kind were about 
Cuma, and Parthenope, and near the lake Acherufia in Cam- 
pania. The fame author fpeaks of this part of Italy, and 
fays, that it was inclofed with vaft woods, held of old in great 
veneration ; becaufe in thofe they facrificed to the manes. 
According to Ephorus, the Cimmerians dwelt here, and re- 
jided in fubterranean apartments, called " Argilla, which 
had a communication with one another. Thofe, who applied 
to the oracle of the cavern, were led by thefe dark paffages 
to the place of confultation. Within the precinds were to 

" L. 5. c. 9. p. 258. L. 36. c. 1 3. p. 739. 

^* AaSufnihoi; a-n-flharjv Kpy}Tixov, iiTroyeioy, woAoeA.'XTor. In OdyfT. A. -v. 14. 
'» ^neid. L. 5. v. 588. 

'^ Strabo. L. 5. p. 357. p. 374- Pliny- L. 3. c. 5. p. 153. 
" We may perceive, that the rites in all thefe places had a reference to th? fame 
objeft of veneration, the Argo. 

5 be 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 501 

Be found all the requifites for an oracle : dark groves, foul 
ftreams, and foetid exhalations : and above all a vaft and 
dreary cave. It was properly a temple, and formed by the 
Cimmerians, and Herculeans, who fettled in thefe '* parts. 
Here was faid to have been the habitation of the Erythrean 
Sibyl, who came from Babylonia. Places of this nature were 
generally fituated near the fea, that they might more eajQly 
be confulted by mariners, whom chance brought upon the 
coaft. On this account Virgil makes his hero apply to the 
prieftefs of Cuma for advice. 

''° At pius ^neas arces, quibus altus Apollo 
Prsefidet, horrendsque procul fecreta Sibylla 
Antrum immane petit. 

There was a temple near it, built as was faid by Daedalus; 
with a defcription in carved work upon the entablature, 
reprefenting the Labyrinth in Crete, and the ftory of 

*' Hie labor ille domus, et inextricabilis error. 
Magnum reginas fed enim miferatus amorem 

^* Lycophron enumerates moft of thofe ancient places upon the coaft of Italy. 
Tvpryiv fxaxiS'va.i ixfji<pt Kipxniia vctTras, 
A^ym re xXeivov o^fAov, Aimm /jieyav^ 
Aijuvw Tg ^op-y{.)i;, Mcc^aicoyiJ^oi 'srora, 

Avvovroi en acpccvrcc xguOfcwyos /2a6>7, ■ 

^Tuyvov 2<ffAA)jf eq^m omnTnpioy. V. 1273. 
'* Juftin. Mart, Cohort, p. 33. 
*" ^neid. L. 6. v. 9. 
*" Ibid. V. 27. 


50.2 T:HE Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Dsedaliis, ipfe dolos tedl, ambagefque refolvit ; 
Caeca reo-ens iilo veftisia. 

This defcription relates to the temple above ground ; but 
the oracle was in a cavern beneath, which had been formed 
by the Cimmerians into numberlefs apartments. 

*^ Excifum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, 
Quo lati ducunt aditus centum, oftia centum, 
Unde ruunt totidem voces, refponfa Sibyllce. 

The poet has ufed fome embellifhments ; but the hiftory was 
founded in truth. A place of this nature upon the fame coafl;, 
and at no great diftance from Tarracine, remained in the time 
of the emperour Tiberius. It was for its elegance ftyled Spe- 
lunca Villa : and was fituated in fuch a manner as to have a 
fiae view of the fea. Tiberius had upon a time retired to this 
place, and was taking a repaft; when part of the rock fell in, 
and killed fome of his attendants. But the emperour efcaped 
through the vigilance of his favourite Sejanus: who ran under 
the part, which was tumbling ; and at the hazard of his life 
fupported it, till he faw his friend ^^ fecure. The ** Syringes 
near Thebes in Upper Egypt were a work of great antiquity, 
and confifted of many paffages, which branched out, and led 
to variety of apartments. Some of them ftill remain, and 
travellers, who have vifited them, fay, that they are painted 

'■ Ibid. V. 42. 

*' Vcfcebatur in Villa, cui nomen Speluncs, mare Amuclanum inter, Fundanof- 
que montcs, nativo in Ipecu. Ejus os, lapfis repente laxis, obruit quofdam miniftros, 
&c. Taciti Annalium L. 4. p. 509. 

+* Marccllinus. L. 22. p. 263. There are many fuch to be ftill feen in Upper 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 503 

throughout with the moft curious hieroglyphics, ftained in 
theftone: and though they have been executed To many ages, 
yet the colours are ftill as ftrong and vivid, as if they had been 
but juft tindlured. Jofephus mentions vaft fubterranes in fome 
of the hills in the part of Canaan called Galilee, and in Tra- 
chonitis ; and fays, that they extended far underground, and 
confifted of wonderful apartments. They were formed in due 
proportion, and not arched at the top, but vaulted with flat 
ftones; and the fides were lined in the fame manner: and by 
his account they could contain a great number of people. 
Such were the caverns at Gadara, Pteleon, and the *^ Spelunca 
Arbelorum. They at laft became the receptacles of outlaws 
and banditti, who in large bodies ufed to fhelter themfelves 
within; on which account they were demoliflied. Mention 
has been made of large caverns and labyrinths near "^^ Nauplia, 
and Hermione in Greece, faid to have been the work of Cy- 
clopians. They were probably in part natural, both here, and 
in the places taken notice of above : but they were enlaro-ed 
by art ; and undoubtedly defigned for a religious purpofe. 
They all related to the hiftory of that perfon, who was prin- 
cipally commemorated under the title of Cronus. He is faid 
to have had three *^ fons ; and in a time of danger he formed 

*' See Jofephus. Antiq. L. 14. c. 15. and L. 15. c. 10. 

Kvy.Xc>)7retx S' ovoyM^Bcrtv. Strabo. L. 8. p. 567. 

*^ E>•£l'^■>;9wa^ — Kpovo) Tfen'ujaiSei. Sanchon. apud Eufeb, P. E. L. i. c. 10. 

OuTCo xcct K^ovoi Sv Ttu uxiavu uura uvrpov x.ccre(rx.eva(^si, xaxmirTU tou^Uvth 
'ZB-a.tS'x^. Porph. de Nymphar. Antro. p. 109. 

ClaccvTUi xut A^fji.yiT)j^ ev avrpaj rpe(p€i rttv Koonv, Ibid. 
2u/AfcoAov Koo-jt/ts Tcc ffTTJjAa/a. Ibid. 

Vol. Ill, Sff4 a large 

C04 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

a larcre cavern in the ocean : and in this he fhut himfelf ut> 
tQo-ether with thefe fons, and thus efcaped the danger. The 
temple at Keira upon the Mseotis, whither the Titans retired, 
was a "^^ cavern of the fame nature, as thofe above. It was pro- 
bably in that grove, where ftood the temple of Apollo : under 
which Pherenicus mentions, that the Hyperboreans reiided : 
thofe Hyperboreans, who, he fays, were of Titanic original. 

Ta? [isv oi^ct 'ur^oTs^ct)!/ £$ difxarog vfj^n^afTi 

TiTaj'a'y ^Xctg-onag vtto S^ofj^ov ai^^risncx. 

He fang alfo of the Hyperboreans^ who live at the extremities of 
the worlds under the teinple of Apollo^ far removed from the din 
of war. They are celebrated as being of the a^icient blood of the 
Titans : and were a colony placed in this wintry ^° climate by the 
Arimafpian monarchy thefon of Boreas. One tribe of them is 
taken notice of by Pliny under the name of "' Arimpheans. They 

*'^ Ett* to o-^DjAaiif TYiv Kiip'iiv y.oi.XBiJ.ivnv s~parsva-a.To (KpxaaDs), Taio yao 

nnv uTTo T&'K QiMV (Tq.'.ai jivoy.ivm avyx.aru(pvyiiv y.vwivsdvcci, Dion. Caffius. Hift. 

L. 51-P- 313- 

"9 Scholia ill Find. Olymp. Od. 3. v. 28. 

*" So I render S^opiog a.Sp;isi{, curfus gelidus (fcil. Boreas), from ui^po?, frigus. 

" Ibique Arimphseos quofdam accepimus, haud difTimilem Hyperborei's gentem. 
Sedes illis nemora, alimenta baccse : capillus juxta foeminis viriiquc in probro ex- 
iftimatur. rifas clementes. iraque facros haberi narranr, inviolatofque efle etiam 
feris accolarum populis. Pliny. Hift. Nat. L. 6. p. 310. 

^ feem 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 505 

ieem to have been reclufes, who retired to woods and wilds, 
that they might more firidlly devote thcmfelves to religion. 
They wore their hair very fliort, both men and women; and 
are reprefented as very harmicfs ; fo that they lived unmo- 
lefted in the midft of many barbarous nations. They were 
addicied to great abftinence, feeding upon the fruits of the 
foreft. In many of thefe circumftances they refembled the 
people, from whence they came. The fame monaftic wav 
of life prevailed in ^^ India among the Sarmanes and Allobii. 

Thofe who fettled in Sicily feem to have been a very 
powerful and knowing people : but thofe of Hetruria were 
ftill far fuperior. At the time when they flouriihed, Europe 
was in great meafure barbarous : and their government was 
in a (late of ruin, before learning had dawned in Greece ; 
and long before the Romans had diverted themfelves of their 
natural ferity. Hence we can never have an hiftory of this 
people, which will be found adequate to their merits. There 
is however a noble field, though not very obvious, to be 
traverfed ; which would afford ample room for a diligent 
enquirer to expatiate ; and from whence he might colle6b 
evidence of great moment. In refpecft to Sicily, their coins 
alone are fufficient to fhew how early they were acquainted 
with the arts ; and from the fame we may fairly judge of 
their great elegance and tafte. 

The two moft diftant colonies of this family weflward 
were upon the Atlantic Ocean : the one in Europe to the 
north ; the other oppofite at the extreme part of Africa. 

'' Clemens Alex. Strom. L. i.p. 359. 

Vol. III. T t t The 

5o6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The country of the latter was Mauritania; vvhofe inhabitants 
were the " Atlantic Ethiopians. They looked upon them- 
felves, as of the fame family as the ^^ Gods : and they were 
certainly del'cended from fome of the firft deified mortals. 
Thofe who occupied the provinces of Iberia and B^tica, on 
the other fide, went under the fame " titles, and preferved 
the fame hiflories, as thofe who have been mentioned before. 
I have fhewn, that they were of Erythraean and Ethiopic 
race : and they gave name to the ifland ^^ Erythra, which 
they occupied for the fake of trade. Here ftood the city 
Gadara, faid to be of high antiquity, and fuppofed to have 
been built by Arcaleus of Tyre. ^^ KXavSiog laKiog sv Taig 
^QiviK/jg ho^LOLig {(pri(n,) on A^yctXevg viog ^oiviKog KTKrag rr\y 
'UToTKiVy moyLOL<TS T^ ^QiviKooi/ y^oKpri ** TctJo^. In the temple 

" Diod. Sic. L. 3. p. 1S7. 188. 

Prima ejus (Maris Atlantici) ^thiopes tenent. P. Mela. L. 3. c, 10. 

'* '0» Toivuv Ar?^avTioi-—TW •y-neaii/ tcov Qseav nxraf ccvtoh yivscr^ai (pccatv. Ibid. 

p. 189. 

Ylfioi ^vaiv T-fii Mavpaa-icci ai Kwts/s Kiyoy.iva.i. Places called Cotis. Strabo. 

L. 17. p. 1181. 

See p. 1 84. of this volume. 

*' In univerfam Hifpania'm Marcus Varro Iberos, et Perfas, et Phoenicas, Celtaf- 
que, et Poenos, perveniffe tradit. Pliny. L. 3. c. i. p. 137. 

^^ Scymnus Chius gives the following hiftory of the idand Erythia, or Ery- 
threiaj and of Gadara, or Gades. 

Aeyaaiv avTnv^yivofxtvni a.iroixia.i, 

TavTYiv avreyyui vTroAuCnact luy^ecvH 

Tv(^iaiv TiJCLT^.oiMV efji.7ropooy auroixia. 

Yociitfa.. Geog. Vet. Gr. vol. 2. p, 9. v, 156. 
" Etymolog. Mag. 

" So it fhould be read ; not XolS-oy. Gador is the fame as inJ, and fignifies an 
inclofed and fortified place. 

7 was 

The Analysis of Ancient Mvthglogy.' 507 

was neither flatue, nor pillar, nor ftone, by way of adoration, 
which fhews, that it was built in very early times. The 
illand was originally called Cotinufa, which name was after 
changed to Gadeira, 

KKrj^oixs^y Korii/ov(rxv s^rjfjLi^ano Vahipct. 

Though it may have been fome time, before they lapfed into 
the more grofs idolatry, yet they feem to have been very 
early addifted to the rites of the Ark. Lycophron mentions 
people coming to this coaft, whom he ftyles, ^^ A^vrig 'UTol- 
T^OLioLg ysyycif the offspriJig of ancient Ar?ie : but he fuppofcs, 
that they were Boeotians, and came from the vicinity of 
Theba in Greece. They were indeed Thebaeans and Boeoti: 
but came from a different part of the world. Who was meant 
by Arne, may be known from the account given by the 
Scholiaft : ^° Af^io Wa^zi^moq T^O!pog. Arne was the fame as 
Arene, and we find, that fhe was efteemed the fofiermother of 
Pofeidon. She was at times flyled Maia ©sw:/, Ma<a /^.tovvrov, 
Horzi^'j^vog T^Q^og^ alfo Ti^rivn^ ToTTog, and My]T>^^ ©swr. Ar- 
cles, Arclus, and Arcalus, by which the Deity of the place 
was called, are all compounded of the fame terms, Arca-El, 
five Area Dei. From hence the Grecians and Romans de- 
nominated a perfonage, whom they ftyled Heracles, and Her- 
cules. But the original was ^' Arclus, and Arcalus ; and 

^' Dionyf. Uepiny. v. 455. 

^' Kcct rot fjiiv a.-KTot.i efj.^arno'OVTOii Ag7r/;a?, 
iCnpoSoTitfiif ot.yx} TapTMffcra ta-vXn?, 
Ap«s •vraKa.ioL'i yiv.'a. V. 642. 
This is the fame perfon, who is joined with Cothus by Plutarch. K0805 xxt 
Ap)cAo>,o<Ht>6s'5r«i/gs, SeealfoStrabo. L. 10. p. 495. 

T 1 1 2 ftiU 


5o8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ftill more truly, without the termination, Arca-El. It was 
not a name, but a title : and was given by the Sidonians, 
and other people in the eaft, to the principal perfon preferved 
in the Deluge: and it Signified the great Arcalean, or Arkite. 
Arcalus is the perfon, who was fuppofed to have been pre- 
ferved in the body of a Cetus ; and to have traverfed the 
ocean in a golden Scyphus, which was given to him by 
!* Apollo. 

Qiii — ^pvffiov eSc))x.e cTgTras, ip w mv eaxsxvov SuTrs^ccas. Apollodorus. L. 2.. 

p. lOO. 

O F 

( 509 ) 

O F 


FROM what has preceded, we may perceive, that there 
once exifted a great refemblance between thefe nume- 
rous colonies of the fame family : and that it lafted for ages. 
I have mentioned, that they were famous at the woof ; and 
carried the art of weaving to a great degree of excellence. 
This art was firft pradifed at ' Arach in Babylonia, and from 
thence carried to * other neighbouring cities ; and in pro- 
cefs of time to the mofl: remote parts of the world. The 
people of Egypt were famous for this manufadlure. It is 
faid of king Solomon, that he had his fine flax from this 
^ country. The prophet Ezekiel alfo mentions "^ fine Ujujt 
with embroidered work from Egypt : and the fame is alluded 
to in ^ Ifaiah. The linen of Colchis was called ' Sardonic, 

' See volume the fecond. p. 526. 527. 
* Strabo. L. 16. p. 1074. 
' I Kings, c. 10. V, 28. 

'' C. 27. V. 7. . - 

' C. 19. V. g. Pliny. L. 19. p. 156, 
Herod. L. 2. c. 105. Aivov Ko?^^ixov 'EAA/;i'aj>' XotoSorixoy aSKAvriXi. 
See alfo L. I. c. 203. Strabo. L. n. p. 762. 

Vol. III. T t t 3 juft 

510 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

juft as the purple of Tyre was ftyled Sarra, and Sarrana : 
which terms alike betoken fomething noble and royal. It 
was alfo called Sindon, from the Sindi, and Sindones of the 
fame country. The flax of ^ Campania, which had been in- 
troduced by the ancient Herculeans and Cimmerians, was in 
equal repute; and the like is to be obferved in Beetica, and 
other parts of Spain : where this commodity was particu- 
larly worn. The Indi were vefted in the fame manner, and 
were noted for this manufadlure. Hence the poet Dionyfius 
mentions ^ Kii/o'^Ka^vag A^cc^wtb?, t/je people of Archot with 
their li7ien robes. Nor was it only the original texture, which 
was found out by people of this family ; the dying, and alfo 
imprinting thefe commodities with a variety of colours and 
^ figures, muft alfo be attributed to the fame. That wonder- 
ful art of managing filk, and likewife of working up cotton, 
v/as undoubtedly found out by the '" Indo-Cuthites ; and 
from them it was carried to the Seres. To them alfo is 
attributed the moft rational and amufing game, called chefs : 
and the names of the feveral pieces prove, that we received it 
from them. We are moreover indebted to them for the ufe 
of thofe cyphers, or figures, commonly termed Arabian : an 
invention of great confequence, by which the art of nume- 
ration has been wonderfully expedited, and improved. They 

' Pliny, vol. 2. L. ig. p. 155. 

* neoi/i;))!^. V. 1096. (Indorum) alii lino vefciuntur, aut lanis. — Lanas {y\vs. 
ferunt. P. Mela. L. 3. c. 7. We may perceive, that by lan^s the author means 

' Herod. L. i. c. 203. 

'° See Mela above, and Strabo. L. 15. p. 1044, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 511 

are faid to have written letters " sii tnv^o(n : but whether by 
this was meant really linen ; or whether we are to underftand 
a kind of paper manufadlured from it, is uncertain. Probably 
it was a compoiition from macerated filk : for paper of this 
kind was of old in ufe among them; and the art was adopted 
by other nations. It is however certain, that people fome- 
times did write upon filk itfelf. Symmachus takes notice 
" Sericis voluminibus, Achsemenio more, infundi literas, of 
letters being Jlained upon Jilk^ after the man?ter of the Per fans. 
But this, I imagine, was only done by the Achaemenidae, the 
princes of the country. 

Thofe who cultivated the grape brought it in many parts 
to the higheft degree of perfedlion. The Mareotic wine is 
well known, which was produced in Scythia iEgyptiaca; and 
is reprefented as very powerful. 

"' Haec ilia eft, Pharios quse fregit noxia reges, 
Dum fervata cavis potant Mareotica gemmis. 

All the Ionian coaft about Gaza in Paleftine was famous for 
this commodity : as was the region near Sarepta, at the foot 
of Libanus. The wines of thefe parts are fpoken of by Si- 
donius Apollinaris, and ranked with the beft of Italian and 
Grecian growth. 

'* Vina mihi non funt Gazetica, Chia, Falerna, 
Quaeque Sareptano palmite mifla bibas. 

'■ Strabo. ibid. 
"■ L. 4. Epift. 34. 

" Gratii Cuneget. v. 312, 
'* Carm. 17. v. 15. 


5.12 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Above all the wine of Chalybon in Syria is mentioned as of the 
highefl repute. We learn from Strabo, that at one time it was 
entirely fet apart for the ufe of the kings of '^ Perfia. It is 
taken notice of by the prophet Ezekiel, when he is fpeaking 
of the^ wealth ol Tyre. '* Damafcus was thy merchant in the 
midtkude of the wares of thy making ; in the multitude of all 
riches^ in the wine of Chelbon, and white wool. Cyprus, 
Crete, Cos, Chios", and Leibos, called i^^thiope, were famous 
on the fame account. There was alfo fine wine very early 
in Sicily about Tauromenium, in the country of the Laeftry- 
gons and Cyclopians. 

Oivov s'vTcc^vKov. 

In Thrace were the Maronian wines, which grew upon 
Mount Ifmarus, and are celebrated by '* Homer, and by 
'^ Pliny. But no place was in more repute than Campania, 
where were the Formian and Falernian grapes. Some of 
very noble growth were to be found in Iberia and Mauritania. 
In the latter writers mention vines fo ample, that they equalled 
the trees of the foreft. *° Strabo fays, that their trunks could 
hardly be fathomed by two men : and that the clufters were a 
foot and a half in length. There was wine among the Indie 

'^ L. 15. p. 1068, 
■* C.27.V. 18. 
'"> Homer. OdyfT. I. v. 357- 
" Ibid. V. 196. 
'' L. 14. c. 16. p. 714. 

*° AfJi.7rtXoi (pvsTxt ^va-iv'pot.a-iv to ■zs-ct^oi Svff7rioi\t)7rTo;, (Sot^up "sjn^vxtovsrui 
aTToSi^^aa,. L. 17. p. 1182. ■ 


The Analysis of Ancient Mytholo.g^,^. 51:3 

Ethiopians, particularly in the country of the'^Oxydracse, who 
were fuppofed to be the defcendents ol Bacchus. They had, alfo 
a ftrong drink made of " rice; which was particularly ufed at 
their facrilices. In like manner the people of Lufitania and 
Bsetica made a fermented liquor called Zuth ; the knowledge 
of which was borrowed from "^ Egypt, Hence they were 
fuppofed to have been inftruded by Oiiris. Hefychius calls 
it ^* wine, and fays, that it was made of barley. It is alfo 
mentioned by Strabo. *^ X^oonai Js KCCi ^f^Si, Oim h (Tttolvi- 
ipvTOLi' civr BKoLin h (^nTv^if) '^^mroLi. 'They have barley wi7ie 
injiead of the juice of the grape^ which is fcarce : a?jd i?z the 
roofn of oil they ufe (bouturus) butter. 

The knowledge of this people was very great, and in all 
parts defervedly celebrated. Hence Antiphanes, fpeaking of 
them colledively, tells us, *^ Sotpof J/]T Sfcr/y o< X/.vSoli (npo^^a. 
By this is meant, that all of the Cuthite family were renowned 
for their wifdom. The natives of Colchis and Pontus were 
much ikilled in flmples. Their country abounded with 
medicinal herbs, of which they made ufe both to good and 
to bad purpofes. In the fable of Medea we may read the 
charadrer of the people : for that princefs is reprefented as 
very knowing in all the productions of nature, and as gifted 
with fupernatural powers. The region of Iberia in the 

*' Strabo. L. 15. p. 1008, 

" Ibid. p. 1035. 

*' Oivcfi cT' ix. y-^i^ioov TsiTroinjJLivca S'la^^ixvra.i {oi AiyvTiTiot). Herod. L. 2. c. 77. 


^'' Strabo. L. 3- P- 233. 

Apud Athenaeum. L, 6. p. 226. 

Vol. III. U u u vicinity 

514 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

vicinity of Colchis was alfo noted for its falutary and noxious 
plants ; of which the poet Horace takes notice. 

*' Herbafqiie quas et Colchis, atque Iberia 
Mittit venenorum ferax. 

I have mentioned, that the natives were of the Cuthite race ; 
and as they were devoted to magic, and had their nightly 
orgies in honour of the Moon, thefe circumflances are often 
alluded to by the poets. Hence Propertius takes notice of 
Cutaean charms. 

** Tunc ego crediderim vobis et fidera, et amnes, 
PofTe Cutasinis ducere carminibus. 

In another place he alludes to the efficacy of their herbs, 

*' Non hie herba valet, non hie nodlurna Cutseis. 

Virgil alfo fpeaks to the fame purpofe. 

^° Has herbas, atque h^c Ponto mihi leda venena, 
Ipfe dedit Moeris : nafcuntur plurima Ponto. 

Strabo fays, that the Soanes were fkilled in poifons, and that 
their arrows were tinged with a deadly ^' juice. The natives 
of Theba, called Tibareni, were fuppofed to kill by their very 

*^ Epod. Od. 5. V. 21. Dionyfius fays of the Colchians, 

iLcrSTi ivv 'zsoXvcpapiJia.xoi av^psaaau v. I02g. 
** Propertius. L. i. Eleg. i. v. 23. 
*' Ibid, L. 2. Eleg. i, v. 73. 
'" Eclog. 8. V. 95. 
" L. II. p. 763- 

effluvia j 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 515 

^* effluvia ; and at a very great diftance : and it was faid of 
the Hyperboreans, that they could change themfelves into 

" EfTe viros fama eft in Hyperborea Pallene, 
Queis foleant levibus velari corpora plumis. 

The like faculty was attributed to the Theflalians. The 
notion arofe from a fuperiority in the people ; who were 
fuppofed to be endowed with extraordinary powers. 

Mount ^* Caucafus, Mount ^^ Pangaeus in Thrace, and the 
'* Circean promontory in Italy were famous for uncommon 
plants. The like is faid of Mount Pelion in ThefTaly : of 
which there is extant a very curious " defcription. The 
herbs were fuppofed to have been firft planted here by Chi- 
ron the Centaur. Circe and Calypfo are like Medea repre- 
fented, as very experienced in pharmacy, and fimples. Under 
thefe charadters wc have the hiftory of Cuthite prieftelTes, 
who prefided in particular temples near the fea coaft ; and 
whofe charms and incantations were thought to have a won- 
derful influence. The nymphs, who attended them, were a 
lower order in thofe facrcd colleges ; and they were in- 
ftrudcd by their fuperiours in their arts, and myfteries. 

'' KcciTci rouiys -srept rov YI'^vtcv OnSgn 'w^o(T<xyoovjo;jiivdi i~o^ii $(Aao^o; a 
'^cciSioii /j.-jvav, aAAa xat TiXnon oXi^^i^i eivxi. Plutarch. Sympof. L. 5. c. 7. p. 
6b'o. Thcfe were tlie people, who were efteemed not capable of being drowned. 

'' Ovid. JVIecamorph. L. 15. v. ;^i:6. 

'* Auftcr de fiuminibus. pliafis. 

"' Ibid. Hebrus. 

' O/355 Kipxaiov TiToAv'pciouciK'-A'. Scholia in Apollon. Argonaut. L. ^5. v. 311. 
Theophraftiis dc Pkntis. L. 8. c. 15. 

'' Apud Dicaearchum. Geog. Gr. Minor, vol. 2. p. 27. 

U u u 2 Ovid 

5i6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

'Ovid gives a beautiful defcription of Calypfo, and her ^t- 
tdhdants, who are engaged in thefe occupations. 

^^ Nereides, Nymphseque fimul, qux vellera motis 
Nulla trahunt digitis, nee fila fequentia ducunt, 
Gramina difponunt, fparfofque fine ordine flores 
Secernunt calathis, variafque coloribus herbas. 
Ipfa, quod has faciunt, opus exigit : ipfa quid ufus 
Quoque fit in folio ; qu^e fit concordia miftis, 
Novit, et advertens penfas examinat herbas. 

Ffbrh the knowledge of this people in herbs, we may 
juftly infer a great excellence in phylic. Egypt, the nurfe 
of arts, was much celebrated for botany. 

To the Titanians was attributed the invention of chemiftry. 
Hence it is faid by Syncellus, *° Xyj^jliol FiyoLnm sv^rj^a. 
The Pseonians of Thrace were fo knowing in pharmacy, that 
the art was diftinguifhed by an epithet taken from their name. 
They lived upon the Hebrus : and all the people of that 
region were at one time great in '^' fcience. The Grecians 
always acknowledged, that they were deeply indebted to 
them ; and the Mufes were faid to have come from thofe 
parts. Here was the fpot — 

"' Metamorph. L. 14. v. 264. 

'' Homer. Odyff. A. v. 225. 

♦° P. 14. 

*' See Vol. II. p. I JO" of this Work. 

7 In 

Thb Analysis of An'cient Mythology. 517 

In quo tonanti fancla Mnemofyne Jovi, 
Foecunda noWes artium peperit chorum. 

The Pierians were as famed for poetry and mufic, as the 
Pasonians were for phyfic. Thamyras, Eumolpus, Linus, 
Thymaetes, and Mufeus, were fuppofed to have been of this 
*" country. Orpheus alfo is afcribed to Thrace ; who is faid 
to have foothed the favage rage ; and to have animated the 
very rocks with his harmony. 

Aicrrig ©^rimi^g Xmr\g siri Ti]7Ksdooo(raij 
'E^siYig g-i'^ooo(nv STTYjT^i^oi, dg oy stti 'ur^o 
<dshyo^BvoLg (po^^iyyi K^Ttr/^yz His^iri^sv. 

Of him they tell, that with his tuneful lyre, 
He foft'ned rocks upon the rugged hills, 
And made the torrent ftay. E'en now the trees 
Stand in due order near the Thracian fhore, 
Proof of his wondrous fkill ; by muflc's pow'r 
Brought from Pieria down to Zona's plain. 

Thefe defcriptions, though carried to an excefs according to 
the licentioufnefs of the poets, yet plainly Ihew, what excellent 
muficians the Pierians were for the times in which they lived, 
and how much efteemed by other nations. And in latter 
times we find people in thefe parts, who difplaycd no fmall 

*^ Diodorus. L. 3. p. 201. 
*' ApoUon. Rhod. L. i. v. 25. 


5l8 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

fhew of genius ; and were much addi^ed to letters. Taci- 
tus, fpeaking of Cotys, a king of this country, defcribes him 
as of a gentle and elegant turn of mind : ^"^ Ingenium mite et 
amaenum. But this does not quite come up to his charad:er ; 
for he was a prince devoted to fcience, who took a great de- 
light in poetry, and was efteemed a good compofer. There 
is an affeding epiftle, written by Ovid in his banifliment, 
wherein he addreffes Cotys on this head, and conjures him 
to fhew fome pity, as he was a partner in the fame ftudies. 

*^ Ad vatem vates orantia brachia tendo. 

The Hyperboreans feem to have been equally celebrated. 
They worfhiped the Sun, and had peculiar myfteries, which 
were attended with hymns. I have mentioned their coming 
with flutes, and harps, and other inftruments to Delos, and 
chanting before the altar, which was efteemed the moft an- 
cient in the world. I have alfo taken notice of the muflc 
of the Egyptians and Canaanites, which was very afFcdling. 
An Amazonian tribe, the Marianduni, were noted for the 
moft melancholy ** airs. The Iberians of Baetica feem in like 
manner to have delighted in a kind of dirges, and funereal 
muflc. Hence they are faid by Philoftratus to have been the 
only people in the world, who celebrated the triumphs of 
death. *' Tov QayaTov fjLoi/oi ay^^ooTToov 'WoLian low 01.1. The 

** Annal. 2. c. 64. 

'*' De Ponto. L. 2. Eleg. 9. v. 6^. 

** Ka( }-lafixyj'vvu:<.' leocv ■n^Sov. Dionyf. v. 7S8. 

It^iov S'b, on iTri^ct.^pioc^cv roH Mccotccv^vvoa 2rpnvuv ccvXtitui. — !c-pivr,Tixoi Ss xai ei 
Kupii, a^' wi' Kapixa S-^Jirw^)) avKri^ci-Tct. Scholia, ibid. 
*' PIiiloftratLis in Vita Apollon. p. 2 1 1. 

10 mufic 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 519 

mufiic in thefe places was well adapted to the melancholy 
rites of the natives : but it was not in all parts the fame. 
The ancients fpeak ot the Dorian and '^^ Phrygian meafures 
as more animated and manly. Thofe of Lefbos and JEolia. 
were particularly fweet, and pleafing,nor was it only harmony, 
which they efteemed a requilite in their hymns : they were 
made the repolitories of all knowledge, and contained an hif- 
tory of their anceftors, and of their Deities: and the annals of 
paft ages. Such were the hymns at Delphi, and at Delos: and 
in moft regions of Hellas. This is alluded to by Homer in the 
liiftory of the Sirens, whofe voices and mulic are reprefented 
as wonderfully taking; fo that nothing could withftand their 
harmony. But this was not their chief excellence : their know- 
ledge was ftill more captivating ; and of this they made a 
difplay to Ulyffes, that they might allure him to their fhores. 

O-u yoL^ 'UT(>) Tig rrih 'UTa^riKcKTs vr^i fJiB7\oiivY\, 
H^iv y r]iJLSOjy ^s7\iyrj^vv oltto g-Q^oLrm oir oL/.arcn' 
K7\7\ oys T£^'^oL[jL£vog vzncfj, koli 'srKeiOi/a si^o^g. 
\^^,ev ya^ 101 'UTolv^' oV evt T^oijj Bv^ziri 
A^yeioi T^usg r& ^soop ioirfn ixoyrjcctv. 
l^(jLsv J'' oV(ra ysvrjTOLi btti y^^ovi TraXv^oTSi^r;. 
'£lg (pa<TOLV Isktoli otto, kclKKi^ov 

Pride of all Greece, renown'd Ulyffes, ftay,. 
And for a moment liften to our fong. 

*' See Ariftotlede Rcpub. L. 8. c. 7. p. 613. They were however in fome de- 
gree plaintive. See Scholia in Dionyf. Uipinyw. v. 788, 
. ?' Odyff. M. V. 184. Pq 

c^^io The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

For ae'er did mortal yet this lov^ely ifle 
Pafs unregarded ; but his courfe withheld 
To Kear our foothing lays : he then retired. 
His foul all raptures, and his mind improved. 
We know the fad affeding tale of Troy, 
The godlike heroes, and the ten years toil ; 
Oh, ftay, and liften to us : we'll unfold 
All, that time treafures, and the world contains. 
So fang th' alluring Sirens, pouring forth 
A moft melodious ftrain. 

Thus have I attempted to iliew, how fuperiour in faience 
this great family appeared, wherever they fettled. And 
though they degenerated by degrees ; and were oftentimes 
overpowered by a barbarous enemy, which reduced them to 
a ftate of obfcurity ; yet fome traces of their original fupe- 
riority were in moft places to be found. Thus the Turde- 
tani, one of thofe Iberian nations upon the great weftern 
ocean, are to the laft reprefented as a moft intelligent people. 
72)ej are well acquainted^ fays ^° Strabo, with gramjnar, and 
have ma7iy written records of high antiquity. They have alfo 
large colleEiions of poetry : and even their laws are defer ibed i?i 
verfe^ which^ they fay ^ are of fix thoufand years flandi?ig. Though 
their laws and annals may have fallen tar fhort of that date, 
yet they were undoubtedly very curious ; and we muft ne- 
ceffarily lament the want of curioHty in the Romans, who 
have not tranfmitted to us the leaft fample of thefe valuable 

TYii ■njaXaicii fj.vnu.rii i^dat ret cuyypcty.fji.a.TXy xxi Tvoinf/.xTx, kxi yojjibi ifj-fAiT^ai 
i^uytiQ^iKiwv erui, di (f^xai. L. 3. p. 204. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 521 

remains. In Tatianus *' Aflyrius, and more efpecially in 
Clemens of ^* Alexandria, we have an account of thofe per- 
fons, who were fuppofed to have bleffed the world with fome 
invention : and upon examination almjft all of them will be 
found to have been of Cuthite original. 

" C. I. p. 243. 

*' Stromat. L. i. p. 364. See alfo Pliny and Hyginus. 

Vol. III. X X X OF 

{ 523 ) 

O F 

Their BUILDINGS, and other great 


IT would be unpardonable, if I were to pafs over in filence 
the mighty works, which this people carried on, and the 
edifices, which they ere(51:ed in the difFerent parts, where they 
fettled. All thofe mounds and caufeways, the high roads, 
and {lately ftru6lures, which have been attributed to Semira- 
mis of Babylonia, were the works of the ancient Semarim of 
that country. They formed vaft lakes, and carried on canals 
at a great expence : and opened roads over hills, and through 
forefts, which were before impaffable. Strabo fays, that Ba- 
bylonia was full of works of this ' iiature ; and beftdes what was 
done /;z thefe parts ^ there were monu7nents of Babylojiian induf- 
try all over Afa. He mentions.y Ao^oi, high altars of raifed 
earthy and frong walls y and battlements of various cities^ toge- 

' He attribures the whole to Semiramis. Ka; tj;» ^nj/.i^aiM^o':, X'^pti ron' ev 
BatuA&Ji't ipyw^ "zs-oA^iCi xoct aAAa y.aTcx. t^ccuolv ')Y,y crKiSov ouxvutui, can Tiii 
HTreiprf raurn; e^ii'. Tare j-f^&j/z.aTa, a. Sn y^a.K'stn '^-iJiicccf.t.i^o'i, Kcei lii^i), xaci f-vixcc- 
7C0V xoLTccaxi'Jxi, xKL auoiyy'xiv roov iv auroi?, x. t A. L. i6. p. 1071. 

Tet^Qil.ifA.tpapniQi. Ibid. L. II. p. 802. 

Tyana near Comana in Pontus. 'K.ioiJ.x Xiy.ipxy.fSo:. Ibid. L, 12. p. Sii. 
See alfoL. 2, p. 134. 

X X X 2 therj 

524 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

the?" 'with fubterraneous pajfages of co?nmu7jication. Alfo aque^ 
du Sis for the cojiveyance of water U7ider ground : and pajfages of 
great lejjgth upwards by fairs. To thefe were added beds^ 
formed for the paffage of rivers^ a?id for lakes: together with 
bridges^ and highways. Thofc, who were driven to Egypt^ 
and took up their refidence in that country, carried on the 
like works ; many of which remain to this day, and are the 
wonder of all, who view them. Beiides clearing the river, 
and gaining a moft valuable territory, they enriched the 
upper region with numberlefs conveniences. The canal,- 
which they carried on from the upper point of Delta to the 
Red Sea, was an immenfe operation. They undertook it : 
and, however people may difpute the point, it was finidied. 
This is evident from the abutments of the floodgates, which 
are ftill exifting between the 'hills, through which it pafled. 
For they took advantage in conducting it, of an hollow in 
the Arabian ' mountain ; and led it through this natural chan- 
nel. Don John de Caftro * fays, that though the ancient paf- 
fage is in great mcafure filled with fand, yet traces of it are 
ftiii to be feen in the way to Suez. The ftones, of which 
they made ufe for the confhrudion of their obelifks, and py- 
ramids, were hewn out of the mountain of Arabia : and 
fome were brought from the quarries in the Thebais. Moft 
of thefe are fo large and ponderous, that it has been the 
wonder of the bell: artifts, how they could be carried to that 

' Something of this nature was obferved by Pocock. See Egypt, vol. i. p. 132. 
The canal was again opened by Ptolemy, called by Diodorus fjToAf^aii? hu-n^oi, 
L. I. p. 30. 

* The fame as Phi Pliroth of the Scriptures. Exodus, c. 14. v. 2. 

•* Travels, c. 7. See Aftley's Collection, vol. \. p. 126. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt. 525 

degree of elevation, at which they are feen at this day. The 
obelifks coniift of one ftone, and are of a great length. Two 
of them have been brought from Alexandria to Rome : and 
treatifes have been written to fhow the manner of their ^ con- 
veyance : and others to defcribe the means, by which they 
were afterwards raifed. What muft have been the original 
labour, when they were hewn from the rock ; and when 
they were firft eredted ! The principal pyramid feems at 
firft to have been five hundred feet in perpendicular height, 
though by the accumulation of fand, it may fall fomething 
fhort of that extent at this ^ day. The vertex was crowned 
with thirteen great ftones, two of which do not now appear. 
Within are rooms, which are formed of ftones equally large. 
Thevenot fpeaks of a ^ hall, thirty feet in length, nineteen 
in height, and fixteen in breadth. He fays, that the roof is 
flat, and covered with nine ftones, of which feven in tlie 
middle are fixteen feet in length. Sandys alfo fpeaks of 
a chamber forty feet in length, and of a great height. 
The ftones were fo large, that eight floored it ; eight 
roofed it ; eight flagged the ends ; and fixteen the fides ; 
all of well- wrought Theban marble. The chamber, to which 
he alludes, is certainly the center room : but he is miftaken 
in his menfuration. We have it more accurately defcribed 

' Marcellinus. L. 17. p. 124. 
It is four hundred and ninety-nine feet high, according to Greaves. Vol. i. 
p. 94. 

Gemelli makes it five hundred and twenty feet. Churchill's Vovnpes. vol. 4. 
p. 27. 

^ Part Second, p. 1 32. 

. J-. 2. p. 102. 


C26 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

by another of our countrymen * Greaves ; who fpeaks of it 
trs a rich and fpacious chamber of moji curious U'orkma77jJjip. 
1'he fto?ies^ fays he, which cover this place .^ are of a J} range ^ and 
fupendous lengthy like fo many huge beams lying flat^ and tra- 
verjtng the room j and withal fupporting that infinite mafs and 
HJoeight of the pyrajnid above. Of thefe there are nine^ which 
cover the roof. He makes the room larger, than it is fup- 
pofed to be by Thevenot ; for he fays, that by a moft exadt 
meafuremeiit, he found it to be fomething more than thirty- 
four Englifh feet in length ; feventeen feet t^o^ in breadth ; 
and nineteen and an half in height. Pocock takes notice of 
fome prodigious ftones, which he met with in thefe parts. 
One was found to be twenty-one feet in length, eight broad, 
and four in depth. Another was thirty-three feet long, and 
five broad. 

Many have been the furmifes about the people, by whom 
thefe ftately flrudures were erected. I have mentioned, that 
they were the work of the Cuthites ; thofe Arab Shepherds, 
who built '° Heliopolis, who were the Vr,yz]iBi<;', the Giants 
and Titans of the firft ages. The curious traveller Norden 
" informs us, that there is a tradition ftill current among the 
people of Egypt, that there were once Giants in that coun- 
try : and that by them thefe flrudures were raifed, which 
have been the aftonifhment of the world. According to He- 
rodotus, they were built by the '^ Shepherd Philitis ; and by 
a people held in abomination by the Egyptians. 

' Greaves, vol. i. p. 126. 

'° Juba auclor eft-^Solis quoqiie oppidiim, quod non procul Memphi in uEgypti 
fitu diximus Arabas condicores habere, Pliny, L. 6. p. 343. 
" Vol. 1. p. 75. 

" L. 2. c. 128, The 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 527 

The ancient temple at Heliopolis in Syria was in great re- 
pute, long before it was rebuilt after the mode of the Gre- 
cians. It is generally called Balbec, which feems to be a 
variation for Bal-beth ; as we may infer from '^ Gulielmiis 
Tyrius. Of the original building we may form fome judg- 
ment, from a part of the ancient wall, which ftill remains. 
Dr. Pocock, having fpoken of the temple, which now lies 
in ruins, adds, '* but what is very fur prifingy in the wall to 
the weji of the temple, there are three flo7tes, near twe?ity feet 
above the growid ; each of which is fixty feet lo?ig : the largefl 
of thetn is about fixty -two feet nine inches in length. On the7torth 
fide are likewife feven very large ftones ; but not of fo great a 
fize : the thicknefs was about twelve feet. The fame were ob- 
ferved by the late learned and curious Mr. Wood ; whole 
account feems to have been more precife. JFe could not, 
fays he, get to meafure the height and breadth of the fi ones, 
which compofe the fecond firatum. But we found the le?igth of 
three of them to make together above an hmidred and ninety 
feet ; aitd feparately fixty-three feet eight i?iches, fixty-four feet, 
and fixty-three feet. And that thefe ponderous mafies were 
not, as fome have idly furmifed, faftitious, may be proved 
from the places, whence they were manifeftly taken. There 
is one flone of an immenfe fize ; which has been faihioncd, 
but never entirely feparated from the quarry, where it was 
firft formed. It ftands in the vicinity of thofe abovernen- 

'' Heliopolim Grsece videlicet, qua; hodie Malbec (lege Balbec) dicirur, Ara- 
bice diftam Balbeth. Gulielm. Tyrius. L. 21. p. looo. According :o Jablca- 
fky. Bee and Beth are fynonimous. 

'* Vol. 2. p. no, 

7 tioned ; 

528 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tioncd ; and is taken notice of both by Dr. Pocock, and 
Mr. Wood. The account given by the latter is very re- 
markable. '^ Li the firjl quarry there are JI ill re7nai?ii72g.fome 
vajljlones, cut and p^ aped for ufe. 'That upoft which this letter 
I (in the fecG?td. plate) is marked^ appears from its fjape and 
fizc to have bee?t intended for the fa^ne purpofe^ as the three 
ftones mentio7ied Plate 3. It is ?tot intirely detached from the 
quarry at the bottom. IVe meafured it feparately, and allow- 
ing for a little difagreement in our account s., owijjg^ we think, to 
its 7tot heiii^ exaEily foaped into a perfeSlly regular body, we 
found it feve7ity feet long, four tee7i broad, and fourteen feet five 
inches deep. The flone accordi7ig to thefe di7ne77fio7is co7ttains 
fourtez7i thoufand 07ie himdred a7id twe7ity-eight cubic feet: a7id 
fjould weigh, were it Portland fione, about two 77iillio7is two 
himdred and feve7tty thoufa7id pou7ids avoirdupoife j or 07i^ 
thoufand one hundred and thirty-five tons. From thefe ac- 
counts, we learn two things : firft, that the people, by whom 
thefe operations were carried on, were perfons of great in- 
duftry and labour : and in the next place, that they mufl 
have been very ingenious, and deeply {killed in mechanical 
powers. For even in thefe days, among the moft knowing, 
it is matter oi difficulty to conceive how thefe mighty works 
could be effected. There occur in our own ifland large 
ftones, which were probably firft raifed on a religious ac- 
count. It has been a fubjedl of much inquiry, to find out 
in what manner they were brought, and by what means 
eredled, where they ftand. But in the countries, of which I 

" Account of Balbec, p. 18. See alio the Travels of Van Egmont. vol. 2. p. 
^75. and Maundrel's Journey to Aleppo, p. 138. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 529 

have been fpeaking, we fee mafles of rock of far fuperior fize 
not refting upon the earth, but carried aloft ; fome to an 
hundred, others to five hundred feet, perpendicular. 

Many have looked upon thefe ancient buildings, efpecially 
the pyramids in Egypt, with an air of contempt, as being vaft 
piles without any great fymmetry : and have thought the labour 
idle, and the expence unnecelTary. But it muft be confidered, 
that they were defigned for high altars and temples; and were 
conftru6led in honour of the Deity. Though they are rude, 
and entirely void of every ornament, which more refined ages 
have introduced ; yet the work is ftupendous, and the exe- 
cution amazing : and cannot be viewed without marks 
of aftonifhment. And il we once come to think, that all 
coft, which does not feem quite neceflary, is culpable ; I 
know not, where we fliall ftop : for our own churches, and 
other edifices, though more diverfified and embellifhed, are 
liable to the fame objection. Though they fall far fliort of 
the folidity, and extent of the buildings abovementioned, yet 
lefs coft might certainly have been applied ; and lefs labour 
expended. One great purpofe in all eminent and expenfive 
ftrudiures is to pleafe the ftranger and traveller, and to win 
their admiration. This is effefted fometimes by a mixture 
of magnificence and beauty : at other times folely by im- 
menfity and grandeur. The latter fecms to have been the 
objeft in the ereding of thofe celebrated buildings in Egypt: 
and they certainly have anfwered the defign. For not only 
the vaftnefs of their ftrudlure, and the area, which they oc- 
cupy, but the ages they have endured, and the very uncer- 
tainty of their hiftory, which runs fo far back into the 

Vol. III. ^ y Y depths 

530 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv. 

depths of antiquity, produce altogether a wonderful venera- 
tion ; to which buildings more exquifite and embellifhed 
are feldom entitled. Many have fuppofed, that they were 
defigned for places of fepulture : and it has been affirmed 
by '^ Herodotus, and other ancient writers. But they fpoke 
by guefs : and I have fhewn by many inftances, how ufual 
it was for the Grecians to miftake temples for tombs. If the 
chief pyramid were defigned for a place of burial, what oc- 
cafion was there for a '^ well, and for paflages of communi- 
cation, which led to other buildings ? Near the pyramids 
are apartments of a wonderful fabric, which extend in length 
one thoufand four hundred feet, and about thirty in depth. 
They have been cut out of the hard '^ rock, and brought to 
a perpendicular by the artifts chizel ; and through dint of 
labour fajfhioned as they now appear. They were un- 
doubtedly defigned for the reception of priefts ; and confe- 
quently were not appendages to a tomb, but to a temple of 
the Deity. It is indeed faid, that a flone coffin is ftill to be 
feen in the center room of the chief pyramid : and its fhape 
and dimenfions have been accurately taken. It is eafy to 
give a name, and affign a ufe, to any thing, which comes 
under our infpeftion : but the truth is not determined by 
our furmifes. There is not an inftance, I believe, upon re- 
cord, of any Egyptian being entombed in this manner. The 
whole practice of the country feems to have been intirely 
'' different. I make no doubt but this flone trough was a. 

"" L. 2. C. 127. 

'' SeePocock,Norden, and Others. 

'^ Greaves of the Pyramids, vol. i. p. 141. 

?' See Shaw's Travels, p. 4 1 g. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. .531 

refervoir for water, which, by means of the well, they drew 
from the Nile. The priefts of Egypt delighted in obfcurity ; 
and they probably came by the fubterraneous paffao-es of the 
building to the dark chambers within; where they performed 
their luftrations and other nod;urnal rites. Many of the an- 
cient temples in this country were caverns in the rock, en- 
larged by art, and cut out into numberlefs dreary apartments : 
for no nation upon earth was fo addicted to gloom and me- 
lancholy as the Egyptians. From the top of the pyramids, 
they obferved the heavens, and marked the conftellations : 
and upon the fame eminence it is probable, that they offered 
up vows and oblations. 

As the whole of Upper Egypt was clofely bounded on 
each fide by mountains, all the floods which defcended from 
the higher region, and from Abyflinia, muft have come with 
uncommon violence. The whole face of the country affords 
evidence of their impetuolity in the flrft ages, before they had 
borne down thofe obftacles, by which their defcent was im- 
peded. As the foil was by degrees wafhed away, many rocks 
were left bare ; and may ftill be feen rough and rude in a 
variety of diredions. Some ftand up Angle : others of im- 
raenfe fize lie tranfverfe, and incumbent upon thofe below : 
and feem to fhew, that they are not in their natural fltua- 
tion ; but have been fliattered and overturned by fome great 
convulflon of nature. The Egyptians looked upon thefe 
with a degree of veneration : and fome of them they left, as 
they found " them, with perhaps only an hieroglyphic. 
Others they fhaped with tools, and formed into various 

" SeeNorden. Plate 122. 123. 

Y y y 2 devices. 

532 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

devices. The Sphinx feems to have been originally a vaft 
rock of different ftrata : which from a iliapelefs mafs the 
Egyptians fafhioned into an objedl of beauty and veneration. 
I fhould imagine, that the pyramids were conftrufted in the 
fame manner ; at leaf!: thofe, which are the principal, and 
ftand oppofite to Cairo. They were probably immenfe 
rocks, which ftood upon the brow or the mountain. The 
Egyptians availed themfelves of what chance offered ; and 
cafed them over with large ftones ; and brought them by 
thefe means to a degree of fymmetry and proportion. At: 
the fame time, they filled up the unneceffary interftices with> 
rubbifh and mortar ; and made chambers and apartm.ents, 
according as the intervals in the rock permitted ; being ob- 
liged to humour the indirect turns and openings in the ori- 
ginal mafs to execute what they purpofed. This, I think, 
may be inferred from the narrownefs, and unneceffary floping 
of the paffages, which are oftentimes very clofe and fteep : 
and alfo from the fewnefs of the rooms in a work of fo im- 
menfe a fl:ru(£lure. 

I have mentioned, thai: they fiiewed a reverential regard to 
fragments of rock, which were particularly uncouth and hor- 
rid : and this practice feems to have prevailed in many other 
countries. It was ufual with much labour to place one vafi: 
ftone upon another for a religious memorial. The ftones 
thus placed-, they oftentimes poized fo equably, that they 
were affeded with the leaft external force : nay a breath of 
wind would fometimes make them vibrate. We have many 
inftances of this nature in our own country; and they are to. 
be found in other parts of the world : and v/herever they 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 533 

occur we may efteem them of the higheft antiquity. All fuch 
works we generally refer to the Celts, and to the Druids ; 
under the fandtion of which names we fhelter ourfelves, 
whenever we are ignorant, and bewildered. But they were 
the operations of a very remote age ; probably before the 
time, when the Druids, or Celtae, were firft known. I quef- 
tion, whether there be in the world a monument, which is 
much prior to the celebrated Stone-Henge. There is reafon 
to think, that it was erefted by a foreign colony ; one of 
the firft, which came into the ifland. Here is extant at this 
day, one of thofe rocking ftones, of which I have been fpeak- 
ing above. The ancients diftinguiflied ftones erected with a 
religious view by the name of amber : by which was figni- 
fied any thing folar and divine. The Grecians called them 
*' Ylsr^cii K^^^o<Tioi.i^ Petrae " Ambroftae; and there are repre- 
fentations of fuch upon coins. Horapollo fpeaks of a facred 
book in Egypt ftyled ''^ Ambres ; which was fo called from 
its fandity ; being a medicinal book of Hermes, and intrufted 
folely to the care of the facred fcribes. Stonehenge is com- 
pofed of thefe amber-ftones : hence the next town is deno- 
minated ^^ Ambroft>ury : not from a Roman Ambroftus ; for 
no fuch perfon exifted ; but from the Ambroft^ Petra?, in 
whofe vicinity it ftands. Some of thefe, as I have taken no- 
tice, were rocking ftones : and there was a wonderful monu- 

*' Vaillant de nummis Colon, vol.2, p. 69. 148. 2j8. 

Alj£^iL,iiV ^i^OLTTiUiiV BV TOti iSPCt;. Ibid. 

-' Eq-ic!'s'u:uoctTzii'lei,o-)pxy.iy.a7euaixai(ii?^.oiiiBcc^KxA>JiJt.eyr;Ay.^oiii. L. i. 
c. 38. p. 52. 

*:* See Stukeley's Stonehenge, p. 49. 50. 


534 TuTL Analysis op Ancient Mythology, 

ment of this fort near Penzance in Cornwallj though, I be- 
lieve, it h: now in great meafure ruined. It ftill retains the 
pame of ^^ Main-Amber, by which is fignified the Jac?-cd. 
Jiojies. We find it defcribed by the Englifh antiquary Nor- 
den, who ** fays, that it confided or certayne huge Jio7tes^ fa 
fetty and fiibtillyc combynedy ?tot by art^ as I take it^ but by 
*^ riature^ as a child may move the tipper Ji one ^ beiiig of a huge 
bigjiesy iLHth one finger \ fo equallie ballanced it is : and the 
forces of 7nanie Jlrojtg men conjoi7ied can doe ?io jnore in inoving it. 
He mentions another of the fame fort called ^^ Pendre Stone. 
It is, he fays, a rock upo?t the topp of a hill 7iear Blijlon^ 07i 
which flandeth a beacon', and on the topp of the rocklyeth a flo7iey 
which is three yardes and a haulfe lo7tgey four foote broad, a7id 
two a7id a haulfe thick \ a7id it is equally bala77ced, that the 
wi7ide will move it, whereof I have had true experience. A7id 
a 7nan with his little f7iger %vill eafly Jlirr it, and the flre7tgth 
of 7na7iy cannot re77iove it. Such a one is mentioned by Apol- 
lonius Rhodius, which was fuppofed to have been raifed in 
the time of the Argonauts. It flood in the ifland Tenos, 
and was the monument of Calais and Zetes, the two winged 
fons of Boreas. They are faid to have been flain by Hercules; 

*' Main, from whence came mcenia, fignified, in the primitive langiiagej a ftone, 
or flones, and alfo a building. By amber was meant any thing facrcd. Chil-Mi- 
nar, by which name the celebrated ruins in Perfia are diftinguilhed, i'cems to fignify 
Collis Petrse. The word Minaret is of the fame etymology, from Meen and Main, 
a ftone. 

** Norden's Cornwall, p, 48. The upper ftone was eleven feet long, fix feet 
wide, and five in thicknefs. 

*' Thele are works are of too much nicety, and too often repeated, to be effedted 
by chance. 

'' P. 74. 

10 and 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 535^ 

and though the hiftory be a fable, yet fuch a monu- 
ment, I make no doubt, exifted in that ifland, as the poet 

A^Awy ydo HsKicco h^'6%orog a-vj/ aviovrotg 
Trjvo) ey OLiJ,:;:i^vTiri ijr3(pvs]/, koli aixricrccro yoLioLV 
A[JL<p ctvToig, fiTiKoLg h ^voj acfMits^^sv stsv^sv' 
'£lv sTs^Y], ^dfJiJoog 'urs^icijcrioy olv^^oltl 7\ev(T<Tsiv, 

Thefe haplefs heroes, as they bent their way 
From the fad rites of Pelias, lately dead, 
Alcides Hew in Tenos. He then rais'd 
An ample mound in memory of the flain, 
And on it plac'd two ftones. One flill remains. 
Firm on its bafe : the other, lightly poiz'd. 
Is viewed by many a wondering eye, and moves 
At the flight inipulfe of the northern breeze. 

Ptolemy *' Hephoeflion mentions a large ftone upon the bor- 
ders of the ocean, probably near Gades in Bietica, which he 
calls Petra Gigonia : and fays, that it could be moved with 
a ^° blade of grafs. TiyooVj Gigon, from whence came the 
term Gigonia, was, according to Hefychius, a name of the 
Egyptian ^' Hercules. From hence we may infer, that 
both the ftone here, and that alfo in Tenos, was facrcd to 

*' Apud Photium. p. 475. 

'° Aa-q>o^eAu. The author fuppofes, that nothing elfe could move the ftone. 

'' Tiyoov, TIccTaiKos' 6i Se rav At'}:V7rrrjv'Hpc(.x.^ia.. 

53^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

this Deity, who was called '^ Archal, and Arcalus, by the 
Egyptians, Tyrians, and other nations. By Petra Gigonia 
was lignified an Herculean monument, not raifed by him, 
but to his honour: and it was undoubtedly eredled by people 
of thofe colonies, who came both from Tyre and Egypt. 

I once made mention of thefe moving Hones to a gentle- 
man who had been in China : and he told me, that there 
v/as one of this fort in the ifland Amoy, which belongs 
to that empire. As he had not taken particular notice of it 
himfelf, he applied to a friend, who had been upon the fpot, 
and who fent him the ioUowino; account. As to the fHoving- 
J}o?ie at Amoy J I have o?tly my mefjiory^ to which I can recin\ It 
is of a7i hmnenfe fize ; and it would have beeji diffxtdt to have 
meafured it^ as the longefi^ though the fjnalle.Jl, part hu?tg over 
a precipice ; ajid the extretniiy of it could 7iot be reached. It 
was i?i great raeafure of a Jlrait oblong for?n : and U7ider the 
fhorteft^ which was however the biggefi^ part^ we could walk for 
fome paces. By prejfutg againft it with my ca72e upwards^ and 
then withdrawing 7ny ar77i^ I could perceive a fenjible vibratio7i. 
We judged it by efli7nation^ to be forty feet in length : a7id be- 
tween forty and ffty in circu77ference at the larger end. "The 
flone did 720t lie quite horizo7ital^ but f anting. I had 7tobody to 
apply to for inforjnatio7i about it, except 07ie perfon\ who^ though 
a native of Fokein^ could afford me 7io ijttelligence. hi the vi- 
ci7iity of this were fever al other flones of an e7ior77tous fze ; a7id 
at the fame ti/ne as rou7id and fnooth^ as a7iy pebbles i7i the 
high way. Three of thefe^ which were re7narkably large, lay in 
contaEl with 07ie another : a7id on the top of thefe was a fourth. 
07ie would 720t thi7ik it poffible for a7ty hu7nan force to have placed 

'' The name was Ibmetimes exprefied Orchal, and Ourchol. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 537 

the uppermoji i?i this pofition. Might they not have hee?i fettled 
in this manner at the Deluge? I agree with this curious gen- 
tleman, that at the Deluge many of thefe vaft ftones were left 
bare upon the retreat of the waters. But thofe, which are fo 
equally poifed, and fo regularly placed upon others, muft 
have been thus adapted by the contrivance and induftry of 
man. For, as I before faid, their fituation is too nice and 
critical, and they occur too '^'^ often, to be the efFed: of chance. 

There are probably many inftances in China of ftones fo 
conftituted as to be affedted by a ftrong motion of the air. 
Two fuch are mentioned by Kircher : and one of them was 
in the fame province, as that taken notice of above. " Ad- 
miratione dignum eft, quod de Monte Cio referunt Oriofcopi 
Sinenfes, effe in ejus vertice lapidem quinque perticarum al- 
titudinis, et in regno Fokienfi. alterum, qui quoties tempeftas 
imrninet, omnino titubat, et hinc inde, ad inftar Cuprefli 
vento agitatae, moveatur. Kircher, who loves the marvel- 
lous, would perfuade us, that thefe ftones afforded a prog- 
noftic of the weather. But this is an idle furmife. It is 
fufficient. that there are in thofe regions immenfc ftones, fo 
difpofed, as to be made to vibrate by the wind. 

When the Cuthites began their migrations to the feveral 
parts, where they fettled ; the earth was overgrown with 
forefts : and when they had in any region taken up their 
abode, it was fome time before they could open a commu- 
nication between the places, which they occupied. It is 
particularly faid of ^* Cyprus, when it received its firft inha- 
bitants, that it was overgrown with impaffable forefts. They 

" See Stukeley's Stonehengc p. 49. 
" China liiuft. p. 270. 
'* Strab-^. L. 4. p. lOOj. 

Vol. III. Z z z l-.^^.,";-,,,-,^ 

538 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

however in their different journeyings, felled the trees, which 
intercepted their courfe ; and formed caufeways and high 
roads, through the marfhes and fwamps, that intervened. 
Some of thefe were of great extent, and afford wonderful 
evidence of their ingenuity and labour. One of thefe was in 
India; and ftyled the way of Nufa: being the fame by which 
Dionufus was fuppofed to have paffed, when he fled eafliward: 
" NvT<roLiriv ynv S(prjfJLi^o(,vTo ksKsv&ov. In Campania was 
an ancient ftratum, fuppofed to have been made by '* Her- 
cules, and called ViaHerculanea: and there was a city of the 
fame name. The paffage through the Alpes Cottiae, or Cu- 
thean Alps, feems to have been a great performance ; and 
was attributed to the fame Hercules. There was a third 
Herculean way in Iberia, which is mentioned by Feftus Ru- 
fus Avienus. 

" Aliique rurfus Herculis dicunt viam. 
Straviffe quippe maria fertur Hercules, 
Iter ut pateret facile captivo gregi. 

Thefe noble works were always dedicated to fome Deity, and 
called by a facred title : by which means the perfonage in 
aftertimes was fuppofed to have been the chief performer. 
The ^^ Via Elora, called alfo Elorina, in Sicily, was one 

" Dionyf. nspiiryna-.v. 1159. 

^^ Qiia jacet et Tiojce tubicen Mifenus arena, 

Et fonat Herculeo ftrufta labore via. Propert. Eleg. L. 3. 16. v. 3. 
It was alfo called Via Puteolana. 

'O (paaiv 'HgxxAex (i^tx^aiaou. Strabo. L. 5. p. 375. 
" Ora Maritima. v. 326. 
'' 'OS^ov EAwpn-wj". Thucydid. L. 7. p. 500. 

Hinc Syraciifas ufque via erat antiquitus piano lapide llrata, quam Elorinam 
appellabant. Fazellus. Decad. i. L. 4. c. 2. 

7 of 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 539 

of thefe ancient roads: as was the Via '' Fgnatia in Thrace; 
which reached from Dyrrhachium to the Pontus Euxinus. 
They often raifed vaft ramparts to fecure themfelves from 
the nations, which were in their vicinity. Some of thofe, 
eredted by the Semarim in Afia, have been mentioned. In 
Albania, one of the Amazonian regions, was a fortification, 
which extended fifty leagues in length, to guard the pafs 
between Mount Caucafus and the Cafpian Sea. The Nubian 
geographer fpeaks of it, and ftyles it — '^° Aggerem a Bicorni 
extrudlum inter nos, et lagog, et Magog. Near it was the 
city Bachu. In the terms Bachu and lagog, we may plainly 
fee a reference to lacchus and Bacchus, the hero here de- 
fcribed with two horns; by whofe votaries, the ancient 
Amazonians, this work was conftrufted. The remains of 
it are ftill to be feen, and have been vifited by modern tra- 
vellers. Olearius had the curiofity to take a view of it: and 
he tells us, that it paiTes near the city Derbent. '^' T/jere is 
a mou7^tai7^ above the city^ covered with wood ; where there may 
be Jl ill feen the ruijis of a wall about fifty leagues i?t lejigth : 
which, we were told, had fometimes ferved for a communication 
between the Euxine and Cafpian feas. In fome places it was 
five or fix feet high : in others but two : and in fome places 
there was no trace at all. The natives fuppofe the citv to 
have been built by Alexander the Great ; and from thence 
to have been called *' Scaher Iuna7t. But there is no reafon 
to think, that Alexander was ever in thefe parts ; much lefs, 

" It was five hundred miles in lengtli. See Strabo. L. 7. p. 496. alfo Antoninus. 
p. 317. and the notes of Hieron. Surrita. 
*° Climat. Sext. pars nona. p. 267. 
■*' Olearius. L. 7. p. 403. 
*■ Struys Travels, c. 20. p. 222. 

Z z z 2 that 

540 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

that he built here a city : and the terms Scaher, or rather 
Caher lunan relate to a hiftory far prior to that prince. I 
have in many places taken notice of a perfon named lonjloni- 
chus, and luna-Hellen, who was fuppofed to have been the 
author of the Zabian worfhip ; and from whom the ancient 
lonim were defcended. Caher ''"' Iiinan was certainly a city 
built by feme of this family, and named from their common 
anceftor. Near this place, they £hew a tomb, faid to belong 
to a gigantic hero of ancient days, named Tzamzuma. 
Many ftories are told of him, efpecially by the eaftern poets. 
But by the name is plainly indicated the family of the perfon^ 
of whom this memorial remains. It fignifies, that he was 
of the Anakim and Titanian race : for people of extraordi- 
nary flature were of old called "** Zanzummim. 

The buildings, which the Cuthites ered:ed, were in many 
places ftyled Cyclopian, from a title given to the architedls. 
Many ancient edifices in Sicily were of their conftruftion : 
for, though they fucceeded to other nations in many parts, 
they feem to have been the *^ firft inhabitants of this ifland. 
They were alfo called Lasflrygons, and Lamii ; and refided 
chiefly in the Leontine plains, and in the regions near iEtna.. 
They ere6led many temples ; and likewife high towers upon 
the fea-coaft : and founded many cities. The ruins of fome 
of them are ftill extant ; and have been taken notice of by 

*' See p. ] 59. of this volume. 

^'^ That alio was accounted a land of Giants : Giants dwelt therein of old time ; 
and the Ammonites call them Zanzummim : a people great and many •, and tall, 
as the Anakim. Deuteron. c. 2. v. 20. 

■*' naKcx.ioTa.TGifj.iv AsyonTcci iv,tt rti/i tj!5 X^^ols KvxXcaTS-, km AaK^^vyovss 
oixTtaai. Thucyd. L. 6. c. 2. 

ras Ku/cAwTras Aiovrimi oi v^ifov iKczAiaocv, Euftath. in Homcrum. OdylT. 

L. 9. 


The Analysis of Ancieni' Mythology. 541 

Fazellus, who fpeaks of them as exhibiting a mofl magnificent 
appearance. They confifl: of ftones, which are of great fize: 
fuch as arc continually to be found in the ftrudlures creeled 
by this people. Fazellus, fpeaking of the bay near Segefla, 
and of an hill, which overlooked the bay, '^^ mentions won- 
derful ruins upon its fummit, and gives an ample defcription 
o[ their extent and appearance. Mens arduus, — in cujus 
vertice planicies eft mille ferme paffuum : cuju5 totum am- 
bitum ingentis magnaj urbis, et proftratarum yEdium ruinze; 
lapides immenfi, tegulffi latericiae, inaudit^e craflltudinis; vafa 
iiitilia antiquiiTimas inufitat^eque formse : ac pro finguiis li- 
minibus, fingulae fere cifternas ; quales et in Eryce et in Se- 
gefta urbibus notavimus, fparfim et confufe occupant. Ad 
angulum urbis, qui mari et Zephyri ilatibus prominet, magn^ 
arcis diruts, cifternarum^ aediumque, ac murorum ingentium 
vafta cernuntur monumenta. Ingreflum quoque ejus, moe- 
nium, ampliflima quondam murorum compagine, lapidum- 
que quadratorum fabrica, infurgentium, magna fragmenta 
*^ impediunt. The Cyclopians were the fame as the Minyze,. 
who built the treafury at Orchomenus. This building is by 
''^ Paufanias joined with the walls of Tiryns for magnificence;; 

** Decad. i. L. 7. c. 5. See Cluverii Sicilia. L. 2. c. 2. p. 270. There are 
fimilar ruins at Agrigentum. 

■" The city Circa in Numidiafeems to have been buik in the fame manner. It 
was by the Romans called Conftantina : and is thus defcribed by Gulielmus Cu- 
perus in his notes upon Laftantius. Conftantina montis prope inacceffi vertici 
impofita, qui munitur infuper lapidibus decern vel duodccim pedes longis, quatuor 
vel quinque latis ; rotunda, et ejufdem fere ac Roterodamiim magnitudinis ell. 
^dificia pro gentis more, et genio, parvi momenti funt ; fed rudera, ac columnie 
marrr.ores:, quse pafflm a fodientibus terram eruuntur, certiffima indicia funt, olim. 
ilia fplendida ac magnifica fuilTe. Vide notas in Ladantiimi. vol. 2. p. 498. Leo 
Africanus. p. 240. 

*' L. 9. p 783. 

^ and' 

54-2 The Analysis of Ancient. Mythology, 

and he fpeaks of them as equal in workmanfhip to the pyra- 
mids of Egypt. The walls of Mycene were faid to have 
been eredied by the fame '^^ perfons: and they were fo ftrong, 
that when the people of Argos made ufe of every power to 
take the place, they could not ^° eftedt it. In the time of 
the above writer, nothing remained of Tiryns but the ^' ruins 
before mentioned. They confifled of rough ftones ; which 
were of fuch a magnitude, that the leaft of them could not, 
he fays, have been at all moved upon the ground by a yoke 
of mules. There were fmaller ftones inferted, and fo happily 
adapted, as to exactly fill up the interftices between thofe, 
which were fo large. 

Such were the mighty works of old, which promifcd to 
laft for ever : but have been long fince fubverted ; and their 
name and hiftory oftentimes forgotten. It is a melancholy 
confideration, that not only in Sicily, and Greece, but in all 
the celebrated regions of the eaft, the hiftory of the pilgrim 
and traveller confifts chiefly in his pafTing through a feries of 
dilapidations ; a procefs from ruin to ruin. What hand was 
it, that could fubvert fuch powerful ftates, and lay thefe cities 
in the duft ? and for what caufe were they reduced to this 
ftate of irretrievable demolition ; and referved as melancholy 
memorials to future generations ? a fpedlacle both to the 
native, and fojourner, of the utmoft wonder and aftonifh- 
ment ? ^"^ Come behold the woT'ks of the Lo?'d: what defola- 

*' ^T£Tii;^L<^o yap xccTx TauTa rM ev Ti^viSi uto tmv Kvy.Aa)7ra)v xa.?^yy,iva»'. 
Paufan. L. 7. p. 589. 

See Vol. I. p. 502. of this work. 

'° Ibid. 

^' TocTs ni^QS, <^» fAQvov TMv ipsiTiMv XiiTTirat, Kiy)cAa)7r&)V fJi2v K^iv epyov' 'srSTrww- 
Tai S'e ct^yuv Aiuo;!', uiySoi g;^w»' ex,ix<^oi Ai6o«, cog cctt ccurcav /nyjS"' ocr ap^ny Kivrt^i)vxi 
Tov y-iKporcLioy uiro l^iuyovi rifji.iovuv. kt A. Ibid. L. 2. p. 169. 

^' Pfalm. 46. V. 8. tiom 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 543 

tions he hath made in the earth. He maketh wars to ceafe unto 
the ends of the world. He breaketh the bow ; and cutteth the 
fpear af under : he bui^neth the chariots with Jire. Be Jlill^ and 
know J that I am God : I will be exalted amo?ig the heathen : 
I will be exalted in the earth. 

Thefe evidences I thought proper to colledl, in order that 
I might fliew the great fuperiority, which this people once 
maintained above others in their w^orks and enterprifes ; and 
in every branch of fcience. In confequence of this, they 
were looked upon as general benefaftors to mankind. But 
this noble character was greatly tarnifhed by their cruelty ; 
for which they feem to have been infamous in all parts. And 
this not merely through degeneracy in later times ; though 
they did fall off from their original merit : but from their 
rites and religion ; which had always a tendency to blood. 
I have before fpoken of the Lamii in Sicily : and of thofe alfo, 
who refided in Italy, at Phormias, and Cumae. There were 
people of this name, and the like cruelties were pradlifed near 
Amifa, and in other parts of Pontus. The Cuthse upon the 
Mseotis, and in the Tauric Cherfonefus, are defcribed as very 
inhofpitable : and all thofe in their vicinity were of a fivage 
caft, and guilty of great barbarity. 

^'' 'Ei<nv h rot; oyXoi; fjLsv 01 Tolv^oi (Tv^uor 
Btov J" si/o^ioVj vo^JLOL^cLT s^r^XooKOTsg' 
Tyiv J" oi][A,orriTC(, (^a^^ct^oi Ts, zoii (poi/Bigy 

— — 5+ ct-/^; 7^j/ Kvrooi/ 

IfKVTdl KCCT0i}i8(n, 

minores. vol. 2. v. S^. 90. 99. Vide Fragrr 

^' Scymnus Chius apud Geog. Gr. minores. vol. 2. v. S^. 90. 99. Vide Fragmenta 
'* The KuTxi and 2>cy6ai were the fame. 

544- '■I'^^ Analysis of Ancient Mythology* 

It is faid of the Amazonians, that they were by no means of 
a gentle turn ; nor did they regard juftice ; or hofpitality : 
but were devoted to war and rapine. 

*+ Ov ycL^ AfjLOL^oviisg fxaX STrriTssgj ovh ^s^i^aq 
TiaiTCLLj 'ureiiov AoioLniov afjL^psvs^JiQvro' 
AAA' v^^ig 5'ovoeG'a'oCj kcli A^sog s^ya ^sfxriXs. 
Aj) yoL^ KOLi ystsrjV ztolv A^Bog^ 'A^^oving ts. 

Strabo, who lived in Pontus, fpeaks of the nations upon that 
coaft, as being given to horrid cuftoms. I am fenfible, that 
many people cannot be brought to believe what is reported 
of thefe nations. They think, that the difpofition of man 
can never be fo depraved, as to turn to its own fpecies, and 
indulge in human carnage. I fhall make no anfwer myfelf : 
but only place before the reader fome few attestations out of 
many, which might be produced, of this unnatural gratifi- 
cation. The writer before appealed to, fpeaks of his neigh- 
bours the Scythians, as very cruel. " Tag ^sv yct^ stvcti ^a- 
7\S7nig, cog's koli a.)/^^(^7i:o(pa,ysiv. Some of them were fo brutal^ 
as to feed upo?i their own fpecies. Pliny mentions the fame 
circumftance. ^* Anthropophagi Scythce — humanis corpo- 
ribus vefcuntur. The fame is in another place repeated. 
*^ Effe Scytharum genera, et plurima, quae corporibus hu- 
manis vefcerentur, indicavimus. The Scythae Androphagi 

^'' ApoUon. Argonaut. L. 2. v. 9S9. 

" Strabo. L. 7. p. 463. He takes notice in more places than one, '^■>at^m ^evo- 
^(iiivcvT!t)v,Kai TXpKO(pacyouyTo:ii. See L. 7' P- 45^'- 
5* Pliny. L. 6. p. 315. 
" Ibid. L. 7. p. 370^ 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 545 

are alio fpoken of by ^* Herodotus. The Sacas, Indi, and 
Indo-Scythae, were of the fame family, as thofe above ; and 
they are reprefented by Mela, as indulging in thefe horrid re- 
pafts. " Scythae funt Androphagi et Sacas. — Indorum qui- 
dam nullum animal occidere, nulla carne vefci, optimum 
exiftimant. — quidam proximos, parentefque, priufquam annis 
et asgritudine in maciem eant, velut hoftias caidunt ; caefo- 
rumque vifceribus epulari fas, et maxime pium eft. TJje 
Scythce are Ca7tnihals^ and fo are the Sacce. — Soj?ie of the Indi 
will not kill any animal.^ nor feed at all upo?i fleJJj. — Others make 
it a rule, before their friends are emaciated either by years y or 
illnefs, to put them to death, like fo ma?iy vi&i?ns : a?id they 
thijik it not 07ily a lawful thi?tg, but a matter of duty and affec- 
tion to feed up07i their inward parts. The moft reputable 
people of the Indi were fuppofed to have been the Nyfaeans: 
and they are particularly accufed of this crime. *° OacTi— - 
T8? -iirs^i TO Ni;tr(ra/ov xi^o; tuto oiKHnag (Iv^mg) oLv^^t^TTOtpctysg 
siva.1. Tertullian gives the fame account of the Cimmerian 
Scythe, as has been exhibited of the Indie by Mela. *' Pa- 
rentum cadavera cum pecudibus ccefa convivio convorant. 
Several nations devoted to the fame pradice are enumerated 
by Ariftotle. IIoAAa J" sfi r(j)v sSvct)v, a "ur^og to ktsivsiv, Kca 
"ur^og TTiV oLv^^(i)7ro(poiyiciLv sv^s^oog £^£i, Ka^azs^ roov 'ure^i rov 
Iloj'TOJ' A-^OLiQi TS, KOLi Wvio'^oi, KOLi riTTSi^ocTiyMV s^voov BTB^oi. There 

'* L. 4. c 118. alfo c. 106. He mentions one nation only. See Liician. Toxaris. 

'' P. Mela. L. ^. c. 7. hShii ocv%^o-iro<pa,yo-Ji. Schol. in Dionyf. v. 626. See 
Criger. cone. Celf. L.3. c. 4/ Concerning this cuftom in different places, fee Strabo. 
L. 4. p. 307. L. II. p. 787. 

'" Scholia in Dionyf. v. '624. p. ii6. 

" Contra Manich. L. i. p. 365. 

Vol. III. 4 A are 

546 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

are jnany ?iations^ who do 7iot fcruple to kill men , pjid afterwards 
to feed upon their flefj. Among thefe we may recko?i the nations 
of Pojitus ; fuch as the Achceans^ a?id the He?iiochi ; as well as 
other people upon that coajl. One province in thefe parts, 
was that of the Chabareni, who lived near Colchis, and were 
denominated from their ^* worfhip. They ufed to behave very 
inhumanly to all ftrangers, whom chance brought upon their 
Coaft ; and feem to have been very refined in their cruelty. 
*^ '0< rm ^sviKoov yvvcuiKm wV iTm ysvocncti kv^ioi, rn&ag w^ota; 
S(r^iii(riy rah IjToli^iol )cciTsuoo'^ii(n. They were probably the 
fame, as the Thebeans, called ^* Tibareni, as we may judge 
both from the names, by which they were diftinguifhed, and' 
from their {ituation. Some of the Ethiopians are accufed of 
thefe fad practices, and are accordingly ranked by Agathe- 
merus among the *^ Cannibals. To fay the truth, all thofe, 
among whom thefe cuftcms prevailed, may be efteemed 
Ethiopians. They were all of the Cuthite race ; and confe- 
quently of Ethiopic original. A fociety of priefts refided in 
Africa, near a cavern, where they fabled, that the queen of 
the Lamii was '* born. The place was fituated in a valley, 
and furrounded with ivy and yew trees, being of an appear- 
ance very gloomy j and not ill adapted to the rites, which 

*' The Chabareni werefo called fromCha-baren, Domus Arcs : which was un- 
doubtedly the name of their chief place of refidence. 

*' Steph. Byzant. 'XxSapnfoi. See Ariftotle: Ethicorum L. 7. c. 6. p. tiS. 

^* Thebsi, Tibareni, Chabareni, have all a reference to the fame worfhip of 
Theba, and Arene. 

'' At^ioTTBi Av^puTTc^ayoi. Geogr. Vet. Gr. vol, 2. p. 41, 

** Ai'TDov luueyi^i-y xa* a-j^ihaKi awij^e(pii. .Diod.Sic. L. 20, p. 77S. 
See Vol. II, p. 12. of this work, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology-. 547 

were pra^tifed by the Lamian priefts. There is an account 
of another temple in the fame *' country, which could never 
be feen twice. The reafon undoubtedly was, that whoever 
came within the purlieus of it, was feized upon and flaugh- 
tered. The dread, that thefe practices caufed among tkofe, 
who lived within the verge of danger, has been the reafon, 
why the accounts have been exaggerated : yet we may be well 
affured, that there were in general too good grounds for this 
imputation of cruelty. And however the great family, of 
which I have been treating, may in other refpedls appear be- 
neficial and fuperiour ; they were in their rites and religion 
barbarous to the laft degree. 

It is true, that there are fome accounts in their favour : at 
leaft fome tribes of this family are reprefented to more 
advantage. The poet Ch^rilus has given a curious hiftory of 
the Saczean Cuthites ; ot whofe anceftry he fpeaks with great 
honour, when he is defcribing the expedition of Alexander 
the Great. 


My;Aoi'0|Cto; T£ XoiKccij ysvscf. X^cvdai, ccvTot^ smiov 
Acr^Ja 'UTv^QCpo^oV Noy^a^m ys (jlsv yiu'olv olttqikqi. 

Next march'd the Sacae, fond of paftoral life, 
Sprung from the Cuthite Nomades, who liv'd 
Amid the plains of Afia, rich in grain. 

^" Ei' cTg T>i Ai^vYi Aiovvaov titqKiv eiyai, Txvnn' Se bk ei'Si^ea^ai S'n rov clvtov sf- 
ivpuv. Strabo. L. 7. p. 459. 

** Apud Strabonem. L. 7. p. 464. Anacharfis was fiippofed to have been of this 
family. K«<to5' Kvcc^ctDtriv Se ccybpaiTrcv adfov ■ko.Kuv Ecpopos Tara (pijtriv eivai ra 
■ynmi. Ibid. 

4 A 2 They 

548 The Analysis of Ancient Mythologt, 

They from the Shepherd race derived their fource, 
Thofe Shepherds, who in ancient times were deem'd 
The jufteft of mankind. 

Yet we find, that thefe Sacas by fome have been reprefented 
as Cannibals : from whence we may perceive, that people of 
the fame family often differed from one another. Of this 
Ephorus very juftly took notice, as we learn from ^' Strabo. 
When thefe colonies came in aftertimes to be fo degenerate, 
there were ftill fome remains of their original fenfe and in- 
genuity here and there to be found. This was to be obferved 
in the people ofBastica, as I have fhewn from Strabo: and 
in the character exhibited of Cotys, king of Thrace. The 
like is taken notice of by Curtius in fpeaking of the Pontic. 
Scytha3. ^° Scythis non, ut caeteris Barbaris,^ rudis et incon- 
ditus fenfus eft. Quidam eorum fapientiam capere dicuntur,. 
quantumcunque gens capit femper armata. 

There was another cuftom, by which they rendered them- 
felves infamous, though in early times it was looked upon in 
a different light. They contra6led an uniform habit of 
robbery and plunder : fo that they lived in a ftate of piracy, 
making continual depredations. This was fo common in the 
firft ages, that it was looked upon with an eye of indifference, 
as if it were attended with no immorality and difgrace. 
Hence nothing was more common in thofe days, when a 
ftranger claimed the rites of hofpitality, than to afk. him 

/81HC ccvofjiiiHi. Tas fJLiv yao en'xi ^a-AiTrm, oof^ Kai a.v^pM7ro(fot,yiiv' tbj Si kcci twi» 
tcAAci'v ^ooun a.Ti^«}-Bxi, Strabo. L. 7. p. 46-^. 
■'''L. 7.C.8, 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 549 

with great indifference, whether he was a pirate or a mer- 
chant. Oftentimes both characters were included in the 
fame perfon. This is the queftion, which Neftor puts to 
Telemachus and Mentor, after he had afforded them a noble 
repaft at Pylos. ^' It is now^ fays the aged prince, time to 
ajk our guejlsy "who they be^ as they have jinijlDed their 7neaL 
Pray, Jtrs, whence come you, and what bujinefs has brought you 
over the feas f Are you merchants dejiined to any port P or 
are you mere adventurers, and pirates, who roam the feas with- 
out any place of definatiojt ; and live by rapine and rui?! f 
The fame queffion is afked by other perfons in different 
places ; and as the word in the original is Ariig-rj^sg, which 
ffgnifies robbers or pirates, the Scholiaft obferves, that there 
was nothing opprobrious in that term, or culpable in the 
profeffion. On the contrary, piracy and plunder of old 
were efteemed very honourable. Thucydides fpeaks of 
Greece as devoted to this ^* pradice in its early ftate. He 
fays, that there was no fecurity among the little principali- 
ties ; and confequently no polity : as the natives were con«- 
tinually obliged to fhift their habitations through the inroads 
of fome powerful enemy. But this account of Thucydides 
relates to hoftilities by land, between one clan and another, 
before the little provinces were in a fettled ftate. But the 
depredations, of which I principally fpeak, were effeftcd by 
rovers at fea, who continually landed, and laid people under 
contribution upon the coafl:. Many migrations were made 
by perfons, who were obliged to fly, and leave their wives,. 

" Homer. OdyfT. P. v. 6g. 
^ L. I. p. 2. 


550 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

and effefts behind them. Such lofles were to be repaired:, 
^s foon as they gained a fettlement. Hence, when they in- 
fefted any country, and made their levies upon the natives, 
one of their principal demands was women : and of thefe the 
moft noble and fair. Diodorus Siculus makes mention of 
one Butes in early times, who having been driven from his 
own country, feized upon one of the Cyclades, and reiided 
there with his companions. " Kcci ev tolvtyi KaroiKOVvroL Ar^i- 

^iTrKsonag ol^tccl^ziv ttiro 7r,g ')(^x^cf.g yvuc^iKag. Here he took up 
his habitation^ ajid robbed jnany of the people, who failed by that 
if and. A?id as there was a great want of women among his 
aJfociateSy they tifed to pafs over to the continent, a7td recruit 
the??ifelves from thetice. Thefe depredations gave rife to the 
hiftories of princefTes being carried away by banditti ; and of 
kings daughters being expofed to fea-monfters. . The mon- 
fters alluded to were nothing more than mariners and pirates, 
flyled Cetei, Ceteni, and Cetones, from Cetus ; which figni- 
fied a fea-monfter, or whale ; and alfo a large fhip. KjjTO^, 
^i^og vsoog' KriTivr, 'urAoiov fxsya o:g KriTog. By Cetus, fays Hefy- 
chius, is fgnifcd a kind of fhip. Cetine is a hitge float, in bulk 
like a whale. Andromeda, whom fome mention, as having 
been expofed to a fea-monfter, is faid by ^* others to have 
beeii carried away in a Cetus, or fhip. The hiftory of He- 
fione is of the fame purport : who was like Andromeda fup- 

" L- 5- P- 432. 

^* Conon apud Photium. c. 40. p. 447. The term Khto; was by the Dorians 
exprefled Karos, Catus. Among us, there are large unwieldy veflels called Cats, 
particularly in the north. Cat-water, near Plymouth, fignifies a place for vefleis 
to anchor ; a harbour for Kocto/, or fhips. 

c pofed 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 551 

pofed to have been given up as a prey to a ^^ Cetus. Palte- 
phatus takes notice of the legend, and tries to give a folution. 
According to the original (lory, ^^ there was a fea-mo?ifier Ce^ 
tus^ who ufed to frequeiit the Trojan coafi : and if the natives 
made him a prefent ofyoimg women^ he peaceably retired: other- 
wife he laid the country wafle. He imagines, that this Cetus 
was a king of the country, to whom this tribute was paid. 
But thefe demands were generally made ; and this tribute 
levied by people of the fea. They landed, and exadled thefe 
contributions, as the hiftory exprefly tells us. In fliort, 
thefe fea-monfters were not fo much the Ceti, as the Ce- 
teans, and Cetonians, thofe men of honour, the pirates, of 
whofe profefTion and repute we have made mention before. 
Some of them fettled in Phrygia, and Myfia, where they- 
continued the like praftices, and made the fame demands. 
K>]T£io/, ys^o? yi^<Tm. ' The Ceteans^ fays Hefychius, are the 
fajne people^ as the Myfans. Their hiftory is undoubtedly 
alluded to by Homer in a pafiage, which Strabo looked upon 
as an enigma ; and fuch a one as could hardly be " folved. 
The poet is fpeaking of Neoptolemus, whofe great exploits 
are related by Ulyffes to the fhade of Achilles in the regions 
below. Among other things he feems to refer to fome ex- 
pedition made againfl: the Myfians, who were allies of the 
Trojans, and their neighbours. Thefe Neoptolemus invaded,. 

" The hiftory generally turns upon three articles. The women are guarded by 
a dragon, Afccnoov, chained to a Petra, and expofed to a Cetus : all which are mil- 
taken terms. 

' riifi TaK»Ta« To.S'B Xiynai. oa tqkT^&}<7iv bk rm ^<x.XoL-TTin t(poir<t. x^t it [jlsv 
avTO) S'otiv xopxi, ocTni^^STo' ii Si] fjiv, Tiw '^ojpxv auTuv sAu/^aiHTo. De Incred. 
Hiftor. p. 90. 

"^ Atyiyf^a, ti ti6s« nftjf ^waAAoi', 8 Pveycmy n (ra^s;. L. 13. p. 915. 


CC2 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. • 

and flew their king Eurypyhis with many of his fubjeds, in 
revenge for an unjull tribute, which he had exacted of other 
people. Ulyfles tells Achilles, that he cannot enumerate all 
the adions of his fon, 

However y fays Ulyffes, one aSiion I caitnot pafs over; which 
is his encou7iter with the hero Rurypyhis^ the fon of I'ele- 
phus ; whom he few : and at the fame time 7nade a great 
faiighter of the Ceteans. And all this was done " yvvoLi- 
Km sivsKCt (JwfWJ/, on account of the imjtif gfts^ which they 
extorted, and which confifed in wojjien. The paflage muft have 
had in it fome original obfcurity, to have embarrafled a per- 
fon of Strabo's learning. But when we know, that the Ce- 
teans were people, who ufed to make thefe demands ; and at 
the fame time, that the Myfians were ^° Ceteans : I think we 
may be affured of the true meaning of the poet. In fhort, 
thefe Myfians were Cuthites, and by race Nebrids. ^' N£?^6(;J' 
iLWtiycx; }coli ytyaj, o Ai^<o\]/, sj ov Mv(roi. JVimrod, fays the 
author of the ** Chronicon Pafchale, that great hunter , and 
giant, the Ethiopian, was the perfon from whom the Myfans 
were defcended. The hiftory of this family is in all parts 
fimilar, and confiftent. 

'' OdyfT. A.v. 518. 

" The term is here ufed adjei5lively. We meet with yvva.iy.ct. y.a.^oy, 'EAAacTa 
<^pxrov, in the fame mode of acceptation, as ywaiica. Su^a.. 
'° Hefychius above, 
'■ P. 28. 

I have 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 553 

I have mentioned, that one of the moft confiderable 
colonies, which went from Babylonia, wa« that of the Indi, 
or Sindi ; who have been further diftinguifhed by the name 
of the eaftern Ethiopians. They fettled between the In- 
dus and Ganges, and one of their principal regions was 
Cuthaia, rendered Cathaia by the Grecians. They traded 
in linen and other commoditiesj and carried on an exteniive 
commerce with the provinces to the fouth. A large body of 
them palTed inland towards the north, under the name of 
^^ Sac£E and Sacaians : who ranged very high, and got poffef- 
fion of Sogdiana, and the regions upon the laxartes. From 
thence they extended themfelves eaftward quite to the ocean. 
They were of the ^' Cuthic race, and reprefented as great 
^* archers: and their country was called ^^ Sacaia and Cutha. 
The chief city was Sacaftan, the Sacafcana of ^^ Ilidorus Cha- 
racenus. Of their inroads weftward we have taken notice 
*' before : for they fent out large bodies into different parts ; 
and many of the Tartarian nations are defcended from them. 
They got poffelHon of the upper part of China, which they 
denominated Cathaia: and there is reafon to think, that Japan 
was in fome degree peopled by them. Colonies undoubtedly 
went into this country both from Sacaia, and the Indus. 

'' "Strabo. L. 7. p. 464. 

' 2c.x«r. Ts; ^XL/oa; arw (pxcri. Sceph. Byzanr. 

Scytharum populi — Pcrfe illos Sacas in univerllim adpellaverc. Pliny. L. 6. 
c. 18. p. 315.^ 

TuV fXiT iTTt nSTpG^O-flalV loC^aOTCCO Vif^OVTXl 

To^a. ^(x.Kai (loPiovTii.— 

KaiTo^xpoi, ^paooi ri,x<x.i effect. iSxpSxpy.^tipvv. Dionyf. rji^my. v. 749. 
'' By Agathemerus called 2ax/a. Geog. Vet. vol. 2. p. 44. 

^oixaq-avct Xccnojv 'S.x-j^ccv. Ifidorus. Geog. Vet. vol. 2. p. S. 
'' P. 1:53. of this volume. 

Vol. III. 4 B The 

554 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

The Chlnefe were the ancient SinjE, and Seres ; who were 
lb famous for their iiik. There is in Paufanias a very curious 
account of this people, and of their manufadure. The 
author has been fpeaking of the fine flax in Elis : and from 
thence takes an opportunity to digrefs, and to treat about the 
nature of fllk. The forjner^ fays V2i\i{2im'3iS^ arife from feed: 
but thofe fine threads^ of which the Seres make ufe in weavi?jgy 
are of a dijfere?it original. In their country is produced an 
i?ifeci^ which the Grecians call^ I^io^, but the natives have a dif- 
ferent name for it. — This the Seres attend to with great care, 
making proper receptacles for its prefervation both in fuj7imer^ 
and winter. He then proceeds to give a minute, but inac- 
curate, account of the filkworm, and the manner of its fpin- 
ning, which I omit : and concludes with telling us, that the 
country, from whence this commodity comes., is an if and named 
Seria, which lies in a recefs of the Krythrcea7i Sea. I have 
been told by fome, that it is not properly the Erythraean Sea, 
but the river Sera, which inclofes it, and forms an if and, fmi- 
lar to the Delta in Egypt. In fhort fome iytff, that it is 7iot 
at all bou72ded by the fea. They fay alfo, that there is another 
if arid called Seria : a7id thofe who irihabit this, as well as the 
ifamds Abafa, and Sacaia i7i the neighbourhood, are of the 
Ethiopia!! race. Others affLr7n, that they are of the Scuthic 
family, with a 77iixture of the hidic. The hiftory is in every 
part very true ; and in it we have defcribed two nations of 
the Seres ; who were of an Ethiopic, Indie, and Scuthic 
family. The firft was upon the great Erythraean, or Indian, 
Ocean ; or rather upon the Ganges ; being a province in- 

'? Paufan. L. p. 6. 519. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 555 

clofed by the branches of that river. There were many 
iilands (o formed ; and they are by geographers called col- 
ledtively the ^' Delta of the Ganges. The other region of 
the Seres was farther removed. It is the fame as ^° China, 
though fpoken of by Paufanias, as an ifland : and it lies 
oppoUte to the iflands of Japan, called here Abafi and Sa- 
caia. Of the fouthern Seres upon the Ganges little notice 
has been taken ; yet they will be found upon inquiry to have 
been a very notable people. They are mentioned by Oro- 
Hus, who fpeaks of them as bordering upon the Hydafpes. 
The Seres of'' Strabo are of the fame part of the world. 
Marcianus Heracleota, in his '"^ Periplus, places them rather 
to the eafh of the river, and makes them extend very high to 
the north, towards Cafgar and Thebet. They were the fame 
as the Indie Cathaians, who at different times got accefs into 
the lower regions of Seria, or China ; and that particular 
province called now Iiinan. The Sacae likewife, who were 
of the fame family, made large fettlements in the upper pro- 
vinces of that country ; which from them was called both 
'^ Seria and Cathaia. From thence they paiTed over to 
the iflands of Japan : one of which was from them named 
Sacaia. It ftill is fo called ; and the capital has the fame 
name ; and is famous for the worfhip of the God '^ Dai- 

*' Strabo. L. 15. p. 1026. 

'° Mirct (TVfx7rcca-<x.u J^avQix ei^iv n Xn^'icn. Agathemerus. L. 2. c. 6. p, 42. 
Geog. Vet. Gr. vol. 2. 

'" Strabo. L. 15. p. 1027. 

'' Geog. Gr^c. vol. t. p. 28. 

*" Marcianus Heracleota places a nation of Seres to the north of the Sinenfes ; 
where now is the region of Chinefe Cathaia. See Periplus. p. 29. Geog. Vet. vol. i. 

'* Purchas. vol. 5. p. 596. DaiMaogin is probably Deus Magog, five Deus 

4 B 2 Maogin. 

^^6 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Maogin. I''ather Lewis de Froes, in a letter quoted by 
'^ Keempfer, takes notice of a terrible earthquake both at 
Meaco, and in Sacaia. The names of the Deities in Japan 
and China, and the form of them, as well as the mythology, 
with which they are attended, point out the country, from 
whence they originally came. The prevailing religion in 
each of thefe kingdoms, and the moft ancient, is the ^^ Sinto, 
or religion of the Sindi. By thefe are fignified the Indi, who 
iirfl introduced this mode of worfhip, as is acknowledged by 
the Chinefe themfelves. One of the Mohammedan '^ travel- 
lers, whofe account has been publiflied by the learned Re- 
naudot, affures us, that f/je Chinefe had no fciences : that is, I 
fuppofe, none, but what were imported. That their religion 
and mojl of their laws were derived from the Indi. Nay., they 
are of opinion^ that the htdians taught them the ivorfip of idols j 
and confder them., as a ver-y religious nation. 

The people, who introduced thefe things in the upper re- 
gion of this country, were the northern Seres, a branch of the 
Cathaian Sacse. ''^ 2Jl^£?, z^voq (^a^^a^ov Xkv^ijcqv. They were 
a different people from the Sinas and Sinenfes, though at lail 
incorporated with them. The chief city of the country was 
occupied by them, which they called after their own name 
Sera ; and they named the region Cathaia. Hence Ptolemy 

*' L. I. p. 104. notes. 

Annum in iirbe Sacaio moratus. Epiftola Gafparis Vilete apud MaffiEum. 
Vide Hift. Ind. p. 401. It occurs often in the letters of thefe miffionarics. 
'* Ibid, p, 203. 204. It is called in China the religion of Fo. 
'' Account of China by Two Mohammedan Travellers in the Ninth Century, 

P- 36. 

5* Scholia in Dionyf. v. 752. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 557 

makes mention, " S^^^-a^, rr,g twj/ Xii/ci:v Mr,T^07roXsccgy of Sera^ 
the capital of the Shics : fo that in his time, and indeed long 
before, the Sinenfes and Seres were looked upon as the fame. 
In China the Deity upon the Lotos in the midft of waters 
has been long; a favourite emblem, and was imoorted from the 
weft. 1"he inhgne of the dragon was from the fame quarter. 
The Cuthites worfliiped Cham, the Sun ; whofe nam.e they 
varioully compounded. In China moft things, which have 
any reference to fplendour, and magnilicence, feem to be de- 
nominated from the fame object. Cham is £iid in the lan- 
guage of that country to fignify any thing '°°fupreme. Cum 
is a fine building, or ' palace ; fimilar to Coma of the Am- 
onians. Cum is a "^ lord or mafter : Cham a ^ fceptre. Laftly, 
by Cham is fignified a '^prieft, analogous to the Chamanim 
and ^ Chamerim of Cutha, and Babylonia. The country 
itfelf is by the Tartars called ^ Ham. The cities Cham-ju, 
Campion, Compition, Cumdan, Chamul, and many others 
of the fame form, are manifeflly compounded of the facred 
term Cham. Cambalu, the name of the ancient metropolis, 
is the city of ^Cham-Bal: and Milton ftyles it very properly, 
Cambalu^ feat of Cathaiaii Chan, By this is meant the 
" L. I.e. 11. 

iDia. p. 95. 

* Ibid. p. 102. The Tartarian princes are ftylcj Chain. 

'°° Bayer's Mufcum Sinicum, vol. 2. p. 1.^6. 

■ Ibid. n n/r 

* Ibid. 

^ Ibid. p. 98. 

* Ibid. p. 102. 

' 2 Kings, c. 23. V. 5. Hofea. c. 10. v. 5. 

* Herbert's Travels, p. 375. 

' Civitas Cambalu, in provinci'i Catliai ibnat autcm Civitas Domini-. 

Marcus Paulus Venetus. L. 2. c. 1. 

* Chinam potiflimam Cachaii partem. Kircher. China Illuft. p. 60. 


558 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

chief city of the Cuthean Monarch ; for Chan is a derivative 
of Cahen, a prince. It feems fometimes in China and Japan 
to have been expreffed Quan, and Quano. The Lama, and 
Lamas, thofe priefts of Thebet and Tartary, are of the fame 
original, as the Lamii in the weft. 

As the religion of this people extended fo far, we meet with 
many noble edifices in various parts of the eafl, which ftill 
afFord evidences of their original. Two temples are taken 
notice of by Hamelton near Syrian in ' Pegu ; which he re- 
prefents, as fo like in ftrudlure, that they feemed to be built 
by the fame model. One flood about fix miles to the fouth- 
wards, and was called Kiakiack, or t/je God of Gods Temple. 
The image of the Deity was in a fleeping poflure, and lixty 
feet in length : and was imagined to have lain in that fliate of 
repofe fix thoufand years. 'The doors a?id windows^ fays our 
author, are always open^ and every body has per^nijjton to fee 
him. iVhen he awakes^ it is faid^ that the world will be a?jni- 
hilated. This Temple ftands on a high open fpot of ground, 
and may eafily be feen in a clear day eight leagues off. 
The other is Htuated in a low plain north of Syrian, and at 
about the fame diftance. It is called the Temple of Dagun, 
and the doors and windows of it are continually lliut: fo 
that none can enter, but the priefts. They will not tell of 
what fhape the idol is ; but only fay, that it is not of a 
human form. As foon as Kiakiack has diffolved the frame 
and being of the world, Dagon, or Dagun, will gather up 
the fragments, and make a new one. I make no doubt, 
but the true name of the temple was lach-Iach, and dedi- 

' Hamekon's Account of the Eafllndies. vol. 2. p. 57. 

6 cated 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 559 

catcd to the fame God, as the lachufi in Japan. Mr. Wife 
takes notice of the Grecian exclamation to '° Dionufus, 
when the terms " lacche, O lacche, were repeated : and he 
fuppofes, with great probability, that the Peguan name had 
a reference to the fame Deity. It is very certain that the 
worfhip of Dionufus prevailed very early among the nations 
in the eaft. The Indians ufed to maintain, that his rites 
began firfl: among them. ProfefTor Bayer has fhewn, that 
traces of his worfhip are ftill to be obferved among the people 
of thefe parts: and particularly among the Tamuli of Tran- 
quebar. '^ T/jey have a ti'adition that there was 07tce a gigantic 
pe7'fo?i na7ned Maidajhuren^ who was born at Nifadahura^ near 
the mount ai?^ Meru. He had the horns of a bull, and drank wine, 
and made war upo?t the Gods. He was attended by eight Pu- 
dam, who were gigajitic and 7niJchievous dcemons, of the family of 
thofe Indian Shepherds, called Kobaler. In this account we have a 
manifeft reference to the hiftory of Dionufus, as well as that of 
the Dionufians, by whom his rites were introduced. And we 
may perceive, that it bears a great refemblance to the accounts 

'° See Wife's Treatifeof the Fabulous Ages. p. 95. 

" la^cpf^?, w \tx.xx^. Ariftoph. Rans. v. 318. 

'■ Inde Tamuli narraju, Maidafhuren fuifie aliquem diftum a Maidham et 
Afliuren, quafi Taurum Gigantem vGigantas autern fingunt Heroas fuos fuifie) 
in Nifadabura urbe haud longe a Meru Monte natum, qui Taurina cornua 
geftarit ■, carnibufque paHus, turn almium animantium, cum vnccarum (quod in 
Indis fummum fcdus . et vino ad ebrietatem replen folitus, Diis bellum intulerit. 
Ceterum in comitatu habuiffe o6to Pudam, feu gigantsos et malitiofos Da^rnonas, ex 
famiiia Indicoruni Paftorum, quos Kobaler, i e. Partores vocant : curru vecLuin 
ab odonis leonibus, aut leopardis, aut tigriuibus, autelephantis. Habetis Nyfain, 
ubi natum ferunt Bacchum etiam GnEcorum aiiqui. Habetis Merum montem, 
unde Jov;s M'/tooi Luciani agitatus locis : habetis KoCaAss, et cornua et currum, et 
quicquid ad fabulam veteris Grteci^ dcfideratis. Bayer. Hifl. Baftriana. p. 2. 3. 


560 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

tranfmltted by the '^ Grecians. What are thefe Kobaler, 
who were defcended from the Shepherds, but the fame as 
the Cobali of Greece, the uniform attendants upon Dionu- 
fus : a fet of priefcs, whofe cruelty and chicanery rendered 
them infamous. '* KobaAot Scci^oi'sg siTi Tivsg (TicXrj^oi 'UTSpi 
Tov Aiororov' ciTT'XTSfMsg. T'he Cobali were a fet of cruel dcemo?ts^ 
who followed in the retinue of Diofiufus. It is a term made ufe 
of for htaves and cheats. 

The fecond temple near Syrian is faid, in the account 
above, to have been inaccefTible to ftrangers : fo that they 
could not tell, under what fliape the Deity was reprefented. 
Thus much they were informed, that it was not human. 
As the Deity was called Dagun, we may eafily conceive the 
hidden charadter, under which he was defcribed. We may 
conclude, that it was no other than that mixed figure of a 
man and a fifh, under which he was of old worfliiped both 
in Paleftine and Syria. He is expreffed under this fymbolical 
reprefentation in many parts of '^ India; and by the Brahmins 
is called Wiftnou and Yifhnou. Dagon and Vifhnou have a 
like reference. They equally reprefent the man of the fea, 
called by Berofus Cannes : whofe hiftory has been reverfed 
by the Indians. They fuppofe, that he will reftore the world, 
when it fhall be deftroyed by the chief God. But by Dagon 
is fignified the very perfon, through whom the earth has been 

'' Srrabo mentions — NucTaiij tivoh tBro?, v.ct.i 'sroXi.v -zs-ap ccvroa t^vaaav, Kai 
op55 TO vTio T«; -arcAgw: MHPON. L. 15. p. 1008. Diodorus has a moft curious 
account concerning Dionufus in India, and of the fuppofed place of iiis birth. — 
Oi'Ofta^eo-Qa/ tw opsirm rxvnii tov mrov rmov Mnocv. L. 2. p. 123. 

'* Scholia in Plutum Ariftophanis. v. 279. 

KofaAc?, xay.oviyc?, 'arctiov^yo?, Hefycii. 

■' Kircher's China, p. 158. Baldasus. Part 2. c. i. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 561 

already reftored, when it was in a ftate of ruin : and by 
whom mankind was renewed. Dagon and Noah I have 
fhewn to be the fame. Vifli-Nou is reprefented, like Dagon, 
under the mixed figure of a man and a fifh: or rather of a 
man, a princely figure, proceeding from a fidi. The name of 
the diftricl, near which the temples above fland, we find to 
be called Syrian : jud as the region was named, where flood 
the temples of Atargatus and Dagon. Syrus, Syria, and 
Syrian, arc all of the fame purport, and fignify Cceleflis, and 
Solaris, from '^ Sehor, the Sun. 

Many travellers have taken notice of the temples in India: 
which are of a Vv'onderful conflrudtion ; and to which there 
is fcarce any thing fimilar in other parts of the world. The 
great traveller Gemelli mentions a pagoda in the ifland Sal- 
fette near Bombay, which is looked upon as a work of great 
antiquity. It is called the pagod of '^ Canorin : and a tra- 
dition prevails among the Indians, that it was conftru6ted by 
iome of the Giant race. It ftands towards the eaft fide of a 
mountain, which confifts intirely of a hard rock : and out 
of this the various edifices are not built, but hewn. Round 
about are innumerable columns, and many inferiour temples, 
covered with beautiful cupolas, together with figures of 
men and animals, all alike formed out of the folid rock. 
Some of the flatues are completely carved : others are in 
bafTo relievo ; and habited in a peculiar manner ; fo as to 
witnefs great antiquity. There are likewife many caves, and 

" Syria was fuppoled to have been denominated from Syrus, the offsprino- of 
the Sun. — V.x. XivcoTmi xai ATaAAwroi "Zvpoi. Diodorus. L. 4. p. 275. Seep. 
446. of this volume. 

■' See Churchil's Voyages, vol. 4. p. 194. 

Vol. hi. 4 C orrottos. 

562 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

grottos, ciirioiifly contrived: and many large tanks of water, 
commodioiifly difpofed over the area of the inclofure. The 
author is very copious in his defcription of this place ; and 
of the pagodas, which are within it. And he affures us, 
towards the clofe, that all, which has been hitherto obferved, 
is formed from the rock, without any feparation, or addition: 
every figure ftill adhering at the bafis, to the mafs, on which 
it flands. The whole is defolate, unfrequented, and difficult 
of accefs. 

At no great diftance from Salfette is an ifland of equal 
curiofity, called by the Portuguefe Elephanto. It is de- 
fcribed by our countryman '^ abovementioned, who fuppofes, 
that it was thus itamed fj'cm the figure of an elephant, niohich is 
carved upon it, out of a great black ftone, about feven feet in 
height. It is, fays he, fo like a living elephant, that at two 
hwtdred yards dijlance, a fjarp eye might be deceived by its 
fimilitude. A little way from this flands an ho?fe, cut out of a 
ftone ; but not fo proportionable, and well f japed, as the ele- 
phant. There is a pretty high 7nountai7i Jlanding in the middle 
of the ifland, fijaped like a bhmt pyramid ; a?id about half way 
to the top is a large cave, that has two large inlets, which fsrve 
both for a pajfage iiito it, and for light. The mountain above 
it refls on large pillars, hewn out of a folid rock ; and the pil- 
lars are curioufy carved. So?ns have the figures of me?i about 
eight feet high in fever alpoflures ; but exceedingly well propor- 
tioned, and cut. There is one, that has a Giant with four heads 
joined; and the faces looking fro?n each other. He is in a fit- 
ting pofiure, with his legs and feet tmder his body. His right 

"' HameUon's New Account of thjc Eaft Indies, vol. i. c. 22. p. 241. 

7 band 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 563 

hand is above twenty i7tches. There are fever al dark rooms hewn 
out of the rock; and a fine fprbig offweet water comes out of 
o?ie room^ a?id runs through the cave out at otie of the inlets. I 
fired a fuzee into one of the rooms \ but 1 7tever heard cannon or 
thu?ider make fuch a dreadful noife ; which contijiued about half 
a minute \ a7id the mountain feemed to fijake. As foon as the 
noife was over^ a large ferpent appeared \ which jnade us take 
to our heels y and get out of the cave at one door ; and he in 
great hafle went out at the other. I judged hifn to be about 
fifteen foot loitg : ajtd two foot about : and thefe were all that I 
faw worth ohfervation on that ifiand. I ajked the inhabitants of 
the place, who were all Gentows, or Gentiles, about twenty in 
nufnber, if they had any accouiit, by hiflory, or traditio7t, who 
fnade the cave, or the quadrupeds carved in ft one : but they 
could give no account. 

We have a like account of thefe pagodas in Purchas. — 
'' In Salfette are two temples, or holes rather of pagodes, 
renowned in all India. One of which is cut from under a 
hill of hard ftone, and is of compaffe within about the big- 
neffe of village of foure hundred houfes; with many galleries 
or chambers of thofe deformed iliapes, one higher than an- 
other, cut out of the hard rock. There are in all three hun- 
dred of thefe galleries. The other is in another place, of 

like matter and forme. In a little illand called Porj, 

there ftandeth a high hill, on the top whereof there is a liole, 
that goeth downe on the hill, digged and carved out of the 
hard rocke ; within as large as a cloyfter, round befet with 
fhapes of elephants, tygres, Amazons, and other like work, 

'' Purchas from R. Fitch, vol. 5. p* 545. 

\0 2 workcmanly 

564 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

workemanly cut, fappofed to be the Chinois handy worke. 
But the Portugals have now overthrovvne thefe idol-temples. 
Would Godj they had not fet new idols in their roome. 

There are defcriptions of many other ancient edifices in 
India ; fome of which are of ftupendous workmanfliip : but 
of all others, that which was vilited by the curious traveller 
Thevenot, feems to be of the greateft extent, and of the moft 
wonderful conftru£lion. It is called the pagod of " Elora : 
and flands near the city Aurangeabad, in the province of 
Balagate. He fays, that his rout lay up a very rugged moun- 
tain, and very hard for the oxen, by which his carriage was 
drawn, to afcend : though the way, cut out of the rock, was 
almoft every where as fmooth, as if it were paved with free- 
ftone. At the top, he difcovered a fpacious plain of well- 
cultivated land, with a great many villages and hamlets 
amidft gardens, and plenty of fruit trees and woods. The 
firft part of this lovely plain was occupied by people of the 
Mohammedan perfualion. A little farther wejlward^ fays our 
author, my Pio7is and I were above half an hour clambering 
down the rock i?ito another very low plain. The firft things I 
faw were fome very high chapels ; and J entered i^ito a porch 
cut out of the rocky which is of grayifh fione : and on each fide of 
that porch y there is the gigantic figure of a man^ cut out of the 
natural rock : and the walls are covered all over with other 
figures in reliefs cut in the fame manner. Having paffed that 
porch, I found a fquare caurt, an hundred paces every way. 
The walls are the natural rock, which in that place is fix fathom 
highy and perpendicular to the groundplot; and cut as fmooth 

" Thevenot's Travels into the Indies. Part 3. c. 44. p. 74. Tranflation. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 565 

and even ^ as if it were plajler fmoothed with a trowel. Before 
all thijtgs I refolved to view the outfule of that court : and I per- 
ceived^ that thefe walls^ or rather the rock, hangs : and that it 
is hollowed underneath : fo that the void fpace below i?talies a 
gallery almofl two fathoms high^ and four or fve broad. It 
hath the rock for a bafs : and the whole is fupported only by a 
f}igle row of pillars cut in the rock j and dijlant f?~om the ex- 
tremity of the gallery about the length of a fathom : fo that it 
appears as if there %vere two galleries. Every thing there is 
exceeding well cut : and it is really a wonder to fee fo great a 
mafs in the air^ which feems fo fenderly underpropped^ that one 
can hardly help fjudderi?2g at frf e7ttering into it. 

In the middle of the court there is a chapel^ whofe walls ^ infde 
and outfde^ are covered with fgures in relief. They reprefent 
fever al forts of beafs^ as griffons^ and others^ cut in the rock. 
0?i each fde of the chapel there is a pyramid^ or obelifk^ larger at 
the bafs^ than that at Ro?ne : but they are not f^arp pointed. They 
have fome charaSlers upon them ; which I do ?2ot underjland. 
The obelifk on the left hand has by it an elephant ^ as big as the 
life^ cut out of the rock, as every thing elfe is : but his trunk has 
beejt broken off. At the farther end of the court I found two flair- 
cafes cut in the rock ; and I went up with a little Bramin, who 
feefned to be a knowing p erf 072. Being at the top, I perceived a 
kind of area (if the fpace of a league and an half or two leagues, 
may be called an area) full of Jlately tombs, chapels, and te??i~ 
pies, which they call pagodas, cut in the rock. 

I entered into a great temple built iit the rock. It has a flat 
roof, and is adorned with figures within, as the walls of it alfo 
are. hi this temple are eight rows of pillars in length, and fx 


566 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

m breadth : which are about a fathom dij}a?tt from each other. 

The temple is divided into three parts : in the ?niddle of the 

third J or extream^ part, upon a very high bajis^ there is a gigan- 
tic idol, with a head as big as a drum \ a?td his other parts 
proportionable. All the ivalls of the temple are covered with gi- 
gantic figures in relief and on the outfde, all round the temple , 
are a great many little chapels, adorned with figures of an ordi- 
nary bignefs in relief, reprefenti?7g men ajid women etnbracing 
one another. 

heaving this f pot, I went intofeveral other temples of a diffe- 
rent firuEiure, built alfo from the rock ; a7id full of figures, 
pilafters, and pillars. I faw three temples one over a?iother , 
which have but one fro?it all three ; but it is divided ijito three 
flories,fupported by as many rows of pillars : and in every fiofy 
there is a great door for the temple. The fiaircafes are cut out 
of the rock. I faw but one temple which was arched: and thereifz 
I found a room, whereof the chief ornament was a fquare bafon. 
It was cut i7t the rock, and full of fpri7ig water, which arofe 
within two or three feet of the brim of the bafo7i. There are a 
vafl nimtber of pagods all along the rock : i7ideed there is 7iothi7ig 
elfe to be feen for above two leagues. He concludes with fay- 
ing, that he made diligent inquiry among the natives, about 
the origin ol thefe wonderful buildings : and the co7ifiant 
tradition was, that all thefe pagodas, great and ft7iall, with all 
their works, and orna}ne7its, were 77iade by Gia77ts : but i7i what 
age they could 7tot '° tell. 

'" Thefe pagodas have been feen vifited by that curious traveller and Orientalift, 
M. Anquctil Du Perron. In his treatife calleJ Zend-Avefta, a very precife ac- 
count may befoundof thefe buildings, and of their dimenfions; alfo the hiftory, 
and purport, of the various reprefentations, according to the notions of the Brah- 
mins. See Zend-Avefta. vol. i. p. 234. ManT 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 567 

Many of thefe ancient ftruftures have been attributed to 
Ram-Scander, or Alexander the Great: but there is nothing 
among thefe ftately edifices, that in the leaft favours of Grecian 
workmanfiiip : nor had that monarch, nor any of the princes 
after him, opportunity to perform works of this nature. We 
have not the leaft reafon to think, that they ever poffeffed 
the country ; for they vi'ere called off from their attention 
this way by feuds, and engagements nearer home. There is 
no tradition of this country having been ever conquered, ex- 
cept by the fabulous armies of " Hercules and Dionufus. 
What has led people to think, that thefe works were the 
operation of Alexander, is the fimilitude of the name Ramt- 
xander. To this perfon, they have fometimes been attributed. 
But Ramtxander was a Deity, the fuppofed fon of Bal ; and 
he is introduced among the perfonages, who were concerned 
in the incarnations of ''^ Vifhnou. 

The temple of Elora, and all the pagodas of which I have 
made mention, muft be of great antiquity, as the natives 
cannot reach their aera. They were undoubtedly the work 
of the Indo-Cuthites, who came fo early into thefe parts : 
and of whofe hiftory I have treated at large. They came 
hither under the name of Indi and Sindi : alfo oi Arabians, 
and Ethiopians. And that thefe ftrudlures were formed by 
them will appear from many circumftances ; but efpecially 
from works of the fame magnificence, which were performed 
by them in other places. For fcarce any people could have 
effedled what has been here defcribed, but a branch of that 
family, which ered:cd the tower in Babylonia, the walls o^ 
Balbec, and the pyramids of Egypt. 

' " Strabo. L. 15. p. 1C07. 

*' Kirchci''s China, p. 153. MarcO 

5-68 The Analysis of Ancient MythologYo 

Marco Polo was in Cathaia in the time of the Tartar Em- 
perour Cublai Chan: and he fpeaks of the chief city Cam- 
pion, as of great extent; ; and mentions a mod magnificent 
temple. He '''^ fays, that the idols were made of flone, and 
wood ; and fomc of clay : and there were feveral overlaid 
with gold ; and very artificiaily wrought. Among thefe 
fome were fo great, that they contained ten paces in length ; 
and were placed upon the earth in an attitude, as if they lay 
upright. Near to thefe flood feveral fmaller idols, which 
feeip.ed to pay obeyfance to the '* larger : and they appeared 
all to be greatly revered. Hadgi Mehemet, a great traveller, 
who difcourfed with Ramufio, told him, that he had been at 
" Campion ; and mentioned the largenefs of the temples. 
In one of thefe he faw the Hatues of a man, and a woman, 
ftretched on the ground : each of which was one piece, forty 
feet long, and gilded. Campion is probably the fime city, 
which is alluded to by Marco : the fame too, which the an- 
cients called Sera, and the moderns Nankin : for the names 
of places in China are continually changing. In the account 
of Sha Rokh's embafl'y to ''^Cathaia, mention is made of a 
city Kam-ju : and of a temple, whofe dimenfions were very 
large. The author fays, that each fide was five hundred kes or 
cubits. In the middle lay an idol, as if it v/ere afleep ; which 
was fifty feet in length. Its hands and fctt were three yards 
long ; and the head twenty-one feet in circumference. There 

'* Puichas. vol. ^. c. 4. p. 77. See Kircher's China, part 3. c. 2. 3. 
*'' This is not unlike the dclcription of the God Nilus, as we meet with it in Gru- 
ter, Sandys, and others. 

'* Aftley's Colleftion. vol. 4. p. 639. 

'' From Ramufio. Gee Aftley's ColIe<51ion. vol. 4. p. 624. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 569 

were others at his back, and over his head, about a cubit 
high : and placed in fuch attitudes, that they feemed alive. 
The great image was gilt all over ; and held one hand under 
his head ; and the other was ftretched along down his thigh. 
They called it Samonifu. The Babylonians, and Egyptians, 
and all of the fame great family, ufed to take a pleafure in 
forming gigantic figures ; and exhibiting other reprefenta- 
tions equally ftupendous. Such were the coloflal ftatues at 
Thebes; and the fphinx in the plains of Cocome. The ftatue 
credred by *^ Nebuchadnezzar in the plains of Dura, was in 
height threefcore Babylonifli cubits. It was probably raifed 
in honour oi Cham, the Sun ; and perhaps it was alfo dedi- 
cated to the head of the Chaldaic family ; who was deified, 
and reverenced under that title. Marcellinus takes notice of 
a ftatue of Apollo, named "' Comeils ; which in the time of 
the Emperour Verus was brought from Seleucia to Rome. 
This related to the fame Deity, as the preceding. We may 
alfo infer, that this temple at Kam-ju was eredled to Cham, 
the Sun, whom the people worfhiped under the name of 

An account is given in '° Purchas of a ColofTus in Japan, 
made of copper ; which was feen by Captain Saris, an Eno-- 
lifhman, at a place called Dabis. It reprefented a man of 
immenfe ftature, fitting upon his heels. The fame perfon 
faw at '' Meaco, a Temple, equal in extent to St. PauTs in 


Daniel, c. 23. v. i. 

Simulacrum Comei Apollinis, avulfum fedibus, pcrlatumque Romam. Mar- 
cellinus. L.. 23. p. 2S7. 

'" Purchas. vol. 5. p. 595. Saris was in Japan anno 1G12. 
" Ibid. 

Vol. III. 4 D London, 

'570 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

London, weftward of the choir: and In it an Idol larger than 
the former, which reached to the roof of the building. Thefe 
were the ftatiies of Xaca and Amida, two of the chief Deities 
of Japan. Herbert takes notice of tlie temples, and Deities 
above ; and fays, that they were called '* Mannadies. One 
of thefe coloflal flatues was ereded by the Emperour Tycho- 
zama, the chair, or throne, of which idol, was feventy feet 
high, and eighty wide. He fpeaks alfo of the ftatue at Dabis; 
which, though in a fitting poflure, was in height twenty-four 
feet. They were both of copper ; or, as he terms it, 

It is remarkable, that in Japan, the priefts and nobility 
have the title of" Cami. The Emperour Qiiebacondono, in a 
letter to the Portuguefe viceroy, 1585, tells him, ^^ that Ja- 
pan is the hngdom of Chamis \ whom, fays he, %ve hold to be the 
fame as Scm, the origin of all things. By " Scin is probably 
fio-nified San, the Sun ; who was the fame as Cham, rendered, 
here Chamis. The laws of the country are fpoken of as the 
laws of Chamis : and wc arc told by Kaempfer, that all the 
Gods were ftylcd either '^^ Sin, or Cami. The founder of the 
empire is faid to have been Tenfio Dai Sin, or 'Te?iflo the God 
of Light. Near his Temple was a cavern, religioufly vifited, 
upon account of his having been once hid : when no fun, 
nor ftars appeared. He was cfleemed the fountain of day, 

'' Herbert's Travels, p. 374. Similar to Miii' acTjjsof the, \Tholc pricils 
were, Man'iJf?, the Mx^nadcs. 
'* Kfempfcr, L. 2. p. 15J. 

" Organtinus Erixienfis. Sec Purthas. vol. 3. p. 3:4. 
'' It was probably" pronounced!n, 
»^ Ka;.Tipfer above. 


The Analvsis of AncieKt MYTkoLoov. 571 

and his Temple was called the Temple of " Naiku. Near 
this cavern was another Temple ; in which the Canufi, or 
prieflsj ihewed an image of the Deity, fitting upon a coW. 
It was called Dainits No Ray, the Great Reprefentatmi of the 
^* Sun. 

One of their principal Gods is lakufi ; fimilar to the lacchus 
of the weft. Ksmpfer fays, that he is the '' Apollo or the 
Japanefe : and they defcribe him as the Egyptians did Orus. 
His Temple ftands in a town called Minnoki : and lachufi 
is here reprefented upon a gilt Tarate flower : which is fiid 
to be the ''" nymph^a paluftris maxima ; or f\iba iEgyptlaci 
of Profper Alpinus. One half of a large fcallop fliell is like 
a canopy placed over him ; and his head is furromided with 
a crown of rays. I think, that we may perceive, to whom 
the Temple of Naiku was dedicated : and from what perfon 
the town of Minnoki was named, where lachufi was wor- 
fliiped. They have alfo an idol Menippe, much reverenced 
in different parts. It certainly relates to the fame perfon \ 
and is a compound of two terms already tuUy explained."' 

Kampfer is a writer of great credit, who was for fome 
*" time in thefe parts. He certifies what has been above faid 
by Saris about the idols of this country. He fiw the Temple 

■'" Ka^mpfer. L. 3. p. 231. 

'" Ibid. 

" Ibid.L. 5. p. 493. 

*' IbiJ. KcEmpfer mentions the image of Amida in Siam, which appeared in an 
upright pofture upon the Tarate flower. He calls it in this pafflige the Nymphsa 
magna incarnata. L. i. p. 30. 

■*' M/i;- livira. See Vol. II. of this work. 

*' He went to Japan in the year 1690. 

4 D 2 of 

572 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

of DabySj which he more truly renders *^ Daibod. He had a 
fight of it in his firft embaffy to Jcdo ; which city he viiited 
twice. He fpeaks of the buildings as very fpacious : and 

""■ at the beginning of the ave?iue towa?-ds it on each fide Jlood the 
Jlatue of a7i hero i?i blacky 7iear fou?' fatho7ns high^ and ahnofl 
naked, having 07ily a loofe piece of drapery aroimd him. He had 
the face of a lion : and was ifi other refpeSis well e?iough pro- 
portioned. His height was four fathoms ; and he flood o?2 a 
pedefal of one fathojn, — The Temple of Daibod was oppofte to- 
the gate, and in the middle of the court. It was by much the 
loftiefl building, that we hadfee7i i72 "Japan : and had a double 
he7ided flately roof. — The pillars were excejftve large ; and at 
leaf a fatho77t and a half thick. The idol was gilt all over ; 
and of an incredible fize \ i7fo77iuch that two mats could lie in 
the pahn of his hand. It was ftti7ig, after the htdian 7nannery 
crofs-legged, on a Tar ate flower; which was fupported by a7iother 
flower. The leaves of this flood upwards, by way of or7ia77ient : 
a7id they were both raifed about two fatho7ns fro77i the floor. 
*' Dai, in the ancient language of the eaftern countries, fig- 
nified Deus, and Diviis, any thing divine. By Dai-Bod was 

"" The fame isdefcribed by Lewis Almeida, who cxprefTes the name ftill more 
precifely, Dai-But. See Epifiola: feleft.-E Soc. Jef. apud MafFzeum Hift. Indie, 
p. 428. He alfo gives a delcripdon of t.he Temple. 

^* L.4. p. ssi- 

*' Accordingto Ka,*mpfer, L. 2. p. 159. Dai fignifies a Lord, or Prince. Dius 
and Divus were applied in the fame manner by the Greeks and Romans : yet they 
were titles, which properly related to the Gods : and Dai did fo likewife. This is 
apparent from its being always annexed to the names of Deities. 

Dai is the fame as Dairy, the title of the ecclefiaftical monarch. Ibid. 

In another part of his work, he fays, that Dai fignificd great : Sin, and Cami, a 
GcJi or Spirit. L. 3. p. 226. But in none of thefe expofitions do 1 believe hi.m to be 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^y ^ 

meant the God Budha; whofe religion was ftyled the Budfo: 
and which prevailed greatly upon the Indus, and Ganges. 
The origin of this religion^ fays ''^ Ksempfer, mtift he looked for 
among the Brahmins. I have flrong reafons to believe^ both 
from the affi.7tity of the name^ and the very nature of this wor- 
f}:)ip', that the author was the fwie perfon^ whom the Brahmins 
call Budha^ a?td believe to have been the ejfential part of Wift- 
nou. The Chinefe and Japanefe call him Buds and Siaka\ 
The people of'''' Slant reprefent him under the form of a Moor^^ 
in a ftti7ig poflure^ and of a prodigious fize. His fkin is blacky 
aitd his hair curled: by which, I fuppofe, is meant woolly : 
a7id the images about hi^n are of the fatne complexion. He was 
not the author of the religion, as our traveller fuppofcs: but 
the great objed:, to which the worfhip was direded. He 
was fuppofed by the *^ Brahmins to have had neither father, 
nor mother. By Budha we are certainly to underftand the 
idolatrous fymbol, called by fome nations Buddo ; the fame 
as Argus and Theba. In the mythology tranfmitted con- 
cerning it, we may fee a reference both to the machine itfelf, 
and to the perfon preferved in it. In confequence of which 
we jfind this perfon alfo ftyled Bod, Budha, and Buddo ; and 
in the weft Butus, Battus, and Boeotus. He was faid by the 
Indians not to have been born in the ordinary way ; but to 
have come to light indired:ly through the fide of his ■" mo-^ 

*'' L. 3. p. 241. 

*' Ibid. L. I. p. 36. They call him Siaka and Sacka. Ibid. 

*' Ibid. 

^5 Socratis Ecclefiaft. Hill. L. i. c. 7. 

, Buddamper virginislatus narrant exortum. 

Retramnus de Nativitate Chriili. c. 3.' 


574 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ther. By Clemens of '° Alexandria, he is called Bouta : and 
in the hiftory of this perfon, however varied, we may perceive 
a relation to the Arkite Deity of the Sea, called Pofeidon : 
alfo to Arcalus, and Dionufus; ftyled Boeotiis and Thebanus. 
Kaempfer has a curious hiftory of a Deity of this fort, called 
^' Abbuto ; whofe Temple ftood in the province of Bungo 
upon the fea-£hore, near the village of Toma. About a 
quarter of a Gerraaii niile^ before you co?m to this village, 
Jla?ids a famous Temple of the God Abbuto; which is f aid to be 
very eminent for miraculoufiy curing many inveterate difejn- 
pers : as alfo for procuriiig a ivind, and good pajfage. For this 
reafon, failors^ and pajfengers, always tie fome fartlmtgs to a 
piece of wood, a?id throw it into the Jca, as an offering to this 
Abbuto, in order to obtain a favourable wind. He moreover 
tells us, that they call him Abbuto Quano Sama, ov the Lord 
God Abbuto. But the title more precifely fignifies, if I may 
form a judgment, Abbuto the Lord of Heaven. The fame 
Deity, but under a different name, was worfhiped in China. 
He is mentioned by Pierre Jarrige, who calls him the God 
Camaffono. ^' On appelle ITdole CamafTono : et ceux, qui 
paffent par la, redoutent fort cet Idole ; et de peur, qu'il ne 
mette leurs navires a fond, ils luy offrent, quand ils font vis 
a vis de I'ifle, ou du riz, (qu'ils jettent en la mer) ou de 
rhuile, ou d'autre chofe, qu'ils portent. The Apis, Mneuis, 
and Anubis of Egypt, have been often mentioned, and ex- 
plained ; as well as the Minotaur of Crete. The fame hiero- 

'" Strom. L. i. p. 359. The MSS. have B^jtsu and BooTTa. 
*' L. 5. p. 468. Abbutus, pater Butus five Bceotus. 
'* Hift. des Indes. L. 5. c. 51. 

2 glyphics 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. ^y^ 

glyphics occur in Japan : and we are informed by '' Marco 
Polo, that the inhabitants worfliip idols in different fhapes. 
Some have the head of an ox ; fome of a fwine ; and others 
the head of a dog. The moft common reprefentation in this 
country is that of ^^ Godfo Ten Oo, or t/je Oxheaded Prince 
of Heaven. 

Lewis Almeida, and other miffionaries, give a noble ac- 
count of Japonefe temples : and defcrilbe their {ituation, as 
imcommonly pleafing. Some of them refided at Meaco, 
where they vifited the pagodas of Cafunga, Cocuba, Facu- 
mano, and Daibut. They fpeakofthem as very large, and 
happily difpofed, being fituated amid trees of various forts,, 
particularly planes and cedars ; and in places abounding 
with ftreams of running water, and lakes of great ^^ extent. 
The fubordinate temples in the vicinity, and the houfcs of 
the Bonzees, are ilieltered by groves. The court before the 
chief building is generally paved with black and white ftoncs; 
and the avenue is ornamented with trees, and flatucs. At 
the Temple of Facumano, ainong other things, were obferved. 
a number of fine citron trees ; and at equal diftances between- 
each were ^^rofes and other flowers in large vafes of porcelaine. 
The Temple itfelf was richly ornamented ; and abounded 
with coflly lanterns of a fadlitious metal gilded : which were 
beautifully contrived. They appeared in great numbers, and 

^' Colunt Viri Zipangrii varia idola : quorum quxdain hahent bovis caput ; . 
quardam caput porci, ct qurcdam caput canis. Marcus Paulus Venetus apud. 
Kircher. China Ilhill. p. 14^. 

'* Krtmpfer. L. 5. p. 418. 

" S^c Letters of the Mifiionaries, particularly of Lewis Almeida. Mafilei Hift. 
Indie, p. 427. alfocf de Frocs. p. 441. 

y" Fniteca-— Jv.cunda rofarum ct fi(jrum varietate commifta. Ibid. p. 428. 


576 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

burned all night, making a fplcndid appearance. About 
the temples, there were feen herds of deer, and flocks of 
doves : and the latter were fo tame as to fufl'er themfelves to 
be handled : for they were jiever injured, being facred to 
the Deity of the place. All the apartments are reprefented 
as very neat and elegant : and the Bonzees, to whom they 
belong, very numerous. They keep their heads and beards 
clofely Hiorn : and go very rich in their attire. Almeida had 
a view of fome of them at the temple of Cafunga ; but it was 
in a part fo facred, that he was not permitted to come near. 
Ex hac Bonziorum domo porticus admodum pulchra ad ufque 
adyta pertinet fani ; quo nemini patet ingreffus, nifi qui 
ipfms loci antiftites funt : quorum vidimus aliquot intra fe- 
dentes, togis amplis e ferico indutos, tedofque capita pileis 
plus dodrantem altis. The Budfo temples upon the moun- 
tains were flill more romantic and beautiful. 

In my fecond volume I took notice, that the Ark was re- 
prefented under the fymbol of an egg, called the mundane 
egg ; which was expcfed to the rage of Typhon. It was alfo 
defcribed under the figure of a Lunette, and called Selene, the 
Moon. The perfon, by whom it was framed, and v/ho through 
its means was providentially preferved, occurs under the cha- 
rafter of a fleer, and the machine itfelf under the femblance 
of a cow or heircr. We have moreover been told, that it was 
' called Cibotus : which Clemens of Alexandria calls Thebo- 
tha. Epiphanius mentions it by the name of" Idaal Baoth; 
and fays, that according to an eaftern tradition, a perfon 
named Nun was preferved in it. The horfe of Neptune 

" Epiphanius. Hcrtef. L. i. p. 7S. 

' was 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 577 

was another emblem ; as was alfo the hippopotamus, or 
river-horfe. The people of Elis made ufe of the tortoife to 
the fame '* purpofe, and reprefented Venus as refting upon 
its back. I repeat thefe things, becaufc I think, that fome 
traces of thefe hieroglyphics may be obferved in Japan : 
which were certainly carried thither by the Indie Ethiopians. 
They introduced the worfhip of their deified anceftors, and 
the events of thefe firft ages, which were couched under 
thefe well known fymbols. 

In the account given of the Dutch embaflies to Japan, 
we have a defcription of feveral deities and temples, as they 
occurred to the perfons concerned in their journeys to Jeddo. 
Among other things, there is a curious defcription of a tem- 
ple, named Dai-Both, atMeaco : which feems to have been 
the fame, which is called Daibod by Kcempfer. The account 
is fo particular, that I will give it in the words of the author. 
And I will prefent it to the reader at large, as there are 
-jnany things of confequence here obferved, which have been 
omitted by other writers. 

^' Entre les plus beaux batimens de la ville de Miaco, on 
doit compter celui de Dayboth. II y a peu de temples au 
Japon et plus grands et plus beaux. La premiere porte eft 
gardee par deux figures effroyables, armees de javelots 
dont ils femblent fe menacer. De la on paffe dans la cour, 
tout autour de laquelle regne une galerie foutenue de piliers 
de pierre ; au haut defquels font enchafices des boctes tranf- 

'' Paufanias. L. 6. p. 515. 

" Ambaffides memorables de la Compagnie des Indes Oricntalcs des Provinces 
Unies, vers les Empereurs du Japon. Amfterd. 1680. tora. i. p. 206. 

Vol. III. 4 E parentes, 

57^ The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

parentes, d'ou rejalit certain eclat dont on eft ebloui. La 
feconde porte eft gardee par deux lions de pierre, au milieu 
defquels il faut pafter pour entrer dans le temple. Le pre- 
mier objet, qui fe prefente, eft une Statue, qui bien qu' affife 
les jambes en croix, touche neanmoins a la voute. La ma- 
tiere, dont elle eft faite, eft un certain bois convert de platre, 
puis de cuivre dore, a I'epreuve, dit-on, de toutes fortes 
d'accidens. Ses cheveux font d'un noir crepu a la maniere 
des Maures ; et fes mains feules font plus grandes que n'eft 
un homme de mediocre taille, encore font-elles petites a 
proportion du refte du corps. Elle reflemble a une femme 
toute environnee de rayons, entre lefquels font reprefentes de 
petits Cherubins ardens; et un peu plus bas des deux cotes, 
quantite de figures faites comme les Saints de Rome. Pendant 
que nos ambaffadeurs vifttoient ce temple, ou ils etoient 
entres en caroffe fuivis d'une foule de peuple,que la nouveaute 
attiroit, quatre de leur trompettes taifoient a la porte des 
fanfares, que les Japonois admiroient. L'autel de la ftatue eft 
un peu eleve de terre, entoure de lampes toujours ardentes;, 
et de quantite de Pelerins, qui vont incelTammcnt y faire 
leurs prieres, et leurs offrandes. La devotion de ce peuple 
eft telle, qu'il prie d'ordinaire profternc, et le vifage contre 
terre, ou dans une pofture auftl humiliee que celle-la. 

De ce temple les ambaftadeurs pafi'erent dans celui du 
Beuf, ainft nomme, parce-qu'il s'y voit un beuf d'or maftif, 
ayant fur le dos une tumeur extraordinaire, et au cou un. 
collier aufii d'or, et tout convert de pierreries. Il eft eleve 
fur un pilaftre, dont la fuperiicie eft melee de gravier et de 
terre. Il enfonce les cornes dans un ceuf toaiours nageant 

I o dans 

The Analysis of Ancient MyTHOLooy. 579. 

dans I'eau, ce que les pretres Japonois expliquent comme il 

Le monde, difcnt-ilsj avant la creation etoit enferme dans 
un oeuf, dont la coque etoit de metail. Get ceuf flotta 
long-temps fur I'eau, et fut enfin par fucceffion de temps 
enveloppe d'une croute epaiffe, melee de terre et de gravier, 
elevee du fond de la mer par la vertu de la lune. Quoique 
ce rempart fut ailes dur pour refifter aux injures du temps, 
et de I'air, il n'etoit pas neanmoins al'epreuve de tout autre 
accident. Le Beuf I'ayant trouve, il le heurta de telle forte, 
qu'il le calla : et en meme temns le monde en fortit. Le 
Beuf tout efibufflc de I'cffort, qu'il venoit de faire, echauffa 
tout I'air d'alentour, qui penctra une citrouille, dont en 
meme temps il fortit un homme. A caufe de cela les Bon- 
zes nomment la citrouille Pou, et le premier homme Pour- 
ang, c'eft-a-dire, citrouille, parce-qu'ii lui doit fa naif- 

We may here perceive, that they fpeak of the renewal of 
the world at the Deluge, as the real creation, which I have 
fhewn to have been a common miftake in the hirtories of this 
event. And though the ftory is told with fome v^ariation, 
yet in all the circumftances of confequence it accords very 
happily with the mythology ol Egypt, Syria, and Greece. 
It matters not how the emblems have by length of time been 
milinterpreted : we have the mundane egg upon the waters ; 
and the concomitant fymbol of the moon; and the egg at lafl: 
opened by the aifiilance of the facred fteer ; upon which the 
world iffues forth to day. Inftead of the roia, or pomegra- 
nate, we find the melon, or pumpkin, fubftituted j as abound- 

4 E 2 ing 

580 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

ing equally with feed, and alike adapted to reprefent the ru- 
diments of all things ; which were fuppofed to be inclofed, 
and fecreted during the time of the Deluge. The author pro- 
ceeds afterwards to mention the great veneration paid in thefe 
parts to the ox and cow : and to give a further account of the 
religion. And fpeaking of the former, he fays, that nobody 
dares to injure them. C'eft d'ou vient lacoutumeen pleu- 
Heurs endroits du Japon de deffendre fur peine de la vie de 
tuer un de ces animaux ; et peut-etre aufli celle, qu'ont les 
fujets du Grand Mogol, d'aller a *° Nakarkut pour adorer la 
Vache dans un beau temple que ces peuples lui ont bati. 
Ce temple de Matta (c'eft ainft qu'ils nomment la Vache) eft 
un des plus fuperbes, et des plus beaux de toutes les Indes. 
La voute, et le pave, font tout couvers de lames d'or, et 
I'autel de perles, et de diamans. Fie mentions a temple 
in Japan, which was dedicated to the Univerfal Creator. 
The image is defcribed as fitting upon a tree, which 
refted upon the back of a tortoife. Its hair was black, 
and woolly ; and the head was ornamented with a pyra- 
midical crown. This Deity had four hands. In the two 
left he held the flov/er Iris, and a ring of gold. In the 
two other were feen a fceptre, and an urn of water, which 
was continually flowing. The account given of the tree is 
remarkable. '" Le tronc de I'arbre, qui la foutient, ,eft de 
metail ; et, au rapport des Bonzes, c'eft ou les femences de 
toutes chofes etoient enfermees avant la creation. One Deity 
of the Japanefe was ^^ Canon, the reputed Lord of the Ocean,, 

'° Nacho-Arcet. Noachus-Architis : or Necho Architis, Rex Archaevis. 
^' Ibid. p. 207. 
^^ Ibid. p. 6s. (>1. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 581 

of whom they had many temples. He was reprefented in an 
eredl pofture, crowned with a flower, and coming out of the 
mouth of a cetus. Oppofite is a perfon kneeling in the (hell 
of a Nautilus, which feems to be ftranded upon the fummit 
of fome rocks. This figure is likewife defcribed with the 
features, and complexion of a Moor, and with the fame crifp 
locks. Though the Indians feem in general to have had 
ftrait hair ; yet their deities are often defcribed as woolly. 
Alfo among the Siamefe, both Budha, and Amida, is repre- 
fented under a charader, which approaches to that of a 
*^ Negro. We are inrormed by the writer of the '* Dutch 
EmbalTy, that black in Japan is a colour of good omen. 
This is extraordinary : for the Japonefe are by no means, 
black : nor has their hair any tendency to wool. Thofe 
who imported this notion, and framed thefe figures, copied 
their own complexion, and the complexion of their ancef- 
tors. The ftatues abovementioned are faid to reprefent 
Ethiopians : and they were certainly people of that family, 
the Indo-Cuthitse, who came into thefe parts, and performed 
what is mentioned. But their national marks have beea 
worn out by length of time ; and by their mixing with the 
people, who were the original inhabitants. 

I have taken notice of the Deity of the Japonefe, named 
Canon, who is defcribed as proceeding from the mouth of a 
fifh. He is reprefented in the fame manner by the natives 
of India, and named Viflinou, and Macauter : and he is to 
be found in other parts of the eaft. It is probable, that the 

'' Kiempfer. L. i, p. 35. 3S. and Ambaflades memorables. 
** Ambafiadcs mem. p. 207. Lewis de Frees mentions the temple of Amida at 
Meaco ; ct circa ftatLK.m Amid^ falrantes ^chiopas. Ibid. p. 4^9. 


582 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

image of Dagon, as well as that of Atargatus, did not confift 
of two forms blended together ; but, like the above, was a 
reprcfentation of a perfon coming out of a cctus. Father 
Boufhet ^^mentions a tradition among; the Indians concerninor 
a flood in the days of Viflinow, which coveredthe whole earth. 
It is moreover reported of him, that feeing the prevalenco of 
the waters he made a float ; and being turned into a fifli, he 
fleered it with his tail. This perfon, in the account of the 
Banians by Lord is called ^^ Menow ; which fhould certainly 
be exprefled Men-Now. It is faid, that in the Shafter of this 
people a like hifiiory is given of the earth being overwhelmed 
by a deluge, in Vv'hich mankind periflied. But the world 
was afterwards renev/ed in two perfons, called Menow, and 
Ceteroupa. Viflmow is defcribed under many charadlers, 
which he is faid at times to have afTumed. One of thefe, 
according to the Brahmins of Tanjour, was that of Rama 
Sami. This undoubtedly is the fame as Sama Rama of Ba- 
bylonia, only reverfed ; and it relates to that great phasno- 
menon, the Iris ; which was generally accompanied with the 
Dove ; and held in veneration by the Semarim. 

As the hiftory of China is fuppofed to extend upwards 
to an amazing height : it may be worth while to coniider 
the firfl: sras in the Chinefe annals, as they are reprefented in 
the writings of Japan. For the Japanefe have prefervcd 

*' La difficultc etoit de conduire la barque. — Lt D:eu ViLlmou eui; (oln d'y pour- 
voir : car fur le champ il le fit poiffjn, cc il fe lervic de fa quei.e, comnie d'un gou- 
vernail, pour dinger le vaiffeau. Lettres Edifiantcs. IX. Recueil. p. 21. All thefe 
legends took their rife from hieroglyphics mifmterpreted. 

^* Lord of the Banians, c. 6. 7. 

*' See Zend-Avefla of Monf. du Perron, vol. i. p. 250. notes. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythologv, 583 

hiftories of China : and by fuch a collation, I believe, no 
fmall light may be obtained towards the difcovery of fome 
important truths. Hitherto it has not been obferved, that 
fuch a comparifon could be made. 

In the hiftories of this country, the firft monarch of China 
is named *^ Foki : the fame, whom the Chinefe call Fohi, and 
place at the head of their lift. This prince had, according 
to fome, the body, according toothers the head, of aferpent. 
If we may believe the Japanefe hiftorians, he began his reign 
above twenty-one thoufand years before Chrift. The fecond 
Chinefe emperour was Sin *^ Noo ; by the people of China 
called Sin Num : and many begin the chronology of the 
country with him. He is fuppofed to have lived about 
three thoufand years before Chrift : confequently there is an 
interval of near eighteen thoufand years between the firft 
emperour and the fecond: a circumftance not to be credited. 
The third, who immediately fucceeded to Sin Noo, was 
Hoam Ti. In this account vv^e may, I think, perceive, that 
the Chinefe have ad:ed like the people of Greece, and other 
regions. The hiftories, which were imported, they have 
prefixed to the annals of their nation -^ and adopted the firft 
perfonages of antiquity, and made them raonarchs in their 
own country. Whom can we fuppofe Fohi, with the head 
of a ferpent to have been, but the great founder of all kino-- 
doms, the father of mankind? They have placed him at 
an immenfe diftance, not knowing his true a;ra. And 
I think, we may be aftured, that under the charader of 

" Ksempfer. L. 2. p. 145. 
"' Ihid.p. 146. 



584 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

'" Sin Num, and Sin Noo, we have the hiftory of Noah: and 
Hoam Ti was no other than Ham. According to Ka^mpfer 
Sin Noo was of exa6lly the fame character as ^' Serapis of 
Egypt. He was aji hujbandman, and taught mankind agri- 
culture ; and thofe arts^ which relate to the immediate fupport 
of life. He alfo dif covered the virtues of 7nany plants: and he 
was reprefented with the head of an ox-, and fojnetimes ojtly with 
two horns. His piBure is held i7t high ejleem by the Chinefe. 
Such is the hiftory of this fuppofed monarch, according to 
Ksmpfer: and he might well think, that in Sin Noo he faw 
the character of Serapis : for this perfonage was no other 
than ^* Sar-Apis, the great father of mankind ; the fame as 
Men-Neuas of Egypt; the fame alfo as Dionufus, and Oiiris. 
By Du Halde he is called Chin Nong, and made the next 
monarch after Fohi. The Chinefe accounts afford the fame 
hiftory, as has been given above. They mention him " as a 
perfo?t very knowing i?i agriculture^ who frft made the earth 
fupply the wants of his people. He invejited the necejfary i^n- 
plements of hujbandry, and taught majikijtd to fow five forts of 
grain. From hence he was called Chi?j-Nong^ or the Divi?ie 
hufhandman. Whether the etymology be true, I much doubt: 
the hiftory however is very curious, and correfponds with 
the Japanefe account in all the principal articles. As the 

'° Sin Ni;m, or Sin Noum, is very fimilar to Noamus : by v,'hich name the 
Patriarch was iometinies called. Num in Ibme degree ccrrelponds with the Nun 
of Irenasus, and Epiphanius •, who is alio mentioned by Lilius Gyraldus. Fir.t 
.etiam Nun, quem ad Jaadal Baoth natum prodiderunt. Syntag. i. p. 72. 

" Kaempfer. L. 2. p. 146. 

'* This was the true name of the Deity. Sar-Apis fignifies Dominus, vel Magnus 
Pater : alfo Pater Taurinus. 

" Du Halde's China, vol. i. p. 272. oftavo. 


""(V* ■ 

Th2 Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 585 

family of Noah confiiled of eight perfons inclufivc, there 
have been writers, who have placed fome of them in fuccef- 
iion ; and fuppofed, that tliere were three or four perfons, 
who reigned between Sin Noo, and Hoam. But Du Halde 
^•* fays, that in the true hiftories of the country the three 
firft monarchs were Fohi, Chin Nong, and Hoam, whom he 
ftyles Hoang Ti. To thefc, he fays, the arts and fciences 
owe their invention and progrefs. Thus we find, that thofe, 
who were heads of families, have been raifed to be princes : 
and their names have been prefixed to the lifts of kings; and 
their hiftory fuperadded to the annals of the country. It is 
further obfervabie, in the accounts given of thefe fuppofed 
kings, that their term of life, for the firft five or fix genera- 
tions, correfponds with that of the ^' Patriarchs after the 
flood : and decreafes in much the fame proportion. 

The hiftory of Japan is divided into three jeras, which 
confift of Gods, Demigods, and ^* mortals. The perfon, 
whom the natives look upon as the real founder of their 
monarchy, is named ^^ Syn Mu ; in w^hofe reign the Sinto 
religion, the moft ancient in the country, was introduced. 
It was called Sin-sju, and Chami-mitfa, from Sin and Chami, 
the Deities, which were the obje<fts of ^^ worfhip. At this 
time it is faid, that fix hundred foreign idols were brought 
into Japan, and firft worfhiped in ^^ Chumano. To the 

'* Ibid. p. 273. 

"' Du Hulde. vol. I. p. 285. 2S6. and Jackfon. Chronol. vol. 2. p. 435. 438. 


"* K^Empfer. L. 2. p. 143. 
" Ibid. L. 2. p. 159. 
^' L. 3. p. 204. 
" Ibid. p. 159. 

Vol. III. 4 F Sinto 

586 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

Sinto religion was aftenvards added the Biidfo, together with 
the worfhip of Amida. This Deity they commonly reore- 
fented with the head of a ^° dog ; and efteemed him the 
guardian of mankind. This religion was more complicated 
than the former ; and abounded with hieroglyphical repre- 
fentationsj and myflerious rites. It is the fame, which I 
have termed the Arkite idolatry : wherein the facred fleer 
and cow were venerated : the Deity was reprefented upon 
the lotus, and upon a tortoife: and oftentimes as proceeding 
from a ^' fifh. In this alfo, under the character of Buddha, 
we may trace innumerable memorials of the Ark ; and of 
the perfon preierved in it. The Author above, having men- 
tioned the eleventh Emperour incjufive from Syn Mu, tells us, 
that in his time thefe rites ^* began. In his reigi7 Budo^ oiher- 
wife called Kobotus, ca7?ie over from the hidies i?tto Japaii^ 
a7id brought ivith h'mi^ icpoji a white horfe^ his religion^ mid doc- 
trines. We find here, that the objed. of worfhip is made the 
perfon, who introduced it ; (a miflake, which has almofl 
univerfally prevailed :) otherwife in this fhort account what 
a curious '^^ hiftory is unfolded ! 

The only people, to whom we can have recourfe for any 
written memorials about thel'e things, are the natives of 
India Proper. They were, we find, the perfons, who intro- 
duced thefe hieroglyphics both in China, and Japan. It will 
therefore be v/ortK while to confider, what they have tranf- 

*° AmbalTades memorables, &c. L. i. p. 102. 
. '■ Ibid. p. 67. 

" Kaempfer. L. 2. p. 163. 

*' See vol. 2. of this work. p. 29. 229. 410. 412. concerning K<fwTc?, and'lTTTros 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology, 587 

niitted concerning their religious opinions ; as we may from 
hence obtain ftill greater light towards explaining this fym- 
bolical worftiip. Every manifeftation of God's goodnefs to 
the world was in the firft ages exprefied by an hieroglyphic: 
and the Deity was accordingly defcribed under various forms, 
and in different attitudes. Thefe at length were miftaken 
for real transfigurations : and Vifhnou was fuppofed to have 
appeared in different iliapes, which were ftyled incarnations. 
In one of thefe he is reprcfented under the figure before- 
i-nentioned, of a princely perfon coming our; of a filli. In 
another, he appears with the head of a boar, treading upon an 
€vil dsmoHj which feems to be the fame as the Typhon of the 
Egyptians, On his head he fupports a lunette, in which 
are ktn cities, trees, and towers i in fhort all that the world 
'contains. In ^^ Eaklteus we have a delineation, and hiftory 
given us of this incarnation. Kircher varies a little in his 
reprefentation, yet gives a fimilar figure of the Deity, and 
{lyles him ^^ Viihnou B::rachater, By this, I fliouid think, 
was i\^m?iQd.FifinQu^ the offspring of the fijh. The Brahmins 
^'^fay, that there was a time, when the ferpent with a thoufand 
heads withdrew himfelf, and would not fupport the world, 
it was fo overburthened with fin. Upon this, the earth funk 
in the great abyfs ofwaters, and mankind, and all that breathed, 
perifiied. But ViOmou took upon himfelf the form above 
■defcribed, and diving to the bottom of the fea, lifted the 
■earth out of the waters, and placed it together with the fer- 

'* See Balda^us in Churciiill's Voyages, vol. 3. p. 74S. 
'^ China liluft. p. \r^6. 
'" Biklccus above. 

4 F 2 pent 

588 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

pent of a thoufand heads, upon the back of a tortoife. Vifh- 
nou occurs often in the pagodas of Elora; and I wifli, that the 
curious Monfieur Perron, inftead of his prccife menfurations, 
had given us an accurate defcription of the ftatues, and 
figures, with their concomitant hieroglyphics. 

We are however much obliged to him, for what he has 
afforded us in his tranflation of the Zend-Avefta, and of other 
writings, both of the Brahmins, and Parfees. What the Re- 
ligious of thefe orders have tranfmitted concerning the fym- 
bolical worfhip of their anceftors, will moft fatisfadlorily prove 
all that I have advanced about the like hieroglyphics in other 
parts : and vv^hat I have faid will greatly illuftrate their my- 
fterious traditions ^ which in m.oft places would othervvife be 
quite unintelligible. 

In the third volume of Perron's Zend-Avefta, there is an 
account given of the Creation from the Cofmogony of the 
'^ Parfees: alfo an hiftory of thofe great events, which enfued. 
We are accordingly informed, that v/hen the Deity Ormifda 
fet about the production of things ; the whole was performed 
at fix different intervals. He iirft formed the heavens ; at 
the fecond period the waters ; and at the third the earth. 
Next in order were produced the trees and vegetables: in 
the fifth place were formed the birds and fifties ; and the 
wild inhabitants of the woods : and in the fixth and laft 
place he created man. This was the moft honourable of all 
his productions : and the perfon thus produced is by the 
tranftator ftyled F Homme ^ et P Homme Tam^eau. He is in- 

*' Boun Du-hefn: Cofmogonie des Parfcs. See Zend-Avefta par M. Aquetil 
reiron. 1771. vol. 3. p. 348. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 589 

another place fpoken of as the firft of animal beings. The 
hiftory is fo curious, and the charad:er, under which the firf!: 
man appears, fo particular, that I will give the words of the 
author, from whom I borrow. ^^ Les premieres chofes de 
I'efpece des animaux, qui parurent, furent THomme, et le 
Taureau : qui ne vinrent pas de Tunion du male avec la fe- 
melle. L'homme fe nommoit Kaiomorts, et le Taureau Abou- 
dad. L' homme nommc Kaiomorts etoit vivant et parlant; et 
I'Homme Taureau mort (fait pour mourn) et ne parlant pas: 
et cette homme a ete le commencement des generations. In 
this detail we fee the fame pcrfon differently exhibited, and 
rendered twofold: the divine part being diftinguifhed from 
the mortal. The former is ftyled — ^' fainte et pur ame de 
I'Homme Taureau : and the latter is exhibited under the 
femblance of a bull ; and mentioned as the author of all ge- 
nerations. We fhall find hereafter, that in this '-'"mytholoo-y, 
there were two ancient perfonages reprefented under the 
fame charadler, and named THomme Taureau : each of 
whom was looked upon as the father of mankind. Of the 
iirft of thefe at prefent it is my bufinefs to treat. For fome 
time after his creation there was a feafon of great felicity : 

'* From Modgmel el Tavarikh traite de Kaiomorts. Zcnd-Avefta. vol. 7. n 

'' Ibid. p. 3/ 

^° There is a MS. mentioned by M. Perron, which is laid to be in the library 
of the king of France : from whence, I fiiould imagine, great light miohc be ob- 
tained towards the illuftrating of this fubjecfl. It is a Treatife of MytholoCTy, faid 
to have been written byViaiTen, the fon of Brahma. Among other things it con- 
tains — L'Hiftoire de la Creation, de la Confervation, et de la Deftruftion de VVm- 
vers : celle des Metamorphofes de Viflmou -, et I'Ongine des Dicux fubalternes ; 

des Flommcs, desGeans, &c. Zend-Aveda. vol. i. p, 250. Here is mentioned 

L'Hiftoire de I'lncarnation de A^'iflinou fous la Figure-de Rama Sami,. 


ego The Analysis of Ancient Mvthology. 

and he refided in a peculiar place of high ^' elevationj where 
the Deity had placed him. At lafl Ahriman, a Dasmon, 
corrupted the world. He had the boldnefs to vifit heaven : 
from whence he came down to earth in the form of a ^* fer- 
pent, and introduced a fet of wicked beings called KarfeRers. 
The firfl: oxlike perfonage was infeded by him ; and at laft 
fo poifoncd., that he died. ^'' Le Taureau ayant ete '*frappe 
par celui, qui ne veut, que le mal, et par fon poifon, tomba 
fur le champ malade; rendit le dernier foupir, et mourut. — -II 
eft dit, que les Devv^s du Mazendran combattoient centre les 
etoiles fixes. Pour Ahriman, independamment de ce qu'il 
machina contre Kaiomorts, il forma le deilein de detruire le 
monde entiere. — Les Izeds celeftes pendant quatre-vingt-dix 
jours, et quatre-vingt-dix nuits combattirent dans le monde 
contre Ahriman, et contre tous les Dews, lis les dchrent, 
et les precipiterent dans le Doiizakh (rEnfer).— -Du milieu 
du Douzakh Ahriman alia fur la terre. 11 la perca, y parut, 
courut dedans. 11 bouleverfa tout ce qui ctoit dans le monde. 
Get ennemi du bien fe niela partout, parut partout, cherchant 
a faire du mal defliis, deffous. 

We may perceive many curious circumftances in the fliort 
abftrads above quoted, concerning the introdudion of evil 
into the world. We find it faid of the figurative ox-like per- 
fonage, Le Taureau eft appelle I'Homme Taureau, le com- 
mencement des generations. He was likewife diftinguiilied 

'" Le Dleu Supreme crea d'abord I'homme, et le Taureau dans un lieu clevc. 
Vol. I. p. 353- n. 2. 

'' Sous la forme d'unc Couleuvre il fauta du ciel fur la terre. p. 351. 

'' p. 354- 

'* Blefie a la poitrine par le poifon des Dews. p. 334. 

10 by 

The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 591 

by the title of Le premier Tanreau ; and it is further faid of 
him, that he was called ^^ Aboudad. At his death Kaio- 
morts, of whom he had been the reprefentative, '"^ died alfo. 
Out of the left arm of the deceafed proceeded a being named 
Gofchoraun. He is faid to have raifed a cry, which was 
louder than the fliout 01 a thoufand men. ^^ II s'approcha 
d'Ormufd, et lui dit. Quel chef avez-vous etabli fur le 
monde ? Ahriman va brifer promptement la terre, et blefler 
les arbres, les faire fecher avec une eau bridante. Eft ce la 
cet homme, dont vous avez dit : je le donnerai, pour qu'il 
apprenne a fe guarentir du mal ? Ormufd kii rcpondit : 
Le Taureau eft tombc malade, 6 Gofchoroun, de la maladie, 
que cette Ahriman a portee fur lui. Mais cet homme eft re- 
ferve pour une terre, pour un temps, ou Ahriman ne pourra 
exercer fa violence. — Gofchoroun fut alors dans la joie : il 
confentit a ce qu'Ormufd demandoit de lui ; et dit, je prcn- 
drai foin des creatures dans le monde. After this it was de- 
termined to put Ahriman to flight, and to deftroy all the 
wicked pe'rfons, whom he had introduced upon the earth : 
for there feemed now to be an univerfal opposition to the 
fupreme Deiiiy Ormufd. At this feafon a fecond oxlike per- 
fonage is introduced by the name of ^° Tafchter. He is 
fpoken of both as a ftar, and as the fun. At the fame time 
he is mentioned as a perfon upon earth under three forms. 

'' P- B5^- By Aboii-dad is probably fignined in the ancient Indie language 
Taurus i^ater : whicli is analogous to Sor-Apis of the Egyptians. 

'* II eft dit, que dans le moment ou le Taureau, donne unique, mourut, KaVo- 
morts to:nba (fortit) de Ton bras droit. Apres famort&c. p. 355. 

"' p. 356. 

''p. 359. 


5-92 The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 

By Tafchter is certainly Signified " De Apter: the fame per- 
fon whom the Greeks and Syrians reprefented as a female, and 
called Aftarte. She was defcribed horned, and fometimes 
with the head of a '°° bull ; and fuppofed to have proceeded 
from an egg : and they efteemed her the fame as Juno, and 
the Moon. To this Tafchter was delegated the brinsins on 

D too 

of the Deluge. In the mean time, the promoter of all evil, 
Ahriman, went on in his rebellion, and was joined by the 
Darvands, a race devoted to wickednefs. The chief of them 
is m.ade to accoft the fpirit of iniquity in the following 
words. ' O Ahriman, levez-vous avec moi. Je vais dans le 
monde faire la guerre a cet Ormufd, aux Amfchafpands, et les 
ferrer. Alors celui, qui fait le mal, compta lui-meme deux 
fois les Dews feparement, et ne fut pas content. Ahriman 
vouloit fortir de cet abattement, ou la vue de I'homme pur 
I'avoit reduit. Le Darvand Dje lui dit : levez-vous avec moi 
pour faire cette guerre. Que de maux je vais verfer fur I'homme 
pur, et fur le boeuf, qui travaille ! Apres ce que je leur ferai, 
moi, ils ne pourront vivre. Je corromprai leur lumiere : 
je ferai dans I'eau : je ferai dans les arbres : je ferai dans 
le feu d' Ormufd : je ferai dans tout, ce qu' Ormufd a 
fait. Celui, qui ne fait que le mal, fit alors deux fois 
la revue de fes troupes. — ^ II ne refta a Ahriman d'autre 
reffource, que de prendre de nouveau la fuite, lui, qui vit,que 

" Both The and De were inthe ancient languages a kind of demonflrative par- 
ticles, and occur very often. 

100 .|^ jNg ^^jjj^^jj £^,9»xg T)i iSiCL xe(psi?\.ri, Ba.o'i^iiot.f 'zirci^cia-yiiJ.oi', zspccAvv Tccvry. 
Sanchon. apud Eufeb. P.-E. L. i. c. 10. p. 38. 

' Vol. ^.p. 350. I. 

* Ibid. p. 358. 


The Analysis of Ancient Mythology. 593 

les Dews difparoitroient, et qu' il feroit lui-meme fans force, 
parce qu' a la fin la vicloire etoit refervee a Ormufd, lors de 
la refurredlion et pendant toute la duree des etres. In confe- 
quence of this Ahriman was put to flight. Upon which it 
was thought proper to bring over the face of the earth an uni- 
verfal inundation ; that all impurity might be wafhed away. 
And as Tafchter was the perfon appointed to effect this great 
work, he accordingly fet about it. ^ Tafchter fut feconde de 
Bahman, de Horn Ized, accompagne du Beni Barzo Ized, et 
les ames pures veillerent avec foin fur Tafchter ; qui a comme 
trois corps : le corps d'un homme, le corps d'un cheval, et le 
corps d'un Taureau. Sa lumiere brilla en haut pendant 
trente jours et trente nuits : et il donna la pluie fous chaque 
corps pendant dix jours. — Chaque goutte de cette eau etoit 
comme une grande foucoupe. La terre fut toute couverte 
d'eau a la hauteur d'un homme. Les Kharfefters, qui etoient 
dans la terre, perirent tous par cette pluie. Elle pcnetra dans 
les trous de la terre. — * En quelle prodigieufe quantite il la fit 
pleuvoir ! par gouttes groffes comme la tete d'un Taureau. 
At laft we find, that there was a retreat of the waters ; and 
they were again reftrained within their proper bounds. The 
mountain Albordi in Ferakh-kand firfl: appeared; which the 
author compares to a tree, and fuppofes, that all other 
mountains proceeded from it. ^ Ormufd renferma toute 
cette eau, lui donna la terre pour bornes, et de-la fut 
forme zare Ferakh-kand. Tous ces germes des Kharfef- 
fters, qui lefterent dans la terre, y pourirent. Enfuite le 

' P- 359- 
* p. 360. 
' Ibid. p. 359. 361. 

Vol. IIL 4 G vent. 

594 The Analysis of A^^cient Mythology. 

vent, pendant trois jours, chafla I'eaii de tout cotes fur la 
Terre. De la Dieu fait couler les autres eaux, reverfe en- 
fuite toutes ces eaux dans I'Arg roud, et dans le Veh roud 
lui, qui eft le Createur du Monde. — Ormufd fit d'abord le 
Mont ^Albordj, et enfuite les autres Montagues au milieu de la 
terre. Lorfque I'Albordj fefut confidcrablement etendu, toutes 
lesmontagnes en vinrent, c'eft-a-dire, qu'elies fe multiplierent 
toutes, ctant forties de la racine de I'Albordj. Ellcs fortirent 
alors de la terre, et parurent delTus, comme un Arbre dont la 
racine croit tantot en haut, tantot en bas. — II eft enfuite 
parle de ce developpement de la tej-re. 

After this there was a renewal of the world; and the earth 
was reftored to its priftine ftate. The particular place, where 
Ormifda planted the germina from whence all things were to 
fpring, was ^ Ferakh-kand : which feems to be the land of 
Arach ; the country upon the Araxes in Armenia. Here 
another bull was framed, which was the author of all abun- 
dance. We are moreover told, that there were two of this 
fpecies produced, the one male and the other female ; and 
from them all things were derived. ^ Les Izids confierent 
ou ciel de la Lune la femence lumineufe, et fort de ce Tau- 
reaii. Cette femence ayant etc purihee par la lumiere de la 
Lune, Ormufd en fit un corps bien ordonne, mit la vie dans 
ce cor