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Full text of "An analysis of Gothick architecture : illustrated by a series of upwards of seven hundred examples of doorways, windows, etc., and accompanied with remarks on the several details of an ecclesiastical edifice"

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AN ANALYSIS 



OF 



GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE: 

ILLUSTRATED BY A SERIES OF UPWARDS OF SEVEN HUNDRED EXAMPLES OF 

DOORWAYS, WINDOWS, ETC. 

AND 

ACCOMPANIED WITH REMARKS 



ON THK 



SEVERAL DETAILS OF AN ECCLESIASTICAL EDIFICE. 



RAPHAEL AND J. ARTHUR BRANDON. 

Authors or "P.«,sh Churches," "Opkn T.mher Roo« or the M.ddle Aoe-s," m-. 




VOLUME I. 



LONDON: 

DAVID ROGUE, 86, FLEET STREET, 
SOLD ALSO BY GEORGE BELL, 186, FLEET STREET. 

'' JIDCCCXLtX. 



HA 



73760!) ' 

WIVtBOTrWlOBoNTO 



TO THE 



MOST HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS OF NORTHAMPTON, P.R.S., 



ETC., ETC., ETC., 

WHOSE DISTINGUISHED NAME IS SO JUSTLY ENDEARED TO THE 
CAUSE OF ENGLISH CHUECH AECHITECTUjRE, 

THIS WOEK 

'8. 

WITH PERMISSION, 
MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 

BY HIS LORDSHIP'S GREATLY OBLIGED AND VERY OBEDIENT HUMBLE SERVANTS, 

EAPHAEL AND J. ARTHUR BRANDON. 



1847. 

BEAUFORT BUILDINGS, 
LONDON. 



PREFACE. 




F the numerous works recently called into existence by the 
prevalent spirit of inquiry and research into the Ecclesiastical 
Architecture of the Middle Ages, none has supplied such an 
analysis of details as is absolutely essential, no less for the 
complete abstract elucidation of the principles of this great art, than for 
their correct practical application. The present work has been undei*taken 
with a view to supply this deficiency, by presenting a series of good and 
pure specimens of the various details which occur in Church Architecture, 
as they are exemplified in existing Edifices. The examples thus selected 
commence with the closing style of the Romanesque,* and range throughout 
the Gothick era, properly so called 

The Authors, desirous to adhere in every respect to their plan of pro- 
ducing a practical rather than an historical work on English Church Archi- 
tecture, have purposely avoided all notice and illustration of the architecture 
of the Anglo-Saxons. Many excellent treatises have been devoted to the 
investigation of the style of building at this remote period, and much of 
both curious and valuable information has been thus elicited. Saxon 
Architecture, however, though abounding in materials for interesting research 
to the antiquary and historian, is at best but rude and barbarous as a 
constructive system, and consequently by the architect of the present day 
it cannot be considered as a guide or authority. And indeed its successor, 

* This tenn was first adopted by the Rev. W. Giuin, in his " Inquiry on Gothic Architecture." In a 
note explanatory of this term, Mr. Gunn thus justifies its analogy :— " A modem Roman, of whatever degree, 
caUs himself Romano, a distinction he disallows to an MiahUant of his native city, who, though long domiciliated 
yet from dubious origin, foreign extraction or alliance, he stigmatizes by the term Romawsco. I consider the 
architecture under discussion (Norman), in the same point of view," j). 80. 

B 



vi I'KEJ^'ACE. 

tlio Anglo-Norman, Iuih but very few, if any claims to our regard and 
adoption. That tliiH ntylc jjoHweHses many features in thcmsclveH liighly 
rncritoriouH, w(! readily admit; yet on the one hand, we trace in it all 
the iini)reHH of a lingering barbarism, and on the other, true to its Roman 
pr'ototype, it is shackled even in its noblest efforts by the cliaracteristick 
horizmblalUy of classick architecture. Indeed we do not find Medijjuval 
Archituctun! to have been absolutely set free from the influence of debased 
ancient principles, until, with the complete establishment of the pointed 
arch, the manifold elements of building had undergone an entire, although 
a gradual renovation. It was then that, in the Early English style, Gothick 
Architocture attained to its first decided development. 

With the same view to their practical usefulness, the examples given 
in this work have been entirely derived from English Churches. Continental 
(«()thi(;k, beautiful as it is in itself and influenced by the same spirit with 
our own, cannot be consistently associated with English details : each 
possesses peculiarly distinctive features, which it is impossible to blend 
together without serious injury to both. 

It has also been a j)rinci[)!d object of the Authors to collect their 
oxiun|)les from Parish Churches only; juid to this determination they have 
julheied with vei'y few exceptions. Cathedrals, and the larger Abbey and 
Conventiinl Ciliurches, have been already uiu])ly illustrated, perhaps even 
to the duLiinient of the art which it has been the object of such illustrations 
to advance : for, from the want of proper information upon the subject of 
ar(;hitectural details, considered with reference to Edifices of various designs 
juid magnitudes, we see in many Churches of comi)aratively recent erection, 
luimerous features belonging esscnti;illy to our Cathedrals, and contributing 
in the very highcHt (ic^rcc to their a])i)ropriate decoration; but which, 
from [\\c necessarily diminished j)roporti()ns and general incongruity of 
elViict, aj)pear absolutely ridiculous when introduced into the architectural 
comi)osition of the smaller Edifice. 

Any remarks, therefore, that occur in the course of the work, as well 
as the illusti-ations themselves, must, unless otherwise stated, be understood 
to have s[)ecial reference to l\irochial Structures. 



PREFACE, vii 

The illuHtrativc portion of tho work will he found to have been divided 
into two sectionH : of these the first is devoted solely to a full ex|)08ition of 
tho mason's art in all its various hranches, while the second embraces a simihir 
elucidation of detail iu the important accessories of wood- work and metal- work. 
In the execution of the plates, no less than in their selection, the strictly 
practical character of the work has been uniformly kept in view ; without 
aiming at pictorial beauty, the object has been to ensure the greatest possible 
fidelity and accuracy of delineation : to accomplish this, the authors have 
personally visited every Church, from which examples have been drawn, and 
have themselves taken tho admeasurements, made the drawings, and engraved 
them on zinc. Two subjects only form exceptions, tho one a floor-cross from 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, which they have drawn from a rublmifj kindly 
sent them by J. K. Colling, Esq. ; and the other, the diapers upon the shield 
of Sir Itobert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, A.D. 1221, in the Church of Hatfield 
Broadoaks, Essex, for a rubbing of which the authors are indebted to tho 
kindness of the Rev. Charles Boutell ; to whom they also have to ofler their 
sincere acknowledgments for much valuable assistance in the arrangement of 
their letter-press description. Had the plates been executed by more prac- 
tised zincographers, they would doubtless have exhibited a higher degree of 
artistick treatment, and greater beauty of finish ; but this, it was feared, 
might have involved the risk of some slight inaccuracy, and thus have con- 
siderably diminished the utility of the examples. 

The humble labours of the authors have been sweetened and rendered 
dear to them by the sincerest admiration for those noble monuments of piety 
and skill, our English Churches; which even now, cruelly mutilated and 
dishonoured as they often remain, are still foremost among the glories of 
our land : and should their exertions in any way tend to encourage and 
enhance sentiments of interest in the matchless architecture of the Middle 
Ages, their desire will be most fully accomplished. 



INTROD UCTION. 




lERY shortly after the commencement of the second thousand years of the 
Christian era, the Ecclesiastical Architecture of this country, as if preparatory 
to the accession of a Norman dj-nasty, became assimilated to the peculiar form 
of Romanesque then established in the Duchy of Normandy, and at the 
present day distinguished among oiirselves aa the Anglo-Norman style. The first principles 
of this style appears to have been introduced into England by Edward the Confessor, or 
possibly by Canute, and by them applied to the construction of the numerous Churches 
erected during their reigns : so that the rapid improvement in Church Architecture which 
took place under the Norman princes, was in reality the development of a system fairly 
established before the conquest. That the Anglo-Norman architects raised their style to the 
very highest degree of perfection to which it was capable of attaining, is most evidently shown 
by many of their works which yet remain : still, intrinsically excellent as it became, there was 
in its very essence that which necessarily involved its suppression. It appears, indeed, true that 
Architecture shares in the general instability of things terrestrial : for by the working, as it 
would seem, of some latent yet constraining law, one style, or one distinctive form of a style, 
no sooner arrives at fuU maturity, than it is gradually superseded by some other form or style, 
differing in a greater or less degree, yet still essentially differing. But besides the influence 
of this inherent principle of change, the Anglo-Norman retained by far too much of ancient 
classick architecture to admit of its permanent establishment The low and massive propor- 
tions, the ponderous and self-supported walls, the rectangularly recessed arches, the square 
abaci and plinths, and the strictly superficial character of every decoration, — these all spoke 
rather of a grander style in a state of debasement, of Roman degenerated to Romanesque, 
than of a great style rising upward from its foundation ; of the Architecture of the Middle 
Ages preparing to measure its strength with the Architecture of antiquity. And again, in 
the Anglo-Norman the essentially aspiring and expansive character of Christian Architecture 
was wanting ; at the best, there was something BasiUcan in it, — something not far reinoved 
from a Pagan origin, though not itself actuaUy Pagan. Therefore, in reviewing the 

c 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

Transition Period which intervened between the final close of the Anglo-Norman and 
the full estabUshment of the Anglo-Gothick styles, aU regret for the passing style is more 
than overbalanced by joyous contemplations of superior excellence in its successor. After 
an Architectural struggle of unusually protracted continuance, during which the elementary 
features of the new style appeared blended with the established characteristicks of the 
old, Gothick Architecture assumed a definite form ; and at once gave fuU assui-ance of 
its superiority, in the lightness, the elegance, the loftiness, and the spaciousness which 
distinguished the Early Enghsh style: — "a style," observes the author of the Manual 
of Gothick Architecture,* "so transcendently beautiful, so perfect in itself, that it may 
well be questioned if ever a parallel to it has existed in any age or country, or if the 
hands that reared or the minds that conceived the choirs of Ely and Lincoln Cathedrals, 
the Abbeys of Whitby, Westminster, and Rivaulx, have not achieved that, which as unsur- 
passed by former ages, so future generations shall never see equalled again." 

As the reign of the third Henry (AD. 1216-1272) approached its close, certain 
novelties, both of detail and combination, appeared in the works of Gothick Architects. 
In place of distinct lancets, isolated by strips of the main wall in which they were pierced, 
and yet combined by continuous di-ipstones and hoodmolds, windows of large dimensions and 
divided into several lights by midlions, were introduced ; and with the muUions came tracery- 
bars, filling the window-heads with various rich geometrical figures : — the alternation of bold 
projections and deep hollows in the moldings gave way to a system of grouping, richer and 
far more beautifully blended : — shafts ceased to stand detached, or banded into clusters, and 
became instead firmly compacted into a mass ; the bands, no longer of any use, real or apparent, 
beinf suppressed : — foliage, ever a favourite Gothick enrichment, appeared more closely studied 
fi-om the natural tree or plant ; and instead of waving trefoils, expanding from clustered and 
upward-tending stalks, the several leaves were disposed in a wreath-like form, and made to 
encircle the member which they adorned: more abundant and diversified decoration also, 
beoan to overspread the several component members of a Gothick Echfice, imparting a 
finished richness to the whole. 

Thus it was that the Early English gradually merged into the Decorated, — that most 
admirable style, which has identified with the Edwardian era (abounding as it does in matters 
of high historick interest) the perfection of Anglo-Gothick art. As this style advanced, its 
several peculiarities assumed a very cleaiiy defined distinctness of character ; while, at the 
same time, the geometrical precision of its earliest form yielded to a predominance of lines, 
flowing with graceful undulations. 

A tendency to direct verticality, placing itself in, perhaps, violent contrast witli the 

* A Manual of Gothick Architecture, page 230, by F. A. Paley, Esq., M. A. Van Voorst. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

Romanesque horizontalism of the Anglo-Norman, had been in the Early English Gothick, 
the special characteristick of that beautiful style. In the Decorated Gothick, the prin- 
cipal lines of the composition verged pyramidically, rather than vertically or horizontally. 
And to complete the series of changes in this fundamental piinciple, a third distinct period 
of Anglo-Gothick was distinguished by the prevalence of perpendicular lines, crossed at right 
angles by others of scarcely less importance than themselves. This last gorgeous style, from 
the position of its leading lines denominated the Perpendicular Gothick, gradually supplanted 
the Decorated ; as the mature, yet ever chaste and harmonious richness of the Decorated 
had itself succeeded to a supremacy before enjoyed by the more youthful grace and 
elegance of the Early English. For a while the new style was content to retain much 
that was characteristick of its predecessor, in combination with what was more especially its 
own : and of this the firet (or, historically speaking, the Lancastrian) period of the 
Perpendicular Gothick, although certainly wanting in the majestick beauty of the pure 
Decorated, it would be difficult to speak in terms of too high admiration. With the 
depressed arch of the Tudors, however, came that multiplicity, profusion, and minuteness 
of panelling, and other ornamental detaQ, which but too clearly indicated a decadence 
in Ai'chitectonick taste. A single retrograde movement in Architecture is almost 
always a fatal symptom. Debasement, once admitted, speedily pervades the entire 
system ; and then a period of utter degradation wiU intervene, before the art can again 
revive, animated by its former exalted spirit, and capable of aspiring to even nobler 
achievements. 

It has been thus with the Church Architecture of the Middle Ages : magnificent even in 
decline, it spread over its last great works those elaborately fretted vaults of fan-tracery, as 
monumental canopies, not unworthy of Gothick art : and then speedily came on the long 
and dreary age of Architectural debasement 

Taking thus a retrospective view of the history of our Ecclesiastical Edifices, there is 
much reason for associating with the past, both present congratulation and future hope : for 
it is truly satisfactory to observe the existing recognition of the superior merit of Mediasval 
Architecture, as Church Architecture, and the prevalent anxiety to obtain correct views both 
of its principles and of their practical application ; and from the actual existence of such a 
state of feeling it is not unreasonable to anticipate that complete revival of the original Gothick 
spirit, which may even lead to an Architectiural perfection hitherto unknown. But before adva net- 
can become practicable, it is indispensable that there be a recovery from retrogressioa Tht- 
first thing to be attained is the mastery of Gothick Architecture as it Ims been practised- 
It is accordingly the object of these volumes, by conveying a clear and full exposition of the 
various details of Church Architecture as they exist in our Churches, to contribute, in 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

however humblo a ih^mt, toward the attuium<3nt of this all-iirii»ortaut j»rcliminary step. 
And h<!r(! it- may bf! r<!rriarkod, that undue importance must not be attached to the terms 
\'Mv\y, lJecorat(!d, and t'erjienduiular Gothick, as though th.jy denoted so many distinct 
MtylcH in Church Architecture,* For convenience in studying, and also with a view to 
simplify the j.roccHH of classifying details, these terms have been invented and assigned, as 
distinctive titles, to certain Architectural fonns or periods : tlie forms and periods themselves, 
however, are njidly but modifications and progressive tsras of one and the same style; and it 
is most imi)ort-ant that in this light they should be regarded. As it has been already 
obsei-ved, "the great principles and essential characteristics of Gotliic Architecture remained 
uii(!liangcd, from the first establishment to the final suppression ..f the style : and hence, 
th..ugh the several conditions of Oothick Architecture have led to its subdivision into styles, 
each distinguished by a peculiar name; stUl, these minor styles must, in the first instance, 
be r(!garded as mere subdivisions, or rather as the more prominent transition stages of the 
one great style, the aothick."t Accordingly, notwithstanding that dates have been assigned 
t.) these sev(!ral subdivisions of Gothick Architecture, it is impossilile to fix with absolute and 
peremptory certainty where one stage of the art left ofl', and where another bega... Th<-re 
,.„„ be litil.' doubl, but that Early English wiih still in use in some parts of the kingdom 
(nnwillin- t<. .lepart, as it were, IVoin the scene of its many glorious triumphs) at the very 
Ham(5time that, in other localities, com])l(!te Decorated was struggling into existence; and in like 
MiiiiiiKU- Diicorated maybe obsei-ved to have; still lingercMl here and there for a considerable 
period subsequent to the time* that is g(uierally considered to mark the e8tal)liHhmeutof Pen.en- 
di.nlar. Th.' uniudly received dates, therefore, of the commencement and close of the Early 
Knglish, Decorated, and lVri)en.Ucuhir Gothick, in strict reality serve only to indicate those 
niiiK.r stages of transition which iutei-vened between the several more important periods of 
Anglq-Gothick Arehitectun! ; and in this eaj-mMty they are very useful : their utility is greatly 
increased also, from the <-ircumstance of their ranging with the reigns of successive sovereigns, 
lor III.' iiHHociaiion of Architecture with history is always* most desirable. 

In pursuing the study of Medieval Architecture, it is absolutely necessary to pass on from 
written and illustrate.! treatiw* to original examples themselves. Gothick art can neither be 
so completely describe.], imr m illustrate.l by the |..n.il as to convey any adequate conceptions 

• Tl.iH .,„nMm..lul,uns inMuooil by U.o lato Mr, Uickmiui, lm« t.ooii roUiuod by llm Authors, as being in itself 
Humoionlly y>M aduptcl to iln purpone ; whih. at tho sanio tim« it poss.msos the vory inip<.rUnt advantivgo of being 
genomlly recgnimul ,u,.l Miul.rRloo.l. And, in lik. nmnncr, wl.m'o w,.r.lM already oxIhI wbi.b rl.,arly explain the 
dilTereni drlnilH of Anhil.Hure. Iboy have uniformly been adopted ; but xvLere Huch tennn are wanting, free u«o has 
been niado of Hk- nonieneluturo of the Middle Ages revived by TrofeRHor Willis. 

t Lectures up..n Knglish Chnnd. Architoetun,, delivered before tho 8t. Alban's ArehitoctunU Society, by 
the Uov. C, Houtell, M.A., Hocrotary. May, 184G. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

of itfl reality. It may, thercforu, bo held a« an axiom, that pcreonal innpoctiou of the old 
<;hiirchc« of Euglaiid i» the only mean by which it cau \m iKj»»iblc now, nithcr to appreciate 
tlic gcuiuH of our rrindiaival nrchitcctH, or to Hympathizc with the spirit which auimatcd them. 
Hut in carefully Htudying early remaiiiH, it Ih poHHiblo that even experi(jinced o\m'Wim may 
Bomctim(!H be misled by a practice, the very exiHteiice of whifih can Hcarcely Imj conHid(!red to 
have received a general recognition : the practice, that w to «ay, of occ<u»ionally awtimilating 
work in a later style to some already cxiHting portion of an iucouiphrte general dcMign, 

'i'hlH in a remarkable and highly important circumHtance, lying, as it docH, at the very 
biiHirt of authoritative rules for rcHtoration of original Edifices by ourselvcH. And indeed, 
it foruiH a strorigly marked exception to the usual jtractice ; for it was u general role with the 
builders of the Middle Ages, never to fall back upon a past era of their art, even wh(?n 
engaged in completing structures of a by-gone age. Influenced by a spirit, which in iXutm 
times it is scarcely possible yet to understand, their sole aim was a<lvanc(!ment : one " Master" 
was ever anxious to surjja^s another ; and each sought in any fresh (hisign to improve upon 
his own previous works. It would seem that when engaged in repairvvj, or making additions 
to their Churches, the style then prevailing was invariably and boldly adopted : the architects 
of those days trusted in the beautiful harmony which breathes throughout their great art, and 
which they well knew must necessarily exist the same at any period of it. iJut when they 
had to complete a design, left from the first imporfuct, they appear to have been inducwl in 
some instances to mold their work in such manner, as to maintain in the f/enernl outline 
some degree of uniformity throughout the whole. 

Tlie grand and venerable Abbey Church of St, Alban preserves examples, no hm 
remarkable for diversity than excellence, of the j)roceedings of the " Masters " (rf old The 
Nave, including the triforia and clearst^jry, was originally Anglo-Norman ; jdain and massive 
in the extreme, yet strikingly majestick in its aust<;re simplicity. It would app«jar that when, 
iifter a lapse; of time, the Early English Oothick was faii'ly estAblished, it was dete.rmined to 
alter the nave to that style, and thereby improve it The work of renovation accrjrdingly 
commenced, began at the west, and the design extended to the first four arches on the 
north side, and the three corresponding ones on the south. We must imagine that for some 
rea«on the works were suspended, and that an interval of s(;veral years elai>scd Iwfore they 
were again resumed : for when once more proceeded with, the style had considerably 
progressed, anfl Early English Oothick was shortly to give way to Decorated. Two more of 
the Anglo-Norm.-m arches on the south side were rebuilt at this periwl, their general design 
lieing the same, the strings, Ac, corresjKjnding with the earlier work, while a partial difference 
is observable in the moldings and other ornamental details. Again were the works 
discontinued ; nor was any further effort atte-mjited with a view to the reconstruction' of 



6 INTEODUCTION. 

the Church, until the Decorated Gothick had attained to almost the very highest 
degree of its beauty and perfection. And here begins, correctly speaking, the work of 
assimilation. Since the commencement of these improvements, Gothick Architecture had 
gradually undergone a remarkable change : so that it is very certain that, had not the 
architect been desirous of assimilating his work to that of his predecessoi-s, he would have 
adopted a design very different from that which has actually been carried into effect. As it 
is, the general character of the Early English pier-arches is here preserved, though the 
moldings of the arch heads, and the capitals of the piers are pure Decorated. In the south 
triforium also, the arrangement of both the arches and sub-arches of the arcade corresponds 
with the similar members in the earlier work ; shafts (though no longer detached) are 
placed in the jambs, and strings are continued above and below the arcade, in which the long 
trails of tooth ornament are superseded by a series of the square flower of four leaves. 
And again, the walls of the clearstory (quite at variance with the practice of the time) are 
pierced with lancet windows, in evident continuation of the original design : the proportions 
of these windows are precisely similar to those in the adjacent Early English portion of the 
Church, but their moldings are beautiful and pure Decorated. The corbel table also, 
beneath the parapet on the exterior, is continued : but in the latter portion of it, the Early 
English notch-heads are seen to have given way to a series of male and female heads 
(valuable specimens of the head-dresses of the period) and lions' heads, peculiarly a 
Decorated ornament. 

In Westminster Abbey Church this same curious process appears also exemplified, and 
that in a manner still more remarkable, in the Nave-piers and arches, triforia and vaulting. 
The eastern part of the Nave and Aisles was rebuilt between the years 1269 and 1307 ; and 
the western portion was continued at intervals, between the years 1340 and 1483.* 
The Early English Character, however, has been so well preserved throughout, that in 
many cases it requires a close inspection, and that by an experienced eye, before it is 
possible to detect and authenticate the presence of Perpendicular work. Thus, the windows 
in the Aisles erected Ijy Henry V. are very decidedly of Early Decorated character : and it might, 
indeed, be difficult to assign any reason, from the aspect of the work itself, which would mihtate 
against their being classified as such, did not the customary octagonal and molded cap of the 
Perpendicular period occupy the place of the corresponding circular and foliated members, 
which, had the windows really been erected some hundred years earlier, would assuredly 
have surmounted the bowtels placed in their jambs. An equally characteristick distinction 
is also observable in the plans of the Nave-piers of the_ two eras : in the early work, four 
shafts stand clearly detached from the main- Ijody of the pier ; but subsequently the pier 

* Neale's History of Westminster Abbey. 




INTRODUCTION. 7 

was worked with eight shafts, all equally attached to the central maas. This last, 
rKBiK(.D.cuLARNAVBPi.H. though lu rcallty but a trifliug deviation from the original plan, 
is nevertheless indicative of the altered fashion of the day, in 
which detached shafts, once such a favourite feature, were entirely 
discarded. 

In the Nave of Westminster Abbey, as at St Alban's, in the 
midst of this partial amalgamation of styles, one most important 
member appears to have invariably rejected the slightest symptom 
Early enqlwh Nave pik.l of compromisc, aud maintained its characteristick identity : for, in 
the treatment of their Moldings we find that the architects of the fifth and si.xth 
Henrys have put aside all attempt at assimilation, and pursued with scrupulous 
strictness the molding system of their own times.* It is, indeed, truly worthy of remark 
how capricious these architects seem to have been in their adaptation, — jealous, apparently, 
of returning to what was then felt to be an inferior style, yet at the same time anxious to 
preserve and be guided by the conceptions of the original author of the general desiga It 
must be noted that, when introducing, for the general purpose of assimilation, a member 
altogether foreign to their own style, the architects of the Perpendicular period disdained to 
copy exactly the model : it was the original idea, and that idea alone, that they cared to carry 
out ; thus in the piers they worked the bands of the thirteenth century with the moldings 

peculiar to the fifteentL The accompanying cuts, both 
drawn to the same scale, show how fearlessly they departed 
not only from the outline, but also from the size of the 
original. And thus also in the triforia, the Early English 
design is equally apparent in the former and latter 
portions of the work ; but the moldings in these respective portions 
differ essentially, each being true to the style of its own period. And 
again, although the groining is tolerably in keeping throughout; in the 
^"perpeiTwcdla^'"' Aisles, and in the later portion of the vaulting, the original spring and 
height of the ridge-rib have been preserved, while to the elegant acutely pointed lancet of the 





IUnd to Nave PiEas. 

Eakly Knolish, 



* It may not be out of place here to remark, that the architect in chief to our King Henry V., and the probable 
author of the assimilations referred to in the text, was Alexander de Bemeval, the builder of the later portion of the 
Church of St. Ouen, at Rouen ; in which Edifice is still preserved an Incised Slab of elaborate workmanship, the 
memorial of his predecessor in that great and splendid work, as well as of himself. The effigies depicted in this 
interesting monument are figured in the Rev. Charles Boutell's Treatise upon Monumental Brasses and Slabs ; and 
the entire tomb is represented by Willemin in his Monuments Intidits, and also in the description of the Church 
of St. Ouen by Gilbert. 



INTRODUCTION. 



earlier groining, an obtusely pointed arcli has been preferred ; whicli consequently it has been 
necessary to stUt. 





Early English Arcade, Westminster Abdev 
CuuRcn. 



Perpendictlar Arcade, Westminster Abbey 
Church. 



In the arcading also, under the windows, we find another striking illustration of 
the process we are describing. In the Early English portion of the Church, this arcading 
was made such a prominent feature, that it was not deemed advisable to omit it in 
the Perpendicular work : accordingly we find it has been continued quite round the Church ; 
and although this mode of decoration had long since been disused, and supplanted by the 
new system of panelling, still in this instance, in its main features it has been revived, and 
made closely to assimilate to the earlier portion. On examining the moldings, however, 
we again perceive how rigidly the distinctive peculiarities of the Perpendicular style have 



Section oir Line N N. 



Section or Cap at D. 



Section on Line A A. 





Westminster Abbey Church. 




Section or Cap at C. 




been adhered to. This is especially to be remarked in the two capitals of which we 
append cuts : the one a beautifully molded specimen of Early English work, the other an 
equally good and pure Perpendicular example. The stilted and octagonal base of the 
Perpendicular shaft contrasts very forcibly with the low and unpretending Early Enghsh 
base, each indicative of the prevailing spirit in the Architecture of its respective age. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

One more notable instance of assimilation may be mentioned : we refer to the Church 
of Fothcringhay, Northamptonshire. The choir of tliis Church is supposed to have been 
built by Edmund of Langley, fifth son of Edward III. ; and in 1435 (13th of Henry VI.) 
Richard Duke of York, his son's nephew, signed by commission a contract with William 
Horwood, freemason of Fothcringhay, for the rebuilding of the Parish Church on a scale, 
and in a style exactly corresponding to those of the choir.* This contract, which is still 
preserved, states that the said William Hoi-wood " graunts and undertakes to mak up a new 
body of a Kirk joyning to the quire of the College of Fodringhey, of the same hight and 
brede that the said quire is of," and that in "eche Isle shall be wyndows of freestone, 
accordyng in all poynts unto the wyndows of the said quire, sawf they shal no bowtels haf 
at all ;" and also that " aither of the said Isles shal have six mighty botrasse of fre-stone, 
clen-hcwyn ; and every botrasse fynisht with a fynial, according in all points to the fynials 
of the said qwere, safe only that the botrasse of the body shal be more large, more strong 
and mighty than the botrasse of the said qwere." Now here we have a document which 
expressly states that in building the new body of the Church, the Decorated choir already 
existing is to form the guide and be exactly copied ; and yet William Horwood, we must 
imagine, was so entirely imbued with the Architectural spirit of his day, that even with 
these positive injunctions before him, he still let the Perpendicular architect be visible in 
almost every portion of his work. Truly, that our ancient buUders should not merely 
have limited their practice to one style, but actually to one period of that style, is remark- 
able even among the many extraordinary facts connected with the Architecture of the 
Middle Ages : such being the case, how can we wonder at the astonishing perfection at which 
they arrived. It is in the piers that we may observe more particidarly the assimilation to 
those of the choir ; as in Westminster Abbey Church, with a plan of an earlier period they 
combine an arrangement essentially Perpendicular : such is the stilted base, and octagonal 
plinth and capital, with the intermediate continuous moldings, so common about this period. 
Indeed when we remember that the then existing choir had two aisles, we can easily 
understand that if uniformity of design was sought after, it woidd be so more especially in 
the piers and arches, as they form in a Parish Church the most striking internal features. 
The arches in the nave are pointed, and of good proportion, and were probably made 
conformable with those already existing in the choir. 

From these examples, therefore, it is clearly evident that in reconstructing certain 
portions of the fabrick of the hxrger Churches, it was an occasional practice with the mediaeval 
architects to assimilate new work to old, so far as would tend to carry out the general 
uniformity of an original design ; and it is highly probable that further researches will show 
this practice to have been far more extensively adopted, than at present is imagined. 

* Memoirs of Gothick Churches, puhlished by the Oxford Society. 

E 



10 



INTRODUCTION. 



Whether it was also followed ia small village Churches, and if so to what extent, are 
questions deserving a close and searching investigation.* Possibly many features which 
occasionally present themselves, and which it is difficult to reconcile with the style in which 
they occur, may result from some such an arrangement. Be this as it may, one thing 
appears sure and invariable amidst whatever of uncertainty may arise from this practice of 
assimilation ; and that is, that the assimilating process never extends to the moldings. To 
however great an extent the earlier portion of an Edifice may have been subsequently copied, 

these important members were always worked 
in strict conformity with the ordinary system 
prevalent at the time of their construction ; 
and thus they wiU be found guides of the 
greatest possible authority, as well for detecting 
the application of this principle of assimilation, 
as for determining the date of those Struc- 
tures, or parts of Structures, which maintain 
throughout an architectural consistency. Such, 
at least, is the conclusion fairly deducible from 
aU the instances, which the authors of these 
volumes have examined. 

Before adverting to their analysis of more 
strictly Architectural details, the authors here 
remark that monumental brasses may fre- 
quently be studied by the architect, with satis- 
factory and beneficial results. The arrange- 
ment of the canopies in these interesting memorials is almost invariably elegant and 
effective ; while, in some examples, they display designs of most elaborate magnificence. 
The annexed illustration is from the brass, in Westminster Abbey Church, of Alianor 
de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, who died in 1399. 

* Mr. Paley, in his manual (p. 214), mentions that "now and then the arches on one side of a nave were 
rebuilt after the model of the other side ; as at Little Casterton Church, Eutland, where there are semi-circular arches 
of the fourteenth century, evidently suited to others of the twelfth." 




AN 

ANALYSIS 



OP 



GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 




SECTION I.-OF MASONRY. 

1. WINDOWS. 

TRACERIED window may be justly regarded aa a peculiarly distinctive 

characteristick of Gotliick Architecture, — its own grand conception, and 

most beautiful enrichment 

WeU aware of its remarkable suitableness for the display of both 

artistick and constructive skill, the Mediaeval architects delighted to 
exemplify in this one member, in preference as it would seem to all others, the 
versatility and the power of their great art. Hence the astonishing diversity in their 
tracery, its almost invariable grace and elegance, its just harmony of proportion, and 
imposing richness of effect. It is, however, most certain, that Gothick windows are far 
from being specimens only of mediaeval genius, most admirable as these specimens are : 
for, upon a critical examination, it becomes evident that they are regulated by certain 
general principles of design, aa well aa of composition ; and consequently, the apparently 
capricious ramifications and undulations of the stonework, are in reality no other than 
variously modified applications of the same fundamental laws. 

In now sketching out the origin of tracery in the heads of windows, its gradual 
developement and successive chang&s, we shall endeavour to illustrate the several more 
prominently distinctive forms which at different periods it assumed ; previously to entering 
upon an examination of the rules by which its construction may be considered to have 
been governed. 




12 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Possessing several important features, and being also characteristick of certain periods, 
windows altogether devoid of tracery are the first to present themselves to om- notice. 
In the early Norman Edifices, and particularly in the small village Churches, the openings 
for the windows were small and remarkably narrow, — indeed but little more than plain, 
round headed slits pierced, at as great a height as possible above the ground, in the 
massive walls. Examples occur in Southease Church, and Steyning Church, Sussex, 
^"""s'^ssEx."™'"' Nately Church, Hampshire, and Stow Church, Norfolk ; in which the 
entire window openings are between two and three feet high, and in width 
do not exceed a few inches. These windows have a considerable internal 
splay, but externally their glazing is set almost flush with the waU-face. 
Glass, however, being at that period an object of considerable scarcity in 
England, many of these early windows do not appear to have been 

i foot 

constructed with a view to their being glazed ; as may be seen at Waltham 
Abbey Church, Essex) and Darenth Church, Kent, where evidently no provision was 
originally made for fixing panels of glass. A shutter, probably, was designed to close 
upon the rebate, which sometimes may be seen worked externally in the masonry ; as at 
Southease Church, Sussex.* These windows merely resiilted from absolute necessity ; 
and, accordingly, but slight attempts were made to render them subservient to decorative 
pui-poses. Many examples are absolutely devoid of all ornament whatsoever. In Nately 
Church, the east window of the apse is perfectly plain on the outside, without even a 
dripstone ; and internally a very slightly indented saw-tooth molding appears over the 
arch. The very early round-headed triplet at the east end of Darenth Church exhibits 
a few rude and imperfect attempts at zig-zag and billet work about the heads of the 
lights on the exterior (Section 1, Norman, plate 2) ; over one light a dripstone may be 
noticed, but its occurrence here would seem to be the result rather of accident than 
of design, as the two other lights are without it. These lights are slightly splayed 
externally, and in the interior their splay is very wide. 

The windows in the south aisle of Waltham Abbey Church (Section 1, Norman, 
Plate 3), though still very early, exhibit a considerable advance in decoration ; and in 
their construction also, a new and important feature presents itself The window-opening 
is no longer flush with the outer waU, or withdrawn from it by a slight external splay ; 
here the opening is regularly recessed, and ornamented with jamb-shafts, having bases 
and capitals, which carry an arch molded with the chevron : a dripstone worked with 

* In Clymping Church, Sussex, all the windows in the Chancel, including the east triplet, are rebated inter- 
nally, and retain the hooks on which the shutters hung. A plan and two views of this Church are given in the 
" Parish Churches," Yol. II. page 75. 



WINDOWS. 13 

billets is also appended, and this member is continued from window to window by 
horizontal returns similarly omamentecL These windows are themselves greatly increased 
in size, and particularly in width as proportionate to their height. Beneath them runs 
a string, which in the interior is simply molded, but externally is enriched with the saw- 
tooth. 

As the style advanced the windows increased in both size and richness : the arches 
were recessed in two or three orders, additional shafts were added, and a profusion 
of the most elaborate carving ornamented the heads of the lights, in some cases ex- 
tending to the jamb-shafts and completely covering the innermost order of the masonry. 
In a window in Stourbridge Chapel, Cambridgeshire, (Appendix, Plate 1), the surface of 
the arch is richly diapered. Iffley Church, Oxfordshire, presents some fine specimens of 
recessed windows with jamb-shafts ; and here the chevron is continued from the arch- 
head, down the jamb masonry on either side. Amongst many others, the Churches of 
Castle Kising, Norfolk, and Beaudesert, Warwickshii-e, may be specified as containing 
some rich and valuable examples of windows of tliis style. Other admirable specimens 
wiU also be found in that most interesting Edifice, the Church of St Cross, near Win- 
chester. 

In the clearstory it was a common practice to construct windows having larger openings 
than those of the aisles, as in Steyning Church, Sussex ; where the aisle-lights measure 
one foot only from jamb to jamb — while in the clearstory the same admeasurement amounts 
to about 2 ft. 9 in. Internally, these clearstory windows (themselves consisting each of 
a single light) commonly opened into an arcade of three arches — the centre one being 
stilted. This arrangement displays a passage pierced in the thickness of the waUs^ 
which traverses in front of the clearstory windows, and forms an upper triforium. It 
occurs in Waltham Abbey Church (Appendix, Plate 1), in the Cathedrals of Oxford, 
Winchester, and Norwich, and elsewhere. This same feature was continued throughout 
the transition or semi-Norman period : thus, at Eomsey Abbey Church a precisely similar 
arrangement appears, with pointed, in place of semi-circular headed arches. 

Triplets, although occasionally introduced, are not characteristick of Norman work : 
their most usual, as well as most beautiful, position would be at the eastern end of the 
Building ; and as the common termination of a Norman Church toward the east was 
apsidal, their rare occurrence is without difficulty accounted for. Circulai' windows are not 
unusual ; as, indeed, appears but natural in a style expressly distinguished by its rounded 
arches. In the earlier period they are mere openings, simply moulded, or perhaps orna- 
mented with the chevron and other equally characteristick carving. A series of such 
circular windows constitute the clearstory lights to the nave of Southwell Minster ; and 

F 




14 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

again in Waltham Abbey Church, the original arrangement appears to have been the 

same ; although at the present time, in consequence of subsequent 
alterations, it is difficult to determine whether the existing remains 
were once actual openings, or merely sunk panels. In the west 
front of Iffley Church, a Perpendicular window has been inserted : 
in this same position the remains of a circular window of consider- 
able size may, notwithstanding, be distinctly traced ; and again, 
part of a similar window yet remains in the west front of St. 
Botolph's Priory Church, Colchester. A smaU but perfect example, simply ornamented 
with a band of nail-head, occupies the eastern gable of the Church of St. Cross ; and 
in Chichester Cathedral and New Shoreham Church are other good examples, though 
both partake of a transitional character. 

At a late period of the Anglo-Norman style, it was usual to divide the openings 
of circular windows with small shafts, radiating from a common centre. Good specimens 
of this usage occur in the Churches of Barfreston and Patrixboume, both in Kent. * 

From the time of its first introduction until the final close of the Anglo-Norman 
style, the pointed arch difiFered from the semi-circular headed arch merely in form — the 
general characteristieks, details, and ornamental accessories of the two arches remaining 
the same. It was also a common practice, anterior to the Gothick period, to introduce 
the two forms of arch in close connection the one with the other, in the same Building, 
or part of a Building. Thus, in Chichester Cathedral three pointed lancets appear arranged 
under a single large semi-circular arch. In the triplet at the east end of Castle Hedingham 
Church, Essex, the arches externally are pointed, while internally their heads are rounded : 
and again in Barfi-eston Church, a pointed window is placed side by side with one that is 
rounded, and the two are connected by a string continued between their dripstones. Semi- 
circular headed and pointed windows are also inserted indiscriminately in the clearstory 
of Oxford Cathedral : in aU other respects, however, the details of these windows are 
precisely identical, and essentially Anglo-Norman. 

Forced into existence by the exigencies of construction,''" a considerable space of 
time elapsed before the peculiar facilities and beauties of the pointed arch were duly 
appreciated or even discerned : and consequently, we find it to have been in frequent 

* It is highly remarkable that these windows, thus divided, and bearing so close an approximation to tracery, 
do not appear to have originated the idea of a traceried window-head. The circular window in St. James's Church, 
Bristol, is a curious instance of a near, but still purely accidental, approach to a complete piece of tracery. 

t There can be little doubt but that it was in vaulting that the pointed arch was first introduced as a necessary 
constructive form. 



WINDOWS. , 15 

use, merely with a view to produce an agreeable variation from the more general rounded 
form. The pointed arch thus used, may be distinguished as the pointed Norman Arch, 
and this period may also be correctly indicated by the term semi-Norman : the period, 
that is, intervening between strict Norman and pure Gothick — in which the grand 
feature of the coming style appeared in association with the general charactcristicks of 
that already in its decline. 

Fine specimens of the transitional character of this Semi-Norman period exist in the 
ruined Churches of Buildwas Abbey, Salop, Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, and Croyland 
Abbey, Lincolnshii-e ; in the chapel, also in ruins, of St. Joseph at Glastonbury ; in the Church 
of the hospital of St. Cross, near Winchester ; and in the conventual Churches of Malmesbury 
and Romsey. From the circumstance, however, of the exact period of its construction 
having been recorded by a cotemporary writer, as well as from its intrinsick merit, the eastern 
part of the choir of Canterbury Cathedral justly claims a pre-eminence in value and interest 
over all other remains of this period. Here, in the clearstory windows, a remarkable 
deviation from both the pointed and semi-circular form is observable in the head of the 
window-arches : the actual openings of these windows have trefoUed heads, each one 
circumscribed by a semi-circular arch.* But this new form, notwithstanding its close 
approximation to the heads of the lights in pure Gothick windows, clearly had no real 
influence in the formation of tracery : its introduction, whether fortuitous or resulting from 
design, produced nothing more than another form of window-arch, and led directly to no more 
important results, t 

In the smaller Semi-Norman Churches, the windows appear to have frequently been 
pointed, but in other respects constructed and ornamented after the Norman style. Several 
good examples of this arrangement remain in the Chancel of Bloxham Church, Oxfordshire : 
and at the east end of the Chancel of Bamwood Church, Gloucestershire, is a single-light 
window (from its great width scarcely to be called a lancet) with plain molded jambs, 
a pointed arch, and dripstone ornamented with chevron-work. J It appears unnecessary 
to refer to other examples of these transition windows : we, therefore, here recapitulate the 
more prominent features of the windows of the Anglo-Norman style : — 

(1.) They were small, each consisting of a single-Ught semi-circular in the head, and 
placed as highly as possible above the ground. 

* The trefoil-arch is also observable in the heads of doorways of this period. See subsequent article upon 
Doorways. 

t Professor Willis, in liis admirable history of Canterbury Cathedral, fixes the date of these windows between 
A.D. 1175 and 1178; "William de Sens, architect. 

J See "Parish Churches," Vol. II. p. 71. 



16 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



(2.) In the earlier examples the splay was entirely internal, and in many cases no 
preparation for glazing appears to have been made : later in the style the windows began to 
be recessed, jamb-shafts with quaintly carved capitals were introduced as the supporters 
of richly ornamented arch-moldings, and the openings were considerably elongated. 

(3.) No decided indications of tracery had yet appeared : the wheel-windows of even the 
Semi-Norman period, though possessing what might have been regarded as the germ of 
tracery, were discontinued when the Early English Gothick became positively established. 

On the first establishment of the Gothick style, little essential difference, beyond the 
invariable adoption of the pointed arch, was apparent in the design and proportions of the 
windows, but as the style advanced, the development of Gothick detads and accessories in 
the windows gradually increased : the openings of the lights became, in most cases, narrower 
in proportion to their height ; a new and peculiarly characteristick principle of construction 
was introduced in the heads of window-arches : and, after a while, the juxta-position of 
several distinct windows brought on the general use of muUions and tracery. 

At its first introduction, and throughout the continuance of the Semi-Norman period, 
the pointed arch was very obtuse, rarely becoming equilateral, and perhaps in no single 
instance acutely-pointed. In the Early English Gothick, on the contrary, the equilateral is 
the usual form of the window arch ; whUe in some cases, and more particularly in the 
Cathedrals and larger Churches, we find the windows most acutely-pointed, as at Lincoln 
and Southwell Minsters. The single-light Early English lancet, in general use during the 
-first Gothick period, was of the simplest arrangement ; its very simplicity constituting 
its peculiar charm. In these windows the glass was generally brought within three or 
four inches of the outside face of the waU. (See plans. Section I. Early English, Plates 
1 and 4). In the interior the openings were widely splayed ; and consequently, in walls 
of great thickness, this splay caused the width of the jambs to be, in most cases, four or 
five times the width of the light. Now, if the arch of the window had been allowed to widen 
inside with the jambs, besides the unsightly appearance which would have been produced, 
it would have necessitated a much greater height in the walls of the Church than was 
considered desirable by the Early English architects ; and hence arose a peculiar treatment 

of the interior of windows, the general arrangement of which 
consisted in having totally distinct arches inside and out: the 
outer adapting itself to the peculiar character of the window, but 
the inner being almost invariably a segmental pointed or drop- 
arch; the point of which, in many examples, was considerably 
below that of the window itself, as in the south aisle of St. Alban's Abbey Church. It will 
be observed, in this mode of construction, that the head of the lancet is cut out of a mere 




WINDOWS. 



17 



slab a few inches in thickness, which is carried up internally till it meets the soffit of the 
(Irop-arch. (See Section I. Early English, Plate 11.) The effect also of this treatment 
of their lancets waa to throw the light dovm into the Church, and leave the valley of 
their high-pitched roofs in a state of semi-obscurity, an object they so evidently sought for 
in their interiors. So characteristick was this arrangement considered, and also so peculiarly 
effective in itself, that shortly after its introduction it was generally adopted even in windows 
so placed as not to require its constructive advantages : thus, in gable-triplets, the combined 
windows were very commonly finished in the interior with drop-arches (see Section I. Early 
English, Plate 15) ; and, again, the same arrangement appears in the tower of Brockwortli 
Church, Gloucestershire (Section I. Early English, Plate 11), where the interior arch, though 
segmental, is actually concentrick with the arch of the light. This last-named circumstance is, 
indeed, of by no means rare occurrence in those positions, in which the drop-arch was intro- 
duced, rather as an essentially characteristick feature, than a necessary constructive application. 
As a matter of construction, this drop-arch is by far more secure than an arch sloping so con- 
siderably as would have been requisite had the interior and exterior arches been concentrick. 
We may here observe, that this aiTangement, variously modified, continued to be in use in the 
construction of windows tlu-oughout the Gothick style.* (See Section 1, Decorated, Plate 2.) 
In some early examples we meet with a simple segmental arch inside, 
connected with the lancet-head by rough and irregular masonry, 
without any effort of design or sj'stematick construction. 

The proportions of Early English lancets vary to a remarkable de- 
gree ; the lights being, in height, in some instances, as much as eleven 
times their wddth, as in the Churches at Oundle and Clymping; CLnmro annua, soao. 

or ten times, as at Shome Church (see Section I. Early English, Plates 1, 4, 7) ; 
while, in other examples, as at Brockworth and Great Casterton, the height 
of the lancets does not exceed five times their width. Eight, or perhaps nine 
times their width may be regarded as a fair average for the height of these 
lancet-windows when in their greatest perfection. 

The instances are rare in which we find a Church stiU retaining the original 
arrangement of its lancet-windows ; but in such cases we may generally remark, 
RuTLANDsiiiKE. ' that 111 tho gaWcs and in the north and south walls of the Chancel they 
are of more slender proportions than in the other parts of the Edifice, 





* A contrivance of this kind was not necessary in the Anglo-Xorman Churches, the windows being almost 
invariably of much less height, and the walls in some instances comparatively higher. Where there waa sufficient 
height, even in the Early English period, in some examples the exterior and interior arches of the windows were 
concentrick, as in the North transept of York Cathedral. 

G 



18 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



The reason for this is obvious : were the narrow proportions of the Chancel lancet 
preserved in those placed in the less elevated walls of the aisles, the light thus obtained 
would be altogether insufficient ; and hence appears to arise the general rule, that the 
width of Early Enghsh lancets varies inversely in proportion to their height.* Early 
English lancet-windows occur either singly, or in gi-oups of two, tliree, five, and seven ; 
but combinations of four and six lancets are rarely to be found. Repton Church, Derbyshire, 
furnishes an example of this latter arrangement : of the former, the east end of the 
Chapel of St. Mary's Hospital, Leicester, affords an instance. A single lancet is very 
rarely placed at the east end of a Chancel ; nor is a similar window much less 
uncommon in a western elevation. The eastern gable of the Chancel at Llanabar, 
Merionethshire, is pierced with a single lancet : and at Little Casterton Church, Rutland, 
and Tangmere Church, Sussex, are single lancets to the west.t Single lancets also appear 
in western towers, in the Churches of Stan wick, Ringstead, and Etton, in Northamptonshire. J 
The usual position of single lancets is in the north and south walls of Chancels and Naves, 
and in the east and west extremities of aisles. 

In a small country Church, the arrangement of two single lancets taU and narrow, 
is productive of the most beautiful efibct. This arrangement is sometimes seen to the 
east of a Chancel, as at Great Casterton Chm'ch, Rutlandshu-e, and Tangmere § and Ports- 
lade Churches, Sussex ; and commonly to the west, as at Barn- 
well, Cambridgeshire. Couplets of lancets occur in the aisles 
of Churches, more frequently than in any other position, as at 
Little Wenham Church, Sufiblk, and Stoke Pogis Church, Bucks 
(Section I. Early English, Plate 1), and Hythe Church, Kent; 
this probably results from the same desire to obtain light, which 
caused the single lancets in aisles to have a gi-eater propor- 
tionate width than in other positions. A lancet couplet also is 
commonly found in the side walls of Chancels, as in the Churches 
South Newton Church, Wilts. at Great Weuham, Suffolk, and Hartley, Kcut (Appcudix, Plate 2). 




* The beautiful little Church of St. Michael's, Long Stanton, Camhridgeshire, retains the Chancel lancets in 
nearly their original state ; but in the aisles the original windows have been altogether destroyed. Clyniping Church, 
Sussex, may also be specified as containing most valuable examples of Early-English lancet-windows. Parish 
Churches, Vol. II., page 75. 

f See Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 1. 

X Single western lancets sometimes may be seen in Semi-Norman Edifices, as at Manton Church, Rutland ; and 
in a Church of similar character at Bamwood, Gloucestershire, is a single eastern lancet. 

§ See Parish Churches, Vol. II., p. 34. See also Section I. Early English, Plate 13. 



WINDOWS. 19 

The triplet, at once the most characteristick and the most beautiful arrangement of 
lancet-windows, generally appears to the east in the gable of the Chancel, and this may be 
safely considered as its original position. Here its impressive symbolism is most appropriate, 
and also in most exact accordance with the spirit of the Early Gothick age. . Instances, 
however, occur, which authorize the introduction of the triplet into every possible posi- 
tion in the walls of a Church, without in any degree infringing the general rule of its 
peculiar applicability for the eastern extremity of the Chancel Lancet-tripleta exist in the 
west front of the Church, at Werrington, Northamptonshire (a small picturesque Edifice, 
having a double bell-gable over the Chancel-arch, but without any west door) ; at the 
west end of the aisle, at Tinwell Church, Rutlandshire (Section I. Early English, Plate 20) ; 
and at Warmington Church, Northamptonshire ; it appears at the east end of the aisle, 
and is also four times repeated in the south wall of the south aisle. At Great Casterton, 
Rutlandshire, the side of the Chancel contains a triplet ; and at Stanton Harcourt, 
Oxon, two triplets are pierced in either side of the Chancel. In the Cathdrals and 
larger Churches, triplets were placed to the north and south in the transepts, and also 
in a continued series in the clearstory ; frequently two, and sometimes even three, were 
placed successively one above the other in gable walls, as at Whitby. In triplets it 
was customary to mark with greater importance the central light, by giving to it addi- 
tional height, and in most cases increased width also ; this modification may be satis- 
factorily deduced from the form of the gable, in which, as we have already remarked, the 
triplets of lancets without doubt were originally placed. (Section I. Early English, Plates 1, 
4, 7, 9, 12, 15, and 20). Where, on the exterior wall, lancet-triplets are surmounted 
by dripstones, each lancet has its own distinct dripstone ; though, in most cases, the three 
dripstones are united by short strings traversing between the fights. The.se strings are gene- 
rally placed at the springing of the archeS of the two outer lancets ; and consequently either 
the dripstone of the central light is stilted, as St Bartholomew's Hospital, Kent (Section- 1. 
Early English, Plate 15) ; or in some instances, as at Stanton Harcourt, Oxon, the connect- 
ing string is interrupted by perpendicular retm-ns, and again continued horizontally to join 
the central dripstone at the springing of its own window-arch. In some examples the three 
windows of a lancet-triplet are placed within a dripstone forming a single arch ; and thus, 
though essentially and really distinct from it, they bear a strong general resemblance to a single 
three-light window. The glass, in these combinations of lancet-windows, is usually placed 
near the outer face of the wall, in the same manner as in single lancets, and internally 
the three windows are widely splayed : in this last respect, no less than when placed under 
a single dripstone, they produce a general efiect closely approximating to a single window 
of three lights. This eSect is, in the greater number of instances, considerably enhanced 



20 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

by the narrow fiUets of the wall which intervene between the splays of the windows, being 
faced with bold shafts, from which rise the combined hood-molds. In both single lancets 
and triplets, and also in aU other combinations of this beautiful window, the tooth-ornament 
is frequently introduced in long trails, in the molding of the window-arch, or of the hood- 
mold : fine examples of this characteristick enrichment occur in the south aisle of St. Albtin's 
Abbey Church.* 

, In Cathedral and other very large Churches, four or more lancet-windows of the same 
height and width, were occasionally introduced in combination. In the less important 
Buildings, and also, in many instances in the larger ones, the lancets in combination are of 
an uneven number, and are generally arranged after the same system as the triplet, — the 
central window, that is, having both the greatest width and height, and the exterior window 
on either side the group being smaller than the inner pair. In these combinations of lancets, 
exceeding three in number, the several windows are commonly surmounted by a single 
dripstone, as in the Churches at Etton and Oundle, Northamptonshire (Section I. Early 
English, Plate 7), where five lancets form the group. Seven lancets similarly arranged but 
rarely occur : examples, however, exist in the Churches of Blakeney, Norfolk, and Oakham, 
Surrey. 

In place of the customary simple arch-head, in some examples of lancet-windows, the 
head of the light is foiled ; at Great Wenham Church, Suffolk, the eastern end of 
the Chancel is pierced by a triplet of this character. (Section I. Early English, Plate 1.) 
This form of window-arch was in common use at an early period ; and in this, with its first 
modification, a, foliated lancet (see in the same Section, pi. 4, the example from Hangleton 
Church), we see the germ of cusping, properly so called. t At Winnal Magdalen Church, 
near Winchester (Appendix, pi. 2), the lancets display early and rude specimens of foliation 
or cusping, in its primitive condition. To this style of cusping the distinctive title of soflit- 
cusping has been applied, from the circumstance of the cusps springing from 
the sofiit of the arch, and not, as subsequently was the invariable practice, 
from the chamfer or slope of the arch-side. This soffit-cusping may be 
regarded as a sure indication of early work ; and in most instances it is 
characteristick of a transition from Early to Decorated Gothick. 
In early cusped circles, a similar distinctive peculiarity is observable in the cusping ; 
here the foils are produced from the inner curve, without rising at all into the chamfer, and 

* The tooth-ornament also appears on the exterior in some lancet-windows, as in the triplet in Tinwell Church, 
Eutlandshire (see Section I. Early English, Plate 20) ; and in Warmington Church, Northants. 

t Professor WUlis derives the idea of a foliated arch from a compound archway, of which the first order is a 
simple, and the second a foiled arch. 




WINDOWS. 



21 



1^1\ 



thus no eyes whatever are formed ; or the foils themselves are cham- 
fered, but the eyes are imperfect ; their chamfer being restricted to 
their outer curves (B). Another mai-ked peculiarity in early foils 
is that, in place of being segments of intersecting curves, they are formed from a series 
of distinct circles, which all cut a larger circle inscribed within them. 
Tracery, in the cusping of which any of these peculiarities occur, is 
invariably of an early, when not actually of a transitional period. The two 
windows in Mcopham Church, Kent, (Section 1, Early English, Plates 
10, 11,) and also the windows of Evington Church, Leicestershire, illus- 
trate this early cusping.* 

From the combination and cusping of distinct lancets, a single window divided by 
mullions and tracery derives its origin. It is no less remarkable than interesting to 
trace, as we are enabled to trace in existing examples, the gradual development of this 
grand Gothick conception. Thus, as in Glapthome Church, Northamptonshire, two lancets 
were in the first instance placed side by side in a closer proximity than heretofore 
was customary, and tlie spandrel between their heads was pierced by a simple oval- 
shaped opening ; a second window in the same Church exhibits the lancets more 
No. 1. ^o- 2. No. 3. 







OLiPTBORHK OhDRCH. 



acutely pointed, with an opening of a lozenge shape in place of the previous oval, and 
the whole enclosed within a common diipstone ; and in a third window a more de- 
cided advance is apparent, for in this composition, while the lancets remain the same, 
the oval has been superseded by a circle with sofiit-cusping forming a quatrefoU, and 
the plain space in No. 1 has been converted into sunken spandrels. These three windows 
occur in the south side of the Chancel of this interesting Church : and they exemplify, 
in a manner perhaps unparalleled in any one similar Structure, the idea of tracery being 
conceived in the artist's mind, and gradually worked out in three successive designs. 
The window in Belgi-ave Church, Leicestershire, is another good specimen of this period 
(Appendix, Plate 3) : it is somewhat richer in moldings, but does not exhibit any advance- 



* In Arreton Church, Isle of Wight, is a window with this description of cusping, where a stone ring connects 
and intersects the foils (Sharpe's Decorated Windows), thus illustrating in construction the formation of the foliations. 

H 



22 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 



ment in design. The windows in Houghton Church, Durham, are of precisely the same 
character, with a very peculiar aiTangement of dripstone.* 

The idea of several distinct lights with minor compartments of an ornamental 
character, constituting a single window, was no sooner fairly recognised, than examples 
of its practical application rapidly increased in both number and variety. The peculiar 
aptitude for modification and variety which distinguished a window divided by mullions 
and tracery, appears from the very first to have convinced the Gothick Architects that 
in this member the essentially pliant character of Gothick Architecture might be most 
signally displayed. Hence the almost countless multiphcity of designs and modifications 
of each design, which were so speedily produced in the windows erected after the first 
introduction of tracery. 

A two-light window with a quatrefoilcd circle at the head of the lights was, as 
we have seen, the first decided step towards the adoption of regular tracery. It was 
a natural and easy advance to place two such windows in combination, and to pierce 
with a larger circle the space enclosed by a dripstone forming a single arch above 

them both : here appears, therefore, a four-light 
window with its geometrical tracery. Then one of 
the lights would, no less naturally, in some instances 
be suppressed ; while under circumstances of a con- 
trary nature, a fifth or even a sixth light might 
be introduced ; and in each of these cases some 
alteration in the tracery must necessarily ensue : 

Aldwinile Church, NoETHAMProssniRE. j ^ 

and, again, every such alteration would lead to the introduction of fresh variety, and 
thus illustrate the facility with which window-traceiy admits of change, even whilst fet- 
tered by geometrick forms, without diminution either of beauty or of consistency, t In 
the first instance, in these early windows, the cusping was for the most part restricted 
to the geometrical tracery, the heads of the lights remaining plain ; but after a while 
a similar enrichment was introduced at the heads of the lights, to the great improvement 
of the entire composition : examples, however, remain which show that, even in large 




* Billing's Durham. 

t Etton Church, Northants. (Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 13,) a pure Early English Structure, affords 
some excellent specimens of ekrly tracery. The windows in the aisles consist of two lancet lights, surmounted by a 
plain circle, and all inclosed within a common dripstone : those in the Chancel are of the same design, but a trefoil 
of soffit-cusping enriches the circle. At Oundle the addition of a third light, and two head circles to a similar 
composition, produces a three-hght window. In St. Alban's Abbey Church, a very fine three-light window is the 
result of the same arrangement. 



WINDOWS. 23 

windows of many lights, cusping was occasionally omitted altogether.* Tlie circle, thf 
original form of tracery, itself trcfoUed and quatrcfoiled, was soon modified by distiuct- 
quatrcfoils and trefoils ; and in many instances a reversed trefoil became the central figure of 
the tracery in two-light windows, and sometimes, as at St. Alban's, in three-light windows. 
In trcfoilcd circles also, the trefoil formed by the cusping is frequently reversed, as at 
Meopham Church, (Sect. 1, Early English, Plate 10.) The trefoil appears to have been 
a favourite arrangement of early cusping : two beautiful examples of its introduction 
into single lancets, with a view to impart to them a traceried character, are given at 
Section 1, Early English, Plate 8, from the Chancel of Raydon Church, Suffolk. In 
Plate 13 of the same Section is engi'aved a singularly beautiful two-light window, also 
from that Church. 

During the progress of the development of window tracery, a change gradually 
becomes apparent in Gothick Architecture itself ; and the observer is led to discover that 
the first great period of the style has merged into its successor. In thus passing on 
from Early English to Decorated Gothick, the only sure criterion for deciding upon the 
windows of either, lies in the moldings ' combined with the cusping. It being a 
necessary result that the works executed during a transition period should lose, in 
a greater or a lesser degree, the general characteristicks of an established style ; — 
such works must be either regarded (as in strict reaUty they are) as transitioniU 
specimens ; or theii- assignment to one or other of the successive periods betwe(>n 
which they appear, must depend altogether upon peculiarities in matters of detail. 
Thus, the general design of two windows of geometrical tracery may be precisely 
identical,: and yet, if the idea of transition windows be rejected, the one may be 
correctly assigned to Early English, and the other with no less accuracy to Decorated 
Gothick ; because of the moldings being essentially different, or because in the one 
there may appear soffit-cuspiug, while in the other the cusping may expand from 
the chamfer of the window-arch. For example, the windows in Stoke Albany Church 
(Section I. Early EngUsh, Plate 17,) in their general aspect might be reckoned pure 
Decorated ; their soflit-cusping, however, more correctly classifies them with the Early 
English period. And so also in the clearstory over the choir of the Abbey 
Chui-ch of St. Alban, the composition is altogether Eai-ly EngUsh, but the mold- 
ings partake more of a Decorated than of an Early English character.! In this trans- 
sition period it was customary to construct many windows of more than two lights, 

* See in Sliarpe's Windows, an example from Grantham Church. 

+ It is perhaps, impossible to consider these windows otherwise than as transUional, from the want of any 
decided peculiarity of style. 



24 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTUEE. 




DuNTON Basset, Leicestershire. 



liaving no other tracery than would be produced by the intersection of the mullions 
in the window-head : a practice which was in some instances contiaued considerably later, 
and forms the basis of a numerous class of Decorated windows. In some examples 
of this arrangement the intersections are cusped, but very frequently they are entirely 
plain, and consequently produce a meagre and unsatisfactory 
appearance. Very different, however, is the result, when the 
intersections of the mullions are filled in with quatrefoUs, 
trefoils, and other enriched forms of tracery : in these case's the 
general effect is singularly beautiful and elegant, as is shown 
by the examples from the Churches at Southfleet and Heme, in 
Kent, and at Trumpington, Cambridgeshire, (Section I. Decorated, 
Plates 20, 29.) 

But, before entering upon the direct consideration of Decorated Gothick windows, 
one peculiar kind of tracery, common to the close of the Early English and the 
commencement of the Decorated periods, demands to be particularly noticed : we refer 
to that in which, contrary to the usual practice, the general design is indicated by 
foliations, and not by foliated geometrical figures. This arrangement may be distinctly 
referred to the trefoiled arches, adopted by the early Gothick Ai-chitects from their 
Anglo-Norman predecessors, and is exemplified in the east triplet at Great Wenham Church, 
Suffolk (see Section I. Early English, Plate 1). The windows in the ^south aisle of 
Northfleet Church, Kent, are instances of considerable merit 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 1) : other examples occur in the 
Abbey Church of St. Alban (Appendix, Plate 4), and in 
Wooton Church, Northants.* As Gothick Architecture ad- 
vanced, this foiled tracery was almost abandoned, appearino 
only in occasional specimens, and then perhaps resulting rather 
from accident than design : t a fine late example may be chuechdown church, GLoncESTEBSHiuE. 
mentioned as existing in a Perpendicular window in Churchdown Church, Gbucestershire. 

Neither may we here omit to notice the remarkable evidences which yet remain in 
windows undoubtedly constructed during this transition period, of the manifold experiments 
which were tried and rejected before the perfect Decorated window was produced. 
Thus, at Rickenhall Church, Suffolk,! the east window of the south aisle, which is 




* This window is figured at p. 125 of Paley's Manual of Gothick Architecture. 

t The windows in the Lady Chapel at St. Alban's, Appendix, Plate 4, show the two kinds of tracery 
combined in the same design. 
X Parish Churches, page 45. 



WINDOWS. 



25 




ErworoH Cbobch, Lncsnaniu. Fio. 1. 



decidedly of the same date with the other windows (temp. Edward I.), exhibits almost 
every peculiarity of Perpendicular tracery : the main lights are ciuquefoiled, and the window- 
head comprises batcment-lights, super-mul- 
lions, &c. ; aU features directly at variance with 
the general custom of the time. At Evington 
Church, Leicestershire, in the north aisle are 
two windows still more curious : of these, the 
western window (Fig. 1) might be regarded 
as a fine specimen of flowing tracery, were it 
not for its sofiit cusping ; the invariable test 
of early work : the ornaments also, with which 
it is richly studded, are a mixture of the 
Decorated ball flower, with the dog tooth and 
masks of the Early English period. The composition of the east window is even more 
remarkable, and indeed contradictory (Fig. 2) : it consists in its general design of a series 
of equilateral-headed arches springing from small 
shafts with delicately carved foliated caps of pure 
Decorated character, and the upper part of the 
tracery is divided by super-muUions and transoms 
into two octo-foliated squares and a row of tre- 
foliated batement-lights. Thus, in these two windows, 
evidently both of the same date, are displayed pecu- 
liarities characteristick of the three great periods 
of Gothick Architecture ; the Early English soffit- 
cusp, the Decorated foliated cap, and the Perpen- 
dicular super-muUion and tracery-transom. Such evtsotoh church, lb. 
phenomena afford ample scope for conjecture : shall we say that William of Wykeham 
first introduced Perpendicular tracery, when we find every one of its essentials in 
a window of the time of Edward I. ? Shall we not rather conclude, 
that in their endeavours to arrive at perfection in tracery, the 
early builders, in the course of their experiments, actually invented 
Perpendicular tracery, proceeded to a partial development of its 
peculiarities, and finally rejected it as unworthy. 

With the decided establishment of the principle of window- 
tracery, it became a recognised constructive arrangement to recess 
the mullions from the face of the wall in which the w*indow-arch was pierced ; and the 

I 




Fias. 




Capital fki^m L«> 



26 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

fine eflfect thus produced was, aa the art advanced, speedily enhanced by the introduction of 
distinct orders of mullions, and by recessing certain portions of the tracery from the 
face of the primary mullions and their corresponding tracery-bars. The distinct planes 
of tracery and mullions thus produced, constitute one of the most beautiful features in 
Gothick windows : four of these planes are well exemplified in the •window from Heme 
Church, figured at Plate 20, of Section I. Decorated : here are, first, the waU-plane ; second, 
the -muUion and tracery-bar plane;* third, the tracery-plane; and fourth, the plane of 
the eyes of the cusping.t This last plane, sometimes, coincides with the plane of the tracery . 
and again, in some examples there are primary and secondary planes of both mullions and 
tracery-bars : aU these modifications appear in the beautiful window of the north aisle of 
Sleaford Church, Lincolnshire. J (Section I. Decorated, Plate 26.) 

Decorated window tracery has been generally divided into two chief vai'ieties, Geometrical, 
and Flowing : the former so called, from strictly consisting, as its name implies, of geometrical 
figures, such as circles, curvilineai" triangles, lozenges, trefoils, quatrefoils, &c. ; while in flowing 
tracery these figures, though still existing, are gracefully blended together into one design. Of 
these two varieties, the geometrical is the earlier ; though it appears to have been retained in 
use subsequently to the introduction of flowing tracery, and in many instances both forms were 
used indifferently in windows of the same Edifice, and these erected at the same period. 
Indeed, the two varieties of tracery are not unfrequently exemplified in the same com- 
position : for tracery, like alnaost every other featm-e of Gothick Architecture, passed through 
its changes with such extremely gradual progress, that in many cases it is absolutely 
impossible to carry out any complete rule of classification. 

In its most perfect state, geometrical tracery invariably exhibits some large figure 
of distinct and decided character, which occupies the entire upper part of the window 
head : this figure is generally either a circle, itself foliated and cusped or subdivided by 
smaller geometrical figm-es, in most cases similarly enriched ; or it is formed by tracery-bars 
diverging from the head of the central light in such a manner as to resemble the 
upper portion of the window-arch inverted, and containing ornamental work of the same 

* Tracery-bars are those portions of the masonry of a window-head, which mark out the principal figures of the 
design : from these, the minor and more strictly decorative parts of the stonework may be distinguished under the 
title of Form-pieces. See Willis's Nomenclature. 

,^ t For 'want of a better, the term ey- has been adopted by the authors, to indicate 

the small triangular space, whether pierced or not, which intervenes between a cusp and 
the curve that circumscribes it. 
'^)^ t ^^^'^ occasionally, however, meet with instances where, probably from the great scarcity 

A. A. the eyee uf aquatrefoil . 

of freestone, the mullions have been brought flush with tlie outer wall. 




WINDOWS. 



27 



\ 





COTTIBOHAII CaORCU, NOBTBAUPTOHSHIRC. 



character as the large circles.* In some other designs three circles or three curvilinear 
triangles (SoptiouJ^Decorated, Plate 2) of equal size, arc introduced, and variously enrichwl 

and modified. And 
again, in other win- 
dows the geometri- 
cal forms are subor- 
dinate to intersect- 
ing curves (Sect. I. 

Decorated, PI. 20) ; 8awb«ii)o«wo«ih CBo«cn, h««t». 
or the entire tracery consists simply of one geo- 
metrick figure (Section I. Decorated, Plate 8). 

To enter into a fuU de- 
scription of even the chief of 
the manifold variety of designs which appear in the windows of the 
Decorated period, would greatly exceed the limits of this work : and this 
is especially the case in windows of flowing-tracery, which comprise 
almost every possible modification of almost every possible design. It 
must suffice to refer, in general tferms, to the more distinctive peculiarities in tracer^' ; 
leaving it to the illustrations to explain the details of upwards of one hundred specimens, 

selected from all the principal varieties which are pro- 
fusely scattered over the country. 

In "two-light windows, the Early English arrange- 
ment, frequently varied 
and enriched, was for a 
long time continued ; as in 
the beautiful specimens 
from the Churches at 
Northfleet and Roydon, 






SOUTHrLBKT, KkMT. 




RiNOSTEAD Church, Nortuamptokbhirb. > 




figured in Plate 5, of Section I. Decorated. In other two-light windows in which the tracery- 
bars diverge from the muUion, describing curves similar to those of the window-arch, the 
heads of the two lancets thus formed are fiUed with various tracery (Section I. Decoratetl, 
Plate 3). Others, again, are of a character so very peculiar, as to form an absolutely distinct 
class from any we have yet noticed. They occur in the purest period of the Decorated 

* See in Sharpe'a Windows, specimens from the Churches of Rudston, York ; Billinborough, Lincoln ; 
Howden, York ; Exeter Cathedral ; Fisbtoft, Lincoln ; Trent, Somerset ; Wellingborough, Northants ; Ripen 
Cathedral, &c. Also Appendix, Plate 3. 



28 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 




St. Alban'b Abbev Cuurch. 



era, and are characterised by a remarkable angularity and abntptness of outline : such are 
the windows in the Chancels of Chartham Church, Kent (Section I. Decorated, Plate 22,) 

Belgrave Church, Leicestershire, and Lyddington Church, Berks, 
(Appendix, Plate 4.) " The tracery is different in each of these 
examples, but they agree in being dissimilar from all other Decorated 
windows of the same date."* In other examples the heads of two- 
light windows are filled with flowing tracery : — so endless, indeed, are 
the varieties in this species of decoration, that we are as much 
astonished at the great effort of imagination which could, in a comparatively short space 
of time, produce such numerous designs, as we are gratified with the exceeding beauty and 
appropriateness of the designs themselves. 

Larger windows of three, four, and a still greater number of 
lights, were produced by repeating with certain modifications, the 
same designs as were introduced in a simple state into two-light 
windows. In many of these large windows a fine effect is produced 
by the primary muUions and tracery-bars being very richly molded : 
in some examples, as at Bottisham Church, Cambridgeshire, (Section 
soutbfleetchdkch, K.LNT. I Dccoratcd, Plate 27,) the rich moldings of the mullions are con- 
tinued throughout the entire composition. The mullions also, in many instances, have 
shafts, with bases and capitals characteristically molded and enriched. In some specimens 

also, the ball-flower is introduced with admirable effect, stud- 
ding the hollows of both mullions and tracery in rich pro- 
fusion. (Sect. I. Decorated, Plate 38.)t Specimens of some 
of the most beautiful forms assumed by flowing tracery, are 
given in Section I. Decorated, Plates 6, 7, 11, 12, 18, 26, 
29. To these may be added, as ranking amongst the finest 
windows of the same class in England, the east window 
in Carlisle, and the west window in York Cathedrals. J 





Sawbridgkworth Church, Herts. 



* Eemarks on the Principles of Gothick Architecture, as applied to ordinary Parish Churches; by the 
Eev. J. L. Petit. 

See also Bloxam's Gothick Architecture, Ed. 8, p. 217 ; and Sharpe's Decorated Windows, where is a 
plate representing one of thfe windows in the north aisle of the ruined Abbey Church of Whitby, which contains 
tracery somewhat of the same character with that at Chartham. 

t See Parish Churches, VoL I. p. 67 ; also Sharpe's Windows, pait 6, window from Leominster Church, 
Herefordshire ; and Britton's Gloucester Cathedral. 

X -See Sharpe's Windows. 



WINDOWS. 



29 





A class of windows are occasionally met with in the more 
magnificent of our Churches, of which the rich and elaborate design 
fails to entirely satisfy the eye, owing to the inelegant arrangement 
of the tracery bars. We refer to such windows as those in the N. 
transept of Sleaford Church, in the S. transept and E. of Chancel 
of Heckington Cliurch, in Selby Abbey Church,* and in the Chancel of 
Redgrave Church, Suffolk. The diagram A represents the primary curves of the R 
window of seven lights in Heckington Church, where we may notice 
that two intersecting and irregidarly shaped ogees form the principal 
feature in the design, and by their awkward combination detract 
from the merits of an otherwise beautiful production. In a niiie 
light window, on the contrary, as shown in diagram B, this 
arrangement might be well carried out and create a very fine effect, 
for here the main lines throughout the composition would be equally balanced. 

Amidst all the sui-passing beauty of Decorated tracery, anomalies sometimes present 
themselves to our notice, for which, while it is difficult to assign any reason, it would 
be still more difficult to find admirers. For example, in the fine conventual Church 
at Dorchester, Oxfordshire, is that curious and contradictory composition known as the 
Jesse-window, in which the real use of tracery, and consequently its beauty, are together 
lost sight of ; and where the midlions, branching out into various shapes, are made 
to represent the tree of Jesse, t Again, scarcely less reprehensible is the introduction 
into window tracery of canopies and pinnacles, however beautiful in themselves, and 
however richly they may be decorated. These members are designed to form an 
external protection, and at the same time in their proper position to enhance the beauty 
of window tracery, but not to be interspersed amidst the tracery itself. Examples of 
this arrangement occur in the otherwise fine east windows of Merton CoUege Chapel, 
Oxon,J St. Alban's Abbey Church, Barnack Church, Northants, and in the west window 
of Henry Vllth Chapel, Westminster. ' 

One other kind of tracery, very common in windows of every variety of dimension 
throughout the Decorated period, we must not omit to notice before passing on 

I to that great change, which has given its title to the last of the three periods of 
English Gothick Architecture : we refer to the net-tracery, so named from its resemblance 
to the meshes of a net. This, when double-cusped, as in the cloisters of Westminster 



* Sliarpe's Decorated Windows. 



t See Addington's Dorchester Churcb. 



{ See Britton's Antiquities, Vol. V. 
K 



30 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTUKE. 




Abbey, is productive of great richness of effect : though at the same time, and particularly 

in windows comprising more than three lights, it almost 
invariably presents rather the appearance of diaper cut 
to the shape of the window-arch, than of tracery specially 
designed to fiU the head of the arch within which it is 
contained. This appearance results in part from the want 
of variety in the several subdivisions of the design, but 
more particularly from those portions of the tracery which 
wheathampstrad Church, Hants. come in coutact with the curvcs of the wiudow-arch, being 

cut off abruptly, instead of curving upwards to adapt themselves to their situation. 

It also appears requisite here to refer to one other peculiar species of flowing tracery 

common in continental Gothick 
Buildings, but very rarely indeed 
to be found in this country. 
From the flame-like undula- 
tions of its tracery-bars and 
form-pieces, this tracery has 
been distinguished as Flambo- 
yant. In England this term Flamboyant is restricted to form 
or design in tracery ; but, on the continent the same ex- 
pression denotes not a peculiar style of window-tracery alone, 
but the entire range of Gothick Architecture at a period 
commencing with the decline of Decorated Gothick in 
England. The term, however, can hardly be correctly 
applied to English windows, inasmuch that however flame- 
like* their tracery may be, they are stUl to be referred 
to the purest period of Gothick Art, if we have recourse to that unfailing test, the mold- 
ings : whereas in the real Flamboyant of the continent, (of which we append an illustration 
from a desecrated Church at Rouen) the moldings show at once the debasement that has 
taken place. Mullions finishing with an arris are perhaps never met with in Decorated 
work, though they harmonize weU with the general angularity of the Flamboyant. 





Section of Jamb and Sill. 



1 



From a Desecrated Church at Rouen. 



* That we should meet with many T)ecorated windows in our own country having flowing tracery, closely 
resembling Flamboyant, is in no ways remarkable, if we consider tliis last named style in the Hght of a debased 
Gothick, in which flowing tracery alone was preserved tolerably pure amidst the general debasement of all its 
other parts. Indeed, tracery itself soon shared in the total wreck of good taste, which took place earlier on the 
continent than with us : losing all consistency in construction, it became distorted and unsightly. 



WINDOWS. 



31 




Towards the close of the reign of King Edward III. the outline of window-tracery began 
to show a tendency to adapt itself to the vertical bearing of the mullions, instead of 
branching oflF from them in flowing undulations. This, the death-blow to flowing tracery, 
and with it to Decorated Gothick, gave rise to a new variety, at present known, in 
common with the period of Gothick Architecture during which it prevailed, as Perpen- 
dicular. Here however, as in the previous changes, the alteration was very gradual ; con- 
sisting at first, rather of the introduction here and there of a perpendicvdar member 
into compositions in other respects strictly flowing in their cha- 
racter, than of any decided verticaUty in entire designa Thus 
in the east windows of the Churches of Houghton-le-Spring, Dur- 
ham, St Mary, Stratford, Suffolk, Charlton-on-Otmoor, Oxford, 
and in the S. Aisle of Tunstead, Norfolk, a perpendicular tendency 
is apparent in parts of the tracery (Section I. Decorated, Plate 9). Jf\ 
The N. & S. windows in the Chancel of Wheathamstead, Herts, tok5t«ad cmo»cb, Nonrout. 
also, are- curious examples of the gradually progressive influence of the vertical principle. 
In the Church at King's Sutton, Northants, is another window of transition tracery. 
The earliest examples in which the leading principle of the new style of tracery is completely 
carried out are, probably, those of William of Wykeham in the nave of Winchester 
Cathedral, and the corresponding windows in the Church of St Nicholas at Lynn, 
Norfolk ; here the mullions rise through the window-head into the curves of the arch. 
This continuation of the vertical bearing of the mvdlions is the basis of all Perpendicuar 
tracery : and though, as the Perpendicular period advanced, the application of this fun- 
damental principle was carried to such an excess as to degrade tracery into mere panelling, 
and almost to- destroy the characteristick qualities of the mullions themselves ; stUl for 
a while it must be admitted that Perpendicular windows possessed features of great 
interest and beauty. In these earlier specimens of this style, the window-head is 
generally divided by tracery-bars rising direct from the mullions into the arch, and also 
by other similar members branching off from the same mullions and describing curves 
corresponding with those of the main arcL The principal compartments thus formed 
are again subdivided by form-pieces, variously arranged and modified, but for the most 
part having a vertical tendency. These members, from their bearing and position deno- 
minated super-mullions, generally rise alternately from the heads of the main-lights, 
and from the actual muUions ; and thus they divide the head of the window into double 
the number of lights contained in the lower part (Section I. Perpendicular, Plates 
5, 13, 16, 18, 23, &c.) The heads of the main Ughts are almost invariably cin5M€/biZerf ; 
whereas in the Decorated period the tref oiled heading of the lights was so prevalent 



32 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



as to constitute a characteristick of the style. Above each exterior light, or of those 
main subdivisions which are formed by tracery-bars following the curves of the window- 
arch, a compartment of tracery is produced by a minor tracery-bar following the same 
cui-ve, while an inverted arch, foliated, is placed within the space thus formed. This 
is a no less beautiful than peculiar feature of the finest Perpendicular tracery : it prevails 
in WiUiam of Wykeham's work in Winchester Cathedral, and is also exemplified in the 
beautiful windows in the south transept of Beverley Minster,* in the north transept of 
Merton College Chapel, Oxford,t in Ashborne Church, Derbyshire,^ Headcorn Church, 
Kent, and St. Mary's Church, Oxford. § 

The transom, which had been occasionally used during the Decorated Gothick 
period, and then generally consisting of a simple horizontal mullion, crossing the lights 

at right angles, speedily became a regular com- 
ponent of perpendicular windows : this member 
dividing the lights into an upper and lower series : 
and the heads of the lights in either series being 
similarly foliated. Instances are frequently met 
with in which the transoms are embattled, as in 
the Church of St. Mary Magdalen, "Wiggenhall, 
Norfolk : this Church also exemplifies the use of 
an embattled transom in the tracery. For another 
specimen of an embattled tracery-transom, see 
Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 18. A rich, though 
perhaps a scarcely legitimate, effect was sometimes 
AsHBv ST. LEOK^-s cuuHCH, NoKTHAMPTOK.HinE. produccd by cuspiug thc lights of thc upper series 

at the foot as well as at the head, and uniting them with those of the lower series, without 
any intervening transom-bar. A modification of this arrangement appears to have produced 
the panelled windows at the west of Winchester Cathedral, and Westminster Abbey Church. 

Perpendicular tracery continued to degenerate in character from an early period after 
its first introduction, until its utmost efi'ort appears to have been the production of the 
largest possible window containing, in lieu of tracery rightly so named, the greatest 
number possible of small pierced panels. Nothing can be more monotonous, or more 
devoid of all beauty or efiectiveness, than this glazed panelling. 

* See Britton's Antiquities, Vol. V. 

t See Ingram's Memorials of Oxford, and Bloxam's Gothick Architecture. 

J See Bloxam's Gothick Architecture. 

§ See Oxford Glossary, Vol. II. 




WINDOWS. 



33 




With the progress of the Perpendicular period, a remarkable change took place in the 
form of the window-arch : and indeed long before other parts of Perpendicular Structures felt 
its destructive influence, the four-centred arch was in general use in the formation of win- 
dows.* In the traceiy of windows constructed with the four-centred arch, if any degree of 
richness was attempted, it became a general practice to carry it considerably below the 
springing of the arch. Possibly from this 
arrangement, the idea of traceried-tTausoms 
might have been derived, t 

In this period many windows were con- 
structed of such ample size, as entirely to fill the 
end of that portion of the Edifice in which they 
were placed : as at Winchester, York, St. Alban's* 

&c. This vast extent of window was produced bl*cken«t chorcb, NoBroui. 

(in accordance with the laws of Gothick Architecture) not so much by increasing the size 
of the lights, as by adding to their number : thus, the west window of Henry the Seventh's 
Chapel contains fifteen lights, and those at Winchester, St. Alban's, and York, each nine 
lights. 

Nearly every possible variety of arch appears to have been used in the construction of 
window-heads. As we have already seen, the pointed arch was the 
almost invariable shape adopted in the Early English lancets ; occa- 
sionally however, as in Thanington Church, Kent (Ap- 
pendix, Plate 2), we meet with square-headed trefoiled 
lancets. The accompanying illustration is the north 
lychnoscopickj window from Westhamptnet Church, 
Sussex. The one from Thanington Church occurs in 
the north side of the tower. 




Farndish Church, Bedfordshihi. 




TisrHAiirnccT 
Cbokcb, SurFOLJc 



* We occasionally meet with Decorated windows with four centred arches, as in Deopham Church, Norfolk. 

+ This arrangement is not uncommon in Decorated windows, though by no means so frequent as in 
those erected during the closing years of the Perpendicular period; see Section 1, Decorated, Plate 13; also 
the heautiful window figured by Sharpe, from Billingborough, Lincoln. Other specimens occur at Heme, Kent, and 
Evington, Leicestershire. 

} The term lychnoscope has been applied to a very peculiar window, to be found in Gothick Churches of all 
the different periods : most frequently it is placed at the south west or north west of the Chancel, and the sill is 
generally brought much nearer the ground than in any of the other windows. Temple Balsall Church affords an 
example of one to the south west (Parish Churches, Vol. I., page 15). It is still more frequent that both the north 
west and south west windows are of this description, as in the Churches of Westhamptnet, Eaydon (Sect 1, KK) 

L 



34 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUKE. 



At the close of the Early English, and throughout the Decorated Gothick period, the 
window-arch in most frequent use was the equilateral ; and this is always the most 
beautiful form. Other window-arches which occurred during the Decorated period, were the 

acutely-pointed, the obtusely-pointed, the ogee, the segmental- 

pointed, and the segmental-circular. The 

ogee arch is not of frequent occurrence, 

nor is it often productive of a good effect : 



^ 




Beandon Chdrch, Norfolk. 



the segmental-circular is very rare. The 
square headed arch was very generally in 




SorTHFLEET CllURCH^ KeNT. 



use at this period : all the windows to the south aisle of Leckampton Church are of this 
description (Parish Churches, Vol. II., page 65). The tracery in these windows is sometimes 

very good and rich, as in Harbledown Church, Kent 
(Appendix, Plate 6), and Roydon Church, Essex (Sect. I., 
Decorated, Plate 13). Triangular-headed windows are occa- 
sionally to be met with, but they 
are defective both in grace of out- 
line and soundness of construc- 
tion. The example from Keymer 
Church Sussex, is another curious instance of the never-ceasing search after improve- 
ment, in its course naturally producing some such extraordinary designs as the present, 
which is not instanced as a fit example for imitation. It may be considered as a link 
between the several successive changes in Gothick Architecture, — comparing it with the 
square-headed window from Southfleet, we can clearly identify it as a modification of the 





Bicker Church, Lincolnshibc. 



Keyuer Church, Sussex. 



Plate 8), and Clymping (Parish Churches, Vol. II., page 75). Very rarely are windows in other parts of the Church 
thus treated. Aldwinkle Church, Northamptonshire (Parish Churches, Vol. I., page 51) may perhaps furnish an 
example of one at the west of the south aisle. Sometimes a separate opening iu the wall was expressly provided, as 
in Crick Church, Northamptonshire, where we find a quatrefoiled circle ; or in Bishop's Lydeard Church, 
Somersetshire (Parish Churches, Vol. II., page 63), where the wall of the south Chapel, which apparently was 
subsequently added, is splayed so as not to block up the lychnoscope. 

The real use of these curious openings in the walls of the Chancel (for, as we have seen, they are almost 
exclusively to be found in this part of the Church) is still a " vexata quaestio " among Ecclesiologists : of the various 
uses to which they have beeaa supposed to have been devoted, such as confessionals, openings to watch the Easter 
Sepulchre, lepers windows, &c., none seem to adapt themselves entirely to the different peculiarities of the case : at 
any rate we feel that no apology is necessary for not entering into a discussion, which, though highly interesting, 
is no ways in accordance with the nature and objects of the present work. We would refer to some very instructive 
notices of this subject in the "Ecclesiologist," Vol. V., pages 164 and 187, Vol. VI., page 40, and Vol. VII., 
page 65. 



WINDOWS. 



35 



former, by the omission of the two spandrels. Triangular windows were comparatively rare, 
except in clearstories : the example from Cottingham Church, Northamptonshire, occurs 
at the west end of the south aisle. 

All these arches were continued, with the exception 
perhaps of the acutely-pointed and the ogee, in the Per- 
pendicular era, with the important addition also of the 
four-centred arch. In very late windows, of this last- 
named style, a label* sometimes took the place of a 
pointed diipstone or hood-mold ; and in this case, the 
spandrels, as at MonksUver Church, Somersetshire, were occa- 
sionally pierced and glazed. Square-headed windows were comKoaui chohcb, no«th*«t». 
in constant use in the Perpendicular, as well as in the preceding periods : of these several 
specimens are appended. Circular windows also occasionally appear, but this beautiful form 
is by no means common in Gothick Edifices in this country. 




CLEARSTORY WINDOWS, 



Which are almost essential features in Perpendicvdar Edifices, were of comparatively 
rare occurrence at an earlier period. The Anglo-Normans used them much more 
frequently than did the architects of either the Early English or the Decorated eras : 
thus, at Steyning Chui-ch, Sussex, we observe Anglo-Norman clearstory windows 
placed singly ; while they form arcades at St. Margaret at Cliffe, Kent, and St 
Peter's, Northampton. At Southwell, as has already been remarked, the clearstory 
windows are circular. In Early English Churches the clearstory but rarely formed 
a part of the design, except in the Cathedrals and other large Structures. Salisbury, 
Ely, Lincoln, and St. Alban's, have Early English clearstories : and in Warmington 
Church, Northants, we find this feature consisting of a series of two-light window8.t 
Clearstories in the smaller Churches of the Decorated period were usually lighted 

* The term. Label (borrowed from Henxldry) exclusively denotes a horizontal string with rectangular returns : 
and the terms dripstone and hood-mold, severally refer to exterior and interior strings which enclose arches or 
openings. These terms are often, but most incorrectly, used indiscriminately. 

t See Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 17. 



36 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 





Scalt of jett 
Meophah Church, Kent 



Oie fat 
FiLBY, Norfolk. 



by a series of quatrefoiled circles. Examples of this arrangement occur at Meopham, 
Kent, FUby, Norfolk,* and Great Milton, Oxfordshire. At Garsington, in Oxfordshire, the 
circles have six foUs ; and at Stanton St. John, in the same county, in place of circles, 
the clearstory lights are triangular and with five foils.t In 
the exquisite Decorated Gothick Church at Cley, Norfolk, the 
clearstory consists of double-cusped cinquefoUed circles, alter- 
nating with single lancets. At Bottisham Church, Cambridge- 
shire, a series of finely molded two-light clearstory windows 
occur : and at Eaunds, Northants, a similar series approximates 
more nearly to the subsequent period — the Perpendicular. J 

From the introduction of Perpendiculstr Architecture to its decline, the clearstory 
was almost invariably introduced into all new Churches ; and very frequently (to 
the great detriment of their beauty) was added to those Edifices which had been 

previously constructed. Bishop's Lydeard Church, Somerset, 
is one of the rare examples of a Perpendicular Structure 
devoid of this feature. § In the smaller Churches, two-light 
and three-light clearstory windows, with square heads, were 
in common use, as at Humberstone Church, Leicestershire ; 
j^^Sy> and similar windows segmental pointed, as at Histon Church, 
ji Cambridgeshire. As the period advanced, clearstories became 

Humberstone Church, Leicestershire. mUch mOrC important membcrS of thc COmpOsitionS intO wMch 

they were introduced ; and the several windows being placed in close connection the 
one with the other, they frequently exhibited a considerably larger surface of glass 
than actual walling. Of this arrangement the Churches of Lavenham and Long 
Melford, in Suffolk, afford truly magnificent examples : in other Churches, however, of 
about the same date, the clearstory destroys the whole beauty of the Building by its 
monotony and apparent insecurity. At Long Melford the clearstory over the nave is 
pierced by twelve large three-lights windows, which are also continued round the north 
and south transepts. 




* See Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 37. 

t See Oxfordshu'e Churches. 

X See Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 69 ; also Northamptonshire Churches, Vol. I. p. 59. 

§ See Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 63. 



37 



BELFRY WINDOWS, 




New Havck CacBCB, Soncz. 



In Norman Structures, generally consisted of a doubled semi-circular arch divided by a 
shaft : or in richer designs, parts of the panelling were 
pierced for this purpose, as at St. John's Church, DevLzes. 
Another not unfi-equent arrangement is exemplified at 
Iffley, Oxon. ; where two panels are formed upon each 
face of the tower by two external strips of masonry and 
one central strip, and a recessed window of a single arch . 
occupies each of the panels. In Semi-Norman towers the |[ 
double arch with a central shaft is retained, as at Dudding- 
ton, Northants,* and Repps, Norfolk. The same arrange- 
ment was continued throughout the Early English Gothick 
period, with such modifications as the new style demanded : 
examples occur in the Churches at Etton and Barnwell, 
Northants. t In the laat named Edifice, the belfry windows are richly ornamented with 
foliage and dog tooth. In the more important towers of this period, a pierced arcade 
was also a common arrangement, as at Raunds, Northants. J And again, in this, and 
also in the succeeding period, the belfry windows consisted of a series of small quatre- 
foiled circles, one pierced in each face of the tower, as at St. Mary's Cray, Kent, and 
Lindfield Church, Sussex (Section I. Early English, Plate 4). In the Decorated period, 
a single two-light window in each face of the tower was the most usual arrangement, as 
at Badgeworth, Gloucestershire. In the fine Decorated Gothick tower of Southfleet 
Church, Kent, the belfry lights are four single lancets, each trefoliated at the head.§ At 
Heme Church, in the same county, two similar lancets occur in each face of the tower ;|| 
and in the large and magnificent church of St. Mary, Redclyfie, Bristol, the upper 
stage is divided into three compartments, each containing a fine three-light window 
In Perpendicular Gothick Edifices, the belfry windows differed from those of the pre- 



* Parish Churches, Vol. I., page 5. The tower at Eepps is one of the circular flint Structures so common 
in Norfolk : in this example, however, the flint-work is headed by an octagonal stage of ashlar, forming an arcade 
which is pierced towards the cardinal points with shafted double belfry windows, of strictly Semi Korman character. 

t See Parish Churches, Vol. I., pp. 13 and 31. 

X See Parish Churches, Vol I., p. 69 ; and the Churches of Northamptonshire, Vol. I., p. 53. 

§ See Parish Churches, VoL I., p. 19. 

II See Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 7. 



38 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 

ceding period rather in points of detail, than in general design. In Churches of moderate 
size, a two-light belfry window in each face of the tower was the usual arrangement 
while in more important Edifices two windows* were similarly placed. In the latter 
case the general effect was considerably heightened by a buttress rising up between each 
pair of belfry windows, and being crowned by a light and lofty pinnacle. The towers 
of the Churches of St. George, at Doncaster, of St. Margaret, at Leicester, and at 
Bishop's Lydeard, Somersetshire,t are good examples, each containing a series of double 
belfry windows ; and a similar series also occurs in the noble tower of Magdalen 
College Chapel, Oxford. 

The towers of many Churches in Norfolk and Suffolk contain a peculiar window 
deserving of notice. It lights the floor of the ringing loft ; and usually consists of a 
square enclosing a foliated circle, or some other geometrical figure. Some specimens of 
this window are given in Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 22. In the Early English towers 
of Northamptonsliire, a circular window of this same description is also very frequent ; and it 
is used for the same purpose. Examples occur in the Churches of Barnwell and Aid winkle. J 
Similar windows of the same period appear in the Church towers of Leicestershire, as at 
Humberstone Church. At Section I. Semi-Norman, Plate 5, is figured a window curiously 
situated : it is pierced through the south and east buttresses of the tower of Clymping 

Church, Sussex ; the detached chevron, which is carried round 
the opening, imparts considerable richness to its pleasing pro- 
portions. § The window in the west of the tower of Hun worth 
Church, Norfolk, is of a very singular design : it is exceedingly 
difficult to assign a date to it, and at first sight it presents the 
appearance of a very early gable Cross, built into the wall of the 
tower ;|| the rough terminations of the four arms, however, show 
that this was not the case, though it is more than probable that 
a gable Cross suggested the idea. 

* Windows of three lights, go frequently occurring in the body of the Church, appear to have been sparingly 
used in belfries. lu towers of great magnificence, two double lights under one arch was a more usual arrangement, as 
in St. Margaret's Church, Leicester. 

t See Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 63. Also see Bloxam's Gothick Architecture, Ed. 8, p. 236. 

X See Parish Churches, Vol. I., pp. 31 and 59. 

§ See Parish Churches, Vol II., p. 75. 

II See gable Cross from Edith Weston Church, Eutlandshire, Section I. E.E., Plate IG. 




39 



TURKET LIGHTS. 




AcHURCn Church, 

NORTUAMPTONBUIUK. 



No part of an ancient Building, not even the minutest detail, was considered by the 
Builders of old as unwortliy of their attention : accordingly we find that these small openings 
for lighting a turret staircase frequently displayed considerable elegance in 
design, and no little skill in their construction. Early examples are of rare 
occurrence, for, during the continuance of Norman and Early English architec- 
ture, a staircase turret was by no means an usual adjunct to the 
towers of Parish Churches.* In that of the Norman tower of 
St. Martin's Church, Leicester, the lights are mere square- 
headed slits ; while in the turret at the N.W. angle of the 
tower of Achurch Church, Northants, an Early English Edific 
of great beauty, is a very graceful arrangement for admitting 
light to the stairs, consisting of a series of small lancets with gabled canopies- 
Early in the Decorated period lancet openings continued in use for turret 

lights; as in a turret to the N.R of the 
choir of St. Alban's Abbey Church, t At 
this same period narrow cruciform openings 
were also in iise for this purpose, as in 
the conventual buUdings at Ely (Appendix, 
Plate 7), and Waltham Abbey Church 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 3). Subsequently, and during the Perpendicular Gothick era, 
small circles, squares, or triangles, were more generally adopted ; and these for the most part 
were enriched with various cusping and tracery (Section I. Decorated, Plate 36, and Perpen- 
dicular, Plates 13 and 22). 





WlNTERTON Cm:RCU, NORFOLK. 



St. AuAjfs AnST 
Chvbcb. 



* Even during the Decorated period we occasionally meet with towers in which the only ascent to the belfrj- 
is by means of ladders ; such is the tower of Weekley Church, Northamptonshire (Parish Churches, VoL IL, p. 84). 
In Perpendicular Churches the turret is of invariable occurrence. 

t The Newel in this stair-turret is encircled by a spiral molding, admirably adapted to the grasp of the hand. 



40 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTURE. 



SPIRE LIGHTS 

In their general features did not differ materially from other windows in the same Edifice, 
except that in consequence of the peculiarity of their position, they were somewhat 
narrow in proportion to their height ; and also, being generally set at right angles to 
the ground line, they rose like dormer windows from the sides of the spire, and were 
surmounted by acutely pointed canopies, which most frequently terminated in beautifully 
designed Crosses. In some early spires, however, the lights were merely quatrefoiled openings 
lying in the same plane with the spire, as at Fleet Church, Lincolnshire,* and Humberstone 
Church, Leicestershire. Canopied spire lights occur singly, as at Newington Church, 
Oxfordshire ; or in two rows, as at Leckhampton Church, Gloucestershire, and Duddington 
Church, Northants, which is an early specimen of such an arrangement ; while in other 
spires, three and even four rows of lights have been introduced, as in the Churches of 
Warmington, Northants,t and Ewerby and Grantham, Lincolnshire. The lights of the 
lowermost tier were of course invariably placed upon the cardinal sides of the spire, the upper 
rows sometimes alternated, but very frequently continued on the cardinal sides. 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRACERY IN WINDOWS. 

From a review of the chief varieties of Gothick windows, we proceed to examine 
into the principles of their geometrical formation. It is impossible for any person to 
have observed with the smallest degree of attention any number of Decorated windows, 
without becoming aware of the constantly recurring combination of the equilateral triangle. 
With very few exceptions, the window-arches of the Decorated Gothick period are actually 
founded upon that figure, or upon a very close approximation to it. The greater number of 
the heads of Early English Gothick lancets are similarly formed, as is shown at Section I. 
Early English, Plates 1 and 7. In Plate 1, from Great Wenham Church, where the lights 
of the triplet are trefoiled, the system of equilateral triangles has been, nevertheless, kept in 
view, as is shown in Diagram (B.), where the centres for the curves are at the several 
points of the triangle. 

* See Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 51. 

t See Parish Churches, Vol. I., pp. 65 and 17. Also for other specimens of spire-lights, see pp. 11, 
13, 31, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 69, and 77, &c., of the same volume. See also, Northamptonshire Churches. 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRACERY IN WINDOWS. 



41 





A minute examination of numerous specimens of tracery, collected from all parts of England, 
has led us to fonn the conclusion that this same principle of the equilateral triangle constitutes 
in them all the basis of their formation : in very many cases its truth is undeniable, and it 
will not invalidate this (assumed) constructive law that in some others, examples occur which 
do not in mathematical strictness comply with its requirements : for it is both easy and just 
to imagine that occasionally the design may have been duly prepared 
from the fixed nile of the equilateral triangle, and yet in executing 
the work, may have been slightly altered of modified, to suit some 
particular circumstance or taste, or even as a mere practical experi- 
ment. Thus, for instance, the annexed illustration of a window from 
Southfleet Church, Kent, will be seen to have been both designed 
and executed upon strictly equilateral principles ; the window-arch is soutHn-w cnvwca, Kmr. 
equilateral, so also are the heads of the two lights, above which is placed a quatrefoiled circle. 
In Shorne Church, at the east end of the north Chapel, occurs another window of precisely 
similar design, but in the execution of which we may perceive that 
the architect has allowed himself to deviate slightly from the pre- 
cision which characterises the window at Southfleet : still he can 
scarcely on this account be regarded as working in absolute variance 
from the principles which determine the formation of this style 
of window. Such a deviation is but an instance of the legitimate 
modification of a general rule ; it does not in the slightest degree tend 
to furnish an argument calculated to disprove its existence. So in 
Classick Architecture, to the discreet architect is left the privilege of slightly varying from 
the exactly-defined relative proportions of the column and its entablature, without his being 
thereby rendered obnoxious to the charge of impugning the proportional laws-which have 
been established. 

In the window from Northfleet Church (to resume the illus- 
tration of two-light windows), it is distinctly evident that the archi- 
tect had in view the same principle which produced the Southfleet 
window, though he chose to depart from it in practice so widely, 
by unduly increasing the circle in the window-head. These examples 
win serve to show that, in endeavouring to ascertain the correct 
principles of formation in different varieties of windows, a satisfactory 
result cannot be obtained by experimentalising upon any one par- 
ticular specimen : on the contrary, the only course calculated to lead to a really accurate 
conclusion is first, to classify Gothick windows in general, and then to search out from 

N 




Sbouib CacBCB, Kutr. 




NoRTBrLnr CHnoi, Kerr. 




42 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTUEE. 

a variety of specimens of each class (as, for example, from a variety of two-light windows 
having a circle in the window-head), the existence of some particular principle by which 
their formation may have been regulated. 

For ourselves, having carefully proceeded with such an investigation from one class of 
windows to another, we have been led to adopt the opinion that the equilateral triangle is 
the basis of all Decorated Gothick tracery ;* and now we desire to justify, and if possible 
establish the accuracy of that opinion, by adverting to a diversity of examples in every class, 
into which that important member can be divided, during the Decorated Gothick period. 

In some windows it is difficult, or rather scarcely possible, to discover the existence 

of the equilateral principle of formation, except by actual admeasurement ; in others, 

a comparatively shght examination wiU render that principle clearly 

apparent; and again in other examples, it is at once obvious to 

all beholders. Commencing with windows of this last character, 

we wiU adduce a specimen from the Church of St. Nicholas, at 

Colchester, which may be fairly regarded as a type of a class : here 

^^' "toiTi^TEr"™' the principle of formation is distinctly evident; we easily perceive 

that the equilateral triangle ABC subdivided into four similar figures, will give aU the 

centres for the tracery ; B, C, being severally the centres for the window-arch, and e, e, e, 

the centres for the arches of the tracery. In Plate 2 of Section 1, 

Decorated, is a similar example from Northfleet Church ; and in Plate 8 

of the same subdivision, is figured another elegant variety of this style 

of window, from Capel St. Mary, Suffolk. Hingham Church, Norfolk, 

^i_ ^ \i^ affords an example of a three-light window of like character (Appendix, 

Plate 4), and in Trinity Church, Hull, is one of a similar design with six lights, t The 
circular window in Leek Church, Staffordshire, is also a remarkable specimen :J as are 
likewise those in the Bishop's Palace, South wark,§ and Chichester Cathedral. || The east 
window of the Church of St. John, at Staunton, Oxon,t again, is a curious example, and at 
the same time a most valuable witness in favom- of this principle of the construction of tracery : 

* The tenn Tracery must, to a certain degree, be restricted to the windows of the Decorated Gothick period : 
inasmuch as in those of the succeeding period, the window heads for the most part degenerated into a species of 
pierced panel-work. 

f See Sharpe's Decorated "Windows. 

J See Bloxam's Gothick Architecture, Ed. 8, p. 220. 

§ See Britten's Antiquities, Vol. V. 

II See Britton's Antiquities, Vol. V. 

IT See Architectural Antiquities iu the neighbourhood of Oxford, p. 225. 




ON THE CONSTHUCTION OF TRACERY IN WINDOWS. 



43 




for here, what in other cases must have been the formation lines, are worked into the design, 
and the tracery consequently consists of intersecting lozenges which, if subdivided, would 
naturally produce a scries of equilateral triangles. The example fiom Harbledown Church, 
Kent, could hardly be the result of any other than of a system of triangulation. 

We pass on to the second class of windows, in the tracery of 
which this principle of formation, though existing, is not so manifest 
as in the preceding examples. Of these there are two chief varieties : 
first, those with intersecting tracery, as in the two light-windows 
at Stoke Albany (Section I. Early English, Plate 17), and Little 
Wenham, Suffolk (Section I. Early English, Plate 5) ; in three-ligh* 
windows, at Meopham, and Heme, both in Kent (Section I. Early English, Plate 10 ; 
and Decorated, Plate 20) ; and in windows of five lights at Trumpington, Cambridgeshire 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 29). In aU these windows, whether of two or more lights, 
it wUl easUy be seen that the outer arch being equilateral, all the subdivisions of 
the window-head, produced by tracery bars following the curves of the outer arch, 
must of necessity be equilateral also. Many windows of this style have no further 
attempt at tracery than that which is formed by 
this intersection of tracery-bars continuous with 
the mullions : and even where further enrichment is 
added, it is always of a secondary character, and 
leaves the original formation of the more important 
members of the window-head distinctly visible. Such 
enrichment usually consists of circles, or other geo- 
metrical figm-es, which must of necessity be tangent 
to the four intersecting sides of the compartment 
within which they are inseited ; or, sometimes it 
extends no further than to the mere foiling the several compartments. With these 
intersecting windows may be classified all two-light windows, in which tracery-bars diverge 
from the head of the muUion, and " describe curves similar to those of the window-arch ; 
in fact, these tracery-bars, if produced, woidd intersect the sweeps of the arch, within 
which they are contained.* (See Section I. Decorated, Plate 3.) 

The second subdivision of this second class of windows comprises by far the greater 




SODTBtUta CaVROB, Kbht. 



* No two-light window can Le said to have intersecting tracery, except upon the principle here laid down. It 
is upon tliis principle, therefore, that the tracery in the windows of the Churches at Stoke Albany and Little 
Wenham is said to intersect. 



44 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



part of that manifold variety of designs which is exemplified in the window-heads of 
the Decorated Gothick period. In windows of net-tracery we detect, more readily 
perhaps than in any other variety of flowing tracery, the working of the equilateral 
principle. It is true, indeed, that in examples of this class the angularity of the figure 
which governs the formation is, in execution, altogether suppressed ; not only is every 
line a curve, but also every curve is made to undulate : nevertheless, upon examination, 
the practical influence of this figure is speedily recognised, and in forming a diagram, 
it will almost involuntarily be reproduced. Thus in two-light windows of net-tracery, 
as at St. Margaret's, Herts. (Section I. Decorated, Plate 8), three equal circles tangent 
to each other, the centres of which must of necessity be the three angles of an 
equilateral triangle, determine the tracery of the window ; and the undulations of the 
main curves of the tracery all result from the apposition of other similar circles. In 
constructing a three, four, five, or six light window of this class, we have only 
to set out a proportionate number of triangles, in order to find the centres for aU 
the requisite curves. An admirable modification of this tracery, so easy to set out, 
and of such great beauty, is exemplified in the door of Holbeach Church, Lincolnshire 
(see Section I. Decorated, Plate 1 0) ; here the apparent capriciousness of the design is 
brought within the simplest rule, as shown in the accompanying diagram. One series 
of equilateral triangles determines the centres of the larger circles, while a second series 
of similar and equal triangles gives the smaller and inner circles. In the wdndow figured 
in Plate 5, of Section I. Decorated, from Northfleet Church, this principle of formation 
is shown to determine the construction of a totally difierent design : the same is the case as 
regards the subsequent specimens, in Plates 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 26, all differing more 
or less from one another. 

Nor will this principle be found applicable only to tracery of windows. The beautiful 

mosaick pavement in the Chapel of Edward the 
Confessor, Westminster Abbey, is a most remark- 
able example, of the not always observed but ever 
active influence of the equilateral triangle in all the 
purer designs of the Middle Ages, and also of the 
earnest desire to assign to that figure a distinct and 
prominent position. The same remark is equally 
applicable to the exquisite diaper in the great 
Flemish Brasses at St. Alban's, Lynn, and Newark. 
pav«.ent,n Westminster ABBEY. Thc pcculiar gcomctrical propcrtics of the equi- 

lateral triangle, — its easy subdivision into similar triangles, — the part it takes in the forma- 











ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRACERY IN WINDOWS. 



45 




tion of the hexagou (the most compact of all figures, and therefore the best adapted 
to form the basis of tracery) — these points are more than sufficient to furnish a satia- 

factory reason for our finding this triangle the 
governing principle in the formation of all that is 
most beautiful in the most beautiful style of Archi- 
tecture. With its geometrical value also, we may 
not fail to associate the remarkable symbohsm of 
the equilateral triangle : a qualification of no slight 
importance in the sight of those who employed it 
so effectively ; as we needs must infer from their 
evident anxiety visibly to impress its form upon their 
works, as well as to employ it as a governing principle 
in the formation of them. The very elegant tracery 
in the spandrel from Bottisham Church (Section II. 
Woodwork, Plate 1 4) illustrates in a striking manner 
the desire both to use and to show the equilateral triangle : the construction of the design 
is evidently a combination of such triangles, and in the form and arrangement of the 
decorations we perceive throughout the prevalence of a similar figure ; even the hexagon 
is subdivided into trefoils. So also in window tracery, the same studious display of 
triangularity is constantly apparent : the window in Northfleet Church, represented in 
Section I. Decorated, Plate 2, comprises three trefoiled lights, surmounted by as many 
triangles, each of which is doubly trefoiled, while single trefoils occupy the intervening 
spaces. This remarkable triplicity is, indeed, in a greater or a lesser degree inherent 
in aU pure Gothick work. In Plate 25 of the Early English portion of Section I. 
this triplicity is even unusually apparent ; for in the Cross engraved on a coped coffin 
stone at Barnwell, Northamptonshire, the entire design consists of a series of trefoiled 
leaves. 

But let us return to tlie more direct consideration of the subject, from which we 
have permitted ourselves thus widely to digress. In the four-light window of Sleaford 
Church (Section I. Decorated, Plate 26) we are led, without any great difficulty, to detect the 
influence of the equilateral principle. Here the main bars of the tracery display, somewhat 
modified, the outline of a window of net-tracery of two lights only : and though it 
is not actually struck from the angles of an equilateral triangle, but has the central figure 
slightly elongated, in order to impart a greater degree of elegance to the second order 
of tracery with which it is fiUed ; still it cannot be doubted that in this, as well as in all 
similar specimens, that same principle of formation was carefully kept in view. In the 

o 



46 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

other window from the same Church, which is figured in Section I. Decorated, Plate 18, 
the deviation from the outhne of net tracery is carried to a far greater extent : but even 
here it would be difficult to maintain that the constructive principle of net-tracery 
had not, in the first instance, been used as the ground-work of the design. And once 
more, the four-light window from Holbeach Church (Section I. Decorated, Plate 7) 
is another instance of a somewhat similar departure from a strict rule with a view to suit 
the circumstances of a special case, or to gratify peculiar ideas of the beauty of a traceried 
window. 

In the woodwork of the porch of Bradwell Church, Essex, (Section II. Woodwork, 
Plate 13) are instances of two perfectly difi'erent designs of tracery, though both formed 
upon the same basis. In the same plate is another specimen, in which an attempt has 
been made to produce net-tracery from the intersection of squares instead of equilateral 
triangles ; but the effect thus produced is singularly distorted and unsatisfactory, and 
would appear still more so, were the design continued over a larger space. How difiierent 
is the result where the triangle is the principle of formation : then all is consistent, 
harmonious, and elegant. 

Finally, with reference to those windows, in which the equilateral principle, though 
certainly existing, cannot be discovered without a more searching examination ; the 
circular window in Waltham Abbey Church is a truly wonderful specimen. By refezTing 
to the diagram in Section I. Decorated, Plate 4, it will be seen that the intersection 
of a series of equilateral triangles will give the centres of every, even the minutest, 
curve in the entire figure.* It cannot be that such a circumstance is merely fortuitous : 
rather it argues the window to have been the work of a profound practical geometrician, 
who produced his design, compass in hand. A similar instance occurs in the crowning 
ornament over the doorway into the cloister of the Abbey Church of St. Alban's (see 
Section I. Perpendicular, Plates 1 and 2,) the curves for eveiy portion of the design 
may be proved to have been described from centres determined by the angles of equi- 
lateral triangles (See Plate 2). In these and like examples, indeed, a careful investigation 
is necessary in order to discover the principle of formation, to reproduce, as it were, 
the original design. But then that principle is thus to be detected, and, in like manner, 
a similarly careful investigation wiU not fail to show that, throughout the purest period 
of Gothick art, the equilateral triangle was the great principle of general design and 

* It does not appear necessary to increase the space occupied by this article upon windows by a further 
reference to any of the other plates ; still less because in nearly all the specimens of windows the centres 
of the tracery have been laid down, and the existence of the equilateral principle, in a greater or a lesser 
degree, made apparent. 



i 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRACERY IN WINDOWS. 



47 



formation, and also was, in very many cases, made prominently apparent in the work 
itself when executed. Hence, its equilateral triangularity may he pronounced an csHcntiai 
characteristick of Gothick Architecture. In the outline of the canopied windows, doorways, 
aud niches of a Decorated Gothick Structure, and in the prominent position a«8igut;d 
to its buttresses and pinnacles, we may recognise this characteristick no lees than in 
the form of its traceries and diapers,* its pavements and carved omamenta. It is 
true that some examples of windows t may be adduced which it would be difficult, if 
even possible, to class in common with any of the varieties which we have now 
examined ; but, in an age in which the love of novelty in architecture was ardent and 
almost universal, when every endeavour was constantly directed to the improving what 
already was of surpassing beauty ; in an age in which there must have been gradations 
of talent scarcely less multifarious than the diversities in taste — in such an age the 
existence of some anomali&s cannot be reckoned in any degree extraordinary, or rather 
it would indeed be most extraordinary had no such anomalies been found. As we 
before observed, therefore, in our search after a governing principle of Gothick 
formation, we must be guided, not by individual examples, but by the general 
practice. J 



* A very beautiful diaper on this principle occurs in Canterbury Cathedral. See WUlis's account 

t The statements here made with special reference to windows, extend with equal justice to the other 
members of a Gothick Edifice. 

J The lodge in Eushton Park, Northants, exemplifies the practical 
application of tlie equilateral triangle in a manner too remarkable to be 
here altogether unnoticed. The plan is an equilateral triangle. The 
roof on all three sides is divided into three equilateral gables ; and in 
the windows and from them to every minutest detail, the same principle 
has been carefully kept in view. We subjoin a cut. of one of the windows 
of this curious building, a full account of which will be found in the 
" Builder," Vol. III. 

Window in Rushton Lodck. 




48 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 



MOLDINGS. 



V 




N treating of the Moldings of Mediaeval Architecture, we propose to 
notice separately the more important of those members with which they 
are usually associated ; for we hope to be better enabled by this than 
by any other system of arrangement, to produce a practical analysis 
of the science of Gothick Moldings, without at the same time being in 
any degree induced to depart from that conciseness and brevity which the general plan 
of this work renders imperatively necessary. It appears requisite, however, first to 
advert to the great and remarkable difierence which is apparent between Gothick 
Moldings and the corresponding members of Classick Architecture ; a difference extending 
alike to their outline, grouping, and position. Thus, the entire collection of moldings 
in ancient examples comprises but a few different forms ; and these definite in theii- 
character, and introduced into certain positions, and in accordance with established rules : 
whereas, in Structures of the Middle Ages, variety of outline is no less essentially 
characteristick of the moldings themselves, than the frequency of their occurrence is 
characteristick of the Gothick style. Gothick moldings, indeed, appear in almost 
every conceivable position : from the bases of piers and the piers themselves to the 
ribs of the fretted vaults which they sustain, scarcely a member occurs which is incapable 
of receiving consistent decoration by this most elegant method. And it may be added 
that in this multiplicity of molding-work, the almost only combinations which are not 
commonly found are such as would have appeared to assimilate to, or to have been 
derived from, classick authority. 

Such being the practice of the Masters of Gothick Art, we are disposed rather 
to assign to themselves the invention and development of their own admirable system 
of moldings, than to seek its origin from another source. It is no argument whatever 
in support of the opinion that Gothick Moldings are derived from Classick Architecture, 
that in buildings of the Anglo-Norman style a rude resemblance to certain ancient 
moldings may be traced, especially in bases : for the Anglo-Norman being a form of 
Romanesque, is altogether distinct from Gothick Architecture. Neither does the same 
supposition acquire much weight from the fact of a casual similitude of outline in a 

* The authors feel much pleasure in availing themselves of this opportunity to express thus publicly 
their high opinion of the Treatise upon Moldings, lately published by Mr. Paley, which possesses the rare 
combination of being equally valuable to the professional architect and the amateur student of architecture. 



MOLDINGS. 



49 





No. 1. 



I 



few instances, between Roman and Gothick Moldings; or from a close approximation 
to the attic base, occasionally to be observed in some few Early Gothick examples. 
This resemblance to a rcgidar classick member only existed during a tran- 
sitional, and necessarily an imperfect, period : with the final 
abandonment of the circular arch, a sudden change appears 
to have taken place in the moldings of bases, as well as of 
other members ; and, in place of a modification of the attic 
base, a widely different composition was introduced. In the 
annexed figures No. 1 is the attic base, No. 2 its Early No. 2. No. 3. 
English imitation, and No. 3 a base which is found to have immediately succeeded 
to the latter, if, indeed, it was not in use at the same time. 

Leaving to others a further investigation of their origin, we now proceed to the 
more direct consideration of media3val moldings.* These members most frequently 
occur in the jambs to windows and doorways, in pier-arches, in capitals and bases, 
in cornices, vaidting ribs, strings, basements, and in some other positions. And first 
of Jamb Molds. These, in the earliest examples of Norman doorways, are for fEe 
most part simply squared back from the walls without the slightest attempt to enrich 
the surfaces with moldings, properly so called, as at Fritwell Church, Oxfordshire. Recessed 
jambs were, however, introduced at a very early period of the style ; and this arrangement 
continued in favour, both in windows and doorways, until the most perfect period of 
Gothick art.t In Norman jamb molds when thus recessed, it was the prevalent habit 
to place detached shafts in each nook or interior angle, and in this case the several 
recessed orders, and sometimes the jamb shafts also, were often enriched with the peculiar 
though diversified surface-carving of the style ; the S. doorway of 
St. Mary's Church, Easton, Hants, furnishes a good example of 
shafted jambs ; and other specimens are figured in Section I. Norman, 
Plates 1, 4, 6. These jamb shafts occur in a great variety of 
forms ; most frequently, indeed, they are circidar, yet occasionally ^^^ 

their form is octagonal, or twisted, as at Section I. Norman, Plate 4, or slightly pointed ; 
this last-named variety is restricted to late specimens, as in the Chancel arch at Codford 
St. Mary's ; (Section I. Semi-Norman, Plate 5,) and again, at Weald, in Essex, in the S. 



U 



PT 



* The moldings of the Anglo-Norman style being in so many Edifices associated with their Gothick 
successors, it has been considered expedient here to give a place for the consideration of these latest developments 
of Romanesque work, in connection with Gotluck moldings. 

+ It will be borne in mind that the jambs of Norman windows differ but very slightly, if at all, from those of 
the doorways ; in fact, in most cases they are precisely identical, except in use and position. 



\J 




50 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

doorway, another curious form of jamb shaft is exemplified. In some arches the customary 
shafts were either entirely dispensed with, or restricted to the sub-arch only, while the 
difierent faces of the recessed orders in the jambs were richly ornamented, as at Iffley 
Church, Oxon, and Malmsbury Abbey Church. 

Before proceeding any further, we must remark that in jamb and arch molds, three 
different planes occur in which the moldings lie : these have been distinguished by Mr. 
Paley as the Wall Plane, that is any plane (A A) parallel with the main wall ; 
u ^ the Soffit Plane* or any plane (B B) at right angles with the waU plane ; and 
*' the Chamfer Plane, or such a plane (C) as is generally, but by no means 
13 invariably, placed at an angle of 45" with the two planes before mentioned. 
In the Anglo-Norman style the jamb molds were almost always worked in the wall 
r and soffit planes ; and this continued to be the general arrangement throughout 

\ the Early English Gothick period, although we occasionally (as in Section I. Early 

c ^ ^kv English, Plate 3) find the jamb molded on the chamfer plane. During the 
earlier portion of the Decorated Gothick period, the wall and soffit planes still continued 
to be most generally used, but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer 
plane ; which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° with 
the wall and soffit planes. Perpendicular moldings are generally characterised by their 
lying in the chamfer plane, which was no longer usually true to the angle of 45° : and as 
the style advanced towards the era of decided architectural debasement, the moldings shared 
in the prevailing desire to produce a meretricious effect, without any reference to correctness 
of composition ; accordingly we find that in many late examples, as in the west doorway 
of Lavenham Church, Suffolk, (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 7,) the moldings, besides the 
debasement of their contour and grouping, appear hardly to lie in either of the proper 
molding planes. 

But to return to the jamb molds : in the Early English Gothick period, the door-jambs 
continued most frequently to be worked in a series of rectangularly recessed orders, with 
detached shafts of cylindrical form and comparatively slender proportions placed in every nook. 
An elegant deviation from the common and simple form of this arrangement occurs in the S. 
doorway of St. Martin's Church at Leicester, (Section I. Early English, Plate 23,) where a 
secondary series of shafts is introduced with excellent effect. In this period, also, as in the 
preceding style, some door-jambs occurred in which shafts took no part in the design ; or at 
least in which (also as before) they only appear as supporters of the sub-arch of the compound 
archway : in these examples, however, the angles of the several orders which the Norman 

* Tliis term is scarcely correct, when applied to jamb molds : still, it has been here retained in consequence of 
its general accuracy, and to avoid the introduction of new terms. 



MOLDINGS. 



51 



architects left untouched, their successors iuvariaWy chamfered oflf ; and the chamfers thus 
produced were frequently hoUowed out and fiUed with the beautiful tooth ornament, or they 
were carried up plain to the impost of the arch, and there terminated in some elegant 
device (see Section I. Early English, Plate 21). In the Decorated Gothick period the de- 
tached shafts were entirely abandoned, in door-jambs oa well as other positions ; in doorways, 
however, shafts were stUl retained, but so far altered in their character as to be almost 
invariably attached to the mass of the Structure. It may here be remarked as a general rule 
that when shafts, engaged or otherwise, were used, the moldings they carried were placed on 

the rectangular planes ; but if the shafts were dispensed with and 
the jambs were continuous with the arch, then the moldings were 
worked on the chamfer plane, as in the priest's doorway, Fen 
Dittou Church, Cambridgeshire. This arrangement is well illus- 
trated in the N. doorway of Swatton Church, Lincolnshire, 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 23,) where part of the jamb mold is 
on the chamfer plane, and part on the rectangular planes ; the 
former is continuous with the arch mold, the latter has a shaft 
with cap and base, and carries a perfectly distinct series of arch 
moldings. Perpendicular jamb molds being, perhaps, invariably 
worked on the chamfer plane, were therefore much more often 

Fkn DlTroN*, CAMBRIDOESHinE. ••• 

continuous with the arch mold than produced by shafts. 

The arrangement of the window-jambs during the successive periods was generally 
in close accordance with that of the doorways. In the richer examples small shafts were intro- 
duced, (after the fashion of the Norman architects) which, rising up to the springing of the 
window, can-ied one or several orders of the arch moldings. At all times these shafts were 
used much more frequently in the interior of the window than on tHe outside ; a window in 
the south transept of Wissendine Church, Rutland, however, has a magnificent arrangement 
of triple jamb shafts externally, resting on a steep and weathered sill. The south aisle of 
St. Martin's Church, Leicester, haa some excellent examples of the use of this member 
internally. 

Other instances of jamb shafts in windows will be found in Section I. Early English, 
Plate 13, where they are placed outside ; and in Pla,tes 10, 12, 15, 17, and 20, and Section L 
Decorated, Plate 29, in all of which they occur on the inside. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that though most exquisite adornments, moldings 
are not nevertheless essential accessories : many windows with tracery of the richest descrip- 
tion have their muUions and jambs composed of simple chamfers ; see the windows in North- 
fleet, Section I. Decorated, Plates 2 and 5, and also those given in Plates 13 and 15. 




52 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Arch Moldings, even when not continuous, partook of the same general arrangement as 
those in the jambs, with greater richness of detail : thus, when shafts were employed, they carried 
oToups of moldings more elaborate than those of the jambs, though still falling upon the 
same planes ; as in the west doorway of North Mimms Church, Herts. (Section I. Decorated, 
Plate 25.) During the continuance of the Norman, Early English, and Decorated periods, it 
was the invariable practice, in the case of arches dividing the nave from the aisles, or the 
Chancel from its adjoining chapels, to keep them entirely distinct from the piers on which 
they were carried : these latter were frequently simply circular, or octagonal, while the arches 
were most elaborately molded or enriched, as in New Shoreham Church. (Section I. Semi- 
Norman, Plate 3.) Even when both members were equally ornamented, as in the magnificent 
examples in St. Patrick's, Patrington, their separate characters were nevertheless preserved ; 
while in Perpendicular, on the contrary, we may perceive a much closer connexion to exist 
between theuL The piers and arches given in Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 1 4, show the 
arrangement generally adopted at this period ; shafts placed at the cardinal points of the pier 
supported part of the arch moldings, the remainder being continuous and common to both 
members. 

Capitals were either molded or carved with foliage, animals, &c. ; they always, 
■ however, consisted of three distinct parts, which require to be most strictly 

A 

kept in view, if we would preserve the peculiar character of this important 

feature. These three divisions of the capital may be described as the head 
mold A, the hell B, and the nech mold C. 
-9.... In Norman capitals the head mold was, almost without exception, square 
on plan, and consisted of a few simply arranged moldings ; in the richer 
examples this member was adorned with some of the innumerable sculptures common at that 
period : (see Section I. Norman, Plate 5.) In this same plate are represented different 
examples of ornamented bells,* some of them very quaint. The peculiar form of capital 
which occurs in Waltham Abbey Church, has been distinguished by the name of cushion 
capital ; it is usually a mark of early work. At other times, and especially in late work, the 
bell was carved with the most elaborate, and sometimes most beautiful, sculpture ; geometrical 
and interlaced patterns, foliage, flowers, rude representations of animals and human figures, 
and even entire legends, occupied the whole space. Such endless variety in design would 
excite our surprise, were we not to reflect that it was (and indeed is) in the spirit of Gothick 

* This term, borrowed from classick Arcliitecture, is in many cases scarcely appropriate ; yet it is so convenient, 
and its moaning -withal is so well understood, that it has been considered advisable to retain it, rather than add 
further complexity to the architectural nomenclature by the introduction of a new term. 





MOLDINGS. 53 

architecture to embody in its sculpture any matter of faith or legend, which were thuB trans- 
mitted from one generation to another ; even passing events, we may imagine to have been, in 
the olden times, at once, and almost imperishably noted down with the chisel Could we but 
read them, how much of historical lore might not these old Norman sculptures reveal to ua. 

The neck mold, the lowest portion of the capital, never assumed an important position ; 
and during the Norman period generally consisted of a bead, or a square with the angles 
taken off. 

In the succeeding styles these three parts of the capital, though always existing, were 
less prominently marked ; and indeed it has been a very common practice in the revived 
Gothick moldings to lose sight of the distinct existence of the head mold and bell, which have 
accordingly merged into one, and the character of the capital been thereby entirely destroyed. 
In the accompanying cuts, A is a capital from St. Alban's Abbey l^^pi^ ^HHK 
Church, and B shows how the separate parts of the head mold and the ^Jj\ - l^n ^" 

bell, if lost sight of by the undue projection of the latter, become y) 

converted into one. Now a close examination of ancient examples ^—^ y~^ 

will establish, as a general rule,* that the head mold was the most I j 

projecting member; then came the bell, falling back a little from it ; L,^ L. — 

and lastly the neck mold, which receded still fui-ther from the face of ^ V 

the bell. In other words, we might regard a Gothick capital as consisting of three circular 
pieces of stone : the lower one a thin slab, out of which the neck mold woidd be produced ; 
the second, a thick block projecting considerably over the first, would form the bell ; and 
lastly, another slab at top, somewhat thicker than the first, and projecting the most of the 
three, out of which would be cut the head mold. 

The heaviness observable in some modem capitals is principally owing to the neglect of 
this simple arrangement. 

The bell, when not foliated, generally consisted of a group of moldings in the upper 
part, which were united to the neck mold by a beautifully undercut and gracefully curved 
outline ; or occasionally, and the effect is extremely beautiful, the bell was double, consisting 
of two different groups, the one receding from the other, as in Fig. 3, Section I. Early 
English, Plate 24 ; and Fig. 2, Decorated, Plate 35. The neck mold of the Gothick period 
did not acquire more importance than it had during the Norman ; it still consisted of a bead 
or some other simple molding. Finally, we would remark that while a genei-al squareness 
of outline marked the Norman capitals, the Early English and Decorat-ed were distinguislied 
by being circular, and the Perpendicular by being octagonal. 

* Examples are occasionally found in old work in which this principle has not been followed, but their rare 
occurrence in no way affects the general rule. 

Q 



54 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Bases consist of two distinct parts, the plinth and the ho.se moldings: the former 
member was most apparent during the Norman and Early English periods ; in the sub- 
sequent styles, though always to be found, it was, nevertheless, at times hardly discernible. 
The Norman plinth, in conformity with the head mold of the capital, was almost invariably 
square, and usually consisted of a plain unmolded mass of stone, on which rested the base 
moldings : these latter took the shape of the pier, and the blank spaces which result from 
placing a circle or octagon upon a square, were enriched with foliage, animals, or other 
ornaments. (See Section I. Semi-Norman, Plate 3.) Frequently the plinth was double, in 
which case the lower member was generally chamfered, as at Orpington (Section I. Semi- 
Norman, Plate 1 ) ; or molded, as in the triplet from the Chapel of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital (Section I. Early English, Plate 15). In Early English, double and even triple 
plinths are commonly met with, as at Clymping, (Section I. Early English, Plate 5,) and 
from the richness of the moldings with which they are ornamented, frequently assume 
considerable importance : see a base from Westminster Abbey Chiirch, Section I. Early 
English, Plate 24, Fig. 12. During the Decorated period, the plinth lost much of 
its prominence, in fact the entire base was generally a less striking feature than it was in 
the preceding style : instances, however, may be found of triple plinths, as in Hingham 
Church, Norfolk (Section I. Decorated, Plate 33, Figm-e 10) ; and Tunstead Church, in 
the same county, furnishes an example of a quadruple arrangement of this member. The 
Perpendicular plinth grew to a most exaggerated height, was constantly double or triple, 
and from the number and richness of its parts, requires a close examination to separate 
it from the base moldings. The tower piers to St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 
have fine specimens of this style. Sometimes, as in the sedilia at Cobham, (Section I. 
Perpendicular, Plate 9,) the base consisted solely of a plinth, the base moldings being 
entirely omitted. In plain Churches of the Early English, and stiU more so of the Decorated 
period, a chamfered plinth of a few inches projection was the most usual termination to 
the nave piers. 

Shortly after the introduction of the Early English, the plinth began to adapt itself 
to the form of the pier which it supported : the change, however, was gradual ; the square 
became an octagon, as in Westminster Abbey Church, where delicately carved knobs of 
foliage fill ujj the spaces which occur between the octagonal plinth and the circular base 
molds ; finally, the plinth assumed the form of the base moldings and bent in and out 
Avith the outline of the pier. It is very singular that after a lapse of time the plinth should 
once more have become octagonal, though the base moldings still retained the circular form ; 
and in Perpendicular it was frequently the case that both plinth and base molds were 
wrought in octagonal faces, leaving o5ly the upper molding of the latter to follow the 



MOLDINGS. 55 

sliape of the shaft. In Churches of Pei-pcn<licular date it waa customary for the base 
moldiugs to encircle the shafts only, while the plinths, on the contrary, were carried round 
the whole pier, as in Lindfield and Lavenham Churches, Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 14. 

Base moldings admit but of little variety of form or arrangement A very M 
common Norman base molding consisted of a hollow and quarter round, and it is f V^ 
not a little singular that the resemblance to the attic base did not occur till the , 

style was considerably advanced ; in fact it waa during the Early English period [_ 

that this resemblance became complete. 

Baae moldings were also extensively used round the walls, buttresses, and towers of 
Churches. Those of the Early English period were generally very plain and unimportant 
The beautiful little Church of Skelton, near York, is enriched inside with moldings of the 
most elaborate description, though externally the waUs and buttresses have merely a 
chamfered tahle* The tower of Fen Ditton Church, Cambridgeshire (Appendix, Fig. 1, 
Plate 6) has a plain but effective arrangement of moldings. In many of the Decorated 
and Perpendicular towel's, the base moldings became highly ornamental and essential portions 
of the design : those in Hingham Church are peculiarly magnificent, and are panelled 
with a great variety of beautiful designs, t The tower of Worstead Church, is an equally 
rich example of a somewhat later period ; the combination of the panelled flint work and 
the sunk quatrefoils has a very good appearance. The neighboiu-ing Church of Tunstead 
of the same date, has also some excellent and carefully wrought moldings. (Section I. 
Decorated, Plate 30.) Generally in Decorated work the grouping of the moldings is so 
judicious that even when left unenriched by tracery, they still present a pleasing, and in 
some instances, a grand and imposing effect Perpendicular basement moldings were much 
more frequently panelled. In Norfolk and Suffolk, flint panelling is a very common 
enrichment, and, indeed, a volume might be devoted to the illustration of the elegant and 
ever varying devices which abound in these counties. St Mary's, Sti-atford, may be cited 
as a most perfect specimen of this style of workmanship. In this instance an inscription 
appears on the basement moldings, by which we learn that that part of the Church (the 
north aisle) was erected in 1430; see Section I. Perpendicular, Plates 11, 19, and 20. « 
In producing these flint enrichments the " modus operandi " consisted in tracing the outline 
of the design on the stone, then sinking it a few inches, and afterwards filling up the sunk 
paits with small flints ; or where the cavities were very minute, a kind of black pigment was use<l. 

* Table appears to have been the general term for any horizontal member in Gothick Architecture ; such as 
corbel table, crest table, skew table, water table, &c., see Willis's Nomenclature. 

t this interesting and pure specimen of a Decorated Church was erected between the years 1316 and 1359. It 
is illustrated by two views and a plan in Vol T. of the Parish Churches. 



^S5« 



56 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTUEE. 



Stringcourses and Dripstones are so frequently identical, the one being carried on 
and forming the other, as to render it necessary to examine them together. Strings perform 
no insignificant part in the general design of the Budding, " Sometimes rising abruptly in 
graduated and rectangular heights ; sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch ; 
now dying into the wall ; now as it were passing into some interrupting projection and, 
nothing bafiied by it, re-appearing on the other side ; now starting aloof into a window 
label and playing the most fantastic tricks before it again descends ; a stringcourse at once 
relieves naked masonry and binds into a whole the seemingly detached portions of a rambling 
and irregular construction. "* 

The most usual, and perhaps the essential position of the stringcourse is under the 
windows ; which are thus divided from the more solid parts of the basement. The greater 
number of Churches, especially those of the Early English and Decorated period, were 
adorned with this apparently insignificant member ; and in most cases where it was omitted, 
the walls present an unfinished and naked appearance. A corresponding string was generally 
carried round the inside of the Church, under the windows and over the doorways, as at 
Southfleet Church, Kent. 

Norman strings were usually heavy in their outline, and rarely displayed any particular 

beauty of arrangement : they were, however, very 
frequently much enriched with the ornamental sculp- 
ture of that period, as in Waltham Abbey Church, 
and in St. Peter's, Northampton. Early English 
strings, on the contrary, were remarkably light and 
elegant, and displayed a great amount of taste and 
judicious treatment : freed from the restraint and 
horizontality of the previous style, they delighted in 
closely attaching themselves to those members which 
they were intended to adorn ; accordingly we find 
them now rose up close under the sill of the window, and then suddenly dropping to accom- 
modate themselves to the arch of a low doorway, and again rising to run immediately 

under the adjoining window : at this period the strings were gene- 
rally carried round an intervening obstacle, such as a buttress, 
rather than dying against it to re-appear on the other side, and 
such became the most accustomed treatment in the following style. 
T.cHM*BSH chukih, northants. Dccoratcd strings were frequently of great beauty ; in these 

and in all other moldings of this period, there is a gracefulness of outline and a finish of 

* Paley's Gothick Moldings, p. 69. 




GoSOROTE Chubcb, Northants. 




MOLDINGS. 



fi7 



execution, that we look for in vain in any of the other styles. The very interesting Church 
of Bottisham in Cambridgeshire, may be mentioned as peculiarly rich in moldings of the 
most exquisite workmansliip. In opposition to the practice, till then prevalent, the drip- 
stones were most usually quite distinct from the stringcourse, and terminated in heads, 
flowers, animals, or some quaint devices. Occasionally, howev6r, the hoodmolds were con- 
tinued on from one window to the other, of which arrangement the Chancel of Chartham 
Church, Kent, offers a most pleasing example. (Section I. Decorated, Plate 22.) In the 
beautiful Decorated Chapel of St. Etheldreda in Ely Place, Holbom, the continuation of the 
hoodmold between each window, rises up into gables enriched with flowing tracery. 

Perpendicular strings differed but little from the Decorated, except in their outline ; 
which partaking of the general character of the moldings of this period, became more angular 
and distinctly marked. Their use was less frequent than was previously the caae, and 
often the small village Church was erected entirely without them. Dripstones, how- 
ever, were generally retained, and in most cases were simply returned at the springing of 
the arch, instead of finishing with terminal heads and flowers, such as were used by the 
Decorated Architects. In the richer Buildings, initials, shields bearing the Sacred Alonogram, 
squares, pentagons, and octagons, sometimes with small flowers in the centre, and innu- 
merable other devices were freely introduced. (Sect. I. Perpendicular, Plate 27.) 

Cornices are not essential features in Gothick ^.:^ 

Architecture ; in fact, when used they might more 
rightly be considered as enlarged stringcourses. 
They occur principally under parapets, or at the 
eaves of roofs and spires : of the important part, 
however, which they perform in the open timber 
roofs of Norfolk and Suffolk, we shall treat 
hereafter. In Norman, and some Early English 
Buildings, the cornice was formed by the projec- 
tion of the upper part of the wall, which was supported on brackets or corbels, and hence 
termed the corbel table. This arrangement was susceptible of and frequently received consider- 
able enrichment; at Bicker Church, Lincolnshire, this 
table assumes the appearance of the heraldick nebul6 
line ; by an easy modification the circles afterwards 
became trefoiled, and sometimes ornamented with 
dog tooth in the soffit, as at Romsey. The spire table 
is deserving of considerable attention, for in a great u i* ^v i 

measure the beauty of thespire depends on its judicious bic^cbtbch. !.«»«.«»<. 



'":!! 







St. Uabtui'b Cbubcb, Lmicnm. 




58 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTURE. 




junction with the tower. Its projection from the wall was in all cases very inconsiderable. In 
the Early English Structures a series of small trefoiled arches corbelled out from the wall, 

axe commonly met with ; the beautiful spires of St. 
Mary's, Stamford, and Ketton, Eutland, have ex- 
amples of a very elegant arrangement ; and a single 
^||| t ■ '"«""i °"~~'i^^iN ^Tm^"*^' hollow studded here and there with ball flower or 
^* 'lUi ' n» /Hb iflp lldftTJfe) ' ■^<^^'^^^' '^^^ ^^^^ introduced with excellent efiect. 

The hollow, more properly termed the casement * 
which holds a prominent position in most cornices, 
was generally filled with heads, flowers, or running 

Oadby Chvbch, Leicestershire. o ./ o 

ornaments : we may notice that the flowers in Decorated cornices usually spread over the re- 
mainder of the moldings, (Section I. Decorated, Plate 37,) while in the Perpendicular examples 
they were most frequently confined to the casement. (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 12.) 

Having now reviewed the arrangement, knd the most ordinary positions in which 
moldings occur, we will examine the subordinate parts of which they are composed. 

The earliest molding found in Norman work appears to be the circular bowtel, worked out 
of the edges of a recessed arch. This formation is clearly shown in many instances where the 

bowtel only commences some few inches above the springing of 
the arch, as in Sandridge Church, Herts.t A bowtel alternated 
with a hollow forms the principal arrangement of Norman mold- 
ings ; their great richness was rather the result of a profusion of 
sculpture, always wrought on the rectangular planes, than of mul- 
tiplicity or beauty in the moldings. The chevron and its almost innumerable varieties were 
conspicuous ornaments in Norman Architecture, and in some instances their formation was so 
complex as to require no little attention to disentangle the maze of stone-work. This beautiful 
ornament continued in use long; after all others of the same date had been discarded. It was of 
constant occurrence in Semi-Norman, and may even occasionally be traced in Early English work. 
Norman stringcourses partook of the heaviness of the moldings of that period. They 

* Willis's ^Nomenclature. 

t It is a peculiar characteristick of pure Gotliick, that all moldings, panelling, or sculpture were always sunk 
from tlie face of the work. Such an arrangement is the natural result of a style, a distinguishing type of which was 
only to introduce ornament as an embellishment to construction ; thus a capital would naturally be corbelled from the 
pier, the better to carry the superincumbent weight ; hence its subdivision into headmold, bell, and neckmold ; 
panelling resulted from a desire to enrich that which would otherwise be a plain surface, and consequently was 
wrought out of the face already existing j a row of dog tooth generally exemplifies very well how ornaments also 
were worked out of the block. As the debasement gradually crept in, we find the contrary to have taken place. . 




Sakdridoe Church, Herts. 



MOLDINGS. 



59 




EST?,, 





% 






had very little variety in form, frequently consisting of projecting ledges with one or both 
sides chamfered off. A few sections of the most oft occur- 
ring varieties arc given in Appendix, Plate 6. The adjoined 
Semi-Norman example occurs internally in the north chapel 
of Bapchild Church, Kent, and in the original is coloured blue and yellow. 

The hollow soon after its introduction became more and more undercut, and in the Early 
English style was frequently carried to such an extravagant excess, as to materially affect the 
durability of the moldinga During the continuance of the Semi-Norman, a new member 
made its appearance, the pear-shaped or pointed bowtel. We can easily trace its 
formation from the circular mold already noticed, by leaving the arris of the 
original square block uncut. From this pointed bowtel most of the subsequent 
Gothick moldings will be found to be derived, for by an easy transition it became a bowtel of 
one, two, or tliree fillets ; all of which, with their numerous varieties, performed important 

parts in the molding system of the purest 
period. The example in the appended cut 
was common in Early English and Decorated 
work, and eventually gave rise to the wave molding — that most elegant of Gothick moldings — 
it having become usual by this time to gently round the fillet into the bowteL* That this 
wave mold derived its origin from the fiDeted bowtel is 
singularly clear ; for at first we meet with instances, as in 
^'V. the doorway of St. Margaret's Chapel, Herts, with only one of 
the iillets rounded; and shortly afterwards in the Chancel windows of 
Fleet Church,t Lincolnshire, we find both fillets rounded off, though sx. Mi«ai^cium, 
the molding still preserves its character of a filleted bowtel. As the Decorated 
period advanced, it lost more and more of its resemblance to its prototype ; the 
curve which at first gently united the fillet to the bowtel, gradually assumed more 
liNcoLNSHiHE.' importaucc at the expense of the latter ; and it is not a little singular that in its 

ost complete state, and when Decorated had arrived at its highest degree 
t)f perfection, the formation of the wave mold appears to have been from 
the three points of an equilateral triangle. A group of two or more wave 
molds, with intervening hollows, was a common and most beautiful Deco- 
rated arrangement. This mold was also of frequent occurrence in Perpendicular, though 
belonging more especially to the former period. 




/ 





* This fillet gradually became smaller and smaller, until at last it -was reduced almost to an arris, 
t For a drawing of one of these windows, see Appendix, Plate 4, Fig. 37. The Church itself 
is illustrated in the Parish Churches, Vol. I. page 51. 




60 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTUEE. 




DoDBLE Ogee. 



The Ogee, the most generally used perhaps of all moldings, may with equal certainty be 
traced to the same source as the wave mold. It is ia fact a half of the filleted bowteL The 
double ogee, formed by the junction of two ogees, was introduced 
towards the close of the Decorated, but became a more constant 
and characteristick feature of the Perpendicular period. A remark- 



ably early instance of this molding (probably fortuitous) occurs in the central 
shaft of the double bell gable of Skelton Church, Yorkshire : its formation 

appears the result of an arrangement of four clustered filleted bowtels. 

One more molding remains to be noticed, and though last it is perhaps 
the most characteristick and essentially Gothick of any : we allude to the 
scroll mold. Here again we may certainly refer to the bowtel for its origin. 
It is in fact a bowtel, with one fillet partially developed, and, as might be 
expected, its first occurrence is traced to shortly before 
the close of the Early English period. Agreeably with 
their ideas of beauty, the Decorated architects treated it as they had the 
fiUeted bowtel : we find its angular outline gently softened, and at last it assumed the appear- 
ance so peculiar to the 14th century. This mold was more extensively used perhaps than any 
other, and its varieties became so numerous as almost to defy classification. 
It entered abundantly into the formation of capitals, bases, hoodmolds, and 
strings :* it was rarely used in Perpendicular work. 
Before leaving this subject, yet one other variety must be mentioned. The sunh chamfer 
is simple in its construction, yet generally efi'ective in execution. Its production may have 

\been the result of cutting away the projection from a filleted bowtel, though it 
^ is perhaps easier to imagine that it was simply sunk from the plain chamfer with 




Skelton Church, 

YORKBHlttE. 





Sunk Chamfer. 



a view of gaining more effect. In the muUions and tracery of windows, it is 
of particularly happy introduction. 
To resume briefly the various peculiarities in moldings at the different periods. We 
observe that the Norman hardly got beyond the alternating round and hollow ; that the 
Early English, extending the example set them by the architects of the Semi-Norman period, 
hoUowed their moldings to an extravagant degree, and that the hollows until then divided 
individual members of a group, but that in Decorated the hollows only divided the complete 



* It is occasionally, though very rarely, found in vertical groups of moldings, such as door and window jambs. 
It occurs in "Wootton Church, Beds, iq the north doorway ; in such instances, however, it should rather be consi- 
dered as a partially developed hUeted bowteL At other times, and more especially in bases, this mold will be found 
reversed ; these, however, are exceptions to the general practice, and can hardly be sanctioned by correct taste. 



DOORWAYS. 61 

groups;* that while Early English moldings, from tlie 
irregular section of their hollows, present more the appear- 
ance of having been drawn " libera manu," Decorated on the 
contrary were remarkable for geometrical precision ; that in 
Perpendicular, the hollow was converted into the shallow 
casement, the character of the moldings suffering in common 
with all other parts, from the general debasement of Architecture ; and lastly, that the many 
beautiful moldings, which at various times made their appearance, may aU be distinctly 
traced to a common origin, the bowtel ; thereby clearly showing how little was derived fix)m 
Claasick Antiquity in the formation and gradual perfection of these most lovely adornments 
of Gothick art. 




DOORWAYS. 

Norman doorways are generally remarkable for excessive richness and elaborateness 
in design. On, perhaps, no other part of their Buildings did the architects of those days 
bestow such care and attention ; they seem to have considered no detail so minute, but 
that it was capable of receiving further decoration, which was liberally supplied from 
apparently an unfailing source, t Their usual arrangement consisted of two or more 
recessed arches, with a corresponding number of shafts in the jamba A common practice 
was to place a stone lintel from jamb to jamb, thus forming a square-headed door with 
the spandrel under the arch generally enriched with sculpture. Such is the example 
from St. Mary Magdalen's Church (Section I. Norman, Plate 4). In other examples the 
lintel is slightly arched to gain a little additional height, or perhaps merely to produce 
an effect of greater lightness, as in Middleton Stoney Church, Oxfordshire, and Essendine, 
Rutland. This lintel became afterwards enriched by having carved on its soffit three 

* Foley's Mouldings, p. 34. 

t The extraordinary power of invention and facility of execution displayed in the ornaments of the Norman 

l^architects are perfectly surprising. The entire succeeding periods of Gothick architecture failed to equal them in 

versatility of design, however superior they may have been in chasteness and elegance of form. Many Norman 

L designs are of such exceeding intricacy that we must entirely reject the idea of their having been projected on paper 

or board ; they must bo considered as the productions of clever artificers, designed and set out on the stone itseli^ and 

possibly censidcrably modified as the work proceeded. 



62 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

ornaments like peUets, as in Weald Church, Essex. This device may possibly have suggested 
the idea of a triple arch, such as we find in Nately Church, Hants. (Section I. Norman, 
Plate 1), and in Bibery Church, Gloucestershire. 

Norman doorways occasionally occur without shafts, the arch moldings being continuous 
down to the ground, as in Iffley Church, Oxfordshire; a very fine example of this kind 
occurs in Malmsbury Abbey Church, Wdts, where the wide bowtels which run down the 

jambs terminate in bases.* 

It was a common practice at this period, to project that part of the waU through which 
the doorway was pierced, and hence, from the necessity of protecting this projection, the 
doorways became gabled, as in Memngton Church, Durham, or Sempringham Church, 
Lincolnshire, the latter of which is surmounted by a Cross (Section I. Norman, Plate 6) ; 
a magnificent example of the same description occurs in St. Germain's Church, Cornwall. 
Sometimes the projection of the wall was weathered at top in lieu of being gabled, as at 
Ifiley, and in other examples, the gable no longer an object of necessity, was retained 
as an ornamental accessory. In St. Margaret's, at Chffe, near Dover, a valuable and 
interesting Structure of pui-e Norman character, is a doorway of this description once 
recessed, with one set of jamb shafts. The gable is formed by an ornamented string, which 
rising from the springing of the arch, terminates in a kind of trefoil. 

During the transitional period which occurred between the close of the Norman and 
the complete establishment of the Early English architecture, we meet with many extra- 
ordinary arrangements in the designs of doorways, as weH as in aU other parts of the Edifice. 
Such arrangements are by no means to be adopted, and are merely interesting in showing 
with what reluctance the old style was finally abandoned, after having been used in the 
erection of a greater number of magnificent and costly Buildings than were caUed into 
existence in any of the subsequent periods of Gothick Architecture, t In the doorway of 
Little Snoring Church, Norfolk,^ we find a pointed arch enriched with the chevron, between 
two circular arches, the outer one being stilted ; such a constraction would almost indicate 
that they were fearful of trusting solely to the strength of the newly introduced foim of arch. 
In Noi-thleigh Church, Oxon, the south doorway is pointed and enclosed within a circular 
arch.§ Transition doorways, however, were sometimes of elegant design and careful work- 
manship. The west doorway of Orpington Church, Kent (Section I. Semi-Norman, Plate l), 

* Engraved in the Antiquarian Itinerary. 

+ Between the Conquest and the first year of Henry III. there were founded and re established 476 abbeys and 
priories, and 81 alien priories. — Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 
+ Britton's Architectural Antiquities. 
§ Antiquities of Oxfordshire, Part II., p. 163. 



DOORWAYS. 63 

is an excellent specimen of good proportions, with a delicate trail of dog tooth and a boldly 
undercut chevron, which produce a beautiful effect. A benatura or holy water stoup, 
has been rather awkwardly introduced against one of the shafts, as shown in the plate, 
Highly enriched examples of Norman doorways occur in Ketton Church, Rutlandshire, 
and in the priory Church of St. Leonard's, Stamford ; this latter has an almost unique 
arrangement of double jamb shafts. Both these are flanked on either side by blank arches 
on a somewhat smaller scale, partaking of the character of arcading, yet belonging essentially 
to the general design.* 

Early English doorways are distinguished by their usually great beauty and purity of 
detail, yet they are by no means so numerous as those of the preceding style, in part no doubt, 
owing to the general custom of preserving the older examples. They may be classed under 
the various heads of shafted, continuous, discontinuous, banded, foliated, and double arched. 
The large doorways, when shafted, commonly preserve the deeply recessed Norman charact€r ; 
bold and effective arch moldings, often enriched with trails of dog tooth or flowers, are 
carried on the detached shafts, which very frequently were of different stone from that 
used in the rest of the doorway. Purbeck marble was most generally employed for the 
pui-pose, and was in great requisition during the entire duration of this style. The immense 
consumption of this costly material in Westminster Abbey Church is truly surprising. 
It probably never was employed without being highly polished ; those, therefore, who have 
seen the restored pvurbeck piers in the Temple Church, London, can form an idea of what 
must formerly have been the effect of this magnificent Abbey Church with its vast masses 
of dazzling brightness. 

A fine example of a shafted doorway from the south aisle of St. Martin's Church, 
Leicester, is given in Section L Early English, Plate 23. In this case a beautiful and 
effective arrangement is obtained by using a double row of shafts, the inner ones being 
engaged. The moldings of the arch, however, are of a somewhat poor character ; and 
though lying in the rectangular planes, the four orders of which they are composed have 
lost considerably of the rectangularity of outline so characteristick of that epoch, by being 
in two instances subdivided into secondary groups. Dunstable Church, Bedfordshire, retains 
in its west front a magnificent, though sadly mutilated example, with five detached shafts 
alternating with as many others that are engaged ; the arch moldings, as may be imagined, 
are of very great beauty and are enriched, among other ornaments, with a very elegant 

* Tlie very frequent occurrence in all parts of the country of Norman doorways, evidences the estimation in 
which this feature, however plain in its design, was generally held by the Gothick architects. It appears to have 
been the custom to spare these interesting works of the early builders, even when all the rest of the Church was 
taken down to make way for the more magnificent Structure in the then prevailing style of building. 



64 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

variety of the dog tooth. In the example from Barnwell Chm-ch (Appendix, Plate 7,) 
the moldings are of two orders, very rich, with two rows of dog tooth. Here we may 
observe a feature, borrowed from the Normans, and extensively used during this style : 
we refer to the band which occurs midway, and which became a necessary constructive 
arrangement ; for the diameter of the Early English shafts was so small, that without some 
such contrivance, it would hardly have been possible to have effected a durable joint in 
their length. 

In Felmarsham Church, Bedfordshire, is a fine doorway with detached and engaged 
jamb shafts, and with an arrangement abeady noticed in Norman works, namely, an arcade 
on either side in continuation of the central design.* In the present instance two trefoiled 
panels or orhs,f with a quatrefoil above, are enclosed in a pointed arch springing fi-om the 
same level as the doorway. The interior arrangement of this example will be found illustrated 
at page 75. 

The foiled doorways introduced by the Normans were preserved and stiU further enriched 
by the Early English Architects, and during the continuance of this style were of frequent 
occurrence. In large examples it was most usual for the first order of moldings only, to be 
foiled, as in the beautiful specimen from Warmington Church, (Section I. Early English, 
Plate 21,) a very perfect illustration of a pure Early English doorway, where the jambs are 
composed of four detached shafts placed in a corresponding number of square recesses, whose 
arrises are chamfered, and while the two outer chamfers are simply hoUowed and terminate in 
deHcately carved trefoil flowers, J the centre one is richly ornamented with dog tooth. 

The arch moldings are all placed on the rectangular planes, and exhibit most of the 
members characteristick of the style ; among others are the pear-shaped or pointed bowtel, 
and the filleted bowtel. The quasi bases, resting on the capitals and terminating the 
fiUeted bowtel of the first order, must not pass unobserved, though they are features 
belonging more particularly to the succeeding periods. We may notice in the capitals the 
early appearance of the scroll mold, which is also repeated in the dripstone. Other 
examples of foiled doorways occur at Merstham Church, Surrey,§ which has one row of 
shafts and is enriched with dog tooth ; at Woodford Church, Northamptonshire, a singularly 
beautiful composition with the inner order of moldings trefoiled, the others as well as the 

* The west front of tliis interesting Building is well worthy of an attentive examination ; it is a beautiful and 
pure specimen of Early English. Four views and a plan of this Church are given in the Parish Churches, Vol. 
II. p. 96. 

+ Willis's Nomenclature. 

t See Section I. Early English, Plate 26. 

§ Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 99. 



DOORWAYS. 65 

dripstone being circular ; antl at Higham Ferrara Church, where the priest's doorway baa a tre- 
foiled head : in this charming little specimen, the dripstone, as was generally the custom, is simply 
pointed, and in each of the spandrels which occur between it and the trefoiled head, is sunk a 
carved rose. Illustrations of these two last mentioned examples will be found in "The 
Churches of Northamptonshire."' In other foliated specimens all the moldings follow the 
form of the foliations, as in the doorway in the cloisters of Salisbury Cathedral, which is 
cinquefoiled ; even in this case the dripstone in accordance with natural construction, follows 
the sweep of a pointed arch instead of the outline of the several curves. 

The doorways of this period were not always pointed; under certain restrictions a 
square-headed form was introduced, and in many instances added an increased charm to 
the beauty of the general design. Their use was however chiefly confined to the priest's 
entrance, or to turret and other small doorways. A good example occurs on the south side 
of the Chancel of Meopham Church, Kent, and is illustrated in Plate 3, of Section I. Early 
English. Westminster Abbey Church furnishes many instances of its introduction, in the 
narrow passage which is continued all round the Building in the thickness of the walls. In 
all these cases a trefoiled appearance is produced, by the lintel being carried on two projecting 
corbels : this form is generally distinguished as the square-headed trefoil 

During the Early English Architecture the double-arched doorway first made its appear- 
ance. This magnificent feature, however, is almost entirely confined in its application to 
Cathedrals and Conventual Buildings, Though very rarely met with in the smaller 
Edifices, we are enabled to mention two fine examples : the one at Higham Ferrars, and the 
other at St. Cross, near Winchester. The former is, in fact, almost two distinct doorways, 
under one large arched recess or porch ; each having its own distinct jamb molds, which are 
continuoiis round a segmental-headed arch : both entrances are richly sculptured with foliage, 
and between them rises a slender shaft, which in a most elegant manner bursts forth into 
foliage at the top ; forming a pedestal for a figure, now destroyed. The space between these 
two arches and the large circumscribing one, is diapered with circles containing scriptural 
subjects,* The pseudo porch, within which this double doorway is contained, is very general 
in the more important Churches in these parts ; we find it in the immediate neighbourhood 
at Raunds.t and also at RothweU. The immense weight of the lofty spires, so numerous in 
the Midland Counties, required proportionably thick walls to sustain them ; and in North- 
amptonshire, in many instances, advantage has been taken of this thickness to form openings, 
which, whUe they present aU the appearance of deeply recessed archways, have at the same 

* This doorway is very faithfully represented in page 25 of the " Churches of Northamptonshire," a valuable 
and elegant serial work, now pubHsliing. 
+ Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 69. 



66 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

time the convenience of porches ; the soffit being generally diapered (as in Higham Ferrars) 
or otherwise enriched. The gabled doorway of the Norman period continued a favo\arite 
feature in this and the following style : excellent examples of it abound in the middle counties, 
where, indeed, they are more abundantly met with than elsewhere.* 

Loddington Church, Northamptonshire, has a very curious doorway in the west of the 
tower, the gable of which projects considerably and is carried on two brackets placed at the 
springing of the arch. The very beautiful Early English Church at Uffington, in Berkshire, 
has a good gabled priest's doorway, also a very excellent gabled entrance on the east side of 
the south transept ; a most unusual position, but which, in this instance, from its approxima- 
tion to an Altar, appears to have been reserved for the sole use of the priest. 

Decorated Dooeways are distinguished from those of the former periods, by the gradual 
abandonment of detached shafts in their jambs. The gabled doorway from Milton Church 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 14), presents a rare example of their retention. In this instance, 
the Norman method of projecting the jambs has been adopted, without however obtaining the 
originally intended advantage of increased depth. An apparent effect of projection is obtained 
for the gable by the set-off in the wall of the tower, which takes place above the string 

* This frequent occurrence of certain features in particular districts, to the almost total exclusion of them 
in others, is a very remarkable fact in the history of English Church Architecture. "We can readily conceive that a 
difference in the supply of building materials may have regulated to a certain extent the designs of Churches erected 
in parts where such a difference existed ; for instance, that in the stone-bearing counties of Northants, Lincolnshire, 
Leicestershire, &c., the spire, gracefully tapering, by a bold display of masonick art shall attain a most daring elevation; 
while, on the contrary, in the woody districts of the southern counties, the timber and shingle-covered spire will be seen 
modestly peeping over the woodland scenery. But the distinctions to which we refer had clearly no connection with 
peculiar facilities or wants ; neither did they any way result from alterations in the style, for so long as it lasted, that 
remained singularly uniform throughout the land : and yet there appears to have been very often a local method of 
treating one particular part of the Building, the style being identical and the material the same. Let any person 
observe the characteristick towers of Kent, and compare them with those of Somersetshire ; both examples may 
consist of the same number of parts, both have buttresses, embattled parapets, and a staircase turret, yet how essen- 
tially different are the two designs. So also in the arrangement of the eaves of the roofs : in some districts, parapets 
were invariably constructed to collect and carry away the water : while in other parts, such as Norfolk and Suffolk, 
Churches, even of the richest description, were most frequently erected without them. From these facts we would 
gather, that while the style itself was in the hands of an experienced body of men, and by them jealously guarded and 
gradually improved ; stiU, that in the execution of any particular Church, the design of its several details was greatly 
influenced by that of the neighbouring Cathedral, or most important Conventual Establishment. The beautiful little 
Church at Skelton favours this sujiposition, for "there can be little doubt, from the close similarity which many of 
the details of its architecture bear to similar parts in the transepts of the Minster (York), that some of the same 
hands that were employed upon that magnificent building were also concerned in the erection of this more humble 
but not less beautiful little Church." Evan Christian's Skelton Church, p. 3. 




DOOEWAYS. 67 

course. The termination to the gable, now broken away, probably partook of that trefoiled 
form so common to the gabled buttresses of this period.* In the capitals to the shafts, we 
may remark the somewhat unusual feature of a double bell. The bases have been very plain, 
but are so much decayed that their correct outline can no longer be ascertained. The small 
bowtel which originates in the jambs, is canicd round the arch and winds through the 
intricacies of the panelled galjle, adding considerably to its richness and good effect The 
tower in which this doorway is placed is a fine specimen of flint work, and in the Plate, the 
junction of the flint with the dressed stone is shown with minute accuracy. As the 
Decorated style advanced, crockets and foliage became more frequently and abundantly used 
in its Architecture ; and these, combined with a more studied and harmonious arrangement of 
moldings, operated considerably in promoting the greater splendour of the doorways. Cley 
Church, Norfolk, a complete study in itself of the richest and most perfect details of 
Decorated Gothick, possesses a west doorway of such great magnificence, and with such 
beautifully and carefully executed parts, that it is probably unequalled by any other occurring 
in a Church of a similar size. Section I. Decorated, Plate 39. In the abrupt, and perhaps 
awkward, manner in which the arch moldings join on to those of the jamb, we may trace a 
lingering indication of a past era.t Possibly it was felt that these arch moldings were too 
minute and delicate for the exposed position of the jamb, which was consequently simply 
rounded off : but even then, one cannot help wishing that a more perfect and studied junction 
had been practised. However, the artificers of those days thought otherwise, and it iU 
becomes us to criticize such minute points, when the whole is so surpassingly elegant 

This single specimen almost comprises in itself all the several characteristicks which 
occur in doorways of this period. We have the beautifully crocketed and finialled dripstone 
(ogeed, although the arch is pointed, a peculiarly Decorated feature) ; the exqxiisitely carved 
drip terminations, in this instance, crowned heads (probably indicative of royal benefactors) ; 
the well molded arch of two orders, the inner one becoming cinquefoiled, and each foU again ' 
trefoiled ; the leafy cusps and richly carved spandrels ; the quaintly wrought foliage in the 
capitals, and delicate finish to the chamfers in the jambs ; the double-plinthed bases ; the 
stone sill ; and last though not least, the original and richly ornamented ironwork of the door : 
all these features, each highly worthy of observation, combine together to form a most 
magnificent and characteristick Decorated doorway. 

The stone sill was frequently used during this and the preceding period. An example 
is given of it in Section I. Decorated, Plate 23, the doorway in Swatton Church, Lincolnshire ; 
and it occurs also in the priest's doorway at Fen Ditton. (See page 51.) In the arch mold- 

* See buttresses from Holbeach Church, Section I. Decorated, Plate 17, and also those in Plate 19. 
t See arcade from St. Alban's Abbey Church, Section I. Early English, Plate 28. 



68 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTURE. 



ings we may observe, tliat those which come over the engaged shafts, lie on the rectangular 
planes, whereas those which are ' continuous are on the chamfer plane ; thus illustrating and 
strengthening a remark we have already had occasion to make in the chapter on moldings. 
The beautiful roses which stud the inner soffit, although not very conspicuous in a geometrical 
drawing, nevertheless add considerably to the general richness, and are themselves well 
displayed and set off by the elegant moldings over which they are placed. Under the crown 
of the arch a head occupies the place of a rose. 

The Church at North Mimms offers an example of a plainer but equally characteristick 
doorway. (Section I. Decorated, Plate 25.) We may here again notice that the arch 
moldings carried on the engaged shafts, lie on the rectangular planes. They are very 
beautiful and effective, and the flowers placed in the hollows add not a little to the elegant 
simplicity of this specimen. The foliage of the capitals is of a very peculiar character, and in 
its arrangement essentially Decorated, rather twining round the bell than rising up stiffly 
against it. The bases are extremely plain, and in this respect they agree with those in the 
Milton doorway ; the square return of the dripstone is not the most usual arrangement of 
this period. 

Gabled doorways were still very commonly introduced, occurring, as did those of the 
previous style, more frequently in the south of Lincolnshire and those counties that imme- 
diately surround it, than elsewhere. Ewerby* has a very 
fine example of this description ; it is finiaUed, though not 
crocketed, which is a peculiarity observable in many of the 
details of this Church. In the gable there has been, as at 
Milton, a small niche for the statue of a saint : it has been 
blocked up and is now hardly discernible. The inner order of 
moldings forms a trefoiled arch ; the upper foil being slightly 
ogeed, as at Cley Church. Some very elegant foliage fills up 
two of the hollows. 

At other times the gable was ogeed and richly crocketed 
and finiaUed, as in the priest's doorway at Crick Church, 
Northamptonshire : in this case the head of the doorway is 
also a flat ogee, and the space between it and the gable is 
filled with very beautiful foliage. The moldings are con- 
tinuous and on the chamfer plane. Byfield Church in the 
Norway, samc county possessess two very fine examples : that in the 
south of the Church is ogeed, terminating in a bunch of foliage which supports a niche, and 

* For a further description of this beautiful Building, see Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 77. 




Ewerby Church» Lincolnshire. South 



DOORWAYS. 69 

ia flanked by pinnacles, crocketed and finialled ; the other at the west is of the same 
description, but without the niche. 

Doorways with continuous moldings occur very frequently in Buildings of this period, 
though the eflfect is rarely satisfoctory ; the absence of shafts is severely felt, for without 
them the springing of the arch, which should always be well defined, appears un- 
determined. 

The doorway from Holbeach Church (Section I. Decorated, Plate 10,) is a good plain 
example, with a door of the same date very rich and perfect The framing, and the " setting 
out" of its tracery will be found fully explained in the plate. The jamb shafts have molded 
caps and bases ; these latter are of a very unusual character, or perhaps, rather of no 
particular character. It is curious to observe, even in works of considerable richness, how 
frequently the bases were neglected and left very plain, as in the examples from North Mimms 
and Milton ; or presented some extraordinary anomaly, as in the present instance ; or seemed 
to lack a sufficient projection, as in the doorway from Heckington. In truth, good moldings 
in any position were much more rare in this style than in the preceding one : in many cases 
simple chamfers were used throughout the entire work. In the arched monuments and in 
the smaller details of the Church, such as the sedilia and piscina, we are more likely to meet 
with minute and exquisitely wrought moldings. The doorway from Heckington referred to 
above and illustrated in Plate 23 of Section I. Decorated, is a beautiful example with three 
rows of shafts having foliated caps, and with excellent arch moldings. The finial which 
terminates the dripstone is not quite perfect, and judging from its present mutilated 
condition, we should imagine that it had had another leaf on either side lapping back. Here 
we may once more remark, that shafts being used in the jambs, the arch molds lie on the 
rectangular planes. 

Circular-headed doorways were occasionally introduced, but must be considered rather 
as instances of the caprice of the builders, than as features appertaining to this styla A very 
rich example occurs in Badgeworth Church, Gloucestershire ; the moldings are continuous, 
of extraordinary merit, and profusely studded with ball flower.* 

Towards the close of the Decorated period, the label over the pointed arch and 
spandrels filled ^vdth rich carving, gradually gained ground. Worstead Church, Norfolk.t 
and Deopham in the same county, both present instances of the introduction of this new 
feature : in the latter the label is embattled. In the doorways to turret staircases, almost 

* A window from this Church is illustrated in Section I. Decorated, Plate 38, the moldings of which closely 
resemble those of the doorway ; in fact the two dripstones are identical. A plan and two views of the entire 
Building are given in the Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 67. 

+ Parish Churches, Vol. I. p. 35. 



70 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 




Aldwinkle Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



any shaped arch was equally applicable : and accordingly, we find them sometimes pointed, or 
sometimes ogeed, now square-headed, or agaia, as in the example from Aldwinkle Church, 
partaking of the character of all The priests' doorways are frequently par- 
ticularly interesting : those already mentioned, in the Churches of Crick 
and Heckington, are beautiful and rich examples ; that at Oadby, Leices- 
tershire, has a traceried head ; and the one in Brandon Church, Norfolk, 
(Section L Decorated, Plate 12,) is commendable for its simple elegance. 
The example at Sutton at Hone, Kent, (Section L Decorated, Plate 1,) is 
an instance of continuous moldings occurring on the rectangular planes. 
A solitary case hke this, however, can hardly militate against, but should 
rather be considered as an exception from a general rule, which, for the 
greater convenience of study we would attempt to establish, without at all 
presuming to put it forth as the one by which the masters of old worked. 
Indeed we cannot readily conceive that such rules as these were then 
wanting, for they are but the necessary residts of that natural construction which is so 
remarkably displayed in all their works. If shafts are used, as a consequence almost, they 
would be placed in square recesses, and hence lie on the rectangular planes ; and their capitals, 
projecting from these planes, become naturally so grouped as only to be consistently adopted 
for arch molds that also lie in similar planes. At the present day, when the student in 
Mediaeval Architecture has before him such exquisite specimens of the art in its matured 
phase — when he can turn at once to the truly graceful compositions of the Edwardian 
period, it is perhaps mainly as a matter of curious inquiry that his mind is directed to the 
minute steps by which such excellence was gradually accomplished ; and yet the investigation 
must assuredly enable him to arrive at a more refined appreciation of its eminent beauties, 
while it will also forcibly illustrate the great advantage resulting from close application to the 
study— it will show how master minds, through many generations, continued to labour in the 
same field, each generation receiving with reverence the bequest of its predecessor, and invariably 
striving to advance it on the road to perfection. This research may be the more useful, inasmuch 
as Gothick Architecture, at present at any rate, can scarcely be reduced to precise laws — its spirit 
soars above rule — yet often when it may wear the appearance of caprice, close investigation 
will prove it to have been guided by purest taste : it must be studied in the spirit in which it 
was conceived, and pursued with ardour and constancy. The ancient architects devoting the 
energies of their powerful minds but to one style of building, were every way qualified to 
develop the manifold graces it is capable of, and thus render it more and more worthy of its 
high purpose. Yet, however great the excellence thereby attainable, it can hardly now be of 
frequent occurrence that an architect should devote his sole and undivided attention to the 



DOORWAYS. 71 

study and advancement of one particular style out of the many which are in full practice, and 
each of which has its ardent votaries : the more especially when we consider (and the con- 
sideration after all is of some weight) how dLsproi)ortionatc would be the encouragement he 
would probably meet mtli. But be that as it may, as regards Gothick Architecture, the day 
is surely coming when it will no longer be studied as a dead language, as an art which a gulf 
of nearly four centuries divides from us : once well understood (it is ah-eady appreciated) its 
admii-ers will boldly strike out anew the track in which our ancestors lal>oured, and, armed 
with their principles, will advance it to a climax of beauty imknown even to them. To 
return to the subject more immediately under our consideration. 

In Perpendicuiak Doorways, the constant use of the label characteristically dis- 
tinguishes them from those of the preceding styles, though, as we have ah-eady observed, this 
feature may occasionally be found in Decorated work ; in Perpendicular, however, its appear- 
ance is in keeping with the then prevailing fashion, which delighted in the contrast of 
horizontal and vertical lines. 

In the example from St. Alban's Abbey Church (Section L Pei-pendicular, Plate 1) the 
entrance into the south aisle from the cloisters, we find combined many beauties and 
excellencies. The interior elevation, which is the one represented in the plate, is flanked by 
two niches with pedestals, the whole forming a very grand and imposing composition, adapted 
of course only to a very large Church ; and in so far, perhaps, not consistently occupying a 
place in the present work, were it not for the many valuable points which it possesses, 
peculiar to the doorways of this period. The very beautiful eflfect produced by the double- 
cusped arch, carried in front of and distinct from, the first order of moldings, may be observed 
in many examples of a similar date. In the present instance, the terminations of all the primary 
cusps are broken off, with the exception of one representing a lion's head. The singularly 
beautiful crowning ornament exhibits a very early specimen of that distinguishing Perpen- 
dicular decoration, the strawberry leaf, combined with much that belonged to the stage of art 
which had just closed : on its geometrical formation, which is exhibited in the plate, we have 
already commented in p. 46. The door itself is a very rich and well preserved specimen, 
and will be found illustrated more at large in Section II. Woodwork, Plate 4. The small 
roundlets with which it is studded seem to have been suggested by the ball flower 
of the Decorated era. The arms of England and those of the Abbey are placed in the 
spantli-cls. 

The doorway from Coltishall Church (Section I. Perjjcndicular, Plate 20), is a very good 
type of the general arrangement of the period at which we have now arrived. It is placed at 
the west end of the Church and in the tower, and exhibits the combination of both label and 
dripstone ; the horizontal part of the former is continued through, and is carried round the 



72 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 



tower as a string.* Above it is placed a very rich band of flint and stonework, consisting of 
shields in octofoiled circles, alternated with the crowned I for St. John the Evangelist. The 
same device occiirs in the base moldings of the tower, and his symbol, the Eagle, is carved in 
the spandrels of the door. A second string course encloses the band of circles, and im- 
mediately above is a three-light window. This arrangement had then become the prevailing 
fashion ; a west doorway and window might almost be considered as forming one design ; we 
meet with an early instance of it in the Decorated tower of Worstead Church, Norfolk, t The 
jamb molds of the Coltishall doorway are on the chamfer plane, and consist of an exaggerated 
fiUeted bowtel between two casements, leaving two wide, plain chamfers, which in the arch 
have a kind of wave mold sunk from the face. 

The west doorway in the tower of Towcester Church, Northamptonshire, is a singularly 

rich and beautiful specimen of this style. It is 
very deeply recessed, and has a crocketed and 
finiaUed dripstone within a group of moldings 
which follow the outline of the label. The slen- 
der octagonal bowtel, rising from the ground and 
at top spreading into a small pedestal for the 
reception of a statue protected by a crocketed 
canopy, is a rather unusual but beautiful feature. 
I The moldings all lie on the chamfer plane, into 
which they die at the bottom. 

In the tower of Lavenham Church, Suffolk 
(Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 6), is a mag- 
nificent, though very late specimen. Even in this 
instance, the two-centered arch is still retained, 
with the addition of an ogeed dripstone beautifully 
crocketed, which, interpenetrating the string- 
course, appears again on the upper part, and w^as 
originally terminated with a finial. The moldings 
are of very poor character : in the desire for rich- 
ness of appearance, the usually wide, and some- 
TowcESTEE chorch, NoBTHAMPTONSHiBE. tlmes cffcctivc, cascmeut has been abandoned, and 

groups of moldings have been formed ; but by their not lying in either of the usual planes, 




* This arrangement was a very common practice, and is also observalile in windows ; see window in north 
Chapel of Barnwood Church, Gloucestershire, Parish Churches, Vol. II., p. 71. 
+ Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 35. 



DOORWAYS. 



73 



they produce an effect at once confused and unsatisfactorj'. In the arch hea<l, especially, the 
various groups are composed of very minute members, divided by large and plain hollows ; 
very different from the previous and purer practice, when all was so beautifully blended 
together. The peculiar shape of the middle shaft in the jamb should be noticed ; many 
instances of it may be found in Perpendicular work, and it would appear to be a corruption 
of the Decorated fiUeted shaft. All the caps have double bells, but are otherwise as irregular 
iu their construction as the moldings of the arch and jambs. They are all octagonal, and in 
the principal ones, small square flowers of four leaves occupy the place of the beautiful foliage 
of former times. In the bases we may notice the then prevalent fashion of their being ex- 
ceedingly stilted ; the outer base is exaggerated to such an extent, as to be nearly equal to the 
shaft in height. The buttresses and shafts which flank the doorway, however elegant they 
may appear at first sight, must be considered as instances of a debased taste, which sought 
more after meretricious effect than correct and consistent 
decoration. Still the design is so rich and attractive, and 
the base moldings and the buttresses to the tower are all 
in such excellent keeping, that we are induced to overlook 
the imperfections of the details, in our admiration of the 
composition as a whole. The door itself has been a rich 
and beautiful design, but is now so much decayed, that the 
moldings and smaller portions of the tracery are no longer 
discernible. The flint work of the tower is remarkably 
well worked ; a portion of it is showTi in the Plate. 

Islip Church, Northamptonshire, possesses a very 
good illustration of a small Perpendicular doorway. There, 
as at Coltishall, we find both label and dripstone ; the 

latter ogeed, and both 
uniting and carried on 
small shafts, resting on 
the base moldings of 

the tower. Some well carved tracery fills up the span- 
drels, which, with a deeply sunk casement, produces a fine, 
bold effect. The string roimd the tower is lowered, to 
allow of the usual accompaniment of a window : altogether 
this is a simple, yet pleasing example. The west doorway 
of Shorne Church, Kent, is well adapted for a plain village 
Church. It is flanked by buttresses, which are judiciously 

X 





ISUP CBURCH, MoKTIUMm>K!>ailUL 



Shobne CHI-[(CH. Kcnt. 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



introduced into the composition ; and in either jamb is a shaft carrying a single gTOup of 
moldings. It has no dripstone nor label ; and this leads us to notice a peculiarity, which 
we may also observe in Basingstoke Church, (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 3,) and in 
Chesham Church, (Plate 17,) namely, that in some cases, especially in the more advanced 
and fuUy established Pei-pendicular, the spandrels to the doorways form an essential part of 
the composition, and would exist whether a label were thrown over them or not ; M'hereas in 

others, and principally the earlier examples, the span- 
drel is the immediate result of using both label and 
dripstone, as in the doorway from Coltishall ; and it 
would appear probable that on the dripstone becoming 
gradually obsolete, the spandrel assumed its position 
as an actual portion of the doorway, and was enclosed 
by the outer molding of the jamb. Continuous mold- 
ings were now very frequent, but even in small ex- 
amples they were very deficient in beauty ; and when 
employed on a large scale, as at Potterspury Church, 
Northamptonshire, the efiect was altogether poor and 
unsatisfactory. 

Perpendicular priest's doorways were usually 
plain and uninteresting. The example, however, 
from Basingstoke is a remarkable exception, and particularly valuable from having the 
date of its execution carved on a shield in the head. (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 3.) 
On the shields in the spandrels are carved the monograms of Our Saviour and of the 
blessed Virgin ; other shields, with inscriptions now become unintelligible, terminate 
the label. 

In the arrangement of these doorways we have frequent op- 

I portunities of remarking instances of that unbounded freedom, 

so characteristick of this style of building. Does a window occur 

I' just where it was wished to have placed a doorway, — with the 

■f utmost boldness they are Ijoth incorporated into one design ; or, 

does a buttress present an apparently insurmountable obstacle to 

the doorway's being placed in a particular position, — it is at once 

made to expand on either side, and by a clever contrivance the 

t- desired doorway is pierced through it ; or again, we may have 

to admire the ingenuity with which the difficulty has been overcome, 

of both erecting a buttress, and adding a porch to an already existing 




Chaksley Church, Northamptonshire. 




Leir Church. LticKSTRRsniRF. 



DOORWAYS. 



75 





TKUNrtr l'inH<:M, NoRfOl.K. 



doorway. Throughout every minutia of Gothick Architecture, 

vve shall ever find that construction and design go hand in hand, 

and that anything 
actually required by 
the former, instead 
of being concealed, 
is immediately and 
gracefully made sub- 
servient to the beau- 
ty of the latter. The 
priest's doorway in 
Merstham Church, 
Surrey, exhibits a 
graceful combina- 
tion of the jambs OKmouBDBaB CmtM^ NonroLc 

\vith the base moldings, by which the former 
are altogether brought forward from the face of the wall ; the arrangement of the drift- 
stone is also commendable. 

The interior of the doorways frequently shows how a necessarj- 

constructive feature is converted 

into a highly ornamental one. 

In an arched entrance, where 

the door is placed considerably 

nearer the outer than the inner 

face of the wall, it becomes ne- 
cessary to stilt or give a different 
M«,»x„*MCH„acH.8u„B^. form to the inner arch, so as to 
allow of the door opening ; hence the constant use of 
the segmental pointed arches on the inside of doorways. 
In Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 7, is shown the very "^ 
elegant arrangement of the inner arch of the doorway in 
the tower of Lavenham Church, the soffit of which is 
richly panelled with quatrefoils. The Early English arch- 
ways in Felmai-sham Church* are also veiy graceful, with 
slender shafts carrying a beautiful group of moldings. 

* See Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. Oo. 





FcUltilSBAll CUVRCH, BlPFORlKiniRi;. 



76 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



Trumpington Church, Cambridgeshire,* has a singularly fine interior arch, with a hood mold 

and bold moldings carried, as in Felmarsham Church, on slender shafts with molded capitals. 

The priest's doorway in Higham Ferrars Church presents a good example of internal 

arrangement ; a few moldings on the 

face of the arch, with the stringcourse 

continuing as a hoodmold over it, are 

all that are required to produce a very 

satisfactory effect. In Northampton- 
shire, Lincolnshire, and other counties, 

where stone spires abound, a small 

opening is most usually contrived in 

one of the faces of the spire to give 

access to the parapet ; these openings 

are generally well managed, and oc- 
casionally, as in Weekley Church, are made ornamental 

features. 

IIlOHAU FeRBARS CBDBCB, NORTHAHFruNSUIKE. 





Wekkley (Jhukch, 
Northamptonshire. 



PIERS AND ARCHES. 

Chancel Arches. — With such rare exceptions as in Ewerby, Lincolnshire, Raunds and 
Higham Ferrars, Northamptonshire, and some few other Churches, it was an universal 
practice to mark the termination of the nave and the commencement of the Chancel, by 
an arch thrown across from one wall to the other. In early Norman Buildings this 
separation is occasionally indicated by a triplet of arches, an arrangement very frequently met 
with in the village Churches of Sussex, as in Piecombe Church, and Ovingdean, near 
Brighton. Though sometimes occurring of extreme simplicity, as in Keymer Church, Sussex, 
the Chancel arch of this period was in general highly enriched ; those in the Churches 
of Adel and Bubwith, in Yorkshire, are beautiful examplea The Semi-Norman architects 
followed closely in the footsteps of their predecessors ; the substitution of a pointed for 
a circular arch being t-he most important change which they effected. In the Church of 
Codford St. Mary is a good instance of a transition Chancel arch (Section I. Semi-Norman, 
Plate 5) : the outer shafts are slightly pointed on plan, and the cap, band and base 
moldings are considerably undercut ; on the east side, on the contrary, the shaft is 



* An exceUent engraving of the interior of this doorway is given in " The Churches of Cambridgeshire," p. 63. 



PIERS AND ARCHES. 



simply circular, and the arch recessed but not molded. It is said that during some 
repairs that have recently taken place, it was discovered that the outer portion of the 
arch had been remodelled and converted from Norman into Semi-Norman by pointing 
it, and making the other members somewhat to partake of the new style then coming 
into vogue : but that the inner or east side had been left almost in its original state. 
Certainly the east elevation is very plain and simple, compared with the west, but this 
wiU be found to be almost always the case in Norman work ; the parts that would 
more immediately strike the eye are very richly ornamented, while the others are left 
comparatively unadorned. This we find to be particularly the case with Chancel and 
nave arches ; in New Shoreham Church, for instance, the arches dividing the Chancel 
from the aisles are richly molded and elaborately carved with foliage on the sides 
which open into the Chancel, while those sides which face the Chancel aisles are 
almost without moldings, and the foliage is altogether omitted.* That such a practice 
was due to some received idea of beauty in composition, and not to that contemptible spirit 
which would seek only to decorate those 
portions more immediately in sight, we may 
gather from the extreme care with which 
every part of the Building was finished. 
In this very Church of New Shoreham, the 
window which lights the space between the 
roof and the vaulting over the Chancel aisle, 
and which naturally could hardly ever be seen, 
is nevertheless richly ornamented inside with 
moldings and dogtooth, while (curiously 
enough) outside, the opening is perfectly 
plain ; being simply once recessed. (See Ap- 
pendix, Plate 1, Fig. 6.) 

A favourite and elegant Early English 
practice, was to carry the inner rim of the 
Chancel arch on corbels, the other moldings acwh bo»k.u, 8hik)p.hi«. 

Tjeing most frequently continued down to the ground Such is the arrangement at Acton 
Bunnell ;t a small foliated shaft carries the inner order of moldings, while the outer order 

* The arches in Felmarsham Church are also riclily molded towards the nave, while the sides in the aisles are 
simply chamfered ; see Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 95. 

t We are indebted to the kindness of C. Hansom, Esq., Architect, for the use of some very accurately measured 
drawings of this elegant example. 




tmlt tf I { 



_!/..* 



78 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



dies into a broad chamfer, whicli is continued down to the ground. The Chancel arch in 
Barnwell Church, Northamptonshire, is similarly managed, but with a corbel of far greater 

beauty ; the shafts are detached and carried on 
a group of notch-heads, which are singularly effec- 
tive. In "VYarmington Church, in the same county, 
slender corbelled shafts with foliated caps of ex- 
quisite workmanship, are also introduced ; and 
indeed, in this instance, form quite a peculiar feature 
in the internal decoration of the Church, for they 
are employed to support the springers of the groined 
roof In Clymping Church, Sussex,* the inner 
order is carried on a corbel, and the jambs of the 
archway have small nook shafts, indicative of their 
very recent emancipation from Norman rule. In 
Whitwell Church, Rutlandshire, the arrangement 
of the Chancel arch is yet more simple, the corbels 
being dispensed with, and the inner moldings dying 
into the jambs on either side.t. 

In other instances, and more particularly as 

the style advanced, the arch was carried on a regular 

cluster of columns, properly capped and based, as 

in Skclton Church, Yorkshire : J a half octagonal 

pier is a very ordinary arrangement, which continued 

in practice until the termination of the Decorated 

period. This, a simple, and always effective method 

of treating the Chancel arch, is weU illustrated in the example from Long Stanton Church, 

Cambridgeshire.§ Preston Church, Sussex, a pure and simple little Early English Building, 

has a very good and characteristick arch. {Section I. Early English, Plate 5.) 

It is not a little singular, however, that in very rich and splendid Churches, such 
an important feature as the Chancel arch should so frequently have been left devoid of 
ornament. The arch in Raunds Church, Northamptonshire, a Decorated addition to 




Barnwell Church, Northamptonshire. 



* See interior of this Cliurch in Parish Churches, Vol. II., p. 75. 
+ Sec view of the Chancel arch, in Vol. II, of Parish Churches, p. 85. 

t Hartlepool Church, Durham, has a richly molded Chancel arch, carried on beautifully clustered shafts, having 
very early foliated caps with square head molds. See Billing's Durham. 
§ Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 33. 



PIERS AND ARCHES. 7'J 

the Building, is ornamented with a double row of ball flower, but this forms quite an 
exception to the general rule : a few simple moldings, or even a recessed and chamfered 
arch, is far more frequently met with. Even the Perpendicular examples do not exhibit 
any particular alteration in the mode of treatment : the moldings and details were of 
course accommodated to the new fashion, but the Chancel arch itself, did not assume 
more importance than in the preceding style. 

To resume, then, we may remark, that in most cases the Norman Chancel arch 
was distinguished by its quaint ornaments and rich sculpture, and was very usually 
carried on shafts in recessed jambs ; that the Early English was generally, and especially 
if the inner moldings were carried on corbels, of considerable elegance, though carved 
ornaments were then but very rarely introduced ; while Decorated and Perpendicular 
arches were of great simplicity, with the moldings either supported on semi-piers or 
contiuuGUS down to the ground. It is not improbable that the gradual introduction 
of rich and costly screens of wood induced the bmlders to transfer to these latter the 
decorations which, had they not existed, would have been lavished on the former. As 
regards their proportions, it is with the Chancel arch, as with those of the nave, the 
belfry, and all the other arches in the Church, scarcely possible to lay down any positive 
rules : every variety of size and shape may be met with, and in each case it appears to 
have been mainly influenced by other parts of the Structure. Besides, we can easily 
conceive that many circumstances would influence its proportions : an unusually handsome 
east window or roof would naturally induce the builder to heighten his arch ; or, when 
it was intended, as was very frequently the case, to paint the Last Judgment over the 
west face, he possibly might be inclined to lower it, so as to give a wider field for the 
display of the artist's talent. In some Churches the height of the Chancel arch piers 
corresponds with those of the nave, in which case the moldings are generally identical, 
as in Weekley Church, Northamptonshire; at other times, and much more frequently, 
the springing of the Chancel arch is quite independent of any other. 

Norman piers were generally circular or octagonal, and in the earlier Buildings, of 
great size. and of massive proportions. Such are the octagonal piers at St. Nicholas, 
Harbledown, Kent : those in Sandridge Church, Herts, also octagonal, are of much 
better and more graceful outline. In Polstead Church,* Sufiblk, we find the pier, which 
is rather a late specimen, subdivided into parts, and considerable efiect produced by the 
introduction of engaged nook shafts. Early English piers, octagonal and circular, are 
frequently, as in Felmarsham, counterchanged in the same Building. Other examples 
are of extraordinary beauty, with complex arrangement of shafts. At Boxgrove Church, 

* See Appendix, Plate 6. 




80 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Sussex,* those on the north are most daringly detached from the central pier, while 
on the south, small channels have been sunk for their reception : in both cases Purbeck 
marble, richly polished, is the material employed. Eaton Bray Church, Bedfordshire, 

furnishes an example of a somewhat similar grouping, and 
has well carved foliated caps. At St. Alban's, the piers are 
magnificently clustered, with four detached and twelve engaged 
shafts. Even in Early English work, however, the shafts 
were not always detached : in St. Martin's, Leicester,* we 
find four small shafts engaged, between four other and larger 
ones, which we may observe are fiUeted. This fillet applied 
to the face of the principal shafts, became an established 
eatos BEA^rte)KOBDaHiEE. fcaturc In Decorated piers. We may notice it in the examples 

from Bottisham and Trumpington (Plates 16 and 27), and elsewhere. Morton Church, 
Lincolnshire (Plate 21), has a simple and elegant pier, the plan being produced by four 
half circles applied to the several sides of a square. AH the caps in this Church are 
beautifully foliated. 

The occasional absence of molded work in this style, frequently extended itself to 
the piers, which were simply octagonal, and carried plain chamfered arches, even in 
Buildings whose details in other respects, testify the care that was bestowed upon them. 
The exceeding, yet beautiful simplicity of the piers and arches in a Decorated Church, 
were little in accordance with the taste of the Perpendicular architects, who consequently 
very rarely copied them, though it can scarcely be allowed that they replaced them by 
a more appropriate substitute. A great sameness pervades the piers of this period : the 
most usual form is shown in Section I., Perpendicular (Plate 14), a pier from Lindfield 
Church, Sussex. Afterwards, and especially towards the close of Gothick Architecture, 
the plan assumed more of a diamond shape, by being made considerably wider from 
north to south than from east to west, as in Lavenham Church, Suffolk. As we have 
already had occasion to observe, a peculiar characteristick of Perpendicular piers, and 
one which distinguishes them from aU previous examples, consists in the moldings of 
which they are composed, being partly continuous from the arch. 

Arcades were generally employed as decorative features to the lower parts of waUs ; 
their use was principally confined to the interior, but they are not very commonly met 
with in Parish Churches. The Norman architects however delighted in extensively 
introducing them in their works, and frequently enriched with them the outer waUs of 
their towers. In St. Alban's, a small cloister formerly connecting the Church with the 

* See Appendix, Plate 6. 



PANELLING. 81 

Abbey buildings, is enriched with an arcade, the details of which are very carefully 
wrought, with capitals remarkably quaint and variously carved. Two examples of 
Scmi-Norman character, from New Shoreham Church, are given in Section L Semi- 
Norman, Plate 2. The Chancel of Stone Church, Kent, a deservedly well-known Early 
English Structure, has a very beautiful arcade both on the north and south sides which, 
in this case, appears to answer the purpose of the customary wooden stalls that were 
afterwards used ; for it is placed immediately over a stone bench table, of a convenient 
height for a seat. In Westminster Abbey Church (see page 8) the arcade occupies a 
similar position with regard to the bench table. The example from St. Alban's Abbey 
Chiirch, given in Section I. Early English, Plate 28, is rather late in the style; it has 
very beautiful moldings, and is highly effective. Polebrook Church, Northamptonshire, 
contains some very good arcading in the north transept ; other instances of its applica- 
tion internally in Churches of this date wiU be found at Histon Church, Cambridgeshire, 
and Thurlby, Lincolnshire. In the Chancel of Mcrstham Church, Surrey, a capital 
and a portion of an arch may yet be traced, built up with the Perpendicular additions 
and alterations. At All Saints' Church, Stamford, an Early English arcade is carried 
externally round the greater part of the Church. Arcading was frequently a decorative 
adjunct to the towers of this period, as at St. Mary's, Stamford ; Ketton, Rutlandshire ; 
and Raunds, Northants. In Decorated architecture the arcade was generaUy omitted, 
and was at last entirely superseded by the introduction of panelling, which rapidly 
increased during the Perpendicular era, and was eagerly introduced in the Buildings 
then erecting. There was no portion of the wall but what was considered susceptible 
of receiving this new enrichment : buttresses, parapets, soffits and jambs of doorways, 
windows, and archways, and especially basement moldings, are found profusely ornamented 
with it. The Abbot's tower at Eversham is completely covered vnih paneUiug, 
from the basement moldings to the parapet. Tichmarch Church, Northamptonshire, has 
a double row of panels, very rich and effective. Those from Lavenham Church, 
given in Plate 8 of Perpendicular, are of a very unusual character, and in the centres 
of several of them are the initials and mark of the clothier, Thomas Spring, the 
munificent founder of this noble Structure. In the flint work to which we have already 
referred, foliated panels are abundantly introduced ; or in their stead we find, as at 
ColtishaU and Hunworth Churches, in Norfolk, the crowned initial letter of the patron 
saint ; or a cypher, as in KenninghaU Church. 

During the Early English and Decorated periods, a beautiful method of diapering plain 
surfaces was very prevalent. This diaper usually consisted of a small flower or geometrical 

pattern. We may notice its appearance even in Norman work, as over the window 

z 



82 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



in Stourbridge Chapel (Appendix, Plate I. Fig. 2), and in the gable of the west doorway 
of St. Margaret's, at CHffe ; but it is in Early English Buildings, such as Chichester 
Cathedral and Westminster Abbey Church, that we may first remark the extensive use 
of this enrichment : the last named Edifice contains many beautiful and varied designs. In 
Dunstable Church it is used externally over the doorway ; Beverley Minster may also be 
mentioned as an instance of its external application. Four Early English examples are 
given in Plate 19 of Section I. and four of Decorated date, in Plate 24. The elegant and well 
known specimen at Canterbury, is illustrated in Professor Willis's History of the Cathedral.* 

Buttresses are distinguishing, as they are also important, members in Gothick Architec- 
ture. They do not occm- very frequently in Norman work, the most usual resemblance to a 
buttress being a narrow strip of wall, which is generally flush with the 
corbel table ; so that in fact it was the wall that was made to recess rather 
than the buttress to project. The tower of St. Peter's Church, North- 
ampton, has some very curious angle buttresses, somewhat resembling on 
plan a cluster of three engaged shafts ; they diminish gradually in stages. 
At the east end of the Chancel and under the window is another small 
Norman buttress, semi-circular on plan, with a conical cap. The Semi- 
Norman tower of Clymping Church t has some good examples with 
weathered heads ; they are divided midway with a string, but have the 
same projection above as below. 

In the small Early English village Structures, the buttresses still remained 
but secondary features in the design ; their projection was very slight, and 
they were rarely divided into more than two stages. Very frequently their 
heads were gabled, as at Little Wenham Church, Sufiblk (Section I. Early 
English, Plate 14) ; or a small gablet rose from the weathering, and was 
sometimes enriched with cusping, as in Raydon Chui-ch, Sufi'olk (see the 
same Plate) ; or with incipient tracery, as in Achurch, Northamptonshire. 
A curious variety occurs in Raydon Church, on the north side of the 
Chancel ; it is triangular on plan, with a sloping head. (Also illustrated in 
the above Plate.) In larger Buildings of the same date, we find the 
buttresses more fully developed. Good examples occur in Felmarsham l 



»»i 



K 



If 



^^te Church ; in the Chancel they have a very slight projection, but at the west 
St. marqarit-s, leioestkh. end thcy stand out boldly, and are well proportioned. St. Margaret's, 

* Also beautifully engraved in Bloxam's admirable Principles of Gotliick Architecture. 
t See Section I. Semi-Korman, Plate 5, and Parish Churches, Vol. IL, page 75. 
J Parish Churahes, Vol. II., page 95. 



BUTTRESSES. 



83 



I 



Leicester, haa a fine aiTangemcnt of buttresses : those on the north side are gabled, on the 
south they are simply weathered ; in the latter an elegant peculiarity may be observed in the 
leafy terminations of the lower set-offs. It was during the Decorated era that buttresses 
reached to their fullest developmsnt of beauty : they were then 
always worked in stages, frequently had gabled heads, and were 
enriched with niches, tracery, &c. Very excellent examples, 
however, are frequently met with without the slightest attempt 
at decoration ; deriving all their beauty from their graceful pro- 
portions. Such are those in Pytchley Church, Northampton- 
shire. Fen Ditton Church, Cambridgeshire (Section I. Deco- 
rated, Plate 17), has also some plain, yet very good specimens 
of about the same date : in this instance the arrises throughout 

are chamfered ; a practice which 
prevailed during the preceding 
period, yet perhaps not to the 
extent that is generally imagined, 
at least as applied to village 
Churches. In the same plate is 
figured a buttress from Holbeach 
Church ; a large and imposing 
Decorated Structure, in which 
the buttresses, partaking of the 
magnificence of the other parts, 
are gabled and terminate in a 

kind of trefoiled ridge. In Bottisham Church, Cambridgeshire, 
(Section I. Decorated, Plate 19), they are also similarly finished, - 
with the addition of beautifully molded chamfers at the angles, 
and a trefoiled panel on the faca Dronfield Church, Derby- 
shire, has some magnificent examples in the Chancel, worked in 
; t^ two stages with both set-offs gabled, and enriched with tracery. 
In Debenham Church, Suffolk (Section I. Decorated, Plate 19), 
is an instance of a buttress having a niche with an ogeal and 
W trefoliated head, beautifully finialled, and flanked by diminutive 
crocketed buttresses. Another very interesting specimen occurs 
at the east of All Saints Church, Colchester. At Towcester Church, Northants, the niche is 
placed on the side instead of the face. The buttresses firom Redgrave Church, Suffolk, are of 





PncHUR Chdbob, NoanumToxsiiiBK. 



Bedorjite Church, Soffolk. 



84 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 



> 



I 



n 



BUSTHORPE ChCRCH, 

Norfolk. 



perfect beauty ; very lofty and rising in graduated stages, they terminate in gables with 
trefoHed ridges, and have very elegant foliated niches in the upper stages, with pedestals 
exquisitely carved. It is during this period (the Decorated) that we may 
first notice the habitual practice of placing the corner buttresses at an angle 
of 45" with the walls. This position however has been considered, without 
■J^ roWi sufficient grounds, as a distinctive peculiarity of Decorated work ; whereas 
* miMw g^j^ inspection of some of the finest and purest specimens wiU show that it 
was by no means the invariable practice. In tower buttresses we sometimes 
find both kinds used conjointly in the same group : those placed at an 
angle of 45° being uppermost ; partly dying into the others that are at 
right angles with the tower, and partly corbelled out or carried on small 
cusped and gabled squinches ; as in the rich examples from St. Margaret's, 
3r^^^^ 1 Leicester. 

Perpendicular buttresses are generally higher and of greater projection 
in proportion to their width ; nevertheless they are not ordinarily divided into 
more than two stages. In RyaU Church, Rutlandshire (Section I. Perpen- 
dicular, Plate 24,) they are exceedingly lofty, with gabled heads and tref oiled 
ridges, as in the previous style : an elegant crocketed niche occupies the 
upper part. In the same plate is engraved a buttress from New Wal- 
singham Church, it is of three stages, though very much lower than that 
from RyaU Church; the small gablet on the lower set off, and the 
diminished with the upper one, give it a peculiar and pleasing 
character. The example from St. Mary's, Stratford, (Section I. Perpen- 
dicular, Plate 11,) becomes interesting, from the knowledge we have 
of the date of its erection (1430), it being stated in an inscription, which 
is carried round the basement moldings. It is exceedingly simple in 
outline, and derives its claim to beauty principally from the elaborate 
flirt ornaments with which it is enriched, in common with the whole 
of t:.e north aisle. The initials of the two founders, Edward and Alice 
Moi;i. and the mark of the husband's trade, occur on shields in various 
parts of the design. Blakeney Church, Norfolk, has also some good 
buttresses, worked out of flint and stone with panelled faces : those, 
however, in Lavenham Church far exceed aU previously mentioned 
in richness and elaborate detail. (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 12.) 
They are entirely of dressed stone, with faces variously panelled, and are 
in excellent keeping with the other portions of this magnificent Structure. The armorial 




Blakbney Church, Norfolk. 



PARAPETS. 85 

bearings of the Veres, Earls of Oxford, and generous benefactors to the Church, appear on 
the buttresses. 

Pinnacles were sparingly used during the Decorated period, and then, do not appear 
to belong so much to the design of the entire Building, as to particular parts of it For 
instance, we frequently find an aisle, aa at Eickenhall Church, Suffolk,* highly enriched 
with pinnacled buttresses, while the Chancel is of excessive plainness ; or again, the 
Chancel may have been enriched with pinnacles, as in Over Claybrook, Leicestershire, 
without the other portions of the Chiu-ch displaying a similar degree of enrichment : 
so that we may conclude, that these elegant features were not usually introduced into 
the architecture of the ordinary parish Church, until the full establishment of the Per- 
pendicular, when they became of frequent occurrence. Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, 
is thus enriched with them. In Ayston Church, Rutland.shire,* pinnacles occur at the 
angles of the Chancel only. In Knowle Chapel, Warwickshire, they rise out of the 
buttresses to the Chancel and aisles, and also out of the embattled parapet to the 
clearstory. Louth Church, Lincolnshire, is similarly enriched. 

The tower buttresses to the Early English Churches, were generally simple and 
elegant ; at Etton,* Northamptonshire, they are of tliree stages, the upper one dying 
into the spire table. At Stanwick,* in the same county, they appear rather as 
ornamental accessories, are very low, and are profiled off on the sides, aa well as in 
front, in a very curious and unusual manner; while at Achurch, they only rise to the 
second stage of the tower. Again, some towers, even of the Decorated periotl, have 
no buttresses at all ; such are Southflcet,* Kent, and Barnwell,* Northamptonshire, 
while in other, and far more frequent cases, the buttresses in towers such as Fleet,* 
Donington,* Ewerby,* Worstead,* and St. Mary, Redcliffe, have never been surpassed for 
magnificence and grandeur of outline. In all these instances the buttresses are placed at 
right angles with the walls. 

Perpendicular towers are mainly indebted for their grandeur to the noble proportions 
of their buttresses, most usually terminating in richly crocketed pinnacles : very fine 
examples occur in the Churches of Bishops Lydeard,* Beaminster (Dorset), Ludlow (Salop), 
the Holy Trinity, Coventry, St. Mary's, Taunton, Louth, and St George's, Doncaster. In 
Martham Church,* they are excellently proportioned, but terminate below the parapet 
with a simple weathered table. In Deopham Church,* they are in six stages and finished 
in hexagonal turrets, embattled and panelled. 

The Paeapet, as we have elsewhere remarked, is as frequent in some parts, as it 
is rare in others. The Norman architects seldom introduced it into their works ; they 

* See engravings and plans of these several Churohes in Vols. I. and II. of the Parish Churches. 

A A 



86 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTUEE. 

seem to have preferred tlie corbel table with dripping eaves ; very possibly, however, 
many Norman parapets, becoming ruinous owing to their exposed situation, have been 
replaced by others in the style in vogue at the time the restoration occurred. The tower 
of Clymping Church,* has a plain parapet, apparently original ; it is chamfered at top, 
and carried on a row of corbels. In its complete state, the parapet may be divided into 
three distinct parts ; the string or cornice, the parapet wall, and the coping. Polebrook 
Church, Northants, has some very good examples of Early Enghsh character ; at Sutterton, 
Lincolnshire, the cornice is fiUed with a variety of ornaments, notch heads, dogtooth, hearts, 
&c. ; Evington in Leicestershire, (Section I. Decorated, Plate 37,) has one over the north 
aisle of a little later date, where the cornice is similarly enriched, but with the parapet 
wall carved with a succession of sunk trefoils, filled with leaves or flowers in low relie£ 
In Decorated examples, the parapet wall is frequently pierced with quatrefoils, trefoils, 
or some flowing tracery, as in Heckington Church (Plate 37). In this style, also, we 
may first notice the positive introduction of battlements, though it is not at all unhkely 
that they were used in Churches of an earher period. Higham Ferrars exhibits some 
examples of very early date. The embattled parapet became almost an universal feature 
with the Perpendicular architects : a difi"erence that may be noticed between the earher 
and later examples is, that the coping in the former is only employed in its legitimate 
and horizontal position, whereas subsequently it was made continuous and carried down 
the sides of the battlement. In the two Churches of Hingham* and Martham,* in Norfolk, 
the distinctive peculiarities of the Decorated and Perpendicular parapet are weU contrasted. 
In St. Mary's, Stratford, erected in 1430, the legitimate use of the coping is still held in 
view ; in Lavenham Church, on the contrary, it is continuous ; the battlements, also in 
the latter, are pierced with a four-centered arch ; the opening thus formed, being partly fiUed 
up with a large leaf rising upwards, and the intermediate spaces enriched with boldly carved 
foliage in square panels. 

By far the richest specimens of perpendicular parapets, however, are to be met with 
in the towers of the period. Bishop's Lydeards* is very fine, with a row of quatrefoils, 
above which the embattlement rises ; in Badgeworth Church* it is of a simpler, yet 
stiU pleasing, character. The parapet in Martham Church,* exhibits a good specimen 
of flint decoration ; the coping is not returned. In Deopham Church,* a crocketed gable, 
much enriched with flint panelling, and surmounted by a fine Cross, rises out of the 
parapet on the four sides of the tower ; and at Filby, near Yarmouth, the parapet 
rising in graduated stages, forms a stepped gable in the centre, with two half ones, 
also stepped, abutting against the angle pinnacles. This stepped parapet is a characteristick 

* Engraved in the Parioli' Churches, Vol. II. 




CROSSES. 87 

feature in Norfolk towers. The tower of St George's, Doncaster, has a remarkably 
rich pierced parapet, with three slender pinnacles rising out of it, on each side. Louth, 
Lincolnshire, and Bitton, Gloucestershire, have both very handsome panelled parapets, with 
pinnacles rising out of each battlement 

The Cross*, the most natural and appropriate termination of a gable, was made 
use of at a very early period. From the testimony of the old Saxon MSS. we may 
conclude, that even then, they were invariably introduced, though owing to the want 
of durability in the material, it is hardly likely that any have lasted to the present day. 
The fanatical violence of the Puritans, sacrilegiously destroyed many which the ravages 
of time would longer have spared and left unharmed. 

The Church builders of old delighted in exhibiting the symbol of their faith, not 
only on gables, but in every position where it would become a commanding and distinct 
object We find Crosses, carved in low relief, over the windows of the ancient tower 
at Barnack, and worked in flint over the belfry windows, 
of Martham Church. In Cranford, St. John's, they occupy 
the N.K and S.E. angles of the aisles, which have lean-to 
roofs. In a Church near Norwich, we find them at the four 
angles of the tower, and at Deopham, in the same county, b*i,»ack chokh. NorrHAHnoinain. 
they crown the centre battlement, which ia gabled to receive thero. 

The earliest Crosses (probably for symbolical reasons) appear generally to have been 
enclosed within a circle, or with the arms slightly projecting, as in Edith. Western 
Church. (Section I. Early English, Plate 16.) The Cross, lately destroyed, over the 
Norman Chancel of Bamwood Church, is mentioned by Lyson as a Cross pat^e 
inscribed within a circle, the badge of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of 
Jerusalem. During the Early English period this form was considerably modified, and 
led to many varied and elegant arrangements. For facihty of examination we would 
classify them in the several divisions of 1, Simple Crosses ; 2, Wheel Crosses ; 3, Floriated 
Crosses ; 4, Tracery Crosses. 

In Simple Crosses the arms sometimes are merely chamfered, as in Churchdown 
Church, Gloucestershire, or engrailed, as at Badgeworth Church, in the same coimty, 
or cusped, as at Tinwell, (Section I, Decorated, Plate 28,) or with the extremity of 
the arms trefoUed, as in St Mary's Church, Stamford ; or again, we sometimes meet 
^vith them ornamented with a small flower raised on the face of each arm. A fine and 
perfect example of a wheel Cross occurs over the east gable of the nave of Oadby 

* The authors are now preparing illustrations of a series of Gable Crosses, to which they would refer for a more 
ample account of this heautLful feature. 



88 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Church, Leicestershire ; it has eight spokes with trefoUed terminations, radiating from 
..a^maU flower in the centre. WliitweTl Church, Rutland, has also a fine Early English 
example. Tlie Cross from Helpringham Church, Lincolnshire, (Section I. Early English, 
Plate 16,) may likewise be included in this class, for though the circle is omitted, its 
influence in the design is very visible. In floriated Crosses small branches diverge from 
the arms of the Cross, grouping the whole together in a very beautiful manner, as at 
Hingham Church, Norfolk, (Section I. Decorated, Plate 33,) or at Peterborough. (Plate 28) 
Cley Church, Norfolk, probably possesses the finest example of this class in the kingdom. 
Tracery Crosses are generally of great beauty and richness ; that at Hasingfield, (Section I. 
Decorated, Plate 33,) is certainly the most magnificent of its class that the authors have 
liitherto met with : it remains very perfect, owing to the durable material (Barnack) 
out of which it is worked. In this class we would include the very rich eight-armed 
Crosses, frequently to be found in Norfolk ; such are those from Stoke Ferry and 
Morton, (Section I. Perpendicular, Pkite 15,) Ludham, (Plate 33,) and Trunch and 
Stody. (Plate 21.) Two early and exceedingly elegant examples of this class are given 
in Section I. Decorated, Plate 28, from Peakirk and Methwold 

Other varieties may occasionally be noticed which are not so easy to classify ; yet 
they are in reality, but quaint modifications of one or other of the classes we have been 
examining. Such is the simple and effective Cross over the chancel of Wichford Church, 
Wilts, (Section I. Early English, Plate 16,) and its enriched counterpart from St. IMary's, 
Norwich. (Decorated, Plate 33.) Over the north transept of Gunthorpe Church, Norfolk, 
is one which would be classed with tracery Crosses, had not the usual arrangement been 
whimsically departed from in the lower part, and cusps substituted for the two secondary 
branches. 

On some Crosses we find the figure of Our Saviour carved on one of the faces, as 
at Oakham ; (Section I. Perpendicular, Plate 21,) whUe at Little Casterton a smaller 
Cross is inclosed within a circle sunk upon the larger one. At Louth a Crown of Thorns 
is beautifully twined round the arms ; and at Godeby Maureward, the Cross has (or had) 
its outer circle cut into teeth like a saw, symbolizing thereby the martyrdom of some 
of the early Saints of the Church. 

The Cross ws generally let into the saddle stone to the depth of five or six inches, 
and fixed with a Ifeaden joint, a practice which has probably caused the destruction of 
many beautiful examples ; for, in course of time, the expansion of the metal bursts 
the thin socket, the Cross is loosened, and finally drops down ; and very rarely, (we 
hope we may now say) in former da)rs, was it set up again. The thickness of the Cross 
depended of course in a great measure upon the strength of the stone employed ; generally 



CROSSES— FONTS. 89 

from four to five inches may be considered a fair average. Over the south aisle of 
Humberstone Church, Leicestershire, the stem of the Cross was (for the socket is all that 
now remains) only five inches by two and three quarters : the material is Bamack stone. 

The limits of this work forbid our entering into a description of the many different 
ways in which the Cross is introduced into the sacred Building and its adjuncts : we will 
therefore, merely refer briefly to its beautiful and appropriate use in marking the resting 
place of the departed faithful Two elegant examples of floor Crosses are given in Section I. 
Early English, Plate 25. The one from Barnwell Church is carved in relief, while the 
other, from the Cathedral Church of Dublin, is incised or sunk in the slab. 

Ancient Fonts,* even if regarded merely in an sesthetical point of view, will Ite 
found to possess so much interest, and to exhibit in so high a degree the architectural 
character of the times in which they were executed, that we can hardly conclude without 
at least directing attention to them. At the same time the great number, and exceeding 
variety of beautiful specimens, render it impossible to give an illustration, even of the 
types of the different fonts used during the three grand periods of Gothick architectxire. 
The examples introduced, each illustrating one of these epochs, must be considered, 
therefore, as good specimens of their several eras, but by no means as decided 
characteristicks of the dates they represent It has been considered inexpedient to 
give an illustration of a Norman font, for it would be rather difficult to select one 
only (and the limits of the work forbid a greater number) among the many which are 
constantly met with ; all very quaint, and some elaborately and beautifully enriched. 

The two earliest forms of Norman fonts, appear to have been the tub-shaped and 
the cube : the former, still preserving its circular character, was afterwards raised on 
a low stem with molded cap and base (a very beautiful example of this arrangement 
occurs in Shefford Church, Berkshire, and is engraved in the "Baptismal Fonts"), while 
the latter was most usually raised on a central stem, surrounded by four small shafts. 
In many Early English fonts this fashion was preserved : the Churches of Merstham 
and Shiere, in Surrey, have excellent specimens of this class. The single stem was 
also occasionally made use of, as in the font in Weston Church ; (Section I. Early 
English, Plate 27,) it is a simple and elegant design, and has a broader step at the 
west for the priest, which is not shown in the plate. 

In the shape of Decorated fonts, greater license seems to have been used than at 
any other time : at Galway the font is square, carried on a central stem, and four small 
angle shafts ; at Orchardleigh, it is circular and cup-shaped : and at Ewerby is an 

* For a brief yet interesting account of ancient fonts we would refer to the " Baptismal Fonts," lately published 
by Van Voorst, and illustrated by many excellent woodcuts. 

B B 



90 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

hexagonal font, with the sides richly diapered. It is in the fonts of this peiiod that 
we first find the richly crocketed canopy, and the octagonal stem with slender engaged 
shafts, as at Redgrave Church ; (Section I. Decorated, Plate 32), or panels divided by 
small pinnacles, as at Hedon Church, Yorkshire. 

Perpendicular fonts, though frequently richer than the previous ones, exhibit never- 
theless considerable sameness and repetition of design. They were generally eight-sided 
and raised on a molded stem, though at Hurley Church, Berkshire, the font is a simple 
octagonal block, tapering downwards, with panelled sides, and buttresses at the angles ; whUe 
in Cornwall some extraordinary and anomalous forms are occasionally met with. Sculptured 
decorations were then very prevalent ; animals, especially lions, frequently surround the 
stem, while the basin is supported by rows of angels with extended wings. Walsoken 
Church, Norfolk, has a very beautiful and rich font of this description, rendered 
highly interesting from the date of its execution (1544) being cut upon it, together 
with the names of the donors.* Both bowl and shaft are octagonal ; the former has 
at the angles, buttresses and pinnacles, and on the sides are crocketed ogee arches sup- 
ported by brackets formed of foliage and angels, and which are occupied by the Crucifixion 
and the seven sacraments of the Church of Rome. The buttresses, also, are supported by 
angels. The shaft is ornamented in the same manner as the bowl, but the niches contain 
figures of saints, very well carved and displaying much artistick skill. The emblems of 
the Crucifixion occur in shields placed round the base. The example given in Plate 28, 
from Clymping Church, though very inferior in point of richness, is nevertheless a pleasing 
specimen ; of good proportion, with some very well executed foliage. 

Fonts of aU dates were not unfrequently raised on a series of steps, either square, 
circular, or octagonal. In the later examples, the risers are frequently enriched with 
quatrefoils ; as in the Churches of Walsingham and Worstead, in Norfolk. In both 
these instances the upper step is in the form of a Cross, while the lower one follows the 
shape of the font. A kneeling stone, consisting of a raised block or step at the west 
of the font, for the use of the priest, was a very usual appendage : it is met with 
even in early fonts, though more commonly in those of a later date. 

The Sedilia, or seats for the ofiiciating priests, always south of the Altar, were 
frequently of gi'eat beauty. Examples are given in Section I. Early English, Plate 6, 
and Perpendicular, Plate 9. Sometimes the sill of the window was lowered to form 
the sedilia, as in Great Wenham Church, Sufiblk ; (Appendix, Plate 2, Fig. 14,) and 
in St. Martin's, Leicester. The piscina or water drain, was very frequently incoi-porated 
in the same design as the sedilia. 

* Engraved in the Baptismal Fonts. 



SECTION n.-OF WOODWORK AND METALWORK. 



ROOFS.* 




TIMBER roof of the fifteenth century, with ita massive timbers elaborately 
wrought and molded, ita rows of hanmier beams terminating in beautifully 
carved figures of angels, its enriched panelling and traceried spandrels, 
its exquisite bosses, and above all ita profusely ornamented cornice, — is 
truly as glorious a sight, as it is a grand triumph of the carpenter's 
art. Such excellence, however, was but very gradually accomplished. 

Of unquestionably Norman work, very few specimens indeed remain : judging from 
them, we would conclude that the construction of that period, was as unscientifick as it 
was rude. These early roofs may, perhaps without exception, be all classed under the 
head of tie-beam roofs, t The one over the Chancel of Adel Church, Yorkshire, is of 
this description, and appears original : the principals pitch on to the tie-beam, and are 
braced together by collars ; slanting struts are also tenoned into the principals, and 
are carried down on to the tie-beam, which thus receives a great part of the weight 
of the roofing. Over the nave of Whitwell Church, Rutland, is a roof of a somewhat 
similar construction ; the collar, however, is much lower down, and immediately under 
it is a purlin, which supports the rafters, and is itself carried on struts framed into 
the beam, as at Adel : these struts are further strengthened by smaller ones, framed 
from them into the tie-beam, and following veiy nearly the rake of the roof There 
is a continuous plate inside ; and another would probably be found, almost flush with 
the external wall, in accordance with what seems to have been then a very general 
practice. All the timbers are very roughly worked ; indeed, cutting ofi" the projecting 



* Such an important subject requires a more extensive and careful illustration than the limits of the " Analysis" 
permitted ; the authors have therefore devoted a separate volume to its consideration — the work is now in the press, 
and they hope very shortly to be able to lay before the publick the fruits of their researches. 

t In all ancient roofs the tie-beam was employed to hold the walls together ; and in addition generally carried 
the greater part of the weight, which was brought down on to it by the king post and struts ; being the reverse of 
the present principle by which the king post is employed to tie it up. 



, 



92 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE.. 

knobs and branches seems to have been aU the finish that has been bestowed upon 
them. Yet even in very early examples we sometimes meet with a certain degree of 
embellishment, evincing careful workmanship : one of the beams of the Norman roof 
remains in Old Shoreham Church, Sussex, and is enriched with a billet molding ; and 
other instances are occasionally found in various parts of the country. 

The next advance in the framing of roofs, was to truss each rafter, sometimes by 
means of cross braces pinned into the two opposite rafters, and halved at the intersections, 
as in the example over the porch of Stuston Church, Suffolk ; (Section II. Woodwork, 
Plate 24,) or, as was more usually the case in roofs of considerable span, each rafter 
had a coUar, and was further stiffened by braces sometimes crossing above the coUar, and 
at other times tenoned into its underside. The foot of each rafter was so framed, as to 
assume the shape of a triangle, whose base generally was equal to the thickness of the 
wall on which it rested, and by this contrivance obtained an excellent hold : thus any 
danger from spreading was almost entirely obviated. These roofs have frequently only 
one plate, placed midway in the wall, the feet of the rafters being halved upon it; but 
sojmetimes they occur with an internal and external plate ; or, as at Heckington, with a 
central plate, and an internal one molded, and forming a slightly projecting cornice. 
Neither ridge pieces or purlins ever occur, and when they are not boarded, which is 
very frequently the case, it becomes quite a matter of surprise how such roofs should 
have held up so long. When not boarded, however, the trusses are generally out of the 
perpendicular, inclining either to the east or the west. In the earlier instances of this 
kind the tie-beam was still retained, and introduced at intervals in the length of the 
roof ; as in the example over the Chancel of Sandridge Church, Herts, which has a 
molded cornice projecting from the wall and carried on notch heads, and into which 
the tie-beam with similar moldings is framed. There are two ties in the length of the 
Chancel, with about twelve rafters between each.* It was not long, however, before 
the tie-beam was altogether omitted ; and the rafters, simply trussed, continued a 
favourite style of roofing with the Early English and Decorated architects. The rafters 
are generally from one foot six inches to two feet from centre to centre ; their scantling 
averaging about five inches by four. Remaining examples of these roofs are more numerous 
than any others, but in most cases they have been lathed and plastered. That in their 
original state they were occasionally boarded appears extremely probable ; though after aU, for 
picturesqueness and beauty, nothing can exceed the view of the riifters intricately crossing. 
Sometimes a trussed rafter roof spans both the nave and aisles, as in St. Michael's, Long 

* The roof over the nave of Clymping Church is an Early English construction, with internal and external 
•wall plates, and occasional tie-beams. See an engraving of it in the Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 75. 



ROOFS. 93 

Stanton, Cambridgeshire ; the rafters to the nave being continued down on to tlic side walls, 
and terminating in the usual triangularly framed foot 

Decorated roofs, however, far from being always of this simple descrijjtion, arc frequently 
of great beauty, and display considerable constructive knowledge in the framing of their 
principals, ridge, pm-lins, &c They may be considered under the two heads of tie-beam anil 
collar roofs. The former, perhaps, are the most frequent ; an excellent example remains in 
Adderbury Church, Oxfordshire, enriched with good and charactcristick moldings. Its 
framing may be described as a tie-beam supporting a king-post, from the four sides of which 
spring braces framed into the principals and ridge ; both principals and braces being foliated, 
produce an excellent effect. Other curved and molded braces are framed into the underside 
of the tie-beam, forming a pointed arch, and serving to bring the weight of the roof lower 
down on the walls. 

Higham Ferrars Church, Northamptonshire, also, has a good roof of Decorated date ; 
the tie-beam is very much cambered, and forms an arch with the curved braces which are 
framed into it, and spring from small shafts with caps and bases ; a king-post rests on the 
tie-beam, with braces supporting the ridge ; small struts also rest on the tie-beam, and vdth 
similar braces carry the purlins. The cornice and principal timbers are simply molded. An 
equally interesting specimen is the roof over the nave of Wimmington Church,* Beds, built 
by "^0^1% ©UrttgSf ilU0 iJe Mgrnington," who died in 1391. The Church remains 
almost entirely as first designed, and unquestionably the roof is of the same period. It con- 
sists of a cambered beam with foliated braces, earned as in Higham Ferrars on small shafts ; 
the ridge is also supported in the same manner as in this last-named Church, and so low is 
the pitch in this example, that the purlins rest directly on the tie-beam without any intervening 
.strut The spandrels between the beam and the curved braces are pierced with trefoils, t 

Of Decorated roofs without tie-beams, there is a simple yet beautiful example over the 
south aisle of Knighton Church, Leicestershire. It is of very bold construction : each truss 
consists of a pair of principals, which pitch on to a molded cornice-plate ; about midway is a 
collar also molded, with small curved braces framed from it into the principal ; on the collar 

* For an engraving of this roof, see Parish Churches, Vol. II. p. 93. 

t Ancient roofs, though characteristically acutely pointed, were by no means invariably so ; an angle of 90° was 
perhaps the most usual for Norman roofs, while Early English ones, although acutely pointed, are nevertheless 
rarely fomid of an equilateral pitch, or angle of 60° ; indeed, in this and the succeeding style, we occasionally meet 
with some, so remarkably low as to rival the flattest of the Perpendicular roofs ; such are those over the Early 
English Church at Warmington, Northants ; the interesting example from Polebrook Church, in the same coimty, is 
also very low. The Decorated roof over the south aisle of St. Martin's, Leicester, has a span of twentyone feet, 
with a rise of only four. The roofs in Wimmington and Higham Ferrars are both vety flat. The Perpendicular archi- 
tects gradually lowered their roofs, though in Norfolk and Suflblk many beautiful examples remain of noble pitch. 

C C 



94 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

lies the purlin, which is further strengthened and kept in its place by small curved braces, 
tenoned into the principal. There is a cai-ved flower under the centre of the collar, and carved 
heads projecting from the wall at the foot of each principal. There is a roof of a somewhat 
similar construction over the Chancel of St. Mary's Church, Leicester, with the addition, 
however, of wall pieces, into which the braces are framed. Over the large south aisle of St. 
Martin's Church,* in the same town, is a roof of very early Decorated character, and 
exceedingly interesting. Its construction is simply an enormous beam rising up to the ridge, 
and following the rake of the rafters : the underside is slightly curved in the centre, the curve 
being completed by means of the braces, so as to produce almost a semi-circular arch. These 
braces, and that part of the beam which enters into the curve are beautifully molded, as are 
likewise the ridge and cornice plates ; the former is partly carried on corbel heads tenoned 
into the tie-beam, into which also are framed the latter, the moldings at the junction being 
stopped with foHage ; the spandrels are filled with tracery. A peculiar and interesting 
feature in this roof are the figures which are carved out of the wall pieces and carry the 
curved braces ; they are about four feet in height, exceedingly well carved, and full of 
expression ; we might suppose them to be emblematical of some of the principal virtues, 
Humility, Patience, &c. 

The roof over the nave of Capel St. Mary's Church, Sufiblk, shows a great advance upon 
the examples we have already examined. Here we may first notice the introduction of that 
distinguishing feature of the Suffolk roofs, the hammer-beam. In this instance, the pitch is 
exactly at an angle of 90° ; the embattled collar, which is placed very high up, supports a 
strut or small king-post, into which the principals and ridge are framed ; a curved brace in 
two pieces is tenoned into the undersides of the collar and principal, and fixed with wooden 
pins ; and the foot of the brace is also framed into the hammer-beam. In these roofs the 
cornice is altogether difierently constructed, and answei-s a distinct purpose from that of 
previous examples, where it generally served as a plate for the rafters to pitch upon. In the 
roofs of Suffolk and Norfolk, it may be divided into three parts ; the lower one, usually 
consisting of a molded plank of three to four inches in thickness, is tenoned from hammer- 
beam to hammer-beam, to which it affords an additional lateral tie ; the centre one is either 
pierced with panelling or otherwise ornamented, not unfrequently with angels having 

* St. Martia's Church has two south aisles ; the roof over the larger one is a span roof, and the rafters from it 
are continued down over the smaller aisle, which is covered by a lean-to. The parishioners have lately, in the same 
hearty spirit which actuated their ancestors, reconstructed entirely, and with similar worthy materials, these two 
roofs, as well as that over the Chancel (a very fine and rich Perpendicular example) : in both cases, tlie originals 
having been minutely copied, as to scantlings and details. The old timbers on being taken down, were found to 
have been richly coloured ; why not fuUy carry out the restoration, and extend this enrichment to the new roofs 1 



ROOFS. 95 

expanded wings, aa at Knapton Church, Norfolk ; while the upper part like the lower is 
usually molded, and sometimes, as in Capel St. Mary's, becomes in fact an additional purlin, 
l^eing in every respect similarly treated. We may easily trace the origin of these cornices to 
a peculiarity in these two counties already referred to, namely, the absence of parapets ; for 
where eaves were used, the hammer-beams and rafters were carried very far back, and in 
some cases quite to the outer face of the wall, thus leaving a considerable space inside 
l)etween the wall plate under the hammer-beam and the soffit of the rafters. To fill this 
space with masonry would not only be a piece of useless construction, but it would also tend 
much to destroy the beauty of the design as a whole, by separating the hammer-beam from 
the remainder of the roof. This space was therefore cither left open, or the cornice was 
adopted as affording a legitimate mode of further enriching the roof, and at the same time 
giving it greater lateral strength. In Old Basing Church, Hampshire, in a. Perpendicular 
roof of rather peculiar construction, a similar difficulty has been met by the use of upright 
panelling ; the effect, however, is very inferior to the Suffolk arrangement. 

The example over the north aisle of Wymondham Church, Norfolk (Sect. II. Wood- 
work, Plates 17, 18, 19), exhibits the hammer-beam roof in its fullest development The 
most usual way of framing these roofs may be briefly described as follows : a hammer-beam 
is bedded on a plate, and extends sometimes almost to the outer face of the wall, while 
internally its projection varies perhaps from one-fifth to one-sixth of the width of the opening ; 
a wall piece is framed into its underside, and is generally, though not of necessity, carried on 
a corbel ; the weight on the hammer-beam is brought down to the wall piece by meana of the 
curved or spandrel brace, which is tenoned and pinned to the soffit of the former, and in a 
similar manner is also fixed to the latter. A strut rising firom the extreme end of the 
hammer-beam, supports the principal, which is tied in by the collar, and further strengthened 
by curved braces which bind it to the collar and supporting strut : the whole framing is thus 
perfectly secured. The Wymondham roof presents a curious variety, for the collar is rather ' 
daringly dispensed with, and at the summit is a large wedge-like piece of wood, into which 
are tenoned the extremities of the principals and ridge. The sides of the roof are di\-ided 
into compartments by three purlins and an intermediate principal, and are enriched with 
foliated panels ; the tracery in the spandrels is also very varied, many of the designs produced 
being of exceeding beauty : eight specimens are given in plate 19 ; in one of them we may 
notice the crowned M. These tracery panels rarely exceeded an inch in thickness, and the 
pattern is merely pierced thi-ough, or with the edges chamfered, as in the examples before us, 
but with no eyes to the cusps. Very beautifully carved bosses cover the intersections of the 
principal timbers. In this roof we may notice the introduction of wall braces, uniting and 
stiffening the cornice and wall pieces. 



96 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

In Grundisburg Church, Suffolk (Section 11. Woodwork, Plates 26 and 27), we find a 
double range of hammer-beams, one above the other : the principle of the construction, hoM^- 
ever, is precisely the same, but with a proportionate increase in rich effect. The king-posts 
are beautifully wrought into figures of angels with outspread wings, and others also with 
expanded wings are placed at the feet of the waU pieces, and at the extremities of the lower 
hammer-beams. The effect produced by this host of angels, leaning forward from their airy 
height, is grand and solemn almost beyond description. In the example over Knapton 
Church, which is also a double hammer-beam roof, the ahgels representing the heavenly 
choii', hold in their hands instruments of musick, or some holy texts or symbols. Tnmch 
Church, also in Norfolk, has a magnificent roof over the nave, without a coUar, being merely 
tied in by the curved braces ; its tracery spandi'els are of the most elaborate richness. Wool- 
pit Church, in Suflfolk, has a most glorious double hammer-beam roof;* every part of it is 
profusely ornamented ; the rafters and purlins are richly molded ; rows of strawberry leaf 
divide the cornice, and angels, applied to the extremities of aU the hammer-beams, seem 
hovering midway in the air on their extended wings. The lower parts of the waU pieces are 
also worked into niches, filled with figures of saints, over whose heads are suspended 
elaborately carved canopies. The splendour of the roof of St. Mary's, at Bury, is too well 
known to need description. 

In another kind more frequently met with in the Midland Counties, and also in Devon- 
shire and Somersetshire, the tie-beam once more becomes an important constructive feature. 
A highly enriched example occurs in Cirencester Church ; the braces under the tie-beam are 
double-cusped and have foliated spandrels ; the wall braces are of the same elaborate descrip- 
tion ; the tie-beam itself is finely molded with a deep casement filled with flowers ; and in fact 
every part susceptible of enrichment has received it in a high degree. 

As the Perpendicular period drew to a close, the expiring genius of Gothick art exhibited 
itself in the roofs no less than in all other parts of the sacred Edifice. They were then made 
exceedingly flat, and what was missing in constructive skill was sought to be remedied and 
replaced by crowded, but frequently ill-executed, ornament. Such an example occurs over 
the north chapel of Wellingborough Church, Northamptonshire. 

Many other specimens of roofs might be adduced, for the variety is almost infinite, but 
we have already exceeded the limits which we proposed in the present work to devote to this 
interesting subject ; and therefore, in conclusion, we wUl briefly sum up the most striking 
points concerning those ancient constructions : — 1st, we may be sure that a vigilant search 
would prove Decorated and Early English roofs to be yet remaining in tolerable abundance, 
and that even Norman specimens are not wanting ; 2nd, that their j)itch varied from an angle 

* For an engraving of this roof, see Parish Churches, Vol. I., p. 49. 



WOODWORK. 97 

of 90° to one of 60°, rarely exceeding the latter, but not unfrequently, even in Early English 
examplea, very much below the former, and that tie-beams are common to the roofe of all the 
different periods ; 3rd, that the various timbers were simply tenoned and pinned together ; 
4th, that the purlins, in lieu of lying over the principals, as in a modem roof, are invariably 
framed into them, thus allowing the rafters to lie flush with the tops of the principals ; and 
finally, that in common with all the other accessories of a Chiirch, these elaborate and 
splendid works were richly coloured and gilded Perhaps even now, most examples, if cloeely 
examined, Avould still present some lingering marks of their past splendour. And, before 
leaving the subject, we would fain raise our humble voice, urgently pleatling for the careful 
restoration of these truly national glories : for after all, none other than our own oak-bearing 
land can boast of roofs such as those that abound with us, either in beauty or boldness of 
execution. But while we would urge their restorations as peculiarly national works, let not 
the pressing necessity of such a course be forgotten. None but those who have devoted close 
attention to the subject, climbing the ladders and bestowing a careful and minute inspection, 
can form an idea of the effect produced by nearly four centuries of neglect and decay. A few 
years must assuredly witness the restoration, or total destruction, of many most exquisite 
roofs, — pious legacies of our forefathers. 

The general arrangement of the old seats in our Churches will be sufficiently understood 
from an examination of the plates ; for notwithstanding that they were frequently profusely 
ornamented, the actual construction and disposition ever remained the same, and consisted 
of a continuous sill laid along the floor, into which the bench ends were stubbed, the seats 
being supported on brackets placed at intervals, with the backs either terminating level with 
the seats, or carried down to the floor ; the book board was placed but little higher than the 
seat, and never slanting ; it was, in fact, simply a ledge to lay the book on when not in use. 

Great Waltham Church retains almost aU its old seats in very good preservation ; their 
arrangement and details are shown in Plate I. of Section II. Woodwork The sill is molded 
as was almost always the case, and the bench ends are ornamented with small buttresses, in 
this instance cut out of the solid, and some very excellent tracery panels, all varying more 
or less one from the other ; a selection of the most beautiful is given in Plates 2 and 3. 
The top of the bench ends is capped with a molding, also carried round the ba<;ks which 
finish level with the underside of the seata In Comberton Church, Cambridgeshire, we 
find the same description of seat, but very much more highly enriched ; here the backs are 
continued down to the floor, and framed into a cross siU. The square bench end was also 
generally adopted in Devonshire and Somersetshire. Bishop's Lydeard, Trull, and Crowcombe 
Churches are stiU filled with very beautiful seats, though they are all of late workmanship. 
Several examples are given in Section II. Woodwork, Plate 31. The date of those in 

1) D 



98 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

Crowcombe Church (1534) is carved on one of them in conjunction with some initials, having 
probably reference to the name of the donor. 

At other times, and especially in Norfolk and Suffolk, the bench ends were ogeed, and 
finished with finials,* affording the carver opportunities for the freest display of his 
imagination, which indeed appears to have been most wonderfully prolifick, for not only 
were two finials rarely found alike in the same Church, but even the two sides were generally 
different. St. Mary's Stratton, in Norfolk, would furnish nearly one hundred distinct 
patterns ; nor is this a solitary case. Thirteen varieties are given in Plates 6, 16, 20, and 
30. The peculiar form common to most finials is supposed by some t to be derived from 
the fleur de lis, both a religious emblem and a royal heraldick charge. Poppy, or poppy 
head, the more correct term for designating these wooden " Crops," would appear to be 
derived from the frequent custom of working the terminations into figures of priests, warriors, 
&c. Ketton Church, Rutland, furnishes many beautiful specimens of this description ; in 
one instance a bishop is represented in his pulpit. Grundisburgh Church, Suffolk, has some 
fine examples of ogeed bench ends richly panelled, though of rather late date and exhibiting a 
declining taste. The bench ends in the Church of St. Mary's WiggenhaU, Norfolk, are of the 
most elaborate splendour ; they are ogeed and finished with a poppy head, supported on 
either side by figures, while another figure occupies a niche in the panel. 

The Chancel screen, a no less beautiful than necessary appmtenance, yet remains in 
many of the remote village Churches of Norfolk in almost all its original splendour. Though 
the carver exhausted on it the resources of his wonderful art, still was it not considered com- 
plete and worthy of its piirpose, until it had been made to glow with the richest colours and 
gilding. To delineate the delicacy of the tracery, without at the same time supplying the rich 
tints of the coloiu-, is to deprive the design of a principal part of its beauty ; the aid of poly- 
chromy, eagerly acknowledged in all parts of the Church, in the case of screens more especially, 
was considered essential. Scriptural texts were constantly introduced in the cornice, and 
sometimes, as in Bishop's Lydeard, the whole of the Creed filled the casement. On the 
lower panels were customarily painted the holy Apostles, or other Saints and Martyi-s. But 
a few specimens of screens have been given, for, to do them justice, a whole work should be 
devoted to the subject : and we much hope that such a one will soon be undertaken, — one in 

* This word is singularly degenerated from its original and proper meaning : its present sense however is now 
so universally adopted, that we must almost despair of seeing the ahuse corrected. The ancient " fynyall" always 
represented the entire pinnacle, while the crap is the legitimate term for the bunch of foliage terminating the fynyall ; 
"et altitudo a le gargayle usque le crop qui finit le stone-work 31 pedes," see Willis's Nomenclature of the Middle 
Ages. 

+ See Ecclesiclogist, Vol. V. p. 209. 



WOODWORK. 99 

which shall be depicted, not only the architectural beauties, but ako the polychronmtick 

effects. An interesting example of a Decorated screen from Waltham Abbey Church is given 

in Section II. Woodwork, Plate 7 ; its proportions are exceedingly massive, and its moldings 

very characteristick. Other examples of Decorated woodwork, selected from screens in 

Bottlsham Church, Cambridgeshire, are given in Plate 14 : a spandrel piece in this pkte is 

remarkable for the beauty and triangularity of its design. In Pkto 21, is a selection of 

panel heads from a very beautiful screen lately in Cheater Cathedral, but which we understand 

to have been destroyed since our drawings were made. Barton Church, Cambridgeahire, 

(Section II. Woodwork, Plate 10,) has a very beautiful Chancel screen in good preservation, 

the doors alone being missing. The carving in this example is particularly well executed ; 

some of the crockets, spandrels, and cusps terminations are given in Plate 1 1. The lower 

panels of the doors to the screen in WeUs Cathedral (Section II. Woodwork, Plate 8,) have 

some very rich tracery, in which the equilateral triangle, as the groundwork of the formation, 

is made very apparent. 

The construction of the Doors was always of the most solid description ; early examples 
however, never display any carved work, owing to the general practice of those times of intro- 
ducing ironwork in the design ; at once a strengthening and a beautiful enrichment Some few 
Norman doors are yet existing ; their framing is exceedingly rude, and they derive their great 
strength from the ironwork with which they are banded. Such is the example in Sempring- 
ham Church, Lincolnshire, (Section I. Norman, Plate 6), where the material, strange to say, 
is deal.* Towards the close of the Early English period, ornamental ironwork began to fall 
into disuse, although tracery was hardly yet introduced. St Margaret's Chapel, Herts, has 
a very good and perfect specimen of an early Decorated door : it consists of battens slightly 
raised towards the centre, which are tongued into each other, and divided by molded ribs cut 
out of the solid. These panels are strengthened and tied together by cross pieces placed 
inside, and nailed through to the outer face : the entire thickness is three inches and a half. 
Milton Church, Kent, (Section I. Decorated, Plate 14), has a door precisely of this descrip- 
tion. In North Mimms Church, (Section I. Decorated, Plate 25,) the door is similarly 
framed, but without the raised panels. Rushden Church, Northamptonshire, has a Decorated 
example, where the head brace is elegantly shaped into an ogeed trefoil The south door of 
Holbeach Church is a beautiful and perfect specimen of Decorated woodwork ; its framing 
and details are minutely described, and wUl be best understood by reference to the Plate 10, 
in Section I. Decorated. Stoke Church, Suffolk, has a magnificent door, probably un- 

* Only one other instance has come under the notice of the authors, where this material has been preferred to 
oak, namely, the doors to the chapter house at York, which are of later date, but also profusely enriched with iron- 
work. 



100 



ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK AECHITECTURE. 



surpassed in ricliness ; tracery, moldings, figures of saints, and canopies, all of the most 
costly workmanship, cover the entire surface. 

Many perfect and elaborate examples of Perpendicular doors remain : the one in 
Deopham Church is transitional from Decorated, and has some good flowing tracery in 
the head. The Abbey Church of St. Alban contains many beautiful Perpendicular speci- 
mens ; one of them is represented at large in Section II. Woodwork, Plate 4. Other 
instances will be found in Section I. Perpendicular, Plates 6, 1 7, 20, and in Section I. Early 
English, Plate 23. 

Porches were frequently budt of oak, and Decorated and Perpendicular examples are 
even now very numerous. The south porch of Aldham Chixrch, Essex, is illustrated in 
Section I. Woodwork, Plates 12, and 13. The accompanying plans and sections will 
sufficiently explain the construction, which was very similar in all cases. 

Plates 9, 25, 28, and 30, illustrate different specimens of strings, bosses, spandrels, and 
cusps terminations, aU exhibiting in a high degree the talent and taste of the artificer. The 
bosses from Hashngfield Church, in Plate 28, are situated at the intersections of the principal 
timbers of an interesting Decorated roof, remarkable for the beauty of its moldings. 



METALWOEK. 




NDIFFERENCE and cupidity on the one hand, and the ravages of time on 
the other, have despoiled our Churches of the greater part of their ancient 
ironwork ; enough remains, however, to show that in the treatment of it, 
difficult as it is to work, the same care and patient attention was devoted ,as 
was bestowed upon all other materials entering into the composition of the 
sacred Fabrick. The Norman Architects frequently displayed the greatest ingenuity in this 
branch of art. In St. Alban's Abbey Church are some hinges of that early period ; two of 
them are engraved in Plates 1 and 9, of Section II. Metalwork. That in Plate 1 has the 
strap continued quite through and is finished with an ornamental termination, a portion of 
which only now remains : in the second example, in Plate 9, the strap terminates with the 
commencement of the JscroU work. The knob at the welding point is fashioned into the head 
of a serpent ; this device, with jaws extended, also occurs at the ends of some of the scrolls, 
is in high relief, and exceedingly well executed considering the nature of the material. In 
both these examples the surface is enriched with a kind of chevron, easily produced with the 



METALWORK. 101 

chisel ; the thickness of the metal is three-eighths of an inch at the commencement, and i» 
gradually brought down to one-eighth towards the extremity. A most valuahle and perfect 
specimen of Norman ironwork is to be found in Sempringham Church, Lincolnshire. The 
entire door is represented in Section I. Norman, Plate 6, and a portion of the ironwork to a 
larger scale in Plate 5 of Metalwork. The north door of St Margaret's Church, Leiceater, 
is also covered with some very early work ; the design is rather fantastick, and conaists of 
top and bottom hinge, in which, as at St Alban's, we may notice the terminating serpents' 
heads ; and between the two hinges is a radiating centre-piece of eight branches ; the whole 
being enclosed in an ornamental border, a& in Sempringham. 

The art of working this metal, however, wa.s as yet but in its infancy ; the Early English 
Ai'chitects rapidly improved it, and, perhaps, brought it to the highest degree of perfection 
attained during the Middle Ages ; for if the finish of the workmanship was not quite so great 
as in subsequent periods, the freedom and beauty of the design were incomparably superior. 
Numerous examples of doors covered with the elegant scroll work of this age are yet 
remaining in different parts of the country. The example from St Maj^s, Norwich, is most 
excellent, and in a very perfect state ; it is represented in Plate 8, with several of the 
ornamental parts at large. The broad and enriched Norman border, which we have noticed, 
is here restricted to a very narrow strip, nailed at intervals. No less beautiful and perfect is 
the work on the south door of Eaton Bray Church, Bedfordshire (Plate 11). That which is 
spread over the doors of the Chapter House at York, is merely used as a stiffener, the hinges 
being kept quite distinct The design and execution of this example (see Plate 6), are quite 
worthy of the extreme beauty of the Budding to which it is attached. The raised boss for 
the closing ring is very ingeniously managed ; the narrow border strip occurs here as in 
St Mary's, NorMdch. The doors to a closet in Chester Cathedral belong also to this class of 
ironwork. They are divided into four panels, which division is made apparent in the different 
designs of the scroll work ; they are all exceedingly graceful, and of the most finislied work- 
mansliip. The details which are appended (see Plate 4), exhibit some of the varieties of the 
terminations, and also the junctions of the several scroUs, which are cleverly managed, a leaf 
generally lapping over to hide the welding point In all these examples we may remark, 
that the small branches invariably proceed from the outer side of the scroU ; the section of 
the scroll is sometimes raised to an arris, as in Chester Cathedral, or with a channel sunk on 
it as in York Chapter House. 

Many plainer examples of hinges are dispersed throughout the accompanying plates : a 
very good one from Market Deeping is engraved in Plate 9. In the same plate is given a 
very elaborate stiffener from Tunstead Chui-ch, and also one of a plainer description from 
Great Casterton Church. Sometimes the closing ring was so enlarged as to answer both as a 

E E 



102 ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 

ring and a tie to the door ; as in the examples from Aldham Church, Essex (Plate 5) ; St. 
Mary's, Norwich (Plate 8) ; and Filby Church (Plate 13). 

The closing ring, or door latch, was generally more or less enriched, even when the 
remainder of the ironwork to the door was left quite plain. Examples of all kinds are very 
abundant ; they generally consist of three parts : the flat plate or washer, fixed to the outer 
surface of the door ; the handle or ring ; and the spindle to which it is attached, which, passing 
through the door, is fixed to the latch inside. The plate is susceptible of great richness, and 
occurs from the simply indented pattern in the Churches of Diss, and Bapchild (Plate 7), to 
the highly ornamented examples in Eye and Martham Churches* (Plates 5 and 12). The 
most usual construction is shown in Plate 5, where a flat plate, slightly raised in the centre, 
to allow of the handle hanging clear, has two rims of metal variously em-iched applied to its 
surface ; and the whole is firmly fixed to the door with nails having heads ornamented in 
keeping with the rest. In Martham, the washer is further enriched by being pierced with 
tracery. The ring was not so generally ornamented ; very frequently it consisted simply of a 
plain circle, or it was elongated, as at Exton and Haconby Churches (Plates 7 and 12) ; at 
Ashby, St. Leger's, it assumes a trefoiled shape and is slightly ornamented, while at St. 
Alban's two serpents twine round it. A good effect was frequently produced, as at 
Floore Church (Plate 9), by simply forming the ring out of a square bar of iron twisted. 
The closing ring in Plate 12, from St. Nicholas, Gloucester, is an extraordinary specimen of 
the smith's art. Even the key plate was frequently made an ornamental feature, and helped 
to carry out the general richness of the whole door. At Martham Church (Plate 13), is a 
very elaborate specimen enriched with tracery ; Westminster Abbey Church has also some 
good specimens (Plate 2), and in Diss Church, Norfolk, (Plate 7,) there is one of a triangular 
shape, and finished with serpents' heads at the angles. The termination of the stancheon in 
the ironwork of the windows was occasionally ornamented, sometimes being finished with a 
kind of fleur de lis, as at Rushden (Plate 13), or with tracery heads as at Potterspury (in the 
same plate), or with a bunch of oak leaves and acorns, as at Eyworth Church, Bedfordshire, 
or simply twisted as at Rothley, Leicestershu-e. 

The few examples that remain of the radings round monuments, are generally characteris- 
tick of the time of their erection. Some specimens of this kind are still preserved in Arundel 
Chiu-ch. The tomb of the Black Prince at Canterbury also retains its original railing 
enriched with various devices. Queen Eleanor's tomb was formerly protected by a most 
costly and elaborate piece of metalwork, consisting of scrolls and flowers, pecuhar to the 
period (1292) : though removed from its proper position, this beautiful work of art still 

* Wlien enriched with tracery, a piece of crimson cloth was frequently placed between the door and the plate, 
better to show off the design of the foliations; this cloth sometimes remains. 



METALWORK. 103 

remains in the Abbey. The doora into the Chantry of Henry V. were formed of cross barH 
of iron bolted together at each iuteraection : a screen of this description remains in goo<l 
preservation in St. Alban's Abbey Church, a portion of which is reprcsj-nted in Plat<; 13. In 
the same plate is given another piece of screen work also from St. Alban'a 

In thus bringing the Analysis to a close, we wUl candidly admit that our researches liave 
furnished us with many more subjects that we would most gladly have transferred to itH 
pages, had our prescribed limits pennitted. 

For the sake of vaiious beautiful examples, we would fain have extended our work into 
greater detail and more elaborate illustration, but we have borne in mind the terms of our 
prospectus, and have endeavoured to adhere to it as closely as possible. Besides, the pos- 
session of the most voluminous collection of Examples will never make a Church Architect ; 
something more than books is necessary. Let him who would aspire to the honourable 
title, go and minutely examine and study the Buildings themselves ; there is hardly a 
village Church, however unpretending, but will furnish some information to the diligent 

inquirer ; for, 

"Yet do the structures of our fathers' age 
Shame the weak efforts of art's latest stage." 



THE END. 



INDEX TO CHURCHES REFERRED TO. 





BEDFOEDSHIEE. 






DERBYSHIRE. 




Dunstable, 

Eaton Bray 

E3-worth 

Famdish 

Felmarsham 

Wootton 

Wimmington 


. 64, 75, 76, 


63 
80, 

77," 79 


PAOI 

,82 

101 

102 

33 

,82 

60 

93 


Ashbome 
Dronfield 
Eepton 

DEVONSHIRE. 


PAOI 

32 
83 
18 




BEEKSHIRE. 






Exeter Cathedral 


27 


Hurley 
Lyddington 
Shefford 
Uffington 


BUCKINGHAMSHIEE. 


• 


90 
28 
89 
66 


DORSETSHIRE 
Beaminster 

DURHAM. 


85 


Chesham 
Stoke Pogis 


. 




74 
18 


Hartlepool 

Houghton-le-Spring 

Merrington 


78 

22, 31 

62 



CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 



Barnwell 


18 


Barton 


99 


Bottisham . . 28, 36, 


45, 57, 80, 83, 99 


Comberton 


97 


Conventual Buildings, Ely 


39 


Ely Cathedral 


2,35 


Fen Ditton 


. 51, 65, 67, 83 


Haslingfield 


88, 100 


Histon 


36, 81 


Stourbridge 


13, 81 


St. Michael's, Long Stanton 


18, 78, 92 


Trumpington 


24, 43, 76, 80 



Chester Cathedral 



St. Germain'.s 



CHESTER 



CORNWALL. 



99, 101 



62 



CUMBERLAND. 
Carlisle Cathedral 



28 



ESSEX. 

Aldham . . 100, 102 

All Saints, Colchester . . 83 

Bradwell . . . .46 

Castle Hedingham . . . 14 

Eoydon . . 27, 34 

St. Botolph's Priory Church, Colchester . 14 

St. Nicholas, Colchester . . 42 

Waltham Abbey Church 12, 13, 14, 39, 46, 52, 56, 39 

Great Waltham . . .97 

Weald . . . . 49, 62 



GLOUCESTERSHIRK 



Badgeworth 


. 37, 69, 86, 87 


Bamwood 


15, 18, 72, 87 


Bibeiy 


62 


Bitton 


87 


Brockworth 


17 


Cirencester 


96 


Churchdown 


24, 87 


Gloucester Cathedral 


28 


Leckhampton 


34, 40 


St. Mary Magdalen 


61 


St. Nicholas, Gloucester 


. 102 



FF 



106 



INDEX TO CHURCHES REFERRED TO. 



HAMPSHIRE. 



Arreton 

Basingstoke 

Old Basing 

Nately 

Eomsey Abbey . 

St. Cross . 

St. Mary's, Easton 

Winchester Cathedral 

"VVinnal Magdalen 



Leominster 



HEEEFOEDSHIEE. 



HEETFOEDSHIEE. 



21 

74 

95 

12, 62 

13, 15, 57 

13, U, 15, 65 

49 

13, 31, 32, 33 

20 



28 



North Mimms . . .52, 68, 69, 99 

St Alban's Abbey 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 3.<5, 
35, 39, 44, 45, 46,53,67,71,80,81, 100,101,102,103 
Sandridge . . .58, 79, 92 

Sawbridgeworth . . 27, 28 

St. Margaret's Chapel . . 44, 59, 99 

Wheathampstead . . 30, 31 



Galway 

St. Patrick, Dublin 



lEELAND. 



KENT. 



Bapchild . 

Barfreston 

Canterbury Cathedral 

Chartham 

Cobham . 

Darenth 

Hartley 

Headcorn 

Heme 

Hythe 

Meopham 

Milton 

Northfleet . 24, 27, 

Orpington Church 

Patrixbourne 

Shorno 

Southfleet . 24, 27, 28, 34, 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital Chapel 

St. Margaret at Cliffe 

St. Mary's Cray 

St. Nicholas Harbledown . 

Stone . , 

Sutton at Hone 

Thannington 



89 
ib. 



59, 102 

14 

15, 47, 82, 102 

28, 57 

54 

12 

18 

32 

24, 26, 33, 37, 43 

18 

21, 23, 36, 43, 65 

. 66, 68, 66, 99 

41, 42, 44, 45, 51 

54, 62 

14 

17, 41, 73 

37, 41, 43, 56, 85 

19, 54 

3.5, 62, 82 

37 

34, 43, 79 

81 

70 

33 



LEICESTEESHIEE. 



Belgrave 

Bothley 

Dunton Basset 

Evington 

Godeby Maureward 



21, 28 

24 
21, 25, 33, 86 

88 



Humberstone 


. 36, 38, 40, 89 


Knighton 


93 


Leir . 


74 


Melton Mowbray 


36 


Oadby 


58, 70, 88 


Over Claybrook 


85 


Eothley 


. 102 


St. Margaret's, Leicester 


38, 82, 84, 101 



St. Martin's . 39, 50, 51, 57, 63, 80, 90, 93, 94 
St. Mary's Hospital Chapel, Leicester . 18 

St. Mary's . . . .94 

Staunton Harold . . . 85 

LINCOLNSHIEE. 



All Saints', Stamford 




81 


Bicker 




34, 57 


Billinborough . 




27, 33 


Croyland . 




15 


Donnington 




85 


Ewerby 


. 40, 


68, 76, 85, 89 


Fishtoft 




27 


Fleet 




. 40, 59, 85 


Grantham 




23, 40 


Haconby . 




102 


Heckington 


29, 


69, 70, 86, 92 


Helpringham 




88 


Holbeach 


44, 46, 


67, 69, 83, 99 


Lincoln Cathedral 




. 2, 16, 35 


Louth 




85, 87, 88 


Market Deeping 




101 


Morton 




. 80, 88 


Sempringham 




62, 99, 100 


Sleaford 




26, 29, 45, 46 


St. Leonard's, Stamford 




63 


St. Mary's, Stamford 




58, 81, 87 


Stow 




12 


Sutterton 




86 


Swatton . 




51, 67 


Thurlby 




81 


Weston . 




89 



Llanabar 



MEEIONETHSHIEE. 



MIDDLESEX. 



18 



St. Etheldreda's Chapel, Ely Place, Holbom 57 

St. Margaret's, Westminster . . 54 

Temple Church, London . .63 

Westminster Abbey 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 29, 32, 33, 44, 
54, 63, 65, 81, 82, 102, 103 





NOEFOLK. 




Besthorpe . 




84 


Blakeney 


. 


20, 33, 84 


Brandon • 




34, 70 


Castle Eisirig . 


, 


13 


Cley 


, 


36, 67, 68, 88 


ColtishaU 




71, 72, 73, 74,81 


Deopham . 


. ' 33, 


69, 85, 86, 87, 100 


Diss 




. 102 


Filby 


, 


. 36, 86, 102 


Gunthorpe 


. 


88 



INDEX TO CHURCHES REFERRED TO. 



107 







PAOE 


Hinghain 


4: 


!, 64, 66, 86, 88 


Hunworth 




38, 81 


Kenuinghall 




81 


Kuapton . 




95, 96 


Little Snoring . 




62 


Ludhani . 




88 


Martham 




85, 86, 87, 102 


Mcthwold . 




88 


New Walsingham 




84,90 


Norwich Cathedral . 




13 


Eepps 




37 


St. Mary Magdalen, Wiggonhall 




. 32,62,98 


St. Jfary's, Norwich 




88, 101, 102 


St. Mary'.s, Stratton 




98 


St. Nicholas at Lynn 




31,44 


Stody 




88 


Stoke Ferry 




88 


Trunch . 




. 75,88,96 


Tun stead 




31, 54, 55, 101 


Walsoken . 




90 


Winterton 




39 


Worstead . 


55 


, 69, 72, 85, 90 


Wymondhani . 




95 


NOEMANDY. 






Desecrated Church at Eouen . 




30 


St. Ouen at Eouen 


• 


7 


NOETHAMPTONSniEE. 


Achurch . 




. 39,82,85 


Aldwinkle 




22, 34, 38, 70 


Ashby St. Leger's 




32, 102 


Baruack 




. 29, 87 


Barnwell . . 37, 38, 


45, 


64, 78, 85, 89 


Byfield 




. 68 


Cottinghani 




27, 35 


Cranl'ord St. John 




87 


Cransley . 




74 


Crick 




34, 68, 70 


Duddington 




37, 40 


Etton 




18, 20, 22, 85 


Flooro 




102 


Fotheringay 




9 


Glapthorne 




21 


Gosgrove 




56 


Highani Ferrars 


65, 


66, 76, 86, 93 


Islip 




73 


King's Sutton 




31 


Loddington 




66 


Oundle . 




. 17, 20, 22 


Peakirk 




88 


Polebrook 




. 81, 86, 93 


Potterspury 




74, 102 


Pytchley . 




83 


Eaunds . . 36, 


37, 


65, 76, 78, 81 


Eingstead 




18, 27 


Eothwell 




65 


Eushden . 




. 99, 102 


Eushton Park Lodge 




47 


Stanwick . 




18, 85 


Stoke Albany . 




23,43 


St. Peter's, Northampton 




. 35, 56, 82 


Tich march 




56, 81 


Towcester 




72, 83 


Warmington . .19, 20, 


35, 


40, 64, 78, 93 


VVeekley . 




. 39, 76, 79 





PAOB 


Wellingborough 


27, 96 


Werrington 


19 


Woodford 


64 


Wooton 


24 


NOTTINGUAMSHIKE 




Newark . 


44 


Southwell Minster 


13, 16, 35 


OXFORDSHIRE. 




AdJorbury 


93 


Bloxham 


15 


Charlton-on-Otraoor . 


31 


Dorchester 


29 


Fritwell . 


49 


Garsington 


36 


Great Milton 


36 


Iffley . . 13, 14, 37, 50, 62 


Magdalen College Chapel 


38 


Merton College Chapel 


. 29, 32 


Middleton Stoney 


61 


Newington 


40 


Northleigh 


62 


0.xford Cathedral 


. 13, 14 


Stanton Harcourt 


19 


Stanton St. John 


. 36, 42 


St. Mary's Church, Oxford 


32 


RUTLANDSHIRE. 




Ayston 


85 


Edith Westion 


38, 87 


Essendino 


61 


Exton 


102 


Great Casterton . .17 


18, 19. 101 


Ketton . . 58. 63. 81. 98 


Little Casterton 


10, 18, 88 


Manton 


17, 18 


Oakham 


88 


Eyall .... 


84 


TinwcU 


19, 20, 87 


Whitwell .... 


78, 88, 91 


Wissendlne 


51 


SHROPSHIRE. 




Acton Bunnell 


77 


Buildwas Abbey 


15 


Ludlow .... 


85 


SOMERSETSHIRK 




Bishop's Lydeard . 34, 36, 38, 8J 


, 86, 97, 98 


Crowcombe 


97 


Monksilver 


35 


Orchardleigh 


89 


St. James's Church, Bristol 


14 


St. Joseph's Chapel, Glastonbury 


15 


St. Mary, Redclyfife, Bristol 


. 37, 85 


St. Mary's, Taunton . 


85 


Trent 


27 


Trull .... 


97 


Wells Cathedral 


99 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 



Leek 



42 



108 



INDEX TO CHUECHES EEFEERED TO. 





SUFFOLK. 






PAGE 






PAGE 


Steyning 


12, 13, 35 


Capel St. Mary's 


. 


. 42, 94, 95 


Tangmere 


12, 17, 18 


Debenham 




83 


Westhamptnet 


33 


Eye 


. 


102 






Great Wenliam 




18, 20, 24, 40, 90 






Grundisburg 


. 


. 75, 96, 98 


WAEWICKSHIEE. 




Holton St. Mary's 




27 






Lavenham 


36, 50, 55, 72, 


75, 80, 81, 84, 86 


Beaudesert 


13 


Little Wenham 




18, 43, 82 


Holy Trinity, Coventry 


85 


Long Melford 


. 


36 


Knowle .... 


85 


Polstead 




79 


Temple BalsaU 


33 


Eaydon 




23, 33, 82 






Eedgrave 




29, 83, 90 






Kickenhall 


, , 


24, 85 


WILTSHIRE. 




St. Mary's, Bury 




96 






St. Mary, Stratford 


, 


31, 55, 84, 86 


Codford St. Mary's . 


49,76 


Stoke 




99 


Malmsbury Abbey Church 


15, 50, 62 


Stuston 


, , 


92 


Salisbury Cathedral 


35, 65 


Woolpit 


SUEREY. 


96 


South Newton . 

St. John's Church, Devizes 

Wichlbrd 


18 
37 
88 


Bishop's Palace, Southwark 


42 


WOECESTERSHIEK 




Merstham 




. 64, 75, 81, 89 






Oakham . 


, , 


20 


Abbot's Tower, Eversham 


81 


Shiere 


SUSSEX. 


. 89 


YORKSHIRE. 
Adel 


. 76, 91 


Arundel 


, 


. 102 


Beverley Minster 


32,82 


Boxgrove 


, 


79 


Bubwith 


76 


Chichester Cathedra 


. 


14, 42, 82 


Fountain's Abbey 


15 


Clymping 12, 17, 


18, 34, 38, 54, 


78, 82, 86, 90, 92 


Hedon 


90 


Hangleton 




20 


Holy Trinity, Hull . 


42 


Keymer 


. 


. 34, 76 


Howden 


27 


I.,indlield 


. 


. 37, 55, 80 


Eipon Cathedral 


lb. 


New Haven 


, 


37 


Eivaulx Abbey 


2 


New Shoreham 


. 


14, 52, 77, 81 


Eudston .... 


27 


Old Shoreham . 


. 


92 


Selby Abbey 


29 


Ovingdean 


, 


76 


Skelton . . 55 


, 60, 66, 78 


Piecombe 


, 


76 


St. George's, Doncaster 


38, 85, 87 


Portslade 




18 


St. Patrick's, Patrington 


52 


Preston 


. 


78 


Whitby Abbey 


2, 19, 28 


Southease 


, 


12 


York Cathedral . .17, 28, 33, 


66, 99, 101 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS (4 



WINDOWS. 



Waltham Abbey Church 

Interior of same 

Darent Churcli, Kent 

Tangmero Churcli, Sussex 

Waltham Abbey Church 

New Haven, Sussex 
*Southcase Church, Sussex 
'Stourbridge, Cambridgeshire 
*Nately, Hampshire 
'Interior of same 
*Waltham Abbey Church 

Clymi)ing, Sussex 
*New Shoreham, Sussex 

Stoke Pogis, Bucks 

Great Wenham, Suffolk 

Shome, Kent 

Ovington, Hampshire 

Eastwick, Herts 

Wivelsfield, Sussex 

Lindfield, Sussex 

Clympiiig, Sussex 

Hangleton, Sussex 

Lindfield, Sussex . 

Little Wenham, Suffolk 

Lindfield, Sussex . 

Oundle, Northamptonshire 

Interior of same 

Eaydon, Suffolk, North Side 

Ditto ditto, South Side 

Wiley, Wilts 

Meopham, Kent 

Brockworth, Gloucestershire 

Exterior of same 

Meopham, Kent 

Barnwell, Cambridgeshire 

Great Casterton, Eutland 

Eaydon, Suffolk 

St. Bartholomew, Sandwich. 

Exterior of same . 

Hythe, Kent 

Stoke Albany, Northants 

H}i;he, Kent 

Tinwell, Rutland 

Great Casterton, Eutland 

Manton, Eutland 

Tangmere, Sussex 

South Newton, Wiltshire 

Glapthorne, Northamptonshir 
Ditto Ditto 

Ditto Ditto 



NO. or uoam. 


nouBi 


one 




one 




triplet 


... 


one 




circular 




belfiy 




one 


i 


one 


2 


one 


3 


• 


4 


clearstory 


5 


one 


* • • 


. 


6 


couplet 




triplet 




lancet 




lancet 




lancet 




triplet 




triplet 


t • • 


lancet 


... 


lancet 




quatrefoil 




two 


... 


two 




five lancets 





PAOI 



12 
U 
87 



lancet 

lancet 

triplet 

three 

lancet 

three 

triplet 

lancet 

two 

triplet 

lancet 

two 

lancet 

triplet 

one 

lancet 

lancet 

couplet 

Uwo 



17 
17 
18 

21 



BWTIOS 

I. Norman 
L Ditto 
L Ditto 



I. Seroi-Norman 

I. Early English 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

1. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

L Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 



FLATt 

3 
3 

2 



r 
1 
1 
1 
1 

4 
4 
4 

4 

4 

5 

6 

7 

7 

8 

8 

9 

10 

11 

11 

11 

12 

IS 

13 

15 

15 

17 

17 

20 

20 

20 



(a) Those marked with an asterisk are in the Appendix Plates. 



G G 



110 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



WIl<iDOWS— continued. 

Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire 

Dunton Basset, Leicestershire 

Evington, Leicestershire 
Ditto Ditto . 

Westhamptnet, Sussex 

Achurch, Northamptonshire 
*Clymping, Sussex . 
*Lindfield, Sussex 
'Winnal Magdalen, Hampshire. 
*Clymping, Sussex 
*ThaniDgton, Kent 
*Hythe, Kent . 
*Great Wenham, Suffolk 
*Eingstead, Northamptonshire 
*Hartley, Kent 
*Blakeney, Norfolk 
*Lyddington, Berkshire 
*Felmarsham, Bedfordshire 
*Belgrave, Leicestershire 
*Grafton Underwood, Northamptonshire 
*Cranford St. Andrew's, Northamptonshire 
*Cranford St. John, Northamptonshire 
*Doddington, Northamptonshire 
*Cransley, Northamptonshire 
*Stoke Albany, Northamptonshire 
*Little Harrowden, Northamptonshire 
*Doddington, Northamptonshire 
*Oundle, Northamptonshire 

Northfleet, Kent . 
Ditto Ditto 
Ditto Ditto . 

Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire 

Chenies, Buckinghamsliire 

Chesham, Buckinghamshire 

Waltham Abbey Church 
Ditto Ditto interior 

Ditto Ditto . 

Ditto Ditto 

St. Michael's, St. Alban 

Eoydon, Essex 

Northfleet, Kent . 

Lindfield, Sussex 

Holbeach, Lincolnshire 

Capel St. Maiy, Suffolk . 

St. Margaret's, Hertfordshire 

St. Mary's Stratford, Suffolk 

Holbeach, Lincolnshire 
Ditto Ditto 

Eoydon, Essex 

St. Margaret's, Hertfordshire 

Boughton Aluph, Kent 

Sleaford, Lincolnshire . 

Heme, Kent 

Chartham, Kent 

Sleaford, Lincolnshire 

Bottisham, Cambridgeshire 

Trumpington, Cambridgeshire 

Worstead, Norfolk 
Ditto Ditto . 

Paston, Norfolk 

Hingham, Norfolk . 
Ditto Ditto 
Ditto Ditto . 

Eushden, Northamptonshire 

Fulmodiston, Norfolk 

Badgeworth, Gloucestershire 



KO. ( 


>F LIGHTS 


FIGUBE TA 


QE 


four 


2 


2 


three 


2 


4 


four 


2 


5 


four 


2 


5 


lancet 


3 


3 


lancet 


3 


9 


lancet 


8 




lancet 


9 




lancet 


10 




lancet 


11 




lancet 


12 




couplet 


13 




couplet 


U 




lancet 


15 




couplet 


16 




seven lancets 


17 




three 


18 




two 


19 




two 


20 




two 


21 




two 


22 




three 


23 




three 


24 




three 


25 




three 


26 




four 


27 




three 


28 




three 


29 




two 






two 






three 






two 






two 






two 






circxdar 






two 






two 






two 






two 






five 






four 






two 






two 


... 




four 






three 






three 


• •• 




two 


... 


1 


four 






four 


... 




four 






three 






two 






four 






three 






liv 


B 






tw 


3 







SECTION 



I. Decorated 

I. Ditto . 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

1. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Diito 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

1 I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 



1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

8 

8 

9 

11 

12 

13 

13 

15 

18 

20 

22 

26 

27 

29 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

38 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Ill 



WINDOWS— continued. 

Cottiiigham, Northamptonshire 

Sawbridgoworth, Hertfordshire 

Soutlifleot, Kent . 

Ringstead, Northamptonshire 

HoUon St. Mary, Suffolk 

St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Soutliflcet, Kent . 

Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire 

Wheathanipstead, Hertfordshire 

Rouen, Normandy 

Tunstead, Norfolk 

Farndish, Bedfordshire 

Brandon, Norfolk . 

Bicker, Lincolnshire 

Southfleet, Kent 

Koymer, Sussex 

Cottingham, Northamptonshire 

Meopham, Kent 

Filby, Norfolk 

St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Southfleet, Kent . 

Shornc, Kent 

Northfleot, Kent . 

St. Nicholas, Colchester 

Harbledown, Kent 

Southfleet, Kent 
*Barnwell, Northamptonshire 
*Burton, Leicestershire . 
*Ditto Ditto . 

*Ditto Ditto 

'Fleet, Lincolnshire 
*Lyddington, Berkshire . 
*Witham, Essex 
*St. Alban's Abbey Church 
*Hingliam, Norfolk 
*Exton, Rutlandshire 
*Mickleham, Surrey 
*Exton, Rutlandshire 
*Tils\vorth, Bedfordshire 
*Cranford St. Andrew's, Northamptonshire 
'Interior of ditto 
*Trunch, Norfolk 
*Go.sgrove, Northamptonshire . 
*Shiero, Surrey 

'Wimmington, Bedfordshire . 
*Shiere, Surrey 
*Sutton at Hone, Kent 
*Ely 

*Ditto, Interior 

*Long Staunton, Cambridgeshire 
*Little Waltham, Essex 
*Ashwell, Rutlandshire . 
'Harbledown, Kent . 
*Wimmington, Bedfordshire 
*Ditto Ditto 

*Cley, Norfolk 
*Billington, Bedfordshire 

King's Worthy, Hampshire 

Basingstoke, Hampshire 

Northflcet, Kent 

Chalk, Kent 
I Dummer, Hampsliire 

Wilton, Norfolk . 

Uffington, Lincolnshire . 

Lavenham, Suffolk 



HO. or U0HT8 

four 

three 

two 

five 

two 

two 

two 

three 

four 

three 

three 

two 

five 

two 

two 

two 



lancet 

two 

two 

two 

two 

two 

five 

two 

two 

two 

two 

three 

two 

two 

two 

three 

three 

three 



three 
five 
four 
three 



four 

three 

three 

two 

throe 

two 

three 

two 

two 

four 

three 

one 

one 

one 

three 



nomi 



30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
46 
44 
45 
47 
48 
49 
63 
50 
52 
54 
55 
62 
63 
66 
67 
68 
69 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
28 
28 
28 
30 
30 
31 
33 
34 
34 
34 
34 
36 
36 
36 
39 
41 
41 
41 
42 
43 
43 



SMTION 



nATB 





Perpendicular 




Ditto 




Ditto 




Ditto 




Ditto 




Ditto 




Ditto 




Ditto 



3 

4 

5 

5 

5 

10 

13 

13 



113 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



WINDOWS— continued. 

Lavenham, Suffolk, Interior . 

West Tarring, Sussex . 

Chesham, Buckinghamshire . 

Eistangles, Suffolk 

Westwick, Norfolk 

St. Lawrence, Norwich . 

St. George's, Norwich 

Bradfield Norfolk 

St. Peter's, Norwich 

Bradfield, Norfolk 

Coltishall, Norfolk 

Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire 

Churchdown, Gloucestersliire 

Ashby St. Ledger's, Northamptonshire 

Blackeney, Norfolk 

Humberstone, Leicestershire 

Hunworth, Norfolk 

Winterton, Norfolk 

Eushton Lodge 
*Chellington, Bedfordshire 
*Odell, Bedfordshire 
*St. John's, Stamford 
*Cirencester, Gloucestershire . 
*Felmarsham, Bedfordshire 
*Donington, Lincolnshire 
*Wootton, Bedfordshire 
*St. Peter's, Northampton 



MOLDINGS. 

Caps, Bases, and Stringcourses 

Caps, Bases, and Stringcourses 

Caps, Bases, and Stringcourses 

Worstead, Norfolk 

Tunstead, Norfolk 

Deopham, Norfolk 

Kenninghall, Norfolk 

HasUngfield, Cambridgeshire 
*Caldecott, Northants 
*Ilingstead, Northants 
*Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire 
*Heckington, Lincolnshire 
*Wissendine, Rutlandshire 
*Exton, Eutlandshire 
*Greetham, Rutlandshire 

Gosgrove, Northamptonshire 

St. Martin's, Leicester 

Bicker, Lincolnshire 

Oadby, Leicestershire 
*Cottesmore, Rutlandsliire 
*Greetham, Eutlandshire 
*WeIlingborough, Northants 
*Achurch, Northants 

Sandridge, Hertfordshire 

Bapchild, Kent 

Skelton, York >[ 



NO. OF LIGHTS 



five 

three 

three 



five 

three 

three 

four 

three 



four 

four 

five 

four 

three 

five 

three 

three 



Basement moldings 



String 
> Corbel tables 

Spire tables 
String 



DOOEWAYS. 

Nately, Hampshire 
Old Shoieham, Sussex 
"Wootton, Gloucestershire 
Sempringham, Lincolnshire 



56 
57 
58 
59 
61 
60 
65 
64 



24 
32 
33 
36 
38 
39 
47 



SECTION 


PLATE 


I. Perpendicular 


. 13 


I. Ditto 


16 


L Ditto 


. 18 


I. Ditto . 


18 


I. Ditto 


22 


I. Ditto 


22 


I. Ditto 


. 22 


I. Ditto 


22 


I. Ditto 


. 22 


I. Ditto . 


22 


I. Ditto 


. 22 


I. Ditto . 


23 



I. 


Decorated 


. 30 


L 


Ditto 


30 




Early English 
Decorated 


. 24 
35 




Perpendicular 
Ditto 


. 26 
25 




Ditto 


. 25 




Ditto . 


25 



I. 


Norman 


. 1 


I. 


Ditto . 


2 


L 


Ditto 


4 


I. 


Ditto . 


6 



I i 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



113 



DOORWAYS. 



Orpington, Kent 

Meopham, Konk 

Holton St. Mary's, Suffolk 

Warniington, Northamptonshire 

St. Martin's, Leicester 
*Barnwell, Northamptonshire 
'Felraarsham, Bedfordshire 
*St. Margaret's, Hertfordshire 
'Burton, Leicestershire 

Sutton at Hone, Kent . 

Holbeacli, Lincolnshire 

Brandon, Norfolk 

Milton, Kent 

Heckiiigton, Lincolnshire 

Swatton, Lincolnshire 

North Mimms, Hertfordshire 

Cley, Norfolk 

Fen Ditton 

Ewerby, Lincolnshire 

Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire 

Leir, Leicestershire 

Truncli, Norfolk 

Felmarsham, Bedfordshire 

Higham Ferrars 

Weeklcy, Northamptonshire 

St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Basingstoke, Hampshire 

Lavenham, SvdTolk 

Ditto Ditto, Interior 

Chesham, Buckinghamshire 

Coltishall, Norfolk 

Towcester, Northamptonshire 

Shorne, Kent 

Islip, Northamptonshire 

Cransley, Northamptonshire 

Grundisburgh, Suliblk . 

Merstham, Surrey 



Plate 7 



PIEES AND AECHES. 



New Shoreham, Sussex . 

Ditto Ditto 

Ditto Ditto 

Codford St. Mary, Wiltshire 
*Polstead, Suffolk 

St. Mary's Cray, Kent 

Matching, Essex 

Erith, Kent 

Clyniping, Sussex 

Preston, Sussex 

Westminster Abbey Church 

Acton Bunnell, Shropshire 

Barnwell, Northamptonshire 

Eaton Bray, Bedfordshire 
*Boxgrove, Sussex 
*St. !\rartin's, Leicester 

Bottisham^ Cambridgeshire 

Brockworlh, Gloucestershire 

Boughton Aluph, Kent 

Morton, Lincolnshire 

Trumpington, Cambridgeshire 

Lindtield, Sus.sex . 



nouu 



FAOI 



51 
68 
70 
74 
75 
76 
76 
76 



72 
73 
73 
74 
75 
75 



8 
77 
78 
80 



nonov 



PLATS 



I. 


Semi-Nomuin 


1 


I. 


Early Engliah 


3 


L 


Ditto 


S 


L 


Ditto 


. 21 


L 


Ditto 


23 



1. 


Decorated 


1 




Ditto . 


10 




Ditto 


. 12 




Ditto 


14 




Ditto 


. 23 




Ditto 


23 




Ditto 


. 25 




Ditto 


39 



L 


Perpendicular 


1 




Ditto 


3 




Ditto 


6 




Ditto 


7 




Ditto 


17 




Ditto 


. 20 



I. Semi-Norman 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Early English 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 



2 
3 

4 
5 

2 
2 
2 
6 
5 





Decorated . 


. 16 




Ditto 


21 




Ditto 


. 21 




Ditto 


21 




Ditto 


. 21 




Perpendicular 


14 



H U 



114 



INDEX TO ILLUSTKATIONS. 



PIEKS AND ARCHES— continued. 

Ijavenhnin, Suffolk 
"Westminster Abbey Church 
Ditto Ditto 



PANELS. 

Ijivonhani, Suffolk 

St. Mary's, Stratford, Suffolk 

Eye, Suffolk . 



DIAPERS. 

Westminster Abbey Church . 
Ilutliokl liroadoaks, Essex 
St. Alban's Abbey Church . 
Westminster Abbey Churcli 



BUTTRESSES. 



Raydon, Suffolk . 
Little Wonhani, Suffolk 
Hollieacli, Lincolnshire 
Fen Ditton, Canibridgoshire 
Debenhum, Suffolk 
Bottisham, Cambridgeshire 
Achurch, Northamptonshire 
St. Margaret's, Leicester 
Redgrave, Siiflblk . 
Pytchloy, N()rthani])tonRhire 
Besthor])e, Norfolk 
Blakoney, Norfolk 
St. Mary's, Stratford, Suffolk 
Lavonhani, Suffolk 
RyaH, KutlandHhiro 
Now Walsingham, Norfolk 



PARAPETS. 

lieckiugtou, Lincolnshire 
Ditto Ditto 

Evington, Loiccslorsliiro 
Lavi'idiani, Sullolk 
St. Mary's, Stratford, Suffolk 



CROSSES. 

Barnack, Northamptoimhiro 
Witchford, WillHhire 
Edith, Weston, Rutlandshire 
Helpringham, Lincolnshire . 
St. Mary's, Stamford 
Little (Jasterton, Jiullandahiro 
]iarnwoll, Northamptonshire 
St. l'atri<;k's, Dublin 
Tinwell, Rutlandshire 
E\v(!rby, Lincolnshire 
^Polcrborough, Northainiitonshire . 
l'(!akirk, Northani|)lon.sliire . 
Methwold, Norfolk 
St. Mary's, Norwich 



nouBE 



82 
83 
83 

84 
84 



87 



SECTION 

I. Ditto 



I. Early English 

1. Ditto 

I. Decorated 

L Ditto 

I. Ditto 

L Ditto 

I. Early English 



I. Perpendicular 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto 

I. Ditto . 



PLATE 

14 



I. Perpendicular 


8 


L Ditto . 


19 


L Ditto 


. 19 



I. 


Early English 


. 19 


I. 


Ditto . 


19 


I. 


Decorated . 


. 24 


L 


Ditto 


24 



14 

14 
17 
17 
19 
19 
22 



II 

12 
24 
24 





Decorated 


. 37 




Ditto 


37 




Ditto 


. 37 




Perpendicular 


12 




Ditto 


. 11 



I. 


Early English 


16 


I. 


Ditto 


. 16 


I. 


Ditto 


16 


I. 


Ditto 


. 16 


L 


Ditto 


16 


I. 


Ditto 


. 25 


I. 


Ditto 


25 


I. 


Decorated 


. 28 


I. 


Ditto 


28 


I. 


Ditto 


. -28 


I. 


Ditto 


28 


L 


Ditto 


. 28 


I. 


Ditto 


33 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



115 



CliOSSm— continued. 



Liulham, Norfolk . 
Ditto ])itto 
Hiiinliam, Norfolk 
HivHlinj^liold, Ciiinl)ridge8hiTo 
Stoko Korry, Norfolk 
Morton, Liucolnshiro 
Urundon, Norfolk 
Billingborougli, Lincolnahiro 
WoHt Lynn, Norfolk 
Gunthorpii, Norfolk 
Trunch, Norfolk . 
Ookhnni, Kutliindshiri- . 
Ditto Ditto . 

8tody, Norlblk 



FONTS. 



Woston, Lincolimhiro 
liodgravo, Suffolk 
(jlyniping, Sussox 



8EDILIA. 



•Great Wonham, .Suffolk 
Prnston, Su.tsox 
Cobhaui, Kunt 



PISCINA. 



Widelsfield, Sussex 



CHAMFER TERMINATIONS. 



Twenty Specimcno 
Ten SpccLiuons 



CABLETS 



Cajiel St. Mary, Suffolk . 
Swafield, Norfolk 
Trunch, Norfolk 
Little Sholford, Cambridgeshire 
Ditto Ditto 

Stapleford, Cand)ridgo8hir(> 
Coltishall, Norfolk 
Tunstead, Norfolk 



DRIPSTONE TERMINATIONS. 



Swafton, Lincohwhini . 
St. Margarot'H, HiTtfordshiro 
Debcnliain, Suffolk 
Little Wenhani, Suffolk 
St. Cross, Uainpshire 
\Ve«tmin8t(T Ahboy Church , 
Four Kpcoiiiic.ns 
Twelve Specimens 



noDBi 



U 



rAOii 



uonoH 



I. Eorly English 
I. Perpendicular 



I. Early English 



I. Early English 
I. Decorated . 



riAn 





Decora ttxl 


33 




Ditto 


. 33 




Ditto 


33 




Ditto 


. 83 




Pori)ondiculai 


r 18 




Ditto 


. IS 




DitU) 


IS 




Ditto 


. 10 




Ditto 


15 




Ditto 


. 21 




Dittf) 


21 




Ditto 


. 21 




Ditto 


21 




Ditto 


. 21 



I. Early Englisli 


. 27 


I. Docornted , 


32 


I. Perpendicular 


. 28 



6 
9 



26 
34 





X, 


Decorated 


31 




1, 


Ditto 


31 




J, 


Ditto 


31 




L 


Ditto 


,. 31 




^, 


Ditto 


31 




\^ 


Ditto 


. 31 




I. 


Ditto 


31 




I. 


Ditto 


31 





Early English 


. 18 




Ditto 


IK 




Ditto 


18 




Ditto 


18 




Ditto 


. 18 




Ditto 


18 




Decorated 


. 34 


L 


Perpendicular 


27 



116 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



EOOFS. 



Wymondham, Norfolk 
Capel St. Mary, Suffolk 
Stuston, Suffolk 
Grundisburgh, Suffolk . 



SEATS. 



Great Waltham 
Bentley, Suffolk 
Comberton, Cambridgeshire 



FINIALS. 



Bentley, Suffolk . 
Great Wenham, Suffolk 
Brandon, Norfolk . 
Chesham Bois, Hertfordshire 
Nautwich, Cheshire 
Stoke, Suffolk 
Stoke, Suffolk 
Howell, Lincolnshire 
St. Mary Stratton, Norfolk 
Ditto Ditto . 

Great Wenham, Suffolk 
A Church in Norfolk 
Debenham, Suffolk 



POECHES. 



Aldham, Essex 



SCEEENS. 



"Waltham Abbey Church 
Barton, Cambridgeshire 



SPANDEELS. 



Barton, Cambridgeshire. 
Bottisham, Cambridgeshire 
Doncaster, Yorkshire 
Stoke„ Suffolk 



DOOES. 



St. Alban's Abbey Church 
WeUs Cathedral 
Stoke, Suffolk 
Holbeach, Lincolnshire . 
Milton, Kent 

North Mimms, Hertford^ire 
Lavenham, Suffolk 
Chesham, Buckinghamshire 
ColtishaU, Norfolk 



PANELS. 



Great "Waltham, Esse.\; 



SECTION 


PLATE 


II. Woodwork 


17, 18, 19 


II. Ditto 


22, 23 


IL Ditto . 


24 


IL Ditto 


26, 27 



IL 


Woodwork . 


1 


IL 


Ditto . 


6 


IL 


Ditto 


. 29 



II. 


Woodwork 


6 


IL 


Ditto 


6 


IL 


Ditto . 


6 


IL 


Ditto 


6 


IL 


Ditto . 


16 


IL 


Ditto 


. 16 


IL 


Ditto . 


16 


IL 


Ditto 


. 16 


IL 


Ditto . 


20 


IL 


Ditto 


. 20 


IL 


Ditto . 


20 


IL 


Ditto 


. 20 


IL 


Ditto . 


30 


II. 


Woodwork 


. 12, 13 



II. Woodwork 
II. Ditto . 



II. Woodwork 



7 
10 



IL 


Woodwork 


. 11 


IL 


Ditto . 


14 


IL 


Ditto 


. 25 


IL 


Ditto . 


25 



II. 


Woodwork 


4 


II. 


Ditto . 


8 


IL 


Ditto 


. 15 




Decorated 


10 




Ditto 


. 14 




Ditto . 


25 




Perpendicular 


. 6,7 




Ditto . 


17 




Ditto 


. 20 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



117 



PANELS — continued. 



Great Waltham, Essex 
Cironcester, Gloucestersliiro 
Bottisham, Cambridgeshire . 
Chester Cathedral 
Crowcombe, Soinersotsniro 
Bishop's Lydoard, Somersetshire 
Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire 
Worstead, Norfolk 



BOSSES. 

Brockworth, Gloucestershire . 
Brockworth, Gloucestersliire 
Diss, Norfolk 
HasUnglield, Cambridgesliire 



STELN"GS. 

Cirencester, Gloucestershire . 
Brockworth, Gloucestershire 
Trunch, Norfolk . 
Eushdcn, Northamptonshire 
Martham, Norfolk 



CTJSP TERMINATIONS. 

Barton, Cambridgeshire . 

lligham Ferrars, Northamptonshire 



CLOSING EINGS 

St. Alban's Abbey Church 

St- Mary's, Stratford 

Westminster Abbey Church 

Cirencester, Gloucestershire . 

Barton, Cambridgeshire . 

Brockworth, Gloucestershire . 

Eye, Suttolk 

Aldham, Essex 

CoUy Weston, Northamptonshire 

Diss, Norfolk 

BapchUd, Kent . . , 

Hythe, Kent 

Haconby, Lincolnshire . 

Westminster Abbey Church 

St. Mary's, Norwich 

Floore, Northamptonshire 

Eaton Bray, Bedfordshire 

Ashby St. Ledger, Northamptonshire 

Exton, Eutlandshiro 

St. Nicholas, Gloucester 

Martham, Norfolk 

Filby, Norfolk 



HINGES. 



Erith, Kent 

Westminster Abbey Church 
St. Margaret Roding, Essex 
St. Peter's, Colchester 



nouu 



FAOI 



nonoM 



run 



u 


Woodwork 


3 


II. 


Ditto 


. U 


IL 


Ditto . 


14 


IL 


Ditto 


. 21 


U. 


Ditto . 


31 


IL 


Ditto 


. 31 


IL 


Ditto . 


31 


IL 


Ditto 


. 31 


II. 


Woodwork 


9 


U. 


Ditto 


. 28 


IL 


Ditto . 


28 


IL 


Ditto 


. 28 



IL 


Woodworit 


9 


n. 


Ditto 


9 


IL 


Ditto . 


28 


IL 


Ditto 


. 30 


IL 


Ditto 


30 



IL 


Woodwork . 


. 11 


IL 


Ditto . 


30 


IL 


Metalwork . 


2 


IL 


Ditto . 


2 


IL 


Ditto 


2 


IL 


Ditto . 


3 


IL 


Ditto 


3 


IL 


Ditto . 


3 


11. 


Ditto 


.") 


IL 


Ditto . 


5 


IL 


Ditto 


7 


IL 


Ditto . 


7 


II. 


Ditto 


7 


n. 


Ditto . 


7 


n. 


Ditto 


7 


IL 


Ditto . 


7 


IL 


Ditto 


8 


IL 


Ditto . 


9 


IL 


Ditto 


11 


IL 


Ditto . 


12 


IL 


Ditto 


12 


IL 


Ditto 


12 


n. 


Ditto 


12 


IL 


Ditto 


13 



IL 


Metalwork 


1 


IL 


Ditt« . 


1 


IL 


Ditto 


1 


IL 


Ditto . 


1 



118 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HINGES — continued. 



Northfleet, Kent . 
St. Alban's Abbey CbuTch 
Stanstead Church, Hertfordshire 
Hartley, Kent 
Gloucester Cathedral 
Horton Kirby, Kent 
Spalding, Lincolnshire 
Brockworth, Gloucestershire 
Sempringham, Lincolnshire 
Tinwell, Eutlandshire . 
St. Mary's, Norwich 
Market Deeping, Lincolnshire 
St. Alban's Abbey Church 
Eaton Bray, Bedfordshire 
Wootton, Bedfordshire 
Sutton at Hone, Kent . 
Oundle, Northamptonshire 



STIFFENEES. 



Chester Cathedral 

York Minster 

Great Casterton, Eutlandshire 

Tunstead, Norfolk 



KEY PLATES. 



Westminster Abbey Church 
Diss, Norfolk 
Ufiington, Lincolnshire 
Tunstead, Norfolk 
Martham, Norfolk 



SECTION 


PLATE 


II. 


Metal work 


1 


II. 


Ditto 


1 


11. 


Ditto . 


1 


11. 


Ditto 


2 


IL 


Ditto . 


3 


II. 


Ditto 


3 


IL 


Ditto . 


3 


IL 


Ditto 


. 3 


IL 


Ditto . 


5 


II. 


Ditto 


. 5 


II. 


Ditto . 


8 


IL 


Ditto 


9 


IL 


Ditto . 


9 


IL 


Ditto 


. 11 


IL 


Ditto . 


13 


IL 


Ditto 


. 13 


n. 


Ditto . 


13 



IL 


Metalwork 


4 


IL 


Ditto . 


6 


II. 


Ditto 


9 


II. 


Ditto . 


9 





Metalwork 


. 2 




Ditto . 


7 




Ditto 


7 




Ditto . 


9 




Ditto 


. 13 



William Bowden, Printer, 23, Red Lion Street, Holborn, London. 



SECTION II. 



SKooliiDork 



A»- 



PLATE ;. 





V i .':, 



jyt* 9t4>Jtj ai*rvjft tiitmtt 
Mnntttn-jitt Ivn^ with 
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wooden pe^s. 







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S^rtun, of ^nm/thnifs \ fitV. stzt 



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AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 






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SECTION II. 






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PLATE Z. 








P»n.fl h-ecuij yrvm. apar. siMtt f^Hit/fAam Cfi.KsstJt 



IK: 




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AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 






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SECTION. II. 



oo^iDork 



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PLATE. 3. 





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mm::im 







/it/It/ ti*t{et,s ^/rvrn iiptn statf (i' hh/tham. <'A Esutx^ 




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AN ANALYSIS OFGOTMICK ARCHITECTURE. 



M 



SECTION II. 



101001) iDorkA- 



PLATE 4. 



boor /tvm Sf Albant JMtiQ- Churtihi JltrWirdjihiri!. . 



<*irrtitin fit lint- A . H , 




AN ANALYSIS OFCOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION II. 



lOfoo^iDork 



Sir 



PLATE 5 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION II. 






PLATE 7. 




Ttireloat, /hwn/ WalBuan Aiifr Ch/. Eaaijcr. 



ftfthim nfhtnm 



-=^ -„»-»' 








AN ANALYSI? OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



^ 



> 



^ 



4 



^9- 



SE.CTION II. 






PLATE 9. 



I 




J^ro/n A^'eaM C4a/*e/ ^roc/tivar^A C* C^omeestfrxAf^t . 




/•rom CtrfiteeeUr CA«re4 G/eacf*^ie^-J'Afr-^ 




)ik 



S ^ 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



I 



^ 



SECTION II. 






Sk^ 



PLATE ». 




AN ANALYSIS OFCOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



I 



V 



lOfootiiDork 



PLATE /.I 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK AR C H ITECT L' R E 



^ 



^m 



SECTION 11. 






PLATE <4. 



tipiuiUrel fivm BaUuhcuti, Ouuvh. Camhrtd^ishirt 2'ScaJe 




fi'oiiv (irence3ier Church, GlcucfSteiMhxrt ■ 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK AR C H ITECTU rt E 



■y 



3K 



A 



SECTION II. 



IQlDoliiDork 



£^ 



PtATE <5. 



S.D»*r of ^*ir Ciufii. Sa/foU 



dtaan f» a. jralf of 111 of tin mrl h t tott 

V/////{/ / 




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AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



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SECTION II 



Isootiniork 

— "L •*>' 111 



i^ 



PlkTZ.16. 





J^rcm .^*ff/^/C/f CAiet'ei , fAe^f^frv 



iS'iejfi' Cim^ci. JV//"*// 



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m. 







AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



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B 




lb 



o 




t 

^ 



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I 



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ac 

9 

U 

u 

X 
O 

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u 



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lb 

o 



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SECTION. II. 



Jffliooliraorkiir^ 



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AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



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<■' 




SfCTION 11. 




oolitDork 



i)r 



PLATE 10 





Frmn 6^ Kai-y Straitaw Churchjforfolk 



J 




From, ffr Weiikfoti Church Su/t'iylk 
Scale 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



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4 




SECTION I. 



IQIootitDork 



fir 



^\HW- 








« 







4 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



PLATE Z2 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 




CTION II. 






ik- 



PLATS ^ 




Roof over Nave- of Capel Sf^ Marys Churcfi dt^^'olk 



AN /ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 




SECTION. II. 



auKOo'biDork 



S>o 



% 



Jia^ oyrr ptrck. iltUMtn lAarcA.. SuA^lk. ■ 





\< \ ■ 



isacsRjJc: 



Ti 



ft 

i 




■^S^ --r*. 



SmUff L 



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PLATE U 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION. II. 



sBKOotiiDork 



Dc* 



PLATE.i.f 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



# 



SECTION II. 



viTrr « 



PLATE .•«; 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



'I 



^ 



SECTION II 






fi- 



PLATE tS 




J^m rmT *r ^ MuA Jfj^/m- ^ CA Sr/^f*^At^Ju>r 



AN ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



J 



*Ct 



SECTION I. 



|5|flo'bmork 



iV> 



PLkTtZa. 



•■< "C .^'vs^^ V S, 




Stnts Jrem ConitrUn Chureh. 



PUm, cU A 



-T- 



>.\s.^iV..>' '^,v 



^■->.'\ s^ --, 



.Ji^ 



€)-a- 



^- ■ ' ■■^t- V-. 



2^2; 



^^/^f^J.^ 







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VT 









.,..ir/>J> » « » 



J FEET 




SuXtcn/ tf St«t' and' Bcokiieircty . 



SltnUtwi- ff" St*/^ 



h 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



«;• 






C 



SECTION. II. 






ih 



PLATE .X 



AW TtaJf fUU sixey. 




Prom Screen ih^ Mush^ien, ChitreK ^orthamptDnshiJ^ 




A 



Fnmv. Saath Door of XarthoTrv Ckarcfv WorfoiA . 



FvuMp-em, DtSetiham, Cktirfh t'iufjitfjt 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCH.lTtCTU R E 



SECTION II. 






Pl.kTE.3l. 






Bench- enels p'otrt Gvwcornie, ChzircA-, Somersctdhu-t, . 








Frrm. mnsUad,Chu^cA.,]V^oU f?7yr<^s:^:^yr<!^^:77>t^5T^yr^7[ ^"^ Wcm^^d. Churek.. ycrfofM 






YL 



<% 



.-^ 




.^ 




r 




^\i. 






Frvm Crmveemif. Ch Scmersctghire 



FrcmyBisJuixtlvcUare/. Church,5amerset\kirt 



I L 



AN ANALYSIS OTCOTHICK ARCHITECTURE 



SECTION II. 






PLATE 1. 





=2(1 



Hinges. 
A . Ptxmv£Tiih Chun^, Kent . 

B . From/ WeetrrdniSter AVb^ ChurcK. JfidcU 

C . J'Tvm/Jfargiare/' Jiodittff Ckumh , £ssea''. 

D . Franv S\ Feber'e OauvK, Colcheeter, £s8ea>. 

E. Frain/ NorSiffmt Ckurvtv, Kent. 

F. From, S^ Alhans Abh^ Chartih., Birf/unlsliire,. 

G . .Froirv Startftedd- Abbots Church, Hert/vrdshire.. 



n » 



s 
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IfST 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



iECT.IONll. 



MttetaliDork/v- 



PLATE 2 



I 




SotUohmtv itvm/ Sf Jlhans Ahb^ (MavhcBeri/brds/wv, 




Scutcheon Jhm/S^Marya StrtUfbrd/, Sui^blk/ 





FnmvWaatmintlMrMib^ 



1 r r > 



Saotion/ on/ tint/ A .3 



£rom/ •SouOt/Aoor of SoT-tL^ Oturohi Kenb. 



f 



AN ANALYS4S OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE, 



i 
i 

n 






PLATE n. 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE:. 



SECTION II. 



^fkliDork/i^ 



PLATE. #. 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION II 






PLATE 5. 



G^sinfi-Earff frvjn/JMkam/ (hi Stseay. 




Seng*/ ^hom/HmvtlV ChJltUUmA i}ft '^SomU' 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE 



SECTION. II. 






PLATE 6. 



ChapttrJloaySt'. YorkJfinettr . 



Details 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



\ 



SECTION II 






PLATE 7 




I^ 



mo 



Closing Sniff s ih'tn/ 
A . J??>» (^karck/, NorfoUh 
B . BapdaloL' Ckaroh, Kent 
C . :^ffte^ Gvur(M KerUy 
D . Seuooriby (harch,IxnootnshTrt,- 
E . WeetnvauitMr Abhiy Church- 
F . &a>' Weston' Cfairdh/. JHorthcunptonshre/ 

Z^TloUie franv 
H . !)!«•* Church Jf^orfblJv 
I . UfFmgUm, Ckurch/, Zinodbislfcre/ 

t : 3 ■< s •- iMC 



AN ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



I 



ECTION II. 






PLATE8 



"Pmn/ S^ Marys, Jfanrich/, 




Scai-<rf'^ 



\Smb 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE 



SECTION II. 



^eklraork/)^ 



PLATE } 



H 




A Tuntttad a uVtrfoU . 

B (?.♦ Caihrltn Cl. BulUni'.' 



C Sr Mian, Mitj Cimr.i 
D Market Dttfitnf Ch Lincoln'- 




•^ o o d • 9 





F TunfTtad a Mrfall. 



Semlf «/ iwA-m^A 



> -' ■> '■ 





J, />>/ 



^ 



AN ANALYSTS O F GOT H I CK ARCH ITECTU R E. 



-Vi 



:ii9K 



■fe 



<f >■ 



•:>. 



t 



SECTION. II. 






PLkTtlO. 








FronvWeetminstxrAVb^ Ovarc/v. 



\ 



4 



AN ANALYSIS OF GOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION I 






PLATi //. 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



li* 



SECTION II. 






FLAttfc. 



Cf4>.vrvg Hznasfrcnv 



Kimnt' ('Ait/rJi Jiiutanitji/iirt 



A'crthantpUmjfure, . 




ami 2fnrtf>/fj», Chti7xJo,J^cr/ol.k . 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



SECTION. II. 






PLATE « 




(i.FUby Church',Jfarrolk 1/ S/ S/ Sj^ S/ ■\/ S. 

ViAshhyS^LedgerCharch,NoHhajxle. frr>m2JarUujun'Ch.MoHbUi,. 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



)gppen1) 



IXIk^ 



PLATE, t 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



PLATE 2. 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



/^ 




ppenliiXA^ 



PLATt 3 





AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



' 



PLATE 4. 




AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



PLATE S. 




AN ANALYSIS OFCOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



fipp exih 



XXIk^ 



PLATE 6 



Narmom' Strinxf courses 



^pecimena ^Mf HoatooUv 



Sptamtmof mjutUims 




Qittesmare^, Szttian^Titre/ 



Greettuvrw, Eatlxtndsfure 'Wiltingbaroagh , SbrOiamptan^dre: AchxurjhtJfarOuunptanehax 

Sptantnt of'^pir* IoZ>le«. 

AN ANALYSIS F GOTH I C K ARC H I TECT U Rf E. 



:^: 



ppenliixiv.' 



PLATE. 7. 




Stctifrv«it,iine,<?S. 
Siratk' Doorway, 3amMre4i/ (hMrcfi'.yartfutitts 

Kucori 



AN ANALYSIS OFGOTHICK ARCHITECTURE. 



fj 



f$ 







i 



I 



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480 

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Brandon, Raphael 

An analysis of Gothick 
architectiire